Jacob of Sarug’s Homily on Jephthah’s Daughter: Metrical Homilies of Mar Jacob of Sarug 9781463216245

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Jacob of Sarug’s Homily on Jephthah’s Daughter: Metrical Homilies of Mar Jacob of Sarug
 9781463216245

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JACOB OF SARUG’S HOMILY ON JEPHTHAH’S DAUGHTER

TEXTS FROM CHRISTIAN LATE ANTIQUITY 22 General Editor George A. Kiraz

The Metrical Homilies of Mar Jacob of Sarug GENERAL EDITOR SEBASTIAN P. BROCK

MANAGING EDITOR GEORGE A. KIRAZ

FASCICLE 16

JACOB OF SARUG’S HOMILY ON JEPHTHAH’S DAUGHTER TRANSLATED WITH INTRODUCTION BY SUSAN ASHBROOK HARVEY AND OPHIR MÜNZ-MANOR

GORGIAS PRESS 2010

First Gorgias Press Edition, 2010 Copyright © 2010 by Gorgias Press LLC All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise without the prior written permission of Gorgias Press LLC. Published in the United States of America by Gorgias Press LLC, New Jersey ISBN 978-1-60724-071-6 ISSN 1935-6846

GORGIAS PRESS 180 Centennial Ave., Suite 3, Piscataway, NJ 08854 USA www.gorgiaspress.com Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Jacob, of Serug, 451-521. [Homily on Jephthah’s daughter. English & Syriac] Jacob of Sarug’s Homily on Jephthah’s daughter / translated with introduction by Susan Harvey, Ophir Münz-Manor. -- 1st Gorgias Press ed. p. cm. -- (Texts from Christian late antiquity, ISSN 1935-6846 ; 22) (Metrical homilies of Mar Jacob of Sarug ; fasc. 16) English and Syriac. Includes bibliographical references and indexes. 1. Jephthah’s daughter (Biblical figure)--Sermons. 2. Jacob, of Serug, 451-521. Homily on Jephthah’s daughter. I. Harvey, Susan Ashbrook. II. Münz-Manor, Ophir. III. Title. BS580.J36J33 2009 222’.3206--dc22 2009032529 The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of the American National Standards. Printed in the United States of America

This publication was made possible with a generous grant from THE BARNABAS FUND and THE ATHANASIUS YESHU SAMUEL FUND

TABLE OF CONTENTS Table of Contents....................................................................................................v Introduction .............................................................................................................1 Outline..............................................................................................................1 Jacob’s Exegesis of Judges 11.......................................................................1 Summary ..........................................................................................................4 Text and Translation...............................................................................................7 Concerning Jephthah’s Daughter by the Holy Mar Jacob of the Teacher....................................................................................................8 1. Opening Invocation...................................................................................8 2. The History of Sacrifice ..........................................................................12 3. Jephthah and the War with the Ammonites ........................................16 4. Jephthah’s Vow ........................................................................................18 5. The Battle ..................................................................................................22 6. Jephthah’s Victory....................................................................................24 7. The Bride of Blood ..................................................................................26 8. Jephthah’s Realization .............................................................................30 9. Justice Speaks............................................................................................32 10. Jephthah’s Inner Battle..........................................................................34 11. Jephthah’s Inner Victory.......................................................................36 12. The Daughter Responds .......................................................................40 13. The Daughter’s Offering ......................................................................42 14. Death Trembles at her Courage ..........................................................44 15. Jephthah’s Test Renewed......................................................................46 16. The Daughter’s Lamentation ...............................................................48 17. The Lamentation Completed ...............................................................52 18. The Poet’s Task......................................................................................52 19. Jephthah’s Sacrifice................................................................................56 A soghitha on the upright Jephtha and on his daughter, by Mar Isaac ........63 Index of Names and Themes ..............................................................................71 Index of Biblical References ................................................................................73

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INTRODUCTION INFORMATION ON THIS HOMILY Homily Title: On Jephthah’s Daughter Source of Text: Homiliae selectae Mar-Jacobi Sarugensis edited by Paul Bedjan (Paris-Leipzig 1905, 2nd ed. Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 2006), vol. 5, pp. 306–330. [Homily 159] Lines: 510

OUTLINE Jacob of Sarug’s Homily on Jephthah’s Daughter provides dramatic presentation of the incident in Judges 11:29–40, wherein the hero Jephthah must sacrifice his daughter in recompense for the victory God has granted the Hebrew people over the Ammonites. Jacob’s Exegesis of Judges 11 Jacob’s re-telling of the Jephthah story focuses almost exclusively on the second half of Judges 11, the episode from verses 29–39a. He thus omits Jephthah’s own scandalous background (he was the bastard son of Gilead by a prostitute, Judges 11:1) as well as the account of how the war with the Ammonites began. Jacob takes up the narrative at the point when the Hebrews choose the mighty warrior Jephthah to be their leader in battle. Jephthah then makes a vow to the Lord that if he is granted victory over the Ammonites, he will sacrifice whomever first comes out from his house to greet him. In the event his only child, his virgin daughter, is the first to appear, celebrating his victory and unaware of his vow. Jephthah rends his garments in grief, but the daughter insists that he fulfill his vow, asking only that she be allowed two months to mourn her virginity with her companions in the mountains. This Jephthah grants. When she returns, he fulfills his vow. Jacob presents the incident typologically, as a prefigurement of God’s offering at the crucifixion of his only Son, who willingly accepted the sacrifice. 1

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Through shared terminology and imagery, Jacob makes numerous allusions to the similar incident in Genesis 22, when Abraham is asked by God to sacrifice his only child, Isaac. On that occasion, however, the sacrifice was prevented when God provided a ram as substitute at the last moment. No such happy ending adorned the event in Judges 11, and Jacob thus presents Jephthah’s Daughter as the perfect image or type of Christ, the only child who died willingly at her father’s hand for the sake of all people. The same vocabulary that ties Jacob’s homily to the incident in Genesis 22 also links his exegetical treatment to rabbinic traditions about the sacrifice of Isaac, for Jewish as well as Christian commentators wrestled at length with these two biblical stories.1 The source of Syriac tradition in this regard is the Peshitta text of Judges 11:34, where Jephthah’s Daughter is called a “single one”, ihidoyto. This term is otherwise used in the Peshitta for Isaac in Genesis 22:2 (Isaac is the ihidoyo of Abraham) and of Jesus as the “Single One”, the ihidoyo, of God in John 3:16.2 The use of the term ihidoyto was in and of itself sufficient for Syriac biblical tradition to present Jephthah’s Daughter as a type of Christ, a tradition consistently represented in commentators from Aphrahat and Ephrem through Dionysius bar Salibi. Jacob of Sarug will strengthen this typological association with other strongly suggestive vocabulary. For example, Jacob refers repeatedly in his homily to the knife by which Jephthah would slay his daughter, a detail not mentioned in Judges 11. He uses the term sakino, the same as in the Peshitta of Genesis 22:10 for the knife Abraham took up to sacrifice Isaac.3 Fur1 For a fresh perspective on how Jewish and Christian traditions may have interacted, see Galit Hasan-Rokem, “Narratives in Dialogue: a Folk Literary Perspective on Interreligious Contacts in the Holy Land in Rabbinic Literature of Late Antiquity,” in Sharing the Sacred: Religious Contacts and Conflicts in the Holy Land, First– Fifteenth Centuries CE, ed. Arieh Kofsky and Guy G. Stroumsa (Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben Zvi 1998), 109–29. 2 The Septuagint and the Greek New Testament would connect the three passages through the use of agapetos, “most beloved”. See the excellent discussion in Catherine Brown Tkacz, “Women as Types of Christ: Susanna and Jephthah’s Daughter,” Gregorianum 85 (2004): 278–311; with interesting application in eadem, “‘Here Am I, Lord’—Preaching Jephthah’s Daughter as a Type of Christ,” Downside Review 434 (2006): 21–32. We are grateful to Prof. Stephen Ryan for pointing us to Dr. Tkacz’s work. 3 Interestingly, in their key treatments of Judges 11 neither Ephrem nor Aphrahat use the term sakino. Ephrem, Hymns on Nisibis 70, uses the word saipho, sword. Aphrahat, following Judges 11, uses neither, since the biblical text does not specify how the Daughter was killed. For the references, see below, n. 6.

INTRODUCTION

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thermore, Jacob repeatedly uses the phrase “she stretched out her neck beneath the knife”—a phrase not used by either Aphrahat or Ephrem. This phrase is not found in the Hebrew Bible or the Peshitta of Judges 11 or of Genesis 22, but was occasionally used in the binding of Isaac in Jewish traditions and in certain Syriac presentations of that episode.4 By his constant employment of these terms, Jacob makes clear his association of Jephthah’s Daughter with Isaac and the events in Genesis 22, without ever referring specifically to that text.5 In the present homily Jacob expounds at length on the history of blood sacrifice, and on the qualities that render Jephthah’s action one of priesthood. In Syriac tradition, both Aphrahat and Ephrem Syrus had presented Jephthah in the mode of priest,6 thus laying the foundations for 4 Brock, Anonymous Memra 2:35 in Sebastian Brock, “Two Syriac Verse Homilies on the Binding of Isaac,” Le Muséon 99 (1986): 61–129. For the intersections between Syriac and Jewish traditions, see esp. Sebastian P. Brock, “Genesis 22 in Syriac Tradition,” in Mélanges Dominique Barthélemy: études bibliques offertes a l’occasion de son 60e anniversaire, ed. P. Casetti, O. Keel, and A. Schenker, Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis 38 (Fribourg: Éditions universitaires/ Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1981), 2–20. For a broader overview see, e.g., Edward Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians, and the Sacrifice of Isaac (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004); Gedaliahu Stroumsa, “Herméneutique biblique et identité: l’exemple d’Isaac,” Revue Biblique 99 (1992): 529–43; Wout van Bekkum, “The Aqedah and its Interpretation in Midrash and Piyyut,” in The Sacrifice of Isaac: The Aqedah (Genesis 22) and its Interpretations, ed. Edward Noort and Eibert Tigchelaar (Leiden: Brill, 2002): 86–95; and Shulamit Valler, “The Story of Jephthah’s Daughter in the Midrash,” in Judges: a Feminist Companion to the Bible, ed. Athalya Brenner (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1999): 48–66. 5 Jacob did compose at least two homilies on Abraham that treat the Binding of Isaac from Genesis 22, one edited in Bedjan 4:61–103 as Hom. 109 “On Abraham and his Types”; and the other unedited (noted as Homily 140 in Assemani’s list of Jacob’s mimre; see Bedjan [and Brock] 6:382). There are strong similarities in imagery and theological perspective between his presentation of Isaac in Hom. 109 and this one on Jephthah’s Daughter. See the splendid analysis of Hom. 109 in Richard McCarron, “An Epiphany of Mystical Symbols: Jacob of Sarug’s Memra 109 on Abraham and his Types,” Hugoye 1.1 (1998), http://syrcom.cua.edu/ Hugoye/Vol1No1/MysSymJSarug.html#s03. See also Johns Abraham Konat, “Typological Terminology of Jacob of Serug,” The Harp 18 (2005): 289–96. 6 Aphrahat, Demonstration 21.12; Ephrem, Commentary on the Diatessaron, 10.3, Hymns on Virginity 2.10–11, and Hymns on Nisibis 70.7–12. There is some surviving evidence in church decorations for the image of Jephthah as priest with his daughter bound on the altar, depicted together with Abraham at the sacrifice of Isaac.

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Jacob’s far more extensive—and viscerally powerful—treatment here.7 The homily is an example of Jacob’s tremendous skills as storyteller and poet, both. For discussion of these aspects as well as extensive bibliography, see S. A. Harvey, “Bride of Blood, Bride of Light: Biblical Women as Images of Church in Jacob of Serug,” Malphono w-Rabo d-Malphone: Festschrift for Sebastian P. Brock, ed. George Kiraz (Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2008), 189– 218. There is a related, unpublished sogitho of thirty-five couplets in British Museum Add. 17141, attributed to Mar Isaac of Antioch, now edited and translated by Sebastian Brock (appended). In the following translation, section titles are our addition.8

SUMMARY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Opening Invocation (1–26) The History of Sacrifice (27–56) Jephthah and the War with the Ammonites (57–80) Jephthah’s Vow (81–110) The Battle (111–136) Jephthah’s Victory (137–166) The Bride of Blood (167–194) Jephthah’s Realization (195–210) Justice Speaks (211–226) Jephthah’s Inner Battle (227–244) Jephthah’s Inner Victory (245–283)

Kurt Weitzmann, “The Jephthah Panel in the Bema of the Church of St. Catherine’s Monastery on Mount Sinai,” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964): 341–52; Paul Van Moorsel, “Jephthah? Or, an Iconographical Discussion Continued,” Mélanges offerts à Jean Vercoutter, ed. Francis Geus and Florence Thill (Paris: Éditions Recharche sur les Civilisations, 1985), 273–8. 7 For a sampling of broader patristic views of Jephthah’s Daughter, see the texts conveniently gathered in Thomas Oden, ed., Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture. Old Testament, vol. 4: Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1–2 Samuel, ed. John R. Franke (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 2005), 136–40 (Origen, Ephrem, Jerome, Augustine, John Chrysostom). 8 We are grateful to Sebastian P. Brock for his generous and gracious assistance, advice, and constructive suggestions throughout this process. We thank him, too, for the honor of the appended edition and translation of the related homily from Brit. Mus. Add. 17141.

INTRODUCTION 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

The Daughter Responds (284–309) The Daughter’s Offering (310–327) Death Trembles at her Courage (328–345) Jephthah’s Test Renewed (346–371) The Daughter’s Lamentation (372–405) The Lamentation Completed (406–421) The Poet’s Task (422–459) Jephthah’s Sacrifice (460–510)

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CONCERNING JEPHTHAH’S DAUGHTER BY THE HOLY MAR JACOB THE TEACHER 1. OPENING INVOCATION O Lord of the slain9, whose own slaughter is life for his servants, grant me a word that I may tell their praises. O Single One,10 to whom single ones were offered, hold Your word so that with it I may recite Your heroic deeds. O One who accepted Jephthah’s vow, accept now my words, so that by Your paints I may depict the beauty of his faith. O Son of a Virgin, to whom a virgin was offered as sacrifice, grant me to speak of the triumph11 of her who was crowned.

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The alternate reading in Bedjan’s edition would have this invocation as “O Slain Lord”. In some respects, this alternate fits the Christology of the homily better than the primary text; see especially line 509. 10 Ihidoyo, “Single One”, “only-begotten”, is a favorite Syriac term for Jesus. The same term is used for Isaac, the ihidoyo of Abraham in Gen. 22:2, and also for Jephthah’s Daughter, the ihidoyto in Judg 11:34, establishing a particularly strong identification between these three biblical figures. In the Septuagint and the Greek New Testament, the term agapetos is similarly used in these same passages. See C. Tkacz, “Women as Types of Christ: Susanna and Jephthah’s Daughter.” The Syriac term was also commonly used for ascetics (male or female), signifying their celibacy but also establishing a particularly intimate relationship between the ascetic and Christ. See S. H. Griffith, “Asceticism in the Church of Syria: The Hermeneutics of Early Syrian Monasticism,” in Asceticism, ed. Vincent Wimbush and Richard Valantasis (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), 220–245; Robert Murray, “the Exhortation to Candidates for Ascetical Vows at Baptism in the Ancient Syriac Church,” New Testament Studies 21 (1974–1975), 59–80. 11 Neʜhono, triumph, is often used by Syriac writers to refer to martyrdom or the deeds of saints. Although the notion of martyrdom is not part of the biblical narrative in Judg 11, this term here and elsewhere in the homily lends a vivid sense of martyr imagery to the event of Jephthah’s Daughter and her sacrifice. 9

ˆÿòåƒ …šûÁ áîƒ

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ň ł ł įƦƙƌĪł ĬŁƢŨł ƈƕĪ ň Ō ŏ ł IJƢƉŅ ťƤſűƟĪ Ņ Ņ ł ħŴƠƖſ Ņ Ō ł ųƇſĪ ťƍƙíƇƉ

ňò ł ň ň Ņ ł ň ò Ō ň Ņ ò ł ł ťƀŶ :IJĬĭűũƖíƆ ųƇźƟ ƨƀźƟ ň Ņ ŦĭĬĪ Ņ ň ŧƢƉŌ Ņ ŏ ŏ Ņ ł ò ň ĖķĭųƀƐíƆŴƟ ljŁŁĪ ťƀźƉĪ ŦƦíƇƉ ƁƆ ħĬł ňò Ņ Ō Ō ųƆň ŴŨƢƟŁĥĪ ł ł ň ťſűƀŷſ ŅŅ Ō Ō :ťſűƀŷſ ň Ņ ň ł ųŨĭ ò ł ň ň ƈƕł džƉĥ ŏň ñ Ņ ĴƦíƇƉň ĪŴŶĥ ĖƅƀƍŶƞƌ ł ł ň ň Ņ ň ł įƦƙƌĪ ň ł ĭĥŅ ò ł ň ƈũƟ ĬĿűƌ ŦĭĬ ƈũƟĪ :ƁíƇƉ ô ň ŏ Ņ ł Ņ ŏ ŏň ł Ņ ò ł ł ĖĬŁŴƍƊſĬĪ ŧƢƘŴƣ ĿĭĽĥ ƅƀƍƊƊƐŨĪ ŏ ŏ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ ň ł ł ň ŦƦíƆĭƦŨĪ ň Ņ ñ :ťŷŨĪ ŦƦíƆĭƦŨ ųƆ ƦŨƢƟŁĥĪ Ņ ł ł ł Ņ Ņ ň ł ł Ō Ō ĬƢŨł ñ ĖŦƦíƇǀƉĪ ųƍŶƞƌ ƈƕ ƢƉĥĪ ƁƆ ħĬ

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ON JEPHTHAH’S DAUGHTER O Only Child, to whom Jephthah sacrificed his only child, cause my words to abound that I may speak her story fully. O One who is from One, for whom the one daughter of one was slain by him, let me be for You one vessel to speak many things. For Your symbol12 sacrificed the only child by the hand of her father; let Your voice open the gate for my word concerning her triumph.13 Wondrous was the sacrifice offered to You by the hands of Jephthah: the beloved virgin who by her parent was slain. The father offered his daughter for slaughter out of love for You, so that he might depict You, whom the Father gave for our salvation. Your shadow fell upon that daughter of the Hebrews,

12 ‘rozo, symbol or mystery, is a term weighty with meaning in early Syriac. It is used, as here, to refer to typological associations. In the present passage and elsewhere in the homily, it is also used almost interchangeably with the synonyms ʜalmo, dmutho, tupso, telonitho, and their related verbs, to drive home the sense that biblical figures as well as narratives are not only typologically related, but also participate actively and dynamically in their different stories. ‘rozo is especially potent as a word, for it is also used for the Eucharist, itself the symbol or mystery or type of the body and blood of Christ. See the nuanced discussion in McCarron, “Abraham and his Types.” 13 Note the word play in this and the following line, as Jacob juxtaposes neptah (“open”) with Naptah (“Jephthah”).

ˆÿòåƒ …šûÁ áîƒ 307

ł Ņ Ņ Ō Ō Ņ Ō Ņ ł ň ŸŨĪ ł ŦƻűƀŷſĪ :įƦƙƌŌ ł ųƆ ŧűíƇſł Ō ł Ņ ł ł Ō ò ŧűƀŷſ Ņ ł ň Ņ ñ ĖƻĥƢſƦƕ ųŨƢƣ ƢƉĥĪ ƁíƇƉ ťŬƏĥ ň ň ň űŶł ĭĥŅ ł ł űŶł ŁƢŨł ŧűŶĪ Ņ ł űŶł ƎƉĪ :ųƆ ƦƐƄƌŁĥ ô Ņ Ņò Ō ł ň ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ň ň ĖŦŁŤƀŬƏ ljŤƉ űŶ ƅƆ ŦĭĬĥ ł łò džƊƉ Ņ Ņ Ō Ō Ņ ł ŅŅ ŏ Ō ñ ñ :ĬŴŨĥ IJűſŤŨ ŦƻűƀŷƀƆ ĴĮĿĥĪ ł ųŷŨĪ ł ň ŅôŅ ł ł Ņ ň ň Ņ Ņ ñ ĖųƍŶƞƌ ƈƕ IJƦƇƊíƆ ťƕĿŁ įƦƙƌ ƅƇƟ ł ł łò Ō Ņ ł ł ň Ņ ň Ņ Ō :įƦƙƌ IJűſŤŨ ƅƆ ħƢƟŁĥĪ ťŷŨĪ ŦĭĬô ųƀƉŁ ŏ Ņ Ņ ň ŦƦƊƀŶĿ Ņ ô ťƐƄƌƦƉ Ņ ł ň ĬĪŴƇſ Ō ŦƦíƆĭƦŨ ñ Ņ Ņ ŏ Ņ ƎƉĪ ĖŁĭĬ ň ŏ ň ł ťŨĥŅ ň ň Ņ ô ħƢƠƉ Ņ ŏ ƈźƉ ƨźƠíƆ ĬŁƢŨł ŦĭĬ :ƅŨŴŶ ł Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ŏ ôł ŏ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ĖƎƍƟĿŴƘ ƚƇŶ ťŨĥ ƅŨųſĪ ŦĭĬô ĴĿĭƞƌĪ ł ł ň Ņ Ō Ņň ł Ņ ň Ņ ň ŁƢŨ :ťſǔũƕ ô IJĬ ƈƕ ƦƇƙƌ ĴƼƍíǑ

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ON JEPHTHAH’S DAUGHTER and she stretched out her neck before the knife of Jephthah her father.14 Your blood was depicted upon the body of that unsullied one, and hence she sufficed to be a sacrifice from her parent. On account of You, the symbol of slaughter threatened from the beginning, and it sacrificed You in beautiful ones whenever they happened upon it. Your type appeared upon these sacrifices and caused them to abound, so that on every occasion it would increase and make use of the slain. 2. THE HISTORY OF SACRIFICE Sin roared like a lioness in every age, and people poured out blood sacrifices to quiet it. The symbol of Your slaughter endeavored to show itself, and on various occasions it would shed forth blood to depict its type. Living creatures also were slain as if in its honor,

14 The wording in this line—“she stretched out her neck before the knife”—is that which is sometimes used for the binding of Isaac from Gen 22 in sources from late antiquity. It is not part of the biblical text for either Gen 22 or Judg 11 (which does not specify exactly how Jephthah performed his sacrifice), in either the Hebrew text or the Syriac Peshitta. However, it does occur in a Jewish Palestinian Aramaic poem about Gen 22 as well as in other Syriac homilies: see Joseph Yahalom and Michael Sokoloff, Jewish Palestinian Aramaic Poetry from Late Antiquity, Critical Edition with Introduction and Commentary (Jerusalem: The Israeli Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 1999), 124–131 (for an English translation of the text see van Bekkum, “The Aqedah and its Interpretation in Midrash and Piyyut”, 94–95); Brock, “Two Syriac Verse Homilies on the Binding of Isaac.” Similarly, Jacob’s use of the verb pkar (“bind”) in line 469 recalls the same word in the Peshitta for Gen 22:9, again drawing the parallel between Isaac and Jephthah’s Daughter.

