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Learning How to Learn Using Multimedia
 9789811617836, 9789811617843

Table of contents :
Acknowledgements
Introduction
Contents
E-Learning Artifacts and Their Impingement on the Learning Management System
1 Introduction
2 Literature Study
3 Artifacts of E-learning
3.1 Perception of Learning
3.2 Learners Characteristics
3.3 Synchronous and Asynchronous Learning
3.4 Problem-Based Learning
3.5 Communication
3.6 Cognitive Load
3.7 Accessibility and Interaction
3.8 Usability and Resource Availability in e-Learning
3.9 Outcome Analysis and Progress Report
4 Conclusion
References
Examining the Factors That Affect Online Learning Engagement: A Micro-qualitative Approach
1 Introduction
2 Theoretical Background
3 The Research Questions Posed
3.1 The Details of the Research Method
3.2 Data Collection
3.3 Measures and Variables
4 Data Analysis
4.1 Feedback from the Learners
5 Discussion and Conclusion
References
Covid-19: A Revolution in the Field of Education in India
1 Introduction
1.1 Positive Impacts
1.2 Negative Impacts
2 E-Learning Platforms Used During Covid-19
2.1 G Suite
2.2 Gmail
2.3 Google Duo
2.4 Google Meet
2.5 Google Calendar
2.6 Data Storage and Sharing Apps
3 E-Learning Platforms Used During Covid-19
3.1 Zoom
3.2 YouTube Channels
3.3 Evernote
3.4 Kahoot
3.5 Ted
3.6 Seesaw
4 Various Government and Private Schemes Run At the National and International Level to Promote Online Education
4.1 Shagun Online Junction
4.2 Swayam
4.3 Virtual Labs
5 Case Study
5.1 Student’s Feedback on Online Education During Covid-19
5.2 Student’s Feedback for Various Modes of Online Education
5.3 Student’s Feedback on Expenses for Online Education
6 Conclusions
References
An Assessment of Popular Virtual Platforms for Online Education in COVID-19 Pandemic in India: A Study
1 Introduction
1.1 Covid-19 Pandemic
1.2 Digital Literacy
1.3 Trends of Digital Education in India
2 Technical Aspects of Online Education in COVID-19 Pandemics (Trends and Feasibility)
2.1 Critical Reviews on Technological Aspects of Available Popular Platforms for Online Education
3 SDG-4, Economy and Online Education in COVID-19
4 Conclusion
References
Digital Pedagogy for English Teaching–learning at the Crossroads of Crisis in India and Digital Humanities as the Way Forward
1 Introduction
2 Method
3 Results
4 Discussion
4.1 Scope of Multimedia Usage in Teaching
4.2 Digital Humanities as the Way Forward
5 Conclusion
References
Corpus Analysis for Literary Studies: Application and Relevance
1 Corpus Linguistics and Literary Studies
1.1 Corpus Tools in Language and Literature Classrooms
2 Methodology
3 Interpretation and Discussion of Findings
3.1 Word Frequency
3.2 Collocates and Concordances of the Noun “Man”
3.3 Collocates and Concordances of the Verb “Said”
3.4 Implications for English Literature Classrooms
4 Conclusion
References
E-learning as an Aid to Face Challenges of Koreans to Learn English as a Second Language in Korea
1 Introduction
2 Review of Literature
3 An Analysis of The Challenges Faced by The Korean Students in the Cultural Environment
4 Means to Develop Non-native Skills
5 Conclusion
References
Research Contribution to the Progress of Digital Learning in India
1 Background
2 Methodological Framework
3 Results
3.1 Year-Wise Publication Output
3.2 Journal-Wise Publication Output
3.3 Most Productive Authors Wise Publication Output
3.4 Authors Affiliation-Wise Publication Output
3.5 Country-Wise Publication Output
3.6 Publication Output Based on the Document Type
3.7 Subject Area-Wise Publication Output
3.8 Funding Sponsor-Wise Publication Output
3.9 Keyword Analysis
3.10 Analysis of the Most Cited Documents
4 Discussion and Implications
5 Conclusion
6 Limitations and Future Research
References
Computer-Based Multimedia in Teaching Listening: A Review
1 Introduction
2 The Past and Present Trends of Teaching Listening
3 The Multimedia Approaches
4 The Modality and Redundancy Effects in Teaching Listening
5 Computer-Based Multimedia in Teaching Listening
6 Review of Research on Multimedia in Listening
7 Conclusion
References
Does Learner Control Prove Effective in the Systems of e-Learning? A Review of Literature
1 Introduction
2 Learner Control Dimensions in Online Learning
3 Effects of Learner Control
3.1 Effects on Learning Process
3.2 Effects on Learning Outcomes
3.3 Indirect Effects of Learner Control
4 Developing a Theoretical Context
5 Conclusion of This Study
References
Digital Humanity for Nepali University Teachers
1 Defining Humanity Education
1.1 Importance of Humanities Education
2 Crisis in Humanities Education
3 Causes of Crisis
4 Lack of Interdisciplinary Collaborations
5 Lack of Proper Pedagogies
6 Lack of Simplicity
7 Lack of Understanding of Digital Humanity
8 Because of the Arrival of Machines
9 Way-Forwards
10 Conclusions
References
Improvement of Teaching Quality in Open and Distance Learning Through Peer Mentoring: A Case Study on Bangladesh Open University
1 Introduction
2 Literature Review
3 Methodology
3.1 Demography of the Respondents
4 Findings
4.1 Peer Mentoring as Coping up Strategy for Protégé
4.2 Fundamental Scope of Peer Mentoring in BOU
4.3 Necessity of Peer Mentoring in BOU
4.4 Challenges of Peer Mentoring in BOU
5 Discussion
6 Conclusion
References
Learning to Online Learning: Techniques, Challenges and Opportunities
1 Introduction
2 Ethics, Technology and Teaching
3 Education Technology in India
4 Techniques/Strategies of Online/e-Learning
5 Challenges/Experiences of Online/e-Learning
6 Opportunities of Online/e-Learning
7 Future Trends of e-Learning
8 Conclusion
References
Role of Digital Environment in Cognitive Development: A Psycho-social Approach
1 Introduction
2 Origin of the Research Problem
3 Literature Review (Technology and Cognitive Development)
4 Research Methodology
5 Hypothesis
6 Objectives
7 Discussion
7.1 Device and Distraction
7.2 Psycho-social Perspective of Digital Educational Environment
7.3 Digital Educational Environment and Digital Socialization
8 Future Plans/Suggestions for Improving Digital Environment in Cognitive Development as Per Government of India
9 Conclusion and Suggestions
References

Citation preview

Lecture Notes in Educational Technology

Deepanjali Mishra Yuangshan Chuang   Editors

Learning How to Learn Using Multimedia

Lecture Notes in Educational Technology Series Editors Ronghuai Huang, Smart Learning Institute, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China Kinshuk, College of Information, University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA Mohamed Jemni, University of Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia Nian-Shing Chen, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliu, Taiwan J. Michael Spector, University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA

The series Lecture Notes in Educational Technology (LNET), has established itself as a medium for the publication of new developments in the research and practice of educational policy, pedagogy, learning science, learning environment, learning resources etc. in information and knowledge age, – quickly, informally, and at a high level. Abstracted/Indexed in: Scopus, Web of Science Book Citation Index

More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/11777

Deepanjali Mishra · Yuangshan Chuang Editors

Learning How to Learn Using Multimedia

Editors Deepanjali Mishra School of Humanities KIIT University Bhubaneswar, India

Yuangshan Chuang International Lions University Kaohsiung City, Taiwan

ISSN 2196-4963 ISSN 2196-4971 (electronic) Lecture Notes in Educational Technology ISBN 978-981-16-1783-6 ISBN 978-981-16-1784-3 (eBook) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-1784-3 © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are solely and exclusively licensed by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. The registered company address is: 152 Beach Road, #21-01/04 Gateway East, Singapore 189721, Singapore

Acknowledgements

I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to my institution, KIIT University for providing me a platform to pursue my journey to contribute to this volume. I express my thankfulness to the KIIT Central Library for conducting the plagiarism check of all the manuscripts before being sent to review. I sincerely thank the reviewing team for their tireless efforts and their whole hearted contribution and taking maximum care to suggest revision and generate responsible decision. Last but not the least, I owe my gratitude to Prof. Satyajeet Arya, Assistant Professor, Sri Sri University, and the entire team for the sincere dedication and the enormous efforts in making this book possible.

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Introduction

The quixotic educational philosophy revolving around ‘learning to learn’ has stimulated considerable debates in both theoretical and practical fields of education being a very strident and accountable process to develop reading, comprehension, expression, curriculum, instruction and assessment. Relatively, the principle inherent in comprehending various processes of learning styles and strategies on the basis of learners’ autonomy has become equally important for the teachers and the learners as well. Research shows that the learning strategies of our learners today display puny extension in some essential skills like note-taking, note-making, idea organizing, etc., resulting in abysmal performance. The theory of experiential learning according to Kolb has its intellectual origins in Dewey’s philosophical pragmatism, Lewin’s social psychology and Piaget’s cognitive developmental genetic epistemology [David, 1984]. However, the last decade’s surge in the study of learning styles and strategies lending for cognitive strategies has retained enormous discretionary power that eventually led to a ray of positive hope in the fairness of the education system. The ultimate intention of making aware of the learning styles and strategies is to enable students to encounter the problems they face both academically and non-academically. Hence, the exposition of the special individual potentiality is the key factor demanding a serious, substantive, contextual and conducive atmosphere. The pedagogic perception of language as skill, as a matter of socialization, is no more a matter of fact memorizing or information collecting from various sources, rather an understanding of the learners’ characteristics congruously. A system of burdened and impulsive education without learner’s own interest, style and plan doesn’t awaken the mind and the dormant intelligence in it but stuffs it mechanically creating some chaos and conflicts hemorrhaging the talent. It is a common acceptance that different learners have different attitudes to learning for their individual differences. Moreover, these differences determine their responses to different teaching methods and techniques and those shouldn’t be unheeded. These differences include a learner’s motivation, personality, language level, learning style, learning strategies and age and past language experiences. (TKT course [Spratt, 2011]. The discussions of learning styles, strategies, practical implementations, teachers’ role and the current findings is the theory of learning style as debunk, comparison of styles and strategies. vii

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Computer technology and multimedia have long been used in classes in the field of education. It was usually used by faculties of engineering and science because of its benefits. A series of studies conducted have analysed that using digital methodology of teaching can make a class much more interesting compared to the traditional methodology. There are so many learners with so many diversities and needs, elearning could be one of the innovative techniques to impart education to the, It is not to be considered that only students need to study through e-learning, rather the teachers too need this technology to impart education which sums up that e-learning is an important technique for the students as well as teachers. Sometimes when a teacher needs to take a class through distance mode, he or she could easily conduct classes through a digital classroom. The concept of education imparting has undergone sea changes. It is no longer restricted to classroom teaching where a teacher would come to the class and give lecture on a topic by using a chalkboard for giving illustrations. With the advancement of technology, a new methodology has started to develop and students have been using them quite conveniently. The internet has been responsible for generating a new trend of education through various mediums like computerized electronic learning, online learning and internet learning. The courses are delivered online through the internet in order to facilitate the learners. they get an environment which is unconventional that makes learning more easier and comfortable. This course cannot be imparted through a CD or a DVD player. One of the approaches is elearning where learning does not involve showing something on a DVD or a CD, but on the other hand, the sessions that are delivered online are much more interactive and a student is able to communicate with the professor who is delivering the class, with another student who is also a learner and from the other place in the world. The sessions can be delivered live where a participant can raise questions through clicking the button and get the query answered whereas in some cases, lectures are pre-recorded and shown to the students. But at the same time, a coordinator would be there who would be handling the sessions who is a professor or a faculty. He or She would be interacting with the participants and evaluating the performance. verify assignments and conducting tests. This methodology of imparting education through e-learning is evolving as a growing mode which imparts education and has succeeded in becoming the most sought after method for many young learners. Fletcher and Kulik have re-emphasized that a student can grasp more while giving education through technology-based learning instead of conventional methodology [Kulik, 1994]. Brandon Hall has tried to explain that accessing knowledge which is imparted through digital mode is more informative and more intellectual in nature, The processes are new and innovative [Hall, 2001]. A variety of subjects could be possible through digital mode like English literature, Language, History Science to name a few. It is a well-known fact that learners who are children and learners who are adults do not have same choices in methodology and requirement that is used in teaching. For instance, if there is any attempt to summarize a text, adult learners are expected to be more curious to understand the logic behind performing the activity, while a young learner would perform without asking any question. Adult learners are more practical in nature therefore they use to solve a problem through application

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by accessing their real-life experience and using it in their learning methodology, while a young learner is sensitive, not experienced and hence uses theoretical mode while solving problems. For adults, there is a relationship between trial and error and levels of satisfaction during the learning process which affects their ability to maintain ongoing levels of motivation. Therefore, this volume has vast resources of research outcome of academicians, researchers that are related to e-learning and teaching and learning through multimedia. Apart from these topics, it also contains topics related to copyrights, teaching artefacts and teaching through social media. It is expected to be an attempt to start with an introduction of the concept of multimedia, and how multimedia technology could be implemented to impart digital education to university students. Deepanjali Mishra

References David K. (1984). Experimental Learning Experience as the Source of Learning and Development, Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall. Fletcher, J. D., & Tobias, S. (2000) (Eds.). Training and retraining; A handbook for business, industry, government, and the military, New York: Macmillan. Hall, B. (2001). Learning management and Knowledge Management. Is the holy grail of integration close at hand? Retrieved November 4, 2020, http://www.brandonhall.com. Kulik, J. A. (1994). Meta-analytic studies of findings on computer-based instruction. In E.L. Baker, and H.F. O’Neil, Jr. (Eds.). Technology assessment in education and training. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Spratt, M., Pulverness, A., & Williams, M. (2011). Introduction. In The TKT Course Modules 1, 2 and 3 (TKT Course, pp. 1-4). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO978 1139062398.001

Contents

E-Learning Artifacts and Their Impingement on the Learning Management System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sandhya Satyarthi, Dhirendra Pandey, Virendra Singh, and Vandana Dubey

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Examining the Factors That Affect Online Learning Engagement: A Micro-qualitative Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wei Che Hsu, Vasistha Bhargavi Garimella, and Liza Lee

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Covid-19: A Revolution in the Field of Education in India . . . . . . . . . . . . . Meetali Chauhan and Sita Rani An Assessment of Popular Virtual Platforms for Online Education in COVID-19 Pandemic in India: A Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Satyajeet Arya, Amit Kumar Bundela, Sunidhi Thakur, Pinaki Chattopadhyay, Pallavi Chattopadhyay, Ajay Kumar Mishra, and Krishna Pratap Singh Digital Pedagogy for English Teaching–learning at the Crossroads of Crisis in India and Digital Humanities as the Way Forward . . . . . . . . . Sapna Kumari Corpus Analysis for Literary Studies: Application and Relevance . . . . . . Shahila Zafar and Zaved Ahmed Khan E-learning as an Aid to Face Challenges of Koreans to Learn English as a Second Language in Korea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deepanjali Mishra and Minhyeong Lee

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Research Contribution to the Progress of Digital Learning in India . . . . . 103 Mahender Reddy Gavinolla, Sampada Kumar Swain, and Agita Livina Computer-Based Multimedia in Teaching Listening: A Review . . . . . . . . 123 Z. W. Adanech

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Does Learner Control Prove Effective in the Systems of e-Learning? A Review of Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Zahid Hussain Bhat Digital Humanity for Nepali University Teachers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Eak Prasad Duwadi Improvement of Teaching Quality in Open and Distance Learning Through Peer Mentoring: A Case Study on Bangladesh Open University . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Sodip Roy and Santosh Kumar Behera Learning to Online Learning: Techniques, Challenges and Opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Upagya Rai, Anurag Upadhyay, and Richa Singh Role of Digital Environment in Cognitive Development: A Psycho-social Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Manju Singh and Praveen Singh

E-Learning Artifacts and Their Impingement on the Learning Management System Sandhya Satyarthi, Dhirendra Pandey, Virendra Singh, and Vandana Dubey

Abstract Technology can transform the traditional education system into an improved education system for that e-learning acts as a mediator to link and provide education to various learners of any age group either a child or adult, anytime and anywhere all over the world. E-learning is a combination of content and instructional methods on a computer intended to outline knowledge and skills to the individual for achieving learning goals and organizational performance. The development of computational technologies plays a vigorous role in modern learning which primarily contemplates the use of information technology and communication (ICT) to the management of both teaching and learning activities and provides a medium to adapt and accelerate the existing learning management system. Learning Management System (LMS) is capable of organizing, delivering, managing, and tracking the learning contents and also monitoring the learning activities performed for better interaction and effective e-learning. In this chapter, we will discuss the impact of learning artifacts and also the factors that influence the proficiency of e-learning for both individual and the organization. Keywords Learning Management System (LMS) · E-learning · Artifacts · Information Technology and Communication (ICT) · Teaching · Learning activities

1 Introduction The immediate elevation of Information Technology and Communication (ICT) infrastructures in various educational organizations relies on making use of the Internet as an interacting medium for the students, teachers, and organizations to

S. Satyarthi · D. Pandey · V. Singh (B) Department of Information Technology, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, India V. Dubey Department of Computer Application, Integral University Lucknow, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021 D. Mishra and Y. Chuang (eds.), Learning How to Learn Using Multimedia, Lecture Notes in Educational Technology, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-1784-3_1

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provide better learning and teaching practices (El-Seoud et. al., 2014). An interesting and collaborative learning environment created using multimedia, computerassisted instruction, the internet, and other technologies for the students to interact and improve the excellence of the teaching and learning system. The importance of e-learning increases as it enhances the access to learning materials, the concepts, and the methodologies of technology-based learning more efficiently (Waterhouse, 2005). There are many evolving opportunities in the field of e-learning that aims to improve the experience of learning and endorsing higher-order thinking skills and practices to optimize learning outcomes as well as promise high-quality learning design and instruction. E-learning provides a platform for learners to improve their ability to practice and understand logic anywhere anytime and also allows learners to a spontaneous understanding of intellectual knowledge. Learning Management system (LMS) assists the organization to deliver and track the learning content provided, course enrolment, subject knowledge, course schedules, small quiz, test, and self-assessment, encouraging students for more collaborative tasks and activities to evaluate the efficiency of the computer-assisted instruction learning and improving the student interest toward learning. The functions of LMS depend on the objectives of a particular organization that means it may be different for others as the requirements vary from person to person and organization to organization. LMS facilitates online training and learning initiatives for remote learners to easily access the information and relevant data regarding their study or a particular subject through e-learning tools anywhere. LMS allows the student to sight online lectures, communicate with educators, and interact with each other in study-related groups, download and access course work, online quizzes, putting queries, submit assignments, and classwork. The content was updated and upgraded for various mobile and computational devices to smoothly run the processes and improving the interaction among learners and teachers to communicate with each other without any interruption. In Sect. 1 of the chapter, we go through the literature survey to have a deep insight into the topic by exploring various author researches and their views. In Sect. 2, we will focus on the artifacts and factors that influence the e-learning process management in detail, and moving further we focus on main areas that can impact the learning management system from the learner’s perspective; then in Sect. 3, we conclude our study and analysis on artifacts that are discussed also suggesting further enhancements needed in the e-learning management system and implementation.

2 Literature Study E-learning facilitates information and knowledge by the approach of global connectivity, and it can be used as an effective resource for implementing knowledge-based systems. A lot of authors define various factors and their researches in the field of e-learning system management to enhance traditional learning and availability of learning resources to everyone.

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In 2020, the authors Jaroslav Kacetla et al. have written a paper on “Reflection on blended learning and e-learning—case study” that describes the research results that show how the roles of both educator and learner may transform by e-learning as it is more fascinating than usual learning process and it also improves the transparency of instructions as well as course reliability and also individualization of the learning practices and feedback (Kacetla & Semradova, 2020). In 2019, the authors Mayleen Dorcas B. Castro et al. have written the paper on “literature review: efficacy of online learning courses for higher education institution using meta-analysis” which defines the significance of instructional design and the vigorous role of institutions by providing support to the structures for educators and students and also to designing and developing Online Learning Courses using the ADDIE framework by identification of various processes and activities (Castro & Tumibay, 2019). In 2017, the authors Tasha Maddison, C. Doi et al. published a paper that concluded that online instruction delivery in specific teaching and active learning techniques are used to sustain student engagement with the learning and material provided can improve their understanding of the facts and preserving the vital information for future perspective (Maddison et al., 2017). In 2016, the authors Mousazadeh Somayeh et al. have written a literature review on the topic: ‘The effectiveness of E-learning in learning: A review of the literature” that describes the results of studies suggested that inspiring effects of e-learning on education by improving interaction and building the required grounds for students to improve their understanding and learning outcomes. In 2013, the author Nor AzuraAdzharuddin has written an article on “Learning Management System (LMS) among University Students: Does It Work?” which gives insights into Learning Management System (LMS) various impacts and implementation on the traditional learning approaches. In 2012, the author Lori S. Mestre wrote a paper on “Student preference for tutorial design: a usability study”, this paper provides a comprehensive list of best practices for online tutorials based on a well-designed usability study to analyze its impact on student preferences and learning that includes the use of multimedia in an appropriate manner to improve learning practices, information, and chunks transfer (Mestre, 2012). Learning management systems are extremely influenced by learning approaches and teaching–learning practices. In the study, we concluded that an enhancement in the e-learning management system artifacts can improve the learning activities and learning outcome. As we did a brief analysis of artifacts and factors of e-learning because learning artifacts are basic building blocks for LMS to focus on how effective learning will be achieved. So, it is important to focus on these artifacts to increase the efficiency of the LMS and learners’ interest toward their regarding course or subject.

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3 Artifacts of E-learning Artifacts can be understood as human-made objects, tools, or activity especially with a vision to subsequent use to define the character of the process or a product. In the perspective of the learning management system, the artifacts may consist of teacher plans, learning tools, or learning elements and teaching practices. However, factors are features or elements contributing to the consequence of a particular process or situation. A variety of e-learning platforms are developed to improve the student interaction and interest in learning and understanding of the subject for efficient e-learning management; we will briefly discuss the artifacts and the factors that affect e-learning. The analysis is based on examining the literature survey to map out factors related to the e-Learning practices and methodologies for the effectiveness of E-Learning (Noesgaard & Ørngreen, 2015). Figure 1 shows the various factors and artifacts of e-learning that have a huge impact on improving the e-learning environment.

3.1 Perception of Learning Perception is the ability of the sensory systems to respond to stimuli and also a process by which we receive and interpret information from our surroundings. It is a critical part of understanding behavior through the experience and sensory interaction with the environments or practicing specific sensory tasks. In terms of e-learning perception of using things in early stages and understand things is very crucial because perception about LMS, e-learning tools, access tools makes learning more effective to the learners.

3.2 Learners Characteristics Learners’ characteristics are essential to building a dynamic learning environment for the user to create and interact with technology and surroundings in a collaborative manner. The learner is capable to understand the value of creativity, adapting changes, collaboration, and utilization of organization skills to enhance learning and critical thinking. For effective online learning and understanding, a learner is enthusiastic and capable of effectively communicating with others using a variety of media and technology.

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Fig. 1 E-Learning artifacts

3.3 Synchronous and Asynchronous Learning Synchronous learning is real-time-based learning like online, digital, or distance learning that has schedules, instructions, and login time. In synchronous learning, the learner and educator both present at the same time in the same medium to be connected and interact efficiently, students usually go through the instructions accompanied by their instructors or teachers who are capable to provide support while students are completing tasks and activities like live classes, small group meetings, etc. Besides this asynchronous, learning is student-centered and needs no real-time interaction. The content is available online for learners, so they can access it anytime. But some deadlines for the submission of assignments and tasks are given by the instructors. The balance between synchronous and asynchronous learning is important to make e-learning more operational and useful.

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3.4 Problem-Based Learning Problem-based Learning is an effective approach to conveying education in a lucid and integrated manner that provides numerous advantages over traditional teachinglearning strategies. In PBL, learners or group of learners uses the problem instance or issues to analyze and illustrate their learning objectives to increase knowledge and understanding about particular problem or subject. For an interactive learning management system, problem-based learning is very important as it keeps learners critically engaged in finding the solutions to a given problem or task that makes them more creative and develop some skills like a critical evaluation of problems, knowledge application, self-directed learning, resources usability, and collaborative learning.

3.5 Communication E-learning often has the challenge of mostly one-way communication, so it is essential to construct the right tools in the sequence to ensure the learner is learning and has sufficient prospects for a response. For any collaborative learning or teaching activity, communication is the basis to stay connected and interact with each other to discuss some real-time problems and solutions, providing content and then communicating them in a way that the learner understands and eventually capable to apply that knowledge. Communication plays a crucial role in engaging learners with some critical and meaningful tasks and learners able to give feedback in a manner to improve the learning management system.

3.6 Cognitive Load It is a scientific approach to design the human brain to process and store information. According to various authors, the human brain is functioned by two types of memories: the first one is working memory and another one is long-term memory. Working memory is a cognitive power that has dedicated to rapid perceptual, and linguistic processing has limited capacity. After additional processing, the information is discarded or stored in long-term memory. However, in long-term memory information is stored in the form of schemas. Working memory responds to information through sensory memory and then stores it in long-term memory, the schemas organize this information according to how you use it and also help in understanding the scenario based on this stored information. For better processing of the brain, it is important to do some strategic practices, using some interactive media and taking some small break sessions. The e-learning experiences in the learning management

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system are should be designed to reduce cognitive load and providing a better understanding that must be helped in improving learning outcomes and indorse schema acquisition (Vanitha et. al., 2019).

3.7 Accessibility and Interaction Accessibility means making content, applications, and platforms serviceable to people of all abilities and disabilities employing making it easier for them to recognize, understand, navigate, interact, and contribute to the information and functionality that need from an e-learning platform. This might include someone with old computer hardware, any operating system, a device with a slow internet connection, or a person of any age (child, adult, or old) who can access the information. The e-learning course material and the e-learning platform ought to be manageable to be operative and also accessible; various tools are used to evaluate how successful they have been in helping teachers in education and training by providing e-content, practices, and online training. Although an interaction is often promoted as a noteworthy component of successful online learning, Learner-instructor interaction refers to exchanges of information and responses between learners and the teacher in a way to motivate and develop the interest of the learner toward that particular subject or course. E-learning management tools also provide a mechanism for feedback allowing clarification of misunderstandings. Interaction in online learning platforms allows students to share their thoughts and information on various subjects with each other and with an educator that typically motivate deeper understanding and interest in course concepts.

3.8 Usability and Resource Availability in e-Learning Usability is an elementary constraint for the assessment of e-learning management systems and technologies. Usability means placing the users and their real needs as the main objective with quality improvement. Therefore examination of usability and its contribution to the learning management process is valuable. The major dimensions of usability are effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction of users or learners. The effectiveness can be measured in terms of the ability to achieving specific goals and efficient use of the available resources to provide user satisfaction and improved learning outcomes. The availability of technological resources is an important element of an arrangement of online learning, e-content, and digital libraries’ accessibility. It is important to assure that the available educational resources meet standards of quality, reliability, and accuracy, and also they are capable of running on any platform, on any device, anywhere, and for anyone (also students with disabilities). Resource availability plays a vital role in the method of e-learning as it is important for leaner’s to have devices, connectivity to reach the information they

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want to access. The variety of online learning resources (learning content and learning tools) facilitates learners to build a learning environment that is most suitable for their personal learning needs and preferences.

3.9 Outcome Analysis and Progress Report A learning outcome is a quite broad testimonial of the overall intended result of an educational program that displays student or learner results according to standards, objectives, and outcomes that are important for the curriculum. The report provides a summary and drill-down features, for easy browsing of assessment data. The educational institute or course provider identifies learning outcomes as the expected outcomes from a learner that provides evidence for improvement analysis on results. A progress report is maintained based on the participation of the learner in particular from starting to the end and considering the exam results via interview, questionnaire, exam to test the capability of a learner to grasp the knowledge, and understanding of a particular subject or course at the end and also to ensure the areas or subjects where more efforts and training needed to improve results and understanding of the subject.

3.9.1

Motivation and Support

Motivation in process of learning makes the learner more encouraged and enthusiastic about the goals; motivated learners are more capable of undertaking any challenges, facing hurdles, and adopting technical changes in a very proficient manner. Thus, we can say motivation enhance learners to actively participate in critical learning activities and adopt a deep approach to learning and exhibit enhanced performance, dedication, and creativity. To develop motivation in the teaching-learning process, the organization must design the course content by using a range of educational strategies to acknowledge the complexity and variety of learning methods of education to the learners (Wheeler, 2012). However, the assessments provided to learners in analyzing their active participation and increased performance. The need for technical support and assessment in learning management systems is important in the earlier stages of studies so it is essential to develop an environment that assists students to learn “how to learn” (zheng et. al., 2015). They understand and continuously approach better performance by supporting the technologies provided by the organization or e-learning platform. This is the responsibility of the LMS tools to support and facilitate learner needs to make learning more interactive and effective.

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4 Conclusion As we are moving toward a new way of the digitalized learning environment to make education accessible and useful for people of any age, anytime, and anywhere. Elearning is recognized as an automated network that assists the transmission of technical skills and knowledge and distributes education to a large number of receivers at the same or different intervals in a variety of environments and tracking the performance. The consequence of this interpretation of e-learning is a challenge that we are not able to use it as effectively as it should be for more developments and improvements Therefore, for more appropriate use of the e-learning management system, we must know about the artifacts and factors that influence the learning process more operational for better understanding and implementation of various strategies of e-learning to providing access to learners and teachers. Hence, for collaborative interaction, it is important to focus on the basic factors to accelerate e-learning practices more persuasively.

References Castro, M. D. B., & Tumibay, G. M. (2019). A literature review: efficacy of online learning courses for higher education institution using meta-analysis. Education and Information Technologies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-019-10027-z. El-Seoud, S., Taj-Eddin, I., Seddiek, N., Ghenghesh, P., & El-Khoury, M. (2014). The impact of e-learning on Egyptian higher education and its effect on learner’s Motivation: A case study. Computer Science and Information Technology, 2(3), 179–187. Kacetla, J., & Semradova, I. (2020). Reflection on blended learning and e-learning—Case study, 24th International Conference on Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information & Engineering Systems. Procedia Computer Science, 176, 1322–1327. Maddison, T., Doi, C., Lucky, S., Kumaran, M. (2017). Literature review of online learning in academic libraries. In The book: Distributed learning (pp. 13–46). DOI: https://doi.org/10. 1016/B978-0-08-100598-9.00002-7, Project: Distributed Learning: Pedagogy and Technology in Online Information Literacy Instruction, 2017. Mestre, L. S. (2012). Student preference for tutorial design: A usability study. Reference Services Review, 40(2), 258–276. https://doi.org/10.1108/00907321211228318 Noesgaard, S. S., & Ørngreen, R. (2015). The effectiveness of e-learning: an explorative and integrativereview of the definitions, methodologies, and factors that promote e-learning effectiveness. Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 13(4). Vanitha, V., Krishnan, P., & Elakkiya, R. (2019). Collaborative optimization algorithm for learning path construction in E-learning, Computers and Electrical Engineering, 77, 325–338. Waterhouse, S. (2005). The power of e-learning: The essential guide for teaching in the digital age. Pearson. Wheeler, S. (2012). e-Learning and digital learning. In N. M. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the sciences of learning (pp. 1109–1111). Springer. Zheng, N., Tian, S., & Chen, Y. (2015). Online learning management system. In International conference on computational science and computational intelligence. 978-1-4673-9795-7/15 $31.00 © 2015 IEEE, https://doi.org/10.1109/CSCI.2015.160

Examining the Factors That Affect Online Learning Engagement: A Micro-qualitative Approach Wei Che Hsu , Vasistha Bhargavi Garimella , and Liza Lee

Abstract This paper presents an overview of the perceived learning engagement of MOOCs supported by various platforms and presents a preliminary examination of the factors that affect the learners’ engagement, which in turn results in persistence. This research provides a qualitative study that uses micro-approach to examine the perceived cognitive and behavioral factors that underlie in the successful completion of MOOC courses. This paper is a study on learners’ who attended at least three online MOOCs in the fields of Language, Science, Arts, and Humanities. For the data analysis, 115 motivated participants who attended the MOOCs agreed to reflect on the survey questionnaire. The results indicate that the following five factors, interactive, in-ferential, integrative, instruction, and involvement, had a significant effect on learning engagement in MOOCs. The core issues pertaining to each factor are also discussed in the paper that will be worthwhile for further validation. Keywords MOOCs · Perceived cognitive factors · Perceived behavioral factors · Learning engagement and persistence · Learner autonomy

1 Introduction A well-designed eLearning course will provide learners with a series of possible learning outcomes; probably these are the teaching objectives for instructors that a learner should describe in detail what he/she would gain from completing the course. Neil Morris (2013) identified it as a well-written online learning outcome that should be SMART: Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Results-Focused, and Time-Focused. According to him, these can be parameters for learners to assess, if the course is suitable for them and for parts of the course, they want to (or need to) spend the most time on. These parameters should help them to plan their learning journey through the course (Belshaw, 2011; Brown, 2017). W. C. Hsu · V. B. Garimella (B) · L. Lee Chaoyang University of Technology, Taichung, Taiwan W. C. Hsu e-mail: [email protected] © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021 D. Mishra and Y. Chuang (eds.), Learning How to Learn Using Multimedia, Lecture Notes in Educational Technology, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-1784-3_2

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In line with the above studies, the flexibility of e-Learning is, if at any stage, the learner decides the course isn’t what he/she is looking for, no need to be afraid to leave and look for a more suitable one. At learners’ flexibility, one can listen to any part of the course and gain insights into the syllabus. Thus MOOCs have been very flexible pedagogical substitutes to regular classrooms and designed to improve Learner Autonomy (LA) Brown and Duguid (2017). Not only that, MOOCs can be the greatest way in sharing and fostering collaborations within Higher education (HE) and thus paves way for its Internationalization (Devgun, 2013 and Grainger, 2013). As MOOCs’ course administrators upload all the content to learn on a weekly basis, students may tend to complete them without paying enough attention to each individual session. This kind of learning engagement with MOOCs does not appear to fit the traditional learning model. The majority of MOOC users approach accessing the content and materials at a time and in a method that suits them, with only a committed minority intending to earn a completion certificate. For attending MOOCs through well-known platforms, signature tracking is available at $ 49. This also serves as a potential form of income to help maintain and therefore sustain MOOC offerings in the future (MOOC report 2013), Allen and Seaman (2014/15), Mohapatra and Mohanty (2017). Devgun (2013) and Sarkar et al. (2016) have discussed models that help in overcoming challenges while adopting technology in HE. Chimalakonda (2010) in his study observed that the digital opportunities that are currently available and evolving through e-Learning can ensure and expand the reach and quality of literacy in India. Enhancement of learning experience that leads to quality of MOOCs will create more flexible pedagogies (Conole, 2013). In line with this, the Government of India has launched Swayam, India’s official MOOC platform (Class Central, 2014) has collaborated with World-class Universities, to bring quality through these flexible pedagogical pathways in education. Czerniewicz, Laura (2014) identified the possibilities of integrating MOOCs within an institutional landscape of educational provision for course creation, use, and adaptation. Dabbagh’s (2012) study showed how the Personal Learning Environments (PLEs) can serve as platforms for integrating both formal and informal learning and also to fostering self-regulated learning in HE contexts. Zimmerman and Kitsantas (1997) observed the effects of goal-oriented learning while monitoring during self-regulated practice for acquiring a complex motoric skill. He created a model used by many researchers to assess self-efficacy of learners. In addition, three distinct types of motivational factors were identified and hypothesized by Xiong and Li et al. (2015). In accordance with these previous studies, our study reports the perceived factors that affect the successful completion of MOOCs.

2 Theoretical Background The average completion rate of MOOCs was 3.2–6.5% (Jordan, 2014; Pursel et al., 2016). Many factors influence this completion rate. The recent studies have shifted

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to understand the factors that influence learners’ engagement and persistence in completing MOOCs. Davis (1989) derived the user’s ease in accepting new technological methods in complementary to the traditional methods. During the process of this radical shift, routine learning methods and systems are challenged, and hence it is important to analyze the educational structures that objectify the learner. Hence, this study follows the micro-qualitative approach (Merkel et al., 2019) in analyzing the cognitive and behavioral factors. Kim (2005) opined that these all depend on the knowledge and experience of using technology. But learners’ perceptions of the usefulness of MOOC courses have a significant effect on their engagement (Ross et al., 2014). This is one of the main reasons to integrate certain MOOCs into academic performance for earning credits. Many researchers have supported this and identified that perceived usefulness has improved the rate of participation and dedication to complete MOOC courses (Liang et al., 2014; Liu et al., 2015; and Wu and Chen, 2017). In line with the above studies, we focus to map the perceived cognitive and behavioral factors that have a significant effect on learners’ engagement which further affects learners’ commitment to complete the MOOC courses they are pursuing.

3 The Research Questions Posed The subjects of the study attended a mix of the MOOC courses that were supported by different platforms on English Language, Computer Programming Languages, Medical Humanities, Physics, and Multidisciplinary. The re-searchers have developed a survey questionnaire including the items related to five key constructs, namely, interactive, inferential, integrative, instruction, and involvement (5I). This was designed for the participants who attended at least one MOOC completely for the duration of four to eight weeks. The course completed should have learning activities, weekly assessments, and discussion forums. The study reflects on the following research questions: 1. 2. 3.

Does the 5I’s have an effect on the learning engagement and successful completion of MOOC courses? Who is actively engaged and what is affecting one to be active and inactive in a self-paced learning environment? What are the cognitive and behavioral factors that affect the persistence of online learning?

3.1 The Details of the Research Method To assist learners’ in higher education and encouraging the faculty/instructors to adopt technology in scaffolding students in improving their self-efficacy, selflearning, and making an independent learner, the analysis of participants’ responses

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in Open and MOOC based Learning (Sun and Rueda, 2012). We developed an analysis on the levels of interactivity of the participants (115 Out of 150 responses are taken). Dabbagh and Reo used Gibson’s ‘Theory of Affordance’ (1977) to argue how activating social media possess features in users “enable the degree of interaction and sharing desired and/or required for learning” (p. 13). The goal of this study is to address the factors that affect the learners’ engagement and persistence while attending a MOOC. The success of any learning depends on various cognitive and behavioral factors that form around learner and instructor (Sun and Rueda, 2012). Thus, it proposes adopting a holistic learning approach by integrating learner, instructor, and infrastructure. MOOCs would become an effective flexible pedagogical tool that affects students’ cognitive processes in addition to serving as vehicles for formal learning in an informal way (Turker and Zingel, 2008). This research follows: (a) integrates the data collected through survey questionnaire and analysis; (b) advances conceptual analysis of qualitative data through research theories; and (c) validates the qualitative research as scientific inquiry. The research was carried for the MOOCs participants, and for four to eight weeks, involving participants from different places and levels. The empirical data was collected and analyzed respecting all ethical requirements, anonymity, and data confidentiality. Empirical data (inviting to a survey) was guided based on validated scripts, which participants had access to before and after attending any MOOC.

3.2 Data Collection To map the variables that influence learning engagement and persistence, we identify that the following are the five key variables based on the learners’ perception. We aim to verify the cognitive aspects (infer, interact, involve) of learners with the perceived behavioral aspects (integrate and instruction). The behavioral aspects include openness and willingness to learn complex topics in standard curriculum, skills, dissemination, and generation of new ideas (integrate), methods, stability to reciprocate views, questions, (while instruction) (Ross et al., 2014; Liu et al., 2015; Hew, 2016). For this, the study conducted a survey questionnaire by inviting motivated participants from various MOOC platforms. For this, we have approached the social media pages, exclusively meant for the MOOC participants. Among 150 participants who completed the survey we could use 115 responses by eliminating the duplicate data (5), people attending for earning credits (20), and those who attended less than four weeks (10). There would be a difference between those who are conditioned to earn credits and those who were not (You, 2011). The model posits that the participants may hold cognitive and behavioral issues. They were measured on a five point Likert scale with one indicating the statement ‘not very’ and five ‘very much’.

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3.3 Measures and Variables The following are the key operational variables in this study: C1 is an interactive environment in MOOCs (You and Song, 2013) C2 is an inferential capacity of MOOCs materials (Firmin et al., 2014) C3 is the ability to integrate MOOCs with syllabi (Ross et al., 2014) C4 is the instructors and institutions in MOOCs (Ross et al., 2014) C5 is the self-involvement to attend MOOCs (Hew and Cheung, 2014). Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests were conducted to analyze the data collected from 115 participants who attended at least one complete course from any MOOC platforms for about four weeks. NCSS 2020 statistical analysis software is used for the responses recorded under each variable. The Wilcoxon sign rank tests for all five variables reveal that each variable is statistically significant since their corresponding p-value is less than 0.05 and the assumption test also shows that the Wilcoxon test is not normally distributed which clearly indicates it as a nonparametric test.

4 Data Analysis The survey results are assimilated from Table 1 data into 5I, a designation based on the outer domain first letters, ‘Interactive’, ‘Inferential’, ‘Integrative’, ‘Instruction’, and ‘Involving’ (Table 1). The 5I are the key variables, and the items under each domain are explained in the table below. This provides a primary framework for supporting informed and critical discussions about cognitive and behavioral aspects of learners attending MOOC courses (Hew, 2016; Pursel et al., 2016). Thus the research questions are addressed by integrating these key variables. It is therefore an exploratory study that aims to integrate cognitive factors related to the educational structure that affect learning. Each domain has seven categories, which are the core issues to reflect upon the external domain. The outer domains serve as transversal reference points for building a narrative when discussing each variable or descriptor. This is based on the participant’s perception of their learning engagement in the MOOCs they have attended. The above framework is prepared by including the items under each of the core factors that affect learner’s engagement and persistence in MOOCs. Further, all the items included under each factor are designed based on the basic issues at the various institutional and social level that impede the progress in online learning with a view that most of the Higher Educational institutes consist more of constant and fluid elements alike and mapping of these elements would open up their relationship with educational transformation (Table 2). The interactive platforms used in the MOOCs attended are statistically significant, and participants are quite satisfied with the discussions and frequent communication

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Table 1 The Key variables and items Learners’ cognitive factors and behavioural factors Interactive

Inferring

Involving

Integrating

Instruction

Collaborative

Activities within the content

Self-regulated participation

Digital Capabilities/competencies of Teacher and Learner

Existing syllabi

Educators profile

Assignments and tasks

Meeting deadlines

Various tools service providers.

