Kampo: a clinical guide to theory and practice [Second edition] 9781848193291, 1848193297

Kampo, a traditional Japanese medical system derived from Classical Chinese Medicine and comprising unique diagnostic me

1,337 108 3MB

English Pages 224 pages: illustrations; 26 cm [226] Year 2016;2017

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

Polecaj historie

Kampo: a clinical guide to theory and practice [Second edition]
 9781848193291, 1848193297

Table of contents :
Kampo – A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice, Second Edition by Keisetsu Otsuka, translated by Gretchen De Soriano and Nigel Dawes......Page 5
Foreword to the English Edition......Page 13
Preface......Page 15
Notes from Japan......Page 17
Translators’ Note......Page 19
Acknowledgements......Page 23
1. Notes on How to Study Kampo 漢方医学を研究せんとする人のために Kampo i gaku wo ken kyuh sen......Page 25
3. Will you become a shrub (a tree without a trunk)?......Page 26
5. Essential texts......Page 27
The shoh of Rehmannia eight combination, hachi mi gan, KF209......Page 28
Rehmannia eight formula shoh as described in its source texts......Page 29
Concerning discussions on Rehmannia eight formula by ancient masters......Page 31
Example 2......Page 34
Example 4......Page 35
Example 6......Page 36
2. The Kampo Diagnostic 漢方の診断 Kampo no shin dan......Page 39
Conformation 証 Shoh, KD411......Page 40
Yin conformation 陰証 In shoh, KD143......Page 41
Interior full conformation 裏実証 Ri jitsu shoh, KD329......Page 42
Ki stagnation conformation 気滞証 Ki tai shoh, KD229......Page 43
Pathological fluid conformation 痰飲証 Tan in shoh, KD462......Page 44
The four exams 四診 Shi shin, KD380......Page 45
The visual exam: Looking 望診 Boh shin, KD11......Page 46
The oral exam: Asking 問診 Mon shin, KD288......Page 48
The tactile exam: Touching 切診 Setsu shin, KD376......Page 53
Greater yang stage 太陽病 Tai yoh byoh, KD460......Page 63
Yang brightness stage 陽明病 Yoh mei byoh, KD485......Page 64
Lesser yin stage 少陰病 Shoh in byoh, KD428......Page 65
Transforming stage; entered stage; companion disease; paired disease 転属 Ten zoku, KD471; 転入 ten nyuh, KD469; 併病 hei byoh, KD103; 合病 goh byoh, KD86......Page 66
The broken disease stage 壊病 E byoh, KD41......Page 67
3. Formula Explanations (Functions and Applications) 薬方解説 Yaku hoh kai setsu......Page 69
2. I shoh hoh, KF2 痿証方 Wei zheng fang (Eucommia and Achyranthes combination)......Page 72
6. Unkei toh, KF9 温経湯 Wen jing tang (tang kuei and Evodia combination)......Page 73
10. En-nen hange toh, KF15 延年半夏湯 Yan nian ban xia tang (Evodia and Pinellia combination)......Page 74
14. Ohren gedoku toh, KF24 黄連解毒湯 Huang lian jie du tang (Coptis and scute combination)......Page 75
18. Kami kihi toh, KF32 加味帰脾湯 Jia wei gui pi tang (ginseng, longan and Bupleurum combination)......Page 76
23. Kanbaku taisoh toh, KF47 甘麦大棗湯 Gan mai da zao tang (liquorice and jujube combination)......Page 77
28. Keishi ka bushi toh, KF66 桂枝加附子湯 Gui zhi jia fu zi tang (cinnamon and aconite combination)......Page 78
31. Go rei san, KF91 五苓散 Wu ling san (hoelen five herb formula)......Page 79
34. Saiko keishi toh, KF98柴胡桂枝湯 Chai hu gui zhi tang (Bupleurum and cinnamon combination)......Page 80
38. Ji-in kohka toh, KF107 滋陰降火湯 Zi yin jiang huo tang (Phellodendron combination)......Page 81
42. Shakanzoh toh, KF122 炙甘草湯 Zhi gan cao tang (baked liquorice combination)......Page 82
45. Shoh saiko toh, KF136 小柴胡湯 Xiao chai hu tang (minor Bupleurum combination)......Page 83
49. Dai kenchuh toh, KF170 大建中湯 Da jian zhong tang (major Zanthoxylum combination)......Page 84
53. Chikujo untan toh, KF178 竹筎温胆湯 Zhu ru wen dan tang (bamboo and ginseng combination)......Page 85
58. Tohki kenchuh toh, KF189 当帰建中湯 Dang gui jian zhong tang (tang kuei, cinnamon and peony combination)......Page 86
61. Ninjin toh, KF203 人参湯 Ren shen tang aka ri chuh toh (li zhong tang), KF252 (ginseng and ginger combination)......Page 87
64. Hange kohboku toh, KF213 半夏厚朴湯 Ban xia hou pu tang (Pinellia and magnolia combination)......Page 88
68. Hochuh ekki toh, KF235 補中益気湯 Bu zhong yi qi tang (ginseng and Astragalus combination)......Page 89
72. Ryoh kei jyutsu kan toh, KF260 苓桂朮甘湯 Ling gui zhu gan tang (Atractylodes and hoelen combination)......Page 90
73. Ryoh kei kansoh toh, KF261 苓桂甘棗湯 Ling gui gan zao tang (hoelen, liquorice and jujube combination)......Page 91
4. Therapeutics (Treatment According to Named Disease) 病状別治療 Byoh jyoh betsu chi ryoh......Page 93
Common cold/influenza 感冒 Kan boh......Page 95
Bronchitis 気管支炎 Ki kan shi en......Page 96
Pulmonary tuberculosis 肺結核 Hai kekkaku......Page 97
High blood pressure 高血圧症 Koh ketsu atsu shoh......Page 98
Heart valvular disease 心臓弁膜症 Shin zoh ben maku shoh......Page 99
Gastritis 胃炎 I en......Page 100
Stomach prolapse/Gastroptosis 胃下垂 I ka sui......Page 102
Stomach and duodenal ulcers 胃潰瘊 I kai yoh/十二指腸潰瘊 Jyuh ni shi choh kai yoh (‘First 12 fingers of the intestines’; the upper gastrointestinal tract)......Page 103
Acute colitis 急性腸炎 Kyuh sei i choh en......Page 104
Chronic colitis 慢性腸炎 Man sei choh en......Page 105
Chronic constipation 常習便秘 Jyoh shuh ben pi......Page 106
Hepatitis and cirrhosis 肝炎・肝硬変症 Kan en, kan koh hen shoh......Page 107
Nephritis and nephrosis 腎炎・ネフローゼ Jin en, nefurohze......Page 108
Urinary tract stones 尿路結石 Nyoh ro kesseki......Page 109
Purpura or petechiae, ecchymoses 紫斑病 Shi han byoh......Page 110
Hyperthyroidism: Basedow’s disease; Graves’ disease バセドウ病 Basedoh byoh......Page 111
Rheumatic joints 関節リウマチ Kan setsu ryuhmachi......Page 112
Osteoarthrosis 変形性膝関節症 Hen kei sei hiza kan setsu shoh......Page 113
Nerve pain; neuralgia 神経痛 Shin kei tsuh......Page 114
One-sided headache (migraine) 片頭痛 Hen zu tsuh......Page 115
Insomnia 上眠症 Fu min shoh......Page 116
Cerebral apoplexy 脳卒中 Noh socchuh......Page 117
Whooping cough: ‘100-day cough’ 百日咳 Hyaku nichi zeki, KD123......Page 119
Children who are constitutionally kyo and weak 虚弱児童 Kyo jyaku ji doh, KD260......Page 120
Night frights; crying at night 夜驚症・夜啼症 Ya kyoh shoh, ya tei shoh......Page 122
Carbuncles and furuncles 癰疽・癤・フンクロージス Yoh so, setsu, funkurohjisu......Page 123
Haemorrhoids 痔核 Ji kaku......Page 124
Frequent/habitual miscarriage 流産癖 Ryuh zan heki......Page 125
Adnexitis uteri/salpingitis 子宮付属器炎 Shi kyuh fu zoku ki en......Page 126
Total prolapse of uterus or uterine ptosis 子宮下垂・子宮脱出 Shi kyuh ka sui, KD160, shi kyuh dasshutsu, KD37......Page 127
Infertility 上妊症 Fu nin shoh......Page 128
Sinusitis and infections (empyema) in the paranasal cavity 副鼻腔炎・蓄膿症 Fuku bi koh en, chiku noh shoh......Page 129
Urticaria (hives), wheals 蕁麻疹 Jin ma shin......Page 130
Eczema, dermatitis 湿疹 Shisshin, KD406, 皮膚炎 Hi fu en, KD109......Page 131
Acne 面疱 Men poh (nikibi)......Page 132
Dry tinea, psoriasis 乾癬 Kan sen......Page 133
Impotence 陰萎症 In roh shoh......Page 134
Stomatitis 口内炎 Koh nai en......Page 135
Appendix 1: Kampo Formula Index......Page 137
Appendix 2: Kampo Herb Index......Page 165
Appendix 3: Glossary of Terms......Page 185
Further Reading......Page 217
Pinyin Index......Page 218
Index......Page 219

Citation preview

Translated by ‘In every field there are seminal works that serious students should engage; GR ETCHEN DE SOR IANO AND NIGEL DAWES ‘Inevery everyfield fieldthere thereare areseminal seminalworks worksthat thatserious seriousstudents studentsshould shouldengage; engage; ‘In ‘In every field there are seminal works that serious students should engage; KKEISETSU EISETSU OTSUK AA ‘In ‘In every ‘In every every field field field there there there are are are seminal seminal seminal works works works that that that serious serious serious students students students should should should engage; engage; engage; Dr Otsuka’s Kampo text is one. Given the depth and breadth of their clinical EISETSU OTSUK DrOtsuka’s Otsuka’sKampo Kampotext textisis isone. one.Given Giventhe thedepth depthand andbreadth breadthofof oftheir theirclinical clinical K OTSUK A Dr Dr Otsuka’s Kampo text one. Given the depth and breadth their clinical KKEISETSU K EISETSU EISETSU OTSUK OTSUK OTSUK AAA Dr DrOtsuka’s Dr Otsuka’s Otsuka’s Kampo Kampo Kampo text text text isisone. is one. one. Given Given Given the thethe depth depth depth and and and breadth breadth breadth ofoftheir of their their clinical clinical clinical experience, Foreword by Dan Bensky experience,with withextensive extensiveexperience experienceteaching teachingthese thesemethods, methods,the thetranslators translatorsare are

Cover design by Kara McHale experience, experience, with with extensive extensive experience experience teaching teaching these these methods, methods, the the translators translators are are experience, experience, experience, with with with extensive extensive extensive experience experience experience teaching teaching teaching these these these methods, methods, methods, the the translators the translators translators are are are uniquely qualified to transmit this information the West.’ uniquelyqualified qualifiedtoto totransmit transmitthis thisinformation informationtoto tothe theWest.’ West.’ uniquely uniquely qualified transmit this information to the West.’ uniquely uniquely uniquely qualified qualified qualified tototransmit to transmit transmit this this this information information information totothe to theWest.’ the West.’ ––West.’ Craig Mitchell, PhD, LAc, ‘In LAc, every CraigMitchell, Mitchell,PhD, PhD, LAc, field there are seminal works that serious students should engage; – – Craig Craig Mitchell, PhD, LAc, – –Craig Craig – Craig Mitchell, Mitchell, Mitchell, PhD, PhD, PhD, LAc, LAc, LAc, Academic Dean at the Seattle Institute of Oriental Medicine Dr Otsuka’s Kampo text is one. Given the depth and breadth of their clinical AcademicDean Deanatat atthe theSeattle SeattleInstitute Instituteofof ofOriental OrientalMedicine Medicine Academic Academic Dean the Seattle Institute Oriental Medicine Academic Academic Academic Dean Dean Dean atatthe at the Seattle the Seattle Seattle Institute Institute Institute ofofOriental Oriental of Oriental Medicine Medicine Medicine experience, with extensive experience teaching these methods, the translators are uniquely qualified to transmit this information to the West.’ there are seminal works that serious students should engage; K A MPO, a traditional Japanese medical system – Craig K EISETSU OTSUK A Mitchell, PhD, LAc, ampo text is one. Given the adepth andJapanese breadth of their clinical K A MPO, a traditional traditional Japanese medical system KKK A A MPO, MPO, traditional atraditional Japanese medical medical system system K A A MPO, K MPO, A MPO, a a traditional a traditional Japanese Japanese Japanese medical medical medical system system system derived from Classical Chinese Medicine, and Academic Dean at the Seattle Institute of Oriental Medicine h extensive experience teaching these methods, the translators derived from Classical Chinese Medicine, andare derived derived from from Classical Classical Chinese Chinese Medicine, Medicine, and and derived derived derived from from from Classical Classical Classical Chinese Chinese Chinese Medicine, Medicine, Medicine, and and and comprising unique diagnostic methods, herbal ed to transmit this comprising information to thediagnostic West.’ comprising unique diagnostic methods, herbal comprising unique unique diagnostic methods, methods, herbal herbal comprising comprising comprising unique unique unique diagnostic diagnostic diagnostic methods, methods, methods, herbal herbal herbal formulas and therapeutic approaches, is made – Craig Mitchell, PhD, LAc, formulas and therapeutic approaches, is made formulas formulas and and therapeutic therapeutic approaches, approaches, is is made made formulas formulas formulas and and therapeutic and therapeutic therapeutic approaches, approaches, approaches, is ismade made is made accessible to English-speaking practitioners K A MPO, a traditional Japanese medical system Academic Dean at theto Institute of Oriental Medicine accessible to English-speaking practitioners accessible accessible to English-speaking English-speaking practitioners practitioners accessible accessible accessible toSeattle to English-speaking to English-speaking English-speaking practitioners practitioners practitioners

derived from Classical Chinese Medicine, and comprising unique diagnostic methods, herbal formulas and therapeutic approaches, is made Dr Keisetsu Otsuka (1900–1980) accessible to English-speaking practitioners Dr Keisetsu Otsuka (1900–1980) Dr Dr Keisetsu Keisetsu Otsuka Otsuka (1900–1980) (1900–1980) Dr Dr Keisetsu Dr Keisetsu Keisetsu Otsuka Otsuka Otsuka (1900–1980) (1900–1980) (1900–1980) developed a dynamic method through this definitive translation of Dr Keisetsu developed dynamic method developed developed aadynamic aadynamic dynamic method method developed developed developed a dynamic a dynamic method method method of kampō transmission and Otsuka’s classic work. This clinical handbook ofkampō kampō transmission and ofof of kampō kampō transmission transmission and and of of kampō kampō transmission transmission transmission and and and education. He revived classical summarizes diagnostic theory and methodology education. He revived classical education. education. He He revived revived classical classical education. education. education. He He revived He revived revived classical classical classical kampō, and was an inspiration for then leads onto a section including 80 principal kampō, and was an inspiration for kampō, kampō, and and was was an an inspiration inspiration for for kampō, kampō, kampō, and and was and was an was an inspiration an inspiration inspiration for for for Japanese medical doctors. formulas followed by a therapeutic section Japanese medical doctors. Japanese Japanese Japanese medical medical medical doctors. doctors. doctors. Japanese Japanese medical medical doctors. doctors. organized according to allopathic definitions Gretchen De Soriano was aapupil of disease. It follows a systems approach Gretchen De Soriano was Gretchen Gretchen Gretchen De De Soriano De Soriano Soriano was was awas apupil apupil pupil Gretchen Gretchen De De Soriano Soriano was was apupil apupil pupil of Dr Otsuka. She has researched in internal medicine beginning with of Dr Otsuka. She has researched of Dr of Dr Otsuka. Dr Otsuka. Otsuka. She She She has has researched has researched researched ofof of Dr Dr Otsuka. Otsuka. She She has has researched researched aspects ofoffuku shin through Oxford respiratory and cardiovascular disorders, aspects fuku shin through Oxford aspects aspects aspects of fuku fuku of fuku shin shin through shin through through Oxford Oxford Oxford aspects aspects ofof of fuku fuku shin shin through through Oxford Oxford University, University College moving through a comprehensive analysis of University, University College University, University, University, University University University College College College University, University, University University College College all the body London and with the support of a systems. London and with the support of London London London and and with and with with the the support the support support ofofofaof aaa a London London and and with with the the support support aof Wellcome Studentship. Wellcome Studentship. Wellcome Wellcome Wellcome Studentship. Studentship. Studentship. Wellcome Wellcome Studentship. Studentship. Essential clinical information on how differential diagnosis and formula selection Nigel Dawes, MA, LAc, isis an Nigel Dawes, MA, LAc, anan Nigel Nigel Nigel Dawes, Dawes, Dawes, MA, MA, MA, LAc, LAc, LAc, isisisis an is an Nigel Nigel Dawes, Dawes, MA, MA, LAc, LAc, an an areteacher achieved is outlined within the Kampo internationally renowned internationally renowned teacher internationally internationally internationally renowned renowned renowned teacher teacher teacher internationally internationally renowned renowned teacher teacher tradition. A comprehensive index of 120 major who has been practising East Asian who has been practising East Asian who who who has has been has been been practising practising practising East East East Asian Asian Asian who who has has been been practising practising East East Asian Asian herbal formulas and 180 individual herbal Medicine for over 30 years. He isisis Medicine Medicine Medicine for for over for over over 30 30 years. 30 years. years. He He isHe is Medicine for over 30 years. He Medicine Medicine for for over over 30 30 years. years. He He is is ingredients is included, as is the translators’ currently based in New York. currently currently currently based based based in New New in New York. York. York. currently based in New York. currently currently based based inin in New New York. York. original glossary of terms, designed to clarify concepts of health and disease unique to Kampo and Japanese culture.

Academi

K A MPO, a traditional Japanese med derived from Classical Chinese Med comprising unique diagnostic meth formulas and therapeutic approach accessible to English-speaking pra through this definitive translation of D Otsuka’s classic work. This clinical summarizes diagnostic theory and me then leads onto a section including 8 formulas followed by a therapeut organized according to allopathic d of disease. It follows a systems in internal medicine beginn respiratory and cardiovascular moving through a comprehensive all the body systems.

Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice Clinical Guidetoto toTheory Theory and Practice AAAAA Clinical Clinical Guide Guide Theory and and Practice Practice Practice Clinical Theory and Practice K EISETSU OTSUK A

K A MPO

K AMPO MPO KK K A MPO KAA AMPO MPO

Dr Keisetsu Otsuka (1900–1980) developed a dynamic method of kampō transmission and education. He revived classical kampō, and was an inspiration for Japanese medical doctors.

SECOND EDITION SECOND SECOND SECOND EDITION EDITION SECOND SECOND EDITION EDITION

Gretchen De Soriano was a pupil of Dr Otsuka. She has researched aspects of fuku shin through Oxford University, University College London and with the support of a Wellcome Studentship.

A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice SECOND EDITION

Nigel Dawes, MA, LAc, is an internationally renowned teacher who has been practising East Asian Medicine for over 30 years. He is currently based in New York.

A Clinical Guide

SECO

Essential clinical information differential diagnosis and formula are achieved is outlined within th tradition. A comprehensive index of herbal formulas and 180 individ ingredients is included, as is the t original glossary of terms, designed concepts of health and disease unique and Japanese culture.

Translated by Translated Translated Translated by by by Translated Translated by by GR ETCHEN DE SOR IANO AND NIGEL DAWES GR GR GR ETCHEN ETCHEN ETCHEN DE DE DE SOR SOR SOR IANO IANO IANO AND AND AND NIGEL NIGEL NIGEL DAWES DAWES GR GR ETCHEN ETCHEN DE DE SOR SOR IANO IANO AND AND NIGEL NIGEL DAWES DAWES T Cover design by Kara McHale Foreword by Dan Bensky Foreword Foreword Foreword by by by Dan Dan Dan Bensky Bensky Bensky Cover design by Kara McHale Foreword Cover design by Kara McHale Cover Cover design design by by Kara Kara McHale McHale Foreword by by Dan Dan Bensky Bensky GR ETCHEN DE SO Translated by Forewo GR ETCHEN DE SOR IANO AND NIGEL DAWES

Cover Cover design Cover design design by by Kara Kara byMcHale Kara McHale McHale

Cover design by Kara McHale

Cover design by Kara McHale

‘In every field there are semin Dr Otsuka’s Kampo text is one experience, with extensive exper uniquely qualified to transmit th

KAMPO AMPO K K AM K AMPO K EISETSU OTSUK A EISETSU OTSUK A K OTSUK A KKK EISETSU A K EISETSU EISETSUOTSUK OTSUK A OTSUK A K EISETSU EISETSU OTSUK A

K EISETSU OTSUK A

K A MPO

through this definitive translation ofofDr Keisetsu through this definitive translation Dr Keisetsu Keisetsu through through this this definitive definitive translation translation of Dr through through through this this definitive this definitive definitive translation translation of Dr of Keisetsu Dr Keisetsu Keisetsu Otsuka’s classic work. This clinical handbook Otsuka’s classic work. This clinical handbook Otsuka’s Otsuka’s classic classic work. work. This This clinical clinical handbook Otsuka’s Otsuka’s Otsuka’s classic classic classic work. work. work. This clinical handbook handbook summarizes diagnostic theory and methodology summarizes diagnostic theory and methodology tional Japanese medical system summarizes summarizes diagnostic diagnostic theory theory and and methodology methodology summarizes summarizes summarizes diagnostic diagnostic diagnostic theory theory and methodology then leads onto aasection including 80 principal then leads onto section including 80 principal ssical Chinese Medicine, and principal then then leads leads onto onto aa section asection section including including 80 then then then leads leads leads onto onto onto a section a section including 80 principal 80 principal principal formulas followed by a therapeutic section formulas followed by a therapeutic section ue diagnostic methods, herbal section formulas formulas followed followed byby aby atherapeutic therapeutic formulas formulas formulas followed followed followed by a therapeutic section section section organized according to allopathic definitions organized according to allopathic definitions rapeutic approaches,organized is made organized according according toto allopathic allopathic definitions organized organized organized according according to allopathic definitions definitions of disease. ItItaccording follows ato systems approach of disease. follows a systems approach glish-speaking practitioners of of disease. disease. It It follows follows a a systems systems approach approach ofofdisease. of disease. disease. ItItfollows It follows follows a systems approach in internal medicine beginning with in internal medicine beginning with itive translation of Drin Keisetsu with internal medicine medicine beginning beginning inin ininternal internal in internal internal medicine medicine medicine beginning with with with respiratory and cardiovascular disorders, work. This clinical handbook respiratory and cardiovascular disorders, respiratory respiratory and and cardiovascular cardiovascular disorders, respiratory respiratory respiratory and and and cardiovascular cardiovascular disorders, disorders, moving through aacomprehensive analysis of nostic theory and methodology moving through comprehensive analysis of moving moving moving through through through a comprehensive comprehensive a comprehensive analysis analysis ofof of of moving moving through through aa acomprehensive analysis all the body systems. section including 80 principal all the body systems. Dr Keisetsu Otsuka (1900–1980) all all the all the body the body body systems. systems. systems. all all the the body body systems. systems. ed by a therapeutic section developed a dynamic method Essential clinical information on how Essential clinical information on how Essential Essential Essential clinical clinical clinical information ononon how how how ding to allopathic definitions how Essential Essential clinical clinical information information of kampō transmission and differential diagnosis and formula selection differential diagnosis and formula selection differential differential differential diagnosis diagnosis diagnosis and and formula formula selection selection selection ollows a systems approach selection differential differentialdiagnosis diagnosis and He formula education. revived classical are achieved isisoutlined within the Kampo are achieved outlined within the Kampo are are achieved are achieved achieved isis isoutlined outlined is outlined within the Kampo the Kampo Kampo edicine beginning with Kampo are are achieved achieved is outlined within within the kampō, and was an inspiration for tradition. AAcomprehensive index of 120 major tradition. comprehensive index of 120 major tradition. tradition. tradition. A comprehensive comprehensive A comprehensive index ofdoctors. 120 of major 120 major major d cardiovascular disorders, Japanese medical major tradition. tradition. AAAcomprehensive comprehensive index index of 120 herbal formulas and 180 individual herbal herbal formulas and 180 individual herbal herbal herbal herbal formulas formulas formulas and and 180 180 individual individual herbal herbal herbal a comprehensive analysis of herbal herbalformulas formulasand and 180 individual herbal ingredients isisincluded, as isisthe translators’ ingredients included, as translators’ ingredients ingredients ingredients is is included, is included, asas isas the the is translators’ the translators’ translators’ Gretchen De Soriano was a pupil ems. ingredients ingredientsisisincluded, included,as is isthe the translators’ translators’ original glossary of terms, designed to clarify original glossary of terms, designed clarify original original original glossary glossary glossary ofof terms, ofOtsuka. terms, designed designed to toclarify to clarify clarify of Dr She has researched original original glossary glossary of terms, terms, designed designed toto clarify clarify concepts ofof health and disease unique to Kampo cal information on how concepts health and disease Kampo concepts concepts concepts of of health health of health and disease and disease unique unique unique to to Kampo Kampo to Kampo aspects of fuku shin through Oxford concepts concepts ofof health health and and disease disease unique unique toto Kampo Kampo and Japanese culture. nosis and formula selection and and Japanese and Japanese Japanese culture. culture. culture. and Japanese culture. University, University College and andJapanese Japaneseculture. culture. outlined within the Kampo London and with the support of a prehensive index of 120 major Wellcome Studentship. and 180 individual herbal cluded, as is the translators’ Nigel Dawes, MA, LAc, is an of terms, designed to clarify internationally renowned teacher h and disease unique to Kampo who has been practising East Asian ture. Medicine for over 30 years. He is currently based in New York.

K EIS

Foreword by Dan Bensky

K A MPO

of related interest Discussion of Cold Damage (Shang Han Lun) Commentaries and Clinical Applications

Guohui Liu

Foreword by Dr. Henry McCann ISBN 978 1 84819 254 6 eISBN 978 0 85701 200 5

Shiatsu Theory and Practice Carola Beresford-Cooke ISBN 978 1 84819 308 6 eISBN 978 0 85701 260 9

The Compleat Acupuncturist

A Guide to Constitutional and Conditional Pulse Diagnosis

Peter Eckman

Foreword by William Morris ISBN 978 1 84819 198 3 eISBN 978 0 85701 152 7

Essential Texts in Chinese Medicine

The Single Idea in the Mind of the Yellow Emperor

Richard Bertschinger

ISBN 978 1 84819 162 4 eISBN 978 0 85701 135 0

K AMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice Second Edition

KEISETSU OTSUKA Translated by Gretchen De Soriano and Nigel Dawes Foreword by Dan Bensky

LONDON AND PHILADELPHIA

First published in English by Churchill Livingstone Elsevier in 2010 This edition first published in 2017 by Singing Dragon an imprint of Jessica Kingsley Publishers 73 Collier Street London N1 9BE, UK and 400 Market Street, Suite 400 Philadelphia, PA 19106, USA www.singingdragon.com Copyright © Keisetsu Otsuka 1956, 2017 Translation copyright © Gretchen De Soriano and Nigel Dawes 2010, 2017 Foreword copyright © Dan Bensky 2010, 2017 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (including photocopying, storing in any medium by electronic means or transmitting) without the written permission of the copyright owner except in accordance with the provisions of the law or under terms of a licence issued in the UK by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd (www.cla.co.uk) or in overseas territories by the relevant reproduction rights organisation (for details see www.ifrro.org). Applications for the copyright owner’s written permission to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed to the publisher. Warning: The doing of an unauthorised act in relation to a copyright work may result in both a civil claim for damages and criminal prosecution. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Names: Ōtsuka, Keisetsu, 1900-1980, author. Title: Kampo : a clinical guide to theory and practice / Keisetsu Otsuka ; translated by Gretchen de Soriano and Nigel Dawes ; foreword by Dan Bensky. Other titles: KanpŌ igaku. English Description: Second edition. | London ; Philadelphia : Singing Dragon, 2017. | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2016026999 | ISBN 9781848193291 (alk. paper) Subjects: | MESH: Medicine, Kampo | Drugs, Chinese Herbal--therapeutic use | Medicine, Chinese Traditional | Japan Classification: LCC RM666.H33 | NLM WB 55.K3 | DDC 615.3/210952--dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016026999 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 978 1 84819 329 1 eISBN 978 0 85701 286 9 Printed and bound in Great Britain

CONTENTS

Foreword to the English Edition . . . . . 11 Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Notes from Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Translators’ Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

1. NOTES ON HOW TO STUDY KAMPO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 漢方医学を研究せんとする人のために Kampo i gaku wo ken kyuh sen to suru hito no tame ni

The basic preparations . . . . . . . . 24 1. Setting a goal . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2. Grappling with the Kampo tradition with a beginner’s mind . . . . . . . . 24 3. Will you become a shrub (a tree without a trunk)? . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4. Attaching yourself to a teacher . . 25 5. Essential texts . . . . . . . . . . . 25

The first practical example: Getting the gist of Rehmannia eight . 26 The shoh of Rehmannia eight combination, hachi mi gan, KF209 . . 26 Rehmannia eight formula shoh as described in its source texts . . . . . 27 Concerning discussions on Rehmannia eight formula by ancient masters . . . 29

My personal experiences . . . . . . . 32 Example 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Example 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Example 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Example 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Example 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Example 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

2. THE KAMPO DIAGNOSTIC . . . . 37 漢方の診断 Kampo no shin dan

The names of diseases, past and present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 病名の今昔 Byoh mei no kon jyaku Conformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 証 Shoh, KD411 Yin and yang . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 陰 In, KD138; 陽 yoh, KD479

39

Yang conformation . . . . . . . . . . 39 陽証 Yoh shoh, KD486 Yin conformation . . . . . . . . . . . 39 陰証 In shoh, KD143 Empty and full . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 虚 Kyo, KD258; 実 jitsu, KD148 Exterior empty conformation . . . . . 40 表虚証 Hyoh kyo shoh, KD126 Interior empty conformation . . . . . 40 裏虚証 Ri kyo shoh, KD331 Exterior full conformation . . . . . . 40 表実証 Hyoh jitsu shoh, KD127 Interior full conformation . . . . . . . 40 裏実証 Ri jitsu shoh, KD329 Exterior empty interior full conformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 表虚裏実証 Hyoh kyo ri jitsu shoh, KD125 Exterior interior empty conformation . 41 表裏虚証 Hyoh ri kyo shoh, KD128 Ki stagnation conformation . . . . . . 41 気滞証 Ki tai shoh, KD229 Blood stagnation conformation . . . . 42 瘀血証 O ketsu shoh, KD309 Pathological fluid conformation . . . 42 痰飲証 Tan in shoh, KD462

The four exams . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 四診 Shi shin, KD380 The visual exam: Looking . . . . . . . 44 望診 Boh shin, KD11 The auditory exam: Listening . . . . . 46 聞診 Bun shin, KD13

The oral exam: Asking . . . . . . . . 46 問診 Mon shin, KD288 The tactile exam: Touching . . . . . . 51 切診 Setsu shin, KD376

The three yins and three yangs . . . 61 三陰三陽 San in san yoh, KD359 Greater yang stage . . . . . . . . . . 61 太陽病 Tai yoh byoh, KD460 Lesser yang stage . . . . . . . . . . . 62 少陽病 Shoh yoh byoh, KD437 Yang brightness stage . . . . . . . . 62 陽明病 Yoh mei byoh, KD485 Greater yin stage . . . . . . . . . . . 63 太陰病 Tai in byoh, KD456 Lesser yin stage . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 少陰病 Shoh in byoh, KD428 Polar yin stage . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 厥陰病 Ketsu in (kecchin) byoh, KD201 Transforming stage; entered stage; companion disease; paired disease . . 64 転属 Ten zoku, KD471; 転入 ten nyuh, KD469; 併病 hei byoh, KD103; 合病 goh byoh, KD86

7. Untan toh, KF10 . . . . . . . . . . . 72 温胆湯 Wen dan tang (bamboo and hoelen combination) 8. Unsei in, KF11 . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 温清飲 Wen qing yin (tang kuei and gardenia combination) 9. Eppi ka jyutsu toh, KF13 . . . . . . 72 越婢加朮湯 Yue bi jia zhu tang (Atractylodes combination) 10. En-nen hange toh, KF15 . . . . . . 72 延年半夏湯 Yan nian ban xia tang (Evodia and Pinellia combination) 11. Ohgi kenchuh toh, KF17 . . . . . . 73 黄耆建中湯 Huang qi jian zhong tang (Astragalus combination) 12. Ohren toh, KF22 . . . . . . . . . . 73 黄連湯 Huang lian tang (Coptis combination) 13. Ohren akyoh toh, KF23 . . . . . . 73 黄連阿膠湯 Huang lian e jiao tang (Coptis and gelatin combination) 14. Ohren gedoku toh, KF24 . . . . . . 73 黄連解毒湯 Huang lian jie du tang (Coptis and scute combination)

The broken disease stage . . . . . . . 65 壊病 E byoh, KD41

15. Otsuji toh, KF25 . . . . . . . . . . 74 乙字湯 Yi zi tang (Cimicifuga combination)

3. FORMULA EXPLANATIONS (FUNCTIONS AND APPLICATIONS) 67

16. Kakkon toh, KF36 . . . . . . . . . 74 葛根湯 Ge gen tang (Pueraria combination)

Translators’ note . . . . . . . . . . . 70

17. Kami shohyoh san, KF33 . . . . . . 74 加味逍遥散 Jia wei xiao yao san (Bupleurum and peony formula)

薬方解説 Yaku hoh kai setsu

Kampo specialities: A collection of extremely useful shoh . . . . . . . . 70 1. An chuh san, KF1 . . . . . . . . . . 70 安中散 An zhong san (cardamon and fennel formula) 2. I shoh hoh, KF2 . . . . . . . . . . . 70 痿証方 Wei zheng fang (Eucommia and Achyranthes combination) 3. I fuh toh, KF3 . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 胃風湯 Wei feng tang (Atractylodes and Setaria combination) 4. Inchinkoh toh, KF5 . . . . . . . . . 71 茵蔯蒿湯 Yin chen hao tang (Capillaris combination) 5. Inchin gorei san, KF6 . . . . . . . . 71 茵蔯五苓散 Yin chen wu ling san (Capillaris and hoelen formula) 6. Unkei toh, KF9 . . . . . . . . . . . 71 温経湯 Wen jing tang (tang kuei and Evodia combination)

18. Kami kihi toh, KF32 . . . . . . . . 74 加味帰脾湯 Jia wei gui pi tang (ginseng, longan and Bupleurum combination) 19. Karo kijitsu toh, KF39 . . . . . . . 75 瓜(括)呂枳実湯 Gua lou zhi shi tang (Trichosanthes and chih-shih combination) 20. Kanzoh toh, KF41 . . . . . . . . . 75 甘草湯 Gan cao tang (liquorice combination) 21. Kanzoh shashin toh, KF43 . . . . . 75 甘草瀉心湯 Gan cao xie xin tang (Pinellia and liquorice combination) 22. Kanzoh bushi toh, KF44 . . . . . . 75 甘草附子湯 Gan cao fu zi tang (liquorice and aconite combination) 23. Kanbaku taisoh toh, KF47 . . . . . 75 甘麦大棗湯 Gan mai da zao tang (liquorice and jujube combination) 24. Kanro in, KF48 . . . . . . . . . . . 76 甘露飲 Gan lu yin (sweet combination)

25. Kyuh ki kyohgai toh, KF56 . . . . . 76 芎帰膠艾湯 Xiong gui jiao ai tang (tang kuei and gelatin combination)

42. Shakanzoh toh, KF122 . . . . . . . 80 炙甘草湯 Zhi gan cao tang (baked liquorice combination)

26. Keishi toh, KF60 . . . . . . . . . . 76 桂枝湯 Gui zhi tang (cinnamon combination)

43. Jyuhzen taiho toh, KF128 . . . . . 81 十全大補湯 Shi quan da bu tang (ginseng and tang kuei ten combination)

27. Keishi ka shakuyaku toh, KF64 . . 76 桂枝加芍薬湯 Gui zhi jia shao yao tang (cinnamon and peony combination) 28. Keishi ka bushi toh, KF66 . . . . . 76 桂枝加附子湯 Gui zhi jia fu zi tang (cinnamon and aconite combination) 29. Keishi ka ryuhkotsu borei toh, KF68 77 桂枝加竜骨牡蠣湯 Gui zhi jia long gu mu li tang (cinnamon and dragonbone combination)

44. Shoh kenchuh toh, KF135 . . . . . 81 小建中湯 Xiao jian zhong tang (minor cinnamon and peony combination) 45. Shoh saiko toh, KF136 . . . . . . . 81 小柴胡湯 Xiao chai hu tang (minor Bupleurum combination) 46. Shoh seiryuh toh, KF140 . . . . . . 82 小青竜湯 Xiao qing long tang (minor blue dragon combination)

30. Keishi bukuryoh gan, KF77 . . . . 77 桂枝茯苓湯 Gui zhi fu ling tang (cinnamon and hoelen formula)

47. Shinbu toh, KF147 . . . . . . . . . 82 真武湯 Zhen wu tang (vitality combination)

31. Go rei san, KF91 . . . . . . . . . . 77 五苓散 Wu ling san (hoelen five herb formula)

48. Daioh botanpi toh, KF169 . . . . . 82 大黄牡丹皮湯 Da huang mu dan pi tang (rhubarb and moutan combination)

32. Goshuyu toh, KF93 . . . . . . . . 78 呉茱萸湯 Wu zhu yu tang (Evodia combination) 33. Saiko ka ryuhkotsu borei toh, KF95 78 柴胡加竜骨牡蠣湯 Chai hu jia long gu mu li tang (Bupleurum and dragonbone combination) 34. Saiko keishi toh, KF98 . . . . . . . 78 柴胡桂枝湯 Chai hu gui zhi tang (Bupleurum and cinnamon combination) 35. Saiko keishi kankyoh toh, KF99 . . 79 柴胡桂枝乾姜湯 Chai hu gui zhi gan jiang tang (Bupleurum, cinnamon and ginger combination) 36. San oh shashin toh, KF103 . . . . . 79 三黄瀉心湯 San huang xie xin tang (Coptis and rhubarb combination) 37. San motsu ohgon toh, KF105 . . . 79 三物黄芩湯 San wu huang qin tang (scute three herb combination) 38. Ji-in kohka toh, KF107 . . . . . . . 79 滋陰降火湯 Zi yin jiang huo tang (Phellodendron combination) 39. Shigyaku toh, KF115 . . . . . . . . 80 四逆湯 Si ni tang (aconite, ginger and liquorice combination) 40. Shikunshi toh, KF117 . . . . . . . 80 四君子湯 Si jun zi tang (four major herb combination) 41. Shimotsu toh, KF118 . . . . . . . . 80 四物湯 Si wu tang (tang kuei four combination)

49. Dai kenchuh toh, KF170 . . . . . . 82 大建中湯 Da jian zhong tang (major Zanthoxylum combination) 50. Dai saiko toh, KF171 . . . . . . . . 83 大柴胡湯 Da chai hu tang (major Bupleurum combination) 51. Dai jyohki toh, KF172 . . . . . . . 83 大承気湯 Da cheng qi tang (major rhubarb combination) 52. Takuri shohdoku in, KF177 . . . . . 83 托裏消毒飲 Tuo li xiao du yin (Gleditsia combination) 53. Chikujo untan toh, KF178 . . . . . 83 竹筎温胆湯 Zhu ru wen dan tang (bamboo and ginseng combination) 54. Chikuyoh sekkoh toh, KF179 . . . . 84 竹葉石膏湯 Zhu ye shi gao tang (bamboo leaves and gypsum combination) 55. Chohtoh san, KF183 . . . . . . . . 84 釣藤散 Gou teng san (gambir formula) 56. Chorei toh, KF185 . . . . . . . . . 84 猪苓湯 Zhu ling tang (Polyporus combination) 57. Tohkaku jyohki toh, KF186 . . . . . 84 桃核承気湯 Tao he cheng qi tang (persica and rhubarb combination) 58. Tohki kenchuh toh, KF189 . . . . . 84 当帰建中湯 Dang gui jian zhong tang (tang kuei, cinnamon and peony combination)

59. Tohki shigyaku ka goshuyu shohkyoh toh, KF191 . . . . . . . . . 85 当帰四逆加呉茱萸生姜湯 Dang gui si ni jia wu zhu yu sheng jiang tang (tang kuei, Evodia and ginger combination)

4. THERAPEUTICS (TREATMENT ACCORDING TO NAMED DISEASE) 91

60. Tohki shakuyaku san, KF192 . . . . 85 当帰芍薬散 Dang gui shao yao san (tang kuei and peony formula)

Patient conditions classified by medical treatment or by modern disease names . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

61. Ninjin toh, KF203 . . . . . . . . . 85 人参湯 Ren shen tang aka ri chuh toh (li zhong tang), KF252 (ginseng and ginger combination)

Common cold/influenza . . . . . . . 93 感冒 Kan boh

62. Bakumondoh toh, KF207 . . . . . 86 麦門冬湯 Mai men dong tang (Ophiopogon combination) 63. Hachi mi gan, KF209 . . . . . . . 86 八味丸 Ba wei (di huang) wan (Rehmannia eight formula)

病状別治療 Byoh jyoh betsu chi ryoh

Bronchitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 気管支炎 Ki kan shi en Bronchial asthma . . . . . . . . . . . 95 気管支喘息 Ki kan shi zen soku Pulmonary tuberculosis . . . . . . . . 95 肺結核 Hai kekkaku High blood pressure . . . . . . . . . 96 高血圧症 Koh ketsu atsu shoh

64. Hange kohboku toh, KF213 . . . . 86 半夏厚朴湯 Ban xia hou pu tang (Pinellia and magnolia combination)

Heart valvular disease . . . . . . . . 97 心臓弁膜症 Shin zoh ben maku shoh

65. Hange shashin toh, KF214 . . . . . 87 半夏瀉心湯 Ban xia xie xin tang (Pinellia combination)

Panic attacks/Cardiac neurosis . . . . 98 心臓神経症 (心臓血管神経症) Shin zoh shin kei shoh (shin zoh kekkan shin kei shoh)

66. Hange byaku jyutsu tenma toh, KF215 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 半夏白朮天麻湯 Ban xia bai zhu tian ma tang (Pinellia and Gastrodia combination) 67. Bohi ohgi toh, KF232 . . . . . . . 87 防已黄耆湯 Huang qi fang ji tang (Stephania and Astragalus combination)

Gastritis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 胃炎 I en Stomach atony . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 胃アトニー I atonih Stomach prolapse/Gastroptosis . . . 100 胃下垂 I ka sui

68. Hochuh ekki toh, KF235 . . . . . . 87 補中益気湯 Bu zhong yi qi tang (ginseng and Astragalus combination)

Stomach and duodenal ulcers . . . . 101 胃潰瘍 I kai yoh/十二指腸潰瘍 Jyuh ni shi choh kai yoh (‘First 12 fingers of the intestines’; the upper gastrointestinal tract)

69. Yokukan san, KF248 . . . . . . . . 88 抑肝散 Yi gan san (Bupleurum formula)

Stomach cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 胃癌 I gan

70. Rikkunshi toh, KF253 . . . . . . . 88 六君子湯 Liu jun zi tang (six major herb combination)

Acute colitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 急性腸炎 Kyuh sei i choh en

71. Ryoh kan kyoh mi shin ge nin toh, KF258 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 苓甘姜味辛夏仁湯 Ling gan jiang wei xin xia ren tang (hoelen and Schizandra combination) 72. Ryoh kei jyutsu kan toh, KF260 . . 88 苓桂朮甘湯 Ling gui zhu gan tang (Atractylodes and hoelen combination) 73. Ryoh kei kansoh toh, KF261 . . . . 89 苓桂甘棗湯 Ling gui gan zao tang (hoelen, liquorice and jujube combination)

Chronic colitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 慢性腸炎 Man sei choh en Chronic constipation . . . . . . . . . 104 常習便秘 Jyoh shuh ben pi Vomiting (for pregnancy-related vomiting, see Morning sickness) . . . 105 嘔吐 Oh to Hepatitis and cirrhosis . . . . . . . . 105 肝炎・肝硬変症 Kan en, kan koh hen shoh Gallstones or inflamed gallbladder . . 106 胆石症・胆嚢炎 Tan seki shoh, tan noh en Nephritis and nephrosis . . . . . . . 106 腎炎・ネフローゼ Jin en, nefurohze

Urinary tract stones . . . . . . . . . . 107 尿路結石 Nyoh ro kesseki

Burns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 火傷 Yakedo

Anaemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 貧血 Hin ketsu

Bone and joint tubercles (caries) and cold ulcers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 骨・関節結核 (カリエス)、寒性膿瘍 Hone-kan setsu kekkaku (kariesu), kan sei noh yoh

Purpura or petechiae, ecchymoses . . 108 紫斑病 Shi han byoh Hyperthyroidism: Basedow’s disease; Graves’ disease . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 バセドウ病 Basedoh byoh

Haemorrhoids . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 痔核 Ji kaku

Diabetes mellitus . . . . . . . . . . . 110 糖尿病 Toh nyoh byoh

Morning sickness: Emesis gravidarum 123 妊娠悪阻 Nin shin o so (tsuwari)

Rheumatic joints . . . . . . . . . . . 110 関節リウマチ Kan setsu ryuhmachi

Toxaemia of pregnancy . . . . . . . . 123 妊娠中毒症 Nin shin chuh doku shoh

Frozen shoulder: ‘50-year shoulder’ (a kind of bursitis) . . . . . . . . . . 111 五十肩 (肩関節周囲炎) Goh jyuh kata (kata kan setsu shuh i en)

Puerperal thrombosis of the leg . . . 123 産褥下肢血栓症 San jyoku ka shi kessen shoh

Osteoarthrosis . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 変形性膝関節症 Hen kei sei hiza kan setsu shoh

Frequent/habitual miscarriage . . . . 123 流産癖 Ryuh zan heki

Nerve pain; neuralgia . . . . . . . . . 112 神経痛 Shin kei tsuh

Chi no michi, KD18, and climacteric disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 血の道症・更年期障害 Chi no michi shoh, koh nen ki shoh gai

One-sided headache (migraine) . . . 113 片頭痛 Hen zu tsuh

Adnexitis uteri/Salpingitis . . . . . . 124 子宮付属器炎 Shi kyuh fu zoku ki en

Insomnia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 不眠症 Fu min shoh

Dysmenorrhoea and menstruation difficulties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 月経困難症 Gekkei kon nan shoh

Facial paralysis . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 顔面神経麻痺 Gan men shin kei ma hi Cerebral apoplexy . . . . . . . . . . . 115 脳卒中 Noh socchuh Neurosis, anxiety . . . . . . . . . . . 117 神経症 Shin kei shoh, KD396 Epilepsy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 癲癇 Ten kan, KD468 Whooping cough: ‘100-day cough’ . . 117 百日咳 Hyaku nichi zeki, KD123 Autotoxicity in childhood . . . . . . . 118 小児自家中毒症 Shoh ni ji ka chuh doku shoh Children who are constitutionally kyo and weak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 虚弱児童 Kyo jyaku ji doh, KD260 Bedwetting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 夜尿症 Ya nyoh shoh Frostbite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 凍傷 Toh shoh Night frights; crying at night . . . . . 120 夜驚症・夜啼症 Ya kyoh shoh, ya tei shoh Bruises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 打撲症 Da boku shoh Carbuncles and furuncles . . . . . . . 121 癰疽・癤・フンクロージス Yoh so, setsu, funkurohjisu

Mastitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 乳腺症 Nyuh sen shoh Total prolapse of uterus or uterine ptosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 子宮下垂・子宮脱出 Shi kyuh ka sui, KD160, shi kyuh dasshutsu, KD37 Endometriosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 子宮内膜炎 Shi kyuh nai maku en Uterine myoma . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 子宮筋腫 Shi kyuh kin shu Infertility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 不妊症 Fu nin shoh Allergic rhinitis . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 アレルギー性鼻炎 Arerugi sei bi en Sinusitis and infections (empyema) in the paranasal cavity . . . . . . . . . 127 副鼻腔炎・蓄膿症 Fuku bi koh en, chiku noh shoh Tinea pedis/Athlete’s foot . . . . . . 128 汗疱状白癬 Kan poh jyoh haku sen (mizumushi), KD178 Felon and whitlow (paronychia) . . . 128 進行性指掌角皮症 Shin koh sei shi shoh kaku hi shoh Urticaria (hives), wheals . . . . . . . 128 蕁麻疹 Jin ma shin

Eczema, dermatitis . . . . . . . . . . 129 湿疹 Shisshin, KD406, 皮膚炎 Hi fu en, KD109

APPENDIX 1: KAMPO FORMULA INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

Acne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 面疱 Men poh (nikibi)

APPENDIX 2: KAMPO HERB INDEX . . 163

Liver spots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 肝斑 Kan pan (shimi)

APPENDIX 3: GLOSSARY OF TERMS . 183

Melanodermatitis: Black skin disease 131 黒皮症 Koku hi shoh Dry tinea, psoriasis . . . . . . . . . . 131 乾癬 Kan sen Cystitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 膀胱炎 Boh koh en Prostatic hypertrophy, prostatitis . . . 132 前立腺肥大 Zen ritsu sen hi dai Impotence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 陰萎症 In roh shoh Stomatitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 口内炎 Koh nai en

Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Pinyin Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

FOREWORD TO THE ENGLISH EDITION

Despite its long history, East Asian traditional medicine (EATM) is still in its infancy in the West. While throughout East Asia itself this medicine is marked by pluralism and a myriad of approaches, up to quite recently in the West this practice has been dominated by the mainstream approach rooted in the academies and textbooks of modern mainland China. This has been particularly true in the case of herbal medicine. Recently this has begun to change as information from Japan, and to a lesser extent Korea and Vietnam, has begun to filter into the awareness of western practitioners, along with currents of thought from China itself that differ from the textbook models. With the added perspectives come a deeper engagement with the medicine, less rote learning, and more possibilities of positive outcomes for patients. While all of the myriad approaches to EATM base themselves on the same classic texts, each has its own interpretation and perspective, and to use them effectively we need to understand them on their own terms. The Japanese form of herbal medicine, known as Kampo, is particularly interesting because of its unique development. The main strains of this medicine trace themselves back to premodern Japan when they were infused with the Samurai ethos of the lettered classes. Also, in Japan since the late eighteenth century only people trained in modern biomedicine or pharmacology have been legally permitted to prescribe herbs. These circumstances have led to a form of medicine not only with a strong empirical stamp, but one that is deeply rooted in the eminently practical late Han works of Zhang

Zhong-Jing, the Discussion of Cold Damage and Essentials from the Golden Cabinet. This combination of grounding in ancient works, while jettisoning much of what some consider to be the dross of excessive theorizing, made Kampo not only an attractive form of therapy in modern Japan, but also an important influence on practitioners in twentiethcentury China who wanted to modernize their medicine while retaining what they considered traditional Chinese essence. To increase our knowledge about EATM in the West, we need more texts that reflect the different strains of this medicine, particularly translations of important books that have influenced recent generations of practitioners in East Asia. Otsuka Keisetsu was probably the pre-eminent advocate of Kampo of his generation, and his 1956 book, translated here as Kampo: A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice, was of seminal importance. It can be said to be an important part of the foundation upon which was built the renaissance of Kampo in Japan after the Second World War. To have a translation of this text into English enables us to add this important work to the foundation of EATM in our own countries. There are a few things of particular interest with this book. As a direct translation from a Japanese text it gives a Japanese perspective and uses a Japanese form of discourse that is different from that in books written with western readers in mind. This will give readers a sense of direct transmission, unusual in the English language literature. For those who have not yet been exposed to Kampo, this book will show them another way to organize 11

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

and integrate clinical information, giving new perspectives on concepts such as the four examinations and the six warps. They will also gain some new insights into how to use some formulas which are already commonly used in the West along with some (to us) relatively obscure prescriptions. In addition, there is a basic introduction to the form of abdominal diagnosis that is crucial for the practice of Kampo and which is readily applicable to our patients and is quite useful. Readers who already have some basic knowledge of Kampo will gain a deeper understanding of the roots of modern Kampo, as well as information about diagnosis and treatment that come direct from the source. Anyone who practises EATM will get a

12

taste of how one master of the medicine recommends studying the medicine and how to grapple with difficulties. The extensive chapter on the treatment of diseases as classified by modern medicine will be useful for any practitioner of EATM, as it demonstrates a useful way of integrating EATM with modern biomedicine without losing any of the integrity or authenticity of either medicine. Walking this tightrope is perhaps the defining problem for those of us practising EATM in the West today, so it is of great interest to have this example of an important book from mid-twentieth-century Japan. Dan Bensky, DO Seattle, WA, USA

PREFACE

This book represents the life’s work of its author, Otsuka Keisetsu (1900–1980), in respect of the theory and practice of Kampo in modern (1956) Japan. Dr Otsuka, a wellknown advocate of Kampo in twentiethcentury Japan, was a fourth-generation physician, inheriting his father’s practice after graduating from Kumamoto Medical College in Kyuhshuh, southern Japan, in 1923. Introduced to Kampo some years later, he went on to study with several well-known Kampo doctors in Tokyo, such as Yumoto Kyuhshin, KM26 (1876–1941), and Kimura Hiroaki (1865–1931), before becoming a successful Kampo clinician in his own right. Today, he is remembered in Japan for his pioneering work to reintegrate Kampo into the mainstream of medical practice, helping found and direct the Japan Society of Oriental Medicine and the Kitasato Institute of Oriental Medicine and pursuing a successful publishing, teaching and clinical career in East Asian medicine. He is often referred to as the ‘father of modern Kampo’. Otsuka’s lineage is referred to in Kampo circles as the ‘modern kohoh-ha school’. Kohoh-ha, KD238, means ‘classical school’ and derives its name from the early Edo period, KD42 (1603–1867), during which there was a revival of the classical teachings of early China epitomized by the companion texts written in the Later Han dynasty (ad 206–221) by Zhang Zhong Jing (ad 150– 219), namely the Shoh Kan Ron, KD430 (Shang Han Lun in Chinese), and the Kin Ki Yoh Ryaku, KD236 (Jin Gui Yao Lue in Chinese). The influence of these early herbal works survives in modern Kampo today in

the form of the formulas themselves, largely unchanged since that time, and other specific practices such as abdominal and pulse palpation methods unique to those texts. In fact, Otsuka himself completed a wellregarded Japanese translation of the Shoh Kan Ron, KD430, and his lineage of modern kohoh-ha Kampo is sometimes referred to simply as the Shang Han Lun or ‘classical’ school. Our interest as translators derives primarily from the material itself, which presents a valuable opportunity to introduce the reader to a comprehensive treatment of Kampo theory and practice by an established master practitioner. We hope that this addition to English language Kampo publications (of which there is a paucity at the time of writing) will be a welcome one. It is intended specifically for student and professional herbalists of any tradition but may equally interest Asian medicine practitioners of all disciplines as well as scholars and Asian medical historians and anthropologists. We were especially drawn to this material because we both practise and teach in the same modern kohoh-ha style of Kampo and share the same direct Otsuka lineage. Gretchen was a private student of Otsuka Yasuo (Dr Otsuka’s son) whilst at the Kitasato Institute and Nigel became a student of Gretchen’s in Japan during the 1980s. Both spent many years studying Kampo, acupuncture and related disciplines in Japan and, later, China. Each has pursued a career in the field in Europe and the USA where they currently practise and teach Kampo in various settings. Dr Otsuka’s text has served us both as a 13

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

benchmark for Kampo education and practice and we have each referred to an unpublished personal translation of his work over the years. It was only natural then that we should finally seek to publish a full translation of this work which we hope will have as great an impact in the field here as it has in Japan.

14

Ultimately, as interest in Kampo develops in the West, we plan to publish original work of our own which is already in the development stage. Gretchen De Soriano Nigel Dawes Translators

NOTES FROM JAPAN Watanabe Kenji, of the kohoh-ha tradition

BIOGRAPHY OF OTSUKA KEISETSU (1900–1980) Otsuka Keisetsu was born in 1900 in Kohchi prefecture on the island of Shikoku in southern Japan. He graduated from Kumamoto Medical School in 1923 and, although he followed his father and practised in Kohchi, he struggled with the limitations of western medical treatment. After reading the book Koh Kan I Gaku, KD247, by Yumoto Kyuhshin, KD490, he decided to move to Tokyo to study with Kyuhshin and, by 1931, he had started a Kampo practice of his own in Tokyo. He founded the Japan Kampo Society in 1934 and in 1936 initiated a Kampo educational seminar series with his colleagues. In 1950 he participated in the

founding of the Japan Society for Oriental Medicine ( JSOM) which currently has nearly 9000 members. Over the years he held various prestigious posts in the society, including Trustee member, Principal Trustee and President. He founded the Oriental Medicine Research Center at Kitasato Institute in 1972 and became its first president. He passed away in 1980. The author of numerous books which have influenced a significant number of practitioners in the field, he is remembered as the man who initiated a Kampo revival within the modern medical system in Japan.

HISTORY OF KAMPO MEDICINE Kampo medicine is the Japanese traditional medical system originating from ancient China (Han dynasty: 206 bc to ad 220). It was transmitted via the Korean peninsula in the fifth or sixth century. In the 10th century I Shin Poh, KD136, a summary of Japanese additions to the medicine, was published, but Japan’s practice remained strongly influenced by China. In the sixteenth century Manase Dohsan, KD281, developed a uniquely Japanese medical model and, by 1630, Japan had closed its doors to foreign influence; from then on Kampo medicine developed in a uniquely Japanese manner. During this period, well-known practitioners such

as Yoshimasu Tohdoh, KD488, developed the foundation of the medicine and Kampo itself was officially recognized in order to distinguish Japanese medicine from western medicine, which had been introduced from Holland during the Edo period (1603–1867). Following civil war in 1867, the new government decided to adopt only western medicine as the official medical system of the country. As a result, Kampo medicine went into decline and was practised by very few physicians. However, over time, people became aware of the usefulness of Kampo medicine and the JSOM was eventually founded in 1950. In 1976, Kampo medicine 15

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

was included in the national health insurance programme and physicians started to use Kampo drugs more expansively. In 2001, the core curriculum of medical education in

Japan incorporated Kampo medicine so that all 80 medical schools in the country now provide Kampo education.

THE CURRENT STATE OF KAMPO MEDICINE IN JAPAN There are currently 148 formulas and approximately 148 single herbs covered by the Japanese National Insurance Programme. Kampo medicine is used by more than 70 per cent of Japanese physicians, including nearly 100 per cent of Japanese specialists in obstetrics and gynaecology. Kampo medicines are government-regulated prescriptions and called ethical medicines as concentrated

16

granules or yaku butsu as unfinished herbal ingredients, KD478. These complex herbal formulations, collectively called Kampo medicines, are used throughout Japan, including in university teaching hospitals where, together with allopathic medicine, medical students are taught how to prescribe Kampo formulas.

TRANSLATORS’ NOTE

THE TASK BEFORE US English translations of Asian medical texts from the Japanese are rare; those in the field of Sino–Japanese herbal medicine (Kampo) even more so. In any such attempts, the question of terminology and standardization is critical, particularly concerning a language that has as yet enjoyed precious few attempts to unravel its own unique interpretations of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) since the sixth century. Chinese medical terms have received considerable attention from scholars and clinicians in modern times and attempts have been made to standardize the

vocabulary, culminating in the publication of A Practical Dictionary of Chinese Medicine by Nigel Wiseman (1998). In fact, many Chinese phonetic (Pinyin) terms have been incorporated into the vernacular of TCM since the 1950s, such as qi, yin and yang. It is the translators’ contention that many of the terms in Kampo cannot readily be translated with any precision and our great hope therefore is that, in time, such Japanese phonetic (Rohmaji) terms may come to enjoy the same currency amongst practitioners and educators as do their Chinese (Pinyin) counterparts.

HOW TO USE THIS BOOK It is in this context, therefore, that we have decided in this translation to retain a certain number of Japanese words referred to in the text by their phonetic sound (Rohmaji). In each case, a cross-index number (Kampo diagnostic or KD number) will constantly be included alongside the term, which can be referenced in Appendix 3: Glossary of Terms. The glossary includes Japanese characters, Rohmaji, Pinyin, a suggested English translation and a brief definition which reflects back to Kampo tradition. The characters used in the original text are consistent with those used in modern Japan and reflect the original, complex Chinese characters used in China prior to their simplification in modern times. The only exception to the use of such characters

is that of two phonetic Japanese scripts: the Katakana alphabet is used to represent sounds for foreign words such as the name of a western disease (e.g. ネフローゼ nefurohze for the English term nephrosis), while Hiragana is used for terms unique to the Japanese language which may have no character equivalent (such as のぼせ nobose, loosely translated as rising ki). These represent cultural aspects of Kampo. In translating the names of herbal formulas and individual herb ingredients, we refer to them primarily by their English names, including a Kampo formula (KF number) and Kampo herb (KH number) cross-index number, to be referenced in Appendices 1 and 2 respectively.

17

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

The English names of the formulas are taken from Companion Handbook of Commonly Used Chinese Herbal Formulas (Hsu 1997). Dr Hsu, from Taiwan, diligently studied Kampo and, in particular, the works of Dr Otsuka; in his many English-language publications, he devised his own rationale for naming the formulas according to the principal herb or herbs contained within them. He later founded a herb company

primarily manufacturing granulated herbal extracts (in the Kampo wa kan yaku, KD477, style) called Sun Ten Pharmaceuticals, who market products worldwide, thus achieving a standard English name. Their labelling is consistent with this English translation of the formulas and we have also included the Pinyin pronunciation and Chinese characters for reference.

PHONETICS FROM THE JAPANESE An added complication in translating from the Japanese is the difference between the long and short vowel sounds. For example, kyo jaku, KD259, meaning ‘deficient and weak’ as in the pulse, which is a short ‘o’ in ‘kyo’, versus kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270, meaning ‘hypochondriac painful fullness’, which is a long ‘o’ in both ‘kyo’. We have elected to represent the short vowel sounds using the regular English vowel, and for the long sounds there will appear the syllable oh, as in kyoh kyoh ku man. Those readers interested in accurate pronunciation of the Japanese terms will note that we have retained this distinction throughout the text. There is no standard way to alphabetize the Hiragana sounds; for example, the two sounds together, shi and ya, can be written as Sha or as Sya; we have chosen to use Sha so as to retain the ya sound. With regard to character spacing when transliterating the Kanji into Rohmaji, the reader will note that this is done on a caseby-case basis. In most cases, each individual character (Kanji) is represented by an

18

individual romanized word (Rohmaji); for example, kyoh kyoh ku man 胸脇苦満, KD270 (four characters: four Rohmaji words). However, there are cases where linguistically two characters may be merged into one sound (written as a romanized word). For example: ketsu in byoh 厥陰病, KD201 (three characters), which is pronounced as: kecchin byoh (two romanized words). Whenever a Japanese name appears in the text, we have retained the Japanese way of referring to individuals using their family name first followed by their given name, for example Otsuka Keisetsu, KD319 (Dr Keisetsu Otsuka). Wherever possible the translators have attempted to retain the familiar style of Dr Otsuka’s language which, though originally designed for a medical audience, nonetheless retains a flavour of the relaxed and accessible style in which he writes. In fact, this text in Japan has achieved the unusual accomplishment of being popular amongst both a lay and medical audience.

Translators’ Note

KAMPO IN THE NEXT DECADE This 2017 text is a newly indexed and updated translation of Kampo I Gaku, a key Japanese text first published in 1956. Since the original 2010 publication, Gretchen has trained in the translation and interpretation of Edo Period (1603–1865) texts, while Nigel tested the methods of introducing Kampo into contemporary practice through clinical

internships and post-graduate training programmes. Both agree that two key aspects, the sho and fukushin, will define Kampo in the next decade. The authors plan a new text, marrying sections of Gretchen’s translation of Fukusho Kiran 腹證寄覧, KD62, with Nigel’s clinical research and findings.

19

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This translation has truly been a collaborative effort. The principal translators have worked together from their respective bases in London (Gretchen) and New York (Nigel),

each collaborating with various assistants and colleagues to bring this work to completion. In particular, the translators offer the following acknowledgements:

IN LONDON (GRETCHEN DE SORIANO) I was delighted when Nigel mentioned to me that he had persuaded the respected publisher, Elsevier, to take an interest in my teacher’s text. Nigel’s skills in written English have added fluidity and smoothness to my verbatim translation. With the support of Singing Dragon we are able to present a fresh edition incorporating elements to make the text more user-friendly and accessible to a wider audience of medical, academic and lay readers. The pursuit of an English language text on Kampo was set in motion in Tokyo over 30 years ago with the beginning of my studies as a private student with Dr Otsuka Yasuo. During my eight-year apprenticeship with Dr Otsuka at his office in the Kitasato Institute, his father’s text Kampo I Gaku became the basis of my studies. Since leaving Japan I have used the original Japanese text for my work in continuing the lineage of Kampo through teaching and in the treatment of patients and would like to extend my thanks to all those individuals I have had the pleasure of knowing either as a patient or as a student. Preparing this text for the English reader has required careful consideration of concepts and terms used in Kampo. These do not always have a direct equivalent in English.

In my introductory days as a student, I was most grateful to Dr Otsuka, Dr Yakazu, Dr Chong (Tei-sensei) and Dr Terashi for their assistance. I would like to say a special thank you to Dr Watanabe Kenji for his guidance and support, both past and present. Much appreciation is due to Takuya Furukawa and Atsuko Fritz for their input on the new manuscript, to my husband Peter Clifford for his patience, proofreading and cool head, and to Isabella, who as a child intrepidly followed me across continents among unfamiliar cultures. In due course, she lent her academic skills to the structures of the original charts and tables. Sadly, Dr Otsuka Yasuo passed away in March 2009. From observing him in clinic, I became aware of how the concepts of Kampo I Gaku were to be used in practice through his tireless illumination of the text, and his scholarly commentary. I am confident this edition conveys Kampo as practised in the kohoh-ha, KD238. I urge those with an interest in Kampo to seek out the many written contributions and publications by Otsuka Yasuo, for one could find no surer guide nor more knowledgeable teacher.

21

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

IN THE USA (NIGEL DAWES) The translation work has taken us a great deal longer than anticipated, and in this regard I must first thank the publishers. The teams at both Churchill Livingstone in the UK (for the first edition) and Singing Dragon (for this edition) have been generous with deadline extensions, encouragement and at times a much-needed firm hand. They are consummate professionals. I first came across this text in the early 1980s in Japan, where my teacher and colleague, Gretchen, had created a working translation for use in the clinic and classroom. Since that time Gretchen and I have repeatedly used this in our respective clinical and teaching work, and it was only natural that, on acceptance of the proposal for publication, I approached Gretchen to collaborate on the project. I am thrilled to have worked so closely with her and I thank her for her friendship, teaching and inspiration in helping realize what we hope will be a major contribution to the contemporary Kampo lexicon. For the countless hours of reference, research and translation work on this side of the Atlantic, I wish to acknowledge Mari MacLean for her outstanding contribution to this work. Without her Japanese language

22

skills and tireless commitment to researching, cataloguing and proofing Japanese characters, the work in its present form would not have been possible. A heartfelt thank you, Mari. Thanks to my students Mei Ling Bigley, Xin Zhang, James Bae and Bernard Chan, who helped in the proofing of Chinese characters and Pinyin as they appear in the appendices. To those many other colleagues and students who have been patiently curious about this work – yes, we finally did it! Warm appreciation goes to Dan Bensky for graciously offering to write a Foreword to the text and for his keen interest in and continued support of Kampo practice and education in this country. For their generous back cover endorsements, thanks go to my colleagues Mark Seem and to Craig Mitchell who, along with Dan, represents a growing group of experienced Chinese Medicine scholars and practitioners who have taken an active interest in the Kampo tradition. Finally I would like to thank my family for their unwavering support through this long and often challenging process. As any author will know, it is impossible to find the time and inspiration inherent in the writing process without the patience and strength of close family support.

Chapter 1

NOTES ON HOW TO STUDY KAMPO 漢方医学を研究せんとする人のために

Kampo i gaku wo ken kyuh sen to suru hito no tame ni Chapter contents The basic preparations . . . . . . . . 24

My personal experiences . . . . . . . 32

1. Setting a goal . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Example 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

2. Grappling with the Kampo tradition with a beginner’s mind . . . . . . . . 24

Example 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

3. Will you become a shrub (a tree without a trunk)? . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Example 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

4. Attaching yourself to a teacher . . 25 5. Essential texts . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Example 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Example 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Example 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

The first practical example: Getting the gist of Rehmannia eight . 26 The shoh of Rehmannia eight combination, hachi mi gan, KF209 . . 26 Rehmannia eight formula shoh as described in its source texts . . . . . 27 Concerning discussions on Rehmannia eight formula by ancient masters . . . 29

23

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

At the time of writing, there is a resurgence of interest in Kampo and there will be those who will decide to investigate Kampo more deeply. How should they go about this task? This chapter is written and designed to enable the use of this handbook for deeper learning. Here is my first word of caution: no matter how thoroughly you study Kampo, under Japanese medical law, without qualifications (either as a medical doctor or a pharmacist) you will not be permitted to consult and treat the general population. However, as a qualified pharmacist you may consult and advise patients and prescribe medicines. And, although you are not allowed to touch the patient, and cannot perform the

tactile examinations, you can diagnose with precision using the refined diagnostic skills of Kampo. Furthermore, even a lay practitioner may use Kampo for selected individuals – for example, within the family such treatments are allowed. It is of course perfectly acceptable to self-diagnose in order to improve your own state of health. Recently doctors as well as pharmacists who have studied modern medicine have developed an interest in the Kampo tradition and many undertake medical research studies. In an earnest struggle to heal themselves, even lay people who have suffered years of illness have turned to Kampo.

THE BASIC PREPARATIONS Formerly, when I wrote Kampo Ryoh Hoh, KD169 (Kampo Treatment), I included a paragraph there entitled ‘For those who try to investigate Kampo medicine’, and this is what I wrote:

1. Setting a goal Those who make it their aim to investigate Kampo are obliged to use extremely oldfashioned and homely words. The path of such an investigation will naturally be revealed when aspirations are deep and sincere. Progress will be slow, but if one’s attitude of peering into the world of Kampo is one of inquisitiveness, even when pursued for 10 or 20 years, the subject is so vast and so profound that it will be difficult to master even then.

2. Grappling with the Kampo tradition with a beginner’s mind During the course of researching Kampo medical theory, it is very difficult to come to an accurate understanding of Kampo whilst at the same time and from the outset

24

conducting your analysis based on the criteria of modern western medicine. It is essential to ‘wipe the slate clean’, to empty your mind, in order to come to grips with this medical system. Only after achieving a certain mastery of Kampo should you then start to comment on it in comparison to modern western medicine.

3. Will you become a shrub (a tree without a trunk)? What is known as a bush or shrub has no trunk, has no focus at its core, chuh shin, KD29. With no central trunk its branches and twigs lend themselves merely to being collected simply for firewood bundles. The scope of Kampo medicine is vast, and erring in the method of your investigations, you will find yourself with bundles of twigs, like a bush. First choose one discipline to serve as your trunk and until you are proficient in it, it is important not to move or shift your focus from one direction to another. When your trunk has established itself and towers up to the sky, the branches and leaves will develop naturally by themselves.

Notes on How to Study Kampo

There are various methods of treatment for any illness, and applying those skills to treat an illness is called healing and is a splendid thing, but if your core is hollow you will constantly be asking yourself: ‘what if this...’ or, ‘how about that...’, like reaching blindly into a beggar’s sack, ko jiki bukuro, KD239, and hoping to find treasure. First, to develop your central core, KD29, it is necessary to be discerning. How is this best achieved?

4. Attaching yourself to a teacher In researching any science enjoying such a tradition as Kampo, as far as a master, shi shoh, KD381, is concerned, it is essential to absorb the traditions of that teacher into your very bones. Begin by imitating the teacher. Ignoring accepted conventions from the very onset and creating one’s own style is the path of a genius; we ordinary folk are not up to such challenges. If you have courage and determination, you will progress and will surpass even your own teacher. In Japan today, to study with a teacher, or even to find one, is not so easy. Even if you do find a teacher, in the current state of affairs you might encounter restrictions, and it may not be easy to study directly under a teacher’s guidance. For these people there are Kampo study groups or training courses. In Tokyo, Nagoya, Kyoto, Osaka, Kobe, Hiroshima, Fukuoka and such places, training courses are held occasionally, and by attending these you will come to understand the main gist of Kampo. Incidentally, when and where these training courses and study groups are offered can be conveniently

accessed in monthly publications which report Kampo news in journals, such as the following: • Kampo no Rinshoh (Clinical Kampo), KD171, published by Association of East Asian Medicine, 2–9–28 Nishibori, Nihza City, Saitama • Katsu (Life), KD187, published by Friends of Kampo Society, Chuhjohtoh building, 3–8, Nihonbachidohri, Chuhoh-ku, Tokyo • Wa Kan Yaku (Sino–Japanese Herbal Medicine), KD477, published by Uchida Wakanyaku, 8–1 Nihonbashi Honchoh, Chuhoh-ku, Tokyo • Kampo Kenkyuh (Kampo Research), KD170, published by Kotaroh Kampo Pharmaceutical, KK, 1 Nakatsuhamadohri, Ohyodo-ku, Ohsaka.

5. Essential texts The roots and trunk of Kampo are the Shoh Kan Ron, KD430, and the Kin Ki Yoh Ryaku, KD236; in investigating Kampo there are those who begin with the classics, although there is nothing wrong with reading these classics last. Nevertheless, these classics are extremely difficult to understand and it is not easy to master them. So in the beginning, it is also appropriate to begin reading the works of modern writers, and little by little to trace back to the past and read the ancient texts.

This extract is from my humble work, Kanpo To Min Kan Yaku Hyakka, KD173 (An Encyclopaedia of Kampo and Folk Medicine).

25

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

THE FIRST PRACTICAL EXAMPLE: GETTING THE GIST OF REHMANNIA EIGHT The shoh of Rehmannia eight combination, hachi mi gan, KF209 Rehmannia eight formula was first called jin ki gan, KD147 (kidney ki balls), and it first appeared as a very important medicinal in the Kin Ki Yoh Ryaku, KD236 (Prescriptions from the Golden Cabinet). My esteemed teacher, the late Yumoto Kyuhshin, KD490, was a  scholar of the kohoh-ha, KD238 (classical school): the kohoh-ha abhorred the use of Rehmannia, KH75, and Astragalus, KH13, precisely because they are very important in the (rival) gosei-ha, KD84 (reformation school). Indeed, these two ingredients are not even put into the herb drawers. In former times, teachers were able to use them, but when I myself began studying, contemporary teachers did not make use of them even once. In light of this – and with Rehmannia as a principal ingredient – there were no teachers prescribing Rehmannia eight formula and I did not have a clear understanding of how to use it myself. One day I decided to give it a try and timidly asked my teacher: ‘What is the nature of the therapeutic effects of Rehmannia eight formula?’ I had finally done it! He told me: ‘It is very therapeutic; my wife who is now dead took it once and it worked amazingly well, inducing urination.’ That’s all he would say. I had a go at reading the book Conked I Gaku, KD247 (A Handbook of Chinese Medicine), which my teacher wrote when he was rather young and in which he sometimes used Rehmannia eight formula. So it was on my mind that I wanted to learn how to use this formula when one day I decided to try it on a female patient and consulted an article of my teacher’s, which recommended prescribing it for kyo shoh, KD267 (weak), patients with fuku bu nan jyaku mu ryoku, KD54 (lax abdomen). The following is a paragraph from the Koh Kan I Gaku, KD247, taken from the clause 26

on the abdominal shoh, KD61, of Rehmannia eight formula: Rehmannia, KH75, cures sei ka fu jin, KD363 (numbness in the lower abdomen), and han netsu, KD98 (troublesome fever), and in addition strengthens the heart. Rehmannia, Alisma, KH130, hoelen, KH173, and aconite, KH174, are all used to promote urination. Dioscorea, KH73, and Cornus, KH70, have nourishing, enriching and tonic functions. Moutan, KH184, helps Rehmannia to heal the han netsu, and at the same time harmonizes the blood. Cinnamon, KH47, restrains the upward flow of sui doku, KD448 (water toxins), aconite stimulates metabolic functions and restores such systemic hypotrophy as sei ka fu jin, KD363, restoring it to a healthy state. Also healed by its actions are rei kan, KD323 (icy feeling), in the lower body in addition to subjective ambulatory difficulties and total body ma hi, KD278 (numbness and palsy). This recipe containing the various ingredients listed above should be prescribed primarily for curing sei ka fu jin, KD363, and secondarily for decreased urinary output, oliguria, recurrent whole-body han netsu, KD98, alternating transient han netsu on the palms and soles and rei kan, KD323. In addition, you should take note of the instructions given preceding or following this paragraph.

Incidentally, the patient drank some of it and immediately got diarrhoea, complained of a loss of appetite and, after drinking one day’s dose, stopped and brought it back to me. I was discouraged. I immediately abandoned the use of Rehmannia eight formula and began reading the ideas and case studies of ancient people relating to it whilst reflecting on what to do next. From around 1935 I gradually began to use Rehmannia eight formula and finally I came to an understanding of it (yoh hoh o te ni ireta, KD480). To this day, I still frequently use this prescription in my clinic.

Notes on How to Study Kampo

In October 1937, I wrote an article entitled Hachi mi gan ni tsui te, KD91 (On the subject of Rehmannia eight formula), in the journal Kampo To Kan Yaku, volume 4, KD172 (Kampo and Kampo’s Ingredients). In one section I announced that I was just beginning to use Rehmannia eight formula and jotted down my plan of action. I have now included this abbreviated piece here, and to make for easier understanding it has been rewritten. Let’s take a look at my student references, drawn from various notes and memos, to discover by what methods this understanding of how to prescribe Rehmannia eight formula was achieved.

Rehmannia eight formula shoh as described in its source texts From the Kin Ki Yoh Ryaku, KD236, in the volume on Kyo Roh Hen, KD266 (Compilation of Kyo Troubles), come the following paragraphs: For a patient with kyo roh, KD265 (kyo troubles), lumbago, shoh fuku koh kyuh, KD421 (tight spasm in the lower abdomen), shoh ben fu ri, KD414 (urinary block – ‘doesn’t flow’), principally Rehmannia eight formula, KF209.

