Julian: Orations 1-5 [1] 9780674990142, 0674990145

Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus) "the Apostate", Roman Emperor, lived 331 or 332 to 363 CE. Born and educate

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Julian: Orations 1-5 [1]
 9780674990142, 0674990145

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HANDBOUND AT THE

UNIVERSITY OF

TORONTO PRESS

^

SZo/

THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY EDITED BY T. E.

PAGE, M.A.

AND W.

H.

J).

ROUSE,

Litt.D.

THE WORKS OF THE EMPEROR JULIAN

24,2*2^

CONTENTS PAGK

INTRODUCTION

vii

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Xlii



ORATION I. PANEGYRIC IN HONOUR OF THE EMPEROR CONSTANTIUS ORATION

II.

—THE HEROIC DEEDS

5

OF THE EMPEROR CON-

STANTIUS, OR, ON KINGSHIP

133



ORATION III. PANEGYRIC IN HONOUR OF THE EMPRESS EUSEBIA



ORATION IV. HYMN TO SALLUST ORATION

INDEX

V.

KING

HELIOS

275

DEDICATED TO

— HYMN TO THE MOTHER OF THE GODS

353 .

.

.

443 505



INTRODUCTION

Flavius Claudius Julianus, 1 son of Julius Con-

and nephew of the Emperor Constantine,

stantius

was born at Constantinople in 331 a.d. His father, eldest brother, and cousins were slain in the massacre by which Constantius, Constantine II., and Constans secured the empire for themselves on the death of their father

Constantine

in

337.

Julian and his

elder brother Gallus spent a precarious childhood

and youth, of which

six years were passed in close confinement in the remote castle of Macellum in

Cappadocia, secure

when,

and in

was hardly more 350, Gallus was elevated to the their

position

Caesarship by Constantius, who, after the violent deaths of his two brothers, was now sole ruler of

the empire.

But Julian was allowed to pursue his Greek literature and philosophy,

favourite studies in

partly at 1

The

Nicomedia and Athens, partly in the

cities

chief sources for the life of Julian are his Orations, his Letter to the Athenians, Ammianus Marcellinus, and the Orations and Epistles of Libanius.

INTRODUCTION of Asia Minor, and he

Maxihius

of

was deeply influenced by

Ephesus,

the

occult

philosopher, Libanius of Nicomedia, the fashionable sophist, and Themistius the Aristotelian commentator, the only

genuine philosopher among the sophists of the fourth century

a.d.

When

the excesses of the revolutionary Gallus ended in his death at the hands of Constantius, Julian,

an

summoned

awkward and to

retiring

student,

was

the court at Milan, where he was

protected by the Empress Eusebia from the suspicions of Constantius and the intrigues of hostile courtiers.

Constantius had no heir to continue the dynasty of the Constantii. He therefore raised Julian to the Caesarship in

355, gave

him

Gallic provinces.

To the

Helena

his sister

marriage, and dispatched him to Gaul surprise of

in

to pacify the all,

four successive campaigns against the

Julian in

Franks and

the Alemanis proved himself a good soldier and a popular general. His Commentaries on these 1 2 campaigns are praised by Eunapius and Libanius, but are not now extant. In 357-358 Constantius,

who was occupied by wars

against the Quadi and

the Sarmatians, and threatened with a renewal of hostilities

by the Persian king Sapor, ordered 1

viii

fr.

89.

2

Epistle, 33.

Julian,

INTRODUCTION who was then

at Paris, to send to his aid the best of

Julian would have obeyed, but unwilling to take service in the East,

the Gallic legions. his

troops,

mutinied and proclaimed him Emperor (359 a.d.). Julian issued manifestoes justifying his conduct to the Senates of

Rome and Athens and

to the Spartans

and Corinthians, a characteristic anachronism, since no longer had any weight. It was not

their opinion till

361

that

he

began

his

march eastward

to

His troops, army in numbers no were and devoted, though seasoned match for the legions of his cousin. But the latter, of

encounter the

Constantius.

while marching through Cilicia to oppose his advance, died suddenly of a fever near Tarsus, and Julian, now in

his thirtieth

throne and

year, succeeded peacefully to the

made

a triumphal entry into

Constan-

tinople in December, 361.

