Lifestyle in Britain: учебное пособие

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Lifestyle in Britain: учебное пособие

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ ОМСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

О.С. Дворжец

LIFESTYLE IN BRITAIN Учебное пособие Рекомендовано УМО по образованию в области лингвистики

Омск 2004

Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

УДК 802.0 ББК 81.2я73 Д 243

Рецензент преподаватель кафедры англ. яз. ОмГУ Шина Милн

Дворжец О.С. Д 243

Lifestyle in Britain: Учебное пособие. 2-е изд., перераб. и доп. – Омск: Омск. гос. ун-т, 2004. – 146 c. ISBN 5-7779-0465-3 Пособие содержит разнообразные задания для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы студентов с использованием аутентичных материалов Британского телевидения, художественных и документальных англо-язычных фильмов. Пособие разработано с учетом принципа коммуникативной направленности и соответствует современным требованиям преподавания иностранных языков. Для студентов гуманитарных вузов, изучающих английский язык.

УДК 802.0 ББК 81.2я73

ISBN 5-7779-0465-3

© Омский госуниверситет, 2004

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The booklet was written within a framework of TEMPUS-COMPACT project (1999–2001) and the author would like to thank project coordinators Galina Telegina and Michael Townsend, lecturers of Wolverhampton University Veronica Brock and Paul Brett for their help. Special thanks to Sheena Milne, a visiting lecturer from Glasgow at Omsk State University whose advice on certain aspects of British life was invaluable.

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Contents Introduction ...................................................................................................... 5 Activity lists ..................................................................................................... 8 Unit I. Housing............................................................................................... 16 Unit II. Employment ...................................................................................... 32 Unit III. Family Life....................................................................................... 50 Unit IV. Being young today. Leisure activity options in Britain................... 61 Unit V. Shopping ........................................................................................... 81 Unit VI. Food and Drink ................................................................................ 99 Unit VII. Test. Discussion............................................................................ 113 Tapescripts ................................................................................................... 120 Answer Key.................................................................................................. 133 Bibliography................................................................................................. 145

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INTRODUCTION The nature and purpose of the course The project is topic based resource around the theme of Lifestyle in Britain. The resource is a collection of activities from various sources adapted for lessons. It is a 50-60 hour course depending on the way classes are organised, how strong their motivation is, their previous experience of English and various other factors. It consists of 6 Units – Housing, Employment, Family Life, Leisure Activity Options, Shopping, Food and Drink – which may be used within the framework of the project as well as independent projects. The project is designed for (upper-) intermediate or advanced students – in order to cope with it they should be able to understand spoken and written English well enough for a reasonable variety of situations and topics. It will take students up to a point where their receptive and productive use of English, both spoken and written, is accurate and fluent over a wide range of topics and situations. The materials are aimed at a hypothetical group of students taking a course of country studies or an optional English course of oral and written practice. Listening activities are based on some authentic interviews and video (documentary, feature). These teach vocabulary, stimulate discussion and train learners to understand natural speech. In some tasks students may not understand every word of what they hear: they need to experience some language which is beyond their present capacities – this happens in natural language learning all the time. Reading activity is based on a variety of authentic articles from British newspapers and magazines, books by British and Russian authors. Speaking is based on authentic material as well as special material for discussion. The resources are varied and flexible, they involve students in different types of activities ranging from reading comprehension and writing compositions to active and varied “communicative” practice on the basis of a wide selection of authentic material. 5

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TESTS The test in Unit VII covers the language and facts from the previous lessons. It is meant to give students an idea of how well the material has been assimilated. Students may prepare the test in advance and get it all right – this is an extremely effective form of revision. If a teacher wants to administer unseen tests as well, he may provide a parallel test at the same level. Literary and cinema quizzes in Unit IV are based on the books, writers and films popular in England and Russia and hopefully known to the Russian learners of English. The for further information section gives students the opportunity to work independently and find more information on the subject under discussion. It provides a list of possible sources, such as books, films or Internet sites. This can involve project work, or can be set as homework. The list is not exhaustive, but acts as a starting point for more research.

TAPESCRIPTS AND RECORDING SYMBOLS Exercises using scripted recordings are marked

T

Exercises using audio recordings are marked

A

Exercises using video recordings are marked

V

STUDENT’S AUDIO CASSETTE Looking for a flat. Sharing working experience: Jean Attree, Barbara Radio talk about types of offices. Radio programme about the relationship between appearance and employment opportunities. 6

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Amanda Peniston Bird about her career. Modern thinkers on the condition of marriage today. Blind Date, a programme on British TV. Five advertisements. Advertising song. Shopping with Argos/Past Times. English students about their leisure time. Radio extracts on places to visit or things to do. Radio programme about a sports event. Interview about British pubs. Soundtrack of a sequence from the musical Cats. When do people in Britain eat what? What do people drink in Britain? Recipes for traditional British meals.

STUDENT’S VIDEO CASSETTE Equity Release Scheme.* House Invaders.* Mary Poppins. ** My best friend’s wedding.** Kilroy. * Cats.** The phantom of the opera.* Closure of the high street chain ‘C&A’.* Commercials.* Ainsley’s meals in minutes.* * Programmes from British TV (BBC 1, BBC 2, ITV) ** Sequences from feature films. 7

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Unit I. Housing Material used Tasks

Activity description

exercises/factfiles/graphs/advertisements

1

Warm up

Factfile: housing in Britain. Gapped text

2

Reading

Profiles about housing. Exercise

3

Reading and speaking

Graph. Text on modern developments in home-ownership.

4

Reading and writing

Advertisements on renting/buying houses

5

Reading and speaking

Article ‘There’s no place like home’

6

Reading and speaking

Exercise: description of houses

7

Rendering

Passages for rendering from Russian into English

8

Listening

Exercise

9

Watching video

9.1

Checking

Duration

Newspaper articles/ task sheets/ texts/ A

V

T1 In search of a flat

Exercise

comprehension 9.2

Speaking

10

Watching video.

V1 British TV: Equity release scheme V2 British TV: House Invaders

Speaking 11

Writing. Speaking

Topics for writing.

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Unit II. Employment Material used Tasks

Activity description

Duration

Factfiles/newspaper articles/notes/ exercises/tables/advertisements/task sheets

1

Warm up

Factfile : Employment in Britain. Gapped text

2

Reading

The profile: employment situation and earning money in Britain

34

Speaking. Writing

Table. Advertisements on employment available. Task sheet

5

Reading. Speaking

Article ‘Tips for Practical job Hunting’

6

Rendering

Profiles for rendering from English into Russian

V

T2 T3 Discussing work experience

78 9 10.1

A

Listening. Speaking

Exercises. Notes: changes in office work

T4 Radio talk: Types of offices

10.2

T5 Radio programme: relationship between appearance and employment opportunities. 10.3

Watching video

11 12 13 14

Writing. Speaking

V1 Sequence from the film Mary Poppins: In search of a nanny Exercises: writing CV, letters of application. Job advertisements.

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Unit III. Family life Material used Tasks

Activity description

1

A

newspaper articles

Warm up

Factfile : Family life in Britain

Reading. Speaking

Profiles about family life: gapped text. Articles. Letters to newspapers

Rendering

Profiles for rendering from English into Russian

23

Duration

Factfile/texts/exercises/ topics/ profiles V

4 5

T7 Modern thinkers on marriage

6 Listening. Speaking

Exercises

T8 T9 T10 ‘Blind date’ on British TV

78

T11 Radio phone – in programme 9 10

V4 Sequence from the film My best friend’s wedding

Watching video. Speaking

V5 Sequence from talk show Kilroy 11

Writing. Speaking

Topics for writing and discussion

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Unit IV. Being young today. Leisure activity options in Britain Tasks

Activity description

Material used

12

Warm up

34 56

Reading. Speaking

Factfile/profiles/exercises/topics/tables/ advertisements Factfile on leisure activity options in Britain. Table: results of a survey Profiles about leisure activity options and the arts. Literary/ cinema quiz. Arts and entertainment advertisements

Rendering

Profiles for rendering from English into Russian

7

A

V

T12 English students about their leisure time T13 T14 Radio extracts on places to visit/things to do

89 Listening. Speaking Exercises1 10 11

T15 Radio programme about a sports event T16 Interview ‘Pubs in Britain’ T17 More information about British pubs 12 13

14

Watching video

Writing. Speaking

Exercises. The poem The old Gumbie cat by T.E. Eliot T18 Soundtrack and lyrics from the musical Cats musical from Cats

the V6 Sequence from the musical Cats V7 Sequence from the musical The Phantom of the Opera

Topics for writing

11

Duration

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Unit V. Shopping Material used Tasks

Activity description

A

exercises 1 2 3 4 5 6

Warm up

Duration

Factfiles/ profiles/ task sheets/topics/

Reading. Speaking

Factfile on the shops and shopping habits in Britain Profiles about shopping and shops. Exercises. Task sheet

Rendering

Passages for rendering from Russian into English

V

T19 Advertisements

78 9 10

T20 T21 T22 Advertising song

Listening for gist, for specific Exercises information, confirmation. Listening and note-taking. Speaking

T23 T24 T25 Shopping with Argos T26 Shopping with Past Times

11 12

Watching video. Speaking

V8 British TV: closure of the high street chain ‘C&A’

Exercises

V9 British TV: ten commercials 13

Writing. Speaking

Topics for writing

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Unit VI. Food and drink Material used Tasks

Activity description

A

magazine articles 12

Warm up

34 56 7 8

9 10 11

Reading

Rendering

Duration

Factfiles/profiles/exercises/texts/ V

Factfile on food and eating habits in Britain Gapped text Profiles, magazine article about what British people eat. Texts on recent changes in British eating habits. Menues. Exercises Passages (recipe) for rendering from Russian into English T27 When do people in Britain eat what?

Listening for gist, for specific Exercises information. Listening and comparing. Speaking

T28 What do people drink in Britain? T29 Recipes for the traditional British meals

12

Watching video. Writing

Exercises

13

Writing the recipe

Exercise

V10 British TV: Ainsley’s meals in minutes

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The term ‘lifestyle’ is so wide, controversial, promising and vague a notion that one cannot but feel that it‘s a lot in general and nothing in particular unless something is done to make it narrower. Dictionary definitions, for example: ‘Lifestyle - a way of life of an individual or a society’ (School dictionary, McMillan Publishing Company, NY, London COLLIER 1987), ‘Lifestyle - a way of life or style of living that reflects the values and attitudes of an individual or group’ (Webster’s II New College Dictionary, Houghton Mufflin Company, NY) and others while giving a general idea, are still of little help. The idea becomes more and more tangible as one reads texts describing the UK and giving the popular images of the country, characterising it as a centralised and unitary state. It is widely assumed that the British form a relatively homogeneous society with a strong sense of identity, but this is an assumption that requires considerable qualification. Even after 300 years the terms ‘British’ and ‘Britain’, which are used for official purposes, can seem very artificial. For centures there has been the idea of England (or Scotland, or Wales), rather than of Britain. If you look up ‘Britain’, ‘British’ or ‘Briton’, you will find ‘See England’. Many people call Britain ‘England’, and the British ‘English’, as if Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland were merely outer additions to England. The idea of England evokes images of the Queen, the Houses of Parliament, Westminster Abbey, the Tower of London and the soft landscape of the southern counties of England. This is not surprising since almost one quarter of the British people live within 25 miles (40 km) of London’s Trafalgar Square. But it also reveals that England as well as Britain is dominated by the south, and particularly the southeast. 14

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Any snapshots or popular images of England might be misleading. But it could be a good idea to address a wide range of topics in the spheres of housing, employment, family life, leisure activity options, shopping, food and drink: perhaps this might throw light on the notion of lifestyle in Britain. You can get an impression of these things through the prism of statistical data and the British media. You can also watch some video sequences and hear British people on the audio tape telling you about various aspects of life in their country: it’s a vivid human interest story. Read, watch and listen to it for yourself and enjoy it!

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UNIT I. HOUSING How do you explain the popularity of the different types of dwelling in Britain? Are the same types popular in your country? How many houses were built by the private / public sectors? What are current trends for home decoration and furnishings?

WARM UP 1.1

Read the factfile and

Factfile

Housing

complete it with the figures given below: ƒ

150,000

ƒ

7%

ƒ

£62,000

195,000

66%

72%

1.2 Work with a partner. ƒ

Check

your

answers

with the factfile in the Answer Key. ƒ

Which facts about housing in Britain are similar to facts in your country?

ƒ

Which facts are different?

ƒ

Which facts do you find interesting?

1 In 1990, ……………. houses were built by the private sector (commercial builders), and approximately a quarter of this figure, (47,000), by the public sector (local government housing authorities). 2 Shelter, a charity which looks after the homeless, estimates that more than ………………. people under the age of 25 are homeless for at least a short period in any given year. Between 1971 and 1999, the proportion of people who owned their own homes rose from 50% to ……………….., a rise of 16%. This is the highest percentage in Europe. 3 There are now more than 15 million owner-occupied homes in Great Britain. Owner-occupiers are entitled to tax relief on mortgages of up to £30,000. The average value of a three-bedroomed house in Britain in 1992 was …………………, but in large areas of the south-east such properties are worth at least twice that price. 4 If an owner-occupier fails to keep up his/her mortgage repayments, the building society may take possession of his/her house. In 1991, 75,400 houses were repossessed by building societies. This was a massive increase of ………………… over 1990. 5 The proportion of privately-rented accommodation declined from over 50% in 1951 to just over ………………….in 1999.

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READING 1 2

Read the profiles about housing in Britain and write captions for the photographs

below with the following:

a

The least desirable: a flat

b

An exception: the town house

c

Less desirable: a terraced house

d

Second best: a semi-detached

e

The most desirable home: a detached house

f

A thatched cottage: an idealized country retreat

1

2

3

4

5

6

Many aristocratic families own fine old country houses, often with a great deal of land attached, in which they have lived for hundreds of years – these are stately homes. They have a great emotional investment in their houses – and are prepared to try very hard to stay in them. Many people in Britain dream of living in a detached house; that is, a house which is a separate building. A large, detached house not only ensures privacy, it is also a status symbol. At the extreme end of the scale there is the aristocratic ‘stately home’ set in acres of garden. Such a house is 17

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an unrealistic dream for most people. But even a small detached house, surrounded by garden, gives the required suggestion of rural life which is dear to the hearts of many British people. Most people would be happy to live in a cottage, and if this is a thatched cottage, reminiscent of a pre-industrial age, so much the better. In general people try to avoid living in blocks of flats (what Americans call ‘apartment blocks’). Flats, they feel, provide the least amount of privacy though a lot of flats are very expensive and beautiful. In the big cities thousands of people live happily in flats although as a rule, not having a separate entrance to the outside world does not suit British tastes. Although it is densely populated, Britain has the second lowest proportion of flat – dwellers in the EU (the lowest of all is in Ireland). A very large proportion of people live in semi-detached houses: one building with two separate households. Each house is the mirror of the other, inside and out. The typical semi-detached has two floors and three bedrooms. A terraced house is less desirable. Each house in the row is joined to the next one. (Houses at the end of the row are a bit more desirable – they are almost like a semi-detached). They usually have two floors, with two bedrooms upstairs. The town houses which can be found in the inner areas of most cities are an exception to the general pattern. They often have three or more floors, perhaps including a basement or semi-basement. Although they are usually terraced, those that are well-preserved and in a ‘good’ area may be thought highly desirable. Many have been broken up into flats or rooms for rent. Most of the comparatively small number of people who rent from private owners live in flats of this kind. A studio is a workroom of a painter, sculptor, photographer, etc. or it might also be a one-room flat. A bungalow is a small house with only one story.

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READING AND SPEAKING 3.1

The graph below shows how home-ownership has increased in the second half

of the twentieth century. Talk about the modern developments in owning and renting houses using the graph and the profiles below.

Owner – occupied Rented from local authority Rented from housing associations, privately, or with a job or business The desire to own the place where you live is almost universal in Britain, however, house prices are high. This dilemma is overcome by the mortgage system, which is probably a more established aspect of everyday life here than it is anywhere else in the world. About 70% of all the houses in the country are occupied by their owners and almost all of these were bought with a mortgage. At any one time, half of these are owned by people who have borrowed 80% (or even more) of their price and are now paying this money back month by month. The normal arrangement is for the borrower to pay back the money over a period of twenty to twenty-five years but it can be longer, especially since house prices are continuing to rise. People are happy to take out mortgages because house prices normally increase a bit faster than the general cost of living. Therefore, most people can make a profit when they sell their house. Although nearly everybody wants to own his house, it is only in the last quarter of the twentieth century that a majority of people have done so. Before that time, most working-class people lived in rented accommodation. From 1950 to 1980 the proportion of ‘owner-occupiers’ gradually increased. The ambition to own was made easier by policies of ‘tax-relief’… 19

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If you want to buy a house, it is rare to deal directly with the person selling. Instead, you go to an estate agent. These companies exist to act as ‘go-betweens’ for people buying and selling houses. They help with the various procedures – and take a fat slice of commission! If you are interested in one of the houses ‘on their books’, they will arrange a ‘viewing’. You can also spot houses for sale by the ‘For sale’ signs which are put up on wooden posts outside the houses concerned. If you want to rent somewhere from a private landlord (not a council), the usual place to look is in the local newspaper. Small ads in shop windows are also a popular way of finding private rented accommodation. 3.2

The language of estate agents

It is a running joke in Britain that the more disreputable estate agents will always try to make the houses they are trying to see sound much more desirable than they really are. An estate agent would never write: “This is a horrible little house in very poor condition. The trains go past every 10 minutes and shake the walls. The back garden is laughably small. This is why it is so cheap”. Instead he would say: “This compact residence is ideally priced for the first-time buyer. Although in need of some renovation, it has some highly attractive features, including a small patio/garden to the rear. It is very convenient for the railway station”. What do you think the following extracts from estate agents’ descriptions really mean? ƒ Planning permission has been granted for the addition of a bathroom. ƒ The rooms have been decorated to the taste of the present owner. ƒ The cottage has a particularly charming historical character.

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READING AND WRITING 4

The advertisements below are taken from The Herald. Scotland’s Homes October

23, 2002.

Use the information in the advertisements to list as many facts as you can about the types of housing described in them. Advertisers sometimes use abbreviations in classified advertisements for houses and flats. These are shortened versions of words (hse = house). Using the words below as a checklist write out advertisements a-e in full and then write down the information under the appropriate heading in the Task Sheet. oil ch – oil central heating prof ext – professionally extended semi – semi-detatched rec hall – reception hall rm – room b/fast kit – breakfasting kitchen (ie. big enough for a table!) d/stairs – downstairs WC – toilet bedrms – bedrooms bathrm – bathroom velux – very luxurious gas ch/gch – gas, central heating d/glaz, d/g – double glazed gdn – garden ent vest – entrance vestibule fab – fabulous

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a

Knightswood Clarion Road

THORNWOOD

Semi detached villa with enviable open views overlooking golf course. Rec hall, bay windowed lounge, newly refitted kitchen, bathroom, 2 dble bedrms, gch, d/g, driveway, private gardens.

An exceptional and totally refurbished Top Floor with accom comprising communal entrance hall with sec entry, ‘L’ shaped reception hall, bright bay windowed lounge, refitted beech kitchen with stainless steel appliances, bedroom & modern bathroom. Gas ch, d/glazing, bright open views to rear

Offers over £69,995

b

O/o £65,000

Laurel Place

(EL6037A)

Clarkston Cleuch Gardens Prof ext semi villa. Open outlook, rec hall, Bay lounge/dining room, family rm, b/fast kit, utility, d/stairs wc, shower rm, 3 bedrms, bathrm, carpeted/lined attic, velux, garage, gas ch, d/glaz, alarm. (010811610)1

Offers over £122,000

c Hillhead

The Atrium Pentse

Reluctant sale due to business relocation this stunning linked period villa has origins in late 18th century. Set in an attractive country setting the property offers ent vest, hall, lounge, fab conservatory, b/fast kit, utility + wc, sitting rm, bedrm 1,3 further bedrms, study, store, gdn and patio, d/glaz, oil ch, the village of West Kibride is a developed craft village and has train station with regular Glasgow commuter service, early entry available, reduced from original price of £145,000. (005411910)A

d

Offers over £119,000

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By West Kilbride

Reduced by £26,000

Fabulous duplex penthouse with private roof terrace in this exclusive much admired development. The property occupies prime corner position with stylish interior, ‘L’ shaped reception hall, feature 34ft double volume lounge, dining room, dining kitchen, gallery sitting room/study, 3 double bedrooms, master en-suite, bathroom, private roof terrace, communal roof terrace, d/glaz, gch, lift, video entry. (018552010)3

Offers over £245,000

e

Task Sheet Types of housing available (detached houses, studios, terraced houses, bungalows, etc.)

Sizes of houses and flats (number of rooms, total area, etc.)

Price (of rent, purchase, etc.)

Types of heating

Other information

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READING 2 5 Read the article ‘There is no place like home’ from The Herald Homes Gardens, Oc-

tober 23, 2002 and talk about current trends for home decoration.

ƒ Why are hard, man – made surfaces giving way to more tactile materials? ƒ Are people still buying high fashion accessories for their homes? ƒ What is coming to be of greater importance – decorating one room at a time to a high standard or keeping the whole property looking up-to-theminute? ƒ Is modern design being shunned in favour of reproduction-style furniture?

There is no place like home Current trends for home decoration and furnishings reflect a demand for good quality craftsmanship and traditional materials. ‘Back to nature’ seems to be the message as hard, man-made surfaces give way to more tactile materials for kitchen, sitting room and bedroom furniture. People are still buying high fashion accessories such as throws and cushions to keep their homes looking up to date, but larger, more expensive pieces are tending to be investment buys, items that will last many years without looking too dated in a few years’ time. The quick fix makeover, in the manner of TV interiors shows, is being recognized as all too often an enthusiastic waste of money and people are giving more careful thought to the mix of colours, styles of furniture and decorative touches their home is to receive. Decorating one room at a time to a high standard is becoming of greater importance than keeping the whole property looking up to the minute as homes become more classical and comfortable. This is not to say that modern design is being shunned in favour of reproduction-style furniture, but that classical and traditional British influences are greatly in evidence. 24

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Leather sofas for example may have contemporary lines, but are mostly upholstered in traditional and flexible colours such as tan, burgundy and chocolate brown. Suede and sheepskin are also popular for upholstery and accessories, as are very traditional bucolic fabrics such as corduroy and tweed. Virtually indestructible, they are highly appropriate for family homes and perfectly in tune with countryside-inspired autumn looks. Other furniture is chosen for its flexibility. Corner unit sofas that can be separated into individual chairs, smaller seating units and day beds are practical choices for sitting rooms used for both family relaxation and entertaining. Convenient drawers in coffee tables and underneath sofas are useful design features that help control the quantity of objects such as remote controls and novels that can clutter up a family room. Other traditional notes include the use of decorative motifs such as elephants, gun dogs and horses, particularly on cushion covers and curtain fabrics. Wallpapers also reflect nostalgic notions with Chinese and Japanese designs and plenty of pretty, medium to large patterned floral prints and paisley patterns. Also in keeping with this traditional vibe is the revival of such classic pieces of furniture as the bedroom dressing table. Whether in a conventional or a contemporary design, the idea of a dressing table and stool harks back to times when matters of costume and maquillage were taken very seriously. In the grungy 90s, daubing on makeup quickly in the bathroom mirror was acceptable, but that’s not the case any more. Similarly, organizing custom-made storage space to accommodate clothes and accessories keeps your items pristine and the bedroom clear and tidy. In bathrooms, clever designs that save on space without compromising their efficiency or looks are in good supply. Through devices such as sit-down tubs, invisible shower surrounds and obliquely-angled fixtures, bathrooms can be made more usable, and even squeezed into previously unimaginable spaces in box rooms and under-stair cupboards. 25

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6

Read the four descriptions of British houses and say which of them were taken

from fiction and which ones came from newspapers. Can you add any other description of a house taken from fiction / newspaper? a As one of only five A-listed buildings in Bothwell, Gleneden is truly a sight to behold. Making the 20 minute drive from Glasgow was well worth the trip. The red sandstone building, which dates from 1855 and is attributed to Alexander “Greek” Thomson, comes complete with turrets and flagpole, and these are the very features which make it visible from a quiet country road. From the bottom of the sweeping driveway, you instinctively know you’re in for a treat, as the sheer size of Gleneden manifests itself in all its glory. 7

b There was Manderley, our Manderley, secretive and silent as it had always been, the grey stone shining in the moonlight of my dream, the mullioned windows and the terrace. Time could not wreck the perfect symmetry of those walls, nor the site itself, a jewel in the hollow of a hand. The terrace sloped to the lawns, and the lawns stretched to the sea, and turning I could see the sheet of silver placid under the moon, like a lake undisturbed by wind or storm. I turned again to the house, and though it stood inviolate, untouched, as though we ourselves had left but yesterday, I saw that the garden had obeyed the jungle law, even as the woods had done.

c

d

Against the next batch of clouds, already piling up inkdark, broken chimneys and parapets stood out. In her once familiar street, as in any unused channel, an unfamiliar queerness had silted up. The staircase window having been boarded up, no light came down into the hall. But one door stood ajar. There were traces of long former habits of life – the yellow smoke-stain up the white marble mantelpiece, the ring left by a vase on the top of the escitoire; the bruise in the wallpaper where on the door being thrown open widely, the china handle had always hit the wall. There were some cracks in the structure, left by the last bombing.

