Italic Verse: A Study of the Poetic Remains of Old Latin, Faliscan, and Sabellic 3851247310, 9783851247312


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Italic Verse: A Study of the Poetic Remains of Old Latin, Faliscan, and Sabellic
 3851247310, 9783851247312

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ITALIC VERSE A Study of the Poetic Remains of Old Latin, Faliscan, and Sabellic

IN N S B R U C K 2012

ISBN 9 78-3-85124-731-2

2012 IVX'SBKUdXR BEmtÀGE ZL'R SPRACHW1SSENSCHAFT IW f rp th rr Prof Dr. Wolfgang Mod litamr fir Sfnckcc und Laetatura der Univcrsidi Innsbruck Beracb Spndunsscnschsfi leavcnfaaniQg dutch Aumr Druck Amulcn ’98, Budapest Bend»- tad A-44120 lim tw urif Inuram 52

1ck*s (-43-512-»507-2837 E-mail *nM pn| fmu»^ i|^ Mr



Catitibay ca fobs stealing datnan agos aeo,y, momonting lomot sa iyo,y, popobpot. —Anonymous, n. d. ap. Juan de Noceda and Pedro de San Lücar, Vocabubrio de la lengua tagala (Manila: Imprenca de la Compania dc Jesus, 1754), 5)7, s,v. tanaga.








n ii







i. i The Present Work in Outline 1.1.1 Pan i; Larin________ -— ---------------,... — ■■ .■ 1.1.a Part ti: Faliscan and Sabcllic __________ - . , 1.1, l.o The (Pre-) Hiscoric(al) Unity of Italic .. —■ __ -— . . ■ 1.1.) Part III: Comparisons___ __ „______. .. . ■ - 6 6 i.i Theoretical Underpinnings; A View of Linguistic Metrics 1.1. i Metrics in Synchrony: Principles . ..................... ................ ...... 1.1.1 Methodology: Evidence from Statistics — .. . — —,. i| i.i .i .i Fisher's Exact Test of Independence and the Test of Goodness of Fit ■. . 1» ..■■■ 14 i .i.i.i Log-Linear Model .............. -.......................... i.) Further Prolegomena >4 i.).i Classical Metrical Description: Key Notions and Terms ........ .................... . >4 1.3.1. t Syllables, Metrical Positions, Feet, and Metra ........ - .H 1.). 1.1 The Metrical Structure of the Line — . ■ t9 i . j .i (Un-) Conventions ----— .................. . 10 1.).1.1 Orthographic and Phonological , .............. . 11 1.).1.1 Metrical________ . - ............... . 11 P a r ti : Latin 1

The Problem o f the Larin Saturnian 1*1 i-t-l i .i .t

The Corpus of Saturnian Verses The Literary Corpus-------------------- ------ ----------------The EpigraphicCorpus--------------. , . Tearual Prohltim -------------—

17 2.7


I td l ic l'e r i r

ticmfy------------ —” Epitaphie » SuUitcmy -

Ocher Vc Expectation* i n Metrical Resnictrrweo Q uaabou^t Meters An Accentual Merer frrm* PrtTKHit Studio The QuantisarivisoPaiqiuli i9)6andCam panile I9 •

2-M-i M-M

Cole 19*9 —------------------- ----Other Work since 1990 . The Acctnnialists------------


Thumeysen tVBf---------

*.».*•* L ) .L )


Lindsay ify ja -----------

Other Work since 1990 ...—— Miscellaneous Approacho since 1990 _

The Latin Saturnian Meter

J-M j.j.i.i

The Hypothesis Assumed Facts of Latin Phonology__—Totual Security Length and General Structure of the Line Coton-Lerd Partem* The Second Colon, the Saturnian s Cadence--------------------- —

_____ 61


w , |. - f * i 4|,


M-M Constraining Colas Suhctmcnim MS


...... .............77

C o n te n u ^

Line-Level Patterns


Uilneen-Posuion Lines___________ ___ ____________



14 . 1.1

4 11 and Anadastic Dérivai»», 4 , | , ________ _______


V4 -I .1 14-, »

» + -»1»----------------------------------------------------«Il7 l i n o ----------------------------------------------------


Twelve- and Eleven-Petition I i n n ______ ___________

. 14

j .4.1


{4 1)■ 114Ï +■U| ) . )ll} —______ ________________ 1.4 . 1.1 {»1 ». xj 4 Ï UA)»l >.('“)4 l») — ---------------------------j, 4, j Constraining Colon Combinations________________


*1 . »6

The Proposed Saturnian Meter


Rules o f Saturnian Scansion Syllabic Alignment

4.1 4 . 1.1

7«t77 1188

est equo' pcrpulcer | sed tu vehl non potes istoc


ll8 j

lactu1lubens petito | quod (dabim r gaudtbi' semper



permultis prôsum | ubc' prôful grâqa(m) nêmô

—o rd

quod fugi' quod iaeüs | dbe* quod d a n ' spcmcre nôlei

g rio a 1189

qûr peti' pos(t )tempus | consilium quod rog&' non est cônitillmm

—o r-

Yee others o f the same vintage show cither pre-pausal lengthening (iu )/(c ), metrical lengthening ( lib ), or lengthening via suspension o f resyllabification (ltd): (11)



dè viré falsa | né fiant iüdice false



nunc m i rogitas | nunc consuli' tempus abic uro



d ' incerti certa | né fiant si sapi’ civçis



formidat omnes | quod metuit id sequi satiust



Example ( n c ) also shows synizesis, and on display in (aid) is an oracle's ardcssncss as an epicist in the sim ultaneous pursuit o f more than one o f the force-String strategies encountered in ( i o ) - ( i i b ) : lengthening/non-resyUabification o f pre-vocalic -r in the jsg. desinences, iam bic shortening in sequi, glide formation in satiust. and either glide formation o r resolution in m etuit. In sum. from the perspective o f third/secondcentury b c e E nnian epic practice, these compositions aie bad (contrast the wcllformed hexam ctrical oracles th at pepper Herodotus's historical narrative in Greek). However, m u st such occasional efforts th a t d o n o t completely succeed as literary poetry bu t n e ith e r p u rp o rt to be high literature give us reason to expect that the poet­ ic epitaphs o f aristocrats w ould be similarly ardess and unam bitious! A priori, there is

lulu Itrie ■i


no essential «difference between literary And epigriphic Latin (and Greek) poetry, es­ pecially in verse that commemorates departed nobles."

Before the Saturnian meter can be established, we have no choice b ut to trust Blânsdorf as for as we can and to construe the epigraphic verses on a p ar with literary poetry until given sufficient cause to do otherwise. Investigations th at exclude o r de­ value epigraphic Saturniam, such as Leo 1905,16 risk om itting very many relevant de­ tails in formulating the meter and rules o f Saturnian versification, as do investigations chat avoid the textual problems o f the literary verses entirely by their exclusion, e.g., Radke 1991.



W ith m eter in hand, the problems encountered outside the core literary and epi­ graphic venes, as in the Faliscan cooks’ and L. Mummius's dedications, can, if solu­ tions cannot be found, at least be described more clearly. Certain isolated verses and shore complece poems o f religious, medical-magical, and rustic character chat have also been analyzed along similar lines as Saturnian poetry, e.g., by Leo 190$, can be examined in light o f the Sacurnian m eter I propose. O ther investigators have included along with the literary and epigraphic Saturn­ iam several other pieces o f archaic Latin poetry chat do not perm it satisfactory analy­ sis according co principles o f Greco-Latin quantitative versification. Among these are fragments o f the Carmen Saliare, three o f which contain parts o f the actual text o f the Salian Priests’ hymn thanks to Varro and the grammarian Terentius Scaurus (fl. 117)8 c e ), and the complete Carmen Fratrum Arvalium, preserved in the inscription CIL I1 1, chough n o t w ithout textual difficulties. These belong to a different genre, namely the Latin carmen o f law, magic, didactic, and prayer, and cursory inspection o f these texts reveals very different style and unclear colometries with more wildly varying syl­ lable counts per putative line. These are, in foct, generally regarded as ‘ rhythmic IS *


Lindsay 1893a: 14s: ‘[t)hese epitaphs of die Scipios may be taken to be free from irregularities due to want of education and ignorance of metre, and from errors of che sculptor.*


Fraenltd 1937: i6i: ’the fragments of Livius and Naevius, and not the Saturnians of the inscrip tutis, must supply the standard by which we are to judge the verse. To have urged this principle apinst almost all his forerunners was one of the most decisive merits of Leo's Satumiicher Vert."