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ł ł ł ň Ņ Ō ł ĶűƟ Ņ ĬĿĭĽ ñ ŏ įƦƙƌĪł ťƍƀƄƏ ñ Ņ ł ƦźƤƘĭ ĖĬŴŨĥ Ņ ł ł ł Ņ ŏ ł Ņ ô ƢſĽŁŁĥ Ō ň ƅƉŅ Ī ñ :ŦƦíLJƞƉĪ ųƊƣŴū ĭĬ ƈƕň ł ŦĭĬ ł ň ķŴūŏ űŨł ň ťŷŨĪ ň ƦƠƙƏ Ņ ň ŦĭĬŁ ñ Ņ ŏ Ņ ƎƉ ĖĬĪŴƇſ Ņ ł Ņ ô ƋƀŷíƆ Ņ Ņ ô ŦĭĬ Ņ Ņ ŏ ƎƉň ƨźƟĪň ŦĮĿĥ Ō ĭĬô ŏ ƅƀƇƕ :ťſĿŴƣ ň Ō ł ł Ō Ņ ťƉŅ ŧǔƀƙƤŨĭ Ņ ô ŸŨĪ ł Ņ ƅƆŅ ųŨň ƎƀƖŬƘĪ ĖŦĭĬ ň ł ł Ņ Ņ òň ł Ņ ŏ Ō ł ƅƐƘŴŹ :Ǝƀƌĥň įŁƢƣĭ ŦƦŷŨĪ ƈƕ ơſĪĥ ňò Ō Ņ ňò ƈƄŨĪ ł ł ň ƨƀźƟ ŏ ł Ņ ô ĸƢƘƦƉ ň ł ƎƇíƇƕ ĖŦĭĬ ťŬƐƌ Ņ ł ł Ō Ņ ň ŏ ŏ ŦŁŴſĿĥ ł ň ŦƼźŶ ŏ ƅſĥ ƦƉųƌ :ŧǓĪŅ ķĭųíǀŨ ňò ň ťƉĪĭ ł ô Ǝſűƣĥ Ņ ł Ō Ņ ťŷŨĪĪ ñ Ņ ŏ ł ł ųíƆ ñ Ņ ĭĭĬ ĖųƌŴƇƤƌĪ ł ł ň ƅƇźƟĪ Ņ ň ŦĮĿĥ ň ł ŦĭĬ Ņ ô ŻƙŶƦƉ Ņ Ņô ň ł ŦŴŷƌ :ųƤƙƌ Ņ Ņ ňò ł Ņ ô űƣĥ Ņ ŏ ųƆň Ŀĭƞƌŏ ŦĭĬ ň Ņ ťƉĪŅ ŦƦíƇíƇƖŨĭ ĖťƐƘŴŹ Ņ Ņò ł Ņ ň Ņ Ō ƅſĥł IJĭłò Ĭ ƎƐƄƌƦƉ ò :ĬƢƠſƧ Ļĥ ô Ņ ł ň ŦŁŴƀŶ

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ON JEPHTHAH’S DAUGHTER in order to set milestones of blood upon the road it traveled.15 Bulls and sheep and pigeons and young doves it sacrificed so that by their blood it might depict the image of its own offering. Lo, sin was cooled by blood from then onwards, and whenever it was burning they sprinkled blood and it was quenched. There was no forgiveness for a person without blood, and because of this sacrifices abounded. The symbol sprinkled the road of its slaughter with the blood of sacrifices, so that the whole way might be trodden with suffering from the beginning. But because bulls and sheep did not suffice to depict [this symbol], it snatched the only begotten child of Jephthah to become its image. It was pleased to shed the blood of a virgin by the hands of her father, that she might become the likeness of Your great slaying, O Son of the Redeemer of all. For if Jephthah had not depicted Your symbol, O Lord, his sacrifice would not have been accepted with honor. The Father’s love burned fervently in him, that he might give his daughter, just as the Father gave up his Son. He transgressed the law, and lawlessly offered sacrifice,

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The metaphor of the road is a frequent image in Jacob’s homilies. See the discussion and references in S. P. Brock, “Jacob of Serugh’s Verse Homily on Tamar (Gen. 38),” Le Muséon 115 (2002), 279–315, at pp. 307–8 (n. 20). 15

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ňò Ō ň ł ł ťŶĿĭŤŨ Ņ ô ƋƀƐƌ Ņ ł ƨƀƉĪ Ō ťƉĪĪ Ņ ŏ ŦĭĬ ñ Ņ ƅƆųƉĪ ĖųŨ łò ł ň ò Ō ŏ Ņ ň ň ň ł ň ò ł ƁƍŨĭ : ljŴſ Ļĥ ťŨǔƕĭ ŧǓĭŁ ň ŏ Ō ł Ņ ťƍƀƍƘŴƣ ň ŏ ň ł ŸŨĪ ł ŏ ł ĖĬŁŴŷƀŨűƆ ťƊíƆĽ Ŀĭƞƌ ķĭųƉűŨĪ ł Ō Ņ ň ĭĬô ťƉűŨ Ņ ô ťſĬƦƤƉ ł ł ŦƼźŶ ň Ņ ƎƉň ŦĬŅ ŁĭĬ Ņ :ƎſűſĬ ň ł ł ĭĭĬ Ņ ô ťƊŶĪ Ņ Ņ ťƉĭ Ņ ł ô ƎƀƏĿ Ō Ņ ťƉĪŅ ŁĭĬ ñ Ņ ƅƕűƉĭ ĖųíƆ ň Ņ ƧŅ ƥƌƧŅ ô ťƍƠŨŴƣ Ņ ł ƧĥŅ ň ŦĭĬ Ņ ô ŦĭĬ ŅŅ ŏ :ťƉűŨ ŏ ň łò Ņ ò Ō ł Ņ Ņ ò ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ĖIJĭĬô ķŤƀŬƏ ŦƦŷŨĪ Ļĥ ljĬ ƈźƉĭ ň ň ťŶĿĭƧ Ņ ł ųƇźƟĪ Ņ Ņ ô ųŷíƆĮ ň ò ň ťƉűŨ Ņ ŏ ñ Ņ ł ťŷŨĪĪ :ŦĮĿĥ ň ň Ņ ł ťƤſĿĪ Ņ Ō ŦĭĬŁĪ Ņ Ņ ŏ ƎƉň ųíƿ ñ Ņ ŏ ťƤŷŨ ĖťſĿŴƣ Ņ ł ň ł ň ł ƧĪĭ ň ň ŧǓĭŁ Ņ ŏ ŏ Īł ťŨǔƕĭ :IJųƀƌĭĿĭƞƌ ųƆ ŴƠƙƏ ł ł ň Ņ Ō Ō ň ł ŦĭĬŁĪ ň ň IJűƕĥ Ō ł įƦƙƌĪ ĖųƊíƆĽ ł łò Ō ŏ ň ň ł Ņ ĬƻűƀŷƀƆ ŏ ł Ņ ŏ ñ ñ ň IJűſŤŨ ĪŴƣŤƌĪ ųƆ Ƣƙƣ ŦƦíƆĭƦŨĪ :ĬŴŨĥ Ņ ŏ ųƉĪ ł Ņ ň Ņ ň ŏ ň ł Ņ Ėƈƃ ľƢƘ ŦŁŴƉĪ Ņ ŦĭĬŁĪ ł ł ƢŨŅ ťŨĿŅ ƅƇźƠíƆ ŏň Ņ ł Ņ Ņ :įƦƙƌŌ ŦĭĬô ĿĽ ķƢƉ ĴĮĿĥô Ƣƀūň Ƨ Ŵƭ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ō ł ŦĭĬ Ņ ô ƈũƟƦƉ ł ł ň ųŷŨĪ ň ň ƨƘĥ ĖƻĥƢƀƠſ Ō Ņ Ōł ň Ņ ňŅ Ņ ł ň ŏ ųŨŴŶ :ƻŤƊƀƊŶ ł ň ųŨ ł ŦĭĬô Ņ űƠſ ł ň ťŨĥĪ ň ň ł Ņ ł ĖĬƢũƆ ťŨĥ ƋƇƣĥĪ ťƊƃĥŅ ĬŁƢŨ ĵƦƌĪň ň ł ťŷŨĪ Ņ ŏ Ņ ŀĪŅ Ņ ň ĸŴƊƌŏ Ņ ƧĪĭł ťƏŴƊƌ :ħƢƟ

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ON JEPHTHAH’S DAUGHTER because faith is exalted greatly above the law. For thus it is written: Whoever sheds a person’s blood, by a person’s hands his blood will be shed, and he shall not escape.16 According to the law Jephthah deserved death, and how did he not die, but rather receive even greater praise? In faith he transgressed the law and was not diminished, and he shed blood that he might not be enslaved by the commandment.

Gen 9:6

3. JEPHTHAH AND THE WAR WITH THE AMMONITES

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Concerning this great laborer of faith I must speak; therefore prepare your attention. Concerning the beautiful one who was slain by her parent, speech quakes to tell her story and the sacrificing of her. Concerning him who was a sea full of fatherhood’s love, and how he prevailed to see his loved one beneath the knife; concerning that fervor of faith which consumed like fire, so that he performed slaughter and his zeal was not quenched; concerning that athlete who wrestled with himself, and conquered his pity and snatched the crown for his faith: this is the subject of the sermon of suffering which I continue, and suffering seeks to be imprinted heavily upon it. War gained strength against the Hebrews in the days of Jephthah,

16 Note that this commandment in the Genesis narrative follows directly upon the event of Noah’s offering of the first sacrifice.

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Ņ ŏ Ņ ł Ņ ŏ Ņ ƎƉň ƁŬƏ Ō ł IJĬô ťƉĿŅ Ņ ŦŁŴƍƊſĬĪ ĖťƏŴƊƌ Ō ň ł űƣĥĪ Ņ ł ťƍƃĬ Ņ ł Ņ Ūſǁ ň Ņ ťƍſĥĪ Ņ Ņ ô ųƉűƆ :ťƤƌĥĪ łò Ō űƣĥƦƌ ň ň ň ň ųƉĪ ň ł ň ƧĭŅ ťƤƌĥ Ņ Ņ ô IJűſŤŨ ĖŦƞƘƦƌ Ņ ł Ņ ŏ Ņ ƎƉň Ņ ł ŦŁŴƉł ƎſűƉ ň Ņ įƦƙƌł ťƏŴƊƌ :ŪƀŶ Ņ Ō ň ł ł ň Ƣſƻł Ƨĥ ƼƉŌ ƧŅ ƎƄſĥĭ ł ł Ņ ô ƑƇƟƦƉ ĖŦĭĬ Ņ ŏ Ņ ł ł ŦŁŴƍƊſųŨ Ņ ŏ Ņ Ƣũƕ ł ł ň ƧĭŅ ťƏŴƊƌ :ĿƞŨŁĥ Ņ ł űƣĥĭ ł ł ň ƧŅ ljűƟŴƙíƆĪ Ņ Ņ ŏ ł ťƉűƆ ł ň ĖűũƕƦƤƌ Ņ ŏ Ņ ł Ņł Ņ Ņ ŅŅ ł ł IJĬŴƇƕ :ŦŁŴƍƊſĬĪ ťŨĿ ƨƖƘ ljĬ ƈƕ ł ŏ ł Ņ ň ƎſűƉ ł Ō ƁƆŌ ƻĥŌ ň ƢƉĥĪ ň Ņ ŴũƀŹ ĖķŴƄƀƍƀƕǓ Ņ Ō ł ł ň ŦŁƢƀƙƣ Ņ ô ťƐƄƌƦƉ Ņ ł ň ĬĪŴƇſ Ņ ŏ Ņ ƎƉĪ ñ :ŁĭĬ Ņ ŏ Ō ł Ņ ł ň ň Ņ ň ƈƕł Ņ ñ ñ ĖĬŁŴŷƀŨĪĭ ljŁŁĪ ŦƦíƇƉ ƦƕĮ Ņ ŏ Ņ ł ň ųŨƢƣ ł ł ťƊſ Ņ ł ĭĬł ƈƕł Ņ ñ :ŦŁĭųŨĥĪ ųƀƊŶǓĪ ťƀíƇƉ ň ŏ ň ň ň ł ł ł Ņ Ō ł ƼŶŁ ň ĬƦƉŴŶĿ ĖťƍƀƄƏ ƎƄſĥ Ņ ŏ Ņ ł Ŧŵŷƌ Ņ ƎƐƊŶ ň Ņ:ŧĿŴƌŏ ƅſĥł ƚƏĪ ł ł ł ŦŁŴƍƊſĬĪ ň ŏ Ō ł ł ł ň ťŶŁĿ Ņ Ņ ĭĬň ƈƕ ł ł ĖĬŁŴƊƀƊŶ ƻĬƦƣĥ Ƨĭ ƨźƟ űũƕĭ ł ł ň Ņ Ō ł ł Ņ ô ŀǁŁĥĪ ň ł Ƌƕł ĭĬŏ ŦĭĬ ťźƀƆŁDŽƕ :ň ųƤƙƌ Ņ Ō Ņ ł Ņ ł ł ł ł ťƃĮĭ ŏ Ō ĖĬŁŴƍƊſųŨ ƨƀƿ IJűƕĥĭ IJĬŴƊŶǔƆ Ņ Ō ųƤƀƌ ł ł ťƤŶĪ łŅ ň Ō ĭĬô ljĬ Ņ ł ŧƢƉŤƉĪ :ųŨň ƁƆŌ ƚƠƉĪ ŌŅ Ōł ň ł ł ň ň Ņ Ņ ł ĖƻĥƢƀƠſ ťƖŨ ťƤŶĭ ł łųŨ ł ĶƦŶƦƌĪ Ņ ň ƈƕł įƦƙƌ ò Ņ ŅŅ ň ťŨƢƟ ň:ťſǔũƕ ł ƁƉŴƀŨ ŦĭĬô ƎƤƕ

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ON JEPHTHAH’S DAUGHTER and great battle by the Ammonites confounded them. They prepared their ranks to contend in struggle, so that they might become cause for victory by their fight. The plunderers came to enter the land of Jacob’s children, but there was no king among the people who might meet them. The armies were roused up for the contest, that they might become cause for Jephthah’s sacrifice to be offered. The king of the Ammonites rushed upon the Hebrews, so that he might snatch their border and overcome them in battle. The saviors of the people had died and they despaired of victory, that lo, an uncircumcised people should enter and plunder them. 4. JEPHTHAH’S VOW When the flock of Jacob had been crushed in by the raiders, it called to Jephthah, that he might become the shepherd to lead it. And when that wise man (Jephthah) was summoned to the battle, he entrusted the war to the Lord, that [the Lord] might preside over the victory. He looked at his own weapon which (would serve) nothing for victory, and that discerning one vowed a vow to the Lord, so that [the Lord] would contend. A perfect sacrifice he vowed to offer to the Lord, in return for the victory he asked from him in the coming battle. With a sacrifice he hired his Lord as king to go down with him,

Judg 11:30

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ň Ō ł ňŅò ŏ ł Ņ ł Ņ Ō ĖķŴƌĥŏ IJųíƇŨ ťƀƌŴƊƕĪ ťŨĿ ťƏĿŤƟĭ Ņ ł ň ň ň ł Ņ ŏ łł ň ł ŧĿűíƆ ŧǓűƏ ĭĭĬ ŴũƀŹŁĥ :ŴƣǁƦƊíƆ ô Ņ ň ŏ ň Ņ ŏŅ ł ŏ ò ł ŏ ł ŦƦíƇƕ ĖķĭųƀƣĭǁƦŨ ķĭĭųƌ ŦŁŴƃŵíƆĪ ł ò ł Ņ ł ŏ ň ňò ŏ Ņ ł ŏ ł ƁƍŨĪ ťƕĿƧ ķŴƇƖƌĪ ŦĮĭŵŨŌ ĭŁĥŅ ô ň :ħŴƠƖſ ŏ ł ťƄíƇƉ Ņ ł ųŨň ŦĭĬ ň Ņ Ņ ô ƻĥ Ƨĭ ŏ ťƊƖŨ ĖķŴƌĥ ĺĭĿŤƌĪ Ņ Ņ łòł ł ł ł ň Ņ ŏ ł ƈƕł ŦŁŴíƇƀŶ ĭĭĬ ŴźũíƆŁĥ :ťƣĭǁŁ ô ł ł ň ň Ņ ł ł ň įƦƙƌĪ ŏ ň Ņ ô ħƢƟƦƌĪ ĖŦĭĬ ųŷŨűíƆ ŦƦíƇƕň ķĭĭųƌĪ łò ł Ņ ł Ņ ł ŏ ł ƁƍŨĪ ň Ņ ň ƈƕł ķŴƊƕ :ťſǔũƕ ŦĭĬô Ķŵū ň ň ł Ņ ŏ ł ł ťƄíƇƉ ŏ ŏ ň ł ŏ ŧűƖƌĪ ĖķŴƌĥŅ Ūƀŷƌ ťƣĭǁƦŨĭ ķĭųƉŴŶŁ ŏ ň Ņ ĭűƍƕ ŏ Ņ ƎƉň ŴƇŶĭĥĭ Ņ ł ťƟĭǔƘ ł ň ł ťƊƕĪ ň ňŏ :ŦŁŴƃĮ ŏ ň ŦĬĭ ň ò ł ĭĭĬ ł ô ķŴƇƖƌĪ Ņ ŏ ň ƧǓŴƕŏ ťƊƊƕ ĖķŴƌĥ ķĭŵũƌĪ ňò Ņ ł ł ň ł ňò ŏ Ņ ň ŏ ł ųƍƕ ƎƉ ħŴƠƖſĪ ƦŨĿĪĮĥ :ŦĮĭŵŨ ł ł űƃĭň Ņ Ņ Ņ ň ň ł Ņ ł ł ñ ƢŨűƉĪ ťƀƕĿ ŦĭųƌĪ įƦƙƍíƆ ųƆ ŁƢƟ ĖųíƆ ł Ņ Ō ł ĭĬł ƎƉĪĮĥ ł ł ň űƃĭ Ņ ŏ ł ƈƕł ťƊƀƄŶ ťƣĭǁŁ : Ņ ŏŅ ł ŏ ł ťſƢƊíƆ ň ł Ņ Ņ ųŨųſ Ņ Ņ ťŨƢƟ ĖŦŁŴƃĮ ƈƕ ĶŴƠƌĪ Ņ ŏŅ ň Ņ ň ň ł Ņ ł ň Ņ :ŦŁŴƃĮ ô ĶűƉ ŴƆĪ ťƍſŵŨ ųŨ Ņ ƢŶ ł ł űſĽň ŦĭĬ ŏ Ņ ŏ Ņ Ŀűƌł ťſƢƊíƆ Ņ Ņ ŧĿűƌĭň ĖŀǁƦƌ ĭĬĪ ťƣĭƢƘ ł ň ł ł ŦųíƆƧ Ņ Ņ Ŀűƌł ťƊíƇƣ Ņ ł ťŷŨĪ Ņ ň :ųƆň ħƢƠƌĪ Ņ ł Ņ Ō ň ň ňŅ Ņ ŏŅ Ņ ĖIJųƀźƉĪ ťƏĿŤƠŨ ųƍƉ ĵŤƣĪ ŦŁŴƃĮ ƚƇŶ ň Ņ Ņ ł ĬƢƊíƆ ň ł ŁŴŷƌĪ Ņ ô Ƣūĥ ł ô ťƄíƇƉ ŏ ň ťŷŨűŨ Ņ ň ŦĭĬ :ųƊƕ

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ON JEPHTHAH’S DAUGHTER to the battle with the Ammonites, that he might be victorious in it. He did not set apart a vow17 to give to the Lord knowingly, for he did not know whom the Lord wished to take from him. “If, O Lord,You will deliver the Ammonites into my hands, You will have this vow from me, which I will offer to You: Whoever meets me at the gate of my house when I enter, that one I will offer to be a sacrifice for the victory. The first person who comes out to meet me and to receive me, I will sacrifice to You while I rejoice over [our] deliverance. I do not know whom You desire to be offered to You; choose for Yourself a sacrifice, and I will not spare him even if beloved. Set apart for Yourself whatever is fitting and beautiful and choice and beloved; whomever You set apart I will sacrifice without restraint. Whatever You choose from all that is mine I will give to You; set apart for Yourself a vow, and bring it to my hands to offer to You. I made a vow and I will give; I do not know what I will give. The vow is revealed to You; let it be prepared according to Your will; whatever You bring out from all that is mine I will offer to You. Even if precious, even if beloved, it will be offered to You.