According to these lines, we understand that Rehmannia eight formula cures a kind of cramping in the lower abdomen, difficulties in urination and lower back pain when these are caused by a kyo exhaustion. That being so, what are the symptoms known as kyo exhaustion? Principally used in the hei nin, KD105 (the average person), when the pulse becomes dai, KD31 (big), indicating roh, KD342 (exhaustion). Moreover, kyoku kyo, KD275 (polar kyo), can become roh, KD342.

Kyoku kyo, KD275, can be regarded as one pattern of roh, KD342 (exhaustion). Essentially ‘the average person’ means a person who most of the time is not especially

unhealthy. ‘The pulse becomes big’ is a sign of this syndrome; it informs us that if the pulse had been kyo, KD256 (empty), and jyaku, KD152 (weak), that would be a different problem. The big pulse is also felt amongst the healthy pulses, but the fact is that there is exhaustion here, and this big quality is the opposite of polar kyo, but denotes the same kind of exhaustion nonetheless. The Shoh Kan Ron, KD430 (Treatise on Cold Damage), says of these pulses that they are tai ka to fu kyuh, KD457 (big but deficient). To explain, both of these are disease-stage pulses and the presence of either means the same thing. When the pulse is gen, KD76 (bowstring), and dai, KD31 (big), the bowstring will surely become gen, KD77 (decreasing), and the big will surely become koh, KD245 (hollow). The decreasing becomes kan, KD176 (moderate), and the hollow becomes kyo, KD256 (empty), and kyo kan, KD263 (empty and cold); when these occur simultaneously, the pulse will be kaku, KD167 (leather). In a woman surely the womb will leak and in a man, it is surely a sign of empty blood and depleted sei, KD361 (essence).

This means that bowstring, big, hollow and leather are among the kyo pulses. In women there may be spontaneous abortion (miscarriage) and uterine haemorrhage; in men there may be loss of blood and depletion due to sexual excess. In men, the pulses are kyo, chin, KD20 (sunken), and gen, KD76 (bowstring). There is no kan, KD175 (cold), nor netsu, KD298 (fever); however, there is tan ki, KD464 (short breaths), ri kyuh, KD332 (abdominal spasm), pale complexion, occassional moku gen, KD286 (‘closed eyes’ – dizziness), accompanied by nose bleeds and sho fuku choh man, KD419 (lower abdominal fullness).

The kyo, bowstring and sunken pulses and others besides are seen among the Rehmannia eight formula pulses. Tan ki, KD464 (literally: 27

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

‘short ki ’), refers to panting or breathing shallow and fast. Ri kyuh, KD332, is a feeling as though the abdomen is swollen and empty. These are manifestations of the Rehmannia eight formula shoh. The pale complexion (literally: ‘white face’) cannot be said to be limited to the Rehmannia eight formula shoh, though anaemia is often seen as one of the signs for this formula. The ‘closed eyes’ refers to dizziness, the ‘nose bleed’ is blood coming from the nose such as can occur accompanying renal atrophy and arteriosclerosis, for which Rehmannia eight formula is used. Amongst the diseases of roh, KD342 (exhaustion), the pulse is fu, KD44 (floating), and dai, KD31 (big). The hands and feet are uncomfortable, aggravated in spring and summer, quiet in fall and winter, the patterns of in kan, KD140 (yin and cold together). There is sei mizukara ide, KD362 (spontaneous seminal emission), where the essence comes out spontaneously and exhaustion prevents walking (san saku (shaku) iku atawazu), KD360. The pulse is floating and big, there is han netsu, KD98 (troublesome fever), of the hands and feet while the lower back and legs show signs of darukute chikara ga nai, KD36 (heaviness and lack of strength). These are symptoms often seen in the Rehmannia eight formula shoh. The seminal emission of the in kan, KD140 (yin and cold pattern), is often seen in the cinnamon and dragonbone combination shoh, KF68. When accompanied by in i, KD139 (impotence), it often indicates Rehmannia eight formula, which serves as a clue for this shoh.

The preceding five quotations are all from the Kyo Roh Hen, KD266 (Compilation of Deficiency Disorders), but the sixth quotation, below, is from the chapter on Tan In Gai Soh Byoh Hen, KD463 (Pathological Fluids and Coughing Diseases); the seventh is from Shoh Katsu Shoh Ben Ri Rin Hen, KD432 (Exhausting Thirst and Impaired Urination); the eighth is from the Fu Jin Zoh Byoh Hen, 28

KD46 (Various Women’s Diseases); and the ninth is from the Chuh Fu Reki Setsu Hen, KD26 (Text on Apoplexy and Joint Stiffness). Here there is tan ki, KD464 (‘short breaths’ – panting, shallow fast breaths), and bi in, KD8 (‘faint water’ – slight retention of pathological water). This pattern is resolved by the method of sa ru, KD353 (elimination of fluids in a kyo condition). Principally, this is the ryoh kei jyutsu kan toh shoh, KF260. Jin ki gan, KD147 (‘kidney ki pills’, Rehmannia eight formula), may also be used for this.

This quotation describes one example of the usage of Rehmannia eight formula and how it is essential to differentiate it from ryoh kei jyutsu kan toh. Shoh katsu, KD431 (exhausting thirst – diabetes), in men, paradoxically the urination is copious when water is drunk and the urination becomes one ri; administer jin ki gan, KD147 (Rehmannia eight formula).

This extract is describing a case when there is thirst and an equal amount of urine is passed as compared to the amount of water drunk. According to the text it is also used for symptoms occurring in diabetes. Someone asked about the case in women’s diseases when ‘she likes eating and drinking the same’ but has han netsu, KD98 (troublesome fever), so severely that there can be no lying down; moreover, relaxing paradoxically brings on orthopnoea, KD228. The master says this is called ten poh, KD470 (‘twisted uterus’), and nyoh, KD304 (urination), benefits (improves) this condition. Hoh kei ryoh rei, KD119 (urethral torsion), resembles this; therefore both illnesses are benefited by regulating urination. Jin ki gan is the principal formula used.

This reference to ‘relaxing’ is breathing which becomes laboured when seated, as in the orthopnoea patient, ki soku, KD228. ‘Drowning’ is the modern reading for the

Notes on How to Study Kampo

character nyoh, which at the time of this ancient text was interpreted as ‘urination’. The ‘revolving sac’, KD470, is a postpartum dysfunction. The gist of this paragraph is that this recipe is used for urinary retention in women’s conditions such as postpartum and following surgery or in prostatic hypertrophy. ‘Likes eating and drinking the same’ means the appetite and thirst are not abnormal and this is one of the foremost indications for Rehmannia eight formula. Dr Sai’s, KD356, Rehmannia eight formula, KD147, kakke, KD165 (beriberi), rises and enters the lower abdomen; this cures a patient of that fu jin, KD45 (numbness).

Fu jin, KD45, is a ma hi, KD278, numbness or tingling. Thigh kakke, KD165, refers to a disease called beriberi. The numbness of this illness begins at the foot and rises to enter the lower abdomen, and both of these conditions are treated with this recipe.

Concerning discussions on Rehmannia eight formula by ancient masters Due to the style of the original texts mentioned in this section, the quotations cited can be long and difficult to understand, so I have carefully sorted through them and made amendments for clearer understanding. Rui Jyu Hoh Shuh Ran, KD346 (An Inspection of the Rui Jyu Hoh) This is the shoh, KD411, for Rehmannia eight formula: on examination, first one finds that below the navel there is a depression that the fingers can enter; second, there is what is called shoh fuku koh kyuh, KD421, namely a patient with a cramp or spasm which extends along the inguinal region. The third pattern includes patients with patterns of fu ri, KD47 (urinary impairment). The fourth includes patients with frequent and copious urination and the fifth, patients with in i,

KD139 (impotence). In all of these cases administer Rehmannia eight formula.

Fuku Shoh Ki Ran, KD62 (Unusual Patterns of Abdominal Diagnosis) Rehmannia eight formula. Used for patients with urinary difficulties when there is sei ka fu jin, KD363 (lower abdominal numbness), or shoh fuku fu jin, KD420 (lax and powerless lower abdomen). In one case there is han netsu, KD98 (troublesome fever), of the hands and feet, low-back pain, and shoh fuku koh kyuh, KD421 (lower abdominal spastic knot). Used in patients with fu ri, KD47 (urinary impairment), or in one case a patient with fu jin, KD45 (numbness or tingling), or at times possibly there may be shoh fuku koh kyuh, KD421, which may also encircle the navel in all directions like a platter. Upon investigation of the case, the patient may have in i, KD139 (impotence), and the in mon, KD142 (penis), may tingle, causing pain. There may also be rin byoh, KD338 (gonorrhoea). The above patterns often accompany a ketsu shoh, KD206 (blood disorder).

Sei Zai Hatsu On, KD369 (From An Imperial Medical Encyclopedia) Rehmannia eight formula: the sei ka fu jin, KD363 (lower abdominal numbness), one day spreads upwards to become upperabdomen fu jin, KD45 (numbness), and urinary fu ri, KD47 (impairment), may become the typical urination pattern for this patient. In cases where abdominal pressure causes a patient to complain of shoh fuku fu jin, KD420, the lower abdomen will be concave, demonstrating a lack of power or strength. At other times rei ki, KD325 (a vague icy feeling), is felt from the depths of the abdomen. This is most certainly a shoh, KD411, for aconite, KH174. Furthermore, in this shoh at certain times there is kishi, KD237 (shuddering,

29

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

pulsations or palpitations), and at times the patient may have hi yu (icy), KD116, hands and feet. Moreover, this is commonly known as kakke, KD165 (beriberi), by the general public, who recognize this formula as a recipe for patients with ma hi, KD278 (numbness), of the hands and feet, iro aozamete, KD144 (pallor), and fuku ryoku naki, KD59 (abdomen with no strength, as in fuku bu mu ryoku, KD53). And in yet another shoh, the face is fiery red with jyoh gyaku, KD153 (counterflow), and the patient has sexual fantasies day and night and frequently tries to have intercourse but is unable to ejaculate. In later times it came to be called kyoh chuh, KD268 (‘confined in the centre’ – a form of impotence). Patients with in i, KD139 (impotence), of a severe kind become like this. At times there is shita no akai mono, KD408 (a red tongue), and there are no papillae on its surface; it is smooth like the flesh of a bird. At times, there is a shin netsu, KD400 (body fever), manifesting as severe heat throughout the entire body, explained by kyo ka boh doh, KD262 (kyo fire rising), which races through the patient. For patients with zen kyuh, KD491 (difficult respiration), in this shoh, use this recipe. Additionally, it is used for patients with oedema, when there is shoh fuku choh man, KD419 (inflated and full lower abdomen), and the ge shoh, KD75 (lower burner), is often swollen. When examining this on palpation, though swollen, it is nonetheless soft, lacking strength and when pressed there will remain a deep indentation right at the point. This indentation mark does not immediately spring back up and return to normal. When this occurs in the lower abdomen there is a tendency toward ma hi, KD278 (numbness), with a powerless lower abdomen causing shoh ben fu ri, KD414 (urinary obstruction). These are the patients which Rehmannia eight formula treats.

30

This is one example used in adults; however, it is also said to be useful in treating bedwetting in children. On one occasion I put Rehmannia eight formula to the test: one morning I overdosed and the symptoms became more intense than before. Then, after this treatment, I was cured. Shoh Soh Hoh I Kai, KD433 (Inspired Lessons on Formula from a Window Facing a Japanese Banana Plant) The abdominal signs are as follows: ‘below the ribs the left and right rectus abdominis muscles are koh ren, KD250 (tight and swollen)’. The movement (in the form of a pulsation above the navel) along the conception vessel, KD300, at the point CV9, KD446, becomes more forceful. From below the navel up to the acupuncture point kyuh bi, KD276 (CV15 – the solar plexus), there is a pulsation. Furthermore, blue veins may be observed below the navel. Typically, below the knees there is no strength, yet there is some kind of kyo choh, KD257 (kyo swelling). In a further example there is yet another pattern: below the navel there are neither blue veins nor kyo choh, there is only a lack of strength, while the lower body is flabby (atonic) and out of shape. When pressed it is like an over-ripe water melon.

Ko Kun I Den, KD241 (Ancient Ways of Physicians) This Rehmannia eight formula sho exists with yoh ki bu soku, KD482 (insufficiency of yang qi), and sui ketsu wa sezu, KD450 (water and blood disharmony), in the lower body. Climatic changes such as cool, hot, chilly or warm weather may suddenly induce ma hi fu jin, KD279 (paralysis), in the knee and thigh. During yoh ki scarcity when there is no pain, upon standing there may be the feeling of weakness in the knees and thighs

Notes on How to Study Kampo

due to shitsu kei i jyaku, KD410 (lower-body atrophy). Walking is impossible and at times there may be slight swelling. This knee and thigh fu jin, KD45 (numbness or tingling), slowly progresses and reaches the groin where it gradually works its way upwards and settles as lower abdominal fu jin. In this way kakke, KD165 (beriberi), rises and enters the lower abdomen to become known as fu jin. If this goes undetected it can ascend (noboru) even further to become fu jin of both hands and in extreme instances there may even be fu jin of the lips or the mouth. Due to yoh ki shita ni tae, KD481 (extinct yoh ki), in the lower body, the blood substance is sluggish and becomes irregular in its flow. The water and ki follow and harmony is lost. The ketsu bun, KD194 (substantial blood), chiefly circulates the yoh ki. The jyun koh, KD156 (smooth circulation), of the water is also dysfunctional. Thus this recipe addresses circulation. Another case is the presence of various kinds of kai motsu, KD164 (mass), in the abdomen. Frequently these are painful, often resembling an intestinal carbuncle (appendicitis). The palm of the examining hand detects an ‘obstruction’ as it passes over this mass, KD164, while the patient often responds with a sensation of surprised discomfort. The section on ketsu in byoh, KD201 (jue yin illness), calls this spot a rei ketsu, KD324 (icy knot), and this is also the shoh of Rehmannia eight formula.

Ryoh Ji Sa Dan, KD347 (Discussions on Medical Treatment over Tea) Postpartum ten poh, KD470 (‘twisted uterus’), is often treated with Rehmannia eight formula and often the treatments are effective. However, among these are various therapeutic methods, which are ineffective. In such unsuccessful cases the doctor should

consider the recipes in the text Ko Kin I Kan, KD240 (Ancient and Modern Medical Patterns). They are quite useful. At times I try out treatments and the results can often be dramatic. For one such recipe, add the weight of 8 momme, KD287 (ancient unit of weight), of highest-quality kan sui root, KD184, mixing it with meshi nori, KD284 (rice paste), and apply topically to the area below the navel. Another method is to add kanzoh, KH34 (liquorice), weighing 6 momme to the brew and boil it, administering it frequently. The patient will pass urine at once and will be saved in an instant, miraculously.

Rui Jyu Hoh Koh Gi, KD345 (An Overview of the Rui Jyu Hoh Gi) Rehmannia eight formula heals patients with postpartum oedema, rei tsuh, KD326 (icy feeling and pain), of the waist and legs, shoh fuku fu jin, KD420, and urinary fu ri, KD47 (impairment). Furthermore it is useful whenever the urinary pattern includes rin reki, KD340 (sparce urine), such as in cases where urine is passed 10 times or more between noon and night; when there is pain after urination; when there is a constant urge to urinate and already on the way to the bathroom the urine leaks out; and the condition, common amongst the elderly, known as ki rin, KD223 (strangury), when, in addition, the inside of the mouth is kan soh, KD183 (dry), and the salivary secretions are scanty. Also in cases of in i, KD139 (impotence), it treats what is called haku daku shoh, KD92 (a white cloudy impurity in the urine), lack of strength in the lower abdomen, heaviness from the waist to the legs, numbness, pain and frequent urination. In women it also treats discharge which is white, copious and seeps out (leukorrhoea). [Original text in ancient Chinese.]

31

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

MY PERSONAL EXPERIENCES Having read the above explanations by the ancients, recalling how to use Rehmannia eight formula, I came to an understanding and around shoh wa 10, KD435 (1935), I began to use this recipe myself. Let’s look at the notes from my own experiences at that time.

Example 1 A 24-year-old woman, married for all of onehalf of a year, came to see me on 8 October 1936. Her chief complaint was a frequent urge to urinate and an aching pain at the mouth of the urethra after passing urine. In extreme instances she would go to the toilet for two or three minutes, during which time not even a scanty amount of urine was passed. After that she described the feeling as being one of unpleasant discomfort. She said that in those moments she would get some warm, moist compresses from the dispensary but was easily driven to distraction by the pain. She had a strong desire to avoid public transport and related activities. At night she couldn’t sleep easily because of this, so she consulted a medical specialist, receiving treatment for about a month. During that time the symptoms got worse. Her appetite was normal and there was no netsu, KD298 (fever), nor o kan, KD307 (chills). There was neither koh kan, KD246 (dry mouth), nor koh katsu, KD248 (thirst). The bowels moved once every three days and menstruation was normal. Further symptoms included stiffness of the right shoulder and occasional haemorrhoids which bled. This patient was of average ei yoh, KD43 (nourishment), and ketsu shoku, KD207 (complexion). Applying pressure to the area of the lower abdomen caused an unpleasant feeling. There was no nan jyaku mu ryoku, KD296 (lax and powerless); rather it was tight with shoh fuku koh kyuh, KD421 (lowerabdomen tight spasm).

32

A line could be felt right around the area of the right iliac fossa like a cable, which became more evident upon pressure. That is shoh fuku kyuh ketsu, KD424 (the o ketsu point). The urine was turbid, although to the naked eye no blood was visible. I gave Rehmannia eight formula, 30 individual balls about the size of go doh shi, KD2, as one day’s dose. After taking the medication for five days, the majority of the patient’s discomfort and pain resolved and urination returned to normal. This same Rehmannia eight formula was prescribed until 4 November, and on that day we changed to Persica and rhubarb combination, KF186, which was continued until 10 December. The reason we changed to Persica and rhubarb combination was to resolve the symptoms associated with the urinary tract dysfunction completely and because additionally there were complaints of constipation, whilst during evacuation of the bowels painful, bleeding haemorrhoids were present. What we call shoh fuku kyuh ketsu, KD424, is the abdominal shoh of o ketsu, KD308. The haemorrhoids also improved with this recipe. This patient had two shoh, the Rehmannia eight formula shoh and the Persica and rhubarb combination shoh. My thinking was: ‘first, heal the extreme suffering and pain of this patient’, and so I gave Rehmannia eight formula followed by Persica and rhubarb combination.

Example 2 The first diagnosis was on 22 January 1937. The patient was a 44-year-old man. He said that his chief complaint was impaired bladder function. For at least the past five years urine leaked out on to his fu ton, KD48 (mattress), as he slept. Each night it would leak out three or four times but the quantity was scant each time, so that the mattress was no more than slightly damp. Urine also leaked out at noontime, though this was unusual. No

Notes on How to Study Kampo

matter what treatments were tried there was no complete cure and recently he had begun to abandon hope. He said he had come to the clinic due to the enthusiastic encouragement of the patient in Example 1 (above). His other symptoms included decreased libido and hie shoh, KD115 (icy constitution). He had neuralgia in both lower limbs. There was koh katsu, KD248 (thirst), and copious urination. The bowels moved once per day. At first glance he seemed a healthy fellow, well nourished and of good complexion, KD207. The pulse was chin gen, KD21 (deep and tight). The lower abdomen had power, and was not nan jyaku mu ryoku, KD296 (lax and powerless). There was no pain on pressure. The urine analysis showed some slight traces of red blood cells. Rehmannia eight formula was selected and progress was good. This prescription was continued for three months until 23 April, when a complete cure was achieved.

Example 3 A 59-year-old woman was first seen on 21 April 1939. A few years earlier she had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, receiving treatment at a local hospital, but she said she was not improving. Her chief complaint was darui, KD35 (heaviness), as though all her life force had left her, chikara ga nukeru, KD483. Recently she suffered a painful ache extending from her shoulder to her upper arm, so much so that she couldn’t put her hand behind her back. Her thirst was extreme and during the night she kept a jug at her bedside and often drank water. She said she couldn’t sleep peacefully and her urination was copious. The appetite was normal and bowel movements were once per day. Her complexion, KD207, was poor – tsuchi iro, KD472 (the colour of earth) – and her ei yoh, KD43 (nourishment), was normal. The tongue was red, with almost no papillae. The legs felt heavy and were ho teru, KD118 (burning). Occasionally there

was dizziness. In the abdominal exam, the area below the navel revealed nothing exceptional – neither resistance nor spasm, KD332. It was not nan jyaku mu ryoku, KD296 (lax and powerless). The urine test for sugar was resolutely positive. This matches Rehmannia eight formula. She took this formula for one week and reported that strength had returned to her entire body and that in some way she felt refreshed. It was administered for 52 days and she then returned to the countryside where the neuralgia in the upper arm returned to a mild degree but there was absolutely no other pain or suffering.

Example 4 This case first came to my attention on 16 January 1937. On that day a friend and classmate who had a clinic in a prefecture of the Tohoku district phoned me with a request to visit him immediately at any cost. On that same day at 1.30 p.m. I caught the next available train leaving from Ueno station. I arrived at this friend’s home at around 7.00 p.m. The sick individual was his wife, who after giving birth had developed postpartum puerperal fever and was said to be showing signs of being on the verge of death. I entered the sick-room. The treatment had been meticulous and exhaustive; however, from the viewpoint of Kampo, these procedures were inappropriate. The patient’s temperature had risen to 40˚C and the pulse was chin, KD20 (sunken), and jyaku, KD152 (weak); not hin saku, KD117 (frequent). The urine had become stuck (retained) and absolutely no urine was passed – in spite of a catheter being inserted into the urethra and several ice packs laid upon the lower abdomen, the feet in a tub of hot water, and a stove going in the room. The patient had just complained of koh katsu, KD248 (thirst), and she was gargling. She reported her mouth so dry that she couldn’t sleep at night. 33

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

The abdominal area was soft, weak and powerless. The only hardness in the lower abdomen was the uterus, and its circumference was like cotton. The bowels did not move normally. That was the extent of the symptoms except that there was slight appetite. Due to this state of affairs we quickly dispensed with the ice pack. This was a case for Rehmannia eight formula and in 1–2 days urine was being passed normally, the fever was gradually disappearing and subsiding and in less than one month she had completely recovered her health.

Example 5 The initial examination was on 16 June 1937. The patient was a 71-year-old woman. Due to cerebral haemorrhage several years previously, the movement of her left leg was poor, causing her to fall occasionally. The patient was distressed about her uncomfortable urination. She said that when she ate a lot of food, the flow of urine was reduced and the lower abdomen became swollen and extremely painful. The bowels moved once per day, though the experience was unpleasant. She did have an appetite. The mouth was dry, KD246. Systolic blood pressure was measured at 120 mmHg. The pulse was gen, KD76 (bowstring), with strength, KD19. The rectus abdominis, both left and right, was kin choh, KD235 (tight). There was pressure pain in the right lower abdomen; Rehmannia eight formula suits this situation. During the initial examinations she always required an attendant, but from the third week on she took the train on her own to come to the clinic. Urination and bowel movements had become comfortable and her gen ki, KD80 (health), was exceptional.

34

Example 6 This is a clinical example of the manifestation of Rehmannia eight formula shoh during the treatment of a pulmonary tuberculosis patient. The patient was a 30-year-old woman, first seen in November 1934. At that time, she had been gradually progressing in a positive way, having taken Ophiopogon combination, KF207, from another physician since June the previous year, as she had a rather serious condition, when around August 1936 she visited my clinic. Since the spring she had taken to going out for walks in the neighbourhood. Her temperature tended to be 37˚C whether inside or outside, the pulse rate was 80 beats/min and the general impression was rather favourable. Then, on 20 July 1935, she suddenly complained of violent abdominal pain. She vomited up all the food she had eaten and was seen by local physicians. One physician called it torsion of the bowel (spastic colon), whereas another diagnosed kidney stones. On 22 July when I made a house call, the pulse lacked the previously felt kin choh, KD235 (tightness), and was jyaku, KD152 (weak). Her body temperature was as it had been previously but the facial tone had a haggard appearance. The unusual symptoms included spasmodic pain that radiated from the area of the left kidney around to the lower abdomen such that when the area corresponding to the location of the left kidney was palpated gently with the fingertips, the pain was unbearable. In addition to these symptoms there was vomiting. We enquired about the nature of the abdominal pain and she explained that it radiated upwards from the lower abdomen into the chest. As for the bowel movements, there had been no normal stool passed since 20 July, though she informed us that she had had one enema. There was no appetite,

Notes on How to Study Kampo

the volume of urine was scanty and urine was passed 2–3 times each day, though she estimated the quantity to be approximately 10–20 ml each time. I was thinking that this case resembled a disease the ancients referred to as hon ton shoh, KD121 (‘running piglet syndrome’), so I administered ryoh kei kansoh toh, KF261. With one dose, her nausea was completely resolved and the pain lessened immediately but still urinary output had not increased, nor had the appetite. Then, as 25 July arrived, I changed the prescription to Rehmannia eight formula and suddenly urine

was passed, the abdominal pain disappeared as though it had been wiped away and the appetite was restored to normal – all this with a 7-day dosage of Rehmannia eight formula. Within 20 days the acute symptoms had completely disappeared. Doesn’t the Kin Ki Yoh Ryaku, KD236 (Prescriptions from the Golden Cabinet), point out that hoh kei ryoh rei, KD119 (urethral torsion/stenosis), is an occurrence similar to this?

35

Chapter 2

THE KAMPO DIAGNOSTIC 漢方の診断

Kampo no shin dan Chapter contents The names of diseases, past and present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 病名の今昔 Byoh mei no kon jyaku Conformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 証 Shoh, KD411 Yin and yang . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 陰 In, KD138; 陽 yoh, KD479 Yang conformation . . . . . . . . . . 39 陽証 Yoh shoh, KD486 Yin conformation . . . . . . . . . . . 39 陰証 In shoh, KD143 Empty and full . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 虚 Kyo, KD258; 実 jitsu, KD148 Exterior empty conformation . . . . . 40 表虚証 Hyoh kyo shoh, KD126 Interior empty conformation . . . . . 40 裏虚証 Ri kyo shoh, KD331 Exterior full conformation . . . . . . 40 表実証 Hyoh jitsu shoh, KD127 Interior full conformation . . . . . . . 40 裏実証 Ri jitsu shoh, KD329 Exterior empty interior full conformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 表虚裏実証 Hyoh kyo ri jitsu shoh, KD125

The four exams . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 四診 Shi shin, KD380 The visual exam: Looking . . . . . . . 44 望診 Boh shin, KD11 The auditory exam: Listening . . . . . 46 聞診 Bun shin, KD13 The oral exam: Asking . . . . . . . . 46 問診 Mon shin, KD288 The tactile exam: Touching . . . . . . 51 切診 Setsu shin, KD376

The three yins and three yangs . . . 61 三陰三陽 San in san yoh, KD359 Greater yang stage . . . . . . . . . . 61 太陽病 Tai yoh byoh, KD460 Lesser yang stage . . . . . . . . . . . 62 少陽病 Shoh yoh byoh, KD437 Yang brightness stage . . . . . . . . 62 陽明病 Yoh mei byoh, KD485 Greater yin stage . . . . . . . . . . . 63 太陰病 Tai in byoh, KD456 Lesser yin stage . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 少陰病 Shoh in byoh, KD428 Polar yin stage . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 厥陰病 Ketsu in (kecchin) byoh, KD201

Ki stagnation conformation . . . . . . 41 気滞証 Ki tai shoh, KD229

Transforming stage; entered stage; companion disease; paired disease . . 64 転属 Ten zoku, KD471; 転入 ten nyuh, KD469; 併病 hei byoh, KD103; 合病 goh byoh, KD86

Blood stagnation conformation . . . . 42 瘀血証 O ketsu shoh, KD309

The broken disease stage . . . . . . . 65 壊病 E byoh, KD41

Exterior interior empty conformation . 41 表裏虚証 Hyoh ri kyo shoh, KD128

Pathological fluid conformation . . . 42 痰飲証 Tan in shoh, KD462

37

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

THE NAMES OF DISEASES, PAST AND PRESENT 病名の今昔 Byoh mei no kon jyaku In Kampo, KD168, the symptoms used by patients to describe their disease are significant, for they are often taken as the name of the disease itself. For example, what in modern medicine is known as stomach cancer is described as ‘blockage of the diaphragm’; diabetes is ‘exhausting thirst’; tonsillitis is ‘palsy and numbness of the throat’; colitis is ‘diarrhoea’; and scrotal hernia is ‘sudden yin pain’. The Kampo term based on patients’ descriptions of ‘turmoil in the uterus’ is in modern medicine hysteria, ‘heart-wind’ is anxiety, and any ‘wind within a series of joints’ is polyarthritis, while ‘astonishing or surprising wind’ can include all meningitislike diseases. ‘Wind’ is a synonym in the traditional medical system for a transient, passing disturbance, or evil. Often what modern medicine calls by a single name is classified into different diseases, and given a different name in Kampo, depending upon the part of the body in which the onset occurs. For example, carbuncles or furuncles occurring on the back are called ‘back eruptions’, while they are called ‘buttock carbuncles’ when occurring on the buttocks and ‘facial furuncles’ when occurring on the face. In Kampo there exist some diseases that are difficult to understand using only the terminology of modern medicine. One of them is sen, KD371, a suddenly occurring, strong abdominal pain which seems to have no organic origin. Likewise, hyoh so, KD131, which today is used to mean paronychia (swelling and whitlow of the fingertips), means something completely different in Kampo. Kekkaku, KD190, refers to any disease that causes knots, kernels or lumps in the lymph glands or elsewhere, though in modern terminology it is classified as pulmonary tuberculosis. Kampo was established before the development of the natural sciences, so that

38

the type of precise measurement called for in chemistry and physics could not be used. Therefore, it is not difficult to see how an illness described by a patient as ‘blockage in the alimentary tract’ could include such diseases as gastric and oesophageal cancer, as well as other diseases showing similar symptoms. In the same way the ‘exhausting thirst’ disease could include diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus or other diseases. When choosing proper treatment in Kampo, it is unwise to rely solely upon any name ascribed to an illness. It is even more unwise to rely upon the translations of disease names from traditional medicine to modern western terminology when choosing a method of treatment. Fortunately, instead of the disease names, Kampo employs the shoh, KD411, to decide a proper treatment. The actual name given to the disease becomes less important than the shoh of the patient. Here we see an advantage of traditional Kampo medicine.

Conformation 証 Shoh, KD411 Simply speaking, the term shoh can be added to the name of a Kampo recipe as a suffix, telling us in which instances a certain herbal recipe should be used. It is the correct shoh that we seek in order to determine the treatment. In western medicine the name of the disease is determined according to symptoms, tests and lab findings, yet the naming of the disease does not decide which treatment is called for. Using Kampo methodology, one diagnoses on the basis of certain subjective and objective symptoms. In western medicine the name of the disease is diagnosed; in Kampo we diagnose that such and such a patient should be treated by a specific herbal recipe. The shoh translates as a method of treatment, and not the disease name, so that determining the

The Kampo Diagnostic

shoh both labels the dysfunction and points to the appropriate treatment. In the Pueraria combination shoh, KF36, the pulse is floating and strong, there is often stiffness in the shoulders and the back of the neck, and, very often, headaches. There may be fever, and if fever occurs, it will be accompanied by chills of either the o fuh, KD306, or the o kan, KD307, type, yet there will be no spontaneous perspiration. These symptoms are clear indications for the recipe Pueraria combination and so this is a case of the Pueraria combination shoh. Any name given to the disease is not very important. Whether the disease itself could be named the common cold, neuralgia, furuncle, conjunctivitis, sinusitis paranasalis or otitis media, or even whether modern medicine has no name for it, Pueraria combination is to be used. It makes no difference if a wrong diagnosis is made, mistaking tonsillitis for the common cold, or muscular rheumatism for neuralgia – this same Pueraria combination can successfully treat any of them. First we diagnose what is called the kyo shoh, KD256, the jitsu shoh, KD148, the in shoh, KD143, and the yoh shoh, KD486, and for that it is necessary to examine the indications of the kyo, the jitsu, the in and the yoh (see below). To make a diagnosis we make use of specialist procedures called myaku shin, KD292 (pulse diagnosis), fuku shin, KD60 (abdomen diagnosis), and zesshin, KD493 (tongue diagnosis), respectively, looking for indications specific to the hyoh shoh, KD130 (outside shoh), the ri shoh, KD335 (inside shoh), and the han gai hanri shoh, KD95 (half outside half inside shoh).

Yin and yang 陰 In, KD138; 陽 yoh, KD479 The words in and yoh are given different definitions in the two classics, the Shoh Kan Ron, KD430 (Shang Han Lun), and the Koh Tei Nai Kyoh, KD249 (Nei Jing), and even

within the same book in and yoh will be used differently, depending upon the circumstances. This gives rise to many interpretations of in and yoh, making traditional medicine itself more difficult to understand. Think first of in as things negative and passive, and yoh as things positive and active. Recall from your studies on the history of Chinese medicine some of the complex metaphysical interpretations given to the two concepts. Here, we will speak of the in shoh and yoh shoh in the context of the Shoh Kan Ron, and will avoid unnecessary complications.

Yang conformation 陽証 Yoh shoh, KD486 The symptoms of the yoh shoh are acute and active; they show up on the surface of the body and can be seen from the outside. If there is influenza, the pulse will be rapid and floating; there will be fever, headache, body aches, a flushed face, dry throat and a strong cough.

Yin conformation 陰証 In shoh, KD143 The symptoms of the in shoh are still and covert; they manifest themselves inside the body. A weak child or an old person can catch influenza and seem only less active, look pale or to want to lie down; the pulse will be chin, KD20 (sunken), and chi, KD17 (slow); there will be no high fever or strong coughing. At first glance the symptoms seem slight, yet the in shoh is more difficult to treat than the yoh shoh and is more difficult to cure. For treating the yoh shoh, diaphoretic, antipyretic, purgative and such strong and subduing drugs are used. For treating the in shoh, medicines are used to warm and tonify. Even for a simple illness such as the common cold, the in shoh and the yoh shoh receive different treatments, so that in Kampo a decision needs to be made as to whether the sick person is of the in shoh or 39

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

of the yoh shoh type. In clinical situations it often happens that extreme cases of the in shoh will manifest symptoms that resemble the yoh shoh, and that extreme yoh shoh will manifest symptoms that look like the in shoh; therefore the examination must be performed prudently and comprehensively. Whenever the yoh shoh resembles the in shoh, some of the clear symptoms will contradict. For example, the clinical findings may present a high fever, strong thirst, red complexion, headache and a pulse that is sunken, weak and slow. In this case this sort of pulse is a contradiction; if this were a genuine yoh shoh, the pulse cannot fail to be strong and big or wide.

Empty and full 虚 Kyo, KD258; 実 jitsu, KD148 Kyo and jitsu have the same relationship to each other as in and yoh, and in the same way their meanings will vary according to where they manifest as well as other criteria. The character kyo, KD256 (虚 xu, empty): kyo itself means ‘primary’, ‘void’, ‘emptiness’ and, in terms of physical constitution, ‘weakness’. Once this state is determined, to put it to practical use in illness we must determine in which part of the body this state of ‘void’ occurs. These following examples will do that.

Exterior empty conformation 表虚証 Hyoh kyo shoh, KD126 There are chills, including both o kan, KD307 (evil cold), and o fuh, KD306 (evil wind), a pulse that is fuh, KD44 (floating), and jyaku, KD152 (weak), headache, stiff shoulders and spontaneous sweating, and we call this condition hyoh kyo shoh. To tonify this weakness (to fill the void) we must use: cinnamon combination, KF60, or one of its modifications.

40

Interior empty conformation 裏虚証 Ri kyo shoh, KD331 There is a soft abdomen which lacks strength with a decreasing appetite and diarrhoea, or alternatively fuku man, KD57 (full abdomen), with nausea and vomiting. When the pulse is also chin, KD20 (sunken), and jyaku, KD152 (weak), we call this ri kyo shoh, KD331. This emptiness will be tonified by medications which warm and build the interior, such as: vitality combination, KF147; ginseng and ginger combination, KF203; and aconite, ginger and liquorice combination, KF115. The character jitsu, KD148 (実), means fullness, repletion: in terms of physical constitution, strength and power. At the time of an illness, once jitsu is diagnosed, we must determine at what location in the body this ‘fullness’ occurs. The following examples will do that.

Exterior full conformation 表実証 Hyoh jitsu shoh, KD127 There will be chills, both o kan and o fuh, headache, an outbreak of fever with no spontaneous sweating, a fu, KD44 (floating), and kin, KD233 (tight), pulse, and we call this condition fullness on the exterior, hyoh jitsu shoh, KD127. To induce perspiration, recipes such as ma huang combination, KF238, and Pueraria combination, KF36, are used.

Interior full conformation 裏実証 Ri jitsu shoh, KD329 There will be the fuku man, KD57 (the full abdomen), constipation, yellow tongue fur, complaints of thirst and a pulse which is chin, KD20 (sunken), and jitsu, KD148 (full); we call this condition fullness on the interior,

The Kampo Diagnostic

KD329: ri jitsu shoh. Such purgatives as major Bupleurum combination, KF171, and major rhubarb combination, KF172, are taken to flush out the interior. However, the ri kyo shoh, KD331, interior empty shoh will at times show a similar abdominal fullness and constipation, but the abdomen will lack elasticity and the strength will be waning with bi and jyaku pulses, KD7 (faint) and KD152 (weak), respectively. We must then tonify the ri kyo shoh with vitality  combination, KF147; ginseng and ginger combination, KF203; aconite, ginger and liquorice combination, KF115; or similar formulas, as mentioned above. Take note of this point because chronic peritonitis, intestinal strictures and similar conditions also cause abdominal swelling and constipation, and their origin is the ri kyo shoh.

Exterior empty interior full conformation 表虚裏実証 Hyoh kyo ri jitsu shoh, KD125 There will be constipation, abdominal swelling, a robust and full abdomen, and a chin, KD20 (sunken), and jitsu, KD152 (full), pulse, all as in the interior full shoh: ri jitsu shoh, KD329. Here, if accompanied by o kan, KD307 (evil cold), it is the hyoh  kyo ri jitsu shoh. First we cure the exterior kyo with cinnamon combination, KF60, and then the interior jitsu with major rhubarb combination, KF172.

Exterior interior empty conformation 表裏虚証 Hyoh ri kyo shoh, KD128 There will be o kan, KD307 (evil cold), with fever and body aches. There can be as many as ten watery stools with undigested food passed per day. Both the interior and exterior are kyo (empty). First cure the interior kyo with aconite, ginger and liquorice combination, KF115, then the exterior kyo with cinnamon combination, KF60.

Ki stagnation conformation 気滞証 Ki tai shoh, KD229 The ki has no form, it has only function. When the ki collects, or sumps, as utsu tai, KD476, then there is what is called illness. This notion can be seen in the Ro Shi Shun Jyu, KD341. According to the Japanese physician, Goto (Gotoh) Konzan, KD87, this blockage of the flow of ki (ryuh tai), KD349, is the cause of all disease. According to Kampo, the blood and water are set to work by the ki, so that if the ki sumps (stagnates), then the blood and water which faithfully follow the flow of ki will also falter and sump (utsu tai), KD476. In Kampo there are some raw drugs referred to as ki herbs which direct the ki and keep it circulating. For example, if the ki rises within the body, we use cinnamon, KH47. When there is disease the ki rises easily, and the rising ki causes a sensation of dizziness. As the ki ascends the feet are cold (hie, KD144), there is nobose, KD303, dizziness, headache and heart palpitations. These are correctly handled by using cinnamon-based prescriptions, such as: • Cinnamon combination, KF60 • Atractylodes and hoelen combination, KF260 • Hoelen five formula, KF91 • Cinnamon and dragonbone combination, KF68. Moreover, when there is illness, the ki will sump (accumulate). Ancient people called this symptom bai kaku ki, KD5 (plum pit ki): a feeling as though the stone of a plum were caught in the throat. Looking carefully at a patient with neurosis, symptoms arising from sumped ki are often seen, so that using Pinellia and magnolia combination, KF213, the circulation of the ki improves and symptoms disappear. If the ki sumps, the water, blood and circulation deteriorate, so that within a single 41

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

formula, a ki tonic in addition to crude drugs (yaku butsu, KD478) to maintain water and blood flow will be prescribed together at the same time. Major rhubarb combination, KF172, which is commonly thought of as a purgative, contains a ki-circulating component, magnolia bark, KH57. Here the meaning of the character dai (major) is ‘primary’ and jyoh ki can be translated as ‘to bring the ki to obedience (into order)’.

Blood stagnation conformation 瘀血証 O ketsu shoh, KD309 The concept known as blood stagnation is a speciality in Kampo. Among lay people it is referred to as old or decrepit blood, but the term o ketsu does not mean old blood. The o means sumped, so the term means the (liquid) blood is stagnant. As to what aspect of the blood o ketsu refers has not yet been defined in the terminology of modern medicine. However, when the following symptoms manifest, o ketsu is diagnosed: • The mouth is dry, and though there is a desire to wet the mouth, there is no desire to drink. • The abdomen is not swollen, though there is the subjective complaint of a feeling of fullness there. • There is han netsu, KD98, a troublesome feeling of heat either in the whole body or in parts of it. • There are purpura – purple spots on the skin or mucous membranes. • Distended blue veins appear on the surface of the skin. • The edges of the tongue are purple and the lips bluish. • The faeces become black. • There is a tendency to bleed easily.

42

• O ketsu manifests a specific abdominal shoh, the o ketsu point (shoh fuku kyuh ketsu, KD424). Upon finding this abdominal shoh, the existence of o ketsu can be verified, and we can prescribe herbal formulas using such crude drugs (yaku butsu, KD478) as: • Persica, 桃仁 KH145 • Moutan, 牡丹皮 KH184 • Leech, 水蛭 KH110 • Horsefly/gadfly, 蝱虫 KH181 • (Wingless) cockroach,しゃ虫 KH88.

Pathological fluid conformation 痰飲証 Tan in shoh, KD462 Tan has come to mean sputum in modern medicine, but in Kampo it still refers to body fluids in general, of course including sputum. The in character is interpreted as ‘eating and drinking’ plus ‘body fluids’. The term tan in has both a broad and a concise meaning. In its broad meaning it refers to body fluids. But the term tan in specifically refers to tei sui, KD466, the abnormal accumulation of water in the stomach. An ancient saying goes: ‘Mysterious diseases, kai byoh, KD163, should always be treated as tan.’ This means that for diseases difficult to diagnose and of unknown origin the methods of treatment for water and its changes should be used. The body is 70 per cent water. If it happens that water metabolism is disturbed in the body, then there is a lack of harmony in the distribution and circulation of water. The Kin Ki Yoh Ryaku, KD236 (Prescriptions from the Golden Chamber), says that, in diseases of tan in, KD462 (pathological fluids), there will be: ‘such water-related symptoms as water and ki disease (sui byoh, KD447, and ki byoh, KD215, respectively), swellings, phlegm disease and such things as this’.

The Kampo Diagnostic

Furthermore, there are external conditions which affect the water such as wind, damp and fuh shitsu, KD49 (rheumatism and body aches). Illnesses brought on by a change in water are commonly accompanied by changes in the ki and the blood as well. These symptoms are many and take various forms, of which the most common are: a sound of water splashing in the epigastrium, KD385; abdominal thunder, KD56 (borbyrigmus); diarrhoea; vomiting; constipation; scanty urination; copious urination; oedema; palpitations; vertigo; ringing in the ears (tinnitus); headaches; weariness; as well as various diseases where there is hypersecretion of sputum, saliva and fluids such as arthralgia,

stridor, coughing, thirst and copious perspiration or a lack of perspiration. Known crude drugs that relate to the control of the metabolism of water and that are commonly used include: • Hoelen, KH173 • Atractylodes, KH92 • Alisma, KH130 • Polyporus, KH138 • Akebia, KH190 • Ma huang, KH186 • Asarum, KH67 • Stephania, KH177.

THE FOUR EXAMS 四診 Shi shin, KD380 These are the four diagnostic procedures that make up what is called in Kampo the four exams, KD380: 1. Boh shin, KD11 (望診 the visual exam: looking), involves the naked eye of the physician observing the patient. 2. Bun shin, KD13 (聞診 the auditory exam: listening), is not limited to the physician listening with the ears to the patient’s voice, abdominal noises and growling, coughing and spitting. It includes taking in the odours of the body excreta through the physician’s olfactory organs. For example, besides the odour of the mouth and excrement, there is the odour of pus and vaginal discharge, which may be malodorous or not. 3. Mon shin, KD288 (問診 the oral exam: asking), involves asking about earlier diseases and the history of the present disease, as well as enquiring into patient complaints, with quick, precise and specialized understanding.

4. Setsu shin, KD376 (切診 the tactile exam: touching), is the hand of the physician directly upon the patient; the pulse and abdominal exams are the most important. As mentioned above, diagnosis in Kampo is performed using only the five senses of the physician, and is not achieved by any mechanical instruments, therefore the physician asks after the patient’s complaints with the greatest care. The pulse and abdominal exams in particular have been carefully developed in Kampo. On the other hand, another level of diagnostic procedure is made using kan 勘, KD174, the intuition, or perception, and a great master can achieve this. To some degree this was the dominant tendency in early Kampo diagnosis, and something that only a master could diagnose. This stands in contrast to modern medicine where the use of instruments can define a physician. I urge today’s physicians to make use of these accurate measurements and mechanical methods in Kampo also, so that even average 43

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

non-masters can make use of the shoh and diagnose accurately.

The visual exam: Looking 望診 Boh shin, KD11 Traditionally, it is said that one who knows only by seeing is called a god (kami 神, KD503). The famous physician Hen Jyaku, KD107, said that the reaction to illness appears on the surface of the body (hyoh 表, KD124). In another classic text, the So Mon, KD442 (Plain Questions), we see this: ‘without fail one must first observe the appearance of the patient, and whether he is thick or thin (hi soh, KD113) to know if he is in the kyo or the jitsu state’. With boh shin it is not difficult to get the in/yoh, kyo/jitsu on target even if one is not a master physician. Those who are well nourished, strongly built, muscular and robust are in most cases jitsu. For such patients we often use recipes such as: • Major Bupleurum combination, KF171 • Major rhubarb combination, KF172 • Siler and Platycodon combination, KF233. But if a patient is fat but not well developed, pale white, with delicate bone structure and beautiful skin, it is a condition called ‘full of water’. These people are often kyo shoh, and we use prescriptions containing: Astragalus, KH13; Atractylodes, KH169; and hoelen, KH173, in recipes such as Stephania and Astragalus combination, KF232, to correct the mechanism here. If a physician misdiagnoses such patients as jitsu, and treats using purgatives containing rhubarb, KH126, patients will become more and more dramatically exhausted. Those who are thin and of poor complexion are usually kyo shoh, but there are exceptions to this. One might fail in

44

diagnosis in considering solely the external examination. It is necessary to examine the patient as a whole. Those who are thin, but well developed, taut and of darkish complexion should be treated with prescriptions containing Rehmannia, KH75, such as: • Tang kuei four combination, KF118 • Rehmannia eight combination, KF209 • Phellodendron combination, KF107. Those who are ruddy-faced, choh koh, KD23, have good colouring (complexion, kesshoku, KD207) and who suffer from a feeling described as a rush of blood to the head (nobose, KD303) should be treated with recipes containing herbs such as Coptis, KH17, and gardenia, KH77. For example: • Coptis and rhubarb combination, KF103 • Coptis and scute combination, KF24. But the slight flush over pale skin often seen in patients with tuberculosis is a different phenomenon, traditionally called ‘the rising of a false fire’. This fire is often seen against the pale skin of tuberculosis patients. Then we use herbs such as Ophiopogon, KH156, or Schizandra, KH64, and recipes containing them. There are also those whose faces are flushed red, choh koh, KD23, because of blood stagnation, where we see capillary nets or vascular spiders. For such patients we use recipes to activate o ketsu, such as: • Persica and rhubarb combination, KF186. Those who are old, or who have renal atrophy or diabetes and such diseases, or those who are long-suffering, may have dry, rough skin. In such patients the body fluid lacks nourishment and lustre, therefore we use: • Ginseng, KH150 • Phellodendron, KH16

The Kampo Diagnostic



Rehmannia, KH75

• Peony, KH83 • Tang kuei, KH143 and similar herbs. Tongue diagnosis 舌診 Zesshin, KF493 Tongue diagnosis plays an important part in the diagnosis of acute febrile and gastrointestinal disorders, but is of less significance than the pulse and abdominal diagnosis for most other diseases. The no-fur tongue 舌苔のないもの Zettai no nai mono, KD494 A healthy tongue has no fur. However, in the yang disease, the beginning stage of acute febrile diseases, when the pathological signs are restricted to hyoh shoh, KD130 – the exterior shoh – then the tongue shows no fur. Again in the final or yin disease stages, the tongue has no fur and is only wet. In the absence of fever there are various kinds of disease in which the tongue has no fur. White fur 白苔 Haku tai, KD93 In someone who has had a no-fur tongue that changes to a white-fur tongue, accompanied by a stickiness in the mouth and slight dry throat, we conclude that the tai yang disease has transformed to the shao yang disease. This calls chiefly for minor Bupleurum combination, KF136. If white-fur tongue is observed, then purgatives should not be employed. In such cases use recipes such as: • Minor Bupleurum combination, KF136 • Gardenia and soja combination (shishi shi toh 梔子鼓湯), KD379 • Pinellia combination, KF214

• Coptis combination, KF22 • Minor Trichosanthes KF134

combination,

or similar formulas. Yellow fur 黄苔 Oh tai, KD315 When the white fur turns to yellow fur, sometimes purgatives are a good choice, and sometimes not. When the white fur turns to a yellow fur emanating from the centre out, and is not thick, do not use purgatives. If, after a few days, the yellow turns to brown, purgatives are called for, but proceed with the greatest caution, considering the pulse shoh and the abdominal shoh. In cases of yellow-fur tongue calling for purgatives, the most frequently used recipe is major Bupleurum combination, KF171. Black fur 黒苔 Koku tai, KD252 When the tongue becomes black, either purgatives are called for, or there is a kyo shoh that must be treated with crude drugs (yaku butsu, KD478) to warm and replenish, on po, KD317. In febrile disease when the tongue is scorched black, and when pinched it is hard and stiff, then this is often recognized as jitsu netsu, KD502. For a tongue which is dry and parched (KD183), and when pinched is soft, it is not recommended to use purgative formulas. In the first instance use such formulas as major rhubarb combination (KF172); for the second use formulas such as aconite, ginger and liquorice combination (KF115) or ginseng and ginger combination (KF203). When there is a high fever with visual difficulties and a tongue that is scorched black, when ‘words won’t come out’ and ‘ears don’t hear’ (says the Shang Han Lun, Chapter 2), and there is a facial expression of agony when the physician merely touches the abdomen, this we can diagnose as jitsu shoh, 45

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

KD149, and an indication for treating with purgatives. But when the tongue is soft, and can be extended, though speaking may not be easy, and food can be taken into the mouth even though there may be no taste, this is a kyo shoh, KD267, and no purgatives can be used. When the black fur is thick and dry and the lips are also dry, and the blackness and dryness extend to the gums, and there is a dislike of having the epigastrium touched, then it is jitsu shoh, and can be treated well with purgatives. But when there is no fur and the surface of the tongue itself becomes black, it is not a purgative formula shoh; instead choose a formula from a shoh containing the ingredient aconite, KH174. The red tongue 舌の赤いもの Shita no akai mono, KD408 When papillae disappear, and the tongue becomes bare and red or hardened, we use drugs to moisten and emolliate, such as: • Rehmannia, KH75 • Ophiopogon, KH156 • Anemarrhena, KH135 • Ginseng, KH150. This tongue shoh occurs easily in the elderly and in women just after giving birth. The dark (dusky/cyan) purple tongue 舌が暗紫色のもの Shita ga an shi shoku no mono, KD407 When the tongue is dark red or bluish, or has purple spots on the edges, it is the o ketsu, KD308, tongue shoh.

46

The auditory exam: Listening 聞診 Bun shin, KD13 Used in conjunction with questions and answers and tactile diagnosis, which we will discuss in the following sections.

The oral exam: Asking 問診 Mon shin, KD288 It is necessary to illicit the desired information skilfully from the patient. To do this one has often to ask leading questions, and not simply listen to the patient’s complaints. Hearing one complaint, be prepared to bring up other points related to it, such as family or earlier case history. Much is written in modern medical texts on this subject, so we shall touch on only the most important things relevant to the diagnosis in Kampo, as in the following instances. Damaging cold, damaging wind 悪寒 O kan, KD307; 悪風 o fuh, KD306 O kan means severe chills. O kan is a feeling of coldness even when lying covered in a warm room. In o fuh one feels cold only when touched by the wind. Both are hyoh shoh surface symptoms, so we must ask questions to find out whether the patient has true hyoh shoh or not. It should be noted that o kan is not always accompanied by o fuh. In o kan, cold and fever exist at the same time in the same site, a hyoh shoh, but if a fever rises when the chills abate, this is called ‘alternating cold and heat’, the sign of a fever disease in the shoh yoh byoh, shao yang, KD437, stage. Simultaneously occurring cold and fever is treated with cinnamon combination, KF60; ma huang combination, KF238; or Pueraria combination, KF36, or similar formula for the hyoh shoh conformation. Alternating chills and fever are treated with a Bupleurum, KH66, formula according to the fever type present.

The Kampo Diagnostic

O kan, chills without fever, is a yin shoh form of o kan and is to be treated by recipes containing aconite, KH174. Sweat 汗 Ase, KD3 In the tai yoh byoh, KD460, stage, a hyoh shoh, KD130, when without the use of hakkan zai, KD102 (sudorifics), one sweats spontaneously, it is a case of the hyoh kyo shoh, KD126, and should be treated with some variation of cinnamon combination, KF60, according to the shoh. There are other cases of hyoh kyo where the patient may not sweat; we differentiate such cases by the pulse diagnosis. This state of hyoh kyo will have a floating and weak pulse. In hyoh jitsu with a floating strong pulse there will never be spontaneous sweating, though a superficial tight pulse may appear. Patients in the yin stages of an illness usually do not sweat; if they do sweat profusely this is datsu kan, KD38, and a sign the illness has become serious. Fever 熱 Netsu, KD298 Fever as spoken of in Kampo does not necessarily mean an elevation in body temperature. If one complains of feeling hot, this is considered a type of fever. An outbreak of fever in terms of Kampo may mean either subjectively that one feels hot, or objectively that one is hot to the touch. An occurrence of fever itself is not enough to distinguish between hyoh shoh and ri shoh. However, a concurrent outbreak of o kan, KD307, chills would suggest a hyoh shoh. Oh rai kan netsu, KD314, is alternating chills and fever; fever following after cold or cold following after fever. O kan abates, fever rises; fever abates, o kan is there. This is the shoh yoh stage, KD436, of a fever confirmation. Tidal fever choh netsu, KD24, is not followed by chills, from either o kan or o fuh.

It touches every part of the body, like a tide that sweeps to the shore, and one sweats from the head to the soles of the feet at the same time. When sweating occurs only above the neck, or there is coldness of the calf or leg, this is not tidal fever. This tidal fever is the fever of the yoh mei stage, KD484 (yang brightness stage), and should be treated with purgatives. In later texts of about the second and third century, there is mention of twilight tidal fever (nippo choh netsu, KD302) which occurs in the evening in tuberculosis patients, but this is not the tidal fever of which we speak. Body fever (shin netsu, KD400) is like tidal fever in one respect: it occurs everywhere on the body surface, but it is not followed by whole-body sweating. Body fever is also the yang ming stage of a febrile disease. Troublesome fever (han netsu, KD98) occurs on the soles and on the palms. There will be complaints of heat there, even to the point of sticking the soles and palms out of bed, or wanting to touch cold things. These symptoms suggest treatment by Rehmanniabased formulas, KH75, but never use purgatives. Bowel movements 大便 Dai ben, KD32 Those who have hard stools and constipation generally belong to the jitsu shoh, and those who suffer from diarrhoea and soft stools to kyo shoh, but there are exceptions. There are those in a kyo state with constipation. Even if there is constipation, but a weak pulse and flaccid abdomen, this is kyo, and therefore should not be treated with purgatives. To restore balance in this kind of patient, use warming, nourishing, emolliating and moistening herbs and the bowels will move. Fever with constipation and weak pulse is kyo shoh. Avoid treatment with purgatives such as rhubarb and Mirabilitum combination, KF182, which will make the gen ki, KD80 47

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

(vital energy), more and more feeble. In such cases, treat with vitality combination, KF147, or aconite, liquorice and ginger combination, KF115, to warm and tonify the patient; the abdominal strength will return and defecation will occur spontaneously. When there is diarrhoea, and beneath the epigastrium there are complaints of pain, and when touched it feels hard and hurts, this is often jitsu shoh; use major Bupleurum combination, KF171, or a similar recipe where the shoh suits. When there is diarrhoea followed by severe cramping, this is often jitsu shoh, so choose formulas containing rhubarb, KH126, or peony, KH83. When the faeces are black in colour it is often blood stagnation. Strong odour or sticky stool is often jitsu shoh. However, when there are ‘rabbit stools’ (like little pebbles) which are also shiny and hard, this is not an instance to use purgatives; moisturizing and emolliating herbs are called for, such as ginseng, KH150, or Rehmannia, KH75. When the stool is pale, blue-green or whitish, even if it is sticky, this is a kind of ricegrain diarrhoea, or when the faeces have no smell this is kyo shoh. Formulas containing aconite, KH174, dried ginger, KH33, and such herbs are the formulas to choose. Urination 小便 Shoh ben, KD413 ‘Urine doesn’t come’ (shoh ben fu ri, KD414) means that the quantity of urine excreted is scant. ‘Urine comes on its own’ (shoh ben ji ri, KD415) means an overabundant quantity of urination (copious); and ‘difficult urination’ (shoh ben nan, KD416) means that the release of urine is difficult (retention). Scanty urination is classified as both kyo and jitsu. An outbreak of sweating, diarrhoea, bleeding, vomiting or such symptoms diminishes body fluids and results in scanty 48

urination, but clearly does not call for the use of diuretics. In the early stages of jaundice and oedema there is also oliguria. For scanty urine in these cases when there is thirst, use recipes such as: • Capillaris combination, KF5, hoelen five formula, KF91.

or

Moreover, when there is no oedema, but the urine doesn’t come due to an imbalance of body fluids, use recipes containing raw drugs, such as: • Hoelen, KH173 • Atractylodes, KH169 • Alisma, KH130 • Polyporus, KH138 in formulas that suit the shoh. Copious urination is often yin shoh and kyo shoh and is often the sho of recipes such as: • Rehmannia eight combination, KF209 • Minor cinnamon combination, KF135

and

peony

• Ginger and hoelen combination, KF259 • Liquorice and ginger combination, KF42. In addition, there is the copious urination caused by o ketsu, KD308 (blood stasis). Thirst and dry mouth 口渇 Koh katsu, KD248; 口乾 koh kan, KD246 A dry throat with a desire to drink water is called thirst, KD248. A condition of extreme thirst, when the patient is in a state of extreme discomfort or semiconsciousness and wants to drink continuously, is called han katsu in in, KD97, or troublesome thirst (‘reaching for water’). Among complaints of thirst there is the condition of dryness from the lips to the tongue, and another condition when the

The Kampo Diagnostic

tongue is moist. In addition, there is a mild thirst when occasional sips are taken and the above-mentioned continuous reaching for water. There may be the desire to consume hot drinks or the desire for cold water. There is kan soh, KD183, dryness inside the mouth, due to the sparse secretion of saliva, when there is a desire to wet the mouth, with no desire to drink. This is a condition referred to as dry mouth, KD246, which is distinguished from thirst. This troublesome thirst, reaching for water, han katsu in in, KD97, can be either yin shoh or yang shoh. The differentiation is made by referring to the pulse and various specialist signs before a diagnosis is made. There is the opinion that liking warm water is yin shoh while liking cold water is yang shoh, and though this may serve as a reference, yin and yang cannot be divided solely using this sign. In extreme polar in, KD274, as in transforming stages of yin shoh, there is a reversal of this phenomenon, with a desire to drink cold water continuously, as in the yang shoh. Within the yang shoh, in extreme cases there are similar reversals with a desire for hot drinks. In the yang shoh, thirst is treated with recipes containing gypsum, KH112, such as: ginseng and gypsum combination, KF220; and in the yin shoh by aconite, KH174, and aconite-containing recipes such as vitality combination, KF147, and hoelen, ginger, liquorice and aconite combination (茯苓四逆 湯 bukuryoh shi gyaku toh), KD12. To prevent the thirst becoming stronger, use moistening and emolliating herbs such as Trichosanthes root, KH31; ginseng, KH150; Anemarrhena, KH135; and Rehmannia, KH75. Dry mouth is not jitsu shoh, but entirely kyo shoh, though there is also dry mouth caused by o ketsu, KD308 (blood stasis), so that one shoh must be clearly distinguished from the other. Apart from o ketsu, dry mouth is treated by warming, compensating, moistening, emolliating, nourishing and luxuriating

drugs. For example, a seriously ill person or an elderly one may have such a dry mouth after awakening that speech is impossible without wetting the mouth. Such extremes of dry mouth are treated with drugs such as ginseng, KH150, hoelen, KH173, and Rehmannia, KH75, in formula for the appropriate shoh. It should be noted that antimuscarinic drugs such as atropine and scopolamine produce a dry mouth, and care should be taken to distinguish this. Cough 咳嗽 Gai soh, KD73 When there is a cough, there are important questions to ask, such as: Is there stridor? Is it a wet cough, or a dry cough? Is the phlegm easily dislodged, or difficult to dislodge? Is the quantity of phlegm abundant or is it scant? Furthermore, it is necessary to ask other important questions such as: Does the face becomes red or flushed with coughing? Does the back of the throat feel dry? Does the coughing increase with proximity to a room heater? Is the coughing worse at night? Does the cough intensify upon rising in the morning?, and other important questions. A cough accompanied by stridor is usually treated with recipes containing ma huang, KH186. A dry cough is one with no phlegm. At the onset of a dry cough, often use recipes with ma huang, and if the cough persists, use moistening and emolliating raw drugs, such as Rehmannia, KH75, and Ophiopogon, KH156. With a wet cough when the phlegm is difficult to dislodge, use recipes such as Ophiopogon combination, KF207, and baked liquorice combination, KF122. On the other hand, if the phlegm is easily dislodged and is abundant, nourishing and emolliating will worsen the cough, and are not called for. Moistening and nourishing recipes are called for, however, when the back of the throat is dry, and when the cough worsens in proximity to a source of heat. 49

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

When there is coughing and an outside shoh, treat the outside shoh and the cough will stop. When the cough lingers after the outside shoh has gone, treat the cough using the treatments outlined above. Bleeding 出血 Shukketsu, KD441 When there is bleeding, KD441, and the hands and feet are warm, the blood colour (complexion), kesshoku, KD207, is good, the pulse has strength, and there is a tendency for fevers and congestion, use recipes with Coptis, KH17, such as Coptis and rhubarb combination, KF103, or Coptis and scute combination, KF24. Conversely, with cold hands and feet and a poor complexion, KD207, a pulse with no strength, a tendency towards hie shoh, KD115 (cold constitution), and o ketsu, then the main raw drug to use is Rehmannia, KH75, in recipes such as Coptis and gelatin combination, KF23, or tang kuei four combination, KF118. When both sets of conditions described above are present, and the Rehmannia shoh is inextricably mixed with the Coptis shoh, use Coptis and scute combination, KF24, with tang kuei four combination, KF118. These can be taken together as tang kuei and gardenia combination, KF11. When the bleeding is severe and there are strong anaemic-like symptoms, use recipes with ginseng, KH150, such as ginseng and ginger combination, KF203, or four major herb combination, KF117, or similar. A distinction should be made when the bleeding is due to o ketsu. By referring to the various symptoms and making clear comparisons, sooner or later the various types of bleeding can be differentiated. If bleeding is due to o ketsu, use recipes such as: • Cinnamon and hoelen combination, KF78 • Persica and rhubarb combination, KF186 50

• Cinnamon and Persica combination, KF159 or similar formulas. Headache 頭痛 Zu tsuh, KD496 In the case of headaches, there are the distinctions of kyo and jitsu, in and yoh. Headaches, fever, o kan, and a floating and tight pulse is the tai yoh byoh, KD460 (tai yang stage), headache, and the shoh of ma huang combination, KF238. This is what is called the headache of the hyoh (outside) shoh. Conversely, when there is headache, and the head is cold so that applying an ice pack is repugnant and the pulse is sunken, then this is the shoh in byoh, KD428 (shao yin stage), and the shoh of ma huang and Asarum combination, KF239. If the headache is severe and there is vomiting and the hands and feet have hie chills, KD114, and han soh, KD99 (troublesome pain), and the pulse is chin, KD20 (sunken), and chi, KD17 (slow) – these are also the headache of the shoh in byoh and in this case you apply the shoh of Evodia combination, KF93. A gastric atony patient who has the abdominal diagnostic sign shin ka bu shin sui on, KD385 (心下部振水音 epigastric splash sound), cold feet, heaviness from the shoulders to the head, dizziness and headache – for this patient use Pinellia and Gastrodia combination, KF215. Among patients who have the abdominal sign kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270 (胸脇苦満 hypochondriac fullness and discomfort), or shin ka hi koh, KD389 (心下痞硬 epigastric obstruction and tightness), there are those who complain about heaviness in the head or headache; in Kampo we call this zu jyuh, KD264. In this case, if there is kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270, use: minor Bupleurum combination, KF136; major Bupleurum combination, KF171; or Bupleurum and dragonbone combination, KF95. And if there is the abdominal sign shin ka hi koh, KD389,

The Kampo Diagnostic

use Pinellia combination, KF214, or Coptis and rhubarb combination, KF103. Dizziness 眩暈 Gen un, KD83 The old terms moku gen, KD286 (the eyes are spinning), and zu un, KD497 (the head is obscured), are both included here as dizziness. In boh gen, KD9 (a spinning attack), the head is said to be clouded (by something) and is heavy, and there is dizziness. In patients with vertigo the shoulders are often stiff at the same time. This stiffness in the shoulders is often accompanied by abdominal signs such as kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270 (hypochodriac painful fullness), shin ka man, KD391 (full epigastrium), or shin ka hi koh, KD389. With kyoh kyoh ku man, use recipes such as minor Bupleurum combination, KF136. With shin ka hi koh and constipation, use Coptis and rhubarb combination, KF103. Then if in the stomach there are signs of the splash sound, KD385, use such recipes as: • Pinellia and Gastrodia combination, KF215 • Vitality combination, KF147 • Tang gui and peony formula, KF192 • Atractylodes and hoelen combination, KF260 or similar formulas depending upon the shoh of the patient.

The tactile exam: Touching 切診 Setsu shin, KD376 Setsu shin is the hand of the physician directly touching the body of the patient and making a diagnosis. Included under this heading are the vastly important pulse diagnosis and abdominal diagnosis.

The pulse exam 脈診 Myaku shin, KD292 In the field of Kampo medicine, physicians have been using pulse diagnosis since ancient times; there have been various different ways of examining the pulse and there is no single standard method. In the ancient classics, great physicians such as Oh Shuku Ka, KD313, in the Myaku Kei, KD291 (the pulse classic), and in the schools of chuh, KD27, Hen Jyaku ryuh, KD108, and Ga Da ryuh (Hua Tou), KD66, the pulse diagnoses referred to are not the same. In our text we will use the pulse diagnosis according to the Shoh Kan Ron, KD430. The location of the pulse exam 脈診の部位 Myaku shin no bu i

The location of the pulse and its method of interpretation have been given differing interpretations. In Kampo there is the word sun koh, KD451. This sun koh has both a broad and a specific meaning. Broadly it is the same site as the pulse diagnosis of western medicine, found where the radial artery pulsates, on the inside of the radius apophysis. This is where the practitioner places his or her middle, index and fourth fingers to take the pulse shin, KD382. The middle fingers are placed first, and the others each side, using either light or heavy pressure. When the patient’s arm is long from the elbow down, broaden the space between the fingers; when the patient’s arm is short from the elbow down, narrow the space between the fingers. With children the thumb or the index finger alone can find the spot. Furthermore, in the narrow sense the sun koh, the kan jyoh, KD179, and the shaku chuh, KD377, are divisions. The index finger is the site of the sun koh in the narrow sense,

51

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

the middle finger is the site of the kan jyoh, KD179, and the fourth finger is the site of the shaku chuh. The pulse categories 脈の種類 Myaku No Shu Rui Floating 浮 Fu, KD44

If the pulse is lightly pressed, it pushes up the finger, but if pressed strongly, it has no strength in its depths. An old proverb says: ‘If it is simply pushed, it is wanting. If captured, it is excessive.’ According to an old song: ‘The fu pulse floats on the water like a stick, and if it is pushed, it hides itself underneath.’ According to these examples, some sense can be grasped as to the form of this pulse. When the fu pulse is manifest in an acute febrile disease, it signifies the tai yoh byoh, KD460 (tai yang stage), and hyoh shoh, outside shoh, KD411. If the floating pulse is kin, KD233 (tight), it means the hyoh jitsu shoh, KD127; floating and jyaku, KD152 (weak), the outside kyo shoh; moreover, floating with chi, KD17 (slow), and jyaku, KD152, together signifies the ri kyo shoh, KD331 (inside kyo shoh). In the absence of fever, the most common diseases which manifest a floating pulse include the combination of the floating, KD44, big, KD31, and weak, KD152, pulses of the kyo shoh, and the combination of the floating and big pulse, with strength, in the jitsu shoh. Sunken 沈 Chin, KD20

When it is pressed lightly, it cannot be felt, but press strongly and deeply and it beats. An old song goes: ‘It cannot be found on the top, but strike strongly at the depths; surely the sunken pulse grows (flutters).’ The sunken pulse can be felt where there is the interior shoh, KD335. If the sunken pulse has strength, then it is the interior 52

jitsu shoh, KD329, and an appropriate case for a purgative. When the pulse is sunken and weak, KD152, then this is the interior kyo shoh, KD331, and herbs such as aconite, KH174, dry ginger, KH33, and ginseng, KH150, will tonify and warm. The sunken pulse also indicates oedema, ascites and such cases where water accumulates. Rapid 数 Saku, KD357

The frequency of beats in this pulse is unusually high. For each cycle of respiration of the physician, the rapid pulse will beat more than six times. In an adult, generally there will be more than 90 beats per minute. There is the slow pulse with kan, KD175 (cold), and conversely, the rapid pulse with netsu, KD298 (fever). If the rapid pulse is slippery, KD186, it is a jitsu, KD148, fever; if rapid and thin (fine), KD354, or rapid and weak, KD152, then this is a kyo, KD256, fever. Thin, rapid and weak, or faint (minute), KD7, indicates a serious illness. Floating, KD44, and rapid means an outside fever shoh, KD127, while sunken and rapid, an inside fever shoh, KD329. Thin and rapid, accompanied by weak or thin (fine), means the disease is becoming serious. Slow 遅 Chi, KD17

This is the opposite of the rapid pulse; the number of beats is few. An old song goes like this: ‘Sleeping; hiding; when found it is beating slowly (when sought, it will hide itself, and beat slowly).’ For each cycle of respiration of the physician, the pulse beats less than four times. The slow pulse means kyo, KD256, and kan, KD175 (cold). At moments when floating, KD44, and slow, deep, KD20, and slow or weak, KD152, and slow combine, it is a clear indication for the use of aconite, KH174, contained in recipes such as:

The Kampo Diagnostic

• Vitality combination, KF147 • Aconite, ginger and combination, KF115.

liquorice

However, a pulse that is slow, but has strength – namely the jitsu, KD148, case – indicates the accumulation or stagnation of byoh doku, KD16, toxins. For example, when the sunken, chin, KD11, comes together with the slow, chi, this indicates jitsu; then it is the inside jitsu and a shoh calling for the use of purgatives. Bowstring 弦 Gen, KD76

This pulse feels like the stretched string of a bow when pressed. The Ben Myaku Hoh, KD6, explains: ‘The qualities of the bowstring are like those of a tautly strung bow – when pushing it, it cannot be diverted.’ In an old song we find: ‘Push strongly and examine the bowstring, stretched and pulled so thin, it will not flex easily.’ The bowstring pulse accompanies pain, namely pains such as cramping and spasms. For example: ‘Those people with the bowstring pulse are none other than those pained by cramps such as spastic pain below the flanks (kyoh ka koh kyuh).’ The bowstring pulse is an indication of kyo, KD256, and of insufficient digestive power. In the Shoh Kan Ron, KD430 (Shang Han Lun), we read: ‘Those with the bowstring pulse become kyo, there is no stomach ki (digestive function) to spare.’ The bowstring pulse indicates stagnant or accumulating tan in, KD462 (pathological fluids). For example: ‘A coughing patient manifesting the bowstring pulse is accumulating water.’ The bowstring pulse is seen in malaria, since: ‘The malaria pulse is intrinsically bowstring as a matter of course.’ The bowstring pulse can be seen in the shoh yoh byoh, KD437 (shao yang stage). For example: ‘In injuries due to kan, KD175

(cold), the pulse becomes bowstring and thin, KD354. The headache and the outbreak of fever are due to the shoh yoh byoh.’ Tight 緊 Kin, KD233

The tight pulse resembles the bowstring, KD76, though upon palpating the bowstring, it cannot be moved to the left or to the right; but press the tight pulse, and it will move from side to side. Ancient folk said of it: ‘It seems like the bowstring and is stretched like it, but push against it at its depths, and you will recognize the tight pulse.’ Or: ‘Tight is a moving, revolving thread. That is how to know it.’ A tight pulse indicates kan, KD175 (cold). For example: ‘The various tight pulses come from kan’, and: ‘When there is pain in the flanks with an outbreak of fever and the pulse becomes tight or bowstring, this is kin, KD233.’ Slippery 滑 Katsu, KD186

The slippery pulse is said to roll like a ball under the fingertips, smoothly coming and going. An old song says: ‘Smooth as a ball, moving yet not advancing; if pressed, it neither retreats nor runs out of sight.’ The slippery pulse means fever, KD298, and jitsu, KD148. For example, in the Shoh Kan Ron, KD430, it says: ‘In those whose pulse is slippery, the fever has moved inside.’ In most people when the pulse is slippery, there is food accumulating (stagnation). Rough 濇 Shoku, KD438

In the rough pulse, which is the opposite of slippery, KD186, the movement of the pulse is said to ‘catch’ or ‘snag’, and to be

53

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

unharmonious. The feeling is explained as like scraping bamboo with a small knife. There is this old poem: ‘Thin, slow and faint are the result of deep things; wherever there is blood kyo shoh, KD203, there is the rough pulse.’ Rough means kyo, KD256. For example: ‘When floating and faint become rough, this means the blood has become deficient (“gone missing”).’ Faint/minute 微 Bi, KD7

The faint pulse, if pressed lightly, is difficult to find. An old song says: ‘Is it there or not? So weak it is like nothing, so thin is the beat.’ Faint refers to the sei ki, KD365 (essential ki), which is kyo. For example: ‘In someone with a faint pulse, and o kan, KD307 (evil cold), both the in (yin) and yoh (yang) are relatively kyo.’ Sei, KD361 (essence), can be translated as ‘spirit, ghost, fairy, energy, vitality, purity or semen’. Big or vast 大 Dai, KD31; 洪 koh, KD244

Both big and vast are pulses of wide breadth; when the energy is abundant, it is called vast. In an old song it says: ‘So big and wide that it fills the finger (at the seat it is wide and long).’ When the big pulse is faint, KD7, it means kyo; when it has strength, it signifies jitsu. Hollow 芤 Koh, KD245

The hollow is as broad as a scroll; moreover, touching the outer edge, the middle seems hollow. Ancient people said that touching this pulse is like placing the finger on the exposed end of a chopped leek; it seems hollow. In an old verse it says: ‘To the belly of the finger, revolving around it, there is nothing 54

inside, nor on the surface either, like a cut leek.’ This hollow pulse is kyo, and indicates a loss of body fluids. Hidden 伏 Fuku, KD50

The pulse is sunken, chin, KD20, to an extreme degree, covered and unseen; investigate at the depths and at last the pulse is there. The hidden is a jitsu pulse and means that byoh doku, disease toxins, KD15, have suddenly filled the internal organs. When this pulse is seen, emetics or purgatives must be used promptly to expel these toxins. Take care that the examination is not rash or careless, or the hidden and the faint, KD7, pulses can easily be mistaken for one another. Weak 弱 Jyaku, KD152

The weak pulse shows no strength, and indicates kyo shoh. Thin/fine and small 細 Sai, KD354; 小 shoh, KD412

This is a pulse with no breadth, the opposite of the big, KD31, pulse. Small and thin have the same meaning. Thin indicates kan, KD175 (cold); for example: ‘The extremities are ketsu kan, KD202, and the pulse is so thin that it wants to disappear.’ This is the principal sign for tang kuei and jujube combination, KF190. This thin pulse indicates that the danger has transferred more to the inside than outside. Thin accompanied by faint, KD7, indicates that both the inside and the outside are kyo. Irregular 代 Dai, KD30

The irregular pulse is a disorderly pulse in that it suddenly becomes soft and weak, KD152, then in a flash it is bowstring, KD76, and

The Kampo Diagnostic

tight, KD125. Suddenly it becomes floating, KD44, or just as quickly it is rapid, KD357, or sunken, KD20, or again it becomes slow, KD17, all of a sudden. It is generally an inconsistent pulse. The irregular pulse often appears at times when the disease is serious, but not always. It cannot be diagnosed that a patient is on the brink of death, just upon finding this pulse. The irregular pulse simply means that this is a disorderly pulse. Knotted 結 Ketsu, KD193

The knotted pulse is a slow, KD17, pulse, which at times skips or falters. It is often seen in o ketsu, KD308. It is also seen when the body is emaciated and dried up, lacking moisture and emollients, and needs to be moistened and luxuriated. Relaxed/moderate 緩 Kan, KD176

The relaxed pulse is not rapid, KD357, and not slow, KD17, but is the neutral, moderate pulse of an average, healthy person. When the relaxed pulse appears from time to time in a variety of diseases then it indicates that the illness is becoming lighter and can be cured. The abdominal exam 腹診 Fuku shin, KD60 The abdominal examination method 腹診法 Fuku shin hoh

Have the patient lie on his or her back with both legs extended. To avoid any unnecessary tension on the abdomen, the arms may be extended on either side or crossed lightly over the breast so that the patient can be examined without anxiety. If unnecessary tension does appear on the abdomen, the physician may be led to misdiagnose important signs such as ren kyuh, KD327 (acute spasm), or kyoh

kyoh ku man, KD270 (hypochondriac painful fullness), or could miss hearing the shin ka bu shin sui on, KD385 (epigastric splash sound). To relax these muscles the author examines the patient first with the legs extended and then with the knees bent. The physician sits on the left of the patient, and examines with the right hand. But if an acute cramp in the lower abdomen such as the o ketsu, KD308, point is suspected, then it is best to examine from the patient’s right. First, stroke from the chest to the abdomen to determine whether the abdominal wall is thick or thin, and to sense conditions such as pulsation of the abdominal aorta. After this general pattern a more specialized examination can be undertaken. The aim of the abdominal examination 腹診の目的 Fuku shin no moku teki

The aim of fuku shin, KD60, in Kampo is to determine the kyo or jitsu of the patient. However, making this judgement based solely on fuku shin could lead to a misdiagnosis. Without fail, make a comprehensive diagnosis by referring to the pulse shoh and individual complaints as well as other symptoms. People long ago said: ‘Sensations from the outside rule the pulse. Internal damages govern the abdomen.’ This means that the diagnosis of exogenous agent-induced disease gai shoh, KD72, such as acute febrile disease, depends upon the pulse, while the progress of chronic illness is taken to be endogenous-induced nai shoh, KD294, and so should be made according to the abdominal shoh. In this way kyo-jitsu can be determined. In acute febrile disease, there are striking variations during the course of the illness, to which the pulse can sensitively respond, while the abdomen shoh cannot respond as quickly. In endogenous-induced (internal damage)

55

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

illnesses, the disease stages pass slowly, and kyo or jitsu can be diagnosed by the abdomen shoh. Abdominal conformations 重要な腹証 Jyuh yoh na fuku shoh Lax and powerless abdomen 腹部軟弱無力 Fuku bu nan jyaku mu ryoku, KD54

The term fuku means abdomen and bu means place. Mu means ‘lack of ’ and ryoku is strength or power. Due to this lack of strength, the abdomen can be described as flaccid, soft or non-elastic; we shall call it lax and powerless. The lax abdomen (flaccid, powerless, non-elastic): this speaks of the abdomen as a single unit, as a plane or plate; the muscles are limp, weak and powerless. When at the same time the abdomen is non-elastic, with a weak, KD152, and deep, KD20, pulse, and the hands and feet are cold, then this is the inside kyo shoh, KD331, the shoh of recipes such as: • Vitality combination, KF147 • Ginseng and ginger combination, KF203 • Four major herb combination, KF117. Often there is the epigastric splash sound, KD385, but even so, it is the inside kyo shoh, as described above. When the peristaltic movement of the intestine can easily be observed through the abdominal wall, as though it were transparent, then this is also kyo shoh, the shoh of recipes such as: • Major Zanthoxylum KF170

combination,

• Minor cinnamon combination, KF135

and

peony

• Vitality combination, KF147 • Inula and hematite combination, KF162. Even when the abdomen is lax and weak it is not always powerless, and when there is power 56

in the depths, it is jitsu shoh. Constipation and a deep, KD20, and forceful, KD148, pulse are indications for the use of purgatives, regardless of the lax and powerless abdomen. Use such recipes as: • Coptis and rhubarb combination, KF103. Full abdomen 腹満 Fuku man, KD57

Figure 2.1

The word fuku means abdomen, while man is used to mean fullness. The full abdomen: in the full abdomen there exist both the jitsu and kyo shoh. Full with constipation is usually jitsu shoh, but there are exceptions. Examples of constipation with kyo shoh are: peritonitis, ileus (bowel obstruction) and such illnesses. Diarrhoea and a swollen abdomen together, which seems like an unlikely complaint, exist in the kyo shoh. Likewise, when the full abdomen occurs as a result of ascites it is the kyo shoh. Where there is a full abdomen, strength in the depths and constipation, then if the pulse has strength, chikara, KD19, this is the jitsu shoh. With a full abdomen, tight on the surface, and powerless, chikara naku, KD19, in the depths, if the pulse is faint, KD7, and weak, KD152, then this is kyo shoh. Warm and strengthen with recipes such as: • Cinnamon and peony combination, KF64 • Minor cinnamon combination, KF135

and

peony

The Kampo Diagnostic

• Aconite, ginger and combination, KF115.

liquorice

If jitsu shoh, give rhubarb-based, KH126, recipes such as: • Major Bupleurum combination, KF171 • Major rhubarb combination, KF172

• Alisma and hoelen combination, KF225 • Pinellia and magnolia combination, KF213. Epigastric obstructive hardness 心下痞硬 Shin ka hi koh, KD389

• Capillaris combination, KF5. Epigastric splash sound 心下部振水音 Shin ka bu shin sui on, KD385

Figure 2.3

Figure 2.2

Shin ka bu means the place below the heart, referring here to the epigastrium; shin sui on refers to a sound like splashing water. The splash sound: in patients with gastric ptosis, gastric atony and such like, this sound is often easily detectable. The author often uses a closed hand, the back of the fist or the second joint of the middle finger lightly tapping, or percusses lightly with the tips of the middle and fourth fingers together. Most often patients with the splash sound are kyo shoh. Recipes that are used contain ingredients such as: hoelen, KH173; Atractylodes, KH169; Alisma, KH130; fresh ginger, KH95; and Pinellia, KH163. For example, these ingredients are compounded in recipes such as: • Hoelen combination, KF222 • Ginseng and ginger combination, KF203 • Vitality combination, KF147

Shin ka refers to the epigastrium, and the hi refers to a subjective feeling of obstruction, while the koh is an objective resistance. This means that there is a resistance, which the physician can feel with the hand, as well as the patient’s complaints of a feeling of obstruction in the epigastrium. Resistance (and obstruction): patients report that their epigastrium feels ‘stuffed’, and upon palpation by the physician, tightness and resistance are detected. This is the meaning of this term. For this feeling of obstruction, the most commonly used recipes are: • Pinellia combination, KF214 • Pinellia and liquorice combination, KF142 • Coptis and rhubarb combination, KF103. Epigastric obstruction 心下痞 Shin ka hi, KD387

This is the above-mentioned shin ka hi koh conformation when the patient complains of obstruction with only subjective symptoms. Upon palpation by the physician there is no objective resistance.