T he Problem o f the Latin Saturnian prose" (a useless term , for all language is rhythmic), so 1 exclude from present consid­ eration these and other carmina, which require separate investigation.'' l.i

E x pectation s o n M etrical RestrictivencM

The restrictiveness o f any formulation o f the Saturnian can be measured against the rescrictiveness o f well-established meters. For a quantitative-syllabic analysis of the Saturnian, the m ost directly comparable arc the meters o f Greek and Latin stichic verse. O n one end o f the spectrum is the twelve-position dactylic hexameter o f epic, th e m ost elevated poetic form with respect to language and theme, metrically the m ost restrictive. Still elevated but metrically freer chan the hexameter is the twelveposition iam bic trimeter, the meter o f tragic speech. Finally, least elevated and least metrically restrictive arc the meters o f comedy: the rwelvc-position iambic senarius and the iambic and trochaic septenarii, which both consist of fifteen positions. Most Saturnian verses that survive vary in length between twelve and seventeen syllables, but consideration o f only the five most common stichic forms o f better understood Greek and L atin p oetry should suffice here. For accentual descriptions o f the Saturni­ an, we can enlist the ten-position iambic pentameter o f English epic and dramatic poetry to serve as a basis oflcss direct comparison. a .a .I


Saturnian verse having been used for boch epic and elogium, any formulation o f the forgotten m eter should strive for the restrictiveness o f the hexameter (i})> which be­ came the meter o f choice for the very same genres (on the metrical form, see Boldrini 1999: 91-7). Let

stand for a heavy syllabic in a princeps or strong position (chese

are num bered for reference), position, and

’ for two light syllables in a biceps or binary weak

’ for a heavy syllabic in the place o f two light syllables in a contract­

ed biceps; “«»* thus represents the two possible realizations o f the biceps. A spondee [A —] can take the place of a non-cadential dactyl / - >~/. In the cadence, the brevia o f the fifth dactyl / ( - ) “ - / can also be so contracted ( ( - ) —) but only infrequently, and the sixth foot consists o f longum / - / + indifferens /= /, which can be realized as a17


Cf. also H. Eichncr's (i?8S-i»»oc. ryyib: |o8-n) interpretation and quantitative scansion of Cll 1’ 4. the famous ‘Duenos* inscription, but most of the siirh/fifth-century ocz Old Latin dedicato(y text is too obscure to allow a full poetic analysis.

I t a l u Ve

|^ “j

Panons* Saturnian

R u so n s' four-dipody S aturnian chen predicts 4,100,615 (!) configurations o f light and heavy syllables w ith a positional freedom o f 1.37,30 a surprisal th a t exceeds th a t o f the trochaic septenarius (see $1.1 above) and Pasquali-CampanLie's Saturnian (§ b u t is slightly lower th an C o le’s (§ Because it can capture so m any p atterns, Naevius’s epitaph can be scanned w ith ­ o u t issue: (ai)

immortales | mortales || si feret | & Hère flerent divae | Camenae |[ Naevium | poétam ;ita>qur postquam | est O rchi || traditus [ thesauro obliti I sunt Romae || iloquiicr lingua [ Larini ---------1 —

----- A|.— A ---- a I - - = a | ------- a ------ A 1—; a I - - I - - I ------- -In scansions o f ocher cexts, however, d eciding a m o n g alternatives can be arbitrary. From th ese rests it can also b e conclud ed th a t th e m ajority o f e x tant S atu rn ians can­ n o t fill sixteen p ositions: in ad d itio n to b eing to o free, coo lo ng a m ccer has b een p ro ­ posed.

higi( 4.100^13) + 16 positions.

T h e Problem of the Latin Saturnian a.3.1.4 I


Other Work since iffo

know o f only one original q u a n titativ e proposal that has appeared since 1990. G.

Kloss (199)) formalized the (literary) Saturnian as / * "î" œ f - - 1- "o' 0 -


he m ust scan many word-final heavy syllables as light and disregard F ra e n e e iT h i e r f e l d e r - S k u t s c h ’s rule against adjacent resolutions (set $1.1 above). RlTSCHLS against split resolution [t-s] (see Boldrini 1999: 76-7; cf. Ccccarelli 1991: 350-3, w ith references, on the debated exceptions), and H e rm a n k -L a c h m a n n s against exposed resolution [ t- i] (see §1.1.1 above in connection with the trochaic sep­ tenarius), c.g., Andr. 1 (Kloss 1993: 99, 101): rviru'i mihi Camena \ iniseto versutum - I-

------ ]. O ther work since 1990 follows predecessors: G. Morclli

(1996) brings together G. Perrottas studies, which are founded on Pasquali 1936, and Cole 1969 informs E. D uprazs discussion (1007, with a comparative fiscus).

That there are quantitative patterns in the extant Saturnian verses cannot be denied. However, the patterns are simply too numerous—almost one unique pattern per ex­ tan t verse— to support the thesis that the Saturnian meter was based on syllable dura­ tion. The three theories examined in some deuil above are unable to be more restrictive than the freest stichic meter o f Latin comedy, nor can they satisfactorily account for the alternations in one complete poem. In G. Pighis (1957: 4 ?) teaching words, “[l]e scansioni proposce dalla teoria quantitativa sono [...] Io scandalo della filologia.’ Familiarity with quantitative mecrics has led to a fallacy: if Saturnian pat­ terns can be described in quantitative terms, then syllable duration was the salient prosodic feature chat governed Saturnian versification. To this de G root has raised the objection already (1934: 305); if stress is based on quantity in Latin, and the extant Saturnians exhibit both quantitative and accentual patterns, then *cc rythme quanti­ tatif avec ses licences indéniables doit-il être considéré comme une pute conséquence des tendances d o rd ie accentue!?* De G root inclined towards an acccntualist ap­ proach, but he did not himself resolve the issue, nor have many subsequent investiga­ tors understood or taken his objection seriously. X .J.l


The hypothesis that it was not syllable duration but rather prominence which gov­ erned Saturnian versification has been pursued by fewer investigators and has never

l t d l u l'r r t e ■


gained any currency in the field. In the first place, there exists disagreement over the nature of' the Latin accent: was it pitch (height of tone in the voice), as in Classical Greek and as the ancient grammarians thought? Or was it stress (intuitively, volume or intensirv o f voice), which is reflected in some (standard) modern Romance lan­ guages? There is no consensus among phoneticians and phonologisrs regarding the phonetic correlates of srress. which in l i a can involve expiratory effort, pitch, a>ui duration on a language-specific basis (see Hayes 1995:5-9)! The phonetic realization of the Latin accent is ultimately irrelevant: Latin words had syllables chat were prosodkally more prominent chan others, and it is the arrangement o f these chat is rele­ vant lor syllabo-tonic meter. However, the dispute over the nature of the accent leads ro disagreement about the rules of accencuacion: if Classical Greek pitch was mobile and lexically and motphologically determined, and if the Latin accent was pitch, then che positions of picch accents in Latin words would be difficult to pin down. Along «rich che reduced diversity of accentual pactcms found in Saturnian verses, by whatev­ er rules o f accentuation a met rise assumes, disagreements over the nature o f the Latin accent and rules of accentuation have led to no accepted metrical solution. I single out for critique the two proposals which have been most plausible and/or clearly ex­ pounded. 1. J.z. i

Tbumejien tSSs

R. Thumeysen, inspired by O. Keller (1883),51 proposed a quadripartite Saturnian meter with thirteen positions, based on the familiar quantity-sensitive P e nu ltim ate Law o f Classical Larin and the extant verses' accentual patterns (13). Although it has long been forgotten, I treat Thumeysen 1885 here as an introduction to my critique o f Lindsay 1893a below, and ic «rill become apparent chat my own proposal will resemble Thumeysen’s. (13)


Thumcysens Saturnian9 1

JCcBcr (it#): 17) proposed (hat che Sammian consisted of a trochaic-amphibnchic first colon " v '- l . 'v / and a second colon that, from most to least frequent, could be creric-amphibnchic (= trochaic) ' I - '. / , oephatous or acephalous amphibnehic/(-)’«l-'w /,or dactylic / '- - I *«-/.

T he Problem of the Latin Saturnian Let

stand for resolvable strong position and

cented syllables, denoted by unaccented ones,

i resolvable weak position. Ac­

in positions i, 4, j/é , 8/9, and ix/19 alternated with

in a, 4, é/$, 7,9/8,10,11. and ij/ it . Two syllables, both quanti­

tatively light, can occur as an accented resolution unaccented


in positions 1, j, 6 , 9. and it, or

in 5 and 11. Second position can be suppressed, and, if positions 9 or

11 are occupied by stressed syllables, so can 8 or 11. Thurneysen's scheme predicts eight possible instantiations of the first quarterverse, five each o f the second and third, and seven of the fourth. Thus stressed and unstressed syllables can be configured 1,400 total possible ways in a Saturnian line, yielding a positional freedom o f o.8o,l: well below the English iambic pentameter's maximum suprisal o f i.}8 (sec §1.1.1 above; compare the tragic iambic trimeter's 0J4. §1.1.1). In the abstract, Thumeysen s approach and theory appear rather attractive. W here Thum eysens theory falls short is with respect to rules o f accentuation, specifically on the phrasal level, for which there is unfortunately no independent evi­ dence, and in regards co fit to the data. His discussion o f Naevius’s epitaph (Thtirneysen 188); 51) serves as an illustration: (14)

Immortales | mortilcs || si foret fàs flére


1- - I - : - - : - : '-

Aèrent dïvae | Camenae || Nievium | poetam (itaxjue pdstquam 'st | Ôrchi(ô) || nidicus | chësàurô \

j .I .l


Moving from some ccrtaintv in aspects o f phonology to consideration of text, one encounters a vicious problem: the Saturnian meter must be described based on what we think to be Saturnian verses, but what we think to be such can only be verified with meter in hand. The investigator must start somewhere by tentatively assuming that the extant verses are metrically well formed. So, as stated above in $1.1.3, I provi­ sionally adopt Blansdorfs readings o f literary Saturniam, and, absent probable cause a priori, I regard the epigraphic verses on a par with the literary. At a second pass, literary verses that have conflicting plausible codicai o r editorial readings, as well as one epigraphic verse (18), can be p ut to the side for the moment (for the sake of expediency, I dispense with the conventional designation o f Saturnian fragments by 'poet'). (x8)

