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Liturgical Presidency
 9781463219536

Table of contents :
CONTENTS
AUTHOR'S ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Introduction
1. Recent Liturgical Provision
2. The Directory
3. The Enquiry: Formation
4. The Enquiry: The Seminaries
5. The Enquiry: The Presidents
6. The Enquiry: The Celebrations
7. The Conclusion
Appendix 1
Appendix 2
Appendix 3

Citation preview

Liturgical Presidency

Gorgias Liturgical Studies

25

This series is intended to provide a venue for studies about liturgies as well as books containing various liturgies. Making liturgical studies available to those who wish to learn more about their own worship and practice or about the traditions of other religious groups, this series includes works on service music, the daily offices, services for special occasions, and the sacraments.

Liturgical Presidency

Paul James

1 gorgias press 2010

Gorgias Press LLC, 180 Centennial Ave., Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA www.gorgiaspress.com Copyright © 2010 by Gorgias Press LLC Originally published in All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise without the prior written permission of Gorgias Press LLC. 2010

1

ISBN 978-1-60724-376-2

ISSN 1937-3252

Published first in the U.K. by Grove Books, 1993.

Printed in the United States of America

Liturgical Presidency

by Paul James Vicar of St. Saviour's, Walthamstow

CONTENTS C H A P 1ER

Introduction

PAGE

5

1. Recent Liturgical Provision

6

2. The Directory

9

3. The Enquiry: Formation

13

4. The Enquiry: The Seminars

15

5. The Enquiry: The President

19

6. The Enquiry: The Celebrations

30

7. The Conclusion

40

Appendices

SO

AUTHOR'S ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 1 wish to record my thanks to Westminster College, Oxford, for accepting me as a student for the Degree of Master of Arts in Applied Theology, where tnis work was encouraged, supervised and accepted. 1 am deeply grateful to my colleagues, both past and present, to the people in the parishes where I have served. For they have helped form me in liturgy. May that process long continue.

CONTENTS C H A P 1ER

Introduction

PAGE

5

1. Recent Liturgical Provision

6

2. The Directory

9

3. The Enquiry: Formation

13

4. The Enquiry: The Seminars

15

5. The Enquiry: The President

19

6. The Enquiry: The Celebrations

30

7. The Conclusion

40

Appendices

SO

AUTHOR'S ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 1 wish to record my thanks to Westminster College, Oxford, for accepting me as a student for the Degree of Master of Arts in Applied Theology, where tnis work was encouraged, supervised and accepted. 1 am deeply grateful to my colleagues, both past and present, to the people in the parishes where I have served. For they have helped form me in liturgy. May that process long continue.

Introduction The deliberate use of the title 'President' for the celebrant of the eucharist in the modern language rites of the Church of England demonstrates a change in understanding of not only the role of the priest/bishop, but of the whole People of God in the liturgical assembly. It is a recovery of the earliest tradition in the Christian liturgy. This Study notes the recent documents produced by the Liturgical Commission of the Church of England, and goes on to examine the Directory and socalled 'Directory Approach' to worship. The Study asks whether the Church is training ordinands how to use the many alternative texts now available. Firsthand experience by visits to parish clergy and observation of presidency at the eucharist is distilled and conclusions are drawn. It will be demonstrated that there are such things as good presidential skills. The decline of presidency at the eucharist began around the eighth century or even earlier. The causes were many and various. Bradshaw lists them as the movement from charism to office1; the clericalism of liturgical functions2; and the move from corporate to individual presidency.3 To these factors causes could be added: the continued use of Latin in the West; the dying out of singing (except in the monastic houses); the altering of the rite ana saying of the most solemn parts silently; the infiltration of the president's private devotions into the rite coupled with his turning away from the people to celebrate. These were major factors in losing the sense of community in the celebration of the eucharist.4 The recovery of the principle of active participation of every member of the Church in the eucharistie action is one of the fruits of the Liturgical Movement in the twentieth century, sixteenth century attempts at reform and renewal in the Church of England (vernacular Prayer Books), and in the Roman Church (revised rites, but still in Latin), failed to reverse the trend of clericalism. The late twentieth century revisions and reforms have started to encourage the active participation of each member of the Christian community. The word 'preside' demands the idea of a cooperation. The eucharist is a cooperative assembly. The deliberate use of the word 'president' is a signal that someone is to preside over the euchanstic rite and that others are to share in its action. It is no longer a solo performance.

1

2 3 4

Paul Bradshaw, Liturgical Presidency In The Early Church, (Grove Liturgical Study no. 36, Grove Books, Nottingham, 1983), p.9.

ibid., p. 15. ibid., p.21.

J. B. O'Connell. Active Sharing pp.8-10.

in Public Worship (Rums & Oates, London. 1964),

Recent Liturgical Provision

5

1. Recent Liturgical Provision The Church of England's early attempts at Prayer Book (therefore liturgical) Reform had not been successful. This history is well documented. In November 1980, The Alternative Service Book 1980 (ASB) was authorized under the provisions of the Church of England (Worship and Doctrine) Measure 1974. This Measure, which has the full effect of an Act of Parliament, gives permanent power to the General Synod of the Church of England to authorize services alternative and additional to those in The Book of Common Prayer 1662 (BCP).1 ASB became the first fully authorized alternative to BCP in England, and derived its legal status from the Worship and Doctrine Measure 1974. BCP is the standard of doctrine—the alternatives have to be measured against that standard. Much the same situation exists with the Latin edition of the Missal of Paul VI which is described as the editio typica. In fact each rite of the Roman Church has an editio typica. Against this all national vernacular translations and variations are measured for orthodoxy, though there never has been an expectation that vernacular texts will be word-for-word translations. 2 Under the pressure to provide a book containing the authorized alternatives, and the peculiar, if not bizarre, constitution of the General Synod, which allows the Synod to revise the texts word byword if it so decides, there were a number of notable omissions in liturgical provision. What many people imagined was the end of liturgical reform and experiment, at least for a time, t u m e a o u t to be the beginning of a creative period of liturgical revision and provision. Happily for the Church of England, and one hopes for other Christian communities, this process of providing alternative and supplemental texts continues. An interesting by-product of this continuing generation of texts is the breaking down of that isolationist tendency within the Church of England, which is so damaging to its mission. In the years since ASB appeared, the following supplemental texts, in the same style of English, have been produced by the Church of England Liturgical Commission, and are in use. 1983 saw the authorization of Ministry to the Sick covering: Communion with the Sick, Laying on of Hands with Prayer and Anointing, Commendation at the Time of Death and Prayers for use with the Sick. The House of Bishops of the Church of England commended for use (and therefore very nearly authorized): Services of Prayer and Dedication after Civil Marriage-, in 1984 Lent, Holy Week and Easter: Services and Prayers; Night Prayer: A Late Evening Service; Funeral Servicefor a Child Dying Near the Time of Birth-, Ministry at the Time of Death-, and in 1990 The Promise of His Glory. ('Commendation' is a device used to promote texts additional to The ASB and BCP, which avoids the time- and money-consuming procedures of full authorization by General Synod). At the 1

2

6

Public Worship in the Church of England, 5 th Edition (General Synod of the Church of England, London, 1986). A. Chapungco, Liturgies of the Future, (Paulist Press, NY, 1989) p. 18.

Liturgical Presidency

time o f writing Patterns for Worship, though published by the Church o f England Liturgical C o m m i s s i o n in 1989, is still under discussion before authorization. M o s t o f the texts are usable under existing C a n o n Law, rubric, or the secular legal doctrine o f 'necessity'. 1 A feature o f the modern language eucharistic rite in ASB is the latitude allowed f o r the president o f the rite in using alternative texts. E m b e d d e d in the 'Notes', which have the same function as rubrics in older rites, and in the text o f T h e O r d e r for H o l y C o m m u n i o n Rite A' are t h e directions to use 'other suitable words'2, o r 'other appropriate words. '3 Liturgical options are highlighted in the R o m a n Rite with the phrases de more (ordinarily), pro opportunitate (as the occasion warrants), and iis quae laudahiliter fiunt (those things which are fittingly done). Teachers o f liturgy are urged to point these out and the freedoms they enjoy. 4 At the same time as publication o f A S B , the first unofficial supplemental texts appeared. O n e o f the first liturgical entrepreneurs was David Silk. Silk's Prayers for Use at the Alternative Services was published in 1980. H e successfully provides much material, both 'suitable' and 'appropriate' for the eucharistic rite.5 M u c h o f Silk's material was to be used four years later by the next Liturgical C o m m i s s i o n in Lent Holy Week and Easter: Service and Prayers as was his The Office of Compline—An Alternative Order.6 Silk continued to publish unofficial texts and his In Penitence and Faith—Texts for use with the Alternative Services7 has influenced the penitential provision both in Patterns for Worship8 and The Promise of his Glory.9 M a n y other publications guided readers in the areas o f ' o t h e r appropriate words', especially in the section 'The Intercession'. O n e o f the most interesting p o s t - 1 9 8 0 unofficial publications was the Alcuin Club's The Cloud of Witnesses.10 This provides propers for the celebration o f m i n o r saints and holy men and w o m e n in the ASB Calendar. It is interesting to note the then Archbishop o f Canterbury's c o m m e n t in the preface welcoming the e n r i c h m e n t o f the provisions o f ASB only three years after publication. 1 1 Amongst Evangelical Anglicans Church Family Worship12 has attempted to c o m b i n e both the official texts o f ASB and unofficial supplemental texts. It too has influenced the contents o f Patterns for Worship. E. Garth Moore and Timothy Briden, Moore's Introduction to English Canon Law. 2nd Edition (Mowbray, London, 1985), p.70. 2 ASB, p.117. 3 ibid., pp.119, 120, 124, 128. 129. 144. 4 Liturgical Formation in Seminaries (A Commentary). (National Conference of Catholic Bishops, Washington DC, 1984), p.83. ! David Silk, Prayers for Use at the Alternative Services, (Mowbrav, London, 1980), pp.111120. 6 (Mowbray, London, 1980). 7 (Mowbray, London, 1988). 8 (CHP, London, 1989). 9 (CHP/Mowbray, London, 1991). 10 (Collins Liturgical Publications, London, 1982). " ibid., p.9. 12 Michael Perry (ed.). Church Family Worship. (Hodderand Stoughton, London, 1986). 1

Recent Liturgical

Provision

7

It can be seen that the choice of texts is very large, and still appears to be increasing. 1992 saw the publication of Celebrating Common Prayer.1 This joint venture by the Anglican Francisans and some members of the Church of England Liturgical Commission makes many more texts for the Daily Office available than in ASB. Members of the Commission also published in January 1993 Enriching The Christian Year2, providing propers from a variety of sources for a variety of occasions in the liturgical life of the Church. They both have impeccable pedigrees. The former has a foreword by the present Archbishop of Canterbury, and the latter by the Chairman of the Liturgical Commission. The tolerance of alternatives or variations is also allowed by Canon Law: B5 1. The minister may in his discretion make and use variations which are not of substantial importance in any form of service authorized by Canon B1 according to particular circumstances. 3 The publishing house of Mowbray has been in the forefront of making available a number ofguides and aids to enriching the provision of ASB. The largest output was in the area of 'The Intercession'. Semper's Intercessions for use with Series 1 & 2 or Series 3 Holy Communion Services was one of the earliest in 1978 and pre-dates ASB.4 Collins' Intercessions at the Parish Communion for use at the Alternative Services came out seven years later. Collins is responsible for much peripheral material. MacDonnell collected together post-communion prayers in After Communion—a Collection of Post-communion Prayers for use with the ASB 1980His collection also suggests prayers at the Preparation of the Gifts. This libation of liturgy has not taken place in isolation. Other parts of the Anglican world have been engaged on the same exercise, as have other Christian Communions. The President is faced with an embarrassment of riches. How is choice exercised appropriately and in such a way as to encourage the active participation of all God's People?

1

(Mowbray, London, 1992). (SPCK/Alcuin Club, London, 1993). ä The Canons ofthe Church ofEngland, (CHP, London, 1986), p.l 3. N o t e that sections 3 and 4 try to define the delightfully vague, 'not of substantial importance' in the Canon. 4 Semper's latest book—Intercessions at Worship (iVlowbray, London, 1992)—is the latest in a long line of alternative material for use at 'The Intercession' in Rite A ASB. 5 (Mowbray, London, 1985). 2

8

Liturgical Presidency

2. The Directory Until recently, the word 'directory' found no place in the liturgical vocabulary of the Church of England. In fact, in the unhappy history of English Christianity, and Anglican Liturgy of the seventeenth century was directed against a particular directory—The Directory of Public Worship. This document, commonly called the Westminster Directory, appeared in English translation in 1644. The original Latin text was called The Book of Discipline and was written by Walter Travers, the first Provost of Trinity College Dublin. It circulated in manuscript form among Elizabethan Puritans and was issued in 1644, after the Westminster Assembly of 1643, to promote the cause of Presbyterianism in England. 1 For the complete text consult Breward. 2 'Directory' first appears in the English Language in 1543 from the late Latin directorium, meaning guidance, guide-book and therefore, in an ecclesiastical sense, a list of directions for public or private worship. The later meaning of an alphabetical list of names etc. does not occur until 1732.3 After the Act of Uniformity, the Anglican liturgy was fixed. T h e process of formalizing, which led to the fossilizing of the texts for the rites of the Church, was gradual, and given impetus by the desire to guard authentic doctrine. T h e picture painted by St. Justin's account of presidential creativity in eucharistic prayer gave way to a small n u m b e r of authorized canons or eucnaristic prayers. For Anglicans, what small variation there was during the sixteenth century, came to an end with the First Book of C o m m o n Prayer in 1549. The ideological pressures of the Reformation, combined with the new technology of Caxton's movable type printing press, enabled a fixed definitive form of liturgy to become the norm for Anglicans with BCP. The Roman Catholic Church achieved the same end with T h e Missal of Pope St. Pius V. An apparatus ofecclesial law is imposed to guard the integrity of the text. This has the effect of preventing the creative interplay of formal and informal liturgy, which generates life into this lifecelebrating activity of the Church. It is interesting to note that Kavanagh, the American Benedictine liturgist, makes the connection between what he calls 'liturgical hypertrophy' and movable type and sixteenth century reform. H e talks of the ability to put into the hands of the laity, relatively cheaply, a 'controlled' text. Kavanagh would argue that such activity impoverished the web of ministries which make up authentic liturgy, and turned the action of rite into the inaction of a didactic talk. 4 A perusal of the texts of this period, some of which persist today, show that worship was with the eye rather than the heart. 1

2

3 4

Elizabeth A. Livingstone, The Concise Oxford Dictionar\' Of The Christian Church (OUP, Oxford, 1977), p. 154. Ian Breward (Introduction), The Westminster Directory (Grove Liturgical Study no. 21, Grove Books Ltd., N o t t i n g h a m , 1980). qv. in The Shorter Oxford English Dictionar)'. A. Kavanagh, On Liturgical Theolog[> (Pueblo. N e w York, 1984), p. 107.

The Directory< 9

T h e history o f liturgical renewal and reform, t h e process o f freeing the liturgy, in the Church o f England was, and still is, a long and tedious process. In other ecclesial c o m m u n i t i e s similar problems are encountered. T h e 1928 Book of Common Prayer was simply an alternative to the only authorized Church o f England text, BCP. It was not a 'directory'. T h e publication and authorization o f ASB almost swept away any choice apart from 1662, but contained within itself m u c h material that haa been in use from 1928 and from the Series 1,2, and 3. It was greatly influenced by ecumenical contacts. ( T h e Series 1, 2, and 3 rites were developing in the 1960's and 1970's and offered modest presidential choice.) In the rubrics/notes o f ASB there is n o w a wide choice o f alternatives, not o f c o m p l e t e ntes, but ratherwithin the rite itself. T h e r e are foureucharistic prayers in the main text o f the Rite A Eucharist. 1 T h i s looks very conservative c o m p a r e d with many c o n t e m p o r a r y Anglican texts authorized abroad. Alternative eucharistic canons are not just an Anglican feature. O n e province in t h e R o m a n Catholic Church in T h e Netherlands, has 11 eucharistic prayers. 2 Alternatives will be found in m a n y Free Church texts. Except for the Liturgical Calendar and its associated texts, seasonal choice had barely survived the Reformation reform, but n o w the president is allowed (and c o m m e n t a t o r after c o m m e n t a t o r urges him) to make a choice between alternate texts (e.g. Prayers o f Penitence); position o f text (e.g. Gloria); to o m i t optional texts (e.g. Prayer o f H u m b l e Access); but m o s t innovatory to 'use these or other suitable woras' (e.g. T h e Peace). This still did not make ASB a true directory, but pointed the way forward for the second generation o f liturgical material. Douglas J o n e s chaired the Liturgical C o m m i s s i o n o f t h e C h u r c h o f England which drafted Lent Holy Week Easter: Services and Prayers and secured its c o m m e n d a t i o n in the C h u r c h o f England by the H o u s e o f Bishops. In its introduction he uses the word 'directory': . . . Second, they are more than a few services collected together. W e are providing a directory from which choices may be made. W e think o f this b o o k as a manual to be used with selectivity, sensitivity and imagination.' 3 T h e collections o f texts which followed, Patterns for Worship, The Promise of his Glory and Enriching the Christian Year, are promoted with the same philosophy. In a c o m m e n t a r y on The Promise of his Glory, Vasey heads the o p e n i n g chapter 'A W i n t e r Directory'. 4 An editorial feature c o m m o n to all four books is the c o m m e n t a r y before each service outline and/or collection o f texts, which is entirely lacking in ASB.

1

2 3

4

ASB,

pp. 1 3 0 - 1 4 4 .

Orde Van Dienst Voor De Eucharistieviering (Gooi en Stich bv, Hilversum, 1979). Douglas Jones in the 'Introduction', to Lent Holy Week Easter: Services and Prayer (CHP/ SPCK, London; CUP. Cambridge, 1984/1986), p.l. Trevor Lloyd, Jane Sinclair, Michael Vasey, Introducing the Promise of his Glory (Grove Worship Series no. 116. Grove Books Ltd., Nottingham, 1991), p.3.

10

Liturgical Presidency

T h e w a y of printing and presenting c o n t e m p o r a r y R o m a n texts since t h e Second Vatican C o u n c i l has followed t h e s a m e innovative f o r m f o r t h e eucharist a n d o t h e r rites. First is printed the Decree of t h e Sacred C o n g r e g a t i o n for Divine W o r s h i p followed by t h e Apostolic C o n s t i t u t i o n , which is in t h e n a m e of t h e Pope. T h i s gives general a u t h o r i t y for t h e p r o m u l g a t i o n of t h e rite. T h e G e n e r a l I n s t r u c t i o n / I n t r o d u c t i o n (praenotanda) is printed next. T h i s is an essay covering t h e general n o r m s of t h e celebration of t h e rite(s). It will deal with biblical a n d patristic b a c k g r o u n d , p e r h a p s discuss t h e place of music, a p p r o p r i a t e ministries and ministers, etc. Before each service o n e finds a short c o m m e n t a r y , which is pastoral in its theological c o n t e n t and practical in its advice. T h e latter contains t h e rationale a n d g u i d a n c e in t h e celebration of t h e rite. This m e t h o d is mirrored in Lent Holy Week Easter: Services and Prayers. T h e C o m m e n d a t i o n by t h e H o u s e of Bishops, which is signed on their behalf by t h e A r c h b i s h o p of C a n t e r b u r y , fulfils t h e f u n c t i o n of t n e Decree/Apostolic C o n s t i t u t i o n , i.e. it gives t h e liturgical text a s t a m p authority. T h e I n t r o d u c t i o n a t t e m p t s to d o t h e s a m e as t h e G e n e r a l Instruction 1 , a n d each service or g r o u p s of texts has an i n t r o d u c t o r y essay o r c o m m e n t a r y . 2 Two m e m b e r s of t h e C n u r c h of England C o m m i s s i o n privately w r o t e a m o r e substantial c o m m e n t a r y on t h e rites. 3 The Promise of his Glory has t h e s a m e f o r m a t . T h e inclusion of c o m m e n t a r y / e s s a y s before t h e individual rites has been followed by m o s t of t h e m o d e r n English language Prayer Books in t h e Anglican C o m m u n i o n published in t h e last ten years outside t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m . S o u t h Africa calls t h e m t h e 'Preface', N e w Zealand, ' C o n c e r n i n g this/these Service(s)', C a n a d a and t h e U n i t e d States has 'Concerning' essays, t h o u g h t h e latter are shorter a n d rubrical in character, b u t it needs to be r e m e m b e r e d that they a p p e a r e d m u c h earlier, in 1977. ASB lacks any of this b a c k g r o u n d material. T h e official C o m m e n t a r y of t h e Liturgical C o m m i s s i o n dwells on t h e history of the rites a n d ignores their pastoral application. 4 T h e u l t i m a t e 'Directory' for t h e eucharist is to be f o u n d in U n i t e d States Book of C o m m o n Prayer. T h e barest o u t l i n e is provided for t h e rite, which only insists that o n e of (the m a n y ) eucharistic prayers be used. 5 A Directory is a collection of authorized liturgical texts, which offers a n u m b e r of authorized ways of celebrating a rite. This m a y be for a single observance (e.g. Candlemas), a season (e.g. Lent), o r for a part of a rite (e.g. Prayers of Penitence). A Directoiy expects choice to be m a d e by t h e p r e s i d e n t (this does n o t exclude t h e president being advised by others p n o r to t h e celebrating of t h e rite). P e r h a m and Stevenson use t h e w o r d 'anthology' to describe t h e directory. It is to be

1 1 ! 1 5

See for example Lent Holy Week Easter: Services and Prayers, pp. 1 -4 ibid., pp.11-12. M. Perham and K. Stevenson, Waiting For The Risen Christ, (SPCK, London, 1986). The Alternative Service Book 1980, A Commentary By The Liturgical Commission 1980 (CIO Publishing, London. 1980). see Appendix 1. The Directory

11

dipped into, taking account of the local situation, but always with regard to sane ana scholarly good sense. The commentary at each service is to aid this process.1 The promotion of a Directory for worship is a radical departure for English la carte', Anglicans. A directory is moving the liturgy in the direction of an rather than a 'fixed price' menu. It requires a new way of approaching liturgy and a different mentality in liturgical education and formation in seminary and parish. It is facilitated by another revolution in printing technology. Just as Caxton's technological advance enabled the text and the rite to be frozen, so word processing and photocopying enables the quick and cheap production of parish based texts, ana therefore frees the liturgy.

1

op. cit. p. 11.

12

Liturgical

Presidency

3. The Enquiry: Formation Chapter 1 clearly shows that there is a new generation of authorized liturgical texts in the Church of England, and that these in turn have been, and continue to be, supplemented. Unlike the foundation liturgy, BCP enshrined in the Act of Uniformity of 1662, these modern texts of the 70s, '80s and '90s allow a high degree of choice. They are directories, as defined in the previous chapter, and are quite different from former authorized service books. They require a new way of handling by the presider, and in fact, by the whole Christian community. This is beginning to be called the 'Directory Approach to Worship'. This approach assumes knowledge of liturgy, and a degree of skill from those who seek, or are directed, to preside over the euchanstic assembly in the name of the Church. In the Cnurch of England, those in holy orders are ordained on the assumption that they shall have a parochial appointment. There are a few exceptions to this rule. 1 Irrespective of tradition and location, this will inevitably involve leading worship. Before the ordination rite the candidate declares before the ordaining bishop: '. .. I will use only the forms of service which are authorized or allowed by Canon.' 2 This Declaration of Assent is repeated on entering each ecclesiastical appointment. The full impact of the Liturgical Movement made itself felt in the Church of England in the long experimental period from the inception of the Liturgical Commission in the mid-fifties, until the authorization of ASB. Instead of a pause in 1980, the then newly appointed Commission (Commissions have the same life as a General Synod—five years), has taken liturgy forward in the publishing of Directories. This practice has continued up to the present. The House of Bishops has commended these texts outside their powers enshrined in Canon Law. Parish Priests have some powers, also under canon, to make minor changes. The General Synod has only been asked to note the recent texts, as they are supplementary to BCP and ASB. In the light of the experience of the seventies, there is a growing anxiety as to the competence of the General Synod to deal appropriately with liturgical texts. 3 The Commission, the House of Bishops, and tacitly General Synod, have put Directories into the hands of parish clergy and laity, but is there the process of Formation in Liturgy which enables them to be used to their full potential? 'Formation' is a vogue word which first appears in modern Roman Catholic writing connected with theological education. The idea though takes root in the 1

qv. The Canons OfTbe Church Of England4th Edition, ( C H P . London, 1986), C a n o n C5.2. a. b. c. d. e. 2 ibid., C a n o n C I 5 . 1 Derek Pattinson 'The Process of Revision and Authorization' in, Michael Perham (ed.), Towards Liturgy 2000, (SPCK/Alcuin Club, London, 1989), p. 91. At the t i m e of writing, Canons which would allow some legitimate experimentation are before the General Synod for consideration.

The Enquiry: Formation

13

corpus of papal writings as a direct result of the Liturgical Movement in this century. The Apostolic Constitution, Divini cultus of 20 December 1928 by Pius XI is the first to refer to 'liturgical training'. Each pope up to the Apostolic Letter Summi dei verbum of Paul VI of 4 November 1968 mention this important activity.1 In this context the formation is directed to seminarians alone. Later Roman Catholic writing broadens the clientele of formation. Burdon draws attention to the document Let the People Worship, which was received by the Methodist Conference in 1988. It encourages the work of local or circuit worship consultation groups which are important for formation in the Methodist context. Burdon states: 'It is the responsibility of all who enter the pulpit and presume to lead the worship of God's people to study and contemplate the movements.' 2 In the United Reformed Church tradition, Sharers in Worship successfully deals with preparation and presentation of the leader-preacher. 3 The word 'formation' denotes a dynamic relationship between the teacher and the taught and an interaction with the subject material. Pedagogy is out. No longer are seminarians to be viewed as empty vessels to be filled with received wisdom. Formation is akin to the word 'nurture', which is currently in use in religious catechetics and in seculareducation. Pedagogy has, at least in theory, an end point. This is reached when the recipient has received all the knowledge and can safely reproduce it. Formation, like nurture, has no end point. It continues for as long as the recipient engages with the subject matter. The Church of England's Advisory Board of Ministry states: 'Theological Colleges and courses should provide the environment and the means by which men and women receive the necessary formation for the ministry to which they feel themselves called. Such formation is, of course, a life-long process.' Formation will, by its very nature, be concerned with not only those academic skills traditionally associated with seminary education, but also with the aesthetic, spiritual and practical development of the seminarian. In order to explore the level of formation of the Anglican Clergy for this study three lines of enquiry were pursued. 1. A Questionnaire to the Anglican Theological Colleges and Ministerial Training Schemes listed in The Church of England Year Book 1991.1 2. Individual Interviews conducted with a sample of eucharistic presidents. With the exception of the first, these people have responsibility for organizing the Sunday Eucharist, and also for the continuing training of the newly ordained. 3. By personal observation at the Eucharist, looking particularly at presidential style. 1

2

3 4 !

Liturgical Formation in Seminaries, (National Conference of Catholic Bishops, Washington DC, 1984), p.53: N o t e 1. Adrian Burdon, The Preaching Service—The Glory of the Methodists, ( A l c u i n / G R O W J o i n t Liturgical Study no. 17. Grove Books Ltd., N o t t i n g h a m , 1991), p.41. David Owen, Sharers In Worship, (National Christian Education Council, Redhill, 1980). Education For The Church's Ministry, ( A C C M . L o n d o n , 1987), p.9. (CHP, London, 1991) see Appendix 29.

14 Liturgical Presidency

4. The Enquiry: The Seminaries A THEOLOGICAL TRAINING

The foreword to Liturgical Formation in Seminaries has these lofty ideals: 'Liturgical renewal and spiritual growth need "mystagogues", men and women themselves well versed in the ways of the Lora, to lead others to drink more deeply from the refreshing waters of divine life, always eager to live the Christian life as though newly baptized.' 1 There are thirty courses listed in The Church of England Year Book 1991.2 There are fourteen full-time Colleges in England, one in Scotland and one in Wales, and fourteen part-time courses. The syllabus for the General Ministerial Examination, which is the academic requirement for ordination in the Church of England, is very wide-ranging. There are six papers in Holy Scripture, two in Doctrine, one in Church History; one in Ethics; one in Pastoral Studies; two optional papers in Hebrew and Latin; and one in Christian Worship. Ordinands over 30 may be examined by essay, which for the paper in Christian Worship consists of an essay of 3,000 to 5,000 words supported by three internally assessed essays.3 Ordinands under 30 follow a tnree-year course, and mature students two years. In common with all syllabuses, the print is more impressive than the praxis. The liturgy component 4 of the General Ministerial Examination expects a wide range of topics to be covered, but it is hard to imagine how this is achieved in practice, considering the time constraints and the allocation of timetable time to other disciplines. One wonders how much time is available for the input into the Christian Worship unit, let alone the final section of the syllabus 'The Setting' which specifically mentions Presentation and Presidency. 5 Questionnaires were sent to the Theological Colleges dunng the long vacation in 1990. It is widely held that Liturgy is the Cinderella subject in Anglican Theological Colleges. Spinks, cataloguing the demise in status of Liturgy at Kings College London, is indicative: Ratcliff held a professorial chair in liturgy; Jasper succeeded him, but as a reader in liturgy; his successor Cuming was a part-time lecturer and on his retirement liturgy was absorbed into the church history department. 6 However, Liturgy is taught at the Theological Colleges, which is more than can be said for Canon Law!

