Joseph Kirkland: Biography and criticism

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Joseph Kirkland: Biography and criticism

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TOfTTCPH TURKU ® t

BIOGRAPHY A W CRITIC 1311

Ott C l a y t o n A, H o i a d a y A# 3 , , 1 'ia m l U n i v e r s i t y , 1 94 1 A * K m , W e s t e r n H e s e r v e , 1948

u b r . i i t t e d t o t h e F a c u l t y o f t h e O r ad a n t e S c h o o l i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f tlie r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r th e d e c re e o f D o c to r o f P h ilo s o p h y in th e D e p artm en t o f F n y l i s h In d ia n a U n iv e rs ity

A u y u stj 1949

ProQuest Number: 10295245

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is d e p e n d e n t u p o n th e quality of th e co p y subm itted. In th e unlikely e v e n t th a t th e author did n o t sen d a c o m p le te m anuscript a n d th e re a re missing p a g e s , th e s e will b e n o te d . Also, if m aterial h a d to b e rem o v ed , a n o te will in d icate th e deletion.

uest. ProQ uest 10295245 Published by ProQ uest LLC (2016). Copyright of th e Dissertation is held by th e Author. All rights reserved. This work is p ro te c te d ag ain st unauthorized copying u n d er Title 17, United States C o d e Microform Edition © ProQ uest LLC. ProQ uest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106 - 1346

ACOOVjLEDamiEOTS To s a y t h a t X owe a d e b t o f g r a t i t u d e t o P r o f e s s o r F r a n k D a v id s o n f o r d i r e c t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i s t o t e l l o n l y h a l f t h e s to r y ®

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THE CAPTAIN OF COMPANY K .

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IV V ■ VI

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COAL MINING AND OTHER BUSINESSES

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BEGINNING TOO L A T E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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P a r t I I , CRITICISM V II

ITITKODTTCTXO” TO KIRKLAND CRITICISM. . . . . . . . . . . . .

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V III

ZT3KY. THE MEANEST MAN IN SPRING COUNTY. . . . . . . . . .

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l a n d s r e m a in e d i n M i c h ig a n f o r tw o m ore y e a r s . 2 8

The o c c a s i o n a l

s a l e o f a l o t s u p p l e m e n te d t h e i r incom e from t h e f a r m , b u t i t had become o b v i o u s t h a t e v e n t h o s e m e a g e r so u r c e s - o f money w o u ld e v e n t u a l l y g i v e o u t .

J u s t why t h e K i r k l a n d s d i d l e a v e

M i c h ig a n r a t h e r s u d d e n l y l a t e

i n 1C43 i s unknown.

I n t h e two

e x t a n t l e t t e r s o f t h a t p e rio d from Jo se p h to h i s s i s t e r E l i z a ­ b e t h , 2® one d a t e d Movember, 1 8 4 2 , t h e o t h e r F e b r u a r y , 1 8 4 3 , t h e r e i s no m e n t i o n o f a m ove; h o w e v e r , i t n a y have b e e n t h a t Ja m e s S t a n s b u r y o r f r i e n d s c o n v in c e d Mr* and M rs . K i r k l a n d t h a t t h e r e w as room i n Hew Y ork f o r s u c h a n academ y a s t h e y had become fam o u s among t h e i r f r i e n d s f o r c o n d u c t i n g .

W h at-

e v e r t h e c a u s e , t h e K i r k l a n d s r e t u r n e d t o t h e F a s t i n 1843* w Of w h a t r e m a i n e d o f t h e o r i g i n a l tw o h u n d re d a o r e s , W i l l i a m s e l e c t e d a few c h o i c e l o t s t o be s a v e d f o r h i s c h i l d r e n and 31 gav e t h e r e s t t o t h e to w n t o be u s e d a s a p a r k . The Hew Home i n M i c h ig a n was e x c h a n g e d f o r a n o ld home i n Mew Y o r k .

F i n a n c i a l l y , t h e K i r k l a n d s 1 v e n t u r e i n t o t h e backw oods o f M i c h ig a n was a f a i l u r e . 20

tio n . 29 30

They came o u t w i t h a b o u t w h a t t h e y

P i n c k n e y Homecoming and C e n t e n n i a l * 1 9 8 6 , no p a g i n a ­ ~* How i n t h e K i r k l a n d p a p e r s .

F or a d is c u s s io n o f th e c o n tr o v e r s i a l is s u e con­ c e r n i n g t h e l e n g t h o f t h e K i r k l a n d ' s s t a y i n M i c h i g a n , se e A p p e n d ix . 31 P in c k n e y Homecoming.

23

h a d h ad when t h e y e n t e r e d *

S t e y o b t a i n e d n e i t h e r t h e im m e d ia te

f o r t u n e n o r t h e f u t u r e s e c u r i t y w h ic h had prompted t h e v e n t u r e i n th e f i r s t p lac e * A e s t h e t i c a l l y , h o w e v e r, t h e e x p e r i e n c e was i n v a l u a b l e , F o r W il l ia m and C a r o l i n e , who had p r e v i o u s l y d epended a lm o s t e n t i r e l y u p o n s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s f o r t h e i r knowledge o f human n a t u r e , r u b b i n g s h o u l d e r s w i t h p e o p le fro m e v e r y c l a s s o f s o c i e t y was a d i s t i n c t r e v e l a t i o n *

L i v i n g in a c o u n t r y w here

e v e n t h e m o s t i g n o r a n t and u n c u l t u r e d n a t i v e had d e v e lo p e d a p r a c t i c a l d e m o c ra c y , H r s . K i r k l a n d 3 a t l e a s t ,

s u d d e n ly had

c e r t a i n n e b u l o u s i d e a s c o n c e r n i n g human v a l u e s c r y s t a l l i s e d fo r h er.

A n a r a g r a o h fro m F o r e s t L i f e s u m m a rise s t h i s new

c o n c e p t i o n of human v a l u e s * I am d i s p o s e d , a f t e r some e x p e r i e n c e , t o c o u n t i f among t h e c o m p e n s a ti o n s o f a c o u n t r y l i f e , t h a t in t h e c l o s e c o n t a c t i n t o w h i c h t h e j o i n t t e n a n t s o f t h e w i l d s m u st cone, be t h e i r d i s c r e p a n c i e s w h at t h e y may, we a r e brought s o o n e r and more c e r t a i n l y t o a sens® o f t h e d i g n i t y o f human n a t u r e i n d e p e n d e n t o f a l l a c c e s s o r i e s on w h ic h so much s t r e s s i s l a i d i n s o c i e t y , —* t h a n we c o u ld e v e r he amid t h e f o r m s and barriers o f more p o l i s h e d l i f e * « 5-J I n a d d i t i o n to c o n f i r m i n g f o r M rs. K i r k l a n d h e r b e l i e f i n t h e d i g n i t y o f man, t h e M ic h ig a n e x p e r i e n c e brought o u t h er l a t e n t a b i l i t y as a w rite r*

Her b o o k s , which won h e r

fame b o t h a t ham® and a b r o a d , a l s o became t h e c h i e f m eans o f s u p p o r t f o r h e r s e l f and h e r f a m i l y after h e r h u s b a n d ’ s d e a th i n 1846. " C a ro lin e M. K i r k l a n d , F o r e s t L ife , {Me- T - r k and B o sto n , 1 8 4 2 ), I I , 139.

34

Jot

J o s e p h t h e r e w as t h e s t i m u l a t i o n o f c l o s e a s s o e a i -

t i o n w i t h l ii a m o th e r on t h e one h a n d , and t h e b r o a d e n i n g i n ­ f l u e n c e o f f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h c h i l d r e n h i s own age on t h e o t h e r * The k n o w le d g e w h i c h he o b t a i n e d f i r s t - h a n d o f p e o p l e a n d t h e i r p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f c o n d u c t and s p e e c h became t h e f o u n d a ­ t i o n f o r h i s own w ork a s a w r i t e r some f o r t y - f i v e y e a r s l a t e r * A l t h o u g h i t was n o t a p p a r e n t a t t h e t i r a e , and a l t h o u g h W il l ia m d id n o t l i r e

to see i t ,

he had p r o v i d e d im m e d ia te w e a l t h and

f u t u r e s e c u r i t y f o r h i s f a m i ly *

25

C h a p te r I I HEW YORK INTERIM J o s e p h K i r k l a n d was t h i r t e e n a t t h e tim e t h e f a m i l y l e f t M i c h ig a n fox* Hew Y ork C i t y and i f t h e two l e t t e r s t o h i s s i s t e r s a t t h i s tim e a r e a n y i n d i c a t i o n * he was a l r e a d y e x h i b i t i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h ic h w ere t o d i s t i n g u i s h him d u rin g th e r e s t o f h i s l i f e *

He had a n a g i l e mind* a q u i c k

w i t , and a consum ing i n t e r e s t i n t h e l i f e a b o u t him* t r a i t s he i n h e r i t e d fro m h i s m o th e r* w as c u r i o u s and t h o r o u g h .

T hese

L ik e h i s f a t h e r , he

W h atev e r i n t e r e s t e d him — a s t r a n g e

d i a l e c t , new c u s to m s , M s s t u d i e s — r e c e i v e d h i s f u l l a t t e n ­ tio n *

He a l s o i n h e r i t e d h i s f a t h e r ’ s d i m i n u t i v e s t a t u r e ,

w h ic h f o r some r e a s o n was a s o u r c e o f c o n s t a n t w o r ry t o h i s p a re n ts* T h e re i s no r e c o r d o f J o s e p h ’ s a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h e y e a r s f o l l o w i n g t h e f a m i l y ’ s r e c io v a l t o Hew Y o rk .

In a l l

p r o b a b i l i t y , h o w e v e r, he s t a y e d a t home and a t t e n d e d t h e s c h o o l w h ic h h i s p a r e n t s e s t a b l i s h e d I n t h e i r h o u se a t 143 G re e n S t r e e t , * ^

T h is s c h o o l , t h e t h i r d w h ic h W illia m and

C a r o l i n e had o r g a n i z e d and c o n d u c te d i n l e s s t h a n f i f t e e n y e a r s , was a c t u a l l y o n l y a s t o p - g a p m ea su re t o o b t a i n income 1

E ll e n o r Shannon, M rs» C a ro lin e M a tild a K irk lan d (C o lu m b ia M a s t e r ’ s T h e s i s , 1 9 2 i T 7 * T r ^ * ~ S F T T D o r o th y D on dore, " K i r k l a n d , C a r o l i n e M a t i l d a S t a n s b u r y , " D i c t i o n a r y o f A m eri­ cas x » 430 •

£8

u n t i l t h e i r m ore a m b i t i o u s p l a n s t o s u p p o r t t h e m s e l v e s b y w r i t i n g sh o u ld m a t e r i a l i z e .

C a r o l i n e * s s u c c e s s was a l r e a d y

a s s u r e d b y A Hew Home (1 8 3 9 ) and t h e two**volume s e q u e l , F o res t L ife

( 1 8 4 3 ) , and s h e was a t w o rk on t h e t h i r d o f t h e

s e r i e s , W este rn C le a r in g s (1 8 4 5 ).

W i l l i a m , who had a c h i e v e d

some s u c c e s s w i t h h i s L e t t e r s From A b r o a d »

was p l a n n i n g

w i t h D r . H* W. B e l l o w s , a n e m i n e n t U n i t a r i a n m i n i s t e r , t o b r i n g o u t a U n i t a r i a n w e e k l y t o be c a l l e d t h e C h r i s t i a n F n ...

q u ire r.

h

jih

iwaeawttae^i

'wrn*

% Once b e f o r e i n G e n e v a , Hew Y o r k , t h e K i r k l a n d s had

f o u n d a s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l a tm o s p h e r e w h ic h was c o n g e n i a l . Had i t n o t b e e n f o r t h e g e n e r a l e x o d u s t o M i c h ig a n , t h e y p r o b a b l y c o u ld h a v e re m a in e d t h e r e i n d e f i n i t e l y *

I n M ic h ig a n ,

w h e re t h e y l i v e d l o n g e r t h a n a t a n y o t h e r p l a c e , t h e y w ere w i t h o u t c l o s e f r i e n d s , a n d t h e y w ere n e v e r s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r l i f e i n th e b u s in e s s w o rld .

The e x p e r i e n c e had b e e n

a l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e e n t i r e f a m i l y ; h o w e v e r, w h a t t h e y l e a r n e d , t h e y l e a r n e d b y t h e m ic u s h io n e d s h o c k o f p e r ­ s o n a l d i s c o v e r y , a n d a f t e r e i g h t y e a r s o f c o n t i n u a l sh o o k , t h e i r s e n s i b i l i t i e s had become d u l l e d . th e e x p e rie n c e .

They had l i v e d o u t

They w ere r e a d y f o r t h e c o n g e n i a l i t y o f

o l d f r i e n d s and t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l s t i m u l a t i o n o f m e n t a l e q u a l s . B ack i n Hew Y ork C i t y i n c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h H. P . W i l l i s and ’’K i r k l a n d , w i l l i a m , " C y c l o p e d i a o f A m e ric a n B J t a a a p l g (1 8 8 8 ), X II, 556, 3 ' Shannon, M rs. C a r o lin e M a tild a K ir k la n d . p . 7 .

27

W illia m

C u l l e n B r y a n t , f o r m i n g new f r i e n d s h i p s a l m o s t d a i l y ,

t h e y c o u ld ex am in e t h e d i s c o v e r i e s o f t h e p r e c e d i n g y e a r s i n th e p ro p e r p e rs p e c tiv e *

T hey c o u ld n e v e r be s a t i s f i e d a g a i n

b y i s o l a t i n g t h e m s e l v e s f ro m t h e s o c i e t y a b o u t them a s t h e y had i n G e n e v a , b u t t h e y w ere r e a d y f o r a l e s s s t r e n u o u s l i f e t h a n t h e y had l e d i n M ic h ig a n * On t h e e v e n i n g o f O c t o b e r 1 8 , 1 8 4 6 , one week a f t e r t h e f i r s t num ber o f t h e C h r i s t i a n E n q u i r e r was p u b l i s h e d * W illia m 4 K i r k l a n d drowned* R u fu s G r is w o ld g i v e s t h e f o l l o w i n g r e c o n ­ s t r u c t i o n o f th e tra g e d y * *. *w h i l e r e t u r n i n g f ro m a v i s i t t o h i s l i t t l e s o n [ W i l l i a m , y o u n g e s t o f t h e c h i l d r e n ^ i n Mewburg * *, b e i n g v e r y n e a r ­ s i g h t e d , he p r o b a b l y mad® a m i s s t e p i n t h e d a r k , f e l l i n t o t h e [ P i s h s k i l l ] R i v e r , an d was p r o b a b l y sw ep t away by t h e c u r r e n t * * * *w Mr* K i r k l a n d *s t r a g i c d e a t h c u t s h o r t h i s c a r e e r a t a tim e when h© seem ed a t l a s t t o have fo u n d a p r o f i t a b l e and e n j o y a b l e m eans o f e m p lo y in g h i s e x t e n s i v e s c h o l a r s h i p and d e e p l e a r n i n g *

U n f o r t u n a t e l y , he h a d b een u n a b le t o

a c c u m u l a t e e v e n a m o d e s t am ount o f money; t h e r e f o r e , t h e e n tire

c a r e o f t h e f o u r c h i l d r e n d e v o lv e d upon Mrs* K i r k l a n d .

W ith t h e f i n a n c i a l a d v i c e o f h e r b r o t h e r - i n - l a w , C h a r l e s P i n c k n e y K i r k l a n d , she i m m e d ia te l y assum ed t h e d u t i e s o f e a rn in g a liv in g f o r h er fa m ily . T ™ S h a n n o n , M rs. C a r o l i n e M a t i l d a K i r k l a n d ,, p* 7 . E? R u fu s W* G r i s w o l d , P r o s e W r i t e r s o f A m erica ( P h i l a ­ d e lp h ia , 1 851), f o o tn o te , p . 463.

36

W i t h i n a y e a r a f t e r h e r h u s b a n d ’ s d e a t h , &r s , K i r k ­ l a n d a b a n d o n e d t e a c h i n g f o r t h e m ore l u c r a t i v e p o s i t i o n o f e d i t o r o f t h e n e w ly fo u n d e d U n io n M a g a z i n e » a p o s i t i o n f o r w h i c h sh e w as recom m ended b y B r y a n t and t h e D u y c k in c k s*

She

a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d h e a v i l y t o a n n u a l s and o t h e r p e r i o d i c a l s * ^ When, a f t e r e i g h t e e n m o n th s 9 t h e U nio n M a g a z in e was b o u g h t b y J o h n S a r t a i n and moved t o P h i l a d e l p h i a a s S a r t a i n * s Maga­ z i n e . M r s , K i r k l a n d was r e t a i n e d a s a n a s s o c i a t e e d i t o r whose c h i e f d u t y seem s t o h a v e b e e n t o c o n t r i b u t e s o m e th in g ©aeh 7 m o n th . By 1 6 4 b , tw o y e a r s a f t e r h e r h u s b a n d ’ s d e a t h , t h i s r e m a r k a b l e woman had so o r d e r e d h e r a f f a i r s t h a t sh e c o u ld t a k e a y e a r o f f f o r t r a v e l i n E u ro p e w i t h h e r f r i e n d s . Dr* a n d Mrs* H* w* B e llo w s *

B e r home a t 4 5 I r v i n g 'P l a c e , w h e re

s h e h a d moved when sh e g a v e up t h e b o a r d i n g s c h o o l , was a v e rita b le

s a l o n t o w h ic h Peter* C o o p e r, B r y a n t , Dr* B e l l o w s , o P o e , and N* P . W i l l i s w e re r e g u l a r v i s i t o r s * J o s e p h ’ s l i f e was p r o b a b l y a l t e r e d more t h a n t h a t o f any o f th e o t h e r c h il d r e n as a r e s u l t of h i s f a t h e r ’ s a c c i ­ d e n t a l d e a th *

Had Mi% K i r k l a n d l i v e d , J o s e p h w ould u n d o u b t e d l y

h a v e b e e n s e n t t o one o f t h e e a s t e r n c o l l e g e s i n t h e t r a d i ­ t i o n o f b o t h t h e K i r k l a n d and S t a n s b u r y f a m i l i e s .

In ste a d ,

h i s m o th e r s e c u r e d f o r him a b e r t h a s a common seam an on a com bined f r e i g h t and p a s s e n g e r v e s s e l i n t h e hope t h a t a S h a n n o n . Mrs* C a r o l i n e Matilda K i r k l a n d . p . 9 0 Ib id * 8

Ib id .

£9

y e a r i n E n g la n d an d o n t h e C o n t i n e n t w o uld i n p a r t t a k e t h e p la c e of a f o m a l e d u c a tio n

I t was a l s o Mrs* K i r k l a n d * s

hope t h a t t h e

s a l t a i r w ould c a u s e him t o grow t a l l e r t h a n

h is fiv e fe e t

two i n c h e s .

He l e f t f o r E n g la n d i n J u l y , 1 8 4 7 ,

F o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s t h i s d a t e m arked t h e end o f h i s home l i f e .

I t a l s o m arked t h e end o f t h e p e r i o d o f d i r e c t

c o n t a c t w i t h h i e m o t h e r a who had so p r o f o u n d l y i n f l u e n c e d him e a r l i e r * As Dana and M e l v i l l e t e s t i f y , t h e l i f e o f a s a i l o r i n th e

44 0 * s c o u ld *b© r o u g h , c o a r s e , and so m e tim e s a l m o s t u n ­

b e a ra b le ,

E v i d e n t l y aw are o f t h i s f a c t , Mrs* K i r k l a n d

a r r a n g e d f o r J o s e p h t o s i g n on w i t h a m a s t e r who was n o t e d fox' h i s k i n d n e s s t o t h e men u n d e r him*

I t 'was a l s o a r r a n g e d

t h a t ' f r i e n d s o f Mrs* K i r k l a n d who w ere g o i n g t o E n g la n d s h o u l d t r a v e l on t h e

same b o a t*

A c t u a l l y t h e voyage t u r n e d o u t t o

be a l m o s t a p l e a s u r e e x c u r s i o n f o r

Joseph*

He was n o t o n l y

a l l o w e d t o v i s i t h i s m o t h e r 4s f r i e n d s , b u t w as g i v e n o t h e r sp e c ia l p r iv ile g e s as w e ll.

One. p a s s a g e from, t h e j o u r n a l

w h i c h he k e p t o f h i s y e a r ’ s t r a v e l s i n d i c a t e s t h a t he -was e x c u s e d fro m much i f n o t a l l o f t h e f a t i g u i n g w ork o f t h e common seaman* J u l y £ 9 , 1 8 4 7 , I w as s i c k a g a i n when I g o t i n t h e c h a n n e l on a c c o u n t o f t h e s h o r t h e a d - s e a and my be .ins o b l i g e d t o k e e p *w a t c h and w a t c h *1 w h ic h a r d u o u s d u t y I had b e e n e x c u s e d fro m b e f o r e b y t h e k i n d n e s s o f t h e m ate,® U n p u b l i s h e d j o u r n a l f r a g m e n t now i n K i r k l a n d P a p e r s

50

Unfortunately, all of Kirkland*8 journal except that portion describing the trip to Bagland and his stay there with his uncle Charles Stansbury was burned i n the Chicago fire *

The extant portion is extensive enough, however, to

indicate that Joseph took every advantage which the trip offered to extend his education*

For a lad of seventeen, he

was a remarkably thorough sight-seer.

He not only recorded

each day*s discoveries; he took time to draw detailed sketches of places and objects that particularly attracted his atten­ tion*

The Armour Hoorn in the Tower was the subject of one

sketch; a beheading block *with two cut marks on it* occasioned another.

In the Adelaide Gallery, a model of the so-called

*atmospheric railway* fascinated him, and he returned time and again to examine it until he was finally able to make a satisfactory sketch of it.

He went to the British Museum,

particularly the Egyptology Rooms, and the Merchantsf Ex­ hibit*

Between these visits to specific places, Kirkland

explored the streets at random, visiting the shops and talking to whoever had a few minutes to loaf with him.

He wont to

fairs and to as many plays as his limited budget and rather strict uncle would allow* After spending about four months in England, Joseph toured Germany and France and then returned hone just as his mother was leaving on her first visit to the Continent in the company of Dr* and Hr s. Bellows*

In all probability

Joseph stayed with one of his uncles w h i l e his mother was

SI

go ne* known*

What he d id * i f a n y t h i n g , t o o c c u p y h i s tim e i n n o t W i t h i n t h e n e x t y e a r o r t w o , hew /ever, t h r o u g h t h e

h e l p o f h i s m o t h e r and p r o b a b l y W i l l i a m C u l l e n B r y a n t , J o s e p h o b t a i n e d a p o s i t i o n a s c l e r k fox' P u tn a m ’ s p u b l i s h i n g company* L ittle

i s known o f h i s w o rk h e r e e x c e p t t h a t b y I S 55 he had

b e e n a d v a n c e d t o t h e p o s t o f p r e l i m i n a r y r e a d e r o f p o e t r y * 3*® I n t h e m ea n tim e h i s m o t h e r was s e ld o m a t home*

In

1850 and i n 1854 sh e r e t u r n e d t o t h e C o n t i n e n t w i t h f r i e n d s , and d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v e n i n g y e a r s sh e s p e n t t h e summers a t H o s l y n , Wew Y o r k . 3*3* As a r e s u l t , J o s e p h w as l e f t t o h i s own r e s o u r c e s ; f o r , a s l o n g a s h i s m o t h e r was n e a r , i t w as sh e who made h i s d e c i s i o n s * Som etim e i n 1854 o r *55 {.Joseph was t w e n t y - f o u r o r t w e n t y - f i v e a t t h e t i m e ) he m u s t h a v e r e a l i s e d t h a t he had t o d e c i d e upo n a f u t u r e p r o f e s s i o n .

S in c e he h ad n e i t h e r

t h e o r e t i c a l n o r p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g i n th e p u b lis h in g b u s i­ n e s s , he had a d v a n c e d t o t h e l i m i t o f h i s p o s s i b i l i t i e s that f i e l d *

in

I f he s t a y e d on w i t h P u t n a m * s , i t w o u ld ha v e

10

I n a n u n p u b l i s h e d l e t t e r t o h i s d a u g h t e r L o u is e d a t e d F e b r u a r y 2 2 , 1 8 9 4 , K i r k l a n d w r o t e t h a t he was w o r k i n g f o r Putnam* s a b o u t 1 8 5 2 , when L o n g fe llo w * s poem stTwo A n g e l s 5* a r r i v e d , and t h a t a s p a r t o f h i s j o b , he r e a d and c e m e n t e d u p o n t h e poem b e f o r e he t o o k i t t o t h e e d i t o r . A c t u a l l y he c o u l d n o t h a v e r e c e i v e d t h e poem i n 1852 s i n c e I t w as n o t w r i t t e n u n t i l 1855 ( s e e c h r o n o l o g i c a l l i s t o f L o n g f e l l o w * s poems i n C o m p lete Works o f L o n g f e l l o w , e d i t e d b y H o race Sc u d d e r , I I I , & $ • ) Ifne poem w as p u b l i s h e d i n P u tn a m ’ s M o n th ly M a g az in e t I I I ( A p r i l , 1 8 5 4 ) , I , 4 1 5 *

11S h a n n o n , Mrs* C a r o l i n e M a t i l d a K i r k l a n d , p . 7 .

3B

t o be i n m in o r p o s i t i o n s , u n i© so he w e re w i l l i n g t o u s e h i s m o t h e r ’ s name and i n f l u e n c e t o s e c u r e s o m e th i n g b e t t o r *

On

t h e o t h e r hand* he c o u ld t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e a s a c l e r k f o r P u tn a m ’ s and b e g i n on h i s own i n some new l o c a l i t y and b u s i n e s s w h ere h i s f u t u r e n i g h t be much b r i g h t e r * He h a d no g r e a t l o v e f o r t h e p u b l i s h i n g b u s i n e s s ; he had d r i f t e d i n t o i t q u it© b y a c c i d e n t *

As f o r r e m a i n i n g i n t h e E a s t* h i s

f a m i l y was t h e m a in a t t r a c t i o n t h e r e *

W ith h i s s i s t e r s and

b r o t h e r a t s c h o o l and h i s m o t h e r away m o st o f t h e t i m e , he h ad no p a r t i c u l a r r e a s o n f o r s t a y i n g on i n a l o c a l i t y w h ic h w as o t h e r w i s e u n a t t r a c t i v e * As e a r l y a s 1853 J o s e p h c o u ld have s e e n h a n d b i l l s -which t h e I l l i n o i s C e n t r a l R a i l r o a d c i r c u l a t e d b y t h e t h o u s a n d s i n New Y o rk C ity * c a l l i n g f o r l a b o r e r s * e x t o l l i n g t h e p o s s i ­ b i l i t i e s o f t h e new la n d * and h o l d i n g o u t t h e p r o m is e o f s t e a d y ' em ploym ent a t good w a g e s T h e

e m p h a s is i n t h e b i l l s

was a lw a y s on t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r young men, and t h e im ­ p l i c a t i o n : was t h a t i f a man had had a n y p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e , h i s c h a n c e s f o r a d v a n c e m e n t w ere a l m o s t l i m i t l e s s *

I t may

hav e b e e n t h e s i g h t o f t h e s e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s vf i c h p ro m p te d J o s e p h t o go t o W illiam . Ackerman* V ic e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e I l l i n o i s C e n t r a l R a i l r o a d and an o l d f r i e n d o f t h e U r i e l and family,**® t o a s h f o r employment*

At any r o t s *

i n 1855

12P a u l vj. G a t e s , "The I l l i n o i s C e n t r a l R a i l r o a d , * H a rv a rd E conom ic S t u d i e s , 1 9 3 4 , X L I I ? 9 6 . 13 U n p u b lish e d b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e tc h o r Jo s e p h m ir x la n d , p ro b a b ly w r i t t e n by h i s d a u g h te r C a ro lin e * K irk la n d P a p e r s ; r e f e r r e d t o h e r e a f t e r a s u n p u b l i s h e d b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e tc h *

53

A ckerm an o f f e r e d him a p o s i t i o n a s a u d i t o r w i t h t h e I l l i n o i s C e n t r a l i n C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s #

S e e in g i n th e o f f e r th e op p o r­

t u n i t y he had b e e n w a i t i n g f o r , J o s e p h a c c e p t e d w i t h o u t h e s i t a t i o n and i m m e d i a t e l y s t a r t e d w e st* I n 1847 t h a t p e r i o d i n J o s e p h Kirkland*s l i f e

d u rin g

w h ic h h i s m o th e r was t h e p r e d o m i n a n t i n f l u e n c e c l o s e d # i n 1855, a s e c o n d p e r i o d w as e n d in g #

Now,

B etw een t h o s e d a t e s

K i r k l a n d had d r i f t e d a i m l e s s l y , m e r e l y m a r k in g tim e i n so f a r a s a m b i t i o n s w ere c o n c e r n e d b e c a u s e he had n o t a s c o v e r e d h i s own i n d i v i d u a l i t y *

3r e t

d is­

C a r o l i n e K i r k l a n d was n a t u r ­

a l l y , a l t h o u g h quite u n c o n s c i o u s l y , a dominating woman*

As

l o n g a s J o s e p h w as n e a r h e r , t h e v e r y p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s f o r which sh e w as p r i m a r i l y responsible c o u ld n e v e r become a p p a re n t.

