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COMPATIBILITY OF BLUETOOTH WITH OTHER EXISTING AND
PROPOSED RADIOCOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS IN THE 2.45 GHZ FREQUENCY BAND
October 2001
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This report presents the study of compatibility between Bluetooth and other existing and proposed services operating in the 2.45 GHz frequency band.
I. Assumptions (BT/RFID, RLAN, ENG/OB)
The characteristics of the different systems considered can be found in sections 3 and 4.
II. Methods (Deterministic, Probabilistic, other)
Four methods for interference analysis had been used in this report:
deterministic method;
probabilistic method;
simulation tool;
SEAMCAT, see ERC Report 68 (modified 2001).
A description of each method is provided in section 5.
In addition to analytical analysis, some laboratory measurements were performed.
III. Results
Deterministic method
Deterministic calculations show that the impact of the 4W RFID with a duty cycle of greater than 15% in any 200 ms period time on the Bluetooth performance is critical. In particular, transmitteron times exceeding 200 ms will have serious impact. Further studies of the impact of higher application layers are needed.
Blocking has been shown to be the most limiting factor with a separation distance of approximately 10 m or less. This mechanism has a significant impact on the Bluetooth performance in terms of nonacceptable reduction in capacity at high dutycycles.
Further, the study shows that additional mitigation techniques are required for RFID, such as directional antennas, antennadome (to avoid Bluetooth receiver burnout), etc.
Further studies may be required in order to investigate the relationship between Bluetooth levels above the blocking level and acceptable RFID e.i.r.p. and duty cycles.
Probabilistic method (applied to cochannel interference only)
The interference criteria used was I/N=0 dB for all services except for fixed links where the long term criteria was I/N= 10 dB for 20% of the time. The conclusions are that:
the probability of interference to Bluetooth from existing and planned services, being of the same order of magnitude (plus or minus 1 decade), depends on the unit density;
the probability of interference from Bluetooth 1 mW to Fixed Wireless Access is severe for a density of 100 units per km2 and 10 units per km2 for Bluetooth 100 mW;
both 1 mW and 100 mW Bluetooth systems will cause harmful interference to ENG/OB or fixed links when operating in close vicinity.
Simulation tool
Simulations for hotspot areas show significant reduction in throughput for Bluetooth in the case of sufficient high duty cycles or omnidirectional antennas, or a large number of RFIDs (>32). For these cases the Bluetooth operating range is limited to a couple of metres in order to maintain acceptable throughput.
For RFID hot spot areas with 8 units in a 35 m radius from the Bluetooth victim, Bluetooth throughput reduces by 15% for a Bluetooth link over distance of up to 1 m. At larger Bluetooth link distances and higher unit densities the throughput is reduced further.
Different RFID densities have been considered. Without the RFID mitigation factor of the antenna beamwidth, the Bluetooth throughput reduction will be severe for high density of RFID devices in combination with high dutycycles: an RFID reader using a directional antenna mitigates the influence of interference taking into account the protection of existing services.
The simulation shows that reduction of the duty cycle will reduce the impact on the throughput during interference. Intermodulation has a minor contribution to the interference.
SEAMCAT
The MonteCarlo based SEAMCAT software was used to investigate the interference scenarios and to make comparisons with the results obtained from using the deterministic method.
Due to a number of differences between the two methodologies, a direct comparison could not be made. Nevertheless, assumptions and comparisons were made as described in paragraph 6.4 for half of the interference scenarios. The probability of interference to Bluetooth as a function of the density of the interferer is of the same magnitude for RLAN, RFID3a and 3b, which is about 2 times higher than for 100 mW Bluetooth to Bluetooth.
The probability of interference from 100 mW Bluetooth to RLAN, ENG/OB and fixed links is at least 2 times lower than the interference from RLAN, RFID3a and 3b with the same unit density.
Measurements
It should be noted that the measurement results described in the report are based on a single interferer and a specific Bluetooth equipment, evaluating the tolerable C/I for 10% throughput degradation. However, the absolute power levels of the various systems are significantly different in the C/I evaluation. For the determination of the isolation distances both the C/I and the power level should be considered.
The results show that the tested Bluetooth sample had excellent immunity against narrow band interference, such as FHSS RLAN, Bluetooth, RFID and CW signals.
On the other hand the Bluetooth sample has been found susceptible to wide band interferers, i.e. ENG/OB links (digital & analogue) and DSSS RLAN. This may be due to the higher bandwidth and duty cycle. ENG/OB systems are unlikely to be a major determinant on the long term performance or availability of indoor Bluetooth systems. A more substantive threat to Bluetooth systems is from colocated DSSS RLANs. This threat is likely to be a more common scenario.
The protection ratio required by Bluetooth against interference from 8MHz RFID at all duty cycles is better or comparable to that of a colocated Bluetooth system (60% duty cycle). When the duty cycle of the simulated 8MHz RFID was changed from 10 to 100 %, the protection requirement of Bluetooth increased.
The following duty cycles for 4W RFID (8 MHz) were used in both the interference testing and the calculations in the present report:
15 % duty cycle (30 ms on/ 170 ms off);
50 % duty cycle (100 ms on /100 ms off);
100 % duty cycle.
Any alteration of these parameters could result in significant change to the interference potential to Bluetooth.
It should be noted that due to the limited number of equipment used for the measurements, the results are only indicative.
Summary of conclusions relative to compatibility between Bluetooth and 4W RFID (8 MHz) systems
The study shows that the impact of the 4W RFID (8 MHz) with a duty cycle greater than 15% in any 200 ms period (30 ms on/170 ms off) on the Bluetooth performance is critical.
Further, the study shows that additional mitigation techniques are required from RFID, such as directional antennas, antennadome (to avoid Bluetooth receiver burnout) and other appropriate mechanisms in order to ensure that the necessary indoor operation restrictions are met.
INDEX TABLE
TOC \o "15" 1 INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc532701897 \h 1
2 MARKET INFORMATION FOR BLUETOOTH PAGEREF _Toc532701898 \h 1
2.1 Recent market developments PAGEREF _Toc532701899 \h 1
2.2 Market application for Bluetooth (world wide) PAGEREF _Toc532701900 \h 1
2.3 Market penetration (world wide) PAGEREF _Toc532701901 \h 2
2.4 Forecast for unit density of Bluetooth PAGEREF _Toc532701902 \h 4
2.4.1 Unit forecast PAGEREF _Toc532701903 \h 5
2.5 Summary PAGEREF _Toc532701904 \h 6
3 TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION FOR BLUETOOTH (As taken from the Bluetooth Specification Version 1.0.B) PAGEREF _Toc532701905 \h 6
3.1 Frequency band and channel arrangement PAGEREF _Toc532701906 \h 6
3.2 Transmitter characteristics PAGEREF _Toc532701907 \h 6
3.3 Modulation characteristics PAGEREF _Toc532701908 \h 7
3.4 Spurious emissions PAGEREF _Toc532701909 \h 8
3.4.1 Inband spurious emissions PAGEREF _Toc532701910 \h 8
3.4.2 Outofband spurious emission PAGEREF _Toc532701911 \h 8
3.5 Radio frequency tolerance PAGEREF _Toc532701912 \h 8
3.6 Receiver characteristics PAGEREF _Toc532701913 \h 9
3.6.1 Actual sensitivity level PAGEREF _Toc532701914 \h 9
3.6.2 Interference performance PAGEREF _Toc532701915 \h 9
3.6.3 Outofband blocking PAGEREF _Toc532701916 \h 10
3.6.4 Intermodulation characteristics PAGEREF _Toc532701917 \h 10
3.6.5 Maximum usable level PAGEREF _Toc532701918 \h 10
3.6.6 Spurious emissions PAGEREF _Toc532701919 \h 10
3.6.7 Receiver Signal Strength Indicator (Optional) PAGEREF _Toc532701920 \h 11
3.6.8 Reference interfering signal definition PAGEREF _Toc532701921 \h 11
3.7 Bluetooth utilisation factor PAGEREF _Toc532701922 \h 11
3.7.1 Definition of Services relevant for the coexistence study PAGEREF _Toc532701923 \h 11
3.7.2 Definition of service mix and service models PAGEREF _Toc532701924 \h 12
3.7.3 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc532701925 \h 12
4 CHARACTERISTICS OF EXISTING AND PROPOSED SYSTEMS IN THE 2.45 GHz BAND PAGEREF _Toc532701926 \h 13
4.1 Electronic News Gathering/Outside Broadcast (ENG/OB) system characteristics PAGEREF _Toc532701927 \h 13
4.1.1 Typical ENG/OB applications PAGEREF _Toc532701928 \h 13
4.1.2 FM Receivers for ENG/OB PAGEREF _Toc532701929 \h 14
4.1.3 FM Transmitters for ENG/OB PAGEREF _Toc532701930 \h 14
4.1.4 Digital links PAGEREF _Toc532701931 \h 15
4.1.5 Frequency allocations PAGEREF _Toc532701932 \h 15
4.1.6 Criteria for interference to analogue and digital ENG/OB PAGEREF _Toc532701933 \h 15
4.2 Fixed Service system characteristics PAGEREF _Toc532701934 \h 16
4.2.1 The Fixed Service PAGEREF _Toc532701935 \h 16
4.2.2 Frequency allocations for Fixed Services. PAGEREF _Toc532701936 \h 16
4.2.3 Criteria for Interference to Fixed Services PAGEREF _Toc532701937 \h 16
4.3 RLAN characteristics PAGEREF _Toc532701938 \h 17
4.3.1 Interference to RLAN PAGEREF _Toc532701939 \h 17
4.3.2 RLAN Receiver characteristics PAGEREF _Toc532701940 \h 17
4.3.3 RLAN transmitter characteristics PAGEREF _Toc532701941 \h 17
4.3.4 Criteria for interference to RLAN PAGEREF _Toc532701942 \h 18
4.4 RFID characteristics PAGEREF _Toc532701943 \h 18
4.5 Typical SRD characteristics PAGEREF _Toc532701944 \h 19
4.6 Victim and Interferer characteristics PAGEREF _Toc532701945 \h 19
4.6.1 Summary victim receiver characteristics PAGEREF _Toc532701946 \h 19
4.6.2 Summary of interfering transmitter characteristics PAGEREF _Toc532701947 \h 20
5 SHARING WITH OTHER RADIO COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS PAGEREF _Toc532701948 \h 20
5.1 Deterministic method PAGEREF _Toc532701949 \h 21
5.1.1 General PAGEREF _Toc532701950 \h 21
5.1.2 Nominal received signal PAGEREF _Toc532701951 \h 21
5.1.3 Propagation model used for deterministic method PAGEREF _Toc532701952 \h 21
5.1.4 Minimum Coupling Loss and protection distance PAGEREF _Toc532701953 \h 22
5.1.4.1 Cochannel PAGEREF _Toc532701954 \h 22
5.1.4.2 Adjacent channel PAGEREF _Toc532701955 \h 22
5.1.4.3 Blocking PAGEREF _Toc532701956 \h 22
5.1.4.4 3rd order Intermodulation PAGEREF _Toc532701957 \h 23
5.1.4.4.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc532701958 \h 23
5.1.4.4.2 Interference mitigation PAGEREF _Toc532701959 \h 24
5.1.4.4.3 Hotspot unit densities PAGEREF _Toc532701960 \h 25
5.1.4.4.4 Probability of occurrence PAGEREF _Toc532701961 \h 26
5.1.5 Mechanisms of interference PAGEREF _Toc532701962 \h 28
5.1.6 Bluetooth receiver burnout PAGEREF _Toc532701963 \h 30
5.1.6.1 Simulations PAGEREF _Toc532701964 \h 30
5.1.6.2 Measurements PAGEREF _Toc532701965 \h 31
5.1.6.3 Conclusions PAGEREF _Toc532701966 \h 32
5.2 Probabilistic method PAGEREF _Toc532701967 \h 32
5.2.1 Minimum Coupling Loss PAGEREF _Toc532701968 \h 32
5.2.2 Propagation models PAGEREF _Toc532701969 \h 33
5.2.2.1 Indoor propagation PAGEREF _Toc532701970 \h 33
5.2.2.2 Indoor downwards directed antenna PAGEREF _Toc532701971 \h 33
5.2.2.3 Urban propagation PAGEREF _Toc532701972 \h 34
5.2.2.4 Rural propagation PAGEREF _Toc532701973 \h 34
5.2.2.4.1 Propagation within radio lineof sight PAGEREF _Toc532701974 \h 34
5.2.2.4.2 Propagation outside radio lineof sight PAGEREF _Toc532701975 \h 34
5.2.2.4.3 Interference Path Classifications and Propagation Model Requirements PAGEREF _Toc532701976 \h 35
5.2.2.4.4 Lineofsight PAGEREF _Toc532701977 \h 35
5.2.2.4.5 Clutter Loss PAGEREF _Toc532701978 \h 36
5.2.2.4.6 Diffraction Loss PAGEREF _Toc532701979 \h 36
5.2.2.4.7 Diffraction over the Smooth Earth PAGEREF _Toc532701980 \h 37
5.2.2.4.8 Path profile analysis PAGEREF _Toc532701981 \h 37
5.2.2.4.9 Total path loss determination for diffraction and clutter PAGEREF _Toc532701982 \h 38
5.2.3 Number of interfering units PAGEREF _Toc532701983 \h 38
5.2.4 Probability of antenna pattern, time, and frequency collision PAGEREF _Toc532701984 \h 39
5.2.4.1 Probability of alignment of antenna main beams PAGEREF _Toc532701985 \h 39
5.2.4.2 Added probability for antenna sidelobes PAGEREF _Toc532701986 \h 39
5.2.4.3 Probability for frequency overlap PAGEREF _Toc532701987 \h 39
5.2.4.3.1 Phenomena modeled by a universal PFREQ_COL formula PAGEREF _Toc532701988 \h 39
5.2.4.3.2 Definition of the frequency collision event PAGEREF _Toc532701989 \h 40
5.2.4.3.3 Universal formula for frequency collision, PFREQ_COL PAGEREF _Toc532701990 \h 41
5.2.4.4 Probability for time collision PAGEREF _Toc532701991 \h 42
5.2.5 Cumulative probability of interference PAGEREF _Toc532701992 \h 42
5.2.6 Calculations of interference probability PAGEREF _Toc532701993 \h 43
5.2.6.1 Interference criteria as applied in the calculations in Annex A PAGEREF _Toc532701994 \h 43
6 PRESENTATION OF CALCULATION RESULTS PAGEREF _Toc532701995 \h 44
6.1 Deterministic Method PAGEREF _Toc532701996 \h 44
6.1.1 Simulation results PAGEREF _Toc532701997 \h 44
6.1.2 Discussion PAGEREF _Toc532701998 \h 45
6.2 Probabilistic Method PAGEREF _Toc532701999 \h 46
6.3 Simulation results PAGEREF _Toc532702000 \h 47
6.3.1 General PAGEREF _Toc532702001 \h 47
6.3.2 Simulation PAGEREF _Toc532702002 \h 47
6.3.2.1 Model PAGEREF _Toc532702003 \h 47
6.3.2.2 RFID parameters PAGEREF _Toc532702004 \h 47
6.3.2.2.1 General PAGEREF _Toc532702005 \h 47
6.3.2.2.2 Antenna model PAGEREF _Toc532702006 \h 48
6.3.2.3 Bluetooth parameters PAGEREF _Toc532702007 \h 48
6.3.2.4 Propagation model PAGEREF _Toc532702008 \h 49
6.3.2.5 Hot spot scenario PAGEREF _Toc532702009 \h 49
6.3.2.5.1 Scenario 1 PAGEREF _Toc532702010 \h 49
6.3.2.5.2 Scenario 2 PAGEREF _Toc532702011 \h 50
6.3.2.5.3 Scenario 3 PAGEREF _Toc532702012 \h 50
6.3.3 Simulation Results PAGEREF _Toc532702013 \h 51
6.3.3.1 Scenario 1 PAGEREF _Toc532702014 \h 51
6.3.3.2 Scenario 2 PAGEREF _Toc532702015 \h 53
6.3.3.3 Scenario 3 PAGEREF _Toc532702016 \h 54
6.3.4 Conclusion of simulation PAGEREF _Toc532702017 \h 54
6.4 Comparison of MCL and SEAMCAT simulations PAGEREF _Toc532702018 \h 55
6.4.1 SEAMCAT Study PAGEREF _Toc532702019 \h 55
6.4.2 MCL STUDY PAGEREF _Toc532702020 \h 56
6.4.3 Comparing MCL results with SEAMCAT results PAGEREF _Toc532702021 \h 59
6.5 Results of measurements made by RA/UK PAGEREF _Toc532702022 \h 59
6.5.1 ENG/OB Links PAGEREF _Toc532702023 \h 61
6.5.1.1 Digital ENG/OB equipment PAGEREF _Toc532702024 \h 61
6.5.1.2 Analogue ENG/OB equipment PAGEREF _Toc532702025 \h 61
6.5.2 RFID system PAGEREF _Toc532702026 \h 62
6.5.3 Test Results for Bluetooth as victim receiver PAGEREF _Toc532702027 \h 62
6.5.4 Test results for Bluetooth as interferer PAGEREF _Toc532702028 \h 62
6.5.5 Summary of laboratory tests PAGEREF _Toc532702029 \h 64
6.5.5.1 ENG/OB PAGEREF _Toc532702030 \h 64
6.5.5.2 DSSS RLAN PAGEREF _Toc532702031 \h 64
6.5.5.3 FHSS RLAN/Bluetooth PAGEREF _Toc532702032 \h 64
6.5.5.4 RFID PAGEREF _Toc532702033 \h 64
7 CONCLUSIONS PAGEREF _Toc532702034 \h 65
Annex A. Excel spread sheet for probabilistic interference calculations for Bluetooth 67
A.1. Interference calculations for Bluetooth as Victim 67
A.2. Interference calculations for Bluetooth 1 mW as an Interferer 73
A.3. Interference calculations for Bluetooth 100 mW as an Interferer 78
Annex B. Excel spread sheet for Deterministic interference calculations for Bluetooth 83
Annex C. 84
C.1. Excel spread sheet for SEAMCAT and MCL interference calculations 84
C.2. Excel tables and graphs for SEAMCAT interference calculations with conventional C/I 93
C.3. Excel tables and graphs for SEAMCAT interference calculations with (N+I)/N = 3 dB 97
C.4. Excel tables and graphs for MCL interference calculations with (N+I)/N = 3 dB 101
C.5. Excel tables and graphs for comparison of MCL/SEAMCAT interference calculations 105
Annex D. Simulation model 108
INTRODUCTION
The spectrum needs of Short Range Devices (SRD) are most often allocated into an ISM band on a frequencysharing basis (noninterference, nonprotection basis) and the industry has the advantage of a general license type approval. Compatibility between all the services sharing a specific spectrum must be maintained to ensure frequency sharing under all reasonable conditions. To meet these constraints, SRD manufacturers are constantly investigating new techniques and technologies offering an improved functionality and sharing capability.
Spread spectrum Bluetooth and RLAN systems operating in the 2.4GHz band demonstrate a high degree of similarity in emissions and interference characteristics. The interference studies described in this report have included operation of spread spectrum Bluetooth both versions (Bluetooth1 mW and Bluetooth 100 mW e.i.r.p.) and RLAN, ENG/OB, and RFID systems.
NOTE: For the purpose of this report Bluetooth 1 mW will be referred as Bluetooth 1 and Bluetooth 100 mW will be referred as Bluetooth 2.
The Special Interest Group (SIG) of Bluetooth decided to develop the equipment based on the ETSI standard ETS 300 328 (RLAN). Both versions have nearly the same design. The difference between Bluetooth 1 and Bluetooth 2 is the mandatory requirement for power control for Bluetooth 2. The advantage of this requirement is the possibility to decrease the power level from the maximum to the needed level to realise the defined BER. The result of that is a reduced interference level caused by Bluetooth.
MARKET INFORMATION FOR BLUETOOTH
Market information from various sources have been compiled and included in the paragraphs which follow.
Recent market developments
Since mid 1999 the first Bluetooth equipment have been developed and it is planned to bring the equipment, latest mid 2001, onto the market. But the experiences with the Bluetooth devices are not sufficient enough to make a precise prognosis for the European market penetration.
Market application for Bluetooth (world wide)
There are numerous applications for the use of Bluetooth eg:
Mobile phones
Home cordless telephone
Walkie Talkie and so on
Home automation
Industry automation
Ecommerce
LAN and Internet access
A wireless substitution for all the cable connections between PCs an their periferal devices
Headsets for an handy (outside a car)
Headsets as an hands free (inside a car)
Market penetration (world wide)
The figures below are copied from a study of Intex Management Services Ltd. (IMS) by kind permission of IMS. The forecast is given in subsections 2.3.1, 2.3.2, 2.3.3, 2.3.4 and 2.3.5 below:
Figure 2.3.1: Forecast for Bluetooth penetration In Cellular Terminals
0 dBm: 50% low end; headset, vicinity accessories
20 dBm: High end; long range, private access
Figure 2.3.2: Forecast Bluetooth penetration in Digital conection Boxes
0 dBm: 25% low end
20 dBm: 75% high end, long range
Figure 2.3.3: Forecast for Bluetooth penetration in Automotive Applications
0 dBm: 75% in car audio, hands free20 dBm: 25% service access, road toll
Figure 2.3.4: Forecast for Bluetooth penetration in Mobile Computing
0 dBm: 40% personal bubblemouse, keyboard, pstn
20 dBm: 60% access technology, long range
Figure 2.3.5: Forecast for Bluetooth penetration in Desktop Computing
0 dBm: 75% communications with accessories
0 dBm: 25% access technology for networks etc.
The market penetration of Bluetooth depends on the size, the possible application and, above all, the price of the equipment. The price itself depends on the number of units, which can be produced and put into the market.
Two types of Bluetooth equipment are specified:
Bluetooth 1: 1 mW (0 dBm e.i.r.p.) and
Bluetooth 2: 100 mW (20 dBm e.i.r.p.).
The advantage of the Bluetooth 1 could be perhaps the lower cost because of a lower output level and therefore a lower power consumption, but you have to accept a relative short range of less than 10 metres.
One advantage of Bluetooth 2 is a larger range of up to 100 metres, but on the other hand higher power consumption. The second advantage is the mandatory called power control feature, which is only optional for Bluetooth 1. This feature allows decreasing the output power level to a value, which is necessary to obtain the link.
As a result of this assumption the figures above can be interpreted as the sum of Bluetooth 1 and Bluetooth 2, where Bluetooth 1 has more then 75% of the sum because of its lower price and the lower power consumption which is needed especially for headsets.
Forecast for unit density of Bluetooth
The forecast unit density for Bluetooth systems will increase from less than 5 units/km2 mid of 2001 to more than 1000 units/km2 end of 2005. For an estimation of the number of active units see paragraph 3.8.2.
Unit forecast
The following market forecast is available:
Figure 2.4.1.a: Market forecast for Bluetooth (in Millions) by application
Source: Cahners InStat Group, July 2000
Figure 2.4.1.b: Market forecast for Bluetooth (in Millions) by power class
Source: Cahners InStat Group, July 2000
Summary
The forecasted market penetration of Bluetooth is very difficult today. The forecast numbers mentioned in this document are taken from the IMS and Cahners reports. It may be assumed that these are too optimistic especially for the beginning of the availability of the Bluetooth equipment in 2001. It may be more realistic to assume that the really marketing of Bluetooth will start at the earliest end of 2001 to mid of 2002.
TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION FOR BLUETOOTH (As taken from the Bluetooth Specification Version 1.0.B)
Bluetooth is a standard operating in the 2.4 GHz (2400 2483.5 MHz) ISM (unlicensed) band, which allows wireless connectivity between various devices, for example between a laptop and a mobile phone. The Bluetooth protocol supports both data and voice communications by utilising two types of link: the SCO (Synchronous Connection Oriented) link and the ACL (Asynchronous ConnectionLess) link. The SCO link is a circuit switched link, mainly used for voice, between the master and a single slave. The link uses reserved timeslots. The ACL link is a packet switched connection that uses the remaining timeslots not used by the ACL links and is used for data transmission.
Bluetooth is a fast frequency hopping protocol with a timeslot of 625(s. It hops over 79MHz of the band, and uses GFSK (Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying) modulation. The modulation rate is 1Mbit/s.
Bluetooth units can be connected as a master or a slave. The master can connect to a maximum of seven slaves to form a system known as a piconet. Two or more piconets connected together form a scatternet.
Frequency band and channel arrangement
The Bluetooth system is operating in the 2.4 GHz ISM (Industrial Scientific Medical) band.
Table 3.1.a: Channel arrangement
Frequency RangeRF Channels2.4000  2.4835 GHzf = 2402 + k MHz with k = 0,,78
Channel spacing is 1 MHz. In order to comply with outofband regulations in each country, a guard band is used at the lower and upper band edge.
Table 3.1.b: Guard band
Lower Guard BandUpper Guard Band2 MHz3.5 MHz
Transmitter characteristics
The requirements stated in this section are given as power levels at the antenna connector of the equipment. If the equipment does not have a connector, a reference antenna with 0 dBi gain is assumed.
Due to difficulty in measurement accuracy in radiated measurements, it is preferred that systems with an integral antenna provide a temporary antenna connector during type approval.
If transmitting antennas of directional gain greater than 0 dBi are used, the applicable paragraphs in ETSI ETS 300 328 must be compensated for.
The equipment is classified into three power classes.
A power control is required for the Power Class 1 equipment. The power control is used for limiting the transmitted power over 0 dBm. Power control capability under 0 dBm is optional and could be used for optimising the power consumption and overall interference level. The power steps shall form a monotonic sequence, with a maximum step size of 8 dB and a minimum step size of 2 dB.
A Class 1 equipment with a maximum transmit power of +20 dBm must be able to control its transmit power down to 4 dBm or less.
Equipment with the power control capability optimises the output power in a link with Link Management Protocol commands. It is done by measuring RSSI and reporting back if the power should be increased or decreased.
Table 3.2: Power classes
Power ClassMaximum Output Power (Pmax)Nominal Output PowerMinimum Output Power 1)Power Control1100 mW (20 dBm)N/A1 mW (0 dBm)Pmin< +4 dBm to Pmax Optional:Pmin2) to Pmax22.5 mW (4 dBm)1 mW (0 dBm)0.25 mW (6 dBm)Optional:Pmin2) to Pmax31 mW (0 dBm)N/AN/AOptional:Pmin2) to PmaxNote 1. Minimum output power at maximum power setting.
Note 2. The lower power limit Pmin < 30dBm is suggested but is not mandatory, and may be chosen according to application needs.
Modulation characteristics
The Modulation is GFSK (Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying) with a BT = 0.5. The Modulation index must be between 0.28 and 0.35. A binary one is represented by a positive frequency deviation, and a binary zero is represented by a negative frequency deviation. The symbol timing shall be better than 20*106. Actually transmitted waveform is shown in figure 3.3 below.
Figure 3.3: Actual transmission modulation
.
For each transmit channel, the minimum frequency deviation (Fmin = the lesser of {Fmin+, Fmin}) which corresponds to 1010 sequence shall be no smaller than 80% of the frequency deviation (fd) which corresponds to a 00001111 sequence.
In addition, the minimum deviation shall never be smaller than 115 kHz.
The zero crossing error is the time difference between the ideal symbol period and the measured crossing time. This shall be less than 1/8 of a symbol period.
Spurious emissions
The spurious emission, inband and outofband, is measured with a frequency hopping transmitter hopping on a single frequency; this means that the synthesiser must change frequency between receive slot and transmit slot, but always returns to the same transmit frequency. The limits of EN 300 328 apply.
Inband spurious emissions
Within the ISM band the transmitter shall pass a spectrum mask, given in Table 3.4.1 below. The spectrum must comply with the FCCs 20 dB bandwidth definition stated below, and should be measured accordingly. In addition to the FCC requirement an adjacent channel power on adjacent channels with a difference in channel number of two or greater an adjacent channel power is defined. This adjacent channel power is defined as the sum of the measured power in a 1 MHz channel. The transmitted power shall be measured in a 100 kHz bandwidth using maximum hold. The transmitter is transmitting on channel M and the adjacent channel power is measured on channel number N. The transmitter is sending a pseudo random data pattern throughout the test.
Table 3.4.1: Transmit Spectrum mask
Frequency offsetTransmit Power 550 kHz20 dBcMN = 220 dBmMN ( 340 dBm
Note 1: If the output power is less than 0 dBm then, wherever appropriate, the FCCs 20 dB relative requirement overrules the absolute adjacent channel power requirement stated in the above table.
Note 2: In any 100 kHz bandwidth outside the frequency band in which the spread spectrum intentional radiator is operating, the radio frequency power that is produced by the intentional radiator shall be at least 20 dB below that in the 100 kHz bandwidth within the band that contains the highest level of the desired power, based on either an RF conducted or a radiated measurement. Attenuation below the general limits specified in 15.209(a) is not required. In addition, radiated emissions which fall in the restricted bands, as defined in 15.205(a), must also comply with the radiated emission limits specified in 15.209(a) (see 15.205(c)) of FCC Part 15.247c
Exceptions are allowed in up to three bands of 1 MHz width centred on a frequency which is an integer multiple of 1 MHz. They must, however, comply with an absolute value of 20 dBm.
Outofband spurious emission
The measured power should be measured in a 100 kHz bandwidth. The requirements are shown in Table 3.4.2 below.
Table 3.4.2: Outofband spurious emission requirement
Frequency BandOperation modeIdle mode30 MHz  1 GHz36 dBm57 dBm1 GHz  12.75 GHz0 dBm47 dBm1.8 GHz  1.9 GHz47 dBm47 dBm5.15 GHz  5.3 GHz47 dBm47 dBm
Radio frequency tolerance
The transmitted initial centre frequency accuracy must be 75 kHz from Fc. The initial frequency accuracy is defined as being the frequency accuracy before any information is transmitted. Note that the frequency drift requirement is not included in the 75 kHz.
The transmitter centre frequency drift in a packet is specified in Table 3.5. The different packets are defined in the baseband specification.
Table 3.5: Frequency drift in a package
Type of PacketFrequency DriftOneslot packet25 kHzThreeslot packet40 kHzFiveslot packet40 kHzMaximum drift rate 1)400 Hz/sNote 1. The maximum drift rate is allowed anywhere in a packet.
Receiver characteristics
In order to measure the bit error rate performance the equipment must have a loop back facility. The equipment sends back the decoded information.
The reference sensitivity level referred to in this chapter equals 70 dBm.
Actual sensitivity level
The actual sensitivity level is defined as the input level for which a raw Bit Error Rate (BER) of 0.1% is met. The requirement for a Bluetooth receiver is an actual sensitivity level of 70 dBm or better. The receiver must achieve the 70 dBm sensitivity level with any Bluetooth transmitter compliant to the transmitter specification specified in Section 1.
Interference performance
The interference performance on Cochannel and adjacent 1 MHz and 2 MHz are measured with the wanted signal 10 dB over the reference sensitivity level. On all other frequencies the wanted signal shall be 3 dB over the reference sensitivity level. Should the frequency of an interfering signal be outside of the band 2400  2497 MHz, then the outofband blocking specification (see Section 3.6.3) shall apply. The interfering signal shall be Bluetoothmodulated (see section 3.3). The BER shall be (0.1%. The carriertointerference ratio limits are shown in Table 3.6.2 below.
If two adjacent channel specifications from Table 3.6.2 are applicable to the same channel, the more relaxed specification applies.
Table 3.6.2: Interference performance
RequirementC/I limitCochannel interference, C/Icochannel11 dB 1)Adjacent (1 MHz) interference, C/I@1MHz0 dB 1)Adjacent (2 MHz) interference, C/I@2MHz30 dBAdjacent (( 3 MHz) interference, C/I@(3MHz 4)40 dBImage frequency interference 2) 3), C/IImage9 dB 1)Adjacent (1 MHz) interference to inband image frequency, C/IImage 1MHz20 dB 1)Note 1. These specifications are tentative and will be fixed within 18 months after the release of the Bluetooth specification version 1.0. Implementations have to fulfil the final specification after a 3years convergence period starting at the release of the Bluetooth specification version 1.0. During the convergence period, devices need to achieve a cochannel interference resistance of +14 dB, an ACI (at 1 MHz) resistance of +4 dB, Image frequency interference resistance of 6 dB and an ACI to inband image frequency resistance of 16 dB;
Note 2. Inband image frequency;
Note 3. If the image frequency ( n(1 MHz, then the image reference frequency is defined as the closest n(1 MHz frequency;
Note 4. Corresponding to blocking level of 27 dBm.
These specifications are only to be tested at nominal temperature conditions with a receiver hopping on one frequency, meaning that the synthesiser must change frequency between receive slot and transmit slot, but always return to the same receive frequency.
Frequencies, where the requirements are not met, are called spurious response frequencies. Five spurious response frequencies are allowed at frequencies with a distance of ( 2 MHz from the wanted signal. On these spurious response frequencies a relaxed interference requirement C/I = 17 dB shall be met.
Outofband blocking
The outofband blocking is measured with the wanted signal being 3 dB over the reference sensitivity level. The interfering signal shall be a continuous wave signal.