If you want to find Cherry Tree Lane all you have to do is ask the Policeman at the crossroads. He will push his helmet slightly to one side, scratch his head thoughtfully, and then he will point his white – gloved finger and say: “First to your right, second to your left, sharp right again, and you’re there. If you are looking for Number Seventeen – and it is more than likely that you will be, for this book is all about that particular house – you will very soon find it. To begin with, it is the smallest house in the Lane. And besides that, it is the only one that is rather dilapidated and needs a coat of paint. But Mr Banks, who owns it, said to Mrs Banks that she could have either a nice, clean, comfortable house or four children. But not both, for he couldn’t afford it.

Render the following passages from V. Ovchinnikov’s book ‘The oak’s roots’ into

English and compare your version with the given one.

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Англичанин инстинктивно относится к своему дому как к осажденной крепости. Жилище его как бы повернуто спиной к улице. И если хозяин вздумает летом погреться на солнышке, он всегда усядется позади дома, а не перед ним.

An Englishman instinctively thinks of his home as a fortress under siege. Going home is like turning his back on the world outside. If the householder decides to sit outside in the sun in summer, he will always choose the back garden, not the front.

Дом служит англичанину крепостью, где он может укрыться не только от непрошеных посетителей, но и от надоевших забот. Переступить этот порог значит для англичанина переместиться в совершенно другой мир, абсолютно не связанный с миром его повседневного труда.

Home serves the Englishman as a fortress where he can find refuge, not only from unwanted guests but from his troubles. Crossing the threshold for an Englishman means moving into a totally different world, absolutely unconnected to the world of work.

Российский турист так же сетует в Англии на ванну без душа, как английский турист в России – на умывальник без пробки. В английских домах умывальник часто не имеет смесителя, так что воду из двух кранов можно смешивать только в закупоренной пробкой раковине.

A Russian tourist in England will complain about the lack of a mixer tap just as an English tourist in Russia will complain about a sink with no plug. In British homes, sinks often have no mixer tap so that the water from both taps can only be mixed in the sink, by putting the plug in.

Англичане склонны сурово относиться к собственной плоти, и их жилища во многом отражают эти спартанские нравы. К началу 70-х годов лишь 15 % жилищ в Британии имели центральное отопление – в два-три раза меньше, чем в европейских странах такого же климатического пояса. Да и ванны понастоящему вошли в быт лишь перед войной.

The English are given to treating their own bodies harshly and their homes in many ways reflect these Spartan manners. At the beginning of the 1970s only 15% of homes in Britain had central heating – two or three times less that other European countries with similar climates. Even baths only became part of everyday life just before the war.

Фраза «мой дом – моя крепость» была когда-то рождена обитателем особняка. Конечно, иметь теперь отдельный дом в городе – недосягаемая мечта даже для весьма состоятельной семьи. Англий-

The phrase ‘my home is my castle’ was coined by an inhabitant of a detached house. Of course, these days, having a detached house in town is a dream even for very well off families. The

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ский горожанин обычно называет домом то, что, в сущности, представляет собой вертикально расположенную квартиру: внизу жилая комната, выше спальня, а над ней, под самой крышей, помещают детей.

place an English person calls home is really a vertical flat – living room downstairs, bedrooms upstairs and above that, under the very roof, you put the children.

Считая дом центром своего существования, англичанин, разумеется, хочет, чтобы он был комфортабельным, однако не стремится делать из него некую витрину. Как святилище частной жизни, английский дом предназначен не поражать гостей, а быть удобным для хозяев.

Considering his home the centre of his existence, the Englishman naturally wishes it to be comfortable, but without turning it into a museum. As a sanctuary of private life an English house is not intended to delight guests but to be comfortable for the owners.

Англичанин любит жить в окружении хорошо знакомых вещей. В убранстве дома, как и во многом другом, он прежде всего ценит старину и добротность. Когда в семье заходит речь, что пора, пожалуй, обновить обстановку, под этим словом имеется в виду реставрация, а не замена того, что есть, сохранение, а не изменение общего стиля комнаты.

An Englishman loves to be surrounded by very familiar things. In furniture as with many other things, antiquity and quality are valued above all else. When a family decides that it’s time to renew the furniture, it is in the sense of restoration, not replacement of what already exists; preservation, not alteration of the general style of the room.

Входя в дом англичанина, прежде всего отмечаешь, как хорошо этот дом приспособлен к своему хозяину. Он как бы вырос вокруг него, воплотив черты его характера, как поношенное пальто облегает фигуру своего владельца. Входя в дом американца, прежде всего замечаешь, как хорошо он приспособился к своему жилищу.

Upon entering an English home, you will notice above all how well the house fits its owner. It seems to have grown up around him, embodying elements of his character, like a worn overcoat fits its owner. On entering an American’s home, you will notice above all how well he suits his house.

LISTENING 8

T1

A

You will hear a man who is looking for a flat talking to an estate agent

about the type of flat that he wants to rent. For questions 1-10, fill in the estate agent’s form. 28

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Size of flat:

1

__________________________________________________________________

Area:

2

__________________________________________________________________

Distance from public transport:

3

__________________________________________________________________

Furniture wanted:

flat should be

4

__________________________________________________________________

Upper price limit:

5

__________________________________________________________________

Starting when?

6

__________________________________________________________________

Period:

7

__________________________________________________________________

Additional points:

flat must be

8

__________________________________________________________________

preferably

9

__________________________________________________________________

and

10

__________________________________________________________________

WATCHING VIDEO 9

V1

Current concerns about the prospect of declining pension income is leading

more people to look for other ways of providing for their retirement. One alternative is to invest in property, with buy-to-rent becoming an attractive option for some. But what about releasing some of the value tied up in probably your largest asset – your home? The video sequence you are going to watch advertises equity release schemes designed to do just this and are becoming more popular. There are today different types of equity release schemes available. 9.1

Watch the video sequence and say what type of equity release scheme it adver-

tises. What benefits does it provide?

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9.2

Are there ‘Equity release schemes’ or anything similar in your country? What are

the pros and cons of equity release? Discuss this with other students. 10

V2

You are going to watch House Invaders, the popular show on BBC one

where Linda Barker with her ‘hunky helpers’ shows how she can transform a home without spending any of your hand-earned cash. If she’s provided with the basics like paint, timber and fabric, she can recycle the home of Michael and Jane Mansfield in Warwickshire in just one day. Michael and Jane Mansfield are perfectly happy with the interior of their house but the kids, 10 year old James and 13 year old Hannah, aren’t, so they asked the House Invaders for help. Watch the sequence and answer the questions:

a

Whose room was transformed?

b

Who made the colour choices?

c

What changes were made?

d

At the end of the day of “invasion” what did the family really think?

e

Do you think it is possible to successfully incorporate new bright colours and similar things/ideas in old houses?

f

Can you think of any TV program in your country like House Invaders? What are the differences/similarities?

SPEAKING AND WRITING 11

Choose one of the topics below and write a composition of about 150-200 words.

Before you start writing, discuss the questions with another student. Topic 1

How do you explain the popularity of different types of dwelling in Britain? Are the same types popular in your country?

Topic 2

Even in a small town in Britain, several offices and shops will be occupied by companies called ‘estate agents’, whose only role is to help people buy and sell their houses. In the same town, however, there may be no house construction companies at all to which people could go. Why do you think this is? Is the same true in your country? 30

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Topic 3 In his book Down and Out in Paris and London George Orwell compared

the laissez-faire attitude towards homeless people in Paris with the rigid attitude in London: ‘In Paris, if you had no money and could not find a public bench, you would sit on the pavement. Heaven knows what sitting on the pavement would lead to in London – prison probably.’It has been observed that in the 1990s the contrast is now the other way around. It is now in Paris, not London, that homeless people, if they want to avoid being taken away by the police, need to make sure that they don’t bring attention to themselves. Can you think why this change has occurred? How does the present British attitude to homelessness compare with that in your country? Topic 4

You have decided to enter a competition in response to the advertisement below:

YOUR CHANCE TO BUILD THE HOUSE OF YOUR DREAMS! DESCRIBE THE HOUSE OF YOUR DREAMS, AND YOU MAY WIN UP TO HALF THE COST OF BUILDING IT.

Write your composition for the competition.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION Books:

Anatomy of Britain by Anthony Sampson Notes from a Small Island by Bill Bryson The English by Jeremy Paxman The State We Are in by Will Hutton

Films:

Pleasantville (1998) directed by Gary Ross The Lavender Hill Mob (1951) directed by Charles Crichton

Websites:

www.greenwich2000.co.uk

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UNIT II. EMPLOYMENT 1

What do people in Britain expect from a job? Money, yes –

but what else? How do young people feel about starting work? Why do some people prefer to set up on their own?

WARM UP

Factfile

Employment

1 In 1990 the number of British people in full-time work was …… , the highest number ever.

1.1 Read the factfile and complete it with the figures given below:

ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

27.1 million 11.3% 43% £4,524 29.8 hours 43.5 hours 1935 1990 1983

1.2 Work with a partner. ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

ƒ

Discuss your figures. Check your answers with the factfile in the Answer Key. Do any of these facts surprise you? Which facts about employment in Britain are similar to facts in your country? Are there any facts which are different?

1.3 In groups read the factfile again and write captions for the two photographs.

2 Between 1979 and 1989 the number of self-employed people rose by 70% to 3.2 million. This equaled ……of the total workforce. 3 In 1992 the highest-paid man in Britain was the managing director of a bank. He received an annual salary of £1,339,000. In the same year a kitchen porter in a British Hospital, received an annual salary of …………….. . 4 In 1971 women made up 37% of the labour force in Britain. By 1988 this had risen to ….. . 5 On average British men work longer hours than men in other European countries (……. per week as opposed to 40.7) 6 On average women work fewer hours than their European sisters (….. as opposed to 33.4). 7 In 1990 fewer than 200,000 working days were lost through strike action. This is the lowest figure since ….. . 8 Trade unions lost 25% of their members between 1980 and .… . 9 The Youth Training Scheme (YTS) was introduced in … . It offered two years of training for 16-year-old school leavers.

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READING 2

Read the profiles below about the employment situation and earning money in

Britain and answer the following questions:

ƒ What English attitude to work does George Mikes’ statement reflect? ƒ Are attitudes to work in Britain changing? ƒ How are the earnings of manual and non-manual workers expressed and paid? The well-known statement written by Hungarian humourist George Mikes ‘The one thing the English will never forgive the Germans for is working too hard’ is, of course, not literally true. However, it does reflect a certain lack of enthusiasm for work in general. At the upper end of the social scale this attitude to work exists because leisure has always been the main outward sign of aristocracy. And because of Britain’s class system, it has had its effects throughout society. If you have to work, then the less it looks like work the better. Traditionally therefore, a major sign of being middle class (as opposed to working class) has been that you do non-manual work. The fact that skilled manual (or ‘blue collar’) workers have been paid more highly than the lower grades of ‘white-collar’ (i.e. non-manual) worker for several decades has only slightly changed this social perception. This ‘anti-work’ outlook among the working class has led to a relative lack of ambition or enthusiasm and a belief that high earnings are more important than job satisfaction. These attitudes are slowly changing. For example, at least half of the workforce now does non-manual work, and yet a majority describe themselves as working class. It would therefore seem that the connection between being middle class and doing non-manual work is growing weaker. Nevertheless, the connection between class distinctions and types of work lives on in a number of ways. One illustration of this is the different way in which earnings are conventionally expressed and paid. 33

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Manual (and lowest grades

Non-manual

of non-manual) Rate quoted

per hour / week

per year

Known as

wages

salary

Paid every

week

month

Method

usually in cash or into bank

by cheque or into bank

Perhaps the traditional lack of enthusiasm for work is the reason why the working day, in comparison with most European countries, starts rather late (usually at eight o’clock for manual workers and around nine for non-manual workers). However, measured by the number of hours worked in a week, the British reputation for not working hard enough appears to be false. The normal lunch break is an hour or less, and most people (unless they work part-time) continue working until five or later. Many people often work several hours overtime a week. In addition, a comparatively large proportion of British people stay in the workforce for a comparatively large part of their lives. The normal retiring age for most people is sixtyfive (sixty for some, including a greater proportion of women). 3

3.1

Look at the tables below. They show the results of a survey amongst British

teenagers. Which of these words and expressions would you use to describe their attitudes to work?

adventurous home-loving 3.2

conservative materialistic

family-oriented ambitious

Work in a group. What do / would you look for in a job? Discuss your views. Are

your attitudes similar to or different from the views of the British teenagers in the survey?

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Which factors are most important in a job? Factor

Male %

Female %

Job satisfaction

58

66

Money

29

13

Friendly atmosphere

7

13

Good conditions

5

6

Training

3

3

Travel

1

2

Male %

Female %

In home area

50

43

Elsewhere in UK

30

37

In London

14

16

Abroad

36

40

Where they would like to work Location

The survey sought the views of almost 1,500 16-18 year-olds studying at schools and colleges throughout Britain. It shows that most teenagers have fairly traditional ambitions. They are most likely to want to stay in their home region and build a secure future. Those that want to work abroad see it as a short-term investment in good experience for later careers at home. 4 When a company needs to recruit or employ new people, it may decide to advertise the job or position on the appointments page of a newspaper. People who are interested can then apply for the job by sending in a letter of application and curriculum vi-

tae containing details of their education and experience. The company will then draw up a shortlist of candidates, who are invited to attend an interview. Look at the eight job advertisements below to find out as much as you can about the various types of employment available. Write the information you find under the appropriate heading, and then report on your entries in each of the categories on the task sheet. What did you learn about employment in the UK from these advertisements? Are job advertisements common in your country? If so, how are the advertisements in your country similar to those in British newspapers? 35

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A NEW CAREER IN SALES You will be working for a well-established company selling gardening products to new and existing customers. Own car essential. Good career opportunities for the right candidate. Starting salary £12,000 + car. Interviewing immediately. For details ring Mr. V. Hammond on 0323 5033634.

SENIOR ARCHITECTURAL TECHNICIAN

MANAGER Benson’s Carvery A lively person with energy and enthusiasm is required for our busy city centre restaurant. Must have at least three years’ experience in catering, and be good with people. A qualification in catering management would be an advantage.

With sound knowledge of building construction required for local firm of Architects. Experience of Computer-aided Design an advantage. Telephone Rachel Patel on 0236 723493, or write with CV to: Chambers Parslowe Bennett 65 High Street Pemberton Surrey

Salary £ 16,000. Closing date for applications Friday June 2nd. Please ring 244044 for further information. GENERAL VACANCIES CARPENTER

CREDIT CONTROL ASSISTANT

Experienced parttime/fulltime/freelance needed for structural conversion work. £ 8 per hour. 081 398 9460, 6-8 p.m.

We have a vacancy for a Credit Control Assistant to provide back-up and clerical support to the Credit Controller. Must be familiar with word-processing, able to work on own initiative, and have good telephone manner. Previous experience would be an advantage but full training will be given. Salary £ 6,000 – 7,000, depending on experience. Additional benefits include flexitime, company pension scheme and subsidized staff restaurant.

ELECTRICIAN required due to expansion for servicing of Catering Equipment. Duties include providing estimates. Company van provided, salary negotiable. Contact Alan Bream on 0893 83219.

Apply in writing with CV to Jean Forsythe, Personnel Manager, Cappa Ltd, Banbury OX23 4QT.

Task Sheet Jobs which pay an hourly wage

Jobs which pay a salary

36

DOMESTIC

NANNY mature, fun, house-proud nanny required to look after two children aged 6 and 3. Must be able to cook and swim. Salary to be negotiated. Own room/ bath/ car. Tel 0865 794389. COMPANION goodhumoured, gentle, caring woman 35-55 required by disabled lady for light household duties, cooking, reading, and friendship. £ 100 per week plus own room, use of car. Box 36.

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Jobs with prestige

Facts about working hours

Benefits or ‘extras’ (health insurance, holidays with pay, etc.)

Labour organizations / trade unions

Qualifications required

Other information

Read the article Tips for Practical Job Hunting and answer the following ques-

5.1 tions:

a Who do you think it is written for? b Who do you think it is written by?

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the CONFIDENCE factor

Whether you’re seeking your first job, looking for a new career move or trying to get back into work after a spell away from employment, you need to be well-prepared. Personal confidence, the ability to present yourself to others, and a knowledge of the local job market are all part of successful job hunting. Read on for more…

5.2

Tips for Practical Job Hunting The skill in job hunting lies in persuading an employer that you’ve got the knowledge, skills and attitudes to be a useful member of his or her workforce. You’ve got to believe in yourself before an employer will believe in you. So think positively! Try writing a list of statements starting ‘I think I would make a good employee because…’ It may sound like a weird thing to do, but it can be very confidence-boosting. Remember … accentuate the positive. Get together with a friend, and help one another draft application letters and CVs. Read through your school or youth training record of achievement, and remind yourself of all the good qualities you have to offer an employer.

I would make a good worker because I keep cool in a crisis. I would make a good employee because I’m always cheerful.

I would make a good employee because I like meeting people. I would make a good employee because I enjoy sorting out mechanical problems like when Mick’s car broke down.

List three things which are important in ‘the confidence factor’. Which of these

factors do you think is the most important?

5.3 Which of these jobs would suit the four speakers in the article best?

6

a police officer

d nurse

b car mechanic

e accountant

c shop assistant

f social worker

Render the following passages into Russian and compare your version with the

given one.

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ALL WORK, NO PLAY. We’ve got the balance wrong. It began life inside the American expression ‘gettalife’. Since then the word has developed a life of its own – as used by the stressed workaholic who sighs, ‘I have no life’. In this new context the word refers to those rare moments of genuine living, to those fleeting seconds of ‘quality time’. It can be spent anywhere – just as long as it’s away from the office or the factory.

ДЕЛУ ВРЕМЯ, ПОТЕХЕ ЧАС. Работать или жить? Всё началось с американского выражения ‘gettalife’. Ведь это его произносят теперь живущие во временном цейтноте трудоголики, вздыхая: «Разве это жизнь?» В этом новом контексте ‘gettalife’ностальгия по настоящей жизни, быстротечным секундам, прожитым в удовольствие, «всласть» где угодно, только не в офисе или на предприятии.

The conflict between life and work is laid bare in a survey published by Management Today magazine. The survey reveals that employees across Britain ,male and female, are cracking under the stress of work overload.

Результаты исследования, опубликованные в журнале Management Today, показывают наличие противоречий между работой и жизнью людей. Опрос свидетельствует о том, что служащие по всей Великобритании испытывают срыв изза перегруженности работой.

More than half of respondents report spending between 41 and 50 hours a week at work, with a further 25% staying in the office for more than 50 hours. Close to half say they find it increasingly hard to reconcile their work with their personal commitments.

Больше половины респондентов сообщают, что проводят от 41 до 50 часов в неделю на работе, 25% опрошенных остаются на рабочих местах свыше 50 часов. Примерно половина респондентов сообщают, что им становится всё труднее совмещать работу с личной жизнью.

Fascinatingly, a quarter say they would accept less money in return for more time.

Интересно, что четверть опрошенных готовы получать меньше денег, но иметь больше свободного времени.

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LISTENING AND SPEAKING 7.1

A Work in two groups

T2 Group A You will hear Jean Attree who set up as a professional photographer, turning a hobby into her business. Listen to what she says and

a

put the events in the right order ƒ does A-level course ƒ completes course at North London Polytechnic ƒ leaves school ƒ becomes self-employed photographer ƒ works in office

b

say how these people / organizations help Jean? ƒ her friends ƒ her local Jobcentre ƒ South Thames TEC ƒ other photographers

c

say what Jean felt the advantages and disadvantages of becoming selfemployed were

d

say which of these things Jean has learnt to do: ƒ run a business ƒ deal with customers ƒ get commissions for magazines ƒ photograph record covers ƒ build up the business ƒ work with other photographers

e

think of one more question you would like to ask Jean

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T3 Group B You will hear Barbara talking about her experience of working in offices. Listen to what she says, read the multiple choice questions and decide which of the four choices a, b, c or d is the correct answer.

1 At the moment Barbara is a

looking for work.

b

working as a legal assistant.

c

enjoying a vacation.

d

out of work.

2 With regard to relations among colleagues, Barbara thinks that nowadays a

offices put more pressure on employees.

b

people have become more self-centred.

c

business is more competitive.

d

employees are less committed to their work.

3 Barbara prefers to work in places where a

there is a reward for each person’s effort.

b

goals are understood by everyone.

c

individual talent is recognized.

d

there is a shared aim.

4 Barbara works best when jobs are done a

late in the day.

b

according to a fixed timetable.

c

early in the day.

d

by a group.

5 Barbara has had to accept a

lack of organization in offices.

b

the unpredictability of most working days.

c

the need to work to deadlines.

d

the requirement to keep everything in its place.

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6 In Barbara’s opinion, offices run smoothly when people

7.2

a

start work as early as possible.

b

give priority to important matters.

c

concentrate on mainly small matters.

d

anticipate the near future.

Find a partner from the other group (group A/ group B). Compare your informa-

tion.

ƒ Do you think the work place is becoming more competitive? Why? ƒ Whose job – Jean’s or Barbara’s – seems to be more competitive / demanding / appealing to you? Why? 8.1

You are going to hear a radio talk about different types of offices. Before you lis-

ten, read through the notes Changes in office work below and try to predict what kind of information is missing. What do you think is meant by a ‘virtual office’? Do you know what ‘teleworking’ refers to? 8.2

A

T4

Listen and complete the notes according to the information you hear in

the recording. Use one or two words in each gap. Remember that the words in the task summarise or rephrase the words in the recording. Changes in office work Traditional office: each employee has an (1)………………………………… located in a prime (2) ……………………………………. running costs are (3) …………………………………….. Virtual office: on arrival staff (4) ……………………………………….. then request a (5) ………………………………………… collect belongings from (6) ……………………………….. popular with companies and their (7) ……………………. Teleworking: staff work (8) …………………………………………….. communicate by fax, telephone and (9) ………………….

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8.3 Discuss these questions:

ƒ How much does the idea of working in a ‘virtual office’ appeal to you? ƒ Can you think of any advantages for employees? 9.1 Discuss the following questions:

ƒ Do attractive people have an advantage over others when it comes to getting a job? ƒ Is there discrimination against people on the basis of physical characteristics? If so, should this discrimination be prohibited by law? ƒ Should legislation be introduced to protect people against unfair dismissal? 9.2

A

T5

You will hear part of a radio programme about the relationship between

appearance and employment opportunities. Listen to the programme and answer the following questions:

ƒ How many people did Jeff Biddle and Daniel Hamermesh survey? ƒ What did they discover? ƒ Is there a reaction against discrimination in the work place? 9.3 Discussing

ƒ Compare the answers in the radio programme with the ones you gave in 9.1 . ƒ How does this situation compare with the situation in your country? ƒ Can you suggest any solutions? ƒ What things can you do to make the best possible impression at a job interview?