App. x.i1 Naev. 16 ■ Naev. 38 P Naev. 61P* a. syllable count

Andr. 9 • Naev. X4.1 • Naev. 439 cil


fi. line division

Andr. 10 *P Naev, 16.1-1 *P Naev. 47.1-x t Tab. Aem. v 7. corruption

Andr. x8*P Naev. 37.1 *P Naev. $5 P

8. other meter


H ie alternative readings can non*trivially affect the metrical analysis o f seventeen lines. BlansdorTs, the manuscripts*, or other critics' readings can differ in syllable count and/or eolometry. One Naevian line, Fragment 43, is dearly a hexameter, and die meter (thus also eolometry) o f another, Fragment 61, is disputed. A two-line fragment from the Bellum Poenicum, Fragment 47, is corrupt. O ne line in a Scipionic elogium has a variously fiUcd-in gap. H ie first line o f M. Aemiliuss tabula triumphalis is quoted as a verse by Pseudo-Bassus, but the rest o f the text in Livy is corrupt. I re­ turn to these, along with other problematic and putative verses, in C hapters 6 -7 . So 114 verses, seventy-seven literary (x9a) and thircy-sevcn epigraphic (19b), re­ main as textually secure, which I list in the interest o f full disclosure (see Appendix A, table a .o for the listing order). From these, then, the meter can be discovered. App. i.x Andr. 4 Andr. 11 Andr. 13.1-1 Andr. 19

App. x.x Andr. 6 Andr. ix Andr. 16 Andr. xi

Andr. 1 Andr. 7 Andr. 13 Andr. 17 Andr. xx

Andr. 3 Andr. 10 Andr. 14 Andr. 18.1-1 Andr. 13

The' Latin Saturni;in Meter Andr. 14 Naev. 1 Nacv. 8.1-3 Nacv. 18 Naev. n Naev. 31 Naev. 39.1 Naev. 46 Naev. 51 Naev. 61 Incerti 5

Andr. 13 Naev. 3.a Naev. 9.1-1 Naev. 19 Naev. 13 Naev. 31 Naev. 41 Naev. 48 Naev. 54 Naev. 68

CIL i17.1-6 CIL I11101.1-3 Incerti



CIL i19.1-6 CILl 1331.I-3 Incerti 7


Andr. 30 Naev. 3.1-3 Naev. 10 Naev. 10.1 Naev. 14.1 Naev. 33 Naev. 44 Naev. 30.1-1 Nacv. 36 Met. ven. CIL i* 10.1-7 Elag. Coi 1-1

37 Andr. 34.1-3 Naev. 6.1-3 Naev. 13 Naev. 11 Naev. 13.1-3 Naev. 37.1 Naev. 43 Naev. 31.1-1 Naev. 39 Efigr. Naev. 1-4 CIL 1111.1-6 Tab. Gtab.

Length and General Structure o f the Line

The alignment patterns of syllables and words in cola and dicolas syllable counts should give the first indications of the length and structure of the Saturnian line. A culling o f the textually secure corpus excludes all but thirty-one lines that arc free of elidable sequences, including sequences not infrequently scanned with synizesis in quantitative poetry, and adjacent non-final light syllables: (30)

Andr. 11 ij.i 1 18.1 i 37 11 Nacv. 1

9* 14.1 15-Î

sancta puer Saturni || filia regina ibi manens sedeto || donicum videbis me carpento vehentem || domum venisse namque nullum peius || macent humanum quamde mare saevom || vires cui sunt magnae nam diva Monetas || filia docuit novem lovis concordes || filiae sorores summi deum regis || fratrem Neptunum sanctus love prognatus || Pythius Apollo immolabat auream || victimam pulchram (êrunt pulchras creterras |[ aureas lepistas

Cui (Andr. ifl.i) is likely disyllabic; cf. quoti (c//. 1' n.j).

Italie Verse • 3 Nacv. u *5 51.1 »«* 59 Met. i m Epigr, Man', i 1 CIL l a 7.1

3 4 CIL I1 9.)


4» I110.7 I1n.a« i 6

CIL I1 1531.I

Elog. Cal i41 Incerti 6

res divas edicit || praedicit castus scopas atque verbenas || sagmina sumpserunt sin illos deserant || fortissimos viros quod) bruti nec satis || (sardare queunt) magnae metus tumultus || pectora possidet malum dabunt Metelli || Naevio poetae immortales mortales )| si foret fas flere flerent divae Camenae j| Naevium poetam Cornelius Lucius || Scipio Barbatus quoius forma virtucei || pari(s)$uma fuit consol censor aidilis J| quei fuit apud vos Luciom Scipionem || filios Barbati consol censor aidilis || hic fuet a[pud vos terra Publi prognatum || Publio Corneli aetate quom parva || po(s)sidet hoc saxsum quoici vita defecit || non honos honore(m) ne quairatis honore(m) || quei minus sit mandatus quod re sua di(f)feidens || asper aifleicta hunc unum plurimae || consentiunt gentes summas opes qui regum || regias refregit





(Let “K" stand for the half-verse boundary.) Elision can alter the overt syllabic count and thus syllable-to-position alignment, and, by implication, elidable sequences can also stand in hiatus. The treatment o f adjacent non-final light syllables, either by scan­ sion with resolution or not, can also affect alignment. To the basic accentual and word *401 * *

The pps in Focus's quotation of Nacv. 56 arc filled in by Lindsay on the basis of the version by Paul the Deacon. Though CIL I*9.4 ends in a lacuna, the verse’s final two syllables are confidently restored based on CtL I* 7.4.

40 Let us take # totale at c il I* 11.2, at face value and read it as a hcxasyllable for now, though there will be good reason to read the word as a tetrasyllable (see $3.3.1.! with n.4S below). 41 The manuscripts of Cicero (Sen. 17.61 and Fin. 1.116-17) that quote Elog. Cal. arc corrupt at this point, and the demonstrative + numeral is variously emended, though it is safe to read the sequence thus in light of Cil l19.1. In contrast to c il I1 9, the spelling of what now remains of Calatinus s elogium has been modernized, but, unlike c/L 11 11.1 (sec $3.3.1.! with 0.43). the modernization likely did not affect the meter of the me.

M eter


boundary patterns o f these thirty-one verses should conform grotso mode the patterns of the remaining eighty-three tcxtuaUy secure verses of the corpus, as well as those of any other problematic line. O f the thirty-one verses listed in (30), one has fourteen syllables, nineteen have thirteen syllables, eight are dodecasyllabic, and three hcndecasyllabic (sec table 5.1). Table 3.1

Colon combinations in control-group Saturniam 6$


Andr. 11,13.1 Nacv. 1,14.1,31,35,

7 II



Andr. 13.1 Naev. 13.3 c i l l1 1331-1

Met. ven. Epigr. Naev. i - 1 CIL 1*7 . 1. J- 4 CIL l l 9.3 -4 CIL 1* 10.7 CIL I* I 1.3

Incerci 6 6 II

Andr. 18.1

Andr. 18.1* n Naev. 31.1 C I L l1 l i . i b Elog.

Naev. 9.1, si, 56

C aL 1


It will be possible to align the fourteen syllables of CIL I* 11.6 to thirteen positions (see


and 4x1.1). Analysis o f the first colon o( a t I* 11.1 as a heiasyllable is provisional. There will ultimately be good reason to read aetate as a tetrasyllable ($3.3.1.! with 11.4$).

Twcnty-cwo heptasyliabic cola alternate with nine hcxasyllables as the first half-verse, and twenty-three hexasyllabic second cola alternate with six pentasyllables and two hcptasyllables. O f the combinations o f cola according to syllable count just invento­ ried, hepta- + hexasyllabic is the most strongly attested combination in the verses of the control group. Under the assumption that one syllable occupies one verse posi­ tion, and based on the raw numbers, the initial hypothesis can be made that the Sa­ turnian is a bipartite thircecn-position line divisible into 7 || 6, whence dodecasyllabic 7 II 5 and £ II 6 and hendccasyllabic 6 || 5, as well as the outlier 6 || 7, may be derived. In light o f these tendencies, C1L I* 11.6 with 7 || 7 seems suspicious.

lu l u l'rrit ■ I


Korsih (18A8: 40) was the first to notice the tendency for certain half-verses to subdivide further into quarters, most frequently immediately before the third syllabic from the end ot the first colon. Cole (1969: 19) extends the now eponymous caesura

Korscbuna to include incidence o f word boundary before the third syllable from co­ lon-end ( V : * in table y.x below), as well as before the prc-antepenultimatc syllable (> > ')• Table u

Colon-internal word boundaries in control-group SarurniansS . o All cola 4 17 i M M i l l Heptasyllabic



a_, 1“






Seven-position cola

1 3



Line-Level Patterns

It might suffice to capcure line-level m etrical p atterns by the sim ple generalization that colon types com bined freely, as C ole (see § a n d o thers (e.g., Bergfeid 1909, Zander 1918, and Luiselli 1967) have done. However, n o t all colon com binations are attested, and the unattested com binations m ight be eith er accidental gaps o r system­ atically excluded. 1 take up this issue after surveying the patterns. Excluding lines with either a ccxtually insecure o r accentually uncertain first o r second colon (see (18) and (31) above), the m eter can be discovered from ninety-eight secure verses and described on the level o f the line. These verses fall into five broad groups according to colon combination: (i) seven-position first-colon types + ccphaious second-colon types, (ii) the reverse order o f these, (iii) seven-position first-colon types + acephalous se­ cond-colon types, (iv) acephalous first-colon + cephalous second-colon rypes. and (v) acephalous first-colon proposed scansions.)


acephalous second-colon types. (See A ppendix A for the

The Latin Saturnian Merer j . 4 .1


T H I R T E E N - P O S I T I O N L IN E S

O f the ninety-eight secure verses that can be used to discover and describe the meter, the majority show combination pattern (i), seven-position first cola + cephalous se­ cond cola, These sixty-five lines with thirteen positions can be further differentiated with reference to the type o f second colon. The trochaic-amphibrachic first colon and its anaclastic derivatives combine with an amphibrachic second colon in fifty-five verses and with an anaclastic second colon in ten. The mirror arrangement with sixposition first colon + seven-position second, group (ii). is instantiated by five secure lines. Thirteen-position verses thus number seventy and constitute the bulk of the secure corpus.