The BER shall be (0.1%. The outofband blocking shall fulfil the following requirements:
Table 3.6.3. Outofband blocking requirements
Interfering frequencyInterfering Signal Power Level30 MHz  2000 MHz10 dBm2000  2399 MHz27 dBm2498  3000 MHz27 dBm3000 MHz  12.75 GHz10 dBm
Some 24 exceptions are permitted which are dependent upon the given receive channel frequency and are centred at a frequency which is an integer multiple of 1 MHz. At 19 of these spurious response frequencies a relaxed power level 50 dBm of the interferer may used to achieve a BER of 0.1%. At the remaining 5 spurious response frequencies the power level is arbitrary.
Intermodulation characteristics
The reference sensitivity performance, BER = 0.1 %, shall be met under the following conditions:
The wanted signal at frequency f0 with a power level 6 dB over the reference sensitivity level;
A static sine wave signal at f1 with a power level of 39 dBm, corresponding to a 3rd intercept order point
IP3 = 21 dBm;
A Bluetooth modulated signal (see Section 3.3) at f2 with a power level of 39 dBm;
Such that f0 = 2(f1 f2 and f2 f1 = n(1 MHz, where n=3, 4 or 5. The system must fulfil one of the three alternatives.
Maximum usable level
The maximum usable input level at which the receiver shall operate shall be better than 20 dBm. The BER shall be less or equal to 0.1% at 20 dBm input power.
Spurious emissions
The spurious emission for a Bluetooth receiver shall be not more than:
Table 3.6.6: Outofband spurious emissions
Frequency bandRequirement30 MHz  1 GHz57 dBm1 GHz  12.75 GHz47 dBm
The measured power shall be measured in a 100 kHz bandwidth.
Receiver Signal Strength Indicator (Optional)
A transceiver that wishes to take part in a powercontrolled link must be able to measure its received signal strength and determine if the transmitter on the other side of the link should increase or decrease its output power level. A Receiver Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) makes this possible.
The way the power control is specified is to have a golden receive power. This golden receive power is defined as a range with a low limit and a high limit. The RSSI must have a minimum dynamic range equal to this range. The RSSI must have an absolute accuracy of ( 4dB or better when the received signal power is 60 dBm. In addition, a minimum range of 20(6 dB must be covered, starting from 60 dBm and up (see Figure 3.6.7).
Figure 3.6.7: RSSI dynamic range and accuracy
High limit20(6 dB60(4 dBmLow limit
Reference interfering signal definition
A Bluetooth modulated interfering signal is defined in Table 3.6.8 below.
Table 3.6.8: Definition of interference signal
Modulation GFSKModulation index 0.321%BT0.51%Bit Rate1 Mb/s1*106Modulating Data PRBS9Frequency accuracybetter than 1*106
Bluetooth utilisation factor
Due to the complexity of the envisaged Bluetooth use scenarios, when considering the system specifications of the involved systems (modulation, channel codec schemes, ARQ etc), propagation conditions, positioning of units and their duty cycles and the like, it is necessary to use simplifying models to describe the complex reality in an appropriate, but manageable way, focussing on the most influencing factors. The report must assume that not all devices are active at the same time to simplify the influence of a certain service mix and the related service models.
To refine the used traffic models the present contribution defines some 'macroscopic' traffic models which complement the already roughly modelled 'microscopic' part of the traffic model, which is expressed by the duty cycle, and calculates finally the percentage of active piconets for different scenarios.
Definition of Services relevant for the coexistence study
For simplicity not all announced or envisaged Bluetooth based services can be taken into consideration. A detailed traffic modelling of the various applications, like e.g. mouse, keyboard, printer, etc. for the desktop usage model would increase the complexity of the coexistence study tremendously. Therefore SE24 proposed to define usage model based service mixes for certain scenarios as a compromise between accuracy and complexity of the study.
It might be appropriate to concentrate on those scenarios, which represent most probable situation of daily life on one hand and which are most interesting from coexistence point of view on other hand. So the following scenarios were proposed:
airport scenario;
public places (outdoor);
office scenario;
home environment.
For those scenarios the service mix has to be defined, which determines the assignment of Bluetooth units to services. To reduce the number of services the following simplification was proposed:
Desktop service (covers Bluetooth communication with mice, keyboard, joystick);
Speech services (covers extension of mobile phones, cordless, walkietalkie and Laptop as speaker phone);
File transfer (covers the conference usage model);
Internet communication (covers the Internet Bridge usage model).
Definition of service mix and service models
This section proposes related scenario mixes and the related macroscopic traffic models.
In table 3.7.2.a the macroscopic traffic model for the services above defined are given for each scenario. In this way the service mix for each scenario is given implicitly. In table 3.7.2.b the percentage of active piconets is defined for each scenario.
Table 3.7.2.a: Macroscopic traffic models
DesktopSpeechFile transferInternetAirport Scenario0.00 Erl0.10 Erl0.10 Erl0.20 ErlPublic Places0.00 Erl0.10 Erl0.00 Erl0.20 ErlOffice Scenario0.50 Erl0.10 Erl0.10 Erl0.10 ErlHome Environment0.10 Erl0.05 Erl0.05 Erl0.10 Erl
It shall be noted that the duty cycle of desktop related Bluetooth links (like keyboard or mouse) is significantly lower than duty cycles of other Bluetooth services. To compensate this effect without introducing new complexity to the coexistence study the traffic value of the desktop services is multiplied by factor of 0.5.
Due to the fact that Bluetooth is following the basic rules of TDD, as both directions of one link are sharing the time axis, i.e. two considered communication partners cannot generate interference at the same time. Moreover all units connected to one piconet are well synchronised in frequency and time, i.e. one piconet with up to 8 active units can be seen as one interference source, because only one transmitter can be active at the same time in one piconet. Although up to 8 Bluetooth units can be active in one piconet the most common case for the considered services and scenarios will be one master and one slave. Consequently the number of active units has to be divided by factor of 2 to calculate the number of active piconets.
Table 3.7.2.b presents as final result the percentage of active piconets (utilisation factor) related to the assumed unit density.
Table 3.7.2.b: Bluetooth utilisation factor (percentage of active piconets)
Utilisation factorAirport Scenario0.20Public Places0.15Office Scenario0.28Home Environment0.13
To use the calculated interference in Annex A it is necessary to use the effective unit density. This is defined as the unit density multiplied by the utilisation factor.
Conclusion
The multiplication of the assumed Bluetooth unit density by a utilisation factor given in table 3.7.2.b above is used to model the overall macroscopic traffic behaviour for the most important Bluetooth services.
CHARACTERISTICS OF EXISTING AND PROPOSED SYSTEMS IN THE 2.45 GHz BAND
Existing devices operating in the 2.45 GHz band have different characteristics and will have different responses to potential interferers. This chapter details these characteristics that are used as inputs for interference calculations performed in Annex A.
Electronic News Gathering/Outside Broadcast (ENG/OB) system characteristics
A summary of ENG/OB systems is given in subsections 4.1.1 to 4.1.6 below. For further details see ERC Report 38.
Typical ENG/OB applications
Links used by broadcasters at these frequencies fall, very broadly, into three categories:
Temporary pointtopoint links;
Shortrange links, from a mobile camera to a fixed point;
Airtoground / groundtoair mobile links.
The first of these applications is represented by a link established from a parabolic antenna mounted on the roof of a vehicle at a racecourse to a similar antenna on a midpoint vehicle on a hilltop some 1020 km distant. The midpoint vehicle might then relay the signal to a permanent OB receiver site at a studio centre or transmitter. The link would be characterised by fairly highgain antennas at both ends and a lineofsight path. Such pointtopoint links are also established at short notice for ENG purposes and, in this application, paths are often diffracted, with little or no fading margin.
The second application is, typically, that of a handheld camera at a football match, relaying pictures over a distance of a few hundred metres to a fixed receive point. The camera antenna will normally be omnidirectional, and may operate to a directional receive antenna which is manually tracked. At longer ranges, the cameraman is accompanied by a second operator who employs a directional transmitter antenna with a modest ((10dBi) gain, manually pointed toward the receiving location.
The airborne link case might be represented either by a helicoptermounted camera following a motor racing event and relaying the pictures to a ground receiver, or by a camera mounted in a racing car transmitting to a helicopter midpoint, which then retransmits the pictures.
Many other arrangements can be readily imagined, but to reduce the scenarios modelled to a manageable number, the representative system types assumed in the report are illustrated in Figure 4.1.1 below.
Figure 4.1.1: Representative ENG/OB scenarios
EMBED Word.Picture.8
FM Receivers for ENG/OB
(R1) Tripodmounted, medium gain antenna, assumed to be tracking a radio camera at shortrange;
(R2) Vehicle roofmounted, mediumgain antenna (receiving from helicopter);
(R3) Helicoptermounted, omnidirectional antenna coverage (receiving from mobile radio camera);
(R4) Highgain antenna on transmitter mast, 100 m above ground level (agl), assumed to be one end of temporary fixed link.
The different receiver antenna types and estimated communication ranges are shown in Table 4.1.2.a below.
Table 4.1.2.a: Assumed receiver characteristics
ReceiverAntenna typeGainHeight (agl)LinkR10.6 m dish21 dBi1.8 m (tripod)<500 m, from radio cameraR2Golden Rod17 dBi3 m (vehicle roof)<2 km, tracking helicopterR3Franklin4 dBi200 m (helicopter)From radio cameraR41.2 m dish27 dBi50 m (transmitter mast)30 km, from roving vehicle
NB: It is assumed that the propagation channel to R1 is characterised by shadowing and multipath effects, R2 and R3 are lineofsight while R4 is also lineofsight with multipath fading according to ITUR P.530.
The same receiver is assumed in all cases: An analogue, FM receiver of 20 MHz bandwidth and 360 K receive system noise temperature. These parameter values are representative of commercially available receivers (data supplied by Continental Microwave Limited, UK). However, the antenna may differ in each case.
For this report the interference probability is calculated for following receiver combinations given in Table 4.1.2.b. below:
Table 4.1.2.b: ENG/OB reference types
Type in this reportReceiver from table 4.1.2.aAntenna gainAntenna heightENG/OB 1R34 dB200 mENG/OB 2R121 dB1.8 mENG/OB 3R217 dB3 mENG/OB 4R427 dB50 m
FM Transmitters for ENG/OB
Table 4.1.3 below specifies e.i.r.p. levels of +35 dBm to +70 dBm for ENG/OB transmitters, which may give considerable interference to other radio services such as RLAN, Bluetooth, and SRDs. The communication ranges indicated may be used to estimate the ENG/OB link interference protection.
Transmitter types:
(T1) Handheld camera, lowgain (1.8 m agl);
(T2) Helicopter, lower hemispherical coverage (200 m agl);
(T3) Highgain antenna on pneumatic vehicle mast (10 m agl);
(T4) Highgain antenna on transmitter mast (100 m agl).
Table 4.1.3. Assumed transmitter characteristics
TransmitterAntennaGainTXe.i.r.p. (dBW)Height (agl)LinkT1Lindenblad5 dBi1 W52 m<500 m, handheld camera to R1 T2Wilted dipole3 dBi200 W26200 m<2 km, helicopter to R2T30.6 m dish21 dBi20 W3410m30 km, roving vehicle to fixed insertion point (R4)T41.2 m dish27 dBi20 W4050 m 30 km, fixed insertion point to roving vehicle
In all cases an analogue FM transmitter is assumed, with a 20 MHz bandwidth and a spectral mask conforming to that given in Appendix 4 of ERC Report 38.
For the purposes of the modelling undertaken in this study, it is assumed that the power in the ENG/OB transmissions is evenly distributed within a 20 MHz bandwidth.
Digital links
Digital ENG/OB systems are now marketed based on the DVBT standard used for terrestrial digital TV broadcasting in Europe.
The transmission method used for Digital ENG/OB is Coded Orthogonal FrequencyDivision Multiplexing (COFDM). Unlike traditional singlecarrier digital transmission methods like QPSK or QAM, COFDM uses hundreds or thousands of individual carriers to transmit the digital signal. The analogue video signal is first sampled and digitised at either a 4:2:0 or 4:2:2 digital sampling rate, and then is encoded using the MPEG2 video encoding algorithm.
Depending on the video quality desired and the signaltonoise ratio of the channel, the MPEG2 packetised transport data stream is transmitted at a bit rate between 5 and 30 Mb/s. The system uses 1704 carriers, each modulated with either QPSK, 16QAM, or 64QAM. Forward errorcorrecting coding is employed at rates 1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 5/6 or 7/8 depending on the modulation used. The receiver noise bandwidth is 7.61 MHz. COFDM is more robust in a multipath environment than are traditional modulation methods.
These COFDM systems can tolerate interfering signal levels approximately 20 dB stronger than can a traditional analogue frequencymodulated ENG/OB transmission. This improvement is valid for interfering signal bandwidths less than approximately 300 kHz. The improvement is gradually reduced to 12 dB for interfering signal bandwidths above 23 MHz.
Frequency allocations
The exact frequencies employed for these ENG/OB applications vary across Europe, with national usage being summarised in ERC Recommendation 2510. This Recommendation suggests harmonised bands to be used across the CEPT, and notes the frequency band 2483.5  2500MHz will not be available after the introduction of MSS services. It is further recommended that these applications should migrate to frequencies above 5 GHz.
Criteria for interference to analogue and digital ENG/OB
Section 4.2.3 below discusses the application of the interference criteria contained in ITUR Recommendation F.7581 to the interference analysis for frequency sharing between the Fixed Service and RFID operating in the 2.45 GHz band. Unfortunately, a similar recommendation does not exist for ENG/OB video links that also use the 2.45 GHz band. Instead, the broadcasting industry judges the usability of the video link in terms of quality of the received video image.
Because no quantitative performance criteria exist for ENG/OB, the Fixed Service interference criteria contained in the ITUR Recommendation F.7581 are not applicable for ENG/OB operations. Furthermore, the fade margins for ENG/OB links range from very large to nearly zero. An example of the first case is a wireless video camera link that operates over a distance of a few metres. An example of the second case is an ENG/OB vehicle that establishes an unscheduled video link back to a studio at short notice over an obstructed path.
Because of the difficulty of establishing quantitative performance criteria for Bluetooth interference to ENG/OB links, a program of laboratory measurements is planned.
ERC Report 38, p. 25 shows that an acceptable value of C/N for an analogue ENG/OB link is +29 dB, which results in a video signaltonoise ratio of +44 dB. Therefore, the criteria for acceptable interference to an ENG/OB link is given by:
I/N(dB) = C/N(dB) C/I(dB) = 29 dB (+30 dB) = 1 dB (+/ 3 dB).
The criteria used in the interference analysis of analogue ENG/OB links in this report is that the acceptable level of shortterm interference is equal to the receiver noise floor (I/N = 0 dB) which is well within the accuracy of the measured results.
For digital ENG/OB using COFDM transmission, the required C/I, as measured in the laboratory of Radiocommunications Agency (UK) is approximately 20 dB larger, hence the acceptable level of shortterm interference is 20 dB above the receiver noise floor (I/N = +20 dB).
The details of the computation of the shortterm interference are described in Section 5 of this report. The numerical computations are performed in the Excel worksheets and are presented in Annex A.
Fixed Service system characteristics
The system characteristics of Fixed Service (FS) systems are specified in ERC Report 40. The values for two representative systems are selected from ERC Report 40 and used in the interference analysis as given in Table 4.6.1.
The Fixed Service
The FS is defined as a radio communication service between specified fixed points. A typical example of a FS is a lineofsight radio link employing highly directive antennas transmitting and receiving between two points separated by distances ranging from a few kilometres up to 30 kilometres or more. FS links provide a transmission path for telecommunication services such as voice, data or video.
By their nature, FS links are part of a carefully planned and wellregulated environment that has been developed over many years with internationally harmonised frequency allocations, channel plans and equipment standards. Typical FS links are usually part of a larger telecommunications network with multiple links or relays in pointtopoint or pointtomultipoint configurations.
Frequency allocations for Fixed Services.
According to the European Common Allocation Table (ECA) in ERC Report 25, FS have primary status in the 2.45 GHz band. According to the ERO report Fixed Service Trends Post 1998 only a few CEPT countries have FS in the 2.45 GHz band and in most cases only in a part of the band.
For those countries not using the 2.45 GHz band for FS, there should be no issue with interference from Bluetooth systems. If interference from Bluetooth is a problem it may be solved by restrictions concerning the actual operating frequency to be used in a particular country.
It is noted that FS inside the 2.45 GHz band are not covered by the ITUR Recommendations 2835, 3826 or CEPT Recommendation T/R 1301.
Criteria for Interference to Fixed Services
The criteria used in this Technical Report to perform the interference analysis for frequency sharing between the FS and Bluetooth operating in the 2.45 GHz band is described in the ITUR Recommendation F.7581 (1997). Specifically, in this report the interference to the FS caused by Bluetooth is characterised by the interference power level at the receiver input corresponding to longterm (i.e., 20% of the time) interference.
According to the ITUR F.7581, the derivation of the permitted shortterm interference levels (i.e. <1% of the time) and the associated time percentages is a complex process which would involve additional statistical information that is not currently available for the scenarios of interest in this study.
The longterm interference criteria used for FS in this study is the same as used in the Tables 6 and 7 of the ITUR F.7581 (1997). These same tables are presented in the ERC Report 40. These tables present a straightforward, but conservative, approach to specifying the maximum permitted longterm interference. This approach was taken because the detailed characteristics and the spatial distribution of the interference sources are only specified in very general terms, which results from the wide variety of Bluetooth devices and applications.
The problem of interference analysis is greatly simplified by referencing the interference to the receivers thermal noise level, since the permitted interference power spectral density thus derived will be dependent solely on receiver noise figure and will be independent of the modulation employed in the victim system. According to ITUR F.7581, it can be shown that, independent of the normal received carrier level, the degradation in the fade margin with interference set to a given level relative to receiver thermal noise level is as given in the table 4.2.3 below.
Interference level relative to receiver thermal noise (dB)Resultant degradation in fade margin (dB) 6 10 1 0.5Table 4.2.3: Degradation in Fade Margin vs. Interference Level
Within the tables listing the characteristics of typical FS systems, the choice of an interferencetothermalnoise (I/N) ratio of 6dB or 10dB is selected to match the typical requirements for the individual systems. The details of the computation of the shortterm interference are described in Section 5 of this report. The numerical computations were performed in the Excel worksheets and are presented in Annex A. The appropriate value of the I/N ratio (in dB) is entered into Line 20 of the worksheets in the subsection A.2.1 of Annex A of this report.
In order to perform more detailed frequency sharing analyses than are performed in the present report, specific interference criteria must be derived in accordance with Annex 1 of the ITUR Recommendation to match the individual, specific sharing scenario under consideration. These criteria will need to be agreed between the parties concerned (Interferer and Victim).
The interference criterion used in the analysis of FS in this report is that the acceptable level of interference is 10 dB below the receiver noise floor. The details of the computation of the interference are described in Section 5 of this Technical Report. The numerical computations were performed in the Excel worksheets and are presented in Annex A.
RLAN characteristics
Radio Local Area Networks (RLANs) provide access and mobility for the commercial workforce, government and educational institutions, as well as for computers in home and office environments. Current RLAN systems operate at a power level of 100mW e.i.r.p. in the 2.45 GHz band, using spread spectrum technologies. RLANs work predominantly in pointtomultipoint configurations with mobile or fixed devices communicating with fixed access points.
Interference to RLAN
The interference analysis covers power levels of up to 100 mW e.i.r.p. for Bluetooth (Bluetooth 2) and the impact on RLAN systems. RLAN and Bluetooth systems may be colocated, so coexistence between the systems is desirable.
Interference test results from Bluetooth into RLAN are described in Section 6.4
RLAN Receiver characteristics
Frequency Hopping (FHSS) and Direct Sequence (DSSS) Spread Spectrum technologies are applied in RLAN systems, and their receiver characteristics are:
FHSS: Receiver sensitivity(90 dBm or betterNoise bandwidth1 MHzNumber of channels79DSSS: Receiver sensitivity(90 dBm or betterNoise bandwidth15 MHzNumber of overlapping channels13, every 5 MHz, user selectable
Common to FHSS/DSSS is that majority of applications use omnidirectional antennas with a typical gain of max 2 dBi.
RLAN transmitter characteristics
RLAN transmitter characteristics are as follows:
FHSS/DSSS:e.i.r.p. (omnidirectional): 20 dBmDuty cycleCan be anything between 1% and 99%, regulation does not impose any limitFHSS: 3dB signal bandwidth< 0.35 MHzNumber of channels79Hop increment1 MHzDSSS: 3 dB Channel bandwidth15 MHzNull to null bandwidth22 MHzNumber of overlapping channels13, every 5 MHz, user selectable
In order to assess the current interference potential of RLANs, this report uses the maximum permissible duty cycle of 100% for all units inside the interference zone.
Criteria for interference to RLAN
Section 4.1.6 above discussed the interference criteria developed for the ENG/OB video links that also share the 2.45 GHz band.
Section 4.2.3 above discussed the application of the interference criteria contained in the ITUR Recommendation F.7581 to the interference analysis for frequency sharing between the FS and other services operating in the 2.45 GHz band.
These interference criteria are not applicable for the analysis of interference from Bluetooth to RLAN and other short range devices that operate on an intermittent basis. This is because the spreadspectrum packetised data transmission of such victim devices provides additional interference protection that is not available to ENG/OB and FS.
For the interference analysis in this report, it has been assumed that interference to an RLAN receiver occurs whenever the interfering signal equals the receivers frontend noise floor (i.e., the interference equals the kTB noise). The details of the computation of the shortterm interference are described in Section 5 of this report. The numerical computations were performed in the Excel worksheets and are presented in Annex A.
RFID characteristics
A typical RFID system consists of a reader and a number of tags as shown at figure 4.4 below.
Figure 4.4: Typical RFID system
EMBED Visio.Drawing.4
Unlike other communication systems an RFID system has a single mixing receiver, in the reader only. The tag is positioned in the other end of the communication link and the majority of tag designs consist of two parts, a printed wire board, which contains an antenna, and an integrated circuit (IC). Consequently, the tag is a simple, low cost, device without any internal RF generation. Its functionality is dependent on the received field from the reader since the tag reflects the received RF back to the reader, as an RF mirror. Sometimes RFID systems are referred to as modulation backscatter systems since it scatters a reflected signal and modulates this reflected, scattered signal to convey information. For battery less tags dc power is supplied by the received RF field thus requiring the high transmit power.
The reader transmits data to the tag using amplitude shift keying (ASK) modulation. The tag transmits data to the reader by receiving an unmodulated RF carrier from the reader, modulating the signal with phase shift keying (PSK) and then reflecting this signal back to the reader.
The diode in the tag IC performs three functions:
ASK detector for the forward link communication from the reader;
Phase modulation of the unmodulated carrier from the reader to send a signal to the reader;
RF rectification of received RF carrier to provide the dc power supply for the batteryless tag IC.
As a summary, the following RFID parameters were used for interference analysis in this report:
Common parameters:
e.i.r.p. +36 dBm (for indoor use);
e.i.r.p. +27 dBm (for indoor/outdoor use);
Antenna gain: > +6dBi;
Antenna beam width: < 90 degrees;
Duty cycle: < 15%.
FHSS systems:
Tx 3 dB Signal bandwidth: < 0.35 MHz;
Number of channels: 20 (or 79 for FCC part 15);
Hop increment: 0.35 MHz (or 1 MHz for FCC part 15).
NB (Narrow Band) systems:
Number of channels: 3 (The 3 channels can be set anywhere inside the band);
3 dB signal bandwidth: <0.01 MHz;
Channel spacing: 0.6 MHz.
Typical SRD characteristics
For other types of SRD used in interference analysis in this report, the following parameters were assumed:
e.i.r.p.: +10 dBm;
Antenna gain: 0 dBi;
Antenna beam width: 360 degrees;
3 dB Channel Bandwidth: 1 MHz
Frequency (for narrow band BW<1 MHz): anywhere in the 2.45 GHz band.
Victim and Interferer characteristics
Summary victim receiver characteristics
The characteristics of the victim receivers are summarised in table 4.6.1 below.
Table 4.6.1. Characteristics of victim receivers
Noise
Level at receiver inputNoise Equiv. Bandwidth (NEB)Antenna gainAntenna beamwidth degreesAntenna heightGeneral SRD(104 dBm1 MHz1.6 dBi3603 mBluetooth 1)(90 dBm1 MHz0 dBi3601.5 mRLAN FHSS(104 dBm1 MHz2 dBi3602.5 mRLAN DSSS(92 dBm15 MHz2 dBi3602.5 mRFID(72 dBm350 kHz6 dBi871.5ENG/OB 1(94 dBm20 MHz4 dBi360200 mENG/OB 2(94 dBm20 MHz21 dBi151.8 mENG/OB 3(94 dBm20 MHz17 dBi243 mENG/OB 4(94 dBm20 MHz27 dBi850 mDigital ENG/OBSame as analogue systems above, but with NEB = 7.6 MHzFixed 1(105 dBm3 MHz25 dBi1050 mFixed 2(97dBm20 MHz35 dBi350 mNote 1: The reference receive noise level used for Bluetooth is 90 dBm based on a 70 dBm sensitivity as given in the Bluetooth specification and in an (inchannel) SNR required (20 dB). Receiver noise level of 90 dBm is different from the optimum utilisation of a 1 MHz channel.
Summary of interfering transmitter characteristics
The interfering characteristics of existing and potential new services are summarised in Table 4.6.2 below. The values in Table 4.6.2 are reflective of values used in the worksheets presented in Annex A.
Table 4.6.2: Characteristics of systems for interference analysis
Maximum Radiated Power (e.i.r.p.)Modulation Bandwidth
(3dB)
Total BandwidthMax. Duty Cycle
Antenna Beamwidth (degrees)Antenna Height
Reference systems:SRD, Narrow band +10 dBm1 MHz1 MHz100 %3603.0 mRLAN, FHSS+20 dBm1 MHz79 MHz100 %3602.5 mRLAN, DSSS+20 dBm15 MHz15 MHz100 %3602.5 mProposed systems:Bluetooth 10 dBm1 MHz79 MHz60 %3601.5 mBluetooth 2+20 dBm1 MHz79 MHz60 %3601.5 mRFID 3a, FHSS+36 dBm0.35 MHz8 MHz100 % 1)871.5 mRFID 3b, FHSS+27 dBm0.35 MHz8 MHz100 %871.5 mRFID 3a, FHSS+36 dBm0.35 MHz8 MHz15 % 2)871.5 mRFID 5a, narrow band +27 dBm10 kHz2 MHz 100 %693.0 mRFID 5b, narrow band +20 dBm10 kHz2 MHz 100 %693.0 mRLAN, FHSS+27 dBm1 MHz79 MHz100 %772.5 mRLAN, DSSS+27 dBm15 MHz15 MHz100 %772.5 mNote 1: Original proposal;
Note 2: Max ton 30 ms in any 200 ms period.
SHARING WITH OTHER RADIO COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
In any communication system, transmitters could be considered as interferers and receivers as victims. Sometimes, one type of device could fall into both categories. For example, an SRD could be a victim by receiving interference from another system. On the other hand, this same SRD could also be an interferer to another system. In this report, victim and interferer are terms that represent devices to evaluate interference. The terms victim and interferer therefore represent their roles in this interference analysis, not their operational characteristics.
Sharing of the 2.45 GHz band is feasible if the probability of interference is sufficiently low. Interference occurs if the interferer and victim operate:
on overlapping frequencies;
in proximity to each other;
at the same time;
with overlapping antenna patterns.
The probability of interference depends on the factors above and the conditions under which devices are deployed:
Urban or rural environment;
Indoor or outdoor environment;
Density of interferers.
Interference analysis for either existing or proposed systems did not include effects due to adjacent channel operation. These effects would greatly increase the complexity of the analysis, and if it were included, the probabilities for existing and proposed systems would increase. Since both probabilities would increase, the comparison of proposed systems and existing systems would likely remain unchanged. Analysis of adjacent channels was excluded to reduce the analysis complexity while at the same time maintain similar results.
The following sections describe the probabilistic and deterministic methods of calculating the potential of interference.
Deterministic method
General
The deterministic method focuses on one interferer, or possibly two or more interferers when intermodulation is studied, and a Bluetooth link with varying distances. Performance in terms of throughput is then studied. This differs from the statistical model in the sense that fixed scenarios are studied instead of a statistical ones which entails a clearer understanding of the interference mechanisms of the specific interference scenario.
For analysis under the deterministic approach, the simulation model described in annex D has been used. Bluetooth is a low cost and medium performance product. To achieve an aggressive low cost goal several compromises were made particularly on fundamental receiver parameters, which normally are considered vital for an operation in the shared band 24002483.5 MHz. This document calculates Bluetooth blocking and cochannel and adjacent channel interference by the Minimum Coupling Loss (MCL) method. The accumulative effects are considered under the probabilistic method, described in section 5.2.5. The calculated data are compared with the C/I values, measured by RA/UK. An appropriate indoor propagation model was used, as described in section 5.1.3.
Nominal received signal
For relaxed receiver specifications a stronger wanted signal is necessary. In agreement with this statement Bluetooth manufacturers have argued that the minimum wanted receive signal must be equal to the Maximum Usable Sensitivity (MUS)+10 dB. After discussion it was agreed to base all interference scenarios on received signal level of MUS+3 dB. As the Bluetooth specification establishes that MUS is 70 dBm, the minimum receive signal, PRX_MIN is:
EMBED Equation.3
For Bluetooth calculations in the following subsections therefore a minimum received input signal of 67 dBm is used.
Propagation model used for deterministic method
The discussion of this section only applies to calculations performed using the deterministic method. Propagation models for the probabilistic method are discussed in section 5.2.2.
At 2.45 GHz, the Path Loss (PL) is:
for distances below 15m (freespace propagation applies): EMBED Equation.3 (dB) (5.1.3.a);
b) for distances above 15 m: EMBED Equation.3 (dB) (5.1.3.b);
where d is distance in metres.
The graphical representation for the model is shown in figure 5.1.3 below.
Figure 5.1.3. Worst case indoor propagation model for deterministic calculations
EMBED MgxDesigner
Minimum Coupling Loss and protection distance
The protection distance, dP , for any interference is determined by means of the Minimum Coupling Loss (MCL) calculations. A generic formula for MCL is given in section 5.2.1. In cases where the received threshold power and C/I are given, MCL can be calculated by:
EMBED Equation.3 (5.1.4)
where:
MCL  Minimum Coupling Loss, dB;
PRAD  Radiated power (eirp) for interfering transmitter, dBm;
PRX  Bluetooth received power, dBm;
C/I  Carrier to interference ratio specified for the Bluetooth receiver, dB.
The calculated MCL can be obtained through evaluation of path loss (PL) over a certain protection distance dP. This can be derived from an appropriate propagation model:
EMBED Equation.3 , for PL<63.7 dB, and
EMBED Equation.3 , for PL e" 63.7 dB.
Cochannel
The following two cases for cochannel interference are investigated:
Constant envelope: C/I = 11 dB;
Noise like: C/I = 18 dB.
Adjacent channel
The following Bluetooth specifications were used for calculations:
1st adjacent channel: C/I = 0 dB;
2nd adjacent channel: C/I = 30 dB;
3rd and higher adj. channel: C/I = 40 dB.
Blocking
The following Bluetooth specification was used for calculations:
for 3rd adjacent channel and higher, C/I = 40 dB, corresponding to blocking of 27 dBm at (MUS+3) dB.
Blocking and cochannel interference mechanisms are given in the Table 5.1.4.3 below.
Table 5.1.4.3: Interference mechanisms to Bluetooth for different types of interferer
Interferer typePower dBm (eirp)Duty cycle (%)ChanBW
MHzPrimary mechanism of interferenceSRD narrow band+101001BlockingSRD, CATV+1010020 CochannelRLAN, DSSS+2010015CochannelRLAN, FHSS+201001BlockingRFID, FHSS+3610/15/50/1000.3BlockingENG/OB, video cam.
Analogue+3510020CochannelENG/OB, helicopter.
Analogue+5610020CochannelENG/OB, video cam. Digital+351007.4CochannelENG/OB, helicopter.Digital+561007.4Cochannel
3rd order Intermodulation
Introduction
Third order intermodulation (3rd order IM) products are generated whenever two signal with frequencies f1 and f2 are injected into a nonlinear device that produces spurious signals at frequencies f3im1 = 2f1f2 and f3im2 = 2f2f1. The strength of these IM products depends on the nature of the nonlinearity and the strength of the two signals. If the two signals are separated by (f = f2 f1 , then the 3rd order products will fall at frequencies (f above and (f below the two desired signals.
The distribution of 3rd order intermodulation components, which would result from RFID transmitter operation on 7 of the 1 MHz Bluetooth hopping channels located in the centre of the 2.4002.4835 GHz band is shown in table 1 below. This table assumes transmission on seven frequencies, denoted f1, f2, f7 which coincide with Bluetooth hopping channels numbered 45 through 51. This would be representative of the situation in which RFID operation is restricted to an 8MHz subband. The additional 1 MHz (0.5 MHz at each end) represents a guard band.
Table 5.1.4.4.1: 3rd order intermodulation components for N=7 transmitting channels
EMBED MgxDesigner
In general, the number of combinations for interfering signals that cause 3rd order IM is given by:
EMBED Equation.3 ,
where: n  number of interfering transmitters.
