Lava Beds Caves

177 64 11MB

English Pages 56 [60] Year 1989

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

Polecaj historie

Lava Beds Caves

Table of contents :
Frontmatter
Alphabetical Contents
Animals
Antiquities
Balcony Cave
Balcony Chamber Cave
Bearpaw Bridge
Bearpaw Cave
Big Painted Cave
Blue Grotto Cave
Boulevard Cave
Caves at Lava Beds
Cave Loop map
Catacombs Cave
Crystal Cave
Fern Cave
Fleener Chimneys
Garden Bridges Caves
Glossary
Golden Dome Cave
Headquarters Lava Tube System
Heppe Caves
Hercules Leg-Juniper Cave
History and exploration
Hopkins Chocolate Cave
Howard, J. D., his legacy
Ice, caves with
Indian Well Cave
Introduction
Labyrinth Branch
Labyrinth Cave
Labyrinth Entrance
Thunderbolt Entrance
Lava Brook Entrance
Lava tubes, their role and how they are formed
Lava tube systems
Laws regarding caves
Map symbols
Master tubes
Merrill Cave
Mitertite Hall Cave
Modoc Crater Lava Tube System
Monument Map
Mushpot Cave
Natural Bridge Cave
Ovis Bridge
Ovis Cave
Pahoehoe and aa lava
Paradise Alleys Cave
Park rules & regulations
Safety
Sentinel Bridge
Sentinel Cave
Sharks Mouth Cave
Skull Cave
South Labyrinth Cave
Suggested Tours 1
Suggested Tours 2
Sunshine Cave
Surface tubes
Symbol Bridge
Tube-in-Tube Cave
Valentine Cave

Citation preview

ols 3 © ae re ESa =

2

es

a aE vs TE BL BRCRE sR ¥ 7 TN BE a Bdees WL ow LC Ee gE wie WT es a Eo 8 ee 5 RC aaL a LT haa

a

wma

NO NX

ood oie

oo LT Be Ta =re LBeer d | SRE s owe Ba st gte BN as Eee aay LW E WIN eR oo ee aLae Caw 7 EL so:

Fag Lana ae

eTR Mg

= mala ..

= oeaew

ma

Her ¢ She w= a ia |Ta eela Ty ym wd TA i iv Cam Ta- Ce © Fe i a

2

4

\!

a Ah

F]

5

Be

ca . QaCe Fs ad Cd e Ge a) i | a Ls Le 1 A Sid an 1 \ E CC Re MER bi wl he ol Ms a 37FR Lg Gg Rune ES; BY TO Ee 8 pps ee tome C0 iam Pglie Gm Pa, Ta a EE a ee AE rer aa TL ine we a. ek adWh iee eel om Be Eo Ey Progr ale set RT b| Lr e TH aa Lo Re Re CEhd a a. 8R | g NP ‘i. > k Aw Le ia § Se RE ag = z=#] feSPA 0 |) bo i 8 T Be % = bs ; = Ne 4 he ms- _ Ee

bi 1

Ey

i A

The

Ta

5 |

Ci in

ps 7 iy 11 atl

a

a)

ME 4

ie

A ET § he” eel © | a

-

5

Le Ct

EE ar |.

8 ER

APs i. 2 d ge TeFl ov. rer wn) Are Br i NN Ea 5 @® TL Ce TN bh Se rl Se SLR SHE aE dr. =. £Sabo 0 aR oe law i SB a La RT BE a yp he fa RE Co 2 ea EN RS SS a Th oN Fh ated 5 a a wn BA vol BREE Le Le A eh we. Cg LLL ro & ve Hsae Bae Rl le WE i fae fe BRTFR AE a ‘EA

Lt

5

:

Tatts Ta

RE

Le Cg i Law Gwe 5 A oa ws EE Fu 11

CAR

i al

ra es

Eg ae ~~ al Ee EL Rs oe pe 3 TE he a a a Be Be Pe Ge soeOh aa sas

FT . few

sient a a rail ERs es Lae La ETN Le TUBE LE eve Ee ayf+ Rl 8. osNEE Go ee SM Eeaat we. ... he | Se Ee T ER we Was. 4 we : el Ee da ie ou “73 SR Pl #0 =e Eas . aE E Here

8 oat ER Loe aA

EF :

a Wiig sep .

© hes = al a Pi ey

fo Need ST a le riot © -En -id 5

=

adem BE =

%

ais

Set ONE oA ea

Fogg

Ee pas

aa = Co

=

:

SE : Faas

=

ose NE

Beene Wa Go

La

a eae gE La

:

ta

4 gi S A Hb OW # i in on 4 in;

gs CE Yonatn oR Roa CL

a

© SSRealy Bh rr NEEC ER ede i SE

Sate

ebSo

Peg

AhCay 2

aw

neh

Mo ioa

-

£ .3

Te

J Bn

A Lh Ga

aa7

Se -Be Sao Ba oN an i eemer 5 an

elag

aT ean aa

0a

i"

AAD TN Teh

1a oma

Ee OY.

Ce a : iE 0 , a “% Foe WL dh2. 6. Sey i no ELE eta SR. . FE He CR te Fel VR ; ltrs : CF gH Wes ERS orar. SP ER rh AE SHEL © E ; : bo ; ! = al ise wl C0 ay vw 8 in ware 4 AF iE "on a J3 & gr Sy aN a : vg o x “e Y he SRE a = $e. 5s re ee a Ts AN FE ("Se Ait

am a

ee

Ea : WEE Em

Ee en ea se Te = EN fe Ta cee oF nt oes

ee oe bie Ea AE vo aE Ta Shr lege air aE

t

Pe 4a VG” aatiPa VAG HA OC RL at

Bl een b Cage oo Ral Ea ma Con.oh Es

LYN a,

CL SR

Ny iE ol ca% ea ah Vig Shey ; end § War 0 FT Fo We E

NY

oe

Eee

Eee NdGY he Le pr a TRELc

0

:

+

%

rm i

THEE

5

ik

I

LE

oe

c

oo

.

ov

Co co

LE

af

Jie o i

|!-

:

:

1

wr: 3

oo" a

Le ee

Cl

.

i

oh

mn

:

:

_-

| : =

a

Fo Br a or

LE ae

5

ahe

Re

ya

a

-

-

ow adi

vo

a ol

e

NG

rF

B

.

a

-

:

:

LEA

EL me

sv. « i 9 Bx) Sale

rs bmi

he © ee

se

a

:

:

wo

Jeg



ow EONlh iT ) Gr si Rat

C

bs

LL £

E

+ 8 4

LE

got

Age Go

To

h

a

££



.

a

Fs

ae

F/

Be.

aE wT

ee

bp

Ta

Es | = = a aeLE oy 2 pn pg » a aud Ng Ef LL Ee Te i Noe i ee f= co TREE Eo a LR & Ne an Bey oY Ae Wd JR ws le ee LL Lo ha vg

4

CELE,

‘Tog

(#5

PEP

ee

FE a FE go gla ww KF = Sirs i 1a $d on an 7. ¢pie 0 ARE Foe :

TY EE 5 ON"ed x a j 7

a $2

$y

i

me A

Ls

ae 8

te

wl Coa

2

fa

5

-

.

Co

eee

ow

J

°c Ly s

i

:

«

&

EA 7 i Fe

\

LAVA BEDS CAVES by Charlie & Jo Larson

a

q

-_-

ABC Publishing 13318 N.E. 12th Avenue

Vancouver, Washington 98685 (206) 573-0306

Copyright 1989, 1990

by Charlie & Jo Larson Vancouver, Washington All rights reserved, including the right to reproduce this book or portions thereof in any form or by any means, without permission from the publisher.

The assistance of long-time friends Kathy Block and Gary Hathaway, Chief of Interpretation at Lava Beds National Monument, is gratefully acknowledged.

LIABILITY DISCLAIMER WARNING: Caving is hazardous. It is your responsibility to get qualified instruction in safe caving, including equipment, techniques, safety measures, and backup systems. This book is sold with no liability to the author or publisher, expressed or implied, in case of injury or

1 y

death to the purchaser or reader.

2

lh

E

-

INDEX

Lava tubes, their role and how they are formed. ...........8-11 Lavatubesystems .................10 Laws regardingcaves ..............13 Mapsymbols .....................56 Mastertubes .....................11 BearpawCave ....................42 MermrillCave......................40 BigPaintedCave..................51 MitertiteHallCave ................20 Blue GrottoCave..................23 Modoc Crater Lava Tube System. ....10 Boulevard Cave ...................35 Monumentmap....................5 CavesatLavaBeds .................4 28-29 MushpotCave ....................25 Cave Loopmap ......(centerfold) Natural BridgeCave ...............47 CatacombsCave................36-37 OvisBridge ......................44 CrystalCave......................33 OvisCave........................44 FernCave........................50

Animals .........................14 Antiquities .......................14 BalconyCave .....................34 Balcony Chamber Cave.............21 BearpawBridge...................40

Fleener Chimneys .................15

Pahochoeandaalava..............53

Garden Bridges Caves..............21 Glossary .........................54 GoldenDomeCave ................24

ParadiseAlleysCave...............45 Parkrules & regulations .........13-15 Safety ........................13-15

Headquarters Lava Tube System. ....28

Sentinel Bridge ...................42

HeppeCaves .....................46 Hercules Leg-Juniper Cave .......30-31 History and exploration .............6 Hopkins Chocolate Cave. ...........27 Howard, J. D., hislegacy ............7 Ice,caveswith ....................12 Indian WellCave..................32 Introduction. ......................4 Labyrinth Branch .................16 Labyrinth Cave ...................16 Labyrinth Entrance..............17 Thunderbolt Entrance ...........17 Lava Brook Entrance ............18

SentinelCave.....................42 Sharks MouthCave................34 SkullCave .......................48 South LabyrinthCave..............19 Suggestedtours.................5,24 SunshineCave....................52 Surfacetubes......................6 SymbolBridge....................51 Tube-in-TubeCave................22 ValentineCave.................38-39

Cover photo: A series of stairways leading down to the Ice Chamber in Skull Cave.

3

\

He

INTRODUCTION

drainage. Except for a few isolated pools

Lava Beds National Monument lies on ~~ Of water perched on ice domes inside

the far northern slope of the huge Medicine Lake volcano, a complex volcanic feature of enormous bulk. Like the Newberry volcano in central Oregon, it has a relatively low profile and is so low and wide that it cannot be visually compared with other natural features,

Caves, the scant rainfall and melting SHOW pass directly through the porous Volcanic terrain to the water table about 700 feet below the surface. Because of the relatively dry climate, little erosion has occurred and some of the lava flows appear deceptively younger than they

except from afar. The monument is

actually are.

roughly rectangular in shape, enclosing

72 square miles, at an elevation of about

5,200 feet at the south end and 4,100 feet

LAVA BEDS CAVES

Lava Beds National Monument has the

at the old shoreline of Tule Lake which ~ greatest concentration of lava caves in forms the northern boundary.

the continental United States. Nearly all

of the individual caves are lava tube In 1920, the “Modoc Lava Beds” (the = S3VeS that are segments of several

future monument), as part of a far larger

ee bo tube systems. Over 400

tract of land, became part of the Modoc ~~ ©@V¢S have been ocated and explored to National Forest. The area was set aside baer tens but only about 100 have

as a national monument November 21,

fon

Sh ed. Tnd range in length

1925, on the recommendation of the

Cota

oh “C yards

United States Forest Service. In 1933 it

was transferred to the National Park Service by presidential proclamation. ola

} } cnr monumentis covered with s

out

tw

Ir

tacombs

Cave, with

20

the

longest,

6,900 feet of

surveyed [hasbags. Some are complex orizontally, having many interconnect-

ed branches. Others are vertically complex, having several oe Depths range rom

surface tubes

(above the

lan

is basaltic fava that erupted over 11,000

surface) to 150 feet below the surface in

years ago. uch of the latter was distributed by lava tubes, leaving flows

the lower levels of some of the master tubes.

30 Toor ian ke borders fei

0

Many of the caves have suffered little

’ depressions in between. (The hill next to the visitor center is actually the snoutofa

collapse and exhibit an abundance o brimary features, such as dripstone and {pe many forms that result from it.

lava flow.) Many cinder cones (commonly known as Duttes) dot the andscape, some rising to €€l above

Benches, linings, dripstone stalactites, ribbed walls, shelves, lava falls, and all kinds of flow lines are abundant. As a

the general surface. Smaller, but far

rule, speleothems (secondary mineraliza-

more numerous, are spatter cones and ornitos, locally known as “chimneys.

Shon 3

tion) are seldom well developed in lava tubes, and Lava Beds is no exception.

snus oy 55 hncally 3 sche, pleni

g of collapse trenches marking the course of lava tube systems. The latest explosive eruptions of Medicine Lake volcano deposited a layer of white pumice over the entire monument-a light layer at the north boundary, up to one foot at places along the south boundary.

The monument slopes gently to the northeast, but there is no surface

in caves having a suitable shape. (See Caves with Ice a page 12.) pe. ( Most of the best h b im o 4 € bes pao) pol oo p € Rr way or vy er to permi oe cf pu oo access and pppreciation. provements range widely, from wirtually none in Natural Bridge Cave, to extensive development in Mushpot Cave which has a lighted trail, illuminated interpretive signs and theater of sorts

-

4

.

EK

dl

0

Le

2 Kilometérs

1

1 2 Miles

1

0



=)

North

2

TULE LAKE NATIONAL



WILDLIFE REFUGE

ig

3

4

a

2

>

ATIONAL

&

2

;

Pa. IVAN



eg

[

or

: #

7

i bingy PEN Ve” HITNEY Ly CppEBUTTE GE 1s2sm “50041t

be

Br -

ET :

Bs

por

i

CBT PEE a

5)” had Nr

BLACK

Ty SN 34m BREN ~.

