IT Technologies: Career path in modern business. Applyng for a job

IT TECHNOLOGIES: CAREER PATH IN MODERN BUSINESS. APPLYING FOR A JOB - это учебно-методическое пособие для общеобразовате

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IT Technologies: Career path in modern business. Applyng for a job

Table of contents :
Vocabulary
1. To hustle (v) – поворачиваться, пошевеливаться (Get a hustle on! — Пошевеливайся!).
2. Full-time job (n) – полный рабочий день.
3. Part-time job (n) – частичная занятость.
4. To take somebody out (v) - вывести в свет, сводить в (кафе, ресторан, кино).
5. Under the table (idiomatic) - связанный с незаконной передачей (взятка).
6. To drop out of (v) - бросить университет, колледж, институт.
7. To be dead broke (sl) - разорившийся в пух и прах; совершенно разорённый; обанкротившийся; голый как сокол.
8. Long story short (idiomatic) – словом, короче говоря.
9. To keep in mind (idiomatic) - подразумевать; принимать во внимание; удерживать в памяти; вспоминать
10. Meetup (n) – митап, интервью (неформальное собеседование), встреча (неформальная), собрание.
11. Cover letter (n) - сопроводительное письмо, мотивационное письмо.
12. To adjust (v) - приспособить; адаптировать.
13. Ridiculous (adj) - смешное, смехотворный, смешной, нелепый, возмутительный.
14. To be interviewed (v) – проходить собеседование.
15. To apply (v) – подавать заявление на (работу, в университет, колледже).
16. CTO (abbreviation) - технический директор
17. BS (abbreviation) - Бакалавр наук.
18. To get out of smth (ph.v) - выходить из зоны комфорта, бросать.
19. To convince (v) - внушать (that), заставить, убедиться (of).
20. To be humble (v) - смиренничать, быть смеренным
Reading comprehension section
Focus on Grammar
Word Roots & Stems
Vocabulary Practice
Vocabulary (1)
Reading comprehension section (1)
Focus on Grammar (1)
Word Roots & Stems (1)
Vocabulary Practice (1)
Task 2.3: Use the word bank to identify the word that best completes the sentence.
Task 2.4.: Write the letter of the word that matches the definition.
Vocabulary (2)
Reading comprehension section (2)
Focus on Grammar (2)
Word Roots & Stems (2)
Vocabulary Practice (2)
UNIT 4 RECRUITMENT
Vocabulary (3)
Reading comprehension section (3)
Focus on Grammar (3)
Word Roots & Stems (3)
Vocabulary Practice (3)
5. Подбор персонала одна из самых сложных задач, которую приходится решать многим компаниям. Некорректный подбор персонала часто очень дорого обходится компаниям.
Vocabulary (4)
Reading comprehension section (4)
Obtain Necessary Certifications
Purchase Required Insurance Coverage
Develop Systems
Focus on Grammar (4)
Word Roots & Stems (4)
Rule: The suffix ous changes a noun into an adjective, like dangerous.
Task 5.2.: Fill in the blanks below, just as in the models. Give your own examples.
Vocabulary Practice (4)
Task 5.3.: Use the word bank to identify the word that best completes the sentence.
1. To hustle (v) - to proceed or work rapidly or energetically; to be aggressive, especially in business or other financial dealings.
2. Full-time job (n) - something that takes a lot of your time.
3. Part-time job (n) – for part of the day or week in which people work.
4. To take somebody out (v) - to go somewhere and do something with someone, usually something you plan and pay for.
5. Under the table (idiomatic) - If something is done under the table, it is a secret, hidden action.
6. To drop out of (v) - If a student drops out, they stop going to classes before they have finished their course.
7. To be dead broke (sl) - be completely broke.
8. Long story short (idiomatic) - used when you do not tell all the details.
9. To keep in mind (idiomatic) - to remember somebody/something; to remember or consider that.
10. Meetup (n) - a meeting, especially a regular meeting of people who share a particular interest and have connected with each other through a social-networking website.
11. Cover letter (n) - a letter that contains information about the thing it is sent with.
12. To adjust (v) - to change something slightly to make it fit, work better, or be more suitable.
13. Ridiculous (adj) - stupid or unreasonable and deserving to be laughed at.
14. To be interviewed (v) – to answer questions in an interview for a job or course.
15. To apply (v) - to make a formal request, usually in writing, for something such as a job, a place at college, university, etc.
16. CTO (abbreviation) - Chief Technology Officer
17. BS (abbreviation) - Bachelor of Science.
18. To get out of smth (ph.v) - to give up or stop a habit or a regular activity.
19. To convince (v) - to persuade someone or make someone certain.
20. To be humble (v) - to make someone understand that they are not as important or special as they thought
UNIT 4 RECRUITMENT (1)

Citation preview

Министерство науки и высшего образования Российской Федерации Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования «Томский государственный университет систем управления и радиоэлектроники»

Е. Ю. Надеждина

IT TECHNOLOGIES: CAREER PATH IN MODERN BUSINESS. APPLYING FOR A JOB. Учебно- методическое пособие по английскому языку

Томск ТУСУР 2019

IT TECHNOLOGIES: CAREER PATH IN MODERN BUSINESS. APPLYING FOR A JOB - это учебно-методическое пособие для общеобразовательной и профессионально-ориентированной подготовки по английскому языку магистрантов по специальности 11.04.02 «Инфокоммуникационные технологии и системы связи», 09.04.01 «Информатика и вычислительная техника», 09.04.04 «Программная инженерия», 12.04.03 «Фотоника и оптоинформатика», 38.04.05 «Предпринимательство и организация бизнеса в сфере информационных технологий», а также специалистов в области информационных технологий, которые хотят улучшить свои навыки общения на английском языке для академического и профессионального взаимодействия в рабочей среде. Пособие может быть использовано в рамках факультативного курса. Данное учебно-методическое пособие состоит из 5 юнитов, освещающих различные аспекты развития карьеры в сфере информационных технологий и коммуникаций, а также тренировочные лексические и лексикограмматические упражнения, необходимые для осуществления профессионального общения. Особое внимание уделяется созданию резюме и использованию речевого репертуара (Phrasal area), которые моделируют будущую профессиональную ситуацию и позволяют будущему специалисту быть мобильным на рынке труда.

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Content Unit 1. Unit 2. Unit 3. Unit 4. Unit 5. Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3

CAREER EXPERIENCE HARD AND SOFT SKILLS ONE NEEDS TO DEVELOP APPLYING FOR A JOB RECRUITMENT HOW TO START AN IT COMPANY VOCABULARY PHRASAL AREA/QUESTIONS FOR INTERVIEW KEYS

4 10 16 23 28 37 42 49

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UNIT 1: CAREER EXPERIENCE Vocabulary Directions: Study the following keywords and definitions. 1. To hustle (v) – поворачиваться, пошевеливаться (Get a hustle on! — Пошевеливайся!). 2. Full-time job (n) – полный рабочий день. 3. Part-time job (n) – частичная занятость. 4. To take somebody out (v) - вывести в свет, сводить в (кафе, ресторан, кино). 5. Under the table (idiomatic) - связанный с незаконной передачей (взятка). 6. To drop out of (v) - бросить университет, колледж, институт. 7. To be dead broke (sl) - разорившийся в пух и прах; совершенно разорённый; обанкротившийся; голый как сокол. 8. Long story short (idiomatic) – словом, короче говоря. 9. To keep in mind (idiomatic) - подразумевать; принимать во внимание; удерживать в памяти; вспоминать 10. Meetup (n) – митап, интервью (неформальное собеседование), встреча (неформальная), собрание. 11. Cover letter (n) - сопроводительное письмо, мотивационное письмо. 12. To adjust (v) - приспособить; адаптировать. 13. Ridiculous (adj) - смешное, смехотворный, смешной, нелепый, возмутительный. 14. To be interviewed (v) – проходить собеседование. 15. To apply (v) – подавать заявление на (работу, в университет, колледже). 16. CTO (abbreviation) - технический директор 17. BS (abbreviation) - Бакалавр наук. 18. To get out of smth (ph.v) - выходить из зоны комфорта, бросать. 19. To convince (v) - внушать (that), заставить, убедиться (of). 20. To be humble (v) - смиренничать, быть смеренным Reading comprehension section Hey fellow campers A little over a year ago, I was a student in Chicago. I was a classical double bassist hustling my way to get a job in a symphony orchestra. I went to school full time, had a part-time orchestra job, and a part-time dog walking job that I would do between classes, cycling from house to house for two years. Even though I could live, I was in a crappy place. I remember a number of times where after I paid all my study and living bills, I would have left around $3 in my bank account, and would have to borrow money from friends to buy groceries, or take my girlfriend out for a meal. On top of that, I was an international student, so half of my income was made under the table, and without studying there was no way I could afford any other visa to stay in the US. I had dropped out of college before because of a similar situation, 4

and for some reason convinced myself that I had to finish my studies in order to progress in life. At some point, I had a conversation with a high school friend who is a coder. He was doing super well and worked for himself, building apps for clients around the world. He got me thinking, actually, he got me obsessed about the idea to learn how to code. Enter free code camp I browsed everywhere online to find some way to learn how to code, and for someone who was dead broke, FCC seemed like the best resource for me. Long story short, two weeks into the HTML section I announced to my community that I would stagnate my studies and become a coder. My plan was to move to California and become a developer. My girlfriend's parents reluctantly agreed to let me stay with them in LA on the condition that I propose, and even though they were not happy with the situation, they let me stay with them and study full time. I was 27 and keep in mind that I barely had a dollar, had university debt, dropped out of college for the second time, and an illegal 'alien' resident without a driver's license, any kind of insurance. Getting the job, I never thought I would get When I arrived in LA, I started going to every meetup I could. At like my second one, I met a person with a startup that needed help with his React Native app. I did a lot of work on his app, which was in the AppStore and used that to apply for jobs. Before this point, I knew 0 people in tech, and found myself in a heavily saturated city, competing with people way better than me. I took whatever work one could give me, mostly coding out landing pages from designs and building WordPress sites. My passion though lied in JavaScript and really liked building mobile apps in RN. The people I worked with discouraged me from applying for JavaScript jobs because of my lack of experience. By this time, I had been coding for about 10 months, but I could not stop thinking about being a React dev. I applied to jobs every morning from 6 to 10 am, carefully crafting every cover letter and adjusting my resume based on the job demands, and then did my work for the agency after that, and at night I would learn more JavaScript. For just under two months, I had no luck, until I got an interview with the shadiest company ever. I got the job, but they were uncertain when I would begin working and the wage was ridiculous to even for a poor person like me. I really needed the money but I was convinced that it was not what I was looking for so I kept going. A week later, I got an interview with a company in Irvine, CA. I remember going in not knowing what skill, I was being interviewed for because I applied to three positions at that company, designer, frontend web and React Native. After two weeks that included two technical challenges and two interviews, I got the offer. I have been at this job for four months now and I am the only React Native developer in a company consisting mostly of native developers. Our company invests in promising companies and help them grow and make exits. So it is incredibly rewarding to work with talented engineers on one side, and motivated entrepreneurs on the other. The interview 5