In the example given in figure 5.1.4.4.1 below, q=42.
It should be noted that the 3rd order IM products are restricted to 19 channels roughly centred on and around the Bluetooth hopping channels. Figure 5.1.4.4.1 below is a plot that shows graphically these channels and the total number of interfering signals per receiver channel for the example given in Table 5.1.4.4.1. Observe that the majority of the 3rd order products are clustered in the centre of the band, and they occur with decreasing rate at frequencies removed from the RFID transmit band. At a distance greater than +/7 MHz from the central band, there is no 3rd order IM interference and 60 of the Bluetooth hopping channels are not affected by 3rd order IM.
Figure 5.1.4.4.1: Number of interference products for N=7 simultaneous transmitters
EMBED MgxDesigner
From figure 5.1.4.4.1 it can be seen that 19 consecutive channels are interfered if all 7 transmitters are transmitting simultaneously at different frequencies.
In this case the probability of interference to Bluetooth will be:
EMBED Equation.3 .
The individual components of interference are results of both cochannel and 3rd order IM interference. Cochannel components will result from units positioned at greater distances and can therefore easily interfere over the whole 7 MHz power bandwidth used by RFID. The 3rd order IM will fill approximately 19 MHz as shown in figure 5.1.4.4.1.
If all interfering units are outside the protection range for IM, then interference will only occur inside the 7 MHz of power bandwidth for RFID. In this case the interfering probability to Bluetooth is at the most is:
EMBED Equation.3 .
This low interference probability is accomplished by the effective use of mitigation techniques such as reduced duty cycle and increased antenna directivity.
Interference mitigation
RFID uses the following interference mitigation techniques:
Transmitter duty cycle: 15% average;
Antenna beam width for the main beam: 87 degrees maximum;
Antenna beam width for side lobe approximately: 90 degrees (typical of a patch antenna which has very low backwards radiation)
The interference scenarios are illustrated in figure 5.1.4.4.2:
Figure 5.1.4.4.2: Protection ranges inside and outside antenna main beam
EMBED MgxDesigner
The RFID antenna has 15 dB side lobe attenuation. This results in a reduction of the intermodulation protection range when the interference is outside the main beam of the antenna. The Bluetooth receiver has a 3rd order IM specification, PINTMOD = 39 dBm. The protection range can be determined by:
EMBED Equation.3 , (5.1.4.4.2)
where:
PL  Path loss in dB;
PRFID  RFID radiated power = +36 dBm.
Rearranging equation (5.1.4.4.2.):
EMBED Equation.3 .
Using SE24 indoor propagation model of freespace propagation until 15 metre and 30dB/decade rolloff above yields the following protection distances for 3rd order intermodulation:
Protection distance for main beam, dM = 35 m;
Protection distance for side lobe , dS = 9.8 m.
For a uniform distribution of the interfering RFID units within the protection ranges, the ratio between units in areas inside the protection ranges for side lobe and main beam respectively is:
EMBED Equation.3
Hotspot unit densities
To investigate the worst case intermodulation scenarios, assuming large hotspot unit densities, it is proposed to calculate the effect of N=8, 16 and 32 RFID units inside the intermodulation protection range:
Table 5.1.4.4.3. Hotspot unit densities for intermodulation calculations
ScenarioNo of units inside main beam protection areaNo of units inside side lobe protection area1 (common case)812 (very high density case)1613 (extreme but very seldom case)323
Probability of occurrence
Since the two events are statistically independent, the probability that a single RFID unit is interfering to a victim receiver with an omnidirectional antenna is:
EMBED Equation.3
where:
PMAINBEAM_COLL  probability of victim being inside of the interferer antennas main beam;
PTIME_COLL  probability of transmitter being on at a given time (= duty cycle).
To determine the number of IM frequencies it is necessary to calculate the probability of how many of the above N units are transmitting at the same time. This can be done by calculating the probability P(n), which is the probability that n units out of N are transmitting simultaneously. This is given by the following binomial probability formula:
EMBED Equation.3
Using the data in table 5.1.4.4.4 the results of the calculations of P(n) are shown in figure 5.1.4.4.4 below:
Figure 5.1.4.4.4. Probability of simultaneous transmissions generating intermodulation
Table 5.1.4.4.4 below shows the relevant 3rd order IM combinations and their probabilities for interfering to Bluetooth.
Table 5.1.4.4.4 Probability for intermodulation to Bluetooth by 4W RFID for different population densities
n = number of transmitters on at the same time234567Max No of IM components in a victim channel
(19 maximum)291625
(in 19 ch. max.)36
(in 19 ch. max.)49
(in 19 ch max.)Percentage of all Bluetooth channels affected2/79 = 2.5%9/79 = 11.4%16/79 = 20.3%19/79 = 24.1%19/79 =
24.1%19/79 =
24.1%No of units inside the IM protection range (hotspot density, N)Below is given probability for occurrence of above effected channels Scenario 1, N=83.5 E023.2 E031.8 E04< 1 E04< 1 E04< 1 E04Scenario 2, N=161.0 E011.9 E022.7 E022.5 E04< 1 E04< 1 E04Scenario 3, N=322.2 E019.0 E022.8 E026.0 E031.1 E031.8 E04
Table 5.1.4.4.4 shows that intermodulation will happen occasionally, but the probability is low due to the mitigation applied for RFID.
Another way of looking at IM products is to assess the required isolation distances d1 and d2 between the interfering transmitters and the victim receiver. Given the propagation model from section 5.1.3 these distances can be obtained from the minimum received interference power levels I1 and I2 at which degradation might occur. The Bluetooth IM specification assumes I1 = I2 corresponding to d1 = d2. In practice, however, the interferers have different distances in general. I.e. if one transmitter is closer to the victim, the distance to the other one must increase in order to guarantee that the limit of intermodulation products does not exceed a given threshold. The general relation is given by
EMBED Equation.3
where:
I1  the received power of interferer 1 with carrier frequency f1 in dBm;
I2  the received power of interferer 2 with carrier frequency f2 in dBm;
IP3  the 3rd order intercept point in dBm (Bluetooth specification requires IP3 ( 21 dBm);
IM  the power of the intermodulation product at frequency 2f1f2, measured in dBm.
Assuming one interferer at a distance d1 , the required distance d2 for a second transmitter on another frequency for a maximum tolerable IM can be determined with the following procedure:
Determine I1 from d1 using the channel model from section 5.3.1;
Determine I2 from the formula above: EMBED Equation.3 ;
Determine d2 from I2 using the inverse relations of the channel model from section 5.1.4.
Note: For d1 ( d2 this is a worst case consideration, because the determined power at 2f1f2 is greater than the power at 2f2f1. To obtain the IMproduct with maximum power, I1 and I2 must be exchanged in the above formula for d1 > d2.
Figure 5.1.4.4.4.1 shows the required isolation distances for intermodulation interference to a Bluetooth receiver as a victim caused by two RFID interferers, having distances d1 and d2, respectively, from the victim. The first figure is for a Bluetooth device operating at the receive level of 64 dBm, which is the level for the IMspecification. In this case the detectable level of intermodulation is IM= 75 dBm. For the second figure a receive level of 47 dBm is used, corresponding to a Bluetooth link over 2 m distance. This represents also a link from a headset at the human ear to a mobile phone in the pocket (1 m distance +6 dB body loss), which can be considered as a typical application in the vicinity of RFID devices. Both figures contain two curves with EIRP of 36 dBm and 27 dBm, respectively, for the RFID transmitters. 36 dBm represents the worst case, where the main beam of RFID antenna is pointing towards the Bluetooth receiver.
Each curve divides the d1d2 plane into two regions. For all distance pairs [d1, d2] above this curve it is guaranteed that the intermodulation product in any receive channel is below the given limit.
Figure 5.1.4.4.4.1: Isolation distances d1 and d2 of two RFID readers interfering to a Bluetooth victim
For 4W RFID devices and a Bluetooth device operating at (MUS+6) dB, quite large isolation distances can be obtained. Even for 500 mW RFID and a Bluetooth receiver operating at a higher level, the required distances is in the order of 10 m, which appears unacceptably high. However, this must be compared with the isolation distances required for blocking which are around 14 m for 36 dBm and 5 m for 27 dBm. For a 2 m Bluetooth link IM products become only significant, if at least one interferer is close to the blocking level. For low receive level and a 4W RFID intermodulation products may be more significant. Compared to cochannel and adjacent channel interference the effect of IM products is assessed as being low.
It should be noted that these deterministic limits do not necessarily mean actual interference. In a realistic environment, only a few frequencies are interfered by IM products and through frequency hopping only a fraction of all hops are affected. The overall link quality might therefore be still acceptable although the IMlimit is exceeded on a few channels. The effect is further reduced by a low duty cycle of RFID transmitters, which results in a low probability that two or more transmitters within the isolation range are active at the same time. This is in alignment with the conclusions given in Table 5.1.4.4.4.
Mechanisms of interference
By applying the methods described in section 5.1.4 above, the protection distance can be calculated for various interferer types if the interferers are continuously transmitting.
It shall be noted that different types of interferers will have different interference mechanisms depending of their bandwidth. The relevant computations for protection distances were calculated in Excel spreadsheet, as given in Annex B of this report. A summary of these calculations for different interference mechanisms is shown in Table 5.1.5 below.
Table 5.1.5: Interference mechanisms and protection distances to Bluetooth for different types of interferer
Interferer typePower (e.i.r.p)
dBmDuty cycle (%)Channel BW MHzPrimary mechanism of interferenceCalculated protection distance, metre 2)Protection distance using UK/RA measured C/I, m 3)SRD narrow band+101001Blocking0.71.5SRD, CATV+1010020 Cochannel36 35.7 RLAN, DSSS+2010015Cochannel85 40 RLAN, FHSS+201001Blocking2 4.9 RFID, FHSS+3610/15/50/1000.3Blocking///14.2 4.9/ 5.5/ 19.3/24 ENG/OB video cam.  Analogue+3510020Cochannel243 142 ENG/OB helicopter Analogue+5610020Cochannel1948 1)869 1)ENG/OB video cam. Digital+351007.61Cochannel339 145 ENG/OB helicopter  Digital+561007.61Cochannel3202 1)716 1)Note1: Calculated with free space model and 15 dB wall attenuation;
Note 2: Worst case protection distances based on Bluetooth specified C/I values of 11 dB (cochannel)
and 40 dB (blocking), and unobstructed indoor propagation model (see section 5.1.3);
Note 3: Worstcase protection distances based on measured C/I values (see section 6.5) for an
unobstructed indoor propagation path (see model in section 5.1.3).
In order to assess the effect of cochannel and adjacent channel interference on a Bluetooth link, C/I values must be mapped to a quality measure. In this study, the packet throughput of a data connection is taken as measure for the link quality. The study of throughput in dependence on C/I reveals some insight into the interference mechanism to Bluetooth. For simplicity, study considers the normalised throughput, which is 1 in case of no interference. Because of the ARQmechanism in Bluetooth, a packet is not only lost if the forward link is erroneous, but also if the acknowledgement on the backward channel is erroneous. Since a packet and its acknowledgement is transmitted on different frequencies, which are selected independent from each other, the relative throughput of a Bluetooth data link is given by (1Perr)2, where Perr is the average packet error rate.
The packet error rate Perr depends on the actual Carrier to Interference ratio C/I. In order to concentrate on the main effects, a packet is considered as errorfree, if C/I exceeds a given threshold, it is considered as erroneous, if C/I is below that threshold.
The frequency hopping mechanism in Bluetooth ensures that each of the 79 channels are used with the same probability. I.e. even if the C/I is constantly below a given threshold on one channel, the average packet error rate is 1/79 as long as the C/I is sufficiently high on all other channels. This principle can be applied if the interferer dwell time on a channel is much higher than the dwell time of the Bluetooth link. This condition holds for all considered scenarios, except one: Interference from Bluetooth operating in HV1mode to Bluetooth operating in DM5 mode. In this case there are 5 interferer hops per victim hop. This degrades throughput significantly.
The interferer duty cycle has also impact on throughput. Note that packet errors can only occur during the ontime of the interfering transmitter. The total throughput of a data link is therefore given by
R = Pon((1Perr)2
where:
Perr  the average packet error rate during ontime;
Pon  the probability that the interferer is active (duty cycle).
For the analysis two types of interferers need to be distinguished:
narrowband, if the interferer bandwidth is not greater than the Bluetooth receive bandwidth such asBluetooth, RFIDs and RLAN with frequency hopping,
wideband, if the interferer bandwidth is much greater than the Bluetooth receive bandwidth such as DSSS RLAN, ENG/OB systems (analogue and digital).
Narrowband interferers
All narrowband interferers in the ISM band are characterised by constant envelope transmit signals. From the interference point of view they have the same effect as a Bluetooth interferer with same power. Therefore, the C/Ilimits can be taken from the Bluetooth specification.
The method for determining the throughput degradation versus C/I is explained for a narrowband interferer with 100% duty cycle:
At high C/I the packet error rate is 0, the throughput is 1;
If C/I falls below the threshold for cochannel interference (11 dB), one of 79 hopping channels is erroneous, i.e. the packet error rate is 1/79 and the throughput reduces to R = 0.975;
If C/I falls below the threshold for the 1st adjacent channel interference (0 dB), the cochannel and both adjacent channels are affected. The packet error rate is 3/79 and the throughput reduces to R = 0.926;
For C/I < 40 dB the blocking level is reached, i.e. all channel are affected and the throughput breaks down.
Figure 5.1.5 shows R versus C/I for various conditions, curve 1A is the one for a narrowband interferer like RFID with 100% duty cycle. Curve 1C is the same for 15% duty cycle. Curve 1B and 1D shows the effect of a fast hopping interferer.
Wideband interferers
In contrast to narrowband interferers, wideband interferers produce into a narrowband receiver a noiselike signal, which has a highly timevarying envelope. For noiselike interference, the cochannel C/I requirement cannot be taken from the specification. Experiments have shown that for Bluetooth a limit of C/IN(18 dB must be used instead, where IN is the interference power after channel filtering. IN is related to the total interference power I as follows:
IN = I  10log10(BI/BBlue),
where:
BBlue  the noise equivalent bandwidth of the Bluetooth receiver (( 1 MHz);
BI  the noise equivalent bandwidth of the interfering signal.
Additionally, the adjacent channel C/I requirements cannot be used, because this assumes that only one receive channel is interfered. For wideband interferers, the Bluetooth performance in channels which are adjacent to the interferer core spectrum is normally dominated by spectral components from the interferer which fall into the receive band.
In order to give an impression of the principal characteristic of throughput versus C/I, a DSRLAN system is taken as an example. Using a realistic spectral shape of the transmit signal the throughput is calculated and shown as curve 2A in figure 5.1.5. The first and largest step in throughput reduction corresponds to Perr = 13/79. At 3 dB below two additional channels are interfered, giving Perr=15/79. (DSSS RLAN has 3 dB bandwidth of 15 MHz, corresponding to 15 Bluetooth channels). Each further step in throughput reduction corresponds to an increase of 2/79 in the packet error rate. If the diagram would be turned by 90( to the left, the curve has approximately the shape of the right side of the DSSS RLAN transmit spectrum. The throughput breaks nearly down to 0 for C/I < 30 dBm although the blocking level of 27 dBm is not yet reached. This is due to the fact that the spectrum has side shoulders stemming from 3rd order nonlinearity. This widening of the spectrum effectively blocks nearly the whole band for C/I < 32 dB.
Fig. 5.1.5: Bluetooth throughput behaviour vs. C/I
EMBED Word.Picture.8
Legend:
1A 1D for constant envelope narrowband interferers;
1A interferer: 100% duty cycle; victim: DM1mode;1B interferer: Bluetooth DM1, 100% duty cycle; victim: DM5mode;1C interferer: 15% duty cycle; victim: DM1mode;1D interferer: Bluetooth DM1, 15% duty cycle; victim: DM5mode;2A, 2B for DSRLAN interferer (valid for both DM1 and DM5 mode of Bluetooth victim):
2A interferer: 100% duty cycle
2B interferer: 15% duty cycle.
The following important conclusion from these considerations can be drawn: tolerable C/I limits heavily depend on the quality criteria (throughput threshold) and on the type of interference. If the tolerable threshold is set to e.g. 90%, the C/I limit for a narrowband interferer would be 30 dB. If the threshold would be set to 95%, the C/I requirement would be 0 dB. For a wideband interferer it would be around 3 dB in both cases. It is therefore important to base a final evaluation of interference effects not only on one quality threshold.
Bluetooth receiver burnout
The possibility for RF burnout of a Bluetooth receiver frontend by the impact from a +36 dBm (e.i.r.p.) RFID transmitter was discussed. The conclusion was that RF burnout is not possible if RFID manufacturers provide a dome over the antenna.
Simulations
Simulation Model
At the distances when the burnout problem potentially occurs, the victim device is in the near field of the RF ID antenna. In this situation normal propagation equations are not valid. However, this problem can be overcome by simulation methods for which there are a number of tools available on the market. This study used the IED3 tool, developed in New Zealand. This tool allows to perform 2.5D simulations.
The simulation model consisted of the RFID antenna, modelled as a patch on a small ground plane. The gain of the patch was 8 dBi (no resistive losses were considered), which is 2 dB more than the minimum gain, stated in the draft EN 300 440. For the victim antenna the study used a PIFA (Planar Inverted F Antenna). This antenna is typical for portable devices used in this frequency band and has a maximum gain of +1 dBi in free field. The setup of simulation model is shown on Fig. 5.1.6.1 below.
Fig. 5.1.6.1: Simulation model (left: PIFA visible, right: patch is visible)
Results
The simulation was performed at 2450 MHz with distance between the antennas ranging from 1 cm to 50 cm. Simulation tool was used to calculate the isolation between the two antennas (S21) for each distance, as shown below:
Distance, cmS21, dB1132559.510142019302240255026.5
In the proposed high power RFID system the antenna is fed with 1W (30 dBm), when the antenna gain is 6 dBi. Considering that the gain of the patch was 8 dBi instead of 6 dBi the feeding power should be reduced to 28 dBm. This means that when the distance between the interferer and the victim is 1 cm (3 dB isolation), the victim receiver has to withstand +25 dBm power and so on.
Measurements
To determine the possibility for RF burnout the following test setup was used:
EMBED MgxDesigner
a) The signal generator level was increased to establish a reference level at the power meter. The power meter reading was noted as the reference level, Pref.
b) The cable connection was disconnected in point A. RFID antenna and dipole antenna were connected as shown below:
EMBED MgxDesigner
The two antennas were moved physically to obtain maximum power transfer and the power reading Pn, at the power meter was noted. The power transmission loss through the two antennas was measured as:
PLoss = Pref  Pn = 12.8 dB.
For a 4 W e.i.r.p. RFID system, with 1 W conducted power into a 6 dBi gain antenna, the maximum power at the receiver input is therefore:
P = 30 dBm 12.8 dB = 17.2 dBm.
This power level is too low to burnout the receiver.
Conclusions
The simulation performed show that a victim at a distance of 10 cm from the high power RFID system would need to withstand +14 dBm and +9 dBm at distance of 20 cm.
Todays stateoftheart semiconductor processes for portable receiver frontend circuits use thin oxide, 0.18 um transistors for 1.8 V supply. In the near future these sizes will shrink further to allow 1.2 and 0.8 V transistors. The smaller sizes will mean that the ability to cope with high input levels decrease. For designers the maximum input level is an important parameter to consider, when trying to get the best performance out of the receiver. A maximum level of +15 dBm is a realistic goal, which will not degrade other performance parameters significantly. As the simulations described in this report show there is a risk that this level is exceeded. It should be noted that the burnout problem is valid also with 15% duty cycle on the RFID transmitter and that it can cause longterm effects that will degrade the performance of the victim receiver and finally cause permanent damage and failure.
Probabilistic method
Interference probability analysis is a fourstep process, leading to an interference assessment for different scenarios. Those steps are:
Determine the Minimum Coupling Loss (MCL) between the interferer and the victim, see section 5.2.1;
Translate the MCL into a minimum interference range for a single interferer by means of an appropriate propagation model, see section 5.2.2;
Calculate the number of potential interferers inside the interference area, see section 5.2.3;
Evaluate the cumulative probability of interference using equation 5.2.5.b, see section 5.2.5.
Minimum Coupling Loss
MCL between the interfering transmitter and victim receiver determines the interference cell size. This cell size (radius) Rint has to be calculated by means of an applicable propagation model (see subsection 5.2.2) and minimum coupling loss.
The MCL is the minimum path loss required for nondetectable interference from interferer to victim, which is given by:
MCL = Psrd + G t  Lb  Lf t + G r  Lf r + 10 log(Br (Bt /Bt ) I (5.2.1)
where:
I  maximum permissible interference level at victim receiver;
Psrd  interfering transmitter conducted power;
G t  interfering transmitter antenna gain;
G r  victim receiver antenna gain;
Lf t  interfering transmitter feeder loss;
Lf r  victim receiver feeder loss;
B t  interfering transmitter 3 dB bandwidth;
B r  victim receiver 3 dB bandwidth;
Lb  building loss as appropriate.
Expression Br (B t in the above formula means overlapping part of the transmitter and receiver frequency band. In this analysis, it is assumed that the device having the smaller bandwidth always is included within the bandwidth of the other system. Thus the overlapping part is equal to the smaller bandwidth Br (B t = min {Bt , B r}.
Propagation models
A different propagation model is used for each of the following three environments: indoor, urban and rural. Most of the Bluetooth, RFID and RLAN systems are operated indoors, and in this case an additional 15 dB building attenuation is assumed in case of interference to outdoor victims, which is typical of a 22 cm masonry wall. All of the propagation models below predict the median value of path loss.
Indoor propagation
The indoor model uses free space propagation for distances less than 10 m (a path loss exponent of 2). Beyond 10 m the exponent is 3.5. The following indoor model is assumed valid for distances from 10 m to 500 m:
EMBED Equation.3 (5.2.2)
Beyond 500 m, this model is not applicable, since most indoor building areas are smaller than 500 m. The indoor propagation model is supported by numerous measurements described in literature, e.g. Wireless Communications by T. S. Rappaport, ISBN 0133755363, Chapter 3.
Indoor downwards directed antenna
The propagation of RF energy in the 2.45 GHz band inside a building differs from that in the outdoor environment because propagation within buildings is strongly influenced by many variable factors. These include the layout of the building, the construction materials used, the building type, and the furniture and other fixtures within the building. Because the wavelength in the 2.45 GHz band is approximately 12 cm, there will be a very large number of objects and surfaces within the building having dimensions on the order of one half wavelength (6 cm) or more which are capable of interacting with the radio energy in the 2.45 GHz band. Each one of these objects is potential source of reflection, diffraction, or scattering of the radio frequency energy.
In the case of a downwardlooking lowgain antenna, the dominant mechanism for propagation of energy to a potential victim receiver will not be via the lineofsight. Instead the interfering signal will be reflected from the multiplicity of surfaces in the area illuminated by the antenna. Because of the low gain interferer antenna (typically 0 to +6dBi), its beam width will be large, illuminating many reflecting surfaces. These surfaces will not be uniform, but will in fact be oriented in many directions and will be of a variety of sizes and shapes. The net result of this collection of incidental reflectors is to reradiate the incident energy in all directions. If we consider the reflecting surfaces to be uniformly distributed in their orientation and perfectly reflecting, the total incident energy will be reradiated uniformly in all directions. Thus the reflecting surfaces have the effect of totally defocusing the pattern of the downwardlooking interferer antenna. What we effectively have in this idealised scenario is an isotropic radiator, in so far as the propagation of an interfering signal to a distant receiver is concerned.
But few of the reflecting objects within the main beam of the interferer antenna will be perfect reflectors of energy in the 2.45 GHz band, and furthermore diffraction effects will arise because of obstructions in the various signal paths. Therefore we can expect that the effective gain of the downwardlooking antenna will be somewhat less than 0 dBi. This has been the experience of vendors of equipment.
Urban propagation
The urban model used in this report is the CEPT SE21 urban model. This model is described by ITUR Report 5674 and is valid for frequencies between 150 MHz and 1500 MHz. The CEPT/SE21 model further extends the frequency range to 3000 MHz:
L(urban, dB) = 45.144 + 33.9 log 2000 + 10 log (f /2000)  13.82 log htx  a(hrx)  a(htx) + (44.9  6.55 log htx ) log d=
= 124.04 + 10 log f  13.82 log htx  a(hrx)  a(htx) + (44.9  6.55 log htx ) log d.
The CEPT/SE21 model is restricted to the same range of parameters as are the other CEPT models:
f =20003000 MHz;
htx = 30200 m;
hrx = 110 m;
d = 120 km.
The CEPT/SE21 urban propagation model makes further modifications to the Hata model, as follows:
LCEPT(urban, dB) = 124.04 + 10 log f  13.82 log htx  a(hrx)  a(htx) + (44.9  6.55 log htx ) log d;
where: a(htx)) = Min [0, 20 log (htx/30)];
a(hrx) = (1.1 log f  0.7) Min(10, hrx)  (1.56 log f  0.8) + Max [0, 20 log (hrx /10)],
are antenna height gain factors for the transmitter and receiver antennas, respectively.
The equations given above predict large negative values (e.g., negative18 dB) for the transmitters antenna height gain for low antennas. This arises because the CEPT/SE21 model assumes that the transmitter antenna is mounted high (above 30 m) and in the clear. But in the situations of interest in this report, typically both transmit and receiver antennas are below 10 m, so those nearby ground clutter and reflections are no longer negligible.
For the purposes of this report, the SE21 propagation model was extended with the height gain equation:
a(htx) = (1.1 log f  0.7) Min(10, htx)  (1.56 log f  0.8) dB + Max [0, 20 log (htrx /10)]
when both antenna heights are less than 10m.
Rural propagation
Propagation within radio lineof sight
The rural propagation model used within the radio lineofsight in this report is the CEPT SE21 rural model, also referred to as the modified free space loss model. The rural model assumes free space propagation until a certain break point distance, rBREAK depending on the antenna heights for the interferer and victim:
Pl(r)(dB) = 20 log(4(r/() + MWALL, for r < rBREAK = 4(*ht*hr/(;
Pl(r)(dB) = 20 log(r/(ht*hr)) +MWALL, for r > rBREAK = 4(*ht*hr/(.
Propagation outside radio lineof sight
In cases where the victim is either a Fixed Station or ENG/OB receiver with high gain elevated antennas, the SE21 rural propagation model described above may predict protection distances exceeding the radio lineofsight distances. In these cases the rural propagation model is based upon the ITUR Recommendation P.4528 (1997) Prediction Procedure for the Evaluation of Microwave Interference Between Stations on the Surface of the Earth at Frequencies above about 0.7 GHz.
The ITUR P.452 considers six interference propagation mechanisms:
Lineofsight;
Diffraction;
Tropospheric scatter;
Surface ducting;
Elevated layer reflection and refraction;
Hydrometer scatter.
The approach described in the procedure of the ITUR P.452 is to keep separate the prediction of interference signal levels from the different propagation mechanisms up to the point where they are combined into an overall prediction for the path. This approach is well suited to the purposes of this report for it facilitates the elimination of the propagation mechanisms, which are not pertinent to this report.
The basic input parameters required for the procedure of the ITUR P.452 are:
Frequency;
Required time percentage for which the calculated basic transmission loss is not exceeded;
Longitude of station (for the transmitter and receiver);
Latitude of station (for the transmitter and receiver);
Antenna centre height above ground level (for the transmitter and receiver);
Antenna centre height above mean sea level (for the transmitter and receiver);
Antenna gain in the direction of the horizon along the greatcircle interference path (for the transmitter and receiver).
The ITUR P.452 procedure assumes that the locations of both stations are precisely known and fixed (recall that it was developed for analysing interference in the Fixed Service), and therefore it is not possible in this report to specify some of the input parameters required to utilise the full procedure. See following subsection Path profile analysis for details.
For the purposes of this report, the propagation model predicts the particular values of basic transmission loss which are not exceeded 50% of the time, i.e., the median path loss. This report also uses median values of the radio meteorological parameters which are representative of temperate climates. Therefore the average value for the ratio of effective Earths radius to the actual Earths radius is K=1.33. Assuming an average Earths radius of 6371 km, an effective Earths radius was considered equal: Ae = K ( 6371 km = 8473 km ( 8500 km. This value was used throughout the calculations.
Interference Path Classifications and Propagation Model Requirements
The following table lists the three classifications of the interference paths and the corresponding propagation models.
Table 5.2.2.4a: Classification for interference path and propagation model
ClassificationPropagation Models RequiredLineofsight with 1st Fresnel zone clearanceLineofsight
Clutter lossLineofsight with diffraction, i.e., Terrain intrusion into the 1st Fresnel zoneLineofsight
Diffraction
Clutter lossTranshorizonDiffraction
Ducting/layer refraction
Tropometric scatter
Clutter loss
Because of the low radiated power levels and low antenna heights utilised by Bluetooth and similar shortrange devices, transhorizon propagation is not a significant factor for the interference analysis of this report and will not be used.
The following parts of this subsection discuss each of the pertinent propagation models listed in the righthand column of the above table.
Lineofsight
The basic path loss Lb0(p), not exceeded for time percentage p% due to line of sight propagation, is given by:
Lb0(p) = 92.5 + 20 log f + 20 log d + Es(p) + Ag dB
where:
f  frequency in GHz;
d  path length in km;
Es(p)  correction for multipath and focusing effects;
Es(p)= 2.6 [1 exp(d/10)] log (p/50), Es(p)= 0 for p = 50%;
Ag  the total gaseous absorption, which is negligible at 2.4 GHz.
Therefore the basic free space path loss formula in the 2.45 GHz band simplifies to:
Lb0(p) = 100.3 + 20 log d, (dB);
where:
d is the path length in km.
Clutter Loss
Considerable benefit, in terms of protection from interference, can be derived from the additional diffraction losses experienced by antennas that are imbedded in local ground clutter (i.e., buildings, vegetation).
In lieu of parameters specific to a particular antenna location, the ITUR Recommendation P.526 defines seven nominal values to be used for clutter heights and distances in particular environments:
Table 5.2.2.4b: Nominal clutter heights and distances
CategoryNominal height, mNominal distance, kmOpen0Rural40.1Coniferous trees200.05Deciduous trees150.05Suburban90.25Urban200.02Dense Urban250.02
The additional path loss due to interference protection arising from local clutter is given by:
Ah = 10.25 ( exp( dk) ( { 1 tanh [ 6 ( h/ha 0.625)]} 0.33 dB
where:
dk  distance (km) from nominal clutter point to the antenna;
h  antenna height (m) above local ground level;
ha  nominal clutter height (m) above local ground level.
For the antenna heights assumed in this report, the additional losses arising from clutter in the rural environment are given in the following table:
Table 5.2.2.4c: Additional clutter losses, dB, for rural environment
Antenna height, mRuralConiferous treesDeciduous trees1.517.319.119.12.58.919.119.13.03.119.119.110015.67.050000200000
Diffraction Loss
For the purposes of this report, the excess diffraction loss is computed by the method described in the ITUR Recommendation P.526, assuming that p = 50%. This method is used for the calculation of the diffraction loss over both lineofsight paths having subpath obstruction and transhorizon paths. Therefore, the inclusion of diffraction loss into the propagation model accounts for the effects of the curvature of the Earth on the path loss at distances both less than and greater than the radio line of sight.
The basic transmission loss Lbd(p) not exceeded for p% of the time for a diffraction path is given by:
Lbd(p) = 92.5 + 20 log f + 20 log d + Ld(p) + Esd(p) + Ag + Ah dB
where:
Ld(p)  additional transmission loss due to diffraction over a spherical Earth calculated by the procedure described in ITUR P.5265;
Esd(p)  correction for multipath and focusing effects,
Ag  total gaseous absorption, which is negligible at 2.4 GHz;
Ah  additional clutter loss used in calculations.
At short distances, the diffraction loss will be zero and therefore the transmission loss given above is simplifies to free space path loss, decreasing as 20*log(d).
Diffraction over the Smooth Earth
Diffraction of the radio signal is produced by the surface of the ground and other obstacles in the radio path between the transmitter and receiver. A family of ellipsoids (ellipses of revolution) subdivides the intervening space between the transmitter and receiver; all having their foci located at the transmitter and receiver antenna locations. The ellipses are defined by the location of points having path lengths of n(/2 greater than the freespace line of sight path, where n is a positive integer and ( is the wavelength. The nth ellipse is called the nth Fresnel ellipsoid. As a practical matter, the propagation is considered to be lineofsight (i.e., to occur with negligible diffraction, if there is no obstacle within the first Fresnel ellipsoid.)
The radius of the Fresnel ellipsoid is given by the following formula:
Rn = [n ( d1 d2/ (d1 + d2)]
Where d1 and d2 are the distances from the transmitter and receiver to the point where the ellipsoid radius is calculated.
The additional transmission loss due to diffraction over a spherical earth is computed from the formula:
Ld(p) =  [F(X) + G(Y1) + G(Y2) ],
where:
F(X) = 11 + 10 log (X) 17.6 X.  the distance factor;
X = 2.2 ( f 1/3 ae 2/3 d;
d the path length, km;
ae  equivalent Earth radius, 8500 km;
f  frequency, MHz.