7 Z CAtLANAN

7

“i

Ze

/

o i = Smo NL

fo i

Indian Well Campground

ST i TTS

A

Goiden Dome]

mine

seem

7

re” mT

MAMMOTH CRATER

eofy

-

Ce

.

“HIDDEN VALLEY

=

Valentine Cave

Nid

one-way

i

5

P

a

pe

w=

oF

CALDWELL BUTTE FE

rE

seam

tL

ry

PE RE

a

Sentinel

A

ISLAND

PUPS A

T/E

Ovis/Paradise Alleys

LBUTTE

.

an wh

Skull Cave

Catacombs As J

EAGLE NEST

CE

7

~

lenam tl | Lava Brooko/S fymen 8)

4

THREE = 4 SISTERS

iia Indi ani BYR Well Labyrinth-ag¥ a

or CRATER “HIPPO Gi

FLov

»

Th

7

Hopkins Chocolate

.

!

Be

Vik

Sesatt

* BUTTE

a

%

oe

Tom

C7

Zl

!

Cave

LAVA

i

d

N./



,

|

RE Cg y/ Big Painted

“53411



7|

Symbsiaddgs

fl

N

Merrill Cave

E

f

of

oS Fis Lookout ir Srl si prod IE Pri of 2 es |TG, ; OU SN ar GESIR a 0 iis 37 THECASTLESXZ \

_ BEARPAW

/.

$7

dann]

:

3:

HE

h]

5

i’

ELAR

alcony Cave

|

;

&

an

i

\

7

yg

:

SCHONCHIN

io

5 Z

Se

5:

{orden

¢

%

caves to see segments of a master tube.

meted

ER Butte

whi

finally either Ovis, Sentinel or Skull

Thomas-Wrig

Lo”

a

EEE or

. f

a lava flow. Next, visit Catacombs Cave

“4. Chimneys

7

Mouth. Then visit Mushpot Cave for a

| to see a major branch of a system, and

Fisener |CRATER

y

\

| look at a cave developed near the front of

Boss

Lor]

7

"|

sravarow

IIT

y

. . Begin at Fleener - Chimneys where, about halfway up the trail to the spatter =] cones, there is a classic example of a | surface tube known as the Dragon’s

wo

TAs

\

1.5 mi loop

following tour is suggested:

-

or

3

5 mi loop

SUGGESTED TOUR To see a range of lava tube types, the

5

/ “ a

a

>~-

efi]

% oh

eee = Ay oR LO nad Bi oo [lei

FOREST

~

IN SE

a i bys Cross Gant fe

Er

{

es 4

YY Captain =& Pe Lapa Jacks

J

Na

N

:

g

ow

“2

w .wo 7

o ; .

WN

i

War, 1873,

MODOC

Ok

-

/

=

Camp

US Army Heffiquarters inM

TN

BR

Tr

Wilgy,

y

| Ww,

i

||

SE Em, ae" NS i| West Wildlife “9%, & 7/4 Turnout / “UL a Hospital “3A A 7 1 1 Rock A

a rE A | [A pile

Gilkgns

i

EL ER

wl

OREN. PY |

ER EINE

5

h

a

where films about lava tubes are shown periodically.

Inside other caves they moved rocks aside to create shallow wells, and in one cave

Most cave improvement at Lava Beds

they are said to have built a series of fires

occurred from the late 1920s tolate 1930s

to illuminate their way to water far

and was the relatively enormous accomplishment of a series of Federal work

inside. Caves like Bearpaw, Indian Well and

(relief) projects designed to alleviate depression-era hard times. Of more importance to the improvement of monument caves, the projects provided

Symbol Bridge were favored, because the water or ice was in or near the twilight zone and, with care, could be reached without torches. Similarly, the far end of

labor which was otherwise unaffordable

then-and unavailable at any price now.

In addition to building and improving roads, cave entrances were enlarged and

Skull Cave is near the twilight zone, but

not near enough to safely negotiate the pit there, and many sheep, goats, antelope, and at least two humans, met

stairways and ladders built.

their death there, attracted by the water

Work inside the caves was performed by the light of gasoline lanterns. Thousands of tons of rock were moved, by hand or with block and tackle, to make

and ice. During the Modoc War of 1872-73, the Modocs used several caves as natural fortifications and later as refuges.

way for several miles of trails inside and outside the caves. Lava tubes elsewhere

Except for the above war, the first known historic account of a person and a

do not have uncluttered floors, with the cave in the area is that of Tom Durham’s loose rock neatly piled out of the way or ~~ 1888 encounter with a bear at Bearpaw around the corner, as many do at Lava Cave. (see page 42) E. L. Hopkins, after Beds. Furthermore, it was done as

whom Hopkins Chocolate Cave was

unobtrusively as could be. To appreciate

named, found Skull Cave in about 1892.

visit Labyrinth Cave upslope from the

visited the area to hunt, pasture lives-

200 feet a hard-won trail was worked through a passage largely filled with

distilleries. Heppe and Merrill caves are named after homesteaders. Construction

the effort expended by those workers,

Thunderbolt Entrance, where for about rocks of all sizes. The first generation of

structures-stairways,

ladders

and

bridges-were built of wood and as they deteriorated they were replaced with metal, until little wood remains today.

During the early 1900s a few people

tock, homestead, and operate illegal of the first wagon road into the area in

191] brought those seeking recreation,

and today, recreational use of the caves

predominates.

No one can say how many caves there

HISTORY & EXPLORATION Exploration and use of caves in the

are at Lava Beds National Monument. Various reports and publications include more than 400 cave names, but the

Lava Beds area began long ago. Artifacts

actual number of caves is uncertain.

and markings at the entrance to many of the caves are evidence of their use by

Some caves have more than one name, or one name serves several caves, and until recently there has been no consensus about what, exactly, is an individual

long-gone Indian races whose history was unknown to their successors, the Modocs. Certain caves were logical campsites because they contained the only readily available water in the area. Some of the water was ice, but that was at worst a

minor inconvenience, and a pleasure in the summer. The main camp of the Lava Beds Modocs was near Indian Well Cave which contained a large pool of water.

cave. Beginning with J. D. Howard, several systematic cave surveys have been

N

undertaken, but for lack of funds or time, none has ever been completed.

Most maps of the caves-prior to this publication-are derived from a core of maps created in 1963 by Stuart Peck, a seasonal employee at the monument.

6

o

«

BE

THE J. D. HOWARD LEGACY

covered with loose rock which he dug out

No account of the caves of Lava Beds National Monument would be complete

When he found them. Howard

often guided

friends

and

without reference to J. D. Howard. To

tourists through the caves, and after the

him belongs the credit for most of the

area became a

early exploration of the area. Judson D.

consulted by various monument officials

monument,

he

was

Howard came to Klamath Falls in 1916,

from time to time. The only apparent

at the age of 36, to work in the flour mill. After his first visit to “the beds,” as he

inconsistency in Howard’s preoccupation with Lava Beds arises from his practice of

called the area, he was hooked

on

inscribing names, dates, and occasional-

exploring caves, and tirelessly explored the monument during his spare time for the next 20 years. His most enduring

ly details of exploration in prominent places inside caves (outright vandalism today), and his regret in later years for

legacy is the naming of most of the caves and other geologic features in the

having opened the caves to abuse from the public.

monument. Nearly all of his names survived, despite the recommendation of an eminent geologist that many be , renamed, because Howard’s names were . . largely inappropriate. The names he applied were about

His explanation of how lava tubes : . formed is a model of brevity, and understanding several decades ahead of hi Co 1s contemporaries:

“Pghoehoe lava

is the

only lava

equally related to animals, everyday

g,norting caves. This type freezes on

objects, geologic cave features, and

suo surface the same as water, or rivers,

persons. Too much has been made of ap; 45 the lava has no continuous supply few fanciful names like Catacombs Cave, 1uns out underneath the capping. In Cleopatra’s Tomb (in Catacombs Cave), ye ravines or at deep places it leaves Hercules Leg Cave, The Labyrinth, and pes in places the crust breaks down Paradise Alleys Cave, when actually his choice of names was well balanced and did not reflect any bias. He was, however, prejudiced about what constituted a cave. Apparently he required

He was also the first writer known to YS system to describe a network of lava

some part to be in total

tubes

.

when

he

applied

it

to

the

because he frequently dismissed caves several hundred feet long as “bridges,”

Headquarters Lava Tube System in 1917. His biography is somewhat obscure.

or “no cave at all.” That attitude is,

He is said to have attended college, yet in

perhaps, understandable in any cave

an era when correct spelling was an

lover

.

darkness,

leaving tube openings.”

amid

such

an

abundance

of

indispensable mark of learning, his left a

unexplored caves.

lot to be desired. Some say he was a

He located many of the caves (more than any other individual to date), cleared entrances of debris, and built roads to provide easier access. His determination is exemplified by the formidable nature of the Cave Loop area (see page 28) when he explored the caves there. It was covered with a dense stand of mountain mahogany and in much of it the only means of travel was on hands and knees. (All but a few of the largest junipers burned off in 1926.) Furthermore, many of the entrances were

jack-of-all-trades: photographer, assayer, rancher, guide, flour mill foreman. He had a knack for brevity and apt phrases, but wrote relatively little (only a lean diary, a handful of letters, 5 maps, a few photos, and the ubiquitous inscriptions remain). He surveyed a few caves but then apparently drew the maps freehand, partially from memory. We are the poorer that he didn’t write more, because he had a refreshingly concise way with words, and a great love and understanding of “the beds.” 7

4

THE ROLE OF LAVA TUBES In the western U.S. there are two

irregular eruptions produce small irregular tubes, clog existing tubes, and build

principal types of caves: solution caves in limestone and lava tube caves in basalt.

thicker lava fields; lengthy, steady €ruptions produce large, branching sys-

different. Limestone caves are cavities

Examples ofallsizes occur at Lava Beds.

Their origins could hardly be more

LMS and relatively thinner lava fields.

slowly dissolved by acidic groundwater in

a

millions of vears

once

flowing

occupied

by

HOW LAVA TUBES FORM*

Lava tubes originate in two distinctly

in

different ways: as surface tubes, or by

bedrock emplaced by and usualls no ¢ p ya y

roofing of a lava channel. Surface tubes form all at once, on an existing surface

lava,

older than the lava tube itself.

Co.

(hence the name). Roofing is an evolu-

Lava tubes are conduits on or within a

jgonary process that forms a roof over an

front of the flow. They form only in pahoehoe lava (pronounced pah hoy hoy), a highly fluid type that behaves much like water as long as it stays hot. However, it quickly cools and hardens when exposed to the atmosphere, becoming a strong and durable rock known as basalt (see pahoehoe on page 53).

SURFACE TUBES Surface tubes are the simplest form of lava tube. They are the hardened outer jacket of a lava lobe, or toe, resting on an existing surface. Lobes and toes are rounded, elongate pods of lava that emerge through the crusted exterior of

Simply stated, tubes form initially by hardening of the outer surfaces of masses

active pahoehoe lava flows, and are a Principal means of expansion of such

continues to move. Because basalt is a

Cross section, flat side down. Their size

distances inside lava tubes, with only

Supply of lava and ranges from small

slight loss of heat. (Heat loss of about 3

blisters, to rambling sausage-like tubes

lava flow that carry lava to the advancing

of lava, inside which the fluid lava good insulator, lava can travel great

existing channel.

lows. Surface tubes are semi-circular in

depends primarily on an uninterrupted

degrees F. per mile has been measured in ~~ With many branches. Seldom are they a Hawaiian lava tube.) That is why lava larger than a few feet in diameter, so by

tubes are a principal means by which

definition many are not caves (because

pahoehoe lava is spread thinly over wide

they cannot be entered by a person).

areas. For example, at Lava Beds, about

two-thirds of the land surface of the monument is lava (basalt) carried by lava

tubes, some of which transported lava over 10 miles from where it erupted. Similarly, but on a far larger scale, the Medicine Lake volcano (the monument occupies

a

only

small

patch

yz -

AE Z

its

Schematic diagram of a rudimentary surface tube.

northeast flank) owes its low profile to the efficiency of lava tubes in conveying fluid lava far from the vent.

Because of their role in the spreading . of lava flows, surface tubes are likely to

.

RE

of

.

be buried as the flow advances. There are

They vary widely in size, from tiny surface tubes, too small to enter and

hundreds of surface tubes exposed at the monument, and thousands more lie

only a few feet long, to systems several

pried beneath the surface. The visitor

miles long fed by master tubes 100 feet in diameter carrying volumes of lava mea-

center, for example, rests on an area of buried surface tubes spawned by over-

sured in cubic miles. It is principally the duration and nature of the eruption that

*For the difference between lava cave, lava tube,

accounts for the wide diversity in size:

and lava tube cave see the glossary on page 54.

8

.

;

Me

Labyrinth

flows from

and

a TN reie at eg ZG" eS uN. Wa =

Mushpot

caves. Inside Mushpot Cave, at the theater and beyond, there are prominent

cupolas that are the roots of surface

.¢8

tubes that were later buried by overflows

|

5 By

gm oe © By PE

uw“ en)

ir

Ca td A

Nearly all lava tubes (other than

SW

EE

Cea

LAVA TUBES

Ev

UHEWe JE 7

§

0

he we



Loe Loa

from farther up-slope.

ee

Ne

LE Te JiR on

surface tubes) begin with formation ofa : . . roof over a river of lava flowing in an

£8 & = ~~ UT JRE am a

ed lava channel. Steady erupestablish . . . .

