King Alfred's Old English Version of St. Augustine's Soliloquies Turned into Modern English

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King Alfred's Old English Version of St. Augustine's Soliloquies Turned into Modern English

Table of contents :
Abbreviations of Terms
Abbreviations of Sources
Introduction
1. Manuscript
2. Date and Provenance of the MS
3. Language
4. Orthography
5. Syntax
6. Sources
7. Relation of the Sol to the OE Boethius
8. Authorship, Relation to Alfred’s Other Works
9. Bibliography
10. Principles of this edition
Text
Commentary
Glossary

Citation preview

King Alfred's Version of St. Augustine's S o l i l o q u i e s

ftms

^ nfme fam jnim

nxxVr önjoJK* fiM feano}^ bl^i^ fttböÄ'on Xuin (vr Oi^'jt fimi ini w fi^gvji «uV

cm

nwkf

- 'Vci

jinr

Cftfraf.fcejKi^W^-^/l^wn.

cVnmr^Srböftnif iTt4)Jfto ancrum- ^püfc«*^ j i r ^ u n ^ ^ j l f ^ o j ^ . ' i ^ i f t r fCtp M jnihfmo irfoni^mrjeAoisil f]»

ine k r ^ % l|c pol^

t^ mali^f.

Ms. Cotton Vitellius A.XV, fol. 20b. (Reproduced by permission of the trustees of the British Museum)

King Alfred's Version of St- Augustiners Soliloquies O

Edited by

THOMAS A. CARNICELLI

HARVARD UNIVERSITY CAMBRIDGE,

PRESS

MASSACHUSETTS

1969

© Copyright 1969 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College All rights reserved Distributed in Great Britain by Oxford University Press, London Publication of this book has been aided by a grant from the Hyder Edward RoUins Fund Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 69-12719 Printed in Great Britain

This work is dedicated to William Alfred and Morton Bloomfield, for their advice and encouragement.

CONTENTS Abbreviations of Terms

ix

Abbreviations of Sources

xi

Introduction

1

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Manuscript Date and Provenance of the MS Language Orthography Syntax Sources Relation of the Sol. to the OE Boethius Authorship, Relation to Alfred's Other Works Bibliography Principles of this edition

1 3 3 19 24 28 29 38 40 43

Text

47

Commentary

99

Glossary

109

ABBREVIATIONS OF TERMS LANGUAGES AND DIALECTS AN Angl. Gmc. Kt. Lat. ME Merc.

Anglo-Norman Anglian Germanic Kentish Latin Middle English Mercian

North. nWS OE OF ON WS

The following are sometimes added dialects: com. e 1 Prim.

Northumbrian non-West-Saxon Old English Old French Old Norse West-Saxon

before the names of languages and common early late Primitive

GRAMMATICAL TERMS acc. adj. adv. art. comp. conj. dat. decl. def. dem. fem. gen. imp. impers.

accusative adjective adverb article comparative conjunction dative declension definite demonstrative feminine genitive imperative impersonal

ind. indecl. indef. inf. instr. inter. interj. masc. neg. neut. nom. num. opt. part.

indicative indeclinable indefinite infinitive instrumental interrogative interjection masculine negative neuter nominative numeral Optative participle IX

pers. pl. prep. pres. pret. pron. rel. sb. sg. Str. subj. superl. vb. wk.

person plural preposition present preterite pronoun relative substantive Singular strong subjunctive Superlative verb weak

ABBREVIATIONS OF SOURCES All references not specifically identified by author or title are to sections of the Introduction of this edition. Bo. Bor. Brun. B-T, B-TS

Co. End.

Ha.

Ho. Hu. J-M Jo.

Alfred. King Alfred's Old English Version of Boethius, ed. Walter J. Sedgefield. Oxford, 1899. Borinski, Ludwig. Der Stil Königs Alfreds. Leipzig, 1934. Brunner, Karl. An Outline of Middle English Grammar, trans. Grahame K. W. Johnston. Cambridge, Mass., 1963. Bosworth, Joseph, and T. Northcote Toller. An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Oxford, 1898. Supplement by Toller. Oxford, 1921. Cockayne, Oswald, ed. "The Blooms of King Alfred," The Shrine, 163-204. London, 1864-1869. Endter, Wilhelm, ed. König Alfreds des grossen Bearbeitung der Soliloquien des Augustins. Bibliothek der Angelsächsischen Prosa, 11. Leipzig, 1922. Hargrove, Henry L., ed. King Alfred's Old English Version of Saint Augustiners Soliloquies. Yale Studies in English, 13. New York, 1902. Translated, Yale Studies in EngUsh, 22. New York, 1904. Holthausen, Ferdinand. Review of Hargrove's edition of the Sol., Beiblatt zur Anglia, 15 (1904), 321-328, 362-364. Hulme, William H. Die Sprache der Altenglischen Bearbeitung der Soliloquien Augustins. Darmstadt, 1894. Jordan, Richard. Handbuch der mittelenglischen Grammatik. Revised by Heinrich C. Matthes. Heidelberg, 1934. Jost, Karl. "Zu Textkritik der altenglischen Soliloquienbearbeitung," Beiblatt zur Anglia, 31, 259-272, 280-290; 32, 8-16.

M. M-M

Mos.

Migne, Jacques P., ed. Patrologia Latina. Moore, Samuel. Historical Outlines of English Sounds and Inflections. Revised by Albert H. Marckwardt. Ann Arbor, 1957. Moss6, Fernand A. A Handbook of Middle English, trans. J. A. Walker. Baltimore, 1952.

Xll

Oros. Fast.

Q-W S-B Sehlem.

Wülf.

ABBREVIATIONS

OF

SOURCES

Alfred. King Alfred's Orosius, ed. Henry Sweet. Early English Text Society, 79. London, 1883. Alfred. King Alfred's West-Saxon Version of Gregorys Pastoral Care, ed. Henry Sweet. Early English Text Society, 45, 50. London, 1871. Quirk, Randolph, and Charles L. Wrenn. An Old English Grammar. 2nd ed. London, 1958. Sievers, Eduard, and Karl Brunner. Altenglische Grammatik. Halle, 1951. Schlemilch, Willy. Beiträge zur Sprach und Orthographie Spätaltengl. Sprachdenkmäler der Übergangszeit. Studien zur englischen Philologie (Morsbach), 34. Halle, 1914. Wülfing, Johann E. Die Syntax in den Werken Alfreds des Grossen. 2 vols. Bonn, 1894, 1901.

King Alfred's Version of St. Augustine's Soliloquies

INTRODUCTION § 1. MANUSCRIPT The sole surviving MS of the OE Soliloquies is housed in the British Museum. It is the first entry in the BeowulfcoA&x, Cotton Vitellius A. XV, and occupies folios 4a through 59b, according to Förster's numeration.i a. Description.^ The MS is easily legible, except for the first and last folios. It appears to be the work of a single scribe, although corrections have been occasionally added between the lines in another, later hand. A rubricator has gone Over the text up to folio 24a, marking in red the first letters of sentences, the abbreviation for pzt, the nota 7, the i of ic, the g of god, and occasionally other letters. Punctuation (points), accent marks (acutes and circumfiexes), and capitalization have been used with no apparent system. There are usually 18 lines to a folio. Each folio measures at present, after damage to the margins by fire, about 200 by 130 mm., and the actual written Space measures 157 by 100 mm. Corrections. Erroneous forms are rarely erased or crossed out in this MS. In most cases, they are left as written, and the correct forms are simply added after them. This fact is sometimes useful in the consideration of textual Problems. Examples: 51.11, «e mid swece, ne mid earum (MS ne mid spece earum ne mid earum)-, 52.4, pu swiöe wel ricsast (MS pu swide wel riestat riesast); 62.19, buton be gesegenum (MS buton ge be gesegenum); 81.29, Foröam pes nis nan tweo (MS Foröam pes nis man nan tweo); 94.5, pset hym a pincö ( M S p x t me hym apincö); etc. b. Condition of the text. Although there are a number of obvious gaps in it, there is little reason to doubt that the text of the Sol. is essentially complete as it stands in the MS. The MS may be corrupt at the Start, since the text begins somewhat abruptly: Gaderode me ponne kigclas, etc. Endter 3 suggests that some sort of 1. Max Förster, Die Beowulf-Handschrift (Leipzig, 1919), § 1. A handwritten transcript of the MS was made in the seventeenth Century by Franciscus Junius and is now housed in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, where it is classitied as Junius 70. This transcript adds nothing to our knowledge of the text and may be safely disregarded. 2. I am indebted for parts of this description to W. H. Hulme, Die Sprache der Altenglischen Bearbeitung der Soliloquien Augustins (Darmstadt, 1894), pp. 1-2, and to N. R. Ker, Catalogue of MSS Containing Anglo-Saxon (Oxford, 1957), p. 280. This edition has been prepared from photostatic reproductions of the MS. 3. Wilhelm Endter, ed., König Alfreds des grossen Bearbeitung der Soliloquien des Augustins (Leipzig, 1922), p. viii. 1

2

INTRODUCTION § 1

title page may originally have been attached to the MS. The most recent commentators'* regard the text of the Preface itself as complete, and yet the absence of a subject for Gaderode, and the presence of ponne, which could refer to a previous sentence, suggest that the beginning of the Preface may be missing. The length and coherence of the Preface as it now stands would argue against the possibility of any substantial loss. If anything is indeed missing from the beginning of the MS, it must also have been missing from the exemplar. The fact that the G of Gaderode is a large, illuminated capital indicates that the scribe started at the beginning of the text he had before him. The ending of the MS is clearly corrupt, since the final colophon is broken in mid-sentence: {H)xr endiaö pa cwidas pe Mlfred kining alses of pxre bec pe we hataö an . .. The loss here is clearly a matter of only a few words.^ The text breaks off at the bottom of fol. 59b, with the normal lower margin left blank. Rather than violating the margin, the scribe apparently preferred to finish the sentence on a new folio. This new folio, since it would have contained only a few words, would no doubt have been soon detached to be used again. Although the MS gives no indication of them, there are also a number of obvious gaps within the text itself, resulting either from careless transcription by the present scribe, or from corruptions in the exemplar. Often, the loss consists of a word or phrase that can be plausibly reconstructed from the Latin source or from the context. There are also, however, several more substantial omissions from the text. These can rarely be plausibly reconstructed, either in whole or in part, although it is usually possible to make reasonable surmises as to their general contents; see notes on 65.2-3, 66.1-2, 74.26-27, 82.3, 86.1-t, 87.10-11, 92.21ff, 93.26-27, 94.21-24, 95.1-2. Despite these omissions, it is still safe to assume that the text of the Sol. is essentially complete as it stands in the MS. The coherence of Books I and II is not seriously disturbed by textual corruption. The text of Book III is considerably more corrupt, but even it appears to be reasonably complete after it has been rearranged in what must have been its original order; see notes on 92.21 ff., 93.26-27, and 95.1-2 for a discussion of this rearrangement. The announced topic of Book III is the question of the soul's knowledge after death, and this question is fully answered in the text as it stands: first, with the promise that the soul may attain füll knowledge after the last judgment (93.14-95.1); then, with the assertion that the soul will continue to remember what it 4. See Förster, p. 74; Endter, p. viii; Simeon Potter, "King Alfred's Last Preface," Philologica: The Mahne Anniversary Studies (Baltimore, 1949), p. 28. 5. This is the opinion of Förster (p. 74) and Potter (p. 27). Endter (p. viii) raises the possibility that another entire book may be missing, but, as he himself recognizes, this possibility is highly unlikely.

INTRODUCTION § 2

3

knew on earth (95.2-97.2). The last segment of the text (97.2-18) is somewhat lacking in continuity, but it contains no new ideas, and can be easily taken as a conclusion to Book III as it stands in the MS; see notes on 97.2 ff. and 97.14 ff.

§ 2. DATE AND PROVENANCE OF THE MS The evidence of the language and orthography strongly suggests that the MS of the Sol. was written in the Southeast of England during the second quarter of the twelfth Century; see § 3 and 4. It might be possible to define the place of origin even more precisely on the basis of the ex libris inscription at the foot of folio 5a: Hic Uber est Ecclesie beate Marie de Suwika. Quem qui ab eadem abstulerit, vel titulum istum dolose deleuerit n (nec, Cockayne; nisi, Förster) eidem ecclesie condigne (Förster; tandem, Endter) satisfecerit. sit Anathema, maranatha. fiat. fiat. Amen. Amen. This is the distinctive inscription of St. Mary's, Southwick,® a priory of Augustinian canons, founded by Henry I at Portchester in 1133 and moved to nearby Southwick sometime between 1145 and 1153.' Since this inscription is written in a late thirteenth-century hand,® it proves only that the MS of the Sol. was owned by St. Mary's at the end of the thirteenth Century; and yet, it is certainly possible that the MS was actually written at the priory, either in Portchester or Southwick.® Portchester and Southwick are in, or near, the Southeast of England, and St. Mary's priory was established in 1133. St. Mary's was, moreover, a priory of Augustinian canons, who would surely have been particularly interested in MSS of Augustine's works.

§3. LANGUAGE Although the Sol. is almost certainly the work of Alfred the Great, there are few early West-Saxon forms left in the one surviving MS. The language of the MS is basically late West-Saxon, with an admixture of non-West-Saxon and early Middle English forms. The nWS forms are predominantly Kentish; the 6. N. R. Ker, Medieval Libraries of Great Britain (London, 1964), p. 181. The identification of Ecclesie beate Marie de Suwika was first made by O. Cockayne, The Shrine (London, 1864-1869), p. 204. 7. Victoria History of the Counties of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight, III (London, 1908), pp. 159, 162. 8. Ker, Catalogue, p. 280. 9. Förster (p. 55) suggests that the MS was written at Southwick, but he assumes that the priory was established at Southwick, rather than at Portchester, in 1133.

4

INTRODUCTION § 3

eME forms, predominantly Southern. The State of the language indicates that the MS of the Sol. was written in the Southeast of England during the first half of the twelfth Century. "> In this section, a Single number in parentheses indicates the number of times the given form appears in the text. When a form is being compared to a variant, it is followed by two numbers: the first refers to the appearances of the given form; the second, to those of the variant. Thus, cwxde (6-1 e) indicates that cwxde appears 6 times and cwede appears once. The terms of comparison are established by the first item in a hst: -Ixtan (21-15), which follows cwxde (6-le), indicates that -Ixtan appears 21 times and -letan, 15 times. A . EARLY WEST-SAXON FORMS

1. eWS te is occasionally found in the Sol. EXAMPLES: after palatal consonants,/org/e/e«, giet (6); with j-mutation of Io,fyer, comp, adv., gestriende, underpieddan; with i-mutation of ea, dieglum, gegiereö, gegyered(2), gehiere, geiec, ixe {< iec), niehst, ongiereö; with vowel contraction, sie (3). 2. A few /o-speHings in the Sol. may represent eWS forms. EXAMPLES: geliornnian, getiohhod (2), giornnes (2), tiohhasf, also benioöan and stioraö, which may also be explained as nWS (see E. 6, 7 below). 3. The occasional forms with a{< West Gmc. a) before /plus a consonant may have been present in the original MS of the Sol.^^ They may, however, be later additions, reflecting Anglian influence or ME development of normal WS ea; see E. 11 and F. 7. b below. EXAMPLES: aldsta, almihtige, foraldiaö, haldan, haldxnne, scalt (2); also scal (2) with a through analogy with scalt.

B . WEST-SAXON FORMS

Most of the forms in the Sol. show the influence of basic West-Saxon sound-changes. 10. In general, my findings are in accord with those presented by Hulme in Die Sprache der Altenglischen Bearbeitung der Soliloquiens Augustins. Hulme's work is, however, essentially outmoded. For this edition, I have made a complete reexamination of the language of the Sol., relying on more recent scholarship. I am directly indebted to Hulme only for a few specific observations and for large word-counts. 11. Such a-forms often appear in eWS texts, beside forms with normal WS ea. They have been traditionally explained as representing West Gmc. a, which, it has been held, was never fronted to Prim. OE x before / plus a consonant; see Sievers-Brunner § 85 and Anm. 1. Campbell, who feels that fronting did occur in this Position, explains these a-forms as due to Anglian spelling influence; see § 131, 139 n. 1, 258.

INTRODUCTION § 3

5

Voweh of Accented Syllables 1. Prim. Gmc. x > ä: cwxde (6-1 e), -Ixtan, other than preterite (21-15), pxr (35-11), etc.; with x > ea before h, neah (4), neaf (6); with x > ea after palatals, gea (8), ongeat- (6), etc.; with x > ä before w, gesawe (5-2). 2. Breaking of Prim. OE x to ea before / plus a consonant: eall, healdan, wealdan, etc. 3. Diphthongization of front vowels after palatal consonants: with ^ > ea, gesceaft, ongeaton, sceal, etc.; with e > eWS fe > IWS p, giet, gyt, ongytan, etc. 4. Development of a glide between sc- and a back vowel: gesceadwisnes, gesceapen, sceolde, sceotan, etc. 5. /-mutation of Prim. OE ä to xlc (57-5e), xr (78-10), dxl (14-2), nxfre (26-4), etc. 6. z-mutation of fo to eWS fe, IWS p: gestriende, gestryne, gesyhd, wyröe, etc. 7. /-mutation of ea to eWS fe, IWS gehiere, gehyran, gelyfan, -myrran, etc.

Consonants 8. Loss of palatal g before d or n, and with probable compensatory lengthening: asxd, gesxd, ongean (6), sxd- (15), wxn (2); with Kt. e for ä (see E. 1 below), gesed, sed- (11).

C. LATE WEST-SAXON FORMS

Vowels of Accented Syllables 1. IWS p (f) < eWS fe. As shown in A. 1 above, there is little trace of eWS fe in the Sol. Its place has been generally taken by p, even before palatals, where te normally became fin IWS. f does predominate in certain words, but it is far less common than p. EXAMPLES: with p predominant, gelyfan (30-9/), -gyfan (10-3), gyt (24-1), ongytan (57-9), -wyrö, 3sg. (6), etc.; with p predominant before palatals,

dygel (3-1), gesyhd (5-2), -lyhtan (5), myht{€), vb. (10-5), etc.; with l predominant, hi (85-52>'), -mihtig (5), si (41-1), etc.12 12. The heavy preponderance of hi and si, and of hwi and pi (see n. 15), indicates a tendency toward unrounding at the word end in low sentence stress.

6

INTRODUCTION § 3

2. IWS y < eOE i. In IWS, i was often rounded to y in the vicinity of labial consonants and/or before r;^^ see S-B §22, Anm. 2, Camp. §318. This tendency has clearly affected the language of the SoL, although it seems to have been strongly resisted in certain words. EXAMPLES: with apparent rounding, byddan (12-4/), clypian (9-1), lybban (18-6), scyp (10-1), wyllan (7-3), etc.; with apparent absence of rounding, hwilce (21-lj), wilnian (59-2), witan (95-2), simle (21), etc. 3. IWS y < eOE i in low stress. IWS y for low-stressed i is frequently found in the Sol., although /-spelHngs predominate in several common words. EXAMPLES: with y predominant, byö (69-10, gyf (85-6), hym (45-12), hyre (10-1), hys (86-22), hyt (130-23), etc.; with i predominant, hine (42-19j), is (98-32), sint (22-2), (77-1), wit (16-4), wiö (12-2), etc. 4. IWS f < eOE p. Unrounding of p before palatals and palatal groups and in the words cyning and cynn was a general IWS change; see S-B § 31, Anm. 2, Camp. § 316. In certain IWS texts, particularly those of the EastSaxon area, p was also unrounded to f by isolative change; see Schlemilch, pp. 12-13, Camp. § 317. Both types of unrounding can be found in the SoL, illustrated directly and through inverted spellings (see C. 2, n. 13; C. 13). One should note, however, that this spelling evidence is not extensive, and that unrounding of IWS p {< eWS fe) is also rarely found, even before palatals (see C. 1 above). These facts suggest that unrounding was not a strong influence upon the language of the Sol. EXAMPLES: before palatals and palatal groups, bricst, drigum, drihten (18),

kigclas, tihte, öincan (57-1 j), wiscan; in the words cyning and cynn, hing (3-5), kining (2), kinn (1-2); by isolative chaxigt,^^ firörige, gefirn (2), geminde (3-2), gesingode, hlistenne, mettrimnesse (2), onbrirde, spirian (1-2), winsum(3-1), etc. 16 13. There is divided opinion as to whether i was also subject to rounding in these conditions: Moore-Marckwardt (§ 27.12) and Sievers-Brunner (§ 22 Anm. 2) feel that it was not; Schlemilch (p. 22) and Campbell (§ 318) assert that it was. In the Sol. at least, the evidence is quite strongly against rounding of i. j-spellings predominate in only two words, lyf (27-9/) and hyred (2), while i-spellings predominate heavily elsewhere: gewitan (J-\y), hwil (28), min (43-8), swide (69), wis (12-3), wisdom (34-10), etc. Since there is no clear tendency to round i in the Sol, the occasional forms with y for i m i ^ t be explained as inverted spellings resulting from the opposite process, unrounding of y (see C. 4 below). S-B notes that texts which show unrounding of p have frequent inverted spellings with y for i, and gives the form lyf- as an example. 14. The absence of ^'-spellings for pis- is puzzling, since such forms were common even in eWS. 15. Other i-spellings in the Sol need not represent IWS unrounding. The Instrumentals hwi (20-2>') and pis (6) appear as variants even in eWS. Unrounded foröi (26) and/)/(11-6) may be due to analogy with these forms and/or to a tendency toward unrounding at the word-end in low stress (see n. 12). 16. Note that the forms gemunde and spurian, with French u for y, also appear in the Sol., a proof that the rounded sound was retained in at least these two words, despite the spellings with i; see § 4. B. l.a.

INTRODUCTION § 3

7

5. In IWS, the groups weor-, wor-, and wyr- tended to fall together in wur--, see S-B § 113, 117-118, Camp. §320-324. This change is illustrated in the Sol. directly, through inverted spellings (in which weor-, wor-, and wyrinterchange), and through analogous spellings (in which weo-, wo-, wu-, and wy- interchange in positions other than before r). (a) Forms with wur-: forwuröan (2), gewurSan (2), wurdum, wurld (5), wurde, adj., wurölicor] also weuruld (2), evidently a compromise between wurld and weorld, and weirulde, possibly a misspelling of weuruld, with one stroke of the u omitted (Hulme § 11.2). (b) Inverted spellings: forweorht, geweorden, licworöe, weord (2), worce, woröe, adj., wyröian. (c) Analogous spellings: wyniende; swotol(4), swytol, which may represent either IWS swutol, which does not appear in the Sol, or IWS sweotol (14); also swetol (2) and swxtol- (2), which may have IKt. e (se) for y (see E. 2 below), if they are not mere scribal errors. 6. In IWS, ea was often smoothed to e before velar consonants or after palatals; see S-B § 121, 123, Camp. § 312-314. This change is occasionally indicated by the speUing of the Sol. EXAMPLES: hehfedras, hehst (14), from IWS unmutated heahst (see Camp. § 658, n. 6), nehst, from IWS unmutated neahst (see Camp. § 674, n. 4), scel (2), wexaö-, with subsequent ME ei (see F. 3 below), meihte (2). 7. In IWS (and Angl.), the o of low-stressed words such as hwonne, pone, and ponne often appears as a, apparently because of the lOE falling together of a and o in unaccented syllables (see D. 2 below). This a in turn underwent a peculiar development to x, so that the forms hwxnne, pxne (perhaps due to analogy with pxs, pxm), and pxnne are frequently found. The common form mxnig may also represent this development, if it is not due to /-mutation. See S-B § 79, Anm. 3 and Camp. § 380 for accounts of these changes. In the Sol., low-stressed o appears occasionally as a, x, and e (with common OE e < xm unaccented syllables, or Kt. e < x—see E. 1 below). EXAMPLES: with a, hwanhwugu, pane (5), panne; with x, mxnig (2), pxne (2); with e, hwenne (2), pen(n)e. 8. The compromise spelhng eig is often used in IWS (and INorth.) texts to represent the diphthong formed through the combination of e with vocalized palatal g; see S-B § 126.2, 214.2, Camp. § 269. This spelling is occasionally found in the Sol. EXAMPLES: beigra, seige, smeigan (from smegan, on w h i c h see Camp. § 314, n. 1), weig (8). 9. In IWS, ne- regularly appears for ny- in forms of nyllan; see Camp. § 265, S-B § 428, Anm. 2. This change is invariably found in the Sol. EXAMPLES: nel{l)e (6), nellad (5), nelt.

8

INTRODUCTION § 3

10. In IWS, the group sei- regularly appears as syl- or sil-\ see Camp. § 325-326, S-B § 124. This change is often found in the Sol. EXAMPLES: sile (3), sillest, silsf, silf (9), sylf (6), beside seif {Ii). Vowels of Unaccented Syllables 11. The endings of superlatives are frequently syncopated in IWS; see S-B § 161 and Anm., Camp. § 352. Syncopated forms are normally found in the Sol. EXAMPLES: aldsta, best, betst, hehst, Ixst, wyrst, etc. 12. The change of unaccented ig to i (i) is especially common in IWS (and IKt.), although examples of it appear in all dialects and periods of OE; see Camp. § 267. This change is occasionally found in the Sol. EXAMPLES: xlmihtian, xnihwile, dysi, disilice, fyliö (with WS parasitic -ig> -/-), halie, mani (2), manifealde, mgestxöpie; with inverted spelling, hwig. 13. Occasional y for unaccented i in the Sol. is an inverted spelling, resulting from the general fluctuation between p and l in accented syllables or, more particularly, from the unrounding of accented p; see C. 1-4 above. EXAMPLES: enyg, folgyan, folgyge, gemetgyend, gewityg, wlityg. Consonants 14. IWS (and IKt.) loss of t in groups of three unlike consonants appears occasionally in the Sol. See Camp. § 477.1, 2 on this change. EXAMPLES: before s, best (3), forlxst (3), gemylsa, hxst (2), ongyst (2), etc.; between s and another consonant, gefasnod, soöfxsnes (3). 15. IWS (and IKt., INorth.) unvoicing of -ng, final or before voiceless s o r p , is occasionally indicated by the spelling of the Sol. See S-B §215, Camp. § 450, 480.3 on these changes. EXAMPLES: kincg, pinc (2), pincg (11); also öingö (3), an inverted spelling for öincö. 16. Unvoicing of velar g, final or at the syllable-end, is common in IWS and IKt., uncommon in lAngl., except in the form genoh; see S-B §214.1, Camp. § 446. The product of unvoicing is usually spelled h, but the compromise spellings gh and hg are also used; see S-B § 214, Anm. 6. Graphic confusion of g and h resulting from this change leads to sporadic use of h for palatal g or medial velar g; see Camp. § 447. Unvoicing is occasionally indicated by the spelling of the Sol. EXAMPLES: genoh (12), wah (2); with h for palatal g, xlmihtih- (2), dyhle, gemxhö; with hg for medial velar g, eahgan, hohg- (3). 17. IWS (and IKt.) loss of r in sprecan appears occasionally in the Sol. See S-B § 180, Camp. § 475 on this change. EXAMPLES: spec, spece (2), specon.

INTRODUCTION § 3

9

18. IWS unvoicing of palatal c before -ö (or -jr) is found twice in the Sol. See S-B § 359.5, Camp. § 483 on this change. EXAMPLES: sehd, wrehö.

Grammatical Forms 19. In IWS, -st is frequently extended to the second Singular past subjunctive forms of weak verbs; see Camp. § 752. This change is often found in the Sol. EXAMPLES: ic Wolde nu pzt pu me reahtest; gyf öu hwilc xnlic wiflofodest; peaö pu me nane ma ne sedest; etc.

20. In IWS (and Angl.), -e is sometimes extended to the nominative Singular forms of nouns ending in -nes{s)-, see S-B §258, Anm. 1, Camp. § 592 (f). Several forms in the Sol. may be due to this process, if they do not represent a more general ME development (see F. 13 below). EXAMPLES: ponne cymö me peak sum gedrefnesse; pu pe zart seo hehsten sodfsestnesse; hweöer clennesse ponne dead wurde; etc.

D . GENERAL LATE OLD ENGLISH FORMS

Vowels of Accented Syllables 1. In the course of the eleventh Century OE ea [xib] and ea [xa] were monophthongized to their first elements, but this change was not generally represented in the standardized spelling of OE texts; see Camp. § 329, M-M § 52, Brun. § 10, J-M § 58, 81. Traditional spelling remains strong in the Sol. There are, however, sporadic examples of ä for OE ea, and several inverted spellings, showing that the graphs ea and x represented the same sound at the time of the MS. Frequent sea for OE ea also seems to indicate monophthongization, by calling attention to the [sei] and [le] sounds; see Hulme, pp. 29, 62. a. ä for OE ea: xge (2), xll (2), xlmihtig- (4), xd (3), which may also be explained as nWS (see E. 3 and n. 26), xrt; apparently with nWS e for x (see E. 1), der, perf(3). b. ea for OE ä (inverted spellings): forheafdnes, gears, heafst (4), heaft, leasan (< Ixssan), togeadere (2). c. xa for OE ea-.^'' xac (45), xage (23), xall (60), xart (11), fxawe (3), gescxaft (2), pxah (5), etc. 17. The spelling so for OE eo in the Sol. is apparently due to analogy with these xa spellings; see Hulme, p. 32. It has no phonological significance. Examples: xom (3), seord-,

geheornod, hseo, hxom, twxoge, twxonunga, twxost, wseord-.

10

INTRODUCTION § 3 Vowels of Unaccented Syllables

2. In lOE, the unaccented back vowels a, o, and u all feil together in one sound, and the three symbols are freely interchangeable in some IWS and IKt. MSS; see Camp. § 49, 377. Interchange of the symbols is quite widespread in the Sol. a. -an, -un for -on, pret. pl.: forletan, sceolun, witan etc. b. -an for -um, dat. sg./pl.: eagan, pl. (8), halgan, pL, lytlan, sg., etc. c. -a, -o for -u: dura, acc. sg., treowo, acc. pl., tungla, nom. pl., etc. d. -o, -u for -a: bebodu, gen. pl., genu, adv., treowo, gen. pl. e. -ad, -ud for -od in weak verbs: afandud (2), gegadrad, polade, etc. f. interchange in sufiixes: a for o, öanan, waraö, etc.; o for a, buton (freq.), seiden, etc.; u for o, furöur, swidust, etc. g. interchange in Compounds: o for a, lichoma (2); o for u,fultume\ u for a, xtsumne, licuma (10). 3. By the end of the eleventh Century, OE unaccented a, o, u, and e had all fallen together into one sound, which came to be written e, although traditional spelling obscured the extent of this change in eleventh-century MSS; see Moore, Language, IV, pp. 244-247, M-M §62.1, Camp. § 379. This change is frequently found in the Sol, represented directly or through inverted spellings. a. Verbs e for a, o, or u: for -an, 'mi.,forlxten (2), gehealden, etc.; for -on, pret. pl., hxfden, spureden; for -ast, 2 sg., leofest; for -a, imp. sg., fagene. a. 0, or M for e: for -en, subj. pl., deman, gelyfun, wiston, etc.; for -en, past p&Tt., forhatan, geweordon, etc.; for -ende, pres. Tpaxt., farande, fultumiunde, scynunde; for -est, 2 sg., leornodost, tweodast; for -ed, past part., alyfad; for -e, subj. sg., leoga. b. Nouns e for a: nom./acc. pl. fem., bysne, gewittnesse, sawle; nom./acc. pl. masc., deorlinges, hlafordes (3); stoclife, g. pl. e for u: lufe, nom. sg. (2), wedere, nom. pl. neut., wude, acc. sg. a for e: dat. sg., bysena, hama, pearfa, wurlda; larewas, gen. sg., peawa, instr. sg. c. Adjectives e for a: nom. sg. masc. wk., betere, cuöre, unbliöre; gen. pl., goodene, hyre,pzre-, nom./acc. pl. fem., ealle (7), nane (2), odre (3), etc.; for -an, halren, maren (2). e for m: nom./acc. pl. neut., ece (3), hefige, odre (6), etc.; gewitendlice, nom. sg. fem. 18. The change of vowel must have been subsequent to the change of -m to -n, since u was well preserved before m; see Campbell § 373, 378. On -m > -n in the Sol. see D. 4 below.

INTRODUCTION § 3

11

a for c: gen. sg. fem., pxra (2), pissa (2); dat. sg. fem., ealra, para, pissa; nom./acc. pl. neut., ealla (2), hala (2); dygela, acc. sg. fem., hehsta, nom. sg. fem. wk., ofermetta (2), nom. sg. masc. str.

Consonants 4. By the end of the eleventh Century inflectional -m had become -n in unstressed syllables and in the pronoun pam; see Moore, Language, IV, pp. 236-266, esp. pp. 243, 248, S-B § 187, Camp. § 378. This change is quite common in the SoL, represented directly and through inverted spellings.i® a. -n for -m: for -um, dat. sg./pl.,^*' eagan (3), gesewenan, getxsan, etc.; for -um, with subsequent ME loss of -n (see F. 9 below), hwilce, sxgena (2); forpan (2), pan. b. -m for -n\ infinitives, amirram, lybbam, weordam (3), etc.; weak declension, eadegam, gewisram, nxdram, ylcam (3), etc.; syööam (4).

Grammatical Forms 5. By analogy with the masculine (-e) and feminine (-e < -a, through lOE levelling) forms, -e was frequently extended in lOE to previously uninflected nominative (and accusative) forms of strong neuter adjectives; see M-M § 86, S-B § 293, Anm. 3, Camp. § 641. This change is quite common in the Sol. EXAMPLEs: ealle (10), hale (7), hwilce (2), manifealde, etc. 6. Analogical extension of -an to nominative singular and genitive plural forms of weak nouns and adjectives appeared sporadically in lOE, but never became a significant change; see S-B §276, Anm. 5, 304, Anm. 1, 2, Q-W § 54, Camp. § 656. This change appears occasionally in the Sol. EXAMPLES: n o m . sg., geleafan, halgan, hehstan (3), lichaman (3); g e n . p l . , eagan, wisan. 7. In lOE, the dative plural forms heom and preom sometimes appear for him andprim; see S-B § 324, Anm. 3, Camp. § 703. These lOE forms appear occasionally in the Sol. EXAMPLES: heom (18), preom; w i t h to f o r eo (see E. 5 b e l o w ) , hiom, priom. 19. Occasional spellings involving m and n seem to be mere mechanical errors, although the change of -m to -n may have contributed to the confusion of the two letters: -n for stable -m, heon, wisdon; m > < n initially or medially, amcras, mser, manre, scynan (< scyman, sb.), primnesse ( < prinnesse). 20. On the change in vowels, see D. 2.b below and n. 18.

12

INTRODUCTION § 3 E. NON-WEST-SAXON FORMS

At some point in its history, the text of the Sol. came under strong Kentish influence.2i The great majority of the nWS forms in the MS may be plausibly explained as Kentish. Many may also be explained as Anglian, but there are very few forms in the Sol. that appear to be definitely Anglian.

Vowels of Accented Syllables 1. The most obvious dialectal feature in the Sol. is the frequent appearance of e in forms where the WS sound was ä. All of these e-forms may be explained as Kt., since J of whatever origin was raised to 1 in Kt.; see Camp. § 288-290. Some of them may also be explained as due to the more limited Angl, raising of ä. a. e < ä. For Prim. Gmc. x, WS x, or its derivatives, are normally found in the Sol. Forms with nWS e are, however, extremely common. EXAMPLES: with e predominating, ondredan, other than preterite (9-lx), sprec-, pret. pl. (6), were (40-7), weron (13-3), etc.; see B. 1 for words with x predominating. For ä, the /-mutation of Prim. OE ä, WS x is normally found in the Sol., although forms with e are also common, e was normal in Kt. and, before a dental or palatal consonant, in Angl.; see S-B §97, Anm. 1, Camp. §292. Most of the examples in the Sol. could represent the Angl, change. EXAMPLES: with e frequent or predominating, den- (12-2«), {ge)leran (1418), (ge)tecan, present stem (8-9), hei and derivatives (6-6), etc.; see B. 5 for words with x predominating. WS X {< xg) is occasionally spelled with Kt. e in the Sol. EXAMPLES: (ge)sed- (12-16x). h. e < X. For Prim. OE x, the Sol. normally has WS x, although forms with e are also quite common, e is normal in Kt. texts, and in certain Mercian texts (notably the Vespasian Psalter) of the West-Midland area; see S-B § 52, Camp. § 164-169. EXAMPLES: creft {\l-lx) Jeder (10-8), hefd- (5-14), hefö- (7-21) and hefst-^^ (2-13), hwet (8-57), hweöer^^ (47-21), des (8-88), wes (7-18), etc. 21. Although the date of this influence upon the text cannot be convincingly established, there is some slight evidence to suggest a date in the lOE period. A few IWS or lOE forms appear to have been affected by Kt. changes: with Kt. e for IWS p (see E. 2.b, c), cwest, gef, hera, underpaed, wele, wef, with Kt. e for the graph y in IWS swytol (see C. 5.c), swxtol-, swetol-\ with Kt. e for lOE x (see D. l.a), der, perf; with Kt. e for IWS x (see C. 7), hwe(n)ne, penne; with Kt. to for lOE eo (see E. 5), hiom, priom. 22. The forms hefÖ and hefst are definitely Kt. Normal Merc. forms are hafaö, hafast. 23. The form hweder is, however, also common in IWS texts; see S-B § 52, Anm. 2.

INTRODUCTION § 3

13

c. X for I. As a result of sound-changes of $ to e, inverted spellings, with 3e for §, were common in Kt. and, to a lesser extent, in Angl.; see Camp. § 288-289, S-B § 55, Anm. This nWS tendency to regard x and e as equivalent graphs is prominent in the Sol. X for com. OE e\dxö {2),forlxt, pret. sg., gedxst, hxr (8), ondrxd, pret. sg., sxcö, wxnst, etc. X for com. OE e: xft (9), andxtta, bxtre, nxse, adv. (2), sxlf, etc.; before «,24 xnde, xndebyrdlice (2), xndian, gelxnde, mxn, wxndan; after 1^,25 cwxdan, pres. (11), gecwxden, gedwxlian, wxg (5). 2. By the Start of the tenth Century p had become e in Kt.; see S-B § 31, Anm. 1, Camp. § 288-290. Occasional e (x) for com. OE p is the only certain evidence of this change in the Sol. If, however, Kt. influence affected the text at a fairly late date, then several other forms may have Kt. e for IWS p. a. e {x) for com. OE p: xmbe (2), etnbe (6), geberaö, Ixste, vb., lest, vb., menige, ofereda ( < WS oferhyda < com. OE oferhygdä), onbrerdnes, renum, smelte, werper\ with y for e (inverted spelling), astynt. b. e for IWS j' ( < eOE /). A few words that normally appear in the Sol. with IWS y ( < eOE i) are also spelled occasionally with e. These e-spellings may well represent Kt. e < IWS y. In words with low sentence stress, however, the e may represent merely an indistinct vowel sound. EXAMPLEs: cwest (3^), wele, vb. (6y); with low stress, gef (85^), here, gen. pl. (1 hyra, 10 hyre, gen./dat. sg.) wet (2-4y). c. e for IWS ( < eWS le). Words that normally have p, i (< eWS fe) in IWS are occasionally spelled with e (x) in the Sol. All of these e (x) spellings may represent Kt. e < IWS y. All but one of them, however, may also be explained as nWS forms introduced into the text at an early date. The peculiar form underpaed, past part., may be a Kt. spelling of IWS underpyd: -paed < -pxd < -ped < IWS -pyd < eWS -pieded. The normal nWS form was unmutated -piod{ed), -peod(ed). The following forms may represent either Kt. e < IWS p, or nWS I, the imutation of ea: with j^, f predominating, geheran (7-22y-3i), gelefan (30y-9i), -gerwan (ly), hxre (cf. geheran), -mxrran (4j-lj); see E. 3 below for words in which e {x) spellings predominate. The following forms may represent either Kt. e < IWS y, or nWS unmutated e after palatal g (see E. 4 below): gxt, gel (2), beside gyt (24). 24. In a limited Southeast area, /-mutation of a before nasals remained at the stage se throughout the OE period; see Camp. § 193 (d). The forms listed here could represent this phenomenon, but it is more likely that the appearance of x before n in them is purely coincidental. 25. The Merc. Rushworth Gospels (tenth Century) show a definite change of we- to wx-; see Camp. § 328. The occasional ws- forms listed here could represent this change, but it is more likely that the appearance of « after w in them is purely coincidental. In the case of cwasöan, the x may also be due to analogy with the preterite cwied.