Provide Credits to learners’ profile

Digital communication competence

The Identifying complexity of Specific needs content

Wi-Fi Power supply Supporting hardware and software

Encourage innovative subjects

Ethics of responding, reciprocation

Continuation courses

Self-readiness to acquire complex content

Materials for future reference

Interactive

Asking questions

Result oriented

Overcoming obstacles and interruptions

World -wide audience

Leadership which integrates online, open learning within 21st century skills

Participating in discussions

Materials

Willingness to complete

All sections of people

Initiating Discussions

Generation of ideas

New knowledge

Liaison with instructors

International recognition

Designing and organization of materials

Table 2 Response variable—C1 Descriptive statistics Variable

Count

Mean

Standard Deviation

Standard Error

C1

115

4.41739

0.964115

0.08990427

Wilcoxon Signed-rank test Sum of ranks (W)

Mean of W

Std. Dev of W

Number of zeros

Number of sets

Multiplicity of ties

6669

3334.5

345.8907

1

4

420330

Alternative hypothesis

Z-Value

Prob. Level

Reject H0 at = 0.050?

Test type

Factor

Exact*

Median = 0

Normal approximation

Median = 0 9.6403

0.00000

Yes

Normal approx. with C.C.

Median = 0 9.6389

0.00000

Yes

*The Exact Test is provided only when there are no ties

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Table 3 Response variable—C2 Descriptive statistics Variable

Count

Mean

Standard deviation

Standard error

C2

115

4.4

1.024267

0.09551339

Wilcoxon signed-rank test Sum of Ranks (W)

Mean of W

Std. dev of W

Number of zeros

6670

3335

344.063

0

Number of sets Z-value

Multiplicity of ties

Factor

5

480870

Prob. level

Reject H0 at = 0.050?

Test type

Alternative hypothesis

Exact*

Median =0

Normal approximation

Median =0 9.6930

0.00000

Yes

Normal approx. with C.C.

Median =0 9.6915

0.00000

Yes

*The Exact Test is provided only when there are no ties

methods used during and after the course (Peters et al., 2012). The Wilcoxon signedrank test shows that the variable is highly significant as the p value is less than 0.050. This has significance in learners’ engagement and persistence in MOOCs. Students from various countries and backgrounds would be shy to start mutual dialogues. Instructors can lead them into interaction by asking various questions around the course. It builds a healthy interactive environment among the online learning platforms. The participants in these courses have felt mutual learning engagement by sharing their views and experiences in the discussion forum. For some courses, they have post-course links to join online social media groups which will open up a learning community to dig deep into the content. (Veletsianos et al., 2015). Most of the online content is pre-recorded, and many queries also are answered by software (Table 3). C2 is an inferential capacity of MOOCs’ materials. This is also statistically significant (p > 0.050). Through this, we can understand that the participants are able to involve with the materials, which is an important aspect of learning engagement. Students expressed that they could infer the new learning, started exploring the content and search engines shared during the course. If students fail to meet the deadlines due to difficulty in processing, the new skills would lead them to drop from the course (Firmin et al., 2014). This also will become an impediment to retain the self-motivation and resilience to complete the course on time (Table 4). C3 is designated to assess the ability to integrate MOOCs with standard syllabi. It is significant as it analyses the participants’ engagement that better fits into their academic or skill development (Oztok, 2013). As various MOOC platforms offer a number of courses with similar titles, course structure, by aiming at similar outcomes, creates a huge choice and challenge for the learners in selecting appropriate courses. Thus the participants in our study showed significant knowledge in choosing their MOOCs and opined that it is very relevant in their participation in the courses they have joined. Most of the HE institutions are choosing to integrate MOOCs into the

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Table 4 Response variable—C3 Descriptive statistics Variable

Count

Standard mean

Standard error

C3

115

4.165217

1.016793

0.0948164

Wilcoxon signed-rank test Sum of ranks (W)

Mean of W

Std. dev of W

Number of zeros

Number of sets

Sets of ties

6670

3335

351.8842

Multiplicity factor

0

5

219600

Test type

Alternative hypothesis

Z-value

Prob. Level

Exact*

Median =0

Normal approximation

Median =0 9.4775

0.00000

Yes

Normal approx. with C.C.

Median =0 9.4761

0.00000

Yes

Reject H0 at α = 0.050?

*The Exact Test is provided only when there are no ties

regular syllabi to afford access to technological resources at a time (EklavyaParv, 2014; Buyuk et al., 2017). Sometimes these courses are offered in a compulsive mode. Most of the students may not be self-motivated to imbibe the course contents which affect the success of the learner and MOOC as well (Table 5). C5 is on assessing the self-involvement of the participants to attend MOOCs. This is a very key factor that affects the success of any online course. All the participants in this survey opined that self-motivation flips the success rate of MOOCs. This is an internal cognitive factor and is associated with various issues. There is a statistical significance for the relation between the factors and item. The success of any learning is depended more on self-involvement. It is the responsibility of the HE institutions Table 5 Response variable—C4 Descriptive statistics Variable

Count

Mean

Standard deviation

Standard error

C5

115

3.182609

1.472452

0.1373069

Wilcoxon signed-rank test Sum of ranks (W)

Mean of W

Std. Dev of W

Number of zeros

Number of sets

Multiplicity of ties

6642

3321

356.0058

7

5

77874

Alternative hypothesis

Z-value

Prob. Level

Test type

Factor

Reject H0 at α = 0.050?

Exact*

Median =0

Normal approximation

Median =0 9.3285

0.00000

Yes

Normal approx. with C.C.

Median =0 9.3271

0.00000

Yes

*The Exact Test is provided only when there are no ties

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to create an appropriate environment and intelligent atmosphere to keep the learners’ involvement with the resources they come in touch with.

4.1 Feedback from the Learners A detailed observation of the MOOCs attended by the participants gives many insights into considering its success. The respondents who attended online courses, including Cambridge English Assessment and British Council’s ‘Inside IELTS’, ‘Professional Practices for English Teaching’, saw a range of completion rates for its MOOCs. The participant’s observation reflected on the attendance records that by the end of Week seventh to eight, people were still adding to the first-week discussion board. Here the number of comments includes moderator feedback, which, logically, seemed to take place only for the first week’s comments, as the moderators moved on when the next week’s discussions opened. The other course by the University of Southampton, “Developing your Research Project”, got 50–100 comments but 98% of the comments are positive. However, learners responded that the above factors are very much affecting their engagement in the courses they have registered for. For a small questionnaire at the end of the survey, participants reflected on eAccreditation of MOOC courses that will enable them to make a better choice as the eLearning is flooded with many options. Responding to a question on “How do you think about the difficulty of evaluation methods”, most of the participants felt that they have attempted multiplechoice questions which have an option to take three times. Each time the order of the questions is shuffled but not the questions. If someone gets 90% in the first attempt, another one can get the same percentage in their third attempt. So percentages or grades in the evaluation also does not fit to consider for improvement in learning.

5 Discussion and Conclusion MOOCs have brought a tremendous change in Higher Education Pedagogies by integrating 21st-century skills among learners. However, though ICT has opened a possibility to access abundant resources at our own pace, all this possibility is greatly affected by one’s cognitive and behavioral tendencies (Ramesh et al., 2013) which act as predictors for learning engagement. First drawing on the literature on these factors, the study observed various cognitive and behavioral issues viz. 5 is that contributing to crafting a committed online learning space. These 5I factors are significant predictors in making online learning effective and are more integrative to address the research questions posed. We measured perceived aspects of the participants who intended to attend respective courses only for acquiring knowledge and skills (not for credits), one in four intend to complete before they started the course, but while taking the course a few of them expressed the situational obstacles impeding their progress and

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so they backlog two to three weeks course (Milligan et al., 2013). After the completion of all modules, the percentage of students who join slowed down and by then already people who intend to complete have finished, by then discussions, responses to the opinions, sharing of information would also gradually slow down. This makes the new join and halfway participants think that no one is present and active. Further, in our study, we have identified that other than the core 5Is and the items in it, there are other factors like involvement in group tasks, initiating cooperation in reviewing; collaborating in activities subject to the stipulated time duration of the course will make them involved with enthusiasm. This exploratory study intended to identify and map the perceived cognitive and behavioral factors that affect learning engagement. It raises many questions in future research on cognitive issues like focused attention, instilling thoughts, and creativity in youngsters who are prone to digital environments. Further online learning competence and gender with respect to educational qualifications will be explored in our future research.

References Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2014/2015). Grade Level: Tracking Online Education in the United States. Babson Survey Research Group. Belshaw, D. (2011). What is’ digital literacy’? A Pragmatic investigation. Brown, J. S., & Duguid, P. (2017). The Social Life of Information: Updated, With a New Preface. Harvard Business Review Press. Buyuk, K., Kocdar, S., & Bozkurt, A. (2017). (eds) Administrative Leadership in Open and Distance Learning Programs. Advances in Mobile and Distance Learning. IGI Global. https://doi.org/10. 4018/978-1-5225-2645-2. Chimalakonda, S. (2010). Towards Automating the Development of a family of eLearning Systems. IIIT Technical Report. Conole, G. (2013). MOOCs as disruptive technologies: Strategies for enhancing the learner experience and quality of MOOCs. e-Lis. Retrieved from http://eprints.rclis.org/19388/ Class Central. (2014). India announces official MOOC platform ‘Swayam’. Retrieved from https:// www.class-central.com/report/swayam-india. Czerniewicz, L., et al. (2014). Developing world MOOCs: A curriculum view of the MOOC landscape. Dabbagh, N., & Kitsantas, A. (2011). Personal Learning Environments, social media, and selfregulated learning: A natural formula for connecting formal and informal learning. Internet and Higher Education. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2011.06.002. Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly, 319–340. https://doi.org/10.2307/249008. Devgun, P. (2013). Prospects for success of MOOC in higher education in India. International Journal of Information and Computation Technology, 3(7), 641–646. EklavyaParv. (2014). SWAYAM: India’s MOOC tomorrow is here! Retrieved from http://eklavy aparv.com/edusomedia/247-swayam-india-s-mooc-tomorrow-is-here. Firmin, R., Schiorring, E., Whitmer, J., Willett, T., Collins, E. D., & Sujitparapitaya, S. (2014). Case study: Using MOOCs for conventional college coursework. Distance Education, 35(2), 178–201. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2014.917707. Future learn [Internet]. [United Kingdom]: Futurelearn UK (2013). Retrieved from http://future learn.com

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Graber, D. A., & Dunaway, J. (2017). Mass Media and American Politics. Cq Press. Grainger, B. (2013). Massive open online course (MOOC) report 2013. University of London. Haber, J. (2013). xMOOC vs. cMOOC. Degree of Freedom Blog. Hew, K. F., & Cheung, W. S. (2014). Students’ and instructors’ use of massive open online courses (MOOCs): Motivations and challenges. Educational Research Review, 12, 45–58. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.edurev.2014.05.001. Hew, K. F. (2016). Promoting engagement in online courses: What strategies can we learn from three highly rated MOOCS. British Journal of Educational Technology, 47(2), 320–341. https:// doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12235. Jordan, K. (2014). Initial trends in enrolment and completion of massive open online courses. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 15(1), 133–160. https://doi. org/10.19173/irrodl.v15i1.1651. Jung, Y., & Lee, J. (2018). Learning engagement and persistence in massive open online courses (MOOCS). Computers and Education, 122, 9–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu. 2018.02.013. Kim, J. H. (2005). A structural analysis of factors affecting learning flow of participants in lifelong education programs. Journal of Agricultural Education and Human Resource Development. Liang, D., Jia, J., Wu, X., Miao, J., & Wang, A. (2014). Analysis of learners’ behaviors and learning outcomes in a massive open online course. Knowledge Management and E-Learning: An International Journal, 6(3), 281–298. https://doi.org/10.34105/j.kmel.2014.06.019. Liu, M., Kang, J., & McKelroy, E. (2015). Examining learners’ perspective of taking a MOOC: Reasons, excitement, and perception of usefulness. Educational Media International, 52(2), 129– 146. https://doi.org/10.1080/09523987.2015.1053289. Milligan, C., Littlejohn, A., & Margaryan, A. (2013). Patterns of engagement in connectivist MOOCs. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 9(2), 149–159. Merkel, W., Kollmorgen, R., & Wagener, H. J. (Eds.). (2019). The Handbook of Political, Social, and Economic Transformation. Oxford University Press. Mohapatra, S., & Mohanty, R. (2017). Adopting MOOCs for affordable quality education. Education and Information Technologies, 22(5), 2027–2053. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639016-9526-5. Morris, N. E. I. L., & Lambe, J. (2014). A Guide. Oztok, M. (2013). Tacit knowledge in online learning: Community, identity, and social capital. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 22(1), 21–36. https://doi.org/10.1080/1475939X.2012. 720414. Peters, M., Liu, T.-C., & Ondercin, D. J. (2012). The pedagogy of the open society: Knowledge and the governance of higher education. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. https://doi.org/10.1007/97894-6091-967-1. Porter, S. (2015). To MOOC or not to MOOC: How can online learning help to build the future of higher education? https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14703297.2017.1354557. Pursel, B. K., Zhang, L., Jablokow, K. W., Choi, G. W., & Velegol, D. (2016). Understanding MOOC students: Motivations and behaviours indicative of MOOC completion. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 32(3), 202–217. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12131 Ramesh, A., Goldwasser, D., Huang, B., Daumé III, H., & Getoor, L. (2013, December). Modeling learner engagement in MOOCs using probabilistic soft logic. In: NIPS Workshop On Data Driven Education (Vol. 21, p. 62). Rha, I. J. (2015). Understanding MOOCs in a global learning age. Seoul: Hakjisa. Ross, J., Sinclair, C., Knox, J., Bayne, S., & Macleod, H. (2014). Teacher experiences and academic identity: The missing components of MOOC pedagogy. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 10(1), 57–69. Sarkar, S., Mohapatra, S., & Sundarakrishnan, J. (2016). Assessing impact of technology based digital equalizer programme on improving student-learning outcomes. Education and Information Technologies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-015-9434-0

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Sun, J. C. Y., & Rueda, R. (2012). Situational interest, computer self-efficacy and self-regulation: Their impact on student engagement in distance education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 43(2), 191–204. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2010.01157.x. Turker, M. A., & Zingel, S. (2008). Formative interfaces for scaffolding self-regulated learning in PLEs, 9. Retrieved from. http://www.elearningeuropa.info/files/media/media15975.pdf Veletsianos, G., Collier, A., & Schneider, E. (2015). Digging deeper into learners’ experiences in MOOCs: Participation in social networks outside of MOOCs, notetaking and contexts surrounding content consumption. British Journal of Educational Technology, 46(3), 570–587. https://doi.org/ 10.1111/bjet.12297. Wu, B., & Chen, X. (2017). Continuance intention to use MOOCs: Integrating the technology acceptance model (TAM) and task technology fit (TTF) model. Computers in Human Behavior, 67, 221–232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.10.028. Xiong, Y., Li, H., Kornhaber, M. L., Suen, H. K., Pursel, B., & Goins, D. D. (2015). Examining the relations among student motivation, engagement, and retention in a MOOC: A structural equation modeling approach. Global Education Review, 2(3), 23–33. You, J. W. (2011). The structural relationship among social factor, psychological mediators and motivational factor for enhancing learners’ engagement. Ewha Women’s University, Seoul. You, J. W., & Song, Y. H. (2013). Probing the interaction effects of task value and academic selfefficacy on learning engagement and persistence in an e-learning course. Journal of LearnerCentered Curriculum and Instruction, 13(3), 91–112. Zimmerman, B. J., & Kitsantas, A. (1997). Developmental phases in self-regulation: Shifting from process goals to outcome goals. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89(1), 29–36. https://doi. org/10.1037/0022-0663.89.1.29.

Wei-Che Hsu is currently a Lecturer in the colleague of Humanities and Social Sciences at Chaoyang University of Technology in Taichung city, Taiwan. Mr. Hsu received his undergraduate degree from College of Journalism and Communications at Shih Hsin University, Taiwan, and his MA degree in Film and TV Production at University of Bristol, UK. He also had studied PhD program in media policy at University of Lincoln, UK, before his present teaching position. His research interests focus on the digital media production, broadcasting journalism and the globe media policy making. He is looking at the new approach in digital media application in school since he started a new research project in E-Learning that funding by the Ministry of Education in 2018. Vasistha Bhargavi Garimella, Ph.D is a Postdoctoral Researcher at Chaoyang University of Technology. She has been working on the areas that bridge the gap between Science and Humanities. Her research interests are Computational Linguistics, Gender in STEM, Language and Literature and interdisciplinary areas to Humanities. Currently she is doing research on Cognition & Music; Synesthesia & Linguistics; Education & E Learning. Liza Lee is a Professor and the Dean of College of Humanities & Social Sciences of Chaoyang University of Technology. She received her Ph.D. in Music & Music Education from Columbia University. Her current research projects focus on Music Education and Music Therapy for Young Children. She has been acting as coordinator for ETEN. She also serves as Director of Research Center of Holistic Development for Young Children & Holistic Music Educational Approach for Young Children. Liza also been acting as Consultant for the Center for the Study of Music and Culture at the New York Institute for Social Research, CYUT’s Affiliated Kindergarten and The Early Intervention Center of Taiwan Fund for Children and Families, ECO—ETEN coordinator of Chaoyang University of Technology.

Covid-19: A Revolution in the Field of Education in India Meetali Chauhan and Sita Rani

Abstract Education performs a very significant role in the progress of a nation. In a developing country like India, where the literacy rate is 69.1%, education has a significant impact on the upliftment of the society. But, because of Covid-19, along with other sectors, education too went into a stand still mode as schools, colleges and universities were temporarily shut down as a precautionary measure in our country. Not only in India, but the education sector is being affected badly by Covid-19 across the globe, but it could not cease the zeal of learning among the students. A new technological revolution has been observed in the education sector to impart knowledge through online mode in this pandemic time. So in this chapter, firstly the impact of Covid-19 in the field of education is presented. Along with negative impacts, the various online platforms which gave a new dimension to education are discussed in detail along with their features. The various schemes and initiatives taken by our Government to promote online education are also discussed in detail. At last, a case study is done and discussed to highlight the viewpoint of the learners about the technology-equipped education. Keywords Covid-19 · Educators · Government Schemes · Learners · Online Education · Online Platforms · Society · Technology

1 Introduction Education plays an important role in contributing to society. Firstly, it adds to the growth of the country economically. Educated people will contribute as high taxpayers with honesty as they have high qualification and stability in terms of sources of income. Secondly, people become more independent in designing innovative ideas. Students who are considered to be the backbones of developing nations inculcate learning skills and confidence to set up their own businesses and startups if M. Chauhan · S. Rani (B) Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Gulzar Group of Institutes, Khanna 141401, Punjab, India © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021 D. Mishra and Y. Chuang (eds.), Learning How to Learn Using Multimedia, Lecture Notes in Educational Technology, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-1784-3_3

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guided well by their educators. Education is the key factor which develops skills and improves marketing strategies to attract much better business opportunities. This leads to the expansion of business ventures. Good quality education reduces burdens on finances and crime rates in countries. Figure 1 shows important key factors related to the impact of education on society. Both online and offline methods educate humans to become productive and responsible citizens of society (Chen, 2020). Though it cannot be guaranteed which educational mode gives 100% results. It depends on the availability of resources and individual requirements. The best method is to opt best of both and provide society with its combination. In short, a blended approach can be opted (Guan et al., 2015). Figure 2 depicts an overview of offline and online modes of the education system.

Fig.1 Impact of education in society

Fig. 2 Impact of Covid-19 on the education sector world wide

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It also describes a relationship between educators and students for imparting quality education. The pandemic disturbance caused by Covid-19 mass-spread has disrupted human life and existence in all sectors including education. Considering the health status of students, educational institutions have to be forcibly shut down. Millions of children across the globe comprising approximately 191 countries are sufferers due to this virus spread (Gupta et al., 2020). Due to this pandemic, most of the countries have flipped to online classrooms. Summer vacation trips have been cancelled by institutions (COVID-19 and higher education: Today and tomorrow Impact analysis, policy responses and recommendations (IELASC, 2020). All companies, educators, parents and students have shown cooperation to digital platforms in coordination to flip to virtual classrooms considering it as a need of the hour for students who are at learning stages of their lives (El-seoud et al., 2009). Virtual classrooms have been created by major countries on a priority basis considering the need for the internet and networking for accessing all kinds of technologies (Jadhav et al., 2020). Many initiatives have been taken for the smooth conduction of online classes to avoid challenges (Dawadi et al., 2020). Online classes have engaged the students with a routine developed for virtual classrooms (Policy Brief 2020).Covid-19 has a huge impact on the education system as discussed below.

1.1 Positive Impacts Lockdown due to Covid-19 in India and other countries has compelled to use virtual classrooms (Verma & Trivedi, 2019). Below mentioned key factors are considered as ray of hope in the improvement of the education sector.

1.1.1

Blended Type of Learning

Covid-19 has left no option but to adopt digital model and virtual classrooms for education. Online education has motivated educators and students to be more connected with technologies. New methodologies have been opted for teaching pedagogy (Lone, 2017).

1.1.2

Reduced Paper Work

During lockdown pandemic days, it was not feasible for students to submit hard copies for their assignments and homework. Online classes have developed a habit among educators and students to maintain records of all educational content via soft copies. Also, it has reduced paperwork.

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Online Expert Talks/Meetings

Covid-19 has increased online expert talks and faculty development programs which were relatively less practiced in past. As most of the people worked from home, the trend of online meetings increased exponentially (City & Province, 2020).

1.1.4

Improvement in Information Sharing

It has provided ease for educators and students to share study material and resolve queries. Queries get resolved through video calls, WhatsApp, and screen sharing features in various apps (Hou & Xia, 2009).

1.1.5

Improved Attendance

As no travelling is required for attending online classes, travelling expenses have been reduced. It has a positive impact on the attendance of the students as students can now attend the classes from their homes (Note & Systems, 2020).

1.2 Negative Impacts Although during Covid-19, the education sector evolved in a new direction with the incorporation and additional use of technology, still it has affected this domain too (Wadhwa, 2020).

1.2.1

Lack of Training of Educators/Students for Online Education

Due to the sudden crisis over the globe of Covid-19, schools and colleges have to shut down across many countries. Extension of lockdown forced to flip to the online education system. But it is very difficult for educators from non-technical backgrounds to access so many technologies and apps for conducting classes. In addition, there was no time for initiating training sessions for online education for educators and students.

1.2.2

Impact on Health and Nutrition of the Students

Various governmental schemes for student’s health and nutrition are also incorporated in the Indian education system, e.g., the mid-day meal scheme was successfully running at different schools. But the closing of schools had very bad impacts on the health status of students (Adnan, 2020).

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1.2.3

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Lack of Digital Resources

The pandemic has disrupted education. In India, students residing in rural areas cannot afford computers, laptops or Android phones for online education. Another problem they face is limited data packs which get consumed too early for attending all lectures in a day (Mishra et al., 2020; Qs).

1.2.4

Impact on Self Financed Institutions

Covid-19 had huge impact on the economy. It was the time of financial crisis for most of the people. Due to this, self-enhanced Indian educational institutes had to bear a great loss. Delay in fees from parents’ side created a problem for self-financed institutes to manage their expenses (Rajhans et al., 2020).

2 E-Learning Platforms Used During Covid-19 2.1 G Suite Schools, Colleges and Universities have access to the free version of G Suite education, which comprises Google Classroom, hangouts and meet. The classroom has a significant contribution to imparting education by the educators. G Suite has proved to be an asset as it has made possible in all terms for the education system to flip towards digital classrooms, within the secured network system. G Suite has in-built accessible features for the guidance of students to provide them better learning styles, which has made Google classrooms effective (Alajmi et al., 2019; Docs). Given below is the description of the complete G suite package, trending in the current scenario of Covid-19.

2.2 Gmail Gmail comprises of various features discussed below: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Email address with domain for example [email protected] Online storage facility Synchronization compatibility with devices such as mobile phones Main source considered for login into other devices and apps Gmail provides guidance in E-learning, help learners, i.e., students, to communicate, connect and collaborate with other Google platforms such as Google classrooms, Google meet.

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2.3 Google Duo Google duo is one of the popular applications used for video calling supported by both android and IOS devices. Google duo has a few interesting features which make it different from other G Suite applications. (1) (2) (3) (4)

Voice/video calls can be placed directly through contacts or phone numbers besides email id’s User can drop video messages for unanswerable calls Most suitable for mobile phones video calls Comprises of additional features of “low light toggle” which improves video calling quality under poor lightening circumstances, using this feature background becomes blur and person noticeable clearly.

In the field of the education sector, it is less preferred as compared to other applications due to the limited capacity of people on call and absence of screen sharing feature, unlike meet.

2.4 Google Meet Google meet is a video conference service used mostly during Covid-19 pandemic days by universities and colleges. It has been recently provided with free services available for all users. It comprises of near about 250 participants and more than 100 at a time and includes various features.

2.4.1

Screen Sharing

Google meet is the most effective application for online teaching due to the screensharing feature. It has proved to be effective in various fields such as engineering, computer applications, architecture, hotel management and fashion designing. Practical labs are also conducted smoothly as the implementation of different software’s can be discussed smoothly using this feature showing live activities carried out by teachers on their laptops by sharing their screens. Queries can be resolved during live sessions. Figures 3 and 4 represent a university Professor conducting an online class for students on Google meet, sharing his screen for content delivery. Student can ask their queries by writing a comment in the chatbox which makes the session interactive and interesting. Figure 5 represents the attendance of students generated automatically using the Google meet attendance extension. Using this feature, student’s attendance can be marked along with timestamps.

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Fig.3 Online lecture at Google classroom

Fig.4 Virtual lab using screen sharing

2.4.2

Word-Text Translation

Words are captured on the spot via Google meet, as the speaker’s words can be converted to on-screen text in real-time. It requires accuracy for the speaker’s words to be spoken. In terms of teaching methodologies used by universities and colleges of India, Google meet is the most preferred online video calling application as compared to Google hangouts and Google duo.

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Fig.5 Google meet attendance

2.5 Google Calendar Google calendar is an app used for scheduling activities. In terms of online teaching, it is used for updating time table for online lectures, managing meeting schedules within the organizations. Its collaboration with other Google apps enables for managing live sessions with hangouts and Google meet. Each Google classroom created has its own calendar, which can be scheduled for upcoming tasks and events (Manuel & Ferreira, 2014). Figure 6 represents Google Calendar where a University Professor has prepared time table for the smooth conduction of online lectures for his students. The calendar has been shared with students along with reminders, and coloured boxes represent subject lectures scheduled.

2.6 Data Storage and Sharing Apps Google docs, Google sheets, Google slides are all part of G suite. The suite is collaborative with Google drive. All files created and shared are by default saved to Google drive.

2.6.1

Google Docs

It is a word processing feature which comprises of editing of documents. It supports sharing of docs through a secure-based network system accessible to multiple users at the same time.

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Fig.6 Interface of scheduled time-table

2.6.2

Google Sheets

Spread-sheets are used for filling in the necessary information on the real-time web browser. Data can be directly placed on sheets and shared with others. In Sheets, users can view team members who are accessing and updating sheets at the same time. Teachers can directly share sheets to get information filled in from students.

2.6.3

Google Slides

They are used for presentations, it comprises all basics powerpoint presentation features such as themes, add pictures/images, font size, and texts used for designing slides. These slides can be saved and published directly on the web to collaborate with other members from any region to check out slides.

2.6.4

Google Drive

Google drive is considered to be a key component of G suite. It is based on the concept of cloud storage which allows users to store data and files online. Besides storage, it also supports the synchronization of files and stored data. For higher education in colleges and universities, usage of this service provides a commonplace for the storage of academic material at a commonplace, i.e,. drive. Folders and files can be directly uploaded specifically if it comprises of huge size. Google drive is a complete package of storage device which contains various apps inside its integration such as sheets, docs, forms, slides and quiz.

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Google Forms

Google form is a survey-conducting app used for getting feedback by asking few questions. Google forms have been updated with the latest features for creating quizzes and multiple-choice questions. In the field of education, it is an asset for collecting feedback and necessary information from students, conducting surveys related to research projects and conducting online tests. Forms are associated with Google drives, which makes them easily accessible.

3 E-Learning Platforms Used During Covid-19 There are various other sources of mediums, applications, tools and techniques besides G Suite used by Indian educational institutions. Some of the technologies have been listed below which have played an important role during Covid-19 pandemic days.

3.1 Zoom Zoom connects parents, students and professionals. The teacher can schedule a short meeting within seconds, can plan it and share the meeting id and password with the students. During Covid-19 pandemic days, a major hike has been seen in the usage of zoom app by educational institutions (Dhawan, 2020). In terms of security, it provides features which have proved to be very beneficial for educators such as. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

Password-protected meetings User authentication via emails Waiting room for participants Muting audio and video Randomly generate new id Additional feature to remove interruptive participants.

The major drawback of this app is its privacy concern, but still preferred by people to hold short meetings.

3.2 YouTube Channels YouTube emphasizes for sharing of videos in different areas such as entertainment, news, educational activities, and delivery of online lectures in schools and universities. Educators can upload videos by creating their own channels. Learners can subscribe to these channels and get notified about the latest activities and videos

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Fig.7 Layout of YouTube channel created for uploading lectures

after subscription to the channels. Due to covid-19, many teachers have created their subject channels for uploading lectures. The video links can be shared with students through mails or posted in Google classrooms (Treepuech, 2012). Figure 7 shows a YouTube channel created by a university professor. It is shown that the professor has uploaded recorded lectures delivered by him online.

3.3 Evernote Evernote is a spot note-taking app during meetings or for taking short notes. Instead of preparing lengthy notes by teachers, they can share audios, videos, and pdf’s content with students. This app creates transparency of content shared between teachers and students.

3.4 Kahoot Kahoot plays an important role in holding online conduction of classes in an interactive manner. It is a gaming zone app, used in the field of educational sectors. It comprises of MCQ that gets accessed via browser or Kahoot app. It is used by professors for revision purposes to improve student’s performance. All the participants have to join gaming with a specific pin, using a device to answer all questions assigned by the teacher. It is a very useful app for conducting quizzes, holding discussions and conducting surveys (Jayaprakash & Chandar, 2015).

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Fig.8 Interface of Ted

3.5 Ted TED comprises numerous ideas worth spreading. It acts as a bridge of guidance between teachers and students across the globe. Ted comprises various domains in terms of expertise such as researchers, directors, students, journalists and educators. Ted comprises three useful areas to be used effectively, i.e., Ted talks, Ted-ed-lesson, and educational videos. Figure 8 shows all three areas of TED, where users can create a lesson plan, arrange student’s talks and educator’s talks. Lesson Plan can be created with great ease which comprises questions, MCQs, short questions and discussions. Ted Talks disseminate information in terms of motivation for covering all areas, skills, subject knowledge, coverage of topics, vast discussions, professional development, exposure and confidence. Figure 9 shows an example in which a university professor creating multiplechoice questions, along with mentioning a short video in reference to the question, which has been attached with specific time constraints in addition to the options for the question. Figure 10 shows that the Professor has successfully uploaded the lesson plan and is selecting options for students’ accessibility for the shared lesson plan.

3.6 Seesaw The seesaw app is used for building a connection among teachers, parent’s and students. It works similarly to Google classroom in terms of features. This app is

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Fig.9 Creation of lesson comprising of MCQs on TED

Fig.10 Sharing of lesson plan

used worldwide by many countries in schools. This app is compatible with android and IOS. Teachers can share video lectures, notes, audios and links with students. Although, it is less used in the Indian education system, but preferred in other countries all over the globe.

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Fig.11 Seesaw classroom for school students

Figure 11 shows examples of school teachers–where a teacher has created a classroom effective for all students with subject data structures. Images can be attached with notes, links and content by using creative tools.

4 Various Government and Private Schemes Run At the National and International Level to Promote Online Education Although, many initiatives were taken by the Indian Government as well as at the international level to promote online education, but their true role became visible in this pandemic time. To reduce the hiatus in education, students have been provided with the facility of digital online platforms for the continuation of their classes. These platforms have enrolled maximum students during the lockdown period. Most of these platforms are initiatives of the National Council of Education Research and Training (NCERT), which is an autonomous-organization.

4.1 Shagun Online Junction It is a government initiative for improving the education system of schools and bringing education on track through online mode. The initiative has involved the creation of junction with different portals as well as websites for schools in India. Shagun Junction has been named by coining two words “sha” referring to word

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“shala” and “gun” referring to word “gunvatta”. The meaning of word shala in Hindi is school and the meaning of word gunvatta is quality, together used for framing word “Shagun”. Some of the Shagun highlights are given below. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Shagun junction is one of the world’s largest online platform Holistic approach for transformation in the Indian education system Portal also comprises feedback from the public, which ensures transparency in the schools’ system Provides information about nearby schools Websites of education boards such as CBSE, Kendriya-Vidyalaya, NCERT, Navodaya-Vidyalayas affiliated schools and organizations affiliated to National Council for Teacher Education (NTCE) are all integrated with this portal

The major objective of this platform is to facilitate students and teachers’ interaction. Three E-learning modes of platforms under this portal are as follows: • NROER • DIKSHA • e-PATHSHALA 4.1.1

NROER

National-Repository-Of-Open-Educational-Resources (NROER) is a wonderful initiative taken by the government of India. Students use this platform for E-libraries, E-courses and also opportunities for actively participating in online events. Students have got access to get theme-based education also. They can explore web content in both languages: Hindi as well as English according to their need. Active learning through classrooms has been taking place through NROER with additional features like assignments and tests for revision purposes in schools.

4.1.2

DIKSHA

National Digital Infrastructure for Teachers (DIKSHA) is an initiative for teachers to ensure the holistic learning of the students. This portal is accessible in different languages for easy understandability and adaptability of the students. When PM announced for national lockdown due to increasing Covid-19 cases all over the country, the Ministry of Human Resources Development (MHRD) in association with NCTE launched this digital platform, which aims to help teachers and students avoid gaps in studies. Given below are some of the features of DIKSHA: (1) (2) (3) (4)

Provides scanned QR code in NCERT books Accessible in multiple languages Diksha mobile version app also available Easy to locate material choosing class level.

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e-PATHSHALA

e-Pathshala web portal is developed by the Central Institute of Educational Technology (CIET) and NCERT. It is used to host educational resources for students and educators. The app is accessible over the web and Play Store. It is available in multiple languages such as English, Urdu and Hindi. This platform contains various resources in the field of education in addition to NCERT textbooks including audio and visual resources. The other resources comprised of periodicals, supplements and teacher-learning modules. Material from these resources is available for offline downloads without any constraints. The important feature of this app is the flipped options for book viewing for providing real-time experiences. Some of the benefits of using this app are shortlisted as follows: (1) (2) (3)

Multiple languages for access Students require less storage Comprises of study material from different resources.

4.2 Swayam Study Webs of Active Learning for Young Aspiring Minds (SWAYAM) is a national online platform for education, useful for providing the best study material for higher education only. Swayam has included modules of 1900 courses approximately, which can be surfed by about 60 countries. These courses are particularly for students of class 9th to 12th, undergraduates and post-graduates. Subjects included are humanities, management, engineering, social studies, science and technologies, mathematics and many more. According to MHRD, at present 26 lakh students are enrolled in 574 different courses on Swayam. Apps like Swayam and e-Pathshala are revolutionary alternatives for students. In previous times, courses had time constraints for registrations, but due to Covid-19 days, a sudden hike has been witnessed in registrations as most of the courses are free of cost. Given below is the complete list of E-learning courses (Table 1):

4.3 Virtual Labs Virtual Lab is an initiative by the Indian government which involves 12 IIT’s including IIT Delhi as a coordinating institute. Its main aim is to shift to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) based education that is why it is mentored by NMEICT. Experimentation has got successful with more than 100 virtual lab projects consisting of approximately 700 web experiments. The digital world and various Elearning platforms have been expanded globally due to covid-19. These apps are helpful to clear obstacles in the learning of students (Jena, 2020b).

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Table 1 E-learning courses S.No

Courses of education

National coordinators

Full Forms/Details

1

School education

NIOS

National Institute of Open Schooling

2

School education

NCERT

National Council of Educational Research and Training

3

Outside school education

IGNOU

Indira Gandhi National Open University

4

Outside school education

NITTTR

National Institute of Technical Teachers Training and Research

5

Under-Graduate education CEC

Consortium for Educational Communication

6

Under-Graduate and Post-Graduate education

AICTE

All India Council for Technical Education

7

Under-Graduate and Post-Graduate education

NPTEL

National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning

8

Under-Graduate and Post-Graduate education

IIM-B

Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore

9

Post-Graduate education

UGC

University Grants Commission

5 Case Study An online survey has been conducted on the students of higher educational institutes and universities across Punjab. According to the online survey conducted, given below are views of students from different institutions related to the education system during lockdown days.

5.1 Student’s Feedback on Online Education During Covid-19 According to Fig. 12, the survey depicts students’ views related to the impact of Covid-19 on their education. Besides so many initiatives made by the Indian education system, only 14.8% of the students have a positive opinion about the online education system and they are satisfied with online classes.

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Fig.12 Opinion of students on online education

Fig.13 Various modes used for online classes during Covid-19

5.2 Student’s Feedback for Various Modes of Online Education According to the survey, the majority of students, i.e., 67% of them, prefer Google meet as the most suitable online education platform for the smooth conduction of their classes. Whereas 15.9% of them are also comfortable with zoom. A few students are also comfortable with others (Fig. 13).

5.3 Student’s Feedback on Expenses for Online Education According to the survey, 42% of student’s opinion is that their expenses have increased due to the use of technology, data packs, electricity used for online classes. On the other side, 26.1% of them have different opinions; according to them, no extra expenses are spent by them for online education. 15.9% of students say that it has

Covid-19: A Revolution in the Field of Education in India

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Fig.14 Expenses reviews on education during Covid-19

no gain or loss in terms of expenses for education. It has been analyzed that overall mixed reviews can be seen in terms of expenses for online education (Fig. 14).

6 Conclusions Education plays an important role in society. It is also important for the growth and development of a country economically. The pandemic disturbances caused by Covid-19 mass-spread disrupted human life and existence in all sectors including education This paper draws a holistic picture of a current ongoing system of online teaching–learning methodologies during the lockdown period including the establishment of a connection between changing management process to online teaching– learning process. It is a challenge for all educational sectors across the globe to outbreak and overcome the persisting academic disturbances and ensure the resumption of educational activities. This pandemic challenged the education system across the globe and forced educators to flip to the online mode of teaching overnight. Many academic institutions which were earlier reluctant to change their traditional pedagogical approach were left with no option but to flip education entirely to online teaching–learning methods. This terrible crisis has taught educators and students that everything is unpredictable. There was no time for educators to prepare and plan for the online system of education. Also, students faced many difficulties for the continuation of their studies with online classes. The classrooms have been transformed into virtual classes by using online platforms and apps. Various initiatives have been taken by the government to help students in education. This pandemic has taught that students must possess certain skills such as problem-solving, critical thinking, and most importantly adaptability to survive the crisis. Disasters and pandemics such as Covid-19 can create obstacles; therefore, there is a need to study the technologies efficiently by educators as well as students for creating a balance in their lives and also for smooth conduction of online education until this pandemic ends.

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References Adnan, M. (2020). Online learning amid the COVID-19 pandemic: Students perspectives . Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology, 1(2), 45–51. Alajmi, Q., Al-nuaimy, L. A., Jose, G. J. A., Mastan, M., Al-sharafi, M. A. (2019). Cloud computing services and its Effect on tertiary education: Using Googl Classroom (pp. 2–4). Policy Brief : Education durin COVID-19 and beyond (2020). Chen, H. (2020) Design of Online and Offline Blending Teaching Mode (pp. 268–271). City, N., & Province, Z. (2020). Research on the main problems and countermeasures of Flipped Classroom in college teaching practice (pp. 166–169). Dawadi, S., Giri, R., & Simkhada, P. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 on the Education Sector in Nepal—Challenges and Coping Strategies. Dhawan, S. (2020). Online learning: A panacea in the time of COVID-19 Crisis. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 49(1), 5–2. Docs, G., Guardian’s guide to G suite for education. El-seoud, M. S. A., Seddiek, N., El-khouly, M. M., & Nosseir, A. (2009) E-Learning and Students’ Motivation : A Research Study on the Effect of E-Learning on Higher Education (pp. 20–26). Guan, L., Yuan, N., Xie, Y., Feng, J., & Li, L. (2015). A study on the Application of Flipped Classroom Teaching in Higher Vocational Education. Iccse:819–823 Gupta, R., Pal, S. K., & Pandey, G. (2020). A Comprehensive Analysis of COVID-19 Outbreak situation in India (pp. 1–17). Hou, D., & Xia, H. (2009). Analyzing and designing of the classroom teaching system based on the network (pp. 614–617). IELASC. (2020). COVID-19 and higher education: Today and tomorrow Impact analysis, policy responses and recommendations. IELASC:1–46. Jadhav, V. R., Bagul, T. D., & Aswale, S. R. (2020). COVID- 19 Era : Students ’ role to look at problems in education system during lockdown issues in maharashtra. India, 7, 328–333. Jayaprakash, S., & Chandar, V. (2015). Use of Educational Apps in Today’s Classroom. Int. Conf. Manag Commun. Technol, 3, 34–39. Jena, P. K. (2020a). Impact of Pandemic COVID-19 on Education in India. International Journal of Current Research, 12(07), 12582–12586. Jena, P. K. (2020b). Online Learning During Lockdown Period For Covid-19 In India. IJMER, 9(5/8). Lone, Z., Impact of online education in India. IJESC 7(7), 13950. Ma, L., Hu, J., Chen, Y., Liu, X., & Li, W. (2017). Teaching reform and practice of the basic computer course based on flipped classroom. In: ICCSE (pp. 713–716). Manuel, J., & Ferreira, M. (2014) Flipped classrooms : From concept to reality using Google Apps (pp. 204–208). Mishra, D. L., Gupta, D. T., & Shree, D. A. (2020) Online teaching-learning in higher education during lockdown period of COVID-19 Pandemic, IJEDRO, 100012. Note, G., & Systems, E. (2020). Guidance Note on Education Systems’ Response to COVID-19 how does education? Impact, pp. 1–6. Qs, E., The Impact Of The Coronavirus On Global Higher Education Rajhans, V., Memon, U., Patil, V., & Goyal, A. (2020) Impact of Covid-19 on academic acivities and way forward in Indian optometry. OPTOM. Sun, A. & Chen, X. (2016) Online education and its effective practice : A research review 15:157– 190. Treepuech, W. (2012). The application of using Social Networking Sites with available online tools for teaching and learning management. Verma, P., & Trivedi, A. (2019). Online education & school students: A reality check. IJRTE, 8(4), 254–260. Wadhwa, N. (2020). Online versus Offline Mode of Education-Is India ready to meet the challenges. Journal of the Social Sciences.