PERE he

ay ape se

BE

EEE

WN by |RY Poh one eC

Tc a Ts

el

sm tion of pahoehoe lava will inevitably a Hg © result in formation of channels, because ~~ef The Dragons Mouth, an unusually large surface

eventually there simply Isn't enough lava

tube alongside the trail up to Fleener Chimneys. . . , OVI, Of develop a roof. Unlike rivers of

to supply all parts of the growing lava field. Outer parts of the spreading lava field stagnate, harden, offer resistance,

and lava flows where resistance is least. ~~ Water, lava rivers are larger nearer the SOUrce. (The route of a channel may be controlled by pre-existing topography.) Lava rivers, like rivers of water, can

If lava flow in a channel is moderate and steady, crusts build from each side of

meander, overflow their banks, build levees, erode their channel downward

the channel to meet in the center, forming a roof, and a lava tube is born.

and, of primary importance to the formation of lava tubes, can “freeze

Roofs are often broken and swept away by surges in the lava river. They may

RIVER OF LAVA

ROOFED SECTION FE = Ry

a

: ae

oe

fale

i

Et

-

oF Be win a

gas. or -

r= =o = TU . EE va TEE

:

=

nn

a...

Eo

Cal

:

wa

fm

Fo

i,



a Ra

mie, CE

\

PiSEE

Es

eo

7

=.

es“kn...

eT TRE

fe Rie

.

0

_-

aa

Ee

EEE aes NGS

eeHE p

.

Ei

=

es Lh ee

eo

# -

3

ios Ge * CoE

3

a mn wi --

.

i

yoe =. ¥

st Fe EEA

et

A partially-roofed lava channel in a Hawaiian lava flow. Note the similarity to the Garden Bridges

GE

AT

ol

dh eed ©pag ie

Lode

wl

CT No Fi, =: a a Ee

en BR

SeenON area at Lava Beds (page 21). U.S.G.S. photo.

ae

a

Sana Ee a TE

ee

4d

nt wi”

THIN CRUSTS SUPPORTED BY RIVER OF LAVA 9

py

|

Hardened lava

Flow unit oz

he

Pre-flow

. Erosion: Flowing lava may deepen, or widen, a channel by eroding

Frequently, linings

pre-flow land strata. The

accumulate on remnants

rate of erosion depends on

fo SA ; REO he Co HERE SPIN

blest toediand surface

the resistance: of the) pre-

1 Channels form in contin-

oe easily Sroded

of a former roof, causin § walls to bulge. ’

flow land. Soil or cinders

uous flows of lava, often

asait

following topographic low

oid

Is very resistant.

pes semen

Linings are

areas, like stream beds.

deposited by

err = R= =r a= intermittent flow. I

7 a Br Fro, Aaa i

-

API rl 2 overflows effectively

-

a rn

; Erosion (see above)

Ee BE RR

deepen a channel (thickening

3 Roofs form when crusts,

the lava flow) by building

growing from the sides of

the walls higher. Overfiows occur when flow increases, or obstructions downstream cause lava to back-up.

the channel, meet along the middle. The roofing process depends on steady flow (see photo on previous page).

= roof

Bes

EEN

a Shi

Ei

Bo TIT SRL

4 overflows and erosion deepen the lava tube. Roofs may fail when supporting tava drains away, or they may be ruptured by hydro-

LIKELY STAGES IN THE EVOLUTION OF A LAVA TUBE.

static pressure of lava trapped

Any or all of these stages, plus surface tubes (explained on the previous

eo is on

page) may exist simultaneously in a mature lava tube system. Note that uniess collapse occurs, structural features like initial roofs, flow units

ened b linin s or overflows y 9 ’

ttle) roof

and pre-flow land materials are hidden from view,

reform, or the pieces may drift along toa becomes an extension of the parent tube, bend in the channel where they jam while the other clogs for lack of heat or together, forming another roof. If a roof occasionally rejoins downstream. The lasts long enough, it is further thickened “tree’s trunk” is known as the master and strengthened as lava congeals on its ~~ fube, and the entire network is known as underside, or overflows add to its top a lava tube system. In this way, the side. Once a roof is formed, the resultant Modoc Crater Lava Tube System tube becomes, in effect, an extension of (including Bearpaw, Merrill, Symbol the vent, through which lava can pass Bridge, Big Painted, Skull and Fern with very little loss of heat. What caves) extended itself as a single master happens next depends on the duration tube with few significant branches, from and especially the regularity of lava flow. Modoc Crater to the old shoreline of Tule Irregular flow causes blockages and Lake, a distance of over ten miles. overflows, and creates short-lived lava Branching that occurs elsewhere in a

tubes. Long lava tubes require eruptions of steady rate and long duration.

gyctem is usually caused by blockage in a tube, followed by overflow. These are

LAVA TUBE SYSTEMS Ar the outer edge of an expanding,

tube-fed lava flow, branching of tubes or

high-level branches and subject to abandonment whenever lava in the parent tube recedes, so they seldom reach great length. This type of branching is typified

channels is inevitable, and a tree-like

by the major branches in the Cave Loop

pattern of branched lava tubes develops. Branching occurs repeatedly far downstream, near the advancing flow front, but rarely are branches equal in all respects. Usually, the dominant branch

area of the Headquarters System. This system’s master tube is comparable in size, and perhaps as long as the Modoc Crater System. (An unknown extent is buried under younger lavas about a mile

10

:

:

Lava may flow in all levels

Slump

Lining

of a multilevel lava tube

blocks

remnants

at the same time, or in a single level only. Ordinarily

\ er

FT === it will not flow far in a =

:I single level, because lower A level roofs tend to be dis-

~

SN

A lower level roof is created by default when

?

.

e789) 7

OO

}

Flow

[-

7,

ESRI

\

~]

_4{

~

~#

7

-

i ie

wo

Ai EE

bE

‘4. TEE

EE te.

oa ig

a Le

a

fr

:

J

Lhe

i a

ao We

Be often even the rock surge k rounding a cave reaches ee

Ry dF LL.

2

temperature.

kb When water enters the sub-

=

Nell BRE ee oe

Php Te Tem BREE a

BEY

SF

EW

[rcczing environment, it is

Sl |)ly frozen, V]

At Lava Beds- where rain quickly passes through the

ee

PANNE

eee

Sle

oo. M0 aia YT eT Th VI

a

cubfreezing

I

i se”.

ally

ey

terrain to the water table several hundred feet below, and there is seldom any

gem. 0 eg el =" ? snow pack-cave ice typicalaN ee. CNS 0 gMEER. ly forms in the winter. In

TUCERN +N WeS mee Th STROS wl eS Lae REE ae

Cl BR

%

with slower percolaareas tion and significant SNOW

A mass of perennial ice in Crystal Cave in 1935. Note the stratification resulting from annual accumulations, and the rocks

packs, for example in cen:

embedded as the ice was accumulating. This ice was gone by 1959.

tral Oregon, most cave 1ce

Photo by L. Howard Crawford.

|

forms in the early spring,

being at its best in late April CAVES WITH ICE* There are two kinds of ice in Lava Beds

caves:

seasonal

and

to early May. Most cave ice is seasonal-it melts in the summer

perennial.

because the cave warms; but some caves

Seasonal cave ice may be found in many

retain ice year around. There are many

of the caves every winter, but it melts

factors that contribute to preservation of

during the summer. Perennial cave ice

cave ice, the principal ones being

endures from one year to the next,

climate, and absence of summertime

receding or accumulating a little each year, over a period of years. New ice tends to be crystal clear (unless it is

ventilation. The level of perennial cave ice fluctuates on a broad scale, over decades and

formed of muddy runoff water), and perennial ice tends to become cloudy with age. Both kinds form in the same way.

centuries, principally due to changes. Because geothermal always there to overcome other cies, in temperate climates no

During the winter, cold, heavy air sinks into the collapse trenches, thence to

©! oe considered Ee Coorty nN [°COrds at Lava beds (mostly anecdota

lower

indicate,

levels

of the

caves,

where

it

that

with

few

climatic heat is deficiencave ice

exceptions,

displaces air warmed by the surrounding ~~ PT ennial oy has 1 been4 slow rock, forcing the warmer, lighter air al ng oll cast several decades, . out.** This exchange continues as long b roti y oh ben, IVRr as $

as outside air is colder than cave air, and ~~ OF ©0S¢TVa tons have been recor cd. *Caves containing ice are commonly, but erroneously, called “ice caves.” in

ice, just

True ice caves are caves

as limestone caves are caves in

limestone. The term glaciere, a French word for subterranean ice, has long been proposed for caves

widespread use.

or Tut

as mot acieved

**This phenomenon causes caves to “smoke.” When the warmer, lighter, and wetter air is forced out of the cave and encounters cold dry air outside, some of the water in it condenses, and a rising plume of fog results. Valentine Cave was found by investigating a rising column of fog on a cold

morning.

12

The perennial ice that one sees in Lava Beds caves is, literally, only the tip of the iceberg. For example, the visible ice in K

.

Merrill and Skull caves is only part of a much larger unseen dome of ice occupy-

ing the spaces between blocks of break-

-

down. It is on such ice domes that

H ; occasional pools of water In caves are

perched. The abrupt disappearance of a large pool of water in Indian Well Cave, ; n 1926, was probably due to melting of

underlying ice.

.

TO ENSURE YOUR SAFETY LIGHTS: Try to provide at least one capabilities of its least-able member. independent light source for each person ~~ Running, jumping and climbing ropes in your group. Sharing a light is unsafe. ~~ hand-over-hand are risky. Avoid using It severely limits safe movement in the equipment found in a cave-it is likely to cave, and greatly increases the chance of be deteriorated. injury-not to mention the possibility DO NOT EXPLORE CAVES ALONE:

}

that other s may be depending on you for

It is risky. If you were injured or stranded

1ght!

without light, it would be far longer

Bxperienced

cavers recommen

light sources. Examples are: electric lantern, flashlight, electric miner’s-type

|

light, chemical light (Cyalume, etc.). The

before you are found than if companions could go for help. A minimum party of

three people is recommended.

best combination is an electric miner’s

DRESS appropriately. Cave tempera-

light securely mounted on a hardhat (leaves the hands free), a powerful flashlight to highlight cave features, and

ec vary, ranging from subfreezing in 5 containing ice, to near-outdoor temperatures where air circulation is

propane lanterns, carbide lights, flares or torches are prohibited in monument

warmly in several layers to permit shedding clothing to accommodate vari-

caves.

ous levels of exercise. Lava tubes are

a chemical light for backup. Gasoline OF

500d. Most are in the low-50s. Dress

Large flashlights may be borrowed at

hard on shoes. Sneakers are barely better

the visitor center. However, they must be returned at the designated time each day.

than nothing. Boots with lug soles are recommended.

This requirement is more than just a COMFORT ITEMS: Items that can means of controlling the flashlights. It ~~ contribute greatly to the enjoyment of also alerts the park rangers that some- ~~ €aving, but aren’t regarded as necessary thing unforseen may have prevented return of the light, and after an appropriate period of time they will begin a search. HEAD PROTECTION is of the utmost importance. It is virtually inevitable that you will bump your head on projecting parts of the cave and, if unprotected, a

include: gloves, knee pads, first aid kit, and a trash bag to carry litter or clothes dirtied in the cave. If your stay in the cave is apt to be lengthy, emergency foods and water make sense. Don’t drink any water found in a cave-it is likely to be contaminated. Note: Glass containers are not permitted in monument caves. Finally, a small backpack is very

scalp cut or worse 1s often the result,

handy for carrying everything because, as

Ao, loose rocks can be dislodged by

with the head-mounted light, it leaves the

others.

ardnat 1s strongly recom-

hands free. If, for some unforeseen

mended. Bren 2 cloth cap though not

reason, your party becomes stranded in a

adequate-iIs better than nothing. cave, stop, make yourself comfortable STOP and wait for a few minutes after and wait for help which will arrive IF you entering a cave-and before turning your ~~ have taken the following precaution:

.

:

light on-to allow your eyes time to adjust to the darkness. If a trail is apparent, use it. Unstable rocks are less

LEAVE WORD with someone, or somewhere, regarding your whereabouts and when you expect to return. This is

likely where others have passed before.

especially important if you are visiting an

AVOID risky situations. Stay back from pits, sharp drops, and unstable areas unless you are equipped for such obstacles. Keep your party together and don’t attempt anything beyond. the

unimproved cave, or have not checked in with the visitor center to let them know of your whereabouts. Otherwise, should the entire party become stranded in a cave, it would be extremely difficult if not

)

13

|

| | |

|

48

-

impossible for rescuers to find you. At minimum, consider leaving a note on or in your car. TO PROTECT THE CAVES Caves are delicate geologic features. Some cave features are rare; they aren’t found in all caves and seldom in abundance. It is important to protect

both harbor the flea. Humans can get the disease directly from an infected flea, from contact with infected wild animals, or secondhand from pets infected by fleas or wild animals. Pets are best left in your vehicle, if practical, to protect them from infection. (Be sure to leave the windows partially open to protect pets from hyperthermia.)

them in their natural setting for the benefit of others.

Bats are the

most maligned

of all

DO NOT deface a cave with writing, marking or painting. It is virtually

“dangerous” cave creatures, having been the victims of centuries of bad press.

impossible to get lost in the caves, so don’t mark the walls with arrows and the

like. Try to minimize foot and hand

Lhey are certainly not blind and they do NOT fly into your hair. They are the only

mammal to have attained true flight and

prints. If a trail through the cave is apparent, use it. Try to leave every

their highly developed echolocation sense enables them to avoid all obstacles, even

natural thing as it was. Don’t disturb

10 total darkness. Like some other

cave features in any way; even touching

them imparts harmful body oils. Even if features are found broken, leave them be, just their presence outside the cave

might encourage others to collect. Do all

animals found in caves-mice,

squirrels,

raccoons, badgers, wood rats, porcupin©5» ©tc.-bats are wild animals, may Carty diseases, are apt to bite or scratch if

captured, and should not be handled. If

your collecting with a camera.

left alone, they are no threat to humans.

