Isaiah 9789004427235, 9004427236

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Isaiah
 9789004427235, 9004427236

Table of contents :
Isaiah
‎Contents
‎Illustrations
‎Introduction
1 Greek Isaiah
1.1 Origins
1.2 Hebrew and Greek Compared
1.2.1 Mistakes Are by the Translator, not Vorlage
1.2.2 Minor Differences: Updating and Paraphrasing
1.2.3 Minor Differences: Mistakes
1.2.4 Even Significant Differences Are Not Agenda-Driven
1.2.5 Incompetence in Matters Small and Large
1.2.6 Patristic Confirmation
1.3 Language
1.3.1 Tenses in Translation
1.3.1.1 Free Translation of Inflection
1.3.1.2 Fulfilment Interpretation
1.3.1.3 Proper Names
1.3.1.4 Lord
1.3.1.5 Recourse to Favoured Words
1.4 Transmission and Preservation
1.4.1 Early Manuscripts
1.4.2 Fourth-Century Revisions
1.4.3 Compare Ziegler, Rahlfs, A, B
1.5 Reception
1.5.1 New Testament
1.5.2 Patristic
1.5.2.1 Early Christian Writers’ Use of Isaiah
1.5.2.2 Faith
1.6 Modern Study
1.6.1 Modern Study of the Septuagint
1.6.2 Modern Study of Greek Isaiah
1.6.2.1 Pluses and Minuses
2 Sinaiticus Isaiah
2.1 Description of Manuscript
2.2 History of Codex Sinaiticus
2.2.1 Scribes
2.2.1.1 Orthography
2.2.2 Correctors
2.2.3 Glosses
2.2.4 Discovery
2.2.5 Publication
2.3 Divisions
3 The Format of This Commentary
3.1 Transcription
3.2 Translation
3.3 Commentary
‎Text and Translation
1 Title (1:1)
2 Sub-human knowledge (1:2–3)
3 Lawlessness provokes injury (1:4–6)
4 Desolation, past, present and future (1:7–9)
5 Ritual Abomination (1:10–15)
6 Repent and be clean (1:16–20)
7 Zion’s rulers are rebels (1:21–23)
8 Israel’s leaders will be replaced (1:24–27)
9 Destruction of the lawbreakers (1:28–2:1)
10 The mountain of Lord (2:2–4)
11 Foreign influences (2:5–9)
12 Lord shatters the earth (2:10–11)
13 Lord brings the arrogant low (2:12–17)
14 Handiworks hidden from Lord (2:18–19)
15 Idols discarded, to hide from Lord (2:20–21)
16 Lord Sabaoth removes Judea’s leadership (3:1–5)
17 Judaea desperate for leaders (3:6–9)
18 Woe to lawbreakers (3:9–11)
19 Time for justice (3:12–15)
20 Women of luxury will be humbled (3:16–26)
21 Shortage of men (4:1)
22 God will glorify the remnant on that day (4:2–3)
23 Lord will purge and protect Jerusalem (4:4–6)
24 The Song of the Vineyard (5:1–7)
25 Greed produces a desert (5:8–10)
26 Drunkards ignore God’s deeds (5:11–12)
27 Lord’s people captive for lack of knowledge (5:13–17)
28 Woe to disbelievers (5:18–19)
29 Woe to perverters of justice (5:20–23)
30 Injustice provokes Lord’s wrath (5:24–25)
31 An army from the nations (5:26–30)
32 Theophany (6:1–5)
33 Lips purified (6:6–7)
34 Isaiah’s commission (6:8–10)
35 The extent of the desolation (6:11–13)
36 Aram attacks Jerusalem (7:1–2)
37 Isaiah encourages Achaz (7:3–6)
38 Aram’s plot will fail (7:7–9)
39 A sign for Achaz (7:10–17)
40 Lord whistles for flies (7:18–19)
41 Lord’s razor (7:20–22)
42 From barren to fertile land (7:23–25)
43 Quickly Plunder; Swiftly Capture (8:1–4)
44 The mighty and abundant river (8:5–8)
45 God is with us (8:8–10)
46 Lord will be your help (8:11–15)
47 Wait for God (8:16–18)
48 Diviners are no help (8:19–23)
49 The yoke removed (9:1–5)
50 A son is given (9:6–7)
51 Building a new tower (9:8–10)
52 God disperses Zion’s enemies (9:11–13)
53 Lord removes head and tail (9:14–17)
54 Lord’s wrath burns everything (9:17–21)
55 Wicked judges will flee their punishment (10:1–4)
56 Woe to the Assyrians (10:5–7)
57 He will take all regions (10:8–10)
58 Jerusalem’s images will be like Samaria’s (10:10–11)
59 The leader of the Assyrians (10:12–14)
60 The tool depends on its master (10:15–16)
61 Israel’s fire will consume (10:17–19)
62 The remnant of Israel will trust God (10:20–23)
63 Do not fear the Assyrians (10:24–26)
64 His yoke will be destroyed (10:27–32)
65 Lord Sabaoth humbles the arrogant (10:33–34)
66 The rod from the root of Iesai (11:1–5)
67 Peace among creatures (11:6–9)
68 Victory of the root of Iessai (11:10–14)
69 A second exodus from Egypt (11:15–12:1)
70 Lord is my Salvation (12:2)
71 Sing about Lord (12:3–13:1)
72 Lord Sabaoth leads giants against the world (13:2–5)
73 The day of Lord is near (13:6–8)
74 The sky will be darkened (13:9–11)
75 Lord Sabaoth’s wrath will shake the land (13:12–13)
76 Survivors will flee (13:14–16)
77 The Medes will crush your children (13:17–18)
78 Babylon will be deserted (13:19–22)
79 Lord will have pity on Israel (14:1–2)
80 God will give you rest in that day (14:3–4)
81 Dirge over the king of Babylon (14:4–11)
82 The Fall of the Morning Star (14:12–19)
83 Garment stained with blood (14:19–23)
84 The Assyrians will be destroyed (14:24–25)
85 Lord’s resolution (14:26–28)
86 Foreigners, do not rejoice (14:29–30)
87 Foreigners take warning (14:31–15:1)
88 The word against Moabitis (15:1–2)
89 Moabitis cries out (15:2–5)
90 The seed of Moab will be taken away (15:6–16:1)
91 Moab will flee (16:1–4)
92 David’s throne restored (16:5)
93 The insolence of Moab (16:6–7)
94 Wandering across the wilderness (16:7–8)
95 Moab’s harvest will fail (16:9–12)
96 Moab’s three-year fate (16:13–17:1)
97 The word against Damascus (17:1–3)
98 The glory of Jacob will fail (17:4–6)
99 They will trust in the Holy One of Israel (17:6–8)
100 The abandoners will be abandoned (17:9–11)
101 Woe to many nations (17:12–14)
102 Woe to the land beyond Ethiopia (18:1–3)
103 Lord will prune before harvest (18:4–6)
104 Gifts brought to Lord Sabaoth (18:7)
105 A vision of Egypt (19:1–4)
106 Egyptian rivers will fail (19:4–11)
107 Egyptian leaders will fail (19:12–15)
108 Egyptians will fear Judeans (19:16–17)
109 Egyptian cities swear by Lord (19:18)
110 An Egyptian altar to Lord (19:19–20)
111 Egyptians will know Lord (19:20–21)
112 Egyptians will return to Lord (19:22)
113 Egyptians will serve the Assyrians (19:23)
114 Israel a peer of Assyrians and Egyptians (19:24–25)
115 Isaiah goes naked and barefoot (20:1–21:1)
116 The vision of the desert (21:1–2)
117 Groans of remorse and dread (21:2–5)
118 Babylon has fallen (21:6–11)
119 The vision of Idoumaia (21:11–12)
120 The multitude of victims of war (21:13–15)
121 Kedar will fail in a year (21:16–22:1)
122 The word of the gully of Zion (22:1–7)
123 Lack of repentance in the city of David (22:8–14)
124 The tomb of Somnas (22:15–16)
125 Lord Sabaoth will depose Somnas (22:17–19)
126 Eliakim will take Somnas’ place (22:20–25)
127 The vision of Tyre (23:1–3)
128 The esteemed of Tyre will be disregarded (23:4–9)
129 Tyre loses power over the sea (23:10–12)
130 No rest for Tyre (23:12–13)
131 Tyre abandoned for 70 years (23:14–16)
132 Tyre re-established, holy to the Lord (23:17–18)
133 Lord will desolate the world (24:1–3)
134 The land acted lawlessly (24:4–6)
135 Cheer has ceased (24:7–10)
136 Remnant cheered by Lord’s glory (24:11–15)
137 No escape for the lawless (24:16–18)
138 The land troubled by lawlessness (24:19–20)
139 Lord will reign in Jerusalem (24:21–23)
140 A song glorifying Lord (25:1–2)
141 The poor will praise you for your help (25:3–5)
142 Lord will act on this mountain toward all nations (25:5–7)
143 Lord took away every tear (25:8)
144 God will provide rest on this mountain (25:9–10)
145 Moabitis will be brought down (25:10–12)
146 Song over the land of Judah (26:1–6)
147 The path of Lord is judgement (26:7–9)
148 Learn righteousness (26:9–10)
149 Lord, your arm is high (26:11)
150 Lord, give us peace (26:12–18)
151 The dead will rise (26:19)
152 Hide from Lord’s wrath (26:20–21)
153 Lord will slay the dragon (27:1)
154 Israel the beautiful vineyard (27:2–6)
155 The slayer will be slain (27:7–11)
156 The destroyed sons of Israel will return (27:11–13)
157 Woe to the crown of pride (28:1–3)
158 Woe to the mountain blossom (28:4)
159 Lord Sabaoth will be the crown of hope (28:5–6)
160 Priest and prophet misled by drink (28:7–8)
161 Our report (28:9–12)
162 Lord God’s oracle will be oppression (28:13)
163 Covenant with death (28:14–15)
164 Zion’s cornerstone (28:16–20)
165 Lord’s deeds of anger (28:21–22)
166 Parable of the sower (28:23–26)
167 A relenting discipline (28:27–29)
168 Woe to Ariel (29:1–4)
169 The wealth of the impious is ephemeral (29:5–8)
170 Lord makes you imperceptive (29:9–10)
171 Incomprehensible sayings (29:11–12)
172 Hypocrisy of the “wise” (29:13–14)
173 Woe to schemers (29:15–17)
174 Fortunes will be reversed on that day (29:18–21)
175 The house of Jacob will sanctify their God (29:22–24)
176 Woe to those who trust in Egypt (30:1–5)
177 A vision of the desert animals (30:6–7)
178 Write for those unwilling to listen (30:8–11)
179 Your sin will be like a collapsing wall (30:12–14)
180 The object of your trust will backfire (30:15–18)
181 Blessed are those who remain faithful (30:18–23)
182 Fertility will be restored (30:23–25)
183 The day Lord heals his people (30:26)
184 Lord’s wrath will trouble nations (30:27–28)
185 Is rejoicing necessary? (30:29–30)
186 Assyrians will be defeated (30:31–33)
187 Woe to those depending on Egypt (31:1–2)
188 Lord will oppose their pointless hope (31:2–3)
189 Lord Sabaoth will fight Mount Zion (31:4–5)
190 Schemers, repent or flee! (31:6–9)
191 A just king will reign (31:9–32:4)
192 The counsel of the foolish (32:5–8)
193 Wealthy women, grieve the coming loss (32:9–13)
194 Chermel will be deserted (32:14–19)
195 Woe to those who distress you (32:20–33:1)
196 Lord, have pity on us (33:2–4)
197 Warehouses of righteousness (33:5–9)
198 Those you feared will fear you (33:7–9)
199 Now I will be exalted and you will see (33:10–12)
200 All will know my power (33:13–14)
201 The blameless will warn you (33:14–15)
202 You will see distant land (33:16–18)
203 Where are the scholars? (33:18–19)
204 Jerusalem is our salvation (33:20–22)
205 Lord our king will save us (33:22–24)
206 Lord’s anger is against all the nations (34:1–4)
207 Sword and land drunk with blood and fat (34:5–7)
208 Creatures will occupy the land (34:8–15)
209 Lord protects the deer (34:15–17)
210 Rejoice, deserted land! (35:1–2)
211 Our God will repay (35:3–4)
212 The redeemed will return with eternal happiness (35:5–10)
213 Assyria attacks Jerusalem (36:1–2)
214 An embassy meets Rapsakes (36:3)
215 Rapsakes denigrates Egypt’s help (36:4–6)
216 Rapsakes denigrates Lord (36:7–9)
217 Rapsakes claims Lord’s commission (36:9–11)
218 Rapsakes refuses to speak Aramaic (36:12)
219 Rapsakes addresses the people in Hebrew (36:13–16)
220 Rapsakes calls the people to surrender (36:16–17)
221 Rapsakes points to past victories (36:18–21)
222 The embassy reports back to Hezekiah (36:22)
223 Hezekiah reacts to the embassy’s report (37:1–2)
224 The embassy consults Isaiah (37:3–4)
225 Isaiah’s reply (37:5–7)
226 Rapsakes returns (37:8)
227 Rapsakes sends another warning to Hezekiah (37:8–13)
228 Hezekiah prays for salvation (37:14–20)
229 Isaiah confirms Hezekiah’s prayer (37:21)
230 God’s word about Sennacherib (37:22–25)
231 God has brought down mighty nations (37:26–27)
232 The survivors will be from Jerusalem (37:28–32)
233 Sennacherib will turn back the way he came (37:33–34)
234 God will shield Jerusalem (37:35)
235 Lord’s angel kills the Assyrian army (37:36)
236 Sennacherib turns back and is killed (37:37–38)
237 Hezekiah becomes sick (38:1)
238 Hezekiah prays to Lord (38:2–3)
239 Isaiah delivers Lord’s answer (38:4–9)
240 Prayer of Hezekiah (38:10–20)
241 Isaiah tells Hezekiah the cure (38:21–22)
242 Maiodach hears of Hezekiah’s recovery (39:1)
243 Hezekiah shows the embassy the storehouses (39:2)
244 Isaiah asks Hezekiah about the embassy (39:3–4)
245 Isaiah delivers the word of Lord (39:5–8)
246 Comfort Jerusalem! (40:1–2)
247 Prepare Lord’s way! (40:3–5)
248 Every body withers like grass (40:6–8)
249 Lord comes to tend his flock (40:9–11)
250 Who has ever instructed Lord? (40:12–17)
251 To whom will you compare the Lord? (40:18–24)
252 The holy one is incomparable (40:25–26)
253 Do not say God has removed my judgement (40:26–28)
254 Those who wait upon God will not grow weary (40:28–31)
255 Who has renewed righteousness? (41:1–4)
256 Craftsmen work well (41:4–7)
257 I have chosen you, servant Israel (41:8–11)
258 Your opponents will vanish (41:11–14)
259 You will pulverize them (41:15–16)
260 The holy one of Israel will water the thirsty land (41:16–20)
261 Tell us the future (41:21–24)
262 Who will foretell the future? (41:25–26)
263 No one else can do this (41:27–29)
264 Israel will bring justice (42:1–4)
265 Lord God called you to bring freedom (42:5–8)
266 Lord God will inform you of his plans (42:9)
267 Sing a new song to God, distant peoples (42:10)
268 Surrounding nations will praise God (42:11–12)
269 Lord will no longer wait (42:13–14)
270 I will rectify the land (42:15–17)
271 You shameful idolaters! (42:17)
272 Senseless people will be plundered (42:18–22)
273 Israel was plundered for rebellion (42:23–25)
274 Lord God will protect Israel (43:1–3)
275 Do not be frightened (43:3–8)
276 The nations assembled (43:9)
277 You are my witnesses (43:10–13)
278 Lord God will send to Babylon (43:14–15)
279 Lord provides a path through the sea (43:16–17)
280 Lord is doing new things (43:18–21)
281 Lord does not desire sacrifices (43:22–24)
282 Your fathers broke the law (43:25–28)
283 Lord God will provide water and spirit (44:1–5)
284 There is no god but the God of Israel (44:6–8)
285 Idol makers will not benefit (44:8–9)
286 Idol makers will be put to shame (44:9–11)
287 Idols are inanimate objects (44:11–17)
288 Idols are false (44:18–20)
289 Remember me and I will forgive you (44:21–22)
290 Rejoice, for God has redeemed Israel (44:23)
291 Your redeemer created the world (44:24)
292 Lord will rebuild Jerusalem (44:25–28)
293 Cyrus, Lord God’s anointed (45:1–6)
294 Lord God makes all things (45:6–7)
295 Lord God formed you (45:8–10)
296 Ask Lord God about what he produced (45:11)
297 Lord Sabaoth ordered the world (45:12–13)
298 Foreigners will worship you (45:14–16)
299 Lord will restore Israel (45:16–17)
300 Only Lord announces truth (45:18–19)
301 Only Lord is righteous (45:20–21)
302 Every knee will bend to Lord (45:22–25)
303 Bel and Dagon have fallen (46:1–2)
304 I made you and lift you up (46:3–4)
305 Fabrications cannot save (46:5–7)
306 I will do what I have decided (46:8–11)
307 I have brought salvation to Israel (46:12–13)
308 Virgin daughter of the Chaldeans (47:1–4)
309 Sit down, daughter of the Chaldeans (47:5–7)
310 Hear this, conceited woman (47:8)
311 Calamity will come upon you (47:9–12)
312 Let your witchcraft save you (47:12–13)
313 Let the astrologers save you (47:13–15)
314 Listen, Israel (48:1–2)
315 I did what I foretold (48:3–5)
316 You do not know the future (48:6–9)
317 I will rescue you for my own reputation (48:10–11)
318 The creator will call them (48:12–14)
319 If you had obeyed, you would have prospered (48:14–19)
320 Lord will provide water for his servant Jacob (48:20–22)
321 Lord called me as his servant Israel (49:1–4)
322 Lord formed me as his servant to gather Israel (49:5–6)
323 A covenant, a light of nations (49:6)
324 Nations will worship him (49:7)
325 A light of nations (49:8–9)
326 I will ease their way (49:9–12)
327 Let creation rejoice (49:13)
328 I will never forget you (49:14–15)
329 You will be rebuilt quickly (49:16–17)
330 You will be crowded with settlers (49:18–21)
331 Foreigners will serve you (49:22–23)
332 Lord will rescue you from your giant oppressors (49:24–26)
333 You were sold for your sins (50:1–2)
334 I will dry up the waters (50:2–3)
335 I obey Lord despite suffering (50:4–8)
336 Who will judge me? (50:8–9)
337 Who fears Lord? (50:10)
338 Walk in the light of your fire (50:11)
339 I will turn desolation into paradise (51:1–3)
340 My justice will spread throughout the world (51:4–5)
341 My righteousness will never fail (51:6)
342 My salvation is forever (51:7–8)
343 The ransomed will return with joy (51:9–11)
344 You feared humans and forgot God (51:12–13)
345 Lord Sabaoth will shelter you from your oppressor (51:13–16)
346 Jerusalem, you have suffered my wrath (51:17–20)
347 I will transfer the wrath from you to your oppressors (51:21–23)
348 Get up, Jerusalem! (52:1–2)
349 Lord’s people were taken by force (52:4–6)
350 I announce good news (52:6–7)
351 Let Jerusalem’s protectors rejoice (52:8–9)
352 Nations will see Lord’s salvation (52:10)
353 Come out, carriers of Lord’s vessels (52:11–12)
354 Kings will shut their mouth because of my servant (52:13–15)
355 His appearance was despised (53:1–3)
356 He was wounded for our sins (53:4–7)
357 Though innocent, he was killed (53:7–10)
358 Lord removes him to justify the righteous (53:10–11)
359 He took up the sins of many (53:12)
360 The widow will have plenty of children (54:1–3)
361 You will not remember the reproach of your widowhood (54:4–6)
362 My anger will be replaced by mercy (54:7–11)
363 You will be built up in righteousness (54:11–14)
364 You will overcome your opponents (54:14–17)
365 Buy food and drink with no money (55:1–2)
366 Listen to me and you will have good things (55:2–3)
367 Nations will call upon you (55:4–5)
368 My ways are not like your ways (55:6–9)
369 My word will accomplish my purpose (55:10–13)
370 Preserve justice (56:1–2)
371 Eunuchs will have an eternal legacy (56:3–5)
372 A house of prayer even for foreigners (56:6–8)
373 People have become like beasts (56:8–11)
374 The righteous has been taken away (57:1–2)
375 Idolaters will reap the consequences (57:3–6)
376 Your unfaithfulness alienated us (57:7–10)
377 I will publicize your scorn (57:11–13)
378 Ease for the devoted (57:13–14)
379 The most holy one will not punish forever (57:15–16)
380 Peace and comfort will come shortly (57:17–20)
381 Proclaim my people’s sins (57:21–58:2)
382 Improper fasts (58:2–6)
383 End injustice and you will be rewarded (58:6–8)
384 Then God will listen to you (58:9–10)
385 Then your yearnings will be satisfied (58:10–12)
386 Keep the Sabbath holy, and Lord will reward you (58:13–14)
387 All of you are chronic sinners (59:1–6)
388 They do not recognize peace (59:6–8)
389 Light will become darkness for them (59:9–11)
390 We have acted unjustly (59:11–15)
391 Lord could find no one who was just (59:15–18)
392 My eternal covenant is my spirit and words (59:19–21)
393 Lord’s glory will shine on you (60:1–4)
394 Foreigners will bring you gifts (60:5–7)
395 Distant lands will restore your children (60:8–9)
396 Nations will serve you (60:10–12)
397 Your oppressors will serve you (60:13–16)
398 Future prosperity, righteousness, peace, and light from Lord (60:17–21)
399 The least will be great (60:21–22)
400 Lord anointed me with his spirit to proclaim good news (61:1–3)
401 They will restore what was abandoned (61:3–4)
402 Foreigners will serve you, priests of Lord (61:5–7)
403 You will be known among the nations (61:8–10)
404 Lord has clothed me with salvation (61:10–11)
405 My righteousness will shine to the nations (62:1–2)
406 Lord will give you a new name (62:2)
407 Lord will adorn and rejoice over you (62:3–7)
408 Lord will no longer give your produce to your enemies (62:8–9)
409 Lord ransoms Zion (62:10–12)
410 Who comes in power from Edom? (63:1)
411 Why are your clothes wine red? (63:2–3)
412 I trampled them in my anger (63:3–6)
413 Lord is a merciful judge (63:7–9)
414 They provoked his holy spirit (63:10–11)
415 Lord’s holy spirit led Moses and the people (63:11–14)
416 Rescue us, father (63:15–16)
417 Do not keep us from you (63:17–19)
418 Mountains will tremble at you (64:1–3)
419 We know no other god (64:4–5)
420 You have humbled us because of our sins (64:5–12)
421 I was available to those who did not seek me (65:1–2)
422 Lord will repay false worshippers (65:3–7)
423 For the sake of one faithful, I will not destroy all people (65:8–10)
424 False worshippers will fall by the sword (65:11–12)
425 Lord’s servants will prosper, but not you (65:13–16)
426 They will look ahead to the new, not back to the old (65:17–18)
427 No death before its time (65:18–20)
428 They, not others, will enjoy their produce (65:21–24)
429 No creature will harm another (65:25)
430 What house would you build for me? (66:1–2)
431 I will repay those who rebuff me (66:3–4)
432 Those who hate us will be put to shame (66:5)
433 Repayment; bearing a son before going into labour (66:6–7)
434 Zion was in labour (66:8–9)
435 Enjoy Mother Jerusalem (66:10–11)
436 Lord will comfort you like a mother in Jerusalem (66:12–14)
437 Lord’s fire will judge the land (66:15–16)
438 False worshippers will be destroyed (66:17–18)
439 All nations will see my glory (66:18–19)
440 Your brothers will return from the nations (66:20–21)
441 All people will worship in Jerusalem and see the transgressors’ corpses (66:22–24)
‎Commentary
1 Title (1:1)
2 Sub-human knowledge (1:2–3)
3 Lawlessness provokes injury (1:4–6)
4 Desolation, present and future (1:7–9)
5 Ritual Abomination (1:10–15)
6 Repent and be clean (1:16–20)
7 Zion’s rulers are rebels (1:21–23)
8 Israel’s leaders will be replaced (1:24–27)
9 Destruction of the lawbreakers (1:28–2:1)
10 The mountain of Lord (2:2–4)
11 Foreign influences (2:5–9)
12 Lord shatters the earth (2:10–11)
13 Lord brings the arrogant low (2:12–17)
14 Handiworks hidden from Lord (2:18–19)
15 Idols discarded, to hide from Lord (2:20–21)
16 Lord Sabaoth removes Judea’s leadership (3:1–5)
17 Judaea desperate for leaders (3:6–9)
18 Woe to lawbreakers (3:9–11)
19 Time for justice (3:12–15)
20 Women of luxury will be humbled (3:16–26)
21 Shortage of men (4:1)
23 Lord will purge and protect Jerusalem (4:4–6)
24 The Song of the Vineyard (5:1–7)
25 Greed produces a desert (5:8–10)
26 Drunkards ignore God’s deeds (5:11–12)
27 Lord’s people captive for lack of knowledge (5:13–17)
28 Woe to disbelievers (5:18–19)
29 Woe to perverters of justice (5:20–23)
30 Injustice provokes Lord’s wrath (5:24–25)
31 An army from the nations (5:26–30)
32 Theophany (6:1–5)
33 Lips purified (6:6–7)
34 Isaiah’s commission (6:8–10)
35 The extent of the desolation (6:11–13)
36 Aram attacks Jerusalem (7:1–2)
37 Isaiah encourages Achaz (7:3–6)
38 Aram’s plot will fail (7:7–9)
39 A sign for Achaz (7:10–17)
40 Lord whistles for flies (7:18–19)
41 Lord’s razor (7:20–22)
42 From barren to fertile land (7:23–25)
43 Quickly Plunder; Swiftly Capture (8:1–4)
44 The mighty and abundant river (8:5–8)
45 God is with us (8:8–10)
46 Lord will be your help (8:11–15)
47 Wait for God (8:16–18)
48 Diviners are no help (8:19–23)
49 The yoke removed (9:1–5)
50 A son is given (9:6–7)
51 Building a new tower (9:8–10)
52 God disperses Zion’s enemies (9:11–13)
53 Lord removes head and tail (9:14–17)
54 Lord’s wrath burns everything (9:17–21)
55 Wicked scribes will flee their punishment (10:1–4)
56 Woe to the Assyrians (10:5–7)
57 He will take all regions (10:8–10)
58 Jerusalem’s images will be like Samaria’s (10:10–11)
59 The leader of the Assyrians (10:12–14)
60 The tool depends on its master (10:15–16)
61 Israel’s fire will consume (10:17–19)
62 The remnant of Israel will trust God (10:20–23)
63 Do not fear the Assyrians (10:24–26)
64 The yoke will be destroyed (10:27–32)
65 Lord Sabaoth humbles the arrogant (10:33–34)
66 The rod from the root of Iesai (11:1–5)
67 Peace among creatures (11:6–9)
68 Victory of the root of Jesse (11:10–14)
69 A second exodus from Egypt (11:15–12:1)
70 Lord is my Salvation (12:2)
71 Sing about Lord (12:3–13:1)
72 Lord Sabaoth leads giants against the world (13:2–5)
73 The day of Lord is near (13:6–8)
74 The sky will be darkened (13:9–11)
75 Lord Sabaoth’s wrath will shake the land (13:12–13)
76 Survivors will flee (13:14–16)
77 The Medes will crush your children (13:17–18)
78 Babylon will be deserted (13:19–22)
79 Lord will have pity on Israel (14:1–2)
80 God will give you rest in that day (14:3–4)
81 Dirge over the king of Babylon (14:4–11)
82 The dawn-bringer’s fall (14:12–19)
83 Babylon’s garment stained with blood (14:19–23)
84 The Assyrians will be destroyed (14:24–25)
85 Lord’s resolution (14:26–28)
86 Foreigners, do not rejoice (14:29–30)
87 Foreigners take warning (14:31–15:1)
88 The word against Moabitis (15:1–2)
89 Moabitis cries out (15:2–5)
90 The seed of Moab will be taken away (15:6–16:1)
91 Moab will flee (16:1–4)
92 David’s throne restored (16:5)
93 The insolence of Moab (16:6–7)
94 Wandering across the wilderness (16:7–8)
95 Moab’s harvest will fail (16:9–12)
96 Moab’s three-year fate (16:13–17:1)
97 The word against Damascus (17:1–3)
98 The glory of Jacob will fail (17:4–6)
99 They will trust in the Holy One of Israel (17:6–8)
100 The abandoners will be abandoned (17:9–11)
101 Woe to many nations (17:12–14)
102 Woe to the land beyond Ethiopia (18:1–3)
103 Lord will prune before harvest (18:4–6)
104 Gifts brought to Lord Sabaoth (18:7)
105 A vision of Egypt (19:1–4)
106 Egyptian rivers will fail (19:4–11)
107 Egyptian leaders will fail (19:12–15)
108 Egyptians will fear Judeans (19:16–17)
109 Egyptian cities swear by Lord (19:18)
110 An Egyptian altar to Lord (19:19–20)
111 Egyptians will know Lord (19:20–21)
112 Egyptians will return to Lord (19:22)
113 Egyptians will serve the Assyrians (19:23)
114 Israel a peer of Assyrians and Egyptians (19:24–25)
115 Isaiah goes naked and barefoot (20:1–21:1)
116 The vision of the desert (21:1–2)
117 My groans of remorse and dread (21:2–5)
118 Babylon has fallen (21:6–11)
119 The vision of Idoumaia (21:11–12)
120 The multitude of victims of war (21:13–15)
121 Kedar will fail in a year (21:16–22:1)
122 The word of the gully of Zion (22:1–7)
123 Lack of repentance in the city of David (22:8–14)
124 The tomb of Somnas (22:15–16)
125 Lord Sabaoth will depose Somnas (22:17–19)
126 Eliakim will take Somnas’s place (22:20–25)
127 The vision of Tyre (23:1–3)
128 The esteemed of Tyre will be disregarded (23:4–9)
129 Tyre loses power over the sea (23:10–12)
130 No rest for Tyre (23:12–13)
131 Tyre abandoned for 70 years (23:14–16)
132 Tyre re-established, holy to the Lord (23:17–18)
133 Lord will desolate the world (24:1–3)
134 The land acted lawlessly (24:4–6)
135 Cheer has ceased (24:7–10)
136 Remnant cheered by Lord’s glory (24:11–15)
137 No escape for the lawless (24:16–18)
138 The land troubled by lawlessness (24:19–20)
139 Lord will reign in Jerusalem (24:21–23)
140 A song glorifying Lord (25:1–2)
141 The poor will praise you for your help (25:3–5)
142 Lord will act on this mountain for all nations (25:5–7)
143 Lord took away every tear (25:8)
144 God will provide rest on this mountain (25:9–10)
145 Moab will be brought down (25:10–12)
146 Song over the land of Judah (26:1–6)
147 The path of Lord is judgement (26:7–9)
148 Learn righteousness (26:9–10)
149 Lord, your arm is high (26:11)
150 Lord, give us peace (26:12–18)
151 The dead will rise (26:19)
153 Lord will slay the dragon (27:1)
154 Israel the beautiful vineyard (27:2–6)
155 The slayer will be slain (27:7–11)
156 The destroyed sons of Israel will return (27:11–13)
157 Woe to the crown of pride (28:1–3)
158 Woe to the mountain blossom (28:4)
159 Lord Sabaoth will be the crown of hope (28:5–6)
160 Priest and prophet misled by drink (28:7–8)
161 Our report (28:9–12)
162 Lord God’s oracle will be oppression (28:13)
163 Covenant with death (28:14–15)
164 Zion’s cornerstone (28:16–20)
165 Lord’s deeds of anger (28:21–22)
166 Parable of the sower (28:23–26)
167 A relenting discipline (28:27–29)
168 Woe to Ariel (29:1–4)
169 The wealth of the impious is ephemeral (29:5–8)
170 Lord makes you imperceptive (29:9–10)
171 Incomprehensible sayings (29:11–12)
172 Hypocrisy of the “wise” (29:13–14)
173 Woe to schemers (29:15–17)
174 Fortunes will be reversed on that day (29:18–21)
175 The house of Jacob will sanctify their God (29:22–24)
176 Woe to those who trust in Egypt (30:1–5)
177 A vision of the desert animals (30:6–7)
178 Write for those unwilling to listen (30:8–11)
179 Your sin will be like a collapsing wall (30:12–14)
180 The object of your trust will backfire (30:15–18)
181 Blessed are those who remain faithful (30:18–23)
182 Fertility will be restored (30:23–25)
183 The day Lord heals his people (30:26)
184 Lord’s wrath will trouble nations (30:27–28)
185 Is rejoicing necessary? (30:29–30)
186 Assyrians will be defeated (30:31–33)
187 Woe to those depending on Egypt (31:1–2)
188 Lord will oppose their pointless hope (31:2–3)
189 Lord Sabaoth will fight Mount Zion (31:4–5)
190 Schemers, repent or flee! (31:6–9)
191 A just king will reign (31:9–32:4)
192 The counsel of the foolish (32:5–8)
193 Wealthy women, grieve the coming loss (32:9–13)
194 Chermel will be deserted (32:14–19)
195 Woe to those who distress you (32:20–33:1)
196 Lord, have pity on us (33:2–4)
197 Warehouses of righteousness (33:5–6)
198 Those you feared will fear you (33:7–9)
199 Now I will be exalted and you will see (33:10–12)
200 All will know my power (33:13–14)
201 The blameless one will warn you (33:14–15)
202 You will see distant land (33:16–18)
203 Where are the scholars? (33:18–19)
204 Jerusalem is our salvation (33:20–22)
205 Lord our king will save us (33:22–24)
206 Lord’s anger is against all the nations (34:1–4)
207 Sword and land drunk with blood and fat (34:5–7)
208 Creatures will occupy the land (34:8–15)
209 Lord protects the deer (34:16–17)
210 Rejoice, deserted land! (35:1–2)
211 Our God will repay (35:3–4)
212 The redeemed will return with eternal happiness (35:5–10)
213 Assyria attacks Jerusalem (36:1–2)
214 An embassy meets Rapsakes (36:3)
215 Rapsakes denigrates Egypt’s help (36:4–6)
216 Rapsakes denigrates Lord (36:7–9)
217 Rapsakes claims Lord’s commission (36:10–11)
218 Rapsakes refuses to speak Aramaic (36:12)
219 Rapsakes addresses the people in Hebrew (36:13–16)
220 Rapsakes calls the people to surrender (36:16–17)
221 Rapsakes points to past victories (36:18–21)
222 The embassy reports back to Hezekiah (36:22)
223 Hezekiah reacts to the embassy’s report (37:1–2)
224 The embassy consults Isaiah (37:3–4)
225 Isaiah’s reply (37:5–7)
226 Rapsakes returns (37:8)
227 Rapsakes sends another warning to Hezekiah (37:9–13)
228 Hezekiah prays for salvation (37:14–20)
229 Isaiah confirms Hezekiah’s prayer (37:21)
230 God’s word about Sennacherib (37:22–25)
231 God has brought down mighty nations (37:26–27)
232 The survivors will be from Jerusalem (37:28–32)
233 Sennacherib will turn back the way he came (37:33–34)
234 God will shield Jerusalem (37:35)
235 Lord’s angel kills the Assyrian army (37:36)
236 Sennacherib turns back and is killed (37:37–38)
237 Hezekiah becomes sick (38:1)
238 Hezekiah prays to Lord (38:2–3)
239 Isaiah delivers Lord’s answer (38:4–9)
240 Prayer of Hezekiah (38:10–20)
241 Isaiah tells Hezekiah the cure (38:21–22)
242 Maiodach hears of Hezekiah’s recovery (39:1)
243 Hezekiah shows the embassy the storehouses (39:2)
244 Isaiah asks Hezekiah about the embassy (39:3–4)
245 Isaiah delivers the word of Lord (39:5–8)
246 Comfort Jerusalem! (40:1–2)
247 Prepare Lord’s way! (40:3–5)
248 Every body withers like grass (40:6–8)
249 Lord comes to tend his flock (40:9–11)
250 Who has ever instructed Lord? (40:12–17)
251 To whom did you compare the Lord? (40:18–24)
252 The holy one is incomparable (40:25–26)
253 Do not say God has removed my judgement (40:26–27)
254 Those who wait upon God will not grow weary (40:28–31)
255 Who has renewed righteousness? (41:1–4)
256 Craftsmen work well (41:4–7)
257 I have chosen you, servant Israel (41:8–11)
258 Your opponents will vanish (41:11–14)
259 You will pulverize them (41:15–16)
260 The holy one of Israel will water the thirsty land (41:16–20)
261 Tell us the future (41:21–24)
262 Who will foretell the future? (41:25–26)
263 No one else can do this (41:27–29)
264 Israel will bring justice (42:1–4)
265 Lord God called you to bring freedom (42:5–8)
266 Lord God will inform you of his plans (42:9)
267 Sing a new song to God, distant peoples (42:10)
268 Surrounding nations will praise God (42:11–12)
269 Lord will no longer wait (42:13–14)
270 I will rectify the land (42:15–17)
271 You shameful idolaters! (42:17)
272 Senseless people will be plundered! (42:18–22)
273 Israel was plundered for rebellion (42:23–25)
274 Lord God will protect Israel (43:1–3)
275 Do not be frightened (43:3–8)
276 The nations assembled (43:9)
277 You are my witnesses (43:10–13)
278 Lord God will send to Babylon (43:14–15)
279 Lord provides a path through the sea (43:16–17)
280 Lord is doing new things (43:18–21)
281 Lord does not desire sacrifices (43:22–24)
282 Your fathers broke the law (43:25–28)
283 Lord God will provide water and spirit (44:1–5)
284 There is no god but the God of Israel (44:6–8)
285 Idol makers will not benefit (44:8–9)
286 Idol makers will be put to shame (44:8–11)
287 Idols are inanimate objects (44:11–17)
288 Idols are false (44:18–20)
289 Remember me and I will forgive you (44:21–22)
290 Rejoice, for God has redeemed Israel (44:23)
291 Your redeemer created the world (44:24)
292 Lord will rebuild Jerusalem (44:25–28)
293 Cyrus, Lord God’s anointed (45:1–6)
294 Lord God makes all things (45:6–7)
295 Lord God formed you (45:8–10)
296 Ask Lord God about what he produced (45:11)
297 Lord Sabaoth ordered the world (45:12–13)
298 Foreigners will worship you (45:14–16)
299 Lord will restore Israel (45:16–17)
300 Only Lord announces truth (45:18–19)
301 Only Lord is righteous (45:20–21)
302 Every knee will bend to Lord (45:22–25)
303 Bel and Dagon have fallen (46:1–2)
304 I made you and lift you up (46:3–4)
305 Fabrications cannot save (46:5–7)
306 I will do what I have decided (46:8–11)
307 I have brought salvation to Israel (46:12–13)
308 Virgin daughter of the Chaldeans (47:1–4)
309 Sit down, daughter of the Chaldeans (47:5–7)
310 Hear this, conceited woman (47:8)
311 Calamity will come upon you (47:9–12)
312 Let your witchcraft save you (47:12–13)
313 Let the astrologers save you (47:13–15)
314 Listen, Israel (48:1–2)
315 I did what I foretold (48:3–5)
316 You do not know the future (48:6–9)
317 I will rescue you for my own reputation (48:10–11)
318 The creator will call them (48:12–14)
319 If you had obeyed, you would have prospered (48:14–19)
320 Lord will provide water for his servant Jacob (48:20–22)
321 Lord called me as his slave Israel (49:1–4)
322 Lord formed me as his servant to gather Israel (49:5–6)
323 A covenant, a light of nations (49:6)
324 Nations will worship him (49:7)
325 A light of nations (49:8–9)
326 I will ease their way (49:9–12)
327 Let creation rejoice! (49:13)
328 I will never forget you (49:14–15)
329 You will be rebuilt quickly (49:16–17)
330 You will be crowded with settlers (49:18–21)
331 Foreigners will serve you (49:22–23)
332 Lord will rescue you from your giant oppressors (49:24–26)
333 You were sold for your sins (50:1–2)
334 I will dry up the waters (50:2–3)
335 Obey Lord despite suffering (50:4–8)
336 Who will judge me? (50:8–9)
337 Who fears Lord? (50:10)
338 Walk in the light of your fire (50:11)
339 I will turn desolation into paradise (51:1–3)
340 My justice will spread throughout the world (51:4–5)
341 My righteousness will never fail (51:6)
342 My salvation is forever (51:7–8)
343 The ransomed will return with joy (51:9–11)
344 You feared humans and forgot God (51:12–13)
345 Lord Sabaoth will shelter you from your oppressor (51:13–16)
346 Jerusalem, you have suffered my wrath (51:17–20)
347 I will transfer the wrath from you to your oppressors (51:21–23)
348 Get up, Jerusalem! (52:1–2)
349 Lord’s people were taken by force (52:4–6)
350 I announce good news (52:6–7)
351 Let Jerusalem’s protectors rejoice (52:8–9)
352 Nations will see Lord’s salvation (52:10)
353 Come out, carriers of Lord’s vessels! (52:11–12)
354 Kings will shut their mouth because of my child (52:13–15)
355 His appearance was despised (53:1–3)
356 He was wounded for our sins (53:4–7)
357 Though innocent, he was killed (53:7–10)
358 Lord removes him to justify the righteous (53:10–11)
359 He took up the sins of many (53:12)
360 The widow will have plenty of children (54:1–3)
361 You will not remember the reproach of your widowhood (54:4–6)
362 My anger will be replaced by mercy (54:7–11)
363 You will be built up in righteousness (54:11–14)
364 You will overcome your opponents (54:14–17)
365 Buy food and drink with no money (55:1–2)
366 Listen to me and you will have good things (55:2–3)
367 Nations will call upon you (55:4–5)
368 My ways are not like your ways (55:6–9)
369 My word will accomplish my purpose (55:10–13)
370 Preserve justice (56:1–2)
371 Eunuchs will have an eternal legacy (56:3–5)
372 A house of prayer even for foreigners (56:6–8)
373 People have become like beasts (56:8–11)
374 The righteous has been taken away (57:1–2)
375 Idolaters will reap the consequences (57:3–6)
376 Your unfaithfulness alienated us (57:7–10)
377 I will publicize your scorn (57:11–13)
378 Ease for the devoted (57:13–14)
379 The most holy one will not punish forever (57:15–16)
380 Peace and comfort will come shortly (57:17–20)
381 Proclaim my people’s sins (57:21–58:2)
382 Improper fasts (58:2–6)
383 End injustice and you will be rewarded (58:6–8)
384 Then God will listen to you (58:9–10)
385 Then your yearnings will be satisfied (58:10–12)
386 Keep the Sabbath holy, and Lord will reward you (58:13–14)
387 All of you are chronic sinners (59:1–6)
388 They do not recognize peace (59:6–8)
389 Light will become darkness for them (59:9–11)
390 We have acted unjustly (59:11–15)
391 Lord could find no one who was just (59:15–18)
392 My eternal covenant is my spirit and words (59:19–21)
393 Lord’s glory will shine on you (60:1–4)
394 Foreigners will bring you gifts (60:5–7)
395 Distant lands will restore your children (60:8–9)
396 Nations will serve you (60:10–12)
397 Your oppressors will serve you (60:13–16)
398 Future prosperity, righteousness, peace, and light from Lord (60:17–21)
399 The least will be great (60:21–22)
400 Lord anointed me with his spirit to proclaim good news (61:1–3)
401 They will restore what was abandoned (61:3–4)
402 Foreigners will serve you, priests of Lord (61:5–7)
403 You will be known among the nations (61:8–10)
404 Lord has clothed me with salvation (61:10–11)
405 My righteousness will shine to the nations (62:1–2)
406 Lord will give you a new name (62:2)
407 Lord will adorn and rejoice over you (62:3–7)
408 Lord will no longer give your produce to your enemies (62:8–9)
409 Lord ransoms Zion (62:10–12)
410 Who comes in power from Edom? (63:1)
411 Why are your clothes wine red? (63:2–3)
412 I trampled them in my anger (63:3–6)
413 Lord is a merciful judge (63:7–9)
414 They provoked his holy spirit (63:10–11)
415 Lord’s holy spirit led Moses and the people (63:11–14)
416 Rescue us, father! (63:15–16)
417 Do not keep us from you (63:17–19)
418 Mountains will tremble at you (64:1–3)
419 We know no other god (64:4–5)
420 You have humbled us because of our sins (64:5–12)
421 I was available to those who did not seek me (65:1–2)
422 Lord will repay false worshippers (65:3–7)
423 For the sake of one faithful, I will not destroy all people (65:8–10)
424 False worshippers will fall by the sword (65:11–12)
425 Lord’s servants will prosper, but not you (65:13–16)
426 They will look ahead to the new, not back to the old (65:17–18)
427 No death before its time (65:18–20)
428 They, not others, will enjoy their produce (65:21–24)
429 No creature will harm another (65:25)
430 What house would you build for me? (66:1–2)
431 I will repay those who rebuff me (66:3–4)
432 Those who hate us will be put to shame (66:5)
433 Repayment; bearing a son before going into labour (66:6–7)
434 Zion was in labour (66:8–9)
435 Enjoy Mother Jerusalem (66:10–11)
436 Lord will comfort you like a mother in Jerusalem (66:12–14)
437 Lord’s fire will judge the earth (66:15–16)
438 False worshippers will be destroyed (66:17–18)
439 All nations will see my glory (66:18–19)
440 Your brothers will return from the nations (66:20–21)
441 All people will worship in Jerusalem and see the transgressors’ corpses (66:22–24)
‎Bibliography
‎Index of Authors
‎Index of Greek Words
‎Index of Hebrew Words
‎Index of Bible Books
‎Index of Primary Texts

Citation preview

Isaiah

Septuagint Commentary Series Editors Stanley E. Porter Richard S. Hess John Jarick

The titles published in this series are listed at brill.com/sept

Isaiah By

Ken M. Penner

LEIDEN | BOSTON

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Penner, Ken M., author. Title: Isaiah / by Ken Penner. Other titles: Bible. Tobit. Greek. Codex Sinaiticus. 2020. Description: Leiden ; Boston : Brill, 2020. | Series: Septuagint commentary series, 1572-3755 | Includes bibliographical references and index. | Contains Greek text of Isaiah with parallel English translation. Identifiers: LCCN 2020018164 (print) | LCCN 2020018165 (ebook) | ISBN 9789004426771 (hardback) | ISBN 9789004427235 (ebook) Subjects: LCSH: Bible. Isaiah–Criticism, interpretation, etc. | Bible. Isaiah. Greek–Versions–Codex Sinaiticus. | Codex Sinaiticus (Biblical manuscript) Classification: LCC BS1514.G7 S56 2020 (print) | LCC BS1514.G7 (ebook) | DDC 224/.1048–dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2020018164 LC ebook record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2020018165

Typeface for the Latin, Greek, and Cyrillic scripts: “Brill”. See and download: brill.com/brill‑typeface. ISSN 1572-3755 ISBN 978-90-04-42677-1 (hardback) ISBN 978-90-04-42723-5 (e-book) Copyright 2021 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands. Koninklijke Brill NV incorporates the imprints Brill, Brill Hes & De Graaf, Brill Nijhoff, Brill Rodopi, Brill Sense, Hotei Publishing, mentis Verlag, Verlag Ferdinand Schöningh and Wilhelm Fink Verlag. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Requests for re-use and/or translations must be addressed to Koninklijke Brill NV via brill.com or copyright.com. This book is printed on acid-free paper and produced in a sustainable manner.

