Josephus: The Jewish War (Books I-II) 0674995686, 9780674995680

Иосиф Флавий — лат. Josephus Flavius иудейское имя Йосеф, бен (сын) Маттитьяху, (37 г., Иерусалим, — после 100 г., Рим),

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Josephus: The Jewish War (Books I-II)
 0674995686, 9780674995680

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THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB,

LL.D.

EDITED BY t T. E. t E.

L. A.

CAPPS, POST,

PAGE,

PH.D., LL.D.

M.A.

E. H.

C.H., LITT.D.

t

W. H.

D.

WARMINGTON,

JOSEPHUS II

ROUSE,

m.a.,

litt.d.

f.r.hist.soc.

JOSEPHUS WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY H. ST.

J.

THACKERAY,

M.A.

HON. D.D. OXFORD, HON. D.D. DURHAM

IN NINE VOLUMES II

THE JEWISH WAR, BOOKS

I-III

LONDON

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS MCMLVI

First printed 1927

Reprinted 1956

s.w

Printed in Great Britain

CONTENTS OF VOLUME

II PAGE

Introduction

vii

THE JEWISH W AR— Book Book Book

2

I

II

III

322 574

.

.

The Herodian Family Maps

— Galilee

District

Central

and

Palestine

Jerusalem

at

.

....

and

Surrounding

Southern

end of Book

:

INTRODUCTION The

History of the Jewish War is the earliest and the most famous of the works of Josephus. The firstfruits of the leisure which he found in Rome after the war, it was written with all the advantages possessed by an ex-combatant and eyewitness, now a pensioner in the former palace of Vespasian, with the commentaries " of his imperial patrons, the commanders in the recent campaign, placed at his disposal." The title by which the author refers to his work is "Concerning the Jewish War" (Ilept tov 'lov^alKov TTokifjiov Vita 412, A. xx. 258, cf. xviii. 11). Laqueur, Der Jild. Hisioriker Flavins Josephus, Giessen, 1920, p 255 and p. 98, considers that this heading plainly betrays the purely Roman point of view of the Jewish turncoat. The expanded form, 'loi'SaJKov iroXe/xov Trpos 'Poj/zaiovs, found at the head of the first two books in Niese's principal ms P, may, it has been suggested, be an attempt of the author to neutralize the offensive character of the former superscription. But the majority of the mss employ another title, " Concerning (the) capture " (Ylepl aAolcreojs), often

quartered "

with the addition of

'lov8al'Ky]s

l(rropia

Cod.

avaXafthjv A. XX, 263.

A

the deliberate malice of his assistant slaves, who knew the truth about these boasted achievements of their master. In his earlier work we may well believe that he is indebted for an occasional classical phrase or allusion to his learned secretaries. Thucydides was naturally a model to which most historians turned.'* In the Antiquities Joseph us quarries freely from this

mine, and his assistant in Books xvii-xix deserves the ridicule already cast by Cicero on such plagiarists (" ecce autem aliqui se Thucydidios esse profitentur, novum quoddam imperitorum et inauditum genus," Orator 30). In the War, on the contrary, the use of this source is far more restrained, being confined to an occasional reminiscence or phrase. Similar use is made of Herodotus, Xenophon, Demosthenes, and Polybius. More interesting is the familiarity shown with

Greek poetry, Homer and the tragedians.

The

poignant narrative of the domestic troubles of Herod the Great is told in the manner of a Greek drama :^ we hear of Nemesis at the outset (i. 431), of the pollution of the house (/xi'cro^ 6S^. cf. 4-4-5). the tempest lowering over it (488), the villain and stage-manager "

Dr.

P>isler

draws

my

attention to Liician's strictures

on

such borrowing in his Qvomodo historia sit conscribenda. The quotation from Cicero I^owe to Driiner, Untersuchungen vber Josephus, 1S!'6. " Eusebius describes this portion of the narrative as rpayiKTj dpa/xarovpyia {II. E. i. 8), I am again indebted for the reference to Dr. Eisler. xvi

INTRODUCTION of the plot

(roi'

Xvfxeujva

Tr]lacc.

ii.

25.

da^oKbvTa the

xii.

270

;

rest.

the officer

is

unnamed

I '*

JEWISH WAR,

I.