WATCHING VIDEO LISTENING 10

A

You are going to listen to a nanny talking about her career, and then

watch a video sequence where some children give their opinion on the requirements their nanny should meet. 43

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10.1 Discuss the following questions:

ƒ Have you ever had a nanny? ƒ What is your idea of a good nanny? ƒ How should a nanny be employed? ƒ Could you give an example of a nanny from classical English books? 10.2

T6

A

You will hear Amanda Peniston-Bird, 21, the daughter of a judge, who

has just completed a two-year training course to be a nanny at the Norland Nursery Training College. She talks about her career. Listen and say whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F).

T a

F

Amanda had two trained nannies who lived with the family and worked full time.

b

It was Amanda’s mother who influenced her choice of career.

c

Amanda applied for the post of nanny to twins aged six months.

10.3

V3 Watching a video sequence

You will watch a sequence from the film ‘Mary Poppins’, a screen version of the famous book by Pamela L. Travers. Choosing a nanny is ‘an important and delicate task’ for the Banks family. Here, Jane and Michael Banks, the family’s two ‘adorable children’ have decided to make up an advertisement themselves rather than ‘get somebody to put in the morning paper the news that they require the best possible nanny at the lowest possible wage and at once’. Listen to Jane and Michael’s requirements for a nanny and complete the gaps in their own advertisement from the sequence.

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Wanted – a nanny for two adorable children If you want this choice(1) ……..… Have a cheer disposition Rosy cheeks, no (2)……… Play games, all sorts You must be (3)……… You must be (4)……… Very sweet and fairly (5) ………… Take us on (6)…………, give us treats Sing songs, bring (7)……………. Never be (8)…………. or cruel Never give us (9) …………. or gruel (10)………….. us as a son and daughter And never smell of (11) …………… If you won’t scold and (12) ………….. us We will never give you cause to hate us We won’t hide your (13)………… so you can’t see Put (14)…………. in your bed Or (15)…………. in your tea Hurry nanny Many thanks Sincerely Jane and Michael Banks. 10.4 Discussion

a

Do you appreciate the ‘advertisement’?

b

Do you think Amanda Peniston-Bird could meet the requirements and be a good nanny for the Banks children?

WRITING 11 The curriculum vitae

Sarah White is one of the applicants for the job at RODERO. Study her CV to see how the information is presented and decide where each of the following headings should be placed.

RODERO has a new position open: PUBLIC AFFAIRS ASSOCIATE We are looking for an experienced public affairs associate. Job is based in Berlin. Candidates must have substantial PR Press experience and strong writing skills. They must have serious proficiency in sports (skiing, climbing …) and outdoor experience. German mother tongue. Environmental background a plus. RODERO is a San-Francisco company which designs and distributes functional outdoor clothing. Send CV with picture to: Sergi Bowen RODERO GMSR Caterstrasse 18 8000 Berlin 18 – Germany The interviews will be in Berlin during the first week in March.

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REFERENCES

INTERESTS

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE

Telephone:

EDUCATION

ADDITIONAL SKILLS

CURRICULUM VITAE

1

………………. Name: Date of Birth: Nationality: Address:

PERSONAL DETAILS

Sarah White 7 August 1978 British 52 Hanover Street Edinburgh EH2 5LM Scotland 031 449 0237

2

………………. 2000 -2001:

London Chamber of Commerce and Industry Diploma in Public Relations

1997-2000:

University of London BA (Honours) In Journalism and Media Studies (Class II)

1990-1997:

Fettes College, Edinburgh A-levels in German (A), English (B), History (B) and Geography (C)

3

………………. 2001 to present:

Scottish Wildlife Trust Department of Public Relations Responsible for writing articles on all aspects of the Trust’s activities and ensuring their distribution to the press. Editor of the Trust’s monthly journal. In charge of relations with European environmental agencies.

Summers of 1999 and 2000:

Three-month training period with the Glasgow Herald. Assistant to the sports editor.

Summer of 1998:

Sales assistant in the record department of Harris Stores Ltd., Edinburgh.

4

………………. Sports: Cross-country skiing, rock-climbing and swimming. Secretary of the local branch of ‘Action’, an association organizing summer camps for disabled children.

5

………………. Camp counselling certificate Grade 3 ski instructor Driver’s licence (car and motorcycle) IBM PC user Fluent German and good working knowledge of French

6

………………. Geoffrey Williams, Professor of Journalism, University of London

Bill Denholm, Sports Editor, Glasgow Herald

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12 Letters of application

A letter of application (also called a covering letter) can be as important as the CV in that it often provides the first direct contact between a candidate and an employer. If this letter is not well written and presented, it will make a poor impression. A letter of application normally contains three or more paragraphs in which you should: ƒ confirm that you wish to apply and say where you learned about the job ƒ say why you are interested in the position and relate your interests to those of the company ƒ show what you can contribute to the job by highlighting your most relevant skills and experience ƒ indicate your willingness to attend an interview (and possibly state when you would be free to attend) Complete Sarah White’s letter of application using the following verbs: contact apply

discuss enjoy

employed notice

welcome advertised

involved matches Sarah White 52 Hanover Street Edinburgh EH2 5LM Scotland UK 15th January

Sergi Bowen RODERO GMSR Caterstrasse 18 8000 Berlin 18 – Germany Dear Mr Bowen I am writing to (1)… for the position of Public Affairs Associate which was (2)... last week in the International Herald Tribune. Although I am presently (3)... by a non-profit making organization, it has always been my intention to work in a commercial environment. I would particularly (4)... the chance to work for your company and as you will (5)... on my enclosed curriculum vitae, the job you are offering (6)... both my personal and professional interests. My work experience has familiarized me with many of the challenges (7)... in public relations today. I am sure that this, together with my understanding of the needs and expectations of sport and nature enthusiasts, would be extremely relevant to the position. Moreover, as my mother is German, I am fluent in this language and would definitely (8)... working in a German-speaking environment. I would be pleased to (9)... my curriculum vitae with you in more detail at an interview. In the meantime, please do not hesitate to (10)... me if you require further information. I look forward to hearing from you. Yours sincerely, Sarah White

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13

Refer back to the job advertisement, CV and letter of application. What do you

think Sarah White’s chances of getting the job are? What are her strengths and weaknesses?

14

Read the eight job advertisements below, then choose one of them and prepare

the CV and letter of application that you would send to companies. You may invent as many details as you wish but note that the person who you present in your CV should hopefully (or wants to) be up to the job. MARKETING MANAGER We are looking for an experienced marketing professional to manage the promotion of our new range. The ideal candidate will have at least three years experience in marketing management, and will be a result-oriented leader with creative, organizational, and communications skills. This is an outstanding opportunity and compensation will be dependent upon experience and results. We offer an attractive benefits package. Please send resume to: Personnel Department, Duluth Fashionwear, 200 Wydale Street, Pemberton Surrey

PHOTO STUDIO MANAGER Outgoing, enthusiastic person wanted for photo studio in Falls Church. Spring and autumn weekends, full time in summer. Sales and management experience a must. £7 / hr + bonus. Artley Photographers. 202 776 4825 __________________________________ AU PAIR Non-smoking female needed for live in childcare. Northwest area. £100 wk. 462 4159 __________________________________ CHILDCARE (after school) Friendship Heights, 2 girls, 6 and 8, 15-20 hours per week, M / F, own car, references required. Ideal for student, £8 per hour. Call 202 363 3158 __________________________________ RESTAURANTS The Italian Straw Hat Restaurant is now hiring M / F waiters, bartenders, cooks, dishwashers, and managers for its Brighton opening. Apply in person 9 a.m. 6 p.m. at 788 Flemming Road, Brighton.

NANNY Working couple seek fully trained nanny to live in and look after 2 year-old son. Require loving, dependable woman with excellent references and driving record. Must speak English. Hours 7.30 a.m. to 6.30 p.m. £150 / wk + free room, board, use of car. Please send application and resume to Ad 8375 __________________________________ Market Researchers needed to conduct telephone studies. Evening and weekend shifts available. No exp nec. We train, but good reading and pronunciation required. £145 / wk. Call Maddison Ltd 212 403 8827 __________________________________ Secretary wanted for Pest Control company in Roxburgh. Hours approx 9 till 3 p.m. Could develop into 40-hour week. Must have basic secretarial skills, good phone manner, and be able to work independently. £7 / hr. Please call 974 3827 from 9 till 4 for appt.

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FOR FURTHER INFORMATION Books:

Bonfire of the Vanities by Tom Wolfe The Money Drunk by Mark Bryan and Julia Cameron

Films:

Trading Places (1983) directed by John Landis

Play:

Money by Carol Churchill

Websites:

www.bundesbank.de www.stw.org/ www.worldbank.org/

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UNIT III. FAMILY LIFE Why is the number of extra-marital births in Britain increasing? How many marriages in Britain end in divorce? What is the average life expectancy for British men/women? Why do people get married?

WARM UP 1.1

Read the factfile

Families

Factfile

and complete it with the figures given below. ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

72 years 87% 1.8 51% 10% 25% (twice) 27% two-thirds 27 2 14%

1.2 Work with a partner. ƒ ƒ

ƒ

ƒ ƒ

Discuss your figures. Check your answers with the factfile in the Answer Key. Which facts about family life in Britain today are similar to facts about your country? Are there any facts which are very different? Which facts do you find most interesting?

1 The present population of Britain is 57 million. That is expected to rise to 60 million by 2010. The average number of children per family is … 2 … of the 41,000 babies born to 15-19-year-olds in Britain were outside marriage. This compares with 62% in the United States and 10% in Japan. 3 At birth the average life expectancy for British males is …; for females it is 78. 4 More than … of British couples marrying now have lived together before marriage. 5 … of all British women are in paid employment. 6 About … of women in Britain are married by the time they are 18. For the US the figure is 11%, Brazil 24% and China 38%. 7 Britain is known to have the highest teenage pregnancy rate in Europe. The average age at which a woman has her first child is … . 8 Britain has the highest divorce rate in European Community countries. It also has the highest marriage rate in the EC. … of all households are one-person households. 9 … of second marriages in Britain end in divorce. 10 A survey of 53 countries showed that Britain has one of the highest rates of sexual activity in the world among teenagers and young women. … of all births are to unmarried mothers. 11 … of British children live in one-parent families. 12 Teenage mothers are more likely to drop out of school than girls who have a child later. … out of 5 women with pre-school age children go out to work.

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READING 2

Read the profiles below about family life in Britain. Some of the sentences (a-g)

have been removed from the profiles. You should put them in the correct numbered gap. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

a

There is also an ethnic dimension.

b

Is Britain really in moral decline?

c

They also usually now want the right to pursue a career.

d

Yet as a picture of the way most British people live, it is increasingly unrealistic.

e

These families often experience isolation and poverty.

f

What can be made of such evidence?

g

This suggests a static situation, but there is major movement between classes.

The nuclear family, a married couple with perhaps two children, is still considered the ideal social unit and most young people still aspire to this idea of their own future (1) … . If the picture includes the traditional idea of the man going out to work while the wife stays at home, it is now true of less than 10 per cent of households. Even without such a limited definition, only 40 per cent of the population live in nuclear family households, and even within this group a considerable proportion of parents are in their second marriage with children from a previous marriage. Alongside a social acceptance of divorce greater today than in the 1950s and 1960s, women have been increasingly dissatisfied by the traditional expectations of the woman’s role in marriage (2) … . Sometimes the husband’s difficulty in adapting to the new situation puts a strain on the marriage. One inevitable consequence of the climbing divorce rate has been the rise of single-parent families (3) … . The great majority of single parents are women. One in three children under the age of five has divorced parents. Forty per cent of children experience the divorce of their parents before the age of 18. 51

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There has also been an increase in babies born outside marriage. It is indicative of both the increasing proportion and changing social attitudes that these babies, once described as ‘illegitimate’, are now described officially as ‘extramarital’. The remaining extra-marital births are to single mothers, with the rate being highest in areas of high unemployment and the greatest poverty, suggesting to some analysts that the birth of a child gives a woman in such circumstances someone to love, a purpose in life and also state assistance (4) … . On account of traditional patterns of family life, over 40 per cent of Caribbean families are singleparent ones. (5)… . For some, such statistics are evidence of moral decline, and they argue the need to return to traditional values. In the face of the evidence this sounds like wishful thinking. (6)… . It would be safer to say that moral values are changing, with less attention to traditional definitions of immorality, and greater emphasis on personal morality being rooted in kindness and respect for others. 3

3.1

Jigsaw reading The articles First real kiss came on the wedding day and We’d both had time to

make mistakes from the ‘Daily Mail’ give you more ideas on the issue of family life in Britain today.

Divide into two groups Group A Read the article First real kiss came on the wedding day Group B Read the article We’d both had time to make mistakes

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First real kiss came on We’d both had time to the wedding day make mistakes GEORGE and Agnes Sutton never held hands or kissed before they walked up the aisle at St Cuthbert’s Church, Didsbury, on their wedding day in September 1930. Sixty years later, they are about to celebrate their diamond wedding. Their recipe for a successful marriage is simple. ‘We get along very well and don’t keep any differences going,’ says George, now 88. The couple met at work and courted for nine months before getting married. Agnes had been out with ‘one or two’ boys before but she was George’s first girlfriend. For nine months, they met twice a week, and usually went to the pictures. But physical contact was out of the question. ‘I don’t think we ever held hands – I didn’t 3.2

know him properly,’ said Agnes. ‘He might have given me a peck on the cheek when he was leaving me, but we never held hands.’ Agnes says the key to their long, successful marriage has been their determination to sort out any differences. ‘In our day, when you got married, that was it. There were marriages that didn’t work out but you didn’t leave your husband. ‘Of course we have had rows. We’ve fallen out and not spoken to each other, but we have always managed to sort it out by sitting down and telling each other what we think,’ she said. ‘It’s all too free and easy today. People are always switching, and changing. To me it doesn’t seem right,’ she said.

FINANCIAL researcher Claire Randell, 28, married merchant banker Peter Bowman, 28, this March after a fouryear courtship. ‘I went to Durham University and had a couple of boyfriends there, then came to London for work. When I met Peter it wasn’t love at first sight. He had had girlfriends before me, but neither of us was jealous about the past. ‘In fact, I preferred that he had already had other relationships. We’d both had time to make mistakes, to know what we’d had and what we wanted. If you have been out with other people you recognize the goodness in a real relationship. ‘Peter bought a flat near mine in West Hampstead, but after about two years we decided to buy a house together. ‘The crunch came

in our relationship when we went on a long trip. We went to India, Nepal, Hongkong and then Thailand, where Peter proposed on a palmlined beach. I must admit I didn’t have to think twice but just said yes. ‘We didn’t move back in together when we returned to London. I felt that if I was wearing white and having an oldfashioned wedding, I wanted to respect tradition by living apart at the end. Different ‘I’m really enjoying being married; it does feel different from just living together. With a woman there are obvious externals – the name change and the ring – but it’s more than that. You feel you’ve made a big step. It’s different and it’s better,’ said Claire.

Which questions does your article answer?

a

Who speaks in the article – the husbands or the wives?

b

Which couple were married in Didsbury?

c

Where did Claire and Peter get engaged?

d

When do couples celebrate their diamond wedding? 53

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3.3

When you have answered the questions, find a partner from another group.

Swap information.

1 Compare the two women’s … a

feelings about being married

b

knowledge of their husbands before marriage

2 Which woman …? a

thinks that it’s too easy to get out of marriage nowadays

b

thinks it’s a good thing to have other relationships before marriage

c

thinks it’s important to be able to talk to her husband about their differences

4

Newspapers in Britain often contain columns in which an adviser – usually female

– replies to published letters asking for advice about personal problems. Here is an example of a published letter and a reply:

4.1

Divide into 4 groups. Read the letters and decide what advice you would give to

the writers.

Group A: Read letter 1 Group B: Read letter 2 Group C: Read letter 3 Group D: Read letter 4

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Letter 1 They’ve cut me out My two best mates are being really horrible to me. I have no idea what I’ve done wrong but they both keep canceling outings with me and then I find out that they’ve been out with each other. I don’t know what to do and I feel really left out and lonely. Blazin’ Squad fan, 12

Letter 2

Letter 3

I know he’s cheating I’ve just found out my boyfriend is cheating on me with one of my mates. I’m really upset and angry, and don’t understand why they’d do this to me. They don’t know that I know yet, so should I confront them or just leave them to it? Westlife fan, 15

Should I have sex? I’m a 14-year-old girl and I’m going out with a bloke who is 17. We’ve been dating for six weeks and he really wants to have sex. I do too, but I’m worried about him thinking I’m inexperienced cos I’m a virgin. Also I think I should wait cos a girl I know slept with a guy and his mates graffitied it all over the school. Cheeky Girls fan, 14

Letter 4 I know Dad’s secret I’ve found out my dad had an affair with another woman. I was looking on his computer and I accidentally opened an email from her. Should I tell my mum or keep quiet for the sake of the family? I think it’s over now, but I’m not sure. I hate my dad now and he doesn’t know why. Help! Will Young fan, 14

4.2 After you have read the letters, make up your replies and read them to the class.

4.3

Match the replies below to the letters you’ve just read and compare your groups’

replies with the original published replies below.

A Don’t let anyone pressure you into having sex when you are not sure. At 14 years old, you’re are two years under the age of consent and that means both you and your boyfriend would be breaking the law. It’s easy to feel pressurised into sleeping with someone but you really must wait until you’ve reached the age of consent and feel emotionally prepared. If this boy still piles the pressure on, dump him. Anyone who really cares for you will wait until you’re ready.

B

C

It’s easy to misinterpret emails and text messages, so don’t jump to any dramatic conclusions yet. This is affecting your relationship with your dad, and you don’t really know if he’s guilty. Have a word with him in private – you might have been worrying about nothing. If you really can’t do that, talk to a family member you trust.

Your mates are being unfair. No one deserves this treatment – at least not without being told what you’ve done. Try chatting to them about it. If it turns out they’re just being bitchy then dump them – who needs friends like that? If you’re worried about who you’re going to be friends with now, don’t be. Join some after-school clubs or set one up. Or be brave and just walk up to someone else who you think might need a friend. Good luck!

D Definitely confront them! They can’t be allowed to get away with treating you so badly. They’ve probably done you a favour in the long run. It’s better you find out now what they’re really like and move on. Cheating blokes and disloyal best friends are bad news.

ƒ Are the replies what you expected? ƒ Did anything in the replies surprise you? ƒ Would this reply be appropriate in your country? If not, why not? ƒ Do newspapers in your country have similar advice columns? ƒ What kinds of problems do people write about in your country? 55

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5

The profiles below from ‘The British Sketches’ by Donald Reifield cast ‘inside’ light

upon marriage and love in Britain. Render them into Russian and compare your version with ours. What does the word ‘love’ mean to an Englishman? Before beginning a process of introspection I opened the Large Oxford Dictionary. I found such a muddle of prejudices and hopes that I immediately understood why we, as a nation, are a long way away from other nations and languages when it comes to questions of love – to put it mildly.

Что значит слово «любовь» для англичанина? Прежде чем заглянуть самому себе в душу, я открыл Большой оксфордский словарь. Я нашел такую путаницу предрассудков и упований, что мне сразу стало понятно, почему мы, как народ, в вопросах любви стоим – мягко говоря – поодаль от других народов и языков.

Love is ‘the feeling of attachment founded on the difference between the sexes’. The dictionary offers us another definition of English love: ‘the condition of the heart in relation to a person arising from recognition of attractive qualities, mutual feelings or natural attachment and manifesting itself as tenderness and attachment’.

Любовь – это «то чувство привязанности, которое основано на разнице полов». Словарь предлагает нам еще одно определение любви по-английски: «состояние души по отношению к человеку, возникающее из признаний привлекательности, из сочувствия или из естественной привязанности и проявляющееся как нежность и привязанность».

How cosy, how suitable for the hearth. What does this peaceful English love have in common with the love recognized by the French or the Russians?

Как уютно, как это годится для домашнего очага. Что общего у такой спокойной английской любви с той любовью, которую признают французы или русские?

From early childhood our clergymen and teachers insist upon the difference between love and lust, as though the one excluded the other. Therefore, for we English, love without feeling is like cognac without alcohol.

С раннего детства наши священники и преподаватели настаивают на разнице между love – любовь духовная – и ей созвучным lust – похоть, как будто одна исключает другую. Таким образом, нам, англичанам, фактически подносят любовь без чувственности, как коньяк без алкоголя.

Aristocrats, who defined for ever the morals of the French and the Russians, realised long ago that love is one thing, and marriage quite another.

Аристократы, которые навсегда определили нравственность русских и французов, давно поняли, что любовь – одно, а брак – другое.

Love is an involuntary and simple feeling. Marriage is a considered and complex contract.

Любовь – это невольное и простое чувство, брак – это расчетливый и сложный контракт. Как считает современный американский

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In the opinion of the modern American sexologist Ruth Dickson, love and marriage are even incompatible. But the Puritans and the bourgeoisie, followers of Saint Paul, decided that love and marriage were inseparable. Not for nothing does the famous English song say ‘love and marriage is like a horse and carriage’. So go on you old nag, haul that cart while you are still alive to do it.

сексолог Рут Диксон, любовь и брак даже несовместимы. Но пуритане и буржуа, наследники Святого Павла, решили, что любовь и брак нераздельны. Недаром в знаменитой английской песне поют, что любовь и брак – это лошадь и карета. Так что тяни, бедная кляча свою телегу, пока не сдохнешь.

LISTENING AND SPEAKING 6

T7

A

You will hear Sheena Milne talking about modern thinkers turning their at-

tention to the condition of marriage today. 6.1

Listen and take notes to answer the questions:

1

Who is Martin Whyte?

2

What does Whyte’s survey show?

3

How important, according to what Whyte says, is romance?

4

What can you infer from what Sheena Milne said? a Old fashioned love is best. b English women prefer romance. c The survey backs romantic love.

6.2

Listen again and discuss the answers with the students. What do you think of

the results of the survey? 7.1

T8

A

You will hear Noel talking about Blind Date, a programme on British TV.

How do players choose dates during the programme? Is there a programme similar to Blind Date on TV in your country? 7.2

T9

T9a

A

You are going to listen to three women answering the three

questions James had asked them during the programme. What questions do you think James had asked them? Listen to their talk and check your answer. 57

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7.3

T10

A

A week later, James and the woman he chose were invited back to the

programme to talk about their date together. Listen and find out how they got on .

a Does he want to go out with her again? b Does she want to go out with him again? 8.1

T11

A

You will hear part of a radio phone-in programme where people ask an

expert for advice on etiquette at weddings. Listen to the first caller on the line and decide which of the problems 1-6 Mrs Romsey asks about. Write Yes or No in each box.

1 The best time of year for weddings. 2 Who should make the guest list. 3 Who should pay for the wedding. 4 Whether to get married in church. 5 How many guests to invite. 6 Whether to invite her friends.

8.2 Discuss with your partner what advice would be appropriate in your country.

WATCHING VIDEO SPEAKING 9

V4 You are going to watch a sequence from the film ‘My best friend’s wedding’

which gives you an idea of how weddings in England and America are held. Some words from the box might be helpful to describe the wedding of Michael O’Neal and Klimmy Wallace, characters in the film. a registry office a church the aisle a vicar the best man the bridesmaids the reception the organist the choir a bouquet a veil

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What happens when people get married in your country? Are there any special activities or customs? Describe a typical wedding ceremony in your country. You are going to watch Kilroy, a popular TV talk show on BBC One. The theme of

10

the discussion is family problems, Mothers and Sons.

‘It so happens that only two or three weeks after Chris’ father dies, Chris’ relationship with his mother, once close, becomes distant and cold…’ 10.1

V5 Watch the sequence from Kilroy and match Chris’ and Patricia’s replies to

the questions Kilroy asks on the show. P – Patricia C – Chris

My husband died. I did know David before John died. We were just friends.

1 P

He kept phoning me to keep me going and it did. 2 P

Chris said I put David before him.

3 P

Chris objected to me having him around.

4 C

I hate him.

5 C

He’s always around.

6 C

I miss my Mum.