1 2 3

4 5 6

op. cit., p.2. op. cit., pp.23-24. General Ministerial Examination ( H a n d b o o k a n d Syllabus 1990/1991) ( A C C M , L o n d o n , 1990). p. 16. See A p p e n d i x 3. General Ministerial Examination, p.3 3. Bryan Spinks, 'Postscript: I n v e s t i n g in Liturgy f o r a N e w C e n t u r y ' in M i c h a e l P e r h a m (ed ), Liturgy For A New Century, ( S P C K / A l c u i n C l u b , L o n d o n , 1991), p. 108.

The Enquiry: The Seminaries

15

B QUESTIONNAIRE

The questionnaire was brief and direct, seeking to find the staffing commitment (part-time/full time), and the range of liturgical teaching, by seeking straightforward 'yes' or 'no' answers to the type of texts studied! Perhaps because of its brevity and directness, there was a nigh return of questionnaires. Fourteen full-time colleges, group A, responded and eleven part-time, group B. Despite liturgy's Cinderella image, or self-image, group A had thirteen fulltime post holders for liturgy and one part-time. As one would expect, group B were part-time post holders,except in one case. This reflects the nature of the course. In terms of personnel, liturgy is reasonably resourced. Every response in group A confirmed that the syllabus in liturgy covered rites since ASB. In group B nine did and two did not. Group A was once again consistent in looking at contemporary rites both in the worldwide Anglican Communion and in other Christian Communions. All group B responses looked outside the Anglican Communion, but two did not note the trends in the wider Anglican families. The response to question 3 should have been a unanimous 'yes', because the preamble to the syllabus for Christian Worship states: '... familiarity with the authorized rites of the Church of England (currently The Book of Common Prayer(1662), The Alternative Service Book 1980, Ministry to the Sick, and Lent, Holy Week Easter) which should occupy a paradigmatic place in the course.' 1 It is to be hoped that the word 'currently' is not overlooked and that teachers of liturgy keep up with the authorized texts and new Canons, as they continue to come into use in the Church of England. The wider look at the rites was not always inspired by the quest for extra liturgical knowledge. In some cases it was a demand generated by the fact that the colleges had an ecumenical student body, and were preparing candidates along denominational lines. The final question on the Directory Approach produced a more mixed response. In group A nine responded in the affirmative and two in the negative. Respondents were invited to add comments to the questionnaire. The Directory was seen by three colleges as an 'opportunity' not a 'problem'. There was one request for assistance with a suitable bibliography to assist in this new area. In group B nine were addressing the 'Directory Approach', and two were not. One followed Anglican custom and answered the question with another question. The questionnaire demonstrates a strong commitment to the teaching of liturgy by most of the colleges. The part-time courses are in a difficult position, except where they are an extension of a full-time institute, because of the nature of their establishment and student body. As is clearly shown by the answers, contemporary rites from many sources are studied, however nearly 50% of the replies demonstrated that tne Directory posed problems (and, as one or two respondents indicated, opportunities). 1

General Ministerial

16

Examination,

Liturgical Presidency

p.31.

C. C O M M E N T S

The General Ministerial Examination syllabus acknowledges a much earlier paper from the Advisory Council for the Church's Ministry entitled Learning to Worship in the Christian Community.1 This earlier paper gathers together work started in 1969, and mentions many practical aspects of liturgy, whicn ordinands should be aware of in their training. 'Growth in the understanding of worship cannot be separated from worship itself, nor indeed from the whole of life. '... It is to be hoped that with the help of this course, a student will grow, not merely in his liturgical knowledge, but also in his capacity for worship and in his ability to lead others in worship.' 2 T h e leading and planning of worship, and so the assisting of others in the enrichment of their own devotion, will now be seen to be an integral part of the whole course, and to be raised at every turn.' 3 'Students will be invited to compile a scrapbook, an "uncommonplace book" of pictures, poems, texts, experiences, happenings through which they knew something of what it was to worship.' 4 The paper concludes, in the second appendix dealing with assessment, that there should be reports from both college tutors and outside supervisors concerning the student's performance in liturgical situations, both from the technical ana creative points of view.5 The claim of the current syllabus to 'relate' to Learning to Worship in the Christian Community'', is true, but it is in the particular area of the practical that the relationship appears tenuous. The practical advice promoted in Learning to Worship in the Christian Community does not appear to survive in the current General Ministerial Examination syllabus.7 The overall impression gained from the colleges is that the main emphasis in liturgical teaching is still historical rather than pastoral. The formation is largely historical, but as shown by the syllabus, it is comparative liturgy. There is little evidence to sustain a view that what Taft calls the 'deep structures' of liturgy are 1

2 3 4 5 6 7

Learning to Worship in the Christian Community (The Place of Worship in Ordination Training), (CIO, London, 1974). op. cit., p. 1. ibid., p.3. ibid., p.4. ibid., p.42. General Ministerial Examination, p.32. It is intereting to note that the 'Liturgical Unit' for the D i p l o m a in Applied Theology at Westminster College, Oxford in 1990, r e c o m m e n d s t n e compilation of a liturgical scrapbook, which m a y be submitted towards the final assessment in that unit, ¡Liturgical Material: access to a variety of collections of m o d e m (and ancient!) liturgical material will be helpful. O n e aim for the course is that students, individually, and collectively, p u t together a portfolio of liturgical resources, including material they have themselves created], (The Liturgical Dimension, Section B, N o t e 5, Westminster College, Oxford).

The Enquiry: The Seminars

17

studied. Kavanagh says that this deep structure needs to be understood before questions of meaning can be adequately addressed. 1 Of course to ignore the history of liturgy would be to destroy its context. F. D. Maurice said that liturgy cannot 'just be tinkered about with like some old praying machine to bring it up to date'.2 The history of liturgy is very important, but only has a relevance for the church if it leads on to good pastoral practice. Subsidiary informal questioning of deacons and priests having less than six years in orders confirm the above conclusions. They would claim to have little or no training in liturgical action as leader, but are quite capable of describing the development of the choir offices in BCP. They arrive in the parish ill-equipped to engage in what becomes at least a weekly, if not a daily-activity after ordination. If formation is rudimentary in the colleges, is it carried on in the parish/workplace? The next phase of the enquiry was directed at the sample of presidents responsible for tne training of deacons/priests during their first three years after leaving the Theological College.

1 1

op. ai.,p,130. Learning to Worship in the Christian Community, p.3.

18

Liturgical Presidency

5. The Enquiry: The Presidents A. T H E

INTRODUCTION

There is little a t t e m p t to take the process of liturgical Formation beyond the realm of liturgical history in the colleges. More research would need to be undertaken to ascertain whether this was d u e to lack of time, or as Spinks hints, due to a lack of suitably qualified teachers. 1 It seemed natural, therefore, to take the enquiry to the diocese and parish and to try to discern evidence of liturgical formation there. T h e diocesan bishop agreed to be interviewed. This was important because the bishop is a key figure in presidency and is responsible for the formation of his people—clerical and lay. Stevenson and Stancliffe note the following: 'The pastoral and liturgical role of the bishop has been developing in recent years. Indeed, if episcopal diaries of a hundred years ago and today were compared, the enhanced role today of the bishop as chief liturgical minister would be immediately apparent'. 2 His liturgical role is emphasized in ASB rite of Ordination of Bishops 3 , the recent Report of the Archbishops Group on The Episcopate 1990 makes no less than nine specific liturgical references to his office 4 , each Church of England diocesan bishop is urged to appoint (not have elected) a Diocesan Liturgy C o m m i t t e e which is answerable to him and assists him in fulfilling his liturgical function. Finally, the bishop should preside at the eucharist whenever he is present. 5 T h e introductory rubrics/notes to all the modern Anglican eucharistic rites confirm this. T h e bishop will, in addition, preside at rites which are reserved to him alone, for example, the rites of confirmation, ordination, mass of chrism, and usually, the dedication of a church building. The bishop, in the Church of England, has been assisted by a n u m b e r of guides, starting with Ritual Notes6, and then nothing until The Bishop in Church.7 More recently there have been two publications directed particularly to the Church of England bishop, Episcopal Services8 and The Bishop in Litur^i9-. but the most useful publication, though not Anglican, is the American edition of the

1

op. cit, p. 109. K e n n e t h S t e v e n s o n a n d D a v i d S t a n c l i f f e . Christian Initiation And Its Relation To Some Pastoral Offices, ( G e n e r a l S y n o d of t h e C h u r c h of E n g l a n d , L o n d o n . 1991), p.5. 3 J e r e m y H a s e l o c k , ' T h e Liturgical M i n i s t r v of B i s h o p s ' in Livingstones 5.1 (1991), pp. 1216. 4 Episcopal Ministry, ( C H P , L o n d o n . 1990). pp.31, 41, 43, 45, 80, 83, 106, 1 10, 170. 5 see ASB, p. 115; N o t e 2. 6 H e n r y C a i r n c r o s s ( c o m p i l e r ) , (W. K n o t t & Son Ltd., L o n d o n , 1894). 7 Patrick F e r g u s o n - D a v i e , ( S P C K , L o n d o n , 1961). 8 ( C L A / A l c u i n G l u b / S P C K , L o n d o n , 1980). 9 C o l i n B u c h a n a n (ed ), (An Anglican S y m p o s i u m o n t h e Role a n d Iask of t h e B i s h o p in t h e Field of Liturgy), ( A l c u i n / G R O V V J o i n t Liturgical S t u d v no. 6. G r o v e B o o k s Ltd . N o t t i n g h a m , 1988). 2

Tlx Enquiry: The Presidents

19

editio typica of Caeremoniak Episcoporum—Ceremonial of Bishops.'1 Like all advice, it is good and bad, and some is taken and some ignored. The parish priests were chosen to give a range of liturgical practice in the Church of England, but all presented a eucharist as the main Sunday service. They were all responsible for the continuing formation of a junior colleague. B THE QUESTIONS

The interviews lasted about one hour and started with set questions: 1. Personal Formation a. Date and place of training b. Experience of Liturgy Teaching c. First Parish—Liturgical Experience 2. Knowledge and Use of Texts Each interviewee was asked if he: a. had knowledge of b. made use of c. would give their opinion of the following texts in addition to ASB. a. Ministry to the Sick (1983) b. Lent Holy Week Easter: Services and Prayers (1984) c. Making Women Visible (1988) d. Patterns for Worship (1989) e. The Promise of his Glory (1990) f. Church Family Worship (1986) At the time of the interviews, ASB, BCP and documents a., b., and e. above can be said to constitute the 'canon' of authonzed liturgical texts in the Church of England, which should be in regular use. (One would want to add: Services of Prayer and Dedication after Civil Marriage, Night Prayer: A Late Evening Service-, Funeral Servicefor a Child DyingNearthe Time of Birth and Ministry at the Time of Death, which are also approved services commended by the House of Bishops. Since the interviews, both Celebrating Common Prayer and Enriching The Christian Year have been published, having differing degrees of authorization. In the course of time other texts will be approved and added.) Patterns for Worship will be discussed by the General Synod at a later date, though parts of it have been printed in Enriching The Christian Year. Making Women Visible2 has recommendations for removing overt sexisms which can be done under Canon BS. Church Family Worship is the exception, because it is an unofficial collection of texts bound up with parts of ASB most used in the parish church setting.

1

2

Ceremonial of Bishops, Lirurgical Press, Collegeville, 1989). T h e Caeremoniale Episcoporum first a p p e a r e d in 1660 a n d can trace its origins back to t h e close of t h e s e v e n t h c e n t u r y . W h i l e there are a n u m b e r of texts a n d rites n o t widely used in t h e C h u r c h of E n g l a n d , t h e principles e n u c i a t e d for episcopal presidency s h o u l d t r a n s c e n d t h e d e n o m i n a t e d divide. ( C H P , L o n d o n , 1988).

20

Liturgical Presidency

Finally o n texts they were asked if they were aware of the provisions of C a n o n B5 which allows for the minor alteration of words in services, provided no doctrinal change is implied, and if they ever used it. 3. Music Resources in Use T h e interviewees were asked about the music repertoire used in their situations, because this is an area of choice already used and understood to a greater or lesser extent by parochial clergy. G r i m s h a w has dealt with Anglican practice in some detail. 1 This Study is more concerned with the texts o f the rites in use. 4. Perception of Presidential Style The Interviewees were shown and asked to c o m m e n t on six 'principles, laws, advices, or objectives' on 'The Art of Presiding' based on a paper given to the European Meeting of Secretaries of the National Liturgical Commissions held in Brugge 11-16 J u n e 1990 by Father Jean-Louis Angue. The report of the Conference was carried in the journal Liturgy published by the (Roman Catholic) Bishops' Conference of England and Wales Liturgy Office. 2 Angue's paper defines six 'principles, laws, advices, or objectives', which are noted below: —to be oneself —to serve the other —to prepare oneself —to extend what o n e has received —to allow other Ministries to be carried o u t —to not forget one's body 3 These precepts are expanded, to give clarity to the final part of he interview. T h e president does not dominate the assembly, it is a leadership, not a superiority. This requires a degree of relaxation, in fact a confidence in oneself, a being of oneself. T h e president must never forget, neither should the assembly, that there is a difference of function, but both snare the same baptism. N o t to be oneself can often lead to authoritarianism. T h e president is to be a signpost to G o d , not G o d himself. This is partly achieved by being oneself, and by being immersed in the rite and in Christian living. Presidency is a skill which does not lend itself to improvization. W h e t h e r it is liked or not, the president brings his lifestyle to the rite. Courtesy, let alone style, d e m a n d that appropriate choice is m a d e from the variety of texts on offer. Personal interpolations may not be compatible with the assembly's ability to accept them. T h e prepared president celebrates with the people, sensitive to the dynamic of the liturgy. 1

2

3

Peter Grimshaw, The Function oj Music and Song in Christian Worship (Westminster College, Oxford, 1990), unpublished M A Dissertation, pp.38-46. Liturg/ 14 (1990): p.278. T h e original article has subsequently been published in an expanded f o r m as Leading The Prayer Of God's People. (The C o l u m b a Press, Dublin, 1991). ibid., p.279.

The Hnquiiy: The Presidents

21

T h e 'rubrics' have been reduced in ASB and have been supplemented by 'notes'. There can be no authentic liturgy, which is regulated by the oldfashioned minutiae of rubrics. (In private conversation with the a u t h o r in the s u m m e r of 1990, French priests of a generation ordained just after the Second World War recalled 30-minute lectures o n rubricology each day in seminary). As has been shown, there is n o w a variety of authorized text, and less formally, hymns and gestures. T h e president therefore opens the treasury of the liturgical tradition (extending what one has received): it is not necessary to invent everything. This allows for the rite to be recognizably of the Universal Church, but leaves room for creativity. It needs to be recognized that there is a tension between innovation and creativity which surfaces in the interviews. Creativity can be a response to the m o m e n t . Creativity will only be genuine, if it points away from tne president to Almighty G o d . T n e president presides, other ministries will be exercised if active participation is allowed to manifest itself. C o n f u s i o n of roles diminishes t h e celebration and all the participants. Differences must be respected. T h e whole body is used in the worship of G o d , so the president will need to remember that whatever he does is of significance. H o w is the look? Is the voice appropriate for proclaiming, inviting or instructing? Are the gestures in proportion to the space? Are they self-seeking, or d o they point to God? H o w is the use of vestments and objects used in the rite? C. T H E

INTERVIEWS

It was possible to build a picture of the interviewee's awareness of the current situation of liturgical provision, and how well it was being handled. It was also possible to deduce how each president had grown in liturgical formation since ordination. T h e interviews were designed to ascertain the formation of the interviewees. Their own perception would be gauged by the first set of historical questions. They would demonstrate their awareness of the current 'canon' of Anglican texts by their response to the questions on current provision. Finally in talking to the paper by Angue on presidency, they would reveal progress in formation and understanding of formation. INTERVIEW 1: Diocesan Bishop T h e bishop was at Theological College from 1953 to 1955, before any of the current liturgical ferment. T n e liturgy syllabus only covered the area of Prayer Book History. Little in the way of liturgical training was given in his first Liverool parish, however he was influenced in the dramatic presentation of worship y contact with the Anglican Cathedral u n d e r the direction of Dean Dwelly. Because of its religious history and bigotry, Liverpool Anglican Cathedral has had problems presenting ritual. T h e Dean overcame this with secular models of dignified and appropriate ceremonial for the building. T h e bishop identifies this as an important influence in his liturgical formation. Solemnity is important in the style that he adopts for presiding. H e was ordained bishop in 1975, but received no liturgical training for his office. Like most of his contemporaries on the episcopal bench, he has had to learn on the job!

E

22

Liturgical Presidency

The bishop was aware of the first five supplemental texts as they had passed before him in the meetings of the House of Bishops, prior to publication. He had come across Church Family Worship, which is not an official text, but widely used in evangelical parishes in the Church of England. The bishop's use of a particular text would depend on their presentation to him prior to a parish visit. He welcomed the authorized variety which they encouraged in the worship of the parishes. It was surprising to find out that he exercises little choice over texts submitted for services of confirmation, despite the variety on offer, and apart from using pastoral sensitivity, the same applies to ordinations. Discussing presidential skills, he agrees strongly that 'to be oneself is essential. Naturalness avoids uncertainty. ServingGod is the core of worship. It is the third principle which is under pressure in his ministry. There is a temptation to 'cut corners', which devalues the celebration. It is here that the ministry of his chaplain is most valued. There is no need to re-invent the wheel. The bishop would not claim to be a rubricist, but accepts and teaches that there is a richness in the provided texts and they should be used. From personal observation he is adept at the creative interpolation when appropriate, which enhances his presidential style. In his diocese the other ministries are exercised and welcomed. Those which he, by canon or custom, regulates, are done with the partnership of the parishes. The bishop sees the liturgy as a great drama unfolding and therefore uses colour and gesture to the full. His own phrase of liking 'hands free' liturgy is explained as wanting to be forewarned of the progress of the rite. Again it is his chaplain who assists in this area to make all run smoothly. The bishop has been observed at confirmations, the mass of chrism (qv page 40) and twice at the more unusual and more complicated rite of blessing a new altar. He has an ability to command in chanty as president and to enable the whole assembly to participate in these solemn and joyful occasions. INTERVIEW 2: Evangelical Priest Priest A would describe himself as an evangelical Anglican and trained at an evangelical Theological College between 1971 and 1974. Liturgical teaching was historical from the earliest texts up to the then authorized rites of Series 2 Revised and Series 3. The course covered shape and structure, but involved no teaching of practical/pastoral liturgy. The college chaplain was a good model to follow however, and the chapel experience started a process of good practice which continues to the present. The first parish was described as 'progressive evangelical', and experimentation was allowed. The eucharistic rite was BCPas written (except for the Exhortation) and Series 2 with an amount of flexibility. All the texts mentioned above, except The Promise of his Glory which was out of print, were known and in use. Patterns for Worship had superseded Church Family Worship. Canon R5 was used as appropriate. The Enquiry: The Presidents

23

The music used was based on Hymns for Today's Church, but there is a music group, and choruses are widely used from a wide variety of sources. Having been used to, and inheriting from his predecessor, a 'family worship' format, which is often non-eucharistic and changes in structure, he has come to realize that what was thought to be creative for the laity was in fact chaotic. There has been a move to interpreting the Rite A eucharist 'rubrically', and making it the basis for Sunday worship. The discovery that structure is important has allowed for a proper creativity, which does not leave the laity anxious about 'what comes next'. The eucharistic prayers, 1 (most often), 2 (Family Communion) and 3 (reflection) are in use. Material is supplemented from the newer texts as season or theme dictates. There is a rich mix of liturgical texts nourishing the people in this parish. Standard responses by the laity enable everyone to feel at home with the liturgy. To 'be oneself is the pastoral relationship the president must have with his people. The second principle caused no problems. Like the bishop 'preparing oneself was seen as the cause of greatest tension. As already noted above, by going back to the authorized provision of the Church, it has been learnt that this is in fact inclusive. No one group can then hijack the worship of God. He has recently introduced the use of Ashes at the beginning of Lent, and the Stripping of the Altar at the end of the Maundy Thursday eucharist, have made their appearance. No one is more delighted or surprised than this priest, who is extending what he has received. Allowing others to exercise their ministries causes some problems. A permanent deacon is now on the staff and needs to be seen to exercise a legitimate diaconal liturgical ministry. Involving and encouraging other ministries needs care. Of the body, eye-contact was identified as most im portant. There was a regret that the evangelical tradition has tended to neglect physical objects and symbolism. In this parish, this omission is being remedied. Priest A had learnt liturgy by personal experience, and by observing and asking fellow practitioners. A presidential style was developing as the treasures of the Church's Liturgy were being explored. INTERVIEW 3: Anglo-Catholic Priest Priest B identified himself as a 'Modern Catholic', meaning that his theology flowed from the insights of the Second Vatican Council. The parish where ne now works is 'Inner City'. He trained for the priesthood with the Anglican religious community, the Society of the Sacred Mission, at Kelham, between 1968 and 1972. This course is no longer available for Anglican candidates for the priesthood. The liturgy covered during the course of studies was entirely historical and concentrated on the early period using the texts of Hippolytus and others. BCP and then Series 2 were tacked onto the end of this course. The college liturgy was formative. It was imposing and imposed by the monastic community. In common with western monastic practice, their liturgy at Kelham, followed their 24

Liturgical Presidency

use and calendar. It was expected that a priest was formed in his parish. It is interesting to note that the community had had as one of the brethren Father Gabriel Hebert SSM, whose most noted liturgical work was The Parish Communion1 which he edited in 1936. (The fiftieth anniversary of this event was in turn noted by the publication of Gray's book Earth and AltarIt would seem that his influence was greater outside the community than in it, but then there is precedent in scripture for that! Priest B remembered one practical lesson in liturgy that Kelham gave him, and that was deportment. The first parish was a housing estate. Liturgy was conducted rubrically. It was possible to investigate alternatives on one's own initiative, but it was constantly checked by the parish priest in a discouraging way. Priest B had been in his present parish for six months when the interview took place. All the texts were known, but once again The Promise of His Glory was unobtainable. (By the following December this had been put right and was being used). Making Women Visible was not used, because there was no demand. This was discovered after discussion with the people and the unearthing of his predecessor's collections of official service books 'tippexed' to the new orthodoxy of 'person-speak'. Priest B was at pains to emphasize that the supplemental texts were used to provide a change of seasonal material, most definitely not a change of basic structure. Canon B5 was used as appropriate. English Hymnal was used as the traditional standard hymnal. A Hundred Hymns for Today is in use, but being eased out, and Mission Praise has been introduced. All the four eucharistic prayers in ASB are used; 4 during Lent and for requiems; 3 for feasts; 2 whenever a short eucharistic prayer is required; 1 outside of the Lenten Season. Before Priest B answered Angue's principles, he stated that liturgy must have a spine, which it is possible for the people to learn by heart. When that is achieved, it is then possible to enhance the basic provision by addition and subtraction. Priest B agreed most strongly with 'being oneself. It is impossible 'to serve the other' without calmness and consistent behaviour when presiding. This is what, in his experience, leads to the assembly relaxing, and therefore it becomes free to worship and pray. Preparation is paramount. In 'extending what one has received', priest B recalled the experience of Kelham, where the liturgy was constantly unfolding. H e used the image of a travelator, with its gentle, but consistent, movement. With its variety of authorized texts, liturgy can be independent of locality and therefore an authentic manifestation of the Universal Church. The allowing o f ' o t h e r ministries' is important. It is felt to be especially so in this small community, which is currently being built up. Priest B would strongly agree with the final precept. Priest B has a natural gift for the use of colour and has designed vestments for the parishes where he has worked. He also is a talented musician. H e brings both these talents to the service of God and his people and it shows in the quality of the liturgy. ' A. G. Hebert (ed.), The Parish Communion. (SPCK, London, 1937). (Canterbury Press/Alcuin Club. Norwich, 1986).

1

The Enquiry: The Presidents

25

INTERVIEW 4: Prayer Book Catholic Priest C describes himself as a Prayer Book Catholic, although he no longer uses BCP as the main eucharistic liturgy in his present parish. He trained for the priesthood between 1963 and 1967. Liturgy was taught by no lesser person than jasper, who was Reader in Liturgy at the time. The course content was entirely historical, even though Series 2 was being written at the time. Priest C was taught how to celebrate the rites of the Church by following, to the letter, the rubrics in BCP, and adding the appropriate ceremonies associated by custom, or the whim of the then parish priest. Priest C arrived in his present parish in 1980. He knew of the existence of Ministry to the Sick, Lent Holy Week Easter, and Patterns for Worship. He had not heard of, Making Women Visible, The Promise of his Glory, or Church Family Worship. Only the first two known collection of texts were in regular use, whicn were found useful, the remaining four were not used at all. Lent Holy Week Easter were used only for constructing a fixed liturgy for Ash Wednesday, for the Palm Procession and a Good Friday liturgy. Priest C was unaware of Canon B 5. ASB was introduced on the date of its authorization, but only the traditional language Rite B eucharist is in use. It is claimed that this fits with the perceived musical needs of the parish. Only the second of two eucharistic prayers is ever used. The range of presidential choice is therefore, severely limited. The hymnals in use reflect this conservatism. The exception is junior Praise which is there because of the large aided primary school in the parish. This collection is however one of the most conservative of the children's hymnals. Responsorial psalms have been attempted, but quickly abandoned. Priest C feels it is very important for the people to nave all or the texts before them all of the time. 'Being oneself and 'serving the other' were considered to be most important. 'Preparing oneself was seen in an old-fashioned sense of saying the vesting prayers. (These prayers were encouraged and used in some Anglo-Catholic circles up to the reforms of the sixties, when they dropped from contemporary Roman use. They consisted of a prayer for each item of eucharistic vestment. Each vestment was endowed with a mystical symbolism reflected in the prayer, and sometimes a good Latin pun, e.g. on putting on the alb: Dealba me, Domine, et munda cor meumut, in Sanguine Agni aealhatus, gaudiis perfruar sempitemis— Make me white, O Lord, and cleanse my heart, that, being made white in the blood of the Lamb, I may have the fruition of everlasting life'.1) There was a request for these to be available in modern English translation. In fact they can be purchased from church suppliers in modern English. 'Extending what one has received' elicited the same narrow response. Choice was only exercised over music for the proper of the eucharist and trie hymns. The attitude was very much that of the former liturgy of BCP. Other ministries exercised were musical; assisting as servers; and reading the non-gospel lections. The final principle of Angue for presiding was not answered. 1

The English Missal For the Lnit)>, (W. Knott and Son Ltd., London. 1958). p.31.

26

Liturgical Presidency

Priest C showed an alarming unawareness of what had been going on in liturgy over the thirty years since he started his training. He had been untouched by what was available in the Church of England. As an area dean, and as a priest involved with parish and diocesan schools, it is even more remarkable that the responses above were received. INTERVIEW 5: Catholic Liberal Priest D wished to describe himself as a 'Catholic Liberal' definitely not a 'Liberal Catholic'! He trained for the priesthood between 1948 and 1951, well before the modern liturgical ferment. His liturgical teaching was however of the then highest calibre. Lectures were given by E. C. Ratcliff and Gordon Huelin. These were supplemented by deep lectures in the pastoral practice by the then Dean, Eric Abbott. He inculcated a distinct style in the celebration of the eucharist and. the pastoral offices which has left a permanent impression. It was said that one could identify a priest as an 'Eric Abbott boy'. Abbott himself was formed by an earlier liturgist, B. K. Cunningham. Priest D still recalled the formative books of his seminary days: Srawley1; Lowther Clarke 2 ; Hebert 3 ; Frere 4 and Dearmer. 5 The writings of Orchard, the ritualistic congregational minister, were also formative. This formation caused a deep reverence for the liturgy of BCP. In his first parish there was no experimentation. It was not an expectation of his generation. The parish could be described as tractarian. In his first situation as parish priest, this loyalty to the Prayer Book tradition persisted. Ash Wednesday would be marked by the use o f t h e 1928 service of Commination (adaptea slightly in language for the needs of the laity) instead of importing the Roman Rite to fill the gap. He was anxious to affirm that the Church of England liturgy was sufficient and catholic. As time went on this was to become more difficult to sustain. In this parish he introduced vestments and eucharistic reservation, but always in an 'Anglican' way. BCP provided the libretto, even the Exhortations were used before major festivals. This was underpinned by a lot of writing of popular articles on the Church of England liturgy in the parish magazine. Priest D felt that a stable shape to the liturgy was essential if the people were to participate fully and this was achieved by printing a 'parish communion' booklet for use in the parish. The Parish Communion6 had an marked effect on his liturgical and pastoral policy. Interestingly, children's worship was celebrated with a high degree of freedom and experiment. In the current situation ASB was welcomed (as indeed were its predecessors) and introduced as soon-as possible. Junior colleagues are supervised in the preparation of services and encouraged to experiment.

