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Citation preview

Essential Arabic E d i ted by

Christopher Warnasch and Rana K. Casteel

:: LIVING LANGUAGE®

Copyright©

2012 by Living Language, an imprint of Random House, Inc.

Content in this program has been modified and enhanced from Starting

Out in Arabic,

published in 2008.

Living Language is a member of the Random House Information Group

Living Language and colophon are registered trademarks of Random House, Inc.

All rights reserved.

Published in the United States by Living Language, an imprint of Random House, Inc.

www.livinglanguage.com Editor: Christopher Warnasch Production Editor: Ciara Robinson Production Manager: Tom Marshall Interior Design: Sophie Chin Illustrations: Sophie Chin Typesetting: worldaccent.com

First Edition

ISBN:

978-0-307-9723 5 -4

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available upon request. This book is available at special discounts for bulk purchases for sales promotions or premiums. Special editions, including personalized covers, excerpts of existing books, and corporate imprints, can be created in large quantities for special needs. For more information, write to Special Markets/ Premium Sales,

1745 Broadway, MD 3-1, New York, New York 10019 or e-mail [email protected]

randomhouse.com.

PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

10 9 87 6

Ac k n ow l e d g m e n t s Thanks to the Living Language team: Amanda D'Acierno, Christopher Warnasch, Suzanne McQuade, Laura Riggio, Erin Quirk, Amanda Munoz, Fabrizio LaRocca, Siobhan O'Hare, Sophie Chin, Sue Daulton, Alison Skrabek, Carolyn Roth, Ciara Robinson, and Tom Marshall. Audio produced by Ok Hee Kolwitz.

H ow t o Use T h i s Course 6

34

L E SSON 1

76

Descri b i n g T h i ngs

N u m bers

L E SSON 2

L E SSON 4

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

11

L ESSON 5

L ESSON 3

Esse n t i a l E x p ress i o n s

A ro u n d t h e H o u s e

57

100

123

199

165

L ESSON 7

At Wo rk

At t h e Resta u ra n t LESSON 6

E nterta i n m e n t

Everyday L i fe

144

DIA LOGU E S L E S SON 1 0

L E S SON 8

Aro u n d Tow n

R EVI E W

L E S SON 9

183

Quiz 1 1 1 9

Quiz 2 214

Gra m m ar Sum m ary 241

21 8

How to Use This Course lp.yo marHaban! Welcome to Living Language Essential Arabic! Ready to learn how to speak, read, and write Arabic? Before we begin, let's go over what you'll see in this course. It's very easy to use, but this section will help you get started.

P H O N ET I C S This course includes both Arabic script and phonetic transcription (in other

words, marHaban in addition to lp.j.O) to help you get started with reading

and pronouncing Arabic. However, please keep in mind that phonetics are not

exact-they are just an approximation of Arabic sounds using English(-like) spelling-so you should rely mostly on the audio, not the phonetics, to improve your pronunciation skills. For a guide to our phonetics system, see the Pronunciation and Transcription section at the end of the course. To master reading and writing Arabic, use the Guide to Arabic Script included in the Living Language Essential Arabic, Living

Language Complete Arabic, and Living Language Platinum Arabic packages.

-

Esse n t i a l A ra b i c

LES S O N S There are 10 lessons in this course. Each lesson is divided into three parts and has the following components: Welcome at the beginning outlining what you will cover in each of the three parts of the lesson.

PA R T 1







Vocabulary Builder 1

listing the key words and phrases for that lesson.

Vocabulary Practice 1 Grammar Builder 1

to practice what you learned in Vocabulary Builder 1.

to guide you through the structure of the Arabic language

(how to form sentences, questions, and so on).









PA R T 2

Vocabulary Builder 2

listing more key words and phrases.

Vocabulary Practice 2 Grammar Builder 2

to practice what you learned in Vocabulary Builder 2.

for more information on language structure.

Work Out 1 for a comprehensive practice of what you've learned so far.

PA R T 3 •

Bring It All Together

to put what you've learned in a conversational context

through a dialogue, monologue, description, or other similar text. •

Work Out 2

for another helpful practice exercise. How To Use T h i s Co u rse



to ingrain an important point of Arabic structure for the long term.



Drive It Home



Parting Words

outlining what you learned in the lesson.

TA K E IT F U R T H E R •

Take It Further

sections are scattered throughout the lesson to provide extra

information about the new vocabulary you've just seen, expand on some grammar points, or introduce additional words and phrases. They also point to specific sections of the Guide to Arabic Script, so that you can learn to read and write gradually.

W O R D REC A L L •

Word Recall

sections appear i n between lessons. They review important

vocabulary and grammar from previous lessons, including the one you just finished. These sections will reinforce what you've learned so far in the course, and help you retain the information for the long term.

QU I ZZES

This course contains two quizzes: Quiz 1 is halfway through the course (after

Lesson 5), and Quiz 2 appears after the last lesson (Lesson 10). The quizzes are self-graded so it's easy for you to test your progress and see if you should go back and review.



Esse n t i a l A ra b i c

REV I EW D I ALOGUES There are five Review

Dialogues

at the end of the course, after Quiz 2. These

everyday dialogues review what you learned in Lessons 1-10, introduce some new vocabulary and structures, and allow you to become more familiar with conversational Arabic. Each dialogue is followed by comprehension questions that serve as the course's final review.

PRO G RES S B AR You will see a Progress

Bar

on almost every page that has course material.

It indicates your current position in the course and lets you know how much progress you're making. Each line in the bar represents a lesson, with the final line representing the Review Dialogues.

AU D I O

Look for this symbol CB to help guide you through the audio as you're reading the

book. It will tell you which track to listen to for each section that has audio. When

you see the symbol, select the indicated track and start listening! If you don't see the symbol, then there isn't any audio for that section. The audio can be used on its own-in other words, without the book-when you're on the go. Whether in your car or at the gym, you can listen to the audio to brush up on your pronunciation or review what you've learned in the book.

H ow To Use T h i s Cou rse



PRO N U N C I AT I O N G U I D E, G RAMMAR SUMMARY At the back of this book you will find a Pronunciation and Transcription and a Grammar

Summary.

Guide,

The Pronunciation and Transcription Guide provides

information on Arabic pronunciation and the phonetic transcription system used in this course. The Grammar Summary contains a helpful, brief overview of key points in the Arabic grammar system.

FREE O N L I N E T O O LS Go to www. livinglanguage.com/languagelab to access your free online tools. The tools are organized around the lessons in this course, with audiovisual flashcards and interactive games and quizzes for each lesson. These tools will help you review the vocabulary and grammar that you've seen in the lessons, as well as provide some extra practice with words and phrases related to the lesson's topic.



Essent i a l A ra b i c

Lesson 1: Essential Expressions

a;; L...,j ...

�1� Jj�I U"j.ill :

ad-dars al-'awwal: tax b i raat 'asaasi yya

i.p.� marHaban! Welcome! In this first lesson of your Arabic course, you'll learn some basic courtesy expressions, greetings, and other useful words and phrases

that will get you started speaking Arabic: D

D

D

D

D

Greet someone and ask how they're doing Be polite with helpful words like please and thanks Introduce yourself and meet other people Say other polite phrases like Excuse me and I'm sorry Use what you've learned in a short, practical conversation between two people meeting for the first time. First, let's get started with some vocabulary. You'll hear the words and phrases in English first and then in Arabic. Repeat each new word or phrase in the pauses provided every time you hear it. You'll see the English, followed by the Arabic in transcription, and then the Arabic in Arabic script. Don't worry about the script yet; we'll come back to that shortly and explain how to slowly integrate Arabic script into your lessons. Ready?

CB Look for this symbol to help guide you through the audio as you're reading the book. It will tell you which track to listen to for each section that has audio. Lesson 1: Essent i a l E x p ress i o n s



1- -

Essent i a l E x p re s s i o n s

-

- -

- - - - - - - -

+

-

-

r

N u m bers - -

- - - - - - -

-

People and the Family

- -

t - --- - - - - - - -1- - - -

Describing Things

- - - - - -

-

- - -

-

-

Around the House

Whenever you see the symbol, select the indicated track and start listening. If you don't see the symbol, then there isn't any audio for that section. Keep in mind that the audio can also be used on its own when you're on the go!

CB

Vo c a b u l a ry B u i l d e r 1

Trac k : Lesson 1 Voca b u l a ry B u i l d e r 1 (Tra c k 1 ) C D : 1

Yes No Hello. Good morning. Good afternoon/evening. Please. Ofcourse. Good-bye.

r'

naxam

� ,)\5

kallaa, laa

.�i

.� - I r_� . -

-

.�li.W . .!.l.l1J � . . .-

·�

. a.o '.>LJ

I C3

+

'ahlan. SabaaH al-khayr. masaa' al-khayr. min faDlak. Tabxan. maxa s-salaama.

\ Vo c a b u l a ry P ra c t i c e 1

Now let's practice what you've learned. Match the English on the left with the

Arabic equivalent on the right.

l. yes 2. no 3. Good evening. Essent i a l A ra b i c

a.

�I r_� SabaaH al-khayr.

b . .•111� � min faDlak.

c. F naxam

--

- ---

-



At t h e Restau rant -- --- -------

A ro u nd Tow n

t

------- ---

--

i

At Work ------- ----

-

Everyd ay L i fe

-- -------

---

-



--------

E n terta i n m e n t

I t° maxa s-salaama.

4. Good morning.

d. :to Jl;J

5. Hello.

e.

6. Ofcourse.

f.

7. Please.

g. � Tabxan.

8.



;.w1 >-W masaa' al-khayr. � laa

h. �j 'ahlan.

Good-bye.

ANSWER KEY

1. c ; 2. f; 3. e ; 4. a ; 5. h; 6. g; 7. b; 8. d

CB

G ra m m a r B u i l d e r 1

Tra c k : Lesson 1 G ra m m a r B u i l d e r 1 (Tra c k 2) CD: 1

G R E E T I N G S A N D P R O N U N C I AT I O N P O I N TS

Did you notice that there are many sounds in Arabic that don't have equivalents in

English? The hardest one to master is xayn, or the letter b which is pronounced

with a tight constriction at the very back of the throat. If you're reading the Arabic script along with the transcription, you may have noted that the shape of t is

different when it's in the middle of a word:� But don't worry about that yet.

We'll come back to that shortly. You heard the letter b transcribed as x, in the following words.

r-

�--

F



d..o'JL;J

I C:°- -

---

t-

-

naxam

----r-

Tabxan maxa s-salaama

l

yes

---

ofcourse

-

-----

-

good-bye

Lesson 1: Essent i a l E x p ress i o n s

�,- -

Essent i a l E x p ress i o n s - -

- - -

- - - -

+ - - - - - - - - - - -� - --- - - - - - - --t-- - - - - - - - - 1--- - - - N u mbers

-

Describing Things

-

-

-

Around the Hou se

People and the Family

You also heard the letter khaa', or t in Arabic, which is similar to ch in German

Bach or Scottish loch. Note the word �I al-khayr in these examples. I

t

L

SabaaH al-khayr

good morning

masaa' al-khayr

good afternoon

Arabic also has the sound h , written in Arabic as o, which is very similar to English

h. But don't confuse it with H , or L. in Arabic, which has much more constriction and is like the sound you make when you blow on glasses to clean them.

'ahlan _.___

-

SabaaH

-- -

-1-

hello morning

Another common Arabic consonant is hamza , which is transcribed as an apostrophe but is written in Arabic like a small backwards 2:

�.

It's a glottal stop,

or the small catch in your breath when you say "uh oh." In Arabic, it's a regular consonant that comes at the beginning, at the end, or in the middle of a word.

'ahlan masaa' al-khayr

I

hello good afternoon

Also note that the letters uc S, � D, .b T, andJ; DH are pronounced with the jaw lowered, so vowels around them have a deeper sound, coming from the back of the throat. You've heard a few of these sounds.

ca

Esse n t i a l A ra b i c

- --- -



t

At t h e Restau ra n t ------------

A ro u n d Tow n

.>JI 1& �



-- ----- -----

1� -

Eve ryday L i fe

-..t-

t_w, �·

+

At Wo rk -- --------

------- ----

Tabxan

please of course

.._

SabaaH

----- ---

E n t e rta i n m e n t

. --

min faDlak

+

morning

Don't confuse them with with U"' s, J d, or ..::.i t, which sound similar to the English consonants, or .) dh, which has the sound th as in this. Did you notice the word_ll al- in the following?

SabaaH al-khayr l

_I

masaa' al-khayr

t

good morning good afternoon

I al- is the definite article in Arabic, equivalent to the in English. Both in writing

and in pronunciation,_!! al- is a part of the word that follows it.

I al- sometimes changes pronunciation. First, if the word before it ends in a vowel, the a in_I I al- will be dropped. You'll see this in transcription, but never in

But_!

Arabic script.

Second, the J 1- in_ll al- is often �ssimilated to, or pronounced the same as,

the consonant that follows it. When_ll comes before ..::.i t- , 6th-, J d-,.) dh-,

s-, iP sh-, u-::> S-, � D-,.b T-,.l:; DH-, and u n-, the J l with change into that letter in pronunciation, so instead of al-, you'll pronounce-' I as at-, ath-, ad- and so on. These are called "sun" letters, because the first letter of � shams (sun) is one of them. Again, this change in pronunciation will be

.) r-, j

z-,

U"'

Lesson 1: Essent i a l E x p ress i o n s



--1 - - -

Esse n t i a l E x p ress i o n s -

- - - -

-+ - - - - - - - - - - -� -

N u m bers

- - -

-

- - - -

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

t - - - - - - - - - - -i- - - -- - Descr i b i n g T h i ngs

- - - - - - -

-

A ro u n d t h e H o u s e

indicated in the transcription to help you get used to it, but the spelling of_JI in Arabic doesn't change. There's an easy way to remember these letters. If you pronounce them, you'll see that your tongue is on or near your front teeth, just as in the pronunciation of the letter J I. This similarity is what causes the change in pronunciation. In the expression meaning good-bye, both of these pronunciation changes happen.

The a- of al- is dropped after the -a of C!i maxa, and the 1 of al- is pronounced like

the s- in 4...o ')L, salaama.

maxa s-salaama

good-bye

Here are just a few other examples of J 1 in_J I changing pronunciation before "sun" letters. c.rij.il I

J4}1

I

r�'

i

�I



ad-dars

Esse n t i a l A ra b i c

ar-rajul ash-shams aT-Taxaam

the lesson ..

the man the sun the food

---- -

r

t

At the Restau ra n t -------- ----

A ro u n d Town

------------

1�

1

At Work --- --------

Everyd ay L i fe

- -----------

+

--------

E n t e rt a i n m e n t

Ta ke I t F u r t h e r: Ara b i c S c r i p t Included in this program i s the Guide to Arabic Script, which will teach you everything you need to know in order to learn how to read and write Arabic. The

guide is broken down into three main parts. Part 1: Reading Arabic introduces the Arabic alphabet in small groups of letters, explaining the different forms of each letter, with plenty of step-by-step practice reading syllables and words. Part 2 :

Writing Arabic demonstrates how to write the different forms of each letter, with similar step-by-step practice with syllables, words, and sentences. Finally,

Part 3: Reading Practice gives you the chance to practice reading longer passages, bringing together everything that you've learned. You can decide how and when to begin using the script guide. If your goal is simply to learn how to speak Arabic, you can stick to the transcription used in the program and work with the audio. But if you want to learn how to read and write Arabic, you should work with the script guide as well. Throughout Essential

Arabic, you'll be directed to portions of the script guide that can be integrated into your studies. That way, you'll gradually learn how to read and write as you learn how to speak. You'll see all of the Arabic words and phrases introduced in

Essential Arabic in both transcription and in Arabic script. You won't know all of the letters at the beginning, but you'll be able to pick out more and more letters as you learn, and soon enough you'll be reading and writing Arabic. If you'd like to familiarize yourself with the transliteration system used in the course, you can turn to the Pronunciation and Transcription section on page 237, following the review dialogues.

Lesson 1: Essent i a l E x p ress i o n s



- - - - - -- - - - +-- - - -- -- -- --r - - - - - - --- - - -t- - - - -

E s s e n t i a l E x p re s s i o n s

____.I..

_-

N u m bers

-

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

CB

Trac k : Lesson 1 Voc a b u l a ry B u i l d e r 2 (Trac k

' -

3)

bi-khayr.

\�!Lo

maa 'ismuk?

\�!Lo -

maa 'ismuki?

.

;

. 1µ .

. }



(to a woman)

�i ... � ui

My name is ...

.ip

I would like ... With pleasure.

_[

. lli_).Jj

Excuse me.

.. •

.)j



,'

,

. ,. lSinll ...

.

···

i

-

shukran .



What is your name?

1 - -

CD: 1

-�

(to a man)

Nice to meet you.

-

kayf al-Haal?

Thank you.

I am from ...

- - -

\JWI �

Fine.

What is your name?

-

A ro u n d t h e H o u s e

Vo c a b u l a ry B u i l d e r 2 How are you?

-

Desc r i b i n g Th i ng s

..l.:!J I

.,

_r., �

,

. anaarmn ...

tasharrafnaa. _

xafwan . 'uriidu ... bikulli suruur.

\ Vo c a b u l a r y P ra c t i c e 2

Just like Vocabulary Practice 1, match the English in the left column with the

Arabic in the right.

1. Thank you. 2. Fine.



Esse n t i a l A ra b i c

} 1�. bik u11·i suruur. a. JJ.r' i...r-: } '

b . ..l.:!) ... }

'uru"'du ...

-

--

-

- - ---

r

t

At t h e Resta u ra n t ----- - ------

A ro u n d Tow n

--- ---------

1�

1

------------

+

--------

E n t e rt a i n me n t

c.

i)J. shukran.

e.

i# xafwan.

g.

�;.,,; bi-khayr.

d. t.:Jj..!.1 tasharrafnaa.

4. With pleasure.

What is your name? (to a woman)

6. My name is ... 7. How are you? 8.

At Wo rk ----------

Everyday L i fe

3. Excuse me.

5.

-

f. \�I Lo maa 'ismuki?

- .

h. � wi ... 'anaa min ...

Nice to meet you.

i. \�I• Lo maa 'ismuk?

9 . I am from ...

.

�• •I ... ,.ISllll l.

10. I would like ...

J.

11. What is your name? (to a man)

k. \JL>JI � kayfal-Haal?

.

•••

ANSWER KEY

1. c ; 2. g ; 3. e ; 4. a ; 5 . f ; 6. j; 7. k; 8. d ; 9. h; 10. b; 11. i

CB

G ra m m a r B u i l d e r 2

Tra ck: Lesson 1 G ra m m a r B u i l d e r 2 (Tra c k 4) CD: 1

T H E QU E S T I O N WO R D Lo M AA

The word Lo maa means what? You came across it in two important questions:

\�l lo •

\�1 [ -------

Lo

t-

maa 'ismuk? maa 'ismuki?

What's your (m.) name? What's you ;(fJ name?

--- __,_...__ ___

Lesson 1: Essent i a l E x p ress i o n s

I •

1-

Essent i a l E x p ress i o n s

-

--

-

- - - - - - - -

+ - - - - - - - - - -�

N u mbers

--

-

-

- - -

- -

Peo ple and the Family

-

- - - -

t

-

-

1

-

- - -

- - - - - -

Around the House

- - -

-

The first question is what you'd ask a man, and the second is what you'd ask a

woman. Notice the different endings on �l 'ismuk and �l 'ismuki. These

endings are the equivalent of your, and they're added to a noun, such as r..:.. ! 'ism

(name). The ending -uk is your (m.), -uki is your (f.) and -ii is my, whether you're a man or a woman.

•I

,...... .

•I

�·

�I -



�I



---+---

_J

._:___)_

--

__

'ism

name

'ismii

my name

'ismuki

your ([.) name

'ismuk

your (m.) name

·

There are other endings for his, her, our, your (pl.), and their, and some of them specify gender. Arabic has singular and plural, like English, but it also has dual, which refers to two of something. So, there's a way to say their house, specifying that two people own the house, as opposed to their house, with more than two owners. But we'll come back to that later. You also learned the pronoun

w I 'anaa, meaning I, in the expression: '

,

anaa nun ... .

_

_J

I am from ...

But you'll learn that pronouns are often dropped in Arabic. You saw this with the expression for I would like. You could say it without the pronoun, or with it: J•

G

J ... .l:!)

Essen t i a l A ra b i c

'uriidu ...

--

Describing Things

I would like ...

.

---- -

r

t

At the Resta u ra n t -- ----------

A r o u n d Tow n

}

--- - --- -----

1�

- ---

Everyday L i fe

... �)ui

-

+

A t Wo rk -------

'anaa 'uriidu ...

l

----- --- ---

+

--------

E nterta i n m e n t

I would like ...

l

Ta ke I t F u rt h e r: Ara b i c S c r i p t Now you're ready to turn to the Guide to Arabic Script and start learning some

Arabic letters. Begin in Part 1: Reading Arabic with the following sections: •

The Basics



The Arabic Alphabet



Connecting and Non- Connecting Letters



Group 1: Long Vowels



Group Z: Short Vowels and Diphthongs Then you'll be able to come back and take a closer look at some of the words you've already learned, in Arabic script. Now that you've covered those sections in the script guide, see if you can pick out the long vowels in the following familiar words. Let's start with I aa :

·. :..._ ' I w...:, � r_. �1�w

JWI�

T

--

SabaaH al-khayr.

Good morning.

masaa' al-khayr.

Good evening.

kayf al-Haal?

How are you?

Lesson 1: E s s e n t i a l E x p re s s i o n s



1-

Essent i a l E x p ress i o n s

-

- -

-

- -

- - -

-

-

+ -- - - - - - - - - - � ---- - -- - -- -t- -Numbers

-

-

People a n d t he Family

-

- - - - - -

-

-

Around the House

You've also learned two words with '-2

i -

Describing T h i n g s - - -

ii and one with j uu. Can you pick them

out? (Remember that Arabic letters have different shapes depending on where

they appear in a word.)

,

. . ISDUI

.

•••

f

t

'uriidu ... bikulli suruur.

My name is ... I would like ... With pleasure.

Now pick out the short vowels .fatHa, kasra, and Damma . Don't worry about the letters that you're not familiar with yet. You'll learn them gradually.

I

�� ifa



0

J

-

!

naxam --

--

yes

min faDlak.

Please.

shukran.

Thank you.

bikulli suruur.

With pleasure.

And finally, look for the diphthong ay in these two phrases.



Essent i a l A ra b i c

SabaaH al-khayr.

Good morning.

kayf al-Haal?

How are you?

-- -

r

- ----

t

At t h e R e s ta u ra n t --------- ---

A ro u n d To w n

------- --- --

1� -

+

A t Wo rk ----------

Everyday L i fe

-----------

+

--------

E n terta i n m e n t

\ Wo r k O u t 1 Let's do a listening comprehension exercise. Listen to the short conversation using some of the greetings and other courtesy expressions you learned in Lesson 1. As you listen, fill in the blank with the missing words, using transcription for now. The Arabic script is included; see if it helps you with the missing words as you listen and read along.

CB 1.

Tra c k : Lesson 1 Wo r k O u t 1 (Tra c k 5) CD: 1

I.. . '.>Lio'I

Hello.

al-Haal?

2.

\JWI � How are you? 3. bi-khayr, J

·�� '$

4.

0

0 ....

Fine, thank you.

\.!Ji:.. I Lo

'ismuk?



What is your name?

5.

J L> ·�• ,· ·� •

jaaysun.

My name is Jason.

Lesson 1: Esse n t i a l E x p ress i o n s



---'41 --

Esse n t i a l E x p ress i o n s

6.

-

- - - -

- - - -

- + - - - - - - - - - - -� - - - - - -------tN u m bers

-

A ro u n d t h e H o u se

People a n d t h e Fa m i l y

_______

1 - ---

Desc r i b i n g T h i n g s - - - - - - - - - - -

- -

nyuu yuurk.

I am from New York. 7.

------. W_)..!.j

Nice to meet you. A N SWER KEY: 1. 'ahlan; 2. kayf, 3. shukran; 4. maa; 5. 'ismii; 6. 'anaa min; 7. tasharrafnaa

Ta ke I t F u rt h e r: Ara b i c S c r i p t Earlier in this lesson you learned the basics of the Arabic alphabet, and you focused on reading long vowels, short vowels, and diphthongs. To review, see if you can match the transcription on the left to the Arabic script on the right.

1. ii/y 2. wa 3 . yu

}

b. _,

c. Ls

4. aa

d. 9

5. yaa

e. '-:F

6. wi



a. '-5

f. j

7. uu/w

g. �

8. yuu

h.

Essent i a l A ra b i c

I

-

-- ---

r

t

At t h e Resta u ra n t - -----------

Around Tow n

------------

1� -

i

A t Wo rk ----------

E v e r y d a y L i fe

------------

+

--------

E nterta i n m e n t

9 . yii

10. ya

j. I.;!

A N SWER KEY:

1. d, 2. f, 3. a, 4. h, 5. j, 6. b, 7. i, 8. g, 9. e, 10. c

Now you're ready to practice writing the letters that you've learned how to read. Turn to Part 2: Writing Arabic in your script guide, and go through these sections: •

Group 1: Long Vowels



Group 2: Short Vowels and Diphthongs

a. B r i n g I t All To g e t h e r ® Tra c k: Lesson 1 B r i n g I t A l l Together (Trac k 6 ) CD: 1 Now let's bring it all together in a conversation and add a little bit more vocabulary and structure. Read along as you listen to the following dialogue. Samiira: Hello!

'ahlan! Jason:

Good morning! ! .�:.... 11 � .r.:-- (.

SabaaH al-khayr!

Lesson 1: Essent i a l E x p ressi o n s

�1--

Essent i a l E x p ress i o n s - - - - - - - - - -

+

r - - - - - - - - --t- - - - - - - - - --i-

N u mbers -

-

- -

- - -

- - - - -

Peo p l e a n d the Fa m i ly

-

-

Samiira: How are you?

\'JWI �

kayf al-Haal? Jason:

Fine, thank you. .



,

�!

bi-khayr,shukran. Samiira:

What is your name?

maa 'ismuk? Jason:

My name is Jason. • J L> •1 ·�· �·

'ismii jaaysun.

Samiira: Are you from America?

\'�.rl � �1

'anta min 'amriikaa?

Jason:

Yes, I am from New York.

. .!.ljj:!� �

Lii

'�

naxam, 'anaa min nyuu yuurk.

Samiira: Are you a tourist?

\'�L... �i

'anta saa'iH?

Jason:

No, I am a student.

. ...Jlb Lii � kallaa, 'anaa Taalib. '

. -

Samiira: Nice to meet you, Jason . •



• J L> Li l,j,9• ;;.;; '.)'""'-' � • H

tasharrafnaa,yaajaaysun. Esse n t i a l A ra b i c

D escr i b i n g Thi ngs

-

A round the H o use

-

- - - - ·

- -----

r

At the Restaurant

------------

A ro u n d Tow n

CB

t

------------

1

� ----- - --

Everyday Life

At Wo r k

- --

i

------ ----- -

+

--------

Entertainrrent

Ta ke I t F u rt h e r

Tra c k : Lesson 1 Ta ke I t F u rt h e r (Trac k 7) CD: 1

You already knew a lot of the vocabulary used in the conversation you just heard, but let's focus on some of the new words and expressions_

L

� �Yo\� �\ � dl... �l . �Lb w1 . -



,

".>lS "' ..

'anta min 'amriikaa?

Are you from America?

'anta saa'iH?