SMOKING is harmful to cave animals

wild animals, they do not deserve to be

and is prohibited in all National Park caves. CAMPFIRES in caves are literally life

|

(Bats are a threat to insects.) Like other

tormented.

Rattlesnakes are found throughout the

threatening-to cave life as well as the visitor’s life. Campfires are allowed at Lava Beds only in the campground, and then only at designated sites. Consumption of alcoholic beverages is prohibited in the caves. CARRY OUT everything that’s carried

monument and occasionally at cave entrances where they move in and out to compensate for temperature variations or to prey upon other animals entering or leaving the cave (including bats). Occasionally they are trapped in pits or entrances with overhanging edges. They

in and, if possible remove trash left by

need be no threat if not surprised,

other less considerate visitors. Even small ~~ cornered, or threatened and will go their

things like gum wrappers quickly accu-

Own way if allowed. Rattlesnakes are a

mulate in the confines of a cave and are

Protected species at Lava Beds, as are all

difficult to remove. It is virtually

animals.

impossible to remove all of the pieces of a broken bottle and consequently, glass

bottles are prohibited in caves.

IT’S THE LAW

The Federal Government and the State

(squirrels, wood rats, mice, etc.) and they are known to harbor fleas that carry a bacterium that causes bubonic plague.

of California both have laws protecting caves, and the Park Service has similar regulations. Any person who knowingly destroys, disturbs, defaces, mars, alters or harms a cave or any natural thing in it, or who sells or exchanges any naturally

There are wood rats and their nests in all

occurring article taken from a cave, is

the caves. These are best avoided because

subject to criminal prosecution.

ANIMALS

There are many rodents at Lava Beds

14

-

.

ANTIQUITIES

FLEENER CHIMNEYS

Many monument caves and adjacent Fleener Chimneys are spatter cones, or areas are archeological sites and are | Steep-sided cones of spatter built up on a

protected from disturbance by the | fissure vent. They are associated with Federal Antiquities Act of 1906, Cali- | Gillems Bluff, a major fault in the earth’s crust, paralleling the main road along fornia State Law, and Park Service|

’ .

regulations. Excavation, collection, de- | the northwest corner of the monument. struction, or disturbance of artifacts is | Magma rising through the fault erupted forbidden. The remains of prehistoric | beneath Fleener Chimneys, and the and historic cultures belong to all of us. |@ccompanying release of gasses within it Permits to excavate are issued only to | caused it to bubble explosively, like a

recognized scientific or educational | carbonated beverage effervesces when institutions. If artifacts arefound, leave | Uncapped, and to burp up globs of them where they are and report the find

molten lava that built the steep-sided

10 monument personnel, as penalties | SPatter cones. Pahochoe lava flowing under the above laws are severe. When

from the base of the spatter cones formed

artifacts are stolen and archeological | SOM€ excellent surface tubes. One, the

sites destroyed, we lose important clues | Dragon’s Mouth, is alongside the trail up about the past, forever.

to the spatter cones. Other, smaller

examples are just north of the north

NO REST ROOMS: There are no

comfort stations inside the caves, sO

spatter cone. Meanwhile, lava flowing from deeper

peneath the spatter cones, built the

personal sanitation requirements should be met outside. At the end of Catacombs Cave, for example, you would beover 1/2 mile of walking plus 3/4 mile of driving

Devils Homestead lava flow that extends 3 5 miles north. At the vent, the flowing Jaya was shelly pahoehoe, a type with enough gas to form blisters, but usually

from the nearest rest room, so plan accordingly. There are rest rooms at Captain Jacks Stronghold, Skull Cave, Fleener Chimneys, Merrill Cave, the visitor center, and the campground. See the map on page 5 for those locations.

pot major lava tubes. It flowed in a wide channel, which is easily seen from the pase of the spatter cones. As it moved north, continually losing dissolved gasges, it changed gradually to the aa lava at the Devils Homestead parking area.

PETS: All pets must be on a leash or

Transition of pahoehoe to aa is common, but never the reverse (see page 53).

inside your vehicle, and are not allowed

.

mide coves, on ris, orn ube £10 CHIR as ce of buildings under any circumstances. JUST ASK In the summer, park rangers lead daily

The first wagon road into lava beds ran along the top of Gillems Bluff, and passed nearby to the west. It passed the

cave tours. Check the bulletin board or ~~ Fieener homestead about 13 miles south ask at the visitor center for schedules and ~~ Of Merrill, Oregon, and it was after Sam general information. If you plan on

Fleener that J. D. Howard named them.

visiting caves other than those described

The pits used to be over 100 feet deep

in this booklet, it is a good idea to check

Puts incredible as it may seem, apparent-



with a park ranger because occasionally there are temporary restrictions or dangerous conditions, and if you are

ly the deepest has been about half-filled with rocks dropped in by visitors, curious about its depth. Volunteers are laboring

.

injured or lost, rescuers will know where to look for you.

to restore the original depth, $0 p lease limit your curiosity to shining a light into the chimney and don’t drop rocks into it.

15

a

| |

-

3

j

0 100

i / b

500 FEET

CENTER

id a

150] METERS

RO

Ll a

7

LAVA BROOK

S&P\ 0)

HALL CAVE

0

A

\

rainy, »

~~

\

al -

7

> A

Pm

TENTRANGE |

Py =

LABYRINTH BRANCH

C0 Eave "ME

HEADQUARTERS

= _

/

5 = &

H

NR ERED

Ags 7

>

To

roc:100

CHOCOLATE |

LAVA TUBE SYSTEM

THE LABYRINTH BRANCH

BLUE gRoTTo pa RN

Se (ix

x

/

"

Te %e

Tl Tuge Lo

.

SOUTH LABYRINTH CAVE x7").

)

.

TY a-

7

rh

Ne

ey -

=

1, “8,

Ls %s,

a

i

y

YU, GS

FERN

we

N

£N

NE

/

-

.

RZ NY

CHAMBER CAVE

:

)

AN).

EEA

N

MITERTITE

ENTRANCE

;

Ty,

BALCONY

ay d

MusHpoT

ee

-

gy ;C

sess

he

greatly, however, and it is now seen that

The Labyrinth Branch, largest branch of the Headquarters Lava Tube System, includes 8 major caves: Balcony Chamber, Blue Grotto, Golden Dome, Hopkins Chocolate, Labyrinth, Mitertite Hall, Mushpot, and South Labyrinth. In addition, there are several minor caves with a multitude of entrances at Garden Bridges. Over 2 miles of trails, and many

the Labyrinth Branch is a complex fava ©! separate segments (or pieces) 0 poe tubes, separated by - apse ons b Ho le co jin or lava ed and Howar » who explored, pane > ho Partially Tapped some of t € angividual ¢avesin 1920, called I simply Labyrint because this names them. LABYRINTH CAVE

stairways and ladders provide easy access throughout. g .

Labyrinth Cave is the longest segment of the Labyrinth Branch. It has 6

Until recently, some uncertainty has

oi ancec Three of them are entrances

existed about the nature of the Labyrinth -

via

collapse

.

trenches;

two in

large

b)

Branch. The misunderstanding was per-

collapses north of the Cave Loop road

as a single cave with as much as 3.4 miles of passage, by some accounts. Understanding of lava tubes has improved FN a kN yr Pp =

4 ope just south of the Thunderbolt ppirance. The other three-the Lava prook Entrance, Thunderbolt Entrance, and Labyrinth Entrance-are skylights in which a stairway or ladder has been

petuated by past accounts describing It

gd #4 dhe,

LAR pi

@

O

8

Th

)

L

r

N\

4@

Cig i 0 wr 0

.

Lo

{

+

TN

Eo wy Bll,

La Eo oy

4

ZY

a

hear the Lower Sentinel parking area,

hse

LAVA BROOK

\.

®

®

Zi

Bl

o

sietping

©

o, (SB

=

“-=g

>D Y

[3]

@ Gk

=

Tih,

{4b I3s Q (eJstairway RR ee

pen

[2]

=r Z|

==

my TUBE-{N-TUBE

=

(

ASTHALT noaos EEERER

NGRTH

CHAMBER

f

\

et

ENTRANCE x

per

©

Yn, . 3

HISTORIC ENTRANCE

@ @ 2)

I)

TO LABYRINTH CAT a

3 Ba,

= IN RIANE Sr JUPITERS

TRANCE Hy a (STAIRWAY) Higgs, )

NES| mynDeRaOLT

ve (STAIRWAY) e195

16

SEE

IN\

|

-

2 §

i,

To

pr

MERE

SEE Caml ed

el RE : a SR RR. on lg x 5 ry Be Se ma

“i Gl ! dea

: at

Sire

Ta

installed. Altogether, Labyrinth

aiid

Ne.

rest requires some stooping or occasionally crawling on hands

YY X

§

AEos dil Ee = La abe Ch Go,

_ &

small skylight provides entry into

-

a junction chamber. From this chamber, passages lead away in

¢ 1 &

three different directions. Consult

8

7 =

passages. The easiest is straight

CN

wh

ahead, as you face the ladder, but

jk.

ee

| WW

$58

bh.

=o = Ss §

oo i wold She arySg ME

Bgl

Star. SVEN

ama

yo

om

aes

ee

. =

TD LL

1

entails crawling over or under | rubble that . nearly blocks the

ras HR

oo EEE re LE

-

Jupiters Thunderbolt, a mass of

pe : Sith o

ams ra - LL eR2

{

distance from the visitor center, a near-vertical ladder through a

oa

:

a

Cat

and knees. Labyrinth Entrance: A short

Nab ix -

Ue RR

negotiated walking erect, but the

the map to make a choice of

Ee

EC

Cave has about 3,900 feet of Kg 4)

passage. About half is easily

TE

Rn

aL Ba

a

de ame

Jupiters Th underpboit, . bolt upiters

welded

a mass of welde

ru

rubb!

e

bridging a passage in Labyrinth Cave.

passage leading to the Thunder-

bolt Entrance. The passage be-

hind leads to a series of low crawls over very jagged lava, eventually returning to the main tube. The stoopway tothe

left connects with the Lava Brook

name from an eye-level bridge named «jypiter’s Thunderbolt” by J. D. Howrd jn 1920. The easiest route to this

feature is through the Thunderbolt

entrance, but there is a short belly crawl

Entrance, back under the stairway, past

(hands and knees for little people) just

(pe passage on the right leading back to

before entering the Lava Brook passage.

the surface, and left at the next fork. One

may crawl over or under the Thunderbolt. Thunderbolt Entrance: The Thunderbolt entrance to Labyrinth Cave gets its ~~ Either way is only about 2 feet high, and

0 FEET

0 METERS 20

100

20

200

/

60

/,

“© .

° fis on

7

FAT PERSON'S 6 INCHES WIDE

-

AREER JNNAMED

Ca NEAVE

©

: -@



a

WHR ESTILO CAVE SLE AVERY GOOD TRAIL THROUGHOUT

pes

mF

EN STI

+ JN EF

EE

TEX

a

i$

0| | | iin 83

iS

- fr Set TE EE Sa

eRhe ngs CE

Lk, a

Men,

LEEEs ug

EL

Let a Wl

dy ayy

ed YO De he ey

Ty

Lo kga

mleales iy 3

le

wo SGN Tm NSE PoE ie NAN | WR LL Te dhdh ee REE Ff

!Tae

Me

By,

ef Te fhele CT Ris Wa

Co EGC

rh RE a TEE a Le ws 4 Sea we ns Aden. as BEE = ea... 2 se, pe

GS

SAT

of No ll, TLE hey aT eR RE ee TE GSfe

Pe HE Lh ae Pe oe Tl ag Fe 0 Be gr

Le

he

A

Were LE

eet ed

Wh a 1a

Sg :

BY ag

£0 «

al

TORY. YE

rw

i

EE

RR

The Sleeping Beauty, in Labyrinth Cave, just down-tube from the Lava Brook Entrance.

Es

Boo

the passage eventually leads to the Cave, before stairways were installed. Labyrinth Entrance. The Thunderbolt is ~~ Up-tube from the Thunderbolt Entrana bridge across the passage, similar in ce, ahead as one descends the stairway, nature to the welded rubble at the Lava the passage is heavily modified by Brook. The final lava flow flowed first collapse and requires some crawling, over and under it, then finally only stooping, and one squeeze. Every cave under, leaving a characteristic caulineeds a Fat Person’s Misery, and there is flower aa floor. one about 150 feet up-tube from the

Just south of the Thunderbolt En-

Thunderbolt Entrance.

trance is a collapse sink and another entrance. Seldom used today, this was Howard’s favored entrance to Labyrinth

Lava Brook Entrance: The Lava Brook eptrance is a skylight, and just barely accommodates the double stairway de-

pm Fo ball = oe i

Scending into the cave. On the left, about 35 feet down-tube from the stairway, a . . small hole in the wall leads in and down

~ AE TER a 1 cae E.R Wd a nyULoo

red off

ar

al eg

to a low belly crawl that shortly opens to

SAW

a ah ="%~

the stoopway leading to the Labyrinth

for gd HT ad

Ea re... : 5 doy

wy

ae

# ys

a

Ly wort &or "5c. a wpe Po Tan

FE -.

io

lo

gh

SE

8

Entrance chamber. On down the main passage, on the left, is a group of rafted

: breakdown blocks mantled by a thin blanket of smooth lava, that resembles a

so striking that it moved J. D. Howard to name it “The Sleeping Beauty.” The

next passage to the right leads to the

Re AEE

44 SR Lava Brook Chamber where a narrow, = Nem, well-defined lava channel emerges from

Ee EE

=

beneath a mass of welded rubble that

~~ ®m.nearly blocks the passage. This was the wdRge 4 inspiration for “Lava Brook.”

ek wl 0 @ The Lava Brook in Labyrinth Cave. The final lava pow WEEE RT 1 flow passed beneath a mass of rubble welded

18

ke

Eu

LABYRINTH CAVE

:

.