Contents List of Illustrations Introduction

1

Text and Translation Commentary

vii

43

340

Bibliography 649 Index of Authors 665 Index of Greek Words 669 Index of Hebrew Words 688 Index of Bible Books 694 Index of Primary Texts 715

Illustrations Table 1

Verb form inconsistency as an indicator of free translation

12

Charts 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Verb form for each time reference (Pentateuch, Latter Prophets, Proverbs, and Ecclesiastes) 13 Time reference for each verb form (Pentateuch, Latter Prophets, Proverbs, and Ecclesiastes) 14 Words with the article in Joshua 16 Words with the article in Isaiah 16 Fulfilments of Isaiah’s prophecies according to early Christian authors 24 Where early Christians placed the fulfilment of Isaiah’s prophecies 27 Number of corrections by each corrector of Sinaiticus Isaiah 36 Agreements with Ziegler for each scribe of Greek Isaiah 37 Agreements with Ziegler by correction type and corrector 37

Figures 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Isaiah 1:4 in Codex Sinaiticus. Courtesy of the British Library 346 Note to Isaiah 9:6 in Codex Sinaiticus. Courtesy of the British Library 413 Marginal dots at Isaiah 35:2 in Codex Sinaiticus. Courtesy of the British Library 528 Marginal dots at Isaiah 36:10 in Codex Sinaiticus. Courtesy of the British Library 532 Correction in Isaiah 41:15 in Codex Sinaiticus. Courtesy of the British Library 557 Codex Sinaiticus attests μου not μοι in Isaiah 55:2. Courtesy of the British Library 611 Possible exthesis at Isaiah 55:10 in Codex Sinaiticus. Courtesy of the British Library 612

Introduction This work is a commentary on the Greek translation of Isaiah in Codex Sinaiticus, in the Brill Septuagint Commentary Series. Each part of this description is significant, and carries implications for the contents and structure of this commentary. Because it is part of the Brill Septuagint Commentary series the emphasis will be on the reception rather than the production of the text. I mainly discuss not how the text was produced but how it was read. Because this commentary is on a translation, I comment on points where the translation is perhaps surprising or different than we might expect because it diverges from the Hebrew text. Because the translation is into Greek, I comment on the Greek language in its context, especially how the Greek language is being used in unusual ways, stretched beyond its normal range of use. Because it is a commentary on one particular manuscript, the peculiarities of this Codex will be addressed, including its history, scribes, divisions, and orthography. In this Introduction I provide some background to the Greek translation of Isaiah and then the particular manuscript Codex Sinaiticus, before describing the format and purposes of this commentary.

1

Greek Isaiah

1.1 Origins Scholarly consensus since Seeligmann (1948, 75) has been that Isaiah was translated into Greek in Alexandria around 140 BCE (Troxel 2008, 24), although dates as early as 270BCE have been proposed (Margoliouth 1900, 4–7). The basis for this location is the Egyptian vocabulary in Greek Isaiah. Ziegler (1934, 31– 46) and Seeligmann (1948, 39–42) argued for a consistent translator(s) for the whole of Isaiah, whom I will refer to as G. Ziegler noted two patterns in Greek Isaiah that made it impossible to distinguish separate translators for Isaiah: interconnections between the two supposed parts, and translational inconsistencies within each supposed part. Van der Kooij has made a case that the translation of Isaiah was produced by Jewish scholars who fled to Egypt in the first half of the second century B.C.E. (1981, 50–65; see also 1997b, 395; 1982a, 71). Because of the kinds of mistakes made by the translator (the kinds of mistakes that should have been caught by a proofreader), and the consistency of

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the translation, I argue that the translation was made by an individual rather than a group. At that time, the vowel points developed by the Masoretes in the sixth century CE were of course not recorded in the translator’s Hebrew Vorlage. Ottley suggested that the translator may have followed a different tradition (Ottley 1904, 1:7), but I see no evidence that the translator made use of the resources of any reading community. On the contrary, instances in which the translator failed to understand his source text indicate that either Greek Isaiah was not part of a reading community that shared a common interpretation of Isaiah, or that he ignored that shared interpretation while expecting his own work to be accepted as a valid reading of Isaiah among this community, of which some others also knew both Greek and Hebrew. The latter option seems far-fetched to me; it is more reasonable to suppose there was no shared interpretive community at that time and place. On orthographic grounds, there are reasons to think Isaiah is one of the latest books translated. Thackeray noted that ἄν “is practically confined in LXX to two phrases where there is crasis or elision (κἄν, οὐδ’ ἄν) and to a small group of books (Wisdom, Sirach, 4Macc., Isaiah)” (Thackeray 1909, sec. 6.49, citing Isa 1:12; 8:14 B, 43:2). He also noted that τέρμινθος was the oldest form for the turpentine tree (Gen. 14:6 E, 43:11 F), which developed into τερέμινθος, and then to τερέβινθος in Isaiah 1:30, 6:13 and four times elsewhere (Thackeray 1909, sec. 7.21). Cécile Dogniez refuted Seeligmann’s claim that Greek Isaiah depends on the Twelve minor prophets, the Dodekapropheton. Although there are some lexical similarities, evidence of borrowings can be otherwise explained. In Isa 1:6 and Nah 3:19, the contexts are very different. With Isa 1:8; Mic 1:6; Ps 78:1 Dines had showed that the similarity may be from textual harmonization. The same is true for Isa 2:2 and Mic 4:1, in which Micah harmonized toward Isaiah. In Isa 24:23 and Mic 7:11 the verbal similarity is coincidental, since both readers independently vocalized ‫ לבנה‬incorrectly. The translation of ‫ ארמון‬by θεμέλια in Isa 25:2 is paralleled in seven places in the Twelve, but the translator of Isaiah is not at all consistent, and was probably using root etymology to guess at the meaning here. Athough a translational similarity appears between Isa 26:11 and Zeph 2:1, far more often the same Hebrew expressions are rendered very differently in these two prophets, and dependence need not be postulated to explain ἀπαίδευτος in Isaiah. In Isa 42:13 and Hosea 2:20 the similarity is already in the Hebrew. Other lexical parallels that might be considered signs of dependence are even less convincing. Dogniez pointed out 14 specific differences between the two translators, in Isa 1:13; 3:12; 3:22; 4:5; 10:4 & 14:17; 13:6, 16; 30:26; 49:26; 51:13; 55:1; 58:14. For example, ‫ חפה‬in Isa 4:5 is read not as a bridal chamber παστός as in Joel 2:16, but as a very different verb σκεπασθήσεται. Finally, Dog-

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niez listed six translation tendencies that differ between Isaiah and the Minor Prophets, including ‫ צבאות‬as σαβαώθ in Isaiah rather than παντοκράτωρ in the Twelve. If the translator of Isaiah knew the Dodekapropheton, he did not make use of it (Dogniez 2010). Arie van der Kooij has argued on the basis of γραμματικός in 33:18 that the translator considered himself a “Schriftgelehrter” (van der Kooij 1981, 64), meaning that the translator acted as a pesharist; in other words he assumed the authority to interpret Isaiah’s prophecies as predictions of the translator’s time. Ronald Troxel agreed that the translator of Isaiah perceived himself as a “scribe” (Troxel 2008, 2–3). Albert Pietersma found this identification flimsy (2008). Van der Kooij has argued on the basis of the translations in 6:13 and 29:22 that the translator was especially interested in priesthood (van der Kooij 2012), but the argument is strained on this point as well. 1.2 Hebrew and Greek Compared The Greek translation of Isaiah is notorious for the liberties it takes with its source text. Septuagint scholars have disagreed about the reason for the numerous differences between the Greek and Hebrew of Isaiah. Some of these differences are likely accidental mistakes; others are intentional; and still others are not mistakes but neither do they serve a clear or consistent purpose. Over a century ago, the tendency was to consider these differences accidental as mistakes made either by the translator or by a copyist of the manuscript used by that translator. Scholz thought most of the differences were already in the translator’s Vorlage (1880), but Thackeray expressed the view that the translator of Isaiah was “careless about producing a literal rendering,” and tried to “hide his ignorance by paraphrase or abbreviation” (1903, 583). Swete agreed, saying “the Psalms and more especially the Book of Isaiah show obvious signs of incompetence” (1914, 314). Although Ottley recognized “many instances … where the Hebrew, which the Greek translators evidently believed that they had before them, differs from the text which we now possess” (1904, 1:1:viii), he too thought the translator’s Vorlage was very similar to the Masoretic Text, and the differences derived from his incompetence with Hebrew. Ottley noted that Greek Isaiah was “by common consent one of the worst translated parts of the LXX” (1904, 1:9). He concluded that “the result seems to be, that the translators’ mistakes in reading (however ample their excuse) are so numerous, ranging in their effect from minute points to the wreck of whole sentences, that their view cannot carry weight as to the real Hebrew text of their day” (Ottley 1904, 1:1:viii). However, in the last hundred years, the prevailing view has shifted, and the trend has been to ask whether the reason for the numerous differences between the Hebrew and Greek might be intentional.

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Ziegler thought that incompetence was part of the problem, but also that the translator was influenced by his Alexandrian milieu (1934). Seeligmann took that influence a step farther, and proposed that the translator interpreted the prophecies as if they were to be fulfilled in his own time (1948). According to Seeligmann, the translator of Isaiah considered the period in which he lived “to be time for the fulfillment of ancient prophecies” (1948, 4) and that while some of this notion came through in translation only unconsciously, he made “efforts to contemporize the old biblical text and revive it by inspiriting it with the religious conceptions of a new age” (1948, 4). Seeligmann wrote before the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, so when the pesharim were discovered at Qumran, this discovery confirmed that contemporization was in fact an attested method for interpreting prophecy in early Judaism. Since that time, it has become commonplace to think that the translator of Isaiah created allusions to contemporary events because he thought Isaiah was referring to the translator’s own time. Especially in the 1980’s but beginning with das Neves (1973), Koenig (1982) and Hanhart (1983) found this kind of fulfilment-interpretation in the various parts of Isaiah they studied. In fact, Koenig insisted that the translator actually was an expert in Hebrew. The most prolific proponent of fulfilment-interpretation now is Arie van der Kooij (1998b). Yet the evidence for fulfilment-interpretation has not convinced everyone, and Troxel (2008) and de Sousa (2010a) have recently argued that it is unable to adequately account for the changes made by the translator. (For more opponents to contemporization, see also the end of Wagner 2007.) I am persuaded that the significant differences between the Greek and the Masoretic Text are mainly the result, not of a contemporizing method, but rather of the translator’s carelessness. I am led to this conclusion by three kinds of observations, which I present below: (1) the translation includes frequent changes equally attributable to the Vorlage or to the translator, but rarely includes changes attributable only to the Vorlage; (2) most minor differences are explainable as either mistakes or updating with no change of referent; (3) the major differences cannot be attributed to a consistent intentional method. 1.2.1 Mistakes Are by the Translator, not Vorlage First, the scale of the divergences between Hebrew and Greek in Isaiah is nowhere near the scale seen in Jeremiah or Proverbs. According to Emanuel Tov’s comparison of the Greek and Hebrew, there are 1424 Hebrew words that have no equivalent in the Greek and 975 Greek words that have no equivalent in the Hebrew (Tov 2003). Yet there are no major additions or deletions larger than a single verse, indicating the translator felt constrained by his

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source text. There are no transpositions, and only one difference in division (between chapters 8 and 9). The most significant omissions involve less than a verse. These occur in 2:22; 38:15; 40:7 (this last case due to haplography); and 56:12. The Hebrew omitted in 2:22 says “Turn away from mortals, who have only breath in their nostrils, for of what account are they?” (the originality of this sentence is contested); 38:15 says “But what can I say? For he has spoken to me, and he himself has done it. All my sleep has fled because of the bitterness of my soul”; and 56:12 says “‘Come,’ they say, ‘let us get wine; let us fill ourselves with strong drink. And tomorrow will be like today, great beyond measure’.” The omission in 40:7 is due to haplography. The additions are even fewer. The most extensive such plusses (italicized here) in the Greek translation occur in 3:22 (ἀφελεῖ κύριος τὴν δόξαν τοῦ ἱματισμοῦ αὐτῶν καὶ τοὺς κόσμους αὐτῶν καὶ τὰ ἐμπλόκια καὶ τοὺς κοσύμβους καὶ τοὺς μηνίσκους); 27:4 διὰ τὴν πολεμίαν ταύτην ἠθέτηκα αὐτήν. τοίνυν διὰ τοῦτο ἐποίησεν κύριος ὁ θεὸς πάντα, ὅσα συνέταξεν; 32:19 ἡ δὲ χάλαζα ἐὰν καταβῇ, οὐκ ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς ἥξει. καὶ ἔσονται οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες ἐν τοῖς δρυμοῖς πεποιθότες ὡς οἱ ἐν τῇ πεδινῇ; and 58:11– 12 καὶ ἐμπλησθήσῃ καθάπερ ἐπιθυμεῖ ἡ ψυχή σου, καὶ τὰ ὀστᾶ σου πιανθήσεται, καὶ ἔσῃ ὡς κῆπος μεθύων καὶ ὡς πηγὴ ἣν μὴ ἐξέλιπεν ὕδωρ, καὶ τὰ ὀστᾶ σου ὡς βοτάνη ἀνατελεῖ καὶ πιανθήσεται, καὶ κληρονομήσουσι γενεὰς γενεῶν. None of the additions extends beyond a clause or short sentence. I conclude that the translator did not consider it his prerogative to add to or subtract from or to rearrange his text on a scale larger than a sentence. That the mistakes are from the translator rather than from the Vorlage is indicated by noting that the translation includes frequent changes equally attributable to the Vorlage or to the translator, but rarely includes changes attributable only to the Vorlage. 1.2.2 Minor Differences: Updating and Paraphrasing Second, most of the differences between the Hebrew and Greek of Isaiah are explainable as either mistakes, or as updating without change of referent. There are numerous paraphrases and modernizations that do not change the meaning of the text. In this category of changes of no consequence I include updating of place names and paraphrases. For example, the translator updated place names 86 times. In these updatings, the referent did not change; the place referred to still remained the same. Whether the river in 27:12 is called the “River of Egypt” or the “Rhinokorouron” makes no difference to the meaning. Whether Aram is called Syria (as in 9:12), or Aram is inconsequential. The Rhinokouron and Syria are two examples of simply updating place names, and such updating can explain the similar change of “Jacob” to “Israel” in 2:6.

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The other type of change of no consequence is paraphrase. In these instances the referent did not change, just as the referent did not change when updating. In paraphrases the same thing is being predicated of the same topic, but it is said in a different way. For example, a nominal phrase may be changed to a relative clause, as in 1:1, where “kings of Judah” is changed to “who ruled Judea,” or the infinitive in 1:15 “and-in-your-stretching your hands” is rendered “when you stretch out the hands to me.” Pronouns may be added or removed without changing the sense, as for example in 2:8, where “their land” becomes simply “the land” in Greek. Active constructions may be changed to passive, or vice-versa, as happens in 1:22–23. Prepositions may be changed, for no apparent reason but without change of meaning. This category of change is extremely common, and like the updating of place names, it makes no difference to the meaning. 1.2.3 Minor Differences: Mistakes The other category of change is that of mistakes. These mistakes often do create a slight difference of meaning, but the differences do not contribute to any particular agenda, much less the alleged eschatological agenda. Most of these changes are readily explained as misreading of Hebrew words or mishearing of Hebrew sounds. Differences apparently due to visual similarity include ‫ אמרו‬read as if from ‫( אסר‬Δήσωμεν) in 3:10, ‫ וברא‬as ‫( ויבא‬καὶ ἥξει) in 4:5; 5:18’s reading ‫ ב‬as ‫ כ‬in ‫בחבלי‬ (this confusion occurs many other times); confusing ‫ ר‬and ‫ ד‬in 15:4 (this also occurs many other times); confusing ‫ ו‬and ‫ ז‬in 24:1; ‫ ו‬and ‫ ז ;ר‬and ‫ ו ;נ‬and ‫נ‬, ‫ ד‬and ‫מ‬, and ‫ ו‬and ‫י‬. The last confusion is especially common. The confusion of waw and yod is demonstrated already in the first verse of Isaiah. In 1:1, G wrote Οἱ ἐβασίλευσαν for ‫מלכי‬, reading the yod as a waw, yielding ‫מלכו‬. In several places G put ἔσται where the Hebrew has ‫יהוה‬, indicating G read ‫( יהיה‬waw-yod confusion). This misreading occurs in Isa 4:5; 8:18; 28:21; cf. Isa 49:1 and 37:18 (Seeligmann 2004, 216–217). In 21:2 and 57:9 G mistook the waw for a yod, and rendered ‫ צוּ ִרים‬as πρέσβεις. In 40:9 G wrote plural imperatives ὑψώσατε and μὴ φοβεῖσθε, probably reading the feminine imperative yod endings in ‫ הרימי אל תיראי‬as masculine plural waw endings The yod is ignored in 1:3 (‫ בעליו‬as κυρίου αὐτοῦ). In 2:13, the cedars in Hebrew are plural, so the Hebrew adjectives modify the cedars. But G understood the cedar as singular, so did not use the adjectives τῶν ὑψηλῶν καὶ μετεώρων attributively. The difference in Hebrew is yod on the end of ‫ארזי‬, as also in 14:8. As Scholz pointed out, similar renderings of plurals as singulars appear in 15:2 and 26:17 (Scholz 1880, 34–35). The letter waw is ignored in 2:16 (‫ ְשִׂכיּוֹת‬as θέαν); 3:5 (plural ‫ ירהבו‬as singular προσκόψει); 5:10 (‫ יעשו‬as ποιήσει); 8:11

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(‫ ְו ִיְסּ ֵר ִני‬as ἀπειθοῦσιν, although 1QIsaa has ‫ ;)יסירני‬9:13 (‫ על המכהו‬as ἕως ἐπλήγη); 10:22 (‫ חרוץ‬as συντελῶν); 14:15 (‫ תורד‬as καταβήσῃ); 16:1 (‫ שלחו‬as ἀποστελῶ); 47:5 (feminine singular for plural). Transpositions include 1:2 ‫ גדלתי‬read as ‫( ילדתי‬ἐγέννησα); 9:2(3) ‫ ִה ְג ַדְּלָתּ‬reading the dalet as a resh transposed with the gimel for ‫( הרגלת‬κατήγαγες); a few verses later 9:4(5) ‫ ְבּ ַרַﬠשׁ‬transposing the ayin and shin to ‫ברשע‬, yielding δόλῳ; 14:12 ‫ חולשׁ‬was read as ‫שׁולח‬. Changes of inflection occur, for example in 2:6 reading ‫ נטשת עמך‬as ‫נטש עמו‬ (ἀνῆκεν γὰρ τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ), changing the second person forms to the third person. Differences due to phonetic similarity include sarid read as zaraˁ (σπέρμα) in 1:9, yikhlof as yiˁlof (κατακρύψουσιν) in 2:18, wenuqshu as wenagshu in 8:15, and aleyhem as aleykhem in 9:1(2). Especially significant are cases where a negative is misread, as is the case twice in chapter nine, where the MT has the negative lo spelled ‫ לא‬in 8:23 and again in 9:2 but in both cases, the Greek reflects lo spelled ‫“ לו‬to him”. 1.2.4 Even Significant Differences Are Not Agenda-Driven Finally, there are changes that affect the meaning that cannot be traced back to visual misreading or phonetic mishearing of Hebrew words. Even among these cases where there is a difference of sense, there is no discernable pattern of eschatological concern. The differences are not explainable by positing a tendency to contemporize. In only a very few cases is it possible to demonstrate an eschatological agenda, even in passages that are most clearly updated. Both Seeligmann (1948) and Hanhart (1983) used the beginning of chapter 9 to make their case because it is one of the passages in Isaiah exhibiting the most divergence between Hebrew and Greek. However, even this parade example of contemporization can be more adequately explained as a series of misunderstandings on the part of the translator. Seeligmann perceived in Isaiah 9 “the historical atmosphere of Palestine in Hellenistic times” in “the hostility of the Greek cities on the west coast towards the Jewish population of Palestine” (Seeligmann 1948, 81). He based this on three cases of updating: verse one, the addition of παραλία, “the technical name for one of the parts of Palestine under Seleucid rule”, and τὰ μέρη τοῦ Ἰορδάνου, and the rendering of Aram by Συρία, and Pilistim by Ἕλληνες. Robert Hanhart likewise perceived an actualization in 8:23(9:1), where the MT has ‫ֵהַקל‬ (he brought into contempt). Hanhart noticed the change from past to future in translating Hebrew perfects with a Greek aorist then a future in 9:3(2). There, according to Hanhart, the Lord brought down the people (that is, in the past), but their joy will come when he liberates them, as predicted in the next verse. Hanhart found a specific date for this liberation: December 14, 164BCE (1983).

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This example of possible contemporizing is the strongest one in the book of Isaiah. The next strongest case to be made is that chapter 23 refers to Carthage. Van der Kooij considered chapter 23 to refer to prophetic events, based on the rendering of ‫ משא‬as ὅραμα. He perceived references to three historical events in the chapter. One is the 146 BCE destruction of Carthage, on the basis of (1) translating Tarshish as Carchedon, (2) differentiating two types of “merֹ in chant,” μετάβολος and ἔμπορος, both rendering the same Hebrew word, ‫סַחר‬ 23:3, 8, and (3) the addition of the word ταύτῃ after νήσῳ in 23:6. The second historical event is the Parthian invasion of Babylonia in 23:13. The third historical event is the involvement of Tyre in the Hellenization of Jerusalem in 23:12. In only a few passages in Isaiah can a case be made that the author sought to find prophetic fulfillment in his own day. The other passages do not exhibit much out of the ordinary for the translator’s pattern of translation. That the translator refrained from inserting an eschatological agenda even when the opportunity presented itself can be demonstrated by showing that he neglected to opportunistically insert such an agenda in three ways: (1) by adding eschatological vocabulary; (2) by choosing a word with eschatological connotations rather than a word without those connotations; (3) by alluding to historical events in the translator’s own day, he neglected to do so in any of these three ways. First, the point that eschatological vocabulary is not inserted by the translator can be seen by the content of the additions in the Greek compared with the Hebrew. The evidence for contemporization in the pluses in Isaiah collected by Mirjam van der Vorm-Croughs is insubstantial (van der Vorm-Croughs 2014, 518). Second, the argument that eschatological vocabulary is not favoured by our translator was made already in 1992 by Ron Troxel and developed in his 2008 book. He noted that “when ἔσχατος appears in temporal expressions in LXXIsaiah, it connotes the future only in a general sense. … The translator did not use ἔσχατος as a technical term of eschatology, nor does his use of ἔσχατος suggest he was dominated by expectation of ‘die Endzeit’ ” (Troxel 2008, 187). The translator of Isaiah breaks from the pattern of the other translators of the Septuagint in that he does not use ἔσχατος to translate ‫אחרון‬. Instead he uses μέγας in 26:4, εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα in 48:12, μετὰ ταῦτα in 44:6, καιρῶν in 30:8. Third, the point that the translator refrains from alluding to contemporary events can be made by observing his handling of toponyms. The classic proposed example of contemporization in Isaiah 23 replaces the Hebrew “Tarshish” with the Greek “Carchedon”, that is, Carthage. When Troxel investigated how often this phenomenon happens in Greek Isaiah, he found that

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of the 558 toponyms, four had a variant in the Hebrew Vorlage, 24 had no clear Greek equivalent (five had no equivalent Hebrew toponym), 22 are translated as common nouns, 430 are transliterated, and 86 are translated into Hellenistic equivalents: Mitzraim as Aiguptos fifty times, Kush as Ethiopia eight times, the “brook of Egypt” is given its Egyptian name, etc. Generally speaking, when not transliterating, standard translations are used. Only in two instance are some changes evident. In 9:10–12 ‫ פלשתים‬is interpretively updated to Ἕλληνας, and in chapter 23, Carchedon is interpretively updated from Tarshish. 1.2.5 Incompetence in Matters Small and Large Because most of the insignificant differences are explainable as either mistakes or modernizing with no change of referent, the competence or at least the carefulness of the translator is called into question. It is likely that even the more major differences stem from the same cause. I therefore propose that the translator’s carelessness alone is sufficient to explain the differences between the Hebrew and the Greek of Isaiah; no additional explanation is necessary. I present an alternative explanation for the changes evident in the parade example of contemporization, Isaiah chapter 9. These unexpected translations can be explained without appealing to an eschatological agenda. In the absence of vowel points, ‫ ֵהַקל‬in 8:23(9:1) was read as an imperative, hurry: do quickly. Once the translator had read this word as an imperative, he expected a vocative, and therefore that is how he understood the land of Zebulun and Naphtali. He continued the vocative with ‫ האחרון‬as οἱ λοιποί. He updated the reference to the way of the sea with a more up-to-date name, the παραλίαν, but the referent remains unchanged. In this context G was unsure what to do with ‫ ִהְכִבּיד‬so he guessed at a verb that fit the context: κατοικέω, inhabit. In the next verse, G read the MT’s verb ‫“ ִה ְרִבּיָת‬you made numerous” as a noun from the same root, “the numerous part.” Where the MT has ‫ל ֹא ִה ְג ַדְּלָתּ‬, G wrote ὃ κατήγαγες, either reading (with the Qere) the negative “not”, or confusing the consonants of the verbs, reading ‫הרגלת‬. To fit the context then, and showing a typical lack of concern about the presence or absence of yod, he translated one of the perfects ‫ נגה‬in 9:1(2) with a future λάμψει. Similarly, in 9:1(2) the MT’s perfect ‫ ָראוּ‬was naturally read as an imperative ‫ראו‬, resulting in the Greek imperative ἴδετε. Most of the remaining differences on which a contemporizing interpretation might be based can be explained similarly, except for two cases: the addition of τὰ μέρη τῆς Ιουδαίας, and the rendering of Pilistim by Ἕλληνες. Even in these two cases, we need not think the changes derive from an “fulfillmentinterpretation.” Both cases may be considered updating; no change of referent

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is implied, since τὰ μέρη τῆς Ιουδαίας is used in apposition to the just-mentioned places (it is introduced without a conjunction), and those inhabiting Philistia in the translator’s time were Greeks. So even in these passages for which the best case can be made that the translator was contemporizing, we find that the differences between the Hebrew and Greek are explainable as mistakes or as updating with no change of referent. The simplest explanation, the explanation to be preferred, does not attribute to multiple causes that which can be attributed to one. The hypothesis that the translator applied an intentional method of contemporizing of Isaiah’s prophecies is to be rejected because it is both insufficient in that it does not explain the majority of differences, and unnecessary in that incompetence can explain those differences attributed to contemporization. 1.2.6 Patristic Confirmation To confirm that the differences are not the result of intentional method we may turn to the patristic commentators, who evidently did not read the prophecies the way proponents of contemporization do. As a case in point, not one patristic commentator saw in Isaiah 23 the destruction of Carthage in 146 BCE. The problem is not that Eusebius, Jerome, Theodoret of Cyrrhus, and Cyril of Alexandria were averse to fulfillment-interpretation; quite the opposite, they did associate the prophecy with a historical event. Nor is the problem that they only saw its fulfillment in their own time; although they did see the end of chapter 23 fulfilled by the spread of Christianity in their own time, in the first half of the chapter they held that it was Tyre, not Carthage, that was being led captive, and that this prophecy referred to the Babylonian capture of Tyre by Nebuchadnezzar. Most of the fathers missed the significance of “this” before “island” in 23:6. For example, Jerome explicitly said the phrase “qui habitatis in insula hac” refers to the inhabitants of Tyre. But although Eusebius and Theodoret of Cyrrrhus noticed the “this” in 23:6, Eusebius took it to mean the Tyrians will wail from Carthage, and Therodoret of Cyrrhus said the inhabitants of Carthage were to join the inhabitants of Tyre in their wailing. The difference between μετάβολος and ἔμπορος escaped all of the patristic commentators. In sum, if G intended to convince his readers that the events prophesied had been fulfilled in his own day, he appears to have failed in his purpose. The differences between Hebrew and Greek Isaiah are not explainable by an intentional contemporizing method, since most of the differences have nothing to do with fulfillment of prophecy, even when the translator had opportunity to contemporize. Those few cases where a good case can be made for contemporizing were still insufficiently clear to be understood as such by the earliest readers of Greek Isaiah.

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1.3 Language Because Greek Isaiah is a translation from Hebrew, interference from the source language can be expected. But as Ottley notes, “the translators seem generally to have viewed it as their duty rather to represent each word and phrase of the original literally and directly, than to render the spirit of the Hebrew with the greatest possible amount of Greek force, grace, and idiom” (Ottley 1904, 1:36). 1.3.1 Tenses in Translation A comparison of the verb forms used in the Hebrew and Greek permit testing of two hypotheses: First, if G’s supposedly free translation style led him to translate according to meaning and context rather than automatically mapping the formal features of Hebrew onto Greek, we should expect to find a tendency more varied than the usual qatal verbs translated into aorists and yiqtols to futures. Second, if his eschatological interpretation of Isaiah shaped his translation by making more of the prophecies refer to the future, we should expect to find Hebrew qatals and participles translated as futures even when the context does not demand it. To address the first question, where Greek Isaiah falls on the spectrum of dynamic to formal equivalence (Dines and Knibb 2004, 110), Tov and Wright proposed that consistency is the key to measuring literalness (Dines and Knibb 2004, 120). Previous statistical studies of translational consistency have tended to measure lexical consistency. But lexical consistency will vary depending on the translator’s skill. Because lexical inconsistency in Isaiah may be the result of ignorance rather than an intention to be idiomatic, the kind of consistency I measured is something less susceptible to ignorance: morphological consistency (Tov 2010, 54–66), that is, the degree of correspondence between the grammatical forms (grams for short) of the source and translation. In a translation that aims at formal equivalence, one expects that source-language grams that do have corresponding grams in the target language will be translated as those corresponding grams. For example, infinitives, imperatives, and (to a lesser extent) participles function similarly in both Hebrew and Greek, so a formally equivalent translation should retain these grams. In a translational style that is paraphrastic or idiomatic, one expects the translator to translate according to meaning and context rather than automatically mapping the formal features of Hebrew onto Greek.

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table 1

Eccl. Pent. Prophets Proverbs Isaiah

Verb form inconsistency as an indicator of free translation

qtol→ imperative

liqtol→ infinitive

qotel→ participle

qatal→ aorist

yiqtol→ future

weqatal→ future

wayyiqtol→ aorist

weyiqtol→ future

100 % 89 % 78 % 80 % 79%

94 % 51 % 53 % 32 % 48 %

54 % 56 % 61 % 47 % 72 %

77 % 71 % 65 % 34 % 59 %

57 % 60 % 62 % 32 % 60 %

19% 82% 85% 35% 84%

100% 87% 88% 47% 77%

21% 41% 65% 47% 45%

1.3.1.1 Free Translation of Inflection If G’s translation style was “free” it would lead him to translate according to meaning and context rather than to automatically map the formal features of Hebrew onto Greek, and therefore we should expect to find a tendency more varied than the usual qatal verbs translated into aorists and yiqtols to futures evident in the scriptures that were translated in the kaige style. Because of the difficulties of distinguishing in an unvocalized text the difference between wayyiqtol and weyiqtol, and the diachronic shift of the semantic value of weqatal, I omit the waw-prefixed forms from this comparison, and the finite verb forms considered are only the qatal and yiqtol. The results of the comparison show that Isaiah is on average about as consistent as the other prophets in rendering these five verb forms. Isaiah is a few points below the median for the infinitive, imperative, and qatal; is at the median for yiqtol, and it is significantly (that is, by 16 points) above the median for the participle. Therefore, it is difficult to substantiate a translation style in Isaiah that is consistently more free or more literal than its comparators. If Greek Isaiah is to be classified as a “free” translation, it must be on grounds other than inconsistency in its translation of verb forms. 1.3.1.2 Fulfilment Interpretation Our second test is regarding the common claim that the Greek translator of Isaiah injected his own fulfilment-interpretation into his translation. He is supposed to have interpreted Isaiah’s prophecies eschatologically. If it is true that his eschatology shaped his translation, we should expect to find changes to the time reference of the verbs, changes that make the events into future events rather than past or present. If Hebrew was a tense-prominent language, normally we should expect to find qatals translated as aorists, imperfects, and pluperfects, unless they are lexically stative verbs, in which case stative qatals should be perfects or presents. Yiqtols should become futures, unless they are lexically fientive verbs, in which

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Verb form for each time reference (Pentateuch, Latter Prophets, Proverbs, and Ecclesiastes)

case yiqtols should become presents or futures. We do find a high degree of correlation between yiqtol and future, and qatal and past. This is not the first time such a question has been answered using a statistical method. In 1986, Beat Zuber analyzed the translation of 5335 Biblical Hebrew verbs in the Septuagint and Vulgate, to find patterns in translating the tenses (Zuber 1986). These translations indicate how Jerome and those who produced the Septuagint understood the semantics of the Hebrew verb forms. Zuber too found a clear correlation between the Hebrew verb forms and modality. However, if G interpreted Isaiah eschatologically, we would expect to find Hebrew qatals and participles translated as futures even when the context does not demand it. That is indeed what we find; qatals and participles do both tend to be translated into a Greek future more frequently than in the other prophets or the Pentateuch. Some of these participles translated as future in Isaiah are to be expected. For instance, some are participles expressing the imminent future. Examples

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chart 2

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Time reference for each verb form (Pentateuch, Latter Prophets, Proverbs, and Ecclesiastes)

include Isaiah 1:15 “even though you make many prayers, I not listening” (preceded by yod); and 2:2 “It shall happen at the future of the days, the mountain of the house of Yahweh being established” (prefixed by a waw). Similarly the famous ‫ ְוי ֶֹל ֶדת‬in 7:14 expresses the imminent future, and what is more, it might have been mistaken for a weyiqtol, so it was translated as τέξεται. Similarly, the participle in Isaiah 52:12 may have been translated as a future because it is in the phrase ‫הֵלְך‬ ֹ ‫ִכּי־‬, with an immediately preceding yod. These could be explained if (as it appears) G felt free to ignore word breaks. Examples of anomalous future qatals include Isaiah 9:1–2(3), where the light shines as ‫ נגה‬in Hebrew and λάμψει in Greek; the nation rejoices as ‫ שמחו‬in Hebrew and καὶ εὐφρανθήσονται in Greek. In Isaiah 10:28, he comes to Aiath/Aggai as ‫ בא‬but ἥξει; he passes through Migron/Makedo as ‫עבר‬, but καὶ παρελεύσεται in Greek. Evidently G did shift some of Isaiah’s prophecies into the future, but at other times he did not take the opportunity to do so, as evidenced by the 33 instances where he wrote an aorist where the Masoretic Text has a weyiqtol. The reason for moving some prophecies to the future and others to the past could be an avenue for fruitful exploration.

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Three conclusions are evident from this comparison of Hebrew and Greek verb forms. 1. If Greek Isaiah is to be classified as a “free” translation, it must be on grounds other than inconsistency in its translation of verb forms. 2. The translator of Greek Isaiah did shift some of Isaiah’s prophecies into the future, but at even more times he did not take the opportunity to do so. 3. The translator of Greek Isaiah most likely considered the Hebrew qatal and yiqtol as tenses (locating the event in time). 1.3.1.3 Proper Names Emanuel Tov demonstrated that G did not treat personal names in an idiosyncratic way, but followed the pattern established in the LXX and the Greek prophetic books. One exception is the contemporization of toponyms. Hellenized endings are found on 41% of proper names in Isaiah, a figure that is 10 % higher than other Septuagint books probably because there are more placenames in the prophets. Isaiah is admittedly inconsistent, but this simply means he did not have a list of equivalences; likely he intended to create literary variation (Tov 2010). 1.3.1.4 Lord Johan Lust compared the divine titles ‫ האדון‬and ‫ אדוני‬in Proto-Isaiah and Ezekiel, showing that ‫ האדון‬is distinctive for Proto-Isaiah, and is not interchangeable with the tetragrammaton as ‫ אדוני‬is. Greek Isaiah translated ‫האדון‬ as δεσπότης, but δεσπότης never is a translation of ‫אדני‬. The title ‫ האדון‬points to the ruler of the world, whereas ‫ אדני‬points to the special relationship with the prophet (Lust 2010). Peter Nagel noted that ‫ אדני‬was often rendered unconventionally when with ‫יהוה‬. ‫ אדון‬was consistently rendered by δεσπότης, and κύριος was the equivalent for ‫ אדני‬and ‫יהוה‬. Θεός was considered an appropriate Greek word for any reference to the Hebrew deity (Nagel 2013). Graeme Auld made a case for the translation of κύριος as a proper name, based on the inclusion or omission of the article before κύριος (Auld 2005). His conclusion holds also in the book of Isaiah. Auld found that the presence of the article is determined more by grammatical case than by whether the noun is a proper noun or a common noun. In Joshua, Auld found that the article tends to be used with proper names only in the dative case, and never in the genitive case. In Isaiah, in the nominative case, κύριος is arthrous in 6 out of 230 instances, compared to 8 out of 21 for βασιλεύς and 112 of 122 for θεός. The genitive κυρίου is arthrous 2 of 117 times (one of which, 1:3, is not divine), βασιλέως is arthrous

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chart 3

Words with the article in Joshua

chart 4

Words with the article in Isaiah

4 out of 19 times θεοῦ 27 of 36. The accusative κύριον is arthrous 13 of 35 times, βασιλέα is arthrous 9 of 14 times, and θεόν 13 of 21. The dative of κύριος is arthrous 7 of 15 times, and βασιλεῖ arthrous 2 out of 3 times, θεῷ 6 of 7 times. Ἱερουσαλήμ, Αἴγυπτος, Ἑζεκίας, Ἠσαΐας, Βαβυλών, κυρος, Σόμνας, and Ἰούδας never get the article except twice as genitive (Isa 5:3, 7) and once as accusative (9:21). Ἰουδαία and Λίβανος always do (the land), as does Χελκίας (all 3 genitive). Ῥομελιας is arthrous twice out of four in the genitive. Isa 8:2 has arthrous proper names for all the men mentioned.

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However, κύριος fits the article pattern of neither proper nor common nouns. In Sinaiticus, the nominative κύριος appears 235 times, 5 with the article (only 2 of which refer to the divine Lord); κύριον 33 times (15 τὸν κύριον, of which 13 are divine), κυρίου 117 times (3 τοῦ κυρίου, only 2 of which are the divine Lord), κυρίῳ 16 times (7 τῷ κυρίῳ, only 6 of which are divine), and κύριε 26 times (with an arthrous nominative noun in apposition in 24:6; 25:1; 26:4, 12, 13; 37:20; 63:16). In the plural, κυρίων appears once in 19:4. In approximately half of the instances where the accusative article τόν appears, the Hebrew has the definite direct object marker. But in the latter half of Isaiah, that rule does not explain the presence of τόν. The question remains why κύριος is so rarely arthrous, and θεός so often. By analogy, one might think ὁ θεός should be translated “the deity” or “the god.” Because κύριος when referring to the deity normally appears without the article in the nominative and genitive cases, I treat it as a proper name, and translate as “Lord” rather than “the lord” or even “the Lord.” 1.3.1.5 Recourse to Favoured Words Thackeray was the first to notice that G had recourse to certain favorite expressions when in doubt as to the meaning of the Hebrew. He noted that G used μικρὸς καὶ μέγας (ἀπὸ μικροῦ ἕως μεγάλου) even when it had no basis in the Hebrew. It translates five different Hebrew phrases (9:14(13); 22:5, 24; 23:4, 19), none of which are the Hebrew phrase ‫ מקטן ועד גדול‬that typically lies behind this Greek phrase (Thackeray 1903, 583n3). Ottley additionally noticed certain other Greek words that appear in Isaiah more frequently than the Hebrew text would warrant, especially when the Hebrew is difficult. He explained, “Often we can see the translator losing his clue, and going gradually astray, as in 3:10, 8:15, 16, 24:23; unable to construe (or read) his text, and apparently reduced to guessing or a stop-gap rendering. At such times he is wont to fall back on certain favourite words, and uses these almost at random” (1904, 1:50). For example, at 33:6, Ottley commented, “παραδοθήσονται almost warns us that LXX. are in difficulties” (Ottley 1909, 2:270), noting that this verb shows up also in 23:7, 25:5, 7, 33:1, 6, 38:13, 47:3 (1904, 1:50). Ottley surmised that the first translators of the Hebrew Scriptures “probably found the vocabulary at their command, although extensive, not always adequate” and noted the unexpected appearance of πενθήσει and πέπαυται (24:7, 8), λογίζομαι, (40:15, 17), ὕψος, ὑψηλός, ὑψόω (2:11ff.), and κατακαίω (43:2) (Ottley 1904, 1:36). Ziegler agreed that G had a penchant for certain words and phrases, which he often used when the Hebrew was opaque, following Ottley in calling them “stop-gap words.” Very often he resorted to one of his favorite words without any justification. These words include ἁλίσκομαι, ἡττάω, παραδίδωμι, πλανάω,

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βουλή, ἐλπίς, πλάνησις. A good example is the reproduction of 33:1, where three of his favorite words occur (ἁλίσκομαι, παραδίδωμι, ἡττάω). Here G did not recognize the meaning of his (admittedly difficult) Vorlage, and therefore made up a sentence that could be understood quite well (Ziegler 1934, 13–14). Seeligmann gave a more complete evaluation of this tendency: We find, throughout his work, traces of his attempts to express some idea or other which was dear to his heart, without his bothering overmuch about the Hebrew original. As soon as he gets into difficulties he has recourse—as both Ottley and Ziegler have repeatedly pointed out— to certain favoured words and notions: ἀπολλύναι, βουλή, ἀπό μικροῦ ἕως μεγάλου; παραδιδόναι; παρακαλεῖν; πλανᾶν. Seeligmann 1948, 57

To these examples I would add ἀθετέω (for ‫ פשׁעו‬in 1:2), ἀνόμος (for ‫ בדיל‬in 1:24– 27; for ‫ רשׁע‬in 3:11), and ἰσχύοντες (5:22). 1.4 Transmission and Preservation The original users of the Old Greek translation of Isaiah were Greek-speaking Jews, but especially once Christians began to use it more widely to support their Christocentric interpretations in the second century CE, some Jews sought a translation more in accord with the Hebrew. The most well known alternative translations are are those of Aquila around 130CE, Theodotion around 180– 190 CE, and Symmachus shortly thereafter. The Old Latin translation was made around the second century CE, so it attests the Old Greek before the revisions of the third century, which have affected most of our Greek copies (to varying degrees). Burkitt wrote, “there are readings found in the Old Latin representing Greek readings which have disappeared from every known Greek MS., but which, by comparison with the Hebrew, are shown to preserve the genuine text of the LXX” (Burkitt 1894, cxvii). 1.4.1 Early Manuscripts The earliest portions of Greek Isaiah extant (aside from quotations in the New Testament) are from the third century. In Washington, the Library of Congress 4082 B (Rahlfs 844) preserves Isa 23:4–7, 10–13 (Luijendijk 2010). In Vienna, the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek’s P. Vindob. G 23164 + 17417 + 2320 (Rahlfs 881 + 948) preserves parts of Isa 33:7–8, 17–19; Isa 38:3–5, 13–16; 40:13–14, 24– 26 (Wessely 1909; Bastianini 1982), Rahlfs 965 (TM 61951; consisting of Chester Beatty Library P. Bibl. 7, and B’s P. Vindob. G 23164 + 17417 + 2320), and Rahlfs

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Passage

Manuscript attestation (at 350 CE)

1:1–8:17 8:18–19:13 19:14–23:3 23:4–7 23:8–9 23:10–13 23:14–33:6 33:7–8 33:9–16 33:17–19 33:20–36:15 36:16–20 36:21–36:end 37:1–6 37:7–38:2 38:3–5 38:6–12 38:13 38:14–16 38:17–40:12 40:13–14 40:15–23 40:24–26 40:27–42:2 42:3–4 42:5–45:5 45:6–48:5 48:6–18 48:17–49:15 49:16–18 49:19–53:end 54:1–52:14 52:15–53:3 53:4–5 53:6–7 53:8–10 53:11–12

SB S B 965 SB S B 844 SB S B 844 SB S B 881 SB S B 881 SB S B 902 SB S B 902 SB S B 948 SB S B 948 S B 948 965 S B 965 S B 881 965 S B 965 S B 881 965 S B 965 S B 965 958 S B 965 SB S B 850 SB S B 904 SB S B 965 S B 965 958 S B 965 S B 965 958 S B 965 S B 965 958

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(cont.)