Are you a tourist?

kallaa,'anaa Taalib

Now you know three pronouns in Arabic: w I

;

L

No, I am a student

'anaa (J), ..=.u I 'anta (you, m.), and 0,

�\ ·anti (you, f.). Notice that there are two ways of saying you, depending on

whether you're talking to a man or a woman. Also notice that there are a few words missing in the Arabic sentences that you might expect to see. First, there is no present tense form of to be (am, is, are) in Arabic. And second, there is no indefinite article (a/an), although there is a definite article, which is JI al- (the).

'anta min nyuu yuurk?

[Are] you (m_) from New York?

'anaa min 'amriikaa.

I [am] from America.

'anta Taalib?

[Are] you (m_) [a] student?

Les s o n 1: E s se n t i a l E x p ress i o n s



-

Essent i a l E x p ress i o n s

�,-

-+ - - - - - - - - - - - � -

Nu m bers

- - - - - - - - -

People a n d

-

- -

- - -

t h e Fa m i ly

-

- - - -

Aro u n d

-t -

i - -- -

D e sc r i b i ng T h i ngs - - - -

the House

- - - - - -

- - -

Take a look at L;! yaa in the following sentence. It's called a vocative particle, or something that is often used when you're addressing someone directly. It comes before someone's name or title. T L

tasharrafnaa,yaa jaaysun

Nice to meet you, Jason.

During this first lesson you learned several important expressions. Let's break some of them down and look at the meanings of the words used in them. See if you can recognize these vocabulary words in the greetings and other expressions you've seen.

r·Li..;;, ;.l......o

.

j!.> ;

rJL. J I>

1--

•I

�.

•I

�·

.!il..:.. •I .!il..:.. •I

-

Lo



Cl

Esse n t i a l A ra b i c

- -

+

-+-

SabaaH

morning

masaa'

afternoon

khayr

blessing, good thing

salaam

peace

Haal

health, condition

'ism

name

'ismii

my name

'ismuk

your name (to a man)

'ismuki

your name (to a woman)

maa

what

kayf

how

--- --

r

t

At the Restaurant ------------

Around Town

_JI

r-

6-o

I

--

t:i

--

--1

1

1

At Work -- ----------

Everyday Life

l

- --1

____

r----- -� ,--

- -----------

1

al-

bi-

+

--------

Entertainment

the

min

maxa

------------

from

-1

with in, at, on, with

\ Wo r k O u t 2

Let's practice what you've learned throughout this first lesson. Give the Arabic translations for each of the following.

1. Hello.

_ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ ___ __ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _

2. What's your (m) name? 3. How are you?

_ _ _ _ _ ___ _ ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____ _ _ _ _

4. Good morning.

-------

5. Good afternoon. 6. Please. Z

_ ___ ___ ___ _ _ _ _ _______ _ _ _ _

_ ______ _ ______ _____ _ _ ____ ___

Thank you.

8. Excuse me. 1. �j

____ _ _______ _ ____ ___ _ _

_ _ _ _ ____ ____ _ _ __ _ __ __ __ _ _

------

A N SWER KEY

.

'ahlan; 2. �! �maa 'ismuk?; 3. JWI w.;pkayf al-Haal?; 4.�I �L;..lb Tullaab (students). Let's look at the plurals of a few more nouns that you know already. Can you pick out the root consonants in both the singular and plural forms? •

J

J 4- /�j .

rajuljrijaal

man/men

;.�/ o l.;1

'imra'a/nisaa'

woman/women

'abbj'aabaa'

father/fathers

;. 4T; .;, i

'umm/'ummahaat 'akh/'ikhwa

..::..i I� i/..::.i.i i -

�1_,j i/d� ;.�f;· 01 • i

hint 'abbii (my father's daughter) =

�l · " •;; -

'

t

1

Descri b i n g T h i n g s

------------

A ro u n d t h e H o u s e

-------

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

'

':Pi 'abbii; 2. �j 'ummii; 3. �j 'akhii; 4. �j 'ukhtii.

A N SW E R KEY l.

------------

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

3. 'akhuu 'ukhtii (my sister's brother) = J

r

N u m bers

E s se n t i a l E x p res s i o n s

Ta ke I t F u r t h e r : Ara b i c S c r i p t

Now you're ready to practice writing the letters that you've learned how to read. Turn to Part 2: Writing Arabic in your script guide, and go through this section: •

Group 3: ..::.,, , '-;-J, and ..!..>

\ D r i ve I t H o m e

Now let's help move some of what you've learned into your long term memory with some exercises. Remember that even though they seem simple, they'll help make some key constructions more automatic, so take the time to do these exercises completely.



E s s e n t i a l A ra b i c

- - - - -



t

At t h e Resta u r a n t - - - - - - - - - - - -

A r o u n d Tow n

- - - - - - - - - - - -

i



At Wo r k -

- - - - - - - - - - -

Eve ryday L i fe

- - - - -

- - - - - - - -



- - - - - - - -

E n te rta i n me n t

First, make a phrase with each of the following masculine nouns and the adjective �kabiir (big, old). Then translate your answers. 1. -llj walad 2. 3. 4.

J,4.j rajul '-:-1 1 'abb - ;:

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

£i 'akh

�������

5. � zawj 6.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

:�1 'ibn ...... .

_ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _�

-------

� ..Jjwalad kabiir (a big/old boy); 2. � �jrajul kabiir (a big/old man); 3. � ..;:,i 'abb kabiir [i 'akh kabiir (a big/old brother); 5. � d.Jzawj kabiir (a big/old husband); 6. � �['ibn kabiir (a big/old son)

ANSWERS KEY: 1.

(a big/old father); 4. �

Now do the same with these feminine nouns . .

1. � hint 2. 3.

4.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

o� ! 'imra'a

ri 'umm J

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

..::.J.j 'ukht J

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

--------�

Lesson 2: Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y



E s s e n t i a l E x p re s s i o n s

r

N u m be r s

----.. --...

�- - - - - - - - - - - - -

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

- - - - - - - - - - - -

t

1

Descri b i n g T h i ng s - - - - - - - - - - - -

A ro u n d t h e H o u s e

- - - - - - -

o� + hint kabiira (a big;lold girVdaughter); 2. o� olj-4! 'imra'a kabiira (a big;lold woman); 'umm kabiira (a big;lold mother); 4. o� ..::.J. i 'ukht kabiira (a big;lo/d sister); 5. o� �j� zawja kabiira (a big;lold wife); 6. o� �� xaa'ila kabiira (a bigfamily)

A N SWERS: i.

3. o� rl

P a r t i n g Wo r d s

You've learned a lot of new vocabulary and important constructions in this lesson. Now you can: 0

D

0 0

0

Use general terms about people (Still unsure? Go back to 3 5) Use important terms about the family (Still unsure? Go back to 37) Use the plural and the dual, a special form meaning two of something (Still unsure? Go back to 41) Describe people and your family (Still unsure? Go back to 43) Put it all together in a practical conversation about the family and some occupations (Still unsure? Go back to 47)

l e a r n e d by v i s i t i n g www.livinglanguage.com/ languagelab fo r f l a s h c a r d s , g a m es , a n d q u i z ze s .

D o n ' t fo rget to p r a c t i c e a n d r e i nforce w h a t you 've



E s s e n t i a l A ra b i c

- - - - -



A ro u n d Tow n

@

t

At t h e Resta u ra n t - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - -

1

+

A t Wo r k -

-

-

- - - - - - - - -

Everyday L i fe

- - - - - - - - - - -

+

- - - - - - - -

E n te rta i n m e n t

Ta ke I t F u rt h e r Tra c k : Lesson 2 Ta ke I t F u rt h e r ( Trac k 1 6 ) C D : 1

Here are a few more vocabulary words that will come in handy for talking about the family.

-- -. --- . �

o�

"

o� �

J L> � --

r i�

4.Jt.>

.. ;::; ...

_l I

--- I

-r--I

-I

� - ---

jadda

grandmother

jadd

grandfather

Hafiida

granddaughter

Hafiid

grandson

---- -maternal uncle - -- paternal uncle --xamm--khaala maternal aunt - -- -xamma - -- paternal aunt khaal

Lo� yawman saxiidan Have a wonderful day! See you in Lesson 3.

Lesson 2 : Peo p l e and t h e Fa m i l y



Word Recall Once again, you'll see this section between each lesson. Remember that it will give you the chance to review some key vocabulary from all the preceding lessons, so now we'll look at what you've learned in Lessons 1 and 2. Can you remember what these Arabic words and phrases mean? 1.

yi 'abb

__ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

� kabiir 3. �j) zawja 4. � kallaa 2.

__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ ____ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

------

5.

6.

�I r� S abaaH al-khayr

oh.o! 'imra'a

___ ______ ______ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _______ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

7. �JWI �kayfal-Haal

8 . � S aghiir 9. J4j raj ul

_____________ _____

_ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ ____ __

__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _____ _ ___ _ _ ___ _ _ _

10.

11. 12.

� Hafiid • �I 'ukhtii

__ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

>

_ _ _ ____________________

�Lb Taalib

13. a.b� xaa'ila

14. �! 'ismii 15. � naxam

_ _ _ _ _ _________________ _

-------

_ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ ___ _ _ _ _

_ ___ _________ _ ____________

I.father; 2. big; 3. wife; 4. no; 5. good morning; 6. woman; 7. How are you?; 8. small; 9. man; 10. grandson;

A N SW E R KEY



11. my sister; 12. student; 13. family; 14. my name; 15. yes

Essentia l A ra bic

Lesson 3: N u m bers ad-dars ath-thaalith: al-'arqaam

� J L>J I � kayf al-Haal? How are you? Are you ready for more Arabic? This lesson is all about numbers and counting. You'll learn how to: D

D

D

D

D

count from one to ten use lower numbers to count people and things count from eleven to nineteen use those numbers to count people and things practice more with numbers, and use higher numbers We'll get right to it with basic numbers. l � � hayyaa nabda'a. Let's begin.

CB

Vo c a b u l a r y B u i l d e r 1

Tra c k : Lesson 3 Voca b u l ary B u i l d e r 1 (Tra c k 1 7 ) C D : 1

zero one two three

I

Sifr



� 1_,

. iii

(,.)

.

dj')tj

+

1- -

waaHid 'ithnaan thalaatha

Lesson 3: N u m bers



N u m be r s

E s s e n t i a l E x p re s s i o n s

-....-+--...---r - - - - - - - - - - - P eo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

five

-

six ----

seven -

-

eight nine ten

--

._

I

------------

A ro u n d t h e H o u s e

�jl



-f-

four

t

D es c ri b i n g T h i n g s

� --

-

4.L-

1

------·

'arbaxa khamsa

;;·:�

-

I

a..v -- w

- -

;;�;-

ii�-

\ Vo c a b u l a ry P ra c t i c e 1

Let's review what you've just learned. Give the next number in each sequence. The entire sentence is written in Arabic script. Does that help you remember the answers?

waaHid 'ithnaan ------2.

a...u w� ;;L.... . .. ..

sitta sabxa ------thalaatha 'arbaxa ------thamaaniya tisxa



Essent i a l A ra b i c

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

- - - - -

r

At t h e Rest a u ra n t

t

- - - - - - - - - - - -

Aro u n d Tow n

5.

- - - - - - - - - - - -

i

1

A t Work - - - - - - - - -

- - -

Everyday L ife

- - - - - - - - - - - -

+

- - - - - - - -

E n terta i n me n t

.

� :iL- L..o.> 1. thalaatha; 2. tharnaaniya; 3. kharnsa; 4. xashara; 5. sabxa

A N SWERS:

Now let's do a little basic arithmetic.

waahid 'ithnaan

=

sabxa - 'thalaatha

=

+

3. 4.., " - ,.,j l.J

=

• u

w31' 4 L +

sitta 'ithnaan +

4. a......o.> a......o.> =

-



=

------

= _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

- o�

xashara - khamsa

5.

------

�...;i - �'.:>0

_ = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

+

d • :�

sabxa thalaatha - 'arbaxa +

= ------

1. thalaatha; 2. 'arbaxa; 3. thamaaniya; 4. kharnsa; 5. sitta

A N SWERS:

Lesson 3 : N u m bers



Esse n t i a l E x p ress i o n s

........,..

N u m be rs

�--------! --..

______

______

- - - - - - - - - - - -

1

D e sc r i b i n g T h i n g s - - - - - - - - - - - -

A ro u n d t h e H o u s e

P eo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

CB

t

- - - - - - ·

G ra m m a r B u i l d e r 1

Tra c k : Lesson 3 G ra m m a r B u i l d e r 1 ( Trac k 1 8 ) C D : 1

COU NTING T H I NGS: O N E THROUGH TEN

Take a closer look at the numbers you've just learned. Did you notice that the ending on eil.tl ! 'ithnaan is the same as the dual ending you learned in the last lesson, ul -aan? This makes a lot of sense, since the meaning of the dual is two of something. When you're simply counting from one to ten, using only numbers, you use the forms that you learned in Vocabulary Builder 1. Numbers have different written forms in Arabic than they do in English: 0

1

,2 r

3

4

I s-



-

.

---- -

0

8

9

rw__ __

·-

- --

1� t

--------

L_____._ - -



,

- __ __ _____

_

Esse n t i a l A ra b i c

IA -----·-r �

' .

- - - - -

r

t

At the Restaurant - - - - - - - - - - - -

A ro u n d Tow n

- - - - - - - - - - - -

1� -

1

At Wo rk - - - - - - - - - -

Everyday L i fe

- - - - - - -

- - - - -

+

- - - - - - - -

E n terta i n me n t

But getting back to the spoken language, if you're counting people or things, there are a couple of points that you need to keep in mind about Arabic. The number .i.?" I_, waaHid (one) is only used for emphasis. Remember that the indefinite article a/an is understood in Arabic, so a noun on its own such as ..Jj walad already carries the meaning a boy, which basically means one boy. If you want to emphasize one and only one, use .i.?" 1_, after the noun. walad

a boy

walad waaHid

one and only one boy

Because Arabic has a dual form (the ending i 'aHada xashar (eleven) through ?- 4 � tisxata xashar (nineteen), but for numbers even higher, which we'll get to later. But in informal Arabic, you don't need to worry about any gender mismatch. 1 -

L

__

•"•;; ?-

dj')lj

� ��· L.., ..r-� L... ?- d i.,.,2

1

thalaathata xashar walad

thalaathata xashar b;nt

I tisxata xashar saa'iH

tisxata xashar saa'iHa

thirteen boys

j

thirteen girls nineteen male tourists nineteen female tourists

Notice that even though the phrases refer to plural boys, girls, and tourists, the nouns .Jj walad (boy), •"•;; hint (girl), dl.. saa'iH (male tourist), and �L... saa'iHa (female tourist) are all singular.

Cl

Esse n t i a l A ra b i c

- - - - -

r

t

At t h e Rest a u ra n t - - - - - - - - - -

Arou n d Tow n

- -

- - - - - - - - - - - -

17 -

+

A t Wo rk - - - - - - - - - -

Everyday L i fe

- - - - - - - - - - -

+

- - - - - - - -

E n terta i n m e n t

\ Wo r k O u t 1

®

Trac k: Lesson

3

Work O u t 1 (Tra c k 2 1 ) C D : 1

Listen to your audio to put everything you've learned together and to give yourself a work out using Arabic numbers. Fill in the blanks with the missing words that you hear. 1. three men 2. three women 3. four men 4. four women

5. five men 6. five women 7. six men

8. six women 9 . seven men 10. seven women

J4-..? a.1)0 thalaathat �

------- nisaa'

L....i 6)0

J 4-..? �j l �

� 8.J l 'arbax ��

J4-.J � �

L....i �

��

_ _ _ _ _ _

______

_______

______

rijaal

nisaa'

rijaal

------- nisaa'

J4-..? 4 •:,,;,, �

rijaal

______

J4-..? � �

__ _ _ _ _

______

_____

rijaal

nisaa'

11. eight men 12. eight women



� �W

______

nisaa'

Lesson 3: N u m bers

,,

Esse n t i a l E x p ress i o n s

N u m bers

-----+- - - - - - - - - - - - +---.... .... ... ... .... ...

t

A ro u n d t h e H o u s e

Peo p l e a nd t h e Fa m i l y

JL>• -1 �-

13. nine men

� w- C::"'-!.- "

14. nine women

J �-1

15. ten men

0�

���

16. ten women

1

Descri bing Things

------------

------·

rijaal nisaa' rijaal nisaa'

A N SW E R KEY

rijaal; 2. thalaath; 3. 'arbaxat; 4. nisaa'; 5. khamsat; 6. khamas; 7. sittat; 8. sitt; 9. sabxat; 10. sabax; 11. thamaaniyat; 12. thamaanii; 13. tisxat; 14. tisax; 15. xasharat; 16. xashar

1.

CB

B r i n g I t All To g e t h e r Tra c k : Lesson 3 B r i n g I t A l l Tog e t h e r ( Tra c k 2 2 ) C D : 1

Let's count from 20 to 90.

uJ� uy'.)lj .

uy.!jl

u� u� "

u_F..:. ufW

u�

Cll

Esse n t i a l A ra b i c

l

f

-+-

xishruun

twenty

thalaathuun

thirty

'arbaxuun

forty

khamsuun

fifty

sittuun

sixty

sabxuun

seventy

thamaanuun tisxuun

eighty

� - -- --

ninety -

·-------

- - - - -



t

At t h e Rest a u ra n t - - - - - - - - - - - -

Around Tow n

- - - - - - - - - - - -

i

+

At Work -

7

- - - - - - - - - -

Everyday L i fe

- - - - - - - - - - -

+

- - - - - - - -

E n terta i n m e n t

Luckily, the tens do not have separate forms for masculine and feminine; the same form is used with either gender. The ones are joined with the tens by j wa (and). Also, unlike in English, the ones precede the tens in all two-digit numbers above twenty.

uy')0J � 1_, uyWj �

waaHid wa thalaathuun

thirty-one

sitta wa thamanuun

eighty-six

\ Wo r k O u t 2

First, translate the following numbers from Arabic into English. We'll bring back written Arabic digits to help you practice recognizing them.

1. thalaatha f

2. sabxuun V •

_ _______

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _

3. thalaatha wa xishruun

4. 5.

tisxa Q,

rr-

------

___ _ _ _ _ _ __

xashara

\•

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

6. khamsa wa sittuun

io

_ _ _ _ ____ __

7. thalaatha wa khamsuun of

8. 9.

thamaaniya wa tisxuun Q,A sitta wa sittuu n ii

_________

__ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

_ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _

10. waaHid wa 'arbaxuun t \

____ _ __ _ _ _

Lesson 3: N u m bers

If)

E s s e nt i a l E x pres s i o n s

N u m bers

...,.____ .___.. .... ___ ---...,_.. --r - - - - - - - - - - - -

______

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

t

Descri b i n g Things ------------

A ro u n d t h e H o u s e

1

-------

1. 3; 2. 70 3. 23; 4. 9; 5. 10; 6. 65; 7. 53 8. 98; 9. 66; 10. 41

A N S W E R KEY

;

;

Now translate the following numbers into Arabic. Spell the numbers out in transcription.

sitta; 2. sahxa wa khamsuun 3. 'arhaxa wa sittuun; 4. khamsuun; 5. 'arhaxa wa thalaathuun; 6. tisxuun; 7. khamsa wa thamaanuun; 8. sahxa wa xishruun; 9. xishruun; 10. Sifr

A N SW E R KEY 1.



Esse n t i a l Ara b i c

- - - - -r - - - - - - -.- - - - - t -

At t h e Resta u ra n t - - -

A ro u n d Tow n

1 ----------+- ---------+--At Wo rk

- - - - - - - -

-



-

- - - - -

E nterta i n m e n t

Eve ryday L i fe

\ D r i ve I t H o m e

Let's practice counting both masculine and feminine plural nouns. Fill in each of the following blanks with .l �jl 'awlaad (boys), and read the sentence aloud, paying close attention to the ending on the number. 1. :tj)\j thalaathat 2.

�jl 'arbaxat

3.

� khamsat

4. 5. 6.

:iL, sittat

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

-------

-------

4 •:� sabxat

-------

�W thamaaniyat

7. � tisaxat 8.

-------

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

-------

oj-!.c. xasharat

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

1. thalaathat 'awlaad (three boys); 2. 'arbaxat 'awlaad ! 'iDaafa in Arabic, and the only difference is that

the definite article will appear before the second noun only. Arabic never allows the definite article before the first noun in an oW>! 'iDaafa, even though it's

interpreted as definite. Let's see some examples

rYJI oy r lA1.J 1 oy -

t

,---- , ,

- --

�1 0)

Of course,

ghurfat an-nawm ghurfat aT-Taxaam ghurfat al-maktab

+

I

T

-

the bedroom the dining room the study

- ----

-j

I

----'

---

-

oW>! 'iDaafa constructions are not limited to the names of rooms!

They can be used to express all sorts of possessive relationships. Just remember that if the definite article appears before the second noun, both nouns are interpreted as definite

(th(ae)./an).

If there is no definite article, both nouns are

interpreted as indefinite

'ism al-walad

tthehname e boy'sofnamethe boy/ Lesson 4: A ro u n d t h e H o u se

_

_J



E s s e n t i a l E x p ress i o n s

N u m bers

__,. ____ ..,___ ___ .... ____ ....,___ ___ .... ...,__._ ____ .... ___ ____

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

Around the House

bayt ar-rajul i- -

1 !.

u-:-j



bayt rajul

·-

_

_,

-

kitaab hint

� maktab

-1

-

(office) place ofcooking yaskun (live).

Also, take a look at the words

- -+-

and

i- - - - - - -

Descri b i n g T h i n g s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

tthehhouse e man'osfhouse / the man aa house man'sofhousea man/ aa bookgirl'sofbook/a girl

� maTbakh

(kitchen). place ofwriting

The prefix ...O ma- is something you'll see a lot in Arabic, and it sometimes implies

that the noun is the name of a place. These words literally mean (an office or study, or a desk) and }

You also saw the verb �

(a kitchen).

We'll go over verbs later, but for now }

let's get acquainted just with the basics. The form � yaskun literally means

he lives.

It's got a prefix, � ya-, which is part of the conjugation for yi huwa, or

Sometimes you'll hear it with a final -u, 0(;

he.

·! yaskunu but that's often dropped in

spoken Arabic.

Just like most Arabic nouns, the majority of Arabic verbs are constructed from

three basic root consonants, in this case u- .:.l- '-"" s-k-n. You've already seen the and '-""'_,.I4J I

write

o� }

are '-:-'- ..::,, - .!.)

and the ones for

roots and produce the verb forms:



Essent i a l A ra b i c

� maktab

( o ffi c e, pl a ce o f wri t i n g), ghurfat al-juluus (living/sit ing room). k-t-b, sit '-""-J- j-1-s.

roots of a few other verbs, for example in

are



The root consonants for So we can take those

- - - - -

r

t

At t h e Resta u ra nt - - - - - - - - - - - -

A ro u n d Tow n

- - - - - - - - - - - -

1

-

-

+

At Wo r k -

- - - - - - - - -

Eve ryd a y L i fe

r

J

_ _

_

_

huwa yaktub huwa yajlis

J

- - - - - - - - - - -

+

- - - - - - - -

E n te rta i n m e n t

__

he writes he sits

��-- -

------

But don't worry yet about what goes on with the vowels in between the root consonants. We'll come to that later. For now, just get used to the idea of picking out root consonants in Arabic, and that basic meanings are extended from them in a whole variety of ways. This will come in very handy, as it's really the heart of the Arabic language! Finally, notice that sentences in Arabic can begin either with a verb or with a noun. And in the second example below, don't forget that there is no word corresponding to

am, is, are; or

it's simply understood.

yaskun 'aHmad fi-1 bayt. r al-Hadiiqajamiila.

Ahmad lives in the house. The garden [is]pretty.



---- -------

Ta ke I t F u rt h e r : Ara b i c S c r i p t Let's return to the script guide and cover another group of Arabic letters. Go to Part 1: Reading Arabic, and go through: • Group 5:

.l

d, ,j dh, .)

r,

and j z

After you're done with Group 5, take a look at the following familiar words. By now you can recognize all the vowels, as well as the consonants "-:-' b,

[j, ( H, t kh, .l d, ,j dh,.)

r,

and j z .

.=...

t, ..=., th,

Lesson 4: A ro u n d t h e H o u se



N u m be r s

E s se n t i a l E x press i o n s

.,__ _....___,. _ _,..__.,.__

Peop l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

Aro u n d the House

2. JJ;,., (suruur,

1. �� (haadhihi, 3.

this, f) (shukran, thank you) (saa'iH, touris t) ('awlaad, boys) '-""j � (mudarris, teacher)

pleasure) . ('uriid, I would like/I want) (tasharrafnaa, nice to meet you) (zawjatii, my wife) (bayt, house)

lfa



4 .l.:!J i

J

• J

5. �L..,

CB

6.

ill__µ.5

�j.)

7 . .l�jl

8.

9.

10. •*•j!

Vo c a b u l a ry B u i l d e r 2

Tra c k : Lesson 4 Voca b u l a ry B u i l d e r 2 ( Tra c k 2 6 ) C D : 1

(he) sleeps Ahmad sleeps. Mona sleeps. (he) eats Ahmad eats. Mona eats. (he) sits Ahmad sits. -1 Mona sits. bed dining table chair

t

-

ca

1- - - - - --

D e sc r i b i n g T h i n g s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

Essent i a l Ara b i c

t

r l.j.JM . .4>. i r� -� r � jStJM JS' 0

'

...1.0..> I

l:!

'

-� �

t

i)jj- l..,

+--

-� JS-ti

- M � . .4>. i � '

_x.r ..l.i.iO .

0

M

l

-

yanaam yanaam 'aHmad. tanaam munaa. ya'kul ya'kul 'aHmad. ta'kul munaa. yajlis yajlis 'aHmad. tajlis munaa. sariir maa'ida maqxad

- - - - -

r

t

At t h e Resta u ra n t - - - - - - - - - - - -

A r o u n d Tow n

- - - - - - - - - - - -

1� -

+

At Wo r k - - - - - - - - - -

Eve ryd ay L i fe

- - - - - - - - - - -

+

- - - - - - - -

E n te rta i n m e n t

\ Vo c a b u la ry P ra c t i c e 2

Translate the following English words and phrases into Arabic, using transcription. The Arabic script is given with the English. Can you recognize enough letters by now so that it helps you remember the answers? But there's a catch; the sentences may be either subject-first or verb-first. You'll need to look at the Arabic script to help you figure out how you're supposed to answer.

1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8.

(he) sits � -----Mona eats dining table chair ..)ji.o Ahmad sits..� bed�_r., (he) eats Mona sleeps. I .?{u.. . . �J I.P

o,ljl..o

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ �

.i.o..>.i

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _

J.$4

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

· r l..jj �

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

ANSWER KEY 1. yajlis; 2. ta'kul munaa. 3. maa'ida ; 4. maqxad; 5. 'aHmad yajlis. 6. sariir; 7. ya'kul ; 8. munaa tanaam

Lesson

4:

Aro u n d the H o u se



N u m be r s

Esse n t i a l E x p ress i o n s

P eo p l e a n d the Fa m i l y

CB

1

Descr i b i n g T h i n g s

-------+---+---t - - - - - - - - - - - Aro u n d t h e House

---- ---

G ra m m a r B u i l d e r 2

Trac k : Lesson 4 G ra m m a r B u i l d e r 2 ( Tra c k 2 7 ) C D : 1

I N T R O D U C T I O N TO V E R B S

Let's talk a bit about Arabic verbs now. You'll be happy to know that there are only two basic tenses in Arabic, the perfect, or past, referring to completed actions; and the imperfect, or the present, used to refer to actions taking place now or actions that happen generally. (In case you're wondering, the future tense is really simple; it's just the present with a little prefix-like particle in front of it!). Arabic verbs, like verbs in many languages, change form depending on who or what is doing the action. In the present tense, both prefixes and suffixes are added to the verb stem, which is formed from the three root consonants that we mentioned earlier. These prefixes and suffixes vary according to the subject. For instance, in the present tense, the prefix..;! ya- is added for the � huwa form, and the prefix.J ta- is added for the � hiya form. Remember that Arabic sentences can have two different orders: SV (subject ... verb ... ) or VS (verb ... subject ... ). If the subject is a name or a noun, the verb may come first. Let's see some examples of that with verbs that you've learned .