14

INTRODUCTION § 3

3. A number of forms in the Sol. may represent nWS /-mutation of ea to S, but they may also be explained as having Kt. e < IWS p. Several of the words in question normally appear with IWS p,ti< eWS le) in the Sol. EXAMPLES: with e («) the predominant spelling, xd, comp. adv. (3), atefred (2), eöe and related forms (4), (ge)zcan (2-1/), (ge)ecan (2), hera (2), which may have e through Angl, smoothing (see E. 10 below), nwr, comp, adv., nxde, nede (4-2«), tefnmg;^^ see E. 2. c above for words in which IWS p, f predominate. 4. There is some slight evidence in the Sol. of nWS unmutated e after palatal g. EXAMPLES: gxt, get (2), which may be Kentish spellings of IWS gyt (24)— see E. 2. c above; geot, a possible twelfth-century inverted spelling of get—see F. 6 below. 5. The forms hiom and priom for lOE heom andpreom (see D. 7 above) may be due to Kt. influence. eo of whatever origin was raised to io in Kt., and the sound io remained prominent in Kt. (and North.) after it had been generally replaced by eo in WS and Merc.; see Camp. § 293-297, M-M §27.7, S-B § 38. 6. Forms with absence of WS /-mutation of lo to le (IWS f , f) appear sporadically in the Sol. EXAMPLES: edniowad, freond, nom./acc. pl. (8), georne, vb., gestreone, v b . , giornö, onleoht, stioraö,'^'^ öeostor (3), weorde, adj. 7. nWS back-mutation appears sporadically in the Sol. EXAMPLES: benioöan,^^ feala {2),feola, ofergiotolnesse, ongyotaö. 8. The second element of eo was often unrounded in Angl, and Kt.; see S-B § 35, Anm. 1, 2, Camp. § 279-281. This unrounding appears occasionally in the Sol, illustrated directly and through inverted spellings. a. ea for eo: eawian, feala (2), ge{e)awian, peawian (2), peawa, sb., wearscipe\ also pawiame, apparently a scribal error for peawianne. b. eo for ea (inverted spelling): geweord, meohton, sceolt. 9. A few forms in the Sol. do not have the WS glide vowel between sc- and a following a or o. These may represent either Merc.-Kt. failure to develop the glide, or ME reversion to the simple back vowels (see F. 4 below). EXAMPLES: gescadwisnes (2), gescop (2), scamige (2), scoc, scolde (3), scort (2). 10. Angl, smoothing of diphthongs appears occasionally in the Sol. EXAMPLES: mxht, mxhte (2), and, with ME a < x (see F. 2), mähte (4); hera (2), with e from smoothing or from nWS j-mutation of ea (see E. 3); -wexse, past subj. 26. If, however, xd, eöe, and nxr were derived from common OE unmutated ead, eade, and near, then sd and mer would represent lOE x < OE ea, and ede would represent ME [|] < lOE « < OE ea. See D. 1 and F. 7.a for the evidence of these late changes in the Sol. 27. stioran is, however, common in eWS; see S-B § 107, Camp. § 202. 28. Mutated benioöan, beneodan is, however, common in WS; see Camp. §221, S-B §111, Anm. 2.

INTRODUCTION § 3

15

11. Angl. a ( < West Gmc. a) before /plus a consonant may be present in the So/., but all possible examples may also be explained as eWS (see A. 3 above) or ME (see F. 7. b below). EXAMPLES: aldsta, almihtige, foraldiaö, haldan, haldxme, scalt (2); also scal (2) with a through analogy with scalt. 12. The a in nafst and sagest may be the result of Angl, re-formation of these verbs according to weak class II; see S-B § 417, Anm. 1, 3. It may also be explained as due to ME a < OE x (see F. 2 below). 13. The forms ladtewes and larewas may represent Angl, eow > iw, on which see Camp. § 279, S-B § 250, Anm. 4. They may also be explained as due to ME monophthongization and unrounding of OE eo (see F. 6 below).

Unaccented Vowels 14. Occasional se for unaccented e in the Sol. gives the text an archaic appearance, but it is unlikely that any of these x spellings represent actual eOE forms. Few, if any, forms with eOE x could have been present in the original MS of the Sol., because unaccented x had become e well before Alfred's own time; see Camp. § 369. There is, moreover, no consistency in the appearance of x for unaccented e in the Sol; some of the x spellings are etymologically "correct," but an almost equal number are not. Because these spellings cannot be adequately explained on phonological grounds, they are best regarded as a purely graphic phenomenon. They most probably represent the confusion of x and e which resulted from nWS ^ > ^ in accented syllables (see E. 1. c above). a. "Correct" forms: pres. subj., cumx, forletx, habbx, mxgx (3), ongytx (2), willx, etc.; dat. sg., ancrx, hxlx; leornixn, pres. subj.; namx, acc. sg.; gelicxs, gen. sg.; lufadxsf, etc. b. "Incorrect" forms: past. subj., lystx, sxdx, werx (3); inf., habbxne, haldxme, ongytxnne; gehierx, imp.; elcx, instr. sg.; apenxd, ungelyfxdan; gxtecan; ofxrstxlest.

Grammatical Forms 15. The nWS forms se and seo {slo) appear sporadically in the Sol. for the present subjunctive singular of beon. See S-B §427.1, Anm. 3, 4, Camp. § 768 (d) on these forms. 16. gesegen, the Angl, form of the past part. of seon, appears once in the Sol.

16

INTRODUCTION

§ 3

17. The variant -es for -est in second singular verb forms was more common in nWS, particularly Angl., than in WS; see S-B § 356, Anm. 1, Camp. § 735 (b), 752. There are three examples of -es in the Sol. Two of them, however, may be due merely to consonant assimilation and haplographic spelling. EXAMPLES: leornodes, leornodes pone, Wistes pxt. 18. hl appeared sporadically for heo, nom. sg. fem., in Kt. during the OE period and became a regulär Kt. form in ME; see Camp. § 703, Brun. § 53. There are three possible examples of Kt. hl in the Sol. EXAMPLES: swa pset hy [nane gesceafta] to nawuihte weoröe; nan gesceaft swa clene on wxg ne gewit pxt hi xft ne cume, ne swa clxne ne forwyrö piet hi to hwanhwugu ne weoröe.

F . M I D D L E ENGLISH FORMS

Obvious ME forms are not common in the Sol. ME change is, however, often a possibility in forms that may also be otherwise explained.

Vowels of Accented Syllables 1. ME Q < OE ä. This change began in the south of England early in the ME period and is first apparent in Southern MSS of the early twelfth Century; see Brun. § 11.4, J-M § 44. It appears occasionally in the Sol. EXAMPLES: gelocnian, no (l-24a), nowyht (1-60), woh (1-1), wost (8-16), wot (23-15). 2. ME a < OE x. This change began c. 1100, but the spelling a did not become general until the thirteenth Century; see Mos. §24, Brun. § 11.1, J-M § 32. Although traces of this change are clearly present in the Sol., many of the forms in question may be due to other causes. EXAMPLES: after {2), fast, -fastnian (5), {h)afde, hwat, mähte (4), from Angl. msehte (see E. 10 above), rxdfast, soöfast- (2^ pat (33); mage, -en, subj. (38), also common IWS (see S-B § 425); nafst, sagest, also normal Angl, (see E. 12 above); pas, gen. sg. (5), also common IWS (see S-B § 377, Anm. 2). 3. ME ei < IWS e before palatal h. This was a Southern ME change, subsequent to the smoothing of ea to e in IWS (and IKt.); see Brun. § 13.C.6, J-M § 63. There are three examples of it in the Sol. EXAMPLES: gereihte, meihte ( 2 ) . 4. ME scä-, scd- < WS sceä-, sceö-. Occasional forms in the Sol. may represent ME dropping of the WS glide after sc and reversion to the original back vowel, but they may also be explained as nWS (see E. 9 above). See Brun § IO.N.1.5 (B), J-M § 80, on the ME change. EXAMPLES: scamige, scolde, scort, etc.; see E. 9 above for the complete list.

INTRODUCTION

§ 3

17

5. The preposition and prefix be often appears as beo in Southeastern MSS of the early twelfth Century; see Hu., p. 19, Sehlem., pp. 6-7. Schlemileh points out that this peculiar beo is not an inverted spelling resulting from ME e < OE eo, because it appears in texts which have no other examples of eo for e. beo is found sporadically in the Sol. EXAMPLES: beo (4), beocuman, beotweona. 6. ME e, e < lOE [ö], [ö] < OE eo. Unrounding of the sound [ö], spelled eo, did not normally take place in the South (and West) until the thirteenth Century, although it was common in other areas in the twelfth; see Mos. § 30, Brun. § 10, J-M § 65, 84. There is some slight evidence of unrounding in the spelling of the Sol. EXAMPLES: depplicu; ladtewes and larewas, both of which can also be explained as Angl, (see E. 13 above); geot, a form which also appears in MS B of Bo. (twelfth Century) and which S-B (§ 42, Anm. 3) explains as a possible inverted spelling of nWS get. 1. ME a < lOE ä < OE ea. The spelling of the Sol. gives some indication of the first stage of this process; see D. 1 above. There is, however, little trace of the second stage, although it had certainly begun by the early twelfth Century; see Mos. § 30, Brun. § 10, 11.1, 2, J-M § 32, 48, 58, 81. a. ME f < lOE X: eöe and related forms (4), all of which can also be explained as nWS (see E. 3 above and n. 26); possibly forseriaö, although the root vowel would normally have been shortened before two unaccented syllables (see Brun. § 9). b. ME a < lOE z: aldsta, almihtige,foraldiaö, haldan,^^ haldxme, scal (2), scalt (2), all of which may also be explained as eWS (see A. 3 above) or Angl, (see E. 11 above); hxalgum ( < hälgum < hälgum) and hxalne (< hälne^° < hälne), inverted spellings showing that ea {xa) and a were equivalent in sound at the time of the MS.^i

Vowels of Unaccented Syllables 8. ME loss of -e. In the eME period, loss of -e was normally limited to trisyllabic or low-stressed words, to Singular forms of strong adjectives, and to dative singular forms of nouns; see J-M § 138, Brun. § 27, Mos. § 56.4, 74. Loss of -e appears occasionally in the Sol., often in normal eME conditions, 29. haldan would normally have had a long root vowel in lOE, because of the lengthening group Id. It could, however, have been afTected by analogy with trisyllabic haldsenne, where shortening would have occurred in lOE-eME because of the two unaccented syllables. See Camp. § 283-285 on these changes in quantity. 30. The root vowels in halgum and halne would have been shortened in lOE-eME before the consonant groups; see Camp. § 285. 31. This explanation of the two forms was first suggested by Hulme (pp. 1, 50-51).

18

INTRODUCTION § 3

but also in forms where -e was generally retained until the fourteenth Century. The latter examples may represent an unusually early extension of loss of -e, or they may be mere scribal errors. a. normal eME forms: nom. sg. fem. (-e < -u), xnig (2), deadlic, gastlic, sunt; acc. sg. fem., xni, ful, öin; xlc, instr. sg. masc., creft, dat. sg., oder, nom./acc. pl. (4), truwig, 1 sg. pres. ind. b. forms in which -e was normally retained in eME: nom. pl. masc., eall (2), god; mseg, pres. subj. (3), myht, pret. ind., sum, nom. pl. neut., wil, pres. subj.

Consonants 9. ME loss of -n. Loss of final -n in unstressed syllables began c. 1100 and became increasingly prominent, proceeding much more rapidly in the North than in the South; see Moore, Language, III, pp. 232-259, Mos. § 55-57, 93-97. The change must have begun after lOE -m > -n had been virtually completed, since -« ( < -m) was also affected by it; see Moore, Language, IV, pp. 242-243. In respect to loss of -n, the Situation in the Sol. is exactly what one would expect in a Southern MS of the early twelfth Century: loss of -n is noticeable, but far from pervasive. EXAMPLES: infinitives, beo (2), forlete, lufia, etc.; past participles, begyte, gesceape, ofercumme, etc.; pl. verb forms, hefde, meahte, nolde, etc.; weak dec\.,flza, acc. pl., gooda, nom. pl., peowa, acc. sg., etc.; with ( < -m), hwilce, dat. sg., sxgena, dat. pl. (2); also hüte (2), buta, me (< man). 10. In the course of the twelfth Century OE velar g became w after back vowels: see M-M § 63.5, Mos. § 46.3, J-M § 186. The one possible trace of this change in the Sol. is the form stoge, which is apparently an inverted spelling of stowe.

Grammatical Forms 11. By analogy with initial p- of other forms, pe had begun to replace se as the nominative singular masculine form of the definite article/demonstrative pronoun in the lOE period. Through subsequent levelling of inflections, pe had generally become the invariable form of the definite article by the middle of the thirteenth Century. See S-B § 337, Anm. 2, Brun. § 56, Mos. § 67, on these changes. There are a few possible traces of them in the Sol. EXAMPLES: Be ana pe ariht secd; de oder ende, nom. sg.; pe oöre, acc. pl.

INTRODUCTION § 4

19

12. The adjective inflection -ne, acc. sg. masc., was soon levelled to -e in eME, although it was generally retained in twelfth-century Southern texts; see Brun. § 43, Mos. § 74. This change is rarely found in the Sol. EXAMPLES: nacode, rihte, sylfe; also ane (< anne) and nene (< nanne), where loss of the second n may be due simply to confusion with the first. 13. In early Southern ME, -e was often added to the nominative Singular forms of fem. jo-stems and of long fem. o-stems because, after levelling of unaccented vowels and loss of -«, identity of nominative and accusative Singular forms had become the pattern for all other types of noun; see Moore, Language, IV, pp. 243-244, 248-250, Brun. § 42.1. Evidence of this change in the Sol. is far from certain, since most possible examples involve addition of -e to -nes, which can also be explained as IWS (see C. 20 above). EXAMPLES: sawle (2); gesceadwisnesse (2), sodfsestnesse (2), untrumnesse; see C. 20 above for additional examples.

§4. ORTHOGRAPHY In aiphabet, spelling, and script-style, the orthography of the Sol. is a mixture of English and Anglo-Norman features. The extent of the Anglo-Norman influence indicates that the MS was written sometime in the first half of the twelfth Century, very probably in the second quarter.32 The scribe was apparently an Englishman who had adopted many Anglo-Norman Orthographie practices.33 A. Alphabet. In the first half of the twelfth Century, the English tradition of maintaining two distinct alphabets—native Insular for English texts, CaroHne miniscule for Latin—began to break down, and Caroline letter 32. Förster (pp. 46-50) and Ker {Cat., pp. 279-280) conclude that the Orthographie evidence indicates a date in the second quarter of the twelfth Century. 33. The evidence of the orthography also permits the opposite conclusion, that is, that the scribe was an Anglo-Norman who had adopted English scribal features from his OE model. There are, however, serious objections to the view that the scribe was actually Anglo-Norman. For one thing, the spelling of the MS indicates that the scribe had a firm command of English. There are certain forms which might reflect an Anglo-Norman scribe's unfamiliarity with English spelling or pronunciation (see B. 2 below), but almost all of them may be plausibly explained in other ways. Secondly, it would be difficult to reconcile the language of the MS with the presence of an Anglo-Norman scribe. An AngloNorman scribe could hardly have added IWS and Kt. forms to an eWS original. To maintain that the scribe of the present MS was Anglo-Norman, one would have to assume that he was working from an intervening copy in which these IWS and Kt. forms were already present. Although there is some very slight evidence to suggest that the text existed in a IWS copy, which was subsequently altered by a Kentish scribe (see n. 21), there is no evidence for the existence of a copy containing both IWS and Kt. elements prior to the present MS. Hence, the view that the scribe of the present MS was Anglo-Norman would have little more than pure speculation to support it. 2—K.A.V.S.

20

INTRODUCTION § 4

forms were used increasingly in writing vernacular texts.34 In the Sol. itself, the substitution of Caroline for Insular forms has become quite widespread. Several Insular forms have disappeared entirely, and others appear only occasionally. Compromise forms, combining both Insular and Caroline features, are also prominent in the Script. A measure of the extent to which native tradition has broken down in the Sol. is the fact that there is no further trace of Insular / r (jx), or low s (y), although these forms were generally retained in twelfth-century vernacular texts. 1. Insular forms. a Insular, rounded a (a) appears very sporadically. This form had fallen out of general use by the beginning of the twelfth Century. d The normal form is Insular, round-backed "b, which was generally retained in the twelfth Century. g The normal form is J", the most long-lived of all the Insular forms. s Insular long J ( f ) is common, but Caroline and compromise forms of s are equally prominent. Long s was generally retained until the end of the twelfth Century. ö, J) Insular eth and "thorn," two of the most long-lived Insular forms, are invariably used. P Insular " wynn," which was generally retained into the thirteenth Century, is invariably used. 2. Caroline forms. a The Caroline form of a (a.) predominates heavily. d Caroline, straight-backed d (d) appears very rarely, a mere seven times. / Only the Caroline form ( f ) is used. g Caroline g (S) appears thirteen times in all, eight times on the first two folios.35 xhis form is not used, as it was sometimes used in the twelfth Century, to distinguish stops f r o m spirants.

h Only the Caroline form (1,) is used. This form was not used regularly in English vernacular texts before 1100. r Caroline r (r) is common, but a compromise form of r is equally prominent. s Caroline j ( f ) is common, along with Insular long s and compromise forms. st The Caroline ligature ( i s used in all but one instance. 34. On the gradual displacement of Insular Script in England, see E. M. Thompson, An Introduction to Greek and Latin Paleography (Oxford, 1912), pp. 394-402,429-441,472-475; Ker, Cat., pp. xxv-xxxiii; C. E. Wright, English Vernacular Handsfrom the Twelfth to the Fifteenth Centuries (Oxford, 1960), pp. xiv-xvi. The general Information in this section is derived from these three sources. Information about the history of individual letter forms is derived primarily from Ker. 35. Förster (p. 48, n. 1) offers a plausible explanation for the frequency of the Caroline g at the beginning of the text: the scribe began by using the form familiar to him, then made an effort to correct himself and to reproduce the Insular form used in his exemplar.

INTRODUCTION § 4

21

3. Compromise forms r As prominent as the Caroline /• is a compromise form ( t ) , with a Caroline top and a long Insular stem. This form is often found in English vernacular texts of the twelfth Century. s Combinations of Insular long s and Caroline s are as prominent as the pure forms themselves. Forms with the Insular high, arched top frequently do not extend below the line (f), while forms with the flatter, Caroline top frequently do 4. Serital errors Some erroneous spellings in the Sol. are clearly due to the scribe's confusion of similar characters. Most of these suggest that the scribe was not entirely familiar with the Insular letter forms in his exemplar—an explanation first proposed by Förster (pp. 27, 47 n. 2). a. Confusion of Insular r (p) with common n (n): xnigne ( < -re), agenne (< -re), fori ( < for), hine ( < hire), marega ( < manega), onmod ( < ormod). b. Confusion of p with p\ pere (< were), weah (< peak), wy (< py), wpset (< pxt), with the error corrected but not crossed out. c. Confusion of Insular p with common p (p): spece (< swece), twice. d. Confusion of Insular low j ( f ) with Insular r (p): xlcer (< sslees). e. Confusion of common c (c) with common t ( t ) : gehec ( < gehet), twice, hie ( < hit), swylt ( < swylc). B. Spelling. Anglo-Norman spelling influence began to appear in English MSS at the end of the eleventh Century, and had become extensive by the middle of the twelfth.36 There are some obvious AN spellings in the Sol, but the native English traditions are still heavily predominant. 1. A number of spellings in the Sol. appear to represent well-established AN practices. Their presence need not mean that the scribe was AngloNorman, since an English scribe could easily have adopted them. 36. The possibility of AN influence upon the spelling of English MSS was first investigated by W. W. Skeat, in two articles in Trans. Philol. Soc. (1895-1898, pp. 399-418; 1899-1902, pp. 438-468). Skeat summarized his results in sixteen "Canons for Detecting Anglo-French Spellings of English Words," Notes on English Etymology (Oxford, 1901), pp. 471-475. Some of these canons have proved useful; some have not. A monograph by W. Schlemilch, Beiträge zur Sprache und Orthographie spätae. Sprachdenkmäler der Übergangszeit (Halle, 1914), esp. pp. 47-60, contains the most thorough evaluation of Skeat's work, as well as a detailed chronological study of AN spellings in English texts. Twentiethcentury studies of the AN dialect have confirmed many of Skeat's speculations about AN pronunciation and spelling and have provided evidence for regarding other unusual spellings in English texts as due to AN influence: see L. E. Menger, The Anglo-Norman Dialect (New York, 1904), esp. pp. 92-109; M. K. Pope, From Latin to Modern French with Especial Consideration of Anglo-Norman (Manchester, 1952), esp. pp. 275-279, 448-449, 455^61.

22

INTRODUCTION § 4

a. u for y. The sound [«], spelled y in OE, was spelied u in OF and AN. There are several examples of u for y in the Sol.: spurian, and inflected forms (10); lufast (2); lufaö (2); gehure; gemmde; hwu. b. u for intervocalic f . The sound [r], spelled / in OE, was written as v or, in accordance with the Latin practice, as u in OF and AN. The u spelhng appears three times in the Sol.: siluum (2), Imu. c. ch for velar c. The sound [A:] is written ch three times in the Sol. This spelling, based on the Latin practice, was common in AN; see Schlemilch, pp. 48-49, Pope, § 1209. It did, however, also appear sporadically in native English MSS during the OE period; see S-B § 206, Anm. 9, Camp. § 427 n. 1. EXAMPLES: lochige (2), Achapemicos. d. wh for hw. The Sol. contains a Single example of AN wh for English hw: while. 2. Several other forms in the Sol. could also be regarded as A N spellings, but only by assuming that the scribe was actually Anglo-Norman; they resemble the kinds of errors that Anglo-Norman scribes often made when writing English. Most of these forms may, however, be plausibly explained in other ways, and there is no other reason to believe that the scribe of the Sol. was Anglo-Norman—see note 33 above. a. Difficulty with initial h is quite common in the Sol. and could be attributed to the confusion of an Anglo-Norman scribe. AN scribes, uncertain of the value of English initial h, often added or omitted the letter incorrectly; see Skeat's Canon 1, Schlemilch, pp. 50-52. There was, however, sporadic loss or addition of initial h, apparently as a result of scribal inaccuracy, in English MSS throughout the OE period; see S-B § 217, Anm. 1. EXAMPLES: with inorganic h, hagene, hahte, habraham, hxcra, heac, hic, hys, etc.; with h omitted, abbad, afde, xfeden, xfst, xfd, xr {her), is, etc.; with h omitted in Compounds, ofereda, toopedest, toopa. b. The occasional difiiculty with the group ht in the Sol. might also suggest an Anglo-Norman scribe. A N scribes were familiar with the Spirant from AN st, but they were uncertain of how to represent it, whether they were writing English or their native language. They tried, in addition to English ht, a Wide variety of spellings for this group: cht, et, dt, ght, sht, st, t, th, tht; see Menger, p. 102, Pope § 1216, Skeat's Canon 9, Schlemilch, pp. 54-55, A. Luhman, Die Überlieferung von Layamons Brut (Halle, 1906), pp. 32-34. Although several of these spellings do appear sporadically in the Sol, along with heavily predominant ht, almost all the examples may be plausibly attributed to other causes. et The sole example of this spelling is of questionable value since the MS form is obviously corrupt: nawcte (MS nacwte). dt, t, tt Several of the examples might represent OE loss of A in a group of three consonants; see S-B §221, Anm. 2. The spellings might also indicate

INTRODUCTION § 4

23

actual M E loss of the Spirant, although this change did not become common until much later than the M S of the Sol.^''

EXAMPLES: with dt, dridten, gebrodton, gewordte; with t, beortnesse, driten, gewortest, mssate; with tt, matte. h The examples of this spelling, which is nowhere hsted as AN, could be due simply to scribal neghgence, or to common OE loss of the middle consonant in a group of three; see Camp., § 476-477. EXAMPLES: drihnes, rihlicre, unrihlice. th, tht These spellings could well be simple mechanical errors. EXAMPLES: with th, nanwith (2); with tht, leothte, mythte, mythtum, rithte, puthte. c. Anglo-Norman scribes were unfamiliar with Insular p and d, and were accustomed to using d and t more or less interchangeably to represent [ö] or [d] in medial and final positions; see Menger, §40-41, Pope, § 1175-1176, 1210. Hence, it is not surprising that they often interchanged the characters d, t, ö, and p, medial or final, when writing English; see Skeat's Canon 15, Sehlem., pp. 56-58. Such interchange is fairly common in the Sol, but it need not indicate that the scribe was Anglo-Norman. Scribal error (omission or addition of the cross-stroke of ö), assimilation (pat pu > päd pü), and dissimilation ipyö pset > byt pset) can easily account for many of the irregulär spellings. Dental characters were, moreover, quite often interchanged in OE texts of the tenth and eleventh centuries, texts in which there is no possibility of AN spelling influence; see Marckwardt, pp. 205-215. d for ö (p): byd (freq.), cwsed (freq.), eordlice (2), wyrdscipe (2), edel, nytwyrde, tosedan, ydum, etc. ö {p) for d: miö (3), gefastnoö (2), atefreö, gebridloö, goö, roöores, Achapemicos.^^ t for d (/))•• byt (freq.), hxft (freq.), cwxt (2), habbat (2), wit (2), ealdiat, feht, gesyht (vb.), gewunat, wilnat. ö for t: hwwS (freq.), pseö (freq.), aöreaö, gemeö, hyö, woö. d for t: hwsed, Ixd, Ixrdesd, scordne, päd. C. Script style. The third area in which AN influence has affected the 37. This is admittedly a mere speculation because there is no conclusive evidence to indicate that the spirant was silent in the twelfth Century, or even in the thirteenth. P. Ekselius, in A Study of the OE Combinations aht, öht in Middle English (Uppsala, 1940), esp. pp. 9-12, 155-156, dates the loss of the spirant at around 1300 in the Southwest, at around 1400 in the London and East Midland areas. He regards possible examples of the loss in earlier texts as A N spellings. 38. The Word Achapemicos may present a special case. In classical loanwords, especially those of Greek origin, d is normally spelled d ot p in OE texts; see S-B, § 199.3, Camp., § 530, n. 3. This practice has yet to be explained. 39. Note, however, the suggestion of Campbell (§ 481.4, 735.b) that, in the third person Singular present indicative of verbs, -t for -p and especially -ht for -hp may represent genuine OE phonetic variants.

24

INTRODUCTION § 5

orthography of the Sol. is that of Script style. The Script of the Sol. has cleariy been influenced by the angular style developed from Norman models at Christ Church, Canterbury, at the end of the eleventh ceiitury.''u si öe weröer {jines creftes; and gebyde pe feawum wordum deoplice mid fülle angitte. Da cwaeö ic, "Ic do swa öu me laerst," and cwaed ]?a: DRIHTEN, f>u öe eart scypend ealra gesceafta, forgyf me aerest pxt ic pe lo cunne rihtae and gescaeadlice biddan, and pxt ic mage geearnian pxt ic si wuröe pxt öu me for öinre mildheortnesse alyse and gefreolsige. Ic clypie to f>e, dridten, ]?u pe aeall gewortest pxt pe aealles geweoröam ne mihte, ne aeac wunian ne mihte butan pe. Ic clypie to pe, drihten, pu pe nane gesceaftas ne forlaest to nahte weoröam. to pam ic clypige, pe aealle gesceafta smicere is gewordte butan aellcum [7b] andweorce. To öe ic clypige, pe nefre nan yfel ne worhtest, ac aelc god weorc worhtest. To pam ic clypige, pe getaecd feawum wisum mannum pxt yfel naht ne byö. Drihten, }?u pe eall medemu geworhtest and naht unmedemes, pe nis nan gesceaft wiöerweard—peah hwylc wille, heo ne maeg—ac pu hy haefst aealle 20 gesceapene gebyrdlice and gesome, and to pam gejjwaere J?aet heora nan ne maeg oöerne mid seile fordon; ac simle pxt unwlitige wlitigaö Jjaet wütige. To öe ic clypige, pu pe lufaö aeall pxt pe lufian maeg, ge pa pe wytan hwaet hi lufiaö, ge pa pe nyton hwaet hi lufiaö; öu pe gesceope eall gesceaftas butan aellcum yfele swi)7e goode; pu pe nelt pe eallunga geeowian openlice nanum 25 oörum buton pam, pam pe geclaensode beoö on heora mode. Ic clypige to pe, drih[8a]ten, for}?am pu eart faeder soöfestnesse, and wisdomes, and soJ?es lyfes, and }?aes hehstan lyfes, and para hehstan gesaelpe, and pas hehstan goodes, and para hehstan beorhtnesse, and pxs angitlican leohtes; öu pe aert 1. pome. 4. A letter erased before ic. 1. creftest, the second e above the line. 10. forgyf, a letter erased between y a n d / . 11. geearnian, a letter erased between e and a. 12. Several letters erased between wurde and .15. smicere, the r written Over a p. 16. 17. worc, the e written above the line. 23. pu pelpe.

14. The noun gesceaft is normally feminine, but the masculine plural form gesceaftas, which appears five times in the early part of the text, seems to be more than a mere scribal error. B-TS states that such a variant did exist in OE, but lists examples from only this text. The adjective oderne in 1. 22, referring back to gesceaft in 1. 20, suggests that the noun could, in fact, be regarded as feminine, and that gesceaftas was not a solitary variant form in an otherwise feminine declension. 15. gesceafta smicere might represent gesceaftas smicere, with consonant assimilation and haplographic spelling. 22. For the gender of oderne, see note on 1. 14.

BOOK ONE

51

feder J?ass suna )7e us awehte and gyt wrehö of Jjam slepe ure synna, and us mannaö pxt we to pe becumen. De ic bydde, drihten, pu pe aeart seo hehsten soöfestnesse, and for pe hy/ is soö s a l i Jjsette soö is. Ic pe bydde, driten, öu pe asart se hehstan wysdon, and purh pe sint wyse «alle pa pe wyse sint. Ic pe bidde, drihten, pu pe aeart riht lif, and ]7urh pe lybbaö aeall pa pe lybbaö. pu eart seo hehste gesaelö, and for pe sint geselige asalle pa pe geselige synt. Pu aeart pset hehste god (and se hehsta wlite, and }?urh pe is god and wlitig eall pxt pe god) ys and wlityg. D u pe aeart pxt andgitlice leoht, ]?urh pe man ongit. Ic pe bydde, drihten, [8b] pu pe aealles middangeardes wealst, pu pe we ne magon lichamlice ongytam, naper ne mid eagum, ne mid swece, ne mid earum, ne mid smecce, ne mid hrine; and swa peah swilce ae swylce we (h)abbaö and swylce ]7aeawas swylce (we) habbaö, ealle pa pe god sint we namon of J?inum rice, and of pinum rice we bysniaö aeall pxt we godes doö. ForI?amf)e aelc f>ara afealö pe pe flygö, and zlc para arist pe to pe gecyrö, and x\c para astynt pe on pe gewunat; and se swelt öe öe eallunga forleö, and se acucaö pe to pe gecyrö, and se lufaö soölice pe on pe ]7urhwunaö. ne forlaet pe nan pe gewityg byt, ne pe nan ne secö butan wys, ne pe nan eallunga ne gemet buton geclffinsod. Daet ys, pxt m a n forwiröe, J^aet man pe forlete. se se pe lufaö, se pe saecö; se se pe fyliö, se pe haefö. Dine treowöa, pe pu us seal[9a]dest, us aweccaö of öam slepe ure sinna. Ure toopa us ahefö to pe. Vre luuu, pe öu us sealdest, us gefaestnaö to pe. Purh pe we ofercumaö ure feond, xgpxr ge gastlice ge lichamlice. D u pe aeart forgyfende, cum to me, and gemylsa me; forj7am}?e pu mycela gy/ta us sealdest, pxt ys, pxt we nefre aeallunga ne forwuröa)? swa J?aet we (to) navvcte weoröam. 3. hyt. Hu.) hys. 5. pe bidde pe. 7-8. Reconstruction by Endter. 11. swece, Ha..) spece; spece earumne mid earum. 13. »ve.Ha. 13-14. ofpinum and of pinum rice and of pinum rice we bysniaö. 15. selc. Ha.) eal\ sie. Ha.) eall. 16. gecyrö and selc para and se. 23. forgyfendjde; mycela, two letters erased between y and c; gytfa. 24. to. Ho.; nacwte. 1. wrehö < wrecö, from wreccan "rouse." Jost and Endter emend to wrecd, but -hd sometimes appears for -cö in IWS; see § 3. C. 18. 3-4. The inflections of hehsten soöestnesse and hehstan may be the results of lOE or IWS analogical changes (see § 3. C. 20 and D. 6), if they are not due to mere careless repetition of the genitive forms in 50.28-29. 3-6. pe appears to be a relative rather than a personal pronoun in the phrases for pe (1. 3), purh pe (I. 5), and purh pe (1. 6), despite the fact that prepositions were rarely placed before relative pronouns in OE; see § 5.1. 7-8. Endter's reconstruction is based on the Latin Deus bonum et pulchrum, in quo et a quo et per quem bona et pulchra sunt, quae bona et pulchra sunt omnia. 9. In the phrase purh pe, pe may be taken, without syntactical difficuhy, as either a personal or a relative pronoun; see § 5.1. 16. lufaö < lyfaö, an A N spelling; see § 4. B. l.a. 18-19. "That one should lose you, that is that one should perish"; see the Latin: Deus quem relinquere, hoc est quod perire. On the OE syntax, see Wülfing, II, § 425a. IB. 21. luuu < luvu < lufu, an A N spelling; see § 4. B. l.b. 24. (to) nawcte weoröam: in support of the addition, see to nahte weoröam (50.15). 3—K.A.V.S.

5

lo

i5

20

52

BOOK

ONE

Drihten, J7U \>t us manast pxt we wacian, yld, pxt we us ne forjjohton on nanum geswince ne on nanum ungelimpe. nys pxt nan wundor, foröam ]?u swiöe wel ricsast and gedaest pxt we öe wel )?eawiaö. Du us wel lerdest pxt we ongeatan pxt us 5 w£es fremde and lene pxt öxt we iu we(n)don pxt ure agen [9b] were, pxt ys, weoruldwela; and p\x us aeac Iserdest pxt we ongeatan pxt öaet ys ure agen pxt we ieo we(n)don pxt us fremde were, pxt ys, pxt heofonrice öaet we pa forsawon. Du pe us laerdest j?at we nawt unalyfdes dydon, and ®ac laerdest pxt we ne unrotsodon, pxah us ure speda wanodon. pu pQ us laerdesd pxt we lo underjjieddan urne lycuman ure mode. Du pe oferswiödest öone deaö, pe )?u sylf arise, and aeac dest pxt ealle men arisaö. pu pe us asalle gewur}?ugast to pe, and us geclensast of aeallum urum synnum, and us gerihtwisast, and ure bene gehyrest. Du pe us gedydest )?ines hyredes, and pu pe us lerst ealle rihtwysnesse, and us simle good lerst and simle us good dest, and us ne forlaest unryhtum hlaforde öeowian, swa we geo dydon. pu us clypast to urum wege, and us geledest to pxTe dura, [10a] and us öa untynst, and us sillest )?one hlaf eces lyfes and pone drinc of lyfes wylle. Du pe preatast men for heora sinnum, and pu ()7e) lerst f>aet hy rihte domas deman and rihtwisnesse don. Du us getrymedest and gyt trymest 20 on urum geleafum, pxt us ne magon pa ungelyfaedan amirram. pu us sealdest and gyt silst pxt angyt, pxt we ofercumaö pone dwolan para. (pe wenaö pxt) manna sawla naebben nan edlean aefter ]?isse worulde heora gearnunge, swa godes swa yfeles, swaeöer hi her doö. )JU pe us alysdest of öam J?eowdome oöera gesceafta, öu us simle gearwast asce lyf, and us aeac gyrwast to pam 2s aecan lyfe. 1-2. sealdeste; toseöan. Ho.) tosedan. 4. riestat ricsast. 6. iu wendon, lo.) iuwedon. 8. ieo wendon, Jo.) ieowedon. 10. pxac\ pu. Ha.) p. 12. öonne. 13. pu, Ha.) p\ gewurpugast. Ha.) gejp wurpugast. 17. clypast, the s written above the line. 18. ponne hlaf. 19. pe, End. 22. pe wenaÖ put, Jo.) parajmanna. 25. oöerra, the second r erased. 6-8. Jost's emendations (p. 281) to iu we(,n)don and ieo we{n)don are based on the Latin source: Deus per quem discitnus aliena esse quae aliquando nostra, et nostra esse quae aliquando aliena putabamus. He suggests that the abbreviated widon was the original MS form, iu is a common variant spelling of normal geo. ieo is apparently a combination of iu and geo. 13. The simplest emendation of MS gejp wurpugast is that of Hargrove, who drops the senseless p, takes gewurpugast as a form of gewurdian "make worthy, dignify," and translates {Trans., p. 6): "Thou who makest us all worthy of Thee." The word could easily refer to the Redemption, which is mentioned in the preceding sentence. Jost (End., p. 75) amends to gehwurfast "you tum, convert," on thebasis of the Latin Deus qui nos convertis. Latin convertere was normally rendered by gehweorfan in OE; see examples in B-T. Endter modifies Jost's suggestion and gives the reading gehwurfugast, which is closer to the MS form. 22. Jost's addition (End., p. 8) of pe wenaö pxt, based on the Latin qui... putant, fills an obvious gap in the text.

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Cum me nu to fultome, l?u jje seart ana, ece, and soö goö Jjrinnesse, faeder and suna and se haliga gast, buton aelcere todelennesse oööe onhwaerfednesse, and butan elcere neode oööe unmihte, [10b] and butan deaöe. pu ps simle swa wunast on ]?ere hehstan beortnesse, and on J?aere hehstan gestaeöj?inesse, on )?ere hehstan anmodnesse, and on )?ere hehstan genyhte. Foröam }?e nanes godes nis wana, ac p\x simle wunast swa ful aelce^ goodes on ecnesse. Pu eart fseder and sunu and se halgan gast. pQ öeowiaö ealle öa gesceaftas öe })u gesceope. De ys s i e god sawl under)?aed. be }?inre hese hweorfö seo heofene and eall mngla heorarinabehealdaö; be pime hese seo sunne bringö leohtne dasg, and se m o n a leoht on nyht; be }?ara anlicnesse pu astyrst and wildest aeallum Jjis middangearde, swa pxt ealle gesceafta wrixUaö swa daeg and nyht. D u recst pxt gear and redst Jjurh p3£t gewrixle para feower tyda, pxt ys, lencten and sumer and herfest and Winter. )?ara wrixlaö aslc wyö [IIa] oööer and hwerfiaö, swa pat heora asgöer byö eft emne pat pxt hyt aer wass, and pxv pxr hyt aer wes; and swa wrixlaö eall tungla and hwerfiaö on pam ylcan wisan, and eft se and ea. on öa ylcan wisan hweorfiaö ealle gescaeafta. Wrixliaö sume peak on oööer wyssan, swa pat pa ylcan eft ne cumaeö pxr öffir hy er weron, eallunga swa swa hy er weron. Ac cumaö oöre for hy, swa swa leaf on treowum; and aepla, (and) gears, and wyrtan, and treowu foraldiaö and forseriaö; and cumaö oööer, grenu wexaö, and gearwaö, and ripaö, for J?at hy eft onginnaö searian; and swa eall nytenu and fugelas, swelces öe nu ys lang a;all to arimanne. Ge fur)?um m a n n a lichaman forealdiaö, swa swa oöre gescaeaftas ealdiat. Ac swa swa hy aer wurölicor lybbaö ponne treowu oöJ?e oöre nytenu, swa [IIb] hy eac weoröfulicor arisaö on domes daege, swa pxt nefre syööam pa lichaman ne geendiaö ne ne forealdiaö; and ptah. se lichaman er were gemolsnod, peak wass seo sawl simle lybbende siööam heo aerest gesceapen wes. prinnesse,Co.)primnesse. 2. suna andswam and. 5. ^e/rvA/e, the A written above the line. 6. selcer. 9. he hweorfö-, tungla, Co.) eallungla. 13. lencten, the first n written above the line. 16. tunglai. 17. p. 19. onrf, End. 20. treoweu. 27. p. I. god (< god) prinnesse shows consonant assimilation. 8. On the gender of gesceaftas, see note on 50.14. 8-9. underpaed is the past participle of underpieddan "subjugate." See§ 3. E. 2.c for an explanation of the spelling. 9. rina < rine, acc. sg. masc. II. Endter points out the mixture of dative and instrumental inflections in eallum pis (< Pys) middangearde. 20. The weak inflection of wyrtan may be a mere error; there is no other OE evidence for a weak variant of wyrt, -e. 21. gearwaö "bloom." It seems reasonable to extend the meaning of gearwian "make ready, clothe" to "bloom," as Hargrove does in his glossary. Holthausen (p. 323) and Endter emend gearwaö to growaö. 23. On the gender of gesceaftas, see note on 50.14.