An Assessment of Popular Virtual Platforms for Online Education in COVID-19 Pandemic in India: A Study Satyajeet Arya, Amit Kumar Bundela, Sunidhi Thakur, Pinaki Chattopadhyay, Pallavi Chattopadhyay, Ajay Kumar Mishra, and Krishna Pratap Singh Abstract Online education is not new to the twenty-first century, especially to higher education. It is known since early 2000 and continues. Traditional education is offered in all government institutions in India. However, in March 2020, Education turned 360° immediately after the COVID-19 pandemic, which allegedly originated in Wuhan city of China in late December 2019. Since then, all the Educational Institutions including schools, colleges, universities, coaching centers insisted to shut down for an unknown time by the government to maintain social distancing and mitigating COVID-19 spread. Due to this, the traditional system was bound to shift to Online Education (OE). In this chapter, challenges that occurred due to the immediate shift to the online education system are discussed. Keywords Online education · Digital education · COVID-19 · Digital divide

S. Arya (B) Faculty of Management Studies, Sri Sri University, Cuttack, Odisha, India A. K. Bundela Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development, Banaras Hindu University, Uttar Pradesh, Varanasi, India S. Thakur Regional Institute of Education, National Council of Educational Research and Training, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India P. Chattopadhyay Department of Botany, West Bengal State University, Barasat, West Bengal, India P. Chattopadhyay Amity Institue of Biotechnology, Amity University, Lucknow Campus, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India A. K. Mishra International Rice Research Institute, New Delhi, India K. P. Singh Department of English and Foreign Languages, Faculty of Arts Communication and Indic Studies, Sri Sri University, Cuttack, Odisha, India © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021 D. Mishra and Y. Chuang (eds.), Learning How to Learn Using Multimedia, Lecture Notes in Educational Technology, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-1784-3_4

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1 Introduction 1.1 Covid-19 Pandemic COVID-19, novel coronavirus disease 2019, pandemic emerged which originated in Wuhan city located in China during late December 2019 (Chahrour et al., 2020). Since then, all the Educational Institutions such as schools, colleges, universities, coaching centers are undergoing a heavy impact and had been closed due to guidelines imposed by the government for preventing the spread of the deadly virus. The entire mode of teaching and learning has switched to the online mode or E-teaching/learning mode as a result teachers, professors, and students need to get switched with this mode of teaching and learning through multimedia as this pandemic is not going to be over soon and vaccine development is still in progress. The teaching–learning process should not be stopped and important events like seminars, conferences, and workshops had come to a standstill, as a result, they have been switched to online multimedia platforms like YouTube and other applications like Google Meet, Microsoft Teams, Cisco WebEx, Zoom, etc. E-learning in India is rapidly gaining importance for the last few years (Dhawan, 2020; Saxena, 2020). Online education can be illustrated as a mode that can make the teaching and learning process more innovative, flexible, and student-centered. When surrounded by deadly viruses outside, online platforms are boon for connecting the world by video conferencing between student and teacher, which require discussions, good internet connection large compatibility of applications in various devices, availability of recorded lectures, instant student feedback, and submission of assignments (Basilaia et al., 2020; Dhawan, 2020).

1.2 Digital Literacy Digital literacy is a necessity for mindful learning in the information society. Digital literacy is a sequence of course of actions, union of technical procedural skills (file arrange and manage), emotional–social skills, and cognitive skills (instinctually reading the messages on graphic user interfaces) (Aviram & Eshet-Alkalai, 2006; Nawaz & Kundi, 2010). Diverse concepts are conversely used to constitute e-learning like computer-assisted instruction, distance education, computer-based instruction, electronic learning, online instruction, web-based learning, network learning, and multimedia instruction (Cojocariu et al., 2014; Dhawan, 2020) (Fig. 1).

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Fig. 1 Schematic representation of factors involving digital literacy (Spires & Bartlett, 2012)

Finding & Consuming digital content

Creating Digital Content

Communicating or sharing

DIGITAL LITERACY

1.3 Trends of Digital Education in India The government of India has taken an initiative in 2003 in collaboration with seven Indian Institutes of Technology (Madras, Bombay, Kharagpur, Delhi, Guwahati, Roorkee, and Kanpur) and the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, for online certification courses (National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning). It is a collaborative project in association with the Ministry of Human Resource Development, India. Swayam portal, which is a free online education platform, has 26 participating institutes; 2,052 completed courses; 1,02,52,010 student enrollment; 11,87,607 exam registrations; and 6,31,545 successful certifications till date. The level of courses are undergraduate and postgraduate; educational videos are uploaded on the YouTube channel and weekly assignments and feedback forms are collected. At the end of every course, an online certification exam (optional) is organized at INR 1000 per course fee and certificates are provided through participating institutions (Swayam Central, 2020). In India, there are several online learning platforms such as Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) and Nalanda Open University, and some online educational apps like Unacademy (founded in 2015), BYJU’S (founded in 2011), Vedantu (founded in 2011), etc. With the increasing demand of today’s world, the education system and mode should also be upgraded. The Indian government has taken many steps to ensure the online mode of education, which is available for each citizen (Fig. 2). The online platform, National Digital Library of India (NDLI), is a project of the Ministry of Education of the Government of India. The objective of it is to gather and arrange metadata and also to deliver a full-text index from various national and international digital libraries, along with other relevant or reliable sources (National Digital Library of India, 2020). It is a repository (digital) containing e-books, textbooks, articles, simulations, videos, lectures, fiction, and all other kinds of learning

Registered Beneficiaries - Cumulative (Crore)

Certified Beneficiaries - Cumulative (Crore)

Trained Beneficiaries - Cumulative (Crore)

Fig. 2 Graph showing digital literacy- certified beneficiaries, trained beneficiaries and registered beneficiaries (Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology, 2020)

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

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resources. The NDLI offers free of cost access to several e-books in the Indian languages along with English (National Digital Library of India, 2020). It is currently an active, free, and non-commercial education website which is often available in 10 different languages with having a user count of more than 20,00,000. Till April 2019, NDLI hosted 4,58,25,715 (4.5 crores and above) items in its repository, with around 1,50,000 volumes in English (National Digital Library of India, 2020). Online education is a boon for the education system during a pandemic and can also be used effectively for education in the future (Xie & Siau, 2020). Research studies show that computerized lessons enhance learning in less motivated students. Nevertheless, they might be bored while sitting in front of the screen for 45 min. So, with the help of videos and other online activities, distant lessons become “studentcentered and offer the possibility of new classroom management and add new dynamics to the student–teacher relationship” (Koifman, 2020). Online education supports innovative methods for education delivery, innovative class control methods, enhancement in entrepreneurship, class recordings, access to various courses, etc. Here, universities have the power to make education in India more accessible, affordable, and cater to a wide range of students. The syllabus of curriculum and examination procedures are redesigned by universities to meet the new normal.

2 Technical Aspects of Online Education in COVID-19 Pandemics (Trends and Feasibility) 2.1 Critical Reviews on Technological Aspects of Available Popular Platforms for Online Education Since online meetings, virtual classrooms, etc. are trending in India, due to this shift, the business of online platforms shoots up drastically. Various apps, websites, and other methods became famous, which immediately attracted the consumer and learners. These platforms provide a reach to move far beyond their main campuses to offer programs nationally and internationally. Assessment studies signpost that learning in the distance and online education are at least equivalent to that in oldstyle classes, if not enhanced (Hannum et al., 2008; Mujtaba & McAtavey, 2006; De la Varre et al., 2010). This book chapter provides the details of challenges that occurred due to an instant shift to online education and assesses the technical fitness of online education (Fig. 3).

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8.6

8.44 8.34

RATINGS

8.4 8.2 8

7.82

7.78

Google Meet

Skype

7.8 7.6 7.4 ZOOM

WebEx

MicrosoŌ Teams

Fig. 3 Ratings of various educational/meeting online platforms (List of Top Web & Video Conferencing Software, TrustRadius, 2020)

2.1.1

Zoom

Zoom is an invaluable tool to connect people, teams, and organizations. As a networking tool, Zoom has provided space to educators around the world to come closer and take the online teaching possible with much ease and fewer technicities. Zoom as a platform is accessible on both IOS and Android devices in form of a zoom app and is found on PC and laptop as a Zoom program. Considering the webinar facility zoom provides, it is laden with certain features that are encouraging enough to use this app. The various beneficial benefits are outlined such as HD video and audio that provides a crisp, clear, and hazel-free viewing experience to the learners attending the class and to the educators to watch out for the activities of the learners sitting on the other side of the screen. On-demand viewing and live streaming make the teaching process to be scheduled like a traditional offline class. The scheduling and the invitation of the classes and entering the meeting/class session are more synchronized and confidential with the password and the meeting id provided by the Zoom webinar platform. Reporting and analytics of registrants, polling, and Q and A session with learners in between the session enables active learning and makes the whole process devoid of any conversation that is monotonous and involves one-way teaching. A follow-up from the class is an added advantage with zoom. Full-featured host controls enable a presenter, i.e., a teacher/educator, to have full control of his/her online teaching session making it manageable and making learning worth experiencing. Option for Attendee to raise hand: Increase attendee engagement by allowing virtual hand-raising (Video Webinar—Zoom, 2020). 40 min basic plan: The most beneficial point is that the basic plan of Zoom provides an uninterrupted meeting for 40 min that is an ideal classroom time (ranging between 40 and 45 min of an Indian school system) and thus proves to be a sustainable option for teachers to utilize the platform in low budget. This is equally beneficial for a

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student presenter to utilize this basic plan to broadcast and extend his/her ideas. Zoom Breakout rooms are a crucial mechanism in online teaching to facilitate the presenter to divide the audience or the learners into small groups and batches so as to initiate an activity (science activities, specific announcement, team games) or focused discussions (Zoom Blog, 2020). Irrespective of the pros available, the zoom platform provides some hindrance which might be a cause of concerns for the users such as Privacy concerns. Zoom has all time been criticized for not being a “safe” platform as advised by 16 page advisory of the cyber coordination center of Ministry of Home Affairs, India (The Economic Times, 2020). Given the fact that there are not only professionals but also the whole education system which has moved to online platforms like zoom, the vulnerability to cyber threats and privacy concern are a violation of human rights and child rights to privacy and autonomy outlined in Article 21 of Indian Constitution and UNICEF guidelines to children’s online privacy and freedom of expression. Connectivity issues: There are times the Zoom platform turns to be notorious, and the session is timed out in between the session. The exact reason is still unexplained. The question about this response still lies between the connectivity issues or problems with the software (Zoom Reviews— Ratings, 2020). On-demand Viewing: while on-demand viewing can be touted as a wonderful feature, but with COVID-19 outbreak round the year and everything working remotely, the issue of “Zoom Fatigue” is a common phenomenon observed these days among office workers and college students (Fosslien & Duffy, 2020). This is absolutely worrisome for the school-going learners as this places extended screen time for these learners not advisable according to the MHRD guidelines of 30–45 min of screen time (Nagari, 2020). Switching between tabs: The zoom provides some hindrance while switching between the tabs and screens while presenting which is a hindrance to a clean, smooth flow of learning session. Such interruption creates confusion and forces the educators to be more focused on dealing with technical issues of the program rather than focusing on the content knowledge and pedagogical processes.

2.1.2

Cisco WebEx

Cisco-WebEx is another leading enterprise that supports individuals to come across, connect, and cooperate from far-flung locations without the need to travel. Such unique features make it an apt product to be used for online meetings and class gatherings. The initiative of “WebEx for education” is a welcome step to build the gap between administrators, learners, and the educator community. WebEx classroom makes distance education safe and sound (Cisco, 2020). The benefits of using CISCO-WebEx are its Simple interface—The platform provides a clean, simple, and hassle-free interphase which makes it highly efficient for technology freshers to use with ease and convenience. Given the fact of digital literacy which does not exist among more than 90% of the Indian population, the clean and less technical interphase makes it easy to be adopted both by the teachers and students (Digital

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Empowerment Foundation, & National Digital Literacy Mission, 2020). Simplified Administration—Cisco WebEx enables the administrators to centralize the functions of institutions through voice, video, data, and file sharing. The advantage of syncing calendars for scheduled classes and office hours is a point to be praised for (Webex LMS Integration—Cisco Webex Education Connector & Cisco, 2020). Virtual Learning tools—the platform provides various learning tools for the learners to make learning enriching through infographics and meeting rooms. Sharing presentations and applications—Screen sharing is a common feature available to all the meeting platforms but Cisco WebEx provides the host with the switch of control panel enabling it to take control of the meeting and the private chat window is an added advantage to enrich our best instructional advice given during a classroom session. Note-taking integration—The platform provides a note-taking program embedded with the meeting which makes it special to take down the notes while attending a lecture or a session. This is highly useful for middle school and high school students who have a huge syllabus to cover simultaneously while covering lectures and taking notes (Warren, 2020). Just like every other application one uses, the con side of this meeting platform is outlined, e.g., Call me Feature—The call me feature in the platform is a paid integration which even does not work properly forcing an individual a separate call that is not fine when the issue of privacy and anonymity is concerned (Kuligowski, 2020). Cross-over and Confusion—The WebEx meeting platform creates cross-over and confusion between the meetings and is a big embarrassment to the presenters while giving a lecture. Screen Sharing—The screen sharing feature common to every online meeting platform but the downside with cisco WebEx is the random closing of the video session with the audio still functioning. There is no other mechanism to connect back to the meeting, and it can be (Kuligowski, 2020) a loss for the learners who learn and grow by watching animated videos and activities.

2.1.3

Google Meet

Google meet is a widely used meeting platform for educators across. The Google workspace provides a Google classroom program and has the inbuilt program of Google meet to make learning inclusive and accessible in the COVID-19 situation. Some advantages of Google meet are Simplicity and Adaptability—Google meet is simple to use and enables 100 participants in the basic plan. The most crucial point is the accessibility across a wide range of browsers making it friendly for every other user with different browser specifications. Integration—With the wide usage of Google as a browser, the integration of Google calendar and Gmail makes the process seamless and compatible for every individual (Basu et al., 2020). Switching between

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screens—The freedom of choosing between the screens is an advantage to provide the presenter the choice to present what and which component of presentation during the meetings. Simplified settings—The settings are way too simple and specific. The common features of unmuting, video off, screen sharing, and leaving the meetings are easily understandable by a beginner also (Google Meet & TrustRadius, 2020). The various cons of Google meet are represented below: Browser usage— Accessing Google meet with Google chrome browser will provide a seamless experience, but this can prove to be notorious and irritating while going through other browsers like Firefox, Opera, etc. Valuable tools—Tools like whiteboards, polls, and survey evidence in many other meeting platforms are absent in Google meet, which irrespective of wide usage by the teacher community is a feature that will be life-changing if integrated later (Google Meet Review, 2020). Need of a Gmail Id—The necessity of having a Gmail id is a downfall in some cases as this forces the user to switch to creating a Gmail id, unlike other apps that just require app/program installation in your system.

2.1.4

Skype

Skype, a telecommunication app, facilitates video calls, voice calls, and chats across mobiles, laptops, smartwatches, Xbox consoles, and all over the internet. Thus, all these features make it a special instructional tool to invite, engage, explore, and explain for active teaching and authentic learning. The advantages of using Skype as a platform are full of features like Instant messaging—Skype offers the option of instant messaging to sort out quick doubts or small issues in a class or a business. The group chats provide focused as well as intimate group conversations between teachers and student teams. Mystery Skype—A feature available in skype for the classroom, mystery skype enables the two competing classes to guess location through questioning and carry fun activities (Lynch, 2020). The ability to use skype on nonwindows and non-university devices provides a benefit to access the meeting without any interference. The various disadvantages associated with skype are as follows: Overloading of the PC—the software installation put an extra load on the PC which shows some glitches during online meetings. High file size—32 MB for android, 512 MB RAM, and 1 GB RAM requirements for windows and Mac systems, puts stress on the system in terms of navigation across the platform (Skype Support, 2020). Recording feature—It does not have the capability to allow recording if one is using skype to call the phone number. This is however present in other platforms.

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MS Teams

TEAMS is a chat-based collaboration to integrate global and local communication while working at any place. This service is integrated with office services (Things You Should Know About Microsoft Teams, 2020). In addition to this, the benefits presented out are given below: Sync across the conversational history across all the platforms and devices with high aptness is a feature not present in other platforms. Easy clickability between bars, notifications, meetings, and other applications provides an unbroken experience. The hierarchy chart enables the host to locate the unidentified or unknown user in the meeting thereby preventing a compromise on the data security and privacy of the participants (Microsoft Teams, TrustRadius, 2020). The cons with the Microsoft teams involve the following: Space acquisition of the program is quite large and is not desirable when the students and teachers, in particular, lookout for a small and petite functional program. Meetings could be more spontaneous and the feature of only images on the screen.

3 SDG-4, Economy and Online Education in COVID-19 COVID-19 had a profound impact on the progress of the United Nations-Sustainable Development Goal (UN-SDG) directly or indirectly according to a report titled “The Sustainable Development Goals Report” 2020, and in particular to UN-SDG—4: Quality Education, as it had affected 90% of the world’s student population, i.e., 1.57 billion school and college students. Hence, this led to a chance to explore new horizons of education. Online education in assistance to traditional education has strengthened possibilities and innovations in this regard. The mushrooming of ed-tech companies and various learning and teaching platform is a result of this “new normal” of education (Dhawan, 2020). In addition to the various Learning Management Systems (LMS) that create a pathway and organize online teaching and training courses with worldwide accessibility, the integration of online meeting software and platforms has made these courses turn to be highly credible and easily navigable. Online meeting platforms such as Webex meetings, Zoom, Google meet, Microsoft meetings, skype meetings assist the educators and learners to come at a platform in terms of learning, communicating, and exploring subject content. With India’s rising internet growth and mobile accessibility, online education has found new places for its birth and re-invention (Palvia et al., 2018). With Indian government initiatives like Skill India and Digital India, online education has taken a phenomenal growth in spatial and sectoral range. Education as a discipline integrates the principle of pedagogy with content knowledge to enable child-centric learning. Online education utilizes the traditional mode of teaching and learning to be accessed at online platforms to provide teachers a platform to impart their knowledge to facilitate enabling, challenging, and effective learning environment to enrich learnercentric education (Tirri et al., 2016).

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Simultaneous mushrooming and exploration of online learning and meeting platforms have a wide range of implications on the teachers as well as learners. Many technological, social, and economic attributes need to be understood to study the psychological changes occurring in the learning community as a whole to examine the fate of online education. Online learning has brought freshness in the mode of delivery of content knowledge to the learners (Dhawan, 2020). This freshness inculcated with the exploration of various platforms has made learners curious yet investigative at the same time. With the passage of time, this whole process of online learning and teaching has proved cumbersome. With every lesson and meeting online, the scope of outdoor learning diminishes. This places excitement to be replaced by boredom, irritability, and anxiety in the learners. With least interpersonal communication and lack of physical meeting, it has endorsed low self-control and mood swings (Irawan et al., 2020). While the nature of excitement, innovation, and accessibility in learning has increased the use of ineffective verbal and non-verbal communication, lack of one-to-one learning and online management difficulties are genuine issues that cannot be overlooked (Irawan et al., 2020). It is difficult to say that all the behavioral changes are confined to online education, but it also revolves around the economic and social backdrop of the individual learner (Akhter Ali & Kamraju, 2020). The key drivers of online education are internet infrastructure, device availability, and most important electricity. But high-speed internet and stable power supply limited to 15% of households having internet affordability (Akhter Ali & Kamraju, 2020). India with 85% of electricity penetration is doing “extremely well” according to World Bank (Jha, 2020). This is the reason for rapid adaptability to online learning. But high-speed internet and stable power supply are limited to 15% of households. With 27% of students do not have access to smartphones and laptops for online classes according to NCERT survey, (Kalra, 2019) the economic disadvantages are a hindrance to the inclusive education outlined under Sustainable Development Goal 4 for quality education. Thus, internet infrastructure accessibility is equally important as internet affordability and uniformity. Online education through multiple platforms has enabled digital activism in online sharing, collaboration, and discussion of various issues and ideas. This has acted as a tool for the unreachable sections of the society for which the traditional education system was a hindrance in their right to quality education (Stornaiuolo & Thomas, 2017). Online education will open spaces for easy accessibility of content through multiple platforms, in multiple formats such as videos, meetings, conferences, and audio contents; the outburst of such programs has influenced the quality of content delivery unlike the efficient one-to-one learning in traditional system of education (Deming et al., 2015). While online education has empowered the education availability to the left out, certain sections of economically weaker sections of society comprising of children with special needs, women, and poor children are left out

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due to economic factors. The societal implications of online education result in no social interaction with the COVID-19 pandemic as an example for a long duration of stay away from academic institutions. Self-discipline and procrastination because of readily available contents make the task even tougher. Online teaching needs to be self-paced and managed properly to have a mixture of active and passive learning to keep a check on the progress and commitment of the learners in meeting the course deadlines (Societal Impacts & Effects of Online Education, 2017). The pros and cons of online education can be summarized by noting down the Strength (S), Weaknesses (W), Opportunities (O), and Challenges (C) pertaining to online education which can help us analyze the impact it can have. The strengths of online education include the anytime and anywhere feature which represents the new generation as they have the access to information of any kind, anytime, and anywhere. Innovation and technology are the heart of online education (Cook & Sonnenberg, 2014). The opportunities that online learning offer in terms of flexibility of presenting the information and digital development for both facilitator and the student is noteworthy. However, there are certain weaknesses and challenges to online education starting from the health issues both mental and physical health of the students due to long hours of online education, the increased level of frustration, distractions, anxiety, and confusion of the students. The technological barriers for the facilitator and inadequate customization of the learning process can obstruct the teaching process and creates an imbalance. Figure 4 represents the SWOC analysis which presents the different aspects of online learning.

4 Conclusion COVID-19 pandemic and its effect are unprecedented whether it is economy, education, health, or any sector. It is a harsh reality. It cannot be skipped and ignored. The education sector has a pivotal role to shape the future of the earth. In this pandemic, online education is a boon to provide quality and quantity with limited resources. This study concludes that there is a need to revitalize the education, learning management system with a better approach. Application and website need to be designed/updated with a better user interface, and it should be economical for the user. Students must not suffer due to costly packages, and facilitators must not suffer due to poor technology. Broadband is a must to utilize the online platform flawlessly. The daily schedule must not exceed the maximum screen time of a student (Table 1).

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Fig. 4 Pros and Cons of Online Education

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1995, California Android, iOS, Mac, Windows

2017, Washington

2003, Luxembourg

2017, California Android, iOS, Web

Cisco Webex (Webex meeting)

MS teams

Skype

Google Meet

Windows, Mac, iOS, Android

Android, Windows, Linux, Mac, iOS

2011, California Windows, Android, iOS, Mac, Linux etc

Zoom

Operating systems

Year of foundation and headquarters

Applications

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Video and audio

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Record sessions

Table 1 Comparison of different educational/meeting online platforms

1

4

4

24

40 Min (basic category)

Maximum duration of meeting (Hrs)

100

50

250–300

100

100 (for basic category)

Participants allowed per session

G suite business Rs - 879.54 (Per Month)

Usually free Rs - 219.152 (Per Month)

Microsoft 365 Business Basic: Rs:125.00/Month Standard: Rs 1,320.00/Month

Rs - 1,095.76 Per Month (Approx.)

Basic: Free Pro: Rs 13,200/ year

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Kuligowski, K., Webex review. https://www.business.com/reviews/webex-video-conferencing/. Accessed 2020 Oct 14. List of Top Web and Video Conferencing Software, TrustRadius. https://www.trustradius.com/webconferencing. Accessed 2020 Oct 14. Lynch, M., 10 ways to use Skype in the classroom. https://www.theedadvocate.org/10-ways-to-useskype-in-the-classroom/. Accessed 2020 Oct 14. Google Meet, & TrustRadius. https://www.trustradius.com/compare-products/google-meet. Accessed 2020 Oct 14. Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology. https://meity.dashboard.nic.in/DashboardF. aspx. Accessed 2020 Oct 9. Mujtaba, B. G., & McAtavey, J. (2006). Performance assessment and comparison of learning in international education: American versus Jamaican students learning outcomes. College Teaching Methods and Styles Journal (CTMS), 2(3), 33–42. Nagari, A. (2020). HRD Minister releases guidelines for online education ‘Pragyata’, Hindustan Times. https://www.hindustantimes.com/education/hrd-minister-releases-guidelines-for-onlineeducation-pragyata/story-n8YoaD1KStTrA3NJKOSFDM.html. Accessed 2020 Oct 14. National Digital Library of India. https://ndl.iitkgp.ac.in/. Accessed 2020 Oct 13. Nawaz, A., & Kundi, G. M. (2010). Digital literacy: An analysis of the contemporary paradigms. International Journal of Science and Technology Education Research, 1(2), 19–29. Palvia, S., Aeron, P., Gupta, P., Mahapatra, D., Parida, R., Rosner, R., et al. (2018). Online education: worldwide status, challenges, trends, and implications. Journal of Global Information Technology Management, 21(4), 233–241. Webex Meetings Reviews and Ratings, TrustRadius. https://www.trustradius.com/products/ciscowebex-meetings/reviews. Accessed 2020 Oct 14. Skype Reviews and Ratings, TrustRadius. https://www.trustradius.com/products/skype/reviews. Accessed 2020 Oct 15. Saxena, K. (2020). Coronavirus accelerates pace of digital education in India. http://library.ediindia. ac.in:8181/xmlui//handle/123456789/10145. Soysal, S. (2020). Limits and specifications for Microsoft Teams—Microsoft Teams. https://docs. microsoft.com/en-us/microsoftteams/limits-specifications-teams. Accessed 2020 Oct 15. Spires, H. A., & Bartlett, M. E. (2012). Digital literacies and learning: Designing a path forward. Friday Institute White Paper Series, 5. Stornaiuolo, A., & Thomas, E. E. (2017). Disrupting educational inequalities through youth digital activism. Review of Research in Education, 41(1), 337–357. Skype Support, What are the system requirements for Skype?, https://support.skype.com/en/faq/ fa10328/what-are-the-system-requirements-for-skype. Accessed 2020 Oct 14. The Economic Times. (2020). https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/tech/internet/zoom-video-con ferencing-app-is-not-a-safe-plarform-home-ministry-cautions-users/articleshow/75181094.cms 7 Things you should know about Microsoft teams. https://www.sherweb.com/blog/office-365/mic rosoft-teams/. Accessed 2020 Oct 14. Tirri, K., Moran, S., & Mariano, J. M. (2016). Education for purposeful teaching around the world. Journal of Education for Teaching, 42(5), 526–531. Microsoft Teams, TrustRadius. https://www.trustradius.com/compare-products/microsoft-teams. Accessed 2020 Oct 14. Video Webinar—Zoom. https://zoom.us/webinar. Accessed 2020 Oct 13. Zoom Video, Video Conferencing, Web Conferencing, Webinars, Screen Sharing. https://zoom.us/. Accessed 2020 Oct 14. Warren, G. (2020). WebEx review: A features-rich tool for online meetings, lifewire. https://www.lif ewire.com/webex-review-a-features-rich-tool-for-online-meetings-2377269. Accessed 2020 Oct 14. Cisco Webex, Administration—What is the maximum duration of a cisco Webex video platform meeting?. https://help.webex.com/en-us/WBX87332/What-is-the-Maximum-Duration-ofa-Cisco-Webex-Video-Platform-Meeting. Accessed 2020 Oct 15.

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Webex LMS Integration—Cisco Webex Education Connector, Cisco. https://www.cisco.com/c/en/ us/solutions/collaboration/educationconnector.html. Accessed 2020 Oct 14. Xie, X., & Siau, K. (2020, August 10). Online education during and after COVID-19 pandemic. In AMCIS TREOs, vol. 93. Zoom Reviews and Ratings. https://www.trustradius.com/products/zoom/reviews#1. Accessed 2020 Oct 14. Zoom Reviews—Ratings, Pros & Cons, Analysis and more, GetApp. https://www.getapp.com/itcommunications-software/a/zoom/reviews/. Accessed 2020 Oct 14.

Satyajeet Arya is an assistant professor in Faculty of Management Studies, Sri Sri University, Cuttack, Odisha. He has 5 years of experience in teaching environmental studies. He has done his M.Sc (Environmental Science) and M.Tech (Energy and Environmental Management) from Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra. He is pursuing his PhD (Chemical Sciences) from CSIRIMMT, Bhubaneshwar, Odisha. He is a passionate academician and extensive researcher. He has published several research papers in International journals that are indexed in SCI & Scopus.

Amit Kumar Bundela has completed his postgraduation in Environment Science (Environment Technology) from Institute of Environment & Sustainability, Banaras Hindu, and NTA JRF qualified. He is an independent researcher in the field of education and environmental science.

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S. Arya et al. Sunidhi Thakur is an aspiring teacher educator, currently pursuing her M.Ed from Regional Institute of Education, NCERT. She is university gold medalist in her Master’s program in Environment Science and Technology from Banaras Hindu University, Varansi. Her research interest is Environment education, Nature based learning and Eco-toxicology.

Pinaki Chattopadhyay is currently pursuing M.Sc in Botany from West Bengal State University, Barasat. He has published 3 research papers and 3 book chapters. He has also presented 12 posters in national and international seminars/ conferences.

Pallavi Chattopadhyay has completed M.Sc in Microbiology from Amity University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh she has published 4 book chapters. She has participated in several National and International Seminar, Conference, Symposium and Workshop. She has a keen interest in education technology, microbiology, environmental conservation.

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Dr. Ajay Kumar Mishra is currently working as Associate Scientist-Soil Science in International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), New Delhi, India. He earned his PhD from School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan. He has published more than 30 research papers, 10 book chapters, and two edited books. His education and work experience in reputed organizations like Banaras Hindu University, Varansi CSSRI, Kurkushetra University, etc.

Dr. K.P. Singh is an accomplished academician with over 16 years of professional experience. He has earned his Ph.D (English) from CSJM University Kanpur. He is working as Assistant Professor in the Faculty of Arts Communication and Indic Studies, Sri Sri University, Cuttack, Odisha. He has published dozen of research papers in international journals.

Digital Pedagogy for English Teaching–learning at the Crossroads of Crisis in India and Digital Humanities as the Way Forward Sapna Kumari

Abstract Education in India witnessed a huge setback recently due to Covid19, becoming restricted within empty, blank staring screens opposite to its very quintessential existence. The first massive move made in India towards a transformative phase was opting for and integrating the online mode of teaching–learning. The pedagogic changes and curriculum framework faced a stiff challenge in the middle of this crisis especially for Humanities (English being the main area of focus henceforth in this paper) with some of its modalities yet to be revamped as per the online logistics. The paper seeks to take an inventory of several multimedia tools and digital pedagogic shifts for English literature and language. This promises a future for Digital Humanities to create a more substantive place that had long been denied a solid base. The paper also attempts to look at the scope of effective pedagogy and the challenges of inaccessibility, and demographic complexities. Using the theoretical framework of the cognitive theory of multimedia learning by Richard Mayer, the paper tries to suggest ways to incorporate embedded learning for a better understanding of English tracing a more participatory mode of knowledge dissemination. Keywords Multimedia · Embedded · Digital humanities · Interdisciplinary

1 Introduction The history of educational technology is rarely discipline-specific or age-centric in India. Integrated ICT-enabled teaching–learning has long been established as an effective way of facilitating knowledge. With the looming crisis in Covid 19, the declaration of successive lockdown in the country unfolded a harsh reality check for the otherwise feeble sectors in India. The government was evidently struggling but it could at least ensure a partial continuity of teaching–learning so to say which received several backlashes emerging out of the concerns of, inaccessibility, demographic and socio-economic gap. “UNESCO (2020) has reported that around 320 million learners are affected in India, of which about 34 million belonged to the tertiary level S. Kumari (B) Department of English, University of Delhi, New Delhi 110009, India © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021 D. Mishra and Y. Chuang (eds.), Learning How to Learn Using Multimedia, Lecture Notes in Educational Technology, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-1784-3_5

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of education” (Kapasiaa et al. 2020). While this remains subject to further statistical analysis, one can nevertheless choose to look at them, if not stronger, then slightly brighter side to it, that is, the not-so hassle-free but quicker and convenient online mode of learning and teaching in India. Educators in India soon escalated their efforts to adjust to a transformative mode and continue to cater to the students. English as a subject is often considered a text-centric and a trainer-oriented field due to its vast and varied framework. The syllabi as followed in most of the colleges and universities in India at the undergraduate and postgraduate level entails a diverse structure and content. The range of issues and topics covered under English as a subject (both as a major and second language acquisition) ensures a complete revival of the knowledge intake and dissemination among youth. With the continuous revision being done recently things are likely to be more positive if implemented in letter as well as in spirit. The syllabi, however, calls for more blended learning since everything is no longer theoretical in the subject. On one hand where its literature part entails an evolving structure comprising several key issues of socio-cultural, artistic, and literary importance together with a special focus on building a comprehensive critical capacity of the learners; on the other hand, its language portion now partakes of building effective communication and linguistic proficiency with the help of textbased as well as drill-based lessons. Now this domain of learning cannot be solely carried out using the redundant way of chalk and talk method of teaching. It is here that multimedia and E-learning prove a huge help. For the lifelong pursuit of knowledge and education in the wake of remote learning and digitized framework the MHRD, Government of India took several initiatives to assist the stakeholders involved. Some of the chief ones include SWAYAM, SWAYAMPRABHA, National Digital Library, e-PG Pathshala, Shodhganga: A reservoir of Indian Theses, e-ShodhSindhu: e-journals, FOSSEE: Free/Libre and Open Source Software for Education, e-Yantra: Engineering for better tomorrow, Spoken Tutorial, Virtual Labs: Web-enabled experiments designed for remote— operation, IRINS: Indian Research Information Network System. However, it still remains a far cry in the rural area where the dream of “Digital India” remains under a scanner and is eclipsed by the paucity of resources and facilities. With a robust digitization and internet revolution, India may be gearing for a possible transition towards blended learning and adopting digital humanities subsequently. Nevertheless, the economic, social, cultural, and institutional restrictions are up for some reflective evaluation.

2 Method This paper used both quantitative as well as a qualitative method of data collection and analysis. The data collection and procedure for the survey (descriptive research) involved a structural questionnaire form link using “Google form” which was sent to the faculty members and students of different colleges and universities through WhatsApp and E-mail. A total of 113 students and faculty members from

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15 colleges/universities (state and central) participated in the survey and completed the form. It is important to mention here that the ongoing restrictions imposed due to the pandemic affected the expected target of the number of participants. Descriptive statistics analysis was carried out to understand the tools used for teaching–learning English literature and language among the respondents. Simple percentage distribution was estimated to assess the learning status, mode of learning, the effectiveness of curriculum delivery, and problems faced during the classes using the online tools and mode. This was also used to understand the status and scope of E-learning in the wake of the theoretical approach as propounded by Richard Mayer via the cognitive theory of multimedia learning.

3 Results The questions focused on the tools used for teaching–learning, the difficulty faced during the process, cognitive response, participatory variable, level of effectiveness, and curriculum delivery along with certain suggestions and recommendations by the stakeholders. Around 90% adopted the online mode of teaching due to the pandemic (Fig. 1). Their understanding of multimedia stands for a combination of media forms and tools for teaching learning. Some of the commonly used tools and devices for teaching emerged as PPT, video links, Zoom, Hangout, Teams, Meet, Mentimeter, Padlet using a cluster of platforms to deliver the subject. Out of the choices given in the questionnaire among various tools for teaching, a whopping 19% and 17% preferred using Google Meet and Zoom respectively whereas Google Classroom came close to third. What was more surprising to note here is that the majority used these platform to carry out teaching learning and less than 5% were found using other assisting multimedia tools such as Padlet, Edmodo, Vocaroo, etc. (Fig. 2). The majority agreed that with the integration of multimedia the teaching–learning process becomes more interesting and easier to use. Some of the issues faced by them during the process included difficulty in conducting practice drills, network issues, less interaction among teacher and student, restricted textual interpretation, lack of skills required to navigate through the mode. Some believe that they will continue Fig. 1 Have you adopted the online mode of teaching–learning after the restrictions imposed due to the pandemic?

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Fig. 2 Tick against the options which you have used for teaching so far

using some of these technological online tools even after offline classes resume since 40% found their students highly responsive (Fig. 3). However, the most interesting data was found in the form of 45% asserting that they didn’t find the online mode capable enough to deliver all the sections of the subject (Fig. 4). While they found the current infrastructural system of India capable of carrying on with this mode in the future, some of their recommendations based on their experiences included enhanced pedagogic platform and tools, equal access to all, improved connectivity, use of more applications, incorporate more practical drills to make the class more responsive. Among the students, the data differed strikingly. There seems to be uncertainty among the students over whether or not they find online mode as an effective way of learning (Fig. 5).

Fig. 3 How responsive were your students using this medium?

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Fig. 4 Was the online mode effective to deliver all the sections of the subject?

Fig. 5 Do you find the use of online mode effective enough to learn English?

As for adding more motivation in the process, the students found it pretty helpful and positive (Fig. 6). Once again network issues and lack of regular accessibility surfaced as the most common issue faced by the students. Along with lack of interest

Fig. 6 Do you think the subject becomes more interesting with the introduction of multimedia tools

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and interaction which renders the teaching–learning of English a monotonous form. They also listed out some health concerns as faced in this mode of learning. When it comes to their comparative experiences based on online/offline trajectory a whopping 48.4% found it less interesting (Fig. 7). Likewise, they found it less interactive as shown in Fig. 8 followed by Fig. 9 showing their lack of motivation to continue with the mode. Some of the key recommendations made by these students involved lessening the screen time, reducing the assignments, more inclination towards a blended format, considerations of household restrictions while conducting classes, and resume offline classes.

Fig. 7 In comparison with the offline mode of teaching–learning how would you grade your overall experience with the online mode?

Fig. 8 Was the lecture delivery using online mode and multimedia tool more interesting and interactive than the offline mode?

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Fig. 9 Would you like this mode and method to continue after the offline mode resumes?

4 Discussion Based on the inferences drawn from the survey conducted with a small sample target group, we might deem it necessary to think of ways to bring less burden on the students and ensure more smooth functioning of learning. Integration of tools and technology can be a more dynamic way of teaching–learning in this regard. “Mixing media, intermingling multiple senses alongside ideas, and appealing to a complex of cognitive and affective registers created a “total experience,” a phrase regularly employed by humanities educators advocating educational media in these years…… In between sections, students answered multiple-choice questions about the poem by keying their responses into a four-button console built into their desk. Programs on language followed the same structure but used synchronized sounds—children playing, a radio announcer—alongside text and images” (Fletcher 2019) There is obviously more varied form of engagement with multisensory formats once the multimedia tools are used in teaching. One can cite a simple example of constructing multimedia presentations of novels in lieu of standard book reports or having an open forum discussion not only within the department but also facilitate an interdepartmental activity ensuring a more interdisciplinary approach. The plethora of online platform, forum, tools, technology, and training services are being offered to ensure a continuity of knowledge dissemination in the country. When the facilitators of education took control of the use of multimedia tools and teaching literature/language in the classroom, evident examples can be drawn in favor of this transformation. In a country where we have diverse factors affecting teaching–learning situations owing to gender, class, region, and culture, the system of E-learning itself becomes an intersection of both scope as well as limitation. The paper would now discuss some of the potential ways and tools in which the use of multimedia can help make the study of English literature and language broaden its scope by also addressing the issues faced by the stakeholders as already explained by the survey conducted for the research paper.

