Laboratory Manual for a Service Course in Metallurgy

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Laboratory Manual for a Service Course in Metallurgy

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f o r it

Senrte# i w i # in iot&llttrgr

:ir W illis mF#B o o r©

IILRARY §§LORa.oq school of m ih s # 0©U>£H> COLORAaa

ProQuest Number: 10781410

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is d e p e n d e n t upon the quality of the copy subm itted. In the unlikely e v e n t that the a u thor did not send a c o m p le te m anuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if m aterial had to be rem oved, a n o te will ind ica te the deletion.

uest ProQuest 10781410 Published by ProQuest LLC(2018). C opyright of the Dissertation is held by the Author. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States C o d e M icroform Edition © ProQuest LLC. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8 1 0 6 - 1346

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working tewXadga# ffe arts of metallurgy, oonaiating of attractlog w -taX f from tfooXr ores# bXsnding a n a or m m notaXa to p ro *-

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to

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M iie h r e a d in g s u r n t o

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F o rta b llity sad t&e# o f reading a r t the two atfei& m s tti- o f to la * to o € |. to# to rn tools o f any fmn4a « a to l m i to as a b a s li fo r rsportod v&toe$'aia& to# d lffio m ltit# o f #opr#iat» tog ts dyeasd# with a tto t i# to u t a#$ to# mala it o lt e ilo w p ra w n ita g # ta n ia fd la # ti« « O t o t r im r d n o o s

to a tto g

to o & a d # 0 # p l b # 4 t o

to #

llto ra to r# in # la d #¥ ie k a ra #ite o tro a ^M I# s ^ o lm r & o to r *m i-' to o o p t S s a a to e a o * t o i t o to t

M a te r ia l t e

m ay t o

d tfto td

a# to #

a b s o rb m tto m lo a l e n e rg y p r io r

to

a b ility

o f

fra e tu rt*

I# m » to # r w aetoaleal property o f -.great- Importance to the e n g in e e r * t o - to #e a s to f lo a d in go m aftln g toa x is #a sto

trail!# totting*. toi# frtpwtf-

Imn%M® toto.ttorafto

art i r a t l i l b j a rt•n m M b etrattert & & 'to te gw a i w t i b y

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partly rrartt

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f* o < $ u o rtX y I w i t f f i r t r a t

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f o r t o # o & g t o o o i* t o

$ $ *# *$ &

r a iy

to oranrame tot- lim its o f to# o r t t o *

t r y ' t r a t i l # to sting, m. t o r t 't o # &wpm% to s t was d#w #to$M *

to toi# tost to# material Sg tostrt u M » ortOonly oppXirt l#Mi* a n dto # 'm # & # w # €p p g p o p tyof tot m torial (ratrgy g b g g p p tlra prter to fpgttor#) io raJlrt to # to p o o t ttrragto*

tol» tost p$wid#i to# best m m m m of tongM### radar s r td r a ly

a p flir t *

tc H ip ir a

lo s d in g

t o s t hag- t o r n

d o r 1 a t#

to

ditto* to# t m

Jittotda meot # o w % m o d fop' Impatt

to©ting at tot pwnm nM t i » -art- to# food art, Its# dh&fpy. to#to*

Both o f to###, toato r a t & aototod wp&&$Mnp rad

tvm im m - mmxwn in torttagf lntif#r#to e & u a # rato tot dif*» to-rrat o p o o is iradlm raglrat* »tort of rapptrt tor to # sp o o l*,

ora* art isspmfe trarfy applIM* train rtraito a w rat ran* ptmMt*

it It m m .m .m j to vpolify tost v o o ttX te b y frai*

tog to # typ o of ■ to#i#tor

-f to te * itoppy*

#0 ftote* lort or Mi

fr a amtoira n g rt in too ia to rs to ry i#

p a tto m td o f to r tog- l i r t jo&raisio to t i t rat-- & t t o r t t r t #

Ho

wpryteg rat tM# toot to o m $ t io jp o rto o t v aria b te affwto teg' gbtoirad ra m i to r a tto l i t # to. to# gbrtm bto m n tm i in