35-39

the garrison, with these impious injunctions to back his innate brutahty, was guilty of every excess of iniquity, torturing distinguished individuals one after another, and daily parading before the eyes of all the appearance of a captured city, until by the extravagance of his crimes he provoked his victims to venture on reprisals. Rising of (3) These began with Matthias," son of Asa^ monaeus, a priest of a village called Modein, who hiL. forming an armed band of himself and his family of Fear of five sons, slew Bacchides " with choppers. the large garrison drove him to seek refuge at the moment in the hills but, on being joined by many of the common people, he summoned courage to descend, fought and defeated the generals of Antiochus, and drove them out of Judaea. This his expulsion success brought him supreme power of the foreigners led his countrymen willingly to submit to his rulersiiip, which, on his death, he be- c i67 b.c queathed to Judas, the eldest of his sons. (4) Judas, assuming that Antiochus would not re- Exploits mam mactive, besides recruiting a native force, of Judas made an alliance he was the first to do so with -^Iaccathe Romans ^ and when Epiphanes ^ again invaded the country struck hard and forced him to retire. Flushed with this success, he attacked the garrison, not yet ousted from the capital, expelled the troops from the upper city and confined them to the lower portion of the town, known as Acra. Being now i65 b.c. ;

;

'^





;

"

According

to

1

Mace.

ii.

4,

Judas was the third of the

five sons.

Another anachronism I Maccabees Demetrius (162-150 b.c). ^

narrative of *

Or

:

the treaty with Rome, if the is to be trusted, fell under

(viii.)

rather his generals Lysias

and Gorgias

(I

Mace). 21

JOSEPHUS "A/cpa

KeKXrjTat-

Xojpou

iKddrjpe

Kvpcevaa? de rov Upov rov re kol

Travra

TTpos Tas XeLTOVpyias

Tou vaou €LGrjV€yK€V

€tV

re

^ajfiov

jjievojv,

ojs"

to.

rcov rrporepajv /xe/zta/x-

ercpov

Kal

reXevra

WvrLO)(o^^,

fxev

KXrjpovoixog he rrjg ^aGiXeiag avrov Kal

^lovSalovs aTTey^deias 6 vlos

tcop

ro lepov

XafjiBavovcrrjg Se dprc

TToXeoj?

rrj^

/cat

Katva KaraaKevdaa?

ojKoh6}xriGev

40 evaytopLoyv rjp^aro. KaTCiarrjiJLa

TTeptereixioe,

OKev-q

r-fj?

Trpog

Avrloxos yiveraL.

YiVvayaycjv yovv irel^wv

fxev^ fjLvpidSas Trevre,

1777761? S' €19^ TTevTaKLorxf-Xiovs ,

eXe(f>avras he dyhoij-

(5)

41

Kovra

ifJi^dXXei hid rrj? ^lovhatas el? ttjv opeiv-qv.

Kara he

Srjdaovpoi' fxev ovu TroXixvqv alpel,

tottov

o? KaXelrai UedLaxapla, OTevrjS ovGiqs rrj? rrapohov, 42 'louSas- vTTai'Ta fierd rrjg hwd/jueoj? di/jat

TTpoihoju

re

cf)dXayya? 'EAca^apo? o

TOL?

rou

Kal

fjLeydXo)

Gfji-qfieuou, rijjv

re

viprjXorarov

Grl^os row 43 e(j)LKeGdaL

olog re

rr)v

yaGrepa

err*

yjv

eXecbdvrojv

avrov nvpyoj

avrov rov Wvrloxou eluai

e/CTpe;^ct

TToXefJLLOJV

fiev

ov)(

dheX(f)6?

irepixpyGOis TTporeLX^GfJiaGL kcko-

VTToXa^ujv

Ihiojv

rcjv

he gvu-

Trplv

.

ttoXv

errl

Kal

htaKoiJjas

rd

rov eXe(pavra hLt]vvGev.

ovv rod hoKovvros elvai ^aoiXeaj? hid rd v(po?, 6 he rd Orjplov vtto

rrX-q^ag

emKareoeLGev eavrw Kal gvv-

rpi^el? ereXevrTjGeu, fxrjhev irXeov hpdGag rov fxeydXoLs Kara

re

{Jivqfxr)u

row

Trarpojcov

Karopdoj/Jidrajv

Kal

a)ppLr]Ge 8e ploos rrjs TiroXefJiaLOV Trapavopiias Kal YlroXefiaLog eloeXdelv Ka9^ erepav -nvX-qv, e^eKpovoOrj ye pLTjv vtto rod htjp^ov ra^eajs heheyKal 6 p.ev TTapaxprjP^o. 56 p.evojv rjhrj rov 'YpKavov. .

duexojp'^^cr^v et? ri rcov virep 'lepixovvro? epvpidrow, o Saydjv KaXelrar Kopnadpievos he rrjv irarpojav dpxtepujuvvqv 'Tp/cavo? Kal Bvaas rep dew pLerd rd^ovg irrl TiroXeixalov wppbTjuev BorjO-quojv rfj pLTjrpl Kal rols dheX(j)ols. (4)