Judg 11:30

Judg 11:31

17 The term for “vow”, nedro, throughout the homily indicates both the vow (or oath) that Jephthah made and also the object of that vow, his daughter.

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ň Ņ ò ŏ ł ťƣĭǁŁ Ņ ŏ ł ƈƕł ł ł ň ťƀƌŴƊƕĪ ĖųŨň Ō įƞƌƦƌĪ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ Ō Ō ŦųíƆƧ Ņ Ņ ł ħųſĭ :ƻŤƖſűſ ô ł ŧĿűƌň ŀƢƘ ƧŅ ň Ņ ƎƉŅ ŦĭĬ ň ň ŪƐƌĪ Ņ ô ťŨĽ Ņ ô ĺűſł Ņ ƧĪ ł ň ŦĭĬ ĖųƍƉ ł łò Ō ťſƢƉ ň ł ƋƆł ķĥň ò ł IJűſŤŨ ŏ ł ƁƍũƆ Ņ Ņ ƋƇƣŁ :ķŴƊƕ Ņ ň ljĬ ň ł ň IJĪĥĽ Ņ ħƢƟĥĪ ŅŅ ł ň ƅƆŅ ƻĥŌ ŧĿűƌ ĖƅƆ ňŅ Ņ ł Ņ ƎƉł Ņ ł ƎƉň ƁƆŌ ĺĿĥĪ ł ťƕĿŁ ťƉ IJƼŨĪ :ljŅǃ ô ŤƕĪ Ņ ň ł ĭĬŏ Ņ ťŷŨĪ ň ň ljĥŅ ô ħƢƠƉ Ņ ň ŦĭųƌĪ ĖŦŁŴƃĮŏ Ņ ƚƇŶ ň Ņ ťƀƉűƟ ň ł ł ƁƇũƟŴƆ ł ŏ ơƙƌĪ Ņ Ņ ł ĭĬł :ƁƆŌ ƈũƠƉĭ ň ł Ņ Ņ ŏ ƈƕł ljĥŅ ô ŧűŶ ň Ņ űƃł ƅƆŅ ljĥŅ ô ħƢƠƉ ĖťƍƟĿŴƘ Ņ ħƢƟƦƌĪ ł ł ň Ʀƌĥł ƋŶĿ ň Ņ ƎƉł ljĥŅ ô ĺűſł Ņ ƧŅ :ƅƆ ô ňŅ Ņ Ņ ň Ņ Ō Ō ł ķĥň ťƊƃ Ņ ljĥŅ ô ĸŤŶ ĖŪƀũŶ ƅƆ Ɓũū ň Ƨĭł ťŷŨĪ Ō ŏ ň ň ł ł ł ň Ō :ƋƀŶĿĭ Ō ťũūĭŅ Ƣƀƙƣĭ ŦŤƘĪ ĶűƉ Ņ ƅƆŅ ŀĭƢƘ Ņ ł ł ťƉĭ Ņ ł Ņ IJųſƦƣƢƘĪ ĖŦƼƿŅ ƧĪ ųƆň ljĥŅ ô ŸŨĪ ň ň Ņ ƁƆŌ ƻĥĪŌ ƈƃŏ ƎƉň ťũūŁĪ ň :ƅƆŅ ljĥŅ ô ħųſ ťƉŅ ĭĬł Ō Ņ ł Ņ ň Ņ ň ł ň IJűſƧ łò IJųſƻĥĭ ŏ ĖƅƆŅ ħƢƟĥĪ ŧĿűƌ ƅƆ ŀĭƢƘ ňň ň ň Ņ ň Ņ ƎƉĭ Ņ ĵŁĥ ŁĿűƌ :ljĥŅ ô ł ĺűſł Ņ Ƨ ljĥŅ ô ħųſ ň ł Ņ Ņ ň ň ň Ņ ň Ņ ł ĖƅƍƀŨĽ ƅſĥ ŪƀźƉ Ŧĭųƌ ŧĿűƌ ƅƆ ĭĬ ƨū ô ň ł Ņ ň ł ƁƆŌ ƻĥĪŌ ƈƃŏ ƎƉň ŦƻŁĪ ŏ ťƉ ƈƃ :ƅƆŅ ljĥŅ ô ħƢƠƉ ň Ņ ƢƀƠſŌ ł ƎƘĥ ňŅ ł ł ň ƅƆŅ ŪƀũŶ Ō ł ƎƘĥ ĖħƢƟƦƉ

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ON JEPHTHAH’S DAUGHTER This vow will be Yours from me, when You grant me [this] victory: whomever it will be, You alone know.” 5. THE BATTLE O, the discerning one who vowed his vow and did not know what [he had vowed], who was ready to sacrifice while his sacrifice was hidden from his understanding! This is the gift the high commander of that battle had agreed upon, that he would offer to Him who gives victory to all, once he was triumphant. This was the contract Jephthah settled with God, and then he began to fight in the battle that had arrived. He gave this battle to the Lord in faith, and thus was freed from abundantly preparing the engines of war. [God] was summoned like a warrior to come along with him, when he set his face to battle with the Ammonites. He who was summoned manifested his power mightily, that the sacrifice of Jephthah would repay his blood for the sake of many. The hero turned against the camp of the Ammonites, and with a (mere) gesture it was routed before the Hebrews. Israel arose in victory in the midst of battle, because the vow of Jephthah had brought the Lord to be with him. The ranks of the people’s enemies were smashed because of that contract which Jephthah made with God. The virgin of sufferings was betrothed to crucifixion, and because of that the nation of her father was victorious. The symbol chose that beautiful one so that Jephthah would sacrifice her to him,

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Ō Ņ ň ŅŅ Ņ Ōł Ņ ł ň Ņ : ƁƌƼƃĮĪ ťƉ IJĪĥĽ ƅƆ ƻĥ ł ł Ņ ŏ ł ŧĿűƌł ljĬł ł Ō Ņ Ņ ň ĖIJĬĭƻĥ ťƍƉ ųƆ Ʀƌĥ ĪŴŷíƇŨ ƦƌĥĪ ô Ņ ĭĬ Ņ ô Ņ ĺűſ Ņ ň ŏ ň ł Ņ Ņ ł ł :ųƆ ĺűſ Ƨĭ ŧĿűƌ ĿűƌĪ ťƣĭƢƘ ĭĥ ň Ō ł ň ň ň ň ł ŏ ň ŪƀźƉ łł ĖĬƼƕĿŁ ƎƉŏ ųŷŨĪ ťƐƃĭ įŴŨűƌĪ ł ł Ņ ł ł ł Ņ ł ŅŅ Ņ :ťƣĭǁŁ ĭĬĪ ƨƀŶ ħĿ ƞƟ ťƍƣĪ ljĬ ň ł ł ň ł ł ųƆň ħƢƠƌĪ ŏ ťƃŵƊƆ Ņ ł ň ł ĖįƞƌŁĥĪ ťƉ ƈƃ ł ł Ņ Ņ Ņ ł űſĽň įƦƙƌ ł ň ŧĪĬ ňŅ ŦĭĬô ƋƏŅ IJŴƌŁ :Ŧųƭ Ņ ł Ņ Ō ŏ Ņ ł ň Ō ł ƎſűſĬĭ ň Ņ ĖIJųƀźƉĪ ťƏĿŤƠŨ ŴƣǁƦƊíƆ IJƢƣ Ņ ŏ Ņ ł ŅŅ ň ł Ō ł ťſƢƊíƆ Ņ Ņ ŦŁŴƍƊſ ťŨƢƟ ųŨųſ :IJųūĥĭ Ō Ņ Ō ł Ņ ł ųŨ łò Ņ ň ł ł ň ĖƻŤƀŬƏ ťƍſĮ ƁƌŤƉ ł ŪƀźƌĪ ƎƉň Ņ Ņ ł ƅſĥ ŦĭĬ ň ł ŁŴŷƌĪ Ņ ô ƎƉĪĮĥ łł ŏ ň ŧƢũƍū :ųƊƕ ô ł ò ł ł ƋƏŅ űƃł ň Ņ ò ŏ ł ťƣĭǁŁ Ņ ŏ ƈƕł IJĬŴƘĥ ĖťƀƌŴƊƕĪ ŌŅŅ ł ň Ō Ōł łł ň ł :ƻĥƢũƍū ô ųƇſĪ IJŴŶł ƎƉĪĮĥĪ ĭĬ ňò Ō ł Ņ ŏ ň įƦƙƌĪł ųŷŨĪĪ ň ň ň ĖŦŤƀŬƏ ƚƇŶ ųƉűƆł ĺĭƢƙƌ Ņ Ō ł Ņ Ņ ł ƧŅ Ľ ł ŧƢũƍū ň Ņ ò ŏ ł ŦƻƢƤƉ ƈƕ :ťƀƌŴƊƕĪ ł ň ň Ņ ň Ņ Ņ ôň ł ł Ņ Ņ ĖŁĭĬ ťſǔũƕ ĶűƟ ŦŵƉĿ űƀŨĭ Ņ ŏ ô ł ŧƢŨŁƦƉ ň Ņ Ō ƋƟŅ Ņ ł ŦŁŴƃĮŏ Ņ ƈƕł ƈſƢƐſ :ťƣĭǁŁ ŴŬŨ Ō ł ł ł ň ň ň ň ťſƢƊíƆ ň ň ŦĭųƌĪ Ņ Ņ IJƻĥ įƦƙƌĪ ĖųƍƉ ĬĿűƌĪň łò ł ŏ ł ŏ Ņ ň ň ł ł Ņ :ťƊƕ ƁƍŨĪ ķĭųſǓŴƠƏĪ ŧǓűƏň ŴƕĿŁŁĥ ł ł ł ł ł Ņ ň Ņ Ņ ł Ƌƕł įƦƙƌ ĖŦųƭ Ņ ŏ Ō ł Ņ ł ł űũƕĪ ň ňò ł IJŴƌŁŅ IJĬ ŏ ƎƉ :ŦŁŴƙƀƟŵƆ ŁĭĬô ŁƢƄƉŁĥ ťƤŶĪ ŦƦíƆĭƦŨ ň ł ljųíƇźƉĭ Ņ ô įƞƌƦƉ ŅŅ ŏ ň ł ł ň ĬŴŨĥĪ ñ ŏ ł ųƊƕ ĖŦĭĬ Ņ Ō ł Ņ Ō ŦĮĿĥ ŏ ň IJĬĪ Ņ ô ťũū Ņ ŦŁƢƀƙƣ Ņ Ņ ô ŦĭĬ :ųƆň įŴŨűƌ IJųíƆ

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ON JEPHTHAH’S DAUGHTER and he cast down thousands of the army slain, so that he would repay his sacrifice. The blood of the young girl was chosen there symbolically, and the war prevailed with only a few against the Ammonites. Justice saw the beloved sacrifice which was prepared, and killed thousands of men because of it.

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6. JEPHTHAH’S VICTORY For the price of his daughter, Jephthah took the blood of many, so that the sacrifice of the virtuous girl would be for salvation. Truth weighed the blood of the unclean with that of the pure girl, and destroyed thousands, but she outweighed their ranks. Many corpses of the pagans fell among the ranks, and they did not repay the one corpse of the believing girl. As recompense for the sacrifice, the slain fell by the hands of Jephthah, but he did not perceive what suffering his vow would arouse. He was allowed to destroy and throw down as many as he wished, for it was owed to him to cast down thousands for the sake of his offering. The undefiled girl was chosen to be a sacrifice,18 and because she was fitting hosts fell for her sake. Death came because she was filled with symbols and stood among the people, and death held back from many [Hebrews], that they not be destroyed.

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The notion of a possible defilement of the sacrifice is paralleled in both Jewish and Christians presentations of the binding of Isaac. See Brock, “Two Syriac Verse Homilies on the Binding of Isaac,” 89. 18

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Ņ ł ňò ł ň Ō ŏ ň ųŷŨĪĪ Ō ł ň ň ƨƀŶĪ ĖĺĭƢƙƌ ťũſǔŶŌ ƁƉĿĥĭ Ō Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ťƙƭĭ Ņ ł Ņ ň ŦƼǑĪ ñ ųƉĪ :ƻŤƌĮĿôĥ ƎƉŁ ŦĭĬô ťũū łò ł ŏ ł ò Ō ł Ņ ł ł ň ł ŏ ĖķŴƊƕł ň ƁƍŨĪ ķĭųƀƇƀíƇƠŨ ƦƍƤƕĭ Ņ ŏ Ō Ņ ťŨƢŶ ŏ Ņ ł Ō ťŷŨűíƆ Ņ ň :ŪƀŹŁĥ ň ĭĬĪŏ ŦŁŴƌŤƃ ŁŵŶ ťƊƀŶĿ Ņ Ņ ň ƦƇźƟ ł ň ťƤƌĥĪ Ņ ň ł Ņ Ņ ô ŦŁŴŨǔƆĭ ĖĬƦíƇźƉ ň ł ňò Ō ł Ņ ł ŦŤƀŬƏĪ Ņ ô ƈƠƣ łòŌ ł ƁƊƀŹ ťƉĪ ĬŁƢŨ :įƦƙƌł ŦĭĬ Ņ ł ł ł Ņ ň ň ň ŅŅ ŏ ł ñ ĖŦŁĿƼƉĪ ųŷŨĪ Ŧĭųƌ ł ň ťƍƟĿŴƙíƆĪ Ņ Ō ł ł ŅŅ ň ò ł ťƉűƆ Ņ ł :ŦƼƃĪĪ Ƌƕ ŧĿƢƣ ųƇƟŁ ŦŤň ƊŹĪ ò ł ħƢŶĭ ł ł Ņ Ņ IJĬĭ ŏ ł ň ƎƉň ŁĭĬ Ō ťƙƭ Ņ ô ťƕƦƌ ĖķĭųſǓűƏ Ņ Ņ ò Ō ł ň ò ł ňò ł ň ň :ŦŁŤƀŬƏ ŧűíƇƣ ŧǓűƏ ƼŨň ƈƙƌł Ņ Ņ ł ł ťƙƍŶĪ łò Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ŧűŷƆ Ņ ł IJĭĬ ĖŦƦƍƊſųƉĪł ŧűíƇƣ ô ƎƕǔƘ Ƨĭł ł ł łò Ō ł Ō ł Ņ ň Ņ ň ŧƢūĥ :įƦƙƌ IJűſŤŨ ĭĭĬô ŴƇƙƌ ťũſǔŶ ťŷŨĪĪ ň ň ųƆň ƋƀƠƉ Ō ťƤŶ Ņ ł ŦĭŅ Ĭô ƥƀūĿ Ņ ł ťƍſŤŨ Ō ƧŅ űƃł ĖĬĿűƌ ŏ ň ŦĭĬ ł ł ň Ņ ô ťŨĽĪ Ņ ŧűƤƌ Ņ ô ŻƆƦƣĥ Ņ ł ťƊƃ ň ň ħĭƢŷƌĪ :ŦĭĬ ňò ł ň ł ň Ņ Ņ ťƙíƆƧ ň Ņ ŏ ƚƇŶ Ō ň ĖųƍŨĿŴƟ ťƉƢƌĪ ųƆ ŦĭĬ ŪƀŶŁƦƉĪ ô Ņ ł ł Ņ Ņ ň ň ŦƦƉǂƉ ł ł ň Ņ ň ŦĭĬŁĪ Ƨ ŁĭĬ ƼũūŁĥ :ťŷŨĪ ô Ņ ŏ ň ň Ņ ł ň ł ł ô ŴƇƙƌł ŧǓűƏ ñ Ņ ň ĭĭĬ ĖĬƦíƇźƉ ŁĭĬ Ņ ô ł ŁƢƙƣĪĭ Ņ Ņ ł ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ô ŦŁĥ ň ł :ťƊƕ ƈƕ ƋƟ Ņ ŦĮǓĥô ƼíƇƉĪ ŦŁŴƉ ŦĭĬ ňò Ō ł ň Ņ ł ł ô ł ň ŏ ł ĖķŴŨƢŶƦƌ ƧĪ ŦŤƀŬƏ ƎƉ ŦŁŴƉ Ƣū Įĭ

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ON JEPHTHAH’S DAUGHTER The nation lived because she died on behalf of all the nation, just as the Son who for the sake of the world ascended the cross. Jephthah was mightily triumphant in battle, and conquered the enemies who threatened the camp. He stood bravely among the ranks, like a valiant man, because he had put the Ammonites and their king to the sword. He repaired the breaches of the people by the unsullied vow, and by his battles for victory he was heroic. The great power of faith fell upon the ranks, and broke them like dry sticks before the flame. It was glorious among the slain, and its bow rebounded with force, and when it triumphed over all the peoples it became renowned. But when it came back, carrying victory, the promise stood there, to demand what belonged to it from the faithful one. The symbol entered with its suffering, causing (the object of) the vow to go out,19 so that another would not go [first], preceding its love.

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7. THE BRIDE OF BLOOD The daughter of Jephthah was excited by the good news, and she desired greatly to be the first to see her father. The sacrifice yearned for the priest who would offer it, and went out to meet him so that he would not delay his promise. The sacrificial maiden took a tambourine to meet her father,

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The daughter is often referred to as “the vow”, as in the present passage. Similarly, Jacob will refer to her as the “sacrifice” or “offering”, qurbono or debkho, as below. 19

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ł ň ŏ Ņ ł Ņł Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ųƿ :ŁƼƉŌ ťƊƕ ƚƇŶĪ ťƊƕ ŦĭĬô ťƀŶł ň Ō ł Ņ ł ŧƢŨĪ Ņ ł IJĬŅ ƅſĥ Ņ Ņ Ņ ĖťũƀƆƞƆ ơƇƏŌ ťƊíƇƕ ł ƚƇŶĪ Ņ ł ŦĭĬ Ņ ô įƞƌŁĥ Ņ Ō ł įƦƙƌł ŧĿűŨ łł ň :ƻĥŵſŵƕ ňò Ņ Ņ Ō ł Ņ ł Ō Ō ł ŦŤƍƐíƆ ł ô ƎƀƊƀŷíƆĪ ĖŦƻƢƤƉ ƈƕł ĭĭĬ ťƃĮĭ ł Ō ł ň Ņ Ō ł ťƟƢŹ Ņ ƅſĥ ƋƟŅ Ņ ł ƻĥƢƀƤƃ :ŧǓűƏň ƦƍƀŨ ŏ ò ł ł ł ťƀƌŴƊƖíƆ Ō ł Ņ ł ƁƉĿĥĪ ň Ņ ò ŏ ł ťŨƢŷŨ ĖķĭųƀƄíƇƊíƆĭ ŏ Ņ ň ł ł ł ĬĿűƍŨ Ņ ň ťƊƕĪ Ņ ô DžƞƉĪ Ņ ł ŦƦƕǓĭŁ :ŦĭĬ ŭƏŅ ŏ ň Ņ ň ƈƕł IJĬŴƣĭǁƦŨĭ Ņ ô ƢũƍūƦƉ ł ô ł ň ųƍŶƞƌ ł ò ł ł ĖŦĭĬ Ņ ŏ Ņ ł Ņł Ņ ł ň ň ł ñ ň ŧǓűƏ ƈƕł ƈƙƌ ťŨĿ ųíƇƀŶ :ŦŁŴƍƊſĬĪ Ņ ł ł Ņ ňò ł ƅſĥł ķŴƌĥŏ ň ƢŨŁĭ ł ł ĖŦƦíƆĮŴū ĶűƟ ƨŬíƆĪ ň ň Ņ ŏ ň Ō ł ň ň Ō ł ł :ĬƦƤƟ ťƍƣŴƖŨ ŦŁĥŁĪ ǂƘĬĭ ťũſǔŷŨ įƞƌ Ō ò ł ƈƃŏ ƎƉň ťƀƃĮ Ņ ô ųƉƦƤƉ ł ł ň ƎƀƊƊƕ Ņ Ņ ł űƃł ĖŦĭĬ Ņ ň Ō Ņ ŏŅ ł Ņ ô ŦŁĥĭ Ņ ŏ ł ƎƉň ŦĭĬ :ťƣĭǁŁ ƼƖŹ ŦŁŴƃĮ űƃĭ ň Ō Ņ ň ł Ō ł Ņ Ņ ŏ ƋƟŅ ĖŧƢſƢƣ ƎƉ ųƇſĪ ƗŨƦƌĪň ťſĪĭŴƣ Ņ ň ųƤŷŨ ŏ ň ƥŶƢƌĪ Ņ ô ƈƕł ň ł ŦĮŅ ĿĥŅ ô ŦĭĬ ł ň ŧĿűƍíƆ :ľŴƙƌ ň ŏ Ō ł Ņ ô ĵĮŤƌ Ņ Ō ô ŦĭĬ ł Ō ƧĪŅ ŏ ň ljƢŶĥ ĖĬŁŴƊƀŶƢƆ ĶĭűƠƌ Ņ Ņ ł ň ł ł ň ł Ņ ô ťŨĬĿƦƉ Ņ ł ň ŦŁǔũƏ :ŁĭĬ ƎƉł įƦƙƌĪ ň Ņ ĬŁƢŨ ň Ō Ņ ŏ Ņ ł IJĬĭ Ņ ň ł ñ ĖŁĭĬô ťŨŤſƦƉ ĬŴŨƧ ŦŵŶŁĪ ŦƼƉűƟ ň ł ł ljųƃ ł ł ŏ ťƍŨĿŴƟ Ņ Ņ ŏ įŴƏ Ņ Ņ ƈũƟŴƆ :ųƆň ħƢƠƉĪ ŏ Ņ ł ł ł ň ň Ņ ŏ ƎƉň ƢŶł ĭƦƤƌň ƧĪ ųƕĿĭƧ ơƙƌĭ ĖųſĪĭŴƣ ł Ņ ł ƦƇƠƣ ł ň ťŬíƇƘ ł ŏ ťŷŨĪĪ Ņ ł Ņ ň ŦƦƊƀƇƕ ñ ŏ DŽũƟŴƆ :ĬŴŨ