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And aealle pa. gesceaftas pe we embe sprecaö, peah heo us f)ince unge/jwsre and ungestaeöjjie, hy habbaö peak sumne dael gest£e]?inesse, foröam hy sint gebridloö mid öam bridle godes bebodu. se god sealde fridom manna saulum, pmt hy moston don swa good swa yfel, swsöer hy woldon; and gehet good eadlean öam wel-dondum, and yfel pam yfel-dedum. mid öam gode ys 5 gegyered se ajwilm aslces godes, and l?anan ys gegyered and forlseten aslc good to US Jpara pe we habbat. se us gescylt wiö aellum yfellum. nys [12a] naht ofor hyne. Ac aealle ping synt under hym, oööe mid hym, oööe on hym. he geworhte man to hys anlicnesse; and aealc l?ara manna pe hine silfne ongyt, he ongyt pxt ]7is is eall soö. To pam gode ic clypie and cweöe: gehieraj, gehyre me, lo drihten, for]?am pu eart min god, and min drihten, and min feder, and min sceapen(d), and min gemetgyend, and min toopa, and min sped, and min wyröscipe, and min hus, and min edel, and min hsele, and min lyf. gehyre, gehyre me, drihten, pi öine ]?eawa pe feawa ongytat. pe anne ic lufige soölice ofer sealle oöre ]?ing; pe ic sece, pe yc folgige. i5 Pe ic eom gearw to ]?eowianne. under J?inum anwealde ic wilnie to wunienne, for)?am pu ana (rihtwislice) ricsast. Ic pe bydde J?aet öu me bebeode J^aet pxt pvL wille. Ac gehasl mine eahgan and untyn, J?aet ic mage geseon pine [12b] wundru; and adrif fram me dysig and ofermseto, and sile me wisdom, pset ic mage pe ongytan; and getaec me Jjider ic me beseon sceolde to pe, pab ic pe p?ex 20 gehawian maege; öonne gelyfae ic J?aet ic do lustlice paet J?aet öu me bebeodest. Ic pe halsie, öu arfaesta, wel wilende, and wel wyrcende drihten, pxt pu me underfo, ]7inne flyman; foröam ic wes geo pin, and pa. fleah ic fram pe to deofle, and fuleode hys willan, and micel broc geöolede on hys Jjeowdome. Ac gyf pe nu }?incö swa swa me öincö, genoh lange ic f>olede pa witu öe ic nu 25 hwile polode, and leng peowede pinum feo(n)dum öonne ic sceolde, pam ilcum öe pu gehaefst (under pinum fotum). genoh lange ic waes on pam bysmore and on pxre sceame pe hy me on gebrohton. Ac onfoh me nu, ]?inne agene f>eawa, for ic eom fleonde fram hym. hwaet, hy me underfungon 1. p; ungepwxre, End.) ungehwxre. 2. p. 3. saulum. Ha.) sealum. 4. swsöer, the s partially erased; gehec. 9. asalc, the / written above the line. ] 3. the A written above the line. 16. gearw. 11. rihtwislice, io. 18. geseon, ge written above the line. 26. feödum. 27. Addition by Endter. 29. angenge, the second g erased. I. pince < pincen, opt. pl. 3. bebodu < beboda, gen. pl. 14. peawa < peawe, instr. sg. 17. Jost's addition (p. 282) of rihtwislice completes the sense of the text, and makes it identical to that of the Latin tu solus juste dominaris. 27. Endter's reconstruction is based on the Latin sub pedibus habes. 29. peawa < peowan, acc. sg. underfungon < underfengon. It is possible, as Endter suggests, that this verb has undergone a partial transition to streng Class IIL The force of analogy between preterite -fengon and the preterite forms of the common -ng- verbs of Class III (crungon, sungon, etc.) might well have produced such a transition.

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aer, [13a] öa ic sceoc fram öe to hym. ne agyf me naefre eft hym, nu ic pe gesoht haebbe. Ac untin me J)ine dura, and taec me hu ic seile tocuman. nebbe ic pe nanwiht to bringende butan goodne willan, /or]?am ic silf nanwyht aelles naebbe; ne ic nanwiht betere nat )7on(n)e ic lufige pxt heofenlice and pxt gastlice ofer J?is aeordlice, swa ic aeac do, god feder, foröam ic me nan- s wiht betere nat Jponne f»aet. Ac ic nat hu ic sceal nu cuman to öe, butan pu me lere. Ac getaec hit me, and gefultuma me. gef de J?urh treowa findon pa. öe pe findon, sile me ]?a treowa; gyt gyf öe ]?urht oöerne creft hwilcne findan pSL öe pt findan, forgyf me )?one creft. Gyf pe >>urh wysdom findon pa. Öe pe findon, forgyf me )?onne wysdom. (lec on me pone geleafan), and iaec on me lo J?one toopan )?aes aecan lyfes, and p'me lufe geiec on me. Eala, hu pin [13b] godnes is to wundrienne, forJ)em heo is ungelic aeallum goodum. Ic wilnege cuman to f»e, and öes aealles ]?e ic on öam wege habban Jjearf, ic wilnige to pe, and pxs swiöost öe ic butan to pe cuman ne meg. gyf pu me forlest, ]7onne forwurjje ic; ac ic wat peah pxt pu me nealt forleten butan ic i5 pe forlaete; ne ic aeac nelle forlete pe, foröam p\x asart pxt hehstasn good. nis nan para. öe pe rihte sehö pxö he pe ne finde. De ana pe ariht secö pe öu onriht lerst pxt hy öe secan, and heom getecst hu hy secan scylon. Wel la, god feder, wel alyse me of Öam gedwolan pe ic on oö ]7isum dwealde, and gyt on dwolige; and getaec me ]7one weg pe nan feond (me) on gemetae, aer ic to 20 pe cume. gyf ic nanwiht ofer pe ne lufige, ic pe halsige J^aet ic pe gemete; and gyf ic aeniges Jjinges ungemetlice and unrihlice wilnige, gefreo me [14a] pxs, and gedo me }?ass wyröne J?aet ic pe mote geseon. Du, se aldsta feder, and pu wisesta, ic pe befaeste mynne lycuman, pat pu hine gehealde halne. Ic nat peah hwes ic Jjer bydde, hweöer ic bydde nyttes 25 pe unnittes me sylfum, oööe J?am freondum pe ic lufige and me luf(i)aö; ne pxt nat hu lange öu hyne wil haealne gehealdan. forj^i ic hine befeste öe and bebeode, foröam pu bet wast ]?onne ic wite hwaes ic öerf. foröam ic pe bydde 1. sceoc, the first c written above the line. 2. untin, a letter erased between i huysic. 4-5. and pa p. 7. me ge/rfe, a letter erased between m and e, and 8. Awi/c/ie, the c written above the hne. 10. Addition by Jost. 12. us. pxs and. 15. for purh pe ic. 18. getestc. 23. wyröne, Ö written above 26. freödum; lufiaö, Co.

and «; after/. 14. and the line.

10. Jost's addition (End., p. 12) is based on the Latin Auge in me fidem. 16. forlete < forleten < forlsetan, inf. 17. sehö is a IWS form of secd\ see § 3. C. 18. 17-18. I take f)e as a late form of se (see § 3. F. 11) and accept the anacoluthic shift from a Singular to a plural subject, hy, as the original construction. Similar shifts appear in 77.5-7 and in 77.15-17. Anacoluthia is not uncommon in Alfred's works, especially, as is the case here, after an indefinite or collective subject; see Borinski, pp. 73-74. Endter takes £)e as a late form of da, nominative plural, and emends to de ana(n) pe ariht secia)p. 20. Jost (p. 283) and Endter give the reading pe Qc) nan feond on gemetx, but nan feond is clearly nominative; see the Latin quaerenti te mihi nihil aliud pro te occurat. 24. The adjective aldsta (< ealdstd) is used here with the senseof"greatest,most eminent"; see the Latin optime. 27. hsalne < halne-, see § 3. F. 7.b on the spelling.

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pxt pu me simle lere pa. hwile pe ic on pisum lycuman and pisse weorulde sie, and fultuma me pxt ic simle J?one rasd araedige öe pe licworöe si, and me for bam lyfum best and rihtwyröost si. and nu gyt ofer xall oöre J?ing ic pt geor(n)licost bydde pxt }?u me ealunga to pe gecyrran (wille), and ne laed me nanwiht oferwinnan on J?is wege, pat ic ne [14b] mage cuman to pe; and ge- 5 claensa me öa hwile öe ic on Jjisse worulde si, and gedo me unmodigne. Sile me ofereda. do me gescea(d)wisne, and rihtwisne, and fore}jancfulne, and fulfremdne; and, god, gedo me lufiende and onfondne )?ines wisdomes; and gedo me wyröne pxt ic si wyniende m J?inum eadegan rice. si hit SWA. pA cwasö ic: nu ic habbe gedon swa J?u me lerdest; nu ic me gebaed swa 10 swa pu me lerdest. Pa answarode me min gesceadwisnes and cwaed: Ic geseo pxt pu pt gebaede. Ac seige nu hwaes }?u earnodest, oööe hwaet pu habban woldest. pa cwsö ic: ic wolde ongytan eall and witan hwaet ic nu sang. Da cwseö heo: gadera }?onne of öam eallum pe pu öaer embe sunge pxt 15 öaet pe. J^ince pxt pe maest neod sy and maest }?erf to witande, and befoh hyt Ijonne mid feawum wor[15a]dum, and sege hit me. Pa cwaeö ic: ic pe secge sona: god ic wold(e) ongytan, and mine agene saule ic wolde witan. £)a cwaeö heo: woldest pu awiht ma witan ? 20 £)a cwaeö ic: fela me lyste witan öes pe ic nat. ne lyst me )?eah nanes ]?inges swiöor to witanne }?onne Jjises. ö a cwaeö heo: spura Joanne aefter and saec pxt pu acsast, and sege me aerest hwaet pu cuölicost wite, and cwaet )7onne to me: "genoh cuö me hyd god and min sawel, gyf hi me beoö swa cuöe swa Jjis J?ing." 25 4. geornlicost, Co.; wille. Ho. 6. hwils. 7. forepancfulne, c written above the line. 8. onfondne or onfundne. 10. ^A, 1> is an illuminated capital, extending for nine lines in the margin. 12. cwsed, the wynn written overan e. 13. habban mote, mote in brackets. 14. wolde, End.) woldo. 18. wolde, End.) woldon gytan. 21. purhtipeah. 24. bydde. 4. Ixd < Ixt. 6. MS unmodigne could piausibly be taken as "humble," as Hargrove and B-T suggest. The adjective modig is often used with the pejorative sense of "proud, arrogant" (B-T, III, IV); hence, the negative form could easily mean "not proud, humble." Emendation to anmodigne "courageous," proposed by Holthausen and Endter, seems to me unnecessary. The Latin source is no help on this point, because the thought is Alfred's addition. 7. ofereda < oferheda < oferhyda: "honorable pride"(B-T, II, under oferhygd), "superior intellect" (Cockayne), "largeness of spirit" (Hargrove); see the Latin, magnanimum. 8. The MS form could be either onfondne or onfundne. onfondne would be the normal accusative Singular form of the present participle of onfon, and would mean "recipient"; see the Latin, perceptoremque sapientiae tuae. B-TS explains onfundne as an independent adjective derived from the past participle of onfindan and meaning "having experience o f " 14. MS woldon ongytan here and MS woldon gytan in 1. 18 seem to be due to vowel assimilation. 14. hwxt is almost a relative pronoun here; see § 5. H. 24. cwxt ponne may show consonant dissimilation.

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D a cwaeö ic: nat ic n a n )?in(g) m e swa cuö swa ic wolde p a 6 me god were. P a cwasö h e o : hwaet m a g o n we his )7onne don, gyf p\x nast pxt gemet? ]?u sceoldest witan hwenne pe genoh Jjuhte, a n d gyf ö u efre to ö a m becume, pxt p\i Jjonne ofer Jjaet ne eodest, ac sohlest aealles hwast, JJC les pu anes [15b] hwaet woldest (and) wylnodest ofer gemet. f ) a cwseö ic: Ic wot hwet pu woldest: ic pc sceolde taecan be sumere bisene. Ac ic ne maege, foröamJ>e ic nat nanwiht gode gelices pxt ic maege cwaeöan t o pe: " D u s geara ic wolde cu««an god swa ic ]?is Jjing c a n . " D a cwast h e o : ic wondrie pin, hwi )?u secge pxt J?u gode nawiht gelices nyte, a n d fur)?an gyt nast hwilc he ys. D a cwaeö ic: gyf ic wiht him gelicaes wiste, ic wolde pa.8 lufian swiöe swiölice. N u ic )?onne n a t nanwiht him gelices, nu ne lufige ic nanwiht b u t o n hine a n d mine agene saule; a n d ic n a t pcah hwil(c) ö a r a aöer ys. D a c w s ö h e o : pu cwest pxt pu ne lufiae nanwyht b u t o n god and J?ine sawle. gyf ö o n n e pxt swa is, ne }JU ö o n n e n a n n e oöerne f r e o n d ne lufast? D a cwffiö ic: hwi gyf ic sawle lufige, h u ne lufige ic minne f r e o n d ? hu ne haefö he sawle? £)a cwaeö h e o : gyf pu pinne f r e o n d foröi [16a] lufast pe he sawle haefö, hwi ne lufast pu Jjonne aelc ]?ing pe sawle haefö? hwi ne lufast pu mys and flaea? £)a cwaeö ic: Ic hi ne lufige for)7iJ?e hi sint flesclicu nytenu, nes men. D a cwaeö h e o : h u ne h a b b a t pine f r e o n d eac licuman swa swa n y t e n u ? P a cwaeö ic: ne lufige ic hi n a foröi, ac f o r ö a m ö e hi men sint, a n d h a b b a ö gescea(d)wisnesse on here m o d e — p a ic lufige ge f u r ö u m on J^eawum. pa pe ic hatige, pa ic hatige forjjipe hi pxt god pxre gescea(d)wisnesse wendaö on yfel. f o r ö a m m e ys egöer paxa alyfad, ge Jjaet good t o lufianne ge pxt yfel to 5. and, End. 7. godes. 8. cunnan, Co.) cuman; good. 9. hic. 12. swidlice, d above the line. 19. hy hwi. 21. nytenu, e written over an erasure. 26. hys. 2-5. Alfred seems to have had difficulty with the concise and intricate syntax of the Latin source: Nonne censes prius tibi esse sciendum, quomodo tibi Deum scire satis sit, quo cum perveneris non amplius quaeras. The addition of and (1. 3) and the placement of the conditional clause before the purpose clause, pst pu, etc., break the sentence into fragments. Sequence of tenses is also lacking: a condition is stated in the present tense, becume, while the actions contingent upon it are stated in the past, eodest, sohtest. It may be, however, that become, preterite subjunctive, was the original form. If the verbs eodest, sohtest, woldest, and wylnodest are actually indicative, then there is also a problem with mood; yet these verbs may well have IWS extension of -st to the preterite subjunctive Singular (see § 3. C. 19). 20. flsea < fliean, acc. pl. 22. habbat pine (< habbad pine) may show consonant dissimilation. 24. peawum < peowum "slaves." Holthausen's emendation (p. 324) to peofum, based on latronibus of the Latin source, is adopted by Endter, but it involves a considerable departure from the MS form. A reference to slaves, in the sense of "men of the lowest condition," would be perfectly appropriate in this context.

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h a t i a n n e , f o r ö a m ic lufige aelcne m i n r a f r e o n d a , s u m e laes, s u m e s w y ö o r ; a n d ffilcne )?ara öe ic m a lufige Jjonne o ö e r n e , ic h i n e lufige s w a mycele m a p o n n e ö o n e o ö e r n e s w a ic o n g y t e pxt h e b e t r a n willan hasfö ponne se o ö e r , a n d his gescea(d)wisnesse n y t t r a n wille t o [16b] d o n n e . D a cweö h e o : g e n o h wel ö u h y t o n g i t s t a n d g e n o h rihte. A c gyf pe n u h w a sasdae pxt h e machte pe gelseram h u p\x m y h t a s f o n g y t a n g o d s w a sweotole pxt he w e r e pe swa c u ö s w a pe n u ys A l i p p i u s , pin c n i h t , h w e ö e r öe ]7onne o n ö a m g e n o h >>uhte, o ö ö e h u swiöe w o l d e s t ö u h i m pxs )?ancian? D a cwseö (ic): panc ic w o l d e secgan, n e cwasde ic peah n a öe r a ö o r : g e n o h . P a cwaeö h e o : f o r h w i ? D a cwaeö i c : ^ l i p p i u s m e is c u ö r e )?onne g o d , a n d n e c a n ic h i n e )?eah s w a g e o r n e s w a ic w o l d e . D a cwaeö h e o : l o c a n u pxt pu o f e r g e m e ö n e wilnige, n u ö u h i togasadere m e s t . W o l d e s t (]?u) c u n n a n g o d s w a s w a A l i p p i u s ? D a cwaeö ic: nese, n e d o ic h i n a öe r a ö o r gelice, Jjeah ic h y togasdere n e m n e . A c ic secge pa.6 m a n w o t o f t m a r e b e ö a m h e a l i c r a n ö o n n e b e ö a m h e a n l i c r a n . I c w o t n u b e ö a m m o n a n h u h e t o - m o r g e n [17a] f e r ö a n d o ö ö e r e n i h t . A c pxt is ear(h)licere, ic n a t h w e ö ic t o - m o r g e n aetan sceal. D a cwaeö h e o : w o s t pu ponne gyt g e n o h be g o d e , gyf h e pe b y ö c u ö swa p e is n u )?es m o n a n faereld—on h w i l c u m tungle he n u is, o ö ö e o n hwilce h e Öanon geö ? D a cwaeö i c : nese, ic w o l d e )?aö h e m e w e r e c u ö r e . D o n e m o n n a n ic geseo )?urh m i n e e a g a . A c m e is u n c u ö pe&h h i n e wille g o d f o r s u m u m d i e g l u m ]?ingum pQ w e n y t o n o n o ö ö e r e w i s a n waendan. D o n n e b e o ic a m y r r e d )?aes pe ic n u w e n e pxt ic b e o h i m wite. A c ic w o l d e w i t a n s w a b e g o d e o n m i n r e gescea(d)wisnesse a n d o n m i n u m ingejjance, pxt m e n a n ]?ing g e m y r r a n n e m a t t e , ne o n n a n u m t w e o n u n g a g e b r i n g a n . 1. Issse. 2. slcne, c written above the line; mycele, an / erased between y and c. 4. Wille, Jo.) willan. 5. cewed. 6. mythtas. 7. hys. 9. is. 13. loca,OT possibly luca. 14. pu. Ha. 18. his\ earhlicere. Ha. 21. Donne. 22. peak, Co.) pead. 25. nan written above the line. 4. Jost's emendation (p. 283) of MS willan to wille, third person Singular present indicative, seems the most plausible Solution to the Problems involved in this passage. The influence of the preceding betran willan (1. 3) could easily have caused the substitution of nyttran willan for nyttran wille. It is possible to make sense of willan, as Hargrove does, by taking it as a noun and the direct object oihsefö (1. 3); yet this reading involves acceptance of an unusual and extremely awkward construction. While I accept emendation to wille, I find Jost's further emendation of to donne to gedon arbitrary and unnecessary. 20. hwilce < hwilcen < hwilcum. 22. Cockayne's emendation to peak, which is adopted by Endter, is in accordance with normal OE usage. peah was often used with the meaning "if, whether" to introduce hypothetical er uncertain statements; see Wülfing, II, §425, Anm. 3; B-T, II, 2, under peah. Hargrove emends to pset. 24. beo may be due to the influence of the verb beo (1. 23), which is almost directly above it on the folio. It may also be explained as a Southern ME form; see § 3. F. 5. 26. nanum is dative singular masculine; tweonunga is genitive plural. tweonung is normally feminine, but it may have been a noun of more than one gender; see se tweonung, 64.3.

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Da cwaeö heo: gelyfst ]7u pxs, pxt ic pe mxge don gewisram be gode }?onne p\x nu eart be öam [17b] monan? pa cwaeö ic: gea, ic hys gelife, ac me waere leofre pxt ic hyt wiste; foröam we gelyfaö call pxt öxt (we) witon, and we nyton faela pxs pQ we (ge)lyfaö. Da cwffiö heo: me ]?incö nu pxt pu ne truwie öam uttram gewitte, naöer ne pSLm eagum, ne Jjam earum, ne öam stence, ne öam swece, ne öam hrinunge, daö pu öurh öara aenig swa sweotole ongytan maege pxt pxt J?u woldest, buton p\x hyt on }?inum inge)?ance ongytae ]?urh öin gescea(d)wisnesse. Da cwaeö ic: pxt is soö; ne truwig him na. pa cwaeö heo: h(w)aeöer woldest pu öonne pinne cniht ]?e wet er aembe sprecon cun(n)an, pe mid öam utram gewitum, pe miö pam inran? Da cwaeö ic: ic hine can nu swa ic hine of öam uttram gewitum cunnan maege. Ac ic wilnode pxt ic cuöe hys ingej?anc of minum in[18a]ge}?ance. Donne wiste ic hwilce treowöa he haefde wiö me. Pa cwaeö heo: maeg man (hyt) ealles witan buton mid öam inge]?ance? Da cwaeö ic: ne ]?incö me pxt ic swa hyt witan maege swa swa ic wolde. Pa cwaeö heo: ne canst (]?u) öonne ]?inne cniht? Da cwaeö ic: hu maeg yc hyne cunnan, and nat hweöer ic me silfene can? Hyt is gecwasden on pxre x pxt man sceole lufian hys nehstan swa swa hyne sylfne. Hu wot ic hys öonne, hu ic hine lufia scyle, gyf ic nat hweöer ic me sylfe lufige, ne nat hu he me lufaö ? Ic wot öaet hym is f»aet ylce be me. Da cwaeö heo: to hwi taest pu me to pa.m uttram andgytte, gyf öu mid j?am inran woldest god ongytan, swilce pu hyne woldest geseon lichamlice, swa 4. we. Ha; gelyfaö, End.) wellyfad. 6. stencice; swece, Jo.) spece. 10. hwseder,ila. 13. hys ingepance. 15. hyt, Jor, buton pam midpam. 17. ne donne ne canst donne pinne chiht; pu. Ha. 18. msege; yc. Hu.) hys. 22. pu tolme to. 6. Two meanings are recorded in B-T for the noun swec{c) "sense of taste" and "sense of smell." Here, the former is clearly intended, since stence (1. 6) has already been listed. 6. dam hrinunge shows apparent lack of concord in regard to gender, because hrinung is recorded elsewhere only as feminine, dam could easily be a scribal error, however; the scribe has just written ne dam (pam) four times in a row. 10. Endter suggests that donne may represent done; see the Latin, illum familiarem tuum. 11. miö pam shows consonant assimilation. 17. Hargrove reads: Ne canst donne {pu) pinne cniht. Placement of pu before donne, is, however, in accord with the normal order, according to Bacquet (pp. 221-222). Endter retains the whole MS passage, taking the second donne as representing öone: ne öonne ne canst (du) donne pinne cniht. The repetition of ne remains a problem in this reading, but Endter makes no comment upon it. I would suggest the MS ne donne ne canst donne may well represent erroneous and corrected forms Standing side by side, an occasional feature of this MS; see§ l.a. 20. hys may be taken either as a genitive of respect, "in regard to him," er as the direct object of wot and, hence, as correlative with the following clause. Endter takes the first view; Wülfing (I, § 14w), the second. 20. lufia < lufian. 21. sylfe < sylfne. 22. tsest (< txcst) shows probable loss of c in the consonant düster.

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swa pu er saedest pxt pu öone monan ge[18b]seawe? nat ic hu nyt J?u me pi t>ar taece, ne masg ic hyt nan(um) uttram angyttum gaetecam. Ac sege me hweöer pQ genoh )?ince pxt, pxt pu swa god ongytae swa Plato and Plotinus hine ongaeaton. Da cwaö ic: ne dear ic pst secgan, dxt me on öam genoh )?ince, foröam ic 5 nat hweöer him genoh J?uhte on öam pe hy pxr wiston. Ic nat J?eah hym }?uhte pxt hy be)?orften pxt hi his mare wiston, and swa swa me er Jjuhton. Da ic me gebaed, me )?uhte pxt ic swa fulice ne understode pxt pxt ic basd swa swa ic wolde. Ac ic ne maehte peah forberan pxt ic aembe ne spece swa swa me )?uhte >>aet ic öor(f)te, and swa swa ic wende J^aet hit waere. 10 Da cwasö heo: me p'mcö nu pxt ps f>ince f>aet pxt si oöer pxt man wite, oöer pxt man soölicost wenö. Da cwajö ic: gea, swa me }jincö; fordam ic wolde nu pxt pu me [19a] reahtest hwaeö per betweoh werae, oööe hwet man gewiss wiste. Da cwasö heo: wost pu pxt pu leornodes J?one creft pe we hataö geometrica ? 15 on pam creft pu leornodest onn anum Jjoöere oö)?e on aepple oööe on asge atefred p&ö pu meahtest beo pxre tefrunge ongytan J?ises roöores ymbehwirft and Jjara tungla fasreld. Wost öu nu pxt pu leornedest on pam ylcam crefte be anre linan p{e) (w)aes awritan anlang middes pass poperes ? Wost pu nu pat pe man paeron tehte para twelf tungla stede and para sunna faereld ? 20 Da cweö ic: gea, genoh geare ic wot hwaet seo line tacnaö. £)a cwaeö heo: ne ondredest öu öe nu /4chapemicos, öa uöwitan, öe saedon pxt naefre nanwiht gewisses naere buton twaeonunga, nu pu segst pxt öe paes nanwith ne tweonige ? 2. nanum, Ho. 3. platinus. 6. hy. Ho.) hym. 7. beporften, be written above theline. 9. specjce. dorfte, Co. 13. fordam. 14. betweoh werai,Ead.) beo twehperie. 15. leorneodes. 19. pe wies. Ho.) pses. 22. ac hapemicos, vnth ca.pita.1 A erased in the space. 1. geseawe seems to be a combination of normal WS gesawe and the peculiar gesew-, which appears twice in the Sol.; see note on 88.7-8. 1-2. "I know not, therefore (pi), why (hu nyt) you direct me there." In support of the meaning "why, for what purpose" for hu nyt, Jost (p. 285) offers So. 121.22: pe ic nat hu nyt pu me txhst to diem dysegum monnum. Several emendations of this passage have been proposed, but none is strictly necessary. Cockayne and Hargrove emend nyt to hyt. Jost emends pi par to pider, while Holthausen (End., p. 79) and Endter emend pi to pis. 6. peah means "if, whether"; see note on 58.22. 7. Hargrove's tentative translation of swa swa me er puhton is perfectly adequate: "but even so they formerly seemed to me." Jost (End., p. 20) and Endter emend puhton to puhte. 14. hwied per shows consonant assimilation. 15. As Endter suggests, leornodes may be the result of consonant assimilation and haplographic spelling: leornodes(ö) pone < leornodesd pone < leornodest pone. It may, however, be a nWS form; see § 3. E. 17. 17. päd pu shows consonant assimilation. 19. awritan < awriten, past part.

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ö a [19b] cweö ic: na, ne ondraede ic hi me nawit swiöe, foröam hi seedon pset naefre nan wis man waere. foröi me ne sceamaö nanwit ]?eah ic waere, foröi ic wot pxt ic gyt wis ne eom. A c gyf ic aefre swa wis woröe swa hi sint, )ponne wille ic syöjjan don swa swa hi laeraö. oö pxt ic wille seggan pxt ic wite buton getweon pxt pxt me p'mcb pxt ic wite. D a cwffiö heo: ne wiöcweöe ic pam nanwiht pxt ]?u swa do. A c ic wolde witan, nu pu segst pxt pu ymbe pa. linan wite ps on pam J?oöere atefreö wses, pe, pu on leornedost ymbe pises rodores hwyrft, Aweöer pu eac wite ymbe pone pöpQi pe seo lyne on awriten is. D a c w x d ic: gea, aegöer para. ic wot; ne maeg nan man }?aes gedwaelian. £>a cwaeö heo: hweöer geleornodest pu pe myd pam eagum, pe mid pam ingejjance ? pa cwasö ic: mid aegörum ic hyt geleornode: aerest [20a] myd öam eagum, and syö)?an myd f>am inge)?ance. 8a eagan me gebrodton on pam angytte. A c siöjpan ic hyt pa ongyten haefde, pa forla;t ic pa sceawunga mid pam eagum and pohte; foröi me f>uhte pxt ic (h)is masate micle mare get>encan öonne ic (h)is mähte geseon, jiööan pa eagan hyt aetfestnodon minum inge)?ance. swa swa scyp brincö man ofer s x : syööan he ponne to lande cymö, ]?onne f o r l ® t he pxt scyp standan, forj^am him Jjincö syööan J?aet he maege aeö butan faran ]?onne mid. Eaöre me J?incö Jjeah myd sc/pe on drigum lande to farande Jjonne me )?ynce mid öam eagum buta >>ara gescea(d)wisnesse as(ni)gne creft to geleornianne, Jjeah eagam J)aer-to hwilum fultmian scylen. D a cwasö heo: for öam ]?ingum is öearf pxt pu rihte hawie mid modes asagum to gode, swa rihte swa swa scipes ancer(20b)streng byö a}?enaed on gerihte fram pam scype to pam a n c r ® ; and gefastna pa eagan )?ines modes on 2. tmire, Jo.) mere\ miere, Jo.) mere. 5. getweon, ge written above the line. 6. do, Co.) dort. 7. pe on pamjpodere pe atefred v/xs. 15. forlxt icjpa ic pe. 16. his (2), Ha. 20. scipe, End.) scedpe. 21. senigne. Ha. 1-3. "No, I do not fear them very greatly, for they said that no wise man should ever err. I am not at all ashamed, therefore, if I should err, for I know that I am not yet wise." Jost's (End. p. 79) emendations of MS mere (2) to msere are in accord with the Latin source: Uli enim sapientem errare noluerunt; ego autem sapiens non sunt. Itaque adhuc non vereor earum rerum quOs nove, scientiam profiteri. Jost suggests that tmere may be derived either from mierran (myrrati), which normally means "to hinder" but can mean "to err" (see B-T, III), or from mearrian "to err," a rare verb used by Alfred in Bo. 55.23. Endter accepts emendation to mxre only in the first instance. I feel, however, that both emendations are necessary for a coherent reading, and a reading which is consistent with the Latin source. 20. Endter was the first to notice that the MS form is scedpe. All previous commentators had assumed it was scedpe, which they explained as a form of sceö {scegö) " a light, swift vessel," a loan word taken from the Danes (ON skeiS) and used occasionally in the texts of the tenth and eleventh centuries; see B-T for examples. Though this word seems to have influenced the MS form, it could not have been present in Alfred's original text. Endter suggests, therefore, that the original word was scipe and that the MS form represents confusion oi scipe and scede\ scedpe < sceppe < scepip)e < scipe.

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gode swa se ancer byd gefastnoö on ösere eoröan. peah pxt scyp si ute on öasre sae on ]?am ydum, hyt byö gesund (and) untoslegen, gyf se streng apolaö; foröam hys byd se oöer ende fast on pxre eoröan and se oöer on öam scype. Da cwaeö ic: hwajt is pxt öaet J?u hest modes eagan? Da cwaeö heo: gesceadwisnesse, to-aeacan oörum creftum. 5 Da cwasö ic: hwaet sint pa. oöre creftas? Pa cwaeö heo: Wysdom, and eadmeto, and wasrscype, and gemetgung, rihtwisnes and mildheor(t)nes, gesceadwisnes, gestad]?ines and welwilnes, clennes and forheafdnes. myd Jjisum ancrum pu scealt gefastnian öone streng on gode, psi öaet scyp healdan sceal pines modes. 10 Da cwaeö ic: Drihten god me gedo eall swa swa pu me laerst! Ic wolde gyf ic mähte. [21a] Ac ic ne maeg ongytan hu ic pa. ancras begytan mage, oööe hu ic hi afastnian mage, buton pu hyt me swaetolocor getece. Da cwasö heo: ic pe myhte getecen. Ac ic pe scolde erest acsian hu manige pu forleten haebbe )?isse worlde lusta for gode. syööan pu öonne me pxt asasd 15 heafst, öonne masg ic pe secgan butan aelcum tweon pxt pu heafst swa feola öara ancra begyte swa pu hasafst para lusta on wurlde forlaeten. Da cwaeö ic: hu maeg ic forlaeten pxt öaet ic wot and can and of cyldehade to gewonod eom, and lufian pxt öet me uncuö is buton be gesegenum? Ic wene peah, gyf me were swa cuö pxt öet pu me ymbe sagest swa me is pxt öaet ic 20 haer geseo, pxt ic lufede pxt and forsawe öis. Da cwaeö heo: ic wundrige hwi (}?u) swa spece. gef>enc nu gyf öines hlafordes aerendgewrit and hys insegel to öe cymö, hwaeöer pu mtege cweöan pxt öu hine be Öam ongytan ne maegae, [21b] ne hys willan pxi-on gecnawan ne maege. gyf ]7u öonne cwyst pxt pu hys willan öer-on gecnawan mage, cweö 25 ]?onne hweöer pQ rihtra ]?ince t>e pu hys willan folgie, pe. pu folgie pam welam pe he öe er forgeaf to-eacan hys freondscype. Da cwaeö ic; sam ic wylle, sam ic nelle, ic sceal secgan nide riht, buton ic leogan willae. gyf ic öonne leoga, öonne wot god paö. Foröi ic ne dear nan oööer secgan butan soö, pxs öe ic gecnawan can. me J?incÖ betere J?aet ic 30 forlete pa gyfe and folgyge pam gyfan, öe me egöer ys stiward ge öas welan ge eac hys freon(d)scypes, buton (ic) egöer habban mage. Ic wolde peah egpei habban gyf ic mythte, ge öone welan ge eac hys willan folgyan. 2. and, Ha. 8. gestadpines, d written above the line. 11. Z)n'A/en, ä written above theline. 12. amcms. 14. i/erased after icoWe. 16. Äea/i?,/written above the line. 19. buton ge be. 21. geseoh. 22. j)u, Ha.; specce, the first c erased. 32. ic. Ha. 33. welan. Ha.) willan. 9-10. done streng . . . piet: the use of pset as a relative without regard to gender is found sporadically in Alfred's works; see § 5. G. 14. getecen < getxcan. 17. begyte < begyten. 18. forlxten < forlztan. 29. leoga < leoge, subj. sg.

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D a cwffiö heo: ful rithte pu me h s f s t geandwyrd. Ac ic ps wolde acsian hweöer pu wene pxt maege [22a] habban call pxt öet pu nu hasfst butan )?ines hlafordes freondscype. D a cwaeö ic: ne wene ic pxt xnig m a n si swa dysig paö (he) pxs wene. D a cwaeö heo: genoh rihte öu hyt understentst. Ac ic wolde witan hweöer pt puhte be pam pt pu haefst, hweöer hyt were pe laene ps sece. D a cwaeö ic: ne wende yc naefre pxt hyt aece were. Pa cwaeö heo: hwaet wenst pu be gode and be pam ancrum pe wyt xr sprecon, hweöer hi sion öe ]?isum gelice öe aece ? D a cwaeö ic: hwa is swa wod Jpaet he dyrre cweöan pxt god ne se aece? D a cwaeö heo: g y / he öonne aece is, hwi ne lufast öu pane aecan hlaford swiöor }?onne öone laenan? hwat, öu wast pxt se asca J?e naht f r a m ne gewyt, buton pu f r a m hym gewite; and pu scealt nide f r a m öam oörum, sam pu Wille, [22b] sam pu nelle: oööe öu scealt hine forlaetan, oööe he pe. Ic gehyre f>eah pxt pu hine lufast swiöe swi()p)lice, and eac ondrest and wel dest: swiöe rihte and swiöe gerisenlice pu dest. Ac ic wundrige hwi pu öone oöerne mycle m a ne lufige, pe öe egöer gyfö ge öas worldhlafordes freon(d)scype ge his agene, and asce lyf aefter f>ise worulde. (Se) hlaford is incer beigra wealdend, ge öin ge px% hlafordes pe öu öaer swa ungemetlice lufast. D a cwaeö ic: Ic pe andette pxt ic hine wolde lufian ofer ealle oööre Jjincg, gyf ic hine ongytan cuöe and gecnawan swa swa ic wolde. Ac ic hys maeg swiöe litel ongytan oööe nawiht, and pta\i J?am timum pt ic hys agyme and me asnig onbrerdnes cym(ö) be öam aecan lyfe, f>onne ne lufige ic nanwiht J?isses andweardan lyfes ofer pxt, ne furöum pam gelice. D a cwaeö heo: hweöer [23a] pu nu wilnige J?aet pu hine geseo and swytole ongy te ? Da cwasö ic: nys me nan willa ofer pxne. D a cwaeö heo: heald ]?onne hys bebodu. (Da cwaeö ic): hwilce bebodu ? Pa cwaeö heo: pa ic pe aer sede. D a cwaeö ic: me ]7incaö pa swiöe hefige and swiöe manifealde. 3. freondscypes. 4. /ze, Wulf. 5. ic written above the line.; Äen-eJe/-. 1. yc,lia.) hys. \0. cnedan. W. gyt. 14. oöder he. 15. swiplice. Ho. 18. iSe, End.) two or three letters erased before 23. cymd, End. 27. willan. 28. helad. 29. Rubric added by Endter. 3. Since there are no other examples in Alfred's works of a genitive object after butan, Wülfing (II, § 1043) dismisses MS freondscypes here as a mere scribal error. 4. The addition of he, suggested tentatively by Wülfing (I, § 284), makes the syntax normal, yet Wülfing points out that päd could be a relative pronoun, used without regard to gender; see note on 23.13. While the apparent assimilation of päd and pses might indicate that there was originally nothing between them, the two words are separated by a linedivision in the folio, a likely Situation for a word to have been lost. 7. Endter reads ne wende(ic) hys nsefre, etc., yet hys (his) is written for yc {ic) at two other Points in the MS: hu mseg yc (MS hys) hyne cunnan, 59.18; /c (MS his) gehire nu, 71.6.

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Pa cwaeö heo: me ne )?inc6 nanwiht hsfig öes )?e man lufaö. Da cwaeö ic: ne }?mcö me nan geswinc hef/g, gyf ic geseo and habbe pxt öaet ic «fter swince. Ac se tweonung wyrcaö pa. hefinesse. Da cwaeö heo: genoh wel }?u fehst on Jja spece, and genoh rihte pu hyt understentst. Ac ic pe meg secgan )?aet ic eom seo ges(c)eadwisnes öines modes, 5 pe öe wiö sprecö, and ic eom seo racu öe me onhagaö öe to gerihtreccenne, pxt p\i gesyhst myd )?ines modes eagan god swa sweotole swa pu nu gesyhst myd öaes licuman aeagan [23b] öa sunnan. Da cwaeö ic: god aelmihtig pQ forgylde. me is swiöe mycel J?anc pxt pu me gehatst paö pu swa swotole hi? me getecan wille. uncuö Jjeht ic waere, öonun lo cume (ic) to ()?am) pxt ic hine maege sweotolor geseon, gyf ic hine erest geseo swa swa ic nu pa. sunnan geseo. Ic ne geseo peht öa sunnan swa swotole swa ic hi geseon wolde. Ic woö fol lytle öe gearor hwilc seo sunne is, peaht ic hyre elcae dsege onlocige. me ]?uhte peaht good pxt ic mythte god swa swotole 15 geseon. Da cwaeö heo: }?enc nu swiöe geor(n)lice to öam pe ic pe asr saede. Da cwaeö ic: ic wille swa ic geornost maege. [The text of the Latin source has been added here to help explain several problems of coherence in the OE text. The relevant Latin passages are italicized.]

R. Bene moveris. Promittit enim ratio quae tecum loquitur, ita se demonstraturam Deum tuae menti, ut oculis sol demonstratur. Nam mentis quasi sui sunt occuli sensus animae; disciplinarum autem quaeque certissima talia sunt, qualia illa 20 quae sole illustrantur, ut videri possint, veluti terra est atque terrena omnia: Deus autem est ipse qui illustrat. Ego autem ratio ita sum in mentibus, ut 2. hefgi. 3. sefter, the first letter illegible. 12. geseon-, swotolo. 16. geornlice. Ha.

10. hit, Ha.) hic.

I L ic. Ha.; pam, Jo.