57

Kat rrpoo^aXojv

Kpeirrojv

rju,

rjrrdro

rqj

8e

(Jipovptoj

St/cat'ou

rd

f-tev

nddov?.

dXXa 6 yap

YlroXepLalos dnore Kararrovolro, r-qv re p.-qrepa Kal roug dBeXc^ovg avrov Trpodyojv IttI rov reL)(ovg*, el? evGVVOTTrov r^Kil^ero Kal KaraKp-qpivielv el p,rj\ Trpos a rov /x€IA 58 ddrrov dnavaGraLr], Str^Tret'Aei. 'YpKauov opyrjs TrXeitov olKrog elorjet Kal Seog, r^ be pLTjrrjp ovdev ovre Trpos rds alKuig ovre npo^ rov dTTeiXovpLevov avrfj ddvarov cVStSoucra )(elpas (jopeye Kal Karr^vrL^oXei rov Tralba /xryrt 77p6s" rrji ,

Reckoning from 312

"

era

28

;

b.c, the first year of the Seleucid according to this reckoning Simon's high priesthood

JEWISH WAR,

I.

53-58 (=ant.

xiii.

228-232)

the Macedonian supremacy which had lasted for 170 years." (3) He too, however, fell a victim to treachery, john being murdered at a banquet by his son-in-law /^35'1^J5 Ptolemy. The latter, after incarcerating Simon's B.c.)opp wife and two of his sons, sent a body of men to kill in^ia\v° the third, John, also called Hyrcanus. This youth, Ptolemy forewarned of their approach, hastened to reach the city, fully confident of the people's support, both from their recollection of his father's achievements and their hatred of Ptolemy's enormities. Ptolemy also rushed to gain entrance by another gate, but was repelled by the populace, who had with alacrity already admitted Hyrcanus. Ptolemy forthwith withdrew to one of the fortresses above Jericho, called Dagon while Hyrcanus, having gained the high priestly office held by his father before him, offered sacrifice to God and then started in haste after Ptolemy to bring aid to his mother and brethren. (4) Attacking the fort, he proved superior in other ways, but was overcome by his righteous feelings. For Ptolemy, as often as he was hard pressed, brought forward his mother and brothers upon the ramparts and tortured them within full view of Hyrcanus, threatening to hurl them over the battlements, if he did not instantly retire. At this spectacle indignation in the breast of Hyrcanus gave way to pity and terror. His mother, unshaken by her torments or the menace of death, with outstretched hands implored her son not to be moved ;

dates from

c. 142 b.c, i.e. from the beginning of his leaderwhere it is placed in the parallel account in A. xiii. 213. " In the hundred and seventieth year Cf. 1 Mace. xiii. 41 f., was the yoke of the heathen taken away from Israel," and Jerusalem started a new era of its own.

ship,

29

JOSEPHUS eVi/cAaa^eVra

v^ptu

avrrjg

rod

(fyeioaodat

Svcr-

ye Kpeirrova rov eV ^ToA€^tatou Odvarov aOavaaias elvai hovros StVa? €' ols €ls 50 Tou oIkov airrojv TraprjvofjLrjGev 6 8e ^Icodwrj^ ae^ovg,

OLvrfj

cl>?

.

oTTore p,kv ivdvfjLrjdecr) to Trapdarr-qiia rij? f.Lrjrp6^

KaraKovaete

Koi

rfj?

cKealag,

TrpoojjdX-

(Zpijurjro

Xeiu, eVeiSav 8e^ KariBoL rvTTTOfJLevrjv t€

id-qXvvero

paTrofJL6vrji> ,

Kal rov

Kal arra-

ndOovs oXos

'qv.

8e Sid ravra rrjs TToAtop/cta? iTrearr]

CO rpi^o/jLev-qg

ro dpyov erog, o Kara eVraertav dpyelrac napd *Iou8atot? ofiOLOJS roL? e^Oofidcnv rjpLepaLg. Kav rovToj YlroXefiaLOS dvedelg rrjs TToXiopKias dvaLpel

rov? dS€Xav€p6? dBrjXou KadLGTrjGL^ p,kv rov^ oojp.aro(f)vXaKas €i TLVL Ta)V VTTOyaLOJV dXapL77€L, KaT€K€LTO S' cV T7^ AvTOJvia pLerovopia Bapet rrporepov aO^t? S' odeLGT], TTpoord^a? di-OTrXou pL€u aTrexeodaL, kt€l veiu 8e rou WuTLyovov, ei /xerd rcov ottXojv npoGLOL Kal Tjpos avTOv enepLipev rov6vov