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ON JEPHTHAH’S DAUGHTER that with songs she might greet him20 when he came in victorious. The offering stood to go towards the priest,21 escorted by the timbrels of those who went out with her. The sacrificial calf walked to the priest of her own accord, while the Hebrew maidens played their tambourines for her. The single one went boldly to her slaughter, for the Single One by his symbol drew her to be his sacrifice. The choice vow was set apart from the house of Jephthah, to go forth to repay that victory which was because of it. That choice maiden, full of beauties, took herself, and she walked out to that priest who was full of discernment. The symbol revealed the concealed one, a daughter of women’s quarters, for she flew out to take the road towards the knife. On the day of the wedding feast there is no veil for the betrothed woman,

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Lit.: “see his face.” An important feature of animal sacrifice in ancient Mediterranean religions was the notion that the animal willingly accepted its own slaughter. Sacrificial rituals were designed to elicit a sign of consent from the victim—for example, by sprinkling water or grain on its forehead to cause a nodding gesture. Cf. W. Burkert, Greek Religion (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985), 55–7. See esp. Stanley Stowers, “On the Comparison of Blood in Greek and Israelite Ritual,” in Hesed Ve-Emet: Studies in Honor of Ernest S. Frerichs, ed. Jodi Magness and Seymour Gitin (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1998), 179–94. The daughter’s eagerness to approach her own death here is ironic, as in ritual sacrifice, since she does not yet know what her approach will cause to happen. Her subsequent voluntary acceptance of her fate, however, is clearly patterned on the willing acceptance of Jesus to face his crucifixion. Moreover, this sentiment is also shown in numerous late antique representations of Genesis 22, Jewish and Christian alike. 20 21

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Ņ ň ò łł ň ň Ņ Ņ Ō ł ł ł ŦŁĥĪ ĖįƞƌĪ IJĬŴƘĥ ŦŵŶŁ ŦŁǔƀƉŵŨĪ Ņ ł ŏ Ņ ł ł ŏ ťƍŨĿŴƟ Ņ Ņ ŏ ƋƟŅ Ņ :ŴƄíƆųƊƆ ljųƃ ƈũƟŴƆ ň Ō ł űƃł Ō Ņ ťƖƀŨǔŨ ň ł ƎƀƠƙƌĪ Ņ ô ŸſĪŵƉ ł ł ň ųƊƕ ĖŦĭĬ Ņ Ņ ň Ņ ň Ņ ŏ űſĽň ŁŁĥ ñ Ņ ƌł ƎƉň IJĬŌ ŧƢƉŴƃ :ųƤƙ ô ťŷŨĪĪ ŦƦíƇŬƕ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ƎƤƠƌ ň ł ò Ņ ň ųíƆ Ņ ò Ņ űƃł ł ñ ĖƎſųƀŬíƇƙŨ Ŧƻǔũƕ Ņ ň Ņ Ņ ŌŌ Ņ Ō ł ƨźƟ Ņ ô ťƙƀƙƏ ł ŏ Ŧƻűƀŷſ :ŁĭĬ ƈũƟŴƆ ň ň ĬűŬƌ ň Ņ ťſűƀŷſĪ ŅŅ Ō Ō ň ň ŦĭĬŁĪ ñ Ņ ł ĬĮĿŤŨ ĖųŷŨĪ ł ł ň ň Ņ ł Ņ ň Ņô łł ň :įƦƙƌň ƼŨ ƎƉ ťƀũū ŧĿűƌ ŦĭĬ ŀƢƘŁĥ ô Ņ ŏŅ Ņ ŏň ŏ ň ľŴƙƌĪ Ņ ŏ ň ŦŁŴƃĮ ĖĬƦíƇźƉĪ IJĬ ĺĭƢƙƌ Ņ Ō Ō Ņ Ņ ň ŏ ƼíƇƉ ł ł ň ł ł ŦƼƤ :ŧǔƘŴƣ ſĿ IJĬ ŁĭĬ ƦƇƟƦƣĥ ô ň Ņ Ņ ł ň ŏ ň ǂíƆĬĭ ł ł ň Ņ ŏ ƨƉ ĖťƍƣǓŴƘ ljųƃ ĭĬ űſĽ ľŴƘŁĪ Ņ ł ł ł ŅŅ Ņ Ņ ň ŏ ò ł ŁƢŨł ŦƼƙŷƊƆ ñ ŦĮĿĥ ŦĭĬ ųíƇū :ljŴźƀƟ ô ô ô ł ň ƦŶƢƘĪ ŏ ň ƦƠƙƌ Ņ Ō ł űſĽň ťŶĿĭĥ Ņ ŏ ĴŴũíƆŁĪ ł ň ĖťƍƀƄƏ Ņ Ņ Ō ł Ņ Ō ł Ņ ŏ ŏ :ŦŁǔƀƄƊƆ ŦƼƙŶŁ ƼƆł ŦŁĭƦƤƉň ĶŴƀŨ

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ON JEPHTHAH’S DAUGHTER and it was the banquet of the bride of blood, that she might uncover her face. A modest virgin went out before the ranks of the people, and before the congregation she took up her tambourine to sing praises. If the symbol had not enflamed her towards slaughter, it would have been hard for her to reveal her face to the eyes of many. Betrothed to sufferings, the banquet of her sacrifice arrived, and she was revealed so that the people would see how beautiful she was. She was the first one to be seen by her parents,22 and she was chosen to be the sacrifice in exchange for victory.

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8. JEPHTHAH’S REALIZATION The daughter of Jephthah came and her father saw the adorned maiden, and the priest was shaken by the greatness of the perfect sacrifice. The priest saw the offering and rent his garments, to show that it was greater than himself and he was not capable of it. The Father alone gave his Single One for the sake of redemption, but Jephthah could not do it without suffering. An image of blood the priest Jephthah saw in his daughter, and he was shaken so that he wept for terror of the crucifixion. Suffering blazed up before him from the offering, and pain stabbed him and he could not endure it. He saw her as a sacrifice pure and innocent, guileless and beloved,

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Judges 11 makes no mention of the daughter’s mother.

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ňł ň ň Ņ ł Ņ ł Ņ ñ ò ƨūŁĪ ťƉĪĪ ñ Ņ ŏ ł ĖųƀƘĥ ŦƦíƿĪ ŦĭĬô ųíƆŴƇŶĭ ŏ Ņ Ō Ņ ň ň ł ň ťƊƕĪ Ņ ł ŧǓűƏ ł ŏ Ŧǂƀƍƃ ƈũƟŴƆ ŦƦíƆĭƦŨ :ƦƠƙƌ ł ň ťŬíƇƘ ŏ Ņ ł ł ƦƇƠƣ Ņ ň ĶűƟĭ Ņ ł Ņ ł ťƤƍƃ ĖŴƀŬƐƊƆ Ņ ň Ņ ŏň Ņ ł Ƨ ŦĮĿĥ Ņ ô ĬƢŬƣ ł ŏ ŦĭĬ Ņ Ņ ô Ŵƭ ñ :ƨźƟ ƈũƟŴƆ ňò Ō ł Ō ñ ňò ł ň ň ñ Ņ Ņ Ōł ĖŦŤƀŬƏ ƎƀƖíƆ ųƀƘĥ ƨūŁĪ ųíƆ ŦĭĬ ƢƀƠſ ô Ņ ŏ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ō ňò ł ŦŁƢƀƄƉ ñ ŏ Ō ł ƧŴƇŶ :ĬŁŴŷƀŨĪĪ ŦĭĬô ťźƉ ťƤŶĪ Ņ Ō ł ťƊƃ Ņ ťƊƕ Ņ ł ųſŵŷƌ Ņ ô ƼíƇūŁĥĭ ł ł ň ñ ň ň ŁĭĬ ĖŧƢƀƙƣ ň ňò Ņ ł ň Ņ Ņ Ō Ņ ł IJĬĭ ł ł ŦƼƉűƟ ñ ƎƉ ŁĭĬô ƻŵŶŁĥ :Ņ ųſųŨĥ ň Ņ ťŷŨĪ ŏ Ņ ƚƇŶ ň Ō ł ł ň IJĬĭ Ņ ň ŦĭĬŁĪ ĖŦŁŴƃĮ ƼũūŁĥ Ņ łł ł łŏ Ņ ł ł ł ł Ņ ñ ñ ň įƦƙƌ ŁƢŨ :ŦŁƦŨƞƊƆ ĬŴŨĥ ĬŵŶĭ ô Ņ ŁŁĥô ł ň Ņ ŏ Ņ Ō ň ň ł Ņ ĖťƊíƇƣ ťŷŨĪĪ ĬŁŴŨĿ ƎƉ ljųƃ ƗſĮŁŁĥĭ Ō ł ťƍŨĿŴƟ Ņ ŏ ŦĭĬ ò ł ł IJĿĽĭ ł ŧƢƉŴƃ Ņ ô IJųſŵŶ Ņ Ņ ŏ ĭųíƆ Ņ :IJĬĭƦŷƌ Ņ ň ł ňł ł ň ň ĭĬô ŏ ħĿĪ ŦĭĬ Ņ ô ŦŴŷƌĪ ĖųƆň ơƙƏŅ Ƨĭ ųƍƉ Ņ ĬűƀŷƀƆ Ņ Ņ ŏ ƚƇŶ ň Ō Ō ħųſ ł ĪŴŷíƇŨ ŏ ł ĭĬô ťŨĥł ł :ťƍƟĿŴƘ ô ł ł Ņł Ņ ł ň Ņ ƧŅ ŧĪĬ Ņ ô űũƕ ň Ņ įƦƙƌ ĖŦĭĬ ťƤŶ ƧĪĭ ł ł Ņ ŏ ň ł Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ŏ :įƦƙƌ Ņ ŧƢƉŴƃ ĬŁƢũŨ ŦĭĬô ŦŵŶ ťƉĪĪ ŦŁĿĭĽ ň ł ƗſĮŌ ŁŁĥĭň ŏ Ō ł ŧĪĿŴƏ Ņ Ņ ŏ ƎƉň džƀƌ ĖŦŁŴũƀƆĽĪ ň ŏ ťƤŶ ł ł ň Ņ ô ŀƢũƌŁĥ Ņ Ņ ŏ ƎƉň ųƇŨŴƠíƆ Ņ ł ŦĭĬ :ťƍŨĿŴƟ ň ł ŏ Ņ ł ł ŦĭĬ ň ł ƧĭŅ ťŨŤƃ Ņ ô ƎƐƊŶ Ņ Ō ĬƢƟĪĭ ĖĭƢũƀƐƊƆ ň ł ťŷŨűíƆ Ō ł ŻƀƤƘĭ Ņ ô IJųſŵŶ Ņ Ō ł ťƙƣĪ Ō ł ƋƀƉŁ Ņ ň ŦĭĬ :ƋƀŶĿĭ

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ON JEPHTHAH’S DAUGHTER fair and comely, unsullied and precious, holy and honorable; a virgin excellent, humble and quiet, young and adorned, fair and pure, glorious and splendid, wondrous and perfect.23 In the presence of this sacrifice, the courageous Jephthah was greatly moved, but inside suffering stoned him with the sounds of weeping.

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9. JUSTICE SPEAKS Justice came, that she might claim the vow from the true one, reminding him of the contract concerning the sacrifice. And such things as these were spoken by Justice to the priest Jephthah, that he would not repudiate his vow with suffering. “At the time of crisis the Lord answered you just as you asked him, now at this time of sacrifice you must respond to him according to his will. Nature attacks you, O man, so that you will be pained, but sprinkle love of the Lord upon the suffering and behold! - it will be allayed. The battle outside was God’s, and this one (inside) is yours.

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In an extraordinary passage, Jacob constructs four lines of adjectives to describe the daughter as Jephthah sees her. The first two lines (“…pure and innocent, guileless and beloved,/ fair and comely, unsullied and precious, holy and honorable”) use Syriac terms often associated with biblical sacrifice. The second two lines (“a virgin and excellent, humble and quiet, young and adorned,/ fair and pure, glorious and splendid, wondrous and perfect”) use Syriac words that by Jacob’s time were effectively technical terms for ascetic virtues. Words out of both sets were often used in reference to Christian martyrdom, hence cementing the identification of martyrdom with sacrifice and with ascetic devotion, an important theme in early Christianity generally. 23

ˆÿòåƒ …šûÁ áîƒ

ň ł ł ł ŦŤƘ Ō ł ŦŤſň Ņ DžƞƉĭ Ō ł ƥſűƟ Ō ł ƢƀƠſĭ Ėƅƀƍƃĭ ň ł Ō ł ł ł ł ŏ ł ł ł ƨŹň ƨƣĭ :ƦŨƞƉĭ ƅƀƄƉ ĿƼƉĭ ĵĭƦŨ ł ł ł Ō ł ň ł Ƣƀƙƣ ň ł Ÿƀũƣĭ Ō ŦĬĮĭ Ō ł ťƃĪĭ ĖƈǀƉĭ ųƀƉŁ ł Ņ ň ŅŅ ł Ņ ô įŁĿ Ņ Ō ŦĭĬ ł ŏ :įƦƙƌł ťũƀũíƆ ťŷŨĪ ljĬ ƈũƟŴƆ Ņ ł ò ťƤŶ ň Ņ ô ƋūĿ Ņ ň ƁƇƠŨ Ņ ł ŴŬíƆ ň Ņ ťƀƄŨ ł ƎƉĭ ĖųƆň ŦĭĬ ň Ņ ŏ Ō Ņ Ņ ň ƗŨŁŁĪ Ņ Ō ł ƎƉň ŧĿűƌ ł :ŧƢſƢƣ ŦŁŴƌŤƃ ŁŁĥô ň ŏ ň ň Ņ ł ň ł Ņ Ņ ĖťŷŨĪ ŁĭĬĪ IJŴƌŁ ųƆ ŧĪųƖƉł űƃł Ņ ŏ Ō ƈźƉ ł łò Ņ ň Ņ ťƊƃĥĭ ň ƎƀƆĬĪ Ņ ł :ŦŁŴƌŤƃ ƎƉň IJĭĬ ķǔƉĥƦƉ ô Ņ ł ł Ņ Ņ ň ň ťƤŷŨ ň ň ƧĪ įƦƙƌ Ņ ô ŧƢƤƌ Ņ ł ŦĭĬ ĖĬĿűƌ ljųƄíƆ Ņ ň ł ł ŅŅ ł Ņ Ņ Ō Ņ ň :IJųſƦíƆŤƣĪ ķűƖŨ ł Ņ ƅſĥŅ Ŧųƭ ł ƅƍƕŌ ťƏĿŤƟ ň ň ň Ņ Ņň Ņ ķűƖŨ ĖųƍƀŨĽ ƅſĥ ťƣĬ Ʀƌĥô IJĬŴƀƍƕ ťŷŨĪ ň ň ł ťƍƀƃ Ņ ł ƅƊƕ ň Ņ ł ħƢƠƉ ŅŅ Ō ł ŦĭĬŁĪ :ƥƀƤŶ ŧƢũū łŌ ň Ņ Ņ ł ŏ ł ň Ņ Ņ ƦƊŶĿ ĖIJĬƦƣĥ ŦĬĭ ťƤŶ ƈƕł ĸĭĿ ťſƢƉ Ņ Ō ljĬĭ Ņ ô ŦųƭĪ Ņ Ņ ł ƢũíƆĪ ł ł ťŨƢƟ ŅŅ Ņ Ņ ŦĭĬ :ƅƇſĪ

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He conquered the hosts; now conquer the suffering and fulfill your vow. He broke the bow of the nations and delivered to you their swift men; (now) tread upon love for a child and bring to him the sacrifice he desires. He answered you in battle; give to him in peace what you owe, lest you become known as one of those who choose ingratitude. Behold, your vow was a choice one; offer it to him according to your promise, you have seen his will; do not delay with his offering.”

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10. JEPHTHAH’S INNER BATTLE Jepththah was strongly moved and wept piteously, for nature compelled him and he could not endure. Burning love was enflamed for the child; the pangs tormented him, so that the father wept because of his daughter. Nature came and stood by Jephthah like one demanding, so that he should return to it his weeping, like a debtor. The priest began to speak to the sacrificial victim, sounds of suffering which moved to compassion those who heard.24 “O my daughter,” he says, “today you have utterly destroyed me. And by your going out, oh! you have become my destroyer.25 I triumphed in war when I destroyed thousands, and now I am overcome, because I must kill you, and what have I gained from victory?

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Cf. Jer 49:35; Hos 1:5

Judg 11:35

Lit. “turned the bowels of those who heard.” Jacob’s poetry captures Jephthah’s overwhelming agony by interrupting the lines of his speech with frequent interjections—ho (oh! ah! behold! lo!)—as cries of torment that punctuate the words he can barely bring himself to say. 24 25

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Ņ ň ĺĭƢƘĭ ŏ ł Ʀƌĥł ťƤŷíƆ Ō ň ň ĭĬŏ ťƃĮŅ ĖĴĿűƌ ô Ņ ł ƁƃĮ ŧǓűƐíƆ Ņ ň ň ł ƢŨŁ ň ò ł ŦƦƤƠíƆ ŏ ł ò Ō ł ƅƆŅ ƋƇƣĥĭ ł ťƊƊƕĪ :ķĭųƀƇƀíƇƟ Ņ ł ŏ ŧűíƇſ ł ň Ņ ł ƦƊŶƢíƆ ň ł ťŷŨĪ Ņ ň ųƆň Ŧƻĥĭ ĖƋŶĿĪ ŀŴũƃ ł Ņł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ł ƅƍƕ Ņ :Ʀƌĥô ŪƀŶĪ ųƆň ħĬł ťŨŅ ƢƠŨ ň Ņ Ņ ŏ ťƉŏ Ņ ťƍƀƤŨ ł ł Ņ ł ĭĬł ƎƉň ųƉƦƣŁ ĖŦŁŴƉŴǑĪ ťũū ƧĪ Ņ ň ťũū ň ŦĬŅ Ņ ň ł ĴĿűƌ Ņ Ņ ŏ ƅſĥł ųƆň IJųƀŨƢƟ :ƅſĪĭŴƣ ň Ņ ł ňŅ ŏ ň ł ň Ņ ň ƻŵŶ ł ĖųƍŨĿŴƟ Ƨ ųƍƀŨĽ Ō Ņ ŏ ł ƎƉŅ ƢŶĭƦƣŁ ň ł Ņ ô ĮŵƕŁĥ łł :ƻŤƉŴƕĿ ťƄŨĭł įƦƙƌł ŅŦĭĬ ŏ Ņ ł Ɔł ŦĭĬ ł ň Ƨĭ ťƍƀƃ Ņ ô ŸƄƤƉ Ņ Ņ ĬƞƭĪ ň ł ĖĭƢũƀƐƊ ł ň Ō ťƊŶǓ ň ĭĭĬ ł ô ŴŨųíƆƦƣĥ ł ł ň ł ŏ ŧǔƀŬƣ Ņ ł ƈũƟŴƆ :ŧűíƇſ ň ł ŏ ł ŏ ň Ņł ň ł ňò ň ĖĬŁƢŨ ƈźƉ ťŨĥ džƀƌĪ ƨũŶ IJĬĭƦƟĮĭ ł ł ł Ņ ŅŅ Ņ Ņ Ņ ŏ Ņ ƅſĥł įƦƙƌ :ťƕŴŨŁ ťƍƀƃ ŦĭĬô ŦŁĥô ł ƈƕň ƋƟĭ ňł ł Ņ Ņ Ō Ņ ł ĖťũƀŶ ƅſĥ ųƇſĪ ťƀƄŨň ųƆň ťƍƙƌĪ ŏ Ņ ł ł ťŷŨĪ Ōł ł ŏ ljųƃ Ņ Ņ IJƢƣ Ņ ň ƈũƟŴƆ :ŴƇíƇƊƊƆ Ō Ņ ťƤŶ ň ł ƎƀƄƘĬĪ ŏ ł ò ŏ Ņ ťƊŶǓ Ņ ł ƁíƇƟ ò ł Ņ ĖķĭųƀƕŴƊƣĪ Ō ł ł ĭĥŅ Ņ Ņ ł ƁƍſƦƙŷƏ ł ň ƢƉĥł Ņ IJŁƢŨ ƚŷƐƉ :ƋƆł ťƍƉŴſ ň ł ł ł ł ò ŏ Ņ ƎƉň ƁƆŌ IJƻĭĬ ł ŦĬŅ IJƦƌĥô ł ƁƃƦƠƙƊŨĭ ĖƁƘŴŷƏ ňò ł Ņ Ņ ťƙƭ ň Ņ ťƃĿĬĭ ň ň ťŨƢƠŨ Ņ Ņ ł ƼƃĮŌ :ƦũŶ ƦŨƢŶĪ Ņ ň Ņ ň ň ťƍƉĭ ň Ņ Ņ ljŅ DŽźƟ ƁƄƆĪ ĖŦŁŴƃĮŏ Ņ ƎƉň ŁĿƻ ô

