Law and Society

Целью пособия является развитие у студентов необходимого уровня коммуникативной компетенции для решения социально-коммун

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РФ ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ «ВОРОНЕЖСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

LAW AND SOCIETY Учебно-методическое пособие для вузов

Составители: А.Ю. Климова, А.Б. Пешкова

Воронеж Издательский дом 2014

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Утверждено научно-методическим советом факультета романо-германской филологии 25 февраля 2014 г., протокол № 2

Рецензент канд. филол. наук, доцент ВГУ С.А. Трухина

Учебно-методическое пособие подготовлено на кафедре английского языка гуманитарных факультетов факультета романо-германской филологии Воронежского государственного университета.

Рекомендуется для студентов 1-го курса д/о.

Для специальности 030900 – Юриспруденция.

                                                                                               

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Содержание 1. Содержание……………………………………………………………………3 2. Пояснительная записка……………………………………………………….4 3. Unit 1.Why do we Need Laws .……………….………………………………6 4. Unit 2.Part 1 Law and Society ………………………………….……………12 5. Unit 2. Part 2 Causes of Crime……………………………………………….16 6. Unit 3. Law and Justice ………………………………………………………22 7. Библиография………………………………………………………………..32

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2. Пояснительная записка Данное учебно-методическое пособие “Law and Society” рекомендуется для студентов 1 курса дневного отделения юридического факультета. Целью пособия является развитие у студентов необходимого уровня коммуникативной компетенции для решения социально-коммуникативных задач в различных областях профессиональной деятельности. Основными

задачами,

которые

решаются

в

данном

учебно-

методическом пособии, являются следующие: формирование навыков ознакомительного и поискового чтения с целью получения заданной информации, навыков смыслового обобщения и выделения ключевой информации из текста, а также развитие умений монологического высказывания по предложенным вопросам и умений обсуждать полученную информацию в различных формах взаимодействия студентов в пределах группы. Пособие состоит из трех разделов (units), в центре каждого из которых – текст, в ходе работы с которым отрабатываются рецептивные и продуктивные виды речевой деятельности. Каждый раздел включает предтекстовые (вводные), сопутствующие тексту задания – на заполнение пропущенной информации или извлечение необходимой информации, послетекстовые задания: а) задания, направленные на тренировку лексического материала, б) репродуктивные задания (изложение краткой информации по проблемам, поднятым в тексте; составление аннотации текста). На каждый раздел рекомендуется отводить 2-4 аудиторных часов и 2 часа для самостоятельной работы, хотя в зависимости от уровня подготовленности студентов программа может меняться. Данное пособие будет соответствовать принципам коммуникативной направленности, культурной и педагогической целесообразности, а также позволит студентам соответствовать уровню выпускных требований по                                                                                              4   

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дисциплине «Иностранный язык в сфере юриспруденции (английский)» с учетом специфики вуза и потребностей студентов.  

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UNIT 1 WHY DO WE NEED LAWS? Warming-up activity 

What for have people created laws?



Do you agree that laws haven’t changed since primeval times?



What is the role of a law?



Can we do without a system of laws?

While speaking, use the following word combinations: 1) rules imposed by morality and custom – правила, предписанные моралью и обычаем 2) rules made by the state or the courts – нормы,создаваемые государством и судами 3) to control or alter our behavior – управлять и вносить изменения в наше поведение 4) to safeguard our personal property and our lives – охранять нашу личную собственность и наши жизни 5) a well-ordered society- высокоорганизованное общество 6) to ensure a safe and peaceful society –обеспечивать безопасное и мирное существование 7) to punish people without a trial – наказывать людей без суда и следствия 8) to respect individual rights –уважать права человека 9) to give effect to social policies –оказывать влияние на социальную политику 10) to protect liberty and equality – защищать свободу и равенство