The eunuchs and

courtiers

who had surrounded

Constantius were replaced by sophists and philosophers, and in the next six months Julian set on foot

numerous economic and administrative reforms.

He

had long been secretly devoted to the Pagan religion, and he at once proclaimed the restoration of the

Pagan gods and the temple worship. Christianity he tolerated, and in his brief reign of sixteen months the Christians were not actively persecuted.

His ix

INTRODUCTION which survives only in The an explanation of his apostasy. fragments, was " " him was bestowed on by the Apostate epithet

treatise Against the Christians,



Meanwhile he was preparing he Constantinople then at Antioch, where

Christian Fathers. first

at

Misopogon, a satire and frivolity of the inhabitants

wrote

the

on

—for

the

luxury

a

campaign from against Sapor, a task which he had inherited In March, 362 he left Antioch and Constantius. crossed the Euphrates, visited Carrhae, memorable for the defeat of Crassus, then crossed the Tigris,

and, after

burning towards Armenia.

his

fleet,

retired

northwards

On the march he fought an indecisive battle with the Persians at Maranga, and in a skirmish with the retreating enemy he was mortally

wounded by a

His body was

javelin (January 26th, 363).

carried to Tarsus

by

his successor the

Emperor Jovian, and was probably removed later to The legend that as he died he Constantinople. exclaimed YaXiXau vcviKrjKas, " Thou hast conquered, :

O

Galilaean!

Theodoret

"

appears

first

in the Christian historian

in the fifth century.

Julian was the last

male descendant of the famous dynasty founded by Constantius Chlorus.

of

In spite of his military achievements, he was, first Even on his campaigns he took his all, a student.

INTRODUCTION books with him, and several of his extant works were

composed

He had

in camp.

been trained, according

to the fashion of his times, in rhetorical studies

by

and he has

all

professional sophists such as Libanius,

It was the mannerisms of a fourth century sophist. the sophistic etiquette to avoid the direct use of

names, and Julian never names the usurpers Magnentius, Silvanus,

and Vetranio, whose suppression

by Constantius he describes in his two

first

Orations,

"the barbarian," and rather than name Mardonius, his tutor, calls him " a certain Scythian who had the same name as the man regularly refers

to

Sapor as

who persuaded Xerxes

to

invade

Hellas."

l

He

wrote the literary Greek of the fourth century a.d. which imitates the classical style, though barbarisms

and

late constructions

His

are

pages

are

never entirely avoided. echoes of Homer,

crowded with

Demosthenes, Plato, and Isocrates, and his style is interwoven with half verses, phrases, and whole sentences taken without acknowledgment from the Greek masterpieces. It is certain that, like other sophists,

he wished

his readers to recognise these

echoes, and therefore his source

is

always

classical, so

that where he seems to imitate Dio Chrysostom or Themistius, both go back to a common source, which 1

352 A. xi

INTRODUCTION Julian had in mind. his

is

the

Another sophistic element in

use

of

commonplaces, literary had passed into the sophistic language and can be found in all the writers of reminiscence style

allusions that

but

He

himself derides this practice J he cannot resist dragging in the well-worn

Greek

in his day.

references to Cyrus, Darius, and Alexander, to the nepenthe poured out by Helen in the Odyssey, to the defiance of nature by Xerxes, or the refusal of Socrates to admit the happiness of the Great King.

Julian wished to

make Neo-Platonism the philosophy

of his revived Hellenism, but he belonged to the younger or Syrian branch of the school, of which

Iamblichus was the real founder, and he only once Iamblichus he ranked with Plotinus.

mentions Plato

and paid

philosophical

Hymns,

is

him a

fanatical

writing, especially in

devotion.

His

the two prose

obscure, partly because his theories are

only vaguely realised, partly because he reproduces the obscurity of his model, Iamblichus. In satire

and narrative he can be clear and straightforward. 1

xn.

236 A.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Manuscripts

:



The Vossianus

(V), Leyden, l3th or 14th cent, (contains also the Letters of Libanius), is the only reliable MS. of Julian, and was once complete except for a few Letters. Where pages are lost from a group of inferior MSS.