1 2 ä 4 5 6

The Early History of Liturgy 2nd edition, (CUP, Cambridge, 1949). Liturg/ and Worship (SPCK, London, 1932/1943). op. at. Principles of Religious Ceertmonial (New Edition), (Mowbray, London, 1926). The Art of Public Worship. (Mowbray, London, 1919/1920). Hebert. op. cit. The Enquiry:

The Presidents

27

Priest D was aware of all the supplemental texts published since 1980 and made use of them all as occasion demanded. The music repertoire was extensive in this suburban commuter parish. One could find: New English Hymnal; Celebration Hymnal; Hymns Ancient and Modern New Standard; Mission Praise; Come and Praise and Taiz6 chant. On a Sunday a leaflet would be prepared if there were to be hymns from a number of sources. Eucharistic Prayer 1 is used exclusively on Sunday, because the music had been written for it by the local organist. During the week the other eucharistic prayers are in regular use. Not surprisingly Canon B5 was well known and used. Angue's six precepts received a rapturous endorsement. 'Being oneself was agreed with the pithy observation that Anglican clergy have difficulty in being natural as leaders of worship. They seem to have great difficulty in being human in formal situations. Commenting on 'extending oneself, he added that there was a proper time to innovate/extemporize and that presidents should be prepared to take risks. Lay ministry is encouraged and welcomed. Priest D added a final comment to Angue's final category. He said that he had always used the boldest gesture appropriate to the assembly and that this was 'charismatic'. Arm gestures do not belong solely to a small section of the Church. Priest D is only a few years from formal retirement. Of all the interviewees he showed the depth of his own formation, and was the only one to refer to the people and books who had helped shape his presidential style. (Lebon 1 was being read at the time of the interview). D. C O M M E N T S

All the interviewees selected their own nomenclature. They showed a greater or lesser progress since leaving Theological College. Even Priest C had moved from BCP to Rite B in ASB. It is impossible to state that the bishop is typical. The number of'guides for the bishop' from the last century to the present display the distinct possibility that help was required, and continues to be needed. The bishop interviewed shows an innate ability as a 'performer', a quality he shares with Priest B. His grasp of the 'canon' of authorized texts is absolute, though as noted in the interview he does not impose his will on the choice of variables allowed in confirmation and ordination eucharists. His history shows a constant development/formation in the sense of the drama which the liturgy displays. It is hard to conceive of him trivializing the liturgy where he presides. The diocese is fortunate in having him as a pastor and role model. Priest A and Priest B come to remarkably similar conclusions as to the nature of liturgy and its ability to include or exclude people. Priest B talks of liturgy having a 'spine', while Priest A mentions the discovery that 'structure is important'. They come from different ends of the Anglican spectrum, but reach tne same conclusions. Both have immersed themselves in tne liturgy and have learnt. It 1

How to Understand the Liturg,', (SCM, L o n d o n . 1987).

28

Liturgical Presidency

should be noted that Priest D also wanted stability in his parish c o m m u n i o n , long before the days o f ASB. Priest C has not so much been formed in the liturgy, but has b e c o m e set in it. Smolarski warns that liturgical law is not to be taken too seriously nor too lightly. It is, after all, human law and capable o f development. 1 Priest C has already lost touch with the emerging canon o f texts. W i t h such a sample two trends e m e r g e — o n e that is encouraging and hopeful. T h e first trend shows a deep formation o f the individuals, which m u s t be c o m municated to their junior colleagues and the people o f the parish, and indeed Priest D specifically mentioned this. T h e other trend is negative and stultifying. It is only too depressingly inevitable that just as good practice will be passed on, so will bad. T h i s aspect o f the enquiry should not be left without a final m e n t i o n o f Priest D. It would be only t o o easy to w n t e o f f a clergymen o f his vintage. His attitude to his task as presider is robust and inquiring. His confidence is founded in the sound scholarship o f his seminary teaching, which was noted as academic and practical, and in the forty years o f growing experience as president o f the eucharistic assembly. I f only ne were typical o f his generation, and o f the Anglican clergy as a whole. It is impossible to say which o f the interviewees represents the greatest n u m b e r o f practitioners. T h e r e would be a n u m b e r o f other clergy in between the two extremes o f good and bad practice. T h e observations whicn follow show again various perceptions o f the presiders over liturgy.

1

D. Smorlaski, How Not To Say /Vtas,(Paulist Press, New York/Mahawa, 1986). p.26. The Enquiry:

The Presidents

29

6. The Enquiry: The Celebrations A. T H E

INTRODUCTION

A distraught correspondent to the Church Music Quarterly wrote the following: " . . . An aged but active Anglican, my many erstwhile experiences "in retirement" while deputizing as organist and/or choirmaster (mostly in Hampshire or Surrey) ana as a member of the congregation could read as a horror c o m i c . . . "On! when I take the service I go to paragraph 10, but when the curate takes it he goes to paragraph 5"; congregation, choir and organist gyrating like peas in a pod.' 1 His lament is not isolated. If the comments received by Diocesan Liturgical Committees from the bishops are to be believed, the quality of worship is generally deplorable. The bishops do not enjoy much of their peregrinating worship. One has said that he is not surprised so few go to church, if they experience what he does. Gray's recent article in LivingStones asserts that the Eucharist is the evangelistic service. He quotes from Wesley's Journal of 27 June 1740 to back up this assertion.2 Carroll, Assistant Secretary to the (Roman Catholic) Bishops' Conference on Liturgy, writing on the ability of the liturgy to promote the good news of the gospel says: 'The community which celebrates, and most of all the priests who lead it, are the channels of this good news. It is often the first, it may even be the only, experience of God's love which secular people receive from the Church . . . . . . Are they good news for these people, at this time, through us?'3 Undoubtedly there is something very significant going on in Christian eucharistic assemblies. Therefore the third line of enquiry was to observe the assembly first hand. B. O B S E R V A T I O N

1: E P I S C O P A L

ORDINATION

In the cathedral a congregation of over 3000 people had assembled for a most significant occasion in the life of two dioceses. The liturgical space was enormous. Most of the people present, whether Anglican or not, would have been attending an episcopal ordination for the first time. The cathedral custom is to have ushers dressed like East London undertakers. One encounters silver-haired men in black tail-coats complemented by collarettes in blue silk complete with a medallion. This makes the initial atmosphere

1 2

5

Tom Markwell, 'Tangled Threads' in Church Music Quarterly 23:113 (1991), p.21. Donald Gray, 'Liturgy and Evangelism: T h e Church Revealed and Proclaimed' in Living Stones 4:2 (1990), p.36. Philip Carroll. 'Evangelism and Liturgy' in Liturgy 14 (1990), p. 144.

30

Liturgical

Presidency

intimidating, rather than intimate. Pompous directions to seating did not relax the congregation. Unusually for cathedral worship, the entrance procession was just that. Tnere were no confusing minor processions. T h e Archbishop reached the president's chair and greeted the assembly. H e was unaware that the openarmed greeting associated with the words 'The Lord be with you', needed to be as large and expansive as the space in which he was called to preside. T h e opening and closing o f his joined hands by a mere six inches was ludicrous. This criticism could be made o f all the manual gesture associated with the liturgy on that day. Presidential vesture was good and splendid as befitted the occasion. It is an area in which Anglicans can excel, but the assisting bishops for the ordination were in sixteenth century choir dress, supposed to be academic, but looking like dressing gowns and night shirts. It is a vesture devoid o f recognizable ecclesial s y m b o l Writing earlier this century, Dearmer lays heavy strictures on this odd dress. Instead o f beauty, he claims, the vesture o f class distinction was retained after the Reformation. Clergy are anxious not to appear as inferior men. 1 W h a t was very striking was the overbearing episcopal clericalism o f the ordination liturgy. There were many deacons robed and present, but not one proclaimed the liturgical gospel or prepared the altar for the eucharist. T h e gospel was read by the Bishop o f London. Several thousand lay Christians were present, not least members o f the new bishops' families. T h e y were not invited to read the non-gospel reading, nor bring the bread and wine to the altar at the preparation o f the gifts. T h e first reading was given to the Bishop o f Winchester (the then chairman o f the Liturgical Commission). T h e distribution o f communion was badly organized; not enough communion vessels were prepared, so there were inadequate communion stations. T h e time taken to distribute communion was disproportionate to the overall timescale of the liturgy. M u c h o f the atmosphere was therefore lost. This ordination had much in common with liturgy to be experienced in most English Anglican cathedrals. It was clerical, denying the authentic ministries o f the whole People o f God. T h e choreography looked good, but underlined the hierarchies o f power, and undermined the gospel hierarchies o f service. The president looked ill at ease with the texts and the rite and this was communicated to the assembly. B. O B S E R V A T I O N

2: C H R I S M

EUCHARIST

A critical observation at the diocesan Chrism Eucharist allows the diocesan bishop to be seen exercising his liturgical ministry at one the most significant points in the liturgical year. S o m e background information will assist in putting this liturgy in its context. Three oils are traditionally blessed for the Church's ministry during the year. T h e oil o f Chrism is oil mixed with a fragrant perfume for anointing at confirmation, ordination, blessing o f churches and altars, and is used in the rite o f coronation o f the monarch. T h e oil of Catechumens is used in the nte o f baptism as a 1

Dearmer, op. at.. p.97

The Enquiry: The Celebrations

31

preliminary anointing after the questions of renunciation and turning to Christ. The oil of Infirmorium is used in anointing the sick. The blessing of oils is reserved to the bishop (except a priest may in an emergency bless oil for the anointing of the sick). ASB provides eucharistic propers for 'The Blessing of Oils'1, and a proper preface for the Eucharistic Prayer2, but there is no other official text for tne blessing of the oils. This fact is curious, as the optional use of Holy Oil is referred to in the Rite of Christian Initiation 3 , and in Ministry to the Sick4 and allowed for in Canon B37 in The Canons of the Church of England. This is the first time that an official Church of England text mentions 'the blessing of oils'. Prior to 1980, the Roman Rite was used by those diocesan bishops wishing to bless oils for sacramental use. Nearly sixty years ago Mackenzie attests to 'a few Anglican bishops' reviving the blessing of oils during the Maundy Thursday liturgy.5 An attempt to authorize a text for the blessing of oils failed to secure the approval of General Synod. The bishop is therefore free to use a suitable text to secure the blessing of the oils. Invariably the Roman Rite is plundered! A recent feature of the Roman liturgy on this day, is the renewal of commitment to priestly service. This has caught the imagination of many Anglicans, and is frequently incorporated into the rite. There is always a certain amount of tension at the Cathedral for this celebration. Some is generated by the various traditions in Anglicanism coming together for a single service. There is a feeling among a number of low church Anglicans that this is a 'corrupt following of the apostles' and that the bishop is in cahoots with un-English elements in the diocese. Concelebration causes an unusual degree of stress among the same constituency. There is much agonizing with the head, missing much fine moving of the heart in this special liturgy. Some of this angst is evident in the authorized Anglican forms to be found outside England. Ireland makes no mention of oils. Wales seems as ever confused. The Chrism Eucharist there is dealt with by a rubric preceding the traditional Collects and readings for the Eucharist of the Last Supper: 'It is customary for the Holy Oil to be blessed by tne Bishop on this day at the Eucharist.' 6 No alternative propers are provided, nor is there any rite for the blessing of the oil(s). Canada has its fine essays, but only two oils and calls the oil of baptism 'chrism', the other oil is for tne sick. In fact the oil of baptism, that is, of the catechumens, is not mentioned. 7 South Africa blesses only two oils, but with 1

op. cit., p.555. ibid., p. 155. ibid., pp.225 and 226. 4 (CUP, Cambridge: William Clowes, Colchester: M o w b r a y / O U P , Oxford: SPCK, London, 1983), p.28. 5 K. D. MacKenzie, 'Anglican Adaption of S o m e Latin Ritesand Ceremonies' in Liturgy and Worship (SPCK, London. 1932). p.737. 6 Gwasanaethau A Defodau (Church In Wales Publications, South Glamorgan, 1983), p. 16. 7 The Book Of Alternative Services (Anglican Book Centre, Toronto. 1985), pp.616-662. 2 J

32

Liturgical Presidency

more ceremony than Canada. South Afnca renews priestly commitment, with the novel addition of a prayer from the Roman Rite asking for a blessing on priests' wives! 1 In this particular cathedral more tension is generated by the resident cathedral clergy, w h o are not in the limelight on this occasion, as tne bishop presides and preaches. Some months prior to this euchanst, the bishop invites all the diocesan priests to concelebrate with him and the suffragan and assistant bishops, expressing the importance he places on this diocesan family occasion. Tne deacons are also invited to exercise their traditional ministry. The cathedral chapter appear to feel out of control on this occasion. A ceremony that is only celebrated once a year requires a degree of attention to detail if it is to succeed. The n u m b e r of concélébrants has exceeded 150, and had been increasing each year. The framework is the Rite A eucharist 2 and that shape remains clear. After the homily the priests renew their commitment to priestly service. In c o m m o n with a number of other dioceses, the deacons are invited to renew their vows. A unusual feature of this diocesan rite is the renewal of vows made by the area bishops. This was inserted after a request by the area bishops. After tne renewal, the three oils are presented by deacons and blessed. Tne eucharist continues with the Rite of Peace, the priests concelebrating with the Diocesan Bishop. With this brief background the observation of the rite can now be described. The whole service, including hymns, was are printed in a single book. Presidential options had been decided well in advance and agreed. The pages preceding the opening song of the rite had short essays on the Oils, Renewal of Vows, Anointing in the Old Testament, Anointing of Jesus, Jesus' Ministry and T h e Anointing of the Church at Pentecost. This enabled those arriving early to reflect on the rite and its importance to the life of the church in the diocese. The cathedral church has been re-ordered. The altar stands before the congregation and allows the president to celebrate facing them. T h e former chancel seats the lay choir, when present. The cathedral canons also have their seats there. The bishop's chair is at the east end of the chancel and is raised. H e is visible from most parts of the building, but geographically distant. A reasonable amplification system is in place. Two ambos are sited either side of the front of the nave. By any standard the entrance of the Bishop was impressive, as he was preceded by forty deacons and one hundred ana fifty priests. The seating of the concélébrants was slightly disorganized, due to a number of priests turning up to concelebrate, who had failed to inform the cathedral. Having sorted out 'double bookings' during the opening hymn, the bishop fixed the assembly with a warm smile and an all-embracing gesture of arms extended and said 'Peace be

1

An Anglican Prayer Book 1989 (Collins Liturgical Publications, London, 1989), pp.177-

2

ASB, pp.115-173.

182.

The Enquiry: The Celebrations

33

with you'. This formal greeting is traditional for a bishop in Western liturgy and replaces the usual T h e Lord be with you'. This deliberate action established the bishop's presidency from the outset. He said all those parts assigned the president noted in ASB. Other ministries were in evidence, and this was no prima donna performance. The first two readings were proclaimed by laity, the Gospel by a deacon. Deacons presented the oils to be blessed. Ministers of music led the singing of the proper of the mass and the psalm. Lay people presented the bread and wine to be consecrated during the eucharistic prayer. It was noticeable that the bishop stood to preach from his chair and wore the mitre. Previously he would go to the ambo, and be bare-headed. The new location and the wearing of the mitre underlined his teaching office, and made him visible in a dramatic way. The rite had a great sense of occasion, style and what is so often lacking, pace. Many clergy talking in the sacristy afterwards commented on the sense of being affirmed by being there. This was not just because of the verbal affirmation which was communicated in the homily. One lapse in style was noticeable. The oils are distributed after the eucharist in glass jars, clearly marked to distinguish the three oils. This is practical, and speeds up the collection of this precious sign of our unity with the bishop. When the oil is presented to the bishop for blessing, the same small container is used. It is hard to enter into the ceremony of this significant blessing with such an unworthy container. It is also impossible to smell the fragrance of the balsam, mixed with the olive oil to make the holy chrism, when it is in a small sealed container. An important part of the symbolism is lost. B O B S E R V A T I O N 3: S U B U R B A N

PARISH

On entering the building for the Sunday Eucharist, each person was given a small library presumably to participate in the liturgy. This package was made up of: two hymn books—one ancient, one modern; one complete pew copy of ASB—1293 pages; and the parish Notice Sheet—one sheet of foolscap printed portrait on both sides. The congregation was about 180 people. The procession entered with the president preceded by an assistant priest and a robed lay reader. The president failed to establish his position at the veiy beginning of the service, despite the notes/rubrics in ASB, which state that tne president is to say: '. . the opening Greeting the Collect, the Absolution, the Peace, and the Blessing he himself must take the bread and the cup before replacing them on the holy table, say the Eucharistic Prayer, break the consecrated bread, and receive the sacrament on every occasion. The remaining parts of the service be may delegate to others. When necessity dictates, a deacon or lay person may preside over the Ministry of the Wordr' The Greeting was given by the lay reader, who stood away from the presidential chair, and at the reader's invitation, the congregation together said two 1

ASB. p. 115.

34

Liturgical Presidency

collects printed on the Notice Sheet, despite the rubric above, which directs that there should be one ('collect' is singular) and that the president says it. T h e president was not to be heard until the Peace. Two readings preceded the Gospel as in the appointed lectionary. T h e y followed on immediately without a break of silence, or song. An eight-verse song ushered in t h e Gospel; however during the song the children approached the altar rail for a blessing, and then left for their catechism. By the time the hymn had ended, any link with the earlier readings was long forgotten. T h e children's action seemed to say that the Gospel was not for them. A low-key, mini-procession, of flask of wine and cibonum of wafer bread, was swiftly taken to the altar at the beginning of the hymn at the Preparation of the Gifts; meanwhile a money collection was taking place. A more solemn and formal procession of bags of money was received at the altar in large and impressive plates, at the end of the song. These were held aloft by the president, completely overshadowing the bread and wine on the altar table. There was a confusion of symbols. T h r o u g h o u t the liturgy page numbers, often followed by paragraph numbers, had been given o u t before each prayer, reading or action. This distraction continued unabated during the Eucharistic Prayer. T h e unity of the Eucharistic Prayer is usually masked by Anglicans changing posture after the Sanctus chant. 1 This aberration was addecf to, by the assembly joining in the anamnesis after the eucharistic acclamation, further destroying tne unity of the great central prayer of the rite. Before leaving the Eucharistic Prayer, the presidential action during the dominical words deserves some c o m m e n t . Firstly, at the words 'he broke it', the president broke the bread, thereby preempting tne Fraction prior to Holy Communion, and obscuring the classic four-fold shape of the rite. Secondly, t h e tone of voice adopted for the Words of Institution was hectoring. It gave tne impression that consecration of the species of bread and wine was effected by intimidation. At the conclusion of the Eucharistic Prayer the page n u m b e r was a n n o u n c e d for the recitation of the Lord's Prayer. O t h e r ministries were evident. There were the c o m m o n ministries of usher, altar server and musician. T h e non-gospel readings, T h e Prayer of Intercession and assistance with distributing Holy C o m m u n i o n , were undertaken by lay people. T h e extraordinary ministers of c o m m u n i o n were men, but the congregation was 70% to 80% female. T h e president and ministers of c o m m u n i o n received the sacrament during the Agnus Dei chant. T h e congregation were then invited forward to receive. This was a piece of clericalism which destroys the unity of the Body of Christ and is contraiy to rubrics 45 and 46 in the rite.2 T h e liturgical space was good, largely because the building was destroyed by fire and rebuilt using the insights of the Liturgical Movement. T h e altar was 1

2

The Eucharistic Prayer (sections 38-41) is a single prayer, the unity of which may he obscured by* changes of posture in the course ofit'ASB, p. 115: Note 4. ibid. p. 145.

The Enquiry: The Celelrrations

35

central and prominent with a large corona suspended from the ceiling. Little was made of the president's seat, ana unfortunately he disappeared from view each time he sat down. This central seat was dominated by the organ console. The lectern was a poorly designed portable piece of furniture, not worthy as a focus for the Word of God. The liturgy lacked cohesion and direction. This Sunday eucharist took place in the season of Lent. Purple vestments were worn, Lenten hymns sung, and the propers for the season from ASB were used, except the invitation to share the Peace. There was no enrichment from the supplement Lent Holy Week Easter: Services and Prayers. Much of what was done was intended to facilitate participation, but its effects were the opposite, and led to exclusion. Constant page numbers led to constant page turning. This increased tension in the group, and destroyed any sense of recollection. Those in the know prepared to turn to a text a little ahead, and those who were neophytes in this method of worship awaited instruction, as to paper or book, page and paragraph, say together or listen. The noise of rustling paper, punctuated by the odd dropped book, constantly assailed the ears. B. O B S E R V A T I O N 4: T O W N

PARISH

The church building retained its Victorian furnishings and layout, ie. an altar against the east wall and a sedilia for the president against the side wall. The president led the worship as directed in the rubrics, and enabled other ministries to be exercised as appropriate. Geographically he was difficult to see and hear until after the Preparation of the Gifts, when he went to the altar. There was good strong gesture, particu larly effective when visible to the whole assembly. One lapse of style was clearly to be seen. The gradine behind the altar, on which stood the crucifix and six candlesticks, was being used as a bookcase for a collection of hymnbooks. This gave a sense of clutter to the significant area of the altar table. Despite the difficulties of celebrating a modern liturgy in an old-fashioned building, the rite was clearly defined and flowed smoothly. The four-fold action was revealed. The assembly was relaxed with the president. Most used only the hymn as necessary, but were an fait with their part without resorting to reading the text. Again this was during Lent, and no supplemental texts were used apart from ASB. B O B S E R V A T I O N 5: I N N E R C I T Y

PARISH

The ministry of welcome by the ushers/sidesmen was well organised. An abstract of the Rite A eucharist was supplied with a hymnbook and small parish notice leaflet. If one wanted the full text of readings etc, page numbers for ASB were noted on the leaflet and not announced, the same applied to the hymns. The presidential chair was central and raised slightly behind the altar. He was able to see and be seen by all the people. After the Greeting he briefly introduced the theme of the celebration, which flowed naturally into the Penitential rite. The Collect concluded the introduction. The non-gospel readings were read by 36

Liturgical Presidency

laity. After the gospel and homily the president again briefly introduced the Creed. The Intercessions were lay led and well done. A seasonal sentence for the Peace alternative to that provided in ASB was used with a strong trigger-phrase recognized by the assembly who responded. A dignified procession of the bread and wine followed, and the money offerings were received by the president and the altar prepared. In Eucnaristic Prayer 3 advantage was taken of the recommendation in Making Women Visible1 to name Mary, and similarly in The Promise of his Glory2 to add the name of the parish patron: '. . . so that we, in tne company of all the saints, may . . . was changed to: '... so that we, in the com pany of Mary the Mother of God, St. Andrew and all the saints, may . . . ' The invitation to communion was altered interpolating after 'who takes away the sins of the world', the phrase 'who has ransomed us for God by his blood shed upon the Cross'. The usual, and well-known trigger-phrase was retained eliciting the usual congregational response. Lay ministers of communion assisted and the liturgy closed with a suitable seasonal blessing. The overall atmosphere was one of confidence and competence, which facilitated authentic worship, inclusive of everyone present. B. O B S E R V A T I O N 6: D O C K L A N D S

PARISH

This eucharist was one of those quintessential Church of England occasions. It was the swearing in of churchwardens for the coming year from the East London Deaneries of Waltham Forest, Newham and Barkingand Dagenham. It required the presence of the Diocesan Registrar complete witn gown and wig. A congregation of over 200 was summoned and present representing many differing traditions of Anglicanism. Each participant was given a prepared complete service booklet with all the required texts and hymns. No otner books were necessary. The liturgical environment was in a newly created ecclesiastical building to serve the emerging Docklands estates. Along with the worship space were meeting areas and a health centre. There was a westward-facing altar, but not raised sufficiently for the assembly to see. The altar's proportions were too small for the building, and too small for the arrangement of the essential 'hardware' for the liturgy. Before the liturgy commenced the altar was cluttered with chalices and ciboria and an opened and upended burse, which served no symbolic or ceremonial purpose. The whole was dominated by the most ugly black and chrome microphone. Smolarski reminds presidents that altars should not look like 'awards tables at bowling banquets or like vendors' tables at pottery craft shows'.3 op. at., p.21. op. cit. p. 3 76: Note 14. 3 op. cit, p.62. 1

2

The Enquiry: The Celebrations

37

Unannounced, the president (host area dean), registrar, archdeacon, two area deans, parish priest and three lay chairs of the Deanery Synods, shuffled to their places Dehind the altar. There seemed to be no reason for this display of power. The president, registrar and archdeacon were the only people to exercise specific roles in the liturgy requiring them to be at the front. There was a chatty welcome from the president, which without pause or differentiation went into the opening sentence of scripture for the feast of Ss. Philip and James. After this we were invited to stand and told to sing the first hymn, with the first two phrases lined out as though we were unable to read or follow a well-presented service sheet. During verse 3 it was realized that the candles had not been lit. The parish priest frantically searched the congregation for a smoker with a lighter. Both tne absolution and final blessing were given by the archdeacon out of a misplaced sense of honour. These properly belong to the president. In the eucnaristic assembly the archdeacon is a presbyter along with other presbyters. His disciplinary role is quite separate. Tnis action would have confused many laity and some clergy as to his status. The opening prayer and other presidential prayers which survived intact, were read from the small service booklet. This prevented the use of any arm gesture and made the prayers seem as disposable as the paper booklet. This also ensured that eye-contact by the president was kept to a minimum. A priest read the non-gospel reading, depriving the laity of their share in the proclamation of the Word of God. A lay person did lead the Intercessions. Once again the unity of the eucharistic prayer was destroyed, not by the change in posture half way, but by the invitation to everyone to join in at the anamnesis. The distribution of Holy C o m m u n i o n had been inadequately thought through and not enough ministers were utilized. This resulted in the c o m m u n ion lasting 16 minutes in a service of one hour. It unbalanced the liturgy, which had already lacked style and pace. Many optional parts of Rite A were included, which would have been better omitted because of the ceremony of Admission of Churchwardens. The Admission and the homily by the Archdeacon were the best parts of this confused and turgid celebration. Great pastoral opportunities were missed at this gathering, which called together Anglican lay leaders in East London. C. C O M M E N T S

The liturgy is the public proclamation of the life of the church. As Sacrosanctum Concilium states: '... the liturgy is the outstanding means by which the faithful can express in their lives and manifest to others, the mystery of Christ and the real nature of the true Church.' 2 1

Walter M. A b b o t t (General Editor). The Documents L o n d o n 1965), p. 137.

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Of Vatican II ( G e o f f r e y C h a p m a n ,

The care exercised in its celebration must be paramount. In the observations external care had often been taken, but, as the observations show, there were areas, such as the use or abuse of symbol, where sufficient care had not been taken. The elimination of the children prior to the gospel proclamation in the third observation was a case in point. A number of presidents had no idea of the deep structures, rhythms and dynamics of the liturgical celebration. The observations call first for a personal re-examination of style. H o w do I use symbol, gesture and text?