4 | j andAnacLutuDerivaives + y | j

With a cadence o f underlyingly amphibrachic / “ ' « I » ’ » /, fifty-one verses open with trochaic metron + amphibrach and two wich podic-anaclastic

two with metron-anadastic 1

O f the fifty-one secure

lines w ithout anaclasis in the first colon, six scan as pure: (♦ 7 )

Naev. 10.1 IV >

Epigr. Naev. 1 C IL

blind1et dôctc | peredntat || Acnêa [ quô pictô pdstquam ivcm | aspéxit || in témplô | Anchisa immortîlës | mortàlês || si fi&ret | fas Acre

I» II.)

qudiei vita | dêfecit || non hônôs | honôie(m)

$ 6

innés gnîtus | (viginti) || is 16ceis | mandatus

n£ quairâtis | honôre(m) || quei iminu1) sit | mandatus

Thirty-three verses show m ism atch o f phonological accent and m etrical prom inence. substituting dactyl for an iphibrach in th e pre-cadcntial th ird quarter-verse: ( 4 *)

Andr. 1

virum mihi | Camina || insece | versutum


tuque mlhi | nirrité || ômnia | dislrtim


plrtim érrant | ncquinont || Grlcciam [ redire


slncta piler | SicAmi || filia | rêgina

■4 IS.I Naev. 1 VI

litrum génu-1‘ ampldctens || virginem | ô rirtt

Ibi minens | sedêtô || dônicum | vidfbis nAvem IAvis | concArdls || filiæ | sorôtês ndctû Trôiàd | exibant || idpiitibus | opdras (limes lm b“ a - 1bcAntcs || llcrimis j cum mdlris


pitrem sAum | suprëmum || dptumum | appdllat


ltah< l'trs t • \


Naev. 18 it »4 -» IS» II Ï5

46 68 A/«. vtn. Epigr. Naev. 1 ï

Incerti $ CIL I1 10.1

5 7

CIL I1 11.2 4

CIL I1 IIO I.3 CIL I1 1531.2

Î Tab. Giab. Incerti 6

O vénit I in méncem || hbminum | fortunas iimqu* eïüs méntem Jforrùna || fëcerat | quiêtem sinctus lève | prognatus || Pythius | Apôllô sicr* in ménsà | Peniti-11“■drdine | pônüntur hfrunt pûlchràs | crérérris || iureas | lepistis scopis itque | verbenas || sigmina | sumpserunt (Sîcùliênsês | paciscit || dbsidcs | ut réddant lipud empdri-1"" in cimpô || hôstium | prô mdene miium dibunt | Mecéllî || Nieviô | poêtae flerent divae | Camenae || Nievium | poetam (tatque postquam | est Ôrchi || traditus | thésiurô dccursâtrix | artcJfiicum || pérdita | spinturnix iqu" ipi)cw rem géras | et cviJois || ddrmiis | (sino quri pirëns timêns | heic vôvit || vôtô hoc | soluto (décu)ma ficti | po(l)lducci || léibereis | lubéntês fiindic fügat | prôstérnit || miximis | degi>ônês summis dpês | qui regum || regiis | refregit mignum mûmorum | triumphat || hdstibus | devictis

Three more specimens show second-paeonic substitution o f the initial trochaic metron in addition to the m ismatch in the third quarter-verse: (49)

Andr. 6 *9

Naev. 42

argéneeô | po(l)lûbrô || lured | eclûtrô Mercurius | cumqu* éô || filius | Litônis supérbiter | contémptim || côntcrit | deghônes

In four verses (50), the closing amphibrach o f the first colon is realized w ith a dactyl by m ismatch (Naev. 39.1 and 51.1 show dactylic substitution in the third quarter-verse in addition; mismatch occurs in all b u t the final m etron o f e u I 2 7.1). (50)

Naev. 39.1

(ôpper (icit I hdminês || ut prius | fuérunt virum prietor | idvenit || iuspicat | ausipfeimm

Naev. 51.1

mignum stüprum | pdpulo || fieri | per gémis

CIL I2 7-1

Cornélius | Lucius || Scipiô | Barbatus

Andr. 15

T h e L atin S a tu rn ia n M eter


And in five lines {51), dactyls realize the line-final amphibrach (Naev. 39. c m 11 lo.a. 6 , and n o 1.1 have dactylic third quarters as well, and the non-initial quarter-verses o f c i l i* 1551.4 are all dactylic). (51)

Naev. 59 CM. I* 10.1

6 CM I1 1101. 1 CM I1 15)1.4

mignae mftüj | tumultus || péctori | pAutdct mAts perfecit | ty* ut Assent || Omnia | brévia quârë lùbêns | t* in igrémiiu(m) || ScipiA | réopit hAc esi fictum | imonuiméntum || Miarcô Cai-1cfliô dônu(m) dinunt | Hétcolei || mizsumé | méretô

Rounding o u t the large set o f thirteen-position lines, four secure verses have anaclastic first cola: an aclasis o f m etra operates in tw o (51a). and podic anaclasis applies in two others (51b).



The Saturnian line

Underlyingly am p hibrachic ) 13 / v ' v | v ' - / , cardinally th e second half-verse, gives / . ' v - l - - / by anadasis (CP in figure 3.6, w here permissible operations o f a n ad asis are indicated by dashed lines), an d suppression o f colon-initial position by acephaly (® ) fu rth e r p roduces / a ’ - I - ' - / and / a " - - 1 ‘ am phibrachic 4 | 3

Fr om underlyingly crochaic-

~ I - ‘ v./, cardinally che first half-verse, can be derived am ­

phibrachic-trochaic 3 14 / » ' - I ' - ' w/ by anadasis o f m etre (® ) an d by a n a d asis o f feet () 5 11 / ' w - ' - I ' -A The cardinal 4 13 and anadastic 3 14 types also give rise

*0 io d it acephalous variants

t u l i t Vtr>t • ) and


'- I ' -


(®), the realizations of

which look on the surface like those o f cardinal ; | ) and anaclastic 4 | z second-colon forms. Finally, the order o f cephalous first- and ccphalous second-colon types can be inverted by anaclasis o f the half-verses (®): acephaly and half-verse anaclasis are mu­ tually exclusive.

In the chapters that follow, I discuss chc rules o f Sacumian scansion (C hapter 4), after which I evaluate the proposed m eters rcstrictiveness further, and aspects o f formal stylistics with specific regard to the structure o f chc Saturnian (C hapter s). W ith me­ ter and structure-sensitive principles o f poetic composition in hand, problematic vers­ es and putative Satumians can be examined (Chapters 6 -7 )- I conclude Part 1 on Latin verse with descriptions o f three syllabo-tonic meters, one related to the Sacurnian and cwo others similar to each ocher: the m onocolon chat is equivalent to the long half-verse o f chc Sacumian, the trochaic tetrapody, and dactylic tetrapody (Chapters 8-9). After investigation o f Faliscan and Sabellic poetic remains in Part 11 in light of Latin, I consider the Larin Saturnian s formal historical developm ent from prehistory up to the extreme point o f its obsolescence in the Rom an poetic tradition.





T he ta sk o f th e p re s e n t c h a p te r is to presen t th e rules o f Saturnian scansion, o n e su b ­ set o f w h ic h p e rta in s to syllabic alignm ent an d inform ed th e discovery o f th e m ete r ad van ced in C h a p te r 3, a n d th e o th e r subset governs accentual alignm ent a n d brin g s t o lig h t bylaw s o f arch aic L atin accen tu atio n h aving to d o w ith weak stress a n d clitics. T he la tte r su b set o f rules, c on sistin g o f M is m a t c h , th e R e l a t iv e St r e s s P r i n ­ c ip l e ,

tC L A SH , a n d th e ex ceptionality o f monosyllables, is less fam iliar to readers o f

C lassical verse a n d req u ire typological com parison w ith o th er « e ll-k n o w n system s o f sy llabo-to nic versificatio n like English trad itio n . The form er, encom passing resolu­ tio n . synizesis, ( p ro d -) elision, a n d h iatus, is fam iliar to readers o f qtianririzing t a rin p o etry , a n d so I b e g in w ith these.


Syllabic Alignment

The fu n d a m e n ta l ru le o f scansion governing the alignm ent o f syllables in th e S a tu rn i­ an, as in fam iliar q u a n titativ e verse o r in m ost o th er m etrical systems, is alm o st so basic as t o n e e d n o fo rm a l sta te m e n t, b u t to be explicit: (6j)

O n e -Syllable M in im u m The minimal content o f a metrical position is a syllable.