“ae

South Labyrinth Cave con-

w

sists of several parallel tubes with cross-over connections, is

3 z

complex both horizontally and

:

vertically, and is the most like a

8

labyrinth of any cave in the

- J

Ti,



C

KY NEA \

®

EC)

trances and several skylights; 4

3s

entrances are in the Garden Bridges area and reached most



A

Bg UY

x Wwe

® J,

.

and over-crossing tubes, and

no better place to wander around underground can be found in the monument. The

zy

= -

8 =

®

ge

for first-time visitors. Balcony

\é 0

=z

Lg 0

.

SET ee i,

CSE g

2

ing floor plates neatly confined

i im

>

between levees of cauliflower

g =

EQ

aa. It developed on the center

a

of the final lava flow and serves as part of the trail through the

o |

.

cave. This phenomenon is not

®

Su

4 Tet

TR

J

remnant of a multilevel tube.

Fg AN

os,

=

G

#

5 oo

Ls, : ou,

Qo

_

kJ

=

LN,

= [i

iE

Cy

3

2 )

Co

ov) lL)

Sb NCE

y

)

:

Oe

:

wo,

\

AS “\

:

AB

=

+

283

3

Ys

£

el

°

£2 5) 88 £7

°° NL

RE

z

3 .&

©

S

3

I

Seg ey {

Garden Bridges entrances, is a

lapsed.

xg 2s

5 >

[)JAE

occurring walkway of overlapp-

tion of two tubes, then col-





®

=

CO) g3

he

© ®

photo on next page) is named after a remarkable, naturally-

uncommon in Lava Beds caves, but this is the best example.

a X

eS ®

°

The Flagstone Passage (see

3

Je

g/

©

“Peek Hole” (named by J. D. Howard).

lus that formed atop the junc-

®

1 [=]

@)

®

allel and is actually connected underground at the impassable

.

£

F

Chamber Cave lies closely par-

The upper level, now mostly collapsed, was a hollow tumu-

z=

AED ci ® £ ®/zs ° Ny: Xo) 3°

fe

map is certain to be a big help

3

oO

[77]

&9

LE

)

O

@

This area is a maze of parallel

Zz E

$/

TUBE DRAINED THROUGH T~3FOOT-HIGH LEVEED CHANNEL g| [{xmoeN INTO 6INCH-HIGH PASSAGE

yr 4 WAVES OF »

7

Vad

\

poi \ AN

A

CAVE

:

TRUE ®

TRAIL TO LOWER

)

7 @

Nall

Cd1 @____7m ®

Vz NL

\

-

7 7

0

;

-_-

(2)

i

:

1x 4-FOOT WINDOW BETWEEN PILLARS

i

SENTINEL ENTRANCE -

20

MITERTITE HALL

0

10

-

he 50

100

20

FEET

30 METERS

Lr

ER et ak ae

CELT aa by re AE fa oP"

a

BALCONY CHAMBER

CAVE

iHr mT

Le

ed

Re.

pie irCer

NC

ed

oa

ed iARRT

he a,Sut ad Ho Lal a ee a

.

ge Ea

LS

Balcony Chamber Cave is a

wide section of the Labyrinth

& ¢& iF 68 te ShrdlE WO

Labyrinth Cave. It has two

po Bhopal

entrances off sinks near the

FER. LT

and a tiny impassable connec-

, j*% ae

tion to the Elephant Hide Room

~~

Aa

EEEEHE Jf BC

Branch that parallels South

emg

a

E

crag

AT

=:

La”

+ 0 FL

large collapse trench just off the

ot

road east of Lower Sentinel

esa -

r fr

ny|

| Fe 4

Li

4 in South Labyrinth. The other, ¢ ii end of the cave opens into a

:

ae

30 eo

fh ee :

To fee]

SEE

EY

cy) -

.

Loaeea.

parking area. J. D. Howard named this cave after a prominent bench about 10 feet high

_ & ... =~ '° = eo a SE ps a Cel = REA Lo : a .. ol

that reminded him of a balcony.



It was left by a high-level branch

©

tube.

ea

why {

a

**

that later merged with the main ’

cE

Ne

Classic shelves in the up-tube end of Balcony Chamber Cave.

;

a

we

0

--IMPASSABLE

50

0

10

100 FEET

20 ’

) >

~~

NE)

D 5] a,

LOWER SENTINEL

-

ES

|

aN

y i

4 POPCORN NO

BALCONY CHAMBER

CAVE = g~ i 5 NF .

:

)

CHAMBER

[8]STAIRWAY

spss

FJ

30. METERS

rd

|

F

Q

N

«

FE

1

4

&F \

S| Aree EC Teme)

19

:

JA

AN EE 2

IE oN

Lh

gi

%2% $9” MASSIVE

BREAKDOWN

\@__~

CHOKES ENTRANCE

GARDEN BRIDGES About 200 feet after leaving

-

Branch split several times, creating a tangle of branches,

ge Ta He er wa he Sean, Tee se

parallel tubes, and collapses

bo ari

known as Garden Bridges. In

ag

an area of roughly 2 acres there are entrances to 10 caves. . including Golden Dome, Hopkins Chocolate, Blue Grotto, number of bridges. The Blue

*

Grotto

opens

Into

the

long

collapse trench on the east edge

of the area. A quarter-mile

EER

© JSSREEEE = =F - silfoney va ir A army i -TOR Ci bo % 4 ¥ CE el > BR HR i a or . 8

il

ig oll :be gts 0 Sond Heh LN, de Rat” = Fe

LP

os she TY pile

i

UR oe 8 gn mi oT te sant a

Hie:COME

Cobof vobSpall Se Era Ts a

po

gm

I

be ele ll

* Tie

ike ot 2oe me OF a

Chocolate Bridge, on the north edge rf

of the Garden Bridges area.

BUEN Lo Raga vii

ge PT

ad = aie Wall

doe

IRL ne. iE said Be

on da Lem

0allTE EE rales te Ene en BREE ds SU Tae

a

HEE

a

el a

TE

RL ee

EEE

i.

o

nase SEE LH FL cE {00 Lae

re So Ee Lae oa el prog . Bey Be

tee pn

L

ce od ah

id

of

iety

a wide variety o

plant and animal life, and

LE Bridges caves are short and

es

8

=~ |© -.

retain well preserved lava

tube features. The Garden

7Ly "ge. AD.: Howard, and several of . ry

Fe.

Es

SEE

his photographs show his

f-®28

a

eae

Pet

ww a

d harb aroor

many small birds nest in the a, . °°. entrances. ee : wo :Epof p Most of the Garden

ER

ifede.

an

oP

Qf

-

.

Xa

"SET

2

TNT

®

+

i

Le --

Ae

- ad

iy

i

LoD,

IR

y

3

:

es”

=

The Bue gnomio BLUE GROTTO CAVE} -

100 FEET 30 METERS

oe

== TRUE

NORTH

TRAIL TO SOUTH ENTRANCE BLUE

»

@2 ;

;

;

he h

J

[4]

= A

Wy

J

J

{!

X

J

A §

/

-

#7 ’

Q

©

TUBE-IN-TUBE

i

I heli

A TUBE-IN-TUBE

i

CAVE - A

CAVE

/ { BLUE GROTTO

i

|SS [

aes

GARREING AREA

|

)

oe

Se

GROTTO CAVE

PE

7

J 0

_

N

@

GOLDEN DOME CAVE

HOCOLATE

re,

4)

50 -_ 0 N-_~_ 0 10 20

NS ‘

ar TN pm

CH eRIDGE

x . %

Lb

LABYRINTHIAN BRIDGE \

SOUTH ENTRANCE TO

YE

ONY

:

i 5

7pd

TN eZ

/

)

-

PARKING AREA

CAVE LOOP ROAD

-

GARDEN BRIDGES

22

.

2

:

oy

oe

: Ww

=

A oR

>noe

©

6

Cx] FRY :

fe Sn CC

3

.

A $n

pi

hic noc,

a

AN

h

#

EERE

a ) EE NC TENG EATING YT

PRPSLBEE TL Ba

>

by

-

;

|

THE BLUE GROTTO

p

and BLUE GROTTO CAVE

named this small chamber The Blue Grotto*, it is thought, because the interior has a bluish color under certain lighting, but he regarded the pit as

4

an entrance to Labyrinth Cave. The cave known

5) 2 5 Zz a) pe 4

ZH

z

oT

.

5

\

5c

FE E53 BE

po?

ic)

A

ax i

err ab Th RE Eel

EN CT >

A small grotto on the eastern edge of the Garden Bridges area overlaps a pit to a lower level

= 7)

a in

|

©

§ LE RY ETUl ge ae oe

2

om

Co

5

3

.

-

Cia

fe

wo

© £3

:

RT

5 ©

ES

= 2 %

a

o

Tl

Ly 3

weld

ANTN TYE

Sete BO Rie

oo

Oc S13

ley

La Toile © 0%EoNh

gw i

HE cal

pe A Ee

:.=

EE

o

(© A

ig | AEF

Mk A ¢s

iTp i NERA

§

ER SE r=

ARE

“Wegner

Gi

lL.

hE

°F

8

he

Sed Bow.

aN

Ay C20WE I =i

TZ

-

ve

TI

WN

Pia

\

ef Ve sh RY $d

ia

ERNE. TRS LOR BE.

p

fo

i aH £g3

of

a bench.

The

Natural

.

Bridge

|

|

oD

Q

* The phrase “The Blue Grotto” appears only once, on his

|

og

map of Labyrinth, and no further explanation is known to

|

exist. In the chamber there is a blue, painted inscription “The Blue Grotto,” but it is not certain that it is Howard's work.

Z270

23

|

-

LRT SE FT te aee

i

GE A ne 2

CE

oR OR Sh E18 (RN : Peomews 00 Lan

ARE Bi Far $0 i ee Te i Yea SCL Eh Ce nT Ge CR nA an ae ff gies GisLos hele i por reg

ee gh EEE

Wea Rodin Be SCE SV

ee LR ernubPh

aad ER a a E i

led CL se

ar Wo

Soe el

8

:

ERE IRS |

re MS ene | NST ET, ii i mR

0

DS

ad

BNE

=. oh FE.=e

Aang

YT

bie ov

8

Tag be mu by Noolale

Ne

LS HIN Lo Ye Ey Ly

ee

et

YT

Bp Ee Ta i am Be

fd

in soa Lm Sera gles whl rath Pa £ aot a er oo le GE i A¥ a {a Ne a aE Bo Ee EL a eG Ek Ne Gh SL dae oc $e .

rs a

nai

:Be a, aCeRr OE AO os

SA fle :SN FC ie CREE ER Sl

aaa LE TE Ea Ra bei «| Lyrp Se 33 iL Ea SRE

Yt EN el aN

a ills Lr grins

a wl a LAY a 4 TE Ca LTE RnR ed) Ly Sak A : Yipei A on bE ge 7 ee iy ALN EC eeRSPT EGE ek NET,YER J ec NBT RR a ig Wear li Rg ER Sie 0oan

-

0

ET Sd Lt fe od eadSE

hie

Ay PbS

Ta

MR Te

en BR

By a abl

RR

woh NooBncit

An aa lava tongue just down-tube from the south entrance to Blue Grotto Cave. Full-blown aa like this is unusual in lava tubes.

Chamber at the north end was named by J. D. Howard after a small floor channel with an intermittent roof.

surface where the passage joins another passage. Turn left into the low passage which eventually leads back to Garden

The two north entrances open into a

Bridges. NOTE: This route includes a

large collapse trench adjacent tothe most ~~ 2.3-foot-high ceiling.

complex area of South Labyrinth Cave. An interesting route back to the Blue Grotto or Garden Bridges parking area is through a part of South Labyrinth which parallels Blue Grotto Cave. Take the left

GOLDEN DOME CAVE Golden Dome is characterized by cauliflower aa floors, cupolas, cutbanks,

trail fork in the collapse trench. (Also see

aprons, well-preserved lava flowstone,

map on page 19.) About 100 feet down-tube take the stairway up to the Elephant Hide Chamber, keep right to complete a spiral into an upper level. Ina low passage you will pass a pit with protective railing, where the passage you were formerly in may be seen below. Continue on to the next opening to the

ribs, and little collapse. The floor of the upper tube, south of the entrance, is virtually free of breakdown, but the going is rough past the Round Room because the cauliflower aa is coarse and the ceiling is low. The cave had two natural entrances: one off the Garden Bridges area, and a small skylight about

@ EXCELLENT COMPARISON

OF RAFTED AND SECONDARY

Eh

Cy,

MJ 5 eae Broce EY

2

RAFTED BLOCK

24

~

ag

2D "a

,

@ Fo

ENg® ENON

2 Sg, Gk

“hi,

Hd Po CL

NT

Pa ET zon VARS SR

BIL 0

rd

OUTSTANDING ™iiz|

LARGE ROOF BLOCK UPSIDE DOWN

GOLDENDOME

ry 4

,

he)

BREAKDOWN IS NEATLY PILED QUT OF WAY

“de SRS oS

N08

= |

nse sroc Tes

SMOOTH FLO R

/

WITH

RoW nes



Tc hem

®

; Sa

;

:

YN i,

.9

“St

GolEeRE

600 feet down-tube. Neither was very visitors,” so

for

accommodating

It is not known who discovered Golden Dome. It could have been J. D. Howard, for the earliest mention of the cave is in his notes for Feb. 11, 1933, when he visited the “new” cave with the monument superintendent. There is little doubt that the name stems from the

.

%

HE

|

a

=

|

the

skylight was blasted open, as part of the cave improvement projects, around 1934.