My first interview was with the president and CTO of the company. No BS and we talked about my interests, goals and aspirations, followed by a coding challenge where I had to build a Node/ Express API with endpoints that performed calculations with certain parameters, like calculating the radius of two distances. I had an hour to do that. The following interview was discussing a React Native app I had worked on, talking about how I went about incorporating things. The next coding challenge was a take-home project. They sent me an outline of the app. I had three days to complete it. For both challenges, I tried to demonstrate two things, quality and speed. I finished the second challenge in two days and the API challenge in about 40 minutes. With that said, I was prepared. Preparation Four 12 months I coded 8 -10 hours a day, almost every day. I know many people do not think that is a good idea, but that works for me, and the truth is, I still do. Aside from building my skills, I had my fiancé sit down and ask me JavaScript questions every other weeknight for an hour or so (while applying for jobs). I would research every single interview question about React/ RN I could find and write out the questions and answers. I also practiced using online quiz apps and things like coders and the algorithm scripting challenges in FCC at ridiculously random hours (5:20 am or midnight), so that I could get out of my comfort zone and think whenever I needed to. Me a year later Looking back, things were not easy but making the decision to become a coder was the best decision I have ever made. If I did not, I would have probably been in Chicago with even more debt and frustration. I spent a total of $400 to learn how to code and now make more money than I thought was possible for myself not very long ago. I am also building a company in my spare time, which allows me to make new connections, keep the drive to code, and learn more every day. I think what is possible in tech is incredible, and I am super grateful to be a part of it. Why you should not be afraid to apply for jobs that you think are out of your reach I applied to all kinds of jobs. I think I applied to between 90 - 100 and heard back from about 4. Got two interviews and probably had two phone interviews. The part I want to emphasize though is that the job I ended up getting had a job description similar to this (no exaggeration): _"React Native developer, at least 5 years of mobile dev experience required, 7 years of web dev experience required, strong knowledge of Node.js and maintaining high traffic applications, testing." blah blah blah I never let that convince me I could not do the job so I applied to them all and ended getting that job. SO, just go for it and see what happens. Ultimately, you need to be a fast learner and have a great attitude, which is definitely the most important. Advice? Just do you, and do not give up, and if you are struggling to find a job, just try new things you have not tried yet. Do not let things get you down and stay focused. Pick 6

some language and just stick to it and go for it until you get it. In interviews, have confidence in your knowledge, but be humble in the way you present it. Question 1: Suggest a different title for this text. Why do you think that this would make a good title? Question 2: What connections can you make between the text and other texts, information, or experiences? Question 3: If you were asked to edit this text down to half its length, what details would you remove? Question 4: What is the main idea of this text? What details from the text support the main idea? Question 5: Write 3-5 sentences summarizing the text. Focus on Grammar RULE: The simple past is used for an action that took place in the past and finished without consequences in the present. It is associated with certain past time expressions:  frequency: often, sometimes, always frequency: often, sometimes, always I sometimes walked home at lunchtime. I often brought my lunch to school.  a definite point in time: last week, when I was a child, yesterday, six weeks ago We saw a good film last week. Yesterday, I arrived in Geneva. She finished her work at seven o'clock I went to the theatre last night  an indefinite point in time: the other day, ages ago, a long time ago People lived in caves a long time ago. She played the piano when she was a child. Task 1.1.: Identify how the simple past is used in the sentence(s) below 1. I spent a total of$ 400 to learn how to code and now make more money than I thought was possible for myself not very long ago. 2. If I did not, I would have probably been in Chicago with even more debt and frustration. 3. I think I applied to between 90 - 100 and heard back from about four. Got two interviews and probably had two phone interviews. 4. I networked and found someone I happened to know who knew someone with a design agency. 5. I have seen a couple of posts discussing the challenges of getting a job and just thought I would share my story to help motivate those who might need it. Word Roots & Stems Rule: The suffix ous changes a noun into an adjective, like dangerous. 7

Task 1.2.: Fill in the blanks below, just as in the models. Give your own examples. gaseous

gas + eous

furious mysterious spacious

(fury-y) + ious

nervous glorious

Above 100 degrees C., water becomes gaseous. When you pull her tail, the cat gets furious.

(nerves - es) + I was nervous when he drove fast. ous ______ ____________________________________

Vocabulary Practice Task 1.3.: Use the word bank to identify the word that best completes the sentence. adjust part-time ridiculous

covering letter Long story short under the table

to convince to keep in mind to apply

get out of full-time job was interviewed

1. Finding the right insurance for your needs is a … . 2. The EU has issued guidelines on appropriate levels of pay for …-… manual workers. 3. If you want to get a good apartment, you may have to give the manager some money … 4. …, I got fired. 5. Of course, repair work is expensive and you have to … that … 6. Please send a … with your application form. 7. You need time to … to a new situation. 8. The cause against this … and offensive invention would seem therefore to be lost. 9. It took a lot of persuasion to … the committee of the advantages of the new scheme. 10. If you … a routine, it is very hard to get back into it. 11. By the time, I saw the job advertised it was already too late to …. 12. I … for several jobs but I did not get any of them. Task 1.4.: Write the letter of the word that matches the definition. A. B. C. D. E.

To hustle 1. Bachelor of Science Part-time job 2. If a student drops out, they stop going to To take somebody out classes before they have finished their course Under the table (idiomatic) 3. If something is done under the table, it is a To drop out of secret, hidden action 8

F. To be dead broke 4. part of the day or week in which people work G. Long story short 5. a meeting, especially a regular meeting of (idiomatic) people who share a particular interest and H. To keep in mind have connected with each other through a (idiomatic) social-networking website I. Meetup 6. Chief Technology Officer J. Cover letter 7. to remember somebody/something; to K. CTO (abbreviation) remember or consider that L. BS (abbreviation) 8. be completely broke 9. to go somewhere and do something with someone, usually something you plan and pay 10. to proceed or work rapidly or energetically; to be aggressive, especially in business or other financial dealings. 11. a letter that contains information about the thing it is sent with 12. . used when you do not tell all the details Task 2.5.: For each of the words in the box, write an original sentence using the word. Circle the vocabulary word in each sentence. Be sure to write a sentence that would help the reader better understand the meaning of the word. to be broke BS long short

dead adjust

story

covering letter to convince

get out of

ridiculous

under the table to apply

meetup

CTO

interview to take somebody out

part-time job

Task 2.6. Translate sentences from Russian into English. 1. Чтобы я смог чего-то добиться как программист, мне пришлось выйти из зоны комфорта и больше уделять время изучению новых языков программирования. 2. Короче говоря, ему пришлось устроиться на полный рабочий день после того как он разорился в пух и прах. 3. Технический директор даже не посмотрел на мой диплом бакалавра, а сразу дал несколько заданий чтобы я мог показать свои знания на навыке. 4. Она решила бросить университет и найти работу на неполный рабочий день, чтобы ей хватало времени заниматься своим хобби. 5. Наши постоянные встречи проходили по четвергам и позволяли нам скорректировать план на следующую неделю. 9

UNIT 3 HARD AND SOFT IT - SKILLS ONE NEEDS TO DEVELOP Vocabulary Directions: Study the following keywords and definitions. 1. Employee (n) – служащий. 2. Erudition (n) – эрудиция. 3. Flexible (adj) – гибкий. 4. Position (n) - должность. 5. Precedence over (n) – приоритет в чем-то. 6. Profile (n) - анкета, профиль, биографическая справка. 7. Significant (adj) – особенный, ёмкий, содержательный, важный. 8. An emerging issue (phr) - актуальный вопрос. 9. To implement (v) - применять на практике. 10. To formalize (v) - оформлять, делать официальным. 11. Deadline (n) - крайний срок 12. Settlement (n) - соглашение 13. Negotiation (n) - переговоры 14. Evaluation (n) - оценивать, определять (качество, количество и т. д.). 15. Resolution (n) - разрешение (проблемы) 16. To insist (v) - настаивать. 17. To determine (v) - устанавливать, определять. 18. Correspondence (n) – переписка. 19. Approach (n) - подход. 20. In descending (v) - по убыванию. Reading comprehension section Importance of Hard and Soft Skills employees for IT companies In one of the communities decided to evaluate which skills are important for IT companies when selecting candidates. The result of the survey of managers. Hard skills – technical skills related to the activities carried out in the field of formalized technologies: office work, logistics, programming and other operational and technical activities. Despite the fact that professional skills should be more meaningful for the programmer, nevertheless "flexible skills" take precedence over them. Soft skills – are among the social skills: persuasion, approach to people, leadership, interpersonal communication, negotiation, teamwork, time management, erudition, creativity and so on. They determine the success of the work in their field, the team, in the team – with other people. Let us take a look at how hard and soft skills compare for one specific profession, an executive assistant position. For example, the candidate possesses both hard skills and soft interpersonal abilities for the position of Big Data Engineering: 10