The ex cep tio n s, how ever, a re a d ifferen t m atter: som e syllables arc n o r aligned to m e t­ rical p o s itio n s (th in k anacrusis a n d hyperm etry). an d som e m etrical p o sitio n s allow tw o syllables. P ick in g u p o n de G ro o t's ( 1 9 3 4 : 1 9 ° ) observation th a t *[i]I est im possi­ ble d e dé c id e r si l’c lisio n est adm ise q u elq u e part,* C o le (1 9 6 9 :1 0 ) seated th a t ‘th ere is n o evidence to in d ic a te ho w closely Satu rn ian practice w ith regard to synizesis, eli­ sion. a n d h iatu s a pp ro xim ated th a t o f later p o etry * C o le goes o n to specify th a t, fo r him , c o rp u s-in te rn a l tendencies rake precedence over th o se in o th er w ell-u n d ersto o d Latin verse in d e cidin g a m o ng alternative scansions, i.e„ w h eth er a process applied o r no t. T his is th e general app ro ach chat investigators o f che Saturnian cake. B ut. w h ile itself valid, a d o p tio n o f th e approach has led m etrists to p o u r co tp u s-in tem ally in c o n ­ sistent. c o n trad icto ry , a n d ad ho c scansions for che sake o f cheir p ro p o sed m eters. Be­ cause th e Larin o f A n d ro nicus a n d N aevius is essentially th a t o f Plautus a n d E n n iu s,

Italic l ’erse ■ 4 regardless o f their chosen m eters, w h at is n atu ral for Plautus an d Ennius should also be $0 tor Andronicus and Naevius. Therefore 1 a d o p t an alternative approach here and. like Kloss (199.1: 90ft.) and Parsons (1999). w h o were sensitive co Plautine met­ rical practices, expect such rules as synizesis, elision, a n d h iatu s to apply in Saturn ians in a similar if n o t identical way as in qu an titativ e poetry. The m eter proposed in C hapter 3 has in fact followed from , n o t preceded, th is expectation. It remains to de­ scribe the conditions o f che o peration o r in o p eratio n o f these fam iliar rules o f scan­ sion in an unfam iliar m eter. 4 *1 -1


In chirty-two textually secure cola o f th e corpus, thirty-seven sequences o f adjacent light syllables in cephalous cola m ust som etim es be accom m odated w ith in single verse positions. I f we understand th e O n e -Sy ll a b l e M in im u m (63) in durational terms, whereby th e m inim al c o ntent o f a m etrical p o sitio n is o n e m ora, w e can state the cor­ responding upper limit:


Bimoraic Maximum The maximal concern of a metrical position is one or two syllables with the dura­ tion of two morae.

Per F r a e n k e l -T h ie r f e l d e r -S k u t s c h (introduced in $1.1,1, w ith n.18), formulat­ ed for quantitative iambic sequences, b u t w hich I take to be operative in accentually iambic sequences as well, no tw o adjacent m etrical positions are resolved. In almost all cases, the resolutions arc internal to single w ords o r clitic groups, observing H e r m a n n -L a c h m a n n ’s rule against ‘exposed’ o r w ord-final resolution ($1.1.1) and Rj t s c h l 's barring ’split resolution’ or resolution across independent words (cf. $ in connection w ith Kloss 1993). H ere I describe th e loci o f resolution within Saturnian cola, proceeding type by type in th e same o rd er o f th eir treatm ent in $$3.3.1-!. The few exceptions to H e r m a n n -L a c h m a n n are m ore properly treated w ith rules o f accentual alignm ent. 4.1 .

i .1

Amphibrachic Cola a n d AnacUtstic Derivatives

In the am phibrachic colon /y \ Y I Y 1y /. first (63a), second (65b), fourth (63c), and fifth positions (63d) can be resolved. Resolution co-occurs w ith m ismatch (sec $4.1.1 below) in Naev. 3.1 (63a). The exposed resolutions in cil I1 11.6 (63b) and 1101.3 (6jt)

R ules o f S aturnian Scansion a p p e a r t o v io la te H

erm a n n

-L a c h m



. o n w h ic h see $ $ 4 .1 4 .1 a n d


lively. (65)


Naev. j.i

(clpiitibus 1oplrtb $


CIL 1* 11.6



Nacv. 41

côntcrit | ilegiânês • pôpulum 1(pcpuiiisti 9 dôrmiàs | isineiqùrâ 9 rniumis | degiiônês $

61 CIL I1u o i.j Tab. Glab.


Nacv. 39.1 Si CIL I1 10.)

---- U - i

sii | mandatus $

iuspicat 1au&picimm 1 sub ùnum | iüidiciium 9 glôri* at-1qu* inigéniium $

--I---I---» - I — 1 - i ' - l ---- «

The representation o f the cardinal second-colon form can be made more precise to / ' û ' - w l ' û ' : “ /, where /"î '], [' -] with mismatch [- ", - -] with resolution, and [- “ ] with mismatch and resolution. Acephaly and resolution are mutually cidusive. The resolution pattern can then be regulated in simple terms with reference to the amphibrach’s constituent structure (cf. figure 3.1), i.e.. resolution is restricted to the binary-branching strong position of the ternary foot. F r a e n k e l - T h ie r f e l d e r - S k u t s c h «eludes [t~~]. The constraint against resolution o f both positions in a quantitative iamb is it propos here and more widely applicable to accentual iambic sequences. Also naturally cicludcd are [ f -] with mismatch and resolution of second position and doubly resolved [ t- -) • - / -



again contra F r a e n k e l-T h ie r fe ld e r- S k u ts c h . [ t '- ] is an impossible scansion in Latin tetrasyllables or longer, given syllable grouping rules (sec Mester 1994). and configurations with more than one word might run afoul of Herm ann-Lachm ann and/or R i t s c h l . There are only two specimens of anaclastic /v i y y 11 y/ with resolution (66). Andr. 30 has a resolved first position with trochaic substitution of the second paeon, and the cadenrial trochee o f App. i.i has resolved ictus.


Andr. 50 App. 1.1

# ilgiiturdém“ U-1liai Itrécia | ipiriut $

1' “

As in amphibrachic cola, Andr. 30 demonstrates that resolution and mismatch can operate simultaneously, but it is unclear from the limited data whether [*- “ I] would also be allowed;

is theoretically possible and can be filled, e.g.,

Ita lic l ' t n t • 4


by c in /lte J m u r 'let us confess'. 1 tentatively posit that the loci o f resolution are, as in amphibrachs. the strong positions o f the second paeon and cadcntial trochee, - w I • w/ (cf. figure ?.}), whence

« - I,

- - I] (possible accentuations and

scansions in the Latin o f the era, c.g., temerarius 'heedless’ [P 1.+ ] and difficilia 'diffi­ cult' [PI.+]) and [- - ' “ I,

; ' - I] with mismatch. Given the constituent structure,

unattested [ t - - I) would be illicit for

- I/, derived by anaclasis from



remains a weak position in the structure. F r a e n k e l - T h i e r f e l d e r - S k u t s c h would rule out [ t — w —1J. and [ t - " - - I, t~ ' ~ w I] are impossible in Latin phonol­ ogy. The representation o f the anaclastic colon can thus be made m ore precise to /■£■ -i - - I -

on which mismatch and resolution can operate. Acephaly and resolu­

tion are again mutually exclusive.

Trochaic-Amphibrachic Cola and Anaclastic Derivatives


Nineteen tcitually secure cola o f the type /( y ( y I y l y / show resolution in first (67a), chird (67b), fifth (67c), and sixth position (67d). a.

Naev. 4 6

t (Slci)liënsës | paciscit


t ;ipuxi empdri-1

Epigr. Naev. 3 4



# dtaique pdstquam | est Ôrchî dôquiier lingua | Latina #

CIL I1 7.6

# (subiigit dmnc(m) | Loucina(m)

CIL I1 10.1

# tqu” ipiic^”1insigne | Diilis


# (décuimâ fileta | po(l)lducti

Andr. )

# méa ipûcira | quid vérb' ex

Incerti 7

# mlgnum intimorum | triümphat

§ ' wi—~ 1

Naev. 9.1

# sénex frêtus | ipiorâtci

S4 CIL I110.4

# simul illitus | taiimnde

1$'— «1


„ - - 1- ' -

“ “

$ iquibu ’>s" in Idngâ | dicu)/(s)ser

i CIL t2 1201.1 l d.

in dm p d

# (fiici)le ficteis | (supora(s)sës # h6c est fictum | unonutméntum


# hôspes grâtum 'st | iqu°" apud) méâs

0 -J -;

Andr. 23 Inceni

# qulndô dlês | adivénitct

CIL l1 10.6

# quire lubêns | d in igrémiiu(m)

CIL i11101.3

# ibénej rem géras | et tvileiis

# becursâtrix | aritifitcum

“ - 1- ”w

j - . '. l - "

R ule* o f S a tu rn ia n S cansion


Naev. 54, CIL l ! 10.4, 5 (6 7 c). a n d cil 11 1101.) (é7 d ) have tw o revolved positions. I discuss th e a p p a re n t excep tio n s to H e r m a n n - L a c h m a n n in Naev. 68 (67a) and

CIL I1 n o t .} in § 4.1.5.! a n d tho se in

cil I1 10.4 an d

CIL I1 1101.1 (67c) in §4.1.64. The

resolution p a tte rn in th e am p h ib rach ic fo o t can be captured once m ore by /'* ' - - / , which p red ic ts [ - - “ ] w ith m ism atch . Resolution in th e trochaic m etron is localized to positions 1 a n d 3, i.c.. th e s tro n g p ositions o f the trochaic feet, so / - - - - / (cf. fig­ ure 3.5). In p rin c ip le , seq uences o f I"— ' - J th at satisfy H e r m a n n - L a c h m a n n an d RiTSCHL w o u ld also escape F r a e n k e l - T h i e r f e l d e r - S k u t s c h . b u t if resolution is restricted co s tro n g p o s itio n s w ith in feet, [ t — ' ~] can be excluded. It is unclear from the lim ite d d a ta h o w o r w h e th e r m ism atch and resolution can boch operate u p ­ on the tro c h a ic m e tro n , given a c o n s titu e n t stru ctu re / [ [ '

d istin ct

from / [ [ [ - 'Jiirong w] skm “ ImcMoi./ o f th e derived second paeon o f th e second co lo n . 1 te n ­ tatively p o sit t h a t th e ru les c a n c o o p e ra te b u t p ro d u ce only [ ■ '* ''- « ] as th e licit o u t­ come, [ t -

b e in g ex clu d ed by L atin phonology.