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ON JEPHTHAH’S DAUGHTER Beloved daughter, when I saw you your appearance destroyed me, and I do not know what to say from grief for you. O single one, you who alone were given to us, your going out this day—oh!—has deprived me of heirs. My daughter, you have caused me to suffer and — oh!—I am standing in grief, and arrows of love for you—oh!—are striking me from every side.” 11. JEPHTHAH’S INNER VICTORY Let no one think that because the wondrous Jephthah wept, his offering was at all diminished by the suffering which befell him. Look at his deed and do not be doubtful about his discernment, for he vowed and he killed, and although he suffered greatly he did not withhold his vow. Nature demanded and gave him weeping as one who loved, but he vowed to the Lord and offered up the sacrifice as one who was true. He repaid what belongs to parents when he wept for his daughter lovingly, and he fulfilled what belongs to priests when he completed his sacrifice honorably. He dismissed nature by the few tears which he shed forth, and he pleased the Lord with the excellent sacrifice of his daughter. For love of the Lord, he killed the virgin and fulfilled his vow, and for his beloved he wept in suffering as was fitting. To his daughter he showed that he loved her by the tears he poured forth, and to God he enacted his promise by the blood he shed. By weeping he showed that the love of a child was entwined within him,

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Ņ Ō Ņ ł ň Ō ł ň ł ł ŦƦƊƀŶĿ ň ŏ ƁƍƙŷƏ :ƁƃƻŵŶĪ ƎƉ ƁƄƇíƇŨŴƟ Ņ ň ŏ ł ň ł Ō ŦŁƢŨ ł ł Ņ Ņ ł Ėljĥô ĺűſ Ƨ ƁƃŁŴſƢƃ ƎƉ ƢƉĥ ƎƄſĥĭ Ņ Ņ ŌŌ ł ł ň Ŧƻűƀŷſ ň ŏ ł IJĬŌ ƎƆł ƦŨųſŁĥĪ ñ ųſĪŴŷíƇŨ : ň Ō Ō ł Ņ Ņ ł ň ł ĖŦŁĭǔſŏ Ņ ƎƉň ň Ɓƍſƻŵū ŦĬ ƎƉŴſŌ ƁƄƠƙƊŨ Ņ ł ł ŏ ł ł ƁƍſƦƤŶĥ ň IJŁƢŨ :ljĥŅ ô ĶŤƟŅ ŦĬŅ ŦŁŴſƢƄŨĭ ň ň ň ŏ ŧǓŤūĭ ò Ō ł ƈƃŏ ƎƉň ƁŨŌ ƎƀŷƊƉ ň ł ŦĬŅ ƁƄŨŴŶĪ ĖƎƀũū ł ŏ ň ň ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ƈźƉĪ Ņ Ō ťƄŨĪ :įƦƙƌł ŦųƀƉŁ ljƢƌ ƥƌĥô Ƨ Ņ ł Ņł Ņ Ņ ŏ ƈƕł ŏ ł ŧĿĽŴŨ ň Ņ ĖIJųƀźƉĪ ťƤŷŨ ųƍŨĿŴƟň ƈƕ Ņ ł ł Ƨĭ ĬűũƖŨ ň Ņ ŏ ƈƕł ŭƇƘŁŁ ň Ņ ł ĿŴŶŏ :Ņ ųƍƣĿŴƘ Ņ Ņ ł ň ł ƈźƟĭł Ƣƀūň Ŀűƌł Ņ ô ƥŶł ŪŹ űƃĭ ĖĬĿűƌň ƨƃ Ƨ ŦĭĬ ł ň ł Ņ Ō ł ƅſĥ ťƀƄŨ Ņ Ņ ųƖŨŁ Ņ ň ųƆň ħųſĭ ł ťƍƀƃ :ťũƀũŶ ô Ņ Ō ł ƅſĥł ťŷŨĪ ň ł ŦųíƆƧ Ņ Ņ ł Ŀűƌł Ņ ň ơƏĥĭ ĖŧƢſƢƣ ŌŅ Ō ł ň ł ňò Ņ ł ł Ņ ł ŦųŨĥĪ :ƻŤũƀũŶ ĬŁƢũíƆ ťƄŨĪ Ō Ņ Ō ł ň ň Ō ł Ņ Ņ ĺƢƘ Ō ł ĖƻĥƢƀƠſ ųŷŨĪ ƁƇƊƣĭ ljųƃĪ ƁƇƉĭ Ō ł ťƍƀƄƆ ň ò ň ƈƀƇƠŨ Ņ ň ň űƣĥĪ Ņ Ņ ł IJųſƢƣ ł ň ťƖƉĪ :ųƍƉ ł ł ł ň ł Ņ ň Ņ Ņ Ō ł Ņ ô ĿƼƉĪ ĖŦĭĬ ĬŁƢŨĪ ťŷŨűŨ ťſƢƊíƆ ƁƕĿĭ ŏ Ņ Ņ ł ň Ņ ł ň ň ƁƇƊƣĭ Ō ł ŦĭĬ Ņ ô ƈźƟ ŦƦíƆĭ ƦŨ ťſƢƉň ƦƊŶƢíƆ :ĬĿűƌ Ņ Ō Ņ ł Ņł Ņ Ņ Ō ł ł ĖŦƼƆĭ ƅſĥ ťƤŷŨ ŦĭĬô ťƄŨ ĬƦũƀũŷíƆĭ ň ł ł ł ťƖƉűŨ ň ò ň ųíƆ Ōł ň Ņ ĬŁƢũíƆ ñ Ņ ĭĬô ŏ ƋŶĿĪ :ƗƙƣĥĪ IJŴŶ Ņ ł ł Ŧųƭ Ņ ł ųſĪĭŴƣ Ņ űſĽĭ ň Ņ ŏ ƢƖƏ ň ł ň ťƉűŨ ĖűƣĥĪ Ņ Ō ł ťƀƄũŨ ł ň ųŨň IJĬô ƨſŵƕĪ Ō ł IJŴŶ Ņ ň Ņ ł ƦƊŶĿ :ŧűíƇſ

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and the love of his Lord dismissed the weeping by the slaying he did. He saw his daughter and wept and said, “You have destroyed me, I vowed a vow and I am not able to be unfaithful to it. When I made war, I vowed to sacrifice whoever met me, and now I have triumphed and I cannot retract anything I have said. The Lord chose you for himself and I cannot withhold you from him, The Lord set you apart for the sacrifice, and there is no way that I would not sacrifice. Behold, I took a pledge and my promise is to the Lord, your blood I owe, and not to repay it would be injustice. I did not promise concerning you when I took the vow, the Lord set you apart that you should be his sacrifice and what can I do? The altar has betrothed you to become a true lamb for your Lord, Come to the altar26 and complete the contract of your betrothal. To the Lord I vowed you, not yourself but whoever would chance to meet me, and because you were the first person, it was revealed that you are the sacrifice. You are my beloved, for you are my one and only daughter, but love of the Lord is even greater for me than love of you, and now what will happen? The covenant is true, the Lord is mighty and you are my beloved; between these I am constrained, and what will happen?

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Lit. “high place”, the altar upon which sacrifice was performed.

Judg 11:35

Judg 11:35

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ň Ņ Ņ ň Ņ ň ň Ņ ƦƊŶĿĭ ł ň ł ł ƨźƠŨ ĖűũƕĪ ťƀƄũíƆ ĬŁƢƣ ĬƢƉ ň Ō ł ł ł ň Ņ ł Ņ ô ŦŵŶ ł ŦĭĬ Ņ ƢƉĥĭŅ ťƄŨĭ ĬŁƢũíƆ :ƋƆł ƁƍſƦƙŷƏĪ ň Ņ ł ň Ƨ ųŨň ƈūĪĥĭ ň ł ň ŁĿűƌň ŧĿűƌň ĖljĥŅ ô ŸƄƤƉ ň ň ƁƆŌ ĺĿĥĪ ł Ņ ƈƃŏ ň ł űƃł įŴŨĪĥĪ ŏ ň ŁĿűƌ :ljĥŅ ô ħƢƠƉ Ņ ň Ņ Ƨ ƼƃĮĪ ň ň ĶűƊŨ Ō ł ťƣĬĭ Ņ Ņ ň ň ljĥŅ ô ƅƘĬ ĖŁƢƉĥĪ Ō ň Ņ ł ň Ņ ň ň ň ƁƄƀƿĥ Ņ ū ťſƢƉ Ņ Ņ :ųƍƉ Ō Ņ Ņ ljĥô ŏ ŸƄƤƉŏ ň ƧĭŅ łųƆ ƁƄũ ň ł ťŷŨűíƆ Ņ ň Ėƻĥ Ƨ ťƏĿŴƘ įŴŨĪĥ ƧĪĭ ƁƄƣƢƘ Ņ Ņ ł űſĽň ƁſĪĭŴƣ Ņ Ņ ň ŦĬŅ Ņ ŏ ƁƆŌ ƋƀƏŌ ťƍƄƤƉ :Ŧųƭ Ņ Ņ ŏ ŏŅ ŏ ň ƧĪĭł ljĥŅ ŪƀŶ ň Ņ ł ƁƄƉĪ ĖIJĬô ŦŁŴƉŴǑ ĺĭƢƘĥ ô ň Ņŏ ň ň ň űƃł ƁƃƦíƇźƉ Ō ô ŁĿűƌ Ō ł ň ƧŅ :ƻĭĬ ƻĪĭƦƣĥ ň ňŁĪ ƁƄƣƢƘ ň ň ťƍƉĭ Ņ Ņ ųŷŨĪ ň ł ťſƢƉ Ņ Ņ ň ň ƎſĭĬ Ėűũƕĥ ň Ņ ŏ Ņ ň ň ň Ņ ŦƦƣŴƟĪ ň ł ťŷŨűƉ Ņ ł :ƁƃƢƊíƆ ŧƢƉĥ ƎſĭĬŁĪ ƁƃƢƄƉ ň ŏ Ō ł łň Ņ Ņ ł IJŁŅ ŏ ł ŦƦíƇƖƆ ĖƁƃŁĭƢƀƄƉĪ IJŴƌŁ IJĿŴƊūĭ ň ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ł ƧĥŅ ň ƁƄƆň ŴƆł ƁƃŁĿűƌ :ƁŨŌ ƗŬƘűƆ ň Ņ ťſƢƊíƆ Ņ ł Ņ ł ł ň ł ł ł Ņ ñ ĭĬ IJƦƌĥĪ ųíƆ ƼíƇūŁĥ ŦƼƉűƟĪĭ ĖťŷŨĪ ô Ņ ł ł ł ł Ņ Ō Ō Ō ł Ō ł :ŦŁűŶŴƤƉ ĭ IJƦƌĥ ŦƻűƀŷſĪ ƁƆ IJƦũƀũŶ ô ň ł ł ƁƄƍƉ ň ƎƄſĥĭ ň ŏ ň ň ƁƆŌ ħĿł ťſƢƉĪ Ņ Ņ ųŨŴŶ ĖŦĭĬŁ ł Ō ł ťƊƀƟ Ō ł IJƦƌĥĭ ł ŵſŵƕ ŅŅ Ō ł ťſƢƉ Ņ Ņ ƢſƢƣ :IJƦƌĥô ƁũƀũŶ ô ň Ņ ƦƍƀŨĭ ł ł ƁƆŌ ƦŨĿĪĮĥ ň ň ƎƄſĥĭ ň ł ň ƎƀƆĬ Ņ ł ĖŦĭĬŁ

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ON JEPHTHAH’S DAUGHTER I will not break my promise, like a man who is (found) wanting, and the vow which I vowed I will not withhold from the Lord. My compassion cries out for love of you, because I should kill you,27 but not to do to you as I promised - this I cannot do. I will not turn back from the promise made before the Lord.”

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12. THE DAUGHTER RESPONDS The girl said, “Yes, my father, complete everything which you have promised, Fulfill your vow to the Lord without sadness. He granted you to conquer the Ammonites as you asked; give to him the sacrifice he chose for himself and do not grieve yourself. He gave me to you, and you should not be sad that he takes me back again, when you give to him, confess that [the gift] is from his own. I am your daughter: because of me you are a father. I will be a sacrifice and because of me you will be a priest. Until now you have only been named a father, from this time forth you will be shown to be father and priest. But if the Ammonites had defeated you in this battle, then the uncircumcised might be taking me off into captivity with them. Give thanks to the Lord who granted you to be among the victorious, and counted me among his whole-burnt sacrifices and offerings. Father of a virgin, as many people called you,

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27

Lit. “my bowels bellow because of love for you.”

Cf. Job 1:21

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ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ŏ Ņň Ņ Ō ł ƅſĥł ljĥŅ ƋǑ :ŧƢƀƐŶ Ƨ ƁſĪĭŴƣ ljĥ ô Ņł ň Ņ ňŅ Ņ ň ň Ņ ň Ņ ň Ņ ŏ ĖŦň ųƭň Ņ ƎƉ ljĥł ô ł ƨƃ Ƨ ň ŁĿűƌĪŅ ŧĿűƌĭ ň ŏ :ƁƄŨŴŶ ƈźƉ ƎƀƖū ƁƊŶǓ ƁƄƆ lj DŽ źƟĪ ô ł ň ƧŅ ƻĪĭƦƣĥĪ ň ň ƧĪŅ Ō ł ň ƅſĥł ƁƄƆň űũƕĥ ĖljĥŅ ô ŸƄƤƉ ň Ņ ƧĭŅ Ņ Ņ ĶűƟĪ Ņ Ņ ŏ ƎƉň ljĥŅ ô ƅƘĬ Ņ ł ťſĪĭŴƣ ĖťſƢƉ Ņ Ō Ņ Ņ Ō ł ň ƈƃŏ Ƣƣĥ ł ł ƁŨĥŅ ƎſĥŌ ŦƼǑ :ƻĪĭƦƣĥĪ Ņ ł Ņ ŏ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ň Ņ ŧƢƉĥ ň ƨƊƣĭ ĖŦŁŴſƢƃ ƧĪ Ŧųƭ űſĽ ĴĿűƌ Ņ ň ł ł ňŅò ŏ ł ň ň ƅƆŅ ħųſł ƅſĥ ťƀƌŴƊƖíƆ ťƃĮŁ :IJųſƦíƆŤƣĪ ň Ņ ň Ņ ł ł Ņ ň ň ôł ň Ņ ĖƅƆ ŧƢƃŁ ƅſĥ ťŷŨĪ ųƆ ħĬ ň Ƨĭŏ ųƆ Ņ ťũūĪ Ō Ō ň ł ł ĭĬŏ Ņ ł ƅƆŅ ƁƍŨųſ :ơƀƕŁŁ ħĭŁ ł ň ƧŅ ƁƆł ŪƐƌĪĭ ł ň Ō ƎƉň Ņ ųƆň ųƇſĪ ň Ņ ŧĪĭĥ ĖƦƌĥ ħųſ űƃ ƎſűƉ ô Ņ ł ł Ō Ņ ň ł ł Ņ Ō Ō ŦƦíƇƖŨĭ :ťŨĥŅ ƅſƻĥ ƁƇſĪ ŦŁƢŨ ƅƆ ƻĭĬ Ņ ŏ ŦĭĬŁ Ņ ŏ ň ħĭŁŏ ĭ ťŷŨĪ ň ň IJƦƇźƉ ň ň Ņ ň ŦĭĬĥ ĖŧƢƉŴƃ ł ô ųƉƦƤƉ ł ł ň ĪŴŷíƇŨ Ņł Ņ Ņ ťƉűƕ ŏ ł ťŨĥŅ ł ťƣųíƆ :ƻĭĬ ł ł ňł ň Ņ ŏ Ņ ł ł Ņ ň ĖƦƌĥô ŦŴŶƦƉ ťŨǃųíƆĭ ŏ ł ťƄƉ ŏ ł ŧƢƉŴƃĭ ŏň ò ł ŏ ł Ņ ň Ņ ťƣĭǁŁ ĭųŨ ťƀƌŴƊƕ ĴĭŤƃĮ Ŵƭ : ň Ō Ņ ķĭųƊƕ ŏ ł ƎſĪň Ƣũƃ ł ô ƎſƢŨĪ ł Ņ ň ƁƆŌ ĭĭĬ ĖƧǓŴƕŏ ťƀũƤŨ ň ň ƅƆŅ ħųſĪ Ņ ł ł ťſƢƊíƆ Ņ Ņ ŧĪĭĥ ň ò Ō ł ƎƉň ŦĭĬŁ :ťŷſƞƌ ô ňò ł ò ł ň ƁƆŌ ĻĥŅ ƁƍƍƉĭ ł Ņ ŏ ł ťƊíƇƣ Ņ ł ĖIJĬŴƍŨǓŴƠŨĭ IJĬŴŷŨűŨ ŏ Ņ ňò Ō ł ł Ņ ł ň Ņ ŦƦíƆĭƦŨĪł ĬŴŨĥ ñ ŏô :ŦŤƀŬƏ ƅſĥ ƅƆ ĭĭĬô ƎſƢƟ

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ON JEPHTHAH’S DAUGHTER and after a little while, [father] of a husband’s wife full of sorrows. But from now on [they will call you] father of one slain as a sacrifice,28 and a priest who offered the fruits of his own belly for a sacrifice. A priest who gave birth to the sacrifice and raised it lovingly, who did not borrow and sacrifice, but even slew his own child as a whole burnt offering. Who would grant you to become the father to an offering, or to bring your child lovingly as a vow to the Lord? You have been my father: become my priest; fulfill your vow. You gave birth to me; now offer me fittingly. From you I came, by you let me be offered to the One who receives all, and I will be a new sacrifice in the world, as a great parable.”

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13. THE DAUGHTER’S OFFERING Lovely it was that the offering should speak in response to the priest who would offer it, lest he shrink back. Beautiful it was for the sacrifice to speak in reply to the priest, to show him that without sorrow he should offer it. Beloved was the argument the mistress of sufferings sang to her father, while not fearing the knife to which she was betrothed. Marvelous [it is] to relate how the eloquent sacrifice stood, speaking wisely to the priest, her father. The ranks [of soldiers] marveled at her courage in the face of the knife,

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Lit. “a slain girl who became a sacrifice.”

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ł Ņ ňò Ō Ņ ł Ņ ł ł ł Ō ł ĿƦŨĭ ĖťŨŤƃ ťƀíƇƉĪ ŧƢũū ŁƦƌĥĪ ƈƀƇƟ ô Ņ Ō ł ŏ ł ł Ņ ň Ņ ł ŦƦíƇƀźƟĪ Ņ ň ŁĭĬĪ ñ ǃųíƆĭ ťƄƉ :ťŷŨĪ ĬŴŨ ň Ō ô ň ł Ņ ŏ Ņ ŏ ł ň Ņ Ņ ĖťƍŨĿŴƟ ƚƇŶŌ ųƏƢƃĪ ŧǓŤƘ ħƢƟĪ ŧƢƉŴƃĭ ň Ō ljųƃ Ō ł ťŷŨĪ Ņ Ō ł ƁŨĿĭ Ņ Ņ Ņ ň űƇſĪ Ņ ň ň Ņ Ņ ł :ƻŤũƀũŶ ł ł ĵŤƣ ƧĭŅ ň ł Ƨĥ ŸŨĪĭ ĖŦƦíƇƖƆł ƑƄƌł ň ĬűíƇſ ň ň ł ň ťƍŨĿŴƠíƆĪ Ņ Ņ ŏ ł ƅƆŅ ĵƦƌ :ťŨĥŅ Ō ŦĭĬŁ ƎƉ ł ň Ņ ň Ō Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ĖƻŤũƀũŶł ťſƢƊíƆ ŦƻŁł ŧĿűƌ ĴűíƇſĭ Ņ Ņ ň ƨƊƣĭ Ņ ŏ ƁƆŌ IJĭĬ Ō ťŨĥŅ ƁƆŌ ƻĭĬ ł ł ŧƢƉŴƃ :ĴĿűƌ Ņ ŌŅ Ō ł ň Ō Ʀƌĥł ł ň ł Ʀƌĥô ł ƁƌŁűƇſ ĖƻĥƢƀƙƣ ƁƍƀŨƢƟ ň Ņ ň ň Ņ ôň ł ł ŏ ł ł ň :ƈƃ ƈũƠƊƆ ħƢƟŁĥ ƅŨ ƅƍƉ Ņ ł Ņ ł ƦƠƙƌ ł Ņ ň ň Ņ Ņ ň Ņ ŦĭĬĥĭ ĖťŨĿ ƧƦƊíƆ ťƊíƇƖŨ ŦŁűŶ ťŷŨĪ ň ň ł ł ťƍŨĿŴƟ Ņ ô džƊƉĪ ł ųƆň ŦĭĬ Ņ ŦŤſŅ Ņ Ņ ŏ ĭųíƆ :ŦĭĬ ł ł ň Ņ ň ň ł ł Ņ Ņ ô ł ŏ ĖƗźƟƦƌ ƧĪ ųƆ ħƢƠƉĪ ljųƃ ƈũƟŴƆ Ō ł Ņ:ŧƢƉŴƃŏ ƈũƟŴƆ ł Ō ťŷŨűíƆ Ņ ô Ƣƀƙƣ ł ŏ ƢƉŤƌĪ Ņ ň ųƆň ŦĭĬ Ņ ň ł ł ųƆň ťſƢƃ ňł ł Ņ ł ƧĪ ųƆň ŦŴŷƌĪ ĖųƆň ħƢƠƉĪ ł ł ň Ņ ł Ņ ňò ł ŁƢƉ ł Ņ ĬŴŨƧ Ō ñ ŏ ŁƢƉĮĪ ñ :ťƤŶ ųŨƢƣ ŦĭĬ ô ƋƀŶĿ Ņ Ņ ł ł ň ťƍƀƄƏ Ņ Ō ł ƎƉň ƨŶĪŅ Ƨ űƃł ñ Ņ ŁƢƄƉŁĥĪ Ņ ĖųíƆ ň Ņ ň Ō ťŷŨĪ Ņ ô ĶŤƟŅ űƃł ƢƉŤƊíƆ ł Ō ŧĿĬŁ Ņ ň ŦĭĬ :ƨƀƇƉ ŌŅ Ņ ł ň ł ł ŏ ł ljųƄíƆ Ņ ô džƊƉĭ Ņ Ņ ŦĭĬ ĖƻŤƍƊƖŹ IJĬŴŨĥ Ņ ň ň ł ł ĬŁŴũƀũíƇŨ ł Ņ Ō ł ƈƕĪ ñ ŏ Ō ł ŧǓűƏ :ťƍƀƄƏ ĭĭĬô ĭųƉŁ

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ON JEPHTHAH’S DAUGHTER and also at Jephthah, at what vow he had set apart for God. For she was speaking without begging to be delivered, “But do as you promised to God. Only grant me two months that I may go and weep, I and my companions in the mountains, and then I will be sacrificed. Let me make mourning with the maidens as I have asked you, and then I will kneel beneath the knife according to your promise. I was your heir and although I have not inherited I am not grieved, Let me weep so that there may be weeping in exchange for inheritance.