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Task 1. Read the text and find more reasons for the creation of laws. Why do we Need Laws? Almost everything we do is governed by some set of rules. There are rules for games, for social clubs, for sports and for adults in the workplace. There are also rules imposed by morality and custom that play an important role in telling us what we should and should not do. However, some rules – those made by the state or the courts – are called “laws”. Laws are designed to control or alter our behavior. But unlike rules of morality, laws are enforced by the courts; if you break a law - whether you like that law or not – you may be forced to pay a fine, pay damages, or go to prison. Why are some rules so special that they are made into laws? Why do we need rules that everyone must obey? What is the purpose of law? If we did not live in a society with other people, laws would not be necessary. We would simply do as we please, with little regard for others. But ever since individuals began to associate with other people – to live in society – laws have been the glue that has kept society together. For example, the law in our country states that we must drive our cars on the right-hand side of a two-way street. If people were allowed to choose at random which side of the street to drive on, driving would be dangerous and chaotic. Laws regulating our business affairs help to ensure that people keep their promises. Laws against criminal conduct help to safeguard our personal property and our lives. Even in a well-ordered society, people have disagreements and conflicts arise. The law must provide a way to resolve these disputes peacefully. If two people claim to own the same piece of property, we do not want the matter settled by a duel: we turn to the law and to institutions like the courts to decide who the real owner is and to make sure that the real owner’s rights are respected. We need law, then, to ensure a safe and peaceful society in which individuals’ rights are respected. But we expect even more from our law. Some totalitar                                                                                             7   

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ian governments have cruel and arbitrary laws, enforced by police forces free to arrest and punish people without trial. Strong-arm tactics may provide a great deal of order, but we reject this form of control. The legal system should respect individual rights while, at the same time, ensuring that society operates in an orderly manner. And society should believe in the Rule of Law, which means that the law applies to every person, including members of the police and other public officials, who must carry out their public duties in accordance with the law. In our society laws are not only designed to govern our conduct: they are also intended to give effect to social policies. For example, some laws provide for benefits when workers are injured on the job, for health care, as well as for loans to students who otherwise might not be able to go to university. Another goal of the law is fairness. This means that the law should recognize and protect certain basic individual rights and freedoms, such as liberty and equality. The law also serves to ensure that strong groups and individuals do not use their powerful positions in society to take unfair advantage of weaker individuals. However, despite the best intentions, laws are sometimes created so that people later recognize as being unjust or unfair. In a democratic society, laws are not carved in stone, but must reflect the changing needs of society. In a democracy, anyone who feels that a particular law is flawed has the right to speak out publicly and to change the law by lawful means. Task 2. Match the English word combinations to their Russian equivalents. 1) the purpose of law,

а) уважать права отдельного человека

2) to live in society

b) отражать изменяющиеся потребности общества

3) to choose at random

c) иметь разногласия и конфликты

4) to safeguard our personal property

d) верить в верховенство закона

and our lives                                                                                              8   

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5) to have disagreements and conflicts e) назначение( цель) права 6) to resolve disputes peacefully

f) защищать основные права и свободы

7) to turn to the law

g) иметь право открыто высказать свое мнение

8) to respect individual rights

h) жить в обществе

9) to arrest and punish people without

i) выбирать что-либо наугад

trial 10) to believe in the Rule of Law

j) стремиться изменить закон законными средствами

11) in accordance with the law

k) арестовывать и наказывать людей без суда и следствия

12) to protect basic individual rights

l) охранять нашу собственность и жизнь

and freedoms 13) to reflect the changing needs of

m) в соответствии с законом

society 14) to have the right to speak out pub-

n) обращаться к закону

licly 15) to seek to change the law by law-

о) решать споры миром

ful means

Task 3. Complete the following sentences according to the text. 1. Almost everything we do is governed by… a) rules imposed by morality. b) the courts. c) some set of rules. 2. If we didn’t live in a structured society with other people… a) we would simply do as we please. b) we would simply do with little regard for others.                                                                                              9   

