Languages of a Bilingual Community. 9783110812886, 3110812886

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Languages of a Bilingual Community.
 9783110812886, 3110812886

Table of contents :
Intro
TABLE OF CONTENTS
NOTE ON TRANSLITERATION
1. INTRODUCTION
2 .SPEECH HABITS AND ATTITUDES OF THE COMMUNITY
3. THE LANGUAGES OF THE BILINGUAL MAJORITY
4. FACTORS DETERMINING INTERFERENCE BETWEEN THE LANGUAGES OF BILINGUAL COMMUNITIES
APPENDIX A .LIST OF INFORMANTS
APPENDIX B. RECOLLECTION TEST
APPENDIX C. QUESTIONNAIRE
BIBLIOGRAPHY
INDEX

Citation preview

THE LANGUAGES OF A BILINGUAL COMMUNITY

JANUA LINGUARUM STUDIA MEMORIAE N I C O L A I YAN WIJK D E D I C A T A edenda curai

C. H. YAN S C H O O N E V E L D INDIANA UNIVERSITY

SERIES PRACTICA 77

1970

MOUTON THE HAGUE • PARIS

THE LANGUAGES OF A BILINGUAL COMMUNITY by

J. R. R A Y F I E L D YORK

UNIVERSITY

1970

MOUTON THE HAGUE • PARIS

© Copyright 1970 in The Netherlands. Mouton & Co. N.V., Publishers, The Hague. No part of this book may be translated or reproduced in any form, by print, photoprint, microfilm, or any other means, without written permission from the publishers.

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER: 73-106457

Printed in The Netherlands by Mouton & Co., Printers, The Hague.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

NOTE ON TRANSLITERATION

7

1. INTRODUCTION

9

1.1 Introduction 1.2 Definition of Terms 1.3 Methods 2 . SPEECH HABITS AND ATTITUDES OF THE COMMUNITY

2.1 The Community — Socio-Cultural Background 2.2 The Languages of the Community 2.2.1 Yiddish and English 2.2.2 Hebrew 2.2.3 Russian 2.2.4 Polish 2.2.5 German 2.2.6 Other Languages 2.3 Categories Based on Speech Behavior and Attitudes towards Language 2.3.1 The Yiddish Intellectuals 2.3.2 The Yiddish Monolinguals 2.3.3 The English Speakers 2.3.4 The Bilingual Majority 2.4 Factors Influencing the Speech Behavior and Attitudes of the Community 2.4.1 Summary of Characteristics of Categories 2.4.2 Factors Determining Membership of Categories . . . . 2.4.3 Conclusion 3. THE LANGUAGES OF THE BILINGUAL MAJORITY

3.1 Introduction 3.2 Switching

9 11 11 14

14 19 19 21 22 24 25 26 26 28 35 36 40 42 42 43 52 53

53 54

6

TABLE OF CONTENTS

3.2.1 In Response to the Immediate Social or Speech Situation . 3.2.2 As a Rhetorical Device 3.3 Interference 3.3.1 Lexical Interference 3.3.2 Lexical-Structural Interference 3.3.3 Structural Interference 3.3.4 Structural-Phonic Interference 3.3.5 Phonic Interference 3.3.6 Summary: Interference Between Yiddish and English . . . 4 . FACTORS DETERMINING

INTERFERENCE

BETWEEN

55 56 58 58 62 64 71 78 85

THE LANGUAGES OF A

BILINGUAL COMMUNITY

4.1 Comparison of Bilingual Situations 4.1.1 Yiddish and the Slavic Languages 4.1.2 Yiddish and Hebrew 4.1.3 Yiddish and English 4.1.4 Norwegian and English 4.2 Conclusions 4.2.1 Current Hypotheses Regarding Interference 4.2.2 Factors Influencing Interference 4.2.3 Summary

86

86 86 89 93 94 99 99 103 107

APPENDIX A :

List of Informants

108

APPENDIX B :

Recollection Test

110

APPENDIX C :

Questionnaire

112

BIBLIOGRAPHY

114

INDEX

117

NOTE ON TRANSLITERATION

In transliterating Yiddish words from a written text, I have used the system devised by Yivo (the Yiddish Scientific Institute) and used by Uriel Weinreich. (U. Weinreich, 1954: vii). a o -s- b 2 -

>

>.

G O

u >

60 G O

G O

T3 I pD s I 's J 1 P