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Judg 11:37

14. DEATH TREMBLES AT HER COURAGE The virgin saw the road of slaughter and quaked, but although she shook she asked only to weep. Fearful was Death, not (yet) killed by the hands of our Lord,29 and so the girl came to his place, afraid of the knife. The accursed snake was not (yet) bruised by the crucifixion, and so the child upon whom he breathed shrank back. The depth of Sheol was not (yet) reconciled by the robber,30 and so when the road there fell to her, she shook greatly. The cross had not (yet) crushed the despoiling viper, and (so) terror entered the girl and she asked to weep. Again the fearsome Lion (= Christ) had not (yet) trampled on the thicket of Sheol, but because he roared (only) a little, the daughter of the Hebrews shook and fell.

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Lines 330–42 are obscure. We follow the suggestions of Sebastian P. Brock, with appreciation for his help. 30 i.e., the Good Thief; cf. Luke 23:42–3. 29

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ł ł Ņ ň ťƍſĥĪ ł ŧĿűƌ ň ĻĥŅ Ņ Ņ ł ŀƢƘ Ņ ł įƦƙƍŨ ĖŦųíƆƧ ųŨ Ņ ł Ņ ô ƨíƇƊƉ Ņ Ō ƧŅ űƃł Ƣƀūň ŁĭĬ ŏ Ņ ł ň ťƐƀƙƉ :ŴſƞƘƦƊíƆ ň ƧĥŅ ň Ņ Ņ ł űſĽň ƻĪĭƦƣĥĪ Ō ł ň ƅſĥł ƋƆł űũƕ ĖŦųƭ ň łŌ ŏ ł Ō ň ǃ ł ƎƀŶǔſ Ō ł ƋƆł ƎſĿŁň Įĥ ĪŴŷíƇŨ ƁƆ ħĬ :ťƄŨ ŏ ň Ņ ł ljĥŅ ň ň ŧǓŴŹ Ņ ł IJŁǔũŶĭ Ņ ł ň Ǝƃĭ ĖƁƍŷŨĪƦƉ ƦƍƀŨ Ņ ň ł ł Ņ Ņò ł ł Ņ ň ň ň :ĴƦíƆŤƣĪ ŦƦƊƀíƇƖŨ ƨŨĥ űũƕĥ ł Ņ ƅſĥ ň Ō Ņ Ņ Ǝƃĭ ł ŏ Ņ Ņ ň ljĥŅ ô ťƃƢŨ ĖƅſĪĭŴƣ ƅſĥ ťƍƀƄƏ ƼŶŁ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ Ō ô ĴŁŁĭƢſŏ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ƨ ŁŁƢſň ƧĪĭł ƻĭĬ ŅŅ :ljĥô ŏ ťƠƖƉ Ņ ťƀƄŨ ň ň ƁƆŌ ħĬł ň ň ťƄŨĥ Ņ ň ŦĭųƌĪ ĖljŁĿŴſ ƚƇŶ ŅŅ ł Ņ ň Ņ ŏ Ņ ŏ ñ Ņ ň ŁŁĿĭň ň ƨźƟĪ ñ :ųƍƉ ťŶĿĭƧ ŦƦíƆĭƦŨ ĬŁŵŶ Ņň ŏ ł Ņ Ņ ł ň Ņ ł ň ĖťƄŨŁĪ Ƨĥ ĪŴŷíƇŨ ƦƖŨ Ƨ ŁŁĿ ŪŹ űƃĭ Ō Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ł ł ň Ņ Ō Ņ ò Ō :ķƢƉ IJűſŤŨ Ǝƃ ŦĭĬô ƈƀźƟ ƧĪ ŦŁŴƉ ŦĭĬôł ƈƀŶĪ Ō Ņ Ņ ň ł ň ŦƼǑ ĬĿŁƧ ƦźƉĭł Ņ Ō ł ƎƉň ƦƇŶĪĭ Ņ ĖťƍƀƄƏ Ņ Ō ƧŅ ŏ Ō ł ťźƀƆŌ ťƏƢū Ņ ô ƗƀƖƘ Ņ Ņ ħĭŁŏ ŦĭĬ :ŦŁŴũƀƆƞŨ Ņ ł ł ł ŦŁƢũƣ ň ň ŁĮŴƃ Ņ ô ŸƙƌĪ ł ł ň ķŴūŏ űŨĭ ñ Ņ ŦĭĬ ųƍƉ ĖųŨ ňò Ņ ł ň Ņ ô ƎƀƤƉ ŏ ł ųŨĿŤƌ ł ł ƧŅ ñ Ņ Ō ŦĭĬ :ťƐƀū ƎƉ ĵŴƀƣĪ ł ň űƃĭ ł Ņ ł ťŶĿĭĥ Ō ł ƎƉƦíƆ Ņ ŏ ųíƆ ñ Ņ ƦƇƙƌ ĖƦƕĮł Ņ ƁŬƏ ň Ņ Ō Ņ ł ň Ņ ô ĬĽĿ Ņ Ō ŦĭĬ Ņ ł ƧŅ ñ ƑƙƏƧ ťũƀƆĽ :ŦƼƍíƇũŷƉ Ņ Ō ł ň ŅŅ ŏ ł ň ŦƼǑĪ ň ň ƦƆŤƣĭ ł ñ ĖťƄŨŁ ųƀƇƕ ŧĪĿŴƏ ƈƕĭ Ņ ŏ ł Ņ ô ŀĪŅ ƧŅ ŏ ł ųũƖŨ Ņ ħĭŁ ŦĭĬ Ō ťſĿĥ ñ Ņ Ņ ƨƀŶĪ :ĵŴƀƣĪ Ō ł ň ł ł ň łŅ ň Ņ ň ŁƢŨ Ėťſǔũƕ ô ƦƇƙƌ ƦƕĮ ƈƀƇƟ ĶųƌĪĭł

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ON JEPHTHAH’S DAUGHTER The walls of Sheol, the fortress of the dead, were not (yet) uprooted, and (so) when the young maiden was summoned to enter, she asked to weep. Although Death was (still) alive, and his place was cruel and fearsome, yet she did not refuse but asked to weep from suffering. Her father demanded slaughter and blood and sacrifice, but she asked him to go and weep for her virginity. 15. JEPHTHAH’S TEST RENEWED The priest consented to be patient about the offering, since also in this matter his discernment was great. By this, that he delayed, he showed the flame of his fervor, for during sixty days the fervor of his faith did not abate. The man was ardently enflamed with love for the Lord, and the length of his suffering did not cool his flame. But if he had killed her on the day he entered from battle, his vow would have been merely ordinary compared to when he delayed. And if he had not wept and rent his garments as you have heard, then maybe he did not love his daughter. One might say that if he had hastened to the deed, it was because the eagerness for leadership seized him and he fulfilled his vow. And since he was puffed up by the victory which had come with him, he sacrificed the child and it did not grieve him when he killed her. [Or,] because he was intoxicated with the blood of the slaughter of the Ammonites, he had cast down her corpse by his own fervor when he entered in.

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ň ò Ō Ņ ň ň ŏ ł Ō Ō ƧŅ ŏ ł ųſǓŴƣ ñ ťƍƐŶ ĵŴƀƣĪ ĭĭĬ ƎſƢƀƠƕ :ŦƼƉĪ ô Ņ ł ł ň ťƀƄŨ ŏ ň ŦƦƊƀƇƕ ł ł ł ň űƃĭ Ņ ň ĵŴƕŁĪ ĖƦƆŤƣ ƻƢƟŁĥ ł Ņ ł Ņ ł Ņ ł Ō ł ŦŁŴƉ Ō ł ƢſƢƉĭ :ĬĿŁňDŽƀŶĪĭ ŦĭĬô Ņ ň ƁŶ ŪŹ űƃĭ ň ł ł ň ƧŅ ň Ņ ň Ņ ĖťƤŶł Ņ ƎƉ ƦƖŨ ťƄŨŁĪŅ Ƨĥ ƦƆĥƦƣĥ Ņ ł Ņ ł ƨźƟň ĬŴŨĥ ŏ ł ųƖŨŁ ŏ Ō ł ťƉĪĭ ñ ñ ŦŁŴŷƀŨĪĭ : Ņ ň ň ł ŏ ł ň ł ł Ō IJĬŌ ĬƦíƆŤƣĪ ñ ŏ ĖĬŁŴƆĭƦũƆ ťƄŨŁ ĵĮĥŁĪ Ō ň Ņ Ņ ŏ ƈƕł ųŶĭĿ Ņ Ņ ƑƀƙŹŁĥ ň ŏ ƢŬƌĪ ł ł ljųƃ :ťƍŨĿŴƟ Ņ Ō ł ħĭŁŏ ųƍƣĿŴƘ ň Ņ ŏ Ō ŧĪųŨ ň Ņ ųŨ ñ Ņ ĻĥĪŅ ĖŧƢſƻ ň ŏ Ņ ł ƁŬƏ Ō ł ł ł ŧĪųŨ ňŅ Ņ ň IJŴŶ ĬŁŴƍƊſĬĪ ťŶŁĿ : ň ŏ Ō ł Ņ ň Ņ Ņ Ō ƢūĥĪ Ō ň ĖĬŁŴƊƀƊŶĪ ŭƘ Ƨ ƎƀƉŴſò ł ƎſƦƤŨĪ Ō Ņ ŏ Ņ Ņ ťƠíƆĪ Ņ ł ŦĭĬ ł ň ŧƢũū Ņ ô ƢƀŬƣ Ō :ƻĥĪŴƠſ ťſƢƉŅ ƦƊŶƢŨ Ņ ł ň Ō ň ł ň ł Ņ ô ƢƟĥ Ƨ ťƤŶĪ Ņ ł ĬƢūŴƌĭŏ ĖĬƼŨųíƇƤíƆ ŦĭĬ ł ŏ ŏň ł ťƉŴƀŨ Ņ ô ƈƕĪ Ņ ł ųíƇźƟ Ņ ñ Ņ ł Ŵƭ ƎƉň ŦĭĬ :ťƣĭǁŁ Ō ł ň ň Ņ ň ŏ ƢūĥĪ ł ł IJĬŅ ƎƉň Ƣſƻ Ō ĖųŶĭĿ ŏ ł ł ł ò ł ł Ō łĬĿűƌŅ ŦĭĬô Ņ Ƌƀŷƣ ŏ ň :ķĭƦƖƊƣĪ ƅſĥ ň IJĬĭƦŷƌŅ IJĿĽĭ ťƄŨ Ƨ Ŵƭĭŏ Ņ ô ŪŷƉ Ņ ô ťƀƉĪ ł ƨƘĥĪŅ ŁĭĬ Ņ Ņ ħĭŁ ň ł ĬŁƢũíƆ ñ Ņ ŦĭĬ ĖųíƆ ł ŏ ň ň Ŵƭ ƢƉŤƊíƆ ň Ņ ŏ ƈƕł ħĬĿĥ ł Ō ŦĭĬ Ņ ô ƻĥŌ :ųƌƢƕŴƏ Ņ ŏŅ Ō ň ł Ņ Ō ň ň ƁƇƊƣĭ Ō ł ŦŁŴƍƤſĿĪ ĖĬĿűƌ ťƘŤŶĪ Ņ ŏ Ņ ň Ņ ųƇƠƣ Ō ł ň ł ł ň ł :ųƊƕň ƦƇƕĪ ŦŁŴƃĮ ƎƉ ŦĭĬ ô Ņ ŸƀƙƌĪ ƈƕĭ Ņ Ō ł ŸŨĪ ł ł ň Ƨĭ ŦƼƇźƆ ĖųñíƆŅ ƈźƟŅ űƃł ųƆň Ņ ƻƢƃ ň ł ƈƕł Ņ ł ŦĭĬ Ņ ô ŦĭĿĪ ň Ņ ò ŏ ł ƨźƟĪň ťƉűŨ :ťƀƌŴƊƕĪ ňŅ ł ň ł Ņ Ō Ņ ł Ō ł Ņ ô ĵŤƕ ĖŦĭĬ űƃ ųƤƙƌĪ ťƘŤŷŨ ŧűíƇƣ ƁƉĿĥ

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ON JEPHTHAH’S DAUGHTER [Or,] he had acquired a taste for blood and destroyed the thousands and became chief, and because of this he killed his daughter and it did not grieve him. [Or,] because he was puffed up with the reputation he took among the ranks, he had met his daughter and in his pride made her into a sacrifice. But there is no reason to say these things about the true man, rather, in all things his truthfulness was seen. Weeping for his daughter he proclaimed the love of fatherhood, he rent his garments and gave to nature what belonged to it. She asked that she might weep and as a good man he granted as much as she asked, he waited the days and showed that the delay did not weary his fervor. 16. THE DAUGHTER’S LAMENTATION The event of that [internal] battle passed away but mourning endured, and although he was prostrate with mourning each day, his love did not abate. He descended from the height of victory to the suffering which befell him, yet the fervor of the love was not cooled, for it was enflamed. He allowed the girl to go and weep as she had asked him, while he continued on his own accord and was not changed from his promise. She summoned to herself the virgin daughters of the Hebrews, and went out weeping for her virginity among the mountains. The brood of doves went out to moan piteously, for the beloved nestling of Jephthah who would be slain.

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ňò ł ň ł ťƉűŨ ň ł Ņ ł ťƙƭ Ņ ł ƋƖŹĥ Ņ Ō ŦĭĬĭ :ťƤſĿ ħƢŶĥĭ ň ł Ņ ŏ ň ł Ņ Ņ ƈźƉĭ ł ň ƧĭŅ ĬŁƢŨ ĖųƆň ƻƢƃ ŦĭĬô ƈźƟ ljĬ Ō ł ł ň ł ł ťƊƤŨ Ņ ł ŦĭĬ Ņ ô ƢſƦŶĪ Ņ ł ƈƠƣĪ :ŧǓűƏň ƦƍƀŨ ƈƕ ň ň Ō ŏ ł Ņ ł ł ň Ņ ł Ņ ĬŁĭƢſƦŷŨĭ ĬŁƢũŨ ŦĭĬô ƗŬƘ ñ ĖĬűũƕ ťŷŨĪ Ņ ň Ō Ņ ň Ņ ƢƉŤƌ Ō ł ƈƕł ƎƀƆĬ Ņ:ŧƢſƢƣ ł Ō ŦƦíƇƕ ƧŅ ň ň ŏ Ōł Ņ ň ň ƻĥ ŏ ł ł ŁĭĬô ƻŵŶŁĥň ƎſųíǀŨ Ƨĥ ň ĖĬŁĭƢſƢƣ ň ł ĬŁƢŨł ƈƕł ťƄŨ Ņ ň ŏ Ņ ł :ĬŁĭųŨĥĪ ťƊŶǓł ĮƢƃĥĭ ł ň Ō ťƉŅ ťƍƀƄƆ ò ł ľűƏĭ Ņ ô ųƇſĪĪ Ņ Ņ ł ħųſĭ ł IJĬĭƦŷƌ ň ł ĖŦĭĬ ô ň Ņ ň ň ň Ņ ł ťƊƃĥ Ņ ł ťũŹ Ņ ƅſĥł ħųſĭ ł ťƄŨŁĪ :ƦƖŨĪ ĬƦíƆŤƣ ô Ņ Ņ òł Ņ ň ŦųƤƉ Ņ ŏ IJŴŶĭ ň ł ƧŅ ŧƢūŴƌĪ Ō ł ŦƦƉŴſ ĖųƆ Ņ ň Ņ ŏ ł ł ň ł Ņ ł ƥƘ ł Ņ ťƣĭǁŁ ĭĬĪ ųŨƢƣ Ņ ŦĭĬô ƢũƕŅ :ƋƀƟ Ņ ň ƨŨĥĭ Ņ ł Ņ ô ƎƀŬƕ Ō ƨŨŤŨň ŪŹ űƃĭ ŏ ĖŭƘ Ƨ ųŨŴŶ ĶŴſŏ ƈƃŏ ŦĭĬ Ņ ŏŅ Ņ Ņ ł ň ň Ņ Ņ ł ŦŁŴƃĮ :IJųƀźƉĪł ťƤŷŨ ň Ņ ťƉĭĿň ŏ ƎƉ Ʀŷƌ ł IJĬĪ Ō Ņ ł ł ł Ņ ň Ƨ ųŨŴŶĪ ťŶŁĿĭ ĖŦĭĬ ħųíƇƤƉĪ IJĬƦƣĥ ô ň ň Ō Ō ň ł Ņ ň ĵĮĥŁĪ Ņ ł ł ųƠũƣ ñ :ĬƦíƆŤƣĪł ƅſĥ ŦƼǑ ťƄŨŁ ň Ō IJŴƟĭ ł ł ň ƧĭŅ ųƇſűŨ Ōł ň Ņ ŏ ƎƉň ƚƇŶƦƣĥ ĖųſĪĭŴƣ ŏ Ņ Ņ Ņ ò ł ųíƆ ò ŦƦíƆĭƦũƆ Ņ ô ƦƍƉĮ ł ł ň Ņ ň ƦƍŨ ñ Ņ ŁĭĬ :ťſǔũƕ ŏ Ņ ŏ ł Ņ Ņ ł ň ň Ņ ł ĬŁŴƆĭƦũƆ ñ ŏ ĖŧǓŴŹ ƦƍƀŨ ƦƠƙƌĭ Ō Ņ ŏ ł Ņ ò ł ł ťƀƄŨ ł Ņł ò ł ťƘĿ ň :ƻŤƉŴƕĿ ƎƉųƍƌĪ ơƙƌ ljŴſĪ ł ł Ņ Ō ň ŏ ł ƈƕł Ņ ô ťƐƄƌƦƉĪ Ņ ł ň įƦƙƌĪ ĖŁĭĬ ŦƦƊƀŶĿ ĬƦūĭƢƘ

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ON JEPHTHAH’S DAUGHTER Tearful songs they sang there with great sorrow, which befit the mourning of the only child who would be slain. The beautiful partridges cried out with their harps, for the sundering of the tender girl from among them. The way of the world was bewailed by the young girls, but that mourning did not touch the sacrifice of Jephthah. “I will go and weep for my virginity,” she said to her father; the mourning was because of marriage, and not because of sacrifice. [The mourning was] for that which was cut off, the beloved way of partnership, and infants who would not go forth into the world from a marriage. [The mourning was] for the sake of the fruitfulness which comes customarily in the way of all the earth, which the sentence (brought about by the vow) had cut off from taking place. [The mourning was] for the sake of the infants she conceived in her thoughts, but the sword came and did not allow her to give birth to them. [It was] for the sake of marriage which she imagined with dreams and visions, but she was summoned to the knife and marriage stayed behind. [It was] for the sake of children held dear in her mind, but the sword came and took their mother in her virginity. Indeed, she made mourning for her children who did not exist, since she was not united in marriage to bear them as in her thoughts. Many times she even imagined them with names, and although she had agreed to become a sacrifice, yet she wept for them. The abode of the world, left wretched, was bewailed,