3. se tweonung suggests that tweonung may at times have been regarded as masculine; see note on 58.26. 6. "and I am the reasoning faculty in whom lies the power to explain to you, etc." me in de me onhagaö is redundant and illogical. A possible Solution would be to regard öe as a form of öy "therefore," and to place a semicolon after racu. 10. päd pu shows consonant assimilation. 10-11. uncuö peht ic wxre, öonun cume (ic), etc.: "Although I was a stranger (to God), I may come from that condition to the point where I may know Hirn more clearly." This reading preserves the text of the MS unaltered, although the meaning attributed to uncuö is somewhat incongruous with the context. Hargrove's translation oi uncuö as "ignorant" gives the sense one would expect, yet there is, unfortunately, no other OE evidence to Support it. The word "uncouth" does not appear whh the meaning "ignorant" until the ME Bestiary (c. 1220); see N.E.D. 7, for examples. Jost (pp. 285-286) takes uncuö peht as an absolute construction meaning "perhaps," and presents convincing evidence that such a construction did exist in OE. He refers to several passages listed in B-T and B-TS (IH, under uncup), and to a later passage in the Sol. itself: uncuö pxah me syööan scamige pxt ic eft hawige "perhaps I may be ashamed to look back again" (80.21-22). If uncuö peht is to be taken as "perhaps" in the present instance, however, there remains the problem of

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Pa cwaeö heo: wite pxt erest gewiss, pxt öxt mod byö pxre sawle asge; and pxt J?u scealt eac witan, pxt oöer byö {pxt man eagan hsebbe, oöer biö, pxt man hawie, and pxt oöer biö, pxt man hawie, oöer biö) pa.t man geseo pxt pxt (he) after hawode; feoröe byt pxt pxt he per geseon wolde. foröam selc man öara pe aeagan heft [24a] aerest hawaö pxs öe he geseon wolde oö öone first pe he hyö gehawaö. Jjonne he hyt Jjonne gehawaö heaft, öonne gesyhö he hit. Ac pu scealt witan öaet ic pQ (p€) nu wiö sprece, ic eom gesceadwisnes, and ic eom ffilcum manniscum mode on pam stale pe seo hawung byö ]?am eagum. aslces licuman aeagan behofaö preora f>inga on hym silfum to habbaene; f(e)oröe in oculis est aspectus. Non enim hoc est habere oculos quod aspicere: aut item hoc est aspicere quod videre. Ergo animae tribus quibusdam rebus opus est ut oculos habeat quibus jam bene uti possit, ut aspiciat, ut videat. Oculi sani mens est ab omni labe corporis pura, id est, a cupiditatibus rerum mortalium jam remota atque purgata: quod ei nihil aliud praestat quam fides primo. Quod enim adhuc ei demonstrari non potest vitiis inquinatae atque aegrotanti, quia videre nequit nisi sana, si non credat aliter se non esse visuram, non dat operam suae sanitati. Sed quid, si credat quidem ita se rem habere ut dicitur, atque ita se, si videre potuerit, esse visuram, sanari se tamen posse desperet; nonne se prorsus abjicit atque contemnit, nec praeceptis medici obtemperat? A. Omnino ita est, praesertim quia ea praecepta necesse est ut morbus dura sentiat. R. Ergo fidei spes adjicienda est. A. Ita credo. R. Quid, si et credat ita se habere omnia, et se speret posse sanari, ipsam tamen quae promittitur lucem non amet, non desideret, suisque tenebris, quae jam consuetudine jucundae sunt, se arbitretur debere interim esse contentam; nonne medicum illum nihilominus respuit? 2. heac. 2-3. Reconstructed by Jo. 6. ge gehawaö; eh. 7. pe, Jo.; Ic.

3. pat, End.) pam; he. Ha. 9. feorde. Ha.

MS wsere. Jost is Willing to drop wiere, unexplained, from the text, although he does suggest two admittedly speculative readings which would include it: uncuö peht ic wxre öomn cumeinde): uncud peht ic wsere donuncuma [from a noun, domncuma]. Endter follows Jost in taking uncud peht as "perhaps" and dropplng wsere from the text. 2-3. Jost's reconstruction (p. 287) fills an obvious gap in the text and is based firmly upon the sense and syntax of the Latin source (65.10-11). He supports it further through a comparison with Post. 341. 20: Oder is, pset hwa for hreowsunge his syma lelmessan seile, oder is, pset he foröy syngige and reafige: Sed aliud est pro peccatis misericordiam facere, aliud pro misericordia facienda peccare. 4. byt pset shows possible consonant dissimilation. 6-8. This passage is a senseless Interruption, due apparently to Alfred's confusion of two closely similar passages in the Latin source. In the first Latin passage (64.18-20), the Reason identifies itself as the Speaker, ratio quae tecum loquitur, and states a general analogy

lo

15

20

25

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byt pxt hit secö and to hym geteon wolde . . . an is . . . pxt öu hasfst and bricst and lufast pxt öaet pu aer toopedest. D a cwaeö ic: eala, hweöer ic sefre cume to öam öe ic tohopie, oööe pxt aefre to me cumae pxt ic wilnie ? D a cwaeö heo: do nu pa lufe öriddan to-eacan pam geleafan and pam s tohopan; foröam nanre sawle eagan ne beoö füll hale, ge hyre god myd to geseonne, buton )?isum Jjriom. Seo gesyhö )?onne is angyt. [24b] gyf heo öonne hal eagan haeft, ]?aet is, hal angyt, hwaes byd hyre öonne wana, oööe hwaes )?earf heo öonne maran ? ( D a cwaeö ic: pxt heo hawie.) lo A. R. A. R. id est A.

Prorsus ita est. Ergo tertia Charitas necessaria est. Nihil omnino tarn necessarium. Sine tribus istis igitur anima nulla sanatur, ut possit Deum suum videre, intelligere. Cum ergo sanos habuerit oculos, quid restat? 15 Ut aspiciat.

10. Restoration by Jost. between the two kinds of seeing: Nam mentis quasi sui sunt oculi sensus animae. In the second (64.22), the Reason mentions itself by name, then states the analogy more explicitly: Ego autem ratio ita sunt in mentibus, ut in oculis est aspectus. In the Latin text, the analogy is developed in detail (65.10 ff.) only after it has been stated the second time. Alfred translates the first Latin passagein 64.5-8. and 65.1. He seems, however, to have mistaken the first Statement of the analogy for the second, for he next proceeds to develop the analogy in detail (65.2-6), upsetting the order of the Latin text and making a translation of the second passage unnecessary. When he does come to translate the second passage (65.7-8), he Compounds the redundancy by adding a second self-introduction by the Reason, ic pe ipe) nu wid sprece, ic eom gesceadwisnes, based on ratio quae tecum loquitur, which he has already translated once in 64.5-6. 1-2. Textual corruption is apparent again here, since the phrase an is and the clause following it make no sense in the context. The OE text breaks off after the analysis of physical vision, but the Latin text (65.11.) goes on to include: a transition to the subject of the soul's Vision, a discussion of faith, a discussion of hope. These three Clements are missing from the OE text as it stands, but the transitional summary in 28.6-8 clearly indicates that they were originally present: do nu pa lufe driddan to-eacan pam geleafan and pam tohopan: fordam nanre sawle eagan ne beod füll hale, ge hyre god myd to geseonne, buton pisum priom. I would suggest, therefore, that 65.8-66.1 of the OE text, xlces licuman seagan behofaö preora pinga, etc., which seem to be a pointless repetition of 65.2-6, may actually be the first half of a transition to the subject of the soul's vision. They might have been followed originally by something like swilce selces sawles eagan behofaö preora pinga, etc. MS an is could have been placed directly after such a transition, to introduce the missing discussion of faith. The fragment (66.1-2) following an is does not correspond to anything in the Latin source. It appears to be an attempt at encouragement, a promise of rewards to come. As such, it is probably part of the missing discussion of hope. 6. ge "especially " may represent the conjunction ge (B-TS, la) or the adverb gea (B-TS, III). 7. heo refers to nanre sawle (1. 6). 10. Jost's (p. 288) restoration is based on the Latin Ut aspiciat (66.16).

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£)a cwffiö h e o : pare saule h a w u n g is gescadwisnes and smeaung. A c manige sawle h a w i a ö mid ö a m and peah ne geseoö pxt pxt hi wilniaö, foröam]?e hi naebbaö ful hale eagan. A c se p& g o d geseon wille, he scel h a b b a n (h)is m o d e s eagan hale: pxt is, Ö£et he hebbe festne geleafan and rihte t o h o p a n a n d fülle lufe. gyf he ö o n n e pa. ealle hef(ö), ö o n n e haefö he geselig lif and aece. s seo gesyhö pe w e g o d m y d geseon scylon is angyt. pxt angyt byd betweona t w a m )?incgum, b e t w e o n a pam öe pXT ongyt and p a m (öe) pxr ongytan byö, and b y ö o n e g j r u m fsest swa s w a lufu byö b e t w e o n a pam lufiende and pam öe he pxT lufaö. o n egj?rum h e o b y ö faest swa w e er sprecon be ö a m ancerstrenge, pxt öe oöer ende were faest [25a] o n pam scype, oöer o n pan lande, lo D a cwffiö ic: gyf hyt ö o n n e aeft aefre gewyrö pxt ic g o d geseon majge swa swa pM. m e n u tehtest pxt ic his hawian sceolde, hweöer ic J?urfe para preora ]?inga ealra pe pu xi e m b e sprece, eah seo saule si fulfremed and fulclasne pa 20 5. Äe/d, Ha. 15. hefö, Jo.

9-10. ancerstrengne. 19. geseon.

Xh. geleafan.

14. Restoration by Jo.

5. Endter points out that MS hef dorne may represent haplographic spelling. 7. ongytan < ongyten. 10. de in pxt de oder ende may be part of the Compound conjunction pset pe, or it may represent the lOE-ME form of the definite article; see § 3. F. 11. 15. gesyht pset may indicate consonant dissimilation. 15. (K)efdpäd pst. Jost's emendation (End., p. 29) to hefö is supported by the Latin, Spes nihilominus, quiajam tenet. Hargrove emends to eft. päd pxt shows consonant assimilation. 17. lufu < lufe, gen. sg. 17-20. The source of this, the sole Latin Quotation in the Sol., is Psalm 118.96, according to the Vulgate numeration. MS consummatione is apparently a scribal error for consummationi, which is the Standard reading in most editions of the Vulgate psalms, including the most recent, Benedictine edition (Rome, 1957). The Quotation does not seem particularly appropriate to the subject of God's love, despite Alfred's attempt to gloss it as such. In Psalm 118 as a whole, however, God's law is viewed as a manifestation of His love and mercy, in that it is designed to sustain mankind forever. Perhaps it was this equation of God's law with His enduring love that led Alfred to introduce the Quotation at this point. Since the Quotation is introduced rather abruptly, Jost (End., p. 83) suggests that a transitional phrase may have been lost from the text. He points out that, in Fast., Alfred often introduces Quotations with brief transitional phrases: be dam ilcan se sealmsceop cuxd (29.8); Be dsem cwxd se psalmsceop (273.13); etc. If such a phrase had once been present here, Jost argues, then the puzzling he in he witegode (1. 20) would simply refer to the psalmist. 19-20. pxt is seo lufe embe pxt he witegode has several unusuaJ syntactical features. The use of the neuter pxt to introduce a predicate nominative of a different gender or number, as in pxt is seo lufe, is a fairly common Alfredian practice; see § 5. F. Much more rare is the use of pxt as an indeclinable relative, as in seo lufe embe pxf, see § 5. G. Rarer still is the placement of a preposition before a relative, as in embe pxf, see § 5.1.

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hwile pe heo on ]?am licuman byt, [25b] heo ne masg god geseon swa swa heo wilnaö for )?aes licuman hefenesse and gedrefednesse, buton miö miclum geswince J?urh geleafan and tohopan and Jpurh lufe. öast sint pa. pvto anceras pt pset scyp öes modes healdaö on gemang öam brogan para yöa. pxt m o d )?eah haefö micle frofre on ö a m pe hit gelyfö and geare wot pst pa ungelimp s and pa ungesaeljja f>isse wurlde ne beoö asce. swa swa scypes hMord, Jjonne pxt scyp ungetaeslicost on ancre rit and seo sae hreohost byö, ]?onne w o t he gewiss smelte wedere towaeard. Dreo pinc sint neodbehaefe ö a m eagan elcere sawle. A n is fast (heo) hal sien; oööer, pxt heo hawien öes pe heo geseon wolden; /)ridde, J^aet hi magen geseon pst pxt hi gehawian. T o pam J?rim is godes lo fultumes öerf, foröam man naj?er ne öa god ne nane d o n [26a] ne maege buton hys fultume. Foröam he is s/mle to biddane pxt he simle beo fultumiunde. Foröam hyt is (his) daed pxt he us onbrirde and on pxt tihte pxt we asrest wel willen, and syööan m y d us wyrce pxt pxt he wile, oö öane first öe we hyt fulfremmen myd hym; and huru he (wyrcö) myd us swa swa myd i5 6. hlaford, Cook) ho feut or ho fent. 8. Dreo, the e above the line. 12. smile. 13. his, End. 15. helmyd.

9. heo. Ha.

3. dst sint pa preo anceras: on the use of pset without regard to the gender or number of a predicate nominative, see § 5. F. 6. The MS form ho feut or ho fent makes no sense whatsoever. Various emendations have been suggested, all of which present problems. Cook's emendation (MLN, Nov. 1902, col. 419) to hlaford makes perfect sense and is adopted by Hargrove and Endter, yet it is hard to believe that the scribe would have had difficulty with such a familiar Word. Cockayne emends to hofding (ON höfdingi) "chief, captain," a loan word that appears only once in OB, in Chron. 1076 (Earle, 213.31). It is extremely unlikely, however, that such a rare word, apparently introduced late into the language, could possibly have been known to Alfred. The same objection applies to Hulme's suggested emendation (p. 58) to the loan word hasseta (ON hastete) "captain," which also makes only one, late appearance in OE, in Chron. 1052 (Earle, 183.9). Despite the objections raised against them, all of these suggested emendations can be made useful. I suggest that Alfred's original word was indeed hlaford, but that, sometime in the history of the text, a synonymous loan word, either of the two mentioned, was substituted for it. The scribe of the present MS might well have been unfamiliar with this loan word when he found it in his exemplar, and thus could easily have miscopied it entirely. The MS form scedpe, discussed in the note on 61.20, presents a similar case of the probable substitution of an ON loan word {scede), again a nautical term, for a familiar OE word (scipe). 11. da god "those good t h i n ^ " refers to the Dreo pinc introduced in 1. 8. 13. Endter's addition of his improves the sense, and it is based on a plausible argument: "der Schreiber von den drei Wörtchen hyt is his, die er öfter verwechselt, eins vergessen hat." 15 ff. Jost and Endter feel that "fulfremme" is imderstood after myd us (1.15) and make no addition to the text. There are, however, two objections to this reading: it makes the phrase and huru he myd us completely redundant; it makes the transition to the simile illogical, since the simile clearly refers to the whole process of working, not merely to the finishing. The reading myd us (wyrce), suggested by Hulme and Hargrove, meets both of these objections and thus makes better sense. I suggest, however, that wyrcd be substituted for wyrce, since there is no clear need for a subjunctive verb.

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sumum geweal(d)num tolum, swa swa hyt awriten ys pxt aelcum welwyrcendum god myd beo mydwyrhta. We witon pxt nam man maeg nawyht goodes wyrcan buton hym god myd wyrce; and peah ne scal nam man beo ydel J?aet he hwaethwugu ne onginne be öam mythtum pe hym god gife. Da cwaeö ic: rihtne weg pu me taecst. nu ic wot hwset ic don sceal. Ac ic 5 nat hwaeöer ic maeg öe ne masg. Da cwaeö heo: ne scealt )7u pe foröencan )?eaö pu ful raöe ne maege beocuman to pam 6e öe ]?u wilnast. hwa masg [26b] aefre asnigne creft on lytlum firste geliornnian, oööe leasan oööe maran, J?e f>aene creft scyle? öe is creft ealra crefta, pxt is, pxt man spurige aefter gode and hys hawie and hine lo geseo. Da cwaeö ic: wel pu me lerst. Ac ic gemun hwaet pu me £er gehete, and swiöe gefagen anbidie paia gehata: pxt wes, pxt pu me behete pxt pu me woldest getecan pxt ic mihte god geseon myd mynes modes aeagan swa sweotele swa ic nu geseo p& sunnan myd mines lichaman aegan. is Da cwaeö heo: wel ]?u me mynegast. Ic öe gelaeste pxt ic pe gehet. ge)?ence nu pxt pu myhtst geseon myd J?ines lycuman aeagan J?reo p'mg on öaere sunnan. An is pxt heo is. Oöer, pxt heo scynö. Dridde, pxt heo feala Jjinga onlyht myd hyre sciman. Ealle pa. öing pe beorhte beoö, ponne seo sunne hym on scynö, hi lyhtaö ongean, elc be his maeöe. [27a] Ac pa ps ungewlirige 20 beoö, öa ne lyhtaö nawiht ongean pa sunnan, ptah. heo hym on seine. Ac seo sunne scynö peab. on hi, and peah hwa ongean lochige, he ne maeg hi eallunga geseon swylce swylc heo is. Eall f>is pu myht gepencan be gode, and eac micle mare. he is seo hea sunne. he byt s/mle scynunde of hys agnum leohte aegöer ge (on) öa sunnan pe we mid licumlicum aeagum geseoö, ge aealle gescafta, ge 25 gastlica ge eorölica. Foröi me )?incö swiöe dysi man pe wilnat pxt (we) hine eallunga ongytan sw(i)lcene swilc he is, pa hwile pe we on Jjysse worlde beoö. hwaet, ic wene pxt nan man ne si to pam dysig pxt (he) foröi unro/sige gewealdnum,\lM.\hys. me woldest me. 24. smile. 25. on, Ho. 26. eorölicra; we, Ho. he. Ha. 28. unrotsige. Ha.) unrohsige.

20. ungewligige. Ii. swylt. 28. hwset, w above the line;

2-3. nam man (2) shows consonant assimilation. 7. pead pu < peak pu shows consonant assimilation. 8-10. "Who, having (to leam) that art, can ever leam any art in a short space of time? You are seeking to learn (lit., to you is) the art of all arts," etc. My reading of this passage is essentially that of Hargrove. pe (I. 9) refers to hwa (1. 8). "geliornnian" is understood after scyle (1. 9). de (1. 9) is dative Singular of the personal pronoun. In support of this reading of de, see 75.17-18: slcum men ys se xalra betsta cr\e)ft... pxt he sefter wysdom spurige. Wülf. (II, § 393.f) offers a different Interpretation; he takes de asa. relative referring back to psene creft (1. 9) and translates: "the crarft, which is the craft of all crafts." Endter also takes as a relative. Neither man seems to realize, however, that, if this reading of de is accepted, then the passage as a whole must be regarded as incoherent. Jost (p. 289), reco^izing this problem, but still taking de as a relative, is forced to conclude that there is a gap in the MS after maran. 26. wilnat piet shows possible consonant dissimilation.

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}?eah he ne mage ]7as sunnan, pe we lichamlicum eagum onlociaö, eallunga geseon and ongytan swilce swilce heo is. Ac aelc fagnaö f>ss pe laeste he ongytan maeg by hys [27b] andgytes maeöe. Wel se deö pe wilnaö pa. ecan sunnan and aelmyhtian to ongytaenne. Ac he deö swiöe disilice, gyf he wilnaö pxt he hi ealunga ongyte pa. hwile pe he in pisse worlde byö. 5 Da cwaeö ic: swiöe wundorlice and swiöe soöUce öu lerst, and swiöe wel pu me hajfst aretne and on godum tohopan gebrohtne. Ac ic bidde gyt J^aes pe pu me aer gehete. Da cwaeö heo: twa öing ic pe gehe; f>aet ic pe wolde gelestan and getecan, psi is, pxi }?u ongyte god and pe silfne. Ac ic wolde witan hu f>u pxt ongytan 10 woldest, hweöer pe t>u woldest unafanddes geleafan, öe afandud witan. Pa cwaeö ic: Ic hyt wolde witan afandud, foröam ic his naö naht gefaestlice. Da cwaeö heo: nis pxt nan wundor. Ic hyt ne rehte gyt pe on pa. wisan pe pu hyt [28a] mihtest afandod witan; /oröam per is gyt hwethwigu J?aes pu XT witan scalt, pxt is, aerest hweöer wit hale sien. 15 Da cwaeö ic: pxt pu scealt witan, hweöer pu aenige hele ongyte, awöer oööe on me, oööe on pe, oööe on unc bam. öe gerfafenaö to lerrenne and me to hlistenne, and me dafenaö to andsweorianne pes öe ic ongyte be mynes andgytes maeöe, gyf ic hys awiht ongyte. gyf (ic) öonne nawh(it) ne ongyte, }?onne sceal ic beo J?aes geöafa and letan hyt to )?inum dome. 20 Da cwaeö heo: Wihiast pu maran to witanne öonne beo gode and be pe siluum? Da cwaeö ic: Ic pe andette pxt ic nu ne wilnigie nanes öinges swiöor. Ac ic ne der pxt gehaten pxt me «anre wihte aealles ne laeste buton paes; /oröam me is swiöe geheme (pxt), paeah me [28b] hwaet cume to mode paes pe me 25 ponne öincg(ö) pxt me nan p'mg ne mage pxs amaerran pxt ic hyt ne firörige and fremme, ponne cymö oöer öing pe me ]?ing(Ö) rihlicre and raedlicre, öonne forlet ic pxt pxt ic aer genoh haefde; and foröam hwilum me gebyraö pxt byö hwjethwugu swa faeste on mode pxt ic pence pxt ic njefre be me cwucum aletan ne seile, ponne cymö me peah sum gedrefnesse J?aet me abysgaö to 30 öam pxt ic hyt nawaöer ne forlaetan ne maeg, ne fulfremmian ne maeg, peah 9. gehec. nawhjne.

14. hytjhyt. 23. dingiges.

16. hweder/hwieder; snigne. 17. gedafenad. 24. manre. 25. pxt End.

19. /c. Ha.;

2 - 3 . "But each rejoices in whatever he can in the least understand." 25. geheme "common, customary"; see the Latin, Nam saepe mihi usu venit. There is no other example of this Word in OE. B-TS lists it as gehseme, thus suggesting a derivation from ham. There is one example of a verb gehamian " t o make (one's seif) familiar with" recorded in B-T. Holthausen (p. 324) emends MS geheme to gemene (< gemsene) and is followed by Endter. I do not feel, however, that the meaning of gemxne quite fits the context: gemiene means "common," but in the sense of "mutual" or "shared," while the Speaker is talking here about something common to himself, something familiar and habitual. 26. Endter suggests that MS dincg pxt may indicate haplographic spelling. 29. be me cwucum "while I am alive"; see B-TS (II, 3a) for the temporal use of be.

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ic nan betre gefencan ne maege. Ac Jreo ]?ing me habbaö swiöost gedrefed. An is pxt ic me ondrede pset ic me scyle gedaelan wid mine freond, öa öe ic swiöost lufige, oööe hi wiö me, oööe for life oööe for deaöe. Oöer ping is pxt ic ondrede untrumnesse, asgöer ge cuöe ge uncuöe. Dridde is pxt ic ondrede deaö. [29a] pa cwasö heo: ic gehire nu hwast pu swiöost lufaest aefter öinum agenum gewitte and aefter gode: pxt is, erest, öinra freonda lyf, and pine agene hele, and J>in agen lyf. Dara fif ]?inga pu ondrest pxt pu scyle sum forleosan, foröam pu hi lufast aelle swiöe swiölice. Gyf pu hi ne lufadaest, Jjonne ne ondrede öu na pat pu hi forlure. Da cwaeö ic: Ic eom gepafa pxs pe pu me segst. Pa cwaeö heo: Foröam me öingö pxt ic öe geseo swiöe unrotne and swiöe gedrefe(d)ne on J?inum mode,/oröam pu nafst swilce haele swilce pu haefdest, ne Jjine freond myd öe naefst xalle pe swa gemode and swa }?were swa swa pu woldest. ne öincö me aeac nan wundor peah pu si unrot foröam. Da cwaeö ic: rihte öu hyt ongytst, ne masg ic J>aes aetsacan. Da cwaeö [29b] heo: gyf Öonne aefre gebyreö pxt pu pe ful halne and ful trumne ongytst, and hasafst aealle pins freond myö pe, aegöer ge on mode ge on lichaman, and on öam ilcan worce and on öam ylcam willam öe öe best lyst don, hweöer pu öonne wille beon awiht bliöe ? Da cwaeö ic: gea, la gea, gyf hyt nu faerenga gewurde, nyste ic nawar eoröan hu ic ongynnan wolde. Pa cwaeö heo: hu ne haefst pu öonne geot asllce gedrefednesse, aegöer ge modes ge lichaman, nu pu pa. twa heefst, J?aet is, ungemetlicum unrotnesse ? waere pu for inwordlice dysig, da pu wilnodest pxt pu scoldest myd swilcum aeagum pa hean sunnan (gehawian) and aeac geseon ? Da cwaeö ic: nu pu haefst me myd aealle ofercumme, pxt ic nawer eoröan nat hwilcne dael haele ic haebbe, ne hwilcne dael unhaele. 1. swiodost. 2. wid, Hu.) wiht. \'i. gedrefedne,^^^. IS, freolond.

6. ic, Ha.) his; ge agenum. 26. hean, End.)heah. 11.

7. hagene. nawer,y^\äl.)nawder.

14. pe "with you." 18. myd pe shows consonant assimilation. 24. Because ungemetlicum clearly does not modify unrotnesse, it must, as Endter suggests, be regarded as an adverb, formed from the dative plural of the adjective. 25. for most probably means " v e r y " rather than "before." The use of for{fore)3S3.n independent temporal adverb was very rare in OE; see Wülf. II, § 570. 26. A Word has apparently been lost after sunnan, which stands at the end of a line. In Support of the addition of gehawian, see ponne he hyt ponne gehawad heaft, öonne gesyhd he hit (65.6) and pxt hi magen geseon pxt pxt hi gehawian (68.10). Endter, while admitting that a verb appears to be missing after sunnan, emends the passage by merely dropping and. Har^ove gives an ingenious, if somewhat arbitrary, reading: he emends xac to xce, thus careating a common Alfredian construction, a pair of adjectives, one preceding and one following the noun. 27. ofercumme < ofercummen, past part.

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Da cwaeö heo: nys pxt nan [30a] wondor. nasfö nan man to pxs hal eagan pxt he aeni hwile mage locigan ongean }7as sunnan ]?e we (h)ffir geseoö, and huru ]7aes öe laes gyf he hefö unhale. Ac pa. pe unhale asagan h s b b a ö magon beon ieö on pistrum )7onne on leohte. Me )?incö peah pxt pe öince pxt ]?u habbe hal eagan. Du ge)?encst öa haele pars, eagan öinre sawle. Ac p\x ne geöencst pxt mycle leoht pxt pu wilnast to geseonne. ne gebelg pu pc wit me peah ic pe frasige and öin fandige, /oröam ic sceal pxt nede don. me pincö pxt pu ne ongyte pe silfne. Da cwaeö ic: ne gebeige ic me nawiht wiö pe, ac fagnige ]7aes Jju cwyst, /oröi ic wot pxt pu secst mine öearfe. Da cwaeö heo: hwaeöer pu nu eniges welan wilnige ? Da cwaeö ic: gefirn ic hyt hohgode J?aet [30b] ic hine sceolde forseon. ic hasbbe nu XXXIII wintra, and ic haefde ane les Jjene XX pa. ic erest hyt gehogede pxt ic hine ealles to swiöe ne lufige. {Jeah me genoh cume, ne fagnige ic hys na ful swiöe, ne hys ful ungemetlice ne bruce, ne aeac maran getilige to haldaenne )?onne ic gemetlice bi beon mage, and pa men on gehabban and gehealdan pe ic foröian scel; and pxt pxt pxr ofer byö ic hohgie swa sndebyrdlice gedelan swa ic aendebyrölicost maeg. Da cwasö heo: wilnast pu eniges wasordscipes ? Da cwaeö ic: Ic pe andete pxt ic J?aö wilnode oö me nu aöreaö swiöe niwan. Da cwaeö heo: ne lyste pe faegeres wifes, and sceamfestes, and wel geleredes, and gooöra )?eawa, and seo ]?inum willum and welun peod (seo), and haebbe swiöe micle spede, and pe on nanum ]?inc[31a]gum ne abysige, ne öe ne unaemtige to öinum wyllan? Da cwaeö ic: ne herast pu hi na to swiöe pxt ic hyre a öe ma wilnige? Foröam me ne f>incö nawiht wyrse pam öe god }?eawian wile ]?onne wyf to haebbenne, peah. hwa cwaeöe Jjaet hyt si betere to habbenne for bearna gestreone. Ic cwaeöe J^eah pxt hyt si preostum betere naebbe öonne habbe. 2. hser. Ha. \\. egniges.

3. heo. 5. hal eagan habbad. 6. gedencst, the e written above an i. 17. Ao%ie, the second A above the line. \9. egniges. 23. milde.

5. eagan shows lOE extension of -an to the genitive plural; see § 3. D. 6. 20. adread < adreat, pret. 22. and seo pinum willum and welun peod (seo) "and who is devoted to your will and welfare." The first seo is a relative pronoun, referring to wifes (I. 21). welun (< welum) shows lOE -n < -m\ see § 3. D . 4. peod < peoded. A verb seo, subjunctive, could easily have been lost through confusion with the relative seo. seo, a nWS equivalent of IWS si, sy, makes one certain appearance in the Sol.: pset, me dingiö), seo din hehste good, 85.2 All previous commentators have stricken the and after willum and taken un in connection with peod. Hargrove takes unpeod as an adjective meaning "subject, obedient" and adds the verb si to complete the clause. Holthausen emends (p. 324) unpeod to underpeod, third person singular present of underpeodan. Endter takes unpeod as third person singular present of a verb onpeod{d)an "sich anschliessen, sich fügen," but no such verb is listed in B-T. Neither Holthausen nor Endter seems to realize that the context requires a subjunctive verb; see hxbbe (I. 22).

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Foröi ic hohgode pxt ic scolde nan habban,/oröi ic wolde beon pi freora gode to pawianne. Da cwaeö heo: Ic gehyre nu pxt f>u ne tiohhast nan wif to haebbenne. Ac ic Wolde witan hwxöer öe nu gyt snig lufe oööe lust si aenigre hwemnesse? Da cwaeö ic: hwi acsast ]?u ma aefter öam? ne lyst me nu pxs. Ac gyf hyt me aefre on lust becymö, ic hyt on[31b]drede swa paie nasdram. hys me lyst swa Iseng swa laes; and s/mle swa ic ma wilnige pxt leoht to geseonne, swa me laes lest paxa. wisan. Da cwasö heo: hu be mete? hu swiöe lyst öe pxsl Da cwaeö ic: ne lyst me nawiht Öara metta ]?e ic forhatan habbe. Ac me lyst öara pe ic getiohhod habbe to astanne, öonne ic hi geseo. Hwaet wille ic ma cwaeöan aöer oööe be mete, oööe be drince, oööe be baöe, oööe be welan, oööe be wyröscype, (oööe) be aenigum worldlusta? ne wilnige ic heora nanes nawyt mycle ma öonne ic nede sceol habban to ({?am pxt ic) mynes lichaman hele and strengöe gehealdan mage. Ic bepearf ]7eah micle maren to öara manna Jjearfa öe ic bewitan sceal—pxs xac (ic) wilnige and nede sceal. Da cwasö heo: on riht }?u aeart. Ac ic wolde witan hwaeöer [32a] si(o) pin ealde gytsung and seo gemaehö eallunga of öinum mode astyfcod were and wyrtwalod, >>£et heo gyt growan (ne) myht(e). Da cwseö ic: be hwi cwist öu )?aet? Pa cwasö heo: ic cwaeöe be öam J>ingum pe pu me aer sedest, pa. pu getyohhod haeafde to forletanne and for nanum )?ingum eft to gecyrran nolde: pxt is, ofermetta wela, and ofermytta wyrdscipe, and ungemetlice riclic and seftlic lyf; and py nu acsige ic pQ hweöer p\x, aöer oööe for heora lufum oööe for eniges pinges lufum, hym eft to geenan wille. Ic gehe(r)de aer pxt p\x sedest 1. hohgjgode. 4. nu, Jo.) />k; legnig", lenigre, Co.) xnigne. geseon. Ii. odde,'ila.\senigmm. pampxtic,io. / erased. \1. on rihton-, sio,'Eni. 19. ne, Hz.; myhtl. wy. 25. gehejde.

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6. hondrede. 7. smile. 15. 6e/>ea///,thesecond 21. hic. 24. M Ha.)

8. wisan, gen. pl.; see note on eagan, 72.5. 16. pearfa < pearfe, dat. sg. 16. wilnian is understood after sceal. 18-19. The apparently sin^lar verb were suggests that the paired subjects gytsung "cupidity" and gemxhd "ambition" are regarded as exactly synonymous; see § 5. A. l.b. were could also represent weren with loss of -n. heo could be either nominative Singular feminine, or nominative plural. In myht(e), the singular ending is added in accordance with were. 25. Various explanations of MS to geenan or togeenan have been proposed, but none is wholly convincing. Hargrove takes togeenan as an iniinitive meaning "to return," whereas Hulme emends (p. 54) to an infinitive togeefnan "sich ergeben." There is not, however, the slightest evidence for the existence of either of these supposed verbs in OE. Wülfing (I, § 71 ss) takes togeenan as an iniinitive meaning "to join with," suggesting that the Word may derive ultimately from an. B-TS ^ves essentially the same reading but divides the MS form into the preposition to and the infinitive geenan (< ge-senan), and suggests a comparison with the past participle ge-aned "united," which appears once in OE. Both Wülfing and B-TS mark their readings as tentative. Jost suggests (p. 8) that the original word was the

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pxt )?u )?ine freond lufodest, asfter gode and aefter )?inum agnum gewitte, ofer Salle oööre fing. (Ic) nu wolde witan hweöer pu for heora lufum woldest öas ]?ing eft underfon. [32b] D(a) cwaeö ic: aeall ic hyt wille eft underfon for heora lufum, Jjcah hys me for wel ne lyste, gyf ic asalles ne maeg heora geferEedena habban. D a cwaeö heo: ful gesceadlice öu me andswarast and ful rihte. Ac ic ongyte peah pxt pa. worlde-lustas ne sint eallunga awyrtwalode of öinum mode, peah se graf geryd si,/oröam pa wyrttruman magon eft öanon asprettan. ne talige ic pe peah pxt to nanre scylde, / o r ö a m pn hit for öara öinga lufum ne unde(r)fehst, ac for pass öincges lufum pc öe rihtre ys to lufianne ]?onne pxt. Ne ahsige ic naefre be nanum men hweeö he do. Ac ic ahsige öe nu gyt for hwig pa pa. freond lufige swiöe, oööe hwaet pu on hym lufige, oööe hwaeöer öu hi for heon selfum lufige, pt for sumum oörum [33a] )?ingum. D a cwaeö ic: Ic hi lufige for freondscype and for geferaedenne, and pa ]?eah ofer asalle oöre, J?e me majstne fultum doö to ongyttanne and to witanne gesceadwisnesse and wisdom, aealra msest be gode and beo urum saulum. Foröam ic wot pxt ic maeg asö myd heora fultume aefter spurian ponne ic butan maege. D a cwaeö heo: hu )7onne gyf hi nellaö spurian efter pam ]?e pu spurast? D a cwaeö ic: Ic hi wille laeran ]?aö hi wyllan. p a cwaeö heo: Ac hu ponne gyf pu ne meaht, and hi beoö swa recelease J?aö hi lufiaö oöer ]?incg ma }?onne pxt pxt pu lufast and cwaeöaö J?£et hi ne magon oööe nellaö ? Da cwaeö ic: Ic hi wylle peah habban; hi beoö me on sumum öingum nytte, and ic eac heom. Da cwaeö heo: ac hu öonne gyf hi öe myrraö and lettaö pxs ()?e pu spurast ?) [33b]. . . lichoman mettrimnysse. 2. Ic, End.) pingjnu. the o crossed out.

5. for, Jo.)/o«; after wel, le erased.

10. hys.

24. ome,

adverb togeanes, togenes, and that an inflnitive inflection has been added to it, because of its Position before wille: togeenan < togenen < togenes. Endter prints to geenan but does not discuss the problem. 5. Jost (End., p. 85) emends MS fon to for, pointing out that fori very rarely takes a gentive object and that the scribe could easily have been confused by the previous underfon (1. 3). The MS form could also be due to confusion of insular r and n, an occasional source of error in this text; see § 4. A. 4. 26-27. The break in continuity apparent in these lines can be due only to textual corruption. Hargrove attempts to make sense of the text as it stands: "But how then if they disturb thee, and if the infirmities of the body hinder thee?" However, this reading fails to account for the abrupt shift in the topic of discussion, and it cannot be reconciled with Augustine's answer, pset is sod (p. 75.1). Holthausen's addition (p. 324) of for or purh after lettaö also makes little sense. Jost was the first to suggest (p. 9) that there must be a substantial gap in the MS, pointing out that the text of 11. 26-27 is a combination of two ideas widely separated in the Latin: Quid, si te ab inquirendo etiam impediat eorum praesentia; Dolor corporis restat, qui te fortasse vi sua commovet. On the basis of this second passage,

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Da cwaeö ic: pxt is soö. ne ondrede ic peah nawiht öa mettrimnesse gyf me n£ere for Öriin öingum. An )?ara ys hefig sar; oöer, deaö; pridde, pxt ic ne mage pxt secan, ne hure gemetan pxt pxt ic willnige swa swa (öu) me nu witan dyde(st). Toöascce me forwyrnde aelcre leornunga. Ac he me ne ofteah ^eah eallunga öes gemyndes pass pe ic aer leornode. Ic wene ]?eah, gyf ic gewislice ongaeate pxt pxt ic wilnige to ongyttanne, pxt me Jjuthte pxt sar swiöe lytel oööe ealles nawyht ofer öone geleafan. Ic wot peah pxt manig broc byd mycle strengte öonne toöaece, öeah ic naefre nan strengte ne geöolode. Ic leornode pxt Cornelius Celsus rseahte on hys bocum pxt on aslcum men [34a] wasre wysdom pxt hehste good and untrimnesse pxt maeste yfel. se cwyde me ]?uhte swiöe soö. Be öam ylcan )?ingum se ylca Cornelius cwaeö: "Of twam öingum we sint J?aet we sint, J?aet ys, of saule and of lichaman; seo sawel is gastlic and se lichaman, eordlic. Daera sawle is se besta creft wisdom, and pxs lichaman pxt wyrste ping unhele." ne J?ingö me pxt aeac nowyht laeas. Da cwaeö heo: hu ne habbe wyt nu genoh sweotole gereaht pxt wisdom ys pxt hehste good? Hu ne ys pxt eac nu butan aelcum tweon pxt slcum men ys se aealra betsta cr(e)ft and pxt seleste weorc pxt he aefter wysdome spurige, and hine lufige öer öxr he hine ongyte? Ac ic wolde pxt wyt sohten nu hwilce öass wysdomes lufiendas [34b] beon scolen. Hu ne wost öu nu pxt xlc para. manna pe oöerne swiöe lufaö, pxt hine lyst bet paccian and cyssan öone oöerne on baer lic, ]?onne per pxr claöas beotweona beoö ? Ic ongyte nu pxt ()?u) lufast Jpone wisdom swa swiöe, and pe lyst hine swa wel nacode ongitan and gefredan pxt p\x noldest pxt aenig claö betweuh were. ac he hine wyle 2. hys. 3. du, End.) swalme. 4. dydest, Ho. 5. deah; des de gemyndes. 8. myclce. 11. peuhte. 12. pset we sint, pxt ys, Co.) pset we sint Wpxt we sint pxt hys. 2\. donne. 23./>«, Ha. pxt ic xnig. he is able to make a plausible reconstruction of the final Segment of the missing text: (Ac de rmeg eade gebyrian, pxt de myned and letted) pxs lichoman mettrimnysse. Augustine's pxt is sod would be a logical response to a Statement such as this. Jost assumes that the gap in the MS occurs after lettad, but a more likely place for it is after pxs, which stands at the end of a folio. I take pxs as the genitive object of lettad and add pe pu spurast on the basis of the Latin ab inquirendo and of pe pu spurast in 74.19. The Contents of the rest of the missing OE text can be deduced from the Latin source. In the Latin, the Reason goes on to prove to Augustine that he values his friends and even his very life, not as ends in themselves, but only as aids to the attainment of wisdom. Augustine is led to realize that wisdom is the one thing he truly desires. There is no doubt that this discussion of wisdom was originally present in the OE text, in general outline, if not in identical detail. There are three explicit references to it later on: ne hure gemetan pxt pxt ic willnige swa swa {du) me nu witan dydeist), 75.3-4; hu ne habbe wyt nu genoh sweotole gereaht pxt wisdom ys pxt hehste good, 75.16-17; hu ne were pu xr gedafa pxt ic nanwiht ne lufode ofer wisdom, and ic wxs xac pes gedafa, 76.9-10. Because the first two of these passages are additions by Alfred, the presence of the discussion of wisdom in the OE text is absolutely certain. 20-21. xlc para manna pe oderne swide lufad is an absolute construction; see § 5. C. 2. 24. Endter reads pxt git (MS ic) xnig clad.