Passage

Manuscript attestation (at 350 CE)

53:13–60:22 60:23–66:17 66:18–19 66:20-end

S B 965 SB S B 958 SB

958 (at Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana 19657) has much of Is. 8:18–19:13; 38:14– 45:5; 54:1–60:22 (Kenyon 1958). From the third or fourth century, in Alexandria, the Greco-Roman Museum’s, P. Alex. Inv. 203 (Rahlfs 850) preserves parts of Isa 48:6–18 (Carlini 1978; 1972). From the fourth century of course alongside Sinaiticus we have Codex Vaticanus, but also Berlin’s Ägyptisches Museum P. 6772 (Rahlfs 902), with parts of Isa 36:16–20; 37:1–6 (Stegmüller 1939, 58–60), and P. 13422 (Rahlfs 904), with parts of Isa 49:16–18 (Stegmüller 1939, 60–61). Rahlfs 958 (at John Rylands University Library of Manchester P. Gr. 460 and Oslo’s university library P. Inv. 22a/b) has parts of Isa 42:3–4; 52:15–53:3, 6–7, 11– 12; 66:18–19 (C.H. Roberts and Guppy 1938, III Theological and Literary Texts: 10–13). The complete manuscript evidence for Greek Isaiah at the middle of the fourth century can be tabulated as follows, in canonical order. Early quotations of Isaiah are extant: Isa 40:16 in TM 64469 (Gronewald 1974); Isa 53:11 in TM 171876 (Chang and Henry 2012); 58:6–9 in TM 61959 (Daris 1978); 6:10 in TM 62336; 66:1 in TM 63392 and TM 63550. Isa 53:11 in TM 171876 (Chang and Henry 2012); 58:6–9 in TM 61959 (Daris 1978); 6:10 in TM 62336; 66:1 in TM 63392 and TM 63550. 1.4.2 Fourth-Century Revisions In the early third century, the great scholar Origen sought to correct the discrepancies between the Hebrew and the Old Greek, by comparison with these three new versions. To this end, Origen created the Hexapla, so named for the six parallel columns, containing (1) the Hebrew text, (2) Greek transliteration of the Hebrew, (3) Aquila, (4) Symmachus, (5) the Old Greek, (6) Theodotion. He noted differences between the Hebrew and Greek, including additions, omissions, and rearrangements. In most cases, he corrected the Greek to match the Hebrew, supplying omissions from Aquila or Theodotion, and marking additions by the signs of Aristarchus. Some revisions of the Greek were made early in the fourth century. Eusebius and Pamphilus copied the fifth column of the Hexapla separately begin-

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ning around 307 CE. This “hexaplaric” version, used in Palestine, originally included the critical signs indicating additions from Aquila or Theodotion, but it was not long before copies neglected to reproduce the signs. Burkitt noted the agreement in omissions between the hexaplaric text and B (Burkitt 1894, cxvii). Lucian revised the Greek beginning around 300 CE as well, and those manuscripts of Isaiah classified as “Lucianic” provide many Hexaplaric readings. The Lucianic manuscripts were used in the East and Constantinople. Perhaps an Egyptian revision was also made, around 310 CE, this one corresponding to the quotations from the Alexandrian Fathers. Ziegler’s edition provides details regarding the manuscript families (Ziegler 1939). Natalio Fernández Marcos showed that the textual variants in Isaiah 65–66 attest a pattern of readings in the manuscripts Ziegler called “Lucianic.” In these manuscripts he identified 13 small changes taken from the Three toward conformity with the Masoretic Text, but even more stylistic improvements and a few Atticizing tendencies. He pointed out a few older readings preserved in Antiochene manuscrpts, readings that were supplanted in later manuscripts. He noted the Antiochene reading was an exegetical method that emphasised the historical over the allegorical method of interpretation, but he did not associate this method with specific Antiochene textual readings. In other words, the label “Antiochene reading” does not constitute a witness to Antiochene theology in the same way as Seeligmann claimed the Old Greek was a witness to Alexandrian theology (Fernández Marcos 2010). 1.4.3 Compare Ziegler, Rahlfs, A, B Because users of this commentary might be used to read from an edition of the Greek text of Isaiah other than that in Sinaiticus, I include a partial apparatus indicating where the text of S (= Sinaiticus) varies from that of the oldest codices A (Ottley 1904) and B (Swete 1887), and the eclectic critical editions R (Rahlfs 1935) and Z (Ziegler 1939). In such notes, the witness of the correctors of Sinaiticus is also indicated. 1.5 Reception 1.5.1 New Testament Every quotation and allusion to Isaiah in the New Testament is discussed in the commentary. According to the data provided by Silva (1993), Paul’s citations of Isaiah most often matched neither the Greek nor the Hebrew (12 times), matched the Greek against the Hebrew 9 times, and never matched the Hebrew against the Greek. Silva’s classifications are shown in the following table. Paul’s appeal to Isaiah occurs mainly in his correspondence with the Romans and Corinthians. Only twice did he refer to Isaiah outside of these three let-

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Paul

Isaiah

Type

1 Cor 15:32 2 Cor 6:2 2 Cor 6:17 Rom 15:21 Rom 9:29 Rom 15:12 Rom 11:34 Rom 14:11 Rom 2:24 Rom 10:16 Gal 4:27 Rom 10:20–21 Rom 11:8 Rom 9:27–28 1 Cor 15:54 Rom 11:27b 1 Cor 14:21 Rom 10:11 1 Cor 1:19 1 Cor 2:16 Rom 10:15 Rom 11:26–27a Rom 3:15–17 Rom 9:33 1 Cor 2:9 2 Tim 2:19b Rom 9:20 2 Cor 9:10

Is 22:13 Is 49:8 Is 52:11 + Ezek 20:34 Is 52:15 Is 1:9 Is 11:10 Is 40:13 Is 45:23 (+ 49:18?) Is 52:5 Is 53:1 Is 54:1 Is 65:1–2 Deut 9:4 (+ Is 29:10) Is 10:22–23 (+ Is 29:10) Is 25:8 Is 27:9 Is 28:11–12 Is 28:16 Is 29:14 Is 40:13 Is 52:7 Is 59:20–21 Is 59:7–8 Is 8:14 + 28:16 (Is 64:4 + 65:16?) Is 26:13? (+ Sir 35:3?) Is 29:16 (45:9) Is 55:10 + Hos 10:12

1. Paul = LXX = MT. 1. Paul = LXX = MT. 1. Paul = LXX = MT. 1. Paul = LXX = MT. 3. Paul = LXX ≠ MT 3. Paul = LXX ≠ MT 3. Paul = LXX ≠ MT 3. Paul = LXX ≠ MT 3. Paul = LXX ≠ MT 3. Paul = LXX ≠ MT 3. Paul = LXX ≠ MT 3. Paul = LXX ≠ MT 4. Paul ≠ LXX ≠ MT 4. Paul ≠ LXX ≠ MT 4. Paul ≠ LXX ≠ MT 4. Paul ≠ LXX ≠ MT 4. Paul ≠ LXX ≠ MT 4. Paul ≠ LXX ≠ MT 4. Paul ≠ LXX ≠ MT 4. Paul ≠ LXX ≠ MT 4. Paul ≠ LXX ≠ MT 4. Paul ≠ LXX ≠ MT 4. Paul ≠ LXX ≠ MT 4. Paul ≠ LXX ≠ MT 5. Debated 5. Debated 5. Debated 5. Debated

ters. The fact that Paul’s citations of Isaiah often matched the Greek against the Hebrew, but never matched the Hebrew against the Greek indicates that Paul preferred to appeal to the Greek rather than the Hebrew. Whether this preference is due to necessity (for example, if he only had the Greek available to him) or choice (for example, his case was better made by the Greek, or he assumed his readership would be using the Greek) is a question beyond the scope of this commentary.

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1.5.2 Patristic The Isaiah volume of The Church’s Bible refers to four complete commentaries on Isaiah: Eusebius of Caesarea (260–340), Jerome (342–420), Cyril of Alexandria (370–444), and Theodoret of Cyrrhus (393–458).1 Of these, only that of Eusebius predates Codex Sinaiticus, at the middle of the 4th century. Origen (185–254) wrote a commentary that is now lost, but nine of his homilies elaborate on verses from Isaiah (xxv). Other early authors who expound on small parts of Isaiah include Irenaeus (fl. c. 175–195), the Letter of Barnabas (c. 130), Justin Martyr (c. 100–165), Clement of Alexandria (c. 150–215), Hippolytus (fl. c. 222–245), Didymus the Blind (313–398), Cyril of Jerusalem (fl. c. 348), Gregory of Nyssa (c. 335–394). Tertullian (fl. 197–222) and Aphrahat (fl. 337–345) also commented on Isaiah, but did not write in Greek. Tertullian (Τhe Resurrection of the Flesh 20) provided an overview of how Isaiah was interpreted: No doubt we are accustomed also to give a spiritual significance to these statements of prophecy, according to the analogy of the physical diseases which were healed by the Lord; but still they were all fulfilled literally: thus showing that the prophets foretold both senses, except that very many of their words can only be taken in a pure and simple signification, and free from all allegorical obscurity; as when we hear of the downfall of nations and cities, of Tyre and Egypt, and Babylon and Edom, and the navy of Carthage; also when they foretell Israel’s own chastisements and pardons, its captivities, restorations, and at last its final dispersion. Who would prefer affixing a metaphorical interpretation to all these events, instead of accepting their literal truth? The realities are involved in the words, just as the words are read in the realities. Thus, then, (we find that) the allegorical style is not used in all parts of the prophetic record, although it occasionally occurs in certain portions of it. A. Roberts, Donaldson, and Coxe 1885, 559–560

Because Codex Sinaiticus was in active use probably until 600, the comments of the Nicene Fathers are also relevant. Especially relevant are the commentaries on Isaiah written after 350 by Chrysostom (370–398) and Basil (second half of fourth century). Occasionally reference will be made to these later interpretations of Greek Isaiah.

1 All quotations from Eusebius Comm. Isa. are taken from Armstrong, with sincere thanks for a pre-publication draft of his translation.

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chart 5

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Fulfilments of Isaiah’s prophecies according to early Christian authors

1.5.2.1 Early Christian Writers’ Use of Isaiah The early Christian writers certainly thought the prophet Isaiah was a foreteller of future events. John Sawyer also titled his book on Isaiah in the History of Christianity “The fifth gospel,” building on Jerome’s preface to Isaiah, where he said Isaiah “should be called an evangelist rather than a prophet because he describes all the mysteries of Christ and the Church so clearly that you would think he is composing a history of what has already happened rather than prophesying about what is to come” (Comm. 24 4:850; McKinion 2004, 3). Chrysostom said, “the souls of the prophets when illuminated by the gift of the Spirit had access to the future” (Wilken 2007, 18). Cyril of Alexandria said Isaiah “was able to see with the eye of the mind what was going to happen to Judah at a later time” (Wilken 2007, 19). Calling Isaiah the Fifth Gospel, and implying that such a title is long-standing gives the impression that Isaiah was understood throughout history as pointing to the life of Christ, i.e., that interpretations of Isaiah were mainly Christological, even Christocentric. Such is the position of McKinion, who wrote, “For the Fathers, Christ was the skopos (“aim,” “object”) of the Hebrew Scriptures. That is, the author’s intention in writing the Old Testament was to announce the coming Messiah. Early Christian interpreters were nearly unanimous in this regard” (McKinion 2004, xxii). He continued, “Theodoret and Cyril represent this similarity. Both contend that Isaiah spoke of Christ. Both contend as well that some passages speak overtly and that others require interpretation. While they differ on the number of passages that do either, they still agree

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that Christ is the subject of the prophecy, as it exists in the Old Testament” (McKinion 2004, xxii). But Elliott disagreed, claiming that the leading patristic interpretation of Isaiah 40–66 “is soteriological rather than christological, that is, focused relatively more on the process of God’s salvation than on the identity of the Savior” (Elliott 2007, xx). Elliott argued that the reason Christ appears so central is that he is a part of salvation history, which is the real focus of Isaiah’s prophecies. The fulfillment of Isaiah’s prophecies is to be found in the results of the salvation effected by Jesus Christ. In other words, the fulfillment is to be found in the time of the church, the time of the commentators themselves. Evidence to solve this disagreement may be found by comparing the relative frequency of the time to which the earliest Christian authors believed Isaiah’s prophecies pointed. In order to identify how the Ante-Nicene Fathers interpreted Isaiah, I classified their references to Isaiah according to where they placed the fulfilment of the prophecy. Of the 1097 references to Isaiah indexed by the Biblia Patristica (at the Biblindex.info website) from Christian writings up to the mid-fourth century (the New Testament, Apostolic Fathers, and Ante-Nicene Fathers), those in which the Christian writer treated the prophecy from Isaiah as a reference to a historical event are 728 in number. The rest of the references are either simply allusions or are used as timeless truths. Those that were considered fulfilled in the time of Isaiah amount to 4 % of the total. For example, Cyprian in Hab. virg. 13 said Isaiah “chides the daughters of Sion” for “departing from God for the sake of the world’s delights” by adorning themselves with cosmetics (Deferrari 1958, 42). In Origen’s explanation of Isaiah 14, he wrote that its lament is offered on behalf of the king of Babylon (Cels. 6.43). But more often among Christian writers we find the view that although the Hebrews think the prophecy referred to a figure from that time such as Hezekiah, it is really about Christ. The second locus of fulfillment is that of pre-Christian history. For example, Eusebius wrote about the Oracle against Moab in Isaiah 15 that “these things were fulfilled historically at the time of the invasion of the Assyrians and Babylonians …” (ἃ δὴ καὶ ἐπληροῦτο κατὰ τὴν ἱστορίαν ἐπὶ τῆς Ἀσσυρίων καὶ Βαβυλωνίων ἐπιθέσεως, Comm. Isa. 1.70) (Wilken 2007, 185). A similarly small number of interpretations, 4%, take this time frame as their fulfilment. The third time in which Isaiah’s prophecies might have been fulfilled is in the earthly life of Jesus. This locus of fulfilment is commonly seen in the Gospels, where for example, Matt 1:22–23 says Isaiah 7:14 was fulfilled by Jesus’ conception, in the following words: “All this took place to fulfill what had been spoken by the Lord through the prophet: ‘Look, the virgin shall conceive and bear a son,

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and they shall name him Emmanuel’” (NRSV). Because it is at times hard to tell whether a certain prophecy was more about Christ or about the realities of the Church (because Christ was thought to continue his activity after his ascension), for the purposes of categorizing the references, I included in this third time frame only the historical events that were part of the Jesus’ incarnated life from conception to ascension. The largest number of interpretations, 29 %, consider this time the fulfilment of the prophecy. The fourth locus of fulfillment is that of the period in which the commentator lived: the period of the Church, which began after the ascension, but before the end of the world. The early Christian writer might have seen the fulfilment of Isaiah’s prophecies in his own day, in much the same way that the pesharists at Qumran understood prophecy. For example, in Rom 11:7–8 Paul wrote, ὃ ἐπιζητεῖ Ἰσραήλ, τοῦτο οὐκ ἐπέτυχεν, ἡ δὲ ἐκλογὴ ἐπέτυχεν· οἱ δὲ λοιποὶ ἐπωρώθησαν, καθὼς γέγραπται· Ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς ὁ θεὸς πνεῦμα κατανύξεως “Israel failed to obtain what it was seeking. The elect obtained it, but the rest were hardened, as it is written, ‘God gave them a sluggish spirit …’” A similarly large proportion, 21 %, were thought to be fulfilled in the time of the Church, i.e., in the interpreter’s day. Finally, the fifth possibility is that the early Christian writer could understand Isaiah’s prophecies as something yet to be fulfilled. Of course, this is the view taken by many amateur interpreters of prophecy today, namely that Isaiah’s prophecies are to be fulfilled at the end of time, as the book of Revelation would have it. For example, Paul wrote in 1Cor 15:54 τότε γενήσεται ὁ λόγος ὁ γεγραμμένος Κατεπόθη ὁ θάνατος εἰς νῖκος. “then the saying that is written will be fulfilled: ‘Death has been swallowed up in victory.’” Our collected evidence shows that this eschatological interpretive tendency occurred only 11 % of the time among the Church Fathers. A few trends are worth noting. First, the most obvious trend is that of the five possible fulfilment times assumed by pre-Nicene Christians, two clearly stand out: For most of these early Christians, the prophecies of the first chapters of Isaiah are fulfilled either in the life of Jesus or in the time of the Church, that is, of the commentator himself. There are very few interpretations of Isaiah’s prophecies that are fulfilled in Isaiah’s time, or in pre-Christian history at all, for that matter. The evidence shows that the early Christian writers were even more interested in Isaiah’s prophecies about Jesus’ human life than about his work in the Church. Isaiah was used more to prove that Jesus life was a fulfilment of prophecy than to claim that Isaiah was predicting events in the commentator’s day. The early Christians thought Isaiah rarely, if ever, referred to events in Isaiah’s own day, and it was uncommon for them to find fulfillments in historical events before the time of Jesus at all.

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Where early Christians placed the fulfilment of Isaiah’s prophecies

Second, the data also show that certain authors use Isaiah much more than others. Tertullian, Irenaeus, and Justin top the list, with Origen and Cyprian close behind. Third, the use to which Isaiah was put evolved over time. In the first century, Longenecker correctly observed that the New Testament authors were concerned to show that the “this” that was manifest in the person and work of Jesus “is that” which was recorded in the Old Testament. Jesus is the fulfillment of hopes for deliverance. The New Testament authors usually did not use Isaiah for polemic, and Isaiah was quoted mainly within the mission to Jews (Longenecker 1975, 96). In the second century, there are no quotations of Isaiah in the Didache, in Hermas, or the Martyrdom of Polycarp. But Clement of Rome made a few references to Isaiah: mostly allusions, timeless interpretations, or future fulfillments. The non-interpolated writings of Ignatius have mostly allusions and Christological fulfilments, for example, to Jesus’ birth, from Isa 7:14. Barnabas found fulfilments mainly in the time of the church and in Jesus. Barnabas used Isaiah to condemn rituals, but not specifically to condemn the Jewish people, as e.g., in 9.1: “But moreover the circumcision in which they trusted has been abolished. For he declared that circumcision was not of the flesh, but they erred because an evil angel was misleading them.” Justin Martyr was the one who introduced this kind of anti-Jewish polemic, arguing that because of the Jews’ rejection of Jesus, they had been rejected by God, and their blessing transferred to the Gentile believers. Dialogue with Trypho 17 reads, “So that you are the cause not only of your own unrighteousness, but in fact of that of all other men. And Isaiah cries justly: ‘By reason of you, My name is blasphemed among the Gentiles.’

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In the third century, Irenaeus found mostly Jesus-fulfilments. In Adv. Haer. 4.23.2 he wrote, “‘in His humiliation His judgment was taken away’ and all the rest which the prophet proceeded to relate in regard to His passion and His coming in the flesh, and how He was dishonoured by those who did not believe Him.” Clement of Alexandria found relatively few fulfillments because he preferred to use Isaiah for allusions and timeless truths. Tertullian wrote an Adversus Judaeos replete with quotations from Isaiah, often fulfilled by Jesus. In this work, he followed the precedent established by Justin, in which Christianity superceded Judaism. For example, in Adv. Jud. 3 he wrote, “For circumcision had to be given; but as ‘a sign,’ whence Israel in the last time would have to be distinguished, when, in accordance with their deserts, they should be prohibited from entering the holy city, as we see through the words of the prophets, saying, ‘Your land is desert; your cities utterly burnt with fire; your country, in your sight, strangers shall eat up.’” Hippolytus wrote a work on “Antichrist” and one on Daniel, so his interpretations mainly saw fulfilments in the future. Origen followed Clement of Alexandria’s lead, by finding mainly timeless truths and allusions, but Origen was also supercessionist, as indicated in Comm. Matt. 14.17: “Christ … did not put away His former wife, so to speak—that is, the former synagogue—for any other cause than that that wife … plotted against her husband and slew Him, … wherefore, reproaching her for falling away from him, it says in Isaiah, ‘Of what kind is the bill of your mother’s divorcement, with which I sent her away?’” Cyprian used Isaiah mainly for timeless truths, but also a large number of Jesus-fulfilments. He, too, pitted the Jews against the Christians, claiming that the blessing originally belonging to the Jews was transferred to the Gentiles. Cyprian’s Testimonies against the Jews 1.22, which begins with a quote from Isa 65:13–15, is entitled, “That the Jews would lose while we should receive the bread and the cup of Christ and all His grace, and that the new name of Christians should be blessed in the earth.” Novatian found fulfilments mostly in Jesus. In the fourth century, Methodius was mostly concerned about chastity so he used Isaiah for that purpose. Lactantius found fulfilments in Jesus almost exclusively. Eusebius held a balance between fulfilments in Jesus and the Church. An example of the latter appears in Comm. Isa. on 23:18: “And this also has been fulfilled among you, for the Church of God has been established in the city of Tyre.” Fourth, the locus of fulfilment varies depending on which prophecy is being referred to. As may be expected, chapter 53, with its imagery evoking the Passion, was consistently thought to refer to Jesus. Others, such as chapters 1 and 2, with their condemnation of Israel’s unfaithfulness, were seen as predictions of the rejection of Israel in favour of the Gentiles. Those most frequently con-

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sidered prophecies about Jesus are chapters 53, 7, 9, 61, and 35. These tend to be prophecies that have an established precedent in the New Testament. The New Testament authors already have interpreted the prophecies of Isaiah 7, 9, 53, and 61 as being fulfilled in Jesus. Those most frequently considered supercessionist are chapters 1, 2, 5, and 19. The 8th-century prophecies of judgement on Israel and Judah were thought to be fulfilled by the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans and later also by the major success Christianity met among the Gentiles. But that kind of supercessionism had little place in the 6th-century prophecies of comfort. Instead, the prophecies of the servant songs which in Greek would be the songs of the παῖς, the son, were fulfilled by Jesus. Fifth, the genre of writing influences the use to which Isaiah is put. The writings “Against the Jews,” intended to refute the Jewish insistence that Jesus was not the Christ tend to emphasize the fulfilments in the person of Jesus, and the indictments of Israel and Judah in the judgement oracles, especially in the first six chapters of Isaiah. The use of Isaiah in these anti-Jewish writings shows they were interested in two main things: that Israel should have recognized the son of God when he came, and that in consequence of their failure, God’s favour has moved from the Jews to the Gentiles. This polemic has its roots in Paul’s letters. For example, in Romans 11:11, after quoting Isaiah 29:10, that God gave Israel a spirit of imperception, Paul wrote, “through their trespass salvation has come to the Gentiles.” Even in the patristic references to the life of Jesus, the supercessionist theme is frequently present. As a case in point, the interpretations of the first chapter of Isaiah tend to argue that when Jesus came, the Jews did not recognize him, as Justin said, “expecting the Christ, did not recognise Him.” What the Jews were unable to do, the Gentiles did, as Origen said, “Israel did not know the manger of their Lord, but the unclean Gentiles did.” Jesus was predicted by the prophets, according to Justin 1 Apology 43: the Jews and Samaritans, having the word of God delivered to them by the prophets, and always expecting the Christ, did not recognise Him when He came, except some few, of whom the Spirit of prophecy by Isaiah had predicted that they should be saved. God’s blessing transferred from Jews to Gentiles, according to Origen, Homilies on the Gospel of Luke 13.7: “‘The ox knows his owner and the donkey his master’s manger.’ The ox is a clean animal, and the donkey an unclean one. … The people of Israel did not know the manger of their Lord, but the unclean Gentiles did.” Commenting on chapter 2, Eusebius said, “The beginning of the prophecy is consistent with the reality that the Lord descended not only for the salvation of the Jewish race but also for that of all people” (Eusebius, Dem. ev. 6.13). He continued to claim that God’s house is no longer the Temple: “the house of God which exists in Judea would be the Church of the nations.”

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In light of the manifest purpose of the patristic interpreters, their interpretive tendency cannot simply be called Christological or soteriological because it is not simply a question of whether Isaiah’s prophecies were fulfilled in the life of Jesus or in the experience of the Church. Rather, when they are comparable to events in Jesus’ life, Isaiah’s prophecies are used to show that the Jewish people should not have rejected him, but they should have recognized him when he came. When they are comparable to events in the Church subsequent to Jesus life, Isaiah’s prophecies are used to show that the Jewish people were now receiving the consequences of that rejection, that, in the words of the author of Acts, “The Holy Spirit was right in saying to your fathers through Isaiah the prophet: ‘Go to this people, and say, “You will indeed hear but never understand, and you will indeed see but never perceive.” For this people’s heart has grown dull, and with their ears they can barely hear, and their eyes they have closed; lest they should see with their eyes and hear with their ears and understand with their heart and turn, and I would heal them.’ Therefore let it be known to you that this salvation of God has been sent to the Gentiles; they will listen” (Acts 28:25–28). So yes, the interpretations are Christological, because they are concerned with the rejection or acceptance of Christ. And yes, the interpretations are soteriological, because salvation depends on the acceptance of Christ. Even yes, the interpretations are eschatological, because they thought they were living in the end times. But the main concern in the second and third century continues that question that perplexed the writers of the New Testament: why do we believe in a Jewish Messiah and the Jews do not? We may not like their answer to that question, we may be embarrassed by their supersessionism. McKinion and Elliott ignore these unattractive interpretations. Wilken, in his introduction to the Isaiah volume in the Church’s Bible series (xxv), raised the problem of patristic supersessionism, but concluded: “since the purpose of this series is to provide excerpts for spiritual reading and resources for the theological appropriation of the Bible, and not simply to offer a representative cross section of early Christian biblical interpretation, it seemed advisable not to include many of the sharply polemical passages.” But if our goal is understand the pre-Nicene Christians, we must not sweep these embarrassments under the rug and pretend they are not part of history. Rather, we can learn from both good and bad examples, and use these lessons in selfcritical shaping of our own reading of scripture. As we seek look at historical interpretations of Isaiah, we can recognize something about which Isaiah, and the ancients all agreed, and that is Isaiah’s insistent demand for faithfulness.

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1.5.2.2 Faith It has long been recognized that “Trust in God is a basic feature in OT religion,” as Bertram said. “This is indicated by the prophetic message. Isaiah and Jeremiah in particular demand confidence in God and warn against false confidence in earthly powers” (in Bultmann 1964, 5) Zion is judged for being a faithless city; king Ahaz is urged to trust God in the face of the threats from Aram and Ephraim. Idols are not to be trusted, and neither is Egypt’s military might. In the New Testament, trust is normally spoken of using the word πίστις and cognates in the semantic realm that includes faith, trust, belief, and confidence. Some of the most famous sayings in the Bible use a one of these words. Paul said, “It is by πίστις that you are saved, not by works, lest anyone should boast.” Jesus said, “For God so loved the world that he gave his only son, so that πᾶς ὁ πιστεύων in him might not perish, but have eternal life.” But despite the importance of faith in the message of Greek Isaiah, πίστις and πιστεύω together appear there only a dozen times. Because faith is central to Christian theology, the question of how the earliest Christian commentators interpreted faith when they read of it in Isaiah is of interest. We might expect the earliest commentary on Greek Isaiah (that of Eusebius) to interpret this faith in Christian ways by recasting the idea in terms of Christian πίστις. However, this expection is not what we find in Eusebius, based on an examination of how Eusebius treated four kinds of passages in Isaiah: (1) where Isaiah used the root πιστ; (2) where Isaiah used πεποιθ-; (3) where Isaiah spoke of faith without using these two word groups; and (4) where Eusebius introduced πιστ- words when they were not present in Isaiah. Eusebius tended not to connect passages in which the root πίστις appears in Isaiah with the πίστις Jesus and the apostle advocate for so prominently in the New Testament. In five passages, Eusebius did not add to what Isaiah says about πίστις (Isaiah 8:2; 22:23, 25; 49:7; 55:3). In two cases, Eusebius did add an interpretation about faith, but it was not distinctively Christian (Isaiah 1:21; 7:9). Only in five cases did he add some Christian interpretation (Isaiah 17:10; 28:16; 33:16; 43:10; 53:1). Instead, Eusebius did not have a tendency to import Christian theology into Isaiah’s uses of πίστις. Eusebius retained the generally non-theological use of the verbal root πεποίθως in Isaiah. Eusebius did not often speak of faith with vocabulary other than these two words groups. Although Eusebius rarely introduced words from the πεποίθως group into his commentary, he often did mention πίστις where no πίστις was found in his source text. As an explanation for these phenomena, I propose that Eusebius considered πίστις not as an attitude toward a person or things (trust), nor even as a belief

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system (though this is stronger), but he used πίστις primarily to refer to the acceptance or rejection of the divine Christ. In Eusebius’s usage, πίστις mainly describes the assent to Christ, particularly in recognizing pointers to Christ in the scriptural prophecies. The unfaithful are those who do not acknowledge Jesus as the divine Christ, and are identified with the disobedient, rebels, and rejecters. 1.6 Modern Study 1.6.1 Modern Study of the Septuagint On the “Septuagint” generally, until recently the most comprehensive overview was that of Fernández Marcos (2000), although the earlier introduction by Swete (1914) is still useful, and the more general introductions by Jobes and Silva (2000) and Dines and Knibb (2004) are helpful. Reference will be made to grammars of the Septuagint (Conybeare and Stock 1905; Thackeray 1909) and to Swete’s introduction (1914). The years since I began this commentary have seen the republication of Tov’s essays (Tov 2006), the publication of a lively introduction (Law 2013), and a systematic description of the translation of the individual books (Aitken 2015). Bibliographies of the Septuagint have been collected in recent decades (Brock, Fritsch, and Jellicoe 1973; Tov 1983; Dogniez 1995). 1.6.2 Modern Study of Greek Isaiah Editions of the Greek text of Isaiah include those of Brenton (1844), Swete (1887), Ottley (1904), Ralhfs (1935), Ziegler (1939), the Sinaiticus project (“The Codex Sinaiticus Website” 2008). Earlier English translations of Greek Isaiah include those of Silva, Ottley (1904), Brenton (1844), and the Lexham English Septuagint (Brannan et al. 2012). In German there is now the SeptuagintaDeutsch (Baltzer et al. 2009), and in French the Bible d’Alexandrie (le Boulluec and le Moigne 2014). Works specifically on the whole of Greek Isaiah begin with the studies of Scholz (1880) and Ottley (1904). Ziegler (1934) and Seeligmann (1948) set the stage for the next generation of research on Greek Isaiah. Major works on Greek Isaiah that followed included those by das Neves (1973) and Koenig (1982). Arie van der Kooij has been the most prolific of the scholars on Greek Isaiah (van der Kooij 1978; 1981; 1982b; 1982a; 1986; 1997c; 1997a; 1998a; 1998b; 2006; van der Kooij and van der Meer 2010a). Some of his students have continued his work, namely Mirjam van der Vorm-Croughs (Croughs 2001; van der Vorm-Croughs 2010; 2014), and Wilson de Angelo Cunha (2009a; 2009b; 2013; 2014). Monographs devoted to Greek Isaiah include Olley (1979), Ekblad (1999), Baer (2001), Troxel (2008), de Sousa (2010a), Wagner (2013), Ngunga (2013),

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Byun (2017). A recent bibliography specifically of Greek Isaiah is included in the Arie van der Kooij Festschrift (van der Kooij and van der Meer 2010b). 1.6.2.1 Pluses and Minuses Mirjam van der Vorm-Croughs’s monograph (2014) enumerates and describes the reasons for one of the main categories of differences between the Greek and Hebrew of Isaiah, namely those differences that exhibit themselves quantitatively. Such a quantitative difference is called a “plus” when the Old Greek includes words with no counterpart in the Masoretic Text, and a “minus” if the Masoretic Text includes words with no counterpart in the Old Greek. Van der Vorm-Croughs made two valuable contributions. One is text-critical, by showing that most differences can be explained by clear tendencies without recourse to a different Vorlage. Second, she showed which translation techniques Greek Isaiah considered acceptable, i.e., what rules he followed. Almost every plus or minus can be attributed to a small number of policies. Notably, one of these rules was rearrangement. Although she claimed for Greek Isaiah a high proficiency in both Hebrew and Greek, I do not find the evidence for the Hebrew convincing because it consists solely of Greek Isaiah’s use of formal association (showing he was well rooted in Jewish exegesis), and his borrowing from other (Greek) scriptures (showing that he had a thorough acquaintance with scripture) (van der Vorm-Croughs 2014, 521).

2

Sinaiticus Isaiah

The description of Codex Sinaiticus presented here is grounded in the work of Tischendorf (1862; 1934), Lake & Lake (1922), Milne and Skeat (1938), Moir (1976), Myshrall (2005), Jongkind (2007), and Parker (2010). 2.1 Description of Manuscript Codex Sinaiticus contained 48 books of the Greek Old Testament, plus the nowstandard 27 books of the New Testament, as well as the Epistle of Barnabas and the Shepherd of Hermas. That these 1486 pages (743 leaves) were contained between two covers was an impressive technological feat for its day. It has an enormous page size (at 43cm by 38cm, the largest of any known biblical manuscript), and its parchment (untanned calf and sheep skin) is thinner (116 microns, according to Parker, 46) than the paper used in today’s books. The standard studies on the paleography of Codex Sinaiticus are by Tischendorf (1846; 1862; 1934), Milne and Skeat (1938; 1963), the Lakes (1945), Myshrall (2005), and Jongkind (2005; 2007). The script is a beautiful exemplar of bibli-

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cal majuscule (Parker 2010, 2), written in four columns, except for the poetical and wisdom literature, where two columns are used. The brown ink used was tannin-based. When one remembers that one animal skin provided two sheets of parchment (one from each side) and notices how few and small the imperfections are, the material expense of producing this codex becomes apparent. Parker calculates the cost of scribal labour alone at about 20 solidi, the annual income for priests and deacons (2010, 62–63). Codex Sinaiticus is one of only seven Greek manuscripts containing both testaments. Interestingly, three of these are from the 14th and 15th centuries and the other four are from the 4th and 5th centuries, with almost a millennium between these two groups. In Sinaiticus, after the Pentateuch come the historical books, then the prophets (major, then minor), Psalms, and the wisdom books. Isaiah starts at the beginning of quire 43 (of 95) after 4Maccabees, and ends on quire 46, folio 3, followed by Jeremiah. The beginnings of books were marked by a tab tied to the first page, as evidenced by the pinholes for this purpose, but these tabs have been lost. 2.2 History of Codex Sinaiticus 2.2.1 Scribes Codex Sinaiticus was copied in the mid-fourth century (too late to have been commissioned by Constantine) by at least three identifiable scribes, labelled A, B, and D. Myshrall suggested the scribe we conventionally call B may in fact have been two scribes, B1 and B2 (Myshrall 2005), but Batovici (Batovici 2017) has refuted that vew. Likely these scribes worked at Caesarea or Alexandria, but we have no direct evidence for this guess. The date is established by its inclusion of Eusebius’s Canons in the Gospels, which were from 320 or later, albeit in and incomplete way that indicates the scribes were not used to it. G. Cavallo puts the date of the manuscript at 360 or a little later, based on the elegance of the script and the decorations (Cavallo 1967, 56–60). The scribes could have been male or female, since some girls and women are known to have been trained to write well, and even produced copies of the Bible, according to Rufinus. Contra Milne and Skeat, Parker demonstrated that the scribes did not work from dictation. In fact, scribe A copied 14 pages of text that he had already copied earlier, and the corrector (D) did not notice that the text changed from 1 Chronicles 19:17 to 2Esdras 9:9 in the middle of the verse. This indicates that A and D were both working from an exemplar in which the repetition was present. They were careful to reproduce the words from their source text, without checking whether that source manuscript was reliable.

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The scribes exercised varying degrees of care in copying and correcting their work. D was the most careful, perhaps supervising A and B; B was the poorest speller of the scribes of Codex Sinaiticus, perhaps brought in part-time for occasional work. Milne and Skeat speak highly of scribe D “whose spelling is well-nigh faultless.” They continue, “Scribe A, on the other hand, would be put down as a poor speller but for the existence of scribe B, whose illiteracy is so startling that it is indeed a puzzle to understand how he can ever have been chosen to work on a manuscript of this class” (Milne and Skeat 1963, 15). It was scribe B (specifically B1 according to Myshrall) who was responsible for Isaiah. B also copied Jeremiah and Lamentations and may have contributed to the Pauline letters. B included running titles for some books, and although the other scribes would correct each other’s work, B (in Isaiah) was the only one to correct his own work. 2.2.1.1 Orthography Scribe B abbreviated the following words regularly by means of an overbar: θεός (181 times as ΘΣ, ΘΥ, etc.), κύριος (434 ΚΣ), πνεῦμα (38 ΠΝΑ), Ἰσραήλ (133 ΙΗΛ), Ἰερουσαλήμ (124 ΙΛΜ ι̅λ̅η̅ μ̅ ϊε̅λ̅μ̅ ι̅λ̅μ̅ ), Δαυίδ (11 ΔΑΔ), ἄνθρωπος (64 ΑΝΟΣ), πατήρ (24 πρ̅ος̅ ̅ πρ̅ς πρ̅α̅ π̅ ρε̅ ς̅ ̅ πρι̅ πρ̅ω̅ν)̅ , μητήρ (2 ΜΡΑ). πᾶς, βασιλεία, υἱός, σταυρός, and οὐρανός do not appear abbreviated in Isaiah. These abbreviations (and those of Christ and Jesus) are distinctively Christian scribal habits, from the oldest Christian manuscripts. The reason for these so-called nomina sacra is unclear. Some of these words might have been abbreviated because they refer to divinity (God, Lord, Spirit, Jesus, Christ, Father, Son), but others such as μητήρ, πᾶς, and βασιλεία do not fit this pattern. Some of the words used to refer to God do not always have a divine referent (e.g., κύριος, ἄνθρωπος, πατήρ) yet they are still abbreviated (Jongkind 2007, 62–84). The orthography of scribe B is notoriously poor, the worst of any of the Sinaiticus scribes. Therefore I do not note every time my transcription diverges from what is on the manuscript. Extremely common are interchanges between αι and ε, and between ει and ι. Evidently these pairs each sounded alike to our scribe. Certain other confusions happened frequently enough to exhibit a pattern. These are υ for οι (9 times; the reverse happens once), ο for ω (8 times; the reverse happens once), ι for υ (5 times), ι for ε (4 times). When a nu-final word occurred at the end of a line, the scribe regularly replaced the nu with an overbar over the last letter of a word (Milne and Skeat 1938). Medial nu was also commonly dropped; this can be seen in the following verses: 5:17, 18, 19, 30; 8:16; 9:9; 10:33; 11:6, 7, 9; 13:2, 12; 14:5, 9, 26, 30; 15:3, 7; 17:13;

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Number of corrections by each corrector of Sinaiticus Isaiah

18:3; 19:2, 3, 6; 20:6; 22:13; 23:6, 8, 15; 24:9, 25:4, 26:5, 18, 19; 27:1, 5; 28:27; 29:4, 11, 20, 21; 30:21; 31:2; 32:13, 14, 19; 33:1; 34:1, 4, 14; 35:5; 36:2; 37:8, 36; 39:6; 40:14, 26; 41:11, 16, 19; 42:11; 43:17; 44:9, 10, 15, 19; 46:1; 47:3, 14; 48:6; 49:19, 25; 51:6; 55:1, 5, 10; 56:4, 10; 57:16; 58:6, 7; 59:10; 60:12, 20; 61:2, 5, 8; 64:5; 65:4, 11, 12, 24; 66:5, 9, 10, 16. 2.2.2 Correctors During the fifth-seventh centuries several hands thoroughly corrected the manuscript, over 20,000 times (Milne and Skeat 1938, 65; Jongkind 2007, 10–11). This makes it the most-corrected ancient manuscript in history. The correctors not only fixed the scribes’ mistakes, they also rewrote faded letters, changed spelling, line-breaks and wording, and inserted and deleted text. Most of the corrections were made by six scribes. These six correctors have been given the labels ca, cb1, cb2, cb3, cc, cc*, cpamph, and d. One of the correctors, cpamph, claimed a link to the Hexapla. He claimed to have used a copy that had been corrected by Pamphilius and contained his signature and the following note: “Copied from and corrected against the Hexapla of Origen as corrected by himself.” The corrections cpamph made are indeed similar to what we know of Origen’s text, but Parker remained sceptical because some manuscripts include such claims that are demonstrably false. Parker cast doubt on the reliability of the colophon that claims cpamph worked directly from the autograph of Pamphilus by pointing out that colophons making similar claims appear in widely divergent manuscripts (2010). This colophon was likely present in the manuscript cpamph used to correct S, but although the corrections are old enough to precede the destruction of the Caesarean library, it may be that this colophon is just a copy of a copy.

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chart 8

Agreements with Ziegler for each scribe of Greek Isaiah

chart 9

Agreements with Ziegler by correction type and corrector

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Because Isaiah was copied by one of the most careless scribes to work on Codex Sinaiticus, the book of Isaiah is particularly full of corrections. These corrections are noted in my transcription only when the text of the original scribe (B) disagrees with one of the other ancient uncials or modern editions. Corrector cb2 witnesses a text very close to A and Q, and therefore close to Ziegler’s edition. Yet there are a few counter examples such as 47:10 in which Ziegler & A read ὅτι where SCb2, S*, and B omit this word. Ziegler correctly considered the reading of S and B a corruption, presumably because of the Hebrew. His apparatus entry is “om. ὅτι S* O’ 239′ 410 534 Bo Syh Eus. = M” Corrector cb3, on the other hand, probably was not making his corrections toward a different exemplar, but was simply reinforcing erased readings, as

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shown in Isaiah 46:11. The reading ἐλάλησα καὶ ἐποίησα was changed by corrector cb2 to ἐλάλησα καὶ ἤγαγον (which is the reading of A, B, Rahlfs, and Ziegler), and subsequently reverted to ἐλάλησα καὶ ἐποίησα by cb3. Because only S* attests the reading ἐποίησα in place of ἤγαγον, it is unlikely that another manuscript had that reading. Therefore corrector cb3 is irrelevant in instances such as in Isa 46:13, where the words καὶ τὴν ἀλήθειαν were deleted by corrector cb2, to match A, B (followed by Rahlfs, Ziegler), but were reinstated by cb3. For more details see my “Codex Sinaiticus Corrector Cb2 as a Witness to the Alexandrian Text of Isaiah” (2012). 2.2.3 Glosses Of the two people who wrote Arabic notes in the margins of Codex Sinaiticus, one (called “Arabic A”) made most of his notes (seven of eight) in the pages of Isaiah. Beside Isa 1:10 he wrote “The Prophet rebukes the leaders of Israel”; another note appears at 2:1, 10. There are lectionary notes at the end of 5:6, the beginning of 5:7, 16, and an illegible note at 5:17. 2.2.4 Discovery We lose track of the story of Codex Sinaiticus until 1844, except that we know it must have arrived at St. Catherine’s Monastery in Sinai some time, probably centuries, before Constantin Tischendorf saw some of its pages there and took 86 pages back to Leipzig. He quickly published these with a layout and type made specially to match the appearance of the manuscript. In 1845, Porphyry Uspenski also found parts of eight pages that had been used to bind books, and took these back to St. Petersburg. When Tischendorf returned in 1859, he arranged to borrow what remained of the manuscript to make a copy of it. He quickly published this edition, complete with notes on every scribal correction, and presented it to the Tsar Alexander II in 1862. By 1869, the Tsar had acquired this part of the manuscript itself. 2.2.5 Publication In 1911 and 1922, Helen and Kirsopp Lake published a black-and-white photographic facsimile of the New Testament and Old Testament (respectively) portions of Codex Sinaiticus. They confirmed Tischendorf’s judgement regarding the scribes, but modified his analysis of the correctors. In 1933, the British Museum bought the manuscript from the Russians, and it was immediately put on display. Two Assistant Keepers of the Manuscripts, Milne and Skeat, analysed the manuscript in light of the work of Tischendorf and the Lakes; their full report (Milne and Skeat 1938) was published in 1938, as

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was a separate summary of their report (Milne 1938), which was later updated (Milne and Skeat 1963). The other important study is by Jongkind (2007). The manuscript is now on display in the Sir John Ritblat Gallery. In 1975 another manuscript room was found at St. Catherine’s, and dozens more pages of our manuscript were discovered. Now the surviving 822 pages of Codex Sinaiticus have all been published electronically, as the Virtual Codex Sinaiticus, at http://codexsinaiticus.org. The number of pages at each physical location are Leipzig: 86; London: 694; St. Petersburg: 8; St. Catherine’s: 36. 2.3 Divisions Codex Sinaiticus is not divided into the chapter and verse divisions so familiar to today’s Bible reader. Neither does it include page numbers. Rather, the primary means the scribe used to delimit the text was to have the line protruding slightly (normally the width of one letter) beyond the left edge of the column. Jongkind noted that of the 51 such paragraph breaks in the first five chapters of Isaiah, 7 were dubious or inexplicable (2007, 100). In the transcription I have indented the paragraph where the manuscript has such a hanging line. The paragraphs formed in this way tend to be smaller in the beginning of Isaiah than in the end. Occasionally two successive lines protrude in this way, setting a phrase off on its own (7:14; 8:8). Because this marking of a single line happens at or just before prophecies of special well known significance to Christian interpreters, presumably this scribal practice is intended to make such passages easier to find. No such practice is evidenced in Codex Vaticanus. Unfortunately, there is no other contemporary manuscript of Greek Isaiah besides Vaticanus preserving these two portions, to indicate whether this was a common practice at that time. There is no exact precedent for them in any Hebrew text from that period. That said, and probably coincidentally, in all three Qumran manuscripts, Isa 8:9 begins on a new line. In 33:22, four lines protrude in this way, each beginning with the divine name. Some sections are titled, and such titles tend to be indented (e.g., 38:9). Occasionally extra space appears in the middle or beginning of a line, which is all the more apparent because normally the words are written without spaces. Later, section numbers were added to the manuscript (Milne and Skeat 1938, 49). To represent these sections, I have added a numbered heading where the manuscript has a section number in Greek alphabetic numerals with a circumflex above. The numbering of the headings corresponds to the manuscript’s section numbers.

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Each book has a superscription at its beginning and a colophon at its end. The colophon consists of the subscription (the name of the book), plus a decorative “coronis,” which is distinctive to the scribe. Each major book or section begins on its own quire.

3

The Format of This Commentary

This commentary has three aims. First, it seeks to bring together the insights scattered among the various published studies on the Greek translation of Isaiah and particularly its exemplar in Codex Sinaiticus. Therefore the secondary literature that deals with a specific verse or interpretive crux in Greek Isaiah is discussed under that verse in the commentary. Second, this commentary seeks to answer the kinds of questions that an imagined reader of Greek Isaiah might ask. For this purpose, the reader I imagine is a graduate student of biblical studies who is making an early foray into reading the Jewish Greek Scriptures. Accordingly, I address questions regarding the variant readings, unusual vocabulary, morphology, and grammar. Third, this commentary seeks to present Greek Isaiah as a text that was read by those who produced the Codex Sinaiticus. Therefore it discusses points raised about the text as received more than about the text as produced. It is not that Greek Isaiah is not interesting as a translation; it most certainly is! In fact those interesting questions bleed through into even this commentary. But for such questions there is another commentary series that examines the Greek translations with reference to the underlying Hebrew. In holding that the SBL series and this Brill series complement each other, I affirm Takamitsu Muraoka’s words from over three decades ago, when he wrote: Indeed, one must distinguish two essentially different approaches to the LXX. On the one hand, it can be studied from the point of view of the translator or translators. Then questions would be raised as to how he understood the Semitic text or why he chose this or that particular mode of rendering the original text. For obvious reasons, this approach dominates the bulk of Septuagintal studies, with an undesirable effect of relegating such studies to the position of an ancillary discipline within the Old Testament research. The other approach, however, would seek to look at the Greek translation without reference to the underlying Hebrew or Aramaic text. Strange as it might sound to advocates of the first approach, this was exactly how the LXX was looked at and read by the Church since late antiquity, with a few notable exceptions such as St. Jerome. The

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two approaches which one may conveniently characterize as translatorcentred and reader-centred, are applicable to more than one area, not only lexical. Soisalon-Soininen’s numerous studies on aspects of the LXX Greek grammar are unmistakably characterized by the first approach. One should not think, however, that the two are mutually exclusive, but rather they should be complementary. Muraoka 1984

3.1 Transcription Because this commentary is on a specific manuscript rather than a reconstructed critical edition, a transcription of the manuscript is the starting point for any discussion. In this case, the task of transcription was made far easier thanks to the availability of the following electronic resources: the Codex Sinaiticus website, Logos Bible Software, Diogenes, and the Perseus website. Yet the fact that only one manuscript is under consideration does not mean the editor is released from making editorial decisions. No, because the several scribes and correctors do not always agree on the correct reading, critical judgement is still required. To maintain consistency, I have endeavoured to present the earliest intelligible readings of Sinaiticus. In some cases where the original scribe made an error that resulted in a nonexistent word, or an ungrammatical construction, this policy meant emending the text, but usually it was possible to follow one of the correctors of the manuscript. I have provided accentuation, normalized spelling, and punctuation for two reasons: (a) to make the text more accessible to readers, and (b) because for those looking for a straight transcription, one is already available at http:// codexsinaiticus.org. I have followed Rahlfs (1979) to standardize the accentuation and orthography, except where Rahlfs does not accent Hebrew names, in which case I have followed Swete. The same applies for the punctuation, since the only punctuation in the manuscript is likely from a later time. Again I largely follow Rahlfs and Swete. The manuscript punctuation consists of the occasional raised dot, colon, or dieresis (above word-initial iota and upsilon). I have adjusted the punctuation when necessary to suit the divisions marked in the manuscript or variant readings, and noted in the commentary such adjustments where appropriate. As noted above in the discussion of the manuscript, Codex Sinaiticus is not divided into the chapter and verse divisions so familiar to today’s Bible reader. Rather, the primary means the scribe used to delimit the text was to begin the first line of a paragraph slightly before the left of the column edge, by approximately the width of one letter. The paragraphs formed in this way tend to be smaller in the beginning of Isaiah than in the end. I have used paragraph indentation where the manuscript has such a hanging.

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The numbered headings correspond to the section numbers that appear the manuscript (Milne and Skeat 1938, 49). They appear where the manuscript has a section number in Greek alphabetic numerals with a circumflex above. The numbering of the headings in this commentary corresponds to the manuscript’s section numbers, but the text of the heading represents solely my own interpretation of the contents of the section; there is no heading text in the manuscript. The resulting sections tend to be smaller than modern chapters, but larger than modern verses. Therefore the presentation of the text and translation appear relatively disjointed for modern readers, in order to reflect more accurately the ancient divisions. 3.2 Translation My translation could be described as woodenly literal, insofar as I do not attempt to convey in good English style the thoughts in G’s mind. Instead, I try to replicate the effect on the reader. What this means is that where G would sound stilted or awkward to a native Greek reader (as it often would), I aim to produce that same effect for the English reader. In order to preserve the connections between passages, and word-plays, I have attempted to maintain some lexical consistency. The translation includes notes on citations and quotations by Church Fathers up to the time the Codex Sinaiticus was produced, in the mid-4th century. 3.3 Commentary The main criterion I used to decide whether a feature of the text merited comment was simple: what would likely raise questions for a typical graduate student studying early Judaism or early Christianity. A typical graduate student might wonder about vocabulary, morphology, grammar, syntax, and differences among printed editions. He or she might be interested in the debates raised in the secondary literature, especially journal articles. Such a reader would not be as interested in comments on the Hebrew text, or on the grander themes already present in the original Hebrew Isaiah For those questions the standard commentaries on Isaiah are readily available, and in no way do I pretend to replace them. Unfortunately, of the excellent monographs on Greek Isaiah, several were published only after I had written the commentary, so I interact with this recent work only sporadically.