Hard skills may include: - -Python - JavaScript - Java - Apache Hadoop - Apache Spark - Excel - Computer science - Data visualization Soft interpersonal skills may include: - Strong communication - Leadership - Adaptability - Problem-solver - Listening - Team-oriented - Team player - Strong work ethic We present a list with the result in descending from the most significant skills. 1. Bringing things to the end. Ability to transfer all tasks from the head to the time management and fully implement them. 2. The skill to give feedback. It refers not only to report to the management, but also to communication with colleagues. 3. Teamwork. It is important as a soft skill because the productivity of the team is always greater than the productivity of one person. 4. Creative problem solving. Creativity and wit are important when creating products. It allows non-standard, quick and high-quality resolution of emerging issues. 5. Conversation. To achieve its goals, one must be able to negotiate. 6. Leadership. The leader can unite the group and direct all the energy in the right direction. 7. Business correspondence. The impression of the company as a whole is often based on the impression of communication with its individual employees. It is worth to match. 8. Purposefulness. The skill of correctly setting goals and objectives in accordance with the mission of the company. 9. Making decisions. A valuable employee is one who can independently determine the zone of his competencies, and based on this evaluation make a decision independently or provide options to the manager. 10. Get shit done on time. Deadline – it is important to be able to invest in the deadline for delivery of work. 11. Coaching skills. It is not necessary to be able to organize the whole process of holding seminars and other things. However, I learned by myself – to tell other people about the sum, to help the trainee, for example. 11

12. The skill of sales. Do not sell the product, but sell your beliefs. It is necessary to be able to tell about the technology and insist on its own for its implementation in the product. 13. Facilitation. With the traditional methods of managing the team, the supervisor sets specific tasks and instructions. Facilitation means the combination of the functions of the leader and team member. 14. Public speaking. The employee should be able to speak to the public – for example, if he has to say a few words about the new product update, or provide the customer with a report on the work performed. 15. Hard skills. Fifteenth place according to the survey results occupies the employee's core skills. However, without them, all the previous 14 would mean absolutely nothing to work in an IT company. 16. Mediation. Technology for the settlement of disputes involving the neutral side. 17. Therefore, that man was good! 18. Assertiveness. In other words – the skill of polite perseverance. Soft skills have a significant role in the overall stack of human skills, especially in front of hard skills. In addition, this is for IT companies. After all, not only profile skills are important, but also how an employee is able to communicate with others. Question 1: Suggest a different title for this text. Why do you think that this would make a good title? Question 2: What connections can you make between the text and other texts, information, or experiences? Question 3: If you were asked to edit this text down to half its length, what details would you remove? Question 4: What is the main idea of this text? What details from the text support the main idea? Question 5: Write 3-5 sentences summarizing the text. Focus on Grammar Adjectives tell us about people, "Maria is smart", places "Paris is beautiful", or things "The food is good" Adjectives are words that modify (describe) nouns. Adjectives do not modify verbs, adverbs, or other adjectives. Some adjectives can be identified by their endings. Typical adjective endings include: -able/-ible understandable, capable, readable, incredible -al mathematical, functional, influential, chemical -ful beautiful, bashful, helpful, harmful -ic artistic, manic, rustic, terrific -ive submissive, intuitive, inventive, attractive -less sleeveless, hopeless, groundless, restless -ous gorgeous, dangerous, adventurous, fabulous Task 2.1.: Identify how the adjectives are used in the sentence(s) below 1. Technology for the settlement of disputes involving the neutral side. 12

2. Importance of Hard and Soft Skills employees for IT companies in one of the communities decided to evaluate which skills are important for IT companies when selecting candidates. 3. After all, not only profile skills are important, but also how an employee is able to communicate with others. 4. Let us take a look at how hard and soft skills compare for one specific profession, an executive assistant position. 5. The impression of the company as a whole is often based on the impression of communication with its individual employees. Word Roots & Stems Rule: The prefix re-adds "again" or "back" to the meaning of a word. This is one of the most common prefixes and can be correctly added to most verbs. Task 2.2.: Fill in the blanks below, just as in the models. reapply

re + apply

He was not accepted this year but he will reapply next year.

refill reorganize reheat Vocabulary Practice Task 2.3: Use the word bank to identify the word that best completes the sentence. profile employee negotiation

erudition implement evaluation

flexible formalized resolution

position deadline approach

precedence correspondence determine

1. He was … to become an actor. 2. We had a long … by email. 3. Jim's … is to study the problem before starting to work. 4. Helping your family has … over playing with your friends. 5. We should go ahead and … the idea. 6. The store has a good … on the corner of two busy streets. 7. He made a … to quit smoking. 8. The … the agreement in front of their lawyers. 9. The company needs more … to grow. 10. Stretching exercises help people stay … as the age. 11. It must be finished by 12:00. If you miss, the … you will not be paid. 12. The scholars… provides lots of information. 13. She was … from a very old family. 14. The newspaper wrote a personality … of the politician. 13

15. There was some … before they agreed on the price. Task 2.4.: Write the letter of the word that matches the definition. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L.

Erudition Flexible position Precedence over Profile Emerging issue Implement Formalize Deadline Settlement Negotiation Evaluation

1. the condition of being more important than somebody else and therefore coming or being dealt with first 2. able to change or be changed easily according to the situation 3. agreement to end a dispute, an official agreement that finishes an argument 4. to make something official or decide to arrange it according to a fixed structure. 5. a rank or level in a company, competition, or society. 6. to put a plan into action; to begin to use a new system. 7. extensive knowledge of literature, history, language, etc. 8. to consider or study something carefully and decide how good or bad it is 9. a time by which something must be done 10. a short description of someone or something that gives important and useful details about them 11. the question necessary to be discussed and solved 12. the process of trying to make or change an agreement by discussion

Task 2.5: For each of the words in the box, write an original sentence using the word. Circle the vocabulary word in each sentence. Be sure to write a sentence that would help the reader better understand the meaning of the word. employee significant negotiation profile

erudition emerging evaluation settlement

flexible implement resolution correspondence

position formalized insist approach

precedence deadline determine descending

Task 2.6. Translate sentences from Russian into English. 1. Результаты ее собеседования определят уровень ее зарплаты и должность. 2. Мирные переговоры должны начаться через неделю. 14

3. Они предложили мне работу, но договор еще не оформлен. 4. Число сотрудников компании за последнее десятилетие утроилось. 5. Техническое регулирование и право применение могли фактически снижаться до тех пор, пока не были осуществлены последние реформы.

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UNIT 3 APPLYING FOR A JOB Vocabulary Directions: Study the following keywords and definitions. 1. To submit (v) - представить на рассмотрение, предлагать. 2. Achievement (n) – успехах, достигнутые результаты, заслуги. 3. Hands-on professionals - практикующий специалист; Hands-on professional experience - практический профессиональный опыт. 4. To be familiar with (v) - хорошо ориентироваться в чем-то, быть знакомым. 5. Marital status (n) - семейное положение. 6. Relevant (adj) - относящийся к делу, имеющий отношение, соответственный, значимый. 7. Work experience (n) - практический опыт (dimock); опыт работы 8. To highlight (v) – освещать, привлекать внимание, делать акцент. 9. Academic achievements - академическая успеваемость. 10. Background (knowledge) (n) – квалификация. 11. To proofread – исправлять, скорректировать. 12. In bold - жирный шрифт. 13. Career counsellor (n) - профконсультант, консультант по карьере. 14. Troubleshooting (n) - диагностика и устранение ошибок в работе (аппаратных или программных средств) 15. User permissions (n) - полномочия пользователя. 16. Framework (n) - -интегрированная среда, программный каркас (набор библиотек различного назначения для облегчения разработки и объединения разных компонентов большого программного проекта. 17. Instead of (prep) – в место того чтобы. 18. Diverse (adj) – различный, несходный, разный, разнообразный. 19. A CV (n) - Abbreviation for curriculum vitae a written description of your education, achievements, and previous employment, used esp. to show someone who may employ you in a new job, or to qualify for an honour 20. Resume (n) - a written statement of your educational and work experience Reading comprehension section International Information Technology Resume Information Technology Resumes include professionals in computers and scientific fields. Common positions include engineers, developers, scientists, analysts and researchers. If you are applying for an IT job outside of the United States, you will likely need to submit a CV instead of a resume. Unlike a resume, a CV can be longer than one page: usually, they are about two pages long. It typically includes information related to your education, work experience, research, publications, and other achievements. Make sure you know what to include in your international CV so that you impress employers and show that you are right for the job. 16