7 C

Having another man so soon.

8 C

She should stop seeing him.

9 P

Nearly 40 years.

10 C

Yes, and I didn’t like it.

10.2

Discuss the following questions with the students:

ƒ What advice did the audience give Chris? ƒ What would you advise him? ƒ Is this problem typical in your country? ƒ Are there any TV shows in your country that are likely to discuss this problem? 59

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WRITING AND SPEAKING 11

Choose one of the topics below and write a composition of about 150-200 words.

Before you start writing, discuss the topic with another student. st

Topic 1 Marriage has no place in society in the 21 century. Topic 2 Generation gap. The beginning is done for you:

You’ve nursed him, changed his nappies, and watched him with admiration growing to a man. As a mother, you found that bond you have with your son very special. But what happens? It all goes wrong. Your close relationship with your son becomes distant and cold …

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION Books:

Men Are From Mars, Women Are From Venus by John Gray Raising Boys by Steve Biddulph The Ax by Donald Westlake Why Men Don’t Iron: The Real Science of Gender Studies by Anne and Bill Moir Why Sex Is Fun by Jared Diamond Single and Lone Parents by Craig Donnellan

Films:

Four Weddings and a Funeral (1994) directed by Mike Newell Green Card (1990) directed by Peter Weir Muriel’s Wedding (1994) directed by P.J. Hogan Runaway Bride (1999) directed by Gary Marshall Very Bad Things (1998) directed by Peter Berg American Beauty (1999) directed by Sam Mendes The Flight club (1999) directed by David Fincher The Men And A Little Lady (1990) directed by Emile Ardolino

Websites:

www.marriagetools.com www.eoc.org.uk www.women.com www.ippf.org/newsinfo/index.htm 60

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U UN E NIIT T IIV V.. B BE EIIN NG GY YO OU UN NG GT TO OD DA AY Y.. L LE EIIS SU UR RE A AC CT TIIV VIIT TY YO OP PT TIIO ON NS S IIN NB BR RIIT TA AIIN N What do you know about the life of young people in Britain? Young people in Britain: what is their life like today? Can you solve the literary/cinema quiz?

WARM UP Factfile 1.1

Read the factfile and

complete it with the figures below: ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ 1.2

six two £5 £1,000 70% half nine 99% a quarter three quarters (twice) three hours five four-fifths 89% Check your answer

Leisure Activity Options

1 The Central Statistical Office’s Social Focus on Children puts into perspective current anxieties about the number of children being brought up by one parent. … of dependent children, the CSO finds, still live in a family with two parents. They are under more careful parental control than is often assumed: … of 11 – to 13 – year olds actually like school. Although truancy is a problem for a small minority of the young, … were never absent from school. 2 … of children use a library at least once a fortnight, with … using it once a week. 3 Sport is still very popular; even in winter, more than four out of … children play at least once a week.

with the factfile in the An-

4 Nearly … children in ten are interested in the environment.

swer Key.

5 … already have money in a savings scheme.

Discuss these questions with

6 … of primary school children have hands-on experience of computers.

students:

7 Most of today’s children have money in their pocket and televisions in their bedrooms. Children’s spending power is rising annually. Pocket money is not the only source of income and … of those over 11 have a job of some kind.

ƒ

Which facts about young people in Britain today are similar to facts about your own country?

ƒ

Are there facts which are very different?

ƒ

Which fact do you find most interesting?

8 One 15-year-old in ten has at least … a year to spend and more than eight in ten have at least … a week. 9 … out of five of those over 10 have a building society account and a further third in the age group have a bank account. 10 Homes with children tend to be packed with consumer durables. Nearly … in ten households with children have a computer. Watching television is the favourite pastime, with the average child watching … a day.

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2.1

Here are the results of a recent survey about the most popular leisure activities

in Britain. Try to guess whether the percentages for 16 – to 24-year-olds is higher (+) or lower (-) than for the population as a whole.

What people do - % participation – at least once a week Activity

% of people % of 16- to 24-year-olds+or-?

Watching TV

96

Reading books

60

Listening to CDs/tapes/records

58

Watching videos programmes) Cooking

47

(recorded

37

Visiting a pub in the evening

36

Gardening

42

2.2

Look up the percentages for young people in the Answer Key. How similar is

your list to the most popular activities in the survey?

READING 3

Read the profiles about leisure activity options and the arts in Britain and answer

the questions below.

ƒ What leisure activity options do most British people prefer? ƒ Does the government in Britain subsidize the arts and encourage artistic endeavor in schools and elsewhere? ƒ Are the arts of interest to a vast majority of British people? ƒ What areas of the arts seem to be particularly appreciated and valued in Britain and which seem to be ignored or undervalued? ƒ In what ways does the appreciation of the different aspects of the arts vary in your country? The fact remains that most British people prefer their sport, their television and videos, and their other free-time activities to anything ‘cultural’. 62

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Sport probably plays a more important part in people’s lives in Britain than it does in most other countries. For a very large number and this is especially true for men, it is their main form of entertainment. Millions take part in some kind of sport at least once a week. Many millions more are regular spectators and follow one or more sports. Interest in the arts in Britain used to be largely confined to a small elite. Compared with fifty years ago, far more people today read books, visit art galleries, go to the theatre and attend concerts. Nevertheless, publicly, the arts are accepted and tolerated but not actively encouraged. As a proportion of its total expenditure, government financial support for the arts is one of the lowest of any western country. In schools, subjects such as art and music tend to be pushed to the sidelines. London has some of the finest collections of painting and sculpture in the world, but tourist brochures give little space to this aspect of the city. Except for the most famous, artists themselves have comparatively little public recognition. Some British artists have international reputations, and yet most people in Britain don’t even know their names. The British are enthusiastic readers. The average British home has 200 books. One family in ten has more than 500 books. Sixty-six per cent of households have a dictionary and a Bible. In a recent survey 59% of people said they had read a book in the last month. Forty per cent of all books bought in Britain are bought for other people, as Christmas or birthday presents. There are free public libraries throughout Britain. Fifty-six per cent of people hold a current public library ticket. The theatre has always been strong in Britain. Its centre is London where successful plays can run without a break for many years. Every large town in the country has its theatres. British theatre is much admired. The cinema in Britain is often regarded as not quite part of ‘the arts’ at all – it is simply entertainment. Although cinema – going is a regular habit for a much larger number of people than is theatre-going, British film-directors often have to go to Hollywood because the resources they need are not available in Britain. 63

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Classical music in Britain is a minority interest. Few classical musicians become well-known to the general public. Despite the low profile, thousands of British people are dedicated musicians and many public libraries have a well-stocked music section. Several British orchestras, soloists, singers, choirs, opera companies and ballet companies, and also certain annual musical events, have international reputations. 4 Jigsaw reading

The three profiles below give more information about arts venues, British films and books. 4.1 Divide into three groups

Group A Read the profile British films Group B Read the profile British books Group C Read the profile Annual arts festivals British films

British books

Annual arts festivals

Here are some of the most successful and / or respected British films of the 1980s and 1990s: Chariot’s of Fire.

Here are some of the best British novels since 1950: Elizabeth Bowen. The Little Girls. Agatha Christie. A Murder is Announced. Gregory’s Girl. Daphne du Maurier. My Cousin Rachel. Gandhi. William Golding. Lord of A Letter to Brezhnev. the Flies. My Beautiful Launder- Patrick Hamilton. The West Pier. ette. John Le Carre. The Spy Who Came from the Cold. A Room with a View. Iris Murdoch. The Nice and A Fish Called Wanda. the Good. Michael Ondaatje. The Shirley Valentine. English Patient. Henry V. Alan Sillitoe. Saturday. Night and Sunday. Howard’s End. Morning. The Crying Game. Muriel Spark. The Prime of Much Ado About Noth- Miss Jean Brodie. John Fowles. The Collecing. tor. Four Weddings and a Tolkien. The Hobbit. The Lord of the Rings. Funeral.

64

There are many festivals throughout Britain during the year. Here are the most wellknown: Aldeburgh June. East Anglia. Classical music. Relatively informal atmosphere. Edinburgh International Festival August. All the performing arts. More than ten different performances every day. World famous. The Proms July-September. London. Classical music. ‘Proms’ is short for ‘promenades’, so-called because most of the seats are taken out of the Albert Hall, where the concerts take place, and the audience stands or walks around instead. Glyndebourne All summer. In the grounds of a large country house in Sussex. Opera. Royal National Eisteddfod July. Wales. Music, poetry and dance from many different countries. Mostly in the form of competitions, with special categories for Welsh performing arts. Glastonbury and Reading The two most well – established rock music festivals.

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4.2 Which questions does your profile answer?

ƒ

What are the most successful British films / books of recent times? Can you continue the list?

ƒ

What world arts festival is held in August?

ƒ

What arts festival held in East Anglia in June gives its audience a chance to listen to classical music?

ƒ

Why are ‘The Proms’ called so?

ƒ

When is Edinburgh International Festival held?

ƒ

Where are the two most well-established rock music festivals held?

4.3 When you have answered the questions, find a partner from another group. Swap information.

5

ƒ

How many of the British films from the list have you watched?

ƒ

What books by British writers from the list have you read?

Test your English literature/cinematography knowledge with a 10- question ‘Liter-

ary/Cinema quiz’. 5.1 Literary quiz

1

Which famous works began with these words? a

It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife.

b

It was the best of times; it was the worst of times.

c

Mr Salteena was an elderly man of 42 and was fond of asking ‘peaple (sic) to say with him’.

2

Which fictional characters lived in the following places? a

221b Baker Street.

b

Dingley Dell.

c

Thorrifield Hall.

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3

4

What kind of animal was each of the following? a

Nana.

b

Shere Khan.

c

Macavity.

Whose ‘potted biographies’ are these? a

A Brilliant stylist who created the most famous ‘gentleman’s gentleman’ in literature.

b

A film critic and travel writer whose ‘entertainments’ and serious novels with a theological base have made him one of the most prolific and distinguished writers of the twentieth century.

c

A contemporary of Shakespeare who was killed in a fight in a tavern when he was only 29.

5 Which of Dickens’ novels do these characters appear in? a

The Artful Dodger.

b

Little Nell.

c

Grip.

5.2 Cinema quiz

Can you recognize the films based on the books written by British writers? Pictured below are a variety of such productions. The clues – the names of the writers – are given. Match them with the pictures and give the film titles. The first task is done: 1a Harry Potter 1

J.K. Rowling

2

Michael Ondaatje

3

Agatha Chistie

4

Charles Dickens

5

Pamela L. Travers

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a

b

c

d

e

6 What would you like to do?

Look at the arts and entertainment advertisements. Imagine that you are in the city where they were published. Choose the five events you would most like to attend. List each event, and your reason for choosing it. Events 1 2 3 4 5

______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________

Reason ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________

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7

Render the passages Generation gap by Colin Mc Kinneth into Russian. Compare

your version with the original one:.

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Collin Mc Kinneth

Колин Макиннес «Конфликт поколений»

Generation gap

In the last few years we have heard a lot about the gap that separates the younger generation from their parents and indeed from everyone over the age of thirty.

В последние годы мы много слышали о пропасти, которая отделяет молодежь от родителей, да и вообще ото всех, кому уже за 30.

The most serious period of disagreement between the younger and older generations is adolescence. Boys and girls under the age of 14 or 15 may challenge the judgement of adults, but are unlikely to be successful. This challenge becomes more urgent in adolescence and the years immediately following it, when children physically become men and women - even before reaching full maturity – as young people struggle for the full rights and responsibilities of adults.

Самого критического момента разногласия между молодым и старшим поколением достигают в пору отрочества. Мальчики и девочки, не достигнув 14-15 лет, могут оспаривать суждения взрослых, но вряд ли это получается у них убедительно. В отрочестве же и в непосредственно за ним следующие годы, когда дети физически превращаются в мужчин и женщин, пусть даже и не достигая полной зрелости, вызов принимает обостренную форму, так как молодежь стремится получить в полном объеме права и ответственность взрослых.

Fifty years ago a teenager would have been considered either ‘a big boy’ or ‘a young man’. ‘The undertwenties’, as they have come to be known (even to themselves) as a separate, independent age group simply did not exist then.

50 лет назад подростка считали либо «большим мальчиком», либо «молодым человеком» – тогда не существовало отдельной, самостоятельной возрастной группы, которую стали называть, в том числе и они сами, «додвадцатилетними».

Let us consider ‘youth culture’; that is, the life-styles of several million young men and women between the ages of 14 and 22 and find out their basic characteristics and how their culture differs from that of other age groups. The first peculiarity of ‘youth culture’ is youth itself. The second is a

Обратимся к рассмотрению «молодежной культуры», т.е. жизненного уклада нескольких миллионов юношей и девушек в возрасте приблизительно от 14 до 22 лет, и посмотрим, что им присуще особенного, в чем их культура, можно сказать, отличается от культуры других возрастных групп. Первой особенностью «моло69

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high level of scepticism towards authority.

дежной культуры» как раз и является культ самой юности. Другая особенность молодежи – в высшей степени скептическое отношение к авторитетам. Проявились изменения и в отношении молодежи к ответственности. Те, кто испытывает неприязнь к молодежи и ее независимому духу, обычно жалуются на то, что она утратила это достойное восхищения социальное чувство. Разница состоит в том, что сейчас молодые люди обоего пола стремятся получить ответственность на своих собственных условиях. Поражает в молодом поколении и его больший интернационализм.

Changes have come about in young people’s attitude to responsibility. Those hostile to independentspirited youth usually complain that the youth of today no longer has a due sense of society. The difference is that nowadays young people of both sexes want responsibility on their own terms. The younger generation has a heightened sense of internationalism.

Where the more artistic sides of youth are concerned, though less important, it is young people’s modes of dress and musical tastes that are most often noted by critics as their most striking aspects. As regards music and singers, the main complaints of older-generation critics regarding ‘pop-music’ arise from the fact that they have not listened to very much of it.

Если говорить о более живописных атрибутах молодежи, которые, хотя они и менее существенны, чаще всего поминаются критиками, то тут больше всего бросается в глаза их костюм и музыкальный вкус. Что же до музыки и певцов, то главная беда критиков старшего поколения, обсуждающих этот вид «поп-искусства» заключается в том, что лишь очень немногие вообще ее слышали. Чем яростнее они ее поносят, тем меньше они обычно о ней знают.

LISTENING AND SPEAKING 8

T12

A

Listen to three English students at a boarding school answering the

question: ‘What do you do in your leisure time?’ Write 1, 2 or 3 to show which students do what:

a

feels there isn’t much spare time in the day

b

has a lot of work to do outside class 70

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9

c

enjoys shopping as a leisure time activity

d

works for the school’s Internet website

e

is studying a foreign language

f

likes to visit the nearby city

g

is musical

h

enjoys socializing in their spare time

i

has some responsibility for catering

j

would like to do more sport

T13

A

Listen to four short radio extracts on places to visit or things to do. What

sort of places or activities do they refer to? Tick (√) the correct items in the following list:

zoo

fashion show

dance

motorbike race

exhibition

bowling alley

motor show Would you like to go to any of these? Discuss your opinions in pairs. 9.1 Look at the advertisements for places to go or things to do.

ƒ What sort of place or activity is advertised in each one? ƒ What town is each place or activity in?

1

2

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9.2

T14

A Listen to the extract from local radio news. Which of the places or activi-

ties advertised in Task 9.1 does it refer to? 72

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10

T15

A You will hear part of a radio programme about a sports event. For ques-

tions 1-7, decide which of the choices a, b or c is the correct answer.

1

2

3

What is special about the festival? a

It is the largest event of its kind.

b

It includes a large number of Fun Sessions.

c

People can both watch and take part in sports.

Who are the Fun Sessions aimed at? a

People who have never practised sports before.

b

Sports lovers of all ages.

c

Children who want to try a new sport.

Why does the speaker recommend that parents bring their children along to the Fun Sessions?

4

5

6

7

a

It is a way of involving children in sports.

b

Many children need new sports skills.

c

Many children are not active enough.

Which of these sports does the Watersports Activity Course include? a

Swimming.

b

Rowing.

c

Diving.

Numbers on the Watersports course are limited because a

too many people want to try this event.

b

it depends on the availability of equipment.

c

the equipment needed is very expensive.

The Fun Run is intended for a

people invited to take part

b

people who like competitions.

c

everyone who likes running.

Who is this talk aimed at? a

People who have bought tickets for events.

b

People who may not have heard about the event.

c

Parents of children who have registered. 73

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11

The pub – an abbreviation of public house – is a central feature of British soci-

ety; the most popular place where people relax at the end of the working day. Going to pubs is one of the most popular leisure activity options in Britain. The British pub exercises a special fascination for foreigners. In fact it is so popular that many imitations exist around the world, some relatively successful, others less so. Salisbury is a small cathedral city in the south – west of England. Nick McIver went to a pub there called “The Haunch of Venison” to meet Tony Leroy, the landlord (below right), and find out more about pubs. 11.1

T16

A

Listen to the interview and answer the questions Nina McIver asked

Tony Leroy:

ƒ When was “The Haunch of Venison” built? ƒ What type of customers come to “The Haunch of Venison”? ƒ “The Haunch of Venison” is open all day, isn’t it? ƒ What do most people drink in pubs? ƒ Do you have to drink if you come to a pub? ƒ Do they also sell food in “The Haunch of Venison”? ƒ Why is “The Haunch of Venison” called that? ƒ Do all pubs have similar origins? ƒ Who owns pubs? Are they privately owned?

11.2

T16

A Listen to Nina McIver and Tony Leroy again and say which words or

expressions in the interview mean:

a

a place where people board or live

b

someone who often goes to the same pub

c

strong alcoholic drinks like whisky and gin 74

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d

non-alcoholic drinks

e

light meals served in pubs

11.3

T17

A Tony Leroy gives some more information about drinking in Britain. Lis-

ten and test your understanding by answering the questions:

a

What type of beer is Guiness?

b

Should you leave a tip for the waiter or waitress in a pub?

c

What can a 12-year-old buy in a pub?

WATCHING VIDEO 12

Andrew Lloyd Webber’s Cats, based on the book by T.S. Elliot Old Possum’s Book

of Practical Cats, is the most famous musical in theatre history. It is also the longest – running musical in the history of the West End. It has played in twenty countries, been translated into ten languages and been seen by more than 50 million people around the world. It became the first British musical to be seen in the former Soviet Union.

12.1

T18

A

Listen to the soundtrack of a sequence from the musical Cats, The Old

Gumbie Cat and compare the lyrics with the text of The Old Gumbie Cat from the book by T.S. Elliot below. Do you notice any difference?

THE OLD GUMBIE CAT I have a Gumbie Cat in mind, her name is Jennyanydots; Her coat is of the tabby kind, with tiger stripes and leopard spots. All day she sits upon the stair or on the steps or on the mat: She sits and sits and sits and sits – and that’s what makes a Gumbie Cat! 75

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But when the day’s hustle and bustle is done, Then the Gumbie Cat’s work is but hardly begun. And when all the family’s in bed and asleep, She slips down the stairs to the basement to creep. She is deeply concerned with the ways of the mice – Their behaviour’s not good and their manners not nice; So when she has got them lined up on the matting, She teaches them music, crocheting and tatting. I have a Gumbie Cat in mind, her name is Jennyanydots; Her equal would be hard to find, she likes the warm and sunny spots. All day she sits beside the hearth or in the sun or on my hat: She sits and sits and sits and sits – and that’s what makes a Gumbie Cat! But when the day’s hustle and bustle is done, Then the Gumbie Cat’s work is but hardly begun. As she finds that the mice will not ever keep quiet, She is sure it is due to irregular diet And believing that nothing is done without trying, She sets straight to work with her baking and frying. She makes them a mouse-cake of bread and dried peas, And a beautiful fry of lean bacon and cheese. I have a Gumbie Cat in mind, her name is Jennyanydots; The curtain-cord she likes to wind, and tie it into sailor-knots. She sits upon the window-sill, or anything that’s smooth and flat: She sits and sits and sits and sits – and that’s what makes a Gumbie Cat! But when the day’s hustle and bustle is done, Then the Gumbie Cat’s work is but hardly begun. She thinks that the cockroaches just need employment To prevent them from idle and wanton destroyment. So she’s formed, from that lot of disorderly louts, 76

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A troop of well-disciplined helpful boy-scouts, With a purpose in life and a good deed to do – And she’s even created a Beetles’ Tattoo. So for Old Gumbie Cats let us now give three cheers – On whom well-ordered households depend, it appears. 12.2

V6

Cats is now available as a special video presentation. Watch the sequence

The Old Gumbie Cat and make sure you answered the questions in 12.1 correctly. 13

V7

Lloyd Webber’s string of hit musicals are all house-

hold names. How many of them do you know? Which of them have you watched? Make presentations of some of Lloyd Webber’s hits in class. The information below and sequences from the Gothic melodrama of Phantom of the Opera on your video tape may be useful.

The story of Andrew Lloyd Webber’s success began not in one of the prestigious West End or Broadway theatres but in the assembly hall of a small West London prep school in 1968. The couple of hundred parents who had gathered there for an end-of-term concert were witnessing the birth of a modern musical phenomenon. The engaging pop cantatahich their sons were singing – a piece called Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat – had been composed by Andrew Lloyd Webber, still not twenty years old. Twenty-four years later, the same composer became Sir Andrew when he was knighted by the Queen for services to the arts in June 1992 …

WRITING 14

Choose one of the topics below and write a composition/a letter of about 150-200

words. Before you start writing, discuss the topics with another student.

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Topic 1 You have seen this letter in an English-speaking newspaper: Dear Sir, Young people today watch too much television. When I was a child, we played games, developing friendships. We read, developing our knowledge of languages. We had active hobbies: stamp collecting, bird watching. Today, youngsters sit passively and watch the rubbish on the television screen. No wonder educational standards are falling! Yours faithfully, J. Row

Write a composition expressing your opinion about what the writer of this letter says. Topic 2 You have invited a British friend of yours, who is spending a few moths in your country, to spend some time with your family. You have now received the letter below from him:

Unfortunately I have had to change some of my plans and I’m not going to be able to come and visit you on the weekend of the 2nd and 3rd. Is there any other weekend that is possible? Maybe if you don’t have a full weekend free, I can come for a day, or one and a half days. Do let me know when the best time for you is. I’m really sorry about having to cancel the 2nd, but I am sure you will understand. Write soon and let me know. Best wishes, George

Read the letter from your friend and the diary below with the notes you have made for yourself. Then write a letter to your friend, suggesting suitable alternative plans for a visit. Do not write any addresses.

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Call M. – George to come too? Extra tickets?

SUTURDAY

2

GEORGE VISITING

9

Rock concert at Apollo

16

Museum?

SUNDAY

3

Excursion to Botanic Gardens?

Tennis Coaching

23

Maria’s party

30

WEEKEND 10

17

Morning: English Club Meeting (film)

Find out if guests allowed.

31 Morning: English Club Meeting: Planning next year’s activities 24

Find out which film - George might be interested.

Topic 3 15

One Christmas and New Year tradition that seems to be increasing in popularity is

that of writing letters to the newspapers to complain about Christmas and the New Year. Below you are given an example of such a letter written by George F. Fairfax, aged 21.