57

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

Obstruction in the epigastrium: this heading refers to complaints of a stuffed feeling in the pit of the stomach, when, upon examination of the area, there is no resistance, obstruction or tightness, or pain with pressure there. This subjective fullness is often accompanied by the epigastric splash sound, and is usually kyo shoh. Use recipes such as:

Hypochondriac obstruction and resistance 脇下痞硬 Kyoh ka hi koh, KD269

• Four major herb combination, KF117 • Ginseng and ginger combination, KF203. Hypochondriac distress and fullness 胸脇苦満 Kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270

Figure 2.5

This kyoh is the second kyoh from above (hypochondriac distress and fullness, kyoh kyoh ku man), here referring to the flanks. This refers to a (hi koh) obstruction resistance (as in epigastric obstructive hardness, KD389, shin ka hi koh), both subjective and objective at the lower border of the ribcage. It may occur at the same time as kyoh kyoh ku man, and so use a Bupleurum, KH66, formula appropriate to the patient’s condition. Inside spasm

Figure 2.4

This first kyoh means the chest, and the second kyoh, the flanks. This refers to fullness and resistance in the hypochondrium, including the area under the arch of the ribs. The ku is ‘suffering’, a subjective pain or discomfort. The man again means fullness (as in full abdomen, fuku man). Pain and resistance: there is a feeling of fullness in the hypochondrium, as well as distress and pain there. It can be verified objectively as resistance and pressure pain. It may appear on both sides at the same time or on either side separately. Kyoh kyoh ku man is a clear indication for the use of prescriptions containing Bupleurum, KH66. Enlargement of the liver and spleen may well be regarded as kyoh kyoh ku man, although in the case of liver cancer a Bupleurum-based formula is not an effective cure.

58

裏急 Ri kyuh, KD332

Figure 2.6

Figure 2.7

The Kampo Diagnostic

The ri refers to the inside and this kyuh means acute or sudden. The acuteness referred to here is a cramp inside the stomach wall. Jumpy, ropy abdomen: the ri kyuh can be detected as a spasm which feels like a sudden jerk or contraction beneath the surface of the abdomen. This spasm may occur along the rectus abdominis muscle or elsewhere. Even without the spasm, when there is peritonitis or such diseases, prodding an abdomen swollen with gas gives rise to that sensation inside the abdominal wall. The term ri kyuh includes both the spasm of the rectus abdominis and any stiffening, contraction or tension in that area. Ri kyuh is seen only in the kyo shoh, so that even if there is constipation, purgatives should not be used. Rather, use recipes such as: • Minor cinnamon combination, KF135

and

peony

• Major Zanthoxylum KF170.

combination,

Lower-abdomen tight spasm 小腹拘急 Shoh fuku koh kyuh, KD421

Figure 2.8

Shoh means small, and fuku means abdomen, hence the ‘lower abdomen’. The koh means restricted, seized up or arrested, and as above (inside spasm, ri kyuh), kyuh means spasm. Lower-abdomen spasm: here the spasms of the rectus abdominis muscle are in the zone between the navel and the pelvic bone. This is referred to as lower burner in kyo. It

is the abdominal shoh belonging to a kidney shoh, and is the shoh for the recipe: • Rehmannia eight combination, KF209. Lower-abdomen spasm and knot 小腹急結 Shoh fuku kyuh ketsu, KD424

Figure 2.9

As explained above (lower-abdomen tight spasm, shoh fuku koh kyuh), shoh fuku refers to the lower abdomen, and kyuh means acute. Here ketsu refers to a knot, or a string. The blood stagnation point, KD308 (瘀血 o ketsu): this is the abdomen shoh for the recipe Persica and rhubarb combination, KF186, and for what is called o ketsu, KD308 (blood stasis). This abdominal shoh most often occurs on the left side of the iliac fossa, but may occur in the corresponding area on the right side, or around the navel. In response to rapid lateral pressure such as a strong stroke of the fingers across this area, there is sharp pain and a kind of resistance can be felt. The recommended way to examine for this is to have the patient lie with both legs extended. Quickly stroke the area, proceeding obliquely from the navel to the left pelvic crest. If the o ketsu point is active there the patient will react by drawing up the knees, and will complain of sharp, acute pain there. This abdominal sign occurs more often in women than in men.

59

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

Lower-abdomen fullness/Lowerabdomen hardness and fullness 小腹満 Shoh fuku man, KD425; 小腹硬満 shoh fuku koh man, KD422

Figure 2.10

The shoh fuku means lower abdomen; the man is fullness. In shoh fuku koh man, the koh signifies an objective hardness. Swollen abdomen/persistent swollen abdomen: in the shoh fuku man, the lower abdomen is said to be inflated; in the shoh fuku koh man, it is inflated and shows resistance as well. This abdominal shoh appears often with o ketsu and sometimes with tan in, KD462 (痰飲 pathological fluids). For example, there is this old quote: Cases of the resistant swollen abdomen and difficult urination occur without a blood dysfunction. But if the patient is behaving like a madman, then it is a blood shoh, so that whether a blood shoh or tan in shoh is present can be differentiated by whether the urination is scant and difficult, or normal.

For o ketsu shoh use recipes such as: • Cinnamon and hoelen combination, KF78 • Rhubarb and leech combination, KD467 • Rhubarb and moutan combination, KF169. For the tan in shoh use formulas such as: • Polyporus combination, KF185.

60

Pulsations, KD210 心悸 Shin ki, KD399; 心下悸 shin ka ki, KD390; 臍下悸 sei ka ki, KD364

Figure 2.11

The shin, KD382, refers to the heart, and this ki, KD210, means pulsation. Shin ka ki, KD390: this ka means below, hence pulsations below the heart (in the epigastrium). Sei ka ki, KD364: this sei is the navel, so here the pulsations are beside or below the navel. Cardiac pulsations: these are known as pulsations of the cardiac area. If the area known in acupuncture as the point kyo ri, KD264 (apex of the heart), is swollen, it points clearly to this cardiac shoh. Pulsations below the heart (epigastric), pulsations below the navel, and pulsations in the area called sui bun, KD446 (CV9 acupuncture point), where the abdominal aorta circles the navel, or the area jin kan, KD146 (kidney gate), where the kidneys lie under the abdominal wall, show an obvious influence of these abdominal aorta pulsations. This can be identified objectively by observation, or by a light touch of the hand. Generally these passages refer to instances where the pulsations are progressing, soon to be kyo shoh, so that diuretics, sudorifics, purgatives or emetics are forbidden. To deal with these pulsations appropriately, the yaku butsu, KD478, of choice include: Rehmannia, KH75; hoelen, KH173; dragonbone, KH199; oyster shell, KH185; cinnamon, KH47; and liquorice, KH34, found in formulas such as:

The Kampo Diagnostic

• Baked liquorice combination, KF122 • Cinnamon and combination, KF68

dragonbone

• Atractylodes and hoelen combination, KF260

• Pinellia and magnolia combination, KF213 • Hoelen five formula, KF91 • Hoelen, liquorice combination, KF261.

and

jujube

THE THREE YINS AND THREE YANGS 三陰三陽 San in san yoh, KD359 Various common diseases can be treated according to a classification into in or yoh, kyo or jitsu. However, in cases of shoh kan, KD429 (damaging cold), that is to say, acute febrile diseases, it is useful to separate the three in and the three yoh stages in order to establish the course of treatment.

Greater yang stage 太陽病 Tai yoh byoh, KD460 The tai means surface or obvious; the term byoh means illness, while the yoh is the yang stage of the illness, as described above. In the beginning stages of acute febrile disease, there is often an outbreak of fever, which is a symptom of the tai yoh byoh. The following are the fundamental principles of this as laid down according to the Shoh Kan Ron, KD430: when there is the tai yoh byoh, the pulse is floating, KD44, there is strong head and neck pain, and moreover there is o kan, KD307 (evil cold). To summarize: floating pulse, headache, stiff neck and o kan are the four symptoms that distinguish the tai yoh byoh. The state of these four symptoms combined is referred to as the tai yoh byoh. There is no attempt to name the disease itself; it is merely a stage of the disease. Therefore whenever there is the tai yoh byoh there are these four symptoms; they are inherent (to this stage) and must be present; this is mandatory. Here some examples are given: among the tai yoh byoh symptoms the most important is the floating pulse; nevertheless, the floating

pulse alone does not indicate tai yoh byoh. The reason is that this symptom, the floating pulse, develops in the shoh yoh byoh, KD437 (shao yang stage), in the yoh mei byoh, KD485 (yang ming stage), in the tai in byoh, KD456 (tai yin stage), and in the shoh in byoh, KD428 (shao yin stage), and, although it is rare, it does occur. Unless we link the floating pulse to one or more symptoms that distinguish the tai yoh byoh exclusively, we will not be able to identify it. Headache, KD496, is a distinguishing symptom of the tai yoh byoh, but by this symptom alone the tai yoh byoh cannot be recognized. Kata kori, KD185 (shoulder stiffness), stiff neck and o kan, KD307 (evil cold), are little better, so that whether or not tai yoh byoh can be confirmed is determined by which symptoms are found in association with which other symptoms. • There is tai yoh byoh when there is a floating pulse, fever, KD298, and o kan, KD307. • There is tai yoh byoh when there is a floating pulse, fever, o fuh, KD306 (evil wind), and headache. • There is tai yoh byoh when there is a floating pulse, fever, o kan and body aches. • There is tai yoh byoh when there is a floating pulse, headache, fever, o kan and joint pain. The symptoms of the tai yoh byoh are manifest on the exterior surface of the body, consistent 61

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

with the afore-mentioned symptoms of the hyoh shoh, KD130, outside conformation. In the tai yoh byoh use recipes such as: • Cinnamon combination, KF60 • Ma huang combination, KF238 • Pueraria combination, KF36 and others (read from the Shoh Kan Ron, KD430).

Lesser yang stage 少陽病 Shoh yoh byoh, KD437 When an outbreak of disease begins with the tai yoh byoh, after three or four days it becomes shoh yoh byoh and the following symptoms develop. When there is shoh yoh byoh the mouth tastes bitter, there is a koh kan, KD246, dry throat, and dizziness, KD83. All of these are the patient’s subjective symptoms and can be discovered through questioning diagnosis, mon shin, KD288. The symptom known as a bitter taste in the mouth is due to the fever, KD298. At the same time the mouth is rather sticky. This symptom of a bitter mouth does not occur in the tai yoh byoh, KD460, nor in any stage of the three in byoh. However, in the yoh mei byoh, KD485 (yang brightness stage), the mouth is dry. Consequently, by this one symptom alone, it is difficult to separate the shoh yoh byoh from the yoh mei byoh. To distinguish them, the abdominal shoh and other symptoms must be considered. With a koh kan dry throat, KD246, the throat feels parched and dry, but with this kind of thirst there is no strong desire to drink water. The vertigo, KD9 (boh gen), dizziness, KD286 (moku gen), and dry mouth alike occur because of the fever. The shoh yoh byoh is between the inside and the outside, and so it is called han gai hanri shoh, half-in half-out fever shoh, KD95. Besides the previously mentioned symptoms of the shoh yoh byoh, various accompanying symptoms are seen, such as: a feeling of fullness in the chest, discomfort 62

in the chest (shin pan, KD402, ‘troublesome heart’), coughing and spitting, heart palpitations, laboured breathing, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and such like. The abdominal shoh is kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270 (hypochondriac painful fullness), or shin ka hi koh, KD389 (epigastric obstruction resistance). Shoh yoh byoh patients should not be treated with diaphoretics, emetics or purgatives. By way of formulas, use those ones such as: • Minor KF136

Bupleurum

combination,

• Gardenia and soja combination (梔 子鼓湯 shi shi shi toh/zhi zi shi tang), KD379 • One of the various sha shin toh (xie xin tang clear the epigastrium formulas) according to the symptoms. When there is the transforming stage from shoh yoh byoh to yoh mei byoh use: • Major KF171

Bupleurum

combination,

• Coptis and rhubarb combination, KF103 or similar formulas.

Yang brightness stage 陽明病 Yoh mei byoh, KD485 When the damage of the shoh yoh byoh progresses inside, it becomes the yoh mei byoh. In the Sho Kan Ron, KD430, there is the following statement regarding a fundamental principle of the yoh mei byoh: ‘when there is yoh mei byoh, there is fullness in the house of the stomach’. The ‘stomach’ spoken of here refers to the gastrointestinal tract as a whole, and the ‘fullness’ is jitsu – solid, actual fullness. Additionally, in the yoh mei byoh, there is a tendency for constipation and fuku man, KD57 (full abdomen), and using fuku shin,

The Kampo Diagnostic

KD60 (the abdominal exam), this feeling of fullness can be verified. Even if there is constipation and a full abdomen, if in the abdomen there is no feeling of solid, actual fullness, then it is what is called kyo fullness, a fullness due to water or ascites. For example, the fullness due to cancer, liver cirrhosis or tuberculous peritonitis is often not yoh mei byoh. The tai yoh byoh is a hyoh netsu shoh, KD127 (outside-fever shoh), while conversely, the yoh mei byoh is a ri netsu shoh, KD329 (inside-fever shoh). For the yoh mei byoh, use such variations of jyoh ki toh (cheng qi tang order the ki formulas) as: • Major rhubarb combination, KF172 • Minor rhubarb combination, KF139 • Persica and rhubarb combination, KF186 • Gypsum combination, KF 218 or similar formulas.

Greater yin stage 太陰病 Tai in byoh, KD456 According to the Shoh Kan Ron, KD430, the fundamental characteristics of the tai in byoh are stated as follows: ‘When there is the tai in byoh, there is abdominal fullness, vomiting, the food won’t go down (blockage of the alimentary canal), there is increasingly severe diarrhoea, and from time to time spontaneous abdominal pain. If given purgatives, the upper abdomen will develop a tightness and resistance.’ This full abdomen of the tai in byoh is a kyo fullness and is different from the jitsu fullness of the yoh mei byoh. Moreover, in the tai in byoh there is vomiting, diarrhoea, and at times abdominal pain, as well as a pulse that is weak, KD152, and not bowstring, KD76, or tight, KD233. When this kyo fullness is mistaken for jitsu fullness, and a purgative is given, the area below the chest becomes hard.

The tai in byoh can develop if the tai yoh byoh is mistreated, and purgatives are given. Furthermore, people whose digestive organs are habitually weak will show the pattern of the tai in byoh from the onset of the disease. The tai in byoh is a ri kan kyo shoh, KD331 (inside-cold kyo shoh), so use formulas such as: • Cinnamon and peony combination, KF64 • Vitality combination, KF147 • Aconite, ginger and combination, KF115

liquorice

• Ginseng and ginger combination, KF203 or similar formulas.

Lesser yin stage 少陰病 Shoh in byoh, KD428 The small yin stage: those who are constitutionally kyo and weak, such as the elderly, often manifest shoh in byoh from the onset of the disease. The shoh in byoh is a kan, KD175, cold shoh either on the hyoh, outside, KD124, or on the ri, inside, KD328. The Shoh Kan Ron, KD430, outlines its fundamental characteristics in the following description: ‘When there is the shoh in byoh, the pulse is bi, KD7 (faint), and sai, KD354 (thin), and there is the desire to lie down.’ The shoh in byoh cannot be said to be distinguishable by complaints of pain or suffering, only that the strength of the ki, KD224, is waning, so that there is the spoken desire to lie down. This lying down does not mean sleeping, but rather reclining prone upon a bed. The fine, thin pulse is evidence of the waning of both the ki and the blood. In addition, during the shoh in byoh, even if the body temperature rises, the urine is clear – it doesn’t get dark, as is usual with fevers. There is a normal appetite, and there is no unusual taste in the mouth. Furthermore, with the hyoh kan shoh, KD126 (outside-cold 63

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

shoh), there are body aches, headaches, o kan and cold feet; with the ri kan shoh, KD331 (inside-cold shoh), there is abdominal pain, tightness or discomfort in the chest shin pan, KD402 (troublesome heart), diarrhoea, constipation and frequent urination. For this outside coldness, we use: • Ma huang, aconite and liquorice combination, KD280 • Ma huang and Asarum combination, KF239. For this inside coldness, we use recipes such as: • Vitality combination, KF147 • Aconite, ginger and combination, KF115

liquorice

or similar according to the shoh.

Polar yin stage 厥陰病 Ketsu in (kecchin) byoh, KD201 The ketsu in byoh is an upper fever netsu, KD298, lower cold kan, KD175, shoh in that the upper half of the body has heat and the lower half is cold. The Shoh Kan Ron, KD430, states its fundamental characteristics as being these: ‘When there is an illness of the ketsu in, there is an exhausting thirst, shoh katsu, KD431; the ki rises, causing heart palpitations and painful fever in the chest, shin pan, KD402; even if there is hunger, there is no desire to eat; if they eat, they vomit worms, if mistakenly given purgatives, they will have endless diarrhoea.’ The exhausting thirst described here is not the exhausting thirst of diabetes mellitus, but any pathological condition accompanied by extreme thirst, while these worms are intestinal roundworms. This exhausting thirst and worms are not from the original text of the Shoh Kan Ron, KD430. I think they were terms adulterated by later transcribers, so that omitting these, the fundamentals from the Sho Kan Ron are 64

stated as: ‘In the ketsu in byoh, the yoh (yang) ki rises, the in (yin) ki descends, the two separate within the body, there is no uniting of the two, the netsu, KD298 (fever), rises, the kan, KD175 (cold), sinks, so that the feet are cold and there is a rush of blood to the head, or dizziness.’ In the ketsu in byoh, besides these symptoms, there is a pain due to a scorching heat in the centre of the chest; there is no desire to eat despite hunger; if anything is eaten there is vomiting; and if purgatives are given there will be endless diarrhoea. For the ketsu in byoh, as with the tai in byoh and the shoh in byoh, use recipes such as: • Aconite, ginger and combination, KF115

liquorice

• Vitality combination, KF147. In this way the three yoh byoh – the tai yoh byoh, shoh yoh byoh and the yoh mei byoh – are categorized, and a different method of treatment is applied accordingly. If what is known as in byoh (yin stage) is diagnosed, then further classification into tai in byoh, shoh in byoh or ketsu in byoh is not so essential.

Transforming stage; entered stage; companion disease; paired disease 転属 Ten zoku, KD471; 転入 ten nyuh, KD469; 併病 hei byoh, KD103; 合病 goh byoh, KD86 The shoh is not a constant phenomenon; it has a tendency to change from day to day. It may begin as tai yoh byoh, but become shoh yoh byoh, next yoh mei byoh and then again tai yoh byoh; or in the same way it could as easily become ketsu in byoh directly. For example, at the time when the tai yoh byoh is shifting into the yoh mei byoh, and has not yet completely transformed to the yoh mei byoh as it retains a few symptoms of the tai yoh byoh, we use the term transforming stage, KD471. If it becomes the yoh mei byoh completely, then it is the entered stage, KD469. However,

The Kampo Diagnostic

during the period of the transforming stage, there is the companion disease, KD103. For example, the time when the tai yoh byoh changes to the yoh mei byoh is called the tai yoh yoh mei hei byoh (greater yang yang brightness companion disease). First, treat the tai yoh byoh. As it resolves, treat the yoh mei byoh. There is a paired disease, KD86, which is different from the companion disease. Conditions when two yoh such as the tai yoh and shoh yoh, or the tai yoh and yoh mei, or when three yoh – the tai yoh, shoh yoh and yoh mei – occur together at the same time are called the paired disease. The treatment for the tai yoh shoh yoh paired disease is to treat the shoh yoh byoh. For the tai yoh yoh mei paired disease, treat the tai yoh byoh. For the san yoh goh byoh (three yoh paired disease), if the shoh of the shoh yoh byoh dominates, use minor Bupleurum combination, KF136. If the shoh of the yoh mei byoh is predominant, treat using:

The broken disease stage 壊病 E byoh, KD41 Here the E means ‘broken’, and the byoh again means disease. The broken disease occurs when, through improper treatment or for other reasons, the shoh has become distorted and there isn’t what can be called a proper shoh. For example, cinnamon and aconite combination, KF66, shoh is essentially a derivative of cinnamon combination, KF60, shoh used to induce sweating in the tai yoh byoh, but if such sweating is excessive, without the outside shoh which characterizes the tai yoh byoh being resolved, the shoh may fall into an in shoh (yin stage). This cannot any longer be called the tai yoh byoh, yet it has not yet fully developed into a proper in shoh, so that it cannot be called the shoh in byoh (shao yin stage) either. This is what is called the broken disease.

• Gypsum combination, KF218 • Ginseng and gypsum combination, KF220.

65

Chapter 3

FORMULA EXPLANATIONS (FUNCTIONS AND APPLICATIONS) 薬方解説

Yaku hoh kai setsu Chapter contents Translators’ note . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Kampo specialities: A collection of extremely useful shoh . . . . . . . . 70 1. An chuh san, KF1 . . . . . . . . . . 70 安中散 An zhong san (cardamon and fennel formula) 2. I shoh hoh, KF2 . . . . . . . . . . . 70 痿証方 Wei zheng fang (Eucommia and Achyranthes combination) 3. I fuh toh, KF3 . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 胃風湯 Wei feng tang (Atractylodes and Setaria combination) 4. Inchinkoh toh, KF5 . . . . . . . . . 71 茵蔯蒿湯 Yin chen hao tang (Capillaris combination) 5. Inchin gorei san, KF6 . . . . . . . . 71 茵蔯五苓散 Yin chen wu ling san (Capillaris and hoelen formula) 6. Unkei toh, KF9 . . . . . . . . . . . 71 温経湯 Wen jing tang (tang kuei and Evodia combination) 7. Untan toh, KF10 . . . . . . . . . . . 72 温胆湯 Wen dan tang (bamboo and hoelen combination) 8. Unsei in, KF11 . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 温清飲 Wen qing yin (tang kuei and gardenia combination) 9. Eppi ka jyutsu toh, KF13 . . . . . . 72 越婢加朮湯 Yue bi jia zhu tang (Atractylodes combination) 10. En-nen hange toh, KF15 . . . . . . 72 延年半夏湯 Yan nian ban xia tang (Evodia and Pinellia combination)

11. Ohgi kenchuh toh, KF17 . . . . . . 73 黄耆建中湯 Huang qi jian zhong tang (Astragalus combination) 12. Ohren toh, KF22 . . . . . . . . . . 73 黄連湯 Huang lian tang (Coptis combination) 13. Ohren akyoh toh, KF23 . . . . . . 73 黄連阿膠湯 Huang lian e jiao tang (Coptis and gelatin combination) 14. Ohren gedoku toh, KF24 . . . . . . 73 黄連解毒湯 Huang lian jie du tang (Coptis and scute combination) 15. Otsuji toh, KF25 . . . . . . . . . . 74 乙字湯 Yi zi tang (Cimicifuga combination) 16. Kakkon toh, KF36 . . . . . . . . . 74 葛根湯 Ge gen tang (Pueraria combination) 17. Kami shohyoh san, KF33 . . . . . . 74 加味逍遥散 Jia wei xiao yao san (Bupleurum and peony formula) 18. Kami kihi toh, KF32 . . . . . . . . 74 加味帰脾湯 Jia wei gui pi tang (ginseng, longan and Bupleurum combination) 19. Karo kijitsu toh, KF39 . . . . . . . 75 瓜(括)呂枳実湯 Gua lou zhi shi tang (Trichosanthes and chih-shih combination) 20. Kanzoh toh, KF41 . . . . . . . . . 75 甘草湯 Gan cao tang (liquorice combination) 21. Kanzoh shashin toh, KF43 . . . . . 75 甘草瀉心湯 Gan cao xie xin tang (Pinellia and liquorice combination)

67

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice 22. Kanzoh bushi toh, KF44 . . . . . . 75 甘草附子湯 Gan cao fu zi tang (liquorice and aconite combination)

40. Shikunshi toh, KF117 . . . . . . . 80 四君子湯 Si jun zi tang (four major herb combination)

23. Kanbaku taisoh toh, KF47 . . . . . 75 甘麦大棗湯 Gan mai da zao tang (liquorice and jujube combination)

41. Shimotsu toh, KF118 . . . . . . . . 80 四物湯 Si wu tang (tang kuei four combination)

24. Kanro in, KF48 . . . . . . . . . . . 76 甘露飲 Gan lu yin (sweet combination)

42. Shakanzoh toh, KF122 . . . . . . . 80 炙甘草湯 Zhi gan cao tang (baked liquorice combination)

25. Kyuh ki kyohgai toh, KF56 . . . . . 76 芎帰膠艾湯 Xiong gui jiao ai tang (tang kuei and gelatin combination) 26. Keishi toh, KF60 . . . . . . . . . . 76 桂枝湯 Gui zhi tang (cinnamon combination) 27. Keishi ka shakuyaku toh, KF64 . . 76 桂枝加芍薬湯 Gui zhi jia shao yao tang (cinnamon and peony combination) 28. Keishi ka bushi toh, KF66 . . . . . 76 桂枝加附子湯 Gui zhi jia fu zi tang (cinnamon and aconite combination) 29. Keishi ka ryuhkotsu borei toh, KF68 77 桂枝加竜骨牡蠣湯 Gui zhi jia long gu mu li tang (cinnamon and dragonbone combination) 30. Keishi bukuryoh gan, KF77 . . . . 77 桂枝茯苓湯 Gui zhi fu ling tang (cinnamon and hoelen formula) 31. Go rei san, KF91 . . . . . . . . . . 77 五苓散 Wu ling san (hoelen five herb formula) 32. Goshuyu toh, KF93 . . . . . . . . 78 呉茱萸湯 Wu zhu yu tang (Evodia combination) 33. Saiko ka ryuhkotsu borei toh, KF95 78 柴胡加竜骨牡蠣湯 Chai hu jia long gu mu li tang (Bupleurum and dragonbone combination) 34. Saiko keishi toh, KF98 . . . . . . . 78 柴胡桂枝湯 Chai hu gui zhi tang (Bupleurum and cinnamon combination) 35. Saiko keishi kankyoh toh, KF99 . . 79 柴胡桂枝乾姜湯 Chai hu gui zhi gan jiang tang (Bupleurum, cinnamon and ginger combination) 36. San oh shashin toh, KF103 . . . . . 79 三黄瀉心湯 San huang xie xin tang (Coptis and rhubarb combination) 37. San motsu ohgon toh, KF105 . . . 79 三物黄芩湯 San wu huang qin tang (scute three herb combination) 38. Ji-in kohka toh, KF107 . . . . . . . 79 滋陰降火湯 Zi yin jiang huo tang (Phellodendron combination) 39. Shigyaku toh, KF115 . . . . . . . . 80 四逆湯 Si ni tang (aconite, ginger and liquorice combination)

68

43. Jyuhzen taiho toh, KF128 . . . . . 81 十全大補湯 Shi quan da bu tang (ginseng and tang kuei ten combination) 44. Shoh kenchuh toh, KF135 . . . . . 81 小建中湯 Xiao jian zhong tang (minor cinnamon and peony combination) 45. Shoh saiko toh, KF136 . . . . . . . 81 小柴胡湯 Xiao chai hu tang (minor Bupleurum combination) 46. Shoh seiryuh toh, KF140 . . . . . . 82 小青竜湯 Xiao qing long tang (minor blue dragon combination) 47. Shinbu toh, KF147 . . . . . . . . . 82 真武湯 Zhen wu tang (vitality combination) 48. Daioh botanpi toh, KF169 . . . . . 82 大黄牡丹皮湯 Da huang mu dan pi tang (rhubarb and moutan combination) 49. Dai kenchuh toh, KF170 . . . . . . 82 大建中湯 Da jian zhong tang (major Zanthoxylum combination) 50. Dai saiko toh, KF171 . . . . . . . . 83 大柴胡湯 Da chai hu tang (major Bupleurum combination) 51. Dai jyohki toh, KF172 . . . . . . . 83 大承気湯 Da cheng qi tang (major rhubarb combination) 52. Takuri shohdoku in, KF177 . . . . . 83 托裏消毒飲 Tuo li xiao du yin (Gleditsia combination) 53. Chikujo untan toh, KF178 . . . . . 83 竹筎温胆湯 Zhu ru wen dan tang (bamboo and ginseng combination) 54. Chikuyoh sekkoh toh, KF179 . . . . 84 竹葉石膏湯 Zhu ye shi gao tang (bamboo leaves and gypsum combination) 55. Chohtoh san, KF183 . . . . . . . . 84 釣藤散 Gou teng san (gambir formula) 56. Chorei toh, KF185 . . . . . . . . . 84 猪苓湯 Zhu ling tang (Polyporus combination) 57. Tohkaku jyohki toh, KF186 . . . . . 84 桃核承気湯 Tao he cheng qi tang (persica and rhubarb combination)

Formula Explanations (Functions and Applications) 58. Tohki kenchuh toh, KF189 . . . . . 84 当帰建中湯 Dang gui jian zhong tang (tang kuei, cinnamon and peony combination)

66. Hange byaku jyutsu tenma toh, KF215 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 半夏白朮天麻湯 Ban xia bai zhu tian ma tang (Pinellia and Gastrodia combination)

59. Tohki shigyaku ka goshuyu shohkyoh toh, KF191 . . . . . . . . . 85 当帰四逆加呉茱萸生姜湯 Dang gui si ni jia wu zhu yu sheng jiang tang (tang kuei, Evodia and ginger combination)

67. Bohi ohgi toh, KF232 . . . . . . . 87 防已黄耆湯 Huang qi fang ji tang (Stephania and Astragalus combination)

60. Tohki shakuyaku san, KF192 . . . . 85 当帰芍薬散 Dang gui shao yao san (tang kuei and peony formula)

68. Hochuh ekki toh, KF235 . . . . . . 87 補中益気湯 Bu zhong yi qi tang (ginseng and Astragalus combination)

61. Ninjin toh, KF203 . . . . . . . . . 85 人参湯 Ren shen tang aka ri chuh toh (li zhong tang), KF252 (ginseng and ginger combination)

69. Yokukan san, KF248 . . . . . . . . 88 抑肝散 Yi gan san (Bupleurum formula)

62. Bakumondoh toh, KF207 . . . . . 86 麦門冬湯 Mai men dong tang (Ophiopogon combination)

70. Rikkunshi toh, KF253 . . . . . . . 88 六君子湯 Liu jun zi tang (six major herb combination)

63. Hachi mi gan, KF209 . . . . . . . 86 八味丸 Ba wei (di huang) wan (Rehmannia eight formula)

71. Ryoh kan kyoh mi shin ge nin toh, KF258 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 苓甘姜味辛夏仁湯 Ling gan jiang wei xin xia ren tang (hoelen and Schizandra combination)

64. Hange kohboku toh, KF213 . . . . 86 半夏厚朴湯 Ban xia hou pu tang (Pinellia and magnolia combination)

72. Ryoh kei jyutsu kan toh, KF260 . . 88 苓桂朮甘湯 Ling gui zhu gan tang (Atractylodes and hoelen combination)

65. Hange shashin toh, KF214 . . . . . 87 半夏瀉心湯 Ban xia xie xin tang (Pinellia combination)

73. Ryoh kei kansoh toh, KF261 . . . . 89 苓桂甘棗湯 Ling gui gan zao tang (hoelen, liquorice and jujube combination)

69

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

TRANSLATORS’ NOTE In the following formula references the character 散 (san) is translated as ‘formula’ (literally ‘powder’), a process by which the raw ingredients are simply ground up into a powder and eaten or drunk. For the most part, however, formulas are traditionally prepared as a ‘decoction’ 湯 (toh in Rohmaji; tang in

Pinyin), translated in this text as ‘combination’, a process by which the ingredients are boiled in water until the volume of water is halved, and drunk as a tea, usually in three portions. Some formulas are also given as pills 丸 (gan) or cold liquids 飲 (in).

KAMPO SPECIALITIES: A COLLECTION OF EXTREMELY USEFUL SHOH This chapter includes especially important formulas, chosen from among the frequently used ones along with their clinical indications and applications. Beginning with the original formula as a base, I have included the more important modifications, to demonstrate how one or two raw drugs can be added or left out. The section entitled ‘Applications’ does not refer exclusively to the disease name listed; those listed are merely examples. It is appropriate to use the given formula for any illness so long as the ‘indications’ correspond to those shown. The shoh, KD411, will assist with this.

1. An chuh san, KF1 安中散 An zhong san (cardamon and fennel formula) Indications Used for chronic, progressive abdominal pain in a patient with hie shoh, KD115 (cold constitution), due to a kyo shoh, KD267. The abdominal wall is flaccid and lacking in elasticity, KD54, there is evidence of shin ka bu shin sui on, KD385 (epigastric splash sound), as well as gas trapped in the intestines. This is similar to the fuku shoh, KD61 (abdominal conformation), of major Zanthoxylum combination, KF170 (see formula 49, below), though the peristaltic uneasiness seen here is not so intense, nor so extreme. In addition there is a rapid pulsation, KD40, around the navel and at times 70

stomach acid is vomited up. There are aches and pains, primarily limited to the epigastric area, though there can be pain around the navel, or additionally, pain radiating from the lower abdomen towards the lumbar region characterized by a pulling or dragging sensation. Applications Atonic stomach, gastroptosis, gastritis, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, intestinal colic, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), hysteria, gastric neurasthenia (nervous stomach pain).

2. I shoh hoh, KF2 痿証方 Wei zheng fang (Eucommia and Achyranthes combination) Indications The overall physical condition is not so debilitated; however, from the waist down there is a lack of strength; there may be ambulatory difficulties as well as impotence which may be difficult to explain. In the lower limbs there may be motor disturbances along with sensory numbness, KD278. There is no gastrointestinal dysfunction and the appetite is normal. Applications Palsy, tremors or paralysis in children, polio, spinal caries (tubercular spondylitis).

Formula Explanations (Functions and Applications)

3. I fuh toh, KF3 胃風湯 Wei feng tang (Atractylodes and Setaria combination) Indications For those who show a lack of ki ryoku, KD224 (strength of the ki), who easily become exhausted and with a poor complexion, all due to chronic, progressive diarrhoea that has failed to respond to various treatments. The quantity of each bowel movement is scant and the faecal matter is mixed with blood and mucus. At the moment of evacuation, there is the sound of air and water escaping (pichi pichi, KD321), and the faeces may fly about (explosive diarrhoea); this is the most significant indication. The diarrhoea of vitality combination, KF147 (see formula 47, below), resembles this, so take care to distinguish between the two patterns properly.

Applications Hepatitis, urticaria (hives), food poisoning, nephritis, nephrosis; used for the combined indications of major Bupleurum combination, KF171, and minor Bupleurum combination, KF136.

5. Inchin gorei san, KF6 茵蔯五苓散 Yin chen wu ling san (Capillaris and hoelen formula) Indications This recipe is hoelen five formula, KF91, plus the ingredient Capillaris, KH4. It is used for liver disease, jaundice or such dysfunction within the hoelen five formula shoh. Capillaris combination, KF5, is indicated by thirst, scanty urination, constipation and a full abdomen, KD57, while with the Capillaris and hoelen combination, there is thirst  and scanty urination, though there are no complaints of constipation.

Applications Chronic colitis, ulcerative colitis, amoebic dysentery.

4. Inchinkoh toh, KF5 茵蔯蒿湯 Yin chen hao tang (Capillaris combination) Indications The abdomen, especially the upper abdomen, is swollen, and there is a feeling of discomfort from the solar plexus to the chest that is difficult to describe. Because of the distended abdomen, there are complaints of nausea. Furthermore, though there is thirst, KD248, and water is drunk, the quantity of urination is scanty and there is constipation. There may be jaundice but that is not a predictable symptom. When there is jaundice, the colour of the urine resembles the boiled extract of Phellodendron bark, KH16 (a dark yellow colour). Yet there are times when there may be no thirst, and the volume of urine is not conspicuously decreased. Also oedema may be seen.

Applications Hepatitis, nephritis, nephrosis and ascites; used with ginseng and ginger combination, KF203, for ascites related to liver sclerosis; often given in combination with major Bupleurum combination, KF171, or minor Bupleurum combination, KF136.

6. Unkei toh, KF9 温経湯 Wen jing tang (tang kuei and Evodia combination) Indications Principally used for women’s diseases such as irregular menstruation, dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) and leukorrhoea (vaginal discharge) when there is hie shoh, KD115 (cold constitution), nobose, KD303, an unhealthy complexion, KD207, a sensation of fullness in the lower abdomen and generalized cramping in the lower abdomen. In the palms of the hands there is han netsu, KD98 (troublesome

71

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

heat), and complaints of poka-poka, KD322 (a sensation of uncomfortable warmth), while the lips are dry, KD183. Applications Menopause, irregular menstruation, eczema, infertility, frequent spontaneous abortion (miscarriage), chi no michi shoh, KD18, recurrent paronychia/whitlow and felon (fungal infections of the nail).

7. Untan toh, KF10 温胆湯 Wen dan tang (bamboo and hoelen combination)

Various haemorrhagic diseases such as bleeding haemorrhoids, uterine bleeding and renal bleeding, liver dysfunction, eczema, urticaria, dermatitis, Behçet’s disease, melanoderma, KD251, liver spots, acne, neurosis, hepatic disorders, collagen diseases, hypertension and improvement of allergic constitution.

9. Eppi ka jyutsu toh, KF13 越婢加朮湯 Yue bi jia zhu tang (Atractylodes combination) Indications

For the insomnia associated with kyo, KD256, or weak physical conditions resulting from gastric ptosis or stomach atony, KD132; also for insomnia following an illness when there is fatigue, lassitude and exhaustion and recovery is slow.

There is oedema and scanty urination; however, the surface of the skin is stretched tight; pressing this oedema causes an indentation which quickly springs back (nonpitting oedema). The complexion, KD207, is not too bad, the pulse is neither bi, KD7 (faint), nor jyaku, KD152 (weak), and there are complaints of thirst, KD248. Moreover the oedema is often limited to local areas.

Applications

Applications

Insomnia, panic-induced palpitations, heart arrhythmias, ki utsu, KD230 (ki depression).

The oedema seen in the early stages of acute nephritis or acute nephrosis, arthrosis deformens of the knee joint (rheumatoid arthritis), articular rheumatism, Henoch– Schönlein or rheumatic purpura (HSP), pterygium (benign growth on the conjunctiva), eczema, tubercular purpura, uric conjunctivitis, blepharitis (inflammation of the eyelid margins).

Indications

8. Unsei in, KF11 温清飲 Wen qing yin (tang kuei and gardenia combination) Indications This is a combination of the prescription tang kuei four combination, KF118, plus Coptis and scute combination, KF24: the latter has a calming, sedative action and calms inflammation, KD417; the former clears o ketsu, KD308, and enhances the circulation of blood. Thus tang kuei and gardenia combination is used when the colour of the skin has become blue black or dark yellow, as well as for signs of dry skin such as pruritus (itching) and skin and mucous membrane conditions such as ulcers, haemorrhaging, nobose, KD303, and similar symptoms. 72

Applications

10. En-nen hange toh, KF15 延年半夏湯 Yan nian ban xia tang (Evodia and Pinellia combination) Indications There is chronic stomach dysfunction and tension in the left hypchondrium, verified by an ache there; on the left side of the shoulders and upper back there is stiffness; the feet are icy, KD116. The left side of the rectus abdominis is kin choh, KD235.

Formula Explanations (Functions and Applications)

Applications Chronic gastritis, gastric ptosis, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, intercostal neuralgia, gastric hyperacidity, stiff shoulders, neurosis (anxiety), chronic pancreatitis.

11. Ohgi kenchuh toh, KF17 黄耆建中湯 Huang qi jian zhong tang (Astragalus combination) Indications This is minor cinnamon and peony combination, KF135, plus Astragalus, KH13, so in the manner of minor cinnamon and peony (see formula 27, below), use for a kyo, KD256, or kyo jyaku, KD259, type of person, who tires easily, with kiryokuga nai, KD225, and whose complexion, KD207, is no better. Additional indications include night sweating or copious sweating. Applications Improving the constitution of kyo, KD256, weak children, recovery of body strength after an illness or surgery, caries (tuberculosis), cold abscess, KD182, leg ulcers, oozing haemorrhoids and scrofula.

12. Ohren toh, KF22 黄連湯 Huang lian tang (Coptis combination) Indications This is Pinellia combination, KF214, with cinnamon, KH47, replacing the scute, KH14, so that it resembles Pinellia combination shoh (see formula 65, below) in its use for abdominal pain. The epigastrium feels stuffed and there is pain with pressure there. There is anorexia (lack of appetite), nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain and the breath has a foul smell (halitosis). There may be a thick yellow coat on the tongue. Applications Gastritis, gastroenteritis.

13. Ohren akyoh toh, KF23 黄連阿膠湯 Huang lian e jiao tang (Coptis and gelatin combination) Indications There is often a chin, KD20, and shoh, KD412, pulse; the skin lacks oil and appears dry. Furthermore, there is han netsu, KD98, severe pain in the chest area, KD290, insomnia and such symptoms. Coptis and scute combination, KF24 (see formula 14, below), and Coptis and rhubarb combination, KF103 (see formula 36, below), resemble this, but those two formulas are more often used for the yoh shoh, KD486, and this formula is used for the in shoh, KD143. Applications Insomnia in the elderly or following an illness, various types of haemorrhaging, diarrhoea (sometimes with mucus and bloody stools), various skin diseases.

14. Ohren gedoku toh, KF24 黄連解毒湯 Huang lian jie du tang (Coptis and scute combination) Indications The complexion, KD207, is good and ruddy; there is a tendency for nobose, KD303, irritability, anxiety and restless sleep. The musculature is firm and strong, and there is no hie shoh, KD115. Applications Haematemisis (vomiting of blood), haemoptysis (coughing up blood), epistaxis, uterine bleeding, bleeding haemorrhoids and various other types of bleeding. Not applicable for long-term haemorrhaging which has resulted in anaemia, pallor and such symptoms. Apoplexy (cerebral haemorrhage), cerebral hyperaemia (excessive blood flow to the brain), hypertension, insomnia, menopausal disturbances, gastritis, 73

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

gastric ulcer, melanoderma, liver spots, red nose due to capillary dilation (‘brandy nose’) and various skin diseases.

15. Otsuji toh, KF25 乙字湯 Yi zi tang (Cimicifuga combination) Indications For the type of person who easily becomes constipated with haemorrhoids that hurt, itch or have a tendency to slight or mild bleeding. Applications Haemorrhoids.

16. Kakkon toh, KF36 葛根湯 Ge gen tang (Pueraria combination) Indications This formula is used for acute febrile diseases such as the common cold, with a fu, KD44 (floating), and jitsu, KD148, pulse, chills, KD307, fever, KD298, headache and stiffness of the neck and upper back. Nevertheless there is no spontaneous sweating. It is applicable in other cases with no fever, whenever there is muscular tension, KD235, especially tension in the shoulders, neck and upper back, and when the pulse has strength. Applications Common cold, influenza, rhinitis, allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, colitis, conjunctivitis, otitis media (inflammation of the inner ear), otitis externa (inflammation of the outer ear), hordeolum (stye), furuncle (boil), lumbago, stiff shoulders and rheumatism.

74

17. Kami shohyoh san, KF33 加味逍遥散 Jia wei xiao yao san (Bupleurum and peony formula) Indications This is used in chi no michi shoh, KD18, for a person who is easily tired with capricious moods which do not easily calm down and when everything seems to weigh on the mind. There are also symptoms such as a heavy feeling in the head, headache, stiff shoulders, dizziness, insomnia, nobose, KD303, icy feet, KD114, irregular menstruation, lumbago and constipation. In fact the complaints seem endless. Applications Chi no michi shoh, KD18, irregular menstruation, hysteria, eczema, infertility, chronic hepatitis, early light stage of pulmonary tuberculosis, cystitis and leukorrhoea (vaginal discharge).

18. Kami kihi toh, KF32 加味帰脾湯 Jia wei gui pi tang (ginseng, longan and Bupleurum combination) Indications Kyo shoh, KD267, patients with anaemia, rapid heart palpitations, forgetfulness, insomnia, bruising easily and a greyish facial complexion, KD207, where neither the pulse nor the abdomen has strength and the power of the ki ryoku, KD224, is waning. Applications Chronic haemorrhagic diseases or a tendency for such, aplastic anaemia, leukaemia and blood or platelet diseases, senile dementia, Banti’s syndrome (chronic congestive enlargement of the spleen), insomnia, neurosis (anxiety), hysteria and irregular menstruation.

Formula Explanations (Functions and Applications)

19. Karo kijitsu toh, KF39 瓜(括)呂枳実湯 Gua lou zhi shi tang (Trichosanthes and chih-shih combination) Indications Cough with phlegm that is sticky and thus difficult to dislodge; as a result, the breathing feels painful and difficult and there may be chest pain. One sign is that coughing may be more frequent after eating or in the early morning. Applications Bronchitis, especially chronic stage, pleuritis (pleurisy), asthmatic bronchitis, bronchial asthma.

Applications Severe diarrhoea, insomnia, stomatitis and the acute emergency stage of gastroenteritis.

22. Kanzoh bushi toh, KF44 甘草附子湯 Gan cao fu zi tang (liquorice and aconite combination) Indications There is severe aching in the joints of the four limbs. There is pain, often accompanied by swelling at the same site. There may be a high fever. At times when there is fever, there is also coldness, KD358 (shivers), and at the same time sweat pours out and urination is decreased. Applications

20. Kanzoh toh, KF41 甘草湯 Gan cao tang (liquorice combination) Indications For various emergency symptoms in their severe stages. Applications Acute, severe sore throat, acute stage of a severe cough, severe emergency abdominal pain. This may be used with other formulas.

21. Kanzoh shashin toh, KF43 甘草瀉心湯 Gan cao xie xin tang (Pinellia and liquorice combination) Indications This is Pinellia combination, KF214, with an increased quantity of liquorice, KH34. It is similar to the Pinellia combination shoh (see formula 65, below), though this is for acute emergency symptoms.

Acute stage of rheumatoid arthritis.

23. Kanbaku taisoh toh, KF47 甘麦大棗湯 Gan mai da zao tang (liquorice and jujube combination) Indications For the agitation of the initial stage and the spasmodic cramping, KD189, of the emergency stage in patients who are sad for no reason, who weep over trivial matters and who in severe cases may show signs such as occasional confusion, mania or even loss of consciousness. There may be other signs such as frequent yawning. Applications Chorea sancti viti/St Vitus’ dance (abnormal voluntary movement disorder), abnormal nocturnal crying in infants, convulsive, spasmodic cough.

75

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

24. Kanro in, KF48 甘露飲 Gan lu yin (sweet combination) Indications

Applications

Chronic swellings in areas such as the oral cavity, mouth and lips when the inflammation is not severe. There may even be ulcers.

Common cold, headache and abdominal pain due to cold weather.

Applications Gingivitis, pyorrhoea and stomatitis.

25. Kyuh ki kyohgai toh, KF56 芎帰膠艾湯 Xiong gui jiao ai tang (tang kuei and gelatin combination) Indications Various kinds of haemorrhaging, especially in the lower half of the body when the bleeding has continued for a long time and there are signs such as anaemia. Applications Bleeding haemorrhoids, renal bleeding, uterine bleeding, intestinal bleeding and signs such as spontaneous habitual abortion (miscarriage).

76

with neither o kan nor o fuh, but when the pulse is weak.

27. Keishi ka shakuyaku toh, KF64 桂枝加芍薬湯 Gui zhi jia shao yao tang (cinnamon and peony combination) Indications This is cinnamon combination, KH60, with an increased dose of peony, KH83; it is applied for the hie shoh, KD115 (cold constitution), with abdominal pain and fuku man, KD57 (full abdomen). These symptoms are often severely aggravated by hie, KD114 (cold), which precipitates diarrhoea or vomiting. The rectus abdominis is kin choh, KD235 (tight), and seems to float on the surface of the abdomen when touched. Applications Colitis, parotitis (inflammation of the salivary glands) and chronic peritonitis.

26. Keishi toh, KF60 桂枝湯 Gui zhi tang (cinnamon combination)

28. Keishi ka bushi toh, KF66 桂枝加附子湯 Gui zhi jia fu zi tang (cinnamon and aconite combination)

Indications

Indications

This formula is used to warm the body and enhance the function of various organs. It is appropriate for febrile diseases such as the common cold when there is o kan, KD307 (evil cold), and o fuh, KD306 (evil wind), fever, KD298, and headaches, along with a fu, KD44 (floating), and jyaku, KD152 (weak), pulse. Accompanying these signs there may be spontaneous sweating, or there may be no sweating at all. In the absence of fever this formula is often used for common diseases,

This is a variation of cinnamon combination, KF60 (see formula 26, above), plus the ingredient prepared aconite, KH174, and is used for the shoh in byoh, KD428 (lesser yin stage), when the tai yoh byoh, KD460 (greater yang stage), is mistakenly diagnosed. Primarily this formula is used to correct a misdiagnosis such as when cinnamon combination is prescribed for sweating and the sweating becomes profuse and does not stop, leading to a gross loss of body fluids. The patient experiences o kan, KD307 (evil cold),

Formula Explanations (Functions and Applications)

and rin reki, KD340 (sparse urine), and there may be mild cramps or twitches of the four limbs. The ingredients Atractylodes, KH92, and hoelen, KH173, are frequently added to this formula, making cinnamon and Atractylodes combination, KF69, which is used for hie shoh, KD115 (cold constitution), when there is pain and numbness in the hands and feet. Applications Neuralgia, rheumatism, the abdominal pain of hie shoh, KD115, hemiplegia, paralysis in children, KD278 (palsy).

29. Keishi ka ryuhkotsu borei toh, KF68 桂枝加竜骨牡蠣湯 Gui zhi jia long gu mu li tang (cinnamon and dragonbone combination) Indications A constitution that is not strong, nervousness (anxiety), KD395, easily both tired and excitable, with a tendency for nobose, KD303, where the lower extremities are icy cold, KD116, when palpitations can be felt near the navel and there are complaints of frequent urination. Often the pulse is dai, KD31 (big), and in general not strong. Other common symptoms are complaints of an icy sensation, KD116, in the external genitalia and hair loss from the top of the head (alopecia). Applications Neurosis (anxiety), impotence, decreased vitality, nocturia, nocturnal emission, premature ejaculation.

30. Keishi bukuryoh gan, KF77 桂枝茯苓湯 Gui zhi fu ling tang (cinnamon and hoelen formula) Indications For all the various symptoms of o ketsu, KD308, such as when there is an area of resistance in the lower abdomen and pain upon pressure there. The most distinguishing characteristic in those patients is an abdomen that is well nourished, elastic and shows good muscular tone, KD235. There are no signs of anaemia and only rarely is the abdominal wall lax, KD296. Applications Irregular menstruation, menstrual disturbances, trauma or bruises, urticaria (hives), eczema, haemorrhoids, uterine myoma (fibroids), infertility, appendicitis, ovaritis, inflammation of the fallopian tubes (salpingitis) and urinary calculi (stones).

31. Go rei san, KF91 五苓散 Wu ling san (hoelen five herb formula) Indications There is thirst, and although water is drunk the volume of urine is scanty. In such cases there may be vomiting accompanied by diarrhoea. Applications Influenza in children, lack of appetite, autointoxication, hangover, one-sided headache, trigeminal neuralgia, Quincke’s oedema, nephritis, nephrosis, cardiac valvular disease, acute gastroenteritis, childhood scrofula (tubercular swellings).

77

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

32. Goshuyu toh, KF93 呉茱萸湯 Wu zhu yu tang (Evodia combination) Indications Evodia combination is used for attacks which begin with a strong headache accompanied by vomiting. At that time the lower extremities feel icy, the epigastrium feels stuffed and swollen and the muscles of the neck are rigid. Along with headaches on one side of the head (migraine) the muscles of the neck on the affected side become rigid, KD235. This formula can be applied when there is no headache, but when there is chronic, recalcitrant vomiting or hiccups. Applications Migraines, one-sided headache, inveterate headache, hiccups.

33. Saiko ka ryuhkotsu borei toh, KF95 柴胡加竜骨牡蠣湯 Chai hu jia long gu mu li tang (Bupleurum and dragonbone combination) Indications Applied to those patients with an abdominal sho similar to that characteristic of major Bupleurum combination, KF171 (see formula 50, below), or minor Bupleurum combination, KF136 (see formula 45, below), when there is kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270 (hypochondriac painful fullness), and fullness of the upper abdomen, and in some cases even a rapid abdominal pulsation, KD355. With that abdominal shoh, there may be complaints of irritability, excitability, insomnia, mental confusion or in extreme situations even psychosis. Cramps, KD189, also may occur, as may symptoms such as cardiac palpitations and shortness of breath.

78

Applications Neurosis, insomnia, hypertension, cardiac valvular disease, arteriosclerosis, epilepsy, hysteria, cardiac neurosis, sequela of (condition resulting from) apoplexy, impotence and Basedow syndrome (combination of hyperthyroidism, goitre and exophthalmos).

34. Saiko keishi toh, KF98 柴胡桂枝湯 Chai hu gui zhi tang (Bupleurum and cinnamon combination) Indications This formula must be regarded as the combination of minor Bupleurum combination, KF136, and cinnamon combination, KF60, in that it is used for symptoms similar to minor Bupleurum combination shoh (see formula 45, below) plus o kan, KD307 (evil cold), o  fuh, KD306 (evil wind), body aches and similar accumulations of the hyoh shoh, KD130 (outside shoh), manifestation. Apart from that, the most common of the various diseases for which it is applied are with kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270 (hypochondriac painful fullness), when ri kyuh, KD332 (internal spasm), is also detected. Furthermore, Dr Saburoh Aimi, KD1, has discovered that increasing the dosage of peony to 5–6 grams per day is very effective for various diseases brought on by stress. Applications Common cold, influenza, gastritis, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, bronchial asthma, epilepsy, enuresis, cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder), cholelithiasis (gallstones), neurosis.

Formula Explanations (Functions and Applications)

35. Saiko keishi kankyoh toh, KF99 柴胡桂枝乾姜湯 Chai hu gui zhi gan jiang tang (Bupleurum, cinnamon and ginger combination) Indications Similar to Bupleurum and dragonbone combination, KF95 (see formula 33, above), but these signs are clearly one step more kyo shoh, KD267. For example, the body strength is weak, the complexion, KD207, is poor and there are cardiac palpitations, KD399, shortness of breath and a dry mouth, KD246, with both a pulse and abdomen that have no strength, a rapid increased palpitation of the abdominal aorta, KD52, and symptoms such as the abdominal splash, KD385. Applications Chi no michi shoh, KD18, neurosis (anxiety), complications of the common cold, pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis, pleurisy and cardiac palpitation.

36. San oh shashin toh, KF103 三黄瀉心湯 San huang xie xin tang (Coptis and rhubarb combination) Indications Use for symptoms such as nobose, KD303, tidal red face, KD74, feelings, KD211, such as uneasiness or anxiety, with a tendency toward constipation. The pulse has strength, KD19, and during the abdominal exam there is no kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270 (hypochondriac painful fullness), nor is there any ren kyuh, KD327 (spasm), though the patient experiences a feeling of fullness in the epigastric area, KD392. Often the muscles of the abdominal wall are not kin choh, KD235 (tight), nor are they lax, KD296, but rather they are elastic on the surface and powerful in the depths.

Applications Cerebral haemorrhage, cerebral hyperaemia, coughing up blood (haemoptysis), epistaxis (nosebleed), uterine haemorrhage, haemorrhoidal haemorrhage, hypertension, neurosis (anxiety), insomnia, gastric ulcer, gastritis, chi no michi, KD18, climacteric disturbances, skin and eye diseases of various kinds, epilepsy, schizophrenia and burns.

37. San motsu ohgon toh, KF105 三物黄芩湯 San wu huang qin tang (scute three herb combination) Indications Han netsu, KD98 (troublesome fever), of the four limbs. Due to this han netsu the hands and feet feel uncomfortably hot so that the patient wants to stick them out of the blankets (at night) and enjoys touching cold things. In Kampo this symptom is also called ketsu netsu, KD204 (blood heat). Applications Puerperal (postpartum) fever, pulmonary tuberculosis, insomnia, tinea (fungal infections), eczema, stomatitis (oral inflammation), pustules (abscesses).

38. Ji-in kohka toh, KF107 滋陰降火湯 Zi yin jiang huo tang (Phellodendron combination) Indications There is a loss of body fluids and the mucous membranes and skin lack moisture and lustre, KD145. There is thirst, a dry mouth, palpitations, shortness of breath and insomnia. Applications Arteriosclerosis, hypertension, Basedow’s syndrome (combination of hyperthyroidism, goitre and exophthalmos), renal tuberculosis,

79

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

pyelonephritis, diabetes mellitus, nocturnal emission, pulmonary tuberculosis and bronchitis.

pulse and abdomen are both lacking strength, the arms and legs are tired and heavy, KD35, and even the spoken word has no strength.

39. Shigyaku toh, KF115 四逆湯 Si ni tang (aconite, ginger and liquorice combination)

Applications

Indications This formula is used when metabolic functions are at a low point, and are very much exhausted; so this formula has the ability to heal by enhancing such functions. This condition manifests itself in two different forms: in the first there is ketsu rei, KD205 (icy limbs), of the extremities and o kan, KD307 (evil cold), a pallid, aoi, KD144, complexion and diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal pain when the pulse is chin, KD20 (sunken), and bi, KD7 (faint), or chi, KD17 (slow), and jyaku, KD152 (weak). In the alternative form, there is internal cold outside fever, ri kan gai netsu, KD330. There is a tidal red face, KD74, a feeling of fever, KD298, on the body surface, but a pulse that is chi, KD17 (slow), chin, KD20 (sunken), and jyaku, KD152 (weak). This syndrome is sometimes misdiagnosed as the cinnamon combination shoh (see formula 26, above) belonging to the tai yoh byoh, KD460 (greater yang stage).

41. Shimotsu toh, KF118 四物湯 Si wu tang (tang kuei four combination)

Applications

Indications

Various acute febrile diseases, various acute disease stages with vomiting and diarrhoea, appendicitis, severe dysentery (bacterial).

40. Shikunshi toh, KF117 四君子湯 Si jun zi tang (four major herb combination)

80

Gastric ptosis, gastric atony, gastric ulcer, stomach cancer.

Indications Men may also use this formula, though it is most often used for women and has specialized uses in postpartum disorders and anaemia. The body is beginning to become emaciated and to lack lustre. Applications Various diseases before and after giving birth, irregular menstruation, chi no michi, KD18, infertility, frostbite, progressive keratosis palmaris, climacteric disturbances, hypertension, nephritis and uterine haemorrhage.

42. Shakanzoh toh, KF122 炙甘草湯 Zhi gan cao tang (baked liquorice combination) This formula has another name: fuku myaku toh, KD58 (restore the pulse formula). It is applied for rapid palpitations, KD40, shortness of breath, waning of body strength and exhaustion, when the quality of the pulse is ketsu, KD193 (knotted).

Indications

Applications

The strength of the ki, KD224, is waning and there is a tendency towards anaemia and weakness of the gastrointestinal system. The

Hyperthyroid (Basedow’s syndrome), heart disease, neurogenic palpitations, and hypertension.

Formula Explanations (Functions and Applications)

43. Jyuhzen taiho toh, KF128 十全大補湯 Shi quan da bu tang (ginseng and tang kuei ten combination) Indications There is a general weakness and deterioration of the entire body. Both the ki, KD209, and the physical body lack strength and there may also be anaemia. Another possibility is that in day-to-day affairs the strength is solid, but as difficulties begin to pile up, the strength of the ki, KD224, and the body strength decline. Applications General exhaustion after severe illness or surgery, postpartum caries, cold abscess (tuberculosis), uterine prolapse, childhood poliomyelitis, anal fistula, scrofula of the neck (lymph node tuberculosis) and various kinds of anaemia.

44. Shoh kenchuh toh, KF135 小建中湯 Xiao jian zhong tang (minor cinnamon and peony combination) Indications This is a patient who tends to have a weak and kyo, KD256, body and is easily tired or who is normally fit and strong but has become extremely exhausted, KD112, as difficulties accumulate. There are two types of abdominal shoh, KD61. In the first one, the abdominal wall is thin, and the abdominal muscles seem to float on the abdomen surface and are kin choh, KD235 (tight). In the second abdominal shoh, the abdominal area is lax, KD54; the peristaltic movement (of the intestine) has increased and can be visibly observed beneath the abdominal wall. The latter shoh resembles the abdomen of major Zanthoxylum combination shoh, KF170 (see formula 49, below). Other similar symptoms include increasing shin ki, KD399 (cardiac pulsations), complaints of abdominal pain,

night sweats, epistaxis, nocturnal emission, han netsu, KD98 (troublesome fever), of the hands and feet, painful heavy limbs, dry mouth, KD248, and urinary incontinence, KD415. Applications Improves the constitution of weak children, enuresis, inguinal hernia, abnormal nocturnal crying in children, gastritis, common cold, measles, pneumonia and other progressive diseases accompanied by acute abdominal pain, spinal caries (tuberculosis), chronic peritonitis, neurosis (anxiety), KD396, gastric ptosis, asthma, purpura, appendicitis, conjunctivitis and retinal haemorrhage.

45. Shoh saiko toh, KF136 小柴胡湯 Xiao chai hu tang (minor Bupleurum combination) Indications This formula is used for fevers, especially in the shoh yoh byoh, KD437 (lesser yang stage), with alternating fever and chills, KD314, or shin netsu, KD400, accompanied by kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270 (hypochondriac painful fullness). Further symptoms may include those such as a bitter taste in the mouth, white tongue fur, loss of appetite, shin pan, KD402 (troublesome heart), nausea, vomiting or kan soh, KD183 (parched dryness of the throat). In the absence of fever it is used for various diseases when there is kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270. Applications Various febrile diseases and diseases accompanied by fever, common cold, influenza, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, parotitis (inflammation of the salivary glands), pneumonia, pleurisy, bronchitis, tuberculosis of the lung, lymphatic tuberculosis, hepatitis and gastroenteritis.

81

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

46. Shoh seiryuh toh, KF140 小青竜湯 Xiao qing long tang (minor blue dragon combination) Indications For the body type that is usually sui doku, KD448 (water toxins), when there are recurrent attacks with coughing, asthma and sneezing and a watery discharge that streams out from the nose. Applications Bronchial asthma, asthmatic bronchitis, bronchitis, allergic rhinitis, pneumonia, pleurisy, arthritis, conjunctivitis, nephrosis, oedema in the initial stage of acute nephritis.

47. Shinbu toh, KF147 真武湯 Zhen wu tang (vitality combination) Indications This formula was originally known as gen bu toh (玄武湯), KD79, but the name was changed after the death of the Emperor Gen Bu, KD78. It is used to treat various symptoms such as when the metabolic function is declining, causing sui doku, KD448 (water toxins), to sump and collect in the gastrointestinal tract, or causing abdominal pain and diarrhoea, or dizziness or rapid shin ki, KD399 (cardiac pulsations). Most commonly, the abdominal area is lax and powerless, fuku bu nan jyaku mu ryoku, KD54, the pulse is chin, KD20 (sunken), and bi, KD7 (faint), or chi, KD17 (slow), or shoh, KD412 (small), and chi, KD17, or fu, KD44 (floating), jyaku, KD152 (weak), and chi, KD17; when the roh, KD342 (exhaustion), is extreme, the hands and feet are prone to be icy, KD114, and there is a general lack of sei ki, KD365 (essential ki).

82

Applications Ptosis, visceroptosis (organ prolapse), hypotension, gastrointestinal atony, chronic gastrointestinal colitis, chronic diarrhoea, chronic nephritis, urticaria (hives), eczema and motor and sensory palsy, ma hi, KD278.

48. Daioh botanpi toh, KF169 大黄牡丹皮湯 Da huang mu dan pi tang (rhubarb and moutan combination) Indications This formula is primarily applied for signs of o ketsu, KD308 (blood stasis), and abdominal pain, especially complaints of pressure, resistance and pain in the lower abdomen, particularly on the right side, when accompanied by constipation. Applications Periproctitis, appendicitis, colitis, inflamed rectum, dysentery, haemorrhoids, adnexitis (inflammation of the uterine adnexa), pelvic peritonitis, gonorrhoea, gonorrhoeal epididymitis, pyelonephritis, urinary stones.

49. Dai kenchuh toh, KF170 大建中湯 Da jian zhong tang (major Zanthoxylum combination) Indications There are two types of indications: in the first there is a swollen abdomen which is lax, KD54. Fluids and gases easily become stagnant and there is peristaltic distress or disturbance which can be observed with the naked eye as though the abdominal wall were transparent. As this peristaltic movement becomes extreme, there may be complaints of abdominal pain and vomiting. In the second type, the entire abdominal wall becomes tense, KD235, and distended because of the stagnation of gas. This symptom cannot be observed visually, although there

Formula Explanations (Functions and Applications)

are complaints of abdominal pain. There is hie shoh, KD115 (cold constitution), and the pulse is jyaku, KD152 (weak). Applications Peristaltic distress, intestinal stenosis (especially due to postsurgical intestinal adhesions), intestinal atony, urinary stones, douglasitis (inflammation of Douglas’ cul de sac/rectouterine excavation), appendicitis, circumscribed peritonitis (not general but localized), abdominal pain due to ascariasis (parasitic roundworm).

50. Dai saiko toh, KF171 大柴胡湯 Da chai hu tang (major Bupleurum combination) Indications The main symptoms include kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270 (hypochondriac painful fullness), and a feeling of obstruction in the epigastrium. There is a tendency towards constipation and obesity. This is minor Bupleurum combination, KF136 (see formula 45, above), but for the jitsu shoh, KD149. Applications Hypertension, inflammation of the gallbladder, gallstones, hepatitis, gastritis, asthma, obesity and habitual constipation.

51. Dai jyohki toh, KF172 大承気湯 Da cheng qi tang (major rhubarb combination) Indications This formula is representative of those applied for the yoh mei byoh, KD485 (yang brightness stage). When used for febrile diseases such as the shoh kan, KD429, there will be symptoms that include fuku man, KD57 (full abdomen), delirium, choh netsu, KD24 (tidal fever), and a strong pulse, KD19, which may be chi,

KD17 (slow), and chin, KD20 (sunken). In the case of various common diseases, there may appear additional symptoms such as fuku man, KD57 (full abdomen), constipation and a strong pulse. The major Bupleurum combination sign (see formula 50, above), kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270 (hypochondriac painful fullness), is not present. Applications Obesity, hypertension, psychosis, habitual constipation, tetanus and food poisoning.

52. Takuri shohdoku in, KF177 托裏消毒飲 Tuo li xiao du yin (Gleditsia combination) Indications This formula is applied to purulent swellings or tumours that have progressed chronically or subchronically, where the inflammatory signs are not severe and neither is the pain. They seem to persist, without spontaneous drainage and without being reabsorbed. Applications Purulent lymphadenitis, periproctitis, subcutaneous abscess and mastitis.

53. Chikujo untan toh, KF178 竹筎温胆湯 Zhu ru wen dan tang (bamboo and ginseng combination) Indications This is used when, following an illness, the body strength has not recovered, or during the night there is frequent coughing or copious phlegm, so that there is no peaceful sleep. Applications Common cold or influenza which has developed with complications and recovery from pneumonia.

83

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

54. Chikuyoh sekkoh toh, KF179 竹葉石膏湯 Zhu ye shi gao tang (bamboo leaves and gypsum combination) Indications Similar to Ophiopogon combination shoh, KF207 (see formula 62, below). The physical strength has deteriorated and the skin and mucous membranes are dry and lack moisture and nourishment, KD74. The mouth and tongue are parched, KD424, and there are complaints of thirst.

voiding), scanty urination and thirst are the signs for this formula. Applications Urinary tract infection (UTI), urethritis, gonorrhoea, urinary stones, pyelonephritis (UTI ascending to kidneys), nephritis and insomnia.

57. Tohkaku jyohki toh, KF186 桃核承気湯 Tao he cheng qi tang (persica and rhubarb combination) Indications

Applications Pneumonia, measles, influenza and similar diseases during the recovery phase. Protracted fevers with symptoms such as coughing and expectoration, thirst, profuse sweating, night sweats, pulmonary tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus.

55. Chohtoh san, KF183 釣藤散 Gou teng san (gambir formula) Indications Chronically progressing symptoms such as headache, gen un, KD83 (dizziness), and stiff shoulders in nervous individuals. Applications Cerebral arteriosclerosis, hypertension, neurosis, habitual headache, climacteric disturbance, Ménière’s disease, deafness, vertigo and tinnitus.

56. Chorei toh, KF185 猪苓湯 Zhu ling tang (Polyporus combination) Indications Problems with urination such as rin reki, KD340 (painful urination), a feeling of residual urine in the bladder (incomplete

84

For manifest symptoms of o ketsu shoh, KD309 (blood stasis shoh), similar to cinnamon and hoelen formula shoh, KF78 (see formula 30, above), but with more acute and intense symptoms, including complaints of constipation. The abdominal examination reveals signs of the o ketsu point, KD308 (blood stasis). Applications Used often by females with menstrual disturbances and various menstrual irregularities, menstrual or postpartum delirium or confusion, persistent uterine haemorrhage due to retained placenta, subarachnoid haemorrhage – usually due to an aneurysm (SAH), haemorrhoids, prostatitis, trauma-induced subcutaneous or mucous membrane haemorrhage, eye disease, toothache, urethral stenosis and pelvic peritonitis.

58. Tohki kenchuh toh, KF189 当帰建中湯 Dang gui jian zhong tang (tang kuei, cinnamon and peony combination) Indications Primarily applied for gynaecological patients when there is a cramping pain radiating from the lower abdomen to the lower back, a

Formula Explanations (Functions and Applications)

tendency to be anaemic and hie shoh, KD115 (cold constitution). Applications Menstrual disturbances, pelvic adnexitis, uteritis (inflammation of the uterus) and uterine myoma.

59. Tohki shigyaku ka goshuyu shohkyoh toh, KF191 当帰四逆加呉茱萸生姜湯 Dang gui si ni jia wu zhu yu sheng jiang tang (tang kuei, Evodia and ginger combination) Indications For hie shoh, KD115 (cold constitution), or for patients suffering from chronic aches and pains when such pain is aggravated by the cold. Primarily, this is for lower abdominal pain, lumbago, shoulder pain, headaches or accompanying pain of the four extremities. The abdomen is generally of a kyo, KD256, type of fullness. The rectus abdominis muscle is kin choh, KD235 (tense), resistance is detected in the abdominal wall upon examination and it lacks elasticity, and in addition gas easily stagnates there. Applications Hie shoh, KD115 (cold conformation), frostbite, colic, sciatica, lower-back pain caused by disc herniation, chronic peritonitis, uterine prolapse, abdominal pain due to stenosis, sexual aversion disorder (frigidity), impotence and habitual headache.

60. Tohki shakuyaku san, KF192 当帰芍薬散 Dang gui shao yao san (tang kuei and peony formula) Indications For people with hie shoh, KD115 (cold conformation), male, female, young or old

without distinction. There is a tendency towards anaemia, weak musculature, exaggerated feminine characteristics and tiring easily. When there are complaints of abdominal pain, they occur in the lower abdomen and may radiate to the lower back or epigastrium, but abdominal pain is not necessarily present. Headache, dizziness, stiff shoulders and such complaints may be present. Applications Various kinds of pregnancy disorders (oedema, habitual abortion (miscarriage), premature rupture of the amniotic sac, haemorrhoids, abdominal pain, cystitis) as well as irregular menstruation, menstrual disturbance, nephritis, mild cases of heart failure and frostbite.

61. Ninjin toh, KF203 人参湯 Ren shen tang aka ri chuh toh (li zhong tang), KF252 (ginseng and ginger combination) Indications This formula is used to warm cold on the inside, ri no kan, KD334, when the digestive organs are weak (hypofunctioning), kyo jyaku, KD259, the complexion, KD207, is poor and there is a lack of sei ki, KD365 (essential ki). The tongue has no coat and is wet, the urine is clear and copious, the four limbs easily become icy, KD116, the saliva is thin and collects in the mouth, the faeces are soft and there is a tendency towards diarrhoea. There may also be complaints of dizziness, vomiting and stomach pain. There are two types of abdominal shoh: the first is the lax abdomen, KD54, when the splash sound, shin ka bu shin sui on, KD385, is present. In the second shoh, the abdominal wall is thin and rigid, KD110, like a sheet of veneer when pressed.

85

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

Applications Gastric ptosis, gastric atony, gastroenteritis, gastric ulcer, emesis, infantile autointoxication and intercostal neuralgia.