There are some major differences in the strategy used in an information technology resume as opposed to a standard professional resume. Hands-on professionals are more oriented towards technical tools where management focus more on executive style resumes. For hands-on IT professionals, it is important to build a list of technologies you are familiar with and you highlight the technologies where you possess expertise. This could include operating systems, software, programming languages, computer hardware or even standards. Especially with developers and engineers, these lists can be long and detailed but are very important to employers. One of the first things that an employer wants to know is the technical environment where you have the most knowledge and that is why this section needs to be at the top under the summary for hands-on professionals. Secondly, it is much more common to provide detail in a technical resume. These job positions are just more complex. In addition, statements can become more detailed when explaining your accomplishments in a specific technical environment. Tips for Writing an International Information Technology Resume/CV Research the country. Different countries require different information on CVs. For example, some countries want personal information such as your marital status or age, while others (such as the United Kingdom) do not. Some want a photograph of you in the CV, while others do not. Some countries want to see information on your CV in a particular order as well. Do your research so you include the right information. One of the best ways to begin writing your CV is to look at sample CVs. Ask friends or colleagues for sample CVs (particularly CVs from the country in which you are applying for jobs). You might also search online for sample CVs in your job field and country. See what information they include, and consider formatting your CV in a similar way. Think about what information to include. The information you include will depend on your background and the specific job you are applying for. Some required sections include your contact information, employment history, and education. However, you might also include sections on certifications and accreditations, skills, awards, publications, presentations, professional memberships, and more. Only include sections that are relevant to the job. Put the most important information first. What information is most important depends on a number of factors: the country, the industry, and your level of experience. However, there are a few tips to keep in mind. Firstly, include your contact and personal information at the top of your CV. If you have limited work experience, highlight your education and academic achievements first. If you have a more extensive work history (that is relevant to the job), you might include that work history before any academic achievements. Put whatever will most impress the employer towards the top of your CV. Proofread and edit. Be sure to proofread your CV thoroughly after you write it, looking for spelling and grammar errors. Also, check for any formatting errors. For example, if one section heading is in bold, all of your section headings should be in 17

bold. Consider asking a friend, family member, or career services counsellor to read through your CV for you. Information Technology CV Example This is an example of curriculum vitae for work in information technology. Sergei Ivanov Resume PERSONAL DETAILS Name Sergei Ivanov Birthday 31.12.1993 Phone +61466803876 Email [email protected] Blog http://sercen.me GitHub https://github.com/SerSeMan EDUCATION Master’s degree 2014-2016 St Petersburg Academic University — Nanotechnology Research and Education Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences Specialization: Software engineering Bachelor’s degree 2010-2014 Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N.Yeltsin Specialization: Computers, complexes, systems, and networks WORK EXPERIENCE Canva October 2016 – present Software engineer • Developing services using microservice architecture on the AWS platform • Developing core libraries and infrastructure components that allow for creating performant and fault-tolerant services • Creating tools and modules that allow other teams to define the infrastructure they need as code JetBrains June 2015 – September 2016 Software engineer Development of a project which is not announced yet using Clojure, Kotlin, Java and Clojurescript Naumen July 2012 – August 2014 Software engineer Development and maintenance of the company’s key products: • SmartNut • Naumen Serice Desk 4.0 • ITSM365 (itsm365.com) 18

SKILLS Languages • English • Russian (native) Technologies • Deep understanding of JVM platform • Huge performance engineering expertise • Main programming languages: Java, Groovy, Clojure, Kotlin • Main JVM-related frameworks: Spring, Hibernate, Play 2, GWT, Netty, Google Guice • Build systems: Gradle, Maven, Leiningen • IDEs: IntelliJ IDEA, Eclipse • DevOps experience: Knowledge of Linux, Docker, Docker Swarm, Kubernetes • Algorithms Professional experience • Leader of Java User Group at Yekaterinburg – JUG.EKB (jugekb.ru) • Agile methodologies Achievements • Winner of the regional and national round of IT-planet 2011/2012 competition in nominations Windows Phone 7 developing • Winner of the regional round of Imagine Cup 2013 in nomination Games. • Second place at the regional and national rounds of IT-planet 2011/2012 competition in Mobile application development nomination. • Experience in ACM-ICPC contests. Question 1: Suggest a different title for this text. Why do you think that this would make a good title? Question 2: What connections can you make between the text and other texts, information, or experiences? Question 3: If you were asked to edit this text down to half its length, what details would you remove? Question 4: What is the main idea of this text? What details from the text support the main idea? Question 5: Write 3-5 sentences summarizing the text. Focus on Grammar Relative Clauses give information about a subject. Sometimes the information identifies the subject. For example, in the sentence "Canada is the country which is north of the United States," the relative clause "which is north of the United States" identifies Canada. 19

Sometimes a relative clause gives extra information that does not identify the subject. In the sentence "Miguel is from Mexico, which is south of the United States," the subject is "Miguel" and the relative clause "which is south of the United States" tells more about Mexico, NOT about Miguel. It is extra information that does NOT identify Miguel. Relative clauses are often indicated by who (for people), which (for things) and that (for both), or introduced asyndetically, i.e. without any connectives (contact clauses), where. That refers to people in an informal style. Task 3.1.: Identify how the relative clauses are used in the sentence(s) below 1. If you have a more extensive work history (that is relevant to the job), you might include that work history before any academic achievements. 2. Make sure you know what to include in your international CV so that you impress employers and show that you are right for the job. 3. Ask friends or colleagues for sample CVs (particularly CVs from the country in which you are applying for jobs). 4. I started at Microsoft in 2008, where I worked until recently. 5. The Science and Technology museum, which is in Manchester, has many great displays for young people. Word Roots & Stems Rule: The suffix ly changes an adjective into an adverb, like slowly. Task 3.2.: Fill in the blanks below, just as in the models. Give your own examples. absolutely angrily

(angry - y + i) + ly

correctly

correct + ly

He spoke angrily to his enemies. Answer correctly and you could win a million dollars!

easily silently softly Vocabulary Practice Task 3.3.: Use the word bank to identify the word that best completes the sentence. career counselor troubleshooting highlight

academic achievement work experience relevant

résumé

CVs

be familiar with submit

diverse framework

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1. Students from countries as … as Colombia and Lithuania use Cambridge textbooks 2. Applicants are interested in applying for the position should have … their … to the Anatomy Department no later than 15 February. 3. … you … the computer software they use? 4. The opportunities available will depend on your previous … and qualifications. 5. This same … can be used for other programs. 6. Understanding how things work makes … easier. 7. The report … the major problems facing society today. 8. The median reading level for deaf students, regardless of whether they speak or sign, indicates a low level of … … . 9. He is a … … in California who advises clients about career changes. 10. You have a head start over others trying to get the job because you have … work experience. 11. He looked at her …, asked her a few questions, and then offered her the job. Task 3.4.: Write the letter of word that matches the definition. A. Achievement B. Hands-on professionals C. Marital status D. Relevant E. To highlight F. Background G. To proofread H. In bold I. User permissions J. Framework K. Instead of (prep) L. Resume (n)

1. a person who does a job that needs special training and a high level of education 2. in place of someone or something 3. a written statement of your educational and work experience 4. likely to attract your attention; showy 5. closely connected with the subject you are discussing or the situation you are thinking about 6. the act of allowing the user to do something 7. to read and correct a piece of written or printed work 8. (used especially on official forms) the fact of whether you are single, married, etc. 9. a thing that somebody has done successfully, especially using his or her own effort and skill 10. the things that have made you into the person you are, esp. experience, and education 11. to emphasize something, especially so that people give it more attention 12. a structure around or over which something is built

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Task 3.5.: For each of the words in the box, write an original sentence using the word. Circle the vocabulary word in each sentence. Be sure to write a sentence that would help the reader better understand the meaning of the word. To highlight Achievement

Marital status

Framework

In bold

Relevant

Background Hands-on professionals User permissions

To proofread

Resume

Instead of

CV

be familiar diverse with

Task 4.6. Translate sentences from Russian into English 1. Предложенные некоторыми крупнейшими и лучшими в мире организациями, они могут предоставить возможности для путешествий, достойную зарплату и практический профессиональный опыт, а также исключительное обучение и развитие. 2. Проверьте руководство для конкретных шагов по устранению неполадок, если принтер не подключается к сети; ваш сетевой маршрутизатор или программное обеспечение безопасности может быть не исправно. 3. Я согласен с тем, что базовые знания (мировой опыт) являются основной составляющей успешного программирования. 4. «Консультант по вопросам карьеры», который, когда мне было десять лет, посоветовал мне направить мои интересы в сферу информационных технологий 5. Результаты этого исследования подчеркивают необходимость понять теоретическую основу процесса.

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UNIT 4 RECRUITMENT Vocabulary Directions: Study the following keywords and definitions. 1. To deal with (pv) – иметь дело с кем-либо/чем-либо. 2. To accomplish (v) - выполнять. 3. Employee (n) - служащий. 4. Flexible (adj) - гибкий. 5. To interact (v) - взаимодействовать, общаться. 6. Personnel (n) - персонал, штат. 7. Position (n) - место, должность. 8. To recruit (v) - набирать, вербовать. 9. Specialty (n) - специальность. 10. Subordinate (adj) – второстепенная должность, подчиненный. 11. To overcome (v) - преодолевать. 12. To encourage (v) - поощрять, способствовать, ободрять, вселять надежду. 13. To recognized (v) – узнавать, осознавать, признавать. 14. Shortage (n) - нехватка. 15. To prevent (v) - предотвращать, препятствовать. 16. To undertake (v) - предпринимать, браться за что-либо. 17. To face (v) – сталкиваться с трудностями. 18. To compete (v) - конкурировать. 19. To turn out (pv) - оказываться, заканчиваться. 20. Challenge (n) - испытание, сложная задача, вызов. Reading comprehension section Recruiting An organization can recruit personnel in many ways. Posting a list of vacancies on the company notice board or publishing it in employee magazines is common and gives current employees the opportunity of applying for a position. Similarly, a subordinate may be referred for a position by his or her supervisor. Another means of recruiting internally is to search in the organization's existing files. Some companies have a database of their employees' skills and special interests. Reviewing these files periodically may reveal employees who are well suited to a particular position. Although recruiting people within the organization can have many advantages, it does have its limitations. If companies wish to be dynamic, it is essential to inject new blood (talent) from time to time. Similarly, existing employees may not have the necessary skills that the position requires. Consequently, it is often necessary to recruit people from outside the organization. Advertising is a commonly used technique for recruiting people from outside. The advertising medium should be chosen according to the type of audience the organization is aiming at. If a very specific set of skills is required, a specialty publication such as a trade magazine may be most appropriate. National newspapers 23