The antenna height gain factor is given by:
G(Y) (17.6 (Y 1.1)1/2 5 log (Y1.1) 8 for Y>2, and
G(Y) ( 20 log (Y + 0.1 Y3 ) for Y < 2,
where:
Y =9.6 ( 103 ( f 2/3 ae 1/3 h,
h  antenna height, m.
The above equations were used to compute the total path loss for the rural propagation cases analysed in this report.
Path profile analysis
In order to perform a more precise estimate of the propagation path loss over a particular radio path, a path profile of terrain heights above mean sea level is normally required. Based upon the geographical coordinates of the transmitter and receiver stations, the terrain heights above mean sea level along the greatcircle path are derived from a topographic database or from appropriate largescale contour maps. Typically, data are required for every 0.25 km along the greatcircle path. This profile should include the ground heights at the transmitter and receiver station locations at the start and end points. The height of the Earths curvature, based on the effective Earths radius, is added to the profile heights along the path.
Appendix 2 to Annex 1 of ITUR P.4528 specifies a stepby step procedure for performing this analysis. Computer programs are available which facilitate the numerous calculations required in this procedure. However, this more precise approach is not appropriate for this report because of the lack of a welldefined specific path between the transmitters and receivers of interest. Additionally, the large number of potential interfering transmitters would result in a substantial computational burden. Consequently, for the purposes of this report a smooth earth having average characteristics in the analysis were assumed.
Total path loss determination for diffraction and clutter
The ITU procedure was used to determine the total path loss as a function of distance for different antenna heights as required by the interference scenarios in this report. This information was used to determine the protection distance by matching the path loss with the required Minimum Coupling Loss (MCL).
Number of interfering units
The radius of the interference cell, RINT, is the path length, d, corresponding to the Minimum Coupling Loss (MCL), as determined in section 5.2.1 above. The total number of interfering transmitters within that cell, NINT, is computed from the radius of the interfering cell and the spatial distribution of the interfering transmitters.
In this report two different distribution models have been used to derive the cumulative probability of interference: a uniform distribution and an exponential distribution. The uniform distribution is used to assess the interference into ENG/OB and Fixed Services, where the victims higher antenna and greater sensitivity result in large interference cells.
The exponential distribution of interfering transmitters is used to assess the interference to SRD that have significantly smaller interference cells than ENG/OB and Fixed Services. Consequently, the interference will mostly arise from clusters of interferers located nearby the victim receiver. This clustering is modelled by the exponential distribution given in equation 5.2.3.a below.
For larger interference area, e.g. for interference to ENG/OB or Fixed Services, a uniform distribution is used. For further information of the related unit density numbers used, see Annex A. In the exponential distribution, the density of interferer decays as the distance from the victim increases. This is best described by the following formula:
EMBED Equation.3 (5.2.3.a)
where:
No  represents the interferer density (units/km square) in the centre of the interference cell;
r  distance toward the periphery of the interference cell;
k  decay constant that is set to k= 2 to represent expected distribution of interferers.
The following figure 5.2.3 illustrates exponential density of interferers.
Figure. 5.2.3: Interference cell size(s) and the interferers density
Victim
In Figure 5.2.3 above, the larger interference cell is determined using the gain of the interferer antenna in the direction of the main beam. The smaller cell is determined using the gain of the antenna in other directions (side lobes).
The total number of interferers in any of the interference cells is calculated:
EMBED Equation.3 (5.2.3.b)
Integration over r =(0 , Rint ) and the angle beta, ( over ( = (0 , 2 ) yields:
EMBED Equation.3 (5.2.3.c)
Equation (5.2.3.c) is used to calculate the number of interferers within interference cell boundaries.
Probability of antenna pattern, time, and frequency collision
Probability of alignment of antenna main beams
In the simplest case both interferer and victim have omnidirectional antennas resulting in a pattern collision probability of 100%. However, many of the systems of interest in this report use directional antennas to reduce interference potential.
If the victim is in the main beam of the interferer antenna and seeing him through his antennas main lobe, then the interference probability for antenna beam angle (, for interferer and victim is given by:
EMBED Equation.3 (5.2.4.1)
Added probability for antenna sidelobes
For interfering devices that use directional antennas, the interference arising from sidelobes may be significant. If the victim is in the side lobes of the Interferer antenna and seeing him through his antennas main lobe, then the additional interference probability is:
EMBED Equation.3 (5.2.4.2.a)
Equation (5.2.4.2.a) must be used with caution if the side lobe radiation pattern is ((360 (INT_MAIN).
RFID readers and other SRD frequently use patch type antennas, which are mounted on a large ground plane. The presence of the ground plane minimises radiation in the hemisphere to the rear of the antenna. In this case the overall equation is:
EMBED Equation.3 (5.2.4.2.b)
Equation (5.2.4.2.b) must be used with caution if the side lobe radiation pattern is ((180 (INT_main).
The cumulative probability of interference from both main beam and sidelobes is given in Section 5.2.5. Interference through the sidelobes of the antenna in both ends has not been considered in this report for the sake of simplicity. It should be noted that Bluetooth normally uses omnidirectional antennas without sidelobes.
Probability for frequency overlap
Phenomena modeled by a universal PFREQ_COL formula
The phenomena that the universal PFREQ_COL formula models are described below:
For the case of DSSS and NB (fixed channel) systems it is the randomness of the frequency channel assignment that causes uncertainty of the frequency collision event. Narrower channel bandwidths (either Tx or Rx) will contribute to a lower PFREQ_COL. This occurs because narrowing either (or both) of these bandwidths results in a larger number of nonoverlapping frequency windows available in the 2.45 GHz band and thus a larger number of nonoverlapping BWTX BWRX pairs
For the case of FHSS systems it is the randomness of the instantaneous frequency hop within the total set of hopping channels used (some of which may cause interference while others may not) that causes uncertainty of the frequency collision event.
The most complex case is a FHSS system hopping over only a portion of the 2.45 GHz band. Such a system benefits from both the randomness of the frequency hopping span position within the 2.45 GHz band as well as from the randomness of instantaneous frequency hop.
Definition of the frequency collision event
The main reason for the difficulty in the calculation of the PFREQ_COL is the lack of a clear definition of precisely what constitutes the frequency collision event.
The difficulty of clearly defining the frequency collision event arises because it must properly describe a complex mix of interfering systems, having various signal bandwidths (relatively narrow or wide with respect to each other) and various frequency spectrum shapes. Also the spectrum overlap of the interfering systems (being analogue in nature) can be full or partial, resulting in different effects on the interference.
In the interest of consistency the following basic assumptions and definitions have been adopted in this report:
The interfering transmitter and victim receiver channel bandwidths used in all PFREQ_COL calculations are 3 dB bandwidths. Thus, in terms of the transmitter, this is the uniformpowerdensityequivalent of the nulltonull bandwidth originally used in the spreadsheets. In case of the receiver, the uniform power density equivalent is the systemnoisebandwidth. Annex A spreadsheets have appropriate input cells for these parameters (Tx 3dB bandwidth and Rx systemnoisebandwidth).
For DSSS and NB, channel bandwidths is the bandwidth of a single channel. It can be user selectable, but not necessarily so. (This is not relevant to the probability of interference calculation since we assume a random choice of the channel in this probabilistic interference model.)
For FHSS, channel bandwidths is the bandwidth of a single hopping channel.
In consideration of the discussion above, the PFREQ_COL is determined only by the instantaneous bandwidth occupied by both the interferer and the victim, normalised to the total available bandwidth (for example, the entire 83.5 MHz in the 2.45 GHz band).
The narrower this instantaneous bandwidth of either the victim receiver or the interfering transmitter, the likelihood that they will overlap within in the spectrum window of the full ISM band is smaller. If the interferer or the victim is a FHSS system, the relevant instantaneous BW is the bandwidth of a single hop, while in case of DSSS or NB then it is the DSSS or NB single channel bandwidth.
The universal formula for PFREQ_COL immediately follows from the following definition of the frequency collision event:
The frequency collision event involving two interfering systems with system noise bandwidths BWINT and BWVICT occurs if at least half of the spectrum of the narrower bandwidth system overlaps with the spectrum of the other (wider bandwidth) system.
Notice that there is really no difference, which of the two systems is the victim or interferer here. It is only their instantaneous bandwidths that determine the probability of overlap.
The figure 5.2.4.3 below illustrates the essence of this definition of the frequency collision event. The shaded area in the drawing represents the wider bandwidth (uniform spectral density equivalent) system spectrum. The shaded spectrum can be either interferer or victim.
Case (a) in Fig. 5.2.4.3 represents the situation with a marginal frequency overlap. In this case only a small fraction (and thus below the interference threshold) of the interferer power falls within the victim receiver. Although the spectra overlap somewhat, this still is not considered to be harmful interference.
Case (c) represents a total frequency overlap that definitely would cause harmful interference, if the interfering signal were sufficiently strong.
Somewhere in between Cases (a) and Case (c) is the case when the frequency overlap is such that any further increase would lead to a harmful level of interference. Case (b) represents the case when half of the spectrum of the narrower BW system overlaps with the wider bandwidth one. In this case, approximately half of the narrower system bandwidth is corrupted by interference (in case the narrower bandwidth system is victim) or penetrate the wider bandwidth victim (in case the narrower bandwidth system is interferer). This would constitute a 3 dB overlap. This halfpower (3dB) case was used as the criteria for defining the frequency collision event, as discussed above.
Figure 5.2.4.3: Definition of frequency collision event
The benefits of frequency hopping in terms of reduction of the probability of frequency collision are realised if just one of the interference elements (the victim or interferer) is of FHSS type. The interference situation generally does not improve by having both the transmitter and receiver frequency hopping.
Additional interference mitigation measures such as optimised channel selection (frequency use planning) are not taken into account in analysis, although they can be used to reduce or sometimes even completely eliminate the interference. These techniques are applicable to all systems that feature a channel selection utility e.g. DSSS RLANs conformant to the IEEE 802.11 RLAN standard or frequency hopped systems, which adaptively select their hopping channels.
Universal formula for frequency collision, PFREQ_COL
Following the definition of the PFREQ_COL given in the preceding subsections, a universal formula is given by:
EMBED Equation.3 (5.2.4.3a)
EMBED Equation.3 (5.2.4.3b)
EMBED Equation.3 (5.2.4.3c)
where:
BWVICT , MHz  channel bandwidth of victim receiver (for FHSS  a single hop BW);
SPANINT , MHz  for FHSS it is the frequency span in which the FHSS hops, for DSSS and Narrow Band systems  it is just the ISM bandwidth of 80 MHz;
BWINT , MHz channel bandwidth of interfering transmitter (for FHSS  a single hop BW);
BWAVAIL , MHz  the available bandwidth.
For all systems except FHSS, which uses a portion of the 2.45 GHz band, equation (5.2.4.3b) produces 1 and thus:
PFREQ_COL = PFREQ_COL_2 .
It should be noted that analysis by the universal formula above assumes random frequency overlap. However, RFID systems can be programmed to avoid frequency overlap, which would further reduce the probability of frequency collision for example for interference to Fixed Services or ENG/OB.
Probability for time collision
The probability for time collision, Ptime_col, is given by:
EMBED Equation.3 (5.2.4.4a)
where: TAVG  repetition period of the interferer;
TINT_ON  time during TAVG that the transmitter is on;
TVICTIM_ON  time during TAVG that the receiver is on;
provided: that both TINT_ON and TVICTIM_ON are nonzero.
In the case where either TINT_ON or TVICTIM_ON is zero, there will be no interference, i.e., Ptime_col = 0.
In the case of connectionoriented services, specifically ENG/OB and Fixed Services, Equation (5.2.4.4.a) becomes Ptime_col = 1.0, because the victimon time can be arbitrarily long.
On the other hand, for packetoriented services, where the packet length is much shorter than TON this equation reduces to the duty cycle of the transmitter:
Ptime_col = transmitter duty cycle. (5.2.4.4b)
Formula (5.2.4.4b) is used in the calculations for packetoriented services to take account of the wide variation of transmitted data. Some systems operate at 100% duty cycle and others operate with less.
Cumulative probability of interference
Once the interference cell size is determined (minimum coupling loss translated into distance), a cumulative probability of interference by a single unit, Punit , can be calculated as combined probability of the following noncorrelated events:
probability of antenna beams (interferer and victim) crossing each other, Ppat_col, pattern collision probability;
probability of frequency collision, Pfreq_col ;
probability of interferer and victim colliding with each other in time domain, Ptime_col.
Also, one must assume a practical spatial density and calculate the corresponding total number of interferers in the area Nint_tot , as was described in Section 5.2.3 above.
The probability of becoming a victim of any one of the potential interferers in the area can be calculated as:
EMBED Equation.3 (5.2.5a)
The multiplication operator in the equation (5.2.5a) will have two parts when the interferers antenna is directional, which results in two interfering distances caused by the main beam and sidelobes respectively. Hence, the resulting formula for the total interference probability is:
EMBED Equation.3 (5.2.5b)
Calculations of interference probability
The probabilities of interference to and from Bluetooth are calculated in the Excel worksheets given in Annex A and presented in Section 6.
Multiple columns in worksheets are related to various existing and proposed systems individually either as a victim or an interferer. The combined interference effect of colocated systems of different categories is not analysed. Most of formulas used in each worksheet are presented in the chapter 6 and are consistent across the worksheets. Input data for each sheet is organised in the similar manner, resulting in the set of sheets that are easy to compare, modify or expand by adding new sheets for other systems operating in the 2.45 GHz band.
Section 6.2 presents the most relevant subset of Interference Probability calculations from the Annex A. But before looking into the numerical results, it is important to note that the calculations in Annex A deliver absolute values of instantaneous interference probability. Therefore calculation and subsequent interpretation of the results must be preceded by the precise definition of the interference criteria. This is done in Section 6.1.
It is obvious that an increase of e.i.r.p. of any radio communication system increases its interference potential. However, the application of appropriate interference mitigation techniques compensates for negative effects of increased e.i.r.p. and by this the compatibility between various systems in the 2.45 GHz band may be maintained.
Calculations in Annex A quantify the tradeoff between negative impact of increase of interferer e.i.r.p. and positive impact of implementation of multiple interference mitigation techniques. Interference mitigation techniques to be implemented on the proposed systems are summarised in Section 6.2.
Finally, protocol aspects of the proposed services, such as maximum transmiton time and transmitrepetition rate were not considered in the calculations given in Annex A. Protocol aspects of proposed systems are particularly relevant when analysing compatibility with the existing packetoriented systems such as IEEE 802.11 RLANs or Bluetooth. However, as the more susceptible users in the 2.45 GHz band are connectionoriented services (ENG/OB and possible Fixed Services) that do not benefit from reduced interference duty cycle or spread spectrum, the detailed analyses of interfering protocols are omitted.
Interference criteria as applied in the calculations in Annex A
Whenever the actual interference level in the victim receiver rises above the interference threshold, the model used in this report recognizes that an event called unacceptably high interference has occurred. For the purpose of this study, it is considered for nearly all victims that the interference threshold (threshold between acceptable and unacceptable interference level) is the same as the victims own receiver noise:
I = N => I/N = 0 dB,
resulting in the interference criteria being:
I/N ( 0 dB.
Fixed services are an exception as the ITUR Recommendation F.7581 specifies the interference threshold I/N= 10 dB. Therefore, the interference model delivers the Instantaneous Interference Probabilities of I/N exceeding 0 dB for all but Fixed Services where 10 dB is used.
The worksheets in Annex A are dedicated to Bluetooth as either victim or interferer. Based on the victim receiver characteristics (noise bandwidth and noise figure) and typical environmental noise level, each worksheet calculates the victim receivers own noise as the interference threshold except for Fixed Services, see below.
For some victim systems (e.g. Fixed Services), the interference criterion is defined as a tolerable I/N that may be exceeded, but only over the limited portion of time. How this time component is linked to the Instantaneous Interference Probability is explained below.
Strictly speaking, one should know the statistical information about the interferer activity over time in order to calculate the time behaviour of the cumulative interference of the whole interfering population. However, the situation simplifies in case of a large number of noncorrelated interferers (in terms of timing, frequency, etc.) producing short bursts of interference. In such a case, that is largely applicable to this study, each Instantaneous Interference Probability calculated in Annex A may be also interpreted as the percentage of time during which the specified I/N ( 0 dB (or I/N ( 10 dB for Fixed Services) criteria is met.
For example, this means that a calculation result such as:
Instantaneous Interference Probability = 20%,
can also be interpreted as:
I/N ( 0 dB during 20% of time
Similarly, one could define any other I/N (dB) interference criteria, calculate the associated Instantaneous Interference Probability and interpret it as a percentage of time over which the defined interference threshold may be exceeded.
PRESENTATION OF CALCULATION RESULTS
Deterministic Method
Overall results of applying deterministic method are given in Table 5.1.5 for different interference mechanisms.
Simulation results
The results for three duty cycles 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 and using omnidirectional antennas are shown in the following figures where d is the distance from the RFID to the victim.
Fig. 6.1.1.1 : Duty cycle=1
Fig. 6.1.1.2 : Duty cycle =0.5
Fig. 6.1.1.3 : Duty cycle=0.25
Discussion
The results in the figures in the previous subsection 6.1.1 can easily be interpreted in terms of a number of thresholds when certain interference mechanisms become active.
1st threshold: cochannels interference with probability EMBED Equation.3 and relative throughput:
EMBED Equation.3 ;
2nd threshold: 1st adjacent channel interference with probability EMBED Equation.3 and relative throughput:
EMBED Equation.3 =0.922;
3rd threshold: 2nd adjacent channel interference with probability EMBED Equation.3 and relative throughput
EMBED Equation.3 =0.877.
These results are in reasonable accordance with simulation results when compared with figures in section 6.1.1. The simulation results however predict somewhat lower throughput than the theory predicts. This however is within the accuracy of the simulator due to limited number of generated Bluetooth packets. When duty is lower than 1, there is the timing factor and the throughput will asymptotically approach close to (1 ) for large R.
Theory predicts (1 eff) where eff is the effective duty cycle, which is somewhat larger than the nominal duty cycle v due to the fact that a Bluetooth packet is already lost, if only a fraction overlaps with the ontime of the interferer.
The effective dutycycle is given approximately by
EMBED Equation.3
Probabilistic Method
Interference calculations were performed for the relevant operating environments. Resulting interference probabilities were calculated for each victim. In order to display the results of the study in a more informative manner, all results are presented in separate graphs:
Interference probabilities from the existing services into Bluetooth as a victim;
Interference probabilities into the existing services from Bluetooth 1as an interferer;
Interference probabilities into the existing services from Bluetooth 2 as an interferer.
The appropriate way of assessing the interference in the 2.45 GHz band is to calculate the absolute interference probabilities for realistically deployed existing and proposed systems. Besides showing absolute values, this graphical presentation also allows easy comparison of the interference probabilities of proposed systems to existing SRD systems, as recommended by the WGFM SRD Maintenance Group.
The cumulative probabilities of interference to Bluetooth from existing and planned services are shown in Figure 6.2a.
Cumulative probabilities of interference from 1 mW Bluetooth into existing and planned services are shown in Fig.6.2b.
Cumulative probabilities of interference from Bluetooth 2 (100 mW) into existing/planned services are shown in Fig. 6.2.c.
Simulation results
General
This chapter reports the results from applying the MonteCarlo model to analyse Bluetooth victim receiver performance in hotspot scenarios in which there are a large number of RFID transmitters present in a given area.
Throughput performance of three noncoded data protocol DH1, DH3 and DH5 have been simulated. Voice links on the other hand have not been considered due to difficulties in mapping simulation results into voice quality.
Simulation
Model
For a detailed description see Annex D of this report.
RFID parameters
General
The EIRP of each RFID reader is 4W with duty cycles ranging between 3.5% and 100%. The average RFID duty cycle is 15%. RFID units are not timesynchronised and they are assumed to be independent of each other. Frequency hopping is used for both RFID systems and Bluetooth. The hopping sequence for RFID is assumed to be approximately 320 times slower than in Bluetooth. The channel bandwidth for RFID is assumed to be 0.35 MHz and this system defines 20 different hops for the carrier frequency in a 7 MHz sub band positioned in the middle of the ISM band. The channel bandwidth for Bluetooth is assumed to be 1.00 MHz and this system uses 79 nonoverlapping hopping frequencies.
RFID parameters are summarised in Table 6.3.2.2.1 below.
Table 6.3.2.2.1. RFID parameters
EIRP4WDuty Cycle3.5100%Channel Bandwidth0.35 MHzNumber of hop frequencies20Frequency Band2.4462.454 GHz
Antenna model
From measured antenna pattern of a typical RFID reader a simplified mathematical model has been extracted. The radiation pattern of a typical 2.45 GHz RFID antenna is shown in figure 6.3.2.2.2.a below.
Fig 6.3.2.2.a: Measured antenna radiation pattern (Hplane)
From measurement the following simplified symmetric model has been extracted, as shown on Fig. 6.3.2.2b.
Figure 6.3.2.2.b: Extracted and simplified model of antenna radiation pattern (Hplane)
Bluetooth parameters
The used packet type was DH5 (data highrate five slots) and its maximal bit rate is assumed to be 432.6 kbit/s (symmetrical traffic). Comparison with DH1 and DH3 packets, with lower throughput, are given but the focus is on DH5 protocol since it is the most vulnerable data protocol. Maximum data loading was assumed.
The C/I interference performance from Bluetooth specification is given by:
C/I=11 dB, cochannel;
C/I=0 dB, at (f=1MHz, 1st adjacent channel;
C/I=30 dB, at (f=2MHz, 2nd adjacent channel;
C/I=40 dB, at (f (3MHz, 3rd adjacent channel;
where (f is the frequency offset between RFID and Bluetooth.
The lower C/I values than those specified in the list above, would result in lost packets for receivers meeting the specification with no margin. The conditions are related to the receiver sensitivity at bit error rate of 0.1%. The DH5packet has a size of approximately 3000 bits.
Some important Bluetooth parameters used in the simulations are defined in table 6.3.2.3 below.
Table 6.3.2.3: Main Bluetooth parameters
EIRP1mWPacket typeDH1, DH3 and DH5Channel Bandwidth1 MHzNumber of hops79
Two other Bluetooth protocols, DH1 and DH3 have been studied in one case. Higher power classes in Bluetooth (+6 and +20 dBm) have not been studied since 0 dBm is expected be the predominant case.
Propagation model
The assumed propagation model is given by:
EMBED Equation.3
It gives the path loss of 40.2 dB for distance of 1 m and 63.7 dB for 15 m.
Hot spot scenario
Scenario 1
In this scenario, which may be called Statistical HotSpot Scenario, all RFID units are placed randomly within a circle of 35 m radius. The cases with 8, 16 and 32 RFID units have been studied.
The hotspot densities are described in table 6.3.2.5.1 below:
Table 6.3.2.5.1: RFID hotspot unit density categorisation
Hotspot densityPublic areasNonpublic areasd" 2Small size shops
Private parking access2 4Medium size shops
Public parking accessSmall stockrooms4 8Large size shops
Local small super marketsSmall size factories
Small ware houses8 16Large super markets
Department storesMedium size factories
Warehouses16 32Hyper Markets
Building material markets
Airport checkin areaLarge factories
Large warehouses
Airport baggage handling
Central container handling
The randomness, or statistical distribution, can be defined in many different ways. In this study an equal distribution in the XYplane was assumed. A large number of scenarios have been simulated in order to approximate an ensemble average with high confidence. Other much more severe distributions, which would be more concentrated around the Bluetooth victim, could be applied. The assumptions in this report can therefore be considered to be conservative.
The Bluetooth receiver is placed in the centre, while the transmitter is placed at the varying distance from the receiver as shown in figure 6.3.2.5.1.
Figure 6.3.2.5.1: Positions of RFID and Bluetooth units in 1st scenario realisation
Scenario 2
This scenario may be called Cashier counter scenario and is illustrated in the Fig. 6.3.2.5.2 below. RFID power in this case is 27 dBm e.i.r.p.
Figure 6.3.2.5.2: Positions of RFID and Bluetooth units in 2nd scenario realisation
Scenario 3
Scenario 3 uses a realistic hotspot implementation where the duty cycle varies depending of the actual number of transponders to be interrogated. The scenario is selected to more closely represent the operation of RFID readers in an operational environment:
8 units with standby duty cycle of 3.5 %;
7 units for interrogation of single tags with a duty cycle of 10%;
1 unit with high duty cycle for continuous interrogation of multiple tags with a duty cycle of 95% with an ontime of 5 sec and offtime of 200 ms.
The average duty cycle for this system of 16 readers is 12%.
Simulation Results
Scenario 1
Fig. 6.3.3.1: Throughput performance comparing noncoded data protocols DH1, DH3 and DH5
Fig 6.3.3.2: Throughput performance comparing directional and omnidirectional antennas
Fig. 6.3.3.3: Throughput performance comparing duty cycles
Fig. 6.3.3.4: Throughput performance comparing different hotspot densities of RFID
Figure 6.3.3.5: Throughput performance evaluating influence from 3rd order intermodulation
Scenario 2
Fig. 6.3.3.6: Throughput performance using 8, 16 and 32 units, d=15%
EMBED Word.Picture.8
Scenario 3
Fig. 6.3.3.7: Throughput performance using 16 units, mixed duty cycle 3,5%, 10 % and 95%
Conclusion of simulation
An RFID hotspot scenario within a circle of 35 meters has been simulated, this is called scenario 1 or Statistical HotSpot scenario.
The maximum Bluetooth throughput 432.6 kb/s of the DH5 protocol is reduced as the number of interferers increase. For an RFID hotsport density of 8, a Bluetooth victim looses 15% of the maximal throughput within a close distance up to one meter. At larger distances and unit densities the throughput is reduced further. Different RFID densities have been considered. Without the RFID mitigation factor of the antenna beamwidth the Bluetooth throughput reduction will be severe for high density of RFID devices in combination with high dutycycles.
The difference between the three studied protocols, see figure 6.3.3.1, shows that DH5 is more vulnerable compared to DH1 and DH3 as expected. An RFID reader using a directional antenna mitigates the influence of interference. This effect improves the throughput with up to 50%, see figure 6.3.3.2.
The influence of duty cycle upon interference is very important according to what is shown in fig. 6.3.3.3. The higher RFID unit density is, the higher becomes the interference. This in turn results in lower throughput (figure 6.3.3.4). At a distance of 5 m, the throughput is degraded by 20%, 32% and 50% in the 8, 16 and 32 unit density cases respectively. Even in these more severe cases, the Bluetooth link is not prevented from operating.
As expected, the intermodulation adds to the interference but the contribution to the throughput reduction is minor, see fig 6.3.3.5.
Scenario 2, cashier counter scenario, has been simulated using DH5 protocol, see fig 6.3.3.6. No drastic throughput reduction occurs, but some reduction down to between 7085% throughput can be expected when approaching the cashier desk closer than one meter.
Finally, Scenario 3 shows that the individual duty cycle is not as important as the total averaged duty cycle of the collection of all the RFID readers for the hot spot scenario considered. The throughput reduces to 58% at 10m separation between the two Bluetooth link units.
Comparison of MCL and SEAMCAT simulations
Due to a number of differences between the two methodologies a simple comparison of results could not be undertaken. In order to make a general comparison of the SEAMCAT analysis tool to the MCLderived calculation results, two comparable methodologies would have to be used. This was done by using the MCLbased methodology to emulate the scenarios used in SEAMCAT. The original SEAMCAT scenarios using an (N + I)/I = 3 interference criterion had been performed.
In section 6.4.1 it is shown how the SEAMCAT tool was used to evaluate the level of probability of interference when the density of interfering devices increases within a defined fixed radius. In section 6.4.2 the study presents the simulation of similar scenarios using the MCLbased calculations. Finally, section 6.4.3 compares the results obtained in sections 6.4.1 and 6.4.2.
SEAMCAT Study
The SEAMCAT analysis tool uses the MonteCarlo methodology, which can be used for all radiointerference scenarios. From different parameters, such as antenna pattern, radiated power, frequency distribution and the C/I (major parameter), the tool calculates the statistical distribution function of the system. The tool can consider band emission, intermodulation and receiver blocking. Results are presented as a probability of interference, so a careful interpretation of the results is required.
Fixed simulation radius of 564.3 m had been chosen in this study, as this corresponds to a simulation area of 1km. The simulation radius Rsimu was calculated by using equation (6.4.1a), which is given in the SEAMCAT user documentation (annex 13, page 70):
EMBED Equation.3 (6.4.1a)
where :  EMBED Equation.3 ;
n active  number of active interferers in the simulation (nactive should be sufficiently large so that the (n+1)th interferer would bring a negligible additional interfering power);
densit active  density of active transmitters;
Pit  probability of transmission;
activityit(time)  temporal activity variation as a function of the time  time of the day (hh/mm/ss).
By setting the activity to 1 (or constant) and a probability of transmission of 1, the equation becomes:
EMBED Equation.3 (6.4.1b)
When choosing a density of x interferer/km2=No of active transmitter, equation (6.4.1b) can be solved and a simulation radius of 564.3m is defined:
EMBED Equation.3 =0.5643 km
The first suggested simulation is to evaluate the probability of interference of a variable number of transmitters within a defined 564.3 m radius. The idea is presented fig 6.4.1.
Figure 6.4.1: Number X of interfering devices within 564.3 m radius from the victim
A number of different interference scenarios were simulated. The input parameters used for each device are given in Annex C.1 in a form of SEAMCAT input file. Interference scenarios were simulated using the agreed values of C/I, see Annex C.2 for summary of results.
In order to be able to compare results with the MCLbased calculations, the interference scenarios were resimulated using (N+I)/N = 3dB. Results of these calculations are summarised in Annex C.3.
MCL STUDY
It was decided to obtain simulations of realistic scenarios and to complete the SEAMCAT study with a comparison with the MCLbased method. In this section, the MCLcalculated interference probabilities for the scenarios defined in Annex C.1 are presented.
In order to compare to certain extent the results obtained by MCL methodology with the SEAMCAT results, an analysis is proposed for setting the distance range, where a comparison of both methods is possible since the distributions defined in SEAMCAT and MCL methodology differ.
Note on RFID antenna directivity
RFID3a and RFID3b interferers radiate more power in the main beam direction of the antenna ((43 deg). At the rear side of the antenna (remaining 274 out of 360 deg) the power is 15 dB lower. Although the attenuation in the rear is 15 dB, the surface covered by this component is not negligible and was therefore considered in the analysis.
Note on RLAN coordinated cell and frequency planning
With RLAN2 to RLAN2 interference the IEEE 802.11b clear channel behavior and channel assignments made by configuring the Access Protocols (APs) is taken into account. The clear channel assignment is part of the 802.11 CSMA/CA protocol. This protocol includes a listenbeforetalk scheme: before starting a transmission the medium is sensed to be idle. Furthermore, the channel selection for the APs, which is currently done by a network administrator from a controller PC, will be done in the future through selfconfiguration. The channel selection will manage the 5 independent channels (5 in Europe, 4 in the US) as illustrated in Fig. 6.4.2.
In that way the cells around the AP use channels in a planned way. With large cells, the stations at the edge of the cell might operate near the sensitivity limits. With smaller cells and nearby the AP, the receive levels are higher. In principle, RLAN2 on RLAN2 interference analysis has to be analysed by a statistical method because the cell/frequency planning is coordinated. Therefore the corresponding MCLbased analysis reflecting selfinterference probability is misleading. These assume a random activity by RLAN2 devices in terms of channel usage and positioning. However, the usage of channel is done in a harmonized manner.
Bluetooth systems are based on assumption of no coordination between individual piconets. Thus, the MCLbased analysis is fully correct for Bluetooth.
Fig. 6.4.2: Channel frequency reuse pattern
EMBED Word.Picture.8
The following describes the scenarios used in the calculations. Corresponding results in graphical form are shown in Annex C.4 of the report.