And e v e n a f t e r t h e p e r i o d o f c l o s e c o n t a c t b e ­

tw e e n t h e tw o had c l o s e d , he was s t i l l g u i d e d by a d e c i s i o n of hers#

I t w a s o n l y w hen h© t r u s t e d h i s own c o u n c i l and

struck o u t for h i m s e l f t h a t he became i n f a c t a s well a s y e a r s a mature young man*

54

C h a p t e r 111

ms*£ AGAIN T h e r e i s no need, t o l o o k f o r h i d d e n m e a n in g s i n J o s e p h K i r k l a n d * s d e c i s i o n t o r e t u r n t o t h e West* r e a s o n s .a r e quite a p p a r e n t *

The r e a l

I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , a n attrac­

tive p o s i t i o n w as o f f e r e d him t h e r e , w h e r e a s o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f a n y k i n d had p r e t t y w e l l d r i e d up i n t h e E a s t*

In th e

s e c o n d p l a c e , s i n c e he had s p e n t e i g h t y e a r s o f h i s boyhood i n M i c h ig a n , I l l i n o i s d i d n o t seem a s f a r away t o him a s i t d id t o m ost E a s t e r n e r s new r e g i o n *

5

and. he was n o t a f r a i d o f l i f e

in a

T h e n , t o o , he knew w e s t e r n p e o p l e and a d m ir e d

th em f o r their i n d o m i t a b l e c o u r a g e , t h e i r i n d e p e n d e n c e , and their optimism*

F i n a l l y , he knew t h a t o n t h e f r o n t i e r a

young man1s o p p o r t u n i t i e s w ere a l m o s t b o u n d l e s s , and he welcomed t h e c h a n c e t o make h i s own way* C h ic a g o i n 1856 w as a n i n d i s c r i m i n a t e m i x t u r e o f l o g , f r a m e , and m a s o n r y b u i l d i n g s h u n c h e d up b e tw e e n t h e s h o r e o f L ake M i c h ig a n and t h e swamps o f t h e Kankakee and I l l i n o i s R iv ers* own i m p o r t a n c e .

I t w as j u s t t h e n b e g i n n i n g t o f e e l i t s H aving g o t i t s s t a r t a b o u t t h e t u r n o f t h e

c e n t u r y a s a f o r t and a t r a d i n g p o s t , b o t h o f w h ic h w ere c o m p le te ly burned o u t in th e I n d ia n m assacre o f 1812, i t w as n o t u n t i l t h e r a i l r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n boom o f 1 8 5 2 -3 5 t h a t t h e v i l l a g e am ounted t o a n y t h i n g more t h a n a l o c a l

35

t r a c i n g c e n te r*

W ith t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e O h i c a g o - G a le n a

R a i l r o a d , C h ic a g o became i m p o r t a n t a s t h e e a s t e r n t e m i n u s o f t h e r a i l r o a d w h ic h c a r r i e d t h e l e a d o r e .from t h e f a b u l o u s r e d h i l l s n e a r G a le n a *

Im m e d ia te ly , o th e r r a i l r o a d s e x ­

t e n d e d theXXs l i n e s i n t o C h ic a g o t o t a p some o f t h e w e a l t h t h a t flo w e d i n t o th e c i t y o v e r th e G a len a lin e *

A r o a d was

b u i l t i n f ro m F o r t Wajme* I n d i a n a # c o n n e c t i n g C h ic a g o w i t h t h e i n d u s t r i a l E a s t ; o t h e r r o a d s came up f r o m t h e s o u t h , l i n k i n g th e c i t y w ith th e r i c h farm la n d s o f c e n t r a l I l l i n o i s * One o f t h e s e l i n e s b u i l t i n t o C h ic a g o f r o m t h e s o u t h w as t h e I l l i n o i s C e n t r a l *

L ik e m o s t o f t h e o t h e r r a i l r o a d s

i n t h e s t a t e , i t h a d o v e re x p a n d e d d u r i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n boom o f t h e m i d d l e t 3 0 , s and w as c a u g h t w i t h a s t a g g e r i n g d e b t f o l l o w i n g t h e g e n e r a l d e p r e s s i o n o f 1836* o t h e r r o a d s , how ever, th e I l l i n o i s by th e s t a t e , i t s e l f ; d e b t*

U n lik e th e

C e n t r a l w as g u a r a n t e e d

t h e r e f o r e , t h e s t a t e h ad t o assu m e i t s

I n t h e s u b s e q u e n t r e o r g a n i s a t i o n o f t h e com pany, t h e

g o v e rn m e n t i n s i s t e d u p o n s t r i c t e r s u p e r v i s i o n o f a c c o u n t s , r e q u i r i n g t h e company t o h i r e a u d i t o r s t o r e p o r t t o t h e s t a t e * As one o f t h e s e a u d i t o r s , J o s e p h K i r k l a n d t r a v e l e d I l l i n o i s fro m C h ic a g o t o C a i r o , and f ro m E a s t S t . L o u is t o V i n c e n n e s . He became w e l l a c q u a i n t e d w i t h s u c h i m p o r t a n t s t a t e

o ffic ia ls

a s J u d g e s D a v is a n d W e b s t e r , a n d he w a s o f t e n a g u e s t I n t h e home o f G e o rg e B* M c C l e l l a n , v i c e - p r e s i d e n t o f t h e I l l i n o i s C e n t r a l and o f f i c e r i n t h e S t a t e M i l i t i a , ^

K irk lan d a ls o

^ ^ J o h n M o s e s . I l l i n o i s H i s t o r i c a l and S t a t i s t i c a l (C h ica g o , 1 8 9 5 ), I I , 1053. »

*

m■m nV nTrMtriii i»rri*rrii fn —

------1— r

«■'mat-wanx-iq

*>ww^iniiw—

56

to o k a d v a n tag e o f th e o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f e r e d by h i s p o s i t i o n a s t r a v e l i n g a u d i t o r to n o te th e r i s e

o f new i n d u s t r i e s i n

t h e s t a t e ; f o r , l i k e h i s f a t h e r , he hoped t h a t h© m ig h t f i n d some e n t e r p r i s e I n w h ic h he c o u l d s t r i k e i t r i c h — w h e r e , I f ha d i d n o t make a f o r t u n e , he n i g h t a t l e a s t s e c u r e a com* fo rta b le

in c o m e .

The p o s i t i o n w i t h t h e r a i l r o a d p a i d him

more t h a n he had e a r n e d a s a c l e r k a t P u tn a m * s , b u t t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a d v a n c e m e n t w as j u s t a s l i m i t e d . I n C h ic a g o i n t h e m id *50*a t h e t a l k w as s t i l l o f t h e f o r t u n e s t h a t came o u t o f G a l e n a t o t h e w e s t .

I t to o k a

f o r t u n e i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , t h o u g h , t o b u y a ” r e d h i l l ” ; and t h e r e w e re a l r e a d y i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e r i c h e s t l e a d o r e had b e e n du g out.

To the south, h o w e v e r, Kirkland heard stories

o f c o a l f i e l d s t h a t c o u ld bo b o u g h t f o r l i t t l e

more t h a n t h e

p r i c e o f farm. l a n d .

The c o a l had b e e n u s e d l o c a l l y a ro u n d © V e r m i l i o n C o u n ty a s e a r l y a s 1 8 5 6 ; h o w e v e r, b e c a u s e o f i t s low q u a l i t y and t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f m oving I t , fo u n d a m a r k e t i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e g i o n s .

i t had n o t

A fte r c o m p letio n

o f t h e I l l i n o i s R a il w a y (now known a s t h e C h ic a g o and E a s t e r n I l l i n o i s ) b e tw e e n C h ic a g o and D a n v i l l e , t h e p r o b le m o f t r a n s ­ p o r t i n g t h e c o a l w as s o l v e d , and t h e C h ic a g o and C arb on Goal Company was o r g a n i z e d t o m ine V e r m i l i o n C ounty c o a l f o r I n ­ d u s t r i a l u s e I n C h icago* To t h e young K i r k l a n d t h e c o a l b u s i n e s s .must have 2

lack Hoore Williams, History o f Vermilion Count?;«, Illinois (Indianapolis, 1950)7 p. 485 ff7

37

seem ed r e a d y made f o r h i s p a r t i c u l a r n e e d s .

I t was new;

t h e r e f o r e he w o u ld n o t he p e n a l i s e d f o r l a c k o f e x p e r i e n c e , p r o v i d e d he c o u l d g e t a j o b w i t h a m in i n g com pany.

I t was

t r u e t h a t he had. no money t o b u y e v e n r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e c o a l la n d ; g iv e n th e chance to d e m o n stra te h ie c l e r i c a l a b i l i t y i n a new o r g a n i z a t i o n , h o w e v e r , he c o u l d hope t o a d ­ v a n c e t o a p o s i t i o n t h a t w o u ld p a y e n o u g h t o e n a b l e him t o b u y p r o p e r t y o f h i s own. I n J u l y , 1858, K irk lan d se c u re d a p o s i t i o n a s a g en t i n t h e D a n v i l l e a r e a f o r t h e C h ic a g o a n d C a rb o n C o a l Company and moved I m m e d i a t e l y t o T i l t o n , I l l i n o i s , so u th w e st o f D a n v ille .

about th re e m ile s

On A u g u s t 5 , 1 5 5 8 , he w r o t e t o th®

B o ard o f D i r e c t o r s o f t h e I l l i n o i s C e n t r a l R a i l r o a d a s k i n g t h a t h i s r e s i g n a t i o n a s a u d i t o r become i m m e d i a t e l y e f f e c ­ t i v e .3 3

K irk la n d ’ s sta te m e n t in h is a u to b io g ra p h ic a l sk e tc h p r i n t e d in. The S t o r y o f C h i c a g o , p . 414 t h a t * . . . J o s e p h moved {1 8 5 6 j to ™ lJ h T c a g o , w h i c h h a s b e e n h i s r e s i d e n c e up t o t h e p r e s e n t w r i t i n g ( 1 8 9 4 ) . . . , " i s m i s l e a d i n g . M is s D o n d o re , f o r e x a m p l e , i n h e r s k e t c h o f K i r k l a n d i n th© D i c t i o n a r y o f A m e ric a n B i o g r a p h y , s a y s o n l y t h a t f o r a tim e he was i n b u s i n e s s i n ^ G e n t r a l l l l i n o i s . M r. R. E . C o n n o l l y , p r e s e n t v i c e p r e s id e n t of th e I l l i n o i s C e n tra l R a ilro a d , has v e r i f i e d th e f a c t t h a t K i r k l a n d l e f t C h ic a g o t o t a k e up r e s i d e n c e i n T i l ­ t o n , I l l i n o i s in A u g u st, 1858, b y r e f e r e n c e t o K i r k l a n d ’ s l e t t e r o f r e s i g n a t i o n (A u g u s t 5 , 1858) w h ic h I s now c o n t a i n e d i n t h e r e c o r d s o f t h e I l l i n o i s C e n t r a l Company. Mr. C o n n o l ly g a v e me t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n a l e t t e r d a t e d May_19, 1 9 4 8 . F o r f u r t h e r p r o o f t h a t K i r k l a n d l e f t C h ic a g o i n 1308 t o l i v e i n T i l t o n , s e e a l s o K i r k l a n d ’ s l e t t e r t o H a m lin G a r l a n d a s q u o t e d by G a r la n d I n H o a d s id e M e e t i n g s (Hew Y o rk , 1 9 3 0 } , p . 1 0 7 , I n w h ic h K l r k l a n ™ s a y s t h a F l i © s p e n t t e n y e a r s I n c e n t r a l Illin o is. S i n c e he l e f t T i l t o n i n 1 8 6 8 , t h e t e n y so '-s p e r i o d m u s t h a v e b e g u n i n 1858*

38

When K i r k l a n d a r r i v e d i n T i l t o n , t h e C h icag o and C a rb o n C o a l

mine was l i t t l e

more t h a n a h o l e i n th© g r o u n d ,

and h i s d u t i e s a s a g e n t c o n s i s t e d m a i n l y i n s e l l in. th e b u sh el to n earby re s id e n ts *

c o a l by

In ste a d of r i s i n g ra p id ly

I n t h e new o r g a n i s a t i o n and s a v i n g money t o buy l a n d o f his own, he h a d t o s u p p le m e n t h i s income by a c t i n g a s . s t a t i o n a g e n t f o r t h e r e c e n t l y c o m p le te d G r e a t 'W estern R a i l r o a d (now p a r t of th e

Wabash)* Kirkland was n o t d i s c o u r a g e d ,

f o r he w as i n a n a r e a t h a t was a t l e a s t

h o w e v e r,

p o t e n t i a l l y ric h *

The numerous o u t c r o p p i n g s o f coal gave ample evidence of th a t.

Neither did he have t o w o r r y a b o u t o t h e r com panies*

b u y in g up a l l o f t h e d e s i r a b l e l a n d b e f o r e he c o u ld s e c u r e a n y f o r h i m s e l f , b e c a u s e t h e same b a r r i e r s t o l a r g e - s e a l © p r o d u c t i o n w h ic h f a c e d t h e C h ica g o and Carbon would f a c e an y o p e ra to r in th e a re a .

F i r s t , a n e x t e n s i v e m a r k e t had t o be

fo u n d f o r t h e low g r a d e c o a l*

T h en, eno u g h s h i l l e d m i n e r s

had t o be im p o rte d t o i n s u r e s u f f i c i e n t p r o d u c t i o n t o f i l l t h i s m a rk e t.

Th© p l a n t o s h i p c o a l t o C h ic a g o had b e e n aban­

doned b e c a u s e o f t h e p r o h i b i t i v e l y h i g h f r e i g h t r a t e ; K i r k ­ l a n d , however, was eno u g h o f a n o p t i m i s t t o b e l i e v e t h a t o t h e r , c l o s e r m a r k e t s w ould d e v e l o p w i t h t h e r a p i d l y e x ­ p a n d in g c o u n t r y .

A l l he had t o do was to s i t t i g h t and be

a b l e t o r e c o g n i s e an o p p o r t u n i t y when I t p r e s e n t e d i t s e l f . M e a n w h ile , he l e a r n e d a l l t h a t he c o u ld a b o u t c o a l m i n i n g , fro m t h e p r o c e s s o f g e t t i n g th e c o a l o u t o f t h e g ro u n d t o p r e p a r i n g i t f o r t h e m a r k e t ,

he a l s o renew ed h i s

t/

59

a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h Ju d g e D avid D a v i s , who had b e e n a p p o i n t e d ju d g e o f t h e D a n v i l l e C i r c u i t C o u rt i n 1858*

D a v is wae a

g r e a t h u l k o f a man who c o u ld s p i n a y a r n fro m h e r e t o y o n d e r* o r i n s t r u c t a j u r y i n one word*

B o th t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s made

him a p a r t i c u l a r f a v o r i t e w i t h t h e shrew d f a r m e r s fro m t h e r i c h p r a i r i e c o u n try su rro u n d in g D a n v ille *

and t h e y f l o c k e d

i n t o tow n on c o u r t d a y s w h e t h e r t h e y had b u s i n e s s o r n o t . The s e s s i o n s had l o s t some o f t h e i r f l a v o r when L i n c o l n l e f t t h e c i r c u i t ; however* t h e Ju d g e was a lw a y s good f o r a s t o r y o r two*- and t h e v i s i t t o tow n b ro k e t h e m onoto ny o f farm l i f e . 'Rubbing s h o u l d e r s e v e r y day w i t h t h e s e f a r m e r s fro m t h e D a n v i l l e a r e a * K i r k l a n d a g a i n became i n t e r e s t e d

in th e

p i o n e e r f a r m e r a s a t y p e and a s a p o l i t i c a l and eco nom ic f o r c e i n A m e ric a ; f o r t h e s e w ere e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same men who had won h i s g r u d g i n g r e s p e c t i n Michigan some t r e a t y years e a r l ie r .

He s t i l l a d m ire d t h e i r c o u ra g e and t h e i r

i n d o m i t a b l e w i l l ; b u t* b e i n g more m a tu re h i m s e l f * he c o u ld now s e e t h e i r w e a k n e s s e s o f c h a r a c t e r a s w e l l . G a r la n d a few y e a r s l a t e r *

L ik e H a m lin

he was a p p a l l e d by the sight o f

huge* m o d ern b a r n s o v e rs h a d o w in g r u d e l o g o r fram e h o v e l s ’ i n w h ic h th e f a r m e r s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s e x i s t e d .

He was

amazed* to o * t o d i s c o v e r t h a t t h e s e men w e re p ro u d o f t h e i r c r u d e n e s s and l a c k o f s o c i a l g r a c e s and t h a t t h e y f e l t t h a t t h e more c u l t u r e d a man was * t h e w e a k e r he m u st b e . M o st s t a r t l i n g - o f a l l t o K i r k l a n d * how ever * was t h e consuming

40

g r e e d o f many o f t h e f i n e s t o f t h e s e men*

To them* s e l f -

d e n i a l was a v i r t u e * and t h e y e x i s t e d on t h e b a r e s t n e c e s s i ­ t i e s i n o r d e r t o am ass a s much w e a l t h a s p o s s i b l e *

In try in g

t o s o l v e t h e p r o b le m o f why t h e s e p i o n e e r f a r m e r s p l a c e d a h i g h e r v a l u e on money t h a n t h e y die! e v e n on l i f e

i t s e l f , .Kirk­

l a n d was u n c o n s c i o u s l y w o r k in g o u t t h e them e o f h i s f i r s t and b e s t n o v e l , f u r y » The M e a n e s t Man I n S p r i n g C o u n ty *

lie d i d

-no w r i t i n g a t t h i s t i m e ; i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y had no t h o u g h t o f e v e r w o r k in g t h e m a t e r i a l a t han d i n t o a s t o r y 9

The f a c t

t h a t i n t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h m e n tio n e d p r e v i o u s l y K i r k l a n d s a y s t h a t b u r y was t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f many y e a r s o f th in k in g about th e l i f e

o f t h e p i o n e e r f a r m e r , and t h a t " t h e

p l a n h a d - l o n g l a i n d o rm a n t i n h i s m in d , " i s c o n v i n c i n g e v i ­ d e n c e , h o w e v e r, t h a t he r e c o g n i s e d t h a t t h e t h e s i s o f t h e n o v e l had a c t u a l l y b e e n c o n c e iv e d d u r i n g t h e s e f i r s t y e a r s in c e n tra l Illin o is * I t m u st have b e e n a t a b o u t t h i s same t i m e , 1858 o r ? 5 9 , t h a t K i r k l a n d f i r s t - m e t Abraham L i n c o l n , p r o b a b l y t h r o u g h t h e i r m u tu a l f r i e n d Ju d g e D a v i s ,

I t i s im p o ssib le

now t o t e l l how w e l l a c q u a i n t e d t h e two became £ s u c h e v i ­ d e n c e a s d o e s e x i s t i n d i c a t e s t h a t more t h a n a c a s u a l f r i e n d s h i p d e v e lo p ed *

On a t l e a s t one o c c a s i o n L i n c o l n

s p e n t a n e v e n i n g i n K i r k l a n d *s home, and a y e a r o r two l a t e r , i n 1 8 6 0 , K i r k l a n d was on t h e

c o m m itte e t o welcom e

L in c o ln b a c k t o S p r i n g f i e l d a f t e r h i s n o m in a tio n f o r

41

P r e s i d e n t a t t h e C h ic a g o C o n v e n tio n * ^ F o r t u n a t e l y 9 .K irk la n d l e f t a c o m p le te d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e v e n i n g L i n c o l n s p e n t i n h i s home.

T h is d e s e r v e s

f u l l q u o t a t i o n s i n c e i t n o t o n l y t h r o w s l i g h t on t h e f r i e n d ­ s h i p b e tw e e n t h e two b u t a l s o p o r t r a y s a s o b e r , t h o u g h t f u l L in c o ln q u ite in c o n tr a s t to th e u s u a l p ic tu r e o f a Jo k in g , s t o r y t e l l i n g , f r o n t i e r la w y e r* Some s i x o r s e v e n y e a r s ago — I t seem s l i k e t w e n t y y e a r s b e c a u s e t h e w a r h a s i n t e r v e n e d — a young E n g l i s h L ord ( Q r o s v e n o r ) s t a i d f s l c V a few d a y s w i t h u s a t b u r p r a i r i e home, a n d a s Mr* L i n c o l n h a p p e n e d t o be a t D a n v i l l e t h e n , we a s k e d him o v e r t o sp e n d a n e v e n in g * N o th in g c o u ld be more s t i r r i n g t h a n t h e p o i n t s o f c o n t r a s t and s i m i l a r i t y between t h e two* The young L o rd *.* had had ad d ed t o h i s good n a t u r a l g i f t s , e v e r y a d v a n t a g e t h a t money c o u ld buy a t home and a b r o a d , i n c l u d i n g a s a f i n a l g r a c e and p r e p a r a ­ t i o n f o r h i s parliamentary c a r e e r , t h i s v i s i t t o America* Mr* L i n c o l n had had ad d ed t o h i s c o n g e n i t a l powers a b s o ­ l u t e l y nothing b u t w h a t he c o u ld a e q u ^ i r e u n a id e d * H is t e n t a l e n t s had g a i n e d u n to t h e m s e l v e s o t h e r t e n t a l e n t s * S t a r t i n g fro m t h e s e a n t i p o d a l p a r t s o f t h e s o c i a l w o r l d , t h e men had a r r i v e d , a t one p o i n t o f s i m i l a r i t y , n a m e ly , t h e m o st p e r f e c t simplicity o f m an n ers* The h i g h e s t a r t , t h e m e r e s t n a t u r e , had t h i s common g r o u n d w here t h e y m et and fraternized, n a m e ly , u n a f f e c t e d m o d e s ty of s p e e c h and b e ­ h a v io r* I t was l o n g ago and we none o f u s t h o u g h t of a s i n g l e on© o f t h e huge © v e n ts w h ic h have o c c u r r e d s i n c e , c o n s p i r i n g t o s u r r o u n d Mr* L i n c o l n w i t h t h e h a l o t h r o u g h w h ic h we now l o o k a t him a s t h e P a t r i o t m a r ty r * I f we c o u ld h a v e dream ed o f e v e n t h e l e a s t o f th e m , we s h o u l d have rem em bered e v e r y word and l o o k t h a t p a s s e d d u r i n g t h a t p l e a s a n t e v e n in g * ’ B ut a s i t i s , o n l y a vague r e c o l ­ l e c t i o n r e m a i n s o f a n e f f o r t on t h e p a r t o f u s A m erican y o u n g s t e r s t o g e t Mr* L i n c o l n i n t o h i s humorous v e i n , t o g i v e O r o s v e n o r a n amusing s o u v e n i r o f f r o n t i e r fun* B ut Mr* L i n c o l n , t h o u g h he t a l k e d m uch, d id n o t t e l l a s i n g l e s t o r y t h a t we c a n r e c a l l , p r e f e r r i n g i n s t e a d t o g i v e o u r v i s i t o r some n o t i o n o f t h e aims and i d e a l s o f d e m o c r a t i c g o v e rn m e n t* •«• I t w ould be c u r i o u s t o know w h at t h e young 4

The P r a i r i e C h ic k e n , S e p te m b e r 1 , 1865*

42

noblem an* i n h i s s u b s e q u e n t c a r e e r , t h o u g h t of t h e p l a i n * g i g a n t i c , p r a i r i e l a w y e r t o whom lie l i s t e n e d so a t t e n t i v e l y t h a t e v en in g * ® The f a c t t h a t ICirkland. had c a u g h t s u c h i n t i m a t e g l i m p s e s of L i n c o l n a s t h e one d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , e x p l a i n s why, twenty-five y e a r s l a t e r , he c o u ld b r i n g t h e g a n g l i n g young frontiersman i n t o two of h i s n o v e l s w i t h o u t t h e s l i g h t e s t h in t as to h is fu tu re

greatness*

W h e th e r t h e i n c i d e n t s con ­

c e r n i n g L i n c o l n w h i c h K i r k l a n d w o rk e d i n t o h i s n o v e l s w e re r e a l o r apocryphal l a o f l i t t l e

im p o rta n c e ; th e s i g n i f i c a n t

t h i n g i s t h a t a t a time when L i n c o l n had become a l e g e n d a r y f i g u r e se c o n d o n l y t o W a s h in g to n i n h e r o i c p r o p o r t i o n s , K i r k l a n d c o u ld let him p l a y a n a t u r a l , unself-conscious p a r t i n t h e two stories*

The P r a i r i e C h i c k e n . S e p te m b e r 1„ 1 8 G5

4S

C h a p te r I T THE CAPTAIN OF GQTiPAOT K J u s t how l o n g J o s e p h K i r k l a n d w o uld have b e e n w i l l i n g t o m ark tim e i n c e n t r a l I l l i n o i s had t h e C i v i l A ar n o t in te r - * v e n e d , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o say*

The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e

U n io n Army,, h o w e v e r, j a r r e d him o u t o f a r a t h e r p l e a s a n t l e t h a r g y r and on

A p r i l 3 5 , 1361 , he e n l i s t e d a s a p r i v a t e

i n a company o f t h r e e - m o n t h v o l u n t e e r s t h a t w as b e i n g fo rm ed a t D a n v ille ,. I l l i n o i s * la rk ,

1

He d i d n o t j o i n t h e army f o r a

.or a s a m eans o f f i n d i n g e x c i t e m e n t *

As a m a t t e r o f

f a c t , h i s e n l i s t m e n t came a s a r e s u l t o f much s e r i o u s t h o u g h t on t h e s u b j e c t ; f o r K i r k l a n d was n o t b y n a t u r e a man o f v i o l e n c e , and he d i d n o t b e l i e v e in w a r a s a m eans o f s e t t l i n g d isp u te s*

He d i d , h o w e v e r, b e l i e v e i n t h e Union

c a u s e ; f o r he saw i n t h e p r a c t i c e o f s l a v e holding a t h r e a t t o t h e d e m o c ra c y o f th e e n t i r e

c o u n tr y *

H is views, e x ­

p r e s s e d a few y e a r s l a t e r i n The P r a i r i e C h i c k e n , l e a v e no ■b

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k« 3 W

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s la v e r y issu e *

The S o u t h , a s d e p i c t e d by i t s m o u t h p i e c e , and i l l u s t r a t e d by I t s a c t s , was s i m p l y i n s a n e * F o r a n y .man t o a s s e r t and b e l i e v e t h a t t h a t s e c t i o n o f t h e U n io n was s u p e r i o r t o i t s n e ig h b o rs i n e d u c a tio n , l i t e r a t u r e , co u ra g e, in d u s t r y , r e s o u r c e s , t h e a r t s a n d s c i e n c e s , and i n m a n n e rs and s o c i a l s y s te m f o r a n y man t o a s s e r t t h i s I s t o s t u l t i f y h i m s e l f ; 1

A d j u t a n t O - e n e r a lis R e p o r t , I l l i n o i s 1 8 6 7 ) , I, ' 30&*

(S p riiig f i e l d

9

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an a f o r him t o b e l i e v e i t i e t o be i n s a n e * * * »^ i a t u n s e t t l e a. t h e i r w i t s ? S l a v e r y , we b e l i e v e i n o u r h e a r t s ; and ohI how do w e, i n o u r i n m o s t s o u l s , hope t h a t t h e i r h a l l u c i n a t i o n may p a s s fro m th e m , and t h a t we may l i v e t o s e e t h a t h a p p y d a y ! B e l i e v i n g a s he d i d t h a t w a r w as e v i l , b u t r e c o g n i s i n g a t t h e same tim e t h a t i t w as b e i n g r e s o r t e d t o t o com bat a n even g r e a t e r e v i l , K irk lan d a t f i r s t , lik e th e a u to b io g ra p h ic a l c h a r a c t e r V Jill F a r g o o n i n The Ca p t a i n o f Company K, t r i e d t o p ro m o te t h e U n io n c a u s e s h o r t o f a c t u a l l y j o i n i n g t h e army* He s o o n r e a l i z e d , h o w e v e r, t h a t w h a t t h e U n io n n e e d e d m o st w as men t o f i g h t f o r i t * lis t*

I t was t h e n t h a t he d e c i d e d t o e n ­

B u t t h e f a c t t h a t he s t i l l d o u b t e d t h e e f f i c a c y o f

f o r c e a s a m eans o f s o l v i n g t h e p r o b le m s w h ic h e x i s t e d b e ­ tw e e n H c r t h and S o u t h c o l o r e d h i s v ie w o f h i s e n t i r e arm y e x p e r i e n c e and w as i n d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s r e s i g n a ­ t i o n fro m t h e array two y e a r s b e f o r e p e a c e was d e c l a r e d * The v o l u n t e e r arm y o f 1861 was a n i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a ­ t i o n a t b e st*

The men p r o v i d e d t h e i r own u n i f o r m s and

e q u ip m e n t and e l e c t e d t h e i r own o f f i c e r s *

T hey w ere s c o r n e d

by t h e s o - c a l l e d " r e g u l a r s " and w ere u s e d a s pawns by p o litic ia n s*

O fte n pushed in to b a t t l e w ith l i t t l e

o r no

t r a i n i n g , commanded b y men who knew more a b o u t g e t t i n g o u t t h e v o t e t h a n t h e y d i d a b o u t b r e a k i n g up a n e n v e l o p i n g enemy a c t i o n , t h e y saw t h e i r r a n k s d e c i m a t e d and t h e i r .morale ■so low a t t i m e s a s t o be a l m o s t n o n - e x i s t e n t * **The P r a i r i e Ohio k e n * June 1 , 1865*

45

T h ese w e re t h e c o n d i t i o n s i n t o ? /h ie h K i r k l a n d was c a t a p u l t e d by h i s e n l i s t m e n t i n t h e 12 t h I n f a n t r y R e g im e n t (V o lu n te e rs)*

H is p o p u l a r i t y i s a t t e s t e d t o b y t h e f a c t

t h a t , a l t h o u g h he had had no p r e v i o u s arm y e x p e r i e n c e , he w as e l e c t e d 2nd L i e u t e n a n t o f h i s company, Company C, b e* f o r e t h e men l e f t D a n v i l l e f o r t r a i n i n g a t C a i r o , I l l i n o i s * I f th o se c h a p te rs w h ic h K i r k l a n d d e s c r i b e s

o f The C a p t a i n o f Company K i n W i l l F argo o n ? s t r a i n i n g a t C a ir o

a r e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l , t h e r e c a n be l i t t l e l a n d t o o k h i s w ork s e r i o u s l y *

doubt t h a t K irk ­

D u r in g t h e d a y he t r a i n e d

on

t h e h o t , d u s t y p a r a d e g ro u n d

w i t h h i s m en, and a t n i g h t

he

s t u d i e d t h e O f f i c e r s * M anual

and Army R e g u l a t i o n s u n t i l

he knew th em b y h e a r t .