O n ly chrec a n a d a s tic c o la in th re e verses have resolved positions: first p o sitio n in the a m p h ib rac h s o f 3 | 4 in A p p . 1.1 (6 8 a) a n d o f 5 11 in Naev. 37.1 (68b) a n d first in the o p e n in g tro c h a ic fo o t o f 5 11 in A n d r. 17 (68b). (68)


App, i . i

# liniimicus | s i's commfntus

$* ' - I'


Andr. 17

# (slmu)l ac licrim is | d* ore


Naev. 37.1

# üric ipopuilitur | vlstat


- - I - I' -

(An a p p a re n t e x c e p tio n to H e r m a n n - L a c h m a n n , # rsim wlat [A ndr. 17] is p ro so d ­ ic w o rd -in te rn a l, b e in g o n its w ay to u n iv erb a tio n — o p tio n ally reflected in th e s ta n d ­ ard o rth o g ra p h y o f th e C lassical lan g u ag e— a n d gram m aticalizad o n as a single com p le m e n tiz e r ‘as s o o n as, at th e m o m e n t th a t’, w h ic h ru n th e ir course by th e tim e o f Lucilius th e sa tiris t in th e se co n d c e n tu ry BCE [o l d s.v. sim ul 10].) I f card in a l 4 [ 3 can be re p re s e n te d b y by / '* ' - ~ I ~ 4 .1 .1 .)

~ I "S' - « / , th e n m ctro n -an aclastic 3 1 4 can be c a p tu re d

a n d p o d ic-a n a cla stic 5 11 by / - - "S' - - I - - / .

L in e -L e v e l R e g u la tio n !

I f the S a tu rn ia n lin e c a n b e fo rm a liz e d to c a p tu re th e a lte rn a tio n s allo w ed by th e COMPARATOR m o re p rec isely as / ( ~ ) « ~ ~ I ^

! ( ' * ' ) - - /

a verse can have as m a n y as five re so lu tio n s, e.g„ [*~ ~ ~ - I - ' « ( -

(cf. figure ).6 ). wI - '

H ow ­

ever, a lm o st all o f t h e ex a m p le s o f r e s o lu tio n gach crcd in §§ ab ove a rc single

l u l u V tru ■4


. I k cKipOom i n Naev, 44. £.7/. I ' »0.4, and 1 (67c) with two 1per k c . and c il I* 11014 ( (X )

(l 0 7 ) X

(X XlX

In (grémiiufm)





prie pavere

isinei qdrl

ip u d n^mph""

L-.A J! IX ) x

Yet another problem is posed by three prepositional phrases (108) co n sistin g o f disyl­ labic preposition + monosyllabic function w ord at object in verse-final m etra w here arnphibrachs are favored over dactyls 11 ; 1 (tee $4.1.1). T h u rn e y ie n follow ed the grammarians and scanned these phrases as anapeste, so apud v ii (1885:16).

Rul e s o f S a t u r n i a n Scans i on (108)


N itv. )4 e u . i* 7.4

I inter (U) » | apud vissa


eu. I1 9,4

|a |p u d v 6 s f


I - 'i- #> I. 1>

If accen tu atio n was o rd ere d b efore proclisis. th en these phrases w ould K an a* dactyls by W e a k S t r e s s t o I c t u s . I f proclisis preceded accentuation, these w ould K an as am phibrachs, w h ic h L indsay p referred (189)3: 14a after Keller 188): 41. codified in Leum ann 1977:

1 in clin e to w ard s th e o rd erin g o f accentuation before proclisis.

and I ten ta tiv e ly a d o p t da c ty lic scansion o f th e phrases in (108). b u t th e m atter c a n ­ n o t be d e c id e d fo r th e tra n s itio n a l stage o f th e Latin at th e tw ilight o f Satu rnian ver­ sification. 4 .» .7


W e have so far h a d n o n e e d to refe r to accen tu atio n above th e level o f th e w o rd o r clitic g ro u p ; th e ru les o f acce n tu a l alig n m en t in th e Saturn ian refer to w ord-level stress. In d ee d , it rem a in s an y o n e's guess w h a t th e n a tu re o f phrasal accent was in larg­ er syntactic c o n s titu e n ts o f L a tin a n d h o w it was assigned.'* W e can. however, be sure th at th ere was su ch a th in g as p h rasal accen tu atio n in L atin, w hereby m em b ers o f phrases b o re d iffe rin g p ro m in e n c e s at a h ig h er level o f syn tactic-p ho n olo gical c o n ­ stituency, a n d th e re is a h in t o f th is in h o w phrases are set w ith in th e S a tu rn ia n line. 4 .1 .7 . i

The Placement o f Continuous Bipartite Determiner Phrases w ithin the L in e

O n closer in sp e c tio n , th e fo rty -se v e n c o n tin u o u s b ip artite d e te rm in e r phrases (" d m *) In th irty -n in e tcx tu a lly secure verses e x h ib it n o te w o rth y behavior. T he p o e ts ap p e ar to have p re fe rre d p la c in g u n s c ra m b le d sim p le DPs th a t con sisted o f h c a d f a d ju n c t in


In their recent study o f word order in Classical Latin literary prow. Devine and Stephens do not make *a serious attempt to work out a coherent theory* of phrasal accentuation and only ’tenta­ tively recognise three levels o f [binary branching) prosodic structure: the word or clitic group (...) the minor phrase (...) and the intermediate or ma|or phrase,* and on each of these levels the left member bears greater prominence (Devine and Stephens lo o t: ay-to). Set the interesting discus­ sion of the problem and a recent attempt at a 'coherent theory* by W Khtcr (1004).

Ita lic l 't r s f ■ 4


either order within c o b (use under it : i th an across cola.” By head I m ean a noun, pronoun, or substantive adjective, and by adjunct an adjective, dem o n strativ e, o r modifying genitive. Assuming th at continuous syntactic c o n stitu e n ts arc also pro so d ­ ic entities and domains o f phonological accentuation above th e level o f th e w ord, the poets seem to have dispreferted placing phrasally accented c o n tin u o u s b ip artite d ps around the central caesura. I suspect th at this avoidance is tied to th e a rticu la tio n o f the line xactk kuXov, as well as stylistic m odvacion (sec $5.1.1 o n th e p lac e m en t o f the heads and adjuncts o f scrambled DPs w ithin the line). A continuous heady adjunct occupies the first m etro n in fo u rte e n verses (109a), th e second in three (109b). the th ird in five (109c), an d th e fo u rth in o n e (io 9 d ). These are short sequences o f chice to five syllables th at can be alig n ed t o th re e o r four metrical positions. Andr. ) ti

* sincta plier 1


t mill ta ili- 1■

Naev. fij •5

S eôrum sictam | t pirrem siium |


f ... d u s méntem |


# res di'vis|

»-1 $L1 cat 1* 7.5

# virum prietor |

t m ignum stuprum | # quôius firm a |

c it 1* 1551.1

# ... rê süâ|

Eieg. Cal i Incerti 6

* hunc dnum | f summis ôpês |


Andr. 3 18.1 34-1


# m ia cpûeira |

t mignum iniimeinun | 1quid v irb '... || 1nwlum piius || 1d ||6 n ‘ eôrum ||

For latin mote generally, Devine and Stephens (to e i: >14) observe chat ‘there arc no immediately obvioos n ils for the order of nominal arguments and adjuncts relative to the head, at least no ru ls that ate u p itu iU t in terms of the familiar syntactic categoria* or phonological rales. The constitocdcorder amid wdl be functionally driven.

Ru le* o f Sat u rn ian S tantion



Andr. 3 Naev. 37.1 *0.1

CIL I* il-S CIL I* 1531.1

Htg* 6re ... | Hr™ hdsciiim I Il sûôt pôpu-'làm» His I6ceis| Il vôtô hoc 1

czt 1*11.1

I hoc ussum $


The head largely precedes the adjunct except in Naev. 15,31, c a I* 1531., (,09a), Andr. 3,18.1

(109b), Naev. 37.1. 50.1, and CIL I* 1531.1 (109c). The heads are mostly nouns or

substantive adjectives except for the interrogative in Andr. 3 (109b); the adjuncts are genitives in Naev. 6.1, 11, 39.1, CIL I* 7.3 (109a). Andr. 3, 34.1 (109b), and Naev. 37.1 (109c), and adjectives m odify heads in the other seventeen examples. C ontinu o us

d ps

o f four syllables or longer are set around Konchs caesura in the

first colon in eight lines (110a) and in the second colon in twelve (uob). In four textually secure verses— three by Andronicus and one by a now forgotten poet—the head!adjunct straddle the central caesura (uoc). Andr. 6 18.1 Naev. 3.1 15.1 »• 48

# argénteô | po(l)lûbrô|| #... mire | sarvom|| # ... part” » - 1 ... || #... mênsà| Peniti-11” # ... pulchris 1 crètétTÎs || t àneràri-1* onùstae ||

Incerti 3

#... dfvae | Camënae || # àccursitrix | indfituiti ||

Andr. 4 6

II... Lâértie | ndstcr # Il iureô 1 cclùtrô #

Epigr. Naev. 1


Naev. é.i 8.J 18 Naev. 31

Epigr. Naev. 4 Incerti 3 CIL 1»».3

Il fÛius 1 Litônis# Il mùlti 1 monilis# II filii 1 Tinis # Il hàminum | fortunis # | | 4ureis| lepistis# II... Ungui 1 Larini# ||p 4 rdita| spintiimix # II fûios| Barbiti#


II gforiam | roaiénun #

Tab. GUb.

||miximis( ilegùônès#


l u l u i'trst • 4

no c.