1) Interference into RLAN Type 2 (RLAN2)
a) RFID3a into RLAN2, urban, indoorindoor
MCLmain = 121, interference range R = 546 m,
Number of interferers Nint = 0.47(density
Pant_main = 0.24 (86/360), Pfreq = 0.2375, Ptime = 1, Pmain = 1  (0.943)0.47(density
MCLrear = 106, interference range R = 204 m,
Number of interferers Nint = 0.1(density
Pant_rear = 0.76 (274/360), Pfreq = 0.2375, Ptime = 1, Prear = 1  (0.820)0.1(density
Ptot = 1((0.943)0.47(density ( (0.820)0.1(density)
b) RFID3b into RLAN2, urban, outdoorindoor
MCLmain = 112, interference range R = 190 m,
Number of interferers Nint = 0.088(density
Pant_main = 0.24 (86/360), Pfreq = 0.2375, Ptime = 1, Pmain = 1  (0.943)0.088(density
MCLrear = 97, interference range R = 71 m,
Number of interferers Nint = 0.014(density
Pant_rear = 0.76 (274/360), Pfreq = 0.2375, Ptime = 1, Prear = 1  (0.820)0.014(density
Ptot = 1((0.943)0.088(density ( (0.820)0.014(density)
c) RLAN2 into RLAN2, urban, indoorindoor
MCL = 105, interference range R = 190.6 m,
Number of interferers Nint = 0.088(density
Pant = 1, Pfreq = 0.2848, Ptime = 1, Ptot = 1  (0.715)0.088(density
d) BT100mW into RLAN2, urban, indoorindoor
MCL = 105, interference range R = 190.6 m,
Number of interferers Nint = 0.088(density
Pant = 1, Pfreq = 0.1987, Ptime = 1, Ptot = 1  (0.801)0.088(density
2) Interference into Bluetooth 1 mW (BT1 mW)
a) RFID3a into BT1 mW, urban, indoorindoor
MCLmain = 121, interference range R = 546 m,
Number of interferers Nint = 0.47(density
Pant_main = 0.24 (86/360), Pfreq = 0.0156, Ptime = 1, Pmain = 1  (0.996)0.47(density
MCLrear = 106, interference range R = 204 m,
Number of interferers Nint = 0.1(density
Pant_rear = 0.76 (274/360), Pfreq = 0.0156, Ptime = 1, Prear = 1  (0.988)0.1(density
Ptot = 1((0.996)0.47(density ( (0.988)0.1(density)
b) RFID3b into BT1 mW, urban outdoorindoor
MCLmain = 112, interference range R = 190 m,
Number of interferers Nint = 0.088(density
Pant_main = 0.24 (86/360), Pfreq = 0.0156, Ptime = 1, Pmain = 1  (0.996)0.088(density
MCLrear = 97, interference range R = 71 m,
Number of interferers Nint = 0.014(density
Pant_rear = 0.76 (274/360), Pfreq = 0.0156, Ptime = 1, Prear = 1  (0.988)0.014(density
Ptot = 1((0.996)0.088(density ( (0.988)0.014(density)
c) RLAN2 into BT1 mW, urban, indoorindoor
MCL = 93.24, interference range R = 88 m,
Number of interferers Nint = 0.022(density
Pant = 1, Pfreq = 0.195, Ptime = 1, Ptot = 1  (0.805)0.022(density
d) BT100mW into BT1 mW, urban, indoorindoor
MCL = 105, interference range R = 191 m,
Number of interferers Nint = 0.089(density
Pant = 1, Pfreq = 0.0189, Ptime = 1, Ptot = 1  (0.981)0.089(density
3) Interference into ENG/OB Type 3 (ENG/OB3)
a) RFID3a into ENG/OB3, urban, indooroutdoor
MCLmain = 143, interference range R = 1940 m,
Number of interferers Nint = 11.82(density
Pant_main = 0.008 (86/360 ( 12/360), Pfreq = 1, Ptime = 1, Pmain = 1  (0.992)11.82(density
MCLrear = 128, interference range R = 728 m,
Number of interferers Nint = 1.67(density
Pant_rear = 0.025 (274/360 ( 12/360), Pfreq = 1, Ptime = 1, Prear = 1  (0.975)1.67(density
Ptot = 1((0.992)11.82(density ( (0.975)1.67(density)
b) RFID3b into ENG/OB3, urban, outdooroutdoor
MCLmain = 149, interference range R = 2870 m,
Number of interferers Nint = 25.9(density
Pant_main = 0.008 (86/360 ( 12/360), Pfreq = 1, Ptime = 1, Pmain = 1  (0.992)25.9(density
MCLrear = 134, interference range R = 1077 m,
Number of interferers Nint = 3.64(density
Pant_rear = 0.025 (274/360 ( 12/360), Pfreq = 1, Ptime = 1, Prear = 1  (0.975)3.64(density
Ptot = 1((0.992)25.9(density ( (0.975)3.64(density)
c) RLAN2 into ENG/OB3, urban, indooroutdoor
MCL = 127, interference range R = 831 m,
Number of interferers Nint = 2.17(density
Pant = 0.033, Pfreq = 0.238, Ptime = 1, Ptot = 1  (0.992)2.17(density
d) BT100mW into ENG/OB3, urban, indooroutdoor
MCL = 127, interference range R = 682 m,
Number of interferers Nint = 1.46(density
Pant = 0.033, Pfreq = 1, Ptime = 1, Ptot = 1  (0.967)1.46(density
4) Interference into Fixed Link Type 1 (Fixed1)
a) RFID3a into Fixed1, urban, indooroutdoor
MCLmain = 151.1, interference range R = 2440 m,
Number of interferers Nint = 18.7(density
Pant_main = 0.0064 (9.7*86/360*360), Pfreq = 1, Ptime = 1, Ptot = 1  (0.994)18.7(density
MCLrear = 136.1, interference range R = 915 m,
Number of interferers Nint = 2.63(density
Pant_rear = 0.021 (9.7*274/360 *360), Pfreq = 1, Ptime = 1, Prear = 1  (0.979)2.63(density
Ptot = 1((0.994)18.7(density ( (0.979)2.63(density)
b) RFID3b into Fixed1, urban, outdooroutdoor
MCLmain = 157.1, interference range R = 3610 m,
Number of interferers Nint = 40.94(density
Pant_main = 0.0064 (9.7*86/360*360), Pfreq = 1, Ptime = 1, Ptot = 1  (0.994)40.94(density
MCLrear = 142.1, interference range R = 1354 m,
Number of interferers Nint = 5.76(density
Pant_rear = 0.021 (9.7*274/360 *360), Pfreq = 1, Ptime = 1, Prear = 1  (0.979)5.76(density
Ptot = 1((0.994)40.94(density ( (0.979)5.76(density)
c) RLAN2 into Fixed1, urban, indooroutdoor
MCL = 128.1, interference range R = 660 m,
Number of interferers Nint = 1.37(density
Pant = 0.027, Pfreq = 0.2089, Ptime = 1, Ptot = 1  (0.994)1.37(density
d) BT100mW into Fixed1, urban, indooroutdoor
MCL = 135.1, interference range R = 857 m,
Number of interferers Nint = 2.3(density
Pant = 0.027, Pfreq = 0.0446, Ptime = 1, Ptot = 1  (0.999)2.3(density
Comparing MCL results with SEAMCAT results
First it must be noted that in the abovepresented results of MCLbased calculations, the maximum permissible interference level at victim receiver corresponds to the noise floor. Therefore, the interference criterion for SEAMCAT was chosen equal (N + I)/I = 3 dB.
One of the most important divergences between both methods is the distribution of the interferers. In SEAMCAT this distribution is uniform and the simulation radius is given by:
EMBED Equation.3 .
With the MCLbased methodology used in this report for evaluating the interference to RLAN2 and Bluetooth, the interferer distribution is exponential and is given by:
EMBED Equation.3 .
In order to compare these two equations, the simplification by EMBED Equation.3 gives:
EMBED Equation.3 .
As can be seen from the above plot, it is assumable that for radius of up to 200 m, the defined distributions are in some extent comparable. Therefore, the MCL calculated curves obtained for 1a) and 2a) cases (see section 6.4.2) where the radius of the interference cell is larger than 200 m can not be compared with SEAMCAT simulations.
Another important point should be noted. Due to the way the simulation radius is determined in SEAMCAT (6.4.1a), the densities used in the SEAMCAT simulations for comparison with MCLderived results have to be adapted in order to match the number of active transmitters considered in the MCL calculations. The probabilities showing the comparison of both methods are therefore plotted as a function of the active number of interferers, see Annex C.5.
Results of measurements made by RA/UK
This section describes the laboratory measurements, which were conducted at the Radio Technology & Compatibility Group (RTCG) of the Radiocommunications Agency in the UK, as part of their support to CEPT Working Group SE. They were designed to assess the mutual compatibility between Bluetooth and other services operating in the ISM band, in particular analogue and digital ENG OB links, Radio Frequency Access (RFA), 8 MHz FHSS RFID and RLAN (FHSS&DSSS).
Test setup and combination of conducted tests are described below.
Figure 6.5.a: Test setup for Bluetooth interference into ENG/OB and RLAN
Figure 6.5.b: Test setup for interference to Bluetooth
Information on test combinations is available in tables 6.5.3 and 6.5.4. The tests were made using DM1 packet for file transmission. The details are shown in the table 6.5a below.
Table 6.5.a: DM1 packet details
Packet
TypePayload Header (Bytes)User Payload (Bytes)FECCRCSymmetric max rateAsymmetric max forward rate (kb/s)Asymmetric max reverse rate (kb/s)DM110172/3yes108.8108.8108.8
D relates to data, M to medium (rate) and H to high (rate). The numbers refer to the number of timeslots that a packet can occupy. For example, a DM1 packet will occupy only one timeslot, but a DM3 packet can occupy up to three timeslots, and a DM5 packet can occupy up to five timeslots.
The voice tests were conducted using HV1 packet and details of this are shown in 6.5b below.
Table 6.5.b: HV1 details
TypePayload header (bytes)User Payload (bytes)FECCRCSymmetric max rate (kbit/s)HV1N/A101/3No64.0
HV1 packets are the most heavily protected with the FEC=1/3. All data packets have also their header protected by 1/3 FEC (known as HEC Header Error Correction).
The following systems were tested both as an interferer as well as a victim.
ENG/OB Links
TV ENG/OB links can be used for temporary point to point links and for shortrange links from a mobile camera to a fixed point. They are used for applications such as coverage of sporting events. It is foreseen that analogue links will gradually be replaced by digital links. There is also likely to be a greater use of ENG/OB TV links in the future due to the increasing numbers of television channels and hence the capability to provide greater coverage of sporting events, news items and so forth. For further details see section 4.1.
Digital ENG/OB equipment
The digital ENG/OB equipment used was COFDM, and it was possible to select three different types of modulation: QPSK (1/2 error correction), 16QAM (1/2 error correction) and 64QAM (1/2 and 2/3 error correction). The spectrum plot is shown below.
For further information on digital ENG/OB, see section 4.1.4.
Analogue ENG/OB equipment
Four channels were available with the following centre frequencies: 2412.5MHz (channel 1), 2432.5MHz (channel 2), 2452.5MHz (channel 3), and 2472.5MHz (channel 4). The equipment operated using FM modulation, and the output power was found to be ~0dBm. The RF spectrum plot of this analogue ENG/OB equipment is shown below.
For further details on ENG/OB systems, see section 4.1.
RFID system
The RFID operating in the 8 MHz subband was simulated on RTCGs FASS (Frequency Agile Signal Simulator) system and following technical parameters were used:
Spread spectrum : FHSS
No of frequency hops: 20
Carrier Spacing : 350 kHz
Modulation : Two Level ASK
Symbol Rate : 76 kB/s
Baseband Filter : Nyquist 0.35 Alpha factor
Duty cycle : 10/15/50/100 %
Repetion period: 200 mS.
For further details, see section 4.4.
Test Results for Bluetooth as victim receiver
The tests for interference to a Bluetooth receiver was made for the following transmitters:
RLAN (FHSS & DSSS);
FHSS RFID;
Radio Frequency Access (RFA);
digital & analogue TV ENG/OB links.
The results of these tests are given in Table 6.5.3 below.
Table 6.5.3: Interference test results for Bluetooth as a victim receiver1)
InterfererVictimBluetooth modeC/I ratio (dB)
(90% throughput)Interference mechanismBluetooth (FASS Simulated, 59% duty cycle)Bluetooth
(development kit)(DM1 data) 35CochannelRLAN (DSSS),,(DM1 data)2.5 2)CochannelRLAN (FHSS),,(DM1 data)33 2)BlockingDigital (COFDM) ENG/OB link,,(DM1 data)+4 2)CochannelAnalogue (FM) ENG/OB link,,(DM1 data)2 2)CochannelSimulated 8 MHz RFID (10% duty cycle: 20ms on/180ms off),,(DM1 data)49 2)BlockingSimulated 8MHz RFID (15 % duty cycle: 30ms on/170ms off),,(voice HV1)54BlockingSimulated 8MHz RFID (15 % duty cycle: 30ms on/170ms off),,(DM1 data)48 2)BlockingSimulated 8MHz RFID (50 % duty cycle: 100ms on/100ms off),,(DM1 data)36 2)BlockingSimulated 8MHz RFID (100 % duty cycle),,(DM1 data)33 2)BlockingRFA,,Measurements start Jan/Feb 2001BlockingNonmodulated carrier,,(DM1 data)30 <=> 33BlockingNotes:
90 % data throughput was used as failure criteria. All measurements were conducted with the victim receiver level set at (MUS+10 dB);
No degradation to voice link at this C/I value.
Test results for Bluetooth as interferer
The tests for interference from Bluetooth were made for the following victim receivers:
RLAN (FHSS & DSSS);
FHSS RFID;
Radio Frequency Access (RFA);
Digital & analogue TV ENG/OB links.
The results of these tests are given in Table 6.5.4 below:
Table 6.5.4: Interference test results for Bluetooth as an interferer1)
InterfererVictimC/I ratio (dB)(90% throughput)Interference mechanismBluetooth development kit (Voice HV1)RLAN (DSSS 11Mb/s)8.5Cochannel,,RLAN (DSSS 5.5Mb/s)4.5CochannelRLAN (DSSS 2 Mb/s)3.5Cochannel,,RLAN (DSSS 1 Mb/s)1.5Cochannel,,RLAN (FHSS 1Mb/s)7.5Cochannel,,Digital (COFDM) ENG/OB link (QPSK  FEC )5Cochannel,,Digital (COFDM) ENG/OB link (16QAM FEC )2Cochannel,,Digital (COFDM) ENG/OB link (64QAM  FEC )8Cochannel,,Digital (COFDM) ENG/OB link (64QAM FEC 2/3)19Cochannel,,RFAMeasurements start
Jan/Feb 2001Cochannel,,Analogue (FM) ENG/OB link18CochannelNotes:
All measurements were conducted with the victim receiver level were set at (MUS+10 dB);
Subjective viewing method was used to assess interference into TV ENG/OB links;
90 % data throughput was used as failure criteria for RLAN.
If transmitters are duty cycle controlled, there is an additionally mitigation factor depending of the duty cycle, D. Measurements by RA/UK has justified this dependence.
Figure 6.5.4 below shows the most important results based on Annex B calculations and C/I values measured by RA/UK laboratory.
Figure 6.5.4
EMBED MgxDesigner
Summary of laboratory tests
The information contained within this report provides protection requirements for Bluetooth and various classes of equipment operating cofrequency.
The majority of interference measurements contained within this report have used a 90% data throughput as the system failure criteria for Bluetooth. However, a small number of measurements were performed to assess the impact on the Bluetooth (HV1) voice link of an interferer, and these indicated that interference levels of approximately 2 dB above those for data could be tolerated without serious degradation to the voice link.
The results show that Bluetooth, under a 90% throughput criterion, has a reasonable immunity against narrow band interference such as FHSS RLAN, Bluetooth, FHSS RFID and CW. But it was found to be susceptible to wide band interferers i.e. TV ENG/OB links (digital & analogue) and DSSS RLAN due to higher bandwidth and the 90% throughput criteria.
It should be noted that the measurements results described in the tables 6.5.3 and 6.5.4 are based on a single interferer.
ENG/OB
TV ENG/OB systems could potentially be viewed as an interference threat to Bluetooth. However, the nature of newsgathering is such that virtually all links operate only temporarily and for very short duration, usually only a matter of a few hours in a single location. Taken on a broader level, the sporadic nature of ENG/OB transmissions mean they are unlikely to be a major determinant on the long term performance or availability of indoor Bluetooth systems.
DSSS RLAN
Perhaps a more substantive threat to a Bluetooth system is a colocated DSSS RLAN access point, as this is likely to be a more common scenario. The protection requirement (C/I) of Bluetooth from these devices is 2.5dB.
It should also be noted that the reverse assessment, that of the impact of Bluetooth on RLANs (both DSSS and FHSS), indicated the protection requirements (C/I) for these devices are 8.5 dB and 7.5 dB respectively. Again, this may indicate the potential for interference to these systems if they are colocated with Bluetooth.
FHSS RLAN/Bluetooth
The two similar frequencyhopping systems (FHSS RLAN & Bluetooth) produced very different interference rejection performance results. The Bluetooth protection against FHSS RLAN interference was requiring C/I= 33 dB, whereas FHSS RLAN required +7.5 dB protection against Bluetooth interference. This may be due to difference in hopping speed (dwell time) and packet structure of the two systems.
RFID
The protection required by Bluetooth against interference from 8MHz RFID (at all duty cycles) is better or comparable to that of a colocated Bluetooth system. For RFID with a 100% duty cycle the C/I= 33 dB, as compared to 35 dB for colocated Bluetooth devices. When the duty cycle of the simulated 8MHz RFID was changed from 100 to 10 %, the protection of Bluetooth improved by 16 dB to a C/I= 49dB. This significant improvement in protection ratio, at a lower RFID duty cycle, may be due to the resulting lower average power from the interferer.
It should be noted that the results of simulated 8MHz RFID interference into Bluetooth given in the report are only valid for RFID technical parameters shown in the report and duty cycle values given below:
10 % duty cycles (20 ms on /180ms off);
15 % duty cycle (30ms on/ 170 ms off);
50 % duty cycle (100ms on /100ms off).
Any alteration of these parameters could result in significant change to the interference potential to Bluetooth.
CONCLUSIONS
This report presents the study of compatibility between Bluetooth and other existing and proposed services operating in the 2.45 GHz frequency band.
7.1 Assumptions (BT/RFID, RLAN, ENG/OB)
The characteristics of the different systems considered can be found in sections 3 and 4.
7.2 Methods (Deterministic, Probabilistic, other)
Four methods for interference analysis had been used in this report:
deterministic method;
probabilistic method;
simulation tool;
SEAMCAT, see ERC Report 68 (modified 2001).
A description of each method is provided in section 5.
In addition to analytical analysis, some laboratory measurements were performed.
7.3 Results
Deterministic method
Deterministic calculations show that the impact of the 4W RFID with a duty cycle of greater than 15% in any 200 ms period time on the Bluetooth performance is critical. In particular, transmitteron times exceeding 200 ms will have serious impact. Further studies of the impact of higher application layers are needed.
Blocking has been shown to be the most limiting factor with a separation distance of approximately 10 m or less. This mechanism has a significant impact on the Bluetooth performance in terms of nonacceptable reduction in capacity at high dutycycles.
Further, the study shows that additional mitigation techniques are required for RFID, such as directional antennas, antennadome (to avoid Bluetooth receiver burnout), etc.
Further studies may be required in order to investigate the relationship between Bluetooth levels above the blocking level and acceptable RFID e.i.r.p. and duty cycles.
Probabilistic method (applied to cochannel interference only)
The interference criteria used was I/N=0 dB for all services except for fixed links where the long term criteria was I/N= 10 dB for 20% of the time. The conclusions are that:
the probability of interference to Bluetooth from existing and planned services, being of the same order of magnitude (plus or minus 1 decade), depends on the unit density;
the probability of interference from Bluetooth 1 mW to Fixed Wireless Access is severe for a density of 100 units per km2 and 10 units per km2 for Bluetooth 100 mW;
both 1 mW and 100 mW Bluetooth systems will cause harmful interference to ENG/OB or fixed links when operating in close vicinity.
Simulation tool
Simulations for hotspot areas show significant reduction in throughput for Bluetooth in the case of sufficient high duty cycles or omnidirectional antennas, or a large number of RFIDs (>32). For these cases the Bluetooth operating range is limited to a couple of metres in order to maintain acceptable throughput.
For RFID hot spot areas with 8 units in a 35 m radius from the Bluetooth victim, Bluetooth throughput reduces by 15% for a Bluetooth link over distance of up to 1 m. At larger Bluetooth link distances and higher unit densities the throughput is reduced further.
Different RFID densities have been considered. Without the RFID mitigation factor of the antenna beamwidth, the Bluetooth throughput reduction will be severe for high density of RFID devices in combination with high dutycycles: an RFID reader using a directional antenna mitigates the influence of interference taking into account the protection of existing services.
The simulation shows that reduction of the duty cycle will reduce the impact on the throughput during interference. Intermodulation has a minor contribution to the interference.
SEAMCAT
The MonteCarlo based SEAMCAT software was used to investigate the interference scenarios and to make comparisons with the results obtained from using the deterministic method.
Due to a number of differences between the two methodologies, a direct comparison could not be made. Nevertheless, assumptions and comparisons were made as described in paragraph 6.4 for half of the interference scenarios. The probability of interference to Bluetooth as a function of the density of the interferer is of the same magnitude for RLAN, RFID3a and 3b, which is about 2 times higher than for 100 mW Bluetooth to Bluetooth.
The probability of interference from 100 mW Bluetooth to RLAN, ENG/OB and fixed links is at least 2 times lower than the interference from RLAN, RFID3a and 3b with the same unit density.
Measurements
It should be noted that the measurement results described in the report are based on a single interferer and a specific Bluetooth equipment, evaluating the tolerable C/I for 10% throughput degradation. However, the absolute power levels of the various systems are significantly different in the C/I evaluation. For the determination of the isolation distances both the C/I and the power level should be considered.
The results show that the tested Bluetooth sample had excellent immunity against narrow band interference, such as FHSS RLAN, Bluetooth, RFID and CW signals.
On the other hand the Bluetooth sample has been found susceptible to wide band interferers, i.e. ENG/OB links (digital & analogue) and DSSS RLAN. This may be due to the higher bandwidth and duty cycle. ENG/OB systems are unlikely to be a major determinant on the long term performance or availability of indoor Bluetooth systems. A more substantive threat to Bluetooth systems is from colocated DSSS RLANs. This threat is likely to be a more common scenario.
The protection ratio required by Bluetooth against interference from 8MHz RFID at all duty cycles is better or comparable to that of a colocated Bluetooth system (60% duty cycle). When the duty cycle of the simulated 8MHz RFID was changed from 10 to 100 %, the protection requirement of Bluetooth increased.
The following duty cycles for 4W RFID (8 MHz) were used in both the interference testing and the calculations in the present report:
15 % duty cycle (30 ms on/ 170 ms off);
50 % duty cycle (100 ms on /100 ms off);
100 % duty cycle.
Any alteration of these parameters could result in significant change to the interference potential to Bluetooth.
It should be noted that due to the limited number of equipment used for the measurements, the results are only indicative.
Summary of conclusions relative to compatibility between Bluetooth and 4W RFID (8 MHz) systems
The study shows that the impact of the 4W RFID (8 MHz) with a duty cycle greater than 15% in any 200 ms period (30 ms on/170 ms off) on the Bluetooth performance is critical.
Further, the study shows that additional mitigation techniques are required from RFID, such as directional antennas, antennadome (to avoid Bluetooth receiver burnout) and other appropriate mechanisms in order to ensure that the necessary indoor operation restrictions are met.
ANNEX A.1. Interference to Bluetooth from existing and planned services in the 2.400  2.4835 GHz BandSRD 1SRD 2RLANRLANFixed4W4W0.5W0.5W0.5 W0.1 WENG/ENG/ENG/ENG/ENG/ENG/ENG/ENG/FixedFixedInterfering transmitters =>NBvideo12AccessRFID 3aRFID 3aRFID 3bRFID 3bRFID 5aRFID 5bOB 1OB 2OB 3OB 4OB 1OB 2OB 3OB 4Service 1Service 2NBNBFHSSDSSSFHSSFHSSFHSSFHSSFHSSNBNBAnalogueAnalogueAnalogueAnalogueDigitalDigitalDigitalDigital2x2Mbit/s34 Mbit/sINPUT DATA belowR3R1R2R4R3R1R2R4MSKQPSKTX output power conducted, Pt (dBW)2226121212009911180231313023131311TX duty cycle0.101.000.100.101.000.101.000.101.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00Input Building attenuation, (dB)151515151515151515151515151515151515151515Input Frequency, (MHz)245024502450245024502450245024502450245024502450245024502450245024502450245024502450TX ant. gain minus feeder loss, Gt  Lft (dB)262226666885321275321272535.7TX antenna horizontal coupling loss factor, (dB)000000000000000000000Tx Ant Main Lobe 3dB beamwidth at 0 deg elevation, (deg)36087360360360878787876969360360158360360158103Tx Antenna Sidelobe 3dB beamwidth at 0 deg elevation, (deg)093000939393931111110034535200345352350357TX Antenna sidelobe attenuation at 0 deg elevation, (dB)0150001515151515150025250025252625Input RX ant. gain  feeder loss, Gr  Lfr (dB)222222222222222222222Rx antenna 3dB beamwidth, (degrees)360360360360360360360360360360360360360360360360360360360360360Auto calc. of Victim RX noise (10*log kTB)+NF (dBW)123.8123.8123.8123.8123.8123.8123.8123.8123.8123.8123.8123.8123.8123.8123.8123.8123.8123.8123.8123.8123.8Input Victim RX Noise figure, NF (dB)20.020.020.020.020.020.020.020.020.020.020.020.020.020.020.020.020.020.020.020.020.0Background noise in ISM band (dB above system noise)5.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.0Relative interference level, I/N,(dB)3.03.03.03.03.03.03.03.03.03.03.03.03.03.03.03.03.03.03.03.03.0Input TX mod. Equivalent noise BW, BWt (kHz)100020000100015000350350350350350100100200002000020000200007600760076007600300020000Input Victim RX noise bandwidth, BWr (kHz)100010001000100010001000100010001000100010001000100010001000100010001000100010001000Input the shorter antenna height, Hm (m)1.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.5Input the taller antenna height, Hb (m)332.52.51.51.51.51.51.5331.8200101001.8200101005050Radio line of sight, (km)12.112.111.511.510.010.010.010.010.012.112.110.563.018.046.010.563.018.046.034.034.0Offchannel coupling loss, dB0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0Clutter loss for low antenna height in rural areas, dB17.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.3RFID radiated power, (dBm) EIRPRFID  Main Beam EIRP (dBm)101020202036362727272035566470355664705666.7Required Path Loss for main beam (Minimum Coupling Loss, MCL)Path loss, indoor to indoor, PL (dB)82.869.892.881.1n/a108.8108.899.899.899.892.8n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/aPath loss, indoor to outdoor units, PL (dB)82.869.892.881.192.8108.8108.899.899.899.892.894.8115.8123.8129.899.0120.0128.0134.0124.1126.5Dfree_space (km) indoor to outdoor0.1350.0300.4270.1100.4272.6942.6940.9560.9560.9560.4270.5376.02315.12930.1870.8719.77124.54348.97015.55220.645Path loss, outdoor to outdoor units, PL (dB)97.884.8107.896.1107.8123.8123.8114.8114.8114.8107.8109.8130.8138.8144.8114.0135.0143.0149.0139.1141.5Dfree_space (km) outdoor to outdoor0.7590.1702.4010.6202.40115.1415.145.3745.3745.3742.4013.01933.8785.07169.74.89754.94138.0275.387.45116.1
