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"Volume 2 of the candid, no-holds-barred account by foremost American anarchist Goldman continues with the fascinat
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Speaker of the House, senator, secretary of state, five-time presidential candidate, and idol to the young Abraham Linco
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Table of contents :
XIV. The Compromise of 1833
XV. The Removal of the Deposits . 23
XVI. French Difficulties. — Indians. — Patronage
XVII. Slavery 69
XVIII. The Exit of President Jackson . . 95
XIX. The Crisis of 1837 113
XX. Clay and Van Buren . 128
XXI. Slavery again .... 152
XXII. The Election of 1840 . 171
XXIII. Clay and Tyler .... 198
xxiv: The Election of 1844 . 228
XXV. 1844-1849 268
XXVI. The Compromise of 1850 . 315
XXVII. The End 373
30-232 ELM BTPEET
amertcan ^tate^men EDITED BY
m TWO VOLUMES VOL.
^IFtlrt^^^ ^^^p^^^^fe ^
BOSTON AND NEAV YORK
HOUGHTOX MIFFLIN COMPANY
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All rights reserved.
CONTENTS OF VOL.
XIV. The Compromise of 1833 XV. The Removal of the Deposits XVI. French Difficulties. Indians. ronage XVII. Slavery
XVIII. The Exit of President Jackson
XIX. The Crisis of 1837 XX. Clay and Van Buren XXI. Slavery again XXII. The Election of 1840 XXIII. Clay and Tyler xxiv: The Election of 1844
XXVI. The Compromise XXVII. The End
268 of 1850
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THE COMPROMISE OF
Tece election of 1832 seemed to bury HenryClay in defeat. But it was followed by events which made him again one of the most conspicuous actors on the public stage. The tariff act of 1828 had greatly intensified the dissatisfaction
with the protective system long existing in the
They complained that they had burdens of that system without en-
planting states. to bear all the
any of its benefits that the things they buy had become dearer, while the things they produced and exported found a less profitable market, and that therefore ruin stared them in the face. This was in a great measure true. They further argued that, in a federative republic which cannot rest upon force alone, the concerns and wishes of any portion of the confederacy, even if joj^ing
that part be only a minority, should be carefully
that laws calculated seriously to affect
the material interests of any part of the country
should be agreed upon in a spirit of mutual accom1
and that the majority should not
upon the execution
of measures injurious to the
it had the power to do so. Such reasoning would have commended itself at least to the candid and respectful consideration of fair-minded men, had it aimed only at constitutional means for its enforcement. But when it was accompanied with threats of the nullification of laws, and the eventual secession of states from the Union, it assumed the character of aggressive
minority simply because
hostility to the Republic.
The excitement on account
of the tariff of 1828
was kept under a certain restraint so long as it was expected that Jackson, although at first favoring protection, would, as a Southern man, be mindful of Southern
abandoned the doctrine advanced in his Coleman letter, and recommended a revision of the tariff to the end of reducing the revenue and of giving up high protective duties as a system. But he signed the tariff act of 1832, which kept the protective system virtually intact. The agitation in the South then received a new impulse, and in South Carolina the nuUifiers, for in his messages gradually
possession of the state
government. Calhoun, anticipating the acquiescence of Jackson in the continuance of the protective system,
had elaborately formulated the doctrine cation in an "Address to the People Carolina," published in the
of nullifiof South
THE COMPROMISE OF
embodied the well known propositions that the is a mere compact between sovereign that the general government is the mere states agent of the same sovereign states that whenever any one of the parties to the compact any state considers any law made by the general government to be unconstitutional, it may " nullify " that law, that is, declare and treat it as void and of no force. This, as Calhoun affirmed, was not inimical to the Union, but rather calculated to promote a good understanding among the states composing it for, if that right of nullification were recognized, the majority would be more apt to listen to reason, and nullification would really be equivalent only to a suspension of the offensive law in the nullifying state or states, until the mistake committed by the majority should be rectified. If that mistake be not rectified, then the aggrieved state or states should have the constitutional right to secede from the Union. This doctrine, which in our days would scarcely find a serious advocate in the country, was then argued with a great display of political metaphysics, and sincerely believed in by a very large number of people in South Carolina and other Southern States. In August, 1832, Calhoun put Constitution ;
forth another manifesto, developing his constitutional theory to the highest degree of perfection
ever attained, and urging an immediate issue on
account of the oppressive
which the South was then suffering.
was convened governor to meet on October 22, for tlie purpose of calling a convention " to consider the by
legislature of Soutli Carolina
the usurjDations of the
The convention met on and adopted without deJav an "'^^^^^-2^ dinanee^' declaring that the tariff act of 1828, and general government."
th1e"^memrments thereto passed in 1832, were null a,yi. prebends secession movement, ii., opposed to tariff compromise, 5, 11 355
advocates force biU, 17
removal of deposits, 36, 42 on appointing and removing power, 61, 62 on four years term law, 08 on
Tyler, John, Jr., ii., 213. Tyler, Lyon G., ii., 238.