Gvyyevovs.

dXXd

fie

rax^la

P-^XP^ tou^

fJLOi,

fiereiGu

Gcofia

orrarov, rrjv dSeXcfxx) Kal pLifrpl KaraKpirov

Kade^eis; fjLepos

Kal

P^XP^ rov^

rovjiov

Xa^erojGav dOpoov rovro, eK rwv ifxdjv GrrXdyx^ojv x*^^^^

^ Niese ttoO mss. Destinon (with Lat.): ai'ros mss. :

'

0

^v^^v

avrol?^ eiTLGTreLGOj Kara

af/xa;

raTs"

iJLr]Keri

8'

Slktj

duathe-

JEWISH WAR, little

later

I.

80-84

(

= ant.

xiii.

313-317)

came the news that Antigonus had been

slain in the

underground quarter,

also called, like

the maritime Caesarea, Strato's Tower." It was this identity of names which had disconcerted the seer. (6) Remorse for his foul deed had the instant effect The of aggravating the malady of Aristobulus. His mind ever distracted with thoughts of the murder, he fell into a decline until, sheer grief rending his entrails, he threw up a quantity of blood. While removing this, one of the pages in attendance slipped, so divine providence willed, on the very spot where Antigonus had been assassinated, and spilt on the yet visible stains of the murder the blood of the murderer. An instantaneous cry broke from the spectators, believing that the lad had intentionally poured the bloody libation on that spot. The king, hearing the cry, inquired what was its cause, and, when no one ventured to tell him, became more insistent in his desire to be informed. At length, under pressure of threats, they told him the truth. W^ith tears filling his eyes and a groan such as his " My lawremaining strength permitted, he said less deeds, then, were not destined to escape God's mighty eye ; swift retribution pursues me for my kinsman's blood. How long, most shameless body, wilt thou detain the soul that is sentenced to a brother's and a mother's vengeance ? How long shall I make them these drop-by-drop libations of my blood ? Let them take it all at once, and let heaven cease to mock them with these dribbling ;

:

" For Strato's Tower on the coast, afterwards rebuilt by Herod the Great and renamed Caesarea, see B. \. 408 The quarter in Jerusalem so called is not mentioned elseff".

where except VOL.

II

in the parallel

passage c 2

in

A.

xiii.

41

enc

JOSEPHUS ro haifiovLOV." raur' etTTOju ev^aoiXevoas ov ttX^lov eVtaurou. Avoaoa 8' 77 yvvr] tov? dSeA^oi)? avrov

eTTeipajpeveadoj deoj? reXevra (iv.

85

l)

KadioT-qaiv 'AAe^avSpoi^, rov koI Kad^ Koi iieTpiOTrjTL npovxeiv SoKOVura. 6 8e TTapeXOcjv els ttjv i^ovoiav rov erepov pceu tojv kt€lv€l, tov 3e /caraAi/xdSeXcfxjji' ^aoiXeLcjjvra dyarrcovTa to l^rjv hi\a Trpay/jLarcov 77ai'6p.€Pou

PaoiXea rjXLKLav

86

FtWrat

{'2)

iTTLKXrjdcvTa

8'

kol

avTco

Trpo?

avpL^oXi]

YlToXefxatop

Addovpop

top ttoXlv

^Aooj)(lp

TjprjKOTa, Kal ttoAAoi)? fi€P dpelXep tcop rroXefiLcop,

be

T)

PLKT]

UToXe/jLOLOP

77/30C

€pp€ip€P.

inel

8'

KXeoTTaTpas SLOJxdel? els AiyvrrTOP dv€)(d)prjoep, 'AAe^ai'Spo? Vahdpcup T€ ttoXlopklo. KpaT€L Kal WfxadovPTOs, o 8r} fieyLcrTOP fjikv 'i)p epvfjLa tcop vnep ^lopSdprjp, to. ri/xtaSrara 8e Tojp OeoScopou tov 7jT]pcdvos KTiqpidTtop rip ip eTTeXdojp 8' e^aL(j)Piqs 6 0eo8topos" ra T€ 87 avTOj. o(f>€Tepa Kal ttjp tov ^acrtAecas" drrooKevi^p alpei, oiiTos

VTTO

8*

TCOP

eTrdpcj

T-fjs

fjii-jTpos

^lovbalajp els fivplovs KTeipei. TTjS

WXe^avbpos Kal

TrXrjyijs

els TTjP TTapdXiOP alpel

WpOqhopa

T-rjP

avdis

yipeTai 8' TpaTTOfiepos

Tdt^ap Te Kal 'Pd(f)Lap Kal

vcf)^

'HpcoBou tov ^aoiXecjJS

^AypiTTTndSa e7n KXrjde to ap. 88

(3)

to *

'E^av8pa77o8to-a/xeVcu Se raura? enapiaTaTak

^lovhaiKOP iv

Ti/jLT]

om.