I n J u l y he was p ro m o te d t o 1 s t

L i e u t e n a n t and o f f e r e d a command i n t h e f i e l d *

Hs r e f u s e d

a c t i v e d u t y , h o w e v e r , 'b e ca u se he h o n e s t l y b e l i e v e d t h a t he w as n o t c o m p e te n t t o l e a d t r o o p s i n b a t t l e *

W ith t h e e x p I r a *

t i o n d a te o f h i s n in e ty - d a y e n lis tm e n t p e rio d o n ly a m a tte r o f d a y s aw ay, K i r k l a n d was a s c o n f u s e d a s he had b e e n befor© v o lu n te e r in g in th e sp rin g *

I f he r e - e n l i s t e d , a s h i s

c o n s c i e n c e d i r e c t e d him t o , he knew t h a t he w ould be a s s i g n e d t o a p o s t w h ic h so u n d jud gm en t t o l d him he was not q u a lifie d to f i l l *

The a l t e r n a t i v e w a s. upon e x p i r a ­

t i o n o f h i s e n l i s t m e n t , t o r e t u r n , t o T i l t o n and t r y t o f o r g e t t h e w h o le t h i n g * M e a n w h ile , I n an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t t h e a t e r o f w a r , e v e n t s w ere t r a n s p i r i n g w h ic h w ere t o o b v i a t e th e neeess

46

o f K irk lan d '* s c h o o s i n g b e tw e e n t h e two e x t r e m e s w i t h w h ic h he w as f a c e d a t Cairo®

When t h e w a r beg an * G eorge B*

M c C le lla n * e x -a r m y o f f i c e r and v i c e - p r e s i d e n t o f t h e I l l i n o i s C e n t r a l R a i l r o a d , o r g a n i z e d a .fo rce o f m i l i t i a i n Ohio w h ic h he p u t a t t h e d i s p o s a l , o f G e n e r a l W i n f i e l d S c o t t * Commanding G e n e ra l o f th e N o rth e rn forces®

Remembering M c C l e l l a n * s

e x c e l l e n t r e c o r d a s a young o f f i c e r i n t h e M e x ica n Mar* S c o t t s e c u r e d f o r him p r o m o ti o n t o t h e r a n k o f M a jo r G e n e r a l I n t h e r e g u l a r arm y and o r d e r e d him t o o r g a n i z e and t r a i n a c o r p s o f t r o o p s f o r a summer i n v a s i o n o f w e s t e r n V ir g in ia ® The i n v a s i o n * c a r r i e d o u t w i t h e f f i c i e n c y and d i s p a t c h * made M c C l e l l a n t h e h e r o o f t h e d a y and t h e m o st p o p u l a r o f f i c e r i n t h e U n io n Army, At t h e same tim e * f a r t h e r s o u t h i n V i r g i n i a * G e n e r a l McDowell* h e a d o f t h e U n io n A rm ies i n t h e f i e l d * was o r d e r e d t o a t t a c k Richmond*

I n t h e G e n e r a l ’ s e n t o u r a g e w ere s e v e r a l

s e n a t o r s and o t h e r W a s h in g to n d i g n i t a r i e s who w a n te d t o be on han d when t h e C a p i t a l o f t h e C o n f e d e r a c y f e l l *

In ste ad *

they witnessed, and w ere c a u g h t up i n , t h e d i s a s t r o u s rout o f M cD ow ell’ s array a t t h e B a t t l e o f B u l l Run*

Im m e d ia te ly ,

C o n g r e s s an d t h e n e w s p a p e r s c la m o re d f o r McDowell’ s r e ­ p l a c e m e n t ; a n d L i n c o l n * l o o k i n g West* ch o se a s h i s s u c c e s s o r G e n e r a l M c C l e l l a n , a man who was now c o n s i d e r e d b y h i s friends t o be second o n l y t o N a p o le o n a s a n o r g a n i z e r and 3

"McClellan, G eorge B r i n t o n , " Enc y c l o p a e d i a B rxt a n n x c a ( 1 1 t h e a * } , X V II, 301*

4?

s tra te g is t^ M c C le lla n * 9 a s s i g n m e n t w as t o r e o r g a n i z e t h e U nion f o r c e s and t o r e v i t a l i z e t h e c o m p l e t e l y d e m o r a l i z e d t r o o p s * F o r h i s p e r s o n a l s t a f f he c h o s e men who had w orked f o r him a t o t h e r t i m e s , an d among t h o s e t o whom he o f f e r e d p o s i t i o n s a s a i d e a -fle -c a rra w as h i e u t s x i a n t J o s e p h K i r k l a n d , o n e - t i m e a u d i t o r o f th e I l l i n o i s C e n tr a l R a ilro a d *

K irk lan d a c c e p te d

i m m e d i a t e l y , f o r h e r e .was a c h a n c e n o t o n l y t o s t a y i n t h e arm y and a c t i v e l y s u p p o r t t h e c a u s e he b e l i e v e d i n , b u t a l s o t o do w ork f o r w h ic h he knew he was s u i t e d *

.As A ,D ,C . h i s

w ork w ould c o n s i s t m a i n l y o f h a n d l i n g t h e G e n e ra l* s o f f i c i a l co rresp o n d en ce.

I n t h e f i e l d he w ould d e l i v e r M c C l e l l a n ’ s

m essages and o r d e r s to h is s t a f f o f f i c e r s * K i r k l a n d j o i n e d G e n e r a l M c C le lla n * s s t a f f i n W ashing­ t o n , 0 . 0 , , A u g u s t 2 6 , 1 8 6 1 , and was I m m e d ia t e l y .promoted t o a Captain,.*" When he a r r i v e d , t h e c i t y lo o k e d more l i k e a f o r t t h a n th e n a t i o n *s c a p i t a l , f o r a C o n f e d e r a t e a t t a c k was e x p e c te d m o m e n ta rily .

B e ca u se t h e arm y, fro m r a n k i n g o f f i ­

c e r s down t h r o u g h t h e common s o l d i e r s , had d i s i n t e g r a t e d f o l P a u l M. A n s;le , e d . , The L i n c o l n Head e r ( Hew B r u n s w ic k , 194 7), p . 377. 5 Ad j u t a n t - G e n e r a l * s R e p o r t , I l l i n o i s ; X, 3 1 5 , I n 1680 when K i r Island' "spo k© before* t E e S e o r g e ?!7 Thomas P o s t o f t h e G.A.R* i n C h i c a g o , and i n 1894 when he w r o t e t h e a u t o b i o g r a ­ p h i c a l s k e t c h r e p r i n t e d i n The S t o r y o f C h i c a g o , he t h o u g h t t h a t he had j o i n e d M c C l e l l a n f n " t i m e t o s e r v e i n t h e b a t t l e s o f R i c h M o u n t a in , L a u r e l K i l l , and G a r r i c k ’ s F o r d ; h o w e v e r, s i n c e t h e s e b a t t l e s w ere f o u g h t d u r i n g M c C le lla n * s W est V i r ­ g i n i a c a m p a ig n {May 2 0 - J u l y 2 6 , 1861) xvhile K i r k l a n d was t r a i n i n g a t C a i r o , I l l i n o i s , h e c o u ld ^ o th a v n t a k e n p a r t i n th e m .

48

l o w i n g McDowell* s d e f e a t , e v e n t h e a p p r o x i m a t e p o s i t i o n o f t h e C o n f e d e r a t e f o r c e s u n d e r B e a u r e g a r d and -Jo h n s to n was n o t known,,

The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g L i n c o l n , was s lm -

P l y h a n g in g o n , h o p i n g t h a t M c C l e l l a n w ould w o rk a m i r a c l e . And he d id * M c C l e l l a n w as a dy nam ic p e r s o n a l i t y ; e v e n h i s c r i t i c s , a n d t h e y a r e l e g i o n , a d m it t h a t *

He had t h e a b i l i t y t o im­

p a r t s o m e th i n g o f h i m s e l f t o t h e men who s e r v e d u n d e r h im , and t o w e ld them i n t o a s t r o n g e r u n i t t h r o u g h t h e common sh a rin g *

I t w as t h i s q u a l i t y o f M c C l e l l a n 's 'w h i c h w as

p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e r a p i d i t y w i t h w h ic h he r e s t o r e d t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f t h e Army i n i t s e l f *

H is a i d e s , h i s s t a f f ,

a n d e v e n t h e men. i n t h e r a n k s g a i n e d t h e f e e l i n g o f e x c i t e ­ m e n t , o f c e r t a i n t y , and o f i m p o r ta n c e w i t h w h ic h t h e a i r a r o u n d K e C l e l l a n t s h e a d q u a r t e r s was s u p e r c h a r g e d *

In le ss

t h a n t h r e e m o n th s t h e Array was f u n c t i o n i n g s m o o t h ly , t h e t h r e a t t o W a s h in g to n was re m o v e d , and t h e r e was t a l k o f R ic h m o n d ?s f a l l i n g by C h r i s t m a s ,

And M c C l e l l a n had done a l l

t h i s w ith o u t f ig h tin g a sin g le b a t t l e I W ith t h e t h r e a t o f s i e g e re m o v e d , W a s h in g to n became a g a i n t h e s o c i a l a s w e l l a s g o v e r n m e n ta l c e n t e r o f t h e N o rth * K i r k l a n d * s s i s t e r s , who had b e e n l i v i n g i n New Y ork w i t h t h e i r m o t h e r , j o i n e d him i n W a s h in g to n and e n t e r t a i n e d o f t e n i n h i s home*

T hey m a i n t a i n e d a s o r t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l o p e n h o u s e ,

c o u n t i n g among t h e i r f r e q u e n t v i s i t o r s t h e f o u r members o f

49

t h e F r e n c h r o y a l f a m i l y who w ere s e r v i n g a s v o l u n t e e r a i d e s t o M c C l e l l a n i n o r d e r t o l e a r n m i l i t a r y s c i e n c e ; Dr* W il l ia m H* B u s s e l l , w a r c o r r e s p o n d e n t f o r t h e London T im e s | and J o h n Hay and J o h n N i c o l a y , L i n c o l n 5s p r i v a t e s e c r e t a r i e s f ro m Illin o is* The g r o u p w as a c h a l l e n g i n g o n e ; a n d , a c c o r d i n g t o a b r i e f a c c o u n t o f t h e p e r i o d l a t e r w r i t t e n b y K i r k l a n d i n The P r a i r i e C h i c k e n * he f r e q u e n t l y had t o a c t a s m o d e r a t o r i n t h e h e a t e d d i s c u s s i o n s w h ic h a r o s e b e tw e e n Dr* B u s s e l l on t h e one h a n d , and Hay and N i o o l a y on t h e o t h e r *

B u s s e l l , a th o ro u g h ®

g o in g o ld T o ry , b e lie v e d i n th e a r i s t o c r a t i c t r a d i t i o n s o f t h e S o u t h an d was f i r m l y c o n v in c e d o f t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e C o n f e d e r a t e a rm ie s *

0

I l l i n o i s , had l i t t l e

Hay and N i c o l a y , f r e s h fr o m p i o n e e r r e s p e c t f o r S o u th e rn t r a d i t i o n s , and,

d e s p i t e p r e v i o u s U nion Army d e f e a t s , s t o u t l y m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e N o r t h e r n f a r m e r - s o l d i e r , once he was a d e q u a t e l y t r a i n e d , w ould o u t - f i g h t t h e S o u t h e r n a r i s t o c r a t on a n y b a t t l e f i e l d * The Due d ?O r l e a n s , his s o n , and two n e p h e w s, re m a in e d n e u t r a l d u r i n g t h e s e d i s c u s s i o n s , e n j o y i n g t h e c o s m o p o l i t a n a tm o s ­ p h e r e o f t h e K i r k l a n d home and t h e f a c t t h a t Joseph and h i s s i s t e r s a l l spolc© f l u e n t F rench* M e a n w h ile , M c C l e l l a n was continuing to strengthen the Army o f t h e P o to m a c , p r e s u m a b l y w i t h the intention o f a d v a n For a sa m p le o f R u s s e l l 9 s low regard for t h e U nion Army, s e e h i s a c c o u n t o f t h e first Battle of B u l l Hun, Paul M. A n g l e , L i n c o l n R e a d e r * p p , S69-37S*

50

e l n g on Richmond*

S t a r t i n g w ith, a n u c l e u s o r a b o u t 3 5 ,0 0 0

s e a s o n e d t r o o p s , he t r a i n e d and d i s c i p l i n e d t h e h a t c h e s o f r e c r u i t s t h a t k e p t p o u r i n g I n t o W a sh in g to n u n t i l b y November 1 , 1 8 6 1 , he had a w e l l o r g a n i z e d army o f o v e r 2 0 0 ,0 0 0 men*

L a te r,

i n h i s m e m o irs , M c C l e l l a n gave K i r k l a n d f u l l c r e d i t f o r h i s s e r v i c e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , com m enting on t h e t h o r o u g h n e s s and e f f i c i e n c y o f h i s work*

ft

But w h a t o f M c C le lla n d s p r o m i s e s t o talcs Richmond by C h ristm a s?

The N o r t h e r n p r e s s , w h ic h a t t h e tim e o f h i s

a p p o i n t m e n t a s Commanding G e n e r a l had h a i l e d M c C l e l l a n a s t h e N a t i o n * s s a v i o r , became b i t t e r l y c r i t i c a l o f t h e p r o l o n g e d d e l a y s and demanded t h a t he g iv e some e x p l a n a t i o n o f h i s Q p lan s* M c C l e l l a n , when he b o t h e r e d t o a n sw e r h i s c r i t i c s at a ll,

simply s t a t e d t h a t t h e s u c c e s s f u l e x e c u t i o n o f his

c am p aig n r e q u i r e d th® i n t e g r a t i o n o f many f o r c e s , and t h a t more tim e and more t r o o p s w ould be n e ed e d b e f o r e he c o u ld p u t t h e p l a n into o p e r a t i o n *

S i n c e lie i n s p i r e d b l i n d , un­

questioning l o y a l t y from t h e A m y , M c C le lla n f e l t t h a t lie need n o t e v e n e x p l a i n h i s a c t i o n s t o t h e P r e s i d e n t and h i s C a b i n e t , l e t a l o n e t h e newspapers**^® 7 J?aul

F in a lly in A p ril, a f t e r

M. A n g le , L i n c o l n R e a d e r , p* 379* f

ii n i iaiiiWi

iir 'w w

i ■tuifnr' if - - T- irnmrinrm

a T,»w»

—iwmiujimiiwtwi

unr-W^i

***** &

e o t l y t o t h i s p e r i o d o f h i s l i f e , i t d o e s become n e c e s s a r y t o ex am in e some o f t h e s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s o f t h e c am p aig n i n o rd e r t o g e t a c le a r e r u n d e rstan d in g o f subsequent e v e n ts i n K i r k l a n d Ms l i f e * K i r k l a n d s t a t e d h i s o p i n i o n o f t h e " p r o l o n g e d d e l a y s 45 o f w h ic h M c C l e l l a n was a c c u s e d i n a p a p e r r e a d b e f o r e t h e G eorge H» Thomas P o s t o f t h e G*A.R* I n C h i c a g o . ^

He p r e ­

f a c e d h i s r e m a r k s b y p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t he h i m s e l f c o u ld n e v e r have made a good f i e l d o f f i c e r , s i n c e lie c o u ld n o t d i v e s t h i m s e l f o f t h e c i v i l i a n ’ s p o i n t o f view* a w heat f i e l d

When he saw

j u s t ready f o r h a r v e s t t u r n e d i n t o a camp

s i t © , he became l i t e r a l l y s i c k and s p e n t k i n own tim e and m oney t r y i n g t o have t h e f a r m e r r e i m b u r s e d f o r h i s l o s s * 11

I860.

' R e p r i n t e d i n p a r t i n t h e C hicago H e r a l d , May 1 ,

On

52

a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n 9 when he saw s o l d i e r s u s i n g a r a i l f e n c e f o r f i r e wood , a f e n c e w h ic h he knew fro m e x p e r i e n c e had c o s t some f a r m e r m o n th s o f b a c k - b r e a k i n g w o rk , he b a d g e r e d h i s commanding o f f i c e r u n t i l a g e n e r a l o r d e r was s e n t o u t r e * quix^ing s o l d i e r s t o o u t t h e i r own wood. K i r k l a n d l o o t e d a t t h e s o l d i e r s fro m t h e c i v i l i a n ’ s p o i n t o f v iew , t o o .

T hey w e re s t i l l men t o him , r a t h e r t h a n

so many f i g u r e s t o be a d d e d o r s u b t r a c t e d i n t h e fo rm o f r e * c ru its or c a su a ltie s.

T hey w ere l i v e s t h a t o u g h t t o be p r o ­

t e c t e d even i n th e aw ful b u s in e s s o f w ar.

One way t o p r o ­

t e c t men i n w a r w as t o t r a i n th em a d e q u a t e l y * he had l e a r n e d t h a t le s s o n w h ile s e r v in g i n th e V o lu n te e rs in I l l i n o i s . S i n c e M c C l e l l a n was g i v i n g h i s men t h e b e s t and m o s t c o m p le te t r a i n i n g p o s s i b l e , K i r k l a n d f e l t t h a t t h e d e l a y was j u s t i ­ fia b le .

If,

i n d e e d , t h e r e was a d e l a y .

M c C lellan , K irk la n d

d e c i d e d , was b e t t e r a b l e t o d e te r m i n e t h e r e a d i n e s s o f h i s arm y f o r a t t a c k t h a n w ere t h e n e w s p a p e r c o r r e s p o n d e n t s , who w ere o f t e n more I n t e r e s t e d i n s e l l i n g p a p e r s t h a n t h e y w ere i n s a v i n g t h e U n io n .

As f o r " L i t t l e Mac’ s " a r r o g a n c e and

h a u t e u r , K i r k l a n d was i n c l i n e d t o w r i t e them o f f a s t h e r e ­ s u l t o f t h e young o f f i c e r ’ s m e t e o r i c r i s e t o t h e h i g h e s t r a n k i n t h e arm y — a n o p i n i o n , i n c i d e n t a l l y , h e l d by a num ber o f u n b i a s e d h i s t o r i a n s * The l o n g - a w a i t e d cam p aig n t o t a k e Richmond — t h e c a m p a ig n t h a t e v e r y o n e b e l i e v e d would end t h e w a r — f i n a l l y g o t u n d e r way on A p r i l 2 1 , 1 8 6 2 .

In b arest o u tlin e ,

M c C l e l l a n ’ s p lan , was t o t r a n s p o r t a b o u t 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 men by s h i p

53

t o the peninsula b e tw e e n t h e York and t h e Jam es r i v e r s w here he would b e g i n a n o r e .r l a n d movement a g a i n s t the C o n f e d e r a t e capital*

Meanwhile, G e n e r a l McDowell, w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y

75,000 men, was t o m arc h s o u t h fro m W a s h in g to n t o d i s t r a c t the attention of the. Confederate f o r c e s and to be near at hand t o l e n d r e e n f o r c e m e n t s when the attack on Richmond began* I n s t e a d of striking r a p i d l y up t h e peninsula i n a c c o r d a n c e with his o r i g i n a l p l a n , McClellan p u sh e d slowly ahead, taking a month to cover the nine m il e a from Wort Mon­ roe to Torktown, w h e re lie f i r s t met the C o n fe d e ra te s®

Al­

though h i s f o r c e far outnumbered t h a t o f t h e enemy, he ch o se t o lay s i e g e t o t h e c i t y r a t h e r than t o t a k e i t by a s s a u l t and a s s i g n e d t h e t a s k t o G e n e r a l Fitas-John P o r t e r , commander

o f the I P i f t h Army C o r p s , and M c C l e l l a n - s m ost d e v o te d and most t r u s t e d o f f i c e r ®

S in c e .K irk lan d had j u s t b e a u a p p o i n t e d

A*D*C, t o G e n e r a l P o r t e r , he w a n t t h r o u g h t h e f i g h t with him and aided i n e s t a b l i s h i n g headquarters f o r G e n e r a l M c C le lla n a f t e r t h e c i t y was ta k e n * But McClellan r e f u s e d to e x p l o i t t h e a d v a n ta g e g a i n e d by h a v i n g d i s l o d g e d the S o u t h e r n f o r c e s fro m t h e i r k e y posi­ tion on t h e p e n i n s u l a »

I n s te a d o f p ressin g , th e r e t r e a t i n g

C o n f e d e r a t e s t o k e ep them off b a l a n c e , t h u s p r e c l u d i n g t h e possibility of their reforming i n strength before 3.Uchaond, h s chose to dig i n a ro u n d Torktown*

A c t u a l l y , a t this p o i n t

LIcCleXlazi was f a r more w o r r i e d a b o u t G e n e r a l McDowell* s failure t o move south w i t h r e a n f o r c e m e n t s than ha was about

54

k e e p i n g t h e C o n f e d e r a t e s on t h e r u n .

Fie was by nature an

o v e r l y c a u t i o u s s o l d i e r , as his long period of preparation f o r t h e c a m p a ig n p r o v e s ,

Fie was also used to h a v in g h i s

s l i g h t e s t whim a c t e d upon i m m e d i a t e l y ,

When L i n c o l n , on

t h e a d v i c e o f h i s military a i d G e n e r a l H a l l e c k , kept McDowell’ s t r o o p s i n W a s h in g to n t o protect t h e city, M c C l e l l a n t h r e w a tan tru m *

F o r two w e ek s he exchanged heated letters and t e l e *

grams w i t h L i n c o l n and S e c r e t a r y S t a n t o n i n w h ic h he a c c u s e d th em of a t t e m p t i n g t o s a b o t a g e t h e c a m p a ig n and r u i n h i s r e p u ­ t a t i o n w i t h t h e array and the p u b l i c *

He was r a p i d l y d e v e l o p ­

i n g a f i r s t c l a s s p e r s e c u t i o n complex* I n t h e G ,A ,R , p a p e r r e f e r r e d to above, Kirkland i n p a r t d e f e n d e d M c C l e l l a n ’ s a c t i o n s by p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t i n 1862 t h e c o u n t r y was u n u se d t o t h e w h o l e s a l e b l o o d - l e t t i n g t h a t became commonplace i n t h e l a s t t h r e e y e a r s o f t h e w a r , M c C l e l l a n , he s a i d , c o u ld have t a k e n Richmond had h e b e e n w i l l i n g t o s a c r i f i c e a t h i r d t o a h a l f o f h i s men a s did G r a n t l a t e r i n t h e I V ild e r n e s s C am paign,

It t o o k a c o u p le of

y e a r s o f w a r t o te m p e r t h e morale of th e people and t h e i r l e a d e r s t o a p o i n t w h ere i t

c o u ld w i t h s t a n d t h e sh o c k o f

s u c h g r e a t l o s s e s , h o w e v e r. L a t e in May, after L i n c o l n p e r s o n a l l y v i s i t e d M c C l e l l a n and g u a r a n t e e d him t h a t McDowell would be o r d e r e d s o u t h w i t h some 4 0 ,0 0 0 t r o o p s , t h e m arc h on Richmond was resu m ed ,

'Two m in o r engagements, w h ic h K i r k l a n d characterized

a s skirmishes, o c c u r r e d at Malvern Mill and Hanover C o u r t

55

House before McClellan m et and d e f e a t e d t h e C o n f e d e r a t e s i n f o r c e u n d e r J o h n s t o n i n t h e t h r e e day b a t t l e o f P a i r Oaks, I t i s I n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e that Kirkland was d e t a i l e d by Gen­ eral Porter t o l i s t e n t o t h e grievances o f Mrs * R o b e r t E# L e e , whose p l a n t a t i o n was o v e r r u n d a r i n g t h e f i g h t i n g . A g a in M c C l e l l a n failed to exploit t h e advantage gained b y having d e f e a t e d t h e Confederates, w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t they were a b l e t o reform t h e i r forces under G e n e r a l Lee,

One

m o n th later, when M c C l e l l a n l a u n c h e d h i s t h i r d m a jo r a t t a c k , Lee was r e a d y f o r him .

He s t o p p e d t h e a d v a n c e o f t h e U nion

f o r c e s a t M e c h a n icsville, and at G a i n e s 7 s M i l l s e n t th em r e e lin g i n d e fe ats

Two w eeks l a t e r i n t h e b a t t l e o f Ciiioka-

liomiixy he d ro v e th em b a c k t o t h e i r b a s e i n t h e swamps o f t h e u p p e r r e a c h e s o f t h e Janies R i v e r E s t u a r y . General Porter* s u n s t i n t e d p r a i s e o f h i s staff i n the Battle o f Galnes f s M i l l g i v e s a n a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e o f Kirk­ land Ts a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h e f i g h t i n g . My own staff, Locke, Kirkland, M ason, Montei t h , and McQuade e x p o s e d themselves t o d a n g e r , n o t o n l y q u i c k l y and cheerfully carrying e v e r y message, b u t o f t e n v o l u n t a r i l y throwing t h e m s e l v e s w here n e e d e d to d i r e c t , t o l e a d , t o encourage, and t o rally, A f t e r t h e B a t t l e of O hickaiiom iny, G e n e r a l P o r t e r w r o t e d i r e c t l y t o B r i g a d i e r G e n e r a l G i l l i a m s , commending K i r k l a n d and others of his s t a f f f o r t h e i r c o u ra g e and i n v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e * 12

G e n e r a l F i t s - J o h n P o r t e r , The Ba111 e o f G a i n e s *s M i l l and I t s ■P r e l i m i n a r i e s The Ge n t n r y mag a m in e , . u u (J u n e , 1885), 321, ,

n

56

A t tli® B a t t l e o f Chickahominy, I d e s i r e e s p e c i a l l y t o c a l l to the a t t e n t i o n o f t h e commanding g e n e r a l t h e c o n d u c t o f * » . C a p t a i n s K i r k l a n d , Mason, and M o n t i e t h *«• members o f my staff, t h e g a l l a n t r y o f a l l o f whom was conspicuous, and whose services i n carrying o r d e r s , c o n d u c t i n g r e e n f o r c e meats, d i r e c t i n g b a t t e r i e s , and rallying t r o o p s w ere no l e s s valuable t h a n t h o s e o f t h e commanders t h e m s e l v e s * •• K i r k l a n d was b r e v e t e d M a jo r f o r l i i s o u t s t a n d i n g s e r ­ vice during t h e s e b a t t l e s ; however, he knew n o t h i n g o f h i s p r o m o t i o n , s i n c e he had succumbed t o some fo rm o f "swamp fever11 and \ms c o n f i n e d t o t h e b a s e h o s p i t a l a t H a r r i s o n ’ s L a n d in g ,^ I r o n i c a l l y e n o u g h , t h e s e b a t t l e s w h ic h won f o r Kirkland a p ro m o tio n le d d i r e c t l y t o th e end o f h i s c a r e e r a s a s o ld ie r * While K i r k l a n d l a y i l l i n t h e h o s p i t a l , G e n e r a l McClellan was r e c a l l e d t o W a s h in g to n , and G e n e r a l Pope p l a c e d in command*

A b a n d o n in g t h e p e n i n s u l a . Pope t r a n s f e r r e d

M c C l e l l a n ’ s Army t o t h e n o r t h and c o n c e n t r a t e d h i s e n t i r e s t r e n g t h a l o n g B u l l Hun G reek t o w a i t f o r Lee t o a t t a c k * d i d , a b o u t a m o n th l a t e r ,

He

and c o m p l e t e l y r o u t e d t h e U n io n

a r m i e s i n t h e S e c o n d B a t t l e o f B u l l Hun*

At t h e end o f t h e

f i r s t d a y ’ s fighting Pope knew t h a t t h e c e n t e r o f h i s l i n e was w e a k e n in g and o r d e r e d G e n e r a l P o r t e r , who was h o l d i n g t h e F i f t h C orps i n r e s e r v e some twenty-six m i l e s a w ay , t o come t o h i s su p p o rt*

U n a c c o u n ta b ly , P o r t e r w a ite d u n t i l l a t e th e

* 0 f f 1c i a l He q o rd s , S e r i e s I , XL ( p a r t I I ) , I f f * 14 ‘ S e n a t e Documen t s * Ho* 37 ( p a r t s 1 - 2 } , p* 466 ( F i r s t S e s s i o n , 4Uth~U an.gre s ~ T S 7 9 } *

m

n e x t d a y t o b e g i n h i s m arc h and a r r i v e d a t t h e b a t t l e f i e l d j u s t i n t im e t o j o i n i n t h e r e t r e a t to w a rd W a s h in g to n . A b out a m onth a f t e r K i r k l a n d resum ed h i s d u t i e s a s A.D.C* t o G e n e r a l P o r t e r i n O c to b e r * P o r t e r was r e l i e v e d o f h i s command and c o u r t - m a r t i a l p r o c e e d i n g s b e g u n a g a i n s t him, f o r ^ w i l l f u l d i s o b e d i e n c e 51 o f P o p e 's o r d e r d u r i n g t h e B a t t l e o f B u l l R un,

I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t h e r e t h a t a l t h o u g h

P o r t e r was o n t r i a l f o r d i s o b e y i n g t h e command o f a s u p e r i o r o f f i c e r , t h e r e c o r d s o f t h e c o u r t - m a r t i a l * ^ make i t a b u n d a n t ­ l y c l e a r t h a t he was a c t u a l l y b e i n g t r i e d f o r c o n t i n u i n g t o l o o k t o MeOle1 1 a n f o r o r d e r s a f t e r M c C l e l l a n had b e e n r e ­ p la c e d by P ope.