to# i W w t l of to# opootooii in to# totting drate#*

18*

S a ito i# -# #

.life# to# otfeor mootonlooi'

of s&t&lo &J3& alloft art tiimttol1# «iitiv#t-. M-. ftto te s it progr##### t o m f i g b tola

to #

tibtp b e tw e e nm®hmit®&X

tola. m M t t m m -

a n dm to lle g ra p M #

tb ra tto r# Mil tofu lly d # W l® p « < l## x p ta in # d # . ■ sii d a m a n * * a i» t o d *

"S m iM m M . teiisffi* o ra n to a ltd

* w#oia*» it tn % unit

it e a ntom a r k e dfo r i& o u tifio o tio **

b yu s in ga . hmrnmw .o n #toiitl*

ato d

»

If t o ®o p e o ija $ &it toah a r d * *

i t may to- o r a l l y a t to r d a t t o t tubbing

to o l tfil# m e lite # !} a n te o k ttip o n b lym it b om o n k # #b y g rin d in g * fa a d d itio nto .id e n tify in go n too p o o iiw m b yo f lu r b *

tog# suet boforo tubJot ting any tpooliaoa to & boot treatment* too mpirnm- Upon to ito 'to # or ig in a l tordii### was da tormina# mtofe bo marked to. to to-to readily identifiable latow b o fo .ro d e t o m t o i n g to r d n e e a e s . t o o t u r f t o o to & to & '.s & s o b t o

p r o p o s e d b y g r i n d i n g 'm

m

to

to

ro m o w

to

a m id #

f ilm * doo& yburlood xnob&X*. t u r f to # i r r t p i i a r i 'b l o t * 0;r o 'to o r gtmrooa o f erroneous rttu l'to #

411 opeoimoma m utt t o w

to®

mMm film r t^tod ©a to# tpttltl »a#ilng total tin## toi# ■film Mil; fill to# por#a of to# m m lor total and onus# it f

.

to g to to and m tfto # to out#- ■da b.tool tp a o to in # to# w r y

toi#ii »tol jtot under to® o^ida film it deearbarised ato#!* and toi# atouM to romoimd on .too finloMag grinder*

By ox*

oroiilng o^otion. in all giindtng oforttitom to# mmowaX o f to y

o f to #

ta n

to

hordnooo b y o w rto a tin gto # - p i# # ®t o i l #

tw id td * - - ■

g rin d in g

P a rmmm. too u to o fu o iibl« m d l.in g :

.0 .s h o r t

loop o f win# rm j to wrapped around oaoh plae# th a t Is to to to M Ma n t

th inl© o fo a &too s u g rt w ithato # l%

.toft ttoaahteg. will to mor# uniform than I#

isood

on. to# plow* & # # f a r to o k

t o r t .a upmmlmm. I t s to n M to p lated . #m a to M k to

to # fn m a o #

a # - p o s s ib le *

S to » *

to

tot. 1& & & & 0 &#p #tli#na to ear# oust to taken to ®?old heating of toe ip » # to s # n t# #S t x t a'w ill t* i* * a X lym u jn *m s t & a a g sto tto .s trs itto p s * I f

s h o u ld t o

n o t o il t h a t m

o

i t o is

e a rn to s tr c i to

s O M £ M ? ytes^. # 1 1s s to tfw s tr r fm g ta ga n dy o M s M s g

#1mmMrnm* i w © n # € to- tto

;

of to# agMisim #taf#

fm m ,f m © te llin ga r idM ra & M tlM *, Ito fit# :# f:to ## a a y l#tm not ofttitaXf is gtswrnl ttototolits to# #srfito to to p ilto s e d * fit#g re a te r th e# # 0#o f f# 3 ,is liiB .g * s p e c £ » n as to a t d iw n # i« »