-

|

ERE

Taal 0 EL

a EERE whi En DETER SR

ve ESL LSSiN Te FREESE SWE isnt ag ihm twits

J fg

|

(i= 34 aa Ee Te Sig En em EEA . Bw: THEESissies SE Bh 7 Ne = SRE 2a" UW CAR SAR WERSE. Jus AR Se = Ve gn

fn

reflectivity of the ceiling at the cave’s

48TH Sdn RT Bde

end. Being

SEAR i TRALEE

gi a fairly large cave with small NEw mel AEH EAS Thi Sl entrances, its temperature is controlled NSS4S) >"Tia Car aTRS Yc by the surrounding rock. This causes it tog ola * = ¥ 0 *Ln? A YT

be warm and humid, even during the

¥™ }'% PRR TREN UN ERR

winter. Furthermore, because basalt isa

~~

ood insulator, I takes about halfa year

he RE

EEN ha

es of clon Golden Came ones caceri up-tube from the entrance. All the lumps are

for summer’s heat to penetrate the roof.

firmly attached to underlying lava.

This heat-lag contributes to the cave’s unseasonal winter warmth. The warm, humid microclimate en-

|

MUSHPOT CAVE

Mushpot Cave is part of the Labyrinth courages growth of a mold commonly Branch and just missed being part of known as lava tube slime on the ceilings and walls. The mold is hydrophobic; that ~~ Labyrinth Cave when two connecting passages were plugged by rafted breakis, water will not wet it. Consequently, down. The “mushpot,” to the left of the moisture perches on it as individual beads of water that very efficiently reflect ~~ Stairway just inside the entrance, is a light. The color of the reflected light is ~~ peculiar feature. It was formed when a usually warm, which may be a characteristic of the underlying mold, but to some

extent is a faithful reflection of the color of light shone on it. Valentine Cave is

small mass of fluid lava was feebly ejected from an underlying channel that had developed a roof (a lower level roof). Its origin is like that of a hornito-a

also a warm, damp cave, and a similar ~~ spatter cone on top of a lava tube-but phenomenon may be seen there, in the

hornitos are usually much larger. No-

room where the passage branches.

thing exactly like it elsewhere has been

(2] GOLDEN DOME CAVE

CUTBANK APRONS ARE TYPICAL THROUGHOUT CAVE

RAFTED CRUSTS

Pal

(5)

y



COARSE CAULIFLOWER AA FLOOR

WITH LARGE ROPES

RN

NEY75 Ii

“IBY 1 !

¢\¥ ROUND ROOM

ane.

FEET

os

0

10

20

30 METERS

Iz

© ~ @ y

0

E

25

a

a

c

” £3 TY . Ww “ L “ he

i -

)

a.

ow

ta

rs

SY

AsRe

~-

TE

LTR aa Wg

lw

a...eaoy oa LT

Wa

a

Lowa a

.

EEE

rr. ».couse 5x = iH cL ade... 2 2 i oe so Coma

=

0 sai We

pr. -

EL a

gk

ae

21

Ji

.

There are several outstanding examples os . of lining ruptures in the lower end. As the last lava flow passed through . Mushpot Cave it mantled the large block . on the left at the bottom of the stairway.

G+

=

[so

Ee

31

ny

dL as Wap haar RRL iatTey Ul

bl

Ee

ay

Chae

it Sr

Bi Eo

EAE

fa

Ee "hia BRR Se Gok

-

ABs

Ens

re

~

5

No F A & y os

g fore 2

>

/

-

&

©

Sie

BEDROOMS

-

-

=~ /

_

/

y |

LAVA FALL

Eg

/

.

/

°

2 *%

0. /i =

4 J 9.5)

®

THE DEVILS

GLOVE CHAMBER

5

about 1,000 feet inside. He had

:

flowstone, lava

5

100

200 FEET

4

pr-l---!

0

FF

50 METERS

Qs 4

Fir

ou

EN NeVE

,

E

thickened the flow nearer the point of overflow. This effectively deepened Paradise Alleys Cave and the

[2]

LE

44 -

og

7 &( |

0

a» 3

cova

( Sg THE ELEPHANTS

7

Ear Sita

|

®

o

Lava stalactites in Catacombs Cave. (Also known as ‘‘lavacicles” and ‘‘ shark tooth stalactites.’) Note

7)

® el

: !

3]

4 ’4

/ ya

: :

GRAVE

g

4

ON

:

7) THE CROSSOVER CLEOPATRAS

5)

ST Qo

:

ls

51-©

do),

-

PARKING AREA

|

y

Lf 2

7% JUNIPER CAVE

the lining ruptures at lower left.

2

WONT ngve?SR La

GY

§

:

7

[3]

: P=, "

0

_

vay

© )

be visited with a minimum amount of stooping.

o

|

\ AE

WS

upper end of Catacombs. Consequently, It is 2,000 feet, as the crow flies, from Catacombs’s only entrance to the far end of the cave. “About half the cave can

iz

TO

Subsequent overflows were smaller and progressively

Catacombs is deeper, and its ceiling higher, at the upper end.

4

TSC?

Catacombs Cave formed in an overflow from the Headquarters® System master tube. This overflow, known as the Catacombs Branch, began near Ovis Cave. Its initial phase was massive and reached all the way to the upper entrance / to Sentinel Cave, where it returned to the master tube.

j

8

(3)

¢#

4

Essentially, the cave is

two parallel tubes almost all the way, with some braided complexity

and

short, plugged . f

many,

branches,

bringing the total traverse

by Wy Re AN bh Ne AY 9 od Egh!iAi SERV” amya Z6]) ) NE Lady Vg \ 5 oe Co bins eg -_

Ye NE

Esta pi i

iE. sw,

8:

oP WE

dB

bd Py.

4 al

1. *V..

J;

sy

rs

CN Wl Se $i, va a A « Ta

.

nw we CRS

Welg

length t0 6,900 feet. It is the longest cave in the monu-

Th 7 "gy = = Sadat Eg . Be ir . TE Pee AA ifm : BA oe "

ment, and was for a while the longest known single

amas 48 Ff rw r. srVo. a a

Most of the breakdown has

Pf

been cleared off the floors

py

and piled neatly to the side,

Por SN TEA

out of the way.

EL

py he

“5

po, A

»

LP TY

A

PR % A a» ol oS

RM hy od

Go Sl EAR

Nl aE

NAA Yee LN

1 : EE...

Ek

LT

LR

ba 4 EL

a.

Ww :

F

¢

A

w=

>

fe y

37

/ _ me] |

!

|

@,

J

HOF

BENC

7

0) 2 CF \ p-

N

ROPY CAULIFLOWER AA

@

@

=

©

®

IN a

Ss hed BREAKDOWN JAM

>a

[3]

Y = 0

e

VALENTINE CAVE

TR,

0 50 100 FEET _

0

.

BREAKDOWN

af) :

OUTSTANDING BENCHES AROUND THE PILLAR AND WALLS

=

STEEP

10

VALENTINE CAVE .

20

.

Valentine Cave is renowned for its well-preserved lava flow features and is

30 METERS

URN

®

ONS T=",\ @

CHANNELS

[7]BENCH

THE POOL ROOM

.

this room, reveal how streams of lava

from the three tubes reunited before continuing on down-tube. Pillars usually

worth visiting for the beautiful, day-lit entrance chamber alone. The entrance is surrounded by upturned blocks with upper surfaces of ropy lava. The ceiling of the entrance chamber is a mosaic of

ook like they are supporting the roof, when in reality they aren’t, but in this 150m it’s probably true. Valentine has a (hin roof: the Pool Room is 74 feet wide 4¢ the first pillar; and it’s possible the two

als. At the far end of the entrance chamber stands a symmetrical pillar, encircled by classic benches, that divides

Valentine is one of a few significant caves that J. D. Howard missed. It was found, in a unique way, by a man named

¢ passage. . The original entrance was quite small. As part of a mid-1930s cave improvement

Ross R. Musselman, on Valentine’s Day, 1933, The knowledge that caves sometimes breathed fog on cold mornings

project, the entrance was enlarged, a

(described on p. 12) was well known in

was spread on the entrance area floors,

tered at Indian Well saw a plume of fog

and the entire cave was cleared of random rocks.

rising north of Caldwell Butte. It quickly disappeared, but Mr. Musseiman’s fore-

The final lava flow in Valentine was a brief, highly fluid surge, about 3 feet

man told him that if it reappeared he was to investigate at once.

dark patches of lava stalactites separated by white bands of water-deposited miner-

stone stairway was built inside, pumice

deep. As it drained out the lower end it

small pillars in the center are actually supporting the roof.

1933, when federal workers headquar-

Two days later, on a cold Valentine’s

left previous irregularities smoothly blanketed with a thin lining. At several places throughout the cave, the shapes of blocks and pre-existing piles of breakdown are

pay morning (it was 12 below), he saw it 507i Grabbing a lantern, he ran from [dian Well, about 1-1/2 miles, and found a beautiful cave. The original

revealed by the thin layer. Finely detailed benches and superb flow lines exist in most of the cave, and an extraordinary cauliflower aa tongue occupies a part of

entrance was quite small and obscured py4 Juniper tree, and the interior as far pack as the rear end of the pillar was

the floor of the northwest passage.

covered with moss. Musselman said it “...was the most beautiful thing I ever

About 400 feet from the entrance, two

saw...” Musselman went to Klamath

subordinate tubes branch right. A few yards farther the main tube drops steeply to the Pool Room, where it is rejoined by

Falls to report the discovery to J. D. Howard, whom he already knew. Howard said that he had camped in the area

the two smaller tubes. Currents, eddies and backwaters, frozen in the floor of

many times, knew the cave was there, but couldn’t find it.

38

el

aanaes aie



ede. LAT

ie

Te

aVG qe Lo Le el ne OR Cee, SR i a LE eal

aes lee a

SL gl 0 A ee Thbi a be Po Co felbal di Ee et

LAVA

VERYFLOOR SMOOTH

SEAL

|

)

@

-

OUTSTANDING

Teas

JE TRTede

TAN

@

®

FLOOR SLAB

y

.

Valentine Cave is about

aa

el RE ele ee Ropy lava is prominent on upturned blocks near the ,

)

dome or swelling on the surface of a

relatively large with a single entrance. As a consequence, its temperature is governed by the surrounding rock, hovering around the low-50s year around. Humidity in. . creases with distance from the

important nutrients for tiny

entrance, and in the chamber where

cave creatures and shouldn’t be disturbed. Valentine is Ele

DEE

°

en

DR

aa

So anaes

a escos eT Bs es

Etgy we Gee Lo

el

ET Ee Pe,

AE

OS ew

Te EL

Sa :

ls

aaARR aE

.

fe

oe

GEmela

agian ni

en el

a

.

§

;

:

aa

LE

Pe

a. .

-...._.____

oi

;

5

oe = SA

OO =

-


on

in eT

fe.Sg

wwTR TEETER2

yp

-

...

FR

Lor

BR ” fats PE

Lr

PROFILE OF BEARPAW - MERRILL SECTION OF V:

-

a

;

I: CT Tl : EL SP-

_

A Dre =

LS iT

Cx EO

ce

7

CUPGLA

Sy

Er

17-FOOT.

STAIRWAY NR LN

CLOSE AS THEY APPEAR IN THIS PROFILE BECAUSE OF THEIR HORIZONTAL OFFSET

Coc)

;

5

ha

ge Eran

mr. uw

|gia

|

PNY

8ach

Gh

|

TEE

LE

o

3-

Bas

i

AFAR 1 ie

ie wm

Spin ES

Es

&

AVY

4 &

LY

F

I

(

AK

on Cae

44

VR ed iy pang he

RAP ERE

iaT Fo

Lo

abl

VERE

EEE

Heil

Ly

Lg

of EN

i

A

|

:oo i

EER ARNG feBAER CT) SET Ga PNA il Xd wi HAE TEAR el

ge Lhe? 4i or

vo leer

GE

fy ” nag wi TONER

gx h) SETS

ACie Ld $C

a ERN

i

Ra)

4

nl DT

A Lv ci ogi Las VEE 8

Sra

Tat:

A iE |¥ ea

Fim AF |

ong

TE FR de SSE Fra

3

¢

)

y

a

eh wo TERRE fh

® h aE =, Ry Sunn

== LR

sig Be Rds agli Le Raa Li Re ae CT

Ns i

: hae

AE RE

ree 0 Wd eet Gn

5

A

“EY reagents

oe

SN

A

NTT

apes an a A

TN AS

aa ws NAR

CATWALK FOR VIEWING ICE

or SU LEE

Te Jia

PERENNIAL ICE

41

} | |

overflow), even though during summer months a thin layer of water often covers the ice. The ice rivers have retreated a little during the past few decades, judging from scanty and imprecise accounts of their former condition. There is strong evidence that the ice once .

operated a resort nearby. In 1928, the well was reported to deliver water at 34 degrees F. The well-which was never more than a pool of water perched on underlying ice-is dry now. Cave ice is slowly retreating in Lava Beds caves (see page 12), and with it, many other former

overflowed the depression containing the

water/ice pools. There are no improve-

present ice lake. A catwalk has been installed overlooking the ice lake and visitors are urged to stay on it for safety’s sake and to avoid contaminating the ice.

ments in Bearpaw Cave and the floor is composed of breakdown blocks, some quite large.