and magazines sometimes carry a Senior Appointments section for specialized personnel. Many national and local newspapers have a General Appointments section or a Classified Ads section for less specialized personnel. Radio and television advertising of vacancies is relatively underdeveloped in most countries. Employment agencies may be another source of recruitment. State-backed agencies compete with private agencies in many countries. In general, private agencies charge a fee whereas public sector agencies offer their services free of charge. Another difference is that private agencies tend to offer services that are more specific; for example, they may specialize in a particular area of recruitment such as temporary secretaries, middle managers or senior executives. They may also include search services, otherwise known as recruiting. Current employees are sometimes encouraged to refer friends, family and excolleagues to fill a particular vacancy. This is particularly true in professional occupations such as nursing where there is a shortage of trained people. Other valuable sources of recruitment may be university campuses, trade unions, professional organizations and unsolicited applications. Behavioral questions to use during a non-technical interview with developers You only have up to 1 hour to get to know your candidate during the interview. Not much. You probably want to hire programmers who are flexible, adapt quickly in a fast-changing environment and, above all, perform well under tight deadlines. Therefore, assessing soft skills, next to verifying programming skills, prove to be crucial as they can to a great extent influence delivering results. How to assess a programmer in the right way? One of the good ways to do it is to use a behavioral interview technique. Recruiters to evaluate a candidate’s experiences and behaviors in order to determine their potential often use it. Behavioral-based questions are said to reveal more in-depth information about the way a candidate thinks and feels and what type of experience the candidate has from previous jobs. It is believed that past performance can be a good indicator of future behavior. Behavioral-based interview questions generally start with any one of the following phrases:  Tell me about a time when you…  Describe a situation when you…  Give me an example of a time you  Think about an instance in which you…  Tell me how you approached a situation where… By asking such questions, you should be able to obtain a description of a situation or task, action and result. Below you will find sample behavior questions to evaluate most common attributes during the non-technical interview: Action-oriented / self-motivation 1. Describe a situation when you did much more than it was expected from you to get the project done. Were your efforts recognized? By whom and how? How did that make you feel? 2. Tell me about a time when you took ownership of a project. Why did you do this? What was the result of you taking the challenge? What could have happened if you did not take ownership? 24

Ability to adapt 3. Describe a situation in which you met a major obstacle in order to complete a project. How did you deal with it? What steps did you take? 4. Tell me about a time you had to work on several projects at once. How did you handle this? Communication skills 5. Tell me about a time when you had to present a complex programming problem to a person that does not understand technical jargon. How did you ensure that the other person understood you? 6. Describe a situation in which you felt you had not communicated well enough. What did you do? How did you handle it? Conflict management 7. Tell me about a time when you had to work with a difficult person to accomplish a goal. What was the biggest challenge? How did you handle it? 8. Tell me about when you had to deal with conflict within your team. How was the conflict solved? How did you handle that? How would you deal with it now? Creativity 9. Give me an example of a time you had to take a creative and unusual approach to solve the coding problem. How did this idea come to your mind? Why do you think it was unusual? Decision-making 10. Give me an example of a project that completely failed. Why do you think it was a failure? Could there be anything done differently in order to turn it into success? 11. Think about a situation when you made a poor decision or did something that just did not turn outright. What happened? Goal orientation 12. Think about an instance in which you worked on and achieved multiple project goals. 13. Think about an instance in which you had to depend on others to help you achieve a project goal. How did you feel? Influence/persuasion 14. Tell me about a recent situation at work in which you were able to get management to accept one of your ideas. 15. Have you ever had to "sell" an idea to your project team? How did you do it? Did they "buy" it? Planning, priority setting, time management 16. Tell me about a situation when you were responsible for project planning. Did everything go according to your plan? If not, then why and what kind of counteractions did you have to take? Problem-solving skills 17. Give me an example of a time when you noticed a small problem before it turned into a major one. Did you take the initiative to correct it? What kind of preventive measure did you undertake?

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18. Walk me through a difficult/complex problem/project you encountered. How did you decide what to do first? What information did you need? What obstacles did you face? Which ones were you able to overcome? Did you have to ask for help? Teamwork 19. Describe a team experience you found disappointing. What would you have done to prevent this? 20. Give me an example of working cooperatively as a team member to accomplish an important goal. What was the objective? To what extent did you interact with other project members? Question 1: Suggest a different title for this text. Why do you think that this would make a good title? Question 2: What connections can you make between the text and other texts, information, or experiences? Question 3: If you were asked to edit this text down to half its length, what details would you remove? Question 4: What is the main idea of this text? What details from the text support the main idea? Question 5: Write 3-5 sentences summarizing the text. Focus on Grammar There are several common expressions for making contrasts in English. They include on the one hand … on the other hand, on the contrary, in comparison, by comparison, in contrast, by contrast, but, however, even though. For example: "Bob likes dogs but Mary likes cats." shows the difference between what Bob likes and what Mary likes. What things are contrasted in the sentence(s) below? Task 4.1: Identify how the contrasts are used in the sentence(s) below 1. They may also include search services, otherwise known as recruiting. 2. Although recruiting people within the organization can have many advantages, it does have its limitations. 3. On the one hand, mobile phones are very useful and can save lives. On the other hand, people seem to use them for the most pointless and unnecessary calls. 4. He did not seem offended by her criticisms; on the contrary, he seemed to enjoy them. 5. Though it is not exactly accurate information, it is said that there are 3 workers under the dent Word Roots & Stems Rule: The suffix able adds "can" or "can be done" to the meaning of a word, like drinkable. 26

When we want to add the same meaning to a root that is not a complete word, we spell it ible, like horrible. Identify the word that ends with -able in each sentence and write it on the line. 1. Tell me about a situation when you were responsible for project planning. 2. You probably want to hire programmers who are flexible, adapt quickly in a fast-changing environment and, above all, perform well under tight deadlines. 3. Tell me about a situation when you were responsible for project planning. 4. This is particularly true in professional occupations such as nursing where there is a shortage of trained people. Other valuable sources of recruitment may be university campuses, trade unions, professional organizations and unsolicited applications. Task 4.2.: Fill in the blanks below, just as in the models. The water here is not drinkable drink + able drinkable. It is finally visible! Now I visible vis + ible can see it! wearable wear + able laughable agreeable accessible Vocabulary Practice Task 4.3.: Use the word bank to identify the word that best completes the sentence. deal with accomplish employee flexible interact personnel position recruit specialty subordinate overcome encourage recognize shortage prevent undertake face compete turn out challenge 1. He … his lack of education and became a famous artist. 2. The office … got together after work for a cocktail party for their new boss. 3. He will … learning English for his new job. 4. There was an oil … and the price of gasoline went up. 5. The locked door …ed her from going in. 6. I did not … him without hair. 7. People … many difficulties when they move to another country. 8. He …s well with other children. 9. Finding an apartment can be a … . 10. The store has a good … on the corner of two busy streets. 11. The students …d for the highest grades. 12. The food … to be good. 13. As soon as she …ed one project she started another. 14. The company needs more …s to grow. 27

15. They … criminals by putting them in jail. 16. Stretching exercises help people stay … as the age. 17. They cheered to … their team. 18. He is a carpenter; his … is kitchen cabinets. 19. The captain is … to the general. 20. The army …s young men and women to join the service. Task 4.4.: Write the letter of a word that matches the definition. A. deal with 1. succeed despite difficulties. B. accomplish 2. the group of people employed for a purpose; the C. employee staff in an office D. flexible 3. to try and do something difficult. E. interact 4. the event of not having enough of something. F. personnel 5. stop something from happening. G. position 6. to identify people, places or things from past H. recruit experience. I. specialty 7. to meet a challenge. J. subordinate 8. to act together or towards others or with others. K. overcome 9. difficulty or problem. L. encouraged 10. place, status or rank. M. recognized 11. to try to beat another for a prize, position or N. shortage reward. O. prevent 12. to have a particular result. P. undertake 13. to reach a goal. Q. face 14. a person who works for a company or another R. compete person wages or a salary. S. turn out 15. to take action on or be concerned with. T. challenge 16. easy to move, bend, or adapt. 17. to cheer on and give hope to. 18. a particular type of study of work that one practices most. 19. placed in a lower position. 20. to find people for a job, task, or company.

Task 4.5.: For each of the words in the box, write an original sentence using the word. Circle the vocabulary word in each sentence. Be sure to write a sentence that would help the reader better understand the meaning of the word. deal with position recognize turn out

accomplish recruit shortage challenge

employee specialty prevent

flexible interact subordinate overcome undertake face

personnel encourage compete

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Task 4.6. Translate sentences from Russian into English 1. Новая компания пытается набрать больше сотрудников из числа этнических меньшинств. 2. В некоторых компаний существует база данных о навыках, умениях и особых интересах своих сотрудников. 3. Какие факторы или характеристики наиболее важны для вас при оценке работы вашего подчиненного или коллеги? 4. В поиске работы вы часто сталкиваетесь с необходимостью получения информации о особенностях личного интервью. Многие компании пытаются выяснить вовремя интервью ваши способности быть гибким и ваше умение справляться с большим объёмом информации. 5. Подбор персонала одна из самых сложных задач, которую приходится решать многим компаниям. Некорректный подбор персонала часто очень дорого обходится компаниям.