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To begin with, one must also be very clear that the very essence of education must and can never be replaced by the employment of technology. One may be glancing at a more blended form of teaching but this should only be used as an aid or assisting learning in the country. Basing the whole argument on this praxis let us try to look at the scopes and challenges of this newly recognized “Digital Pedagogy.” For the purpose of understanding the scope of this medium for English teaching– learning one must also seek to consider the key issues of inaccessibility, demographic gap, inclusivity, and subject-specific limitations. There are serious issues related to access, devices, content, curation, teachers, training, grades, funding, infrastructure, and fees. “According to a UNESCO report released earlier this year, about 40% of low- and lower-middle-income countries have not supported learners at risk of exclusion during this crisis, such as the poor, linguistic minorities and learners with disabilities” (Pitroda 2020). “It is also estimated that only about 25 per cent of Indian households have an internet facility. For rural households, that number drops to 15 per cent. The worst affected, as always, will be the marginalized, rural and poor populations.” (2020). Furthermore, around 16 crore rural households in India do not have access to computers, according to a review report of National Digital Literacy Mission (NDLM). Among the 20% of the poorest households in India, only 2.7% have access to a computer and 8.9% to internet connectivity. And the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) estimated only half of India’s population has access to quality Internet (around 115 wireless subscribers, and only 66 crores have access to broadband quality internet) (Chaturvedi and Kapoor 2020). “According to the latest GSMA report titled ‘Connected Women: The Mobile Gender Gap Report 2020’, there is a 20% gender gap between male and female mobile owners in India and an even wider 50% gender gap when it comes to mobile Internet users” (Chaturvedi and Kapoor 2020). The digital divide, therefore, has been identified as the most common hindrance in achieving a sustainable experience of learning with the issues of gender disparity almost overlooked every time. So, when we embark on such an ambitious task of bringing digital pedagogy as a regular feature in academia, we must build our own network and system of shared services and infrastructure for the same. We also need to devote a large amount of money and resources towards the building and maintaining of our own set of humanities-tailored educational tools and platforms. With this cluster of technology and tools, we have a huge responsibility at hand to serve our students, specifically as humanities scholars.

4.1 Scope of Multimedia Usage in Teaching “The cognitive theory of multimedia learning assumes that the human informationprocessing system includes dual channels for visual/pictorial and auditory/verbal processing, each channel has limited capacity for processing, and active learning entails carrying out appropriate cognitive processing during learning. This includes selecting relevant words from the presented text or narration, selecting relevant images from the presented illustrations, organizing the selected words into a coherent

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verbal representation, organizing selected images into a coherent visual representation, and integrating the visual and verbal representations and prior knowledge” (Mayer 2009). This also involves the right combination of creating a more effective framework for learning including relevant materials, the right organization of these materials, and integration of existing knowledge with the organized material. Mayer also went on to suggest certain principles to reduce extraneous processing in multimedia learning which calls for cutting back on the unnecessary or extra or least interesting representation of lessons which may hamper the learning impact. He even suggested ways to lessen the monotony and redundancy of learning using multimedia such as Delete extraneous words, sounds, or graphics, Highlight essential words or graphics, Delete redundant captions from narrated animation, etc. (Mayer 2009). Multimedia learning is also more student-centric and works excellently beyond the limitation of print. It expands the forum for learning and improves self-efficacy with its innovative method. The facilitators must invest their time and energy to design learning courseware using multimedia and curriculum models for English. However, this mode isn’t untouched by certain issues and errors while handling. Enhancing students’ interest while taking courses in different learning environments seems a probable means of promoting higher learner satisfaction and better completion rates. According to the National Council of Teachers of English (2004), the visual representation of literature is important and educators must be capable to communicate using a visually construct meaning (Seo and Templeton 2008). Traditionally Indian institutions have used multimedia intermittently molding more into what one may call a multimedia-assisted format. This has continued in the pandemic as well with tools and platforms such as creating slideshows using pics and videos, Using Moviemaker, PowerPoint presentation, creating an online lesson to reinforce student learning using MOOC, arrange virtual field trip using Word graphic tools, structure a virtual field trip, Edmodo, Blackboard, LMS, etc. Let us now look at some of the recommended tools and platforms which may be used in the teaching–learning of English in class (both online and offline). It is noteworthy to say that irrespective of the pandemic or restrictions these tools can be embedded in the process once normalcy returns to the campuses of higher education institutions. VoiceThread gives the freedom to students to comment/edit on a document, image, or video right on the page. This can be done by recording audio, video, or posting their comment on the same page. They can use the drawing tool to doodle on the document or image simultaneously recording comments. For a teacher, it’s equally easy to respond to the students’ activities since they all get submitted on the same page and this comes as a relief to those who don’t have to go through hours looking for their audio clips. The settings are easier to moderate and allows a good pace for the teachers to comments and help in quick assessments (Fig. 10) Padlet is a tool that can be easily used for the language learners of any level. It is a more learner-centric tool that allows them to create their own posts working on their skills depending on what task is given to them. The learners can develop writing skills and speaking skills. They can have the opportunity to have a brainstorming session with the chance to build up their vocabulary related to a topic and add to their knowledge after reading or listening to a text. One can share learner-generated

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Fig. 10 VoiceThread

content in the form of text posts, audio recordings, videos, or documents. It’s great for project work as learners can update their progress report on a Padlet. Needless to say, it is largely used for sharing ideas and discussions in English (Fig. 11).

Fig. 11 Padlet

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Kahoot are one of the most interesting teaching tools using fun, creative and interactive games to help learners practice their spoken English and build their language skills. It can be highly recommended to be used for multiple spoken drills. It includes music and images to engage young learners and make learning exciting and enjoyable. It can be used both in a team or assigned as a challenge for independent study. It goes handy with desktop computers, tablets or smartphones, and render a good flexibility to be used in online lessons, in face-to-face classrooms, or at home (Fig. 12). EDpuzzle can be called a great formative assessment tool for teachers who are expected to assign videos for homework, or who encourage asynchronous communication. Teachers can allow the students to use EdPuzzle to generate end-semester results and assessment reports. Teachers can also create online classes and upload original videos, navigating through online videos, adding more interactive features, and make them accessible to students as well. EdPuzzle also enables teachers to

Fig. 12 Kahoot

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Fig. 13 EDpuzzle

keep track of the students’ activities about the questions which they opt for and the evaluation of the same (Fig. 13). Seesaw Students generally exhibit a more impressive and quick improvement in their learning with multimedia tools like video, drawing, and voice recording in usage and try to achieve some proficiency where a second language is not a barrier to them any longer. Seesaw messages can be easily translated so that it ensures fluent two-way communication. Seesaw gives the English language learners a safe space to practice so they have to develop some confidence, learn from mistakes, make progress by reflecting on their progress, and try again (Fig. 14). Wizer With Wizer teachers gets an additional option to create digital worksheets by using a different set of questions, incorporating images and video links, and audio recordings. Teachers are free to ask students to label images, collect information and categorize it, respond to video content and multiple option questions. There is a scope of open response questions to be discussed in class at the same time. In literary texts as well students can create close reading passages which in turn allows assessment of

Fig. 14 Seesaw

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reading comprehension and solve exercises. It allows drawing or marking on maps to cover contexts and backgrounds of different literary ages (Fig. 15). AnswerGarden This is an easy-to-use online feedback or assessment app to be used to acquire brief answers from students. It adopts a modality that allows users to create, share, answer, and manage topics and questions. It has a strong potential to be used for a wider range of education tasks, such as brainstorming, polling, synchronous and asynchronous communication, and formative assessment. AnswerGarden can be used to discuss the main characters and plot. For example, one can generate a question: “what words would you use to describe Wuthering Heights?” Students can then continue to add or give answers as they complete this text by Emily. It also allows other activities such as Icebreaking activities, using surveys and polling to make the classes more engaging (Fig. 16). Vocaroo It is an online tool that allows users to record, send, and download voice messages. Teachers and learners can use this for different activities, such as

Fig. 15 Wizer

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Fig. 16 AnswerGarden

podcasting, digital storytelling, broadcasting, and giving feedback. One can download recordings, send messages using a QR code reader. It is an excellent audio recording tool for quick and effective spoken drills (Fig. 17). Socrative is a free web application offering an easy experience to engage in several activities at the same time and assess their students. Basically, a full-featured application used on Android and iOS devices ensures quick feedback responding to quizzes and questions. This also permits the creation of personalized content where the educators can edit and design their own assessments and can also share it within their respective learning networks. Students’ understanding can be reviewed in different

Fig. 17 Vocaroo

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Fig. 18 Socrative

types of formats. Their assessment reports can also be emailed or downloaded and saved conveniently (Fig. 18). ThingLink is a highly acknowledged education technology that makes it easier to augment several images, videos, and even virtual tours with additional information and links. It is easily accessible with diverse visual learning experiences. It offers an integrated reading learning tool with an immersive reader in over 60 languages. It helps students choose from using multiple forms of media to express themselves in the group (Fig. 19). Mind mapping A mind map is more like a visual record and collection of vocabulary, or other content also known as word maps or spidergrams, and is organized in a way that shows relationship and usage connectivity between words. For example, a teacher can write a list of words on a particular topic on the board. The learners can then go on to organize those words in a mind map and words related to categories and meaning. Mind maps are also used in the planning stage for writing exercises and the learners can structure ideas and discuss the relevance of the same. Mind mapping could be an effective tool that helps students to associate new information with their existing knowledge (Fig. 20). Loom is an easy tool for enabling the teachers as well as students to speak, write reviews and share files with each other. The students can be allowed to create their own resource library of useful tools and websites. It is also a free screencasting software available via chrome extension or a desktop app. One can record each lesson in any format or make them available via email and password-protected profile. There are multiple sharing/saving options and you can embed videos on your blog or website links on your drive and give access to others to share too (Fig. 21).

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Fig. 19 ThingLink

Fig. 20 Mindmapping

Trello This is primarily a visual collaboration platform giving scope for collective or team perspective on projects. Trello can be used to organize, collaborate, communicate and coordinate on projects and assignments and is great for a variety of work, right from bulletin boards, lesson planning, collaborative research projects, and task management. Its collaboration ability is worth noticing with several boards that can be viewed, edited, and managed by multiple members. the students can split up tasks and plan what they need to meet goals. It is a great tool for synchronous or asynchronous communication, active learning, and cooperative learning. The teacher

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Fig. 21 Loom

can also assign each student two peers who will be viewing and editing members of the student’s board, who will assess and analyze the students’ process through the activity log and provide feedback and suggestions for the same (Fig. 22).

4.2 Digital Humanities as the Way Forward “Our conception of the humanities remains largely confined to [as Alexander Pope noted] “the pale of Words.” Extending Winn’s observation, the practice of the humanities is also defined by textual performances. Humanists produce written monographs, articles, and papers as their principal forms of scholarly performance, and the representation of their readings and interpretations is almost always written. The digital humanities are disruptive precisely because evidence of reading is often displayed in forms other than text and written prose. Consider the use of databases, maps, graphs, and diagrams, for instance. Digital humanists are, in my formulation, those who read and interpret texts with the aid of digital tools; and, importantly, the evidence of their reading is a digitally mediated performance. The screen expands the possibilities for

Fig. 22 Trello

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how humanists demonstrate evidence and proves especially valuable as a space for visual representations and visualizations. The screen also affords new options for what humanists can make, beyond what is possible with print” (Staley 2017). It may be high time that India should be more open to accepting Digital Humanities within the curriculum framework of its higher education. Digital archiving makes for an integral part of Digital Humanities and it can be defined as repositories of several digital information ensuring more accessibility and preservation of ideas, culture, and heritage. Ambedkar University Institutional Archive: The Institutional Memory Project of AU has been one such important initiative that attempts to identify key documents and recordings, transcribe the recordings, catalog and classify these documents and audiovisual records. This also includes a process to digitize, catalog, and classify the audio-visual data and transcripts. It also helped in creating an online database or repository for the same and add these documents/ recordings to the digital repository. Delhi University’s Miranda House has recently embarked on a similar ambitious project of creating an archive of its 72-years-old history with the help of its alumni through letters, photographs, diaries, memorabilia, and “ephemera” to document the history of women in higher education. The Miranda House Archiving Project which was announced recently took a long time to ferment as Dr. Shweta Jha, the professor from the department of English leading the project, said that other than preservation of memory and narrative, the project aims for extending its interest into diving deeper into women’s history and the history of higher education in India. “When we think of the past of higher education, we normally look at it through institutions but I thought we could rethink… There are various themes we could explore. One could be women traveling as students. I’m especially keen on looking at women and science,” she said (Baruah 2020). She also shared that they are currently transcribing the interviews by alumnae of the college and soon it will be made accessible for the researchers working in the field of women’s history and education in India (Sharma 2020). While this could materialize into the creation of a public website of the archive, acting principal of Miranda House, Dr. Bijayalaxmi Nanda said that the college could eventually create a larger virtual as well as a physical museum. “I’m interested in the telling of the history of a woman’s college. A “herstory” is a narrative. It’s not just about achievements. In an old college magazine, I found a piece written by the first principal about how she had offered sari to students who had come to her home and had been caught in the rain… Narratives of what women students’ access to education had been like, their relationships with their teachers and each other,” said Dr. Nanda (Baruah 2020). Digital Humanities Alliance for Research and Teaching Innovations (DHARTI) is another initiative towards organizing and facilitating digital practices in arts and humanities scholarship in India and take the trajectory of archiving beyond academic institutes. Some institutions also offered this as undergraduate or postgraduate courses for instance, Jadavpur University, Koti Women’s College, Srishti Institute of Arts and Design and Technology to name a few whereas Presidency University, IIT Gandhinagar, IIT Delhi, Delhi University, and Aligarh Muslim University have all experimented with courses (as a single unit) on Digital Humanities. Also, certain

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initiatives by central and state governments on “Digitize India” and “Digital India” have provisions to facilitate wide-ranging investments in digitization, digital library, and curation. Digitize India, Delhi Archives, National Digital Library, etc., are some very important key projects. One of the primary objectives of these projects is to make digital content available to the wider public, researchers, and academics. These kinds of digital initiatives open up a new horizon in the landscape of humanities to engage in Digital Humanities research practice by harnessing digital tools and techniques. Nevertheless, there has been little attention and investment in deploying these digital contents for advanced scholarly practice which entails robust infrastructure (2020).

5 Conclusion Digital Humanities at the crossroads of the current crisis in India would be crucial in the mass production of knowledge and allowing its availability to all. Integrated multimedia learning holds the potential to further strengthen English teaching–learning. “This is the promise of digital humanities: critical, generous digital scholarship that has the potential to cross institutional sectors; overcome the divides between archive, library, university, and museum; and create networked publics. What if we were to use these affordances of digital humanities in the service of communities that have been marginalized in digital knowledge production?” (Risam 2019). For a stream as Humanities, a vast variety of digitization of knowledge and subject-specific ideas could be well-curated. This narrative shall be capable of bringing all the humanists together to forge ahead in what one may define as a knowledge revolution of bringing together all the experiential anecdotes and build a more participatory environment for emancipation against all odds.

References Baruah, S. (2020). Miranda house traces history of college, its students-with some help. https://ind ianexpress.com/article/cities/delhi/miranda-house-archiving-project-history-6655535/. Chaturvedi, U, Kapoor, V. (2020). How can India’s rural communities get online and get going. https://www.forbesindia.com/blog/coronavirus/how-can-indias-rural-communitiesget-online-and-get-going/. Fletcher, C. (2019). Educational technology and the humanities: A history of control, debates in the digital humanities. In: Matthew, K. G., Lauren, F. K. Published by: University of Minnesota Press. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.ctvg251hk.33?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents. 373–374 (2019) https://www.thehindu.com/education/coronavirus-lockdown-covid-19-widened-educational-div ide-unesco-report/article31907857.ece. (2020). http://www.digitalhumanities.org/dhq/vol/14/3/000471/000471.htmll. (2020). Kapasiaa, N., & Paulb, P. et al. (2020). Impact of lockdown on learning status of undergraduate and postgraduate students during COVID-19 pandemic in West Bengal, India, Children and Youth Services Review, pp. 1–2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105194.

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Mayer, E. R. (2009). Multimedia learning, 2nd Edn. University of California, Santa Barbara: Cambridge University Press. Pitroda, S. (2020). Digital India is not ready for digital education. https://indianexpress.com/art icle/opinion/columns/digital-education-online-classes-learning-coronavirus-national-educationpolicy-6580744/. Risam, R. (2019). New digital worlds postcolonial digital humanities in theory. Praxis, and Pedagogy: Northwestern University Press. Seo, K. K. (2008). Templeton, R. et al., Creating a ripple effect: Incorporating multimedia-assisted project-based learning in teacher education, theory into practice , Vol. 47, No. 3, New Media and Education in the 21st Century, pp. 259–265. Taylor & Francis, Ltd. http://www.jstor.com/stable/ 40071550n. Staley, D. (2017). On the “Maker Turn” in the humanities chapter, making things and drawing boundaries: Experiments in the digital humanities. University of Minnesota Press Stable. https:// www.jstor.org/stable/https://doi.org/10.5749/j.ctt1pwt6wq.5. 36. Sharma, R. (2020). Documenting memories: Miranda house to archive the college journeys of its students. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/delhi/documenting-memories-miranda-houseto-archive-the-college-journeys-of-its-students/articleshow/78734880.cms.

Corpus Analysis for Literary Studies: Application and Relevance Shahila Zafar and Zaved Ahmed Khan

Abstract The use of corpus tools for the teaching-learning and research of literary texts is not widespread. The present study attempts to explore the possibility of the use of corpus tools in literature classrooms. It involves the creation of a corpus of representative poetry of major English poets belonging to the Modern period of English literature, W. B. Yeats, T. S. Eliot, and W. H. Auden. Using concordance software AntConc, a corpus of Word Types and Word Tokens was prepared. The corpus data showed the most frequent words, collocations, and concordances used in the selected poetry of the period. An attempt at juxtaposing the results of the study with the common thematic, narrative, and stylistic interpretations of the poems is made. The results also indicate the potential of enhancing the reliability of the corpus-based analysis of literary texts, especially when corpora were extensive. A significant implication of the study was found to be that the corpus-tools could play a crucial role in promoting learner autonomy in a traditionally teacher-led literature classroom. Keywords Concordance · Collocation · Corpus analysis · Literary texts · Word frequency

1 Corpus Linguistics and Literary Studies The use of corpus tools in literary scholarship is rare, even after significant advancements made in the field of applied linguistics in particular and digital humanities in general (Bornet & Kaplan, 2017; Ganascia, 2015; Pace-Sigge, 2013; Moretti, 2005; Schmitt, 2004. Though there has been some research available under the domain in corpus stylistics (Hubbard 2002; Stubbs 2005), there is a general lack of trust in S. Zafar (B) Department of English, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda 151401, Punjab, India e-mail: [email protected] Z. A. Khan Department of Biotech Engineering & Food Technology, Chandigarh University, Mohali 140301, Punjab, India © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021 D. Mishra and Y. Chuang (eds.), Learning How to Learn Using Multimedia, Lecture Notes in Educational Technology, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-1784-3_6

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anything that is number-based in literary scholarship. This being one of the reasons why not much research has been conducted on literary texts using corpus methods, which are primarily empirical in nature. A quick look at the results in Google Scholar website using keywords “corpus,” “word frequency”/“collocation”/“concord” and “poetry,” “fiction,” etc. reveals a severe scarcity of published research in the literary field using corpus tools, generally from across the world and especially from India. Consequently, there is little awareness of how computer-based tools can be employed for teaching and researching literary texts. In a corpus (a collection of naturally occurring words), the word frequency list is populated by the most frequently occurring words in a corpus, whereas concordance is the contextualized example of language usage within the corpus. Additionally, a collocate displays this context in detail. The present chapter intends to contribute to the existing literature and initiate an investigation of word frequencies and collocations in the selected works of some of the prominent figures from English poetry of the Modern period to explore how the results of the methods and results of the study can be further utilized in an English literature classroom.

1.1 Corpus Tools in Language and Literature Classrooms Usage of corpus tools in an English as a Second Language (ESL) classroom is gaining currency (Casan-Pitarch, 2015; Grigoryan, 2016; Lee, 2015; McEnery & Xiao, 2010) and though some research has been conducted to investigate the use of corpus tools for teaching literary texts in the context of their stylistic features—an aspect of these texts more adaptable to corpus analysis (Römer, 2006), there has been little done to incorporate corpus-based research in literature classes as a regular feature. Most courses focussing on literary texts, especially in India, involve a general explanation of key themes, characters, and questions expected for end-term examinations. All this often requires using a print version of the primary text and notes, prepared, borrowed, or purchased from the market. Students are often not required to participate in any discussions and mostly listen to the lecture being delivered. There is little student-led initiative required during the sessions, thus leading to a general tendency of passive listening on the part of the learner.

2 Methodology For the study, four poems of W. B. Yeats, “The Lake Isle of Innisfree” (1890), “The Second Coming” (1920), “A Prayer for My Daughter” (1921) and “Sailing to Byzantium” (1928) were selected. T. S. Eliot’s masterpiece, the long poem, The Waste Land (1922) was included in addition to W. H. Auden’s poems, “The Unknown Citizen” (1940), “In Memory of W. B. Yeats” (1940), “September 1, 1939” (1939) and “The Shield of Achilles” (1955). All these poems are considered to represent

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poems of the Modern period of English literature (1888–1949). English poetry of the Modern period, which comprises the present corpus, is believed to be the poetry of disillusionment, expressing the general despair of these poets with the world around them (Hubbel, 1956). This was, sometimes due to personal reasons and, sometimes due to times they were living in, the times of the great World Wars, the Russian revolution, Nazi Germany, the destructive effects of the industrialization of the modern civilization, and an overall sense of disorientation due to Darwinian, Marxist and Freudian theories that shook the foundations of long-held traditional beliefs of the Western civilization. The present corpus was deliberately kept small to reflect the number of literary texts usually studied in a typical English literature course at the undergraduate level in India. To prepare a corpus, the texts of the poems were first copied from the website www.poets.org and pasted in.txt files separately, as required by the corpus analysis software. Next, the texts from all the files were uploaded to AntConc software, which had already been downloaded. The analysis of the uploaded texts was conducted using the Word List and Collocates features of AntConc. Laurence Anthony’s program AntConc was chosen as the software to analyze the data. It is free to download at www.laurenceanthony.net and has powerful tools such as word frequency lists, a KWIC (keyword in context) concordance, and collocation generators ranked according to the raw frequency. In the context of the empirical nature of the study, it was expected that the following research questions could be answered: 1. 2.

What are the most frequent words in the selected corpus? What are the most frequent collocations of the most frequent noun and verb in the selected corpus?

The answers to above-listed research questions are also expected to reveal some patterns that provide empirical evidence related to what has long been believed to be some of the lexical features of Modernist English poetry.

3 Interpretation and Discussion of Findings The following are some of the findings related to word-frequency and collocation and concordance analysis related to the selected text.

3.1 Word Frequency The results of the wordlist analysis reveal the following: To begin with, the Word List function of AntConc was run and results revealed were on the expected lines that the most frequent words would be function words, mostly comprising of articles and prepositions—the, and, of , a and, in were the top five most frequent words in

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Table 1 Word frequency list Occurrence

Occurrence

Occurrence

Occurrence

Occurrence

1 390 the 2 198 and 3 173 of 4 149 a 5 109 in 6 87 to 7 83 i 8 60 is 9 52 that 10 50 his 11 43 you 12 42 he 13 39 on 14 39 xa 15 37 was 16 36 or 17 35 what 18 34 with 19 32 it 20 31 but

21 31 there 22 30 are 23 30 for 24 30 s 25 29 at 26 28 by 27 28 her 28 26 my 29 25 no 30 24 from 31 24 one 32 24 out 33 23 as 34 22 can 35 22 we 36 22 were 37 21 all 38 20 its 39 20 she 40 20 upon

41 19 man 42 19 who 43 18 have 44 18 o 45 18 said 46 18 their 47 17 not 48 16 me 49 16 water 50 15 if 51 15 this 52 15 where 53 14 be 54 14 dead 55 14 only 56 14 over 57 14 when 58 13 do 59 13 had 60 13 into

61 13 nothing 62 13 so 63 12 day 64 12 down 65 12 never 66 12 now 67 12 t 68 12 under 69 12 up 70 11 an 71 11 our 72 11 rock 73 11 they 74 11 time 75 11 which 76 11 x 77 10 night 78 10 those 79 10 your 80 9 each

81 9 eyes 82 9 heart 83 9 know 84 9 old 85 9 shall 86 8 death 87 8 jug 88 8 like 89 8 mountains 90 8 white 91 7 air 92 7 another 93 7 children 94 7 city 95 7 dry 96 7 hands 97 7 here 98 7 light 99 7 living 100 7 long

#Word Types: 1962 #Word Tokens: 5795 #Search Hits: 0

the corpus of 1962 Word Types and 5795 Word Tokens. With the aim of finding meaningful chunks of language from the corpus, they were ignored as search words. To answer the first research question, the frequency list for the most common content words in this corpus, shown below in Table 1, was prepared: As shown in Table 1, the top most frequent content words are state verbs “is,” “was,” and “are,” reflecting the descriptive nature of the poems. Additionally, the most frequent non-copula content word is “no,” indicating the pessimistic attitude reflected in the poems. Interestingly, the most frequently used non-verb form is “man.” This illustrates the fact that most of the subject matter of the poems is focused on the issues affecting the “man” of modern times. The term ‘man’ here is used as a representative term, synonymous with “humanity,” including the term “woman.” Table 1 also reveals that the most common non-copula verb used in the corpus is “said,” indicating the narrative and dialogic structure of the poems. Additionally, nouns such as “water” and “dead” follow “man” as the second and third most frequent nouns.

3.2 Collocates and Concordances of the Noun “Man” To answer the second research question, the collocation analysis of the most frequent noun “man” in the frequency list (Table 1) was carried out. The results, as shown in

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Fig. 1 Collocates of “man”

Fig. 1, reveal that the article “the” tops the list with a frequency of 6, followed by the preposition “of” and article “a”: This result was on expected lines, considering that “man” is a common noun requiring an article in general. The most frequent non-article and non-propositional collocate of “man” turn out to be “old,” followed by “young,” indicating an anonymous representation of the term “man” in the corpus. The concordance of the term “man” as shown in Fig. 2 demonstrates that the term is spread almost equally over

Fig. 2 Concordance of “man”

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the texts of the three poets, indicating a prominent tendency of a masculine voice in their poems.

3.3 Collocates and Concordances of the Verb “Said” An analysis of the most common non-copula verb used in the corpus “said” reveals that the most frequent collocates of the verb were the pronouns “I,” “she,” and “he” (Fig. 3). A close look at the concordance function in Fig. 4 shows that almost all of these instances are to be found in The Waste Land by T.S. Eliot, a poem with multiple speakers/narrators corroborating with the fragmentary nature of the poem itself. The results, as shown in Fig. 4, are on expected lines as the speakers are referred to using pronouns “I,” “he,” and “she.” However, their frequency was relatively low (3 each) and most of these collocations were a part of the poem The Waste Land. This pattern illustrates the thematic as well as conversational concerns of the poem. Additionally, the fact that the poems of the other texts, by W. B. Yeats and W. H. Auden, do not seem to show much in terms of word frequency and collocations of the term, as displayed in the results, might illustrate the fact that the diction and syntax of their poems were more varied and experimental. This also highlights the fact that the corpus needed to be larger for better visibility patterns of concordance and better explorations vis a vis poetic output of Yeats and Auden.

Fig. 3 Collocates of “said”

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Fig. 4 Concordance of “said”

3.4 Implications for English Literature Classrooms Whereas corpus studies, being imperial in nature and depending on computer-based tools which can be inaccessible in some contexts, are often thought to be more suitable for linguistic-oriented quantitative research, there are many aspects to these methods that can facilitate literary studies as well: • First, The results of corpus-tool based explorations can reveal, lexically and syntactically, patterns in the text that may remain elusive to a detailed reading of the printed version, for example, the recurrent collocation of the word said’ with the three pronouns “I,” “he,” and “she” reveals not just the speech-act (direct) involved but also indicate toward a multiplicity of voices in the text. This can lead to an enhanced and multi-faceted appreciation of the literary text. • Secondly, the corpus tools for the study of literature can also help expose literature students to the possibilities and prospects of the field of digital humanities, a field still relatively unknown and unexplored in India, especially in English departments. • This, in turn, can motivate students to explore further and undertake corpus and digital tools-based investigations in the vastly unexplored domain of Indian literature, including Indian English literature. • Additionally, learner autonomy, which has become the cornerstone of the latest teaching approaches, can be promoted with the help of these corpus tools. The students can be encouraged to initiate their own mini-projects in the study of a literary text. This, in turn, can lead to enhanced motivation, involvement, and sense of accomplishment.

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• Lastly, to attract the post-modern and post-industrial young generation of digital natives to English departments in the era of “crisis of the humanities,” it is essential that the teaching and learning methods in these departments and desciplines are adapted and updated to suit the contemporary patterns of teaching and learning.

4 Conclusion Usage of corpus tools for literary analysis is not a common practice in English. The present study attempted to initiate and explore the viability of usage such tools in English literary studies, especially in India. The results reveal that there is a possibility of the emergence of collocation patterns in literary texts as well, even though the writing style of a writer can vary according to the time, location, and temperament of the writer. The results also revealed that preparing a large corpus of literary texts would be a prerequisite for the emergence of more robust and more reliable collocation patterns to emerge. Thus, the results of this exploratory study serve to direct future practitioners of corpus analysis of literary texts toward some pointers for a more methodologically rigorous corpus-based analysis of literary texts. Even though access to digital devices is still not universal, the more widespread and cheaper availability of smart data and digital devices would be able to encourage the use of these valuable corpus tools as well. The results of the study will be of interest to literary researchers of English poetry of the Modern period, in particular, and to teachers and scholars working with literary texts, in general.

References Auden, W. H. (1939). September 1, 1939 by W. H. Auden - Poems | Academy of American Poets. Retrieved 21 September 2020, from https://poets.org/poem/september-1-1939. Auden, W. H. (1940). In Memory of W. B. Yeats by W. H. Auden—Poems|poets.org. Retrieved 21 September 2020, from https://poets.org/poem/memory-w-b-yeats. Auden, W. H. (1940). The Unknown Citizen by W. H. Auden—Poems|Academy of American Poets. Retrieved 21 September 2020, from https://poets.org/poem/unknown-citizen. Auden, W. H. (1955). The shield of achilles by W. H. Auden—Poems|poets.org. Retrieved 21 September 2020, from https://poets.org/poem/shield-achilles. Bornet, C., & Kaplan, F. (2017). A simple set of rules for characters and place recognition in French novels. Frontiers in Digital Humanities, 4(6). https://doi.org/10.3389/fdigh.2017.00006. Casan-Pitarch, R. (2015). The genre ‘about us’: A case study of banks’ corporate webpages. International Journal of Language Studies, 9(2), 69–96. Eliot, T. S. (1922). The Waste Land by T. S. Eliot—Poems|Academy of American Poets. Retrieved 21 September 2020, from https://poets.org/poem/waste-land. Ganascia, J. G. (2015). The logic of the big data turn in digital literary studies. Frontiers in Digital Humanities, 2(7). https://doi.org/10.3389/fdigh.2015.00007. Grigoryan, T. (2016). Using learner corpora in language teaching. International Journal of Language Studies, 10(1), 71–90. Hubbell, L. W. (1956). Some characteristics of modern poetry. Doshisha Literature, 19(1), 20.

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Hubbard, E. H. (2002). Conversation, characterization and corpus linguistics: Dialogue in Jane Austen’s sense and sensibility. Literator: Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies, 23(2), 67–85. Lee, J.-Y. (2015). The use of English phrasal verbs in American spoken corpora: A comparative analysis of an academic spoken corpus and a casual conversation corpus. International Journal of Language Studies, 9(2), 27–48. McEnery, T., & Xiao, R. (2010). What corpora can offer in language teaching and learning. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of Research In Second Language Teaching And Learning (Vol. 2, pp. 364–380). London & New York: Routledge. Moretti, F. (2005). Graphs, Maps, Trees: Abstract Models for a Literary History. London: Verso. Pace-Sigge, M. (2013). The concept of Lexical Priming in the context of language use. ICAME, 37, 149–174. Römer, U. (2006). Where the computer meets language, literature, and pedagogy: Corpus analysis in English studies. In A. Gerbig & A. Müller-Wood (Eds.), How Globalization Affects the Teaching of English: Studying Culture Through Texts (pp. 81–109). Lampeter: Mellen Press. Schmitt, N. (2004). Formulaic Sequences: Acquisition, Processing and Use. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Stubbs, M. (2005). Conrad in the computer: Examples of quantitative stylistic methods. Language and Literature, 14(1), 5–24. Yeats, W. B (1928). Sailing to Byzantium by W. B. Yeats—Poems|Academy of American Poets. Retrieved 21 September 2020, from https://poets.org/poem/sailing-byzantium. Yeats, W. B. (1890). The Lake Isle of Innisfree by W. B. Yeats—Poems|poets.org. Retrieved 21 September 2020, from https://poets.org/poem/lake-isle-innisfree. Yeats, W. B. (1920). The Second Coming by W. B. Yeats—Poems|Academy of American Poets. Retrieved 21 September 2020, from https://poets.org/poem/second-coming. Yeats, W. B. (1921). A Prayer for my Daughter by W. B. Yeats—Poems|poets.org. Retrieved 21 September 2020, from https://poets.org/poem/prayer-my-daughter.

E-learning as an Aid to Face Challenges of Koreans to Learn English as a Second Language in Korea Deepanjali Mishra and Minhyeong Lee

Abstract Colonization has had a huge impact on the implementation of English over the world. India, Australia, America South Africa have been considered some countries that are directly affected by colonization. In these countries, English is a natural language spoken by most people, such as a native speaker. However, some countries, such as South Korea, Japan, China, Thailand, etc., have not been colonized by British rule, and therefore, they do not have English as their preferred language. However, due to globalization, and the surge in their business worldwide, it became necessary for these counties to learn English because English is the language for interaction and is the gateway for all education and business opportunities across the world. The need for students to learn English makes it necessary for the government of non-speaking countries to incorporate the language in their curriculum. Therefore, this paper attempts to emphasize the challenges faced by non-native Korean English speakers and explore some probabilities of implementing e-learning as a methodology that can be incorporated as a pedagogy to learn English as a second language in Korea. Keywords E-learning · Korean students · Globalization · Pedagogy

1 Introduction The literature on colonialism tends to focus on Europe’s economic exploitation of many regions and people around the world and Europeans’ use of excessive force toward the latter. While these issues are undoubtedly of great importance, it is equally important to understand the cultural and, specifically the linguistic and discursive practices that came to be associated with European colonial rule. Some argue that the historical and current bloodshed of western imperialism has transformed the English language into a universal tool of communication. Through centuries of colonialism, D. Mishra (B) School of Humanities, KIIT University India, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751024, India M. Lee School in Department of Practical English, Korea National Open University, Seoul, South Korea © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021 D. Mishra and Y. Chuang (eds.), Learning How to Learn Using Multimedia, Lecture Notes in Educational Technology, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-1784-3_7

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neocolonialism, Cold War expansionism, and, most recently, globalization, the West has spread its preferred systems of capitalism, democracy, and moral values. The British, until the beginning of the twentieth century, and more recently the Americans, have emerged as the major sources of foreign influence throughout the globe. As a result of this, contemporary English is detached from any specific cultural identity; it is a tool that links different societies in an increasingly smaller world. World leadership passed to the United States in the course of the two world wars. With the spread of films, radio, television, and globalization, English has attained an even more dominant position as a world language. Technical development and international communication have confirmed the position of English in the world. Today, there are about 400 million people who have English as their first language or mother tongue. More than this, have English as their second language. These are mainly people living in former British colonies, people who also often have a native tongue. Being so widespread, English picks up words from other languages. English has, as opposed to French, always been willing to adopt words. Listen to these examples from “Journeys in English” by Bill Bryson.

2 Review of Literature As Rafael Trelles, a member of the Puerto Rican Independentista Party claims, People dedicate their time and resources to learning and perfecting their understanding and knowledge of English, rather than preserving their own customs and culture. Christopher Muscato has stated, “Each of these languages has its own colonial history, and each helped spread European empires. As with the ancient Romans, early modern European empires used their own tongues as the administrative language, requiring local chiefs and officials to master it as well. Colonial languages were the language of politics, which meant that a lack of fluency was a natural barrier preventing many colonized people from gaining political power. Rather than being an Englishspeaking entity that is invaded or conquered and acquiring new words, English is now at the forefront of globalization. Globalization is simply a more ‘socially acceptable’ means of imperialism, without violence.” (Corradi). English influences communication worldwide by being the standard language for science, technology and other important fields, making it seem more important than learning other languages. A possible solution suggested by Robert Phillipson is to continue teaching English but also to stress the importance of multilingualism (Burns). English dominates communication globally, and it is vitally important for all teachers and native speakers of the English language to realize their privilege in the world and to not act as linguistic imperialists in the classroom. The year 2015 is marked as the 132nd year of English education since the first English school, Dongmoonhak, was founded in 1883. However, it remains undeniable that Korea is one of the countries from the Expanding Circle (Kachru 1985) where English is used neither as an official nor as a second language. At the same time, the active use of English among Korean speakers makes it hard to argue that English is unpopular in Korea. A huge amount of money is

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spent on English education every year. According to a Korean daily newspaper, “The Hankyoreh”, the amount reached up to 20 trillion won (approximately $20 billion) in 2006 (Park 2009). Hundreds of thousands of English teachers are “imported” to Korea every year. Most, if not all, English teachers are required to be native speakers, as Koreans believe that native speakers are the best teachers of English.

3 An Analysis of The Challenges Faced by The Korean Students in the Cultural Environment Korean students face huge challenges while learning a second language, especially English. Some of them are as follows: Types of Challenges: – Grammatical The Korean students used to studied English during their school days usually from mid-level. But now the situation has changed, and Koreans start learning English from 3rd standard itself, that is, when they are 10 years when they are in the elementary school. There are even many kindergartens to teach English for the basic words or sentences. But the problem young learners faced right now is that the students usually concentrate on Grammar-use studying from the teachers. And the Grammars teaching methodology is more conventional and classical, which has never changed since then. The topics that were discussed was the same as it was being taught years ago. Even in the twenty-first century, when the use of smartphones and the internet are very common among learners, the methodology must be evolved. The Grammar of English is quite different from the Korean language Hangul, especially in the word order systems. It is very important to teach how it was different from each other. Therefore a unique, analytic method of approach is needed. But in Korea, many students are overloaded with the number of studies in a school and in after-school called as Hagwon the private education. The students do not get time to read and study English due to their very heavy work pressure and the assignments they get in their schools. Another thing is when they get to see the English textbooks in their 3rd or 5th grade, those books are quite difficult to understand for the young learner to understand as a beginner’s book. So it is very necessary to change into a more easy and more interactive textbook for the school children. There is not much experience to interact with foreign English teachers by students. When students are in their middle level or even higher level they did not have a foreign teacher to teach English. But now the situation is mostly changed, so many foreign teachers are working in the school these days. That is encouraging. But even so, the students do not have much time to interact with the foreign teacher who is a native speaker of English. From elementary school children to even high school ones use the private teachers who are in the Philippines or southern Asian countries through the online program. They even prefer going abroad to Europe or America, such as Canada or the USA,

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for the vacation (in the summer and winter when they finished their semesters) program. They have to pay more money to learn English in foreign countries, such as the USA or UK. Sometimes it becomes very difficult for the students of Korea to go abroad and pursue their studies and enroll themselves in different English programs because they are unable to afford it due to poverty. Therefore it is very important for Korea to appoint faculties from English-speaking countries, such as the USA, UK, Australia, etc., who are best qualified to teach English. – Analyzing the Sentence structure Most students in the school are being taught by their Korean teachers, especially in elementary school, as writing and reading the sentences of English. I think that is more passive teaching, not self-leading teaching which is very commonly experienced by almost all the Koreans. It must be changed more to bring about interactive and mutual learning for English. It should not just read, and the sentence is interpreted, but also there should be constant interaction and conversations with the faculties. Speaking English is more than itself; it gives confidence and satisfaction when studying English. English teaching and learning is a continuous process that was initiated long ago and is still continuing. Korean students usually have learned English, such as a natural process, remembering the vocabulary, Grammars, and sentences. It was more passive and only preparing for the exam in the school. Those experiences are reaching to these days as the example shows us that we see some foreigners ask some questions on the street with simple English, but not even hard to understand it, the person who meets the foreigner does not answer it easily or hardly answer to, even if he or she graduated the high school or university. Have to change the learning TESOL or methods into real and practical use, especially for speaking and listening English too. – English as a means to the testing tool Korea has the world’s top education eagerness by the parents. School students are studying late in the night after finishing the school program and going to have a private education. That is because those students and parents want to go a high level university to succeed in society. That may be the same situation all over the developed countries or in developing ones. But Korea is in a more serious situation. It is too eager to enter the top universities, so parents spend much money to upgrade the grade or results from the school. English is the language to use in normal life and some good tool for interacting with other people and also, to study their major in university through English-written books. But these days, English is only used as a testing tool for how the students are well done in the school or high ranking in the national Scholastic Ability Test. So, as second language learners, Korea has to change the policies on how to well teach their students. Not just for test-takers, but to learn English as a pure language to enjoy itself the learning pleasure, and interact with foreign persons in a whole world as the communicating tool. The reason for this claim is that S. Korea (from now Korea) is one of the best-developed countries in the world. The very fastest speed of internet and smartphone users of Korea are also wonderful merits to E-learning system for English as a 2nd language. As of the year 2020, smartphone users are almost 95%

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of the population in Korea (quoted by: https://www.statista.com/statistics/321408/ smartphone-user-penetration-in-south-korea/). It means that quite many people can afford to the E-learning system by the portable devices, such as a smartphone or laptops or pads. And plus more benefits, Korea has achieved the first country in the world that launched 5G speed. With the top company of manufacturing smartphones, such as Samsung and LG, it has a good infrastructure of doing the Elearning. The parents of Korean are more concerning the educational achievements or goals of their children. Entering a famous university is the top priority in a family that has a student. Similar to other developed countries, Korea has also suffered the job creation for young people and graduates from college. When getting a good condition of the paychecks, most graduates want to have the high-paying jobs. In this course, English skills are a base condition for those whom want to have that job. So, with all options and conditions in the ground of Korea prepared, Korea is very fitted in the environment of E-learning. With Covid 19, Korea is struggling well with that virus, even in school too. Schools in Korea are teaching through internet-based devices. It is going well for the infrastructure of the internet already launched decades ago. It provides people from kids to the elderly and older to approach the E based systems very quickly. (1)

E-learning As An Aid To Overcome The Challenges.

