Learn C Programming from Scratch : A step-by-step methodology with problem solving approach

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Learn C Programming from Scratch : A step-by-step methodology with problem solving approach

Table of contents :
Cover
Title Page
Copyright Page
Dedication Page
About the Author
About the Reviewer
Acknowledgement
Preface
Table of Contents
1. Programming Methodology
Introduction
Structure
Objectives
Programming methodology
Problem-solving methodology and techniques
Features of a good program
Computer as a problem-solving tool
Computers and computing systems
Computer system
Hardware
Software
Compiler
Assembler
Debugger
Interpreter
Language translators
Programming styles
Procedural programming
Modular programming
Top-down modular programming
Bottom-up modular programming
Structured programming
Object Oriented Programming
Algorithms
Features of an algorithm
Writing an algorithm
Algorithm efficiency
Importance of algorithmic efficiency
Algorithm time complexity cases
Implementation challenges
Flowcharts
History of flowcharts
Flowchart symbols
Meaning of a flowchart
Flowchart examples
Conclusion
Exercise
2. C Programming Fundamentals
Introduction
Structure
Objectives
Facts about C
Uses of C programming language
Life cycle of a C program
Integrated Development Environment
GCC
Visual Studio Code
Turbo C++ for Windows 10+
Eclipse
Dev-C++
Creating a source code
Save file
Compile code
Execute/ Run code
C program components
Tokens in C
Semicolons
Comments
Keywords
Whitespace in C
Operators
Arithmetic operators
Relational operators
Logical operators
Bitwise operators
Assignment operators
Operator precedence in C
Data types
Variables
Variable declaration
Guidelines for declaring variables
Initialization
Identifiers
Difference between variables and identifiers
Constants
Integer data type
Integer expressions
Precedence of operators
Input-output in C
Output formatting
printf ()
Control characters
Read data supplied by a user
Read data into a float or double variable
putchar ()
fgtes () and fputs ()
Print an integer using a field width
Floating point types
Print double and float variables
Floating-point expressions
Assigning double/float to int
Char data type
void type
Lvalues and Rvalues in C
Literals
Integer literals
Floating-point literals
Character constants
String literals
Defining constants
Differences between constants and literals
Storage class
Auto
Register
Extern
Static
Extern storage class
Writing basic programs in C
Sequential logic
Conclusion
Exercise
3. Control Statements
Introduction
Structure
Objectives
Control statements
Decision making statements
if statement
if...else statement
The if-else-if ladder
Nested if statements
Nested conditions
Switch statements
Loop statements
Constituents of a loop
Different loops used in C
While loop
do...while loop
For loop
Loop control statements
Break
Continue
Example:
Goto
Infinite loop
Nested loop
Conclusion
Exercise
4. Functions
Introduction
Structure
Objectives
Functions
Key features of functions in C
Types of functions in C
Defining a function
Calling a function
Formal arguments
Return statement
Various ‘return’ scenarios in C
Function signature
Mismatch
Function variable scope
Local variables
Function parameters or variables
Global variables
Initializing local variable and global variables
Callback function
Function as an argument
Recursion
Memory usage in recursion
Conclusion
Exercise
5. Arrays
Introduction
Structure
Objectives
Arrays: One-dimensional array
Declaring and initializing arrays
Declaring arrays
Initializing arrays
Bounds and array size
Base address
Array manipulation
Accessing array elements
Modifying array elements
Passing arrays to functions
Some array-based programs
Character arrays - strings
Accessing characters in a string
Iterate through characters of a string
String input and output
Read a line of text
String manipulation
String concatenation
Substring extraction
Searching and replacing
Parsing and tokenization
Case conversion
String formatting
String length and manipulation functions
2-D strings
Declaration and initialization of 2-D strings
Reading input into a 2D string
Accessing characters in a 2-D string
Matrices
Declaring 2-D array (Matrix)
Initializing two-dimensional arrays
2-dimensional array elements access
Passing 2-D matrix to a function in C
Conclusion
Exercise
6. Pointers
Introduction
Structure
Objectives
Pointers
Using pointers
Declaring a pointer