.Mss.

ep :

eopTrj'

inserted

fidXiOTa

yap

by Hudson from A.

ep xiii.

rats 323.

" Salina (t\/. Salome) or Alexandra, ^. xiii. 330. Though Josephus never expressly says so, it appears certain that besides the throne, she gave Alexander Jannaeus her banc in marriage. For her sub'sequent reign see ^ 107.

4t>

JEWISH WAR,

I.

84-88

(

= ant

xiii.

318-372)

from my entrails." With these words on hps he expired, after a reign of no more than a

offerings his

year.

(iv. 1) The widow of Aristobulus " released his alexan: imprisoned brothers and placed on the throne 104^^3^^^ Alexander, who had the double advantage over the others of seniority and apparent moderation of character. However, on coming into power, he put to death one brother, who had aspirations to the throne the survivor, who was content with ^ a quiet Hfe, he held in honour. (2) He also had an encounter with Ptolemy, sur- His eaiij named Lathyrus, who had taken the town of Asochis ^^^^^" although he killed many of the enemy, victory inchned to his opponent. But when Ptolemy, pursued by his mother Cleopatra, retired to Egypt,^ Alexander besieged and took Gadara and Amathus, the latter being the most important of the fortresses beyond Jordan and containing the most precious possessions of Theodorus, son of Zeno. Theodorus, however, suddenly appearing, captured both his own treasures and the king's baggage and put some ten thousand Jews to the sword. Alexander, nevertheless, recovering from this blow, turned towards the coast and captured Gaza, Raphia, and Anthedon, a town which subsequently received from King Herod the ;

;

name

of Agrippias.'^

After his reduction of these places to servitude, the Jewish populace rose in revolt against him at (3)

^

Or " loved." More correctly

to Cyprus, where he reigned after his expulsion by Cleopatra from the throne of Egypt A» xiii. 328, 358. See B. i. 416 (where the name is givefl as Agrippeion). y hoKovv evGe^eGTepov elvai rcov dXXojv Kal tovs vopLovs aKpt^earepov daip€6€vre? iJLere(j)€pov eVt rovg ivavriovs rr)V

Kal

riofiTT-qLov,

129 dv€xojp€L

8'

'

iX-niha,

*

60

A,

Kairethq

xiv,

19. "

WofXTT-qiog

iviojv

r-qv

"Lvpiav el?

50,000 cavalry besides infantry."

JEWISH WAR,

I.

126-131

(

= ant.

xiv. 19-34)

army,

fifty thousand strong, both cavalry and infantry ,€vyevai rov WpiGTO^ovXov el? ^AXe^dpSpeiou, rovro 8' ecrrlv (5)

Kal

ripos"

rcjjv

TTepl

,

.

TU)v TTavv LXorip.ojs e^iiGKTjpievojv vrrep

(f)povpLov

6pov£ vip-qXov KeLpLevov, Trepupas Kara^aiveiv avrov 135 eKeXevGev raJ 8' tjv pLev oppLTj KaXovpLevcp SeGTTO.

TLKcorepov

hiaKivhvveveiv

pidXXov

-q

VTraKOVGat,

KaOecopa 8e ro TrXrjdo? dppojhovv, Kal TTaprjVovv ol 4)lXol GKenreGdat r-qv 'PojpLaLOJV lgxvv ovGav dvvTTOGrarov ols -neiGdel? KdreLGiv Trpos Yiop,TTrjLOv Kal TToXXd TTepl rod St/catco? dpx^LW ciTro136 Xoy-qdels VTreGrpeipev elg ro epvpLa. irdXiv re rdSeXchov TTpoKaXovpLevov Kara^ds Kal SiaXexOels .

* At'oc TToXews Spanheira Atos i?\{oi' 7r6\ea;s (probably arising from a glossed text Ato? ^ Aiov tt.) or AioaTroXewj >iss. :

62

s

JEWISH WAR,

I.