(he)

I

r I

I L_ _



(she)

. .i.o.> f JS'i.:i"

. � jStJ

. J.o.> ·j -

" ·�

� - • "

� -

Esse n t i a l Ara b i c

·

1-

l

ya'kul 'aHmad ta'kul munaa yajlis 'aHmad tajlis munaa

Ahmad eats/is eating Mona eats/is eating sits/is sit ing j Ahmad J Mona sits/is sit ing

- - - - -

r

t

At t h e Resta u ra n t - - - - - - - - - - - -

A r o u n d Tow n

- - - - - - - - - - - -

1-

1

A t Wo r k - - - - - - - - - -

Eve ryday L i fe

- - - - - - - - - - - -

+

- - - - - - - -

E n te rta i n m e n t

You can see the root consonants plainly enough in LJ"'-J- �j-1-s Notice that the hamza, or the glottal stop that we're representing as an apostrophe in transcription, can be part of a root or stem: J-.!.l->- '-k-1

(eat).

(sit).

For the Li i 'anaa (I) form, verbs carry the prefix 'a-, and for the .::.J f 'anta m.) and ..:;f 'anti f.) forms, they carry the prefix� ta-. But notice that the ..:;f 'anti f.) form also has a suffix: 6:! -iin.

(you, (you, .u-#l Li i

·� -=.J i L

T

; sit/a� sit ing J you (m) sit/are sit ing I you sit/are sit ing

'anaa 'ajlis 'anta tajlis 'anti tajlisiin

-r

(you,

(f)

The � ya- prefix is also used for the dual when you're talking about just two people, as well as the plural for three or more people. The dual ending is 6L -aan, and the plural ending is 6)- -uun.

t h ey, t h ey, they

they

munaa wa 'aHmad yajlisaan. muna wa 'aHmad wa muSTafaa yajlisuun.

r

Monaareandsit Ahmad ing. Mona, Ahmad, and Mustafa are sit ing.

..J o The form for LJ.>J naHnu takes the prefix_j na-. The plural form Fl 'antum o� o i: takes the same prefix as the singular ..:..U I 'anta and � I 'anti, that is,_::; ta- but it also has the ending 6)- -uun. J

-

( w e) (you, all ofyou, you alO

O�

...

Lesson

4:

Aro u n d the H o u se



N u m be r s

E s s e n t i a l E x p res s i o n s

_...,___..,_.,..____,,.

Peo p l e a n d t h e Family

��

Aro u n d the House

naHnu najlis 'antum tajlisuun

u� F'

o .. J o '

1- - -----

Descri b i n g T h i n g s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

we sit/ are sitting all ofyou sit/ are sitting

There are just a couple of other verb forms that we'll come back to later, but this is a very good start! Let's summarize the present tense conjugation. You'll sometimes see the short vowel ending Damma u on the present tense forms for wi 'anaa ([), �f 'anta (you, m.), �f 'anti (you, f), jJb huwa (he), � hiya (she), and 6>J naHnu (we). Note, though, that they're often dropped in spoken Arabic. J

EXAMPLE: SIT

-/-u

'ajlis �f tajlis

PREFIX

'anaa (I)

'a-

'anta (you, m.)

ta-

'anti (you, f)

ta-

-iin

tajlisiin

huwa (he)

ya-

-/-u

yajlis

hiya (she)

ta-

-/-u

tajlis

naHnu (we)

na-

-/-u

najlis

wi

..::. � .u ·,

�I .

ca

r

SUFFIX

PRONOUN

;:

6>J

Essen t i a l Ara b i c

-/-u

- 1

- - - - -

r

t

At t h e Resta u ra n t - - - - - - - - - - - -

A ro u n d Tow n

- - - - - - - - - - - -

1� -

1

1

A t Wo r k - - - - - - - - - -

Everyday L i fe

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

E n t e rta i n m e n t

\ Wo r k O u t 1

®

Tra c k : Lesson 4 Wo rk O u t 1 (Trac k 2 8 ) C D : 1

Let's practice verbs. Listen to your recordings, and fill in the prefix that you hear. Again, see if the Arabic script can help you remember. 1. I sit 2. you (m.) sit 3. you (f) sit 4. he sits

'anaa 'anta 'anti

______

______

______

��

huwa

jlis

jlis

jlisiin

______

Lesso n

4:

jlis

Aro u n d the H o u se

I/fl

N u m bers

Esse n t i a l E x p re s s i o n s

Descri b i n g T h i n g s

_....,___...___.,..__.

� er

5 . she sits

hiya

6. we sit

� 6>J

7.

6� r:u 1

8. the two of them sit

0

'antum

. humaa

"

jlis jlisuun

kA

jlisaan

6� ��

9. they sit

hum

_ _ _ _ _ _ _

,, ., ,

,,

(.) • L..J.>. .:;

,

jlis

naHnu

all ofyou sit

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

Aro u n d the House

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

"

jlisuun

i 'a; 2.j ta; 3_j ta; 4. � ya; s.j ta; 6 . .:; na; 7.j ta; 8. � ya; 9. � ya

ANSWER KEY l.

«l B r i n g I t A l l To g e t h e r CB Tra c k : Lesson 4 B r i n g I t A l l Tog e t h e r (Tra c k 2 9 ) C D : 3

Now let's bring it all together in a dialogue and add a little bit more vocabulary. r

I

� �i �j) t;o � . · t,f-0�

.,,; ..._;) ..,...... .!) LlO

L-



-�� li1j: . •"

·j]f l

Essent i a l A ra b i c

'askun fii baytii maxa zawjatii, munaa. I .. baytunaa jadiid. hunaak� khamas ghuraf fi 1-bayt.

I live in my house with my wife, Mona.

I

Our house is new. There are five rooms in the house.

- - - - -



t

At t h e Resta u ra n t - - - - - - -

- - - - -

A ro u n d Tow n

- - - - - - - - - - - -

1

i

A t Wo r k - - - - - - - - - - - -

Everyday L i fe

- - - - - - - - - - - -

+

E nterta i n m e n t - -

dJ) J naHnu _______ fii bayt kabiir. 6. � .-.j} � -------

5.

·� .-.j: � ·

muHammad

_______



fii bayt Saghiir. Lesson

4:

Aro u n d the House

"

E s s e n t i a l Express i o n s

_..,. I .

_

N u m b e rs

D e s cr i b i n g T h i n g s

__,_____..,..__ _ __.

_ _

7.

People

and

the Fa m i l y

-

- - - - -

-

Arou nd the House

- - - - -

1-

- -

----

-� •"•j} � ------ � munaa fii bayt kabiir. ______

s

. .� ·"·j: � ------- � �_ili wi

'anaa wa zawjatii

9. . �i

t;o

}

_______

al-'awlaad al-hint

fii bayt kabiir.

.3'-JJ� I maxa 'ukhtii.

______

10. � · •j} � -

______

"

------

�I

fii bayt Saghiir.

�i 'askun (I live in the house.) 2. uA yaskunuun (Mona and Ahmad and Tariq live in a big # taskun (You live in a small house.) 4. � yaskun (My father lives with my sister.) 5. i:,5:.:J naskun (We live in a big house.) 6. � yaskun (Mohammed lives in a small house.) 7. � taskun (Mona lives in a big house.) 8. i:,5:.:J n askun (My wife and I live in a big house.) 9. uA yaskunuun (The children live with my sister.) 10. # taskun (The girl lives in a small house.)

A N SW E R KEY L

house.) 3.

And let's practice describing things as well. Fill in each blank with the correct form of the adjective in parentheses, and then translate the phrases. Remember to use the ending o- -a when describing all feminine singular nouns, as well as any non-human plurals. Also, don't forget to use the definite article when describing definite nouns. 1.



rajul

2.

__ __

_______

(..l.:!�)

(kabiir)

_______

al-bayt



j4j

•"•j!ll

______

Essen t i a l Ara b i c

(jadiid)

- - - - -

r

Aro u n d Tow n

3. (r.!+5')

'imra'a

4.

5.

6.

(r.!+5')

1

-



al-'athaath

8 . �) ghurfa (..l.:?�)

- - - - - - - -

+

- - - - - - - -

E n terta i n m e n t

��jj

.

a.. ..'..) .�

(qariib)

..!..i ��I

(qadiim)

u� >

(mushmis)

al-madrassa

L-�I '..) Gadiid)

al-maa'ida

o.0WI (Saghiir)

�)

- - - - - - - - - - -

oh-0 1 (kabiir)

Gadiid)

(�))

-

Everyday L i fe

'adawaat

(..l.:?�)

+

A t Wor k -

al-'imra'a

7. �.ij

10.

- - - - - - - - - - - -

o!r! I (kabiir)

madrassa

9.

t

At t h e Resta u ra n t - - - - - - - - - - - -

ANSWER KEY 1. _r-:6 kabiir (a big/old man); 2 . ..l.:!.>..:!J I al-jadiid (the new house); 3. o� kabiira (a big/old woman); 4. o�I al-kabiira (the big/old woman); 5. O..l.;!� jadiida (new utensils); 6. 4:!) qariiba (a nearby school); 7. j":!J.il l al-qadiim (the old furniture); 8. � mushmisa (a sunny room); 9. o..l.;!.>..:!J I al-jadiida (the new school); 10. o�I aS-Saghiira (the small table)

Lesson 4: A ro u n d t h e H o u s e

IJ

E s s e n t i a l E x p re s s i o n s

N u m bers

1

Descri bing Things

------------ --------+----+----+---� Peo p l e and t h e Fa m i l y

Aro u n d t h e House

\ D r i ve I t H o m e

Let's do some more practice with verbs, to really help you remember the forms. First, fill in the correct forms of� yafxalu (does). Use the short Damma ending for practice. 0

}

1. 2. 3.

wi 'anaa

_ ___ _ ____ _

6-il 'anta ••

..::.U I 'anti ••

4. jA huwa 5.

� hiya

_ ____ _____

_ _________

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

6. � naHnu }

-

7.

� I 'antum

9.

rA hum

8.

_

_ _______ _

> I)�

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

W humaa -----_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

ANSWER KEY ' ·: . .. • .. ' . 1. Jii l 'afxalu (I do); 2. � tafxalu (you, m., do); 3. � tafxaliin (you, f. do); 4. Ji.A,! yafxalu (he does); 5. � tafxalu (she does); 6. JAij nafxalu (we do); 7. u.,.w.:; tafxaluun (you, pl., do); 8. u� yafxalaan (they, dual, do); 9. uJh�:: yafxaluun (they, pl., do). ,

'

. ..

,

. ..

..



J.

• ..

Now let's try it once more with J...j � yadrusu (studies). Remember that the practice and repetition will help you remember these forms!

1. 2.



wi 'anaa ------

6-il 'anta -----••

Esse n t i a l A ra b i c

- - - - -

r

t

At t h e Resta u r a n t - - - - - - - - - - - -

A ro u n d Tow n

� hiya 6. LJ.>..i naHnu 5.

- - - - - - - - - - - -

1

l

At Wo rk - - - - - - - - - - - -

Everyday L i fe

- - - - - - - - - - -

+

- - - - - - - -

E n te rta i n m e n t

_ __ _ _ _ _ _

-

}

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

J o�

7. r:u 1 •antum

8.

� humaa

9.

� hum

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

------

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

ANSWER KEY '' ' : tad rusun (you, f., stu dy/·' ; 4 . '-'"'' .).l.:! l. '-'"' ' .JJ " '1 'ad rusu (I stu dy) ; 2 . '-'"'.), J.i . : tad rusu (you, m., stu dy) ; 3 . �.JJ.i

yadrusu (he studies); 5. J..j jj tadrusu (she studies); 6. J..j .iJ nadrusu (we study); 7. u�)jj tadrusuun (you, pl., study); 8. u i..;.,j.'.i.;i yadrusaan (they, dual, study); 9. u�jjj yadrusuun (they study). '

'

..

-

Ta ke I t F u r t h e r : Ara b i c S c r i p t

Let's return to the script guide and practice writing the letters you learned how to read earlier in this lesson. Go to Part 2: Writing Arabic, and go through: •

Group 5: J ,j ,.J, and j

Pa r t i n g Wo r d s

In this lesson, you learned a lot of important grammar that's useful for talking about your home and everyday life. You should know how to: D

Use basic vocabulary related to rooms in a house (Still unsure? Go back to 76.) Lesson

4:

Aro u n d the House



D D

D

Form simple sentences about the home (Still unsure? Go back to 78.) Use a few basic verbs (Still unsure? Go back to 82.) Put them to use to talk about everyday activities (Still unsure? Go back to 84.) Use some descriptive terms that you can use to describe your house (Still unsure? Go back to 88.) D o n ' t forget to practice a n d re i n fo rce what you 've lea rned by v i s i t i n g www.livinglanguage.com/ languagelab for flashca rd s , g a m es, a n d q u i zzes .

CB

Ta ke I t F u r t h e r Tra c k : Lesson 4 Ta ke I t F u rt h e r (Tra c k 3 1 ) C D : 1

cj I� raa'ix! Now you know enough Arabic words to describe the rooms in your house. You may of course want to talk about the other parts of your house or building:

Wonderfel!

madkhal J,;i lhJ I aT-Taabiq ghurfat aD-Duyuuf J� I oj f---------------+-------------- ---�I al-miSxad L_ ------

-

Essential Ara b i c

0m __

____

1

I

J I

�-----------' ---------�

--------

>-lA..!J I �! 'ilaa 1-iqaa'!



-

entrfiance!}� tgu_he s - -r the e t ro the elevator

So long!

Word Recall Can you match the Arabic script and transcription with the English translation?

1. ..l.A.A.J I al-miSxad 2. •"•j!l l al-bayt 3. r l.O.> Hammaam - J 4. '-:-'".)U, Tullaab 5. fa. i:!.i W thamaaniyata xashar Jo 6. JS� ya'kul 7. �jJ zawja 8. J L>J I � kayfal-Haal • • J 9 . 1µ shukran 10. �j rajul 11. LJ"j� mudarris 12. � �f 'asmaa' 13. o� Saghiira 14. � kabiir 15. oi.;t 'imra'a ANSWER KEY

l. f; 2. d; 3. j; 4. a; 5. m; 6. b; 7. c; 8. o; 9. e; 10.

n;

a. students b. he eats c. wife d. the house e. thank you f. the elevator

g. teacher (m.) h. names i. big (m.)

j. a bathroom k. small (f)

1. woman m. eighteen

n. man o. How are you?

11. g; 12. h; 13. k; 14. i; 15.

I

Lesson 4: Aro u n d the H o u se



N u m bers

E s s e n t i a l E x p re s s i o n s

Describing Things

..,..__________....,____________.,...____________..,..__________� - - - - - - -

__ __ __ __

A ro u n d t h e H o u s e

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

Lesson 5: Describing Thing s ad-dars a l-khaamis: waSf al-ashyaa'

�j �j 'ahlan wa sahlan! Welcome! This lesson will focus on talking about your surroundings, so you'll: D

D

D

D

D

Review pronouns, and learn a few new ones Learn how to use them with some more basic descriptive terms Learn the words for everyday objects and colors Use words like this and these Put it all to use in sentences that bring together a lot of what you've been learning �b

l � t.;!A hayyaa nabda' Haalan! Let's begin right away! As always, we'll start

with some basic words that will come in handy.

CB

Vo c a b u la r y B u i ld e r 1

Tra c k : Lesson 5 Voc a b u l a ry B u i l d e r 1 (Tra c k 1 ) C D : 2

I

-� di ----- --F-J -----

-

you (to a man)

you Cto a woman)



Essenti a l Ara b i c

-----

l

wl

--

.

.:.JI

--

-

-

r

'anaa 'anta 'anti

- - - - -

r

t

At t h e Rest a u ra n t - - - - - - - - - - - -

A ro u n d Tow n

- - - - - - - - - - - -

1

1

1

At Wo r k -



- - - - - - -

- - -

Everyday L i fe

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

E nterta i n m e n t

huwa hiya naHnu 'antum

he she we you (to men, or a mixed group)

t I

you (to women)

1

they (for men or a mixed group) they (for women) tall

r t

--

LJ1b . }

'antunna hum hunna Tawiil saxiid

happy

\ Vo c a b u la ry P ra c t i c e 1 Which pronoun would you use to talk

1.

to your friend Layla?

2. about yourself?

...

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

3. about your friends Layla, Mariam, and Latifa? 4. to your friend Ahmad?

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

5. about yourselfand two ofyour friends?

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

6. to your friends Mariam, Ahmad, and Mahmoud?

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

Lesson 5: D e s c r i b i n g T h i n g s

flJ

Esse n t i a l E x p re s s i o n s

N u m be r s

Descri bing Things

________._____________..,_____________.,...____________�__________...,. _

Pe o p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

7. about your friend Layla?

A ro u n d t h e H o u s e

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

8. about your friend Ahmad?

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

9. to your friends Mariam, Layla, and Latifa?

10.

_ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

about your friends Mariam, Ahmad, and Mahmoud?

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

..:;.u1; 'anti; 2. wl; :anaa; 3. 6Jti hunna; 4. ..:.Ui; 'anta; 5. � naHnu; 6. �I 'antum; 7. Cf': hiya; 8. Y, huwa; 9. �j 'antunna; 10. rA hum

ANSWER KEY: 1.

@

.



J.

.

J.

0

,

J.• ..

G ra m m a r B u i ld e r 1

Tra c k : Lesson 5 G ra m m a r B u i l d e r 1 ( Tra c k 2) C D : 2

A DJ E C T I V E AG R E E M E N T W I T H P L U R A L S

Let's take a look at some simple sentences using those pronouns with descriptive adjectives like J.:!_,.b Tawiil (tall), � saxiid (happy), and � taxiis (sad). Remember that the verb to be doesn't exist in the affirmative present tense in Arabic, so in a sentence like you are tall, the adjective follows the pronoun directly, and agrees with it in gender and number. I

� I I



t-_

. J.:!_,1 uf .�_,1 ui .J.:!_,1 �f .�_,b �f

-- -+---

·� �

Essenti a l Ara b i c

r

'anaa Tawiil. 'anaa Tawiila. 'anta Tawiil. 'anti Tawiila. huwa saxiid. -

-- -

I am tall. (m.) I am tall. (f) You are tall. (m.) You are tall. (f) He is happy.

- - - - -



t

At t h e Resta u ra n t - - - - - - - - - - - -

A r o u n d Town

- - - - - - - - - - - -

1



- - - - - - - - - -

Everyday L i fe

_L

+

At Wo rk -

hiya saxiida.

_

l

_

- - - - - - - - - - -

+

- - - - - - - -

E nterta i n m e n t

She is happy.

Now let's talk about plurals. Remember that � hum (they) is used when talking about groups of three or more men, or about mixed groups, and {.; hunna (they) is used when talking about groups of three or more women. To talk to or about J oi two people, there are special dual pronouns in Arabic, \.Mj l 'antumaa (the two of you, you two) and W humaa (the two of them, those two), but we'll come back to the dual later. Remember that adjectives agree with the nouns they describe not only in gender, but also in number. So, if you want to say we are happy, they are happy, or you (pl) are happy, you have to use plural adjective forms. For describing women, you simply use the regular feminine plural ending ..::.i L -aat that you learned back in Lesson 2. Remember that the plural of Lj� mudarrisa (female teacher) is ..::.i l.j� ... mudarrisaat (female teachers). The same ending goes on adjectives describing female humans. . ..::.i l � 6.>J .. ... .1 o i

. ..::.i J4j1 6:U I . ..::.i � ?.;

-1

-----1-

naHnu saxiidaat.

We (f) are happy.

'antunna Tawiilaat.

You (f. pl) are tall.

hun�a ;axiisaat.

I

They (f) are sad.

For describing human male plurals, though, things are a bit trickier. Remember from Lesson 2 that most Arabic nouns have so-called "broken" plurals. The three root consonants are kept in the same order, but vowels are added or deleted Lesson 5: Desc r i b i n g T h i n g s



N u m bers

E s s e nt i a l E x p re s s i o n s

Describing Thi ngs

--------�----------....-. ----------....-. ----------�-----------i -

Peo p l e a n d t h e F a m i l y

- - - - - -

A ro u n d t h e H o u s e

before, after, or in between those consonants. So, .Jj walad (boy) becomes .l �j l 'awlaad (boys), and •"•�: hint (girl) becomes ..:..i � banaat (girls). Adjectives have broken plural forms as well, but they're only used to describe human males or groups of males and females. Just as with nouns, you have to memorize the broken plural forms of adjectives. The broken plural form of � saxiid (happy) is ;.l..\..i.!. suxadaa', and the broken plural form of J.:i.,1 Tawiil (tall) is J IJ!:> Tiwaal.

l I

hum suxadaa'.

I

+--

naHnu suxadaa'.

j

They are happy. (m. or mixed) We are happy.

'antum Tiwaal.

-

(m. or mixed)

·--- -

-

You are tall. L

(pl., m. or mixed)

Ta ke I t F u rt h e r : Ara b i c S c r i p t

Turn now to your script guide to cover another group of Arabic letters. Go to Part 1: Reading Arabic, and read: •



Group 6: (.)" s and � sh

Esse n t i a l A ra b i c

- - - - -

r

A ro u n d Tow n

CB

t

At t h e Resta u ra n t - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - -

1

1

A t Wo r k -



- - - - - - - - - -

Eve ryd a y L i fe

- - - - - - - - - - - -

+

- - - - - - - -

E nterta i n m e n t

Vo c a b u la ry B u i ld e r 2

Trac k: Lesson 5 Voc a b u l a ry B u i l d e r 2 (Tra c k 3) C D : 2

r

pen paper book dress shirt

f

qalam waraqa kitaab

I

fustaan qamiiS

shoes

Hidhaa'

color

lawn

. - ·f f .l_,.:.



white black green blue red yellow brown

r

ybil Jj:,l �l �i

l

'abyaD 'aswad r-

l

'akhDar 'azraq 'aHmar 'aSfar bunnii

Less o n 5: D e s c r i b i ng T h i ng s



E s se n t i a l E x p ress i o n s

N u m bers

Descri b i n g Thi ngs

. ----------+-----------� --------....-. ------�------------....--

A ro u n d t h e H o u se

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

\ Vo c a b u la ry P ra c t i c e 2

First, match the English in Column A to the Arabic in Column B. a. y l.:i.?' kitaab

l. paper

b. r.ti qalam

2. shirt 3. book 4. pen

/

5. shoes 6. dress

1. c; 2. f; 3. a; 4. b; 5. d; 6. e

ANSWER KEY

Now find the terms related to colors.



Essenti a l Ara b i c

c. ojj waraqa

d. "ll> Hidhaa'

e. u l:i...:..9 fustaan �

f. � qamiiS

- - - - - - ·

- - - - -

r

t

At t h e Resta u ra n t - - - - - - - - - - - -

A ro u n d Tow n

- - - - - - - - - - - -

i� -

1

At Wo rk - - - - - - - - - -

Eve ryday L i fe

- - - - - - - - - - - -

+

- - - - - - - -

E n te rta i n m e n t

Fill them in below next to the Arabic script, along with their English translations: ARABIC

ENGLISH

L �i 2. '2:H • -·r

3 . ..l_,_.:, i

4 . yblt 5. Jjj t 6. _,.o..> I

• •



s.

CB

.. . �



u;J

G ra m m a r B u i l d e r 2 Tra c k : Lesson 5 G ra m m a r B u i l d e r 2 (Tra c k 4 ) C D : 2

C O L O R A DJ E C T I V E S A N D D E M O N ST R AT I V E S

Just like any other adjectives, colors agree with the nouns they describe in gender, number, and definiteness. The forms you just learned are the masculine singular forms, but a lot of the feminine forms are irregular. But wait, there's good news. Take a look at this:

Lesso n 5: Desc r i b i n g Th i n g s

IJ

N u m bers

E s s e n t i a l E x p re s s i o n s

Descri b i n g T h i n g s

________,...__ . __________.,..____________.,_____________lo-__________---1 - - - - - - ·

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

· - ·f ;,�/ M• � ;,JJ�/..l_,.:.. t l� /fo l ;,ljj) / Jjj t ;,l_;.> /� t ;,l� /)..::. t

;,

I

-t

A ro u n d t h e H o u s e

'abyaD/bayDaa'

white (m./f)

'aswad/sawdaa'

black (m./f)

'akhDar/khaDraa'

green (m./f)

'azraq/zarqaa'

blue (m./f)

'aHmar/Hamraa'

red (m./f)

'aSfar/Safraa'

yellow (m./f)

Do you notice anything about all the masculine forms and all the feminine forms? Think about the three root consonants. If you replace all the consonants in the masculine forms with C (meaning "consonant"), you have the exact same pattern: 'aCCaC. (Keep in mind that kh is one consonant in Arabic: t-) The feminine forms all follow the same pattern, too: CaCCaa'. Colors are a nice and simple way to get used to noticing root consonants in Arabic, and seeing how they're manipulated, often in systematic patterns. Here are some examples:

Jjjl � Jjj �I rli-' I ;,ljj) 0jj ;, l.9j.)J I oj}J I

qalam 'azraq

a blue pen

al-qalam al-'azraq

the blue pen

waraqa zarqaa'

blue paper

al-waraqa az-zarqaa'

the blue paper

Now let's look at how to say this and these in Arabic. Demonstrative adjectives, as they are called, also agree in gender and number with the noun they refer to.



Esse n t i a l A ra b i c

- - - - -

r

t

At t h e Resta u ra n t - - - - - - - - - - - -

A r o u n d Tow n

- - - - - - - - - - - -

-

-

----i[

1

At Wo r k - - - - - - - - - - - -

Everyday L i fe

l----- - I ii - - f f------- --:-::---

L �.�;



- - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - -

E n te rta i n me n t

haadhaa* ___-haadhi"hi*

this (m.)

haa'ulaa'i

these (pl.)

_ __

+

this (f)

*Even though these words are spelled with a short a in Arabic, the first vowel is pronounced long: aa. If you're identifying something in a sentence, as in "this is .. . ," just begin with the appropriate demonstrative.

,-- -

---haadhihi wara

haadhaa qalam

-

This is a pen.

-

-- -

-,

-- -- -1

This is a paper.. _

_

_

Remember that non-human plurals take feminine singular agreement. So, o � haadhihi (this) is used with feminine singulars as well as plural objects and animals. '"�ji haa'ulaa'i (these) is only used with human plurals, of both genders.

--- r-haadhihi madaaris � � , haadhihi mawaa'id. -- Aly -------

--�'-""')�

l 1

o

o



.JI� J 4-J '-�ji

-- - - -T ·

r-- . ��.,,1 '"� '"�� L_

--------

+

haa'ulaa'i rijaal Tiwaal.

I

_j

haa'ulaa'i nisaa' Tawiilaat . __

____

-

These are schools. These are tables.

These are tall m :n.

These are tall women.

J

__

Lesson 5 : D e s c r i b i n g T h i n g s



N u m be r s

E s se n t i a l E x p r e s s i o n s

Descri b i n g T h i n g s

..,_____________....,____________..,..____________....,__________--.(

__ __ __ __

Peop l e and t h e Fa m i l y

- - - - - - -

A ro u n d t h e H o u s e

If you want to form a phrase with this or these, as in "this book/man/woman is .. .," begin with the appropriate demonstrative, and link it to the noun with JI al- (the) .