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c) laws would not be necessary. 3. Laws against criminal conduct help … a) to protect our property. b) to take advantage of other individuals. c) to safeguard our personal property and our lives. 4. We turn to the law… a) to resolve disputes peacefully. b) to decide who the real owner is. c) to force people to keep their promises. 5. Another goal of the law is… a) to protect certain basic individual rights and freedoms. b) fairness. c) to provide for benefits. Task 4. Complete the following text by translating the words and expressions in brackets: The aim of (права) is to regulate the conduct of human beings in society. The aim of (правовой) theory is (рассмотреть) the nature, origin and classification of law. The theory of natural law is based on the belief that there is a set of perfect (юридических норм) for human conduct and (законы) devised by men must be induced by these rules. (Закон) is a term which is used in many different senses. To (юриста) law has a far narrower meaning – the principle recognized and applied by the state in (суде).The English (правовая система) has still been copied by many nations.(Судебный процесс) becomes the center of a contest between both parties in which one emerges as the winner. By the time of (судебного разбирательства) each (сторона дела) should gain as much information as possible. Task 5.Answer the following questions. 1. What kind of society do we live in?                                                                                              10   

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2. What is the society governed by? 3. What is the difference between laws and rules of morality? 4. Why do rules of morality and custom play an important role in our life? 5. Why are laws designed to control our behavior? 6. What are the goals of law? 7. When do people turn to the law? 8. Why do we need law? Task 6. Make the summary of the text using the following scheme. 1. The author believes … 2. Firstly the author points at … 3. Secondly the author supposes… 4. Thirdly the author thinks… 5. Finally the author concludes… Task 7. Discuss the following: 1. It is the duty and responsibility of every citizen to uphold and obey the laws. 2. Laws reflect the traditions of the people as to what is right, proper and just. 3. Compare the system of laws of the United States of America with some other countries. 4. Constitution – the basic system of laws - should never be changed. 5. It is not laws, but politics, that determine citizens’ rights. 6. However hard people try, laws are always insufficient. The following expressions can help you: I quite agree here. Naturally. Certainly. Sure. Exactly. Definitely. Quite. Most likely. Absolutely. I couldn’t agree more. Beyond all doubt.                                                                                              11   

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I’m afraid I don’t agree. I’m not so sure. I doubt it. There’s something in this, but … Just the other way round. UNIT 2 Part I LAW AND SOCIETY Warming-up activity Task 1. Discuss the following questions with your groupmates. 1. Do you feel that the law protects you? 2. Does the law limit your personal freedom? 3. Would you like to live by the law of the jungle? Why? Why not? Task 2. Read the text and be ready to speak on the necessity of laws. Laws in our Modern Society No one knows why crime occurs. There are plenty of theories on this subject. The oldest theory says that people commit crimes deliberately, that the devil or other spirits make them do it. Another theory says that criminals were not brought up properly by their parents. In the 19-th century crime was thought to be the result of poor living conditions: people unable to support their families in a legal way are driven to theft, burglary, prostitution and other offences, according to this theory. Nowadays’ theories say that crime is caused by different factors biological, psychological, cultural, economic and political. It was long ago when people decided to make laws for themselves in selfprotection. We know nothing about laws which existed before the invention of writing in about 3500 B.C. The earliest known legal text was written by Ur                                                                                             12   

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Nammu, a king of the Mesopotamian city of Ur, in about 2100 B.C. One of the most detailed ancient legal codes was written in about 1758 B.C.by Hammuraby.282 paragraphs of this code were carved into a great stone pillar so that it could be read by every citizen. But things never stay the same. The life has changed. We live in a complicated world. Now we need laws and regulations which govern our every social move and action. We have made laws of community living. In the opinion of many people, the law is a necessary evil that should be used only when everyday, informal ways of settling disputes break down. When we buy a train ticket a lawyer may tell us it represents a contract with legal obligations, but to most of us it is just a ticket that gets us on the train. If our neighbor plays loud music late at night, we probably try to discuss the matter with him rather than consulting the police, lawyers or the court. Only when we are injured in a train accident, or when a neighbor refuses to behave reasonably, do we start thinking about the legal implications of everyday activities. Some transactions in modern society are so complex that few of us would risk making them without first seeking legal advice. For example, buying or selling a house, setting up a business, or deciding whom to give our property to when we die. On the whole it seems that people all over the world are becoming more and more accustomed to using legal means to regulate their relations with each other. Law seems to be an evil- but a necessary one that everyone should have a basic knowledge of. Task 3. Fill in the gaps with the suitable words from the list below: felonies, common law, common sense, case law, civil law, ordinances, civil case, award, misdemeanors, tort 1. The laws of our country are founded on basic rules of right and wrong, ________and good reason.                                                                                              13   