Accessing the value of a pointer
Application of pointers
Direct memory manipulation
Dynamic memory allocation
Resizing and releasing memory
String pointers
Passing parameters to functions
Effective array manipulation
String manipulation
Pointer arithmetic
Pointer comparisons
Return pointer from functions
Pointer to pointer
Types of pointers
NULL pointers
Dangling pointers
Void pointers
Wild pointers
Array of pointers
Conclusion
Exercise
7. Structures and Unions
Introduction
Structure
Objectives
Structures and unions
User defined data types
Structures
Enumerations
Structures
Declaring a structure
Accessing structure members
Access structure members through a pointer
Using arrow (->) operator to access structure members
Array of structures
Sort array of structures
Structures as function arguments
Nested structures
Accessing nested structure
Embedded structure
Unions in C
Syntax of unions
Usage of unions
Considerations and limitations
Examples of union usage
Defining a union
Accessing union members
Error handling and validation in structures/unions
Handling memory allocation errors
Member initialization
Input validation
Union discriminant handling
Error reporting and exiting
Graceful decline
Graceful recovery
Conclusion
Exercises
8. File Handling
Introduction
Structure
Objectives
Introducing file handling
Data hierarchy - layers of data
Bit
Byte
Field
Record
File
Database
Data warehouses
Data mart
Files
Importance of files
File modes
File operations
Opening a file
Closing a file
Writing to a file
Reading from a file
File positioning
Error handling
File truncation
File deletion
File locking
Type of files
Working with text files in C
Opening a text file
Reading text from a file
Writing text to a file
Appending text to an existing file
Closing a text file
Error handling
Reading and writing line-by-line
Text file manipulation
Working with CSV files
Binary file handling in C
Opening and closing binary files
Reading binary data
Writing binary data
Moving the file pointer
Binary file size
Binary file error handling
Working with complex data structures
Considerations for binary file handling
File access
Sequential file access
Opening a file for sequential access
Reading from a file
Writing to a file
Moving the file pointer
Closing a file
Advantages
Limitations
Program examples
Random access files
File position indicator
Opening random access files
Writing data
Reading data
Advantages of random-access files
Examples of random-access files in C
Programs on random access files in C
Direct file access
Programs on direct access files in C
File descriptors
Opening files for direct access
Reading from files
Writing to files
File positioning
Closing files
Some program examples on file descriptors
Stream file access
Benefits
Error handling in files
Global variable errno
Errno example
Conclusion
Exercise
9. C Preprocessors
Introduction
Structure
Objectives
Introduction to preprocessors
#define directive
Defining a constant macro
Defining a function-like macro
Defining a conditional macro
Redefining a macro
#ifdef preprocessor
#ifndef preprocessor
#include preprocessor
#undef preprocessor
#if #else #elif #endif macros in C
Control structure macros
Types of pre-processor directives
File inclusion directives
Macro definition directives
Applications of macros
Conditional compilation
Preprocessor directive #Pragma
ANSI C predefined macros
Preprocessor operators
Macro continuation (\) operator
Stringize (#) operator
Token pasting (##) operator
Defined () operator
C-header files
Include syntax
Include operation
Once-only headers
Using #ifdef for different computer types (Computed includes)
Conclusion
Exercise
10. C Graphics
Introduction
Structure
Objectives
C Graphics
C libraries for graphics
Choosing the right graphics library
Configuring the graphics environment
Initialization of the graphics mode
Setting up Borland Graphics Interface for Windows
Get and set up WinBGIm
Setting up your compiler
Add the necessary header file
Initialize the graphics mode
Drawing on the screen
Closing the graphics mode
Setting up graphics mode using SDL
Understanding coordinates and resolution
Basics of color
Operations for simple drawings
Colors in C graphics programming
C Program on graphics colors
Input handling
Animations and delay
Double buffering
Text mode graphics functions
C graphics program to draw shapes
C graphics programs
Conclusion
Exercise
Index

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