16 Carlton mansions, Manchester, MA1 62D 14th December 1997 The Editor ‘The Times’ 200 Gray’s Inn Road, London, WC1X8EZ Sir, Since I last wrote to your newspaper a year has passed. However your paper’s attitude to these idiotic festivities has not changed at all. Although it is clear to most right-thinking people that the so – called ‘festive season’ is nothing more than a time for synthetic sentiment, your paper persists in perpetuating the myth of a ‘time of good will’ etc. For example last week you published a nauseating piece on ‘Childhood Christmases’ and printed photographs of the tasteless illuminations that ‘decorated’ (your word!) some provincial town. In this way you are encouraging those who see the last week of December and the first week in January as an opportunity for reckless self – indulgence. However, in spite of my distaste for this nonsense, perhaps because I don’t want to be thought of as a miserable crank, I should like to wish you all a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year. Yours faithfully, George F.Fairfax 79

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What are Christmas, New Year and other holidays to you? Would you call them ‘idiotic festivities’, ‘a time for synthetic sentiment’ or are they ‘festive seasons’, ‘times of good will’? Is there a tradition to write letters to newspapers about leisure activity options in your country? Express your opinion in a composition.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION Books:

Junk by Melvin Burgess Teenagers: The Agony, the Ecstasy, the Answers by Aidan MacFarlane and Ann Pherson Easy Riders, Raging Bulls by Peter Biskind Halliwells’ Film and Video Guide 2000 by John Walker Change in British Society: from 1900 to the Present Day by Halsey A.H. Absent fathers, Lost Sons by Guy Corneau

Films:

Thelma and Louise (1991) directed by Ridley Scott Boyz ’n’ the Hood (1991) directed by John Singleton Boogie Nights (1997) directed by Paul Thomas Anderson Being Young Again (1999) directed by Peter Ross Mrs Merton

Websites: www.nspcc.org.uk/ www.nbc.org.uk/ www.the menscenter.com/

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UNIT V. SHOPPING Are the British adventurous shoppers? What do they appreciate in goods? In your country, do shops stay open for more or fewer hours a week than they do in Britain?

WARM UP 1.1

Read the factfile and

complete it with the words given below: coin

ƒ

midday

ƒ

all day half-past five

ƒ

twentieth century

ƒ

banknotes

ƒ

one hundred

ƒ

the pound sterling a ‘quid’

1.2

Sundays eight six

very late Christmas

Work with a partner

ƒ

Discuss your answers

ƒ

Check your answers with the factfile in the Answer Key.

ƒ

Shopping

1 The normal time for shops to open is … in the morning. Large outof-town supermarkets stay open all day until about … o’clock. 2 Most small shops stay open … and then close at … or a bit later.

ƒ

nine

Factfile

Do any of the facts from the factfile surprise you?

3 In some towns there is an ‘early closing day’ when the shops shut at … and do not open again. However, this is becoming rarer. 4 In the last quarter of …, shop opening hours have become more varied. Regulations have been relaxed. It is now much easier than it used to be to find shops open after … . 5 In some areas the local authorities are encouraging high street shops to stay open … on some evenings as a way of putting new life into their ‘dead’ town centers. 6 The most significant change in recent years has been with regard to … . By the early 1990s many shops, including chain stores, were opening on some Sundays, especially in the period before … . 7 The currency of Britain is … , whose symbol is ‘£’, always written before the amount. 8 Informally, a pound is sometimes called … , so £ 20 might be expressed as ‘twenty quid’. There are … pence (written ‘p’, pronounced ‘pea’) in a pound. 9 The one-pound … has four different designs: an English one, a Scottish one, a Northern Irish one and a Welsh one. In Scotland, … with a Scottish design are issued. These notes are perfectly legal in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, but banks and shops are not obliged to accept them if they don’t want to.

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READING 2

Read the profiles about shopping in Britain and answer the following questions.

ƒ Are the British conservative shoppers? ƒ What do the British appreciate in the things they buy? ƒ What seems to be most surprising in Britain for foreign shoppers? ƒ Where have the supermarkets been moving recently? ƒ Why do high streets still manage to survive in Britain? The British are not very adventurous shoppers. They like reliability and buy brand-name goods wherever possible, preferably with the price clearly marked (they are not very keen on haggling over prices). It is therefore not surprising that a very high proportion of the country’s shops are branches of chain stores. Visitors are sometimes struck by the variety of types of shop. Most shops are chain stores, but among those that are not, there is much individuality. Independent shopowners feel no need to follow conventional ideas about what a particular shop does and doesn’t sell. In the last quarter of the twentieth century supermarkets have been moving out of town, where there is lots of free parking space. As they do so, they are becoming bigger and turning into ‘hypermarkets’ stocking a wider variety of items. For example, most of them now sell alcoholic drinks, which are conventionally bought at shops called ‘off-licences’. They also sell petrol and some items traditionally found in chemists and newsagents. However, this trend has not gone as far as it has in some other European countries. For example, few supermarkets sell clothes, shoes, kitchen utensils or electrical goods. They still concentrate mainly on everyday needs. The area in town where the local shops are concentrated is known as the high street (the American equivalent is ‘Main Street’). British high streets have suffered from the move towards out-of-town shopping. In the worst-affected towns, as 82

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many as a quarter of the shops in the high street are vacant. But high streets have often survived by adapting. In larger towns, shops have tended to become either more specialized or to sell especially cheap goods. Many have become charity shops (selling second-hand items and staffed by volunteers) and discount stores. Many of the central streets are now reserved for pedestrians, so that they are more pleasant to be in. Even most small high streets still manage to have at least one representative of the various kinds of conventional food shop (such as butcher, grocer, fishmonger, greengrocer), which do well by selling more expensive luxury items. (Although the middle classes use them, supermarkets have never been regarded as ‘smart’ or fashionable places in which to shop). The survival of the high street has been helped by the fact that department stores have been comparatively slow to move out of town. Almost every large town or suburb has at least one of these. They are usually not chain stores and each company runs a maximum of a few branches in the same region. 3 Jigsaw reading

The three profiles without titles below give more information on shopping and various shops and on how goods are measured in Britain. Divide into three groups Group A Read profile 1 Group B Read profile 2 Group C Read profile 3 3.1 Give your profile one of the titles below as you read:

a Some well-known names. b How much do you want? c The corner shop.

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1

2

3

A shop by itself in a residential area is often referred to as ‘the corner shop’. These sometimes sell various kinds of food, but they are not always general grocers. Usually their main business is in newspapers, magazines, sweets and tobacco products. It is from these that most ‘paper rounds’ are organized. Only in corner shops do shopkeepers know their customers personally. Only in them is the interaction across the counter often social as well as transactional. People working in other shops are often very helpful, but the conversation usually has some clear purpose. In the last quarter of the twentieth century, many corner shops have been taken over by people from southern Asia who have delighted the neighbourhood by staying open very long hours.

On tins and packets of food in British shops the weight of an item is written in the kilos and grams familiar to people from continental Europe. However, most British people have little idea of what these terms mean. Therefore, many of their packets and tins also record their weight in pounds (written as lb). Moreover, for all fresh food items, such as meat, cheese, fruit and vegetables, the price is listed only in this latter way. Nevertheless people sometimes ask for a kilo of apples or 200 grams of cheese. Because of European regulations, supermarkets have to price produce in kg. You can ask for either kg or lb in a shop. If those were the amounts you wanted, you would have to ask for ‘two pounds or so’ of apples and ‘half a pound or less’ of cheese and you would be about right. Shoe and clothing sizes are also measured on different scales in Britain. The people who work in shops which sell these things usually know about continental and American sizes too, but most British people don’t.

The best known supermarket chains are Sainsbury and Tesco, although there are others. Asda is the best known of many discount stores. There are several department stores with a large number of branches e.g. Debenhams and BHS, which are all over the country. Marks & Spencer is one of the most famous ones. It is so well-known that it is often referred to as ‘Marks & Sparks’ or just ‘M & S’. To the British, clothes at M & S are typical of the middle range: they are neither cheap nor expensive, fairly good quality and rather conservative. Unlike most other department stores, M & S also has a ‘food hall’, where items are more expensive than they are in supermarkets. In a category all by itself is Woolworth’s, which used to have a branch in almost every high street in the country. It sells mostly sweets, music, toys and children’s clothes of the cheaper kind.

3.2 Which questions does your profile answer?

ƒ What is ‘the corner shop’? ƒ What can you buy in corner shops? ƒ Do shopkeepers know their customers? ƒ Who are the owners of shops in Britain? ƒ In what way do many packets and tins record their weight? ƒ What scale is used for measuring shoe and clothing sizes? ƒ What is the best-known discount store? ƒ Can you name the only department stores with a large number of branches? ƒ What is Woolworth’s known for? 84

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3.3 When you have answered the questions, find a partner from the other groups. Swap information. 3.4 Write captions for the photographs below using information from the profiles.

a

c

b

d

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4 Shopping habits

The statements below give information about shopping habits in the UK. Are these habits the same (S) or different (D) from the shopping habits of the people in your culture? Put a tick (√) in the appropriate boxes in the Task sheet. If any of the habits are different, write brief notes explaining the differences. Task sheet In your culture

In the UK

1

Adults do most of their own shopping for clothes.

S

D





Notes

2

Mothers usually buy all the □ clothes for the young children in Notes the family

3

Teenagers usually choose their own clothes.







Notes

4

Married couples usually shop for □ large items such as cars, furniture, and TV sets together. Notes



5

Shopping for groceries is usually □ done by going to the supermarket Notes once a week.



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6

Shops do not close for lunch, and □ some stay open till 7.00 p.m. or later on certain days, especially in Notes big cities.

7

Department stores and grocery stores are open all day Saturdays.







Notes

In families, it is often the mother □ who does most of the food shopNotes ping.



Many oven-ready (frozen or mi- □ cro-wavable) items are available Notes in supermarkets.



10 Many people buy bread, cakes, □ biscuits, and pies in a supermarket Notes rather than in a bakery.



8

9

5 A lot of shops and businesses in Britain choose names which indicate what they sell or do. Can you identify the trade of each of the following from their names? Try to do the exercise without looking at the list of alternatives on the right.

1 KLEEN-EZE (pronounced clean-easy)

a

a car hire company

2 EUROPCAR

b

a hairdresser

3 LA GONDOLA

c

an Italian restaurant

4 THE GOLDEN CURRY

d

a travel agency

5 TRAVELLERS’ WORLD

e

an artists’ supplier

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6 THE COMPLETE ARTIST

f

a shop selling things for children

7 SCISSORS

g

an Indian restaurant

8 MOTHERCARE

h

a dry-cleaning company

6 Render the following passages into English and compare your version with the given one. ПОЛТОРАСТА ЛЕТ назад Наполеон пренебрежительно отозвался об англичанах как о нации торговцев. Эта характеристика в те годы и много лет спустя считалась оскорблением для каждого уважающего себя человека. В настоящее время мы все еще остаемся нацией торговцев – согласно данным Министерства торговли и промышленности каждый десятый из нас работает в розничной торговой сети. Но сейчас мы этим гордимся.

150 years ago Napoleon scornfully spoke of the English as a nation of shopkeepers. In those days and for many years after that description was considered insulting to every self-respecting person. Nowadays we still remain a nation of shopkeepers: according to figures from the Department of Trade and Industry, one in ten of us works in retail, only now we are proud of it.

Если нам нужно купить подешевле, тогда мы идем в другие магазины - в супермаркеты, такие, как Теско, в фирменные магазины типа Бутс, специализирующиеся на продаже медикаментов и предметов гигиены, в магазины Маркс энд Спенсер, продающие разнообразные товары.

If we need to buy at lower prices, we go to other shops – to supermarkets like Tesco, or to chain stores like Boots, which specialises in retailing medicines and hygiene products, or to Marks and Spencer, which sells a variety of goods.

Все многофилиальные магазины обязаны своим успехом распространению в розничной сети системы самообслуживания – явления послевоенных лет. Почти каждый владелец магазина в наши дни – от бакалейщика на углу улицы до председателя группы Хэрродс – убежден, что покупатель склонен сам выбирать необходимые для него товары.

All chain stores owe their success to the spread in the world of retail of the self-service system which appeared in the post-war years. Almost every shop owner these days - from the grocer on the corner to the president of the Harrods Group – is convinced that the customer is inclined to choose the goods he needs for himself. A large shop needs a large customer pool and good transport links and car parks. Supermarkets cannot continue to expand without

Большому магазину требуется большой район для обслуживания, он нуждается также в хороших подъездных путях и автостоянках. Супермаркеты не могут про88

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должать расширяться, если их не передвигать на окраину городов, куда покупателям легче добираться на машине. В наших перенаселенных городских центрах просто нет места для паркования большого числа машин, а именно это является существенным стимулом для покупателей, стремящихся купить все «за одну остановку».

moving to the edges of towns, which customers can easily reach by car. In our overpopulated town centres there simply is not the space for parking large numbers of cars and it is this is precisely whey shoppers wish to buy everything at one stop.

Итак, становится все более очевидно, что сейчас образовались два примерно равных лагеря. С одной стороны, многофилиальные магазины старого типа, такие, как Маркс энд Спенсер, которые все еще тяготеют к центру городов, а с другой – новый тип магазинов, например, те которые стремятся открывать гигантские супермаркеты площадью более 4 600 кв.м (иногда их называют гипермаркеты) на совершенно новых участках вне городских кварталов.

So it becomes still more obvious that two different camps have arisen. On the one hand, chain stores of the old variety, like Marks & Spencer, still gravitate toward town centres and on the other hand, the new kind of stores, like Tesco, strive to open gigantic supermarkets, over 43000m² in area in absolutely new out-of-town locations.

Характерной чертой городских торговых The characteristic town shopping центров все еще является обычный уни- centre is still the general departверсальный магазин. ment store. Некоторым универмагам удалось сохранить свои позиции. Они добились этого главным образом благодаря переходу к системе самообслуживания путем сокращения пустующих площадей в помещениях, введения эскалаторов и т.д. Один из крупнейших наших универмагов – магазин Хэрродс.

Certain department stores have managed to protect their positions. They have done so mainly because they have gone over to the self-service system, reducing in the empty spaces with the introduction of escalators etc. One of our largest department stores is Harrods.

Хэрродс начался с бакалейного магазина и, постепенно расширяясь в течение столетия, занял все здания квартала в Найтсбридже, в которых он размещается и по сей день.

Harrods started out as a grocery store and over 100 years of constant expansion, took over all the buildings in a whole block in Knightsbridge, where it still is today.

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Сооружение, которое видно с улицы, со всеми своими башнями и куполами, в действительности не что иное, как фасад, наложенный на десятки зданий более раннего периода. Магазин занимает площадь в 5 га или даже больше, и его товарооборот столь же велик, насколько разнообразен ассортимент предлагаемых в нем товаров.

The building visible from the street, with all its towers, and domes, is in reality no more than a façade applied to dozens of buildings of an earlier period. The store takes up about five hectares, or even more and its turnover is as great as the variety of goods on offer.

Очень многие из его покупателей приезжают – или присылают заказы – из-за границы. Хэрродс до сих пор старается функционировать в соответствии с принципом, выраженным в его телеграфном адресе – «Все Лондон» - и в его девизе «Omnia Omnibus Ubique» (все, для всех, везде). В этом магазине вы никогда не получите отказа; если у них нет чего-нибудь на складе, они добудут это.

A great number of customers come or send orders from abroad. Harrods to this day endeavours to work by the principle expressed in its telegraph address, ‘All London’ and its slogan, ‘ Omnia Omnibus Ubique’ (Everything for Everybody, Everywhere). In this store you will never be refused anything – if they don’t have something in stock, they will get it.

Другое явление последних лет – это возрождение крытого рынка. Молодые люди Маркс и Спенсер предприняли свои первые шаги именно в этой области в начале нашего века и в целом принцип был разумен: создать группу однотипных торговых точек под одной крышей, а затем сдавать их в аренду по низкой плате мелким торговцам.

Another phenomenon of the last few years is the revival of the covered market. The young Marks and Spencer took the first steps in this area at the beginning of the century and on the whole the principle was a sensible one – to form a group of the same kind of trading points under one roof, and then lease them to small traders at low rates.

При таком разнообразии форм и методов розничной торговли хождение по магазинам в сегодняшней Англии не надоедает, а зачастую приносит и много приятного волнения. Нам нужно всего понемногу, и с нашей традиционной склонностью к компромиссам мы будем, очевидно, сохранять такое разнообразие еще в течение очень длительного времени.

With such diversity of form and methods in retail trade, shopping in modern England is never dull and it often brings a lot of excitement. We need a little of everything and with our traditional inclination to compromise we will clearly keep this diversity for a long time to come.

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LISTENING 7.1

T19

A

Listen to the five advertisements and say which pictures represent the

same type of product or service as the advertisements? Number the pictures in the order that you hear the advertisements.

7.2

T19

A

Read these questions. Try to answer them as you listen to the adver-

tisements again.

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Advertisement 1 a Complete this sentence: ‘At Penta we try ……………. to make buying a used car ………………. and …………………… for you.’ b Penta is open

every day. every day except Sundays. until 7 p.m.

Advertisement 2 a Charles Church are offering cheese and wine when you visit their showhouse

every day from 9-5 p.m. every evening and Saturday all day. on Friday evening and Saturday all day. T

F

b The new show-house is opposite a cricket club. Advertisement 3 a The Slimtel costs

£28.85 £39.95 £29.95

b Complete the opening times of the British Telecom Phone Shop. Mondays to Fridays ……. to ………. Saturdays …….. to ……. Advertisement 4 a Finder magazine is published

once a month. once a week. every day. T

b Finder is a financial news magazine. 92

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Advertisement 5 a Tick the towns you hear: Pisa

Venice

Verona

Milan

Naples

Turin

Florence

Rome

Bologna

b How many flights are there to Milan ? 2 per day 3 per day 3 per week 8.1

T20

A

This is part of an advertising song. Listen and follow the words in your

booklet.

‘… it is the best to buy. Let’s not talk, instead I’ll show you why. But how, how can I make this clear With you in there and me out here? I’m gonna knock on your door, Ring on your bell, Tap on your window too. Come on and open your door so I can show you more, I’m gonna knock and ring and tap until you do.’ In pairs, discuss who is talking and who he is talking to. What do you think this song is advertising? In pairs, make a list of possibilities. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 8.2

T21

A

Listen to another part of the same song and make changes to your list

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8.3

T22

A

Now listen to some more of the same song. What is the song advertis-

ing? 9

A

You will hear the marketing manager of Argos, telling customers about shop-

ping with Argos. 9.1

T23

A In the first extract he talks about the three steps of buying goods at Ar-

gos. Listen and put them in the order in which he talks about them.

a

take the form to a service point

b

complete a selection form

c

pick up goods from the collection counter

9.2

T24

A In the second extract he gives details about how to order at Argos.

Listen to what he says and complete the following flow chart:

Customer orders any of the items covered by Free Home Delivery

1

at the Customer Services area in Argos stores or by telephoning 2

3

9.3

T25

A

In the third extract he talks about what customers might do if they

don’t like a product they bought at Argos. Listen to what he says and complete the sentences below:

a

If you change your mind and decide that a product you have bought does not meet your exact requirements …

b

We simply ask that …

c

Please note …

d

This guarantee … 94

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10

A

You will hear David Short, the marketing manager of Past Times telling you

about this chain of shops selling gifts inspired by the past. 10.1

T26

A Listen to what David Short says and say which of the following items

from PAST TIMES catalogue he mentions: HAPPY PIG

EDWARDIAN CROQUET SET

MONET WINE COOLER

VENETIAN GLOBES

ANTIQUE TEDDY BEAR BOOKENDS

VICTORIAN ETAGERES PEACOCK UMBRELLA

EXLUSIVE GARDEN CHAIR

ALICE IN WONDERLAND FIGURES

10.2 Below are some of the items from PAST TIMES Summer 2000 catalogue he mentioned.

TEA ON THE LAWN

2273 Set of 3 Figures 0786 Alice

£ 57.50

(11¾ tall) £ 19.99

0787 Mad Hatter (12 tall)

£ 19.99

0782 White Rabbit (12¾ tall) £ 19.99

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Complete the order form for the items taken from PAST TIMES Summer 2000 catalogue, and say what you know about the literary characters shown in the figures. Read the description in the Answer Key and check your answer.

WATCHING VIDEO AND SPEAKING 11.1 V8 Watch the video sequence about the closure of the high street chain ‘C & A‘ and decide whether these statements are true (T) or false (F):

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T 1

‘C&A’ is to close all its stores in Britain.

2

Based in Munich, ‘C&A’ is losing £1 million a week.

3

Matalan, another high street chain, is losing even more than ‘C&A’.

4

‘C&A’ customers make desperate efforts to improve image of their

F

favourite stores. 5 ‘C&A’ is retreating to its base in Europe.

11.2 Can you think of a similar situation in your country? Has any chain of stores like the British ‘C & A’ ever been closed? What could be the reasons for this?

12.1 V9 Watch the ten commercials and match the products in A with their descriptions in B A 1

‘Inspiration’

2

Personal computer

3

Olivio oil

4

Nurofen

5

Washing machine

6

SMILES

7

Nescafe ice

8

WHISKAS

9

Brita

B

a Too moreish to share b Things you expect to be noisy, don’t have to be noisy c Does wonders for water d Proven to reduce the appearance of the 7 signs of ageing e Mashed potato with a smile f It’s a state of mind g 16 sensational songs available at WH Smith h Irresistibly tasty i Really great PCs … j Targets pain without water

10 Schredded wheat

12.2

Can you compare the commercials you’ve just watched with the ones in your

country? How are the same / similar goods advertised on TV in your country?

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Topic 1 The advantages and disadvantages of shopping in supermarkets, compared

to corner shops. Which is more likely to: a) be nearer home? b) have all the things you want to buy c) sell cheaper goods? d) sell better quality goods? e) offer quicker service? f) offer more personal service? g) have a more friendly atmosphere Topic 2 The advantages and disadvantages of shop opening hours in Britain. In

your country, do shops stay open for more or fewer hours a week than they do in Britain? Do you think that the de-regulation of shop opening hours is a good thing?

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION Websites: www.world of shopping.com www.classicengland.co.uk www.ukshops.co.uk www.theukhighstuet.com

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UNIT VI. FOOD AND DRINK What do you know about British cuisine? What do visitors to Britain think about British food? Is food given considerable attention in Britain?

WARM UP 1.1 The following sentences have been removed from the factfile. Read the profiles and put each sentence in the correct numbered gap. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use. a Another explanation may be that most visitors to Britain do not get the opportunity to sample home cooking. b One reason could simply be that British tastes are different from everybody else’s. c Even in fast food restaurants and everyday cafés, the quality seems to be lower than it is in equivalent places in other countries. d These places are definitely not where to find good British food. e By now, however, the British are extremely open to the cuisine of other countries. f When the British do pay attention to food, it is most frequently not to appreciate but to notice what they don’t like about it. g Perhaps this is why the range of plants and animals which they will eat is rather narrow. h While the British are conservative about ingredients, they are no longer conservative about the way they are served. i Parties and celebrations are not normally centred around food. j The coffee is often just as bad as it is in cafés. k Wartime women had to forget 600 years of British cooking.

Factfile

Food

1 Britain and good food are two things which are not commonly associated. Visitors to Britain have widely varying opinions about all sorts of aspects of the country, but most of them seem to agree that the food is terrible. Why? … However, the most common complaint is not so much that British food has a strange, unpleasant taste, but rather that it has very little taste at all. The vegetables, for example, are overcooked. It is all too bland. 2 … They either eat the food cooked in an institution, such as a university canteen, or they ‘eat out’ a lot, usually in rather cheap restaurants and cafés. … Typical British cooking, which involves a lot of roasting, does not suit the larger scale production or the quick preparation which is required in such places. For one thing, food should, according to British people, be eaten hot, which is difficult to arrange when feeding large numbers of people. In addition, the British have not got into the habit of preparing sauces with grilled food in order to make it tastier. 3 The explanations above can only serve as a partial excuse for the unfortunate reputation of British cuisine. … It seems that British people simply don’t care enough to bother. 4 Even at home, food and drink is given relatively little attention. … British supermarkets sell far more instant coffee than what the few people who drink it often call ‘real’ coffee. Instant coffee is less trouble. Meals tend to be eaten quickly and the table cleared. … For example, if a British person expresses a liking for barbecues, this does not necessarily mean that he or she likes barbecued food – it is understood to mean that he or she enjoys the typical barbecue atmosphere. 5 … Food hits the headlines only in the context of its dangers: for example in 1993, when it was discovered that 100 tonnes of six-year-old beef had been allowed to go on sale. 6 British people have been mostly urban, having little contact with ‘the land’, for longer than the people of other countries. …. 7 However, the picture is not entirely negative. … In the 1960s, it was reported that the first British package tourists in Spain not only insisted on eating (traditionally British) fish and chips all the time but also on having them, as was traditional, wrapped up in specially imported British newspaper! …The country’s supermarket shelves are full of the spices and sauces needed for cooking dishes from all over the world. In addition, there is increasing interest in the pure enjoyment of eating and drinking.