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UNIT 5 HOW TO START AN IT COMPANY Vocabulary Directions: Study the following keywords and definitions. 1. To thrive on (v) - добиваться успехов в чем-либо. 2. To come up with (ph. v) - придумывать, разрабатывать. 3. Account Manager (n) - менеджер по работе с крупными заказчиками заведующий отделом рекламы. 4. Competitor (n) – конкурент. 5. Competition (n) - конкуренция 6. To outsource (v) - привлечь третьих лиц для выполнения той или иной работы, осуществлять что-л. силами сторонней организации. 7. To collaborate (v) - взаимодействовать, работать в сотрудничестве. 8. To run a business (v) - управлять бизнесом, управлять производством. 9. Target search (ph) - целенаправленный поиск. 10. Potential client (n) – потенциальный клиент, возможный клиент. 11. Business entity (n) - субъект бизнеса, коммерческая организация. 12. Sole proprietorship (n) - индивидуальное частное предприятие. 13. General partnership (n) - товарищество с неограниченной имущественной ответственностью 14. Profits and losses (ph) - прибыли и убытки. 15. Tax return (n) - налоговая отчётность, налоговая декларация. 16. Income taxes (n - налог на прибыль, НДФЛ. 17. Limited Liability Corporation (LLC) - с ограниченной ответственностью. 18. Corporation (n) - акционерная компания; акционерное общество. 19. Go bankrupt (v) –разоряться, становиться неплатёжеспособным 20. Insurance coverage (n) - страховое обеспечение финансового покрытия. Reading comprehension section How to Start An IT Company With No Money New companies thrive on innovation. If you want to come up with a winning idea for a new company, you will need to set yourself up for success by learning to conduct market analysis and identify a gap in consumers' needs, then develop a compelling vision to fill that desire with a new and undeniable product. I have been working in the IT business for about 10 years and can firmly say that this niche is always growing with enormous speed. I started my career in 2009 as an Account Manager working with digital projects at a small local marketing agency. Today I have my own IT Company developing projects for clients from all around the world. IT Company is one of the first successful businesses that I have started and managed to scale up with no investment. In addition, you can do the same. Just follow the guide I used to start my own IT Company and you will be able to build a successful business. 1. Define your IT company direction 30

You cannot even imagine how many IT companies are created every day in the world. When we started to learn our competitors, we were shocked by the competition that exists on the market. At the same time, we were very much upset and disappointed with the situation because we did not realize how we could get clients. So what is the way out? As I have already mentioned the competition is so tough that it is very hard to prove that your IT Company develops better websites than anyone else does. So, what to do? Think about your direction and answer the following questions: What services do I love to produce? For example, it is web development services only, or you take responsibility for business consulting also. What is my ideal client? I mean what is my ideal client’s niche. For example, my company works with small businesses and startups, but what we love the most is to develop websites for real estate niche. How many projects can my company take at a time? It is very important, because if you have a small team you can focus on finding one or two clients at a time to provide IT services, and that will be enough. When you finish defining your tech business positioning it is time to move to your resources. 2. Build the team People are the key to success in any business. If you have a team of developers and designers who are your business partners and do not expect a high salary from the start – that is awesome. I for one have started my business with two friends one of whom was a designer and another friend was a manager just like me.  Find local teams Find small teams providing the same IT services as your company and offer them to be your outsource team. For example, you have strong back-end developers, but lack of front-end resources. There is no need to hire specialists when you have no investments. All you need to do is to attract external resources for your projects.  Find remote partners Another way to find people for your IT Company is to search for remote teams who are ready to collaborate on project-based terms. 3. Sell your IT services Therefore, you have everything to run a successful IT business. Everything except clients. Moreover, this is the question I want to describe in more details because clients are everything you need to start making money, and you should put all your efforts into the sales process. You should become a very creative sales guru and experiment a lot. Here are examples of sales channels I use to get the clients for my IT business:  Networking Never underestimate networking. Network hard. In fact, networking is the number one channel that brings clients to My IT Company. Networking helps me to build a reputation and get recognizable on the market. Every time I meet new people, I tell about my business.  LinkedIn 31

I am not sure if you are aware of the opportunities for sales provided by the LinkedIn platform. Thousands of companies find their partners on LinkedIn. Such companies as Zoom, PayPal, and Microsoft actively use the opportunities provided by LinkedIn targeted search. 4. Select your client’s industry If your potential clients add you to their network, they will start seeing your content, experience and business details. You can also exchange messages and discuss professional questions. Remember that sale is all about relationships. 5. Form a Legal Business Entity Before starting a tech company, decide on the type of business structure you need. Although you can change later on, doing so can be difficult. Here are the four main types of business entities from which to choose.  Sole proprietorship: Unless you will be working alone or just with a spouse, this type of business structure is not ideal for many IT companies. If you intend to keep the business small, however, a sole proprietorship can work. It is easy to set up and maintain, and you may pay fewer taxes than with other business entities.  General partnership: If you will be working with one or more partners, you need to set up a partnership. With your partners, you will share in all of the profits and losses. You also share responsibilities. For such a structure, you must file an annual company tax return and each pays your own income taxes separately.  Limited Liability Corporation (LLC): An LLC can include one or more owners. This type of a business structure requires that members decide if they wish to be taxed as a partnership, corporation or sole proprietorship.  C Corporation: If you plan to grow your business and go public at some point, a C corporation is the ideal choice, but these business entities are the most complicated. You need to follow certain rules when you have this type of business structure, though all owners are protected from personal liability if the company goes bankrupt. Obtain Necessary Certifications It is vital that your company is certified in the industry or industries in which you are working. For example, if you are in cybersecurity, there are corresponding certificates you will need. The same goes for cabling. If your IT Company is generalized, you will likely require several certifications. Generally, it has required that you become certified in the products you sell and install. While you can get certified once you open your business, it's a good idea to get certified as quickly as possible. You would not want to miss out on a job because you aren't certified. Purchase Required Insurance Coverage Currently, it is important to have the necessary insurance coverage. Even if a company does not require proof, the right insurance still protects you and your business. Other types of coverage you may need include commercial property, auto, and cyber/data breach and business interruption insurance. Also, require any subcontractors you use to be properly insured. Develop Systems 32

Start your company on a solid footing by developing systems from the beginning. Use accounting software to record all of your sales and expenses. Employ timetracking software to ensure that you record all billable hours, and a good invoicing system to make sure you get paid for all hours worked. This will help you stay profitable. Question 1: Suggest a different title for this text. Why do you think that this would make a good title? Question 2: What connections can you make between the text and other texts, information, or experiences? Question 3: If you were asked to edit this text down to half its length, what details would you remove? Question 4: What is the main idea of this text? What details from the text support the main idea? Question 5: Write 3-5 sentences summarizing the text. Focus on Grammar There are three cases for the simple future: 1. Predict: "Will" and "Going to" are the same when the speaker believes something will happen: "The Yankees will win." is the same as "The Yankees are going to win." 2. Plan: To describe a plan, we usually use "going to": "We are going to see a movie tonight.» 3. Willingness: For something we agree to do (or someone else agrees to do) we use will: "Don't worry about dinner; I will cook.» Task 5.1.: Identify how the simple future is used in the sentence(s) below 1. Customers will have higher expectations of your company when you specialize, Davis said. 2. You will also have the opportunity to learn a great deal about the IT business in general and keep up to date on changes in the industry. 3. If your IT Company is generalized, you will likely require several certifications. 4. This will help you stay profitable. 5. With your partners, you will share in all of the profits and losses. 6. For example, if you are in cybersecurity, there are corresponding certificates you will need. Word Roots & Stems Rule: The suffix ous changes a noun into an adjective, like dangerous. Task 5.2.: Fill in the blanks below, just as in the models. Give your own examples. gaseous gas + eous Above 100 degrees C., water becomes gaseous. 33

furious mysterious spacious nervous glorious

(fury-y) + ious

(nerves - es) + ous

I was nervous when he drove fast.

Vocabulary Practice Task 5.3.: Use the word bank to identify the word that best completes the sentence. go bankrupt come up with account manager

competition business entity

collaborate tax return

outsource income tax

general partnership

competitor

run a business

1. The shareholders will never … because the profitability of the institution is underpinned by that guarantee. 2. Several tax evaders got away with no penalties by agreeing to pay … for previous years. 3. He will assume the CEO duties on Jan. 1, and will join the current fourmember … . 4. One person who reports the profits on a personal income-… owns a sole proprietorship. 5. … regularly contact customers to update them on new products and services. 6. We need to … a better way of making money. 7. The decision to sell cheap TVs put the supermarket in (direct) … with the major suppliers of electrical goods. 8. Accounting usually focuses on the measurement of the financial impact of events on a particular … 9. A German company … with a Swiss firm to develop the product 10. My cousin … a small surf … in Santa Cruz. He started there as an employee and now, 20 years later, he owns the place. 11. At least one major … is gearing up to provide local service at lower prices. 12. As part of a recent restructuring, Anglian Water decided to … some of its operations. Task 5.4.: Write the letter of the word that matches the definition. A. B. C. D. E. F.

Target search Insurance coverage Corporation To come up with To outsource Tax return

1. a document on which you report your income each year to calculate your taxes 2. financial protection so that you get money if something bad happens 34

G. H. I. J. K. L.

Potential client Sole proprietorship To thrive on Competition General partnership Profits and losses

3. the situation in which people or businesses are trying to be more successful than each other, for example by making more sales in a market. 4. a person able to develop into something in the future when the necessary conditions exist 5. a company that is owned by two or more general partners who share its profits and must pay its debts if it goes bankrupt 6. the collection and examination of information about at particular groups or activities or services that people buy or might buy and their feelings about things that they have bought 7. if a company outsources work, it employs another organization to do it rather than using its own employees. 8. the amount of money that a company has earned and the total profit or loss that it has made in a particular period of time 9. to think of a plan, an idea, or a solution to a problem 10. a business that is owned and operated by only one person 11. to grow very well, or to become very healthy or successful 12. a large company or group of companies that are controlled together as a single organization

Task 5.5: For each of the words in the box, write an original sentence using the word. Circle the vocabulary word in each sentence. Be sure to write a sentence that would help the reader better understand the meaning of the word. Competition Target search

Insurance coverage Potential client

General To thrive on partnership To come up To outsource with

Profits and losses Sole proprietorship 35

Corporation

Tax return

Business entity

Tax return

Income tax

Task 5.6. Translate sentences from Russian into English 1. Она не хотела работать в большой корпорации, где все было так интересно. 2. Законодательство штата требует, чтобы ООО составляли годовые отчеты. 3. Сотрудники Intel и MIT будут планируют подписать договор о сотрудничестве в следующем году. 4. Решение об аутсорсинге было принято на собрание и позволит в будущем сократить сумму расходов на данный вид услуг. 5. Многие компании сосредотачивают большую часть своей энергии на получении доли рынка у своих конкурентов.