Judg 11:37

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łò Ņ ł IJĭĬ Ņ ł ťƤŷŨ Ņ ň ƁíƇƟ Ņ ł ťƀƄŨ ò ł Ņ ƎƉŁ :ťŨĿ ƢƉĮł ô ň Ņ Ņ Ō Ō Ņ Ņ ô ťƐƄƌƦƉĪ Ņ ł ň ŦƻűƀŷſĪ Ō Ņ ñ ň ƎƀŷƤŶĪ ĖŁĭĬ ųíƇŨƧ Ņ ň ł Ō ł Ņ ň ň Ņ ŦŁǔƀƙƣł ƨŬŶ ò ł džſĥ :ƎſųſǔƍƄŨ Ņ ł ł ł ŅŅ ŏ ň ł ň ƎƉĪ ň ŦŁĿƦŷƉĪ ñ ĖƎſųſĪĥĽ ƈƕł ŏ Ņ Ņ ł ň Ņ Ņ ł ň ųƍƣĿŴƘ Ņ Ņ ųŶĿĭĥ ň :ŦŁǔũƣ ƎƉ Ņ ŁĭĬô ťƀƄŨƦƉ ťƊíƇƕĪ Ņ ň ł Ņ ô ƚƤū ň Ņ Ƨ įƦƙƌĪł ųŷŨűŨ ň ň ƨŨĥ ĭĬŏ űƃł ĖŦĭĬ ň ł ň Ō ŏ ŏ ł ł ųƀƄŨ ñ ŏ ŁƢƉĥ ñ ŅŌ ǃĮĥł ƅƆł IJŁŴƆĭƦũƆ :ĬŴŨƧ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ŏ ƈƕł Ņ ň ƈƕł ŴƆł ƨŨĥň ŦĭĬ ĖťŷŨĪ Ņ ŏ Ņ ł Ņ Ō Ņ ô ŏ űũƕ ł ťūĭĭĮ ł ň ƈƕł :ŦŁŴƘŁŴƣĪ ŦƦƊƀŶĿ ťŶĿĭĥň ƦƠƐƘŁĥĪ ò ŏ ĭĭĬ Ō Ņ ƧĭŅ ł ô ƎƀƠƙƌ Ņ Ņ ƧŴƕ Ņ Ņ ŏ ƎƉň ťƊíƇƖíƆ ĖťūĭĭĮ ň Ņ ŅŅ Ņ ł ųíƿĪ Ņ ŏ ŦŁĥĪ ñ Ņ ŏ ťŶĿĭŤŨ :ťƕĿĥ ťſƢƘ ĭĬł ƈƕł ň ň ťƍſĪ ň ł ł ƎƉň ųƠƐƘ ň ł ĬĿűƍŨ Ņ Ō Ņ ł ĖƅƆųƌĪ ňŏ ł ň ň Ņ ò ŏ ł ň ò ŏ ł ĿŵūĪł ñ :ķŴƌĥ ƈƕ Ņ ŧĪŴíƇſ Ō Ņ ųƀũƣŴŷŨĪ Ņ ň ł ƦƍźŨ Ņ Ņ ŏ ł ł ñ ň Ƨĭ ťƙƀƏ ŦŁĥĭň ĖķŴƌĥ űƆĥŁĪ ŦĭĬô ųƠũƣ ňò ň ň Ņ ò ň ĭł ťƊíƇŷŨ Ņ Ņ ŏ ƈƕł :ljĭŵŷŨ ĬŁĿĽĪŅ ťūĭĭĮ Ņ ťƍƀƄƏ Ņ Ō ł űſĽň ųíƆ ł ł ň Ņ Ņ ŏ ƥƘĭ ñ Ņ ƻƢƟŁĥĭ ĖťūĭĭĮ ł ł ô ƎƀũũŶƦƉ Ō ł ň ťƀƍŨĪ Ņ ò ł ƈƕł ñ Ņ Ņ ň ƎƉň ĭĭĬ ň Ņ :ųƍƀƕĿ ŏ Ņ ł Ņ ł Ņ ň ŏ ĬƦíƇƠƣ ñ ŏ Ņ ł ķĭųƉƧ ñ ĖĬŁŴƆĭƦũŨ ťŨƢŶ ŁŁĥĭ ň ŏň ň ň ł ł ò ł ň ł ñ ł ƦƉŤƃ :Łűũƕ ƨŨĥ ķŴƌĥ ƼƆ űƃ ųƀƍũƆ ł ň ň ł ł ł ň ƧĪŅ ñ ň Ņ ò ŏ ƅſĥ ķŴƌĥŏ ŧƢƘŁ ĖųƀũƣŴŶ ƦūĭĪĮĥ ň ł ł ňò Ņ ł Ņ Ō ò ł ň Ņ :ň ķŴƌĥŏ ŁĿƞƌ ŦųƊƤŨň Ļĥ ƎƀƍŨĮ Ƣƀū ťƊƃ ł ň ł ň űƃĭ ŏ ł ł Ņ ñ Ņ ƦƊíƇƣ ĖķŴƌĥ ƼƄŨ ťŷŨĪň ŦĭĬŁĪ ųíƆ Ņ ŦĭĬ ň ŏ ň ł ň ťƊíƇƕĪ ł ł űƃł ƥƘĪ Ņ ô ťƄŨƦƉ Ņ Ņ ĬƢƉŴƕ :IJĭűƉ

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ON JEPHTHAH’S DAUGHTER but the vow was in no way diminished from its promise. 17. THE LAMENTATION COMPLETED [She mourned] for the expectations of youth which were set out for her, but slaughter came to loose the contract that had been made. [She mourned] for the family line which ceased and did not go forward, since the road of families was blocked so that she could not walk in it. For sixty days that mourning prevailed there, and when it was finished she set her face toward the knife. And she wept for the world which deceives by its history the one who loves it, but she returned and went to become a sacrifice as she had been vowed. She mourned, with suffering, marriage and companionship, but to the knife she returned, to the pyre, as she had been summoned. She rejected the covenant between wives and their husbands, whose appearances fade with the change of the seasons. She said ‘woe to the world’ with her weeping, both she and her companions, for although greatly loved, it cannot be possessed by its darlings. She completed the road of mourning with great suffering, and the day came for her to go to the slaughter which gazed upon her. 18. THE POET’S TASK The story of Jephthah draws me to proceed with it; accompany me, with voices of suffering, that we may journey with him.

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Ņ ň ł ł ň ƧŅ ťſĪĭŴƣ Ņ Ņ ŏ ƎƉň ĶűƉ ň ň ŧĿűƌĭ ĖĿƞŨŁĥ ŏ Ņ ň ł ŦŁŴƊƀƇƕĪ ň Ņ ò ƈƕł ŏ ł ł ťũſŴŹ ł ô ƎƀƉĿĪ ñ Ņ ĭĭĬ :ųíƆ Ņ ň Ņ ň ň ň ƨźƟ Ņ ô ŧűƀũƕĪ ł ň ŧƢƤƌĪ Ņ Ō ł IJŴƌŁ ĖŁĭĬ Ņ Ņ ŏ Ņ Ņ ŏ ŦŁĥĭł Ņ Ņ ò ň Ņ ň ƈƕ :ŦĭĬô ŧĪĿ ƧĭŅ ŦĭĬô ƥƘĪ ťƉĬŴŹĪ ŏ Ņ ƨŨŴſ ň ł ň ò ň ł Ņ ł ň Ņ ñ ƅƆĬŁ ƧĪ ťƐƍūĪ Ņ ťŶĿĭĥ ŁĭĬô ƼíƿŁĥĭ ĖųŨ Ō ň Ō ò ł ƎſƦƣĥ Ņ ł ŦĭĬ Ņ ô ƎƤƕ Ņ Ņ ƎƀƉŴſ ň ƨŨĥň ljĬ :ƎƉŁ ňł ł Ņ ł ł ň ł Ņ Ō ł űſĽň ųƀƘĥ ñ ò ƦƊƏ ĖťƍƀƄƏ ƋƆƦƣĥ űƃĭ Ņ ň ł ň Ņ ň ł Ņ ł ťƖźƉĪ ťƊíƇƕŅ ƈƕł ǂŨ ň :ųƆ ƋŶĿűƆ ųŨƢƤŨ ň ň Ō ł ł ň ƅſĥł ťŷŨĪ ł ň ň ŦŁĥŁ ǂƘĬĭ Ņ ň ŦĭĬŁ ĖŁĿűƌŁĥĪ Ņ ŏŅ ł Ņ Ņ ł ĬƦƭ ñ Ņ Ņ ň ł ŦŁŴƘŁŴƤíƆ ñ ł :ųƍƀƍƖíƆĭ ťƤŷŨ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ťƍƀƄƏ Ņ Ō ł űſĽĭ ł ł ň ƅſĥł ŦƦíƇƖƆ ň ĖƻƢƟŁĥĪ ƦƍƘ Ņ Ņ ŅòŌ ł ł ň ň ł ł ł ŦƦíƇƀƖŨĪ ñ ł :ƎſųſǔũūĪĭ IJŴƌƦíƆ ĬŁƢƐŨ ň ň Ņ Ō Ņ ťƍŨĮĪ Ņ ŏ ƋƕĪ ł ň ò ł Ō ƎƀƇźŨ ò ł ťƙíƇŶŴƣ Ņ ĖƎŅ ſųƀƊƄƏĥ Ō ųƀƄũŨ Ņ Ņ ťƀƕ ł ň Ņ Ņ ƦŨųſ ñ ł IJĬĭ ñ Ņ ň ťƊíƇƖíƆ :ĬŁǔũŶĭ Ņ ł ò Ō ł ƎƉň ŧűƟƦƉ ň ł ň Ƨĭ ƁŬƏ Ō ł ƋƀŶĿĪ Ō ł ĖIJĬŴũƀũŶ ŏ Ņ Ņ ł ňł Ņ ô ĬƦƊƇƣ Ņ ťƤŷŨ Ņ ł ƨŨĥĪň ťŶĿĭƧ Ņ ñ :ťŨĿ ŁĭĬ łŅ Ņ ň ň Ō Ņ ł Ņ ł Ņ ô ĿŤŶĪ ñ Ņ ŦĭĬ ĖųíƆ ƨźƠíƆ ťƉŴſ ťźƉĭ ŏ ŦŁĥŁĪ ł ł ň ł ň Ō ň ł Ņ ň ň :ųŨ ƅƆĬĥĪ ƁƆ űŬƌ ħĭŁ įƦƙƌĪ ųŨƢƣ ň ł ŧĪƢƌĪ ł ň ň ťƤŶ Ņ ł ƁíƇƠŨ Ņ ň ƁƆŌ ĭĭĬ ò ł Ņ ťſŴƆ ĖųƊƕ

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ON JEPHTHAH’S DAUGHTER For marvelous was the man, and not ordinary his story that one might disregard it; hear it with wonder, and marvel at his fortitude. The mouth is too small to say how it was, and the tongue to proclaim its various stories. Somehow I do wrong31 when I tell his story, I the wretched one, for I do not have melodies sufficient for its splendor. For the great Paul, time was too short to speak of it, and thus I am miserable about how to approach the story. The apostolic harp saw its beauty, and hung a veil of silence over his story, that it not be disgraced. “Time is too short for me to tell about Jephthah;” he measured [Jephthah’s] mind and saw that it was exalted beyond the ages. He considered his stories, how they stretched out over days, and all eternity was not enough to tell them. But he saw that if he began to speak about [Jephthah] there would be no end, for the telling would be prolonged and the time shorter than his narrative. And lest I should damage the great narrative by shortness, I say, “Time is too short to tell about Jephthah.” [Paul] showed that a length of days was too short for his narrative, and he did not begin lest it be spoken [too] briefly. The great apostle made known the shortness of time, and he honored the narrative of Jephthah with watchful care. Therefore it is also right for me to keep silence about [Jephthath’s] heroic deeds, for I have not spoken nor will I speak of his praises.

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Or: “Something chokes me when I tell his story.”

Heb 11:32

Heb 11:32

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ł ň Ņ ł ĭĬ ŧĿĬŁĪ ň ł Ƌƀŷƣ ň ł ųŨƢƣ Ō ƧĭŅ ŧƢũū :ƥƌĥŅ ô ň ųŨň ťƐũƌĪ ô ŏ Ō Ņ űƃł IJĬŴƖƉŴƣ Ņ ň ŏ ŏ ŧĿĬƦŨ ŏ Ō ł ķĭƦƌĥ ĖĬŁŴũƀũíƇŨ ƎſĿĬŁ ô ł ł ł ťƉŴƘ Ņ ł ƢƉŤƌ ł Ō IJĬŴƇƕĪ Ņ ŏ ųƆň ĿŴƕĮŏ :IJĬĭƻĥĪŌ ťƊƃĥ ň ł ťƍƤíƆ ŏ ò ł Ō ň IJĬŴŨǔƣ ł ł ĮƢƄƌĪ Ņ Ņ ň ĻĥŅ ĖķĭųƀƊƄƏŤŨ ň ň ƦŶƢ Ņ ň Ņ ł ň ł ŁƢƉĥĪ ň ň ň Əł ĶűƉ ň :ŏljĥô Ō ŦĭĪł űƃ ŌųŨƢƣ ň Ņ ƨƟŅò ƁƆŌ ƻĥŌ Ƣƀūň ƧŅ ĖĬŁŴŷƀũƤƆ ƎƀƠƙƏĪ ŏ ł ł ł ťƍŨĮ ł Ō IJĬŴƇƕĪ Ņ ĿŴƕĮŏ ťŨĿ Ņ ł ĸŴƆŴƙíƆ Ņ ł ŦĭĬ :ƢƉŤƌ ň ł ň Ō ł ňô ŏ ƎƄſĥ ł ťſĭĪ Ņ ň Ņ Ņ ljĥĭ ĖĬƼƖƣŁ űſĽ ħĭƢƟĥ Ņ ŏ Ō ł ŅŅň ł ň ŏ ŦŵŶĪ Ņ ł ŦŁŴŷƀƇƣĪ ĬƢƘŴƣ ĭĬ : Ņ Ņ ŧƢƍƃ Ņň ł ň Ņ ň ł ł ł ň ĖƢƖŹ ƞƌ ƧĪ ųŨƢƣ ƈƕ ƧŁ ťƟƦƣĪ Ƨĥĭ ł ŏ ł Ō ťƍŨĮ Ņ ł ƋƆł ƁƆŌ ĭĬô ŏ ĿŴƕĮŏ :įƦƙƌł ƈźƉň ƢƉŤƊíƆ ň Ō ł ł ň ò ł ƎƉň ĻĥŅ IJĬô ťƉĿĪ Ņ Ņ ŦŵŶĭ Ņ ł ĬƼƕĿŁ ĖťƍŨĮ ŸƤƉ Ņ Ņ òł ň ŏ Ō Ō ł Ņ ł ł ŦĭĬô ƢŶŅ :ŦƦƉŴſň ƎƉ ķŴƌĥô ƎƀƄſĿĥĪ IJĬŴŨǔƤŨ Ņ ň ň ł ŦĭĬ ň Ņ Ƨ ųƿŏ ťƊíƇƕĭ Ņ ô ơƙƏ Ņ Ņ ĖķŴƌĥŏ džƊƌ ł ƢƉŤƌĪ ň ł ķĥĪň ŦŵŶ ł Ō ƚƠƉ Ņ Ņ ŏ ƼƆł IJĬŴƇƕ Ņ :ťƊíƆŴƣ ň Ō ł ň ł ł Ņ ł Ņ Ō Ō ł ĖĬƼƖƣŁ ƎƉ ĮųíƆŵƉ ťƍŨĮĭ ŧƢƉŤƉ ƅſĿĥĪ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ŏ ł ŏ ň ƧĪĭ Ņ Ō ŦƻǓŴƕŵŨ Ņ ł ŧƢƉŤƉ įĭƢƐƌ :ťŨĿ ł ŏ ň ł Ō ŏ ł ƢƉĥł Ņ ł ĭĬô ŏ ĿŴƕĮĪ ĖįƦƙƌł ƈźƉ ƢƉŤƊíƆ ťƍŨĮ ô ň Ō ł ň ň òł Ņ ň ň Ō ł ł :ĬƼƖƣŁ ƎƉ ťƉŴſĪ ň Ņ Ņ ťŶƦƉ Ņ ĭĬô Ņ ŧƢƃĪŌ ł IJŴŶŅ ł ł Ņ ł ĖŁĭĬô džƉŁŁ ŦƻǔƄŨ ƧĪ ŦĭĬô ň IJƢƣ Ƨĭ ŏ ŏ ł Ņ ł ťŷƀƇƣ Ō ł ťƍŨĮĪ Ņ ł ĬŁĭĿŴƕŵƆ Ņ Ō ƁƏƢƘ :Ņ ťŨĿ ł ł ň Ō ł ł ŏ Ō ł ƢƠſł ł įƦƙƌĪ ĖŦŁĭƢſĬŵŨ ĬƼƖƣƦíƆĭŅ ň ň ò ň ň ł Ņ ň ň Ņ ƁƆŌ Ļĥ Ņ ƎƉ ƨƣĥ ľĪĮ ƎſűƉ :IJĬŴƍŶƞƌ Ņ ł ň ň Ƣƀūň ƧŅ ł Ņ ò ŏ ƎƉň ljĥŅ ô ƢƉĥł ĭĥ ŁƢƉĥ ĖIJĬŴƐíƆŴƟ

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ON JEPHTHAH’S DAUGHTER Time was too short for the skillful finger of apostleship to depict the beauties of his faith as they were. And if the harp of apostleship shrinks from his story, what voices can approach speaking of it? I did not say that I will speak about him, but that I will be silent; for because of the greatness of the discourse it would be unending. For he became a priest for his daughter and offered her up as a sacrifice, and she did not cause him to suffer so that he would withhold his hand from the knife. For he was clothed in faith while striving, and called upon the Lord and did not doubt his redemption. Because he vowed and offered up sacrifice and fulfilled his vow, he gave an offering decreed by him with great love.

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19. JEPHTHAH’S SACRIFICE It is wondrous to relate [what happened]:32 when he took the knife to his daughter to kill the affection interwoven in him with love; when the days of the solitary one’s mourning were completed, and she came to become the perfect sacrifice from her parent; when her father looked upon her whom he had summoned to the knife, and she responded and stretched out her neck for sacrificing; when waves of affection beat upon him in order that his hand be stopped, and he lifted oars of love above the waves and despised them;

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This entire passage, to the end of the homily, is tightly structured by parallel couplets all beginning with the conjunction kad, and all syntactically governed by this single introductory phrase (lit: “Wondrous it is to relate”). 32

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Ņ ŏ Ō ł Ņ Ō Ņ ň Ņ ô ĿŴƕĮŏ ŦŁŴŷƀƇƣĪ Ņ ł ŦĭĬ :ťƍŨĮ ŦŁƢſųƉ ťƖŨƞíƆ ł Ō ł ň ŏ Ņ ł ň ŏ ŏ ł ŏ ĖķĭųſƻĥĪ ƅſĥ ĬŁŴƍƊſĬĪ Ņ ŏ Ō ŧǔƘł ŴƣŅ Ņ ň ĿĭĽŁĪň ň ň ł ł :ųŨƢƣ ƎƉ ĮŴƃ ŦŁŴŷƀƇƣĪ ķĥĭ ň Ņ ňŧƢƍƃ Ņò ň ł ŏ Ņ ł ł ň ł ĖŴƇíƇƊƊƆ ƎƀźƉ ň ň Ņ ň IJĬĭĪĥĽ ň Ņ ƨƟł ƎƀƇſĥ ň ł Ņ ŴƆł ŁƢƉĥ ljĥ ƢƉĥĪ :ƨƣĥĪ Ƨĥ IJĬŴƇƕ ô ŏ ň Ņň Ņ Ō ŁŴŨĿ ŏ ł ƈźƉ ł ł ň ƧĪŅ ŧƢƉŤƉ ĖƅſƦƐƉ Ƨĥ ň ŏ Ņ Ņ ň ł Ņ ł Ņ ň ł Ņ ųƠƏĥĭ ñ :ťŷŨĪ ĬŁƢũíƆ Ō ljųƃ ŦĭĬĪň ƈźƉ ň Ņ ł Ņ Ō ł ƎƉň Ĭűſĥ ň ƨƄƌĪň ĬƦƤŶĥ ň ĖťƍƀƄƏ Ņ ł ł ň ł ŏ Ņ ł ň ł ŏ Ƨĭň ƈźƉ :ŀǁƦƉ űƃ ŦŁŴƍƊſĬ ň Ņ ƥũíƆĪ ŏ ł ł Ņ ł ł Ņ ň Ņ Ņ ĖųƍƟĿŴƘ ƈƕ ŭƇƘŁĥ Ƨĭ ťſƢƊíƆ ŧƢƟĭ ŏ ň ň ƁƇƊƣĭ Ō ł ťŷŨĪ ň ł ĿűƌĪ ł ł ƈźƉň Ņ ň ơƏĥĭ :ĬĿűƌ ň ň ƢſŵūĪ Ņ ł ťŨŴŷŨ Ņ ŏ ųƍƉ Ņ Ņ ŏ ħųſ Ō ł ťƍŨĿŴƟ ĖťŨĿ ô ł ň ł ň Ņ ł ťƍƀƄƏ ł Ō ŧĿĬŁ Ņ Ō ł űƃł ƢƉŤƊíƆ :ĬŁƢŨ ƈƕłŌ ƈƠƣ ŏ ň Ō Ō ł IJĬŴƊŶǓ ł ł ĵŴźƠƌĪ Ņ Ō ł ųŨň ƎƀƇſŵƕĪ ĖƻŤũƀũŶ Ņ ł ł ł Ņ ň ň òł ł ł ň űƃł ñ :ŦŁűŶŴƤƉĪ ųíƇŨĥĪ ťƉŴſ ŴƊƆƦƣĥ Ņ ň ň ň ŁŁĥĭ Ņ ł ťŷŨĪ Ņ ň ŦĭĬŁĪ ñ Ņ ŏ Ņ ƎƉň ťƊíƇƣ ĖĬĪŴƇſ Ņ ł ĬŴŨĥ ŏ ł ųŨ Ņ Ņ ô ƢŶŅ űƃł Ņ Ō ł űſĽň ĬƢƟĪ ñ ñ :ťƍƀƄƏ Ņ ŏ Ō ł Ņ ł ł ň ñ ŦĭĬ ň Ņ ł Ō ĬƦƍƕĭ ñ ƦźƤƘĭ ĖŦŁŴ ŷƀŨűƆ ĬĿĭĽ IJĬ ň łò ň Ō Ņ ł ŏ ň ťƊŶǓĪ ň ł ƨíƇū ň Ō ĸŴƃƦƌĪ :Ĭűſĥ ųƆ ƎƀƤƠƌň űƃ ň Ņ ň łò ò ň ł ŏ Ō Ņ ŏ ťƠíƆĭ ĖķĭųíƆ İŤƣĭ ƨíƇū ƈƕ ƚƀƍƉ ťŨŴŶĪ