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1.2 Work with a partner.

a Discuss your answers. b

Check the answers with the factfile in the Answer Key.

2 Which of the following statements about food do you think are true?

a

The biggest owner of pubs in Britain is a Japanese bank.

b

People in Britain are buying 20% less food from supermarkets today than they did ten years ago.

c

The British spend about £ 1.26 billion a year on hamburgers, double what they spend on medicines.

d

Over five million kilograms of crisps are eaten in Britain every week.

e

There are more Chinese take-aways than there are fish and chip shops in the UK.

f

One of the most successful food programmes on TV recently was called ‘Two Fat Ladies’. It celebrated some of the richest, heaviest, fattiest foods in British and world cooking.

g

In 1997, a frozen food company started selling chocolate – flavoured carrots and pizza – flavoured sweetcorn to encourage children to eat fresh vegetables.

h

Just over half the restaurants in Britain are fast-food outlets or takeaways.

i

Every person in Britain eats a ready meal from a supermarket at least five times a week.

READING 3 Jigsaw reading

The two profiles below give you more information about what British people eat. Divide into two groups Group A Read profile 1 Group B Read profile 2 100

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1

2

A ‘fry-up’ is a phrase used informally for several items fried together. The most common items are eggs, bacon, sausages, tomatoes, mushrooms, and even bread. It is not always accompanied by ‘chips’ (the British word for French fried potatoes). The British eat rather a lot of fried food. Although it is sometimes poetically referred to as ‘the staff of life’, bread is not an accompaniment to every meal. It is not even normally on the table at either lunch or the evening meal. It is most commonly eaten, with butter and almost anything else, for a snack, either as a sandwich or toast (a British household regards toasting facilities as a basic necessity). On the other hand, the British use a lot of flour for making pastry dishes, both savoury and sweet, normally called ‘pies’, and for making cakes.

Eggs are a basic part of most people’s diet. They are either fried, soft-boiled and eaten out of an ‘egg cup’, hard-boiled (so that they can be eaten with the fingers or put into sandwiches) or poached (steamed). Cold meats are quite popular. To many British people, preserved meats are typically ‘Continental’. It is common for a family meal to finish with a prepared sweet dish. This is called either ‘pudding’, ‘sweet’ or ‘dessert’ (class distinctions are involved here). There is a great variety of well-known dishes for this purpose, many of which are served hot (often a pie of some sort). The British are the world’s biggest consumers of sugar-more than five kilograms per person per year. It is present in almost every tinned food item and they also love ‘sweets’ (which means both all kinds of chocolate and also what the Americans call ‘candy’).

Which questions does your profile answer? ƒ What phrase is used for several items fried together? ƒ Are eggs, bacon, and sausages often eaten? ƒ When is bread normally on the table? ƒ How much flour do the British use? ƒ Are cold meats popular? ƒ What are most common words for sweet dish? ƒ Do the British love sweets? When you have answered the questions, find a partner from the group. Swap information.

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4

You are going to read a magazine article in which a number of people describe

their eating habits. For questions 1-14 choose from the list of people (a-g) in the box. Some of the people may be chosen more than once. There is an example at the beginning (0).

a the Norris family

c the Scott family

f Ade Bakare

b Michael Norris

d Caroline Scott

g Ade Bakare’s mother

e the Mughal family Which of the families or people: eats together every morning?

0

almost never eats together?

C

1

feels that eating together keeps the family

2

3

cooks food that is healthy?

4

5

eats a lot of frozen food?

6

spends a long time cooking?

7

cooks in a large group?

8

often does not eat at home?

9

thinks children should be taught table man-

10

close?

ners? doesn’t have fixed eating habits?

11

12

has special meals at the weekend?

13

14

For some people it’s dinner. Others call it supper. Whatever you know it as, the evening meal is not what it was.

Paul Richardson finds out who eats what and when.

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Separate tables The Norris family is a monument to modern frozen-food technology. ‘I can’t remember the last time we all ate together,’ says husband Michael Norris. ‘Mostly the food comes out of the freezer and goes straight into the microwave. We have two diningtables but they never get used, not unless my mother-in-law, who lives with us, cooks something.’ The children, Sophie and Ben, eat when they come home from school, while watching TV. Pat Norris, who works irregular hours and travels a lot, boils soup and makes a salad when she’s at home; Michael often eats out. It’s informal, but everyone likes it. The art of course eating The Scott family like a bit of formality in their lives. ‘We’re not stuffy,’ insists Caroline, ‘but we always have napkins and white linen and flowers on the table. My husband always has a bath before dinner, and we always change clothes. I think it’s important for the children to have good manners.’ Caroline drives across town to find food that’s not ‘full of all sorts of nasty chemicals.’ The result is meals that ‘sometimes take an hour and a half, at least, and longer at weekends.’ The children attend an equally civilized breakfast served at 8.00 a.m. prompt in the dining-room. ‘It’s a sort of ritual so we can all see one another. We all feel it’s important,’ says Caroline, who doesn’t have a microwave and does most of the cooking herself. ‘I seem to spend a lot of time cooking,’ she says. ‘I don’t know why. I suppose it’s because we’ve always done it.’

5

Spice of life The evening meal at the Mughal household brings together three generations: 18-month-old Sameer, his sister Nina, three, parents Rubina and Haleem and the grandparents. Sometimes there are other family members as well. ‘People catch up with each other at meal times,’ says cousin Shamreen. ‘We usually eat quite late, about 8.30 or 9.00 p.m., because we wait for everyone to get in. It’s important to have a table that’s laid out, although during the week it’s usually just a couple of dishes. Weekends are a bit more special!’ Rubina will normally cook a rice dish, a meat curry and sometimes a salad. Quite a lot for one pair of hands, but there are always people around to help – and, as Shamreen points out, a lot of Asian dishes can be made the night before, or even frozen. Student life Ade Bakare, 23 years old and a student at Thames Polytechnic, tends towards the irregular in his dining habits. Between 9.00 p.m. and 11.00 p.m. about three times a week, ‘depending on how we’re feeling,’ Ade and his flatmates settle down to a meal. The menu may vary between Kentucky Fried chicken and ‘ebba,’ an African dish made of ground rice. ‘Obviously fast food is easier, and none of the other guys are very good cooks,’ says Ade. The taste for African cooking comes from his mother’s house, where the set-up is rather different. ‘I’d always sit down at the table with my mother. The food is much more substantial, much more nutritious, partly because she wants to ensure that I am eating properly.’

The two texts that follow describe recent changes in British eating habits. Read

Texts A and B. As you read, make a note of any information that suggests a change in the way people live.

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Text A

Eating and Drinking Habits The general level of nutrition remains high. There has a significant shift in eating patterns over the decade, reflecting greater emphasis on health, frozen and convenience foods. Consumption of several items, such as sugar, eggs, fresh potatoes and fresh green vegetables, has declined substantially. Other changes include: ƒ a long-term decline in consumption of red meats – beef, lamb and pork – while at the same time consumption of poultry has been rising;

ƒ a rise in fish consumption; ƒ an increase in purchases of semi-skimmed milks; with skimmed milk now constituting more than half of the total household consumption of liquid milk; ƒ a decline in the total consumption of cooking and spreading fats, but rapid rises in the consumption of vegetable and salad oils and low-fat spreads; ƒ a long-term rise in consumption of fresh fruit, such as bananas; and ƒ a large increase in fruit juice consumption

There has been an increase in the number of meals eaten away from home, for example in restaurants or at work, and a growth in the consumption of food from ‘take-away’ and ‘fast-food’ shops. Alcohol consumption has changed little in recent years. Beer is the most popular drink among male drinkers, whose overall consumption is significantly higher than that of women. A high proportion of beer is drunk in public houses (‘pubs’), traditional social centers for many people, and in clubs. Consumption of table wine has grown.

Official Handbook in Britain

Text B

Burger Kings March on UK Stomachs

The world’s two biggest burger chains, McDonald’s and Burger King, are planning big expansions to supply what they believe is the nation’s increasing appetite for fast food. McDonald’s intends to open 100 restaurants each year, to add to the 830 it has at present. Its big rival, Burger King, which has 455 restaurants, is to open 55 new outlets this year. Yesterday Tim Lang, Professor of Food Policy at Thames University, declared himself an opponent. ‘I would be congratulating the companies if they were moving into selling fruit and vegetables, but selling more burgers is

hardly the sort of advance that the British diet needs,’ he said. Professor Lang believes the American fast food wave has changed our eating habits. We have had fish and chips, Cornish pasties and sandwiches for a long time, but the difference is that the burger chains set up in prime High Street spots to tempt us in. ‘We can’t say people aren’t enjoying it. They are buying it and eating it. But does this represent a wholesome healthy food culture? My honest opinion is no.’ The answer, says Professor Lang, is to get the British back into their kitchens by teaching children to cook. Children used to learn to

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cook either at home around the age of 6 to 8 or at school between 12 and 15. Now they miss the second chance and are subjected to the ‘burgerisation’ attitude of ‘why bother to cook when you can nip out and get a burger or a pizza?’ Food analyst Umesh Raichada said of the McDonald’s and Burger King plans: ‘There is definitely room for this massive expansion. People are eating out much more than they used to. These chains are having to expand now to keep out the competition from pizzas and other ethnic foods. They’re hoping to win over the stomach share and they want to win it before anyone else does.’ The Guardian

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What are the most likely reasons for these changes in your opinion? Compare changes in eating habits in your country with those of Britain. Make a list of similarities and differences, and discuss it with your classmates. 6 Reading menus

6.1

Here is a typical restaurant menu. Look at it and sort out the dishes below under

the headings: starters, main courses, desserts.

Courses and dishes – a typical menu

Dinner

Starters courses

Fish £p

Prawn cocktail Chilled melon Garlic mushrooms Main Courses Meat

dishes

Rumpsteak Pork chop Lamb casserole Chicken Kiev prices include vegetables, chips or boiled potatoes

fresh fruit salad

garlic king prawns

mato char grilled vegetables

£p

Dover sole Grilled trout Cod in cheese sauce Children’s Portions

Burger ‘n’ beans Fish fingers ‘n’ chips

sometimes called sweets pudding afters (especially at home)

Desserts

Chocolate fudge cake Ice cream (various) Apple pie with cream Tea, coffee snacks always available

mussels in wine

Irish stew

fish and chips

small items, e.g. sandwiches, pies, etc.

bacon, lettuce and tobeef and stout pie

chocolate cake chicken, leek and bacon ground coffee cakes and scones 6.2

Read The Grapevine Restaurant and Teashop menu. Which of these dishes come

from Britain? Do you know where the others come from? What would you like to order?

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6.3

Can you name the foods in the picture? Which of them are/is on the menu of the

Grapevine Restaurant and Teashop ?

6.4

What experience do you have of food in Britain? Choose some appropriate words

from the list below and add some of your own.

exciting

dull

cheap

expensive

tasty

bland

well-prepared

poorly prepared

international

traditional

surprising

predictable

7 Here are some quotations about British food. Place each one on this scale.

Very good

Mixed good and bad

Very bad

a ‘It takes some skill to spoil a breakfast – even the English can’t do it!’ J K Galbraith, economist b ‘On the Continent people have good food; in England people have good table manners.’ George Mikes, writer and humorist 107

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c ‘If the English can survive their food, they can survive anything!’ George Bernard Shaw, writer d ‘Even today, well-brought up English girls are taught to boil all vegetables for at least a month and a half, just in case one of the dinner guests comes without his teeth!’ Calvin Trillin, American writer e ‘English cooking? You just put things into boiling water and then take them out again after a long while!’ An anonymous French chef 8

Render the following passages (recipe) into English and compare your version with the given one.

Английские завтраки - еда на любителя, они очень сытные, жирные и традиционные. Если вам придется останавливаться в английской гостинице типа Bed and Breakfast, такой завтрак + кукурузные хлопья с молоком придется употреблять каждый день.

The English breakfast is a meal for the enthusiast. It is very filling, fatty and traditional. Should you find yourself in a British ‘Bed and Breakfast’, a breakfast like the following plus cereal with milk will be a daily necessity.

Английский завтрак нельзя назвать частью уравновешенной диеты.

This meal cannot be eaten regularly as part of a healthy diet.

Если рассказывать коротко: надо взять все ингредиенты и обжарить их на сковороде до корочки. Или приготовить на гриле, что более полезно.

In short, you put all the ingredients in a frying pan and fry them to a crisp. To be healthier, you can also grill them.

Начать с фасоли. Выложить ее в сковороду, и хорошо прогреть. Пока вы приготавливаете остальные ингредиенты, не забывайте помешивать фасоль, чтобы избежать цементирования томата на дне сковородки. Томатный соус должен слегка загустеть, когда он готов к раскладыванию на тарелки, положите в него немного сливочного масла. Далее сосиски и бекон. Намного вкуснее их жарить, но полезнее готовить на гриле. Их готовят при низкой температуре гриля, сначала сосиски, затем бекон (он готовится на-

Start with the beans. Cook them slowly on the hob. As you prepare the rest of the meal give them an occasional stir to stop them cementing to the bottom of the pan. The tomato sauce should gradually reduce and thicken a little. When you're ready to serve them add some butter (to taste - careful) and stir in. Ok, the sausages and bacon; these taste nicer if fried, but for health reasons you are better off at least grilling the sausages. Grill SLOWLY. Sausages

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много быстрее). Надо сказать, что сосиски, которые едят англичане, совсем не похожи на российские молочные, скорее это толстые, свиные и очень жирные сардельки.

first and then the bacon (it won't take as long to cook). It should be pointed out that British sausages are very different from Russian ones. Usually they are thick, very fatty pork saveloys.

В небольшом количестве сливочного и растительного масла обжарить грибы и томат. Томаты можно готовить и на гриле.

The mushrooms and tomatoes should be fried in a little oil and a little butter. The tomatoes can also be grilled.

Кровяная колбаса должна быть обжарена последней, вместе с яичницей глазуньей.

The black puddings should be fried - do these last, with the eggs.

Разогреть масло на сковороде, разбить туда яйцо и обжарить. Если вы обжаривали бекон на сковороде, положите в ту же сковородку хлеб и поджарьте его до корочки. В противном случае, подсушите его в тостере.

Fry the egg in oil and, if you fried the bacon, fry the bread in the same oil as the bacon. Otherwise toast the bread.

Второй способ - взболтать яйца венчиком и поджарить на сковороде. Разложить все на одной тарелке и подавать с кетчупом.

Option two - make scrambled eggs Serve it all on a big plate with tomato ketchup.

LISTENING AND SPEAKING 9

T27

A

Listen to Sheena Milne talking about when people in Britain eat what and

look at the hotel menus below. Can you label them correctly – Continental or British?

Menu 1

Menu 2

Orange juice or Fresh fruit cocktail Cereal or porridge Bacon, sausage and eggs, Keudgeree, or Kippers Toast, rolls Butter and marmalade Coffee, Tea, or Hot chocolate

Orange juice or Fresh fruit cocktail Croissants Brioches Butter and jam Coffee, Tea, or Hot chocolate

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10

T28

A Listen to Noel Lockley talking about what people drink in Britain and take

notes under the headings: soft drinks, drinking wine, most common pub drinks. Compare what Sheena Milne and Noel say with what Tony Leroy said in the interview 10 . Leisure Activity Options in Britain T15 , T16 . What do people drink in your country?

11

T29

A Sheena Milne and Noel Lockley are going

to tell you how you can cook some of the traditional British meals. Divide into four groups as you listen to the recipes and take notes. After you have taken down the recipes, swap information. Now that you have the four recipes taken from A Taste of England, an English Tourist Board cookery book, how about cooking them?

Did you understand all those cookery terms? Here’s a guide to some of the most common ones. to blanch – to immerse in boiling water for a very short period to blend – to mix together, often in a food processer to chop – to cut into pieces (finely = small pieces; coarsely = roughly). to infuse – to soak a substance in liquid to extract the flavour. joint – large piece of meat, usually roasted in the oven. left-over beef – cooked beef remaining from a previous meal. to mash – to crush boiled vegetables to a puree, often with a little milk or butter. to mince – to cut up into very small pieces, usually meat mincemeat – mixture of apples and dry fruit. pinch – a very small amount – literally, what can be picked up between thumb and forefinger. to pipe – to squeeze through a decorative nozzle. pudding cloth – piece of cloth used to cover food before cooking it in steam. to season – to add flavouring (salt, pepper, herbs, spices) to food. 110

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to shred – to cut into thin strips. to slice – to cut into thin pieces. to steam – to cook in steam, over boiling water. to strain – to separate a liquid from solid particles. suet pastry – pastry made with suet, an animal fat.

WATCHING VIDEO You are going to watch a sequence from Ainsley’s Meals In Minutes, a show on

12

BBC1 in which magnificent meals are created in a matter of minutes. 12.1

V10 Watch the sequence and answer the questions:

1 What ‘quick and easy dishes’ was Ainsley cooking during his show? 2 How long did it take Ainsley to cook his spicy sausage patties with potato wedges? 3 Have you ever tasted any of Ainsley’s meals? Which of them would you like to cook? 12.2

Below are the ingredients for Ainsley’s sausage patties. Watch the sequence

again – can you write down the recipe for the patties?

Spicy Sausage Patties Ingredients Patties

Sauce

Wedges

l lb Sausages

2 tbsps ketchup

Potatoes

1 tbsp Cranberry jelly

1 tbsp honey

¼ tbsp cayan pepper

Small bunch-Spring onions

1 tbsp soy sauce

¼ tbsp (ground) cumin

Flour for rolling

1 tbsp vinegar

Rock salt to taste

1 tbsp English mustard 1 orange

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WRITING 13

Summer pudding

This is a traditional English sweet dish that can be made from almost any kind of soft fruit (blackcurrants, blackberries, strawberries or raspberries are all very good). Below you are given the recipe in diagram form only. Can you now write out the recipe in full? Ingredients 650-700 g of soft fruit A cup of water (about 200 cc) Sugar to taste Stale white bread

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION Books:

Food Technology by Jill Robinson GM Free: Shopper’s Guide to Genetically Modified Foods by Sue Dibb and Tim Lobstein Genetic Engineering, Food and Our Environment: A Brief Guide by Luke Anderson

Websites: www.fol.co.uk www.icta.org www.monsanto.vigil.net/ www.purefood.org

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UNIT VII.

TEST I. Look at the various types of house below and match each with its correct description. 1. cottage 2. semi-detached house 3. terraced house

a a house in a row of houses which are all joined together. b a house which stands alone and is not joined to any other.

4. bungalow

c a house which is joined to another on one side only.

5. council house

d a house which is rented from a local authority.

6. detached house e a small house in the country, usually with a garden. f a house which has only one floor (storey). II. In each question (7–36), only one of the four answers is correct. Choose the correct answer and mark it on your answer sheet. 7. There are now more than … owner-occupied homes in Great Britain. a 15 million b 10 thousand c 57 million d 6 million 8. The average value of a three-bedroomed house in Britain in 1992 was … . a £ 1,000,000 b £ 15,000 c £ 62,000 d £ 10,000

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9. A large detached house not only ensures privacy, it is also … . a an award b a status symbol c an insult d a mark of distinction 10. Although it is densely populated, Britain … of flat-dwellers in the EU. a has a great number b has the second lowest c has the second highest d has the highest 11. If you want to buy a house in Britain, it is rare to deal directly with the person selling. Instead, you go to … . a an estate agent b the building society c the savings bank d the mortgage company 12. Traditionally, a major sign of being middle class (as opposed to working class) has been that you do … work. a minor b non-manual c manual d hard 13. The connection between being middle class and doing non-manual work … . a doesn’t exist b is growing weaker c is distinct d is traditional 14. The normal lunch break in Britain is … . a an hour or less b less then an hour 114

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c an hour or two d ten minutes 15. The normal retiring age for most people in Britain is … . a fifty b forty-five c sixty-five d seventy 16. In Britain the working day, in comparison with most European countries, starts … . a quite early b early in the morning c late at night d rather late 17. … of all British women are in paid employment. a 10% b None c 51% d 20% 18. About … of women in Britain are married by the time they are 18. a 10% b 60% c 5% d 80% 19. … of second marriages in Britain end in divorce. a 10% b Two thirds c 80% d 90%

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20. Britain has … divorce rate in the European Community. a no b the average c the highest d the lowest 21… of the population in Britain live in nuclear family households. a 40% b 90% c 10% d 70% 22. Sixty-six per cent of households in Britain have … . a a dictionary b a dictionary or a Bible c a Bible d a dictionary and a Bible 23. The cinema in Britain is often regarded as … . a a favourite pastime b a national hobby c real art d not quite part of ‘the arts’ 24. British theatre is … . a neglected b not important for citizens c much admired d not known 25. Classical music in Britain is … . a a minority interest b quite popular c much admired 116

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d played only by professionals 26. Royal National Eisteddfod is held … . a all year round b in Scotland in April c in Wales in July d in London in June 27. The normal time for shops to open in Britain is … . a 9.30 b 8 c 10 d 9 28. Informally, a pound is sometimes called … . a a ‘penny’ b a ‘quid’ c a ‘cent’ d a ‘dollar’ 29. Most shops in Britain are … . a chain stores b supermarkets c hypermarkets d candy stores 30. The best known of many discount stores in Britain is … . a Asda b Past Times c Marks and Spencer d Laura Ashley 31. A shop by itself in a residential area is often referred to as … . a ‘the chain store’ b ‘the corner shop’ 117

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c ‘the retail outlet’ d ‘the market place’ 32. There are more … than there are fish and chip shops in Britain. a salad bars b pizza huts c Chinese take-aways d American pubs 33. One of the most successful food programmes on TV in Britain was called …. a ‘Two Fat Ladies’ b ‘Elegant British gentlemen’ c ‘To Eat or Not To Eat?’ d ‘Invisible Japanese Gentlemen’ 34. The average person in Britain eats a ready meal from a supermarket … . a at least five times a week b once a year c less than once a month d twice a week 35. The British word for French fried potatoes is … . a ‘chips’ b ‘crisps’ c ‘fish and chips’ d ‘toasts’ 36. … is the most popular drink among male drinkers in Britain. a Cognac b Vodka c Beer d Wine

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QUOTATIONS/TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION What reasons or facts you learnt in Units I-VI of this booklet can explain/support/disprove the following quotations about the English? Give your comment on them. 1. Almost every nation has a reputation of some kind. The French are supposed to be amorous, gay, fond of champaigne; the Germans dull, formal, efficient, fond of military uniforms and parades; the Americans boastful, energetic and vulgar. The English are reputed to be cold, reserved, rather haughty people who do not yell in the street, make love in public or change their governments as often as they change their underclothes. They are steady, easy going and fond of sports… 2. It has been said that the British are suspicious of things in public life which are logical or systematic… 3. Foreigners often picture the Englishman dressed in tweeds, smoking a pipe, striding across the open countryside with the dog at his heels… 4. Apart from the conservatism on a grand scale which the attitude to monarchy typifies, England is full of small-scale and local conservatism, sometimes of a highly individual or particular character… 5. The English are a nation of stay-at-homes. There is no place like home, they say. The fire is the focus of the English home…

WRITING Write a composition on Lifestyle in Britain of about 200-250 words. 119

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T A P E S CRI P T S Tapescript 1 E = estate agent E: C: E:

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C: C = customer

E:

Good morning. Can I help you? Hi. I’m looking for an apartment to rent and I wanted to talk to you about what you had to offer right now. Yes, of course. Let me first take down a few details about what you’re looking for to see whether there’s anything I can offer you, and then I’ll take a few personal details if that’s OK. So. First of all the size of the flat – what kind of flat are you looking for? How large? Well, I’m not sure because I don’t know what I can afford, but ideally I suppose I would look for three rooms – so it’s what you would call a twobedroom flat here. Right – so two bedrooms. And have you thought where? Well, I need to take the train to work and in the evenings I often stay at work and come home quite late, so I guess the general area would be north of the station. Fine, yes, this seems logical, although of course flats near the station are quite expensive, how far away from the station are you willing to consider? Well, I suppose if it’s basically about a fifteen-minute walk away from the station, that’s OK – no, actually, let’s say ten minutes from the station. Yes, ten minutes is the farthest I would be willing to go. OK. And how much are you willing to pay? How much do you think somewhere like this will cost me? Well, it depends of course on other things, though mainly on whether it’s furnished, unfurnished or partly furnished. Have you thought of that?