SRD 1SRD 2RLANRLANFixed4W4W0.5W0.5W0.5 W0.1 WENG/ENG/ENG/ENG/ENG/ENG/ENG/ENG/FixedFixedInterfering transmitters =>NBVideo12AccessRFID 3aRFID 3aRFID 3bRFID 3bRFID 5aRFID 5bOB 1OB 2OB 3OB 4OB 1OB 2OB 3OB 4Service 1Service 2NBNBFHSSDSSSFHSSFHSSFHSSFHSSFHSSNBNBAnalogueAnalogueAnalogueAnalogueDigitalDigitalDigitalDigital2x2Mbit/s34 Mbit/sINPUT DATA belowR3R1R2R4R3R1R2R4MSKQPSKRequired path loss for sidelobes (Minimum Coupling Loss, MCL)Path loss, indoor to indoor, PL (dB)82.854.892.881.1n/a93.893.884.884.884.877.8n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/aPath loss, indoor to outdoor units, PL (dB)82.854.892.881.192.893.893.884.884.884.877.894.8115.898.8104.899.0120.0103.0109.098.1101.5Dfree_space (km) indoor to outdoor0.1350.0050.4270.1100.4270.4790.4790.1700.1700.1700.0760.5376.0230.8511.6980.8719.7711.3802.7540.7791.161Path loss, outdoor to outdoor units, PL (dB)97.869.8107.896.1107.8108.8108.899.899.899.892.8109.8130.8113.8119.8114.0135.0118.0124.0113.1116.5Dfree_space (km) outdoor to outdoor0.7590.0302.4010.6202.4012.6942.6940.9560.9560.9560.4273.01933.874.7849.5464.89754.947.76115.484.3836.529Protection Distances for cochannel interference from main beamIndoor model, indoor to indoor, (km)0.0440.0190.0860.039n/a0.2450.2450.1360.1360.1360.086n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/aUrban model, indoor to outdoor, (km)0.0380.0160.0660.0310.0540.1540.1540.0860.0860.1150.0730.06624.732.21326.720.08634.212.91336.237.4418.800Urban model, outdoor to outdoor, (km) 0.1010.0430.1760.0820.145n/an/a0.2290.2290.3080.1950.17578.735.90079.190.230108.97.765107.320.6924.47Rural, indoor to outdoor, (km)0.1350.0300.1490.1100.1160.2910.2910.1730.1730.2450.4270.1426.0231.7787.9440.1819.7712.26510.114.0324.646Rural, outdoor to outdoor, (km)0.2180.1700.3540.1800.274n/an/a0.4110.4110.5810.3880.33711.904.21718.830.42915.155.37223.999.56111.01h^2*h^2/r^4, (m)25011840520631478978947047066444438613616482521555491173426146274531094012604a (Hm)0.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.06a (Hb)4.604.603.083.080.060.060.060.060.064.604.600.9651.8125.7945.790.9651.8125.7945.7939.7739.77Protection Distances for cochannel interference from sidelobeIndoor model, indoor to indoor, (km)0.0440.0070.0860.0390.0860.0910.0910.0510.0510.0510.032n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/aUrban model, indoor to outdoor, (km)0.0380.0060.0660.0310.0540.0580.0580.0320.0320.0430.0270.06624.730.4324.3730.08634.210.5685.9291.2641.600Urban model, outdoor to outdoor, (km) 0.1010.0160.1760.082n/an/an/a0.0860.0860.1150.0730.17578.731.15112.950.230108.91.51517.563.5154.450Rural, indoor to outdoor, (km)0.1350.0050.1490.1100.1160.1230.1230.1700.1700.1700.0760.1426.0230.8511.6980.1819.7711.3802.7540.7791.161Rural, outdoor to outdoor, (km)0.2180.0300.3540.180n/an/an/a0.1730.1730.2450.4270.33711.901.0009.5460.42915.151.2745.6904.3836.529h^2*h^2/r^4, (m)250504052063143333331981982801873861361611445111491173421457651024492989a (Hm)0.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.06a (Hb)4.604.603.083.080.060.060.060.060.064.604.600.9651.8125.7945.790.9651.8125.7945.7939.7739.77
Interfering transmitters =>SRD 1SRD 2RLAN 1RLANFixed4W4W0.5W0.5W0.5 W0.1 WENG/ENG/ENG/ENG/2AccessRFID 3aRFID 3aRFID 3bRFID 3bRFID 5aRFID 5bOB T1OB T2OB T3OB T4NBvideoFHSSDSSSFHSSFHSSFHSSFHSSFHSSNBNBAnalogAnaloAnaloAnaloExponent k22222222222Intermediate Results for New FormulaTX Single Channel BW (MHz)1.0020.001.0015.000.350.350.350.350.350.100.1020.0020.0020.0020.00TX Hopping Span (MHz)79.0079.0079.0079.0079.008.008.008.008.004.004.0020.0020.0020.0020.00RX Single Channel BW (MHz)1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00Unit collision probability elementsProbability for frequency collision inside interferer band, PFREQ_COL0.0180.2570.0180.1950.0140.0150.0150.0150.0150.0140.0140.2560.2560.2560.256Probability for time collision, PTIME_COL0.1001.0000.1000.1001.0000.1001.0000.1001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.000Prob. for main beam pattern collision, PPAT_COL1.0000.2411.0001.0001.0000.2410.2410.2410.2410.1910.1911.0001.0000.0420.021Prob. for sidelobe pattern collision, PPAT_COL0.0000.2580.0000.0000.0000.2580.2580.2580.2580.3080.3080.0000.0000.9570.978Maximum probability of interference for part band interference 0.9870.9870.9870.9870.9870.1000.1000.1000.1000.0500.0500.2500.2500.2500.250Total Main beam Mitigation Factor1.89 E 036.22 E 021.89 E 031.95 E 021.48 E 023.76 E 043.76 E 033.76 E 043.76 E 032.83 E 032.83 E 032.56 E 012.56 E 011.10 E 025.51 E 03
Number of interfering units inside a circular protection area of interferers main beam (exponential distribution for SRD, linear for ENG/OB and Fixed)Unit density (units/km2 )0.010.030.10.31310301003001 k3 k10 k30 k100 kSRD1 NB, indoor5.82 E 051.75 E 045.82 E 041.75 E 035.82 E 031.75 E 025.82 E 021.75 E 015.82 E 011.75 E 005.82 E 001.75 E +015.82 E +011.75 E +025.82 E +02SRD2 analogue Video, indoor1.09 E 053.26 E 051.09 E 043.26 E 041.09 E 033.26 E 031.09 E 023.26 E 021.09 E 013.26 E 011.09 E 003.26 E 001.09 E +013.26 E +011.09 E +02RLAN1 FHSS, indoor2.05 E 046.16 E 042.05 E 036.16 E 032.05 E 026.16 E 022.05 E 016.16 E 012.05 E 006.16 E 002.05 E +016.16 E +012.05 E +026.16 E +022.05 E +03RLAN2 DSSS, indoor4.64 E 051.39 E 044.64 E 041.39 E 034.64 E 031.39 E 024.64 E 021.39 E 014.64 E 011.39 E 004.64 E 001.39 E +014.64 E +011.39 E +024.64 E +02Fixed Access,100 mW, FHSS, outdoor8.61 E 052.58 E 048.61 E 042.58 E 038.61 E 032.58 E 028.61 E 022.58 E 018.61 E 012.58 E 008.61 E 002.58 E +018.61 E +012.58 E +028.61 E +02RFID 3a, 4W, FHSS, indoor, 10 % duty cycle1.37 E 034.11 E 031.37 E 024.11 E 021.37 E 014.11 E 011.37 E 004.11 E 001.37 E +014.11 E +011.37 E +024.11 E +021.37 E +034.11 E +031.37 E +04RFID 3a, 4W, FHSS, indoor, 100 % duty cycle1.37 E 034.11 E 031.37 E 024.11 E 021.37 E 014.11 E 011.37 E 004.11 E 001.37 E +014.11 E +011.37 E +024.11 E +021.37 E +034.11 E +031.37 E +04RFID 3b, 500mW, FHSS, indoor 10% duty cycle4.83 E 041.45 E 034.83 E 031.45 E 024.83 E 021.45 E 014.83 E 011.45 E 004.83 E 001.45 E +014.83 E +011.45 E +024.83 E +021.45 E +034.83 E +03RFID 3b, 500mW, FHSS, indoor 100% duty cycle4.83 E 041.45 E 034.83 E 031.45 E 024.83 E 021.45 E 014.83 E 011.45 E 004.83 E 001.45 E +014.83 E +011.45 E +024.83 E +021.45 E +034.83 E +03RFID 5a, 500 mW, NB, indoor4.83 E 041.45 E 034.83 E 031.45 E 024.83 E 021.45 E 014.83 E 011.45 E 004.83 E 001.45 E +014.83 E +011.45 E +024.83 E +021.45 E +034.83 E +03RFID 5b, 100 mW, NB, indoor2.05 E 046.16 E 042.05 E 036.16 E 032.05 E 026.16 E 022.05 E 016.16 E 012.05 E 006.16 E 002.05 E +016.16 E +012.05 E +026.16 E +022.05 E +03ENG/OB, analogue, T1, 3 W1.35 E 044.05 E 041.35 E 034.05 E 031.35 E 024.05 E 021.35 E 014.05 E 011.35 E 004.05 E 001.35 E +014.05 E +011.35 E +024.05 E +021.35 E +03ENG/OB, analogue, T2, 400 W1.92 E +015.77 E +011.92 E +025.77 E +021.92 E +035.77 E +031.92 E +045.77 E +041.92 E +055.77 E +051.92 E +065.77 E +061.92 E +075.77 E +071.92 E +08ENG/OB, analogue, T3, 2.5 kW1.54 E 014.62 E 011.54 E 004.62 E 001.54 E +014.62 E +011.54 E +024.62 E +021.54 E +034.62 E +031.54 E +044.62 E +041.54 E +054.62 E +051.54 E +06ENG/OB, analogue, T4, 10 kW2.24 E +016.73 E +012.24 E +026.73 E +022.24 E +036.73 E +032.24 E +046.73 E +042.24 E +056.73 E +052.24 E +066.73 E +062.24 E +076.73 E +072.24 E +08ENG/OB 1, digital, outdoor2.34 E 047.02 E 042.34 E 037.02 E 032.34 E 027.02 E 022.34 E 017.02 E 012.34 E 007.02 E 002.34 E +017.02 E +012.34 E +027.02 E +022.34 E +03ENG/OB 2, digital, outdoor3.68 E +011.10 E +023.68 E +021.10 E +033.68 E +031.10 E +043.68 E +041.10 E +053.68 E +051.10 E +063.68 E +061.10 E +073.68 E +071.10 E +083.68 E +08ENG/OB 3, digital, outdoor2.67 E 018.00 E 012.67 E 008.00 E 002.67 E +018.00 E +012.67 E +028.00 E +022.67 E +038.00 E +032.67 E +048.00 E +042.67 E +058.00 E +052.67 E +06ENG/OB 4, digital, outdoor4.12 E +011.24 E +024.12 E +021.24 E +034.12 E +031.24 E +044.12 E +041.24 E +054.12 E +051.24 E +064.12 E +061.24 E +074.12 E +071.24 E +084.12 E +08Fixed 1, 2 x 2 Mbit/s, MSK1.74 E 005.22 E 001.74 E +015.22 E +011.74 E +025.22 E +021.74 E +035.22 E +031.74 E +045.22 E +041.74 E +055.22 E +051.74 E +065.22 E +061.74 E +07Fixed 2, 34 Mbit/s, QPSK2.43 E 007.30 E 002.43 E +017.30 E +012.43 E +027.30 E +022.43 E +037.30 E +032.43 E +047.30 E +042.43 E +057.30 E +052.43 E +067.30 E +062.43 E +07
Number of interfering units inside a circular protection area for interferers side lobes (exponential distribution for SRD, linear for ENG/OB and Fixed)Unit density (units/km2 )0.010.030.10.31310301003001 k3 k10 k30 k100 kSRD1 NB5.82 E 051.75 E 045.82 E 041.75 E 035.82 E 031.75 E 025.82 E 021.75 E 015.82 E 011.75 E 005.82 E 001.75 E +015.82 E +011.75 E +025.82 E +02SRD2 analogue Video, indoor1.53 E 064.60 E 061.53 E 054.60 E 051.53 E 044.60 E 041.53 E 034.60 E 031.53 E 024.60 E 021.53 E 014.60 E 011.53 E 004.60 E 001.53 E +01RLAN1 FHSS, indoor2.05 E 046.16 E 042.05 E 036.16 E 032.05 E 026.16 E 022.05 E 016.16 E 012.05 E 006.16 E 002.05 E +016.16 E +012.05 E +026.16 E +022.05 E +03RLAN2 DSSS, indoor4.64 E 051.39 E 044.64 E 041.39 E 034.64 E 031.39 E 024.64 E 021.39 E 014.64 E 011.39 E 004.64 E 001.39 E +014.64 E +011.39 E +024.64 E +02Fixed Access,100 mW, FHSS, outdoor8.61 E 052.58 E 048.61 E 042.58 E 038.61 E 032.58 E 028.61 E 022.58 E 018.61 E 012.58 E 008.61 E 002.58 E +018.61 E +012.58 E +028.61 E +02RFID 3a, 4W, FHSS, indoor, 10 % duty cycle2.32 E 046.97 E 042.32 E 036.97 E 032.32 E 026.97 E 022.32 E 016.97 E 012.32 E 006.97 E 002.32 E +016.97 E +012.32 E +026.97 E +022.32 E +03RFID 3a, 4W, FHSS, indoor, 100 % duty cycle2.32 E 046.97 E 042.32 E 036.97 E 032.32 E 026.97 E 022.32 E 016.97 E 012.32 E 006.97 E 002.32 E +016.97 E +012.32 E +026.97 E +022.32 E +03RFID 3b, 500mW, FHSS, indoor 10% duty cycle7.51 E 052.25 E 047.51 E 042.25 E 037.51 E 032.25 E 027.51 E 022.25 E 017.51 E 012.25 E 007.51 E 002.25 E +017.51 E +012.25 E +027.51 E +02RFID 3b, 500mW, FHSS, indoor 100% duty cycle7.51 E 052.25 E 047.51 E 042.25 E 037.51 E 032.25 E 027.51 E 022.25 E 017.51 E 012.25 E 007.51 E 002.25 E +017.51 E +012.25 E +027.51 E +02RFID 5a, 500 mW, NB, indoor7.51 E 052.25 E 047.51 E 042.25 E 037.51 E 032.25 E 027.51 E 022.25 E 017.51 E 012.25 E 007.51 E 002.25 E +017.51 E +012.25 E +027.51 E +02RFID 5b, 100 mW, NB, indoor3.06 E 059.19 E 053.06 E 049.19 E 043.06 E 039.19 E 033.06 E 029.19 E 023.06 E 019.19 E 013.06 E 009.19 E 003.06 E +019.19 E +013.06 E +02ENG/OB, analogue, T1, 3 W1.35 E 044.05 E 041.35 E 034.05 E 031.35 E 024.05 E 021.35 E 014.05 E 011.35 E 004.05 E 001.35 E +014.05 E +011.35 E +024.05 E +021.35 E +03ENG/OB, analogue, T2, 400 W1.92 E +015.77 E +011.92 E +025.77 E +021.92 E +035.77 E +031.92 E +045.77 E +041.92 E +055.77 E +051.92 E +065.77 E +061.92 E +075.77 E +071.92 E +08ENG/OB, analogue, T3, 2.5 kW5.86 E 031.76 E 025.86 E 021.76 E 015.86 E 011.76 E 005.86 E 001.76 E +015.86 E +011.76 E +025.86 E +021.76 E +035.86 E +031.76 E +045.86 E +04ENG/OB, analogue, T4, 10 kW6.01 E 011.80 E 006.01 E 001.80 E +016.01 E +011.80 E +026.01 E +021.80 E +036.01 E +031.80 E +046.01 E +041.80 E +056.01 E +051.80 E +066.01 E +06ENG/OB 1, digital, outdoor2.34 E 047.02 E 042.34 E 037.02 E 032.34 E 027.02 E 022.34 E 017.02 E 012.34 E 007.02 E 002.34 E +017.02 E +012.34 E +027.02 E +022.34 E +03ENG/OB 2, digital, outdoor3.68 E +011.10 E +023.68 E +021.10 E +033.68 E +031.10 E +043.68 E +041.10 E +053.68 E +051.10 E +063.68 E +061.10 E +073.68 E +071.10 E +083.68 E +08ENG/OB 3, digital, outdoor1.01 E 023.04 E 021.01 E 013.04 E 011.01 E 003.04 E 001.01 E +013.04 E +011.01 E +023.04 E +021.01 E +033.04 E +031.01 E +043.04 E +041.01 E +05ENG/OB 4, digital, outdoor1.10 E 003.31 E 001.10 E +013.31 E +011.10 E +023.31 E +021.10 E +033.31 E +031.10 E +043.31 E +041.10 E +053.31 E +051.10 E +063.31 E +061.10 E +07Fixed 1, 2 x 2 Mbit/s, MSK5.02 E 021.51 E 015.02 E 011.51 E 005.02 E 001.51 E +015.02 E +011.51 E +025.02 E +021.51 E +035.02 E +031.51 E +045.02 E +041.51 E +055.02 E +05Fixed 2, 34 Mbit/s, QPSK8.05 E 022.41 E 018.05 E 012.41 E 008.05 E 002.41 E +018.05 E +012.41 E +028.05 E +022.41 E +038.05 E +032.41 E +048.05 E +042.41 E +058.05 E +05
Total cumulative probability of interference to indoor Bluetooth as a function of interferer unit densityUnit density of interferer (units/km2 ).0.010.030.10.31310301003001 k3 k10 k30 k100 kType of interferers belowSRD1, 10 mW, Narrow Band, D=100%, indoor mounted (reference)1.08 E 073.25 E 071.08 E 063.25 E 061.08 E 053.25 E 051.08 E 043.25 E 041.08 E 033.25 E 031.08 E 023.20 E 021.03 E 012.78 E 016.62 E 01SRD2, 10 mW, analogue Video, D=100%, indoor7.93 E 072.38 E 067.93 E 062.38 E 057.93 E 052.38 E 047.93 E 042.38 E 037.90 E 032.35 E 027.62 E 022.12 E 015.48 E 019.07 E 019.88 E 01RLAN1, 100 mW, FHSS, D=100%, indoor mounted (reference)3.83 E 071.15 E 063.83 E 061.15 E 053.83 E 051.15 E 043.83 E 041.15 E 033.82 E 031.14 E 023.76 E 021.09 E 013.18 E 016.83 E 019.78 E 01RLAN2, 100 mW, DSSS, D = 100%, indoor mounted9.03 E 072.71 E 069.03 E 062.71 E 059.03 E 052.71 E 049.02 E 042.70 E 038.99 E 032.67 E 028.63 E 022.37 E 015.95 E 019.33 E 019.88 E 01Fixed Access,100 mW, FHSS, outdoor1.27 E 063.80 E 061.27 E 053.80 E 051.27 E 043.80 E 041.26 E 033.79 E 031.26 E 023.73 E 021.19 E 013.16 E 017.18 E 019.78 E 019.88 E 01RFID 3a, 4W, FHSS, indoor, 10 % duty cycle6.10 E 081.83 E 076.10 E 071.83 E 066.10 E 061.83 E 056.10 E 051.83 E 046.10 E 041.83 E 036.08 E 031.81 E 025.92 E 021.00 E 011.00 E 01RFID 3a, 4W, FHSS, indoor, 100 % duty cycle6.10 E 071.83 E 066.10 E 061.83 E 056.10 E 051.83 E 046.10 E 041.83 E 036.08 E 031.81 E 025.92 E 021.00 E 011.00 E 011.00 E 011.00 E 01RFID 3b, 500mW, FHSS, indoor 10% duty cycle2.12 E 086.36 E 082.12 E 076.36 E 072.12 E 066.36 E 062.12 E 056.36 E 052.12 E 046.36 E 042.12 E 036.34 E 032.10 E 026.17 E 021.00 E 01RFID 3b, 500mW, FHSS, indoor 100% duty cycle2.12 E 076.37 E 072.12 E 066.37 E 062.12 E 056.37 E 052.12 E 046.36 E 042.12 E 036.35 E 032.10 E 026.17 E 021.00 E 011.00 E 011.00 E 01RFID 5a, 500 mW, Narrow Band, D=100%, indoor mounted8.54 E 082.56 E 078.54 E 072.56 E 068.54 E 062.56 E 058.54 E 052.56 E 048.54 E 042.56 E 038.51 E 032.53 E 025.00 E 025.00 E 025.00 E 02RFID 5b, 100 mW, Narrow Band, D=100%, indoor mounted3.60 E 081.08 E 073.60 E 071.08 E 063.60 E 061.08 E 053.60 E 051.08 E 043.60 E 041.08 E 033.60 E 031.07 E 023.54 E 025.00 E 025.00 E 02ENG/OB, analogue, T1, 3 W, outdoor8.95 E 062.68 E 05ENG/OB, analogue, T2, 400 W, outdoor2.50 E 012.50 E 01ENG/OB, analogue, T3, 2.5 kW, outdoor7.94 E 042.38 E 03ENG/OB, analogue, T4, 10 kW, outdoor6.74 E 021.89 E 01ENG/OB, digital, T1, 3 W, outdoor9.50 E 029.50 E 02ENG/OB, digital, T2, 400 W, outdoor9.50 E 029.50 E 02ENG/OB, digital, T3, 2.5 kW, outdoor9.50 E 029.50 E 02ENG/OB, digital, T4, 10 kW, outdoor9.50 E 029.50 E 02Fixed 1, 2 x 2 Mbit/s, MSK, outdoor3.69 E 031.10 E 02Fixed 2, 34 Mbit/s, QPSK, outdoor2.92 E 028.50 E 02
ANNEX A.2. Interference from 1 mW Bluetooth to existing and planned services in the 2.400  2.4835 GHz bandFixed 4W0.5 W0.5 W0.1 WENG/ENG/ENG/ENG/ENG/ENG/Victims =>SRD 1SRD 2RLAN 1RLAN 2AccessRFID 3aRFID 3bRFID 5aRFID 5bOB 1OB 2OB 3OB 4OB 1OB 2NBVideoFHSSDSSSFHSSFHSSFHSSNBNBAnaloAnaloAnaloAnaloDigitalDigitalINPUT DATA belowR3R1R2R4R3R1TX output power conducted, Pt (dBW)323232323232323232323232323232TX duty cycle0.600.600.600.600.600.600.600.600.600.600.600.600.600.600.60Input Building attenuation, (dB)151515151515151515151515151515Input Frequency, (MHz)245024502450245024502450245024502450245024502450245024502450TX ant. gain minus feeder loss, Gt  Lft (dB)222222222222222Antenna horizontal coupling loss factor, (dB)000000000000000Tx Ant Main Lobe 3dB beamwidth at 0 deg elevation, (deg)360360360360360360360360360360360360360360360Rx Antenna Sidelobe 3dB beamwidth at 0 deg elevation, (deg)093000939311111103453363520345RX Antenna sidelobe attenuation at 0 deg elevation, (dB)00000151515150252525025Input RX ant. gain  feeder loss, Gr  Lfr (dB)2622266884211727421Rx antenna 3dB beamwidth, (degrees)36087360360360878769693601524836015Auto calc. of Victim RX noise = (10*log kTB)+NF (dBW)140.8127.8140.8129.1140.8123.4123.4150.8150.8127.8127.8127.8127.8132.0132.0Input Victim RX Noise figure, NF (dB)3.03.03.03.03.025.025.03.03.03.03.03.03.03.03.0Background noise in ISM band (dB above system noise)5.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.0Relative interference level, I/N,(dB)10.010.010.010.010.010.010.010.010.00.00.00.00.020.020.0Input TX mod. Equivalent noise BW, BWt (kHz)100010001000100010001000100010001000100010001000100010001000Input Victim RX noise bandwidth, BWr (kHz)10002000010001500010003503501001002000020000200002000076007600Input the shorter antenna height, Hm (m)1.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.5Input the taller antenna height, Hb (m)333351.51.52.52.52001.83502001.8Radio line of sight, (km)12.112.112.112.114.210.010.011.511.563.010.512.134.063.010.5Offchannel coupling loss, dB0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0Clutter loss for low antenna height in rural areas, dB17.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.3Bluetooth radiated power, (dBm) EIRPRFID  Main Beam EIRP (dBm)000000000000000Required Path Loss for main beam (Minimum Coupling Loss, MCL)Path loss, indoor to indoor, PL (dB)82.873.882.871.1n/a64.864.888.888.8n/an/an/an/an/an/aPath loss, indoor to outdoor units, PL (dB)82.873.882.871.182.864.864.888.888.881.898.894.8104.866.083.0Dfree_space (km) indoor to outdoor0.1350.0480.1350.0350.1350.0170.0170.2690.2690.1200.8510.5371.6980.0190.138Path loss, outdoor to outdoor units, PL (dB)97.888.897.886.197.8n/a79.8103.8103.896.8113.8109.8119.881.098.0Dfree_space (km) outdoor to outdoor0.7590.2690.7590.1960.7590.0960.0961.5151.5150.6764.7843.0199.5460.1100.776
Fixed 4W0.5 W0.5 W0.1 WENG/ENG/ENG/ENG/ENG/ENG/Victims =>SRD 1SRD 2RLAN 1RLAN 2AccessRFID 3aRFID 3bRFID 5aRFID 5bOB 1OB 2OB 3OB 4OB 1OB 2NBVideoFHSSDSSSFHSSFHSSFHSSNBNBAnaloAnaloAnaloAnaloDigitalDigitalINPUT DATA belowR3R1R2R4R3R1Required path loss for sidelobes (Minimum Coupling Loss, MCL)Path loss, indoor to indoor, PL (dB)82.873.882.871.1n/a49.849.873.873.8n/an/an/an/an/an/aPath loss, indoor to outdoor units, PL (dB)82.873.882.871.182.849.849.873.873.881.873.869.879.866.058.0Dfree_space (km) indoor to outdoor0.1350.0480.1350.0350.1350.0030.0030.0480.0480.1200.0480.0300.0950.0190.008Path loss, outdoor to outdoor units, PL (dB)97.888.897.886.197.8n/a64.888.888.896.888.884.894.881.073.0Dfree_space (km) outdoor to outdoor0.7590.2690.7590.1960.7590.0170.0170.2690.2690.6760.2690.1700.5370.1100.044Protection Distances for cochannel interference to main beamIndoor model, indoor to indoor, (km)0.0440.0240.0440.020n/a0.0140.0140.0660.066n/an/an/an/an/an/aUrban model, indoor to outdoor, (km)0.0380.0210.0380.0180.0560.0090.0090.0510.0511.7920.0850.0832.0040.5290.030Urban model, outdoor to outdoor, (km) 0.1010.0560.1010.0470.150n/a0.0230.1360.1365.7060.2270.2225.5731.6850.081Rural, indoor to outdoor, (km)0.1350.0480.1350.0350.1350.0170.0170.2690.269n/an/an/an/an/an/aRural, outdoor to outdoor, (km)0.2180.2690.2180.1960.759n/a0.0960.2810.2810.6760.4240.4353.1590.1100.171h^2*h^2/r^4, (m)250149250127322636332232219234854983614775196a (Hm)0.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.06a (Hb)4.604.604.604.6010.650.060.063.083.0851.810.964.6039.7751.810.96Protection Distances for cochannel interference to sidelobeIndoor model, indoor to indoor, (km)0.0440.0240.0440.020n/a0.0050.0050.0250.025n/an/an/an/an/an/aUrban model, indoor to outdoor, (km)0.0380.0210.0380.0180.0560.0030.0030.0190.0191.7920.0170.0160.3640.5290.006Urban model, outdoor to outdoor, (km) 0.1010.0560.1010.0470.150n/a0.0090.0510.0515.7060.0440.0431.0141.6850.016Rural, indoor to outdoor, (km)0.1350.0480.1350.0350.1350.0030.0030.0480.048n/an/an/an/an/an/aRural, outdoor to outdoor, (km)0.2180.2690.2180.1960.759n/a0.0170.2690.2690.6760.2690.1700.5370.1100.044h^2*h^2/r^4, (m)2501492501273222626136136192311511885777546a (Hm)0.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.06a (Hb)4.604.604.604.6010.650.060.063.083.0851.810.964.6039.7751.810.96Exponent k222222222222222Intermediate Results for New FormulaTX Single Channel BW (MHz)1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00TX Hopping Span (MHz)79.0079.0079.0079.0079.008.008.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00RX Single Channel BW (MHz)1.0020.001.0015.001.000.350.350.100.1020.0020.0020.0020.007.607.60Unit collision probability elementsProbability for frequency collision, PFREQ_COL0.0181.0000.0180.1960.0180.0150.0150.0130.0130.2750.2750.2750.2750.1200.120Probability. for time collision, PTIME_COL0.6001.0000.6000.6000.6000.6000.6000.6000.6000.6000.6000.6000.6000.6000.600Prob. for main beam pattern collision, PPAT_COL1.0000.2411.0001.0001.0000.2410.2410.1910.1911.0000.0420.0680.0211.0000.042Prob. for sidelobe pattern collision, PPAT_COL0.0000.2580.0000.0000.0000.2580.2580.3080.3080.0000.9570.9320.9780.0000.957Probability for coincidence of channel assignment1.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.000Total Main beam Mitigation Factor1.13 E 022.41 E 011.13 E 021.18 E 011.13 E 022.17 E 032.17 E 031.53 E 031.53 E 031.65 E 017.08 E 031.12 E 023.55 E 037.20 E 023.09
E 03
Number of interfering units inside a circular protection area of Interferers main beam (exponential distribution for SRD, linear for ENG/OB and Fixed)Unit density (units/km2 )0.010.030.10.31310301003001 k3 k10 k30 k100 kSRD1, 10 mW, Narrow Band, D = 100%, indoor mounted (reference)5.82 E 051.75 E 045.82 E 041.75 E 035.82 E 031.75 E 025.82 E 021.75 E 015.82 E 011.75 E 005.82 E 001.75 E +015.82 E +011.75 E +025.82
E +02SRD 2, 10 mW, Video, D=100%, indoor mounted1.82 E 055.47 E 051.82 E 045.47 E 041.82 E 035.47 E 031.82 E 025.47 E 021.82 E 015.47 E 011.82 E 005.47 E 001.82 E +015.47 E +011.82
E +02RLAN1 FHSS, indoor5.82 E 051.75 E 045.82 E 041.75 E 035.82 E 031.75 E 025.82 E 021.75 E 015.82 E 011.75 E 005.82 E 001.75 E +015.82 E +011.75 E +025.82
E +02RLAN2 DSSS, indoor1.28 E 053.83 E 051.28 E 043.83 E 041.28 E 033.83 E 031.28 E 023.83 E 021.28 E 013.83 E 011.28 E 003.83 E 001.28 E +013.83 E +011.28
E +02Fixed Access, outdoor9.28 E 052.78 E 049.28 E 042.78 E 039.28 E 032.78 E 029.28 E 022.78 E 019.28 E 012.78 E 009.28 E 002.78 E +019.28 E +012.78 E +029.28
E +02RFID 3a, 4W, FHSS, indoor5.67 E 061.70 E 055.67 E 051.70 E 045.67 E 041.70 E 035.67 E 031.70 E 025.67 E 021.70 E 015.67 E 011.70 E 005.67 E 001.70 E +015.67
E +01RFID 3b, 500mW, FHSS, indoor5.67 E 061.70 E 055.67 E 051.70 E 045.67 E 041.70 E 035.67 E 031.70 E 025.67 E 021.70 E 015.67 E 011.70 E 005.67 E 001.70 E +015.67
E +01RFID 5a, 500 mW, NB, indoor1.25 E 043.74 E 041.25 E 033.74 E 031.25 E 023.74 E 021.25 E 013.74 E 011.25 E 003.74 E 001.25 E +013.74 E +011.25 E +023.74 E +021.25
E +03RFID 5b, 100 mW, NB, indoor1.25 E 043.74 E 041.25 E 033.74 E 031.25 E 023.74 E 021.25 E 013.74 E 011.25 E 003.74 E 001.25 E +013.74 E +011.25 E +023.74 E +021.25
E +03ENG/OB 1, analogue, outdoor1.01 E 013.03 E 011.01 E 003.03 E 001.01 E +013.03 E +011.01 E +023.03 E +021.01 E +033.03 E +031.01 E +043.03 E +041.01 E +053.03 E +051.01
E +06ENG/OB 2, analogue, outdoor2.28 E 046.84 E 042.28 E 036.84 E 032.28 E 026.84 E 022.28 E 016.84 E 012.28 E 006.84 E 002.28 E +016.84 E +012.28 E +026.84 E +022.28
E +03ENG/OB 3, analogue, outdoor2.17 E 046.52 E 042.17 E 036.52 E 032.17 E 026.52 E 022.17 E 016.52 E 012.17 E 006.52 E 002.17 E +016.52 E +012.17 E +026.52 E +022.17
E +03ENG/OB 4, analogue, outdoor1.26 E 013.79 E 011.26 E 003.79 E 001.26 E +013.79 E +011.26 E +023.79 E +021.26 E +033.79 E +031.26 E +043.79 E +041.26 E +053.79 E +051.26
E +06ENG/OB 1, digital, outdoor8.81 E 032.64 E 028.81 E 022.64 E 018.81 E 012.64 E 008.81 E 002.64 E +018.81 E +012.64 E +028.81 E +022.64 E +038.81 E +032.64 E +048.81
E +04ENG/OB 2, digital, outdoor2.89 E 058.67 E 052.89 E 048.67 E 042.89 E 038.67 E 032.89 E 028.67 E 022.89 E 018.67 E 012.89 E 008.67 E 002.89 E +018.67 E +012.89
E +02ENG/OB 3, digital, outdoor2.75 E 058.26 E 052.75 E 048.26 E 042.75 E 038.26 E 032.75 E 028.26 E 022.75 E 018.26 E 012.75 E 008.26 E 002.75 E +018.26 E +012.75
E +02ENG/OB 4, digital, outdoor8.48 E 032.55 E 028.48 E 022.55 E 018.48 E 012.55 E 008.48 E 002.55 E +018.48 E +012.55 E +028.48 E +022.55 E +038.48 E +032.55 E +048.48
E +04Fixed 1, 2 x 2 Mbit/s, MSK, outdoor7.17 E 012.15 E 007.17 E 002.15 E +017.17 E +012.15 E +027.17 E +022.15 E +037.17 E +032.15 E +047.17 E +042.15 E +057.17 E +052.15 E +067.17
E +06Fixed 2, 34 Mbit/s, QPSK, outdoor1.00 E 003.01 E 001.00 E +013.01 E +011.00 E +023.01 E +021.00 E +033.01 E +031.00 E +043.01 E +041.00 E +053.01 E +051.00 E +063.01 E +061.00