The lower level is not nearly as deep as

}

nearby Bearpaw Cave, and only about

SENTINEL CAVE

- Sentinel Cave is a segment of the

half the depth of Skull Cave which is part ~~ Headquarters System master tube, with of the same master tube. Consequently,

several indistinctly separated levels and a

it is possible that still lower levels exist,

total traverse length (including several

and even if choked with breakdown,

imperfectly-mapped

would probably include even more ice

about 2,700 feet. The upper level,

than is presently visible. During the

historically known as Upper Cavern,

winter, when ice forms to renew that

merges with the second level at The

lower

levels)

depleted during the warm season, beauti-

Sentinel, about half way down-tube from

ful stalactites, draperies and crystals of

the upper entrance. A very good trail, on

ice are common in both levels of Merrill Cave. BEARPAW CAVE

]

the surface and inside the cave, connects the two entrances. It is about 860 feet directly between the entrances, but the

oo

meandering trail inside is nearly 1,100

Bearpaw Cave is a steeply inclined segment 0f the master tube of the Brid Modoc ng J rater SA south

o

or

he rh et J onteance, the

feet long. 1s : . g and easily : Sentinel is a very interestin

d 8.

traversed cave. Much of its lining is gone,

ol he of

but enough remains to visualize the

A oo ting in De oe €1g bo

patterns of lava flowing through the

about 45 feet, giving the impression that

jovels and branches. The master tube

the entrance is larger than it actually is. At the bottom of this depression is a well

BENG

that formerly held a hand operated water

VASSIVE BREAKDOWN PILE

7

pump installed by the Merrills who once

OCCUPIES ROOM

®

PLATES

SENTINEL CAVE MOST BREAKDOWN IS NOT SHOWN

i

7

THE

° UPPER ENTRANCE

2X,

He

=

Ns

/ a

7

APRON

TT -t BENCHES

auEh RIED

.

/

:

TRUE

NORTH

NARROW BENCH

Ma

wi

«=~

Pe rere

Ne -PROMINENT Wi SMOOTH -

WITH GUARD RAIL TUBE-IN-TUBE

A

42

|

SENTINE-

2

Ve Ne

LN

es

=

A ~~ samuay

Pp

BENCH

APRON

SENTINEL ™, h

yk

SV

3

BRIDGE

/

0/4

UPPER CAVERN

FOR THE SAKE OF CLARITY,

TRAIL FROM UPPER SENTINEL PARKING AREA

[i =

fos

ROPY FLOOR

Cin

of

ye

RR ee

cs

LR

GE be

TE

OR

NE

SAR

Zo Tla ¥ Pi f PPA ah gE Ca ie pre Fe aen

i ey

aoe 8ClLeaGal

He

overflowed at several places, leaving two

%[LN Rl

large chambers, a smaller parallel pas-

Eng. HORRY

once before returning to it, and a skylight

i

complex. The chambers are the sites of

=+ 2

blockages that caused the upper level to

«i7 Ey

widen. The one nearest the upper

= °°er

entrance is occupied by the largest pillar

& ry oo

known at Lava Beds. (The pillar in

fo

sage that crossed over the master tube

hoa Be Tha i :

-eeeBee

Natural Bridge Cave is only slightly

ad TeioNg ye

EE

BARAT

hee

i

Eo

Toy

AY Fe) WEeT iiT Ryser

al.

is mes

Zico. %0e % ely.

smaller.) The other, smaller chamber has = ie 75, 198 125Ee he ] afg el BRE RTee : . . EstT dS me i 3 no pillar, and marks a junction between levels. In this chamber a 16-foot stairway AAA Al ame ; er. wail] bn Pe Rt es ral gr J ca f° ~~ connects the trail in the two levels. To the

left as one descends the stairway is The Sentinel, an upright block that J. D.

#2 =

| dE iE a Go hoa ww. 40

M4"

ALig

Howard saw as guarding the entrance to

the lower levels, which is beneath the

- -

overhang just up-tube. The entrance to

~~,

the lower levels is gated to prevent the

|e a

FE

Fe

the cave.

0

ee

a GRE 6 ST dg

Tek Lo iwen

unstable part of the cave. Check at the visitor center before entering this part of

UY

+ ESPN Sie i

Cl ET SAAR Ana Fk The steel bridge across an unroofed section of

_

lower level in Sentinel Cave.

Just down-tube from the base of the

stairway, a huge section of the left wall’s ) ) light. Quite a lot of lava overflowed the lining, about 12 feet high and 40 feet long, with a large shelf still attached, has ~~ master tube here, leaving a surface tube

and two chockstones, one large and one

slumped into the passage. Down-tube

from here, the tube is heavily modified by ~~ small collapse. Near the lower entrance is a The trail and stairways in Sentinel complex overflow chamber with a skywere cleverly routed to take advantage of

"

@

"a -

(7)EXCAVATED PASS THROUGH

BREAKDOWN JAM

EPs PAN

2]

Wl © x

~N

te Bed

ON, Eo

“J



SMOOTH :‘ERY FLOOR ~ y,

J

> Om

% 13] 17]

20] CUPOLA

PROMINENT

)



NA

@

SHELF

BY D

5 %

1

%

i

“133 VE SECTION OF LINING

SKYLIGHT

S\

IN CUPOLA

®

ky k b

T-- _ARGE SHELF STILL LTT LZHED, SLUMPED INTO PASSAGE

IQ 1 N

LOWER

®

50

0

100 FEET

0

%

TRAIL FROM LOWER

5 _~SENTINEL PARKING AREA

_-

10

30 METERS

5

Lo

1 S

ENTRANCE .

wa

Sa Tor

a

sShtd

Sieh.

Per

cil rl

ay

en

.Ee

-

i$

)

:

Lo

oe

a

fh

ne

uw.

---

os

hei

LH

=

fal

(Th

1 pha

Sl

"

i

&7 RT

he ARE

/

€rt abou

1

A

on the Cav e Loop onn

apart, from

ail oe

leads

are

and

lower

to

. el Sentin

the

er oo aa. good vlow ie The trail wth ©

includes

en

trance the

d lea s.

a the cave to the upp

OVC ISAVaEnd OaV How rdvIisSitB | GE e RID “bridg

es” d Hopkins. Thescribed to ost he e so na CompIound Bridge (since changedmetd

RES or

.%

Bridge),and th

ro

e

Natural

ihe

erthmernm s!ost

w known as is Bridge (now O He is have navmi . ed .

mys wy.

Ne

o parking

feet

onntine I pa Se rking area .

el

GE

650

ral featuresa d reflect a lot by depression n -era wor kers pe Sentinel, .

headduarters

Mon)

SEPr

natu work

ad. (parkRo ing

gin

ds rN gent

say Tw is TR © EE

ar are tw

es

dig

Yew

o

HE

Lh

|e.

gud

J /

4

Cam

Y

Se

DERE

TaN ;

/

ex1s tingd

Tvae

2

A BE fl ‘a 8 y i © Loa En

A

Saha

pe”

BgAhTz"

Ly Coe

1

PASE yy

ST

EU

yn a

aE

i

N\



aa

: =.

a

ih

re w

Sol

5

i:

we oe

1’

=

LL

a -

E.

)

"

% Si

PgLB

Pp

fines

-

\

©.

Coils rales

a.

g.__~=~=_=_=_=-=_=Z__-_~_=_.

Ovis Bridge is the narrow strip of rock spanning the collapse trench, at the end of the trail north from the Natural Bridge parking area. PARADISE ALLEYS CAVE

consists of two rambling passages, vertically offset, and connected within by a pit with a stairway. It has 4 entrances, 2 at the upper end and 2 at the lower end, and 1 skylight. At the lower end of the eastern passage, on the side of a thin

The upper entrances to Paradise Alleys ~~ 0ridge, a vesicle (bubble) 4 inches in

and Ovis caves are close together in the

diameter is exposed in a fractured block.

same collapse trench, but their similarity =~ Between Paradise Alleys and the en-

ends there. Paradise Alleys is a segment

trance to Catacombs Cave there are

Headquarters master tube, the Cata-

Wide collapse sinks.

of one of the principal overflows from the

several short, unnamed caves, isolated by

combs Branch, but Ovis is a segment of

)

h be itself d th rp t ¢ master tube itself, and the difference 1S very apparent. Ovis i 1 1 d

VIS 18 a large, gent. y curved, SEMEN

Qvis,

ALLEYS

~\

ANNEX

:

3 ©

50

-_-

10

20

&//

UpaDOWN

.

N

J

7 /f stairways

A,

N

CAVE

100 FEET 30 METERS

MASTER TUBE---

:

rly

7

|

hata a

2)

Pe

XE»

fe)

SC -

&@ Ns ® -3

5

¥

5

= CUPOLA yas

EN

.

TRAIL FROM OVIS CAVE -___ 7

and

5 ££

-

SORT

FLAGSTONE b

PYICAY N ‘ -B%

Ry

PARKING AREA

Cc AV E

'

;

~~ eD N= RN

\__oviscave R --

entrance,

FLOOR LIKE

/

bop

south

FLAGSTONE

~

A

B

A

.

adjacent to the

Rae

[Fm

SARADISE’

.

negotiating it would require climbing gear.

CUPOLA

DD

==

.

NOTE: Technically, Ovis and Paradise Alleys caves are one cave because all parts of both may be visited by a person, without going outside. However, the underground connection is high on the east wall of

of a master tube, while Paradise Alleys

.

TSE

Eea bi 1 Lo. RE 2 hin od b ; E> alho Ag 0 . AE peor NEE Soom {

i

a

7 TORR Ce ae sae

fea

wilHy

7

Ld of i

ey

Nee

eT TR.

~

3 TH

CATACOMBS BRANCH

Sime ®

ovis

MASTER T UBE-_

FLOW LINES

MASSIVE BLOCK

|

TRAIL FROM NATURAL 0

a mmm -

PROFILE OF OVIS CAVE

mr rr RRR

q

BRIDGE PARKING AREA,

EET

oN

¥o

AY

HIGH BENCHES &

OF BREAKDOWN

TP

>

fr

ps 2102052 x

44

%,

£10

3

/

50 / H

45

|

|

|

\

THE HEPPE CAVES

!

The Heppe Caves are located at the

;

|

harbor it reliably year-around. The pool of water, when present, is probably perched on an impermeable layer of ice. Indeed, there may be an unseen dome of perennial ice down in the breakdown on the floor.

lava tube mn the monument. See th ¢ map to appreciate the size of this sink; its average diameter is 168 feet, depth 68 & » dep feet. oo . A steep trail zigzags down into Heppe

The entire interior surface of 350-foot : , ., 7, .

wide” Heppe Bridge, like most of Heppe Cave, is modified by collapse. It is . . very much like Wind Cave, a huge underground rock pile near Bend,

Cave from the northwest side of the

Oregon. Some of the boulders near the

western entrance sink, dropping a total of about 100 feet vertically to the pool at the bottom of the cave. The pool may be, at times, the largest standing body of

eastern end are the size of a compact yyiomobile. J. D. Howard asserted that (his “bridge” was both the highest and yjdest in the monument.

water in the monument. Large numbers The Heppe “Chimney” is a textbook of birds drink and bathe here, and the example of a hornito, as are many of the water shows it. Though frequently referred to as an ““ice cave,” Heppe is not ~~ other so-called chimneys in the monument. The hornito’s central opening is known for perennial ice, although it about 4 feet in diameter at the surface probably had it in the past. At this and about 35 feet deep and aligns elevation, with entrances at both ends, it

Ig

7 \

L

/

I>

0

T,

HEPPE BRIDGE

{

y

yd

5

NORTH

No =

yd

N

=

&

©) /,

SEASONAL

HEPPE CHIMNEY (Hornito)

~

WATER - ICE

Se



er

el

“,

AY

HEPPE

a

a0

0

i he

b

Bis

=

= Fp >

Cio

2 re

Te

g

AAT TD

0

SN

CAVE

as

1

~~

SESE

REN .

gps 7

ee Ty

80 100 -------

80----

Lh

100-----

SECTION A-A

pai

.

~

;

H

©

SUNSHINE CAVE

SKYLIGHT

WOODEN

ENTRANCE

i

0

0

100 FEET

50

10

eB

gE SUNSHINE CAVE PF TT PARKING AREA

20

30

\

METERS

aBn,

CD -skvuight

oN Helo, 2 “oh Qc

w= 52

Cave

is

about midway. The skylight is a residual opening; that is, it existed while lava was

STEEP

®

STEEP

LAVA TONGUE

i

Sunshine

flowing in the tube.

A thin, steep cauliflower aa tongue in Sunshine Cave.

ON

of

cave..” Much

| illuminated by daylight because it is

Egy how

TRUE BERN

92

-

PAHOEHOE and AALAVA

MAP SYMBOLS

Pahoehoe and aa are Hawaiian words for hardened lava surfaces that are smooth (pahoehoe) or rough (aa). Early volcanologists (most of whom concentrated on Hawaiian volcanoes) adopted the terms but, unfortun-

ately, expanded them to include lava’s

CElLING HEIGHTS o [4 FEET OR LESS] ® tovers eet)

ABRUPT DROP ss [FEET] [uP]

BREAKDOWN

GRAD ons DROP

internal characteristics as well. As an often

[FOR CLARITY,

>>>

amusing consequence, much volcanology is

aT aw

[DOWN - |

devoted to trying to fit many slightly differing conditions of lava into just two categories that originally referred to the ease of walking

Pe roaps anD SURFACE Thais ao”

barefoot on one as opposed to the other.

Burm

Ba

Think of the terms pahoehoe and aa as applying to the condition of lava, and not to

its chemistry. For example, flowing pahoehoe

APN

changes to aa gradually as it loses heat and

:

SKYLIGHT [OPEN TO THE

dissolved gasses. (Obviously the reverse - COLLAPSE-_.

/ Steven tose To NOT

cannot happen.) If the same pahoehoe were to cool without movement, it would solidify as a unit, like a block of ice, with a smooth

surface. As pahoehoe changes to aa it assumes various distinctive appearances, primarily depending on its viscosity and degree of movement. The terms smooth pahoehoe, ropy pahoehoe, cauliflower aa, clinker,

ROPY LAVA FLOOR

a. Te

TREET AMZ tl A 8 SN [7)sTarrway

near-aa, full-blown aa, and others all describe stages in the transition from pahoehoe to aa. Finally, most of the terms

above-including selves-are

\e Ly DIRECTION

RE eD BLOCK] co |

pahoehoe and aa them-

. COLLAPSE

[8] 15 Feet peer

applied to the fluid, plastic and

]

solidified states of the lava as well. The Devil's Homestead Lava Flowisa good ~~ OUTLINE OF

;

go

example of a transition from pahoehoe to aa. Where the flow emerges at the base of Fleener

Chimneys, it is shelly pahoehoe. By the time it reaches Devils Homestead viewpoint-S5.7

ER

PILLAR--

miles north of the visitor center on the main

1} bree AS OR -@curoLa

park road, or 3.6 miles south of Gillems

Camp-it

has changed to classic aa lava.