Andr. ii | Sit ami || filia | it A t-1tincis|| filiam I to Incerti 6

U- ' liai || c o r... | | ... ncgum || rêgiàs |

Heads are on the left in ten o f these tw enty-three specim ens. T h e a d ju n cts are geni­ tives in twelve; potentially significant are th e four examples in ( h o c ) w here th e geni­ tive precedes the noun (cf. Naev. 18 (n o b )). In sum. o f the forty-seven continuous b ip artite DPs g ath ered in ( i o 9 ) - ( i i o ) , m in ­ imally trisyllabic and maximally octosyllabic before resolution, synizesis, glide for­ m ation. and (prod-) elision, all but four arc set w ith in m etra o r co la (see tab le 4 .4 ). Table 4


Lengths and settings o f continuous bipartite d p s Counts_____________ Colon-internal Trisyllabic

Across half-verses
















As for the ordering o f d p constituents, I n o te th a t ad ju n ct + head (19X ) is m o re th an one-and-a-half times as com m on as the reverse o rd er ( i8 x ) . H ow ever, n e ith e r th e o r­ dering o f constituents n or th e type o f ad ju n ct are m ean in g ful p re d ic to rs o f m etrical setting. R ather it is chc length o f th e phrase. Specifically, th e S a tu rn ia n p o e ts a p p e ar to have preferred to set continuous b ip artite d ps w ith undcrlyingly six o r few er syllables w ith in half-verses. W e can test che hypothesis chat th e s e ttin g o f s y n ta c tic -p h o n o ­ logical phrases around the central caesura was dispreferred w ith th e lo g -lin e a r m od el (see table 4.$; che rationale is discussed in § i.z .i.z , an d th e first ap p lic a tio n w ith som e further explanation o f th e log-linear m odel appeared in §3.3,3). E x a m in in g th e coeffi­ cients for different levels o f the factor Length show s a significant decrease o f fre q u e n ­ cies o f heptasyllables vs. shorter phrases, w ith a less th a n 1% p ro b a b ility o f chance accounting for th e decrease. This reflects th e fact th at, fo r w h a te v er reaso n , th e d ata do n o t attest heptasyllabic o r longer phrases as strongly as hcxasyllables o r sh o rte r.

R u l e s o f S a t u r n i a n S c a n s io n Table 4.5

R esults o f log-linear m odel Wciftht (In te rc e p t)

Standard error

Significance ‘


-0 .6 7

L e n g th k

p < o.oi

40’vs. jo


o .M

5O'VS. 1 - 4 0



6a vs. j-51*

» y im can * nàgnae m a n 1_ # côoanl censor | _ » etem l ccmer 1— # iBcidc fie ra 1_ $ é£mxo{m} Hamm \ * fondit fip s 1_ —1prie parère#

( a t I110-5

also a polypcoric pair and a t l1 155L4 an etymological hgme. O ne ex­ ample o f alliteration is found sex to nndafangjk’ 1 - ' — 1’ - / * Kiev, u (119b). which supports the analysis o f the anadasbc colon type as sta n d pacoo + troebre [c£ H s-)-i4 and y 5.1.7], b a t the alliterand and alluerant aie pan of a triplet, dim m ed shortly-) In tw enty-tw o secute verses, the members of twenty-four alliteijcing word p a t verse structure via identity o f word-initial onw n in the fin i and second (p w n n n e r. (n j)

Andr, 11 Andx.iS.1 Naer. 48 M et n o t CIL I 115)1.5 EJ*g. CaL x Naev.y) Naer. 6.1 Naer. .5 Naev. 54 a t i* 7a a u 'H a t i 1ia-4

♦ sancta —| Sicnnii || _ * ainupe | a ih n _ )| _ r borriri- “ onàuarj] _ ♦ niU m —1M a J i || _ a M m o l-|s ê -|| * fàfmM 1pmnirÉBB H _ _ émb~ a - 1beOntô |] _ _ Metam 1seqaéamr |j _ —«bem 1nqufw H _ _ tdlin>| < 0.03: cf. n .6 o ). T h a t is t o say, t h e r e is a lc s s -th a n 3% c h an ce chat th e p o e ts d id n o t in te n tio n a lly p re fe r t o m a r k h e m is tic h ic s u b s tr u c tu r e o v e r th e qu arter-v erse as a m etric a l e n h a n c e m e n t (cf. $ 4 .1 7 .1 o n t h e a v o id a n c e o f b rid g in g th e c e n tra l caesu ra w ith a s y n ta c tic -p h o n o lo g ic a l p h r a s e in o r d e r to p reserve a rtic u la tio n o f th e m e te r k « t 4 k ü \o v ).


Syntax and Meter

T u r n in g o u r a tte n tio n to h o w th e p o e ts ' s y n ta x c o rre la te s w ith t h e m e te r, le t u s c o n ­ sid e r th e s e ttin g o f p h rases a n d clauses w ith in lines. H e re I d e s c rib e h y p e r b a to n (cf. N PEPP 343, S.V.). th e d islo c a tio n o f d p c o n s titu e n ts , a n d e n j a m b m e n t ( n p k p p 339. s.v.),

th e * [n jo n -a lig n m e n t o f (e n d o f ) m e tric a l fra m e a n d s y n ta c tic p e r io d a t lin e -e n d ." T h e p o e ts ' w o rd -sc ra m b lin g a n d e n ja m b in g te n d e n c ie s, to g e th e r w ith s o u n d p la y , lend so m e su p p o rt to th e m etric a l s tru c tu re s I p ro p o se .

9.a. ■


T o th e fo rty-seven c o n tin u o u s b ip a r tite d p s e x a m in e d In $ 4 .1 .7 c a n b e c o n tra s te d e ig h te e n d isc o n tin u o u s h e a d fa d ju n c t sequ en ces In six te e n verses ( i i $ ) - ( n 7 ) , T heir sc ra m b lin g p a tte rn s give evid en ce o f th e a rtic u la tio n o f t h e m e te r x a r k xwkov. F o u r exam ples are o f c o lo n -in te rn a l d isc o n tin u o u s b ip a r tite d p s (11.3a), a n d fo u rte e n are o f sc ra m b lin g across th e half-verse b o u n d a ry ( i i s b ) - ( d ) . (113)


Naev. 3.» Naev. 61 CIL I* 11.1 c il

I 1 1101. 1

||U c rlm ls | iiltli* II hAtcium | ... mAcnc t * l* (v l)titc | ... pErvE U »

hAc ... I imonuimAmum ||

Sa tu rni an S t y li s ti c and M c i r i d Struct»,, b.

Andr. i

» virum... 1... I) ...|vrr»Citum# - iftngl 1... y ... 1vit! a

C IL I 1 IO. 4


Naev. lx


Andr. 14 Naev. 1


# prim*... 1... II Prfolrptiul

Naev. 11 Epigr. Naev. \ CIL l1 1101.1

Elog. CaL 1

1... Ictlls II ... 1Circatt |concdrdti|| ... 1tofôréfti 1O rem II ... 1p\itr# 1... ÔrcKl II ... 1thésâurft# 1... méls H ... 1«étdH# 1plùrimst II ... Igéntés#

Three o f these (115a) show leftward extraposition of head nouns in complet objects of prepositions to before their governing prepositions, and the constituents of one com­ plex subject bookend their verb (itself complex and in the marked order auxiliary at 4-

perfect passive participle). In two verses (u$b), the heads and their accompanying

adjuncts are scram bled into the opening and closing metra of their verses. The remain­ ing seven specim ens are scrambled into parallel metra, and the discontinuous mem­ bers are set in eith er the odd or even quarter-verses: in one verse (m e), the adjunct is verse-initial a nd the head post-cacsural; in six (u id ). one member of the DP doses the first colon an d the o th er the line (note the interlocking of two phrases in Narv. u ( ilic )/(d )). The c o n stituen ts o f discontinuous tripartite DPs admittedly have little room to maneuver w ith in th e line— they would be hard pressed to be all discontinuous—but In three o f th e fo u r examples (Naev. 1, c i l I1 9.1, and 10.1), the complex adjuncts are continuous an d are separated from their head, and in one (Naev. yi.i) the complex adjunct is discontinuous, w ith the demonstrative cleaved from adjective 4 - noun: M ) Naev. 1

Naev. yi.i

e u I* 9.1

CIL I1 10.11

f nftvem lftvls | ... || ffliac |

« ... (lifts I ... II fortlsslmfts | vlrfts I

t dyondro(m) | Aptumo(m) || ... | viro(m) a

# !...iphe*"1... I D ^ s p T m ln l s |

/ u t i c l'e r s t • s



K -a b L

N *abL



esru fk

' a p a if o



N -n om .

a j a ta i d h

rita ii

. m ^wnt



N -abl.