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2. Every state in the USA follows the _______ _______. 3. Laws created by city and county governments are called _________. 4. Decisions made by city, county and state courts are called _______ _______. 5. _______ ________ regulates relations that exist between individuals. 6. Courts usually _______ a person harmed an amount of money to make up for the loss. 7. One of the most common examples of a ________ ________ is a suit. 8. Being at fault in an automobile accident is an example of a ________. 9. Crimes are usually divided into two groups: _________ and _________. Task 4. Fill in the correct prepositions, then choose any three and make sentences: to be founded ____ rules to release a person _____ his or her obligations to deal ____ wills and estates to be recognized _____ law to interfere _____ other people to dispose _____ one’s property imprisonment _____ a year to be charged _____ a crime a violation _____ the law Task 5. Complete the following text by translating the words and expressions in brackets: The law should be used when informal ways of (разрешение конфликтов) break down. That’s why we start thinking about the legal meaning of (повседневная деятельность), when we have serious problems. Some (сделки) in modern society are so (сложные) that it is better to (спросить совет у юриста) before making them. In the USA (правильно составленные контракты) are a part of daily life, whereas in Japan, people                                                                                              14   

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prefer informal ways of (разрешения противоречий). So, these two highly developed countries are so different ( в этом отношении). (В целом) people all over the world use (законные средства) to regulate their relations. Nowadays there are more and more attempts to internationalize (правовые стандарты). When the law helps people (достичь соглашений) across different barriers, it (рассматривается) as a good thing. However when it (включать) time, money and (неспособность людей) to cooperate informally, the law seems to be an (зло), but a necessary one. Task 6. Agree or disagree with the following statements using the conversational formulas. Give your reasons. I think it is true. The text tells us that… To my mind, it is false because … I completely /absolutely agree/disagree with the fact that…,

because…

I think it’s true /false, because it’s said in the text that… I agree/disagree with the statement, because… The statement is true/false, because, the text says that… 1. We usually think about the legal implications of everyday activities. 2. Few of us would risk making transactions without first seeking legal advice 3. People all over the world are becoming more and more accustomed to using legal means to regulate their relations with each other 4. When you buy a train ticket a lawyer may tell you it represents a contract with legal obligations 5. Even though the TV set fails to work and the owner of the shop didn’t return your money or replace the TV set, we don’t start thinking of taking legal advice. 6. All transactions in modern society are very complex. 7. Nobody should have basic knowledge of law. 8. The defendant accuses a plaintiff 9. The court may listen to the testimony of one party.                                                                                              15   

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10. You may not sue against the person who didn’t pay his debt. Task 7. Answer the following questions. 1. Were there any laws when the world was at a very primitive stage of development? 2. Why do we need rules and regulations nowadays? 3. Do we notice some laws? Why? 4. When do we start thinking about the legal implications of our everyday activities? 5. In what cases do people seek legal advice? Task 8. Make a summary of the text “Law and society”, using the following expressions: This text explains …. The main aim of the law is to … That’s why we have to…. Besides law is necessary to… Finally, we need laws to… To sum it up, the law has…

Part II CAUSES OF CRIME Task 1. Read the following list of causes why people break the law. Enumerate them 1-6 (1 – the most widespread reason, 6 –the least widespread reason). People break the law… a) because they are mentally ill. b) because they can’t control their emotions, for example greed, anger, jealousy, etc.                                                                                              16   