The reason for this claim is that S. Korea or Korea, as it is commonly understood, is one of the best-developed countries in the world. The very fastest speed of internet and smartphone users of Korea are also wonderful merits to E-learning system for English as a 2nd language. As of the year 2020, smartphone users are almost 95% of the population in Korea (quoted by : https://www.statista.com/statistics/321408/ smartphone-user-penetration-in-south-korea/). It means that quite many people can afford to the E-learning system by the portable devices, such as a smartphone or laptops or pads. Added to this, another benefit is Korea has achieved the distinction of being the first country in the world that launched 5G speed. With the top company of manufacturing smartphones, such as Samsung and LG, it has a good infrastructure of conducting E-learning teaching techniques. The parents of Korean students are more concerned about the educational achievements or goals of their children. Entering a famous university is the top priority in a family that has a student. Similar to other developed countries, Korea has also suffered the job creation for the young people and graduates from the college. When getting a good condition of the paychecks, most graduates want to have high-paying jobs. In this course, English skills are a base condition for those whom want to have that job. So, with all options and conditions in the ground of Korea, it is very fitted in the environment of E-learning. With Covid 19, Korea is struggling well with that virus, even in school too. Schools in Korea are teaching through internet-based devices. It is going well for the infrastructure of the internet already launched decades ago. It provides people from kids to the elderly and older to approach the E based systems very quickly.

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(2)

Why Koreans suffer in learning English: An analysis into the cultural and historical environment.

In the year 1863, the leader of Joseon dynasty thought that outside influence could impact his regime, so he tried to block the border and keep away from the outside influence. Mostly those are France, USA, and some other western countries. Japan was colonizing the Korean peninsula as of 1910. When the westerners are coming into Korea, most are Christian missionaries. France, too, wants to transmit Catholicism. The leader of that time killed many Fathers and believers for the religion. USA also did the same like that, but it is not easy to broke the mind of the leader or political boundaries. That would affect English learning chances and delayed western educations, such as Medical, Languages, and Developed Mechanics, to help people more live in comfortable conditions. Because Joseon dynasty is the country totally involved in Confucianism since 1392 when it was launched by the King Taejo Lee sung-gye. Joseon is quite a different nation compared with Goryeo, which has Buddhism as the national religion, which is only one case by the dynasty in the history of Korea, designated as the national religion. Confucianism is more administrative ideology than Buddhism, more strict and more loyal to the monarch. It came from China, and Korea also has been affected by that country since 6CE. When Japan colonized Korea, all Korean have to use Japanese in school and even changed their name, such as Japanese style. Japan was harsher when it colonized Korea, very unlike Taiwan and other countries which colonized by Japan. This is historical background since the Three Kingdoms age. Japan was invading many times since then, mostly known as the Imjin war in 1592. In this background, the Japanese wasn’t survived even now in Korea , and Korean Not use it normally, even if Korea suffered almost 35 years of colonial days. During the time of Colonial by Japan, English text book had been taught to the students. In those days, most textbooks are translated by Japanese scholars from western’s textbook, such as mathematics and English. English curriculum was not excellent at those times and only to teach students as a basic course to let them work in the factories or in any other place to labor them. Korean students do not have many chances to upgrade their status. Those systems are not all disappeared even now, when it comes to the English Curriculum but nowadays much better than before. Those are cultural and historical environments. (3)

The difficulties faced by Korean to learn English well.

In the curriculum, Much have not been changed since we begin learning English in school. Even we use digital devices in the fields of education, but teachers and students are not much interactive with each other to speak English or use English in class. So, two-way education methodology is critically needed now, and some changes in how to teach students should we need. Korea is not a nation that normally used the Alphabet characters but only Chinese until fifteenth century, which was actually in the era when King Sejong made the Korean Character Hangul. And the word order is the same, such as Japanese, but different from Chinese. Because Japan

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has been affected by Korea peninsula since Three Kingdom age, especially Gaya and Shilla and Backje. The hardest thing to learn English is the difference in grammar between English and Hangul. Chinese is a little same, such as English word order, but Japanese does not. That is why The Korean and Japanese are one of the most hard to learn from the western people, and in reverse, too. So easily approaching English grammar and the other tools would be needed in learning English and E-learning systems.

4 Means to Develop Non-native Skills In analyzing the feverish conditions of English education and setting up measures or counter-measures, we should always remember that there is no royal road to learning English. In spite of the development of high-tech civilization facilities that make our daily lives much more convenient, the basic ways to learn English have not been so changed over the years. There is no secret formula to study English quickly. And early education is no the panacea for all.

5 Conclusion Therefore it can be concluded that Korean learners face issues while learning English even though they have a huge craze for the language. However, digital learning has proved to be beneficial to them, and it has been a “ boon in disguise” for them as it provides them an instant medium for enhancing their English language acquisition. Not only that, e-learning motivates them through a varied database, techniques that are easy and convenient for them to use.

References How Koreans see Westerners. Retrieved January 18, 2016, from https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=-JRkK6P8a9Y. Bandy, S. L. (2016). MATL & MA The Fundamentals of Teaching English as a Foreign Language by International TEFL Academy. Burns, A. (2013). Is English a form of linguistic imperialism? Retrieved from https://www.britis hcouncil.org/voices-magazine/english-form-linguistic-imperialism. Byung-soo, P. (in Korean). English Fever, What is Problems?. Hangul (Korean Alphabet) Foundation, pp. 1–6. http://www.hangul.or.kr/M10-20001-3.htm. Christopher, M. (2021). Nation State: Definition, Examples and Characteristics. https://study.com/ academy/lesson/nation-state-definition-examplescharacteristics.html. Retrieved on 17 june 2021. Corradi, A. (2017). The Linguistic Colonialism of English. Retrieved from http://www.brownpoli ticalreview.org/2017/04/linguistic-colonialism-english/.

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Da-ye, K. (2012). How far Can English Education Go? The Korean Times. Accessed October 7, 2012. https://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/technology-and-learning/who-should-read-bill-bryson% E2%80%99s-%E2%80%98-body%E2%80%99. Jeon, H. C. & Choi, H. S. (in Korean) (2006). The Economics of English. Samsung Economic Research Institute (SERI)(578). Lee, H. E. (in Korean) (2007). English village and relocating reality. Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies, 51(4). Lee, K. W. (in Korean). Achebe and Ngugi: Two Modes of Postcolonial Resistance. In/Outside, English Studies in Korea, vol. 12. Lee, S. R. (in Korean) (2004). English Empire and Politicization of English Education. In: Comparative Literature, Seoul: Korean Literary Society of Comparative Literature, vol. 33. Kim, S. J. (in Korean) (2008) Television discourse on english education fever—narrative analyses of twelve current-affairs documentaries. Korean Journal of Broadcasting and Telecommunication Studies, 22(5). Kim, S. Y. (2008). English Frenzy Grips Koreans. Korea Times. Accessed February 5, 2008. Onish, N. (2008). For English Studies, Koreans Say Goodbye to Dad. The New York Times. Accessed June 8, 2008. Park, B. S. (in Korean) (2009). English fever, What is problems? Hangul (Korean Alphabet) Foundation. http://www.hangul.or.kr/M10-20001-3.htm.

Research Contribution to the Progress of Digital Learning in India Mahender Reddy Gavinolla , Sampada Kumar Swain , and Agita Livina

Abstract In the era of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Elearning and digitalization of education are considered to deliver a wide array of benefits that enhance knowledge and performance of the teaching and learning process in higher education institutes, leading to improved learning and teaching efficiency. Integration of digital technologies in education reduces barriers to access education and provides an opportunity for all. In this connection, the Government of India has taken several initiatives to integrate ICT in education, such as online teaching-learning programs through various platforms and organizations. While digital learning breaks several barriers of access to education for all, there are several limitations and issues to access digital education such as poor internet connectivity and bandwidth, lack of digital infrastructure, cost implications, training and development, and unfavorable study environment to address. It is in this regard, to better understand the state of digital education in India, the state of knowledge of research over the years, particularly the implications and impacts of digital education in India, is essential. In this regard, the aim of the study is to know the trends and progress of research in digital education in India. The bibliometric analysis of digital education research in India provides a better understanding of the trends and state of the art of research both for researchers and practitioners. In doing so, authors conducted a bibliometric analysis of digital education research in India terms yearwise and journal-wise publication output, productive authors, country-wise contribution, subject area-wise and funding sponsor-wise publication output, keyword and citation analysis. The study was conducted using the online Scopus database of the documents published on digital education till 2020. The study result shows that the progress of digital education research in India has increased over the years the research output published in top-tier journals was limited. Authors who have been affiliated to Indian universities contributed the most. Major research themes were M. R. Gavinolla (B) National Institute of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Hyderabad, India S. K. Swain Department of Tourism Management, Pondicherry Central University, Pondicherry, India A. Livina Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences (VUAS), Valmiera, Latvia © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021 D. Mishra and Y. Chuang (eds.), Learning How to Learn Using Multimedia, Lecture Notes in Educational Technology, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-1784-3_8

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E-learning, distance education, digital literacy, medical education, mobile learning, digital India, simulation, virtual labs, MOOCS, and COVID-19 pandemic. Keywords Digital education · Online education · E-learning · India · Bibliometrics

1 Background Education made remarkable impacts on modern society, and now the concept of “Right to education” moved to “Education for all” across the globe, including India (Hazra et al., 2019a, b). The integration of the internet and ICT in education brought a remarkable transformation in higher education (Hasan & Naskar, 2020). There has been increased adoption of E-learning platforms due to several advantages (Thanji & Vasantha, 2016). In the era of information technology, E-learning is considered to deliver a wide array of solutions that enhance knowledge and performance of the teaching and learning process in higher education institutes (Rosenberg, 2001), improved learning and teaching efficiency (Gonzalez et al. 2020). Several online learning and teaching platforms enable the learners to obtain skill, knowledge, and certification programs initiated by various higher educational institutes. For example, Harvard and MIT initiated edX, a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) provider, in 2012 with the aim to increase the accessibility of high-quality education for all in parts of the world and also to maximize on-campus and online teaching and learning (Gaebel, 2014). MOOCS is widely adopted in higher educational institutes across the globe due to its added advantages (Fadzil et al., 2015; Burd et al., 2015; Dennis, 2012), and it is considered to be a game-changer in developing countries (Warusavitarana et al., 2014). Digitalization in education is the need of the era, and the Government of India has been taking several initiatives in this regard (Saxena & Joshi, 2019). E-leaning is a popular learning approach followed by several higher educational institutes in various parts of the world, including India, influenced by the increased usage of information and communication technology (Muniasamy & Ejalani, 2014). Many universities in India are integrating the e-learning method as a new and trending approach due to various added advantages compared to the traditional classroom settings (Ratna & Mehra, 2015). Integration of ICT in education and implementing various e-learning platforms will provide several benefits and access to the citizens, such as accessibility to rural population to avail educational services (Gulati, 2008), access to the disabled people (Seale, 2013; Singh & Mahapatra, 2019) opportunity to the education for economically weaker section (Khan & Williams, 2006). Considering the added advantages of E-learning and also to overcome this issue of access for education for all, the Government of India has come up with several initiatives with various e-learning platforms to provide education to the citizens of the country (Sharma, 2003). For instance, National e-Governance Plan was initiated in the year 2006 with the aim of “providing the government services accessible to the common people in

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their locality, through common service delivery outlets and ensure efficiency, transparency and reliability of such services at affordable costs to realize the basic needs of the common man” (Chauhan, 2009; Suklabaidya & Sen, 2013). In this initiative, education is considered as one of the major sectors with the aim of providing access to higher education with equity and while considering the vulnerability and it is also believed to be promoting infrastructure, quality education, improving academic reforms, and institutional restructuring (Chandra & Bhadoria, 2012). SWAYAM is one such E-learning platform and MOOC provider in India by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, and All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) in four quadrants, namely video lecture, reading materials, selfassessment tests, and online discussion (Kanjilal & Kaul, 2016; SWAYAM, 2018). Further several programs were initiated by various organizations in India, such as National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL) for engineering programs (Ananth, 2011), Consortium for Educational Communication (CEC) for undergraduate Educational program (Chakrvarty & Kaur, 2008), National Council of Educational Research Training (NCERT) and National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) for School Education (Agarwal, 2013), Indian Institute of Management Bangalore (IIMB) for management studies have been appointed to provide quality materials (Bansode, 2019). Digital India campaign was launched in 2015 by the Government of India in order to ensure the improved digital services and online infrastructure to make the country digitally empowered in the field of technology and also education (Amit Prakash, 2017). In this background, several studies highlighted the implications of the integration of digital technology and e-learning platforms in various platforms in various contexts. For instance, a study conducted on the benefits of digital technology to train community health workers in delivering the psychological treatment for depression in rural India was found beneficial (Muke et al., 2019). Mehzbin et al. (2019) explored the feasibility of the Acute Care Providers Project (ACPP) to remotely train community members in India found to be useful to train lay individuals to provide basic health care in the rural areas. Another study focusing on E-learning in medical education said that the use of E-learning resulted in greater educational opportunities for both students and teachers. A study focused on the innovative use of information and communication technology (ICT) in Indian distance educational programs can improve the educational and living standards of the community (Berman, 2008). A study conducted on SAARC Countries including India mentioned that these countries are facing several problems in accessing the E-learning educational services and suggested that the integration of ICT in education will solve several educational barriers (Hazra & Mukherjee, 2019). Diwakar explored the trend in establishing remote laboratories or virtual labs as a learning and teaching platform in south Indian villages (Diwakar et al., 2016). In this regard, a study conducted on the first Indian digital village called Akodara in Gujarat revealed that the ICICI Bank adopted the village and implemented digital infrastructure, thereby transforming the school with digital technologies such as LCD projector and computer, audio-video experience. This has made the learning process interesting and conceptually clear to the students in the village (Saxena & Joshi, 2019). There is an increased importance

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and realization by the learners and providers of digital educational platforms and educational programs in India. For example, India’s leading E-commerce companies are offering E-learning material for formal education, certificate courses, E-books, coaching materials for competitive exams, online tests, etc. However, there are several issues such as trained manpower to deal with technological aspects and unavailability of high-speed internet connection and multimedia incompatibility issues (Thanji & Vasantha, 2016), lack of infrastructure and tools, and technologies (Frehywot et al., 2013). Due to the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, to reduce the disease outbreak, most of the countries imposed urgent lockdown strategies, and it has resulted in the closure of the educational institutes and shift toward virtual classroom teaching and learning in various educational institutions across the globe, including India (Patil & Naqvi, 2020). COVID-19 pandemic has provided the prospect to the digital revolution in the education system by adopting virtual lectures, teleconferencing, digital books, online examination, and interaction (Strielkowski, 2020; Rajhans et al., 2020; Kumar, 2020). This has further given an opportunity to realize the importance of e-learning and teaching, technology-based teaching aids. The transition of traditional learning and teaching to electronic-based one happened in a very short time. This was further seen as an opportunity and challenge both for teachers and learners (Patil & Naqvi, 2020). The online mode of education is discriminatory to poor and marginalized, and disabled students (Manzoor, 2020). An online survey aimed at understanding the digital connectivity, learning styles and experience, and mental health of young students of India during the COVID-19 crisis found that about 60% of the students had unlimited access to the internet while 40% faced bandwidth and speed limitations. Further, it was mentioned that the lockdown had pushed them to move toward online activities and lead to spending more than 6 h in front of a screen (Khattar et al., 2020). A study aimed at understanding the enabling and impeding factors of optometry education during the COVID-19 crisis revealed that 94% of optometry educators have moved to E-learning mode in a short time span with greater confidence. The use of multi-device supporting video conferencing tools, exclusive educational portals, and social media applications helped to have a rapid transition toward online education (Rajhans et al., 2020). Another study focused on West Bengal revealed that during the lockdown, about 70% of students were involved in E-learning, and also found that students have been facing problems of depression, anxiety, poor internet connectivity, and an unfavorable study environment at home. More importantly, students from remote areas and marginalized sections faced more problems during the pandemic (Kapasia et al., 2020). It is widely understood, based on the previous studies, that there are several positive implications of adopting e-learning or digital learning technology in Indian education. While digital learning breaks several barriers of access to education for all, it is important to consider that there are several limitations and issues such as poor internet connectivity and bandwidth, lack of digital infrastructure, cost implications, training and development, and unfavorable study environment, etc., to address. To better understand digital education in India, the state of knowledge of research over the years, particularly the implications and impacts of digital education in India,

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is essential to the practitioners and policymakers. In this regard, several studies examined various aspects of digital learning in India. However, to the best of the knowledge of the researchers, there are no studies focusing on bibliometric analysis in digital learning, especially in India. The bibliometric analysis of digital education research in India provides a better understanding of the trends and state of the art of research both for researchers and practitioners. In this regard, this study aims to clarify the extent of academic research in the area of digital education in India. In doing so, authors conducted a bibliometric analysis of digital education research in India in terms of year-wise publication output, journal-wise publication output, most productive authors wise publication output, authors affiliation-wise publication output, country-wise publication output, publication output based on the document type, subject area-wise publication output, funding sponsor-wise publication output, cluster analysis of research themes using keyword analysis and analysis of the most cited documents. The study was conducted using the online Scopus database of the documents published on digital education till 2020.

2 Methodological Framework Bibliometric analysis is an emerging approach widely used to understand the progress and map the growth and evolution of research in a specific discipline or on a particular ˇ topic over a period of time by using advanced tools (Zupic & Cater, 2015; Narin, 1977). To be specific bibliometric provides progress of discipline with a focus on the citations of authors, journals and countries, keywords, themes of the research, number of documents published in a field, and area-wise distribution of published research (Kurtz & Bollen, 2010). Scientific contributions of institutions measured are inextricably linked with their publications, citations, and author affiliation (Evren & Kozak, 2014; Nagpaul, 1995; Narin & Hamilton, 1996). The present study used the Scopus database for the analysis of data. Scopus is an abstract indexing database produced by Elsevier, and the database includes reviewed journals (Burnham, 2006). Research articles published in reviewed or recognized journals are considered as “certified knowledge” (Ramos-Rodrigues & Ruis-Navarro, 2004). Thus the study used the Scopus database for the analysis of related research of digital learning in India. Several software packages are available for conducting the bibliometric analysis, however VoS viewer (Van Eck & Waltman, 2010), and Tableau (Murray, 2013) are used for this study. VOS viewer version 1.6.12 is used to visualize authorprovided-keyword analysis, and tableau was used to show the year, country, subject area, funding organization-wise contribution of the research. There are several studies focused on various aspects of E-learning, and digital learning in the past are mentioned below. Bibliometric studies are applied in a wide variety of research areas includes Business Management, Tourism, Sociology, Anthropology, History, and Policy Studies (Zhao, 2011). A longitudinal study was conducted to know the trends in E-learning by using the bibliometric analysis. Study results found that there is a difference in their approach of e-learning between the

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leading countries that have adopted long back and the early adopter countries (Hung, 2012). A bibliometric study was conducted to understand the state of research in e-learning from 1989 to 2018 by using the Web of Science database, and the study presented the result of prominent authors, countries, collaborations, journals, and citations (Fatima & Abu, 2019), trends in scientific production of literature related to e-learning (Jalali et al., 2018), the collaboration of authors, productive countries and institutes in e-learning research by using the Scopus database (Tibaná-Herrera et al., 2018b). Several studies applied Bibliometrics analysis to know the growth and trends related to digital and e-learning by using Scopus database. For instance, an article used a scientometric and content analysis of the journals indexed in Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) visualized the trends in e-learning (Maurer & Khan, 2010), trends of e-learning literature indexed in the SSCI database from 1967 to 2009 (Chiang et al., 2010), E-Learning growth and trends (Aparicio et al., 2014), growth and impact of distance education journals (Zawacki-Richter et al., 2010). Another study explored the growth and development of E-learning related literature over five decades in Nigeria (Harande & Ladan, 2013). A bibliometric study used Scopus database and VOSViewer visualization application to map the trends and themes in “e-learning” (Tibaná-Herrera et al., 2018a). A paper focused on a biometric examination of library and information science research-related literature originated from India by using the data abstracted in “Library and Information Science Abstracts” (Patra & Chand, 2006). Authors carried out a bibliometric analysis of scientific production indexed in the online Scopus online database, and the database is accessed on October 3, 2020, applying keyword search “India” and “Digital education” or “Digital learning” or “Cyber learning” or “Online education” or “Online learning” or “E-learning” or “electronic learning” or “virtual learning.” The document search strategy included article title, abstract, and keywords and results refined to access, including open access and other publications till 2020. The result is shown as TITLE-ABS-KEY (India AND “Digital education” OR “Digital learning” OR “Cyber learning” OR “Online education” OR “Online learning” OR “E-learning” OR “electronic learning” OR “virtual learning”) AND (EXCLUDE (LANGUAGE, “Spanish”)) AND (EXCLUDE (SRCTYPE, “d”)). Search strategy includes only the English language, and documents that are published in other than English are excluded and included all the documents except trade reports from the analysis. Search resulted in 626 documents for further analysis. Then the export documentation setting included citation information, bibliographic information, abstract and keywords, funding, and other details, and the same is exported into comma-separated values (CSV) with an excel spreadsheet, and in addition to this a manual coding and data entry is applied, wherever necessary. Microsoft Excel, VOSviewer software, and tableau were employed for the analysis, with manual coding, wherever necessary.

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Fig. 1 Year-wise publication output on digital learning research in India

3 Results 3.1 Year-Wise Publication Output The number of documents published on digital learning in India over two decades, starting from 2000 to 2020, is presented in Fig. 1. It is important to note that based on the Scopus abstract database, there were no documents published before the year 2000 on digital learning in India. Study results show that the number of publications increased over the years. From 2000 to 2003, there were only three publications; however, the publication trend started in 2004. The numbers of documents published on an average from the year 2004 to 2009 were 12. Subsequently, the trend is continued from 2010 to 2020, and during this time each year, there was a minimum of 19 articles to a maximum of 87 documents with an average of 51 documents per year. There has been an exponential growth in the publication of documents in the year 2015 with 87 documents. From the year 2020 till the month of September, there were 87 articles published.

3.2 Journal-Wise Publication Output The most productive journal in terms of publications, particularly journal articles related to digital learning in India, is shown in Fig. 2. The top 10 journals that have published a minimum of five articles are shown in the figure. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ranked number one with 58 articles, followed by the next journal, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, with 34 articles, and

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Fig. 2 Journal-wise publication output on digital learning research in India

ACM International Conference Proceeding Series ranked third with 12 articles. The remaining journals published minimum five articles to a maximum of ten articles.

3.3 Most Productive Authors Wise Publication Output Authors who have contributed the most to digital learning research in India are shown in Fig. 3. There were ten authors in the list of most contributed authors who have published a minimum of five articles and a maximum of ten articles. “Raman Raghu” affiliated to “Amrita School of Business,” Coimbatore, India ranked first with the contribution of ten documents followed by “Achuthan Krishnashree” affiliated to “Amrita University,” Kollam, India, and “Diwakar Shyam” affiliated to “Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham,” Coimbatore, India contributed nine documents each. Similarly, “Nair Bipin G” affiliated to “Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham,” Coimbatore, India, and “Nedungadi Prema” affiliated to “Amrita University,” Kollam, India contributed eight documents each. “Bijlani Kamal” and “Nizar Nijin” affiliated to “Amrita University,” Kollam, India, and “Nori Kesav Vithal” affiliated to “International Institute of Information Technology,” Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India, and “Radhamani Rakhi” and “Sasidharakurup, Hemalatha” affiliated to “Amrita University,” Kollam, India contributed five articles each on digital learning research in India.

Fig. 3 Most productive authors wise publication output on digital learning research in India

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Fig. 4 Most productive institutes-wise output on digital learning research in India

3.4 Authors Affiliation-Wise Publication Output Analysis of research output based on the author affiliation is shown in Fig. 4. There were ten institutes in the list of the most contributed institute that are contributed with a minimum of 7 documents to and a maximum of 24 documents. “Amrita University,” Kollam in India ranked first with the contribution of 24 documents followed by “Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham,” Coimbatore, India with 15 documents and “Indian Institute of Technology,” Bombay in India with 14 documents ranked second and third, respectively. “IIIT, Hyderabad” and “Indira Gandhi National Open University,” New Delhi in India contributed 11 and 10 documents, respectively. Institutes such as “Vellore Institute of Technology,” Vellore in and “Anna University,” Chennai and “University of Delhi,” New Delhi in India contributed nine documents each. “Indian Institute of Technology,” Kharagpur and “Indian Institute of Technology,” Delhi in India contributed eight and nine documents, respectively.

3.5 Country-Wise Publication Output Most contributed countries with a minimum of 4 to a maximum of 479 documents to the digital learning research in India are shown in Fig. 5. “India” is the leading country that contributed the most with 479 documents and ranked first. “The United States of America,” “the United Kingdom,” and “Australia” ranked two, three, and four with 55, 23, and 15 documents, respectively. The remaining countries such as “Indonesia,” “South Korea,” “Taiwan,” “Malaysia,” “Switzerland,” “China,” “Morocco,” “Sweden,” and “Thailand” contributed less than eight documents digital learning research in India.

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Fig. 5 Most productive country-wise output on digital learning research in India

Fig. 6 Most productive documents by type on digital learning research in India

3.6 Publication Output Based on the Document Type The numbers of documents published on digital learning research in India based on the type of documents are shown in Fig. 6. Based on the findings of the research, there were 287 articles, and 256 conference papers contributed the most. Books chapters and conference review papers contributed 40 and 18 documents, respectively. Other documents such as books, editorials, and notes, etc., contributed over 25 documents.

3.7 Subject Area-Wise Publication Output The number of articles published based on the subject is of digital learning research in India is outlined in Fig. 7. Based on the findings of the research, there were 285

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Fig. 7 Subject area-wise publication output on digital learning research in India

documents published in the subject area of “Computer Science” ranked number one followed by “Social Science” and “Engineering” with 246 and 205, respectively, the most. Other subject areas such as “Business, Management and Accounting” and “Medicine” contributed 64 and 61 documents respectively. Other subject areas such as “Arts and Humanities,” “Decision Sciences,” “Mathematics,” “Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics,” and “Environmental Science” are placed in the top 10 subject areas wise publication of documents with a minimum of 12 documents digital learning research in India.

3.8 Funding Sponsor-Wise Publication Output Most contributed funding sponsor organization on digital learning research in India with a minimum of two documents, and a maximum of five documents are shown in Fig. 8. Organizations such as “Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India” and “Ministry of Electronics and Information technology, Government of India” sponsored the most and ranked one and two with 5 and 4 documents, respectively. Other funding sponsors such as “Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University” from India, “Seventh Framework Programme” from Europe and “University Grants Commission” from India contributed with a minimum of two to a maximum of four documents.

Fig. 8 Funding sponsor-wise publication output on digital learning research in India

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3.9 Keyword Analysis Author-supplied keywords can be used to visualize the cluster analysis of the focused research area or subject area, or topics in a particular discipline (Kolle et al., 2018). The cluster analysis of author-supplied keywords on digital learning research in India is displayed in Fig. 9. Mainly eight clusters of keywords were shown in the visualized data represents various aspects of research on digital learning in India. Cluster I represents the broader aspects of E-learning such as India, training, MOOCS, distance education, digital literacy, medical education, mobile learning, digital India, simulation, virtual labs, assessments, Information Management System (IMS), National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL), blended learning, online learning, and online education. Cluster II shows the broader aspects of blended learning, such as higher education, online education, and Massive open online course (MOOC), India, e-learning, information, and Communication Technology (ICT), Assessment, and NPTEL. Cluster III visualizes the aspects of E-learning such as India, training, education, social media, moodle, learning management system, covid-19 pandemic, lockdown, MOOCS, distance education, digital literacy, virtual lab, virtual classroom, ubiquitous learning, mobile learning, and NPTEL. Cluster IV shows the aspects of MOOCS such as e-learning, India, distance education, virtual classroom, developing countries, ubiquitous learning, online education, higher education, medical education, and technology. Cluster V represents the

Fig. 9 Cluster analysis of author-supplied keywords

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aspects of moodle such as e-learning, online education, NTPEL, learning management system, education, India, IMS, internet, digital literacy. Cluster VI visualizes the aspects of ICT, such as blended learning, education, IMS, digital India, digital literacy, m-learning, ubiquitous learning, distance education, MOOC, and online courses. Cluster VII represents the aspects of India such as developing countries, covid-19 pandemic, online education, higher education, moodle, IMS, E-learning, digital learning, distance education, MOOCS, digital divide, and internet. Cluster VIII represents the aspects of cloud computing such as e-learning, developing countries, and distance education.

3.10 Analysis of the Most Cited Documents The most frequently cited documents with a minimum of 35 citations on digital learning research in India are shown in Table 1. The intellectual influence of research on digital learning in India was listed based on the criteria of the most cited articles. The article entitled “E-learning in medical education in resource constrained lowand middle-income countries” by Frehywot et al., (2013) is the most cited article with 146 citations and the article focused mainly on constraints of e-learning in medical education in the low and middle-income countries. The remaining documents in the list received a minimum of 37 to a maximum of 65 citations on digital learning research in India.

4 Discussion and Implications Research on digital learning in India, particularly with regards to various aspects of digital education such as E-learning, virtual labs, online learning and teaching tools, is an emergent discipline. However, several studies in the past examined various dimensions of digital education in the past. Bibliometric analysis of digital learning and education in India revealed that there is an increased research output in terms of the number of documents published over the year. Being a popular country for the IT and IT-enabled services and as emerging economies of the world to make digital India, it is important to know the state of the research in providing better solutions and wider benefits of digital learning to the citizens and government. For instance, Abu Kalam & Shamsuddin mentioned that technology could change our traditional way of teaching and learning with multimedia technology and “Blended learning” (Islam et al., 2014). Further, a study conducted on e-learning suggested focusing future research on learner’s interest and develop new technology (Kakoty et al. 2011). In this regard, cluster analysis of author-provided-keyword revealed that there had been a research focus on the various aspects of digital learning tools and infrastructure. This has further revealed that the E-learning aspects of online

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Table 1 Top 10 most cited documents Author(s) and publication year

Document title

Journal/source title

Citations

Frehywot et al., 2013

“E-learning in medical education in resource constrained low- and middle-income countries”

“Human Resources for Health”

146

“Distance Education”

65

Bawane & Spector, “Prioritization of online 2009 instructor roles: Implications for competency-based teacher education programs” Coleri Ergen et al., 2014

“RSSI-fingerprinting-based “IEEE Transactions on mobile phone localization with Vehicular Technology” route constraints”

55

Kam et al., 2008

“Designing E-Learning games for rural children in India: A format for balancing learning with fun”

“Proceedings of the Conference on Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, and Techniques, DIS”

52

Bhattacharya & Sharma, 2017

“India in the knowledge economy - An electronic paradigm”

“International Journal of Educational Management”

48

Chandra & Borah, 2012

“Cost benefit analysis of cloud “2012 International computing in education” Conference on Computing, Communication and Applications, ICCCA 2012”

45

Huda et al., 2017

“Exploring innovative learning “International Journal of environment (ILE): Big data Applied Engineering era” Research”

41

Mishra et al., 2009

“Telemedicine in India: Current Scenario and the Future”

“Telemedicine and e-Health”

39

Achuthan et al., 2011

“The VALUE @ Amrita Virtual Labs Project: Using web technology to provide virtual laboratory access to students”

“Proceedings - 2011 IEEE Global Humanitarian Technology Conference, GHTC 2011”

37

Kulier et al., 2012

“Effectiveness of a clinically “JAMA - Journal of the integrated e-learning course in American Medical evidence-based medicine for Association” reproductive health training: A randomized trial”

35

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education and MOOCs, moodle, ICT, and blended learning are the major focus of the research. For the past few years, various digital learning tools are ready to use in the marketplace. These are social and interactive digital tools such as simulations, games, virtual worlds, and course-related or learning digital tools such as online quizzes and tests, survey, video conference, virtual classes. However, the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown have given an increased market opportunity and increased importance for these tools. A survey conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic shows that majority of the educators in India have quickly adapted to digital learning mode. This has further enabled the educators and learners to shift from the traditional way of teaching method to interactive online lectures using video conferencing tools such as Google Meet, Cisco Webex, Microsoft teams, Zoom (Rajhans et al. 2020). In this connection, their keyword analysis shows that there is an increased research concentration over these tools. Authors who have contributed the most to digital learning research in India are mainly from Indian universities. Most contributed countries to the digital learning research in India are India, The United States of America, the United Kingdom and Australia, Indonesia, South Korea, Taiwan. This shows that there is a collaboration of authors with these countries for conducting research related to digital learning in India. Subject wise contribution of research on digital learning shows that there was the contribution from the Computer Science, Engineering, Business Management, Medicine, Arts and Humanities. Several studies on digital learning in the times of COVID-19 show that there is an increased depression, stress and anxiety (Blake et al. 2020). In this regard, there is no research contribution from psychology, and it is important to concentrate the research on these aspects, and there should be a contribution from the subject areas such as psychology and behavioral studies to provide necessary solutions to these problems.

5 Conclusion E-learning and digitalization of education are considered to provide several benefits in India. In this regard Government of India has taken several initiatives to integrate digital technology and E-earning based teaching and learning programs in education with the aim of digital India. While digital education provides several benefits for all, there are several limitations too. In this regard, this study aims to understand the progress of the research and its contribution toward digital education in India. The bibliometric analysis of the progress of digital education research in India, in terms of the number of publications over the years, has increased. Topmost journals published research work related to digital education in India are the International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, followed by Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing and ACM International Conference Proceeding Series. However, the research output published top-tier journals were limited. Authors who

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have contributed the most to digital learning research in India are mainly affiliated Amrutha group of institutions such as “Amrita School of Business,” “Amrita University,” “Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham,” India and “International Institute of Information Technology,” Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India. This has further revealed that there is no much contribution from top technology-based or management institutions in India. India is the leading country that contributed the most, followed by The United States of America, the United Kingdom and Australia. Subject wise contribution of research was mainly from Computer Science, Engineering, Business Management, Medicine, Arts and Humanities; however, there should be the focus from psychology and decision science. Funding for digital learning research in India is very minimal. The cluster analysis of author-supplied keywords shows that the major research themes on digital learning research in India were E-learning, distance education, digital literacy, medical education, mobile learning, digital India, simulation, virtual labs, virtual classroom, MOOCS, NPTEL, Moodle, Learning Management System, COVID-19 pandemic, ubiquitous learning. Most cited articles were mainly focused on E-learning and medical education, virtual labs and mobile learning.

6 Limitations and Future Research Like any other research studies, this study too has several limitations. The data for the study were collected from an online Scopus abstract database; however, there were several journals that published research papers but were not indexed in Scopus, and they were not considered for the study considering the issue of certified knowledge or publications. For example, google scholar shows more than 40,000 documents on this topic; however, only Scopus indexed publications were considered. Future researches should focus on well-known databases or indexed journals and articles, such as Web of Science. Further, future studies may apply advanced bibliometric techniques to study the co-word analysis, co-citation and co-authorship analysis to learn more about the research collaboration of authors in the research area of digital education in India. Despite these limitations, the present study provides a significant contribution toward literature, both for researchers and industry, enabling them to carry forward the research agenda of digital education and e-learning for the practitioners and policymakers.

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Mahender Reddy Gavinolla is an Assistant Professor, National Institute of Tourism and Hospitality Management, India; Guest lecturer in Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences, Latvia and Ph.D. Candidate at Indira Gandhi National Tribal University, India. His research area includes

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sustainable development, heritage management, and bibliometric analysis. He is the corresponding author for this chapter. Sampada Kumar Swain is a Professor in Tourism & Head, Department of Tourism Management at Pondicherry Central University, Pondicherry, India. His publications include books and papers on Sustainable Tourism and Responsible Tourism. Agita Livina is a professor of regional development and tourism at the Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences (VUAS), and lead researcher, director of the Research Institute of VUAS, Latvia. She is a chairperson of UNESCO chair on Biosphere & Man in the university and chair of the Eco Council. She was a Fulbright scholar on research in 2012 at the University at Buffalo, the State University of New York.

Computer-Based Multimedia in Teaching Listening: A Review Z. W. Adanech

Abstract Though multimedia in teaching listening is crucial, it is not well understood in most EFL classrooms. Earlier, teaching listening is passive since teachers read books or the listening course handouts for the learners, and they answer the activities immediately (comprehension approach). This teaching method happens in most EFL classrooms: high schools, colleges, and even in the university classrooms. This might be because either the curriculum does not comprise it, computer labs may not be facilitated with the internet access, the classroom size, or the institute’s location. Currently, teaching listening is changed into computer-based multimedia technology. However, it is observed that EFL learners did not get such an opportunity to take an advantage of these inputs in the listening classrooms. The main aim of this paper is to present computer-based multimedia inputs in teaching listening i.e., teaching listening either by presenting the material through the computer screen with the speaker, presenting the material verbally on the screen (narration) with pictorially as statics, or presenting the material through an animation visually with narration auditorily. Therefore, the current paper reviewed the literature about the uses of computer-based multimedia in teaching listening, multimedia approaches, modality and redundancy effects in teaching listening, and sample empirical research conducted on this area with its gaps in the literature. In conclusion, multimedia has alternative options in teaching listening, teachers can use any of the three multimedia modes while planning a lesson to teach listening. Researchers also give attention to refer to the three multimedia approaches and the two effects while they use different multimedia inputs to collect data. Moreover, curriculum designers take into consideration including multimedia instruction while they develop instructional materials. Keywords Computer-based multimedia · Multimedia approaches · And the former teaching listening

Z. W. Adanech (B) Department of English Language and Literature, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021 D. Mishra and Y. Chuang (eds.), Learning How to Learn Using Multimedia, Lecture Notes in Educational Technology, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-1784-3_9

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1 Introduction Listening is the most useful skill in language learning; however, it is the least skill, especially in the EFL classroom contexts. Researchers accredited the uses of listening skills compare to other major language skills for language learning. Gibbons (2015, p. 183) described that listening is a key to language development: understanding what is said in a particular situation provides important models for subsequent language use. Buck (2001, p. 32) pointed out that though listening is an important skill and due to providing the practical complexities of spoken texts, it is neglected in many language learning situations. In addition, Braun (2007, p. 299) stated that in the classroom, students always do more listening than speaking; listening competence is universally “larger” than speaking competence. Considering these researchers’ suggestions, the modality that teachers are going to select to teach listening is vital. So that, teaching listening through multimedia is the best option, and it can be applied easily in EFL classrooms. It is observed that, though multimedia in teaching listening is crucial, it is not well understood in most EFL classrooms. Many research studies revealed that learners do not have exposure to practice listening. The reason is that listening is considered to be passive in these classrooms. The learners listen to their teachers’ voice only while he/she reads the listening texts from the course books, they may listen to audio alone, or they may listen to the powerpoint presentation to cover the course content rather than for learning to listen. Therefore, teachers have been teaching listening facilitating through books, audio alone, or powerpoint presentations. Thus, learners do not have a chance to learn listening through the multimedia inputs. Harmer (2010, p. 133) suggested that students need to listen to TV, radio, or other media since they have an experience of listening to the voice of their teacher only. Brett (1995, p. 81) elaborated that the traditional vehicle for the language inputs was a book, watching TV, conversation, and the audio cassettes; now the combination of media selected such as text and illustration, subtitle and sound, and video. Brown (2006, p. 5) mentioned that in the past, the teaching of listening bases a series of post-listening comprehension questions, in which learners had no idea of why they were listening too. Many authors and researchers verify that technology-supported language learning and teaching is an important e-tool for second or foreign language learners. Almost all of these e-tools are computer-based. Vandergrift and Goh (2012); Dudeney and Hockey (2008); Buck (2001); Inoun (2010); Erben et al. (2009), Jones (2008), and Beatty (2010). Thus, teachers have to update themselves and plan the listening lessons to teach through either of the combinations of multimedia inputs. This paper reviewed the uses of computer-based multimedia in teaching listening particularly, in the EFL classroom contexts. The first section provides a brief overview of previous and current trends of teaching listening. The second section presents the three multimedia approaches. The third section discusses modality and redundancy effects on learning to listen. The fourth and fifth sections reviewed the uses of computer-based multimedia in teaching listening and the recent sample research

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paper presentations on multimedia in teaching listening and some empirical studies with its gaps in the literature. The final section provides the conclusion.

2 The Past and Present Trends of Teaching Listening Experts in the field discussed the former and the current trends of teaching listening. Formerly, listening instruction was a product, but currently, listening instruction is a process. As Vandergrift (2004, p. 3) acknowledged, the former listening instruction “Listening to learn” was a product, and the current listening instruction “Learning to listen” is a process. On the other hand, Flowerdew and Miller (2005, p. 85) asserted that the traditional way of teaching listening taught in separation, the development of listening has seen as before they forget an activity unintentionally. Brown (2007, p. 197) reviewed that hundred years back classrooms had non-computer-based teaching, they used teaching aids, such as a piece of chalk and a chalkboard. Vandergrift (2004, p. 4) reviewed the three teaching listening instruction approaches. These are the audio-lingual approach, comprehension approach, and the common approach. The practices of these approaches have listened and repeat, question answer, and real-life listening in real-time consecutively. Anderson and Lynch (1988, p. 15) also argue that the traditional method of improving listening skills, which was getting the learners to listen to a text and answer subsequent comprehension. Vandergrift and Goh (2012, p. 12) profound that listening as a product tests the listening ability of learners, rather than the understanding of the social and the cognitive nature of developing listening skills. Lynch and Mendelsohn (2002, p.180) stated that traditionally listening is a passive process by which the listener receives information sent by a speaker, but more recent models view listening as a much more active and interpretive process. The current teaching listening focuses on either using authentic listening materials or teaching listening through technology. Vandergrift and Goh (2012) pointed out that the rapid spread of technology has opened up new avenues for listening development. Jones (2008) reviewed literature starting from the late 1970s to early 1980s and propounded that new technology tools came up with applicable verbal and nonverbal (visual) information for aural comprehension. Moreover, learners are also fascinated to learn their courses through technology. Dudeney and Hockey (2008, p. 28) reveal that many learners these days are far more used to working with computer-based text and information than traditional paper-based forms of texts.