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APPENDIX 1 VOCABULARY UNIT 1: CAREER EXPERIENCE 1. To hustle (v) - to proceed or work rapidly or energetically; to be aggressive, especially in business or other financial dealings. 2. Full-time job (n) - something that takes a lot of your time. 3. Part-time job (n) – for part of the day or week in which people work. 4. To take somebody out (v) - to go somewhere and do something with someone, usually something you plan and pay for. 5. Under the table (idiomatic) - If something is done under the table, it is a secret, hidden action. 6. To drop out of (v) - If a student drops out, they stop going to classes before they have finished their course. 7. To be dead broke (sl) - be completely broke. 8. Long story short (idiomatic) - used when you do not tell all the details. 9. To keep in mind (idiomatic) - to remember somebody/something; to remember or consider that. 10. Meetup (n) - a meeting, especially a regular meeting of people who share a particular interest and have connected with each other through a social-networking website. 11. Cover letter (n) - a letter that contains information about the thing it is sent with. 12. To adjust (v) - to change something slightly to make it fit, work better, or be more suitable. 13. Ridiculous (adj) - stupid or unreasonable and deserving to be laughed at. 14. To be interviewed (v) – to answer questions in an interview for a job or course. 15. To apply (v) - to make a formal request, usually in writing, for something such as a job, a place at college, university, etc. 16. CTO (abbreviation) - Chief Technology Officer 17. BS (abbreviation) - Bachelor of Science. 18. To get out of smth (ph.v) - to give up or stop a habit or a regular activity. 19. To convince (v) - to persuade someone or make someone certain. 20. To be humble (v) - to make someone understand that they are not as important or special as they thought UNIT 2 HARD AND SOFT IT - SKILLS ONE NEEDS TO DEVELOP 1. Employee (n) - someone who is paid to work for a person or company. 2. Erudition (n) - Extensive knowledge of literature, history, language, etc. 3. Flexible (adj) - able to change or be changed easily according to the situation Position (n) - a rank or level in a company, competition, or society. 4. Precedence over - (n) - the condition of being more important than somebody else and therefore coming or being dealt with first. 37

5. Profile (n) - a short description of someone or something that gives important and useful details about them. 6. Significant (adj) - important, large, or great, esp. in leading to a different result or to an important change. 7. An emerging issue (phr) – the question necessary to be discussed and solved. 8. To implement (v) - to put a plan into action; to begin to use a new system – применять на практике. 9. To formalize (v) - to make something official or decide to arrange it according to a fixed structure. 10. Deadline (n) - a time by which something must be done 11. Settlement (n) - agreement to end a dispute, an official agreement that finishes an argument 12. Negotiation (n) - the process of trying to make or change an agreement by discussion 13. Evaluation (n) - to consider or study something carefully and decide how good or bad it is. 14. Resolution (n) - A firm decision to act; the solution to a problem 15. To insist (v) - To strongly demand; to say firmly that something is true, especially when other people do not believe you. 16. To determine (v) - To make a strong decision; to discover the facts or truth about something. 17. Correspondence (n) - letters or emails from one person to another, or the activity of writing and receiving letters or emails. 18. Approach (n) - way of dealing with a person or problem; a way of doing something. 19. In descending (v) - to come or go down from a higher to a lower level, from the highest to the lowest. UNIT 3 APPLYING FOR A JOB 1. To submit (v) - submit something (to somebody/something) to give a document, proposal, etc. to somebody in authority so that they can study or consider it. 2. Achievement (n) - a thing that somebody has done successfully, especially using his or her own effort and skill. 3. Hands-on professionals - a person who does a job that needs special training and a high level of education. 4. To be familiar with (v) - knowing something very well. 5. Marital status (n) - (used especially on official forms) the fact of whether you are single, married, etc. 6. Relevant (adj) - closely connected with the subject you are discussing or the situation you are thinking about. 7. Work experience (n) - the work or jobs that you have done in your life so far 38

8. To highlight (v) - to emphasize something, especially so that people give it more attention. 9. Academic achievements - is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals. 10. Background (knowledge) (n) - the things that have made you into the person you are, esp. experience, and education. 11. To proofread - to read and correct a piece of written or printed work. 12. In bold - likely to attract your attention; showy. 13. Career counsellor (n) - HR someone whose job is to give people advice and information about what type of work they could do or how they could progress to a better job. 14. Troubleshooting (n) - the process of identifying and correcting faults in a computer system 15. User permissions (n) - the act of allowing user to do something 16. Framework (n) - a structure around or over which something is built. 17. Instead of (prep) - in place of someone or something. 18. Diverse (adj) - including many different types of people or things. 19. A CV (n) - Abbreviation for curriculum vitae a written description of your education, achievements, and previous employment, used esp. to show someone who may employ you in a new job, or to qualify for an honour 20. Resume (n) - a written statement of your educational and work experience UNIT 4 RECRUITMENT 1. Deal with (pv) - to take action on or be concerned with. 2. To accomplish (v) - to reach a goal. 3. Employee (n) - a person who works for a company, another person wages, or a salary. 4. Flexible (adj) - easy to move, bend, or adapt. 5. To interact (v) - to act together or towards others or with others. 6. Personnel (n) - the group of people employed for a purpose; the staff in an office 7. Position (n) - place, status or rank. 8. To recruit (v) - to find people for a job, task, or company. 9. Specialty (n) - a particular type of study of work that one practices most. 10. Subordinate (adj) - placed in a lower position; less important or lower in rank. 11. To overcome (v) - to deal with and control a problem or feeling; to succeed despite difficulties. 12. To encourage (v) - to make someone more likely to do something, or make something more likely to happen; to give someone confidence or hope. 13. To recognize (v) - to identify people, places or things from past experience. 14. Shortage (n) - the event of not having enough of something. 15. To prevent (v) – to stop something from happening. 16. To undertake (v) - to try / to do something difficult. 39

17. 18. 19. 20.

To face (v) - to meet a challenge. To compete (v) - to try to beat another for a prize, position or reward. To turn out (pv) - to have a particular result. Challenge (n) - difficulty or problem.

UNIT 5 HOW TO SART AN IT COMPANY 1. To thrive on (v) - to grow very well, or to become very healthy or successful. 2. To come up with (ph. v) - to think of a plan, an idea, or a solution to a problem. 3. Account Manager (n) - someone employed by a company to be responsible for one or more of its customers, especially someone in the banking or advertising industry. 4. Competitor (n) - a person, team, or company that is competing against others (syn. challenger, contender, rival). 5. Competition (n) - ECONOMICS the situation in which people or businesses are trying to be more successful than each other, for example by making more sales in a market. 6. To outsource (v) - if a company outsources work, it employs another organization to do it rather than using its own employees. 7. To collaborate (v) - to work with someone else for a special purpose - Two writers collaborated on the script for the film. 8. To run a business (v) - to operate, to direct, to oversee, to manage (a business, a company). 9. Target search (ph) - the collection and examination of information about at particular groups or activities or services that people buy or might buy and their feelings about things that they have bought. 10. Potential client (n) – a person able to develop into something in the future when the necessary conditions exist. 11. Business entity (n) - a business, especially one of a particular type. 12. A sole proprietorship (n) - a business that is owned and operated by only one person. 13. General partnership (n) - a company that is owned by two or more general partners who share its profits and must pay its debts if it goes bankrupt 14. Profits and losses (ph) - the amount of money that a company has earned and the total profit or loss that it has made in a particular period of time. 15. Tax return (n) - a document on which you report your income each year to calculate your taxes. 16. Income taxes (n) - a tax on the money that a person earns from working or that a company earns from the sale of products or services. 17. Limited Liability Corporation (LLC) - the abbreviation for limited liability company (= a type of company in which the owners have specific tax advantages and no personal financial risk if the company should fail). 18. Corporation (n) - a large company or group of companies that is controlled together as a single organization. 40

19. To go bankrupt (v) – to cause someone to become bankrupt 20. Insurance coverage (n) - financial protection so that you get money if something bad happens.

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APPENDIX 2 Phrasal area Phrasal area №1 Read through the phrasal area below and check for the comprehension of vocabulary and structures. You can include this selection of words and phrases at different stages of interviewing. 1.   

Start-up questions OK, let’s get down to business Right, can we start please? It’s nice to welcome you here

2.     

Asking for clarification Could you possibly expand on that? Would you mind going over that again? Could I ask you just to explain that again? Could I ask you just to explain that a little further? What exactly do you mean by …..?

3.     

Making a point I would like to say that ... You should know that ... I'd like to make one thing clear from the outset ... I think we have to consider that ... Let me fill you in on the details of…

4.    

Wrapping up It looks like we have run out of time, so I guess we'll finish here. Finally, we can deal with any points you would like to raise. If no one has anything else to add, then I think we will wrap this up. Please, don’t hesitate to clarify all your doubts

5.   

Interrupting Could I just say that …? I’d like to add one point here … Can I just have a word about …?