131-136

(

= ant.

xiv. 47-50)

Damascus, took refuge with him. Coming without presents and resorting to the same pleas which they had used with Aretas, they implored him to show his detestation of the violence of Aristobulus, and to restore to the throne the man whose character and seniority entitled him to it. Nor was Aristobulus behindhand relying on the fact that Scaurus was open to bribery, he too appeared, arrayed in the most regal style imaginable. But feeling it beneath his dignity to play the courtier, and scorning to further his ends by a servility that humiliated his magnificence, he, on reaching the city of Dium, took himself off, ^ (5) Indignant at this behaviour, and yielding to Aristobui the urgent entreaties of Hyrcanus and his friends, prepared Pompey started in pursuit of Aristobulus, with the war with Roman forces and a large contingent of Syrian auxiliaries. Passing Pella and Scy thopolis, he reached Coreae, at which point a traveller ascending through the interior enters the territory of Judaea. There he heard that Aristobulus had taken refuge in Alexandreion, one of the most lavishly equipped of fortresses, situated on a high mountain, and sent orders to him to come down. At this imperious mmmons Aristobulus felt disposed to brave the risk •ather than obey but he saw that the people were ;errified, and his friends urged him to reflect on the rresistible power of the Romans. He gave way, 'ame down to Pompey, and after making a long lefence in support of his claims to the throne, reurned to his stronghold. He descended again on lis brother's invitation, discussed the rights of his ;

;

" A. has " he went off (from Damascus) to hence to Judaea."

Dium and 63

JOSEPHUS rujv

7T€pi

ScKalcDV

YloijL7Tr)LOV.

fjLeao?

Karrj€L

cL?

Tpe7T€LV

fiev

aVTO),

a7T€iGLV S'

rjv

/jLrj

iXTTtdo?

kojXvovtos rov Kal Seovs, ko.

SvacuTT-qacov YlofjLTT-qLov ttolvt* imTTaXlU 8' dv€^aLV€U et? TTjU O-Kpav

TTpoKaraXveiv ho^ei^v avrov. iiTei jjievroL i^icrraodai re rwv (f)povpiOjv eKeXevev aura) /cat, TrapdyyeXfia raju (f)povpdp)(Oji' i-)(ovTOj\

137 a*?

IJ-T]

UofiTTTJio?

fjLovaLS

7T€L6apx€Lv

avT oyp6.(f)OLS

Tttt?

eTTiaroAat?

rjvdyKa^ev avTOv iKdcrroLg ypdcpeiv cV;(coperi^, Trote p.ev rd TTpooraxOeura, dyavaKTT]oa^ Se dvexd>priae\ els 'lepocToAu/xa /cat TTapeoKeud^ero noXe^ielv 7Tp6pLa)

etV

deparreta

/cat

rrjV

ovhe

Kara

/car'

rrju

rdjw

/ca^'jf

(fyoi'euop.evoL

dpi-jcrKeLav

rd/cpt^es"

avrrjv

dTreor-qGav.y

eva rfjji^ ro lepoi 6 he Trpoj-os v—ep^rji.'aL roXfMijoas ro rel^o? SuAAc Trat? Tjv Oaucrros" KopvrjXLOS /cat yLter* avrou e/carovrdpxoiL hvo Ooupio?^ /cat (^d^ios. etnero 8« eKaarcp ro lSlou orL(f)os, /cat Trepioxovres rravra^^ ro lepov eKreivov ovs pi€u rep vacp Tipoocfievyovras ovg he djxvvopievovs rrpos oXlyou.

149 rpiro)

TTijpyojv

p.i]vl

rrjg

TToXiopKLas

Karapptipavre?

/xdAi?

eloeTTLTrrov

^

+Kai

V'RNC

2

Lat.,

Heg.

:

els

Lat. (eliani). 4>pot'ptos

mss.

Military engines for flinging stones and other missiles A. xiv. 66 gives tiie precise year (Olympiad 179 an< the Roman consuls of 63 b.c.) and adds "on the day of th fast," i.e. probably the Day of Atonement (10th Tishr September-October). Dio Cassius, xxxvii. 16, says " on th "

**

68



JEWISH WAR,

I.

146-149

(

= ant.

xiv.

64-70)

his troops to engage in hostilities for on the sabbaths the Jews fight only in self-defence. The ravine once filled up, he erected lofty towers on the earthworks, brought up the battering engines which had been conveyed from Tyre, and tried their effect upon the walls the ballistae," meanwhile, beating off However, the towers, which resistance from above. in this sector were extraordinarily massive and beautiful, long resisted the blows. (4) While the Romans were undergoing these severe hardships, Pompey was filled with admiration for the invariable fortitude of the Jews, and in particular for the way in which they carried on their religious services uncurtailed, though enveloped in a Just as if the city had been wrapt hail of missiles. in profound peace, the daily sacrifices, the expiations and all the ceremonies of worship were scrupulously performed to the honour of God. At the very hour when the temple was taken, when they were being capture o massacred about the altar, they never desisted from '^'iQTemp the religious rites for the day. It was the third month of the siege ^ when, having with difficulty succeeded in overthrowing one of the towers, the Romans burst into the temple. The first to venture across the wall was Faustus Cornelius, son of Sulla fter him came two centurions, Furius and Fabius. Followed by their respective companies, they formed 1 ring round the court of the temple and slew their victims, some flying to the sanctuary, others offering ;