aske

to o a

to o

- t » l l fo s

M iy

M s d it o g

e«& to

fey.isy os# of #©ir#i?fii different mbhoda ft aak# U m d» Ito gM a y #

after 'to# i p t l ^ a to# tots

mm M i # t#

& m n d to -fmmm-

and to i ® w « &m » o f tfe# din*

tertian totrodne#ft in anttmg*

Ills o p w m tfq n m u to w ~

m$M% a fito* grtodtog stool* or to It grinder*

It is also tosttebto t# b w l ito ©dpt# in ete#r to pretest tearing te# emery papers and polishing atetea In later oper~ a M e tt# *

if

te a

o d g * # to p p a s t o

to

th e

te p # r % « t p a r t o f

te #

■teeitom to to emminto*. tea speeimn aust to twisted to fate . fine grinding -tod polletitog. operation#* Jl eowem .fanit iwtog tea fin# grinding, ant polite** tog oferetiosa of B p m :itm n pteparati.es is fto u g of too sa&oh pteemi».»

Goirtrwy to popular tollaf * tea mat of im m j pros*

m m - doss not opood te® opoMttsto#

ft dtoSj* towter# pte*

due# a distort ion of tea surfs## Xm^mm of metal telte if


partd section of a mrt-al* t o * tes&isawmt- must to gives to

to® gisyspXir to Insure tost s asftsroseople,or mie«seepl# eafe* asstmtlon will to capable of revealing the grain ate#*

to#

#a##nb£ai .requirement £» grate sis# ’determination# is that

th#r# mat- to aoist ready €te tine tion to tween tot .grain# and to # g m ls t o m i t r l t S i

f e l t . d t e t t o t t i t s ta n to- ' i t v t t o p t i i s

massy 'WmfBwr § o m m m n t macroseeple technique ftp doteitonation of irate $I$t I# toi#€ om to# examination of m fracture imp# ■fate o-f tot specimen and a om&m&m&n. -of tola observed .irate

ate# with m series of itaniirt Sh#ji»i?d fraetor##*

In iiiif

to get a rexiafel# .grate aist rating* to# npnnimm mtn% to telly fetrt#n#d at tout it tractor## without m f substantial aiaonni of deformation*

If too grate ate# of to# aptotete aye*

pmmm to to toewdf it I# tost to- g£y# toe m p m im m to# non##*

a&ry uetollogmiiite p m w m m W m m & examtet It again wife a mfepoaeo-p# before r e p o r tin g to# grate # i » *

Ordinarily*

g r a in a te # # d e te rm in e d b y this m aerDaoopie e x a m in a tio n w i l l

to te #gp##m#nt wife to### do tormlnatIona feat mm toaad.om istereteepi# t&azain&tlo^f

In the various microaeopte dotormlnatlona of grain # im $: mm% etching te#tol#pa la n-ted to- i#Xi»#fe# to# .grain to u s d a p io i w h ich tedteato- toot to # grate a te # o f to # p r i o r

aattenite was*

On# teoim£«p#* called heat ttohing* 1® based

Oh.to# preferential oxlAatlon of to# grate tooadarlos tote a highly pollgiitd apeotete is. slowly Mated to- an tltvated. terporator#*

Oontrol of to# rate of cooling from above to#

critical teac&rater# 1# to#- feast# o-f a number of similar

all of feife reveal grato site by securing tot atfaratito of eert&to distinctive constituents to to# .grato teutetrtee*

fh#u stow tooted* steal# near 'to# cut##told tea**

peeifcteh will Initiate ir«tefor«bIm fef" the r#|##t£on of to# frctmtoctoid eonetituetit to to# i»to tewMaflto of to#- an#** ■tonlto*