The Enquiry: The Celebrations

39

7. The Conclusion A. T H E N A T U R E O F L I T U R G Y

T h e Liturgical M o v e m e n t has re-awakened in the Church the truth that all t h e baptized must participate in the liturgy. By its nature liturgy requires the full and active participation o f all. It is the place where theology is not only done, but must be seen to be done. Irwin reminds us the liturgy is a unique source o f theology because it is always a ritual event, not a written Statement', 'Confession' or collection o f 'Articles'. Irwin reminds us that: 'Congar notes the uniqueness o f the liturgy as the action o f the Church that mediates the c o m m u n i t y ' s experience o f God.' 1 For the Christian the liturgy is at the heart o f the experience o f the Risen Christ. 'These [The early Christian c o m m u n i t y ] remained faithful to the teaching o f the apostles, to the brotherhood, to the breaking o f bread and to the prayers'. (Acts 2.42) T h e patristic witness to this primary theology is encapsulated by the O r t h o d o x Evagrius o f Pontus (c. 5 0 0 C E ) that 'a theologian is o n e whose prayer is true'. T h e t h e m e is continued to the present by the writings o f liturgical theologians such as S c h m e m a n n 2 ; Kavanagh 3 (for a comprehensive list o f European and American scholars and their writing consult Irwin 4 ); and the latest report o f the Church o f England Liturgical C o m m i s s i o n which states: ' . . . the worship o f the Church is the point o f integration between G o d , theology and life.' 5 Michael R a m s e y notes the criticism o f G e r m a n theologians w h o rebuke Anglicans for doing their theology to the sound o f church bells. Addressing Anglican seminarians in America he exhorts them n o t to change their ways. 'Well, continue to d o theology to the sound o f church bells, for that is what Christian theology is really all about—worshipping G o d the Saviour through Jesus Christ is the theology o f the apostolic age'. 6 T h e Worship o f the C h u r c h is the supreme ecclesial activity where Scripture is proclaimed, the Baptized profess the Faith and exercise their ministry, the Liturgical texts are prayed and the whole is ordered by Liturgical Law(s). Liturgy exists as one n u m a n activity a m o n g many. Indicators for liturgical formation can start to be discerned by reflecting on liturgy as a human social activity. Kavanagh points to the analysis o f the social scientist G o f f m a n w h o has pointed o u t that there are three types o f social relationships. 7 T h e r e is the o n e - t o - o n e

Kevin W. Irwin, Liturgical Theologf (The Liturgical Press, Collegeville, 1990), p.18. Introduction to Liturgical Theology (St. Vladimir's Press, New York, 1966). 3 op. cit. 4 op. cit. 5 The Worship of the Church ofEngland as it Approaches the Third Millennium (CHP, London, 1991), p.8. 6 Michael Ramsey, The Anglican Spirit (SPCK, London, 1991), p.19. 7 op. cit.. pp. 136-139. 1

2

40

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Presidency

intense, exclusive relationship, which is typified by the parent/child interaction. It is by its very nature exclusive. T h e second type is one-to-many. This is to f o u n d in the lecture theatre or concert hall. Its appearance in Christian worship is to be f o u n d in the 'preaching box' design of ecclesiastical building. It is an expression of a hierarchy with a single focus (pulpit) and serried ranks of the faithful (pews). It is a late development in Christian architecture and not designed for liturgy. T h e third relationship model is what G o f f m a n calls many-to-many. T h e many-to-many relationship is described as 'social occasions'. This is the party, convention, dinners or other complex celebratory events with m a n y overlapping relationships. It is in this third category of relationship that the activity of liturgy exists. These 'social occasions' are by their very nature not commonplace. T h e y are significant, occasional and ritual. They develop a rhythm, a routine, a m o v e m e n t of their own. Liturgy as a 'social occasion' will have rules which enable the the many people involved in its transaction to interact without chaos. Kavanagh again provides help in explaining that liturgy is governed by rule and names its f o u r guiding principles or canons, and a final dimension. 1 T h e canon of holy scripture is that group or writings which t h e Christian community deems appropriate to read aloud in the assembly. T h e criteria are not literary, n o r the piety of their authors, but rather of their being 'of G o d ' rather than 'about God'. T h e reading of the Word of G o d in the liturgy has acclamations after the non-gospel readings, and there are additional responses and a change of posture associated with tne proclamation of the Gospel. These features mark these texts out as special. 2 In m a n y communities the Gospel will be decorated with lights, incense and special music. T h e Holy Scriptures define the liturgy as a h u m a n gathering centred on G o d and his activity. G o d is in the midst of the liturgical assembly. T h e canon of Baptismal Faith is s u m m e d u p in the Trinitarian Creeds. Baptismal faith is a personal testimony. A belief and trust in Father Son and Holy Spirit is required of the neophyte. 3 This credal statement in the Trinity of Persons causes the Christian to profess belief in a personal G o d , and to become part of a divine community. It is a guard against introverted pathological piety and an impetus to outward-looking evangelism. T h e canon of eucharistic faith is contained in the eucharistic prayers, which are those texts which the Church has authorized to proclaim the saving acts of G o d u n d e r t h e signs of bread and wine. This canon constitutes a repertoire, a libretto, which presiderand people should be familiar with. O n e would want to add those other texts which allow the Church to celebrate and sanctify: Initiation; Marriage; Death and Time. T h e fourth canon concerns itself with liturgical law. For m e m b e r s of the Church of England this will have its foundation in the Canons of the Church of England 1 and in the Act of Uniformity which prefaces BCP and the Ordinal. The ' ibid., p. 139ff. 2

3 4

A SB, pp. 122-123.

ibid, p.232. See ' S e c t i o n B: D i v i n e Service a n d t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e S a c r a m e n t s ' .

Conclusion

41

rubrics in BCP and the Ordinal, the notes in ASB, and also the notes in the m o r e recent rites and ceremonies recently provided provide a second tier o f law. T h e more nebulous law is in that area o f style or presentation. It requires a knowledge o f the deep structures o f the liturgy and o f the people w h o gather to celebrate the rites o f the Church in each culture and location. Finally, as we are stating that social occasions are to do with survival, liturgy will have an eschatologicaldimension. It deals with the H o l y O n e w h o is beyond time. As the Paschal Candle is blessed in the G r e a t Vigil o f Easter Night the president proclaims: Christ yesterday and today, the beginning and the end, Alpha and Omega, all time belongs to him, and all ages; to him be glory and power, through every age and for ever. Amen. 2 T h e following observation o f creativity/improvisation in a theatrical setting is pertinent to the understanding o f the above c a n o n s in this study. O n 26 M a y 1991 t h e Shaftesbury T h e a t r e hosted an ' I m p r o m p t u t h o n ' in aid o f a children s charity. T h e show lasted over two hours. It owed its inspiration to a British T V C h a n n e l 4 p r o g r a m m e ' W h o s e Line Is It Anyway?'. T h e format o f the televised show consists o f a chairman and four actors. T h e chairman, aided by the studio audience, throws out suggestions to the actors who have to improvise situations singly o r together for the a m u s e m e n t o f the audience. T h e transmitted show is an edited version. T h e stage show involved m a n y more actors and lacked the chairman. Ideas for song titles, locations and persons were solicited from m e m b e r s o f the audience on slips o f paper. T h e y were deposited on the stage and the improvisations began. Two things b e c a m e apparent very quickly. First, t h e w o m e n and men w h o were used to working with each other on stage quickly responded to each other and a scene rapidly built up and punch-lines were delivered well and received laughs. T h o s e w h o were working together for the first time did not seem to gel a n a the laughter was correspondingly thin. Second, total improvisation usually had the actors in stitches, but excluded the audience from the joke. W h e n improvisers were treading well-worn p a t h s o f comedy, the audience was c o m fortable and laughed a great deal. In fact we were either taking part in c o m e d y theatre ritual a n a enjoying it, or we failed to recognize the ritual and felt uncomfortable. Absolute improvisation was chaotic, embarrassing and self-indulgent. On the o t h e r hand creativity within the canon o f c o m e d y situations struck chords with audience and actor and led to fulfilment. T h e parallel with liturgy is striking, where there is a real tension between the undefined border o f creativity and improvisation. Actors are formed in the many theatrical canons. T h e a t r e operates in defined space, uses texts and situations, has styles and pace. W i t h this in mind we can go on to look at formation. 1

Lent Holy Week Easter: Services and Prayers, p.229.

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B. T H E S T A G E S OF F O R M A T I O N

This study has been concerned with the consequences for liturgical formation of the clergy of the Church of England. It should be obvious that liturgical formation is required for the whole People of God. This was the theme of the Second International Anglican Liturgical Consultation in Brixen, North Italy, during August 1987.1 However it is the responsibility of the clergy to preside (except where this is canonically given to a lay person licitly or in necessity). The function of formation in liturgy is to see that the four canons and the eschatological dimension mentioned above are understood. With this understanding the liturgy may flow in any given situation, and the gospel may be proclaimedand lived. The task of liturgical formation is to facilitate the proper participation of the People of God in tne offering of worship. It is not an end in itself. The goal of liturgical formation is that the People of God should live out the gospel of Jesus Christ. They must praise God in the sanctuary, but then return to five out the Word of God in their lives. This is the life of tne baptized in the mission of the Church. 2 1. Liturgical Pre-formation Ordinands beginning their studies at seminary do not arrive in a 'virgin' state. They have been worshipping in Christian communities for some time. A number will have been at the eucharist since their baptism in infancy, others since a later stage in their lives. Some will be heirs of a single tradition in a particular style of churchmanship in Anglicanism, others will have moved around. Another group will have changed from one Christian denomination to another. All will have already worshipped. A number may have exercised a particular ministry within the eucharistic assembly: a reader; leader of prayer; minister of communion or lay presider. This needs to be remembered. On this clear understanding formation can build, and pedagogy has no place. 2. Liturgical Formation in Seminary Serious thought needs to be given to the implementation of the Christian Worship Unit of the General Ministerial Examination Syllabus.3 It has been shown that Historical and/or Comparative Liturgy is taught, but that constraints of time, and/or the lack of qualified teachers does not allow for the Setting of Liturgy to be adequately explored. Hughes states: 'Prayer in the name of the community is a grace filled moment, not a memorized formula or a text upon a printed page.'4 If this is to become a reality in the life of the Church more work is required in the seminary setting. The chapel services will be central to demonstrating good 1 2

3 4

T h o m a s J. Talley (ed.), A Kingdom of Priests ( G r o v e Books Ltd., N o t t i n g h a m , 1988). R e m b e r t G . W e a k l a n d , 'Liturgy' in J a m e s P. M o r o n e y (ed.). Liturgy Active Participation In The Divine Life, ( T h e Liturgical Press, Collegeville, 1990), p.92. See A p p e n d i x 3. Kathleen H u g h e s , Lay Presiding: The Art of Leading Prayer (Pastoral Press, W a s h i n g t o n DC, 1988), p.43. '

Conclusion

43

practice and allowing participation in preparation and planning. (One Anglican Theological College has the good fortune to minister in a parish situation throughout the year. This has an obvious advantage for the students.) The parish placements will need to be selected with care, so that again the student can be part of a eucharistic community where liturgical formation will continue to take place and effective ministry can be shared. Perhaps teachers of liturgy should be experienced parish priests whose contract to teach is limited to a small number of years, so that they remain in touch with the people and the texts. Students need to reflect on the liturgy they experience. This can be helped by conducting a 'liturgy audit' from time to time. This 'audit' technique is being used in many other ecclesiastical disciplines, e.g. Parish Audit and Missionary Audit. The 'liturgy audit' requires the participant to reflect responsibly on the worship experience. This discipline should remain through seminary to active ministry. 1 3. Liturgical Formation in First Appointment In the Church of England an ordinand usually has a first appointment for three years. The Interviews with the Bishop and priests showed that in some cases liturgical formation was on 'hold' for tne first appointment. This situation is bad and particularly damaging in the present situation of rapid development of texts. Bad practice is easy to acquire, but hard to eradicate. With the many other responsibilities to come to terms with in parish life, liturgy can be ignored or taken for granted. Bad practice becomes worse as time goes on. Those responsible for placing ordinands must make sure that, among the other guidance given to a training priest, liturgical formation has a high priority. What was Post-Ordination Training (POT) is now called Initial Continuing Ministerial Education (ICME). Achange in name achieves nothing if there is not a change in practice. Research will need to be done examining the courses offered by ICME to see if liturgical formation is on agenda. The person in a first appointment will find the liturgy audit continues to be helpful. Continued reading must be encouraged and resourced. Books on any theological subject are expensive, liturgical theology is no exception. Various journals and national study days, such as those run by Praxis, will help set good patterns at this stage. 4. Continuing Liturgical Formation Liturgical Formation is a continuous process. There is no point at which a Christian is finally formed in the liturgy. As presidents gain in experience they need constantly to examine and reflect. The strictures against bad presidency run like a thread through the history of the Church. 1

There are examples of Liturgy Audits in Yvonne Cassa and J o a n n e Sanders, How To Form A Parish Liturg/ Board (Liturgy Training Publications, Chicago, 1987).

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St. Augustine (3 54-430 CE) writing on the blessing of baptismal water in De bapt. contra Donatistas 6.47 says: T h e prayers of many are being corrected every day, once they have been read by tne learned, and much against catholic faith is f o u n d in them. M a n y blindly seize u p o n prayers composed not only by unskilled babblers but even by heretics a n a use them because in their simple ignorance they cannot evaluate prayers and think them good.' St. Vincent de Paul (1580-1660 CE) reminds the clergy that: 'Ceremonies are in truth only shadows, but they are shadows of a great reality which d e m a n d s that they are observed with the greatest attention possible.' 1 Whatton's The Priest's Companion which was a standard h a n d b o o k for anglocatholic priests after the Second World War, has this advice: 'Another d e p a r t m e n t of theology which should not be overlooked is Liturgy and Ceremonial. 2 " . . . while an elementary knowledge of ceremonial would seem to be essential to the proper performance of the rites themselves, and would save the laity from much distraction due to the vagaries of the clergy.' 3 'It is a useful practice at some time each year, probably at the time of the annual retreat, to review the ceremonial of the Mass, since it is very easy to slip into careless and erroneous habits in celebrating the H o l y Mysteries.' 4 H e writes at a time before Liturgical Renewal; however the precepts still hold good for today. Kavanagh in America says: 'The liturgical minister w h o cannot, for whatever reason, read the assembly's liturgical and biblical texts as they stand in the assembly's approved books should disqualify himself or herself from the assembly's Liturgical ministry.' 5 Most recently Perham and Stevenson in their commentary on The Promise of his Glory : 'One thinks of celebrations where there appears to be no president, for fear of being too authoritarian-, and in which tne intercessions are a sort of orgy of self pity, in which the faithful wallow in not having changed the world since tney last met, and sermons that are exhortations to greater h u m a n effort, .. ,'6 As P O T has given way to ICME, so In-service Training for the clergy has become Continuing Ministerial Education (CME). Once again research needs to be done to ascertain the courses on offer which could be called 'liturgical formation'. It is not unreasonable to suggest that there is little on offer in this area. T h e 1 2 J 4 5 s

q u o t e d by Smolaski, op. cit., p.43. G . A. C. W h a t t o n , The Priest's Companion (W. K n o t t a n d Sons Ltd., L o n d o n , 1946), p.21. op- cit., p.63. op. cit, p.78. Element!, Of Rite ( P u e b l o . N e w York, 1982), p.78. Michael P e r h a m a n d K e n n e t h Stevenson, Welcoming The Light Of Christ, (SPCK, L o n d o n . 1991). p.22.

Conclusion

45

monthly publication News of Liturgy usually has a report from a diocesan liturgy committee, which will often be an account of a study day for clergy and/or laity. These days appear to run independently of diocesan CME programmes. In the diocese it ought to be expected that the bishop's liturgy would be exemplary. The bishop must be seen as the promoter of good liturgical formation. The Ceremonial of Bishops states that: These celebrations (where the bishop presides) should also serve as a model for the entire diocese and be shining exam pies of active participation by the people.'1 It goes on to advocate large gatherings on major liturgical days of the presbyters and laity with the bisnop at different locations in the diocese: 'These gatherings should be occasions for the faithful to grow in their love for the entire Church and to heighten their desire to serve the Gospel and their neighbour.'2 The report Episcopal Ministry says that the statement called T h e Declaration of Assent in the Church of England ordination rite states the primitive emphasis on the bishop's liturgical ana sacramental role.3 In carrying out this role he is assisted by his Liturgical Committee which advises him and liaises with the Church of England Liturgical Commission nationally. They must promote formation in the diocese. This has implications in time and money. Time and time again articles are written reminding the Church that liturgical expertise is currently got on the cheap.4 In the substantial budget of the Chelmsford diocese (over £4.5 million in 1990) only £650 was allocated to the work of the Bishop's Liturgy Committee. In 1992 the Liturgy Committee was allowed £822. It is possible with commitment to do things on a shoestring, but this is not ideal. It has the single advantage of not having constantly to satisfy the executive. Liturgy committees are appointed, not elected, at the present time in the Church of England. The Anglican diocese of Oxford has recently published Developing Worship Guidelines. This is a direct result of the Bishop's Primary Visitation of the diocese in 1989. It hopes to respond the excitement and uncertainty about worship.5 It covers liturgical law; general principles; eucharistic worship; informal noneucharistic worship; and supplies outlines and a list of resources. This is a good attempt to continue the process of liturgical formation in the diocese. Section C of The Chelmsford File6 is more juridical in describing the options for worship. There is little pastoral content. Here the diocesan liturgy committee will need to supplement.

1 2 5 4

5 6

op. cit., p.20. ibid., p.20. op. cit., p.83. Kenneth Stevenson 'Uniting With The Angels', Article Review of The Sanctus in the Eucharistic Prayer by Bryan Spinks in Church Times, 14 June 1991, p. 16. (Diocesan Church House, Oxford, 1991), p.ll. (Chelmsford Diocesan Board of Finance. Chelmsford, 1991).

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From formation in the seminary through to continuing formation, there has been no mention of the physical construction of liturgy for use in the parish. It was stated earlier in Chapter 2 that Caxton's invention of the movable type printing press allowed the fixing of the Reformers liturgy, and later the virtual standardization of liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church. The new technology of word-processing and photo-copying allows liturgical texts to be tailor-made for parishes and individuals. There is serious discussion of providing material from the Church of England Liturgical Commission on 'one or two computer discs, with a common indexing system.' 1 There is hardly any evidence to show that this practical side of liturgy is addressed at any level in formation. At the moment this technology appears to be in the hands of only a few enthusiasts. C. T H E P R E S I D E N T

The conclusion looks finally at the president. Parish priests and lay liturgical enthusiasts have been supported from the earliest days of the ritualistic revival by various handbooks. One of the earliest to appear was Walker's The Ritual Reason Why?2, which was first published in 1866. It continued to be available for over 100 years. The original editors of Ritual Notes3 provided for those Anglicans who wished to follow the then use of the Roman Church for ceremonial, but using Church of England rites. It continued to be revised as the Roman Rite was revised, and it remained a guide for that constituency until the reforms in the liturgy of the Second Vatican Council when it became out of date. Ritual Notes revision owed much to the standard English Roman Catholic work on ceremony called The Ceremonies of the Roman Rite Described4, which first appeared in 1917. Dearmer's The Art of Public Worship provided a more English approach to ceremonial to a different group of Anglicans. Anglicans of other traditions attempted to read the rubrics and tried to implement them to the best of their ability. These works could only survive in a static liturgical environment. As liturgy renewed so they ceased to be useful. If those guides, which had served do well, are now obsolete, where is the written input of liturgical formation to be found, especially for the presidents? (The guides produced after the reforms of the Second Vatican Council and during tne preparation, and after the publication of ASB for Anglican presidents were still in the style of an era before liturgical renewal.8) 1

Worship of the Church as it Approaches the Third Millennium, p.20. O U P already publishes computer software for the Free Church Tradition called Patterns and Prayers For Worship— Electronic Edition. 1 J. T. Hayes published the first edition, this was revised and enlarged and published by Mowbray as late as 1960! 3 10th edition, (W. Knott and Son Ltd., London, 1956). 4 Adrian Fortescue and J. O'Connell. The Ceremonies of the Roman Rite Described 7 th Edition (Burns Oates & Washbourne Ltd., London, 1941). 5 See for example: The Celebration of the Eucharist (CLA, London, 1975); Michael Perham, The Eucharist 2nd Edition (SPCK/Alcuin, London, 1981); David Austerberry, Celebrating the Liturgy (Mowbray, Oxford, 1980).

Conclusion

47

In the English language nearly all modern guidance comes from America. Hovda's Strong Loving and Wise was first published in 1976.1 Hovda's book is very different in content and tone from its Victorian and early twentieth century predecessors. The obsession with the minutiae of rubrics is replaced by ideas of mutuality of ministries; the liturgical environment; listening, and not least style. Kavanagn's book Elements of Rite, is sub-titled 'A Hand book of Liturgical Style'. He deals in his waspish way with: usage; general laws; putting liturgy together; form and common mistakes. Style too figures in Huck s book Liturgy with Style and Grace.2 The presider is not his only concern, but he reminds liturgical presides to move with grace, and to have reverence in gesture. 3 Perham's Lively Sacrifice4 fills a gap from the English perspective. Walker, Fortescue and O'Connelf, Dearmer and the like would find it hard to recognize the liturgical action described in the later writers. The titles used by contemporary writers display the change in understanding of the presiders role in the Church. The exactitude of the celebrant with back to the People of God is superseded by the warm embrace of a fellow human being across the common table of the Lord. Justin Martyr would recognize the style of presidency being advocated by the modern writers. To preside at the Christian liturgy is to exercise a significant ministry in the Church. It can be argued that it is the most significant ministry of the pastor, because the gathering of the Christian community for its Sunday euchanst will be the occasion when the priest encounters the most people in any week. In Britain that gathering will be largely made up of the regular committed worshippers of the Christian cult, but there are likely to be numbers of people who for any different reasons are on the fringe of tne community. The President of the Eucharistic Assembly is: The Person who Welcomes Lebon 5 uses the startling image of the president as 'Like the Hostess'. The president prepares the utensils for the celebration, and welcomes the people to the Table of tne Lord to be fed on his word and his body and blood. The Person who Arranges The president orders the words of the liturgy and arranges the sharing of duties within the norms laid down by the Church. Those who preside will need to know intimately the texts of the liturgy and choose appropriately for the occasion, culture and the people they serve. To do less is to deprive the liturgy of force. A presider presides. Others will exercise their legitimate ministries of service in the service. Depriving them of their function diminishes them and the presider. 1 2 3 4 5

T h e Liturgical Press, Collegeville, 1976/1980. Liturgy Training Publications, Chicago, 1984. op. cit.. p.46. (SPCK, London, 1992). op. af.,p.48.

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The Person with Authority Authority has a negative connotation in our society, but it needs to be remembered that 'power' is a gospel word. Jesus was a person of 'power'. It is the use that power is put to which causes the problems. Power in the liturgy can become overpowering, which is death-dealing. The authentic power of G o a in the liturgy is in empowering, which is life-sustaining. 1 The presider's continuing formation needs constantly to reflect on how Jesus' power is shared in the assembly. The Person of Prayer Filled with the life-giving Word of God in the Scriptures, praying the texts as they are proclaimed^ the president can become the window into heaven for the community. A president must be at peace with God, himself and the people. These images are by no means exhaustive, but indicate some of the range of legitimate expectations of the president and people, which liturgical formation has to address to enable worship to be effective in the praise of God, and the extension of his kingdom. The vesting prayers, which officially survived in the Roman Rite until 1969 having originated in the Middle Ages, have this prayer for putting on the chasuble: 'Domine, qui dixisti: Jugum meum suave est et onus meum leve-.fac, ut istudportare sic vaieam, quod consequar tuam gratiam. Amen' 'O Lord, you said: "My yoke is easy and my burden light": make me able to bear it, that I may obtain your grace. Amen.' 2 This is an appropriate frame of mind for the president to approach the Holy Mysteries.

1 2

H u g h e s op. cit., p. 15. English Missal For The Laity, p.32.

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49

Appendix 1 An Order for Celebrating the Holy Eucharist The Book of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments and Other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church According to the Use of the Episcopal Church 1977, pD.400-401) The rite reauires careful preparation by the Priest and other participants. It is not intended for use at the principal Sunday or weekday celebration of the Holy Eucharist. •The People and Priest •Gather in the Lord's Name •Proclaim and Respond to the Word of God The proclamation and response may include readings, song, talk, dance, instrumental music, other art forms, silence. A reading from the Gospel is always included. •Pray for the World and the Church •Exchange the Peace •Either here or elsewhere in the service, all greet one another in the name of the Lord. •Prepare the Table Some of those present prepare the table; take the bread, the cup of wine, and other offerings, are placed upon it. •Make Eucharist The Great Thanksgiving is said by the Priest in the name of the gathering, using one of the eucharistic prayers provided. The people respond—Amen! •Break Bread •Share the Gifts of God The Body and Blood of the Lord are shared in a reverent manner; after all have received, any of the Sacrament that remains is then consumed. (When a common meal or Agape is part of the celebration, it follows here.)

Appendix 2 Questionnaire sent to Theological Colleges and Ministerial Training Schemes listed in the 1990 edition of the Church of England Year Book. Confidential Yes/No Yes/No 3. Does the Liturgy Syllabus cover Church of England Rites since the ASB? Yes/No 4. Does the Liturgy Syllabus cover contemporary rites from other Anglican Churches? Yes/No 5. Does the Liturgy Syllabus cover contemporary rites of other Christian Communions? Yes/No 6. Does the Liturgy Syllabus address the problems posed by using 'Directories' in the formal worship of the Church? Yes/\'o (please circle your answer) If you have any personal comments you wish to add please use the reverse of this sheet 50

Liturgical Presidency

Appendix 1 An Order for Celebrating the Holy Eucharist The Book of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments and Other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church According to the Use of the Episcopal Church 1977, pD.400-401) The rite reauires careful preparation by the Priest and other participants. It is not intended for use at the principal Sunday or weekday celebration of the Holy Eucharist. •The People and Priest •Gather in the Lord's Name •Proclaim and Respond to the Word of God The proclamation and response may include readings, song, talk, dance, instrumental music, other art forms, silence. A reading from the Gospel is always included. •Pray for the World and the Church •Exchange the Peace •Either here or elsewhere in the service, all greet one another in the name of the Lord. •Prepare the Table Some of those present prepare the table; take the bread, the cup of wine, and other offerings, are placed upon it. •Make Eucharist The Great Thanksgiving is said by the Priest in the name of the gathering, using one of the eucharistic prayers provided. The people respond—Amen! •Break Bread •Share the Gifts of God The Body and Blood of the Lord are shared in a reverent manner; after all have received, any of the Sacrament that remains is then consumed. (When a common meal or Agape is part of the celebration, it follows here.)