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swiöe seldon aenegum m»n swa openlice ge(e)awian. On öam timum pe he aenig lim swa basr eowian wile, }7onne eowaö he hyt swiöe feawum mannum. Ac ic nat hu pu hym onfon mage mid geglofedum handum. Du scealt aeac don baer lic ongean, gyf öu hine gefredan wilt. Ac sege me nu gyf öu hwilc asnlic wif lofodest swiöe ungemetlice ofer aealle oööer Jjing, and heo öonne pe s fluge and nol[35a]de pe lufian on nan oöer geraö butan (J?aet) pu woldest aelce oöer lufe aletan for hyre anre lufe, woldest pu )?onne swa don swa heo wylnode? Da cwaeö ic: Wa la wa! hwaet pu me for-hasardne laetst! hu ne were pu asr geöafa pxt ic nanwiht ne lufode ofer wisdom, and ic waes aeac ]?es geöafa; lo and pu cwaede pa, peah. hwa hwset lufode for hwilces oöres J>inges öingum, pxt he na pxt J>ing ne lufede pxt he per lufode, ac pxt pxt he }?urh öaet pm% lufode and ]?ohte to tocumanne. Foröam ic secge pxt ic ne lufigeöone wisdom for nanum oörum öingum buton for hym selfum. aealle Jjas weorlde ic lufige, aelc öinc be öam daele pe ic hyt nytwyröe ongyte, and huru pa ping swiöost 15 pt me to wisdome fultumiaö, and öa Jjing ic ondrede aeac to forleosenne swiöost. Ic ne [35b] lufige öeah nan öing aealles on öam wisan pe ic öone wisdom lufige. ^Elc p&ra öinga pe ic swiöost lufige, pa hwile pe ic hyt swiöost lufige, ne an ic hyj nanum men butan me selfum, buton wisdome anum. hine ic lufige ofer eallum oörum ]?ing(um), and f»eah ic hys uöe aslcum men 20 minum willan, (pxt) aelc man pe on J>is myddangearde waere hine lufode, and hym aefter spirede, and hyne xac funde, and hys syööan bruce; foröam ic wot pxt ure lufede aelc oöerne swa micle swiöor swa ure willa and ure lufu swiöor on anum were. Da cwaeö heo: hu ne saede ic aer, se se pe basr lic gefreddan wolde, pxt he 25 hyt scolde myd barum (handum) gefredan ? and ic segge eac, gyf pu öone wisdom selfne geseon wilt swa baerne, J>aet pu ne scealt nannas claö betweon laetan [36a] f>inum eagum and hym, ne furöum nene myst. to öam öu ne meaht peah on ]7is andweardan life becuman, J?eah ic hyt pe laere, and peaö öu hys wilnige. Di ne sceal nan man geortriwian peah he najbbe swa hale 30 eagan swa se pe scerpest locian masg, ponne se öe ealra scearpost locian 6. butanipu. s above the t. 31. ponno

11. lufode dxt. 15. pa, End.) pxt. 11. dorne. 19. hys) hyt, wiih 20. pingum. Ho.) pingj. 21. pxt. Ha. 26 handum, Co.) barum!.

9. "how very stubborn you consider me!" Jost (p. 10) and Endter take Ixtst and for as a combination meaning "consider, regard," but Ixtan is generally used alone to convey this meaning; see B-TS, III, 2a under Ixtan. 18flF./Elc para dinga pe ic swiöost lufige is an absolute construction; see § 5. C. 2. 21. Jost (p. 10) takes minum willan as the Start of a new sentence, rejects Hargrove's addition of pxt, and translates: "Wenn es nach meinem Willen ginge, so sollte jedermann auf Erden die Weisheit lieben." Endter adopts Jost's reading. 23. ure is dependent upon xlc: "each of us." 29-30. pead du < peah Öu, through consonant assimilation. 30. geortriwian is, as Endter points out, a mixture of geortriwan and geortruwian.

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(maeg) ne maäg peah pa. sunnan seife geseon swilce swilce h e o ys, «Ja hwile öe he o n pis andweardan lyfe byö. N s e f ö Jjeah n a n m a n to pxs unhale aeagan pset he ne mage lybban be pare sunnan a n d hiz-e nyttian gyf he enyg wiht geseon maeg, buton he stareblind si. Ic pe maeg tecan asac oöre bysne be pam wisdome. G e ö e n c n u hweöer awiht [36b] m a n i m a n n cynges h a m sece ]?er s öaer he ö o n n e o n tune byd, o ö ö e hys gemot, o ö ö e hys fird, o ö ö e hweöer öe öince J?aet hi aealle o n anne weig peder cumen. Ic wene peah öaet hi cumen o n swiöe manige wegas: s u m e c u m a ö swiöe feorran, a n d h a b b a ö swiöe la5(n)gne weig a n d swiöe yfelne and swiöe earfoöferne; sume habbaö swiöe langne and swiöe rihtne and swiöe godne. Sume h a b b a ö swiöe scortne, and J?eah w o n e lo and nearone and fuulne; sume h a b b a ö scordne and smeöne and rihtne; and pQ&h c u m a ö aealle to a n u m hlaforde, sume aeö, sume uneö. naöer ne hi )?eder gelice eaöe cumaö, ne hi per gelice eaöe ne beoö. Sume b e o ö o n maran are and o n maran eönesse ponne sume, sume o n laessan, sume ful neah buton, b u t o n pxt an pst he lufaö. [37a] swa hit biö aeac be pa.m w i s d o m e : aslc )?ara is pe hys wilnaö and pe hys geornful byt, he h y m maeg c u m a n to a n d o n hys hyrede w u n i a n and be lybbam, peak hi h y m s u m e «aer sian, sume fyer. s w a swa aelces cynges h a m a b e o ö sume o n bure, j u m e o n healle, j u m e o n odene, i u m e o n carcerne, and lybbaö peah aealle be anes hlafordes are, j w a swa 1. mggyKa. Co.) mser.

3. hire, B-TS.) hine.

7. weah.

10. swidne scortne.

17. near,

5 ff. The text of these lines makes adequate sense as it stands in the MS, and I agree with Hargrove in leaving it unchanged. awiht is an adverb meaning "in any way, by any means." An anacoluthic shift from Singular (mani mann) to plural (hi, 1. 7) involving an indefinite or collective subject is not unusual in the Sol. or in Alfred's works generally; see note on 55.17-18. The second hweöer clause (1. 6) may be regarded as an extension or elaboration of the first. The oööe preceding this clause is admittedly somewhat illogical, and it has led Holthausen (p. 328) and Endter to assume that this sentence was originally designed to present two distinct alternatives. There are, however, several strong objections to this assumption. For one thing, the oööe in question may not even be part of the original text, because it could easily be due to careless repetition. More significant, the second alternative, öiet hi cumen on swide manige wegas (11.7-8), is stated in the next sentence and in a way that clearly indicates that it has not been mentioned before: peah (1. 7) "however, on the contrary" would make no sense if both alternatives had already been presented. Finally, the emendations Holthausen and Endter are forced to make are extremely arbitrary. Holthausen emends to: Geöenc nu hweöer (Öe öince öxt on) swiöe (MS awiht) mani(ge wegas) mann(a heap) cynges, etc. Endter accepts this emendation, but Substitutes mann-menigo for manna heap. 15. The phrase buton pset an put he lufaö is puzzling. Hargrove's translation (Trans., p. 27), "except the one that he [the lord] loveth," is possible, but illogical in the context of the rest of the sentence. Another possibility is to take he as referring to sume (1. 14) and to take pxt an as referring to the lord: "without the one they love (lit., he loves)." The lack of concord between plural sume and Singular he could be explained as due to the collective or indefinite nature of the subject; see the shift from xlc (1. 15) to hi (1. 17) in the next sentence and see note on 55.17-18. 15-17. Lack of concord after an indefinite or collective subject is clearly seen in the shift from selc (1. 15) to hi (1. 17); see note on 55.17-18. 18. hama < hame, dat. sg.

78

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aealle men lybbaö under anre sunnan and beo hyre leothte geseoö pxt pxt hy geseoö. Sume swiöe scearpe and swiöe swotele lociaö. Sume unaeaöe awiht geseoö. Sume beoö stsereblinde and nyttiaö ]?eah J?are sunnan. Ac swa swa Jjeos gesewe sunne ures lichaman aeagan onleoht, 5wa onliht se wisdom ures modes aeagan, pxt [37b] ys, ure angyt; and swa swa ]?aEs lichaman asagan halren beoö, swa hy mare gefoö pxs leohtes pxre sunnan, swa hyt byö aeac be f>aes modes aeagan, pxt is, andgit. Swa swa pxt halre byö, swa hyt mare geseon mxg pxre asccan sunnan, pxt is, wysdom. aelc man px hale aeagan haefö, ne pxrf he nan oöres laötewes ne larewas pas sunnan to geseonne butan pxre hx\x; gyf he hale eagan haefö, he maeg hym seif hawian on öa sunnan. Gyf he öonne unhale aeagan (h)aefö, {jonne be}?earf he pxt hyne man laere pxt he lochige aerest on f>one woh, I^onne on gold and on seolfor; Jjonne he aeaöe on pxt locian (maeg, ]7onne) on fyr, aeröam he ongean pa. sunnan locie. Siööam he Jjonne paX gelxornoö hasbbe, pxt (h)is eagan nanwyht pxt fyr onscyniaö, Äawie ponne on steorran and on monan, öonne o(n) ö(e)re sunnan scy[38a]man, aeröam he on hi seife locige. and swa ylce (hit byö) be Jjaere oöerre sunnan pe we aer ymbe specon, J?aet is, wisdom. Se öe hyne myö hys modes aeagum geseon wele, he sceal of swiöe lytlum hyt ongynnan, and J?onne lytlum and lytlum stigan near and near staepmelum, swilce he on sume hlaedre stige and wylle weoröan uppe on sumu(m) saeclife. Gyf he )?onne aefre uppe on öam clife wyrö, J?onne maeg he locian egöer ge ofer ]?one waraö ge ofer pa. sae, pe hym öonne benioöan byö, ge aeac ofer pxt land pQ hym aer bufan Waes. Ac gyf unc swa )?ince, uton gebydan unc haer daeglanges and spurian to-morgen furöur aefter öam ylcan pe wit aer spureden. D a cwasö ic: nese, la nese. Ac ic öe bydde eadmodlice pxt öe huru ne öreote, ne pu pa. sprece pxr ne forletae. Ac sege gyt hwaet[38b]hwugu swetolor ymb pxt, pxt ic mage openlicor ongytan hwaethwugu be öam wisdome; and beot/ me pxt pxt pu wylle; ic hyt ongynne, gyf me onhagaö. D a cwaeö heo: Nat ic öe nanwiht to bebeodanne )?aes pe pe mare öearf sie to öam craefte pe öu wilnast to wittanne ponne pxt pxt pu forseo swa öu swiöost mage weorlde ara, and huru ungemetlice and unalifedlice, foröam ic 5. hys. 8. secic. 12. on ponm woh. 13. mxg. Ha.; ponne, End. 15. on dere, Jo.; scyman, Ho.) scynan. 16. swa ylceIbe pxre. 17. odrere. 20. sumum, End.; sxclifle. 23. gebyddan. 24. wiht. 27. hwsethuwgu. 28. beod. Ha.) beod. 4. gesewe < gesewen. 16. On the addition of hit byd, see swa hit bid xac be pam wisdom, 77.15. byd, rather than biö, is added here, since it is by far the more common form in this text. Endter adds hit is. 23. Emendation of MS gebyddan to gebydan is based on the sense of the Latin: Sed hodie satis, ut puto, scripsimus; parcendum est valetudini. The scribe has apparently confused gebydan "to wait" with the reflexive verb gebyddan "to pray." The pronoun unc is almost certainly due to this confusion, since gebydan does not appear elsewhere as a reflexive verb.

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79

ondrede pxt hy gebynden pin mod to hasom and ]?a gefon myd heora grine, swa swa man deor ocföe fugelas feht, pxt pu ne mote began pxt pxt pu wilnast. Foröam ic wat, swa swa öu freora byst Jjissa weorlde f»inga, swa öu sweotolor ongyst be öam wisdome pe öu wilnast; and gyf hyt asfre geberaö pxt pu hi swa claene forlaetan macht pxt heora pe nanwiht ne lyste, ]?onne 5 maeg ic pe for soö secgan, gelyf me gyf pu wille, pxt rih[39a]te on J^aere ylcan tyde pu wast aeall pxt öu nu wilnast to witanne, and haefst aeall J^aet pu wilnast to habbenne. Da cwaeö ic: hwenne gewyrö pxt^ ne gelyfe ic na pxt hyt aefre geweoröe pxt me nanwiht ne lyste pisse weorlde ara, buton an öing gewiröe: du. 22. ic ser wilnode—and gyet ne mihte to cuman uncuÖ peak me siödan scamige pxt ic eft hawige wiö öara öeostra pe ic xr wilnode—to forketanne. 24. hxr rihte. Ho.) xr hrihte; oÖrx, Ha.) öarx. 1. Jost's emendation (p. 11) to ladian "excuse (yourself)," also adopted by Endter, is in keeping with the reproachful tone of the Reason's entire speech (79.13 ff). Hulme and Hargrove emend to after awiht, but after riht is supported by the Latin veluti jure conqueritur. 8. hala xagan (< hale xagan) here and in 1. 11 is probably due to vowel assimilation. 10. ahabbe < ahxbbe < ahebbe, present subjunctive of ahebban "to raise." Thespelling may have been influenced by habbe, present subjunctive of habban. 12. reö ponne (< red ponne) shows consonant assimilation. 21. uncuö pxah is an absolute construction meaning "perhaps"; see note on 64.10-11. 24. Jost (p. 12) and Endter feel that secgen has been substituted for secan, subjunctive plural or inftoitive ot secan-, see the Latin ut jam in secundo aliquam . . . aggrediamur viam.

5

10

15

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25

BOOK ONE

81

Da cwaeö ic: si öam ]?anc öe pe manaö and aeac ]?e, gyf >>u hym hsere. laed me Jjider JJU wylle. Ic pe folige gyf ic maeg. Da cwaeö heo: me öincö pxt ö(u) (w)ille gyt witan pxt ylce pxt pu xr woldest be gode [41b] and be pime sawle. Da cwaeö ic: gea, pxs anes me lyst. Da cwffiö heo: wilnast pu awiht maram ? (Da cwaeö ic: Ic ne wilnige nanwiht buton f>aes.) Da cw®ö heo: ne wilnast J)u soöfestnesse to witanne? Da cwxö ic: hu maeg ic butan soöfesnesse awiht soöes witan, oööe hwast wilt pu secgan hwaet god si buton soöfestnesse ? Foröam we gehyraö reden on öam godspelle pxt Crist cwaede pxt he were weig and soöfasnes and lyf. £)a cwaeö heo: riht J?u segest. Ac ic wolde witan hweöer pe Jjince pxt hyt aeall an si, soö and soöfesnesse. Da cwaeö ic: twa öincg. me öincö pxt hi sien swa swa twa öing sint: oöer is wisdom, oöer is pxt pxt per wis byd; and eft be clennesse: oöer byd clennes, oöer, pxt pxt clene byd. Da cwaeö heo: hweöer öincö pe ponne betre, pe öaet soö, pe seo soöfesnes? Da cwasö ic: soöfestnes. Foröam aeall pxtte soö byd, byd of soöfestnesse soö; and aelc ]?a[42a]ra pe clene byd, byd for clennesse clene; and se J?e wis byd, he byd for wysdome wis. Da. cwaeö heo: gode J?anc pxt pu hyt swa wel ongitst. Ac ic wolde witan hwaes pu wene, gyf wis man dead wurde, hwaeöer wisdom )7onne dead wurde; oööe aeft, gyf clene man dead were, hweöer clennesse )?onne dead were; oööe, gyf soöfasst man dead were, hweöer soö(faestnes) ]?onne dead were. Da cwaeö ic: nese, la nese. ne maeg pxt na gewuröan. Da cwaeö heo: wel pu hyt ongytst. Ac ic wolde witan hwasJer pu wene pxt se wisdom porme gelsende, oööe seo clennes, oööe seo soöfaestnes, öonne se man gewite; oööe hwanon heo aer cumen, oööe hwaer hy sien, gyf hi sien, oööe hwaeöer hi lichamlice sien pe gastlice. Foröam Jpes nis nan tweo, pxt xlc pincg para ys hwsrhwugu is. 3. öu Wille, Co.) dille. 5. anjnes. 7. Addition by Endter. 14. twa dinjcd. 15. cleme. 19. clenne. 21. da. 23. Oöde. 24. seodfsst; sodßestnes, Co. 26. hwxder, End.) hwxder. 27. se, Ha.) si. 29. nis man nan. 30. sei, hys. 7. Endter's reconstruction is based on the Latin Nihil prorsus. 9-10. hwiet wilt pu secgan hwset god si: though the second hwiet may be correlative with the first, it may also have some relative force. On hwxt as a relative pronoun in OE, see §5. H. 26. B-TS (II. 2b under gelendan) and Jost (p. 12) suggest emendation of MS hwseder to hwider. Endter suggests further that hwsder, a late variant of hwider, may have been the form in the exemplar. Emendation is not strictly necessary, but it is strongly suggested by the sense of the two following questions: odde hwanon heo xr cumen, oööe hwxr hy sien (1. 28). 30. para may be a late form of pser; see note on 1. 10, MS andpara andPxr. Jost (End., p. 52) and Endter take para as genitive plural and add the relative pe after it.

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82

BOOK ONE

D a cwaeö ic: aeala, [42b] depplicu is seo acsung and winsumu to witanne )?am pe hyt witan raxg. h w s s byö )?am wana pe pxt wat? D a cwaeö heo: hweöer pu maege tocnawan f>one rihtwisan and pone unrihtwisan? D a cwffiö ic: gea, be sumum daele; nes pxah swa swa ic wolde. Ac me lystae witan pxt pu aer acsodest. D a cwaeö heo: Ic wundrige hwu pu hasbbe swa raeöe forgitan psti öu nu lytle aer andaetta were paet pu wisse, hu ne cwaeöe pu aer pxt pu wysse Jjaet seo soöfestnes a were, psah se soöfesta gewite, and nu cwyst: "gyf heo s i " ? D a cwaeö ic: ]?aet ylce ic secge gyt, pxt ic wat J>aet heo byd, pxah se soöfasta gewite. D a cwaeö heo: eall pat byd soö, J?£ette byd pa hwile pt hyt byd. Ac pxt pu soöfestnes haetst, pxt ys god; he waes a, and a byd, undeadlic and aece. Se god haefö ealle creftas on hym gesunde and [43a] ful medeme. se haeft gesceapena twa aeca gesceafta, pxt sint, engelas and m a n n a sauwela, pam he sealde sumne dael ecra gyfa, swilcra swilce nu wisdom is, and rihtwisnes, and oöre manega J?e us lang öincö to rimanne: engelum he gef be heora andefne, and m a n n a saulum he gyfö, aelcre be hyre andefne, swilca gyfa. D a swilcan gifa hi ne ]?urfon naefre forlxtan, foröam heo beoö aeca; and he gyfö eac mannum maenega and mislicum gooda gifa on )?issa wurlda, peah hi eca ne sien. hi beoö peah staelwyröa pa hwile pe we on )?isse wurlde beoö. hwaeöer öu git ongyte Jjaet sawla beoö undeadlice? gif öu hyt ongitten haebbe, ne hei hyt me, ac beo hys geöafa. gyf hyt aealles hwaet si, sege me pxt. D a cwaeö ic: gode J?anc pxs daeles pe ic wot. ic wille ]?is [43b] nu smeigan and haldan swa ic geornost maeg, and gyf me aet enugum )?ingum tweonaö, }?onne cyöe ic hyt pe sona. 1. xalla. Co.)odne.

11. gewitte. 2\.onon.

13. pxt

ic hys, the c erased.

15. scealde.

16. odre,

3. As Jost (p. 12) and Endter point out, the abrupt shift in the topic of discussion indicates an apparent gap in the MS. There is, however, virtually no basis for reconstruction because the OE text from 81.26 until 82.24 has little or no relation to the Latin source. Augustine's impatient comment in 82.4-5, Ac me lysts witan pxt pu xr acsodest, indicates that the missing passage must have been a digression from the questions raised in 81.26-29. The comment "gyf heo si," attributed to Augustine in 82.9, must have been part of the missing passage, since it does not appear in the text as it stands. 7. Endter suggests that hwu may be either a misspelling of hu or a French spelling of hwy. 8. cwxde < cwxde, pret. 12. "All that exists is true so long as it exists." 15. pxt sint engelas: on the lack of concord, see § 5. F. 17. ^ e / m a y derive from gefd (< gyf ff), present, or from geaf, preterite, through IWS smoothing (see § 3. C. 6). 20. pissa wurlda < pisse wurlde, dat. sg. The a-endings may be due simply to careless repetition of the endings of gooda gifa. 25. The first u in enugum is probably due to anticipation of the second on the part of the scribe.

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83

D a cwasö heo: (gelyf) gefasstlice gode, and be(fae)ste pe halne gode, and ne wilna n a to swiöe f>ines agnes willan ofer hys. Ac beo hys mann, n s s p'm agen, and beo geöafa pxt pu aeart hys )?eowa. J?onne ahaefö he pe for öam s/mle near hym and near, and ne last pe nanwiht wiöerweardes beon. gyf he peah gejjafaö pxi pt awiht wiöerweardes becymö, )?onne byö pxt for pinre 5 peade, peah ]?u hyt ongytan ne cunne. D a cwasö ic: pxt ic gehyre and pass ic gehfe, and }?isse lasre ic wille fulgan swa swa ic fyrmajst maeg, and |?es god byddan pxt ic hyt gefremman mage swa pu me gefirn aer laerdest. laer me [44a] ma gyf pu wille. D a cwasö heo: do pxt me asrest, and secge me eft, siööam pu Jjis asmead lo haebbe, hwset pe )?isses licie; and gif pe be asngum f)issa )?inga awiht tweoge, {jonne secge pu me J?aet. (H)er endiaö pa blostman pxre forman boce.

[BOOK T W O ] (H)er onginö seo gadorung pxre blostmena pxxe aeftran bec: (D)a cwaeö ic: eala, lange weron wit nu asmettige, pxt wit ne spyredon is asfter öam pe pu me aer gehete. D a cwaeö heo: uton gebetan hyt, uton fon on oöre boc forewearde! D a cwaeö ic: uton J^ass! D a cwaeö heo: uton gelyfan pxt god si on uncrum fultume. D a cwaeö ic: georne wolde ic pxt wit hys gelyfdun, gyf ic geweald ahte. 20 Ac me p'mcö pxt se geleafa ne si on uncrum onwealde pe ma pe pxt pe [44b] wit pxT secaö, buton hine god unc forgyfe. D a cwaeö heo: aegöer se geleafa ge aealle öa good J?e (wit) haebban scelon. Foröi ic nat hwaet wit sealles don magon buton hys fultume. Ic pe lasre peah 1. gelyf, Co.) heo); befeste. Hu; ne, End.) na. 4. smile. 9. ma, Jo.) me. 10. asmalead. 11. hxwet. 13. a Space left for capital 6oce, End.) Z>oc«/m. 14. a Space left for capital H. 15. a space left for capital D; wiht. 21. hahte. 22. ma, Wulf.) me. 24. wit, End. 25. don magon don. 7. se in Ixre (< lare) is apparently due to the influence of the verb Iseran, which appears twice in 1. 9: Ixrdest, Iser. Endter suggests that a neun lier may actually have existed in OE, but there is only one other possible example listed in B-T. 14. psere blostmena < pxra blostmena, gen. pl. 18. pxs is apparently an adverb meaning "then, therefore"; see Wülfing, I, § 260 and see Bo. 75.17-18, Uton pses,fordam hit is sod. 20. gelyfdun < gelyfdon < gelyfden, pret. subj. 21. Wülfing's emendation (I, § 273) to pe ma pe "any more than" is accepted by Jost (pp. 12-13) and Endter. Hulme and Hargrove emend to pe mepe (< msepe) pxtte "to the extent that," but pxt cannot refer to the feminine mepe and would have to be dropped from the text. 23. scelon < scylon < scylen, pres. subj. 4—K.A.V.S.

84

BOOK TWO

pset J?u hyt ongynne. gebide pe faeawum wurdum swa p\x inweardlicost mage, and wilna )7aes pe pe mest neod ys and si. Da cw£eö ic: "Drihten, drihten, pn pe s/mle unawendenlic wunast, forgyf me öa twa öincg pe ic simle wilnode, pxt is, pxt ic mage pe ongitan and me selfne." Nu ic haebbe gedon swa Jju me Iserdest; nu ic haebbe gebeden. 5 Da cwaeö heo: Nu ic gehire hwset öu woldest witan. Ac ic wolde witan aerest aet pe hwasöer p\i wisse buton tweon hweöer öu were pe n®re, oööe hweöer (]?u) libbe pe ne libbe. Da cwaeö ic: pa. (sint) twa pincg pset ic gewislice wite. Da cwaeö heo: hwses wilnast Jpu ma to [45a] witanne ? lo Da cwaeö ic: hwffiöer ic undeadlic si. Da cwaeö heo: Ic gehyre pxt pu woldest aealne waeg lybban. Da cwaeö ic: pxs ic aeom geöafa. Da cwaeö heo: Wost pu )7onne genoh gif ic gedo J^aet ]?u pxt wost J?aet pu most s/mle lybban? is Da cwasö ic: pxt is swiöe good gytsung. sege peah hwet (ic) pe aefter acsode, hwaeöer ic a lybbende were; and siööan ic wolde witan hwaeöer ic, aefter pxs lychoman gedale and f>aere sawle, a mare wisse Jjonne ic nu wot aealles }?aes pe ic nu lange wilnode to witanne; foröam ic ne maeg nanwiht ongytan baetre on men )7onne he wite, and nanwith wyrse öonne he nyte. 20 Da cwaeö heo: Nu ic wot aeall hwaet pu woldest: an is, pu woldest beon; oöer, pxt pu woldest lybban: diridde, pxt J?u woldest witan; and ic wat aeac for hwi pu öa J?reo )?incg woldest. Foröam pu woldest [45b] beon pe pu woldest lybban, and foröi woldest pu lybban pe pu woldest witan. and öa preo öing ic gehure pxt pu nu gewislice wast: öu wast pa.ö pu aeart, and öu 25 wost pxt pu lufast, and aeac J?aet wost pxt pu hwaethwugu wast, pe&h (l^u) eall nyte Jjaet öu witan woldest. Da cwseö ic: pxt is soö. pa. pieo öing ic wat, and pa. öreo öing ic wolde. Foröi ic wolde beon pi ic wolde lybban. hwset rohte ic hwaeöer ic were, gyf ic ne lyfde ? Oööe hwaet rohte ic J>aes lyfes, gyf ic nawiht nyste ? 30 Da cwseö heo: Nu ic gehyre J?aet pu lufast seall pxt öu lufast for öam J?rim öingum, and ic ongyte xac hwi/ce paxa preora öinga pu swiöost lufast. Du lufast pxt pxt pu si foröam öu woldest libban, and foröam pu woldest 2. hys. 3. smile. 4. dincg, g written over a d; smile. 8. pu. Ha. 9. sint. Ha. 15. smile. 16. /c, Ha. 2A. forÖi woldestjlybban pu lyban. 26./>«, Hu. 32. hwicle. 1. gebide < gebidde. 21. seall hwxt pu woldest shows the transition olhwset from an interrogative to a relative pronoun; see § 5. H. 25. gehure (< gehyre) is clearly an AN spelling, as is lufast (< lyfast) in 1. 26. 25. Päd pu shows consonant assimilation.

BOOK T W O

85

libban pe pu woldest witan. pi ic ongyte pxt öu lufast Jjone wisdom ofer sealle oöre Jping; pxt, me öing(ö), seo öin hehste [46a] good and aeac pin god. D a cwaeö ic: soö öu me saegest. hwajt is se hehsta wysdom aealles buton pxt hehste g o o d ? oööe hwaet is pxt hehste good buton pxt x\c man on Jjisse wurlde swa miclum lufaö goö swa he wisdom lufaö? Sam he hine miclum lufige, sam he hine lytlum lufige, sam he hine mydlinga lufige, be psm daele he lufaö god pt he wisdom lufaö. D a cwaeö heo: genoh rihte pu hyt haefst ongytan. Ac ic wolde J?aet wit fengen eft ]?ider wit aer weron. nu J?u wast pxt öu eart, and eac wost pxt öu leofest, and wast pxt Öu hwaethwugu wast, peah öu swa micel nyte swa öu woldest; and feoröaj öing pxt öu woldest aeac witan, pxt is, J7as(ö) öu woldest witan hweöer pa öreo )?ing aealle aece weron öe neron; oööe hweöer heora enig aece werae; oööe, gyf heo asallu aece wasren, hweöer heora enig sfter öisse weorlde on öam aecan [46b] lyfe awöer dide, wexse oööe wanede. D a cwaeö ic: aealle myne giornnesse öu (h)aefst ongyten swiöe rihte. D a cwaeö heo: ymbe hwaet twaeost )?u nu ? hu nu ne were öu aer geöafa pxt god were aece and aelmihtih, and haefde twa gescea(d)wissa and aeca gesceafta gesceapena swa swa we aer saedon, pxt sint, engelas and manna saula, Öam he haefö forgifen aeca gyfa? öa gyfa hi ne öurfon nasfre alaetan. Gyf öu nu Jjis gemynst and )?ises gelifest, öonne wast öu buton tweon pxt pu xart and s/mle bist and s/mle lufast and s/mle hwsethwugu wast, Jjeah öu aeall nyte pxt öu witan woldest. N u pu wast be öam Jjreom }?ingum pe pu aefter acsodest, 1. pu, Co.) pe\ after witan, the rubric Da cwsd ic. gesceaftea. 21. smile (3).

4. hsewset.

17. gescealwissa;

I. The appearance of MS Da cwsed ic after witan is extremely puzzling. Cockayne's decision to drop the rubric from the text seems to me the right one. The speech is perfectly coherent without it; pi is a clear and logical transition, introducing a conclusion which follows directly frotn 84.31flf.Hargrove also deletes the rubric. Endter, however, chooses to retain it, assuming that a speech by Augustine has been lost. He then adds another rubric for the Reason, and prints 11. 1-2 as a separate speech. II. Endter points out that MS px du may be due to consonant assimilation and haplographic spelling. 13. Long-stemmed monosyllables, such as eall, were normally uninflected in the nominative plural neuter forms, although such forms often appear with -e in this text and in lOE generally. leallu here is probably derived from sealle through lOE confusion of unaccented vowels. It is also possible, however, that -u has been added through analogy with the nominative plural neuter ending of other types of adjectives. 14. awder dide, wexse odde wanede "would do either, increase or diminish." wexse < wexe < weoxe, pret. subj. sg. xs was an occasional graphic variant of a: in OE; see Camp. § 53. The verbs wexse and wanede are, literally, in apposition to awöer dide, yet dide may also have some of the auxiliary force which it acquired fully in ME; see B-TS, VIT, under don for examples of an "auxiliary" use of this verb in OE. The addition of odde after dide, advocated by Jost (p. 13) and Endter, is unnecessary and possibly misleading, since it implies a more rigid sense of apposition than may actually have been feit. 18. On lack of concord in pxt sint, see § 5. F. 21. lufast < lyfast, another AN spelling.

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pxt is: I. hweöer ]7u a were, (II. hweöer öu a lifde), II(I). hweöer öu a hwasthwugu wisse, hweöer öu sefter Jjees lichaman gedale and ]?aere sawle mare wisse )?onne öu nu wast, pe laesse, asfter öam feoröan wit sceolon gyet spurian, nu [47a] f>u pa. öreo wast, oö öu aeac Jjaet wite. D a cwaeö ic: swiöe endebyr(d)lice }?u hyt recst. Ac ic pe wille secgan get peäh hwees (ic) pxr fajstlice gelyfe, (and) ymb hwajt ic pxr gyt tweoge. ne getweoge ic nawuht be godes aecnesse and be hys aelmihtihnesse, foröam hyt ne meg na-hu aslles beon be pxie örinnesse and be öare annesse, öe butan fruman wass and butan sende is. Foröi ic ne mxg na-hu aelles gelyfan,/orÖam he swa micla and swa manega and swa wundorlice gesewena gesceafta gesceapen haefö, and pam asallum stiorö and hi asalle gemetgaö, and oööre hwile gegiereö myd öam winsumestum wHtum, oöre hwile eft ongiereö and geungewHtegaö. he weal(ö) para. kynninga öe msestne anwealö haebbaö J?isse(s) myddangeardes; öa beoö eallum m a n n u m gelice acende, and eac oörum mannum gelice sweltaö. p a (he) laet ricsian öa hwile pe he wyle. [47b] for swilcum and for manegum swilcum, ic nat hu ic tweogan mage hys aecnesse; ne aeac be ure sawle life ic nu öon ma nawuht ne twaeoge. Ac ic tweoge gyt be heora ecnesse, hweöer hi a lybbende sien. D a cwffiö heo: ymb hwaet tweost öu pxrl Hu he sint aealle halga bec ful neah fülle be undeadlycnesse pxre sawle ? Ac me pincö nu pxt to lang asall to rimande and öe to aele«ge to gehyranne. D a cwaeö ic: Ic hys haebbe goodne da:l gehyred, and ic hys eac gelife. Ac me lyste hyt nu bet to witanne J?onne to gelyfanne. Pa cwaeö heo: ic wundrige hwi öu swa swiöe georne and swa gewislice J^ast 1-2. II. hweöer du a hwxthwugu wisse, III. hweöer öu sefter, etc. 8. na, Jo.) nu. 10. manega. Ha.) mare ga. 13. pisses, End. 16. mage. Ho.) magon. 21. lelenge. Ha.) sekgge. 24. hic.

6. ic. Ha.; and. Ha. 15. he, Ha.

1-4. The text as it stands in the MS makes little sense: /. hweöer pu a were; II. hweöer öu a hwiethwugu wisse; III. hweöer öu sefter pses lichaman gedale and pure sawle mare wisse ponne öu nu wast, pe Isesse. sefter öam feoröan wit sceolon gyet spurian, etc. Question III has not even been considered in the previous argument (85.16-22), and it is difficult to know just what the "fourth" thing could be. Augustine has asked essentially four questions (84.16-19, 85.11-14): (1) whether he would always exist; (2) whether he would always live; (3) whether he would always know something; (4) whether he would know more, or less, after death. The first three of these questions have been answered by the Reason in 85.16-22, yet the second does not even appear in the list, and the fourth, which has not been answered, appears in the list as III. It seems quite clear that the scribe has skipped over the original second question, hweöer öu a lifde, and carried on the numeration mechanically, marking as III a question which was originally separate from the list. The "fourth" thing, mentioned in 1. 3, must be the question of the extent of one's knowledge after death. This question is raised again at the end of Book II (91.24-27) and at the start of Book III (92.15-17) and is finally answered in 93.14 ff. 13. MS wealpara may be due to consonant assimilation and haplographic spelling. 24. georne is present subjunctive of nWS unmutated geornan; see § 3. E. 6. Hargrove takes the word as an adverb and adds a verb, wilnodest, after gewislice (1. 24). Jost (p. 13) adds wilnige, which would be the correct form, but the addition of a verb is still unnecessary.

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to witanne, pxtte nefre iian man of öisse carcerne pises andweardan lyfes swa gewislice witan ne myhte swa swa öu wilnast, peäh öe manige gearnodon pxt hi hyt on })is andweardan life sweotolor [48a] ongeaton )7onne oööre msenege hyt gelyfden be pisra and be unleasra manna sasgena. ne maeg naefre nan (man) ongitan, aeröamjje seo sawl byd wyö pam lychaman gedeled, aeall 5 pxt he witan wolde, ne furöum öonne giet er domes d s g e , swa sweotole swa he Wolde; and )?eah pa. halgan federas pe xr us weron swiöe georne wisson be öam ps öu aer acsodest, pxt is, be undeadlicnesse manna sawla. pxt waes swiöe sweotol on pam pxt hi nanwiht ne tweode, öonne hy swiöost forsawen l?is andwearde lyf, (pxt hi faegnian mosten öass toweardan lifes, siööan se lo lichama and seo sawl) gedelde wurden; and hu hi mest wita gejjolodon on ]?isse weorlde, pxt hi aeft (h)asfedon pi mare mede on öam ascan life. Jjurh swylcra manna gesewenan sculon ge(ly)fan öa pe hyt swa sweotolo ongytan ne magon swa swa hi meahton; and ptah be pxie undeadlicnesse Jjere sawle, gyf öu hys get geöafa ne eart, ic gedo pxt öu hyt ongyst, and ic gedo i5 [48b] aeac pxt öe sceamaö pxt öu hyt swa late ongeate. £)a cwasö ic: do, la do, gedo pxt me scamige foröi. f ) a cwseö heo: hwaet, ic wat pxt öu hefst öone hlaford nu todasg öe pu treowast aet elcum }?ingum bet ponne pe siluum, and swa hefö eac manig esne öara pe unricran hlaford hefö }?onne öu hefst; and ic wat pxt öu (h)sfst 20 aeac manige freond )?ara pe öu genoh wel truwast, J>eah öu him ealles swa wel 5. man,Ha. 20. du, Ha.

6. hi.

7. hi.

10-11. ReconstructionbyEndter.

13. gelyfan,Ylo.

2 ff. "although inany have acquired the ability to understand it in this present life more clearly than many others have understood it through belief in the testimony of these and (other) reliable men." Literally, the passage is somewhat illogical, "more clearly than many others have believed it," but the contrast is clearly between different degrees of understanding. 4. siegena may, as Endter suggests, be dative or instrumental singular (< ssegene); yet it may also be explained as a late dative plural form ( < sxgenan < ssegenum); see § 3. D. 4, and see gesewenan (< gesegenum) in 1. 13. 8. The subject, pset, refers to the thought of the previous sentence: "that [their certainty of the soul's immortality] was very evident in the fact that, etc." 10-11. There is clearly a gap in the MS between lyf(\. 10) a.aäigedelde (1. 11). Endter's reconstruction, which completes the contrast between this World and the next, gives the sense one would expect. He supports the wording by reference to Bo. 45.29-31: Heo forsihd ponne eall das eordlican ping, and fsgnaö pses pset hio mot brucan pses heofonlican, siööan hio biö abrogden from dmm eorölican. 11. The syntax is incoherent in the text as it stands. and hu, etc., cannot stand alone, and if, as Jost (End., p. 91) and Endter suggest, it is dependent upon pset wxs swiÖe sweotol in 1. 9, then there has been an anacoluthic shift in construction. There is no real justification for emendation, since anacoluthia is common enough in the Sol. and in Alfred's other works; see note on 55.17-18. I might point out, however, that the slight change of hu to huru "indeed" would solve the syntactical problem and fit the context perfectly. 13. gesewenan < gesegenan < gesegenum "sayings." Substitution of w for g may be due to analogy with gesegen and gesewen, the alternate forms of the past participle of geseon. 13. sweotolo ongytan is clearly due to vowel assimilation. 19. silmm is an AN spelling; siluum < silvum < silfum.

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ne truige swa (8u) öinum hlaforde dest. hu ]>mcb )?e nu gyf se \>in hlaford öe hwilc spei segö para öe J j u nefre £er ne geherdest, oööe he pe segö Jjaet he hwethwugu gesawe pxs pe öu nefre ne gesawe? Dinc(ö) pt hweöer pe awuht aet his segene tweoge, foröam pu hyt seif ne gesawe? Da cweö ic: nese, la nese, nis nan to öam ungelyfedlic spei, gyf he hyt 5 segö, pxt ic hym ne gelife; ge furöum [49a] manege ge]7oftan ic haebbe, gyf hi me hwaet secgaö pst hi seife gesewen oÖöe gehyrdon, ic hys gelyfe eall swa wel swa ic hit seif gesewe oööe gehyrde. Da cwaeö heo: Ic gehire nu pxt öu gelyfst Jjinum hlaforde bet öonne pe selfum, and )7inum geferum ajmnwel and öe selfum. pu dest eac swiöe rihte 10 and swiöe gerisenlic(e) myd py pxt pu swa gooda treowa wit hi hefst. Ac ic Wolde pxt )?u me sedest hweöer pc öince ifonorius, /?eodosius sunu, wisra oööe unleasera Jjonne Crist, godes sunu. Da cweö ic: nese, la nese, ne nawer neah. Ac me p'mc6 uneöe pxt öu hi togeadere metst. i/onorius is swiöe god, peah (h)is feder betere were; he wes 15 swiöe aefest and swiöe rsdfast and swiöe rihte mines hlafordes kynnes, and swa is se (J?e) f>3er gyt lufaö. hi ic wille wyröian swa swa man worldhlaford sceal, and pe oöre öe pu er embe sprece, [49b] swa swa heora hlafordes, and swa man pone kyng sceal, ps byö kyng ealra kcynga and ealra gesceafta scypend and wealdend. 20 Da cwaeö heo: Nu ic gehyre pxt pe licaö se almihtiga god bet ]7onne /Jeodosius, and Crist, godes sunu, bet öonne i/onorius, /?eodosius sunu. Ne lea ic pe na J>aet öu segöer lufige. Ac ic öe lere pxt pu lufige pa. hearan hlafordes swiöor, foröam hi witan eall J?aet hi willaö and magon eall pxt hi willaö. Da cwaeö ic: eall hit is soö pxt öu segst; ealles ]?aes ic gelyfe. 25 £>a. cwaeö heo: Nu ic gehyre pxt öu truwast pam (h)aearan hlaforde bet. Ac ic Wolde witan hweöer öe }?uhte pxt pas pine wurldhlafordes hefden 1. pin, Wulf.) pam. peodorius.