-,--t

=-rhaadhaa 1-kitaab kabiir. . J IY, J 4-) I � �j.'b ��aa'ulaa'i 1-rijaal Tiwaal. .� y� l l.'.l.i

----

This book is big. These men are tall.

Notice that when the word before J I al- (the) ends with a vowel, the a- is dropped in pronunciation. \ Wo r k O u t 1

CB

Tra c k : Lesson 5 Work O u t 1 (Tra c k 5) C D : 2

Listen to the audio to hear several examples of adjectives and demonstratives. Listen a few times, and then complete the following exercise. Fill in the blanks with the correct demonstrative, and circle the correct form of the adjective. Then translate the full sentences. 1. .�L.9..i) / �i �

-------

_______

qalam 'azraq / zarqaa'.

_______

waraqa abyaD / bayDaa'.

.

}

3 . . � � / �I u �

------

_______



Essen t i a l A ra b i c

fustaan 'aHmar / Hamraa'.

- - - - -

r

t

At t h e Resta u ra n t - - - - - - - - - - - -

A ro u n d Tow n

4

- - - - - - - - - - - -

1� -

1

At Wo r k - - - - - - - - - -

Everyd a y L i fe

- - - - - - - - - - - -

+

-

-

- - - - - -

E n terta i n m e n t

. . "'.I� / ..1_,..:,l � ---_______

5 . . J�/ J.:i.,1 J4-) '

qamiiS 'aswad / sawdaa'.

------

_______

6 . . o�/� y �I

ar-rijaal Tawiil / Tiwaal.

_ _ _ _ _ __

_______

al-kitaab kabiir / kabiira.

ANSWER KEY

haadhaa, 'azraq (This is a bluepen.) 2. haadhihi, bayDaa' (This is a white paper.) 3. haadhaa, 'aHmar (This is a red dress.) 4. haadhaa, 'aswad (This is a black shirt.) 5. haa'ulaa'i, Tiwaal (These men are tall.) 6. haadhaa, kabiir (This book is big.) l.

tll B r i n g I t All To g e t h e r CB Tra c k : Lesson 5 B r i n g I t A l l Tog e t h e r (Tra c k 6 ) C D : 2

Now let's bring it all together and add a little bit more vocabulary and structure.

1

'anaa saxiidjiddan!

I am very happy!

xaa'ilatii hunaa fii baytii.

My family is here in my house.

haadhaa 'ibn 'akhii samiir.

This is my brother's son

samiir Tifl.

Samir is a child.

samiir yuriid 'an yarsum.

Samir wants to draw.

Samir.

Lesso n 5: Desc r i b i n g T h i n g s



Descri b i n g T h i n g s

N u m bers

Esse n t i a l E x p re s s i o n s

---------+-------------+-------------+-------------1----------------1 - - - - - - -

P eo p l e a n d t h e

amily

A ro u n d t h e H o u se

'ahuuhu yuxTiihi qalam His father gives him a pen wa waraqa. and a paper. 0

. � r-'_y.. .ftO-' •

J 0 ..

...

1 ·P ' 6l:i..:,j � J1:? � I 0 '

.J

...

...

0

I

samiir yarsum hint.

Samir draws a girl.

al-hint tartadii fustaan 'aHmar.

The girl is wearing a red

shaxr al-hint hunnii. haadhihi 'ukhtuhu aSSaghiira saamiya.

CB

dress. The girl's hair is brown.

-+---

It's his little sister Samia.

J

_

_

Ta ke I t F u rt h e r Tra c k : Lesson 5 Ta ke It F u r t h e r (Tra c k 7) C D : 2

Let's go over some of the new vocabulary that you just learned.

-

r-'_y.. >

-

� .JJ:}

...-

J



ill.b



Essent i a l A ra b i c

L

jiddan

very

hunaa

here

yuriid

(he) wants

yarsum tartadii

..

(he) draws (she) wears

Tifl

child, (m)

Tifla

child, (f)

- - - - -

r

t

At t h e Rest a u ra nt - - - - - - - - - - - -

A ro u n d Tow n

- - - - - - - - - - - -

1

1

At Wo r k - - - - - - - - - - - -

Everyday L i fe

- - - - - - - - - - - -

+

- - - - - - - -

E n terta i n m e n t

Now take a closer look at these two sentences:

. 0 ... ... ·� r-'� j!:'°""" 0 ... U: i .!.� j!:'°""" · r-', � •

r-

J.

-.).J

J.

..

----

I samiir yarsum hint. I samiir yuriid 'an _J.

yarsum.

! Samir draws a girl.

1

Samir wants to draw.

l

i

_J

You know that the verb �j.! yarsum means (he) draws, as in the first example above. But take a look at the second sentence, which contains the particle l,i 'an. Arabic doesn't have an infinitive form (to draw, to do, to go, etc.), so the way you go about saying wants to do something is to use the verb .I.:!� yuriid (he wants), plus the particle l,i 'an, plus another conjugated verb, for example �}.! yarsum (he draws.) You get something like: he wants that he should draw, meaning simply he wants to draw.

That second verb is technically in a special form of the present tense called the subjunctive, but you'll learn more about that in your advanced studies of Arabic. In any event, it often sounds just like the regular old present tense in spoken Arabic, so don't worry too much about it.

\ Wo r k O u t 2

First, choose the correct form of the adjectives in each of the phrases or sentences below, and translate your answers.

Lesson 5 : D e s c r i b i n g T h i n g s



Esse n t i a l E x press i o n s

N u m bers

Describing Things

------....-.. ----------1------------..-----------+-----------� -

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

i.

2.

3.

4.

A ro u n d t h e H o u s e

C��_,1 I J � I �_,b I J.:!.,b) ______ J 4J rijaal ______ (Tawiil / Tawiila / Tiwaal / Tawiilaat)

c� 1� ; � 1� / o� / �) ------ � hunna ______ (saxiid / saxiida / suxadaa' / saxiidaat) (o�I / J l.i..;:J l / o� / �)

_______

�1

al-hint ______ (Saghiir / Saghiira / aS-Saghiir / aS-Saghiira)

(� I� / � 1� / � / o�) _______ ..JjJI (saxiida / saxiid / suxadaa' / saxiidaat) al-walad ______

s.

c�� ; �b

'-;-1�1 al-kitaab ______ ('aHmar / Hamraa') ______

6 . (4-4.,1 I J � I ��_,b I J.:!.,b) ______ � (Tawiil / Tawiilaat / Tiwaal / Tawiila) hiya ______

7.

c�1� / o� / �1� ; �)

______

-=.Ji

'anti ______ (saxiid / suxadaa' / saxiida / saxiidaat)

al-waraqa

______

9. U!.,b I 4-4.,b I J � I ��_,1)

('azraq / zarqaa')

� � ��yi haa'ulaa' nisaa' ______ (Tawiilaat / Tiwaal / Tawiila / ______

Tawiil) io.

41D

- - - - - -

llib..1 1 (Saghiiraat / Saghiira / Sighaar / Saghiir)

� / J � / o� / ��) aT-Tifla

_______

Esse n t i a l Ara b i c

_______

- - - - -

r

t

At t h e Resta u ra n t - - - - - - - - - - - -

A ro u n d Tow n

- - - - - - - - - - - -

1

1

A t Wo r k - - - - - - - - - - - -

Everyd ay L i fe

- - - - - - - - - - - -

+

- - - - - - - -

E n te rta i n m e n t

A N SWER KEY

rijaal Tiwaal (tall men) 2. hunna saxiidaat (They (f) are happy.) 3. al-hint aS-Saghiira (the little girl) al-bint-Saghiira (the girl is little) 4. al-walad saxiid (the boy is happy) 5. al-kitaab 'aHmar (the book is red) 6. hiya Tawiila (she is tall) 7. 'anti saxiida (you (f) are happy) 8. al-waraqa zarqaa' (the paper is blue) 9. haa'ulaa' nisaa' Tawiilaat (These are tall women) 10. aT-Tifla Saghiira (the child (f) is small).

1.

or:

\ D r i ve I t H o m e

This lesson covered a lot of information that you need to know in order to describe things, namely adjective agreement. Let's take a moment to do some careful review to help you remember the important patterns. Use each adjective below, in the appropriate form, to describe the noun that follows it, and translate your answers. 1.

2.

3.

4.

�kabiir: .Jj walad, ·M·!! hayt, J4j rajul, yl.:i.?kitaab, rti qalam � Saghiir: ..JjJ l al-walad, ·-·!! l l al-bayt, J4Jl ar-rajul, yl:i.?Jl al-kitaab, J ul.1.:.l.1 1 al-fustaan J.:!.,b Tawiil: 'M I;; II al-hint, o!r�I al-'imra'a, ��I al-'ukht, o� WI al-maa'ida Lj .il.11 al-mudarrisa J



saxiid: ..:,, � I al-banaat, � �I an-nisaa', ..::,, ��I al-'akhawaat, ..::,, l.j.il.JI ... al-mudarrisaat

Lesson 5: Descri b i n g T h i n g s



Esse n t i a l E x p re ss i o n s

N u m bers

Descri bing T h i ngs

...,______________..,.____________....,______________..,..____________..,. _

__ __ __ __

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

5.

_ _ _ _ _ _

A ro u n d t h e H o u se

Ji,f 'azraq: '-:-"�I al-kitaab, rfu 1 al-qalam, �I al-qamiiS, u cil al­ fustaan, j! fl al-bayt .

6. �

"•

saxiid: .l�jf 'awlaad, J�-1 rijaa� u_,...j. � mudarrisuun, [i,,}f 'azwaaj, ;. 4T

'aabaa'

ANSWER KEY 1. walad kabiir (a big boy), bayt kabiir (a big house), rajul kabiir (a big/old man), kitaab kabiir (a big book), qalam kabiir (a big pen) 2. al-walad aS-Saghiir (the small boy), al-bayt aS-Saghiir (the small house), ar-rajul aS-Saghiir (the smaJVyoung man), al-kitaab aS-Saghiir (the small book), al-fustaan aS-Saghiir (the small dress). 3. al-hint aT-Tawiila (the tall gir[), al-'imra'a T-Tawiila (the tall woman), al-'ukht aT-Tawiila (the tall sister), al-maa'ida T-Tawiila (the long table), al-mudarrisa T-Tawiila (the tall teacher) 4. al-banaat as-saxiidaat (the happy girls), al-'akhawaat as-saxiidaat (the happy sisters), al­ mudarrisaat as-saxiidaat (the happy teachers) 5. al-kitaab al-'azraq (the blue book), al-qalam al-'azraq (the blue pen), al-qamiiS al-'azraq (the blue shirt), al-fustaan al-'azraq (the blue dress), al-bayt al-'azraq (the blue house) 6. 'awlaad suxadaa' (happy boys), rijaal suxadaa' (happy men), mudarrisuun suxadaa' (happy teachers (m)), 'azwaaj suxadaa' (happy husbands), 'aabaa' suxadaa' (happy fathers)

Ta ke I t F u rt h e r : Ara b i c S c r i p t

Turn now back to your script guide to learn how to write the letters you learned earlier in this lesson. Go to Part 2: Writing Arabic, and do: •

41l

Group 6: U"' and J:>

Essenti a l Ara b i c

- - - - -



t

At t h e Resta u ra n t - - - - - - - - - - - -

A r o u n d Tow n

- - - - - - - - - - - -

1

1

A t Wo r k - - - - - - - - - - - -

Everyday L i fe

- - - - - - - - - - - -

+

- - - - - - - -

E n te rt a i n m e n t

Pa rt i n g Wo r d s

In this lesson, you learned how to describe things with some basic vocabulary and structures for talking about your surroundings. Here's what you did: D

D D

D

Reviewed pronouns, and learned a few new ones (Still unsure? Go back to 100.) Learned how to use them with some more basic descriptive terms (Still unsure? Go back to 102.) Learned the words for everyday objects and colors (Still unsure? Go back to 10 5 .) Used words like this and these (Still unsure? Go back to 107.) Put it all to use in sentences that bring together a lot of what you've been learning (Still unsure? Go back to 111.) D o n ' t forget to p ractice a n d re i nforce what yo u ' ve lea rned by v i s i t i n g www.livinglanguage.com/ languagelab for f l a s h c a rd s , g a m e s , a n d q u izzes.

Lesson

5:

Descri b i n g T h i n g s



Word Recall Let's review some of the vocabulary you've learned so far. Translate the following into English.

�I � w masaa' al-khayr 2. �.!.li.:.. I Lo maa 'ismuk? 3. � naxam 4. � Li!JI � ! 'ilaa 1-liqaa' 1.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

-------

.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ �

-------

5.

6.

o� 4.Jj� xaa'ila kabiira

------

·.JY5J wi 'anaa duktuur. ----

�w � . sabxat nisaa' 8. � maTbakh 7.

-

------

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ �

9. � yaktub } .

10.

J

J madrasatuhum �jJ.O

11. . 12.

13. 14. 15.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ � _



J � �I 'antum Tiwaal. J;

oC:

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

cill� I rJi'I al-qalam al-'azraq �

wi 'anaa saxiid.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

,:U..U, o.:i.i haadhihi Tifla. -

J

_ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

------

�_µJI Uy ghurfat an-nawm

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

A N SWER KEY: 1. Good evening. 2. What's your name? 3. yes; 4. see you later/good bye; 5. a bigfamily; 6. I am a doctor.

7. seven women; 8. a kitchen; 9. He writes. 10. their school; 11. You (pl) are tall. 12. the blue pen; 13. I am

happy. 14. This is a child (f). 15. the bedroom



Essential Ara b i c

Quiz 1 al-' i m ti H aan al -'awwal

You've made it halfway through the course! Congratulations! Now let's see how you've done so far. In this section you'll find a short quiz testing what you learned in Lessons 1-5. After you've answered all of the questions, score your quiz and see how you did. If you find that you need to go back and review, please do so before continuing on to Lesson 6. You'll get a second quiz after Lesson 10, followed by a final review with five dialogues and comprehension questions. Let's get started! A Match t h e fo l l ow i n g E n g l i s h wo rd s to t h e co r rect A ra b i c t ra n s l a t i o n s :

1.

J4j rajul

a. woman

2.

oi.>41 'imra'a

b. family

3. �JJ zawja

c. man

W� xaa'ila

cl. son

4. 5.

&.il 'ibn

e. wife

B. Tra n s l ate t h e fo l l ow i n g E n g l i s h e x p re s s i o n s i nto A ra b i c :

1.

What's your (m.) name? -------

3. How are you?

_______________________

_

4. Where are you (f.) from? ------5. Good morning. ------�C. F i l l i n t h e m i s s i n g fo r m s of e a c h n o u n .

DUAL

..Jj walad

01..Jj waladaan

� hint

3. _______ -.io .) � ' mudarris

_



t



J I --4S' kayf al-Haal? How are you? Ready for lesson 6? This lesson will take

you from Point A to Point B in a town, so you'll learn how to: 0

0

D

0

D

Use basic vocabulary for getting around town Ask questions so you won't get lost Use basic direction phrases Express location Put it all to use in a short dialogue about asking directions Let's start with some basic vocabulary.

CB

Vo c a b u l a ry B u i l d e r 1

Tra c k: Lesson 6 Voca b u l a ry B u i l d e r 1 (Tra c k 8) C D : 2

r

r

post office pharmacy hospital supermarket

11

+

.l.:!j.J I �

maktab al-bariid



mustashfaa

�� 4.J �

Saydaliyya biqaala Lesso n 6: A ro u n d Tow n

N u m bers

Esse n t i a l E x p ress i o n s

Descri b i n g T h i n g s

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

airport hotel

address street

.)lh.o

---

taxi -

-- 1 ---

L _L

��

r

university

-

A ro u n d t h e H o u s e

-·-·-

-

___

J

oy.i o_;L�....

---

jaamixa

+

ulyl

-+------

maTaar funduq

sayyaarat 'ujra xunwaan shaarix

square

maydaan

intersection

taqaaTux

\ Vo c a b u la r y P ra c t i c e 1

Let's try a little bit of script practice with your new vocabulary. Can you match the Arabic Script with the meaning in English? The transliteration is given in the answer key to help you check how your reading is coming along! 1.

hotel

2. address

b. o l..!.

3. supermarket

C. Q

4. street 5. airport

6 . university



a. � 4-

Esse n t i a l Ara b i c

I�• J

; d. J..0..9 •J

e. a.J L4 f..)lh.o

--t - - - - - - - - - - - - t - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - At the Rest a u ra n t

A t Work

Everyday Life

Around Town

E n te rta i n me n t

1. d, funduq, 2. c, xunwaan, 3. e, biqaala, 4. b, shaarix, 5. f, maTaar, 6.

A N SWER KEY:

®

a,jaamixa

G ra m m a r B u i ld e r 1

Tra c k : Lesson 6 G ra m m a r B u i l d e r 1 (Trac k 9) C D : 2

AS K I N G Q U E S T I O N S

Now let's talk a bit about asking questions in Arabic. To ask a yes-no question, one with the answer either F naxam or � laa, use the particle Ji hal at the beginning of the question. ��� o»i jA

�) a)JI Q � Ji �� �

r

l hal haadhihi Saydaliyya? hal shaarix an-nuz� qariib min hunaa?

Is this a pharmacy;l -;sAl-NozhaS� near here:__ j J

Of course you can also ask questions with question words. You've already seen the question word Lo maa which is only used with the (understood) verb Here are some other common question words.

(what),

I--

rll

� Lo � l»i Lo �ljlo �� ljl.o ��i

-1 L

J

[-

be.

maa? maa haadhaa? maadhaa? maadhaa ----

mataa?

Who is Lucy? When?

� J.W .).o � . -�

mataa taxmal? kayfa?

How?

�JG.J I �

kayf al-Haal?

How are you?

---

.

···- �·--

----1

I

When do you work?

---------

-

-

Note that you will hear both 'ayn and 'ayna (where) and kayfa and kayfa (how). Ta ke I t F u rt h e r : Ara b i c S c r i p t

Turn to your script guide to cover yet another group of Arabic letters. This time you'll take a look at the "emphatic" consonants, so go to Part 1: Reading Arabic, and read: D

Cl

Group 7: � S, � D,.b T, and.& DH

Essentia l A ra b i c

I

I

Who?

--

I

-

--+ - - - - - - - - - - - - t - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - � - - - - - - - - - - i- - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - At Wor k

At t h e Resta u ra n t

Arou n d Tow n

CB

E n terta i n me n t

Everyday L i fe

Vo c a b u l a ry B u i l d e r 2

Tra c k : Lesson 6 Voca b u l a ry B u i l d e r 2 (Tra c k 1 0 ) C D : 2

here there near far right

r1--

left

wA .!.lwA

1...;-1-:!.} �

..)

next to straight ahead

l......J

"

J;i �

after

behind

I



before

infront of



r �i



� I.;...,! ,, •

..



r �� I � !

hunaa hunaak qariib baxiid yamiin

1

I

-r

- -+

�-

yasaar qabl baxd 'amaam khalf bijaanib 'ilaa 1-'amaam

\ Vo c a b u l a ry P ra c t i c e 2

Translate the following into Arabic.

Lesson 6: A ro u n d Tow n

N u m bers

E s s e n t i a l E x p res s i o n s

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

6 . right Z

there

8.

here

Descri b i n g Things

Arou n d t h e H o u s e

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _

_ __ _ _ � _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

�4-1. bijaanib; 2. Ji;.. khalf; 3. �) qariib; 4. � baxiid; 5. .)� yasaar; 6. � yamiin; 7. .!Ji.;A hunaak; 8. i.;A hunaa

A N SWERS: 1.

CB

G ra m m a r B u i l d e r 2

Tra c k : Lesson 6 G ra m m a r B u i l d e r 2 (Tra c k 1 1 ) C D : 2

E X P R E S S I N G LO C AT I O N

Let's go over these new words one more time. You've heard several prepositions and words that will help you describe the placement of things around you.



41/l

l I --

Esse n t i a l Ara b i c

L

hunaa

here

hunaak

there

qariib

near

baxiid

far

yamiin

right

yasaar

left

qabl

before

--+ - -

-

t ----------1-

At t h e Resta u ra n t - - - - -

-

- -

Aro u n d Tow n

-

-

-

-

Everyday L i fe

baxd 'amaam ....U l>...i

. ... . .

+

A t Work - - - - - - - - - -

khalf bijaanib

- - - - - - -



-t--

'ilaa 1-'amaam

-

- -

-

+

-

-

--

--

-

E n terta i n m e n t

after in front of

- _,____ _

behind next to

straight ahead

To ask for directions, you will also need the question word �l 'ayn? (where?). A lot of Arabic location expressions are held together by various prepositions; for example, the preposition � min (from) is used together with the adjective �) qariib (near) to say � �) qariib min (close to). Another word for from is uJ; xan, used in conjunction with the adjective � baxiid (far) in the phrase � uJ; baxiid xan (far from). You might also have spotted the preposition � ! 'ilaa (to or towards), which you heard used in the expression rl.o �I � ! 'ilaa 1-'amaam, meaning towards the front or straight ahead. \ Wo r k O u t 1

®

Tra c k : Lesson 6 Wo rk O u t 1 ( Tra c k 1 2 ) C D : 2

First, listen to the audio, which includes some questions and answers related to asking directions and getting around town. You'll hear a lot of vocabulary and constructions you've learned in this lesson. Familiarize yourself with the sentences by listening to them a few times, and by repeating what you hear. Then, fill in the blanks in each sentence below with the missing word or phrase.

Lesson 6: A ro u n d Tow n



E s s e n t i a l E x p re s s i o n s

N u m be r s

D e s cr i b i n g T h i n g s

Around t h e House

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

1. Where is this street?

�t,;l...!J I 1:ui

_ _ _ _ _ _ _

-------

2.

haadhaa sh-shaarix?

The supermarket is near the hotel.

� a..u.t>-9:-. •

----

al-biqaala qariiba min



�Li.JI !

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

3. The pharmacy is behind the post office.

� ��!

-----

aS-Saydaliyya khalf

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

4. Is the taxi here?

oft�I oJ �

_______ _______

-------

sayyarrat al-'ujra

_______

?

5. There is an intersection before the square.

. ()l�I

______

_______

6 . Is this addressfar?

tbl.l,j �

taqaaTux

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_______

al-maydaan.

.J. 1 1:ui JA

_______

hal haadha al-

______

7. The hospital is behind the university. -------------



Esse n t i a l A ra b i c

$

khalf

-------

-------

?

--t - - - - - - - - - - - - t - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - At t h e Rest a u ra n t



A ro u n d Tow n

8.

+ ----------+--------

A t Wo rk - - - - - - - - -

Everyday L i fe

-

E n terta i n m e n t

I am infront ofthe post office.

------------ maktab al-bariid. . J.i.,,HJ I �

J. &,ii' 'ayna; 2. JJ..il.1 1 al-funduq; 3. .l.>.,}.J I yli.o maktab al-bariid; 4. Ji. hal, L:.iJ hunaa; 5. .!.l l.:t.i hunaaka, J.:J �abl; 6.i:,I� xunwaan, � baxiid; 7. � I al-mustashfaa, ��I al-jaamixa;

A N SWER KEY 1.

8. l; l

J

J.

� .

'anaa, rl.oi 'amaam

CD B r i n g I t All To g e t h e r ® Track : Lesson 6 B r i n g I t A l l Tog e t h e r (Trac k 1 3 ) C D : 2

Now let's bring it all together, and add a little bit more vocabulary and structure.

1:ui � �i , ip I .61yi1 1 � . u).ll> •> 0, 1...!. � Jill.J I 1:ui

r l

� �)

u).1 1 o�-J.i ��

Ji1. uj.il 1 0 1...!.

. o.)YJ I ul.4o

,�

xafwan, 'abHathu xan haadhaa 1-xunwaan. haadhaa 1-funduq fii shaarix an-nuzha. hal shaarix an-nuzha qariib min hunaa? naxam, shaarix annuzha khalf maydaan ath-thawra. wa 'ayna haadhaa 1-maydaan?

Excusefor me,thisIaddress. am looking This hoteStl isreetonAl. -Nozha IsAlnear-Nozhahere?Street LYes, Al-Nozha street is behindAl-Thawra Square. J I

I

And where is this square?

Lesson 6 : A ro u n d Tow n

1

fl)

Arou n d t h e H o u s e

P e o p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

tbLa:i.11 � wl�l l.'.l.A haadhaa 1-maydaan baxd I This square is after the the I �a...i.s:. ., �I a- t...:.J I �) at-taqaaTux wa qabl al- intersection and be+ J ore ' - .;_r - • �



Descri bing Things

N u m bers

E s se n t i a l E x p re s s i o n s

·

I

jaamiixa al-amriikiiyya. al-funduq 'ilaa yasaar Saydaliyyat aS-SiHHa wa bijaanib maktab al­ bariid. hal 'aHtaaj 'ilaa sayyarat 'ujra?

l I

1

L_

CB

-- - -

kallaa, 'innahu qariib min hunaa.

-

I

-+-

wa 'innahaa nuzha- r jamiila. shukran limusaaxadatika.

American University.

The hotel is to the left of the Sihha pharmacy and next to the post office.

Do I need a taxi? No, it's close to here. and it's a nice walk. Thank you for your help.

Ta ke I t F u rt h e r Tra c k : Lesson 6 Ta ke I t F u rt h e r (Tra c k 1 4 ) C D : 2

Let's take a moment to review some of what you heard in Bring It All Together. You saw several examples of l.'.l.A haadhaa (this) followed by a noun introduced by JI al- (the). Remember that the article is used to link the noun in a this - phrase. Notice that the fatHa, or short a, in J I al- is dropped in pronunciation when the word before it ends in a vowel, as in the case of 1.'.l.A haadhaa (this).



Esse n t i a l Ara b i c

--+ - - - - - - - - - - - - t - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - �

+ --------+---- -

At Work

At t h e Resta urant

- - - - - - - - -

- - -

Everyday L i fe

Around Town

E nterta i n m e n t

t-

haadhaa l-xunwaan

u1� 1 1� ;•} J.4il l I� u1�1 1 �

-

this address

-

haadhaa l-funduq

this hotel



haadhaa l-maydaan

this square

You were also introduced to another verb, �!f 'abHathu (1 look for). It takes a lot of practice to master verb conjugation, so let's take this opportunity to go over the important forms. Let's start with the singular and plural forms. We'll add the ;;; forms for two new pronouns that you learned in the previous lesson LJ1j I 'antunna (you, f, pl.) and � hunna (they, f) We'll also use the suffix -u, which you'll sometimes hear, especially in more formal settings, as well as the suffix -a on the you, f., you, pl., and they forms.

,,.

PRONOUN

PREFIX

'anaa (J)

'a-

l,jj

ta-

'anta (you, m.) �i

...

...:;

'anti (you, [.) c.U I

••

huwa (he)



hiya (she)

:.r-

T

t

...:;

ya--:!

ta...:;

SUFFIX

LO O K F O R

-u

'abHathu

-u

tabHathu

}

ta-

-iina y-

I

[

"

&:! -u

·-

-u }

-l

J

,!,.;_!f

tI

t



tabHathiina

�:::

yabHathu J ll.t�

tabHathu

.�,.;..!1

Lesson 6: Arou nd Tow n

- -1

- -

N u m bers

E s s e n t i a l E x p re s s i o n s

Peo p l e a n d the Fa m i l y

L

Descri b i n g Things

Aro u n d the House

PRONOUN

PREFIX

SUFFIX

LOOK FOR

naHnu (we)

na-

-u

nabHathu

'antum (you, pl.)

ta-

-uuna

tabHathuuna

'antunna

ta-

-na

tabHathna

r-

6>J

(you, f, pl)

� j

I .

hum ( ey, m)

ya-

-uuna

hunna (they, f)

ya-

-na L

... !

