Islands Of The Commonwealth Caribbean, A Regional Study

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Islands Of The Commonwealth Caribbean, A Regional Study

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area

handbook

series

Islands of the

Commonwealth Caribbean a regional study

Islands of the

Commonweath Caribbean a regional study Federal Research Division

Congress Meditz W. Sandra Edited by Hanratty M. arid Dennis Research Completed Library of

November 1987

On

the cover: Fishermen

drawing

in their nets

First Edition, First Printing, 1989.

Copyright ©1989 United States Government as represented by

Army.

the Secretary of the

All rights reserved.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Islands of the

Commonwealth Caribbean: A Regional

Study.

(Area handbook series) (DA Pam.; 550-33) "Research completed September 1987." Bibliography: pp. 671-726. Includes index.

D

101.22:55-33 I. Meditz, Sandra W., 1950III. Library of Congress. II. Hanratty, Dennis M., 1950Federal Research Division. IV. Series. V. Series: DA Pam.; 550-33. Supt. of Docs, no.: 1.

West

F2131.I85

Indies, British.

1989

972.9

88-600483

Headquarters, Department of the 550-33

Army

DA Pam

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S.

Washington, D.C. 20402

Government Printing

Office

Foreword

This volume is one in a continuing series of books now being prepared by the Federal Research Division of the Library of ConArea Handbook Program. The gress under the Country Studies last page of this book lists the other published studies. Most books in the series deal with a particular foreign country, describing and analyzing its political, economic, social, and national security systems and institutions, and examining the interrelationships of those systems and the ways they are shaped by cultural



Each study

is written by a multidisciplinary team of social authors seek to provide a basic understanding of the observed society, striving for a dynamic rather than a static

factors.

scientists.

The

portrayal. Particular attention

up

is

devoted to the people

who make

dominant beliefs and values, their common interests and the issues on which they are divided, the nature and extent of their involvement with national institutions, and their attitudes toward each other and toward their social system and the society, their origins,

political order.

The books represent the analysis of the authors and should not be construed as an expression of an official United States government position, policy, or decision. The authors have sought to adhere to accepted standards of scholarly objectivity. Corrections, additions, and suggestions for changes from readers will be welcomed for use in future editions. Louis R. Mortimer Acting Chief Federal Research Division Library of Congress Washington, D.C. 20540

111

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to acknowledge the contributions of Irving Kaplan, Howard I. Blutstein, Kathryn Therese Johnston, and David S. McMorris, who wrote the 1976 edition of the Area Handbook for Jamaica, and Jan Knippers Black, Howard I. Blutstein, Kathryn Therese Johnston, and David S. McMorris, who wrote the 1976 edition of the Area Handbook for Trinidad and Tobago. Their work provided a useful guide in organizing portions of chapters 2 and 3 of the present volume. The

authors are grateful to individuals in various agencies of

government and international and private instiof their time, research materials, and special knowledge to provide information and perspective. The staffs of various Commonwealth Caribbean embassies, the Inter-American Development Bank, and the World Bank provided materials that were unavailable from other sources. Stephen F. Clarke, senior the United States tutions

who gave

American-British Law Division, Library of Congress, offered insights on the structure and functions of the Eastern Caribbean court system. None of these individuals is in any way responsible for the work of the authors, however. The authors also wish to thank those who contributed directly to the preparation of the manuscript. These include Richard F. Nyrop, who reviewed all drafts and served as liaison with the sponsoring agency; Martha E. Hopkins, who edited portions of the manuscript and managed its production; Barbara Auerbach, Vincent Ercolano, and Marilyn L. Majeska, who also edited portions of the manuscript; Donna G. Bruce, Barbara Edgerton, Janie L. Gilchrist, Monica Shimmin, and Izella Watson, who did the word processing; Andrea T. Merrill, who performed the final prepublication editorial review; Malinda B. Neale of the Printing and Processing Section, Library of Congress, who phototypeset the manuscript under the supervision of Peggy Pixley; and Mary Bodnar of Communicators Connections, who compiled the index. David P. Cabitto, Sandra K. Cotugno, and Kimberly A. Lord provided invaluable graphics support. Kimberly A. Lord also designed the cover and illustrations for the title page of each chapter. Harriett R. Blood and the firm of Greenhorne and O'Mara prepared the maps, which were reviewed by Susan Lender. Various individuals, libraries, and public agencies generously provided photographs. Finally, the authors would like to thank several individuals who provided research support. Joan C. Barch, Susan Lender,