I n o t h e r words* t h i s t r i a l a p p e a r s a s one

e l e m e n t o f a l a r g e r s t r u g g l e f o r pow er t h a t was g o i n g on b e tw e e n S e c r e t a r y o f War S t a n to n * t h e o t h e r members o f L i n ­ c o ln * s c a b i n e t * and H a l l e c k on t h e one h a n d ; and M c C le lla n and h i s a d v o c a t e s w i t h i n t h e Army on t h e o t h e r .

S in c e P o r t e r

had c o m m itte d a n u n p a r d o n a b l e b r e a c h o f m i l i t a r y law* and s i n c e he was a "M cC lellan. m an / 5 t h a t i s * he b e l i e v e d t h a t M c C l e l l a n c o u ld do no wrong* h e r e was a n excellent chance t o d e l i v e r a t e l l i n g b lo w t o t h e p r e s t i g e o f McClellan.

Only

i n t e r m s o f t h e s e i n t e n s e p e r s o n a l l o y a l t i e s and r i v a l r i e s c a n t h e s u b s e q u e n t e v e n t s i n w h ic h K i r k l a n d figures be u n d e rsto o d . J u s t how l o n g K i r k l a n d c o n t i n u e d to s e r v e on t h e s t a f f o f G e n e r a l P o r t e r a f t e r h i s return to active duty C ontained i n O f f i c i a l Records * s e r i e s I* v o l . V I.

58

c a n n o t b© ascertained; however, b y t h e an d of October he seem s to have been assigned a g a i n to t h e staff o f G e n e r a l McClellan, whom L i n c o l n h a d r e a p p o i n t e d Commanding Genei’al of the U n io n Armies f o l l o w i n g P o p e ’ s d e f e a t a t B u l l Run* The o n l y c l u e t o K i r k l a n d ’ s m i l i t a r y d u t i e s a t t h i s t im e i s a l e t t e r fro m A* V* C o l b u r n , A s s i s t a n t A d j u t a n t Gencii’a l , to G e n e r a l P o r t e r , d a t e d November 5 , 1862*

F o r t h e m o st p a r t

the l e t t e r c o n c e r n s t h e disposition o f c e r t a i n troops5 how­ e v e r , t h e f i n a l s e n t e n c e r e a d s , " M a jo r K i r k l a n d will r e m a in h e r e u n t i l X know d e f i n i t e l y w h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h i n g s 16 is." T h i s l e t t e r was w r i t t e n fro m t h e f i e l d d u r i n g t h e B a t t l e o f S o u t h M o u n ta in , in W e s te rn V i r g i n i a , one o f t h e nu m ero us m in o r e n g a g e m e n ts that f o l l o w e d t h e m a j o r B a t t l e o f The f a c t t h a t i n n e i t h e r t h e B*A*R* a d d r e s s in

Antietarn.

Chicago n o r t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h m i t t e n f o r The S t o r y o f C h ica g o d o e s K i r k l a n d m e n t i o n h a v in g p a r t i c i p a t e d in t h i s B a t t l e o f S o u t h M o u n ta in t h r o w s some l i g h t on h i s o t h e r w i s e u n e x p l a i n a b l e s t a t e m e n t t h a t he had f o u g h t i n t h e 17 B a t t l e o f R i c h M o u n ta in . As n o t e d a b o v e , K i r k l a n d c o u ld n o t have b e e n w i t h M c C l e l l a n a t R ic h M o u n t a in , s i n c e he was t r a i n i n g with t h e I l l i n o i s V o l u n t e e r s u n t i l A u g u s t, 1 8 6 1 . He m i g h t , h o w e v e r, t h i r t y y e a r s l a t e r have c o n fu s e d R ic h M o u n ta in and S o u t h .M ountain, b o t h m in o r e n g a g e m e n ts f o u g h t u n d e r t h e command o f G e n e r a l M c C l e l l a n . 1A

O f f i c i a l R e c o r d s , S e r i e s 1 , v o l . XXX ( p t . I I ) , p* 539*

1?

See f o o t n o t e f i v e , p 9 4 7 .

59

K i r k l a n d *s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h L i n c o l n - s p r i v a t e

secre­

t a r i e s Hay and N i e o l a y d o e s n o t seem t o have b e a n i m p a i r e d b y h i s p r e v i o u s s e r v i c e w i t h M c C l e l l a n and P o r t e r 3 f o r he w as a f r e q u e n t v i s i t o r a t t h e i r room s i n t h e W h its House on w h a t w e re o b v i o u s l y p u r e l y p e r s o n a l c a l l s .

An i n c i d e n t w h ic h

o c c u r r e d d u r i n g on© o f t h e s e v i s i t s b e a r s r e c o r d i n g i n f u l l , s i n c e i t n o t o n l y show s s o m e t h i n g o f K i r k l a n d ?s a c t i v i t i e s a t t h i s t i m e , b u t i s a l s o a n i n t i m a t e an d s y m p a t h e t i c g l i m p s e o f t h e P r e s i d e n t d u r i n g a p a r t i c u l a r l y h a r a s s i n g tim e * P r e s i d e n t L in c o ln ® s f a v o r i t e h a u n t was t h e g r e a t s o u t h w indow i n t h e s e c o n d s t o r y o f t h e W h its H o u s e , w hence he w o u ld w a t c h w i t h h i s k i n d l y ©yes t h e s o le m n c e a s e l e s s t r e a d o f m arch in g ; t h o u s a n d s s t r e a m i n g a c r o s s Long B r i d g e i n t o V i r g i n i a — t h e r o a d he knew s o many o f th e m w ould n e v e r r e t r a c e * O c c a s i o n a l l y he r e v i e w e d t h e t r o o p s w i t h u s . , . » A fe w m o n th s l a t e r a f t e r t h e c a m p a ig n and t h e s e v e n d a y f s f i g h t , t h e P r e s i d e n t r e v i e w e d u s a g a i n a t H a r r is o n ® s L a n d i n g . What a c h a n g e ! B rig a d e s lo o k e d l i k e r e g im e n ts — r e g i m e n t s l i k e c o m p a n i e s * . . . The g r e a t 1 2 t h Hew Y ork and some r e g i m e n t s o f r e g u l a r s had l e s s t h a n 2 0 0 men i n t h e lin e * X b e l i e v e F a t h e r Abraham®s e y e s w ere dimmed w i t h t e a r s — b u t 1 c o u ld n o t he s u r e , f o r my own saw f a r fro m c le a rly * W h ile I n W a s h in g to n I was r a t h e r i n t i m a t e w i t h t h e P r e s i d e n t ’ s p r i v a t e S e c r e t a r i e s , Hay a n d Nioolay, b o t h I l l i n o i s men l i k e m y s e lf * One d a y X was a t t h e i r o f f i c e i n t h e Whit© H o u s e , and we w e re t e l l i n g s t o r i e s and l a u g h i n g l o u d l y a s y o u n g /m e n w i l l and can* P r e s e n t l y a d o o r a t fh© s i d e o f t h e room o p en ed s l o w l y , and b e h o l d t h e r e , away up n e a r t h e t o p p e e r e d t h e d e a r o l d w orn sad f a c e o f F a t h e r Abraham* S a i d he i n h i s p e c u l i a r t o n e s " B o y s , I h e a r ye l a u g h i n g p r e t t y l o u d , and 1 t h o u g h t I ’ d l i k e t o come i n and la u g h t o o l" So we had t o go o v e r t h e c a m p a ig n t a l e s a g a i n — w e l l e n o u g h p l e a s e d i f we e v e n won a s i n g l e s m i l e fro m t h e c a r e - w o r n and a n x i o u s C h i e f M a g i s t r a t e * I f I rem em ber a r i g h t i t was o n l y a m om entary g l e a m ,a n d t h e shad o w s e t t l e d a g a i n a l m o s t a s s o o n a s i t l i f t e d *1 5 18

J o s e p h K i r k l a n d , " A d d r e s s t o t h e G e o rg e H* Thomas P o s t o f t h e O . A . R . , A p r i l Z3S 18 80* " R e p r i n t e d i n t h e C h ic a g o H e r a l d , May 1 , 1680*

©0

I t must have b e e n d u r i n g t h i s sa n e p e r i o d o f r e l a t i v e I n a c t i v i t y t h a t K i r k l a n d m et H i s s T h e o d o s ia B u r r W il k i n s o n of S y r a c u s e , Hew York.

She was t h e d a u g h t e r o f a m o d e r a t e l y

w e a l t h y r a i l r o a d f i n a n c i e r who was i n Washington, so f a r a s i s a s c e r t a i n a b l e , t o lo b b y f o r th e r a i l r o a d s .

S in c e K irk la n d >»

was a c u l t u r e d a n d p r e s e n t a b l e youn g o f f i c e r and she t h e w e l l e d u c a t e d and w i d e l y t r a v e l l e d d a u g h t e r o f a n o ld New Y ork f a m i l y , it I s n o t surprising that t h e y s h o u l d be a t t r a c t e d

to

e a c h o t h e r and that, because o f t h e war, they s h o u ld s h o r t e n t o two months a c o u r t s h i p which u n d e r n o rm a l Victorian cir­ cumstances w ou ld hav e c o v e r e d a t l e a s t a y e a r .

B efo re m arry ­

i n g her and l e a v i n g Washington, however, K i r k l a n d was to take p a r t i n one more m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i o n . I n m id-N ovem ber t h e F i f t h Army Corps, commanded s i n c e Porter’s r e c a l l b y G e n e r a l B u t t e r f i e l d , was o r d e r e d s o u t h t o bulwark t h e Army o f t h e Potom ac a t F r e d e r i c k s b u r g , Virginia* G e n e r a l B u r n s i d e , suprem e commander o f t h e U n io n f o r c e s , had d e t e r m i n e d to t a k e t h e o f f e n s i v e b y attacking L e e ’ s p o s i t i o n s across t h e R a p p a h a n n o c k R iv e r *

Since K i r k l a n d w as s t i l l

u n a s s i g n e d , he v o l u n t e e r e d t o s e r v e a s aid© to G e n e r a l B u tte r * field *

The ensuing B a t t l e o f F r e d e r i c k s b u r g was a s a v a g e one.

and t h e U n io n Army e v e n t u a l l y had t o w i t h d r a w a c r o s s t h e r i v e r t o Its original positions*

General B u t t e r f i e l d ’ s u n ­

solicited letter t o t h e Commanding G e n e r a l i n p r a i s e o f K ir k la n d ’ s s e r v ic e d u rin g th e b a t t l e

i s a l l t h e more r e m a r k ­

a b l e in v ie w of t h e f a c t t h a t K i r k l a n d ’ s s u p e r i o r o f f i c e r s

61

w o u ld n o t e v e n g i v e him a p e rm a n e n t a s s i g n m e n t . The Commanding G e n e r a l : D ecem ber, 1862 L i e u t e n a n t - C o l o n e l Locke and M a jo r K i r k l a n d , o f G e n e r a l P o r t e r 9 s s t a f f 3 ?/ere p r e s e n t w i t h me d u r i n g th e w hole o f t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e 1 3 t h , an d b e h a v e d w i t h g r e a t g a l l a n t r y . M a jo r K i r k l a n d had h i s h o r s e s h o t u n d e r him . S ig n e d D a n i e l B u t t e r f i e l d , B r i g , Gen. TJ* 3 , Army Commanding F i f t h Army C o r p s , 19 When K i r k l a n d r e t u r n e d t o W a sh in g to n fro m F r e d e r i c k s ­ b u r g , t h e r e w as s t i l l no a s s i g n m e n t f o r h im 5 A m y H e a d q u a r t e r s w as o b v i o u s l y a w a i t i n g t h e outcom e o f t h e P o r t e r c o u r t - m a r t i a l b e f o r e r e a p p o i n t i n g t h e members o f P o r t e r ' s s t a f f .

P ro b a b ly

b e c a u s e he had m is s e d t h e B a t t l e o f B u l l R un, K i r k l a n d was n o t c a l l e d t o t e s t i f y a t t h e c o u r t - m a r t i a l ; and he d i d n o t v o l u n t e e r a s a c h a r a c t e r w i t n e s s * b e c a u s e he d i d n o t w i s h t o c a l l a t t e n t i o n t o h i s f o r m e r p o s i t i o n a s A .D .C . t o P o r t e r , o r more p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e he d i d n o t h i m s e l f condone P o r t e r ' s a c t i o n s j u s t b e f o r e and d u r i n g t h e b a t t l e ,

C e r ta in ly h is f a i l u r e to

t e s t i f y was n o t due t o a l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n th e c a s e ; f o r when P o r t e r e v e n t u a l l y won a, r e t r i a l i n 1884* K ir k la n d s p e n t s e v e r a l d a y s i n W a s h in g to n a t t e n d i n g t h e h e a r i n g s ,

20

K i r k l a n d and T h e o d o s ia W il k i n s o n were m a r r i e d i n 20

L e t t e r : Jo sep h K irk la n d to h is son John d a te d , W a s h in g to n , J a n u a r y 2 4 ; 1 8 8 4 . Nov; i n K i r k l a n d P a g e r s , New­ b e r r y L i b r a r y , C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s .

68

21

S y r a c u s e , Hew Y o r k , Decem ber 8 9 , 1862# ' he liras s t i l l u n d e r t h e

A lth o u g h u n a s s i g n e d ,

j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e Army; t h e r e f o r e ,

t h e y h a d t o r e t u r n I m m e d i a t e l y t o W a sh in g to n t o a w a i t t h e ou tcom e o f G e n e r a l P o r t e r * s c o u r t " -m a rtia l# T hey d i d n o t h a v e l o n g t o w a i t #

On J a n u a r y 2 1 , 1 8 6 3 ,

F i t z - J o h n P o r t e r was wc a s h i e r e d and d i s m i s s e d t h e s e r v i c e / 1^ 81

T h e re i s a n i n t e r e s t i n g p r o b le m c o n c e r n i n g t h e d a t e o f K i r k l a n d ’ s w edd ing # I n t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h w h ic h he w r o t e f o r The S t o r y o f C h lo a g o . K i r k l a n d s t a t e d t h a t he w as m a r r i e d i n 1863 r a t h e r t h a n 1863 a s I have a s s e r t e d h e re # V# C* S a n b o r n , K i r k l a n d ?s s o n - i n - l a w , ga v e December 8 9 , 1 8 6 3 , t a e m arriag e tic ie .i ir m l a n d o r th e D i c t i o n a r y o f A m e ric a n B i o g r a p h y # D* A# B ondore a l s o g i v e s 1863 a s t h e d a t e o f Ill's m a r r i a g e , a s d o e s t h e u n p u b l i s h e d b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h o f K i r k l a n d now i n K i r k l a n d P a p e r s # H e w b e rry L i b r a r y # J o h n F l a n a g a n , i n h i s a r t i c l e " ,fJ o s e p h K i r k l a n d , P i o n e e r R e a l i s t / * A m e ric an L i t e r a t u r e » XI ( 1 9 3 9 ) , £ 7 3 - 2 8 4 , f o l l o w s t h e above s o u r c e s and a l s o " e r r o n e o u s l y g iv e s th e y e a r o f K irk la n d ’ s m arriag e as 1863, I t i s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d t h a t K i r k l a n d was m a r r i e d w h i l e s t i l l i n t h e arm y and t h a t t h e young c o u p le l e f t W a s h in g to n f o r I l l i n ­ o i s i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r h i s r e s i g n a t i o n fro m t h e army became e ffe c tiv e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e c o r d s o f t h e War D e p a r t m e n t , K i r k l a n d r e s i g n e d h i s c o m m issio n F e b r u a r y 2 2 , 1 8 6 3 ; t h e r e ­ f o r e , he m u s t have b e e n m a r r i e d i n December o f 1862 r a t h e r th a n 1863, I n t e r n a l e v id e n c e i n h i s l e t t e r o f r e s i g n a t i o n ( t o be q u o t e d i n f u l l l a t e r ) a l s o s u p p o r t s D ecem ber, 1 8 6 2 , a s th e d a te o f h i s m arriag e# In l i s t i n g h is reaso n s f o r r e s i g n i n g , K irk lan d w r i t e s , I have ” s i n c e I c e a s e d t o be a c t i v e l y em ployed ,** assum ed new o b l i g a t i o n s , r e g a r d i n g **« my f a m i l y . . * * ” vSince h i s m o t h e r , b r o t h e r , a n d s i s t e r s w e r e , a n d had b e e n , s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g , t h e ” new o b l i g a t i o n s ’* c a n o n l y r e f e r t o h i s b r i d e o f l e s s t h a n a month# The o n l y e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e e r r o r i n t h e above m e n t i o n e d w o rk s - i s t h a t K i r k l a n d h i m s e l f was th e s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n , and h i s memory f o r d a t e s was a b o m i n a b l e , a s I s h a l l d e m o n s t r a t e l a t e r i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e p ro b le m o f t h e p u b l i c a t i o n d a t e s o f h i s n o v e ls * ^ O f f i c i a l Records, Series I, vol. IT, 37#

The nows of the verdict hud leaked out two weeks earlier, accompanied by the usual wild rumors.

Probably or the advice

of hi a friends Hay and ^H e ©lay, Kirkland Pineoiurbec! much that he heard, but he could plainly r.ea that an ex&cnie was going to be made of '"'outer- and those clonsly associated with h i m

. *

It .was hie viiern that they would all he naked to re­

sign; therefore, he ret about iraned lately to regain hie posi­ tion an agent in the Danville, Illinois, area for the fideago and Carbon Coal Company*

Since in hie letter of resignation

from the array Kirldand speaker of ^hairing rename! the charge of my affairs/*

he nay even have gone personally to Chicago

to insure hie having a job when he did Xoac his cornelsalon* At any rate it

I

s

certain that he considered hie period of

army service to be at an end* About a month after tbs official announcement of Dor­ ter* a dismissal, bouovar, Kirkland received a letter from ths office of the .hi hit.tontdinneral advising him that ho had been reduced to the rank of captain (all .Porter’s stc.fr was reduced one degree in rank] and reassigned to the staff of general ileClell&n, now in eauwnni of only a "paper army.* Although thin diagoeifion tr~ his situntl ui was fuluor than 'firhi ami

had expected, lie knew that he war unavoidably

:>f i h - l i t

a web of eiufururtanac: "fr atvn?vrr

in

unf thut no mutter he‘ A Ion; he -tnync

1

t u -V'

Mmr-elf

- the Army, Iv ooiild

manor again ba allowed to parthoipn.tr actively in the cam-

■j..\ nr.

Under r u c k oiinu w o t r n o e r ‘ ’u* on-'16 'r? o n l y one ooursso

64

t h a t h© c o u ld h o n o r a b l y f o l l o w * i n t h e Array on F e b r u a r y 22 9 1865*

Hs r e s i g n e d h i s c o m m issio n H is l e t t e r o f r e s i g n a -

t i o n , o b t a i n e d fro m t h e f i l e s o f t h e D e p a r tm e n t o f t h e Array, ^ i s r e p r i n t e d i n e n t i r e t y below * I h a r e t h e h o n o r t o t r a n s m i t h e r e w i t h a co py o f a l e t t e r f ro m t h e Ad j u t a n t- - G e n e r a l o f t h e A m y , r e v o k i n g ray a p p o i n t m e n t a s M a jo r on t h e S t a f f o f M a jo r G e n e r a l P o r t e r , and i n d i c a t i n g t h a t I r e v e r t t o my f o r m e r r a n k o f C a p t a i n , A d d l, Ad* 0* A d d i t i o n a l A ide» d© Camp on t h e S t a f f o f m a j o r G e n e r a l M c C le lla n * H a v in g , s i n c e I. c e a s e d t o be a c t i v e l y e m p lo y e d , r e ­ sumed t h e c h a r g e o f my a f f a i r s , w h ic h had s u f f e r e d g r e a t l y d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f my s e r v i c e i n t h e A m y , and h a v in g a ssum ed new o b l i g a t i o n s , r e g a r d i n g my b u s i n e s s and inj f a m i l y , u n d e r t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t ray m u s t e r o u t o f t h e s e r v i c e w o u ld f o l l o w t h e d i s m i s s a l o f G e n e r a l P o r t e r , 1 have t h e h o n o r t o t e n d e r my r e s i g n a t i o n , and t o r e q u e s t t h a t my d i s c h a r g e , i f g r a n t e d , may d a t e fro m J a n u a r y 7 , 1 8 6 5 , a t w h ic h t i m e I c e a s e d t o be a c t i v e l y em ployed and c o n s e q u e n t l y t o have a n y p r o p e r c l a i m t o p a y and em olum ents* m, »

m

M-m

•»

« «>

_M*.*

r1ft

.........

F e b r u a r y .33, 1865 S ig n e d , .Joseph M ir h i and [_no r a n k s t a t e d ] J o s e p h IC irk la n d d i d n o t l e a v e t h e Army a d i s i l l u s i o n e d man; he had had no i l l u s i o n s a b o u t w a r fro m t h e f i r s t *

He

was n o t e m b i t t e r e d by h i s e x p e r i e n c e , e i t h e r ; f o r ho s t i l l b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e U nio n Army was f l i g h t i n g f o r a j u s t c a u s e and t h a t d e s p i t e t h e s t r u g g l e s o f c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s o r g r o u p s f o r p o w e r , the. c a u s e was b e i n g s t e a d i l y p r o s e c u t e d * He had gone i n t o t h e Army b e c a u s e he w a n te d t o c o n t r i b u t e 35

A cop y o f K i r k l a n d Mg l e t t e r o f r e s i g n a t i o n was s e n t t o me O c t o b e r 1 4 , 1 9 1 8 , b y Haward F„ M i t s a l l , Manor G e n e r a l , O f f i c e o f t h e A d j u t a n t G e n e r a l , D e p a rtm e n t o f t h e Army.

65

m a t e r i a l l y t o t h e p r i n c i p l e he b e l i e v e d i n ,

V/iien lie c o u ld

no l o n g e r make s u c h a c o n t r i b u t i o n * he l e f t t h e army b y t h e same m eans lie had e n t e r e d ? o f h i s own v o l i t i o n , K i r k l a n d had l e a r n e d a g r e a t d e a l w h i l e he w as i n t h e a rm y , an d he had had h i s e y e s o p e n e d .

He f o u n d o u t 9 a s have

many o t h e r s e n s i t i v e o b s e r v e r s * t h a t t h e common s o l d i e r i s m e r e l y a pawn i n a gam© he i s f o r c e d t o p l a y .

H a v in g t h e

l e a s t t o g a i n , he m u st s t i l l p u t up t h e h i g h e s t s t a k e s .

He

w as more f i r m l y c o n v in c e d t h a n e v e r t h a t w ar i s e v i l * and he m u s t have w o n d e re d why men a l l o w t h e m s e l v e s t o be d r a g g e d i n t o s u c h b l o o d y c o n f l i c t s a s he had j u s t gone t h r o u g h . T w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s l a t e r * when he had had tim e t o o r g a n i z e and c l a r i f y h i s t h o u g h t s c o n c e r n i n g war* K i r k l a n d w as t o a s k h i s r e a d e r s b l u n t l y why t h e y d i d n o t r i s e

up and r e f u s e t o

l e t t h e m s e l v e s t o be s l a u g h t e r e d p e r i o d i c a l l y . P e rh a p s th e m ost s t a r t l i n g d is c o v e r y o f a l l f o r K i r k l a n d was t h a t m i l i t a r y and c i v i l l e a d e r s f r e q u e n t l y a c te d fro m p u r e l y p e r s o n a l m o tiv e s ,

T h a t r i v a l r i e s and

j e a l o u s i e s s h o u ld e x i s t i n a t im e o f c r i s i s was b a d enough* b u t t h a t t h e s e c a b a l s s h o u l d be c a r r i e d on t o t h e d e t r i m e n t o f t h e n a t i o n a l s t r u g g l e sh o o k h i s f a i t h i n t h e w hole m i l i ­ t a r y sy ste m .

66

C h a p te r V COAL MINING AND OTHER BUSINESSES When J o s e p h K i r k l a n d r e t u r n e d t o c e n t r a l I l l i n o i s e a r l y i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1863* he fo u n d t h a t two y e a r s o f w a r h ad b r o u g h t many c h a n g e s .

I n 1861 D a n v i l l e had b e e n a n

i s o l a t e d , f r o n t i e r com m unity; now i t was a t h r i v i n g m id la n d c i t y a s much c o n c e r n e d w i t h e v e n t s i n t h e F a s t a s was a n y s i m i l a r c i t y i n O hio o r P e n n s y l v a n i a .

’When p e o p l e s t o p p e d

t o t a l k novtf? t h e g o s s i p w as n o t o f a new h o m e s te a d on t h e p r a i r i e , b u t o f a new b a t t l e i n V i r g i n i a *

P r o d u c e fro m t h e

r i c h f a r m l a n d s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e to w n was i n demand t h r o u g h ­ o u t t h e U n i o n 3 and c o a l m in in g was p o t e n t i a l l y a n i m p o r t a n t in d u stry ,

Kven t h e r a i l r o a d s had c h an g e d : m o s t o f t h e

f r a i l w o o d - b u r n in g e n g i n e s had b e e n r e p l a c e d b y h e a v i e r 9 more e f f i c i e n t c o a l - b u r n i n g l o c o m o t iv e s * D e s p i t e t h e g ro w in g m a r k e t f o r I l l i n o i s c o a l , K i r k ­ l a n d fo u n d when he r e t u r n e d t o D a n v i l l e t h a t t h e C h ica g o and C arb o n Company was s t i l l t h e o n l y o p e r a t o r i n t h e f i e l d . T h ere w as p l e n t y o f l a n d and ample o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a n o t h e r o p e r a t o r and K i r k l a n d m ea n t t o t a k e a d v a n ta g e o f t h a t o p p o r ­ tu n ity *

F o r t h e tim e b e i n g , h o w e v e r, he would have t o go

on w o r k in g f o r ' t h e

C h icag o and Carbon Company u n t i l lie c o u ld

a r r a n g e t o f i n a n c e a m in in g v e n t u r e o f h i s own. The p r i n c i p a l o b s t a c l e t o i n c r e a s e d and c h e a p e n e d

67

p r o d u c t i o n o f c o a l was s t i l l t h e l a c k o f m i n e r s and t h e

A

r e l a t i v e l y h i g h w a g es demanded b y t h o s e who d i d work* sto re

c l e r k o r e x p e r i e n c e d s e c r e t a r y was p a i d f o u r t o s i x

d o l l a r s a w e ek ; a m i n e r r e c e i v e d t w e n t y t o thirty*"**

D e te r-

m in e d t o d o s o m e th in g a b o u t t h e w a g e s e v e n i f he c o u ld n o t s e c u r e more m i n e r s , K i r k l a n d c u t t h e p a y o f h i s w o r k e r s s h o r t l y a f t e r he w as mad© m a n a g e r o f t h e C h ic a g o and C a rb o n m ine i n t h e l a t © f a l l o f 1864*

p

As a r e s u l t , m o s t o f t h e

m i n e r s n o t o n l y r e f u s e d t o w ork b u t a l s o k e p t t h o s e who w ere w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t t h e l o w e r wage f ro m t h e m in e s*

I n K i r k l a n d *s

e y e s t h e m a t t e r t h e n w e n t much d e e p e r t h a n a s im p le a r g u ­ m e n t o v e r w a g e s b e tw e e n e m p lo y e r and em p lo y ee s*

I n an e d i ­

t o r i a l i n t h e J u n e num ber o f t h e P r a i r i e C h ic k e n K i r k l a n d s t a t e d t h e a rg u m e n t o f t h e e m p lo y e r i n w o rd s t h a t m ig h t have come fr o m t h i s m o r n in g * s C h ic a g o T r ib u n e * One o f t h e f a c t s one l e a r n s i n c o a l - m i n i n g , o r i n f a c t i n a n y b u s i n e s s w h ere he has t o do w i t h men and t h i n g s , i s t h i s ; a l l n a t u r e i s r e l i a b l e e x c e p t Inm an n a tu r e * * * * R e g a r d i n g c o a l f o r i n s t a n c e ; — one a lw a y s knows w h ere i t i s , p h y sic a lly * B u t a s t o him who h a n d l e s i t , m i n e s , buys* s e l l s o r b u r n s i t , lie i s l i k e a c e r t a i n i n s e c t ; when you p u t y o u r f i n g e r on h im , he. i s n o t t h e r e * A c e rta in fo rce o f p o w d e r, d i s p o s e d i n a c e r t a i n way, w i l l a lw a y s l o o s e n a c e r t a i n b u lk o f c o al* But he who t h i n k s t h a t a c e r t a i n q u a n t i t y o f money o r o t h e r v a l u a b l e comm odity w i l l a lw a y s p ro d u c e an e q u i v a l e n t o f l a b o r , re c k o n s w ith o u t h i s h o st* To my kn o w led g e t h e r e a r e no e x t a n t r e c o r d s o f w ages i n t h e D a n v i l l e a r e a a t t h i s t i n © ; h o w e v e r, Guy K o l l v a i n e S m ith o f D a n v i l l e , a l o c a l h i s t o r i a n , s u p p l i e d t h e s e a p p r o x i ­ m ate f i g u r e s d u r i n g a n i n t e r v i e w i n h i s home May 2 0 , 1946* 2