;

;

i

brief resistance.

labbath " {^v rrj tov Kpouov n/j.^pa) ; and it has been held )y some that " the fast " named in Josephus's non-Jewish •ource meant the sabbath, according to a mistaken and widepread idea in the Graeco-Roman world that the Jews fasted )n the sabbath (Schiirer).

69

JOSEPHUS 150

(5)

"Kpda

77oAAot

TcJou

lepeoju

^t^r^pet?

TToXefJLLOV?

IvLovras ^Xenovrc? aOopv^oj?

6pr]GK€La?

efieivau,

a7T€.vhovreju,ata>P'

aTparrjyu)

avrovg rot? Se

tSiots"

FctSapat'

/cat

TaSo-ptrr]

tlvl

156 X'^P'-^^H'^^^^

KaTarerayixivaj

opoLv

del

yevvalo'^

/jLT^Seu

TToXXovg Tovg

Se jjLeTpLOv (f)pouovuTOJU aTTOKTeiua? 165 AotTTou? aTTeKXeiGev et? to epvfia.

navTaxov

rjpLapTr)-

avrov? TrpoGayayeGdaf

Kara Tavrrjv Wvtwvlo?,

Md/DACO?

ovSapiov

(f>aveLu avve^aXXci TOLS

XoLTTOL?

AlyvrTTLOis

€1?

fidxi]i^

^{ovdaLOju OTpaTo—ehov KaXelTat.



KaTa

X'^jpo]

KLvhvv€VovTc

6'

avTOv iv TT] TTapaTd^ei ovv oXoj tco 8e|io K€paTL pb'erai TrepieXdoju AvTLTtaTpos napd to alyiaXov tov 7TOTap.ov- tojv yap /ca^' iavTO eKpaTeL to Xatou e^ojv Kepa^' eVreiTa TrpooTreooj TOt? biojKovoL Mt^ptSa'rr/i^ dveKT€iV€V ttoXXov? acq TOGOVTov Tovs KaTaXeiTTOfievov^ ibLw^ev fJL^xpt 6yho-qKOUT( (Ls Kal TO GTpaTOTTeSov avTojv iXelv. ^

192

"

Son of Sohemus {A.

xiv. 129), not the son of

Mennaeu

mentioned above (§ 185), though living in the same regior Nothing more is known of him and Jamblichus.

88

JEWISH WAR,

I.

187-192

= ant.

(

xiv. 128-135)

thousand Jewish infantry. It was he who roused in support of Mithridates persons so powerful in Syria as Ptolemy,** in his

Lebanon home, and Jambhchua

through whose influence the cities in those parts readily took their share in the war. Emboldened by the reinforcements which Antipater had brought him, Mithridates now marched on Pelusium, and, being refused a passage, laid siege to the town. In the assault it was Antipater again who won the for he made a breach in greatest distinction ; the portion of the wall which faced him and was the first to plunge into the place at the head of his troops.

but the conqueror's (4) Thus Pelusium was taken advance was again barred by the Egyptian Jews who occupied the district which took its name from Onias.* Antipater, however, prevailed on them not only to refrain from opposition, but even to furnish supplies with the result that no further refor the troops sistance was encountered even at Memphis, whose ;

;

inhabitants

voluntarily

joined

Mithridates.

The

having now rounded the Delta, gave battle to the rest of the Egyptians at a spot called " Jews' camp." In this engagement he, with the whole of his right wing, was in serious danger, when Antipater, victorious on the left where he was in command, wheeled round and came along the river bank to his Falling upon the Egyptians who were purrescue. suing Mithridates he killed a large number of them and pushed his pursuit of the remainder so far that he captured their camp. He lost only eighty of latter,

'^

^ For the Jewish temple built in Egypt by Onias, a refugee from Jerusalem, see B. vii. 421 tf. « A. " fifty."

^9

.

JOSEPHUS Be IjLOuov? tojv Iblcov aTre^aXev,

oKraKOoiovs

rfi TpoTTTJ TTepl

a^duKavo? ytVerat raw ^AvTLTrdrpov KaropdajfjidTcov iXTTiSa fidpTVs

193

'0 5e t6t€

(5)

Mt^ptSarT]? eV

/cat

oojBels S' avro? Trap'

.