E +07
Number of interfering units inside a circular protection area for interferers side lobes (exponential distribution for SRD, linear for ENG/OB and Fixed)Unit density (units/km2 )0.010.030.10.31310301003001 k3 k10 k30 k100 kSRD1, 10 mW, Narrow Band, D = 100%, indoor mounted (reference)5.82 E 051.75 E 045.82 E 041.75 E 035.82 E 031.75 E 025.82 E 021.75 E 015.82 E 011.75 E 005.82 E 001.75 E +015.82 E +011.75 E +025.82 E +02SRD 2, 10 mW, Video, D=100%, indoor1.82 E 055.47 E 051.82 E 045.47 E 041.82 E 035.47 E 031.82 E 025.47 E 021.82 E 015.47 E 011.82 E 005.47 E 001.82 E +015.47 E +011.82 E +02RLAN1 FHSS, indoor5.82 E 051.75 E 045.82 E 041.75 E 035.82 E 031.75 E 025.82 E 021.75 E 015.82 E 011.75 E 005.82 E 001.75 E +015.82 E +011.75 E +025.82 E +02RLAN2 DSSS, indoor1.28 E 053.83 E 051.28 E 043.83 E 041.28 E 033.83 E 031.28 E 023.83 E 021.28 E 013.83 E 011.28 E 003.83 E 001.28 E +013.83 E +011.28 E +02Fixed Access, outdoor9.28 E 052.78 E 049.28 E 042.78 E 039.28 E 032.78 E 029.28 E 022.78 E 019.28 E 012.78 E 009.28 E 002.78 E +019.28 E +012.78 E +029.28 E +02RFID 3a, 4W, FHSS, indoor7.97 E 072.39 E 067.97 E 062.39 E 057.97 E 052.39 E 047.97 E 042.39 E 037.97 E 032.39 E 027.97 E 022.39 E 017.97 E 012.39 E 007.97 E 00RFID 3b, 500mW, FHSS, indoor7.97 E 072.39 E 067.97 E 062.39 E 057.97 E 052.39 E 047.97 E 042.39 E 037.97 E 032.39 E 027.97 E 022.39 E 017.97 E 012.39 E 007.97 E 00RFID 5a, 500 mW, NB, indoor1.83 E 055.48 E 051.83 E 045.48 E 041.83 E 035.48 E 031.83 E 025.48 E 021.83 E 015.48 E 011.83 E 005.48 E 001.83 E +015.48 E +011.83 E +02RFID 5b, 100 mW, NB, indoor1.83 E 055.48 E 051.83 E 045.48 E 041.83 E 035.48 E 031.83 E 025.48 E 021.83 E 015.48 E 011.83 E 005.48 E 001.83 E +015.48 E +011.83 E +02ENG/OB 1, analogue, outdoor1.01 E 013.03 E 011.01 E 003.03 E 001.01 E +013.03 E +011.01 E +023.03 E +021.01 E +033.03 E +031.01 E +043.03 E +041.01 E +053.03 E +051.01 E +06ENG/OB 2, analogue, outdoor8.68 E 062.60 E 058.68 E 052.60 E 048.68 E 042.60 E 038.68 E 032.60 E 028.68 E 022.60 E 018.68 E 012.60 E 008.68 E 002.60 E +018.68 E +01ENG/OB 3, analogue, outdoor8.27 E 062.48 E 058.27 E 052.48 E 048.27 E 042.48 E 038.27 E 032.48 E 028.27 E 022.48 E 018.27 E 012.48 E 008.27 E 002.48 E +018.27 E +01ENG/OB 4, analogue, outdoor4.17 E 031.25 E 024.17 E 021.25 E 014.17 E 011.25 E 004.17 E 001.25 E +014.17 E +011.25 E +024.17 E +021.25 E +034.17 E +031.25 E +044.17 E +04ENG/OB 1, digital, outdoor8.81 E 032.64 E 028.81 E 022.64 E 018.81 E 012.64 E 008.81 E 002.64 E +018.81 E +012.64 E +028.81 E +022.64 E +038.81 E +032.64 E +048.81 E +04ENG/OB 2, digital, outdoor1.10 E 063.30 E 061.10 E 053.30 E 051.10 E 043.30 E 041.10 E 033.30 E 031.10 E 023.30 E 021.10 E 013.30 E 011.10 E 003.30 E 001.10 E +01ENG/OB 3, digital, outdoor1.05 E 063.15 E 061.05 E 053.15 E 051.05 E 043.15 E 041.05 E 033.15 E 031.05 E 023.15 E 021.05 E 013.15 E 011.05 E 003.15 E 001.05 E +01ENG/OB 4, digital, outdoor2.81 E 048.42 E 042.81 E 038.42 E 032.81 E 028.42 E 022.81 E 018.42 E 012.81 E 008.42 E 002.81 E +018.42 E +012.81 E +028.42 E +022.81 E +03Fixed 1, 2 x 2 Mbit/s, MSK, outdoor2.37 E 027.11 E 022.37 E 017.11 E 012.37 E 007.11 E 002.37 E +017.11 E +012.37 E +027.11 E +022.37 E +037.11 E +032.37 E +047.11 E +042.37 E +05Fixed 2, 34 Mbit/s, QPSK, outdoor3.32 E 029.95 E 023.32 E 019.95 E 013.32 E 009.95 E 003.32 E +019.95 E +013.32 E +029.95 E +023.32 E +039.95 E +033.32 E +049.95 E +043.32 E +05
Cumulative probability of interference as a function of Bluetooth unit densityUnit density of Bluetooth (units/km2) 0.010.030.10.31310301003001 k3 k10 k30 k100 kType of victims belowSRD1, 10 mW, Narrow Band, D = 100%, indoor mounted (reference)6.62 E 071.99 E 066.62 E 061.99 E 056.62 E 051.99 E 046.62 E 041.99 E 036.60 E 031.97 E 026.41 E 021.80 E 014.84 E 018.63 E 019.99 E 01 SRD 2, 10 mW, Video, D=100%, indoor1.05 E 053.15 E 051.05 E 043.15 E 041.05 E 033.15 E 031.04 E 023.10 E 029.97 E 022.70 E 016.50 E 019.57 E 0110.00 E 0110.00 E 011.00 E 00RLAN1, 100 mW, FHSS, D = 100%, indoor mounted6.62 E 071.99 E 066.62 E 061.99 E 056.62 E 051.99 E 046.62 E 041.99 E 036.60 E 031.97 E 026.41 E 021.80 E 014.84 E 018.63 E 019.99 E 01RLAN2, 100 mW, DSSS, D = 100%, indoor mounted1.60 E 064.80 E 061.60 E 054.80 E 051.60 E 044.80 E 041.60 E 034.79 E 031.59 E 024.69 E 021.48 E 013.81 E 017.98 E 019.92 E 0110.00 E 01Fixed Access, outdoor2.11 E 066.34 E 062.11 E 056.34 E 052.11 E 046.34 E 042.11 E 036.32 E 032.09 E 026.14 E 021.91 E 014.70 E 018.79 E 019.98 E 0110.00 E 01RFID 3a, 4W, FHSS BW = 8 MHz, D = 15%, indoor mounted1.42 E 084.26 E 081.42 E 074.26 E 071.42 E 064.26 E 061.42 E 054.26 E 051.42 E 044.26 E 041.42 E 034.25 E 031.41 E 024.17 E 021.32 E 01RFID 3b, 500mW, FHSS BW = 8 MHz, D =15%, indoor mounted1.42 E 084.26 E 081.42 E 074.26 E 071.42 E 064.26 E 061.42 E 054.26 E 051.42 E 044.26 E 041.42 E 034.25 E 031.41 E 024.17 E 021.32 E 01RFID 5a, 500 mW, Narrow Band, D = 100%, indoor mounted2.35 E 077.06 E 072.35 E 067.06 E 062.35 E 057.06 E 052.35 E 047.06 E 042.35 E 037.04 E 032.33 E 026.82 E 022.10 E 015.06 E 019.05 E 01RFID 5b, 100 mW, Narrow Band, D = 100%, indoor mounted2.35 E 077.06 E 072.35 E 067.06 E 062.35 E 057.06 E 052.35 E 047.06 E 042.35 E 037.04 E 032.33 E 026.82 E 022.10 E 015.06 E 019.05 E 01ENG/OB 1, analogue, outdoor1.80 E 025.31 E 02ENG/OB 2, analogue, outdoor4.11 E 051.23 E 04ENG/OB 3, analogue, outdoor3.92 E 051.18 E 04ENG/OB 4, analogue, outdoor2.25 E 026.60 E 02ENG/OB 1, digital, outdoor1.59 E 034.75 E 03ENG/OB 2, digital, outdoor5.21 E 061.56 E 05ENG/OB 3, digital, outdoor4.97 E 061.49 E 05ENG/OB 4, digital, outdoor1.53 E 034.58 E 03Fixed 1, 2 x 2 Mbit/s, MSK, outdoor1.21 E 013.21 E 01Fixed 2, 34 Mbit/s, QPSK, outdoor1.65 E 014.19 E 01
ANNEX A.3. Interference from 100 mW Bluetooth to existing and planned services in the 2.400  2.4835 GHz bandFixed 4W0.5 W0.5 W0.1 WENG/ENG/ENG/ENG/ENG/ENG/ENG/ENG/FixedFixedVictims =>SRD 1SRD 2RLAN 1RLAN 2AccessRFID 3aRFID 3bRFID 5aRFID 5bOB 1OB 2OB 3OB 4OB 1OB 2OB 3OB 4Service 1Service 2NBVideoFHSSDSSSFHSSFHSSFHSSNBNBAnaloAnaloAnaloAnaloDigitalDigitalDigitalDigital2x2Mbit/s34 Mbit/sINPUT DATA belowR3R1R2R4R3R1R2R4MSKQPSKTX output power conducted, Pt (dBW)12121212121212121212121212121212121212TX duty cycle0.600.600.600.600.600.600.600.600.600.600.600.600.600.600.600.600.600.600.60Input Building attenuation, (dB)15151515151515151515151515151515151515Input Frequency, (MHz)2450245024502450245024502450245024502450245024502450245024502450245024502450TX ant. gain minus feeder loss, Gt  Lft (dB)2222222222222222222Antenna horizontal coupling loss factor, (dB)0000000000000000000Tx Ant Main Lobe 3dB beamwidth at 0 deg elevation, (deg)360360360360360360360360360360360360360360360360360360360Rx Antenna Sidelobe 3dB beamwidth at 0 deg elevation, (deg)0930009393111111034533635203453363523500RX Antenna sidelobe attenuation at 0 deg elevation, (dB)0000015151515025252502525252525Input RX ant. gain  feeder loss, Gr  Lfr (dB)262226688421172742117272535.7Rx antenna 3dB beamwidth, (degrees)36087360360360878769693601524836015248103Auto calc. of Victim RX noise = (10*log kTB)+NF (dBW)140.8127.8140.8129.1140.8123.4123.4150.8150.8127.8127.8127.8127.8132.0132.0132.0132.0136.1127.8Input Victim RX Noise figure, NF (dB)3.03.03.03.03.025.025.03.03.03.03.03.03.03.03.03.03.03.03.0Background noise in ISM band (dB above system noise)5.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.0Relative interference level, I/N,(dB)10.010.010.010.010.010.010.010.010.00.00.00.00.020.020.020.020.010.010.0Input TX mod. Equivalent noise BW, BWt (kHz)1000100010001000100010001000100010001000100010001000100010001000100010001000Input Victim RX noise bandwidth, BWr (kHz)1000200001000150001000350350100100200002000020000200007600760076007600300020000Input the shorter antenna height, Hm (m)1.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.5Input the taller antenna height, Hb (m)333351.51.52.52.52001.83502001.83505050Radio line of sight, (km)12.112.112.112.114.210.010.011.511.563.010.512.134.063.010.512.134.034.034.0Offchannel coupling loss, dB0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0Clutter loss for low antenna height in rural areas, dB17.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.317.3Bluetooth radiated power, (dBm) EIRPRFID  Main Beam EIRP (dBm)20202020202020202020202020202020202020Required path loss for main beam (Minimum Coupling Loss, MCL)Path loss, indoor to indoor, PL (dB)102.893.8102.891.1n/a84.884.8108.8108.8n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/aPath loss, indoor to outdoor units, PL (dB)102.893.8102.891.1102.884.884.8108.8108.8101.8118.8114.8124.886.0103.099.0109.0141.1143.5Dfree_space (km) indoor to outdoor1.3500.4781.3500.3491.3500.1700.1702.6942.6941.2028.5085.36816.9750.1951.3800.8712.754110.096146.157Path loss, outdoor to outdoor units, PL (dB)117.8108.8117.8106.1117.8n/a99.8123.8123.8116.8133.8129.8139.8101.0118.0114.0124.0156.1158.5Dfree_space (km) outdoor to outdoor7.5922.6907.5921.9607.5920.9560.95615.14715.1476.75847.84330.18795.4591.0967.7614.89715.486619.118821.900Required path loss for side lobes (Minimum Coupling Loss, MCL)Path loss, indoor to indoor, PL (dB)102.893.8102.891.1n/a69.869.893.893.8n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/aPath loss, indoor to outdoor units, PL (dB)102.893.8102.891.1102.869.869.893.893.8101.893.889.899.886.078.074.084.0116.1118.5Dfree_space (km) indoor to outdoor1.3500.4781.3500.3491.3500.0300.0300.4790.4791.2020.4780.3020.9550.1950.0780.0490.1556.1918.219Path loss, outdoor to outdoor units, PL (dB)117.8108.8117.8106.1117.8n/a84.8108.8108.8116.8108.8104.8114.8101.093.089.099.0131.1133.5Dfree_space (km) outdoor to outdoor7.5922.6907.5921.9607.5920.1700.1702.6942.6946.7582.6901.6985.3681.0960.4360.2750.87134.8146.21
ANNEX A.3 (Cont.). Interference from 100 mW Bluetooth to existing and planned services in the 2.400  2.4835 GHz bandFixed 4W0.5 W0.5 W0.1 WENG/ENG/ENG/ENG/ENG/ENG/ENG/ENG/FixedFixedVictims =>SRD 1SRD 2RLAN 1RLAN 2AccessRFID 3aRFID 3bRFID 5aRFID 5bOB 1OB 2OB 3OB 4OB 1OB 2OB 3OB 4Service 1Service 2NBVideoFHSSDSSSFHSSFHSSFHSSNBNBAnaloAnaloAnaloAnaloDigitalDigitalDigitalDigital2x2Mbit/s34 Mbit/sINPUT DATA belowR3R1R2R4R3R1R2R4MSKQPSKProtection distances for cochannel interference to main beamIndoor model, indoor to indoor, (km)0.1650.0910.1650.076n/a0.0510.0510.2450.245n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/aUrban model, indoor to outdoor, (km)0.1400.0780.1400.0650.2090.0320.0320.1880.1888.3930.3150.3077.8372.4790.1120.1092.66923.71428.046Urban model, outdoor to outdoor, (km) 0.3740.2080.3740.1740.556n/a0.0860.5020.50226.7180.8390.82021.7937.8920.2990.2927.42265.94377.989Rural, indoor to outdoor, (km)0.2910.1730.2910.3490.3760.1700.1700.3750.375n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/aRural, outdoor to outdoor, (km)0.6900.4110.6900.3510.891n/a0.1730.8900.8906.7581.3421.3769.9891.0960.5400.5544.02325.44029.311h^2*h^2/r^4, (m)79047079040110191981981018101860821535157411429245061863446032910733537a (Hm)0.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.06a (Hb)4.604.604.604.6010.650.060.063.083.0851.810.964.6039.7751.810.964.6039.7739.7739.77Protection distances for cochannel interference to side lobesIndoor model, indoor to indoor, (km)0.1650.0910.1650.076n/a0.0190.0190.0910.091n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/aUrban model, indoor to outdoor, (km)0.1400.0780.1400.0650.2090.0120.0120.0710.0718.3930.0610.0601.4252.4790.0220.0210.4854.3135.101Urban model, outdoor to outdoor, (km) 0.3740.2080.3740.1740.556n/a0.0320.1880.18826.7180.1640.1603.9637.8920.0580.0571.35011.99214.183Rural, indoor to outdoor, (km)0.2910.1730.2910.3490.3760.0300.0300.1580.158n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/aRural, outdoor to outdoor, (km)0.6900.4110.6900.3510.891n/a0.1700.3750.3756.7580.3180.3265.3681.0960.1280.2750.8716.0336.951h^2*h^2/r^4, (m)79047079040110198484429429608236437327102450147150109269027953a (Hm)0.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.06a (Hb)4.604.604.604.6010.650.060.063.083.0851.810.964.6039.7751.810.964.6039.7739.7739.77Exponent k222222222222222Intermediate results for new formulaTX Single Channel BW (MHz)1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00TX Hopping Span (MHz)79.0079.0079.0079.0079.008.008.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00RX Single Channel BW (MHz)1.0020.001.0015.001.000.350.350.100.1020.0020.0020.0020.007.607.60Unit collision probability elementsProbability for frequency collision, PFREQ_COL0.0181.0000.0180.1960.0180.0150.0150.0130.0130.2750.2750.2750.2750.1200.120Probability for time collision, PTIME_COL0.6001.0000.6000.6000.6000.6000.6000.6000.6000.6000.6000.6000.6000.6000.600Prob. for main beam pattern collision, PPAT_COL1.0000.2411.0001.0001.0000.2410.2410.1910.1911.0000.0420.0680.0211.0000.042Prob. for sidelobe pattern collision, PPAT_COL0.0000.2580.0000.0000.0000.2580.2580.3080.3080.0000.9570.9320.9780.0000.957Prob. for coincidence of channel assignment1.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.000Total Main beam Mitigation Factor1.13
E 022.41
E 011.13
E 021.18
E 011.13
E 022.17
E 032.17
E 031.53
E 031.53
E 031.65
E 017.08
E 031.12
E 023.55 E 037.20 E 023.09 E 03
Number of interfering units inside a circular protection area of interferers main beam (exponential distribution for SRD, linear for ENG/OB and Fixed)Unit density (units/km2 )0.010.030.10.31310301003001 k3 k10 k30 k100 kSRD1, 10 mW, Narrow Band, D = 100%, indoor mounted (reference)6.90 E 042.07 E 036.90 E 032.07 E 026.90 E 022.07 E 016.90 E 012.07 E 006.90 E 002.07 E +016.90 E +012.07 E +026.90 E +022.07 E +036.90 E +03SRD 2, 10 mW, Video, D=100%, indoor mounted2.32 E 046.97 E 042.32 E 036.97 E 032.32 E 026.97 E 022.32 E 016.97 E 012.32 E 006.97 E 002.32 E +016.97 E +012.32 E +026.97 E +022.32 E +03RLAN1 FHSS, indoor6.90 E 042.07 E 036.90 E 032.07 E 026.90 E 022.07 E 016.90 E 012.07 E 006.90 E 002.07 E +016.90 E +012.07 E +026.90 E +022.07 E +036.90 E +03RLAN2 DSSS, indoor1.65 E 044.95 E 041.65 E 034.95 E 031.65 E 024.95 E 021.65 E 014.95 E 011.65 E 004.95 E 001.65 E +014.95 E +011.65 E +024.95 E +021.65 E +03Fixed Access, outdoor1.04 E 033.12 E 031.04 E 023.12 E 021.04 E 013.12 E 011.04 E 003.12 E 001.04 E +013.12 E +011.04 E +023.12 E +021.04 E +033.12 E +031.04 E +04RFID 3a, 4W, FHSS, indoor7.51 E 052.25 E 047.51 E 042.25 E 037.51 E 032.25 E 027.51 E 022.25 E 017.51 E 012.25 E 007.51 E 002.25 E +017.51 E +012.25 E +027.51 E +02RFID 3b, 500mW, FHSS, indoor7.51 E 052.25 E 047.51 E 042.25 E 037.51 E 032.25 E 027.51 E 022.25 E 017.51 E 012.25 E 007.51 E 002.25 E +017.51 E +012.25 E +027.51 E +02RFID 5a, 500 mW, NB, indoor1.37 E 034.11 E 031.37 E 024.11 E 021.37 E 014.11 E 011.37 E 004.11 E 001.37 E +014.11 E +011.37 E +024.11 E +021.37 E +034.11 E +031.37 E +04RFID 5b, 100 mW, NB, indoor1.37 E 034.11 E 031.37 E 024.11 E 021.37 E 014.11 E 011.37 E 004.11 E 001.37 E +014.11 E +011.37 E +024.11 E +021.37 E +034.11 E +031.37 E +04ENG/OB 1, analogue, outdoor2.21 E 006.64 E 002.21 E +016.64 E +012.21 E +026.64 E +022.21 E +036.64 E +032.21 E +046.64 E +042.21 E +056.64 E +052.21 E +066.64 E +062.21 E +07ENG/OB 2, analogue, outdoor3.11 E 039.34 E 033.11 E 029.34 E 023.11 E 019.34 E 013.11 E 009.34 E 003.11 E +019.34 E +013.11 E +029.34 E +023.11 E +039.34 E +033.11 E +04ENG/OB 3, analogue, outdoor2.97 E 038.91 E 032.97 E 028.91 E 022.97 E 018.91 E 012.97 E 008.91 E 002.97 E +018.91 E +012.97 E +028.91 E +022.97 E +038.91 E +032.97 E +04ENG/OB 4, analogue, outdoor1.93 E 005.79 E 001.93 E +015.79 E +011.93 E +025.79 E +021.93 E +035.79 E +031.93 E +045.79 E +041.93 E +055.79 E +051.93 E +065.79 E +061.93 E +07ENG/OB 1, digital, outdoor1.93 E 015.79 E 011.93 E 005.79 E 001.93 E +015.79 E +011.93 E +025.79 E +021.93 E +035.79 E +031.93 E +045.79 E +041.93 E +055.79 E +051.93 E +06ENG/OB 2, digital, outdoor3.95 E 041.18 E 033.95 E 031.18 E 023.95 E 021.18 E 013.95 E 011.18 E 003.95 E 001.18 E +013.95 E +011.18 E +023.95 E +021.18 E +033.95 E +03ENG/OB 3, digital, outdoor3.76 E 041.13 E 033.76 E 031.13 E 023.76 E 021.13 E 013.76 E 011.13 E 003.76 E 001.13 E +013.76 E +011.13 E +023.76 E +021.13 E +033.76 E +03ENG/OB 4, digital, outdoor2.24 E 016.71 E 012.24 E 006.71 E 002.24 E +016.71 E +012.24 E +026.71 E +022.24 E +036.71 E +032.24 E +046.71 E +042.24 E +056.71 E +052.24 E +06Fixed 1, 2 x 2 Mbit/s, MSK, outdoor1.77 E +015.30 E +011.77 E +025.30 E +021.77 E +035.30 E +031.77 E +045.30 E +041.77 E +055.30 E +051.77 E +065.30 E +061.77 E +075.30 E +071.77 E +08Fixed 2, 34 Mbit/s, QPSK, outdoor2.47 E +017.41 E +012.47 E +027.41 E +022.47 E +037.41 E +032.47 E +047.41 E +042.47 E +057.41 E +052.47 E +067.41 E +062.47 E +077.41 E +072.47 E +08
Number of interfering units inside a circular protection area for interferers side lobes (exponential distribution for SRD, linear for ENG/OB and Fixed)Unit density (units/km2 )0.010.030.10.31310301003001 k3 k10 k30 k100 kSRD1, 10 mW, Narrow Band, D = 100%, indoor mounted (reference)6.90 E 042.07 E 036.90 E 032.07 E 026.90 E 022.07 E 016.90 E 012.07 E 006.90 E 002.07 E +016.90 E +012.07 E +026.90 E +022.07 E +036.90 E +03SRD 2, 10 mW, Video, D=100%, indoor2.32 E 046.97 E 042.32 E 036.97 E 032.32 E 026.97 E 022.32 E 016.97 E 012.32 E 006.97 E 002.32 E +016.97 E +012.32 E +026.97 E +022.32 E +03RLAN1 FHSS, indoor6.90 E 042.07 E 036.90 E 032.07 E 026.90 E 022.07 E 016.90 E 012.07 E 006.90 E 002.07 E +016.90 E +012.07 E +026.90 E +022.07 E +036.90 E +03RLAN2 DSSS, indoor1.65 E 044.95 E 041.65 E 034.95 E 031.65 E 024.95 E 021.65 E 014.95 E 011.65 E 004.95 E 001.65 E +014.95 E +011.65 E +024.95 E +021.65 E +03Fixed Access, outdoor1.04 E 033.12 E 031.04 E 023.12 E 021.04 E 013.12 E 011.04 E 003.12 E 001.04 E +013.12 E +011.04 E +023.12 E +021.04 E +033.12 E +031.04 E +04RFID 3a, 4W, FHSS, indoor1.09 E 053.26 E 051.09 E 043.26 E 041.09 E 033.26 E 031.09 E 023.26 E 021.09 E 013.26 E 011.09 E 003.26 E 001.09 E +013.26 E +011.09 E +02RFID 3b, 500mW, FHSS, indoor1.09 E 053.26 E 051.09 E 043.26 E 041.09 E 033.26 E 031.09 E 023.26 E 021.09 E 013.26 E 011.09 E 003.26 E 001.09 E +013.26 E +011.09 E +02RFID 5a, 500 mW, NB, indoor2.32 E 046.97 E 042.32 E 036.97 E 032.32 E 026.97 E 022.32 E 016.97 E 012.32 E 006.97 E 002.32 E +016.97 E +012.32 E +026.97 E +022.32 E +03RFID 5b, 100 mW, NB, indoor2.32 E 046.97 E 042.32 E 036.97 E 032.32 E 026.97 E 022.32 E 016.97 E 012.32 E 006.97 E 002.32 E +016.97 E +012.32 E +026.97 E +022.32 E +03ENG/OB 1, analogue, outdoor2.21 E 006.64 E 002.21 E +016.64 E +012.21 E +026.64 E +022.21 E +036.64 E +032.21 E +046.64 E +042.21 E +056.64 E +052.21 E +066.64 E +062.21 E +07ENG/OB 2, analogue, outdoor1.19 E 043.56 E 041.19 E 033.56 E 031.19 E 023.56 E 021.19 E 013.56 E 011.19 E 003.56 E 001.19 E +013.56 E +011.19 E +023.56 E +021.19 E +03ENG/OB 3, analogue, outdoor1.13 E 043.39 E 041.13 E 033.39 E 031.13 E 023.39 E 021.13 E 013.39 E 011.13 E 003.39 E 001.13 E +013.39 E +011.13 E +023.39 E +021.13 E +03ENG/OB 4, analogue, outdoor6.38 E 021.91 E 016.38 E 011.91 E 006.38 E 001.91 E +016.38 E +011.91 E +026.38 E +021.91 E +036.38 E +031.91 E +046.38 E +041.91 E +056.38 E +05ENG/OB 1, digital, outdoor1.93 E 015.79 E 011.93 E 005.79 E 001.93 E +015.79 E +011.93 E +025.79 E +021.93 E +035.79 E +031.93 E +045.79 E +041.93 E +055.79 E +051.93 E +06ENG/OB 2, digital, outdoor1.50 E 054.51 E 051.50 E 044.51 E 041.50 E 034.51 E 031.50 E 024.51 E 021.50 E 014.51 E 011.50 E 004.51 E 001.50 E +014.51 E +011.50 E +02ENG/OB 3, digital, outdoor1.43 E 054.30 E 051.43 E 044.30 E 041.43 E 034.30 E 031.43 E 024.30 E 021.43 E 014.30 E 011.43 E 004.30 E 001.43 E +014.30 E +011.43 E +02ENG/OB 4, digital, outdoor7.40 E 032.22 E 027.40 E 022.22 E 017.40 E 012.22 E 007.40 E 002.22 E +017.40 E +012.22 E +027.40 E +022.22 E +037.40 E +032.22 E +047.40 E +04Fixed 1, 2 x 2 Mbit/s, MSK, outdoor5.84 E 011.75 E 005.84 E 001.75 E +015.84 E +011.75 E +025.84 E +021.75 E +035.84 E +031.75 E +045.84 E +041.75 E +055.84 E +051.75 E +065.84 E +06Fixed 2, 34 Mbit/s, QPSK, outdoor8.17 E 012.45 E 008.17 E 002.45 E +018.17 E +012.45 E +028.17 E +022.45 E +038.17 E +032.45 E +048.17 E +042.45 E +058.17 E +052.45 E +068.17 E +06
Cumulative probability of interference as a function of Bluetooth unit densityUnit density of Bluetooth (units/km2) 0.010.030.10.31310301003001 k3 k10 k30 k100 kType of victims belowSRD1, 10 mW, Narrow Band, D = 100%, indoor mounted (reference)7.86 E 062.36 E 057.86 E 052.36 E 047.85 E 042.35 E 037.83 E 032.33 E 027.56 E 022.10 E 015.44 E 019.05 E 0110.00 E 0110.00 E 011.00 E 00 SRD 2, 10 mW, Video, D=100%, indoor1.34 E 044.01 E 041.34 E 034.00 E 031.33 E 023.93 E 021.25 E 013.30 E 017.37 E 019.82 E 0110.00 E 011.00 E 001.00 E 001.00 E 001.00 E 00RLAN1, 100 mW, FHSS, D = 100%, indoor mounted7.86 E 062.36 E 057.86 E 052.36 E 047.85 E 042.35 E 037.83 E 032.33 E 027.56 E 022.10 E 015.44 E 019.05 E 0110.00 E 0110.00 E 011.00 E 00RLAN2, 100 mW, DSSS, D = 100%, indoor mounted2.07 E 056.20 E 052.07 E 046.19 E 042.06 E 036.18 E 032.04 E 026.01 E 021.87 E 014.62 E 018.73 E 019.98 E 0110.00 E 011.00 E 001.00 E 00Fixed Access, outdoor2.37 E 057.11 E 052.37 E 047.10 E 042.37 E 037.08 E 032.34 E 026.86 E 022.11 E 015.09 E 019.06 E 019.99 E 0110.00 E 011.00 E 001.00 E 00RFID 3a, 4W, FHSS BW = 8 MHz, D = 15%, indoor mounted1.89 E 075.66 E 071.89 E 065.66 E 061.89 E 055.66 E 051.89 E 045.66 E 041.88 E 035.64 E 031.87 E 025.50 E 021.72 E 014.32 E 018.48 E 01RFID 3b, 500mW, FHSS BW = 8 MHz, D =15%, indoor mounted1.89 E 075.66 E 071.89 E 065.66 E 061.89 E 055.66 E 051.89 E 045.66 E 041.88 E 035.64 E 031.87 E 025.50 E 021.72 E 014.32 E 018.48 E 01RFID 5a, 500 mW, Narrow Band, D = 100%, indoor mounted2.67 E 068.00 E 062.67 E 058.00 E 052.67 E 048.00 E 042.66 E 037.97 E 032.63 E 027.69 E 022.34 E 015.51 E 019.31 E 0110.00 E 0110.00 E 01RFID 5b, 100 mW, Narrow Band, D = 100%, indoor mounted2.67 E 068.00 E 062.67 E 058.00 E 052.67 E 048.00 E 042.66 E 037.97 E 032.63 E 027.69 E 022.34 E 015.51 E 019.31 E 0110.00 E 0110.00 E 01ENG/OB 1, analogue, outdoor3.29 E 016.98 E 01ENG/OB 2, analogue, outdoor5.61 E 041.68 E 03ENG/OB 3, analogue, outdoor5.35 E 041.60 E 03ENG/OB 4, analogue, outdoor2.94 E 016.48 E 01ENG/OB 1, digital, outdoor3.42 E 029.92 E 02ENG/OB 2, digital, outdoor7.12 E 052.14 E 04ENG/OB 3, digital, outdoor6.79 E 052.04 E 04ENG/OB 4, digital, outdoor3.96 E 021.14 E 01Fixed 1, 2 x 2 Mbit/s, MSK, outdoor9.59 E 0110.00 E 01Fixed 2, 34 Mbit/s, QPSK, outdoor9.88 E 0110.00 E 01Annex B. Protection distances for critical blocking and cochannel interferences, obtained with the MCL methodSRDSRDRLANRLAN RFIDRFIDRFIDRFIDENG/OBENG/OBENG/OBENG/OBNBCATVDSSSFHSSFHSSFHSSFHSSFHSSCameraHelicoptCameraHelicoptA. Data:AnalogueAnalogueAnalogueDigitalDigitalRadiated power, eirp , PRAD , dBm101020203636363635563556Transmitter bandwidth, MHz1201510.350.350.350.3520207.47.4Transmitted duty cycle, %100%100%100%100%10%15%50%100%100%100%100%100%BT Cochannel interference, C/I, dB111111111111111111111111BT Out of channel interference, C/I, dB404040404040404040404040BT RX onchannel power for MUS+3dB676767676767676767676767Wall attenuation to outdoor helicopter, dB00000000015015B. Calculations w/o TX duty cycleMCL, cochannel, dB, see note 188.075.086.298.0114.0114.0114.0114.0100.0106.0104.3110.3Protection dist for dP > 15m973685209712712712712243n/a339n/aProtection dist for dP < 15m (or free space)n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a1948n/a3202MCL, outofchannel, dB37.024.035.247.063.063.063.063.049.055.053.359.3Protection dist for dP < 15m0.690.150.562.1913.8013.8013.8013.802.755.494.529.02Protection dist for dP > 15mn/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/aC. Calculation w/ TX duty cycleMitigation, duty cycle, dB 0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0MCL, co or out of chan as appropriate, dB37.075.086.247.063.063.063.063.0100.0106.0104.3110.3Protection dist for dP < 15m (or free space)0.69n/an/a2.1913.8013.8013.80n/an/a1948n/a3202Protection dist for dP > 15mn/a36854n/an/an/an/a243n/a339n/aD. Equipment measurements, operatingRA/UK Whyteleafe C/I measurements3342.533494836334422MCL with measured C/I, dB44.068.077.754.054.055.067.070.093.099.091.397.3Protection dist for dP < 15m (or free space)1.5n/an/a4.94.95.5n/an/an/a869.9n/a716.8Protection dist for dP > 15mn/a2144n/an/an/a1924142n/a125n/aSRDSRDRLANRLAN RFIDRFIDRFIDRFIDENG/OBENG/OBENG/OBENG/OBNBCATVDSSSFHSSFHSSFHSSFHSSFHSSCameraHelicoptCameraHelicoptAnalogueAnalogueAnalogueDigitalDigital
Protection distances, data for chart.Use preliminary data for UK measurements Duty Cycle %10%15%50%100%4W RFID, calculated (blocking)14.24W RFID, UK measured C/I (blocking)4.95.519.324.3100 mW RLAN DSSS, measured C/I (cochannel)44
100 mW RLAN FHSS, measured C/I (blocking)4.9SRD, CATV, w/ UK measured C/I for ENG/OB (blocking)35.7SRD, NB , w/ UK measured C/I for CW (blocking)1.5Analog ENG/OB, 3.5 W with camera, measured C/I (cochannel)142Analog ENG/OB, 400 W at helicopter, measured C/I (cochannel)869.9Digital ENG/OB, 3.5 W with camera, measured C/I (cochannel)125Digital ENG/OB, 400 W at helicopter, measured C/I (cochannel)716.8Annex C.1
SEAMCAT input file describing interference scenario