I n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n a l e t t e r t o me fro m r e s E uphernia H o ld e n , Hew Y ork C i t y , a c o u s i n o f J o s e p h K i r k la n d * L e t t e r d a t e d J u l y 1 6 , 1948*

T h e r e jtha f i n a n c i a l v a g a r i e s o f t h e human m ind!com e i n . T o u r own w a rp e d judgment a a t o how much l a b o r t h e money i n q u e s ­ t i o n o u g h t t o buy w i l l be y o u r f i r s t stumbling-- b l o c k ; n e x t t h e w a rp e d judgment o f t h e l a b o r e r a s t o how much money h i s l a b o r ought t o buy* When t h e la w s o f s u p p l y a? d demand are p e r m i t t e d t o o p e r a t e u n r e s t r i c t e d l y t h i s d i f f i c u l t y so o n d is a p p e a r s ® The man who p a y s t o o l i t t l e l o s e s h i s l a b o r e r s , and t h e man who d o e s t o o l i t t l e f o r h i s p a y l o s e s h i s job* B u t unfortunately f o r b o t h e m p lo y e r and e m p lo y e d , t h e c o a l m i n e r s ha v e com bined i n a n e f f o r t t o o v e r r u l e t h i s law o f supply and demand*. T hey have f o rm e d a ??t r a d e u n io n " w h ic h a im s t o r e g u l a t e t h e p r i c e o f m i n i n g , t h e i i i r e i n g and d i s ­ c h a r g i n g o f men and other matters and guarantees that no one n o t b e l o n g i n g t o t h e u n i o n s h a l l be employed® ,*,0126 o p e r a t o r [that is, Kirkland h i m s e l f ] d i d n o t l i k e [this] a t all, so he d e c l a r e d h i s p r i n c i p l e s t o b e , t o p a y what p r i c e he ©hose f o r m i n i n g , ( e a c h man t o t a k e i t o r l e a v e it, a s he preferred), to em ploy and d i s c h a r g e whom he chose®*®. S o , a l l h a n d s s t r u c k , and re m a in e d on s t r i k e f o u r .months*,® [but], he c a r r i e d h i s p o i n t , * * . The rem edy will come, of itself, when "hard tim e s - ' return, when men have t o s e e k for em p lo y m e n t, i n s t e a d o f v i c e v e r s a , and m i n e r s h a v e en o u g h to do to s u p p o r t themselves and t h e i r families, without lavishing t h e i r earnings o n t h e Miners Union” to be em ployed in the s u p p o r t of i d l e s t r i k e r s *3 The s t r i k e

d r a g g e d o n i n t o the b i t t e r l y c o l d w i n t e r ,

and it is t y p i c a l o f K i r k l a n d t h a t he s h o u l d c o n t r i b u t e liberally t o a fund t o help miners made d e s t i t u t e by a strike that he could have ended a t a n y time*

hernia '( o l d e n t o me*

69

work for less* The f f r a i r i a C h ic k e n w h ic h was h e r e t h e m o u th p ie c e f o r Kirkland, X have s e v e r a l t i m e s m e n t i o n e d w i t h o u t f u r t h e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t h a n t o p o i n t o u t t h a t i t was i s s u e d f r o m Til­ ton, I l l i n o i s *

S i n c e it r e p r e s e n t s mi i n t e r e s t i n g and h e r e ­

t o f o r e unrecorded i n c i d e n t in KirklandTs life, i t m e r i t s a h r i e f a c c o u n t*

.About a y e a r a f t e r K i r k l a n d r e t u r n e d t o

I l l i n o i s , h i s mother dled^ i n New Y o rk i n t h e m i d s t o f h e r w o rk f o r the S a n i t a r y Fail’, a m eans o f r a i s i n g money f o r war After s e t t l i n g their m o t h e r s e s t a t e , K i r k l a n d * s

relief*

sisters, Cordelia and E l i s a b e t h , and h i s b r o t h e r William, came t o T i l t o n *

S i n c e t h e i r m o th e r had g i v e n h e r l i f e t o 7 the S a n i t a r y Fair through overwork, a group composed o f J o s e p h and h i s w i f e , C o r d e l i a , E l i s a b e t h , W i l l i a m , and possibly four others decided to issue a m o n th l y p a p e r , the proceeds of which should go to the F a i r as a m e m o r ia l to Mrs* K irk lan d *

A c t u a l l y none of t h e c o n t r i b u t o r s i s named; i n

t h e f i r s t num ber of t h e p a p e r , h o w e v e r, t h e w o rk of n i n e "editors* i s o u t l i n e d , and i t

is q u i t e a p p a r e n t t h a t f i v e

of the "editors* w ere t h e five members o f the K i r k l a n d family* The paper was a sort of latter-day Tatlor * som ew hat, 5 Information c o n t a i n e d in. a l e t t e r f ro m M is s Yuphemia H o ld e n t o me* 6 A p r i l 6 , 1864* 7 Dorothy Dondore, "Kirkland, C a r o l i n a M a t i l d a Etansbury," Dictionary of American Riogranhy, X- 4.30*

70

d i d a c t i c i n p u r p o s e , c o n t a i n i n g f a s h i o n n o t e s , recipes, l e t t e r s t o and f ro m f r i e n d s a b r o a d , and o c c a s i o n a l e d i t o r ­ i a l s on q u e s t i o n s o f n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t .

It made no attempt

a t l o c a l news coverage ( w i t h t h e exception of the strike e d i t o r i a l q u o t e d a b o v e ) , since most of the readers we r e f r i e n d s and a c q u a i n t a n c e s o f t h e K i r k l a n d s living i n Hew Y o rk and a b r o a d » An i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and critique of Joseph K i r k l a n d 1® c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h i s paper belong; p r o p e r l y i n Part II of t h i s t h e s i s | however, i t

s h o u l d be pointed o u t here t h a t

w o rk on t h e P r a i r i e C h ic k e n gave Kirkland a t h i r s t for w r i t rtiw i ian*iy n w i mwwn n'jiwta-

#■»

'—

i n g w h ic h w as n o t satisfied u n t i l t h e l a s t years o f h i s l i f e , when he d e v o t e d a l m o s t h i s w h o le t i m e t o c r e a t i v e w o rk . The p a p e r , a c c o r d i n g to p l a n , ran o n l y one y e a r , fro m O c t o b e r , 1 8 6 4 , t h r o u g h September, 1865*

It made 490 d o l l a r s

f o r t h e S a n i t a r y F a i r and f u r n i s h e d i t s editors w i t h a great deal o f e x p e r i e n c e and e n jo y m e n t* Although Kirklandf s s i s t e r s and b r o t h e r had o r i g i n o a l l y come t o Tilton merely t o v i s i t , i t w as now d e c i d e d t h a t t h e y should s t a y o n , and t h a t Joseph and W il l ia m s h o u l d go i n t o t h e c o a l m in i n g b u s i n e s s together*

I n N ovem ber,

1665, J o s e p h purchased part of the "South half of S e c t i o n 1 8 , Township 1 9 , Range 1 1 ” ‘f‘rora t h e C h ic a g o and Carbon C oal Company; and on t h e same d a t e , V /ill lam purchased t h e e o r r e s ~ 3

U n p u b l i s h e d 'b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h o f J o s e p h K i r k l a n d , K ir k la n d P a p e r s.

71

p o n d i n g p o r t i o n o f t h e n o r t h h a l f o f t h e same s e c tio n * ® L y in g i n t h e d e s o l a t e G rap e C re e k r e g i o n a b o u t f o u r m i l e s s o u t h o f T i l t o n * t h e l a n d w as known fro m o u t c r o p p i n g s t o c o n t a i n r i c h c o a l d e p o s i t s ; b u t , 'b ecau se o f t h e r u g g e d te rra in ,

i t w as c o m p l e t e l y u n d e v e l o p e d .

The f a c t t h a t t h e

K i r k l a n d s w e re a b l e t o b u y t h i s l a n d a t t h e r i d i c u l o u s l y cheap p r i c e o f f i f t y d o l l a r s an a c r e ^

i s p ro o f t h a t th e

C h ic a g o and C arb on Company had g i v e n up e i t h e r a s I m p o s s i b l e o r a s t o o e x p e n s i v e t h e i d e a o f s h a f t - m i n i n g i n th e a r e a * J o s e p h and W i l l i a m , h o w e v e r, had d e v i s e d an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r ­ e n t m eth o d o f m in i n g t h e c o a l *

S in c e t h e num erous o u t c r o p p i n g s

p r o v e d t h a t o o a l was l y i n g n e a r t h e s u r f a c e , t h e y p l a n n e d t o g e t at it by t h e r e l a t i v e l y s im p le e x p e d i e n t o f s c r a p i n g away t h e p r o t e c t i n g l a y e r s o f e a r t h *

A lth o u g h t h i s m eth o d

o f p r o d u c t i o n , c a l l e d s t r i p m i n i n g , h a s s u b s e q u e n t l y come i n t o w i d e s p r e a d us© t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y , i t m u s t have b e e n p r e v i o u s l y unknown i n t h a t s e c t i o n O'* I l l i n o i s , a t le a st;

f o r i n h i s a u t h o r i t a t i v e H i s t o r y ' o f T e r r a i l l o n Cou n t y

H iram W. B e c k w ith w r i t e s , rtF a r t h e r s o u t h [ t h a t i s ,

9

so u th o f

D a n v ille ]

a b o u t 1865 t h e K i r k l a n d s o p e n ed t h e f i r s t s t r i p 11 m in e s i n t h e a r e a * r-~ V e r m i l i o n C ounty * I l l i n o i s * Resister of Deeds* V I I I , 356* 10 11

Ib id *

H iram W* B e c k w ith , H i s t o r y o f V e r m i l i on C ounty * I l l i n o i s {C h i c a g o , 1879) , p T IE S W A c t u a l l y , t h e y d i d n o t g e t i n t o p r o d u c t i o n u n t i l 1 8 6 6 ; o f . J a c k Moore Mi11i a m e , H i s t o r y o f V e r m i l i o n C o u n ty , I l l i n o i s ( I a d i a n a p o 1 i s , 1 9 3 0 ) , p . 426* *The r e a l b e g i n n i n r o f t h e c o a l industry in V e r m i l i o n C o u n ty , howsrver, d a t e s b a c k to 1866 when Mi 111 am and Joseph Kirk­ la n d * * * o p e n ed c o a l m in e s i n t h e Grape C re ek f i e l d »Tf

72

The s t r i p mining p r o c e s s suited t h e K i r k l a n d s 5 n e e d s for more reasons than that i t dispensed with the cumber­ some and e x p e n s i v e s h a f t - m i n i n g e q u ip m e n t*

Using this method,

t h e y c o u ld get i n t o production much more quickly tb.an w o u ld o t h e r w i s e have b e e n possible; a n d , more important s t i l l ,

they

would n o t have to d e p e n d upon e x p e r i e n c e d rainexns t o do t h e work, since a common laborer c o u ld shovel coal from the f l o o r o f an open p i t # The o n l y real p r o b le m w h ic h t h e b r o t h e r s had to f a c e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e i r o p e r a t i o n w as t h a t o f s e c u r i n g a l a r g e e n o u g h m a r k e t for t h e i r lo w grade ■’surface- c o a l #

The

c o s t o f s h i p p i n g by r a i l f r o m Danville t o C h i c a g o , t h e closest industrial m a r k e t , w as still so h i g h t h a t t h e y would n o t be a b l e t o com pete w i t h E a s t e r n operators who, though a t f o u r t i m e s t h e d i s t a n c e , had water transportation*

The only

s o l u t i o n , o b v i o u s l y , w as to find an a d e q u a t e market, c l o s e b y . In 1666 J o s e p h found t h a t market; he secured a contract with t h e I l l i n o i s R a il w a y Company t o s u p p l y c o a l f o r t h e t r a i n s 1

o

running b e tw e e n Danville and Chicago *“"'J The m in e s e v i d e n t l y b e g a n t o p a y d i v i d e n d s immed­ i a t e l y ; f o r i n May, 1866, J o s e p h was able t o d e ed a lot i n D a n v i l l e w h ic h he had c o n t r a c t e d to buy almost a. year b e ­ f o r e , a n d a t t h e same tim e he bought and p a i d 660 dollars *^Jack Moore Williams, History of Vermilion Count; "Da 4:26 *

73

c a s h f o r a n a d j o i n i n g l o t * 3"®

I t w as p r o b a b l y J o s e p h * s i n ­

t e n t i o n e v e n t u a l l y t o b u i l d a home i n D a n v i l l e ;

however,.

s i n c e i n J a n u a r y , 1 8 6 6 , W il l ia m had b o u g h t t h e h o u se i n w h ic h ' 14 t h e y w e re a l l l i v i n g , th e y began im m e d ia te ly t o rem o d el i t , and a l l c o n t i n u e d t o s t a y on t h e r e * T h i s h o u se and t h e family1s e x p e r i e n c e s i n i t f u r n i s h t h e f a c t u a l b a c k g ro u n d f o r t h e a m u sin g l a s t c h a p t e r o f Z u r y * i n w h ic h K i r k l a n d d e s c r i b e s th e w o n d e r and am usem ent o f t h e o l d e r r e s i d e n t s o f ^Waybaok" a t t h e f i r s t s i g h t o f s u c h m o d e rn c o n v e n i e n c e s a s g a s l i g h t s , a b a th r o o m c o m p le te w i t h h o t and c o l d r u n n i n g w a t e r , an d a f u r n a c e * A c c o r d in g t o K i r k l a n d f a m i l y t r a d i t i o n *1-5 t h e n e i g h b o r s earn© so o f t e n t o " b o rr o w t h e u s e o f t h e b a t h t u b ” o r t o g e t Mrs* K i r k l a n d t o sew so m e triin g f o r th em s i n c e " i t w o u l d n H t a k e h e r more t h a n a fe w m i n u t e s on h e r se w in g m a c h i n e , ” t h e y f i n a l l y had t o r e f u s e t o a d m i t p e o p l e t o t h e h o u se e x c e p t on " s o c i a l c a l l s * ” By 1867 K i r k l a n d ’ s b u s i n e s s was s o good t h a t , u n l e s s he s e c u r e d more h e l p , he w ould n o t b e a b l e t o f i l l t h e d e ­ mand f o r c o a l*

I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e r a i l r o a d , he was now s u p p l y ­

i n g f u e l f o r s e v e r a l g r i s t m i l l s w h ic h had b e e n c o n v e r t e d t o s te a m power*

A f o u n d r y , w h ic h w o u ld r e q u i r e

s t i l l more c o a l ,

13

V e r m i l i o n C o u n ty , I l l i n o i s , R e g i s t e r o f D e e d s * V I I I , 3 5 6 ; X I I , 379* 14 V e r m i l i o n C o u n ty , I l l i n o i s , R e g i s t e r o f D eeds V I I I , 437* " ^ U n p u b l is h e d b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h o f J o s e p h K i r k l a n d , K irk lan d P a p e rs *

74

w a s b e i n g b u i l t on t h e n o r t h e r n o u t s k i r t s o f D a n v i l l e * The p r i n c i p a l i n d u s t r y i n t h e a r e a was s t i l l f a r m i n g , how­ e v e r , w h i c h m e a n t t h a t t h e num ber o f common l a b o r e r s was lim ite d *

I n C h ic a g o m a n u f a o t u r e r a h ad s o l v e d a s i m i l a r

l a b o r p r o b l e m b y i m p o r t i n g w o r k e r s f ro m I r e l a n d , and J o s e p h a nd W i l l i a m d e c i d e d t o u s e t h e same m eth o d o f o b t a i n i n g m ore h e l p , e x c e p t t h a t t h e y p l a n n e d t o b r i n g men fr o m B elgium # T h i s r a t h e r c u r i o u s c h o i c e o f w o r k e r s c a n p r o b a b l y be e x ­ p l a i n e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t w hen J o s e p h visited t h e C o n t i n e n t a s a you ng m an , he saw B e l g i a n s c o m p r e s s i n g c o a l d u s t and s l a c k ( w h ic h w o u ld o t h e r w i s e h av e b e e n w a s t e d ) f o r us© i n g r a t e s and h e a t i n g s t o v e s #

in to b r iq u e tte s

S i n c e t h e r e was

n e c e s s a r i l y a g r e a t d e a l o f w a ste in th e s t r i p - m i n i n g p r o ­ c e s s , I t m u s t ha v e o c c u r r e d t o t h e b r o t h e r s t h a t t h e y m i g h t a s w e l l i m p o r t w o r k e r s who c o u ld n o t o n l y d i g c o a l , b u t u tilise

th e w a ste s l a c k a s w e ll* J o s e p h made t h e t r i p t o B e lg iu m t o g e t t h e w o r k e r s ;

b u t few r e c o r d s r e m a i n o f h i s a c t i v i t i e s *

He m u st have l e f t

i n F e b r u a r y o r M a r c h , 1 8 6 7 , s i n c e by May he w as s i g h t - s e e i n g i n C o lo g n e , G e r m a n y I n

a l l p r o b a b i l i t y he w e n t d i r e c t l y

t o B e lg i u m , s i g n e d t h e num ber o f w o r k e r s he w a n t e d , and t h e n to o k a b r i e f s i g h t - s e e i n g to u r# 16

From o c c a s i o n a l comments

L e t t e r s . J o s e p h K i r k l a n d t o h i s s o n J o h n , who was v i s i t i n g i n C o lo g n e , d a t e d C h i c a g o , May, 1 8 6 3 ; K i r k l a n d P ap ers. " T h i s m o n th i t h a s b e e n exactly 16 y r s # s i n c e 1 t o o l o o k e d a t t h e C a t h e d r a l f r o m t h e v e r y p o s i t i o n you d e s c r i b e * 11

70

i n l e t t e r s l a t e r w r i t t e n t o h i s w i f e and c h i l d r e n when t h e y w e re t o u r i n g t h e C o n t i n e n t * ' i t i s f a i r l y c e r t a i n t h a t lie v i s i t e d W o is b a d e n , F r a n k f o r t am M a in , and Hamburg b e f o r e r e ­ tu rn in g to T ilto n , p ro b ab ly in l a t e

summer*

I n t h e m ea n tim e t h e l a b o r s h o r t a g e had e v i d e n t l y b e ­ come so a c u t e t h a t , e v e n b e f o r e t h e B e l g i a n s a r r i v e d , i t w as necessary f o r K i r k l a n d t o o b t a i n a d d i t i o n a l m i n e r s ; f o r H i s t o r y o f V e r m i l i o n C o u n ty * Jb H* W il l ia m s w r i t e s , K i r k l a n d i m p o r t e d t h e f i r s t c o a l m i n e r s , two c a r l o a d s , . . „ and l a t e r he i m p o r t e d a w ho le s h i p l o a d o f Belgians t o w ork i n t h e s t r i p m in i n g operations.-**? Although 1 ha v e f o u n d no o t h e r r e f e r e n c e to t h e two c a r l o a d s o f m i n e r s a s d i s t i n c t fro m t h e "w h ole' s h i p l o a d o f B e l g i a n s i t Is e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e t h a t W i l l i a m s ? s t a t e m e n t i s c o r r e c t . C e r t a i n l y b u s i n e s s w as good d e s p i t e t h e n a t i o n a l p a n i c o f 1667.

P e r h a p s t h e f a c t t h a t K i r k l a n d had a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t e d

t h e d e p r e s s i o n a s e a r l y a s May, 1865,-*-® e x p l a i n s why he was a b le n o t o n ly to c o n tin u e h i s b u s in e s s unchecked, b u t a ls o t o e x p a n d i t d u r i n g t h e l a t t e r s t a g e s o f t h e ''g r e e n b a c k s l u m p ." K i r k l a n d ’ s d e c i s i o n t o e x p an d h i s b u s i n e s s b y o p e n ­ in g an o f f ic e

i n C h ic a g o was p ro m p te d by s e v e r a l f a c t o r s .



l a c k Moore W i l l i a m s , H i s t o r y o f Verm i l i o n C o u n ty , p„ 436* 1 8 The -P r a i r i e C h i c k e n , May, 1 8 6 b . I n an e d i t o r i a l K i r k l a n d warned" hTs r e a d e r s t h a t t h e c u r r e n t " h i g h p r i c e s , i n f l a t e d c u r r e n c y , and i n s u p e r a b l e n a t i o n a l d e b t , . . m ust s u r e l y be f o l l o w e d b y d e f l a t e d c u r r e n c y and depression w i t h i n t h e n e x t two y e a r s . "

76

I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e he n e e d e d a m a r k e t f o r t h e b r i q u e t t e s w h io h w ere b e i n g made a t t h e m ine*

U n f o r t u n a t e l y , when

K ir k la n d c o n c e iv e d th e id e a o f u t i l i s i n g th e w aste e o a l d u s t , lie d i d n o t t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e t a c t t h a t t h e c o s t o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g b r i q u e t t e s w o u ld be m ore t h a n t h a t o f m i n i n g t h e c o a l and t h a t p e o p l e who had o n l y r e c e n t l y g r a d ­ u a t e d f ro m d i r t o r p u n c h e o n f l o o r e d c a b i n s w ould n o t be w i l l i n g t o p a y a prem ium f o r t h e b r i q u e t t e s s i m p ly b e c a u s e t h e y w e re c l e a n e r t h a n o r d i n a r y c o a l*

B ut i n a c i t y t h e

si& e o f C h ic a g o t h e r e was a good p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a m a r k e t c o u l d be d e v e lo p e d * I n t h e s e c o n d p l a c e , K ir k la n d ® s f a m i l y was i n c r e a s i n g and he w as g o i n g t o have t o f i n d a s e p a r a t e home, M rs . K i r k l a n d had n e v e r b e e n h a p p y i n T i l t o n ,

fin a lly ,

She had p r e ­

v i o u s l y l i v e d i n much l a r g e r c i t i e s 9 and she m is s e d t h e s o c i e t y and c o m p a n io n s h ip o f f r i e n d s w i t h i n t e r e s t s s i m i l a r t o h e r own.

Som etim e b e f o r e O c t o b e r , 1 8 6 8 , t h e K i r k l a n d s

w i t h t h e i r two c h i l d r e n C a r o l i n e and L o u i s a , moved t o t h e c o t t a g e J o s e p h h a d r e n t e d f o r th e m n e a r t h e c o r n e r o f H uron and G ass S t r e e t s i n C h ic a g o ,

19

E x c e p t f o r t h e f a c t t h a t K i r k l a n d had t o a b a n d o n e n ­ t i r e l y h i s f a v o r i t e scheme o f m aking and s e l l i n g b r i q u e t t e s , h i s b u s i n e s s c o n t i n u e d t o p r o s p e r a f t e r he m oved.

A lth o u g h

J o s e p h s t i l l s p e n t f u l l y h a l f h i s t i m e a t t h e m in e s i n 19

U n p u b lish ed b io g r a p h ic a l s k e t c h o f J o se p h K ir k la n d , K irk la n d P a p e r s ,

77

Tilton, he and M rs , K i r k l a n d w ere s o o n p a r t of a s o c i a l g r o u p t h a t i n c l u d e d t h e M cC orm icks, t h e M s d i l l s ^ and t h e C a r t e r - H a r r i s o n s , a l l o f whom w ere among t h e o l d e s t and m o st p r o m i n e n t C h ic a g o f a m i l i e s .

T h a t t h e K i r k l a n d s w ere

relatively p o o r seem s t o hav e mad© n o t t h e s l i g h t e s t d i f f e r ­ e n c e t o aiy* o f th e m .

T hey d i d n o t o r g a n i s e a s a f o r m a l

group, b u t v a r i o u s o n e s d i d g a t h e r a t some home a l m o s t e v e r y S u n d a y -evening t o r e a d a l o u d t o e a c h o t h e r , t o d i s c u s s c u r r e n t t h e a t r e p r o d u c t i o n s , o r j u s t t o s i n g and t a l k

,s 0

R e t u r n i n g t o C h ic a g o on O c t o b e r 1 0 , 1 8 7 1 , fro m one o f h i s frequent t r i p s t o T i l t o n , K i r k l a n d fo u n d t h e c i t y a smok­ i n g m ass o f r u b b l e .

He had t o l e a v e t h e t r a i n t h r e e m i l e s

s o u t h o f t h e o i t y j h o w e v e r, he h i r e d a h o rs e ., swam t h e C h ica g o R i v e r , a n d f i n a l l y p i c k e d h i s way t o h i s own home a t C ass and Huron Streets, y a w n in g b a s e m e n t .

He found a s t o n e ch im n ey g u a r d i n g a A cross th e s t r e e t , th e f i n e , tw o - s to r y

b r i c k h o u s e o f h i s b r o t h e r - i n - l a w D u d le y W i l k i n s o n was a s m o u l d e r i n g p i l e o f m a s o n ry and o a k b e am s.

Tie c o u ld f i n d no

one t h a t he knew; he c o u l d n o t e v e n be s u r e t h a t h i s f a m i l y was a l i v e . On O c t o b e r 9 , when word o f t h e f i r e f i r s t r e a c h e d th e n o r t h e r n r e s i d e n t i a l s e c t i o n o f C h ica g o , th e w i l d e s t a l a r m i s t s c o u ld n o t c o n c e i v e o f t h e f i r e ’ s s p r e a d i n g b eyond t h e E l v e r ; b u t when t h a t b a r r i e r was p a s s e d a s e a s i l y a s pn

Unpublished biographical sketch of Joserhi Kirkland, K i r k land P a p e r s ,

78

a n o p e n street, e v e n t h e oalmest r e s i d e n t s b e g a n t o t a k e F o r t u n a t e l y , M rs . K i r k l a n d ’ s b r o t h e r , D u d le y Wilkin-

alarm.

s o n , had i n s i s t e d e a r l i e r t h a t she go w i t h h e r t h r e e c h i l d ­ ren t o t h e home o f a f r i e n d s e v e r a l m i l e s n o r t h o f t h e c i t y . J o s e p h ’ s s i s t e r s , E l i z a b e t h and C o r d e l i a , s t a r e d on in t h e h o u se t o c a r e f o r a n i n v a l i d u n c l e .

L a te i n t h e a f t e r n o o n ,

D u d le y and J o h n W i l k i n s o n came t o t e l l them t h a t t h e y m u st le a v e *

T h ey f r e e d t h e i r tam e c a n a r y , p u t t h e p a r r o t i n a

s a c k f o r e a s i e r h a n d l i n g , and s e t o f f b l i n d l y i n t h e s u r g i n g crowd with J o h n and D u d le y Wilkinson s u p p o r t i n g t h e i n v a l i d u n c l e b e tw e e n them*®***

As w as a l m o s t i n e v i t a b l e , t h e y l a t e r

became s e p a r a t e d , b u t a l l e v e n t u a l l y r e a c h e d t h e s a f e t y o f hom es o f f r i e n d s who l i v e d b e y o n d t h e r e a c h o f t h e f l a m e s . A f t e r tw o d a y s and a n i g h t w i t h o u t s l e e p , J o s e p h f i n a l l y f o u n d h i s kin b y riding t o e v e r y p l a c e w here t h e y m i g h t c o n ­ c e iv a b ly S i n c e , a t t h e t i m e t h e f i r e s t r u c k , M rs , K i r k l a n d was m ak in g p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r a n e x te n d e d v i s i t w i t h h e r m o th e r i n S y r a c u s e , Mew Y o r k , i t w as d e c i d e d t h a t sh e s h o u l d now le a v e im m e d ia te ly w ith th e c h i l d r e n .

T h e re was no n e ed f o r

J o s e p h t o s t a y on i n C h ic a g o , e i t h e r ; w h a t l i t t l e he had b u i l t up t h e r e w ould now be r u i n e d *

He and h i s s i s t e r

C o r d e lia r e t u r n e d t o T i l t o n t o l i v e w ith W illia m .

21

b u sin e ss

E liz a b e th

U n p u b lish ed b io g r a p h ic a l s k e tc h o f J o sep h K ir k la n d , K irk la n d P a p e r s ,

79

s t a y e d o n w ith , f r i e n d s i n C h ic a g o a s a t u t o r t o t h e i r c h ild re n * Records o f Kirkland*s activities d u r i n g t h e n e x t tw o y e a rs a re spars© .