3 The Multimedia Approaches Researchers defined multimedia. According to Pangaribuan et al. (2017, p. 213), multimedia refers to an electronically delivered combination of media including video, audio, text, images, animation, and interactive content forms. For Clark and

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Mayer (2011, p. 70) multimedia presentation refers to any presentation with words (spoken text or words printed on the screen that people read) and graphics, such as photos, drawings, maps, charts, graphs, or dynamic graphics, that is, video, animation rather than words alone. Similarly, Mayer (2009, p. 4) defined that multimedia refers to teaching learners through words and pictures than words alone. In addition, Wang and Liu (2013, p. 338) defined multimedia in the context of teaching listening; multimedia refers to lectures with the help of a computer. Harasim (2012) mentioned the multimedia tools such as audio, video, animation and even avatars can use for online courses to enhance discourse. From these definitions of multimedia, we can conclude that multimedia inputs are valuable when the presenter uses them in combination rather than using a single modality. Mayer (2009) acknowledged the three multimedia modes. These are the delivery media, presentation mode, and the sensory modality (p. 7). The delivery media i.e., the presentation of the given material using two or more devices such as amplified speaker, computer screen, projectors, video recorders, blackboards, and the human voice boxes. In computer-based multimedia, the material is presented through the computer screen and the speaker (p. 8). The presentation mode refers to the material presented through words and pictures. In computer-based multimedia, the material is presented verbally on the screen text or narration, and pictorially as static graphics or animation (p. 8). The sensory modality focuses on auditory and visual. This is presented either in the computer-based environment (an animation presented visually and narration presented auditorily) or in the lecture scenario the speaker’s voice process in the auditory channel and the slides from the projector processed in the visual channel (p. 9). According to the suggestion of these researchers, applying combinations of these inputs play a great role for EFL learners, and engage them in active learning. Therefore, this paper mainly focused on computer-based multimedia within the three multimedia modes.

4 The Modality and Redundancy Effects in Teaching Listening Scholars reported the uses of multimedia theory, specifically with regards to modality and redundancy effects on learning, and how to present any multimedia presentation through these effects. According to Clark and Mayer (2011), and Mayer (2009), the modality effects refer to presenting spoken texts on the computer screen with graphics rather than presenting on-screen texts with narration form. On the other hand, redundancy effects refer to learning from narration and animation along with the same printed texts that match the narration. For Zheng (2009), modality effects refer to partly visual and partly auditory, and they are better for learning rather than a single media i.e., either visually or auditory, on the other hand, redundant effects refer to similar information presented in two or more media such as words in both auditory and written form.

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As it is recommended in multimedia theory, to make an effective multimedia presentation, modality and redundancy effects play a great role in learning. It is possible to relate this theory with teaching and learning listening too. When we look at the redundancy effects, as the name indicates, redundant media in the listening text materials are not necessary. In other words, it is helpful to minimize the cognitive load of the listeners, and it may create confusion for the learners. As Zheng (2009, p. 7) suggested, redundant information can interfere with learning. Moreover, the modality effects also an important alternative to find appropriate listening texts for classroom use. They are helpful to select audiovisual and video listening resources for teaching listening. Based on these effects, a teacher can select audiovisual materials or videos for classroom use. In this technology era, there are infinite listening web resources that are accessible on the internet. As Hubbard (2009, p. 6) points out that thanks to the World Wide Web, today learners of almost any language can find a wealth of authentic audio and video to listen to for both language and culture. Golonka et al. (2014) also points out technological innovations can increase learner interest and motivation since it provides learners with increased access to the target language input, interaction opportunities, and feedback. To sum up, when teachers select different listening texts from the internet for class use, they have to consider the two effects for more effective teaching and learning to listen.

5 Computer-Based Multimedia in Teaching Listening In the contexts of teaching listening, computer-based multimedia, visually supported media (video), audio with animation, or pictorially supported audio is better than audio media only or teachers’ voice only. Anderson and Lynch (1988, p. 58) point out that visual support materials assist the interpretation of listeners. Ur (1992, p. 29) recommended that visual materials are helpful to bring life to the listening situation and it supports the comprehension of the language. Buck (2001, p. 253) pointed out that recent technologies have available which allow the provisional of visual information along with the audio and multimedia tests are appearing, and the spread of the internet is helping to speed the current trend. Vandergrift and Goh (2012, p. 219) suggested that visual media has an impact on listening development since it is a part of the listening context and fully supports comprehension as it would be in real-life listening contexts. In addition, Eysenck and Keane (2010, p. 182) point out that visual modalities are combined to facilitate understanding of what the speakers are saying. In addition, Underwood (1989, p. 104) pointed out that visual materials (pictures, maps, charts, etc.) can be helpful to students, especially if the topic is not related to something from their everyday lives. Experts suggested that listening videos are better for learners than audio-alone listening materials. Underwood (1989, p. 96) pointed out that the use of video in listening over audio, to understand what the listeners hear and see the physical context such as lip movement facial expression, and gestures of the speaker; they contribute to

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the immediate act of comprehension and to build successful listening for the listeners. Buck (2001, p. 123) points out that it is increasingly common to present listening texts in a video format because visual information supplements the audio information, and this is a more realistic replication of real-world listening. Moreover, Flowerdew and Miller (2005) reviewed the uses of video from mid-1970s (the past two decades), and they pointed out that researchers’ finding; video is useful for listening. Thus, it often encourages the motivation to listen, offers a rich context for the authenticity of language use, the spoken features text accessible to the learner related to radio, and aids learners’ understanding of the actual context in which the language is used (p. 172). Furthermore, they suggested that teachers are expected to select a proper video for the kind of listening skills exercises, and they have to incorporate the lesson with the video. Buck (2001, p. 47) also reviewed many researchers’ ideas in the use of non-verbal signals in video and multimedia. He quoted that visual support can aid language learners, especially for those who are less proficient learners, though visual support increases motivation and attention levels, it is open to doubt to use it since it has a little effect on understanding detail, sometimes it contradicts the verbal information, and listener. On the other hand, Harmer (2010, p. 136) recommended that though the video is richer than the audio, the teacher can use videos through four techniques to language learners. These are playing the video without the sound, playing the audio without the picture, freeze the frame, and divide the class into half. According to harmer, these techniques help the learners to predict what comes next, what the characters are saying, and what the speakers look like. As we can see, the above researchers concluded that video and visually supported audio materials have an effect on listening comprehension.

6 Review of Research on Multimedia in Listening This paper reviewed research paper presentations on multimedia effects in teaching listening and empirical studies on listening comprehension using video and audio media. Researchers presented the effects of multimedia in learning and teaching listening comprehension. Panganbuan et al. (2017) studied research on the effectiveness of multimedia applications on students listening comprehension. Then, they found that multimedia application is effective than conventional media. Similarly, Guan et al. (2018) presented a research paper on the advantage of computer multimedia-aided English teaching. Then, they found that computer multimedia can improve students’ ability to listen and speaking skills. Datko (2014) also presented a paper on teaching listening using multimedia and concluded that multimedia has a positive impact on teaching listening. According to Meskill (1996, p. 183), the last two decades research paper, presented the features of multimedia; these are visuals, texts, video, schema, and chunking; these features can support listening development alone and in combination. Moreover, Mayer and Moreno (2002) presented a paper on aids to computer-based multimedia learning. They referred to the cognitive theory of multimedia and concluded that learners can process multimedia information.

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On another hand, other researchers conducted experimental studies on the effects of computer-based multimedia, i.e., audio alone and video media on listening comprehension of EFL learners. Londe (2009) studied the effects of video media in English as a second language listening comprehension tests of undergraduate and graduate studies using two video formats and audio alone. The researcher found that video media is a more authentic medium for testing listening comprehension than audio-only. Gowhary et al. (2015) studied experimental research on the effect of video captioning and video without captioning on Iranian EFL learners’ listening comprehension. They found that providing video captions for Iranian EFL learners could be effective for listening comprehension than a video without captions. Latifi and Mirzaee (2014) also researched visual support in assessing listening comprehension. Thus, they found that video group subjects did significantly better than audio group subjects on the listening comprehension test. Woottipong (2014) researched the effect of using video materials in the teaching of listening skills for university students. Then, the researcher concluded that video can enhance listening comprehension skills. However, Rashasoor et al. (2016) studied using audio and video listening materials to improve ESL undergraduate’ listening comprehension, and then they found that audio exposure is a better language input than video exposure to enhance listening comprehension. Muzammil (2015) conducted research on audiovisual exposure as opposed to audio exposure alone. Then, he found that as there is no significant achievement between the two groups. As it is reviewed research papers, multimedia is very important for learning, but there is a gap in the review of related literature. For example, researchers compared to video (presenting the material with the speaker) and audio (presenting the material with pictorial/visual) or audio without the visuals. They revealed different conclusions on the use of video and audio as support of listening comprehension. Latifi and Mirzaee (2014) Londe (2009); Woottipong (2014); Gowhary et al. (2015) concluded that listening to video is significant than listening to the audio; whereas, Rashasoor et al. (2016) concluded that listening to the audio is significant on listening comprehension than listening to the video media. Muzammil (2015) concluded that there is no significant difference between video groups and audio alone groups. The conclusion of these research findings might be because of the learning preferences of the learners; some want to learn through spoken words, others from written texts, and still others want to learn through visually supported materials. Clark and Mayer (2011, p. 83) recommended that multimedia is more applicable for learners who have low knowledge (novice) than high knowledge (experts). Therefore, researchers have to consider these researchers’ recommendations to look at the multimedia effects on novice and expertise participants to add the literature. Moreover, they have to specify the media (the two effects) that they used for experimental studies.

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7 Conclusion This paper attempted to redirect about computer-based multimedia in teaching listening and some important issues related to it. First, it presents the difference between the current and the previous trends of teaching listening. Formerly, listening was considered as a product and passive skill, but presently, it is considered as a process and active skill. Secondly, it reviews the modality and redundancy effects. The modality effects refer to texts with graphics, whereas the redundancy effects refer to presenting on-screen texts with narration and printed texts. Thirdly, it discusses the three multimedia approaches. These are the delivery media, presentation mode, and sensory modality. In the delivery media, the material is presented through two or more devices; in the presentation mode the material is presented through words and pictures, and in the sensory modality audiovisual material is presented. Next, it highlights the uses of computer-based multimedia in teaching listening in EFL classrooms. It helps the learners to develop listening skills through the integration of text, audio, video, graphics, and animation. Finally, it presented some of the sample recent research papers both the contribution to use multimedia in teaching listening and the gaps in the literature. To sum up, teaching listening is a bit challenging since it is not observable. As Brown (2007, p. 259) pointed out that listening comprehension is not externally observable. Therefore, applying computer-based multimedia in teaching listening is very important especially in EFL learner’s contexts; it makes the teaching–learning process effective, interactive, and student-centered. Wang and Liu (2013) stated that teaching through multimedia turns the teacher-centered method of teaching into a student-centered classroom, and it helps teachers to have an interactive classroom. As a result, EFL teachers have to update themselves to teach listening through multimedia inputs and to address the learning preference of learners, that is, some of them are visual learners and others are auditory. Zheng (2009, p. 17) collected different scholars’ research papers and found that for implementing multimedia instruction, the individual difference in working memory capacity has to be focused. Therefore, researchers give attention to refer to the three multimedia approaches and the two effects while they use different multimedia modalities to collect data. Moreover, curriculum designers take into consideration including multimedia instruction, at least for higher education institutes while they develop instructional materials. Acknowledgments I would like to thank my husband Dr. Alemayehu Chufamo, to my dear friends Prof. Dr. E. Uma Devi, Prof. Dr. D.P. Sharma, and Dr. Ballekallu Chinna Eeranna, for their encouragement and generous assistance in writing this paper.

References Anderson, A., & Lynch, T. (1988). Listening. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Beatty, K. (2010). Teaching and researching computer assisted language learning (2nd ed.). London: Longman.

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Braun, L. W. (2007) Listen up: Podcasting for schools and libraries. Medford, New Jersey: Information Today, Inc. Brett, P.(1995). Multimedia for listening comprehension: The design. System, 23(1), 77–85. Brown, S. (2006). Teaching listening. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Brown, H. D. ( 2007). Teaching by principles: An interactive appproach to language pedagogy (3nd ed.). New York: Longman. Buck, G. (2001). Assessing-listening. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press. Clark,C. R., & Mayer (2011). E-learning and the science of instruction. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. Datko, J. ( 2014 ).Teaching listening using multimedia. Research Gate: Confrence paper. Dudeney, G., & Hockey, N. (2008). How to teach English with technology (3rd impression). Harlow: Longman. Erben, T., Ban, R., & Castaneda, M. (2009). Teaching English language learners through technology. UK: Routledge. Eysenck, W. L., & Keane, M. T. (2010). Cognitive psychology: A student handbook (6th ed.). Hove & New York: Psychology Press. Flowerdew, J., & Miller, L. (2005). Second Language Listening: Theory and practice. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press. Gibbons, P. (2015). Scaffolding language scaffolding learning: Teaching English language learners in the mainstream classroom. Portsmoth: Heinemann. Golonka, E. M., Bowles, A. R., Frank, V. M., Richardson, D. L., & Freynik, S. (2014). Technologies for foreign language learning: A review of technology types and their effectiveness. Journal of Computer Assisted Language Learning, 27(1), 70–105. Gowhary, H., Pourhalashi, Z., Jamalinesari, A., & Azizifar, A. (2015). Investigating the effect of video captioning on Iranian EFL learners’ listening comprehension. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 192, 205–212. Guan, N., Song, J., & Li, D. (2018). The advantage of computer multimedia-aided English teaching. Sience Direct, 131, 727–732. Harasim, L. (2012). Learning theory and online technologies. New York & London: Routledge. Harmer, J. (2010). How to teach English (6th impression). China: Pearson Education Limited. Hubbard, P. (2009). Computer assisted language learning: Critical concepts in linguistics. Foundation of CALL. New York: Routledge, I, pp 1–20. Inoun, Y. (2010). Cases on online and blended learning technologies in higher education. Hershey: Information Science Reference. Jones, L. C. (2008). Listening comprehension technology: Building the bridge from analogue to digital. CALICO Journal, 25(3), 400–419. Latifi, M., & Mizaee, A. (2014). Visual support in assessing listening comprehension: Does it help? International Journal of Research Studies in Education Technology, 3(2), 13–20. Londe, Z. (2009). The effects of video media in english as a second language listening comprehension tests. Journal of Issues in Applied Linguistics, 17(1), 42–50. Lynch, T., & Mendelsohn, D. (2002). Listening. In N. Schmitt (ed.), Introduction to Applied Linguistics (pp. 180–196). London: Arnold. Mayer, R. E. ( 2009). Multimedia learning (2nd ed.) University of California, Santa Barbara: Cambridge University Press. Mayer,R. E., & Moreno, R. (2002). Aids to computer-based multimedia learning. Learning and instrucution, 12, 107–119. Meskill, C. (1996). Listening skills development through multimedia. JI. of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 5(2), 179–201. Muzammil, L. (2015). Audio visual exposure (AVE) as opposed to audio exposure alone( AEA) for EFL listening comprehension. In The 62nd TEFLIN International Conference 2015: roceedings Teaching and Assessing L2 learners in the 21st century (pp. 185–192). Pangaribuan, T., Sinaga, A., & Sipayung, K. T. (2017). The effectiveness of multimedia application on students listening comprehension. Journal of English Language Teaching, 10(12), 212.

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Rashasoor, H. M., Hoon, T. B., & Yuit, Ch. M. (2016). Using audio and video listening materials to improve ESL undergraduates’ listening comprehension. A Journal Languages and Communication, 3(1), 73–84. Underwood, M. (1989). Teaching Listening. London & New York: Longman. Ur, P. (1992). Teaching listening comprehension (10th ed.). USA: Cambridge University Press. Vandergrift, L. (2004). Listening to learn or learning to listen. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24, 3–25. Vandergrift, L., & Goh, Ch. C. M. (2012). Teaching and learning second language listening. New York and London: Routledge. Wang, J., & Liu, W. (2013). English listening teaching method based on multimedia. Informatics and Management Science, V Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering 208, 337–342. Woottipong, K. (2014). Effect of using video materials in the teaching of listening skills for university students. International Journal of Linguistics, 6(4), 200–212. Zheng, R. Z. (2009). Cognitive effects of multimedia learning. Hershey-New York: Information Science Reference.

Z. W. Adanech has MA in English Language Teaching (ELT) and a lecturer at Arba Minch University, Ethiopia. She has taught English as a subject from elementary to tertiary level in Ethiopia. Currently, she is a PhD student in English Language Education (ELE) at EFLU Hyderabad, India. Her main research interest includes listening skills, vocabulary, and writing skills, particularly in multimedia language learning applications; moreover, she is interested in reviewing published articles and books.

Does Learner Control Prove Effective in the Systems of e-Learning? A Review of Literature Zahid Hussain Bhat

Abstract E-learning platforms are experiencing major improvements in curriculum and corporate preparation. Through the development in online learning platforms, learning influence of the teaching phase has arisen as a core element in technologybased learning. However, the methodological work on the role of learner control in e-learning has not progressed enough to foresee how autonomous learning influences e-learning efficacy. In order to expand research on the function of learner control in e-learning and to analyse its effects on e-learning efficacy, this review explores literature on learner control to derive a conceptual construct as a theoretical model to explain how learning regulation impacts the success of e-learning. This review offers fresh insights into the function and aspects of learning regulation in online learning, with consequences for both learning processes and learning outcomes. Keywords e-Learning · Learner control · Cognition · Motivation

1 Introduction In several organisations and educational establishments, online education (or elearning) has become popular as a means to digitally provide personnel and students with instruction (Allen & Seaman, 2013; DeRouin et al., 2005). The portion of elearning used in structured schooling in five hundred enterprises worldwide rose to forty percent in 2013. Similarly, colleges have started providing internationally open online classes (Allen & Seaman, 2013). During the same period, recent developments in online learning technology have improved the autonomy and self-control of learners, such as self-paced virtual and async techniques (DeRouin et al., 2005; Sahay, 2004; Shroff et al., 2007). The power of learners, in this setting, applies to the autonomy of decision, equality of learners and self-rule; expressed by way of sense of independence over their “usage and consequences of technology” (Sahay, 2004). Ever since the seventies, individualisation of teaching and allowing dynamic Z. H. Bhat (B) Assistant Professor, Department of Higher Education, AAA Memorial Degree College, Cluster University Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021 D. Mishra and Y. Chuang (eds.), Learning How to Learn Using Multimedia, Lecture Notes in Educational Technology, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-1784-3_10

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learning have been embedded in learner autonomy as learners are granted autonomy over some facets of their own experience of learning, which includes the order, material, activities of teaching (Steinberg, 1989; Williams, 1996). In recent times, it is claimed that the advent of e-learning environments would open up new possibilities for learner autonomy by growing the versatility of the learning method and having access to a broad spectrum of knowledge in diverse areas of space and time (Sahay, 2004). Furthermore, learner-centric settings are seen as encouraging learners to engage effectively in the knowledge phase and to liberate themselves from present information (Bell & Kozlowski, 2008). Thus, the deciding element in the success of e-learning over the learning phase is self-control (Klein et al., 2006; Sitzmann et al., 2006). For some time, the effect of learner control on the success of online learning remained a study problem (Kraiger & Jerden, 2007; Williams, 1996) and also learner control is earmarked as a significant factor for learning performance and the resulting contentment with e-learning programs (Clark & Mayer, 2011; Piccoli et al., 2001). Research studies, however, have so far not been able to create a strong affirmative correlation amid the supervision of learners and the effects of self-measured online courses, indicating that every learner is not talented enough to make educational choices equally (Granger & Levine, 2010; Kraiger & Jerden, 2007). Learner control has been connected to increased agitation and distress in addition to producing feelings of alienation during the learning phase (Chou & Liu, 2005; Scheiter & Gerjets, 2007) as well as bewilderment and disruption arising from the proliferation of knowledge in e-learning settings. The convincing research assessing the effects of learner control on learning effectiveness advocates the usefulness of learner control for some learners under certain circumstances. Attempts to understand the ineffectiveness of learner regulation with regards to online learning show that certain people are extra prone to miscalculate their skills and miss important information, expecting more regulation than they can manage comfortably (Bell & Kozlowski, 2002; Piccoli et al., 2001). Only recently, study has begun to concentrate on defining the fundamental processes of successful regulation of learners (Orvis et al., 2010; Vandewaetere & Clarebout, 2011). Consequently, the main aim of this study is to provide understandings into the fundamental processes of successful learner-controlled online learning to answers some research questions: i. ii.

The role of learner control in the efficacy of e-learning. Under which circumstances is e-learning regulated by learners effective?

Through incorporating the available literature on the regulation of learner and stemming a coherent and vindicated research paradigm on the efficacy of online learning, this review makes contribution in this regard. The goal is to have a new focus across the respective study streams on learner management and e-learning and to align past studies (Schwarz et al., 2007). The system presents a fresh viewpoint on the fundamental processes that affect the effects of learner control on the efficacy of online learning, and greatly expands earlier studies of learner control (Kraiger & Jerden, 2007; Williams, 1996). Furthermore, in order to differentiate between

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various forms of management, the learner management definition is formalised from an information system (IS) viewpoint. Much of the literature has so far viewed learner regulation as a black box, analysed in an undifferentiated fashion for various forms of control (Granger & Levine, 2010; Schwarz et al., 2007).

2 Learner Control Dimensions in Online Learning The efficacy of an e-learner regulated by learners by way of enhanced learning process and performance is backed by many claims. Learner control proponents contend that e-learning efficacy would occur as a consequence of individualised learning raising the engagement and learning commitment of personal learning (Kraiger & Jerden, 2007; Piccoli et al., 2001) and the emotional and cognitive behaviour of learners (Klein et al., 2006; Schwarz et al., 2007). Self-control enables learners to select the best path of learning compatible with their expertise and degree of experience, to learn free, and to adapt the method of learning to their particular needs and styles of learning rather than being limited in their learning style (Scheiter & Gerjets, 2007). In addition, learner control will improve the efficacy of online learning initiatives by up surging learning results at the same time and growing the necessary learning time by customising learning material (Granger & Levine, 2010; Vandewaetere & Clarebout, 2011). In comparison, another theoretic statement illustrates the possible detrimental impacts on learning mechanisms and results of learner regulation. Disorientation, disturbance, and cognitive fatigue, which can occur during the learning process, are the difficulties relevant to learner management (Granger & Levine, 2010; Scheiter & Gerjets, 2007). For example, confusion and disruption may emerge from the liberty and responsive instructional scheme which is a part of online learning managed by learners. “Both will happen when consumers find themselves to have so many options involving a “perceived needless effort” (Shroff et al., 2007). For certain situations, “difficulties in knowledge selection, knowledge sequencing, and timing”, which contribute to intellectual fatigue, can be induced by the need to monitor the e-learning method (Scheiter & Gerjets, 2007). In regards to self-directed learning in distance education, related questions have been raised. Specifically, unguided selfdiscovery-based learning continues to contribute to misunderstanding and inadequate information because students have a reasonable amount of previous knowledge or gain external feedback from their learning process by scaffolding (e.g., structuring). In addition, a great degree of presumed involvement of teachers (as assessed by fixed learning priorities and subjects) has been discovered to enhance the intellect of learning culture and connection with students (Scheiter & Gerjets, 2007; Shea et al., 2006). The various aspects of regulation involved in each learning operation need to be considered in order to determine the various effects on online learning efficacy. Learner control is linked to earlier methodological advances in distance education and self-directed learning in that both ideas emphasise the individuality and learning

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and the personal accountability of the process of learning. This research emphasises, however, on the facets of learner regulation given by the instructional transmission (Kraiger & Jerden, 2007; Williams, 1996). “In this regard, previous research characterised learner influence in terms of those characteristics of the learning method under the influence of the learner, including control over the direction, flow, or instructional events” (Williams, 1996) and regulations over “instructional presentation” (Piccoli et al., 2001). From a wider point of view, the supervision of learners applies to the equality of decisions over one’s job and schooling and the right to select the desired course of action. In this post, this wider perception is employed but tailored to the different features of the e-learning programmes (Sahay, 2004). While learner control is neither unique to education nor specific to technologybased teaching, a defining characteristic of online learning is the capability for learners to self-determine their learning experience (Granger & Levine, 2010; Klein et al., 2006; Sitzmann et al., 2006). E-learning presently allows a variety of diverse facets and levels of learner access, compatible with the growth of emerging learning systems and e-learning platforms (DeRouin et al., 2004; Piccoli et al., 2001). In spite of its pivotal position in online learning-based teaching, though, learner supervision from the viewpoint of e-learning frameworks has not been formalised so far. Therefore, from the fundamental systemic aspects of online learning structures, a collection of five conceptual aspects of learner regulation is extracted (Piccoli et al., 2001; Sharda et al., 2004; Sitzmann et al., 2006).

3 Effects of Learner Control The literature review indicates that learner influence has a clear beneficial impact on learning performance in aggregate terms. A thorough review of the multiple control dimensions, though, shows that not all learner control dimensions are similarly successful in increasing learning outcomes. Although time and speed management, as well as navigation and design control, appear to maximise learning results (e.g., Chang & Ho, 2009; Fisher et al., 2010; Yeh & Lehman, 2001), the effects of content control and assignment selection are immense. Few researchers have examined the influence of learner regulation on learning processes in contrast (Rienties et al., 2012). Nevertheless, the findings indicate that learner influence, independent of the particular dimension, have either detrimental or negligible impact on learning processes. In addition, few experiments have examined the impact of influence over the position and interaction of learning (Rienties et al., 2012; Sun & Hsu, 2013).

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3.1 Effects on Learning Process The literature review indicates three key indicators represent learning processes: time expended on a job, the cognitive efforts applied during the task, and encouragement for specific activities. In scientific studies, time spent on job, plus the extent of individual practise expended on a job, has earned a comparatively greater amount of interest and is postulated as a measure of the total learning motivation of an individual (Brown, 2001). Learner management continues to decrease the time spent on task of an online learning course of aggregate words. For instance, multiple works reported that, when granted influence over material and task selection, learners expend little time in their process of learning (Bell & Kozlowski, 2002; Stiller et al., 2009). Decreased time on task, however, may contribute to either lower or higher learning results. Lower learning findings, on the one side, mean that self-managed learners seldom make the finest choices and complete the learning phase too rapidly (Bell & Kozlowski, 2002). On the other side, learning results, which are perceived as an improvement in learning performance, stay unchanged or sometimes improved. Thus, in subsequent learning outcomes framework, the effect of learner control on the time spent on job needs to be evaluated furthest. Through the cognitive effort which the learner makes use of throughout the learning process, mental effort is evaluated. To examine in what way learner control be used to lower the demand for cognitive resources of learners throughout the process of learning, the primary exploration depicts ‘cognitive load theory’ (Stiller et al., 2009). While learner regulation is supposed to enhance the cognitive effort of learners as learners are supposed to frame continuous decisions about how to continue with their learning process (DeRouin et al., 2004; Scheiter & Gerjets, 2007), in this regard, maximum studies record an inconsequential impact (Tabbers & Koeijer, 2010; Hasler et al., 2007; Swaak et al., 2001). Few researchers have studied the effects on job motivation of learner regulation. The encouragement of activities is generally conceptualised as commitment to on-task or off-task or as task involvement (Brown, 2001). Theoretically, learner management improves the on-task focus of learners by demanding appropriate decision making (Tabbers & Koeijer, 2010). While Hasler et al. (2007) recorded that self-controlled learners displayed a high degree of on-task focus in a shared online course, other research (Bell & Kozlowski, 2008; Orvis et al., 2009) establish no important association between management of learners and motivation for assignments. A strong association exists, however, amid on-task devotion and the effects of affective and cognitive learning (Orvis et al., 2009; Schmidt & Ford, 2003).

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3.2 Effects on Learning Outcomes The findings of this review indicate a beneficial impact of learner control on cognition-based outcomes of learning with respect to speed, control over time, navigating, and architecture, in comparison to earlier studies of learner control (Kraiger & Jerden, 2007). Researches reporting a favourable association between learnercontrol and cognition-based learning results typically grant the learners a control over the pace of process of learning (Hasler et al., 2007; Stiller et al., 2009; Chandler & Mayer, 2001) For instance, Behrend and Thompson (2012) reported in a study on the Microsoft Excel course for students that providing control over programme design had a positive impact on learning performance. Studies in which learners have influence over many dimensions (i.e., high influence of learners) appear to yield beneficial results on cognitive outcomes (Rienties et al., 2012; Sun & Hsu, 2013; Yeh & Lehman, 2001). Several research often report a detrimental or negligible impact of learner influence on the effects of cognitive learning. In terms of influence over material and mission selection, non-positive relationships have clearly seen (Bell & Kozlowski, 2008; Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000), although several research also report detrimental consequences of influence over navigation and architecture (Fulton et al., 2015). In order to address the possibly detrimental influence of learner regulation, study has also explored the implications of additional feedback and support systems. However, the effect of such characteristics on learning performance is reported to be minimal (Yeh & Lehman, 2001). Bell and Kozlowski (2002), for instance, stated that assistance structures that provide advice and input throughout the learning phase enhanced the efficiency of learning initially throughout the preparation, but during the later stages had no substantial effects. A number of tests of emotional and motivational responses and behaviours before and after learning are used in affective effects. Regardless of the degree and dimensions of control given, there is a clear indication that learner control is correlated with affirmative emotional responses to a task and the method of e-learning. These effects on affective results comprise of affirmative happiness impacts (Fisher et al., 2010; Sun & Hsu, 2013; Zhang et al., 2006) and mood, decreased distress and increased self-efficiency (Bell & Kozlowski, 2008; Chang & Ho, 2009). A small degree of learner regulation was typically explored by research that recorded unfavourable or negligible results on affective outcomes (Behrend & Thompson, 2012; Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000). In addition, as learners are equipped with influence over the simulated contact with the teacher or fellow participants, satisfaction with the course improves dramatically (Sun & Hsu, 2013). There also exists proof that the effects on the outcomes of cognitive learning of learner management are partially linked to the influence on its affective outcomes (Fisher et al., 2010; Orvis et al., 2009). To summarise, previous claims that the level and form of learner influence has distinct impacts on both learning processes as well as learning outcomes are confirmed by the findings of the literature review (Granger & Levine, 2010). However, while beneficial influences on affective results are visible along with little

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impact on cognitive outcomes, there is an uncertain effect of learner influence on the process of learning. Consequently, next attention is given to the secondary influence of learner regulation on the activities of learning controlled by human or situational influences.

3.3 Indirect Effects of Learner Control Studies have explored the fundamental methods which assess the efficacy of learnercontrolled online learning by using multiple controlling variables in their studies, besides assessing the direct impact on processes of learning and performance. Three types of variables deal with the effects of learner influence on the success of elearning: perceptual factors, factors linked to motivation and environmental factors.

3.3.1

Perceptual Factors

In a learner-controlled environment, cognitive factors apply to individual capacities which make reasonable decisions about learning and also self-regulate their learning process (Zimmerman, 2008). As indicated by previous studies and studies on selfmanaged learning in correspondence education, the literature review supports the important positive impact that previous experience and cognitive capacity have on the efficacy of learner-controlled teaching. More advanced learners who exhibit higher learning ability gain more from the supervision of learners, realise it simpler to self-manage their learning phase and produce enhanced learning outcomes (Hughes et al., 2013; Kostons et al., 2010; Scheiter et al., 2009). New learners, on the other hand, gain less from the extra independence provided by e-learning managed by learners and are further prone to encounter confusion throughout the learning phase (Hatsidimitris & Kalyuga, 2013; Scheiter & Gerjets, 2007). Yet, poor proof remains that the efficacy of learner influence is moderated by personal learning experience (Brown, 2001). The capacity to self-control the learning process is especially critical in accomplishing effective learning results due to the comparatively independent learning process and the flexibility of personal selection in learner-regulated online learning (Zimmerman, 2008). Self-managed learning relates to meta-cognitive techniques that are important to consider and enhance the personal learning mechanism for preparing, tracking, and modifying the learning process (Hughes et al., 2013; Kostons et al., 2010). Cognitive patterns and human desires for control often assess the efficacy of learner control on online learning. Cognitive modes of learning apply to the multiple forms in which knowledge is interpreted and processed by people. Learning styles assess the willingness of a pupil to utilise learner power through their effect on self-learning and intelligence values and personal learning methods (Scheiter et al., 2009; Hoeffler & Schwartz, 2011). To some degree, styles of learning rely on the

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cultural context of a learner. Furthermore, learning patterns are correlated with some characteristics of personality. For example, extraversion and openness to experience contribute to improved success in a state of strong learner control, while in a state of weak learner control, learners with personality characteristics less than the average score will perform better (Orvis et al., 2010). This review too indicates that personal control likings arbitrate learner control efficiency. Matching personal control preferences with the level of control obtained improves the commitment to learn along with the results of cognitive and affective learning (Wang & Beasley, 2002; Vandewaetere & Clarebout, 2011; Rienties et al., 2012). Although, some experiments often suggest that mismatching of expectations boosts learning efficiency, suggesting that the optimum degree of regulation may not be selected by at least some learners (Scheiter et al., 2009).

3.3.2

Motivational Factors

Specific target focus, specific attribution of performance, and personal attitude towards completing a learning process are variables linked to motivation. The target orientation of an individual may be split into objectives linked to mastery and success (Brown, 2001). Mastery-oriented learners are likely to devote more time to be more closely engaged with the learning activity with the learning content, whereas successoriented learners are more worried about their success of learning compared to others. In contrast to mastery-oriented learners, learners with performance orientation are thus anticipated to interact less intensely with a learning process and, thus, to have a lower job motivation. However, there is no strong evidence to support this suggestion in research that investigates the impact of success and mastery orientation on learning processes (Brown, 2001; Ely et al., 2009; Orvis et al., 2009; Schmidt & Ford, 2003), rendering it challenging to conclude about the role of target alignment in learner regulation. Further, Brown (2001) identified a major association among self-efficacy and performance orientation, and indicated that low self-efficacy in learners’ leads to negative impacts of performance orientation on task motivation. Attributional types and self-efficacy play important roles among the several mechanisms that affect personal motivation by their impact on personal perceptions of outcomes. The motivation for tasks is defined by whether people assign their individual achievement to core talents rather than outside influences, and their selfefficacy in the good performance of a given task (Bandura, 2001). Learners attribute the effects of their actions to multiple internal and external causes, like their individual capacity, initiative, chance, and the complexity of the learning challenge, according to attribution theory. Increased learning enthusiasm and personal initiative were caused by a greater degree of internal ascription compared to external ascription. In comparison, learners having poor self-efficacy prefer to resist learning conditions that they find outweigh their capabilities (Bandura, 2001). Learner-controlled settings typically need greater degrees of self-efficacy and an individual provenance style (internal locus of control) relative to system-controlled guidance (Chang & Ho, 2009; Hughes et al., 2013). Vande-waetere & Clarebout

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(2011) established that self-efficacy and ascription persona have insignificant impact on the process of learning and its results. There may, however, be further association results with similar motivational factors, like learning self-direction, because selfefficacy determines how an individual handles learning activities (Brown, 2001). A greater degree of self-efficacy, for example, can encourage learners to avoid appropriate courses, thereby dipping their learning results (Bell & Kozlowski, 2002). In order to evaluate the impact of overconfidence on learner-controlled decision making, more study is therefore required. Eventually, the task motivation of learners is often linked to their common approaches towards the job of learning and the direction of online learning. Higher effective results are recorded by learners who show a favourable outlook towards a course topic reach higher success standards and are more likely to pursue their course (Scheiter et al., 2009).

3.3.3

Environmental Factors

In recent years, motivational and cognitive influences have gained growing focus, few studies have specifically explored the impact of the external context on learning performance. The nature and course content, along with learning environments that may arbitrate the efficacy of learner-controlled teaching, involve environmental factors. Granger and Levine (2010), for instance, indicated that complicated learning activities are very less appropriate than simplified activities for selfcontrolled courses. Scheiter et al. (2009) and DeRouin et al. (2004) have hypothetically proposed that the performance rates of learner-controlled e-learning are improved by supportive learning environments, such as peer help in group learning and the support of supervisor in organisations. To sum up, research suggests that the success of learner-controlled online learning hinges upon human motivational and cognitive features, while the minimal research of environmental influences does not enable to make clear conclusions.

4 Developing a Theoretical Context From the study of literature, two main conclusions appear. First, while studies vary, regulation and self-sufficiency in online learning appear to improve affective and cognitive effects, depending on the particular control dimension. Second, some circumstances, including human traits and environmental variables, rely on the efficacy of learner regulation. Mainly in situations, learner control is likely to be effective when learners: a. b. c.

Possess strong self-regulatory and cognitive skills, Are competent regarding the subject, Have a constructive mindset regarding the challenge and are driven to achieve it, and

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Favour a self-directed learning mechanism.

These results enable the following theory to be drawn from the above literature analysis: This review establishes a context that involves the suitable circumstances which paves a way for the successful e-learning, and connects them to learner regulation, process of learning and outcomes of learning, with the review of literature acting as basis and drawing on motivational and cognitive learning theories. Past studies have claimed that the unclear effects of the impact of learner control on the efficacy of online learning are attributed to the absence of analytical constructs from where the construct of learner control may be extracted (Scheiter & Gerjets, 2007; Williams, 1996). In order to close this distance, Kraiger and Jerden (2007) suggested a framework to explain person attributes and the training features which facilitate the interaction among learner influence and learning performance. While a link between objective and perceived control is also introduced by the model, it fails to answer how learner-control impacts the learning outcomes. Various learning mechanisms have been suggested as mediators between technical influences, instructional architecture, human factors, and various learning results by other frameworks which technically analysed the efficacy of online learning (Alavi & Leidner, 2001). Additional environmental variables are differentiated amid affective and cognitive outcomes (Piccoli et al., 2001; Sharda et al., 2004).

5 Conclusion of This Study Online learning (or e-learning) programmes offer extensive tools for learners to monitor their processes of teaching and learning. While the implementation of elearning services is seen as critical in contemporary times, the capacities and feasibility of these services are still unexplored. The literature review indicates variables that are important for successful online learning managed by learners. A paradigm that conceptualises the influence of learner control on the efficacy of online learning programmes was developed based on the defined variables. This structure is based on and expands preceding models (Alavi & Leidner, 2001; Piccoli et al., 2001; Sharda et al., 2004) by presenting a fresh viewpoint on the function and effects of the independence and self-control offered by present online learning frameworks. In particular, a key aspect in this context is the instructional and technical nature of the e-learning environment. In order to establish five distinct aspects of learner regulation, prior categorisations of online learning structures (Piccoli et al., 2001) were used. The facets were subsequently employed to analyse the effects of learner influence on learning process and learning outcome in depth. The system often contains personality variations as well as program and environmental characteristics that mitigate the impact of learner influence on the learning process and performance. This structure thus helps to place the variables affecting e-learning regulated by learners and provides a new viewpoint on the determinants of effective online learning.

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Queries on how, when and to which extent the learner autonomy influences learning process and effects have been addressed to a greater degree. The conclusion of this review indicates that contradictory outcomes from previous review of literature (Kraiger & Jerden, 2007; Steinberg, 1989; Williams, 1996) may well be clarified in depth by considering various aspects of learner regulation and expanding the review to the moderating function of human variations and environmental influences. Specifically, the various dimensions of learner control have dissimilar impacts on affective and cognitive learning results. Although not all aspects of learner regulation can be useful, others have major effects for the success of e-learning. The majority of research in this study indicate that a strong association occurs amid time and speed and control over learning processes and performance. However, the influence of control over the collection of material and activities is unclear, indicating that this type of control can be used with caution. The degree to which learner-controlled e-learning is successful is defined by the existence of such motivational and cognitive attributes, such as patterns of learning, cognitive ability, recognition of performance, and self-management skill. When determining on the level of independence that learners should be granted, organisations and educational establishments using online learning programmes ought to consider these considerations. Failure to do so will contribute to detrimental consequences of learner regulation, such as confusion and burden, which will prevail in the long run, thereby worsening increasing attrition rates in online learning (Shroff et al., 2007). As a consequence, online learning systems need to be tailored for people (adolescents in lower/higher school or practitioners at work), topics (complicated or basic) and context of learning (private institution, technical learning or university). Although the purpose of this review was to reunite past results than opening up fresh areas for potential research, this review offers a beginning for a variety of fields. The optimum degree of learner regulation applies to the first research opportunity. So far, no research we are aware of has sought to investigate how e-learning performance is defined by the degree of learner control. A fair extent of regulation, for instance, can render the learning process excessively difficult. Therefore, a potential direction for future study is to explore whether an inverted U-shape follows the relationship between learner control and learning results. A non-linear correlation amid learner control and learning outcomes will too benefit to understand the contradictory effects of previous research on the interest and efficacy of learner-control. The plurality of research in this review explored a small degree of learner control which included navigation control, material, selection of task, and speed in most instances. Only a handful of the more current experiments have explored interaction regulation or the place of learning. Further studies into these aspects could improve our awareness of the effects of high degrees of control. In shared learning contexts, a second direction for potential study involves the influence of experiences. As e-learning platforms are combined with social networking elements that facilitate interactive learning and information sharing, virtual contact between learners and instructors turns out to be more prevalent (DeRouin et al., 2005). Previous study has shown that it improves affective learning effects by having influence over relationships in collaborative environments

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(DeRouin et al., 2005; Sun & Hsu, 2013). The effects on cognitive results, however, have not extensively been studied. Collaborative learning, on one side, allows for constant exchange and information creation in a virtually linked community. Furthermore, teamwork within a community theoretically requires reciprocal motivating reinforcement and thereby enhances engagement and persistence. On the other side, learners who do not properly monitor their simulated contact can suffer from an unequally distributed knowledge overflow and disparate learning outcomes within the community (Rienties et al., 2012). While the paradigm of this study indicates a correlation amongst self-regulation of learners, perceived control of learners, and processes of learning, the position of perceived control was not fully investigated. To allow control choices to be used effectively, the available findings demonstrate that knowledge of control is important. Consequently, if they have little knowledge or understanding of their control, bestowing the learners with options about their learning process is probable to have no impact (DeRouin et al., 2004). The degree to which perceived control is related to the level of actual control is still uncertain, and how perceived control influences learning outcomes. For instance, Vandewaetere and Clarebout (2011) find that perceived influence is connected to the enthusiasm and happiness of a learner, but not to the scores of the course. In addition, as learners grow familiar to the online learning method, the degree of perceived control will decrease with time, possibly declining the influence of perceived control on online learning efficacy (Sun & Hsu, 2013). Given the circumstance that online learning has in recent times progressed in many organisations where conventional teaching approaches are substituted or complemented the existing limited and partially obsolete number of research on learner management in a professional atmosphere makes it challenging to draw deductions regarding discrepancies within instructive environments. Although Kraiger and Jerden (2007) concluded that learner influence in job environments is more successful, this review noticed little obvious variance in the impact on learning process and its outcomes, whereas some research recorded positive/negative effects on results (Behrend & Thompson, 2012; Rienties et al., 2012). However, a closer analysis shows that online learning systems employed in work environments enable reasonably high levels of learner autonomy, including autonomy over experiences and also the position of learning (Joo et al., 2013). This review proposes that the function of the organisational learning climate, including the degree of autonomy granted to staff, the influence of organisational expectations, the accessibility of resources, and the methods used to provide training, be further explored in future research on this topic. This study also recommends exploring the effects of learner management on e-learning attrition rates as a final incentive for potential study.