Bach of to# ptosmteateto wixetltwe&te etehee ll^ht

to

to#' dark' etching #uto#told grains*

A# another

#MspX#|; if etoltog is carried out at a rate that do®# not cpite fully harden toe steely a small i»

h

will prtoifitati in to# grain tenteartto*

I of fine pearllte felt .llui pearllte

will eteh dark to co^arisom to to# light etching «rtett#ltle IpmiuiV Hi#

test is & ip##iali##4 grata. size

d#fertenaite% toioh. I#'based on o m ’M P im M m under specified eeteitloftg- to effect-

of grain sis# by & oamontit#

teteeatc in to# grain teutearlto*. feeugh toit test mm om of to# first stetemrilted grate site determinations to be adopted

fey to# Steel ta&urtvy# it Is* as was stated earlier^ & special** ited test m i heuto govswhat restricted te Its applioateoms-# Beeenily m m W m d .of gupergoni# testing has teen %

developed* which will reveal to# average grain sis# of a mtaXXl# object#

felt watted I# not yet widely used to Iteuetry* mmEiAM

%

Srata site- eyepi###

1 'Set of Stegtete. Standard: Fra#tar## 4

Besc^tpg# Eeslsteato ferae©##* with manual or fetew&ti# aontool* ate m tes^sratar# iteiaatef

to®

BM

1070 ttofl

v

AaaM'lod

mmmmm

t o o t mpmXmm stobo# 1 to X440 ?$, to ld A t to«$*orfc*. to fo IS

.and nmton sponeh* Hoot MpmXrnmx nmtib&& 2 to 1&&0 f M to M a t tompof1#**

toro W

and » i i » ipimeh:*Boat apoeiason mt&to? 0 to 1440 T* in tto toroao#

w ith opooiton m&stor 1 * A t tli# tin t# o^Mtotom tmMmw 1 1# roaovod -fo r ^utonoto to g * %t*mm£m-

0 to a fw n a o # a t 0030 F*

A lto v

tto apo-eimoa .to ro s a to to to to toro&e© a to t o ! o f i mima-to# And itom qutonoh into watoro Brook speoimonB nnmtorod l f 2* ® l S in t t o ta p a e t mmh £ » to d o to ra to # toagbnoss rotooo^ . toto rm in e t t o t o o t o o ll

.1##

valuo© o f too th ro #

too StojgtoM Standard F ro etu ro mp®®Xmm to d o *

to rs & to tto - g m t o i H is # o f B p o e iw m l *

and. i-#

to to & i a 'hrotom and from &mh

to t to ro**

\

ip o a tir o .^aohohtog t o m p o r o u o o d to i t e t 1 o.f th io »

nont* fmmMimw- e&dh of tto rotoatod upmlmnn to a fmmm®

filial* ia at lOQO i* and allow itom to remain te tola faroto# to# 1 tea#*

A t tt o ' « d .of t t o tea#* rose## to®

m&

tool to room ■'temperate## * t o lit o #

and mmmXn® # a to #pa#to#n to te # tto

®i#roroop« 'to' totoraito its grain ate#*.

X*

if a t o o l a a r i j t t o ro ia tio n a h i# t ilw t ia . t#a p #ro tero a t •to# tlito o f ^uai&hi*ig and g ro in a te # *

B*. What mro aom# of tto r#atrtet£ona to to# mm o f tto Sofeai4#iim grate .also toifet $*

I t o t are t t o advantage# o f fte o gratead a te s la #?#** aoar## groined ate#X #f

4*

to you a lt a r tto grate, ata# o f aim# t o il# toi^parteg S tf

S*

to to r what B ondittana m m $o\k r e fin e too g ra in B%m of' a t# # ! a t to ^ tr o te r o i- to lo w t to Xowor a r it le m lf

$*

What .grate &£$&# a r# n o rm alte oar a rod fcy to# term f in # grained a t t e l t

% tto ' term ooaroa g rain ed a to e l? B IiW O 0 a A fIII

V ile ll& #. J* E *. B ain* 1* &*!#&$*

fossitftf too ®mfu$t®m. atoms ftom

#r ks# stoat p##&i2#ts*

to# &lm lX&#ity' ’to S 0 » a $ I i t e # % » t #

iitelf* from tto

fast that hmpdmmm in n m d to ^aimr#

tot

to# fa s t is th a t bo 4 ir # a t re la tio n s h ip #s$#to to tw s it. mm® mid hmpdmmmbi%itf*. tiaxdm&m m®f to as

m mmmxm

m t & l or

mad i# wmmXt^* mmmphmd.#

# f to# Tastotan## to- psnttoattoB

•% to#

a t to# point ## testing* .M m d m m th il-ib f mm

to- considered as to# to to w a ic h m s rto to it# m i i t fm m In & o s rta in . mmtt€kmXX 0 i