Ulljianx, Daniel, ii., 385, 395, 406. Upshur, Abel P., Secretary of State, ii., 237, 238 on protecting Texas, ;
recognition of Texas, 91 candidate for presidency, 96, 97 against expunging resolution, 101, 104 on specie circular, 125 opposes Van Buren's policy, 137 opposes subtreasury bill, 141 debate with Calhoun, 145 aspiring to presidency, Secretary of 173, 174, 179, 186 State, 190 ; reform circular, 196, remains in Cabinet, 213, 200, 208 215, 216, 217 opposed to annexation of Texas, resigns, 236 at Whig convention, 248-250, 278 defeated in convention, 305 supports Taylor reluctantly, 309, 329 7th of March speech, 339-342 on Seward, Secretary of State, 345, 346, 349 354 compromise speeches, 376 compromise speeches, 386 Huelsemann letter, 391, 393, 396 aspirant to the nomination, 398-400 defeated, 402 compared to Clay, 408. Weed, Thurlow, i.,343, 355; ii., 176, ;
John, ii., 311. Martin, Senator from i., 229-30 on Clay, 233, Secretary of State, 329 279, 293 nominated as Minister to England, 365 attacked by Clay, 366-7 re-
jected, 367 ; nominated for vicepresident, 379 ; apostrophized by Clay, ii., 37, 38 nominated for presidency, 95 elected, 97 character, 123-130 calls an extra session, 130 first message, 132-134, 171 renominated, 182, 184 ; declines annexing Texas, 235 imder;
standing with Claj', 243 letter on Texas, 246, 247 defeated in con:
vention, 250, 251 nominated at Utica and Buffalo, 310, 311 ; oppo;
sition to, 312, 314.
Verplanck, Gulian bill,
Veto, Madison's, of internal improvement bill, i., 138 Monroe's, of toU-gate bill, 206 Jackson's, of U. S. bank biU, 374-5 Tyler's, of U. S. bank bill., ii., 205 second veto, 209 Clay of two tariff biUs, 225, 226 on veto power, i., 377 ii., 187, 221, ;
3., ii., 311.
unfortunate beginning of, 85 Russian media86 events of, 98 tion, 99 further events of, 105, 106 end and consequences of, 116, ff Watkins, Capt. Henry, Clay's stepemigrates to Kenfather, i., 4 tucky, 9. for,
Webb, James Watson,
Webster, Daniel, opposing the tariff, opposing the bank charter, i., 130 on tariff 133 on Greek cause, 209 on " American sysof 1824, 218 tem," 220, 247, 256, 263 on ClayRandolph duel, 274 calls for Clay as a leader, 347-8 ; on U. S. Bank, ;
177, 178, 180, 192, 193, 197, 263, 293. of, i., 119. 124. 316, ff ; character of, 318-20 ii., 44, 95 in presidential campaign of 1836, 97, 119, 137, 172, 178. 184, 186, 188, 203, 216, 217, 219, 266, 271, 287, 288, 294 disagreements on slavery, 300" conscience," 309, 301, 304. 306 333, 395-399, 402, 404, 405. White, Hugh L., on four years term law, ii., 68; candidate for presi-
Wellmgton, Duke of, i., 108, Whigs, origin of party, i., ;
91, 271. of 1812, causes of, i., 68, ff deinsufficient preparation clared, 84 J.,
against expunging reso-
Whitman, Dr. Marcus,
Whitney, Asa, ii., 279. Wilmot, David, moves proviso,
Wilson, Henry, ii., 305. Wirt, William, Attorney General, i., 258 nominated by Anti-Masons, ;
Wise, Henry A.,
ii., 177, 180, 186, 199, 200, 201, 209, 214, 217. Secretary of the Treasury, i., 347, 352 ii., 43.
Worthington, Thomas, on internal improvements, i., 46. Wright, Silas, ii., 42 on four years ;
nomination for vice-presidency, 251;
X. T. Z. correspondence,
Wythe, George, takes Clay as amanuensis, i., 6 career and character, 7. ;
Tancbt, W. L.,
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