Appendix 2 Questionnaire sent to Theological Colleges and Ministerial Training Schemes listed in the 1990 edition of the Church of England Year Book. Confidential Yes/No Yes/No 3. Does the Liturgy Syllabus cover Church of England Rites since the ASB? Yes/No 4. Does the Liturgy Syllabus cover contemporary rites from other Anglican Churches? Yes/No 5. Does the Liturgy Syllabus cover contemporary rites of other Christian Communions? Yes/No 6. Does the Liturgy Syllabus address the problems posed by using 'Directories' in the formal worship of the Church? Yes/\'o (please circle your answer) If you have any personal comments you wish to add please use the reverse of this sheet 50

Liturgical Presidency

Appendix 3 THE GENERAL MINISTERIAL EXAMINATION SYLLABUS The syllabus is intended to guide teaching for the examination. It is not a definitive list of topics to be covered. CHRISTIAN WORSHIP It will be necessary for candidates to show an understanding of the meaning of worship in the context of human experience and a knowledge of the distinctive character and great traditions of Christian Worship. Candidates will be expected to show familiarity with the authorised rites of the Church of England (currently The Book of Common Prayer (1662), The Alternative Service Book 1980, The Ministry to the Sick, and Lent, Holy Week and Easter) which should occupy a paradigmatic place in the course. Paper 10: CHRISTIAN WORSHIP The syllabus relates to the report Learning to Worship in the Christian Community and covers the following areas: i) The Meaning of Worship—The concept and psychology of worship (with reference to children as well as adults); the idea of the Holy; Involvement; Imagery and Symbolism; 'Secular Liturgy'; Biblical Concepts; Sacrifice; Intercession; Praise; Charismatic worship. ii) Initiation—Jewish background and NT origins; Components, structure and development; Theology and symbolism; the twentieth century initiation debate; practical issues related to membership, infant baptism, confirmation, admission to communion, etc. Texts: Justin, Hippolytus, Cyril of Jerusalem, Sarum, BCP and ASB. iii) Eucharist—Jewish background and NT origins; elements, structure and development of service and anaphora; the Reformation restructuring; Contemporary revision and developments; varieties of presentation (informal, agapes, etc.) Texts: Justin, Hippolytus, Cyril of Jerusalem, Roman Canons (ancient and modern), Liturgy of John Cnrysostom, BCP, ASB. iv) Worship and Time—Yearly, weekly, and daily observances; Holy Week; Nonsacramental services; Use of the Bible; Services for special occasions. v) Pastoral Offices—Weddings, Funerals, Penance and Reconciliation, Ministry to the Sick, Ordination, etc. vi) The Setting—Architecture; Liturgical space; Presentation and presidency; Dress; Movement; Language; Music. ADVISORY COUNCIL FOR THE CHURCH'S MINISTRY General Ministerial lixamination HANDBOOK AND SYLLABUS 1990/1991, pp.3 1-33

Appendix

51

Appendix 3 THE GENERAL MINISTERIAL EXAMINATION SYLLABUS The syllabus is intended to guide teaching for the examination. It is not a definitive list of topics to be covered. CHRISTIAN WORSHIP It will be necessary for candidates to show an understanding of the meaning of worship in the context of human experience and a knowledge of the distinctive character and great traditions of Christian Worship. Candidates will be expected to show familiarity with the authorised rites of the Church of England (currently The Book of Common Prayer (1662), The Alternative Service Book 1980, The Ministry to the Sick, and Lent, Holy Week and Easter) which should occupy a paradigmatic place in the course. Paper 10: CHRISTIAN WORSHIP The syllabus relates to the report Learning to Worship in the Christian Community and covers the following areas: i) The Meaning of Worship—The concept and psychology of worship (with reference to children as well as adults); the idea of the Holy; Involvement; Imagery and Symbolism; 'Secular Liturgy'; Biblical Concepts; Sacrifice; Intercession; Praise; Charismatic worship. ii) Initiation—Jewish background and NT origins; Components, structure and development; Theology and symbolism; the twentieth century initiation debate; practical issues related to membership, infant baptism, confirmation, admission to communion, etc. Texts: Justin, Hippolytus, Cyril of Jerusalem, Sarum, BCP and ASB. iii) Eucharist—Jewish background and NT origins; elements, structure and development of service and anaphora; the Reformation restructuring; Contemporary revision and developments; varieties of presentation (informal, agapes, etc.) Texts: Justin, Hippolytus, Cyril of Jerusalem, Roman Canons (ancient and modern), Liturgy of John Cnrysostom, BCP, ASB. iv) Worship and Time—Yearly, weekly, and daily observances; Holy Week; Nonsacramental services; Use of the Bible; Services for special occasions. v) Pastoral Offices—Weddings, Funerals, Penance and Reconciliation, Ministry to the Sick, Ordination, etc. vi) The Setting—Architecture; Liturgical space; Presentation and presidency; Dress; Movement; Language; Music. ADVISORY COUNCIL FOR THE CHURCH'S MINISTRY General Ministerial lixamination HANDBOOK AND SYLLABUS 1990/1991, pp.3 1-33

Appendix

51

Liturgical Presidency

Gorgias Liturgical Studies

25

This series is intended to provide a venue for studies about liturgies as well as books containing various liturgies. Making liturgical studies available to those who wish to learn more about their own worship and practice or about the traditions of other religious groups, this series includes works on service music, the daily offices, services for special occasions, and the sacraments.

Liturgical Presidency

Paul James

1 gorgias press 2010

Gorgias Press LLC, 180 Centennial Ave., Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA www.gorgiaspress.com Copyright © 2010 by Gorgias Press LLC Originally published in All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise without the prior written permission of Gorgias Press LLC. 2010

1

ISBN 978-1-60724-376-2

ISSN 1937-3252

Published first in the U.K. by Grove Books, 1993.

Printed in the United States of America

Liturgical Presidency

by Paul James Vicar of St. Saviour's, Walthamstow

CONTENTS C H A P 1ER

Introduction

PAGE

5

1. Recent Liturgical Provision

6

2. The Directory

9

3. The Enquiry: Formation

13

4. The Enquiry: The Seminars

15

5. The Enquiry: The President

19

6. The Enquiry: The Celebrations

30

7. The Conclusion

40

Appendices

SO

AUTHOR'S ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 1 wish to record my thanks to Westminster College, Oxford, for accepting me as a student for the Degree of Master of Arts in Applied Theology, where tnis work was encouraged, supervised and accepted. 1 am deeply grateful to my colleagues, both past and present, to the people in the parishes where I have served. For they have helped form me in liturgy. May that process long continue.

Introduction The deliberate use of the title 'President' for the celebrant of the eucharist in the modern language rites of the Church of England demonstrates a change in understanding of not only the role of the priest/bishop, but of the whole People of God in the liturgical assembly. It is a recovery of the earliest tradition in the Christian liturgy. This Study notes the recent documents produced by the Liturgical Commission of the Church of England, and goes on to examine the Directory and socalled 'Directory Approach' to worship. The Study asks whether the Church is training ordinands how to use the many alternative texts now available. Firsthand experience by visits to parish clergy and observation of presidency at the eucharist is distilled and conclusions are drawn. It will be demonstrated that there are such things as good presidential skills. The decline of presidency at the eucharist began around the eighth century or even earlier. The causes were many and various. Bradshaw lists them as the movement from charism to office1; the clericalism of liturgical functions2; and the move from corporate to individual presidency.3 To these factors causes could be added: the continued use of Latin in the West; the dying out of singing (except in the monastic houses); the altering of the rite ana saying of the most solemn parts silently; the infiltration of the president's private devotions into the rite coupled with his turning away from the people to celebrate. These were major factors in losing the sense of community in the celebration of the eucharist.4 The recovery of the principle of active participation of every member of the Church in the eucharistie action is one of the fruits of the Liturgical Movement in the twentieth century, sixteenth century attempts at reform and renewal in the Church of England (vernacular Prayer Books), and in the Roman Church (revised rites, but still in Latin), failed to reverse the trend of clericalism. The late twentieth century revisions and reforms have started to encourage the active participation of each member of the Christian community. The word 'preside' demands the idea of a cooperation. The eucharist is a cooperative assembly. The deliberate use of the word 'president' is a signal that someone is to preside over the euchanstic rite and that others are to share in its action. It is no longer a solo performance.

1

2 3 4

Paul Bradshaw, Liturgical Presidency In The Early Church, (Grove Liturgical Study no. 36, Grove Books, Nottingham, 1983), p.9.

ibid., p. 15. ibid., p.21.

J. B. O'Connell. Active Sharing pp.8-10.

in Public Worship (Rums & Oates, London. 1964),

Recent Liturgical Provision

5

1. Recent Liturgical Provision The Church of England's early attempts at Prayer Book (therefore liturgical) Reform had not been successful. This history is well documented. In November 1980, The Alternative Service Book 1980 (ASB) was authorized under the provisions of the Church of England (Worship and Doctrine) Measure 1974. This Measure, which has the full effect of an Act of Parliament, gives permanent power to the General Synod of the Church of England to authorize services alternative and additional to those in The Book of Common Prayer 1662 (BCP).1 ASB became the first fully authorized alternative to BCP in England, and derived its legal status from the Worship and Doctrine Measure 1974. BCP is the standard of doctrine—the alternatives have to be measured against that standard. Much the same situation exists with the Latin edition of the Missal of Paul VI which is described as the editio typica. In fact each rite of the Roman Church has an editio typica. Against this all national vernacular translations and variations are measured for orthodoxy, though there never has been an expectation that vernacular texts will be word-for-word translations. 2 Under the pressure to provide a book containing the authorized alternatives, and the peculiar, if not bizarre, constitution of the General Synod, which allows the Synod to revise the texts word byword if it so decides, there were a number of notable omissions in liturgical provision. What many people imagined was the end of liturgical reform and experiment, at least for a time, t u m e a o u t to be the beginning of a creative period of liturgical revision and provision. Happily for the Church of England, and one hopes for other Christian communities, this process of providing alternative and supplemental texts continues. An interesting by-product of this continuing generation of texts is the breaking down of that isolationist tendency within the Church of England, which is so damaging to its mission. In the years since ASB appeared, the following supplemental texts, in the same style of English, have been produced by the Church of England Liturgical Commission, and are in use. 1983 saw the authorization of Ministry to the Sick covering: Communion with the Sick, Laying on of Hands with Prayer and Anointing, Commendation at the Time of Death and Prayers for use with the Sick. The House of Bishops of the Church of England commended for use (and therefore very nearly authorized): Services of Prayer and Dedication after Civil Marriage-, in 1984 Lent, Holy Week and Easter: Services and Prayers; Night Prayer: A Late Evening Service; Funeral Servicefor a Child Dying Near the Time of Birth-, Ministry at the Time of Death-, and in 1990 The Promise of His Glory. ('Commendation' is a device used to promote texts additional to The ASB and BCP, which avoids the time- and money-consuming procedures of full authorization by General Synod). At the 1

2

6

Public Worship in the Church of England, 5 th Edition (General Synod of the Church of England, London, 1986). A. Chapungco, Liturgies of the Future, (Paulist Press, NY, 1989) p. 18.

Liturgical Presidency

time o f writing Patterns for Worship, though published by the Church o f England Liturgical C o m m i s s i o n in 1989, is still under discussion before authorization. M o s t o f the texts are usable under existing C a n o n Law, rubric, or the secular legal doctrine o f 'necessity'. 1 A feature o f the modern language eucharistic rite in ASB is the latitude allowed f o r the president o f the rite in using alternative texts. E m b e d d e d in the 'Notes', which have the same function as rubrics in older rites, and in the text o f T h e O r d e r for H o l y C o m m u n i o n Rite A' are t h e directions to use 'other suitable words'2, o r 'other appropriate words. '3 Liturgical options are highlighted in the R o m a n Rite with the phrases de more (ordinarily), pro opportunitate (as the occasion warrants), and iis quae laudahiliter fiunt (those things which are fittingly done). Teachers o f liturgy are urged to point these out and the freedoms they enjoy. 4 At the same time as publication o f A S B , the first unofficial supplemental texts appeared. O n e o f the first liturgical entrepreneurs was David Silk. Silk's Prayers for Use at the Alternative Services was published in 1980. H e successfully provides much material, both 'suitable' and 'appropriate' for the eucharistic rite.5 M u c h o f Silk's material was to be used four years later by the next Liturgical C o m m i s s i o n in Lent Holy Week and Easter: Service and Prayers as was his The Office of Compline—An Alternative Order.6 Silk continued to publish unofficial texts and his In Penitence and Faith—Texts for use with the Alternative Services7 has influenced the penitential provision both in Patterns for Worship8 and The Promise of his Glory.9 M a n y other publications guided readers in the areas o f ' o t h e r appropriate words', especially in the section 'The Intercession'. O n e o f the most interesting p o s t - 1 9 8 0 unofficial publications was the Alcuin Club's The Cloud of Witnesses.10 This provides propers for the celebration o f m i n o r saints and holy men and w o m e n in the ASB Calendar. It is interesting to note the then Archbishop o f Canterbury's c o m m e n t in the preface welcoming the e n r i c h m e n t o f the provisions o f ASB only three years after publication. 1 1 Amongst Evangelical Anglicans Church Family Worship12 has attempted to c o m b i n e both the official texts o f ASB and unofficial supplemental texts. It too has influenced the contents o f Patterns for Worship. E. Garth Moore and Timothy Briden, Moore's Introduction to English Canon Law. 2nd Edition (Mowbray, London, 1985), p.70. 2 ASB, p.117. 3 ibid., pp.119, 120, 124, 128. 129. 144. 4 Liturgical Formation in Seminaries (A Commentary). (National Conference of Catholic Bishops, Washington DC, 1984), p.83. ! David Silk, Prayers for Use at the Alternative Services, (Mowbrav, London, 1980), pp.111120. 6 (Mowbray, London, 1980). 7 (Mowbray, London, 1988). 8 (CHP, London, 1989). 9 (CHP/Mowbray, London, 1991). 10 (Collins Liturgical Publications, London, 1982). " ibid., p.9. 12 Michael Perry (ed.). Church Family Worship. (Hodderand Stoughton, London, 1986). 1

Recent Liturgical

Provision

7

It can be seen that the choice of texts is very large, and still appears to be increasing. 1992 saw the publication of Celebrating Common Prayer.1 This joint venture by the Anglican Francisans and some members of the Church of England Liturgical Commission makes many more texts for the Daily Office available than in ASB. Members of the Commission also published in January 1993 Enriching The Christian Year2, providing propers from a variety of sources for a variety of occasions in the liturgical life of the Church. They both have impeccable pedigrees. The former has a foreword by the present Archbishop of Canterbury, and the latter by the Chairman of the Liturgical Commission. The tolerance of alternatives or variations is also allowed by Canon Law: B5 1. The minister may in his discretion make and use variations which are not of substantial importance in any form of service authorized by Canon B1 according to particular circumstances. 3 The publishing house of Mowbray has been in the forefront of making available a number ofguides and aids to enriching the provision of ASB. The largest output was in the area of 'The Intercession'. Semper's Intercessions for use with Series 1 & 2 or Series 3 Holy Communion Services was one of the earliest in 1978 and pre-dates ASB.4 Collins' Intercessions at the Parish Communion for use at the Alternative Services came out seven years later. Collins is responsible for much peripheral material. MacDonnell collected together post-communion prayers in After Communion—a Collection of Post-communion Prayers for use with the ASB 1980His collection also suggests prayers at the Preparation of the Gifts. This libation of liturgy has not taken place in isolation. Other parts of the Anglican world have been engaged on the same exercise, as have other Christian Communions. The President is faced with an embarrassment of riches. How is choice exercised appropriately and in such a way as to encourage the active participation of all God's People?

1

(Mowbray, London, 1992). (SPCK/Alcuin Club, London, 1993). ä The Canons ofthe Church ofEngland, (CHP, London, 1986), p.l 3. N o t e that sections 3 and 4 try to define the delightfully vague, 'not of substantial importance' in the Canon. 4 Semper's latest book—Intercessions at Worship (iVlowbray, London, 1992)—is the latest in a long line of alternative material for use at 'The Intercession' in Rite A ASB. 5 (Mowbray, London, 1985). 2

8

Liturgical Presidency

2. The Directory Until recently, the word 'directory' found no place in the liturgical vocabulary of the Church of England. In fact, in the unhappy history of English Christianity, and Anglican Liturgy of the seventeenth century was directed against a particular directory—The Directory of Public Worship. This document, commonly called the Westminster Directory, appeared in English translation in 1644. The original Latin text was called The Book of Discipline and was written by Walter Travers, the first Provost of Trinity College Dublin. It circulated in manuscript form among Elizabethan Puritans and was issued in 1644, after the Westminster Assembly of 1643, to promote the cause of Presbyterianism in England. 1 For the complete text consult Breward. 2 'Directory' first appears in the English Language in 1543 from the late Latin directorium, meaning guidance, guide-book and therefore, in an ecclesiastical sense, a list of directions for public or private worship. The later meaning of an alphabetical list of names etc. does not occur until 1732.3 After the Act of Uniformity, the Anglican liturgy was fixed. T h e process of formalizing, which led to the fossilizing of the texts for the rites of the Church, was gradual, and given impetus by the desire to guard authentic doctrine. T h e picture painted by St. Justin's account of presidential creativity in eucharistic prayer gave way to a small n u m b e r of authorized canons or eucnaristic prayers. For Anglicans, what small variation there was during the sixteenth century, came to an end with the First Book of C o m m o n Prayer in 1549. The ideological pressures of the Reformation, combined with the new technology of Caxton's movable type printing press, enabled a fixed definitive form of liturgy to become the norm for Anglicans with BCP. The Roman Catholic Church achieved the same end with T h e Missal of Pope St. Pius V. An apparatus ofecclesial law is imposed to guard the integrity of the text. This has the effect of preventing the creative interplay of formal and informal liturgy, which generates life into this lifecelebrating activity of the Church. It is interesting to note that Kavanagh, the American Benedictine liturgist, makes the connection between what he calls 'liturgical hypertrophy' and movable type and sixteenth century reform. H e talks of the ability to put into the hands of the laity, relatively cheaply, a 'controlled' text. Kavanagh would argue that such activity impoverished the web of ministries which make up authentic liturgy, and turned the action of rite into the inaction of a didactic talk. 4 A perusal of the texts of this period, some of which persist today, show that worship was with the eye rather than the heart. 1

2

3 4

Elizabeth A. Livingstone, The Concise Oxford Dictionar\' Of The Christian Church (OUP, Oxford, 1977), p. 154. Ian Breward (Introduction), The Westminster Directory (Grove Liturgical Study no. 21, Grove Books Ltd., N o t t i n g h a m , 1980). qv. in The Shorter Oxford English Dictionar)'. A. Kavanagh, On Liturgical Theolog[> (Pueblo. N e w York, 1984), p. 107.

The Directory< 9

T h e history o f liturgical renewal and reform, t h e process o f freeing the liturgy, in the Church o f England was, and still is, a long and tedious process. In other ecclesial c o m m u n i t i e s similar problems are encountered. T h e 1928 Book of Common Prayer was simply an alternative to the only authorized Church o f England text, BCP. It was not a 'directory'. T h e publication and authorization o f ASB almost swept away any choice apart from 1662, but contained within itself m u c h material that haa been in use from 1928 and from the Series 1,2, and 3. It was greatly influenced by ecumenical contacts. ( T h e Series 1, 2, and 3 rites were developing in the 1960's and 1970's and offered modest presidential choice.) In the rubrics/notes o f ASB there is n o w a wide choice o f alternatives, not o f c o m p l e t e ntes, but ratherwithin the rite itself. T h e r e are foureucharistic prayers in the main text o f the Rite A Eucharist. 1 T h i s looks very conservative c o m p a r e d with many c o n t e m p o r a r y Anglican texts authorized abroad. Alternative eucharistic canons are not just an Anglican feature. O n e province in t h e R o m a n Catholic Church in T h e Netherlands, has 11 eucharistic prayers. 2 Alternatives will be found in m a n y Free Church texts. Except for the Liturgical Calendar and its associated texts, seasonal choice had barely survived the Reformation reform, but n o w the president is allowed (and c o m m e n t a t o r after c o m m e n t a t o r urges him) to make a choice between alternate texts (e.g. Prayers o f Penitence); position o f text (e.g. Gloria); to o m i t optional texts (e.g. Prayer o f H u m b l e Access); but m o s t innovatory to 'use these or other suitable woras' (e.g. T h e Peace). This still did not make ASB a true directory, but pointed the way forward for the second generation o f liturgical material. Douglas J o n e s chaired the Liturgical C o m m i s s i o n o f t h e C h u r c h o f England which drafted Lent Holy Week Easter: Services and Prayers and secured its c o m m e n d a t i o n in the C h u r c h o f England by the H o u s e o f Bishops. In its introduction he uses the word 'directory': . . . Second, they are more than a few services collected together. W e are providing a directory from which choices may be made. W e think o f this b o o k as a manual to be used with selectivity, sensitivity and imagination.' 3 T h e collections o f texts which followed, Patterns for Worship, The Promise of his Glory and Enriching the Christian Year, are promoted with the same philosophy. In a c o m m e n t a r y on The Promise of his Glory, Vasey heads the o p e n i n g chapter 'A W i n t e r Directory'. 4 An editorial feature c o m m o n to all four books is the c o m m e n t a r y before each service outline and/or collection o f texts, which is entirely lacking in ASB.

1

2 3

4

ASB,

pp. 1 3 0 - 1 4 4 .

Orde Van Dienst Voor De Eucharistieviering (Gooi en Stich bv, Hilversum, 1979). Douglas Jones in the 'Introduction', to Lent Holy Week Easter: Services and Prayer (CHP/ SPCK, London; CUP. Cambridge, 1984/1986), p.l. Trevor Lloyd, Jane Sinclair, Michael Vasey, Introducing the Promise of his Glory (Grove Worship Series no. 116. Grove Books Ltd., Nottingham, 1991), p.3.

10

Liturgical Presidency

T h e w a y of printing and presenting c o n t e m p o r a r y R o m a n texts since t h e Second Vatican C o u n c i l has followed t h e s a m e innovative f o r m f o r t h e eucharist a n d o t h e r rites. First is printed the Decree of t h e Sacred C o n g r e g a t i o n for Divine W o r s h i p followed by t h e Apostolic C o n s t i t u t i o n , which is in t h e n a m e of t h e Pope. T h i s gives general a u t h o r i t y for t h e p r o m u l g a t i o n of t h e rite. T h e G e n e r a l I n s t r u c t i o n / I n t r o d u c t i o n (praenotanda) is printed next. T h i s is an essay covering t h e general n o r m s of t h e celebration of t h e rite(s). It will deal with biblical a n d patristic b a c k g r o u n d , p e r h a p s discuss t h e place of music, a p p r o p r i a t e ministries and ministers, etc. Before each service o n e finds a short c o m m e n t a r y , which is pastoral in its theological c o n t e n t and practical in its advice. T h e latter contains t h e rationale a n d g u i d a n c e in t h e celebration of t h e rite. This m e t h o d is mirrored in Lent Holy Week Easter: Services and Prayers. T h e C o m m e n d a t i o n by t h e H o u s e of Bishops, which is signed on their behalf by t h e A r c h b i s h o p of C a n t e r b u r y , fulfils t h e f u n c t i o n of t n e Decree/Apostolic C o n s t i t u t i o n , i.e. it gives t h e liturgical text a s t a m p authority. T h e I n t r o d u c t i o n a t t e m p t s to d o t h e s a m e as t h e G e n e r a l Instruction 1 , a n d each service or g r o u p s of texts has an i n t r o d u c t o r y essay o r c o m m e n t a r y . 2 Two m e m b e r s of t h e C n u r c h of England C o m m i s s i o n privately w r o t e a m o r e substantial c o m m e n t a r y on t h e rites. 3 The Promise of his Glory has t h e s a m e f o r m a t . T h e inclusion of c o m m e n t a r y / e s s a y s before t h e individual rites has been followed by m o s t of t h e m o d e r n English language Prayer Books in t h e Anglican C o m m u n i o n published in t h e last ten years outside t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m . S o u t h Africa calls t h e m t h e 'Preface', N e w Zealand, ' C o n c e r n i n g this/these Service(s)', C a n a d a and t h e U n i t e d States has 'Concerning' essays, t h o u g h t h e latter are shorter a n d rubrical in character, b u t it needs to be r e m e m b e r e d that they a p p e a r e d m u c h earlier, in 1977. ASB lacks any of this b a c k g r o u n d material. T h e official C o m m e n t a r y of t h e Liturgical C o m m i s s i o n dwells on t h e history of the rites a n d ignores their pastoral application. 4 T h e u l t i m a t e 'Directory' for t h e eucharist is to be f o u n d in U n i t e d States Book of C o m m o n Prayer. T h e barest o u t l i n e is provided for t h e rite, which only insists that o n e of (the m a n y ) eucharistic prayers be used. 5 A Directory is a collection of authorized liturgical texts, which offers a n u m b e r of authorized ways of celebrating a rite. This m a y be for a single observance (e.g. Candlemas), a season (e.g. Lent), o r for a part of a rite (e.g. Prayers of Penitence). A Directoiy expects choice to be m a d e by t h e p r e s i d e n t (this does n o t exclude t h e president being advised by others p n o r to t h e celebrating of t h e rite). P e r h a m and Stevenson use t h e w o r d 'anthology' to describe t h e directory. It is to be

1 1 ! 1 5

See for example Lent Holy Week Easter: Services and Prayers, pp. 1 -4 ibid., pp.11-12. M. Perham and K. Stevenson, Waiting For The Risen Christ, (SPCK, London, 1986). The Alternative Service Book 1980, A Commentary By The Liturgical Commission 1980 (CIO Publishing, London. 1980). see Appendix 1. The Directory

11

dipped into, taking account of the local situation, but always with regard to sane ana scholarly good sense. The commentary at each service is to aid this process.1 The promotion of a Directory for worship is a radical departure for English la carte', Anglicans. A directory is moving the liturgy in the direction of an rather than a 'fixed price' menu. It requires a new way of approaching liturgy and a different mentality in liturgical education and formation in seminary and parish. It is facilitated by another revolution in printing technology. Just as Caxton's technological advance enabled the text and the rite to be frozen, so word processing and photocopying enables the quick and cheap production of parish based texts, ana therefore frees the liturgy.

1

op. cit. p. 11.

12

Liturgical

Presidency

3. The Enquiry: Formation Chapter 1 clearly shows that there is a new generation of authorized liturgical texts in the Church of England, and that these in turn have been, and continue to be, supplemented. Unlike the foundation liturgy, BCP enshrined in the Act of Uniformity of 1662, these modern texts of the 70s, '80s and '90s allow a high degree of choice. They are directories, as defined in the previous chapter, and are quite different from former authorized service books. They require a new way of handling by the presider, and in fact, by the whole Christian community. This is beginning to be called the 'Directory Approach to Worship'. This approach assumes knowledge of liturgy, and a degree of skill from those who seek, or are directed, to preside over the euchanstic assembly in the name of the Church. In the Cnurch of England, those in holy orders are ordained on the assumption that they shall have a parochial appointment. There are a few exceptions to this rule. 1 Irrespective of tradition and location, this will inevitably involve leading worship. Before the ordination rite the candidate declares before the ordaining bishop: '. .. I will use only the forms of service which are authorized or allowed by Canon.' 2 This Declaration of Assent is repeated on entering each ecclesiastical appointment. The full impact of the Liturgical Movement made itself felt in the Church of England in the long experimental period from the inception of the Liturgical Commission in the mid-fifties, until the authorization of ASB. Instead of a pause in 1980, the then newly appointed Commission (Commissions have the same life as a General Synod—five years), has taken liturgy forward in the publishing of Directories. This practice has continued up to the present. The House of Bishops has commended these texts outside their powers enshrined in Canon Law. Parish Priests have some powers, also under canon, to make minor changes. The General Synod has only been asked to note the recent texts, as they are supplementary to BCP and ASB. In the light of the experience of the seventies, there is a growing anxiety as to the competence of the General Synod to deal appropriately with liturgical texts. 3 The Commission, the House of Bishops, and tacitly General Synod, have put Directories into the hands of parish clergy and laity, but is there the process of Formation in Liturgy which enables them to be used to their full potential? 'Formation' is a vogue word which first appears in modern Roman Catholic writing connected with theological education. The idea though takes root in the 1

qv. The Canons OfTbe Church Of England4th Edition, ( C H P . London, 1986), C a n o n C5.2. a. b. c. d. e. 2 ibid., C a n o n C I 5 . 1 Derek Pattinson 'The Process of Revision and Authorization' in, Michael Perham (ed.), Towards Liturgy 2000, (SPCK/Alcuin Club, London, 1989), p. 91. At the t i m e of writing, Canons which would allow some legitimate experimentation are before the General Synod for consideration.

The Enquiry: Formation

13

corpus of papal writings as a direct result of the Liturgical Movement in this century. The Apostolic Constitution, Divini cultus of 20 December 1928 by Pius XI is the first to refer to 'liturgical training'. Each pope up to the Apostolic Letter Summi dei verbum of Paul VI of 4 November 1968 mention this important activity.1 In this context the formation is directed to seminarians alone. Later Roman Catholic writing broadens the clientele of formation. Burdon draws attention to the document Let the People Worship, which was received by the Methodist Conference in 1988. It encourages the work of local or circuit worship consultation groups which are important for formation in the Methodist context. Burdon states: 'It is the responsibility of all who enter the pulpit and presume to lead the worship of God's people to study and contemplate the movements.' 2 In the United Reformed Church tradition, Sharers in Worship successfully deals with preparation and presentation of the leader-preacher. 3 The word 'formation' denotes a dynamic relationship between the teacher and the taught and an interaction with the subject material. Pedagogy is out. No longer are seminarians to be viewed as empty vessels to be filled with received wisdom. Formation is akin to the word 'nurture', which is currently in use in religious catechetics and in seculareducation. Pedagogy has, at least in theory, an end point. This is reached when the recipient has received all the knowledge and can safely reproduce it. Formation, like nurture, has no end point. It continues for as long as the recipient engages with the subject matter. The Church of England's Advisory Board of Ministry states: 'Theological Colleges and courses should provide the environment and the means by which men and women receive the necessary formation for the ministry to which they feel themselves called. Such formation is, of course, a life-long process.' Formation will, by its very nature, be concerned with not only those academic skills traditionally associated with seminary education, but also with the aesthetic, spiritual and practical development of the seminarian. In order to explore the level of formation of the Anglican Clergy for this study three lines of enquiry were pursued. 1. A Questionnaire to the Anglican Theological Colleges and Ministerial Training Schemes listed in The Church of England Year Book 1991.1 2. Individual Interviews conducted with a sample of eucharistic presidents. With the exception of the first, these people have responsibility for organizing the Sunday Eucharist, and also for the continuing training of the newly ordained. 3. By personal observation at the Eucharist, looking particularly at presidential style. 1

2

3 4 !