11. twreowa.

12. peodorius.

17. pe. Ha.

22. peodisius-,

3. As Endter points out, MS Dinc pe is clearly due to haplographic spelling. 7-8. gesewen (< gesawen) and gesewe (< gesawe) have apparently been influenced by the past participle, gesewen. 10. xmnwel and "just as well as." and often has the meaning " a s " in comparisons; see B-TS, IV, under and. 15. he refers to his feder, that is, to Theodosius. 16. mines hlafordes kynnes is puzzling. mines hlafordes would seem to refer to the unnamed earthly lord introduced in 87.18, but a comparison of Theodosius the Great to a lesser lord makes little sense. Perhaps mines hlafordes refers to God or Christ: Theodosius was "very truly of my Lord's family." 17. lufad < lyfaö; an AN spelling. 18. pe odre {< pa odre) refers to Christ and God the Father. 18. hlafordes < hlafordas, acc. pl. 21. Endter suggests that se almihtiga may be an haplographic spelling of se ealmihtiga. 23. hlafordes < hlafordas, acc. pl. 27. wurldhlafordes < -hlafordas, nom. pl.

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wisran öegnas and unleaseran f)onne öa heran hlafordas haefdan. truwast 8u nu ps selfum and pinum geferum bet Jjonne öam apostolum, )?e weron Cristes selfes öegnas? Oööe pam hehfederum? [50a] Oööe pam witgum, pe god seif öurht spec to hys folce paet pxt he wolde? Da cwffiö ic: Nese, la nese, ne truige ic na us swa wel, ne nawer neah swa pam. Da cwaeö heo: Hwet sprec god ponne oftor, oö5e hwaet sede he soölicor }?urht hys witgan hys folce J?onne be sawle undeaölicnesse ? oööe hwet saedon pa. apostolos and aealle haiige federas, gif hi ne saedon ymbe sawla aeccnesse and imbe heora undeadlicnesse ? oööe hwet maende Crist, p& (he) cwaeö on hys godspelle: "pa unrihtwisan faraö on aece witu and pa rihtwisan on aece life" ? Nu }?u geherst hwaef Crist cwasö and hys ]7egnas, and ic geherde aer pxt ]?u nawuht ne tweodast ymbe /fonorius segene and hys pegaa. hwi tweost öu }?onne ymbe Cristes, godes sunu, and ymbe hera Jjegena saecgena, pe hy seife to sprecon ? pa us sedon ma f>yllycra weorda )7onne we ariman [50b] magen, and myd manegum bysnum and tacnum hyt us saeödon. Hwy ne myhte pu öonne pava asallum gelyfan, and cwaede aer ps,t pu were heora mann? Da cwaeö ic: swa ic cwasd and giet cwaeöe pxt ic öam gelyfe, and aeac geara wat pxt hyt xall soö is pxt us goö awöer oööe )?urht hyne silfne oööe Jjurht hy sede; foröam J>ara byra ys ma on halgan bocum ponne efre (ic) arunan mage. foröi me sceamaö nu pxt ic asfre ymbe f>aet tweode, and ic eom geöafa pxt ic eom swiöe rihte ofersteled, and ic beo ealne weig micle gefegenra f>onne öu me myd )?illicum ofaerstaelest J?onne ic aefre werae ponne ic oöerne man oferstaelde. aeall ]7is ic wiste peah XT, ac ic hyt forgeat, swa ic ondrede aeac pxt ic öis do. Ic wat aeac pxt ic hyt haefde swa clene forgieten pxt ic hyt naefre [51a] eft ne ofmunde, pxt öu me py sweotoloran bysena ne sede, asgöer ge be minum hlaforde ge be manegum bispellum. 4. durht hi spec. 8. sawlen. 10. he. Ha. 12. hwiet, Jo.) hwxs. End.) cwsede giet and. 20. purhte. 21. ic, Ha.

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19. cwxd,

8. MS sawlen may be the result of assimilation to undeadlicnesse. Endter accepts Hulme's emendation to sawlena, but notes that a genitive plural in -ena is rare in nouns with a long root syllable. 12. The -e of life seems to be an error, sce is accusative Singular, compare on sece witu, acc. pL, in 1. 11. The sentence as a whole indicates that on is being used with the accusative after the verb of motion/ara^. 13-15. "Why, then, do you doubt the words of Christ, God's son, and of higher thanes, (the words) which they themselves spoke in regard to this matter?" hera (1.14) is probably from heara; see da heran hlafordas (1. 1). It could also be a form of heora, genitive plural, and refer to Christes and godes. sxcgena (1. 14) may be dative Singular ( < siegene) or dative plural ( < ssegenan < siegenum); see note on 87.4. to (1. IS) is an adverb meaning "thereto" and referring to sawla seccnesse (11. 9-10). 16. Jost (End., p. 92) identifies sseddon as preterite plural of sedan "to prove." 21. As Hargrove suggests, byra can easily mean "instances (when the soul's immortality is mentioned)." Jost and Endter emend unnecessarily to bysna.

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Da cwaeö heo: Ic wundrige hwi öu efre ]?aes wenan mähte be manna sawlum )?aet hy naeran aeca,/oröam öu genoh geare wistes Jjaet hyt is seo ealra hehsta and seo seleste godes gesceafta; and öu wast aeac genoh geare pset he nane gesceafta ne forlet eallunga gewitan swa p s t hy to nawuihte weoröe, ne furöum pa. ealra unweorölicostan; ac he gewHtegaö and gegeraö asalle 5 gesceafta, and £eft ungewliteaö and ungeraö, and aeft edniowaö. swa wrixhaö ealle genu pxt hy faraö, and instepe aeft cumaö, and weoröaö eft to öam ylcan wlite and to Jpjere ylcan winsumnesse manna bearnum, pe waeron aerjpamöe ^ d a m gesingode. Nu öu miht ge[51b]heran pitt nan gesceaft swa clene on waeg ne gewit pxt hi aeft ne cume, m swa claene ne forwyrö pxt hi to hwan- lo hwugu ne weoröe. Ac hwi waenst pu ponne, nu pa. wacestan gesceafta eallunga ne gewitaö, pxt seo (se)lest gescaft myd ealle gewite ? Da cwffiö ic: eala, ic eom myd earmlicre ofergiotolnesse ofseten, Jjaet ic hyt ne myhte gemunan swa cuö swa hyt me aer waes. me öincö nu öaö pu hyt me hasfdest genoh swaetele gereaht be ]?isse anre bysena, psaö pu me nane ma ne is sedest. Da cwaeö heo: sec nu on öe selfum öa bysena and pa tacnu, and J?on(n)e (pu meaht) gearu witan pc öu £er woldest witan, J?aet ic öe rehte be öam uttran bysinum. Acsa öin agen mod for hwi hyt swa willen si and swa geornful to witanne pxtte aer waes, aer öu acenned were, [52a] oööe furöum p'm yldra 20 faeder geboren were; and acsa hyt eac for hwi hyt wite J?aet hym nu geandweard is and hyt aelce daege gesihö and gehyrö; oööe hwy hyt wilnige to witanne pxt öe efter us gewuröan sceal. ponne wene ic pxt hyt wille pQ andweardan, gif hyt gesceadwis is, and cwaeöan pxt hit foröi wilnige pxt to witanne Jjaet aer us 1. manna. Ho.) mannum; lecan.

18. pu meaht, Ha.

21. seacsa.

22. witjtanne.

2. There is some evidence of the nWS second person Singular -es inflection in this text (see § 3. E. 17), but Wistes here may be merely the result of consonant assimilation and haplographic spelling: Wistes pset < wistesp pxt < wistest pset. 2. hyt is seo ealra hehsta, etc. Although Wülfing lists no examples of the practice, it is not surprising to find Alfred using neuter hit to introduce a predicate nominative of a different gender. Alfred often uses pset in this way; see § 5. F. 1. 4. forlet < forlsetit), pres. sg. hy here and hi in 1.10 appear to be Kt. nominative Singular feminine forms of the personal pronoun; see § 3. E. 18. 12. On the emendation to seo (se)lest; see seo seleste godes gesceafta in 1.3. 14. dad pu shows consonant assimilation. 15. bysena is either genitive plural (partitive), as Endter suggests, or dative singular (< bysene).peaö pu < peah pu, through consonant assimilation. 18. pe "that which"; antecedent and relative are included in the one form. This use of pe is quite rare; Wülfing (I, §282) lists only two other examples from Alfred's works. A fevif examples from other works are given in B-T and B-TS, I. 4 under pe. 19. willen would seem to be an adjective derived from the present participle willende and meaning "desirous." There is, however, no other OE example of such a word, although -willen does appear in the Compound adjectives dol-willen (B-T) and druncen-willen (B-TS).

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Waes, foröi hit s/mle waere 5yöÖan god )?one forman man gesceape (h)afde; and hyt foröi fundige wiö pass pe hyt aer were, pst to witanne pxt hyt aer Wiste, peah hyt nu myd paere byröene }?aes lichaman gehefegod sio, Jpaet hyt pxt witan ne mage pxt hyt aer wiste. and ic wene pxt hyt wille cweöan to pc pxt hyt foröi pxt wite Jjaet hyt haer gesihö and gehyrö, foröi hyt her is on öisse weurulde; and ic wene aeac pxt (hyt) wille cweöan [52b] pxö hyt foröi wilnige to witanne pxtte aäfter urum dagum geweoröan sceal, foröam hy(t) wat pxt hyt a beon sceal. Da cwffiö ic: me öincö nu pxt pu haebbe genoh swetole gesaed pxt aelces mannes sawl nu si, and a beo, and a were syööan god aerest ]?one forman man gescop. Da cwaeö heo: Nis hyt nan tweo pxt sawla beoö undeadlice. gelef fiinre agenre gesceadwisnesse, and gelyf Criste, godes sunu, and gelyf eallum hys halgum, foröam hi weron swiöe unlease gewitan, and gelyf f>inre agenre sawle, pQ öe ealne weig segö purh hyre gesceadwisnesse pxt heo si on öe. seo segö aeac pxt heo si aece, /oröam heo wilnaö ascra pinga. Nis heo na swa dysigra gesceafta pxt heo wolde secan pxt heo findan ne meahte, oööe wilnige pxs öe heo ne ahte, ne hyre to ne ge[53a]byrede. Forlaet nu )?onne unrihtan tweon; genoh sweotol hyt is pxt öu eart asce and a byst. Da cwaeö ic: pxt ic gehere, and pxt ic gelyfe and geara wot; and ic eom pxs swa gefagen swa ic naefre naes nanes ]?inges swa gefagen. Nu ic gehyre pxt min sawel is aecu and a lifaö, and eall J?aet min mod and min gescadwisnesse goodra crefta gegadrad, pxt mot pa simle habban. and ic gehere aeac pxt min gewit is asce. Ac me lyste gyt witan be öam gewitte pxt ic aer acsode: hweöer hyt aefter pxs lichaman gedale and paie sawle weoxe pe wanede, pe hyt swa on staele stode, pe hyt swa dyde swa hyt aer daeö on ]?isse weorulde— oöre hwile weoxe, oöre hwile wanode. Ic wat nu J?aet pxt lyf a byö and Jjaet gewit. Ac ic ondrede pxt hyt beo on pxre weorulde swa hyt her byt on

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1. smjmle. 5. ser hxr. 6. cnedan. 7-8. hyjwat. 11. gespcop. 13. «-ej/e, with/'written above the first e. agenne. \6. hiecra. Ii. mod. 1. gesceape < gesceapen, past part. 17. dysigra gesceafta is a partitive genitive. 18. ponne could be a misspelling oi pone, acc. sg. masc. 23. gegadrad < gegadrad, third sg. The verb is Singular because the paired subjects, min mod and min gesceadwisnesse (1. 22) are regarded as exactly synonymous: see § 5. A. 1 .b. pset mot (MS mod) pa simle habban "that they may always have." MS mod is apparently due to confusion with mod earlier in the sentence (1. 22). The lack of numerical concord between verb and subject is not unusual, because in OB syntax a verb is often Singular when it precedes a plural subject; see Q-W § 126. Various emendations of this passage have been proposed. Hargrove emends habban to hsefö. Holthausen (p. 325) emends mod to moton. Jost (p. 15) adds sceal before habban, while Endter adds pset mot before pset mod. 27-28. put lyf a byd and pset gewit: Alfred has forgotten to count the trailing subject and hence uses only a Singular verb. 5—K.A.V.S.

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cildum. Ne wene ic na paet pxt lyf Jjaer beo butan gewitte, pe ma pe hyt [53b] haer byö on cildum; )?onne byö pxi forlytlu wynsumnes aet >>am lyfe. Da cwaeö heo: Ic gehere nu hwaet pu woldest witan, ac ic hyt /»e ne maeg myd faeawum weordum gesecgan. gyf pu hyt openlice witan wilt, ponne scealt pu hyt secan on Jjaere bec pe we hataö de uidendo deo. Seo boc is on 5 englLjc gehaten be godes ansyne. Ac beo nu godes modes, and smaea pxt pu nu leornodes, and uton buta byddan )?onne pxt (he) unc gefuhmige; foröam he gehet pxt he wolde fultmian aelcum J?ara pe to hym cleopode and rihtes wilnode; and he gehet butan aelcum tweon pxt he us getehte aefter J>isse weorulde pxt we meohton ful gewislice witan fulne wisdom and ful soöfaest- lo nesse. pxt pu meaht gehyran micle openlicor on pxre bec pe ic pe aer nemde, de uidendo deo. (H)aer endiaö pa. blostman pxie aeftran bec [54a] pe we hataö Soliloquiorum. [BOOK THREE] (D)a cwffiö ic: Nu (pu) hef(s)t J?a cwydas geendod pe pu of öisum twam bocum alese, and njefst me gyt geandweard be öam pe ic pe nu niehst acsode, pxt 15 waes, be minum gewitte. Ic pe acsode hweöer hyt, aefter }jas lichaman gedale and J?aere sawle, weoxe, pe wanode, pe hyt aegöer dyde, swa hyt aer daeö. Da cwaeö heo: hu ne saede ic pe XT pxt pu hyt sceolt secan on pxte bec pe wit pa. ymb sprecon? leorna p& boc; J?onne findst pu hyt pxt. Da cwaeö ic: me ne onhagaö nu pa. boc ealle to asmaeaganne. Ac ic wolde 20 pxt ]?u me . . . [54a, 1. 14] (Da cwaeö heo): [55b, 1. 7]. . . Ac pxt mod is mid pa. lichaman gehefegod 3. we. 5. di. 6. englicst. 1. buta Jo^ butan; he, Yla.. 11. milde. 13. aSpaceleftforcapitaliff. 14. aspaceleftforcapital Z);/)«,Ha.;ono/. 15. acsodde. 22. Rubric added by Endter. 21 fF. The text of the MS from here until 95.2 is both out of order and incomplete. I have rearranged it in the order suggested by Jost (pp. 265-269). Endter agrees with Jost's suggestions but does not print the text in rearranged form. The order of the text as it stands in the MS is: 92.14-21; 93.27-95.1; 92.22-93.26; 95.2 ff. It is obvious from the Contents that the second and third of these segments have somehow been reversed, possibly because of inaccurate binding in the exemplar of this MS. A simple shift of Position makes a perfect connection between the two segments: Ealle we geseod god, ge pa pe her wyrste beoö, ge pa pe her beste beoÖ. Ealle pa goodan hyne geseod, heom to frofran, and to gefean, and to are, and (to) eadnesse, and to wuldre; and pa yfelan hyne geseod swa ylce swa pa godan, heom peah to wite, foröam hy geseod . . . pxt wuldor para godena, pset heom pince heora silfra wite pe mare, foröam hi nolde be heora fsedra larum pa ylcan are geearnian pa hwile pe hi on pisse weorulde weron (93.24 ff.). The text of the MS is still far from coherent, even after rearrangement, because, as Jost points out, there are several obvious gaps in it. The ending of Augustine's speech is clearly missing at 92.21, as is the beginning of the Reason's answer at 92.22. Also lacking is a transition to the question introduced abruptly, and in a broken sentence, at 95.2. 22. H a r ^ o v e and Endter emend to mid pa{m) lichaman, but mid is sometimes used with an accusative object in Alfred's works; see Wülfing, II, § 728.

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and abysgod, pxt we ne magon myd pxs modes eagum nan )?ing geseon swylc swilc hyt is, öe ma J?e öu myht hwilum paere sunnan scyman geseon ]?onne pa. wolcnan sceotaö betweon hyre and pc; and ]?eah heo scyneö swiöe beorhte psi per heo hiö. ne furöum peah per nan wolcne si betweon ]7e and hyre, pu hy ne myht ful sweotole geseon swilce swilc heo is, /oröam s }?u ne eart Öer p?er heo is. Ne pm lichaman pxr beon ne maeg, ne J?in lychamlican aeagan pser nawer neah cuman [56a] ne magon, ne per neah ge geseon. ne furöan pone monan, pe us near is, we ne magon geseon swil(c)ne swilc he is. we witon J^aet he is bradre öonne J?aes myddaneard, and peah ne Jjincö us hwilum pe bradder pe an scyld for pmre firle. lo Nu }Ju haef(s)t gehyred J^aet we naöer (ne myd J?am lychamlican eagum) ne myd Jpffis modes eagan nanwiht ne magon of ]?isse weorulde geseon eallunga swa swa hyt is. Ac of öam dsele pe we hys geseoö, we sceolun gelifan J?ane de! pe we hys ne geseoö. Ac us ys gehaten butan aslcum tweon, swa swa we of Jpisse weorulde weoröaö and seo sawle of pxre carcerne gaeö ]?8es lichaman is (and) aletan byd, paet we witon aelces Jjinges pe we nu wilniaö to witanne, and micle mare )?onne pa. ealdan men, pa ealra wissestan on ]?isse weorulde, witan magen; and efter domes dasge us ys gehaten pxt we moten [56b] god geseon openlice, ealne geseo swylce swylce he ys, and hyne a syööan cunnan swa georne swa he nu us can. Ne byö us naefre syööan nanes wisdomes wana. 20 Nele he us nanwiht helan, se pe us laet hyne selfne cunnan. Ac we witon öonne eall pxt we nu wilniaö to witanne, ge aeac pxt pxt we nu na ne wilniaö to witanne. Ealle we geseoö god, ge pa. pe her wyrste beoö, ge pa. pe her beste beoö. Ealle pa godan hyne geseoö, heom to frofran, and to gefean, and to are, and (to) eaönesse, and to wuldre; and pa yfelan hyne geseoö swa ylce 25 swa pa godan, heom J?eah to wite,/oröam hy geseoö . . . [56b, 1. 13] [54a, 1. 14]. . . pxt wuldor J?ara godena, pxt heom pince heora silfra wite pe mare, / o r ö a m hi nolde be heora fsedra larum pa ylcan are geearnian pa 2. de, Ha.) da. 3. scyned, End.) scynad. 4. l>id,End.)l>eod. 11. Paragraph division byEndter. 14. Ays. 16. ge. 18. /lys. 19. /lys. 25. /o, Ha. 7. ne per neah ge geseon "nor even see that far" (Hargrove). ge < gea, adv.; see B-TS, III under gea, for the meaning "even." Holthausen and Endter drop ge from the text. 9. Holthausen (p. 325) points out that pxs must represent pes, nom. sg. masc. 15. pxre carcerne shows apparent confusion of gender, since carcern is recorded elsewhere only as neuter. 15-16. Endter reads: and seo sawle of psre carcerne gsd (and) pses lichama (MS lichaman) aletan byd. In this reading, pxs must represent pes, nom. sg. masc. (see pies in 1. 9), and aletan must mean "left behind." It seems more likely to me, however, that psere carcerne and pses lichaman represent a Single phrase; see öisse carcerne pises andweardan lyfes, 87.1, and psem carcerne pies lichaman, Bo. 45.28. Consequently, I take aletan to mean "delivered" and regard gsed and aletan byd as typical Alfredian paired verbs; see § 5. A. 1. 19. Endter suggests that ealne geseo may be an haplographic spelling of ealneg geseo. geseo < geseon. 26-27. For the rearrangement of the text, see note on 92.21. 28. nolde < nolden.

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hwile pe hi on )?isse weorulde weron. and pa godan [54b] geseoö aeac heora witu, foröam pxt heom öince heora agnu (ar) pe mare. D a yfelan geseoö god swa swa se scyldiga man pe byö wiö sumne king forweorht; and he gesyhö hine and hys deoriingas, J?onne p'mcö hym hys wite p& mare. and swa aeac Jpaes kinges deoriinges geseoö heora wite, / o r ö a m pset hym a ]?incö heora agenu ar pe mare. Ne sceal |?eah nan m a n wenan pxt aealla pa. pe on helle beoö habban gelic wite; ne ealle pa pe on heofenum beoö nabbaö gelic wuldor. Ac aslc hefö be hys gearnunga, swa wite, swa wuldor, swasöer he on byö. D a gelican habbaö heom gelic. nis pxs aeac na to wenanne pxt ealle men haebben gelicne wisdom on heofenum Ac aelc hefö be pam andefnum pe he aer aefter aearnaö; swa aer he haer swiöor swincö and swiöor giornö wisdomes and riht[55a]wisne(sse), swa he hys pxr mare haeft, and aeac maren are and maren wuldor. hwaeöer pe nu gaet si genoh sweotole gesed be pam wisdome and be paie godes ansine ? D a cwaeö ic: gea, genoh wel ic gelife pxt we nane wiuht ne )?urfon forlaetan pxs wisdomes pe we nu habbaö, peah seo sawl and se lichama hy gedaelan. Ac ic gelyfe pxt ure gewit weoröe myd pi swiöe miclum geaeced, peah we eall witan (ne) magen aer domes daege pxt pxt we (wi)tan woldon. Ac ic gelyfe aefter domes daege pxt us ne beo nanwiht dyhle, nawöer ne )?aes pe on urum dagum byd, ne pxs pe aer us waes, ne xac paes pe aefter us gewyrö. pvi hffifst me nu manega bysna gereihte, and ic haebbe me saelf gesegen on haealgum bocum gewrite« ma J?onne ic areccam mage, oööe furöum gemunan mage. [55b] pu tehtest me eac swa ungelygena gewittnesse swa ic nan oööer don ne maeg, bute ic nasde scall hym gelifan. Foröam, gyf (ic) nanre wacran gewitnesse ne gelyfe, }?onne wat ic swiöe lytel, oööe nanwiht. Hwaet wat ic buton pxt ic 2. agnu ar, End.) agnum pe mare. 5. pxt me hym. 11-12. rihtwisnesse. Ha. 15. we, Ha.) pe. 18. ne, Co. ; m witan, Co.) wetan. 20. seac, End.) ser. 21. and ic hsbbe and ic me sself. 22. gewriten. Ho.) gewritum. 24. ic. Hu. 2. Endter's emendation to agnu {ar) is based on heora agenu ar pe mare in 11. 5-6. 5. deoriinges < -as, nom. pl. 7. habban < hsebben, pres. subj.; compare hsebben, 1. 9. 21-24. Although Augustine states here that he has been convinced by manega bysna (1. 21) and ungelygena gewitnesse (1. 23), he has actually been given little or no evidence in the previous discussion as it now stands. It seems likely, therefore, that some of the Reason's original evidence has been lost from the text. The missing evidence may well have been Scriptural references from De Videndo Deo; see Commentary on this passage. 21. gesegen is the Angl, form of the past participle of geseon. 22. areccam mage shows consonant assimilation. 23. gewitnesse "witnesses," acc. pl. fem.; compare hym, dative plural, in ic nsede scall hym gelifan (1. 24). gewitness is more commonly used in the nonpersonal sense of "testimony," as it is in 1. 24. 24. wacran "weaker, less reliable," in contrast to the testimony presented by ungelygena gewittnesse (1. 23) in hsealgum bocum (II. 21-22). 25. Hwxt wat ic, etc. The verb wat here may, like the previous wat in 1. 25, be dependent upon the condition gyf (ic) nanre wacran gewitnesse ne gelyfe (11. 24-25): "What do I know, (if I do not believe weaker testimony,) except that," etc. The sense is somewhat

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wilnie pxt we be gode witan swa sweotole swa we woldon ? . . . [55b, 1. 7] [56b, 1. 1 3 ] . . . meahte oööe mosten on )7as wurlde, oööe hweöer hy enige geminde hefde para freonda pe hi beCaeytan heom lefdon on ]?isse weorulde. £)a answarede he an (h)is agnum inge]?ancum and cwaeö: [57a] (H)wi wenst pu pxt pa goodan fordgefarenan, ps habbaö fulne freodom and eall s witon pxX hy witan lyst ge on Jjissum andweardan lyfe ge on Öam toweardan, hwi wenst pu pxt hy nabban nane gemunde heora freonda on }?isse weorulde, öa. se yfela welega pe on helle tintregum (waes) ondrasd hys freo(n)dum pa ylcan witu pe he gearnoö haefde ? pxt wes se öe Crist sede on hys godspelle pxt he bede Abraham pxt he sende Ladzarus, öone Jjearfan, to hym, pxt he lo myd hys lytlan fingre hym gedripte weteris on pa tungan, and hys Jjurst myd pi gecelde. Da cwaeö .Abraham: "nese, min cyl(d), nese. Ac ge}>enc pxt pu hym forwyrndest eelcra getesa öa git begen on lichaman weron, and pu hefdest aslc good, and he hefde aelc yfel. ne mot he pe nu py mare don to getaesan pe öu pa hym woldest." Da cwaeö se welega: "Lazarus, Abraham, [57b] nu hyt is pxt beon ne maeg, onsend hyne to minum V broörum pa sint giet on eoröan pxi ic wes, pxt he him asecge on hwilcum gewite ic eom, and he gelaere pxt hy hi wiö pxt warien J?aet hy haer ne cumen." Da cwaeö ^^braham: "nese, naese; hi habbaö haligra fedra bec myd heom a on eoröan. Leorniaen pa on, and gelyfan pam. gyf hy him (ne) gelyfaö, öonne ne gelyfaö hi na Lazere, 20 J?eah he cume to hiom." Nu (we) magon gehyran pxt aegöer ge öa goodan forögefaranan ge pa yfelan witon eall J^aet is on )pisse weorulde (and) gewyrö, and eac on pa weorulde pe (hi) on beoö. Hi witon pane maestan dael, l?eah hy hyt eall niton aer domes daege, and hi habbaö swiöe micle gemynde on px% weorulde heora 25 maga and heora freo(n)da. and pa gooda helpaö öam goodum, and heora 1. wilnie. Ha.) wilnian. 3. bexftan, End.) bestan. 4. he is an-, a space left for capital 8. End. 9. hxftde. 10. habraham. 12. habraham", min cyld nese, Jo.) min cylnesse. 18. habraham; fedjdra. 20. ne. Hu. 22. Paragraph division by Ha.; we, Ha. 23. and, End. 24. hi. Ha. more logical, however, if one supplies a condition from the general context: "What do I know, (if I do not believe the testimony of others,) except that," etc. 1-2. For the rearrangement of the text, see note on 92.21. The order of the MS will be followed from this point on. Although a transition has apparently been lost from the text, the question introduced here is directly related to the previous discussion, as the reply in 95.4-7 makes clear: {H)wi wenst pu pxt pa goodan fordgefarenan, pe habbaö fulne freodom and eall witon piet hy witan lyst ge on pissum andweardan lyfe ge on dam toweardan, hwi wenst pu pset hy nabban nane gemunde heora freonda on pisse weorulde. 4. The dialogue form has been abandoned here, and there is no further attempt to maintain it. 7. nabban < mebben, pres. subj. gemunde is an AN spelling of gemynde, as Endter Points out. 12. Jost (p. 16) supports his reading min cyl(d), nese with a reference to Bo. 94.17, Eala min cyld, ea. 17. Endter emends to and h(i)e gelxre. 26. gooda < goodan.

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aelc oörum [58a] be öam daele pe hy magon. Ac pa. goodan nellaö heora yflum freo(n)dum arian, /oröam hy nellaö heora yfeles geswican, öe me ]?e /4braham wolde pam welegan arian, }?e(h) he hys aegnes kinnes were, /oröam (he) ongaet )?a(t) he gode naes swa eadmod swa swa he myd rihte sceol(de). Da yfelan Joanne ne magon nawöer ne heora freo(n)dum ne heom selfum nane goode, /oröam hy aer on nanre helpe neron naöer ne heom sylfum ne heora freondum Jjam pe asr heom forögewitone weron, öa hy on Jjisse weorulde weron. Ac hym byö ]?onne swa swa )?am mannum pe her beoö on sumes kincges carcerne gebrohte, and magon geseon aelc daege heora freond and geahsian be heom pxt pset hy willaö, and ne magon heom Jjeah na nane gode ne beon. Ne hi hym pe ma oööe nellaö, oööe ne magon. Daes haebbaö pa. yfelan [58b] pe mare wite on pxre toweardan weorulde pe hy witan pa are and Jjone wearscype para goodene, and eac J?aes pe mare pe hy gemunan aealle pa are pe hy on J?isse weorulde haefden, and eac pa (are) witon pe pa habbaö pe pon(n)e baeftam heom beoö on f>isse weorulde. Da goodan, Jjonne, öe fulne freodom habbaö, geseoö egöer ge heora freond ge heora feond, swa swa her rice men geseoö ofö egöer aetsumne ge heora freond ge heora feond. gelice hi hy geseoö, and gelice hy hi ongyotaö, peah hi hi ne lufigen. and aeft pa rihtwisan, syööan hy of f>isse weorulde beoö, hy gemunan swiöe oft aegöer ge öas godes ge pxs yfeles pe hy on öisse weorulde ha5(f)don, and fageniaö swiöe swiölice pxt (hy) ne forletan heora drihnes willan, nawöer ne on eöum f)ingum ne on renum, pa hwile pe hi on ]?isse weor[59a]ulde weron. swa swa sum rice man on ]?isse weorulde hym habbe hys deorlinga sumne fram adrifen, oööe heora begra unwyllum (he) hym si fram anyd, and haibbe öonne monige wite and mani ungelimp on hys wrecsiöe, and cume peah to pam ylcan hlaforde pe he aer myd wes, and si pxr 3. habraham-, peh,Jo.; weron. 4. he,TLia.; pat he Gode, Hsi.) pa he goode; sceolde, Jo. 11. beon, Ha.) beod. 11. are, End. 15. po/ne; beod, End.) byd. 16. Paragraph diVision by Ha. 21. A;', Ha.; drih/nes. 22. edum. Ha.) ednum. 23. weorl/rulde. 3. Endter explains MS pe he {< peh he) as another example of haplographic spelling. 6. Holthausen (p. 325) and Endter add ne beon after nane goode, after the example of nane gode ne beon in 1. 11. This addition is not strictly necessary, however, because an Infinitive dependent upon magan is often omitted in OE when it can be easily inferred from the context; see B-T, III. 3c under magan, and Q-W § 136a. 9. zlc < slce, inst. sg. 13. As Endter suggests, wearscype may derive either from wsersdpe "prudence," or from weorpscipe " h o n o r , " through common OE < ps (see Camp. §481.2) and nWS unrounding of eo to ea (see § 3. E. 8). 22. on edum (MS eönum) pingum ne on renum. I follow Hargrove in taking renum to be a form of ryne "mystery." Kt. e for y is very common in this text; see § 3. E. 2. The contrast is between "easy things" and things which are "mysteries," hence "hard to understand, hard to follow." Jost (p. 16) and Endter emend MS renum to redum, a form of rede "fierce, cruel, savage" (B-T). rede, however, is always used in a strictly personal sense, even when applied to "things" like misfortunes or fates. Its meaning cannot be justifiably extended to "difficult," as the contrast with edum here would require.

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micle arlicor ]7onne he aer waes. )Jonne gemynö he pa. ungelimp pe h(e) er haefde on hys wrecsiöe, and ne byö J?eah na pe unbliöre. Ac ic silf (naefre ne) geseah oööe (gehyrde) pxt pset me unsoöfaestran men saedon Jjonne pa. waeron pe pxt sedon pxt wit pxr ymb sint. H u ne sceal ic nede oöer twegera: oööe sumum men gelifan, oööe nanum? me pincb nu s pxt ic wite hwa i?omeburh timbrode, and asac feala oöra Jjincga pe xr urum dagum geweordon wass, pa. ic ne maeg aealla ariman. [59b] nat ic no öi hwa (Rome)burh timbrede pe ic seif hyt gesawe, ne furöum pxt nat hwilces cynnes ic eom, ne hwa min feder waes oööe modor, buton be gesegenum. Ic wat pxt min fasder me gestriende, and min modor me gebser. N a t ic hyt na lo py pxt ic hyt seif gesawe, ac foröi pe hyt man me saede. N e s x d o n hyt me pea.h nane swa soöfeste men swa öaer weron öe pxt saedon pe wit nu lange aefter spyredon, and ]?eah ic hys gelyfe. Di me )?incö swiöe dysig man and swiöe unlaede, pe nele hys andgyt aecan pa hwile pe he on Jjisse weorulde byö, and s/mle wiscan and willnian pxt he is mote cuman to öam ascan lyfe pxr us nanwiht ne byö dygles. (H)aer endiaö pa. cwidas pe ^^Ifred kining alaes of pxre bec pe we hataö on (Ledene de uidendo deo and on Englisc be godes ansyne). 3. Paragraph division by End.; niefre ne, Jo.; gehyrde, Jo. 8. Romeburh, Ha.; hwilcjces, 14. Paragraph division by Ha. 15. smile. 17. a space left for capital 18. Reconstruction by Wülker. 2 ff. Jost (p. 269) reinarks that the text from this point on is somewhat lacking in continuity, either because of textual corruption, or because Alfred himself was unable to put the last touches on his own work. Though the lack of a coherent transition to the next paragraph suggests that there may be a gap in the text after unblidre, it is unlikely that anything new or essential has been lost. The paragraph beginning at 97.3 contains no new ideas, and can, in fact, be plausibly taken as an attempt to conclude Book III as it now stands. It recalls the earlier acceptance of the promise of knowledge after death (see 94.20-25), and contains, in the phrase pset.. .pe wit nu lange xfter spyredon (97.12-13), what appears to be a clear attempt to summarize a completed discussion. 3. Jost (p. 270) supports his addition of gehyrde by reference to a similar passage in 88.6-8: manege gepoftan ic hsebbe, gyfhi me hwset secgaö pset hi seife gesewen odde gehyrdon, ic hys gelyfe eall swa wel swa ic hit seif gesewe odde gehyrde. Endter adds a reference to Bo. 124.24, ic nsefre ne geseah ne geherde. 14 ff. Though there is no strictly logical transition to this paragraph, there is little reason to suspect that anything has been lost from the text. This paragraph can be easily read as part of the conclusion begun in 97.3-13; see note on 97.2 ff. It reiterates the major points of Book III: that füll knowledge will be attainable after death (see 93.14-23) and that knowledge will be granted in proportion to one's desire for it while on earth (see 94.9-13). 17. This is the sole mention of Alfred in the text as it stands. For the arguments in support of Alfred's authorship of the Sol., see § 8. A. 18. Wülker's reconstruction might be challenged on the grounds that De Videndo Deo is certainly not the only source of Book III; see § 6. C. I accept it because of the prominent mention of De Videndo Deo earlier in the text; see 92.11-12, and 92.5-6: on pxre bec pe we hatad de uidendo deo. Seo boc is on englisc gehaten be godes ansyne.

COMMENTARY 47.1-12. This forest metaphor may be interpreted in various ways. The forest may simply be Augustine's SoL, and Alfred may be urging others to consider those parts of his main source which he has omitted. The forest may be a metaphor for all useful literature, and Alfred may be describing how he has taken ideas from many sources to construct his Version of the Sol.; see § 6. Wülker has raised two other interesting possibilities. He first feit that the metaphor indicates that the work to follow is to be an anthology and atterapted to identify the Sol. as Alfred's missing Handbook; see §8. C. He later interpreted the metaphor as Alfred's summary of his literary career and his plea for others to carry on his work; see § 8. B. 47.2-4. Alfred adds a similar reference to tools in OE Bo. 30.9-10: toi tos welcum crxfte swelce pu cunne pxt pe is gecynde and pxt pe is riht to habbenne; and in OE Bo. 40.9-25, he builds an elaborate metaphor involving tools from the mere materiam gerendis rebus (II, pr. 7, 3) of the Latin source: tola ic mlnode peak and andweorces to pam weorce pe me beboden was to wyrcanne, ff. Asser informs us that Alfred was skilled in woodcraft and in constructing houses: et omnem venandi artem agere ... et aedificia supra omnem antecessorum suorum consuetudinem venerabiliora et pretiosiom nova sua machinatione facere (§ 76.4-9). 47.11-12. swa swa ic nu gyt ne dyde is apparently a reference to Alfred's many responsibilities. Similar remarks are made in the prefaces to the OE Fast, and Bo.: da ongan ic ongemang odrum mislicum and manigfealdum bisgum disses kynerices da boc wendan on Englisc, Fast. 7.17-18; swa swa he hit pa sweotolost and andgitfullicast gereccan mihte for pam mistlicum and manigfealdum weoruldbisgum pe hine oft legder ge on mode ge on lichoman bisgodan, Bo. 1.3-6. 47.15-16. Here, Alfred gives a clear intimation of the sources he used in constructing his Version of the Sol ; see § 6. 49.20-21. Alfred's mention of the need for advisers contradicts the sense of the Latin Sol: Nec ista dictari debent; nam solitudinem meram desiderant (I, § 1). He seems to be speaking from his own experience here, since he himself relied constantly on his spiritual advisers. Asser, Grimbald, Werfrith, Plegmund, and John; see Asser's Life, § 77-78, Preface to Fast. 7.21-22. 50.20-22. The idea that no creature can destroy another is not explicitly stated in the Latin Sol, although it may be implicit there: Deus a quo dissonantia usque in extremum nulla est, cum deteriora melioribus concinunt (I, § 2). It is also added in the OE Bo.: Ac pss fyres agen stede is ofer eallum woruld-gesceaftum gesewenlicum, and peak hit is gemenged wid ealle gesceafta; and peah ne mxg nane para gesceafta eallunga forcuman, forpampe hit nsefd leafe pses xlmihtigan, 80.26-29. Alfred may well have derived this idea from Boethius, who states repeatedly that, without God's restraining love, all created things would destroy each other; see esp. IV, met. 6,40-43, translated in OE Bo. 136.26-28: Bser se an gestzppega cyning gif he ne stapelode ealle gesceafta, pon wurdon hi ealle toslopene and tostencte, and to nauhte wurdon ealle gesceafta. 52.4-5. Apparently a mistranslation of the Latin, Deus per quem bene servimus et bene dominamur "God through whom we serve well and rule well" (I, § 3). 52.21-24. An expansion of the Latin, eorum errorem, qui animarum merita nulla esse apud te putant (I, § 3). The idea is expanded with similar phrasing in OE Bo. 142.13-15, he gilt Note: I am indebted to Wülker, Hubbard, Jost, and Endter for the discovery of many of the following correspondences between the Sol and other works. 99

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xlcum be his gewyrhtum xgder ge ort pisse worulde ge on psere toweardan swa good swa yfel, swseöer he ded: Frustra enim bonis malisque praemia poenaeue proponuntur quae nullus meruit Uber ac uoluntarius motus animorum (V, pr. 3, 85-87). 53.10. A translation of Cujus legibus... sol exercet diem, luna temperat noctem (I, § 4). Similar phrasing is used to translate an entirely different Latin passage in OE Bo. 49.20-21, Sy/a eac sio sunne bringp leohte dagas, and se mono liht on niht: Quod Phoebus roseum diemjCurru prouehit aureoj Vt quas duxerit HesperosiPhoebe noctibus imperet (II, met. 8, 5-8). 53.14-15. The phrasing in this passage, an addition to the Latin Sol., is similar to that in OE Bo. 57.32-58, a translation of i n , met. 2, 34-35: heo [»/c gesceaft] swa hwearfad pxt heo eft cume pxr heo xr wxs, and beo pxt ilce pxt heo xr wxs: Repetunt proprios quaeque recursusjRedituque suo singula gaudent. 53.17-21. This passage, an addition to the Latin Sol., shows the probable influence of Boethius, who often uses the cyclical changes of plants as an example of God's control of the created world; see I, met. 5, 18-20 (OE Bo. 10.11-13), IV, pr. 6, 84-86 (OE Bo. 131.4-8), IV, met. 6, 25-29 (OE Bo. 136.14-20). There is a verbal correspondence between foraldiad and forseriaö (1. 20) and OE Bo. 131.7, ponne hit forealdod bid and forsearod, a translation of occidentia, IV, pr. 6, 85. 53.23-27. This passage, an addition to the Latin Sol., anticipates Alfred's argument in 90.11-12 that man's superiority to the rest of creation is proof of the soul's immortality: Ac hwi wxnst pu ponne, nu pa wacestan gesceafta eallunga ne gewitad, pxt seo {seilest gescaft myd ealle gewite. 54.3-4. An expansion of the Latin, Deus ... cujus legibus arbitrium animae liberum est (I, § 4). Similar phrasing is used to expand the idea of free will at three points in the OE Bo.: pxm he geaf micle gife freodomes, pxt hi mosten don swa god swa yfel, swxder swa hi wolden, 142.9-10: Uber ac uoluntarius motus animorum (V, pr. 3, 87); ponne freodom pxt hi mxgen don swa god swa yfel, swxder swa hi willan, 141.29-30: libertas arbitrii (V, pr. 3, 10); God seile xlcum men freodom swa good to donne swa yfel, swxder he Wille, 141.23-24: libertatis arbitrium (V, pr. 3, 5-6). 57.18-20. Alfred has not understood, or has been unable to translate, the word-play in the Latin text: Animam me amare dixi, non animalia (I, § 7). 59.14. In adding this practical reason to the Latin Sol., Alfred is clearly thinking as a ruler of men. 61.23 ff. Alfred departs from the Latin Sol. at this point and does not begin to follow it closely again until 64.4. Augustine goes on to construct a logical proof that dissimilar things, such as God and a geometric sphere, can be known to the mind with equal certainty (I, § 10-11). In place of this argument, Alfred inserts a long Christian homily, in which the Reason asserts that God, as the etemal lord, should be loved over all earthly things, and that the way to know Him is to keep His commandments. 62.14-19. Alfred seems to have modeled this exchange of speeches after a later passage in the Latin Sol.-. Itaque, quando fueris talis ut nihil te prorsus terrenorum delectet, mihi crede, eodem memento, eodem puncto temporis videbis quod cupis. A. Quando istud erit, oro te ? Non enim puto posse mihi haec in summum venire contemptum, nisi videro illud in cujus comparatione ista sordescant (I, § 24). He translates this passage directly in 79.3-10. 62.19.21. This is the one idea in Alfred's addition which may have been taken from I, § 11 of the Latin Sol.: Nunc autem permultum haec in illius comparatione contemno, ut nonnumquam videatur mihi si illum intellexero, et modo illo quo videri potest videro, haec omnia [geometrical knowledge] de mea notitia esse peritura; siquidem nunc prae illius amore jam vix mihi veniunt in mentem. Alfred introduces this idea again in 63.21-24. 62.22 ff. The following argument, with its contrast between God and an earthly lord and its implicit appeal to scriptural authority {Öines hlafordes xrendgewrit and hys insegel is, in terms of the analogy, a reference to the scriptures), anticipates Alfred's proof of the soul's immortality in Book II: Ac ic wolde witan hweder de puhte pxt pas wurldhlafordes hefden wisran Öegnas and unleaseran ponne da heran hlafordas hxfdan. truwast du nu pe selfum and pinum geferum bet ponne dam apostolum, pe weron Cristes seif es degnas ? odde pam hehfederum ? odde pam witgum, pe god seif durht spec to hys folce pxt pxt he wolde.