62. Bakumondoh toh, KF207 麦門冬湯 Mai men dong tang (Ophiopogon combination) Indications This is used after serious disease or various chronic diseases, for the elderly, or for patients of a kyo jyaku, KD259 (weak), constitution, whose skin and mucous membranes tend to be parched, kan soh, KD183, and jyoh gyaku, KD153 (counterflow), and there are throat problems. A note of caution is to look out for viscous expectorant which is difficult to dislodge by coughing or retching.

appetite, nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting and such symptoms. There are two types of abdominal shoh. In the first, the central median line has caved in due to atonic musculature, datsu ryoku, KD39; in addition the linea alba can be detected upon palpation. In the second type, the rectus abdominis muscle in the region of the pelvic bone is hard and kin choh, KD235 (tense). This condition is referred to as shoh fuku koh kyuh, KD421. Applications Cystitis, enlarged prostate, nephritis, nephrosclerosis, hypertension, intermittent claudication, diabetes mellitus, cerebral haemorrhage, impotence, diabetes insipidus, lumbar pain, sciatica, retention of urine, urinary incontinence, enuresis, leukorrhoea, white cataracts and tinnitus.

Applications Laryngitis, tonsillitis, bronchial asthma, bronchitis, pharyngitis, whooping cough, pulmonary tuberculosis, diabetes mellitus, coughing during pregnancy.

63. Hachi mi gan, KF209 八味丸 Ba wei (di huang) wan (Rehmannia eight formula) Indications This formula is also known as jin ki gan, KF77 (kidney ki balls), and is used in cases of deteriorating kidney function. However, the kidney in oriental medical theory also includes the functions of the urogenital organs. Therefore, fatigue or heaviness in the lower half of the body, polyuria, frequent urination, scanty urination, rin reki, KD340 (sparse urine), lumbar pain, both han netsu, KD98 (troublesome fever), and ketsu rei, KD205 (icy cold), of the hands and feet, thirst, KD248, dry mouth, KD246, and such symptoms can also be included. This formula is to be avoided by people with a poor

86

64. Hange kohboku toh, KF213 半夏厚朴湯 Ban xia hou pu tang (Pinellia and magnolia combination) Indications This is one of the most important kiregulating prescriptions, or ki zai, KD232. It disperses ki no uttai, KD231 (ki stasis), and brightens the ki bun, KD211 (mood). When there is a feeling of obstruction in the throat or a feeling as though a disc were stuck in the throat (bai kaku ki, KD5), and when this sensation is due to the ki by itself, this formula will offer relief. Applications Anxiety (neurosis), chi no michi shoh, KD18, bronchial asthma, oesophageal spasm, bronchitis, whooping cough, morning sickness, gastritis, gastric atony, traction diverticulum (formed by the pulling force of contracting bands of adhesion in the wall of the oesophagus).

Formula Explanations (Functions and Applications)

65. Hange shashin toh, KF214 半夏瀉心湯 Ban xia xie xin tang (Pinellia combination)

67. Bohi ohgi toh, KF232 防已黄耆湯 Huang qi fang ji tang (Stephania and Astragalus combination)

Indications There is the abdominal shoh: epigastric obstruction hardness, shin ka hi koh, KD389, accompanied by nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, borborygmus (abdominal gurgling, growling or rumbling) and diarrhoea. There may be white tongue fur. If there are complaints of belching and bad breath, use a modification of this formula: Pinellia and ginger combination, KF142. In acute emergency cases with symptoms such as the above, use the modification: Pinellia and liquorice combination, KF43.

Indications The hyoh, KD124 (outside), is kyo, KD256, and there is often sui doku, KD448, water toxins. The most common constitution is the ‘water bag’ type characterized by weak but plump musculature with water retention in a person who is easily fatigued and who often perspires easily in summer. A further sign is that in the lower extremities there is oedema, pain, and a kind of heaviness and fatigue, darui, KD35. Applications

Applications Gastroenteritis, gastric ulcer, gastric ptosis, diarrhoea with flatulence, hyperacidity of gastric fluids, stomatitis, neurosis (anxiety), insomnia, somnambulism and bloat (gastric dilation).

68. Hochuh ekki toh, KF235 補中益気湯 Bu zhong yi qi tang (ginseng and Astragalus combination)

66. Hange byaku jyutsu tenma toh, KF215 半夏白朮天麻湯 Ban xia bai zhu tian ma tang (Pinellia and Gastrodia combination)

Indications

Indications This is used for those patients with signs of habitually weak gastrointestional function, i choh kyo jyaku, KD133, who have gastric atony and associated complaints such as ketsu rei, KD205, in the lower limbs, dizziness, headache and nausea. This formula treats distinctive complaints that occur after eating, such as heaviness in the arms and legs or sleepiness. Applications Gastric atony, gastric ptosis, headache, and Ménière’s disease.

Arthrosis deformans of the knee joint, copious perspiration, obesity, varicose or venous leg ulcers, erythema nodosum (panniculitis or inflammation of the subcutaneous fat cells) and irregular menstruation.

Both the pulse and abdominal exam show a lack of power and there are symptoms such as tiring easily, fatigue of the extremities, loss of appetite, night sweats and postprandial fatigue (tiredness after eating). Applications Protracted common cold in those of a kyo jyaku, KD259 (weak), constitution, mild pulmonary tuberculosis, pleuritis (pleurisy), peritonitis, excessive weight loss in summer, exhaustion following serious illnesses and rectocele (prolapse of the anus).

habitual

87

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

69. Yokukan san, KF248 抑肝散 Yi gan san (Bupleurum formula) Indications Commonly used for an extremely hot temper or irritability, this formula was originally used for kei ren, KD189 (seizures in children), but nowadays is also used for adults with heightened shin kei shoh, KD396 (anxiety), and insomnia. As for the abdominal shoh, often on the left side of the abdomen, a spasm, koh ren, KD250, is observed in the rectus abdominis muscle, but this symptom is not always present. If the abdominal muscles are lax, KD296, and the pulsation of the abdominal aorta beats with abnormal strength, then use Bupleurum formula, plus citrus, KH139, and Pinellia, KH163 (making Bupleurum, citrus and Pinellia formula, KF248). Applications Shin kei shoh, KD396 (anxiety), hysteria, night crying in children, insomnia, climacteric disturbances, chi no michi shoh, KD18, poliomyelitis (childhood ma hi, KD278 (palsy)), rachitis, KD253 (kuru byoh) (rickets – an inflammatory disease of the spine), the tremors associated with rachitis, KD253, nervous tic, sequela of apoplexy (stroke) and neurogenic torticollis.

70. Rikkunshi toh, KF253 六君子湯 Liu jun zi tang (six major herb combination) Indications The functioning of the digestive organs is kyo jyaku, KD259 (weak), and there is an abdominal splash, KD405, with complaints of an obstructive feeling in the epigastrium, shinka no tsukae, KD392, loss of appetite,

88

exhaustion and fatigue, anaemia, and ketsu rei, KD205 (icy coldness), of the arms and legs. Both the pulse and the abdomen lack strength, KD59. Applications Chronic gastroenteritis, gastric ptosis, gastric atony, chronic peritonitis, emesis, neurosis, gastric cancer, gastric ulcer and anorexia (loss of appetite).

71. Ryoh kan kyoh mi shin ge nin toh, KF258 苓甘姜味辛夏仁湯 Ling gan jiang wei xin xia ren tang (hoelen and Schizandra combination) Indications This shoh is similar to minor blue dragon combination, KF140 (see formula 46, above), but in this case there is a tendency towards anaemia, a jyaku, KD152 (weak), pulse, ketsu rei, KD205 (icy coldness), of the hands and feet, dyspnoea (shortness of breath) and stridor (wheezing). Applications Chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, pulmonary emphysema, cardiac valvular problems.

72. Ryoh kei jyutsu kan toh, KF260 苓桂朮甘湯 Ling gui zhu gan tang (Atractylodes and hoelen combination) Indications The epigastrium is filled with water and gas and there may be symptoms such as dizziness, palpitations, headache and a feeling as though the body is unsteady or other balance problems.

Formula Explanations (Functions and Applications)

Applications Shin kei shoh, KD396 (anxiety), gastric ptosis, gastric atony, cardiac valvular disease, eye disease and Ménière’s disease.

73. Ryoh kei kansoh toh, KF261 苓桂甘棗湯 Ling gui gan zao tang (hoelen, liquorice and jujube combination) Indications The uses include: hon ton toh, KD121 (‘running piglet syndrome’), a nervous system disorder which is something resembling what

we would now call hysterical-induced rapid shin ki, KD399 (cardiac pulsations). At the time of the attack, from the lower abdomen to the chest, air feels as if it is rushing violently upwards and there is a subjective feeling as if the breathing will stop. At such a time there may be a loss of consciousness accompanied by complaints of strong abdominal pain. Applications Hysteria, infantile autointoxication, neurogenic palpitations, uterine kei ren, KD189, and stomach kei ren, KD189.

89

Chapter 4

THERAPEUTICS (TREATMENT ACCORDING TO NAMED DISEASE) 病状別治療

Byoh jyoh betsu chi ryoh Chapter contents Patient conditions classified by medical treatment or by modern disease names . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Common cold/influenza . . . . . . . 93 感冒 Kan boh Bronchitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 気管支炎 Ki kan shi en Bronchial asthma . . . . . . . . . . . 95 気管支喘息 Ki kan shi zen soku Pulmonary tuberculosis . . . . . . . . 95 肺結核 Hai kekkaku High blood pressure . . . . . . . . . 96 高血圧症 Koh ketsu atsu shoh Heart valvular disease . . . . . . . . 97 心臓弁膜症 Shin zoh ben maku shoh Panic attacks/Cardiac neurosis . . . . 98 心臓神経症 (心臓血管神経症) Shin zoh shin kei shoh (shin zoh kekkan shin kei shoh) Gastritis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 胃炎 I en Stomach atony . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 胃アトニー I atonih Stomach prolapse/Gastroptosis . . . 100 胃下垂 I ka sui Stomach and duodenal ulcers . . . . 101 胃潰瘍 I kai yoh/十二指腸潰瘍 Jyuh ni shi choh kai yoh (‘First 12 fingers of the intestines’; the upper gastrointestinal tract) Stomach cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 胃癌 I gan Acute colitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 急性腸炎 Kyuh sei i choh en

Chronic colitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 慢性腸炎 Man sei choh en Chronic constipation . . . . . . . . . 104 常習便秘 Jyoh shuh ben pi Vomiting (for pregnancy-related vomiting, see Morning sickness) . . . 105 嘔吐 Oh to Hepatitis and cirrhosis . . . . . . . . 105 肝炎・肝硬変症 Kan en, kan koh hen shoh Gallstones or inflamed gallbladder . . 106 胆石症・胆嚢炎 Tan seki shoh, tan noh en Nephritis and nephrosis . . . . . . . 106 腎炎・ネフローゼ Jin en, nefurohze Urinary tract stones . . . . . . . . . . 107 尿路結石 Nyoh ro kesseki Anaemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 貧血 Hin ketsu Purpura or petechiae, ecchymoses . . 108 紫斑病 Shi han byoh Hyperthyroidism: Basedow’s disease; Graves’ disease . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 バセドウ病 Basedoh byoh Diabetes mellitus . . . . . . . . . . . 110 糖尿病 Toh nyoh byoh Rheumatic joints . . . . . . . . . . . 110 関節リウマチ Kan setsu ryuhmachi Frozen shoulder: ‘50-year shoulder’ (a kind of bursitis) . . . . . . . . . . 111 五十肩 (肩関節周囲炎) Goh jyuh kata (kata kan setsu shuh i en) Osteoarthrosis . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 変形性膝関節症 Hen kei sei hiza kan setsu shoh

91

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice Nerve pain; neuralgia . . . . . . . . . 112 神経痛 Shin kei tsuh

Adnexitis uteri/Salpingitis . . . . . . 124 子宮付属器炎 Shi kyuh fu zoku ki en

One-sided headache (migraine) . . . 113 片頭痛 Hen zu tsuh

Dysmenorrhoea and menstruation difficulties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 月経困難症 Gekkei kon nan shoh

Insomnia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 不眠症 Fu min shoh Facial paralysis . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 顔面神経麻痺 Gan men shin kei ma hi Cerebral apoplexy . . . . . . . . . . . 115 脳卒中 Noh socchuh Neurosis, anxiety . . . . . . . . . . . 117 神経症 Shin kei shoh, KD396 Epilepsy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 癲癇 Ten kan, KD468 Whooping cough: ‘100-day cough’ . . 117 百日咳 Hyaku nichi zeki, KD123

Total prolapse of uterus or uterine ptosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 子宮下垂・子宮脱出 Shi kyuh ka sui, KD160, shi kyuh dasshutsu, KD37 Endometriosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 子宮内膜炎 Shi kyuh nai maku en Uterine myoma . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 子宮筋腫 Shi kyuh kin shu Infertility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 不妊症 Fu nin shoh

Autotoxicity in childhood . . . . . . . 118 小児自家中毒症 Shoh ni ji ka chuh doku shoh

Allergic rhinitis . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 アレルギー性鼻炎 Arerugi sei bi en

Children who are constitutionally kyo and weak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 虚弱児童 Kyo jyaku ji doh, KD260

Sinusitis and infections (empyema) in the paranasal cavity . . . . . . . . . 127 副鼻腔炎・蓄膿症 Fuku bi koh en, chiku noh shoh

Bedwetting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 夜尿症 Ya nyoh shoh Frostbite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 凍傷 Toh shoh Night frights; crying at night . . . . . 120 夜驚症・夜啼症 Ya kyoh shoh, ya tei shoh Bruises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 打撲症 Da boku shoh Carbuncles and furuncles . . . . . . . 121 癰疽・癤・フンクロージス Yoh so, setsu, funkurohjisu Burns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 火傷 Yakedo Bone and joint tubercles (caries) and cold ulcers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 骨・関節結核 (カリエス)、寒 性膿瘍 Hone-kan setsu kekkaku (kariesu), kan sei noh yoh Haemorrhoids . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 痔核 Ji kaku Morning sickness: Emesis gravidarum 123 妊娠悪阻 Nin shin o so (tsuwari) Toxaemia of pregnancy . . . . . . . . 123 妊娠中毒症 Nin shin chuh doku shoh Puerperal thrombosis of the leg . . . 123 産褥下肢血栓症 San jyoku ka shi kessen shoh Frequent/habitual miscarriage . . . . 123 流産癖 Ryuh zan heki Chi no michi, KD18, and climacteric disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 血の道症・更年期障害 Chi no michi shoh, koh nen ki shoh gai

92

Mastitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 乳腺症 Nyuh sen shoh

Tinea pedis/Athlete’s foot . . . . . . 128 汗疱状白癬 Kan poh jyoh haku sen (mizumushi), KD178 Felon and whitlow (paronychia) . . . 128 進行性指掌角皮症 Shin koh sei shi shoh kaku hi shoh Urticaria (hives), wheals . . . . . . . 128 蕁麻疹 Jin ma shin Eczema, dermatitis . . . . . . . . . . 129 湿疹 Shisshin, KD406, 皮膚炎 Hi fu en, KD109 Acne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 面疱 Men poh (nikibi) Liver spots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 肝斑 Kan pan (shimi) Melanodermatitis: Black skin disease 131 黒皮症 Koku hi shoh Dry tinea, psoriasis . . . . . . . . . . 131 乾癬 Kan sen Cystitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 膀胱炎 Boh koh en Prostatic hypertrophy, prostatitis . . . 132 前立腺肥大 Zen ritsu sen hi dai Impotence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 陰萎症 In roh shoh Stomatitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 口内炎 Koh nai en

Therapeutics (Treatment According to Named Disease)

PATIENT CONDITIONS CLASSIFIED BY MEDICAL TREATMENT OR BY MODERN DISEASE NAMES Here we present illnesses commonly encountered in the clinic, adding appropriate formulas and presenting the aim of each formula in turn. I have sourced these formulas widely, presenting the reader with a varied selection of choices and differentiations. As already stated, in Kampo diagnosis a formula cannot be indicated or rejected simply by relying on the name of the illness; treatment must conform to the shoh, KD411. The wide selection of useful formulas proposed in this section for each illness is a means to achieving this and nothing more. Successfully arriving at an appropriate treatment is achieved through reading this text, including Chapter 2 on the diagnostic exam, as well as the commentary on the formulas from Chapter 3, in order to make use of the shoh, KD411, in making your selection.

Common cold/influenza 感冒 Kan boh In illnesses such as influenza, Kampo takes note of the constitutional strength or weakness of our patients as well as the stage and symptoms of the illness itself. A wide variety of formulas are listed here, and according to each one a predictable effect will occur. So take the utmost care in looking out for any distortions or combining/merging (goh byoh, KD86, paired disease) in the symptom patterns which may occur. Pueraria combination, KF36 This formula is often used for the beginning stage of influenza, with chills, samu ke, KD358, and netsu, KD298 (fever), accompanied by headache, zu tsuh, KD496, a stiff neck and tight shoulders. The pulse is floating, fu, KD44, has strength, chikara, KD19, and is rapid, saku, KD357. Those with

weak gastrointestinal function should not use this recipe. Ma huang combination, KF238 This is also used in the beginning stages of influenza when there are symptoms such as chills, samu ke, KD358, fever, netsu, KD298 (fever), headache, zu tsuh, KD496, joint and muscle pain, coughing, and a blocked nose but no spontaneous sweating. The pulse is tight, kin, KD233, and floating, fu, KD44. Cinnamon combination, KF60 This is another formula used in the beginning stages of a cold, but cinnamon combination differs from the first two recipes in this section in that it is used when the gastrointestinal function is not robust. Frequently, the use of formulas containing ma huang, KH186, will cause the appetite to decrease and elicit nausea and extreme weakness. Cinnamon combination is used for patients when the pulse is floating, fu, KD44, and weak, jyaku, KD152 (at which time it is not desirable to induce sweating), in cases of feeling cold, samu ke, KD358, headache, fever and such symptoms, or if patients are spontaneously sweating. Ma huang and Asarum combination, KF239 The first three recipes are clearly used for the tai yoh byoh, KD460 (greater yang stage), stage of disease. This recipe is for use when the patient enters the shoh in byoh, KD428 (lesser yin stage), stage from the onset. One characteristic of this stage is that there will not be notable rises in body temperature. Any sensation of fever is only mild. O kan, KD307 (evil cold), however, is extreme and your patient will feel horribly

93

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

cold. The pulse is sunken, chin, KD20, and thin, sai, KD354, or sunken and slow, chi, KD17, and patients want to lie in bed under the covers. They may complain of a headache, though any suggestion of an ice pack is repugnant to them.

Bupleurum and scute combination, KF94 This is minor Bupleurum combination, KF136, plus Trichosanthes root, KH31, and scute, KH14, for use when the phlegm is hard to dislodge and the cough is severe. Moreover, when the patient coughs, the chest and upper abdomen are extremely painful.

Cyperus and Perilla formula, KF84 This is for a person who normally has sunken ki, ki ga shizumu, KD216, and who is further hampered by weak gastrointestinal function, i choh kyo jyaku, KD133. This is observed when the use of Pueraria combination, KF36, or cinnamon combination, KF60, interferes with the integrity of the intestinal function, causing nausea.

Ma huang and apricot seed combination, KF241

Minor Bupleurum combination, KF136

Hoelen and Schizandra combination, KF258

The influenza has lingered for several days, the damaging cold, o kan, KD307, is gone; however, the mouth has a bitter taste or feels sticky, with a white coating on the tongue, while at the same time the appetite is diminished. Frequently in these cases, the pulse changes from being floating, fu, KD44, to tight, kin, KD233, and thin, sai, KD354.

This is indicated for those children who, when they catch a cold, frequently demonstrate symptoms associated with an asthmatic constitution or with asthmatic bronchitis accompanied by stridor, or with stressinduced breathing problems.

This is used for chronic conditions where the body strength and ki ryoku, KD224 (strength of the ki), are both weak. This pattern, in addition to stridor, zen mei, KD492, and difficult breathing, is key to using this formula. The complexion, ketsu shoku, KD207, is not healthy and both the pulse and abdomen shoh show no strength.

Bamboo and ginseng, KF178 A cold seems to be dragging on forever without relief; phlegm is expectorated when coughing; and at night dreams are vivid and sleep is not peaceful, while at the same time it is difficult to concentrate on a task or at work. Use this recipe as soon as this pattern becomes apparent.

Bronchitis 気管支炎 Ki kan shi en

94

Trichosanthes and chi shi combination, KF39 This is used for chronic bronchitis where the phlegm is difficult to dislodge. In the mornings and after eating, there are frequent attacks of coughing which may be accompanied by slight breathing difficulties. The muscles are usually tight, while the skin lacks lustre.

Minor blue dragon combination, KF140

Ophiopogon combination, KF207

There is a frequent cough accompanied by stridor, zen mei, KD492, and the breathing is laboured. Foamy or bubbly phlegm is expectorated.

Ophiopogon combination is indicated for cases when an acute attack has persisted for a long time or when the acute stage has become chronic and is complicated by outbreaks of

Therapeutics (Treatment According to Named Disease)

severe coughing. The back of the throat is dry and the phlegm will not dislodge. The face flushes during coughing fits, which may occasionally induce vomiting and a rasping voice. Phellodendron combination, KF107 This is used for chronic conditions when a severe dry cough develops during the evening. This is most often seen in the elderly.

Bronchial asthma 気管支喘息 Ki kan shi zen soku There are certain constitutional types who are prone to suffer from bronchial asthma. To treat them accurately, attention must be paid to each body type and to whether individuals are old or young, when choosing the recipe. Minor blue dragon combination, KF140 In the initial stage of the onset, there is sneezing and a watery nasal discharge streams out. The breathing gradually becomes more laboured. You will often find that the abdominal muscles are tight and rigid (ri kyuh, KD332). Major Bupleurum combination, KF171, with Pinellia and magnolia combination, KF213 There is kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270 (hypochondriac painful fullness), and the chest is full and tight to the touch. Constitutionally robust, this type has a tendency towards constipation and complaints of thirst. In this type of patient the asthma is severe and painful from the onset. They often do not do well on recipes such as minor blue dragon combination, KF140.

Minor Bupleurum combination, KF136, with Pinellia and magnolia combination, KF213 The patient has a thin body type, there is kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270 (hypochondriac painful fullness), and the upper chest is full and tight to the touch but to a lesser and more limited extent than with major Bupleurum combination, KF171, described above. The type of patient who often benefits from using this formula tends to have a nervous disposition. Ma huang and apricot seed combination, KF241 Frequently used for children with asthma when the gastrointestinal function and appetite are good even though they catch colds easily and have a tendency to sweat profusely. Hoelen and Schizandra combination, KF258 An opportunity to use this formula arises in cases where emphysema is a sequela to asthma and both the ki ryoku, KD224 (strength of the ki), and body strength are deteriorating. The pulse will be found to be sunken, chin, KD20, and small, shoh, KD412, or alternatively faint, bi, KD7, and weak, jyaku, KD152, and in addition, there will be hie shoh, KD115 (icy constitution), and a poor complexion, ketsu shoku, KD207. Even when not suffering an asthmatic attack, just walking quickly or up a hill will elicit rapid breathing or shortness of breath.

Pulmonary tuberculosis 肺結核 Hai kekkaku These days, Kampo undertakes to treat people with pulmonary tuberculosis, which long ago was a prevalent disease, known to cause chronic complications. Following surgery, the body strength never quite returns to normal no matter what sort of treatment a person 95

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

may undertake. You will find that the use of these recipes will stand the test of time, though take care to distinguish between the different ones mentioned here. Minor Bupleurum combination, KF136 This is for cases seen in the early stages when the disease appears quite mild and where there is a constant feeling of fatigue and a poor appetite. Every now and again there is a slight change in the body temperature, which may rise a few degrees. In children this stage could include a positive response to a tuberculosis test or there could be signs of gastrointestinal problems. This formula could be given as preventive treatment and can also be used as an adjunct to enhance the effects of other treatment. Ginseng and Astragalus combination, KF235 This is used for cases of chronic, recurrent forms of tuberculosis, when the ki ryoku, KD224, lacks strength, the patient tires easily and complains of a feeling of being listless and heavy, darui, KD35. Food seems to be tasteless, the appetite decreases and there may be night sweats. However, the body temperature never seems to rise and there is rarely any onset of cough. Female patients especially benefit from taking this formula.

Vitality combination, KF147 Complaints focusing on the chest area are mild but there is a tendency toward diarrhoea and to having gas accumulate in the abdominal area along with hie shoh, KD115 (icy constitution), and both a pulse and abdomen shoh, KD411, that show no strength.

High blood pressure 高血圧症 Koh ketsu atsu shoh The aim of treatment in Kampo is not solely the lowering of a blood pressure reading. Even though high blood pressure is a serious sign, it is not intrinsically a dangerous condition and any treatment must always address the individual illness in a unique manner since symptoms may vary from person to person and the treatment may therefore change. Your principal goal is accurately to assess the condition of the body as a whole. Major Bupleurum combination, KF171 This is commonly used for the robust constitutional type with tight and firm musculature manifesting signs such as recurrent constipation and kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270, or shin ka hi koh, KD389 (epigastric obstruction and resistance). With regular use of this formula, the epigastric fullness will soften and disappear and the blood pressure will drop to within safe margins.

Major six herb combination, KF253 When this formula is indicated, there are fewer signs of respiratory problems than there are of digestive complaints. Commonly, these patients have a weak stomach, yet after surgery to the chest area the stomach and intestinal function has deteriorated even more than expected. Following modern medical treatment the lungs have improved, but the appetite has vanished, there is shin ka hi, KD387 (epigastric obstruction), and frequent complaints of being tired and exhausted. 96

Tang kuei and gambir combination, KF120 This is frequently used in cases where high blood pressure has become chronic. The diastolic pressure is also high with a hint of renal hypertension. Tang kuei and gambir combination can be an adjunct to other treatment approaches.

Therapeutics (Treatment According to Named Disease)

Gambir formula, KF183 In the early morning, there is a headache, tinnitus, ki bun no utsu soku, KD214, and signs of loss of memory and concentration, as is frequently observed in cases where the cranial arteries have undergone organic changes. Coptis and scute combination, KF24 Use this for cases when the ki is rising upward, the face is red and there is nobose, KD303. There is emotional irritability as the ki rises and cannot descend, along with nosebleeds and possible microbleeding in the eyes. Headaches, dizziness, tinnitus and insomnia may also be present. Bupleurum and dragonbone combination, KF95 There is kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270 (hypochondriac painful fullness), and complaints of the upper abdomen feeling tight and oppressive, boh man, KD10, along with palpitations, dizziness, insomnia and nervous anxiety with complaints such as being easily startled. These feelings of becoming easily irritable or emotional are what distinguish this shoh. Rehmannia eight combination, KF210 This is for patients with chronic nephritis and glomerulonephritis along with intermittent claudication. There is copious nocturia, thirst, troublesome fever, han netsu, KD98, of the hands and feet, heaviness and weakness below the waist, low backache, oedema in the lower limbs and similar lower-body complaints.

Pinellia and Gastrodia combination, KF215 This is for cases where the gastrointestinal system is weak, i choh kyo jyaku, KD133, the ki lacks strength, the complexion, ketsu shoku, KD207, is poor and there is hie shoh, KD115 (icy constitution). There is the sound of water splashing in the epigastrium, shin ka bu shin sui on, KD385, headache, dizziness and nausea.

Heart valvular disease 心臓弁膜症 Shin zoh ben maku shoh Stephania and ginseng combination, KF244 This is for ‘cardiac insufficiency’, often used when there is an abnormal finding called ‘hardness under the heart’, shin ka hi ken, KD388. It is often observed that the liver appears swollen. The key signs are cyanosis, oedema, asthma, laboured breathing, ko ko kyuh soku haku, KD242, and scanty urination. The symptoms of the disease can easily and quickly become worse. In that case I would add 1 gram of digitalis leaves each day to this formula. I have sometimes treated very severe cases like this, though most are never completely cured. However, when the disease is still in its light stages or when other conditions are favourable, there can be a complete recovery. Baked liquorice combination, KF122 The signs indicative of this formula include heart palpitations, shortness of breath and a pulsation which beats rapidly around the navel, sei ka ki, KD364. The radial pulse is knotted, ketsu, KD193.

Siler and Platycodon formula, KF233 This is indicated for the constitutionally robust, whose body strength is truly excess. The upper abdomen also feels full, boh man, KD10, and there is constipation.

Areca and Evodia combination, KF231 There are complaints of urinary difficulties, oedema, heart palpitations and shortness of breath, iki gire, KD137. The head feels heavy

97

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

and there is emotional depression, ki bun no utsu soku, KD214. Use this formula when Stephania and ginseng combination, KF244, has been prescribed without effect.

Panic attacks/Cardiac neurosis 心臓神経症 (心臓血管神経症) Shin zoh shin kei shoh (shin zoh kekkan shin kei shoh) Compared to the other diseases in this chapter this is a comparatively mild syndrome with many and various complaints, accompanied by feelings of anxiety. The patient complains of tachycardia and breathing problems with aches and pains in the heart area. Such complaints are numerous and vocal but doctors cannot determine a cause. Most of these complaints are undoubtedly due to a feeling of progressively worsening anxiety. Pinellia and magnolia combination, KF213 There is a sensation of pressure in the chest and the breathing feels constricted. The most significant symptom is the sensation of rapid heart beat. There is a subjective feeling of impending death, brought on by complaints of extreme anxiety and distress. Additionally there is ‘plum pit ki’ – a feeling like something is stuck in the throat, bai kaku ki, KD5. Bupleurum and dragonbone combination, KF95 This is used for patients with kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270 (hypochondriac painful fullness), and shin ka hi koh, KD389 (epigastric obstruction and resistance), where nervous excitement brings on attacks of rapid heart palpitations accompanied by laboured breathing and chest pain. Tang kuei combination, KF188 This is used when there are symptoms resembling those of angina; the chest aches 98

as though it were tight and constricted and a pain penetrates from the chest right through to the back of the ribs. In this case there is a feeling of a rising or upward pressure from the abdomen up to the left flank, the breathing is painful and there can be complaints of feeling cold in the back, chest or abdomen. The upper abdomen feels full but is soft and weak to the touch, not strong and tight, as though gas has filled up the cavity. Pueraria and ginger combination (‘running piglet decoction’), KF237 奔豚湯 Hon ton toh/ben tong tang The ancients called this ‘running piglet’, but it is a disorder which nowadays can be thought of as a kind of anxiety or panic attack, causing rapid heart palpitations or cardiac neuralgia. The onset of these symptoms occurs in the lower abdomen where there is a sensation of something similar to air rushing upwards, accompanied by complaints of heart palpitations, chest and back pain, breathing difficulties and similar anxiety symptoms.

Gastritis 胃炎 I en Pinellia combination, KF214 This is used for an acute attack of gastritis but can also be used for the chronic stage. Shin ka hi koh, KD389 (epigastric obstruction and resistance), and lack of appetite are the main symptoms. Additionally, when there is some degree of stomach pain and nausea which may include vomiting, use this prescription. Pinellia and ginger combination, KF142 This resembles the shoh of Pinellia combination, KF214, but there is belching; this belching is often accompanied by the smell of food.

Therapeutics (Treatment According to Named Disease)

Sei netsu ge utsu toh, KF155 This translates as ‘clear fever resolve sumping formula’, where the sumping is utsu tai, KD476; it is for use in cases of chronic gastritis and complaints of pain. The text Shuh Hoh Ki Ku, KD440, says: Pain in the heart (epigastrium) is the sign of pain in the stomach cavity (hollow organ), where often there is ki stasis, KD230; furthermore, chronic and persistent it accumulates. If there is fever and the onset of pain, this cures it.

This passage says that during the course of various daily activities the ki is consumed and along with this the stomach function declines and there are complaints of pain, all of which this formula cures. Be careful here about this word ‘fever’ (netsu, KD298): it does not refer to the fever or heat as we have come to understand it in Kampo (here the word Kampo refers to the Shoh Kan Ron, KD430). This kind of ‘fever’ refers to accelerated metabolic function, just as the cold in the following formula, cardamon and fennel combination, KF1, is a reference to the waning or declining of metabolic function, the opposite condition. In this formula both the pulse and the abdomen have power and are not jyaku, KD152, or weak. Moreover, the tongue is not damp or moist; rather it is dry and may have a coat. Cardamon and fennel combination, KF1 This is for use with chronic gastritis when the stomach pain has been going on a long time. The signs include an emaciated body; the complexion (ketsu shoku, KD207) is poor; hie shoh, KD115 (cold constitution), is present; while neither the pulse nor abdomen has strength.

gastrointestinal function (i choh kyo jyaku, KD133) when the complexion, KD207, is not good, accompanied by hie shoh, KD115, a poor appetite and the feeling of a full stomach no matter whether a small or large amount is eaten. Thin sputum collects in the mouth. Where there is cold, a copious amount of urine is passed. Major Bupleurum combination, KF171 This is for a relatively physically welldeveloped person with a tendency toward constipation who, without purgatives, would not have regular bowel movements. There are complaints that the stomach feels heavy and when the abdomen is pressed there is firmness and pain, while at the same time the epigastrium feels contracted, causing the area from the neck to the shoulders to feel very stiff. The tongue is dark and there can be yellow fur which will be dry; the pulse and abdomen both have strength and you will find kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270 (hypochondriac painful fullness). Minor Bupleurum combination, KF136 This is also used in gastritis, and is especially useful for gastritis in children. While there is no appetite, there is often nausea and vomiting. It is used when there is kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270 (hypochondriac painful fullness), but often this abdominal shoh cannot be confirmed in infants. Inula and hematite combination, KF162 This resembles the shoh of Pinellia and ginger combination, KF142, but in that case the stomach is less weak. Here there is acid regurgitation, heartburn and belching which will not cease.

Ginseng and ginger combination, KF203 This is widely used for those persons ranging from average strength to those with weak 99

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

Stomach atony 胃アトニー I atonih This is a disease where the stomach wall is fuku bu mu ryoku, lax and powerless, KD53. Since the tone of the musculature holding up the stomach is poor, there will be complaints such as a feeling of fullness or distension, fullness after eating when the food gets stuck (won’t go down) or belching, nausea and lack of appetite. This kind of patient often lacks physical strength, and constitutionally the ki has no power; this patient tires easily and seems generally to have shin kei shitsu, neurotic sensitivities, KD395. This can be accompanied by gastroptosis. Magnolia and ginger combination, KF230 A light case of atonic stomach, with the abdominal conformation shin ka hi, KD387 (epigastric obstruction), where the abdomen feels full or bloated. Major six herb combination, KF253 The complexion, ketsu shoku, KD207, is poor, the strength of the ki is exhausted (ki ryoku no otoroeta mono, KD226) and the pulse and abdomen show no strength. There are complaints like feeling sleepy after eating, feeling listless, a heavy head and dizziness. Pinellia and Gastrodia combination, KF215 The indications here resemble the major six herb combination shoh, KF253, but the strongest complaints are headaches, dizziness and cold feet. Cinnamon and peony combination, KF64, or minor cinnamon and peony combination, KF135 Cinnamon and peony combination, KF64, is indicated when the rectus abdominis muscle

100

is extremely tight and swollen, kin choh, KD235, the abdomen is distended, KD10, and beneath the skin there is not much fat on the body. It is often used when the abdominal wall is hi jyaku, KD110 (veneer). There is often aching or pain in the back and abdomen. If the ketsu shoku, KD207 (complexion), is not good, minor cinnamon and peony combination, KF135, is often used. When within this shoh you can hear a splashing sound in the abdomen (shin ka bu shin sui on, KD385), add Pinellia, KH163, 4 grams, and hoelen, KH173, 3 grams, to either of these formulas. Cinnamon and peony combination, KF64, plus Zanthoxylum, KH100, and ginseng, KH150 Dr Otsuka has given the name chuh ken chuh toh, ‘middle build the middle’, KD28, to this formula. It is for cases when there is constipation but ingredients such as rhubarb, KH126, or other purgatives cause complaints of abdominal pain and kibun ga warui, KD212. When this formula is used the faeces will pass. Vitality combination, KF147 This is indicated for the lax abdomen, fuku bu nan jyaku mu ryoku, KD54, where there is no strength, a pulse that is chin, sunken, KD20, and jyaku, weak, KD152, or chi, slow, KD17, and weak, a poor ketsu shoku, KD207 (complexion), hie, KD114 (cold), hands and feet, and mild diarrhoea.

Stomach prolapse/Gastroptosis 胃下垂 I ka sui This condition can be a genuine handicap but with proper treatment should not become a subject for concern. Symptoms include swollen and full feeling in the stomach, pressure and heavy sensation, heartburn, belching and constipation.

Therapeutics (Treatment According to Named Disease)

Apart from these, associated stomach atony symptoms such as headache, insomnia, sei shin chin utsu, KD368 (depression/ melancholia), and various neurotic complaints may occur at the same time. As for treatment, it is often possible to treat with the same recipes as you would use for stomach atony. For patients who differ from these symptoms (listed under stomach atony), choose from the following. Pinellia and magnolia combination, KF213 These symptoms often occur after giving birth; the stomach wall is shi kan, lax and powerless, KD378, and the abdomen remains unusually large; in the stomach area there is shin ka hi, a subjective feeling of heaviness and fullness, KD387, with complaints of a dragging type of abdominal pain. Evodia and Pinellia combination, KF15 Emotionally there is kibun no chin utsu, KD213 (sullen mood), along with shin ka bu shin sui on, the epigastric splash sound, KD385, and a dragging, pulling, aching pain. The abdomen feels swollen, boh man kan, KD10, and the feet feel cold, hie, KD114, and icy. There is a knife-like, aching pain below the heart area on the lower border of the ribcage which occurs with movements such as standing or getting up or upon touch or pressure. Bupleurum and peony combination, KF33 Heavy head, stiff shoulders, dizziness, palpitations, constipation, irregular menstruation and various symptoms related to an autonomic nervous system disorder, chi no mi chi shoh, KD18, are the main symptoms indicating the use of this formula.

Stomach and duodenal ulcers 胃潰瘍 I kai yoh/十二指腸潰瘍 Jyuh ni shi choh kai yoh (‘First 12 fingers of the intestines’; the upper gastrointestinal tract) Sei netsu ge utsu toh [no standard English name], KF155 This is often used when there are complaints of an aching pain in the upper abdomen, which is likely to arise following an incident of nervous agitation. This is best used when the patient still has body strength, tai ryoku, KD458, has a dry tongue coat and when both the pulse and abdomen have strength. Bupleurum and cinnamon combination, KF98 The abdominal wall is thick and has elasticity and strength, although when palpated the principal finding is of tight, ropy abdominal muscles (ri kyuh, KD332). When pain and acid regurgitation are also present, clove, KH136, and oyster shell, KH185, can be added. If there is constipation, add rhubarb, KH126. Coptis and scute combination, KF24, or Coptis and rhubarb combination, KF103 The principal aim of these formulas is to stop bleeding. They are often the solution if the bleeding is worsened by drinking alcohol. Cardamon and fennel combination, KF1 Stomach pain is the chief complaint here; patients have hie shoh, KD115 (icy constitution), both the abdomen and pulse lack strength and there is a preference for sweet-flavoured foods. Major four herb combination, KF117 The ulcer has caused chronic changes to occur. Use this for those manifesting such 101

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

things as anaemia, waning strength of the body and ki, oedema, lack of appetite, a weak, jyaku, KD152, pulse and lax abdomen, fuku bu nan jyaku mu ryoku, KD54. Minor cinnamon and peony combination, KF135

This is for use as the illness advances and the appetite has disappeared, when there is nausea, vomiting, anaemia and oedema. By using this formula the appetite and the body strength can return.

This is often used for cases when the illness has lingered for a long time, the patient’s body strength is waning and there are complaints of intense pain.

Pinellia and gardenia combination, KF251, with liquorice and ginger combination, KF42

Stomach cancer 胃癌 I gan Among Kampo formulas, there is no complete cure for stomach cancer. However, in cases where the individual’s symptoms are slight, the progress of the disease can be halted to some extent. Pinellia combination, KF214 Use this for patients when the body strength has not begun to wane, when there is shin ka hi koh, KD389 (epigastric obstruction and resistance), a suppressed appetite and nausea. If there is frequent belching you can use Pinellia and ginger combination, KF142. Inula and hematite combination, KF162 This is used for patients when the body strength has begun to wane; there is shin ka hi koh, KD389 (epigastric obstruction and resistance), a suppressed appetite, and often there is belching. In the stomach and intestines the peristaltic action is uneasy. There is mild abdominal pain, which can frequently be accompanied by vomiting. Furthermore, in cases of stomach cancer, when the body strength begins to wane, there is often constipation.

102

Major four herb combination, KF117, or major six herb combination, KF253

This is a specific formula for oesophageal cancer when food will not descend and there is vomiting. At that time the mucous secretions can be abundant and mixed; by using this formula swallowing can be made easier.

Acute colitis 急性腸炎 Kyuh sei i choh en Diarrhoea is the principal symptom here, but when the inflammation is limited to the small intestine, there may not be diarrhoea. Further complaints are of abdominal pain and borborygmus, fuku chuh rai mei, KD56, in the abdomen. When there is inflammation the typical complaint is intestinal colic, sen tsuh, KD374 (literally, a ‘mountain of pain’). When the rectum is the site of the inflammation the pain is called ‘inside acute, heavy after’, ri kyuh koh jyuh, KD333, which refers to a spasm of pain followed by a bearing-down sensation. Pinellia combination, KF214, Pinellia and ginger combination, KF142, or Pinellia and liquorice combination, KF43 Without fail there are signs of shin ka hi koh, KD389 (epigastric obstruction and resistance), stomach noises and diarrhoea. Any diarrhoea will be accompanied by complaints of mild abdominal pain; there will

Therapeutics (Treatment According to Named Disease)

not be ri kyuh koh jyuh, KD333 (inside acute, heavy after). When the diarrhoea is frequent, use Pinellia and liquorice combination, KF43; when belching predominates, use Pinellia and ginger combination, KF142. Hoelen five formula, KF92 This is the chief formula for attacks of acute colitis in children. It is used when thirst is a clear complaint; there is a desire to drink water, though when it is drunk there is vomiting; urination is scanty and there is watery diarrhoea. This can be used when there is fever accompanied by stomach pain even when there is no vomiting. Ginseng and ginger combination, KF203 This is indicated for children or those with weak gastrointestinal function. Often the stomach is cold, hie, KD114, and this gives rise to the diarrhoea for which this recipe is used. Frequently used when stomach pain and vomiting occur together. There are no complaints of thirst and the tongue is moist. Cinnamon and ginseng combination, KF76 This is ginseng and ginger combination, KF203, plus added cinnamon, KH47; because the inside, ri, KD328, is cold, kan, KD175, there is diarrhoea; yet the fever, netsu, KD298, on the outside, hyoh, KD124, is the distinguishing characteristic. These symptoms are seen in the early stage of an attack of acute colitis. Pueraria combination, KF36 This is also good to use for an attack of acute colitis when both the exterior, ri, KD328, and the interior, hyoh, KD124, have fever, netsu, KD298, so that the pulse is floating, fu, KD44, and rapid, saku, KD357, as is typical of netsu, KD298.

Peony combination, KF126 This is indicated for the symptom pattern known as ‘red diarrhoea’, seki ri, KD370, when there is diarrhoea, abdominal pain and a swollen abdomen, ri kyuh koh jyuh, KD333, thirst, high fever, and faeces mixed with mucus and blood. Major Bupleurum combination, KF171 Use this for diarrhoea in cases with kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270 (hypochondriac painful fullness), or shin ka hi koh, KD389 (epigastric obstruction and resistance), and symptoms such as vomiting, nausea and thirst. Often there is fullness in the abdomen and there can even be ri kyuh koh jyuh, KD333 (inside acute, heavy after). The tongue may have a brownor a yellow-coloured fur adhering to it, and the pulse has strength.

Chronic colitis 慢性腸炎 Man sei choh en Vitality combination, KF147 For a chronic condition where each day there may be 2–3 episodes of diarrhoea; there is no strength in the abdomen or the pulse, and there is hie shoh, KD115 (icy constitution). Complaints of ri kyuh koh jyuh, KD333 (inside acute, heavy after), or abdominal pain are rare. Atractylodes and Setaria combination, KF3 This is used for cases when diarrhoea has gone on a long time and the patient has become weak and strength is waning. The inflammation in the bowel causes mucus and blood to mix with the faeces, and there is frequently ri kyuh koh jyuh, KD333 (inside acute, heavy after). During a bowel movement, there is the sound of pichi pichi, KD321, as the faeces fly about (explosive diarrhoea). Addressing these symptoms is the objective of this formula. 103

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

Ginseng and longan, KF50 This is indicated for cases when the diarrhoea has persisted to such an extent that nourishment (nutritional status), ei yoh, KD43, is depleted, the skin has lost its lustre and there are associated signs of dryness and anaemia. There is no ri kyuh koh jyuh, KD333 (inside acute, heavy after), and any abdominal pain is mild. This formula is often the best choice when there is no benefit from vitality combination, KF147. Pinellia and liquorice combination, KF43, or Pinellia combination, KF214 Use these for cases in the chronic stage when the body strength and the strength of the ki have not yet begun to wane. The key symptoms include borborygmus, fuku chuh rai mei, KD56, shin ka hi koh, KD389 (epigastric obstruction and resistance), and diarrhoea.

Chronic constipation 常習便秘 Jyoh shuh ben pi Constipation includes various conditions such as a torsioned or constricted intestinal tract, or intestinal stenosis and adhesions, or intestinal wall paralysis, or even a large, oversized or elongated intestine. In yet another condition the surrounding organs may put such pressure on the intestines that proper peristalsis is impaired. Furthermore, the intestinal tract may be hyperrelaxed or atonic or there may be a cramp or spasm in the intestinal wall. Within the definition of ‘constipation’ the treatment of the jitsu shoh, KD149, is simple, but with the kyo shoh, KD267, purgatives such as rhubarb, KH126, and other such herbs should not be included in any formula. Major Bupleurum combination, KF171 This is indicated for a full, robust constitutional type with well-developed muscles with kyoh

104

kyoh ku man, KD270, or shin ka hi koh, KD389 (epigastric obstruction and resistance). This is a useful recipe; always remember to try it when there are gallstones, inflamed liver, hepatitis and such symptoms accompanied by constipation. Apricot seed and linum combination, KF243 Because this is a mild purgative, it is good for use during convalescence after major illness or by the elderly, or by those whose body strength is weak. This is useful when there is constipation yet the frequency and quantity of urination are usually normal. Linum and rhubarb combination, KF131 Luxuriating and moistening, ji jun, KD145, is the therapeutic effect here, for use in cases where the body fluids are lacking and the skin and mucous membranes are all visibly dry. Habitual constipation in the elderly often responds well to this treatment. Coptis and rhubarb combination, KF103 This formula has healing properties to calm agitation, arrest anaemia, resolve inflammation and stop bleeding. In correcting these it treats nobose, KD303, fright, insomnia, anxiety and such things which accompany this kind of constipation. When this recipe is rolled into balls, it is named san oh gan, the three yellow balls. Cinnamon, peony and rhubarb combination, KF65 In the kind of constipation commonly treated by this formula, the abdomen is inflated with shoh fuku man, KD425, the rectus abdominis muscles are tight and swollen while their elasticity and strength are waning, and the pulse has no strength.

Therapeutics (Treatment According to Named Disease)

Minor cinnamon and peony combination, KF135, with major Zanthoxylum combination, KF170 This is indicated in cases where the intestinal walls have adhesions or strictures causing constipation in a person who, when rhubarb, KH126, was included in a purgative recipe, had strong abdominal pain and cramping without being able to pass a stool. Whenever constipation follows abdominal surgery, without fail you should think of this recipe. Further indications include a delicate and weak abdomen, hi jyaku, KD110 (weak), which lacks tone and springiness, a jyaku pulse, KD152, hie shoh, KD115 (icy constitution), and a poor complexion, ketsu shoku, KD207. Minor Bupleurum, KF136 Without fail, consider this first for children or infants who are constipated.

Vomiting (for pregnancy-related vomiting, see Morning sickness) 嘔吐 Oh to Shoh han ge toh, minor Pinellia combination, KD426, or minor Pinellia and hoelen combination, KF141 Even bland foods, which are lightly flavoured, induce vomiting to such a degree that food, drink and medicine cannot be taken. When the epigastrium has the water splash sound, shin ka bu shin sui on, KD385, choose minor Pinellia and hoelen combination, KF141. Often it is necessary to drink the boiled formula cold in one gulp. Hoelen five formula, KF91 It is good to use this for children with the common cold, kaze, KD161, or with acute gastroenteritis, when there is extreme thirst and vomiting. It is especially useful when the amount of urination has decreased and

when, after vomiting, the thirst returns, and after drinking water there is more vomiting. This same hoelen five formula, KF91, is good to use with the kind of vomiting that occurs with hangovers. It can be used whether or not there is fever. Alisma hoelen and ginger combination, KF225 The thirst and urinary difficulties which accompany the vomiting are less severe than in the previous hoelen five shoh and the thirst is less extreme. Additionally in this formula, the vomiting is not so frequent nor so persistent. In this case, the vomiting occurs in the morning at breakfast time or in the evening at dinner time. The vomiting here is often accompanied by mechanical conditions such as constriction or torsion of the pylorus or distension of the stomach. Evodia combination, KF93 This is the one to use when there is an extreme headache and when one-sided headache accompanies the vomiting.

Hepatitis and cirrhosis 肝炎・肝硬変症 Kan en, kan koh hen shoh Capillaris combination, KF5 This formula is used in cases of an acute attack of hepatitis with fever when the patient suffers discomfort, ki bun ga warui, KD212, where the chest feels blocked or constricted, resulting in loss of appetite and nausea. This can be used with complaints similar to those above even when there is no jaundice. Along with these symptoms there may be thirst and urinary problems, while scanty urination and constipation are often seen, but even if those symptoms have not appeared this formula can be used.

105

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

Capillaris and hoelen formula, KF6 Thirst and urinary block, fu ri, KD47, are seen accompanying jaundice, although this formula can be used without jaundice. Jaundice and ascites are what distinguish the symptoms of a patient with the type of cirrhosis for which this formula is effective. Once the ascites has resolved the jaundice will disappear. Minor Bupleurum combination, KF136, with Capillaris combination, KF5 Use this for the acute stage and for the chronic stage when it is advancing. The liver is enlarged, there is lassitude, ken tai kan, KD112, fatigue and a poor appetite, while the bowels do not evacuate properly. If the bowels are functioning, rhubarb, KH126, can be removed from Capillaris combination, KF5. This formula can be used with blood serum hepatitis. Major Bupleurum combination, KF171, with Capillaris combination, KF5 The same as the previous recipe but for more jitsu shoh, KD149, with an abdomen that is bloated or distended, fuku bu boh man, KD51, and where there is often constipation. Minor Bupleurum combination, KF136, with Capillaris and hoelen combination, KF6 The liver is enlarged, there is thirst and urinary block, fu ri, KD47, or use this when there is jaundice plus ascites. Ginseng and ginger combination, KF251, with hoelen five formula, KF91 The liver cirrhosis symptoms are advancing rapidly along with ascites, jaundice and oedema. The whole body is debilitated, so in these cases treat the whole pattern with this formula. 106

Gallstones or inflamed gallbladder 胆石症・胆嚢炎 Tan seki shoh, tan noh en Major Bupleurum combination, KF171 Often used with patients with cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. The right side often shows severe signs of kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270 (hypochondriac painful fullness), and constipation. The jitsu shoh, KD149, is the most common pattern for this illness and this is the most common symptom pattern. Bupleurum and cinnamon combination, KF98 Compared to major Bupleurum shoh this formula is more for the kyo shoh, KD267, with no constipation and with tight and swollen rectus abdominis muscles, kin choh, KD235. Minor Bupleurum combination, KF136 For cases of cholecystitis when for a long time there has been no success in lowering the fever. In the presence of this high fever, troublesome thirst, han katsu, KD96, can be present, and if so add gypsum, KH112, at 12–20 grams per day. Rhubarb and aconite combination, KF168, or peony and liquorice combination, KF124 When a gallstone causes a ‘mountain of pain’, sen tsuh, KD374, take a draught of this at the time of the attack.

Nephritis and nephrosis 腎炎・ネフローゼ Jin en, nefurohze Hoelen five formula, KF91 Use this for the acute and the chronic condition without distinction and for either nephritis or nephrosis. The key signs will be oedema, thirst and decreased urination. This

Therapeutics (Treatment According to Named Disease)

will also cure the accompanying headache and vomiting.

in the liver, asthma and hardness under the heart, shin ka hi ken, KD388.

Minor Bupleurum combination, KF136, plus hoelen, KH173, and Coptis, KH17

Tang kuei and peony formula, KF192

There is no oedema, though there is fever, nausea and lack of appetite, and in the anatomical area of the heart there is a feeling of oppression. These are the signs for using minor Bupleurum combination, KF136. Subacute nephritis with no oedema is a light stage of the disease, and can be treated with minor Bupleurum combination, KF136, plus hoelen, KH173, and Coptis, KH17. Rehmannia eight combination, KF209 Use this basic formula when there have been chronic changes, and when there is oedema. When there is no oedema, but albuminuria and high blood pressure are the chief complaints, 3 grams of Uncaria, KH137, and 1.5 grams Phellodendron, KH16, can be added. This formula also treats nephrosclerosis and atrophied kidneys. Capillaris combination, KF5 Thirst, urinary block, fu ri, KD47, and constipation are the key signs. Often there are signs such as oedema, boh man, KD10, of the upper abdomen and feelings of severe pain inside the chest. Hoelen and Alisma combination, KF228 This is for cases when nephrosis has gone on a long time, accompanied by symptoms such as oedema and ascites. Stephania and ginseng combination, KF244 This is for use in chronic nephritis with symptoms such as oedema, laboured breathing, enlarged heart, congested blood

This is indicated for autointoxication in pregnancy, with albuminuria, high blood pressure and eclampsia. It is possible to give birth without incident, or to use this in the postpartum period when albuminuria is not present.

Urinary tract stones 尿路結石 Nyoh ro kesseki In this category we are including kidney stones, urethral stones and urinary bladder stones; in the case of the first two there can be severe abdominal pain. Polyporus combination, KF185 This is best used at a time when there is a ‘mountain of pain’, sen tsuh, KD374 – pain with the aim of expelling the stone from the tract. Thirst, scanty urination, turbid urine, blood in the urine and such complaints are indications to use this formula; it can also be of use when these signs are not so obvious. Cinnamon and hoelen formula, KF77, rhubarb and moutan combination, KF169, or Persica and rhubarb combination, KF186 These are used when the abdominal shoh, known as the o ketsu point, KD308, is present. With urinary tract stones there can be complaints of severe resistance in the lower abdomen and of pain on pressure. For these patients, in the remission stages where there is no pain, use cinnamon and hoelen formula, KF77, plus Coix, KH195. At times when there is lower abdominal pressure and pain accompanied by constipation, use rhubarb and moutan combination, KF169, and when the abdominal diagnosis shows the 107

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

o ketsu point accompanied by constipation, use Persica and rhubarb combination, KF186. These formulas can also be used in attacks of extreme ‘mountain of pain’, sen tsuh, KD374. Major Zanthoxylum combination, KF170 This is indicated for use during attacks of sen tsuh, KD374, when the abdominal pain can be severe and the abdominal cavity swollen and distended by stagnant gas which is the cause of the suffering. Peony and liquorice combination, KF124, or rhubarb and aconite combination, KF168 Take draught by draught to relieve attacks of sen tsuh, KD374. Siler and Platycodon formula, KF233 For use with fat and full constitutionaltype patients, hi man, KD111, with fuku bu boh man, KD51 (distended abdomen), and complaints of constipation. The stone can be expelled using this formula.

Anaemia 貧血 Hin ketsu Anaemia is seen when there are too few red cells in the blood or when inside the red blood cells the haemoglobin is deficient. There are many kinds of anaemia, including irondeficient, aplastic, haemolytic and pernicious anaemia, as well as anaemia resulting from loss of a large volume of blood. Tang kuei four combination, KF118 This treats anaemia and has the therapeutic effect of stopping bleeding, but it is not the formula to use with such severe anaemia that gastrointestinal function is damaged and there are signs such as diarrhoea or vomiting.

108

Four major herb combination, KF117 This is indicated when the anaemia is severe, the ki ryoku, KD224 (strength of the ki), is waning, as is the gastrointestinal function, accompanied by loss of appetite, diarrhoea and vomiting. Ginseng and tang kuei ten combination, KF128 This is tang kuei four combination, KF118, combined with four major herb combination, KF117, plus cinnamon, KH47, and Astragalus, KH13, added to replenish the blood and as a tonic to strengthen. It is used when the body has become atrophied from anaemia, and so benefits kan soh, KD183 (parched, dry mouth), and koh kan, thirst, KD246. Ginseng and longan combination, KF50 This is indicated when the cause of the anaemia is unclear. Consider it especially with pernicious or aplastic anaemia, where it gives remarkably good results, as well as all patients of kyo shoh, KD267, when there are symptoms such as anaemia, bleeding, insomnia, forgetfulness and tachycardia. Baked liquorice combination, KF122 Good to use when there are complaints of anaemia with a pulse that is knotted and delayed, ketsu tai, KD208, often accompanied by palpitations and shortness of breath.

Purpura or petechiae, ecchymoses 紫斑病 Shi han byoh This is a group of disorders characterized by brownish red or purple discolorations easily visible through the epidermis caused by haemorrhaging through the tissues. Small punctuated haemorrhages are called petechiae. Additionally there is Schönlein’s purpura or purpura rheumatica – purpura with articular symptoms and without

Therapeutics (Treatment According to Named Disease)

gastrointestinal symptoms. Alternatively there is ecchymosis, which refers to bruises. In this disease, apart from scurvy, infantile scurvy and haemophilia, the cause is unknown. Purpura is the general term for diseases causing generalized haemorrhaging under the skin and the mucous membrane and such surfaces. In a simple case, the haemorrhages are only under the skin and appear as a kind of pinhead size. In severe cases there may be acute bouts of haemorrhage from the internal organs. There is also rheumatic purpura and thrombocytopenic purpura, where the rate of production of blood platelets is decreased, leading to haemorrhage in all the mucosal surfaces.

tai, KD208, and in the abdominal region a strong pulsation can be felt. Additional developments include protruding eyes (exophthalmos), sweating easily, tiring easily and an anxious temperament, shin kei shitsu, KD395.

Bupleurum and cinnamon combination, KF98, or ginseng and longan combination, KF50

This is indicated in cases where the herb Rehmannia, KH75, in baked liquorice combination, KF122, has made it difficult to continue treatment by disturbing the gastrointestinal function, and discontinuing baked liquorice combination seems the best solution. Using this combination with this kind of patient often has good results.

In cases of thrombocytopenic purpura, Bupleurum and cinnamon combination, KF98, is often the answer. If there is no improvement, or a swift recurrence or reversion to similar symptoms for some unexplained reason, then switch to ginseng and longan combination, KF50. Minor cinnamon and peony combination, KF135, or ginseng and tang kuei ten combination, KF128 For rheumatic purpura, in the early stages, use this along with Atractylodes combination, KF13. In chronic cases, use it along with clematis and Stephania combination, KF164.

Hyperthyroidism: Basedow’s disease; Graves’ disease バセドウ病 Basedoh byoh The thyroid gland begins to hyperfunction and this is the cause of the illness in which the thyroid swells, and along with this the beating of the heart becomes violent. Also note that the pulse can be knotted and delayed, ketsu

Baked liquorice combination, KF122 This is often a good cure for Basedow’s disease. It works especially well with female patients. Pinellia and magnolia combination, KF213, plus cinnamon and dragonbone combination, KF68 (minus, KD353, peony, KH83, ginger, KH95, and jujube, KH127)

Bupleurum and dragonbone combination, KF95 Select this formula in the early stage of the disease when there is body strength. There is hypochondriac painful fullness, kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270, and swelling, fuku bu boh man, KD51. The patient begins to be startled easily and is prone to palpitations and insomnia. Bupleurum and peony combination, KF33 Use this when, due to hyperthyroidism, there is irregular menstruation, autonomic nervous dysfunction, chi no michi shoh, KD18, and those other signs and complaints which you associate with anxiety disorders, shin kei shoh joh, KD397, signs such as neurosis or anxiousness. This also addresses other associated symptoms such as dizziness, stiff 109

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

shoulders, palpitations, counterflow, nobose, KD303, tinnitus, sensations of coldness, hie, KD114, in the feet and a heavy feeling in the head.

although the affected areas may be painful in the morning upon rising, the severe pain usually diminishes, becoming much milder within a short while.

Diabetes mellitus 糖尿病 Toh nyoh byoh

Coix combination, KF246

Rehmannia eight combination, KF210 This is the most frequently used formula for diabetes and is often benefited by the addition of ginseng, KH150. This will address the main complaints such as thirst, copious urination, hi roh ken tai, KD112 (fatigue and lassitude), low-back pain and decreased libido.

This is for use in the acute attack stage, especially after the severe symptoms have subsided and what could be called the subacute stage has been entered. There is some joint pain and swelling to a mild degree, and although it is not severe, the discomfort remains. Liquorice and aconite combination, KF44

Ginseng and gypsum combination, KF220 For a relatively early disease stage when the body strength and complexion, ketsu shoku, KD207, are still good. Use this for the complaints of thirst and copious urination. Major four herb combination, KF117 This is the formula to use when the illness is advancing rapidly, there is weakness, lack of appetite and anaemia, and when oedema is observed in the lower limbs.

Cinnamon and Anemarrhena combination, KF80

Use for cases of diabetes when accompanied by pulmonary tuberculosis, where nourishment, ei yoh, KD43, is waning and there is dry skin, thirst, copious urination and coughing.

This is for chronic cases when poor assimilation of food (nourishment), ei yoh, KD43, leads to atrophy and the affected joints are swollen but the surrounding muscle is wasting and the skin has become dry and lacklustre.

Rheumatic joints 関節リウマチ Kan setsu ryuhmachi

Cinnamon and Atractylodes combination, KF67

Ophiopogon and Trichosanthes combination, KF208

Pueraria combination, KF36 For both the acute and chronic stages of the illness when the disease stage is relatively mild. This is good for patients with slight swelling in a few of the finger joints, and 110

This is used for those suffering from extreme pain accompanied by a rheumatic-like fever. This is a case of polyarthritis and the joints will be affected such that just touching them with a finger or the edge of one’s clothing can elicit extreme pain. Such joints will be red and swollen and will feel hot, while the limbs can neither be extended nor flexed. This formula is effective with evil cold, o kan, KD307, or outbreak of fever, netsu, KD298.

For chronic patients with complaints such as coldness conformation, hie shoh, KD115, poor complexion, ketsu shoku, KD207, a weak, jyaku, KD152, pulse, and muscles which are lacking in tone. It is especially useful for patients who find that taking cinnamon and

Therapeutics (Treatment According to Named Disease)

Anemarrhena combination, KF80 (which contains ma huang, KH186), causes them to lose their appetite and become even more exhausted. Major Siler combination, KF175 This is used in chronic cases; however, this formula is not suitable for weak, kyo, KD256, cases where the blood, ketsu, KD192, and the vital energy, ki, KD209, are both waning, sui jyaku, KD449, and weak, jyaku, KD152. It is best used for patients who are relatively strong with a good appetite and where the pain and swelling in the joints have not diminished for a long time.

Frozen shoulder: ‘50-year shoulder’ (a kind of bursitis) 五十肩 (肩関節周囲) Goh jyuh kata (kata kan setsu shuh i en) Pueraria combination, KF36 This is indicated for the beginning stage of the disease when the pulse and also the musculature are tight, kin choh, KD235. Generally, this person has good gastrointestinal function. Coix, KH195, and Atractylodes, KH169, can also be added for good results. Atractylodes and Arisaema combination, KF201 This is used for a type of ‘50-year shoulder’ in which Pueraria combination, KF36, was not effective. This is often seen in the water toxin, sui doku, KD448, constitutional type. Major Bupleurum combination, KF171 Hypochondriac painful fullness, kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270, and a corpulent body type are the characteristics of this patient in whom constipation is often seen.

Bupleurum and peony combination, KF33, plus Rehmannia, KH75, and Cnidium, KH114 During the evening once patients have crawled into bed, the hands feel darui, KD35 (heavy), and painful. When they crawl under their covers they have troublesome heat, han netsu, KD98. When emerging from under the covers they feel chilled and the pain exacerbates and is not limited to the arms and hands. There is no comfortable place to put the hands, and no peaceful sleep. This is often seen in female patients. Cinnamon and Atractylodes combination, KF67 This is for the weak, kyo, KD256, and powerless, jyaku, KD152, constitutional type prone to coldness conformation, hie shoh, KD115, and it is often useful with anaemia.

Osteoarthrosis 変形性膝関節症 Hen kei sei hiza kan setsu shoh This is a frequently seen type of chronic noninflammatory arthritis which is especially common in women over the age of 50. Stephania and Astragalus combination, KF232 Quote from the Prescriptions from the Golden Cabinet, Kin Ki Yoh Ryaku, KD236: This is used when wind, fu, KD49, and water, sui, KD445, have made the pulse float as the pathogen, jya, KD150, is in the exterior. The patient may be sweating from the head and yet have no other disease on the exterior. The lower half of the body is heavy. From the waist up there is no abnormal feeling. From the waist down there is swelling and heaviness. The swelling begins from the yin region (ren 1) and because of this the lower extremities are inflexible and cannot extend, so that free movement is not possible.

111

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

Using this passage as a guide, I have been able to obtain some good results and have been using this recipe with some success. Eventually I discovered it has a wide range of uses. Atractylodes combination, KF13 When Stephania and Astragalus combination, KF232, does not result in improvement, this formula will often succeed. The former recipe is used when the outside, hyoh, KD124, is weak, kyo, KD256, while this formula is used when the hyoh is excess, jitsu, KD148. There will be cases when the two can be successfully used in combination. Cinnamon and hoelen formula, KF77, plus Coix, KH195 The blood stasis point, shoh fuku kyuh ketsu, KD424, identified during the abdominal exam, fukushin, KD60, will be a clear sign; the aetiology of this illness is often trauma or injury.

Nerve pain; neuralgia 神経痛 Shin kei tsuh Pueraria combination, KF36 This formula is used for treating trigeminal pain, especially at the onset or in the early stages of the disease; its applications can include various different types of nerve pain throughout the upper body, such as in the flanks, or for intercostal neuralgia when the pulse is strong, jitsu, KD148, and the muscles are tight, kin choh, KD235. Where appropriate add Atractylodes, 4 grams, KH169, and aconite, 1 gram, KH174. Hoelen five formula, KF91 Thirst, anuria (urinary retention), fu ri, KD47, and trigeminal neuralgia are the main signs, although there will be cases when those signs are not clearly distinguishable. 112

Cinnamon and Atractylodes combination, KF67 For patients who are constitutionally cold, hie shoh, KD115, with trigeminal pain which comes and goes due to physical and mental stress, shin shin, KD403, caused by overwork. It is indicated when the vital energy, ki ryoku, KD224, is waning, and for intercostal neuralgia. Ophiopogon and Asarum combination, KF152 Turn to this when stubborn, recalcitrant pain persists over many years without cure; this formula can be remarkably effective, especially in cases when the pain is related to one or other of the trigeminal nerves. Peony, liquorice and aconite combination, KF125 Consider this for sciatic pain in the lower half of the body, especially the kind that flares up when the lower body becomes chilled, and when the pain has a pulling or dragging quality. Constipation is often an accompanying sign. Tang kuei, Evodia and ginger combination, KF191 Again used for the coldness conformation, hie shoh, KD115, with pain radiating from the waist or abdomen down through to the lower extremities. The old books say that this is especially for sen ki, KD372, a term used in those days which included sciatic pain. This formula can also be used for hernias and for postsurgical problems in the abdominal wall, especially for women who get sciatic pain following surgery. When used in these situations it is very effective.

Therapeutics (Treatment According to Named Disease)

Clematis and Stephania combination, KF164

Ma huang and Asarum combination, KF239

For sciatic pain, when the pain is located in the lower left side and becomes unbearable at night. It is often said that overindulgence in alcohol or sexual practices is the cause. When used in those instances it is very effective. This description is not intended to exclude its use for pain on the right side or for pain in the afternoon as well as at night.

This is for the lesser yin disease, shoh in byoh, KD428, stage when there are signs of the outside conformation, hyoh shoh, KD130, and occipital or trigeminal pain. Patients may complain of feeling icy cold, kan rei, KD181. There is often a pulse which is sunken, chin, KD20, and thin, sai, KD354, and the complexion, ketsu shoku, KD207, is poor.

Cinnamon and hoelen formula, KF77, or Persica and rhubarb combination, KF186

One-sided headache (migraine) 片頭痛 Hen zu tsuh

Choose between these according to the weakness, kyo, KD256, or strength, jitsu, KD148, of the patient. External injury or trauma is the typical cause of this kind of neuralgia. In addition, if the patient is female, the menstrual cycle may be irregular and the onset of the period often elicits the pain. Look for signs of blood stasis, o ketsu, KD308, in the abdomen.

Evodia combination, KF93

Rehmannia eight combination, KF209 For use in treating sciatic pain in diabetic patients, the elderly or such kinds of cases where from the waist down there is no strength, and the vitality, kakki, KD166, is waning. Additionally, it is effective when the pain has subsided and there is numbness or a lack of sensation. Pinellia and Arisaema combination, KF151 Water toxins, sui doku, KD448, are the cause of this intercostal neuralgia, but the location is not restricted to the area of the sternum; the pain migrates from place to place. Stomach atony and gastric ptosis are often seen in these individuals.

This is the formula that most often produces results in violent attacks which are recurrent. At the time of the attack, the muscles on one side of the head are tight and rigid and there is tremendous tension all the way from the shoulders up into the neck. When the abdominal exam is undertaken at the time of the attack, the epigastrium will feel hard and when pressed the patient will complain that the stomach area feels ‘stuffed’. This is epigastric obstruction resistance, shin ka gyaku man, KD386, and care must be taken not to confuse this with hypochondriac painful fullness, kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270. Hoelen five formula, KF91 This is also used for one-sided headaches. It is sometimes difficult to decide when to use this rather than Evodia combination, KF93. In hoelen five formula patterns there will be thirst and scanty urination, though for its use in treating headaches, the thirst need not be so extreme. Persica and rhubarb combination, KF186 Used for migraines accompanied by such menstrual cycle irregularities as a decreased amount of menstrual flow accompanied by the lower abdominal spastic knot (blood

113

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

stasis), shoh fuku kyu ketsu, KD424, abdominal conformation, fuku shoh, KD61.

Insomnia 不眠症 Fu min shoh In Kampo, KD168, as compared with modern medicine, the aim in treating insomnia is not the same. With each individual patient, listen thoroughly to the symptoms and complaints and arrive at your diagnosis by closely following these findings. If you choose the medicine properly according to the conformation, shoh, KD411, then a deep and natural sleep will result with no sideeffects and no danger of addiction. Coptis and scute combination, KF24, or Coptis and rhubarb combination, KF103 The complexion, ketsu shoku, KD207, is good, though there is a tendency toward counterflow, nobose, KD303. The mood, ki bun, KD211, of these patients tends to be irritable and the emotions flare up but don’t settle back down so easily. These patients can become agitated or overexcited at the drop of a hat. High blood pressure, climacteric dysfunction and such signs associated with the insomnia are often cured by this same mechanism. If there is accompanying constipation choose Coptis and rhubarb combination, KF103. Bamboo and hoelen combination, KF10 For use following major surgery or the fatigue associated with problems which drag on endlessly, both of which result in a heightened nervous response causing trivial things that lead one to become overexcited and not to sleep peacefully. Use this formula when there is ki utsu, KD230, and when worrying about unimportant things prevents sleep. Coptis, 1 gram, KH17, and Zizyphus, 5 grams, KH72, can be added to increase efficacy.

114

Pinellia and liquorice combination, KF43 Epigastric obstruction resistance, shin ka hi koh, KD389, borborygmus (rumbling stomach) and diarrhoea are the main symptoms, which are accompanied by fox possession disease, ko waku byoh, KD243. This disease is described in the Prescriptions from the Golden Cabinet, Kin Ki Yoh Ryaku, KD236, as follows: In fox possession the symptoms are similar to the damaging cold, shoh kan, KD429. Silently, the patient closes the eyes and desires to sleep, but the eyes won’t stay closed and there is no lying still. Use Pinellia and liquorice combination, KF43.

This works for insomnia which matches such a pattern. Ginseng, longan and Bupleurum combination, KF32 This is indicated for insomnia accompanying anaemia, loss of memory, heart palpitations and heightened nervous responses. The elderly often present an opportunity for this type of application. Zizyphus combination, KF106 This is also from the Prescriptions from the Golden Cabinet, Kin Ki Yoh Ryaku, KD236. There is a characteristic type of fatigue described in that text: Fatigue from overwork (physical), kyo roh, KD265, troublesome fatigue (mental), kyo han, KD258, and lack of sleep is mastered by Zizyphus combination, KF106.

When the body is debilitated by physical and mental exhaustion and as a result sleep is impossible, use this combination.

Therapeutics (Treatment According to Named Disease)

Lotus seed combination, KF154, or Polyporus combination, KF185

Cinnamon and Atractylodes combination, KF67

When the gastrointestinal system is not sufficiently strong and there is sexual dysfunction (such as nocturnal emission or premature ejaculation) as well as an unpleasant sensation in the urinary tract (strangury), rin reki, KD340, or similar complaints, use these two formulas for these patients when they cannot sleep peacefully.

This is often effectively used when the strength of the ki, ki ryoku, KD224, is lacking and there is coldness conformation, hie shoh, KD115, accompanied by a pulse that is floating, fu, KD44, and weak, jyaku, KD152.

Bupleurum and dragonbone combination, KF95 Use this for an obese constitutional type, hi man tai shitsu, KD111, who tends to be excessively nervous when there are complaints of insomnia. When that kind of patient has signs of hypochondriac painful fullness, kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270, or fast pulsations, shin ki, KD399, in the navel area, it is good to use this formula. Cinnamon and peony combination, KF64, plus rhubarb, KH126 (1 gram) For use when at night the stomach feels bloated and distended so there is no ability to sleep peacefully. Shu sa an shin gan, KD439 [no standard English name] When it is impossible to sleep peacefully, you can add this to any of the recipes after boiling.

Facial paralysis 顔面神経麻痺 Gan men shin kei ma hi Pueraria combination, KF36 Used for the beginning stage of the disease, this is especially effective when the onset follows catching a cold.

Ma huang and ginseng combination, KF166 For use when the acute stage has passed and the illness has become protracted, although apart from the paralysis or numbness there are no other symptoms. Cinnamon and hoelen combination, KF77 This is for use when blood stasis, o ketsu, KD308, is the cause.

Cerebral apoplexy 脳卒中 Noh socchuh This is a general term for various diseases when the cranial arteries have undergone a sudden abrupt disturbance in the flow of blood, resulting in ambulatory difficulties, numbness or loss of consciousness. Included within this category are cerebral haemorrhaging, atrophy of the brain due to chemical changes or bleeding in the membranes which have become swollen. Coptis and rhubarb combination, KF103, or Coptis and scute combination, KF24 These two prescriptions are to arrest bleeding as well as to calm and stop inflammation and therefore are effectively used immediately following the event. Even if the mechanism causing the event is unclear, these medicines act on congested blood which will be resolved and the bleeding will be diminished or stopped altogether. The hyperexcitation of the nervous system will be sedated and blood pressure will be brought down to a safe level. 115

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

When constipation is one of the symptoms, use Coptis and rhubarb combination, KF103, to evacuate the bowels effectively. Even when the apoplexy did not occur in the recent past these medicines can be used for residual signs such as when the person’s mood becomes irritable or restless and cannot easily settle down; or for signs such as insomnia, heaviness in the head, counterflow, nobose, KD303, and dizziness. Major Bupleurum combination, KF171 This is for those of a strong, muscular body type and bone structure, with hypochondriac painful fullness, kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270, and who are prone to constipation. Often hemiplegia follows the attack, and in such cases you can add liquorice, KH34. Bupleurum and dragonbone combination, KF95 This person will be of the same constitutional type as when using major Bupleurum combination, KF171, but in this case anxiety symptoms predominate, including amongst the most dramatic signs insomnia, palpitations and dizziness. Bupleurum formula, KF248 This is indicated for cerebral haemorrhage in patients who are highly strung. They are easily excitable and their moods are highly volatile. Other symptoms include hand tremors or there may be twitching.

Subjective complaints: Stiff neck and shoulders was a complaint in six out of six examples, an overwhelming frequency. Objectively: The pulse was bowstring, gen, KD76, and tight, kin, KD233, in four cases; bowstring, gen, KD76, and slow, chi, KD17, or simply bowstring, gen, KD76, in one case each. However, in all cases bowstring, gen, KD76, was the common finding. The tongue in all cases was dry, parched and thick, or of medium quality and not white but white-yellow. Abdominal strength was medium or average in three cases but demonstrated true fullness, fuku man, KD57, in three cases. To summarize, every one was an excess conformation, jitsu shoh, KD149. There was pressure and tension in the epigastric area, shin ka bu, KD384, and pressure pain of at least moderate intensity was seen in all cases. Hypochondriac painful fullness, kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270, was not found in only one of the six cases. From this you can see that this formula was effective in six cases that certainly resembled very closely the signs of major Bupleurum combination, KF171, shoh.

Cinnamon and Atractylodes combination, KF67 For the kyo and weak body type when there is coldness conformation, hie shoh, KD115, and the complexion, ketsu shoku, KD207, is not good, the stomach is weak and the patient suffers from hemiplegia. Rehmannia eight combination, KF209

Ma huang and ginseng combination, KF166 This resembles major Bupleurum combination, KF171, shoh. My colleague Mr Takeshi Fujiwara, KD63, offers these few examples of six successful cases from his clinic:

116

Effective in cases when, below the waist, there is a lack of strength, ambulatory difficulty and when there may also be lower-body oedema and copious nocturia.

Therapeutics (Treatment According to Named Disease)

Neurosis, anxiety 神経症 Shin kei shoh, KD396 Pinellia and magnolia combination, KF213

use when the whole body lacks vital energy, kakki, KD166, and when there is anxiety, uneasiness, dizziness and similar complaints.

Used for someone of average build or those with weak gastrointestinal function, i choh kyojyaku, KD133, where there may be slight feelings of abdominal fullness, pathogenic water, i nai tei sui, KD135, and complaints of feeling like something is stuck in the throat – ‘plum pit ki ’, bai kaku ki, KD5. These patients commonly experience episodes of heart palpitations, repeated feelings of fatigue and anxiety, which may occur spontaneously, often preventing them from venturing outside alone. This prescription is applicable for such patients.