Liturgical Formation in Seminaries, (National Conference of Catholic Bishops, Washington DC, 1984), p.53: N o t e 1. Adrian Burdon, The Preaching Service—The Glory of the Methodists, ( A l c u i n / G R O W J o i n t Liturgical Study no. 17. Grove Books Ltd., N o t t i n g h a m , 1991), p.41. David Owen, Sharers In Worship, (National Christian Education Council, Redhill, 1980). Education For The Church's Ministry, ( A C C M . L o n d o n , 1987), p.9. (CHP, London, 1991) see Appendix 29.

14 Liturgical Presidency

4. The Enquiry: The Seminaries A THEOLOGICAL TRAINING

The foreword to Liturgical Formation in Seminaries has these lofty ideals: 'Liturgical renewal and spiritual growth need "mystagogues", men and women themselves well versed in the ways of the Lora, to lead others to drink more deeply from the refreshing waters of divine life, always eager to live the Christian life as though newly baptized.' 1 There are thirty courses listed in The Church of England Year Book 1991.2 There are fourteen full-time Colleges in England, one in Scotland and one in Wales, and fourteen part-time courses. The syllabus for the General Ministerial Examination, which is the academic requirement for ordination in the Church of England, is very wide-ranging. There are six papers in Holy Scripture, two in Doctrine, one in Church History; one in Ethics; one in Pastoral Studies; two optional papers in Hebrew and Latin; and one in Christian Worship. Ordinands over 30 may be examined by essay, which for the paper in Christian Worship consists of an essay of 3,000 to 5,000 words supported by three internally assessed essays.3 Ordinands under 30 follow a tnree-year course, and mature students two years. In common with all syllabuses, the print is more impressive than the praxis. The liturgy component 4 of the General Ministerial Examination expects a wide range of topics to be covered, but it is hard to imagine how this is achieved in practice, considering the time constraints and the allocation of timetable time to other disciplines. One wonders how much time is available for the input into the Christian Worship unit, let alone the final section of the syllabus 'The Setting' which specifically mentions Presentation and Presidency. 5 Questionnaires were sent to the Theological Colleges dunng the long vacation in 1990. It is widely held that Liturgy is the Cinderella subject in Anglican Theological Colleges. Spinks, cataloguing the demise in status of Liturgy at Kings College London, is indicative: Ratcliff held a professorial chair in liturgy; Jasper succeeded him, but as a reader in liturgy; his successor Cuming was a part-time lecturer and on his retirement liturgy was absorbed into the church history department. 6 However, Liturgy is taught at the Theological Colleges, which is more than can be said for Canon Law!

1 2 3

4 5 6

op. cit., p.2. op. cit., pp.23-24. General Ministerial Examination ( H a n d b o o k a n d Syllabus 1990/1991) ( A C C M , L o n d o n , 1990). p. 16. See A p p e n d i x 3. General Ministerial Examination, p.3 3. Bryan Spinks, 'Postscript: I n v e s t i n g in Liturgy f o r a N e w C e n t u r y ' in M i c h a e l P e r h a m (ed ), Liturgy For A New Century, ( S P C K / A l c u i n C l u b , L o n d o n , 1991), p. 108.

The Enquiry: The Seminaries

15

B QUESTIONNAIRE

The questionnaire was brief and direct, seeking to find the staffing commitment (part-time/full time), and the range of liturgical teaching, by seeking straightforward 'yes' or 'no' answers to the type of texts studied! Perhaps because of its brevity and directness, there was a nigh return of questionnaires. Fourteen full-time colleges, group A, responded and eleven part-time, group B. Despite liturgy's Cinderella image, or self-image, group A had thirteen fulltime post holders for liturgy and one part-time. As one would expect, group B were part-time post holders,except in one case. This reflects the nature of the course. In terms of personnel, liturgy is reasonably resourced. Every response in group A confirmed that the syllabus in liturgy covered rites since ASB. In group B nine did and two did not. Group A was once again consistent in looking at contemporary rites both in the worldwide Anglican Communion and in other Christian Communions. All group B responses looked outside the Anglican Communion, but two did not note the trends in the wider Anglican families. The response to question 3 should have been a unanimous 'yes', because the preamble to the syllabus for Christian Worship states: '... familiarity with the authorized rites of the Church of England (currently The Book of Common Prayer(1662), The Alternative Service Book 1980, Ministry to the Sick, and Lent, Holy Week Easter) which should occupy a paradigmatic place in the course.' 1 It is to be hoped that the word 'currently' is not overlooked and that teachers of liturgy keep up with the authorized texts and new Canons, as they continue to come into use in the Church of England. The wider look at the rites was not always inspired by the quest for extra liturgical knowledge. In some cases it was a demand generated by the fact that the colleges had an ecumenical student body, and were preparing candidates along denominational lines. The final question on the Directory Approach produced a more mixed response. In group A nine responded in the affirmative and two in the negative. Respondents were invited to add comments to the questionnaire. The Directory was seen by three colleges as an 'opportunity' not a 'problem'. There was one request for assistance with a suitable bibliography to assist in this new area. In group B nine were addressing the 'Directory Approach', and two were not. One followed Anglican custom and answered the question with another question. The questionnaire demonstrates a strong commitment to the teaching of liturgy by most of the colleges. The part-time courses are in a difficult position, except where they are an extension of a full-time institute, because of the nature of their establishment and student body. As is clearly shown by the answers, contemporary rites from many sources are studied, however nearly 50% of the replies demonstrated that tne Directory posed problems (and, as one or two respondents indicated, opportunities). 1

General Ministerial

16

Examination,

Liturgical Presidency

p.31.

C. C O M M E N T S

The General Ministerial Examination syllabus acknowledges a much earlier paper from the Advisory Council for the Church's Ministry entitled Learning to Worship in the Christian Community.1 This earlier paper gathers together work started in 1969, and mentions many practical aspects of liturgy, whicn ordinands should be aware of in their training. 'Growth in the understanding of worship cannot be separated from worship itself, nor indeed from the whole of life. '... It is to be hoped that with the help of this course, a student will grow, not merely in his liturgical knowledge, but also in his capacity for worship and in his ability to lead others in worship.' 2 T h e leading and planning of worship, and so the assisting of others in the enrichment of their own devotion, will now be seen to be an integral part of the whole course, and to be raised at every turn.' 3 'Students will be invited to compile a scrapbook, an "uncommonplace book" of pictures, poems, texts, experiences, happenings through which they knew something of what it was to worship.' 4 The paper concludes, in the second appendix dealing with assessment, that there should be reports from both college tutors and outside supervisors concerning the student's performance in liturgical situations, both from the technical ana creative points of view.5 The claim of the current syllabus to 'relate' to Learning to Worship in the Christian Community'', is true, but it is in the particular area of the practical that the relationship appears tenuous. The practical advice promoted in Learning to Worship in the Christian Community does not appear to survive in the current General Ministerial Examination syllabus.7 The overall impression gained from the colleges is that the main emphasis in liturgical teaching is still historical rather than pastoral. The formation is largely historical, but as shown by the syllabus, it is comparative liturgy. There is little evidence to sustain a view that what Taft calls the 'deep structures' of liturgy are 1

2 3 4 5 6 7

Learning to Worship in the Christian Community (The Place of Worship in Ordination Training), (CIO, London, 1974). op. cit., p. 1. ibid., p.3. ibid., p.4. ibid., p.42. General Ministerial Examination, p.32. It is intereting to note that the 'Liturgical Unit' for the D i p l o m a in Applied Theology at Westminster College, Oxford in 1990, r e c o m m e n d s t n e compilation of a liturgical scrapbook, which m a y be submitted towards the final assessment in that unit, ¡Liturgical Material: access to a variety of collections of m o d e m (and ancient!) liturgical material will be helpful. O n e aim for the course is that students, individually, and collectively, p u t together a portfolio of liturgical resources, including material they have themselves created], (The Liturgical Dimension, Section B, N o t e 5, Westminster College, Oxford).

The Enquiry: The Seminars

17

studied. Kavanagh says that this deep structure needs to be understood before questions of meaning can be adequately addressed. 1 Of course to ignore the history of liturgy would be to destroy its context. F. D. Maurice said that liturgy cannot 'just be tinkered about with like some old praying machine to bring it up to date'.2 The history of liturgy is very important, but only has a relevance for the church if it leads on to good pastoral practice. Subsidiary informal questioning of deacons and priests having less than six years in orders confirm the above conclusions. They would claim to have little or no training in liturgical action as leader, but are quite capable of describing the development of the choir offices in BCP. They arrive in the parish ill-equipped to engage in what becomes at least a weekly, if not a daily-activity after ordination. If formation is rudimentary in the colleges, is it carried on in the parish/workplace? The next phase of the enquiry was directed at the sample of presidents responsible for tne training of deacons/priests during their first three years after leaving the Theological College.

1 1

op. ai.,p,130. Learning to Worship in the Christian Community, p.3.

18

Liturgical Presidency

5. The Enquiry: The Presidents A. T H E

INTRODUCTION

There is little a t t e m p t to take the process of liturgical Formation beyond the realm of liturgical history in the colleges. More research would need to be undertaken to ascertain whether this was d u e to lack of time, or as Spinks hints, due to a lack of suitably qualified teachers. 1 It seemed natural, therefore, to take the enquiry to the diocese and parish and to try to discern evidence of liturgical formation there. T h e diocesan bishop agreed to be interviewed. This was important because the bishop is a key figure in presidency and is responsible for the formation of his people—clerical and lay. Stevenson and Stancliffe note the following: 'The pastoral and liturgical role of the bishop has been developing in recent years. Indeed, if episcopal diaries of a hundred years ago and today were compared, the enhanced role today of the bishop as chief liturgical minister would be immediately apparent'. 2 His liturgical role is emphasized in ASB rite of Ordination of Bishops 3 , the recent Report of the Archbishops Group on The Episcopate 1990 makes no less than nine specific liturgical references to his office 4 , each Church of England diocesan bishop is urged to appoint (not have elected) a Diocesan Liturgy C o m m i t t e e which is answerable to him and assists him in fulfilling his liturgical function. Finally, the bishop should preside at the eucharist whenever he is present. 5 T h e introductory rubrics/notes to all the modern Anglican eucharistic rites confirm this. T h e bishop will, in addition, preside at rites which are reserved to him alone, for example, the rites of confirmation, ordination, mass of chrism, and usually, the dedication of a church building. The bishop, in the Church of England, has been assisted by a n u m b e r of guides, starting with Ritual Notes6, and then nothing until The Bishop in Church.7 More recently there have been two publications directed particularly to the Church of England bishop, Episcopal Services8 and The Bishop in Litur^i9-. but the most useful publication, though not Anglican, is the American edition of the

1

op. cit, p. 109. K e n n e t h S t e v e n s o n a n d D a v i d S t a n c l i f f e . Christian Initiation And Its Relation To Some Pastoral Offices, ( G e n e r a l S y n o d of t h e C h u r c h of E n g l a n d , L o n d o n . 1991), p.5. 3 J e r e m y H a s e l o c k , ' T h e Liturgical M i n i s t r v of B i s h o p s ' in Livingstones 5.1 (1991), pp. 1216. 4 Episcopal Ministry, ( C H P , L o n d o n . 1990). pp.31, 41, 43, 45, 80, 83, 106, 1 10, 170. 5 see ASB, p. 115; N o t e 2. 6 H e n r y C a i r n c r o s s ( c o m p i l e r ) , (W. K n o t t & Son Ltd., L o n d o n , 1894). 7 Patrick F e r g u s o n - D a v i e , ( S P C K , L o n d o n , 1961). 8 ( C L A / A l c u i n G l u b / S P C K , L o n d o n , 1980). 9 C o l i n B u c h a n a n (ed ), (An Anglican S y m p o s i u m o n t h e Role a n d Iask of t h e B i s h o p in t h e Field of Liturgy), ( A l c u i n / G R O V V J o i n t Liturgical S t u d v no. 6. G r o v e B o o k s Ltd . N o t t i n g h a m , 1988). 2

Tlx Enquiry: The Presidents

19

editio typica of Caeremoniak Episcoporum—Ceremonial of Bishops.'1 Like all advice, it is good and bad, and some is taken and some ignored. The parish priests were chosen to give a range of liturgical practice in the Church of England, but all presented a eucharist as the main Sunday service. They were all responsible for the continuing formation of a junior colleague. B THE QUESTIONS

The interviews lasted about one hour and started with set questions: 1. Personal Formation a. Date and place of training b. Experience of Liturgy Teaching c. First Parish—Liturgical Experience 2. Knowledge and Use of Texts Each interviewee was asked if he: a. had knowledge of b. made use of c. would give their opinion of the following texts in addition to ASB. a. Ministry to the Sick (1983) b. Lent Holy Week Easter: Services and Prayers (1984) c. Making Women Visible (1988) d. Patterns for Worship (1989) e. The Promise of his Glory (1990) f. Church Family Worship (1986) At the time of the interviews, ASB, BCP and documents a., b., and e. above can be said to constitute the 'canon' of authonzed liturgical texts in the Church of England, which should be in regular use. (One would want to add: Services of Prayer and Dedication after Civil Marriage, Night Prayer: A Late Evening Service-, Funeral Servicefor a Child DyingNearthe Time of Birth and Ministry at the Time of Death, which are also approved services commended by the House of Bishops. Since the interviews, both Celebrating Common Prayer and Enriching The Christian Year have been published, having differing degrees of authorization. In the course of time other texts will be approved and added.) Patterns for Worship will be discussed by the General Synod at a later date, though parts of it have been printed in Enriching The Christian Year. Making Women Visible2 has recommendations for removing overt sexisms which can be done under Canon BS. Church Family Worship is the exception, because it is an unofficial collection of texts bound up with parts of ASB most used in the parish church setting.

1

2

Ceremonial of Bishops, Lirurgical Press, Collegeville, 1989). T h e Caeremoniale Episcoporum first a p p e a r e d in 1660 a n d can trace its origins back to t h e close of t h e s e v e n t h c e n t u r y . W h i l e there are a n u m b e r of texts a n d rites n o t widely used in t h e C h u r c h of E n g l a n d , t h e principles e n u c i a t e d for episcopal presidency s h o u l d t r a n s c e n d t h e d e n o m i n a t e d divide. ( C H P , L o n d o n , 1988).

20

Liturgical Presidency

Finally o n texts they were asked if they were aware of the provisions of C a n o n B5 which allows for the minor alteration of words in services, provided no doctrinal change is implied, and if they ever used it. 3. Music Resources in Use T h e interviewees were asked about the music repertoire used in their situations, because this is an area of choice already used and understood to a greater or lesser extent by parochial clergy. G r i m s h a w has dealt with Anglican practice in some detail. 1 This Study is more concerned with the texts o f the rites in use. 4. Perception of Presidential Style The Interviewees were shown and asked to c o m m e n t on six 'principles, laws, advices, or objectives' on 'The Art of Presiding' based on a paper given to the European Meeting of Secretaries of the National Liturgical Commissions held in Brugge 11-16 J u n e 1990 by Father Jean-Louis Angue. The report of the Conference was carried in the journal Liturgy published by the (Roman Catholic) Bishops' Conference of England and Wales Liturgy Office. 2 Angue's paper defines six 'principles, laws, advices, or objectives', which are noted below: —to be oneself —to serve the other —to prepare oneself —to extend what o n e has received —to allow other Ministries to be carried o u t —to not forget one's body 3 These precepts are expanded, to give clarity to the final part of he interview. T h e president does not dominate the assembly, it is a leadership, not a superiority. This requires a degree of relaxation, in fact a confidence in oneself, a being of oneself. T h e president must never forget, neither should the assembly, that there is a difference of function, but both snare the same baptism. N o t to be oneself can often lead to authoritarianism. T h e president is to be a signpost to G o d , not G o d himself. This is partly achieved by being oneself, and by being immersed in the rite and in Christian living. Presidency is a skill which does not lend itself to improvization. W h e t h e r it is liked or not, the president brings his lifestyle to the rite. Courtesy, let alone style, d e m a n d that appropriate choice is m a d e from the variety of texts on offer. Personal interpolations may not be compatible with the assembly's ability to accept them. T h e prepared president celebrates with the people, sensitive to the dynamic of the liturgy. 1

2

3

Peter Grimshaw, The Function oj Music and Song in Christian Worship (Westminster College, Oxford, 1990), unpublished M A Dissertation, pp.38-46. Liturg/ 14 (1990): p.278. T h e original article has subsequently been published in an expanded f o r m as Leading The Prayer Of God's People. (The C o l u m b a Press, Dublin, 1991). ibid., p.279.

The Hnquiiy: The Presidents

21

T h e 'rubrics' have been reduced in ASB and have been supplemented by 'notes'. There can be no authentic liturgy, which is regulated by the oldfashioned minutiae of rubrics. (In private conversation with the a u t h o r in the s u m m e r of 1990, French priests of a generation ordained just after the Second World War recalled 30-minute lectures o n rubricology each day in seminary). As has been shown, there is n o w a variety of authorized text, and less formally, hymns and gestures. T h e president therefore opens the treasury of the liturgical tradition (extending what one has received): it is not necessary to invent everything. This allows for the rite to be recognizably of the Universal Church, but leaves room for creativity. It needs to be recognized that there is a tension between innovation and creativity which surfaces in the interviews. Creativity can be a response to the m o m e n t . Creativity will only be genuine, if it points away from tne president to Almighty G o d . T n e president presides, other ministries will be exercised if active participation is allowed to manifest itself. C o n f u s i o n of roles diminishes t h e celebration and all the participants. Differences must be respected. T h e whole body is used in the worship of G o d , so the president will need to remember that whatever he does is of significance. H o w is the look? Is the voice appropriate for proclaiming, inviting or instructing? Are the gestures in proportion to the space? Are they self-seeking, or d o they point to God? H o w is the use of vestments and objects used in the rite? C. T H E

INTERVIEWS

It was possible to build a picture of the interviewee's awareness of the current situation of liturgical provision, and how well it was being handled. It was also possible to deduce how each president had grown in liturgical formation since ordination. T h e interviews were designed to ascertain the formation of the interviewees. Their own perception would be gauged by the first set of historical questions. They would demonstrate their awareness of the current 'canon' of Anglican texts by their response to the questions on current provision. Finally in talking to the paper by Angue on presidency, they would reveal progress in formation and understanding of formation. INTERVIEW 1: Diocesan Bishop T h e bishop was at Theological College from 1953 to 1955, before any of the current liturgical ferment. T n e liturgy syllabus only covered the area of Prayer Book History. Little in the way of liturgical training was given in his first Liverool parish, however he was influenced in the dramatic presentation of worship y contact with the Anglican Cathedral u n d e r the direction of Dean Dwelly. Because of its religious history and bigotry, Liverpool Anglican Cathedral has had problems presenting ritual. T h e Dean overcame this with secular models of dignified and appropriate ceremonial for the building. T h e bishop identifies this as an important influence in his liturgical formation. Solemnity is important in the style that he adopts for presiding. H e was ordained bishop in 1975, but received no liturgical training for his office. Like most of his contemporaries on the episcopal bench, he has had to learn on the job!

E

22

Liturgical Presidency

The bishop was aware of the first five supplemental texts as they had passed before him in the meetings of the House of Bishops, prior to publication. He had come across Church Family Worship, which is not an official text, but widely used in evangelical parishes in the Church of England. The bishop's use of a particular text would depend on their presentation to him prior to a parish visit. He welcomed the authorized variety which they encouraged in the worship of the parishes. It was surprising to find out that he exercises little choice over texts submitted for services of confirmation, despite the variety on offer, and apart from using pastoral sensitivity, the same applies to ordinations. Discussing presidential skills, he agrees strongly that 'to be oneself is essential. Naturalness avoids uncertainty. ServingGod is the core of worship. It is the third principle which is under pressure in his ministry. There is a temptation to 'cut corners', which devalues the celebration. It is here that the ministry of his chaplain is most valued. There is no need to re-invent the wheel. The bishop would not claim to be a rubricist, but accepts and teaches that there is a richness in the provided texts and they should be used. From personal observation he is adept at the creative interpolation when appropriate, which enhances his presidential style. In his diocese the other ministries are exercised and welcomed. Those which he, by canon or custom, regulates, are done with the partnership of the parishes. The bishop sees the liturgy as a great drama unfolding and therefore uses colour and gesture to the full. His own phrase of liking 'hands free' liturgy is explained as wanting to be forewarned of the progress of the rite. Again it is his chaplain who assists in this area to make all run smoothly. The bishop has been observed at confirmations, the mass of chrism (qv page 40) and twice at the more unusual and more complicated rite of blessing a new altar. He has an ability to command in chanty as president and to enable the whole assembly to participate in these solemn and joyful occasions. INTERVIEW 2: Evangelical Priest Priest A would describe himself as an evangelical Anglican and trained at an evangelical Theological College between 1971 and 1974. Liturgical teaching was historical from the earliest texts up to the then authorized rites of Series 2 Revised and Series 3. The course covered shape and structure, but involved no teaching of practical/pastoral liturgy. The college chaplain was a good model to follow however, and the chapel experience started a process of good practice which continues to the present. The first parish was described as 'progressive evangelical', and experimentation was allowed. The eucharistic rite was BCPas written (except for the Exhortation) and Series 2 with an amount of flexibility. All the texts mentioned above, except The Promise of his Glory which was out of print, were known and in use. Patterns for Worship had superseded Church Family Worship. Canon R5 was used as appropriate. The Enquiry: The Presidents

23

The music used was based on Hymns for Today's Church, but there is a music group, and choruses are widely used from a wide variety of sources. Having been used to, and inheriting from his predecessor, a 'family worship' format, which is often non-eucharistic and changes in structure, he has come to realize that what was thought to be creative for the laity was in fact chaotic. There has been a move to interpreting the Rite A eucharist 'rubrically', and making it the basis for Sunday worship. The discovery that structure is important has allowed for a proper creativity, which does not leave the laity anxious about 'what comes next'. The eucharistic prayers, 1 (most often), 2 (Family Communion) and 3 (reflection) are in use. Material is supplemented from the newer texts as season or theme dictates. There is a rich mix of liturgical texts nourishing the people in this parish. Standard responses by the laity enable everyone to feel at home with the liturgy. To 'be oneself is the pastoral relationship the president must have with his people. The second principle caused no problems. Like the bishop 'preparing oneself was seen as the cause of greatest tension. As already noted above, by going back to the authorized provision of the Church, it has been learnt that this is in fact inclusive. No one group can then hijack the worship of God. He has recently introduced the use of Ashes at the beginning of Lent, and the Stripping of the Altar at the end of the Maundy Thursday eucharist, have made their appearance. No one is more delighted or surprised than this priest, who is extending what he has received. Allowing others to exercise their ministries causes some problems. A permanent deacon is now on the staff and needs to be seen to exercise a legitimate diaconal liturgical ministry. Involving and encouraging other ministries needs care. Of the body, eye-contact was identified as most im portant. There was a regret that the evangelical tradition has tended to neglect physical objects and symbolism. In this parish, this omission is being remedied. Priest A had learnt liturgy by personal experience, and by observing and asking fellow practitioners. A presidential style was developing as the treasures of the Church's Liturgy were being explored. INTERVIEW 3: Anglo-Catholic Priest Priest B identified himself as a 'Modern Catholic', meaning that his theology flowed from the insights of the Second Vatican Council. The parish where ne now works is 'Inner City'. He trained for the priesthood with the Anglican religious community, the Society of the Sacred Mission, at Kelham, between 1968 and 1972. This course is no longer available for Anglican candidates for the priesthood. The liturgy covered during the course of studies was entirely historical and concentrated on the early period using the texts of Hippolytus and others. BCP and then Series 2 were tacked onto the end of this course. The college liturgy was formative. It was imposing and imposed by the monastic community. In common with western monastic practice, their liturgy at Kelham, followed their 24

Liturgical Presidency

use and calendar. It was expected that a priest was formed in his parish. It is interesting to note that the community had had as one of the brethren Father Gabriel Hebert SSM, whose most noted liturgical work was The Parish Communion1 which he edited in 1936. (The fiftieth anniversary of this event was in turn noted by the publication of Gray's book Earth and AltarIt would seem that his influence was greater outside the community than in it, but then there is precedent in scripture for that! Priest B remembered one practical lesson in liturgy that Kelham gave him, and that was deportment. The first parish was a housing estate. Liturgy was conducted rubrically. It was possible to investigate alternatives on one's own initiative, but it was constantly checked by the parish priest in a discouraging way. Priest B had been in his present parish for six months when the interview took place. All the texts were known, but once again The Promise of His Glory was unobtainable. (By the following December this had been put right and was being used). Making Women Visible was not used, because there was no demand. This was discovered after discussion with the people and the unearthing of his predecessor's collections of official service books 'tippexed' to the new orthodoxy of 'person-speak'. Priest B was at pains to emphasize that the supplemental texts were used to provide a change of seasonal material, most definitely not a change of basic structure. Canon B5 was used as appropriate. English Hymnal was used as the traditional standard hymnal. A Hundred Hymns for Today is in use, but being eased out, and Mission Praise has been introduced. All the four eucharistic prayers in ASB are used; 4 during Lent and for requiems; 3 for feasts; 2 whenever a short eucharistic prayer is required; 1 outside of the Lenten Season. Before Priest B answered Angue's principles, he stated that liturgy must have a spine, which it is possible for the people to learn by heart. When that is achieved, it is then possible to enhance the basic provision by addition and subtraction. Priest B agreed most strongly with 'being oneself. It is impossible 'to serve the other' without calmness and consistent behaviour when presiding. This is what, in his experience, leads to the assembly relaxing, and therefore it becomes free to worship and pray. Preparation is paramount. In 'extending what one has received', priest B recalled the experience of Kelham, where the liturgy was constantly unfolding. H e used the image of a travelator, with its gentle, but consistent, movement. With its variety of authorized texts, liturgy can be independent of locality and therefore an authentic manifestation of the Universal Church. The allowing o f ' o t h e r ministries' is important. It is felt to be especially so in this small community, which is currently being built up. Priest B would strongly agree with the final precept. Priest B has a natural gift for the use of colour and has designed vestments for the parishes where he has worked. He also is a talented musician. H e brings both these talents to the service of God and his people and it shows in the quality of the liturgy. ' A. G. Hebert (ed.), The Parish Communion. (SPCK, London, 1937). (Canterbury Press/Alcuin Club. Norwich, 1986).

1

The Enquiry: The Presidents

25

INTERVIEW 4: Prayer Book Catholic Priest C describes himself as a Prayer Book Catholic, although he no longer uses BCP as the main eucharistic liturgy in his present parish. He trained for the priesthood between 1963 and 1967. Liturgy was taught by no lesser person than jasper, who was Reader in Liturgy at the time. The course content was entirely historical, even though Series 2 was being written at the time. Priest C was taught how to celebrate the rites of the Church by following, to the letter, the rubrics in BCP, and adding the appropriate ceremonies associated by custom, or the whim of the then parish priest. Priest C arrived in his present parish in 1980. He knew of the existence of Ministry to the Sick, Lent Holy Week Easter, and Patterns for Worship. He had not heard of, Making Women Visible, The Promise of his Glory, or Church Family Worship. Only the first two known collection of texts were in regular use, whicn were found useful, the remaining four were not used at all. Lent Holy Week Easter were used only for constructing a fixed liturgy for Ash Wednesday, for the Palm Procession and a Good Friday liturgy. Priest C was unaware of Canon B 5. ASB was introduced on the date of its authorization, but only the traditional language Rite B eucharist is in use. It is claimed that this fits with the perceived musical needs of the parish. Only the second of two eucharistic prayers is ever used. The range of presidential choice is therefore, severely limited. The hymnals in use reflect this conservatism. The exception is junior Praise which is there because of the large aided primary school in the parish. This collection is however one of the most conservative of the children's hymnals. Responsorial psalms have been attempted, but quickly abandoned. Priest C feels it is very important for the people to nave all or the texts before them all of the time. 'Being oneself and 'serving the other' were considered to be most important. 'Preparing oneself was seen in an old-fashioned sense of saying the vesting prayers. (These prayers were encouraged and used in some Anglo-Catholic circles up to the reforms of the sixties, when they dropped from contemporary Roman use. They consisted of a prayer for each item of eucharistic vestment. Each vestment was endowed with a mystical symbolism reflected in the prayer, and sometimes a good Latin pun, e.g. on putting on the alb: Dealba me, Domine, et munda cor meumut, in Sanguine Agni aealhatus, gaudiis perfruar sempitemis— Make me white, O Lord, and cleanse my heart, that, being made white in the blood of the Lamb, I may have the fruition of everlasting life'.1) There was a request for these to be available in modern English translation. In fact they can be purchased from church suppliers in modern English. 'Extending what one has received' elicited the same narrow response. Choice was only exercised over music for the proper of the eucharist and trie hymns. The attitude was very much that of the former liturgy of BCP. Other ministries exercised were musical; assisting as servers; and reading the non-gospel lections. The final principle of Angue for presiding was not answered. 1

The English Missal For the Lnit)>, (W. Knott and Son Ltd., London. 1958). p.31.