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c) because they’re poor. d) for money. d) because they take the law into their own hands. Task 2. Read the American criminologist Paul Fisher’s report “Why do people break the law”. Enumerate the causes of crime in the order they are presented in the report. Do your points of view coincide? WHY DO PEOPLE BREAK THE LAW? Why do people break the law? What are the most common causes of crime? The research shows that most people break the law for money. They steal, rob and kill because they want to get other people’s money or property. These offenders are not always poor. They just want to be rich and live a better life. The second most typical cause is poverty. Poor people often turn to crime to get money for themselves and their families. A lot of people become offenders because they can’t control their emotions. Some individuals become irritable, angry, selfish or jealous. Unfortunately, this often happens to those who try to settle disputes after they’ve drunk too much alcohol. Fourth, young people often break the law because they are bored and have nothing to do. They think that breaking the law is cool. The next cause is mental illness. Sometimes mentally ill people commit the most horrible and violent crimes and police have difficulty in finding and catching maniacs and serial killers. Finally, there are people who take the law into their own hands. These people are usually law –abiding citizens who in extreme situations punish the offenders in their own way without the police and courts. Task 3. Match the word or the word phrase to its synonym: a) to go to the police

1) to seek legal advice

b) to hurt

2) to consult the police

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c) difficult

3) an expensive expert

d) to ask lawyer’s advice

4) to ensure

e) to organise a business

5) complex

f) to guarantee

6) to set up a business

g) a highly paid specialist

7) to injure

Task 4. Fill in the gaps with the suitable words from the list below: valid, transactions, legal obligations, challenge, legal means, break down, lawyers, courts of law, disagreements. 1. A law should be used when informal ways of settling disputes _______ . 2. In the opinion of a lawyer, a ticket is a contract with _______ _______ . 3. Some ______ are so complex that none of us would make them without consulting a lawyer. 4. In the United States, precise written contracts, _______ and _______ ______ are a part of daily life. 5. In Japan people use informal ways of solving ________ . 6. It is interesting that people all over the world try to use _______ _______ to regulate their relations. 7. Highly paid lawyers provide that the contracts of multinational companies are _______ . 8. Nowadays Russian people have an opportunity to ________ the decisions of their governments in courts. Task 5. Read the dictionary definitions. Guess the meaning of the underlined words and translate them. Use the dictionary if necessary. 1. If someone is convicted of a crime, they are found guilty of that crime in a law court. 2. An adult is a mature, fully developed person. An adult has reached the age when they are legally responsible for their actions.

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3. If someone is a part-time worker or has a part-time job, they work for only part of each day or week. The opposite of part-time is’ full-time’. 4. If you own something, it is your property 5. If you have an account with a bank or a similar organization, you have an arrangement to leave your money there and take some out when you need it. 6. A guarantor is a person who gives a guarantee. 7. If you give your consent to something, you give someone permission to do it. 8. When you vote, you indicate your choice officially at a meeting or in an election, for example by raising your hand or writing a piece of paper. 9. When a person is tried, he or she has to appear in a law court and is found innocent or guilty after the judge and jury have heard the evidence. 10. A mortgage is a loan of money which you get from a bank in order to buy a house. 11. If you apply for something such as a job or membership of an organization, you write a letter or fill in a form in order to ask formally for it. 12. A vehicle is a machine with an engine, for example a bus, car, or truck that. Task 6. What kinds of civil and criminal crimes do you know? Decide whether the following crimes are civil or criminal ones: Arson

murder

Bribery

manslaughter

Libel / slander

homicide

Robbery

rape

Burglary

assault

Theft / larceny

blackmail

Kidnapping

abuse of power

Embezzlement

disorderly conduct

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Forgery

speeding

Fraud

drink-driving

Swindling

house-breaking

Perjury

shoplifting

Felony

mugging

Misdemeanor

contempt of court

Vandalism

begging

Terrorism

possession of drugs

Smuggling

suppression of evidence, etc.