� ...

o�

� yab�:���na

I

_[

Uy.:>+.!

yabHathna

� 0

Let's break all of that down so that it's easier to digest and remember. Here are a few simple bullet points to remember that will make it much easier to use Arabic verbs. P R E F I X ES: D D



All o f the you forms, whether singular o r plural, masculine o r feminine, have the prefix� ta-. All of the third person forms (not !, you, or we) have the prefix.:aa-, with one exception: � hiya (she) has the prefix� ta-.

Essen t i a l Ara b i c

---t - - - - - - - t -

At t h e Resta u ra n t

-

-

- - -

-

- - - - -

A ro u n d Tow n D

- -1 - - -

-

1-

At Wo r k - - - - - - - - - -

E ve ryday L i fe

-

-

- - - - - - -

- +- -----

-

-

E n terta i n m e n t

The prefixes for wi 'anaa (1) and (_,;J naHnu (we) are easy enough to remember, because they begin with the same two letters of the pronouns: f 'a- and J na- respectively. SUFFIXES:

D

D

,,.

J, 0 ...

Almost all of the singular suffixes, as well as the one for � naHnu (we), are -u. Remember that this is often dropped in speech. Feminine �f 'anti (you) has the suffix &-:! -iina. For the plural forms of you, and the forms of they, the masculine suffix is 6J -uuna and the feminine suffix is 6 -na. Now let's add the dual forms. There's one pronoun for the two ofyou, and one verb form. Again, since it's a you form, it takes the prefix-5 ta-. There's also just one pronoun for dual they, but the verb forms are different depending on whether you're talking about two males or two females. But in all cases, the dual suffix is u l -aani.

I

'antumaa (the two

ta-

ofyou, m. or f)



, •

l.oJ.j j

- 1I -

humaa (the two of them, m.)

L_ _



..J

ya-

1

-:!

tabHathaani

-aani - r--

ul

-aani

ul

u� .

·

-1

--

yabHathaani • l'i.;,,�� u '"

Lesson 6: A ro u n d Tow n

1

E s s e n t i a l E x p re s s i o n s

N u m bers

Peop l e and t h e Fa m i l y

humaa (the two ofthem, j) �

A ro u n d t h e H o u s e

----

I

l

Descri bing Things

ta...:;

r-

_____,,_, -

___

-aani

tabHathaani

c:,, I _j_ __

• 11.;,.. �;; (.) .

And now, you've reviewed all of the personal pronouns and all of the present tense verb forms in Arabic! ..!.}j}..o mabruuk! Congratulations! \ Wo r k O u t 2

Let's practice asking where things are. Use �j 'ayna ... (where is . . .) with the following words, then translate your answers.

1.

2.

..1.:!;.J I � maktab al-bariid

� &i Saydaliyya kabiira

8 . ..l.:!�I J�i� II



_ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ __

c:,, � 1 1.'.ui haadha 1-xunwaan

6. �l.b.o.ll al-maTaar

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ __

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ _ _

al-funduq al-jadiid

E s s e n t i a l A ra b i c

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ __ _ _ _

At Wo r k

At t h e Resta u ra nt

--t - - - - - - - - - - - - t - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - � - - - - - - - - - - 1- - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - A ro u n d Tow n

Everyday L i fe

E n te rta i n m e n t

A N SWER KEY

'ayna maktab al-bariid? (Where is thepost office?) 2. 'ayna 1-mustashfaa? (Where is the hospital?) 'ayna 1-biqaala? (Where is the supermarket?) 4. 'ayna haadha 1-xunwaan? (Where is this address?) 5. 'ayna 1-jaamixa? (Where is the university?) 6. 'ayna 1-maTaar? (Where is the airport?) 7. 'ayna Saydaliyya kabiira? (Where is a big pharmacy?) 8. 'ayna 1-funduq 1-jadiid? (Where is the new hotel?) 1.

3.

Now, give the opposite of each of the following direction or location terms. Translate each pair of words: 1.

� baxiid -:/:.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

2 . .!.JLlA hunaaka -:/:.

3. J L....;i yasaar -:/:. 4. 5.

J;j qabl -:t:.

------

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

Ji;.. khalf -:/:.

------

y.i.,) qariib (near '#. far); 2. uA hunaa (there '#. here); 3. � yamiin (left '#. right);

ANSWER KEY 1. 4

.

..i...; baxd (before '#. after); 5. rL.l 'amaam (behind '#. in front of)

\ D r i ve I t H o m e Let's practice using I� haadhaa (this, m.) and o� haadhihi (this, [.) in phrases

such as this pharmacy. Remember that you have to connect the form of this to the noun with the definite article.J I al-. First, let's try some masculine nouns. Translate your answers. Don't forget that the a in al- is dropped when the word before it ends in a vowel, and remember the pronunciation changes of the l in al-, too!

Lesson 6: A ro u n d Tow n

Esse n t i a l E x p ress i o n s

N u m bers

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

,.,

2. J.lli funduq 3.

J

4 . u l� maydaan 5. 1"•j/ bayt

6 . �j raj ul

A ro u n d t h e H o u se

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

I xunwaan u� .

Descri b i n g T h i n g s

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

A N SW E R KEY 1.

haadhaa 1-maTaar (this airport); 2. haadhaa 1-funduq (this hotel); 3. haadhaa 1-xunwaan (this

address); 4. haadhaa 1-maydaan (this square); 5. haadhaa 1-bayt (this house); 6. haadhaa r-rajul (this man).

Great. Now, let's try some feminine nouns. 1. 4>j;;:. Saydaliyya 2.

uo

.;; •. � mustashfaa

"

3. d.J� biqaala

_

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

4. �� jaamixa

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

ANSWER KEY

haadhihi S-Saydaliyya (this pharmacy); 2. haadhihi 1-mustashfaa (this hospital); 3. haadhihi 1-biqaala (this supermarket); 4. haadhihi 1-jaamixa (this university).

1.

Now let's practice some yes questions. Answer each question with � naxam, following the example written below. Then translate both question and answer.

Cl

Essent i a l A ra b i c

--t -

t-

A ro u n d Tow n

-

1 ---------+- ---------+-A t Wo r k

At t h e Resta u ra n t - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - -

- � -

-

Everyday L i fe

- - -

- - -

E n te rta i n m e n t

\.lo:!� J Jd 1 1 1.'.l.A Ji hal haadhaa 1-funduqjadiid? - .lo:! � JJ.lli l 1.'.l.A ' F naxam, haadhaa 1-funduqjadiid. Is this hotel new? Yes, this hotel is new. 1.

\�.) u�l 1.'.l.A J.i hal haadhaa 1-xunwaan qariib?

2.

\o� .S �4JI o.'.l.A J.i hal haadhihi 1-jaamixa kabiira?

3.

\o� r..s a "'·i ·�II o� J.i hal haadhihi 1-mustashfaa baxiida?

4.

��r.i.i-�:" " ·�!11 1.'.l.A J.i hal haadhaa 1-bayt Saghiir?

5.

�!S J l.b.o.ll l.'.l.A J.i hal haadhaa 1-maTaar kabiir?

6.

\ �) ��I o.'.l.A J.i hal haadhihi S-Saydaliyya qariiba?

7.

\� t; l..!J I 1.'.l.A J.i hal haadhaa sh-shaarix mushmis?

8.

\JI;£ 11 r '-4l 01�1 l.'.l.A J.i hal haadhaa 1-maydaan 'amaam al-funduq?

.

Lesson 6: A ro u n d Tow n



E s s e n t i a l E x p re s s i o n s

N u m bers

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

Descri b i n g T h i n g s

A rou n d t h e H o u s e /

ANSWER KEY 1. naxam, haadhaa 1-xunwaan qariib. (Is this address nearby? Yes, this address is nearby.) 2. naxam,

haadhihi 1-jaamixa kabiira. (Is this university big? Yes, this university is big.) 3. naxam, haadhihi 1-mustashfaa baxiida. (Is this hospital far? Yes, this hospital is far.) 4. naxam, haadhaa 1-bayt Saghiir. (ls this house small? Yes, this house is small.) 5. naxam, haadhaa 1-maTaar kabiir. (Is this airport big? Yes, this airport is big.) 6. naxam, haadhihi S-Saydaliyya qariiba. (Is this pharmacy nearby? Yes, this pharmacy is nearby.) 7. naxam, haadhaa sh-shaarix mushmis. (Is this street sunny? Yes, this street is sunny.) 8. naxam, haadhaa 1-maydaan 'amaam al-funduq. (Is this square in front of the hotel? Yes, this square is in front of the hotel.)

Ta ke I t F u rt h e r : Ara b i c S c r i p t

Turn back to your script guide to practice writing the letters you learned earlier in the lesson. Go to Part 2: Writing Arabic, and complete: •

Group 7: .b .� .�, and .&

P a rt i n g Wo r d s

In this lesson, you learned a lot of new vocabulary, and you practiced more important basic constructions. You should know how to: D

D

D

D

41l

Use basic vocabulary for getting around town (Still unsure? Go back to 123.) Ask questions so you won't get lost (Still unsure? Go back to 125.) Use basic direction phrases (Still unsure? Go back to 127.) Express location (Still unsure? Go back to 128.)

Esse n t i a l A ra b i c

---+ - - - - - - - - - - - - t - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - �

-

D

- - - - - - - - -

-

-

- - - -

E nterta i n m e n t

Everyday L i fe

Arou n d Tow n

1 -----------+-- -

At Wo r k

At t h e Resta u ra n t

Put it all to use in a short dialogue about asking directions (Still unsure? Go back to 131.)

l e a r n e d by v i s i t i n g www.livinglanguage.com/ languagelab for f l a s h c a rd s , g a m es , a n d q u i z z e s .

D o n ' t fo r g e t to p r a c t i c e a n d r e i nforce w h a t y o u ' v e

®

Ta ke I t F u rt h e r Tra c k : Lesson 6 Ta ke I t F u rt h e r ( Tra c k 1 5 ) C D : 2

You'll notice that a lot of English and French words have been borrowed into colloquial dialects of Arabic. suubermarkit

� , J� �

taksii maSraf, bank siinama

r _, I

supermarket taxi bank movies, cinema

Lesson 6: A ro u n d Tow n

fl)

Word Recall Let's do a cumulative review of the most important vocabulary you have learned in Lessons 3 through 6. Use the words from the word bank to complete the sentences below, then translate your answers into English. a. "":-'-:!) qariib; b. •" •j/ bayt; c. r � tanaam; d . .)4}1 ar-rajul; e. 4-!Lb Taaliba; f. � yajlis; g. )\Ai 'ahlan; h. � khamas 1. 2.

3.

4.

� ! -------------'ismii muHammad. .�

. Lj .WI � ------- � hiya

_______

fi 1-madrasa.

· � -------

------- saxiid.

·� ------ � �f

'askun fii ------- kabiir.

5 . . �I o_)l � �f

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_______

'ahmad fii ghurfat al-maktab.

6 . . Lj .WI � ------ � 7.

8.

baytii _______ min al-madrasa.

,, . .� L...,j ----- C;0 6-LI

'askun maxa ------- nisaa'.

·,)-'..)""' � ------ �

munaa ------- fii sariir.



Essent i a l A ra b i c

A N SWER KEY

l. g, Hello, My name is Mohammed. 2. e, She is a student at school. 3. d, The man in happy. 4. b, I live in

a big house. 5. £, Ahmad sits in the study/office. 6. a, My house is close to the school. 7. h, I live with.five women. 8. c Mona sleeps in a bed.

Now, match the English phrases and sentences with the Arabic equivalents. 1.

This hotel is new

2.

What is this?

3.

The pharmacy is in front of the

university. 4.

Where is the hospital?

5. This address is far. 6.

The post office is next to the supermarket.

7.

8.

I need a taxi. Is the airport close/near?

a. � '-:-'-=!) ).b.4.l I Ji hal al-maTaar qariib?

b . .4.J LAf l �� J.:!.;.J I � maktab al-bariid bijaanib al-biqaala. c . . � u l� l l:a haadhaa l-xunwaan baxiid. J

-

d . . o_fti oJ � � ! �u>j 'aHtaaju 'ilaa sayyaarat 'ujra. e. �l:a Lo maa haadhaa? f. . Jo:! �

J.i.j,AJ I l:a haadhaa l-funduqjadiid.

g. � U"o ·'.1 ··�1 1 &:! i 'ayna l-mustashfaa? h . . �4J I r Loi ��I aS-Saydaliyya 'amaam al-jaamixa.

A N SWER KEY:

1. f; 2. e, 3. h; 4. g; 5. c; 6. b; 7. d; 8. a

Less o n 6: A ro u n d Tow n

0

E s s e n t i a l E x p ress i o n s

Descri bing Things

N u m bers

A ro u n d t h e H o u s e

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

Lesson 7: At the Restau rant ad-dars as-saabix: fi 1-maTxam

'4>j.O marHaban! Hello! This lesson is all about food and restaurants, so you'll learn: 0

O 0

0

O

Basic vocabulary for meals How to say the names of common food and drink items Important vocabulary for use in a restaurant Key phrases for ordering food How to put it all together in a dialogue about ordering a meal First, here's some vocabulary to get you started. i � � hayyaa nabda'!

Let's begin!

®

Vo c a b u l a ry B u i l d e r 1

Tra c k : Lesson 7 Voca b u l a ry B u i l d e r 1 (Tra c k 1 6 ) C D : 2

please breakfast lunch



E s s e n t i a l A ra b i c

.>ll 1� � }

J# ;. l-ll

lI

-t

min faDlak fuTuur ghadaa'

At t h e Resta u ra n t

__...,__----4- _ A ro u n d Tow n

-

- - - - - -

-

- -

-

A t Wo r k

1 -

.-

- - - - - - - -

Everyday L i fe

l dinner � resta :r�n t --1- ----cafe- ___ - -+ _ _ --�---r--

li--



tea

-

r----f- -

l_

coffee milk sugar water menu

'-2 L!.-

--

o�

1 - - - - - - - - - - - -1- - - - -

-

1 -1--­ --r-I

xashaa' maTxam

--------i

maqhaa qahwa Haliib

;.:., i..,

shaay

- - ----+--- -------


f. J# fuTuur

1. f; 2. e; 3. b; 4. c; 5. d; 6. a

ANSWERS K EY:

Lesson 7: At t h e Resta u ra n t



N u m be r s

E s s e n t i a l Ex p re s s i o n s

P eo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

®

Descri bing Things

A ro u n d t h e H o u s e

G ra m m a r B u i l d e r 1

Tra c k : Lesson 7 G ra m m a r B u i l d e r 1 (Tra c k 1 7 ) C D : 2

TA L K I N G A B O U T F O O D

Let's review the vocabulary you learned. First, the meals of the day are:

J# 1 Jl -.

.. �

I

I

fuTuur

breakfast

ghadaa'

lunch

xashaa'

dinner

shaay

tea

qahwa

coffee

Haliib

milk

l

The drinks you learned are:

� L!. o� �

-.Lo

+-----

t

maa'

1 i

water

If you're having � L!. shaay (tea) or o� qahwa (coffee), you might ask for fa sukkar (sugar) or � Haliib (milk). Two places where you might eat or drink are: maTxam maqhaa

41l

E s s e n t i a l A ra b i c

T

restaurant cafe

l

-

At t h e Resta u ra n t

__...,__---+- - - - - - - - - - - - -

A r o u n d Tow n

1

A t Wo r k

------------

1

----- -------

+

--------

E nterta i n m e n t

Eve ryd ay L i fe

And two expressions that will come in handy in either are:

-., - -�

---

· � --

L _ �Lit1.J� Wli I

I

1

--- min faDlak

please

---- -

qaa'imat aT-Taxaam

menu



Here are some verbs that you can use to talk about eating. Notice that the verb ' Jj� yatanaawal means eat as in eat a meal, so it can be used with J_,.111 1 '' al-fuTuur (breakfast.) The more general verb J.Sl:! ya'kul is used with food items, or in this case, a location phrase.

\

1

I

I 'aHmad yatanaawal al fuTuur. . 9L.!JI '-:-'_r.5 � munaa tashrab

. �I � J.Sl:! � o





I I

>"" _L,___

Ahmad is eating breakfast. Mona ;, drinking tea.

ash-shaay.

__

muSTafaa ya'kul fi 1-maTxam.

----�- ------

Mustafa is eating at

--'- --

the restaurant.

I

1

-1

Ta ke I t F u rt h e r : Ara b i c S c r i p t

Turn to your script guide to cover yet another group of Arabic letters. This time you'll take a look at two groups, so go to Part 1: Reading Arabic, and read: • •

Group 8: tx and t._gh Group 9 : J f and J q

Lesson 7 : At t h e Resta u ra n t



N u m be r s

E s se n t i a l E x p ress i o n s

Descri bing Things

Peo p l e a n d t h e F a m i l y

®

A ro u n d t h e H o u se

Vo c a b u l a ry B u i l d e r 2

Tra c k : Lesson 7 Voca b u l a ry B u i l de r 2 (Tra c k 1 8 ) C D : 2

- -·1I ---- -

mumkin ... ?

-

"--·-·

sa-'atanaawal ...

� 6 �.

delicious

-

meat chicken rice vegetables soup bread

t -

__

_..,_ __

shahiyy laHm dajaaj

I

'aruzz

�J

khuDrawaat shuurba khubz

salad

salaTa

dessert

Halwaa

glass

kuub

cup plate spoon fork knife



'uriid ...

Essent i a l A ra b i c

. (..) l>.,jj . -

&1 �

4-5'_,.!.



finjaan Tabaq milxaqa shawka sikkiin

1

- - - - - - - - - - -

A ro u n d Tow n

i - - - - - - - - - - 1- - - - - - - - - - - -1- - - A t Wo rk

At t h e Resta u ra n t

---i----t -

- .-

-

- - -

- -

E nterta i n m e n t

Everyday L i fe

\ Vo c a b u la ry P ra c t i c e 2

Translate the following into English.

2. � khubz

_ _ _ _ _ _ __ _

3. LS,,i> Halwaa

_ _ _ _ _ _ __

J 4. o.=,, � khuDrawaat



5.

jjl 'aruzz

_ _ _ _ _ __ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

6. :L�� shuurba 7.

:t.S_,.J. shawka

8.

� Tabaq

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

A N SWER KEY

1. salad; 2. bread; 3. dessert; 4. vegetables; 5. rice; 6. soup; 7. fork; 8. plate

-...___

CB

G ra m m a r B u i ld e r 2

Tra c k : Lesson 7 G ra m m a r B u i l d e r 2 (Tra c k 1 9 ) C D : 2

POLITE R E Q U ESTS

You've just learned some important expressions you can use as polite requests in eating situations and here they are again:

Lesson 7 : At the Resta u ra n t



N u m bers

E s se n t i a l E x p res s i o n s

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

Desc r i b i n g T h i n g s

A ro u n d t h e H o u se



mumkin ... ?

Jj U5 L

sa-'atanaawal ...

;

.1:!)

t

J

'uriid ... _ _

1

May I have ... ?

-1 I

L

------i

-

I will have ... --

-

I would like ... __

Let's see some examples.

� 4.hL _,i jjl LJ.t..l:!) Ji � �4-jj l

mumkin qaa'imat aT­ Taxaam min faDlak?

May I have the menu,

sa-'atanaawal shuurbat al-khuDrawaat.

I will have the vegetable

wa 'uriidu 'ayDan 'an 'aTluba ad-dajaaj almashwiyy.

please?

1

J hal turiidiin 'aruzz 'aw I salaTa maxa d-dajaaj?

soup. I would also like to order the grilled chicken. Would you (j) like rice or salad with the chicken?

Did you notice the particle u l •an in the third example above? Remember that Arabic doesn't have to-infinitives, so to express something like I would like to order ... , use the formula (from right to left of course!):



E s s e n t i a l A ra b i c

J

I

1

Aro u n d Tow n

�� L--

.-

-

- ---.,-I

C:

yJ.bl 'aTluba

----;-

I order

J

__

-



·----

ul 'an -

·--

that

--·--·----

- - -

E n te rta i n m e n t

Everyday L i fe

J,o

-

At Wo r k

- - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - i- - - - - - - - - - - + - -

At t h e Resta u ra n t

_......,__---t

-

-r--

t-�

-

}

---

.

'

.lo:!) 'uriidu I would like

Notice the -a ending on y!bl 'aTluba. You know that -u is sometimes used with the regular present tense, unless it's dropped. The -a ending is the ending for a special form of the present called the subjunctive, which is used after the particle ul 'an. Again, don't worry too much about the subjunctive at this point in your Arabic studies, but learn to recognize it when you see it. }O i°



Do you remember the preposition � fi (in) from previous lessons? You can use it here to say things like:

al-maa' fi-1 kuub

The water is in the glass.

-�-----____j ---------�

And you already know that prepositions sometimes blend into the definite article JI al as in:

L I

_

_

�-;�Jaan

u 1�11 � -··-

�-I�· ��_

_ _

J

in the cup

J__ fi l-maTxam-r at the restaurant

And just to refresh your memory about gender agreement, the feminine form of the adjective � 8 f. shahiyy (delicious) is :ij 8 f, shahiyya. So, for example, we would say: Lesso n 7: At t h e Resta u ra n t



Descri b i n g Things

N u m bers

Esse n t i a l E x p res s i o n s

A ro u n d t h e H o u se

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

laHm shahiyy shuurba shahiyya

r

delicious meat delicious soup

\ Wo r k O u t 1

CB

Tra c k : Lesson 7 Wo rk O u t 1 (Tra c k 2 0 ) C D : 2

Listen to your audio and fill in the missing words in the following sentences. 1. This is a good restaurant for dinner.

- �� �

haadhaa

'� jayyid Ii 1-xashaa'.

-------

_______

2. I will have the coffee at the cafe.

·u+W I �

______

sa-'atanaawal

_______

3. I would like tea with milk. -----

'uriidu shaay

Jj WiL

fi 1-maqhaa.

}

':?u �)

_ __ _ _ _ _ _ _

4. The water is in the glass.

· '-:-'� ! �

------

-------

fi 1-kuub.

5. The coffee is in the cup. . 0� 1

______

al-qahwa



o.ttil l 1-finjaan.

_______

E s s e nt i a l A ra b i c

___.,. -

At t h e Resta u ra n t

___.,__ _

A ro u n d Tow n

_

-

-

- - - - - - -

-1 -



- + ---------+--- ----

At Wo r k - -

- - -

- -

-

- -

-

E n t e rta i n m e n t

Eve ryday L i fe

6. The sugar is in the coffee.

7. The chicken is delicious.

_______

shahiyy.

This dessert is for dinner. _____

-.$_,l>J I �,a

haadhihi 1-Halwaa ------

� maTxam; 2. oJ+il l al-qahwa; 3. � '-! bi 1-Haliib; 4. •WI al-maa'; 5. .j fi; 6. oJ+il l .j

A N SWER KEY 1.

fi 1-qahwa; 7. [�l!I ad-dajaaj; 8. •t.:..i.J.! Ii 1-xashaa'

CD B r i n g I t All To g e t h e r ® Trac k: Lesson 7 B r i n g I t A l l Tog e t h e r (Tra c k 2 1 ) C D : 2

Now let's bring it all together in a dialogue and add a little bit more vocabulary and structure. &o-

r l.J:J I W lj �

�.·!I b�

rW:. � lj � .a . � ,;.l..!.jj l

mumkin qaa'imat aTTaxaam min faDlak? Tabxan. haadhihi qaa'imat Taxaam alxashaa'.

'

May I have the menu, please? Of course. Here's the

l

dinner menu.

Lesson 7: At t h e Resta u ra n t

N u m be r s

E s s e n t i a l E x press i o n s

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

I 4-.tj� Jj �� L�� I . �l_,j-1.>JI

Descri b i n g Things

1 l

Around t h e House

shukran. sa-'atanaawal Thank you. I:;ihave the shuurbat alvegetable soup. khuDrawaat. I -r . '-"' liJ I d...i-�� �f 'anSaHuki bi shuurbat I su(J'(J'est the lentil soup. al-xads. 'innahaa 'afDal fi It's better in the winter. I; ;'·' I � J,JJ i 4J! sh-shitaa'. �o7 i ,. 0 � -;All right. I would ..;..J.b l wl �I .l:!� lj . u..::...> I Hasanan. wa 'uriidu . :� I 'ayDan 'an 'aTluba adalso like to order the �r-�1 1 �L>.l.1 . 1 grilled chicken. dajaaj al-mashwiyy. 'ikhtiyaar jayyidjiddan! A very good choice! The I ad-dajaaj al-mashwiyy grilled chicken is delicious. 1 j shahiyy. hal turiidiin Would you like rice or 'aruzz 'aw salaTa maxa salad with the chicken? d-dajaaj? l ,j!J . .>II 14 � 4 bI . salaTa min faDlak. wa A salad, please. And if I �j -. Lo '-:-'_,5 � 'idhaa samaHt, kuub . possible, a glass ofwater and some bread. maa' wa baxD al-khubz. .;.J.J I if '-':_ .l:!) � -.i.P}1'_4 l bi t-ta'akiid. hal turiidiin Certainly. Would you like to order dessert now? 'an taTlubii 1-Halwaa � w �I t.S_,J.>..l l � l'aan? I � 6� Jj W5L .% kallaa. sa-'atanaawal No. I will only have a ---J . -.1...!..i.l l �baL.:-�l>J4 1 finjaan qahwa bi l-haliib cup ofcoffee with milk after dinner. faqaT baxd al-xashaa'. I ·

,.

. -.

-

I

!

L



•.

h

r I



-

Esse n t i a l A ra b i c

-



,

__



I I

00

- - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - 1-

A t Wo r k

At t h e Resta u ra n t

--+-----+

A ro u n d Tow n

CB



Everyday L i fe

- - - - - - - - - - - -

1 - -- - -

E n terta i n me n t

Ta ke I t F u r t h e r Tra c k : Lesson 7 Ta ke I t F u rt h e r ( Tra c k 22) C D : 2

Okay, you already have enough knowledge of Arabic that you could probably figure out the meanings of all the new words you just heard, but let's go over them just in case: � I -

oC

,



\--

JlJf

�1; �1 1 -.r9

t



�" J-'-4 J LU.>I " 1. -



� 1:, 1 �GJ 4



ba�

�-



tL>· .l.l l c;i

-

-

'anSaHuki 'afDal fi sh-shitaa' Hasanan mashwiyy 'ikhtiyaar 'idhaa samaHt bi t-ta'kiid faqaT maxa maxa d-dajaaj

I recommend (to you (f))

l I

--+-

better in the winter all right grilled choice ifpossible ofcourse, certainly only with



-

with the chicken.

Lesson 7: At t h e Resta u ra n t

- -

Descri b i n g T h i n g s

N u m bers

Esse n ti a l E x p ress i o n s

A ro u n d t h e H o u s e

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

' Wo r k O u t 2

First, connect the English words or phrases with their Arabic equivalents. a. .l.:P'W 4 bi t-ta'kiid

1. only

b. J �l 'ikhtiyaar

2. please

c. �It.-?1 1 � fi sh-shitaa'

3. choice

d . • 11 b4 � min faDlak

4. better

.

e. .bti faqaT

5. in the winter

f. _µJi 'afDal

6. ofcourse

A N SW E R S KEY l. e; 2. d; 3. b; 4. � 5. c; 6. a

Now let's practice some of the verbs you've already seen. Study these sentences:

·Jµ 1 Jj � J.4..>. I }

-

.