6. Agreeing and disagreeing  I entirely agree.  I am inclined to agree with you on that.  Yes, but have you considered …? 42

7. Eliciting information  What I'd like to know is ...  Can you give me some information about ...  I'd like some details about ...  What I really need to know is ...  I'm afraid I need to know ...  What is your position on...? Phrasal area №2: 1. Start-up questions  Why are you interested in our company?  Why did you come to this country?  What are your objectives in this field? 2. Experience.  What special aspects of your experience have prepared you for this job?  Can you describe one or two of your most important accomplishments?  How much supervision have you typically received in your previous job?  Why did you leave your previous job?  What is important to you in a company? 3. Prosecution.  What are your strong points for this position?  How did your supervisor evaluate your job?  When have you been told or discovered for yourself, a problem in your job performance, what have you typically done? Can you give me an example?  Do you prefer working alone or in groups?  Can you give me an example of your ability to manage or supervise others?  What were some of the things about your last job that you found most difficult to do? 4. Education.  Did you give presentations during your university/college?  Did you have to use any computer programs frequently at the university? Which ones?  What courses in school have helped the most in doing this job? 5. Self-concept, self-assessment.  What kind of things are you most confident in doing?  Can you describe for me a difficult obstacle you have had to overcome? How did you handle it? How do you feel this experience affected your personality or ability?  How would you describe yourself as a person? 43

 

What things give you the most satisfaction at work? What things frustrate you most? How do you usually cope with them?

6. Creativity.  In your work experience, what have you done that you consider truly creative?  What kind of problems have people recently called on you to solve?  Of your creative accomplishments, at work or at home, which have given you the most satisfaction? 7. Outlook.  Do you belong to any clubs, associations, or groups?  What do you like to do in your spare time?  How do you keep up with what is going on in your company/ your industry/your profession/your country? 8. Motivation.  What is your professional goal?  When judging the performance of a subordinate or colleague, what factors or characteristics are the most important for you? 9. Duties and specification.  What standards of success do you set yourself in your job?  In your position, how would you define doing a good job? 10. Management.  What approach do you take in getting people to accept your ideas or goals?  What sort of leaders do your people feel you are? How would others describe you as a leader?  How do you get people who do not want to work together to establish a common approach to a problem?  Do you feel you work more effectively in a one to one situation or in a group situation?  How would you describe your basic leadership style? Give specific examples of how you practice this 11. Experience of public speaking.  Have you ever done any public or group speaking? How did it go?  Have you made any individual presentations recently? How did you prepare? 12. Dealing with Stress 44

 Do you feel pressure in your job/life/at school? Tell me about it.  What has been the highest-pressure situation you have been under in recent years? How did you cope with it? 13. Stability and maturity.  Describe your most significant success & failure in the two last years.  What do you like to do best?  What do you like to do least?  Think about your last review. What did your supervisor suggest needed improvement?  What have you done about it? 14. Interest in self-development.  What has been the most important event or who has been the most important person in your own self-development?  What kind of books or other publications do you read?  Have you taken a management development course?  How are you helping your co-workers/ subordinates develop themselves? 15. Questions, which can be asked by an interviewee.  What will be my responsibilities?  Whom will I report to? Who will be my supervisor?  What do you expect me to do in my company role?  Who are your customers/clients?  Where is the company going? What are its plans for expansion? Language functions 1) Put the following phrases into the correct logical order: It looks like we have run out of time, so I guess we will finish here. I am going to start by… and then we will talk about… It is nice to welcome you here… Let me fill you in on the details of… You should know that... 2) Translate from Russian into English: Я бы хотел сказать, что… Я с вами полностью согласен Пожалуйста, задавайте любые вопросы Не могли бы вы рассказать мне об этом немного больше… Какие будут мои обязанности? 3)

Put the following phrases according to their communicative purpose: 45

а) Eliciting information в) Making a point с) Summarizing ideas  I wonder if you'd mind telling me ...  Perhaps it would be useful if we just summarized what we have said so far.  I think we have covered everything on the list.  I'm afraid I need to know ...  What is your position on...?  I believe you know that ...  I think I should be frank and say that ... 4) Choose appropriate phrases for the following situations: You have to select the right person for a particular post. What questions can you ask about his/her experience? a) How would you describe yourself as a person? b) What do you like to do in your spare time? c) What aspects of your job did you like best? d) Are you used to working shifts? You have to select the right person for a particular post. What questions can you ask about his/ her stress-stability? a) Do you work well under pressure? b) Have you done any public or group speaking? c) What aspect of your job do you like best? d) How do you usually cope with staff problems? What questions can you ask as interviewee about your future job? a) Whom will I report to? b) Where is the company going? What are its plans for expansion? c) Why do you want to leave your present job? d) What sort of leaders do your people feel you are? 5) You are interviewing a person for a job. How would you find out politely the following information? his/her age and education his/her creativity and outlook his/her motivation Speech practice Work in pairs. Use the dialogue and phrasal areas (1;2) above as models and act out the situations: Situation 1 46

An employee has decided to leave the company. Prepare a list of questions and ask him/her to clarify his/her position, find out the reason for his/her decision and express your opinion about this situation. While dramatizing take into account the following information: Clarifying Giving an opinion What exactly …by…? Let me … the detail of... Could you….? I think we need… Why… our company? Well, I’m ……..of…. What aspects of …. deal with? I suggest we … Key words: shift work, to postpone, relationship, staff, contract details, be promoted, salary, job responsibility, to take into account, resignation, to complain about. Situation 2 You have referred several people for one position. You feel that one candidate is clearly the best but personal manager prefers another person. Work in pairs, make a dialogue and act out the situation. While dramatizing take into account the following information: Agreeing/disagreeing Interrupting I’m not sure… there Can we just…? Yes, but have you…? I’d… one point here I’m inclined to… that I’m afraid we Yes ,… idea Maybe we should… I don’t think…. position To a … extent I… but Making suggestions Summarizing Actually, there is…. Who If … to add… wrap this up Well … consider … My proposal is … What do…about…? So, let us just recap on… I would… that… We have seen that… Key words: previous experience, skills and qualities, training, degree, disciplinary, motivation, communicate, leadership, ability to, education details. Situation 3 Communicative task for the interviewee: You are at the “career advice center”. You are going to apply for the position of a back-end-developer. Get ready to answer the following questions: a. Tell me something about yourself. What are your strengths and weaknesses? b. Has your education (experience) prepared you well for the position you want to get? c. What is your professional goal? Where would you like to be professionally five years from now? You will want to ask questions too. Find out: 47

1. the company’s objectives; 2. the sphere of your responsibilities; 3. the person who will be your boss. Communicative task for the interviewer: You are a personnel manager of a company and you have to conduct an interview with an applicant. Get ready to ask him/her questions about:  his/her strengths and weaknesses  previous education and experience  professional goal and interest in self-development Phrasal area for the interviewer: What are your … for this position? Can you describe… Why did you leave…? What special aspects… for this job? Have you ever taken… course? Are you going to… ?

Phrasal area for the interviewee: … the job itself? …report to? …my company role? Where is the company …? … further education and training?

Situation 4 You are the personnel manager of the IT-company, which was created only 5 years ago and is rapidly expanding. Now your company needs an front-end developer. Conduct an interview with applicant, ask questions about: - the applicant’s personal backgrounds, - his/her personal traits, - find out why the applicants apply for the job, what they know about the company and what salary they expect.

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APPENDIX 3 KEYS Unit 1 Task 1.3. Fill-in-theblank Answer Key: 1)full-time job; 2) part-time; 3)under the table; 4) Long story short; 5) to keep in mind; 6) covering letter; 7) to adjust; 8) ridiculous; 9) to convince; 10) get out of; 11) to apply; 12)I was interviewed

UNIT 2 Task 2.3 Fill-in-theblank Answer Key: 1) determine 2) correspondence 3) approach 4) precedence 5) implement 6) position 7) resolution 8) formalized 9) employee 10) flexible 11) deadline 12) erudition 13) descended 14) profile 15) negotiation

Unit 3 Task 3.3. Fill-in-theblank Answer Key: 1) Diverse; 2) submit; CVs; 3) be familiar with 4) work experience; 5) framework; 6) troubleshooting; 7) highlight; 8)academic achievements; 9) career counselor; 10) relevant; 11) resume

Task 1.4. Matching Answer Key: A – 10 B–4 C–9 D–3 E–2 F–8 G – 12 H–7 I–5 J – 11 K–6 L–1 Unit 4 Task 4.3.: Fill-in-theblank Answer Key: 1) overcame 2) personnel 3) undertake 4) shortage 5) prevent 6) recognize

Task 2.4. Matching Task 3.4. Matching Answer Key: Answer Key: A–7 A–9 B–2 B–1 C–5 C–8 D -1 D–5 E – 10 E – 11 F – 11 F – 10 G–6 G-7 H–4 H-4 I–9 I-6 J–3 J - 12 K – 12 K-2 L-8 L-3 Unit 5 Task 5.3. Fill-in-theblank Answer Key: 1).gone bankrupt; 2) income tax; 3) general partnership; 4) tax return; 5) Account managers; 6) come up with; 49

7) face 8) interact 9) challenge 10) position 11) compete 12) turned out 13) accomplish 14) employee 15) deal with 16) flexible 17) encourage 18) specialty 19) subordinate 20) recruit Task 4.4.: Matching Answer Key: A. 15 B. 13 C. 14 D. 16 E. 8 F. 2 G. 10 H. 20 I. 18 J. 19 K. 1 L. 17 M. 6 N. 4 O. 5 P. 3 Q. 7 R. 11 S. 12 T. 9

7) competition; 8) business entity; 9) collaborated; 10) runs business; 11) competitor; 12) outsource

Task 5.4.: Matching Answer Key: A. - 6 B. - 2 C. - 12 D. - 9 E. - 7 F. - 1 G. - 4 H. - 10 I. - 11 J. - 3 K. – 5 L. - 8

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