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Digital Humanity for Nepali University Teachers Eak Prasad Duwadi

I postulate that if we harness digital humanity, humanities education can strike back in the world. I present a perspective on globalization and humanities from a location, which perhaps enjoys a little reputation in terms of the volume of humanistic education. I presently belong to a department in Kathmandu University School of Management. Being a language and communication faculty, I also give some literature and composition lectures and run workshops across several schools. One of the benefits is that I can do needful research there besides having the rights to design and update the syllabus. Therefore, I am unaffected whether the number of intakes multiplies or dwindles. Another benefit is that I get a chance to collaborate with faculties from STEM backgrounds. Not only do I ask for their help for understanding and applying technical concepts, but they seek my help for developing sustainable projects in return. I do not feel inferior to them anyways. In this paper, first humanities education is defined. Then, the importance of humanities education is discussed. That is followed by crisis in the humanities education section. Next, causes of crisis are analyzed. Then, the way-forwards to remedy the challenges are listed coherently. Finally, conclusions are made, and the references are added.

1 Defining Humanity Education According to Cambridge Dictionary, “Humanities are the tales, ideas and phrases that assist us to understand our existence and our world.” It introduces us to people we have never met before, locations we have never visited before and thoughts we E. P. Duwadi (B) Kathmandu University Nepal, Dhulikhel, Nepal e-mail: [email protected] © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021 D. Mishra and Y. Chuang (eds.), Learning How to Learn Using Multimedia, Lecture Notes in Educational Technology, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-1784-3_11

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would possibly by no means have idea of. The human sciences have been first utilized to trivium including study of grammar, rhetoric and good judgment in the fifteenthcentury Italy. Scholars added a new issue while reading Greek and Roman books and their languages for native people. At the identical time, they learn about of the liberal arts was still restrained usually to men of the ruling classes, which have been regarded on unsuitable for female. There had been additionally heated discussions about the acceptable placement of Humanities and professional skill guides in historical times. The three areas of curriculum are mentioned in Plato’s major, work The Republic. However, the debate over the relative fee of the three main direction areas specifically grammar, rhetoric and logic continues as always. Later both Greek and Roman philosophers continued to strengthen Plato’s views. This is recognized as the liberal arts curriculum that develops extensive competencies vital to working as a free citizen such as analyzing and discussing public issues. Humanities these days incorporate many other traits viz. anthropology, classics, records geography, linguistics, languages, politics, literature, performing arts, theatre, dance, philosophy religion and visual arts. Therefore, Humanities are no longer just about studying English literature. Importance of Humanities education does no longer sojourn you from turning into an employee in any part of the world as they increase communication capabilities expanding the horizon of imaginations mental authority and flexibility (Alexandra, 2). Whether you have to be Humanities Major or not, as you can examine liteterature books every time you want. Humanities do no longer stop you from turning into an employee in any section of the world; they improve properly conversation skills, wealthy imaginations, intellectual authority and flexibility (Alexandra 2). Whether you must be Humanities principal or now not does now not matter, but you can read literary books whichever streams you select to study.

1.1 Importance of Humanities Education For Ron Miller, the Humanities imply for storing a passionate heart, not just a calculating mind. This potential persona schooling no longer just competence of development is essential (34). Liberal arts graduates have special wonderful capabilities required for job possibilities and distinct competencies that convey giant benefits in the historical off work (Smith, 19). On the different hand, STEM (Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics) graduates may also have higher financial status, but they may additionally forget the artwork of living, as it is solely liberal arts graduates who are skilled in this way. Humanities help us to suppose about what is no longer vital in our existence and how we can make them healthy. By inspecting how others have lived and what they think about life, they predict a fantastic strategy to answering what is right/wrong or what is in/appropriate for our heritage and our past connecting us to other humans

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and their lifestyles. Humanities help us emerge as extra tolerant, and address the challenges we face together in our households or communities at large. Global markets are also in a determined need of liberal arts knowledge, socioeconomic growth improvement challenges and intelligent options to complicated international power. They require an aggregate of abilities derived from Humanities social sciences even in STEM fields to layout and supply holistic and absolutely knowledgeable solutions. It has also been discovered that development businesses claim that technology-based engineering tasks fail due to lack of grasp of cultural contexts. Projects developed by the STEM graduates are all fantastic in phrases of thought and design, however implementations are marred due to a lack of human perspectives. This indicates that no international development problems for socio-economic, can be wholly solved barring actual evidences, knowing, and discerning how nearby stakeholders and other Humanities graduates are experiencing this.

2 Crisis in Humanities Education Recent records on first time graduate show that liberal arts Majors earn lots less than these with expert-oriented ranges in subjects such as enterprise and engineering and Maths. In many states in the US, direction funding to Humanities education in latest a long time is more and more low. The variety of Humanities students is dwindled. That is now not exceptional in our university and university classes. For example, more than 200 students would come to take English literature category in the central campus of Tribhuvan University, a pioneer college of Nepal, the case is now not an exception someplace else due to the fact it represents the vogue of international trade. The scenario is no longer so exceptional in other campuses throughout Nepal, many programs which include psychology history and political sciences are superbly unpopular. Therefore, some of the faculties’ gross earnings are being drawn from their respective colleges. Students pick to be a part of STEM subjects to Humanities, according to them, doing so will lead to the greener pasture both in or outside Nepal.

3 Causes of Crisis For Aristotle, “Educating the idea barring educating the coronary heart is no education at all”. John Dewey says that we can no longer learn anything from the literature, artwork and idea of the previous that cannot be better supported by means of science. Wilfred McClay solutions expectantly that analyzing of the classics reminds us “that the ancients knew things about humankind that modernity has failed to abolish, even if it has managed to forget them” (Smisey 41). Nonetheless, numerous elements reason the crisis in Humanities education:

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4 Lack of Interdisciplinary Collaborations The fascinating components among them are English, history, politics, civics, language, and literature education, philosophy, psychology and sociology as well. It is associated to you seeing that humans are the topics inside the Humanities disciplines. It is essentially fascinated in people and with subjectivity; this is no longer solely illustrating your questions of the means and purpose of life, however it is uniquely properly suited to explore how to live and work with other people with diversity. In sensible terms, if the job requires being able to work with and determine people, Humanities degrees can make us highly perfect for it as they allow empathy and requires students to regard problems and understand humans with complexity and having an appreciation that no single answer is right. This is the cause why many STEM faculties now are trying to find the assistance of Humanities majors to hone their educational writing and projects. That is the scenario in my personal technical university, the place many schools from science and engineering regularly request us (Humanities Professors) to edit their files and thesis earlier than submitting those. However, Humanities colleges ordinarily pass over to advantage from the know-how and talent from the STEM professors.

5 Lack of Proper Pedagogies According to Ron Miller, from Pestalozzi to Dewey, Olcott to Steiner, Montessori to Neil and Holt, these academic critics presented inspiring views on schooling for the fullness of humanity, the schooling of freedom, wisdom, compassion and lively participation in society World (23). Rainsford Alexandra believes that learning is what happens when youth play for hours on the street, create their very own games, create their personal policies and solve their problems among themselves (4). Learning comes when children are allowed to experiment, with skill confusion and bizarre things, and in all likelihood punctured loops or pebbles. Learning is what occurs when a child sits for hours and draws, or kicks, throws a ball, or performs with balls for hours. Learning comes when a toddler is enjoying video games (now mobile games) or helping any person else. Learning additionally happens at a time when we are no longer conscious that this is happening. Learning comes with an innate curiosity that we all once had. Understanding takes place because of verbal and non-verbal communication, and now not “just” the baby and the student. Learning takes place in the course of relationship building, realizing the person sitting throughout from you by encouraging trust, partnerships, and connections.

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6 Lack of Simplicity Robert Frost, William Wordsworth, Franz Kafka and Nikola Tesla continually used easy language, and they are favored writers for many. Students of English are often counseled to “Read novels,” but novels had been now not designed to instruct English. It is also shown that the giant majority of people, who limit their reading to fiction, do not increase powerful rhetorics. Another instance is James Joyce’s Ulysses that is written in a flow of consciousness and is used to replicate the protagonist’s thoughts. It is seen that many readers do no longer want to do more work. They additionally do now not like to study the big variations of Puranas or Vedas. However, the rule is much less we study something, the less familiar it is, and the more difficult it is to understand. Most of the readers select simple language alternatively than complex dialectal nowadays. Things are improving in tutorial interests currently in Nepal and India as well. Unlike in the past, college students understand about time period papers, journals, conferences, research, plagiarism, presentation, MLA Research Handbook, and so forth, however in reality, they are hardly materialized.

7 Lack of Understanding of Digital Humanity Meredith Hindley reveals, “In the years following World War II, the sciences—physical, biological, and social—embraced computers to work on complicated calculations, however it took the Humanities a little longer to see the cost of computing” (4). In Humanities, evidence-based periods that mirror data-driven processes to the interactions of technological know-how with learning, giving you coaching to make future pedagogic decisions or have interaction in comparable research, are notably missing. Moreover, hardly ever few instructors of Humanities recognize what energetic getting to know pedagogy is. Years of research demonstrates the effectiveness of active learning methods over typical lectures. Active gaining knowledge of strategies ranges from rapid and handy to extra great activities. Learning Design (lesson plan) is missing from many teachers’ tables. In fact, from thinking to delivery, superb and enticing studying experiences require designers who are both innovative and analytical. Emergent Technologies are quite new to the instructors of Humanities in a creating country. In addition, experimentation with rising applied sciences in instructional contexts can grant unique pedagogical insights. Beyond being without a doubt innovative, the use of rising applied sciences needs to be supported by evidence-based lookup that focuses on the technologies have an effect on learning. Lack of school improvement is another setback in our institutions. Faculty improvement is involved with the guide and ongoing improvement of instructional college at the institutional or unit level.

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Lack of suited assessment of college students is any other key motive that blemishes Humanities education. Learning administration systems and different online getting to know systems provide opportunities to interact college students with innovative or choice assessments. They also can grant systematic get admission to ordinary evaluation data, as well as records that was beforehand unavailable or challenging to track.

8 Because of the Arrival of Machines STEM topics are comparatively new and still beneficial to many, “To be triumphant in this new information-based and fantastically technological society, college students want to strengthen their skills in STEM to stages lots past what used to be regarded acceptable in the past” (National Science Foundation). Recent reviews from the American Academy of Arts and Sciences located that declining guide for the Humanities should damage commercial innovation in the United States and underminecivic engagement. The variety of Americans with the liberal arts stages such as history and English is at an all-time high. The proportion of these with liberal arts tiers is declining as majority of them at an increasing number choose career-oriented Majors such as business and Engineering. New facts show that liberal arts Majors earn much less in their first job than other Majors. The Florida Governor has proposed to reduce in country training expenses for students in trades with right job prospects while permitting training prices to rise for Humanities students. STEM schooling is one of the cutting-edge thoughts in education, but some human beings are not sure if the benefits outweigh the practicable risks (Sabrina Rung, 1). However, the study of the humanities has existed here due to the fact time immemorial, so they are no longer new to students. Due to the presence of many liberal arts graduates, college students can also find restricted opportunities. However, we have a responsibility to study about the previous and examine from it. Human schooling teaches us many transferable skills. Besides art and history, graduates can join publishing houses, media houses, PR, charities, corporate houses, diplomatic missions, etc. Humanity additionally teaches the artwork of writing, so it is very handy for any experts to share their ideas. Moreover, we can create compelling arguments and rhetoric with these compelling elements. Above all, Humanities foster the information economic system and makes the economic system precisely measured in phrases of the advantages to the gross home product.

9 Way-Forwards To make sure a future for the Humanities in greater training throughout the globe, let us take the following actions:

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8.

9.

10.

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Though with ease siloed earlier, discover collaboration in new interdisciplinarity by creating something new by wondering throughout boundaries. Contribute for our continued existence by way of supplying tangible competencies including right verbal exchange skills. Be clear and specific in our directions to attain any audience as some issues arise from ambiguous and doubtful instructions. Promote digital humanity in your college or university faculty with exciting instructional video games activities, technology, and multimedia resources. Respond with accurately holistic and numerous solutions: Publicly reward high-quality conduct showing that we are celebrating their achievements as well. Encourage reading, writing, speaking, listening, necessary questioning and analytical skills with the aid of growing literary groups. Create products: Whether it is a poem, short story, or a composition, please, create something to motivate your students. Reflect: Sera (2018) advises instructors to explore their own teaching via vital reflection to improve modifications in attitude and awareness. The faith can advantage their professional boom as teachers and enhance the help they supply to their students. Love your profession: The high-quality way to get college students interested in your challenge is to love it wholeheartedly that your passion for the field is mirrored in your attitude. Division like Sturtevant (2018), I additionally agree that the responsibility lies with the Humanities disciplines to organize, to enter the public arena, to work collectively outdoor the tall buildings of our schools and universities.

10 Conclusions I agree with Cottle (2015) that we find out about Humanities to get better perspectives. It affects jobs and lifestyles skills, our international standpoint and the splendor and records of human experiences. Therefore, the need of liberal arts education is nonetheless applicable in the present day context the entirety that got here earlier than impacts who we are these days is as a society (Bookthoughts, 1). The find out about of human beings and way of life includes many types that have taken on in time and place. Naturally, most of this occurs due to the fact of reverse reflection, which is now not memorizing dates however extra than that. Philosophy, literature, politics, music, law, language, religion, architecture, lifestyle and society are covered under the umbrella of Humanities. Perhaps the intention of schooling is not to grow to be rich, however to study during life. To exhibit enthusiasm, to take calculated risks, to be capable to resolve problems, to assume critically, to be in a position to see things differently, to be capable to work independently and intelligently we want a deeper perception of the

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world. Others are creative caring and willing to provide it back to their community, have solutions, have honesty and self-respect, have moral coverage, talk well, write well, examine well, work well, and virtually revel in life and work. Humanities instill these characteristics in the hearts and myself readers in students this is the reasons why I recommend the significance of liberal arts education or route in winters are of increased significance in the twenty-first century too

References Bookishthoughts, J. (2016). Why Study the Humanities? YouTube, uploaded by Jean Retrieved January 8, 2021, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XNBvE23OM7s. Cottle, K. (2015). Oh the humanities! YouTube, uploaded by TEDx Talks. Retrieved January 5, 2021 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z0vidIWkymo. “Humanities” (17 February 2010). About humanities. Retrieved March 4, 2018, from https://gdbkic m10262015.wordpress.com/. Serra, R. (20180. What is reflective teaching and why is it important? Retrieved from http://www. richmondshare.com.br/what-is-reflective-teaching-and-why-is-it-important/. Sturtevant, P. B. (2018). The humanities must unite or die. Retrieved from https://www.insidehig hered.com/views/2015/11/06/humanities-must-work-promote-their-worth-public-essay.

Improvement of Teaching Quality in Open and Distance Learning Through Peer Mentoring: A Case Study on Bangladesh Open University Sodip Roy and Santosh Kumar Behera

Abstract Twenty-first-century teaching-learning has been witnessing a wider acceptance of Open and Distance Learning (ODL) in higher education. At the same time, it places the quality assurance into the forefront to make this provision more effective and relevant to all stakeholders. However, the difference between conventional and ODL education is minimizing gradually, such as philosophy, target groups and instructional design explicitly differ till today. And, teachers in ODL institutions require some different types of skills and qualities than the teachers in conventional universities. Principally, mentoring among the faculty members can offer that initial know-how techniques to novice teachers coming from non-ODL background. Therefore, this study aims to examine how peer mentoring necessarily contributes to enhance the teaching quality of Open University teachers with reference to Bangladesh Open University. To investigate the issue, this study applied some qualitative methods interview and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) among purposive number of mentor and mentee teachers of Bangladesh Open University (BOU). After exploration, it was found that most of the teachers particularly the novice teachers have acquired many skills and knowledge on open and distance education initially through peer mentoring in informal settings. Participants of the study hope for formal mentoring in the universities at large in Bangladesh. Keywords Quality · Teaching quality · Peer mentoring · Open and distance learning · One to one · Intangible · Retention

S. Roy Department of Political Science, Open School, Bangladesh Open University, Gazipur 1705, Bangladesh S. K. Behera (B) Department of Education, Kazi Nazrul University, Asansol Paschim Bardhaman, West Bengal, 713340, India e-mail: [email protected] © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021 D. Mishra and Y. Chuang (eds.), Learning How to Learn Using Multimedia, Lecture Notes in Educational Technology, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-1784-3_12

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1 Introduction Quality of teaching has gone to the bleeding edge of advanced education internationally within the past decades (Harvey & Williams, 2010). The twenty-first century learning also concentrates highly on the quality of education. In this face of global competition, effective teaching and learning are inevitable in upgrading excellence and increasing the scope of higher educational institutions (Department for Education and Skills, 2003). Jasman et al. (2013) demonstrated that a university’s standard can be determined according to its teaching quality. Most of the institution maneuvers to employ every possible initiative to high up their quality: both using formal and informal approaches of quality management and tools. Initiatives of teaching quality enhancement oftentimes depend on the intrinsic profile of the institution. Moreover, there are wide ranges of strategies to sort out the quality of particular institution. And some strategies may vary in case of Open University and conventional university. But it is widely accepted that modern quality management encourages teamwork among the teachers for desired quality achievement (Henard & Leprince-Ringuet, 2008). But universities in developing countries strive for quality; they cannot invest much in the formal strategies and approaches. In this situation, many informal strategies can offer the optimum benefits to that quality enhancement. Mentoring is such a tool that equally supports developing the basic ethos of teaching significantly (Wexler, 2020) as well as methodological techniques of Open education through teamwork. It offers a much broader set of benefits for the early and mid-career faculty in the university (Rees & Shaw, 2014). In case of ODL institutions, the collaboration of learning is a must for the academic staff particularly between the senior and the novice (Kennedy & Duffy, 2004) because ODL entails many different types of components of teaching and learning than conventional institutions. Thus, this method requires mandatory collaboration among the teachers that cannot be always learned from formal training. While achieving quality is crucial for the universities, educators and the university themselves look for many quality management tools that often do not focus on academic issues but on policy issue. The Government of Bangladesh (GoB) has adopted and adapted many policies and strategies under the Higher Education Quality Enhancement Project. But it rarely encourages the informal tools to uphold the specialized knowledge of the individual institutions (Higher Education Quality Enhancement Project (HEQEP), 2016). In this context, the study aims to investigate how the academic staff of BOU cope up with a different type of teaching-learning environment and grow their teaching quality with many technical skills and expertise without mentionable training and workshops. And, the study expects that it will strengthen the spirit for peer mentoring in BOU. This study believes further that it may attract the attention of policy-makers to formalize peer mentoring in improving the teaching quality of BOU without spending any extra for it.

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2 Literature Review Teaching quality is a comprehensive attribute of a teacher. There is no fixed and one-go process to enhance quality of the university faculty members (Martens & Prosser, 1998). The process encompasses both individual and collective maneuvers throughout his/her career in an academia. The institution as well as the teacher individually goes through the process of training, research activities, generating and sharing of knowledge and experience both in formal and informal platforms. Hill et al. (2003) defines ‘Teaching quality’ “as a composite term to indicate the quality of teachers in terms of explicit qualification of the faculty and implicit teacher characteristics such as ability, commitment, motivation supported by the adequacy of hiring procedures, faculty availability, professional development and recognition of teaching abilities” (pp. 15–20).

This qualification has intrinsic and achieved values. Most of these attributes require recognition and rewards from the respective institution to flourish further. Put differently, many traits of teaching can be improved through interpersonal and daily practices. Accordingly, Hall (2002) marked out that mentoring is “intentional relationship focused on developing self of relatively unseasoned protégé through dialogue and reflection; an implicit focus on the development of the next generation in the context of interpersonal relationships” (p. 147).

Rosser and Egan (2005) emphasized on professional development through this personal relationship and it is a challenge in some cases to make effective those informal approaches of quality development. It creates a debate whether teaching quality should excel with formal quality management or these informal practices (Rosser & Egan, 2005). Moreover, some scholars like to explain the quality of teaching by differentiating their role as managers-administrators and academicsteachers (Crebbin, 1997). Quite similarly Chen et al. (2014) argued that teachers are the sole responsible for teaching quality. They identify several components such as teachers’ characteristics, quality of teaching materials, classroom and environmental support, control of the learning climate to look at sincerely (Chen et al., 2014). Thus, the scholars like Felder and Brent (1999) reluctant to follow formal quality management tools at least in improving teaching quality. On the other hand, formal tools suggest and apply strategies in the academia in the developed countries to uphold the quality of higher education (Lomas, 2004). To this group quality management practices the six components: focus on customer satisfaction; focus on processes; continuous quality improvements; employee involvement; fact-based management; management commitment (Kennerfalk, 1995). However, some may find slight variations of these components with teaching quality. Jung (2005) in a comprehensive study observed two issues- ‘course materials production’ and ‘student support services’ to ascertain the quality of ODL. Furthermore, ODL teachers need to embrace new technological know-how regularly to keep pace with the twenty-first century learners.

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Teaching requires both psychological readiness as well as expertise on particular discipline. In this regard, peer group of teachers share experience, receive emotional support and offer scope to change attitudes and behavior (Hobson et al., 2009). Mentors directly help the novice in teaching and learning, planning, observing, providing feedback on pupil’s work in such a setting (Stanulis et al., 2018). Ramdass and Nemavhola (2018) argue for specific competencies in distance education such as developing study materials, conducting assessment and facilitating of learning. Practically mentoring includes pedagogical and instructional issues such as instructional design, reflections of lessons and focusing conversation and question around them (Wexler, 2020). The informal relationship becomes more effective for protégé even than formal mentoring (Gibson, 2004). Since improvement of teaching quality is an unending process, mentoring generates favorable environment to outgrow many elements of teaching quality (Chitpin, 2011). Sultana and Kamal (2002) call for professional sincerity among the staff to minimize the gap between the philosophy of distance education and the reality. Besides, Malik (2015) emphasized on inventing innovative methods for instruction and code of ethics in ODL but did not mention any particular method to achieve those qualities. It is clear that the aforesaid relevant literature emphasizes seldom on how the ODL teachers can acquire necessary skills and qualification on self-learning module writing, performing in audio-visual programs, intensive tutorial and so on at the beginning of their career, which is crucial for a large number of academics in this provision. Therefore, the study considers the issue and attempts to investigate the following research questions: • RQ 1. How the protege cope up with the different teaching learning environment of BOU? • RQ 2. What extent peer mentoring can help them to grow as ODL teachers? • RQ 3. Why does peer mentoring matter for ODL teachers in the developing country like in Bangladesh?

3 Methodology The qualitative approach was adopted in this study. In-depth interview and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) of the targeted respondents are considered as methods of the study. Working in the same environment has contributed to add many important data in the overall study. Primary data has been collected through Key Informants Interviews (K.I.I.) and FGD in three different phases between October and December 2019. To this purpose, interviews are executed based on two different semi-structured interview checklists for mentor and mentee. Interview tools comprised of twentyfive questions for the participants. It has a purposive sampling in which not only the mentors but also the mentee teachers have been selected based on some criteria: mentors are senior faculty members at least at Associate Professor level whereas mentees are novice teachers, both mentee and mentors are from the same discipline in one peer group.

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3.1 Demography of the Respondents The average length of an interview was twenty minutes and fifteen minutes for mentee and mentors, respectively. One FGD was conducted to substantiate the interview data. The six person group of mentor and mentee FGD was also guided by a checklist. It has been attempted to maintain all standard of an FGD. One of the research assistant assisted during the entire meeting. The primary data was filtered several times. Repeated translation, that is first from Bengali to English and again from English to Bengali was done to fix the accuracy of the final data in presentation. The study necessarily collected many secondary and observational data too. For secondary data, it explored relevant literature on teaching quality, faculty mentoring and peer mentoring both from library and online searches. Finally, both the primary and secondary data were coded in line with the study objectives and analyzed afterward according to the theme emerged from the field (Hopwood, 2004). Anonymity and confidentiality of the data has been observed with standard research ethics (Tables 1 and 2).

4 Findings Bangladesh Open University has the largest educational network throughout the country with five hundred thousand learners in sixty more formal and non-formal programs in one and half thousand tutorial centers (Bangladesh Open University (BOU) Diary, 2019). It imparts education both in ODL and face-to-face (f2f) methods. BOU operates in six schools with one hundred sixty faculty members who teach approximately ten thousand students at the campus in Dhaka. Faculty members Table 1 List of Mentor (M) teachers Respondents

Gender

Qualification

Experience (appro. in year)

Discipline

Professor (M1)

Male

Ph.D.

16

Bengali

Professor (M2)

Female

Ph.D.

20

Home Economics

Professor (M3)

Male

Ph.D.

20

Accounting

Professor (M4)

Male

Ph.D.

20

Math

Professor (M5)

Female

Ph.D.

20

Physics

Professor (M6)

Male

Double Masters

20

Economics

Associate Professor (M7)

Male

Ph.D.

15

English

Associate Professor (M8)

Male

Ph.D.

10

Sociology

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Table 2 List of Mentee (Protégé) teachers Respondents

Gender

Qualification

Experience (appro. in year)

Discipline

Assistant Professor (P1)

Female

Masters

10

Bengali

Associate Professor (P2)

Female

Masters

15

Home Economics

Lecturer (P3)

Male

Masters

02

Accounting

Assistant Professor (P4)

Female

Masters

06

Math

Assistant Professor (P5)

Female

Masters

08

Physics

Assistant Professor (P6)

Male

Masters

07

Economics

Lecturer (P7)

Male

Masters

03

English

Assistant Professor (P8)

Male

Masters

07

Sociology

Source Field Study, 2019

provide the key educational services in self-learning modules, curriculum, audiovideo lectures and instructional design for the tutor in the designated study centers. The study finds that fifty percent of faculty members are young. Meaning that future of the university’s performance depends on the grooming of these faculty members. It further reveals that young teachers are not receiving enough training on ODL. Mentees have been learning many necessary skills and knowledge of ODL from the seniors through informal meetings among them. They can realize the impact of those meeting on understanding the vision-mission of ODL, instructional design, role and responsibilities, module preparation, tutorial classes, script writing, recording of audio-video lectures, etc.

4.1 Peer Mentoring as Coping up Strategy for Protégé The study primarily examined that how the protégé adjust and serve in different requirements of the university other than their graduation university. BOU is the only ODL University in Bangladesh and it had no higher degree programs a decade ago. Resultantly, it has no scope and culture to recruit teacher from own graduates. All newly recruited teachers come from conventional universities, having no skills and knowledge about ODL. During the in-depth interview, almost every novice teacher had pointed out the issue of their no prior knowledge about the university. Mentee P4 and P6 mentioned that they were frustrated and puzzled by knowing the teaching-learning mode of the university and they felt very helpless about acquiring the minimum expertise to cope up with this environment. But their mentors (M4 & M6) were very supportive to them. During the several meetings with them respectively, mentors discussed about the basic issues about BOU learning modes, and development and distribution of learning materials. M1 and senior professor of Open School said that he was much sincere about the freshmen in the faculty. Mentee P1 agreed that she used to get the necessary support from M1 on rules and regulations

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of the university, benefits of the teachers and scope of growing their career in the faculty.

4.2 Fundamental Scope of Peer Mentoring in BOU 4.2.1

Peer Mentoring, Module and Scripts Writing

BOU provides study materials to almost all of her learners. And, it has a reputation in producing quality self-learning study materials ever since. It follows a standard production cycle of total eight steps (Sultana & Kamal, 2002). Almost every mentee of this study expresses their gratitude to their respective senior faculty members. They have received guidance from them in every step from pre-writing to publishing of the production cycle. Mentee from Economics (P6) and Sociology (P8) mention that “We were new in this profession and had no experience of publishing study materials before but now we are authors and coordinator of the respective courses. We think, it would not possible without direct support of our seniors” (Interview with mentee, 2019).

Two other senior protégé argues that however they have some experience of academic publications; they could not reach the standard level of language for selflearning materials in which their mentor helped them a lot. Mentee (P5) opines that she had no knowledge of preparing learning modules for the learner particularly in ODL but she was assigned to write one module for a group of learners. The School had arranged just a two-day workshop which she found insufficient. In this situation, she approached a professor in the School and received support in module development, meaning of the icons, necessary instructions in the lesson, importance of different audio-video links with those lesson, etc. Professor and mentor (M2) contended that she had the scope to contribute in curriculum development for one of the programs and shared her experience intensively with her junior in the same discipline in School.

4.2.2

Peer Mentoring and Recording of Audio-Video Lectures

Recording of audio-visual lectures is an essential task for teachers in ODL. Recorded materials are broadcasted both in TV and radio channel as well as uploaded in different online platform. It requires special training and expertise. A faculty (P3) from Accounting expressed with gratitude that initially he was very nervous to record his maiden video lectures. Then the concerned producer of the video lectures advised him to consult and practice the lecture first with a colleague. Accordingly, he approached his senior to help him for demo recording in the office room. He practiced several times and the mentor directed him on different moves of the recording. He however had some weakness of presenting something in front of the camera; it disappeared soon after following guidance from the friendly senior. FGD revealed that

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one to one mentoring produced good output for many of them to enhance teaching quality of the faculty members in this university. All of the mentors and mentees from English and Sociology candidly admitted that their pair worked very well and enriched each other particularly on course material development. Mentee (P7) from English defends that he was struggling to make the video lectures attractive. After consulting with his senior consecutively for few days he learned how to add some visual impact and effective link with that lectures. He improved a lot in his videos scripts too.

4.2.3

Peer Mentoring and Research in ODL

Since the advancement of technology, ODL universities in the developed countries have been applying more sophisticated technology in delivering their academic services. So research is essential for an institution to upgrade services and provide update information to the stakeholders. Faculty members are engaged with individual research on ODL at BOU too. University authority also motivates the academic staff in research on ODL for which it provides fund in senior-junior team. One of the mentee (P5) from the Physics department acclaimed to her senior for assisting in a research project. She was also informed in details for the first time about blended learning, know-how techniques of open educational resources (OER) and the importance of ICT in ODL (Interview with mentee, 2019). Despite that a mentor (M8) from Sociology share his experience that “most of the junior initially are reluctant to involve themselves to research on ODL issues, however I motivated many of them about the vision and philosophy of ODL and why it is important to conduct research and how it can benefit their profession and career” (interview with mentee, 2019).

Most of the mentors believe that it is their duty to inspire the protégé in research and academic conferences on ODL and M6 is doing so since long (FGD 2019). One more mentor (M3) admitted that he liked to share their experience of working in the university administration with junior in the School. He thinks that it can enhance their capacity in the management of teaching-learning environment of the university. One of the mentee (P6) of Economics opines that he was scared about examining, scrutinizing and managing other examiners initially however after a several setting with his senior colleague she obtained the skills to conduct exam and assessmentrelated tasks shortly.

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4.3 Necessity of Peer Mentoring in BOU Initially, novice teachers are found very difficult to acclimatize in the distance education environment. They were not familiar with the modular system of delivery, preparation of special curriculum for the distance learners, wider application of technologies such as learning management software, application of many open sources of material for themselves and the learners in Open universities. But it was mentors who motivated them the job responsibilities, facilities, challenges which helped their retention in job. Protege had the chances to discuss their issues in conversation and question during peer mentoring. Like other mentors, M8 claimed that novice teachers have no scope to know about ODL from other than BOU faculties particularly from their graduating universities. During the FGD, young faculty members admitted that they came to learn the difference between lecture method and tutorial method for the first time from their senior colleagues. Later on, they followed those instructions about how to implement module in tutoring sessions. A junior faculty might acquire knowledge about their discipline-related issues from any universities of the country but it is difficult to get support on technical issue of module development, recording audio-video lectures and tutoring system in ODL. M7 argued that as an ODL faculty member, we have to keep update with those education technologies, blended learning, OER, e-learning tools. Mentor M6 stated that “BOU is an exceptional education provider in Bangladesh that requires exceptional skills for her faculty. It is our responsibility to develop our junior colleagues with this effective medium of education.”

4.4 Challenges of Peer Mentoring in BOU The HEIs in Bangladesh do not practice mentoring largely. There is no formal mentoring in BOU too. To the M8, novice teacher oftentimes cannot understand whom to visit and when to visit a professor. Most often it happens that a novice teacher does not feel comfortable to visit comparatively senior faculty members from other than his/her own school (Interview with M8, 2019). Some of the mentors and mentee had different observation about their relationship. Oftentimes peers could not adjust with each other. Consequently, team works like the module production are hampered and delayed. That also affected a little bit to the satisfaction and retention of the newly appointed teachers. A numbers of novice teachers leave the BOU job every year. Pointing out this retention issue, M4 said that it happened here because of two reasons: recruitment of graduates with degrees from conventional universities and lack of proper teaching-learning environment of the university. Both the student and teachers maintain direct lobby with the mainstream political parties in Bangladesh. Thus, there is lack of trust and respect among them. Most of the junior faculty criticized this political factionalism that caused weak relationship among the faculty members (FGD, 2019). In addition, since there are

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no full-time students in the main campus of this university, most of the meetings among teachers covered by non-academic issues. Overall, no culture of mentoring in Bangladeshi universities also affects informal interpersonal academic relationships in BOU. Furthermore, novice teachers show hardly their interest to ODL. They tend to busy with formal and f2f teaching instead of modular and tutorial system of teaching (FGD, 2019).

5 Discussion Teaching in Open University needs different types of orientation than that of traditional universities (Ramdass & Nemavhola, 2018). ODL institution follows distinct curriculum, instructional design,ˆ methods of delivery such as audio-video lectures, distribution of learning materials in printing and electronic media. And, mentoring is less frequent in ODL (Morgan & Smit, 2001). Some of the teachers needed a clarification about mentoring during the data collection. But there is some informal mentoring that has been occurring unknowingly as mentoring. BOU faculty members also provided guidance in tutoring, teaching, module development and recording media program to their junior discipline mates. However, the study revealed that mentor and mentee undergo some challenges among them, officially and practically they have to work together particularly in developing modules and helping each in recording interactive audio-video lectures. Thus, they develop an interpersonal relationship between them eventually. It has been noticed from observation during the fieldwork that most of the mentee can overcome their initial challenges with the help of their senior colleagues in the same discipline. Both the senior and junior colleagues have to ask for academic cooperation for recording audio-video lectures. Consequently, discipline-wise informal mentoring happens in the BOU quite mandatorily. Therefore, mentoring can contribute a lot to the sustaining and refining of ODL teaching’s effectiveness (Van der Merwe, 2011). There are evidences that mentoring in a formal structure of mentoring can bring forth significant improvement among the respective faculty members (Darwin & Palmer, 2009). Most of the best cases of mentoring are found supervised and patronized by higher authority of the university. In a complete informal setting, the objectives of mentoring remain unachieved due to personal ego, time mismatch, racism (Harris & Lee, 2019), sexual sensitivity so and forth. For instances, teachers in Bangladeshi universities are mostly divided into pro-Awami Leaguer and pro-Bangladesh Nationalist Party politics (Ahmmed, 2013) which affects the academic collaboration and mentoring activities largely. Furthermore, mentoring is not completely a voluntary job; there are provisions of compensation for assigned faculty members (Chalmers, 2011; Ingersoll & Strong, 2011). Teachers are not well paid in Bangladesh. Consequently, they want to skip any extra load of academic and non-academic activities. In the case of BOU, it is the novice teachers who play the lead role in keeping the peer mentoring alive because they must have to fulfill some conditions of lecture recording and production of course materials during their

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probation period. They frequently visit the senior faculty members; however senior teachers do not warmly welcome the junior every time.

6 Conclusion This study has focused on informal peer mentoring and improvement of teaching quality at BOU, and found that the protégé are benefited from such type of mentoring. Mentees received necessary basic knowledge about module development, tutoring, know-how about recording lectures from their senior colleagues in the same discipline. Those coaching and guidance surely cleared their confusion about ODL and boosted up their confidence at large. It has an impact to their understanding of ODL, preparation of learning materials, and research to upgrade the ODL services. Mentors are also happy to practice and share their expertise with the mentee. They believe that their contributions are somehow making up the crisis of necessary training for the novice. However, both the mentors and mentee get benefit from mentoring; there are some challenges to continue the practice. Most of the protégé at the beginning do not show their interest at this system of learning as well as political division affects the teaching-learning environment of the university. Moreover, mentoring is so far considered as a thankless job in our HEIs in Bangladesh. Therefore, this study recommends formalizing mentoring and building up a community of learners among the teachers at BOU. Commitment of the academic staff to quality can be a driving force to the entire process of upholding the standard of HEIs in Bangladesh. The examined context is too complex that government intervention is must for the change. During this study, it is found that Institutional Quality Assurance Cell of UGC has been working to improve the quality of education in the university (Higher Education Quality Enhancement Project (HEQEP), 2016). But special attention should be on the improvement of teaching quality. Put differently, any institution can achieve better learning outcomes by upgrading the quality of the teacher (Phillips, 2008). As part of its several new tools of teaching-learning under the project, it can formulate a policy guideline and patronize mentoring in the HEIs. Concomitantly, more research can be carried out in the academia on why mentoring is not well-practiced in Bangladeshi universities. It is high time to apply the international quality management tools to determine the standard of the universities to set timely vision and mission. Tellingly, GoB has to comprehend for sustainable development through the lens of quality higher education and knowledge-based society.