. �l � JS4 �

L__ -

'aHmad yatanaawal alfuTuur. munaa tashrab ash­ shaay. muSTafaa ya'kul 6. 1-maTxam.

And now translate the following:



Esse n t i a l A ra b i c

Ahmad is eating breakfast. Mona is drinking tea. Mustafa is eating at the restaurant.

-......-----rl -

At t h e Resta u ra n t - - - - - -

-

A ro u n d Tow n

- - -

-

1

1

At Work - �

- - - -

Everyday L i fe

- - - - - -

- - - -

- - -

- - -

- -

+ - -

- -

- - -

E n terta i n me n t

1. Ahmad is drinking tea.

2. Mustafa is eating breakfast.

3. Mona is eating at the restaurant.

4. Mustafa is drinking tea at the cafe.

5. Ahmed is eating the chicken.

l. . 1.5 � 1 ":-'A .i....> i 'aHmad yashrab ash-shaay. 2. ·.)yJ.il Jj� � muSTafaa yatanaawal al-fu Tuur. 3. . �I i..} jSb .;..: munaa ta'kul fi 1-ma;xam. 4. . �I i..} l:? � I yjl,! � muSTafaa yashrabu sh-shaay fi 1-maqhaa. 5. ��.l.11 JS� ..1.4.>i 'aHmad ya'kulu d-dajaaj.

A N SWER KEY

\ D r i ve I t H o m e

Let's practice those verbs. Change each of the following sentences by substituting the underlined food item with each of the ones in parentheses. Say each new sentence aloud, and write it out as well. The first sentence means: I'm eating the meat (the chicken, the rice, the bread). Then, in the next sentences, you have the pronouns and verb forms for you (m.), you (f.), he, she, we, you (pl. m.), you (pl. f.), they (m.) and they (f.).

Lesson 7: At t h e Resta u ra n t

Esse n t i a l E x p re s s i o n s

N u m bers

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

Descri bing Things

Around the House

'anaa 'aakulu al-laHm (ad-dajaaj, al-'aruzz, al-khubz) 2.

�I '1�1 ' �4-JJI) . � I j.Sw 6.;j

'anta ta'kulu al-laHm (ad-dajaaj, al-'aruzz, al-khubz)

3.

�I '1�1 ' �4-JJI) . � I �L.; �j

'anti ta'kuliina al-laHm (ad-dajaaj, al-'aruzz, al-khubz)

huwa ya'kulu al-laHm (ad-dajaaj, al-'aruzz, al-khubz) 5.

J '" l .. � (:;..>J I ,j;�.. I , �4-JJI) . �... I JSw 0

.,,

hiya ta'kulu al-laHm (ad-dajaaj, al-'aruzz, al-khubz)

6.

�I '1�1 ' �4-JJI) . � I j.sl_; 6;J

naHnu na'kulu al-laHm (ad-dajaaj, al-'aruzz, al-khubz)

'antum ta'kuluuna al-laHm (ad-dajaaj, al-'aruzz, al-khubz)



Esse n t i a l A ra b i c

----i-1 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - -

----

A ro u n d Tow n

8.

1 - -- - - -+ ------

At Wo rk

At the Resta u ra n t

- - - - - - - - - -

E veryday L i fe

-

-

-

- -

-

- -

E n terta i n m e n t

()+iJ I c1�1 ' [4-JJI) . � I J,SL5 05Ji

'antunna ta'kulna al-laHm (ad-dajaaj, al-'aruzz, al-khubz) 9.

()+iJ 1 c1�1 ' [4-JJI) .�I 6).5� �

hum ya'kuluuna al-laHm (ad-dajaaj, al-'aruzz, al-khubz) 10.

()+iJ I c1�1 ' [4-JJI) . �I 6f5:� �

hunna ya'kulna al-laHm (ad-dajaaj, al-'aruzz, al-khubz) Now, let's try the same thing with I drink the coffee (the tea, the milk, the water). i.

2.

(,w1 ,�1 ,�L!JI) .0�1 yjll ui

'a naa 'ashrabu 1-qahwa (ash-shaay, al-Haliib, al-maa')

(,LoJI ,�1 ,�L!JI) .o�I yjl.j �j 'anta tashrabu 1-qahwa (ash-shaay, al-Haliib, al-maa')

3.

(,LoJI ,�I ,�L!JI) .o�I 6-:!-i.)..J �j 'anti tashrabiina 1-qahwa (ash-shaay, al-Haliib, al-maa')

Lesson

7:

At the Resta u ra n t

l/l)

Esse n t i a l E x p ress i o n s

N u m be r s

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

Descri b i n g T h i n g s

A ro u n d t h e H o u s e

huwa yashrabu 1-qahwa (ash-shaay, al-Haliib, al-maa')

hiya tashrahu 1-qahwa (ash-shaay, al-Haliib, al-maa') 6. (�WI ,�I ' '=' L..!.J I) .o�I �� 6->3

naHnu nashrabu 1-qahwa (ash-shaay, al-Haliib, al-maa')

7.

(�WI ,�I ' '=' L..!.J I) .o�I uy� �j

8.

(�WI ,�I ' '=' L..!.J I) .o�I �� 6.l;i

'antum tashrabuuna 1-qahwa (ash-shaay, al-Haliib, al-maa')

'antunna tashrabna 1-qahwa (ash-shaay, al-Haliib, al-maa')

9.

(�WI ,�I ' '=' L..!.J I) .o�I uy,A �

10.

c�w1 ,� 1 ' '=' L..!.J I) .o�l 6-i,A �

hum yashrabuuna 1-qahwa (ash-shaay, al-Haliib, al-maa')

hunna yashrabna 1-qahwa (sh-shaay, a-Haliib, al-maa')



Essent i a l Ara b i c

---+-----+I -

At the Resta u ra n t

A ro u n d Town

- - - - - - - -

- - -

1

1 ----------+---- -

At Work - � - - - - - - - - - -

- -

-

- -

E n te r t a i n m e n t

Everyday L i fe

Ta ke I t F u r t h e r : A ra b i c S c r i p t

Turn back to your script guide to practice writing the letters you learned earlier in the lesson. Go to Part 2: Writing Arabic, and complete: •



Group 8: t and t._

Group 9: J and J P a r t i n g Wo r d s � ! xaDHiim! Great! You've finished another lesson. In this lesson, you learned

a lot of essential vocabulary related to one of the great joys of traveling and experiencing a new culture-eating! By now, you should know: D

D D

D

D

Basic vocabulary for meals. (Still unsure? Go back to 144.) How to say the names of common food and drink items. (Still unsure? Go back to 146.) Important vocabulary for use in a restaurant. (Still unsure? Go back to 148.) Key phrases for ordering food. (Still unsure? Go back to 149.) How to put it all together in a dialogue about ordering a meal. (Still unsure? Go back to 153.)

D o n ' t forget to p ractice a n d rei nforce what you 've learned by v i s i t i n g www.livinglanguage.com/ languagelab for f l a s h c a rd s , g a m es, a n d q u izzes .

Lesson

7:

At the Resta u ra n t

fl)

l 'ikhtiyaar

10 .

�4Jl al-jaamixa

a. � shahiyy b. e' I_, waasix c. JI� Tiwaal a. Jill funduq b. �jayyid c. ;.LiJJ zarqaa' a. ;. I � suxadaa' b. �jamiil c . �).l 1 al-qariiba

1. b (a small bedroom); 2. a (a wide street); 3. a (a beautiful garden); 4. b (tall women); 5. b (a nearby/close

A N SW E R KEY

address); 6. c (a beautiful child); (the nearby/close university)



Essent i a l Ara b i c

7. c (a happy teacher); 8.

a

(delicious chicken); 9. b (a good choice); 10.c

Lesson 8: Everyd ay l ife ad-dars ath-thaamin: a l - H ayaa 1 -yaw miyya

�j �i ahlan wa sahlan! Welcome! In this lesson, you'll learn more vocabulary and structures that will help you communicate with others about everyday life. You'll learn: D

D

D

D

D

the seasons of the year how to give commands vocabulary for talking about the weather how to form negative sentences how to put it all together in a short conversation about planning around the weather As always, we'll start with some new vocabulary. i � � hayya nabdaa'

Let's begin!

CB

Vo c a b u l a ry B u i l d e r 1

Tra c k : Lesson 8 Voc a b u l a ry B u i l d e r 1 ( Tra c k 2 3 ) C D : 2

today week

-. 11 r.P

al-yawm 'usbuux



�i

,

Lesson

8:

Everyday l i fe



- ---

---·-- ----------

shahr �I summer aS-Sayf spring ar-rabiix - )I � �� I fall al-khariif l:i..!J I winter ash-shitaa' -< . weather jaww _p.---�-+--l.l W always daa'iman � sometimes aHyaanan - -- - - 1I at all xala-1 'iTlaaq J newspaper jariida -+------,-----+---news 'akhbaar J 1.i.>l according to Hasab --+ . .. ... .. � museum matHaf -- --- . theater masraH V"""'° �Uii ofa great idea fikra haa'ila - _J J___ -----------

month



I

A ro u n d t h e H o u se

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

-

Descri b i n g T h i ngs

N u m bers

Esse n t i a l E x p ress i o n s

-

\:.

-- ·

--- --·-

-

- -- ------+-



----------·

-----

----··-··-···-·····

L___

_

I

---·---

\ Vo c a b u l a r y P ra c t i c e 1

Match the English word with its Arabic equivalent: 1. summer 2 . fall



Essen t i a l Ara b i c

a. � shahr b. J>.i.o matHaf

At Work

At t h e Resta u ra n t _..._ ... _________ _

Arou n d Town

3.

- - - - - - - - - - - 1- -

- - -

1 ------

- - - - - - - - - - -

E n t e rt a i n m e n t

Everyday Life

c. � I aS-Sayf

newspaper

d. �j 'usbuux

4. month



e. �y>..1 1 al-khariif

5. week

f. OJ.:!ft jariida

6 . museum ANSWER KEY 1. c; 2. e; 3. f; 4. a; 5. d; 6. b

Now let's practice reading some Arabic script. Can you pronounce and translate these words? 1. 2. 3.

5.

WIJ

�������

�Y>i ���������LA ofa

_µ..

____ _ ___ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ __

. ANSWER KEY 1. daa'iman (always); 2.

'aHyaanan (sometimes); 3. fikra haa'ila (great idea); 4. ash-shitaa' (winter);

5. jaww (weather)

Lesson

8:

Everyday l ife

,,

N u m bers

E s s e n t i a l E x p ress i o n s

A ro u nd t h e H o u se

P e o p l e a n d t h e Fa m i ly

CB

Descri b i n g Thi ngs

G ra m m a r B u i l d e r 1

Tra c k : Lesson 8 G ra m m a r B u i l d e r 1 (Tra c k 24) C D : 2

I N T R O D U C T I O N TO C O M M A N D S

Now let's talk a bit about the imperative forms of Arabic verbs used to give commands and make requests. Imperatives are formed by adding a vowel to the beginning of the verbs, in place of the prefixes that you already know. There are three forms of the imperative:

i=-_ __ when addressing a man I USE

FORM

masculine

T

I

feminine

J

plural

when addressing a woman

when addressing more than one person

In addition to the vowel at the beginning, the feminine form also takes the ending '2 -ii and the plural form takes the ending 1_, -uu. (Note that I is silent.) Let's take the verb � � yadhhab (go), as an example. �j •l .

"I �.)· --

.

Iy.111 � I -

Q



Essenti a l Ara b i c

+

i

_l

_I

'idhhab 'idhhabii 'idhabuu

-

l j

---- - - -



Go. (masculine singular) -

----·-------.,

Go. (feminine singular)

--

Go. (plural)

--j

At Wo rk

At the Resta u rant _...,.___..,.__�

- - - - - - - - - - - 1- - - - - - - - - - - -1- - �

Everyday Life

Aro u n d Town

-

-

Ta ke I t F u r t h e r : Ara b i c S c r i p t

Turn to your script guide to cover yet another group of Arabic letters. This time you'll take a look at four consonants that you're no doubt familiar with by now. Go to Part 1: Reading Arabic, and read: •

CB

Group 10: .!.l k, J l, r m, and u n Vo c a b u l a r y B u i l d e r 2 Tra c k : Lesson 8 Voca b u l a ry B u i l d e r 2 (Tra c k 2 5 ) C D : 2

warm

�Y.J l ofa 1 �l..l

hot

j l>

cold

..1/-;1

the weather forecast

pleasant refreshing sun

i

rainy

mild, moderate

� fa

rain

strong





moon

wind



l

l

µ tl:!�

..1..;! ..l..!.

J oli�

- -

E n terta i n ment

- - -

E s se n t i a l E x p re s s i o n s

Descri b i n g Thi ngs

N u m bers

A ro u n d t h e H o u se

Peop l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

dry

jaaff

nature

aT-Tabiixa

\ Vo c a b u l a r y P ra c t i c e 2

Let's take this opportunity to practice reading some Arabic script. Translate each of the following into English. You'll see the transcription along with the correct answer:

1. 2. 3. 4.

�---�4-

��

� �l..l

��

��������-

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

5. �4 6. jl>

------

_ _ _ _ _ _ __ _

ANSWER KEY: 1. warm,laTiif ; 2. dryjaaff ; 3. sun,shams ; 4. dry,daafi' ; 5. hot,baarid ; 6. cold,Haarr



Essential Ara b i c

l

--

--11 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - -

At t h e Resta u ra n t



A ro u n d Tow n

CB

At Wo r k

-+----

E nterta i n m e n t

Everyday Life

G ra m m a r B u i ld e r 2

Tra c k: Lesson 8 G ra m m a r B u i l d e r 2 ( Tra c k 2 6 ) C D : 2

I N T R O D U C T I O N TO N E G AT I V E S

If you want to say that the weather i s not warm, you use �laysa (is not) directly before the adjective. �laysa is the masculine singular form, and •"• -.jflaysat is the feminine singular. Masculine: ..._y.J l al-jaww . .. (The weather .. .)

���:= ���

L

--- --

_ I_ .j l> �---- !

laysa daafi'. laysa Haarr.

._,I___

_ "

J11

_

__

_

is not warm. is not hot.

-

-J

------1-----·----- -----'

Feminine: ... �J.O.J l al-madiina ... (The city ...)

[-_-_._�_· 0

l.l �

. oj l>

•"•

-.jl

-

�ays� daafi'a. I

-----�

is not warm .

laysat Haarra.

is not hot.

You already know that the verb to be is not expressed in Arabic. But that's actually only the case for the present tense affirmative. To be is expressed in the negative, and also in the past and future, but we'll leave that for future lessons. For now, take a look at a few other examples of negative to be sentences in the present.

Lesso n

8:

Everyday l i fe



A ro u n d t h e H o u s e

P eo p l e a n d t h e F a m i l y

. ..l..ut.J. ..

Descri b i n g T h i n g s

N u m bers

Esse n t i a l E xpress i o n s

- . . I 1 . �'!< : � �

. _j � .Ll.J 1 . u. 11 ·.�1. 1 i.r-

!

maktabuhaa laysa baxiid.

Her office is not far.

ar-riyaaH laysat shadiida.

The wind is not strong.

al-hint laysat fi 1-bustaan.

The girl is not in the

1

garden.

With other verbs, use the particle � la (not) directly before the conjugated form. laa 'adhhabu.

I do not go.

laa 'atakallam al-lugha al-xarabiyya.

I don't speak Arabic.

Negatives can get a bit tricky in Arabic, with different negative particles and different forms of the verb used depending on tense. But don't worry; you'll get to that eventually. For now, this is a good introduction. \ Wo r k O u t 1

®

Tra c k : Lesson 8 Wo rk O u t 1 (Tra c k 2 7 ) C D : 2

Listen to your audio and fill in the missing words in the following sentences.

Essent i a l Ara b i c

-------i - -:-

A ro u n d Tow n 1.

- - - - - - - - -� - - - - - - - - - - - -1 - - - - At Wo r k

At t h e Resta u ra n t

-

-

-

- - -

E n t e rta i n m e n t

Everyday Life

Spring is warm . •

�l..l

____ _ __ _

____

daafi'.

2. Summer is hot.

.jl>

_ _ _ _ _ __ _ _

Haarr.

-------

3.

Fall is not warm.

. . . :..... 1 1 .�· 1..l _____ l.J.:! ral-khariif

-------

4. Winter is not hot. ------

ash-shitaa' laysa

daafi'.

� ;.Ii _°'. fl

_ _____ _ _ _

5. The wind is strong.

. o..l.;!.l..!.

-------

shadiida.

-------

6.

The weather is pleasant. _____

al-jaww

µ.J I

___ _ _ __ _ _

7. Today's newspaper __ ___

jariidat

0..l.;!�

_ _ ___ _ _ _ _

Lesson

8:

Everyday l i fe



A ro u n d t h e H o u s e

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

8.

This is not a theater. -------

haadhaa laysa 9.

Descri b i n g Things

N u m bers

E s s e nt i a l E x p re s s i o n s

� Iii

__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

This is a museum. -------

haadhaa

l.'.ub

-------

ANSWER KEY 1. �jl l ar-rabiix; 2. � I aS- Sayf; 3. � laysa; 4. jl> Haarr; 5. (� I ar-riyaaH; 6 . ....A# laTiif;

7.

rY-JI al-yawrn; 8. � masraH; 9. � matHaf

-

tll B r i n g I t All To g e t h e r ® Tra c k : Lesson 8 B r i n g I t A l l Together (Tra c k 28) C D : 2

Now let's bring it all together and add a little bit more vocabulary and structure. -

�an �unaa! al-jaww I

I

I

� is pleasant today. naxam, yaa Taariq, inna 1 Yes, Tareq, the sun is very laTiif al-yawm.

sh-shams daafi'ajiddan al-yawm.

warm today.

wa r-riyaaH laysat shadiida.

And the wind is not stmng.

kallaa, innahaa munxisha!



Essent i a l Ara b i c

Hello, Mona! The weather

1

--1----

l

No, it's refreshing!

I

I

At t h e Resta u ra n t

At Work

�--..__-�, - - - - - - - - - - - A ro u n d Tow n

Everyday Life

l



"'-II oJ.J.;..r;·"'-I I w �1 1,a:r;-

I

E n te rta i n m e n t

Hasab an-nashra al- �cording to the weather jawiyya fi 1-jariida, al- j forecast in the newspaper, jaww haadha 1-usbuux the weather will be mild muxtadil. this week.

I u--_j t:;...I�1 . - or.;11 � !

+-----------+--------

. J .D�

-----

Wl.i �.1>-:H � �)I .Jµ ! J')lb �I � � �j

ar-rabiix fi bayruut daa'iman muxtadil. 1

J

-

wa laysa mumTir xala 1-'iTlaaq!

.

'1·



&i:J � r� I &SJj

! �4

'-- -

wa laakin al-yawm hayyaa nastamtix bi T-Tabiix� fikra haa'ila!

1

---- - j Spring in Beirut is

always mild. And not rainy at all!

laakin ash-shitaa' But the winter is aHyanan mumTir wa sometimes rainy and cold. baarid. fi sh-shi���' 'uHibbu 'an I In the winter, I like to l ;j �f�Ii_"·II � � l � L,, L..J.>.hJ I � ! 'adhhab 'ila l-matHaf go to the museum or I 'aw 'ila 1-masraH. the theater.

�j

I

I

I I

� I

l

�I 1

_

But today let's enjoy nature!

!

- -- �: -Great idea! · ·

_ _ ____

\ Wo r k O u t 2

Translate each of the following adjectival sentences, then give the negative forms with � laysa or ,-, -.jl laysat.

Lesso n

8:

Everyday l i fe



N u m bers

E s s e n t i a l E x p re s s i o n s

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

1.

.�IJ W I al-jaww daafi'.

.

.jl> � I aS-SayfHaarr.

3

.

.

-----

.l}� ;.I•�· II ash-shitaa' baarid.

4.

. � �.} I ar-rabiix laTiif.

5

.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

------

o.l.:!.l.l. r,Li.,_; 1 ar-riyaaH shadiida.

ANSWER KEY

A ro u n d t h e H o u s e

----

2

.

Descr i b i n g T h i n g s

-------

�IJ � ¥.J al-jaww lasya daafi') 2. The summer is hot. (jl> � � I

aS-Sayflaysa Haarr) 3. The winter is cold. (J-1 4 � •l:i..;J I ash-shitaa' laysa baarid) 4. The spring is 1. The weather is warm.

pleasant. ('"'4l:J �

laysat shadiida)

�) I ar-rabiix laysa laTiif) 5. The wind is strong. CO.l:!�

•"•

-.ji r_l:!) I ar-riyaaH

Now let's practice negating sentences with verbs. Give the present negative with laa � and then translate each answer.



1.

.

._9>1.o.JI .)! �.:ii 'adhhab 'ilaa 1-matHaf.

2

.

.

�I .)! �.:ii 'adhhab 'ilaa 1-masraH.

3

.

. � I .)! �.:ii 'adhhab 'ilaa 1-maTxam.

4

.

.

� I .)! �.:ii 'adhhab 'ilaa 1-maqhaa.

Essent i a l Ara b i c

At t h e Resta u ra n t

At Work

...,_ __..,___..._ ____. _ .

A ro u n d Tow n

-

- - - -

- - - - -

Everyday Life

1

- - - - -

1

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

E n terta i n m e n t

ANSWER KEY 1. .�I �! ...,_.;. :i i � laa 'adhhab 'ilaa l-matHaf. (I am not going to the museum.) 2. �! ...,_.;. :i i �

. �I �! ...,_.;. :i i � laa 'adhhab . . �I � ! ...,_.;. :i i � laa 'adhhab 'ilaa 1-maqhaa.

. � l laa 'adhhab 'ilaa l-masraH. (I am not going to the theater.) 3 .

'ilaa 1-maTxam. (I am not going to the restaurant.) 4 (I am not going to the cafe)

\ D r i ve I t H o m e

Let's get in some more practice with verbs, including negatives. Just as you did in Lesson 7, rewrite each sentence by replacing the underlined phrase with each of the new phrases in parentheses. The first sentence means I'm going to the restaurant. (to the cafe, to the theater, to the museum). The following sentences use the other personal pronouns you've learned.

'anaa 'adhhabu 'ila 1-maTxam. ('ila 1-maqhaa, 'ila 1-masraH, 'ila 1-matHaf.)

'anta tadhhabu 'ila 1-maTxam. ('ila 1-maqhaa, 'ila 1-masraH, 'ila 1-matHaf.)

3.

(J >io.11 �! ,�1 �! ,�1 �D . � I �! �� �f

'anti tadhhabiina 'ila 1-maTxam. ('ila 1-maqhaa, 'ila 1-masraH, 'ila 1-matHaf.)

huwa yadhhabu 'ila 1-maTxam. ('ila 1-maqhaa, 'ila 1-masraH, 'ila 1-matHaf.)

Lesson

8:

Everyday l i fe



E s s e n t i a l E x p re s s i o n s

P eo p l e a n d t h e F a m i l y s.

Descri bing Things

N u m be r s

A ro u n d the House

(J;.�I �! , &-OJ I �! ,�1 � D . � I �! �� �

hiya tadhhabu 'ila 1-maTxam. ('ila 1-maqhaa, 'ila 1-masraH, 'ila 1-matHaf.)

6.

CJ >.h.J1 �! , &-OJ I �! ,�1 � D . � 1 �! �SJ lJ.J

naHnu nadhhabu 'ila 1-maTxam. ('ila 1-maqhaa, 'ila 1-masraH, 'ila 1-matHaf.)

'antum tadhhabuuna 'ila 1-maTxam. ('ila 1-maqhaa, 'ila 1-masraH, 'ila 1-matHaf.)

7.

(J;.�I �! , &-OJ I �! ,�1 �D . � I �! �� l$i

'antunna tadhhabna 'ila 1-maTxam. ('ila 1-maqha, 'ila 1-masraH, 'ila 1-matHaf.)

s.

(J;.!�II �! , &-OJ I �! ,�1 �D . � I �! u�i;! rA

9.

(J;.�I �! , &-OJ I �! ,�1 � D .� I �! �� �

hum yadhhabuuna 'ila 1-maTxam. ('ila 1-maqhaa, 'ila 1-masraH, 'ila 1-matHaf.)

hunna yadhhabna 'ila 1-maTxam. ('ila 1-maqhaa, 'ila 1-masraH, 'ila 1-matHaf.)

Now, practice the negative by re-stating each sentence with � I � ! 'ilaa 1-maTxam including '1 laa before the verb.

41l

Essen t i a l Ara b i c

At Wo r k

At t h e Resta u r a n t ____.,._ ... _.,...______,. _

A r o u n d Tow n

-: -

- - - - - - - - -

Everyday Life

1 - - - - - - - - - - -1 - - - - -

-

-

-

-

E nterta i n m e n t

-

Ta ke I t F u r t h e r : Ara b i c S c r i p t

Turn back to your script guide to practice writing the letters you learned earlier in this lesson. Go to Part 2: Writing Arabic, and complete: •

Group 10: r ,J ,.!.l, and 6

P a rt i n g Wo r d s �I.) raa'ix! Wonderful! You've completed one more lesson, and by now you should

know: 0

O

0 O

O

the seasons of the year. (Still unsure? Go back to 16 5 .) how to give commands. (Still unsure? Go back to 168.) vocabulary for talking about the weather. (Still unsure? Go back to 169.) how to form negative sentences. (Still unsure? Go back to 171.) how to put it all together in a short conversation about planning around the weather. (Still unsure? Go back to 174.)

D o n ' t fo rg et to practice a n d re i n fo rce what you ' ve learned by v i s i t i n g www.livinglanguage.com/ languagelab fo r f l a s h c a rd s , g a m es , a n d q u izzes.

Lesso n

8:

Everyday l i fe



CB

Ta ke I t F u r t h e r Tra c k : Lesson 8 Ta ke I t F u rt h e r (Tra c k 29) C D : 2

Did you know that a number of Arab countries, for religious and sometimes also civil purposes, follow a calendar that is different from the Gregorian calendar used in the United States? The Islamic Hijri calendar, or �M l �_,All i at­ taqwiim al-hijriyy, is calculated from the year AD 622, when the prophet Mohammed emigrated to Mecca. And while the names of the Gregorian calendar months in Arabic are very similar to their European counterparts-for example, � � yanaayir for January, y.. I� fibraayir for February, and CJ"'-1 � maaris for March-the months of the Islamic calendar have very different names, like r� muHarram for the first month of the year, � Safar for the second month, and Jj�I t:j:1) rabiix al-'awwal for the third month.

;.� I �! 'ilaa 1-liqaa'! Till next time!



Essential Ara b i c

WorCI Recall Choose a, b, or c to make a logical phrase or sentence, then translate your answers. 1. _,l.b.o maTaar

2.

J.J.iii l al-funduq

a. � I_, waasixa

b. � Saghiir c. � shahr a. � laTiif b. .I.:!_?. I � maktab al-bariid c. oy.i ;;_, y..;;, sayyarat 'ujra a. 4+:!) qariiba b. _pl 'aHmar c. r lAk o� ghurfat Taxaam a. O l.!. shaarix b. .::,,,".>L:!.,b Tawiilaat c. " Lij.) zarqaa' a. .>#' I al-fuTuur b. �) qariib c. � I_, waasixa a. }..:., sukkar b. u_,J.Sl,:i ya'kuluun c. �l..l daafi' a. u I� xunwaan b. [4"..l dajaaj c. � saxiid ,

3.

�� Saydaliyya

0 • -

4. � ,!,;.!i 'abHathu xan

,

--

5. Jj l.W natanaawalu

6 . � l aS-Sayf 7.