Think of any other types of crimes and decide whether they are civil or criminal ones. Task 7. Think of possible punishments for crimes in Task 6. The following kinds of punishment may help you: Bail / to release somebody on bail A jail sentence To send somebody to the penitentiary / jail A penitentiary term A term of imprisonment (life, from 25 years to a few months imprisonment) Hard labor Manual labor Community service (e.g. in hospital, etc.) Probation / to place an offender on probation Parole / to release somebody on parole To fine somebody, etc. Task 8. Get ready to tell the class about the role of law in the modern society and the causes of crime. While speaking, use the following expressions and linking words: I would like to begin with…                                                                                              20   

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Additionally… I’d just like to say … As I see it … The way I see it … There’s one more thing to be noted. Moreover … What’s more … I might as well add that … One/another/ a further/the main/the greatest advantage/disadvantage of … All things considered I must say that … To sum up … Task 9. In groups of 4-5 discuss the following questions: 1. How do you understand the statement “Law: a necessary evil”? 2. What informal ways of settling disputes do you know? (Name at least 56). 3. Why do people nowadays prefer to use legal means to regulate their relations with each other? 4. Is it necessary for common people to have a basic knowledge of the law? Why? (Give your reasons). 5. If you were a lawyer in South America, how would you try to stop governments from destroying the rainforests? 6. Why do attempts to internationalize legal standards increase? Do you think that legal standards should be the same in the whole world? (Give your reasons) While speaking, use the following expressions: Expressing opinion I believe / think / suppose / reckon / consider / guess … In my opinion / to my mind …                                                                                              21   

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As far as I’m concerned … My view / opinion is that … As I see / view it … All things considered I must say that … Generally speaking … Linking words On the one hand … On the other hand … First(ly) / Second(ly)/ Third(ly) … Then … Next … Finally / Lastly … Moreover / Furthermore / Also / Besides this / In addition to … All in all / To sum up / in conclusion … UNIT 3 LAW AND JUSTICE Warming-up activity Task 1. Discuss the following questions with your groupmates. 1) How do you understand the word justice? 2) Are all laws always fair (=just) to all people? 3) Read the following Cultural Note taken from “Dictionary of English Language and Culture”: Justice is often represented by a woman who has her eyes covered, and has scales in one hand and a sword in the other. This represents the idea that justice should treat everyone equally, examine (or ‘weigh’) all the evidence, decide whether it shows that the person is guilty or not, and punish those who are guilty. In London there is a famous Statue of Justice on the Old Bailey, the main court for criminal cases in London. What do you think of such representation of justice? Do Russian people have any symbols of justice?                                                                                              22   

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4) What is the notion “justice” to you? While speaking, the following words and word combinations can help: justice

1)справедливость; 2) правосудие

to provide/do justice

2)вершить правосудие; 2)восстанавливать справедливость

to administer justice/laws

отправлять/осуществлять правосудие

to escape justice

уйти от правосудия

to depend on sth

зависеть от чего-л.

to murder smb

убить кого-л.

to steal sth

украсть что-л.

according to law/rules

по закону/правилам;

compulsory for everyone

обязательный для всех

requirements of a fair trial

требования справедливого судебного разбирательства

open hearing

открытое слушание дела

impartial court

беспристрастный суд

equality before the law

равенство перед законом

to state arguments

приводить доводы

relationship between

отношение между…

to support one another

поддерживать друг друга

case

судебное дело

to hire the best lawyers

нанимать самых лучших адвокатов

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to have an advantage over others

иметь преимущество над другими

miscarriage of justice

судебная ошибка

to take the law into one’s own hands

учинять самосуд/ расправу

to judge smb

судить кого-л.

vigilante justice

самосуд, расправа

to appeal against the law

обжаловать закон

Task 2. Read the text and say how many notions connected with the word justice the author gives. Translate them. Law and Justice One of the main aims of any government is to provide justice. Justice is a difficult concept, because everyone has a different idea of it. A broad idea of justice is the fair and moral treatment of people. There is a strong belief that there are rules of justice –rules that build on moral principles. These rules dictate that if we behave morally, there will be a reward, and if we are bad, there will be punishment. These principles, known as morality, are quite subjective. They depend on many factors, such as traditions, culture, education, religion, etc. Nevertheless, we all agree on the basic moral values. Most people willingly accept the Ten Commandments from the Bible. The Bible teaches us to honor our parents, not to murder, not to be unfaithful to steal, not to make false statements against our neighbors. Another meaning of justice is ‘justice according to law .It involves a legal system which deals with crime. Unlike moral rules, laws are compulsory for everyone. Under such a system crimes are against the state, and only the state has the right to administer justice. On behalf of the society it judges and punishes people who break the law.