Epilepsy 癲癇 Ten kan, KD468

Bupleurum and dragonbone combination, KF95

Minor Bupleurum combination, KF136, with cinnamon and peony combination, KF64

Use this formula for the constitutionally corpulent type, hi man tai shitsu, KD111, especially those who tend to be tense and who experience a feeling of fullness in the epigastrium or under the ribcage. Constipation is often a factor, as is insomnia, a heavy sensation in the head, dizziness and rapid abdominal pulsations, shin ki, KD399. Bupleurum formula, KF248 Use this formula for those who, with the smallest of triggers, can easily become overexcited and when anxious are quick to anger. Once irritated they can’t get their mood to settle down again. This formula is also effective for when they have insomnia. Aconite, ginseng and ginger combination, KF227 This is good for patients with coldness conformation, hie shoh, KD115, poor complexion, ketsu shoku, KD207, an abdomen with no strength and a pulse that is sunken, chin, KD20, and weak, kyo jyaku, KD259. For

Bupleurum and dragonbone combination, KF95 This has been used for epilepsy, ten kan, KD468, since the Edo period, KD42. There are numerous cases of a complete cure by the author of this text using this prescription. According to the specifics of each case, it may be useful to add ingredients such as Uncaria, KH137, peony, KH83, Coptis, KH17, or liquorice, KH34.

Dr Saburoh Aimi, KD1, reported many cases of a complete cure using this formula. The author has also confirmed its effectiveness, achieving several complete cures.

Whooping cough: ‘100-day cough’ 百日咳 Hyaku nichi zeki, KD123 Minor blue dragon combination, KF140 This is for the stage of the disease when a cough predominates, the face may be oedematous and the cough may be accompanied by vomiting. This is especially effective when the cough has been compounded by the development of bronchitis. Ma huang and apricot seed combination, KF240, plus Pinellia, KH163, hoelen, KH173, citrus, KH139, and ginger, KH95 This can be used when the flavour of minor blue dragon combination, KF140, is repugnant to the patient or if the patient is reluctant to drink it. The taste of this recipe is bland and easy to drink. This formula makes 117

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

the phlegm easy to expectorate so that the coughing fits become lighter. Ophiopogon combination, KF207 After the onset of the disease, as time progresses, the skin begins to lack its natural lustre, the voice becomes harsh, the throat is dry and the coughing becomes spasmodic and so strong that the face flushes with continual coughing fits, which can end in vomiting. This formula will be effective for such conditions. Liquorice and jujube combination, KF47 When used for acute attacks of very severe coughing this lessens the frequency of the attacks. Nihzuma’s Stop Asthma toh, KF197 This formula is very different from others bearing a similar name. It was once a family formula, ka hoh, KD159, a secret formula of the Nihzuma family, nihzuma ke, KD299, of Kyoto, for use in cases of ‘100-day cough’. The author learned this from Mr Shiroh Hosono, KD122, and has used it frequently with great success. Minor Bupleurum combination, KF136, with Pinellia and magnolia combination, KF213 This is effective for 100-day cough occurring in anxious children who come to dread their coughing fits and are troubled by constant anxiety.

Autotoxicity in childhood 小児自家中毒症 Shoh ni ji ka chuh doku shoh Anxious children are often excitable and are prone to falling ill easily. The onset of such illness often induces vomiting which is often persistent, at which time they may vomit black 118

blood. Their breathing becomes laboured, the pulse becomes rapid, saku, KD357, and their condition seems to be worsening rapidly. The vomiting is accompanied by thirst and  the desire to drink water. When they drink they immediately vomit and the vomit smells of acetone. In Kampo the attacks can  be prevented and the following formulas can be used to cure this condition completely. Hoelen five formula, KF91 Vomiting, thirst and scanty urination are the chief signs. This formula can be used during the attack. If it seems difficult to drink then it may be preferable to sprinkle the granules on congee, omo yu, KD316. Hoelen liquorice and jujube combination, KF261 This also treats ‘running piglet disease’, hon ton byoh, KD120. In modern times hon ton byoh is regarded as a form of anxiety or panic attack. The author regards this autotoxicity as a form of childhood hysteria and has successfully treated attacks using this formula. Cinnamon and ginseng combination, KF76 A weak gastrointestinal function, i choh kyo jyaku, KD133, lack of appetite and poor complexion, ketsu shoku, KD207, are the main signs for using this formula which, when given daily, will prevent attacks.

Children who are constitutionally kyo and weak 虚弱児童 Kyo jyaku ji doh, KD260 In this category we will discuss three constitutional types of kyo, weak children: the exudative type, shin shutsu sei tai shitsu, KD404; the lymphatic type, kyoh sen rinpa tai shitsu, KD272; and the neuropathic type, shin kei kan setsu en tai shitsu, KD394:

Therapeutics (Treatment According to Named Disease)

The exudative type, shin shutsu sei tai shitsu, KD404 This can be known as the exuding type. It describes some infants up to the age of two. They initially appear plump and healthy but this is a water toxin, sui doku, KD448, constitution where the skin and muscles are not properly firmed up, the flesh is slightly spongy and the complexion, ketsu shoku, KD207, is white. They catch colds easily and these quickly develop into stridor, zen mei, KD492. In addition they are prone to eczema and scrofula, sutorofurusu, KD452. The lymphatic type, kyoh sen rinpa tai shitsu, KD272 This is the chest and lymph gland type, usually seen from the ages of three or four to about seven or eight. The tonsils and lymph nodes swell, while lymph glands in the chest and thymus may be enlarged. Regardless of their body type, thin or fat, they easily fall ill and often show sensitive reactions to drugs. The neuropathic type, shin kei kan setsu en tai shitsu, KD394 This is the nervous and rheumatic type most often seen in children around the age of ten who have an anxious disposition and may complain of symptoms with no identifiable cause such as headaches, abdominal pains and pain in the limbs. There may also be outbreaks of persistent low-grade fever and a susceptibility to asthma or rheumatic fever.

Ma huang and apricot seed combination, KF241

This suits the exudative type, KD404, who after catching cold quickly develops stridor and it is helpful for such symptoms as asthmatic bronchitis which may likely follow. Hoelen five formula, KF91

Very useful in treating scrofula and thus is useful in many cases to treat the exudative body type, KD404. Forsythia and Lonicera formula, KF180

This is for exudative-type constitution, shin shutsu sei tai shitsu, KD404, children who often develop eczema. It also treats what is known as placenta poisoning, tai doku, KD453, and it works well for this condition. Minor Bupleurum combination, KF136

This is for the lymphatic type, kyoh sen rinpa tai shitsu, KD272, of infant, used when there are swollen tonsils or enlarged lymph nodes, and is very effective at improving constitution. Bupleurum and cinnamon combination, KF98

This is used for the neuropathic type, shin kei kan setsu en tai shitsu, KD394. It is not limited to curing their headaches, abdominal pain and limb aches, but is also effective for the asthma and rheumatic fever to which they are prone. Major six herb combination, KF253

Useful formulas Astragalus combination, KF17

When given to infants with the exudative body type, KD404, this can improve the constitution of the child. Through continual use of this formula, the muscles will begin to firm up, colds will become less frequent and resistance and strength will be built up.

This is used for patients with weak gastrointestinal function, i choh kyo jyaku, KD133, dwindling appetite, unhealthy complexion, ketsu shoku, KD207, when the strength of the ki, ki ryoku, KD224, is fading.

119

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

Bedwetting 夜尿症 Ya nyoh shoh This is a condition when, unconsciously during sleep, there is urinary incontinence which can vary both in frequency and in volume. It may occur every night, with frequent repeated incontinence, or one to several times per week. Depending on the case, a large volume of urine may seep out during each occurrence or else the amount may be scant. Moreover, this does not only happen at night but urine may also leak involuntarily during afternoon naps as well. Minor cinnamon and peony combination, KF135 This is the weak, kyo, KD256, body type, with coldness conformation, hie shoh, KD115, where there may be weight loss, poor complexion, tiring easily, lassitude and similar signs accompanied by bedwetting at night. Some patients of this description have urinary incontinence during afternoon naps. Rehmannia eight combination, KF209 This is used for patients whose muscles are not firm and toned, even though the patient may be fat. The complexion, ketsu shoku, KD207, is not good, and it may be earth-coloured, tsuchi iro, KD472. The appetite is normal but the patient complains of thirst. There may be sensory dullness, and movement lacks vigour. The formula treats the kind of patient with enuresis or who has urinary incontinence during afternoon naps. Minor Bupleurum combination, KF136, with cinnamon and peony combination, KF64 A colleague, Dr Saburoh Aimi, KD1, discovered that this formula is effective for enuresis due to stress. When various other therapies have failed, this will often produce a cure. 120

Pueraria combination, KF36 My late colleague, Dr Tokujiroh Yoshimura, KD489, described this formula as useful in cases when the volume of urine passed during the day is not great, though at night, when half asleep, the urine leaks out. Ginseng and gypsum combination, KF220 This is indicated for cases when the thirst is strong; a good quantity of water is drunk, following which, in a deep sleep, a large volume of urine seeps out. This is used effectively for robust body types.

Frostbite 凍傷 Toh shoh Tang kuei, Evodia and ginger combination, KF191 This prescription is effective for cases of ketsu kan, KD202, of the hands and feet where the pulse is so thin, sai, KD354, it seems almost to have disappeared. Inside, nai, KD293, there is longstanding accumulated cold, kyuh kan, KD277, which this formula treats. This recipe is widely used for the prevention and treatment of frostbite. Lithospermum ointment, KF111 When frostbite attacks this is a good external ointment to apply and is often very effective.

Night frights; crying at night 夜驚症・夜啼症 Ya kyoh shoh, ya tei shoh Both of these patterns are seen in anxious and sensitive, shin kei shitsu, KD395, children. Cinnamon and dragonbone combination, KF68 For the syndrome of night terrors, when the sleep is not peaceful and the child makes a fuss, or may even jump or run around.

Therapeutics (Treatment According to Named Disease)

Peony and liquorice combination, KF124 Often used to remedy night crying. Abdominal pain may not be the cause of this, but if there is even the slightest possibility that it could be, this formula may be particularly effective.

Bruises 打撲症 Da boku shoh Some time ago there used to be a therapy, hit medicine, uchi mi gusuri, KD474, or ‘branch of medicine for bruised bodies’. These formulas were to be drunk for bruising and they would ensure that the swelling and aching pain associated with such bruises could only be felt to a minor degree. They also had a preventive function in treating the lingering sequelae of such trauma. These days when traffic accidents are so common, shouldn’t such medicines be more widely used?

Carbuncles and furuncles 癰疽・癤・フンクロージス Yoh so, setsu, funkurohjisu Furuncles, setsu, KD375, referred to as nebuto, KD297, are types of boils, choh, KD22, and when they appear in clusters they are known as carbuncles, yoh so, KD487. In addition they easily become swollen and contain pus. The tendency to get these types of swellings easily is called furunculosis, funkurohjisu, KD64. Bupleurum and Schizonepeta combination, KF129 Appropriate for both carbuncles and furuncles when in the early stages. In the case of recurrent furunculosis this will affect a cure when taken continuously for one or two months. Gleditsia combination, KF177

Coptis and rhubarb combination, KF103, or Coptis and scute combination, KF24 Take this immediately following the incident and it will be effective for bleeding, nerve pain, sei shin, KD366 (mental state), and shock. Choose between the two according to the shoh.

When the time for taking Bupleurum and Schizonepeta combination, KF129, has passed, and the boil has begun to suppurate, this is a good formula to use. The boil may begin to disappear or it may come to a head and spontaneously erupt.

Persica and rhubarb combination, KF186

Astragalus and Platycodon combination, KF198

This is indicated for bruising, subcutaneous bleeding, aching pain and swelling, all of which may be severe. It is remarkably effective for bruising in the perineal area, which causes urinary block, nyoh hei, KD305.

Lithospermum ointment, KF111

Cinnamon and hoelen combination, KF78 This is for cases of subcutaneous bruising, swelling and complaints of aching pain, when the severity of the pain is not so great. This is the most common recipe selected as a general formula for mild cases of bruising and contusion.

When taken after the boil has erupted, this formula helps remove pus, promote granulation and accelerate healing.

After the boil has burst you can use this ointment as a compress to speed up granulation and promote fresh tissue growth.

121

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

Burns 火傷 Yakedo

Haemorrhoids 痔核 Ji kaku

Lithospermum ointment, KF111

Cimicifuga combination, KF25

Applied to the site immediately following a burn, this has an anti-inflammatory function, and for mild cases this alone is sufficient.

This is an original formula, soh hoh, KD443, written by Nanyo Hara, KD101, and was a famous internal remedy for haemorrhoids. The dosage of rhubarb, KH126, can be adjusted with the aim of passing soft stools. Often adding Persica, KH145, or moutan, KH184, or using this combined with ma huang and apricot seed combination, KF241, will enhance the effectiveness.

Cinnamon and dragonbone, Dichroa and oystershell (DDO) combination, KF72 Used as an internal medicine for burns, this is remarkably effective. When this is taken the fluid within the blisters is reabsorbed and the aching pain and skin damage are reduced.

Bone and joint tubercles (caries) and cold ulcers 骨・関節結核 (カリエス)、寒性膿瘍 Hone-kan setsu kekkaku (kariesu), kan sei noh yoh Ginseng and tang kuei ten combination, KF128 Use this formula when there are tubercles on the bones and joints. The course of the disease is rapidly getting worse and there are signs of waning and weakening, sui jyaku, KD449. Particularly when this is accompanied by cold abscesses, kan sei noh yoh, KD182, this tea will often give good results.

Ma huang and apricot seed combination, KF241 Chihaku Furuya, KD65, has experience in using this formula very effectively for haemorrhoids which are acutely inflamed and painful. Cinnamon and hoelen formula, KF77, Persica and rhubarb combination, KF186, or rhubarb and moutan combination, KF169 Select from among these formulas for patients with the blood stasis, o ketsu, abdominal shoh, KD309. Tang kuei and gelatin combination, KF56

Eriocheir and viper formula, KF206 When chronic ulcerations have persisted for a very long time, or when fistulas, roh koh, KD343, do not close and pus collects in the lesions, this is used as a supplementary medication. Avoid prescribing for any acute inflammatory symptoms or when there is pulmonary tuberculosis.

122

This is used when the haemorrhoids are bleeding. Tang kuei, cinnamon and peony combination, KF189 This is for haemorrhoids with extreme aching pain when, after moving the bowels, the pain is intense.

Therapeutics (Treatment According to Named Disease)

Morning sickness: Emesis gravidarum 妊娠悪阻 Nin shin o so (tsuwari)

Capillaris combination, KF5

This is for nausea and frequent vomiting. It is given in small doses and drunk cold.

The upper half of the body is distended and inflated, boh man, KD10, with intrathoracic discomfort, kyoh nai ku mon, KD271, and a feeling of painful fullness. There are often symptoms such as thirst, scanty urination, constipation and oedema.

Ginseng and ginger combination, KF203

Rehmannia eight combination, KF209

Appropriate for women with coldness conformation, hie shoh, KD115, when thin frothy saliva collects in the mouth, there is a general feeling of being unwell, and the urination is frequent and copious. When you use this formula, drink it warm.

There is slight oedema, but the main problems are proteinuria, high blood pressure and troublesome heat, han netsu, KD98, of the hands and feet. There is also lower-back pain.

Minor Pinellia and hoelen combination, KF141

Toxaemia of pregnancy 妊娠中毒症 Nin shin chuh doku shoh Autointoxication in pregnancy is called ‘the pregnant kidney’, nin shin jin, KD301. This is the most common toxaemia of pregnancy and can be a serious condition often marked by oedema, rapidly rising blood pressure and proteinuria.

Puerperal thrombosis of the leg 産褥下肢血栓症 San jyoku ka shi kessen shoh Postpartum or following a spontaneous abortion (miscarriage), the lower limbs reveal manifest blood stasis (varicosities), ukketsu, KD475, and there may also be oedema. The left-hand side of the body may often be affected. Cinnamon and hoelen combination, KF77

Tang kuei and peony combination, KF192 This formula can be used as a preventive and also as a cure, so it is best taken relatively soon after conception. You can also use it when there are signs of oedema, rising blood pressure and proteinuria. However, if there is excessive oedema, you can also add hoelen five formula, KF91. Hoelen five formula, KF91 There is thirst and urinary block, fu ri, KD47, but oedema is the main sign, although headache and nausea, o shin, KD310, will also benefit from this formula.

Taken immediately postpartum or following a spontaneous abortion (miscarriage), at the onset of the disease or within the second or third month, there is a good chance of a cure. Add rhubarb, KH126, if necessary. However, once this condition has remained untreated for the first year or more, it can become very difficult to effect a cure.

Frequent/habitual miscarriage 流産癖 Ryuh zan heki Tang kuei and peony combination, KF192 In order to prevent a miscarriage, start taking this formula from the early stages of pregnancy. It is good for women who suffer from an anaemic tendency and coldness

123

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

conformation, hie shoh, KD115. If a woman experiences morning sickness, o so, KD311, the specific treatments recommended for tsuwari, KD473 (same as o so; see above), can be taken at the same time. Cinnamon and hoelen combination, KF78 To be used for people when the complexion, ketsu shoku, KD207, is good, the musculature is tight, kin choh, KD235, and when the abdominal exam reveals the blood stasis, o ketsu, KD308, point.

Chi no michi, KD18, and climacteric disorders 血の道症・更年期障害 Chi no michi shoh, koh nen ki shoh gai Both of these conditions are examples of various different kinds of neurotic anxiety, shin kei shoh, KD396, which are common amongst female patients. Bupleurum and peony combination, KF33 This is indicated for cases of shin kei shoh, KD396, and signs such as stiff shoulders, heavy head, dizziness, nobose, KD303, a feeling of icy cold, kan rei, KD181, in the lower body, anxiety and irritability which often accompany irregular menstruation. Tang kuei and Cyperus formula, KF202 This is indicated for a variety of symptoms such as nobose, KD303, heart palpitations, dizziness and constipation when the back feels as hot as if it were on fire with profuse sweating.

Bupleurum and dragonbone combination, KF95 Used for those with an obese and full body type, hi man, KD111, when there is a bloated abdomen, fuku bu boh man, KD51, and a tendency for constipation. The nervous system seems overstimulated, with heart palpitations, dizziness, insomnia and stiff shoulders. Pinellia and magnolia combination, KF213 This is most commonly used for nervous anxiety. Other key symptoms include palpitations, dizziness, fear of going out (agoraphobia) and a feeling of something stuck in the throat (plum pit ki, bai kaku ki, KD5).

Adnexitis uteri/Salpingitis 子宮付属器炎 Shi kyuh fu zoku ki en These formulas are effective for a variety of related conditions, including inflammation of the neck of the cervix, ovaritis (inflammation of the ovaries), salpingitis (inflammation of the fallopian tubes) or any other type of adnexitis. These conditions may be compounded by perisalpingitis (inflammation of the perineal tissue surrounding the fallopian tubes), pelvic peritonitis or pelvic inflammatory disease. Rhubarb and moutan combination, KF169 The body type tends to be quite compact with a tendency towards constipation and in the lower abdomen there is pain upon pressure. Vaginal discharge and clear signs of an extreme acute inflammatory stage are present, sometimes accompanied by severe spontaneous pain.

Coptis and scute combination, KF24 This is often indicated for such symptoms as nobose, KD303, tidal redness of the face, choh koh, KD23, insomnia, rapid heart beat and heavy menses. 124

Persica and rhubarb combination, KF186 This is appropriate for the acute or subacute stage, when there is an extreme aching kind of pain in the lower abdomen along with

Therapeutics (Treatment According to Named Disease)

constipation, and the blood stasis abdominal point, shoh fuku kyuh, KD424. Cinnamon and hoelen combination, KF78 This is for chronic cases. There is resistance and pain upon pressure to the lower abdomen. Gentiana combination, KF255 This is used for cases where copious leukorrhoea, cystitis, urethritis or other such conditions occur simultaneously.

Dysmenorrhoea and menstruation difficulties 月経困難症 Gekkei kon nan shoh Cinnamon and hoelen combination, KF78 Used when the pain complained of occurs on the first day of the menstrual period. Signs for the use of this formula include tight muscle tone, kin choh, KD235, in the lower abdomen and the presence of resistance and pain upon pressure there. Tang kuei and peony combination, KF192 Used for women who have a tendency to be anaemic, and have a cold constitution, hie shoh, KD115. Tang kuei, cinnamon and peony combination, KF189 This is beneficial for women who have abdominal pain towards the end of their menstrual flow. Persica and rhubarb combination, KF186 For women who experience severe lowerback pain just before their period and who also complain of abdominal pain. During menstruation there are complaints of headaches and mental and emotional, sei shin,

KD366, confusion. Often constipation and pain at the blood stasis, o ketsu, point, KD308, are additional indications for this formula.

Mastitis 乳腺症 Nyuh sen shoh Cinnamon and hoelen formula, KF77 When mastitis is seen along with signs of blood stasis, o ketsu, KD308, use this formula. There are many cases of this formula shrinking an inflamed lump. Tang kuei 16 herb combination, KF130 This formula improves the flow of ki, ki no ryuh tsuh, KD221, and therefore is good for mastitis due to ki stasis, ki utsu tai, KD231. It is effective for those cases where the swelling has temporarily decreased, but anxieties, shin pai goto, KD401, crop up and cause repeated enlargements. There are some who advise that adding citrus, KH139, will increase the effectiveness of this combination.

Total prolapse of uterus or uterine ptosis 子宮下垂・子宮脱出 Shi kyuh ka sui, KD160, shi kyuh dasshutsu, KD37 Rehmannia eight formula, KF209 This is good for prolapse of the uterus where there is backache and depletion of strength, datsu ryoku, KD39, of the lower abdomen and the muscular tonus, kin choh, KD235, of the lower abdomen is lost. Elderly women often respond well to this. Cinnamon and hoelen formula, KF77 This is good for uterine prolapse when there is good muscle tone, kin choh, KD235, and resistance as well as pain on pressure in the lower abdomen. It is for comparatively young women.

125

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

Tang kuei, Evodia and ginger combination, KF191 This person has coldness conformation, hie shoh, KD115, and complains of a bloated, boh man, KD10, lower abdomen. Becoming chilled, hie ru, KD116, will often exacerbate the complaints of abdominal pain and the prolapse will get worse.

Endometriosis 子宮内膜炎 Shi kyuh nai maku en Endometriosis involves inflammation of the endometrium within the uterus, uterine wall inflammation or inflammation of the areas surrounding the uterus. These three can occur simultaneously, in various combinations, or by spreading from one to the other. When this happens, there will be copious vaginal discharge which tends to be either creamy white, mixed with pus or bloody with an offensive odour. At the same time there can be complaints of itching in the genital area.

Tang kuei and gelatin combination, KF56 This is good for irregular uterine bleeding, lower abdominal pain, vaginal discharge and similar problems in women with a tendency towards anaemia. Tang kuei eight herb formula, KF211 Use this when there are no symptoms of severe inflammation, yet the discharge is copious and protracted. When there is no constipation use without rhubarb, KH126.

Uterine myoma 子宮筋腫 Shi kyuh kin shu Cinnamon and hoelen combination, KF78 It is worthwhile trying this prescription; the myoma may shrink or disappear completely. With the use of this formula over the period of several months to a year, egg-sized myomas can potentially disappear. There are even examples of myomas the size of large grapefruit disappearing with its use.

Gentiana combination, KF255 There is copious vaginal discharge and at the same time cystitis and urethritis. There is strength in both the lower abdomen and pulse, and there is lower-abdomen resistance and pain on pressure.

Cinnamon and Persica combination, KF159

Rhubarb and moutan combination, KF169

Infertility 不妊症 Fu nin shoh

This is for the excess conformation, jitsu shoh, KD149, with constipation, the lower abdomen is swollen and full, boh man, KD10, with resistance and pain on pressure and puslike malodorous vaginal discharge. There is often cystitis and urethritis at the same time. Bupleurum and peony combination, KF33 This is effective when there are symptoms of chi no michi, KD18, irregular menstruation, vaginal discharge, abdominal pain and similar signs. 126

This is often used when the myoma causes dysmenorrhoea and excessive uterine bleeding.

Tang kuei and peony formula, KF192 This is especially useful when the cause of the infertility is unknown, and there are complaints of coldness conformation, hie shoh, KD115. This formula has helped many women to conceive. Cinnamon and hoelen combination, KF78 This is used when the complexion, ketsu shoku, KD207, is good, there is appropriate muscular

Therapeutics (Treatment According to Named Disease)

tonus, kin choh, KD235, and elasticity in the abdominal wall and the lower abdomen shows signs of blood stasis, o ketsu, KD308. Tang kuei and Evodia combination, KF9 According to the Prescriptions from the Golden Cabinet, Kin Ki Yoh Ryaku, KD236: ‘This formula is for women who feel cold in the lower abdomen and who have not conceived for a long time. It also cures abnormal heavy bleeding from the uterus and menstruation that occurs too frequently or too infrequently.’ A woman in her seventeenth year of marriage used this and was finally able to conceive. (The original text referrs to menstruation as ‘monthly water’ and the abnormal bleeding from the uterus as ‘internal demise’.)

Allergic rhinitis アレルギー性鼻炎 Arerugi sei bi en Pueraria combination, KF36 This is effective when there is nasal obstruction and frequent repeated sneezing. For a patient with firm and tight muscles on the surface of the face, upper back, neck and shoulders, this is often the formula to choose.

Sinusitis and infections (empyema) in the paranasal cavity 副鼻腔炎・蓄膿症 Fuku bi koh en, chiku noh shoh Pueraria combination, KF36, plus Cnidium, KH114, and magnolia flower, KH102 This is the most commonly used formula for the early stages of the disorder, but is not recommended for those patients with gastric or intestinal dysfunction or when the general body tonus reveals muscular weakness or tendencies such as coldness conformation, hie shoh, KD115. Pinellia and Gastrodia combination, KF215 This is frequently used for patients with conditions such as stomach atony or gastric ptosis, accompanied by headache and dizziness when the feet are icy cold, hie, KD114. Magnolia flower and gypsum combination, KF145

This is used when the nose is blocked and there is frequent sneezing and copious nasal discharge.

This is for nasal inflammation with thick mucus or the nasal polyps which may accompany such a condition. There may be a burning sensation in the nasal cavity accompanied by a feeling of nasal obstruction similar to a cold, hei kan kan, KD104.

Ophiopogon combination, KF207

Siler combination, KF153

This is for symptoms of frequent sneezing due to counterflow ki, tai gyaku jyoh ki, KD454. Such symptoms resemble the convulsive or spasmodic attacks, kei ren, KD189, of coughing for which this formula is used. When Pueraria combination, KF36, has not been effective, this often will be.

This formula is often used in young patients with both acne and blocked sinuses when there is a tendency towards nobose, KD303. Ingredients such as magnolia flower, KH102, gypsum, KH112, or rhubarb, KH126, may be added.

Minor blue dragon combination, KF140

127

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

Minor Bupleurum combination, KF136, or major Bupleurum combination, KF171 Hypochondriac painful fullness, kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270, is the primary indication for the use of this formula. Depending on the case, Platycodon, KH36, or gypsum, KH112, may be added.

Felon and whitlow (paronychia) 進行性指掌角皮症 Shin koh sei shi shoh kaku hi shoh Tang kuei and Evodia combination, KF9

Tinea pedis/athlete’s foot 汗疱状白癬 Kan poh jyoh haku sen (mizumushi), KD178

This is indicated when the palms are dry and there are complaints of troublesome heat, han netsu, KD98, and irregular menstruation. Often effective in these cases, it may be necessary to continue for 2–3 months to achieve a cure.

Bupleurum and Schizonepeta combination, KF129, plus scute, KH14, and Coix, KH195

Cinnamon and hoelen combination, KF78, plus Coix, KH195

This is for cases where there is pus or when there is oozing. Ma huang and Coix combination, KF242 This is for a mild case where a tendency toward dryness predominates. Cinnamon and hoelen combination, KF78, plus Coix, KH195 This is used when the blood stasis, o ketsu, KD308, abdominal finding is present. The affected areas do not have papules or pimples but instead are marked by a crimson ring which feels hot and itches.

The body type of this woman is well developed and the complexion, ketsu shoku, KD207, is good. Often the abdominal exam reveals blood stasis, o ketsu, KD308, and menstruation is irregular. Coptis and rhubarb combination, KF103 When the above-mentioned formulas do not effect a cure and there are signs of thirst, troublesome heat, han netsu, KD98, of the palms and purulent itching, soh yoh, KD444, this formula often provides results. To enhance its effectiveness, Coix, KH195, is often added. Lithospermum ointment, KF111

Scute three herb combination, KF105 The affected area is dry and the surface of the skin has become thick with cracks and fissures, ki retsu, KD222, or roughness due to cold or wind. There is troublesome heat, han netsu, KD98, of the palms and soles. In these cases it can be beneficial to add Lithospermum ointment, KF111, to the affected area.

128

The patient can also apply this topically.

Urticaria (hives), wheals 蕁麻疹 Jin ma shin Pueraria combination, KF36, or Bupleurum and Schizonepeta combination, KF129 In the case of the Pueraria combination, KF36, shoh, it is found in the beginning stages of an acute attack, which is then often followed by the subacute stage when the Bupleurum and Schizonepeta combination, KF129, shoh is often present.

Therapeutics (Treatment According to Named Disease)

Capillaris combination, KF5 This is used for both the acute and chronic attack without distinction so long as the symptoms include discomfort in the upper chest, nausea, distended fullness, boh man, KD10, of the upper abdomen and a tendency for constipation. There will often be liver function abnormalities as well. Cinnamon and hoelen combination, KF78 There are many chronic cases in which the cause is blood stasis, o ketsu, KD308, and this works well in such cases. Vitality combination, KF147 For patients where the gastrointestinal function is weak, i choh kyo jyaku, KD133, and there are signs of coldness conformation, hie shoh, KD115, with a frequent tendency for diarrhoea. The lesions are small and without a red colour and the itching is not severe. This formula often treats such kinds of wheals. Major Bupleurum combination, KF171, or major Bupleurum combination with Capillaris combination, KF5 Hypochondriac painful fullness, kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270, and constipation are present. Chronic cases often respond to these formulas. Rehmannia eight formula, KF209 For elderly patients who suffer at night from a dry throat with copious urination and outbreaks of urticaria.

Eczema, dermatitis 湿疹 Shisshin, KD406, 皮膚炎 Hi fu en, KD109 In order to determine accurately the appropriate treatment for eczema and

dermatitis, you must take into account the condition of the body as a whole, as well as just the surface of the skin. When examining the affected area, take note of the skin colour, whether it is wet or dry and whether or not there is suppuration, whether there is scaly accumulation or whether scabs have formed. You won’t be able to treat effectively until you examine these things carefully. Bupleurum and Schizonepeta combination, KF129 This is often used for acute attacks of eczema (also called kabure, KD162, an allergic type of skin inflammation). When used for eczema, the affected area is covered in red ‘measles’ about the size of soybeans, like a band or swathe. The centre of the lesions is raised and there is itching. This formula treats cases of contact dermatitis caused by lacquers, hair dye or similar substances, when the affected area is swollen and itchy. Tang kuei and gardenia combination, KF11 This formula treats acute and chronic cases without distinction when the affected area is dry, hot, red and severely itchy. It is also effective for dermatitis caused by an allergy to sunlight. Tang kuei and Arctium combination, KF133 This is very effective for damp papules with suppuration, where many of the lesions have a round shape (like medallions) and the secretions often form into scabs. There is a tendency for the condition to worsen in the summer. There are signs of coldness conformation, hie shoh, KD115, the patient is of robust build and there may be complaints of thirst.

129

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

Tang kuei and Tribulus combination, KF187 For cases of eczema, where the patient has scratched till the papules have become dry. The lesions are not noticeable to the eye or raised, and the skin surface, though not cracked, seems to be powdery and flaky all over. There is coldness conformation, hie shoh, KD115, and the complexion, ketsu shoku, KD207, is rather poor. The condition tends to worsen in winter. This kind of condition is cured quickly by this formula, and it is common among the elderly. Gypsum combination, KF218 There is eczema, and the thirst and itching are unpleasant and severe. The patient’s skin is often dry, and there may be complaints of the affected area feeling as though it was on fire. Conversely, there may sometimes be sensations of cold, kan, KD175. This presentation is generally seen in a robust, middle-aged patient, and in such a case you can add ginseng, KH150, cinnamon, KH47, or Coptis, KH17. Forsythia and Lonicera combination, KF180 Especially used in what is called placenta poisoning, tai doku, KD453, when this is the cause of eczema in children. If there is no constipation, rhubarb, KH126, can be omitted. Siler and Platycodon combination, KF233 This is effective for stubborn, recalcitrant cases of eczema. The body type of this person is robust and full, hi man tai shitsu, KD111, with a tendency toward constipation and a pulse which has strength. The papules ooze and have defined edges and are usually red and inflamed.

130

Major Bupleurum combination, KF171 This is useful for eczema in a patient with hypochondriac painful fullness, kyo kyo ku man, KD270, constipation and a pulse which has strength. The affected area is usually damp and has a tendency to form crusty scabs. Cinnamon and hoelen combination, KF78 Again the papules have distinct borders and there is the abdominal finding for blood stasis, o ketsu, KD308 (in the lower abdomen there is resistance and pain on pressure). When various other recipes do not provide a cure, this one will often be effective. Vitality combination, KF147 This is good for when the stomach and intestines are weak and the patient is prone to diarrhoea. There is coldness conformation, hie shoh, KD115, and the pulse is weak. These are patients in whom recipes containing Rehmannia, KH75, have caused diarrhoea. The affected area is lacking a red colour and the outbreak of the wheals may be difficult to define.

Acne 面疱 Men poh (nikibi) Siler combination, KF153 Used for cases when the constitutional body type is average or a little stronger than average and the front of the face is flushed, choh koh, KD23. The pimples are usually red, but can be a dark yellow (pus) colour. If there is also constipation, add rhubarb, KH126. Cinnamon and hoelen combination, KF78, plus Coix, KH195 Effective for cases where the musculature is well defined and the complexion, ketsu shoku, KD207, is good. The papules are reddish and protrude from the surface. In female patients the condition worsens prior to menstruation.

Therapeutics (Treatment According to Named Disease)

If there is constipation you may add rhubarb, KH126. Coix, KH195, 10 grams, can also be added. Tang kuei and peony combination, KF192, plus Coix, KH195 This is good for patients with coldness conformation, hie shoh, KD115, when the complexion, ketsu shoku, KD207, is poor. The pimples are small and lack a red colour.

Liver spots 肝斑 Kan pan (shimi) Tang kuei and peony combination, KF192 This is good for women when there is coldness conformation, hie shoh, KD115, and the complexion, ketsu shoku, KD207, is poor. This often occurs during pregnancy. Cinnamon and hoelen combination, KF78 This is effective for patients of robust constitution when the complexion, ketsu shoku, KD207, is good and there are signs of blood stasis, o ketsu, KD308, in the lower abdomen. Rhubarb, KH126, is often added. Bupleurum and peony combination, KF33 This is good for cases when there is irregular menstruation and symptoms such as fatigue and lassitude, hi roh ken tai, KD112, stiff shoulders and headache. The bowels are usually regular. Rhubarb, KH126, and Cnidium, KH114, are often added.

Melanodermatitis: Black skin disease 黒皮症 Koku hi shoh This is what is called rihru shi koku hi shoh (Mr Reel’s black skin disease). It referred to a form of hyperpigmentation occurring in arsenical melanosis or in association with Addison’s disease and was often seen in women immediately following World War II.

It is sometimes seen even today. In women, a relatively large area of skin on the face or neck begins to turn red, followed later by a purple colour which can range to a dark blue. The skin surface is rather dry and powdery and is often somewhat itchy. Coptis and scute combination, KF24 This is good for cases where there is nobose, KD303, and the face has become red, gradually turning to a dark colour. Tang kuei and gardenia combination, KF11 This is used for cases when the skin has become very dry, extremely itchy and rough. Bupleurum and peony combination, KF33, plus Rehmannia, KH75, and Cnidium, KH114 When one of the first two formulas has failed to provide a cure, this one is often effective. In most cases it is necessary to continue taking this formula for several months.

Dry tinea, psoriasis 乾癬 Kan sen Rhubarb and moutan combination, KF169, or cinnamon and hoelen formula, KF78 Blood stagnation, o ketsu, KD308, is often the cause of dry tinea in patients whose constitutional type is firm and strong. This form of the disease is commonly seen in men and this recipe is often effective in treating it. Tang kuei and gardenia combination, KF11 This is used in cases when signs of blood stasis, o ketsu, KD308, in the abdomen are not evident and there are recurrent outbreaks which are difficult to cure. 131

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

Cystitis 膀胱炎 Boh koh en Polyporus combination, KF185 This is effective for use in the acute phase when there is pain during or after urination. The frequency of urination may be such that, soon after passing urine, the urge to urinate returns. In some cases there may be blood in the urine. There may also be a dry throat. This formula is effective in such cases. When the condition is due to renal or urinary bladder tuberculosis and the urine may be cloudy or heavily blood-tinged, use Polyporus combination, KF185, with tang kuei four combination, KF118. Rehmannia eight formula, KF209 This formula is used when the acute stage has progressed into a more chronic stage, or for recurrent attacks, which come and go with clear, non-cloudy urine as well as complaints of an uncomfortable feeling in the urinary tract or a feeling of urinary retention. This is also applicable in postpartum cases, or for uterine cancer or other similar surgical cases when the urine is being retained or dribbles out involuntarily. Lotus seed combination, KF154 The use of this formula ranges between those who are of an average or robust constitution to those in whom the stomach and intestines are weak, i choh kyo jyaku, KD133. When formulas such as Rehmannia eight formula, KF209, or Gentiana combination, KF255, or others containing Rehmannia, KH75, are used, the gastrointestinal function and appetite decrease and diarrhoea occurs. This formula suits this type of patient. Any inflammation present is not severe, and even though there is the urge to pass urine, either nothing happens or there may be times when there is urinary incontinence.

132

Gentiana combination, KF255 This is most often used for patients with good, firm muscular development where the complexion, ketsu shoku, KD207, is often dark or vivid. This formula is appropriate for cases when the inflammatory stage is severe with copious discharge. The external genitalia itch, and in addition to the inflammation and itching there may be lesions on the skin. This is especially useful for gonorrhoea, or for conditions that manifest similar signs and symptoms.

Prostatic hypertrophy, prostatitis 前立腺肥大 Zen ritsu sen hi dai This is a phenomenon related to ageing seen only in men, when, due to enlargement of the prostate, the stream of urine becomes weak. Additionally it becomes difficult to void the bladder completely, and each time urine is passed, some is retained. As a result, there is a frequent desire to urinate or else there is a feeling of retained urine, or in some cases the flow stops altogether. For this condition Rehmannia eight formula, KF209, is very effective and it can also be taken regularly preventively.

Impotence 陰萎症 In roh shoh Cinnamon and dragonbone combination, KF68 Used for men of slender build and nervous disposition who experience symptoms such as premature ejaculation, involuntary seminal emission and diminished sexual libido. At the level of the navel there are rapid, increasing pulsations, sei ka ki, KD364, or, when the area around the navel is pressed, a line like hard wire can be felt.

Therapeutics (Treatment According to Named Disease)

Bupleurum and dragonbone combination, KF95 This is used for patients of a nervous disposition who are relatively corpulent, with a solid body type, hi man tai shitsu, KD111, and who have strength in the abdomen with hypochondriac painful fullness, kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270. Rehmannia eight formula, KF209 This is not often effective for impotence in young people but is very useful in the elderly to prevent ageing and is effective for loss of libido as part of the ageing process. Major Bupleurum combination, KF171 This is used with hypochondriac painful fullness, kyoh kyoh ku man, KD270, and epigastric obstruction tightness, shin ka hi koh, KD389, in strong, solidly built men who suffer from impotence. It is said that in his youth the famous Meiji physician Kien Mori, KD289 (who passed away in 1885 at the age of 78), cured impotence in many male patients with this formula. Tang kuei, Evodia and ginger combination, KF191 This is effective for some patients with coldness conformation, hie shoh, KD115, who experience impotence or premature ejaculation.

feeling; there may be other signs such as recurrent aphthous ulcers (mouth ulcers). According to whether you are dealing with a case which is weak, kyo, KD256, or strong, jitsu, KD148, select from among these three recipes. Tang kuei and gardenia combination, KF11 Good for chronic cases that are becoming worse, with mouth ulcers occurring repeatedly, one after another, without ever really healing completely. This is also good for Behçet’s syndrome and a wide variety of other illnesses with similar symptoms. Tang kuei and Cimicifuga combination, KF156 This person is generally weak, kyo, KD256, and moreover strength is waning. On the tongue the papillae are disappearing, leaving the surface without coating, and when food is eaten, it doesn’t seem to have any taste. Cnidium and moutan combination, KF157 This is applicable in cases where large ulcers occur on the tongue and palate. There is aching pain, making it difficult to eat. Even if the lesions have been there for months or even years without healing, you can use this remedy. Sophora root, KH71

Stomatitis 口内炎 Koh nai en Coptis and rhubarb combination, KF103, Coptis and scute combination, KF24, or Pinellia and liquorice combination, KF43

This prescription is made into a powder and applied topically to ulcers several times per day to promote healing.

These are useful for cases of gastritis where the inside of the mouth is hot with a sticky

133

Appendix 1

KAMPO FORMULA INDEX This is a table translated from Kampo I Gaku, and augmented by the translators. It provides a comprehensive reference system for the formulas; it presents the KF codes used throughout this text, the Rohmaji Japanese pronunciation, the complex characters as used in Japan, the Japanese Ministry of Health National Formulary number, the Pinyin term and the ingredient list using the standard English name inserted within parentheses (from texts by Hsu). Index number

Standard English name

Kanji

Rohmaji

In our 2010 edition the formula index followed the Otsuka text and was ordered according to the Japanese alphabet. In the 2017 edition the KF numbers are unchanged; however, they are ordered according to the English alphabet, using the column Standard English name. Those formulas listed as having ‘No standard English name’ have been named according to the chief ingredients. The formula’s historical names – with their rich cultural content – are not translated in either edition.

Japanese national formula number

Pinyin

Ingredients – standard English (see Appendix 2)

Note: The ingredient name comes first followed by the quantity. In a series of ingredients with the same quantity, the figure follows the final ingredient. The quantities indicate a one-day dose. KF86

Achyranthes and Plantago formula

牛車腎気 丸料

Go sha jin ki gan ryoh

107

niú chë shèn qì wán

Add Achyranthes (KH59), Plantago (KH87) 3 to Rehmannia eight pill (kidney ki gan) (KF210)

KF226

Aconite combination

附子湯

Bu shi toh

n/a

fù zî täng

Aconite (KH174) 0.5, hoelen (KH173), peony (KH83) 4, Atractylodes (KH92) 5, ginseng (KH150) 3

KF115

Aconite, ginger and liquorice combination

四逆湯

Shi gyaku toh

n/a

sì nì täng

Liquorice (KH34) 3, dry ginger (KH33) 2, aconite (KH174) 0.5–1

KF227

Aconite, ginseng and ginger combination

附子理 中湯

Bu shi ri chuh toh

n/a

fù zî lî zhöng wán

To ginseng and ginger combination (KF252) add aconite (KH174) 0.5

KF225

Alisma, hoelen and ginger combination

茯苓沢 瀉湯

Buku ryoh taku sha toh

n/a

fú líng zé xiè täng

Hoelen (KH173), Alisma (KH130) 4, Atractylodes (KH92), ginger (KH95) 3, cinnamon (KH47) 2, liquorice (KH34) 1.5

KF243

Apricot seed and linum formula

麻子仁丸

Ma shi nin gan

128

má zî rén wán

Linum (KH187) 5, peony (KH83), chih-shih (KH39), magnolia bark (KH57), rhubarb (KH126) 4, apricot seed (KH43) 2. Make pills with refined honey, take 2 per dose

135

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

136

Index number

Standard English name

Kanji

Rohmaji

Japanese national formula number

Pinyin

Ingredients – standard English (see Appendix 2)

KF231

Areca and Evodia combination

変製心 気飲

Hen sei shin ki in

n/a

biàn zhì xïn qì yîn

Cinnamon (KH47), Areca seed (KH171) 2.5, hoelen (KH173), Pinellia (KH163) 5, Akebia (KH190) 3, Perilla fruit (KH124), tortoise shell (KH175), chihshih (KH39) 2, Morus (KH123), liquorice (KH34), Evodia (KH60) 1

KF58

Areca seed combination

九味檳 榔湯

Ku mi bin roh toh

n/a

jiû wèi bïng láng täng

Areca seed (KH171) 4, magnolia bark (KH57), cinnamon (KH47), Aurantium (KH40) 3, Perilla (KH125) 1.5, liquorice (KH34), rhubarb (KH126), Saussurea (KH192) 1, ginger (KH95) 3. Evodia (KH60) 1, hoelen (KH173) 3 can be added

KF256

Asarum and Cimicifuga formula

立効散

Rikkoh san

110

lì xiào sân

Asarum (KH67), Cimicifuga (KH99), Siler (KH178) 2, liquorice (KH34) 1.5, Gentiana (KH200) 1

KF150

Astragalus and Atractylodes combination

清暑益 気湯

Sei sho ekki toh

136

qïng shû yì qì täng

Ginseng (KH150), white Atractylodes (KH169), Ophiopogon (KH156), tang kuei (KH143), Astragalus (KH13) 3, citrus (KH139), Schizandra (KH64), Phellodendron (KH16) 2

KF16

Astragalus and cinnamon five herb combination

黄耆桂枝 五物湯

Oh gi kei shi go motsu toh

n/a

huáng qí guì zhï wû wû täng

Astragalus (KH13), peony (KH83), cinnamon (KH47), jujube (KH127) 3, ginger (KH95) 5

KF198

Astragalus and Platycodon formula

内托散 (千金内托 散)

(Sen kin) nai taku san

n/a

qiān jīn nèi tuö sân

Ginseng (KH150) 2.5, Astragalus (KH13), Cnidium (KH114), Siler (KH178), Platycodon (KH36), magnolia bark (KH57), cinnamon (KH47) 2, tang kuei (KH143) 3, angelica (KH168), liquorice (KH34) 1

KF17

Astragalus combination

黄耆建 中湯

Oh gi ken chuh toh

98

huáng qí jiàn zhöng täng

Add Astragalus (KH13) 4 to minor cinnamon and peony combination (KF135)

KF201

Atractylodes and Arisaema combination

二朮湯

Ni jyutsu toh

88

èr zhú täng

White Atractylodes (KH92), hoelen (KH173), citrus (KH139), Arisaema (KH140), Cyperus (KH54), scute (KH14), clematis (KH3), chianghuo (KH42) 2.5, Pinellia (KH163) 4, blue Atractylodes (KH121) 3, liquorice (KH34), ginger (KH95) 1

KF160

Atractylodes and cardamon combination

喘四君 子湯

Zen shi kun shi toh

n/a

chuân sì jün zî täng

Ginseng (KH150), magnolia bark (KH57), Perilla fruit (KH124), citrus (KH139) 2, hoelen (KH173), tang kuei (KH143), Atractylodes (KH92) 4, cardamon (KH90), Saussurea (KH192), Aquilaria (KH107), liquorice (KH34) 1, Morus (KH123) 1.5

KF260

Atractylodes and hoelen combination

苓桂朮 甘湯

Ryoh kei jyutsu kan toh

39

líng guì zhú gän täng

Hoelen (KH173) 6, cinnamon (KH47) 4, white Atractylodes (KH169) 3, liquorice (KH34) 2

Appendix 1: Kampo Formula Index

Index number

Standard English name

Kanji

Rohmaji

Japanese national formula number

Pinyin

Ingredients – standard English (see Appendix 2)

KF161

Atractylodes and Pueraria formula

銭氏白 朮散

Sen shi byaku jyutsu san

n/a

qián shì bái zhú sân

Ginseng (KH150) 3, Atractylodes (KH92), hoelen (KH173), Pueraria (KH28) 4, Agastache (KH27), Saussurea (KH192), liquorice (KH34) 1

KF3

Atractylodes and Setaria combination

胃風湯

I fuh toh

n/a

wèi fëng täng

Hoelen (KH173) 4, tang kuei (KH143), peony (KH83), Cnidium (KH114), ginseng (KH150), Atractylodes (KH92) 3, cinnamon (KH47), Setaria (KD4) 2

KF13

Atractylodes combination

越婢加 朮湯

Eppi ka jyutsu toh

28

yùe bì jiä zhú täng

Add Atractylodes (KH92) 4 to ma huang and gypsum combination (KF12)

KF54

Aurantium, and bamboo combination

橘皮竹 筎湯

Kippi chiku jo toh

n/a

jú pí zhú rú täng

Kippi (KH40) 4, jujube (KH127) 6, bamboo sap (KH132) 2, ginger (KH95) 6, liquorice (KH34) 3, ginseng (KH150) 1.5

KF53

Aurantium, rhubarb and Mirabilitum

橘皮大黄 朴硝湯

Kippi daioh boku shoh toh

n/a

jú pí dà huáng pǔ xiāo täng

Kippi (KH40), rhubarb (KH126) 2, Mirabilitum (KH180) 3; the above is one dose

KF122

Baked liquorice combination

炙甘草湯

Sha kan zoh toh

64

zhì gän câo täng

Baked liquorice (KH34), ginger (KH95), cinnamon (KH47), linum (KH187), jujube (KH127), ginseng (KH150) 3, Rehmannia (KH75), Ophiopogon (KH156) 6, gelatin (KH1) 2

KF178

Bamboo and ginseng combination

竹筎温 胆湯

Chiku jyo un tan toh

91

zhú rú wën dân täng

Bupleurum (KH66), bamboo (KH132), hoelen (KH173), Ophiopogon (KH156), ginger (KH95) 3, Pinellia (KH163) 5, Cyperus (KH54), Platycodon (KH36), citrus (KH139), chih-shih (KH39) 2, Coptis (KH17), liquorice (KH34), ginseng (KH150) 1

KF10

Bamboo and hoelen combination

温胆湯

Un tan toh

n/a

wën dân täng

Pinellia (KH163), hoelen (KH173) 6, ginger (KH95) 3, citrus (KH139) 2.5, bamboo (KH132) 2, Aurantii (KH39) 1.5, liquorice (KH34) 1, Zizyphus (KH72) 3. Modify by adding Coptis (KH17) 1.5, Zizyphus (KH72) 3

KF179

Bamboo leaves and gypsum combination

竹葉石 膏湯

Chiku yoh sekkoh toh

n/a

zhú yè shí gäo täng

Bamboo leaves (KH134), liquorice (KH34) 2, gypsum (KH112) 10, oryza (KH55), Ophiopogon (KH156) 6, Pinellia (KH163) 4, ginseng (KH150) 3

KF29

Bupleurum and chih-shih plus

解労散

Kai roh san

n/a

jiě láo sân

Bupleurum and chih-shih combination (KF114) with added tortoise shell (KH175), hoelen (KH173) 3, jujube (KH127), ginger (KH95) 2

KF101

Bupleurum and peony (BP) and six major herb combination

柴芍六君 子湯

Sai shaku rikkun shi toh

n/a

chái sháo liù jün zî täng

Add Bupleurum (KH66), peony (KH83) 3 to major six herb combination (KF252)

137

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

138

Index number

Standard English name

Kanji

Rohmaji

Japanese national formula number

Pinyin

Ingredients – standard English (see Appendix 2)

KF114

Bupleurum and chih-shih formula

四逆散

Shi gyaku san

35

sì nì sân

Bupleurum (KH66) 5, chih-shih (KH39) 2, peony (KH83) 4, liquorice (KH34) 1.5

KF98

Bupleurum and cinnamon combination

柴胡桂 枝湯

Sai ko kei shi toh

10

chái hú guì zhï täng

Bupleurum (KH66) 5, Pinellia (KH163) 4, cinnamon (KH47) 2.5, scute (KH14), ginseng (KH150), peony (KH83), ginger (KH95), jujube (KH127) 2, liquorice (KH34) 1.5

KF100

Bupleurum and Cyperus formula

柴胡疎 肝散

Sai ko so kan san

n/a

chái hú shü gän sân

Bupleurum (KH66), peony root (KH83) 4, chih-shih (KH39) 3, liquorice (KH3) 2, Cyperus (KH54), Cnidium (KH114) 3, blue citrus (KH94) 2, gardenia (KH77) 3, ginger (KH33) 1

KF95

Bupleurum and dragonbone combination

柴胡加竜 骨牡蠣湯

Sai ko ka ryuh kotsu bo rei toh

12

chái hú jiä lóng gû mû lì täng

Bupleurum (KH66) 5, Pinellia (KH163) 4, hoelen (KH173), cinnamon (KH47) 3, scute (KH14), jujube (KH127), ginger (KH95), ginseng (KH150), dragonbone (KH199), oyster shell (KH185) 2.5, rhubarb (KH126) 1

KF102

Bupleurum and hoelen combination

柴苓湯

Sai rei toh

114

chái líng täng

Combined minor Bupleurum combination (KF136) and hoelen five formula (KF91)

KF33

Bupleurum and peony formula

加味逍 遥散

Ka mi shoh yoh san

24

jiä wèi xiäo yáo sân

Tang kuei (KH143), peony (KH83), white Atractylodes (KH169), hoelen (KH173), Bupleurum (KH66) 3, liquorice (KH34), moutan (KH184), gardenia (KH77) 2, ginger (KH95), mentha (KH161) 1

KF129

Bupleurum and Schizonepeta combination

十味敗 毒湯

Jyuh mi bai doku toh

6

shí wèi bài dú sân

Bupleurum (KH66), Quercus (KH197) or cherry bark (KH19) 3 can be used, Platycodon (KH36), Cnidium (KH114), hoelen (KH173) 3, tu-huo (KH148), Siler (KH178) 2, liquorice (KH34), ginger (KH95), Schizonepeta (KH46) 1; forsythia (KH204) 2 can be added

KF94

Bupleurum and scute combination

柴陥湯

Sai kan toh

73

chái xiàn täng

Bupleurum (KH66), Pinellia (KH163) 5, scute (KH14), ginger (KH95), jujube (KH127), Trichosanthes seed (KH32) 3, liquorice (KH34), Coptis (KH17) 1.5, ginseng (KH150) 2

KF144

Bupleurum and tang kuei formula

逍遥散

Shoh yoh san

n/a

xiäo yáo sân

Tang kuei (KH143), peony (KH83), Bupleurum (KH66), Atractylodes (KH92), hoelen (KH173) 3, ginger (KH95) 2, liquorice (KH34) 1.5, mentha (KH161) 1

KF97

Bupleurum and Trichosanthes root combination

柴胡去半 夏加瓜 呂湯

Sai ko kyo han ge ka ka ro toh

n/a

chái hú qù bàn xià jiä guä lóu täng

Bupleurum (KH66) 6, ginseng (KH150), scute (KH14), liquorice (KH34), jujube (KH127), ginger (KH95) 3, Trichosanthes root (KH31) 5

Appendix 1: Kampo Formula Index

Index number

Standard English name

Kanji

Rohmaji

Japanese national formula number

Pinyin

Ingredients – standard English (see Appendix 2)

KF96

Bupleurum and Trichosanthes seed combination

柴胡枳 桔湯

Sai ko ki kitsu toh

n/a

chái hú zhî jié täng

Bupleurum (KH66) 5, Pinellia (KH163) 4, ginger (KH95), scute (KH14), Trichosanthes seed (KH32), Platycodon (KH36) 3, liquorice (KH34) 1, chih-shih (KH39) 1.5

KF248

Bupleurum formula

抑肝散

Yoku kan san

54

yì gän sân

Tang kuei (KH143), gambir (KH137), Cnidium (KH114) 3, Atractylodes (KH92), hoelen (KH173) 4, Bupleurum (KH66) 2, liquorice (KH34) 1.5

KF99

Bupleurum, cinnamon and ginger combination

柴胡桂枝 乾姜湯

Sai ko kei shi kan kyoh toh

11

chái hú guì (zhï) (gän) jiäng täng

Bupleurum (KH66) 6, cinnamon (KH47), Trichosanthes root (KH31), scute (KH14), oyster shell (KH185) 3, dried ginger (KH33), liquorice (KH34) 2

KF249

Bupleurum, citrus and Pinellia formula

抑肝散加 陳皮半夏

Yoku kan san ka chin pi han ge

83

yì gän sân jiä chén pí bàn xià

To Bupleurum formula (KF247) add citrus (KH139) 3, Pinellia (KH163) 5

KF6

Capillaris and hoelen five formula

茵蔯五 苓散

In chin go rei san

117

yïn chén wû líng sân

Add Capillaris (KH4) 4 to hoelen five formula (KF91)

KF5

Capillaris combination

茵蔯蒿湯

In chin koh toh

135

yïn chén häo täng

Capillaris (KH4) 4, gardenia (KH77) 3, rhubarb (KH126) 1

KF1

Cardamon and fennel formula

安中散

An chuh san

5

än zhöng sân

Cinnamon (KH47) 4, Corydalis (KH10) 3, oyster shell (KH185), fennel (KH5) 1.5, cardamon (KH90), liquorice (KH34) 1, Galanga (KH201) 0.5

KF110

Chrysanthemum combination

滋腎明 目湯

Ji jin mei moku toh

n/a

zï shèn míng mù täng

Tang kuei (KH143), Cnidium (KH114), Rehmannia (KH35), dried Rehmannia (KH91), peony (KH83) 3, Platycodon (KH36), ginseng (KH150), gardenia (KH77), Coptis (KH17), angelica (KH168), Vitex (KH188), chrysanthemum (KH37), liquorice (KH34), Juncus (KH144), tea (sai cha) 1.5

KF143

Cimicifuga and Pueraria combination

升麻葛 根湯

Shoh ma kakkon toh

101

shëng má gé gën täng

Pueraria (KH28) 5, Cimicifuga (KH99), ginger (KH95) 2, peony (KH83) 3, liquorice (KH34) 1.5

KF25

Cimicifuga combination

乙字湯

Otsu ji toh

3

yî zì täng

Rhubarb (KH126) 1, Bupleurum (KH66) 5, Cimicifuga (KH99) 1.5, liquorice (KH34) 2, scute (KH14) 3, tang kuei (KH143) 6

KF66

Cinnamon and aconite combination

桂枝加附 子湯

Kei shi ka bu shi toh

n/a

guì zhï jiä fù zî täng

Add aconite (KH174) 0.5 to cinnamon combination (KF60)

KF80

Cinnamon and Anemarrhena combination

桂枝芍薬 知母湯

Kei shi shaku yaku chi mo toh

n/a

guì zhï sháo yào zhï mû täng

Cinnamon (KH47), Anemarrhena (KH135), Siler (KH178), ginger (KH95), peony (KH83), ma huang (KH186) 3, Atractylodes (KH92) 4, liquorice (KH34) 1.5, aconite (KH174) 0.5

139

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

140

Index number

Standard English name

Kanji

Rohmaji

Japanese national formula number

Pinyin

Ingredients – standard English (see Appendix 2)

KF61

Cinnamon and Astragalus combination

桂枝加黄 耆湯

Kei shi ka oh gi toh

n/a

guì zhï jiä huáng qí täng

Add Astragalus (KH13) 3 to cinnamon combination (KF60)

KF67

Cinnamon and Atractylodes combination

桂枝加朮 附湯

Keishi ka jyutsu bu toh

18

guì zhï jiä zhú fù täng

Add Atractylodes (KH92) 4 to cinnamon and aconite combination (KF66)

KF68

Cinnamon and dragonbone combination

桂枝加竜 骨牡蠣湯

Kei shi ka ryuh kotsu bo rei toh

26

guì zhï jiä lóng gû mû lì täng

To cinnamon combination (KF60), add dragonbone (KH199), oyster shell (KH185) 3

KF72

Cinnamon and dragonbone, Dichroa and oystershell (DDO) combination

桂枝去芍 薬加蜀漆 竜骨牡蠣 救逆湯

Kei shi kyo shaku yaku ka shoku shitsu ryuh kotsu bo rei kyuh gyaku toh

n/a

guì zhi qü sháo yào jiä shǔ qī lóng gû mû lì jìu nì täng

Cinnamon (KH47), ginger (KH95), jujube (KH127), Dichroa (KH101) 4, liquorice (KH34) 2, oyster shell (KH185) 6, dragonbone (KH199) 5

KF76

Cinnamon and ginseng combination

桂枝人 参湯

Kei shi nin jin toh

82

guì zhï rén shën täng

Cinnamon (KH47) 4, liquorice (KH34), Atractylodes (KH92), ginseng (KH150) 3, dried ginger (KH33) 2

KF78

Cinnamon and hoelen combination

桂枝茯 苓湯

Kei shi buku ryoh toh

n/a

guì zhï fú líng täng

Cinnamon (KH47), hoelen (KH173), moutan (KH184), Persica (KH145), peony (KH83) 4

KF77

Cinnamon and hoelen formula

桂枝茯 苓丸

Kei shi buku ryoh gan

25

guì zhï fú líng wán

Cinnamon (KH47), hoelen (KH173), moutan (KH184), Persica (KH145), peony (KH83) each in equal parts. Grind to powder; with honey form pills. A dose is 3 pills; take 3 times per day

KF70

Cinnamon and liquorice combination

桂枝甘 草湯

Kei shi kan zoh toh

n/a

guì zhï gän câo täng

Cinnamon (KH47) 4, liquorice (KH34) 2

KF74

Cinnamon and ma huang two combination

桂枝二麻 黄一湯

Kei shi ni ma oh ittoh

n/a

guì zhï èr má huáng yï täng

Cinnamon (KH47) 4.5, peony (KH83), ginger (KH95), jujube (KH127) 3, ma huang (KH186), apricot seed (KH43) 1.5, liquorice (KH34) 2.5

KF81

Cinnamon and ma huang combination

桂麻各 半湯

Kei ma kaku han toh

n/a

guì (zhï ) má (huáng) gè bàn täng

Cinnamon (KH47) 3.5, peony (KH83), ginger (KH95), liquorice (KH34), ma huang (KH186), jujube (KH127) 2, apricot seed (KH143) 2.5

KF64

Cinnamon and peony combination

桂枝加芍 薬湯

Kei shi ka shaku yaku toh

60

guì zhï jiä sháo yào täng

Cinnamon (KH47), ginger (KH95), jujube (KH127) 4, liquorice (KH34) 2, peony (KH83) 6

Appendix 1: Kampo Formula Index

Index number

Standard English name

Kanji

Rohmaji

Japanese national formula number

Pinyin

Ingredients – standard English (see Appendix 2)

KF159

Cinnamon and Persica combination

折衝飲

Sesshoh in

n/a

zhé chòng yîn

Moutan (KH184), Cnidium (KH114), peony (KH83), cinnamon (KH47) 3, Persica (KH145), tang kuei (KH143) 5, Corydalis (KH10), Achyranthes (KH59) 2, Carthamus (KH53) 1

KF62

Cinnamon and Pueraria combination

桂枝加葛 根湯

Kei shi ka kakkon toh

n/a

guì zhï jiä gé gën täng

Add Pueraria (KH28) 6 to cinnamon combination (KF60)

KF60

Cinnamon combination

桂枝湯

Kei shi toh

45

guì zhï täng

Cinnamon (KH47), peony (KH83), jujube (KH127), ginger (KH95) 4, liquorice (KH34) 2

KF75

Cinnamon eppi combination

桂枝二越 婢一湯

Kei shi ni eppi ittoh

n/a

guì zhï èr yuè bì yï täng

Cinnamon (KH47), peony (KH83), liquorice (KH34), ma huang (KH186) 2.5, ginger (KH95) 3.5, jujube (KH127), gypsum (KH12) 3

KF73

Cinnamon five herb combination

桂枝五 物湯

Kei shi go motsu toh

n/a

guì zhï wû wù täng

Cinnamon (KH47), scute (KH14), Rehmannia (KH75) 4, hoelen (KH173) 8, Platycodon (KH36) 3

KF69

Cinnamon, hoelen and Atractylodes combination

桂枝加苓 朮附湯

Kei shi ka ryoh jyutsu bu toh

n/a

guì zhï jiä líng zhú fù täng

Add hoelen (KH173) 5 to keishi ka jyutsu bu to (KF67)

KF79

Cinnamon, aconite and ginger combination

桂枝附 子湯

Kei shi bu shi toh

n/a

guì zhï fù zî täng

Cinnamon (KH47) 4, aconite (KH174) 0.5, ginger (KH95), jujube (KH127) 3, liquorice (KH34) 2

KF71

Cinnamon, liquorice and dragonbone combination

桂枝甘草 竜骨牡 蠣湯

Kei shi kan zoh ryuh kotsu bo rei toh

n/a

guì zhï gän câo lóng gû mû lì täng

Cinnamon (KH47) 4, liquorice (KH34), dragonbone (KH199), oyster shell (KH185) 2

KF63

Cinnamon, magnolia and apricot seed combination

桂枝加厚 朴杏仁湯

Kei shi ka koh boku kyoh nin toh

n/a

guì zhï jiä hòu pò xìng rén täng

Add magnolia bark (KH57) 2, apricot seed (KH43) 4 to cinnamon combination (KF60)

KF59

Cinnamon, ma huang and Asarum combination

桂枝去芍 薬加麻黄 細辛附子 湯 (aka: 桂 姜棗草黄 辛附湯)

Kei shi kyo shaku yaku ka ma oh sai shin bushi toh (kei kyoh soh soh oh shin bu toh)

n/a

guì zhï qü sháo yào jiä má huáng xì xïn fù zì täng

Cinnamon (KH47), ginger (KH95), jujube (KH127) 3, liquorice (KH34), ma huang (KH186), Asarum (KH67) 2, aconite (KH174) 0.5

KF65

Cinnamon, peony and rhubarb combination

桂枝加芍 薬大黄湯

Kei shi ka shaku yaku dai oh toh

134

guì zhï jiä sháo yào dà huáng täng

Add rhubarb (KH126) 1 to cinnamon and peony combination (KF64)

141

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

142

Index number

Standard English name

Kanji

Rohmaji

Japanese national formula number

Pinyin

Ingredients – standard English (see Appendix 2)

KF229

Citrus and Perilla combination

分心気飲

Bun shin ki in

n/a

fën xïn qì yîn

Cinnamon (KH47), peony (KH83), Akebia (KH190), Pinellia (KH163), liquorice (KH34), jujube (KH127), ginger (KH95), Juncus (KH144) 1.5, Morus (KH123), blue citrus (KH94), citrus (KH139), Areca (KH128), chianghuo (KH42), hoelen (KH173), Perilla (KH78) 2

KF200

Citrus and Pinellia combination

二陳湯

Ni chin toh

81

èr chén täng

Pinellia (KH163), hoelen (KH173) 5, citrus (KH139) 4, liquorice (KH34) 1, ginger (KH95) 3

KF196

Clam shell formula

禿癬散

Toku sen san

n/a

tū xuǎn sân

Realgar (n/a) 2 parts, sulphur (KH2) 4 parts, chalcanthite (KH131) 1 part, rhubarb (KH126) 3 parts; powder the above, put into a clam shell, make paste with vinegar and apply several times daily

KF164

Clematis and Stephania combination

疎経活 血湯

So kei kakketsu toh

53

shü jïng huó xuè täng

Tang kuei (KH143), Rehmannia (KH75), blue Atractylodes (KH121), Cnidium (KH114), Persica (KH145), hoelen (KH173) 2, peony (KH83) 2.5, Achyranthes (KH59), clematis (KH3), Stephania (KH177), chianghuo (KH42), Siler (KH178), Gentiana (KH200), ginger (KH95), citrus (KH139) 1.5, angelica (KH168), liquorice (KH34) 1

KF157

Cnidium and moutan combination

清熱補 血湯

Sei netsu ho ketsu toh

n/a

qïng rè bû xuè täng

Tang kuei (KH143), peony (KH83), Cnidium (KH114), Rehmannia (KH75), Ophiopogon (KH156) 3, figwort (KH51), Anemarrhena (KH135), Phellodendron (KH16), Bupleurum (KH66), moutan (KH184), Schizandra (KH64) 1.5

KF26

Cnidium and rhubarb combination

応鐘散

Oh shoh san

n/a

xiöng huáng sân

Same as Cnidium and rhubarb combination (KF55). The word san in the Japanese name indicates this formula was intended to be powdered, not boiled

KF55

Cnidium and rhubarb combination

芎黄散

Kyuh oh san

n/a

xiöng huáng sân

Rhubarb (KH126) 1, Cnidium (KH114) 2. San in the name indicates this formula was intended to be powdered, not boiled

KF184

Coix and Persica combination

腸廱湯

Choh yoh toh

n/a

cháng yöng täng

Coix (KH195) 9, benincasa (KH25) 6, Persica (KH145) 5, moutan (KH184) 4

KF246

Coix combination

薏苡仁湯

Yoku i nin toh

52

yì yî rén täng

Ma huang (KH186), tang kuei (KH143), Atractylodes (KH92) 4, Coix (KH195) 8, cinnamon (KH47), peony (KH83) 3, liquorice (KH34) 2

Appendix 1: Kampo Formula Index

Index number

Standard English name

Kanji

Rohmaji

Japanese national formula number

Pinyin

Ingredients – standard English (see Appendix 2)

KF247

Coix, aconite and Thlaspi formula

薏苡附子 敗醤散

Yoku i bu shi hai shoh san

n/a

yì yî fù zî bái jiäng sân

Coix (KH195) 10, Thlaspi (KH152) 3, aconite (KH174) 0.5

KF23

Coptis and gelatin combination

黄連阿 膠湯

Oh ren akyoh toh

n/a

huáng lián ë jiäo täng

Coptis (KH17) 3, peony (KH83) 2.5, scute (KH14) 2, gelatin (KH1) 3. Decoct the above, strain the dregs, add gelatin (KH1) 3, heat on the stove until the gelatin dissolves, cool, add the yolk of one hen egg, stir well and drink

KF103

Coptis and rhubarb combination

三黄瀉 心湯

San oh sha shin toh

113

sän huáng xiè xïn täng

Rhubarb (KH126), scute (KH14), Coptis (KH17) 1. When used as furidashi zai (an infusion), add 100 ml of hot water, cook for three minutes, strain the dregs and drink

KF127

Coptis and rhubarb combination

瀉心湯

Sha shin toh

n/a

xiè xïn täng (same as: sän huáng xiè xïn täng)

Same as Coptis and rhubarb combination (KF103)

KF24

Coptis and scute combination

黄連解 毒湯

Oh ren ge doku toh

15

huáng lián jiê dú täng

Coptis (KH17), Phellodendron (KH16) 1.5, scute (KH14) 3, gardenia (KH77) 2

KF27

Coptis and scute pill

黄解丸

Oh ge gan

n/a

huáng jiê wán

An abbreviation of Coptis and scute combination (KF24) in pill form

KF22

Coptis combination

黄連湯

Oh ren toh

120

huáng lián täng

Coptis (KH17), liquorice (KH34), dried ginger (KH33), ginseng (KH150), cinnamon (KH47), jujube (KH127) 3, Pinellia (KH163) 6

KF112

Croton and hematite formula

紫円

Shi en

n/a

zï yuán

Hematite (KH129), kaolin (KH82), croton (KH160) 4, apricot seed (KH43) 8; grind into powder and make pills using rice starch. One dose is 0.3‒1

KF84

Cyperus and Perilla formula

香蘇散

Koh so san

70

xiäng sü sân

Cyperus (KH54) 4, Perilla (KH125), citrus (KH139) 2.5, ginger (KH95) 3, liquorice (KH34) 1

KF254

Dragonbone combination

竜骨湯

Ryuh kotsu toh

n/a

lóng gû täng

Dragonbone (KH199) 3, hoelen (KH173) 4, cinnamon (KH47), Polygala (KH20), Ophiopogon (KH156), oyster shell (KH185) 3, liquorice (KH34) 1.5, ginger (KH95) 1

KF199

Epimedium and Curculigo combination

二仙湯

Ni sen toh

n/a

èr xiän täng

Scute (KH14), peony (KH83) 3

KF206

Eriocheir and viper formula

伯州散

Haku shuh san

n/a

bó zhōu sǎn

Eriocheir (KH103), viper (KH164), cervus horn (KH206) 1. Char the above separately and blend together; take 1 宛 dose three times daily

143

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

144

Index number

Standard English name

Kanji

Rohmaji

Japanese national formula number

Pinyin

Ingredients – standard English (see Appendix 2)

KF2

Eucommia and Achyranthes formula

痿証方

I shoh hoh

n/a

wêi zhèng fāng

Tang kuei (KH143) 5, Rehmannia (KH75) 4, Achyranthes (KH59), blue Atractylodes (KH121), Anemarrhena (KH135) 3, peony (KH83), Astragalus (KH13) 2, Eucommia (KH147), Phellodendron (KH16) 1

KF15

Evodia and Pinellia combination

延年半 夏湯

En nen han ge toh

n/a

yán nián bàn xià täng

Pinellia (KH163) 5, tortoise shell (KH175), Platycodon (KH36), Areca seed (KH171), Bupleurum (KH66) 3, ginseng (KH150) 2, ginger (KH95) 3, chih-shih (KH39), Evodia (KH60) 1

KF93

Evodia combination

呉茱萸湯

Go shu yu toh

31

wú zhü yú täng

Evodia (KH60) 3, ginseng (KH150) 2, ginger (KH95), jujube (KH127) 4

KF180

Forsythia and Lonicera formula

治頭瘡一 方(大芎 黄湯)

Chi zu soh ippoh (dai kyuh oh toh)

59

zhì tóu chuäng yï fāng

Forsythia fruit (KH204), blue Atractylodes (KH92), Cnidium (KH114) 3, Siler (KH178), Lonicera (KH151) 2, Schizonepeta (KH46), liquorice (KH34), Carthamus (KH53) 1, rhubarb (KH126) 0.5

KF149

Forsythia and Platycodon combination

清胃瀉 火湯

Sei i sha ka toh

n/a

qïng wèi xià huô täng

Forsythia (KH204), Platycodon (KH36), scute (KH14), gardenia (KH77), Rehmannia (KH75), Pueraria (KH28) 2, Coptis (KH17), Scrophularia (KH51), Cimicifuga (KH99), mentha (KH161), liquorice (KH34) 1

KF257

Forsythia and rhubarb formula

涼隔散

Ryoh kaku san

n/a

liáng gé sân

Rhubarb (KH126), mentha (KH161) 1, liquorice (KH34) 1.5, forsythia (KH204) 5, Mirabilitum (KH180), Platycodon (KH36), scute (KH14) 3, gardenia (KH77) 2

KF117

Four major herb combination

四君子湯

Shi kun shi toh

75

sì jün zî täng

Ginseng (KH150), white Atractylodes (KH169), hoelen (KH173) 4, liquorice (KH34), ginger (KH95), jujube (KH127) 1.5

KF108

Fritillaria and tang kuei combination

滋陰至 宝湯

Ji in shi hoh toh

92

zï yïn zhì bäo täng

Tang kuei (KH143), peony (KH83), white Atractylodes (KH169), hoelen (KH173), citrus (KH139), Bupleurum (KH66), Anemarrhena (KH135), Cyperus (KH54), Lycium (KH76), Ophiopogon (KH156) 3, Fritillaria (KH153) 2, mentha (KH161), liquorice (KH34) 1

KF21

Fu lung kan combination

黄土湯

Oh do toh

n/a

huáng tû täng

Fu-lung-kan (KH15) 7, Rehmannia (KH75), Atractylodes (KH92), gelatin (KH1), scute (KH14) 3, liquorice (KH34) 2, aconite (KH174) 0.5

KF263

Galanga and chih-shih combination

良枳湯

Ryoh ki toh

n/a

liáng zhï täng

Hoelen (KH173), Pinellia (KH163) 6, cinnamon (KH47), jujube (KH127) 4, liquorice (KH34), chih-shih (KH39) 2, Galanga (KH201) 1

Appendix 1: Kampo Formula Index

Index number

Standard English name

Kanji

Rohmaji

Japanese national formula number

Pinyin

Ingredients – standard English (see Appendix 2)

KF183

Gambir formula

釣藤散

Choh toh san

47

göu téng sân

Gambir (KH137) 3, Aurantium (KH40), Pinellia (KH163), Ophiopogon (KH156), hoelen (KH173) 3, ginseng (KH150), chrysanthemum (KH37), Siler (KH178) 2, gypsum (KH112) 5, liquorice (KH34), ginger (KH95) 1

KF155

Gardenia and blue Atractylodes combination

清熱解 鬱湯

Sei netsu ge utsu toh

n/a

qïng rè jiê yù täng

Gardenia (KH77), blue Atractylodes (KH121) 3, Cnidium (KH114), Cyperus (KH54), citrus (KH139) 2, Coptis (KH17), liquorice (KH34), chih-ko (KH38) 1, dried ginger (KH33), ginger (KH95) 0.5

KF90

Gardenia and hoelen formula

五淋散

Go rin san

56

wû lín sân

Peony (KH83), gardenia (KH77) 2, tang kuei (KH143), liquorice (KH34), scute (KH14) 3, hoelen (KH173) 6

KF119

Gardenia and Phellodendron combination

梔子柏 皮湯

Shi shi haku hi toh

n/a

zhï zî bâi pí täng

Gardenia (KH77) 3, liquorice (KH34) 1, Phellodendron (KH16) 2

KF255

Gentiana combination

竜胆瀉 肝湯

Ryuh tan sha kan toh

76

lóng dân xiè gän täng

Plantago (KH87), scute (KH14), Alisma (KH130) 3, Akebia (KH190), Rehmannia (KH75), tang kuei (KH143) 5, gardenia (KH77), liquorice (KH34), Gentiana (KH200) 1

KF259

Ginger and hoelen combination

苓姜朮 甘湯

Ryoh kyoh jyutsu kan toh

118

líng jiäng zhú gän täng

Hoelen (KH173) 6, dry ginger (KH33), white Atractylodes (KH169) 3, liquorice (KH34) 2

KF40

Ginger and Pinellia (GP) and ginseng formula

乾姜人参 半夏丸

kan kyoh nin jin han ge gan

n/a

gän jiäng rén shën bàn xià wán

Dried ginger (KH33), ginseng (KH150) 3 parts, Pinellia (KH163) 6 parts; powder the above and make pills with rice starch; take two per dose

KF116

Ginger, liquorice and aconite combination with ginseng

四逆加人 参湯

Shi gyaku ka nin jin toh

n/a

sì nì jiä rén shën täng

Add ginseng (KH150) 2 to aconite, ginger and liquorice combination (KF115)