Victim LinkVictim valuesInterferer LinkValues I1Values I2Values I3Values I4GeneralGeneralVLK_REFERENCERLAN (DS)ILK_REFERENCERFID 3aRFID 3bRLAN 2BT 100 mWVLK_DESCRIPTIONRLAN (DS)ILK_DESCRIPTIONRFID 3aRFID 3bRLAN 2BT 100 mWVLK_FREQUENCY2450ILK_FREQUENCY244624542446245424502402  2480VLK_CHECK_TXNVLK_DRSS90TransmitterILK_TX_REFERENCERFID 3aRFID 3bRLAN 2BT 100 mWReceiverILK_TX_DESCRIPTIONRFID 3aRFID 3bRLAN 2BT 100 mWVLK_RX_REFERENCERLAN (DS)ILK_TX_POWER_SUPPLIED30212020VLK_RX_DESCRIPTIONRLAN (DS)ILK_TX_UNWNTED(F)MaskMaskMaskMaskVLK_RX_CI10ILK_CHECK_NOISE FLOORNNNNVLK_RX_CNI0ILK_TX_UNWANTED0(F)VLK_RX_NIN3ILK_TX_BANDWIDTH800080001500078000VLK_RX_NOISE_FLOOR100ILK_TX_REF_BANDWIDTH350350150001000VLK_RX_BLOCKING60ILK_TX_CHECK_POWER_CENTRONNNNVLK_RX_ATTENUATION_SELECTIONuserdefinedILK_TX_ANT_HEIGTH1.5 m1.5 m2.5 m1.5 mVLK_RX_SENSITIVITY91ILK_TX_AZIMUTH0.3600.36000VLK_RX_BANDWIDTH15000ILK_TX_ELEVATION0000VLK_RX_INTERMOD0VLK_RX_CHECK_PC_MAXNILK_TX_PC_STEP_SIZEVLK_RX_PC_MAX_INCREASEILK_TX_PC_MINVLK_RX_ANT_HEIGTH1.5 mILK_TX_PC_MAXVLK_RX_AZIMUTH0VLK_RX_ELEVATION0Coverage radius parametersILK_COVERAGE_RADIUS_MODEuserdefineduserdefineduserdefineduserdefinedAntenna RxILK_COVERAGE_RADIUS0.01 km 0.01 km 0.1 km0.1 kmVLK_RX_ANT_REFERENCERLAN (DS)VLK_RX_ANT_DESCRIPTIONRLAN (DS)ILK_TX_REF_ANT_HEIGTHVLK_RX_ANT_PEAK_GAIN0ILK_RX_REF_ANT_HEIGTHVLK_RX_ANT_CHECK_HPATTERNNILK_REF_POWERVLK_RX_ANT_HOR_PATTERNILK_REF_FREQUENCYVLK_RX_ANT_CHECK_VPATTERNNVLK_RX_ANT_VER_PATTERN
Transmittercont. Coverage radius parametersWanted transmitterILK_MIN_DISTVLK_TX_REFERENCERLAN (DS)ILK_MX_DESTVLK_TX_DESCRIPTIONRLAN (DS)ILK_TX_AVAILABILITYVLK_TX_POWER_SUPPLIED20ILK_TX_FADINGVLK_TX_ANT_HEIGTH2.5 mVLK_TX_AZIMUTH0Simulation radius parametersVLK_TX_ELEVATION0ILK_TX_NBR_ACTIVEVariableVariableVariableVariableILK_TX_DENS_ACTIVEVariableVariableVariableVariableCoverage radius parametersILK_TX_PROB_TRANS1111VLK_COVERAGE_RADIUS_MODEuserdefinedILK_TX_ACTIVITY1111VLK_COVERAGE_RADIUS0.1 kmILK_TX_TIME5555VLK_TX_REF_ANT_HEIGTHILK_TX_TRAFFIC_DENSITYVLK_RX_REF_ANT_HEIGTHILK_TX_TRAFFIC_NBR_CHANNEVLK_REF_POWERILK_TX_TRAFFIC_NBR_USERSVLK_REF_FREQUENCYILK_TX_TRAFFIC_FREQ_CLUSTVLK_MIN_DISTVLK_MAX_DISTAntenna TxVLK_TX_AVAILABILITYILK_TX_ANT_REFERENCERFID 3aRFID 3bRLAN 2BT 100 mWVLK_TX_FADINGILK_TX_ANT_DESCRIPTIONRFID 3aRFID 3bRLAN 2BT 100 mWILK_TX_ANT_PEAK_GAIN6 dBi6 dBi0 dBi0 dBiVLK_TX_TRAFFIC_DENSITYILK_TX_ANT_CHECK_HPATTERNYYNNVLK_TX_TRAFFIC_NBR_CHANNEILK_TX_ANT_HOR_PATTERN43 (15 dB)43 (15 dB)VLK_TX_TRAFFIC_USERESILK_TX_ANT_CHECK_VPATTERNNNNNVLK_TX_TRAFFIC_FRRQ_CLUSTILK_TX_ANT_VER_PATTERN
Antenna TxWanted receiverVLK_TX_ANT_REFERENCERLAN (DS)ILK_RX_REFERNCERFID 3aRFID 3bRLAN 2BT 100 mWVLK_TX_ANT_DESCRIPTIONRLAN (DS)ILK_RX_DESCRIPTIONRFID 3aRFID 3bRLAN 2BT 100 mWVLK_TX_ANT_PEAK_GAIN0ILK_RX_ANT_HEIGTH1.5 m1.5 m2.5 m1.5 mVLK_TX_ANT_CHECK_HPATTERNNILK_RX_AZIMUTH0.3600.36000VLK_TX_ANT_HOR_PATTERNILK_RX_ELEVATION0000VLK_TX_ANT_CHECK_VPATTERNNVLK_TX_ANT_VER_PATTERNAntenna RxILK_RX_ANT_REFERENCERFID 3aRFID 3bRLAN 2BT 100 mWWTx VRx pathILK_RX_ANT_DESCRIPTIONRFID 3aRFID 3bRLAN 2BT 100 mWRelative locationILK_RX_ANT_PEAK_GAIN6 dBi6 dBi0 dBi0 dBiVLK_CHECK_DISTANCENILK_RX_ANT_CHECK_HPATTERNYYNNVLK_LOC_DISTANCEILK_RX_ANT_HOR_PATTERN43 (15 dB)43 (15 dB)VLK_LOC_ANGLEILK_RX_ANT_CHECK_VPATTERNNNNNVLK_DELTAXILK_RX_ANT_VER_PATTERNVLK_DELTAYItx VRx pathPropagation modelRelative locationVLK_PROPAGATION_SELECTIONHATAILK_CORRELATION_MODENNNNVLK_CHECK_MEDIAN_LOSSYILK_VR_LOCATION_DISTANCEVLK_CHECK_VARIATIONYILK_VR_LOC_ANGLEVLK_GEN_ENVURBANVLK_TX_LOCAL_ENVINDOORILK_VR_DELTAXVLK_RX_LOCAL_ENVINDOORILK_VR_DELTAYVLK_PROPAG_ENVBELOW ROOFVLK_LF0Propagation modelVLK_B1ILK_VR_PROPAGATIONHataHataHataHataVLK_DROOM20ILK_VR_MEMO_PROPAGVLK_HFLOOR3ILK_VR_CHECK_MEDIAN_LOSSYYYYVLK_WL_II0ILK_VR_CHECK_VARIATIONYYYYVLK_WL_IO15ILK_VR_GEN_ENVURBANURBANURBANURBANVLK_WL_STD_DEV_II0ILK_VR_TX_LOCAL_ENVINDOOROUTDOORINDOORINDOORVLK_WL_STD_DEV_IO0ILK_VR_RX_LOC_ENVINDOORINDOORINDOORINDOORILK_VR_PROPAG_ENVBELOW ROOFBELOW ROOFBELOW ROOFBELOW ROOFVLK_SPH_WATERILK_VR_LF0000VLK_SPH_EARTHILK_VR_B1111VLK_SPH_GRADVLK_SPH_REFRACcont. Propagation modelILK_VR_DROOM4444ILK_VR_HFLOOR3333ILK_VR_WL_II0000ILK_VR_WL_IO15151515ILK_VR_WL_STD_DEV_II0000ILK_VR_WL_STD_DEV_IO0000ITX WRx pathRelative locationILK_CHECK_DISTANCENNNNILK_WR_LOC_DISTANCEILK_WR_LOCAL_ANGLEPropagation modelILK_WR_PROPAGATIONHataHataHataHataILK_VR_MEMO_PROPAGILK_WR_CHECK_MEDIAN_LOSSYYYYILK_WR_CHECK_VARIATIONYYYYILK_GEN_ENVURBANURBANURBANURBANILK_WR_TX_LOCAL_ENVINDOOROUTDOORINDOORINDOORILK_WR_RX_LOCAL_ENVINDOORINDOORINDOORINDOORILK_WR_PROPAG_ENVBELOW ROOFABOVE ROOFBELOW ROOFBELOW ROOFILK_WR_LF0000ILK_WR_B1111ILK_WR_DROOM4444ILK_WR_HFLOOR3333ILK_WR_WL_II0000ILK_WR_WL_IO15151515ILK_WR_WL_STD_DEV_II0000ILK_WR_WL_STD_DEV_IO0000ILK_WR_SPH_WATERILK_WR_SPH_EARTHILK_WR_SPH_GRADILK_WR_SPH_REFRACVictim LinkVictim valuesInterferer LinkValues I1Values I2Values I3Values I4GeneralGeneralVLK_REFERENCEBT 1 mWILK_REFERENCERFID 3aRFID 3bRLAN 2BT 100 mWVLK_DESCRIPTIONBT 1 mWILK_DESCRIPTIONRFID 3aRFID 3bRLAN 2BT 100 mWVLK_FREQUENCY2450ILK_FREQUENCY244624542446245424502402  2480VLK_CHECK_TXNVLK_DRSS70TransmitterILK_TX_REFERENCERFID 3aRFID 3bRLAN 2BT 100 mWReceiverILK_TX_DESCRIPTIONRFID 3aRFID 3bRLAN 2BT 100 mWVLK_RX_REFERENCEBT 1 mWILK_TX_POWER_SUPPLIED30212020VLK_RX_DESCRIPTIONBT 1 mWILK_TX_UNWNTED(F)MaskMaskMaskMaskVLK_RX_CI18ILK_CHECK_NOISE FLOORNNNNVLK_RX_CNI0ILK_TX_UNWANTED0(F)VLK_RX_NIN3ILK_TX_BANDWIDTH800080001500078000VLK_RX_NOISE_FLOOR100ILK_TX_REF_BANDWIDTH350350150001000VLK_RX_BLOCKING60ILK_TX_CHECK_POWER_CENTRONNNNVLK_RX_ATTENUATION_SELECTIONuserdefinedILK_TX_ANT_HEIGTH1.5 m1.5 m2.5 m1.5 mVLK_RX_SENSITIVITY71ILK_TX_AZIMUTH0.3600.36000VLK_RX_BANDWIDTH1000ILK_TX_ELEVATION0000VLK_RX_INTERMOD0VLK_RX_CHECK_PC_MAXNILK_TX_PC_STEP_SIZEVLK_RX_PC_MAX_INCREASEILK_TX_PC_MINVLK_RX_ANT_HEIGTH1.5 mILK_TX_PC_MAXVLK_RX_AZIMUTH0VLK_RX_ELEVATION0Coverage radius parametersILK_COVERAGE_RADIUS_MODEuserdefineduserdefineduserdefineduserdefinedAntenna RxILK_COVERAGE_RADIUS0.01 km 0.01 km 0.1 km0.1 kmVLK_RX_ANT_REFERENCEBT 1 mWVLK_RX_ANT_DESCRIPTIONBT 1 mWILK_TX_REF_ANT_HEIGTHVLK_RX_ANT_PEAK_GAIN0ILK_RX_REF_ANT_HEIGTHVLK_RX_ANT_CHECK_HPATTERNNILK_REF_POWERVLK_RX_ANT_HOR_PATTERNILK_REF_FREQUENCYVLK_RX_ANT_CHECK_VPATTERNNVLK_RX_ANT_VER_PATTERN
Transmittercont. Coverage radius parametersWanted transmitterILK_MIN_DISTVLK_TX_REFERENCEBT 1 mWILK_MX_DESTVLK_TX_DESCRIPTIONBT 1 mWILK_TX_AVAILABILITYVLK_TX_POWER_SUPPLIED0ILK_TX_FADINGVLK_TX_ANT_HEIGTH1.5 mVLK_TX_AZIMUTH0Simulation radius parametersVLK_TX_ELEVATION0ILK_TX_NBR_ACTIVEVariableVariableVariableVariableILK_TX_DENS_ACTIVEVariableVariableVariableVariableCoverage radius parametersILK_TX_PROB_TRANS1111VLK_COVERAGE_RADIUS_MODEuserdefinedILK_TX_ACTIVITY1111VLK_COVERAGE_RADIUS0.1 kmILK_TX_TIME5555VLK_TX_REF_ANT_HEIGTHILK_TX_TRAFFIC_DENSITYVLK_RX_REF_ANT_HEIGTHILK_TX_TRAFFIC_NBR_CHANNEVLK_REF_POWERILK_TX_TRAFFIC_NBR_USERSVLK_REF_FREQUENCYILK_TX_TRAFFIC_FREQ_CLUSTVLK_MIN_DISTVLK_MAX_DISTAntenna TxVLK_TX_AVAILABILITYILK_TX_ANT_REFERENCERFID 3aRFID 3bRLAN 2BT 100 mWVLK_TX_FADINGILK_TX_ANT_DESCRIPTIONRFID 3aRFID 3bRLAN 2BT 100 mWILK_TX_ANT_PEAK_GAIN6 dBi6 dBi0 dBi0 dBiVLK_TX_TRAFFIC_DENSITYILK_TX_ANT_CHECK_HPATTERNYYNNVLK_TX_TRAFFIC_NBR_CHANNEILK_TX_ANT_HOR_PATTERN43 (15 dB)43 (15 dB)VLK_TX_TRAFFIC_USERESILK_TX_ANT_CHECK_VPATTERNNNNNVLK_TX_TRAFFIC_FRRQ_CLUSTILK_TX_ANT_VER_PATTERNAntenna TxWanted receiverVLK_TX_ANT_REFERENCEBT 1 mWILK_RX_REFERNCERFID 3aRFID 3bRLAN 2BT 100 mWVLK_TX_ANT_DESCRIPTIONBT 1 mWILK_RX_DESCRIPTIONRFID 3aRFID 3bRLAN 2BT 100 mWVLK_TX_ANT_PEAK_GAIN0ILK_RX_ANT_HEIGTH1.5 m1.5 m2.5 m1.5 mVLK_TX_ANT_CHECK_HPATTERNNILK_RX_AZIMUTH0.3600.36000VLK_TX_ANT_HOR_PATTERNILK_RX_ELEVATION0000VLK_TX_ANT_CHECK_VPATTERNNVLK_TX_ANT_VER_PATTERNAntenna RxILK_RX_ANT_REFERENCERFID 3aRFID 3bRLAN 2BT 100 mWWTx VRx pathILK_RX_ANT_DESCRIPTIONRFID 3aRFID 3bRLAN 2BT 100 mWRelative locationILK_RX_ANT_PEAK_GAIN6 dBi6 dBi0 dBi0 dBiVLK_CHECK_DISTANCENILK_RX_ANT_CHECK_HPATTERNYYNNVLK_LOC_DISTANCEILK_RX_ANT_HOR_PATTERN43 (15 dB)43 (15 dB)VLK_LOC_ANGLEILK_RX_ANT_CHECK_VPATTERNNNNNVLK_DELTAXILK_RX_ANT_VER_PATTERNVLK_DELTAYItx VRx pathPropagation modelRelative locationVLK_PROPAGATION_SELECTIONHATAILK_CORRELATION_MODENNNNVLK_CHECK_MEDIAN_LOSSYILK_VR_LOCATION_DISTANCEVLK_CHECK_VARIATIONYILK_VR_LOC_ANGLEVLK_GEN_ENVURBANVLK_TX_LOCAL_ENVINDOORILK_VR_DELTAXVLK_RX_LOCAL_ENVINDOORILK_VR_DELTAYVLK_PROPAG_ENVBELOW ROOFVLK_LF0Propagation modelVLK_B1ILK_VR_PROPAGATIONHataHataHataHataVLK_DROOM4ILK_VR_MEMO_PROPAGVLK_HFLOOR3ILK_VR_CHECK_MEDIAN_LOSSYYYYVLK_WL_II0ILK_VR_CHECK_VARIATIONYYYYVLK_WL_IO15ILK_VR_GEN_ENVURBANURBANURBANURBANVLK_WL_STD_DEV_II0ILK_VR_TX_LOCAL_ENVINDOOROUTDOORINDOORINDOORVLK_WL_STD_DEV_IO0ILK_VR_RX_LOC_ENVINDOORINDOORINDOORINDOORILK_VR_PROPAG_ENVBELOW ROOFBELOW ROOFBELOW ROOFBELOW ROOFVLK_SPH_WATERILK_VR_LF0000VLK_SPH_EARTHILK_VR_B1111VLK_SPH_GRADVLK_SPH_REFRACcont. Propagation modelILK_VR_DROOM4444ILK_VR_HFLOOR3333ILK_VR_WL_II0000ILK_VR_WL_IO15151515ILK_VR_WL_STD_DEV_II0000ILK_VR_WL_STD_DEV_IO0000ITX WRx pathRelative locationILK_CHECK_DISTANCENNNNILK_WR_LOC_DISTANCEILK_WR_LOCAL_ANGLEPropagation modelILK_WR_PROPAGATIONHataHataHataHataILK_VR_MEMO_PROPAGILK_WR_CHECK_MEDIAN_LOSSYYYYILK_WR_CHECK_VARIATIONYYYYILK_GEN_ENVURBANURBANURBANURBANILK_WR_TX_LOCAL_ENVINDOOROUTDOORINDOORINDOORILK_WR_RX_LOCAL_ENVINDOORINDOORINDOORINDOORILK_WR_PROPAG_ENVBELOW ROOFABOVE ROOFBELOW ROOFBELOW ROOFILK_WR_LF0000ILK_WR_B1111ILK_WR_DROOM4444ILK_WR_HFLOOR3333ILK_WR_WL_II0000ILK_WR_WL_IO15151515ILK_WR_WL_STD_DEV_II0000ILK_WR_WL_STD_DEV_IO0000ILK_WR_SPH_WATERILK_WR_SPH_EARTHILK_WR_SPH_GRADILK_WR_SPH_REFRAC
Annex C.2. Results of interference calculations with SEAMCAT using conventional C/I
Victim RLANDensityInterferersBluetooth RLAN RFID3aRFID3b0000010.381.161.510.8920.742.33.461.8831.183.374.912.9941.554.466.53.8452.085.998.675.162.227.2910.676.5572.358.1312.297.182.78.5113.577.3793.389.514.498.44103.5510.9216.49.42155.115.7823.8313.77206.9722.0330.718.08258.6825.0136.0821.673010.728.9541.3625.923511.7334.5647.2930.274013.6237.2652.633.424515.2942.157.6337.175017.8345.0360.9239.287022.6757.6770.0450.910030.7170.6687.4566.0420055.5893.1698.7788.6350084.6999.9510099.66100097.76100100100
Victim BluetoothDensityInterferersBluetooth RLAN RFID3aRFID3b0000010.10.410.490.2720.521.091.050.7630.541.721.351.2840.552.181.741.7250.712.832.542.0560.793.632.792.39714.023.232.8981.074.383.783.4591.254.874.324.18101.385.314.54.3152.287.766.936202.7310.688.357.55253.5112.7911.5910.31303.8115.0412.9912.26354.8718.215.0614.52405.2119.9717.3815.5455.6323.3519.1217.51506.5424.5921.4320.8708.6932.527.6826.8410012.4844.4638.5636.4620023.2368.0362.2358.6950049.2594.0997.0988.62100074.3699.64100100
Victim ENG/OB3DensityInterferersBluetooth RLAN RFID3aRFID3b0000011.228.6915.9121.9122.1616.1729.6338.9433.1424.7142.5654.4344.2231.0652.5264.5155.2638.2761.0475.9866.4244.566881.8577.7350.6274.7887.688.3955.1279.7690.88910.7559.7183.1693.87101163.5686.9495.981516.279.2896.4799.622025.5389.4199.1699.652530.394.7799.7299.993035.5497.5499.941003538.6698.941001004042.1699.371001004545.4399.871001005045.599.911001007057.7210010010010071.9710010010020094.491001001005001001001001001000100100100100
Victim FixedDensityInterferersBluetooth RLAN RFID3aRFID3b0000012.9565.4443.9654.492685.1468.2277.4938.6292.1880.3388.81411.6895.7387.6693.89513.997.5792.0696.71615.8498.2394.7797.8719.6698.996.3398.77821.6699.1697.499.04923.1299.598.2799.451025.8699.5398.4299.541536.1999.9299.5999.932044.5699.9599.8199.972552.4499.9999.951003057.7510099.981003562.611001001004067.531001001004570.661001001005074.081001001007083.7210010010010091.6210010010020098.091001001005001001001001001000100100100100
Annex C.3. Results of interference calculations with SEAMCAT using (N+I)/N=3 dB
Victim RLAN
DensityInterferersBluetooth RLAN RFID3aRFID3b000010.381.161.510.8920.742.33.481.8831.183.374.923.0241.554.466.513.8452.085.998.675.1162.227.2910.686.5572.358.1312.317.1182.78.5113.647.3893.389.5114.498.44103.5510.9416.429.43155.115.7823.8613.77206.9722.1130.7618.1258.6825.0136.1221.673010.728.9641.3625.963511.7634.5747.3430.284013.6337.3352.6133.434515.2942.1257.7137.195017.8345.0860.9839.287022.6857.7174.0950.9110030.7170.787.4766.0420055.5893.2498.7788.6350084.7499.9510099.66100097.76100100100
Victim Bluetooth
DensityInterferersBluetooth RLAN RFID3aRFID3b0000010.140.410.660.5620.561.121.571.4330.021.752.062.0340.662.252.512.850.912.953.623.3661.073.764.054.4271.294.134.484.7181.274.535.55.9191.584.996.316.45101.665.56.336.8152.887.999.989.61203.4110.9412.3412.47254.4113.1416.1616.34304.7415.618.7519.19356.0418.8121.8522.38406.5220.7224.5424.17457.0324.0126.7126.96508.1725.2730.0231.47011.1633.4539.2439.8710015.4145.6150.3154.0420028.269.6577.2177.3450057.3994.85100100100081.5899.76100100
Victim ENG/OB3DensityInterferersBluetooth RLAN RFID3aRFID3b0000010.714.027.499.6221.297.9215.2118.231.7812.221.9126.7542.4215.6728.253453.3119.4434.0343.0963.6523.9538.8648.774.7926.0845.3854.884.8429.9550.0759.0195.8832.1453.3364.28106.235.2358.4669.67159.4449.4374.890.82014.661.1985.0993.632518.2269.0791.8397.063020.776.895.7598.733523.8482.3397.499.624025.4286.6710099.874526.5390.5510099.935027.7892.8410099.987036.7798.2910010010049.4799.8310010020077.1810010010050098.191001001001000100100100100
Victim fixed
InterferersDensityBluetooth RLAN RFID3aRFID3b0000018.1699.6386.1286.63215.5110097.898.42322.4810099.7199.84430.1210099.9199.38534.86100100100639.85100100100746.11100100100850.12100100100953.941001001001057.081001001001573.111001001002081.991001001002588.831001001003093.141001001003595.211001001004096.941001001004598.371001001005098.711001001007099.851001001001001001001001002001001001001005001001001001001000100100100100
Annex C.4. Results of interference calculations with MCL using (N+I)/N=3 dB
Victim RLAN2
DensityInterferersRFID3aRFID3bRLAN2BT100mW0000014.6321740.7911482.909011.93372929.0497781.5760375.7333963.830065313.262752.3547178.475625.689731417.280573.12723611.138077.513436521.112283.89364313.723079.301875624.76654.65398716.2328811.05573728.251445.40831518.6696712.77567831.574966.15667621.0355814.46235934.744536.89911623.3326616.116421037.767287.63568225.5629217.73851550.9060211.2320235.7779825.390362061.2708814.6883344.5912132.330462569.4474818.0100652.19538.6253075.8978121.2024658.7553244.334023580.9863424.2705564.4153649.5124085.0005527.2191869.2986654.208334588.1672830.0530173.5118358.467825090.6654432.776577.1468262.331097096.3848142.650587.3373374.5096210099.1286654.8100194.7773285.8105320099.9924179.5786499.7272497.9865950010098.1154399.9999699.99425100010099.96448100100
EMBED Excel.Sheet.8
Victim Bluetooth 1 mW
DensityInterferersRFID3aRFID3bRLAN2BT100mW0000010.3086260.0521590.4760720.17058120.6162990.104290.9498770.34087230.9230220.1563941.4214270.51087241.2287990.2084711.8907320.68058251.5336320.2605212.3578020.85000261.8375250.3125442.8226491.01913472.1404790.3645393.2852831.18797782.4424990.4165083.7457141.35653292.7435860.4684494.2039541.524799103.0437440.5203634.6600121.69278154.5306970.7795296.907942.528393205.9948451.0380199.1028673.356904257.4365381.29583611.246044.178373308.8561211.55298113.338684.9928593510.253931.80945615.381995.8004224011.630312.06526317.377116.601124512.985572.32040419.32527.3950135014.320062.5748821.227358.1821587019.456443.58617128.3979211.2643910026.589475.0834637.9486915.6948420046.108949.90850361.4963528.926450078.6797822.961290.800757.41361100095.4544840.6502399.1537381.86399
Victim ENG/OB3
DensityInterferersRFID3aRFID3bRLAN2BT100mW00000112.8222525.932261.7278794.781211224.0003945.139693.4259039.333823333.7452559.366215.09458713.66876442.240669.903476.73443717.79644549.6466577.708188.34595421.72677656.1030883.488959.92962525.46918761.7316587.7706411.4859329.03265866.6385190.9419913.0153532.42575970.9162193.2909414.5183435.656621074.645495.0307515.9953638.733011587.2331198.8922623.0063552.044352093.5714499.7530729.432262.463562596.7630199.9449535.3217670.619023098.3700799.9877340.7197777.002563599.1792799.9972645.6672781.999164099.5867499.9993950.2018685.910164599.7919199.9998654.3579988.971435099.8952299.9999758.1672591.367587099.9932610070.4795596.759710099.9998910082.5002199.2548120010010096.9375799.9944550010010099.983591001000100100100100
Victim Fixed
DensityInterferersRFID3aRFID3bRLAN2BT100mW00000115.4947230.831740.8210860.229851228.5885752.157511.6354310.459173339.6535766.908182.4430890.687968449.0040877.110963.2441160.916237556.9057584.168054.0385651.143982663.5830889.049314.8264911.371203769.2257892.42565.6079481.597901873.9941694.760926.3829891.824079978.0236996.376227.1516652.0497371081.4288697.493497.914032.2748761591.996999.6031711.632983.3928342096.5511399.9371715.201744.4980022598.5137399.9900518.626375.5905273099.359599.9984321.91276.6705543599.7239899.9997525.066317.7382264099.8810599.9999628.092558.7936834599.9487499.9999930.996589.8370675099.9779110033.7833310.868517099.9992410043.8494214.8776510010010056.1535320.5557820010010080.7748736.8861650010010098.3794168.35454100010010099.9737489.98565
DensitySimulation
RadiusNumber of active TXNumber of interfererBluetooth in SEAMCATRFID3b
in SEAMCATRFID3b
in MCLBT100mW in MCL00.191000000100.191110.244.960.5203634151.692779644200.191220.539.541.0380190493.356904258350.191330.716.351.8094562135.800421834450.191440.9121.892.3204038797.395013118500.191551.3323.922.5748798028.182157675700.191661.4833.53.58617110811.264394731000.191992.3843.465.08345954415.694838312000.19118184.3668.159.90850347828.926397125000.191454510.9495.5522.9612011757.4136098610000.191909020.8799.8840.6502347581.86399375
DensitySimulation RadiusNumber of active TXNumber of interfererDensity to enter in SEAMCATRLAN in SEAMCATRLAN2 in MCL00.08800000100.0880.216428450.214.660011835200.0880.43285690.439.102866567350.0880.7574995750.7615.38198605450.0880.973928025141.124914462.7419.32519552500.0881.082142251.121.22734773700.0881.514999151.528.397917151000.0882.164284501282.249828925.137.948692542000.0884.3285690014164.499657810.461.496352425000.08810.821422511452.374059128.590.8007020710000.08821.6428450122904.748118154.3199.15372918
DensitySimulation RadiusNumber of interferersBluetooth in SEAMCATRFID3b in SEAMCATRLAN in SEAMCATRFID3b in MCLRLAN2 in MCLBT100mW in MCL00.1910000000100.19111.2913.054.137.63568225.5629217.7385200.19122.2826.579.7114.6883344.5912132.33046350.19133.3639.4415.5624.2705564.4153649.512450.19144.5347.721.5130.0530173.5118358.46782500.19155.153.7623.6732.776577.1468262.33109700.19166.466531.8942.650587.3373374.509621000.19199.8280.5142.4554.8100194.7773285.810532000.1911818.1896.6968.6279.5786499.7272497.986595000.1914542.1910096.7498.1154399.9999699.9942510000.1919067.8410010099.96448100100
Annex D. Simulation model
D.1. Introduction
This Annex describes the simulation model that was used in the analysis interference from RFID, and RLAN into Bluetooth receivers.
The simulation methodology and models, which are described with related formulas, can be characterised as a MonteCarlo approach in the sense that Bluetooth traffic and RFID interference are randomly generated and are averaged over ensembles of random scenarios.
D.2. Scenario
D.2.1. General
A hotspot scenario with randomly placed RFID readers within a circle of radius of 35 meters is assumed. The Bluetooth receiver victim is placed at the centre of the circle and the Bluetooth transmitter is placed at a varying distance from the victim, where the receiver sensitivity is not below the sensitivity limit S0=70 dBm, according to the Bluetooth specification.
Fig. D.2.1: Hot spot scenario for the case of 16 RFID units
D.2.2. Algorithm used
To generate an RFID distribution within a circle with radius R the following algorithm were used:
1) Generate two independent uniformly distributed random variables (1 and (2:
( 1(rand(0,1) and (2(rand(0,1)
2) Compute the random variables
(=2((1
EMBED Equation.3
3) Then the desired coordinates are obtained:
X=Qcos(()
Y=Qsin(()
If the parameter =0.5, the distribution of RFID units is even, see fig D.2.2.1. It becomes somewhat more peaky towards the centre of the 35 m circle in the case =0.7, see Fig. D.2.2.2. For both cases total of 3000 units were generated. For the actual simulation =0.5 was used.
Figure D.2.2.1: Distribution of RFID units, when =0.5
Figure D.2.2.2: Distribution of RFID units, when =0.7
D.3. RFID model
Frequency hopping is used in both the RFID reader and the Bluetooth receiver. The definition of the hopping parameters for RFID units and Bluetooth units respectively are assumed. The RFID channel bandwidth of BRFID=0.35 MHz was assumed, the RFID system using 20 hop frequencies in a subband of WRFID=7 MHz, positioned in the middle of the ISM band.
The RFID transmitter is ASKmodulated with pulse rate equal to hop rate as shown in Fig D.3.1. The dwell time, Tdw is between 50 ms and 400 ms. For the actual simulation the value of 200 ms was chosen (hopping rate of 5 Hz), this value being not critical for data transmission. The duty cycle d assumes values between 0.035 and 1.0. The ontime for the RFID pulse then becomes Ton=Tdw *d ms.
Fig. D.3.1: RFID pulsed interference model
The bit rate in the ASKmodulated part is typically 70 kb/s and therefore the on and offtimes are about 14 ms. The peak power of the ASKmodulated RFID interference determines the effective interference from the point of view of C/I performance according to table 6.1. Although an interference pulse strikes the Bluetooth victim less than full time the effective duty cycle will remain the same due to the relationship between hop rates and protocol structure.
EMBED Equation.3
D.4. Intermodulation
Interference performance arising from 3rd intermodulation and interference are calculated according to the following.
D.4.1. Two channels IM
fim3=2f1f2
If there are n transmitters, this produces total of n(n1) number of frequency combinations which meet this criteria, some of which will coincide in frequency.
The corresponding generated 3rd order intermodulation power level is:
Pim3=2P1+P22IP3
D.4.2.Three channels IM
fim3=f1+f2f3
There are in all n(n1)(n2) total number of combinations which satisfy this criterion, some of which will coincide in frequency.
The corresponding generated 3rd order intermodulation power level is:
Pim3=P1+P2+P32IP3
where IP3= 21 dBm
Calculations of all combinations were automatically taken into account by the simulation program.
D.5. Packet failure condition
It was considered that if the following conditions for C/I, time and frequency collision criteria are not satisfied, then the packet transmission fails.
D.5.1. Frequency collision criteria
Equate f= fRFIDfBT  where fRFID and fBT are the centre frequencies of RFID and Bluetooth transmitters respectively. The packet transmission will fail according to the collision criteria in the following table D.5.1 below.
Table D.5.1: Frequency collision criteria
Frequency criteriaC/I criteria, dBRF mechanismf < 0.5(BBT+BRFID) ( f1
< 11Corresponding to cochannel interferencef < BBT+0.5(BBT+BRFID) ( f2
and
f > 0.5(BBT+BRFID)< 0Corresponding to first adjacent channel interferencef < 2BBT+0.5(BBT+BRFID) ( f3
and
f > BBT+0.5(BBT+BRFID)< 30Corresponding to second adjacent channel interferencef > 2BBT+0.5(BBT+BRFID)
< 40Corresponding to interference to other channels
D.5.2. Time collision criteria
If during a Bluetooth hop any part of the protocol coincides with a RFID pulse (one bit overlap of the protocol suffices), the time overlap condition is met. This is due to the fact that the protocols DH1, DH3 and DH5 do not have FEC hence one bit error is equivalent to packet error as illustrated in figure D.5.2 below.
Figure D.5.2. Illustration of data packages
D.5.3. Aggregate effects
Contributions from all interferers which coincide in time and fall into different frequency bins fi, i=1,2,3, are added according to the following formula. For definition of fi see table D.5.1.
EMBED Equation.3
The total interference Itot is then regarded as a cochannel interferer.
D.6. Simulation modelling
D.6.1. Description
A flow chart is provided in this section to simplify the understanding of the simulator, which was programmed in MATLAB. The simulation is made in the following numbered steps as shown in figure D.6.2:
At the first box, the simulator defines the user matrix and all other parameters such as EIRP, bandwidth, packet type, antenna type, etc. The user matrix is given by:
EMBED Equation.3
where the rows correspond to the RFID and Bluetooth units and the columns to the parameters of the units, such as channel number, the coordinates of the position, the number of failed transmissions, the number of succeeded transmission, etc.
The distance between the RFID units and the Bluetooth victim is calculated. The distance between the RFID units and the Bluetooth transmitter is not calculated since the acknowledgement from the victim is assumed as a transmission from the transmitter, at a different frequency however. This is a reasonably simplifying assumption.
Based on Bluetoothspecification, the number of frequency hops is defined to be 79.
Hopping sequences are generated for Bluetooth and RFID independent of each other. Bluetooth hopping frequency is 1600 hops/sec and RFID hoprate is 5 hops/sec.
A duty cycle d is selected and since the RFID units are not time synchronised, their transmissions are assumed to be independent of each other.
After all parameter have been set, the simulation will start at time 0. Every time step corresponds to one Bluetooth timeslot in the simulation.
Every unit will hop in its own independent hopping sequence to allocate a new channel. The Bluetooth units will hop to a new channel in each 625 s timeslot, while the RFID units will hop to a new channel after 320 timeslots.
Based on the given propagation models, the path loss is calculated.
The received powers at the Bluetooth receiver from RFID units and Bluetooth transmitter are calculated.
Frequency channel differences between the RFID units and the Bluetooth victim are calculated at each hop.
The intermodulation and interference performances are calculated.
The C/I is evaluated with respect to the frequency differences and packet error performance is calculated according to table D.5.1.
Logical decision.
If the simulation time ends, the simulation will be stopped and all statistical parameters will be saved, otherwise jump to box no. 6.
Figure D.6.2. Simulation flow chart
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