Text and Translation



1

Title

(1:1)

1.1 Ὅρασις, ἣν εἶδεν Ἠσαίας υἱὸς Ἀμώςa, ἣν εἶδεν κατὰ τῆς Ἰουδαίας, καὶ κατὰ Ἰερουσαλήμ ἐν βασιλείᾳ Ὀζίου, καὶ Ἰωαθὰμ, καὶ Ἀχὰζb καὶ Ἑζεκίου. Οἱ ἐβασίλευσαν τῆς Ἰουδαίας. 2

Sub-human knowledge

(1:2–3)

2 Ἄκουε οὐρανέ, καὶ ἐνωτίζου, γῆ, ὅτι Κύριος ἐλάλησεν. Υἱοὺς ἐγέννησα καὶ ὕψωσα, αὐτοὶ δέ με ἠθέτησαν. 3 ἔγνω βοῦς τὸν κτησάμενον, καὶ ὄνος τὴν φάτνην τοῦ κυρίου αὐτοῦ. Ἰσραὴλ δέ με ἔγνωc, καὶ ὁ λαός με οὐ συνῆκεν. 3

Lawlessness provokes injury

(1:4–6)

4 οὐαὶ ἔθνος ἁμαρτωλόν, λαὸς πλήρης ἁμαρτιῶν. Σπέρμα πονηρόν, υἱοὶ ἄνομοι· ἐγκατελίπατεd τὸν Κύριον καὶ παρωργίσατε τὸν ἅγιονe Ἰσραήλ. 5 Τί ἔτι πληγῆτε προστιθέντες ἀνομίαςf; πᾶσα κεφαλὴ εἰς πόνον καὶ πᾶσα καρδία εἰς λύπην 6 ἀπὸ ποδῶν ἕως κεφαλῆς οὔτε τραῦμα οὔτε μώλωψ οὔτε πληγὴ φλεγμαίνουσα, οὐκ ἔστιν μάλαγμα ἐπιθεῖναι οὔτε ἔλαιον οὔτε καταδέσμους.

aἈμώς] S*ABRZ; Αμος Sd b Ἀχὰζ] SRZ; Ἀχὰς AB cἔγνω] S*; οὐκ ἔγνω SdABRZ dἐγκατελίπατε] SBR; ἐγκατελίπετε AQZ e ἅγιον] S*; + τοῦ ScaABRZ f ἀνομίας] S; ἀνομία ABRZ

1

Title

(1:1)

1.1 A vision, which Isaiah son of Amos saw, which he saw against Judea and against Jerusalem during the reign of Ozias and Ioatham and Achaz and Hezekiah. They ruled Judea. 2

Sub-human knowledge

(1:2–3)

2 Hear, sky, and hearken, land, because Lord has spoken. “I begat and raised sons but they have rebelled against me. 3 An ox knows its owner and a donkey the feeding-trough of its master, but Israel has known me and the people has not understood me.” 3

Lawlessness provokes injury

(1:4–6)

4 Woe, sinful nation, people full of sin! Evil seed, lawless son! You have forsaken Lord and provoked holy Israel to anger. 5 Why should you be smitten still, continuing in lawless acts? Every head is in distress and every heart is in sorrow; 6 from feet to head, there is not even a wound or a bruise or a purulent blow one can treat with an emollient or oil or bandages.

1:1 2 Esdras 2.18; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.33; 1.40; 1.43; 1.61; 1.65; 1.73; 1.84; Chron. (GCS 20.182; 47.11; 84; 87; 89); Dem. ev. 1.7.10; 2.3.50; 2.3.63; 7.1.42; 8.1.17; Praep. ev. 10.9.5; Athanasius Apoll. 35.7; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 1.118.1–2; 1.119.3; Hippolytus Chron. (GCS 46.98) 1:2–4 Tertullian Pud. 8; Cyprian Test. 1.3 1:2 Barn. 9.3; Irenaeus Haer. 4.2.1; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 1.77.3; Strom. 4.26; 4.169.1; Cyprian Dom. or. 10; Test. 1.3; Zel. liv. 15; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.10; 1.40; 2.34; 2.54; 2.58; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.981); Ecl. proph. 2.9; Origen Comm. Jo. 13.426; Comm. Matt. 50; Fr. Ps. (PG 12.1449); Hom. Ezech. 4.1; Hom. Jer. 8.3; Hom. Lev. 11.3; 16.2; Princ. 4.4.8; Pseudo-Cyprian Jud. 3.3; 4.2; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 3.5; 9.14; Marc. 3.6; 3.13; 3.24; 5.9; Or. 2.3; Lactantius Inst. 4.11 1:3 Ps.-Clem. 18; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 1.77.3; 1.9; 2.8; Protr. 10; 92.1; Strom. 5.54.1; 5.8; PseudoCyprian Vigil. 4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.7; 1.10; 1.14; 1.16; 1.50; Dem. ev. 2.3.50; Eccl. theol. 2.21; Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 2; Haer. 5.26.37; Justin 1 Apol. 37.1; 1.63.2; 1.63.12; Origen Hom. Luc. 13; Rec. fid. (GCS 4.44); Tertullian Adv. Jud. 13.26; Or. 2.3; Marc. 3.6; 3.23; 4.25; 5.14 1:4 Clement of Alexandria Paed. 1.9; 1.78.2; 1.80.1; Cyprian Dom. or. 10; Test. 1.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.16; 1.23; 1.59; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.877); Dem. ev. 2.3.51; Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 2; Justin 1 Apol. 37.1; Origen Cels. 2.76; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 3.5; 13.26; Marc. 3.6.7; 3.23.3. 1:5 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.11 1:6 Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 12.7; Origen Hom. Jer. 2.2; 2.12; Hom. Lev. 8.5; Hom. Luc. 34.

46 4

Text and Translation

Desolation, past, present and future

(1:7–9)

7 ἡ γῆ ὑμῶν ἔρημος, αἱ πόλεις ὑμῶν πυρίκαυτοι· τὴν χώραν ὑμῶν ἐνώπιον ὑμῶν ἀλλότριοι κατεσθίουσιν αὐτήν, καὶ ἠρήμωται κατεστραμμένη ὑπὸ λαῶν ἀλλοτρίων. 8 ἐγκαταλειφθήσεται ἡ θυγάτηρ Σειὼν ὡς σκηνὴ ἐν ἀμπελῶσινa καὶ ὡς ὀπωροφυλάκιον ἐν σικυηράτῳ, ὡς πόλις πολιορκουμένη. 9 Καὶ εἰ μὴ Κύριος Σαβαώθ ἐγκατέλιπεν ἡμῖν σπέρμα, ὡς Σόδομα ἂν ἐγενήθημεν καὶ ὡς Γόμορρα ἂν ὡμοιώθημεν. 5

Ritual Abomination

(1:10–15)

10 Ἀκούσατε λόγονb Κυρίου, ἄρχοντες Σοδομων· προσέχετε λόγον θεοῦ, λαὸν cΓομορρας. 11 τί μοιd πλῆθος τῶν θυσιῶν ὑμῶν; λέγει Κύριος· πλήρης εἰμὶ ὁλοκαυτωμάτων κριῶν καὶ στέαρ ἀρνῶν καὶ αἷμα ταύρων καὶ τράγων οὐ βούλομαι. 12 Οὐδ’ ἐὰνe ἔρχησθε ὀφθῆναί μοι. τίς γὰρ ἐξεζήτησεν ταῦτα ἐκ τῶν χειρῶν ὑμῶν; πατεῖν τὴν αὐλήν μου 13 οὐ προσθήσεσθε, ἐὰν φέρητεf σεμίδαλιν· μάταιον θυμίαμα βδέλυγμά μοί ἐστιν. τὰς νουμηνίας ὑμῶν καὶ τὰ σάββατα καὶ ἡμέραν μεγάλην οὐκ

aἀμπελῶσιν] S; ἀμπελῶνι ABRZ bλόγον] S; νόμον ABRZ SBRZ; ἐμοὶ A e ἐὰν] SR; ἂν ABZ f φέρητε] SBRZ; +μοι A

cλαὸν] S*; λαὸς Scb3ABRZ

dμοι]

1:7–13

4

Desolation, past, present and future

47 (1:7–9)

7 Your land is a desert, your cities are burned; your territory—foreigners devour it before you and it has been made deserted, overthrown by a foreign people. 8 The daughter of Zion will be forsaken like a tent in vineyards, and like a garden-watcher’s hut in a fig patch, like a besieged city. 9 And if Lord Sabaoth had not left a seed for us, we might have become like Sodoma and we might have been made like Gomorra. 5

Ritual Abomination

(1:10–15)

10 Hear the word of Lord, rulers of Sodoma! Pay attention to the law of God, to the people of Gomorra! 11 “What is the multitude of your sacrifices to me?” says Lord. “I am full of burnt-offerings of rams and I do not desire the fat of lambs and the blood of bulls and he-goats. 12 Not even if you come to appear before me; for who sought these things from your hands, to trample my court? 13 You will not continue if you carry fine flour. Pointless incense is an abomination to me. Your new moon festivals and

1:7 Apos. Con. 4.1.1; Justin 1 Apol. 47; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 3; 13; Marc. 3.23; Origen Cels. 2.76; Hippolytus Antichr. 30; Cyprian Test. 1.6 1:8 Irenaeus Haer. 4.4; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 3; 13; Marc. 4.25; 4.31. 4.42 1:9 Philo QG 2.43; Justin 1 Apol. 53.7; Cyprian Cent. 25; Test. 1.6; Origen Hom. Num. 23.2; Comm. Matt. 16.3; 4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.14, 32, 42, 63, 72; 2.2, 18, 29, 34, 55, 58; Ecl. proph. 1.8; Dem. ev. 2.3.47, 49, 54, 57, 82; 6.18 1:10 Rev 11:8; Passio Pionii 13.2; Eusebius Dem. ev. 2.3.57; 2.3.58; 2.3.59; 2.3.121; 7.2.24; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.877); Ecl. proph. 3.26; 4.1; Origen Comm. Matt. 50; 76; Ep. Afr. (PG 11.72); Hom. Ezech. 6.1; Comm. Jo. 10.18; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 9.14; Marc. 3.13.9; 4.27.5. 1:11 Heb 10:4; Barn. 2.5; Did. 26; Aristides Apol. (TU 4.6); Athanasius Ep. fest. 19.2; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 3.90.3; Strom. 2.79.1; 5.74.6; 5.119.1; Cyprian Test. 1.16; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.1; 1.16; 2.25; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.668); Dem. ev. 1.10.39; 2.3.58; 4.16.46; 9.6.7; Ecl. proph. 4.1; Mart. Pal. 11.22; Praep. ev. 13.13.45; Justin 1 Apol. 12; 1.37; Lactantius Inst. 6.12.31; Epi. 60.8; Origen Fr. Jo. (GCS 491); Fr. Lam. (GCS 6.257); Hom. Ezech. 6.1; Hom. Lev. 2.5; 4.5; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 5.6; Marc. 2.18.3; 2.22.2; 2.22.4; Or. 28.1; Scorp. 1.8 1:12 Barn. 2.5; Athanasius Ep. fest. 19.2; Cyprian Test. 1.16; Eusebius Comm. Ps. (PG 23.668); Origen Fr. Ps (Pitra 83); Or. 31.6; Tertullian Marc. 2.18.3 Or. 28.1 1:13 Barn. 15.8; Pre. Pet. (Klostermann 15); Aristides Apol. (TU 4.6); Clement of Alexandria Paed. 3.90.3; Strom. 6.41.3; Cyprian Adv. Jud. 5.2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.45; 2.47; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.1169); Origen Comm. Jo. 10.73; 28.228; Fr. varia (Schubart 99); Fr. Jer. (GCS 6.231); Fr. Lam. (GCS 6.256); Hom. Gen. 10.3; Princ. 2.8.1; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 4.2; 5.6; Marc. 1.20.5; 2.22.4; 5.4.6; Victorinus Fabric. 5; 6

48

Text and Translation

ἀνέχομαι· νηστείαν καὶ ἀργίαν 14 καὶa τὰς ἑορτὰς ὑμῶν μισεῖ ἡ ψυχή μου· ἐγενήθητέ μοιb εἰς πλησμονήν, οὐκέτι ἀνήσω τὰς ἁμαρτίας ὑμῶν. 15 ὅταν τὰς χεῖρας ἐκτείνητε πρός μεc, ἀποστρέψω τοὺς ὀφθαλμούς μου ἀφ’ ὑμῶν, καὶ ἐὰν πληθύνητε τὴν δέησιν, οὐκ εἰσακούσομαι ὑμῶν· Αἱ γὰρ χεῖρες ὑμῶν αἵματος πλήρεις. 6

Repent and be clean

(1:16–20)

16 λούσασθε, καθαροὶ γένεσθε, ἀφέλετε τὰς πονηρίας ἀπὸ τῶν ψυχῶν ὑμῶν ἀπέναντι τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν μου. Παύσασθε ἀπὸ τῶν πονηριῶν ὑμῶν, 17 μάθετε καλὸν ποιεῖν, ἐκζητήσατε κρίσιν, ῥύσασθε ἀδικούμενον, κρίνατε ὀρφανῷ καὶ δικαιώσατε χήρανd· 18 καὶ δεῦτε καὶ διελεγχθῶμεν, λέγει Κύριος, καὶ ἐὰν ὦσιν αἱ ἁμαρτίαι ὑμῶν ὡς φυνικοῦν, ὡς χιόνα λευκανῶ, ἐὰν δὲ ὦσιν ὡς κόκκινον, ὧνe ἔριον λευκανῶ. 19 Καὶ ἐὰν θέλητεf καὶ εἰσακούσητέ μου, τὰ ἀγαθὰ τῆς γῆς φάγεσθε· 20 ἐὰν δὲ μὴ θέλητε μηδὲ εἰσακούσητέ μου, μάχαιρα ὑμᾶς κατέδεται· τὸ γὰρ στόμα Κυρίου ἐλάλησεν ταῦτα. 7

Zion’s rulers are rebels

(1:21–23)

21 Πῶς ἐγένετο πόρνη πόλις πιστὴ Σιών, πλήρης κρίσεως καὶ ἀληθείαςg, ἐν ᾗ δικαιοσύνη ἐκοιμήθη ἐν αὐτῇ. Νῦν δὲ φονευταί. 22 τὸ ἀργύριον ὑμῶν ἀδόκιμονh· οἱ κάπηλοί σου μίσγουσι τὸν οἶνον ὕδατι· 23 οἱ ἄρχοντές σου ἀπειθοῦσιν, κοινωνοὶ κλεπτῶν, ἀγαπῶντες δῶρα, διώκοντες ἀνταπόδομα, ὀρφανοῖς οὐ κρίνοντες καὶ κρίσιν χήραςi οὐ προσέχοντες.

aκαὶ] S; +τὰς νουμηνίας ὑμῶν καὶ ABRZ b μοι] S*; μου SBABRZ c τὰς χεῖρας ἐκτείνητε πρός με] SARZ; ἐκτείνητε τὰς χεῖρας B dχήραν] SARZ; χήρᾳ B* eὧν] S*; ωσει Sd; ὡς ABRZ fθέλητε] SBRZ; θέλετε A gκαὶ ἀληθείας] S*; om. ScaABRZ hἀδόκιμον] SBRZ; +αἱ πόλεις ὑμῶν πυρίκαυστοι A i χήρας] SA; χηρῶν BRZ

1:14–23

49

Sabbaths and great day I do not tolerate. Fasting and rest 14 and your festivals my soul hates. You have become excess to me; I will no longer forgive your sins. 15 When you stretch out your hands towards me, I will turn my eyes from you, and if you increase your petition I will not listen to you. For your hands are full of blood. 6

Repent and be clean

(1:16–20)

16 Wash yourselves; become clean! Remove the vices from your souls before my eyes! Desist from your vices! 17 Learn to do good; seek out justice; rescue one who has been wronged; give a fair judgment to an orphan and vindicate a widow. 18 And come and let us dispute,” says Lord, “and if your sins are like red, I will whiten them like snow, and if they are like scarlet, of which I will whiten wool. 19 And if you are willing and you listen to me, you will eat the good things of the land. 20 But if you are not willing, and do not listen to me, a sword will devour you,” for the mouth of Lord has spoken these things. 7

Zion’s rulers are rebels

(1:21–23)

21 How did faithful Zion full of justice and truth, in whom justice slept, become an immoral city? But now murderers. 22 Your money is not genuine; your innkeepers mix the wine with water. 23 Your rulers resist, companions of thieves, lovers of gifts pursuers of rewards, not givers of fair judgement for orphans and not regarders of a widow’s case.

1:14 Pre. Pet. (Klostermann 15); Did. apost. 26; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 6.41.3; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 4.2; Cyprian Adv. Jud. 5.2; Origen Fr. varia 22; (Schubart 99); Tertullian Marc. 1.20.5; 4.12.4; 4.12.13; 5.4.6; Idol. 14.6; Origen Fr. Lam. (GCS 6.256); Princ. 2.8.1–2; Comm. Jo. 10.73; 28.228; Hom. Gen. 10.3; Hom. Num. 23.2; Comm. Matt. 120; Cyprian Test. 1.24; Victorinus Fabric. 5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.16; 2.47; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.1136); Ecl. proph. 4.1; Athanasius Ep. fest. 6.2; 19.1 1:15 Matt 6:7; John 9:31; Jas 4:8 1:16–20 Justin 1 Apol. 61 1:19 Ign. To Hero 1.2 1:20 Justin 1 Apol. 44 1:21 Hippolytus Antich. 8; Origen Hom. Cant. 2.9; Comm. Matt. 12.4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.19–21; 2.43–44; Ecl. proph. 4.1; Dem. ev. 2.3.11 1:22 Tertullian An. 3.2; Origen Hom. Lev. 3.8; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.19, 38; 2.32 1:23 Did. 5.2; Justin Dial. 27.2; 82.4; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 1.81.2; Tertullian Marc. 4.27.7; 4.31.1; Origen Comm. Matt. 15.13; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.20–21

50 8

Text and Translation

Israel’s leaders will be replaced

(1:24–27)

24 Διὰ τοῦτο τάδε λέγει ὁ δεσπότης Κύριοςa Σαβαώθ Οὐαὶ οἱ ἰσχύοντες Ἰσραήλb· οὐ παύσεται γάρ μου ὁ θυμὸς ἐν τοῖς ὑπεναντίοις, καὶ κρίσιν ἐκ τῶν ἐχθρῶν μου ποιήσω. 25 καὶ ἐπάξω τὴν χεῖρά μου ἐπὶ σὲ καὶ πυρώσω σεc εἰς καθαρόν, τοὺς δὲ ἀπειθοῦντας ἀπολέσω καὶ ἀφελῶ πάντας ἀνόμους ἀπὸ σοῦ καὶ πάντας ὑπερηφάνουςd. 26 καὶ ἐπιστήσω τοὺς κριτάς σου ὡς τὸ πρότερον. Καὶ τοὺς συμβούλους σου ὡς τὸ ἀπ’ ἀρχῆς· καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα κληθήσῃ Πόλις δικαιοσύνης, μητρόπολις πιστὴ Σιών. 27 μετὰ γὰρ κρίματος σωθήσεται ἡ αἰχμαλωσία αὐτῆς, καὶ ἡ ἀποστροφὴ αὐτῆςe μετὰ ἐλεημοσύνης· 9

Destruction of the lawbreakers

(1:28–2:1)

28 Καὶ συντριβήσονται οἱ ἄνομοι καὶ οἱ ἁμαρτωλοὶ ἅμα, καὶ οἱ ἐγκαταλείποντες τὸν Κύριον συντελεσθήσονται. 29 διότι αἰσχυνθήσονταιf ἐπὶ τοῖς εἰδώλοιςg αὐτῶν, ἃ αὐτοὶ ἠβούλοντο, καὶ ἐπῃσχύνθησανh ἐπὶ τοῖς κήποις, ἃ αὐτοὶi ἐπεθύμησαν· 30 ἔσονται γὰρ ὡς τερέβινθος ἀποβεβληκυῖα τὰ φύλλα καὶ ὡς παράδεισος ὕδωρ μὴ ἔχων· 31 καὶ ἔσται ἡ ἰσχὺς αὐτῶν ὡς καλάμη στιππύου καὶ αἱ ἐργασίαι αὐτῶν, ὡς σπινθῆρες πυρόςj, καὶ κατακαυθήσονται οἱ ἄνομοι καὶ οἱ ἁμαρτωλοὶ ἅμα, καὶ οὐκ ἔσται ὁ σβέσων. 2.1 Ὁ λόγος ὁ γενόμενος παρὰ Κυρίουk πρὸς Ἠσαίαν υἱὸν Ἀμὼς περὶ τῆς Ἰουδαίας καὶ περὶ Ἰερουσαλήμ.

aὁ δεσπότης Κύριος] SARZ; Κύριος ὁ δεσπότης B bἸσραήλ] SBRZ; Ιλ̅ η̅ μ̅ A cσε] SARZ; om. B d καὶ πάντας ὑπερηφάνους] S*; +ταπεινώσω Scb1ARZ; om. B e ἡ ἀποστροφὴ αὐτῆς] S* 301; om. ScaABRZ f αἰσχυνθήσονται] SBR; καταισχυνθήσονται AZ g ἐπὶ τοῖς εἰδώλοις] S*Scb2ARZ; ἀπὸ τῶν εἰδώλων ScaB h ἐπῃσχύνθησαν] S*RZ; εσχυνθησονται Sca; επαισχυνθησαν Scb3; ἐπαισχυνθήσονται A; ᾐσχύνθησαν B i ἃ αὐτοὶ] S*; αὐτῶν ἃ ScaARZ; ἃ Scb2B jπυρός] SARZ; om. BQ k Κυρίου] SBR; τοῦ κυρίου AZ

1:24–2:1

8

Israel’s leaders will be replaced

51 (1:24–27)

24 On account of this, thus says the master, Lord Sabaoth: Woe, you who have power, Israel, for my wrath will not cease among those opposed, and I will execute justice from my enemies. 25 And I will bring my hand upon you and I will burn you into something clean; and I will destroy those who resist and I will take away all lawbreakers from you and all insolent people. 26 And I will establish your judges as in earlier times. And your counsellors will be as from the beginning. And after these things you will be called City of Righteousness, Faithful Metropolis Zion. 27 For her captives will escape with justice, and her return will be with mercy. 9

Destruction of the lawbreakers

(1:28–2:1)

28 And the lawbreakers and the sinful will be shattered together, and those forsaking Lord will be brought to an end, 29 since they will be ashamed over their idols, things that they themselves were preferring; and they were ashamed over the gardens, things that they themselves desired. 30 For they will be like a terebinth tree that has cast off its leaves, and like a park that does not have water. 31 And their power will be like a stalk of flax, and their workings like sparks of fire, and the lawbreakers and the sinful will be burned up together, and there will be no one who would extinguish it. 2.1 The word which came from Lord to Isaiah son of Amos about Judea and about Jerusalem.

1:24 Origen Fr. Ps. (Pitra, 245); Fr. Luc. 185; Fr. Jo. (GCS 10:521); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.21; 2.10; Eclog. Proph. 4; Contra Marcellum 1.2 1:25 Origen Frag. Ierem. (GCS 6:201); Hom. Lev. 5.3. 1:26 Hippolytus Dan. 4.37.5; Origen Frag. Iesu Naue (GCS 30:423); Princ. 4.3.4, 6; In Ezech. Hom. 10.3; Pamphilius Apol. Orig. 6; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.21, 25; 2.27; Comm. Ps. (PG 23:856); Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 18.34 1:27–29 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.22–23, 32 1:30 Irenaeus Dem. 99; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.24; Ecl. proph. 4.1; Dem. ev. 2.3.12, 64 1:31 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.25; Ecl. proph. 4.1; Dem. ev. 2.3.12, 64 2:1 Origen Comm. Jo. 2.2, 7, 10, 28; 20.398; Hom. Jer. 9.1; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.26; Ecl. proph. 4.1; Dem. ev. 2.3.65, 67, 75; Marc. 2.4; Eccl. theol. 2.18

52 10

Text and Translation

The mountain of Lord

(2:2–4)

2 Ὅτι ἔσται ἐν ταῖς ἐσχάταις ἡμέραις ἐμφανὲς τὸ ὄρος Κυρίου καὶ ὁ οἶκος τοῦ θεοῦ ἐπ’ ἄκρωνa τῶν ὀρέων καὶ ὑψωθήσεται ὑπεράνω τῶν βουνῶν. Καὶ ἥξουσιν ἐπ’ αὐτὸν πάντα τὰ ἔθνη, 3 καὶ πορεύσονται ἔθνη πολλὰ καὶ ἐροῦσιν Δεῦτε καὶb ἀναβῶμεν εἰς τὸ ὄρος Κυρίουc καὶ εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ θεοῦ Ἰακώβ, καὶ ἀναγγελεῖ ἡμῖν τὴν ὁδὸν αὐτοῦ, καὶ πορευσώμεθαd ἐν αὐτῇ· ἐκ γὰρ Σιὼν ἐκξελεύσεται νόμος καὶ λόγος Κυρίου ἐξ Ἰερουσαλήμ. 4 καὶ κρινεῖ ἀνὰ μέσον ἐθνῶν πολλῶνe καὶ ἐλέγξειf λαὸν πολύν, καὶ συγκόψουσιν τὰς μαχαίρας αὐτῶν εἰς ἄροτρα καὶ τὰς ζιβύνας αὐτῶν εἰς δρέπανα, καὶ οὐ μηg λήμψεταιh ἔθνος ἐπ’ ἔθνος μάχαιραν, καὶ οὐ μὴ μάθωσιν ἔτι πολεμεῖν. 11

Foreign influences

(2:5–9)

5 Καὶ νῦν, οἶκοςi τοῦj Ἰακώβ, δεῦτε καὶk πορευθῶμεν τῷ φωτὶ Κυρίου. 6 ἀνῆκεν γὰρ τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ τὸν οἶκον τοῦ Ἰσραήλ, ὅτι ἐνεπλήσθη ὡς τὸ ἀπ’ ἀρχῆς ἡ χώρα αὐτῶν κληδονισμῶν ὡς ἡ τῶν ἀλλοφύλων, καὶ τέκνα πολλὰ ἀλλόφυλα ἐγενήθη αὐτοῖς. 7 ἐνεπλήσθη γὰρ ἡ χώρα αὐτῶν ἀργυρίου καὶ χρυσίου, καὶ οὐκ ἦν ὁl ἀριθμὸς τῶν θησαυρῶν αὐτῶν· καὶ ἐνεπλήσθη ἡ γῆm ἵππων, καὶ οὐκ ἦν ὁn ἀριθμὸς τῶν ἁρμάτων αὐτῶν· 8 καὶ ἐνεπλήσθη ἡ γῆ βδελυγμάτων τῶν ἔργων τῶν χειρῶν αὐτῶν, καὶ προσεκύνησαν ἃ

aἄκρων] SARZ; ἄκρου B b καὶ] SBR; om. AZ c Κυρίου] SBRZ; τοῦ Κυρίου A d πορευσώμεθα] S; πορευσόμεθα ABRZ eἐθνῶν πολλῶν] SV; τῶν ἐθνῶν ABRZ fἐλέγξει] SARZ; ἐξελέγξει B gμη] S*; om. Scb2ABRZ h λήμψεται] S*Scb3B; λήμψεται ἔτι Scb2ARZ i οἶκος] SQ; ὁ οἶκος ABRZ j τοῦ] SARZ; om. B kκαὶ] SQmarg; om. ABRZ lὁ] S*; om. Scb2ABRZ m γῆ] SBRZ; γῆ αὐτῶν A n ὁ] S*; om. Scb2ABRZ

53

2:2–8

10

The mountain of Lord

(2:2–4)

2 Because the mountain of Lord will be evident in the last days, and the house of God on the extremities of the mountains; and it will be raised above the hills. And all the nations will come to it, 3 and many nations will go and will say, “Come on and let us go up to the mountain of Lord and into the house of the God of Jacob; and he will proclaim to us his way; and let us walk in it.” For a law will come out from Zion and a word of Lord from Jerusalem. 4 And he will judge between many nations and he will refute many people; and they will break up their swords into ploughs and their spears into sickles. And a nation will certainly not take a sword against a nation and they will study to make war no longer. 11

Foreign influences

(2:5–9)

5 And now, house of Jacob, come and let us walk by the light of Lord. 6 For he has let go of his people, the house of Israel, because, as since the beginning, their territory has been filled with omens like that of the foreigners, and many foreign children were born to them. 7 For their territory was filled with silver and gold and there was no counting their treasures; and the land was filled with horses and there was no counting their chariots. 8 And the land was filled with abominations of the works of their hands, and they worshipped what their fingers

2:2 Matt 5:14; Acts 2:17; Rev 15:4; Did. apost. 23; Justin Dial. 24.3; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 3.8; Marc. 3.21.3; 5.4.2; An. 50.4; Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 2; Origen Hom. Lev. 1.1; Comm. Matt. 16.3; Cels. 5.33; Ep. Afr. (PG 11.84); Cyprian Test. 2.18; Ep. 75.1; Firmilian Cypr. 75.1; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.26, 62; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.1237); Ecl. proph. 4.1; Dem. ev. 1.4; 2.3; Theoph. (GCS 11,2.200) 2:3 John 4:22; Did. apost. 23; Apostolic Constitutions 5; Pre. Pet.; Justin 1 Apol. 39; Dial. 24.1; Melitus Hom. Pas. 7; Irenaeus Haer. 4.34.4; Epid. 86; Clement of Alexandria Ecl. 58; Paed. 2.29; Protr. 2.2; Strom. 1.182; 2.68; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 3.8–9; Marc. 3.21; An. 50.4; Cyprian Adv. Jud. 9.1; Test. 1.10; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.39; Comm. Ps.; Ecl. proph. 4.1; Dem. ev. 1.4; 2.3; 6.13; 6.18; 9.13; Marc. 2.2; Eccl. th. 2.24; Cyril Origen Cels. 5.33; Athanasius Ep. fest. 6.11; 2:4 Justin 1 Apol. 39; Dial. 24.3; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 3.9; Marc. 3.21; 4.1; Scor. 13.1; Hippolytus Haer. 6.16; Cyprian Ep. 74.1; Test. 1.10; 2.18; Ep. Afr.; Cels. 5.33; Methodius of Olympus Lib. arb.; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.26; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.412, 904); Ecl. proph. 4.1; Dem. ev. 1.4; 2.3; 6.13; 6.18; 9.13; 9.17; Prep. ev. 1.4; Theoph. (GCS 11.2:128); Laud. Const. 16.7 2:5 Justin Dial. 24.3; 135.6; Cyprian Test. 1.7; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.27–28; Ecl. proph. 4.1 2:6 Did. apost. 23; Justin Dial. 24.3; 135.6; Cyprian Adv. Jud. 9.1; Test. 1.7; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.27– 28; Dem. ev. 2.3.68 2:7 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.27–28; Dem. ev. 2.3 2:8 Rev 9:20; Cyprian Ep. 65.1; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.27–28; Dem. ev. 2.3.69

54

Text and Translation

ἐποίησανa οἱ δάκτυλοι αὐτῶν· 9 καὶ ἔκυψεν ἄνθρωπος, καὶ ἐταπεινώθη ἀνήρ, καὶ οὐ μὴ ἀνήσω αὐτοῖςb. 12

Lord shatters the earth

(2:10–11)

10 Καὶ νῦν εἰσέλθατεc εἰς τὰς πέτρας καὶ κρύπτεσθε εἰς τὴν γῆν ἀπὸ προσώπου τοῦ φόβου Κυρίου καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς δόξης τῆς ἰσχύος αὐτοῦ, ὅταν ἀναστῇ θραῦσαι τὴν γῆν. 11 οἱ γὰρ ὀφθαλμοὶ Κυρίου ὑψηλοί, ὁ δὲ ἄνθρωπος ταπεινός· καὶ ταπεινωθήσεται τὸ ὕψος τῶν ἀνθρώπων, καὶ ὑψωθήσεται Κύριος μόνος ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ. 13

Lord brings the arrogant low

(2:12–17)

12 Ἡμέρα γὰρ Κυρίου Σαβαώθ ἐπὶ πάντα ὑβριστὴν καὶ ὑπερήφανον καὶ ἐπὶ πάντα ὑψηλὸν καὶ μετέωρον, καὶ ταπεινωθήσονται, 13 καὶ ἐπὶ πᾶσαν κέδρον τοῦ Λιβάνου τῶν ὑψηλῶν καὶ μετεώρων καὶ ἐπὶ πᾶν δένδρον βαλάνου Βασάν 14 καὶ ἐπὶ πᾶν ὄρος ὑψηλὸνd καὶ ἐπὶ πάντα βουνὸν ὑψηλὸν 15 καὶ ἐπὶ πάντα πύργον ὑψηλὸν καὶ ἐπὶ πάντα τεῖχοςe ὑψηλὸν 16 καὶ ἐπὶ πᾶν πλοῖον θαλάσσης καὶ ἐπὶ πᾶσαν θέαν πλοίων κάλλους· 17 καὶ ταπεινωθήσεται πᾶς ἄνθρωπος, καὶ πεσεῖται ὕψος fἀνθρώπων, καὶ ὑψωθήσεται Κύριος μόνος ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ. 14

Handiworks hidden from Lord

(2:18–19)

18 καὶ τὰ χειροποίητα πάντα κατακρύψουσιν 19 εἰσενέγκαντες εἰς τὰ σπήλαια καὶ εἰς τὰ σχισμὰς τῶν πετρῶν καὶ εἰς τὰς τρώγλας τῆς γῆς ἀπὸ προσώπου τοῦ φόβου Κυρίου καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς δόξης τῆς ἰσχύος αὐτοῦ, ὅταν ἀναστῇ θραῦσαι τὴν γῆν.

aἃ ἐποίησαν] S*(Swete); om. B; οἷς ἐποίησαν AScb2RZ bαὐτοῖς] S*; αὐτούς Scb2ABRZ c εἰσέλθατε] SAZ; εἰσέλθετε BR dὑψηλὸν] S; om. ABRZ eπάντα τεῖχος] S*; πᾶν τεῖχος ScaScb3ABRZ fὕψος] SARZ; ὕβρις B

2:9–19

55

made. 9 And a person bowed and a man humbled himself and I will certainly not let them off. 12

Lord shatters the land

(2:10–11)

10 And now, enter into the rocks and hide in the land from the face of the fear of Lord and from the glory of his power, when he stands to shatter the land. 11 For the eyes of Lord are high, but mankind low and the height of mankind will be brought low, and Lord alone will be raised in that day. 13

Lord brings the arrogant low

(2:12–17)

12 For a day of Lord Sabaoth will be against every insolent person and arrogant person and against every high and lofty person, and they will be brought low. 13 And it will be against every cedar of Lebanon of those high and lofty and against every acorn tree of Bashan, 14 and against every high mountain and against every high hill, 15 and against every high tower and against every high city wall, 16 and against every sea ship and against every sight of ships of beauty. 17 And every person will be brought low and a height of mankind will fall; and Lord alone will be raised in that day. 14

Handiworks hide from Lord

(2:18–19)

18 And they will conceal all the things made by hand, 19 by bringing them into the caverns and into the clefts of the cliffs and into the holes of the land from the face of the fear of Lord and from the glory of his power, when he stands to shatter the land.

2:9 Cyprian Ep. 65.1; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.27–28 2:10 2 Th 1:9–10; Rev 6:15; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.28; Dem. ev. 2.3.69 2:11 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.28 2:12 Tertullian Marc. 4.33.6; Cyprian Ep. 59.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.28; Dem. ev. 2.3.71 2:13 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.28 2:15–16 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.28 2:17 Irenaeus Haer. 4.33.13; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.28; Dem. ev. 2.3.71 2:18 Sib. Or. 3; 8; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.28; Lactantius Inst. 7.19.9 2:19 Sib. Or. 3; Tertullian Marc. 4.30; 4.36; Herm. 34; Res. 22; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.28; Dem. ev. 2.3.71; Theoph. (GCS 11.2:131)

56 15

Text and Translation

Idols discarded, to hide from Lord

(2:20–21)

20 Τῇ γὰρa ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ἐκβαλεῖ ἄνθρωπος τὰ βδελύγματα αὐτοῦ τὰ ἀργυρᾶ καὶ τὰ χρυσᾶ, ἃ ἐποίησανb προσκυνεῖν τοῖς ματαίοις καὶ ταῖς νυκτερίσιν 21 τοῦ εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὰς τρώγλας τῆς στερεᾶς πέτρας καὶ εἰς τὰς σχισμὰς τῶν πετρῶν ἀπὸ προσώπου τοῦ φόβου Κυρίου καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς δόξης τῆς ἰσχύος αὐτοῦ, ὅταν ἀναστῇ θραῦσαι τὴν γῆν. 16

Lord Sabaoth removes Judea’s leadership

(3:1–5)

3.1 Ἰδοὺ δὴ ὁ δεσπότης Κύριος Σαβαὼθ ἀφελεῖ ἀπὸ τῆς Ἰουδαίας καὶ ἀπὸ Ἰερουσαλὴμc ἰσχύοντα καὶ ἰσχύουσαν, ἰσχὺν ἄρτου καὶ ἰσχὺν ὕδατος, 2 γίγανταd καὶ ἄνθρωπον πολεμιστὴν καὶ δικαστὴν καὶ προφήτην καὶ στοχαστὴν καὶ πρεσβύτερον 3 καὶ πεντηκόνταρχον καὶ θαυμαστὸν σύμβουλον καὶ σοφὸν ἀρχιτέκτονα. Καὶ συνετὸν ἀκροατήν 4 καὶ ἐπιστήσω νεανίσκους ἄρχοντας αὐτῶν, καὶ ἐμπαῖκται κυριεύσουσιν αὐτῶν. 5 καὶ συμπεσεῖται ὁ λαός, ἄνθρωπος πρὸς ἄνθρωπον, καὶ ἄνθρωπος πρὸς τὸν πλησίον αὐτοῦ προσκόψει, τὸ παιδίον πρὸς τὸν πρεσβύτην, ὁ ἄτιμος πρὸς τὸν ἔντιμον. 17

Judaea desperate for leaders

(3:6–9)

6 Ὅτι ἐπιλήμψεται ἄνθρωπος τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ ἢ τοῦ οἰκείου τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ λέγων Ἱμάτιον ἔχεις, ἀρχηγὸς ἡμῶν γενοῦ, καὶ τὸ βρῶμα τὸ ἐμὸν ὑπὸ σὲ ἔστω. 7 Καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ἐρεῖ ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ Οὐκ ἔσομαί σου ἀρχηγός· οὐ γὰρ ἔστιν ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ μου ἄρτος οὐδὲ ἱμάτιον· οὐκ ἔσομαι ἀρχηγὸς τοῦ λαοῦ τούτου. 8 Ὅτι ἀνεῖται Ἰερουσαλὴμ, καὶ ἡ Ἰουδαία συμπέπτωκεν, καὶ αἱ γλῶσσαι αὐτῶν μετὰ ἀνομίας, τὰ πρὸς Κύριον ἀπειθοῦντες.

aγὰρ] SBR; om. AZ bἐποίησαν] SBRZ; ἐποίησεν A c τῆς Ἰουδαίας καὶ ἀπὸ Ἰερουσαλὴμ] SARZ; Ἰερουσαλὴμ καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς Ἰουδαίας B d γίγαντα] S*; + καὶ ἰσχύοντα ScaScb2ABRZ

2:20–3:8

15

Idols discarded, to hide from Lord

57 (2:20–21)

20 For in that day a person will cast out his silver and golden idols, which they made to worship pointless things and bats, 21 in order to enter into the holes of the solid rock and into the clefts of the rocks, away from the face of the fear of Lord and away from the glory of his power, when he stands to shatter the land. 16

Lord Sabaoth removes Judea’s leadership

(3:1–5)

3.1 Look now, the master, Lord Sabaoth, will take away from Judea and from Jerusalem a powerful man and a powerful woman, power of bread and power of water, 2 a giant and a warrior person and a judge and a prophet and a diviner and an old man 3 and a commander of fifty men and an admirable counsellor and a skilled designer. And an intelligent student 4 I will also establish, youths as their rulers, and mockers will rule them. 5 And the people will clash, person against person, and a person will strike against his neighbour, the child against the old, the dishonoured against the honoured. 17

Judaea desperate for leaders

(3:6–9)

6 Because a person will lay hold of his brother or of the relative of his father saying, “You have a garment; become our leader, and let my food be under you.” 7 And, answering, he will say in that day, “I will not be your leader, for there is no bread or garment in my house; I will not be leader of this people.” 8 Because Jerusalem is ruined, and Judea has collapsed, and their tongues are in the company of lawlessness, resisting the things regarding Lord.