C: E: C: E: C:

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Yes, and we’re going for an unfurnished flat. Well, in that case you’re slightly better off, but still in this area the least you’d expect to pay is probably £400 a month – and that won’t get you a nice place. If you want something nice, you’ll have to be willing to pay more. Right. Well, let’s say up to £550, no more. Good. Now, about time – when do you need to move in? I definitely need a place for April 1st. And I would want to have a contract for at least a year. OK. Any other points you would want to make before we start looking? Yes. Firstly, it’s got to be on the ground floor; and then we’ve got two young kids, so preferably I’d like the flat to be near a children’s playground, and then a school. But these two requirements – near the playground, and near a school – these two are not that important because we can always manage with the car. OK. Now if you would just give me a few personal details – your name …

Tapescript 2 Jean Attree I’ve always enjoyed photography and it is something where you learn a lot from experience. Friends told me that my pictures were good, and encouraged me to try and make a living at it. I started in October, and I’m building up confidence and contacts. I’ve also had work assisting other photographers which is a good way to learn. I’ve done various commissions, but at the moment I’m developing my portfolio so that I can get work doing album covers and commissions for magazines. I like doing 120

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portraits and I enjoy black and white photography, but colour work pays better.’ As she was unemployed, her local Jobcentre put her in touch with the enterprise team at South Thames TEC (Training and Enterprise Council). They were able to give her an enterprise allowance of £40 per week to get her started. ‘I was one of those people who couldn’t wait to leave school. At 16 I went into a boring office job which I hated. I started to think that doing a degree would widen my options. I did a one year part-time A level course, and then at 24 went to North London Polytechnic to do a degree in French and film studies. Having had experience of working, I was keen to make the most of the opportunity to study. As the course came to an end I still wasn’t sure what I wanted to do. Self employment appealed to me as it offered challenge and variety, though I knew there wouldn’t be paid holidays or sick leave. Since I started I’ve learned a lot about the practical aspects of running a business and marketing myself. I’m getting better at dealing with customers – in knowing what they are looking for. I’m hoping the business will build up steadily.’

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P: Tapescript 3 P = Presenter P:

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B = Barbara

These days, fewer and fewer people work in factories or outdoors, on the land, and the majority of school and college leavers today will find themselves working in an office. So is that something to look forward to or not? With me today, I have Mrs Barbara Mayor, who’s going to tell us about her experience of office work. Barbara, can you begin by telling us what you do? Well, I’m not working at the present time and I haven’t since before Christmas of last year. I’ve always been employed as a legal assistant. Unfortunately, my last office closed down, partly I think due to the economy. Things weren’t going well and they just weren’t making any money, so it was kind of a forced retirement

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in a sense, but one I’ve extremely enjoyed. I don’t know what I’m going to do, whether I’ll go back to it, or whether I’d really like to look for something else to do. One of the benefits of working in an office is the social aspect – you are working with a team of colleagues who often become your friends too. Have you found this? Can you tell us about your relations with colleagues? In the past, I’ve had various different jobs and just worked with wonderful people. In the last several years, though, the experiences haven’t been good, and I don’t think it’s the offices so much as the times, people changing, people seem to be caught up more in their own worlds, than they used to be. There used to be more camaraderie, people used to be more helpful and there were fewer barriers to break down. Now I find it’s more of a cut-throat world, people are out for themselves, not just in the office but in everyday living – people seem a lot more isolated. So it seems office life is changing, and perhaps not for the better. What would you say is the most important factor that makes somewhere a pleasant place to work? Having camaraderie with the people that you work with, people working together as a team, not isolated people who are doing things for their own ego, wanting to outshine everybody else. I think you have to work as a team and have a goal. You know, the goal is to get the job done, or the project or whatever it is at the time. Most people think of the working day as being 9 to 5, but many companies have introduced flexible working hours, so employees have a certain amount of choice about when they start work and when they finish. This takes into account people’s circumstances, like whether or not they have children, and the fact that everyone has a slightly different rhythm of

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work. So, Barbara, when do you think you work best? Well, I work best, I’m more alert first thing in the morning. In the evening I tend to slow down. I think I work best when I’m working with people who are prepared to work with you, not against you. People who don’t have their own agenda. Yes, indeed. Now, these days many offices are open plan, aren’t they, unlike in the past, when employees usually each had their own room. But of course, everyone still has their own desk or workstation. So, Barbara, how do you like to organize your workplace? I’m very organized. I have to have a place for everything and everything in its place. I can’t work in confusion. I don’t thrive under stress, which is very difficult in the legal profession because everything does tend to have a time limit on it, so you’re constantly under this pressure of things having to be done in a certain time period, you know, and I like to keep very organized and know what things have to be done. … I feel if you take care of the little things, big things don’t become a problem, and this is very often a problem in offices. They don’t like to give you the time to take care of the small, mundane things that make an office run smoothly. They just want you to kind of get in and start working and sometimes you need to organize and see what’s ahead, and look at the calendar for next week, and worry about what’s coming up. And then I find things tend to look smooth, starting from kind of small up.

of filing cabinets and a few potted plants to liven things up, seems the way things have always been. Things are changing though, and for one good reason – cost. It’s expensive to have an office building on a prime site in a modern city. The price of land in city centres is incredibly high. It costs a lot to keep the building clean and heated or airconditioned, and there is general maintenance and repairs that have to be paid for. So more and more companies are turning to the ‘virtual office’. ‘What’s that?’ you may well ask. Well, on arriving at work, instead of going straight to your own desk, you check in, rather like checking into a hotel, and then you request a workstation. In effect, this is your desk for a certain time, and it won’t be the same one every time. You are allocated a free desk for a fixed time, and you take your possessions out of a locker and carry them to the workstation you have been given. When you have finished, you take your possessions back to the locker and the desk is ready for the next lucky worker. Not surprisingly, companies and their accountants love the idea. Accountants know that they are saving a lot of money by spending less on office equipment, heating and lighting. Employees are much less enthusiastic. You’ve lost your space, so the office is even more impersonal. You can’t leave anything lying around. If you’re in the office at peak times, you can even find yourself without a desk and working standing up. Another new form of working – teleworking – is more popular with staff because, for one thing, they don’t have to travel to work. It’s also a way for the company to economise because staff work from home , providing their own office, light, heat and shelter. They keep in touch with the office and clients by computer, fax and telephone. Usually the company will provide this equipment and pay for the necessary connections to its own computer. Many workers enjoy the flexibility they have over how they organize the working day, and the escape from daily commuting, but

Tapescript 4 Presenter: Do you really want to work in an office? No? Well, you’re certainly not alone. The traditional office has changed little in the last hundred years. Oh, yes, there have been changes in technology but the idea of an office with a desk for each person and a number 122

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traditional and wore a uniform to be a nanny. I have always got on well with children. I have always enjoyed taking care of my sister and younger cousins. I told Mummy very firmly that I wanted to be a nanny when I grew up. At the time she laughed. I know that she and Daddy thought it was just a childish phase I was going through, but it wasn’t. They thought I would follow in my father’s footsteps and study law. But I didn’t. There were some terrible rows but I didn’t go to university. I left school and spent a year working at Ludgrove School, where Prince William used to go. Then I started my training course at Norland College. I finished the course last month and I’ve applied for the post of nanny to twins aged six months. Mummy and Daddy weren’t angry for long, we made it up before I went to college, and they have encouraged me ever since.

some feel isolated without the chance for a chat around the coffee machine. So there it is – losing your own desk, companies saving more money, more people staying at home. We’ll have to see how long the traditional office lasts in the light of these new developments. Tapescript 5 Does the way you look affect your career chances? To find the answer, Jeff Biddle and Daniel Hamermesh of the university of Texas surveyed 7,000 people. They discovered that good-looking people were paid around 15% more. Biddle and Hamermesh then spent 15 years following the careers of a selected group of lawyers. They found that the better-looking ones had better chances of promotion than the others. They also found that more was expected of the better-looking ones by their clients. However, a reaction is now occurring against this kind of discrimination in the work place. The courts are awarding compensation in cases of unfair dismissal. In Santa Cruz, discrimination on the basis of a person’s physical characteristic is now forbidden. The only criterion for employment is whether a person is able to do the job.

Tapescript 7 Whenever modern thinkers turn their attention to the condition of marriage today, they are agreed on one thing; that our ‘morally liberated age’ gives couples every chance to avoid a failed marriage. An extraordinary survey in English has overturned the new moralists. It proves that couples who married in the old-fashioned way – without much pre-marital physical contact – were just as happy and contented as ‘modern’ couples. Professor Martin Whyte, who led the research team in Detroit, said ‘We have shown clearly that brides who took the opportunity to date other men or live with their partners before marriage have no better chance of a happy ending’. ‘What really counts are the romantic feelings. The couple who felt romance had more chance of making a successful marriage’.

Tapescript 6 My sister Charlotte was born when I was seven and my mother decided she needed a nanny to look after us. So we got Alison. She was very young, seventeen I think, and wonderful. I adored her. She only worked parttime with us before she started her training at Norland College. She had to dress us in the morning and take me to school. After school she made us delicious teas and read us stories in bed. On Charlotte’s birthday she organized a fantastic party. When Alison left, we had a trained nanny who lived with us and worked full-time. She was called Nanny Barnes by everyone, including my parents. She was older and quite

Tapescript 8 Blind Date Blind Date, hosted by Cilla Black, has been running on British TV since 1985. In the programme, a man and a 123

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woman take it in turns to choose their date from three members of the opposite sex who are hidden behind a screen. Each player asks three questions to the three hidden contestants and then has to choose one of the contestants on the basis of their answers. The following week the players and the successful contestants are invited back to the programme to talk about their dates together.

J: No1:

Tapescript 9 C=Cilla

J: No2:

J=James

J: And that question goes to Number 1. No1 : Actually, I’m not a very good cook. But when you choose Number 1 tonight, the only tasty thing on your mind will be me. J: Number 2? No2 : Hello, James. J: Hello. No2 : My speciality is chocolate mouse – it’s sweet, dark, delicious and bubbly – just like me. J: Okay. And finally to Number 3. No3: Well, James, I’d make sure you ate plenty of spinach, ‘cause like Popeye, you’ll need all your strength to keep up with me! C: And your second question, James? J: That question for Number 2. No2: Well, I’d have to be a koala bear – my enormous brown eyes make me irresistible, and you’ll want to cuddle me all night. J: … and Number 3. No3: I don’t want to frighten you, but I have earned the reputation for being a bit of a man-eater. So I’d have to describe myself as a maneating tiger, because when I go after something, there is no escape. J: Number 1. No1: It would have to be a fox, ‘cos I’m sly, cunning and naturally foxy. So you’re going to have to chase me if you want to catch me. C: It’s time for your last question, Chuck. I hope it’s a good one. No3: Well, James, I wish that Numbers 1

and 2 would disappear, so that you and I could start our date right now. And Number 1, please. I had my palm read by a gypsy recently, and she told me that I would meet a talk, dark, handsome stranger before my next birthday. Guess what – it’s my birthday tomorrow. And finally to Number 2. James – I wish the screen between us was transparent – because if you could see me, you’d know that I was the only one for you.

Tapescript 9a C=Cilla C:

J=James

So what’s your first question, James ? J: They say that the way to a man’s heart is through his stomach, and I must say, I do like my food. If you were to cook me a meal, how would you impress me? … And that question goes to Number 1. No1 : Actually, I’m not a very good cook. But when you choose Number 1 tonight, the only tasty thing on your mind will be me. J: Number 2? No2 : Hello, James. J: Hello. No2 : My speciality is chocolate mouse – it’s sweet, dark, delicious and bubbly – just like me. J: Okay. And finally to Number 3. No3: Well, James, I’d make sure you ate plenty of spinach, ‘cause like Popeye, you’ll need all your strength to keep up with me! C: And your second question, James? J: I’ve got two pet frogs which my friends say are like me – a good set of legs, like a drink and come alive in the evening. Imagine you had a pet that reflected your personality, and what would it be?... That question for Number 2. 124

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No2:

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No3:

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Well, I’d have to be a koala bear – my enormous brown eyes make me irresistible, and you’ll want to cuddle me all night. … and Number 3. I don’t want to frighten you, but I have earned the reputation for being a bit of a man-eater. So I’d have to describe myself as a maneating tiger, because when I go after something, there is no escape. Number 1. It would have to be a fox, ‘cos I’m sly, cunning and naturally foxy. So you’re going to have to chase me if you want to catch me. It’s time for your last question, Chuck. I hope it’s a good one. I’m a very superstitious sort of person and I believe that wishes can come true. If one of your wishes were to come true, what would it be? And that goes to Number 3. Well, James, I wish that Numbers 1 and 2 would disappear, so that you and I could start our date right now. And Number 1, please. I had my palm read by a gypsy recently, and she told me that I would meet a talk, dark, handsome stranger before my next birthday. Guess what – it’s my birthday tomorrow. And finally to Number 2. James – I wish the screen between us was transparent – because if you could see me, you’d know that I was the only one for you.

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soon as she saw them. Everybody else does. I didn’t fancy James, and it was probably partly because of his eyebrows. He’s extremely proud of them, but I think they look like a couple of caterpillars. During the date, I talked about myself, my character, my personality, my job, because I really wanted Melanie to get to know me. Melanie is actually quite serious and rather difficult to get to know. She wasn’t very talkative and she didn’t tell me much about herself. But I think she liked all my jokes. During the date, James talked about himself non-stop, and it was quite clear that he wasn’t interested in getting to know me at all. He’s very talkative. In fact, I didn’t get a chance to say anything really. He laughed a lot at his own jokes too. At first, I thought he was really funny, but then I got a bit tired of his jokes and I wanted to talk about more serious things – you know, get to know him a bit better. Mel is a total flirt – she was all over me like a rash. I’m an affectionate sort of person, but there was no kissing on the date. It would have been like kissing my brother. I think Mel fancied me more than I fancied her – basically her body language gave it away. Although I think Mel is pretty, I think she should work out a bit more and maybe lose a few kilos.

I=Interviewer

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When the screen went back, I was expecting a tall, dark, handsome man. But what I saw was tall, dark and not very handsome. I think Mel loved my eyebrows. I think she fell in love with them as

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Mrs R.=Mrs Romsey

And first on the line we have Mrs Romsey, who lives in north-east London. Good morning Mrs Romsey. Good morning, yes, I’d like to ask for some advice about weddings. My daughter’s getting

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married later in the year and I’d like to know, should I make the guest list, the people to invite, or should my daughter? Well, usually the bride’s parents can choose the guests, because they pay for the wedding! Yes, but ought I to ask for suggestions? Yes, you should ask the bridegroom’s parents for suggestions. And is it all right if I give them a maximum number? Oh yes, yes, usually this depends on the size of the church or how much you want to spend on the reception, but you should invite members of your family and the bridegroom’s family in equal proportion. But what should I do about my daughter’s friends? Are they counted as family, or not? Um, you could ask your daughter and her boyfriend to give you a list of the friends they would like to invite. So then you have three groups of guests: your family, the other family and the couple’s friends. I see, thank you. One thing, can I decide how many friends they should invite? Oh, yes. If you’re paying. Thank you.

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Tapescript 13

Students in England talk about how they use their free time. I = Interviewer 1-3 = Students I 1

far to go into Bristol – get the bus, or you can walk if you wanted, and I mean with it being the second biggest city in England you’ve got every shop you can imagine. Well, recently spare time has become a little non-existent. But I do quite a lot of music. And socializing and I mean basically this year there’s a lot more work and a lot more organization to do so there isn’t very much during the school day. I mean there are quite often large gaps. The school day is structured so that there are large gaps between lessons sometimes but in practice you tend to have to work or do something else in that time. I’ve got a lot of work to do outside of actual classes, I’ve got a lot of homework to do. Then there are extra things like preparing essays for the Internet – our Internet website. I have to prepare an essay for geography and an essay for Spanish every now and again and also I’m, well I’m part of the catering committee so I have to do quite a bit of work for that – and various responsibilities within the house. Socially, going up to Clifton village, shopping, things like that. Every now and again a bit of sport if I’m lucky. But generally it’s a lot of work, and you’re just trying to get some free time to relax and unwind really, and get up and get yourself away from the pressures of everyday school life.

… in the coming week. And a few exhibitions that I’d like to highlight. The exhibition at the Cleveland Craft Centre shows the work of Philip Webb, an architect from 1831 to 1915. Whilst at the Kirk Leven Old Hall you can see the picture book exhibition until June the twenty-fourth. And in Hartlepool the Gray Art Gallery is showing two photographic exhibitions, the first on experimental photography, and the second called ‘Nicaraguan photographs’ by Bob Anderson.

If your lessons finish around lunch time or early afternoon, what do you do with the rest of the day? It depends, really. Now that we’re in our final year there’s always quite a lot of work to do but apart from that we’re right next to Clifton, which is like a village, so we can go in there, go to cafes, go to shops, and then it’s not 126

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It’s bonanza time at the Carnaby Raceway this weekend. Don’t miss the social highlight of the season, the ‘Meet the Riders’ disco dance at the Spa Royal Hall, Bridlington. Eight till one. Competitions, including Miss Wet T-shirt. Tickets two pounds, available at the door. Come and meet the country’s top road racers. Come to Auto sixty-six Club’s biggest ever motorcycle road race meeting. This Sunday at Carnaby Raceway, Bridlington. See the works Hondas of Australian Wayne Gardner, Roger Marshall and Joey Dunlop, battling with the factory Suzukis of Mick Grant and Rob McElney. Major national solo championship, plus the amazing sidecars. You’ve seen them on TV, now the superstars come to Carnaby Raceway, Bridlington. Sunday at twelve-thirty. News now of a fashion show which is taking place tonight at Winterton Rangers Football Club at eight o’clock. Admission is fifty pence and that includes refreshments. They’ve got a cake stall. They’ve got a raffle, and all the proceeds will be going to the Fire Service National Benevolent Fund. That is well-worth supporting. A fashion show at Winterton Rangers Football Club tonight. Eight o’clock. Admission 50p, including refreshments. And all proceeds are going to the er … Fire Service National Benevolent Fund.

SJ:

Tapescript 14 The City of York got a royal visit today when Prince Charles arrived to open the latest tourist attraction, a tenth century Viking village. Jorvik is a two and a half million pound reconstruction of a Viking settlement, which has taken more than two years to develop. Since its opening to the public a month ago, sixty thousand people have visited the site, and the organizers are extremely excited about the response. Tapescript 15 A = announcer SJ = Stewart Johnson A:

One of the most exciting events this summer is the Richmond Festival of Sport, taking place in Richmond be127

tween May 27th and June 4th. Here to tell us about it is Stewart Johnson. Well, this is an especially exciting time for us because of the large number of new events we’re offering this year. We’re in our ninth year now, and we’re on our way to becoming one of the largest events of our kind in the country. And probably the secret of our success is that we offer what is, really, a unique mixture of participation and spectator events, which means that everybody can take part in one way or another, either being active in the sport of their choice or cheering their favourite team. Now on the whole, the festival is intended for all ages, but Fun Sessions are special. Although anyone can take part, we’ve structured them so that they’re in fact aimed at children and intended for them to try out new skills and practise them – and at the same time have fun. Equipment is provided, and we have qualified instructors at hand at every session. So all you have to do is bring your kids along! Amongst the sports we are offering this year are golf, squash, karate, fencing, and, for the first time this year, tennis as well. I think most of us realize how important it is to start practising sports from a young age, so don’t miss this opportunity to get your child involved. This is a gift for life! From May 30th to June 2nd we will be holding a Watersports Activity Course at the Royal Canoe Club, and participants will have the chance to try various sports such as rowing, sailing and canoeing, and the event will end with a fun regatta to give young people the chance to put their newly learnt skills to the test. Children will be split into age groups for the activities and must be capable of swimming a hundred metres in light clothing. Unlike most events taking place this week, numbers on these

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courses have to be limited, because we need to make sure that we have enough boats and canoes and so on, and unfortunately we’ve got to insist that parents register their children at least a week before the event, erm, simply because this gives us time to organize the necessary equipment, and we’re asking for a registration fee of £5 to make sure that people turn up. Erm, another important part of the whole event is the competitions that we hold. These competitions will be going on throughout the week, and Sunday 4th June promises to be an especially exciting day with the final match in each sport taking place. Well, I said earlier that our activities are intended for all ages, and I’d like to end with a mention of the Fun Run, which signals the end of the festival, erm, and if you enjoy running but don’t enjoy competing, this is the event for you. People of all ages – families, children, senior citizens – everybody is invited to take part, and in fact our oldest participant up till now has been an 82-year-old woman – the oldest participant, in fact, in an amateur event in Britain. And if she comes back this year she will help us beat our own record – and hers – and become at 83 the oldest participant in an amateur event. Or maybe one of our listeners would like to try and beat that? We’ll be happy if you do!

NM TL

NM TL

NM TL

NM TL

NM Tapescript 16 NM Tony, your pub looks very old. When was it built? TL About 1320. It was originally built as a lodging house for the workers who built Salisbury Cathedral. NM As long ago as that? And what type of customers come here? TL Well, this is a city centre pub, and at lunchtime and in the early evening we get a lot of shopkeepers, businessmen and local workers who

TL

NM TL

128

come in for a pint of beer and a sandwich. Then in the evenings we have people calling in before they go out to eat, or to the cinema or theatre, and then, of course, we have our “regulars” – people who come in frequently for a drink and to meet their friends. I see. So you serve a wide range of people during the day. You are open all day, are you? Except for Sundays, yes. We have to obey the licensing laws, which means that we cannot open outside the hours of 11am and 11pm on weekdays and Saturdays. On Sundays we can open only from 12 noon to 3pm, and then from 7pm until 10.30pm. And what do most people drink? Beer. Most of our customers drink beer. But we also sell wines and spirits – gin, whisky, vodka, rum and so on. In fact, I have a very large selection of spirits. I’ve got 163 bottles, including 63 different makes of whisky. And do you have to drink if you come to a pub? Yes, we expect our customers to buy something, but not necessarily an alcoholic drink. You can have a soft drink, orange juice or Coca Cola, for example, and we also serve coffee. And you say that you also sell food? Yes. We do bar snacks, which are light meals that people can eat in the bar- sandwiches, pies, and that sort of thing. “The Haunch of Venison” is an interesting name. Why is your pub called that? In the last century the special dish of this pub was venison, which is deer meat. The pub took its name from a particular cut of meat, which is the side – or flank – of the animal. Do all pubs have similar origins? No. Some pubs used to attract particular professions – carpenters, for instance, so they were called names like “The Carpenters’ Arms”. Other

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pubs originate from the days when many people couldn’t read. Pubs were known by the picture on the sign which hung outside – “The Red Lion”, “The White Horse” and so on. NM And who owns the pubs? Are they privately owned? TL Not usually. Very few are in private hands. Most pubs, like this one, are owned by one or other of the large national breweries. They own the premises and supply the beer. NM I see. Well, enough talking. Perhaps it’s time for me to try one of your excellent beers!

alcohol. You must be 18 before you can legally buy or drink alcohol in a pub. Tapescript 18 See The Old Gumbie cat in Unit IV 11.1 and Answer Key. Tapescript 19 Number 1 At Penta we try harder to make buying a used car easier and better for you. Like the Penta five hundred pound choice. We’ll give you a five hundred pound discount off the car you’re buying, or five hundred pounds in addition to your part-exchange price, or a five hundred pound cheque when you take delivery. It’s your choice, and remember, all Penta’s used cars are covered by our unique Penta promise, and the chance to exchange within seven days. ‘You’ll do a great deal better at Penta.’