''•

JS l,:i ya'kulu

-

,

,

,.



,

Lesson

8:

Everyday l i fe

8.

w 1 al-jaww

9.

� 1 y.;j i 'adhhabu 'ilaa -

10 .

J l+> � l al-'akhbaar

a. � 6 shahiyy b. J�� muxtadil c. JI� Tiwaal J•J a. J J.j,AJ I al-funduq b. �jayyid c. �liJJ zarqaa' a. � qamar b. �jamiil c. o.l.:!# 1 � fi 1-jariida "·

ANSWER KEY

l. b (a small airport); 2. a (The hotel is pleasant) 3. a (a nearby pharmacy); 4. a (I'm searchingfor a

street)

5. a (We are having breakfast) 6. a (Summer is warm.) 7. b (He eats chicken) 8. b (The weather is

mild.) 9. a (I am going to the hotel.) 10. c (The news is in the newspaper.)



Essenti a l Ara b i c

Lesson 9: At Wor k ad-dars at-taasix : fi 1 -xamal �J W I D

D

D D

D

�kayf al-Haal? How are you? In this lesson, you'll learn:

the names of the days of the week how to use them along with other time expressions how to ask what time it is important vocabulary related to time and routines how to use it all in a conversation related to the workplace Are you ready to begin your second-to-last lesson?

CB

Vo c a b u l a r y B u i l d e r 1

Tra c k : Lesson 9 Voc a b u l a ry B u i l d e r 1 (Tra c k 3 0 ) C D : 2

Monday Tuesday

. . ... � ,

LJ:!..1.J

• ----+--- - ----

Wednesday

·-----+--

··-- - -- -----

- ----·---

l

al-'ithnayn ath-thulaathaa' al-'arbaxaa'

Thursday Friday

Lesson 9: At Work



D e sc r i b i n g T h i n g s

N u m be r s

E s s e n t i a l E x p re s s i o n s

A ro u n d t h e H o u se

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y -

- --

as-sabt Saturday al-'aHad Sunday i= � ghadan t o morrow -}� yesterday (j"-0�� al-baariHa, bi 1-'ams aDH-DHuhr noon l p l r baxd aDH-DHuhr � afternoon pl � night I al-layl r

-

-

- --

I

�I

__j___

--+-

____l_

.l.>

j� -

,

,

I

�-14-J I

--

--l-

J:!J.J I

\ Vo c a b u l a r y P ra c t i c e 1

Match the following English words with their Arabic translations.

1.Friday yesterday 3.noon tomorrow Thursday night 2.

b. � I al-khamiis c. �-14-J I al-baariHa

4.

d. i� ghadan

5.

e. p l aDH-DHuhr

6.

f. � I al-jumxa

A N SWER KEY 1. f; 2. c ; 3. e; 4. d; 5. b; 6. a



a. J:!J.J I al-layl

Esse n t i a l Ara b i c

,

- --
, �L> a.... � l... ' U"" � l... �l... ' t!l...

I



---

Essenti a l Ara b i c

-- + -

.-

-



'awwal, 'uulaa 1 thaanii, thaaniya L thaalith, thaalitha raabix, raabixa khaamis, khaamisa tsaadis, saadisa --1 saabix, saabixa -rthaamin, thaamina taasix, taasixa

-+-

+

first (m., f) second (m., f) third (m.,f) fourth (m., f) fifth (m., f) sixth (m.,f) seventh (m., f) eighth (m., f) ninth (m.,f)

At t h e Resta u ra n t

o�� ,�� ..-----+o� d..:! J L> ' � '='..ll> -

xaashir, xaashira T Haadii xaashar, - + Haadiyata xashra thaanii xaashar, thaaniyata xashra

[

o? d+i lj ' � � lj

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

E n terta i n m e n t

Everyday L i fe

A ro u n d Tow n

1

A t Work

----+-----+---_....,.._---1 -

tenth (m., f) eleventh (m., f) twelfth (m., f)

Now that you know ordinal numbers, we can take a look at how to tell time. One point to keep in mind is that you'll use o � I) waaHida instead of �) i 'uulaa (first) when saying one o'clock. To give the time, start with 4; L..J I ... as-saaxa ... (It's ... o'clock, literally, The time is ...).

. o � ly l 4; l...J I

--1-

. d+i Lil I 4; L..J I

. � l...J I 4; l...J I

as-saaxa 1-waaHida. as-saaxa th-thaaniya. I -r as-saaxa s-saabixa.

1

It's one o'clock. It's two o'clock. It's seven o'clock.

To say it's half past an hour, use � lj wa n-niSf (and the half.) To say it's a quarter past an hour, use t1J.J lj wa r-rubx (and the quarter).

I

· t1Y lj � L;J I 4; l...J I

1

as-saaxa 1-xaashira wa n-niSf. as-saaxa 1-khaamisa wa r-rubux.

It's 10:30. It's 5:15.

Lesson 9: At Work



Descri bing Things

N u m bers

E s se n t i a l E x p re s s i o n s

A ro u n d t h e H o u s e

Peo p l e a nd t h e Fa m i ly

To say that it's a certain number of minutes after the hour, use J wa (and), plus the number, followed by �l.j.i daqaa'iq (minutes). To say that it's a certain number of minutes before the hour, use �I 'illaa (to, until) . .

. �l.j.i �j � lil l � W I

as- saaxa ath-thaaniya wa xashar daqaa'iq. as- saaxa ath-thaaniya 'illaa xashar daqaa'iq

� �! � lil l � W I -�l.j.i

It's 2 :10. It's 1 :50.

By now you know how to form questions using � mataa (when), so let's review some common, useful time expressions you can use in answering questions with � mataa (when).



-

�L...

4ii"J.i

�l.j.l

,.._





� J



L I

r

Cj.J

lo w

--

� I_,>

--

----

Lu.;.J-9;; •

i�i



1-

Essenti a l A ra b i c

L - -

saaxa daqiiqa daqaa'iq sana niSf rubx tamaaman Hawaalii qariiban 'abadan

-- -

hour minute I

f

1

I l

minutes year half quarter exactly approximately soon never

At t h e Resta u ra n t

A t Work

� -_,._ I Around Town -

...._ .,___ -----1 -

_ _

Everyday L i fe

r� J5 •>

kulla yawm 'aHyaanan muntaSaf al-layl bayna SabaaHan masaa'an ----·-

b t.p.i

, � I ' 9. _ ;; . � ·-

0110

----·--

--------·----

b� a..i..o

f

--1

+

1

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

E n te rta i n m e n t

every day, daily sometimes midnight between in the morning in the evening

\ Wo r k O u t 1

Listen to your audio, and fill in the missing words in the sentences below. Notice that expressions such as at noon, in the morning, and in the evening add - (a) n to the nouns: r�s abaaH means morning, and b�s abaaHan means in the morning.

® 1.

Tra c k : Lesson 9 Wo rk O u t 1 (Tra c k 2) C D : 3

What time is it?

\ kam

_____

r-5

_______

?

2. It's exactly ten o'clock .

. LoW oY?WI

as-

______

_______

-11

al-xaashira tamaaman.

Lesson 9: At Work

fl)

N u m bers

E s s e n t i a l E x p re s s i o n s

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

3.

� lj..l �j

as- saaxa 4.

A ro u n d t h e H o u s e

It's ten past two. ·

Descri b i n g T h i n g s

____

_______

�L..J I

wa xashar daqaa'iq.

It's ten to two.

as- saaxa ath-thaaniya 'illaa 5. It's halfpast three. _______

_______

daqaa'iq.

_, �WI �L..J I

as- saaxa ath-thaalitha wa

-------

6. It's a quarter past four.

. t"'J.l � _______ _JI �L..J I

as- saaxa ar-

-------

7. It's a quarter to four. -------

�! �!}I �L..J I

as- saaxa ar-raabixa 'ilia 8.

��

as- saaxa 9.

-------

It's twelve o'clock noon. ·

------

_______

�L..J I

xashar DHuhran.

It's between two and four o'clock. ______

�WI LJ.=..! �L..J I

as- saaxa bayna ath-thaniya wa



wa r-rubux.

Essent i a l Ara b i c

_ _ _ _ _ __ _ _

At t h e Resta u ra n t

A t Wo rk

�_ .,_ _..._ .,_ __.,___..._

Arou n d Tow n

10.

E nterta i n me n t

Everyda y Life

It's approximately four o'clock in the morning. -------

�GJI .r'J> �L..J I

as- saaxa Hawalii ar-raabixa 11.

1

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

It's eight in the evening. ______

as- saaxa ath-thaamina

�������

UoWI �L..J I �������

ANSWER KEY

1. �L.JI as-saaxa; 2. �L.., saaxa; 3. �WI ath-thaaniya; 4. � xashar; 5.�I n-niSf; 6. � I.) raabixa; 7. �j rubx; 8. �WI ath-thaaniyata; 9. � 1) 1 r-raabixa; 10. b� SabaaHan; 11. t t...... masaa'an at B r i n g I t A l l To g e t h e r @ Tra c k : Lesson 9 B r i n g I t A l l Together (Tra c k 3 ) C D : 3

Now let's bring it all together, and add a little bit more vocabulary and structure.

I

·� · . t · ., _ � I : j j J..U· �- cJ

c.J;r�

! I�

1

marHaban bik fii rWelcome to our company! j sharikatinaa! shukran! hal I Thank you! Am I late? ta'akhkhart? laa ba's. daxnii No problem. Let me take 'aakhudhuka 'ilaa you to your desk. maktabik. yabduu 'anna 1-jamiix Everybody looks so busy! mashghuluun jiddan!

1

Lesson 9: At Work



E s s e n t i a l E x p re s s i o n s

N u m bers

Descri b i n g Things

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

Y'

A ro u n d t h e H o u se

I� !� yiS:_o J1

It's a big office! This is 'innahu maktab 0 i �LS:.ohij �_,.... L> kabiir! haadhaa huwa your computer, and you can use this telephone. Haasubuka wa bi - �4.Jl l� � 'imkaanika 'an tastaxmil haadhaa 1-haatif. l Thank you! I lookforward shukran! 'innanii to meeting my colleagues. 'ataTallax 'ilaa muqaabalat zumalaa'ii. . - . . .. I I will introduce you to 41J • ;;•I · - r.P .� 1 1 c:-,.'-A,;,_jJ � -:. ..!.A.o.l9 L..... sa 'uqadd1muka lilJamnx J ·t' o!� � I � lj �till �L..J I as-saaxa a..... � L..J I �L..J I as-saaxa s-saadisa SabaaHan. 4. J L....o t>'} lj �till �L..J I as-saaxa th-thaamina wa r-rubx masaa'an. ANSWER KEY

th-thaalitha wa n-niSf SabaaHan. 3 bl.,W:>



Esse n t i a l Ara b i c

. .

.

_

At t h e Resta u ra n t

_..,___.....,.

A ro u n d Tow n

At Work

_.,.__---I _

- - -

- - - - - -

1

- - - -

- - - -

- - - -

E n te rta i n m e n t

Everyday L i fe

\ D r i ve I t H o m e

Let's practice ordinal numbers and telling the time once more. Give each hour on the hour, starting with 1:00.

o..l.?-1_,.l l 4.l:WI as-saaxa 1-waaHida, � lil l th-thaaniya, ll!lill th-thaalitha, �1) 1 r-raabixa, �L>J I al-khaamisa, a.... � W I s-saadisa, � W I s-saabixa, �lill th-thaamina, �LlJ I t-taasixa, o� W I al-xaashira, o_? d..:! .i l>JI al-Haadiyata xashra, o_? �lill th-thaaniyyata xashra Now, add � lj wa n-niSf to express halfpast the hour. Finally, add t:'J.l lj wa r-rubx to express quarter past the hour. Ta ke I t F u r t h e r : Ara b i c S c r i p t

Turn back to your script guide to practice writing the letters you learned earlier in the lesson. Go to Part 2: Writing Arabic, and complete: •

Group 11: o and o

Pa rt i n g Wo r d s

.!.)j}..4 mabruuk! Congratulations! You've finished Lesson 9, which means that you

know: D

D

the names of the days of the week. (Still unsure? Go back to 183.) how to use them along with other time expressions. (Still unsure? Go back to 185.) Lesso n 9: At Work



0 D

0

how to ask what time it is. (Still unsure? Go back to 187.) important vocabulary related to time and routines. (Still unsure? Go back to 188.) how to use it all in a conversation related to the workplace. (Still unsure? Go back to 193.)

D o n ' t fo rget to practice a n d re i n fo rce what yo u 've learned by v i s i t i n g www.livinglanguage.com/ languagelab for f l a s h c a rd s , g a m e s , a n d q u izzes.

CB

Ta ke I t F u r t h e r Trac k : Lesson 9 Ta ke I t F u rt her (Trac k 4 ) C D : 3

Of course, you might also need to ask other questions using the question word

kam (how much, how many), such as:

rS

kam as-sixr? What's the price? �� l r.5 kam al-wazn? What's the weight? � 0jy 1 r5 --- -j�o)� l �jj r.5 I kam darajat al-Haraara? What is the temperature? --- ---- -!-

By the way, remember that the metric system is used in most Arab countries, so

you also need to know such words as # kiiluu (kilogram), r I� gram (gram),

� santiimitr (centimeter), and fa mitr (meter), as well as the degrees in Celsius rather than in Fahrenheit.



Essent i a l Ara b i c

Woril Recall Use the words from the list to complete the sentences below. Then translate your answers into English when you are done. a. � 8

shahiyy; b. � I aS-Sayf; c. � I. al-maqhaa; d. "":-'-:!) qariib; e. (4-aJ I aS-SabaaH; f. a;L..J I as-saaxa; g. r �j 'amaam; h. � Haliib ...

'atanaawal al-fuTuur fii �-----2.

_J 4 �L!..1 1 '-;-'>i

·---------'

'uHiibu sh-shaay bi 13.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

� _y.-.1 1

·&ilJ

al-jaww fi

daafi'. al-madrasa.

maktab al-bariid

6. 7.

c.IJ.A.ll

.

al-ghadaa'

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

-----

natanaawal al-qahwa fii

8 .J+b..1 1 .

?

hat haadha 1-xunwaan

� �!_,JI

� oJ+i.11 JJl.,Mj

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _

------

r-raabixa baxd aDH-DHuhr.

ANSWER KEY 1. e (I have breakfast in the morning.) 2. h (I like tea with milk.) 3. b (The weather in the summer is warm.) 4. g (The post office is in front of the school.) 5. d (Is this address close/near?) 6.

delicious.) 7. c (We have coffee in the cafe.) 8. f (The time is 4:00 pm.)

a

(Lunch is

Now match each English phrase or sentence with its Arabic equivalent

1. I want meat and chicken.

2. We drink coffee.

3.

I like Saturday and Sunday.

4.

It's 10 :00 am.

5. I look forward to meeting my colleagues. 6. What is the temperature?

7. It's ten to two. 8. They go to school every day.

ANSWER KEY 1. e; 2. g; 3. h; 4. c; 5. d; 6. a; 7. b; 8. f Esse n t i a l Ara b i c

�j J rS' kam daraj at al­ Haraara? b. . �Li.>? �! � til l �W I as-saax th-thaaniya 'illaa xashr daqaa'iq. c . . 6.� o..r?iW I �W I as-saaxa 1-xaashira SabaaHan. d . . �'Y.:oj ll;i l.io � ! t1.hJI 'ataTallax 'ilaa muqaabalat zumalaa'ii. e. ·�4'..>j r>-1 �) 'uriidu laHm wa dajaaj.

a. �o_;lyJI

.J.

..

;; .. ... -;

f. · r� JS a....).. ..1.o.1 1 � ! uy.A�

yadhhabuun 'ilaa 1-madrasa kulla yawm. g. . o# I '-:-1_rj nashrabu 1-qahwa. J h . . ..l.> �I r�J � I r� �j 'uHibbu yawm as-sabt wa yawm al-'aHad.

Lesson 10: Entertainment ad-dars al-xashi ir: at-tarfiih

4->.;O ! marhaban! Welcome! We are almost at the end of our course, and for

this last bit, we should have some fun. Let's go to the beach! While you're there,

you'll learn: D

D

D

D

D

key vocabulary for nature, including the beach some more plural forms of nouns key vocabulary for talking about sports and recreation how to form the comparative (bigger) and superlative (biggest) how to bring it all together in a short conversation about planning your free time So, are you ready for your last lesson of Essential Arabic? i �

� haya nabda'a!

Let's begin!

CB

Vo c a b u l a r y B u i l d e r 1

Tra c k : Lesson 10 Voca b u l a ry B u i l d e r 1 ( Tra c k 5) C D : 3

I love sea boat

-1 -

I

+

�i . -

-

rt .

J

-

i....r .i.S ·

._

-··----

f I

-

'uHibb baHr markib

Lesson 1 0 : Enterta i n ment



E s se n t i a l E x p ress i o n s

N u m be r s

Peo p l e a n d t h e Fa m i l y

�, beach r- sand



A ro u n d t h e H o u s e

-

.

running mountains

......__ -

-

forest

- J

O.)P'-!

lake river

- ---+---

4-> u... - .J I

swimming

l--

Desc r i b i n g T h i n g s

,-

>-- -----+-- � l as-sibaaHa; 2. o� buHayra; 3. �� ghaaba; 4. �L!. shaaTi'; 5. J.oj raml; 6. al, best; 5. kurat as-salla, basketball 6. laaxib, player



Essenti a l Ara b i c

At t h e R e sta u ra n t

At Work

----...P.-------------+-------------....-------------+-----------� A ro u n d Tow n

CB

Everyday L i fe

- - - - - - - -

E nterta i n ment

G ra m m a r B u i l d e r 2

Trac k : Lesson 10 G ra m m a r B u i l d e r 2 (Tra c k 8) C D : 3

C O M PA R I N G T H I N G S

The comparative (more, -er) of an adjective has the form 'aCCaC. I n other words,

you take the root consonants of the basic adjective, add i 'a to the beginning, and

'a

between the second and third to form the word. For example:

A D J E CT I V E

A_ TIVE ----·+--- � M PA R_ _______--
i_; -,,s t..z ....,._r.:; ., j":!yO 2. ·)�1 0')lS� �_,_;_; � 3. . �1 � JsT 4. ��I � u� JA 5 . ._,l>JI �J- .i.o.> i B. l.

c. i .

H ow D i d Yo u D o? Give yourself a point for every correct answer, then use the following key to determine whether or not you're ready to move on: 0-1 0 poi nts:

It's probably best to go back and study the lessons again to make sure

you understood everything completely. Take your time; it's not a race! Make sure you spend time reviewing the vocabulary and reading through each Grammar Builder section carefully. 11-18 poi nts:

If the questions you missed were in sections A or B, you may want to

review the vocabulary from previous lessons again; if you missed answers mostly in sections C, D, or E check the Grammar Builder sections to make sure you have your grammar basics down. 1 9-25 poi nts:

Feel free to move on to the Review Dialogues! Great job!

[IJ poi nts

Re view D i a l o g ues 4->jO marhaban! Welcome! Here's your chance to practice all the vocabulary and

grammar you've mastered in ten lessons of Living Language Essential Arabic with these five everyday dialogues. The dialogues contain some new material as well, which is meant to give you practice figuring out meaning from context. But of

course, the translations are provided as well in case you get stuck. These dialogues are also an opportunity to practice reading Arabic script. You'll see each dialogue first in Arabic, followed by the translation. The phonetic transliteration is given last, so try to read the Arabic script on its own. Reading along as you listen to the audio will help you develop stronger reading skills. Each dialogue is followed by comprehension questions, so you'll be able to test yourself on how well you've understood the dialogue. And to practice your

pronunciation, don't forget to repeat along after the audio. As always, look for CB .

You'll hear the dialogue in Arabic first, then in Arabic and English. Next, for

practice, you'll do some role play by taking part in the conversation yourself!

i� b.9j waqtan saxiidan Have fun!



Essential Ara b i c

Dialogue 1

..l.;!�1 ..l.4.>i �

bayt 'aHmad al-jadiid A H MAD'S N EW H O U S E

CB

Ara b i c O n l y - Tra c k : 1 1 C D : 3 E n g l i s h a n d Ara b i c - Tra c k : 1 2 C D : 3 R o l e P l ay Exerc i se Tra c k : 1 3 C D : 3

i :u.!!; 4 �i

� J W I � ! ..l.4.> i 4 �j < �. ! ..1..1" ..i.>J . I �- ,..,r. .!.L: �j . ir.)'!?"-!_ "

'

-

=. 'j- i ..;-::-:-< ..:.,u.," • �I• !'LA,i" � �� l.1A i� �1� � - � - � �..i.>J rY J) -=.ijljJ o� ">14 u) . . .

.

�..::..i l ..l.;!� I o � JSJ ..:.,..W J,ij . �..I.:!� wLS r � 'J � 1 - % · rl+-aJ I � WIJ llilJ o).J I o� �GJ � ! r l.J:J I o) � o� I Jjl.JI o� u-l ! fal · t� I � ljJb J_,J:J.1 1 Jjl.U 6� ..>�J �lj �JJ � �

,

0

,

�..I.:! � -=., lj � I I� J.ij

- ..I.:! � � I o) -=., ljj LJ?.lj f'":!.ill l l i!.!t � J! % �.il/i�J �I L).Oj �JJ � � �) �ij - � � .. t;c �.!.ll .:i.5 tj c .!L> · • .;.J9 l.A,j" j- i � " i "• � .

-

'-""'*' . .

--.u



.

�) a) �! oJYJ I 01 .l.:!'° �� 0� .ub�J � i � .

,

Rev iew D i a logues



Hello, Nabila! Hello, Ahmad! How are you? I'm well, thank you. Welcome to my new house! This is a big house! And sunny too! Yes, we're very happy here. We have a big living room, three bedrooms, and a beautiful garden. And did you make all these renovations? No, the kitchen and the bathroom were new. Look at these big windows in the dining room! This room must always be very warm in the morning. Yes, my wife and children love to have breakfast here in the morning. And is this furniture new? No, it's from our old house. But the furniture in the study is new. Is the house near your office? Yes, and also near my wife's office and the children's school. Wonderful! And also near your brother's house, right? Yes, my brother and his family live near Al-Thawra Square; it's a short walk from here. Congratulations, Ahmad! It's a beautiful house. Thank you. We're very lucky.

'ahlan, ya nabiila! 'ahlan, yaa 'aHmad! kayf al-Haal? bi khayr - shukran. 'ahlan biki fii baytii al-jadiid! 'innahu bayt kabiir! wa mushmis 'ayDan! naxam, naHnu suxadaa' jiddan hunaa. ladaynaa ghurfatjuluus kabiira wa thalaath ghuraf nawm wa Hadiiqa jamiila. wa hal faxalta kulla haadhihi t-tajdiidaat?



Essen t i a l Ara b i c

kallaa, al-maTbakh wa 1-Hammaam kaanaajadiidayn. 'unDHur 'ilaa haadhihi ash-shuraf al-kabiira fii ghurfat aT-Taxaam! bi t-ta'akiid hadhihi al-ghurfa daafi'a daa'iman fi S-SabaaH. naxam. zawjatii wa 1-'awlaad yuHibbuun tanaawul al-fuTuur hunaa fi S-SabaaH. wa hal haadhaa 1-'athaathjadiid? kalla, 'innahu min baytinaa al-qadiim. wa laakin 'athaath ghurfat al-maktab jadiid. hal al-bayt qariib min maktabika? naxam. wa 'ayDan qariib min maktab zawjatii wa madrasat al-'awlaad. xaDHiim! wa 'ayDan qariib min bayt akhiik, 'alaysa kadhaalik? naxam, 'akhii wa xaa'ilatuhu yaskunuun bijaanib maydaan ath-thawra; 'innahaa nuzha qariiba min hunaa. mabruuk, yaa aHmad! 'innahu baytjamiil. shukran. 'innana maHDHuuDHuunjiddan. \ D i a l o g u e 1 P ra c t i c e

Answer the following comprehension questions about Dialogue 1. Again, the transliteration appears separately, after the script, so use this as an opportunity to continue to build your reading skills in Arabic.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

�:i !.!!; _,i -4.>l �.lo:!� � o� � � _,i � � l ji

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

�� �' �

�o.l:!� J) � j

---

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

�J'J_,f..J I Lj� � �� � I � �J.O..>i _,..>i � �i

-----

--

Rev i ew D i a logues

----�



1. man xindahu baytjadiid? 'ahmad 'aw nabiila? 2. hal al-bayt kabiir 'aw Saghiir?

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

3.

hal al-bayt mushmis?

4.

'ayya ghurafjadiida?

5.

hal al-bayt qariib min madrasat al-'awlaad?

6.

'ayna yaskunu 'akhuu 'aHmad?

------

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _

_ _ _ _ __ __ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

ANSWER KEY: 1. J.O> i 'aHmad, Ahmad; 2 . .r-P kabiir, big; 3. F naxam, yes; 4. r l...i.J lj � I al-maTbakh wa 1-Hamaam, the kitchen and bathroom; 5. F naxam, yes; 6 ....,...,} ... qariib, close by, o.>YJI w l .l,!-0 �� .

bijaanib maydaan ath-thawra, near Al-Thawra Square

Dialogue 2

'aHmad wa muna yatanawalaan al-xashaa'

'"l..!.A.1 1 u �j� �j �i

A H M A D A N D M O N A H AV E D I N N E R

CB

A ra b i c O n l y - Tra c k : 14 C D : 3 E n g l i s h a n d A ra b i c - Trac k : 1 5 C D : 3 R o l e P l ay Exerc i se Tra c k : 16 C D : 3

. -4.>f � � � I� . '"� i:4- � �! � � � . r LAh1 1 W l.9 � ofo � ..::.i �_,sto .!.!Lili l . ..::.i 1_,yA>J I �J_,.;. .lo:!)' t.; 'I � ::J � 4J6 "· a..bL., �) �J� I �j . � I � i� o..l.:R- a..b.LJ I ! � IA ofa ,,. o � J � J..;._j l.il.o ..::..U lj · : �' ) LU.> " .I "

Jo - � . �Lo �.r< '-1.1.b.i " � . •

. •

. _;.iJ I �j .l.;!SLll � -

. �lb Wl.i � � I

..

J.

.. J o - . �1 o* u� J..?.) . 0* � �J ::-" Jo . '-1.1.b.i Ll> •



This is a nice restaurant, Ahmad. Yes, Mona. It's very good for dinner. There are a lot ofdelicious things on the menu. I'd like a vegetable soup. Or maybe the lentil soup? We can order two different soups. And after the soup, I'd like a delicious salad. Great idea! Salad's very good in the summer. And you, what would you like?

c.

.

..

l.o.ij�"

"' 1J.;.C �

Review D i a l og u es

I'll have the grilled chicken with rice. A very good choice! And let's order two glasses of water. Ofcourse. And some bread. The bread here is always fresh. And after dinner we can order dessert. I'd like some baklava and a cup of coffee. I'd like coffee, too. We'll order two cups of coffee. Certainly. And later we can go to the cinema. Wonderful! Let's order!

haadhaa maTxam laTiif, yaa 'aHmad. naxam yaa munaa, 'innahujayyidjiddan Ii 1-xashaa'. hunaaka ma'kuulaat shahiyya kathiira fii qaa'imat aT-Taxaam. 'aana 'uriidu shuurbat al-khuDrawaat. 'aw rubbamaa shurbat al-xads? mumkin 'an naTlub shuurbatayn mukhtalifatayn. wa baxd ash-shuurba 'uriidu salaTa shahiyya. fikra haa'ila! as-salaTajayyidajiddan fi S-Sayf. wa 'anta, maadha turiid? sa-'atanaawal ad-dajaaj al-mashwii maxa al-'aruzz. 'ikhtiyaar jayyid jiddan! wa hayaa naTlub kuubayy maa'. bi t-ta'kiid. wa baxD al-khubz. al-khubz hunaa daa'iman Taazaj. wa baxd al-xashaa' mumkin 'an naTlub al-Hulw. 'uriidu baxD al-baqlaawa wa funjaan qahwa. 'uriidu funjaan qahwa 'ayDan. sanaTlub funjaanay qahwa. bi t-ta'kiid. wa fiimaa baxd mumkin 'an nadhhab 'ilaa s-siinimaa. xaDHiim! hayyaa naTlub!