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ON JEPHTHAH’S DAUGHTER when nature implored him with suffering in front of his child, and love of the Lord bound the sacrifice so that it would be offered; when the child beheld her father piteously, and her neck was seized and he brought her to the knife; when the love of father cried out with suffering, and the greater love of divinity silenced it; when love and love wrestled over which would conquer, and that of the Lord conquered that of daughters to undertake slaughter; when nature fought with fervor to bring to naught but nature could not restrain his hand from the knife; when [both] desires descended fiercely for battle, but that for God conquered that of offspring and sacrificed her; when affection kindled and burned toward his offspring, but the dew of faith poured forth and affection was cooled in him; when the beloved daughter turned to see her father, and he bore the blade and rose against her like a butcher; when affection summoned the hand not to go down, but faith stood up diligently for its part; when thoughts made a struggle inside the mind, but the one that was bound to God prevailed there; when the beloved neck trembled beneath the knife, but the courageous priest did not desist from his deed; when the virgin quaked with terror at the sacrifice, but the hand of the father did not shrink from the knife; when the girl was struck with terror and quailed at the slaughter she saw, but Jephthah was courageous to lay out the corpse untroubled; when the groans of the mistress of suffering ascended from the sacrifice,

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ň Ņ űƃł Ņ ô ťƖū ł ŏ ťƤŷŨ Ņ Ņ ŦĭĬ Ņ ł ťƍƀƃ Ņ ł ƈũƟŴƆ :ŧűíƇſ ł ł ň ťŷŨűíƆ Ņ Ņ ťſƢƉ Ņ ô ħƢƟƦƌĪ ł ň Ņ Ņ ƦƊŶĿĭ Ņ ň ŧƢƄƘ ĖŦĭĬ Ō Ņ ŏ ł ŏ ł Ņ Ō ň Ņ Ņ ł ñ ĬŴŨŤŨ ŦƼǑ ųŨ ŧƢƀŶ űƃ :ƻŤƉŴƕĿ ň Ņ Ō ł Ņ Ō ĭł Ņ ł ñ ŦĭĬŅ ô ħƢƠƉ ťƍƀƄƐíƆĭł ĬĿĭĽ ñ Ņ ł ƅƀũíƆ ĖųíƆ ň ł űƃł ŏ Ņ ł ťŨŴŶ Ņ ô džƀƉ Ņ ŏ ťƤŷŨ Ņ ł ŦĭĬ :ŦŁĭųŨĥĪ Ņ ŏŅ ł Ņ ł Ņ ŏ ň ň ł ł ñ ĖŦŁĭųƭĪ ťŨĿ ųŨŴŶ ųƆł ľƦƤƉĭ ň ł ň űƃł ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ŏ ŏ :ťƃŵƌ ťŨŴŶ ŀǁƦƉ Ņ ň ťƍſĥĪŌ ťŨŴŶĭ Ņ ł ł ťƀƍŨĪ ł ťſƢƉĪ Ņ łò ł ĭųíƆ Ņ Ņ ťƃĮĭ ĖƨźƟ ƁƉĿĥĭ ň ł ł ł ň ň ŅŅ Ņ ň ł űƃł :ƈźũƌĪ ƅſĥ ųŶŁƢŨŌ ťƍƀƃ ŦĭĬ ħƢƠƉ ô ň ň Ņ ł ň ƧĭŅ Ņ Ō ł ƎƉň Ĭűſĥ ň ƨƄƌĪ ĖťƍƀƄƏ ŦĭĬ ŸƄƤƉ ô Ō Ņ Ō ł łò Ņ Ņ ň ł Ņ ł ŦƦƊŶǓ ň ŧĿűíƆ :ƻĥƢƀƤƃ IJĭĬô Ʀŷƌ űƃ Ņ ł ł Ņ ł ł Ņ ŅŅ ł Ņ Ņ ñ ĖŁĭĬô ĬƦŷŨĪĭ ŧűíƇſűƆ ǁĮ ŦųƭĪ IJĬĭ Ņ:ŧĿŤƘŌ ƈũƟŴƆ Ō Ō ł űƃł Ō Ņ ťƊŶǓ ň ł ƎƀƙƀƙƏ ł ŏ ƎſƢŬƣĭ Ņ ŏ Ņ ł Ņł ň Ņ ň ł ň ŦŁŴƍƊſĬĪ ň ƎſĬƦƤƉĭ ĖųŨ ł ň ň Ņ Ō Ņ ł Ņ ƨŹł ƋƏĿĭ ň űƃł ŏ ñ :ĬŴŨƧ ŦŵŶŁĪ ŦƦƊƀŶĿ ŦŁƢŨ ťƀƍƘƦƉ ň Ņ Ņ ł Ō ł ň ĶŤƟĭ Ņ Ņ ł ƅſĥł ųƀƇƕ ñ ĖťŷũŹ ƎƀƖŹĪ ňŏ Ņ Ņ Ō ň ł ťŨƢŶ ň Ņ Ņ ñ ƎſƢƟŅ űƃł ŧűſƧ ťƊŶǓ ųíƆ :ŁĭĬô ŁŴŶŁ Ņ ŏ Ņ ł Ō Ņ ƧĪ Ņ Ō ťƊƀƟ Ņ Ņ ŦŁŴƍƊſĬĭ Ō ł ųíƇſűŨ ñ ĖƻĥƢƀƤƃ Ņ Ō ł ł ň Ņ òŏ ł Ņ ŏł ł :ŦƼƕĿŁ ŴŬŨ ťũƣŴŶ ĭűũƕ ljŴūĥ ł łűƃł Ņł ň Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ō ł ĖŦųƭ űſĽ ŦĭĬô ƢƀƏĥĪ ĭĬ ƎƉŁ ň įƞƌĭ Ņ ł ŦĭĬ Ņ Ō ŧĿĭĽ Ņ ô ŁĥĿŅ űƃł Ņ Ō ł ƼŶŁ ň ťƊƀŶĿ :ťƍƀƄƏ Ņ ň Ņ ň Ņ ŏ ƎƉň ŦĭĬ Ņ ô ŀŤƘ Ņ Ō ljųƃĭ Ņ Ņ ĖųƌƢƕŴƏ Ƨŏ ťũƀũíƆ Ņ Ņ Ņ ô ƨƕĿŅ űƃł Ņ Ņ ŏ ƎƉň ťŷŨűŨ Ņ ň ŦƦíƆĭƦŨ ŁĭĬ :ŧĪĿŴƏ Ņ Ņ ô ŧűƘ Ņ ł Ĭűſĥĭ Ņ Ō ł ƎƉň ŁĭĬ ň Ō Ņ Ņ Ƨ ťŨĥĪ ĖťƍƀƄƏ Ņ Ņ ň ŦĮŴƃĭ ł ŧĪĿƦƐƉ Ņ ł ƨźƠŨ Ņ Ņ ŦŁƢũƣ Ņ ł ň űƃł :ŁŵŶĪ ł ł ň ł įƦƙƌ Ō ł Ņ Ņ ŏ ƧĪŅ ŧűíƇƣ Ņ ł ťƉƢƌ ĖŧĪĭĭĪ ŪƀũíƆĭ ň Ņ ň ťƤŶ ł Ņ ĬƦŷƌŁ Ņ ł ŁƢƉĪ Ņ ň ƎƉň ơƇƏ ñ Ņ ò űƃł :ťŷŨĪ

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ON JEPHTHAH’S DAUGHTER but the father of the slain one did not turn away from her destruction; when a great vehemence of faith took hold of him, and compassion could not stand and restrain him; when he bound the solitary one so that she might become the sacrifice, and took the knife and put it to her neck with courage; when the virgin’s blood flowed and bespattered him, but he cut her neck and was not troubled by his deed; when the priest Jephthah completed the work of his sacrifice, and he was wet with the blood he shed there from his offering; when the wailing of the Hebrew women increased, but he was silent and [seemed to] trample on them with his courage; and when the lamentations of his people’s daughters beat upon him, he did not hear because he dealt with his own. He repaid his promise and gave his offering and made his sacrifice. Blessed be the One who was slain, to Whom the sacrifice of Jephthah was offered. The end [of the story] of Jephthah’s Daughter.

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Ņ Ō ň ł ƧĭŅ Ņ ô ťƉųƉ ñ Ņ Ņ ŏ ƎƉň ŦƦíƇƀźƟĪł ĬŴŨĥ ñ ŏ ô ŦĭĬ ĖųíƇŨŴŶ Ņ ŏ Ņ ł Ņł Ņ Ō Ņ ň ł űƃł :ŦŁŴƍƊſĬĪ ťŨĿ ťƘŤŶ ŦĭĬô ųƇƠƣ ł ň ƧĭŅ ň ł ĭĭĬ ŏ ŏ ťƊŶǓ ł ô ŴŷƄƣĥ Ņ ŏ ł ł ķŴƉŴƠƌ ĖIJųƀƌŴǀƌĭ Ņ ł ł ł Ņ Ņ ł ł ň ň ŦŁűŶŴƤƊƆ Ņ ň ŦĭĬŁĪ ñ : ťŷŨĪ űƃ ô ĬƢƄƘ Ņ ŏ Ō ł Ņ ł ł Ņ ŦĭĬ Ō ł Ņ ł ñ ƈƕ ƋƏĭ ťƍƀƄƏ ƈƠƣ ĖŦŁŴũƀũíƇŨ ĬĿĭĽ ŏ Ņ ň ł ň Ņ ô ŧĪĿň Ņ űƃł ñŅ Ņ ŦĭĬ :ųƆ ƈƙíƇƙƉĭł ŦƦíƆĭƦŨĪł ųƉĪ ň Ņ ŏ ƎƉň ĪĭĪƦƉ ň Ņ ł ł ň Ƨĭ ĬĿĭĽ ñ Ņ ł ơƐƘĭ ł ĖųƌƢƕŴƏ Ō ł űƃł Ņ ŏ ųŷŨĪĪ Ņ ô ƁƇƊƣ Ņ Ņ ŦĭĬ ň ň ŧűũƕ :įƦƙƌł ŧƢƉŴƃ ł ň Ņ ŏ ƎƉň ƎƉŁ Ņ ł ƗƀŨĽĭ Ō ł Ņ űƣĥĪ ł ň ťƉűŨ ĖųƍŨĿŴƟ Ņ Ņ łò Ņ ł Ņ ò űƃł ò Ō ł ŦƻǔũƕĪ Ņ Ņ ň ŦƦíƇíƇſ ô ķŤƀŬƏ ň ŏ :IJĭĬ ň ň ŀĥĪĭŅ ŦĭĬ ŏ Ō ł ƎſųíƆ Ņ ô ŀűƉ ň ł ĭĬĭ ĖĬŁŴũƀũíƇŨ łò Ņò ł Ņ Ņò ŏ ł Ņ Ņ ťƊƕ Ņ ł ƦƍŨĪ :ųƆň IJĭĬ ŦƼíƆĭĥ űƃŅ ô ƎƊūǓ ň ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ƨĭ Ō ł ł ł ĖŦĭĬô ŸƤŶƦƉ ųƇſĪ IJųŨĪ ŦĭĬô ƗƊƣ ł ň Ņ ŏ ħųſĭ ň Ņ ŏ ĺƢƘ ł ųſĪĭŴƣ ň ň ơƏň ĥĭł ųƍŨĿŴƟ :ųŷŨĪ ô Ņ ň ł ł ň ň Ō Ō ł ł įƦƙƌĪ ĖųƆň ħƢƟŁĥ ųŷŨĪĪ ƨƀźƟ ĭĬô ŏ ƅſƢŨ ň ł ň ł ƋƇƣ .įƦƙƌĪł ĬŁƢŨĪ

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A SOGHITHA ON THE UPRIGHT JEPHTHA AND ON HIS DAUGHTER, BY MAR ISAAC

BY SEBASTIAN P. BROCK

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A SOGITHA ON THE UPRIGHT JEPHTHA

1. People who make vows when they are in great straits should repay them to the Lord when they are at ease. 2. If you have made a vow, make ready what you are giving lest your vow be rejected and your offering refused. 3. Look and see, if you have made a vow to the Most High, let it be to the occasion, let it be set out and well ordered. 4. Jephtha opened his mouth and addressed them as follows, ‘My children, stand firm in you contest, play true in your battle, 5. then God, who beholds you, will add to your strength and your oppressor will be put to shame, and your saviour will rejoice. 6. Let all your womenfolk busy themselves with supplications and through the prayer of them all the Lord will be reconciled/pleased’. 7. One people encountered the other, < > side, the bows were stretched, and the battle lines drawn up; 8. swords glisten visibly in the world; arrows like stars fly above the (two) camps. 9. The (divine) Will gives them orders, and they act with discernment, they slay the oppressors, and they preserve Israel. 10. The old men sit there in grief as their sons have been slain, the women are clothed in grief as their husbands have been slaughtered. 11. Now Jephtha’s daughter was the only one he had, and when she heard that her father had returned in peace 12 she gathered her companions and she goes out to meet him, she takes up the strain with tambourines, she sings with tambourines.33 13. In comes Jephtha, leading at the head, like a shepherd,34 with his flock behind him, resembling flashing lightning. 14. The riders35 clap their hands as they say ‘Lances are not so fine as is the fear of the Lord’. 15. Feet trample, heels sound out, ‘Blessed is the Lord who has brought us back to the eyes that watch out for us’. 16. The girl raised her eyes and beheld her parent; all at once she cried out as follows, saying to her father: 33 34

17. 35

Cf. Judges 11:34 (also Miriam in Exodus 15:21). Cf. Jacob, p.310, line 11; Jephtha is again referred to as ‘shepherd’ in stanza Perhaps an allusion to Exodus 15:1.

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

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17. ‘Welcome back, O blessed shepherd, truly blessed, who gave himself up to death for the sake of the Lord’s own people. 18. O widowed tree that had one single fruit, blessed is the Lord who has brought you back in victory to your home’. 19. Jephtha lifted up his eyes, and catching sight of his only daughter he began to say as follows amidst great groans: 20. ‘If only, my daughter, your father had been slain in battle, had escaped by death and been buried, then he would not have beheld your death. 21. Up to that moment, my daughter, your father was confident that, should by chance he die, you would be his heir. 22. I have vowed you to the Most High, what can now be done? You have been vowed to God, what can you do henceforth? 23. The girl, on hearing these words of her father, her mind rejoiced, her heart was filled with gladness; 24. leaping up, she answered her father and said, ‘My parent, do not be grieved that you have made your vow to the Lord: 25. no one forced you to make it, you vowed it from your very heart. Why are you complaining of being trapped by your mouth? 26. Have you not heard how they tell of what Abraham did when he took off his only son, without even revealing it to his mother?36 27. And how God returned him back home in peace while a ram burst forth on the mountain and was provided as an offering.37

Gen. 22:3. Isaac follows Ephrem, Comm. Gen. XX.1, in that he assumes that Abraham says nothing to Sarah; this contrasts with the scenario imagined in the two anonymous memre and the soghitha on Gen. 22; for the former see my ‘Two Syriac verse homilies on the Binding of Isaac’, Le Muséon 99 (1986), pp.61-129 (reprinted in From Ephrem to Romanos: Interactions between Syriac and Greek in Late Antiquity [Aldershot, 1999], chapter VI), and for the latter ‘Syriac poetry on biblical themes, 2: A dialogue poem on the Sacrifice of Isaac (Gen. 22)’, The Harp 7 (1994), pp.55-72. 37 The miraculous origin of the ram is already found in Ephrem’s Commentary on Genesis XX.3; see further, ‘Two Syriac verse homilies’, pp.78-9. 36

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17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

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28. You did not realise when you made the vow that I would meet you, but God, who has loved me, has made me his handmaid.38 29. Blessed am I who have been freed from the abuse of this world and now I am going to my Lord, a letter under seal.39 30. Had it turned out that you had been defeated, then perhaps you would have been killed as well, and they would have taken me off in captivity and all our home would be destroyed’. 31. If he draws near to sacrifice her, will he have pity on the daughter of his loins? or should he not slaughter her? Then he will be found false. 32. The elders of the people heard how Jephtha was greatly disconsolate and so they all gathered and gave him solace with their words. 33. ‘Jephtha, do not be grieved that you have made the vow to your Lord: separate out some gift and give it; offer that to the Lord. 34. Give half your belongings, and leave your only daughter alone, for all that you possess is not so dear as this daughter you have. 35. The girl said in answer before all those who had counselled him ‘How evil is your counsel, and odious before the Lord’.

38 The daughter’s wording in stanzas 28 and 29 clearly alludes to that of Mary in Luke 1:38 (’handmaid’) and 48 (‘blessed’). 39 Another clear allusion to Mary, who is likewise described as a ‘sealed letter’ in liturgical poetry: the precise phrase features in Jacob of Serugh (ed. Bedjan [reprint], VI, p.24/639) in a passage which is taken up in both the Maronite Shehimto (Weekday Office) for Friday Lilyo (bo‘utho to First Qawmo), and in the Mosul edition of the Fanqitho, III, p.354 (Commemoration of Mary of the Seeds); English translation of Jacob’s memra by M. Hansbury, Jacob of Serug on the Mother of God (Crestwood NY, 1998), pp.38-9. For Mary as a ‘letter’, see further my ‘Mary as a “Letter” and some other Letter imagery in Syriac liturgical texts’, Vox Patrum 26 (2006) [Festschrift for M. Starowieyski], pp.89-99.

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28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

INDEX OF NAMES AND THEMES Ammonites 70, 77, 90, 93, 120, 123, 134, 156, 286, 294, 360 Betrothal 129, 185, 191, 271, 272, 315 Blood (sacrificial) 21, 28, 30, 32, 34– 39, 43, 51–52, 56, 122, 133, 139, 201, 268, 344, 362, 500, 503 Christ (titles of) Lord 45, 330 Lord of the slain 1 One Who accepted Jephthah’s vow 5 One Who is from One 11 One Who was slain 509 Only Child 9 Single One 3, 178, 199 Son 48, 152 Son of a Virgin 7 Son of the Redeemer 44 Crucifixion 129, 202, 332 Faith 6, 50, 55, 63, 66, 117, 349, 456, 481, 485, 496 God 115, 128, 219, 253, 319, 321 (titles of) Father 18, 47, 48, 199 Lord 84, 86, 87, 89, 91, 92, 93, 117, 126, 215, 218, 250, 254, 255, 260, 265, 266, 267, 270, 273, 276, 280, 283, 285, 296, 305, 350, 457, 469, 475 One Who Receives All 308 Hebrews 19, 69, 77, 124, 339 Jacob’s children 73 Flock of Jacob 81 Hebrew Maidens (Daughters of the Hebrews/ Hebrew Women) 176, 378, 499, 506

Israel 125 Nation 151 Jephthah (by name) 5, 15, 20, 42, 45, 53, 69, 76, 82, 115, 126, 128, 131, 137, 143, 153, 179, 195, 200, 201, 209, 214, 227, 231, 245, 319, 381, 387, 422, 434, 441, 445, 446, 493, 502 (titles of) Athlete 65 Discerning one 111 Faithful one 164 Father 17, 43, 130, 168, 171, 195, 230, 284, 290, 292, 293, 306, 314, 317, 34, 388, 464, 470, 482 Father of one slain 300, 495 Father of a virgin 164 Good man 370 Laborer of faith 57 Parent 16, 22, 59, 463 True one 211, 366 Wise man 83 Jephthah’s Daughter 17, 48, 137, 167, 195, 201, 230, 235, 243, 251, 254, 257, 261, 290, 355, 363, 365, 368, 454, 460 (titles of) Adorned maiden 195 Beautiful One 59, 131 Believing girl 142 Beloved daughter 239, 275, 482 Beloved virgin 16 Betrothed to suffering 191 Bride of Blood 186 Choice maiden 182 Choice vow 179 Daughter of One 11

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Daughter of the Hebrews 19, 339 Girl 284, 331, 337, 376, 385, 492 Mistress of suffering 314, 494 Modest maiden 187 Offering 173, 310 Only begotten child of Jephthah 42 Only child 9, 13, 383 Pure girl 139 Sacrifice 169, 291, 312, 316 Sacrificial calf 175 Sacrificial maiden 171 Sacrificial victim 233 Single one 177, 241 Solitary one 462, 498 Undefiled girl 147 Unsullied one 21 Virgin 7, 43, 255, 298, 328, 490, 500 Young maiden 341 Virgin of sufferings 129 Virtuous girl 138 Young girl 133 Justice 135, 211, 213 Knife (sacrificial) 20, 62, 184, 315, 318, 325, 331, 397, 411, 415, 455, 460, 464, 471, 476, 488, 491, 499 Law 49–56

Nature (human) 217, 228, 231, 249, 253, 369, 468, 476, 477 Paul (Apostle) 430, 432–45 Priest (Jephthah as) 169, 173, 175, 182, 196, 197, 201, 214, 233, 291, 293, 301, 302, 306, 311, 312, 317, 346, 454, 489 Sacrifice 7, 9, 15, 22, 24–25, 34, 38, 45, 49, 60, 76, 87, 89, 96, 98, 100, 102, 112, 122, 132, 135, 138, 143, 148, 169, 194, 196, 212, 216, 222, 250, 252, 254, 263, 266, 269, 270, 274, 287, 291, 297, 300, 301, 302, 303, 309, 316, 323, 344, 365, 387, 389, 403, 413, 454, 458, 463, 469, 479, 490, 494, 498, 502, 508 Salvation 18, 138 Sheol 334, 338, 340 Sin 27, 35 Symbol 13, 23, 29, 39, 45, 131, 165, 178, 183, 189 Vow 5, 86, 91, 94, 104, 105, 106, 109, 111, 126, 144, 157, 165, 212, 214, 220, 225, 248, 262, 269, 280, 285, 305, 306, 353, 357, 405, 458 Wedding feast/banquet 185, 186, 191

INDEX OF BIBLICAL REFERENCES Gen 9:6 Hos 1:5 Jer 49:35 Judg 11:30 11:31

11:35 11:37 Job 1:21 Luke 23:42–3 Heb 11:32

51 221 221 86, 93 95

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235–6, 261–2, 264 322–3, 388 288 334 434, 441