legal specialist at the

v

Timothy L. Merrill, and Marjorie F. Thomas wrote the geography sections in chapters 2 through 6. Timothy L. Merrill also supplied the authors with data on telecommunications and transportation. Glennon J. Harrison assisted in the development of an outline for the book and performed initial research on Jamaica's economy and society.

VI

Contents

Page

Foreword

iii

Acknowledgments

v

xv

Preface Introduction

Chapter

1.

xix

Regional Overview

l

Franklin

W. Knight

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL SETTING

4 7

The Pre-European Population The Impact of the Conquest

7 11

THE EUROPEAN SETTLEMENTS THE COLONIAL PERIOD

12

16

The Sugar Revolutions and Slavery The Post-Emancipation Societies

17

21

POLITICAL TRADITIONS SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS,

23

1800-1960

27

Education

27

Precursors of Independence

28

POLITICAL INDEPENDENCE

30

Changes in the Social Base of Political Power Labor Organizations The West Indies Federation, 1958-62 Political

30 34 38

40

Systems

SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS Chapter

2.

41

Jamaica

43

Rex A. Hudson and Daniel J.

Seyler

HISTORICAL SETTING

48

GEOGRAPHY

55

POPULATION EDUCATION

59

HEALTH AND WELFARE

66

61

ECONOMY Growth and Structure of Patterns of Development

69 the

Economy

71

74

vii

Role of Government

76

National Income and Public Finance

82

Labor Force and Industrial Relations

86

Industry

87

Services

94

Agriculture

102

External Sector

GOVERNMENT AND

Ill

POLITICS

115

The Governmental System Political Dynamics

115

FOREIGN RELATIONS

123

134

Relations with the United States, Britain,

and Canada Relations with

134

Communist Countries

136

Relations with Latin American and Caribbean

Countries

137

Other Third World Relations

NATIONAL SECURITY The

Public Security Forces

Incidence of Crime Political

Violence

Narcotics

Crime

The Criminal

Chapter

3.

Justice System

Trinidad and Tobago

139 141

142 151

152 155

156 161

Beatrice Berle Meyerson, Daniel J. Seyler, and John F. Hornbeck

HISTORICAL SETTING

165

Colonial Heritage

165

The Road

170

to

Independence

GEOGRAPHY

174

POPULATION EDUCATION

177

180

HEALTH AND WELFARE

183

ECONOMY

185

vin

Growth and Structure of the Economy Patterns of Development Role of Government National Income and Public Finance Labor Force and Industrial Relations

201

Industry

203

Services

211

Agriculture

220

External Sector

228

187

190 193 197

GOVERNMENT AND

POLITICS

234

The Governmental System Political Dynamics

234 237

FOREIGN RELATIONS NATIONAL SECURITY Chapter

4.

247

250

The Windward

and Barbados

Islands

DOMINICA

255 261

Atherton Martin

ST.

Geography

267

Population

270

Education

271

Health and Welfare

273

Economy

276

Government and Politics Political Dynamics

283

Foreign Relations

286

National Security

287

282

LUCIA

291

John Geography

294

Population

295

Education

297

Health and Welfare

299

Economy

300

Government and

ST.