Soto tort -will ter# this m x t e M . tard»#§ to a dopto

approatateg stout mm ^tartor of m inch below to# tartoo%.at totob'point im p d m m tain## in toto bar# will begin to drop to tow to# obtotoed surface

&

tola ca##* -to#

h m M m u ® vatao# differ, tat too tartanahility it to# #as»*

In

oas#* if too- irto* reuf^.tarii* em# being a. plain

carton ate&i and th» otter a ateMiufewlfManro low alloy s t e e l* b u t o n to c o n ta in in g #*,4# p a r

mmt

o s rb o % a r# b rin e ,

queretod from above their respective tratiaforsmtioa. tompera* .imm®#- too surface taMaeas of to to bar# will to about if U m k m l l 0 unit#-*

However* a baMnes# traver## acres# 'the

disaster of onto bar would pewal that Wm plain carton stool joaintatocd tola surface te&dteaa for not m m - ttom out ptrltf of an inch, tolow tto surface of too round*- whereas too alloy stool maintained too surface hardness almost to the center Of, too round*

In. the example too two steels attain too ®mm i

■ m m i m m h $ p d m m $ tat too hmsdenaMllty of too- alloy steal i# mch greater than, tout of too pinto carbon steel* About too %mm o f to # p resen t te n te ry * Warn In d u s try first began to accept m d u m alloy a tool# in ,tua»b£ty* it t e o a w customary to order steels on to# basis of standardised chem ical com positions which, e^prasaod to# allow able. range o f /

teflysis for each of -to# ate&snte #onfM#r#d. of ii^ortane# in

103U

library school o f u u m m im a , c o lo r a m

siMipoiiit of analysiif -mtom It wm

to# sto#3U-

taite possible* mad indeed frequently occurred* to&b all or most of the specified #to»nt,i would fall on.' toe high, aM e of to# specified rang# to -one heat* toil© to. Another all or most of the specified ©lamenta would, toll' on. to© low ©id# o f .to# allowable range*

ton#* though specifications had been

alt to bo to- Ins-toa###* the two ttaeie m m Actually not simte _lar at all and- would respond quit# differently to to# mmO

tmm.% tmmtimnt*

to -addition* aptoifieattoma based on toe

atahdwdtoed msalyeea- did not tote into- mmmit toe effect# of; .grain ala© * deoxidation pmetloe to to© production of toe atael* or m # .taMotormtoed m m u i& B of residual ©laments. In**too&ueed by to# scrap* and those factor# alto contributed to toe observed variability to toe mopomo -of two stoola; iseet** tog toe earn ©tonlcal ape©Iflcaliana when subjected•to too ®mm beat treatment*

•fhi# # « # difficulty m.M rnmovmtomd by those to# selected their stools-on the- basis of physical .property ©her to published -by to# stool producers * •toe## chart# wen# •pftftred for onto tttntortooil toemioal aimlfii# of stool and went based on data obtained from tonsil© tost specimen# which lied been cut.- from i^itx* d i e m tor bar# that had been hardened

‘ m d snbjeotod to varioiii towering, te#&teA»te#

Suppose* sine#

mm- of the- ©teal# wilt, felly burden only partially throng. A 1-in* ores# section* that the fell liardness extended only

mm tnartor of an inch below the- m pfm ® o f tm bar#

to te m *

ioal proftrti## teterateed on a tost bar out from, to# partially'

te& teaod mentor o f o m h § t a r m m M n o t re p res e n t th® p ro p e r* tie# teat « n M bo dowiopbd to too tarn ateol tiim felly ter#ite€*

the txt# of data of this typt* collected without

duo regard for too- &s*oue»oted tim&mm- of too tost tart* was re s p o n s ib le * to m larg® m am m t* f o r to# w id e ly h e ld M a s te a t oaoli a t# # ! te d -a o-ombtemtion. o f m&ckmlmX p ro p er tie s t a p i to- I t o e l f •#

to to# allay ateol Industry grew* to# intraattog ntistto? o f a lla y ate# I t * etch # lto it # aupte#e€ly m lque to®** .