Essent i a l Ara b i c

\ D i a l o g u e 2 P ra c t i c e 1.

2. 3.

4.

5.

\�j .i.o..>.i &:!i \0�_, � 4 .;.J � i

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _

______

___

_

\�I � o� u..L..l l j.A

________

_

_

_

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ _ _ _ _ _

\� l � � I J,p \� I t;o .i.o..>,j "-:-'� l.'.>� ----_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

6.

\l'L.ii.J I � �j .4.>i �� 6-:!i � 1 -----

1.

'ayna 'aHmad wa munaa?

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

2. 'ayya wajba yatanaawalaan?

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

3.

hal as-salaTajayyida fi S-Sayf?

4.

kayfa al-khubz fii 1-maTxam?

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

5. maadha yashrab 'aHmad maxa 1-Hulw? 6.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

'ilaa 'ayna yadhhab 'aHmad wa munaa baxd al-xashaa'?

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

ANSWER KEY 1. �I -I fii 1-maTxam, at the restaurant; 2. •L!.A.11 al-xashaa', dinner; 3. F naxam, yes; 4. i>Lk WI..>

daa'iman Taazaj , always fresh; 5. o� qahwa, coffee; 6 . � I as-siinimaa, the movies

Rev i ew D i a logues

D i a l og u e 3 fi 1-biqaala 4.1 l.i.J

. : I�

AT T H E S U P E R M A R K E T

CB

A ra b i c O n l y - Tra c k : 1 7 C D : 3 E n g l i s h a n d Ara b i c - Trac k : 1 8 C D : 3 R o l e P l a y Exerc i se Tra c k : 19 C D : 3

Ll>,j u1 ;. � !J'-0. J l_,- .. . - ....I.> [ Ll>,j .l.O>i L.- _ ; . .r-J . < J . - .... . - ....1.> [ F .

� � .l:!_? .;.t i -=.,IJ�I � Loj . li..;..>. .

...k. WJ lJ- i> J LL>JI . J· lb.JI :uJ..:J I �- J- r ·

• - lS_ .)-'--' ;. :..._ I I L.J "' • U• i l::u- i 'b-.�� Lo..:i..)J . ;. I� . I � - J-"" W 1J- Lb Lb..J 0-. �i .JJ � 1 � [l:;.;...jJ ! F -

·



.

':? l.!J lj

. J �J� lSjl>J I �j

. a..p W l �j

· � �I I�

. � �I �111J I �j � '°:?� ! �

� .>1;1 i rt-' JjJ i rt r')U i 4j'.)lj �.J F ;.LjJ) r')U i L..o.> � �i J �J� r ')l.9 � 1 �-' J · r �WI t)!-'�I l.JbJ� � u� �� d.;?.li '°:?Y; �.; ui �j �:! .

-

.



Essenti a l A ra b i c

.

,

. �ti.? � �.F 0 i �

. 1 4-f o � uF �! . 4..J l.iJ I !

�� • ..

• !

'�

4 •.;;i ':?�; '\: jJb �u l:!_,1 '\: 4-SU ':? j ���' �

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

----

Esse n t i a l A ra b i c

6. ��� �.lJb J.O..>.i .l..I.,):! ljW ,

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _

1. hal yaHtaaju 'aHmad wa munaa Haliib? 2. hal turiidu munaa 1-khiyaar? 3.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

hal yashtarii 'aHmad shaay 'aw qahwa?

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

4. 'ayya faakiha yashtariyaan? -----5.

Ii man al-Halwaa?

------

6. limaadha yuriid 'aHmad hadiyya Ii 'ukhtihi?

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

ANSWER KEY 1. rN naxam, yes; 2 . rN naxam, yes; 3 . -,? I..:. shaay, tea; 4 . (l.A.:ij � baTiikh wa tufaaH, watermelon and apples; 5. ,)�J� li l-'awlaad, for the children; 6. r � Lil l ��I l.11 .i � � xiid miiladihaa 1-'usbuux ,

,

_,

al-qaadim, Her birthday is next week.

al D i a l o g u e 4

fi l-funduq ·· '

J �I � AT T H E H O T E L

CB

A ra b i c O n l y - Tra c k : 2 0 C D : 3 E n g l i s h a n d A ra b i c - Tra c k : 2 1 C D : 3 R o l e Play Exercise Track: 22 C D : 3

J J ..W � � \+>� OJ

·



· 6J J.)� J!.;.. l:! �I -

. LiA ri.!JI uSJ

. J:!.j..l l Jhl r � i oy.l �1.;L� .!.!�

} 6:! lj 1 J:!.j..l I J..W }

.

I ....U . 0 l..!J I .#'- d..'.JM � ·� · - b..i M

1 Jr.J I � r; L:W I � u10j Review D i a logues



.

.. q i.J;r"

·

. o_r?. W I � L...J I � �

11 �j j u j � f .� V:!"'"' 1 . � q i.J"ill c.r· oJ+S;; u � . J) l,jj j Lo,:;.'.)J

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·



·Y;tW I � �! J.ij o .l..?'" IJ � I.... �..J �

!��� ip

1· L" �J i"� u.:I)-

I·J) J 1 �. Y""'

Excuse me, can you show me the way to the souk? Continue on this street till you reach the square. Al-Thawra Square? Yes. And at al-Thawra Square you turn right and go straight ahead till you reach the hospital. Is the hospital near the university? Yes, the hospital is next to the university. And is the souk next to the university, too? The souk is behind the university, after the intersection. Is itfar? No, it's a short walk from here. But it's a very hot day. I'll need a taxi. There are taxis in front of the Nile Hotel. And where is the Nile Hotel? It's next to the pharmacy across the street. At what time do the shops at the souk open? They open at 1 0 o'clock. Maybe I will have a cup of coffee at the Nile Hotel before going to the souk. Yes, you have one hour before the shops open. Thank you for your help! My pleasure! Have a good time!

Gil

Essentia l A ra b i c

V!

xafwan, mumkin 'an turshidnii 'ila s-suuq? 'istamirr fii haadhaa sh-shaarix Hattaa taSil 'ila 1-maydaan. maydaan ath-thawra? naxam. wa fii maydan ath-thawra 'ittajih 'ilaa 1-yamiin wa 'istamirr Hattaa taSil 'ila 1-mustashafaa. hal al-mustashfaa qariib min al-jaamixa? naxam, al-mustashfaa bijaanib al-jaamixa. wa s-suuq 'ayDan bijaanib aj-jaamixa? as-suq khalf al-jaamixa, baxd aT-Taqaatux. hal haadhaa baxiid? kalla, 'innahaa nuzha qaSiira min hunaa. laakin al-yawm Haarr jiddan. sa-'aHtaaju sayyaarat 'ujra. hunaaka sayyaraat 'ujra 'amaam funduq an-niil. wa 'ayna funduq an-niil? bijaanib aS-Saydaliyya, xabr ash-shaarix. wa mataa taftaH al-mataajir fi s-suuq? tafrah fi s-saaxa 1-xaashira. rubbamaa 'atanaawal funjaan qahwa fi funduq an-niil qabl 'an 'adhhabu 'ila s-suuq. naxam, ladayka saaxa waaHida qabl 'iftitaaH al-mataajir. shukran li-musaaxadatika! bikulli-suruur! waqtan mumtixan! \ D i a l o g u e 5 P ra c t i c e

L \j4}1 .l:!� lj�

------�

2. \o.>y.i1 61� � o '!'1� 6-:!i �1 3.

4.

\�WI ._,_;L>-_, ' ! '°5 0 "·1 -





-

-----

I ,. '�II l..)J"

\J_,.....l l � r;-LJ.o.JI � �

�������

----

Rev iew D i a logues

5.

�0�� 1 -=.i�� &:!i

�----�

6.

�J.=..i.J I JJ_jj � J4} 1 Jj� l jl.o

1.

maadhaa yuriid ar-rajul?

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _

2. 'ilaa 'ayna yattajih xind maydaan ath-thawra?

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

3.

hal al-mustashfaa bijaanib al-jaamixa?

4.

mataa taftaH al-mataajir fi s-suuq?

5.

'ayna sayyaaraat al-'ujra?

6.

maadhaa yatanaawal ar-rajul fii funduq an-niil?

_ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _

ANSWER KEY 1. J_,...J I � ! ...,_.A � --4S" kayf yadhhab 'ilaa s-suuq, how to go to the market; 2.� I � ! 'ilaa 1-yamiin,

tw naxam, yes; 4. o_.r?W I �l..J I as-saaxa 1-xaashira, 10 o'clock; s . .»>JI _;Ll rl4i

'amaama funduq an-niil, in front ofthe Nile Hotel; 6. o* u� funjaan qahwa, a cup ofcoffee turn right; 3.

.!.)J� mabruuk! Congratulations! You've come to the end of Living Language

Essential Arabic. We hope you've enjoyed your experience and are looking forward to pushing your Arabic studies further along. If you've purchased

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Essenti a l Ara b i c

P ro n u n cia tio n a n d Tra n s c ri p tio n G ui d e 1 . VOW E L S A N D D I P H T H O N G S

a o in hot or e in set --

u u in put or oo in foot

LJ.O man

I walad -µ hum . 1

.i.Jj

, ,

(who) (boy)

(they)

J.W funduq (hotel)

1

·"•;: hint (girl) �l 'ism (name)

i in pit

I

� l:t? kitaab (book)

aa o in hot or e in set, but held long __

__

� kabiir (big)

ii ee in seen

9

(also as a consonant, y in yes)

uu oo in pool

)

. .

(also as a consonant, w in want)



aw ou in house or ow in brown.

'-!""

ay ai in bait or y in my

--+-

l_

�-

t

2 1aa (no)

�l 'ismii (my name)

+-"

-

.J)..;, suruur (pleasure) .:.lj}..o mabruuk (congratulations) r� yawm (day) dJ zawj (husband) •"

-

-

•j/ bayt (house)

J &:!i 'ayna (where)

_

Pro n u nciation a n d Tra n scri pt i o n G u i d e

2. CONSONANTS

I

-=.i



l

b

y

rt

\



It in take or tip

th

r-----t--

or that) -

t .)

j

.J j



the j in jelly or jo ke .)

I blowing on glasses to clean them forceful, constricted h, as if

kh

I

German Bach or Hebrew Baruch

I

Id

l

� z

__J _

.

rolled r of Italian or Spanish

l

__

z in zoo or zipper

Esse n t i a l Ara b i c

_

� masraH (theater)

-

�j 'ukht (sister) >

-

� kh amsa (jive)

1 ..,.>S; yadhhab (he goes) I o� haadhihi (this)

_

__

jl> Haarr (hot)

O.l.:!ft jariida (newspaper)

th in thu;, that, o' oth"

db

\r

�".>0 thalaatha (three) � - - ----

' Wl.l daa'iman (always)

d in day or do

_[

� lj thaaniya (seco nd)

and Yemen, like the in o or get. I J.:i.4 jamiil (pretty)

I

H

� tajlis (she sits)

s in measure or pleasure. (In Egypt O.l.:!ft jariida (newspaper)

g g I In the eastern Arab world, like



. > ·-

J.5u ta'kul (she eats)

I th in thank or think (*not th in this

II

•;! hint (girl) - 'JI bayt (house)

•-

b in bake or b it

_

�4-""1 rijaal (men)

J olj-O �imra'a (woman) ziyaara (visit) \ dJ.zawj (husband)





I

� sitta (six)

s in so or sit

s



r� salaam (peace, hello)

J sh in shoe or ship



• J 1µ shukran (thank you)

� shams (sun)

s in set, but with lowered jaw, from further back in mouth

.b

t

T

I

I

d in day, but with lowered jaw, from further back in mouth t in take, but with lowered jaw, from further back in mouth

DH th in this, but with lowered jaw, I from further back in mouth

-+

I formed with heavy constriction at back of throat, similar to a

gagging sound

t '-9

J

gh

( I jq

similar to the gargled r of the

.!.)

k

f in far or feel

l

�j 'afDal (better) � j 'aqDii (I spend)

4.+!L.b Taaliba (student)

� Tifl (child)

� xaDHiim (great) J _# DHuhr (noon)

�j l 'arbaxa (four)

o� xashara (ten)

i� ghadan (tomorrow)

oy ghurfa (room)

� fii (in) J.:w.l I al-funduq (the hotel) ..

similar to the sound of a g or a

k, but produced further back in

k in kite or keep

J.:i� Sadiiq (friend)

- J

French rue or rare

the throat

� Saghiir (small)

'0)

� qamar (moon)

�.l.> Hadiiqa (garden)

'-:"' � kitaab (book)

.!.l� hunaak (there is/are) Pron u n c i a t i o n a n d Tra n sc r i p t i o n G u i d e



J r

� lakin (but)

I

l in like or let

m

m in make or meet

� laTiif (friendly, pleasant)

I

·-

6

n h

"

,

l.:i.i haadhaa (this) � hiya (she)

h in here or happy

J



w --

y

-

--------

y in yes or yellow

Essent i a l A ra b i c

-

-

W

lli !J:

-

masaa' (evening) xaa'ila (family)

J.:!.,1 Tawiil (tall)

w in we or wool ·

.JjJ I al-walad (the boy)

r� ' al-yawm (the day)

I � yaktub (he writes) J.

-



"

glottal stop, "catch" between syllables in "uh-oh!"

-



w l 'anaa (I)

_

-

-

j � mumtaaz (wonderful)

� nax_:un_(yes)

- -------

-·--

0

I

n in no or night

� maktab (office)

-

--

-1

G ra m m a r S u m m a ry 1.

NOUNS

A. G E N D E R

Nouns that have natural gender (man, woman, boy, girl, bull, cow) have logical }

grammatical gender. Masculine nouns that denote professions (j li:.,j 'ustaadh,

}

male professor) can be made feminine by adding the feminine ending o -a (oj li:.,j 'ustaadha,female professor). Inanimate nouns are generally masculine if they end in a consonant, and generally feminine if they end in o -a. However, there are some irregular inanimate nouns that end in consonants but are feminine, such as � shams (sun.) Also, nouns denoting parts of the body that exist in pairs (� xayn, eye) are feminine. B. A R T I C L E S

The indefinite article i s implied i n Arabic, s o '-:-'l:iS kitaab can mean book o r a

book. The definite article is .J I al, attached to a noun, so '-:-' l:i.5J I al-kitaab is the book. The J l in the definite article is assimilated (made the same as the following consonant) before the "sun" consonants t-, ..!.I th-, .l d-, j dh-, J r-, j z- , u-'5- , c.P sh-, � S-, � D-, .b T-, .1:. DH-, and c:,, n- . ..;:.,

G ra m m a r S u m m a ry



C. PLU RALS

Nouns form their plurals i n one o f two ways. The first type o f plural i s called a "sound" plural and involves adding an ending to the singular form. Sound plurals are reserved mainly for nouns that denote human profession or nationalities, or inanimate nouns that are too long to follow the system of manipulating root consonants. The human masculine sound plural ending is uj -uun, and the human feminine sound plural ending is ..::J - -at (added to the singular o -a ending to produce ..::J l -aat.) Non-human sound plurals have the same ending as the feminine, ..::J I -aat.

(.)"j � mudarris (teacher, m.) �� miSrii (Egyptian, m.) 4..:;,

j � mudarrisa (teacher, [)

u_}:!yo.!'! tilifizyuun -

(television)

}

..;� kuumbyuutar (computer) oA buHayra Oake) 4 � ghaaba (forest)

u_,....

j � mudarrisuun (teachers)

uJ-:!�miSriyuun

(Egyptians)

..::J L...j. � mudarrisaat (teachers)

..::J w>:!Y.!'! tilifizyuunaat (televisions) -

}

..::J ljj�kuumbyuutaraat (computers) ..::J I� buHayraat Oakes) ..::J � � ghaabaat (forests)

Most nouns take "broken" plurals, which involve altering the vowels before, after, or between their root consonants. Broken plurals follow general patterns, but they must be memorized. The following are the most common patterns for forming broken plurals. The letter C indicates any root consonant.



Esse n t i a l Ara b i c

PATT E R N

PLURAL EXAMPLES

clj waqt (time)

.i�ji 'awlaad (boys) .::.i l.ijl 'awqaat (times) JJ uY-9 funuun (arts)

J.1j walad (boy)

'aCCaaC CuCuuC T

CiCaaC

S I N G U LA R E X A M P L E S

!) fann (art) .!l!-0 malik (king) y.is kalb (dog)

J4.j rajul (man) �� madiina (city)

d..Jj .) dawla (country)

CuCaC

J

-----

y Li? kitaab (book)

CuCuC

.!..l_,il muluuk

y� kilaab (dogs)

l --

J4-.J rijaal (men)

� kutub (books) JJ

u � mudun (cities) JjJ duwal (countries) J i-9:f ghuraf (rooms)

+

oy ghurfa (room) - J

:,1-I

'aCCuC

CuCaCaa'

'aCCiCaa'

L

__

l

(kings)

0 c.

� shahr (month)

J � I 'ashhur (months)

* nahr (river)

J * I 'anhur (rivers)

.-

�� xaalim (religious scholar) ��j waziir (minister) &.!� Sadiiq (friend)

Y-!.) qariib (relative)

o C,

" � xulamaa' (religious

scholars)

'-

lj�j wuzaraa'(ministers)

"tj�\ 'aSdiqaa' (friends) '- 4) \ 'aqribaa'(relatives)

-


· -1

.

r

I

-�

rijaal Tiwaal

tall men

nisaa' Tawiilaat

tall women

rijaal miSriyuun

[

Egyptian men

G ra m m a r S u m m a ry



I

1

kutub jayyida

good books

B . I R R E G U LA R A DJ E C T I V E S

Many common adjectives denoting colors have irregular feminine forms. I n the following list, the masculine is given first, followed by the feminine .

· - ·f .. �; � �

'abyaD / bayDaa'

· -.I Jj..:;. / J.,.:.f >-lfo / yb.il -. l.9j.)/ Jjjl

t

'aswad / sawdaa' 'akhDar / khaDraa' 'azraq / zarqaa'

>-lp /�l ..

white (m./f)

'aHmar / Hamraa'

1� 1 )-Cl

_

+

j_

J_

black (m./f) green (m./f) blue (m./f)

I

'aSfar / Safraa'

red (m./f) yellow (m./f)

C . D E G R E E S O F A DJ E C T I V E S

The comparative and superlative share one form i n Arabic, aCCaC, which remains the same regardless of the gender, definiteness, or number of the noun it

[-

modifies. The comparative lacks definite agreement.

-



--



JECTIVE

___

� ka�iir (big)

-

-

� Lo maahir

Esse n t i a l Ara b i c

-I

-

(clever, skillfu l)

[

---t

-

--

C O M PA R AT I V E

�j 'akbar (bigger)

yi.oi 'amhar (more clever, more skillfu l)

}

�. �;,'I 1 .a · '-'> 'I

I · u---

- -

-

.0,)1 � j...h3 l d....;, l,i} I

I like this better.

ar-riyaaDa 'afDal min an-nuzha.

Sports are better

--

The superlative adds the definite article .J I

jJJ � I ij-r � I

- --

_ri.4 � 1

-

'uHibbu haaDhaa 'afDal.

than walking.

al

al-'afDal

_L

i-

al-'aswa'

I

T

al-'amhar

the best the worst the most clever, the most skillfu l

5.

D E M O N ST R AT I V E S

The forms of the demonstratives i n Arabic are:

haadhaa

I�

o�

haadhihi

� ')_µ

haa'ulaa'

-

.W:J -

Jili -

+

_ )i

.!tJ

}

dhaalika tilka 'ulaa'ika

l t 1

-- --



this (m.) this (f) these (pl.) that (m.) that (f) those (pl.)

G ra m m a r S u m m a ry

J

J

j I)

The plural forms � �Ji haa'ulaa' and

>

�Ji 'ulaa'ika are used for both masculine

and feminine people. Non-human plurals use the feminine singular forms o�

haadhihi or � tilka. Demonstratives can be translated as adjectives (this book) when linked with a noun by the definite article.

-

--- -

t

·� '-:-'�1 1.'.l.i Tt:adhaa l-kitaab kabiir.

. JIJ!:> J4} 1 �� -



This book is big.

--·-----·----- -·

haa'ulaa'i 1-rijaal Tiwaal.

These men are tall.

_L

Or they can be translated as a pronoun (this is a book) when used with an indefinite noun .

. J IJ!:> J 4� �Ji �

.-=.,�_,1 � �� �

6.

_,_

haa'ulaa'i djaal Tiwa�. haa'ulaa'i nisaa' Tawiilaat.



t

These are tall men. These are tall women.

NUMBERS

r---

A. C A R D I N A L N U M B E R S

�1_, (.) •

w3 .1

-- 1 _L



Esse n t i a l Ara b i c

Sifr

zero

waaHid

one

'ithnaan

two

thalaatha

three

'arbaxa

four

___

-

-

l j

T

khamsa sitta sabxa

o_p � i> l

eight

tisxa

nine

'ithnaa xashar

� d_j'.)lj

thalaathata xashar

?'

khamsata xashar

.. .. ;;

'arbaxata xashar

0 "

��

�� � �w 6J� 6y ".>\j

i---

sittata xashar

( I

seven

thamaaniya

'aHada xashar

� �.'J·f

six

--;

xashara

� �l

..r--

five

r

ten

t

eleven

twelve i - - thirteen

1 T

f �___

fourteen

_

sabxata xashar

fifteen sixteen

seventeen

�hamaaniyata xashar

eighteen

tisxata xashar

nineteen

xishruun

twenty

+---

-

----

thalaathuun

t

thirty

'arbaxuun

forty

khamsuun

fifty

sittuun

sixty

sabxuun

t l

seventy

G ra m m a r S u m m a ry



�-�� =�--[

��

th

U.o

--+---

1 r

mi'a

milyuun

-

saadis, saadisa saabix, saabixa � lj , � lj

I



b

-+--

taasix, taasixa

�shir, xaashira

oy;.� , _r;.�

o� d..:! ..l b 'fa '=' .l b

thaamin, thaamina

J

_

Haadii xaashar, Haadiyata xashra

--···-·····•••'''""""''''"''-·----

Essent i a l A ra b i c

-

l

I

-

· -·

first (m., f) second (m., f) third (m., f) fourth (m., f) fifth (m., f) sixth (m., f) seventh (m., f)

+

eighth (m., f) ninth (m.,f)

1

tenth (m., f)



-t�a� xaashar

thaaniyata xashra



one million

-- ···L

khaamis, khaamisa

J

one thousand

'awwal, 'uulaa

� lj ' .; lj ;;jj lj ' �- lj

ninety

one hundred

l thaanii, thaaniya -- 1 thaaI�, thaaiitha --r j· raabix, raabixa

�_,i , Jji

4... - ... b '

-

+

'alf

B. ORDI NAL N U M BERS

eighty

..

... ..... . ,, .. ,_

eleventh (m., f) twelfth (m., f) -

-·-----

-�

7.

Q U E ST I O N WO R D S/ I N T E R R O G AT I V E S

� I�� •

LJ:!I•

� �i �

LJ.O .

f -

8.



--

-

l� W

, -:ijS-

- - -i --

-

maa maadhaa

-I-

i-

_J

_=J-�



� .

-

t4

� Jl

� �) �:;

t j

--

min 'ayn(a) man mataa -

limaadhaa

--

--

kayf(a)

- - -

min fii xinda maxa xalaa 'ilaa qariib min taHta

-

where?

tr

I

from where? who? when?

--

how?

I



] why? (literallyifor what?)

--



I

what? (before a verb)

'ayn(a)

CO M M O N P R E P O S I T I O N S



what? (before a noun)

-1

I

I

9. V E R BS A. T H E PRESENT TENSE

There are two main tenses i n Arabic, the past and the present. The present tense is conjugated with both prefixes and suffixes, and a vowel between the second and third root consonant that must be memorized for each verb. Dictionaries will indicate this present tense vowel. There is no infinitive form in Arabic, so the third person singular of the past tense is usually used as the basic form of the verb in dictionaries, as it is the simplest form. ------------

---

PRONOUN

L,;j 'anaa (I)

J

-i

�j 'anti (you, f)

· · : : ( : �: ___ t:;:::

----

�I 'antumaa (the two ofyou, _ _

J '

f-

-, - --�

-

LJ1.i l

:;; _. o ;:

Essenti a l A ra b i c

- ---

-u

-:!

---+

ya-

---..-· .........-.....

_--��tl-

_j na-

-

-

-

-- - - - --

&:! -iina J

-u

J

-u

..:; ta...J ta-

.) I-

-

-

or f)

m.

'antunna (you, f, pl)

------

Q

n

-

-u

J

ul -aani --- -

J

-

----

..:; ta..:; ta-

lI

-u

Z.,_, -uuna Z., -na

I

� I ,

___

-I I

j I

--1 '

- -


'anaa 'afxalu

hum yafxaluuna hunna yafxalna

1

\

+

+

we do you (m. pl) do you (fpl) do -

they (m) do they (j) do

humaa yafxalaani

the two of them (m) do

humaa tafxalaani

the two of them (j) do

G ra m m a r S u m m a ry

1

� 1 •

B . T H E PA ST T E N S E

The past tense i s conjugated with a short rarely an

-i-)

+ 'anaa(I) -

between the root consonants (and

and a set of endings that change depending on the person. There is

no prefix in the past tense. r---

-a-

PR O N O U N

-- - -

PR EF l X





----____s_ u ;! I X

=

t u � I . 'anta (you, m.) t a 1 �l'anti (you, f.)---1 --- -- -ti -a huwa (he) 1 L hiy_.a (she). .. ..::.a.. -at i· t .:tumaa ,t umaa - h t.Zh, ofyou, orf.) 1 � : tw_onaHnu( J n aa w e ) � _J--t -tum l I �l 'antum-(you, pl.) 'antunna (you, f., pl.) j_ -tunna -uu rA hum (they, m.) 6-na hunna (they, f.) a a �humaa (two ofthem, m.) r a taa �humaa I (two ofthem, f.) L I Lii

..s..; 1

_

--·-·---

r-- ---------+---�

.

_ _

� -

--+-I

_

Li -

c,5Jf

C,,A

-

W

-

·-···---

i.:.i

J•

�·

-·-

6

------

--+

i

p}

(jj ;;;; ,1. 0

1_, -



I-

Lf-

__



Essenti a l A ra b i c

_

__



.

Here is the entire past tense conjugation of � yafxalu (do/does).

��

I-

f=1.

I-

I

'anaa faxaltu 'anta faxalta 'anti faxalti huwa faxala hiya faxalat

� ,!,! Lilif � -- --- io1i �

L

-

'antumaa faxaltumaa naHnu faxalnaa

r

_._

1--I - ----

t

I did you (m.) did you (f) did he did she did the two ofyou did we did

--- ---�

you (m. pl) did ;;i

JO

..

;;i

-

JI O '

&ll.d U I

you (f pl.) did

,µ �

&W � 0

...

;;i J.

� L4A

LiW

L4A

---1

- -