KF235

Ginseng and Astragalus combination

補中益 気湯

Ho chuh ekki toh

41

bû zhöng yì qì täng

Astragalus (KH13), ginseng (KH150), Atractylodes (KH92) 4, tang kuei (KH143) 3, citrus (KH139), ginger (KH95), jujube (KH127), Bupleurum (KH66) 2, liquorice (KH34) 1.5, Cimicifuga (KH99) 1

KF148

Ginseng and Atractylodes formula

参苓白 朮散

Jin ryoh byaku jyutsu san

n/a

shën líng bái zhú sân

Ginseng (KH150) 3, white Atractylodes (KH169), hoelen (KH173) 4, Discorea (KH73), Dolichos (KH176), lotus seed (KH205) 3, Platycodon (KH36) 2.5, Coix (KH195) 8, cardamon (KH90) 2, liquorice (KH34) 1.5. Powder the above and take two 宛 per dose, three times daily

145

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

146

Index number

Standard English name

Kanji

Rohmaji

Japanese national formula number

Pinyin

Ingredients – standard English (see Appendix 2)

KF236

Ginseng and Aurantium combination

補中治 湿湯

Ho chuh ji shitsu toh

n/a

bû zhöng zhî shí täng

Ginseng (KH150), Atractylodes (KH92), hoelen (KH173), Aurantium (KH40), Ophiopogon (KH156), tang kuei (KH143), Akebia (KH190), scute (KH14), magnolia bark (KH57) 3, Cimicifuga (KH99) 1

KF250

Ginseng and blue citrus combination

抑肝扶 脾散

Yoku kan fu hi san

n/a

yì gän fú pí sân

Ginseng (KH150), Atractylodes (KH92), hoelen (KH173) 2, Gentiana (KH200), brassica (KH154) 1, Crataegus (KH68), citrus (KH139), blue citrus (KH94), shen qu (KH105) 2, Picrorhiza (KH56), Coptis (KH17), Bupleurum (KH66), liquorice root (KH34) 1

KF203

Ginseng and ginger combination

人参湯

Nin jin toh

32

rén shën täng (see KF252)

Ginseng (KH150), liquorice (KH34), Atractylodes (KH92), dried ginger (KH33) 3

KF252

Ginseng and ginger combination

理中湯

Ri chuh toh

n/a

lî zhöng wán (see KF203)

Same as ginseng and ginger combination (KF203)

KF220

Ginseng and gypsum combination

白虎加人 参湯

Byaku ko ka nin jin toh

34

bái hû jiä rén shën täng

To gypsum combination (KF218) add ginseng (KH150) 3

KF50

Ginseng and longan combination

帰脾湯

Ki hi toh

65

guï pí täng

Astragalus (KH13) 2, ginseng (KH150), white Atractylodes (KH169), hoelen (KH173), Zizyphus (KH72), longan (KH198) 3, tang kuei (KH143) 2, ginger (KH95) 3, jujube (KH127), Polygala (KH20) 1.5, liquorice (KH34), Saussurea (KH192) 1

KF128

Ginseng and tang kuei ten combination

十全大 補湯

Jyuh zen tai ho toh

48

shí quán dà bû täng

Ginseng (KH150), Astragalus (KH13) 2.5, white Atractylodes (KH169), tang kuei (KH143), hoelen (KH173), Rehmannia (KH75) 3.5, Cnidium (KH114), peony (KH83), cinnamon (KH47) 3, liquorice (KH34) 1

KF195

Ginseng simple combination

独参湯

Doku jin toh

n/a

dú shën täng

Ginseng (KH150) 8

KF32

Ginseng, longan and Bupleurum combination

加味帰 脾湯

Ka mi ki hi toh

137

jiä wèI guï pí täng

Ginseng and longan combination (KF50) with Bupleurum (KH66) 3, gardenia (KH77) 2 added

KF177

Gleditsia combination

托裏消 毒飲

Taku ri shoh doku in

n/a

tuö lî xiäo dú yîn

Ginseng (KH150), Cnidium (KH114), Platycodon (KH36), white Atractylodes (KH169), peony (KH83) 3, tang kuei (KH143), hoelen (KH173) 5, angelica (KH168) 1, Gleditsia (KH120) 2, Astragalus (KH13), forsythia (KH44) 1.5, liquorice (KH34) 1

KF218

Gypsum combination

白虎湯

Byaku ko toh

n/a

bái hû täng

Anemarrhena (KH135) 5, oryza (KH55) 8, gypsum (KH112) 15, liquorice (KH34) 2

Appendix 1: Kampo Formula Index

Index number

Standard English name

Kanji

Rohmaji

Japanese national formula number

Pinyin

Ingredients – standard English (see Appendix 2)

KF219

Gypsum plus cinnamon combination

白虎加桂 枝湯

Byaku ko ka kei shi toh

n/a

bái hû jiä guì zhï täng

To gypsum combination (KF218) add cinnamon (KH47) 4

KF228

Hoelen and Alisma combination

分消湯

Bun shoh toh

n/a

fën xiäo täng

Blue Atractylodes (KH121), white Atractylodes (KH92), hoelen (KH173) 2.5, citrus (KH139), magnolia bark (KH57), Cyperus (KH54), Polyporus (KH138), Alisma (KH130) 2, chih-shih (KH39), Areca (KH128), cardamon (KH90), Saussurea (KH192), ginger (KH95), Juncus (KH144) 1

KF258

Hoelen and Schizandra combination

苓甘姜味 辛夏仁湯

Ryoh kan kyoh mi shin ge nin toh

119

líng gän (wû) wèi (jiä) jiäng xïn (bàn) xià (xìng) rén täng

Hoelen (KH173), Pinellia (KH163), apricot seed (KH43) 4, Schizandra (KH64) 3, liquorice (KH34), dry ginger (KH33), Asarum (KH67) 2

KF216

Hoelen and Viper combination

反鼻交感 丹料

Han bi koh kan tan ryoh

n/a

fân bí jiäo gǎn dān liào

Hoelen (KH173) 5, Cyperus (KH54) 3, viper (KH164) 2, dried ginger (KH33) 1.5

KF222

Hoelen combination

茯苓飲

Buku ryoh in

69

fú líng yîn

Hoelen (KH173) 5, Atractylodes (KH92) 4, ginseng (KH150), ginger (KH95), citrus (KH139) 3, chihshih (KH39) 1.5

KF92

Hoelen five combination

五苓湯

Go rei toh

n/a

wû líng täng

Alisma (KH130) 6, Polyporus (KH138), hoelen (KH173), Atractylodes (KH92) 4.5, cinnamon (KH47) 2.5

KF91

Hoelen five herb formula

五苓散

Go rei san

17

wû líng sân

Alisma (KH130) 5 parts, Polyporus (KH138), hoelen (KH173), Atractylodes (KH92) 3 parts, cinnamon (KH47) 2 parts. Grind the above into powder and take 1.5 doses, three times per day

KF224

Hoelen, apricot seed and liquorice combination

茯苓杏仁 甘草湯

Buku ryoh kyoh nin kan zoh toh

n/a

fú líng xìng rén gän câo täng

Hoelen (KH173) 6, apricot seed (KH43) 4, liquorice (KH34) 1

KF261

Hoelen, liquorice and jujube combination

苓桂甘 棗湯

Ryoh kei kan soh toh

n/a

líng guì gän câo täng

Hoelen (KH173) 6, cinnamon (KH47), jujube (KH127) 4, liquorice (KH34) 2

KF262

Hoelen, liquorice and Schizandra combination

苓桂味 甘湯

Ryoh kei mi kan toh

n/a

líng guì wèi gän täng

Hoelen (KH173) 6, cinnamon (KH47) 4, Schizandra (KH64) 3, liquorice (KH34) 2

KF162

Inula and hematite combination

旋覆花代 赭石湯

Sen puku ka tai sha seki toh

n/a

xuán fù huä dài zhê täng

Inula (KH119), jujube (KH127), hematite (KH129) 3, liquorice (KH34), ginseng (KH150) 2, Pinellia (KH163) 5, ginger (KH95) 4

147

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

148

Index number

Standard English name

Kanji

Rohmaji

Japanese national formula number

Pinyin

Ingredients – standard English (see Appendix 2)

KF217

Lily combination

百合固 金湯

Hyaku goh ko kin toh

n/a

bâi hé gù jīn täng

Lily (KH167), tang kuei (KH143), Rehmannia (KH75) 4, peony (KH83), Fritillaria (KH153), figwort (KH51) 3, Platycodon (KH36) 2, liquorice (KH34) 1.5, Ophiopogon (KH156) 6

KF8

Lindera formula

烏薬順 気散

U yaku jyun ki san

n/a

wü yào shùn qì sân

Lindera (KH9), citrus (KH139), silkworm (KH166), dried ginger (KH33), ma huang (KH186), Cnidium (KH114), Platycodon (KH36) 2.5, chih-ko (KH38) 2, angelica (KH168), liquorice (KH34) 1.5

KF131

Linum and rhubarb combination

潤腸湯

Jyun choh toh

51

rùn cháng täng

Tang kuei (KH143), dried Rehmannia (KH91), raw Rehmannia root (KH35), linum (KH187), Persica (KH145), apricot seed (KH43), chih-ko (KH38), magnolia bark (KH57), scute (KH14), rhubarb (KH126) 2, liquorice (KH34) 1.5

KF44

Liquorice and aconite combination

甘草附 子湯

Kan zoh bu shi toh

n/a

gän câo fù zî täng

White Atractylodes (KH169) 4, cinnamon (KH47) 3.5, liquorice (KH34) 2, aconite (KH174) 0.5

KF42

Liquorice and ginger combination

甘草乾 姜湯

Kan zoh kan kyoh toh

n/a

gän câo gän jiäng täng

Pinellia combination (KF214) with liquorice (KH34) 4, dried ginger (KH33) 2 added

KF223

Liquorice and hoelen combination

茯苓甘 草湯

Buku ryoh kan zoh toh

n/a

fù líng gän câo täng

Hoelen (KH173) 6, cinnamon (KH47) 4, ginger (KH95) 3, liquorice (KH34) 1

KF47

Liquorice and jujube combination

甘麦大 棗湯

Kan baku tai soh toh

72

gän mài dà zâo täng

Wheat (KH98) 20, jujube (KH127) 6, liquorice (KH34) 5

KF46

Liquorice and ma huang

甘草麻 黄湯

Kan zoh ma oh toh

n/a

gän câo má huáng täng

Liquorice (KH34) 1, ma huang (KH186) 3. Decoct the above and take as one dose

KF45

Liquorice and rice combination

甘草粉 蜜湯

Kan zoh fun mitsu toh

n/a

gän câo fěn mì täng

Liquorice (KH34) 2, white rice powder (KD499) 1, honey (KH182) 4. First decoct liquorice, strain the dregs and add the white rice powder and honey

KF41

Liquorice combination

甘草湯

Kan zoh toh

n/a

gän câo täng

Liquorice (KH34) 8

KF113

Lithospermum and oyster shell combination

紫根牡 蠣湯

Shi kon bo rei toh

n/a

zî gën mû lì täng

Tang kuei (KH143) 5, peony (KH83), Cnidium (KH114), Lithospermum (KH74) 3, rhubarb (KH126), Lonicera (KH151) 1.5, Astragalus (KH13) 2, oyster shell (KH185) 4, Cimicifuga (KH99), liquorice (KH34) 1

Appendix 1: Kampo Formula Index

Index number

Standard English name

Kanji

Rohmaji

Japanese national formula number

Pinyin

Ingredients – standard English (see Appendix 2)

KF111

Lithospermum ointment

紫雲膏

Shi un koh

501

zî yún gäo

Sesame oil (KH63) 1000, tang kuei (KH143), Lithospermum (KH74) 100, flava wax (KH18) 380, lard (KH149) 25. First warm the sesame oil, then put in yellow bee wax and lard and dissolve. Next, add tang kuei; add Lithospermum last. When the colour is bright purple-red, strain through cloth; it will harden when cooled. Add Lithospermum at approximately 140˚C. For summer and winter adjust the amount of wax accordingly

KF82

Lotus and citrus combination

啓脾湯

Kei hi toh

128

qî pí täng

Ginseng (KH150) 3, white Atractylodes (KH169) 4, hoelen (KH173), lotus seed (KH205), Dioscorea (KH73) 3, hawthorn (KH68), citrus (KH139), Alisma (KH130) 2, liquorice (KH34) 1

KF154

Lotus seed combination

清心連 子飲

Sei shin ren shi in

111

qïng xïn lián zî yîn

Lotus seed (KH205), Ophiopogon (KH156), hoelen (KH173) 4, ginseng (KH150), Plantago (KH87), scute (KH14) 3, Astragalus (KH13), Lycium bark (KH76) 2, liquorice (KH34) 1.5

KF121

Magnolia and Atractylodes combination

実脾飲

Jippi in

n/a

shí pí yîn

In hoelen and Alisma combination (KF228) substitute chih-ko (KH38) for chih-ko (KH39)

KF230

Magnolia and ginger formula

平胃散

Hei i san

79

píng wèi sân

Blue Atractylodes (KH121), magnolia bark (KH57), citrus (KH139) 3, jujube (KH127), ginger (KH95) 2, liquorice (KH34) 1

KF4

Magnolia and hoelen combination

胃苓湯

I rei toh

115

wèi líng täng

Blue Atractylodes (KH121), magnolia (KH57), citrus (KH139), Polyporus (KH138), Alisma (KH130), white Atractylodes (KH92), hoelen (KH173) 2.5, cinnamon (KH47) 2, jujube (KH127), dried ginger (KH33) 1.5, liquorice (KH34) 1

KF145

Magnolia flower and gypsum combination

辛夷清 肺湯

Shin i sei hai toh

104

xïn yí qïng fèi täng

Magnolia flower (KH103) 2, Anemarrhena (KH135), lily (KH167), scute (KH14), gardenia (KH77) 3, Ophiopogon (KH156), gypsum (KH112) 5, Cimicifuga (KH99) 1, Eriobotrya (KH170) 2

KF241

Ma huang and apricot seed combination

麻杏甘 石湯

Ma kyoh kan seki toh

55

má xìng shí gän täng

Ma huang (KH186), apricot seed (KH43) 4, liquorice (KH34) 2, gypsum (KH112) 10

KF239

Ma huang and Asarum combination

麻黄附子 細辛湯

Ma oh bu shi sai shin toh

127

má huáng xì xïn fù zî täng

Ma huang (KH186) 4, Asarum (KH67) 3, aconite (KH174) 0.5

KF242

Ma huang and Coix combination

麻杏薏 甘湯

Ma kyoh yoku kan toh

78

má xìng yî gän täng

Ma huang (KH186) 4, apricot seed (KH43) 3, Coix (KH195) 10, liquorice (KH34) 2

149

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

150

Index number

Standard English name

Kanji

Rohmaji

Japanese national formula number

Pinyin

Ingredients – standard English (see Appendix 2)

KF166

Ma huang and ginseng combination

続命湯

Zoku mei toh

n/a

xu mìng tāng

Apricot seed (KH43) 4, ma huang (KH186), cinnamon (KH47), ginseng (KH150), tang kuei (KH143) 3, Cnidium (KH114), dried ginger (KH33), liquorice (KH34) 2, gypsum (KH112) 6

KF176

Ma huang and ginseng combination

大続命湯

Dai zoku mei toh

n/a

dà xu mìng tāng (same as KF166)

Same as ma huang and ginseng combination (KF166)

KF12

Ma huang and gypsum combination

越婢湯

Eppi toh eppi toh

n/a

yuè bì täng

Ma huang (KH186) 6, gypsum (KH112) 8, ginger (KH95), jujube (KH127) 3, liquorice (KH34) 2

KF146

Ma huang and magnolia combination

神秘湯

Shin pi toh

85

shén mì tāng

Ma huang (KH186) 5, apricot seed (KH43) 4, magnolia bark (KH57) 3, citrus (KH139), liquorice (KH34), Bupleurum (KH66) 2, Perilla (KH125) 1.5

KF30

Ma huang and Morus formula

華蓋散

Ka gai san

n/a

huá gài sǎn

Hoelen (KH173) 5, ma huang (KH186), apricot seed (KH43) 4, kippi (KH40), Morus bark (KH123), Perilla fruit (KH124) 2, liquorice (KH34) 1

KF88

Ma huang, apricot seed and Morus combination

五虎湯

Go ko toh

95

wû hû täng

To ma huang and apricot seed combination (KF240), add Morus (KH123) 3

KF238

Ma huang combination

麻黄湯

Ma oh toh

27

má huáng täng

Ma huang (KH186), apricot seed (KH43) 5, cinnamon (KH47) 4, liquorice (KH34) 1.5

KF240

Ma huang, forsythia and Phaseolus combination

麻黄連軺 赤小豆湯

Ma oh ren shoh shaku shoh zu toh

n/a

má huáng lián qiào chì xiâo dòu täng

Ma huang (KH186), forsythia (KH204), ginger (KH95), jujube (KH127), Morus (KH123) 3, apricot seed (KH43) 4, Phaseolus (KH81) 10, liquorice (KH34) 1

KF14

Ma huang, gypsum and Pinellia combination

越婢加半 夏湯

Eppi ka han ge toh

n/a

yùe bì jiä bàn xià täng

Add Pinellia (KH163) 5 to ma huang and gypsum combination (KF12)

KF173

Major blue dragon combination

大青竜湯

Dai sei ryuh toh

n/a

dà qïng lóng täng

Ma huang (KH186) 6, apricot seed (KH43) 5, cinnamon (KH47), ginger (KH95), jujube (KH127) 3, liquorice (KH34) 2, gypsum (KH112) 10

KF171

Major Bupleurum combination

大柴胡湯

Dai sai ko toh

8

dà chái hú täng

Bupleurum (KH66) 6, Pinellia (KH163), ginger (KH95) 4, scute (KH14), peony (KH83), jujube (KH127) 3, chih-shih (KH39) 2, rhubarb (KH126) 1

KF174

Major Pinellia combination

大半夏湯

Dai han ge toh

n/a

dà bàn xià täng

Pinellia (KH163) 7, ginseng (KH150) 3, honey (KH182) 20

KF172

Major rhubarb combination

大承気湯

Dai jyoh ki toh

133

dà chéng qì täng

Rhubarb (KH126), chih-shih (KH39), Mirabilitum (KH180) 2, magnolia bark (KH57) 5

Appendix 1: Kampo Formula Index

Index number

Standard English name

Kanji

Rohmaji

Japanese national formula number

Pinyin

Ingredients – standard English (see Appendix 2)

KF175

Major Siler combination

大防風湯

Dai boh fuh toh

97

dà fáng fëng täng

Tang kuei (KH143), peony (KH83), Rehmannia (KH75), Astragalus (KH13), Siler (KH178), Eucommia (KH147), Atractylodes (KH92) 3, Cnidium (KH114) 2, ginseng (KH150), chianghuo (KH42), Achyranthes (KH59), liquorice (KH34), ginger (KH95), jujube (KH127) 1.5, aconite (KH174) 0.5

KF170

Major Zanthoxylum combination

大建中湯

Dai ken chuh toh

100

dà jiàn zhöng täng

Zanthoxylum (KH100) 2, dried ginger (KH33), ginseng (KH150) 3. Decoct the above, strain the dregs, add maltose (KH52) 20 and return to the fire; simmer for five minutes. Divide into three portions and drink warm

KF140

Minor blue dragon combination

小青竜湯

Shoh sei ryuh toh

19

xiâo qïng lóng täng

Ma huang (KH186), peony (KH83), dried ginger (KH33), liquorice (KH34), cinnamon (KH47), Asarum (KH67), Schizandra (KH64) 3, Pinellia (KH163) 6

KF136

Minor Bupleurum combination

小柴胡湯

Shoh sai ko toh

9

xiâo chái hú täng

Bupleurum (KH66) 7, Pinellia (KH163) 5, ginger (KH95) 4, scute (KH14), jujube (KH127), ginseng (KH150) 3, liquorice (KH34) 2

KF137

Minor Bupleurum plus Platycodon combination

小柴胡湯 加桔梗 石膏

Shoh sai ko toh ka ki kyoh sekkoh

109

xiâo chái hú täng jia jié gêng shí gäo

To minor Bupleurum combination (KF136) add Platycodon (KH36) 3, gypsum (KH112) 10

KF138

Minor Bupleurum with Pinellia and magnolia combination

小柴胡湯 合半夏厚 朴湯

Shoh sai ko toh goh han ge koh boku toh

n/a

xiâo chái hú täng hé bàn xìa hòu pò täng (chái pò täng)

Minor Bupleurum combination (KF136) combined in equal parts with Pinellia and magnolia combination (KF213)

KF135

Minor cinnamon and peony combination

小建中湯

Shoh ken chuh toh

99

xiâo jiàn zhöng täng

Cinnamon (KH47), ginger (KH95), jujube (KH127) 4, peony (KH83) 6, liquorice (KH34) 2; decoct the above, strain the dregs, add maltose (KH52) 20, return to the fire, simmer for five minutes and drink warm

KF141

Minor Pinellia and hoelen combination

小半夏加 茯苓湯

Shoh han ge ka buku ryoh toh

21

xiâo bàn xià jiä fù líng täng

Pinellia (KH163), ginger (KH95), hoelen (KH173) 5

KF139

Minor rhubarb combination

小承気湯

Shoh jyoh ki toh

n/a

xiâo chéng qì täng

Rhubarb (KH126), chih-shih (KH39) 2, magnolia bark (KH57) 3

KF134

Minor Trichosanthes combination

小陥胸湯

Shoh kan kyoh toh

n/a

xiâo xiàn xiöng täng

Coptis (KH17) 1.5, Trichosanthes seed (KH32) 3, Pinellia (KH163) 6

151

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

152

Index number

Standard English name

Kanji

Rohmaji

Japanese national formula number

Pinyin

Ingredients – standard English (see Appendix 2)

KF18

No standard English name

黄解散

Oh ge san

n/a

huáng jiê sân

Scute (KH14) 3, Coptis (KH17), Phellodendron (KH16) 2, gardenia (KH77) 1; powder the above and take one measure, three times a day (a variant dosage of Coptis and scute combination, KF24)

KF245

No standard English name

楊柏散

Yoh haku san

n/a

yáng bái sân

Myrica (KH194), Phellodendron (KH16) 2, Zanthoxylum (KH100) 1. Powder the above, blend together, knead into a paste with weak vinegar and apply to the affected area. If the vinegar causes a flareup, add wheat flour and use water to knead. (Made by Dr Sohaku Asai to treat external pain bruises, sprains.)

KF152

Ophiopogon and Asarum combination

清上蠲 痛湯

Sei jyoh ken tsuh toh

n/a

qïng shàng juän tòng täng

Ophiopogon (KH156) 5, scute (KH14) 4, chianghuo (KH42), tuhuo (KH148), Siler (KH178), white Atractylodes (KH169), tang kuei (KH143), Cnidium (KH114), angelica (KH168) 3, Vitex (KH188), chrysanthemum (KH37) 2, Asarum (KH67), liquorice (KH34) 1

KF208

Ophiopogon and Trichosanthes combination

麦門冬 飲子

Baku mon doh in shi

n/a

mài mén döng yîn zi

Ophiopogon (KH156) 7, Anemarrhena (KH135) 3, ginseng (KH150), Trichosanthes root (KH31) 2, Pueraria (KH28) 3, Rehmannia (KH75) 4, hoelen (KH173) 6, Schizandra (KH64), liquorice (KH34), bamboo leaves (KH134) 1

KF207

Ophiopogon combination

麦門冬湯

Baku mon doh toh

29

mài mén döng täng

Ophiopogon (KH156) 10, Pinellia (KH163), oryza (KH55) 5, jujube (KH3) 3, ginseng (KH150), liquorice (KH34) 2

KF124

Peony and liquorice combination

芍薬甘 草湯

Shaku yaku kan zoh toh

n/a

sháo yào gän câo täng

Peony (KH83) 6, liquorice (KH34) 3

KF85

Peony and tang kuei combination

行和芍 薬湯

Koh wa shaku yaku toh

n/a

xíng hé sháo yào täng

Peony (KH83) 6, tang kuei (KH143), Coptis (KH17), scute (KH14) 3, rhubarb (KH126) 2, Areca seed (KH171), Saussurea (KH192), cinnamon (KH47), liquorice (KH34) 1

KF126

Peony combination

芍薬湯

Shaku yaku toh

n/a

sháo yào täng

Peony (KH83) 4, scute (KH14), tang kuei (KH143), Coptis (KH17) 2, liquorice (KH34), Saussurea (KH192), chih-ko (KH38), rhubarb (KH126), Areca seed (KH171) 1

KF125

Peony, liquorice and aconite combination

芍薬甘草 附子湯

Shaku yaku kan zoh bu shi toh

n/a

sháo yào gän câo fù zî täng

Peony (KH83), liquorice (KH34) 3, aconite (KH174) 0.5

Appendix 1: Kampo Formula Index

Index number

Standard English name

Kanji

Rohmaji

Japanese national formula number

Pinyin

Ingredients – standard English (see Appendix 2)

KF165

Perilla seed combination

蘇子降 気湯

So shi koh ki toh

n/a

sü zî jiàng qì täng

Perilla fruit (KH125) 3, Pinellia (KH163) 4, citrus (KH139), magnolia bark (KH57), Peucedanum (KH116), cinnamon (KH47), tang kuei (KH143) 2.5, jujube (KH127), ginger (KH95) 1.5, liquorice (KH34) 1

KF186

Persica and rhubarb combination

桃核承 気湯

To kaku jyoh ki toh

61

táo hé chéng qì täng

Persica (KH145) 5, cinnamon (KH47) 4, Mirabilitum (KH180) 2, rhubarb (KH126) 3, liquorice (KH34) 1.5

KF107

Phellodendron combination

滋陰降 火湯

Ji in koh ka toh

93

zï yïn jiàng huô täng

Tang kuei (KH143), peony (KH83), Rehmannia (KH75), asparagus (KH142), Ophiopogon (KH156), citrus (KH139) 2.5, Atractylodes (KH92) 3, Anemarrhena (KH135), Phellodendron (KH16), liquorice (KH34) 1.5

KF212

Pinellia and eggshell

半夏苦 酒湯

Han ge ku shu toh

n/a

bàn xià kû jiû täng

Empty the contents of an egg shell and put in Pinellia (KH163) 2. Fill 80 per cent of the shell with vinegar and water mixed at a 1:2 or 1:3 ratio. Heat the egg shell, bring the mixture to a boil, remove the Pinellia, add one-half egg white and bring to a boil. Once cool, sip and hold each sip in the mouth

KF151

Pinellia and Arisaema combination

清湿化 痰湯

Sei shitsu ke tan toh

n/a

qïng shï huà tán täng

Arisaema (KH140), scute (KH14), ginger (KH95) 3, Pinellia (KH163), hoelen (KH173), blue Atractylodes (KH121) 4, citrus (KH139) 3, chianghuo (KH42), angelica (KH168), brassica (KH154), liquorice (KH34) 1.5

KF251

Pinellia and gardenia combination

利隔湯

Ri kaku toh

n/a

lì gé täng

Pinellia (KH163) 8, aconite (KH174) 0.5, gardenia (KH77) 3

KF215

Pinellia and Gastrodia combination

半夏白朮 天麻湯

Han ge byaku jyutsu ten ma toh

37

bàn xià bái zhú tiän má täng

Pinellia (KH163), white Atractylodes (KH169), blue Atractylodes (KH121), citrus (KH139), hoelen (KH173) 3, malt (KH155), Gastrodia (KH141), ginger (KH95), shen-chu (KH104) 2, Astragalus (KH13), ginseng (KH150), Alisma (KH130) 1.5, Phellodendron bark (KH16), dried ginger (KH33) 1

KF142

Pinellia and ginger combination

生姜瀉 心湯

Shoh kyoh sha shin toh

n/a

shëng jiäng xiè xïn täng

Pinellia combination (KF214). Substitute dried ginger (KH33) 1; add fresh ginger (KH95) 2

KF43

Pinellia and liquorice combination

甘草瀉 心湯

Kan zoh sha shin toh

n/a

gän câo xiè xïn täng

Pinellia combination (KF214) with liquorice (KH34) 1 added

153

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

154

Index number

Standard English name

Kanji

Rohmaji

Japanese national formula number

Pinyin

Ingredients – standard English (see Appendix 2)

KF213

Pinellia and magnolia combination

半夏厚 朴湯

Han ge koh boku toh

16

bàn xìa hòu pò täng

Pinellia (KH163) 6, hoelen (KH173) 5, ginger (KH95) 4, magnolia (KH57) 3, Perilla (KH125) 2

KF214

Pinellia combination

半夏瀉 心湯

Han ge sha shin toh

14

bàn xià xiè xïn täng

Pinellia (KH163) 5, scute (KH14), dried ginger (KH33), ginseng (KH150), liquorice (KH34), jujube (KH127) 2.5, Coptis (KH17) 1

KF221

Pinellia, Atractylodes and Agastache formula

不換金正 気散

Fu kan kin shoh ki san

n/a

bú huân jin zhèng qì sân

Blue Atractylodes (KH121), magnolia bark (KH57), citrus (KH139), jujube (KH127), ginger (KH95) 3, Pinellia (KH163) 6, liquorice (KH34) 1.5, Agastache (KH27) 1

KF204

Platycodon and chih-shih formula

排膿散

Hai noh san

122

pái nóng sân

Chih-shih (KH39) 3, peony (KH83), Platycodon (KH36) 1

KF52

Platycodon and croton formula

桔梗白散

Ki kyoh haku san

n/a

jié gêng bái sân

Platycodon (KH36) 3/10, Fritillaria (KH153) 3 parts each, croton seed (KH160) 1 part; remove the husk of the croton seed, dry fry, and grind in mortar to an oil; powder the first 2 ingredients and mix evenly. Take one dose of 0.5 with warm water

KF158

Platycodon and Fritillaria combination

清肺湯

Sei hai toh

90

qïng fèi täng

Scute (KH14), Platycodon (KH36), citrus (KH139), Morus (KH123), Fritillaria (KH153), apricot seed (KH43), gardenia (KH77), asparagus (KH142), jujube (KH127), bamboo sap (KH132) 2, hoelen (KH173), Ophiopogon (KH156), tang kuei (KH143) 3, Schizandra (KH64), ginger (KH95) 0.5, liquorice (KH34) 1

KF51

Platycodon combination

桔梗湯

Ki kyoh toh

138

jié gêng täng

Platycodon (KH36) 2, liquorice (KH34) 3

KF34

Polyporus and Alisma formula

加味八 脈散

Ka mi hachi myaku san

n/a

jiä wèI bä mài sân

Polyporus (KH138), Alisma (KH130), hoelen (KH173), Akebia (KH190), Rehmannia (KH75), apricot seed (KH43) 3, Ligusticum (KH58), gardenia (KH77), Anemarrhena (KH135), Phellodendron (KH16) 2

KF185

Polyporus combination

猪苓湯

Cho rei toh

40

zhü líng täng

Polyporus (KH138), hoelen (KH173), talc (KH29), Alisma (KH130) 3. Decoct the above, strain the dregs and add gelatin (KH1); return to the fire, dissolve well, remove from heat and drink

KF38

Pueraria and Carthamus combination

葛根 紅 花湯

Kakkon koh ka toh

n/a

gé gën hóng huä täng

Pueraria (KH28), peony (KH83), Rehmannia (KH75) 3, Coptis (KH17), gardenia (KH77), Carthamus (KH53) 1.5, rhubarb (KH126), liquorice (KH34) 1

Appendix 1: Kampo Formula Index

Index number

Standard English name

Kanji

Rohmaji

Japanese national formula number

Pinyin

Ingredients – standard English (see Appendix 2)

KF237

Pueraria and ginger combination

奔豚湯

Hon ton toh

n/a

bën tún täng

Pueraria (KH28), rose root bark (KH197) 5, ginger (KH95), Pinellia (KH163) 4, liquorice (KH34), Cnidium (KH114), tang kuei (KH143), scute (KH14), peony (KH83) 2

KF36

Pueraria combination

葛根湯

Kakkon toh

1

gé gën täng

Pueraria (KH28) 8, ma huang (KH186), ginger (KH95), jujube (KH127) 4, cinnamon (KH47), peony (KH83) 3, liquorice (KH34) 2

KF37

Pueraria, Coptis and scute combination

葛根黄連 黄芩湯

Kakkon oh ren oh gon toh

n/a

gé gën huáng lián huáng qín täng

Pueraria (KH28) 6, Coptis (KH17), scute (KH14) 3, liquorice (KH34) 2

KF123

Red stone formula

赤石脂丸

Shaku seki shi gan

n/a

Wū tóu chì shí wán (same as KF7)

A KKK (KD157) formula; as uzu shaku seki gan (KF7)

KF209

Rehmannia eight formula

八味丸(八 味地黄丸 腎気丸)

Hachi mi gan (hachi mi ji oh gan; jin ki gan)

7

bä wèi wán (bä wèi dì huáng wán / shèn qì wán)

Rehmannia (KH75) 8 parts, Cornus (KH70), Dioscorea (KH73), Alisma (KH130), hoelen (KH173), moutan (KH184) 3 parts, cinnamon (KH47), aconite (KH174) 1 part; make pills with refined honey. Take two 宛 doses three times daily

KF210

Rehmannia eight measures

八味地黄 丸料

Hachi mi ji oh gan ryoh

n/a

bä wèi dì huáng wán liào

Rehmannia (KH75) 5, Cornus (KH70), Dioscorea (KH73), Alisma (KH130), hoelen (KH173), moutan (KH184) 3, cinnamon (KH47), aconite (KH174) 1

KF168

Rhubarb and aconite combination

大黄附 子湯

Dai oh bu shi toh

n/a

dà huáng fù zî täng

Asarum (KH67) 2, rhubarb (KH126) 1, aconite (KH174) 0.5

KF167

Rhubarb and liquorice combination

大黄甘 草湯

Dai oh kan zoh toh

84

dà huáng gän câo täng

Rhubarb (KH126) 4, liquorice (KH34) 1

KF182

Rhubarb and Mirabilitum combination

調胃承 気湯

Choh i jyoh ki toh

74

tiáo wèi chéng qì täng

Rhubarb (KH126) 2, liquorice (KH34), Mirabilitum (KH180) 1

KF169

Rhubarb and moutan combination

大黄牡丹 皮湯

Dai oh bo tan pi toh

33

dà huáng mû dän täng

Rhubarb (KH126) 3, moutan bark (KH184), Persica kernel (KH145), Mirabilitum (KH180) 4, benincasa (KH25) 6

KF89

Rhubarb, cinnamon and Rehmannia combination

五物大 黄湯

Go motsu dai oh toh

n/a

wû wú dà huáng täng

Rhubarb (KH126) 1, cinnamon (KH47) 4.5, Rehmannia (KH75) 6, Cnidium (KH114) 5, liquorice (KH34) 1.5

KF83

Saussurea and cardamon combination

香砂六君 子湯

Koh sha rikkun shi toh

n/a

xiäng shä liù jün zî täng

Ginseng (KH150), white Atractylodes (KH169), hoelen (KH173), Pinellia (KH163) 3, citrus (KH139), Cyperus (KH54) 2, jujube (KH127), ginger (KH95) 1.5, liquorice (KH34), cardamon (KH90), Agastache (KH27) 1

155

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

156

Index number

Standard English name

Kanji

Rohmaji

Japanese national formula number

Pinyin

Ingredients – standard English (see Appendix 2)

KF19

Scute and liquorice combination

黄芩湯

Oh gon toh

n/a

huáng qín täng

Scute (KH14), jujube (KH127) 4, liquorice (KH34), peony (KH83) 3

KF109

Scute combination

滋腎通 耳湯

Ji jin tsuh ji toh

n/a

zï shèn töng êr täng

Tang kuei (KH143), Cnidium (KH114), peony (KH83), Anemarrhena (KH135), Rehmannia (KH75), Phellodendron (KH16), scute (KH14), Bupleurum (KH66), angelica (KH168), Cyperus (KH54) 3

KF105

Scute three herb combination

三物黄 芩湯

San motsu oh gon toh

121

sän wù huáng qín täng

Rehmannia (KH75) 6, scute (KH14), Sophora (KH45) 3

KF20

Scute, liquorice and Pinellia combination

黄芩加半 夏生姜湯

Oh gon ka han ge shoh kyoh toh

n/a

huáng qín jiä bàn xià shëng jiäng täng

To scute and liquorice combination (KF19), add Pinellia (KH163) 5, ginger (KH95) 3

KF104

Seaweed, rhubarb and liquorice combination

三味鷓胡 菜湯

San mi sha ko sai toh

n/a

sān wèi zhè hú cài tāng

Seaweed (KH24) 3, rhubarb (KH126), liquorice (KH34) 1.5

KF181

Sesame and yellow wax salve

中黄膏

Chuh oh koh

n/a

zhöng huáng gäo

Sesame oil (KH63) 1000, wax (KH18) 380, Curcuma (KH6) 40, Phellodendron (KH16) 20. First heat the sesame oil to eliminate water, melt the wax and strain through cloth; as it cools, gradually add the powdered Curcuma and Phellodendron; it will solidify as stirred

KF57

Siler and Arctium combination

駆風解 毒湯

Ku fu ge doku toh

n/a

qü fëng jiê dú täng

Siler (KH178), Arctium (KH62) 3, Schizonepeta (KH46), chianghuo (KH42), liquorice (KH34) 1.5, forsythia (KH204) 5; when repeated add Platycodon (KH36) 3, gypsum (KH112) 5 as needed

KF35

Siler and chianghuo combination

加味八 疝湯

Ka mi hachi sen (hassen) toh

n/a

jiä wèI bä shàn täng

Tang kuei (KH143), Cnidium (KH114), Rehmannia (KH75), Pinellia (KH163) 2, peony (KH83), citrus (KH139), hoelen (KH173) 2.5, ginseng (KH150), Achyranthes (KH59), chinchiu (KH106), Siler (KH178), chianghuo (KH42) 1.5, white Atractylodes (KH169) 3, Bupleurum (KH66), cinnamon (KH47), liquorice (KH34) 1

Appendix 1: Kampo Formula Index

Index number

Standard English name

Kanji

Rohmaji

Japanese national formula number

Pinyin

Ingredients – standard English (see Appendix 2)

KF233

Siler and Platycodon formula

防風通 聖散

Boh fuh tsuh shoh san

62

fáng fëng töng shèng sân

Tang kuei (KH143), peony (KH83), Cnidium (KH114), gardenia (KH77), forsythia (KH204), mentha (KH161), ginger (KH95), Schizonepeta (KH46), Siler (KH178), ma huang (KH186) 1.2, rhubarb (KH126), Mirabilitum (KH180) 1.5, Platycodon (KH36), white Atractylodes (KH169), liquorice (KH34), scute (KH14), gypsum (KH112) 2, talc (KH29) 3

KF153

Siler combination

清上防 風湯

Sei jyoh boh fuh toh

58

qïng shàng fáng fëng täng

Schizonepeta (KH46), Coptis (KH17), mentha (KH161), chihshih (KH39), liquorice (KH34) 1.5, gardenia (KH77), Cnidium (KH114), scute (KH14), forsythia (KH204), angelica (KH168), Platycodon (KH36), Siler (KH178) 2

KF253

Six major herb combination

六君子湯

Rikkun shi toh

43

liù jün zî täng

Ginseng (KH150), white Atractylodes (KH169), hoelen (KH173), Pinellia (KH163) 4, citrus (KH139), ginger (KH95), jujube (KH127) 2, liquorice (KH34) 1

KF31

Smilax and Akebia combination

香川解 毒剤

Ka gawa ge doku zai

n/a

xiāng chuān jiê dú täng

Smilax (KH69), Akebia (KH190) 4, hoelen (KH173) 5, Cnidium (KH114), Lonicera (KH151) 3, liquorice (KH34), rhubarb (KH126) 1

KF232

Stephania and Astragalus combination

防已黄 耆湯

Boh i oh gi toh

20

fáng jî huáng qí täng

Stephania (KH177), Astragalus (KH13) 5, Atractylodes (KH92), ginger (KH95), jujube (KH127) 3, liquorice (KH34) 1.5

KF244

Stephania and ginseng combination

木防已湯

Moku boh i toh

36

mù fáng jî täng

Stephania (KH177) 4, gypsum (KH112) 10, cinnamon (KH47), ginseng (KH150) 3

KF163

Stephania and ginseng plus combination

増損木防 已湯

Zoh son moku boh i toh

n/a

zëng sûn mù fáng jî täng

To Stephania and ginseng combination (KF244) add Perilla (KH125) 5, Morus (KH123), ginger (KH95) 3

KF132

Stone tablets

消石大円

Shoh seki dai en

n/a

xiāo shí dà yuán

Shoh seki (KH97) 6, rhubarb (KH126) 8, ginseng (KH150) 2, liquorice (KH34), tang kuei (KH143) 1. Use rice starch to form balls. Use 1.5 per dose

KF197

Stop Asthma Nihzuma combination

頓嗽湯

Ton soh toh

n/a

dùn sòu tāng

Bupleurum (KH66) 5, Platycodon (KH36), scute (KH14), Morus (KH123) 2.5, gardenia (KH77), liquorice (KH34) 1, gypsum (KH112) 5

157

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

158

Index number

Standard English name

Kanji

Rohmaji

Japanese national formula number

Pinyin

Ingredients – standard English (see Appendix 2)

KF48

Sweet combination

甘露飲

Kan ro in

n/a

gän lù yîn

Eriobotrya (KH170), prepared Rehmannia (KH91), Rehmannia (KH35), asparagus (KH142), chih-shih (KH39), Capillaris (KH4), Ophiopogon (KH156), Dendrobium (KH113), liquorice (KH34), scute (KH14) 2.5. Alternatively omit Ophiopogon (KH156) and prepared Rehmannia (KH91)

KF130

Tang kuei 16 herb combination

十六味流 気飲

Jyuh roku mi ryuh ki in

n/a

shí liù wèi liú qì yîn

Tang kuei (KH143), Cnidium (KH114), peony (KH83), cinnamon (KH47), ginseng (KH150), Platycodon (KH36) 3, angelica (KH168), Astragalus (KH13), Saussurea (KH192), Lindera (KH9), magnolia bark (KH57), chih-ko (KH38), Areca seed (KH171), Siler (KH178), Perilla (KH125), liquorice (KH34) 2

KF193

Tang kuei and Anemarrhena combination

当帰拈 痛湯

Toh ki nen tsuh toh

n/a

däng guï nián tòng täng

Tang kuei (KH143), Anemarrhena (KH135), chianghuo (KH42), Capillaris (KH4), scute (KH14), white Atractylodes (KH169), Polyporus (KH138), Alisma (KH130) 2.5, blue Atractylodes (KH121), Siler (KH178), Pueraria (KH28), ginseng (KH150) 2, Sophora (KH45), Cimicifuga (KH99), liquorice (KH34) 1

KF133

Tang kuei and Arctium formula

消風散

Shoh fu san

22

xiäo fëng sân

Tang kuei (KH143), Rehmannia (KH75), gypsum (KH112) 3, Anemarrhena (KH135), sesame (KH63) 1.5, blue Atractylodes (KH121), Arctium (KH62), Siler (KH178), Akebia (KH190) 2, liquorice (KH34), cicada (KH118), Sophora (KH45), Schizonepeta (KH46) 1

KF194

Tang kuei and Atractylodes combination

当帰白 朮湯

Toh ki byaku jyutsu toh

n/a

däng guï bái zhú täng

White Atractylodes (KH169), hoelen (KH173), tang kuei (KH143), apricot seed (KH43), Pinellia (KH163) 4, Polyporus (KH138) 2.5, Capillaris (KH4), chih-shih (KH39) 1.5, Peucedanum (KH116) 3, liquorice (KH34) 1

KF264

Tang kuei and Atractylodes combination

連珠飲

Ren jyu in

n/a

lián zhū yǐn

Tang kuei four combination (KF118) with Atractylodes and hoelen combination (KF259) in equal measure

KF156

Tang kuei and Cimicifuga combination

清熱補 気湯

Sei netsu ho ki toh

n/a

qïng rè bû qì täng

Ginseng (KH150), tang kuei (KH143), peony (KH83), Ophiopogon (KH156) 3, Atractylodes (KH92), hoelen (KH173) 3.5, figwort (KH51), Schizandra (KH64), liquorice (KH34), Cimicifuga (KH99) 1

Appendix 1: Kampo Formula Index

Index number

Standard English name

Kanji

Rohmaji

Japanese national formula number

Pinyin

Ingredients – standard English (see Appendix 2)

KF202

Tang kuei and Cyperus formula

女神散

Nyo shin san

67

nu̧ shén sân

Tang kuei (KH143), Cnidium (KH114), white Atractylodes (KH169), Cyperus (KH54) 3, cinnamon (KH47), ginseng (KH150), scute (KH14), Areca seed (KH171) 2, Coptis (KH17), Saussurea (KH192), liquorice (KH34) 1.5, clove (KH136) 1, rhubarb (KH126) 0.5

KF211

Tang kuei and eight herb formula

八味帯 下方

Hachi mi tai ge hoh

n/a

bä wèi dài xià täng

Tang kuei (KH143) 5, Cnidium (KH114), hoelen (KH173), Akebia (KH190) 3, citrus (KH139) 2, Smilax (KH69) 4, forsythia (KH44), rhubarb (KH126) 1

KF9

Tang kuei and Evodia combination

温経湯

Un kei toh

106

wën jïng täng

Pinellia (KH163), Ophiopogon (KH156) 4, tang kuei (KH143) 3, Cnidium (KH114), peony (KH83), ginseng (KH150), cinnamon (KH47), gelatin (KH1), moutan (KH184), ginger (KH95), liquorice (KH34) 2, Evodia (KH60) 1

KF120

Tang kuei and gambir combination

七物降 下湯

Shichi motsu koh ka toh

46

qī wù jiàng xià täng

Tang kuei (KH143), peony (KH83), Cnidium (KH114), Rehmannia (KH75), gambir (KH137) 4, Astragalus (KH13) 3, Phellodendron (KH16) 2

KF11

Tang kuei and gardenia combination

温清飲

Un sei in

57

wën qïng yîn

Tang kuei (KH143), Rehmannia (KH75) 4, peony (KH83), Cnidium (KH114), scute (KH14) 3, gardenia (KH77) 2, Coptis (KH17), Phellodendron (KH16) 1.5

KF56

Tang kuei and gelatin combination

芎帰膠 艾湯

Kyuh ki kyoh gai toh

77

xiöng guï jiäo ài täng

Cnidium (KH114), liquorice (KH34), Artemisia (KH22) 3, tang kuei (KH143), peony (KH83) 4.5, Rehmannia (KH75) 6. Decoct the above; strain the dregs, add ass hyde gelatin (KH1) 3, return to the fire until it dissolves and drink

KF190

Tang kuei and jujube combination

当帰四 逆湯

Toh ki shi gyaku toh

n/a

däng guï sì nì täng

Tang kuei (KH143), cinnamon (KH47), peony (KH83), Akebia (KH190) 3, Asarum (KH67), liquorice (KH34) 2, jujube (KH127) 5

KF87

Tang kuei and magnolia formula

五積散

Go shaku san

63

wû jï sân

Blue Atractylodes (KH121), citrus (KH139), hoelen (KH173), Atractylodes (KH92), Pinellia (KH163), tang kuei (KH143) 2, magnolia bark (KH57), peony (KH83), Cnidium (KH114), angelica (KH168), chih-ko (KH38), Platycodon (KH36), dried ginger (KH33), cinnamon (KH47), ma huang (KH186), jujube (KH127), ginger (KH95), liquorice (KH34) 1

KF192

Tang kuei and peony formula

当帰芍 薬散

Toh ki shaku yaku san

23

däng guï sháo yào sân

Tang kuei (KH143), Cnidium (KH114) 3, peony (KH83), hoelen (KH173), Atractylodes (KH92), Alisma (KH130) 4

159

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

160

Index number

Standard English name

Kanji

Rohmaji

Japanese national formula number

Pinyin

Ingredients – standard English (see Appendix 2)

KF234

Tang kuei and Rehmannia combination

補陰湯

Ho in toh

n/a

bû yïn täng

Ginseng (KH150), peony (KH83), Rehmannia (KH35), cured Rehmannia (KH91), citrus (KH139), Achyranthes (KH59), Psoralea (KH159), Eucommia (KH147) 2, tang kuei (KH143), hoelen (KH173) 3, fennel fruit (KH5), Anemarrhena (KH135), Phellodendron (KH16), liquorice (KH34) 1

KF187

Tang kuei and Tribulus combination

当帰飲子

Toh ki in shi

86

däng guï yîn zi

Tang kuei (KH143) 5, peony (KH83), Cnidium (KH114), Tribulus (KH79), Siler (KH178) 3, Rehmannia (KH75) 4, Schizonepeta (KH46), Astragalus (KH13) 1.5, ho-shou-wu (KH26) 2, liquorice (KH34) 1

KF188

Tang kuei combination

当帰湯

Toh ki toh

102

däng guï täng (千金当帰 湯 qiān jīn dāng gūi tāng)

Tang kuei (KH143), Pinellia (KH163) 5, peony (KH83), magnolia bark (KH57), cinnamon (KH47), ginseng (KH150) 3, dried ginger (KH33), Astragalus (KH13), Zanthoxylum (KH100) 1.5, liquorice (KH34) 1

KF118

Tang kuei four combination

四物湯

Shi motsu toh

71

sì wù täng

Tang kuei (KH143), Cnidium (KH114), peony (KH83), Rehmannia (KH75) 3

KF189

Tang kuei, cinnamon and peony combination

当帰建 中湯

Toh ki ken chuh toh

123

däng guï jiàn zhöng täng

Tang kuei (KH143), cinnamon (KH47), ginger (KH95), jujube (KH127) 4, peony (KH83) 6, liquorice (KH34) 2

KF49

Tang kuei, cinnamon and peony combination plus Astragalus

帰耆建 中湯

Ki gi ken chuh toh

n/a

guï qí jiàn zhöng täng (däng guï jiàn zhöng täng jiä huáng qí)

Add Astragalus (KH13) 2 to tang kuei, cinnamon and peony combination (KF189)

KF191

Tang kuei, Evodia and ginger combination

当帰四逆 加呉茱萸 生姜湯

Toh ki shi gyaku ka go shu yu shoh kyoh toh

38

däng guï sì nì jiä wú zhü yú shëng jiäng täng

To tang kuei and jujube combination (KF190) add Evodia (KH60) 2, ginger (KH95) 4

KF39

Trichosanthes and chih-shih combination

瓜(括)呂枳 実湯

Ka ro ki jitsu toh

n/a

guä loú zhî shí täng

Tang kuei (KH143), hoelen (KH173), Fritillaria (KH153) 3, Trichosanthes seed (KH32), Platycodon (KH36), citrus (KH139), scute (KH14), ginger (KH95) 2, cardamon (KH90), gardenia (KH77), Saussurea (KH192), liquorice (KH34), chih-shih (KH39), bamboo sap (KH132) 1

KF147

Vitality combination

真武湯

Shin bu toh

30

zhën wû täng

Hoelen (KH173) 5, peony (KH83), ginger (KH95), Atractylodes (KH92) 3, aconite (KH174) 0.5

Appendix 1: Kampo Formula Index

Index number

Standard English name

Kanji

Rohmaji

Japanese national formula number

Pinyin

Ingredients – standard English (see Appendix 2)

KF205

White sesame salve

白雲膏

Haku un koh

n/a

bái yún gäo

Sesame oil (KH63) 100, white wax (KH158) 300, white lead (KH12) 300, palm oil (no standard name), mercury (KH48), camphor (no standard name) 7.5. Heat the sesame oil to evaporate any moisture and strain through cloth; while hot add palm oil, mercury and camphor; stir well until slightly hardens and the colour becomes ‘white wall’

KF7

Zanthoxylum and aconite combination

烏頭赤 石丸

U zu shaku seki gan (shaku seki shi gan)

n/a

Wū tóu chì shí wán

Zanthoxylum (KH100), kaolin (KH82) 2, unprocessed aconite (KH8) (roasted), processed aconite (KH174) (roasted), dried ginger (KH33) 1. Make fine powder, add honey (KH182) and make into balls. Each dose is 0.5, three times a day (see KF123)

KF28

Zanthoxylum combination

解急蜀 椒湯

Kai kyuh shoku shoh toh

n/a

jiê jí shü jiâo täng

Oryza (KH55) 8, Pinelia (KH163) 5, ginseng (KH150), jujube (KH127) 3, Zanthoxylum (KH100) 2, dried ginger (KH33), liquorice (KH34) 1.5, maltose (KH52) 20, aconite (KH174) 0.5

KF106

Zizyphus combination

酸棗仁湯

San soh nin toh

103

suän zâo rén täng

Zizyphus (KH72) 10, Anemarrhena (KH135), Cnidium (KH114) 3, hoelen (KH173) 5, liquorice root (KH34) 1

161

Appendix 2

KAMPO HERB INDEX This is a table translated from Kampo I Gaku, and augmented by the translators to provide a comprehensive reference system for the individual herbs. The columns list KH code numbers used throughout the text, the Japanese phonetic Rohmaji, the complex characters as used in Japan, Otsuka’s native Japanese medicine names for each ingredient, the parts used medicinally and their

preparation, the Latin and Pinyin names, an English folk name and within parentheses the standard English name according to Hsu or the authors, followed by the actions of each ingredient. The original text was limited to the Katakana spelling, the complex character, the Japanese description from the fourth column and the actions in the last column.

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Otsuka’s definition

Latin and Pinyin names

(Hsu name) and folk medicine name

Actions

KH59

Go shitsu

牛膝

The root of the inokozuchi

Achyranthis radix níu xī (huai níu xī)

(Achyranthes)

Eliminates pain by making muscles and joints healthy, robust tonic, heals by promoting menstruation

KH174

Bu shi

附子

The tuberous root stalk of torikabuto

Aconiti tuber fù zǐ

(Aconite) Tuber, processed to eliminate toxicity

Revives and stimulates, calms pain, cures ma hi, augments the metabolism, cures ketsu rei of the four limbs; this is a powerful medicine, use it with caution

KH8

U zu

烏頭

Another name for aconite, KH174

Aconiti radix wū (wù, yā) tóu (shëng fù zǐ)

(Aconite, unprocessed) Unprocessed aconite root

See KH174

KH27

Kakkoh (ka ko)

藿香

Leaves and stalks of kawamidori

Agastaches seu pogostemi, herba huò xiäng

(Agastache) Patchouli, Agastache rugosa

As a tonic to build the stomach, increases appetite and stops vomiting

KH190

Moku tsuh

木通

The woody part of akebi

Akebiae caulis mù töng

(Akebia) The climbing stem, usually cut transversely

Extinguishes inflammation, regulates urination, circulates through channels, induces lactation

KH130

Taku sha

沢瀉

The tuber of sajiomodaka

Alismatis rhizoma zé xiè

(Alisma) Water plantain rhizome

Cures thirst, stimulates urination, cures gen un

163

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

164

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Otsuka’s definition

Latin and Pinyin names

(Hsu name) and folk medicine name

Actions

KH122

Soh haku

葱白

White stalks of negi

Alii fistulosi, herba cöng bái

(Allium) Green onion, Allium fistulosum, scallion, spring onion

Induces sweating, regulates urination

KH135

Chi mo

知母

The root of hanasuge

Anemarrhenae rhizoma zhï mû

(Anemarrhena) Anemarrhena rhizoma

Luxuriates and enriches, lowers fevers, calms and pacifies

KH168

Byaku shi

白芷

A substitute for root of yoroigusa

Angelicae dahuricae radix bái zhî

(Angelica) Angelica dahurica root

Dispels pus, calms pain

KH206

Rokkaku (rotsu kaku)

鹿角

Bony growth on the skull of the shika deer and shed each year

Cervi colla or cervi degelatinatium, cornu lù jiâo

(Antler, Cervus) Deer antler

Robust tonic, revives and invigorates; use it charred

KH43

Kyoh nin

杏仁

The centre of the seed kernel of anzu

Armeniacae semen xìng rén

(Apricot seed) Kernel of Prunus armeniaca

Calms pain, heals stridor, regulates urination

KH107

Jin koh

沈香

The woody part of jinchohge, rich in resin; use the species grown in India

Aquilariae, lignum chén xiäng

(Aquilaria) Aquilaria agalolcha bark, aloeswood

Calms and pacifies

KH62

Go boh shi

牛房子

The seed grain of goboh

Arctii fructus niú bàng zî

(Arctium) Arctium fruit, great burdock

Effective at extinguishing inflammation, resolves toxins, thus used for suppurating swellings and boils and in skin disease

KH128

Dai fuku hi

大腹皮

The exterior peel of the fruit of bonroh

Arecae catechu, pericarpium dà fù pí

(Areca peel) Betel husk, Areca catechu peel

Regulates urination, principally used for oedema

KH171

Bin roh shi

檳榔子

The seed of binrohji

Arecae semen bīng láng zǐ

(Areca) Betel nut, Areca catechu peel

Aids assimilation, regulates urination, resolves toxins, drives out worms, cures ri kyuh koh jyuh diarrhoea

KH140

Ten nan shoh

天南星

The rhizome of tennansho

Arisaematis tuber tiān nán xīng

(Arisaema) Rhizome of jackin-the-pulpit; the tuber with the cork layer removed

Calms and pacifies, calms kei spasms, regulates urination

KH22

Gai yoh

艾葉

Young leaves of yomogi (mugwort)

Artemesiae folium ài yè

(Artemisia) Mugwort leaf

Effective to stop bleeding, tonic, tonifies blood

KH67

Sai shin

細辛

The root of usubasaishin

Asiasari radix xì xīn

(Asarum) Asiasarum root

Cures head pain, joint pain and blocked nose; effective at calming coughs

Appendix 2: Kampo Herb Index

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Otsuka’s definition

Latin and Pinyin names

(Hsu name) and folk medicine name

Actions

KH142

Ten mon doh

天門冬

The root of kusasugikazura

Asparagi radix tiän mén döng

(Asparagus) Chinese asparagus root steamed, from which the cork layer is removed

Luxuriates and nourishes, robust tonic, calms coughs, stops thirst

KH13

Oh gi

黄耆

Root of the Chinese species of the mame (Astragalus)

Astragali radix huáng qí

(Astragalus) Milkvetch root

As a robust tonic, enriches the skin, used to lower blood pressure

KH92

Jyutsu



The root of okera

Atractylodis macrocephalae rhizoma zhú

(Atractylodes)

Effective at building the stomach, calms pain, regulates urination. In Kampo used for symptoms of what is known as sui doku

KH169

Byaku jyutsu

白朮

The young root of the kiku family, okera

Atractylodis rhizoma bái zhú

(Atractylodes) Atractylodes, white

Regulates urination, builds the stomach

KH121

Soh jyutsu

蒼朮

The mature root of the kiku family, okera

Atractylodes lanceae rhizoma cäng zhú

(Atractylodes, blue) Atractylodes lancea rhizome thistle type

Regulates urination, calms pain

KH40

Kippi (kitsu pi)

橘皮

The charred peel of the mikan

Tachibana pericarpium jú pí (陳 皮 chén pí)

(Aurantium) Tachibana citrus peel. The standard English is misleading; use the Japanese name kippi

Used to build the stomach, calm coughs and calm vomiting

KH134

Chiku yoh

竹葉

The leaves of hachiku

Leaf of Bambusae or Phyllostachysis zhú yè (dan zhú yè)

(Bamboo leaf) Bamboo leaves

Calms coughs, lowers fevers, cleanses and cools

KH132

Chiku jyo

竹筎

The ama (flax) peel of hachiku

Bambusae caulis or Phyllostachysis caulis zhú rú

(Bamboo) Bamboo flux, the inner layer of the culm, or bamboo sap

Calms and sedates, calms coughs

KH25

Ka shi

瓜子

Seed of tohga (tohgashi)

Benincasae semen guä zî (döng guä zî)

(Benincasa) Wax-gourd seed

Used to expel pus, as is effective in regulating urination, extinguishing inflammation

KH94

Shoh hi

青皮

Dried skin of the unripe mikan fruit

Citri reticulatae viride, pericarpium qïng pí

(Blue citrus) Immature or green tangerine peel

Builds stomach, calms coughs, additionally can be used for swellings

KH154

Haku gai shi

白芥子

The seed of the aburana species of shirogarashi

Sinapsis albae, semen bái jiè zǐ

(Brassica) White mustard seed

Builds stomach, calms cough, eliminates tan

KH21

Kai shi

芥子

Seeds of the karashina (mustard)

Sinapsis (albae) semen jiè zî

(Brassica, karashina) Mustard seed

A tonic to build the stomach internally; externally used as a poultice

165

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

166

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Otsuka’s definition

Latin and Pinyin names

(Hsu name) and folk medicine name

Actions

KH117

Sen so

蟾酥

Secretions from the sebaceous glands of the hikigaeru toad

Bufonis secretio chán sü

(Bufo) Dried skin secretions of the toad, Bufo vulgaris

Strengthens the heart, effective externally as a local anaesthetic

KH66

Sai ko

柴胡

The root of mishimasaiko

Bupleuri radix chái hú

(Bupleurum) Bupleurum root

Regulates the function of the organ of the liver, resolves toxins, lowers fevers, calms and pacifies

KH4

In chin koh

茵蔯蒿

The stem and fruit of kawarayomogi (artisemia)

Artemesiae capillari spica yīn chén hāo

(Capillaris) Artemisia capillaris spike

Stops thirst, increases urination, treats jaundice

KH90

Shuku sha

縮砂

The pit of the East Indian shohga ginger fruits

Amomi semen sūo shā (shä rén)

(Cardamon) Amomum seed

Effective at building the stomach, calms pain. Beware of useless substitutes

KH53

Koh ka

紅花

Petals of benibana

Carthami flos hóng huä

(Carthamus) Safflower flower, the tuberous flower

Effective in cleansing and purifying the liquid blood; used for women’s diseases

KH49

Ketsu mei shi

決明子

Seed of the ebisuguasa

Cassiae torae semen jué míng zî

(Cassia seeds) Foetid Cassia seeds

Robust tonic, relaxes the intestine; often used in eye disease

KH191

Moku ka

木瓜

Seed of the fruit of karin

Chaenomelis lagenariae, fructus mù guä

(Chaenomelis) Quince fruit

Cures muscle koh ren spasms, regulates urination, used for beriberi and rheumatism

KH19

Oh hi

桜皮

Bark of the sakura (cherry tree)

Pruni jamasakura, cortex (Japanese) yīng pí

(Cherry bark) Often replaces boku soku (KH197), as in KF129

Used in skin conditions such as eczema, hives, rashes; stops diarrhoea

KH42

Kyoh katsu

羗活

The rhizome and young root of the udo

Notopterygii rhizome qiäng huó

(Chianghuo) The young root

Induces sweating, calms pain

KH38

Ki koku

枳殻

The skin of a type of mikan or natsumikan

Citri seu ponciri fructus zhî ké (zhî qiào)

(Chih-ko) Bitter orange fruit

Use as ki jitsu

KH39

Ki jitsu

枳実

In Japan use the unripe fruit of the daidai or of the mikan

Aurantii fructus immaturus zhî shí

(Chih-shih) Immature fruit of orange or bitter orange

Builds the stomach, quietens pain, cures swollen abdomen

KH37

Kiku ka

菊花

The edible yellow part of the kiku flower

Chrysanthemi flos jú huä

(Chrysanthemum)

Heals by calming and pacifying, used for various eye diseases and for head pain

KH118

Sen tai (zen tai)

蝉退

The cast-off skin (nukegara) of the cicada (semi)

Cicadae periostracum chán tuì

(Cicada) The abandoned skin of the larva

Effective to resolve toxins; principally used in skin disease and swellings

Appendix 2: Kampo Herb Index

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Otsuka’s definition

Latin and Pinyin names

(Hsu name) and folk medicine name

Actions

KH99

Shoh ma

升麻

The root stalk of sarashinashohma

Cimicifugae rhizoma shëng má

(Cimicifuga) Cimicifuga rhizome, skunk bugbane

Resolves toxins, calms pain, especially useful for diseases inside the mouth

KH47

Kei shi

桂枝

Bark of the twig of the south China species of the kusunoki

Cinnamomi cortex guì zhï

(Cinnamon) Cinnamon twig bark

Robust tonic, revives and invigorates, calms pain, builds the stomach, adjusts the intestine

KH139

Chin pi

陳皮

The skin of the ripe mikan

Aurantii noblis pericarpium chén pí

(Citrus) Chin pi, tangerine peel, unshui peel

Rebuilds the stomach, calms coughs, calms nausea

KH3

I rei sen

威霊仙

Root of the tetsusen (clematis) species

Clematidis radix wëi líng xiän

(Clematis) Clematis root

Heals nerve pain and the pain of rheumatism, regulates urination

KH136

Choh koh

丁香

The flower pod of chohji

Caryophylli flos dïng xiäng

(Clove) Clove floral bud

Builds the stomach, revives and invigorates

KH86

Jya jyoh shi

蛇床子

The fruit seed of the Chinese okazeri. Japanese yabujirami fruit seed cannot be a substitute

Cnidii fructus shé chuáng zî

(Cnidium fruit) Cnidium monnieri fruit

As an astringent, a tonic to extinguish inflammation

KH114

Sen kyuh

川芎

The root stalk of senkyuh

Cnidii rhizoma chuän xiöng

(Cnidium)

Effective to replenish blood, robust tonic, calms and pacifies

KH88

Sha chuh

しゃ 虫

The female satsumagokiburi

Opisthoplatia orientalis tû bië chóng

(Cockroach, female) Female cockroach; suggested modern writings are: 蜃虫; 土鳖虫;蜚蠊

Effective at eliminating oketsuo ketsu, KD160, often rolled into pills

KH195

Yoku i nin

薏苡仁

Grain of hatomugi

Coicis semen yì yî rén

(Coix) Seed of Job’s tears, pearl barley

Regulates urination, extinguishes inflammation, calms pain, dispels pus, cures warty growths

KH131

Tan ban

胆礬

Chalcanthitum CuSO4 5H2O

Ferrous sulfate dǎn fán

(Copper sulphate) Blue vitriol, copper sulphate

Astringent, induces vomiting; principally used in external preparations

KH17

Oh ren

黄連

The rhizome of ohren (Coptis)

Coptidis rhizoma huáng lián

(Coptis) Mishimi bitter

Quietens and pacifies, heals by extinguishing inflammation, stops bleeding, strengthens stomach

167

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

168

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Otsuka’s definition

Latin and Pinyin names

(Hsu name) and folk medicine name

Actions

KH70

San shu yu

山茱萸

Seeds and fruit of sanshuyu dogwood

Corni fructus shän zhü yú

(Cornus) Dogwood fruit

Heals the sei (spirit or jing), cures aching pain and datsu ryoku in the lower back

KH10

En go saku

延胡索

The tuber engosaku (Corydalis)

Corydalis tuber yán hú suô

(Corydalis)

Effective for abdominal pain, especially abdominal pain in women’s diseases and menstruation

KH160

Ha zu

巴豆

Pit of hazu

Croton tiglium bä dòu

(Croton) A member of the Euphorbiacae family

Bitter purgative effective at inducing vomiting

KH6

U kon

宇金

Root stalk of ukon (Curcuma)

Curcumae tuber yù jïn

(Curcuma) Turmeric tuber

Effective in healing inflammatory conditions, primarily used in skin disease

KH54

Koh bu shi

香附子

Tuber of hamasuge

Cyperi rhizome xiāng fù zǐ (xiäng fù)

(Cyperus) Cyperus rhizome

Used in shin kei shoh, irregular menstruation, head pain

KH183

Ho koh ei

蒲公英

Root of tanpopo

Taraxaci mongolici cum radice, herba pú göng yïng

(Dandelion)

Builds stomach, regulates urination, induces lactation

KH113

Sekkoku

石斛

A species of ran, the whole plant of sekkoku

Dendrobii, herba shí hú

(Dendrobium) Dendrobium stem

Resolves fevers, calms pain, robust tonic

KH101

Shoku shitsu

蜀漆

The leaf stalk of the jikuroa of the Chinese yukinoshita family

Dichroae folium shû qï

(Dichroa)

Resolves fevers, used to induce vomiting

KH73

San yaku

山薬

The root of the yama no imo (yam)

Dioscoreae rhizome shän yào

(Dioscorea) Dioscorea rhizome, Chinese yam

Robust tonic, strengthens the sei (spirit or jing), calms and pacifies, effective at lowering fevers, stops diarrhoea

KH105

Jyo yo

薯蕷

Same as san yaku, KH73

Dioscoreae rhizome shǔ yù

(Dioscorea) Toro ro, grated yam.

See san yaku, KH73

KH176

Hen zu

扁豆

A species of mame bean, the fujimame

Dolichoris lablab, semen biǎn dòu (bái biǎn dòu)

(Dolichos) Hyacinth bean

Rebuilds the stomach, adjusts the intestine, resolves toxins

KH199

Ryuh kotsu

竜骨

In ancient times, the fossilized bone of large mammals

Fossilia ossis mastodi lóng gû

(Dragonbone) Fossilized bone extremities, now mostly calcium carbonate

Good for insomnia, rapid progressing shin ki, KD399, abnormal stimulation or agitation

KH148

Dokkatsu (dotsu katsu)

独活

The bark of the mature root of shishiudo or udo

Aralia cordatae rhizome dú huó

(Du huo) Aralia rhizome, mature root

Induces sweating, calms pain, used to resolve toxins

Appendix 2: Kampo Herb Index

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Otsuka’s definition

Latin and Pinyin names

(Hsu name) and folk medicine name

Actions

KH15

Oh do

黄土

Roasted kamado earth

Terra flava usta huáng tǔ (fu long gan)

(Earth, roasted) Roasted yellow earth, fu-lung-kan, KH172

Stops vomiting, heals bleeding, regulates urination

KH170

Bi wa yoh

枇杷葉

Leaf of biwa

Eriobotryae folium pí pa yè

(Eriobotrya) Loquat leaf

Calms coughs, calms vomiting, lowers fevers, stops thirst

KH103

Shin kai

津蟹

Whole body of the mokuzugani

Eriocheir japonicus jīn xiè

(Eriocheir) Whole body of the Japanese mitten crab, Eriocheir japonicus

As a robust tonic dispels pus, promotes granulation (wound healing). Use charred

KH147

To chuh

杜仲

The bark of tochuh

Eucommiae cortex dù zhòng

(Eucommia) Gutta-percha tree

Robust tonic, calms pain, used to lower blood pressure

KH60

Go shu yu

呉茱萸

The fruit seed of the goshuyu

Evodiae fructus wú zhü yú

(Evodia)

Tonic to rebuild the stomach, stops vomiting, cures head pain, cures jyoh shoh of ki

KH5

Ui kyoh

茴香

Seed or fruit of uikyoh (fennel)

Foeniculi fructus húi xiāng

(Fennel) Seeds or fruit of fennel

Cures sen pain due to gas, by acting to build the stomach and regulate intestine

KH204

Ren gyoh

連翹

Fruit of the rengyoh forsythia

Forsythiae fructus lián qiào

(Forsythia) The fruit of Forsythia suspensa, weeping golden bell

Extinguishes inflammation, regulates urination, dispels pus, resolves toxins

KH153

Bai mo

貝母

Scales from the bulb of amigasayuri

Fritillariae bulbus bèi mû

(Fritillaria) The bulb of the snake head lily

Eliminates tan, KD461, calms coughs, dispels pus

KH172

Buku ryuh kan

伏龍肝

Alternative name for oh do

Terra flava usta fú lóng gān

(Fu-lung-kan)

Another name for oh do, KH15

KH201

Ryoh kyoh

良姜

Rhizome of the Chinese shohga

Alpiniae officinari rhizome liáng jiäng (gäo liáng jiäng)

(Galanga) Wild ginger

Builds the stomach

KH193

Yuh tan

熊胆

Dried gallbladder of the kuma

Ursi fel xióng dân

(Gallbladder, bear) The gallbladder of a bear

Calms kei, spasms, KD189, strengthens the heart, resolves toxins, builds the stomach, increases the secretions of the gallbladder

KH61

Go oh

牛黄

A solidified growth in the gallbladder of an ox

Bovis calculus niú huáng

(Gallstone, ox) Oxen gallbladder stone

Effective to calm and pacify, resolve toxins, strengthen the heart

KH77

Shi shi

梔子

The fruit of the kuchinashi gardenia

Gardeniae fructus zhï zî

(Gardenia) Fruit of the Gardenia jasminoides

Effective at extinguishing inflammation, regulates urination, calms pain, calms and pacifies, stops bleeding

169

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

170

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Otsuka’s definition

Latin and Pinyin names

(Hsu name) and folk medicine name

Actions

KH141

Ten ma

天麻

The rhizome of oninoyagara

Gastrodiae tuber tiän má

(Gastrodia) The root stalk is usually steamed

Cures gen un, head pain, KD83, ma hi, KD287, and kei ren, KD189

KH1

A kyoh

阿膠

Made from the skin of the ushi (cow) or the roba (donkey) or the nikawa (glue)

Equus aninus L.