fe S ta tlo mof »#tenl#iil proportiojt* made to# p ro b le m , m i &#* lection or autatitntlon .o f oteol# far particular m m im - a p « * -plioations mere and .sor# difficult#

'fh# tmm&L to mate**

p » ip # tio n heat treatm ent*. ■iemndlmg a to ife riiib y o f rotponi#

in to # -, treated #to#l parto* sit# a d d e d to to # difficulty*

wm

It (

a ^ a ro fit to s t ttam iom l analysis end m&otanlo&l property

apoelftoab& m # m m m%$ fo r- to# mmmm to ie h ta r # teem pr#*vtously palntod o u t.*- a tetiiftotery solution to toit p ro V tet#

Beginning stout ifSO ■fcte wtallurgiato of tot# amatory began aa- attem pt to solve t M t prabtea- by devaXeptef to# e o rre to tito o f a i# r# # trti# to » and tard teaa w ith mootanioal

propartiaa.#

$ te te a l# id e a waa to to v e ie p & is#teo& o f using,

tardnoa# and m m m p im fin g adorootruotara at a mo&te for pr#^ d ie tin g , ”t t e response to t e a t treatm en t th a t t t e t t o e l wcmM

tev#* and. for a prodtatloa control tost an teat treated part#* *£h±® correlation hat oosio to to expressed by to# on# word* t a r d e ta b illty -#- H g rd O n a b llity servo# toe m e ta llu rg is t mmU m

integral amlouXu# ter?## Wm mtotsnatioian* that It* it

m m up many factor#- relative to ate©!* -each,of which is difficult* if net im p o ssib le to evaluate' a le rt# *, an d 'p resen ts m simple answer to-many fabricating and tea t irea ting 'opem ~

t i 6m'm 'fh# e a r lie s t m p d e n a b lX Iiy te s t « s fra c tu r e

te a t* white -was am ounted to.

teat abort*

$/4*to*^I&is&tor tars are

the p e n e tra tio n *

to this

1064*

brim

i m m

uuiator of definite- amstendbljsteg togpamtatad'*

-a

fta tar# m m

frm atero d a f t e r tM # treatm en t anil- te a fra c tu re s a re compered

to. a standard, f o r grato #ls$ deto-msitoatieB-*

tapte. o f tardte*

tog to tee bar 1a determined by & mssrustata

fte steel is

teen rated according to tee n m m r M o t values of grain alga \

■end penetration of hardentog*

'

4

'toe- teat' requires considerable

anil-and. ej^erlenee to obtain reliable' -results and la not widely

used* Itab olironologically* and still te# tost reliable

of the Jmr&emblliiy teste* & m $ the H^enrw- teats*

fh# pro**

eadore to tela test is to fuente a aeries of bars of varying bisies from the p ro p er te m p tre te r% c u ttin g te a m 'to h a lf * and

tlien m jo m in g a hardness t r m m m

along m radius of the bar*

Ghtof drwtate of tele meteod. is tee amount of time m m o m p f to

prooemi-

enough

tar# o f

varlouss s l s s s

to

get

a

good to d to

cation of tee tardenabilitf of tee steel to. -pallor* to tee jom m sin ce tee d e w e to p m e n bof th e s e early test# a co n sid erab le mmtmr of tardanab-Illty tests* u sin g ,a w id evariety of speetaexi teapot that are beat treated to m