26

Liturgical Presidency

Priest C showed an alarming unawareness of what had been going on in liturgy over the thirty years since he started his training. He had been untouched by what was available in the Church of England. As an area dean, and as a priest involved with parish and diocesan schools, it is even more remarkable that the responses above were received. INTERVIEW 5: Catholic Liberal Priest D wished to describe himself as a 'Catholic Liberal' definitely not a 'Liberal Catholic'! He trained for the priesthood between 1948 and 1951, well before the modern liturgical ferment. His liturgical teaching was however of the then highest calibre. Lectures were given by E. C. Ratcliff and Gordon Huelin. These were supplemented by deep lectures in the pastoral practice by the then Dean, Eric Abbott. He inculcated a distinct style in the celebration of the eucharist and. the pastoral offices which has left a permanent impression. It was said that one could identify a priest as an 'Eric Abbott boy'. Abbott himself was formed by an earlier liturgist, B. K. Cunningham. Priest D still recalled the formative books of his seminary days: Srawley1; Lowther Clarke 2 ; Hebert 3 ; Frere 4 and Dearmer. 5 The writings of Orchard, the ritualistic congregational minister, were also formative. This formation caused a deep reverence for the liturgy of BCP. In his first parish there was no experimentation. It was not an expectation of his generation. The parish could be described as tractarian. In his first situation as parish priest, this loyalty to the Prayer Book tradition persisted. Ash Wednesday would be marked by the use o f t h e 1928 service of Commination (adaptea slightly in language for the needs of the laity) instead of importing the Roman Rite to fill the gap. He was anxious to affirm that the Church of England liturgy was sufficient and catholic. As time went on this was to become more difficult to sustain. In this parish he introduced vestments and eucharistic reservation, but always in an 'Anglican' way. BCP provided the libretto, even the Exhortations were used before major festivals. This was underpinned by a lot of writing of popular articles on the Church of England liturgy in the parish magazine. Priest D felt that a stable shape to the liturgy was essential if the people were to participate fully and this was achieved by printing a 'parish communion' booklet for use in the parish. The Parish Communion6 had an marked effect on his liturgical and pastoral policy. Interestingly, children's worship was celebrated with a high degree of freedom and experiment. In the current situation ASB was welcomed (as indeed were its predecessors) and introduced as soon-as possible. Junior colleagues are supervised in the preparation of services and encouraged to experiment.

1 2 ä 4 5 6

The Early History of Liturgy 2nd edition, (CUP, Cambridge, 1949). Liturg/ and Worship (SPCK, London, 1932/1943). op. at. Principles of Religious Ceertmonial (New Edition), (Mowbray, London, 1926). The Art of Public Worship. (Mowbray, London, 1919/1920). Hebert. op. cit. The Enquiry:

The Presidents

27

Priest D was aware of all the supplemental texts published since 1980 and made use of them all as occasion demanded. The music repertoire was extensive in this suburban commuter parish. One could find: New English Hymnal; Celebration Hymnal; Hymns Ancient and Modern New Standard; Mission Praise; Come and Praise and Taiz6 chant. On a Sunday a leaflet would be prepared if there were to be hymns from a number of sources. Eucharistic Prayer 1 is used exclusively on Sunday, because the music had been written for it by the local organist. During the week the other eucharistic prayers are in regular use. Not surprisingly Canon B5 was well known and used. Angue's six precepts received a rapturous endorsement. 'Being oneself was agreed with the pithy observation that Anglican clergy have difficulty in being natural as leaders of worship. They seem to have great difficulty in being human in formal situations. Commenting on 'extending oneself, he added that there was a proper time to innovate/extemporize and that presidents should be prepared to take risks. Lay ministry is encouraged and welcomed. Priest D added a final comment to Angue's final category. He said that he had always used the boldest gesture appropriate to the assembly and that this was 'charismatic'. Arm gestures do not belong solely to a small section of the Church. Priest D is only a few years from formal retirement. Of all the interviewees he showed the depth of his own formation, and was the only one to refer to the people and books who had helped shape his presidential style. (Lebon 1 was being read at the time of the interview). D. C O M M E N T S

All the interviewees selected their own nomenclature. They showed a greater or lesser progress since leaving Theological College. Even Priest C had moved from BCP to Rite B in ASB. It is impossible to state that the bishop is typical. The number of'guides for the bishop' from the last century to the present display the distinct possibility that help was required, and continues to be needed. The bishop interviewed shows an innate ability as a 'performer', a quality he shares with Priest B. His grasp of the 'canon' of authorized texts is absolute, though as noted in the interview he does not impose his will on the choice of variables allowed in confirmation and ordination eucharists. His history shows a constant development/formation in the sense of the drama which the liturgy displays. It is hard to conceive of him trivializing the liturgy where he presides. The diocese is fortunate in having him as a pastor and role model. Priest A and Priest B come to remarkably similar conclusions as to the nature of liturgy and its ability to include or exclude people. Priest B talks of liturgy having a 'spine', while Priest A mentions the discovery that 'structure is important'. They come from different ends of the Anglican spectrum, but reach tne same conclusions. Both have immersed themselves in tne liturgy and have learnt. It 1

How to Understand the Liturg,', (SCM, L o n d o n . 1987).

28

Liturgical Presidency

should be noted that Priest D also wanted stability in his parish c o m m u n i o n , long before the days o f ASB. Priest C has not so much been formed in the liturgy, but has b e c o m e set in it. Smolarski warns that liturgical law is not to be taken too seriously nor too lightly. It is, after all, human law and capable o f development. 1 Priest C has already lost touch with the emerging canon o f texts. W i t h such a sample two trends e m e r g e — o n e that is encouraging and hopeful. T h e first trend shows a deep formation o f the individuals, which m u s t be c o m municated to their junior colleagues and the people o f the parish, and indeed Priest D specifically mentioned this. T h e other trend is negative and stultifying. It is only too depressingly inevitable that just as good practice will be passed on, so will bad. T h i s aspect o f the enquiry should not be left without a final m e n t i o n o f Priest D. It would be only t o o easy to w n t e o f f a clergymen o f his vintage. His attitude to his task as presider is robust and inquiring. His confidence is founded in the sound scholarship o f his seminary teaching, which was noted as academic and practical, and in the forty years o f growing experience as president o f the eucharistic assembly. I f only ne were typical o f his generation, and o f the Anglican clergy as a whole. It is impossible to say which o f the interviewees represents the greatest n u m b e r o f practitioners. T h e r e would be a n u m b e r o f other clergy in between the two extremes o f good and bad practice. T h e observations whicn follow show again various perceptions o f the presiders over liturgy.

1

D. Smorlaski, How Not To Say /Vtas,(Paulist Press, New York/Mahawa, 1986). p.26. The Enquiry:

The Presidents

29

6. The Enquiry: The Celebrations A. T H E

INTRODUCTION

A distraught correspondent to the Church Music Quarterly wrote the following: " . . . An aged but active Anglican, my many erstwhile experiences "in retirement" while deputizing as organist and/or choirmaster (mostly in Hampshire or Surrey) ana as a member of the congregation could read as a horror c o m i c . . . "On! when I take the service I go to paragraph 10, but when the curate takes it he goes to paragraph 5"; congregation, choir and organist gyrating like peas in a pod.' 1 His lament is not isolated. If the comments received by Diocesan Liturgical Committees from the bishops are to be believed, the quality of worship is generally deplorable. The bishops do not enjoy much of their peregrinating worship. One has said that he is not surprised so few go to church, if they experience what he does. Gray's recent article in LivingStones asserts that the Eucharist is the evangelistic service. He quotes from Wesley's Journal of 27 June 1740 to back up this assertion.2 Carroll, Assistant Secretary to the (Roman Catholic) Bishops' Conference on Liturgy, writing on the ability of the liturgy to promote the good news of the gospel says: 'The community which celebrates, and most of all the priests who lead it, are the channels of this good news. It is often the first, it may even be the only, experience of God's love which secular people receive from the Church . . . . . . Are they good news for these people, at this time, through us?'3 Undoubtedly there is something very significant going on in Christian eucharistic assemblies. Therefore the third line of enquiry was to observe the assembly first hand. B. O B S E R V A T I O N

1: E P I S C O P A L

ORDINATION

In the cathedral a congregation of over 3000 people had assembled for a most significant occasion in the life of two dioceses. The liturgical space was enormous. Most of the people present, whether Anglican or not, would have been attending an episcopal ordination for the first time. The cathedral custom is to have ushers dressed like East London undertakers. One encounters silver-haired men in black tail-coats complemented by collarettes in blue silk complete with a medallion. This makes the initial atmosphere

1 2

5

Tom Markwell, 'Tangled Threads' in Church Music Quarterly 23:113 (1991), p.21. Donald Gray, 'Liturgy and Evangelism: T h e Church Revealed and Proclaimed' in Living Stones 4:2 (1990), p.36. Philip Carroll. 'Evangelism and Liturgy' in Liturgy 14 (1990), p. 144.

30

Liturgical

Presidency

intimidating, rather than intimate. Pompous directions to seating did not relax the congregation. Unusually for cathedral worship, the entrance procession was just that. Tnere were no confusing minor processions. T h e Archbishop reached the president's chair and greeted the assembly. H e was unaware that the openarmed greeting associated with the words 'The Lord be with you', needed to be as large and expansive as the space in which he was called to preside. T h e opening and closing o f his joined hands by a mere six inches was ludicrous. This criticism could be made o f all the manual gesture associated with the liturgy on that day. Presidential vesture was good and splendid as befitted the occasion. It is an area in which Anglicans can excel, but the assisting bishops for the ordination were in sixteenth century choir dress, supposed to be academic, but looking like dressing gowns and night shirts. It is a vesture devoid o f recognizable ecclesial s y m b o l Writing earlier this century, Dearmer lays heavy strictures on this odd dress. Instead o f beauty, he claims, the vesture o f class distinction was retained after the Reformation. Clergy are anxious not to appear as inferior men. 1 W h a t was very striking was the overbearing episcopal clericalism o f the ordination liturgy. There were many deacons robed and present, but not one proclaimed the liturgical gospel or prepared the altar for the eucharist. T h e gospel was read by the Bishop o f London. Several thousand lay Christians were present, not least members o f the new bishops' families. T h e y were not invited to read the non-gospel reading, nor bring the bread and wine to the altar at the preparation o f the gifts. T h e first reading was given to the Bishop o f Winchester (the then chairman o f the Liturgical Commission). T h e distribution o f communion was badly organized; not enough communion vessels were prepared, so there were inadequate communion stations. T h e time taken to distribute communion was disproportionate to the overall timescale of the liturgy. M u c h o f the atmosphere was therefore lost. This ordination had much in common with liturgy to be experienced in most English Anglican cathedrals. It was clerical, denying the authentic ministries o f the whole People o f God. T h e choreography looked good, but underlined the hierarchies o f power, and undermined the gospel hierarchies o f service. The president looked ill at ease with the texts and the rite and this was communicated to the assembly. B. O B S E R V A T I O N

2: C H R I S M

EUCHARIST

A critical observation at the diocesan Chrism Eucharist allows the diocesan bishop to be seen exercising his liturgical ministry at one the most significant points in the liturgical year. S o m e background information will assist in putting this liturgy in its context. Three oils are traditionally blessed for the Church's ministry during the year. T h e oil o f Chrism is oil mixed with a fragrant perfume for anointing at confirmation, ordination, blessing o f churches and altars, and is used in the rite o f coronation o f the monarch. T h e oil of Catechumens is used in the nte o f baptism as a 1

Dearmer, op. at.. p.97

The Enquiry: The Celebrations

31

preliminary anointing after the questions of renunciation and turning to Christ. The oil of Infirmorium is used in anointing the sick. The blessing of oils is reserved to the bishop (except a priest may in an emergency bless oil for the anointing of the sick). ASB provides eucharistic propers for 'The Blessing of Oils'1, and a proper preface for the Eucharistic Prayer2, but there is no other official text for tne blessing of the oils. This fact is curious, as the optional use of Holy Oil is referred to in the Rite of Christian Initiation 3 , and in Ministry to the Sick4 and allowed for in Canon B37 in The Canons of the Church of England. This is the first time that an official Church of England text mentions 'the blessing of oils'. Prior to 1980, the Roman Rite was used by those diocesan bishops wishing to bless oils for sacramental use. Nearly sixty years ago Mackenzie attests to 'a few Anglican bishops' reviving the blessing of oils during the Maundy Thursday liturgy.5 An attempt to authorize a text for the blessing of oils failed to secure the approval of General Synod. The bishop is therefore free to use a suitable text to secure the blessing of the oils. Invariably the Roman Rite is plundered! A recent feature of the Roman liturgy on this day, is the renewal of commitment to priestly service. This has caught the imagination of many Anglicans, and is frequently incorporated into the rite. There is always a certain amount of tension at the Cathedral for this celebration. Some is generated by the various traditions in Anglicanism coming together for a single service. There is a feeling among a number of low church Anglicans that this is a 'corrupt following of the apostles' and that the bishop is in cahoots with un-English elements in the diocese. Concelebration causes an unusual degree of stress among the same constituency. There is much agonizing with the head, missing much fine moving of the heart in this special liturgy. Some of this angst is evident in the authorized Anglican forms to be found outside England. Ireland makes no mention of oils. Wales seems as ever confused. The Chrism Eucharist there is dealt with by a rubric preceding the traditional Collects and readings for the Eucharist of the Last Supper: 'It is customary for the Holy Oil to be blessed by tne Bishop on this day at the Eucharist.' 6 No alternative propers are provided, nor is there any rite for the blessing of the oil(s). Canada has its fine essays, but only two oils and calls the oil of baptism 'chrism', the other oil is for tne sick. In fact the oil of baptism, that is, of the catechumens, is not mentioned. 7 South Africa blesses only two oils, but with 1

op. cit., p.555. ibid., p. 155. ibid., pp.225 and 226. 4 (CUP, Cambridge: William Clowes, Colchester: M o w b r a y / O U P , Oxford: SPCK, London, 1983), p.28. 5 K. D. MacKenzie, 'Anglican Adaption of S o m e Latin Ritesand Ceremonies' in Liturgy and Worship (SPCK, London. 1932). p.737. 6 Gwasanaethau A Defodau (Church In Wales Publications, South Glamorgan, 1983), p. 16. 7 The Book Of Alternative Services (Anglican Book Centre, Toronto. 1985), pp.616-662. 2 J

32

Liturgical Presidency

more ceremony than Canada. South Afnca renews priestly commitment, with the novel addition of a prayer from the Roman Rite asking for a blessing on priests' wives! 1 In this particular cathedral more tension is generated by the resident cathedral clergy, w h o are not in the limelight on this occasion, as tne bishop presides and preaches. Some months prior to this euchanst, the bishop invites all the diocesan priests to concelebrate with him and the suffragan and assistant bishops, expressing the importance he places on this diocesan family occasion. Tne deacons are also invited to exercise their traditional ministry. The cathedral chapter appear to feel out of control on this occasion. A ceremony that is only celebrated once a year requires a degree of attention to detail if it is to succeed. The n u m b e r of concélébrants has exceeded 150, and had been increasing each year. The framework is the Rite A eucharist 2 and that shape remains clear. After the homily the priests renew their commitment to priestly service. In c o m m o n with a number of other dioceses, the deacons are invited to renew their vows. A unusual feature of this diocesan rite is the renewal of vows made by the area bishops. This was inserted after a request by the area bishops. After tne renewal, the three oils are presented by deacons and blessed. Tne eucharist continues with the Rite of Peace, the priests concelebrating with the Diocesan Bishop. With this brief background the observation of the rite can now be described. The whole service, including hymns, was are printed in a single book. Presidential options had been decided well in advance and agreed. The pages preceding the opening song of the rite had short essays on the Oils, Renewal of Vows, Anointing in the Old Testament, Anointing of Jesus, Jesus' Ministry and T h e Anointing of the Church at Pentecost. This enabled those arriving early to reflect on the rite and its importance to the life of the church in the diocese. The cathedral church has been re-ordered. The altar stands before the congregation and allows the president to celebrate facing them. T h e former chancel seats the lay choir, when present. The cathedral canons also have their seats there. The bishop's chair is at the east end of the chancel and is raised. H e is visible from most parts of the building, but geographically distant. A reasonable amplification system is in place. Two ambos are sited either side of the front of the nave. By any standard the entrance of the Bishop was impressive, as he was preceded by forty deacons and one hundred ana fifty priests. The seating of the concélébrants was slightly disorganized, due to a number of priests turning up to concelebrate, who had failed to inform the cathedral. Having sorted out 'double bookings' during the opening hymn, the bishop fixed the assembly with a warm smile and an all-embracing gesture of arms extended and said 'Peace be

1

An Anglican Prayer Book 1989 (Collins Liturgical Publications, London, 1989), pp.177-

2

ASB, pp.115-173.

182.

The Enquiry: The Celebrations

33

with you'. This formal greeting is traditional for a bishop in Western liturgy and replaces the usual T h e Lord be with you'. This deliberate action established the bishop's presidency from the outset. He said all those parts assigned the president noted in ASB. Other ministries were in evidence, and this was no prima donna performance. The first two readings were proclaimed by laity, the Gospel by a deacon. Deacons presented the oils to be blessed. Ministers of music led the singing of the proper of the mass and the psalm. Lay people presented the bread and wine to be consecrated during the eucharistic prayer. It was noticeable that the bishop stood to preach from his chair and wore the mitre. Previously he would go to the ambo, and be bare-headed. The new location and the wearing of the mitre underlined his teaching office, and made him visible in a dramatic way. The rite had a great sense of occasion, style and what is so often lacking, pace. Many clergy talking in the sacristy afterwards commented on the sense of being affirmed by being there. This was not just because of the verbal affirmation which was communicated in the homily. One lapse in style was noticeable. The oils are distributed after the eucharist in glass jars, clearly marked to distinguish the three oils. This is practical, and speeds up the collection of this precious sign of our unity with the bishop. When the oil is presented to the bishop for blessing, the same small container is used. It is hard to enter into the ceremony of this significant blessing with such an unworthy container. It is also impossible to smell the fragrance of the balsam, mixed with the olive oil to make the holy chrism, when it is in a small sealed container. An important part of the symbolism is lost. B O B S E R V A T I O N 3: S U B U R B A N

PARISH

On entering the building for the Sunday Eucharist, each person was given a small library presumably to participate in the liturgy. This package was made up of: two hymn books—one ancient, one modern; one complete pew copy of ASB—1293 pages; and the parish Notice Sheet—one sheet of foolscap printed portrait on both sides. The congregation was about 180 people. The procession entered with the president preceded by an assistant priest and a robed lay reader. The president failed to establish his position at the veiy beginning of the service, despite the notes/rubrics in ASB, which state that tne president is to say: '. . the opening Greeting the Collect, the Absolution, the Peace, and the Blessing he himself must take the bread and the cup before replacing them on the holy table, say the Eucharistic Prayer, break the consecrated bread, and receive the sacrament on every occasion. The remaining parts of the service be may delegate to others. When necessity dictates, a deacon or lay person may preside over the Ministry of the Wordr' The Greeting was given by the lay reader, who stood away from the presidential chair, and at the reader's invitation, the congregation together said two 1

ASB. p. 115.

34

Liturgical Presidency

collects printed on the Notice Sheet, despite the rubric above, which directs that there should be one ('collect' is singular) and that the president says it. T h e president was not to be heard until the Peace. Two readings preceded the Gospel as in the appointed lectionary. T h e y followed on immediately without a break of silence, or song. An eight-verse song ushered in t h e Gospel; however during the song the children approached the altar rail for a blessing, and then left for their catechism. By the time the hymn had ended, any link with the earlier readings was long forgotten. T h e children's action seemed to say that the Gospel was not for them. A low-key, mini-procession, of flask of wine and cibonum of wafer bread, was swiftly taken to the altar at the beginning of the hymn at the Preparation of the Gifts; meanwhile a money collection was taking place. A more solemn and formal procession of bags of money was received at the altar in large and impressive plates, at the end of the song. These were held aloft by the president, completely overshadowing the bread and wine on the altar table. There was a confusion of symbols. T h r o u g h o u t the liturgy page numbers, often followed by paragraph numbers, had been given o u t before each prayer, reading or action. This distraction continued unabated during the Eucharistic Prayer. T h e unity of the Eucharistic Prayer is usually masked by Anglicans changing posture after the Sanctus chant. 1 This aberration was addecf to, by the assembly joining in the anamnesis after the eucharistic acclamation, further destroying tne unity of the great central prayer of the rite. Before leaving the Eucharistic Prayer, the presidential action during the dominical words deserves some c o m m e n t . Firstly, at the words 'he broke it', the president broke the bread, thereby preempting tne Fraction prior to Holy Communion, and obscuring the classic four-fold shape of the rite. Secondly, t h e tone of voice adopted for the Words of Institution was hectoring. It gave tne impression that consecration of the species of bread and wine was effected by intimidation. At the conclusion of the Eucharistic Prayer the page n u m b e r was a n n o u n c e d for the recitation of the Lord's Prayer. O t h e r ministries were evident. There were the c o m m o n ministries of usher, altar server and musician. T h e non-gospel readings, T h e Prayer of Intercession and assistance with distributing Holy C o m m u n i o n , were undertaken by lay people. T h e extraordinary ministers of c o m m u n i o n were men, but the congregation was 70% to 80% female. T h e president and ministers of c o m m u n i o n received the sacrament during the Agnus Dei chant. T h e congregation were then invited forward to receive. This was a piece of clericalism which destroys the unity of the Body of Christ and is contraiy to rubrics 45 and 46 in the rite.2 T h e liturgical space was good, largely because the building was destroyed by fire and rebuilt using the insights of the Liturgical Movement. T h e altar was 1

2

The Eucharistic Prayer (sections 38-41) is a single prayer, the unity of which may he obscured by* changes of posture in the course ofit'ASB, p. 115: Note 4. ibid. p. 145.

The Enquiry: The Celelrrations

35

central and prominent with a large corona suspended from the ceiling. Little was made of the president's seat, ana unfortunately he disappeared from view each time he sat down. This central seat was dominated by the organ console. The lectern was a poorly designed portable piece of furniture, not worthy as a focus for the Word of God. The liturgy lacked cohesion and direction. This Sunday eucharist took place in the season of Lent. Purple vestments were worn, Lenten hymns sung, and the propers for the season from ASB were used, except the invitation to share the Peace. There was no enrichment from the supplement Lent Holy Week Easter: Services and Prayers. Much of what was done was intended to facilitate participation, but its effects were the opposite, and led to exclusion. Constant page numbers led to constant page turning. This increased tension in the group, and destroyed any sense of recollection. Those in the know prepared to turn to a text a little ahead, and those who were neophytes in this method of worship awaited instruction, as to paper or book, page and paragraph, say together or listen. The noise of rustling paper, punctuated by the odd dropped book, constantly assailed the ears. B. O B S E R V A T I O N 4: T O W N

PARISH

The church building retained its Victorian furnishings and layout, ie. an altar against the east wall and a sedilia for the president against the side wall. The president led the worship as directed in the rubrics, and enabled other ministries to be exercised as appropriate. Geographically he was difficult to see and hear until after the Preparation of the Gifts, when he went to the altar. There was good strong gesture, particu larly effective when visible to the whole assembly. One lapse of style was clearly to be seen. The gradine behind the altar, on which stood the crucifix and six candlesticks, was being used as a bookcase for a collection of hymnbooks. This gave a sense of clutter to the significant area of the altar table. Despite the difficulties of celebrating a modern liturgy in an old-fashioned building, the rite was clearly defined and flowed smoothly. The four-fold action was revealed. The assembly was relaxed with the president. Most used only the hymn as necessary, but were an fait with their part without resorting to reading the text. Again this was during Lent, and no supplemental texts were used apart from ASB. B O B S E R V A T I O N 5: I N N E R C I T Y

PARISH

The ministry of welcome by the ushers/sidesmen was well organised. An abstract of the Rite A eucharist was supplied with a hymnbook and small parish notice leaflet. If one wanted the full text of readings etc, page numbers for ASB were noted on the leaflet and not announced, the same applied to the hymns. The presidential chair was central and raised slightly behind the altar. He was able to see and be seen by all the people. After the Greeting he briefly introduced the theme of the celebration, which flowed naturally into the Penitential rite. The Collect concluded the introduction. The non-gospel readings were read by 36

Liturgical Presidency

laity. After the gospel and homily the president again briefly introduced the Creed. The Intercessions were lay led and well done. A seasonal sentence for the Peace alternative to that provided in ASB was used with a strong trigger-phrase recognized by the assembly who responded. A dignified procession of the bread and wine followed, and the money offerings were received by the president and the altar prepared. In Eucnaristic Prayer 3 advantage was taken of the recommendation in Making Women Visible1 to name Mary, and similarly in The Promise of his Glory2 to add the name of the parish patron: '. . . so that we, in tne company of all the saints, may . . . was changed to: '... so that we, in the com pany of Mary the Mother of God, St. Andrew and all the saints, may . . . ' The invitation to communion was altered interpolating after 'who takes away the sins of the world', the phrase 'who has ransomed us for God by his blood shed upon the Cross'. The usual, and well-known trigger-phrase was retained eliciting the usual congregational response. Lay ministers of communion assisted and the liturgy closed with a suitable seasonal blessing. The overall atmosphere was one of confidence and competence, which facilitated authentic worship, inclusive of everyone present. B. O B S E R V A T I O N 6: D O C K L A N D S

PARISH

This eucharist was one of those quintessential Church of England occasions. It was the swearing in of churchwardens for the coming year from the East London Deaneries of Waltham Forest, Newham and Barkingand Dagenham. It required the presence of the Diocesan Registrar complete witn gown and wig. A congregation of over 200 was summoned and present representing many differing traditions of Anglicanism. Each participant was given a prepared complete service booklet with all the required texts and hymns. No otner books were necessary. The liturgical environment was in a newly created ecclesiastical building to serve the emerging Docklands estates. Along with the worship space were meeting areas and a health centre. There was a westward-facing altar, but not raised sufficiently for the assembly to see. The altar's proportions were too small for the building, and too small for the arrangement of the essential 'hardware' for the liturgy. Before the liturgy commenced the altar was cluttered with chalices and ciboria and an opened and upended burse, which served no symbolic or ceremonial purpose. The whole was dominated by the most ugly black and chrome microphone. Smolarski reminds presidents that altars should not look like 'awards tables at bowling banquets or like vendors' tables at pottery craft shows'.3 op. at., p.21. op. cit. p. 3 76: Note 14. 3 op. cit, p.62. 1

2

The Enquiry: The Celebrations

37

Unannounced, the president (host area dean), registrar, archdeacon, two area deans, parish priest and three lay chairs of the Deanery Synods, shuffled to their places Dehind the altar. There seemed to be no reason for this display of power. The president, registrar and archdeacon were the only people to exercise specific roles in the liturgy requiring them to be at the front. There was a chatty welcome from the president, which without pause or differentiation went into the opening sentence of scripture for the feast of Ss. Philip and James. After this we were invited to stand and told to sing the first hymn, with the first two phrases lined out as though we were unable to read or follow a well-presented service sheet. During verse 3 it was realized that the candles had not been lit. The parish priest frantically searched the congregation for a smoker with a lighter. Both tne absolution and final blessing were given by the archdeacon out of a misplaced sense of honour. These properly belong to the president. In the eucnaristic assembly the archdeacon is a presbyter along with other presbyters. His disciplinary role is quite separate. Tnis action would have confused many laity and some clergy as to his status. The opening prayer and other presidential prayers which survived intact, were read from the small service booklet. This prevented the use of any arm gesture and made the prayers seem as disposable as the paper booklet. This also ensured that eye-contact by the president was kept to a minimum. A priest read the non-gospel reading, depriving the laity of their share in the proclamation of the Word of God. A lay person did lead the Intercessions. Once again the unity of the eucharistic prayer was destroyed, not by the change in posture half way, but by the invitation to everyone to join in at the anamnesis. The distribution of Holy C o m m u n i o n had been inadequately thought through and not enough ministers were utilized. This resulted in the c o m m u n ion lasting 16 minutes in a service of one hour. It unbalanced the liturgy, which had already lacked style and pace. Many optional parts of Rite A were included, which would have been better omitted because of the ceremony of Admission of Churchwardens. The Admission and the homily by the Archdeacon were the best parts of this confused and turgid celebration. Great pastoral opportunities were missed at this gathering, which called together Anglican lay leaders in East London. C. C O M M E N T S

The liturgy is the public proclamation of the life of the church. As Sacrosanctum Concilium states: '... the liturgy is the outstanding means by which the faithful can express in their lives and manifest to others, the mystery of Christ and the real nature of the true Church.' 2 1

Walter M. A b b o t t (General Editor). The Documents L o n d o n 1965), p. 137.