Kaioapa

irpos

tov dvhpa rols eVatVoi? kol

fJL€V

rat? iX—LGLV etV toi)? VTrkp eavrov KwBvi'ovs eVeppojGev, if ol^ ttolglv Trapa^oXajrarog yei'Ofievog Kal 77oAAa rpcodelg 194 GcofiaTog

el^ev

Grjixela

TO.

tq

KaTaoTqGdfjievos

Kara

€'

rrj'i

ri)v

Kal dreXeia,

cf)LXo(f)povT]Geajg

(x.

eV-

dXXt]?

TLfirjs

/cat

r-qv

St'

avrov eveKvpujGev 'YpKai'oj.

Kar' avro oe Kal ^Avrlyoi-os 6 WpLGTo-

1)

^ovXov

re

co?

'Pa>ijLaLOju

rfj

eveKev ^t^Acutop' eTroiiqGev, Kal be

dpxi-^poJGVvrjv 195

Trjg

avOtg he

dperfjg.

AtyvTrrov

avTjKev els Hvpiav, TToXi-eia re avrou

ibcDprjGaro

dyojvLGrrjS

oXov G)(€h6u tov

rov

TTpoq

Kai'crapa

Trapojv

ytVerat

irapa-

AvTrndrpo) ixetLovo? npoKOTT-qg airiog- Seoi' yap* aTTohvpeGOai rrepl rov Trarpos 7Te(f)ap/jLd)(9a t hiacjiop SoKOVvrog eK row rrpos YlofiTT-qtou ho^ojs

Kal

^

Td8eX(})ou

TTepl

Kal

pLefjLcfyeGdaL

edi'os ei?

Tijg

1Lklt:lojvo?

rou

eXeov

Trarpiov

wiJiorrjTa Trapa/jLL^au

rovroig 'TpKavoO Kal

rrapeXdow,

fierd

avTol hid Kopov

twv

napavo-

ojs

dheX(j)on>

77oAAd

yrjs,

e^v^pit,OLe\' ,

Kal

8'

1

TTdGr]^ et?

otl^

to ttju

GViipLa^io-v ovk eV evvoia ainaj dXXd Kara beos roju rrdXat SLa(j)opd)i/

AtyvTrTov

TTeiJUpeiau,

90

avrov

fiev

aTTeXavvoLev

els

Kar-qyopei

196 ^AvTLTTdrpou

jidnara

rrjv

6 S' inl

Trddos,

(j)6ovep6v

',

jjLrjbeu

',oOi'

LVRC.

»

5*071

LVR.

JEWISH WAR,

I.

192-196

(

= ant.

xiv.

135-140)

men Mithridates in the rout had lost about eight hundred. Thus saved beyond all expectation, Mithridates bore to Caesar's ears ungrudging witness of Antipater's prowess. (5) The praise bestowed by Caesar at the time on Honours the hero of the day and the hopes which it excited A°i?ii*paie spurred Antipater to further ventures in his service. Showing himself on all occasions the most daring of fighters, and constantly wounded, he bore the marks of his valour on almost every part of his person. Later, when Caesar had settled affairs in Egypt and returned to Syria, he conferred on Antipater the privilege of Roman citizenship with exemption from taxes, and by other honours and marks of friendship made him an enviable man. It was to please him that Caesar confirmed the appointment of Hyrcanus to the office of high-priest. (x. 1) About this time Antigonus, son of Aristo- Antigonv bulus, waited upon Caesar and. contrary to his inten- I'ji^tipate tions, became the means of Antipater's further before promotion. Antigonus ought to have confined himself to lamentation over his father's fate, believed to have been poisoned on account of his differences with Pompey, and to complaints of Scipio's cruelty to his brother,'^ without mixing up with his plea for compassion any sentiments of jealousy. But, not content his

;

with that, he came forward and accused Hyrcanus and Antipater. They had, he said, in utter defiance of justice, banished him and his brothers and sisters from their native land altogether they had, in their insolence, repeatedly done outrage to the nation they had sent supports into Egypt, not from any goodwill to Caesar, but from fear of the consequences ;

;

'^

§§

184

f.

91

.

JOSEPHUS Kal

Tov

7Tp6?

TTjv

SiXlaw 6.7ToaKeva}l,6-

nofJLTTTJiov

fievoi. 197

Tavd^

ripos"

(2)

6

^

Ai'TLTTarpo?

dTToppLiJjas

rrjv

eodrJTa to TrXijOog ineh^LKwev tCjv rpavfidrcou, Kal TTepl }i€v rrj