The V e r m i l i o n C o u n t j R e g i s t e r o f D eeds

shows t h a t s h o r t l y a f t e r h i s r e t u r n t o T i l t o n , he b o u g h t a l o t on t h e o u t s k i r t s o f D a n v i l l e and a b o u t a y e a r l a t e r , i n A u g u s t 3 1 8 7 8 , a b e a u t i f u l l y wooded t r a c t o f f i f t e e n a c r e s l y i n g a l o n g t h e m a in r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t o f T il t o n * ^ ®

Sine©

t h i s f i f t e e n a c r e p l o t w as w o r t h l e s s i n so f a r a s c o a l min­ ing was concerned, i t

seem s l o g i c a l t h a t he b o u g h t t h e l a n d

i n t h e ho pe t h a t M rs , K i r k l a n d w ould a g r e e t o l i v e a g a i n i n T i l t o n when t h e family was reunited i n a new home*

S uch

letters o f Kirkland * s a s a r e e x t a n t i n d i c a t e t h a t he a p p r e ­ ciated h i s home and e n j o y e d h i s f a m i l y ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , h© re­ gretted having to be away from then , as o f t e n a s was necessary while h i s homo and h i s business were two h u n d re d m i l e s apart* T h e n , t o o , i t w o u ld c e r t a i n l y have b e e n t o h i s a d v a n t a g e f i n a n c i a l l y t o be a b l e personally t o s u p e r v i s e t h e opera­ tions at t h e m i n e s . I f , a s s u g g e s t e d a b o v e , J o s e p h d i d hope t o b u i l d a home i n T i l t o n , he was e v i d e n t l y u n a b le t o s e l l h i s scheme t o Mrs* K i r k l a n d ; f o r i n t h e summer o f 1 8 7 5 , l e s s t h a n a y e a r a f t e r he p u r c h a s e d t h e f i f t e e n acres i n T i l t o n ,

she

r e t u r n e d t o C h ic a g o and l e t c o n t r a c t s f o r a f o u r s t o r y , V e r m i l i o n C o m ity , I l l i n o i s , R e g i s t e r o f D e e d s a ZXIX, 879; x r ; i v , 5 8 6 ,

m a s o n r y h o u s e t o b© p a i d f o r w i t h t h e money she had i n ­ h e r i t e d a t t h e d e a t h o f h e r m o th e r t h r e e m o n th s e a r l i e r . J o s e p h w e n t t o C h ic a g o i m m e d i a t e l y , and f o u r y e a r s l a t e r s o ld th e f i f t e e n a c r e t r a c t t o W illia m , I n A p r i l , 1 8 7 5 , b e f o r e he r e t u r n e d t o C h ic a g o , K i r k ­ l a n d , i n p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h C* 0*. E n g l i s h , p u r c h a s e d f o r t y a c r e s o f t i m b e r and c o a l l a n d s o u t h o f T i l t o n *

In a ll

p r o b a b i l i t y t h i s w as a s p e c u l a t i v e v e n t u r e , on K i r k l a n d *s p a r t a t l e a s t , e n te r e d i n t o w ith th e id e a t h a t th e la n d c o u ld be r e s o l d a t a handsom e p r o f i t w i t h i n a s h o r t tim e *

What

a c t u a l l y happened re m a in s so m e th in g o f a m y s te ry e x c e p t f o r th e e s t a b l i s h e d f a c t t h a t K irk lan d s u f f e r e d a sev ere f i n a n ­ c i a l se tb a c k . A c co rd in g t o K irk la n d f a m ily t r a d i t i o n , ® ^ s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n p a r t b y r e c o r d s o f t h e D a n v i l l e C i r c u i t C o u r t , J o s e p h and h i s p a r t n e r w ere e a c h t o d e p o s i t a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t e e n h u n ­ d r e d d o l l a r s w i t h i n a p r e s c r i b e d tim e t o d i s c h a r g e t h e n o t e w h ic h K i r k l a n d h a d g i v e n J o h n S h i e l d s , t h e o r i g i n a l ow ner o f th e p r o p e r ty . e n tire

a m o u n t.

When E n g l i s h d e f a u l t e d , K i r k l a n d p u t up t h e E n g lis h , t h e n a b s c o n d e d w i t h t h e t h r e e

t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s l e a v i n g K i r k l a n d , a s t h e r e m a i n i n g member o f t h e p a r t n e r s h i p , s t i l l l i a b l e f o r t h e d e b t* OK The D a n v i l l e C i r c u i t C o u rt f i l e s * ' 1' show t h a t i n -Tune, u -■ - , r

--

v R e p o r te d t o me b y K i r k l a n d *a g r a n d d a u g h t e r , M rs. Boyd C. H i l l , Oak P a r k , I l l i n o i s . ^ D a n v i l l e ,jr I l l i n o i s C i r c u i t C o u rt RVP'tmerU:Cct■o r d s ,J Box

88

.

61

1 8 7 3 , J o h n S h i e l d s s u e d J o s e p h K i r k l a n d trF o r K i r k l a n d & E n g l i s h , P a r t n e r s * 1^® f o r $ 3 9 5 0 , t h e am ount o f t h e not© g i v e n S h ie ld s by K irk la n d *

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i s m is sin g

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i n Docum ent ”3 " t h e am ount o f t h e s u i t i s u n a c c o u n t a b l y g i v e n a s $5000*

I t w o u ld seem fro m t h o s e d o c u m e n ts w h i c h r e ­

m a i n , t h a t K i r k l a n d w as a t t e m p t i n g t o s e t t l e t h e c a s e b y r e ­ t u r n i n g t h e l a n d t o S h i e l d s b u t t h a t S h i e l d s w a n te d c a s h p a y ­ m ent*

How t h e s u i t was s e t t l e d c a n n o t be a s c e r t a i n e d , s i n c e

th e f i l e

i s i n c o m p l e t e ; h o w e v e r, i t may be s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t

t h e h o u s e w h ic h M r s . K i r k l a n d b u i l t i n C h icag o a t t h i s v e r y tim e was l i s t e d i n h e r name a l o n e , p o s s i b l y I n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e K i r k l a n d s w a n t e d t o be s u r e o f a home a t l e a s t i n c a s e J o s e p h s h o u l d h av e t o d e c l a r e b a n k r u p t c y * The f a c t t h a t K i r k l a n d d i d s u f f e r a s e v e r e f i n a n c i a l s e t b a c k i n 1873 e x p l a i n s a n o t h e r o f t h o s e c u r i o u s e r r o r s i n d a t e s and e v e n t s w h i c h o c c u r t h r o u g h o u t h i s a u t o b i o g r a p h ­ i c a l sk e tch #

I n a b r i e f summary o f t h e e v e n t s w h ic h t r a n s ­

p i r e d d u rin g t h i s p e rio d o f h i s I l f © , K irk lan d w r o te , Upon G e n e r a l P o r t e r ’ s r e t i r e m e n t fro m t h e army M a jo r K i r k l a n d r e s i g n e d h i s c o m m issio n and r e t u r n e d t o h i s l o n g n e g l e c t e d b u s i n e s s ( c o a l - m i n i n g ) w h ic h he f o l l o w e d w i t h much s u c c e s s u n t i l i n t h e c o m m e rc ia l d i s a s t e r f o l l o w ­ i n g t h e g r e a t f i r e o f C h i c a g o , he m et w i t h s u c h r e v e r s e s a s c a u s e d h i s i n s o l v e n c y i n 1 8 7 4 . He s e t t l e d w i t h h i s c r e d i t o r s and t o o k o f f i c e (1 875) i n t h e I n t e r n a l R evenue s e r v i c e , u n d e r h i s o l d and b e lo v e d f r i e n d G e n e r a l J . D# O pt

D a n v i l l e , I l l i n o i s C i r c u i t C o u rt R e c o r d s , Document rtl * ”

83

W e b s t e r , who w as C o l l e c t o r o f t h e D i s t r i c t * • A c t u a l l y , i n d i c a t i o n s a r e t h a t by 1874 K i r k l a n d was s l o w l y r e c o v e r i n g from t h e u n f o r t u n a t e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f h i s p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h C. a* E n g li s h *

I n T i l t o n he b o u g h t a d d i ­

t i o n a l c o a l la n d j u s t w est o f h i s o r i g i n a l p u rch a se in th e G rap e G reek area,**® and i n C hicago he and Mrs# K i r k l a n d f u r ­ n i s h e d t h e i r f o u r s t o r y ho use i n t r u e V i c t o r i a n e le g a n c e * I n 1 8 7 5 , i n s t e a d o f t a k i n g o f f i c e i n t h e I n t e r n a l Revenue D e p a r t m e n t , K i r k l a n d was s p e n d in g m o st o f h i s tim e i n Dan­ v i l l e C ir c u it C o u rt, tr y in g to e s t a b l i s h t i t l e

to th e p ro ­

p e r t y he had b o u g h t a t a S h e r i f f ’ s s a l e t h e y e a r b e f o r e , ^ The f a c t t h a t i n t h i s same y e a r , 1 8 7 5 , K i r k l a n d became a c h a r t e r member o f t h e C h icago L i t e r a r y C lu b , one o f t h e num erous c u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h ic h had t h e i r i n c e p t i o n i n C h ic a g o c o i n c i d e n t w i t h t h e r e b i r t h o f t h e c i t y i t s e l f , i s a d d i t i o n a l t e s t i m o n y t h a t a t t h e tim e he was n o t h a r a s s e d by t h e l e g a l i t i e s o f a b a n k r u p t c y p r o c e e d i n g n o r i n d o u b t a s t o w here h i s n e x t m ea l was coming fro m . P7

K i r k l a n d , S t o r y o f C h ic a g o , I I , 4 1 5 , The c o m p le te l i s t o f e m p lo y e e s i n t h e "Chicago b r a n c h o f t h e Revenue D e p a r t ­ m en t fro m 1 8 7 8 - 1 8 8 0 , i n A. T, A n d r e a s , H i s t o r y o f O hioago ( C h i c a g o , 1 8 8 6 ) , I I I , 56 5 , shows t h a t K irlc la n u 1' d X d n o t J o i n t h e s t a f f u n t i l 1876 and t h e n s e r v e d o n l y t h r e e m o n th s , I n t h e s k e t c h o f K i r k l a n d w h ic h D* A, Dondore w r o te f o r t h e D ic ­ t i o n a r y o f A m e ric an B i o g r a p h y , K i r k l a n d ’ s e r r o r i s n o t o n l y p a s s e d a l o n g b u t e n l a r g e d upon* M s s Dondore s t a t e s , "From 1 8 7 5 -1 8 8 0 h© was i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Revenue S e r v i c e . " The e r r o r i s a l s o r e p e a t e d by J o h n F l a n a g a n i n h i s a r t i c l e , "Joseph Kirkland, P i o n e e r R e a l i s t , " A m erican Literature» XX ( 1 9 3 9 ) , 877* A c c o r d in g t o P r o f e s s o r F l a n a g a n , 'K ir k l a n d d id n o t l e a v e t h e r e v e n u e s e r v i c e u n t i l 1880 when he fo rm ed a p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h Ju d g e B a n g s, 26V e r a i i i o n C o u n ty , I l l i n o i s , S h e r i f f * a B ook , p . 3 1 1 . ^ D a n v i l l e , I l l i n o i s C i r c u i t C o u rt R e c o r d s , Box 3 3 , D ocum ents 1 - 5 ,

83

The " i n s o l v e n c y * w h ic h K i r k l a n d m e n t i o n s i n t h e abov e q u o t a t i o n d i d n o t o c c u r u n t i l two y e a r s l a t e r i n 1 8 7 7 ,

The

s e r i o u s l o s s e s w h ic h he s u f f e r e d i n 1873 p r o b a b l y h a s t e n e d it;

however, i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y i t was t h e l o s s o f h i s con*

t r a c t t o s u p p l y c o a l t o t h e I l l i n o i s R a i l r o a d w h ic h p r e c i ­ p i t a t e d t h e b ankrup tcy* ,

Again* v i t a l r e c o r d s a r e e i t h e r

m i s s i n g o r i n a c c e s s i b l e , m aking a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e a n a c ­ c u r a t e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e com plex c i r c u m s t a n c e s s u r r o u n d ­ in g th e in s o lv e n c y ,

A c c o rd in g t o Mr, Roy II. J o h n s o n , C l e r k

o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s D i s t r i c t C o u r t o f C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s , K irk lan d f i l e d a v o lu n ta ry p e t i t i o n in b a n k ru p tc y , F eb ru ary 30 7 } 1877, Joseph, a lo n e i s named i n t h e bankruptcy proceed­ i n g ; t h e r e f o r e , i t may be assum ed t h a t he and W il l ia m w ere no l o n g e r i n b u s i n e s s togetherv

A lth o u g h no r e a s o n i s g i v e n

f o r t h e d e c l a r a t i o n of b a n k r u p t c y , t h e c a u se m u st have b e e n s i m p l y t h a t K ir k la n d * s b u s i n e s s had f a l l e n o f f t o s u c h a n e x t e n t t h a t he c o u ld no l o n g e r m ee t p a y r o l l and o t h e r f i n a n ­ c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s f o r l a n d and equipment. I n 1874 and 975 he was s l o w l y r e c o v e r i n g fro m the sever© l o s s e s he had s u f f e r e d e a r l i e r .

Then l a t e i n 1Q75,

t h e I l l i n o i s R a i l r o a d (now t h e C h ica g o and E a s t e r n I l l i n o i s ) was f o r c e d i n t o r e c e i v e r s h i p a s a r e s u l t o f f r a u d u l e n t s t o c k m a n i p u l a t i o n s d u r i n g P r e s i d e n t G r a n t *s se co n d t e r m .

In a l l

p r o b a b i l i t y K i r k l a n d *s c o n t r a c t t o s u p p l y c o a l t o t h e r a i l gn 7 , 1948.

L e tte r s Roy H. Johnson t o me, d ated Septem ber

84

r o a d w as c a n c e l l e d a t t h i s t i m e ; and t h e l o s s o f h i s p r i n ­ c i p a l s o u r c e o f in c o m e , f o l l o w i n g a s i t d i d so c l o s e l y upon h i s p r e v i o u s d i s a s t e r , m ust have b e e n more t h a n h i s b u s i n e s s c o u ld w ith sta n d *

E v i d e n t l y h o p in g t o s u p p le m e n t h i s income

s u f f i c i e n t l y t o e n a b l e him t o k e ep h i s b u s i n e s s g o i n g , K i r k ­ la n d a c c e p te d a p o s i t i o n a s c o l l e c t o r in th e o f f i c e o f th e I n t e r n a l R evenue D e p a rtm e n t i n I f e b r u a r y , 1876 ( n o t 1875 a s 31 he l a t e r t h o u g h t ) * He had s e r v e d o n l y t h r e e m o n th s , how­ e v e r , tv h e n h i s f r i e n d G e n e r a l W e b s te r , who was i n c h a r g e o f t h e C h ica g o o f f i c e , d ie d *

When a new d i r e c t o r was a p p o i n t e d

A p r i l 1 6 , 1 8 7 6 , K i r k l a n d was released.®2 K i r k l a n d c o n t i n u e d t o o p e r a t e h i s b u s i n e s s on a g r e a t l y red u ced s c a le th ro u g h o u t th e r e s t o f 1876; b u t a s s t a t e d a b o v e , he v o l u n t a r i l y d e c l a r e d h i m s e l f b a n k r u p t F e b r u a r y 7 , 1877,

A l l h i s r e a l e s t a t e and p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y , i n c l u d i n g

e v e n h i s s h a r e o f t h e family*© M ic h ig a n l a n d , was a s s i g n e d to R obert 1 , J e n k in s f o r s a l e .

I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note

t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e F o u n t a i n Goal and I r o n Company b o u g h t a l l t h e m a c h in e r y from t h e m ine

III,

W illia m b o u g h t t h e r e a l

r^i 'A* T . A n d r e a s a Hi s t o r y o f Chicago. ( C h ic a g o , 1 8 6 6 ) , 565* Of* K i r k l a n d f s I f t a t e m e n t ^ u o t e d p , 81 a b o v e , rrc*i Ib id *

® § 7 e r r a ilio n C o unty, I l l i n o i s , R e g i s t e r , o f Deeds * XLIa. 9 o 9 8 ? ^Letters 1948*

Roy H* Johnson to me, dated September 7,

85

© s t a t e , p a y i n g , u n l e s s t h e V e r m i l i o n C ounty R e g i s t e r o f P©Qds I s i n c o r r e c t , e x a c t l y t w e n t y - f i v e d o l l a r s t o r a l l o f it

,3 5

I n h is autob iog raphical sketch, a p a r t of which i s

quoted above, Kirkland g o e s on t o s a y o f t h i s period i n h is life , D u r in g h i s o c c u p a t i o n a s a C o l l e c t o r in t h e D e p a rtm e n t o f I n t e r n a l R evenue he [ K i r k l a n d ] b e g a n t h e s t u d y o f la w , and i n 1 8 8 0 , when f i f t y y e a r s o l d , was a d m i t t e d t o t h e b a r , p a s s i n g a t t h e h e ad o f t h e l a r g e c l a s s w h e r e i n he was e x ­ am ined b e f o r e t h e A p p e l l a t e C ourt* f o r m in g a p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h t h e Hon, Mark B a n g s, e x j u d g e o f t h e C i r c u i t C o u r t , he c o n t i n u e d f o r t e n y e a r s i n s u c c e s s f u l p r a c t i c e o f h i s profession***® H ere a g a i n , t h e r e i s e v e r y i n d i c a t i o n t h a t K i r k l a n d was con­ fu s e d a s t o th e sequence o f e v e n ts i n h i s l i f e *

In th e f i r s t

p l a c e i t h a r d l y seem s p o s s i b l e t h a t he c o u ld e v e n b e g i n t h e s t u d y o f la w w h i l e s e r v i n g a s a c o l l e c t o r i n t h e Revenue De­ p a r t m e n t s i n c e he h e l d t h i s p o s i t i o n l e s s t h a n t h r e e m onths* I n t h e s e c o n d p l a c e , i n Novem ber, 1 8 7 ? , o n l y s e v e n m o n th s a f t e r he l e f t t h e R evenue D e p a r t m e n t , K i r k l a n d was i n Wash­ i n g t o n , D* C*, a s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f Mark B a n g s f la w f i r m , t o a r g u e b e f o r e t h e I n t e r n a l Revenue D e p a r tm e n t t h e c a s e f o r d i s m i s s a l o f t h e g o v e rn m e n t f a x on i n s o l v e n t s a v i n g s b a n k s* ria l l i o n C o u n ty p I l l i n o i s , Register o f D e e d s a L1V, 40 3 f f • 36

K irk la n d , S to ry w

37

Iin—ir-iniiiriin im^fWi

o f C h ic a g o , I I , p* 415*

ii^r-Hivcr*

**

•*

C h ic a g o *T r ib u n e (November 7 ^ 1 6 , 1877)* At l e a s t t h r e e o f t h e T r ib u n e a r t i c l e s explaining what Kirkland was t r y i n g t o do iri f a i h i n g t o n w ere w r i t t e n by K i r k l a n d h i m s e l f ; t h e y a r e d a t e l l n e d " W a s h in g to n : S p e c i a l Correspondent*75

'

86

C e rta in ly Judge Bangs would not send an apprentice lawyer of only seven months’ t r a i n i n g to presen t such a complex case b e f o r e a department of the Federal Government* The m o st l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s c o n f u s i o n o f d a t e s and events i s t h a t i n 1875, when h i s b u s i n e s s was slow and d i d n o t demand a l l h i s time, K i r k l a n d b e g a n t o r e a d law e i t h e r .w ith a n e y e t o h a v in g s o m e th in g t o f a l l b a c k on i n ease h i s c o a l b u s in e s s sh o u ld f a i l e n t i r e l y o r w ith th e i n ­ t e n t i o n o f d e v e l o p i n g a s e c o n d b u s i n e s s w h ic h he c o u ld c a r r y o n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n Chicago? s i n c e lie w ould be s p e n d in g a t l e a s t h a l f h i s t im e t h e r e *

The d a t e 1875 c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e

y e a r K i r k l a n d gave I n h i s a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h a s m a rk in g t h e b e g i n n i n g o f his s t u d y o f t h e law*®®

A year of tra in in g

i n a la w o f f i c e , e v e n p a r t - t i m e t r a i n i n g , w ould q u a l i f y him for a p o s i t i o n i n t h e o f f i c e o f t h e C o l l e c t o r o f I n t e r n a l R evenue and e x p l a i n why he s h o u l d have c h o s e n t h a t p a r t i c u ­ l a r w ork a s a m eans o f s u p p l e m e n ti n g h i s income i n 1876* Bean B e r n a r d G-avit o f t h e I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y S c h o o l o f Law a s s u r e s me t h a t i t w ould n o t have b e e n u n u s u a l i n t h e 1 8 7 0 ’ s f o r a n e s t a b l i s h e d la w f i r m t o send a man w i t h two y e a rs * t r a i n i n g and some e x p e r i e n c e i n t a x w ork t o p r e s e n t a c a s e b e f o r e t h e F e d e r a l Tax Board* I have b e e n u n a b le t o a s c e r t a i n e x a c t l y when K i r k ­ l a n d was a d m i t t e d t o t h e I l l i n o i s B a r; h o w e v e r, h i s s t a t e ®8 See pp* 8 g and 85 above f o r quotations fro m Kirk­ la n d ’s autobiographical sketch*

a?

m e n t that he passed the examination i n I860 i s probably correct s i n c e e x t a n t l e t t e r s from. J o s e p h t o h i s family, dated 18815 ar© w r i t t e n on s t a t i o n e r y h e ad e d "Bangs and Kirkland," indicating that he was b y t h e n a n a c c r e d i t e d la w y e r* The y e a r 1880 m a rk s t h e end o f a n o t h e r c h a p t e r i n K irk la n d ’s lif e #

D u r in g t h e s e v e n t e e n y e a r s following h i s

C i v i l War experience, he had d e v e l o p e d a s u c c e s s f u l and l u c r a ­ t i v e b u s i n e s s o n l y t o have i t c o m p l e t e l y w iped o u t t h r o u g h no f o r e s e e a b l e e r r o r i n h i s own judgment*

How, a t fifty, when

m o st men o f h i s g e n e r a t i o n were e i t h e r r e a d y t o r e t i r e or were dead, he was b e g i n n i n g a n e n t i r e l y new p r o f e s s i o n * More s i g n i f i c a n t fro m t h e c r i t i c 1s p o i n t o f v i e w , how­ ever, is t h e f a c t t h a t a t t h e v e r y o u t s e t o f t h i s s e v e n t e e n year period, K i r k l a n d had d i s c o v e r e d t h a t he e n jo y e d w r i t i n g and t h a t he had s o m e th in g t o s a y w h ic h o t h e r s w ould r e a d * His y e a r ’ s w ork on The P r a i r i e Chicken r e a l l y am ounted t o an apprenticeship; i t gave him p r a c t i c e i n e x p r e s s i n g h i m s e l f i n w r i t i n g and k e p t h i s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e l i v e s of commonplace, i n s i g n i f i c a n t people c an be f a s c i n a t i n g su b je c ts fo r r e a l i s t i c

p o rtra y a l*

I T n f o r t u n a t e l y , he d id n o t

i m m e d ia te l y follow up t h i s a p p r e n t i c e s h i p w i t h a s e r i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of th e p io n e e r l i f e

he knew so i n t i m a t e l y *

I n s t e a d , he waited a n o t h e r t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r n u n t i l , a s he t o l d H am lin G a r l a n d , he had l o s t t h e power t o e m o t i o n a l i z e c o n te m p o r a r y l i f e *

Even i n t h e m i d s t o f w hat became a lo s in g , b a t t l e to k e e p h i s business a l i v e } K irk la n d , t o o k tim e i n 1675 t o h e l p organize and t o p ro m o te t h e C h ica g o L i t e r a r y Club*

P ro v in g

t h a t liio i n t e r e s t i n b e l l e s l e t t r e s was none t h a n t h a t o f a mere d i l e t t a n t e , he a p p e a r e d on t h e p ro g ra m f i f t e e n t i m e s d u r i n g t h e f i r s t f i v e y e a r s o f t h e Club*s e x i s t e n c e , r e a d i n g f i v e o r i g i n a l book r e v i e w s and t h r o e o c c a s i o n a l poens, g i v i n g two p a p e r s o n modern l i t e r a t u r e . , b o t h o f w h ic h have u n f o r t u n a t e l y d i s a p p e a r e d , and a c t i n g i n

f i v e p la y s*

Sometime

d u r i n g t h e s e f i r s t f i v e y e a r s , he a l s o i n i t i a t e d t h e C lu b ’ s " S h o r t S t o r y 'T ig h t n b y r e a d i n g a n o r i g i n a l s t o r y e n t i t l e d , "The World Vs C o n g r e s s o f C r i p p l e s * " ^

Thi s s t o r y , w h ic h was

K ir k la n d ’ s f i r s t a tte m p t a t f i c t i o n , has d is a p p e a r e d , sin c e t h e C lub d i d n o t p u b l i s h t h e w ork o f i t s members* I n 1877 K i r k l a n d c o l l a b o r a t e d w i t h Jam es K unnion on A- ✓ a d r a m a t i z a t i o n o f D a u d e t#s From ont Jeun e e t R i s l e r , a i n e j a s K i r k l a n d h i m s e l f p o i n t e d o u t l a t e r , h o w e v e r, i n a d e l i g h t * f u l i n f o r m a l e s s a y c a l l e d "An E x p e r im e n t i n P l a y ’i r i t i n g , t h e p l a y was o n l y a m in o r s u c c e s s b e c a u s e he l a c k e d n e c e s s a r y e x p e r i e n c e i n b o t h w r i t i n g and d ra m a tu rg y * K irk la n d , b e g a n t o w r i t e more by a c c i d e n t t h a n d e s i g n 39

" I n Memoriaoi, J o s e p h K i r k l a n d , * The O hicago L i t e r a r y Club (O h io a g o , 1 8 9 4 } , p p , 7*9* 40 U n p u b lis h e d b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h o f J o s e p h K i r k l a n d , K irk la n d gap e r s * ^ J o s e p h K i r k l a n d , "An E x p e rim e n t i n f l a y w r i i i . n s , " A t l a ? i t i c M o n t h l y , XLX? (A ugust,, 1879),, 149-155* {The p l a y wa s’" e h t i t i e d S i do n i e . )

i n 1864 and s t o p p e d w r i t i n g a b r u p t l y i n 1865*

'th e n he began,

t o w r i t e a g a i n t e n y e a r s l a t e r , i t was w i t h f a r more s e r i o u s i n t e n t t h a n he had had b e f o r e *

G iv e n t h e t i m e , he was now

r e a d y t o e x p r e s s t h e i d e a s and i m p r e s s i o n s he had b e e n s u b ­ c o n s c i o u s l y s t o r i n g up f o r some f i f t y y e a r s *

90

C h a p t e r VI BEGINNING 100 LATP K i r k l a n d was n e v e r c o n t e n t f o r l o n g t o c a r r y on j u s t one b u s i n e s s a t a t i m e ; p e r h a p s i f he had c o n c e n t r a t e d h i s e f f o r t s he w ould have b e e n more s u c c e s s f u l #

Be t h a t a s i t

m ay, i n J u n e , 1 8 8 1 , a b o u t a y e a r a f t e r he s t a r t e d t o p r a c t i c e l a w , he b e g a n t o b uy b a c k t h e c o a l l a n d ?io J

I f , by "raore mundane things — more sordid i n t e r e s t s ’* Kirk­ l a n d m ea n t m oney, t h e n one possible solution to the problem of why he wen t to Idaho may be that he was making one last s e a r c h f o r the 333. Dorado that was to free Him and his family fro m financial worries. nt'wT-TT-.WiMr

Ap

If this be true, t h e n Kirkland

1

■ L e t t e r ; J o s e p h K i r k l a n d t o hi? w i f e , d a t e d I d a h o , fe p te m b e r 3 0 , 1888, K irk lan d Paper s ,

1X4

p r o b a b l y o f f e r e d b i s e x p e r i e n c e and s e r v i c e a s a n e n g i n e e r f o r p a r t o f t h e p r o f i t s o f th e v e n t u r e « W h a te v e r p ro m p te d t h e e x c u r s i o n , i t m ust n o t have b e e n s u c c e s s f u l ; f o r i n November K i r k l a n d was b a c k i n C h icag o B a t­ t l i n g a b a n k r u p t 0 7 c a s e , and t h e t r i p t o I d a h o i s n e v e r men­ tio n e d a g ain *

Ha w as d o i n g o n l y a l i t t l e

w ritin g a t th is

t i m e , h i s w ork b e i n g p r i n c i p a l l y book r e v i e w i n g f o r The Book B u y er and The B i a l ? and s u c h b r i e f c o m m e n ta rie s a s h i s l i t e r a r y e d i t o r s h i p o f t h e C h ic a g o T r i b u ne r e q u i r e d *

H is

w a r n o v e l , t h e l a ' :,t o f th e t h r e e n o v e l s he had o r i g i n a l l y s e t o u t t o w r i t e , w as s t i l l u n c o m p l e t e d ; b u t i n d i c a t i o n s a r e t h a t b y t h i s t i n e , B e c e m b e r, 1 8 8 8 , he had d e s p a i r e d o f e v e r f i n d i n g a p u b l i s h e r f o r i t and had d e c i d e d t o

s e l l such

p a r t s a s he c o u ld r a t h e r t h a n sp e n d a n y n o r o tim e t r y i n g t o fin is h i t . te r

At l e a s t i n D ecem ber, he l i f t e d

a t h i r d chap­

(lie had a l r e a d y s o l d two) f o r s e p a r a t e pu t i l o a t i o n i n

A m e ric a , I r o n i c a l l y , t h a t v e r y December t h e D e t r o i t F r e e P r e s s a n n o u n c e d a n o v e l c o n t e s t i n w h ic h t h r e e money p r i s e s w ould be p a i d f o r t h e t h r e e b e s t n o v e l s s u b m i t t e d d u r i n g t h e n e x t y e a r*

The g u a r a n t e e t h a t h i s n o v e l w ould a t l e a s t t o c o n ­

s i d e r e d f o r p u b l i c a t i o n , and t h a t i f i t were a c c e p t e d he m ig h t be p a i d a s much a s f 1600 was l u c e n t St -', enough t o s e t K i r k l a n d t o r e w r i t i n g and p o l i s h i n g h i s w a r s t o r y f o r e n t r y in th e c o n t e s t .

Tie l o s t v a l u a b l e tim e i n t h e s p r i n t v/hen

he had t o spend two m o n th s i n S y r a c u s e , ‘Tew Y o rk , o t t e m p t i n g

115

t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f I,Ire# Kirklandfs m o th e r * s e s t a t e , w h ic h had b e e n d r a g g i n g on in. t h e c o u r t s f o r f i f t e e n yeax’s . 44

Some­

w h a t d i s c o u r a g e d b y h i s f a i l u r e in t h e l i t i g a t i o n , he r e t u r n e d t o C h ic a g o l a t e

i n Ju n e t o t a k e up h i s work on t h e n o v e l i n

t h e h e a t o f t h e summer.