Tapescript 17 British beer can be confusing to visitors. Many foreigners who are new to pubs ask for “a beer, please” – but this alone is not enough. In Britain you must specify the quantity you want – a pint or half a pint – and the type. There are three types of beer in Britain. Bitter is the most popular beer; it is a medium brown beer, and is not very alcoholic, at about 4% alcohol by volume. Lager is a lightcoloured beer, similar to beers popular in the rest of Europe. Stout is a very dark, almost black beer; the Irish stout called Guinness is the most famous brand. Most bitter drinkers prefer “real ale” these days. Real ale is bitter brewed in the traditional way and then stored in barrels. The barman “draws” the beer from the barrel using a hand pump. Other beers called keg beers are stored in pressurized barrels, and the barman or barmaid needs only to turn a small tap on the bar for the beer to pour into the glass. Ordering in a pub can also confuse visitors, as there is no waiter or waitress service. You must order your drink from the bar, and pay for it at the same time. Laws on drinking in Britain are very strict. If you want to sell alcohol you have to have a licence, and as Tony said in the interview a pub may only open at certain times of the day. No children under 14 years of age may go into a pub (although many pubs have a children’s room away from the bar). Fourteen-year-olds may go into a pub but may not buy or drink

Number 2 Charles Church, builders of quality houses, invites you to the cheese and wine opening of their third show house, The Frencham, at Mill Grange, Calcott, from six till eight p.m. Friday the fifteenth of June, and nine till five on Saturday the sixteenth. Come along and join us for cheese and wine. View this attractive three-bedroomed linked detached house and see the other two furnished luxury show houses. Decide which is the best Charles Church home for you at Mill Grange, just off Mill Lane on the A4 opposite the Calcott Golf Club. Charles Church, quality homes of character. Number 3 ‘Telecom … Telecom … Telecom … Telecommunicating …’ Get down to the British Telecom ‘phone shop in Friar Street, Reading where you’ll find a great choice of in-phones, including ‘Slimtel’, the one-piece in-phone with press button dialing, last number recall and a style you’ll like for just twenty-nine ninety-five. See ‘Slimtel’ at the British Telecom ‘phone shop. Now open at Friar 129

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Tapescript 22

Street, Reading, nine to five weekdays, and Saturdays nine thirty till four. ‘Telecom …’

Electrolux! Has the world’s first computerized sewing machine that even writes! Call 44624888. Electrolux! It is the best to buy. Let’s not talk, instead I’ll show you why. But how, how can I make this clear With you in there and me out here?

Number 4 Brown Chesterfield suite, sixty pounds. Dragon 3Z computer, a hundred and thirty pounds. McClaron Europa pram buggy, sixtyfive pounds. Boosey and Hawkes clarinet, a hundred pounds. Pianola circa nineteen hundred, a hundred and fifty pounds. Looking for a bargain? You’re sure to find it in Finder, your weekly magazine packed with homes, jobs, motors and hundreds of bargains. And remember your private ads for items under a hundred pounds we’ll advertise free. Finder every Friday, just twenty pence. ‘Find it fast in Finder’

Tapescript 23 How to shop Shopping is simple: 1 Write the catalogue number and the quantity of the goods you require on a selection form. 2 Take the form to a service point. 3 Whilst you are paying, your goods will be brought to the collection counter ready for you to collect. Some of our larger items can also be ordered by telephone and delivered to your door.

Number 5 Alitalia is Italy. With three daily flights to Milan, twice daily to Rome. Throughout the week to Venice, Pisa, Turin or Bologna. All from Heathrow, all at convenient times. With superbly designed comfortable seats, a choice of great Italian wines with meals, and our inflight duty-free boutique carrying exclusive top-class Italian merchandise, making Eurobusiness Alitalia the executive’s choice. Alitalia, elegante, Alitalia.

Tapescript 24

… it is the best to buy. Let’s not talk, instead I’ll show you why. But how, how can I make this clear With you in there and me out here? I’m gonna knock on your door, Ring on your bell, Tap on your window too. Come on and open your door so I can show you more, I’m gonna knock and ring and tap until you do.

How to Order You can order any of the items covered by Free Home Delivery at the Customer Services area in our stores, or you can order by telephoning the ARGOS DIRECT FREE LINKLINE anytime between 8.00am and 10pm, 7 days a week giving your order and credit card details. Once you place an order, we will contact you to arrange delivery. Delivery will normally be within 14 days, unless otherwise indicated in the item description or at the time of ordering. To ensure delivery before Christmas, please place your order before 17th December (3 day service) or 7th December (14 day service).

Tapescript 21

Tapescript 25

I’m gonna vacuum your floor, Polish your hall, shampoo your carpet too. I’m gonna show you how to get a unit now and you will say you want to have one for you.

Welcome to your guide to great value If you change your mind and decide that a product you have bought does not meet your exact requirements, we offer you the

Tapescript 20

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out the ‘fry-up’ and just have the cereal, tea and toast. The rest have even less. What the vast majority of British people have in the mornings is therefore much closer to what they call a ‘continental’ breakfast than it is to a ‘British’ one. ‘Elevenses’ is, conventionally, a cup of tea or coffee and some biscuits at around eleven o’clock. In fact, people drink tea or coffee whenever they feel like it. This is usually quite often. Lunch is typically at one o’clock (any shops which close for lunch close from one to two). But it is often a bit earlier for schoolchildren and those who start work at eight o’clock. For the urban working class (and a wider section of the population in Scotland and Ireland) tea is the evening meal, eaten as soon as people get home from work (at around six o’clock). For other classes, it means a cup of tea and a snack at around four o’clock. ‘Supper’ is another word for the evening meal among those people who do not call it ‘tea’. ‘Dinner’ is also commonly used for the evening meal. It suggests something rather grander and eaten comparatively late (at around eight o’clock). It is associated with relative formality (many people talk about ‘Christmas dinner’, even if they have it in the middle of the day). It is also sometimes used to refer to the midday meal in schools.

opportunity of returning it within 16 days of purchase, for a full refund or exchange. We simply ask that it is returned in its original and unspoilt condition, with its original wrapping and your receipt. Please note this promise does not apply to earrings for pierced ears, food products, camcorders, prerecorded music or videos, computer software, fresh flowers and Christmas decorations. This guarantee does not affect your statutory rights. Tapescript 26 Summer at Past Times! There’s nothing quite like sitting in the garden, dreaming of an Edwardian summer with croquet and tea on the lawn. So we’ve made sure our Summer Past Times catalogue is full of unusual gifts, ornaments, furniture and accessories for you and your family to enjoy outdoors. You’ll find our charming Alice in Wonderland figures, modeled on the famous 1865 illustrations by Sir John Tenniel. Our exclusive canopied hardwood garden chair is covered in a fabric recalling William Morris’s Willow design. And there are lots more treats for you and your garden throughout the rest of our new catalogue. As you know, our items are generally authentic replicas or, based on period designs – most are exclusive to Past Times. We deliver to your door in 7 days or less, and everything you buy is guaranteed without question. We hope you find lots in our Summer catalogue to help you make the most of your summertime in the garden.

Tapescript 28

Tapescript 27

What people drink. As well as large amounts of hot drinks such as tea, coffee and cocoa, British people – especially children – drink squash (a sweetened fruit concentrate that has to be diluted with water) and brand-name ‘soft’ (nonalcoholic) drinks. They also expect to be able to drink water straight from the tap. Before the 1960s, wine was drunk only by the higher social classes and was associated in most people’s minds with expensive restaurants. Since that time, it has increased enormously in popularity.

When people eat what: meals. Generalizations are dangerous. Below is described what everybody knows about – but this is not necessarily what everybody does! Breakfast is usually a packeted ‘cereal’ (e.g. cornflakes) and/or toast and marmalade. It isn’t usually a ‘traditional’ British breakfast which is a large ‘fry-up’ preceded by cereal with milk and followed by toast, butter and marmalade, all washed down with lots of tea. In fact, only about 10% of the people have cut 131

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Beer is still the most popular alcoholic drink. The most popular pub beer is ‘bitter’, which is draught (i.e. from the barrel), has no gas in it and is conventionally, drunk at room temperature. A sweeter, darker version of bitter is ‘mild’. These beers have a comparatively low alcoholic content. This is one reason why people are able to drink so much of them! In most pubs, several kinds of bottled beer, usually known as ‘ales’, are also available. Beer which has gas in it and is closer to continental varieties is known as ‘lager’. During the 1980s strong lager became popular among some young people. Because these people were used to drinking weaker traditional beer, they sometimes drank too much of it and became aggressive and even violent. They therefore became known as ‘lager louts’. In some pubs, cider is available on draught, and in some parts of Britain, most typically in the English west country, it is this, and not beer, which is the most common pub drink. Shandy is half beer and half fizzy lemonade. It has the reputation of being very good for quenching the thirst.

Steak and Kidney Pudding Cut the beef and kidney into cubes, toss in seasoned flour. Line a pudding basin with three quarters of the pastry and fill the basin with alternate layers of beef, kidney and onions; sprinkle each layer with parsley and a little salt and pepper. Add sufficient stock to just cover the meat, cover with the pastry lid and pudding cloth. Steam for 4 hours. Bread and Butter Pudding Heat the milk with the lemon rind and leave to infuse for 10 minutes. Beat the eggs with the sugar and brandy; pour over the strained milk and mix well. Butter the bread, remove crusts and cut into triangles. Place half the mixed currants, sultanas and peel in the base of a greased pie dish. Arrange half the bread on top and sprinkle with the remaining fruit. Strain half the custard over the bread and leave to soak for 5 minutes. Place the remaining bread on top and strain over the rest of the custard. Dust with grated nutmeg or cinnamon and bake in a roasting tin with hot water for 45 minutes. Serve with cream.

Tapescript 29 Irish Stew Cut the meat up into fairly small pieces, removing the fat. Slice the onions. Peel the potatoes and cut them into thick slices. Put the meat and vegetables into a saucepan in layers, finishing with a layer of potatoes. Season with salt and pepper. Add water. Bring to the boil, then cover and simmer gently for about two hours. To serve, pile the meat and onions in the center of the dish, with the potatoes round the edge, and pour the sauce over the meat. Sprinkle the parsley over the potatoes. Shepherd’s Pie Heat the oil and fry the onion and meat until brown. If using leftover beef do not fry this. Stir in the flour and stock. Add the parsley, marjoram and salt and pepper to taste. Blend in the left-over beef. Put this mixture in an ovenproof dish and pipe the mashed potato over the top. Bake in the oven for about 45 minutes or until the top is golden brown.

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ANSWER KEY UNIT I. HOUSING 1 1 195,000 2 1f

2e

2

3a

50,000, 66%

4d

5b

3

£62,000

4 72%

5 7%

6c

3.2 Estate agents’ language: The descriptions might mean:

6

ƒ

There is no bathroom in this house;

ƒ

The decoration is very strange indeed;

ƒ

This cottage is extremely old and probably falling down.

a The Herald Scotland’s Homes. October 23, 2002 b Daphne Du Maurier. Rebecca c Elizabeth Bowen. The Demon Lover d Pamela L. Travers. Mary Poppins

8

A 1

three rooms/two bedrooms

2

north of the station

3

10 minutes on foot/a ten-minute walk

4

unfurnished

5

£550 a/per month

6

April 1st

7

(at least) one year

8

on the ground floor

9

near a playground

10 near a school (9 and 10 in any order)

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UNIT II. EMPLOYMENT 1.1

1 27.1 million 2 11.3% 3 £4,524 4 43% 5 43.5 hours 6 29.8 hours 7 1935 8 1990 9 1983

5.1

a b

5.2

people who are looking for a job department of employment

Personal confidence, the ability to present yourself to others, and a knowledge of the local

job market, persuading an employer that you’ve got the skills and knowledge needed for the job, being positive about yourself 7.1

A

Group A a

Jean Attree leaves school, works in office, does A-level course, completes course at North London Polytechnic, becomes self-employed photographer.

b

Her friends encouraged her, saying that her photographs were good. Her local Jobcentre put her in touch with the enterprise team. South Thames TEC gave her an allowance of £40 per week to help her get started. Other photographers let her assist them so that she could learn.

c

Advantages: offered challenge and variety. Disadvantages: no paid holidays or sick leave.

d

Has learnt: to run a business. to deal with customers. to work with other photographers. Hopes to do: get commissions for magazines. photograph record covers. build up business. 134

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Group B 1d

2b

8.2

3d

2 position

6 a locker

3 costly/expensive

7 accountants

4 check in

8 at/from home

5 work station

9 computer

A 7,000

ƒ

That good looking people were paid around 15% more and had better chances of promotion

ƒ

Yes

aF

A bF

10.3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

cT

V position warts kind witty pretty outings sweets cross castor oil Love barley water dominate spectacles toads pepper 1 PERSONAL DETAILS

4 INTERESTS 12

6d

ƒ

10.2

11

5c

A

1 office

9.2

4c

2 EDUCATION

5 ADDITIONAL SKILLS

3 PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE

6 REFERENCES

1 apply 2 advertise 3 employed 4 welcome 135

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5 notice 6 watches 7 involved 8 enjoy 9 discuss 10 contact UNIT III. FAMILY LIFE 1 1 1.8 7 27

8 25%

2 1d 3.2

2 87%

2c

3 72 years 9 two-thirds

3e

4a

5f

4 25% 10 27%

5 51% 11 14%

6 10% 12 2

6b

a mainly the wives b George and Agnes c on a beach in Thailand d after 60 years of marriage

3.3 1a Agnes: marriage is for life, the important thing is to sort out your problems and differences by talking things through, you mustn’t give up too easily Claire: marriage is different to living together, it feels better. b Agnes: they saw each other twice a week for nine months before they got engaged, they did not hold hands or have any physical contact except possibly the occasional quick kiss on the cheek. Claire: lived with Peter for a while before they decided to get married, after a four year courtship and a round the world trip. 2 a Agnes b Claire c Agnes 4.3 1C 6.1 1

2D

3A

4B

Professor Martin Whyte led the research team 136

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2

It proves that couples who married in the old-fashioned way – without much premarital physical contact – were just as happy as modern couples.

3 It is very important – it is ‘what really counts’, ‘the couple who felt romance had more chance of making a successful marriage’. 4 English women prefer romance. 7.2

A

Here are the three questions James asked the three contestants. 1

They say that the way to a man’s heart is through his stomach, and I must say, I do like my food. If you were to cook me a meal, how would you impress me?

2

I’ve got two pet frogs which my friends say are like me – a good set of legs, like a drink and come alive in the evening. Imagine you had a pet that reflected your personality, what would it be?

3

I’m a very superstitious sort of person and I believe that wishes can come true. If one of your wishes were to come true, what would it be?

7.3

A a Yes b No

8.1

A 1 No 2 Yes 3 No 4 No 5 Yes 6 Yes

10.1

V

Ten questions Kilroy asked on the show: 1

What happened?

2

What did the boy object to?

3

Did you put David before Chris?

4

How do you feel, Chris? 137

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5

Why do you miss your Mum?

6

What’s the problem with Mum?

7

What’s disrespectful?

8

What did you say to your Mum?

9

You’ve been married forty years?

10 Did you see them holding hands? UNIT IV. BEING YOUNG TODAY. LEISURE ACTIVITY OPTIONS IN BRITAIN 1.1 1

Four fifths

2

70%

3

five

4

nine

5

Three quarters

6

99%

7

a quarter

8

£1,000 £5

9

Two

10 six

three quarters

89%

half

three hours

2.1 Activity

% of people % of 16- to 24-year-olds+or-?

Watching TV

96

97

Reading books

60

55

Listening to CDs/tapes/records

58

81

Watching videos programmes) Cooking

47

50

37

38

Visiting a pub in the evening

36

59

Gardening

42

12

(recorded

5.1 Literary quiz 1

a Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen. 138

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b A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens. c The Young Visiters (sic) by Daisy Ashford. 2

a Sherlock Holmes. b Mr Wardle and his family (in The Pickwick papers). c Mr Rochester (in Jane Eyre).

3

a a dog (in Peter Pan) b a tiger (in The Jungle Book). c a cat (in Old Possum’s Book of Practical Cats).

4

a P.G. Wodehouse. b Graham Greene. c Christopher Marlowe.

5

a Oliver Twist. b The Old Curiosity Shop. c Barnaby Rudge (Grip was his raven).

5.2 1

a Harry Potter

2

d The English Patient

3

b Death on the Nile

4

c Christmas Carol

5

e Mary Poppins

8 a2 9

A b 1,2,3

c 1,3

d3

e3

f1

g2

h2

i3

j3

A

The extracts concern the following places/activities: exhibition, dance, motorbike race, fashion show 9.1 Locations: 1 London 2 Bewdley (but train travels 12 ½ miles therefore not limited to Bewdley) 3 York 4 Windsor 139

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5 Edenbridge 6 Not stated in the ad. But students may know that the British museum is in London 9.2

A

Advertisement 3 10

A

1c

2c

11.2

3a

4b

5b

6c

7b

A

a a lodging house b a regular c spirits d soft drinks e bar snacks 11.3

A

a Stout b No – there are no waiting staff in a pub c Nothing – 12-year-olds not allowed in 12.1

A

Instead of the last two lines in the book ‘So for Old Gumbie Cats let us now give

three cheers – On whom well-ordered households depend, it appears’ you can hear chorus singing ‘For she’s a Jolly Good Fellow ... Thank you, my dears!’ UNIT V. SHOPPING 1 1 nine eight 5 very late

2 all day 6 Sundays

half-past five Christmas

3 midday

4 twentieth century

7 the pound sterling

9 coin banknotes 3.1 Profile 1 c Profile 2 b Profile 3 a

140

8 a ‘quid’

six 100

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5 1h

2a

3c

4g

5d

6e

7b

8f

7.1 A The advertisements are for the following: 1

used cars (Penta)

2

houses (Charles Church Homes)

3

telephones (British Telecom)

4

a classified advertisements magazine (Finder)

5

Alitalia airlines

7.2 A Advertisement 1 a ‘At Penta we try harder to make buying a used car easier and better for you.’ b every day Advertisement 2 a on Friday evening and Saturday all day. b False Advertisement 3 a £29.95 b Mondays to Fridays 9 to 5 Saturdays 9.30 to 4 Advertisement 4 a once a week b False Advertisement 5 a Pisa Milan Venice Rome Turin Bologna b 3 per day 8.3 A The advertisement is for Electrolux – sewing machines, vacuum cleaners, floor polishers, etc. 9.1 A 1b

2a

3c

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9.3 A a we offer you the opportunity of returning it within 16 days of purchase, for a full refund or exchange. b it is returned in its original or unspoilt condition c this promise does not apply to earrings for pierced ears, food products, camcorders, prerecorded music or videos, computer software, fresh flowers and Christmas decorations. d does not affect your statutory rights. 10.1 ALICE IN WONDERLAND, EXLUSIVE GARDEN are mentioned 10.2

A

ALICE FIGURES Ornaments for the garden or house, our 3 exclusive figures are modeled on the illustrations by Sir John Tenniel for Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, first published in 1865. Lewis Carroll (Charles Dodgson) originally told the story of the little girl’s magical adventures to the real-life Alice Liddell during boat trips on the river near Oxford. Frost-resistant polyresin suitable for indoor or outside use.

11.1 V 1T

2F

3F

4F

5T

12.1 1g

2i

3d

4j

5b

6e

7f

8h

9c

10 a

UNIT VI. FOOD AND DRINK 1 1b 2

2 a, d

3c

4 j, i

5f

6g

7 h, e

a True. Nomura Bank owns 3, 998 British pubs (March 1998 figure) b

False. Supermarkets have more than doubled their share of food sales in the past ten years.

c False. £1.26 billion is spent on hamburgers, but this is less than half of what is spent on medicines. d True e True 142

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f True g True. The company is ‘Iceland’. h True i False. The true figure is less than once a month. 4 1a

2c

3e

4 d 5 g 6 a 7 d 8 e 9 b 10 d 11a 12f 13c 14e

6.1 starters: bacon, lettuce and tomato

mussels in wine

garlic king prawns

char-grilled vegetables main courses: Irish stew

chicken, leek and bacon

desserts: fresh fruit salad

chocolate cake

beef and stout pie

ground coffee

fish and chips

cakes and scones

6.3 1 shepherd’s pie lade

7 scones

pudding 9

A

12.1

2 haggis 3 fish and chips 8 porridge

4 smoked salmon

9 bangers (or sausages) and mash

11 kippers 12 Cornish pasties

5 sandwiches

6 marma-

10 roast beef and Yorkshire

13 bacon and eggs 14 rice pudding

Menu 1 is British, Menu 2 is Continental 1 Spicy sausage patties with potato wedges cheesy treats chicken chow mein 2 Less than 30 minutes

12.2

Recipe Patties

Split open the sausages into a bowl. Add the cranberry jelly. Chop up the onions quite finely and add to the mixture. Mix well. Scoop some out (tbl spn) and roll it in your hands (put flour on hands) til you get firm little patties. Repeat with the rest of the mixture. Dust them with flour. Heat pan on a low-to-medium heat and add a table spoon of sunflower oil. Wedges Take the potatoes and slice them into wedges length-ways. Take the cayan pepper, cumin, salt and a little oil and combine in a bowl with a brush and brush the mixture over the potatoes lightly. Fry on a char-grill pan (for 5-8 minutes turning regularly). Add thyme to the pan. 143

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Sauce To a hot saucepan add the ketchup, honey, soy sauce, vinegar and mustard. Roll the orange on the worktop pressing firmly to release the juice. Cut it in half and squeeze the juice into the pan. Stir and allow to reduce. 13 Summer pudding 1 Prepare (clean/wash) the fruit. 2 Stew till soft with the water and the sugar. 3 Cut the bread into slices slightly more than 1 cm thick. 4 Line the basin with bread slices. 5 Pour in the hot fruit. 6 Cover the top with slices of bread. 7 Stand the basin in a cool place. Put a small plate on top with a heavy weight on it. 8 Leave until the next day. 9 Turn out carefully. 10 Serve with cream or custard (a sweet sauce made from milk, eggs and sugar) UNIT VII. 1

e

10

b

19

b

28

b

2

c

11

a

20

c

29

a

3

a

12

b

21

a

30

a

4

f

13

b

22

d

31

b

5

d

14

a

23

d

32

c

6

b

15

c

24

c

33

a

7

a

16

d

25

a

34

c

8

c

17

c

26

c

35

a

9

b

18

a

27

d

36

c

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

McLean Alan. Profile UK. Heinemann. 1991. McDowall D. Britain in close up. Longmann. 1999. O’Driscoll J. Britain. Oxford University Press. 1996. Sampson A. The essential anatomy of Britain. Oxford University Press.1992. Sheerin S. Seath J. Spotlight on Britain. Oxford University Press. 1995. Нестерова Н.М. Страноведение. Англия. Феникс. 2001. Hunt Martin. Ideas and issues. Advanced. Titul Publishers. 2000. Paxman Jeremy. The English. Chancerell International. 2000. Bryson Bill. Notes from a small island. Javelin Books. 1999. Wilson Ken. Ideas and issues. Upper-Intermediate. Titul. 2000. Collie Joanne, Martin Alex. What it’s like? Life and culture in Britain today. Cambridge University Press. 2001. Acklam Richard. First Certificate Gold. Coursebook. Longman. 1996. Paran Amos. First Certificate Gold. Practice Exams. Longman. 1996. Васильев О.С. Писатели об Англии. Л.: Лениздат, 1984. British newspapers: The Times, The Guardian, The Independent, The Daily Telegraph, The Sun. Журнал «Англия» № 35, 68, 85, 86, 125, 126. Woman’s weekly. 1999, 2000, 2003. Aspinal Tricia. Test your listening. Penguin English Guide. 2002. Callill Carmen, Toibin Colm. The 200 best novels in English since 1950. Picador. 2000. Hallawell Francis. Introducing Great Britain. Longman. 2000. Dunn Viviane, Gruber Diann. Listening Intermediate Oxford Supplementary Skills. 2001.

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Учебное издание Ольга Соломоновна Дворжец

LIFESTYLE IN BRITAIN Учебное пособие

Технический редактор Н.В. Москвичёва Редактор Л.Ф. Платоненко Подписано в печать 17.05.04. Формат бумаги 60х84 1/8. Печ. л. 18,25. Уч.-изд. л. 10,2. Тираж 150 экз. Заказ 273. Издательско-полиграфический отдел ОмГУ 644077, г. Омск-77, пр. Мира, 55а, госуниверситет 146