2:20 Rev 9:20; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 13; Marc. 3.23; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.28; Dem. ev. 2.3.72 2:21–22 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.28 3:1 Cyprian Test. 1.21–22; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 13; Marc. 2.23; 5.8; 5.6; Origen Hom. Jer. 10.4; 14.12; Comm. Matt. 14.19; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.28; Ecl. proph. 4.2; Dem. ev. 2.3.74, 76 3:2 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.28; Ecl. proph. 4.2 3:3 1 Cor 3:10; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 13.25; Marc. 2.23; 5.6, 8; Cyprian Adv. Jud. 6.10; Hippolytus Ref. 7.23.5; Origen Hom. Jer. 10.4; 14.3, 12; Comm. Matt. 14.19; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.29; Ecl. proph. 4.2; Dem. ev. 2.3.74; 8.1.50 3:4 Jude 18; Tertullian Marc. 4.27; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.29–30 3:5 1 Cl 3.3; Justin Dial. 24; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.29 3:6 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.29 3:7 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.29; Ecl. proph. 4.2 3:8 Did. apost. 23; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.29; Dem. ev. 2.3.76

58

Text and Translation

Διότι νῦν ἐταπεινώθη ἡ δόξα αὐτῶν, 9 καὶ ἡ αἰσχύνη τοῦ προσώπου αὐτῶν ἀντέστη αὐτοῖς· τὴν δὲ ἁμαρτίαν αὐτῶν ὡς Σοδόμων ἀνήγγειλαν καὶ ἐνεφάνισαν. 18

Woe to lawbreakers

(3:9–11)

Οὐαὶ τῇ ψυχῇ αὐτῶν, διότιa βεβούλευνται βουλὴν πονηρὰν καθ’ ἑαυτῶν 10 εἰπόντεςb Δήσωμεν τὸν δίκαιον, ὅτι δύσχρηστος ἡμῖν ἐστιν· τοίνυν τὰ γενήματα τῶν ἔργων αὐτῶν φάγονται. 11 Οὐαὶ τῷ ἀνόμῳ· πονηρὰ κατὰ τὰ ἔργα τῶν χειρῶν αὐτοῦ συμβήσεται αὐτῷ. 19

Time for justice

(3:12–15)

12 Λαός μου, οἱ πράκτορες ὑμῶν καλαμῶνται ὑμᾶς, καὶ οἱ ἀπαιτοῦντες κυριεύουσιν ὑμῶν· λαός μου, οἱ μακαρίζοντες ὑμᾶς πλανῶσιν ὑμᾶς καὶ τὴνc τρίβον τῶν ποδῶν ὑμῶν ταράσσουσιν. 13 Ἀλλὰ νῦν καταστήσεται εἰς κρίσιν Κύριος καὶ στήσει εἰς κρίσιν τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ, 14 αὐτὸς Κύριος εἰς κρίσιν ἥξει μετὰ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων τοῦ λαοῦd. ὑμεῖς δὲ τί ἐνεπυρίσατε τὸν ἀμπελῶνά μου καὶ ἡ ἁρπαγὴ τοῦ πτωχοῦ ἐν τοῖς οἴκοις ὑμῶν; 15 τί ὑμεῖς ἀδικεῖτε τὸν λαόν μου καὶ τὸ πρόσωπον τῶν πτωχῶν καταισχύνετε; 20

Women of luxury will be humbled

(3:16–26)

16 Τάδε λέγε Κύριος Ἀνθ’ ὧν ὑψώθησαν αἱ θυγατέρες Σειών, καὶ ἐπορεύθησαν ὑψηλῷ τραχήλῳ καὶ νεύμασινe ὀφθαλμῶν καὶ τῇ πορείᾳ τῶν ποδῶν ἅμα σύρουσαι τοὺς κιτῶ-

aδιότι] SBRZ; ὅτι A bεἰπόντες] SBRZ; εἴπαντες A cτὴν] SAZ; τὸν BR τῶν ἀρχόντων αὐτοῦ ScaABRZ e νεύμασιν] SAZ; ἐν νεύμασιν BR

dλαοῦ] S*; + καὶ μετὰ

3:9–16

59

Since now their glory has been humbled, 9 and the shame of their face resisted them, and they have publicized and exhibited their sin like Sodoma. 18

Woe to lawbreakers

(3:9–11)

Woe to their soul, since they have plotted an evil plot against themselves, 10 saying, “Let us bind the righteous, because he is inconvenient to us;” therefore they will eat the produce of their actions. 11 Woe to a lawbreaker; grievous things will happen to him according to the deeds of his hand. 19

Time for justice

(3:12–15)

12 My people, your exactors are gathering you up, and those who demand payback are lording it over you; my people, those who bless you are deceiving you, and they are disturbing the path of your feet. 13 But now Lord will stand for justice, and he will make his people stand for justice. 14 Lord himself will come for justice with the elders of the people and with its rulers. But as for you, why did you burn my vineyard? And why is the robbery of the poor in your houses? 15 Why do you do wrong to my people and why do you disgrace the face of the poor? 20

Women of luxury will be humbled

(3:16–26)

16 Thus says Lord: “Instead of which things the daughters of Zion were exalted and they went with a high neck and with winks of the eyes and with the gait of 3:9 Barn. 6.7; Justin Dial. 17.2; 133.2; 136.2; 137.3; Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 1; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.15, 29; Ecl. proph. 4.2; Dem. ev. 2.3.60 3:10 Barn. 6.7; Passio Apollonii 39; Hegesippus Memorabilia; Melitus Hom. Pascha 72; Justin Dial. 17.3; 119.3; 136.2; 137.3; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 5.108.2; Tertullian Marc. 3.22.5; Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 1; Origen Comm. Matt. 115; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.15, 29; Ecl. proph. 4.2; Dem. ev. 2.3.60; Hist. eccl. 2.23.7, 13, 15; Prep. ev. 13.13.35 3:11 Justin Dial. 17.2; Origen Comm. Matt. 13.30; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.29 3:12 Tertullian Marc. 4.15.14; 4.27.7; Origen Hom. Gen. 10.1; Hom. Luc. 35; Cyprian Ep. 34.2; De laps 14; Test. 3.115; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.30; Ecl. proph. 4.3; Dem. ev. 9.8.14 3:13 Tertullian Marc. 4.42.2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.30; Ecl. proph. 4.3 3:14 Tertullian Marc. 4.14.6; 4.42.2; Res. 20.3; Origen Hom. Ps. 5.4; Hom. Lev. 4.4; Hom. Num. 20.4; Comm. Matt. 61; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.30; 2.40; Comm. Ps. (PG 24:56); Ecl. proph. 4.3 3:15 Justin Dial. 133.2; Tertullian Marc. 4.14.6; Origen Comm. Matt. 61; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.30 3:16 Justin Dial. 27.3; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 3.72.2; Tertullian Marc. 4.15.10; Origen Hom. Isa. 3.3; Hom. Num. 18.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.31–32; Comm. Ps. (PG 24:56)

60

Text and Translation

νας καὶ τοῖς ποσὶν ἅμα παίζουσαι, 17 καὶ ταπεινώσει ὁ θεὸς ἀρχούσας θυγατέρας Σειών, καὶ Κύριος ἀνακαλύψειa τὸ σχῆμα αὐτῶν 18 ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ καὶ ἀφελεῖ Κύριος τὴν δόξαν τοῦ ἱματισμοῦ αὐτῶν καὶ τοὺς κόσμους αὐτῶν καὶb τὰ ἐμπλόκια καὶ τοὺς κοσύμβους καὶ τοὺς μηνίσκους 19 καὶ τὸ κάθεμα καὶ τὸν κόσμον τοῦ προσώπου αὐτῶν 20 καὶ τὴν σύνθεσιν τοῦ κόσμου τῆς δόξης αὐτῶνc. Καὶ τοὺς χλιδῶνας καὶ τὰ ἐνώτιαd. 21 Καὶ τὰ περιπόρφυρα, καὶ τὰ μεσοπόρφυρα, 22 καὶ τὰ ἐπιβλήματα τὰ κατὰ τὴν οἰκίαν, καὶ τὰ διαφανῆ, Λακωνικὰ 23 καὶ τὰ βύσσινα, καὶ τὰ ὑακίνθινα, καὶ τὰe κόκκινα, καὶ τὴν βύσσον σὺν χρυσίῳf, καὶ ὑακίνθῳ συγκαθυφασμένα καὶ θέριστρα καὶ τὰ κατάκλεισταg. 24 καὶ ἔσται ἀντὶ ὀσμῆς ἡδείας κονιορτός, καὶ ἀντὶ ζώνης σχοινίονh ζώσῃ καὶ ἀντὶ τοῦ κόσμου τῆς κεφαλῆς τοῦ χρυσίου φαλάκρωμα ἕξεις διὰ τὰ ἔργα σου καὶ ἀντὶ τοῦ κιτῶνος τοῦ μεσοπορφύρου περιζώσῃ σάκκον. 25 καὶ ὁ υἱός σου ὁ κάλλιστος, ὃν ἀγαπᾷς, μαχαίρᾳ πεσεῖται, καὶ οἱ ἰσχύοντες ὑμῶν μαχαίρᾳ πεσοῦνται. 26 Καὶ ταπεινωθήσονται καὶ πενθήσουσιν αἱ θῆκαι τοῦ κόσμου ὑμῶν, καὶ καταλειφθήσῃ μόνη καὶ εἰς τὴν γῆν ἐδαφισθήσῃ. 21

Shortage of men

(4:1)

4.1 Καὶ ἐπιλήμψονται ἑπτὰ γυναῖκες ἀνθρώπου ἑνὸς λέγουσαι Τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν φαγόμεθα καὶ τὰ ἱμάτια ἡμῶν περιβαλούμεθα, πλὴν τὸ ὄνομα τὸ σὸν κεκλήσθω ἐφ’ ἡμᾶς, ἄφελε τὸν ὀνειδισμὸν ἡμῶν. 22

God will glorify the remnant on that day

(4:2–3)

2 Τῇ δὲ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ἐπιλάμψειi ὁ θεὸς ἐν βουλῇ μετὰ δόξης ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς τοῦ ὑψῶσαι καὶ δοξάσαι τὸ καταλειφθὲν τοῦ Ἰσραήλ, 3 καὶ ἔσται τὸ ὑπολειφθὲν ἐν Σειὼν καὶ τὸ καταλειφθὲν ἐν Ἰερουσαλὴμ ἅγιοι κληθήσονται, πάντες οἱ γραφέντες εἰς ζωὴν ἐν Ἰερουσαλήμ·

aἀνακαλύψει] SB; ἀποκαλύψει ARZ bκαὶ τοὺς κόσμους αὐτῶν καὶ] SARZ; om. B cαὐτῶν] S*A; om. Scb2BRZ dἐνώτια] S*; + καὶ τὰ ψέλια καὶ τὸ ἐμπλόκιον καὶ τὰ περιδέξια καὶ τοὺς δακτυλίους ARZ; + καὶ τὰ ψέλια καὶ τὸ ἐμπλόκιον καὶ τοὺς δακτυλίους καὶ τὰ περιδέξια B e τὰ] SARZ; om. B fχρυσίῳ] SARZ; χρυσῷ B g καὶ τὰ κατάκλειστα] καὶ τὰ κατακλιστρα S*; κατάκλιστα Scb2; καὶ τὰ κατάκλιστα Scb3; κατάκλιτα ABRZ. h σχοινίον] S; σχοινίῳ ABRZ i ἐπιλάμψει] SBRZ; λάμψει A

3:17–4:3

61

the feet, trailing their shirts and at the same time playing amorously with their feet.” 17 And God will humble the ruling daughters of Zion, and Lord will expose their shape. 18 In that day Lord also will take away the glory of their clothing and their ornaments and hair clasps and fringes and pendants 19 and necklace and the ornamentation of their face 20 and the set of ornamentation of their glory. And the bracelets and the earrings. 21 And the purple-edged, and the purple-decorated, 22 and the house-shawls, and the transparent Laconian 23 and the purple, and the blue, and the scarlet, and the linen combined with gold, and those woven with blue, and light summer garments and the precious things. 24 And instead of a sweet scent there will be a cloud of dust, and instead of a belt, you will be girded with a rope, and instead of the ornamentation of your head with gold, you will have baldness because of your works; and instead of the purple-decorated shirt, you will wear sackcloth. 25 And your most precious son, whom you love, will fall by a sword, and your powerful men will fall by a sword. 26 And your boxes of ornamentation will be lowered, and they will mourn, and you will be left alone, and you will be dashed to the land. 21

Shortage of men

(4:1)

4.1 And seven women will seize one man, saying, “We will eat our own bread and we will wear our own clothing; only let your name be given to us; remove our reproach!” 22

God will glorify the remnant on that day

(4:2–3)

2 But on that day, God in counsel will shine with glory upon the land, to raise and to glorify what is left of Israel. 3 And the remainder will be in Zion and what is left in Jerusalem; all those recorded for life in Jerusalem will be called holy.

3:17 Clement of Alexandria Paed. 3.72.2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.31 3:18–19 Tertullian Cult. fem. 2.10.4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.31 3:20 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.31 3:24 Tertullian Marc. 4.15.10; Origen Princ. 2.3.6; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.31 3:25–26 Origen Hom. Isa. 3.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.31 4:1 Origen Hom. Isa. 3.1, 3; Comm. Matt. 17.33; Victorinus On the Creation of the World; Comm. Ap. 1; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.31 4:2 Clement of Alexandria Paed. 3.9; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.32; Dem. ev. 2.3; Leo Serm. 28.3; 4:3 Luke 1:35; 10:20; Rev 20:12; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 3.9; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.32; Dem. ev. 2.3;

62 23

Text and Translation

Lord will purge and protect Jerusalem

(4:4–6)

4 ὅτι ἐκπλυνεῖ Κύριος τὸν ῥύπον τῶν υἱῶν καὶ τῶν θυγατέρων Σειών, καὶ τὸ αἷμα Ἰερουσαλὴμa ἐκκαθαριεῖ ἐκ μέσου αὐτῶν ἐν πνεύματι κρίσεως καὶ ἐνb πνεύματι καύσεως. 5 καὶ ἥξει, καὶ ἔσται πᾶς τόπος τοῦ ὄρους Σειὼν καὶ πάντα τὰ περικύκλῳ αὐτῆς σκιάσει νεφέλη ἡμέρας καὶ ὡς καπνοῦ καὶ ὡς φωτὸς πυρὸς καιομένου νυκτός· πάσῃ τῇ δόξῃc σκεπασθήσεται· 6 καὶ ἔσται εἰς σκιὰν ἀπὸ καύματος καὶ ἐν σκέπῃ καὶ ἐν ἀποκρύφῳ ἀπὸ dσκληρότητος καὶ ὑετοῦ. 24

The Song of the Vineyard

(5:1–7)

5.1 Ἄισω δὴ τῷ ἠγαπημένῳ ᾆσμα τοῦ ἀγαπητοῦe τῷ ἀμπελῶνί μου. ἀμπελὼν ἐγενήθη τῷ ἠγαπημένῳ ἐν κέρατι ἐν τόπῳ πίονι. 2 καὶ φραγμὸν περιέθηκα καὶ ἐχαράκωσα καὶ ἐφύτευσα ἄμπελον σωρήχ καὶ ᾠκοδόμησα πύργον ἐν μέσῳ αὐτοῦ καὶ προλήνιον ὤρυξα ἐν αὐτῷ· καὶ ἔμεινα τοῦ ποιῆσαι σταφυλήν, ἐποίησεν δὲ fἀκάνθας. 3 καὶ νῦν, ἄνθρωπος τοῦ Ἰούδα καὶ οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες ἐν Ἰερουσαλήμg, κρίνατε ἐν ἐμοὶ καὶ ἀνὰ μέσον τοῦ ἀμπελῶνός μου. 4 Τί ποιήσω τῷ ἀμπελῶνί μου ἔτιh καὶ οὐκ ἐποίησα αὐτῷ; διότι ἔμεινα τοῦ ποιῆσαι σταφυλήν, ἐποίησεν δὲ ἀκάνθας. 5 νῦν δὲ ἀναγγελῶ ὑμῖν τί ποιήσω τῷ ἀμπελῶνί μου· ἀφελῶ τὸν φραγμὸν αὐτοῦ καὶ ἔσται εἰς διαρπαγήν, καὶ καθελῶ τὸν τοῖχον αὐτοῦ καὶ

aἸερουσαλὴμ] S*ScaScb3; om. Scb2ABRZ b ἐν] S; om. ABRZ c δόξῃ] SBRZ; + κυρίου A d ἀπὸ] SBRZ; om. A eἀγαπητοῦ] SARZ; + μου B fἐποίησεν δὲ] SARZ; καὶ ἐποίησεν B gἄνθρωπος τοῦ Ἰούδα καὶ οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες ἐν Ἰερουσαλήμ] SARZ; οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες ἐν Ἰερουσαλὴμ καὶ ἄνθρωπος τοῦ Ἰούδα B h τῷ ἀμπελῶνί μου ἔτι] S; ἔτι τῷ ἀμπελῶνί μου ABRZ

4:4–5:5

23

Lord will purge and protect Jerusalem

63 (4:4–6)

4 Because Lord will wash filth out of the sons and daughters of Zion, and he will purge the blood of Jerusalem from their midst by a spirit of justice and by a spirit of burning. 5 And he will come, and every place of the mountain will be Zion and a cloud will shade all the places surrounding her by day and by night like smoke and like burning fire light it will be covered with all the glory. 6 And it will serve as shade from heat and as shelter and as a place hidden from harshness and rain. 24

The Song of the Vineyard

(5:1–7)

5.1 I will sing now to the loved one a song of the beloved; to my vineyard. A vineyard belonged to the loved one, at a corner in a fertile place. 2 And I placed a fence around it and I fenced it in and I planted a vine of Sorech and I built a tower in the middle of it, and I dug a vat in it; and I waited for it to produce grapes, but it produced thorns. 3 And now, person of Judea, and those inhabiting Jerusalem, judge between me and my vineyard. 4 What shall I do for my vineyard further and I did not do for it? Because I waited for it to produce grapes, but it produced thorns. 5 But now, I announce to you what I will do to my vineyard. I will take away its fence and it will become

4:4 Irenaeus Haer. 4.22.1; Clement of Alexandria Paed.3.9.48; 3.48.4; Origen Princ. 2.10.6; Or. 29.15; Hom. Luc. 14.3; Comm. Ro. 7.1.4; Hom. Jer. 2.2.4; Pamphilius Apol. Orig. 8; Comm. Isa. 1.32; Theodoret Interp. in Pss. 51.3; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 3.16 4:5 Victorinus Comm. Ap.; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.32 4:6 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.32; Chrysostom Hom. Heb. 28.3 5:1 Act. Thom. 146; Heracleon Jo.; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 2.19.3 (GCS 12.167); Origen Fr. Lam. (GCS 6.256); Comm. Jo. 13.426; Hom. Jer. 12.1; 15.3; Hom. 1 Reg. 10; Hom. Ps. 1.2; Hom. Cant. 1.1; Hom. Luc. 10; Fr. Cant. (GCS 33.94); Comm. Matt. 17.7; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.1, 33, 90; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.172, 392, 960, 1220); Dem ev. 6.18.18; Theoph. (GCS 11.2.24, 185); Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 13.29. 5:2 Heracleon Jo.; Justin Dial. 110; Tertullian Marc. 4.29.15; Hippolytus In Cant. 5.3; Origen Fr. Matt. 425; Fr. 1 Cor. 14; Comm. Jo. 13.426; Hom. Jer. 12.1; Hom. Gen. 1.4; Hom. Ps. 1.2; Comm. Matt. 17.7, 25; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.13, 33, 90; 2.3, 8, 55; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.172, 749, 832, 960, 1004); Theoph. (GCS 11.2.24, 25, 185); Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 13.29 5:3 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1. 33 5:4 Origen Fr. 1 Cor. 14; Hom. Jer. 1.4; Comm. Matt. 17.7; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.13, 33–35, 39, 90; 2.3, 8, 55; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.749, 961, 964, 1221); Dem ev. 6.18.19; 7.1.81; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 13.29. 5:5 Clement of Alexandria Strom. 4.87.2; Origen Fr. 1 Cor. 14; Fr. Lam. (GCS 6.256); Hom. Num. 20.3; In Ps.; Comm. Matt. 17.7; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.33, 90; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.516, 964); Dem. ev. 6.18.19; 7.1.81

64

Text and Translation

ἔσται εἰς καταπάτημα, 6 καὶ ἀνήσω τὸν ἀμπελῶνά μου καὶ οὐ μὴ τμηθῇ οὐδ’ οὐa μὴ σκαφῇ ἔτιb. Καὶ ἀναβήσονταιc εἰς αὐτὸν ὡς εἰς χέρσον ἄκανθαιd· καὶ ταῖς νεφέλαις ἐντελοῦμαι τοῦ μὴ βρέξαι εἰς αὐτὸν ὑετόν. 7 Ὁ γὰρ ἀμπελὼν Κυρίου Σαβαὼθ οἶκος τοῦ Ἰσραήλ ἐστίνe καὶ ἄνθρωπος τοῦ Ἰούδα νεόφυτον ἠγαπημένον· ἔμεινα τοῦ ποιῆσαι κρίσιν, ἐποίησεν δὲ ἀνομίαν, καὶ οὐ δικαιοσύνην ἀλλὰ κραυγήν. 25

Greed produces a desert

(5:8–10)

8 Οὐαὶ οἱ συνάπτοντες οἰκίαν πρὸς οἰκίαν καὶ ἀγρὸν πρὸς ἀγρὸν ἐγγίζοντες, ἵνα τοῦ πλησίον ἀφέλωνταί τι· μὴ οἰκήσητεf μόνοι ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. 9 ἠκούσθη γὰρ εἰς τὰ ὦτα Κυρίου Σαβαὼθ ταῦτα· ἐὰν γὰρ γένωνται οἰκίαι πολλαί, εἰς ἔρημον ἔσονται μεγάλαι καὶ καλαί, καὶ οὐκ ἔσονται οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες ἐν αὐταῖςg. 10 οὗ γὰρ ἐργῶνται δέκα ζεύγη βοῶν, ποιήσει κεράμιον ἕν, καὶ ὁ σπείρων ἀρτάβας ἓξ ποιήσει μέτρα τρία. 26

Drunkards ignore God’s deeds

(5:11–12)

11 Οὐαὶ οἱ ἐγειρόμενοι τὸ πρωῒ καὶ τὸ σίκερα διώκοντες, οἱ μένοντες τὸ ὀψέ· ὁ γὰρ οἶνος αὐτοὺς συγκαύσει. 12 μετὰ γὰρ κιθάρας καὶ ψαλτηρίου καὶ τυμπάνων καὶ χόρωνh καὶ αὐλῶν τὸν οἶνον πίνουσιν, τὰ δὲ ἔργα τοῦ θεοῦi οὐκ ἐμβλέψουσινj καὶ τὰ ἔργα τῶν χειρῶν αὐτοῦ οὐ κατανοησοῦσινk.

aοὐ] S; om. ABRZ bἔτι] S*Sd; om. Scb2ABRZ c Καὶ ἀναβήσονται] ScaB; ἀναβήσεται S*Scb3ARZ dἄκανθαι] SB; ἄκανθα Scb2ARZ e ἐστίν] SARZ; om. B f οἰκήσητε] S; οἰκήσετε ABRZ g ἐν αὐταῖς] S*Scb3BR; om. Scb2AZ (= MT) h καὶ χόρων] S; om. ABRZ iτοῦ θεοῦ] S*; τοῦ κυρίου Scb2; κυρίου ABRZ j ἐμβλέψουσιν] S*; ἐμβλέπουσιν ScaScb3ABRZ k κατανοησοῦσιν] S*; κατανοοῦσιν ScaScb2SdABRZ

5:6–12

65

spoil and I will take down its wall and it will become a trampling ground. 6 And I will neglect my vineyard and it will certainly not be trimmed and certainly not dug any longer. And thorns will rise up in it as in a dry place and I will command the clouds that the rain not wet it. 7 For the vineyard of Lord Sabaoth is Israel’s house and the person of Judah, the beloved new plant. I waited for it to produce justice, but it produced lawlessness, and not righteousness, but an outcry. 25

Greed produces a desert

(5:8–10)

8 Woe to those who join house to house and bring field to field, so that they might take something of their neighbour. Do not live alone on the land. 9 For these things were heard in the ears of Lord Sabaoth; for if houses become many, they, great and lovely, will become a desert, and there will not be people inhabiting them. 10 For where ten yoke of oxen work, it will produce one jar, and the one who sows six artabes will produce three measures. 26

Drunkards ignore God’s deeds

(5:11–12)

11 Woe to those who wake up early and pursue the sikera, who stay late, for the wine will burn them up. 12 For with a lyre and a harp and drums and dances and flutes they drink the wine, but the deeds of God they will not consider, and they will not apprehend the deeds of his hands.

5:6 Did. apost. 23; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 13.25; Marc. 3.23.2; Origen Fr. Ezek. (GCS 33.337); Fr. Ps.; Hom. Jer. 1.4; 8.3; Hom. Ps. 3.10; Hom. Ezek. 1.12; Hom. Lev. 16.2; Comm. 1Th.; In Cant. 3; Comm. Matt. 17.7; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.33, 90; 2.27; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.172, 320, 516, 721, 897, 917, 964, 1221); Dem. ev. 7.1.81; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 13.29 5:7 Philo Somn. 2.172; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 13.25; Marc. 3.23.2; 4.28.15; Hippolytus Cant. 5.3; Ref. 6.10.1; Origen Hom. Ezek. 5.5; In Cant. 2; 3; Comm. Matt. 17.7, 25; Dionysius of Alexandria Ref.; Cyprian Ep. 63.12; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.12, 24, 33, 34, 39, 42, 90; 2.3, 55; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.392, 749, 961, 964, 1004); Ecl. proph. 2.4; Dem. ev. 6.18.18–19; 7.1.81; Theoph. (GCS 11.2.25, 185) 5:8 Tertullian Marc. 4.27.7; Origen Cels. 2.76; Hom. Ps. 36 3.6; Cyprian Test. 3.61; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.34; Chrysostom Hom. Gen. 22; 48; Hom. Jo. 64; 72; Comm. Isa. 5 5:9–10 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.34 5:11 Hippolytus In Jud.; Origen Cels. 2.76; Athanasius Ep. fest. 20.2 5:12 Tertullian Marc. 5.18.7; Origen Cels. 7.31; Eusebius Eccl. theol. 3.3

66 27

Text and Translation

Lord’s people captive for lack of knowledge

(5:13–17)

13 Τοίνυν αἰχμάλωτος ὁ λαός μου ἐγενήθη διὰ τὸ μὴ εἰδέναι αὐτοὺς τὸν Κύριον, καὶ πλῆθος ἐγενήθη νεκρῶν διὰ λιμὸν καὶ δίψανa ὕδατος. 14 καὶ ἐπλάτυνεν ὁ ᾅδης τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ καὶ διήνοιξεν τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ τοῦ μὴ διαλιπεῖν, καὶ καταβήσονται οἱ ἔνδοξοι καὶ οἱ μεγάλοι καὶ οἱ πλούσιοι καὶ οἱ λοιμοὶ αὐτῆς. 15 καὶ ταπεινωθήσεται ἄνθρωπος, καὶ ἀτιμασθήσεται ἀνήρ, καὶ οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ οἱ μετέωροι ταπεινωθήσονται· 16 καὶ ὑψωθήσεται Κύριος Σαβαὼθ ἐν κρίματι, καὶ ὁ θεὸς ὁ ἅγιος δοξασθήσεται ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ. 17 καὶ βοσκηθήσονται οἱ διηρπασμένοι ὡς ταῦροι, καὶ τὰς ἐρήμους τῶν ἀπειλημμένων ἄρνες φάγωνταιb. 28

Woe to disbelievers

(5:18–19)

18 Οὐαὶ οἱ ἐπισπώμενοι τὰς ἁμαρτίας ὡς σχοινίῳ μακρῷ καὶ ὡς ζυγοῦ ἱμάντι δαμάλεως τὰς ἀνομίας, 19 οἱ λέγοντες Τὸ τάχος ἐγγισάτω ἃ ποιήσει, ἵνα ἴδωμεν, καὶ ἐλθέτωc ἡ βουλὴ τοῦ ἁγίου Ἰσραήλ, ἵνα γνῶμεν. 29

Woe to perverters of justice

(5:20–23)

20 Οὐαὶ οἱ λέγοντες τὸ πονηρὸν καλὸν καὶ τὸ καλὸν πονηρόν, οἱ τιθέντες τὸ φῶς σκότοςd καὶ τὸ σκότος φῶς, οἱ τιθέντες τὸ πικρὸν γλυκὺ καὶ τὸ γλυκὺ πικρόν. 21 Οὐαὶ οἱ συνετοὶ ἐν ἑαυτοῖς καὶ ἐνώπιον ἑαυτῶν ἐπιστήμονες. 22 Οὐαὶ οἱ ἰσχύοντες ὑμῶν οἱ τὸν οἶνον πίνοντες καὶ οἱ δυνάσται οἱ κεραννύντες τὸ σίκερα, 23 οἱ δικαιοῦντες τὸν ἀσεβὴν ἕνεκεν δώρων καὶ τὸ δίκαιον τοῦ δικαίου αἴροντες.

aδίψαν] SARZ; δίψος B b φάγωνται] S*; φάγονται SdABRZ σκότος] S; τὸ σκότος φῶς ABRZ

c ἐλθέτω] SAZ; ἐλθάτω BR

d τὸ φῶς

5:13–23

27

Lord’s people captive for lack of knowledge

67 (5:13–17)

13 Therefore my people became captive, because they did not know Lord, and they became a multitude of corpses because of hunger and thirst for water. 14 And Hades has opened wide its soul, and has opened its mouth in order to not relent and her glorious and great and rich and violent will go down. 15 And a person will be brought low, and a man will be dishonoured, and the lofty eyes will be brought low. 16 And Lord Sabaoth will be exalted in justice and the holy God will be honoured in righteousness. 17 And those abducted will graze like bulls, and may lambs of those taken away feed on the deserts. 28

Woe to disbelievers

(5:18–19)

18 Woe to those who pull in the sins as with a long rope, and transgressions as with a strap of a heifer’s yoke, 19 who say, “With swiftness let him bring the things which he will do, so that we might see; and let the plan of the holy one of Israel come so that we might know it.” 29

Woe to perverters of justice

(5:20–23)

20 Woe to those who call evil good and good evil, who establish light as darkness and darkness as light, who establish bitter as sweet and sweet as bitter. 21 Woe to those who are intelligent in themselves, and experts in their own presence. 22 Woe, those of you who are powerful who drink the wine, and rulers who mix the sikera, 23 who justify the ungodly person for the sake of a gift, and who take away the right of the righteous person.

5:13 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.35 5:14–15 Tertullian Marc. 4.15.10 5:17 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.35 5:18 Did. apost. 26; Justin Dial. 17.2; 133.4; Tertullian Paen. 11.7; Virg. 14.2; Origen Fr. Ps. (PG 12.1197, 1645); Hom. Ezek. 7.9; Comm. Matt. 12.14; Cels. 2.76; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.36; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.588, 757) 5:19 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.36 5:20 Did. apost. 10; Justin 1 Apol. 49.7; Dial. 17.2; Tertullian Herm. 13.2; Virg. 14.2; Carn. Chr. 23.2; 24.1; Scorp. 1.12; Origen Cels. 2.76; 6.67; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.37 5:21 Barn. 4.11; Justin Dial. 39.5; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 2.35.5; Tertullian Marc.5.14.12; Origen Fr. Prov. 7; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.38 5:22 Origen Cels. 2.76; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.38 5:23 Ep. apost. 47; Did. apost. 10; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.38

68 30

Text and Translation

Injustice provokes Lord’s wrath

(5:24–25)

24 Διὰ τοῦτο ὃν τρόπον καυθήσεται καλάμη ὑπὸ ἄνθρακος πυρὸς καὶ συγκαυθήσεταιa ὑπὸ φλογὸς ἀνειμένης, ἡ ῥίζα αὐτῶν ὡς χνοῦς ἔσται, καὶ τὸ ἄνθος αὐτῶν ὡς κονιορτὸς ἀναβήσεται· οὐ γὰρ ἠθέλησαν τὸν νόμον Κυρίου Σαβαώθ, ἀλλὰ τὸ λόγιον τοῦ ἁγίου Ἰσραὴλ παρώξυναν. 25 καὶ ὀργίσθη θυμῷb Κύριος Σαβαὼθ ἐπὶ τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ, Καὶ ἐπέβαλεν τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦc ἐπ’d αὐτοὺς καὶ ἐπάταξεν αὐτούς, Καὶ παροξύνθῃe τὰ ὄρη, καὶ ἐγενήθη τὰ θνησιμαῖα αὐτῶν ὡς κοπρία ἐν μέσῳ ὁδοῦ. καὶf ἐν πᾶσι τούτοις οὐκ ἀπεστράφη ὁ θυμόςg, ἀλλ’ ἔτι ἡ χεὶρ ὑψηλή. 31

An army from the nations

(5:26–30)

26 Τοιγαροῦν ἀρεῖ σύσσημον ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν τοῖς μακρὰν καὶ συριεῖ αὐτοῖςh ἀπ’ ἄκρου τῆς γῆς, καὶ ἰδοὺ ταχὺ κούφως ἔρχονται· 27 οὐ πεινάσουσιν οὐδὲ κοπιάσουσιν οὐδὲ νυστάξουσιν οὐδὲ κοιμηθήσονται οὐδὲ λύσουσιν τὰς ζώνας αὐτῶν ἀπὸ τῆς ὀσφύος αὐτῶν, οὐδὲ μὴ παραγῶσινi οἱ ἱμάντες τῶν ὑποδημάτων αὐτῶν· 28 ὧν τὰ βέλη ὀξεῖά ἐστιν καὶ τὰ τόξα αὐτῶν ἐντεταμένα, οἱ πόδες τῶν ἵππων αὐτῶν ὡς στερεὰ πέτρα ἐλογίσθησαν, οἱ τροχοὶ τῶν ἁρμάτων αὐτῶν ὧν jκαταιγίς· 29 ὁρμῶσινk ὡσεὶl λέοντες καὶm παρέστηκανn ὡσεὶo σκύμνοςp λέοντος· καὶ ἐπιλήμψεται καὶ βοήσειq ὡς θηρίον καὶ ἐκβαλεῖ, καὶ οὐκ ἔσται ὁ ῥυόμενος αὐτούςr. 30 καὶ βοήσειs δι’ αὐτοὺς ἐνt τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ὡς φωνὴ θαλάσσης κυμαινούσης· καὶ ἐμβλέψονται εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν ἄνω, καὶu εἰς τὴν γῆν, καὶ ἰδοὺ σκότος σκληρὸν ἐν τῇ ἀπορίᾳ αὐτῶν.

aσυγκαυθήσεται] συνκαυθήσετε S*RZ; συνκαυθήσεται Scb3B bὀργίσθη θυμῷ] S; ἐθυμώθη ὀργῇ ABRZ c αὐτοῦ] SARZ; om. B dἐπ’] SBRZ; εἰς A e παροξύνθῃ] S; παρωξύνθη ABRZ f καὶ] SBR; om. AZ gθυμός] SARZ; θυμός αὐτοῦ B hαὐτοῖς] SARZ; B αὐτοὺς iπαραγῶσιν] S*; ῥαγῶσιν ScaABRZ jὡς] ScaABRZ; ὧν S* kὁρμῶσιν] SARZ; ὀργιῶσιν B lὡσεὶ] S; ὡς ABRZ m καὶ] SARZ; om. B nπαρέστηκαν] S*BRZ; παρέστηκασιν ScaA o ὡσεὶ] S; ὡς ABRZ p σκύμνος] SARZ; σκύμνοι B q βοήσει] SBR; βοήσεται AZ rαὐτοὺς] SBR; om. AZ s βοήσει] SBR; βοήσεται AZ t ἐν] SARZ; om. B u εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν ἄνω, καὶ] S; om. ABRZ

5:24–30

30

Injustice provokes Lord’s wrath

69 (5:24–25)

24 Because of this, in the way which a stalk will be burned by a coal of fire and burned up by an uncontrolled flame, their root will be like chaff and their shoot will rise up like a cloud of dust, for they did not desire the law of Lord Sabaoth, but they provoked the oracle of the holy one of Israel. 25 And Lord Sabaoth was wrathful with anger against his people. And he put his hand on them and he struck them. And may the mountains be provoked, and their carcasses became like filth in the middle of the path. And in all these things the wrath was not averted but still the hand was raised. 31

An army from the nations

(5:26–30)

26 Therefore, he will raise afar a signal among the nations, and he will whistle to them from the extremity of the earth, and look, they are coming swiftly, quickly! 27 They will not be hungry nor will they be tired nor will they be sleepy nor will they sleep nor will they unfasten their belts from their waist nor would the straps of their sandals pass by, 28 whose arrows are sharp and their bows taut; the feet of their horses were reckoned as solid rock, the wheels of their chariots, as a storm. 29 They rush like lions and approach like a lion’s cub and he will seize and roar like a wild animal; and he will cast out and there will be no one who rescues them. 30 And he will roar because of them in that day, like a sound of a sea rising, and they will look at the sky above, and at the land, and look, there will be severe darkness in their distress.

5:24 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.39–40 5:25 Justin Dial. 133.4; Cyprian Test. 1.21; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.39–41 5:26 Ign. Smyrn. 1.2; Tertullian Marc. 4.14.9; Cyprian Test. 1.21–22; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.40 5:27 Origen Pasch. 1.24; Cyprian Test. 1.22 5:28 De recta in Deum fide (GCS 4.38); 4 Ezra 16.13; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.40; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.341); 5:29 Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.40 5:30 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.40

70 32

Text and Translation

Theophany

(6:1–5)

6.1 Καὶ ἐγένετο τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ, οὗ ἀπέθανεν Ὀζίας ὁ βασιλεύς, εἶδον τὸν Κύριον καθήμενον ἐπὶ θρόνου ὑψηλοῦ καὶ ἐπηρμένου, καὶ πλήρης ὁ οἶκος τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ. 2 καὶ σεραφεὶνa εἱστήκεισαν κύκλῳ αὐτοῦ, ἓξ πτέρυγες τῷ ἑνὶ καὶ ἓξ πτέρυγες τῷ ἑνί, καὶ ταῖς μὲν δυσὶν κατεκάλυπτον τὸ πρόσωπον καὶ ταῖςb δυσὶν κατεκάλυπτον τοὺς πόδας καὶ ταῖς δυσὶν ἐπέτοντοc. 3 καὶ ἐκέκραγονd ἕτερος πρὸς τὸν ἕτερον καὶ ἔλεγον Ἅγιος ἅγιος ἅγιος Κύριος Σαβαώθ, πλήρης πᾶσα ἡ γῆ τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ. 4 καὶ ἐπήρθη τὸ ὑπέρθυρον ἀπὸ τῆς φωνῆς, ἧς ἐκέκραγον, καὶ ὁ οἶκος ἐπλήσθηe καπνοῦ. 5 Καὶ εἶπαf Ὦ τάλας ἐγώ, ὅτι κατανένυμαιg, ὅτι ἄνθρωπος ὢν καὶ ἀκάθαρτα χείλη ἔχων ἐν μέσῳ λαοῦ ἀκάθαρτα χείλη ἔχοντος ἐγὼ οἰκῶ καὶ τὸν βασιλέα Κύριον Σαβαὼθ εἶδον τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς μου. 33

Lips purified

(6:6–7)

6 Καὶ ἀπεστάλη πρός με ἓν τῶν σαραφείνh, καὶ ἐν τῇ χειρὶ εἶχεν ἄνθρακα, ὃν τῇ λαβίδι ἔλαβεν ἀπὸ τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου, 7 καὶ ἥψατο τοῦ στόματός μουi καὶ εἶπεν Ἰδοὺ ἥψατο τοῦτο τῶν χειλέων μου καὶ ἀφελεῖ τὰς ἀνομίας σου καὶ τὰς ἁμαρτίας σου περικαθαριεῖ.

aσεραφεὶν] SA; σεραφιν RZ; σεραφεὶμ B bπρόσωπον καὶ ταῖς] SARZ; πρόσωπον, ταῖς δὲ B cἐπέτοντο] S; ἐπέταντο ABRZ dἐκέκραγον] SARZ; ἐκέκραγεν B eἐπλήσθη] SARZ; ἐνεπλήσθη B fεἶπα] SARZ; εἶπον B. gκατανένυμαι] S; κατανένυγμαι SdABRZ hσαραφείν] S; σεραφείν ScaB; σεραφιν RZ; Σεραφείμ A i μου] S; σου ScaScb3ABRZ

71

6:1–7

32

Theophany

(6:1–5)

6.1 And this happened in the year when Ozias the king died: I saw Lord seated on a high and raised throne, and the house was full of his glory. 2 And seraphein stood around him; there were six wings to the one and six wings to the other and with two they were covering the face, and with two they were covering the feet and with two they were flying. 3 And they were shouting one to the other, and they were saying, “Holy, holy, holy, is Lord Sabaoth; the whole land is full of his glory.” 4 And the lintel was lifted from the sound that they were shouting, and the house was filled with smoke. 5 And I said, “Oh, I am wretched, because I have come to an end; for while I am a person and I have impure lips, I live in the middle of a people having impure lips, and I have seen the king, Lord Sabaoth, with my eyes.” 33

Lips purified

(6:6–7)

6 And one of the saraphein was sent to me, and in its hand it was holding a coal which it took with a holder from the altar. 7 And it touched my mouth and said, “Look, this touched my lips and will take away your transgressions and will purge away your sins.”

6:1 Mart. Ascen. Isa. 3.9; Philo Deo; Hippolytus Comm. Dan. 4.8.9; Origen Comm. Jo. 2.178; 6.23; Hom. Jer. 17.4; Hom. Isa. 1.1; 4.2–3; 5.2–3; 6.1–2; Hom. Judic. 1.1; Dial. 27; Comm. Matt. 16.4; 111; Cels. 1.43; 1.48; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.41–42; Dem. ev. 5.13.3; 7.1.3, 5, 8; 9.16.1, 4; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 14.27; 16.16 6:2 Philo Deo; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 7.80.4; Origen Princ. 1.3.4; 4.3.14; Hom. Isa. 1.2–3; 1.5; 4.1; 6.1; Cels. 1.43; 1.48; 6.18; Pamphilius Apol. Orig. 4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.41; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.516, 820); Dem. ev. 7.1.8, 10; 9.16.1; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 9.3 6:3 Melch. 16.16; Codex Brucianus (GCS 45.344); Clement of Alexandria Strom. 7.80.4; Hippolytus Comm. Dan. 4.8.9; Origen Princ. 1.3.4; 4.3.14; Hom. Isa. 1.2; 4.1–2; 5.2; Pamphilius Apol. Orig. 4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.41–42; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.516, 701, 820); Dem. ev. 7.1.3, 8, 12, 14, 18 6:4 Origen Hom. Isa. 1.3–4; 4.2–3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.41 6:5 Origen Hom. Jer. 1.14; 14.5; Hom. Isa. 1.4–5; 3.2; 4.3–5; 5.2–3; 6.2; Hom. Lev. 9.7; 14.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.41–42; Ecl. proph. 1.3 6:6 Clement of Alexandria Strom. 1.55.2; Origen Fr. Prov. (PG 17.236); Comm. Jo. 6.23; Hom. Jer. 1.14; 14.5; Hom. Isa. 1.4–5; 3.2; 4.4–5; 5.2; 6.1–2; Hom. Lev. 9.7–8; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.42; 2.43 6:7 Clement of Alexandria Strom. 1.55.2; Origen Fr. Prov. (PG 17.236); Hom. Jer. 1.14; 14.5; Hom. Isa. 1.4; 4.5–6; 5.2; 6.1–2; 9; Hom. Lev. 9.7–8; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.42; 2.43

72 34

Text and Translation

Isaiah’s commission

(6:8–10)

8 Καὶ ἤκουσα τῆς φωνῆς Κυρίου λέγοντος Τίνα ἀποστείλω, καὶ τίςa πορεύσεται πρὸς τὸν λαὸν τοῦτον; Καὶ εἶπα Ἰδού ἐγώ εἰμιb· ἀπόστειλόν με. 9 Καὶ εἶπεν Πορεύουc καὶ εἶπον τῷ λαῷ τούτῳ Ἀκοῇ ἀκούσετε καὶ οὐ μὴ συνῆτε καὶ βλέποντες βλέψητεd καὶ οὐ μὴ εἴδητεe· 10 ἐπαχύνθη γὰρ ἡ καρδία τοῦ λαοῦ τούτου, καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν βαρέωςf ἤκουσαν καὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτῶνg ἐκάμμυσαν, μήποτε ἴδωσιν τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν ἀκούσωσιν καὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ συνῶσιν καὶ ἐπιστρέψουσινh καὶ ἰάσομαι αὐτούς. 35

The extent of the desolation

(6:11–13)

11 καὶ εἶπα Ἕως πότε, Κύριε; καὶ εἶπεν Ἕως ἂν ἐρημωθῶσιν πόλεις παρὰ τὸ μὴ κατοικεῖσθαι καὶ οἶκοι παρὰ τὸ μὴ εἶναι ἀνθρώπους καὶ ἡ γῆ καταλειφθήσεται ἔρημος. 12 καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα μακρυνεῖ ὁ θεὸς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, καὶ οἱ καταλειφθέντες πληθυνθήσονται ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς· 13 καὶ ἔτι ἐπ’ αὐτῆς ἐστιν τὸ ἐπιδέκατον, καὶ πάλιν ἔσται εἰς προνομὴν ὡς τερέβινθος καὶ ὡς βάλανος ὅταν ἐκπέσῃ ἀπὸi τῆς θήκης αὐτῆς.

aἀποστείλω, καὶ τίς] SABRZ; ἀποστίς Scb2 bἐγώ εἰμι] S; εἰμι ἐγώ ABRZ c Πορεύου] S; Πορεύθητι ABRZ d βλέψητε] S; βλέψετε ABRZ e εἴδητε] S; ἴδητε ABRZ f ὠσὶν βαρέως] S; ὠσὶν αὐτῶν βαρέως Scb2ABRZ gὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτῶν] SARZ; ὀφθαλμοὺς B hἐπιστρέψουσιν] S; ἐπιστρέψωσιν ABRZ i ἀπὸ] SARZ; ἐκ B

6:8–13

34

Isaiah’s commission

73 (6:8–10)

8 And I heard the voice of Lord saying, “Whom shall I send, and who will go to this people?” And I said, “Look, I am here; send me.” 9 And he said, “Go and say to this people, ‘You will hear by hearing and not understand, and although you are looking, may you look and not know.’ 10 For the heart of this people has been thickened and they heard with the ears with difficulty and they closed their eyes lest they see with the eyes and hear with the ears and understand with the heart, and they will turn and I will heal them.” 35

The extent of the desolation

(6:11–13)

11 And I said, “Until when, Lord?” And he said, “Until cities are deserted because they are not inhabited and houses because there are no humans, and the land will be left a desert.” 12 And after these things God will distance the humans, and those left will increase on the land. 13 And still the tenth part is on it, and again it will become plunder like a terebinth tree and like an acorn when it falls from its case.