A l e t t e r to h is d a u g h te r C a ro lin e ,

i n w h ic h he a d m i t t e d t h a t he f e l t ffa huge i n d i s p o s i t i o n f o r writing, ”45 i n d i c a t e s t h a t K i r k l a n d had t o d r i v e h i m s e l f t o f i n i s h t h e t a s k , b u t t h e manuscript was i n t h e m a i l b e f o r e t h e S e p te m b e r d e a d l i n e . As i f t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e n o v e l w ere t h e s i g n a l for a ch an g e of luck, t h e K i r k l a n d s q u i t e u n e x p e c t e d l y r e c e i v e d word l a t e i n A u g u s t t h a t t h e W il k i n s o n e s t a t e had b e e n se ttle d .

A lth o u g h M rs , K i r k l a n d ’ s s h a r e c a n n o t be a s c e r ­

t a i n e d , 44 i t m u st have b e e n s u f f i c i e n t t o i n s u r e K i r k l a n d t h e in d e p e n d e n c e he had t r i e d so l o n g t o o b t a i n , f o r in h i s a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l sk e tc h , he w r o t e .

AA

■L e t t e r s : J o s e p h K i r k l a n d t o h i s daughter-L o u i s a , h i s w i f e , and h i s f a m i l y , fro m May 1 0 , t o Jim© 2 0 , 1 8 8 9 , K i r k l a n d Pape£»s, I t a p p e a r s fro m t h e s e l e t t e r s t h a t K i r k ­ l a n d was u n a b le t o s e t t l e the c l a i m s o f t h e v a r i o u s h e i r s a f t e r a n u n w i t t i n g m i s a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f f u n d s b y M rs, K i r k ­ l a n d ’ s b r o t h e r D u d le y was d i s c o v e r e d . He was a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h h i s w i f e ’ s c la im to a p p ro x im a te ly o n e - th ir d o f t h e e s t a t e p r o v i d e d I t s h o u l d e v e r be s e t t l e d . 45 L e t t e r : Jo sep h K irk la n d to h i s d a u g h te r C a ro lin e , d a te d J u l y 10, 1889, K irk la n d P a p e r s . 4 5 I n a l e t t e r t o me d a t e d H i t e n t a g e . S o u th A f r i c a , May 1 6 , 1 9 4 8 , M rs. G. P . M, E n n i s , K i r k l a n d ’ s d a u g h t e r E t h e l , w r i t e s t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e W il k i n s o n e s t a t e was a t one tim e v a l u e d a t $ 6 0 0 ,0 0 0 , she i s s u r e t h a t t h e f i n a l s e t t l e m e n t was f o r o n l y a f r a c t i o n o f t h a t a m o u n t.

116

A bout 1889 he fo u n d t h a t h i s l i f e w ork wan s h a p ­ i n g i t s e l f i n t h e way he w ould have b e e n happy* d u r i n g a l l h i s c a r e e r , t o f o r e s e e , an d t h e r e f o r e g r a d u a l l y d r o p p e d h i s law p r a c t i c e t o d e v o t e h i m s e l f t o l i t e r a t u r e W it h i n a m onth a f t e r th e w elcom e r e p o r t cam e, .Kirk­ l a n d r e c e i v e d news t h a t t o him m u st have b e e n e v e n more g r a t i ­ f y i n g : The C a p t a i n o f Company X had b e e n aw arded f i r s t p l a c e i n t h e F r e e P r e a s n o v e l c o n t e s t . W ith t h e g e n e r a l a n n o u n c e ­ m e n t t h a t K i r k l a n d was s u c c e s s f u l came a l m o s t I n s t a n t a n e o u s , w id e sp rea d r e c o g n itio n o f h is a b i l i t i e s . awoke t o f i n d h i m s e l f fa m o u s .

He, t o o , s u d d e n l y

The C h ic a g o T r i b u n e , t o w h ic h

he had c o n t r i b u t e d f o r f i f t e e n y e a r s and o f w h ic h he had b e e n l i t e r a r y e d i t o r and c r i t i c f o r a l m o s t a y e a r , suddenly i n O c t o b e r a c k n o w le d g e d h i s s e r v i c e and m e n tio n e d h i s w ork as a n o v e l i s t , ^

Book B u y e r and A m erica c o n t a i n e d n o t i c e s

o f h i s w o r k , a n d , a c c o r d i n g t o an u n p u b l i s h e d b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h o f K i r k l a n d , t h e Hew Y ork Tim es a l s o c a r r i e d a b r i e f resu m ^ o f h i s n o v e l s and a s h o r t b i o g r a p h y . ^ * P r o b a b l y a s a r e s u l t o f t h e n o t o r i e t y he had g a i n e d b y w i n n i ng t h e T re e P r e s s n o v e l c o n t e s t , K i r k l a n d i n 1890 was a s k e d by t h e C h ic a g o h i s t o r i a n J o h n H o se s t o e d i t th e f i r s t volum e o f a p r o p o s e d tw o-vo lum e 111s t o r y o f C h ic a g o , 47

K i r k l a n d , The S t o r y o f C h i c a g o , p . 4 1 6 ,

^ STIi© C h ica g o T r i b u n e , O c to b e r 6 , 1 8 89, 4.0 U n p u b lis h e d b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h * X i r k l a n a P a p e r s , I have b e e n u n a b le t o f i n d any r e f e r e n c e t o K i r k l a n d i n t h e Hew Y ork T im e s.

11?

R a v in g l e i s u r e now t o do w h a t he l i k e d , lie a c c e p t e d Roses* o f f e r ; h o w e v e r, he had h a r d l y b e g u n t h e w ork when he was i n v i t e d t o j o i n t h e W arner G* M i l l e r p a r t y a s s p e c i a l c o r ­ r e s p o n d e n t on i t s e x p e d i t i o n t o N ic a ra g u a * M i l l e r was p r e s i d e n t o f t h e N i c a r a g u a C a n a l Company, a private c o n c e r n s e t up w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Government i n 1889 to c o n n e c t t h e A t l a n t i c and P a c i f i c O cean s by a c a n a l through Nicaragua*

The e x p e d i t i o n o f w h ic h K i r k ­

l a n d was a member was a com bined i n s p e c t i o n and p u b l i c i t y t r i p d e s i g n e d b y M i l l e r t o p ro m o te t h e sal® o f N i c a r a g u a C a n a l Company stock®

The g ro u p s a i l e d from New York 'March

1 4 , 1 8 9 1 , b u t b e c a u s e o f bad w e a t h e r d i d n o t r e a c h N i c a r a g u a u n t i l A p ril

Then d u r i n g t h e n i g h t o f A p r i l 3 , w h i l e t h e

s h i p was a p p r o a c h i n g Greytown, i t s d e s t i n a t i o n , i t s t r u c k a re e f®

K i r k l a n d and h i s co m p a n io n s w ere s h ip w r e c k e d f o r

three d a y s , and a l t h o u g h no one was i n j u r e d , t h e s h o r t a g e o f w a t e r became a. s e r i o u s p r o b le m a f t e r t h e s e c o n d day® After a r e s c u e was f i n a l l y e f f e c t e d , t h e g ro u p r e s t e d a t the headquarters o f t h e company i n G re y to w n , and t h e n p r o ­ ceeded on i t s

i n s p e c t i o n tour®

K i r k l a n d * a d i s p a t c h e s show t h a t he was im p r e s s e d b y thee e f f i c i e n c y w i t h w h ic h t h e o p e r a t i o n s w ere b e in g c a r r i e d on a s c o n t r a s t e d t o th e w a s t e and n e g l i g e n c e o f t h e F r e n c h o r g a n i z a t i o n u n d e r De L e s s e p s w h ic h had p r e c e d e d t h e A m eri­ cans*^

A n o th e r d i s p a t c h i n w h ic h he commented upo a th e 50Tbe C h ica g o T rib u n e » A p r i l 1 0 , 1891®

118

w holesom e l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e n a t i v e workmen c o n t a i n s one p a r a g r a p h w h ic h shows t h a t h i s o p i n i o n c o n c e r n i n g o r g a n ­ i z e d l a b o r had n o t ch an g e d i n t h e t h i r t y - o d d y e a r s s i n c e he had c l o s e d t h e C h ic a g o and C arbon C oal mine i n T i l t o n , I l l i n ­ o i s , b e c a u s e o f a n a t t e m p t on t h e p a r t o f t h e m in e r s t o fo rm a u n io n . From t h e s e t o u c h e s may be ju d g e d t h e p r o s and c o n s i n t h e u s e o f t h i s k i n d o f l a b o r [ i m p o r t e d , w h i t e ] * G ot t o g e t h e r , i n t h i s a l m o s t l a w l e s s l a n d , 5000 o f t h e b e s t N o r t h e r n l a b o r e r s and t h e y w ould be a p t t o r u n t h i n g s w i t h a h i g h h a n d . B ut w i t h t w i c e t h e number o f n a t i v e s , j u s t l y , k i n d l y , and s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y h a n d l e d , d i s c i p l i n e would t a k e c a r e o f its e lf. No t r a d e u n i o n s , no s t r i k e s , no a g i t a t i o n s 3o r com-' b i n a t i o n s n e ed be f e a r e d among t h e s e g e n t l e , s i m p l e , k i n d l y , t r u s t f u l p e o p l e .5 * S h o r t l y a f t e r K i r k l a n d r e t u r n e d t o C h ica g o l a t e i n H ay, h i s b r o t h e r W illia m d i e d .

S t r a n g e l y e n o u g h , J o s e p h was

n o t m e n tio n e d i n h i s w i l l , h i s e n t i r e e s t a t e , v a lu e d a t o v e r $ 3 0 , 0 0 0 , b e i n g l e f t t o t h e i r two s i s t e r s E l i z a b e t h and C o r­ d e l i a , who w ere a l s o t h e e x e c u t o r s o f th e w i l l . ^

Josephs

d a u g h t e r , M rs. G-. F* M. E n n i s , d o e s n o t remember t h a t a q u a r r e l o r d i s a g r e e m e n t had a r i s e n b e tw e e n t h e two b r o t h e r s . P e r h a p s W illia m f e l t t h a t J o s e p h had a d e q u a te r e s o u r c e s and t h a t he s h o u l d p r o v i d e f o r t h e s e c u r i t y o f h i s m a id e n s i s t e r s . J o s e p h * s w ork a s e d i t o r o f t h e f i r s t volume o f t h e H i s t o r y o f C h ic a g o a r o u s e d h i s i n t e r e s t i n t h e e a r l y a o t i v i tie s of th a t c ity . _mii*. r*. iifi—i~.»■■I.*'" — *i **r...... in

When he d i s c o v e r e d t h a t a few d e s c e n d a n t s

r

^ T h e C hicag o T r i b u n e , A p r i l 8 , 1 8 9 1 . 52 V e r m i l i o n C o u n ty , I l l i n o i s , P e g ! a t r y . Box 3 6 , Docum ent rtl . rt

XI9

of the first settlers were still l i v i n g , he i n t e r v i e w e d them* collating their stories with reliable histories to o b t a i n a n authentic p i c t u r e of the Massacre of t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f F o r t Dearborn,

Late i n 1891, w h i l e he w a s still p r e p a r i n g the

manuscript of the first volume o f the H i s t o r y -, he w r o t e the "Chicago Massacre of 1813/* which, he first published as a n article in 1893, and then as a monograph a year l a t e r , I n 1893 he a l s o r e l e a s e d t h e f i r s t volume o f The S t o r y of, Chicago» h i s own v e r s i o n o f the growth, of t h a t city, which he had been working on intermittently for more t h a n t h r e e years*

I t was q u i t e d i f f e r e n t fro m Mosesf History, since,

i n the first place, he w r o t e It h i m s e l f i n s t e a d o f editing the work of various specialists, a n d s i n c e , i n t h e second p l a c e , he d e v e l o p e d the t e x t a ro u n d a number o f s i g n i f i c a n t people r a t h e r t h a n a ro u n d s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a ,

B e ca u se t h e r e

was no need t o r u s h t h e w ork on t h e se c o n d volume, lie t o o k time out d u r i n g t h e summer o f 1893 t o manage t h e so-called "movable sidewalk" at t h e Columbian Exposition*

He was

indeed living h i s new life of in d e p e n d e n c e r i g h t up t o th© h ilt£ By A p r i l , 1 8 9 4 , K i r k l a n d had almosxi com p ie tod th e manuscript of the second volume o f The S t o r y of C h i c a g o , •'**

a w ttnm w w

ai t * s w i

tviWif-ttB wffiwiae iron e h m *

II©

was p l a n n i n g to t a k e h i s w i f e on a tour o f the i/e st- d u r i n g the summer and had mad® no d e f i n i t e p l a n s f o r f u t u r e l i t e r >3 K irk lan d F am ily S crapbook , K ir k land P a p e r s

130

a r y w o r k j h o w e v e r , he had t e n t a t i v e l y s c h e d u l e d a h i s t o r y o f I l l i n o i s o r p e r h a p s o f t h e w h o le N o r th w e s t t o be begun in th e f a l l . On A p r i l 3 9 , 1 0 9 4 , a f t e r r e t u r n i n g fro m h i s c u s to m a r y e a r l y m o rn in g w a l k , IC irk la n d s u f f e r e d a h e a r t a t t a c k and d i e d a lm o st iM u e d la te ly .

H is d a u g h t e r C a r o l i n e , who was p e r h a p s

c l o s e s t t o him o f a l l h i s f a m i l y , l a t e r w r o te o f h e r f a t h e r * He a lw a y s had t h e j o i e de v j v r e , t h e hope and c o itrag e o f y o u th * l i d s v i g o r came fro m HTs m o d e r a t i o n i n l i v i n g , f o r he w as t e m p e r a t e i n e v e r y t h i n g e x c e p t w o rk , T hose who knew him and l o v e d him m u st f e e l f o r h i s s a k e some c o n s o l a t i o n i n t h e t h o u g h t t h a t he. n e v e r knew o l d a g e ; he n e v e r f e l t t h e f i r s t t o u c h o f d e c a y i n g p o w e rs so t e r r i b l e t o men o f g r e a t i n t e l l e c t u a l o r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y and a r e a l i z a t i o n o f w h i c h he d r e a d e d k e e n l y * 4

131

P a r t IX c sm c iS E

XZB

Chapter VIZ ItmtODTICTIOH TO KIRKLAHD CRITICISM J o s e p h K i r k l a n d 8s w o r k , l i k e t h a t o f h i s e o n t e n p o r a r y John DeForest, h a s "been a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y o v e r l o o k e d by critics for more t h a n f i f t y y e a r s *

T h i s o v e r s i g h t i s a l l the

more p u z z l i n g when one e x a m in e s t h e c o n te m p o r a r y r e v i e w s o f Kirkland8s novels*

As he p u t i t i n a l e t t e r t o H am lin Gar­

land, reviews f ro m M aine t o C a l i f o r n i a w ere a l l l a u d a t o r y 5 and t h e r e v i e w s t h e m s e l v e s a t t e s t t h e l i t e r a l t r u t h o f h i s sta te m e n t* H am lin G a r l a n d , w r i t i n g f o r t h e B o s to n T r a n s c r i p t * called K i r k l a n d 8s Ztpry* t h e M e a n e st Man i n S p y in g C o u n ty * u one o f t h e g r e a t e s t a n d t r u e s t o f A m erican b o o k s ^ and p r a i s e d the a u t h o r f o r h i s h o n e s t y i n t i o n s o f p io n e e r farm l i f e

d e a lin g w ith th e h a rs h c o n d i­ W illiam . Been H o w e lls c a r e f u l l y

a n a l y z e d B ury i n H a r p e r 8s , c a l l i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e e x c e l l e n t c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s , and t o t h e f a c t t h a t "Mr. K i r k l a n d h a s the credit o f f i r s t p u t t i n g

p

fiction..*.?f

[the he s t e r n p i o n e e r f a r m e r ] i n

But, lie concluded, "personal knowledge [of

such people^ alone does not suffice in riot. a case, and we are glad of an artist with clear ayee and an. honest hand ^Boston Transcript » May 16, 1887• rB W illiam . Dean H o w e l l s , ffE d i t o r - s S tu d y ? "• H a r p e r* s New M o n th ly M a g a z in e , LMXYXX ( J u a e ? 1 8 8 8 ) , 152 *

xss

i n the a u t h o r o f K ury —. one i n c a p a b l e o f p a i n t i n g l i f e o t h e r t h a n he h a s fo u n d i t * * 3

The reviewer f o r The N a t i o n

m e n t i o n s t h e l a c k o f a w e l l - k n i t plot i n " u r y , h u t p o i n t s o u t t h a t K i r k l a n d 5s m o st i m p o r t a n t o b j e c t i v e was t h a t o f g i v ­ i n g a c l e a r , a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e o f a i d - w e s t e r n l i f e and t h a t t h e n e c e s s a r i l y w ide sc o p e o f t h e s t o r y w ould h a r d l y a l l o w f o r a f i n i s h e d w ork o f a r t * 4 tion, s t r e s s e d

The D i a l * a C h ica g o publica­

t h e f a c t t h a t K i r k l a n d "eschewed r o m a n t i c i s m

and -all i t s w a y s ,f? t o become a n uncomp r o m i s i n g realist*s

In

a n o t h e r C h ic a g o p e r i o d i c a l , The C r i t i c .^ K i r k l a n d ’ s l a c k o f a t t e n t i o n to p l o t was n o t e d ; b u t a g a i n h i s r e a l i s t i c approach and f i d e l i t y to- t h e t r u t h w ere t h o u g h t t o be t h e m o st s i g n i f i ­ c a n t e le m e n ts o f h i s w ritin g *

An u n s i g n e d r e v i e w i n t h e

Overland M o n th ly o f San F r a n c i s c o s t r e s s e d % u r y » and c o n t r a s t e d K i r k l a n d ’ s l i f e l i k e

th e r e a lis m o f

c h a r a c t e r s w ith th e

f o r m l e s s t y p e s o f H ow and Eggleston.^ The McTeys and The C a p t a i n o f Company Ks K i r k l a n d ’ s

o t h e r n o v e l s , were a s e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y r e c e i v e d and a s un~ animously praised as was Zury. Howells a g a i n c a l l e d

I n h i s review o f The MoVeya*

a t t e n t i o n to t h e e x c e l l e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e , -

g

W il l ia m Dean H o w e l l s . H a r p e r ’ s M a g a z in e , LXXVII ( 1 une 3 1 8 6 8 ) 3 155 * &

nr i—i-r—nriifH i11 r

wn»v«*^»-'cv»mriMipn n •*

**•' ‘7——**

4 The N a t i o n . XLY ( J u l y 8 1 , 1 8 8 ? ) , 57. 5The D i a l . Till ( J u l y , 1 8 8 7 ) , 6 7 , 6?lie C r i t i c . ¥11 (May 2 1 , 1S87) , 2 5 4 . n»i.i>.iwaaBj**rt

w ^ *—n>ihn .artpiiiwt ¥

w

t*

J

^O v e r la n d M o n t h l y , X ( A u g u s t » 1 8 8 7 ) , 314-815*

124

t i c m s f t h e h o n e s t u se o f m a t e r i a l s 9 and t h e c a r e f u l r e p r o ­ d u c tio n o f w e ste rn speech. n o v e l , he f e l t ,

The m o st n o t i c e a b l e d e f e c t o f t h e

wi s t h a t Mr* K i r k l a n d d o e s n o t k e e p t h a t d i s ­

t a n c e b o t h fro m h i s c h a r a c t e r s and fro m h i s r e a d e r s t h a t an o a r t i s t b e s t s u c c e e d s by* k e e p i n g # ” The A t l a n t i c M o n th ly r e ­ v i e w e r a l s o c a l l e d a t t e n t i o n t o w e a k n e s s e s o f p l o t and s t r u c ­ t u r e i n The McVeya b u t p r a i s e d t h e a u t h o r f o r h i s r e a l i s t i c p i c t u r e s o f s m a l l tow n l i f e * ®

A c c o rd in g t o The D i a l . K i r k -

l a n d p o s s e s s e d " a r e a l i s m t h a t i s s u g g e s t i v e o f Thomas H a rd y , and a d i s r e g a r d o f fo rm t h a t r e c a l l s C h a r l e s H e a d e * # .# ”

The

r e v ie w e r c o n t i n u e s s ttWe a r e i n c l i n e d t o t h i n k t h a t t h e l a t t e r h a l f o f f The McVeys* c o n t a i n s t h e s t r o n g e s t w r i t i n g t h a t t h e 10 a u t h o r h a s done** I n t h e O v e r la n d M o n th ly * t h e r e v i e w e r s t r e s s e d K i r k l a n d ' s f i d e l i t y t o t h e t r u t h and commended him f o r a v o i d i n g t h e s e n s a t i o n a l i s m o f Howe*

11

B u t p r a i s e o f K i r k l a n d ’ s w ork d i d n o t come fro m c r i t i c s a lo n e ; l a y r e a d e r s a s w e ll r e c e iv e d h i s n o v e ls e n t h u s i a s t i ­ c a lly .

A l i b r a r i a n fro m L o c k p o r t , Hew Y o rk , w r o te t o K i r k ­

l a n d a f t e r r e a d i n g Z u ry t o a s k him w h e t h e r he had w r i t t e n o t h e r n o v e l s , and t o t e l l him t h a t a L o c k p o r t p h y s i c i a n was t o r e a d a p a p e r t o a l i t e r a r y g ro u p on h i s t h e o r i e s a s t o Mil— BIII'm « « ■■■* I'WMI rfr H11 m ■"•■»»■■u a .o m iu

^ W i l li a m Dean H o w e lls , H a r p e r ’ s Ma g a z in e , LXKYIII (May, 1 8 8 9 ) , 9 8 6 . ^A t l a n t i c M o n t h l y . IXEXI ( F e b r u a r y , 1 8 8 9 ) , 2 7 6 -2 8 0 . 10 The D i a l . XX (Novem ber, 1 8 8 8 ) , 161. 110 v e r la n a M o n th ly , X I I I ( 1 8 6 9 ) , 2 1 3 -2 1 4 .

1 25

t h e p a t e r n i t y o f Anne MoVeyf s t w i n s *

An E a s t e r n n e w sp a p e r

(unidentified) r e p r i n t e d one o f t h e a n e c d o t e s from Z u r y a and

t h i s i n turn was c o p ie d by a C h icag o p a p e r Ju dge B l o d g e t t , a C h ic a g o jurist* and an u n i d e n t i f i e d C h icago business man t o l d Kirkland t h a t they had known s u c h p e o p le as t h e Fed&ieomb.8 and Ansteye fro m Z u ry and The Mo¥eys a and had plowed corn i n t h e h o t sun u n t i l t h e y s u f f e r e d h e a t prostrations

s u c h a s e v e n t u a l l y c a u s e d t h e d e a t h o f E p h ra im P ro u d e r*

14

A n o th e r C h ic a g o reader w r o t e t o Kirkland t o t e l l him that Z u ry had c o s t h e r a night's s l e e p b e c a u s e she c o u ld n o t p u t i t 35 down once sh e had b e g u n t o r e a d i t * " A West C o a st book d e a l e r in f o r m e d K i r k l a n d i n J u l y , o n l y two m o n th s a f t e r Z ury w

was i s s u e d *

11>».ii.i*w».tjTifiSL*a

t h a t he was sending o f f h i s t h i r d o r d e r f o r t h e

X5

’T h ere a r e r e f e r e n c e s in Kirkland *s eorr© sponde nee

book*

t o o t h e r s p o n t a n e o u s l e t t e r s o f p r a i s e and encouragement from t h e general r e a d i n g p u b l i c * b u t p e r h a p s t h e

above g i v e

sufficient e v i d e n c e that K i r k l a n d * s n o v e l s r e c e i v e d w id e ­ spread and e n t h u s i a s t i c r e c e p t i o n fro m c r i t i c s

and p u b l i c a l i k e ,

12

Letters L o u is e 0* S h u l e r t o J o s e p h K i r k l a n d , d a t e d Lockport* New York* J u l y 15* 1 6 8 7 ; K i r k l a n d P a p e r s *

13

L e t t e r s J o s e p h K i r k l a n d to H am lin G a r l a n d * d a t e d May 3 1 , 1887* "G-arland Collection. " 14 L e t t e r s J o s e p h K i r k l a n d t o h i s d a u g h t e r i» o u is a , d a t e d "July 29* 1887* K i r k l a n d P a p e r s * 15Lstters Joseph Kirkland to h i s family, dated Jun e

2 0 . 1 8 8 7 , Kirkland P a p e rs * Ig

Letters J o s e p h K i r k l a n d t o h i s s i s t e r - i n - l a w * d a t e d J u ly 29, 1687, K irk la n d P a p e rs .

126

D e s p i t e t h e w h o l e h e a r t e d a p p ro v a l, v o i c e d by s u c h d i s ­ criminating c r i t i c s a s H o w e lls and G a r l a n d 9 K i r k l a n d t & work

w as p r a c t i c a l l y f o r g o t t e n b y t h e -second d e c a d e o f t h e tw e n ­ tieth century*

One l o o k s i n v a i n f o r e v e n a s i n g l e r e f e r e n c e

t o J o s e p h K i r k l a n d i n Ho r t h r u p 9 & A M anual o f A m e ric a n L i t e r a ­ t u r e S i n c e 1670 (New Y o rk , 1915} and i n The Cambridge H i s t o r y o f A m e ric a n L i t e r a t u r e

{Hew Y o rk and Cambridge 9 1 9 1 8 ) .

Even

a n a r t i c l e w h ic h d e a l t s o l e l y with t h e d e ca d e i n w h ic h K i r k ­ l a n d ®e n o v e l s w ere written9 a n a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d r?A R e n a i s s a n c e i n t h e E i g h t i e s 9n p u b l i s h e d i n The N a t io n i n 1 9 1 8 . d o e s n o t m e n t i o n t h e man o r h i s works.

E g g le s to n ,, Howe3 and G a r la n d

a r e t h e r e t i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e a u t h o r was aw are o f t h e W e s te r n w rite rs j but iv e x is te n c e .

there

i s n o t t b s s l i g h t e s t h i n t of K i r k l a n d *s

P e r h a p s t h i s f a i l u r e o n the part of later critics to exam ine t h e w o rk of K i r k l a n d c a n be e x p l a i n e d by the fact thata among t h e m in o r writers 5 the o b v io u s neuroses of E . W. Howe

o f f e r e d more r e a d i l y accessible f i e l d s for c r i t i c i s m .

Or

p e r h a p s Kirkland 9 s w ork was su d

m wtca**

«ov.»Jcrf-icr?

O h ioken w h ic h contained two p r e v i o u s l y u n p u b l i s h e d " P r e f a c e s " by Mrs* C a r o l i n e M a t i l d a K i r k l a n d * and r e p r i n ts of K i r k l a n d ’ s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f h is m e e t i n g s w i t h Abraham L in c o ln * c e r t a i n e r r o r s in t h e a r t i c l e *

T h e re a r e

The W il l ia m Kirkland who was

i n t h e c o a l mining b u s i n e s s w i t h J o s e p h i s erroneously i d e n ­ t i f i e d a s J o s e p h * s f a t h e r ; he w as a c t u a l l y J o s e p h ’ s b r o t h e r * a s I have i n d i c a t e d i n C h a p te r IT o f t h i s th esis*

A ll o f

t h e m a t e r i a l in t h e P r a i r i e C h ic k e n i s a t tr ib u t e d to J o s e p h "who may have had the h e l p of a s i s t e r . "

Although Joseph

d i d c o n t r i b u t e r e g u l a r l y t o t h e m a g a z in e * most o f th e w ork was done b y h is two s i s t e r s and h i s w ife,

The a r t i c l e l a

i m p o r t a n t * how ever* i n t h a t i t e s t a b l i s h e s t h e e x i s t e n c e of t h e P r a i r i e C h i c k e n , a f a c t w h ic h had b e e n o v e r l o o k e d by

P ran k lin Vf. S c o t t i n h i s Newspaper s and P e rio d ic a ls of ii imi*|i*if>ii^iTli iiH lfclnrt»riliniirnii nr

I l l i n o i s i 1 8 1 4 -1 6 7 9 (Springfield* 1910),

.■

m ftflrw.

ui'WVJ

I t is also the

o n l y e x i s t i n g a c c o u n t o f the magazine by persons who had

18

„ .