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However, most people believe that justice involves more than that. There is a concept of natural law or natural justice. This concept says that each individual has certain natural rights. Now the rules of natural justice mostly refer to basic requirements of a fair trial: an open hearing, an impartial court, equality before the law, giving each side an equal chance to state its arguments. These requirements guarantee everyone the protection of the law. The relationship between morality and law has always been important. On the one hand, laws must be just. On the other hand, laws must be just. On the other hand, morality needs laws to uphold rights and punish wrongs. Obviously, The law and morality support one another. Most people don’t steal because they know that stealing is dishonest and punishment for stealing reinforces them in this view. It is sometimes difficult to draw a line between morality and law. For example, in the modern world adultery is clearly immoral but not illegal. Blasphemy is still a crime in England, but many people don’t consider it illegal. Unfortunately, no legal system can always provide justice. Some cases go wrong, judges can make mistakes, people who should win their cases lose; and people who should lose them, win. Individuals or organizations who can hire the best lawyers have an advantage over others. People with political connections and money often escape justice. Sometimes the law is unjust or its administration is unfair. A miscarriage of justice often makes people take the law into their own hands. They judge and punish other people themselves. This ‘vigilante justice’ is certainly against the law. What if laws are unjust? What if we think that the administration of the law is unfair? We don’t always agree with the laws we live by. In fact, we don’t always know laws. However, we must live by these laws. If we feel that a law is unfair, we have the right to appeal against it or work to change it. We do not have the right to break it.

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Task 3. Fill in the correct prepositions, then choose any three and make sentences: to rebel _______ the rule of somebody to use one’s power _______ selfish purposes to carry ________ trade to draw _______ a constitution to agree ________ the wording to go _______ effect to speak _______ freely ________ important issues the right _______ a jury trial to deprive somebody ________ life, liberty Task 4. Fill in the gaps with the suitable words or word combinations from the list below: the Supreme Court, government, associate justices, the federal judiciary, interpretation, chief justice, appealed, approved, Supreme Court Justices, declare, unconstitutional, decisions    The third branch of _________, in addition to the legislative (Congress) and executive (President) branches, is _______ _______. Its main instrument is ________ ________, which watches over the other two branches. The Supreme Court consists of a _______ _________ and eight _______ _______. They are nominated by the President but must be _________ by the Senate. Once approved, they hold office as ______ ______ ______ for life. A decision of the Supreme Court cannot be _________ to any other court. Neither the President nor Congress can change their _________. Most of the cases involve the _________ of the Constitution. The Supreme Court also has the “power of judicial review”, that is, it has the right to _________ laws and actions of the federal, state and local governments _________. Task 5. Choose the correct answer to the question. Several answers can be correct.                                                                                              26   

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1. Why is justice a difficult concept? A. Nobody likes justice B. Moral rules are compulsory for everyone C. People have different ideas of justice D. Justice depends on many factors 2. What do ‘rules of justice’ build on? A. They build on laws B. They build on basic moral principles C. They build on the Bible and other religious codes of behavior D. They build on traditions of society 3. What does ‘justice according to law’ involve? A. It involves a legal system that has the right to administer law B. It involves punishing people who break the law. C. It involves taking the law into your own hands D. It involves criticizing immoral behavior. 4. Which requirements of a fair trial does the concept of natural justice refer to? A. It refers to an open hearing. B. It refers to equality before the law. C. It refers to basic moral values. D. It refers to an equal chance for each side to state arguments. 5. What is the relationship between morality and law? A. Morality and law are independent of each other. B. Morality and law usually go together C. Immoral things aren’t always illegal. D. The law always punishes immoral behavior. 6. Why is it illegal to take the law into your own hands? A. It is illegal because it is immoral. B. It is illegal because it is unfair                                                                                              27   