(Gelatin)

Stops bleeding, quietens coughs, robust tonic

KH106

Jin gyoh

秦ぎょ う

The original Chinese species must be used; the Japanese anemone, hahu toh oh, is not an effective substitute

Gentianae macrophyllae, radix qín jiäo

(Gentiana) Gentiana root (chin-chiu) 秦 艽 is the current writing

A tonic to lower fevers

KH200

Ryuh tan

竜胆

Root of rindoh

Gentianae scabrae radix lóng dân (lóng dân caô)

(Gentiana) The root and rhizome of Japanese gentian

Extinguishes inflammation, rebuilds the stomach

KH95

Shoh kyoh

生姜

Fresh root of shohga

Zingiberis rhizoma shëng jiäng

(Ginger) Fresh ginger rhizome

Builds the stomach, calms nausea, used for symptoms like hiccups (gyaku) and to enhance flavour

KH33

Kan kyoh

乾姜

Dried rhizome of ginger (shohga)

Zingiberis siccatum rhizoma gän jiäng

(Ginger, dried) The root stalk

Builds the stomach, calms vomiting, cures ketsu rei of the hands and feet

KH150

Nin jin

人参

Root of the chohsen ninjin

Ginseng radix rén shën

(Ginseng) Ginseng root from which the rootlets are removed, passed through hot water

Robust tonic, strengthens the sei (spirit or jing), KD361, builds stomach, luxuriates and enriches

KH133

Chiku setsu nin jin

竹節人 参

The rhizome of tochiba ninjin

Ginseng rhizome zhú jiē rén shēn

(Ginseng, stalk) The root stalk

Uses are similar to nin jin, KH150

KH120

Soh kaku shi

皀角刺

Thorn of the saikachi

Gleditsiae sinensis, spina zào jiâo cì

(Gleditsia) Chinese honeylocust fruit, Gleditsia sinensis

Used for suppurating swellings, effective to dispel pus

KH112

Sekkoh (setsu koh)

石膏

Use the natural stone, karushiumu, hydrogenated calcium

Gypsum fibrosum shí gäo

(Gypsum) Natural calcium sulphate

Calms and pacifies, extinguishes inflammation, effective to lower fevers

KH196

Ran patsu soh

乱髪霜

Charred human hair

Humana capillos luàn fà shuāng

(Hair) Charred human hair

Stops bleeding, regulates urination

KH111

Sekketsu mei

石決明

Awabi shell

Haliotidis concha shí jué míng

(Haliostis) Abalone shell, Haliostis gigantea

Robust tonic, strengthens the sei (spirit or jing), often used for eye disease

Appendix 2: Kampo Herb Index

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Otsuka’s definition

Latin and Pinyin names

(Hsu name) and folk medicine name

Actions

KH68

San za shi

山査子

The fruit seed of sanzashi

Crataegi fructus shän zhä

(Hawthorn)

Aids assimilation, cures abdominal pain, stops diarrhoea

KH129

Dai sha seki

代赭石

Natural red iron ore

Haematitum dài zhê shí

(Hematite)

Replenishes blood, used to stop bleeding, used for belching

KH173

Buku ryoh

茯苓

The fungus bukuryo

Poria cocos fú líng

(Hoelen) A subterranean fungus; the sclerotium of Poria cocos, from which the outer layer has been mostly removed

Robust tonic, calms and pacifies, regulates urination, adjusts misdistribution of body fluids

KH182

Hoh mitsu

蜂蜜

The honey of the mitsubachi

Cera flava fēng mì

(Honey) Bee honey and comb

Robust tonic, relaxes and harmonizes

KH203

Rei yoh kaku

羚羊角

Horn of the hoshikamoshika, substitute for kamoshika horn

Antelopis, cornu líng yáng jiâo

(Horn, antelope) Antelope horn

Lowers fevers, calms and pacifies

KH65

Sai kaku

犀角

The horn of the sai

Rhinoceri, cornu xï jiâo

(Horn, rhinoceros) Rhinoceros horn

Clears toxins, stops bleeding, calms and pacifies, lowers fevers

KH207

Ro hoh boh

露蜂房

The hachi of the suzumebachi, soaked in rain and dew

Vespae nidus Lù (lòu) fēng fáng (fëng fáng)

(Hornet nest) Nest of the hornet

Resolves toxins, calms pain, extinguishes inflammation, strengthens the sei (spirit or jing), promotes lactation

KH181

Boh chuh

虻虫

Kiiroabu

Kiiroabu tabanus sp., with legs and wings removed méng chóng

(Horsefly) Yellow horsefly or gadfly

Activates oketsuo; remove the feet and the wings, and use as ingredient in pills

KH26

Ka shu u

何首烏

The root tuber of tsuru dokudami

Polygoni multiflori radix hé shǒu wū

(Ho-shou-wu) Chinese cornbind or knotweed, Polygonum

Effective as a robust tonic; tonic for the sei, KD361 (spirit or jing)

KH89

Jyuh sai

蕺菜

Whole plant of the dokudami

Houttuyniae cordatae, herba cum radice jí cài (yú xïng câo)

(Houttuynia)

Used to extinguish inflammation, resolves toxins, regulates urination, lowers blood pressure; used externally in skin disease

KH119

Sen puku ka

旋覆花

The flower of the oguruma species of kiku

Inulae, flos xuán fù huä

(Inula) The flower of the spiritual chrysanthemum

Rebuilds the stomach, calms coughs, calms pain

171

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

172

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Otsuka’s definition

Latin and Pinyin names

(Hsu name) and folk medicine name

Actions

KH109

Shin sha

鍼砂

Iron filings, yasuri

Ferrous metal shëng tié luò

(Iron filings) Shinya, small pieces of iron that resemble powder

Calms and sedates, replenishes blood; a robust tonic

KH202

Ryoku ban

緑礬

Vitriolum coeruleum, ferrous sulphate, FeSO4

Ferrous sulfate lǜ fán

(Iron sulphate) FeSO4

Astringent, replenishes blood, used for duodenal worm (hookworm)

KH127

Tai soh

大棗

The natsume fruit

Zizyphi fructus dà zâo

(Jujube) Fruit of the jujube date

A pacifying robust tonic to regulate urination, effective at calming coughs, calms pain. See KH72

KH144

Toh shin soh

燈心草

The whole grass of a species of igusa

Junci effusi, medulla dëng xïn câo

(Juncus) Rush pith

Regulates urination

KH82

Shaku seki shi

赤石脂

Oxidized iron mixed with potter’s clay (porcelain)

Halloysitum rubrum chì shí zhï

(Kaolin) Kaolin or halloysite, contains iron oxide ‒ hence its name 'red earth'

Used as an astringent to cure bleeding and stop diarrhoea

KH149

Ton shi

豚脂

The fat of buta

Adeps suillus tún zhī

(Lard) The fat obtained from the pig

Used as a base in ointments

KH12

En paku

鉛白

Fundamental carbonated lead

Plumbum carbo qiān bái

(Lead, white) A naturally occurring and complex salt, charcoal-based lead carbonate

Used externally for skin disease, expels worms

KH110

Sui shitsu

水蛭

Dried and fried hiru

Hirudo seu whitmaniae shuî zhì

(Leech)

To activate oketsu, thus used to liquefy blood clots

KH58

Koh hon

蒿本

The rhizome of kasamochi

Ligustici sinensis, rhizoma et radix gâo bên

(Ligusticum) Chinese lovage root stalk

Cures head pain, stops diarrhoea, eliminates gas inside the stomach and intestine

KH167

Byaku goh

百合

The bulb of sasayuri, a species of yuri

Lillii bulbus bâi hé

(Lily) The lily bulb, usually steamed

Luxuriating, nourishing robust tonic, calms coughs and eliminates tan

KH9

U yaku

烏薬

The root of a Chinese species of kusunoki

Linderae radix wü yào

(Lindera) Chinese allspice root

The fragrance builds the stomach, regulates the intestine, calms pain

KH187

Ma shi nin

麻子仁

Seeds of asa

Cannabis fructus má zǐ rén (huô má rén)

(Linum) Hemp seed, the fruit of cannabis

Relaxes the bowels

KH34

Kan zoh

甘草

Root of liquorice (kanzoh)

Glycyrrhizae radix gän câo

(Liquorice root) Used roasted as sha kanzo, baked liquorice

Calms pain, resolves toxins; used to relax, harmonize and connect. Also used as a flavour enhancer

Appendix 2: Kampo Herb Index

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Otsuka’s definition

Latin and Pinyin names

(Hsu name) and folk medicine name

Actions

KH74

Shi kon

紫根

The root of murasaki

Lithospermi radix zî gēn (zî câo)

(Lithospermum) Lithospermum root, purple gromwell root

Effective at resolving toxins, regulates urination; as an external medicine encourages granulation for wound healing

KH198

Ryuh gan niku

竜眼肉

Skin of the seed pod of the fruit of ryugan

Longan arillus lóng yân ròu

(Longan) The aril of the Euphoria longana

Luxuriates and nourishes, robust tonic, calms and pacifies

KH44

Kin gin ka

金銀花

Flower of the suikazura

Lonicera japonica jïn yín huä

(Lonicera flower) Honeysuckle flower. Take care to distinguish from KH151

Heals by resolving toxins used for boils and swellings

KH151

Nin doh

忍冬

The whole stem of the suikazura

Lonicerae folium cum caulis rên döng (rên döng téng)

(Lonicera) Lonicera japonica, honeysuckle leaf and stem. Take care to distinguish from KH44

Resolves toxins, regulates urination, used for patients with suppurating conditions

KH205

Ren niku

蓮肉

Seed of the hasu

Nelumbis semen lián ròu (lián zi)

(Lotus seed)

Rebuilds stomach, adjusts intestine

KH76

Ji kotsu pi (koppi)

地骨皮

The peel of the kuko root

Lycii cortex dì gû pí

(Lycium) Lycium bark, wolfberry bark

Lowers fevers, a robust tonic, strengthens the sei (spirit or jing)

KH186

Ma oh

麻黄

The part of maoh above ground

Ephedra herba má huáng

(Ma huang) The terrestrial stem of Ephedra

Induces sweating, regulates urination, cures asthma, calms pain

KH102

Shin i

辛夷

The flower heads and pods of kobushi

Magnoliae flos xīn yí (xïn yi huā)

(Magnolia flower) Magnolia floral bud, Magnolia flos; contrast to KH57, Magnolia cortex

Used for inflamed sinus, and for other nasal diseases

KH57

Koh bo ku

厚朴

In Japan use the bark of the ho ho no ki

Magnoliae cortex hòu pò

(Magnolia) The bark; distinguish from KH102, the magnolia flower bud

Brightens ki bun, heals muscle kei ren

KH155

Baku ge (baku ga)

麦芽

The malt (moyashi) of wheat (ohmugi)

Hordei fructus germinatus mài yá

(Malt) The germinating seed

Used to aid assimilation and to luxuriate and nourish. See also KH104, KH52 and KH98

KH52

Koh i

膠飴

Sweet (ame) made from germinating rice or from fermenting wheatgerm

Saccharum granorum jiao yi (yí táng)

(Maltose) Malt sugar made from the seed of oryzae and wheat, plus malt

Luxuriates and nourishes; a robust tonic. See also KH104, KH155 and KH98

173

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

174

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Otsuka’s definition

Latin and Pinyin names

(Hsu name) and folk medicine name

Actions

KH115

Sen ren shi

川棟子

Fruit of the sendan

Meliae toosendan, fructus chuän liàn zî

(Melia) Fruit of Sichuan pagoda tree; Melia azedarach

Effective to calm pain, in particular sen tsu, KD191

KH30

Ka tei

瓜蒂

The stem and calyx (heta) of makuwauri

Pedicellus cucumeris güa dì

(Melon pedicle)

Induces vomiting

KH161

Hakka (hatsu ka)

薄荷

Leaf of hakka

Menthae herba bò hé

(Mentha) The terrestrial part of the Mentha arvenis; field mint

Cleanses and cools, builds the stomach, cures head pain

KH48

Kei fun

軽粉

Steamed kankoh, sweet mercury

Mercury (Hg) qīng fěn

(Mercury, calomel) Mercury chloride, water-soluble mercury

Used to treat bai doku (syphilis), in prescriptions for powders and pills. See cinnabar, KH108

KH108

Shin sha

辰砂

Natural sulphurized red mercury

Cinnabaris (HgS) chén shā

(Mercury, cinnabar) A naturally occurring red ore of mercury

Extinguishes inflammation, calms and pacifies; used in insomnia. See mercury, calomel, KH48

KH180

Boh shoh

芒硝

The salts of natoriumu

Natrii sulfus máng xiäo

(Mirabilitum) Glauber’s salts

Empties the bowels, regulates urination

KH97

Shoh seki

消石

The stone kariumu

Acidum nitricum xiāo shí

(Mirabilitum) This is boh shoh in the Divine Farmer’s Compendium but later considered as KNO3, Mirabilitum; we use the Japanese name shoh seki

Extinguishes inflammation, regulates urination

KH11

En so

鼴鼠

The whole body of the mogura mole, charred

Talpa yǎn shǔ

(Mole) Charred mole body, a sub-terrestrial mammal

Reduced to cinders, it is used internally as a robust tonic, revives and invigorates; benefits the onset of granulation (wound healing)

KH50

Gen go shi

牽牛子

Seed of the morning glory (asagao)

Pharbitidis semen qiän niú zî

(Morning glory)

Effective to regulate urination, clear bowels, calm pain

KH123

Soh haku hi

桑白皮

The bark of the root of kuwa

Mori cortex säng bái pí

(Morus) Mulberry root bark, Morus alba

Extinguishes inflammation, regulates urination, used for coughing

KH184

Bo tan pi

牡丹皮

Bark of the root of botan

Moutan cortex mû dän pí

(Moutan) The root bark, of the tree peony

Extinguishes inflammation, used to activate oketsuo ketsu and calm pain

Appendix 2: Kampo Herb Index

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Otsuka’s definition

Latin and Pinyin names

(Hsu name) and folk medicine name

Actions

KH7

U bai

烏梅

Smoked, dry fruits of green ume (plum)

Pruni mume fructus wü méi

(Mume) Unripe green plum

Cures stomach pain, vomiting and han so, KD99, due to worms

KH84

Jya koh

麝香

The musk secretions of jyakohjika

Moschus moschiferi secretio shè xiäng

(Musk) Musk deer secretions

Effective at calming and pacifying, calms kei (cramps), resolves toxins, strengthens the heart

KH194

Yoh bai hi

楊梅皮

Cortex of the yamamomo species

Myricae cortex yáng méi pí

(Myrica) Mountain peach cortex, yamamomo

Astringent, stops bleeding

KH156

Baku mon doh

麦門冬

The tuber of jyanohige

Ophiopogonis tuber mài mén döng

(Ophiopogon) The enlarged part of the root of the dwarf lily turf

Luxuriating and enriching, eliminates tan, calms coughs

KH55

Koh bei

粳米

Unpolished genmai rice (uruchimai)

Oryzae semen jīng mǐ

(Oryza) Oryza seed, brown rice, kome, with the hulls removed

Effective to luxuriate and nourish, cleanse and cool

KH185

Bo rei

牡蠣

Shell, husk of the kaki

Ostreae testa mû lì

(Oyster shell)

Calms pain, robust tonic, builds the stomach, astringent

KH93

Shu ro yoh

棕梠葉

The shuro leaf

Trachycarpus excelsus zōng lǚ yè

(Palm leaf)

A tonic to promote urination; used in cerebral haemorrhage and in symptoms of high blood pressure

KH83

Shaku yaku

芍薬

The root of the shakuyaku

Paeoniae radix sháo yào (bái sháo)

(Peony) White peony root

Relaxes and regulates muscle ken cho, eliminates utsu ketsu, cures abdominal pain and diarrhoea

KH124

So shi

蘇子

The seeds of shiso

Perillae frutescentis, fructus sü zi (zî sü zî)

(Perilla seed) Purple Perilla fruit. See KH78, KH125

In a mild way revives and invigorates; effective to induce sweating, calms coughing, regulates urination

KH125

So yoh

蘇葉

The leaf of shiso

Perillae herba sü yè (zî sü yè)

(Perilla) Perilla herb leaf. See shi so, KH78

Benefits the flow of ki, regulates urination, effective at inducing sweating, calms coughs

KH78

Shi so

紫蘇 (葉)

Another name for so yoh (蘇葉)

Perillae frutescentis folium zî sü yè

(Perilla, shi so) Leaf of the beefsteak plant

Same as so yoh, KH125

175

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

176

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Otsuka’s definition

Latin and Pinyin names

(Hsu name) and folk medicine name

Actions

KH145

Toh nin

桃仁

The seed of the momo

Persicae semen táo rén

(Persica) Peach kernel

By activating oketsuo, calms pain, relaxes the bowel

KH80

Shi tei

柿蒂

The heta of kaki

Diospyros kaki calyx shì dì

(Persimmon) Persimmon calyx

Effective at treating gyaku, KD55, hiccups, vomiting and belching

KH116

Zen ko

前胡

The root of nodake

Peucedani radix qián hú

(Peucedanum) Common hog fennel, Peucedanum root

Lowers fevers, calms coughs, eliminates tan

KH81

Shaku shoh zu

赤小豆

The azuki bean

Phaseoli calcarati semen chì xiâo dòu

(Phaseoli) Adzuki bean

Effective at resolving toxins; regulates urination; relaxes the bowel; used to dispel pus

KH16

Oh baku

黄柏

Bark of kiwada (Phellodendron)

Phellodendri cortex huáng bâi

(Phellodendron) Amur cork tree bark

Heals through strengthening the stomach, regulating the intestine and extinguishing inflammation. Can be used internally or externally

KH56

Ko oh ren

胡黄連

The root of the Chinese-grown gomanohagusa

Picrorhizae root hú huáng lián

(Picrorhiza)

Extinguishes inflammation, resolves fevers, builds the stomach

KH163

Han ge

半夏

Tuber of the karasubishaku

Pinelliae ternate tuber bàn xià

(Pinellia) The tuber from which the cork layer is removed

Calms nausea, calms vomiting, eliminates tan, regulates urination and cures jyoh shoh, KD155 (upward movement)

KH87

Sha zen shi

車前子

Seeds of the ohbako

Plantaginis semen chë qián zî

(Plantago) Plantain seed

A tonic to extinguish inflammation, regulates urination, used for eye disease and bladder infections

KH36

Ki kyoh

桔梗

The root of kikyoh

Platycodi radix jié gêng

(Platycodon) The root of bell flower, balloon flower

Used to eliminate tan and dispel pus, especially useful for pain in the throat

KH20

On ji

遠志

Root of itohimehagi

Polygalae radix yuân zhì

(Polygala) Root of Chinese senega, thin leaf milk-wort

Quietens and pacifies; a robust tonic for the nerves

KH138

Cho rei

猪苓

The fungus chorei maitake

Polyporus zhü líng

(Polyporus) Or fu ling, chuling; the sclerotium of polyporus

Regulates urination, effective to lower fevers as well as curing thirst

Appendix 2: Kampo Herb Index

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Otsuka’s definition

Latin and Pinyin names

(Hsu name) and folk medicine name

Actions

KH23

Ka go soh

夏枯草

Leaves of utsubogusa

Prunellae vulgaris, spica xià kü câo

(Prunella) The spike of heal-all

Used in rin riki and similar swellings; effective in extinguishing inflammation, regulates urination

KH159

Ha ko shi

破胡紙

Pit of orandabiyu

Psoralea coryliflolia pò hú zhǐ (bû gû zhï)

(Psoralea) Psoralea coryliflolia

Strengthens the sei (spirit or jing), used in back pain and for impotence, 陰 萎, yin i

KH28

kakkon (ka kon)

葛根

Root of kuzu

Puerariae radix gé gën

(Pueraria) Common kudzu root, arrowroot

Effective for reducing head and neck stiffness by inducing sweating and regulating fevers

KH157

Haku toh oh

白頭翁

Root of the okinagusa

Pulsatillae chinensis, radix bái tóu wëng

(Pulsatilla) Chinese anemone root

Extinguishes inflammation, astringent, stops thirst, stops bleeding

KH179

Boku soku

樸樕

The cortex of kunugi, nara, kashi or similar

Quercus cortex pú (pǔ) sù

(Quercus) Quercus bark or allied plants; oh hi, KH19, can be substituted

Resolves toxins, extinguishes inflammation; used for suppurating swellings and skin disease

KH75

Ji oh

地黄

Root stalk of the akayajioh

Rehmanniae radix dì huáng

(Rehmannia) Rehmannia root can be raw, steamed or cured; see KH35, KH91

Effective as a robust tonic, strengthens the sei, KD361 (spirit or jing), replenishes the blood, calms pain

KH35

Kan ji oh

乾地黄

Dried root stalk of Rehmannia (jioh)

Rehmanniae glutinosae radix qián (gān) dì huáng

(Rehmannia, cooked) Processed Rehmannia root

The same as ji oh

KH91

Jyuku ji oh

熟地黄

The root of ji oh steamed and then dried

Rehmanniae glutinosae conquitae, radix shú dì huáng

(Rehmannia, cured) Cured/ prepared, Chinese foxglove root

The same as ji oh

KH96

Shoh shi

松脂

Matsu pine sap

A conifer of the genus pinus sōng zhī

(Resin, pine) Pine resin

Extinguishes inflammation; principally used as a plaster

KH126

Dai oh

大黄

The root stalk of the Chinese tade

Rhei rhizoma dà huáng

(Rhubarb) Rhubarb rhizome

A purgative which induces an action to extinguish inflammation

KH197

Ri kon hi

李根皮

Bark of root of the sumomo, a species of bara

Rosea lǐ gēn pí

(Rose root bark) Bark peel of a rose species; damson plum

Extinguishes inflammation, calms and sedates

177

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

178

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Otsuka’s definition

Latin and Pinyin names

(Hsu name) and folk medicine name

Actions

KH192

Mokkoh (motsu koh)

木香

Root of an East Indian species of kiku

Saussureae radix mù xiäng

(Saussurea) Costus root

Benefits the circulation of ki, aids assimilation to stop diarrhoea

KH64

Go mi shi

五味子

The fruit of chohsengomishi

Schisandrae fructus wû wèi zî

(Schisandra) Schisandra fruit

Strengthens the sei, HD361, spirit essence; as a robust tonic calms coughs

KH46

Kei gai

荊芥

The grain from the flower head of the aritasoh nepeta, catnip, a species of shiso

Schizonepetae spica jïng jiè

(Schizonepeta) Japanese catnip spike

Effective in inducing sweating, lowers fevers, resolves toxins

KH51

Gen jin

玄参

Root of the gomanohagusa

Scrophulariae ningpoenensis radix xuán shën

(Scrophularia) Figwort root, Scrophularia ningpo

Used to clear inflammation, often for eye disease or swellings

KH14

Oh gon

黄芩

Root of koganebana (scute)

Scutellariae radix huáng qín

(Scute) Skullcap root, Scutellaria baikalensis

Stops inflammatory conditions and heals by relieving hyperaemia, especially useful in inflammation of gastrointestinal mucosa

KH85

Sha ko sai

鷓胡菜

The whole plant of makuri

Caloglossa leprieurii (mont.) J. Agardh (Japanese source) zhè hú cài

(Seaweed) Digenea simplex

Effective at expelling roundworms. See also KH24

KH24

Kai nin soh

海人草

Another name for shakosai

Caloglossa leprieurii (mont.) J. Agardh (Japanese source) hǎi rén cǎo

(Seaweed, Digenea) A kind of sea vegetable

See shakosai, KH85

KH63

Go ma

胡麻

The seed of goma

Sesami semen hú má (hú má zǐ)

(Sesame) Sesame seed or the oil from the pressed seed

Luxuriates and nourishes, a robust tonic

KH41

Ki ban

亀板

The shell of ishigame

Testudinis plastrum guï bân

(Shell, tortoise) Land tortoise

Builds blood, a robust tonic

KH175

Bekkoh (betsu kyoh)

別甲

The back shell of the suppon

Amydae sinensis, carapax bië jiâ

(Shell, turtle) Chinese soft-shell turtle shell (dorsal aspect)

Robust tonic, lowers fevers

KH104

Shin kiku

神麹

Rice bran

Massa fermentata shén qü

(Shen qu) Medicated leaven

Aids assimilation. See also KH155, KH52, KH98

KH178

Boh fuh

防風

The root of bohfuh

Saposhnikoviae radix fáng fëng

(Siler) Saposhnikovia root and rhizome, divaricate laserwort

Induces sweating, lowers fevers, resolves toxins, calms pain

Appendix 2: Kampo Herb Index

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Otsuka’s definition

Latin and Pinyin names

(Hsu name) and folk medicine name

Actions

KH166

Byakkyoh zan (byatsu kyoh/ byakkyoh)

白姜蚕

The kaiko: the dead, white stiffened body of the silkworm which died of a fungal disease

Bombyx batryticatus bái jiāng cán (jiāng cán)

(Silkworm)

Dispels pus, induces lactation, calms and pacifies, calms kei, KD188. See also KH162

KH162

Ba mei tai

馬明退

Moulted skin of the kaiko

Bombyx mori, domesticated silk moth mǎ míng tùi

(Silkworm, moulted) Moulted skin of the kaiko silkworm

Resolves toxins. See KH166

KH146

Do buku ryoh

土茯苓

The rhizome of sarutoriibara

Smilacis glabrae, rhizoma tû fú líng

(Smilax) Glabrous greenbrier rhizome

Used in the treatment of syphilis. See KH69

KH69

San ki rai

山帰来

Another name for do buku ryoh

Smilacis glabrae, rhizoma tû fú líng

(Smilax, san ki) Glabrous greenbrier rhizome

Same as KD146

KH71

San zu kon

山豆根

The root of koma tsunagi or substitute miyamatobera

Sophorae subprostatae radix shän dòu gën

(Sophora) Sophora root

Cures throat pain; additionally used internally as a gargle

KH45

Ku jin

苦参

The root of the kurara

Sophorae flavescens radix kû shën

(Sophora, ku shen) The root of this legume

Effective in extinguishing inflammation, regulates urination, heals jaundice, used in skin disease and swellings

KH177

Boh i

防已

The root of ohtsuzurafuji

Sinomeni caulis et rhizoma fáng yǐ (han fáng yǐ)

(Stephania) The climbing stem or rhizome, now a substitute for moku bo i

Regulates urination, calms pain, used for oedema, inflamed joints, shin kei tsuh and neuralgic pain, KD398

KH2

I oh

硫黄

Natural sulphur

Sulphur liú huáng

(Sulphur)

Used to relax the lower body, used externally for skin disease

KH29

Katsu seki (kasseki)

滑石

Talc or magnesium silicate, in natural state

Talcum crystallinum (kadinum) huá shí

(Talc)

Smoothes the flow and regulates urination; used for bladder and urethra dysfunction

KH143

Toh ki

当帰

The root of the tohki

Angelicae radix däng guï

(Tang kuei) Alternatively, tang gui, Japanese angelica root usually passed through hot water

Replenishes blood, calms pain, robust tonic

KH152

Hai shoh

敗醤

The root of ominaeshi or of otokoeshi

Ominaeshi: Patrinia scabios folia, or Otokoeshi: Patrinia villosa bài jiàng

(Thalaspi; may be a misprint of thiaspi) Patrinia scabiosaefolia, of the valerian family

Extinguishes inflammation, dispels pus, regulates urination

179

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

180

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Otsuka’s definition

Latin and Pinyin names

(Hsu name) and folk medicine name

Actions

KH165

Hi shi

榧子

The kaya seed

Torreyae grandis, semen fêi zî

(Torreya)

Destroys worms

KH79

Shitsu ri shi

疾梨子

Fruit of hamabishi

Tribuli fructus jí lí zǐ (bai jí lí)

(Tribulus) Tribulus fruit

Effective at activating oketsuo ketsu and regulating urination; used for skin and eye diseases

KH32

Ka roh jitsu

瓜呂実

Seed of the kikarasuuri (Trichosanthes)

Trichosanthis fructus guā lǚ shí

(Trichosanthes seed) Koronin; also written as ka rō nin referencing the seed

Effective to calm coughing, eliminates tan, calms pain

KH31

Ka roh kon

瓜呂根

Root of the kikarasuuri (Trichosanthes)

Trichosanthis radix guā lǚ shí

(Trichosanthes, root) Alternatively, korokon

Used to lower fevers; as a robust tonic cures thirst

KH137

Choh toh koh

釣藤鉤

The thorn of kakikazura

Uncariae uncis cum ramulus diào téng gōu (gòu) (göu téng)

(Uncaria) Uncaria thorn of the gambir vine. Gambir, the gum of Uncaria 阿仙薬, asenyaku, is less often used

Calms kei spasms, calms and pacifies, used for hardening of the cranial arteries and kei ren

KH164

Han bi

反鼻

Mamushi, with internal organs removed

Viperidae, venomous snake fǎn bí

(Viper) Snake from Japan or Okinawan habu, dried with its head and internal organs removed

Revives and invigorates, robust tonic, dispels pus

KH188

Man kei shi

蔓荊子

Fruit of hamagoh

Viticis, fructus màn jïng zî

(Vitex) Vitex fruit, nut or berry

Used for illnesses with head pain, especially eye disease and ear disease. Extinguishes inflammation, and aids drainage

KH189

Mitsu roh

蜜蠟

The wax from the mitsubachi comb

Cera flava huáng là

(Wax, beeswax) Wax from the honey comb, purified then bleached

Calms pain, used in ointments. See the various waxes, beeswax at KH18, and vegan wax at KH158

KH18

Oh roh

黄蠟

Another name for mitsu roh (wax from bees)

Cera flava huáng là

(Wax, flava) Yellow bee wax

Use as KH189; see the various waxes, beeswax at KH189, and vegan wax at KH158

Appendix 2: Kampo Herb Index

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Otsuka’s definition

Latin and Pinyin names

(Hsu name) and folk medicine name

Actions

KH158

Haku roh

白蠟

The roh (wax) made from the sap or fruit of the wax tree, hazenoki (Rhus succedanea), or the wax tree, urushinoki

Cera alba bái là

(Wax, vegan) Wax of tree origin from fruit, seeds or sap, among these the source of urushi glazes, and the sumac tree

Used as a base in ointments. See the various waxes, beeswax at KH189 and KH18

KH98

Shoh baku

小麦

The entire grain of komugi

Tritici semen xiâo mài (fu xiâo mài)

(Wheat) Wheat seed, wheat grain

Effective as a robust tonic, to extinguish inflammation, to calm and pacify; cures night sweats. See also KH155, KH52, KH98

KH100

Shoku shoh

蜀椒

The shell or husk of the fruit and seeds of sanshoh

Zanthoxyli fructus shǔ jiāo (chuan jiāo)

(Zanthoxylum) Zanthoxylum pepper pericarps with most of the seed removed

Cures stomach pain, extremely effective to dispel gas, expels roundworms

KH72

San soh nin

酸棗仁

The pit of the sanebutonatsume

Zizyphi spinosi semen suän zâo rén

(Zizyphus) Jujube date seed, Zizyphus seed

As a robust tonic for the nervous system, used for insomnia and various sleep dysfunctions; cures night sweats. See KH127

181

Appendix 3

GLOSSARY OF TERMS This is a table prepared by the translators intended for use by students of Chinese medicine in order to provide a comprehensive reference system for Kampo diagnostic terms. The first column presents the KD code number, used throughout the text, next comes the Rohmaji Japanese pronunciation, then the complex Japanese characters, the Pinyin or

Chinese pronunciation where known and a suggested translation of the term into English, followed by a short definition. This appendix represents original work by the authors from Japanese sources exclusively to facilitate the use of this text by Englishlanguage readers.

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD1

Aimi saburoh

相見三郎

xiàng jiàn sān láng

Dr Saburoh Aimi

A colleague of Dr Otsuka; for clinical work, see sections on epilepsy and bedwetting

KD2

Aogiri (go doh shi)

悟桐子

wù tóng zǐ

Seeds of Mallotus japonicus

This is used as a unit of measurement, not a herbal ingredient

KD3

Ase



hàn

Sweat

Normal sweating

KD4

Awa/zoku





Millet

The millet grain, Setaria italica, also read as zoku

KD5

Bai kaku ki

梅核気

méi hé qì

Plum stone ki

A primary ki dysfunction, cured by ki tonics

KD6

Ben myaku hoh

弁脈法

biàn mài fǎ

The Shoh Kan Ron, KD430, Pulse Rules

The pattern of pulse diagnosis discussed in the introductory chapters of the SKR, Hei myaku hoh dai ni

KD7

Bi



wēi

Faint

Barely perceptible; indistinct. Used in pulse diagnosis and other objective diagnostic patterns

KD8

Bi in

微飲

wēi yǐn

Faint fluid

A small quantity of in, pathological water; slight fluid retention. Also see tan in, KD462

KD9

Boh gen

冒眩

mào xuàn

Stupor

Stupor and dizziness; see section on headache and the section on the asking exam

KD10

Boh man

膨満

péng mǎn

Distended and inflated

This refers to a visual or tactile diagnosis; can be kyo or jitsu

KD11

Boh shin

望診

wàng zhěn

Looking

The visual exam; based on observation by the naked eye

KD12

Buku ryoh shi gyaku toh

茯苓四逆湯

fú líng sì nì tāng

Hoelen, ginger liquorice and aconite combination

Hoelen and shi gyaku combination; see the various discussions on ketsu in, KD200

183

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

184

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD13

Bun shin

聞診

wén zhěn

Listening

The auditory exam; diagnosis by means of the auditory and olfactory senses

KD14

Byoh



bìng

Disease

Distortion of normal function

KD15

Byoh doku

病毒

bìng dú

Disease toxins

An accumulation cleared by purgatives, therefore a jitsu condition

KD16

Byoh ki

病気

bìng qì

Illness

Distorted ki; illness; the byo above plus ki

KD17

Chi



chí

Slow

Slow (pulse), with a prolonged interval between beats. Refer to the examination by touch

KD18

Chi no michi shoh

血の道症

xuè dào zhèng

Chi no michi

Literally, 'the way of the blood'. This is an autonomic nervous and hormonal disorder, and not a primary blood disorder; see the section on disease patterns

KD19

Chikara ga ari/chikara no aru

力があり /力 のある

No exact Chinese translation

Strong; in the negative, lacking strength

Powerful; in the negative, powerless. This does not refer to any specialized diagnostic technique ‒ it is a qualitative assessment

KD20

Chin



shěn

Sunken

A sunken pulse, or sunken vital energy

KD21

Chin gen

沈弦

shěn xián

Deep and tight (pulses together)

See chin and gen

KD22

Choh



dīng

A boil

A type of boil: a rounded mass with a firm centre

KD23

Choh koh

潮紅

cháo hóng

Tidal red face

Ruddy-faced; a jitsu sign; see the section on the visual exam, boh shin, KD11

KD24

Choh netsu

潮熱

cháo rè

Tidal fever

Fever without chills; a sign of the yoh mei; see the section on the asking exam, mon shin, KD288

KD25

Chuh fuh

中風

zhōng fēng

Acute febrile disease of moderate severity

One of the evil wind conditions of the SKR, KD430, of moderate severity, between strong severity and weak severity. Not to be confused with an internal wind or apoplexy

KD26

Chuh Fuh Reki Setsu Hen

中風歴節篇

zhōng fēng lì jiē piān

Text on apoplexy plus joint stiffness

Here the chuh fuh refers to internal wind; it is said to be a cause of joint pain; not the chuh fuh above, which is a mild attack of the wind

KD27

Chuh Kei ryuh

仲景流

zhòng jǐng líu (xue pai)

Zhang Zhong Jing style

In the style ryuh, KD348, of the author of the Sho Kan Ron, KD430

KD28

Chuh ken chuh toh

中建中湯

zhōng jiàn zhōng tāng

Middle build the middle combination

Made by mixing KF64+KH100 and KH150; see section on stomach atony

KD29

Chuh shin

中心

zhōng xīn

Core

Centre and heart of one’s being; described as a base for understanding Kampo in Otsuka’s introduction (see the chapter Notes on How to Study Kampo)

Appendix 3: Glossary of Terms

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD30

Dai



dài

Irregular (pulse)

Pulse with an irregular beat; this does not denote a specific pathology

KD31

Dai





Big (pulse)

A large pulse; seek to determine the strength/weakness of the pulse

KD32

Dai ben

大便

dà biàn

Faeces

Literally, big waste; solid waste products. Compare to sho ben

KD33

Dakkan/Datsu kan

脱汗

tūo hàn (jué hàn)

Debilitating sweat

A morbid state where the sweat pours profusely without control due to collapse of in, KD200, KD201

KD34

Dan shi hei nin

男子平人

nán zǐ píng rén

The average person

Someone who does not appear to be sick, in comparison to someone who complains of debility

KD35

Darui

だるい

No exact Chinese translation

Heavy feeling

A complaint of a debilitating feeling of heaviness and weakness, usually in the lower limbs

KD36

Darukute chikara ga nai

だるくて力が ない

No exact Chinese translation

Heavy and weak

The darui (described above), combined with a lack of the strength termed as chi ka ra, KD19. Often used to describe the lower-body void of strength, and used in defining chronic illnesses

KD37

Dasshutsu

脱出

tūo chū

Ptosis of an internal organ

Half of an organ prolapse; the collapse of organ function

KD38

Datsu



tūo

Collapse

Complete depletion, for example collapse of in or of yoh

KD39

Datsu ryoku

脱力

tūo lì

Exhaustion

Collapse of strength

KD40

Doh ki

動悸

dòng jì

Pulsations

Also called do ki 動 気, these are subjectively or objectively detected pulsations. Compare with ki 悸, KD210

KD41

E byoh

壊病

huài bìng

Broken disease stage

Atypical symptoms resulting from mistreatment; described in the Shoh Kan Ron; see the section on the three in and three yoh

KD42

Edo ji dai

江戸時代

jiāng hù shí dài

Edo period, Yedo period

Historical era which began in 1603, where the capital of Japan was Tokyo (Edo); also known as the Tokugawa period, 徳川時代, Tokugawa jidai, 1603–1868. Medical historians hypothesize that the Fuku Shin, KD60, came to prominence during the Edo due to social and economic changes and changes in the way medicine was practised

KD43

Ei yoh

栄養

róng yǎng

Nourishment

A subjective view of good health, such as well nourished. This quality helps to determine kyo/jitsu

KD44

Fu





Floating (pulse)

A pulse or structure that has lost its ‘anchor’ due to pathology, and appears to float like wood on water

KD45

Fu jin (aka fu nin)

不仁

bù rén

Numbness

A tingling feeling, numbness or palsy, described as feeling as though the area does not belong; a kyo state. See KD279

185

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

186

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD46

Fu Jin Zoh Byoh Hen

婦人雑病篇

fù rén zá bìng piān

A text of various women’s diseases

Kin Ki Yoh Ryaku (Jin Gui Yao Lue), KD236, Chapter 22: The pulse, conformations, and treatment of miscellaneous gynaecological problems

KD47

Fu ri

不利

bù lì

Urine does not flow

Urinary impairment

KD48

Fu ton

蒲団

pú tuán

Futon

Japanese-style bedding, mattress

KD49

Fuh shitsu

風湿

fēng shī

Wind and damp

The evil forces of wind and damp together are used to describe rheumatism

KD50

Fuku





Hidden (pulse)

A pathologically deep pulse

KD51

Fuku bu boh man

腹部膨満

fù bù péng mǎn

Boh man

An abdomen that is bloated or distended

KD52

Fuku bu de doh ki ga koh shin

腹部で動悸が 亢進

fù bù dòng jì kàng jìn

Abdominal palpitation

A rapid increased pulsation of abdominal aorta, either seen by the physician or felt by the patient

KD53

Fuku bu mu ryoku

腹部無力

fù bù wú lì

Powerless abdomen

An abdominal wall without proper tone, although there may be strength in the depths

KD54

Fuku bu nan jyaku mu ryoku

腹部軟弱無力

fù bù ruǎn rùo wú lì

Lax abdomen

Weak and powerless abdomen, like that described above, without strength in the depths

KD55

Fuku choku kin no ren kyuh

腹直筋の攣急

fù zhí jīn liàn jí

Ropy abdomen

Rectus abdominis spasm; a cramp in the musculature of the abdominal wall which usually denotes kyo

KD56

Fuku chuh rai mei

腹中雷鳴

fù zhōng léi míng

Abdominal thunder

Borborygmus, a loud noise in the hollow organs of the abdomen, usually denoting stagnant gas or ki

KD57

Fuku man

腹満

fù mǎn

Full abdomen

An abdomen which appears replete and firm; this fullness can be either kyo or jitsu

KD58

Fuku myaku toh

復脈湯

fù mài tāng (zhi gan cao tang)

Decoction to restore the pulse

This is also known as baked liquorice combination

KD59

fuku ryoku no(ga) nai/ fuku ryoku naki

腹力の(が)な い/腹力なき

fù lì No exact Chinese translation

Abdomen with no strength

Fuku ryoku naki is an old way of saying fuku ryoku ga nai

KD60

Fuku shin

腹診

fù zhěn

Abdominal diagnosis

A specialized Kampo tactile diagnosis

KD61

Fuku shoh

腹証 (證)

fù zhèng

Abdominal shoh

A tactile diagnostic pattern, understood via the fuku shin

KD62

Fuku Shoh Ki Ran

腹證奇覧

fù zhèng qí lǎn

Extraordinary Views on Abdominal Diagnosis

A Kampo medical book from the Edo period (1603–1868), KD42, authored by Inaba Katsu Bunrei, circa 1800. Inaba’s followers published four separate annotated editions of the text until 1853

KD63

Fujiwara Takeshi

藤原健

téng yuán jiàn

Dr Takeshi Fujiwara, a colleague of Dr Otsuka

For clinical examples see cerebral apoplexy, ma huang and ginseng combination, KF166

Appendix 3: Glossary of Terms

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD64

Funkurohjisu

フンクロー ジス

No exact Chinese translation

Furunculosis

Japanese spelling of an English term for a boil, or staphylococcal infection; a recurrent painful nodule with a central core. See KD375, KD297

KD65

Furuya Chihaku

古矢知白

gǔ shǐ zhī bái

Dr Chihaku Furuya

Japanese physician noted for books written circa 1846; for clinical examples, see haemorrhoids

KD66

Ga (Ka) Da ryuh

華佗流

huá túo líu (xue pai)

Hua Tou style

In the style of Hua Tou (110– 207CE), the Han dynasty (206BCE– 220CE) physician contemporary of Zhang Zhong Jing (150–219CE), author of the Sho Kan Ron, KD430

KD67

Gai



wài

Outside or back of body

External (to the body); factors from outside the body; dorsal. Care is taken in using the pairings gai/nai or hyoh/ri

KD68

Gai gyaku (joh ki)

咳逆(上気)

hāi nì (shàng qì)

Counterflow cough

Coughing attack caused by upward movement of ki. See KD88

KD69

Gai jya (ja)

外邪

wài xié

External chaos

External pathogenic factor, in the language of the KKR (flu, abdominal typhus, bloody flux, cholera, smallpox, common cold, viruses, dampness, heat, cold, allergic substance, environmental pollution)

KD70

Gai kan nai netsu

外寒内熱

wài hán nèi rè

Cold at a superficial level; heat in the interior

Cold on the outside surface, while there is heat on the inside

KD71

Gai shoh

外証

wài zhèng

Superficial symptoms

Symptoms in the superficial layer; the surface of the body

KD72

Gai sho/gai kan

外感/外傷

wài zhèng

Pathogen damage entering from outside the body at the superficial level

Gai, as distinct from nai, refers to the source of an acute illness manifested on the body surface, whereas nai refers to the organs. In contrast hyoh is the site of an injury by an external pathogen, and ri an internal pathogen. External injury, surface wound and traumatic injury are gai shoh; gai kan is an illness that begins with a fever pattern such as the shang han

KD73

Gai soh

咳嗽

hāi sòu

Cough

Cough

KD74

Gan men choh koh

顔面潮紅

yán miàn cháo hóng

Tidal red face

Flushed face (see the section on examination by looking)

KD75

Ge shoh

下焦

xià jiāo

Lower burner

The lower part of the body; the umbilicus and lower abdomen

KD76

Gen



xián

Bowstring (pulse)

A kyo sign; see the section on the tactile exam; contrast this to the ‘wiry’ pulse described by some writers in traditional Chinese medicine

KD77

Gen



jiǎn

Decreasing

A measurable decline of strength; see the sections on using hachi mi gan

KD78

Gen Bu Tei

玄武帝

xuán wǔ dì

Emperor Gen Bu

Emperor of Song dynasty

187

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

188

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD79

Gen Bu toh

玄武湯

xuán wǔ tāng

Gen Bu toh

Following the death of Emperor Gen (483–515CE) of the northern Wei dynasty, this formula was renamed shin bu toh (vitality combination)

KD80

Gen ki

元気

shen qì

Original ki

Ki primum, original vital energy; personal health

KD81

Gen ki

原気

shen qì

Source ki

Primordial ki

KD82

Gen myaku

弦脈

xián mài

Bowstring pulse

The bowstring is a kyoh pulse; see the section on the tactile exam. Refer to KD76

KD83

Gen un

眩暈

xuàn yūn

Dizziness/ vertigo

Dizziness and a heavy head; see the section on the asking exam

KD84

Gosei-ha

後世派

hòu shì pài

The Go Sei (reformation) school

A school of Kampo, founded by Sanki Tashiro (1465–1537CE) and influenced by the Chinese Jin-Yuan dynasty (1115–1368CE) physicians Ri Toh En (Li Dong Yuan, 1180–1251CE) and Zhu Dan Xi (1281–1358CE); promoting, respectively, the importance of spleen and stomach digestive functions and nourishing yin

KD85

Goh





With, joined

Character used when combining two formulas; joined formula

KD86

Goh byoh

合病

hé bìng

Paired disease (stage)

When two or more of the six stages occur together

KD87

Gotoh Gonzan

後藤艮山

hòu téng gěn shān

Dr Goto, founder of the kohoh-ha (Classical school), KD238

Edo-period Japanese Kampo physician, 1659–1733. Known for the theory that blockage of the flow of ki is the cause of all illness

KD88

Gyaku





Counterflow

A reversal of the normal flow; flowing backwards (usually upwards), also called a regurgitation

KD89

Gyaku ki

逆気

nì qì

Counterflow ki

Pathogenic state of ki; regurgitation of ki

KD90

Gyaku rei

逆冷

nì lěng

Gyaku rei

See ketsu rei 厥冷, KD205

KD91

Hachi mi gan ni tsuite

八味丸に就て

bā wèi wán jìu

Concerning hachi mi gan

Originally intended as the final chapter, this is taken as part of Chapter 1 in this translation of the Otsuka text Kampo I Gaku, citing selections on the use of Rehmannia eight balls from historical texts

KD92

Haku daku shoh

白濁症

bái zhúo zhèng

Cloudy urine

Whitish and turbid urine

KD93

Haku tai

白苔

bái tái

White fur

White tongue coat

KD94

Han



fán

Troublesome distress

Anguish, disquiet, restless sensations of agony and dryness; it combines with other sensations (see below); this term appears in the Shoh Kan Ron, KD430, in the in stages, and can be accompanied by cold

KD95

Han gai han ri shoh

半外半裏証

bàn wài bàn lǐ zhèng

Half-outside, half-inside sho

Symptoms of an outside pathogen plus symptoms of internal shoh

Appendix 3: Glossary of Terms

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD96

Han katsu

煩渇

fán kě

Troublesome thirst

A feeling of han, distress, accompanied by extreme thirst

KD97

Han katsu in in

煩渇引飲

fán kě yǐn yǐn

Troublesome thirst, reaching for water

Han katsu, an extreme thirst, occurring in a semiconscious state, in either the in or the yoh shoh; see the section on the asking exam

KD98

Han netsu

煩熱

fán rè

Troublesome heat

Han: discomfort arising spontaneously on a body surface, such as the soles of the feet or the palms of the hands

KD99

Han soh

煩躁

fán zào

Troublesome plus restless movement

Described in the Sho Kan Ron, KD430, as two kinds of discomfort occurring together: han, troublesome pain, plus soh, painful spontaneous fidgeting of the hands and feet

KD100

Han toh

煩疼

fán téng

Troublesome aching on (voluntary) movement

Two kinds of discomfort occurring together, the han plus toh; agonizing movement

KD101

Hara Nanyoh

原南陽

Yuán Nán Yáng

Dr Nanyo Hara

An Edo physician (1752–1820) of the Secchuh ha (Setsu chu ha) 折 衷派, compromise, school (which welcomed the newly introduced Dutch medicine called ‘Rampo’); for his formula see the section on haemorrhoids

KD102

Hatsu kan (hakkan) zai

発汗剤

fā hàn jì

Sudorific

Medicine to induce sweating, diaphoresis

KD103

Hei byoh

併病

bìng bìng

Companion disease (stage)

A term from the Sho Kan Ron, KD430, to describe when symptoms ranging between two of the six stages occur together

KD104

Hei kan kan

閉寒感

bì hán gǎn

Blocked, cold feeling

Cold (kan) accompanied by a feeling that the nose is closed; see the section on sinusitis

KD105

Hei nin

平人

píng rén

The average person

Typical healthy individual

KD106

Hen



piàn

Tablet

A medicine formed into a tablet or flat flake; distinguished from gan, rolled into a ball

KD107

Hen Jaku/ Jyaku

扁鵲

biǎn què

Dr Hen Jaku

Reputed author of the Nan Kyo/ Nan Jing, from the fifth century, the warring states period of the Zhou dynasty

KD108

Hen Jyaku ryuh

扁鵲流

biǎn què líu (xue pai)

Bian Que style/ method

In the style of the Nan Jing

KD109

Hi fu en

皮膚炎

pí fū yán

Dermatitis

Inflamed/infected skin

KD110

Hi jyaku

菲弱

fēi rùo

Delicate and weak

The veneer abdomen: a tactile diagnostic term for a condition needing tonics

KD111

Hi man tai shitsu

肥満体質

féi mǎn tǐ zhì

Fat and full

A constitutional type, typically denoting jitsu fullness

189

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

190

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD112

Hi roh ken tai

疲労倦怠

pí láo juàn dài

Fatigue and lassitude

A complaint of tiredness and a listlessness which often has ki or water dysfunction as a root cause; see KD342 for the roh conditions

KD113

Hi soh

肥痩

féi shòu

Thick or thin

Diagnostic assessment of constitutional body type, for use with the three substances

KD114

Hie

冷え

lěng

Icy feeling (noun)

This differs from kan (cold). This patient is icy to the touch, but subjectively feels only a vague cold sensation. It differs from the chills which accompany fevers

KD115

Hie shoh

冷え症

lěng zhèng

Icy constitution

From Japanese folk medicine; a constitutional type distinguished by a tendency to feel a vague chill, apart from environmental coldness and lacking a robust nature

KD116

Hieru/hiyuru

冷える/冷ゆる

No exact Chinese translation

Become icy, chilled

This is a cold feeling that is not due to a pathogen or an environment. Hiyuru is an old way of saying hieru. See the types of cold sensations in examples above

KD117

Hin saku

頻数

pín shù

Fast and frequent pulse

Pulse with beats close together

KD118

Ho teru

火照る

hǔo zhào

Burning feeling

A complaint of feeling extreme burning such as described in the sections on hachi mi gan shoh, KF209

KD119

Hoh kei ryoh rei

胞系了戻

bāo xì liǎo tì

Urethral torsion

Also see KD470 輸尿管捻転 clasping of the urethra, disturbance of micturition

KD120

Hon ton byoh

奔豚病

bēn tún bìng

Running piglet

Palpitation attack, progressing upwards from the hypogastrium to the cardiac area and palpable near the lower part of the navel; a palpitation attack starting from the hypogastrium and first mentioned in the Kin Ki Yoh Ryaku, KD236, Chapter 8-2

KD121

Hon ton shoh

奔豚証

bēn tún zhèng

Running piglet shoh

The symptom complex described above

KD122

Hosono Shiroh

細野史郎

xì yě shǐ láng

Dr Hosono

A Kyoto physician

KD123

Hyaku heng zeki

百日咳

bǎi rì hāi

The 100-day cough

Whooping cough; see the section on diseases

KD124

Hyoh



biǎo

Exterior surface

Ectodermal, external, superficial surface layer of the body

KD125

Hyoh kyo ri jitsu shoh

表虚裏実証

biǎo xū lǐ shí zhèng

Exterior empty, interior full shoh

Empty exterior and full interior shoh

KD126

Hyoh kyo shoh

表虚証

biǎo xū zhèng

Exterior empty shoh

Empty exterior shoh. Other hyoh patterns include the outside cold shoh, hyoh kan shoh

KD127

Hyoh jitsu shoh

表実証

biǎo shí zhèng

Exterior full shoh

Full exterior shoh. Other hyoh patterns include the outside fever shoh, hyoh netsu shoh

Appendix 3: Glossary of Terms

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD128

Hyoh ri kyo shoh

表裏虚証

biǎo lǐ xū zhèng

Exterior, interior empty shoh

Empty exterior and interior shoh

KD129

Hyoh ri

表裏

biǎo lǐ

Exterior/interior

A diagnostic paradigm; an illness engages from the body’s defences exteriorly or from the interior. Alternatively, the depth of illness: hyoh is shallow and ri is deep

KD130

Hyoh shoh

表証

biǎo zhèng

Exterior shoh

A pattern of symptoms of the body’s exterior layer calling for the appropriate action or treatment pattern. Refer to the introductory text discussion on in and yoh

KD131

Hyoh so

瘭疽

biāo jū

Paronychia

Inflammation involving the folds of tissue surrounding the fingernail

KD132

I atonih

胃アトニー

No exact Chinese translation

Stomach atony

The stage of stomach weakness before prolapse; see Chapter 4

KD133

I choh kyo jaku/jyaku

胃腸虚弱

wèi cháng xū rùo

Gastrointestinal tract kyo and weak

Weak and empty stomach and intestinal function leading to poor absorption; see KD43

KD134

I jaku/I jyaku

胃弱

wèi rùo

Weak stomach

A kind of gastric atrophy

KD135

I nai tei sui

胃内停水

wèi nèi tíng shǔi

Pathogenic water

An abnormal fluid and gas retention in the stomach as confirmed by the fuku shin

KD136

I Shin Poh/ Hoh

医心方

yī xīn fāng

The I Shin Poh

Japan’s oldest extant medical work, from 984 during the Heian period (794–1185CE), in which Yasuyori Tamba compiled excerpts from Chinese medical classics of the Han, Sui, Tang and Song dynasties

KD137

Iki gire

息切れ

xī qiē

Shortness of breath

Breath 'cut off', a breathlessness associated with ki dysfunction

KD138

In



yīn

In

The cool, still, primary energy in opposition to yoh (yang). The final three stages in the six divisions diagnosis pattern

KD139

In i

陰委

yīn wěi

Sexual withering

Impotence

KD140

In kan

陰寒

yīn hán

In cold

Yin pattern and cold pattern together

KD141

In kei

陰茎

yīn jīng

Penis

This is a modern reading of 'stalk of in'; see in mon, KD142, below

KD142

In mon

陰門

yīn mén

Vulva

In modern times, read as ‘female genitalia’; in older texts read as sexual area of either gender. See KD141

KD143

In shoh

陰証

yīn zhèng

In sho

Signs and symptoms of an in shoh or yin disease

KD144

Iro aozamete

色青ざめて

sè qīng

Pallor

A pale blue 蒼 or pale green 青 complexion; this ‘green’ is not the colour associated with the liver but is associated with poor health according to the shoh described

191

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

192

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD145

Ji jyun

滋潤

zī rùn

Luxuriating and moistening

An attribute of certain crude drugs used in Kampo which moisten and nourish. A cure for dryness, a supplement for ageing

KD146

Jin kan

腎間

shèn jiān

Kidney gate

Abdominal area around the umbilicus and above the kidneys, where an aortic pulse can be detected

KD147

Jin ki gan

腎気丸

shèn qì wán

Kidney ki balls

KKK name for hachi mi gan, KD91

KD148

Jitsu



shí

Jitsu

Fullness, a robust constitutional type; in contrast to kyo

KD149

Jitsu shoh (jissho)

実証

shí zhèng

Jitsu sho

Fullness pattern; in illness this may be a transient hyperfunctioning stage or describe a constitutional type

KD150

Jya/ja



xié

Pathogen

Pathogen, stress, chaos, wrongdoing

KD151

Jya ki

邪気

xié qì

Ki pathogen

Pathogenic factors which affect ki; miasma, vapour

KD152

Jyaku/jaku



rùo

Weak

Pulse; body type

KD153

Jyoh gyaku

上逆

shàng nì

Ki reflux, ki counterflow

Fluid or gas retention in the stomach; belching or vomiting as a result of a disease process; see KD88

KD154

Jyoh koh

上行

shàng xíng

Upward movement

Moving upward in a pernicious way; ki ascending (perniciously) as a result of a disease process. Contrast to nobose, a primary ki dysfunction

KD155

Jyoh shoh

上衝

shàng chōng

Upward surge

Pernicious rising of ki from the abdomen to the hypochondrium

KD156

Jyun koh

順行

shùn xíng

Smooth movement

The circulation aim of ki zai, the reflection of healthy ki on the other three substances

KD157

KKK

金匱要略

jīn gùi (kùi) yào luè

Kin Ki Yoh Ryaku

Essentials from the Golden Coffer (Cabinet), a text devoted to the treatment of chronic disease; said (by some) to be a final section of the Shan Han Lun, KD430, by Zhang Zong Jing in the third century

KD158

Ka



jiā

Plus

In writing the name of a formula, the character ka indicates an additional ingredient is added, for example KF32–35

KD159

Ka (ke, ie) hoh

家方

jiā fāng

Family formula

Secret formula traditionally not shared with outsiders. These are the ei formula described in KD299, ke 家 or ie, family medicine

KD160

Ka sui

下垂

xià chúi

Prolapse

A prolapse of an internal organ

KD161

Ka ze

風邪

fēng xié

Common cold

Pathogenic wind condition

KD162

Kabure

かぶれ

No exact Chinese translation

An allergic type of skin inflammation

‘Poisoned’ skin, ruined skin, seen as a scab, or crusty skin

KD163

Kai byoh

怪病

guài bìng

Mysterious illnesses

According to some ancient texts, ‘treat as a water problem’

Appendix 3: Glossary of Terms

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD164

Kai motsu (aka kai mono, or ki mono)

塊物

kuài wù

Mass

Lump, clump, mass

KD165

Kakke/katsu ke

脚気

jiǎo qì

Beriberi

Literally ‘thigh ki’; as a disease this refers to beriberi

KD166

Katsu ki/kakki

活気

húo qì

Vital energy

The ki of life

KD167

Kaku





Leather pulse

See the section on hachi mi gan; this pulse occurs when the hollow pulse becomes kyo, and kyo and kan occur together

KD168

Kampō (Kan poh)

漢方

hàn fāng

Japanese Kampo

Japanese herbal medicine, rooted in clinical use of classic texts from China’s Han dynasty (203BCE– 220CE) and enriched by cultural and medical experience from Japan

KD169

Kampō Ryoh Hoh

漢方療法

hàn fāng liáo fǎ

The text Kampo Treatment

The publication For Those Who Try to Investigate Kanpo Medicine, Yomiuri Newspaper, 1964, Otsuka Keisetsu and Yamada Terutane

KD170

Kampo (Kan poh) Ken Kyuh

漢方研究

hàn fāng yán jīu

The text Kampo Research

Kotaroh Kanpo Seiyaku Gaisha (Kotaroh Kanpo Pharmaceutical Co.)

KD171

Kampo (Kan poh) No Rin Shoh

漢方の臨床

hàn fāng lín chuáng

The text Clinical Kampo

Toh-A Igaku Kyohkai (Toh-A Medical Association), founded 1954

KD172

Kampo (Kan poh) To Kan Yaku

漢方と漢薬

hàn fāng hàn yào

The text Kampo and Kampo’s Ingredients

Nihon Kanpo Igaku Kai (Japan Kanpo Medical Association), founded 1934

KD173

Kampo (Kan poh) To Min Kan Yaku Hyakka

漢方と民間薬 百科

hàn fāng mín jiān (jiàn) yào bǎi kē

An Encyclopaedia of Kampo and Folk Medicine

Author: Otsuka Keisetsu; publisher: Shu Fu No Tomo Sha, 1966

KD174

Kan



kān

Intuition

A diagnostic tool based not upon objective findings but on other skills of the physician such as insight, intuition, a sixth sense; see KD480

KD175

Kan



hán

Cold

Objective plus subjective feelings of coldness; the pathogen from the Shoh Kan Ron, KD430

KD176

Kan



huǎn

Relaxed

Moderate (pulse); healthy pulse

KD177

Kan gai

乾咳

gān ké

Dry cough

A dry cough is one with no phlegm; see the section on the asking exam

KD178

Kan hoh jyoh haku sen (mizumushi)

汗庖状白癬

hàn páo zhuàng bái xuǎn

Athlete’s foot

Literally, wet papules with white scales, or tinea pedis

KD179

Kan jyoh

関上

guān shàng

Middle pulse

The middle pulse position, with shaku chuh, KD377, as the proximal (third) position

KD180

Kan oh

乾嘔

gān ǒu

Retching

Dry vomiting; in diagnosing take care to distinguish from other vomiting

KD181

Kan rei

寒冷

hán lěng

Kan rei

Two types of cold, kan and rei, together

193

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

194

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD182

Kan sein oh yoh

寒性膿瘍

hán xìng nóng yáng

Cold abscess

Sores, such as occur in tuberculosis, due to a waning of vitality

KD183

Kan soh

乾燥

gān zào

Parched; dehydration plus a dry mouth

A severely dry mouth due to a kyo condition where secretions are sparse

KD184

Kan sui

甘遂

gān sùi

Euphorbia kansui radix

Herb used in folk medicine to expel water and regulate urination

KD185

Kata kori

肩こり

No exact Chinese translation

Stiff shoulders

A native/folk Japanese description for stiff neck and upper back; refer to the writings of Kuriyama Shigehisa, ‘The Historical Origins of Katakori’ (1997), Japan Review 9,127–149

KD186

Katsu



huá

Slippery (pulse)

A pulse that glides under finger pressure

KD187

Katsu



húo

Life

An early Kampo publication

KD188

Kei



jìng

Convulsions

Convulsive illnesses

KD189

Kei ren

痙攣

jìng luán

Spasm

A twitch, cramp or spasmodic attack or seizure; the origins may be kyo or jitsu

KD190

Kekkaku

結核

jié hé

Knots

Subcutaneous nodes or knots; often treated as a sign of tuberculosis

KD191

Ketsu



jué

Pivotal

The pivotal stage of the three in illness; a syncope (transient loss of consciousness with inability to maintain postural tone that is followed by spontaneous recovery)

KD192

Ketsu



xuè

Blood

Blood as a substance from among the three substances, KD220, or as a circulatory function

KD193

Ketsu



jié

Knotted (pulse)

A pulse associated with o ketsu or dryness

KD194

Ketsu bun

血分

Xuè fēn

The blood as a substance

From the KKK, KD157; theory of three substances

KD195

Ketsu bun shiburite

血分渋りて

No exact Chinese translation

Bitter blood

The blood substance becomes bitter, thin and kyo; menstruationrelated; see the section on hachi mi gan, KF209

KD196

Ketsu bun shu

血分腫

xuè fēn zhǒng

Menstruation oedema

Oedema related to menstruation

KD197

Ketsu byoh

血病

xuè bìng

Blood-related illness

An illness due to properties of the blood or ingredients of the blood; hormones, lipids; from the KKK, KD157, theory of three substances

KD198

Ketsu gyaku

厥逆

jué nì

Counterflow in the in stage

Cold extremities, as a morbid condition occurring in the final stages of the six divisions; see KD88

KD199

Ketsu hoh

血崩

xuè bēng

Profuse uterine bleeding

Profuse uterine bleeding, metrorrhagia

KD200

Ketsu in (kecchin)

厥陰

jué yīn

Jue in

‘Certain yin’, the final in stage, also referred to as ‘terminal’ or ‘absolute’

Appendix 3: Glossary of Terms

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD201

Ketsu in (kecchin) byoh

厥陰病

jué yīn bìng

Jue in illness

An illness conforming to the ‘certain yin’ stage of KD200; the final stage of the six divisions

KD202

Ketsu kan (kekkan)

厥寒

jué hán

Ketsu cold

Feeling cold subjectively (and objectively) in the body or limbs; contrast with ketsu rei, KD205

KD203

Ketsu kyo (kekkyo)

血虚

xuè xū

Blood deficiency

A defect of the individual blood cells, their constituents, or the whole of the liquid blood

KD204

Ketsu netsu

血熱

xuè rè

Blood heat

Heat in the blood, as the cause or as the result of illness

KD205

Ketsu rei

厥冷

jué lěng

Ketsu rei; icy limbs

Ketsu rei describes the in stage when limbs are cold to the touch but the patient has no sensations of cold; it is considered more severe than ketsu cold, KD202. It is alternatively called jaku rei 逆冷, KD90

KD206

Ketsu shoh (kesshoh)

血証

xuè zhèng

Blood sho

Symptom complex originating with blood pathology

KD207

Ketsu shoku (kesshoku)

血色

xuè sè

Complexion

Literally blood colour, as an indicator of health

KD208

Ketsu tai (kettai)

結滞

jié zhì

Knotted and delayed (pulse)

Pulse pattern associated with baked liquorice combination, KF122, and similar formulas

KD209

Ki





Ki

Vital energy, the basic function for existence. Ki is one of the primary three substances

KD210

Ki





Subjective palpitations

These are complaints by the patient which may not be felt by the physician; compare with doh ki 動悸, KD40

KD211

Ki bun

気分

qì fēn

The substance ki

The ki of the three substances, especially where the ki is the primary cause of an illness; in common parlance refers to mood or emotions (see below)

KD212

Ki bun ga warui

気分が悪い

qì fēn è

Apprehensive mood

Feeling ill and unwell or vaguely apprehensive. This is used when the primary cause is the ki

KD213

Ki bun no chin utsu

気分の沈鬱

qì fēn shěn yù

Ki sullen mood

The mood is sunken and depressed. Ki bun is more substantial, in contrast to ki mochi, which refers to impressions or 'feelings'

KD214

Ki bun no utsu soku (ussoku)

気分の鬱塞

qì fēn yù sài

Ki depression

Also called ki utsu 気鬱, KD230; feeling depressed, withdrawn and closed off

KD215

Ki byoh

気病

qì bìng

Ki illness

An illness whose root cause is the flow or function of ki. Ki slumped, interned, stopped, delayed or stagnated; a primary dysfunction of ki

KD216

Ki ga shizumu

気が沈む

No exact Chinese translation

Sunken ki

The ki is sunken; difficult to revive

195

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

196

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD217

Ki gyaku

気逆

qì nì

Counterflow ki

Upward surge of ki due to illness. Other translations of this term are: counterflow chi, rebellious chi, regurgitation of chi. Take care to distinguish from nobose, KD303

KD218

Ki ka

気化

qì huà

Ki ka

The production of ki; creation of ki

KD219

Ki ketsu

気厥

qì jué

Ketsu faint

Syncope (see ketsu, KD191) due to disorder of vital ki

KD220

Ki ketsu sui

気血水

qì xuè shǔi

Ki, blood and fluids

The three substances; the diagnostic ‘hinge’ of the Kin Ki Yoh Ryaku, KD236

KD221

Ki no ryuh tsuh

気の流通

qì líu tōng

Flow of ki

The aim of the ki formula, as used in mastitis

KD222

Kin retsu

皹裂

jūn liè

Skin cracks and splits

Skin cracks, splits and roughness attributed to cold winds, chapped skin

KD223

Ki rin

気淋

qì lín

Strained urination

Strangury, the symptom of painful, frequent urination of small volume; spastic dysuria, when due to a ki disorder

KD224

Ki ryoku

気力

qì lì

Strength of ki

Diagnostic measure used for assessing the three substances. The ki ryoku can be replete or waning; contrast to tai ryoku, body strength

KD225

Ki ryoku ga naku

気力がなく

No exact Chinese translation

Ki lacks strength

Strength of ki is missing, waning or deficient

KD226

Ki ryoku no otoroeta mono

気力の衰えた もの

No exact Chinese translation

Ki is waning

The waning power of the ki is a sign that the integrity of the ki may be wasting away and in decline

KD227

Ki ryuh

気瘤

qì líu

Ki tumour

Tumour due to disorder of ki

KD228

Ki soku

倚息

yǐ xī

Orthopnoea

Breathing is difficult unless sitting or leaning on something; see the section on hachi mi gan

KD229

Ki tai

気滞

qì zhì

Ki slumped

Ki slumped; a primary dysfunction of ki

KD230

Ki utsu

気鬱

qì yù

Ki depression

Ki depressed; the blues, depression

KD231

Ki utsu tai (uttai)

気鬱滞

qì yù zhì

Ki interned

Ki stagnation plus ki depression

KD232

Ki zai

気剤

qì jì

Ki regulator

A prescription aimed at restoring the flow of ki, or crude drugs for modulating psychoactivity

KD233

Kin



jǐn

Tense/tight

May refer to pulse or to musculature

KD234

Kin chin

緊沈

jǐn shěn

Tense and deep

Pulse or musculature, both tense and deep

KD235

Kin choh

緊張

jǐn zhāng

Tense and stretched

A measure of muscle strength or tension; it may be strong or weak

KD236

Kin Ki Yoh Ryaku

金匱要略

jīn gùi (kùi) yào luè

Essentials from the Golden Coffer/Cabinet

A text devoted to the treatment of chronic disease; said to be a section of the Shan Han Lun by Zhang Zong Jing in the third century. This is abbreviated as KKK, KD157

Appendix 3: Glossary of Terms

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD237

Kishi

悸し



Subjective palpitations

Shuddering, pulsations or palpitations; as in ki 悸, KD210

KD238

Kohoh-ha

古方派

gǔ fāng pài

The koh hoh school system; koho-ha

A seventeenth-century school of Kampo, started by Gotoh Gonzan, KD87, advocating a return to the practical medicine of the Shoh Kan Ron, KD430, opposing the Gosei-ha Ryu, KD84; Otsuka was a proponent of the modern kohoh-ha

KD239

Ko jiki bukuro

乞食袋

qǐ shí dài

A beggar’s sack

Japanese colloquial expression, denoting high expectations but limited resources

KD240

Ko Kin I Kan

古今医鑑

gǔ jīn yī jiàn

Ancient and Modern Medical Patterns (Lessons)

A medical text by the Chinese physician Kyoh Tei Ken

KD241

Ko Kun I Den

古訓医伝

gǔ xùn yī yún

Ancient Ways of Physicians

A description of medical practices by Utsuki Kondai, from 1837

KD242

Ko kyuh soku haku

呼吸促迫

hū xī cù pò

Laboured breathing

Breathing pattern from the Kin Ki Yoh Ryaku, KD236; take care to distinguish from descriptions of other breathing problems

KD243

Ko waku byoh

狐惑病

hú hùo bìng

Fox possession illness

From the Kin Ki Yoh Ryaku, KD236, a type of psychopathy with confusion, uneasiness and restlessness. Alternatively aphthous ulcers of the mouth and genital regions. For treatment of symptoms see the shoh of KF43 in the treatment of insomnia

KD244

Koh



hóng

Vast pulse

A pulse that is wide in breadth

KD245

Koh



kōu

Hollow

A type of pulse

KD246

Koh kan

口乾

kǒu gān

Dry mouth

Dry mouth due to scant secretions, common in the elderly. Distinguish from thirst; refer to the section on the asking exam

KD247

Koh Kan I Gaku

皇漢医学

huáng hàn yī xué

Handbook of Chinese Medicine

An early Kampo guidebook written by Kyuhshin Yumoto 湯本求真, 1876–1941, the principal teacher of Dr Otsuka Keisetsu

KD248

Koh katsu

口渇

kǒu kě

Thirst

A desire to drink water, different from dry mouth; see Chapter 2, the asking exam section on thirst

KD249

Koh Tei Dai Kyoh

黄帝内経

huáng dì nèi jīng

The Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Internal Medicine

A Chinese medical text that has formed the fundamental doctrinal source for Kampo for over two millennia; generally dated from second century BCE. Note the unusual reading of the characters

KD250

Koh ren

拘攣

jū luán

Myotonia

Muscle tension that is slow to relax

KD251

Koku hi shoh

黒皮症

hēi pí zhèng

Melanoderma

Skin disease so named because the skin colour turns dark purple or black due to an inflammatory pattern

KD252

Koku tai

黒苔

hēi tái

Black fur

The coating on the tongue is black or dark brown, turning black

197

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

198

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD253

Ku ru byoh

佝僂病

Gōu lóu bìng

Rachitis

An inflammatory disease of the vertebral column

KD254

Kyaku ren

脚攣

jiǎo luán

Spasm of the toes

Extreme spasm of the lower limbs, affecting the toes

KD255

Kyo





Minus

A term used in writing formulas to denote a variation of a classical formula where one ingredient is removed

KD256

Kyo





Empty

A constitution or condition requiring tonics; lacking tone; asthenia, deficiency

KD257

Kyo choh

虚張

xū zhāng

Kyo swelling

Full of water with no strength; oedema arising from kyo

KD258

Kyo han

虚煩

xū fán

Kyo troublesome restlessness

Restlessness accompanying chronic or consumptive illness; alternatively, mental exhaustion

KD259

Kyo jyaku (jaku)

虚弱

xū rùo

Kyo and weak

A pulse or body type both kyo and weak (occurring together); asthenia, debility

KD260

Kyo jaku (jyaku) ji doh

虚弱児童

xū rùo ér tóng

Kyo, weak childhood patterns

A constitutional type of child whose health can be improved by Kampo; see Chapter 4, Therapeutics, for specialist treatment of children

KD261

Kyo jyaku/jaku tai shitsu

虚弱体質

xū rùo tǐ zhì

Kyo, weak body type

Deficient body constitutional type, requiring tonics

KD262

Kyo ka boh doh

虚火暴動

xū hǔo bào dòng

Kyo fire uprising

Fever symptoms arising due to overwork or kyo condition. This kind of upward movement, boh doh, denotes rioting and violence, here in a deficiency condition

KD263

Kyo kan

虚寒

xū hán

Kyo and cold

Kyo and cold (occurring together) asthenia: cold

KD264

Kyo ri no doh ki

虚里之動悸

xū lǐ zhī dòng jì

Beats at apex of the heart

A heartbeat felt in the chest; site of cardiac palpitations; see the section on tactile diagnosis in Chapter 2

KD265

Kyo roh

虚労

xū láo

Kyo troubles

Chronic consumptive disease; asthenia of the viscera; fatigue from overwork; see roh, KD342, below

KD266

Kyo Roh Hen

虚労篇

xū láo piān

Kyo Troubles Compilation

The text on the chronic condition of kyo viscera, or of consumptive disease

KD267

Kyo shoh

虚証

xū zhèng

Kyo shoh

Hypofunctioning, asthenia, deficiency, emptiness, needing tonics; a kyoh symptom pattern

KD268

Kyoh chuh

強中

qiáng (qiǎng) zhōng

Confined in the centre

A form of impotence; alternatively, strong sexual urges

KD269

Kyoh ka hi koh

脇下痞硬

xié xià pǐ yìng

Kyo ka hi ko

Hypochondriac obstruction and resistance

KD270

Kyoh kyoh ku man

胸脇苦満

xiōng xié kǔ mǎn

Kyoh kyoh ku man

Hypochondriac agony and fullness; this agony is an extreme form of tenderness, discomfort or distress

KD271

Kyoh nai ku mon

胸内苦悶

xiōng nèi kǔ mēn (mèn)

Agony in the upper chest

Agony in the upper chest; see the section on toxaemia of pregnancy in Chapter 4, Therapeutics

Appendix 3: Glossary of Terms

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD272

Kyoh sen rinpa tai shitsu

胸腺リンパ 体質

xiōng xiàn tǐ zhì

The lymphatic type

See the section on kyo, weak children, in Chapter 4, Therapeutics

KD273

Kyoku (goku) do

極度

jí dù

Polar extreme

The most extreme point of the six divisions cycle; the pivot point

KD274

Kyoku (goku) in

極陰

jí yīn

Polar in

The extreme condition where in shoh resembles yoh shoh; see the section on thirst

KD275

Kyoku kyo (goku)

極虚

jí xū

Polar kyo

Extreme kyo condition from kyo; see roh, KD342, exhaustion, below

KD276

Kyuh bi

鳩尾

jīu wěi

Acupoint CV15

An acupuncture point on the nin myaku at the inferior border of the xiphoid process, known as ren 15 or conception vessel 15

KD277

Kyuh kan

久寒

jǐu hán

Chronic dysentery

A condition of chronic continuing dysentery mentioned along with long-standing cold; see the section on frostbite in Chapter 4, Therapeutics

KD278

Ma hi

麻痺

má bì

Numbness and palsy

A state of sensory debility with numbness or trembling

KD279

Ma hi fu jin

麻痺不仁

má bì bù rén

Paralysis

A state of sensory debility (usually in the lower body), often attributed to cold. See Fu jin, KD45

KD280

Ma oh bu shi kan zoh toh

麻黄附子甘 草湯

má huáng fù zǐ gān cǎo tāng

Ma huang, aconite and liquorice combination

This formula is mentioned for the shoh in byoh, lesser yin stage, KD428, condition when hyoh kan shoh, KD126, dominates; the ingredients are ma huang 3, aconite 0.5–1, liquorice 3

KD281

Manase Dohsan

曲直瀬道三

qū zhí lài dào sān

Dr Dohsan Manase (1507–1594)

Founder of the gosei-ha (reformation), KD84, school, along with Dohsan Gensaku

KD282

Men gen

(眄)瞑 眩

(miǎn) míng xuàn

Treatment reaction

A temporary adverse-like reaction to a formula during the course of treatment; commonly described in folk medicine rather than in texts on Kampo

KD283

Men shoku shiroku

面色白く

miàn sè bái

Pallid complexion

When the facial complexion looks white, pale or pallid

KD284

Meshi nori

飯糊

fàn hú

Rice paste

A binder for medicinal ingredients crushed and rolled into balls

KD285

Min kan yaku

民間薬

mín jiān (jiàn) yào

Folk medicine

The domestic medicine of Japan, apart from Kampo

KD286

Moku gen

目眩

mù xuàn

The eyes are spinning

Vertigo

KD287

Mon-me/ momme



No exact Chinese translation

Momme

An ancient unit of weight, equivalent to 3.75 grams

KD288

Mon shin

問診

wèn zhěn

The asking exam

The verbal aspect of Kampo diagnosis; the skilled questioning of the patient

KD289

Mori Kien

森枳園

sēn zhǐ yuán

Dr Kien Mori

A Meiji-era physician, one of the confucianist literati of the nineteenth century

199

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

200

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD290

Muna gurushisa

胸ぐるしさ

No exact Chinese translation

Agonizing pain in the chest

A Japanese folk medicine description of breathing difficulty

KD291

Myaku Kei

脈経

mài jīng

The Pulse Classic

A guidebook for pulse diagnosis written by Wang Shu He (265– 316CE), KD313, the earliest monographic work on sphygmology available in China

KD292

Myaku shin

脈診

mài zhěn

Pulse diagnosis

One part of the tactile diagnosis; well developed in Kampo

KD293

Nai (uchi)



nèi

Inside or interior

Nai/gai refer to inside/outside, and hyoh/ri refer to interior/exterior; body locations for locating and treating the active pathogen within the six divisions. See hyoh, ri and gai in this appendix

KD294

Nai shoh

内傷

nèi shāng

Internal damage

Pathogenic factors causing damage to the viscera; or chronic illness arising from internal imbalance or chaos

KD295

Nan Gyoh

難経

nán jīng

The Nan Jing

An ancient text said to be the original source of acupuncture and moxabustion, from second to first century bc

KD296

Nan jyaku mu ryoku

軟弱無力

ruǎn rùo wú lì

Lax

Soft, weak and no strength (abdomen); refer to KD53–54

KD297

Nebuto

ねぶと

No exact Chinese translation

A boil

A type of boil; see also setsu, KD375

KD298

Netsu





Outbreak of fever

A subjective or objective feeling of heat; a rise in body temperature, or feeling hot. In the SKR, fever

KD299

Nihzuma ke (ie)

新妻家

xīn qī jiā

Nizuma family

A Kyoto lineage known for their unique prescriptions. An alternative reading for the ke 家 is ie, family medicine. See KD159

KD300

Nin myaku

任脈

rèn mài (mò)

Ren mai

The acupuncture meridian along the anterior midline channel; the conception vessel

KD301

Nin shin jin

妊娠腎

rèn shēn shèn

The pregnant kidney

See the chapter on toxaemia of pregnancy in Chapter 4, Therapeutics

KD302

Nippo choh netsu

日晡潮熱

rì bū cháo rè

Twilight tidal fever

Described in second/third-century texts, this is a light fever typical of tuberculosis

KD303

Nobose

のぼせ

No exact Chinese translation

Nobose

Nobose is a folk term for the rising of ki, and is resolved using ki tonics, as described in Chapter 2, ki tai sho. Nobose identifies ki within the context of three substances: ki, water and blood. Nobose is due to a ki dysfunction; it is felt as a rush of blood to the head, a rush of warmth, a light-headed feeling, or seeing stars. Treatments for nobose are different than for gyaku ki, KD217

Appendix 3: Glossary of Terms

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD304

Nyoh (deki)





Urination

In ancient times, nyoh meant ‘urination’; its modern meaning is ‘drowning’, hence the variety of acupuncture points mistakenly thought to treat drowning

KD305

Nyoh hei

尿閉

niào bì

Blocked urination

Lack of flow of urine due to an accident or trauma

KD306

O fuh

悪風

è fēng

Evil wind

This is aversion, fear or hate of wind, moving air, draughts; a pathogenic factor from the SKR, KD430

KD307

O kan

悪寒

è hán

Evil cold

This is a complaint of an aversion, fear or hate of cold; experienced as a cold sensation or chills; a pathogenic factor from the SKR, KD430

KD308

O ketsu

瘀血

yū xuè

O ketsu

Blood stagnation itself or set of symptoms caused by blood stagnation; see the section on the three substances. In Kampo the signs are specific rather than general

KD309

O ketsu shoh

瘀血証

yū xuè zhèng

Blood stagnation shoh

A set of signs and symptoms denoting a pathology in the quality of the blood

KD310

O shin

悪心

è xīn

Nausea

Nausea, vomiting and morning sickness are distinct in Kampo. See o soh, KD311

KD311

O so

悪阻

è zǔ

Morning sickness

This is known as tsu wa ri, KD473; morning sickness is treated differently from nausea

KD312

Oh baku no sen jyuh

黄柏の煎汁

huáng bǎi (bó) jiān zhī

Dark yellow

The colour of a boiled extract of Phellodendron bark; it is dark bright yellow, almost brown

KD313

Oh Shuku Ka

王叔和

wáng shū hé

Dr Wang Shu He

The author of the Mai Jing, KD291, the Pulse Classic, from 265–316CE

KD314

Oh rai kan netsu

往来寒熱

wǎng lái hán rè

Alternating chill and fever

A fever pattern associated with the shoh yoh byo; for clear pattern and precautions, see the section on diagnosis by asking

KD315

Oh tai

黄苔

huáng tái

Yellow fur

A yellow tongue coat; part of the visual diagnosis

KD316

Omo yu

重湯

zhòngtāng

Heavy soup

The top part of boiling porridge (apart from the ricegrain portion); 1:10 rice/water

KD317

On po

温補

wēn bǔ

Warm and replenish

A form of tonification therapy, as a general term for formulas that tonify

KD318

Osoi

遅い

chí

Slow

As a pulse or metabolic quality

KD319

Otsuka (Ohtsuka) Keisetsu

大塚敬節

dà zhǒng jìng jiē

Dr Keisetsu Otsuka

Dr Keisetsu Otsuka, a renowned kohoh-ha, classical school, KD238, physician of the Showa (Shohwa) era (1900–1980) and author of this text and numerous influential texts