F. Hornbeck

309

Politics

Foreign Relations

314

National Security

316

VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES Mary Jo

319

Cosover

Geography

322

Population

323

Education Health and Welfare

325 326

Economy

328

Government and

Politics

335

Foreign Relations

339

National Security

340

GRENADA

345

Richard A. Haggerty and John F. Hornbeck

Geography

349

Population

351

ix

Education Health and Welfare

352

354 355

Economy Government and Foreign Relations

365 374

National Security

380

Politics

BARBADOS

385

Beatrice Berle Meyerson,

John

F. Hornbeck,

and

Richard A. Haggerty

Geography

390

Population

391

Education Health and Welfare

393

Economy

396 410

Government and

395

Politics

Foreign Relations

416

National Security

420

Chapter

5.

The Leeward

Islands

427

ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

431

Karen Sturges-Vera Geography

435

Population

437 438

Education Health and Welfare

439 439

Economy Government and

445

Politics

451

Foreign Relations

452

National Security

ST.

CHRISTOPHER AND NEVIS

455

Richard A. Haggerty and John F. Hornbeck

Geography

461

Population

463

Education

464

Health and Welfare

465

Economy

467

Government and

Politics

.

.

476

Foreign Relations

481

National Security

483

BRITISH DEPENDENCIES: BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS,

ANGUILLA, AND MONTSERRAT

487

Deborah Cichon Geography

x

497

Population

499

Education

500

Health and Welfare

501

Economy

503

Government and

508

Politics

Foreign Relations

512

National Security

513

Chapter

6.

The Northern

Islands

515

THE BAHAMAS

519

Mark

P. Sullivan

Geography

525

Population

526

Education

527

Health and Welfare

528

Economy

531

Government and

543

Politics

552

Foreign Relations

557

National Security

BRITISH DEPENDENCIES: THE CAYMAN ISLANDS THE TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS

AND 561

Deborah Cichon Geography

566

Population

568

Education

569

Health and Welfare

571

Economy

572

Government and

576

Politics

Foreign Relations

581

National Security

582

Chapter

7.

Strategic

and Regional Security

Perspectives

585

Rex A. Hudson

THE STRATEGIC SETTING

588

Background

591

Current Strategic Considerations

595

Historical

THE REGIONAL SECURITY SETTING

613

Postwar Federation Efforts

614

Regional Security Threats, 1970-81

618

A

622

Regional Security System

Controversial Security Issues

630

XI

Appendix A. Tables Appendix

B.

635

The Commonwealth

of Nations .... 645 Deborah Cichon

HISTORY

646

PRINCIPLES

648

ORGANIZATION AND ACTIVITIES REGIONAL GROUPINGS

649

650

Appendix C. The Caribbean Community and Common Market

653

Jeffrey Taylor

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE MARKET INTEGRATION MECHANISMS MECHANISMS OF COOPERATION IN MARKETING AND PRODUCTION

653

655 657

658

MECHANISMS OF FINANCIAL COOPERATION FUNCTIONAL COOPERATION COORDINATION OF DEFENSE AND

659 660

FOREIGN POLICIES A BRIEF EVALUATION OF THE INTEGRATION EFFORT EVENTS AFFECTING THE COMMUNITY IN THE 1980s

662

Appendix D. Caribbean Basin

665

660 660

Initiative

Mark

P. Sullivan

BACKGROUND

666

HIGHLIGHTS OF THE CARIBBEAN BASIN

ECONOMIC RECOVERY ACT

666

Duty-free Treatment

666

Tax

668

Provisions

OTHER MEASURES AND PROGRAMS RELATED TO THE CARIBBEAN BASIN INITIATIVE

668

Economic Aid

668

Investment Incentives and Promotion Programs

668 669

Textile Initiative

Complementary Trade Preference Programs Multilateral Support

.

669 670

IMPACT

670

Bibliography

673

xii

Glossary

729

Index

735

of Figures The Caribbean, 1987

List 1

xvi

2

Jamaica. Topography and Drainage

58

3

Jamaica. Administrative Divisions, 1987

62

4 Jamaica. Gross Domestic Product by Sector, 1985

Mining and Related Activities, 1987 Trinidad and Tobago, 1987 Trinidad and Tobago. Gross Domestic Product by

5 Jamaica.

6 7

Sector, 1985

84 90 176 198

8 Trinidad and Tobago. Oil Production

and 204

Related Activities, 1987 9 Dominica, 1987

268

10 St. Lucia, 1987

296

11

St.