• wi^nmnin N-acc.

Fig, 13.i

Stylistics in AP 1. A-*B reading

From matereih to q o l o f l r d r is ten syllables, th en nin e to (m onosyllabic) path, eig h t to apaiüs, seven to manus, a n d mcitimhm is three. H e notes th e concatenative a llit­ e ra tio n o f q - / q - t h a t b in d s l l . i - i , p -/ p- ll.i- } , a-/ a- II.3-4, an d m -/ m- IL4-5. L o o k ­ ing a t w o r d o r d e r w ith resp ect to w o rd category and case form s, wc can also n o te th e ch iasm u s o f d a tiv e n o u n s -I- v e rb in l.i a n d verb -t- b ip artite ablative n o u n phrase in I.4. as w ell as o f t h e ad v erb s b o o k e n d in g ablative n o u n s in l.t an d th e b ip a rtite n o u n phrase d is tr a c te d a ro u n d th e adverb in I.3.



Quantitative-Syllabic Analysis


Eichner (i98S-i»»ob: 100-1) disposes the text into six lines, which he scans in a fiveposition quantitative metet (165). (i6 t)

m acereih .p a t e i e i h :



- --

q o l o f ir ü r .q a p i ir i h :

- - 1 i- -

a r i ü h :im ih ip /tf /ih

- -:-1

.p à p ü 'n tu n :(a p a iô s i '

c s n iflt:)a d s c a /i/tth : s / g / a i s . :i m a n a V m e t t i m i i i i i

-i* :* -1

The meter can be either a catalectic trochaic tripody /== “ sb

1 A/ or an aceph­

alous iambic tripody / a == “ JS ^ è / underlyingly. (Verses 1-5 can also be regarded as reiziana [see $1.3.1.! on Pasquali-Campanile's Saturnian].) In 1993a: 6 2. he has this to a y : “Wicder linden wir quantitierende Verscechnik m it Auflôsbarkeit von Hebung und Senkung zur Doppelkûrze, gelegendiche Iambenkiirzung, trochaischen Rhyth­ mus, italische VersfiiBe sratr griechischer Dipodien.” However, beneath this catalog of features tacher lurk some bugs. W ith respect to the phonology: p ü p û n u m (v.4) can also be read as /pôpônum /, a molossus, but necessarily a palim bacchiac by liaison of the nasal with apaius; adstaidh (v.5) is likely a tetrasyllable, quantitatively [ - - — ]; m anos (v.6) should be read / manuss/ (< ‘manufs < *manufos < ‘manufios) and thus scanned [- - ]. Eichner supports his pyrrhic scansion o f m a n u ' w ith his sim ilar treat­ m ent o f (povai)si':pid(aitdpas) in TE 5 (see $13.4.3 below), b u t it is inappropriate to assume a development resulting in [manu’] along the same lines as th at o f prevocalically pyrrhic post-Plautine Latin hospes < Plautine [hospess] [~ - ] < "hospets. In the metrical realm, even if pre-consonantal [manu1] were pyrrhic and thus scanned with resolution, assuming Latin-like prosody, the word does n o t form a tightly enough co­ hesive syntactic and thus prosodic unity with m citim àm to be permissible by the con­ straint o f H e r m a n n - L a c h m a n n against exposed resolution. M ost serious is

Eichner s purely taetri causa transposition o f estuflt and apaids in o rd er to achieve metrically uniform lines. A quantitative scansion o f the text as laid o u t by the inscriber and in light o f the stylistics brings out different but still incoherent patterns: (i£6)


miterei iparerei iqoioifëtor

------ :— :------

(qupe>rë(d) lari)ü(d) êmi(d) püë(d)



South Piccne Verte B


Pôpônum ettu flt a(p)pa|ôi adsncô(d) w(v)ais cnanu(s)i

_____ ------ —

m e irim o m


The tw o lines o f h u e A can be scanned as trochaic teuapodies (or dimetra), with the adjacent non-final light syllables in /ipaicnei 'qoloifrtor/ and /iqope>rë(d) ti(d)/ as resolutions. The lines arc otherwise decasyllabic. The first long line of fare b can be scanned as an iam bic tetrapody (or dimeter), but v.4 has a trochaic first half and iam­ bic second. Final / m citim om /, tremblingly in a line on its own. constitutes a crede m onopody. T hus no single quantitative meter can capture the patterns o f a p a.

SylLabo-Tonk Analysis

l y .y . t . a

A n accencual scansion yields a more coherent pattern (167). W ith the same resolu­ tions as in th e quantitative scansion, the two lines o f face A respond to the long lines o f h u e B. (167)



màterei (pdtorci (qôloilrtor ( q û p c ir t( d )


"- '




T he o d d lines c a n b e scanned as dactyl + trochee + dactyl and the even lines as trocha­ ic tecrap o d ics/d im eu a. (I return to the accentuation and scansion o f / tqôlorfctor ... â d s ta c ô (d )/

and th e treatm en t o f anapryctic trow els and resolution in 4i j .6 . o below.)

H ow ever, still discom fiting, dactylic /m dirim om / seems an afterthought. I ) .} .X


'S T A R T H E R E '

I f we tak e th e inscribcr s arrow in front o f p é p d n n m as a signal to ‘start here', th e text flows in sim ple boustrophedon, starting at the lower right-hand com er o f face b and en d in g a t th e low er left-hand co m er o f face a (contrast (165) above). ( 2 6t)


) [qolofetor]

[iqoloifetor] [- - - ] (178a)- If anaptyxis precedes accen­

tuation, as in Latin (and Paelignian [§14.5.3]), then (,)/q o lfë to r/ —►(>) [qolofëtor] -* [qdlofetor]

—* [iqôloifetor]

(178b). The outcom e o f accentuation +

anaptyiis has a long lapse and that o f anaptyxis + accentuation a falling m etrical clash (cf. rising clash in Latin [§4.1.3.;]), but resolution results in equivalent scansions to realize a dactylic foot /" - - / . O ther words lengthened by the insertion o f vowels in ap

i ‘~ * .4 - 5

are not probative o f either order; historical o r underlying disyllables be­

come trisyllabic by anaptyxis, and such chat are quantitatively anapestic [~ » - ] and accentually dactylic are scanned as trochees w ith resolution, so ip ate ire ih ( a p > ] , reading cerria (cf. §4.1.1 o n glid e fo rm atio n in Latin), billowed by octosyllabic


«]. H ow ever, c o n so n an ta l ; is unneces­

sary and ruins the isosyllabism. An accentual scansion w ith trisyllabic cerria brings our parallelism o f initial dactyls correlated with the parallel a llite ratio n a n d chiastic non-initial feet in concerc with the chiastic hyperbaton: (184)

sic ric rù cibat C frria Licina S ilüta silaus


Podic anaclasis has already been encountered in Latin S atu rn ian s (sec §, as well as m onocola (§8.4), and m v 7.1 instantiates a line type fo u n d in S o u th Picene m c 1.1, ap


and 4 (§§,13.5.1, and 15.5).


Like m v 7 in Vestinian, Paelignian survives in late inscriptions w ritte n in th e Latin alphabet, which arc probably also adulterated w ith L atin borrow ings. In d eed , Poccctti (1007b: 111-5) has noted verbal echoes in G reek an d Latin. The Paclignians lived in the northern cencral Appcnine region aro u n d Sulm o (m o d ern Su lm o n a) an d nearby Corfinium and have left behind about seventy inscriptions o n sto n es a n d som e coins. O f these, tw o epitaphs preserve the longest Paelignian texts we have, an d b o th are alleged to be poetic. These are always discussed together, w ith lo n g er Pg 9 tak in g most o f the focus and priority. But let m e start w ith sh o rter Pg 10. 14,5.1


The epitaph o f Gavis Anacs (185) is preserved o n a sto n e block fo u n d ac Pentim a around ancient Corfinium (sec Im Jt i 1 7 5 -4 , C orfinium 11). By its letter-form s and use o f the Latin alphabet, the inscription is dated to the m id-first cen tu ry o c e . The text has long been considered poetic for the obvious alliteration and verbal echoes

O tc a n V trie


w ith F ra g m e n t » a ttr ib u te d to Ap. Claudius Caeco» (*ee Blansdotf , , , , i t and i o n i) for th e te x t, w ith referen ces).17’ (185)

1 4 .). 1.1

p e f p r o f ecuf* intuba! casnar * oisa * aetate f a n a e f solois - dess forte faber

"Here lie» a dutiful, righteous old man, having enjoyed life: G(avit) Anaei. in all thing» rich, maker of (hit own) fortune*


Syntactic a n d p h o n o lo g ic a l rh eto rical figures recom m end Pg 10 for m etrical analysis. The c o m p le x s u b je c t o f th e scnccncc th a t spans epigraphic lines 1 and r, pes • pros * ... I

casnar » . is s c ra m b le d , a n d th e co m p oser o f the text has placed the adjectives initial in 1 a n d th e h e a d n o u n in itia l in a. T h e w riter continues the line-initial syntactic parallel­ ism w ith a tw is t, as it w e re : th e verb phrase ( a d v + v ) th at closes line 1 is in a loose A B B C -ty p e c h ia s m u s w ith th e ablative absolute (pple. +


final in 1: recall th e chi-

astic h y p e rb a to n in S o u th P ic en e t e a (see $13.1.1) *nd Vestinian m v 7 ($14.1.1). T he a llite ra tio n a n d a s so n a n c e o f p - p- t - i - !