vmrfety 0# total titaA* hmm im m d w l s t a *

Bom o f the©-#*

tamely* to# Shepherd die#* Imt* G o m * m& loefeweii^toefe* lit

0#p#0lal!y suited for tateemaMlity determinations on the

teallew*tarlemimg steels*

fteera* stab a# tee'air'harden*

s M U t y teat* art teat suited f m

deep tatatolng steel# *-

fc# most widely wiied-test is teat devised b y tomlny telte is

tapeeialXy toll suited for testing medlmm^b&Menlmg steels •uteto the tostito’sito deetr not #w#@d about four tatees* It wee ivmt tm year# after- tee &t%toi&i$&3&ht of ’tee toistny teat in- XtfS teat tee m m o x m k mtmMw*gI.®%0 4®mmtreted teat tee meh&tatai properties of different Xow-*alloy steels eould 'be a l o w l y correlated with taidmem# ■sni teat tee particular t e « l t a l analyst# of te# steel had

little offact cm this oorro-latlon* was

Since tele- i?w tm#* It

passible to me# the Xesilmy test* together with tee

kuotrltage of te# pjedtaipXto mmtarlytfxg te# relrttotahl# -ha* tween carton* alloying elements* and taMamtiMXity that Industry had acquired from about a dec ado of research amd

laboratory work* In devoloping tee 1 *1 ** or t r i p l e s Xley, steels for tee Oonaermtlon of critically short -alloying eXtotots srneh as nickel ata chromium during tee last way* Weed in tele maimer* the lomJny teat with Its speed* cheapness* and ready repro&uclbility of result# of* feted a ttesftedcms- time- a w t o g over tei .»re»€#teil0d t M

extensive mechanical and aewlee testing teat had* before .tele time* been t o M the bas-i# for aubrti tubing one steel

■for atetter*

It

itell not be m m m d teat tee Jbnilny teat



ta# no starteos&ngs* for l i k e all test# It it subject' to o w m ro toir#t«e#4 in tabling| fmrteor it tell# the teSta**

ability of a route bar* and fete correlation teiwota tele do** termlnatioii and. te# teSotefellity of' a differently teaped -to#tIon i# not very good to# vary reliable*

A im # mad' teia . ,.

la vary i^orttet* tea tame hardness value at various point# on tee-, test bar© .of- -two different ate#la does not toouto tee &mm rn m im M o g m p h M g b rm -M im # hoaoo* tteu|p-.tte tomtoy onA

qtioseh curve ml$bt to&le&bo -imffleleni similarity of grata Atitutlorn of ota- ateel for bte ote#r#. to aotmal pmotit#- tte Autotitufcion may ffeire to bo m serious error*

to illustrate*:

m martensite eomtmita&ted wlte pearlIt© will temper' quite

differently fm m a.-pleo# m f tea sate -tertoea# where tee « • ‘tonalto la eontamlfmtM- with tetoit#* Ite tominy and otter currently used Imrdenability teats are not te# complete and. ■final assuiter to tee problem of #te#l tolo&tion » d outetltu* tio ii* b u t they e o ta titu te extrem ely u s e fu l too-te teen used 1

with. an awaxena-ss of their limitation#* 1% ha# been |u#t a little over five fm m m state tee

tad tee Ameriom Iron and--Steel toabitute first

A g re e dnp&m M tm dm rM for- .o rd erin g steel# bytaMonaMllty

#pa-elfi#mtl0iui a# well $$ teemleal analyelo speaifltatlota* Survey# of user# of alloy# ate#Is I ® # a t o m teat distortion, • ■wiirffeg .and eraelstog ! ® s teen reduced as-well at tee.matte# o f 'teat# teat mm' to o lowto testability to re s p o n dsrnti#*

ftatertly to proto# bion teat treatments,

fh® boat rnmplmm

tlta for tel# aonis# to lit in tea fact teat ordering ateoXi

'toy to rta m a to iltf s p ttlfte a tio a #

mmx’l tB to w dtatiag

to# limit# m m m ®%*## to totrm#! tfe&tw&i h f m air#r&$# tf t# ftf _tent o f tot #£*#«& noBsmXXj ©toewa