6:8 Justin Dial. 75.3; Origen Comm. Jo. 2.177, 184; 32.202; Hom. Jer. 20.2; Hom. Isa. 6.1–2; 9; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.2, 42; Dem. ev. 7.1.4, 15; 9.16.1 6:9 Sib. Or. 1; Testim. Truth 29.6; Did. apost. 15; 26; Philo Ios. 126; Ps.-Cyprian De laude martyrii 5; Tertullian Marc. 3.6.5, 6; 4.31.4; An. 9.8; Res. 33.2; Origen Fr. Matt. 286; Comm. Jo. 2.178; Hom. Jer. 14.12; 20.2; Hom. Isa. 6.1, 3–5; 9; Hom. Num 17.3; Comm. Matt. 16.9; Cels. 2.8; Cyprian Test. 1.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.42, 96; 2.5, 23, 42; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.656); Dem. ev. 2.3.81; 7.1.16, 18, 22, 92; 8.2.129; 9.16.3, 8; Athanasius Ep. fest. 2.3 6:10 Sib. Or. 1; Testim. Truth 29.6; 48.8; P. Oxy. 406; Justin Dial. 12.2; 69.4; Ps.-Cyprian De laude martyrii 5; Acts Thom. 1.74; Did. apost. 15; 26; Tertullian Marc. 3.6.5, 6; An. 9.8; Origen Fr. Ps. (Analecta sacra 3.32); Hom. Jer. 14.12; 20.2; Hom. Ps. 2.8; Hom. Ex. 7.5; Hom. Isa. 6.1; 6.3; 6.5– 7; 9; Hom. Luc. 35; Hom. Num 17.6; Comm. Matt. 101; Cels. 2.8; 2.48; Cyprian Test. 1.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.42, 92, 96; 2.23; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.521, 752); Dem. ev. 2.3.85; 7.1.7, 15, 16, 18, 22, 29, 92; 8.2.129; 9.16.1, 3, 5, 6; Lactantius Inst. 5.1.4; Athanasius Ep. fest. 2.3; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 4.19 6:11 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.42; Dem. ev. 2.3.82, 83, 85; 7.1.4 6:12 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.42; Dem. ev. 2.3.81, 82, 85 6:13 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.42; 2.55; Dem. ev. 2.3.86

74 36

Text and Translation

Aram attacks Jerusalem

(7:1–2)

7.1 Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις Ἀχὰζ τοῦ Ἰωαθὰμ τοῦ υἱοῦ Ὀζείου βασιλέως Ἰούδα ἀνέβη Ῥαασσὼνa βασιλεὺς Ἀρὰμ καὶ Φάκεε υἱὸς Ῥομελιὰb βασιλεὺς Ἰσραὴλ ἐπὶ Ἰερουσαλὴμ πολεμῆσαι αὐτὴν καὶ οὐκ ἠδυνήθησαν πολιορκῆσαι αὐτήν. 2 καὶ ἀνηγγέλη εἰς τὸν οἶκον Δαυεὶδ λέγωνc Συνεφώνησεν Ἀρὰμ πρὸς τὸν Ἐφράιμ· καὶ ἐξέστη ἡ ψυχὴ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἡ ψυχὴ τοῦ λαοῦ αὐτοῦ, ὃν τρόπον ἐνd δρυμῷ ξύλον ὑπὸ πνεύματος σαλευθῇ. 37

Isaiah encourages Achaz

(7:3–6)

3 Καὶ εἶπεν Κύριος πρὸς Ἠσαίαν Ἔξελθε εἰς συνάντησιν Ἀχὰζ σὺ καὶ ὁ καταλειφθεὶς Ἰασσοὺβe ὁ υἱός σου πρὸς τὴν κολυμβήθραν τῆς ἄνω ὁδοῦ ἀγροῦf τοῦ γναφέως 4 καὶ ἐρεῖς αὐτῷ Φύλαξαι τοῦ ἡσυχάσαι καὶ μὴ φοβοῦ, μηδὲ ἡ ψυχή σου ἀσθενείτω ἀπὸ τῶν δύο ξύλων τῶν δαλῶν τῶν καπνιζομένων τούτων· ὅταν γὰρ ὀργὴ τοῦ θυμοῦ μου γένηται, πάλιν ἰάσομαι. 5 καὶ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀρὰμ καὶ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ Ῥομελίου, ὅτι ἐβουλεύσαντο περὶ σοῦ βουλὴν πονηρὰν λέγοντεςg 6 Ἀναβησόμεθα εἰς τὴν Ἰουδαίαν καὶ συλλαλήσαντες αὐτοῖς ἀποστρέψομενh αὐτοὺς πρὸς ἡμᾶς καὶ βασιλεύσομεν αὐτῆς τὸν υἱὸν Ταβεήλ. 38

Aram’s plot will fail

(7:7–9)

7 Τάδε λέγει Κύριος Σαβαώθ Οὐ μὴ ἐμμείνῃi αὕτη ἡ βουλὴj οὐδὲ ἔσται· 8 ἀλλ’ ἡ κεφαλὴ Ἀρὰμ Δαμασκόςk, ἀλλ’ ἔτι ἑξήκοντα καὶ πέντε ἐτῶν ἐκλείψει ἡ βασιλεία Ἐφράιμ ἀπὸ

aῬαασσὼν] SARZ; Ῥασεὶν B bῬομελιὰ] S*B; Ρομελιου Scb1ARZ cλέγων] SB; λέγοντες ARZ dἐν] SB; ὅταν ἐν ARZ eἸασσοὺβ] S; Ιασουβ ABRZ fἀγροῦ] SB; τοῦ ἀγροῦ ARZ gπερὶ σοῦ βουλὴν πονηρὰν λέγοντες] S; βουλὴν πονηρὰν περὶ σοῦ λέγοντες ARZ; βουλὴν πονηράν B h ἀποστρέψομεν] SBR; ἀποστρέψωμεν AZ i ἐμμείνῃ] SARZ; μείνῃ B j αὕτη ἡ βουλὴ] S; ἡ βουλὴ αὕτη ABRZ kΔαμασκός] SRZ; Δαμασκός, καὶ ἡ κεφαλὴ Δαμασκοῦ Ῥασείμ AB

75

7:1–8

36

Aram attacks Jerusalem

(7:1–2)

7.1 And it happened in the days of Achaz of Ioatham the son of Ozeias king of Judah, Rhaasson king of Aram went up with Phakee son of Rhomelias king of Israel to Jerusalem to fight it, and they were not able to besiege it. 2 And it was reported to the house of David, saying, “Aram has made a deal with Ephraim!” And his soul was confounded, along with the soul of his people, in the way which a tree in a thicket might be shaken by wind. 37

Isaiah encourages Achaz

(7:3–6)

3 And Lord said to Isaiah, “Go out for a meeting with Achaz, you and the one left, your son Iassoub, to the reservoir of the high way of the fuller’s field. 4 And you shall say to him, ‘Be careful to be still and do not be frightened nor let your soul be weak because of these two smoking fire-brand timbers, for once the anger of my wrath comes, I will heal again. 5 And as for the son of Aram and the son of Rhomelias, because they plotted an evil plot about you, saying, 6 “We shall go up into Judea and after talking with them, we shall turn them to us, and we shall rule it by the son of Tabeel.” 38

Aram’s plot will fail

(7:7–9)

7 Thus says Lord Sabaoth, “This plot should certainly not stand nor will it be. 8 But the head of Aram is Damascus, but in sixty-five years more, the kingdom of Ephraim will cease being a people. 9 And the head of Ephraim is Somoron, and

7:1 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.43–45; Onomasticon (GCS 11.1.38); Dem. ev. 7.1.19, 42, 52, 91, 99, 102, 103, 117 7:2 Origen Comm. Matt. 381; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.43–44; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 16.13 7:3 Mart. Ascen. Isa. 1.2; 2.9; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.43; Onom. (GCS 11,1.38) 7:4 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.43, 45, 49; Dem. ev. 7.1.100 7:5–7 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.43 7:7–9 Irenaeus Dem. 3; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 2.8.2; 2.17.4; 4.134.4; Tertullian De baptismo 10.1; Marc. 4.20.13; 4.25.3; 4.27.9; 5.11.9; Cyprian Ad Vigilium 6; Test. 1.5; 3.42; Origen in Ps B (Pitra, 453); Pasch. 2.47; Ps K (PG 23.105); Exod. 7.3; De recta in Deum fide (GCS 4.112); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.43; Dem. ev. 7.1.19, 26–28, 42, 111; Praep. ev. 12.1.3; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 5.4 7:8 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.43–44 7:9 De recta in Deum fide (GCS 4.112); Irenaeus Dem. 3; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 2.8.2; 2.17.4; 4.134.4; Tertullian Bapt. 10.1; Marc. 4.20.13; 4.25.3; 4.27.9; 5.11.9; Cyprian Vig. 6; Origen Pasch. 2.47; Fr. Ps. (PG 23.105); Hom. Ex. 7.3; Cyprian Test. 1.5; 3.42; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.43; Dem. ev. 7.1.19 26–28, 42, 111; Praep. ev. 12.1.3; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 5.4

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Text and Translation

λαοῦ, 9 καὶ ἡ κεφαλὴ Ἐφράιμ Σομορών, καὶ ἡ κεφαλὴ Σομορὼν ὁ υἱὸςa τοῦ Ῥομελίου· καὶ ἐὰν μὴ πιστεύσητε, οὐδὲ μὴ συνῆτε. 39

A sign for Achaz

(7:10–17)

10 Καὶ προσέθετο Κύριος λαλῆσαι τῷ Ἀχὰζ λέγων 11 Αἴτησαι σεαυτῷ σημεῖον παρὰ Κυρίου τοῦ θεοῦb σου εἰς βάθος ἢ εἰς ὕψος. 12 Καὶ εἶπεν Ἀχὰζ Οὐ μὴ αἰτήσω οὐδ’ οὐc μὴ πειράσω Κύριον. 13 Καὶ εἶπεν Ἀκούσατε δή, οἶκος Δαυείδ· μὴ μικρὸν ὑμῖν ἀγῶνα παρέχειν ἀνθρώποις; καὶ πῶς Κυρίῳ παρέχετε ἀγῶνα; 14 διὰ τοῦτο δώσει Κύριος αὐτὸς Ὑμῖν σημεῖον· Ἰδοὺ ἡ παρθένος ἐν γαστρὶ ἕξειd καὶ τέξεται υἱόν, καὶ καλέσειe τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Ἐμμανουήλ· 15 βούτυρον καὶ μέλι φάγεται πρὶν ἢ γνῶναι αὐτὸν ἢ προελέσθαι πονηρά, ἐκλέξασθαιf τὸ ἀγαθόνg· 16 διότι πρὶν ἢ γνῶναι τὸ παιδίον ἀγαθὸν ἢ κακόνh, καὶ καταλειφθήσεται ἡ γῆ, ἣν σὺ φοβῇ ἀπὸ προσώπου τῶν δύο βασιλέων. 17 ἀλλὰ ἐπάξει ὁ θεὸς ἐπὶ σὲ καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν λαόν σου καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν οἶκον τοῦ πατρὸςὸi ἡμέρας, αἳ οὔπω ἥκασιν ἀφ’ ἧς ἡμέρας ἀφεῖλεν Ἐφράιμ ἀπὸ Ἰούδα τὸν βασιλέα τῶν Ἀσσυρίων.

aὁ υἱὸς] S; υἱὸς ABRZ b τοῦ θεοῦ] S; θεοῦ ABRZ cοὐδ’ οὐ] SARZ; οὐδὲ B dἕξει] SARZ; λήμψεται B e καλέσει] S; καλέσεις ABRZDEusOr f ἐκλέξασθαι] S*B; ἐκλέξεται ScaScb2ARZ gπρὶν ἢ γνῶναι αὐτὸν ἢ προελέσθαι πονηρά, ἐκλέξασθαι τὸ ἀγαθόν] S; πρὶν ἢ γνῶναι τὸ παιδίον ἀγαθὸν ἢ κακὸν ἀπειθεῖ πονηρίᾳ ἐκλέξασθαι τὸ ἀγαθόν Eus h ἢ κακόν] S*; + ἀπειθεῖ πονηρίᾳ τοῦ ἐκλέξασθαι τὸ ἀγαθόν Scb2ARZ; + ἢ κακὸν ἀπειθεῖ πονηρίᾳ ἐκλέξασθαι τὸ ἀγαθόν B. i πατρὸςὸ] S*; + σου ScaABRZ(MT)

7:9–17

77

the head of Somoron is the son of Rhomelias and if you do not trust, neither will you understand.”’” 39

A sign for Achaz

(7:10–17)

10 And Lord continued to speak to Achaz, saying, 11 “Ask for yourself a sign from Lord your God up to a depth or up to a height.” 12 And Achaz said, “I will not ask and I will not test Lord.” 13 And he said, “Hear now, house of David, is it a small thing for you to produce a struggle for humans? And how do you produce a struggle for Lord? 14 Because of this, Lord himself will provide.” A sign for you: Look, the maiden will have in womb and will bear a son, and she will call his name Emmanouel. 15 He will eat butter and honey before he knows or selects bad things, to choose the good. 16 Because before the child knows good or bad, the land which you fear because of the face of the two kings will also be left behind. 17 But God will bring upon you and upon your people and upon the house of the father days which have not yet come since the day when Ephraim took away the king of the Assyrians from Judah. 7:10 Justin Dial. 43.5; Cyprian Test. 2.9; Origen Hom. Isa. 2.1; Cels. 1.34; Eusebius Ecl. proph. 4.4; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 12 7:11 Origen Hom. Isa. 2.1; 9; Comm. Matt. 12.2; Cels. 1.35; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.43–44; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 12.(2).22 7:12 Origen Hom. Isa. 2.1; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.44, 48 7:13 Acts Pet. 24; Prot. Jas. 20.1; Justin Dial. 68.6–7; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 9.1; Origen Princ. 4.1.5; Hom. Isa. 2.1; Cyprian Ep. 10.4; Pamphilius Apol. pro Orig. 5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.44, 48; Ecl. proph. 4.4, Dem. ev. 7.1.31–32, 34, 36, 40; 7:14 Sib. Or. 1; Acts Pet. 24; Justin 1 Apol. 33.1; 4; 1.54.8; Dial. 43.8; 67.1; 68.6, 7; 71.3; 84.1, 3; Irenaeus Dem. 53; 54; 57; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 9.1, 7; Marc. 3.12.1; 3.13.3–4, 3.15.1; 4.10.7, 15; 5.9.7; Carn. Chr. 17.1, 2; 21.2; 23.1, 6; Res. 20.3; Hippolytus Fr. var. (GCS 26.269); Haer. 5.8.45; Origen Princ. 4.1.5; Hom. Jer. 1.7; Hom. Ezek. 1.4; Hom. Isa. 2.1–2; Comm. Matt. 6; Novatian Trin. 9.6; 12.3; Cels. 1.33– 35, 40; 3.2; Cyprian Ep. 10.4; Pamphilius Apol. pro Origen. 5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.2, 43–44, 48–51, 54, 75; 2.42; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.896); Ecl. proph. 4.4, 5, 7; Hist. eccl. 5.8.10; In Cant.; In Matt.; Dem. ev. 1.1.2; 2.3.88, 90, 98; 3.2.51; 7.1.3, 8, 12, 19, 26, 30–32, 36, 38, 43, 48, 50, 53, 56, 60, 62, 67, 73, 77–78, 85, 89–90, 92, 94, 96, 99, 101, 103, 105, 112–113, 118, 120, 129, 135; 7.2.2, 4, 16; Lactantius Inst. 4.12.4; Epit. 39.3; Athanasius Ep. fest. 14.4; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 11.14; 12.1, 2, 21–22, 28, 30 7:15 Clement of Alexandria Paed. 1.52.1; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 9.1, 9; Marc. 1.14.3 3.13.3, 5; Origen Princ. 4.2.1; 4.4.4; Hom. Ex. 4.8; Hom. Isa. 2.2; Cyprian Test. 2.9; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.44; Ecl. proph. 4.4; Dem. ev. 7.1.37 7:16 Justin Dial. 43.5, 6; 66.2; Irenaeus Dem. 53; Origen Fr. Ps. (PG 12.1256); Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 1; Origen Princ. 2.6.4; 4.4.4; Hom. Jer. 1.7.8; Hom. Ex. 4.8; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.44, 48–49, 54–55; 2.42; Ecl. proph. 4.4; Dem. ev. 7.1.27, 37–38, 42–43, 45–46, 48, 50, 52, 91, 99, 101, 103 7:17 Justin Dial. 43.6; 66.2; Origen Comm. Matt. 27; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.44, 46, 48

78 40

Text and Translation

Lord whistles for flies

(7:18–19)

18 Καὶ ἔσται ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ συριεῖ Κύριος μυίαις, ὃ κυριεύειa μέροςb ποταμοῦ Αἰγύπτου, καὶ τῇ μελίσσῃ, ἥ ἐστιν ἐν χώρᾳ Ἀσσυρίων, 19 καὶ ἐξελεύσονταιc πάντες καὶ ἀναπαύσονταιd ἐν ταῖς φάραγξι τῆς χώρας σουe καὶ ἐν ταῖς τρώγλαις τῶν πετρῶν καὶ εἰς τὰ σπήλαια καὶ εἰς πᾶσαν ῥαγάδα καὶ ἐν παντὶ ξύλῳf. 41

Lord’s razor

(7:20–22)

20 Ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ξυρήσει Κύριος τῷ ξυρῷg τῷ μεγάλῳ καὶ μεμεθυσμένῳh, πέραν τοῦ ποταμοῦ βασιλέως Ἀσσυρίων, τὴν κεφαλὴν καὶ τὰς τρίχας τῶν ποδῶν καὶ τὸν πώγωνα ἀφελεῖ. 21 καὶ ἔσται ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ θρέψει ἄνθρωπος δάμαλιν βοῶν καὶ δύο πρόβατα, 22 καὶ ἔσται ἀπὸ τοῦ πλεῖστον ποιεῖν γάλα βούτυρον καὶ μέλι φάγεται πᾶς ὁ καταλειφθεὶς ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. 42

From barren to fertile land

(7:23–25)

23 Καὶ ἔσται ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ πᾶς τόπος, οὗ ἐὰν ὦσιν χίλιαι ἄμπελοι χιλίων σίκλων, εἰς χέρσον ἔσονται καὶ εἰς ἄκανθαςi· 24 μετὰ βέλους καὶ τοξεύματος εἰσελεύσονται ἐκεῖ, ὅτι χέρσος καὶ ἄκανθαιj ἔσται πᾶσα ἡ γῆ. 25 καὶ πᾶν ὄρος ἀροτριώμενον ἀροτριαθήσεται, οὐ μὴk ἐπέλθῃ ἐκεῖ φόβος· ἔσται γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς χέρσου καὶ ἀκάνθης εἰς βόσκημα προβάτου καὶ καταπάτημαl βοός. 43

Quickly Plunder; Swiftly Capture

(8:1–4)

8.1 Καὶ εἶπεν Κύριος πρός με Λαβὲ σεαυτῷ τόμον καινοῦm μεγάλου καὶ γράψον ἐκεῖn γραφίδι ἀνθρώπου Τοῦ ὀξέως προνομὴν ποιῆσαι σκύλων· πάρεστιν γάρ. 2 καὶ μάρτυ-

aκυριεύει] SARZ; κυριεύσει B bμέρος] S*B; μέρους Scb1ARZ cἐξελεύσονται] S*; ἐλεύσονται ScaScb2Scb3AB d καὶ ἀναπαύσονται] SARZ; om. B eσου] S; om. ABRZ fἐν παντὶ ξύλῳ] SARZ; om. B g τῷ ξυρῷ] SARZ; ἐν τῷ ξυρῷ B hμεγάλῳ καὶ μεμεθυσμένῳ] S*; μεγάλῳ καὶ μεμεθυσμένῳ, ὅ ἐστιν Scb2ARZ; μεμισθωμένῳ B(MT) i ἄκανθας] S*; ἄκανθαν ScaABRZ j ἄκανθαι] S*; ἄκανθα ScaScb3ABRZ k οὐ μὴ] S; καὶ οὐ μὴ ABRZ l καταπάτημα] S*B; εἰς καταπάτημα Scb2ARZ m καινοῦ] SBRZ; χάρτου καινοῦ A n ἐκεῖ] S*; εἰς αὐτὸν Scb2ABRZ

7:18–8:2

40

Lord whistles for flies

79 (7:18–19)

18 And it will be that in that day, Lord will whistle for flies, that which dominates a part of the river of Egypt, and for the bee which is in the territory of the Assyrians. 19 And all people will come out and stop in the ravines of your territory and in the caves of the cliffs and in the caverns and in every fissure and in every tree. 41

Lord’s razor

(7:20–22)

20 In that day Lord will shave with the great and drunken razor, across the river of the king of the Assyrians, the head, and the hair of the feet, and he will remove the beard. 21 And it will be in that day: a person will raise a heifer of cattle and two sheep. 22 And it will be: because of the extremely abundant production of milk, every one left on the land will eat butter and honey. 42

From barren to fertile land

(7:23–25)

23 And it will be in that day: every place wherever there might be a thousand vines worth a thousand shekels, they will become a dry place and thistles. 24 They will enter there with dart and arrow because the whole land will be a barren place and thistles. 25 And every tillable hill will be tilled; fear will certainly not come upon that place, for it will change from a barren place and thistle into a sheep pasture and an ox’s trampling ground. 43

Quickly Plunder; Swiftly Capture

(8:1–4)

8.1 And Lord said to me, “Take for yourself a scroll of a new large one and write there with a stylus of a human, ‘to do plunder of spoils swiftly,’ for it is

7:18 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.44–46; Dem. ev. 2.3.89, 94; 7.1.53, 56–57, 60, 77–78, 93 7:19 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.45–46; Dem. ev. 7.1.79 7:20 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.46; Dem. ev. 2.3.89, 94; 7.1.64, 66–67, 73, 79 7:21 Eusebius Comm. Isa 1.47; Dem. ev. 2.3.87, 90; 7.1.53, 74–75, 85, 88 7:22 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.47; Dem. ev. 2.3.87, 90; 7.1.74, 85 7:23 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.47; Dem. ev. 7.1.77, 80–81, 86, 88–89, 91 7:24 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.47; Dem. ev. 7.1.77, 81–82, 89, 91 7:25 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.47; Dem. ev. 7.1.57, 86, 87, 88, 89, 94 8:1 Clement of Alexandria Strom. 6.131.4; Methodius Olympius Conuiuium 5.4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.48; Ecl. proph. 4.5; Dem. ev. 7.1.94, 95, 110, 126

80

Text and Translation

ράς μοι ποίησον πιστοὺς ἀνθρώπους, τὸν Οὐρίαν καὶ τὸν Ζαχαρίανa υἱὸν Βαραχίου. 3 καὶ προσῆλθενb πρὸς τὴν προφῆτιν, καὶ ἐν γαστρὶ ἔλαβεν καὶ ἔτεκεν υἱόν. καὶ εἶπεν Κύριός μοι Κάλεσον τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Ταχέως σκύλευσον, ὀξέως προνόμευσον. 4 διότι πρὶν ἢ γνῶναι τὸ παιδίον καλεῖν πατέρα ἢ μητέρα, λήμψεται δύναμιν Δαμασκοῦ καὶ τὰ σκῦλα Σαμαρείας ἔναντι βασιλέως Ἀσσυρίων. 44

The mighty and abundant river

(8:5–8)

5 Καὶ προσέθετο Κύριος λαλῆσαί μοι ἔτι 6 Διὰ τὸ μὴ βούλεσθαι τὸν λαὸν τοῦτον τὸ ὕδωρ τοῦ Σειλωὰμ τὸ πορευόμενον ἡσυχῇ, ἀλλὰ βούλεσθαι ἔχειν τὸν Ῥαασσὼνc καὶ τὸν υἱὸν τοῦd Ῥομελίου βασιλέα ἐφ’ ὑμῶν, 7 Διὰ τοῦτο ἰδοὺ ἀνάγει Κύριοςe ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς τὸ ὕδωρ τοῦ ποταμοῦ τὸ ἰσχυρὸν καὶ τὸ πολύ, τὸν βασιλέα τῶν Ἀσσυρίων καὶ τὴν δύναμινf αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἀναβήσεται ἐπὶ πᾶσαν φάραγγα ὑμῶν. καὶ περιπατήσει ἐπὶ πᾶν τεῖχος ὑμῶν. 8 καὶ ἀφελεῖ ἀπὸ τῆς Ἰουδαίας ἄνθρωπον ὃς δυνήσεται κεφαλὴν ἆραι ἢg δυνατὸν συντελέσασθαίh τι, καὶ ἔσται ἡ παρεμβολὴ αὐτοῦ ὥστε πληρῶσαι τὸ πλάτοςi τῆς χώρας σου. 45

God is with us

(8:8–10)

Μεθ’ ἡμῶν ὁ θεός. 9 Γνῶτε ἔθνη καὶ ἡττᾶσθε, ἐπακούσατεj ἕωςk ἐσχάτουl τῆς γῆς, ἰσχυκότες ἡττᾶσθε· ἐὰν γὰρ πάλιν ἰσχύσητε, πάλινm ἡττηθήσεσθε. 10 καὶ ἣςn ἂν βουλεύσησθε βουλήν,

aτὸν Ζαχαρίαν] SARZ; om. τὸν B b προσῆλθεν] SA; προσῆλθον BRZ c τὸν Ῥαασσὼν] SARZ; Ῥασσὼν B d τοῦ] S; om. ABRZ eἀνάγει Κύριος] SARZ; Κύριος ἀνάγει B f δύναμιν] S; δόξαν ABRZ gἢ] SBRZ; εἰ A hσυντελέσασθαί] SBRZ; συντελέσαι A i ὥστε πληρῶσαι τὸ πλάτος] SBRZ; τὰ πλάτη A jἐπακούσατε] SBRZ; ἐπακούσετε A kἕως] SARZ; ἕως ἐπ’ B lἐσχάτου] SARZ; ἐπ’ ἐσχάτου B* m ἰσχύσητε, πάλιν] SBScb2ABRZ; om. S* n ἣς] S*; ἣν ScaScb3ABRZ

8:3–10

81

present. 2 And make faithful people witnesses for me: Ourias and Zacharias son of Barachias.” 3 And he came to the prophetess and she conceived in womb and she bore a son. And Lord said to me, “Call his name Quickly Plunder; Swiftly Capture, 4 because before the child knows how to call father or mother, he will take the power of Damascus and the spoils of Samareia in the face of the king of Assyrians.” 44

The mighty and abundant river

(8:5–8)

5 And Lord continued to speak to me further: 6 “Because this people does not want the water of Siloam that goes quietly, but wants to have Rhaasson and the son of Rhomelias king over you, 7 Because of this, look, Lord is bringing upon you the water of the powerful and abundant river: the king of the Assyrians and his power, and he will rise up over every ravine of yours, and will walk about over every city wall of yours. 8 And he will remove from Judea a person who will be able to lift a head or able to accomplish something; and his encampment will be such as to fill the breadth of your territory.” 45

God is with us

(8:8–10)

God is with us. 9 Know, nations, and be overcome; listen as far as the farthest part of the land. Having become powerful, be overcome, for if you are powerful again, again you 8:2 Origen Comm. Matt. XII–XIII 25; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.48, 79; Ecl. proph. 4.5; Dem. ev. 7.1.110 8:3 Irenaeus Frag. 2(124); Novatian Trin. 28.7; Peter of Alexandria 1 Epistula canonica 13; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.48.54; Ecl. proph. 4.5.7; Dem. ev. 7.1.96, 112, 118, 124, 126, 135; 7.2.16 8:4 Justin Dial. 43.6; 77.2; 78.9; Tertullian Adv. Iud. 9.1, 4, 5, 9, 12, 15, 16, 20; Adv. Mar. 3.12.1; 3.13.1, 6, 8, 10; 3.14.7 5.18.5; Res. 20.3; Origen Princ. 2.6.4; Peter of Alexandria 1 Epistula canonica 13; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.48, 49, 54; 2.42; Ecl. proph. 4.5; Dem. ev. 2.3.99; 7.1.95, 99, 104, 108, 113, 123, 124, 126; Athanasius Inc. 33.4; 36.1 8:5 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.49; Dem. ev. 7.1.114 8:6 Cyprian Adv. Iud. 6.8; Hippolytus Antichr. 57; Origen Fr. Jo. (GCS 10.534); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.49; Dem. ev. 7.1.115, 118, 127 8:7 Cyprian Adv. Jud. 6.8; Hippolytus Antichr. 57; Victorinus Apoc. (CSEL 49.100); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.49; Dem. ev. 7.1.118, 119, 127, 128 8:8 Origen Princ. 4.1.5; Pamphilius Apol. Orig. 5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.49–51, 54; Dem. ev. 7 1.119, 121, 128, 130, 132 8:9 Origen Princ. 4.1.5; Pamphilius Apol. Orig. 5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.50–51; Dem. ev. 7 1.114, 121, 130–1311

82

Text and Translation

διασκεδάσει Κύριος, καὶ λόγονa ὃν ἐὰνb λαλήσητε, οὐ μὴ ἐμμείνῃ ὑμῖν, ὅτι μεθ’ ἡμῶν Κύριος ὁ θεόςc. 46

Lord will be your help

(8:11–15)

11 Οὕτως λέγει Κύριοςd Τῇ ἰσχυρᾷ χειρὶ ἀπειθοῦσιν τῇ πορείᾳ τῆς ὁδοῦ τοῦ λαοῦ τούτου λέγοντες 12 Μήe εἴπητεf σκληρόν· πᾶν γάρ, ὃ ἐὰνg εἴπῃ ὁ λαὸς οὗτος, σκληρόν ἐστιν· τὸν δὲ φόβον αὐτοῦ οὐ μὴ φοβηθῆτε οὐδὲh μὴ ταραχθῆτε· 13 Κύριον αὐτὸν ἁγιάσατε, καὶ αὐτὸς ἔσται σου βοηθόςi. 14 καὶ ἐὰνj ἐπ’ αὐτῷk πεποιθὼς ᾖς, ἔσται σουl εἰς ἁγίασμα, καὶ οὐχ ὡς λίθου προσκόμματι συναντήσεσθε αὐτῷ οὐδὲ ὡς πέτρας πτώματι. Ὁ δὲ οἶκοςm Ἰακὼβ ἐν παγίδι, καὶ ἐν κοιλάσματι ἐγκαθήμενοι ἐν Ἰερουσαλήμ. 15 διὰ τοῦτο ἀδυνατήσουσιν ἐν αὐτοῖς πολλοὶ. Καὶ πεσοῦνται καὶ συντριβήσονται, καὶ ἐγγιοῦσιν καὶ ἁλώσονται ἄνθρωποι ἐν ἀσφαλείᾳn. 47

Wait for God

(8:16–18)

16 Τότε φανεροὶ ἔσονται οἱ ἐσφραγίσμενοιo τὸν νόμον τοῦ μὴp μαθεῖν. 17 καὶ ἐρεῖ Μενῶ τὸν θεὸν τὸν ἀποστρέψαντα τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ τοῦ οἴκου Ἰακώβ καὶ πεποιθὼς ἔσομαι ἐπ’ αὐτῷ. 18 ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ καὶ τὰ παιδία, ἅ μοι ἔδωκεν ὁ θεός. Καὶ ἔσται εἰςq σημεῖα καὶ τέρατα ἐν τῷ οἴκῳr Ἰσραὴλ παρὰ Κυρίου Σαβαώθ, ὃς κατοικεῖ ἐν τῷ ὄρει Σειών.

aλόγον] SBRZ; τὸν λόγον A bἐὰν] SARZ; om. B c Κύριος ὁ θεός] SARZ; ὁ θεός B dΚύριος] SBRZ; + ὁ θεός A e Μή] S; Μήποτε RZ; Μή ποτε AB fεἴπητε] SARZ; εἴπωσιν B gἐὰν] SRZ; ἂν AB h οὐδὲ] SBRZ; οὐδ’ οὐ A i βοηθός] S; φόβος ABRZ j καὶ ἐὰν] SARZ; κἂν B k αὐτῷ] SARZ; om. B lσου] S; ABRZ σοι mὉ δὲ οἶκος] SARZ; οἱ δὲ οἶκοι B n ἀσφαλείᾳ] S*Scb3B; ἀσφαλείᾳ ὄντες Scb2ARZ o ἐσφραγίσμενοι] S; Σφραγιζόμενοι ABRZ p τοῦ μὴ] SBRZ; τοῦ A q εἰς] SARZ; om. B r οἴκῳ] SBRZ; om. A

8:11–18

83

will be overcome. 10 And of whichever counsel you take, Lord will disperse. And whichever word you speak will not stand for you, because Lord God is with us. 46

Lord will be your help

(8:11–15)

11 Thus says Lord, “By the powerful hand they resist the way of the path of this people, saying, 12 ‘May you not say, “hard,”’ for everything that this people says is hard.” But do not be frightened with its fear, neither be troubled. 13 Sanctify Lord himself, and he will be your help. 14 And if you trust him, he will become your sanctuary and you will encounter him not as an obstacle of stone or like a fall from a rock. But the house of Jacob is in a snare, and those who sit in Jerusalem are in a pit. 15 Because of this, many among them will be powerless. And they will fall and be shattered, and humans in security will approach and be taken. 47

Wait for God

(8:16–18)

16 Then those who have sealed the law in order to not learn will be evident. 17 And he will say, “I will wait for God who turned his face from the house of Jacob and I will trust in him. 18 Look, here am I along with the children whom God has given me.” And they will become signs and wonders in the house of Israel from Lord Sabaoth, who dwells on Mount Zion.

8:10 Origen Fr. Jo. (485); Pamphilius Apol. Orig. 5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.44, 50, 54; Dem. ev. 7 1.132 8:11 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.51; Dem. ev. 7 1.131 8:12 Origen Fr. Ps. (PG 12.1489); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.51 8:13 1 Pet 3:15; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.51; Fr. (PG 24.641) 8:14 Rom 9:32–33; 1 Pet 2:7–8; Sib. Or. 8; Tertullian Marc. 3.7.3; Origen Cant. hom. II 2.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.51–52; Fr. (PG 24.641) 8:15 Eusebius Fr. (PG 24.641) 8:16 Cyprian Adv. Jud. 1.9; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.52; Dem. ev. 9.14.1, 3, 4 8:17 Cyprian Adv. Jud. 1.9; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.52; Dem. ev. 9.14.3, 4 8:18 Heb 2:13; Did. apost. 23; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 1.13.4; Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 2; Origen Eph. 17; Hom. Jer. 18.6; Hom. Isa. 7.1–2; Comm. Matt. 13.18 15.6; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.52–53; Comm. Ps. (Pitra 503); Ecl. proph. 4.6; Dem. ev. 9.14.3, 5; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 1.6; 14.30

84 48

Text and Translation

Diviners are no help

(8:19–23)

19 Καὶ ἐὰν εἴπωσιν πρὸς ὑμᾶς Ζητήσατε τοὺς ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς φωνοῦντας καὶ τοὺς ἐγγαστριμύθουςa, τοὺς κενολογοῦντας οἳ ἐκ τῆς κοιλίας φωνοῦσιν, οὐκ ἔθνος πρὸς θεὸν αὐτοῦb; Τί ἐκζητοῦσινc περὶ τῶν ζώντων τοὺς νεκρούς; 20 νόμον γὰρ εἰς βοήθειαν ἔδωκεν, ἵνα εἴπωσιν οὐχ ὡς τὸ ῥῆμα τοῦτο, περὶ οὗ οὐκ ἔστιν δῶρα δοῦναι περὶ αὐτοῦ. 21 καὶ ἥξει ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς σκληρὰ λιμός, καὶ ἔσται ὡς ἂν πεινάσητε, λυπηθήσεσθε καὶ κακῶς ἐρεῖτε τὸν ἄρχοντα καὶ τὰ πατριάd, καὶ ἀναβλέψονται εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν ἄνω 22 καὶ εἰς τὴν γῆν κάτω ἐμβλέψονται, καὶ ἰδοὺ ἀπορία στενὴ θλῖψις καὶ στενοχωρία καὶ σκότοςe, ὥστε μὴ βλέπειν, 23 καὶ οὐκ ἀπορηθήσεται ὃς ἐνf στενοχωρίᾳ ὢν ἕως καιροῦ. 49

The yoke removed

(9:1–5)

9.1 Τοῦτο πρῶτον πίεg, ταχὺ ποίει, χώρα Ζαβουλών, ἡ γῆ Νεφθαλίμh καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ οἱ τὴν παραλίονi κατοικοῦντεςj καὶ πέραν τοῦ Ἰορδάνου, Γαλιλέα τῶν ἐθνῶν, τὰ μέρη τῆς Ἰουδαίαςk. 2 ὁ λαὸς ὁ πορευόμενοςl ἐν σκότει, ἴδετε φῶς μέγα· οἱ κατοικοῦντες ἐν χώρᾳ σκιᾷm θανάτου, φῶς λάμψει ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς. 3 τὸ πλεῖστον τοῦ λαοῦ, ὃ κατήγαγες ἐν εὐφροσύνῃ σου, καὶ εὐφρανθήσονται ἐνώπιόν σου ὡς οἱ εὐφραινόμενοι ἐν ἀμήτῳ καὶ ὃν τρόπον εὐφραίνονταιn οἱ διαιρούμενοι σκῦλα. 4 διότι ἀφῄρηταιo ὁ ζυγὸς ὁ ἐπ’ αὐτῶν κείμενος καὶ ἡ ῥάβδος ἡ ἐπὶ τοῦ τραχήλου αὐτῶν· τὴν γὰρ ῥάβδον τῶν ἀπαιτούντων

aτοὺς ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς φωνοῦντας καὶ τοὺς ἐγγαστριμύθους] SARZ; τοὺς ἐνγαστριμύθους καὶ τοὺς ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς φωνοῦντας B bοὐκ ἔθνος πρὸς θεὸν αὐτοῦ] SARZ; + ἐκζητήσουσιν B cἐκζητοῦσιν] SBRZ; ἐκζητῶσιν A dπατριά] SAB; παταχρα following 93 RZ e ἀπορία στενὴ θλῖψις καὶ στενοχωρία καὶ σκότος] S; ἀπορία στενὴ καὶ σκότος, θλίψις καὶ στενοχωρία καὶ σκότος B; θλῖψις καὶ στενοχωρία καὶ σκότος, ἀπορία στενὴ καὶ σκότος ARZ fὃς ἐν] S*; ὁ ἐν τῇ Sca; ὁ ἐν ABRZ gπίε] SAB; ποίει RZ h Νεφθαλίμ] S*B; Νεφθαλιμ ὁδὸν θαλάσσης ScaARZ i παραλίον] SA; παραλίαν BRZ j κατοικοῦντες] ScaARZ; om. S*B k τὰ μέρη τῆς Ἰουδαίας] SARZ; om. B l πορευόμενος] SBRZ; καθήμενος A m σκιᾷ] S*B; καὶ σκιᾷ ScaARZ n εὐφραίνονται] SA; om. BRZ oἀφῄρηται] SBR; ἀφαιρεθήσεται AZ

8:19–9:4

48

Diviners are no help

85 (8:19–23)

19 And if they say to you, “Seek those who speak from the land and the ventriloquists, the empty talkers, who speak from the abdomen; is not a nation with its god?” Why do they ask the dead about the living? 20 For he gave a law for a help, so that they might not speak like this word, about which there are not gifts to give about it. 21 And a severe famine will come upon you, and it will be: when you hunger, you will be grieved, and you will speak badly regarding the ruler and the ancestral customs, and they will look up into the sky above. 22 And they will look to the land below and look, tight difficulty, oppression and distress and darkness so that one cannot see. 23 And he who is being in distress will not be in difficulty until the right time. 49

The yoke removed

(9:1–5)

9.1 Drink this first, do it swiftly, territory of Zaboulon, land of Nephthalim, and the rest who inhabit the seaside and across the Iordanos, Galilea of the nations, the parts of Judea. 2 People going in darkness, see a great light! Those inhabiting a territory, a shadow of death, light will shine on you. 3 The greatest part of the people that you led down in your gladness also will be gladdened before you, like those gladdened during a harvest and in the way which those dividing up the spoils are gladdened. 4 Because the yoke laid on them has been taken away and the rod on their neck, for Lord shattered the rod of those demanding

8:19 Origen Fr. Jo. (521); Hom Isa. 7.2–4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.53; Dem. ev. 9.14.6 9:1 Matt 4:15–16; Prot. Jas. 19.2; Clement of Alexandria Prot. 114.1; Tertullian Marc. 4.7.3 5.11.12; Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 1–2; Origen Comm. Eph. 25; Fr. Jo. (GCS 10.496); Fr. Ps. (PG 12.1260); Fr. Cant. (GCS 33.183); Comm. Jo. 2.166; 13.134; Hom. Cant. 2.6; Hom. Isa. 6.7; In Cant. 3; Cyprian Adv. Jud. 1.21; Origen Comm. Matt. 13.9; 15.12; 16.3; Comm. Matt. libri XII–XIII 59, 87, 141; Cels. 6.5; 6.66; 8.1; 8.54; Philoc. 15.7; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.54, 91 2.4, 37, 50; Dem. ev. 2.1.23; 6.18.47; 7.1.133, 152; 9.8.1, 6, 10, 15; Theophania (GCS 11,2.174); Athanasius Ep. fest. 3.4; Christ’s Descent into Hell 2:1; Ambrose Spir. Sanct. 1.14.138; 142; Augustine Ep. 164.5.16; Tract. Jo. 7.21; Jerome Hom. 61; Leo Serm. 25.3; 33.5; 9:2 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.54, 73; 2.42; Dem. ev. 3.2.67; 7.1.152; 9.8.10, 12, 15 9:3 Origen Fr. Jer. (GCS 6.225); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.54; Dem. ev. 9.8.13 9:4 Irenaeus Epid. 56; Origen Fr. Ps. (PG 12.1113); Hom. Jer. 6.2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.54; Ecl. proph. 1.17; 4.7; Dem. ev. 7.1.134, 140, 151, 153; 9.8.15; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 12.24

86

Text and Translation

διεσκέδασεν Κύριοςa ὡς τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ ἐπὶ Μαδιάμ. 5 ὅτι πᾶσαν στολὴν ἐπισυνηγμένην δόλῳ καὶ ἱμάτιον μετὰ καταλλαγῆς ἀποτείσουσιν καὶ θελήσουσιν εἰ ἐγενήθησανb πυρίκαυστοι. 50

A son is given

(9:6–7)

6 Ὅτι παιδίον ἐγεννήθη ἡμῖν, υἱὸς καὶ ἐδόθηc ὑμῖνd, οὗ ἡ ἀρχὴ ἐγενήθη ἐπὶ τοῦ ὤμου αὐτοῦ, καὶ καλεῖται τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Μεγάλης βουλῆς ἄγγελος· ἐγὼe γὰρ ἄξωf εἰρήνην ἐπὶ τοὺς ἄρχοντας, καὶ ὑγίειανg αὐτῷ. 7 μεγάλη ἀρχὴh αὐτοῦ, καὶ τῆς εἰρήνης αὐτοῦ οὐκ ἔστιν ὅριον ἐπὶ τὸν θρόνον Δαυὶδ καὶ τὴν βασιλείαν αὐτοῦ κατορθῶσαι αὐτὴν καὶ ἀντιλαβέσθαι ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ καὶ ἐν κρίματιi ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν καὶ ἕως τοῦ αἰῶνοςj· ὁ ζῆλος Κυρίου Σαβαὼθ ποιήσει ταῦτα. 51

Building a new tower

(9:8–10)

8 Λόγονk ἀπέστειλεν Κύριος ἐπὶ Ἰακώβ, καὶ ἦλθεν ἐπὶ Ἰσραήλ, 9 καὶ γνώσονται πᾶς ὁ λαὸς τοῦ Ἐφράιμ καὶ οἱ καθήμενοιl ἐν Σαμαρείᾳ ἐνm ὕβρει καὶ ὑψηλῇ καρδίᾳ λέγοντες 10 Πλίνθοι πεπτώκασιν, Ἀλλὰ δεῦτε λαξεύσωμεν λίθους καὶ ἐκκόψομεν συκαμίνους καὶn οἰκοδομήσωμεν ἑαυτοῖς πύργον.

aΚύριος] SARZ; om. B b ἐγενήθησαν] SARZ; ἐγένοντο B c καὶ ἐδόθη] SARZ; ἐδόθη B d ὑμῖν] S*; ἡμῖν ScaScb3ABRZ e ἐγὼ] SARZ; om. B fγὰρ ἄξω] SARZ; ἄξω γὰρ B g καὶ ὑγίειαν] S*B; εἰρήνην καὶ ὑγίειαν Scb1Scb2ARZ h ἀρχὴ] S*; ἡ ἀρχὴ ScaABRZ i ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ καὶ ἐν κρίματι] S; αὐτῆς ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ καὶ ἐν κρίματι ARZ; ἐν κρίματι καὶ ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ B j ἕως τοῦ αἰῶνος] S; εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα χρόνον ARZ; εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα B k Λόγον] S*; Θάνατον ScaScb3ABRZ l καθήμενοι] S*B; ἐνκαθήμενοι Sca; ἐγκαθήμενοι ARZ m ἐν] S; ἐφ’ ABRZ n συκαμίνους καὶ] S; συκαμίνους καὶ κέδρους καὶ ABRZ

9:5–10

87

payment as in the day in the time of Madiam. 5 Because they will return, as an exchange, every robe and garment collected by trickery, and they will be willing, if they had become burnt. 50

A son is given

(9:6–7)

6 Because a child was born to us; to you a son was also given, whose rulership came upon his shoulder; and his name is called Envoy of the Great Council, for I myself will bring peace upon the rulers and health to him. 7 His rulership is great, and there is no limit to his peace on the throne of David and his kingdom, to establish and take hold of it by righteousness and by justice from now and forever. The eagerness of Lord Sabaoth will do these things. 51

Building a new tower

(9:8–10)

8 Lord sent a word to Jacob and it came to Israel. 9 And the whole people of Ephraim and those stationed in Samaria in arrogance and high heart will know, saying, 10 “Bricks have fallen!” But come, let us hew stones, and we will cut off mulberry trees and let us build ourselves a tower.

9:5 Justin 1 Apol. 35.2; Dial. 76.3; 126.1; Irenaeus Dem. 40; 54; 55; 56; Fr. 124; Clement of Alexandria Ex. Theod. 43.2; Paed. 1.24.1, 2; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 10.11; Marc. 3.19.2; Carn. 14.3; Origen Fr. Ps. 1204; Cant. 202; Comm. Jo. 1.218, 278; Hom. Isa. 3.2–3; Hom. Num. 27.2; Cant. 3; Cels. 5.53; 8.27; Hymenaeus Paulum Samosatenum 5; Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 1; 2; Dan. 2.32.6; Traditio apostolica 4, 8; Gregory Thaumaturgus Orig. 4.42; Novatian Trin. 18.9, 22; 21.3; 28.7; 31.17; Cyprian Adv. Jud. 2.21; Victorinus Comm. Apoc. (88); Peter of Alexandria Epistula canonica 5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.54, 60, 62, 68; 2.42; Ecl. proph. 1.17; 3.30; 4.7; Dem. ev. 1.1.2; 4.10.17; 5.10.6; 5.19.3; 6; 7.1.135, 136, 140, 141, 151, 153; 7.2.2, 16, 23; 9.8.1, 16; 10.3; Laud. Const. 3.6; Marc. 2.1; Lactantius Inst. 4.11.7; 4.12.10; 5.7.1; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 12.24 9:6 Odes Sol. 7.11; Irenaeus Dem. 56; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 1.24.2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.54; Ecl. proph. 4.7; Dem. ev. 7.1.134, 142, 148, 153; Marc. 2.1; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 12.24 9:7–9 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.55 9:8 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.55 9:9 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.55 9:10 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.55–56

88 52

Text and Translation

God disperses Zion’s enemies

(9:11–13)

11 Καὶ ῥάξει ὁ θεὸς τοὺς ἐπανιστανομένους ἐπὶ Ἰερουσαλήμ, ἐπ’a ὄρος Σιὼν, ἐπ’ αὐτοὺςb, καὶ τοὺς ἐχθροὺς αὐτῶνc διασκεδάσει, 12 Συρίαν ἀφ’ ἡλίου ἀνατολῶν καὶ τοὺς Ἕλληνας ἀφ’ ἡλίου δυσμῶν τοὺς κατεσθίοντας τὸν Ἰσραὴλ ὅλῳ τῷ στόματι αὐτῶνd. ἐπὶ τούτοις πᾶσιν οὐκ ἀπεστράφη ὁ θυμός, ἀλλ’ ἔτι ἡ χεὶρ ὑψηλή. 13 καὶ ὁ λαὸς οὐκ ἀπεστράφηe, ἕως ἐπλήγη, καὶ τὸν Κύριον οὐκ ἐζήτησανf. 53

Lord removes head and tail

(9:14–17)

14 Καὶ ἀφεῖλεν Κύριος ἀπὸ Ἰσραὴλ κεφαλὴν καὶ οὐράν, μέγαν καὶ μικρὸν ἐν μιᾷ ἡμέρᾳ, 15 πρεσβύτην καὶ τοὺς τὰ πρόσωπα θαυμάζοντας, αὕτη ἡ ἀρχή, καὶ προφήτην διδάσκοντα ἄνομα, οὗτος ἡ οὐρά. 16 καὶ ἔσονται οἱ μακαρίζοντες τὸν λαὸν τοῦτον πλανῶντες καὶ πλανῶσιν ὅπως καταπίνωσινg αὐτούς. 17 διὰ τοῦτο ἐπὶ τοὺς νεανικοὺςh αὐτῶν οὐκ εὐφρανθήσεται ὁ θεόςi, καὶ τοὺς ὀρφανοὺς αὐτῶν καὶ τὰς χήρας αὐτῶν οὐκ ἐλεήσει, ὅτι πάντες ἄνομοι καὶ πονηροί, καὶ πᾶν στόμα λαλεῖ ἄδικα. 54

Lord’s wrath burns everything

(9:17–21)

Ἐπὶ πᾶσιν τούτοις οὐκ ἀπεστράφη ὁ θυμός, ἀλλ’ ἔτι ἡ χεὶρ ὑψηλή. 18 Καὶ καυθήσεται ὡς πῦρ ἡ ἀνομία καὶ ὡς ἄγρωστις ξηρὰ βρωθήσεται ὑπὸ πυρός· καὶ καυθήσεται ἐν τοῖς δάσεσι τοῦ δρυμοῦ, καὶ συγκαταφάγεται τὰ κύκλῳ τῶν βουνῶν πάντα. 19 διὰ θυμὸν ὀργῆς Κυρίου συγκέκαυται ἡ γῆ ὅλη, καὶ ἔσται ὁ λαὸς ὡς ὑπὸ πυρὸς κατακεκαυμένος· ἄνθρωπος τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ οὐκ ἐλεήσει, 20 ἀλλὰ ἐκκλινεῖ εἰς τὰ δεξιά, ὅτι πεινάσει, καὶ φάγεται ἐκ τῶν ἀριστερῶν, καὶ οὐ μὴ ἐμπλησθῇ ἄνθρωπος ἔσθων τὰς σάρκας τοῦ βραχίονος αὐτοῦ. 21 φάγεται γὰρ Μανασσὴ τοῦ Ἐφράιμ

aἐπανιστανομένους ἐπὶ Ἰερουσαλήμ, ἐπ’] S; ἐπανιστανομένους ἐπ’ ARZ; ἐπανισταμένους ἐπὶ B b αὐτοὺς] S*Scb2ARZ; αὐτόν ScaB cαὐτῶν] SAR; om. BZ d αὐτῶν] S; om. ABRZ e ἀπεστράφη] SARZ; ἐπεστράφη B f ἐζήτησαν] S*Β; ἐξεζήτησαν Scb2ARZ gκαταπίνωσιν] S*B; καταπίωσιν ScaScb3ARZ h νεανικοὺς] S*; νεανίσκους SBABRZ i θεός] SARZ; κύριος B

9:11–21

52

God disperses Zion’s enemies

89 (9:11–13)

11 And God will strike those rising up against Jerusalem, against Mount Zion, against them, and he will disperse their enemies: 12 Syria from the rising of the sun, and the Greeks from the setting of the sun, those who devour Israel with their whole mouth. Upon all these the anger has not turned back but still the hand is high. 13 And the people was not turned back until it was struck, and they did not seek out Lord. 53

Lord removes head and tail

(9:14–17)

14 And Lord took away from Israel head and tail, great and small, in one day. 15 The elder and those impressed by faces (this is the rulership), and a prophet teaching lawless things (this is the tail). 16 And those who congratulate this people will keep deceiving them, and they deceive them so that they might swallow them. 17 Because of this, God will not be pleased at their youths, and he will not have pity on their orphans and their widows because all are lawbreakers and evil, and every mouth speaks unrighteous things. 54

Lord’s wrath burns everything

(9:17–21)

At all these things the wrath was not turned back but still the hand is high. 18 And lawlessness will be burned like fire, and like dry grass it will be consumed by fire, and it will be burned in the thicket of the woods, and everything around the hill will be eaten up. 19 Because of the wrath of the anger of Lord, the whole land has been burned up and the people will be burned up as by fire; a person will have no pity on his brother. 20 But he will turn away to the right because he will be hungry and he will eat from the left, and a person who eats the flesh of his arm will not be filled. 21 For Manasses will eat of Ephraim and

9:11 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.55; 2.36; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.457) 9:12 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.55 9:13 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.56 9:14 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.56 9:15 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.56 9:16 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.56 9:17 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.56 9:18 Origen Hom. Gen. 1.2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.56 9:19 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.56 9:20 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.56

90

Text and Translation

καὶ Ἐφράιμ τοῦ Μανασσή, ὅτι ἅμα πολιορκήσουσιν τὸνa Ἰούδαν. ἐπὶ πᾶσιν τούτοιςb οὐκ ἀπεστράφη ὁ θυμός, ἀλλ’ ἔτι ἡ χεὶρ ὑψηλή. 55

Wicked judges will flee their punishment

(10:1–4)

10.1 Οὐαὶ τοῖς γράφουσιν πονηρίαν· γράφοντες γὰρ πονηρίανc γράφουσιν 2 ἐκκλίνοντες κρίσιν πτωχῶν, καὶd ἁρπάζοντες κρίματαe πενήτων τοῦ λαοῦ μου ὥστε εἶναι αὐτοὺςf χήραν εἰς ἁρπαγὴν καὶ ὀρφανὸν εἰς προνομήν. 3 καὶ τί ποιήσουσιν τῇ ἡμέρᾳg τῆς ἐπισκοπῆς; ἡ γὰρ θλῖψις ὑμῶνh πόρρωθεν ἥξει· καὶ πρὸς τίνα καταφεύξε καὶ πρὸς τίνα καταφεύξεσθε τοῦ βοηθηθῆναι; καὶ ποῦ καταλείψετε τὴν δόξαν ὑμῶν 4 τοῦ μὴ ἐμπεσεῖν εἰς ἐπαγωγήνi; ἐπὶ πᾶσι τούτοιςj οὐκ ἀπεστράφη ὁ θυμόςk, ἀλλ’ ἔτι ἡ χεὶρ ὑψηλή. 56

Woe to the Assyrians

(10:5–7)

5 Οὐαὶ Ἀσσυρίοις· ἡ ῥάβδος τοῦ θυμοῦ μου καὶ ὀργῆςl ἐστιν ἐν ταῖς χερσὶν αὐτῶν. 6 Τὴν ὀργήν μου εἰς ἔθνος ἄνομον ἀποστρέψωm καὶ τῷ ἐμῷ λαῷ συντάξω τοῦn ποιῆσαι σκῦλα καὶ προνομὴν καὶ καταπατεῖν τὰς πόλεις καὶ θεῖναι αὐτὰς εἰς κονιορτόν. 7 αὐτὸς δὲ οὐχ οὕτως ἐνεθυμήθη καὶ τῇ ψυχῇ οὐχ οὕτως λελόγισταιo, ἀλλὰ ἀπαλλάξειp ὁ νοῦς αὐτοῦ ἔθνη ἐξολεθρεῦσαιq οὐκ ὀλίγα. 57

He will take all regions

(10:8–10)

8 Καὶ ἐὰν εἴπωσιν αὐτῷ Σὺ μόνος εἶ ἄρχων, 9 καὶ ἐρεῖ Οὐκ ἔλαβον τὴν χώραν τὴν ἐπάνω Βαβυλῶνος καὶ Χαλαννή, οὗ ὁ πύργος ᾠκοδομήθη; καὶ ἔλαβον Ἀραβίαν καὶ Δαμασκὸν καὶ Σαμάρειαν· 10 ὃν τρόπον ταύτας ἔλαβον ἐν τῇ χειρί μουr, καὶ πάσας τὰς χώραςs λήμψομαι.

aτὸν ScaABRZ; τοι S* b πᾶσιν τούτοις] S; τούτοις πᾶσιν ABRZ c πονηρίαν] SABR; πόνον Z d καὶ] SA; om. BRZ eκρίματα] S; κρίμα ABRZ f αὐτοὺς] S; αὐτοῖς ABRZ g τῇ ἡμέρᾳ] S*B; ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ Scb2ARZ hὑμῶν] S*; ὑμῖν ScaABRZ iἐπαγωγήν] SARZ; ἀπαγωγήν B jπᾶσι τούτοις] SBR; τούτοις πᾶσιν AZ kὁ θυμός] SARZ; ἡ ὀργή B lὀργῆς] SARZ; ἡ ὀργή B mἀποστρέψω] S*; ἀποστελῶ Scb2BRZ; ἀποστέλλω A n τοῦ] SA; om. BRZ oλελόγισται] ScaABRZ; λελόγισθαι S* pἀπαλλάξει] SABR; ἀπαλλάξαι Z qἔθνη ἐξολεθρεῦσαι] S; καὶ τοῦ ἔθνη ἐξολοθρεῦσαι B; καὶ τοῦ ἔθνη ἐξολεθρεῦσαι R; καὶ τοῦ ἐξολεθρεῦσαι ἔθνη AZ. r ἐν τῇ χειρί μου] SAR; om. BZ s χώρας] SAZ; ἀρχὰς BR

91

10:1–10

Ephraim of Manasses, because they will besiege Judah at the same time. At all these things the wrath was not turned back but still the hand is high. 55

Wicked judges will flee their punishment

(10:1–4)

10.1 Woe to those who write wickedness, for when they write, they write wickedness, 2 turning aside justice for beggars and snatching away justices from labourers of my people so that a widow becomes prey and an orphan becomes plunder. 3 And what will they do on the day of the punishment? For your affliction will come from afar. And to whom will you flee? And to whom will you flee to be helped? And where will you leave your glory 4 in order to not fall into invasion? At all these things the wrath was not turned back but still the hand is high. 56

Woe to the Assyrians

(10:5–7)

5 Woe to the Assyrians! The rod of my wrath and anger is in their hands. 6 I will turn my anger towards a lawless nation and I will order my people to make spoils and plunder and to trample the cities and to make them into a cloud of dust. 7 But it did not plan this and it has not considered this in its soul, rather its mind will change, to destroy not a few nations. 57

He will take all regions

(10:8–10)

8 And if they say to him, “You alone are ruler,” 9 he will also say, “Did I not take the territory above Babylon, and Chalanne, where the tower was built? And I took Arabia and Damascus and Samareia. 10 In the way that I took these in my hand, also I will take all the regions.”