V

are used, Marcianus 366 (M), 251 (Mb), both 15th cent., five Monacenses (at Munich), and several Parisini Cobet's contributions to the text are in (at Paris). 10 Mnemosyne 8, 9, (old series 1859-1861) and 10, 11

(new lished

series 1882-1883). A. Papadoulos Kerameus pubin Rheinisches Museum, 1887, six new Letters

discovered on the island of Chalcis. Editions

:



Misopogon and Letters (with Latin version) Martin, Martin and Cantoclarus, Paris, 1583. Paris, 1566. Petau (Petavius) Paris, 1630. Spanheim, Leipzig, 1696. Oration

Schaefer, Leipzig, 1802 (with Latin version Critical Epistle to RuhnJcen). Hertlein, 1 Leipzig (Teubner), 1875-1876. Against the Christians, Neumann, Leipzig, 18S0. Letters Heyler, Mainz, 1828. Westermann, Leipzig, 1854. I,

and Wyttenbach's

:

Literature

:



La

Vie de VEmpereur Julien, Abbe de la Bleterie, Paris, 1735. Strauss, Der JRomantiker auf dem Throne der Caesar en, Mannheim, 1847. Miicke Julian's Leben und Schriften, Gotha, 1868. Naville, Julien V Apostat, Neufchatel, 1877. Schwartz, De vita et scriplis Juliani, Bonn, 1888. Gilder sleeve Julian in Essays and Studies, Baltimore, .1890. Gardner, Julian, New York, 1895. France (W. C. Wright), Julian's Relation to Neo1

The text

of the present edition is Hertlein's, revised. xiii

BIBLIOGRAPHY Platonism and the New Sophistic, London, 1896. Negri, Imperatore Giuliano, Milan, 1902 (translated by Letta-Visconti-Arese, London, 1906). Bidez and Cumont, Recherches sur la tradition manuscrite des lettres de Julien, Brussels, 1898. Asmus, Julian und Dio ChrysoBrambs, Studien, stomus, Tauberbischofsheim, 1895. Allard, Julien VApostat, Paris, 1903. Eichstatt, 1897. authenticity de V Cumont, Sur quelques lettres de Julien,

U

Gaud,

1889.

Translations

:

— Misopogon and

Martin

in edition. Letters, Heyler in Traducedition. French : Tourlet, Paris, 3 vols. 1821. tion de quelques Ouvrages de VEmpereur Jxdien, Abbe de la Bleterie, Paris, 1748. Caesars, Spanheim, Paris, 1683. German : Against the Christians, Neumann, Leipzig,

Latin Oration

:

I,

Schaefer

in

Letters, edition.

English: Select Works by Duncombe, London, 1784 (contains also some translations of Libanius).

1880.

xiv

THE ORATIONS OF THE EMPEROR JULIAN ORATION

VOL.

I.

I

THE ORATIONS OF JULIAN INTRODUCTION TO ORATION

I

Julian's training in rhetoric left its mark on all but technically speaking his work as a Sophist is comprised in the three " panegyrics " Hymns (Orations (Orations 1-3) and the prose his writings,

Oration 1 was considered his masterpiece 4-5). It was and was used as a model by Libanius. written and probably delivered in 355 a.d., before The excuse of being an Julian went to Gaul. amateur is a commonplace (tottos) in this type of

He follows with hardly a deviaepideictic speech. tion the rules for the arrangement and treatment of a speech in praise of an emperor (/3ao-iAiKos Ao'yos) as we find them in Menander's handbook of epideictic The oratory written in the third century a.d. speech is easily analysed. First comes the prooemium to conciliate the audience and to give the threads of the argument, then the praises of the emperor's native land, ancestors, early training, deeds in war in peace (6 irepl r^s (6 7r€pi twv Trpd^ewv Aoyos) and contrasts with and the stereotyped dprjvrjs Aoyos), the Persian monarchs, the Homeric heroes, and In the two last divisions the virtues of Alcibiades. Plato's ideal king are proved to have been displayed by Constantius, his victories are exaggerated and his

INTRODUCTION TO ORATION

I

Then comes a description defeats explained away. of the happy state of the empire and the army under such a ruler, and the panegyric ends abruptly without the final prayer (evxv) ^or * ne continuance of his reign, recommended by Menander. This peroration has evidently been lost. The arrangement closely resembles that of Oration 3, the panegyric " on the Empress Eusebia, and the a Evagoras of which Julian echoes. Julian's Isocrates, frequently praises were thoroughly insincere, a compulsory tribute to a cousin whom he hated and feared.

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