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C. It is illegal because you can’t punish other people for crimes. D. It is illegal because only the state can administer justice. 7. According to the author, what can you do if the law is unfair? A. You can break the law. B. You can appeal against the law. C. You can work to change the law. D. You can take the law into your own hands. Task 6. Fill in the gaps in the summary of the text with the suitable information. This text deals with different 1)….. of justice. The English word ‘justice’ has several 2)….. Firstly, it means fair and moral treatment of people. Although the ideas of justice can be quite subjective, most societies agree on the basic moral 3)….. Another meaning of justice is ‘justice 4)….. law’. It involves a legal system that judges and pushes people for 5)……There is also a concept of 6)….. justice. It refers to basic requirements of a fair trial, such as an open hearing, an impartial court, equality before the law and giving each side an equal chance to state its arguments. Finally, there is ‘7)….. justice’. People take the law into their own hands to punish offenders themselves. It is against the law. According to the author, the law and 8)…..usually support one another. In conclusion, the author says that we don’t have the right to 9)….. even if we don’t like it. Task 7. Render the main idea of the text “Law and Justice” having completed the following sentences: 1. The text deals with …. 2. Firstly, justice means ….. 3. Although the ideas of justice can be quite subjective ….. 4. Another meaning of justice is …..                                                                                              28   

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5. It involves a legal system that….. 6. There is also a concept of ….. 7. It refers to the basic requirements of ….. 8. Finally, there is ….. 9. According to the author ….. 10. In conclusion, the author says that….. Task 8. Read the information on the subject “You and the law”. In the right column write the age when Russian young people have the same rights. A guide to what you can do from the ages of 10 to 21. Britain You and the law Age

Be convicted of a crime. If you kill someone

10:

Go to prison.

Age

Buy a pet.

12: Age

Get a part-time job but not for more than

13:

two hours on a school day on a Sunday.

Age

Go into a pub but not buy or drink alcohol

14:

there. Own an air gun.

Age

Open a bank account with a guarantor.

15: Age

Leave school.

16:

Work full-time. Marry with a parental consent. Ride a moped. Join the armed forces with parental consent (boys).

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Russia

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Drink cider, beer or wine with meal in pub or restaurant. If you leave home the law is unlikely to enforce your return. Age

Drive most vehicles.

17

Buy any firearm and ammunition. Join the armed forces with parental consent (girls).

Age

Vote.

18

Be tried by adult criminal courts. Make a will. Own a house, apply for a mortgage. Apply for a passport. Open a bank account without a parent’s signature Join the forces without parental consent. Donate your body to science.

Age

Be a Member of Parliament.

21

Drive a heavy goods vehicle.

Task 9. In groups of 4-5 discuss the following questions: 1. What legal rights do you have at your age? 2. Are these rights similar to those of young people in Britain? 3. At what age should a person be responsible for a serious crime such as murder? 4. Should a young offender go to prison? 5. In your opinion, at what age should it be possible: - to marry (for boys and girls);                                                                                              30   

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- to vote; - to open a bank account; - to buy cigarettes and alcohol; - to get a driving licence; - to own a firearm While speaking, use the expressions from Task 9 p.21 (Unit 2, Part 2).

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7. Библиография. 1. Алимов В.В. Юридический перевод. Практический курс / В.В. Алимов. – УРСС, М.: Либроком, 2012. – 162с. 2. Алонцева Н.В. Английский для студентов факультетов права и международных отношений / Н.В. Алонцева. – Минск: Тетра Системс, 2009. – 400с. 3. Английский язык для юристов: учебник / [под ред. А. А. Лебедевой]. – М.: ЮНИТИ-ДАНА, 2010. – 359с. 4. Крупченко А.К. Contemporary Law in Russia: Современное право в России / А.К. Крупченко. – М.: Менеджер, 2009. – 240с. 5. Brown Gillian D. Professional English in Use. Law / D.G. Brown, S. Rice. – Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. – 128p. 6. Seely John Law in Everyday Life / J. Seely. – Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. – 150p. 7. Stewart W.J. Collins Dictionary of Law / W.J. Stewart. – 3-d edition. – Glasgow: Harper Collins Publishers, 2006. – 474p. 8. http//www.gourt.com 9. http//www.legalcareers.about.com

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