10:1 Tertullian Marc. 4.14.6; Origen Comm. Matt. 137; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.57 10:2 Tertullian Marc. 4.14.6; 4.27.7; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.57 10:3 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.57 10:4 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.57 10:5 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.57, 58; 2.12 10:6 Clement of Alexandria Strom. 5.99.6; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.58; Praep. ev. 13.13.22 10:7 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.58–59; 2.12 10:8 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.58 10:9 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.58, 59, 72; Onom. (GCS 11,1.170, 174) 10:10 Origen Hom. Isa. 8; 8.1; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.58, 72; 2.10

92 58

Text and Translation

Jerusalem’s images will be like Samaria’s

(10:10–11)

Ὀλολύξατε, τὰ γλυπτὰ ἐν Ἰερουσαλὴμ καὶ ἐν Σαμαρείᾳ· 11 ὃν τρόπον γὰρ ἐποίησα Σαμαρείᾳ καὶ τοῖς χειροποιήτοις αὐτῆς, οὕτως ποιήσω καὶ ἐνa Ἰερουσαλὴμ καὶ τοῖς εἰδώλοις αὐτῆς. 59

The leader of the Assyrians

(10:12–14)

12 Καὶ ἔσται ὅταν συντελέσῃ Κύριος πάντα ποιῶν ἐν τῷ ὄρει Σιὼν καὶ Ἰερουσαλήμ, ἐπάξει Κύριοςb ἐπὶ τὸν νοῦν τὸν μέγαν, τὸν ἄρχοντα τῶν Ἀσσυρίων, καὶ ἐπὶ τὸ ὕψος τῆς δόξης τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν αὐτῶνc. 13 Εἶπεν γάρ Τῇd ἰσχύι ποιήσω, καὶ τῇe σοφίᾳ τῆς συνέσεως ἀφελῶ ὅρια ἐθνῶν, καὶ τὴν ἰσχὺν αὐτῶν προνομεύσω, καὶ σείσω πόλεις κατοικουμένας, 14 καὶ τὴν οἰκουμένην ὅλην καταλήμψομαι τῇ χειρὶ ὡς νοσσιὰν καὶ ὡς καταλελειμμένα ᾠὰ ἀρῶ, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ὃς διαφεύξεταί με ἢ ἀντείπῃ μοι. 60

The tool depends on its master

(10:15–16)

15 Μὴ δοξασθήσεται ἀξίνη ἄνευ τοῦ κόπτοντος ἐν αὐτῇ; ἢ ὑψωθήσεται πρίων ἄνευ τοῦ ἕλκοντος αὐτόν; ὡσαύτως ἐάνf τις ἄρῃ ῥάβδον ἢ ξύλον. καὶ οὐχ οὕτως. 16 Ἀλλὰ ἀποστείλῃg Κύριος Σαβαὼθ εἰς τὴν σὴν τιμὴν ἀτιμίαν, καὶ εἰς τὴν σὴν δόξαν πῦρ καιόμενον καυθήσεται.

aἐν] S; om. ABRZ bἐπάξει Κύριος] S; om. Κύριος ABRZ cαὐτῶν] S*; αὐτοῦ ScaABRZ d Τῇ] SARZ; Ἐν τῇ B eτῇ σοφίᾳ] SARZ; ἐν τῇ σοφίᾳ B fὡσαύτως ἐάν] SARZ; ὡς ἄν B gἀποστείλῃ] S; ἀποστελεῖ ABRZ

10:11–16

58

Jerusalem’s images will be like Samaria’s

93 (10:10–11)

Cry aloud, carved images in Jerusalem and in Samareia! 11 For in the way that I treated Samareia and her hand-made things, so I will also treat in Jerusalem and her images. 59

The leader of the Assyrians

(10:12–14)

12 And it shall be when Lord finishes doing all things in the mountain of Zion and Jerusalem, Lord will bring the ruler of the Assyrians against the great mind, and upon the exaltation of the glory of their eyes. 13 For he said, “In power I will act and by the wisdom of intelligence I will remove boundaries of nations and I will plunder their power and I will shake inhabited cities. 14 And I will take hold of the whole inhabited world with my hand like a nest, and like eggs that are left behind I will take them and there is not one who will escape me or might oppose me.” 60

The tool depends on its master

(10:15–16)

15 Will an axe be glorified without the one who cuts with it? Or will a saw be exalted without the one who pulls it? Similarly, if anyone lifts a rod or timber. And not so! 16 Rather, may Lord Sabaoth send dishonour on your honour and burning fire will burn on your glory.

10:11 Clement of Alexandria Protr. 79.6; Origen Hom. Isa. 8.1; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.58, 59; 2.12 10:12 Hippolytus Antichr. 5, 16; Origen Hom. Jer. 17.3; Hom. Jes. Nav. 14.2; Hom. Isa. 8.1; Hom. Num. 11.4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.59, 60; 2.13 10:13 Clement of Alexandria Protr. 79.6; Strom. 5.127.3; Origen Hom. Jer. 17.3; Hom. Ezek. 9.2; 11.4; 13.1; Hom. Jes. Nav. 14.2; Hom. Isa. 8; 8.2; Hom. Num 11.4; 12.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.59; Dem. ev. 4.9.2, 7; Praep. ev. 13.13.54 10:14 Clement of Alexandria Protr. 79.6; Strom. 5.127.3; Tertullian Marc. 2.25.2; Origen Fr. Jer. (GCS 6.225); Hom. Ezech. 9.2; 11.4; 13.1; Hom. Num 12.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.59; Dem. ev. 4.9.2, 7; Praep. ev. 13.13.54; Dem. ev. 4.9.2, 7 10:15 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.59 10:16 Origen Hom. Ezech. 1.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.59

94 61

Text and Translation

Israel’s fire will consume

(10:17–19)

17 Καὶ ἔσται τὸ φῶς τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ εἰς πῦρ καὶ ἁγιάσει αὐτὸν ἐν πυρὶ καιομένῳ καὶ φάγεται ὡσεὶ χόρτοςa τὴν ὕλην. 18 Τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ἀποσβεσθήσεται τὰ ὄρη καὶ οἱ βουνοὶ καὶ οἱ δρυμοί, καὶ καταφάγεται ἀπὸ ψυχῆς ἕως σαρκῶν· καὶ ἔσται ὁ φεύγων ὡς ὁ φεύωνb ἀπὸ φλογὸς καιομένης· 19 καὶ οἱ καταλειφθέντες ἀπ’ αὐτῶν ἔσονται ἀριθμός, καὶ παιδίον γράψει αὐτούς. 62

The remnant of Israel will trust God

(10:20–23)

20 Καὶ ἔσται ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ οὐκέτι προστεθήσεται τὸ καταλειφθὲν Ἰσραήλ, καὶ οἱ σωθέντες τοῦ Ἰακὼβ οὐκέτι μὴ πεποιθότες ὦσιν ἐπὶ τοὺς ἀδικήσαντας αὐτούς. Ἀλλὰ ἔσονται πεποιθότες ἐπὶ τὸν θεὸν τὸν ἅγιον τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ τῇ ἀληθείᾳ, 21 καὶ ἔσται τὸ καταλειφθὲν τοῦ Ἰακὼβ ἐπὶ θεὸν ἰσχύοντα. 22 καὶ ἐὰν γένηται ὁ λαὸς Ἰσραὴλ ὡς ἡ ἄμμος τῆς θαλάσσης, τὸ κατάλειμμα αὐτῶν σωθήσεται· λόγον γὰρc συντελῶν καὶ συντέμνων ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ, 23 ὅτι λόγον συντετμημένον ποιήσει ὁ θεὸςd ἐν τῇ οἰκουμένῃ ὅλῃ. 63

Do not fear the Assyrians

(10:24–26)

24 Διὰ τοῦτο τάδε λέγει Κύριος ὁ θεὸςe Σαβαώθ Μὴ φοβοῦ, ὁ λαός μου οἱ κατοικοῦντες ἐν Σιών, ἀπὸ Ἀσσυρίων, ὅτι ἐν ῥάβδῳ πατάξει σε· πλὴνf γὰρ ἐγὼ ἐπάγω ἐπὶ σὲ τοῦ ἰδεῖν ὁδὸν Αἰγύπτου. 25 ἔτι γὰρ μικρὸν καὶ παύσεται ἡ ὀργή, ὁ δὲ θυμός μου ἐπὶ

aχόρτος] S; χόρτον ABRZ bφεύων] S*; φεύγων ScaABRZ cγὰρ] SARZ; om. B d ὁ θεὸς] SARZ; Κύριος B e ὁ θεὸς] S*A; ὁ Κύριος Scb2; Κύριος Scb3; om. BRZ f πλὴν] S*; πληγὴν Scb1ABRZ

10:17–25

61

Israel’s fire will consume

95 (10:17–19)

17 And the light of Israel will become a fire, and it will sanctify him with a burning fire, and like hay it will consume the wood. 18 On that day, the mountains will be extinguished, also the hills and the forests, and it will devour from soul to flesh, and the one who flees will be like the one who flees from a burning flame. 19 And those of them who are left will be a number and a young child will record them. 62

The remnant of Israel will trust God

(10:20–23)

20 And it will be on that day: no longer will what is left of Israel be increased, and those of Jacob who are saved of will no longer trust those who wronged them. Rather, they will trust the holy god of Israel in truth, 21 and what is left of Jacob will trust a powerful god. 22 And if the people of Israel become as the sand of the sea, the remnant of them will be saved, for it is completing an account and curtailing in righteousness, 23 because God will make a curtailed account with the whole inhabited land. 63

Do not fear the Assyrians

(10:24–26)

24 Therefore, thus says Lord, God Sabaoth, “My people, those dwelling in Zion, do not be frightened of Assyrians, because he will strike you with a rod, for only I bring upon you to see a way of Egypt. 25 For a little longer and the anger

10:17 Hippolytus Antichr. 5, 16; Origen Princ. 4.4.6; Hom. Ezech. 1.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.59; Dem. ev. 2.3.95 10:18 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.59; Dem. ev. 2.3.97 10:19 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.59; Dem. ev. 2.3.97, 99 10:20 Origen Hom. Lev. 5.11; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.60; Dem. ev. 2.3.100 10:21 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.60; Dem. ev. 2.3.103 10:22 Irenaeus Dem. 87; Ps.-Cyprian De centesima sexagesima trigesima 14; Cyprian Test. 2.3; Dom. or. 28; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.60; Dem. ev. 2.3.103, 105, 106, 108 10:23 Irenaeus Dem. 87; Ps.-Cyprian De centesima sexagesima trigesima 14; Origen Fragmenta e catenis in Psalmos (Pitra 40); Tertullian Marc. 4.1.5; 4.16.17; Cyprian Test. 2.3; Dom. or. 28; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.60; Dem. ev. 2.3.44, 95, 106 10:24 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.61 10:25 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.61

96

Text and Translation

τὴν βουλὴν αὐτῶν· 26 καὶ ἐπεγερεῖ αὐτοὺς ὁ θεὸςa κατὰ τὴν πληγὴν τὴν Μαδιὰμ ἐν τόπῳ θλίψεως, καὶ ὁ θυμὸς αὐτοῦ τῇ ὁδῷ τῇ κατὰ θάλασσαν εἰς τὴν ὁδὸν τὴν κατ’ Αἴγυπτον. 64

His yoke will be destroyed

(10:27–32)

27 Καὶ ἔσται ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ἀφαιρεθήσεται ὁ φόβος αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ σοῦ καὶ ὁ ζυγὸς αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ τοῦ ὤμου σουb, καὶ καταφθαρήσεται ὁ ζυγὸς αὐτῶνc ἀπὸ τῶν ὤμων ὑμῶν. 28 ἥξει γὰρ εἰς τὴν πόλιν Ἀγγαί, 29 καὶ παρελεύσεται εἰς Μακεδὼd καὶ ἐν Μαχμὰ θήσει τὰ σκεύη αὐτῶνe καὶ παρελεύσεται φάραγγα καὶ ἥξει εἰς Ἀγγαί, φόβος λήμψεται Ῥαμὰ πόλιν Σαούλ· φεύξεται 30 ἡ θυγάτηρ Ταλείμf,g ἐπακούσεται ἐν Ἀναθώθ· 31 ἐξέστηh Μαδεβηνὰ καὶ οἱ κατοικοῦντες Γιββίρi· 32 παρακαλεῖτε σήμερον ἐν ὁδῷ τοῦ μεῖναι, τῇ χειρὶ παρακαλεῖτε, τὸ ὄρος, τὴν θυγατέρα Σιών, καὶ οἱ βουνοὶ οἱ ἐν Ἰερουσαλήμ. 65

Lord Sabaoth humbles the arrogant

(10:33–34)

33 Ἰδοὺ δὴj ὁ δεσπότης Κύριος Σαβαὼθ συνταράξειk τοὺς ἐνδόξους μετὰ ἰσχύος, καὶ οἱ ὑψηλοὶ τῇ ὕβρει συντριβήσονται καὶ ταπεινωθήσονταιl, 34 καὶ πεσοῦνται οἱ ὑψηλοὶ μαχαίρᾳ, ὁ δὲ Λίβανος σὺν τοῖς ὑψηλοῖς πεσεῖται.

aἐπεγερεῖ αὐτοὺς ὁ θεὸς] S; ἐγερεῖ ὁ θεὸς ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς B; ἐπεγερεῖ ὁ θεὸς ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς ARZ b ὁ φόβος αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ σοῦ καὶ ὁ ζυγὸς αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ τοῦ ὤμου σου] SARZ; ὁ ζυγὸς αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ τοῦ ὤμου σου, καὶ ὁ φόβος αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ σοῦ B cαὐτῶν] S; om. ABRZ dΜακεδὼ] S*; Μαγεδω ScaBRZ; Μαγεδδω A eαὐτῶν] S*; αὐτοῦ ScaABRZ f Ταλείμ] S*; Γαλείμ ScaB; Γαλλείμ AQ; Γαλλιμ RZ g Ταλείμ,] S; + ἐπακούσεται ἐν Σά AB; + ἐπακούσεται Λαισα RZ h ἐξέστη] SARZ; καὶ ἐξέστη B i Γιββίρ] SRZ; Γιββειρ AB j δὴ] S; om. B; γὰρ ARZ k συνταράξει] S; συνταράσσει ABRZ l ταπεινωθήσονται] S; οἱ ὑψηλοὶ ταπεινωθήσονται BRZ; ταπεινωθήσονται οἱ ὑψηλοὶ A

10:26–34

97

will cease, but my wrath will be upon their plot.” 26 And God will awaken them according to the blow, Madiam in a place of oppression, and his wrath will be by the way of the sea towards the way of Egypt. 64

His yoke will be destroyed

(10:27–32)

27 And it will be in that day, the fear of him will be taken away from you, and his yoke from your shoulder and their yoke will be destroyed from your shoulders. 28 For he will come into the city of Aggai 29 and he will go on to Makedo, and in Machma he will set down their things. And he will pass a ravine and he will come into Aggai; fear will take Rama, city of Saoul; 30 the daughter of Taleim will flee; she will listen in Anathoth. 31 Madebena is impressed. And those dwelling in Gibbir, 32 with your hand encourage today to stay on the path. Encourage the daughter of Zion, O mountain and hills that are in Jerusalem. 65

Lord Sabaoth humbles the arrogant

(10:33–34)

33 Look, now, the master Lord Sabaoth will confound those held in esteem with power, and those haughty with arrogance will be crushed and humbled. 34 And the haughty will fall by the sword, and Libanos will fall with the haughty.

10:26 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.61 10:27 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.61 10:28 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.61 10:29 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.61 10:30 Eusebius Onom. (GCS 11,1.72, 122) 10:31 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.61; Onom. (GCS 11,1 74, 130) 10:32 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.61 10:33 Tertullian Marc. 4.15.11; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.62; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.816); Ecl. proph. 4.8; Dem. ev. 2.3.110; 8.4.18 10:34 Tertullian Marc. 4.15.11; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.62; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.816); Ecl. proph. 4.8, 16; Dem. ev. 2.3.110; 8.4.18

98 66

Text and Translation

The rod from the root of Iesai

(11:1–5)

11.1 Καὶ ἐξελεύσεται ῥάβδος ἐκ τῆς ῥίζης Ἰεσαί,a καὶ ἄνθος ἐκ τῆς ῥίζης ἀναβήσεται. 2 καὶ ἐπαναπαύσεταιb ἐπ’ αὐτὸν πνεῦμα τοῦ θεοῦ, πνεῦμα σοφίας καὶ συνέσεως, πνεῦμα βουλῆς καὶ ἰσχύος, πνεῦμα γνώσεως καὶ εὐσεβείας· 3 καὶ ἐμπλήσει αὐτὸν πνεῦμα φόβου θεοῦ. οὐ κατὰ τὴν δόξαν κρινεῖ οὐδὲ κατὰ τὴν λαλιὰν ἐλέγξει, 4 ἀλλὰ κρινεῖ ταπεινῷ κρίσιν καὶ ἐλέγξει τοὺς ἐνδόξους τῆς γῆς· καὶ πατάξει γῆν τῷ λόγῳ τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐν τῷ πνεύματι διὰ χειλέων ἀνελεῖ ἀσεβῆ· 5 καὶ ἔσται δικαιοσύνῃ ἐζωσμένος τὴν ὀσφὺν αὐτοῦ καὶ ἀληθείᾳ εἰλημμένος τὰς πλευράς.

aἸεσαί] S; Ἰεσσαί ABRZ

b ἐπαναπαύσεται] S; ἀναπαύσεται ABRZ

99

11:1–5

66

The rod from the root of Iesai

(11:1–5)

11.1 And a rod will emerge from the root of Iesai, and a flower will come up from the root. 2 And God’s spirit will rest on him, a spirit of wisdom and intelligence, a spirit of counsel and power, a spirit of knowledge and piety; 3 And a spirit of fear of God will fill him. He will judge not according to glory nor will he reprove according to eloquence. 4 Rather, he will render justice to a humble one and he will reprove the esteemed of the land, and he will strike a land with the word of his mouth and with the spirit through lips he will destroy ungodly things. 5 And he will be girded at his waist with righteousness, and taken with truth at the sides.

11:1 Justin Dial. 86.4; 87.2; 100.4; 126.1; Irenaeus Dem. 59; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 1.61.1; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 9.26; Origen Fr. Prov. (PG 17.220); Fr. Ps. (Analecta sacra 3.332); Tertullian Marc. 3.17.3; 4.1.8; 5.8.4; Carn. Chr. 21.5; 22.6; Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 1; Antichr. 8; Gen. (GCS 1,2.59); Origen Fr. Ezech. (PG 13, 792, 824); Fr. Ps. (PG 12.1109, 12.1204); Comm. Jo. 1.147, 261, 263–264; 2.126; Hom. Jer. 2.3; Hom. Isa. 3.1–2; Hom. Judic. 6.2; Hom. Num. 6.3; 9.9; Novatian Trin. 6; Cyprian Test. 2.11; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.62–65, 75; 2.22, 42, 51; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.821); Fr. var. (PG 87,2.1792); Ecl. proph. 3.41; 4.8; 4.31; Dem. ev. 2.2.11; 2.3.40, 110; 3.2.39, 42; 7.3.28, 30, 35, 48, 55; 8.4.18; Lactantius Inst. 4.13.20–21; Athanasius Ep. fest. 3.5; Eusebius De solemnitate paschali 7; Eccl. theol. 1.20 11:2 Philo QG 1 1.99; Gos. Heb. (CCL 73.148); Gos. Truth (33); Irenaeus Dem. 9; Clement of Alexandria Fr. var. (GCS 17.227); Paed. 3.87.4; Strom. 5.36.3; Origen Fr. Ps. (PG 12.1616); Fr. var. 36; Comm. Eph. 8; Fr. Ps. (SC 189.390); 105.2; (PG 12.1204); Hom. Jer. 8.5; Hom. 1 Reg. 18; Hom. Isa. 3.1–3; Hom. Lev. 3.5; 8.11; Hom. Num 6.3; 9.9; In Cant. 3; Comm. Matt. 13.2; Tertullian Marc. 3.17.3; 5.8.8; 5.17.5; Hippolytus Prov. (Richard, 79.82); Novatian Trin. 29.12; Victorinus Fabrica mundi 7; Comm. Ap. (CSEL 49.16); Methodius Conv. 3.8; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.31, 62; 2.22, 42, 51; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.821); Fr. var. (PG 87,2.1792); Ecl. proph. 3.41; 4.8; 4.31; Dem. ev. 2.2.11; 3.2.39; 8.4.18; 10.2.16; Eccl. theol. 1.20; Ps.-Justin Cohortatio ad Graecos 32; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 12–18 16.30; 17.5 11:3 Justin Dial. 87.2; Irenaeus Dem. 9; 60; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 1.61.2; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 9.26; Marc. 3.17.3; 5.8.4; Origen Fr. var. 36; Fr. Ps. (PG 12.1109); Comm. Jo. 1.147; Hom. Jer. 8.5; Hom. 1 Reg. 18; Hom. Isa. 3.1; 3.2; 3.3; Hom. Lev. 3.5; 8.11; 12.7; Hom. Num 6.3; Comm. Matt. 13.2; Hippolytus Prov. (Richard, 79.82); Novatian Trin. 29.12; Cyprian Test. 2.11; Victorinus Fabrica mundi 7; Comm. Ap. (CSEL 49.16); Methodius Conv. 3.8; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.31, 62; Fr. var. (PG 87, 2.1792); Ecl. proph. 3.30; 4.8; Lactantius Inst. 4.13.20; Ps.-Justin Cohortatio ad Graecos 32; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 15.23; 16.30; 17.5 11:4 Irenaeus Dem. 60; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 1.61.2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.62; Dem. ev. 9.7.7 11:5 Irenaeus Dem. 60; Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 2; Origen Comm. Luc. 198–199; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.62; Comm. Ps. (Analecta sacra 3.503); Dem. ev. 7.3.35; Athanasius Ep. fest. 5

100 67

Text and Translation

Peace among creatures

(11:6–9)

6 Καὶ συμβοσκηθήσεται λύκος μετὰ ἀρνός, καὶ πάρδαλις συναναπαύσεται ἐρίφῳ, καὶ μοσχάριον καὶ ταῦρος καὶ λέων ἅμα βοσκηθήσονται, καὶ παιδίον μικρὸν ἄξει αὐτούς· 7 καὶ βοῦς καὶ ἄρκος ἅμα βοσκηθήσονται, καὶ ἅμα τὰ παιδία αὐτῶν ἔσονται, καὶ λέων καὶ βοῦς φάγονται ἄχυρα. 8 καὶ παιδίον νήπιον ἐπὶ τρώγλην ἀσπίδων καὶ ἐπὶ κοίτην ἐκγόνων ἀσπίδων τὴν χεῖρα ἐπιβαλεῖ. 9 καὶ οὐ μὴ κακοποιήσουσινa οὐδὲ μὴ δύνωνται ἀπολέσαι οὐδένα ἐπὶ τὸ ὄρος τὸ ἅγιόν μου. Ὅτι ἐνεπλήσθη ἡ σύμπασα τοῦ γνῶναι τὸν Κύριον ὡς ὕδωρ πολὺ κατακαλύψαι θαλάσσας. 68

Victory of the root of Iessai

(11:10–14)

10 Καὶ ἔσται ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ἡ ῥίζα τοῦ Ἰεσσαὶ καὶ ὁ ἀνιστάμενος ἄρχειν ἐθνῶν, ἐπ’ αὐτῷ ἔθνη ἐλπιοῦσιν, καὶ ἔσται ἡ ἀνάπαυσις αὐτοῦ τιμή. 11 καὶ ἔσται τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ προσθήσει Κύριος τοῦ δεῖξαι τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦ τοῦ ζηλῶσαι τὸ καταλειφθὲν ὑπόλοιπον τοῦ λαοῦ. ὃ ἂν καταλειφθῇ τῶν Ἀσσυρίων καὶ ἀπὸ Αἰγύπτου καὶ ἀπὸ Βαβυλωνίας καὶ ἀπὸ Αἰθιοπίας καὶ ἀπὸ Ἐλαμιτῶν καὶ ἀπὸ ἡλίου ἀνατολῶν καὶ ἐξ Ἀραβίας 12 καὶ ἀρεῖ σημεῖον εἰς τὰ ἔθνη καὶ συνάξει τοὺς ἀπολομένους Ἰσραήλ καὶ τοὺς διεσπαρμένους τοῦ Ἰούδα συνάξει ἐκ τῶν τεσσάρων πτερύγων τῆς γῆς. 13 καὶ ἀφαιρεθήσεται ὁ ζῆλος Ἐφράιμ, καὶ οἱ ἐχθροὶ Ἰούδα ἀπολοῦνται· Ἐφράιμ οὐ ζηλώσει Ἰούδαν, καὶ Ἰούδας οὐ

aκακοποιήσουσιν] SB; κακοποιήσωσιν ARZ

11:6–13

67

Peace among creatures

101 (11:6–9)

6 And a wolf will feed together with a lamb, and a leopard will rest with a kid, and a little calf and a bull and a lion will feed together, and a small young child will lead them. 7 And an ox and a bear will feed together, and they will be together with their young, and a lion and an ox will eat straw. 8 And an infant young child will lay its hand on an asp’s hole and on a bed of asps’ offspring. 9 And they will not injure nor will they be able to destroy anyone on my holy mountain. Because the whole land was filled with knowing Lord, like much water with covering seas. 68

Victory of the root of Iessai

(11:10–14)

10 And there will be, in that day, the root of Iessai and the one who rises up to rule nations; in him nations will hope and his repose will be honour. 11 And it will be on that day, Lord will continue to show his hand to be eager for the surviving remnant of the people. What was left by the Assyrians and from Egypt and from Babylonia and from Ethiopia and from Ailamites and from the sun’s rising and out of Arabia 12 will also raise a sign towards the nations and gather the destroyed of Israel and gather the scattered of Judah from the four wings of the land. 13 And the zeal of Ephraim will be taken away, and the enemies of Judah will be destroyed;

11:6 Sib. Or. 3; Philo Praem.. 87, 89; Irenaeus Dem. 61; Tertullian Herm. 11.3; Origen Princ. 4.2.1; Hom. Ezech. 11.3; Hom. Gen. 2.5; Cels.4.93; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.62; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.752, 765); Ecl. proph. 4.8; Dem. ev. 2.3.111; 3.2.40, 42; 7.3.28, 34, 36; Lactantius Inst. 7.24.8, 12; Epit. 67.5; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 17.10 11:7 Clement of Alexandria Strom. 6.50.2; Origen Princ. 4.2.1; Comm. Jo. 13.212; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.62; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.752) 11:8 Philo Praem.. 87, 89; Tertullian Herm. 11.3; Marc. 4.24.9; Origen Hom. Gen. 2.5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.62; Dem. ev. 7.3.34, 36 11:9 Sib. Or. 3; Irenaeus Dem. 61; Origen Fr. Ps. (Analecta sacra 3.362); Tertullian Marc. 4.24.9; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.62; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.765); Lactantius Inst. 7.24.8, 12; Epit. 67.5; Eusebius Dem. ev. 2.3.111; Athanasius Ep. fest. 4.3; Inc. 40.7; 45.2 11:10 Irenaeus Dem. 59; 61; Novatian Trin. 9.8; Cyprian Test. 1.21; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.62–63; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.765, 821); Ecl. proph. 4.8; Lactantius Inst. 4.13.19; Eusebius Dem. ev. 2.2.11; 2.3.40, 107, 113; 3.2.41, 43; 7.3.28, 32, 48; 8.4.18; 9.1.16; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 12.23 11:11 Philo Praem.. 165; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.63–64; Dem. ev. 2.3.115, 117, 122 11:12 Philo Praem.. 165; Justin 1 Apol. 52.10; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.63; 2.52; Dem. ev. 2.3.107, 119, 122 11:13 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.63; Dem. ev. 2.3.123

102

Text and Translation

θλίψει Ἐφράιμ. 14 καὶ πετασθήσονται ἐν πλοίοις ἀλλοφύλων, θάλασσαν ἅμα προνομεύουσιν καὶ τοὺς ἀφ’ ἡλίου ἀνατολῶν καὶ Ἰδουμαίαν· καὶ ἐπὶ Μωὰβ πρῶτον ἐπιβαλοῦσιν τὰς χεῖρας, οἱ δὲ υἱοὶ Ἀμμὼν πρῶτοι ὑπακούσονται. 69

A second exodus from Egypt

(11:15–12:1)

15 Καὶ ἐρημώσει Κύριος τὴν θάλασσαν Αἰγύπτου καὶ ἐπιβαλεῖ τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τὸν ποταμὸν πνεύματι βιαίῳ καὶ πατάξει ἑπτὰ φάραγγας ὥστε διαπορεύεσθαι αὐτὸν ἐν ὑποδήμασιν· 16 καὶ ἔσται δίοδος τῷ καταλειφθέντι μου λαῷ ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ, καὶ ἔσται τῷ Ἰσραὴλ ὡς ἡ ἡμέρα ὅτε ἐξῆλθον ἐκ γῆς Αἰγύπτου. 12.1 Καὶ ἐρεῖς ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ Εὐλογῶa σε, Κύριε, διότι ὠργίσθης μοι εἰς σωτηρίανb καὶ ἀπέστρεψας τὸν θυμόν σου καὶ ἠλέησάς με. 70

Lord is my Salvation

(12:2)

2 Ἰδοὺ ὁ θεός μου σωτήρ μου Κύριοςc, πεποιθὼς ἔσομαι ἐπ’ αὐτῷd καὶe σωθήσομαι ἐν αὐτῷf καὶ οὐ φοβηθήσομαι, διότι ἡ δόξα μου καὶ ἡ αἴνεσίς μου Κύριος καὶ ἐγένετό μοι εἰς σωτηρίαν. 71

Sing about Lord

(12:3–13:1)

3 Καὶ ἀντλήσετε ὕδωρ μετ’ εὐφροσύνης ἐκ τῶν πηγῶν τοῦ σωτηρίου. 4 καὶ ἐρεῖς ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ Ὑμνεῖτε Κύριον, βοᾶτε τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ, ἀναγγείλατε ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν τὰ ἔνδοξα αὐτοῦ, μιμνῄσκεσθε ὅτι ὑψώθη τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ. 5 ὑμνήσατε τὸ ὄνομα Κυρίου, ὅτι

aΕὐλογῶ] SB; Εὐλογήσω Scb2ARZ bεἰς σωτηρίαν] S*; om. ScaABRZ c Κύριος] SRZ; om. AB dἐπ’ αὐτῷ] SBRZ; om. A e καὶ σωθήσομαι] SR; om. ABZ f ἐν αὐτῷ] SABcR; om. B*Z

11:14–12:5

103

Ephraim will not be jealous of Judah and Judah will not distress Ephraim. 14 And they will fly in ships of foreigners; together they will plunder the sea and those from the rising of the sun and Idoumaia; and first they will lay their hands on Moab, but the sons of Ammon first will listen. 69

A second exodus from Egypt

(11:15–12:1)

15 And Lord will desolate the sea of Egypt, and will lay his hand on the river with a violent wind, and he will strike seven ravines in order for him to go through in sandals. 16 And there will be a passage for my people left in Egypt, and it will be for Israel like the day when he came out from the land of Egypt. 12.1 And you will say on that day, “I praise you, Lord, for you were angry with me for the purpose of salvation and you averted your wrath and you had pity on me. 70

Lord is my Salvation

(12:2)

2 Look, Lord my god is my saviour; I will trust in him and I will be saved by him and I will not be frightened, for Lord is my glory and my praise, and he has become salvation for me.” 71

Sing about Lord

(12:3–13:1)

3 And you will draw water with joy from the streams of salvation. 4 And you will say on that day, “Sing about Lord; shout his name; proclaim among the nations his glorious things; be mindful that his name is exalted. 5 Sing about Lord’s name, for he

11:14 Hippolytus Antichr. 51; Comm. Dan. 4.54.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.63–64; Dem. ev. 2.3.124 11:15 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.64, 75 11:16 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.64 12:1 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.64 12:2 Odes Sol. 35.2; Origen Hom. Isa. 3.2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.64 12:3 Tertullian Marc. 4.14.2; Origen Hom. Num 12.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.64, 75; 2.20, 25, 35, 44 12:4 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.64 12:5 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.64

104

Text and Translation

ὑψηλὰ ἐποίησεν· ἀναγγείλατε ταῦτα ἐν πάσῃ τῇ γῇ. 6 ἀγαλλιάσασθεa καὶ εὐφραίνεσθε, οἱ κατοικοῦντες ἐνb Σειών, ὅτι ὑψώθη ὁ ἅγιος τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ ἐν μέσῳ σουc. 13.1 Ὅρασις, ἣν εἶδεν Ἠσαίας υἱὸς Ἀμὼς κατὰ Βαβυλῶνος. 72

Lord Sabaoth leads giants against the world

(13:2–5)

2 Ἐπ’ ὄρους πεδινοῦ ἄρατε σημεῖον, ὑψώσατε τὴν φωνὴν αὐτοῖς, μὴ φοβεῖσθε, παρακαλεῖσθεd τῇ χειρίe Ἀνοίξατε, οἱ ἄρχοντες. 3 ἐγὼ συντάσσω, καὶ ἐγὼ ἄγω αὐτούς· ἡγιασμένοι εἰσίν, καὶ ἐγὼ ἄγωf αὐτούς· γίγαντες ἔρχονται πληρῶσαι τὸν θυμόν μου χαίροντες ἅμα καὶ ὑβρίζοντες. 4 φωνὴ ἐθνῶν πολλῶνg φωνὴ βασιλέων καὶ ἐθνῶν συνηγμένων. Κύριος Σαβαὼθ ἐντέταλται ἔθνει ὁπλομάχῳ 5 ἔρχεσθαι ἐκ γῆς πόρρωθεν ἀπ’ ἄκρου θεμελίου τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, Κύριος καὶ οἱ ὁπλομάχοιh αὐτοῦ, καταφθεῖραιi τὴν οἰκουμένην ὅληνj. 73

The day of Lord is near

(13:6–8)

6 ὀλολύζετε, ἐγγὺς γὰρ ἡk ἡμέρα Κυρίου, καὶ συντριβὴ παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ ἥξει. 7 διὰ τοῦτο πᾶσα χεὶρ ἐκλυθήσεται, καὶ πᾶσα ψυχὴ ἀνθρώπου δειλιάσει· 8 καὶl ταραχθήσονται οἱ πρέσβεις, καὶ ὠδῖνες αὐτοὺς ἕξουσιν ὡς γυναικὸς τικτούσης· καὶ συμφοράσουσιν ἕτερος πρὸς τὸν ἕτερον καὶ ἐκστήσονται καὶ τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτῶν ὡς φλὸξ μεταβαλοῦσιν. 74

The sky will be darkened

(13:9–11)

9 ἰδοὺ γὰρ ἡm ἡμέρα Κυρίου ἀνίατος ἔρχεταιn θυμοῦ καὶ ὀργῆς θεῖναι τὴν οἰκουμένην ὅληνo ἔρημον καὶ τοὺς ἁμαρτωλοὺς ἀπολέσαι ἐξ αὐτῆς. 10 οἱ γὰρ ἀστέρες τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ Ὠρίονp καὶ πᾶς ὁ οἴκοςq τοῦ οὐρανοῦ τὸ φῶς οὐ δώσουσιν, καὶ σκοτισθήσεται

aἀγαλλιάσασθε] S*; ἀγαλλιᾶσθαι ScaABRZ bἐν] SAZ; om. BR c σου] SAZ; αὐτῆς BR d μὴ φοβεῖσθε, παρακαλεῖσθε] S*A; μὴ φοβεῖσθε, παρακαλεῖτε Scb3RZ; παρακαλεῖτε B eχειρί] SBRZ; ψυχη A fἐγὼ ἄγω αὐτούς· ἡγιασμένοι εἰσίν, καὶ ἐγὼ ἄγω] SR; ἐγώ B; ἐγὼ ἄγω A; ἁγιάζω αὐτούς· [ἡγιασμένοι εἰσί] καὶ ἐγὼ καλῶ Z gἐθνῶν πολλῶν] S*; +ἐπὶ τῶν ὀρέων SB; +ὁμοία ἐθνῶν πολλῶν ScaABRZ h ὁπλομάχοι] ScaABRZ; S* πλομάχοι i καταφθεῖραι] S*; τοῦ καταφθεῖραι ScaARZ; καταφθεῖραι πᾶσαν B j ὅλην] SARZ; om. B kἡ] SAQRZ; om. B l καὶ] SARZ; om. B m ἡ] SA; om. BQRZ n ἀνίατος ἔρχεται] SARZ; ἔρχεται ἀνίατος B o ὅλην] S*; ScaRZ; om. AB pὨρίον] S*; ὁ Ὠρίων ScaARZ; ὁ Ὠρείων B q οἴκος] S*; κόσμος ScaABRZ

12:6–13:10

105

did exalted things; proclaim these things in all the land. 6 Rejoice and enjoy yourselves, you who dwell in Zion, for the holy one of Israel is exalted in your midst.” 13.1 A vision which Isaiah son of Amos saw against Babylon: 72

Lord Sabaoth leads giants against the world

(13:2–5)

2 On a flat hill lift up a sign; raise your voice to them; do not be frightened; be encouraged by the hand! Open, rulers! 3 I myself appoint and I myself lead them; they are sanctified, and I lead them; giants are coming, rejoicing and boasting together, to fulfill my wrath. 4 A sound of many nations is a sound of kings and gathered nations. Lord Sabaoth has appointed a heavily armed nation 5 to come from a land from afar, from the extremity of the foundation of the sky—Lord and his heavily armed men—to spoil the entire inhabited world. 73

The day of Lord is near

(13:6–8)

6 Wail, for the day of Lord is near, and crushing from God will come. 7 Because of this, every hand will be weary, and every soul of mankind will fear. 8 And the old men will be troubled, and pangs will take hold of them like those of a woman giving birth, and they will wail one to another and they will be amazed, and like a flame they will change their face. 74

The sky will be darkened

(13:9–11)

9 For look, the day of Lord, of wrath and of anger, is coming, incurable, to make the whole inhabited world a desert and to destroy the sinners from it. 10 For the stars of the sky and Orion and all the house of the sky will not give light

12:6 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.64 13:1 Sib. Or. 3; Mart. Ascen. Isa. 4.19; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.3, 65, 69, 72, 73 13:2 Origen Fr. Jer. (GCS 6.218); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.65 13:3 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.65, 100 13:4 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.65; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.896) 13:5 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.65 13:6 Barn. 21.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.65 13:7 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.65 13:8 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.65 13:9 Origen Fr. 1 Cor. 18; Hom. Gen. 2.5; Comm. Matt. 48; 49; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.65 13:10 Tertullian Res. 22.5; Origen Comm. Matt. 49; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.65

106

Text and Translation

τοῦ ἡλίου ἀνατέλλοντος, καὶ ἡ σελήνη οὐ δώσει τὸ φῶς αὐτῆς. 11 καὶ ἐντελοῦμαι τῇ οἰκουμένῃ ὅλῃ κακὰ καὶ τοῖς ἀσεβέσιν τὰς ἁμαρτίας αὐτῶν· καὶ ἀπολῶ ὕβριν ἀνόμων καὶ ὕβριν ὑπερηφάνων ταπεινώσω. 75

Lord Sabaoth’s wrath will shake the land

(13:12–13)

12 καὶ ἔσονται οἱ καταλελειμμένοι ἔντιμοι μᾶλλον ἢ τὸ χρυσίον τὸ ἄπυρον, καὶ ὁ ἄνθρωπος μᾶλλον ἔντιμος ἔσται ἢ λίθοςa ὁ ἐκ Σουφείρb. 13 ὁ γὰρ οὐρανὸς θυμωθήσεται καὶ ἡ γῆ σεισθήσεται ἐκ τῶν θεμελίων αὐτῆς διὰ θυμὸν ὀργῆς Κυρίου Σαβαώθ, τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ᾗ ἐὰνc ἐπέλθῃ ὁ θυμὸς αὐτοῦ. 76

Survivors will flee

(13:14–16)

14 καὶ ἔσονται οἱ καταλελειμμένοι ὡς δορκάδιον φεῦγονd καὶ ὡς πρόβατον πλανώμενον, καὶ οὐκ ἔσται ὁ συνάγων, ὥστε ἄνθρωπον εἰς τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ ἀποστραφῆναι καὶ ἄνθρωποςe εἰς τὴν χώραν αὐτοῦf διώξεταιg. 15 ὃς γὰρ ἂνh ἁλῷ, ἡττηθήσεται, καὶ οἵτινες συνηγμένοι εἰσίν, μαχαίρᾳ πεσοῦνται· 16 καὶ τὰ τέκνα αὐτῶνi ἐνώπιον αὐτῶν προνομεύσουσιν καὶ τὰς γυναῖκας αὐτῶν ἕξουσιν. 77

The Medes will crush your children

(13:17–18)

17 ἰδοὺ ἐπεγείρω ὑμῖν τοὺς Μήδους, οἳ οὐ λογίζονται ἀργύριον, οὐδὲ χρυσίου χρείαν ἔχουσιν. 18 τοξεύματα νεανίσκων συντρίψουσιν, καὶ τὰ τέκνα ὑμῶν οὐ μὴ ἐλεήσωσινj, οὐδὲ ἐπὶ τοῖς τέκνοις σου φείσονται οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ αὐτῶν.

aλίθος] S*; ὁ λίθος ScaABRZ bἐκ Σουφείρ] SA; ἐκ Σουφίρ R; ἐν Σουφιρ Z; ἐν Σουφείρ B cἐὰν] S; ἂν ABQRZ d φεῦγον] ScaScb2ABRZ; φεύοντα S* e ἄνθρωπος] S*B; ἄνθρωπον ScaARZ f αὐτοῦ] SARZ; ἑαυτοῦ B g διώξεται] S*B; ScaScb3ARZ διῶξαι h ἂν] SBR; ἐὰν AQZ iαὐτῶν] S*; αὐτῶν ῥάξουσιν καὶ τὰς οἰκίας αὐτῶν ScaABRZ j ἐλεήσωσιν] SBR; ἐλεήσουσιν AZ

13:11–18

107

and at the sun’s rising it will be darkened and the moon will not give its light. 11 And I will appoint bad things for the whole inhabited land and for the impious people, their sins, and I will destroy lawless people’s insolence and I will bring down arrogant people’s insolence. 75

Lord Sabaoth’s wrath will shake the land

(13:12–13)

12 And those left will be more valued than raw gold, and the person will be more valued than a stone from Soupheir. 13 For the sky will be angry, and the land will be shaken from its foundations because of the wrath of Lord Sabaoth’s anger, on the day when his wrath comes. 76

Survivors will flee

(13:14–16)

14 And those left will be like a little gazelle fleeing, and like a deceived sheep, and there will be no one who gathers them, so that a person will be turned back to his people and a person will be chased into his own territory. 15 For whoever is caught will be defeated and those who are gathered together will fall by the sword. 16 And they will plunder their children in front of them and they will possess their women. 77

The Medes will crush your children

(13:17–18)

17 Look, I am rousing against you the Medes, who do not regard silver, nor have need of gold. 18 They will crush young men’s arrows and they will not have mercy on your children, not even at your children will their eyes spare.