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88.27 ff. In his frequent stress on the reliability of the scriptures, Alfred seems to have been influenced by Augustine's Epistle 147 (De Videndo Deo); see Comm. on 88.27 ff, 94.20 fF, and 97.3-13. 63.21-24. Alfred may have derived this idea from I, § 11 of the Latin Sol.; see Comm. on 62.19-21. 64.4. At this point, Alfred begins to follow the Latin Sol. closely once again. H e has not, however, made a coherent transition back from his long addition. genoh wel pu fehst on pa spece, etc., a speech of praise, is hardly a sensible response for the Reason to make to Augustine the speaker's admission of weakness, Ac se tweonung yvyrcaö pa hefinesse (1. 3). It is possible, of course, that part of Alfred's original text has been lost, but there is no way to prove textual corruption, and, in my opinion, little real reason to suspect it. Alfred makes additions elsewhere without regard for logical coherence; see Comm. on 69.26 ff. and 79.17-21. 64.11-15. In this speech, an addition to the Latin Sol., Alfred interprets the Reason's promise (64.7-8) in a way which denies the possibility that man may attain füll knowledge of God while still in this life. Alfred never really accepts this possibility, although it is clearly implicit in the Reason's promise and it is stated explicitly at several points in the Latin Sol.; see Comm. on 69.26 ff. 67.17-20. This Quotation from Psalm 118.96 of the Vulgate is an addition to the Latin Sol. It does not seem particularly appropriate to the subject of God's love, despite Alfred's attempt to gloss it as such. In Psalm 118 as a whole, however, God's law is viewed as a manifestation of His love and mercy, in that it is designed to sustain mankind forever. Perhaps it was this equation of God's law with His enduring love that led Alfred to introduce the quotation at this point. 68.6-8. This analogy is an addition to the Latin Sol. A similar analogy is added in O E Bo. 144.28-32: swa swa good scipstiora ongit micelne wind on hreore sse xr sr hit geweorde .. . ; gif he xr pweores windes bxtte, warenaÖ he hine wiö öxt weder. 68.10 ff. At this point, after translating I, § 14 of the Latin ^o/., Alfred inserts a sizable addition. H e does not begin to translate I, § 15 until 69.12. 69.8-11. This added Statement is similar to a translated passage in OE Fast. 25.15-18, Foröonde nan crxft nis to Ixranne Öxm de hine xr geornlice ne leornode, forhwon beod xfre sux driste da ungelxredan dxt hi underfon da heorde öxs lariowdomes, donne se crxft öxs lareowdomes bid crxft ealra crxfta: Nulla ars doceri prxsumitur, nisi intenta prius meditatione discatur. Ab imperitis ergo pastorale magisterium qua temeritate suscipitur, quando ars est artium regimen animarum, I, i (M. 77.14). 69.26 ff. This speech, an addition to the Latin Sol. corresponds closely, both in thought and phrasing, to two passages in Alfred's Boethius: Swilc is se wisdom pxt hine ne mxg nan man of pisse weorulde ongitan swilcne swylce he is; ac xlc wind be his andgites mxöe pxt he hine wolde ongitan gif he meahte, 145.7-10; Fordy we scoldon ealle mxgene spyrian xfter Code, pxt we wissen hwxt he were. Deah hit ure mxö ne sie pxt we witen hwylc he sie, we sculon peah be pxs andgites mxöe pe he us gifö fandian, 147.12-15. The basic idea of these passages, the impossibility of a mortal man's attaining füll knowledge of God, is only implicit in their specific Latin sources, but it is a major theme of the surrounding discussion; see esp. V, pr. 4, 6 - 9 ; pr. 5, 17-18, 39-56; pr. 6, 1-5. This idea clearly impressed Alfred; he adds it here, in 76.28 flf, and in 79.17-21, despite the fact that it contradicts Augustine's own view in the Latin Sol. Since Alfred also faithfully translates Augustine's view, in 67.3-5, 67.20 ff, and in 79.4-8, the OE text is inconsistent and illogical on this point; see Comm. on 79.17-21. 72.7-8. me pincd pxt pu ne onpte pe silfne. This Statement has no specific source in the Latin Sol., although the thought is clearly implicit in the whole line of questioning. A similar explicit Statement appears in O E Bo. 13.16-17, du seif nast hwxt pu seif eart: quid ipse sis, nosse desisti, I, pr. 6, 40. 72.16-17. In adding this reference to the needs of his men, Alfred is clearly thinking as a king. H e makes a similar addition in 73.15-16: Ic bepearf peah micle maren to dara manna pearfa de ic bewitan sceal. 73.15-16. Another kingly addition on Alfred's part; see the previous comment.

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73.17-19. The phrasing here is entirely independent of the Latin SoL: omniumque illorum quae resecta credimus tabem manere, I, § 18. Similar phrasing appears in two passages in the OE Bo.: seo gUsung and seo gerraegd disses eordlican anwealdes, 40.7-8, a free translation of ambitionem mortalium rerum (II, pr. 7, 2); Hwseder nu se anwald hxbbe pone peaw dxt he astificige undeawas and awyrtwalige of ricra manna mode, 61.7-8, a dose translation of Num uis ea est magistratibus, ut utentium mentibus virtutes inserant vitia depellant (III, pr. 4, 2-4). Alfred adds this plant metaphor again in 74.6-9. 74.6-9. See the previous comment for the possible source of this metaphor. It is clearly an addition here; the Latin Sol. has: Aliud est enim exhausta pestis, aliud consopita, I, § 19. 76.28. The reference to mist is an addition to the Latin Sol. Alfred could have derived this idea from Boethius: pa mistas de past mod gedrefad, 14.5, perturbationum caligo uerum illum confundit intuitum, I, pr. 6, 59-60; todrif Öone mist pe nu hangad beforan ures modes eagum, 82.11, Dissice terrenae nebulas, III, met. 9, 25. 76.28 ff. The second addition of the idea that no mortal man may attain füll knowledge of God; see Comm. on 69.26 ff. 78.17-20. The simile of climbing a ladder is an expansion of the Latin Sol \ In quibus seu citius seu tardius, sive per totum ordinem, sive quibusdam contemptis, pro sua quisque valitudine assuescens ... solem videbit, I, § 23. The same simile, expressed in almost identical phrasing, appears as an expansion in Alfred's Past.: Nu ic minige ösette deos sprxc stigge on dxt ingedonc dies leorneres, sux suse on sume hliedre, stxpmselum near andnear, 23.16-17: ut ad lectoris sui animum ordinatis allegationibus quasi quibusdam passibus gradiatur {M. 77.13). 79.17-21. The third addition of the idea that no mortal man may attain füll knowledge of God; see Comm. on 69.26 ff. The inconsistency between this idea and Augustine's own view in the Latin Sol. is most apparent here, since the next sentence, a translation from the source, clearly implies that a mortal man can indeed attain füll knowledge of God: foröam pu nxfre pset ne myhiß) pa hwile pu byst on Öam peo{s)drum pinra sinna: solem autem nisi sanus videre non potest, I, § 25. 80.16-19. The phrasing and the mention of despair are entirely Alfred's own; the Latin Sol. has: aut valetudinem corporis considerare me jubes, cum ego ipse tabe confectus sim, I, § 26. This passage corresponds closely to an added passage in the OE Bo.: Ac ic eom nu giet on micle maran gedrefednesse geunrotsod, fulneah op ormodnesse, 142.22-24. 81.10-11. The Scriptural reference, an addition to the Latin Sol., is derived from the Vulgate, John 14.6. 82.13-23. At this point in the Latin Sol., Augustine gives a brief summary of the argument he will use in Book II to prove the soul's immortality: Quidquid enim est, in aliquo non potest manere, si non maneat illud in quo est: manere autem, etiam rebus veris intereuntibus, veritatem paulo ante concessum est. Non igitur est veritas in rebus mortalibus. Est autem veritas, et non est nusquam. Sunt igitur res immortales. Nihil autem verum in quo veritas non est. Conficitur itaque non esse vera, nisi quae sunt immortalia. Et omnis falsa arbor, non est arbor, et falsum lignum non est lignum, et falsum argentum non est argentum, et omnino quidquid falsum est, non est. Omne autem quod verum non est, falsum est. Nulla igitur recte dicuntur esse, nisi immortalia, I, § 29. Alfred, however, Substitutes a flat Statement of doctrine, thus anticipating the appeal to authority which he will rely upon in his Version of Book II; see Comm. on 85.16. 82.14-15. The thought that angels and men's souls are God's two eternal creations is also added in the OE Bo.: Oder ding is ece, pxt hsefä fruman and nxfd nxnne ende;. . . pset sint englas and monna saula, 147.29-148.2. 82.17-18. A similar contrast between the powers of angels and men is found in a translation passage in the OE Bo.: xlc mon hiefä pone freodom pxt he wat hwxt he wile, hwxt he nele; and peah nabbaä ealla gesceadwisa gesceafta gelicne friodom. Englas habbad rihte domas and goodne willan, and eall pxt hi wilniad hi begitad swide eade, 140.25-29: Quare quibus in ipsis inest ratio, inest etiam uolendi nolendique libertas. Sed hanc non in omnibus aequam esse constituo. Nam supernis diuinisque substantiis et perspicax iudicium et incorrupta uoluntas et efficax optatorum praesto est potestas. Humanas uero animas, etc., V, pr. 2, 11-16.

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85.16. Book II up to this poiiit has been based essentially on II, Cap. 1, of the Latin Sol. The two questions raised, whether the soul is immortal, and whether the soul will know more after death, are both present in the Latin Sol, although Augustine does not stress the question of the soul's knowledge so strongly as Alfred does. The rest of the Latin Sol. is a complex logical demonstration of the soul's immortality, relying primarily on the following argument: Omne quod in subjecto est, si Semper manet, ipsum etiam subjectum maneat Semper necesse est. Et omnis in subjecto est animo disciplina. Necesse est igitur Semper ut animus maneat, si Semper manet disciplina. Est autem disciplina veritas, et Semper, ut in initio libri hujus ratio persuasit, veritas manet. Semper igitur animus manet, nec animus mortuus dicitur, II, § 24. Alfred, however, makes no attempt to follow Augustine beyond the initial raising of the two questions. He devotes his second book to the soul's immortality, which he attempts to establish mainly through appeal to scriptural authority. In Book III, he takes up the second question, that of the soul's knowledge after death, a question Augustine leaves unanswered in the Latin Sol. Thus, from this point on, the OE text ceases to be a translation of the Latin Sol. 85.16-19. See 82.13-19 and Comm. on 82.14-15, 17-18. 86.9-13. This passage shows the probable influence of Boethius, who often stresses God's control of created nature; see Comm. on 53.17-21. Similar phrasing is used in two translation passages in the OE Bo.: pu de ealle pine gesceafta gesewenlice and eac ungesewenlicewunderlicegesceopeandgesceadwisliceheoraweltst, 79.10-12: O quiperpetua mundum ratione gubernasjTerrarum caelique sator, III, met. 9, 1-2; Da he gedwserad and wlitegad (gewlitegad, MS. B), hwilum eft unwlitegad ... andeftgeedniv/aö, 131.4-6: eademnascentia occidentiaque omnia per similes fetuum seminumque renovat progressus, IV, pr. 6, 84-86. 86.13-14. The idea of the King of kings is, of course, a Christian commonplace, but Alfred could have been influenced here by Boethius. See OE Bo. 105.17, Bsr ricsad an cyning; se hiefö anweald eallra odra cyninga, a translation of IV, met. 1, 19, Hic regum sceptrum dominus tenet. Alfred introduces the idea again in 88.19-20. 87.4-7. This passage, with its stress on the limitations of human knowledge, is similar to Alfred's frequent statements in Book I that no mortal man may attain füll knowledge of God; see Comm. on 69.26 ff. It also anticipates Alfred's main point in Book III, that man may attain füll knowledge of God and of all things only after the last judgment; see Comm. on 93.18-23. 87.7-12. This argument for the soul's immortality appears in OE Bo. 26.17-20, a dose translation of II, pr. 4, 97-101: Hwxt, we gewislice witon unrim dara monna pe pa ecan gesselda sohton nalles purh pset an pset hi wilnodon dies lichomlican deaÖes, ac eac manegra sarlicra wita hi gewilnodon wiö piem ecan life; also in Gregory's Dialogues, IV. 6 (M. 77.329), OE Version, 271.1^: cwystpu, pxtpa halgan apostolas and Cristesproweras woldon forseon pis andwerde lif and heora sawle forlxtan in pses lichaman deaö, gif hi nyston heom toweard pzt gewisre lif para sawla. 88.12fiF.The mention of Theodosius the Great (346-395) and his son Honorius (384423), the two Roman emperors during most of Augustine's lifetime (354-430), is apparently a piece of historical verisimilitude on Alfred's part. Alfred must have thought that Augustine wrote the Sol. during the reign of Honorius, since Honorius is mentioned in the dialogue as se {pe) pxr gyt lufaÖ (88.17). Actually, the Sol. was written during the reign of Theodosius, in 386-387, when Augustine was at Cassiciacum. 88.19-20. The second mention of this idea; see Comm. on 86.13-14. 88.27 ff. For Alfred, the only reliable human witnesses are those who speak in the scriptures. The superiority of scriptural evidence to all merely human testimony is a prominent idea in Augustine's De Videndo Deo (Epistle 147). See D.V.D., § 5, 39, 40, and especially §44: Sed si divinarum Scriptuarum, earum scilicet quae canonicae in Ecclesia nominantur, perspicua firmatur auctoritate, sine ulla dubitatione credendum est. Aliis vero testibus vel testimoniis, quibus aliquid credendum esse suadetur, tibi credere vel non credere liceat, quantum ea momenti ad faciendum fidem vel habere vel non habere perpenderis (M. 33.598). Passages in Book III containing this idea are clearly derived from D.V.D.; see Comm. on 94.20 ff. and 97.3-13. It seems likely, therefore, that D.V.D. was also an influence here.

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89.11-12. The Quotation is from the Vulgate, Matthew 25.46. 90.3-5. Alfred could have taken this idea from an early Statement in the Latin SoL: Deus qui ne id quidem quod se invicem perimit, perire permittis, I, § 2, translated in 50.14-15, drihten, pu pe mne gesceaftas ne forlsest to nahte weoröam. He may also have been influenced by the Boethian notion that God's love keeps all things from destroying one another; see Comm. on 50.20-22. 90.5-9. This description of the cyclical changes of growing things shows the probable influence ofBoethius; see Comm. on 53.17-21. The phrasing here is very similar to that in OE Bo. 131.4-6, Da hegedwseraö and wlitegaö {gewlitegad, MS B), hwilum eft unwlitegaö .. . and eft geedniwad, a translation of IV, pr. 6, 84-86, eadem nascentia occidentiaque omnia per simües fetuum seminumque renovat progressus. 90.11-12. Alfred adds a similar argument in 53.23-27: Ge furpum manna lichaman forealdiad, swa swa odre gescxaftas ealdiat. Ac swa swa hy xr wurölicor lybbaö ponne treowu odpe odre nytenu, swa hy eac weoröfulicor arisad on domes dxge . . . and peak se lichaman er were gemolsnod, peak wxs seo sawl simle lybbende siööam heo xrest gesceapen wes. 91.1-4. This argument suggests that Alfred may have been aware of Plato's doctrine of reminiscence. He could have found this doctrine in II, § 35 of the Latin Sol.: Tales sunt qui bene disciplinis liberalibus eruditi; siquidem illas sine dubio in se oblivione obrutas eruunt discendo, et quodammodo refodiunt. He could also have derived it from Boethius, who was strongly influenced by it; see especially III, met. 11, translated in OE Bo. 94.27-95.23: Forpam hit is swiöe ryht spell pxt Plate se uöwita sxde; he cwxö: swa hwa swa ungemyndig sie rihtwisnesse, gecerre hine to his gemynde; ponne fint he pser pa ryhtwisnesse gehydde, 95.19-22. 91.24 ff. Alfred took the question of the soul's knowledge after death from II, Cap. 1, of the Latin Sol.; see Comm. on 85.16. Here, he is clearly following the last section of the Latin Sol., II, § 36, where Augustine raises the question again, and proposes to answer it in another work: Non enim credo te parum formidare ne mors Humana, etiam si non interficiat animam, rerum tarnen omnium, et ipsius, si qua comperta fuerit, veritatis oblivionem inferat. A. Non potest salis dici quantum hoc malum metuendum sit. Qualis enim erit illa aeterna vita, vel quae mors non ei praeponenda est, si sie vivit anima, ut videmus eam vivere in puero mox nato ? Augustine wrote the short treatise De Immortalitate Animae as a sequel to the Soliloquies, but he himself regarded this treatise as almost hopelessly obscure; see Augustine's Retractions, I, Cap. V, § 1. If Alfred knew of De Immortalitate Animae, he wisely made no use of it. 93.18-23. This passage is Alfred's answer to the question of knowledge after death, the announced topic of Book III. It is also a Atting conclusion to Alfred's entire work. In Books I and II, he has repeatedly stressed the limitations of human knowledge; see Comm. on 69.26 ff. and 87.4-7. Here, he describes how those limitations will finally be removed. The promise of füll knowledge after the last judgment is, of course, a Christian commonplace, but, since Alfred in 92.9-12 has mentioned Augustine's De Videndo Deo as the place where it can be found, one can assume that D.V.D. was his primary source here. The promise is mentioned frequently in D.V.D., in § 28, 37, and 46, and, most prominently, in § 22: Hoc enim nobis summum praemium in resurrectione promittitur, quod erimus aequales Angelis Dei (Luc. xx, 36): ac per hoc si nec ipsi eum vident sicuti est, quomodo nos ita visuri sumus, cum eis aequales in resurrectione facti fuerimus ?. .. Proinde narrante Unigenito, qui est in sinu Patris, narratione ineffabili, creatura rationalis munda et sancta impletur visione Dei ineffabili, quam tunc consequemur cum aequales Angelis facti fuerimus (M. 33.606). While füll knowledge of God would seem to imply füll knowledge of lesser things, this further idea is not explicitly stated in D. V.D. Hence, a possible source for this idea in 93.20 ff. could be Gregory's Dialogues, IV.33 (Af. 77.376), OE Version, 311.23-25: forpon ponne hi ealle pxr geseop God xlmihtigne mid gemxnelicre beorhtnesse, hwxt is forpon, pxt pa nyton pxr, pe witon and geseop pone, de wat ealle ping; or Gregory's Homily on Luke 16.19-31 {Homiliarium in Evangelia, II. Hom. XL): quia qui Creatoris sui claritatem vident, nihil in creatura agitur, quod videre non possint (M. 76.1309. § 8). 93.23-24. While Alfred is indebted to D. V.D. in the previous passage, he seems here to be contradicting its basic theme, that only the pure in heart will see God. The possibility that

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the evil will see God is explicitly denied in D.V.D., most emphatically in §25: Ab hac igitur visione diabolus et angeli ejus et omnes cum eis impii sine ulla nebula dubitationis exclusi sunt, quoniam mundo corde non sunt (M. 33.607). It is highly unlikely, however, that Alfred means that the evil and the good "see" God in exactly the same way. He states in 94.9 ff. that wisdom in heaven will be proportionate to one's desire for it while on earth, thus implying that even some of the good will not "see" God with perfect clarity or understanding. 93.24 ff. Three possible sources for this passage have been suggested. Jost (pp. 262-264) considers Gregory's Homily on Luke 16.19-31 the most likely, since it is the only one to consider both aspects of the question of why the blessed and the danrned see each other: Credendum vero est, quod ante retributionem extremi judicii injusti in requie quosdam justos conspiciunt, ut eos videntes in gaudio non solum de suo supplicio sed etiam de iUorum bona crucientur. Justi vero in tormentis Semper intuentur injustos, ut hinc eorum gaudium crescat, qaia malum conspiciunt, quod misericorditer evaserunt, etc. {M. 76.1308. § 8). Note, however, that Gregory makes two qualifications which are not made in the Sol.: the damned will see only quosdam justos, and they will see them ante retributionem extremi judicii. The idea that the suffering of the damned will be increased by the sight of the blessed appears in Jerome's Commentary on Luke, where, as in the Sol., it is specified that this Situation will exist after the last judgment: sie erit post judicium: de inferno videbunt regnum Dei, ut majorem poenam habeant a majore gaudio (M. 30.575). The idea that the blessed see the torments of the damned to increase their sense of gratitude appears in Gregory's Dialogues, IV, 44 (M. 77.404), OE Version, 335.18-24: hi [unrihtwisan men] byrnaö to pon hwxthugu, pst pa rihtwisan ealle geseon in Code pa gefean, pe hi onfengon, and eac sceawian on pam arleasum pa witu, pe hi hym sylfum beburgon, piet hi ponne acnawan, pset hi sylfe sculon beon swa myccle ma gyldende pxre godcundan gife, etc. This emphasis on gratitude does not seem to be present in the Sol., where it is stated that the blessed see the damned pxt heom dince heora agnu {ar)pe mare "so that their own glory will seem the greater to them." The idea of gratitude may, however, be implicit in the phrase heora agnu ar, since the secondary meaning of ar is "mercy" or "favor." 94.6-9. The belief that rewards and punishments in the next World will be proportionate appears in Gregory's Dialogues, IV.35 {M. 77.380-381), 315.12-316.11 of the OE Version: sodlice manige wicstowe pxr syndon, in pam syndon todxldepa hadas godra manna and blissiap gemxnelice sefter gemete heora geearnunge (315.20-22); hi gegadriap pa gelican to heora gemxccum in pam gelicum tintregum (316.4-5). Proportionate punishments are mentioned again in Dialogues, IV. 42 (Af. 77.400-401), 333.16-334.4 of the OE Version. Proportionate rewards are mentioned in Gregory's Morals, IV. 36. § 70 (M. 75.677), and in the OE Bo. 81.33-82.2, where the idea is the translator's addition: Hwset pu, Drihten, forgeafe pam sawlum eard on hiofonum, and him pxr gifst weordlice gifa, xlcere be hire geearnunge: and gedest pxt hi scinad swide beorhte, and peah swide mistlice birhtu... sie be his geearnunga. 94.9-13. This idea of proportionate wisdom in heaven may be Alfred's own. It does not seem to appcar in any of the probable sources of the Sol. The necessity of wishing and striving for wisdom is often emphasized in De Videndo Deo : Quod ergo ait sanctus Ambrosius, neque is qui Deum videre noluerit, potest Deum videre, quid aliud intelligi voluit, nisi quia is qui mundando cordi curam tantae reidignam non vult impendere, non vult Deum videre, § 25 (M. 33.607); see also § 18, 24, 52. 94.20 ff. The concem here for the reliability of witnesses, the stress on scriptural authority, and the idea that human testimony, while less reliable than scripture, must sometimes be accepted are all reminiscent of De Videndo Deo-, see Comm. on 88.27 ff. and 97.3-13. This passage is somewhat difficult to reconcile with the preceding discussion. Augustine the Speaker professes himself finally convinced by the promise of füll knowledge after the judgment, yet he has actually been given little or no evidence in the text as it stands. In D. V.D., the probable source of this promise (see Comm. on 93.18 ff.), it is supported by frequent scriptural references; but there have been no scriptural references in the OE text up to this point. It seems likely, however, that some of the scriptural references used as evidence in D.V.D. were originally present in the Sol. When the Speaker states that he

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has been convinced by ungelygena gewittnesse (1. 23), he must be referring to human witnesses in the scriptures. He has already stated, in 89.5-6, that they are the only human witnesses who are fully reliable. 95.7-9. The role of the memory in the story of Dives and Lazarus is stressed in Gregory's Homily on Luke 16.19-31: Ad poenam namque suam ei [Dives] et cognitio servatur et memoria ...Et perfecta poena in igne non esset, si non hoc quod ipse patitur etiam in suis timeret (M. 76.1308. § 8). 95.9 ff. The ultimate source of the story of Dives and Lazarus was, of course, the Vulgate, Luke 16.19-31: (24) Et ipse clamans dixit: Pater Abraham, miserere mei, et mitte Lazarum ut intingat extremum digiti sui in aquam, ut refrigeret linguam meam, quia crucior in hac flamma. (25) Et dixit Uli Abraham: Pili, recordare quia recepisti bona in vita tua, et Lazarus similiter mala. Nunc autem hic consolatur, tu vero cruciaris. (27) Et ait: Rogo ergo te, pater, ut mittas eum in domum patris mei; (28) habeo enim quinque fratres, ut testetur Ulis, ne et ipsi veniant in hunc locum tormentorum. (29) Et ait Uli Abraham: Habent Moysen et prophetas; audiant illos. (31) Ait autem Uli: Si Moysen et prophetas non audiunt, neque siquis ex mortuis resurrexerit credent. Alfred may have been attracted to this story through seeing it in Gregory's Dialogues or Pastoral Care. The story through verse 28 appears in Dialogues, IV.33 (M. 77.373), and verses 24, 25, 27, and 28 are quoted, with minor omissions directly from the Vulgate. The translations of verses 25, 27, and 28 in the OE Version (310.14-22) are, however, essentially different from those in the Sol. Verse 24 is quoted in Pastoral Care, III. 19, OE Version, 309.2-8, as a proof that the greedy are loquacious. 95.12-15. Abraham's answer in the Vulgate (v. 25) does not contain this explicit connection between the present suffering of Dives and his past mistreatment of Lazarus (vv. 19-21). The attitude here is similar to Gregory's in the Homily on Luke 16.19-31: Perfecta quippe ei ultio de paupere non esset, si hunc in retributione non recognosceret... Ut ergo peccatores in supplicio amplius puniantur, et eorum vident gloriam quos contempserunt (M. 76.1308). 95.22-26. This application of the story is similar to Gregory's in Dialogues, IV.33 (M. 77. § 373, 376), OE Version, 310.22-311.11: mid pam wordum hit is gecyped, pxt pa godan men magon pa godan oncnawan, and eac pa yflan magon ongytan pa opre yflan .. .in pxre wisan is eac gecyded. . . pxt pa godan oncnawad pa yflan, and eac pa yflan ongytaö pa godan. Alfred's Statement here that the evil will know everything in the next world cannot mean that they will have füll knowledge of God, a privilege he clearly reserves for a limited number of the good; see 94.9 ff. and Comm. on 93.23-24. 96.1-4. Gregory lays great stress on this aspect of the story in his Homily on Luke f6.19-31: Ecce enim Abraham fllium vocat, quem tarnen a tormento non liberat, quoniam hujus infldelis populi praecedentes patres fideles, quia multos a sua flde deviasse considerant, eos nulla compassione a tormentis eripiunt, quos tamen per carnem fllios recognoscunt {M. 76.1304. § 2); justorum animae quamvis in suae naturae bonitate misericordiam habeant, jam tunc auctoris sui justitiae conjunctae, tanta rectitudine constringuntur, ut nulla ad reprobos compassione moveantur (M. 76.1308. § 7). He makes the same point, without specific reference to this story, in Dialogues, IV.44 (M. 77. §404-405), OE Version, 335.25-336.28: ac py nu pa rihtwisan, pe lifgende beod, ne efnsargiad na pam unrihtwisum mannum deadum and genyprodum . . . and ponne hi sceawiaÖ myccle pearlwislicor pa tintregu para unrihtwisra manna, ponne hi hi seife witon geclxnsode fram xlcre uncyste, and ofer pxt hi peodaÖ hi and gefeolad nealicor and fxstlicor to pxre rihtwisnesse (336.17-23). 96.11-13. This application of the story is found in Gregory's Homily on Luke 16.19-31 and Jerome's Commentary on Luke-, see Comm. on 93.24 ff. 96.17-19. In making this analogy, Alfred is clearly thinking as a king; he is giving the king's view of the court. He shows the same concern for the real feelings beneath men's appearances in 59.14, an addition to the Latin Sol.: Donne wiste ic hwilce treowda he hxfde wid me. 96.19 fF. The idea that the joy of the good will be increased through remembrance of their former sufferings is found in Gregory's Moral. IV.36. § 72 (M. 75.678). The analogy of the king's darling is clearly Alfred's own.

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97.3-13. Lines 4-11 are the one direct translation from De Videndo Deo. The source is D.V.D., § 5: Si enim ea quae non vidimus, hoc est, in praesenti apparentia nonsensimus vel mente vel corpore, neque de Scripturis sanctis vel legendo vel audiendo didicimus, nulla omrtino credidissemus; unde sciremus esse civitales, ubi nunquam fuimus; vel a Romulo conditam Romam, vel, ut de proprioribus loquar, Constantinopolim a Constantino? unde postremo sciremus, quinam parentes nos procreavissent, quibus patribus, avis, majoribus geniti essemus ? Talium quippe cum plurima sciamus, non tarnen ea vel ullo sensu praesentia, sicut solem, sicut nostri animi voluntatem, vel canonicorum ehquiorum auctoritate, sicut Adam fuisse primum hominem, aut Christum in carne natum passumque resurrexisse didicimus; sed aliis referentibus, de quorum testimonio in hoc duntaxat rerum genere minime dubitandum esse putavimus (M. 33.598). The contrast between scriptural authority and human testimony in the Latin passage may well have suggested the contrast between reliable and less reliable men in 11. 3-4 and 11-13. Reliable men, for Alfred, are those who speak in the scriptures; see Comm. on 88.27 ff.

GLOSSARY a adv., always, ever aberan str. vb. 4, carry away abysgian wk. vb., occupy, bother ac conj., but acennan wk. vb., bear, beget acsian wk. vb., ask; 1 sg. ahsige acsung sb. fem., question acucian wk. vb., revive adrifan str. vb. 1, drive away X sb. fem., law secan wk. vb., increase xfest adj., righteous xfre adv., ever, at all xfter adv., afterwards, then; prep., after, according to, conceming xftera comp, adj., second xg sb. neut., egg xgder pron., each, both, either; conj., xgder ge ... ge, both . . . and; xgder odde ... odde, either . . . or; also ader, awder xlc adj., pron., each, every, any xlenge adj., lengthy, tedious xlmihtig adj., almighty xlmihtiness sb. fem., omnipotence xmbe var. of ymbe xmenne sb. masc., solitude; adj. (?), free from(?) xmettig adj., idle, unoccupied xmnwel adv., as well, equally well xnig adj. pron., any, anyone xnlic adj., excellent xppel sb. masc., apple, ball xr adv., prep., conj., before; superl., xrest first; conj., xrdam{pe) before xrendgewrit sb. neut., letter xrt 2 sg. of beon xt prep., at, from, in xtan wk. vb., eat xtfxstan wk. vb., fasten to, impart to xö comp, of eade xtsacan str. vb. 6, deny xtsumne adv., together, at once xwilm sb. masc., source, fount afandian wk. vb., test, prove afastnian wk. vb., make firm afeaUan str. vb. 7, fall down agan pret. pres. vb., own; pret., ahte

agen adj., own agyfan str. vb. 5, give up, deliver agymian wk. vb., consider ahebban str. vb. 6, raise, lift up; 3 sg., ahxfd ahsige 1 sg. of acsian ahte pret. of agan alxtan str. vb. 7, give up, lose, release alesan str. vb. 5, select aiyfan wk. vb., permit alysan wk. vb., release amyrran wk. vb., mislead, hinder; also amxrran an (1) num., a4j., one; wk. adj., alone; anes hwxt, some one thing; (2) var. of o« anbidian wk. vb., wait for ancor sb. masc., anchor ancerstreng sb. masc., cable and conj., and; xmnwel and, as well as andxtta sb. masc., one who vows or maintains andefn sb. fem., capacity, ability, amount andettan wk. vb., vow, confess andgitlic adj., intelligiÜe andgyt sb. neut., reason, mind, understanding andswarian wk. vb., answer; also andsweorian andweard adj., present andweorc sb. neut., material, matter andwyrdan wk. vb., answer; also andweardan anlang prep., along anlicnes sb. fem., likeness, image anmodnes sb. fem., harmony, constancy annes sb. fem., oneness, unity ansyn sb. fem., vision anweald sb. masc., power, authority; also onweald anydan wk. vb., banish; past part., anyd ar sb. fem., honor, glory, favor arxdan wk. vb., utter areccan wk. vb., teil, recount aredian wk. vb., find one's way aretan wk. vb., cheer arfxst adj., gracious, merciful arian wk. vb., be merciful to, show favor to 109

110

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ariht adv., rightly ariman wk. vb., enumerate arisan str. vb. 1, arise arlic adj., honorable asecgan wk. vb., teil, say astneagan wk. vb., consider; past part., asmaead asprettan str. vb. 1, sprout astandan str. vb. 6, stand firm astyfecian wk. vb., root out, destroy astyran wk. vb., govem, guide atefran wk. vb., paint, draw apennan wk. vb., Stretch ader See xgder apolian wk. vb., hold aöreotan str. vb. 2, irk, displease aweccan wk. vb., awake, arouse; pret., awehte awiht sb. neut., anythlng; adv., at all, ever awritan str. vb. 1, write, draw awder See legder awyrtwalian wk. vb., root out bseftam prep., after hier adj., bare bam dat. of hegen bad sb. neut., bathing be prep., adv., by, about, concerning, according to, to; be me cwucum, while I am alive; also beo, bi bearn sb. neut., child, son bebeodan str. vb. 2, command, entrust bebod sb. neut., commandment becuman str. vb. 4, come, arrive, befall; also beocuman bec gen./dat. sg., nom./acc. pl of boc befxstan wk. vb., entrust, commit befon Str. vb. 7, enclose began irreg. vb., accomplish begen adj., pron., both; nom. masc., buta-, gen., begra, beigra; dat., bam begytan str. vb. 5, obtain behatan str. vb. 7, promise behealdan str. vb. 7, keep, hold behofian wk. vb., need beigra gen. of begen ben sb. fem., prayer beniodan prep., beneath, below beo (1) 1 sg., opt. sg., imp. sg. of beon\ (2) var. of be beon irreg. vb., be, exist; 1 sg., beo, eom\ 2 sg., byst, eart, xrt; 3 sg., byö, is, byd, byt\ pl., beod, sinf, pret. 1, 3 sg., wies-, pret. 2 sg., wsere-, pret. pl., wsron; opt. sg., beo, si, se, seo, sio; opt. pl., sien; pret. opt. sg., wsere; pret. opt. pl..

wseren; imp. sg., beo; 3 sg. neg., nis; pret. 1, 3 sg. neg., nies; pret. 2 sg. neg., nsere; pret. pl. neg., nieron beorht adj., bright beorhte adv., brightly beorhtnes sb. fem., brightness beod pres. pl. of beon beseon str. vb. 5, look best (1) superl. of good; (2) superl of wel bet comp, of wel betera comp, of good bepurfan pret. pres. vb., need betweon prep., between betweona prep., adv., between; also beotweona betweuh adv., between bewitan pret. pres. vb., care for, keep bi var. of be bisceop sb. masc., blshop bispell sb. neut., analogy, example blide adj., happy blostma sb. masc., blossom boc sb. fem., bock; gen./dat. sg., nom./acc. pl., bec bocland sb. neut., land held by written title bocsteefsh. masc., letter bohtimber sb. neut., bough-timber (?), building-timber (?) bohtimber sb. neut., heavy timber (?), building-timber (?) brad adj., broad, wide brengan wk. vb., bring bricst 2 sg. of brucan bridel sb. masc., bridle bringan str. vb. 3, bring, carry broc sb. neut., misery, pain broga sb. masc., terror brodor sb. masc., brother brucan str. vb. 2, use, enjoy; 2 sg., bricst bufan prep., above bur sb. neut., inner Chamber, bower buta (1) nom. masc. of begen; (2) var. of butan butan prep., adv., without, except, outside (of); conj., unless, except, but; also buta, bute byd 3 sg. of beon byddan str. vb. 5, pray, entreat, ask for; 2 sg., byst byre sb. masc., occurence byrÖen sb. fem., load bysen sb. fem., analogy, example bysmor sb. masc., disgrace bysnian wk. vb., take example byst (1) 2 sg. of beon; (2) 2 sg. of byddan byt, byd 3 sg. of beon

GLOSSARY

carcern sb. neut., also fem. (?), prison cartaina sb. indecl., Carthage ceorfan str. vb. 3, cut down cild sb. neut., child clad sb. masc., cloth, garment clene adj., chaste; adv., completely clennes sb. fem., chastity c/j/sb. neut., cliff clypian wk. vb., call cniht sb. masc., disciple cotlyfih. neut., cottage creft sb. masc., art, skill, science, virtue creftig adj., skilful cuman str. vb. 4, come cunmn pret. pres. vb., know, know how to, be able to; pret., cude cud adj., known, clear, familiar cuöUce adv., certainly cwedan str. vb. 5, say; pret., cwxde cwuc adj., alive cwyde sb. masc., saying, word cyldehad sb. masc., childhood cyng var. of kyng cym var. of kynn cyssan wk. vb., kiss cydan wk. vb., make known, teil dsed sb. fem., action, practice dxg sb. masc., day dseglanges adv., for a day's time dsl sb. masc., part, share, amount; be dam dsele pe, to the extent that; be sumum dxle or sume dxle, somewhat dafenian wk. vb., impers., befit dead adj., dead deadlic adj., mortal dead sb. masc., death deman wk. vb., judge deofol sb. masc., devil deope adv., deeply deor sb. neut., wild animal deorlice adv., forcefully deorling sb. masc., favorite depplic adj., profound derian wk. vb., injure disilice adv., foolishly dorn sb. masc., judgment don irreg. vb., do, make, cause, give, put, consider; pret., dyde drihten sb. masc., lord; also dridten, driten dreccan wk. vb., vex drige adj., dry drinc sb. masc., drink durran pret. pres. vb., dare dum sb. fem., door dwola sb. masc., error