Vincent and the Grenadines, 1987

324

12

Grenada, 1987 13 Barbados, 1987

350

14 Antigua and Barbuda, 1987

436

15 St. Christopher

392

and Nevis, 1987

462

16 British Virgin Islands, 1987

494

and Montserrat, 1987 18 The Bahamas, 1987

496 524

17 Anguilla

19

Cayman

568

Islands, 1987

20 Turks and Caicos Islands, 1987

570

21 Caribbean Sea-Lanes, 1987

590

22 Organization of the Regional Security System

(RSS), 1987

A

622

Caribbean Market, 1987

Institutional Organization of the

Community and Common

656

xin

Preface

This study is an attempt to treat in a compact and objective manner the dominant social, political, economic, and military aspects of the contemporary islands of the Commonwealth Caribbean. Sources of information included scholarly books, journals, and

monographs;

official reports

numerous

of governments and international or-

and interviews with individcompetence in Caribbean affairs. Chapter bibliographies appear at the end of the book; brief comments on sources recommended for further reading appear at the end of each ganizations;

periodicals;

uals having special

chapter or country section. Measurements are given in the metric system; a conversion table is provided to assist readers unfamiliar

with metric measurements (see table is

1,

Appendix A).

A

glossary

also included.

xv

Figure

xvi

1.

The Caribbean, 1987

64"

International

boundary

200 Kilometers -rX

,

150Miles

24°

Ocean

Atlantic

TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS

BRITISH VIRGIN

ISLANDS

*

PU ERTO RIC Q

\^

Pc

^' VIRGIN

ST.

tANGUILLA

o ISLANDS (U.S.)

^

CHRISTOPHER Q AND NEVIS MONTSERRAT

AN

1

A

B

i

ND

J^ D\

Q DOMINICA Caribbean

Sea ST.

LUCIAQ

ST. VINCENT AND a THE GRENADINES

BARBADOS

GRENADA



. .

— oil

.

1

768.5 1

1

Of\A

685.7

A

,ZU'±.4

AO R Q

1

,124.2

— TOO

.

1

702.4 1 09 O

568.5 1

\

1

A

1

,1^5.

"7

- toU.o

— DlJ.i

406.8

Services

Exports

Foreign travel

n.a.

336.2

399.3

406.6

Investment income

n.a.

97.1

63.8

18.8

48.6

Other

n.a.

187.9

176.3

199.5

184.1

n.a.

621.2

639.4

624.9

639.5 20.0 359.4

Total exports

Imports Foreign travel Investment income

Other Services balance

Balance of goods and services

.

.

n.a.

30.1

25.0

21.3

n.a.

280.6

248.9

320.6

n.a.

247.4

247.0

275.6

240.2

n.a.

558.1

520.9

617.5

619.6

- 138.4

63.1

118.5

7.4

19.9

-461.1

- 372.8

-320.0

- 473.4

- 555.3

123.3

134.5

94.7

181.6

.0

15.9

6.8

61 .0

201.0 60.8

122.3

118.6

87.9

120.6

140.2

- 338.8

- 254.2

- 232.1

- 352.8

- 415.1

240.2

446.0 25.7

321.0 - 255.1

362.9 215.6

249.0

-3.9 236.3

471.7

65.9

578.5

333.3

- 102.5

217.5

- 166.2

225.7

-81.8

90.5

-83.3

289.1

-225.7

81.8

Net transfers 1

Net transfers balance Current account balance

Net

capital

movements

Official

Net

capital

84.3

movements

Current and capital

Changes n.a.

— not

in reserves

4

available.

1

Provisional.

2

Free on board.

3

Cost, insurance, and freight.

*

Minus

sign signifies increase in reserves.

639

Islands of the

o cn

Commonwealth Caribbean l£)

CO



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03

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03

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