Full-blown aa is unusual inside a lava tube,

but there is a fine example in the Aa

Chamber in Blue Grotto Cave (see map on page 23). Outstanding examples of the behavior of pahoehoe that hardened, with

i Ce L

-

TF

~~

4 FEET

very little movement, from a highly fluid state

LAVAFALLI hs

may be seen on the floors of Labyrinthian

A

Bridge,

~

the

nearby

entrances

to

South

[4] BENCH

[3]FaLL [3-FOOT-HIGH

STEEP

OR SO RD LAVA FALL]

Labyrinth Cave at Garden Bridges, or the chamber at the top of the upper stairway in Paradise Alleys Cave.

53

i

| |

| :

GLOSSARY AA. A Hawaiian term for a lava flow with an extremely rough, jagged, spinose, clinkery, and generally irregular surface. Fully developed aa is

!

unusual inside lava tubes. Pronounced ah ah, as in

entrance by surface water dripping from the overhanging rock. DRIPSTONE. A speleothem precipitated from dripping water; abundant in solution caves but unusual in lava tubes.

father. In Hawaiian, an expletive of pain when

FESTQONS. Wrinkles in a thin skin of lava that

per puretoor ° such pe hy ow 2 53. .

have the appearance of hanging between two points.

.

ank

along the side of

a

lava tube.

estoons are common on lava tube walls.

Distinction between benches. shelves and levees

FLOW LINE. An elongate projection or groove along

oor and wall;’ levees.aneattachedto the Hor and

the wallcross or floor, too small significantly affect the tube’s section. Flow by lines mark interruptions

separated from the walk shelves are attached to the wa overhang. >ee p. 1 .

of receding lava flow. Flow lines on the floor show currents and eddies. See p. 11.

BREAKDOWN. A general term for broken pieces of a lava tube’s roof or walls; applied to individual

FORMATION. A geological term for a fundamental unit of bedrock. It has also been indiscriminately

blocks, accumulations, and rir structures ig aon rom reincorporation ot loose pieces in ’

BRIDGE. A short remnant of a lava tube roof left standing between collapses, that is no wider,

measured parallel to the tube’s axis, than the tube it spans. Outstanding examples may be seen at Garden Bridges or in Skull Cave by the stairway. Synonym: natural bridge.

applied to many of the fascinating features of caves, and is essentially meaningless in that regard. GLACIERE. A

k, that

, i

contains

ice.

cave, tm roe at contains ice HORNITO. A spatter cone on the roof of a lava tube.

See p. 47. ICE CAVE. See footnote on p. 12. ICE HORIZON. See p. 41. LAVA. A It f it

| |

CAULIFLOWER Ad. Lava that has neatly complet

|

crus " . A general term for a molten extrusive, mos commonly applied to surface flows from a volcanic

edfhe transition ween of closely.pace dure

vent; also, for the volcanic rock that solidifies from

that range from about 2 to 10 inches across, that are

it.

.

.

k

firmly bonded to the underlying lava. Cauliflower aa ~~ LAVA CAVE. A lava cave is any cave in lava; not just

is quite common on the floors of lava tubes. It is a lava tube. frequently contoured on a broad scale with billows ~~ LAVACICLE. A general term that has been applied and ropes. See p. 25. to a wide range of lava tube features; most often to

CAVE. A naturally occurring void, cavity, recess, or

system of interconnected passages which occurs beneath the surface of the earth or within a cliff or ledge, and is large enough to permit an individual to enter.

stalactites.

LAVA FALL. An abrupt drop in the floor of a tube over which lava flowed. LAVA FLOWSTONE. A thin fluid layer of lava on ceiling and walls in an active lava tube. Also, a

CAVER. One who explores caves. CAVING. To enter and explore caves. CHANNEL. A long, open trough in a lava flow that carries a river of lava to a flow front. Channels inside lava tubes are typically much smaller and usually follow the tube centerline. CHOCKSTONE. A lava block, or mass of consolidated debris, caught in a narrow passage. Chockstones are often the nucleus of a pillar. .

general term for lava forms resulting from its flow. Compare with dripstone. LAVA SEAL. A point where a lava tube is completely blocked by congealed lava. LAVA TUBE. A conduit formed of hardened lava, on or within a lava flow, through which lava flows to an advancing flow front; also, a cavernous segment of the conduit remaining after flow ceases. A lava tube (while active) Is ar from he end to the other, but rarely remains that way when lava flow

diameter), loose pieces of lava with rough, jagged surfaces. Not be confused with pieces of breakdown

Sop: ea lava iol es simply don’t ol By ) y

CLINKERS. Small (usually less than one foot in

which have fractured surfaces.

. COLLAPSE. The failure of parts of a lava tube to withstand gravity. Collapse may occur while lava is

.

,

LAvA TUBE CAVE. (Or simply fava tube. oA specific lava tube, or segment of a lava tube : ; Ce

tha

fia veelave entered b{

lowing (primary collapse) , or after flow has ceased

5 geries of tube segments, separated by

(secondary collapse). timately, collapse destroys : COLLAPSE SINK. An essentially circular surface depression created by collapse of a lava tube roof.

impassable areas or collapses. All parts of a segment that may be visited by a person, without passing through a collapse that is longer than deep, make up a single cave. If a collapse is longer than deep,

COLLAPSE TRENCH. An elongate surface depres-

the tube is severed and two caves exist. Of over 200

sion created by collapse of a lava tube roof. CORALLOID. A type of speleothem Cc ’ . ire )

UPOLA. A recess in the ceiling of a lava tube. DRIP LINE. The line defined on a cave floor at the

54

known lava tube caves at Lava Beds, nearly all are segments of only 10 lava tube systems. LAVA TUBE SLIME. A thin layer of moist,

algae-like, gelatinous mold that locally coats the walls and ceilings of humid lava tubes. Limited

he

studies indicate that a major component is bacteria >t one sort or another which account for the wide -ange of colors reported. See p. 25.

LAVA TUBE SYSTEM. A distributive network of lava tubes of the same age. A characteristic of tube-fed pahoehoe flows, and the principal means

by which such flows are so widely and thinly spread. Systems are usually tree-like (dendritic) in pattern,

with an identifiable trunk (the master tube).

~~ SLUMP BLOCK. A large block of basalt that slumps, more or less as a unit, into a collapse trench as a result of being undermined by collapse of a lava

tube. See p.11. SPATTER. Small fragments or clots of violently ejected lava, commonly agglutinated (stuck toge-

ther) upon coming to rest. SPATTER CONE. A steep-sided, cone-shaped mass

of spatter built up on re or vent. Compare

LINING. A layer of hardened lava left against the interior surface of a lava tube by intermittent flow. See pp. 10 and 11.

with hornito. PET EOTHEM. A mineral deposit left in caves by

evaporation of mineral-laden groundwater. Coined

LINING RUPTURE. A shallow recess formerly

in 1952 from the Greek ‘‘spelaion” (cave) plus

occupied by a thin patch of lining blown away by gas pressure, or so weakened it could no longer withstand gravity. See p. 26. LINING CLOSURE. See p. 11. LOWER LEVEL ROOF. A partition dividing a lava

“thema’’ (deposit). A variety of speleothems occurs in Lava Beds caves, but only two types are found in abundance: coatings and coralloids.

tube horizontally into more than one level. See

Coatings are thin films deposited on ceiling and wall linings, usually in bands 2 or 3 inches wide along

contraction cracks.

p. 11, and the Natural Bridge Chamber on p. 23. MAP LENGTH. The length of a cave “as the crow

Coralloids are tiny, coral-like projections that range in shape from acicular (needle-like) to botryoidal

flies.” The straight line distance between its ends

(shaped like tiny grapes). Both coatings and

(extremes). Compare with traverse length.

MASTER TUBE. The dominant tube © in a lava tube system. See p. 11. . . PAHOEHOE. A Hawaiian term for basaltic lava flows typified by a smooth, billowy, or ropy exterior and internally by lava tubes. Pronounced PAH-hoy-

hoy. Literally “smooth” in Hawaiian. See p. 53. PERENNIAL CAVE ICE. See p. 12.

coralloids are usually light colored and stand out

oo st the dark lava tube interiors.

SPELUNKER. One who makes a hobby of exploring and studying caves. Elitists reserve this term for recreational caving, as contrasted with “scientific” caving. Coined in the mid-30s, from the Latin root spelunka (cave).

STALACTITE. A cylindrical or tapering object that hangs from a ceiling or overhanging surface. From

PILLAR. A body of rock that divides a cave for a short distance. How big can a pillar be? It is a pillar if its largest horizontal dimension is less than the combined width of the two passages it separates. See

pp. 31, 39.

the Greek meaning ‘“‘oozing out in drops.” Stalactites form in all types of caves, as well as mines, vugs, veins, tunnels, hot springs, under bridges, et al. Stalactites may be composed of lava,

minerals, and many other substances. Stalactites

PRIMARY. An adjective denoting events, conditions

formed by the hardening of lava, also known as

Compare with secondary. RAFTED BREAKDOWN. Single pieces or accumulations of solidified lava floated in a lava stream. Although solid basalt is slightly denser than the liquid, much breakdown floats because it contains

STALAGMITE. A deposit on a cave floor or ledge, formed by accumulation of material that dripped

or features of a lava tube while lava was still flowing.

bubbles. See p. 30.

Lo

lavacicles,” are common in Lava Beds caves.

from above. From the Greek meaning “that which drops. In solution caves, stalagmites are usually associated with a corresponding stalactite. However, in lava tubes, lava stalactites vastly outnumber

stalagmites because the dripping material usually

RESIDUAL OPENING. An opening into a lava tube that existed while lava was flowing. See p.31.

falls onto a molten, still-moving floor, and is carried away. On the other hand, ice stalagmites outnum-

RIB. A long, drapery-like ribbon of lava flowstone

ber ice stalactites in lava tubes because the coldest

that projects from sloping, overhanging surfaces. See p. 31.

air concentrates along the floor while warmer air rises to the ceiling. Mineral stalactites, deposited by

ROOF. The basalt strata overlying a lava tube,

evaporating ground water are extremely rare in Lava

usually including the initial roof crust.

eds caves.

ROPY LAVA. A lava flow with a corrugated surface resembling coils of rope. See p- 39.

SURE ACE TUBE. See p. 9. TRAVERSE LENGTH. The length of the traverse on

SEASONAL CAVE ICE. See p. 12 : SECONDARY, An adjective denoting modifications

which a cave map is based. Roughly, the total distance one would travel if visiting all the cave’s passages. Compare with map length.

oradditions to alava tube after lava stopped

pyBE.IN.-TUBE. A smaller tube, resembling a

8

p

p

.Co

Co

surface tube, on the floor of a lava tube, created by

SHELF. An overhanging crust or lining, projecting from a lava tube wall. See p. 21.

the last flow through the tube. See Tube-in-Tube Cave on p. 22.

SKYLIGHT. An opening in the roof of a cave that admits daylight. A skylight may also be an entrance,

TUMULUS. A swelling or raising of the crusted surface of a lava flow, caused by hydrostatic

but is not considered to segment a lava tube.

pressure of underlying fluid lava. See p. 39.

55

| |

| |

LIKE TO KNOW MORE ABOUT CAVES? There are local caving clubs all over the U. S., most of which are chapters of the National Speleological Society, a 50-year-old nationwide organization of cavers known throughout the world as the NSS. Membership in these groups requires minimal involvement and offers many advantages like exchange of information about caves, advice on techniques and safety, cooperative purchase of caving gear, etc. If you'd

| |

like more information about caves, or local caving clubs, contact:

Western Speleological Survey P.O. Box 2636 Vancouver, Washington, 98668.

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL READING William R. Halliday. 1983. Ape Cave. Vancouver, Washington, ABC Publishing, 24 pp.

William R. Halliday. 1976. American Caves and Caving. New York, Harper & Row, Publishers, 432 pp. William R. Halliday. 1966. Depths of the Earth. New York, Harper & Row, Publishers, 398 pp.

William R. Halliday. 1963. Caves of Washington, ABC Publishing, 132 pp. Charlie & Jo Larson. 1987. Central Washington, ABC Publishing, 44 pp.

Washington.

Oregon

Caves.

Vancouver, Vancouver,

Charlie & Jo Larson. 1987. Lava River Cave. Vancouver, Washington,

ABC Publishing, 24 pp. Charles V. Larson. Glossary of Vulcanospeleology. Western Speleological Survey, Vancouver, Washington, 65 pp. )

TECHNICAL REFERENCES William R. Halliday, editor. 1972. Selected caves of the Pacific Northwest: Guidebook of the 1972 NSS Convention, 75 pp. William R. Halliday, editor. 1976. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology and its extraterrestrial applications. Western Speleological Survey, 85 pp. William R. Halliday, editor. 1991. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology. Western Speleological Survey, in

press. Jack R. Hyde and Ronald Greeley. 1972. Geological Field Trip Guide, Mount St. Helens Lava Tubes, Washington. Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries, Bulletin 77, pp. 183-206. Charles V. Larson, editor. 1982. An Introduction to Caves of the Bend area: Guidebook of the 1982 NSS Convention. 74 pp.

56

_

-

)

ABC PUBLISHING 13318 N.E. 12th Avenue, Vancouver, Washington 93685