' J o h n 0* M a b b o tt and P h i l i p D. Iordan* "The P r a i r i e C h i c k e n , ” J o u r n a l o f the I l l i n o i s State H is to ric a l Soc i e t y ,

XXV (October, 193277 X54-166,

129

a c t u a l l y read it* Two o th er a '" t i d e a on Kirkland * both w ritte n by P r o ­

fe s s o r John F la n a g a n a p p e a re d in M e ric an L ite ra tu re in 1939 a n d 1941*

The f i r s t * an e l e v e n page d i s c u s s i o n e n t i t l e d

" J o s e p h Kirkland* Pioneex* R e a l i s t *

I s a seriou s attempt

t o i n t r o d u c e K i r k l a n d to t h e p r e s e n t generation o f s t u d e n t s

and s c h o l a r s •

P ro fesso r F l a n a g a n begins with a b r i e f a c c o u n t

o f t h e f i r s t m e e t i n g o f K i r k l a n d and Garland i n Chicago i n 1887 — as much t o i d e n t i f y Kirkland a s t o show h i s i n f l u e n c e

on t h e y o u n g e r w riter*

The remainder of the a r t i c l e

d iv id e d i n to th r e e p a r t s ;

is

’’B i o g r a p h y / * ’‘L ite ra ry W ork/* and

" C ritic ism * w

In t h e " B io g ra p h y * P rofessor F l a n a g a n b r i e f l y t r a c e s K i r k l a n d *s boyhood i n M ic h ig a n * p o in tin g o u t the influence -which h i s mother had upon him d u r i n g t h i s seven y e a r p e r i o d *

and a l s o the f a c t th a t i t was during t h i s time th a t he f i r s t became i n t e r e s t e d

in t h e W e s te r n f a r m e r as a type d i s t i n c t

fro m o t h e r c u ltu r a l g r o u p s *

The y e a r of the fa m ily * s r e t u r n

t o Hew York i s c o r re c tly given as 1812; however* P rofessor F l a n a g a n m akes no a t t e m p t t o determine Joseph’ s a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h e d e c a d e f o l l o w i n g h is f a t h e r ’ s death in 1846 e x ­ c e p t t o s t a t e t h a t i n 1852 he w as working fo r P u b l i s h i n g Company*80 19 27 3-284. 20

PitnauKs

For b i s a c c o u n t o f K irkland ■s C i v i l

F la n ag a n , "Josep h K irk la n d , P io n e e r H e a l i s t , pp.

F o r a c o m p le te d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e d a t e o f K i r k l a n d 1s em ploym ent a t P u tn a m 1&, s e e C h a p te r I I * p* 51 o f t h i s t h e s i s *

130

War s e r v i c e , t h e d a t e o f h i s m a r r i a g e , and h i e s u b s e q u e n t f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , t h e a u t h o r accents w i t h o u t question K i r k l a n d #s s t a t e m e n t s i n h i s a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h in The S t o r y o f C h i c a g o : c o n s e q u e n t l y , much t h a t he g i v e s i n t h i s p o r t i o n , o f th e b io g ra p h y i s erro n eo u s*

Since I have already

d i s c u s s e d t h e s e e v e n t s i n d e t a i l i n C h a p t e r s I 'l l , I T , and Y o f t h i s t h e s i s , I n e ed o n l y i n d i c a t e P ro fessor F l a n a g a n 1s

erro rs•

In t h e summer of 1861, K i r k l a n d w as tr a in in g in

C a i r o , I l l i n o i s , r a t h e r t h a n f i g h t i n g i n West V i r g i n i a w i t h G e n e r a l M cClellan ; he w as married December 39, 1863, r a th e r t h a n i n 1863; he went bankrupt February 7, 1877 r a t h e r t h a n i n 1874, and t h e b a n k r u p t c y w as b r o u g h t on b y b u s i n e s s f a i l u r e i n C e n t r a l I l l i n o i s , n o t by t h e C h ic a g o f i r e

in 1871;

f i n a l l y , he was employed by t h e I n te r n a l Revenue department f o r o n l y t h r e e m o n th s I n 1876 r a th e r t h a n fo r fiv e years,

1875**1880* a rtic le

The r e m a i n d e r o f t h e b i o g r a p h i c a l sec tio n o f t h e

contains a b r i e f sketch of K i r k l a n d ' s l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y

d u r i n g t h e l a s t seven y e a r s of h i s l i f e * The second sec tio n of the a r t i c l e , nl i t e r a r y Works i s notable f o r two reasons? f i r s t , i t contains the most e x ­ t e n s i v e b i b l i o g r a p h y o f K i r k l a n d *n w o rk s yet published ; a n d

secondly, i t p erp etu ates the erroneous b e l ie f th a t copies o f the P r a i r i e C h ic k e n no longer e x i s t and t h a t , to quote

P ro fesso r Flanagan, The b e s t t h i n g a b o u t the [P ra ir ie Chicken! was the explanation of the t i t l e ; ,fp r a i r i e * because I t was published on an I l l i n o i s p r a i r i e , and t?chicken” because i t s U f a was lim ited w ono

131

year^and no on© would want a paper th a t had become a p r a ir ie hen* Concerning t h e n o v e ls * Flanagan s t a t e s t h a t Z ury "was not an i n s t a n t a n e o u s s u c c e s s * i t s s a le s never being s u f f i c i e n t t o w arrant a second e d i t i o n , b u t i t did a t t r a c t t h e a t t e n t i o n of sev e ral c r i t i c s , among them Hamlin Garland and W i l l i a m Dean H o w e l l s , w

A c tu a lly , a second e d i t i o n o f

2SSE was published not l a t e r than March, 1888*^

R e ly in g

f o r h i s inform ation upon a n incomplete t h e s i s by Miss Wini~ «>*2 f r e d W ilso n , t h e author i d e n t i f i e s Usual Meeker of Fountain C o u n ty , Indiana, as t h e prototype o f Z u r y , po in tin g out th a t b o t h were unusually fru g a l and both unusually wealthy*

He

a l s o comments upon t h e curious re la tio n s h ip of the m a terial ^he MoYeyg t o t h a t i n Z u r y » c a llin g a tte n tio n to the f a c t t h a t "the s e q u e l .

^The McVeys] covered Boras o f the same ground

a l r e a d y tra v e rs e d in the e a r l i e r n o v e l , ” P r o f e s s o r Flanagan id e n tif ie d one of t h e autobiographical e l e m e n t s o f The Captain of Company K — t h e transform ation of t h e c i t i z e n - s o l d l e r in to a b a t t l e - h a r d e n e d v eteran — and ^ Am erican. L i t e r a t u r e , XI ( 1 9 3 9 ) , 2 7 8 , A lth o u g h he d o e s not give the source of h is i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the P r a i r i e Chicken, P r o f e s s o r F l a n a g a n took the above quotation almost v e r b a t i m from an a r t i c l e by Miss Cordelia Kirkland ca lled 11A C iv il War Record," published in The P a c ific Uni­ t a r i a n of unknown d a t e ; Kirkland Papers*

ZB

L e tte rs Joseph K i r k l a n d to Hamlin Garland, dated March £6, 1688, "Garland C o l l e c t i o n * ” "They [Houghton, M ifflin Company] say the p, and lo ss a o o 't * s t i l l shows a debt of sev e ral h u n d r e d d o l l a r s * (This may include the co st of a second e d itio n J u s t printed*) £3

T h is t h e s i s i s now in Kirkland Pagers*

XS2S

p o i n t s o u t t h a t 3 a l t h o u g h th e s t o r y i s a s e n t i m e n t a l a m t o l d i n a r a t h e r c r u d e and sp a s m o d ic w ay, t h e u n h e r o i c p ic tu re o f w ar i s r e a l i s t i c a l l y done, The " C r i t i c i s m ’* s e c tio n of t h i s a r t i c l e i s , t o m e, t h e most v a l u a b l e of the t h r e e *

i t seems

U n fo rtu n a te ly , P ro­

f e s s o r F l a n a g a n d i d not t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t other s i m i l a r works i n h i s c r i t i c i s m o f K i r k l a n d ?o novels; th e r e f o r e , he was un ­ a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e K ir k la n d * a r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n among .American ' w r i t e r s of t h e l a s t q u a rte r o f the nineteenth c e n t u r y .

He

d o e s , h o w e v e r , p o i n t o u t s p e c if ic a l ly w h e r e i n Kirkland was w eak and w h e r e i n s t r o n g a s a w r i t e r . nesses:

He l i s t s f o u r w eak­

(1 ) The e x p o sitio n and n a rra tiv e are o c c a s i o n a l l y

h e s i t a n t and w e ak . a c t e r and t o n e ,

{2) There are i n a r t i s t i c s h i f t s of c h a r ­

"In Zuryh f o r example, the harsh f r o n t i e r

r e a l i s m o f t h e e a r l y c h a p t e r s g i v e s way t o t h e s e n t i m e n t a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f &ury and Anne S p a rro w McVey, and the ’ s o f t spot® i n t h e p r o t a g o n i s t i s h a r d l y a d e q u a te t o e x p l a i n h i s ch an g e to w a rd t h e woman whom he a f t e r w a r d m a r r i e d . "3^ (3) T h e re

is a t e n d e n c y to m o r a l i s e and to introduce love

s c e n e s w h ic h are s t i l t e d , and s e n t i m e n t a l i z e d .

(4 ) The e x ­

c e s s i v e u s e o f p u n s i s out o f harm ony w i t h the c o n t e x t . B ut t h e r e w ere two t h i n g s w h ic h K i r k l a n d c o u ld do r e m a r k a b l y w e l l , a c c o r d i n g to t h i s a r t i c l e .

(1) He knew

how to draw c h a r a c t e r ; Z u ry i s n e v e r c a r i c a t u r e d and Anne and t h e o t h e r s a r e a l l r e a l i s t i c a l l y d o n e . ^ F la n a g a n ,

(2 ) lie c a u g h t

" J o s e p h K i r k l a n d , “J p . 2 8 2 ,

133

to p e r f e c tio n the nuances and tones of o rdin ary speech, W

...S

P r o f e s s o r Flanagan sees no connection in the novels O t h e r than th a t re la te d m a te ria l i s given sim ila r treatm ent

in the th re e s t o r i e s .

He concludes9 /

Kirkland l e f t no sin gle m a s t e r p i e c e . . .but h is work as a whole assumes the importance of a landm ark,..* As one of the pioneer A m e ric a n r e a l i s t s , K irkland?s p o s itio n i s unquestionably secure, Almost the e a r l i e s t Chicagoman of l e t t e r s , he was one of t h e f i r s t t o choose the farming c o m m u n itie s of t h e Middle West as f i c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l , and h is p ic tu re s o f I l l i n o i s r u r a l l i f e a n tic ip a te a l l th e Gopher P r a i r i e e , Winesburgs, and Spoon E l v e r s ,.* [of th e] BOth century r e v o lt from the v i l l a g e F l a n a g a n * a second a r t i c l e , 11A Note on Joseph Kirk-*

l a n d ,” 26 'was w r i t t e n in answer to a l e t t e r from P rofessor John 0 , Mabbott, one of the authors of the a r t i c l e , "The P r a i r i e Chicken,rt discussed above.

P ro fesso r Flanagan

acknowledges h is e r r o r in s ta tin g t h a t the b est thing about t h e P r a i r i e Chicken was the t i t l e ,

c i t i n g evidence from the

Mabbott-Jordan a r t i c l e th a t the paper contained some e a rly w r i t i n g by Kirkland him self.

U nfo rtunately, he s t i l l did

not a c tu a lly examine the P r a i r i e Chicken; t h e r e f o r e , h is second a r t i c l e contains l i t t l e t h a t had not already been tr e a te d by Mabbott and Jordan* The most re c e n t a r t i c l e on Kirkland, "A Note on the Text of Joseph Kirkland.1o Zurv." was w ritte n by Kenneth J . F l a n a g a n , "Joseph Kirkland

9

pp. 2Q3-B84*

F l a n a g a n , "A Note on Joseph K irkland,” .American L i t e r a t u r e , XII a 107-108.

184

T

-u®.

'• g? fiudcli.

P ro fesso r LaBud&e i s p rim arily core erne cl here

w ith whether or not Kirkland i s a c tu a lly wa pi one ©r r e a l i s t , rt as Flanagan has ca lled him#

Basing h is o b serratio n s upon

s l i g h t changes which Kirkland mad© in the te x t of £ury be­ tween the f i r s t and second e d i t io n s , he argues convincingly t h a t Kirkland was a c tu a lly a t r a n s i t i o n a l f ig u r e , combining both sentimcnxtalism and realism in h is novels. Miscellaneous W ritings about Kirkland The e a r l i e s t work in the second category of Kirkland c r itic is m i s the anonymous, unpublished biographical sketch which was w r itte n by one of h is daughters sh o rtly a f t e r h is d e a th ,2*® Based upon Kirkland *s own b r i e f account of his l i f e , which he wrote fo r his daughter Caroline 9wS? tid e sketch men­ tio n s h is boyhood in Michigan, h is service in the Union Army during the C iv il War, and h is subsequent business ventures, I t gives a d e ta ile d account of the l i f e of the Kirkland family from about 1875 to 1885 and concludes with a t r ib u te to- Kirk­ land 9 s l i t e r a r y a b i l i t y ,

There i s no attempt to evaluate

or even to c r i t i c i z e his works® The sketch i s notable f o r two reasons.

F irst, i t

'^Kennatk J . LaBudde, -A Mote on the Text of J o s e p h Kiri lan d ’ s Kiiry,* Amerlcan L it© ratu re» XX (January,, 1949), 4584*jO ,

88This sketch i s now in Kirkland Papers, pg

The

For

Story of

details

Chicago,

of t h i s

writing, se e IX, 417,

_

Joseph K irkland9

135

gives an intim ate p ic tu re of Kirkland as a man adored by h is fam ily and respected by h is f r i e n d s , a p ic tu re which could not o t h e r w i s e be obtained .

Secondly, as the b asis f o r sub-

s e q u e n t a r t i c l e s on K irklan d, i t h a s been responsible f o r

innumerable e r r o r s in biography and criticism * The next work, chro nolo gically, in t h i s second c a te ­ gory of Kirkland c r itic is m i s an uncompleted th e s is w r itte n by Miss Winifred Wilson, a graduate student a t Northwestern U niversity*

30

Given, access by Mrs* Louisa Kirkland Sanborn

to the m a te ria ls now contained in Kirkland Pape rs of the Newberry L ibrary, Miss Wilson, was the f i r s t person to attempt a c r i t i c a l biography of .Kirkland*

The th e s is i s divided into

two p a rte s P a rt I , Biography, i s approximately seventy-five typewritten pages; P a rt I I , C ritic ism , is f i f t e e n pages.

In

her b i o g r a p h y , Miss Wilson gives a detailed, account of Kirk­ la n d ’ s h eritag e from w ell educated, prominent a n c e sto rs, t r a c ­ ing both h is p a te rn a l and maternal l i n e s .

She dwells a t some

len g th upon K irkland’ s boyhood in Michigan, and suggests the influence which h is mother had upon him a t t h a t tim e« I t was Miss Wilson who discovered the l e t t e r from Kirkland to h is

daughter i n which he s ta te d th a t he was working fo r Putnam* s P ublishing Company in 1853 when Longfellow’ s t#Two Angels9’ was receiv ed .

M iss Wilson did not a s c e rta in t h e c o rre c t

d a te , 1853, and her e r r o r has been repeated by subsequent 30

^Winifred Wilson, uncompleted th e s is ( c* 1950}, now in Kirkland Paper s . ■'*" '

w

136

sc h o la rs*

F o r t h e r e m a i n d e r of h e r b i o g r a p h y , t h o s e p a g e s

d e a l i n g w i t h K i r k l a n d ’ s C i v i l War s e r v i c e , h i s b u s i n e s s and l i t e r a r y c a r e e r s , M iss W ilso n drew h e a v i l y upon the un ­ p u b l i s h e d b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h d i s c u s s e d a b o v e ; in f a c t , much o f t h e m a t e r i a l i s q u o t e d v e r b a t i m fro m t h i s earlier a c c o u n t* H er m o s t significant c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o Kirkland b i o g r a p h y a r e t o be fo u n d in h e r d e t a i l e d t r e a t m e n t o f K i r k l a n d *s s e v e n y e a r r e s i d e n c e in Michigan, and i n h e r d i s c o v e r y o f t h e fact t h a t he w o rk ed a t ? u tn a o i? s in the e a r l y 1850? s — the o n l y c e r t a i n f a c t in t h e d e c a d e fro m 1846-56* Miss Wilson’s c r i t i c i s m f a l l s roughly into two p a r t s K a l t h o u g h sh e d o e s not make t h e d i v i s i o n *

In t h e f i r s t , sh e

i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e b a c k g ro u n d o f t h e n o v e l s , quoting two c h i l d h o o d l e t t e r s b y K i r k l a n d t o show h i s e a r l y i n t e r e s t i n backw oods idiom *

A f t e r a b r i e f resume of the plots o f t h e

t h r e e n o v e l s , -she points out t h a t they f o m a s o r t of t r i l o g y ; u n f o r t u n a t e X y , h o w e v e r, K i r k l a n d ’ s o v e r a l l purpose i n w r i t i n g t h e n o v e l s , t h e element t h a t c o n n e c t s th e m , e s ­ caped h e r , and s h e d ro p p e d t h e matter at t h a t p o i n t *

The

r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s f i r s t p a r t of the c r i t i c i s m is devoted t o a n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of 7 u r y Prouder with TJsual Meeker, one­ tim e r e s i d e n t of Danville, Illinois?, who later move a to Fountain C o u n ty , Indiana. I n t h e second half of here critic is.;-..,, M iss Vvilson s u m m a ris e s f o u r re v ie w s o f K i r k l a n d n o v e l s ,

th e n q u o tes

at some l e n g t h M is s D„ A.« Dondore *a opinion of Kirkland

137

a s e x p r e s s e d i n The P r a i r i e and t h e Making of Middle. A m erica*

31

T u r n i n g to t h e w o rk s t h e m s e l v e s , she gives a b i b l i o g r a p h y i n c l u d i n g i n addition to the t h r e e n o v a Is and t h r e e h i s t o r i e s , six items p u b l i s h e d i n as many d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d i c a l s *

The

remaining pages o f the c r i t i c i s m are i r r e l e v a n t to K i r k l a n d s c h o l a r s h i p s i n c e t h e y a r e t a k e n up with, s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e n o v e l s w h ic h won s e c o n d and t h i r d p r i s e s in t h e D e t r o i t Fra© P r e s s c o n t e s t in which K i r k l a n d ?s Cap t a i n of Company K won firsto A l t h o u g h much o f M is s W il s o n ’ a c r i t i c i s m i s i r r e l e v a n t , o r c o n s i s t s o f imevaluated quotations, i t should 1)8 remembered t h a t h e r biography and h e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f U s u a l M eeker a s t h e p r o t o t y p e o f Z u ry ware, s u b s e q u e n t l y u t i l i s e d b y P r o f e s s o r F la n a g a n *

It s h o u l d a l s o be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t she was aware

o f t h e fact t h a t there w as a n o v e r a l l plan to the n o v e l s , e v e n t h o u g h sh e d id not u n d e r s t a n d what t h e p l a n w a s » The latest o f the m i s c e l l a n e o u s writings t o d e a l with K i r k l a n d was by D o r o th y B ondore f o r t h e D i c t i o n a r y of A m e rican Biography* J Calling attention to the facte that Kirk­ land was the son of Caroline Matilda Kirkland, one of t h e most fam o u s f e m a le writers of the d e c a d e 1840-IB5 0 and t h a t it was fro m h e r that he i n h e r i t e d t h e tendency to treat M s s u b j e c t - m a t t e r r e a l i s t i c a l l y , Miss Dondore sketches his lif® ^ D o r o t h y A, B o n d o ra , The, P r a i r i e and t h e Majcijin o f MiddOe A m erica {C edar Han i d s , 198577 PP . 3 8 5 , 5 3 S , 4 i d , 38 D o n d o r e , " K i r k l a n d , .Tooenh,?? D icti^no.ry- of A m erican Bi o g r a p h y , X, 432*

138

b r i e f l y , u s i n g t h e anonym ous, u n p u b l i s h e d b i o g r a p h y as her so u rce«

P r o c e e d i n g to a d i s c u s s i o n , of t h e boys I s 9 sh e

c o n d e n s e s t h e r e m a r k s made p r e v i o u s l y on t h e same s u b j e c t in h e r h i s t o r y o f m id d lc - w e s t e m l i t e r a t u r e , The P r a i r i e and 'VW OM BMlM

S3& M l M p B £■£ Middle America, original treatment

o

f

Since I shall discuss this

the material in the following section,

X need only say here that Hiss Dondore doer. append a short bibli ography* Brief Mention of Kirkland i n Representative Literary H i s t o r i e s The first literary historian to rediscover J o s e p h Kirkland was Dorothy D o n d o re ,

In The Prairie and the Making

of Middle America she points out t h a t , a l t h o u g h K i r k l a n d *s w o rk is marred by t e c h n i c a l c r u d i t i e s * it does ^bridge the a p p a r e n t l y incongruous g a p between t h e glowing s u p e r l a t i v e s of the days of exploration and the pitiless r e a l i s m of the days o f s e ttle m e n t of H a m lin G a r l a n d ,

even more completely than does that Yet she believes t h a t K i r k l a n d * a raost

s i g n i f i c a n t contribution t o l i t e r a t u r e

came i n d i r e c t l y

through his i n f l u e n c e upon Hamlin. Garland,

To 'Hiss Dondore

g o e s t h e credit of f i r s t p o i n t i n g out a recent adaptation o f Z

u

r y »

Com paring plot, c h a r a c t e r s and situation in the n o v e l

Dust (Hew Y o rk , 1921) by Mr, and Mrs, Haldenan-Juliiis w i t h ^Do ndore, The Prairie and the IMilry A m ericas p « 325, “

WWArf'Wt’-"*

I b i d . > p . 326

h

o

f

Midj^le

139

t h a t i n Z u r y , M iss D ondore p r o v e s c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t t h e H a l d e m a n - J u l i u s n o v e l i s a d i r e c t e c h o o f t h e e a r l i e r w ork by K i r k l a n d * V e rn o n L* F a r r i n g t o n a l s o saw i n K i r k l a n d t h e l o g i c a l b r i d g e b e tw e e n t h e o p tim is m o f t h e d a y s o f e x p l o r a t i o n and t h e p e s s i m is m o f t h e s u b s e q u e n t p e r i o d o f s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e West*

Where E g g l e s t o n was c o n c e rn e d w i t h t h e s l a c k n e s s and

d r a b p o v e r t y o f t h e f r o n t i e r and Howe w i t h t h e f r u s t r a t i o n o f t h e s m a ll f r o n t i e r v i l l a g e , K ir k la n d , a c c o rd in g to P a r r i n g t o n i n h i s Main C u r r e n t s i n A m erican T h o u g h t * was co n cern ed w ith th e h a rs h s tr u g g le f o r s u b s is te n c e *

"B u t i t

i s i n J o s e p h K i r k l a n d ’ s Zury* The M e a n e st Man i n S p r i n g C ounty gwifcHia r

n^ji ne. nr1>

in fram rhft*

nu n f f iff—w ——w*wrtw

n

m i nmiM *

(1 8 8 7 ) s t h a t a d e e p s e n s e o f t h e m e a n n e ss o f f r o n t i e r l i f e i s f i r s t a d e q u a te ly f e l t , "

^

Ha c o n c l u d e s t h a t , a l t h o u g h Z u ry

i s n o t a g r e a t nova1, " I t i s secu re o f a p lac e in th e h i s t o r y 36 o f o u r A m e ric an f i c t i o n * " L o u is Wann, i n The R is e o f R e a l i s m * i s c o n c e r n e d more w ith an a u t h o r ’ s tr e a tm e n t o f h i s s u b j e c t th a n w ith th e sub­ je c t m a tte r its e lf *

Wann* s p a r t i c u l a r b i a s i s t h a t he s e e s

a l l r e a l i s t i c w ritin g as e it h e r c o n trib u tin g t o s or h in d e r­ in g th e p ro g re s s to w a rd * th e n a tu ra lis m of th e l a t e and e a r l y 1 9 0 0 ’ s*

1 8 9 0 9s

I n h is o p in io n , K irk la n d ’s s ig n if ic a n c e

a s a n o v e l i s t l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t he w r o te i n " d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e s c h o o l o f rom ance and s e n t i m e n t " and 35 V ernon L« F a r r i n g t o n * Main Cur r e n t s i n A m e ric an T h o u g h t 9 I I I , 391*

fz& I b i d . , p. 890.

140

"w e n t beyond t h e more g e n t e e l r e a l i s m o f H o w e lls and Jam es i n h i s p o r t r a y a l o f t h e l e s s l o v e l y a s p e c t o f A m e ric an lif© * " * ^

To Howe and K i r k l a n d , he s a y s , g o e s " t h e c r e d i t

o f p o i n t i n g t h e way t o t h e new r e a l i s m o f Main T r a v e l l e d R o ad s and t h e l a t e r S i s t e r C a r r i e »

Hi s c o n c l u s i o n i s :

" B o th Howe and K i r k l a n d seem d e s t i n e d f o r a more h o n o r a b l e p l a c e among r e c o g n i s e d c o n t r i b u t o r s t o A m erican r e a l i s m t h a n t h e y have h i t h e r t o e n j o y e d * * A r t h u r Hobson Q uinn i n h i s a n a l y s i s o f A m erican f i c ­ t i o n a s s ig n s to K irk la n d a p la c e i n m id d ie -w e s te rn l i t e r a t u r e e q u a l t o t h a t h e ld b y H a r o ld F r e d e r i c i n t h e E a s t . t h a t K i r k l a n d 9s r e a l i s t i c

He f e e l s

s t o r i e s of th e p io n ee rs in I l l i n o i s ,

d e s p i t e o c c a s i o n a l l a p s e s i n t o s e n t i m e n t a l and c o n v e n t i o n a l s c e n e s , f o rm a n i m p o r t a n t l i n k i n t h e l e n g t h e n i n g c h a i n o f re a lis m .

He g i v e s a b r i e f summary o f t h e s t o r i e s o f t h e

t h r e e n o v e l s t o show t h a t e a c h was a u n iq u e t r e a t m e n t o f i t s 40 p a rtic u la r su b je ct m a tte r. The m o st r e c e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f K i r k l a n d 1s work i s t o be fo u n d i n t h e L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Howe and K i r k l a n d a r e a g a i n c r e d i t e d , t h i s tim e by Henry Hash S m i t h , w i t h h a v i n g " c o n t r i b u t e d much t o t h e c o n s c i o u s l y ° ^ L o u i s Wann, The R is e o f R e a lis m (Hew Y o rk , 1935) 3I I , l b . 56 I b i d , Xbid* ^ A r t h u r Hobson Q u in n , A m erican F i c t i o n (New York and L o n d o n , 1 9 5 6 ) , p p . 4 5 3 -4 5 4 •

i f m i l d l y r o m a n t i c «r e a l i s m * o f t h e 1 8 6 0 f s * ^

The i m p l i c a ­

t i o n i s , h o w e v e r, t h a t K i r k l a n d *s r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e l a y i n t h e f a c t t h a t he had a p ro fo u n d i n f l u e n c e on H am lin G a r l a n d . I t i s a l s o p o i n t e d o u t t h a t "no a d e q u a te s t u d y o f K i r k l a n d has y e t been p u b lis h e d . From t h e f o r e g o i n g s u r v e y o f c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n , c e r t a i n f a c t s become c l e a r .

F i r s t , th e c r i t i c s g e n e r a l l y ag re e t h a t

t h e r e h a s b e e n , t o d a t e , no a d e q u a te s t u d y o f K i r k l a n d , S e c o n d l y , t h e y a r e i n g e n e r a l a c c o r d t h a t h i s w ork h a s , i n t h e p a s t , b e e n n e g l e c t e d , b u t t h a t h i s p o s i t i o n i n A m erican lite r a tu r e i s secu re.

Hone o f t h e c r i t i c s , h o w e v e r, m akes

c le a r j u s t what t h a t p o s itio n i s .

F i n a l l y , th e y ag ree t h a t

K i r k l a n d 9s w ork b e l o n g s i n t h a t b r o a d , u n d e f i n e d c a t e g o r y o f w r i t i n g known a s " r e a l i s i a " ; b u t when t h e y a t t e m p t t o g i v e h i s p a r t i c u l a r b r a n d o f r e a l i s m a name, t h e y c a n r e a c h no a g r e e ­ m ent# I t seem s t o me t h a t t h i s m a t t e r o f t e r m i n o l o g y h a s become u n d u ly c o n f u s i n g .

In d e e d , th e v e ry f a c t t h a t K irk ­

l a n d 9s work d i d n o t f i t n i c e l y i n t o a n y one c a t e g o r y , such a s " g e n t e e l r e a l i s m " a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e name o f W illia m Dean H o w e l l s , may, I n p a r t a t l e a s t , e x p l a i n why the e a rly c r i t i c s n e g le c te d it#

S i n c e i t d i d n o t a c c o r d w i t h the p a t t e r n t h e y

4 1 l i t e r a r y H i s t o r y o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , ■’h i t e d by S p i l l e r , T h o r p e , J o H n so n J C a n ty (Mew Y o rk , 1 9 4 8 ) , I I , 7 9 4 . 42I b i a . , p. 1018.

148

sim p ly ig n o re d i t .

At a n y r a t e * t h e m o dern s t u d e n t c a n n o t

h e l p b e i n g p e r p l e x e d when he f i n d s t h a t P r o f e s s o r F l a n a g a n c a l l s K i r k l a n d one o f t h e ^ p i o n e e r r e a l i s t s , w w h i l e K e n n e th 1 , LaBudde s a y s t h a t lie i s i n r e a l i t y ”a t r a n s i t i o n a l f i g u r e ” b e tw e e n t h e s e n t i m e n t a l i s t s and t h e r e a l i s t s .

Yet

L o u i s ^ Wami s e e s K i r k l a n d a s a t r a n s i t i o n a l f i g u r e b e tw e e n t h e r e a l i s t s and t h e n a t u r a l i s t s and s t a t e s c a t e g o r i c a l l y t h a t h© w r o te 51i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e s c h o o l o f rom ance and s e n t i m e n t , ”

On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e e d i t o r s o f The L i t e r ­

a r y H is to r y o f th e U n ited S t a te s a f f ir m j u s t a s c a t e g o r i c a l l y

* 1m il d f a l

•■

n >MWtMill»

...........

W W W M l ini Ml II ihBllg)

■■wi i t f , . i I IW.HI*»»MI