38

Liturgical Presidency

Of Vatican II ( G e o f f r e y C h a p m a n ,

The care exercised in its celebration must be paramount. In the observations external care had often been taken, but, as the observations show, there were areas, such as the use or abuse of symbol, where sufficient care had not been taken. The elimination of the children prior to the gospel proclamation in the third observation was a case in point. A number of presidents had no idea of the deep structures, rhythms and dynamics of the liturgical celebration. The observations call first for a personal re-examination of style. H o w do I use symbol, gesture and text?

The Enquiry: The Celebrations

39

7. The Conclusion A. T H E N A T U R E O F L I T U R G Y

T h e Liturgical M o v e m e n t has re-awakened in the Church the truth that all t h e baptized must participate in the liturgy. By its nature liturgy requires the full and active participation o f all. It is the place where theology is not only done, but must be seen to be done. Irwin reminds us the liturgy is a unique source o f theology because it is always a ritual event, not a written Statement', 'Confession' or collection o f 'Articles'. Irwin reminds us that: 'Congar notes the uniqueness o f the liturgy as the action o f the Church that mediates the c o m m u n i t y ' s experience o f God.' 1 For the Christian the liturgy is at the heart o f the experience o f the Risen Christ. 'These [The early Christian c o m m u n i t y ] remained faithful to the teaching o f the apostles, to the brotherhood, to the breaking o f bread and to the prayers'. (Acts 2.42) T h e patristic witness to this primary theology is encapsulated by the O r t h o d o x Evagrius o f Pontus (c. 5 0 0 C E ) that 'a theologian is o n e whose prayer is true'. T h e t h e m e is continued to the present by the writings o f liturgical theologians such as S c h m e m a n n 2 ; Kavanagh 3 (for a comprehensive list o f European and American scholars and their writing consult Irwin 4 ); and the latest report o f the Church o f England Liturgical C o m m i s s i o n which states: ' . . . the worship o f the Church is the point o f integration between G o d , theology and life.' 5 Michael R a m s e y notes the criticism o f G e r m a n theologians w h o rebuke Anglicans for doing their theology to the sound o f church bells. Addressing Anglican seminarians in America he exhorts them n o t to change their ways. 'Well, continue to d o theology to the sound o f church bells, for that is what Christian theology is really all about—worshipping G o d the Saviour through Jesus Christ is the theology o f the apostolic age'. 6 T h e Worship o f the C h u r c h is the supreme ecclesial activity where Scripture is proclaimed, the Baptized profess the Faith and exercise their ministry, the Liturgical texts are prayed and the whole is ordered by Liturgical Law(s). Liturgy exists as one n u m a n activity a m o n g many. Indicators for liturgical formation can start to be discerned by reflecting on liturgy as a human social activity. Kavanagh points to the analysis o f the social scientist G o f f m a n w h o has pointed o u t that there are three types o f social relationships. 7 T h e r e is the o n e - t o - o n e

Kevin W. Irwin, Liturgical Theologf (The Liturgical Press, Collegeville, 1990), p.18. Introduction to Liturgical Theology (St. Vladimir's Press, New York, 1966). 3 op. cit. 4 op. cit. 5 The Worship of the Church ofEngland as it Approaches the Third Millennium (CHP, London, 1991), p.8. 6 Michael Ramsey, The Anglican Spirit (SPCK, London, 1991), p.19. 7 op. cit.. pp. 136-139. 1

2

40

Liturgical

Presidency

intense, exclusive relationship, which is typified by the parent/child interaction. It is by its very nature exclusive. T h e second type is one-to-many. This is to f o u n d in the lecture theatre or concert hall. Its appearance in Christian worship is to be f o u n d in the 'preaching box' design of ecclesiastical building. It is an expression of a hierarchy with a single focus (pulpit) and serried ranks of the faithful (pews). It is a late development in Christian architecture and not designed for liturgy. T h e third relationship model is what G o f f m a n calls many-to-many. T h e many-to-many relationship is described as 'social occasions'. This is the party, convention, dinners or other complex celebratory events with m a n y overlapping relationships. It is in this third category of relationship that the activity of liturgy exists. These 'social occasions' are by their very nature not commonplace. T h e y are significant, occasional and ritual. They develop a rhythm, a routine, a m o v e m e n t of their own. Liturgy as a 'social occasion' will have rules which enable the the many people involved in its transaction to interact without chaos. Kavanagh again provides help in explaining that liturgy is governed by rule and names its f o u r guiding principles or canons, and a final dimension. 1 T h e canon of holy scripture is that group or writings which t h e Christian community deems appropriate to read aloud in the assembly. T h e criteria are not literary, n o r the piety of their authors, but rather of their being 'of G o d ' rather than 'about God'. T h e reading of the Word of G o d in the liturgy has acclamations after the non-gospel readings, and there are additional responses and a change of posture associated with tne proclamation of the Gospel. These features mark these texts out as special. 2 In m a n y communities the Gospel will be decorated with lights, incense and special music. T h e Holy Scriptures define the liturgy as a h u m a n gathering centred on G o d and his activity. G o d is in the midst of the liturgical assembly. T h e canon of Baptismal Faith is s u m m e d u p in the Trinitarian Creeds. Baptismal faith is a personal testimony. A belief and trust in Father Son and Holy Spirit is required of the neophyte. 3 This credal statement in the Trinity of Persons causes the Christian to profess belief in a personal G o d , and to become part of a divine community. It is a guard against introverted pathological piety and an impetus to outward-looking evangelism. T h e canon of eucharistic faith is contained in the eucharistic prayers, which are those texts which the Church has authorized to proclaim the saving acts of G o d u n d e r t h e signs of bread and wine. This canon constitutes a repertoire, a libretto, which presiderand people should be familiar with. O n e would want to add those other texts which allow the Church to celebrate and sanctify: Initiation; Marriage; Death and Time. T h e fourth canon concerns itself with liturgical law. For m e m b e r s of the Church of England this will have its foundation in the Canons of the Church of England 1 and in the Act of Uniformity which prefaces BCP and the Ordinal. The ' ibid., p. 139ff. 2

3 4

A SB, pp. 122-123.

ibid, p.232. See ' S e c t i o n B: D i v i n e Service a n d t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e S a c r a m e n t s ' .

Conclusion

41

rubrics in BCP and the Ordinal, the notes in ASB, and also the notes in the m o r e recent rites and ceremonies recently provided provide a second tier o f law. T h e more nebulous law is in that area o f style or presentation. It requires a knowledge o f the deep structures o f the liturgy and o f the people w h o gather to celebrate the rites o f the Church in each culture and location. Finally, as we are stating that social occasions are to do with survival, liturgy will have an eschatologicaldimension. It deals with the H o l y O n e w h o is beyond time. As the Paschal Candle is blessed in the G r e a t Vigil o f Easter Night the president proclaims: Christ yesterday and today, the beginning and the end, Alpha and Omega, all time belongs to him, and all ages; to him be glory and power, through every age and for ever. Amen. 2 T h e following observation o f creativity/improvisation in a theatrical setting is pertinent to the understanding o f the above c a n o n s in this study. O n 26 M a y 1991 t h e Shaftesbury T h e a t r e hosted an ' I m p r o m p t u t h o n ' in aid o f a children s charity. T h e show lasted over two hours. It owed its inspiration to a British T V C h a n n e l 4 p r o g r a m m e ' W h o s e Line Is It Anyway?'. T h e format o f the televised show consists o f a chairman and four actors. T h e chairman, aided by the studio audience, throws out suggestions to the actors who have to improvise situations singly o r together for the a m u s e m e n t o f the audience. T h e transmitted show is an edited version. T h e stage show involved m a n y more actors and lacked the chairman. Ideas for song titles, locations and persons were solicited from m e m b e r s o f the audience on slips o f paper. T h e y were deposited on the stage and the improvisations began. Two things b e c a m e apparent very quickly. First, t h e w o m e n and men w h o were used to working with each other on stage quickly responded to each other and a scene rapidly built up and punch-lines were delivered well and received laughs. T h o s e w h o were working together for the first time did not seem to gel a n a the laughter was correspondingly thin. Second, total improvisation usually had the actors in stitches, but excluded the audience from the joke. W h e n improvisers were treading well-worn p a t h s o f comedy, the audience was c o m fortable and laughed a great deal. In fact we were either taking part in c o m e d y theatre ritual a n a enjoying it, or we failed to recognize the ritual and felt uncomfortable. Absolute improvisation was chaotic, embarrassing and self-indulgent. On the o t h e r hand creativity within the canon o f c o m e d y situations struck chords with audience and actor and led to fulfilment. T h e parallel with liturgy is striking, where there is a real tension between the undefined border o f creativity and improvisation. Actors are formed in the many theatrical canons. T h e a t r e operates in defined space, uses texts and situations, has styles and pace. W i t h this in mind we can go on to look at formation. 1

Lent Holy Week Easter: Services and Prayers, p.229.

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Liturgical

Presidency

B. T H E S T A G E S OF F O R M A T I O N

This study has been concerned with the consequences for liturgical formation of the clergy of the Church of England. It should be obvious that liturgical formation is required for the whole People of God. This was the theme of the Second International Anglican Liturgical Consultation in Brixen, North Italy, during August 1987.1 However it is the responsibility of the clergy to preside (except where this is canonically given to a lay person licitly or in necessity). The function of formation in liturgy is to see that the four canons and the eschatological dimension mentioned above are understood. With this understanding the liturgy may flow in any given situation, and the gospel may be proclaimedand lived. The task of liturgical formation is to facilitate the proper participation of the People of God in tne offering of worship. It is not an end in itself. The goal of liturgical formation is that the People of God should live out the gospel of Jesus Christ. They must praise God in the sanctuary, but then return to five out the Word of God in their lives. This is the life of tne baptized in the mission of the Church. 2 1. Liturgical Pre-formation Ordinands beginning their studies at seminary do not arrive in a 'virgin' state. They have been worshipping in Christian communities for some time. A number will have been at the eucharist since their baptism in infancy, others since a later stage in their lives. Some will be heirs of a single tradition in a particular style of churchmanship in Anglicanism, others will have moved around. Another group will have changed from one Christian denomination to another. All will have already worshipped. A number may have exercised a particular ministry within the eucharistic assembly: a reader; leader of prayer; minister of communion or lay presider. This needs to be remembered. On this clear understanding formation can build, and pedagogy has no place. 2. Liturgical Formation in Seminary Serious thought needs to be given to the implementation of the Christian Worship Unit of the General Ministerial Examination Syllabus.3 It has been shown that Historical and/or Comparative Liturgy is taught, but that constraints of time, and/or the lack of qualified teachers does not allow for the Setting of Liturgy to be adequately explored. Hughes states: 'Prayer in the name of the community is a grace filled moment, not a memorized formula or a text upon a printed page.'4 If this is to become a reality in the life of the Church more work is required in the seminary setting. The chapel services will be central to demonstrating good 1 2

3 4

T h o m a s J. Talley (ed.), A Kingdom of Priests ( G r o v e Books Ltd., N o t t i n g h a m , 1988). R e m b e r t G . W e a k l a n d , 'Liturgy' in J a m e s P. M o r o n e y (ed.). Liturgy Active Participation In The Divine Life, ( T h e Liturgical Press, Collegeville, 1990), p.92. See A p p e n d i x 3. Kathleen H u g h e s , Lay Presiding: The Art of Leading Prayer (Pastoral Press, W a s h i n g t o n DC, 1988), p.43. '

Conclusion

43

practice and allowing participation in preparation and planning. (One Anglican Theological College has the good fortune to minister in a parish situation throughout the year. This has an obvious advantage for the students.) The parish placements will need to be selected with care, so that again the student can be part of a eucharistic community where liturgical formation will continue to take place and effective ministry can be shared. Perhaps teachers of liturgy should be experienced parish priests whose contract to teach is limited to a small number of years, so that they remain in touch with the people and the texts. Students need to reflect on the liturgy they experience. This can be helped by conducting a 'liturgy audit' from time to time. This 'audit' technique is being used in many other ecclesiastical disciplines, e.g. Parish Audit and Missionary Audit. The 'liturgy audit' requires the participant to reflect responsibly on the worship experience. This discipline should remain through seminary to active ministry. 1 3. Liturgical Formation in First Appointment In the Church of England an ordinand usually has a first appointment for three years. The Interviews with the Bishop and priests showed that in some cases liturgical formation was on 'hold' for tne first appointment. This situation is bad and particularly damaging in the present situation of rapid development of texts. Bad practice is easy to acquire, but hard to eradicate. With the many other responsibilities to come to terms with in parish life, liturgy can be ignored or taken for granted. Bad practice becomes worse as time goes on. Those responsible for placing ordinands must make sure that, among the other guidance given to a training priest, liturgical formation has a high priority. What was Post-Ordination Training (POT) is now called Initial Continuing Ministerial Education (ICME). Achange in name achieves nothing if there is not a change in practice. Research will need to be done examining the courses offered by ICME to see if liturgical formation is on agenda. The person in a first appointment will find the liturgy audit continues to be helpful. Continued reading must be encouraged and resourced. Books on any theological subject are expensive, liturgical theology is no exception. Various journals and national study days, such as those run by Praxis, will help set good patterns at this stage. 4. Continuing Liturgical Formation Liturgical Formation is a continuous process. There is no point at which a Christian is finally formed in the liturgy. As presidents gain in experience they need constantly to examine and reflect. The strictures against bad presidency run like a thread through the history of the Church. 1

There are examples of Liturgy Audits in Yvonne Cassa and J o a n n e Sanders, How To Form A Parish Liturg/ Board (Liturgy Training Publications, Chicago, 1987).

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St. Augustine (3 54-430 CE) writing on the blessing of baptismal water in De bapt. contra Donatistas 6.47 says: T h e prayers of many are being corrected every day, once they have been read by tne learned, and much against catholic faith is f o u n d in them. M a n y blindly seize u p o n prayers composed not only by unskilled babblers but even by heretics a n a use them because in their simple ignorance they cannot evaluate prayers and think them good.' St. Vincent de Paul (1580-1660 CE) reminds the clergy that: 'Ceremonies are in truth only shadows, but they are shadows of a great reality which d e m a n d s that they are observed with the greatest attention possible.' 1 Whatton's The Priest's Companion which was a standard h a n d b o o k for anglocatholic priests after the Second World War, has this advice: 'Another d e p a r t m e n t of theology which should not be overlooked is Liturgy and Ceremonial. 2 " . . . while an elementary knowledge of ceremonial would seem to be essential to the proper performance of the rites themselves, and would save the laity from much distraction due to the vagaries of the clergy.' 3 'It is a useful practice at some time each year, probably at the time of the annual retreat, to review the ceremonial of the Mass, since it is very easy to slip into careless and erroneous habits in celebrating the H o l y Mysteries.' 4 H e writes at a time before Liturgical Renewal; however the precepts still hold good for today. Kavanagh in America says: 'The liturgical minister w h o cannot, for whatever reason, read the assembly's liturgical and biblical texts as they stand in the assembly's approved books should disqualify himself or herself from the assembly's Liturgical ministry.' 5 Most recently Perham and Stevenson in their commentary on The Promise of his Glory : 'One thinks of celebrations where there appears to be no president, for fear of being too authoritarian-, and in which tne intercessions are a sort of orgy of self pity, in which the faithful wallow in not having changed the world since tney last met, and sermons that are exhortations to greater h u m a n effort, .. ,'6 As P O T has given way to ICME, so In-service Training for the clergy has become Continuing Ministerial Education (CME). Once again research needs to be done to ascertain the courses on offer which could be called 'liturgical formation'. It is not unreasonable to suggest that there is little on offer in this area. T h e 1 2 J 4 5 s

q u o t e d by Smolaski, op. cit., p.43. G . A. C. W h a t t o n , The Priest's Companion (W. K n o t t a n d Sons Ltd., L o n d o n , 1946), p.21. op- cit., p.63. op. cit, p.78. Element!, Of Rite ( P u e b l o . N e w York, 1982), p.78. Michael P e r h a m a n d K e n n e t h Stevenson, Welcoming The Light Of Christ, (SPCK, L o n d o n . 1991). p.22.

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monthly publication News of Liturgy usually has a report from a diocesan liturgy committee, which will often be an account of a study day for clergy and/or laity. These days appear to run independently of diocesan CME programmes. In the diocese it ought to be expected that the bishop's liturgy would be exemplary. The bishop must be seen as the promoter of good liturgical formation. The Ceremonial of Bishops states that: These celebrations (where the bishop presides) should also serve as a model for the entire diocese and be shining exam pies of active participation by the people.'1 It goes on to advocate large gatherings on major liturgical days of the presbyters and laity with the bisnop at different locations in the diocese: 'These gatherings should be occasions for the faithful to grow in their love for the entire Church and to heighten their desire to serve the Gospel and their neighbour.'2 The report Episcopal Ministry says that the statement called T h e Declaration of Assent in the Church of England ordination rite states the primitive emphasis on the bishop's liturgical ana sacramental role.3 In carrying out this role he is assisted by his Liturgical Committee which advises him and liaises with the Church of England Liturgical Commission nationally. They must promote formation in the diocese. This has implications in time and money. Time and time again articles are written reminding the Church that liturgical expertise is currently got on the cheap.4 In the substantial budget of the Chelmsford diocese (over £4.5 million in 1990) only £650 was allocated to the work of the Bishop's Liturgy Committee. In 1992 the Liturgy Committee was allowed £822. It is possible with commitment to do things on a shoestring, but this is not ideal. It has the single advantage of not having constantly to satisfy the executive. Liturgy committees are appointed, not elected, at the present time in the Church of England. The Anglican diocese of Oxford has recently published Developing Worship Guidelines. This is a direct result of the Bishop's Primary Visitation of the diocese in 1989. It hopes to respond the excitement and uncertainty about worship.5 It covers liturgical law; general principles; eucharistic worship; informal noneucharistic worship; and supplies outlines and a list of resources. This is a good attempt to continue the process of liturgical formation in the diocese. Section C of The Chelmsford File6 is more juridical in describing the options for worship. There is little pastoral content. Here the diocesan liturgy committee will need to supplement.

1 2 5 4

5 6

op. cit., p.20. ibid., p.20. op. cit., p.83. Kenneth Stevenson 'Uniting With The Angels', Article Review of The Sanctus in the Eucharistic Prayer by Bryan Spinks in Church Times, 14 June 1991, p. 16. (Diocesan Church House, Oxford, 1991), p.ll. (Chelmsford Diocesan Board of Finance. Chelmsford, 1991).

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From formation in the seminary through to continuing formation, there has been no mention of the physical construction of liturgy for use in the parish. It was stated earlier in Chapter 2 that Caxton's invention of the movable type printing press allowed the fixing of the Reformers liturgy, and later the virtual standardization of liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church. The new technology of word-processing and photo-copying allows liturgical texts to be tailor-made for parishes and individuals. There is serious discussion of providing material from the Church of England Liturgical Commission on 'one or two computer discs, with a common indexing system.' 1 There is hardly any evidence to show that this practical side of liturgy is addressed at any level in formation. At the moment this technology appears to be in the hands of only a few enthusiasts. C. T H E P R E S I D E N T

The conclusion looks finally at the president. Parish priests and lay liturgical enthusiasts have been supported from the earliest days of the ritualistic revival by various handbooks. One of the earliest to appear was Walker's The Ritual Reason Why?2, which was first published in 1866. It continued to be available for over 100 years. The original editors of Ritual Notes3 provided for those Anglicans who wished to follow the then use of the Roman Church for ceremonial, but using Church of England rites. It continued to be revised as the Roman Rite was revised, and it remained a guide for that constituency until the reforms in the liturgy of the Second Vatican Council when it became out of date. Ritual Notes revision owed much to the standard English Roman Catholic work on ceremony called The Ceremonies of the Roman Rite Described4, which first appeared in 1917. Dearmer's The Art of Public Worship provided a more English approach to ceremonial to a different group of Anglicans. Anglicans of other traditions attempted to read the rubrics and tried to implement them to the best of their ability. These works could only survive in a static liturgical environment. As liturgy renewed so they ceased to be useful. If those guides, which had served do well, are now obsolete, where is the written input of liturgical formation to be found, especially for the presidents? (The guides produced after the reforms of the Second Vatican Council and during tne preparation, and after the publication of ASB for Anglican presidents were still in the style of an era before liturgical renewal.8) 1

Worship of the Church as it Approaches the Third Millennium, p.20. O U P already publishes computer software for the Free Church Tradition called Patterns and Prayers For Worship— Electronic Edition. 1 J. T. Hayes published the first edition, this was revised and enlarged and published by Mowbray as late as 1960! 3 10th edition, (W. Knott and Son Ltd., London, 1956). 4 Adrian Fortescue and J. O'Connell. The Ceremonies of the Roman Rite Described 7 th Edition (Burns Oates & Washbourne Ltd., London, 1941). 5 See for example: The Celebration of the Eucharist (CLA, London, 1975); Michael Perham, The Eucharist 2nd Edition (SPCK/Alcuin, London, 1981); David Austerberry, Celebrating the Liturgy (Mowbray, Oxford, 1980).

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In the English language nearly all modern guidance comes from America. Hovda's Strong Loving and Wise was first published in 1976.1 Hovda's book is very different in content and tone from its Victorian and early twentieth century predecessors. The obsession with the minutiae of rubrics is replaced by ideas of mutuality of ministries; the liturgical environment; listening, and not least style. Kavanagn's book Elements of Rite, is sub-titled 'A Hand book of Liturgical Style'. He deals in his waspish way with: usage; general laws; putting liturgy together; form and common mistakes. Style too figures in Huck s book Liturgy with Style and Grace.2 The presider is not his only concern, but he reminds liturgical presides to move with grace, and to have reverence in gesture. 3 Perham's Lively Sacrifice4 fills a gap from the English perspective. Walker, Fortescue and O'Connelf, Dearmer and the like would find it hard to recognize the liturgical action described in the later writers. The titles used by contemporary writers display the change in understanding of the presiders role in the Church. The exactitude of the celebrant with back to the People of God is superseded by the warm embrace of a fellow human being across the common table of the Lord. Justin Martyr would recognize the style of presidency being advocated by the modern writers. To preside at the Christian liturgy is to exercise a significant ministry in the Church. It can be argued that it is the most significant ministry of the pastor, because the gathering of the Christian community for its Sunday euchanst will be the occasion when the priest encounters the most people in any week. In Britain that gathering will be largely made up of the regular committed worshippers of the Christian cult, but there are likely to be numbers of people who for any different reasons are on the fringe of tne community. The President of the Eucharistic Assembly is: The Person who Welcomes Lebon 5 uses the startling image of the president as 'Like the Hostess'. The president prepares the utensils for the celebration, and welcomes the people to the Table of tne Lord to be fed on his word and his body and blood. The Person who Arranges The president orders the words of the liturgy and arranges the sharing of duties within the norms laid down by the Church. Those who preside will need to know intimately the texts of the liturgy and choose appropriately for the occasion, culture and the people they serve. To do less is to deprive the liturgy of force. A presider presides. Others will exercise their legitimate ministries of service in the service. Depriving them of their function diminishes them and the presider. 1 2 3 4 5

T h e Liturgical Press, Collegeville, 1976/1980. Liturgy Training Publications, Chicago, 1984. op. cit.. p.46. (SPCK, London, 1992). op. af.,p.48.

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The Person with Authority Authority has a negative connotation in our society, but it needs to be remembered that 'power' is a gospel word. Jesus was a person of 'power'. It is the use that power is put to which causes the problems. Power in the liturgy can become overpowering, which is death-dealing. The authentic power of G o a in the liturgy is in empowering, which is life-sustaining. 1 The presider's continuing formation needs constantly to reflect on how Jesus' power is shared in the assembly. The Person of Prayer Filled with the life-giving Word of God in the Scriptures, praying the texts as they are proclaimed^ the president can become the window into heaven for the community. A president must be at peace with God, himself and the people. These images are by no means exhaustive, but indicate some of the range of legitimate expectations of the president and people, which liturgical formation has to address to enable worship to be effective in the praise of God, and the extension of his kingdom. The vesting prayers, which officially survived in the Roman Rite until 1969 having originated in the Middle Ages, have this prayer for putting on the chasuble: 'Domine, qui dixisti: Jugum meum suave est et onus meum leve-.fac, ut istudportare sic vaieam, quod consequar tuam gratiam. Amen' 'O Lord, you said: "My yoke is easy and my burden light": make me able to bear it, that I may obtain your grace. Amen.' 2 This is an appropriate frame of mind for the president to approach the Holy Mysteries.

1 2

H u g h e s op. cit., p. 15. English Missal For The Laity, p.32.

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Appendix 1 An Order for Celebrating the Holy Eucharist The Book of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments and Other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church According to the Use of the Episcopal Church 1977, pD.400-401) The rite reauires careful preparation by the Priest and other participants. It is not intended for use at the principal Sunday or weekday celebration of the Holy Eucharist. •The People and Priest •Gather in the Lord's Name •Proclaim and Respond to the Word of God The proclamation and response may include readings, song, talk, dance, instrumental music, other art forms, silence. A reading from the Gospel is always included. •Pray for the World and the Church •Exchange the Peace •Either here or elsewhere in the service, all greet one another in the name of the Lord. •Prepare the Table Some of those present prepare the table; take the bread, the cup of wine, and other offerings, are placed upon it. •Make Eucharist The Great Thanksgiving is said by the Priest in the name of the gathering, using one of the eucharistic prayers provided. The people respond—Amen! •Break Bread •Share the Gifts of God The Body and Blood of the Lord are shared in a reverent manner; after all have received, any of the Sacrament that remains is then consumed. (When a common meal or Agape is part of the celebration, it follows here.)

Appendix 2 Questionnaire sent to Theological Colleges and Ministerial Training Schemes listed in the 1990 edition of the Church of England Year Book. Confidential Yes/No Yes/No 3. Does the Liturgy Syllabus cover Church of England Rites since the ASB? Yes/No 4. Does the Liturgy Syllabus cover contemporary rites from other Anglican Churches? Yes/No 5. Does the Liturgy Syllabus cover contemporary rites of other Christian Communions? Yes/No 6. Does the Liturgy Syllabus address the problems posed by using 'Directories' in the formal worship of the Church? Yes/\'o (please circle your answer) If you have any personal comments you wish to add please use the reverse of this sheet 50

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Appendix 3 THE GENERAL MINISTERIAL EXAMINATION SYLLABUS The syllabus is intended to guide teaching for the examination. It is not a definitive list of topics to be covered. CHRISTIAN WORSHIP It will be necessary for candidates to show an understanding of the meaning of worship in the context of human experience and a knowledge of the distinctive character and great traditions of Christian Worship. Candidates will be expected to show familiarity with the authorised rites of the Church of England (currently The Book of Common Prayer (1662), The Alternative Service Book 1980, The Ministry to the Sick, and Lent, Holy Week and Easter) which should occupy a paradigmatic place in the course. Paper 10: CHRISTIAN WORSHIP The syllabus relates to the report Learning to Worship in the Christian Community and covers the following areas: i) The Meaning of Worship—The concept and psychology of worship (with reference to children as well as adults); the idea of the Holy; Involvement; Imagery and Symbolism; 'Secular Liturgy'; Biblical Concepts; Sacrifice; Intercession; Praise; Charismatic worship. ii) Initiation—Jewish background and NT origins; Components, structure and development; Theology and symbolism; the twentieth century initiation debate; practical issues related to membership, infant baptism, confirmation, admission to communion, etc. Texts: Justin, Hippolytus, Cyril of Jerusalem, Sarum, BCP and ASB. iii) Eucharist—Jewish background and NT origins; elements, structure and development of service and anaphora; the Reformation restructuring; Contemporary revision and developments; varieties of presentation (informal, agapes, etc.) Texts: Justin, Hippolytus, Cyril of Jerusalem, Roman Canons (ancient and modern), Liturgy of John Cnrysostom, BCP, ASB. iv) Worship and Time—Yearly, weekly, and daily observances; Holy Week; Nonsacramental services; Use of the Bible; Services for special occasions. v) Pastoral Offices—Weddings, Funerals, Penance and Reconciliation, Ministry to the Sick, Ordination, etc. vi) The Setting—Architecture; Liturgical space; Presentation and presidency; Dress; Movement; Language; Music. ADVISORY COUNCIL FOR THE CHURCH'S MINISTRY General Ministerial lixamination HANDBOOK AND SYLLABUS 1990/1991, pp.3 1-33

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