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Learning to Online Learning: Techniques, Challenges and Opportunities Upagya Rai, Anurag Upadhyay, and Richa Singh

Abstract This work is an exploration of techniques, challenges and opportunities of online/e-learning. It helps develop an understanding about how the transition from traditional face-to-face method of teaching happened and how it was perceived by the teaching community of student and teachers. Online/e-learning has a bright future in India as by 2021 it will become the second-largest Internet using country. Thus this sustainable and transparent medium of knowledge dissipation will be able to reach the remote part villages and all the knowledge and information of the world will be accessible to all who aspire to study. Keywords Learning · Ethics · Online/e-learning · Technology · Pedagogies

1 Introduction Technical improvement and better affordability of computers led to fast passed development of online learning/e-learning. Online learning/e-learning is also called as virtual learning, distance education, Massive Online Open Courses (MOOC). In this new ecosystem technology is an enabler of transparent and effective dissipation of knowledge beyond the boundaries of schools and colleges, countries and continents. All a student or a teacher need is a working Internet connection and a device either a computer or a mobile phone also called as smartphone. The historical evolution of e-learning can be traced back to as far as 40 years. The term online learning/elearning specifically came into existence since 1999. Online learning/e-learning for education primarily means Internet-based delivery of content. Rodrigues et al. 2019 explains online learning/e-learning as an innovative web-based system-based on digital technologies and other forms of educational materials whose primary goal is to provide students with a personalized, learner-cantered, open, enjoyable and interactive learning environment supporting and enhancing the learning processes. What is learning? Learning is identical to change; it is defined as a permanent alteration in behavior. Learning can be like acquiring a new skill, an attitude U. Rai (B) · A. Upadhyay · R. Singh IILM University, Knowledge Centre, Golf Course Road, Gurugram, India © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021 D. Mishra and Y. Chuang (eds.), Learning How to Learn Using Multimedia, Lecture Notes in Educational Technology, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-1784-3_13

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or imbibing a new rule, this change is different from change that happens due to processes like aging or experience, which is another way of learning. Thus it would be safe to say that all type of learning is driven by intentional activities on the part of the person to understand and remember something new and unique. Examples that explain learning are riding a bike, learning to read, signing, paint or fix the kitchen counter. The process of learning is explained by theories like behaviorist— stimulus leads to response, the neo-behaviorist—human mind, the gestalt—insight, whole is greater than the sum of its part, the cognitivists—learning to think and the humanist—active nature of learner. Learning is an internal process that can be facilitated by the process called teaching. Teaching is a process that happens outside of the learner. Several years of experience comes in form of models that helps us understand how to learn and teach? The term Pedagogy is derived from a Greek word paidagogia which is a combination of “ago” means “I lead” and “paidos” means “boy, child” combining together to mean “leading a child” so in pedagogical model, the process of learning is more teachers centric or driven by teacher where the focus is on acquiring the subject matter through a standardized curriculum prepared to fulfill the societal need, student have a rather passive participation. On the other hand, Andragogy comes from a Greek word “andr” meaning “man” and “agogos” meaning “leader of”, thus androgogy means “leading man”, thus in andragogical approach emphasis is on how and what the learner is learning. In another model proposed by Further Education Unit (FEU) in 1981, Experience, Reflection, Learning Model to Optimize Learning suggested that learning process is of three phases: student experience, organized reflection and need for specific learning. Adults have certain expectations with the learning, they expect to be taught, to work hard, vocation-related study, to be treated as an adult. These expectations of an adult learner also should be evaluated from individual’s need and expectations, it becomes important that a student is treated as an individual and their learning should be related to the overall development. These models also helped us understand that teaching is an event that happens outside of the learner and is designed in such a way that it facilitates the process of learning that happens inside of the individual. In the process of learning motive and behavior come together, only behavior can be observed and learning happens internally. Teacher is a facilitating agent during this internal process of learning; this role can be categorized into traditional role (teacher-centered) and modern role (student-centered). Experience of the students plays a major role in the process of learning; usually the process of teaching and learning is built upon the previous experiences students have acquired. Experiences can be acquired by participating in the activity or by solving a problem, this is termed as direct experience in which student plays an active role whereas teacher facilitates the process of leaning by giving input so that the students don’t deviate from the path of learning. Experience can also be acquired by indirect methods in which the teacher plays an active role by carefully curating the content and designing the activities around the curriculum to steer the process of learning. It is also imperative to understand that the process of learning is individual specific, i.e., every student learns at his/her own pace and every student has their very own style of learning. Better understanding about students learning style can be very helpful

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for both students and teachers. A good match between students learning style and teaching style is important for active learning process. Cassidy in 2004, learning style is also called as cognitive style, sensory preference and personality type. In 1997, according to Strong, and Perini Jung in 1927 expressed that people have major difference in ways they envision, the way people made decision, how active and reflective they are. In the year 1892, the term learning style was first used by Thelen. According to Kolb 1984, “learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience”. In his theory, he gives ways and methods how a curriculum can be structured and taught in order to maximize student learning. Kolb’s learning theory works in two stages a four-stage cycle of learning described as: concrete experience (CE), reflective observation (RO), abstract conceptualization (AC), active experimentation (AE) and four separate learning styles described as: Diverging (feeling and watching—CE/RO), Assimilating (watching and thinking— AC/RO), Converging (doing and thinking—AC/AE), Accommodating (doing and feeling—CE/AE). Other work in the domain of learning style categorises learning styles into four main sections: visual, auditory, reading and writing and kinesthetic learning. Another broader classification categorises learning styles into three prominent sections: cognitive (analytical/global, field-dependent/field-independent, impulsive/reflective styles of learning), personality (extraverted/introverted, random intuitive/concrete sequential, clouser-oriented/open oriented) and sensory (visual, tactile/kinesthetic and auditory). Fatt (2000) describes that by making students aware of their unique learning style, learning styles that are required according to specific subject discipline can revolutionise the learning and teaching process. Fatt also emphasizes that by providing a match between the learning environment and learning style students will learn better and faster whereas, the mismatch will be a cost that will be incurred by both the teachers and learners. Silver et.al. 1997, reported that learning styles evolve as the individual professes in age, it is not fixed. Individual’s learning style can also be an amalgam of learning styles. Over the year’s role of teachers have witnessed a shift from traditional to a modern in the current situation. In the traditional role, teachers were considered as a center of all information and knowledge. While in its modern role teacher acts as a facilitator, who helps student learn themselves. This new role requires new approach from teachers, device strategies keeping in mind the potential, learning style of each and every student. The process of teaching and learning is changing in today’s world from blackboard mode of teaching it is now a technology-assisted teaching. With all these changes the role of teacher is changing and evolving. Technology and Education: the history of use of technology in education can be traced back to the interdiction of educational film in 1900s or in 1920 the mechanical teaching machines by Sidney Presser. World War II was the first of its kind when technology was used on large scale to train soldiers using movies and other mediated materials. In 1900s, there were many schools that introduced computer-based learning (CBI) to teach abstract and domain-specific problem-solving. With emergence of multimedia and ubiquitous technologies, students were now growing in the digital age by 2000s. Since then teaching and learning process has witnessed a new

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progression with addition of technology, as a medium of dissipation of information. Technology is crucial in today’s teaching, particularly in the times of COVID 19 pandemic, technology has been used as a tool to make education accessible to countless students. Advancement in technology has directly or indirectly influenced the methods of teaching and learning. With changing technology the appearance of the classroom has drastically changed in last 20 years. Before 1990 it was more face to face, after 2000 it was a combination of face-to-face and online learning (mixed mode) and now progressively teaching and learning are moving toward widespread e-learning. Technology is used in education to improve the quality, make it efficient, best, and true. It is a systematic way of intellectualizing the implementation and assessment of process of teaching and learning. The term technology is derived from a Greek word “techno” meaning willingness, skills and “logos” means science. The application of technology in education needs understanding of several different aspects, of computer, of pedagogy, of psychology, of dictate. Technology in education functions as a tutor, as a tool to teach and as a tool to learn. Clements and Sarama, 2003; Glaubke 2007; Dynarski et al. 2007 suggest that the software and programs used as a tool in teaching and learning process should focus on few crucial points: educational value of the program, how engaging the program is for children, how easy the program used for teaching is for both, the teachers and students, is program interactive for the child, the program tracks the progress of the child. Clark Richard 1983, tried to compare lectures and computer-guided instruction, and the result indicated that both are effective based on the way they are used. Other researches done by Dynarski et al. 2007; Kulik, 2003 found that there are some major differences between traditional and technology-assisted teaching and learning. Center for Educational Research in Pittsburgh, discovered that the teaching done with the help of technology can be better tailored according to the individual needs of the students, which is difficult to achieve by the traditional method of teaching. Education technology is one big system; it provides better interaction, reception of information through visual, auditory, kinesthetic and reading/writing. Technological uses in education encourage students to become independent, motivated and take ownership of his/her work. Teachers have to be motivated to use the same because the use of educational technology in teaching provides better interaction with students, better reception of information because the students receive knowledge visual, auditory and kinesthetic way. Among other things, an educational technology motivates students to work independently where the student is more motivated to return to learning and working because modern technical equipment is widely available at any given moment. There are several other benefits of use of technology in teaching and learning; technology has benefits for both the teachers and the learners. Technology allows teachers to do things that were not possible in a traditional classroom setting, e.g., creating a simulated environment, giving real-time data while explaining it, showing videos and animations, etc., use of technology has enabled teachers to change the course structure and delivery methods, efficient way of functioning and managing the workload, technology is an aid that helps the teacher in making the classes more fun, engaging, interactive, it provide flexibility, technology helps teachers cater to the different needs

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of variety of students at their own pace and their own learning style. Technology works as a leveling field for learners, each and every student is at the same level for technology, it does not form any opinion or biases like humans, be it a smart learner or not so smart learner technology will not discriminate. Learning for learner is not confined to a classroom ant more, technology opens the learning space for anyone anywhere, be it national or international, seminar, training or other professional courses. According to K. Walsh 2009, five reasons to integrate technology into teaching. It is an important component for professional development in today’s world when the businesses are hiring individual equipped with knowledge to technology, technology has the power to engage the learners for longer duration of time as it can engage various faculties at the same time like visual, auditory, kinesthetic, writing, technology is here to stay and not going away. It would be safe to predict that technology is an important component of today’s teaching process. Use of technology in the education and learning processes cannot be denied; usage of Brail for visually impaired students and other technological usage for students with special needs like autism. Educators believe that usage of technology in learning process will help bring positive change in the pedagogical processes and assist students better if they want or need special assistance.

2 Ethics, Technology and Teaching Ethics are rules that individual follows when no one is watching. Like ethics was an integral part of teaching and learning process in traditional mode it remains an integral part with new mix mode (face to face and e-learning) or complete online learning. Numerous benefits following the use of technology in teaching and learning process also bring some ethical concerns to the forefront. Teachers and learners both need to learn how to use technology in an ethical manner. Be careful while downloading, clicking a link or sharing information, as we all aware about viruses and malware are readily available in this online space. Use information only from the websites that are approved by the teacher or organization. Copyright laws have become important than ever before when operating in online/digital domain, basic understanding of these rules and laws will protect students and teachers. Digitals space also makes it easy for people to make nasty comments or say hateful things to other individual because no one can see the face of the person who is doing this, it is important to be informed about the damage cyberbullying can cause to an individual’s image and self-esteem, individuals in the digital space should be encouraged to report cyberbullying incidents to teachers, counsellors and administration as these have potential to do harm outside of digital world. With increasing footprint in digital/online world it is becoming a trend among organizations to gather information about the candidate from their social media interaction and profiles, so students and teachers must understand the self-image important and one must keep in mind these future prospects while sharing the content online.

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Giving credit to the original source must be inculcated among students from the very beginning; both the teachers and students must respect the copyright laws and must not engage in plagiarism. While communicating it is very important to be aware of personal and professional way of communicating, as there is good chance that that this gap between personal and professional will be blurred in online/digital medium. Social media can be point of major ethical concern as one have to understand that this space is not a private and anonymous space and have a potential to cause harm to the person if one overshares information. Any amount of emphasis on maintaining confidentiality of the obtained data which is collected by organizations and schools is not sufficient; organizations are gathering lots of information about the individual they are employing by various social media spaces and online application forms, keeping that data safe and letting the individual know about how and when their data will be used. Technology-related ethical concerns and issues should be discussed with students, they must be informed about the dos and don’ts in a class happening online and not face to face. Students must be informed that they must not use others computers without authorization, they must not snoop around other computer files, it unethical to use this digital domain to bear false witness, be effective and thoughtful and responsible digital author, even in digital space be sensitive to other individuals, follow netiquette (etiquette for Internet users).

3 Education Technology in India 1971, fifth five-year plan was the time when the government of India, ministry of education and social welfare for the first time realized the importance of education technology and included “Education Technology Program” in order to have qualitative improvement in education. The above-mentioned project has four sub-schemes: Establishing an Education and Technology Unit in the ministry of education and social welfare. A Center for Education (CET) in NCERT. Funding to states for Education Technology Cells. Encouraging institutions to take up Education Technology Program. So, Educational Technology Unit started in 1971, CET and NCERT were established in 1973. Educational Technology Cells in different states came into existence from 1972–73 onwards. The education technology project was inter-agency co-ordination, systematic planning, scientific evaluation of efforts made by Education and Social Welfare, Ministry of Information and broadcasting, Indian Space Research Organization and others, with an aim to provide benefits of technology to rural areas and large groups, improving education quality, remove stagnation and introduce innovative ways of teaching and learning. Information Communication and Technology (ICT) for education is an umbrella that includes Internet, digital television, computer (hardware and software), cell phones, satellite communications, wireless and other services associated with the use of such technologies like email, blogs, conferencing.

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Online Learning: Education that takes place using Internet is called as online learning/e-learning. Online learning is a type under a big umbrella called as distance learning which encompasses correspondence courses, telecourse, CD ROM course, Mobile Learning. Online learning includes technologies as WWW called as World Wide Web, email, chats, text messages, video conferencing delivered using computer and Internet. E-learning is more innovative and has bought back the joy of learning by enhancing the learning experiences of students. E-learning resources are available to all. Types of online learning are: Partially Online course or mix mode (face to face and online), fully online course. Models of online learning are: Wrap around model—online reading, activities and discussion “wrapped” already existing published material. Integrated Model—learning happens through learning management system (LMS), subject material is also accessed through online formats like video conferencing, collaborative online activity and online assessment. To some extent, this model dissolves the distinction between learning and teaching. Pandemic and online learning: COVID 19 pandemic caused the closing of educational institutions all around the world. These extraordinary circumstances forced 1.5 billion students and 63 million educators to resort to e-learning and make changes to their traditional ways of teaching, especially in a country like India where 70% of its population lives in villages with scanty or no Internet connectivity as reported by Census of India’s 2011. A news report written and published in The Print by Angana Chakrabarti and Yimkumla Longkumer on 6 August 2020 indicates that as many as 39 school and college students in Nagaland have been trekking 3 km through a dense forest to participate in their exams. Technological platforms like ePG Pathshala (e-content), SWAYAM (online course for teachers), NEAT (enhancing employability) were created by the government of India to facilitate and enable online education. Various other projects like National Project on Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL), National Knowledge Network (NKN) and National Academic Depository (NAD) were started to increase connectivity with institutions and accessibility to content. Private universities were able to transit easily to online medium of teaching one of the leading private university shared the data about students strength benefiting from e-learning in their institution is more than 40,000 + online lectures, 12,000 + e-learning resources, 3,000 + virtual classroom instances, 4,000 + online assignments, 1,000 + virtual videos and more than 500 + virtual programming labs (Galgotia University. Lectures are given via online platforms like Google Meet, Zoom, etc. So, the academic activities are much less affected”, says L S Shashidhar, professor and dean of research at Ashoka University. Some universities adapted by having online sessions on need basis for clarification of doubts, etc., using their open-source learning management system. According to a directive from UGC, it is now mandatory for all the universities to have a division of 25–75, 25% online and 75% face-to-face method. The thrusted change due to pandemic can be used as an opportunity by educationist and policy maker in India to revolutionized education sector. In a report published by Internet and Mobile Association of India and Nielson in November 2019, it is found that for the first time Internet users in rural India are more than the urban cities. Rural India has 227 million active Internet and urban India

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has 205 million active Internet users, which is 10% less than rural India. This makes India second-largest country with active Internet users. This indicates that e-learning has a potential to reach 503 million people at the same time. Online education market India is expected to become $1.96 billion by 2021 and the number of enrolled users in online courses are expected to grow about 9.6 million by 2021.online/e-learning is a cost-effective option for Indian population as the cost of classroom teaching is expected to increase by 175% in near future. Thus, e-learning has become a sustainable and transparent option for nearly 48% of Indian population between the age group of 15–40 years. This young, aspirational population with humble background and means should be the target for e-learning and teaching.

4 Techniques/Strategies of Online/e-Learning Traditionally trained face-to-face medium, teachers were expected to learn new technology and modify their pedagogical techniques to meet the new normal i.e. online/elearning. The sudden transition to online teaching medium was difficult for both the teachers and students but familiarity with the social media platforms helped into this transition. New medium of online/e-learning was adapted slowly but steadily, it evolved with experience, trial and error, and researchers sharing and suggesting new methods and ways to enhance online teaching–learning experience. Innovative strategies to engage an online/e-learning class, like taking feedback or response from the students in the middle of the lecture, plan quiz at regular intervals to check the progress of the students, share your screen and content so that they can follow as you progress, encourage them to share their queries and questions via chats and messages in the middle of the class and then once you finish talking can be followed with a discussion. Methods like think-pair-share, brainstorm, buzz session, exit slips, etc., can also be incorporated to create a supportive and encouraging environment for learners. E-learning is an opportunity as it can ensure that every student with a laptop and mobile will have access to quality education that is recognized, accredited and approved by Distance Education Council of India (DEC). This access to education ensures opportunities of employment and bright future; e-learning is also beneficial for a professional as it helps them update their skill as and when required, elearning bridges the existing gap between educational level and industry expectation. Apart from being cost-effective and time-effective online/e-learning also encourages students to learn at their own pace, is a great way to ensure better understanding and enhanced retention. Online/e-learning is futuristic, sustainable and transparent.

5 Challenges/Experiences of Online/e-Learning Online/e-learning has its own challenges, there is a high probability that students find it easy to get distracted during online education, there is also a possibility of

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choosing a course which is not recognized or is fraudulent, courses that require lab work or hands-on learning cannot be done online, lack of social interaction is another challenge of e-learning process, language to the course can also be a limiting factor for e-learning and teaching, procrastination can also be a concern, data also reveals that the dropout rate is higher in digital medium of education compared to traditional on-campus method. Teachers associated to higher education system were participating in this discussion which was trying to explore their experiences with teaching and learning process using technology as a medium. Some of the insights into experiences, challenges and concern they perceived and encountered are presented here. Participant 1: “Initial days of online teaching was full of challenges due to lack of exposure to this medium of knowledge dissipation we were clueless and it took some time to figure out how to conduct and manage the class online”. Participant 2: “there was sudden change in the workload due as how to teach online? Was major concern in the initial days then preparation for the class also took some time, so as a teacher I was learning and teaching at the same time” Participant 3: “there was a feeling of loss of control over the conduction of class because during the teaching process by online medium you cannot see or monitor your students participation if the webcam is off or not working due to network issue”, Participant 4: “I felt that I am distanced from my social life and my interaction with my students is blocked by a wall” Participant 5 I sensed a lack of warmth which I use to feel in face to face teaching, no eye contact and absence of nonverbal cues bothered me a lot and it took me some time to get used to this new way of interaction”, Participant 6: the whole idea that there was over dependence on the Internet/technology part was a point major psychological concern for me personally and a sense of uncertainty as in when life will be back to normal bothered me a lot”, Participant 7: for me initially it was difficult to learn this e-learning medium and I also felt that my creativity was restricted because of this online teaching and learning process, there is no scope of suddenly incorporating something while you are teaching online as it disrupts the flow, whereas in face to face medium there was certain sense of trust so there was a scope to experiment which I felt was lacking in this online teaching, Participant 8 “traditional evaluation method not working, we had to come up with innovative ways to evaluate which was a challenging task because there was to ensure that the evaluation not prompted or facilitated by other ways and means”. The experiences presented here are from the teachers who are working in Higher Education. Obtained insights and input indicate that initial barriers to online teaching were primarily psychological in nature, with exposure and experience and feedback there will be a positive change in the perception toward e-learning. Online learning is challenging for students as well, if they make changes self-motivation, discipline, being organized, developing active engagement practices like taking notes, asking and answering questions, participation in quizzes, join a discussion group or community of students, keep yourself updated and informed about the progress of the class are few ways to keep up with e-learning.

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6 Opportunities of Online/e-Learning Indian education system can use this opportunity to invigorate the stagnation in the education system due to outdated curriculum, rote learning and cost of education, quality of teachers and lack of infrastructure. Formal education in India still constitutes of traditional model of teaching and learning, current pandemic has created a compulsive possibility and opportunity to revive the education system. The current scenario is also working as an enabler for teachers and educators to learn new and innovative ways to deliver their content with the use of technology. Online learning has various advantages: accessibility, personalized learning, develops cognitive abilities, cost-effective, promotes research, opportunity to gain technical skill, opportunity to all, learning at one won self-pace, narrow geographical boundaries.

7 Future Trends of e-Learning It involves hybrid modals a convergence of online and offline education model, addition of new and offbeat subjects like cyber law, forensic science, data analytics, artificial intelligence, etc., will gain popularity with this e-learning medium, digital feature to award the students by badges, discounts will become popular, educational institutions will collaborate with the industry to co-develop the content making it more popular and decentralize it to great extent, platform like Byju’s, Khan Academy, EduPristine, Dexler Education, Educomp Solutions, IGNOU, NIIT, Edukart, Simplilearn, Zeus Learning, Meritnation, Excelsoft, Tata Interactive Systems. The future of e-learning is bright in India, with changing perception and exposure e-learning/online learning is going to go long way.

8 Conclusion Recent trends of use of technology as an important tool to enhance the teaching and learning experience also help us conclude that: technology is not a substitute for a teacher in any class, no matter how technologically advanced that classroom is, even when teacher is using the technology as a very potent tool, technology is no substitute to creativity of a teacher, it is teacher who must make use of his/her creativity and use technology as an agent to facilitate that process. Teachers must do their due diligence before using or trusting any information shown on Internet and he/she should use technology to improve the ethics in teaching.

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References Berrocoso, J. V., del Garrido-Arroyo, M., & C., Burgos-Videla, C and Morales-Cevallos, M. B. (2020). Trends in educational research about e-Learning: A systematic literature review (2009– 2018). Sustainability, 12, 5153. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125153 https://theprint.in/india/no-network-in-this-remote-nagalandvillage-students-trek-3-km-to-takeonline-exams/475455/. https://teaching.cornell.edu/resource/active-learning-online-teaching#PL. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/343381025_Challenges_and_Opportunities_for_Onl ine_Education_in_India. https://eduxpert.in/online-education-India/. https://blog.technavio.com/blog/top-10-elearning-companies-in-India. https://medium.com/@dgmarkagency/top-10-e-learning-online-education-websites-in-india-upd ated-2019-c5c3e01687a0. https://www.bookwidgets.com/blog/2018/06/20-interactive-teaching-activities-for-in-the-intera ctive-classroom. http://www.aurumequity.com/the-online-education-industry-in-india-present-and-future/. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andragogy#:~:text=Andragogy%20refers%20to%20methods%20a nd,literally%20means%20%22leading%20children%22. https://online.nwmissouri.edu/articles/education/ethics-technology-use-classroom.aspx. https://study.com/blog/ethical-issues-with-using-technology-in-the-classroom.html. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ816485.pdf. http://www.ipedr.com/vol79/002-IC4E2014-1-003.pdf. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/332833360_Online_Learning. Jindal, A., & Chahal, B. P. S. (2018). Challenges and opportunities for online education in India. Pramana Research Journal, 8(4). https://pramanaresearch.org/. Nicholson, P. (2007). A history of e-learning echoes of the pioneers. In B. Fernández-Manjón et al. (Eds.),Computers and Education: E-learning, From Theory to Practice (pp. 1–11). Springer. Rodrigues, H., Almeida, F., Figueiredo, V., & Lopes, S. L. (2019). Tracking e-learning through published papers: A systematic review. Computers & Education, 136, 87–98.

Role of Digital Environment in Cognitive Development: A Psycho-social Approach Manju Singh and Praveen Singh

Abstract Due to the outbreak of Covid-19, digital learning has become very popular. All school-going students and college university scholars are engaging themselves through online media platforms to increase their skills, knowledge and education level. It is argued that classroom teaching is irreplaceable with the digital education mode, although digital education came with a solution to carry forward educational activities in these conditions. Digital education is praised that it makes the education system effective and efficient as compared with the traditional education system. Thus, the Indian education system is going through a ‘knife-edge equilibrium’ of the transition phase. This research paper tries to answer the questions, i.e. socialization takes place through the real world or the virtual world socialization takes place? Is digital socialization is against cognitive development in the real world? Is the digital world socialization is dominating real-world socialization? Is there a functional correlation between real-world socialization and virtual socialization? Keywords Education system · Virtual socialization · Cognitive development · And digital environment

1 Introduction Over time, children develop strong way of thinking, logical and moral thinking, analytical and reasoning skills and turn out to be proficient of abstract thinking and erect rational decisions owing to real-world socialization. Socialization is of two types, i.e. real-world socialization and digital world socialization. We have made learning and education as banking system. Banking system is dangerous for learning (Freire, 1970). The cognitive and psychological development of children depends on the physical environments with quantifiable and perceptible physical and individual characteristics in which children reside, study, engaged in recreation and work (Graetz, 2009; WHO, 2014).

M. Singh · P. Singh (B) Department of Sociology, Banasthali Vidyapeeth, Niwai, Rajasthan, India © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021 D. Mishra and Y. Chuang (eds.), Learning How to Learn Using Multimedia, Lecture Notes in Educational Technology, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-1784-3_14

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Vygotsky (1978) emphasized the primary responsibility of social interactions in the cognitive development of children. The Indian education system is going through ‘knife-edge equilibrium’ of the transition phase. Children’s overall development inevitably heralds their learning as per Piaget’s equilibration. Individual development cannot be tacit without allusion to the social, cultural and higher mental development (Piaget, 1959; Mcleod, 2018). Digital education, social media and early exposure to media content development for children (young and older) having a larger impact on the cognitive development of children which further affects parent–child engagement (Pempek and Lauricella 2017). Although many worries about children’s familiarity with the Internet have been articulated by parents, stakeholders, in policies and in academic researches. Children stumble upon many online threats and opportunities subsequent to their reaction to the approach used by them to deal with negative online experience (Haddon, 2017). The quality and quantity of parent–child interaction may decrease the negative impact of media (Pempek and Lauricella 2017). There are a small number of researches available on the learning environment and impact of information technology. The charisma and appliance of technology transform the training environment. Digital Education and the use of mobiles, computers and other web-based instruments for education generate the ‘cocktail party effect’ and distract the students (Cherry, 1953). Four cognitive determinants of environmental preference are coherence, complexity, legibility and mystery (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1982). Virtual learning environment be deficient in a number of ways such as rationality, legibility and consistency. An online teaching platform or environment which is designed to support creativity, learnability, efficiency, collaboration, satisfaction, memorability, commerce and entrainment leads to the cognitive development and having a long-lasting impact on the psycho-social development of the children whereas, the absence of these components in the online teaching platform or environment leads to the brick-and-mortar classrooms systems (Neilson, 1993).

2 Origin of the Research Problem Digital Educational Environment plays an important role in the cognitive development of children which further depends on the screen times of the children. Increased screen time, Internet addiction and cyber-bullying are the major concerns of the digitalization of education in these days. The parent–child interaction and teacher– student interaction are reducing due to increased screen time and also due to the decreasing concentration level of the children. Nowadays children remain up-todate about the advanced level of cutting-edge technology available in the marketplace (Blumberg & Brooks, 2018). This further leads to concerns of the parents, teachers, government, policy makers about the pros and cons related with the use of digital educational environment on the psycho-social and cognitive development of the children.

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Sociology of digitalization became very prominent while addressing the issue of digital educational environment due to the replacement of real-world socialization activities with the digital world socialization activities due to increased screen time of the children including whole family members. This is also argued (Firth et al., 2019) that technology has a long-lasting impact on the mental development of children and even increased screen time further leads to Internet addiction among children. This is also pointed out that those who use more Internet in their daily routine were thinking of online stuff while they were offline. Thus, digital world socialization can generate both sustained and acute modification in the development of cognition and psycho-social development. Most of the time ‘addiction of the technology’ having multiple effects as children feel difficulty in restricting the Internet use or online activity although it hampers their important work, their study and even financial well-being (Turel et al., 2011). Education is intended to shape our life by enhancing thought-provoking creativity, analytical skills, cognitive aptitude and ethical values. Technology diverts the focus from real-world problems to the virtual world and social media platforms which sometimes lessen our analytical and critical thinking skills and aptitude. Basically, ICT is becoming the part and parcel in modern time education which can play a very important in the cognitive and mental development of children. The augment of digital educational environment emerged as a controlling tool which provides immediate satisfaction to the children and all other who are engaged in the digital platforms either by spending time in these platform or by reacting to the conversations. It appears as a form of ‘stimulus–response’ therapy which tries to control the brain functioning of the children and also affects the cognitive and psychosocial development of the children as it was also observed that children and stakeholders using the digital platform have very instant response to every alert they receive and sometimes they wait impatiently about the notification alerts. The qualities of digital educational devices are very much improved in the twenty-first century although it is not the devices, but users who impatiently respond to the alert notifications. People nowadays are also busy with their smartphones while they are interacting with other family members or in social gatherings or on the dinner table. Instead of real friends, they are spending more time with online platforms. On the one hand digital educational environment helps the users/students/children to take all knowledge, information, study materials and skills at one place along with taking advise of the experts of the fields to whom they can’t interact in-person or face to face. On the other hand, these digital educational instruments are very costly that poor people can’t utilize the service as we have seen many cases of poor people selling their animals to purchase one smartphone in the family of two to three children where only one child can only take the advantage of the smartphone at one time. This situation leads to the social problems of gender inequality; increases the divide between rich and poor (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1982; Bonetti et al., 2010).

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3 Literature Review (Technology and Cognitive Development) It was observed that children have ten hours and forty-five minutes of online, social media and digital platform exposure each day (Rideout et al., 2010). Studies also point out that eighty-seven percent children use online digital educational platform, social platforms every day (Pew Internet). It was observed that an adolescent normally sends sixty-seven text messages daily whereas another study found out that eight percent of adolescents sleep their phone by their side (Lenhart, 2010, 2015). The data shows the increased screen time of the children and their addictive behaviour in relation with technology. These situations generate questions of influence of technology and digital learning environment on the cognitive development, psycho-social development of children. Nowadays the scenario of online digital educational environment is changing in a high speed which further changes the mindsets and viewpoint of teachers, parents and children about learning as future belongs to the online learning (Erhan et al., 2014). In online platforms, children can listen to same lectures many times with the same pace which is recorded by the teachers for them. This option helps the students for in getting good grades by giving them extra control, benefits and interactivity (Kumar & Vigil, 2011). Digital educational instruments also help the students by providing the required information in short span of time and also in an easy way. Visual intelligence proficiencies of the children have also been enhanced by the digital educational environment (Subrahmanyam et al., 2000). It was also observed that digital educational environment plays an important role in the development of cognition, psycho-social development of the children (Dua et al., 2016) which further leads to the increased educational, creative and analytical achievements although it reduces the volume of social interactions and social life of the children and adolescents (Straker et al., 2009). Nowadays children find digital learning environment much more suitable for their learning instead of traditional approach of learning, i.e. paper-pen approach and the main reason behind this is that children find digital learning environment more interesting and easily understandable in comparison of traditional classroom approach (Harris & Reid, 2005; Attree et al., 2011). Video lectures having a longlasting impact on the mind of children and they remember the lesson for a long period which they have learned using digital educational environment. However, digital learning environment is impacting the children’s learning behaviour and also reshaping the academic performance, grades, learning methodology, thinking style, reading habits, social interactions, social life and social and family relationships in a positive way if digital learning environment is moderately used (Willoughby, 2008; Cavanaugh et al., 2016). It is observed that the digital learning platforms are mostly used by the children of families having a sound social and financial background (Peter & Valkenburg, 2006). The poor families who are only concerned with the daily earning of their bread and butter can’t afford this luxury of making available the digital learning environment

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for their children. It is also observed that the children of poor families afraid of using these digital learning instruments due to their high capital intensive nature. This situation leads to the emergence of a great divide among rich and poor. The situation of female child in the poor family is more vulnerable towards educations in the case of digital learning platforms which further exclude the poor and female member of the society from the learning process which is a sign of start of a class struggle. Digital learning environment helps the children in developing the twenty-firstcentury skills, on the other hand, there are impending depressing coercions on the social and personal life of the children in the form of child online safety, child online abuse, cyberbullying, badly chosen content for children, online financial frauds, Internet addiction, reduction in the physical activities, social isolation, problem of improper sleep and disturbance during sleep, eye-burning issues (Hinduja & Patchin, 2010; Straker et al., 2009). It was found that every third children who are using the digital learning platform experienced the cyberbullying and parents and family members of around 63% children in the age group of 10–14 years remain in fears that their children are interacting with strangers or unknown individuals through online platform which may further harm them and their children (Boyd & Ellison, 2007). This further harms the cognitive and mental development of children as many studies suggest that the parents are very much concerned and also worried about the increased screen time, regular and steady affection to digital environment instruments, i.e. computers, laptops and smartphones by their children (Grushka et al., 2014). Hence, through the above review of literature, it can be concluded that digital learning environment plays an important role in cognitive development and mental health of children if used in a positive and controlled way and we are able to limit our screen time, it will going to help in the cognitive development of children in a positive way. In this age, children are not in the situation to understand the addictive nature of this digital environment and fall in the trap of technology which later have very negative consequences on the development of their cognition. Parents, teachers and other stakeholders have to play the role of guide and torch-wearer for children while utilizing the digital learning platforms for getting good results. On reviewing the above literature, it was found that the basic problem lies in the excessive use (technology addiction) and using the digital platform without guidance and any knowledge. In addition, it was also found that this is the digital era and we can’t simply ignore its use and sustainably develop. Another important area of gap includes the gender inequality and exclusion of the poor people from this modern education system, which leads to the creation of many social problems in the society and hamper the mental and cognitive development of children. The cautious and modest use of digital learning environment can reduce the negative impacts on children. In a nutshell, there is much scope of promotion and development of digital learning environment by understanding the special needs of the children residing in rural and tribal areas including the gender dimension, equality, equity in the digital learning environment. Keeping this broader concern, the present study is designed to find out the components of digital learning environment, which are actually making an impact on the cognitive development of children.

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4 Research Methodology The study on the Role of Digital Environment in Cognitive Development: A PsychoSocial Approach is of practical significance due to the increased screen time of children after the introduction of online teaching in this period of COVID-19 outbreak. Through this research paper, the conceptual construction of digital environment, cognitive development and psychosocial approach will be assessed. Research questions derive from on-field observation and review of literature. Digital and nondigital environment are two spaces of interaction based on technological and nontechnological devices used for making communication. These spaces are close to virtual and real world respectively. For our understanding, digital environment comprises electronic media, cyber technology, audio-visual mediums and social platforms. Secondary data will be collected on the basis of reports and studies of various agencies.

5 Hypothesis 1. 2. 3. 4.

Socialization takes place through the real world or virtual world socialization takes place? Is the digital socialization is against cognitive development in the real world? Is the digital world socialization is dominating real-world socialization? Is there a functional correlation between real-world socialization and virtual socialization?

6 Objectives The stated objectives are: 1. 2. 3.

To study the psycho-social perspective of the Digital educational environment for cognitive development. To conceptual construction of digital environment, cognitive development and psychosocial approach. To highlight the development taking place in the digital environment and plans for enhancing the digital environment for cognitive development.

7 Discussion Socialization is of two types, i.e. real-world socialization and digital world socialization. We have made learning and education as banking system. Banking system is

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dangerous for learning (Freire, 1970). Because bank can lend only what they have, on the other side education require endless efforts to provide quality education along with initiating art of creative learning among the students. We have to think about that is it possible to make digitalization sector-specific. The main purpose of education doesn’t finish by the excessive use of the digital platform, but to impart knowledge, skills and attitude among the students. When a person is teaching in the class, teacher is a very different person as compared with the same identity taking classes through online platform. The present research studies the impact of the digital education environment on psycho-social and cognitive development of children and adolescent.

7.1 Device and Distraction Digital Education and social media enhanced the psychological distress among children. Increased level of stress, anxiety and depression among adolescents has also been digital educational environment (Keles et al., 2019). Worldwide 20% children experience mental health problems (WHO, 2017). Digitalization of education transforms the way of collecting lecture notes, study materials. Even face-to-face interaction is also preferred online instead of attending class in person through educational applications through remote devices to access relevant information. Although digitalization of education has transformed the way of learning these days, but there is also a shady elevation of the existence of personal network devices in the educational institutions. The situation becomes worse at the time when students indulged in activities distinct to their coursework. During online classes, it is also observed that some students’ try to distract other students and create an environment that is not good for learning and ignore all the instruction given by the teacher or instructor (Nilson & Weaver, 2005). In these situations, it becomes tough for the teachers to complete the syllabus on time and sometimes due to these types of disruption in the online classes, teachers’ fail to revise their syllabus. This scenario further creates fear in the mind of students who always come up with good grades and some other students who require guidance and motivation from teachers. This further leads to the situation of depression, stress anxiety and fear from examinations among the students which leads to unpleasant consequences on cognitive, psycho-social and mental development of children. These are the main reasons behind the poor educational achievement, amplified threat of drug abuse, increase in school dropout ratio, weaken school associations and psychological problem (Morgan et al., 2017).

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7.2 Psycho-social Perspective of Digital Educational Environment Digital education and social media are regarded as ‘double-edged sword’. It is observed that there is a link between digital education environment, excessive use of social media and psychological problems, which further leads to the underdevelopment of cognition among children (Lannotti et al., 2009; Rosen, 2011; Lenhart et al., 2015). This is mainly due to the increased screen time of the children which is also uncontrolled by the parents by giving the logic of their busty schedules. Study finds out that the majority of parents accepted the fact that they have ignored their children many times whenever they came to them for sharing their thoughts and day’s schedule with them. Due to this children become addicted to the digital world with online friends and online games where they have people to listen their thing and to whom they can play. It is also observed that the excessive use of Internet leads to ‘deskbound behaviour’, which further raised the risk of psycho-social, health and mental problems. It becomes very difficult for very small children to attend lectures online and enhance their skills and develop Interest in learning from web-based or video-based online educational learning programmes. In schools, the class teacher in the classroom during face to face learning helps the students (both small and big) to easily understand the difficult concepts by providing direction to students, but through online teaching, due to connectivity issues, it becomes difficult to address the all problems at the same time due to high cost of Internet. Thus, socialization takes place through the real world or the virtual world. Even due to the enhanced use of technology, virtual world socialization helps in the process of socialization of adolescents and the development of their cognition. It’s a matter of time that in the modern generations the significance of societal activities, events and opinions which are in the favour of children’s learning from digital platforms. Both real-world socialization and virtual work socialization go side-by-side in the cognitive development of children. It is also argued that modern parents have limited their role only to the supplier of digital educational instruments to their children instead of providing them good guidance, support, motivation and a positive environment for development of their cognition.

7.3 Digital Educational Environment and Digital Socialization Media literacy became a very important aspect in the development of cognition in this modern world due to the enhanced use of the digital learning environment. Increased screen time and technology use having multiple impacts on the development of children’s cognition. There are various approaches that can be employed to increase digital literacy and for the development of analytical skills amongst students which

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further empower youth in utilizing digital learning environment and also protects from possible coercion of sexting, cyber-bullying and targeted advertising (Hobbs, 2004). It is also necessary that children should be sensitized and trained about the technological aspects and social intricacy of the Internet and digital learning environment. Parents, teachers and other stakeholders should also involve in the process of making aware their children about the basic code of ethics while using the digital learning environment and Internet networks so that children learn about how they have to behave with others and unknown persons. Children should also be taught about financial frauds happening while using the online platforms so that they can learn to which extent they can disclose their personal information to the known and unknown person while using the digital educational environment and digital platforms or internet. Haddon et al., (2012) also confirm that children from the age group of 9–16 years having higher risks of cyber threats while using online platforms, Internet and digital educational platforms. This can also be seen from the latest blue whale game which influenced the children in negative sense and also promote them to end their life. In this modern world, digital world socialization is dominating real-world socialization due to excessive use of digital technology in education. There is a functional correlation between real-world socialization and virtual socialization. As technology is playing a very important role in today’s modern life, ‘Digital Socialization’ can lead to the balanced cognitive, psycho-social development of children. Children don’t follow the advice of their parents, but follow the actions of their parents and nowadays, all members of the family are busy on their smartphones instead of talking in person. Thus, digital socialization/virtual socialization are eventually replacing real-world socialization although it will take another century to totally replace real-world socialization. For the balanced development of cognition, psycho-social development, there should be a family digital/media plan including the fixation of screen time limit. Parents should also have to follow this plan so that their children can also follow this plan and adopt this as their habit in their nature. This will definitely strengthen digital socialization all over the world including underdeveloped country.

8 Future Plans/Suggestions for Improving Digital Environment in Cognitive Development as Per Government of India Only digitalization of education is not solving the problem of digital education environment. Digital educational environment can have a positive impact on the overall society when we as a society will be able to provide the equal quality of digital classrooms in rural and tribal areas as compared with the urban and advanced areas by maintaining gender equality and considering gender neutrality; otherwise this digital educational environment will increase the inequalities in the society (Lakshmi, 2016). Quality e-content will be developed in regional languages also which will further

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fulfill the purpose of new education policy. Government has already set forth their priorities for the development of e-content for all students from grade 1–12. For digital socialization, efforts should be made to make online learning easy and within the reach of children of all strata along with developing the skills of the teacher too through orientation and refresher programmes so that they can also be equipped with the knowledge, attitude and skills to provide learning through digital platforms effectively. PM e-Vidya outlines the variety of learning scales to enhance the reach of the teaching and learning practice all over the country including rural, urban, tribal and all parts for all categories of the students.

9 Conclusion and Suggestions Over the last few years, digital technology has played a pivotal role in helping transform the education sector and its positive impact is being felt by the students, teachers and parents alike. The education sector exemplifies how technology is playing the role of a force multiplier as various e-learning initiatives have helped in parting education to students throughout the country. The DoSE&L, MHRD has launched various digital initiatives like PM eVidya, Diksha, Swayam Prabha Channel, Shiksha Vani, E- pathshala, NROER (National Repository of Open Educational Resources), MOOC Courses. These digital initiatives of the DoSE&L and state governments have helped in building a bright future of approximately 25 crore students. The COVID-19 pandemic threw big challenges and the school education system has tried its best to adapt to the situation. The importance of e-learning has been understood even more clearly now and it is imperative that the adoption of technology even more now and the adoption of technology must continue with the learning needs of the students with equity in the long run. Living in lockdown, the government felt that education at any level should not be ignored and thus adopted online education for almost all students with equity with infrastructure, finance and social standing present in the country. The digital educational environment can’t fully take the place of classroom teaching, school and teacher. These are the alternative arrangement, which further requires an in-person approach of teaching for effective cognitive development of children and building the great future of the nation. Although, the future lies in learning lesions online from this exercise and each state will have to collaborate with others to replicate and enhance the experience for the students. While the education is moving towards blended learning through online and offline mode, it shall be the endeavour of all stakeholders in the field of education to make sure that every student should learn through digital platform and no stone remained unturned to increase the reach, for want of affordability and accessibility of quality of education. Each time a situation that is not under our control arises anywhere in the world, access to continued and qualitative learning becomes the crucial factor in school education, requiring an immediate and appropriate response.

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Acknowledgements The authors would like to thanks Dr. Rajiv Gupta, Senior Consultant- Centre for Child Protection for providing help by sharing his views on this topic. The authors also affirm that there is no disagreement about the publication of this research paper on the theme of ‘Role of Digital Environment in Cognitive Development: A Psycho-Social Approach’.

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