III

dwolian wk. vb., err, wander dyde etc., pret. of don dygel adj., secret; nom. sg. neut., dyhle dysig adj., foolish; sb. neut., folly ea sb. fem., river eac adv., also; ge .. .ge eac, both . . . and eadig adj., blessed eadlean var. of edlean eadmeto sb. neut., humility eadmod adj., humble, obedient eadmodlice adv., respectfully eage sb. nom., eye eala interj., oh, alas eald adj., old, great, eminent ealdian wk. vb., grow old eall adj., all, every; adv., entirely; sb. neut., everything; mid ealle, entirely ealles var. of elles eallunga adv., entirely, fully eardian wk. vb., live, dwell eare sb. neut., ear earfodfere adj., difficult to pass through earhlic adj., base, trivial earmlic adj., miserable earnian wk. vb., eam, merit, strive for earnung sb. fem., merit eart 2 sg. of beon eade adj., easy; adv., easily; comp, adv., led eadnes sb. fem., ease, peace eawian var. of eowian ece adj., eternal ecnes sb. fem., eternity edel sb. masc., native land edlean sb. neut., recompense; also eadlean edniowian wk. vb., renew eft abv., again, then, in tum, also elles adv., eise, otherwise; usually spelled ealles embe var. of ymbe emne adv., exactly ende sb. masc., end endebyrdlice adv., carefully endian wk. vb., finish engel sb. masc., angel englisc sb. neut., English, the English language eodest 2 sg. pret. of gan eom 1 sg. of beon eoröe sb. fem., earth, world eordlic adj., earthly eowian wk. vb., show, reveaJ; also eawian esne sb. masc., servant, retainer ßeder sb. masc., father fseger adj., fair

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GLOSSARY

fsreld sb. neut., masc., course, motion fxrenga adv., suddenly fxst adj., firm, fixed fiestlice adv., finnly fagnian wk. vb., rejoice fandian wk. vb., test faran str. vb. 6, go, travel, wander feala var. oifela feawe adj. pl., few fela adj., sb. neut., many, much; also feala, feola fengen pret. opt. pl. of fon feond sb. masc., enemy feonan adv., far, from afar feorda num. adj., fourth feower num., four fetian wk. vb., obtain, fetch fif num., five findan str. vb. 3, find finger sb. masc., finger fird sb. fem., camp, army, levy firl{u) sb. fem., distance first sb. masc., time, space of time fiscian wk. vb., fish firdran wk. vb., werk on, werk at flsa sb. masc., flea fleon Str. vb. 2, fly from, flee; pret. opt., fluge fleslic adj., fleshly fluge pret. opt. of fleon flyma sb. masc., fugitive folc sb. neut., people folgian wk. vb., follow fon Str. vb. 7, take up, catch, comprehend; pret. opt. pl., fengen for prep., for, because of, through; adv., weryifor pat conj., so that forberan str. vb. 4, forbear fordon irreg. vb., destroy forealdian wk. vb., grow old, decay forepancful adj., prudent forewearde adv., forward forgyfan str. vb. 5, give, forgive forgyldan str. vb. 3, reward forgytan str. vb. 5, forget for-hxard adj., very stubborn forhatan str. vb. 7, renounce forheafdnes sb. fem., temperance forketan str. vb. 7, leave, forsake, lose, allow forleosan str. vb. 2, lose; pret. opt., forlure forlytel adj., very little forma adj., first forseon str. vb. 5, despise, renounce; pret. pl., forsawon forserian wk. vb., wither

foröamipe) adv., conj., because, therefore, for fordencan wk. vb., reflex., despair, despise one's seif; pret. forpohton fordgefaran str. vb. 6, die fordgemtan str. vb. 1, die fordi{pe) adv., conj., therefore, because, for that reason fordian wk. vb., maintain, further forpohton pret. pl. of fordencan forweorht past part. of forwyrcan, wk. vb., condemn forweoröan str. vb. 3, perish, disappear forwyrnan wk. vb., deny, deprive of fot sb. neut., foot fram prep., from frasian wk. vb., question, test fremde adj., unnatural, unfriendly fremian wk. vb., perform freo adj., free freodom sb. masc., freedom freond sb. masc., friend freondscype sb. masc., friendship frofor sb. fem., consolation fruma sb. masc., beginning fugel sb. masc., bird fuglian wk. vb., catch birds fulclsene adj., very pure fuleode pret. of fulgan fulfremmian wk. vb., accomplish, perfect fulgan irreg. vb., carry out, follow; pret., fuleode fulice adv., fully füll adj., füll, complete; adv., very, fully fultum sb. masc., help fultumian wk. vb., help fundian wk. vb., strive after furdum adv., even, further, also; also furöan furöur adv., further fuul adj., foul fyer comp, adv., farther away fyr sb. neut., fire fyrmiest adv., best gaderian wk. vb., collect gadorung sb. fem., collection gxt var. of gyt gan irreg. vb., go; pret. 2 sg., eodest gast sb. masc., spirit gastlic adj., spiritual ge conj., and, also, even, especially; ge ... ge, ge ... eac, xgöer ge ... ge, both . . . and gea adv., yes, even, especially geahsian wk. vb., ask

GLOSSARY geandweard (1) adj., present; (2) past part. of geandwyrdan geandwyrdan wk. vb., answer; past part., geandweard gear sb. neut., year geare adv., certainly, surely; comp., gearnor (?); also geara, gearu gearnian wk. vb., deserve gearnor See geare, georne gearnung sb. fem., merit gears sb. masc., grass gearu (1) adj., ready; (2) var. of geare gearwian wk. vb., prepare, bloom geascian wk. vb., inquire; pres. part., geasciende (MS gastande) gebed sb. neut., prayer gebelgan str. vb. 3 reflex., become angry geberan str. vb. 4, bear, beget geberad 3 sg. of gebyrian gebetan wk. vb., amend, attend to gebiddan str. vb. 5, reflex., pray gebridlian wk. vb., bridle gebringan str. vb. 3, bring gebrohte etc., pret. of gebrengan, wk. vb., bring gebydan str. vb. 1, await, wait, pause gebyndan str. vb. 3, bind gebyrdlice adj., harmonious gebyrian wk. vb., impers., happen, belong to; 3 sg., geberad gecelan wk. vb., quench gechensian wk. vb., clean, purify gecnawan str. vb. 7, know, understand gecv/xden past part. ol gecwedan, str. vb. 5, proclaim gecyrran wk. vb., return, turn, convert gedafenian wk. vb., impers., befit gedslan wk. vb., distribute, separate gedal sb. neut., Separation, parting gedon irreg. vb., do, cause, make; pret., gedyde gedrefan wk. vb., disturb gedrefedness sb. fem., troubie, problem gedripan wk. vb., drip gedwxlian wk. vb., be in error gedwola sb. masc., error gedyde etc., pret. of gedon geearnian wk. vb., earn, achieve geecan wk. vb., increase geenan (?) wk. vb., join, unite with (?) geendian wk. vb., finish, come to an end geeowian wk. vb., reveal geßestlice adv., surely, firmly gefagen adj., glad gefastnian wk. vb., make firm gefea sb. masc., joy

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gefera sb. masc., companion geferxden sb. fem., companionship gefeörian wk. vb., load a wagon gefirn adv., long ago gefon Str. vb. 7, take in, grasp gefredan wk. vb., feel gefremman wk. vb., perform gefreolsian wk. vb., set free gefreon wk. vb., make free gefultumian wk. vb., help gegadrian wk. vb., collect gegierwan wk. vb., prepare, adorn, supply geglofed past part. of *glofian, wk. vb., Cover with a glove gehabban wk. vb., keep, have; 2 sg., gehiefst gehest 2 sg. of gehatan gehat sb. neut., promise gehatan str. vb. 7, promise, call; 2 sg., gehlest gehawian wk. vb., look at, observe gehealdan str. vb. 7, keep gehefegian wk. vb., weigh down gehelan wk. vb., heal, eure geheme adj., customary, common gehogode pret. 1 sg. of gehycgan, wk. vb., decide gehure 1 sg. of gehyran gehwilc adj., whatever, every gehyran wk. vb., hear; 1 sg., gehure', also geheran gelacnian wk. vb., eure; also gelocnian gelxttdan wk. vb., go gelxran wk. vb., teach gelxstan wk. vb., perform, do geledan wk. vb., lead geleafa sb. masc., faith geleornian wk. vb., learn gelic adj., like, similar; sb. neut., likeness gelice adv., likewise, like, as gelimpfulra comp, adj., more convenient, better gelocnian var. of gelacnian gelyfan wk. vb., believe gemxhd sb. fem., ambition, greed gemang sb. neut., midst gemet sb. neut., limit gemetan wk. vb., find, meet with gemetgung sb. fem., temperance, moderation gemetgyend sb. masc., ruler gemetigian wk. vb., regulate, restrain gemetlice adv., moderately gemind sb. neut., memory, remembrance; also gemund gemod adj., harmonious

114

GLOSSARY

gemolsnian wk. vb., decay gemot sb. neut., assembly gemumn pret. pres. vb., remember gemund var. of gemind gemybian wk. vb., show mercy gemyrran wk. vb., trouble, distract genealecan wk. vb., draw near genoh adj., adv., enough, sufficiently gern adv., still genyht sb. fem., abundance geo adv., formerly; also ieo, iu geornan wk. vb., yearn, desire georne adv., eagerly, well, diligently; comp., gearnor (?) geornlice adv., earnestly, carefully geornful adj., eager geortriwian wk. vb., despair geot var. of gyt gerad(1) adj., skilful, prudent; (2) sb. neut., condition gerd sb. fem., rod, branch gereccan wk. vb., explain, relate; past part., gereaht, gereiht gerestan wk. vb., rest, remain geriht sb. neut., straight direction gerihtreccan wk. vb., direct gerihtwisian wk. vb., justify gerisenlice adv., properly geryd past part. of gerydan, wk. vb., clear land gesxW sb. fem., happiness gesawe pret. of geseon gesceadlice adv., reasonably, sensibly gesceadwis adj., reasonable, rational gesceadwisnes sb. fem., reason, judgment gesceaft sb. fem., creature; nom./acc. pl. masc., gesceaftas gescyppan str. vb. 6, create; pret., gescop; past part., gesceapen gescyldan wk. vb., shield, protect geseawe pret. of geseon gesecan wk. vb., seek, come to; past part., gesoht gesecgan wk. vb., say, teil; past part., gesxd gesegelt (1) sb. fem., saying, report; (2) past part. of geseon geselig adj., blessed geseon str. vb. 5, see; pret., gesawe, geseawe, gesewe; past part., gesewen, gesegen, Seen, (as adj.) visible gesingian wk. vb., sin gesoht past part. of gesecan gesome adj., harmonious gestsediness sb. fem., constancy, stability gestreon sb, neut., procreation

gestrynan wk. vb., gain, acquire, beget gesund adj., safe, sound geswican str. vb. 1, abandon, renounce geswinc sb. neut., labor, effort, trouble getxse sb. neut., pleasure, benefit getecan wk. vb., teach, show; pret., getehte geteon str. vb. 2, draw gepafa sb. masc., assenter; adj. (?), consenting (?) gepafian wk. vb., allow gepencan wk. vb., think, consider, conclude; 2 sg., gepengst gepofta sb. masc., companion gepolian wk. vb., endure, suffer gepwxre adj., harmonious gepyld sb. neut., patience getilian wk. vb., strive getimbran wk. vb., build getiohhian wk. vb., decide getrymman wk. vb., confirm getweo sb. masc., doubt getweogan wk. vb., doubt geungewlitian wk. vb., deprive of beauty gewanian wk. vb., diminish geweald sb. neut., strength, power gewealdnum dat. sg. neut. past part. of gewealdan, str. vb. 7, wield, control geweoröan str. vb. 3, be, happen; pret., gewurde-, past part., geweordon gewircan wk. vb., work, work upon, make, create; pret., geworhte gewislice adv., certainly gewiss adj., certain; sb. neut., certainty; adv. (?), certainly (?) gewit sb. neut., mind, sense, understanding gewita sb. masc., witness gewitan str. vb. 1, go, leave gewite sb. neut., punishment gewitendlic adj., transitory gewitness sb. fem., testimony, witness gewityg adj., wise gewlitegian wk. vb., make beautiful geworhte pret. of gewircan gewrixle sb. neut., change, alternation gewunian wk. vb., remain, live, become used to; past part., gewonod gewurde pret. of geweordan gewurpian wk. vb., make worthy, dignify gifola sb. masc., benefactor, giver giornes sb. fem., desire, endeavor git pers. pron. dual, you two; gen., incer-, dat./acc., inc god (1) adj., good; comp., betera; superl., best-, (2) sb. neut., good, good thing; (3) sb. masc., God godnes sb. fem,, goodness

GLOSSARY godspell sb. neut., gospel gold sb. neut., gold graf&h. masc., grove grene adj., green grin sb. fem., snare growan str. vb. 7, grow gyfcoTi]., if gyfa sb. masc., giver gyfan str. vb. 5, give gyfu sb. fem., gift gyrwan wk. vb., prepare gyt adv., yet, besides; also gxt, geot gytsung sb. fem., cupidity, desire habban irreg. vb., have; 2 sg., hxfsf, 3 sg., hsefö, hseff, pret., hefde-, pres. neg., nxbbe, nxfst, nsefö, nabbad; opt. pl. neg., mebben hxalne acc. sg. masc. of hal hselend sb. masc., savior hselu sb. fem., salvation hxre opt. sg. of hyran, wk. vb., hear, obey haest 2 sg. of hatan hal adj., whole, safe, healthy; acc. sg. masc., hsealne haiig adj., holy halsian wk. vb., implore ham sb. masc., adv., home hand sb. fem., hand hatan str. vb. 7, call, name, order; 2 sg., hxst, hest hatian wk. vb., hate hawian wk. vb., lock, look at hawung sb. fem., looking he, heo, hit pers. pron., he, she, it, pl., they; gen. sg. masc., neut., his-, dat. sg. masc., neut., him-, gen./dat. sg. fem., hire', acc. sg. masc., hine-, acc. sg. fem., hie-, acc. sg. neut., hif, nom./acc. pl., hi, hie, heo", gen. pl., hira, heora; dat. pl., him, heom hea adv., high heah adj., high; comp., heara, hera (?); superl., hehsta healdan str. vb. 7, hold, keep healic adj., high, important heall sb. fem., hall heanlic adj., base, trivial hefig adj., heavy, onerous hefiness sb. fem., tedium hehfieder sb. masc., patriarch hehsta superl. of heah helan str. vb. 4, conceal hell sb. fem., hell help sb. fem., help helpan str. vb. 3, help

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heo (1) nom. sg. fem. of he-, (2) nom./acc. pl. of he heofene sb. fem., heaven heofenlic adj., heavenly heofonrice sb. neut., kingdom of heaven heom dat. pl. of he heonan adv., hence heora gen. pl. of he heorde sb. masc., guardian her adv., here hera comp, of heah (?) herfest sb. masc., autumn, harvest herian wk. vb., praise hes sb. fem., conmiand hest 2 sg. of hatan hi, hie nom./acc. pl. of he higian wk. vb., strive, hasten him, hine, hira, hire, his, hit See he hlxder sb. fem., ladder hlafsh. masc., bread hlaford sb. masc., lord hlistan wk. vb., listen hohgian wk. vb., intend, resolve hreoh adj., rough hrine sb. masc., sense of touch hrinung sb. fem., touch hu adv., how; expletive in the introductory phrase, hu ne huntigan wk. vb., hunt hurii adv., indeed, even, certainly, also hus sb. neut., house hwa, hwst inter., indef., rel. (?) pron., who, what, which (?), someone, something; gen., hwses-, dat., hwam; acc. masc., fem., hwone; acc. neut., hwxf, instr., hwi, hwy, hwu (?) hwieder adv., where, whither hwier adv., where hwserhwugu adv., anywhere hwses gen. of hwa hwset (1) nom./acc. neut. of hwa-, (2) interj., lo! look! hwxthwugu pron., something; instr., hwanhwugu-, adv., somewhat hwieder pron., which (of two); conj., whether; expletive to introduce a question calling for a yes or no answer hwam dat. of hwa hwanhwugu instr. of hwxthwugu hwanon adv., whence hwemnes sb. fem., foulness, fornication hwenne adv., when hwerfian wk. vb., revolve hwi instr. of hwa hwil sb. fem., space of time; acc. sg., while

116

GLOSSARY

lean str. vb. 6, blame leden sb. neut., Latin, the Latin language lencten sb. masc., spring leng comp, of lange feo/adj., pleasing leogan str. vb. 2, lie leoht sb. neut., adj., light leornian wk. vb., learn, study ic pers. pron., I; gen. sg., min\ dat./acc. sg., leornung sb. fem., study lest 3 sg. of lystan me lettan wk. vb., hinder ic imp. of ycan ieo var. of geo lic sb. neut., body in prep., in lican wk. vb., impers., please lichama sb. masc., body inc dat./acc. of gif, incer gen. of git inera adj., internal lichamlic adj., bodily, physical lichamlice adv., physically ingepanc sb. neut., mind, thinking licworöe adj., acceptable, pleasing innan prep., from within insegel sb. neut., seal lifad 3 sg. of lybban instepe adv., forthwith, directly lim sb. neut., limb inweardlice adv., thoroughly, earnestly; line sb. fem., line, rope lide adj., mild, gentle also inwordlice locian wk. vb., look, take care is 3 sg. of beon lohsceaft sb. masc., handle with a strap (?) iu var. of geo lufast, lüfad 2, 3 sg. of lybban kigcel sb. masc., short, thick stick lufian wk. vb., love kyng sb. masc., king; also cyng, kining lufiend sb. masc., lover kynn sb. neut., race, kin; also cynn lufa sb. fem., love; also luuu last sb. masc., desire, lust, pleasure la interj., oh, ah lustlice adv., gladly luuu var. of lufu lad sb. fem., carrying ladian wk. vb., excuse lybban wk. vb., live; 2 sg., leofest, lufast•, Iseas adj., false 3 sg., lifad, lufad; pret., lyfde lyf sb. neut., life Ixce sb. masc., doctor lyfde pret. of lybban Ixcedom sb. masc., medicine lyhtan wk. vb., reflect, shine Isedan wk. vb., lead lystan wk. vb., impers., please; 3 sg., lest; Isen sb. fem., grant, leased land opt. sg., Izste tene adj., transitory; sb. fem. (?), grant, lytel adj., adv., sb. neut., little leased land (?) lytlum adv., gradually; lytlum and lytlum lieng comp, of lange little by little heran wk. vb., teach, advise lies adv., sb. neut., less; pe Ixs, pe Ixst conj., lest ma adv., sb. indecl., more, further, besides Isssa adj., lesser, smaller mxg (1) 1, 3 sg. of magan; (2) sb. masc., Ixsse adv., less kinsman; gen. pl., maga liest sb. neut., least mxge pres. opt. of magan Isste opt. sg. of lystan msenan wk. vb., mean, intend lietan str. vb. 7, let, allow, leave, regard, miere opt. sg. of myrran, or of meanian consider wk. vb., err land sb. neut., land miest adj., adv., sb. neut., most, greatest lang adj., long mxö sb. fem., capacity, ability maga (1) adj., strong, able; (2) gen. pl. of lange adv., long; comp., leng, Iseng sb. mxg lar sb. fem., teaching larewas gen. sg. of lareow, sb. masc., teacher magan pret. pres. vb., be able; 1, 3 sg., mxg-, late adv., slowly 2 sg., meaht, myht; pres. opt., msege; ladtewas gen. sg. of ladteow, sb. masc., guide pret. 1, 3 sg., meahte, myhte, meihte; leaf sb. neut., leaf pret. 2 sg., myhtest; pret. pl., meahton

hwilc inter. pron., adj., which, of what kind; indef. pron., adj., anyone, anything, some, any hwu (?) hwy, instr. of hwa hv/yrft sb. masc., turning hylf sb. neut., handle hyred sb. masc., household

GLOSSARY

117

man (1) sb. masc., man, person; (2) indef. pron. indecl., one, someone; aJso me manian wk. vb., admonish, advise manig adj., many a, many manigfeald adj., numerous mamisc adj., human me (1) dat./acc. of ic; (2) var. of indef. pron. man meaht, meahte, meahton See magan med sb. fem., reward medeme adj., proper, fit meihte pret. 1, 3 sg. oi magan menian wk. vb., proceed, direct one's seif metan str. vb. 5, compare; 2 sg., mest mete sb. masc., food mettrimnes sb. fem., weakness, sickness mettmm adj., weak, sick micel adj., much, many miete adv., much, greatly miclum adv., much mid prep., with, by middaneard sb. masc., world, earth midde sb. fem., middle mihtig adj., mighty, capable mildheortnes sb. fem., mercy, pity milts sb. fem., kindness min (1) adj., my, mine; (2) gen. sg. of ic mislic adj., various mislicum adv., variously mod sb. neut., mind modor sb. fem., mother mona sb. masc., moon motan pret. pres. vb., be allowed, be able murge adv., happily mus sb. fem., mouse mydlinga adv., to a moderate extent mydwyrhta sb. masc., coworker myht (1) 2 sg. of magan; (2) sb. fem., power

nan adj., pron., no, none; sb., none, no one, nothing nanwiht adv., sb. neut., nothing, not at all nast, nat See witan nawader See nader nawcte See nawiht nawiht av., sb. neut., nothing, not at all; also naht, nawct, nawt, nawuht naper conj., neither; also nawaper ne adv., not; conj., neither, nor neah adv., near, nearly; comp., near\ superL, niehst, most recently nearu adj., narrow nehsta sb. masc., neighbor nede adv., of necessity nelle, nelt etc. See wilkin nemnan wk. vb., name, mention neod sb. fem., need neodbehsefe adj., necessary nes adv., not nese adv., no niehst superl. of neah niman str. vb. 4, take nis See beon niwan adv., recently no var. of na nolde, noldst etc. See willan notian wk. vb., use, enjoy nu adv., now; conj., now that, inasmuch as, since nyht sb. fem., night nyste, nyton, etc. See witan nyten sb. neut., beast nytt sb. neut., something useful; adj., useful; hu nyt adv., why, for what purpose nyttian wk. vb., use, profit by nytwyrde adj., useful

myhte, myhtest See magan mynegian wk. vb., remind myrran wk. vb., hinder; opt. sg., miere (?) err myst sb. masc., mist

oden sb. fem., threshing floor of prep., of, from, concerning ofer prep. adv., over, above ofercuman str. vb. 5, overcome ofered sb. fem., honorable pride, magnanimity ofergiotolness sb. fem., forgetfulness ofermxto sb. fem., pride, presumption ofermette adj., immoderate, excessive oferstselan wk. vb., convince oferswidan wk. vb., conquer oferwinnan wk. vb., overcome ofmunan pret. pres. vb., remember ofsittan str. vb. 5, beset oft adv., often ofteon Str. vb. 2, deprive on prep., on, upon, into, in, to

na adv., not, not at all; also no nabbaö See habban nacod adj., naked nsebbe, nxbben See habban medre sb. fem., adder nxfre adv., never nsefst, mefd See habban nses, msre, meren See beon naht See nawiht na-hu adv., nohow, not at all nahwxr adv., nowhere, not at all

118

GLOSSARY

onbrerdnes sb. fem., intuition, impulse onbrirdan Wk. vb., indte ondredan wk. vb., fear, dread; 2 sg., ondrest on-eardian wk. vb., inhabit onfon Str. vb. 7, receive, grasp; onfondneiT) pres. part. acc. sg. masc., recipient onfundne (?) adj. acc. sg. masc., having experience of ongean prep., towards, against; adv., opposite, back ongelihtan wk. vb., enlighten ongierwan wk. vb., Strip onginnan str. vb. 3, begin, attempt, act ongytan str. vb. 5, understand, perceive; 2 sg., ongyst onhagian wk. vb. impers., be possible, suflBcient, convenient oithwxrfedness sb. fem., change onlocian wk. vb., look at onlyhtan wk. vb., illuminate onriht adv., rightly onscynian wk. vb., shun, avoid onsendan wk. vb., send ontimber sb. neut., material onweald var. of anweald openlice adv., openly, clearly ormod adj., despairing oö conj., prep., until oder adj., pron., one of two, second, another, other odde conj., er; oööe ... odöe, either . . . or preost sb. masc., priest racu sb. fem., reasoning faculty rxd sb. masc., advice, counsel rxdfast adj., wise rsedlic adj., advisable rade adv., quickly reahte See reccan recan wk. vb., care; pret., rohte reccan wk. vb., explain, say, rule, direct; pret., reahte, rehte receleas adj., careless redan str. vb. 7, decree, guide rehte See reccan rene sb. masc., mystery, diflBcult thing rest sb. fem., rest rice adj., powerful; sb. neut., kingdom riclic adj., elaborate ricsian wk. vb., rule, reign ridan str. vb. 1, ride riht adj., right, straight; sb. neut., right, truth, justice rihte adv., rightly, directly

rihtlic adj., right rihtwis adj., righteous, just rihtwislice adv., righteously rihtwisness sb. fem., righteousness rihtwyröe adj., right, Atting riman wk. vb., count rine sb. masc., course ripan str. vb. 1, ripen rodor sb. masc., heaven, sky rohte See recan sx sb. fem., sea sseclifsh. neut., sea-clifF siede etc. See secgan sxgen sb. fem., saying, Statement, report sxöan wk. vb., prove sam conj., whether, or sar sb. neut., pain sawl sb. fem., soul; also saul, sawel scal, scalt See sculan sceacan str. vb. 6, flee; pret., scoc sceadwisnes sb. fem., reason sceal, scealt See sculan sceamfest adj., modest sceamian wk. vb., impers., cause shame sceamu sb. fem., shame scearpe adv., sharply, keenly sceawian wk. vb., display, choose sceawunga sb. fem., looking sceolde, sceolon See sculan sceotan str. vb. 2, shoot, rush scip sb. neut., ship scoc See sceacan scolde, scolen See sculan scort adj., short; comp., scyrtra scyldig adj., guilty scyma sb. masc., shining, brightness scynan str. vb. 1, shine sculan pret. pres. vb., have to, be obliged to; 1, 3 sg., sceal, scal; 2 sg., scealt, scalt; pl., sceolon, sculon; opt. sg., scyle; opt. pl., scylen, scolen; pret., scolde, sceolde scyld sb. masc., shield scyle, scylen See sculan scypend sb. masc., creator se, seo, past def. art., dem. adj., dem. pers. rel. pron., the, that, he, she, it, who, which, pl., those, they, etc.; nom. sg. masc., se, pe; nom. sg. fem., seo; nom./ acc. sg. neut., pst; gen. sg. masc., neut., pais, pas, pes; dat. sg. masc., neut., pam; gen./dat. sg. fem., pxre, psera, pare, para; acc. sg. masc., pone, pane; acc. sg. fem., pa; instr. sg., pi, pe, pon (often adv. with comp.) by that, the; nom./acc. pl., pa; gen. pl., para; dat. pl., pam

GLOSSARY

se See beon searian wk. vb., wither secan wk. vb., seek; 3 sg., sehd; pret., sohte secgan wk. vb., say, teil; pret., siede seftlic adj., luxurious sehö See secan selcuö adj., stränge, various seldon adv., seldom seiest superl. adj., best, highest seif yai. oi sylf sellan wk. vb., give sendan wk. vb., send seo (1) nom. sg. fem. of se\ (2) opt. sg. of beon seoc adj., sick seofian wk. vb., lament, complain of seolfor sb. neut., silver settan wk. vb., build si, sien See beon simle adv., always singan str. vb. 3, redte sinn sb. fem., sin sint, Sic See beon siödan adv., conj., after, afterwards, since, when, then sittan Str. vb. 5, sit slep sb. masc., sleep smeagan wk. vb., contemplate, consider; also smeigan stneaung sb. fem., reflection smecc sb. masc., sense of taste smelt adj., calm smede adj., smooth smicer adj., beautiful softe adv., easily, comfortably sohte etc. See secan sona adv., at once, soon sod adj., true; sb. neut., truth sodfxst adj., trustworthy sodfestness sb. fem., truth, truthfulness sodlice adv., truly spec sb. fem., Statement specan See sprecan sped sb. fem., prosperity, wealth spei sb. neut., story, Statement sprecan str. vb. 5, speak; also specan spurian wk. vb., seek stiel sb. neut., place stxlwyrde adj., serviceable stzpmelum adv., step by step stiereblind adj., completely blind standan str. vb. 6, stand stede sb. masc., position stenc sb. masc., sense of smell steorra sb. masc., star

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stigan Str. vb. 1, climb, ascend stioran wk. vb., guide, steer stiö adj., strong, severe stiward sb. masc., Steward stoclifsb. neut., dwelling place stow sb. fem., place; acc. sg., stoge streng sb. masc., cable strengd sb. fem., strength strengre comp, adj., strenger, harder strynan wk. vb., acquire stupansceaft sb. fem., stud, post sum adj. pron., some, certain sumor sb. masc., summer sunu sb. masc., son sunne sb. fem., sun swa adv., conj., so, as, thus; swa swa, conj., just as, in such a way; i w a . . . swa, whether . . . or; (with comp.) swa ...swa, t h e . . . t h e ; swa peak, adv., nevertheless swsetele var. of sweotole swxder pron., whichever swsetolocor comp, adv., more clearly swec sb. masc., sense of smell, sense of taste sweltan str. vb. 3, die sweotol adj., clear sweotole adv., clearly; also swxtele, swotole, swytole swilc pron. adj., such, such as; adv., as swincan str. vb. 3, work, strive swiöe adv., very, very much, strongly swiölice adv., strongly, greatly swotole var. of sweotole swugian wk. vb., be quiet swylce adv., conj., as, as if swytole var. of sweotole sylf pron., seif; adj., same; also seif tacn sb. neut., proof, sign tacnian wk. vb., indicate txcan wk. vb., teach, show, direct; 2 sg., txsf, pret., tehte talian wk. vb., count tefrung sb. fem., picture tehte etc. See tsecan tihtan wk. vb., incite, urge tilian wk. vb., provide for tima sb. masc., time timbrian wk. vb., build tintreg sb. neut., torment tiohhian wk. vb., decide, determine to prep., to, towards, for, from, according to; adv., thereto tocnawan str. vb. 7, distinguish tocuman str. vb. 4, come, arrive at todxg adv., today

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GLOSSARY

todelemess sb. fem., division to-eacan prep., in addition to; adv., besides togsedere adv., together tohopa sb. masc., hope tohopian wk. vb., hope toi sb. neut., tool to-morgen adv., tomorrow tosceadan str. vb. 7, distinguish tosedan wk. vb., test, prove todsece sb. masc., toothache toweard ad)., future, approaching treow (1) sb. neut., tree; (2) sb. fem., trust, faith treowan wk. vb., trust, believe treowö sb. fem., faith, loyalty trimö sb. fem., strength trum adj., sound, strong truwian wk. vb., trust trymian wk. vb., strengthen tun sb. masc., village, estate tunge sb. fem., tongue tungol sb. neut., star, planet, constellation twa num., two; gen., twegera; dat., twam twelf num., twelve tweo sb. masc., doubt tweogan wk. vb., often impers., cause doubt, feel doubt; pret., tweode tweonian wk. vb., impers., cause doubt tweonung sb. fem., also masc. (?), doubt tyd sb. fem., time, season

pawian var. of peowian pe (1) rel. pron. indecl., who, which; (2) instr. sg. of se; (3) dat./acc. of pu; (4) conj., that, than, or, when; pe... pe, whether . . . or; (5) nom. sg. masc. of se-, (6) particle attached to seröam, fordam, fordi, and peak without affecting their meanings peak conj., although, if, even if, whether; adv., however, still, yet, nevertheless; also peaht, peht pearfa sb. masc., beggar peaw sb. masc., custom, manner; pl., morals, virtues peawian See peowian pegn sb. masc., retainer, disciple peht See peak pencan wk. vb., think; pret. 1, 3 sg., pohte pene See ponne peod past part. of peoden, wk. vb., join, attach or devote one's seif to peos nom. sg. fem. of pes peostre sb. neut., darkness; often pl. peowa sb. masc., servant, slave; also peawa peowdom sb. masc., servitude peowian wk. vb., serve; also peawian, pawian pes dem. adj., pron., this, pl., these; nom. sg. masc., pes, pss; nom. sg. fem., peos-, nom./acc. sg. neut., pis; gen. sg. masc., neut., pisses; dat. sg. masc., neut., pissum; gen./dat. sg. fem., pisre, pisse-, pa (1) adv., conj., then, when; (2) acc. sg. acc. sg. masc., pisne-, acc. sg. fem., pas, fem., nom./acc. pl. of se pses-, instr. sg., pys; nom./acc. pl., pas; paccian wk vb., stroke, caress gen. pl., pisra, pissa; dat. pl., pissum pur adv., conj., there, where, if; also para pes gen. sg. of se psera, pxre gen./dat. sg. fem. of se pxr-on adv., thereon, therein pi adv., therefore; instr. sg. of je; myd py pxr-to adv., thereto pxt conj., in that pses (1) gen. sg. masc., neut. of ie; (2) adv., pider adv., thither, to where then, therefore, so much; to pies adv., so, pin (1) adj., pron., thine; (2) gen. of pu so much; pxs pe conj., so far as, to the pincan wk. vb. impers., seem, appear; pret., extent that; (3) nom. sg. masc. of Pes\ puhte (4) acc. sg. fem. of pes ping sb. neut., thing, reason, sake pxt (1) conj., that, so that; (2) nom./acc. pis, pisne, pisra etc. See pes sg. neut. of se pohte See pencan Pam dat. sg. masc., neut., dat. pl. of se-, to polian wk. vb., suffer, undergo pam, adv., so, to such an extent pon instr. sg. of se panc sb. masc., thanks pone acc. sg. masc. of se pancian wk. vb., thank ponne adv., conj., then, when, yet; also pene pane acc. sg. masc. of se podor sb. masc., ball panon adv., thence, from there preatian wk. vb., rebuke para (1) gen. pl. of se; (2) gen./dat. sg. fem. preo num., three; gen., preora; dat., prim, of je; (3) var. of pier preom, priom; acc., preo pare gen./dat. sg. fem. of se preotan str. vb. 2, weary, make tired pas (1) acc. sg. fem., nom./acc. pl. of pes; pridda num. adj., third (2) gen. sg. masc., neut. of se prim dat. of preo

GLOSSARY prinness sb. fem., trinity priom dat. of preo pu pers. pron. sg., you; gen., pin-, dat./acc. pe puhte See pincan purfan pret. pres. vb., need purh prep., through, by means of purhwunian wk. vb., remain purst sb. masc., thirst pus adv., thus py/ere adj., agreeable pyllic adj., pron., such pystlice adv., thus, in such a manner umemtigian wk. vb., bother, distract unafandod adj., unproved, untested unalifedlic adj., unlawful unalyfed adj., unlawful unawendenlic adj., unchangeable unblide adj., unhappy unc dat./acc. of v/it uncer (1) adj., cur, of us two; (2) gen. of wit uncud adj., unknown; uncud peak", adv., perhaps undeadlic adj., immortal undeadlicness sb. fem., immortality under prep., under underfon str. vb. 7, take in, take up; pret. pl., underfungon understandan str. vb. 2, understand underpieddan wk. vb., subject, subjugate unede adv., with difflculty ungelic adj., unlike ungelimp sb. neut., misfortune ungelyfied adj., unbelieving ungelyfedlic adj., unbelievable ungelygen adj., not lying, honest ungemetUc adj., excessive ungemetUce adv., excessively ungemetlicum adv., too much ungerwan wk. vb., strip mgesxlp sb. fem., sorrow, trouble ungesizdpig adj., unstable ungetxslice adv., unsteadily, with difficulty ungepv/xre adj., discordant ungewlitig adj., not bright, dull ungewlitigian wk. vb., deprive of beauty unhal adj., weak, sick unhxlu sb. fem-, sickness unlsede adj., ill-advised, wretched unleas adj., not false, reliable unmedeme adj., unfit, unworthy unmiht sb. fem., weakness mmodig adj., not proud, humbie uman pret. pres. vb., grant; pret., ude

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unnit sb. neut., something useless unrice adj., not powerful unrot adj., sad, dejected unrotnes sb. fem., sadness unrotsian wk. vb., be sad unriht adj., unjust, false unrihtlice adv., wrongfully unrihtwis adj., unjust, evil unsodfxst adj., untruthful, unreliable mtoslegen adj., unbroken, intact untrumness sb. fem., sickness untynan wk. vb., open unweordlic adj., insignificant unwlitig adj., ugly unwyllum adv., unwillingly uppe adv., up, above ure (1) adj., our; (2) gen. of we US dat./acc. of we utan prep., from outside of Ute adv., out, away from land uton let US, pres. opt. pl. of witan, to go uttera adj., outer, extemal ude See uman udwita sb. masc., philosopher wa interj., alas wac adj., weak wacian wk. vb., keep watch wxn sb. masc., wagon wsere, wsron, wses, etc. See beon wxrscype sb. masc., prudence, caution; also wearscype (?) wah sb. masc., wall; also woh wana sb. masc., lack wanian wk. vb., decrease, diminish waraö sb. neut., shore warian wk. vb., warn, guard v/ast, wat See witan we pers. pron. pl., we; gen., ure; dat./acc., US wealdan str. vb. 7, rule, control; 2 sg., wealst, wildest; 3 sg., wealt, wilt wealdend sb. masc., lord wearscype See wxrscype, wyröscipe weaxan str. vb. 7, grow, increase weder sb. neut., weather weg sb. masc., road, way; ealne weg always; on weg away; also weig wel adv., well; comp., bet; superl., best wela sb. masc., riches, welfare wel-donde adj., pres. part. of wel-don irreg. vb., do well, act rightly welig adj., rieh welwilness sb. fem., good will, kindness welwyrcend sb. masc., one who does well wenan wk. vb., suppose, believe, expect

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GLOSSARY

wendan wk. vb., turn, direct weorc sb. neut., work, task weordan str. vb. 3, become, be, come, arrive; pret., wurde weorde adj., worthy weordfulice adv., honorably weoruld sb. fem., World weoruldwela sb. masc., worldly wealth weter sb. neut., water

wlitigian wk. vb., make beautiful wod adj., foolish, mad woh (1) adj., crooked; (2) var. of wah wolcen sb. neut., cloud Wolde etc. See willan

wop sb. masc., weeping Word sb. neut., word worhte etc. See wyrcan

while See hwil

worldelust sb. masc., worldly lust worldhlaford sb. masc., secular lord

wif sb. neut., woman, wife wiht sb. neut., something, thing

wost, wot See witan wreccan wk. vb., arouse; 3 sg., wrehd

wildest See wealdan

willen adj., desirous wilnian wk. vb., wish, desire, ask for, entreat

wrecsiö sb. masc., exile wrixlian wk. vb., change wudu sb. masc., forest, timber wuldor sb. neut., glory, honor wundor sb. neut., wonder wundorlice adv., wonderfully wundrian wk. vb., wonder, admire wunian wk. vb., live, remain

wilt See wealdan, willan

wurde etc. See weordan

windan str. vb. 3, wind, construct by weaving or interlocking winsum adj., pleasant winsumness sb. fem., beauty, pleasure Winter sb. neut., winter; pL, years wis adj., wise wiscan wk. vb., wish wisdom sb. masc., wisdom wise sb. fem., manner, way

wurdlice adv., worthily wyll sb. masc., well wyrcan wk. vb., work, make, perform, cause, do; pret., worhte

willa sb. masc., will, wish, pleasure willan irreg. vb., wish, desire, be Willing; 2 sg., wilt; pret., wolde; pres. neg., nelle, nelt, nellad; pret. neg., nolde, etc.

wisse, Wiste, etc. See witan

wyrsa, wyrst comp., superl. of yfel

wyrt sb. fem., plant wyrttruma sb. masc., root wyrtwalian wk. vb., uproot wyrdian wk. vb., honor wyrdscipe sb. masc., honor, glory; also

wit pers. pron. dual, we two; gen., uncer-, wearscype (?) dat./acc., unc witan pret. pres. vb., know; 1, 3 sg., wat, ycan wk. vb., increase; imp., ic wot; 2 sg., wast, wost; pret., wiste, wisse; ydel adj., idle pres. neg., nat, nast, nyton\ pret. neg., yfel sb. neut., evil, misery; adj., evil, bad; nyste comp., wyrsa-, superl., wyrst wite sb. neut., punishment, torment yfel-deda sb. masc., evil doer witega sb. masc., prophet ylca adj., pron., same, the same witegian wk. vb., prophesy ylce adv., likewise, in the same way wid prep., against, with, by, from ymbe prep., adv., about, conceming; also wiöcweöan str. vb. 5, forbid, oppose lembe, embe widerweard adj., contrary, hostile ymbehwirft sb. masc., revolution wiösprecan str. vb. 5, speak, converse with yrfe sb. neut., inheritance, ownership wlite sb. masc., appearance, beauty yrmd, sb. fem., misery wlitig adj., beautiful yd sb. fem., wave