201

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

202

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD320

Otsuka (Ohtsuka) Yasuo

大塚恭男

dà zhǒng hen nán

Dr Yasuo Otsuka

Japanese medical historian; physician and son of Otsuka Keisetsu. He joined the Research Institute, of Oriental Medicine, Kitasato Institute, in 1972, and served as its president from 1986 to 1996 (1930‒2009). His work was an inspiration for this translation

KD321

Pichi pichi

ピチピチ

No exact Chinese translation

Pichi pichi

Japanese onomatopoeic phrase; the sound of gas escaping under pressure, as in amoebic dysentery

KD322

Poka poka

ポカポカ

No exact Chinese translation

Uncomfortable warmth

Japanese onomatopoeic phrase from folk medicine; a discomfort relieved by slapping the fingers to the palms of the hands; this relieves han netsu

KD323

Rei kan

冷感

lěng gǎn

Icy feeling/rei kan

Chilly extremities

KD324

Rei ketsu

冷結

lěng jié

Rei ketsu

Constipation due to chill, literally an icy contraction or ‘knot’

KD325

Rei ki

冷気

lěng qì

Rei ki

A vague icy feeling

KD326

Rei tsuh

冷痛

lěng tòng

Rei kan and pain

Chill and pain at the same time

KD327

Ren kyuh

攣急

luán jí

Acute spasm

Muscle stiffness or spasm

KD328

Ri





Internal, interior

Endodermal. A pathogen coming from outside the body elicits a defence mechanism internally at this level; alternatively the site of chronic disease

KD329

Ri jitsu shoh

裏実証

lǐ shí zhèng

Internal full shoh

Excess syndrome of the internal viscera; jitsu. Contrast to the internal fever shoh, ri netsu shoh 裏熱証

KD330

Ri kan gai netsu

裏寒外熱

lǐ hán wài rè

Internal cold, outside fever

A kyoku (goku) do pattern with interior cold symptoms, coupled with heat symptoms coming from the outside. See the shoh for shi gyaku toh

KD331

Ri kyo shoh

裏虚証

lǐ xū zhèng

Internal empty shoh

An internal pattern and a kyo pattern coming together. Contrast to internal cold shoh, ri kan shoh 裏寒証, and to kyo kan shoh 虚寒証 from KD263

KD332

Ri kyuh

裏急

lǐ jí

Internal spasm

Literally, an internal emergency; a spasm; as an abdominal diagnostic sign it usually designates kyo. Alternatively, it refers to painful excretion of stool with diarrhoea

KD333

Ri kyuh koh jyuh

裏急後重

lǐ jí hòu zhòng

Internal spasm, heavy afterward

An acute spasm of pain followed by a bearing-down sensation, as in colitis. Tenesmus

KD334

Ri no kan

裏の寒

lǐ hán

Internal cold

Cold symptoms in the interior

KD335

Ri shoh

裏証

lǐ zhèng

Internal shoh

Symptoms in the interior, the viscera; endodermal symptoms

KD336

Rihru shi koku hi shoh

リール氏黒 皮症

hēi pí zhèng

Mr Reel’s melanoderma

An allergic skin condition causing hyperpigmentation and dark purple or black coloration

Appendix 3: Glossary of Terms

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD337

Rin



lín

Straining to urinate

Also described as spastic dysuria, strangury, painful urge to urinate

KD338

Rin byoh

淋病

lín bìng

Gonorrhoea

‘Lonely’ disease

KD339

Rin ka

淋家

lín jiā

Urinary incontinence

A patient with urinary incontinence

KD340

Rin reki

淋瀝

lín lì

Sparse urine

Slow or painful discharge of urine due to spasm; strangury/stranguria; shiburi

KD341

Ro Shi Shun Jyuh

呂氏春秋

lǚ shì chūn qīu

Ro’s Spring and Autumn

This text, written during the warring states period, was edited by Ro, prime minister during the Qin dynasty

KD342

Roh



láo

Exhaustion due to hard labour

Exhaustion, as a pathogenic factor or in wasting disease

KD343

Roh koh

瘻孔

lòu kǒng

Fistula

Lingering non-eruptive sore, slow to heal

KD344

Rui Jyu (Shu) Hoh

類聚方

lèi jù fāng

The Rui Jyu Hoh: A Variety of Assembled Formulas

The text of Todo (Tohdoh) Yoshimasu’s study of the formulations of the Shoh Kan Ron, KD430, from 1751

KD345

Rui Jyu Hoh Koh Gi

類聚方広義

lèi jù fāng guǎng yì

An Overview of the Rui Jyu Hoh

This text is Yodo Odai’s (1856) annotations on the text Rui Jyu Hoh by Todo (Tohdoh) Yoshimasu (1751). The term koh gi denotes an overview (see above)

KD346

Rui Jyu Hoh Shuh Ran

類聚方集覧

lèi jù fāng jí lǎn

An Inspection of the Rui Jyu Hoh

This text is an annotated study on Rui Jyu Hoh, the formulas of the Shan Han Lun, KD430, by Todo (Tohdoh) Yoshimasu (see above)

KD347

Ryoh Ji Sa Dan

療治茶談

liáo zhì chá tán

Discussion on Medical Treatment over Tea

A medical manual by Tsuda Gensen 1737–1809, written in 1770

KD348

Ryuh or ru



líu (pai)

Ryuh, style

Ryu is associated with karate and traditional skills. Care is taken to distinguish the ryuh (a current or trend), ha (a school, teaching organization) and hoh (a rule or process)

KD349

Ryuh tai

溜滞

līu zhì

Accumulation and sumped ki

Ryuh denotes accumulation, while tai is a slump in the flow. Ki is accumulating and slumped

KD350

Ryuh in

留飲

líu yǐn

Fluid retention

A chronic fluid retention disease; excessive fluid retention in the stomach

KD351

SHL

傷寒論

shāng hán lún

Shoh Kan Ron

See SKR, KD352, below

KD352

SKR

傷寒論

shāng hán lún

Shoh Kan Ron

A treatise on the shang han (acute febrile disease/damaging cold) by Zhang Zong Jing about AD 200

KD353

Sa ru

去る



Eliminate

A way to remove fluids in a kyo condition; 去 is used in writing formulas to indicate ingredients to be omitted

KD354

Sai





Thin/fine

The thready pulse; a thin body type

203

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

204

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD355

Sai bu de doh ki

臍部で動悸

qí bù dòng jì

Pulsation around the navel

A clearly detected pulsation of the umbilicus

KD356

Sai Shi

崔氏

cūi shì

Dr Sai

This Kampo doctor is credited as the source of various useful formulas

KD357

Saku



shù

Rapid

A type of pulse; see the section on pulse diagnosis in Chapter 2, describing the four diagnostic exams

KD358

Samu ke

寒気

hán qì

Cold shivers

A chill – be it from fever, anaemia or climatic condition – is an important diagnostic consideration. When using the KKR, KD157, or the Shoh Kan Ron, KD430, take care to differentiate types of cold and chills when selecting treatment. Shivering with cold, when attributed to okan or ofuh, can call for distinctively different treatment than a feeling of chill attributed to a cold climate or poor digestion

KD359

San in san yoh

三陰三陽

sān yīn sān yáng

The three yins and three yangs

The diagnostic pattern of the Shoh Kan Ron, KD430, also known as the six divisions

KD360

San saku (shaku) iku atawazu

酸削行く能 はず

suān xiāo xíng néng

Exhaustion prevents walking

This movement difficulty is described in the section on hachi mi gan; san is an acid/bitter/sour feeling; saku is a sensation of scraping or curtailing; these pains make walking difficult

KD361

Sei



jīng

Essence

The essence of life; the substance related to reproduction and metabolism, semen; alternatively, spirit

KD362

Sei mizukara ide

精自ら出で

jīng zì chū

Spontaneous emission

Uncontrolled emission of semen, either through disease or other factors

KD363

Sei ka fu jin/ fu nin

臍下不仁

qí xià bù rén

Lowerabdomen fu jin

Numbness in the lower abdomen, which can progress to the lower body. This appears frequently in treatment patterns applicable to hachi mi gan, KF209

KD364

Sei ka ki

臍下悸

qí xià jì

Pulsations below the navel

These are felt distinctly during the tactile diagnosis, directly below the navel

KD365

Sei ki

生気

shēng qì

Life ki, essential ki

A fundamental ki of life; precaution is taken in selecting a formula so as to not disrupt its functioning

KD366

Sei shin

精神

jīng shén

Spirit or mood

Mental state, state of the soul

KD367

Sei shin byoh

精神病

jīng shén bìng

Disease of the mind

Mental illness

KD368

Sei shin chin utsu

精神沈鬱

jīng shén shěn yù

Psychosis

Spiritual depression; the nervous centre is sunken (chin) and melancholy (utsu)

Appendix 3: Glossary of Terms

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD369

Sei Zai Hatsu On

聖剤発蘊

shèng jì fā yùn

From an Imperial Medical Encyclopaedia

A Kampo publication; see the sample chapter from the section on hachi mi gan (1974), Kojima Mei

KD370

Seki ri

赤痢

chì lì

Red diarrhoea

Amoebic dysentery, named for the colour of the faeces mixed with blood

KD371

Sen



shàn

Fixed pain

Fixed pain limited to one spot; pain in the abdominal cavity; hernia

KD372

Sen ki

疝気

shàn qì

Colic

Another term for sen (see above); the pain of colic

KD373

Sen sei

先生

xiān shēng

Teacher

A term of respect for a teacher; those born before

KD374

Sen tsuh

疝痛

shàn tòng

Mountain of pain

Colic pain; severe pain confined to one spot

KD375

Setsu



jiē

Furuncles

Furuncle or furunculosis; a type of boil or skin abscess caused by staphylococcal infection; see nebuto, KD297, KD375, KD64

KD376

Setsu shin

切診

qiē zhěn

The tactile exam

The hand of the physician examining the body of the patient; tactility

KD377

Shaku chuh

尺中

chǐ zhōng

Shaku chuh

The site of the radial pulse at the proximal end of the radial artery where the third finger (ring finger) is placed; alternatively the abdominal cavity

KD378

Shi kan

弛緩

chí huǎn

Lax and powerless abdomen

A finding of the tactile exam; refer to KD53–54, 296

KD379

Shi shi shi toh

梔子鼓湯

zhī zǐ gǔ tāng

Gardenia and soya combination

See the section on tongue diagnosis: white tongue fur. Cited in the Shoh Kan Ron, KD430; the ingredients are gardenia, liquorice and soya wrapped in silk cloth

KD380

Shi shin

四診

sì zhěn

The four diagnostic exams

These are considered objective measurements in Kampo, although they are not measurable in western methods

KD381

Shi shoh

師匠

shī jiàng

Master

The traditional revered master, in the section on hachi mi gan, noted by Otsuka in Chapter 1 as an instructor from whom to learn Kampo technique. For teacher, see sen sei

KD382

Shin



xīn

Heart

The organ of the heart, or the functions of the heart; in the Shoh Kan Ron, KD430, the area of the body where this organ is cited

KD383

Shin ka bu

心下部

xīn xià bù

The area beneath the heart

Refer to the description above; the solar plexus; the epigastrium

KD384

Shin ka bu

心窩部

xīn wō bù

The heart cavity

See the notes above on shin, heart; this is the cavity or pouch of this area

205

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

206

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD385

Shin ka bu shin sui on

心下部振水音

xīn xià bù zhèn shǔi yīn

Epigastric splash sound

The sound made by tapping the area of the abdomen described as beneath the heart, denoting a pathogenic accumulation of fluid

KD386

Shin ka gyaku man

心下逆満

xīn xià nì mǎn

Counterflow fullness in the epigastrium

Kampo terms: the area beneath the heart, gyaku, or perverted movement; man, a feeling of fullness; see the section on Evodia combination sho as well as the fuku man, KD57, abdominal finding

KD387

Shin ka hi

心下痞

xīn xià pǐ

Epigastric obstruction

A feeling of subjective obstruction in the epigastrium (see shin ka bu, KD383), which cannot be confirmed objectively through touch by the physician

KD388

Shin ka hi ken

心下痞堅

xīn xià pǐ jiān

Epigastric hardness

The abdominal sign characteristic of Stephania and ginseng combination, KF244; hardness in the shin ka bu, KD383

KD389

Shin ka hi koh

心下痞硬

xīn xià pǐ yìng

Epigastric obstruction and resistance

A feeling of subjective obstruction and pain in the epigastrium (see shin ka bu, KD383), which is confirmed objectively through touch by the physician

KD390

Shin ka ki

心下悸

xīn xià jì

Epigastric pulsations

Pulsations seen or felt in the shin ka bu, KD383, epigastric area, which may be termed either kyo or jitsu

KD391

Shin ka man

心下満

xīn xià mǎn

Fullness of the epigastrium

Fullness felt in the shin ka bu, KD383, epigastric area, which may be deemed either kyo or jitsu; see Chapter 2, the Kampo diagnostic

KD392

Shin ka no tsukae

心下のつかえ

No exact Chinese translation

Compacted feeling in epigastrium

See shin ka hi, KD387

KD393

Shin kei

神経

shén jīng

A nerve

Used for nerve disease as well as nervous or sensitivity conditions. This shin describes the Kampo term for the soul/mind, which is housed in the heart. The kei is of kei raku, the acupuncture meridians

KD394

Shin kei kan setsu en tai shitsu

神経関節炎 体質

shén jīng guān jiē yán tǐ zhì

The neuropathic type of childhood development

See the section on weak, kyo children

KD395

Shin kei shitsu

神経質

shén jīng zhì

Neurotic sensitivity

A neurosis or nervous sensitivity; see shin kei, KD393

KD396

Shin kei shoh

神経症

shén jīng zhèng

A nervous disposition, neurosis, anxiety

A neurosis or nervous condition; see shin kei, KD393

KD397

Shin kei shoh jyoh

神経症状

shén jīng zhèng zhuàng

Symptoms of nervous anxiety

A neurosis or set of nervous symptoms; see shin kei, KD393

KD398

Shin kei tsuh

神経痛

shén jīng tòng

Neuralgic pain

Pain along a nerve, or radiating from a nerve; see shin kei, KD393

Appendix 3: Glossary of Terms

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD399

Shin ki

心悸

xīn jì

Cardiac pulsations

Palpitations; compare with doh ki and ki; here the term shin does not refer to the area of the heart

KD400

Shin netsu

身熱

shēn rè

Body fever

A fever that sweeps across the body, not accompanied by chills or sweating; usually designating yoh mei byoh, yang brightness stage, KD485

KD401

Shin pai goto

心配事

xīn pèi shì

Worries

A kind of mental stress; noted as the cause of the ki dysfunction in mastitis

KD402

Shin pan

心煩

xīn fán

Troublesome heart

The restless feeling, han, KD94, in the area of the chest

KD403

Shin shin

身心

shēn xīn

Body and soul

The first shin is the structure of the body; the second shin is heart or soul

KD404

Shin shutsu sei tai shitsu

滲出性体質

shèn chū xìng tǐ zhì

Exudative type of childhood development

See the section on weak, kyo children

KD405

Shin sui on

振水音

zhèn shǔi yīn

Splash sound

Sound of fluids in the stomach, upon palpation; see shin ka bu shin sui on, KD385

KD406

Shisshin

湿疹

shī zhěn

Eczema

Literally a damp rash; the formulas are applicable to eczema and similar conditions

KD407

Shita ga an shi shoku no mono

舌が暗紫色の もの

shé àn zǐ sè

Purple tongue

This is a pathological bluish red colour of the body of the tongue

KD408

Shita no akai mono

舌の赤いもの

shé chì

Red tongue

This is a pathological deep red colour of the body of the tongue

KD409

Shitsu kei (shikkei)

膝脛

xī jìng

The lower body

A classical Kampo diagnostic term to refer to the lower body, from the lap and lower abdomen down; not confined to the legs

KD410

Shitsu kei (shikkei) i jyaku

膝脛痿弱

xī jìng wěi rùo

Lower-body atrophy

Atrophy, weakness in the lower body, the knees, thighs, from the term above

KD411

Shoh



zhèng

Sho

A collection of symptoms that point to treatment by a specific herbal formula

KD412

Shoh



xiǎo

Small

Used to describe a pulse or sensation

KD413

Shoh ben

小便

xiǎo biàn

Urine

Shoh means lesser, and ben means waste products, in contrast to dai ben, faeces, KD32

KD414

Shoh ben fu ri

小便不利

xiǎo biàn bù lì

Urine does not flow

Urinary impairment, oliguria/anuria (‘urine flow is scanty/infrequent’)

KD415

Shoh ben ji ri

小便自利

xiǎo biàn zì lì

Uncontrolled urination

Urine flow is uncontrolled; spontaneous urination

KD416

Shoh ben nan

小便難

xiǎo biàn nán

Urination is difficult

Dysuria, impediment to urinary flow, or painful flow

KD417

Shoh en

消炎

xiāo yán

To clear inflammation

To extinguish an inflammatory process. An anti-inflammatory action

207

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

208

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD418

Shoh fuku

小腹

xiǎo fù

Lower abdomen

Shoh fuku (lesser abdomen) refers to the lower abdomen

KD419

Shoh fuku choh man

小腹脹満

xiǎo fù zhàng mǎn

Lower abdomen inflated and full

Shoh fuku means lower abdomen, whereas choh man refers to distension; which may be either kyo or jitsu

KD420

Shoh fuku fu jin

小腹不仁

xiǎo fù bù rén

Fu jin of the lower abdomen

A softness and numbness in the lower abdomen (shoh fuku), which can progress to the lower body. See fu nin, KD45

KD421

Shoh fuku koh kyuh

小腹拘急

xiǎo fù jū jí

Lowerabdomen tight spasm; the cable

A cramp or spasm which pulls along the inguinal region like a coil or cable

KD422

Shoh fuku koh man

小腹硬満

xiǎo fù yìng mǎn

Lowerabdomen fullness and and resistance

Distension in the lower abdomen which is full to the touch

KD423

Shoh fuku koh ren

小腹拘攣

xiǎo fù jū luán

The pencil line

A finding in the abdominal exam; firm pressure reveals a depression in the midline below the navel, and within that depression is felt a rigid line, thin like a pencil

KD424

Shoh fuku kyuh ketsu

小腹急結

xiǎo fù jí jié

The o ketsu point

A spastic knot in the lower abdomen, which rebounds under pressure

KD425

Shoh fuku man

小腹満

xiǎo fù mǎn

Lowerabdomen fullness

This is a fullness in the lower abdomen found during the abdominal exam and may signify either a blood or a water dysfunction

KD426

Shoh han ge toh

小半夏湯

xiǎo bàn xià tāng

Minor Pinellia combination

Formula from the Kin Ki Yoh Ryaku, KD236, consisting of Pinellia and fresh ginger

KD427

Shoh in

少陰

shǎo yīn

Shao yin

The second of the in stage patterns

KD428

Shoh in byoh

少陰病

shǎo yīn bìng

Lesser yin stage

The symptoms associated with the shoh in, KD427

KD429

Shoh kan

傷寒

shāng hán

Damaging cold

This is the disease pattern chronicled in the SKR, KD352, which begins with chills and fever and ends with a prolonged coma; it serves as a model for similar illnesses. It is thought the illness described was typhoid

KD430

Shoh Kan Ron

傷寒論

shāng hán lún

Shang Han Lun

Treatise on the Damaging Cold: A Treatise on the Shang Han (an acute febrile disease, or a damaging cold) written by Zhang Zong Jing about 200CE; SKR, KD352, is the Japanese spelling of the Chinese title

KD431

Shoh katsu

消渇

xiāo kě

Exhausting thirst

Any extreme, pathological thirst; this occurs in the ketsu yin stage, and in diabetes-like illnesses. Alternatively, an emaciating thirst

Appendix 3: Glossary of Terms

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD432

Shoh katsu shoh ben ri rin hen

消渇小便利 淋篇

xiāo kě xiǎo pián lì lín piān

Exhausing thirst and impaired urination

The above shoh katsu, KD431, accompanied by the urinary difficulties rin, KD337

KD433

Shoh Soh Hoh I Kai

蕉窓方意解

jiāo chuāng fāng yì jiě

Inspired Lessons on Formula from a Window Facing a Japanese Banana Plant

By Wada Tohkaku (1743–1803), a physician of the Compromise School, KD101, and a student of Tohdoh Yoshimasu. This shoh, banana, is the pen-name of the poet Bashoh; this text is from the Bunsei period (1818–1830)

KD434

Shoh Soh Zatsu Wa

蕉窓雑話

jiāo chuāng zá huà

Small Talks from a Window Facing a Japanese Banana Plant

A text written by Wada Tohkaku (1821), also known as the Manual of Medical Practices; see the notes above at KD433. Most of Wada’s textbooks were written posthumously by his students

KD435

Shoh wa jyuh nen

昭和十年

zhāo hé shí nián

The tenth year By western count, this is 1937 of the shoh wa era (1926–1989)

KD436

Shoh yoh

少陽

shǎo yáng

Shoh yoh

The lesser yang stage

KD437

Shoh yoh byoh

少陽病

shǎo yáng bìng

Lesser yang stage

The symptom patterns for the shoh yoh stage

KD438

Shoku





Rough

The rough pulse

KD439

Shu sa an shin gan

朱砂安心丸

zhū shā ān xīn wán

Cinnabar peaceful heart pill

An ancient formula for insomnia; for safety it is to be dispensed under strict guidelines

KD440

Shuh Hoh Ki Ku

衆方規矩

zhòng fāng gūi jǔ

A Multitude of Recipes and Rules

The text citing the formula sei netsu gei utsu toh; see KF155 in Appendix 1

KD441

Shukketsu

出血

chū xuè

Bleeding

Literally, the blood is departing

KD442

So Mon

素問

sù wèn

Plain Questions

First volume of the Huang Di Nei Jing

KD443

Soh hoh

創方

Chuāng fāng

Original formula

An invented or original formula, in contrast to a classical formula

KD444

Soh yoh

瘙痒

sào yǎng

Itching

Purulent itching

KD445

Sui



shǔi

Water

A primary body fluid, from the theory of three substances

KD446

Sui bun

水分

shǔi fēn

Acupoint ren 9, CV9

Area above navel; an acupuncture point on the nin myaku, KD300

KD447

Sui byoh

水病

shǔi bìng

Water illness

Illness induced by water/fluid imbalance

KD448

Sui doku

水毒

shǔi dú

Water toxins

Accumulation of pathogenic water

KD449

Sui jaku/jyaku

衰弱

shuāi rùo

Waning and weakening

A breakdown of resistance, used in chronic illnesses

KD450

Sui ketsu wa sezu

水血和せず

shǔi xuè hé

Water and blood disharmony

Literally, the water substance and the blood substance have no peace

KD451

Sun koh

寸口

cùn kǒu

Site of the pulse exam

Position of the middle finger in the pulse exam; also a unit of measure

209

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

210

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD452

Sutorofurusu

ストロフルス

No exact Chinese translation

Scrofula

Weeping from the lymph glands, thought to refer to a kind of tuberculosis; see Chapter 4, Therapeutics

KD453

Tai doku

胎毒

tāi dú

Placenta poisoning

A postpartum illness; eczema in the newborn

KD454

Tai gyaku jyoh ki

大逆上気

dà nì shàng qì

Ki moving upwards, with nobori

Two Kampo conditions occurring together, the gyaku, KD88, counterflow, with the upward surges or nobori; see nobose for further discussion and gyaku, KD13

KD455

Tai in

太陰

tài yīn

Wide in

The wide, vast, greater in, the first of the in patterns

KD456

Tai in byoh

太陰病

tài yīn bìng

Wide in stage

The symptoms associated with the tai in, KD455

KD457

Tai ka to fu kyuh

大過と不及

dà gùo bù jí

Big but deficient pulses

Despite being large or wide pulses, they may be without strength or deficient, and thus can be deemed laboured/tired pulses

KD458

Tai shitsu/tai ryoku

体質

tǐ zhì

Body type

Constitutional type/tai ryoku 体力 is a measure of innate body strength

KD459

Tai yoh

太陽

tài yáng

Tai yoh

Tai yoh, wide yang, greater yang, is the first stage of the six divisions

KD460

Tai yoh byoh

太陽病

tài yáng bìng

Greater yang stage

The symptom patterns of the tai yoh, KD459, stage

KD461

Tan



tán

Body fluids

Classically, tan referred to all body fluids, but in modern usage refers only to sputum

KD462

Tan in

痰飲

tán yǐn

Pathological fluids

Tan and in together indicate body fluids plus dietary fluids; or diseases characterized by retention of body fluids; or diseases due to accumulation of pathological fluids

KD463

Tan In Gai Soh Byoh Hen

痰飲欬嗽病篇

tán yǐn kài sòu bìng piān

Tan In and Coughing Disease

The section from the classical text relating to respiratory illnesses and tan in, KD462, pathogenic fluids

KD464

Tan ki

短気

duǎn qì

Short breaths

Panting, shallow fast breaths

KD465

Tamba Masatada

丹波雅忠

dān bō yǎ zhōng

Dr Tamba

The famous physician who wrote the preface to the 1060CE Kang Ping edition of the Shoh Kan Ron, KD430; the Otsuka tradition is based on this Kang Ping edition, rather than the Song edition

KD466

Tei sui

停水

tíng shǔi

Water in the stomach

An abnormal accumulation of water, a sign of tan in

KD467

Tei toh gan

抵当丸

dǐ dāng wán

Rhubarb and leech combination

A formula from the SKR, KD352, containing leeches, Tabanus, Persica and rhubarb. It can be prepared boiled as a decoction, to, or as a pill, gan

KD468

Ten kan

癲癇

diān xián

Epilepsy

See the section on disease patterns

Appendix 3: Glossary of Terms

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD469

Ten nyuh

転入

zhuǎn rù

Entered stage (of disease)

An aberration to the six division stage; see the section on the three in and the three yoh in Chapter 2

KD470

Ten poh

転胞

zhuǎn bāo

Twisted uterus

A clasping of the urethra; postpartum urinary retention; see hoh kei ryoh rei, above; literally, the revolving sac; dysuria

KD471

Ten zoku

転属

zhuǎn shǔ

Transforming stage (of disease)

An aberration to the six division stage; see the section on the three in and the three yoh

KD472

Tsuchi iro

土色

tǔ sè

Earth colour

Unhealthy dull brown pallor, at times calling for hachi mi gan shoh

KD473

Tsuwari

つわり

No exact Chinese translation

Morning sickness

Refer above to o so 悪阻, KD311

KD474

Uchi mi gusuri

うち身ぐすり

No exact Chinese translation

Medicine for bruises

See the section on disease patterns; these are said to have been particularly useful in times of war or battle but nowadays are used for accidents or sports injuries

KD475

Utsu ketsu (ukketsu)

鬱血

yù xuè

Depressed flow of blood

Stagnated blood, due to depression of flow

KD476

Utsu tai (uttai)

鬱滞

yù zhì

Depressed and slumped

A flow disturbed by depression plus interned

KD477

Wa kan yaku

和漢薬

hé hàn yào

Sino-Japanese herbal medicine

Japanese interpretation of Chinese medicine

KD478

Yaku butsu

薬物

yào wù

Crude drugs

Ingredients of Kampo; unprocessed pharmaceutically active natural ingredients. In modern Japan the term for yaku butsu in extract form is ethical medicines

KD479

Yoh



yáng

Yoh

Yoh, the first three stages of the six divisions; the bright, hot, active primal energy in contrast to in, KD138

KD480

Yoh hoh o te ni ireta

用法を手に入 れた

yòng fǎ shǒu rù

To ‘get’ how to use a formula

Literally ‘its use came into my hands’, meaning: ‘I began to understand how to use’; this is closely associated with the diagnostic aid kan, intuition, KD174

KD481

Yoh ki shita ni tae

陽気下に絶え

yáng qì xià jué

Yoh ki extinction

Yoh ki in the lower body is extinct or has collapsed; it is the cause of various illnesses of water and blood

KD482

Yoh ki bu soku

陽気不足

yáng qì bù zú

Yoh ki scarcity

Insufficiency of yoh, yang, ki

KD483

Yoh kyaku ga daruku te chikara ga nai

腰脚がだるく て力がない

No exact Chinese translation

Heaviness and lack of strength in the lower back and legs

A symptom often associated with the formulas hachi mi gan, KF209, or shi kun shi toh, KF117, when associated with the arms and legs; refer to KD35–36

KD484

Yoh mei

陽明

yáng míng

Yoh mei

The bright yang or yang brightness stage, from the six divisions

211

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice

212

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD485

Yoh mei byoh

陽明病

yáng míng bìng

Yoh ming stage

Symptom patterns of the yang brightness stage

KD486

Yoh shoh

陽証

yáng zhèng

Yoh shoh

A pattern of any one of the three yang stages

KD487

Yoh so

癰疽

yōng jū

Carbuncles

Carbuncles with pyrogenic infection of the skin

KD488

Yoshimasu Tohdoh

吉益東洞

jí yì dōng dòng

Dr Tohdoh Yoshimasu

This Kampo physician lived from 1702 to 1773 and was the founder of the kohoh-ha, KD238, school, of which Otsuka was an eminent advocate

KD489

Yoshimura Tokujiroh

吉村得二郎

jí cūn dé èr láng

Dr Tokujiroh Yoshimura

A Kampo physician who was the source of several formulas cited in this text

KD490

Yumoto Kyuhshin

湯本求真

tāng běn qíu zhēn

Dr Kyuhshin Yumoto

Otsuka Keisetsu’s Kampo teacher; a physician (1876–1941) of the Taisho (Taishoh) (1912–1926) and Showa (Shohwa) (1926–1989) periods noted for his role in the Kampo restoration movement

KD491

Zen kyuh

喘急

chuǎn jí

Difficult respiration

Rapid respiration; dyspnoea, wheezing

KD492

Zen mei

喘鳴

chuǎn míng

Stridor

A sound like a bird, made when inhaling; this is an important part of selecting Kampo formulas for conditions such as asthma

KD493

Zesshin

舌診

shé zhěn

Tongue exam

One part of the visual diagnosis

KD494

Zettai no nai mono

沒有舌苔

méi yǒu shé tāi

No-fur tongue

The normal tongue, or very early stage of a fever disease illness; however, there are many non-febrile diseases with this appearance

KD495

Zu jyuh

頭重

tóu zhòng

Heavy head

Heavy and painful feeling in the head; see the section on diagnosis by the asking exam

KD496

Zu tsuh

頭痛

tóu tòng

Headache

Pain in the head

KD497

Zu un

頭暈

tóu yūn

Head spinning

Vertigo or a feeling as though the head is spinning

KD498

Zui shoh chi ryoh

随証治療

súi zhèng zhì liáo

Kampo diagnosis

Therapy based on Japanese Kampo diagnosis; a traditional diagnostic pattern

KD499

Haku mai ko

白米粉

báimǐ fěn

White rice flour

Powdered white rice, a starchy culinary product

KD500

Ira ira suru

いらいら する

No exact Chinese translation

Anger easily

Used in clarifying a sho, 證, when a part of the primary diagnosis hinges on the state of mind being quick to anger

KD501

Gezai

下剤

xià jì

A purgative, or a purging formula

This Kampo term refers to the ‘full on the inside’ from the SKR. Be careful to determine the cause is true fullness; see Chapter 4, Therapeutics

Appendix 3: Glossary of Terms

Index number

Rohmaji

Kanji

Pinyin

Term in English

Term defined in this text

KD502

Jitsu netsu

実熱

shí rè

Fever disease, true fever

The yang ming stage of the SKR

KD503

Kami



shén

God

Kami, in twentieth-century Japan, were considered eternal beings and not all-seeing, all-knowing gods. Dr Otsuka does not define the tradition from which he takes his statements, leaving it open for consideration as ‘an immortal, a divinity, a deity’, or simply ‘an impossible task’.

213

FURTHER READING

Cyong, J.C. (c.1990) The English Guide to Medicinal Plants and Kampo Formula. Tokyo: Tsumura. Cyong, J.C. (1993) Japanese–English Dictionary of Oriental Medicine. Tokyo: Iseisha Press. De Soriano, G. (2008) ‘Currents of Chinese medicine: Kampo. Traditional medicine flows from China to Japan and back again.’ RCHM Journal 5, 30–33. Genshiro, H. and Beveridge, A. (2002) ‘Japanese psychiatry in the Edo period.’ History of Psychiatry 13, 131–151. Hsu, E. (1999) The Transmission of Chinese Medicine. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press. Hsu, H. (1988) Commonly Used Chinese Herbal Formula with Illustrations. Long Beach, CA: Oriental Healing Arts Institute. Hsu, H. (1997) Companion Handbook of Commonly Used Chinese Herbal Formulas. Long Beach, CA: Oriental Healing Arts Institute.

Kuriyama, S. (1997) ‘The historical significance of Katakori.’ Japan Review 9, 127–149. Nelson, A. (1978) Japanese–English Character Dictionary. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle. Ohnuki-Tierney, E. (1993) Rice as Self: Japanese Identities Through Time. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Otsuka, Y. (1998) ‘Chinese Traditional Medicine in Japan.’ In C. Leslie (ed.) Asian Medical Systems: A Comparative Study. Oakland, CA: University of California Press. Wiseman, N. (1998) A Practical Dictionary of Chinese Medicine. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

215

PINYIN INDEX

än zhöng sân 70

liù jün zî täng 88

bàn xià bái zhú tiän má täng 87 bàn xìa hòu pò täng 86 bàn xià xiè xïn täng 87 bû zhöng yì qì täng 87 bû zhöng zhî shí täng 87

mài mén döng täng 86

chái hú guì (zhï) (gän) jiäng täng 79 chái hú guì zhï täng 78 chái hú jiä lóng gû mû lì täng 78 dà chái hú täng 83 dà chéng qì täng 83 dà huáng mû dän pí täng 82 dà jiàn zhöng täng 82 däng guï jiàn zhöng täng 84 däng guï sháo yào sân 85 däng guï sì nì jiä wú zhü yú shëng jiäng täng 85 fù zî täng 75,76 gän câo fù zî täng 75 gän câo täng 75, 80 gän câo xiè xïn täng 75 gän lù yîn 76 gän mài dà zâo täng 75 gé gën täng 74 göu téng sân 84 guä loú zhî shí täng 75 guï pí täng 74 ́guì zhï jiä lóng gû mû lì täng 77 guì zhï jiä sháo yào täng 76 guì zhï täng 76, 78 huáng lián ë jiäo täng 73 huáng lián jiê dú täng 73 huáng lián täng 73 huáng qí jiàn zhöng täng 73 huáng qín täng 79 jiä wèi guï pí täng 74 jiä wèi xiäo yáo sân 74 líng gän (wû) wèi (jiä) jiäng xïn (bàn) xià (xìng) rén täng 88 líng guì zhú gän täng 88

216

rén shën täng 85 sän huáng xiè xïn täng 79 sän wù huáng qín täng 79 sháo yào täng 76 shí quán dà bû täng 81 sì jün zî täng 80 sì nì täng 80 sì wù täng 8 0 táo hé chéng qì täng 84 tuö lî xiäo dú yîn 83 wèi fëng täng 71 wêi zhèng fang 70 wën dân täng 72, 83 wën jïng täng 71 wën qïng yîn 72 wû líng sân 71, 77 wú zhü yú täng78 xiâo chái hú täng 81 xiâo jiàn zhöng täng 81 xiâo qïng lóng täng 82 xiäo yáo sân 74 xiè xïn täng 62, 75, 79, 87 xiöng guï jiäo ài täng 76 yán nián bàn xià täng 72–3 yì gän sân 88 yî zì täng 74 yïn chén häo täng 71 yïn chén wû líng sân 71 yùe bì jiä zhú täng 72 zhën wû täng 82 zhì gän câo täng 80 zhü líng täng 84 zhú rú wën dân täng 83 zhú yè shí gäo täng 84 zï yïn jiàng huô täng 79–80

INDEX

Abdomen conformations 56–61 examination see Abdominal examination full 40, 56–57, 58, 60, 62, 76, 83, 104, 116 inside spasm 58–59 lax see Lax abdomen lower see Lower abdomen Abdominal examination 55–61 aims 55–56 conformations 59–61 method 55 Achyranthes 70 Acne 130–131 Aconite cinnamon with 76–77 ginger with 80, 117 ginseng with 117 liquorice with 75, 80, 110, 112 peony with 112 rhubarb with 106, 108 Acute colitis 102–103 Adnexitis uteri 124–125 Alisma 105, 107 Allergic rhinitis 127 An chuh san/an zhong san (cardamom and fennel formula) 70, 99, 101 Anaemia 108 Anemarrhena 110 Anxiety 117 Apoplexy, cerebral 115–116 Apricot seed 104 Ma huang with 94, 95, 117, 119, 122 Arctium 129 Areca 97–98 Arerugi sei bi en (allergic rhinitis) 127 Arisaema 111, 113 Asarum 93–94, 112, 113 Ase (sweat) 47 Asking 43, 46–51 Asthma, bronchial 95 Astragalus 26, 108 combination 44, 73, 87, 96, 111, 112, 119 ginseng with 87, 96

Platycodon with 121 Stephania with 87, 111–112 Athlete’s foot 128 Atony, stomach 72, 100, 101, 113, 127 Atractylodes Arisaema with 111 cinnamon with 110–111, 112, 115, 116 combination 72, 112 hoelen with 88–89 Setaria with 71, 103 Auditory examination 43, 46 Autotoxicity, childhood 118 Ba wei (di huang) wan see Rehmannia eight combination Bakumondo toh see Mai men dong tang (Ophiopogon combination) Bamboo ginseng with 83, 94 gypsum with 84 hoelen with 72, 114 Ban xia bai zhu tian ma tang (Pinellia and Gastrodia combination) 87, 97, 100, 127 see also Gastrodia; Pinellia Ban xia hou pu tang (Pinellia and magnolia combination) 86, 98, 101, 109, 117, 118, 124 see also Magnolia; Pinellia Ban xia xie xin tang (Pinellia combination) 87, 102, 104, 105 Basedoh byoh (hyperthyroidism/ Basedow’s disease/ Graves’ disease) 109–110 Basedow’s disease 109–110 Bedwetting 120 Bi (faint/minute pulse) 54 Big pulse 54 Black fur tongue 45–46 Black skin disease 131 Bleeding 50

Blood pressure, high 96 Blood stagnation conformation 42 Blue dragon, minor 82, 94, 95, 117, 127 Boh koh en (cystitis) 132 Boh shin (visual examination) 43, 44–46 Bohi ohgi toh 87 see also Huang qi fang ji tang (Stephania and Astragalus combination) Bone tubercles 122 Bowel movements 47–48 Bowstring pulse 53 Brightness stage, yang 62–63 Broken disease stage 65 Bronchial asthma 95 Bronchitis 94–95 Bruises 121 Bu zhong yi qi tang (ginseng and Astragalus combination) 87, 96 Bun shin (auditory examination) 43, 46 Bupleurum Capillaris with 106 cinnamon with 78, 79, 101, 106, 109, 119 Coptis with 107 dragonbone with 78, 97, 98, 109, 115, 116, 117, 124, 133 formula 116, 117 ginger with 79 ginseng with 74, 114 hoelen with 107 longan with 74, 114 major combinations 95, 96, 99, 103, 104, 106, 111, 116, 128, 129, 130, 133 minor combinations 81, 94, 95, 96, 99, 105, 106, 107, 117, 118, 119, 120, 128 peony with 74, 101, 109–110, 111, 124, 126, 131 Pinellia and magnolia with 95

Schizonepeta with 121, 128, 129 scute with 94, 128 Burns 122 Bursitis 111 Byoh mei no kon jyaku (disease names) 38–43 Cancer, stomach 102 Capillaris Bupleurum with 106 combination 71, 105, 107, 123, 129 hoelen with 106 Carbuncles 121 Cardamon 70, 99, 101 Cardiac neurosis 98 Cerebral apoplexy 115–116 Chai hu gui zhi gan jiang tang (Bupleurum, cinnamon and ginger combination) 79 see also Bupleurum; Cinnamon; Ginger Chai hu gui zhi tang (Bupleurum and cinnamon combination) 78, 79, 101, 106, 109, 119 see also Bupleurum; Cinnamon Chai hu jia long gu mu li tang (Bupleurum and dragonbone combination) 78, 97, 98, 109, 115, 116, 117, 124, 133 see also Bupleurum; Dragonbone Chi (slow pulse) 52–53 Chi no michi sho 124 Chih shih 75, 94 Chikujo untan toh see Zhu ru wen dan tang (bamboo and ginseng combination) Chikuyoh sekko toh see Zhu ye shi gao tang (bamboo leaves and gypsum combination)

217

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice Children autotoxicity 118 bedwetting 120 constitutionally kyo and weak 118–120 night frights 120–121 Chin (sunken pulse) 52 Chorei toh see Zhu ling tang (Polyporus combination) Chotoh san see Gou teng san (gambir formula) Chronic colitis 103–104 Chronic constipation 104–105 Cimicifuga 74, 122, 133 Cinnamon aconite with 76–77 Anemarrhena with 110 Atractylodes with 110– 111, 112, 115, 116 Bupleurum with 78, 79, 101, 106, 109, 119 combination 76, 93 dragonbone with 77, 109, 120, 122, 132 ginger with 79 ginseng with 103, 118 hoelen with 77, 107–108, 112, 113, 115, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126–127, 128, 129, 130, 131 major combinations 105 minor combinations 120 peony with 76, 81, 100, 102, 104, 109, 115, 117, 120, 122, 125 Persica with 126 rhubarb with 104, 115 tang kuei with 122, 125 Cirrhosis 105–106 Citrus 117–118 Clematis 113 Climacteric disorders 124 Cnidium 111, 127, 131, 133 Coix 110, 112, 128 Cold common 93–94 damaging 46–47 ulcers 122 Colitis acute 102–103 chronic 103–104 Common cold 93–94 Companion disease 64–65 Conformations 38–43 abdominal 56–61 blood stagnation 42 empty and full 40 exterior empty 40 exterior empty interior 41 exterior full 40 exterior interior empty 41 interior empty 40 interior full 40–41

218

ki stagnation 41–42 pathological fluid 42–43 terminology 38–39 Yang 39 Yin 39–40 Conked I Gaku (A Handbook of Chinese Medicine) 26 Constipation, chronic 104–105 Constitutional types 95, 96, 104, 115, 116, 118 Coptis Bupleurum with 107 combination 73 gelatin with 73 rhubarb with 79, 101, 104, 114, 115–116, 121, 128, 133 scute with 73–74, 97, 101, 114, 115–116, 121, 124, 131, 133 Cough 49–50 whooping cough 117–118 Crying at night 120–121 Cyperus 94, 124 Cystitis 132 Da boku sho (bruises) 121 Da chai hu tang (major Bupleurum combination) 83, 95, 96, 99, 103, 104, 106, 111, 116, 128, 129, 130, 133 see also Bupleurum Da cheng qi tang (major rhubarb combination) 83 see also Rhubarb Da huang mu dan pi tang (rhubarb and moutan combination) 82, 107– 108, 122, 124, 126, 131 see also Moutan; Rhubarb Da jian zhong tang (major Zanthoxylum combination) 82–83, 108 see also Zanthoxylum Dai (big, irregular or vast) 54–55 Dai ben (bowel movements) 47–48 Dai jyohki toh see Da cheng qi tang (major rhubarb combination) Dai kenchu toh see Da jian zhong tang (major Zanthoxylum combination) Dai saiko toh see Da chai hu tang (major Bupleurum combination) Daio botanpi toh see Da huang mu dan pi tang

(rhubarb and moutan combination) Damaging cold, damaging wind 46–47 Dang gui jian zhong tang (tang kuei, cinnamon and peony combination) 84–85 see also Cinnamon; Peony; Tang kuei Dang gui shao yao san (tang kuei and peony formula) 85, 107, 122, 123–124, 125, 126, 131 see also Peony; Tang kuei Dang gui si ni jia wu zhu yu sheng jiang tang (tang kuei, Evodia and ginger combination) 85 see also Evodia; Ginger; Tang kuei Dark purple tongue 46 Dermatitis 129–130 Diabetes mellitus 110 Dichroa 122 Disease names 38–43 patient conditions classified by 93–133 Dizziness 51 Dragonbone Bupleurum with 78, 97, 98, 109, 115, 116, 117, 124, 133 cinnamon with 77, 109, 120, 122, 132 Dry mouth 48–49 Dry tinea 131 Duodenal ulcers 101–102 Dysmenorrhoea 125 E byoh (broken disease stage) 65 Ecchymoses 108–109 Eczema 129–130 Edo period (1603– 1867) 15, 19 Emisis gravidarum 123 Empty and full conformation 40 Empyema 127–128 Endometriosis 126 En-nen hange toh see Yan nian ban xia tang (Evodia and Pinellia combination) Entered stage 64–65 Epigastric obstruction/ epigastric obstructive hardness 57–58 Epigastric splash sound 57 Epilepsy 117 Eppi ka jutsu toh see Yue bi jia zhu tang (Atractylodes combination) Eriocheir 122 Eucommia 70

Evil wind (o fuh) 39, 40, 47, 61, 76 Evodia Areca with 97–98 combination 78, 105, 113 ginger with 120, 126, 133 Pinellia with 72–73, 101 tang kuei with 71–72, 112, 120, 126, 127, 128, 133 Examinations, four 43–61 auditory 43, 46 oral 43, 46–51 visual 43, 44–46 Exterior empty conformation 40 Exterior empty interior full conformation 41 Exterior full conformation 40 Exterior interior empty conformation 41 Exudative type, in children 118, 119 Facial paralysis 115 Faint pulse 54 Felon 128 Fennel 70, 99, 101 Fever 47 ‘50 year shoulder’ 111 Fine pulse 54 Floating pulse 52 Fluid conformation, pathological 42–43 Forsythia 119, 130 Four examinations see Examinations, four Frostbite 120 Frozen shoulder 111 Fu (floating pulse) 52 Fu min shoh (insomnia) 114–115 Fu nin shoh (infertility) 126–127 Fuku (hidden pulse) 54 Fuku bi ko en (sinusitis/ nasal infections) 127–128 Fuku bu nan jyaku mu ryoku (lax abdomen) 26, 56 Fuku man see Full abdomen Fuku shin hoh (abdominal examination method) 55 Fuku shin no moku teki (aims of abdominal examination) 55–56 Fuku Shoh Ki Ran (Unusual Patterns of Abdominal Diagnosis) 29 Full abdomen 40, 56–57, 58, 60, 62, 76, 83, 104, 116 Furuncles 121

Index Gallbladder, inflamed 106 Gallstones 106 Gambir 84, 96, 97 Gan cao fu zi tang (liquorice and aconite combination) 75, 80, 110, 112 see also Aconite; Liquorice Gan cao tang (liquorice combination) 75 see also Liquorice Gan cao xie xin tang (Pinellia and liquorice combination) 75, 102–103, 104, 114, 133 see also Liquorice; Pinellia Gan lu yin (sweet combination) 76 Gan mai da zao tang (liquorice and jujube combination) 75, 118 see also Jujube; Liquorice Gan men shin kei ma hi (facial paralysis) 115 Gardenia Pinellia with 102 tang kuei with 72, 129, 131, 133 Gastritis 98–100, 133 Gastrodia 87, 97, 100, 127 Gastrointestinal tract, upper 101–102 Gastroptosis 100–101 Ge gen tang (Pueraria combination) 74, 93, 103, 110, 111, 112, 115, 120, 127, 128 see also Pueraria Gekkei kon nan shoh (dysmenorrhoea and menstruation difficulties) 125 Gelatin Coptis with 73 tang kuei with 76, 122, 126 Gen (bowstring pulse) 53 Gen un (dizziness) 51 Gentiana 125, 126, 132 Ginger 117–118 aconite with 80, 117 Alisma with 105 Bupleurum with 79 cinnamon with 79 Evodia with 120, 126, 133 ginseng with 85–86, 99, 103, 106, 117, 122 hoelen with 105 liquorice with 80, 102 magnolia with 100 Pinellia with 102–103 Pueraria with 98 tang kuei with 112, 120, 126, 133

Ginseng aconite with 117 Astragalus with 87, 96 bamboo with 83, 94 Bupleurum with 74, 114 cinnamon with 103, 118 ginger with 85–86, 99, 103, 106, 117, 122 gypsum with 110, 120 longan with 74, 104, 108, 109, 114 Ma huang with 115, 116 Stephania with 97, 107 tang kuei ten combination with 81, 108, 109, 122 Gleditsia 83, 121 Go rei san see Wu ling san (hoelen five herb formula) Goal-setting 24 Goh byoh (paired disease) 64–65 Goh juyh kata (frozen shoulder) 111 Gosei-ha (reformation school) 26 Goshuyu toh see Wu zhu yu tang (Evodia combination) Gou teng san (gambir formula) 84, 96, 97 Graves’ disease 109–110 Greater yang stage 61–62 Greater yin stage 63 Gua lou zhi shi tang (Trichosanthes and chihshih combination) 75, 94 see also Trichosanthes Gui zhi fu ling tang (cinnamon and hoelen formula) 77, 107–108, 112, 113, 115, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126–127, 128, 129, 130, 131 see also Cinnamon; Hoelen Gui zhi jia fu zi tang (cinnamon and aconite combination) 76–77 see also Aconite; Cinnamon Gui zhi jia long gu mu li tang (cinnamon and dragonbone combination) 77, 109, 120, 122, 132 see also Cinnamon; Dragonbone Gui zhi jia shao yao tang (cinnamon and peony combination) 76, 81, 100, 102, 104, 109, 115, 117, 120, 122, 125 see also Cinnamon; Peony

Gui zhi tang (cinnamon combination) 76, 93 see also Cinnamon Gypsum bamboo with 84 combination 130 ginseng with 110, 120 magnolia with 127 Hachi mi gan see Rehmannia eight Haemorrhoids 122 Hai kekkaku (pulmonary tuberculosis) 95–96 Haku tai (white fur tongue) 45 Han dynasty, China 15 Hange byaku jyutsu tenma toh see Ban xia bai zhu tian ma tang (Pinellia and Gastrodia combination) Hange kohboku toh see Ban xia hou pu tang (Pinellia and magnolia combination) Hange shashin toh see Ban xia xie xin tang (Pinellia combination) Headache 50–51 one-sided 113–114 Healing 25 Heart valvular disease 97–98 Hei byo (companion disease) 64–65 Hematite 99, 102 Hen kei sei hiza kan setsu shoh (osteoarthrosis) 111–112 Hen zu tsuh (migraine) 113–114 Hepatitis 105–106 Herbs see Major herbs combinations; Minor herbs combinations; individual herbs Hi fu en (dermatitis) 129–130 Hidden pulse 54 Hin ketsu (anaemia) 108 Hiragana sounds, Japanese 18 Hives 128–129 Hochuh ekki toh see Bu zhong yi qi tang (ginseng and Astragalus combination) Hoelen 117–118 Alisma with 107 Atractylodes with 88–89 bamboo with 72, 114 Bupleurum with 107 Capillaris with 106

cinnamon with 77, 107–108, 112, 113, 115, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126–127, 128, 129, 130, 131 five formula 77, 103, 105, 106–107, 112, 113, 118, 119, 123 ginger with 105 jujube with 89, 118 liquorice with 89, 118 minor combinations 122 Pinellia with 105, 122 Schizandra with 88, 94, 95 Hollow pulse 54 Hon ton to/ben tong tang (‘running piglet decoction’) 98 Hone kan setsu kekkaku (kariesu) (tubercles and cold ulcers) 122 Huang lian e jiao tang (Captis and gelatin combination) 73 see also Coptis; Gelatin Huang lian jie du tang (Coptis and scute combination) 73–74, 97, 101, 114, 115–116, 121, 124, 131, 133 see also Coptis; Scute Huang lian tang (Coptis combination) 73 see also Coptis Huang qi fang ji tang (Stephania and Astragalus combination) 87, 111–112 Huang qi jian zhong tang (Astragalus combination) 44, 73, 87, 96, 111, 112, 119 ‘100-day cough’ 117–118 Hyaku nichi zeki (whooping cough) 117–118 Hyoh jitsu shoh (exterior full conformation) 40 Hyoh kyo ri jitsu shoh (exterior empty interior full conformation) 41 Hyoh kyo shoh (exterior empty conformation) 40 Hyoh ri kyo shoh (exterior interior empty conformation) 41 Hyperthyroidism 109–110 Hypertrophy, prostatic 132 Hypochondriac distress and fullness 58 Hypochondriac obstruction and resistance 58

219

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice I en (gastritis) 98–100, 133 I fuh toh see Wei feng tang (Atractylodes and Setaria combination) I gan (stomach cancer) 102 I ka sui (stomach prolapse) 100–101 I kai yo (stomach and duodenal ulcers) 101–102 I shoh hoh see Wei zheng fang (Eucommia and Achyranthes combination) Impotence 132–133 In (Yin) 39 In roh shoh (impotence) 132–133 In shoh (Yin conformation) 39–40 Inchin gorei san see Yin chen wu ling san (Capillaris and hoelen formula) Inchinko toh see Yin chen hao tang (Capillaris combination) Infertility 126–127 see also Pregnancy Influenza 93–94 Inside empty conformation see Interior empty conformation Inside full conformation see Interior full conformation Inside spasm (abdomen) 58–59 Insomnia 114–115 Interior empty conformation 40 Interior full conformation 40–41 ‘Intestines, first twelve fingers’ 101–102 Inula 99, 102 Irregular pulse 54–55 Japan Society for Oriental Medicine ( JSOM) 15 Japanese civil war (1867) 15 Japanese National Insurance Programme 16 Ji kaku (haemorrhoids) 122 Jia wei gui pi tang (ginseng, longan and Bupleurum combination) 74, 104, 108, 109, 114 see also Bupleurum; Ginseng; Longan Jia wei xiao yao san (Bupleurum and peony formula) 4, 101, 109– 110, 111, 124, 126, 131 see also Bupleurum; Peony

220

Ji-in kohka toh see Zi yin jiang huo tang (Phellodendron combination) Jin en (nephritis and nephrosis) 106–107 Jin ma shin (urticaria) 128–129 Jitsu (full) 40 Joint tubercles 122 Journals 25 Jujube hoelen with 89, 118 liquorice with 75, 89, 118 Jyaku (weak pulse) 54 Jyo shuh ben pi (chronic constipation) 104–105 Jyuh ni shi choh kai yoh (upper gastrointestinal tract) 101–102 Jyuh yoh na fuku shoh (abdominal conformations) 56–61 Jyuhzen taiho toh see Shi quan da bu tang (ginseng and tang kuei ten combination) Kakkon toh see Ge gen tang (Pueraria combination) Kami kihi toh see Jia wei gui pi tang (ginseng, longan and Bupleurum combination) Kami shohyah san see Jia wei xiao yao san (Bupleurum and peony formula) Kampo I Gaku (key text) 19 Kampo Kenkyuh (Kampo Research), 25 Kampo medicine (Sino–Japanese herbal medicine) beginner’s mind 24 current state in Japan 16 definition 15 formulas 16, 18 history 15–16 in next decade 19 see also under Hoelen Kampo no Rinshoh (Clinical Kampo) 25 Kampo Society, Japan 15 Kan (relaxed/moderate pulse) 55 Kan boh (common cold) 93–94 Kan en (hepatitis and cirrhosis) 105–106 Kan ho jyo haku sen (mizumushi) 128 Kan pan (shimi) (liver spots) 131 Kan poh jyoh haku sen (athlete’s foot) 128 Kan sen (dry tinea) 131

Kan setsu ryumachi (rheumatic joints) 110–111 Kanbaku taiso toh 75 see also Gan mai da zao tang (liquorice and jujube combination) Kanpo To Min Kan Yaku Hyakka (An Encyclopaedia of Kampo and Folk Medicine) 25 Kanro in see Gan lu yin (sweet combination) Kanzoh bushi toh see Gan cao fu zi tang (liquorice and aconite combination) Kanzoh shashin toh see Gan cao xie xin tang (Pinellia and liquorice combination) Kanzoh toh see Gan cao tang (liquorice combination) Karo kijitsu toh see Gua lou zhi shi tang (Trichosanthes and chih-shih combination) Katakana alphabet 17 Katsu (slippery pulse) 53 Keishi bukuryo gan see Gui zhi fu ling tang (cinnamon and hoelen formula) Keishi ka bushi toh see Gui zhi jia fu zi tang (cinnamon and aconite combination) 76–77 Keishi ka ryuhkotsu borei toh see Gui zhi jia long gu mu li tang (cinnamon and dragonbone combination) Keishi ka shakuyaku toh see Gui zhi jia shao yao tang (cinnamon and peony combination) Keishi toh see Gui zhi tang (cinnamon combination) Ketsu (knotted pulse) 55 Ketsu in (kecchin) byoh (polar yin stage) 64 Ki kan shi en (bronchitis) 94–95 Ki kan shi zen soku (bronchial asthma) 95 Ki stagnation conformation 41–42 Ki tai shoh (ki stagnation conformation) 41–42 Kidneys, nephritis and nephrosis affecting 106–107 Kin (tight pulse) 53 Kin Ki Yoh Ryaku (Prescriptions from the Golden Cabinet) 25, 26, 111 Knotted pulse 55

Ko ketsu atsu sho (high blood pressure) 96–97 Ko Kun I Den (Ancient Ways of Physicians) 30–31 Koh (hollow pulse) 54 Koh kan see Koh katsu/ koh kan (thirst and dry mouth) Koh Kan I Gaku (Yumoto Kyuhshin) 15 Koh katsu/koh kan (thirst and dry mouth) 48–49 Koh nai en (stomatitis) 133 Kohchi prefecture, Shikoku (southern Japan) 15 Kohoh-ha (classical school) 26 Koku hi sho (melanodermatitis) 131 Koku tai (black fur tongue) 45–46 Kumamoto Medical School, Japan 15 Kyo (empty) 40 Kyo jyaku ji doh (children constitutionally kyo and weak) 118–120 Kyo kyo ku man 130 Kyo sen rinpa tai shitsu (lymphatic type) 119 Kyoh ka hi koh (hypochondriac obstruction and resistance) 58 Kyuh ki kyogai toh see Xiong gui jiao ai tang (tang kuei and gelatin combination) Kyuh sei i choh en (acute colitis) 102–103 Kyuhshin, Y. 15 Lax abdomen 26, 56 Leg, puerperal thrombosis 123 Lesser yang stage 62 Lesser yin stage 63–64 Ling gan jiang wei xin xia ren tang (hoelen and Schixandra combination) 88, 94, 95 Ling gui gan zao tang (hoelen, liquorice and jujube combination) 89 Ling gui zhu gan tang (Atractylodes and hoelen combination) 88–89 Linum apricot seed with 104 rhubarb with 104 Liquorice aconite with 75, 80, 110, 112 baked 80, 97, 108, 109 combination 75 ginger with 80, 102 hoelen with 89, 118

Index jujube with 75, 89, 118 peony with 106, 108, 112, 121 Pinellia with 75, 102– 103, 104, 114, 133 Listening 43, 46 Lithospermum ointment 120, 121, 122, 128 Liu jun zi tang (six major herb combinations) 88, 96, 100, 102, 119 Liver, hepatitis and cirrhosis affecting 105–106 Liver spots 131 Longan Bupleurum with 74, 114 ginseng with 74, 104, 108, 109, 114 Lonicera 119 Forsythia with 130 Looking (visual examination) 43, 44–46 Lotus seed 115, 132 Lower-abdomen fullness 60 hardness and fullness 60 spasm and knot 59 tight spasm 59 Lymphatic type 119 Ma huang apricot seed with 94, 95, 117, 119, 122 Asarum with 93–94, 113 Coix with 128 combination 93 ginseng with 115, 116 Magnolia Bupleurum with 95 flower 127 ginger with 100 gypsum with 127 Pinellia with 86, 98, 101, 109, 117, 118, 124 Mai men dong tang (Ophiopogon combination) 86, 94–95, 118, 127 see also Ophiopogon Major herbs combinations four 80, 101–102, 110 six 88, 96, 100, 102, 119 for anaemia 108 Bupleurum 95, 96, 99, 103, 104, 106, 111, 116, 128, 129, 130, 133 Zanthoxylum 82–83, 108 Man sei cho en (chronic colitis) 103–104 Manase, D. 15 Mastitis 125 Medical treatment, patient conditions classified by 93–133 common cold 93–94

Melanodermatitis 131 Men poh (nikibi) (acne) 130–131 Menstruation difficulties 125 Migraine 113–114 Minor herbs combinations blue dragon 82, 94, 95, 117, 127 Bupleurum 81, 94, 95, 96, 105, 106, 107, 117, 118, 119, 120, 128 cinnamon 81, 100, 105, 109, 120 hoelen 122 peony 81, 100, 105, 109, 120 Pinellia 122 Minute pulse 54 Miscarriage, frequent/ habitual 123–124 Moderate pulse 55 Mon shin (oral examination) 43, 46–51 Morning sickness 123 Moutan Cnidium with 133 rhubarb with 82, 107–108, 122, 124, 126, 131 Mr Reel’s black skin disease 131 Myaku no shu rui (pulse categories) 52–55 Myaku shin see Pulse examination Myaku shin no bu i (location of pulse exam) 51–52 National Insurance Programme, Japan 16 Nefurohze (nephritis and nephrosis) 106–107 Nephritis 106–107 Nephrosis 106–107 Nerve pain 112–113 Netsu (fever) 47 Neuralgia 112–113 Neuropathic type 119 Neurosis 117 Night frights 120–121 Nihzuma’s Stop Asthma toh 118 Nin oso (tsuwari) 123, 124 Nin shin chuh doku shoh (toxaemia of pregnancy) 123, 124 Nin shin o so (tsuwari) (morning sickness) 123 Ninjin toh see Ren shen tang aka ri chuh toh (li zhong tang) (ginseng and ginger combination) No-fur tongue 45 Noh socchu (cerebral apoplexy) 115–116

Nyoh ro kesseki (urinary tract stones) 107–108 Nyuh sen shoh (mastitis) 125 O fuh (evil wind) 39, 40, 47, 61, 76 O kan (damaging cold, damaging wind) 46–47 O ketsu shoh (blood stagnation conformation) 42 Obstruction epigastric 57–58 hypochondriac 58 Ogi kenchu toh 73 Oh tai (yellow fur tongue) 45 Oh to (vomiting) 105 Ohgi kenchuh toh see Huang qi jian zhong tang (Astragalus combination) Ohren akyoh toh see Huang lian e jiao tang (Captis and gelatin combination) Ohren toh see Huang lian tang (Coptis combination) One-sided headache 113–114 Ophiopogon Asarum with 112 combination 86, 94–95, 118, 127 Trichosanthes with 110 Oral examination 43, 46–51 Oren gedoku toh see Huang lian jie du tang (Coptis and scute combination) Oriental Medicine Research Center, Kitasato Institute 15 Osteoarthosis 111–112 Otsuji toh see Yi zi tang (Cimicifuga combination) Otsuka, K. biography 15 given name 18 Outside empty conformation see Exterior empty conformation Outside empty inside full conformation see Exterior empty interior full conformation Outside full conformation see Exterior full conformation Outside inside empty conformation see Exterior interior empty conformation Oystershell 122

Paired disease 64–65 Panic attacks 98 Paralysis, facial 115 Paranasal cavity infections 127–128 Paronychia 128 Pathological fluid conformation 42–43 Peony 107 aconite with 112 Bupleurum with 74, 101, 109–110, 111, 124, 126, 131 cinnamon with 76, 81, 100, 102, 104, 109, 115, 117, 120, 122 combination 103 liquorice with 106, 108, 112, 121 major 105 minor combinations 120 rhubarb with 104 tang kuei with 85, 107, 122, 123–124, 125, 126, 131 Perilla 94 Persica cinnamon with 126 rhubarb with 84, 107–108, 113–114, 121, 122, 124–125 Petechiae 108–109 Phellodendron 79–80, 95 Phonetics, Japanese 17, 18 Piles (haemorrhoids) 122 Pinellia 95 Arisaema with 113 combination 87, 102, 104, 105 Evodia with 72–73, 101 gardenia with 102 Gastrodia with 87, 97, 100, 127 ginger with 98, 102–103 hoelen with 122 liquorice with 75, 102– 103, 104, 114, 133 magnolia with 86, 98, 101, 109, 117, 118, 124 minor combinations 105, 122 Platycodon Astragalus with 121 Siler with 97, 108, 130 Polar yin stage 64 Polyporus 84, 107, 115, 132 Powerless abdomen 56 Practical Dictionary of Chinese Medicine, A (Wiseman) 17 Pregnancy miscarriage, frequent/ habitual 123–124 toxaemia of 123, 124 see also Infertility Pregnant kidney 123

221

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice Prolapse stomach 100–101 uterine 125–126 Prostatitis 132 Psoriasis 131 Pueraria combination 74, 93, 103, 110, 111, 112, 115, 120, 127, 128 ginger with 98 Puerperal thrombosis of leg 123 Pulmonary tuberculosis 95–96 Pulsations 60–61, 70, 88, 97, 109, 117, 132 abdominal 78, 117 cardiac 60, 81, 82, 89 Pulse examination 51–55 location 51–52 pulse categories 52–55 Purple tongue, dark 46 Purpura 108–109 Qi stagnation conformation see Ki stagnation conformation Rapid pulse 52 Red tongue 46 Rehmannia 111, 131 Rehmannia eight combination 86–87 and ancient masters 29–31 examples 32–35 shoh of 26–29 source texts 27–29 therapeutics 97, 107, 110, 113, 116, 120, 123, 125, 129, 132, 133 Relaxed pulse 55 Ren shen tang aka ri chuh toh (li zhong tang) (ginseng and ginger combination) 85–86, 99, 103, 106, 117, 122 see also Ginger; Ginseng Rheumatic joints 110–111 Rhinitis, allergic 127 Rhubarb aconite with 106, 108 cinnamon with 104, 115 Coptis with 79, 101, 104, 114, 115–116, 121, 128, 133 linum with 104 major combinations 83 moutan with 82, 107–108, 122, 124, 126, 131 peony with 104, 115 Persica with 84, 107–108, 113–114, 121, 122, 124–125

222

Ri jitsu shoh (interior full conformation) 40–41 Ri kyo shoh (interior empty conformation) 40 Ri kyuh (inside spasm) 58–59 Rikkunshi toh see Liu jun zi tang (six major herb combinations) Rohmaji ( Japanese phonetics) 17, 18 Rough pulse 53–54 Rui Jyu Hoh Koh Gi (An Overview of the Rui Jyu Hoh Gi) 31 Rui Jyu Hoh Shuh Ran (An Inspection of the Rui Jyu Hoh) 29 ‘Running piglet decoction’ 98 Ryoh Ji Sa Dan (Discussiosn on Medical Treatment over Tea) 31 Ryoh kan kyoh mi shin ge nin toh see Ling gan jiang wei xin xia ren tang (hoelen and Schixandra combination) Ryoh kei jutsu kan toh see Ling gui zhu gan tang (Atractylodes and hoelen combination) Ryoh kei kanso toh see Ling gui gan zao tang (hoelen, liquorice and jujube combination) 89 Ryuh zan heki (frequent/ habitual miscarriage) 123–124 Sai (thin/fine and small pulse) 54 Saiko ka ryuhkotsu borei toh see Chai hu jia long gu mu li tang (Bupleurum and dragonbone combination) Saiko keishi kankyo toh see Chai hu gui zhi gan jiang tang (Bupleurum, cinnamon and ginger combination) Saiko keishi toh see Chai hu gui zhi tang (Bupleurum and cinnamon combination) Saku (rapid pulse) 52 Salpingitis 124–125 San huang xie xin tang (Coptis and rhubarb combination) 79, 101, 104, 114, 115–116, 121, 128, 133 see also Coptis; Rhubarb San in san yoh (three yins and three yangs) 61–65

San jyoku ka shi kessen sho (puerperal thrombosis of leg) 123 San motsu ohgon toh see San wu huang qin tang (scute three herb combination) San oh shashin toh see San huang xie xin tang (Coptis and rhubarb combination) San wu huang qin tang (scute three herb combination) 79, 128 see also Scute Schizandra 88, 94, 95 Schizonepeta Bupleurum with 121, 128, 129 Coix with 128 scute with 128 Scute Bupleurum with 94, 128 Coptis with 73–74, 97, 101, 114, 115–116, 121, 124, 131, 133 Schizonepeta with 128 three herb combination 79, 128 Sei ka ki (pulsations) see Pulsations Sei netsu ge utsu toh (‘clear fever resolve sumping formula’) 99, 101 Sei Zai Hatsu On (An Imperial Medical Encyclopedia) 29–30 Setaria 71, 103 Setsu shin (tactile examination) 43, 51–61 Shakanzo toh see Zhi gan cao tang (baked liquorice combination) Shi han byo (purpura/ petechiae) 108–109 Shi kyu dasshutsu (uterine ptosis) 125–126 Shi kyu fu zoku ki en (adnexitis uteri/ salpingitis) 124–125 Shi kyu ka sui (total prolapse of uterus) 125–126 Shi kyu kin shu (uterine myoma) 126 Shi kyu nai maku en (endometriosis) 126 Shi quan da bu tang (ginseng and tang kuei ten combination) 81, 108, 109, 122 see also Ginseng; Tang kuei Shi shin (four exams) 43–61 Shigyaku toh see Si ni tang (aconite, ginger and liquorice combination) Shikoko, southern Japan 15

Shikunshi toh see Si jun zi tang (four major herb combination) Shimotsu toh see Si wu tang (tang kuei four combination) Shin ka bu shin sui on (epigastric splash sound) 57 Shin ka hi (epigastric obstruction) 57–58 Shin ka hi koh (epigastric obstructive hardness) 57 Shin ka ki see Pulsations Shin kei kan setsu en tai shitsu (neuropathic type) 119 Shin kei shoh (anxiety) 117 Shin kei tsuh (neuralgia) 112–113 Shin ki (cardiac pulsations) 60, 81, 82, 89 Shin koh sei shi shoh kaku hi shoh (felon and whitlow) 128 Shin shutsu sei tai shitsu (exudative type) 119 Shin zoh ben maku shoh (heart valvular disease) 97–98 Shin zoh shin kei shoh (panic attacks/ cardiac neurosis) 98 Shinbu toh see Zhen wu tang (vitality combination) Shisshin (eczema) 129–130 Shita ga an shi shoku no mono (dark purple tongue) 46 Shita no akai mono (red tongue) 46 Shoh see Conformations Shoh ben (urination) 48 Shoh fuku koh kyuh (lower-abdomen tight spasm) 59 Shoh fuku kyu ketsu (lower-abdomen spasm and knot) 59 Shoh fuku man (lowerabdomen fullness/lowerabdomen hardness and fullness) 60 Shoh han ge toh 105 Shoh in byoh (lesser yin stage) 63–64 Shoh Kan Ron (essential text) 25 Shoh kenchu toh see Xiao jian zhong tang (minor cinnamon and peony combination) Shoh ni ji ka chuh doku shoh (autotoxicity in childhood) 118

Index Shoh saiko toh see Xiao chai hu tang (minor Bupleurum combination) Shoh seiryuh toh see Xiao qing long tang (minor blue dragon combination) Shoh Soh Hoh I Kai (Inspired Lessons on Formula from a Window Facing a Japanese Banana Plant) 30 Shoh yoh byoh (lesser yang stage) 62 Shoku (rough pulse) 53–54 Shoulder, frozen 111 Shrub analogy 24–25 Shu sa an shin gan 115 Shukketsu (bleeding) 50 Si jun zi tang (four major herb combination) 80, 101–102, 110 Si ni tang (aconite, ginger and liquorice combination) 80 see also Aconite; Ginger; Liquorice Si wu tang (tang kuei four combination) 80 Siler combination 127, 130 major combination 111 Platycodon with 97, 108, 130 Sinusitis 127–128 Skin conditions see Acne; Athlete’s foot; Dermatitis; Eczema; Liver spots; Melanodermatitis; Psoriasis Sleeping difficulties 114–115 Slippery pulse 53 Slow pulse 52–53 Small pulse 54 Sophora root 133 Stephania Astragalus with 87, 111–112 Clematis with 113 ginseng with 97, 107 Stomach atony 72, 100, 101, 113, 127 cancer 102 prolapse 100–101 ulcers 101–102 Stomatitis 133 Stones, urinary tract 107–108 Study tips 23–35 basic preparations 24–25 goal-setting 24 teacher, attaching oneself to 25

Sunken pulse 52 Sweat 47 Tactile examination 43, 51–61 Tai in byoh (greater yin stage) 63 Tai yoh byoh (greater yang stage) 61–62 Takuri shodoku in see Tuo li xiao da yin (Gleditsia combination) Tan in shoh (pathological fluid conformation) 42–43 Tan seki shoh see Gallstones Tang kuei four herb combination 80, 108 eight herb combination 126 ten herb combination 81, 108, 109, 122 sixteen herb combination 125 Arctium with 129 Cimicifuga with 133 cinnamon with 122, 125 combination 98 Cyperus with 124 Evodia with 71–72, 112, 120, 126, 127, 128, 133 gambir with 96 gardenia with 72, 129, 131, 133 gelatin with 76, 122, 126 ginger with 112, 120, 126, 133 ginseng with 122 peony with 85, 107, 122, 123–124, 125, 126, 131 Tribulus with 130 Tao he cheng qi tang (Persica and rhubarb combination) 84, 107–108, 113–114, 121, 122, 124–125 see also Persica; Rhubarb Ten kan (epilepsy) 117 Ten nyuh (entered stage) 64–65 Ten zoku (transforming stage) 64–65 Texts essential 25 source texts of Rhemannia eight formula 27–29 Thin pulse 54 Thirst and dry mouth 48–49 Thrombosis of leg, puerperal 123 Tight pulse 53 Tinea, dry 131

Tinea pedis (athlete’s foot) 128 Toh nyoh byoh (diabetes mellitus) 110 Toh shoh (frostbite) 120 Tohkaku jyohki toh see Tao he cheng qi tang (Persica and rhubarb combination) Tohki kenchu toh see Dang gui jian zhong tang (tang kuei, cinnamon and peony combination) Tohki shakuyaku san see Dang gui shao yao san (tang kuei and peony formula) Tohki shigyaku ka goshuyu shohkyoh toh see Dang gui si ni jia wu zhu yu sheng jiang tang (tang kuei, Evodia and ginger combination) Tongue diagnosis 45 Touching 43, 51–61 Toxaemia of pregnancy 123, 124 Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) 17 Transforming stage 64–65 Translation issues 17, 70 Tribulus 130 Trichosanthes chih shih with 75, 94 Ophiopogon with 110 Tubercles, bone and joint 122 Tuberculosis, pulmonary 95–96 Tuo li xiao da yin (Gleditsia combination) 83, 121 see also Gleditsia Ulcers cold 122 stomach/duodenal 101–102 Unkei toh see Wen jing tang (tang kuei and Evodia combination) Unsei in see Wen qing yin (tang kuei and gardenia combination) Untan toh see Wen dan tang (bamboo and hoelen combination) Upper gastrointestinal tract 101–102 Urinary tract stones 107–108 Urination 48 see also Cystitis; Prostatitis Urticaria 128–129 Uterine adnexitis 124–125 Uterine myoma 126 Uterine prolapse/ ptosis 125–126

Uterine ptosis 125–126 Valvular disease, heart 97–98 Vast pulse 54 Viper formula 122 Visual examination 43, 44–46 Vitality combination 82, 96, 100, 103, 129, 130 Vomiting 105 morning sickness 123 Wa Kan Yaku (Sino–Japanese Herbal Medicine), 25 Weak pulse 54 Wei feng tang (Atractylodes and Setaria combination) 71, 103 see also Atractylodes; Setaria Wei zheng fang (Eucommia and Achyranthes combination) 70 Wen dan tang (bamboo and hoelen combination) 72, 114 see also Bamboo; Hoelen Wen jing tang (tang kuei and Evodia combination) 71–72, 112, 120, 126, 127, 128, 133 see also Evodia; Tang kuei Wen qing yin (tang kuei and gardenia combination) 72, 129, 131, 133 see also Gardenia; Tang kuei Wheals 128–129 White fur tongue 45 Whitlow 128 Whooping cough 117–118 Wind, damaging 46–47 Wu ling san (hoelen five herb formula) 77, 103, 105, 106–107, 112, 113, 118, 119, 123 Wu zhu yu tang (Evodia combination) 78, 105, 113 see also Evodia Xiao chai hu tang (minor Bupleurum combination) 81, 94, 95, 96, 105, 106, 107, 117, 118, 119, 120, 128 see also Bupleurum Xiao jian zhong tang (minor cinnamon and peony combination) 81 see also Cinnamon; Peony Xiao qing long tang (minor blue dragon combination) 82, 94, 95, 117, 127

223

KAMPO A Clinical Guide to Theory and Practice Xiong gui jiao ai tang (tang kuei and gelatin combination) 76, 122, 126 see also Gelatin; Tang kuei Ya kyoh shoh (night frights) 120–121 Ya nyoh shoh (bedwetting) 120 Ya tei shoh (crying at night) 120–121 Yakedo (burns) 122 Yan nian ban xia tang (Evodia and Pinellia combination) 72–73, 101 see also Evodia; Pinellia Yang see Yin and ya6ng Yellow fur tongue 45 Yi gan san (Bupleurum formula) 88 see also Bupleurum

224

Yi zi tang (Cimicifuga combination) 74 see also Cimicifuga Yin and yang conformations 39–40 three yins and three yangs 61–65 Yin chen hao tang (Capillaris combination) 71, 105, 107, 123, 129 see also Capillaris Yin chen wu ling san (Capillaris and hoelen formula) 71 see also Capillaris; Hoelen Yoh (Yang) 39 Yoh mei byoh (yang brightness stage) 62–63 Yoh shoh (Yang conformation) 39 Yoh so, setsu, funkurojisu (carbuncles and furuncles) 121

Yokukan san 88 see also Bupleurum Yoshimasu, T. 15 Yue bi jia zhu tang (Atractylodes combination) 72, 112 see also Atractylodes Yumoto, K. 26 Zanthoxylum 100, 105 major combination 82–83, 108 Zen ritsu sen hi dai (prostatic hypertrophy) 132 Zesshin (tongue diagnosis) 45 Zettai no nai mono (no-fur tongue) 45 Zhen wu tang (vitality combination) 82, 96, 100, 103, 129, 130

Zhi gan cao tang (baked liquorice combination) 80, 97, 108, 109 see also Liquorice Zhu ling tang (Polyporus combination) 84, 107, 115, 132 Zhu ru wen dan tang (bamboo and ginseng combination) 83, 94 see also Bamboo; Ginseng Zhu ye shi gao tang (bamboo leaves and gypsum combination) 84 see also Bamboo; Gypsum Zi yin jiang huo tang (Phellodendron combination) 79–80, 95 see also Phellodendron Zizyphus 114 Zu tsuh (headache) see Headache