13:11 Tertullian Marc. 4.36.2; Origen Comm. Matt. 48; 49; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.65–66; Mart. Pal. (Cureton 11); Dem. ev. 2.3.126, 128 13:12 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.66; Dem. ev. 2.3.126, 128 13:13 Origen Hom. Num 20.5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.66 13:14 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.66; Dem. ev. 2.3.127 13:15 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.66 13:16 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.66 13:17 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.67, 70, 79; 2.1

108 78

Text and Translation

Babylon will be deserted

(13:19–22)

19 καὶ ἔσται Βαβυλών, ἣ καλεῖται ἔνδοξος ὑπὸa βασιλέως Χαλδαίων, ὃν τρόπον κατέστρεψεν ὁ θεὸς Σόδομα καὶ Γόμορρα· 20 οὐ κατοικηθήσεται εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα χρόνον, οὐδ’ οὐb μὴ εἰσέλθωσιν εἰς αὐτὴν διὰ πολλῶν γενεῶν, οὐδ’ οὐc μὴ εἰσέλθωσιν εἰςd αὐτὴν Ἄραβες, οὐδὲ ποιμένες οὐ μὴ ἀναπαύσονταιe ἐν αὐτῇ· 21 καὶ ἀναπαύσονται ἐκεῖ θηρία, καὶ ἐμπλησθήσονται αἱ οἰκίαι ἤχου, καὶ ἀναπαύσονται ἐκεῖ σειρῆνες, καὶ δαιμόνια ἐκεῖ ὀρχήσονται, 22 καὶ ὀνοκένταυροι ἐκεῖ κατοικήσουσιν, καὶ νοσσοποιήσουσιν ἐχῖνοι ἐν τοῖς οἴκοις αὐτῶν· ταχὺ ἔρχεται καὶ οὐ χρονιεῖ. 79

Lord will have pity on Israel

(14:1–2)

14.1 Καὶ ἐλεήσει Κύριος τὸν Ἰακώβ καὶ ἐκλέξεται ἔτι τὸν Ἰσραήλ, καὶ ἀναπαύσονται ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς αὐτῶν, καὶ ὁ γιώρας προστεθήσεται πρὸς αὐτούς, καὶ προστεθήσεται πρὸς τὸν οἶκον Ἰακώβ, 2 καὶ λήμψονται αὐτοὺς ἔθνη καὶ εἰσάξουσιν εἰς τὸν τόπον αὐτῶν, καὶ κατακληρονομήσουσιν καὶ πληθυνθήσονται οἶκος Ἰσραὴλf ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς τοῦ θεοῦ αὐτῶνg εἰς δούλους καὶ δούλας· καὶ ἔσονται αἰχμάλωτοι οἱ αἰχμαλωτεύσαντες αὐτούς, καὶ κυριευθήσονται οἱ κυριεύσαντες αὐτῶν. 80

God will give you rest in that day

(14:3–4)

3 Καὶ ἔσται ἐνh τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ἀναπαύσει σε ὁ θεὸςi τῆς ὀδύνης καὶj τοῦ θυμοῦ σου καὶ τῆς δουλείας σουk τῆς σκληρᾶς, ἧς ἐδούλευσας αὐτοῖς. 4 καὶ λήμψῃ τὸν θρῆνον τοῦτον ἐπὶ βασιλέαl Βαβυλῶνος 81

Dirge over the king of Babylon

(14:4–11)

καὶ ἐρεῖς ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃm Πῶς ἀναπέπαυται ὁ ἀπαιτῶν καὶ ἀναπέπαυται ὁ ἐπισπουδαστής; 5 συνέτριψεν ὁ θεὸςn τὸν ζυγὸν τῶν ἁμαρτωλῶν, τὸν ζυγὸν τῶν ἀρχόντων· 6 πατάξας ἔθνος θυμῷ πληγῇ ἀνιάτῳ, παίων ἔθνος πληγὴν θυμοῦ, ἣ οὐκ ἐφείσατο. 7

aὑπὸ] SARZ; ἀπὸ B bοὐδ’ οὐ] S; οὐδὲ ABRZ cοὐδ’ οὐ] S; οὐδὲ ABRZ dεἰσέλθωσιν εἰς] SA; διέλθωσιν BRZ eἀναπαύσονται] SBZ; ἀναπαύσωνται AR f οἶκος Ἰσραὴλ] S; om. ABRZ gτοῦ θεοῦ αὐτῶν] S; om. B; τοῦ θεοῦ ARZ hἐν] S*Scb3ARZ; om. Scb2B i ὁ θεὸς] S*; Κύριος ἀπὸ B; ὁ θεὸς ἐκ ScaARZ j καὶ] SAR; om. BZ k σου] SBR; om. AZ l βασιλέα] S*; τὸν βασιλέα Scb2ABRZ m ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ] SARZ; om. B n ὁ θεὸς] SARZ; Κύριος B

109

13:19–14:7

78

Babylon will be deserted

(13:19–22)

19 And Babylon, which is called esteemed by the king of the Chaldeans, will be in the way that God overthrew Sodoma and Gomorra. 20 It will not be inhabited forever, nor will they enter into it for many generations, nor will Arabs enter it, nor may shepherds rest in it. 21 And wild animals will rest there, and the houses will be filled with noise, and Sirens will rest there and divine beings will dance there. 22 And donkey-centaurs will settle there and hedgehogs will make dens among their houses. It is coming quickly and it will not delay. 79

Lord will have pity on Israel

(14:1–2)

14.1 And Lord will have pity on Jacob and still he will choose Israel, and they will rest in their land and Gioras will be added to them and he will be added to the house of Jacob. 2 And nations will take them and lead them into their place and the house of Israel will inherit and increase in the land of their God as bondmen and bondwomen, and those who captured them will be captives and those who dominated them will be dominated. 80

God will give you rest in that day

(14:3–4)

3 And it will be in that day, God will give you rest from your temper and pain and your hard servitude with which you served them. 4 And you will take up this dirge over the king of Babylon: 81

Dirge over the king of Babylon

(14:4–11)

And you will say on that day, “How has the demanding one stopped and the taskmaster stopped? 5 God crushed the yoke of the sinful, the yoke of the rulers, 6 striking a nation with wrath by an incurable blow, hitting a nation with a blow

13:19 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.67 13:20 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.67 13:21 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.67 13:22 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.67 14:1 Justin Dial. 123.1; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.68 14:2 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.68 14:3 Origen Princ. 4.3.9 14:4 Hippolytus Antichr. 17; Origen Hom. Ezech. 13.2; Cels. 6.43; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.68 14:5 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.68

110

Text and Translation

ἀνεπαύσατο πεποιθώς, πᾶσα ἡ γῆ βοᾷ μετ’ εὐφροσύνης, 8 καὶ τὰ ξύλα τοῦ δρυμοῦa εὐφράνθησανb ἐπὶ σοὶ καὶ ἡ κέδρος τοῦ Λιβάνου. Ἀφ οὗ σὺ κεκοίμησαι, οὐκ ἀνέβη ὁ κόπτωνc ἡμᾶς. 9 ὁ ᾅδης κάτωθεν ἐπικράνθη συναντήσας σοι, συνηγέρθησάν σοι πάντες οἱ γίγαντες οἱ ἄρχοντεςd τῆς γῆς οἱ ἐγείραντες ἐκ τῶν θρόνων αὐτῶν πάντεςe βασιλεῖς ἐθνῶν. 10 πάντες ἀποκριθήσονται καὶ ἐροῦσίν σοι Καὶ σὺ ἑάλως ὥσπερ καὶ ἡμεῖς, ἐν ἡμῖν δὲ κατελογίσθης. 11 κατέβη δὲf εἰς ᾅδου ἡ δόξα σου, ἡ πολλή εὐφροσύνη σουg· ὑποκάτω σου στρώσουσιν σῆψιν, καὶ τὸ κατακάλυμμά σου σκώληξ. 82

The Fall of the Morning Star

(14:12–19)

12 Πῶς ἐξέπεσεν ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ὁ ἑωσφόρος ὁ πρωῒ ἀνατέλλων; συνετρίβη εἰς τὴν γῆν ἀποστέλλωνh εἰςi πάντα τὰ ἔθνηj. 13 σὺ δὲ εἶπας ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳk σου Εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν ἀναβήσομαι, ἐπάνω τῶν ἄστρωνl τοῦ οὐρανοῦm θήσω τὸν θρόνον μου, καθιῶ ἐν ὄρει ὑψηλῷ ἐπὶ τὰ ὄρη τὰ ὑψηλὰ πρὸςn βορρᾶν, 14 ἀναβήσομαι ἐπάνω τῶν νεφελῶνo, ἔσομαι ὅμοιος τῷ ὑψίστῳ. 15 νῦν δὲ εἰς ᾅδουp καταβήσῃ καὶ εἰς τὰ θεμέλια τῆς γῆς. 16 οἱ ἰδόντες σε θαυμάσουσινq ἐπὶ σοὶ καὶ ἐροῦσιν Οὗτος ὁ ἄνθρωπος ὁ παροξύνων τὴν γῆν, σείων βασιλεῖς; 17 ὁ θεὶς τὴν οἰκουμένην ὅλην ἔρημον καὶ τὰς πόλεις καθεῖλενr, τοὺς ἐν ἐπαγωγῇ οὐκ ἔλυσεν. 18 πάντες οἱ βασιλεῖς τῶν ἐθνῶν ἐκοιμήθησαν ἐν τιμῇ, ἄνθρωπος ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ αὐτοῦ· 19 σὺ δὲ ῥιφήσῃ ἐν τοῖς ὄρεσιν ὡς νεκρὸς ἐβδελυγμένος μετὰ πολλῶν τεθνηκότων ἐκκεκεντημένων μαχαίραις καταβαινόντων εἰς ᾅδου.

aδρυμοῦ] S*Scb3; Λιβάνου Scb2ABRZ bεὐφράνθησαν] SBR; ηὐφράνθησαν AZ c κόπτων] SAR; eπάντες] S; πάντας ABRZ fδὲ] SARZ; om. κόπων BZ dἄρχοντες] S*; ἄρξαντες ScaABRZ B g εὐφροσύνη σου] SAB; σου εὐφροσύνη RZQL h ἀποστέλλων] S; ὁ ἀποστέλλων ABRZ iεἰς] S*; πρὸς ScaABRZ jἔθνη] SBABRZ; ἔθη S* kἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ] S; τῇ διανοίᾳ B; ἐν τῇ διανοίᾳ ARZ l ἄστρων] SAR; ἄστέρων BZ m οὐρανοῦ] SABR; θεοῦ Z n πρὸς] S*; τὰ πρὸς ScaABRZ o νεφελῶν] SARZ; νεφῶν B pᾅδου] SARZ; ᾅδην B qθαυμάσουσιν] SARZ; θαυμάσονται B rκαὶ τὰς πόλεις καθεῖλεν] SRZ; καὶ τὰς πόλεις αὐτοῦ καθεῖλεν B; om. A

14:8–19

111

of wrath which did not spare. 7 He rested, trusting; all the land cries out with joy, 8 and the trees of the forest rejoiced at you, and the cedar of Libanos: From the time you fell asleep, the one who chops us did not go up. 9 Hades below was embittered, when he met you, all the giants who ruled the land, who rose from their thrones, all kings of nations, rose together with you. 10 All will answer and will say to you, ‘Even you were taken, just as also we were, and you were counted among us. 11 But your glory your abundant joy went down into Hades; beneath you they will spread decay, and your covering will be a worm.’ 82

The dawn-bringer’s fall

(14:12–19)

12 How did the morning star, who rises early, fall from the sky? The one who sends to all the nations was crushed into the land. 13 But you said in your heart, ‘I will go up into the sky, above the stars of the sky I will set my throne; I will sit on a high mountain, upon the high mountains, towards the north. 14 I will go up above the clouds; I will be like the Most High.’ 15 But now you will go down into Hades, and into the foundations of the land. 16 Those who see you will amazed at you, and they will say, ‘Is this the person who provoked the land, shaking kings, 17 making the whole inhabited world a desert? And he brought down the cities; he did not release those under attack.’ 18 All the kings of the nations fell asleep in honour, each person in his house. 19 But you will be thrown among the mountains like a loathed corpse, with many dead, stabbed by swords, going down into the nether world.

14:7 Origen Fr. Ps. (PG 39.1220); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.68 14:8 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.68 14:9 Odes Sol. 42.12; Origen Mart. 18; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.68; Dem. ev. 10.8.73 14:10 Origen Mart. 18; Comm. Matt. 15.27; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.68 14:11 Origen Princ. 1.5.5; Mart. 18; Comm. Matt. 15.27; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.68 14:12 De recta in Deum fide (GCS 4.200); Origen Fr. var. 38; Fr. Ps. (SC 189.330); Fr. Ps. E 109.3; Princ. 1.5.5; 4.3.9; Comm. Jo. 1.78; Mart. 18; Hom. Ezech. 1.3; 13.2; Hom. Jes. Nav. 1.6; Hom. Num 11.4; 15.1; Comm. Ps. (SC 226.260); Methodius Res. 1.37.5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.68; Dem. ev. 4.9.4; 10.8.73; Praep. ev. 7.16.4; Marc. 1.2; 2.3; Ps.-Justin Coh. gr. 28; 14:13 Sib. Or. 5; Tertullian Marc. 5.17.8; Hippolytus Antichr. 53; Comm. Dan. 4.12.7; Origen Pasch. 2.43; Hom. Ezech. 13.1; Hom. Num 12.3; Cyprian Ep. 59.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.68; Marc. 1.2; 2.3 1.2; 2.3 14:14 Tertullian Marc. 5.11.11; 5.17.8; Origen Pasch. 2.43; Hom. Jes. Nav. 15.3; Hom. Num 12.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.68; Dem. ev. 4.9.12; Praep. ev. 7.16.4 14:15 Sib. Or. 5; Hippolytus Antichr. 53; Eusebius Dem. ev. 4.9.4 14:16 Cyprian Test. 3.118; Ep. 59.3 14:17 Cyprian Test. 3.118; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.68 14:19 Hippolytus Comm. Dan. 4.56.7; Origen Mart. 18; Hom. Ex. 8.6; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.68

112 83

Text and Translation

Garment stained with blood

(14:19–23)

ὃν τρόπον ἱμάτιον ἐν αἵματι πεφυρμένον οὐκ ἔσται καθαρόν, 20 οὕτως οὐδὲ σὺ ἔσῃ καθαρός, διότι τὴν γῆν μου ἀπώλεσας καὶ τὸν λαόν μου ἀπέκτεινας· οὐ μὴ μείνῃς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα χρόνον, σπέρμα πονηρόν. 21 ἑτοίμασον τὰ τέκνα σου σφαγῆναι ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις τοῦ πατρός σουa, ἵνα μὴ ἀναστῶσιν καὶ τὴν γῆν κληρονομήσουσινb. Καὶ ἐμπλήσωσι τὴν γῆν πολέμωνc. 22 καὶ ἐπαναστήσομαι αὐτοῖς, λέγει Κύριος Σαβαώθ, καὶ ἀπολῶ αὐτῶν ὄνομα καὶ κατάλειμμα καὶ σπέρμα—τάδε λέγει Κύριος Σαβαώθd—23 καὶ θήσω τὴν Βαβυλωνίαν ἔρημον ὥστε κατοικεῖν ἐχίνους, καὶ ἔσται εἰς οὐθένe· καὶ θήσω αὐτὴν πηλοῦ βάραθρον εἰς ἀπώλειαν. 84

The Assyrians will be destroyed

(14:24–25)

24 Τάδε λέγει Κύριος Σαβαώθ Ὃν τρόπον εἴρηκα, οὕτως ἔσται, καὶ ὃν τρόπον βεβούλευμαι, οὕτως μενεῖ, 25 τοῦ ἀπολέσαι τοὺς Ἀσσυρίους ἐκf τῆς γῆς τῆς ἐμῆς καὶ ἀπὸg τῶν ὀρέων μου, καὶ ἔσονται εἰς καταπάτημα, καὶ ἀφαιρεθήσεταιh ὁ ζυγὸς αὐτῶν, καὶ τὸ κῦδος αὐτῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ὤμων ἀφαιρεθήσεται. 85

Lord’s resolution

(14:26–28)

26 Αὕτη ἡ βουλή, ἣν βεβούλευται Κύριος ἐπὶ τὴν οἰκουμένην ὅλην, καὶ αὕτη ἡ χεὶρ ἣ ὑψώθηi ἐπὶ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη τῆς οἰκουμένηςj. 27 ἃ γὰρ ὁ θεὸς ὁ ἅγιοςk βεβούλευται, τίς διασκεδάσει; καὶ τὴν χεῖραl τὴν ὑψηλὴν τίς ἀποστρέψει; 28 Τοῦ ἔτους, οὗm ἀπέθανεν Ἀχὰζ ὁ βασιλεύςn, ἐγενήθη τὸ ῥῆμα τοῦτο.

aσου] SARZ; αὐτῶν B b κληρονομήσουσιν] S; κληρονομήσωσιν ABRZ c πολέμων] SABQZ; πόλεων RV d Σαβαώθ] S; om. ABRZ e οὐθέν] S; οὐδέν ABRZ f ἐκ] S*; ἀπὸ Scb2ARZ; ἐπὶ B g ἀπὸ] SARZ; ἐπὶ B h ἀφαιρεθήσεται] Scb3; ἀφερεθήσεται S*; + ἀπ’ αὐτῶν ABRZ (Sca adds these same words after ὁ ζυγὸς αὐτῶν) iἣ ὑψώθη] S*; ἡ ὑψηλὴ ScaABRZ jτῆς οἰκουμένης] SARZ; om. B k ὁ ἅγιος] SABR; σαβαωθ Z(MT) l χεῖρα] SARZ; +αὐτοῦ B m οὗ] SBABRZ; S* τοῦ n Ἀχὰζ ὁ βασιλεύς] SARZ; ὁ βασιλεύς Ἀχὰζ B

14:20–28

83

Garment stained with blood

113 (14:19–23)

“In the way that a garment stained with blood will not be clean, 20 so neither will you be clean, for you destroyed my land and you killed my people. Certainly you will not remain forever, evil seed! 21 Prepare your children to be slaughtered for the sins of your father, so that they might not rise, and they will inherit the land.” And they might fill the land with cities. 22 “And I will rise against them,” says Lord Sabaoth, “and I will destroy their name and remnant and seed.” Thus says Lord Sabaoth. 23 “And I will make Babylonia a desert so that hedgehogs can inhabit it, and it will be as nothing, and I will make it a pit of clay for destruction.” 84

The Assyrians will be destroyed

(14:24–25)

24 Thus says Lord Sabaoth: “In the way that I have spoken, so it will be, and in the way that I have resolved, so it will remain, 25 to destroy the Assyrians out of my land and from my mountains, and they will become that which is trampled underfoot, and their yoke will be taken away, and their glory will be taken away from their shoulders.” 85

Lord’s resolution

(14:26–28)

26 This is the resolution which Lord resolved over the whole inhabited world, and this is the hand that was raised over all the nations of the inhabited world. 27 For who will disperse what the holy God has resolved, and who will turn back his high hand? 28 In the year when Achaz the king died, this saying came.

14:20 Origen Mart. 18; Hom. Ex. 8.6; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.68–69 14:21 Hippolytus Antichr. 17; Comm. Dan. 4.56.7; Origen Hom. Gen. 1.15; Cels. 6.43; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.68 14:22 Origen Princ. 1.5.5 14:23 Origen Princ. 4.3.9; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.79, 83 14:24 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.68 14:25 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.68 14:26 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.68 14:27 Origen Fr. Lam. (GCS 6.257) 14:28 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.65, 69, 84

114 86

Text and Translation

Foreigners, do not rejoice

(14:29–30)

29 Μὴ εὐφρανθείητε, πάντες οἱ ἀλλόφυλοι, συνετρίβη γὰρ ὁ ζυγὸς τοῦ παίοντος ὑμᾶς· ἐκ γὰρ σπέρματος ὄφεωςa ἐξελεύσεται ἔκγονα ἀσπίδων, καὶ τὰ ἔκγονα αὐτῶν ἐξελεύσεταιb ὄφεις πετόμενοιc. 30 καὶ βοσκηθήσονται πτωχοὶ δι’ αὐτοῦ, πτωχοὶ δὲ ἄνδρεςd ἐπ’ εἰρήνης ἀναπαύσονται· ἀνελεῖ δὲ λιμῷ τὸ σπέρμα σου καὶ τὸ κατάλειμμά σου ἀνελεῖ. 87

Foreigners take warning

(14:31–15:1)

31 Ὀλολύζετεe, πύλαι πόλεων, κεκραγέτωσαν πόλεις τεταραγμέναι, οἱ ἀλλόφυλοι πάντες, ὅτι καπνὸς ἀπὸ βορρᾶf ἔρχεται, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν τοῦ εἶναι. 32 καὶ τί ἀποκριθήσονται βασιλεῖς ἐθνῶν; ὅτι Κύριος ἐθεμελίωσεν τὴν Σιών, καὶ δι’ αὐτοῦ σωθήσονται οἱ ταπεινοὶ τοῦ λαοῦ. 15.1 Τὸ ῥῆμαg τὸ κατὰ τῆς Μωαβίτιδος. 88

The word against Moabitis

(15:1–2)

Νυκτὸς ἀπολεῖται ἡ Μωαβῖτις, νυκτὸς γὰρ ἀπολεῖται τὸ τεῖχος τῆς Μωαβίτιδος. 2 λυπεῖσθε ἐφ’ ἑαυτοῖςh, ἀπολεῖται γὰρ Δαιβηδώνi· οὗ ὁ βωμὸς ὑμῶν, ἐκεῖ ἀναβήσεσθε κλαίειν ἐπὶ Ναβαὺ τῆς Μωαβίτιδος. 89

Moabitis cries out

(15:2–5)

ὀλολύζετεj ἐπὶ πάσης κεφαλῆς φαλάκρωμα, πάντες βραχίονες κατατετμημένοι εἰσινk· 3 ἐν ταῖς πλατείαις αὐτῆς περιζώσασθε σάκκους καὶ κόπτεσθε, ἐπὶ τῶν δωμάτων αὐτῆς καὶ ἐν ταῖς ῥύμαις αὐτῆς πάντες ὀλολύζετε μετὰ κλαυθμοῦl. 4 ὅτι κέκραγεν Ἑσεβὼν καὶ ἐλάλησενm Ἐλεαλή, ἕως Ἰάσσα ἠκούσθη ἡ φωνὴ αὐτῆςn· διὰ τοῦτο ἡ ὀσφὺς τῆς Μωαβείτιδος βοᾷ, ἡ ψυχὴ αὐτῆς γνώσεται. 5 ἡ καρδία τῆς Μωαβίτιδος βοᾷ ἐν ἑαυτῇ ὡςo Σήγωρ, δάμαλις γάρ ἐστιν τριετής· ἐπὶ δὲ τῆς ἀναβάσεως τῆς Λουεὶθp πρὸς σὲ κλαίοντες ἀναβήσονται, τῇ ὁδῷ Ἁρωνιείμ βοᾷ σύντριμμα καὶ σεισμός.

aὄφεως] S*BZ; ὄφεων ScaAR b ἐξελεύσεται] S*; ἐξελεύσονται ScaABRZ c πετόμενοι] SARZ; πετάμενοι B d ἄνδρες] SARZ; ἄνθρωποι B e Ὀλολύζετε] SARZ; ὀλολύξατε B f καπνὸς ἀπὸ βορρᾶ] SARZ; ἀπὸ βορρᾶ καπνὸς B gῥῆμα] SBRZ; ὅραμα A hἑαυτοῖς] SARZ; ἑαυτούς B iΔαιβηδών] S*A; καὶ Δηβών Scb3BR; καὶ Λεβηδων ZQ j ὀλολύζετε] SARZ; ὀλολύξατε B k εἰσιν] S*; om. ScaABRZ lκλαυθμοῦ] SBABRZ; καυθμοῦ S* mἐλάλησεν Ἐλεαλή] S*; ἐλάλησεν ScaA; Ἐλεαλή BRZ n αὐτῆς] SAZ; αὐτῶν BR o ἑαυτῇ ὡς] S*; ἑαυτῇ ἕως ScaAZ; αὐτῇ ἕως B p τῆς Λουεὶθ] S*; τῆς Λουιθ RZ; Λουεὶθ B; τῆς A

14:29–15:5

86

Foreigners, do not rejoice

115 (14:29–30)

29 Do not be glad, all you foreigners, for the yoke of the one wounding you was crushed, for from a serpent’s seed will come asps’ offspring, and their offspring will come out as flying serpents. 30 And poor people will feed through him; and poor men will rest peacefully; but he will destroy your seed with famine and he will destroy your remnant. 87

Foreigners take warning

(14:31–15:1)

31 Wail, city gates, let troubled cities cry out, all you foreigners, because smoke is coming from the north and there is nothing for being. 32 And what will kings of nations answer? That Lord founded Zion, and through him the humble among the people will be saved. 15.1 The word against Moabitis: 88

The word against Moabitis

(15:1–2)

By night Moabitis will be destroyed, for by night the city wall of Moabitis will be destroyed. 2 Grieve over yourselves, for Daibedon, will be destroyed; where your altar is, there you will go up to weep over Nabau of Moabitis. 89

Moabitis cries out

(15:2–5)

Wail! Baldness is on every head; all arms are cut in strips! 3 In its streets gird yourselves with sackcloth and strike yourselves; wail, all of you, with weeping, over its houses and in its lanes! 4 Because Hesebon has cried aloud, and Eleale has spoken, its voice was heard as far as Iassa; because of this the loins of Moabitis cry out; its soul will know. 5 The heart of Moabitis cries out inside itself like Segor, for it is a three-year old heifer, and on the ascent of Loueith they will ascend to you weeping; on the way, Haronieim cries out, Ruin and earthquake! 14:29 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.68, 69, 72 14:30 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.69 14:31 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.40, 69 14:32 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.65, 69, 84 15:1 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.65, 70, 73, 86 15:2 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.70; Onom. (GCS 11,1.76, 80, 136) 15:4 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.70; Onom. (GCS 11,1.84, 104) 15:5 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.70; Onom. (GCS 11,1.36, 122, 152)

116 90

Text and Translation

The seed of Moab will be taken away

(15:6–16:1)

6 τὸ ὕδωρ τῆς Νεβρίμa, καὶ ὁ χόρτος αὐτῆς ἐκλείψει· χόρτος γὰρ χλωρὸς οὐκ ἔσται. 7 μὴ καὶ οὕτως μέλλει σωθῆναι; ἐπάξω γὰρ ἐπὶ τὴν φάραγγα Ἄραβας, καὶ λήμψονται αὐτήν. 8 συνῆψεν γὰρ ἡ βοὴ τὸ ὅριον τῆς Μωαβίτιδος τῆς Ἀγαλείμ, καὶ ὀλολυγμὸς αὐτῆς ἕως τοῦ φρέατος τοῦ Αἰλίμ. 9 τὸ δὲ ὕδωρ τὸ Δερμὼνb πλησθήσεται αἵματος· ἐπάξω γὰρ ἐπὶ Νεμμὼνc Ἄραβας καὶ ἀρῶ τὸ σπέρμα Μωὰβ καὶ Ἀριὴλ. καὶ τὸ κατάλοιπον Ἀδαμὰ 16.1 ἀποστελῶ ὡς ἑρπετὰ ἀπὸ τῆς γῆςd. 91

Moab will flee

(16:1–4)

Μὴ πέτρα ἔρημός ἐστιν τὸ ὄρος θυγατρὸς Σιών; 2 ἔσῃ γὰρ ὡςe πετεινοῦ ἀνιπταμένου νεοσσὸςf ἀφῃρημένοςg, θυγάτηρh Μωάβ. ἐπὶ τάδεi, Ἀρνών, 3 πλείονα βουλεύου, ποίει τεj σκέπην πένθους αὐτῇ διὰ παντός· ἐν μεσημβρινῇ σκοτίᾳ φεύγουσινk, ἐξέστησαν, μὴ ἀπ’ ἀρχῆςl 4 παροικήσουσίν σοι οἱ φυγάδες Μωάβ, ἔσονται σκέπη ὑμῖν ἀπὸ προσώπου διώκοντος, ὅτι ἤρθη ἡ συμμαχία σου, καὶ ὁ ἄρχων ἀπώλετο ὁ καταπατῶν ἐπὶm τῆς γῆς. 92

David’s throne restored

(16:5)

5 καὶ διορθωθήσεται μετ’ ἐλέους θρόνος, καὶ καθίεταιn ἐπ’ αὐτοῦ μετὰ ἀληθείας ἐν σκηνῇ Δαυίδ κρίνων καὶ ἐκζητῶν κρίμα καὶ σπεύδων δικαιοσύνην. 93

The insolence of Moab

(16:6–7)

6 Ἠκούσαμεν τὴν ὕβριν Μωάβ, ὑβριστὴς σφόδρα, τὴν ὑπερηφανίαν ἐξῆραo. οὐχ οὕτως ἡ μαντείαp σου, 7 οὐχ οὕτως. ὀλολύξει Μωάβ, ἐν γὰρ τῇ Μωαβίτιδι ἀπάντεςq ὀλολύξουσιν τοῖς κατοικοῦσιν Δέσεθr.

aΝεβρίμ] S*; +ἔρημος ἔσται ScaABRZ; bΔερμὼν] S*; Ρεμμων ScaARZ; Δειμὼν B cΝεμμὼν] S*; Ρεμμων ScaARZ; Δειμὼν B dἀπὸ τῆς γῆς] S*; ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν ScaABRZ eὡς] S*ABRZ; ὡσει SB fνεοσσὸς] SARZ; νοσσὸς B g ἀφῃρημένος] SARZ; +ἔσῃ B h θυγάτηρ] S*ABZ; θύγατερ Scb3R iἐπὶ τάδε] S; ἔπειτα δέ ABRZ j ποίει τε] AZ; ποιεῖτε SBR k φεύγουσιν] ScaABRZ; φεύουσιν S* l ἀπ’ ἀρχῆς] SABc; ἀχθῇς B*; ἀπαχθῇς RZ m ἐπὶ] SARZ; ἀπὸ B n καθίεται] S*R; καθιεῖται ScaABZ oἐξῆρα] S*B*; ἐξῆρας Scb2ABRZ pμαντεία] SARZ; μαντία B qἀπάντες] S; πάντες ABRZ r Δέσεθ] S*ABRScb3; Δέσε Sca; Αδεσεθ Z

15:6–16:7

90

The seed of Moab will be taken away

117 (15:6–16:1)

6 The water of Nebrim and its pasture will cease, for there will be no green pasture. 7 Is it about to be saved also in this way? For I will bring Arabs upon the ravine and they will take it. 8 For the shout reached the border of Moabitis of Agallim, and its wail as far as the well of Ailim 9 and the Dermon water will be filled with blood, for I will bring Arabs upon Nemmon and I will take away the seed of Moab and Ariel. And the remnant of Adama 16.1 I will send from the land like reptiles. 91

Moab will flee

(16:1–4)

Is the mountain of the daughter of Zion a deserted rock? 2 For you will be like a nestling taken away from a flying bird, daughter of Moab! And upon these things, Arnon, 3 deliberate more, and make a shelter of grief for her through it all. At noon they flee in darkness; they were amazed; not from the beginning. 4 The fugitives of Moab will dwell beside you; they will be a shelter for you from a pursuer’s face, because your alliance was taken away, and the ruler who was trampling upon the land perished. 92

David’s throne restored

(16:5)

5 And a throne will be restored with mercy, and he will sit on it with truth in David’s tent, judging and seeking justice and eagerly pursuing righteousness. 93

The insolence of Moab

(16:6–7)

6 We heard of the insolence of Moab, extremely insolent; I lifted up the arrogance; not so is your oracle, 7 not so. Moab will wail, for in Moabitis all will wail for those inhabiting Deseth. 15:6 Eusebius Onom. (GCS 11,1.138) 15:7 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.70 15:8 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.70; Onom. (GCS 11,1.36) 15:9 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.70, 95; Onom. (GCS 11,1.36, 38, 146) 16:1 Barn. 11.3; Justin Dial. 114.5 16:2 Barn. 11.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.70 16:4 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.70, 86 16:5 Origen Fr. Ps. (PG 12.1120); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.70, 71; Ecl. proph. 4.9 16:6 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.71; Onom. (GCS 11,1.74) 16:7 Origen Hom. Ezech. 6.8; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.71; Onom. (GCS 11,1.80, 104)

118 94

Text and Translation

Wandering across the wilderness

(16:7–8)

Μελετήσεις καὶ οὐκ ἐντραπήσῃ. 8 τὰ πεδία Ἑσεβὼν πενθήσει, ἄμπελος Ἐβαμάa· καταπίνοντες τὰ ἔθνη καταπατήσετεb τὰς ἀμπέλους αὐτῆς ἕως Ἰαζήρ· οὐ μὴ συνάψητε, πλανήθητεc τὴν ἔρημον· οἱ ἀπεσταλμένοι ἐγκατελείφθησαν, διέβησαν γὰρ τὴν ἔρημονd. 95

Moab’s harvest will fail

(16:9–12)

9 διὰ τοῦτο κλαύσομαι ὡς τὸν κλαυθμὸν Ἰαζὴρ ἄμπελονe Σεβαμά· τὰ δένδρα σου κατέλαβενf, Ἑσεβὼν καὶ ἐλάλησενg Ἔτιh ἐπὶ τῷ θερισμῷ καὶ ἐπὶ τῷ τρυγήτῳ σου καταπατήσω, καὶ πάντα πεσοῦνται. 10 καὶ ἀρθήσεται εὐφροσύνη καὶ ἀγαλλίαμα ἐκ τῶν ἀμπελώνων σουi, καὶ ἐν τοῖς ἀμπελῶσίν σου οὐ μὴ εὐφρανθήσονται καὶ οὐ μὴ πατήσουσιν οἶνον εἰς τὰ ὑπολήνια, πέπαυται γάρ. 11 διὰ τοῦτο ἡ κοιλία μου ἐπὶ Μωὰβ ὡς κιθάρα ἠχήσει. Καὶ τὰ ἐντός μου ὡσεὶj τεῖχος, ὃk ἐνεκαίνισας. 12 καὶ ἔσται εἰς τὸ ἐντραπῆναί σε, ὅτι ἐκοπίασεν Μωὰβ ἐπὶ τοῖς βωμοῖς καὶ εἰσελεύσεται εἰς τὰ χειροποίητα αὐτῆς ὥστε προσεύξασθαι, καὶ οὐ μὴ δύνηται ἐξελέσθαι αὐτόν. 96

Moab’s three-year fate

(16:13–17:1)

13 Τοῦτο τὸl ῥῆμα, ὃ ἐλάλησεν Κύριος ἐπὶ Μωάβ, ὁπότε καὶ ἐλάλησεν. 14 καὶ νῦν λέγω Ἐν τρισὶν ἔτεσιν ἐτῶν μισθωτοῦ ἀτιμασθήσεται ἡ δόξα Μωὰβ ἐν παντὶ τῷ πλούτῳ τῷ πολλῷ, καὶ καταλειφθήσεται ὀλιγοστὸς καὶ οὐκ ἔντιμος. 17.1 Τὸ ῥῆμα τὸ κατὰ Δαμασκοῦ. 97

The word against Damascus

(17:1–3)

Ἰδοὺ Δαμασκὸς ἀρθήσεται ἀπὸ πόλεων καὶ ἔσται εἰς πτῶσιν, 2 καταλελειμμένη εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, εἰς κοίτην ποιμνίωνm καὶ οὐκέτιn ἔσται ὁ διώκων. 3 καὶ οὐκέτι ἔσταιo ὀχυρὰ

aἘβαμά] S*; Σεβαμά ScaABRZ b καταπατήσετε] SB; καταπατήσατε ARZ c πλανήθητε] SBABRZ; ἐπλανήθητε S* d ἔρημον] S*Scb3ARZ; θάλασσαν ScaB e ἄμπελον] ScaABRZ; ἄμελον S* f κατέλαβεν] S; κατέβαλεν ABRZ gἐλάλησεν] SBABc; ἐλάλησεν Ἀλή S*; Ἐλεαλή B*RZ(Ottley) hἜτι] S; ὅτι BRZ; om. A iσου] SARZ; om. B jὡσεὶ] SARZ; ὡς B kὃ] SARZ; om. B lτὸ] SARZ; om. B mποιμνίων] S*; + καὶ ἀνάπαυσιν Sca ABRZ nοὐκέτι] S; ἀνάπαυσιν βουκολίων, καὶ οὐκ A; ἀνάπαυσιν, καὶ οὐκ BRZ o ἔσται] SARZ; om. B

16:8–17:3

94

Wandering across the wilderness

119 (16:7–8)

You will mutter and you will not feel shame. 8 The plains of Esebon will mourn, vine of Ebama. Gulping down the nations, you will trample its vines as far as Iazer. Certainly you will not unite; be deceived about the desert; those sent have been forsaken, for they went across the desert. 95

Moab’s harvest will fail

(16:9–12)

9 Because of this, I will weep like the weeping of Iazer for the vine of Sebama. He seized your trees, Esebon, and he spoke, “I will still trample on your harvest and vintage, and all things will fall. 10 And happiness will be taken away; and rejoicing from your vineyard; and in your vineyards certainly they will not be cheered and certainly they will not tread wine into the vats, for it has ceased.” 11 Because of this, my belly will sound upon Moab like a lyre. And my innards are like a city wall that you restored. 12 And it will be for you to feel shame, because Moab grew weary over the altars, and it will enter its handmade things in order to pray and it certainly will not be able to rescue him. 96

Moab’s three-year fate

(16:13–17:1)

13 This is the word that Lord spoke against Moab when he also spoke. 14 And now I say, “In three years of the years of a hired worker, the glory of Moab will not be valued, with all its great wealth, and it will be left few in number and dishonored.” 17.1 The word against Damascus: 97

The word against Damascus

(17:1–3)

Look, Damascus will be taken away from cities and will become a calamity, 2 left for eternity as a bed of flocks, and there will no longer be a pursuer. 3 And

16:8 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.71; Onom. (GCS 11,1.104) 16:9–11 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.71 16:12 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.70–71 16:13–14 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.71 17:1 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.65, 72, 73 17:2 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.72 17:3 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.72; Dem. ev. 2.3.14

120

Text and Translation

τοῦ καταφυγεῖν Ἐφράιμ, καὶ οὐκέτι ἔσται βασιλείαa ἐν Δαμασκῷ, καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν τῶν Σύρων ἀπολεῖταιb· οὐ γὰρ σὺ βελτίων εἶ τῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραὴλ καὶ τῆς δόξης αὐτῶν. 98

The glory of Jacob will fail

(17:4–6)

4 Τάδε λέγει Κύριος Σαβαώθ. Ἔσται ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ἔκλειψις τῆς δόξηςc Ἰακώβ, καὶ τὰ πλείοναd τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ σεισθήσεται. 5 καὶ ἔσται ὃν τρόπον ἐάν τις συναγάγῃ ἀμητὸν ἑστηκότα καὶ σπέρμα σταχύων ἐν τῷ βραχίονι αὐτοῦe ἀμήσῃ, καὶ ἔσται ὃν τρόπον ἐάν τις συναγάγῃ στάχυν ἐν φάραγγι στερεᾷ 6 καὶ καταλειφθῇ ἐν αὐτῇ καλάμη ἢ ὡς ῥῶγες ἐλαίας δύο ἢ τρεῖς ἐπ’ ἄκρου μετεώρου ἢ τέσσαρες ἢ πέντε ἐπὶ τῶν κλάδων αὐτῶνf καταλειφθῇ. 99

They will trust in the Holy One of Israel

(17:6–8)

Τάδε λέγει Κύριος ὁ θεὸς Ἰσραήλ. 7 Τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ πεποιθὼς ἔσται ἄνθρωπος ἐπὶ τῷ ποιήσαντι αὐτόν, οἱ δὲ ὀφθαλμοὶ αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸν ἅγιον τοῦ Ἰσραήλ ἐμβλέψονται, 8 καὶ οὐ μὴ πεποιθότες ὦσιν ἐπὶ τοῖς ἀδικήσασιν αὐτοῦς οὐδὲg ἐπὶ τοῖς βωμοῖς οὐδὲ ἐπὶ τοῖς ἔργοις τῶν χειρῶν αὐτῶν, ἃ ἐποίησαν οἱ δάκτυλοι αὐτῶν, ἀλλ’ ἔσονται πεποιθότες ἐπὶ τὸν ἅγιον τοῦ Ἰσραήλh καὶ οὐκ ὄψονται τὰ δένδρα ἐπὶ τὰ ἄρσηi αὐτῶν οὐδὲ τὰ βδελύγματα αὐτῶν. 100 The abandoners will be abandoned

(17:9–11)

9 Τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ἔσονται αἱ πόλειςj ἐγκαταλελειμμέναι, ὃν τρόπον ἐγκατέλιπον οἱ Ἀμμορραῖοι καὶ οἱ Εὑαῖοι ἀπὸ προσώπου τῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραήλ, καὶ ἔσονται ἔρημοι, 10 διότι κατέλιπες τὸν θεὸν τὸν σωτῆρά σου καὶ Κυρίου τοῦ βοηθοῦ σου οὐκ ἐμνήσθης. διὰ τοῦτο φυτεύσεις φύτευμα ἄπιστον καὶ σπέρμα ἄπιστον· 11 τῇ δὲ ἡμέρᾳ, ᾗ ἐὰν φυτεύσῃς, πλανηθήσῃ· τὸ δὲ πρωί, ἐὰνk σπείρῃς, ἀνθήσει εἰς ἀμητὸν ᾗ ἂν ἡμέρᾳ κληρώσῃ, καὶ ὡς πατὴρ ἀνθρώπου κληρώσῃ τοῖς υἱοῖς σου.

aἔσται βασιλεία] SARZ; om. ἔσται B bΣύρων ἀπολεῖται] SARZ; om. ἀπολεῖται B cτῆς δόξης] SARZ; om. τῆς B d πλείονα] SA1Q; πίονα A*BRZ e ἐν τῷ βραχίονι αὐτοῦ] SAR; om. BZ f αὐτῶν] SBR; αὐτοῦ AZ gἐπὶ τοῖς ἀδικήσασιν αὐτοῦς οὐδὲ] S; om. ABRZ h ἀλλ’ ἔσονται πεποιθότες ἐπὶ τὸν ἅγιον τοῦ Ἰσραήλ] S; om. ABRZ iἐπὶ τὰ ἄρση] S; om. BRZ; επι τα αλση αυτων A jπόλεις] S; πόλεις σου ABRZ k ἐὰν] S; ἂν ABRZ

17:4–11

121

no longer will it be strong enough for Ephraim to flee for refuge, and no longer will there be a kingdom in Damascus, and the rest of the Syrians will perish, for you are not better than the sons of Israel and their glory. 98

The glory of Jacob will fail

(17:3–6)

4 Thus says Lord Sabaoth: “In that day there will be a failing of the glory of Jacob, and most of his glory will be shaken. 5 And it will be as if someone gathered a standing crop and reaped grain seed with his arm; and it will be as if someone gathered grain in a solid ravine, 6 and a stalk might be left in it. Or like fruit of an olive tree: two or three at the lofty extremity, or four or five might be left on their branches.” 99

They will trust in the Holy One of Israel

(17:6–8)

Thus says Lord God of Israel: 7 “On that day a person will trust the one who made him. And his eyes will look to the holy one of Israel 8 and certainly they will not trust those who wronged them or in the altars or in the works of their hands, which their fingers made, but they will trust in the holy one of Israel, and they will not look at the trees over their male things, or at their abominations.” 100 The abandoners will be abandoned

(17:9–11)

9 On that day, cities will be forsaken, in the way that the Ammorrites and the Euaites left them in the face of the sons of Israel, and they will be deserts. 10 Because you left God your saviour and you did not remember Lord your helper, because of this, you will plant an unfaithful plant and an unfaithful seed. 11 And on the day whenever you plant, you will be deceived, and in the morning, if you sow, it will blossom for harvest in whatever day that you allot it, and like a person’s father you will allot it for your sons.

17:4 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.72; Dem. ev. 2.3.129, 130 17:5 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.72; Dem. ev. 2.3.14 17:6 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.72; Dem. ev. 2.3.130 17:7 Irenaeus Dem. 91; Origen Hom. Ex. 1.5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.72; Dem. ev. 2.3.130 17:8 Irenaeus Dem. 91; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.72; Dem. ev. 2.3.129 17:9 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.72 17:10 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.72 17:11 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.72; Dem. ev. 2.3.14

122 101 Woe to many nations

Text and Translation

(17:12–14)

12 Οὐαὶ πλῆθος ἐθνῶν πολλῶν· ὡς θάλασσα κυμαίνουσα οὕτως ταραχθήσεσθε, καὶ νῶτος ἐθνῶν πολλῶν ὡς ὕδωρ ἠχήσει. 13 ὡς ὕδωρ πολὺ ἔθνη πολλά, ὡς ὕδατος πολλοῦ βίᾳ φερομένουa· καὶ ἀποσκορακιεῖ αὐτὸν καὶ πόρρω αὐτὸν διώξεται ὡς χνοῦν ἀχύρου λικμώντων ἀπέναντι ἀνέμου καὶ ὡς κονιορτὸν τροχοῦ καταιγὶς φέρουσα. 14 πρὸς ἑσπέρανb ἔσται πένθος, πρὶν ἢ πρωῒ καὶ οὐκ ἔσται. αὕτη ἡ μερὶς τῶν ὑμᾶς προνομευσάντων καὶ κληρονομία τοῖς ὑμᾶς κληρονομήσουσινc. 102 Woe to the land beyond Ethiopia

(18:1–3)

18.1 Οὐαὶ γῆς πλοίων πτέρυγες ἐπέκεινα ποταμῶν Αἰθιοπίας, 2 ὁ ἀποστέλλων ἐν θαλάσσῃ ὅμηρα καὶ ἐπιστολὰς βιβλίνας ἐπάνω τοῦ ὕδατος· πορεύσονται γὰρ ἄγγελοι κοῦφοι πρὸς ἔθνος μετέωρον καὶ ξένον λαὸν καὶ χαλεπόν, τίς αὐτοῦ ἐπέκεινα; ἔθνος ἀνέλπιστον καὶ καταπεπατημένον. νῦν οἱ ποταμοὶ τῆς γῆς 3 πάντες· ὡς χώρα κατοικουμένη κατοικηθήσεται ἡ χώρα αὐτῶν, ὡσεὶ σημεῖον ἀπὸ ὄρους ἀρθήσεται, ὡς σάλπιγγος φωνὴ ἀκουστὸν ἔσται. 103 Lord will prune before harvest

(18:4–6)

4 ὅτι οὕτως εἶπέν μοι Κύριος Ἀσφάλεια ἔσται ἐν τῇ ἐμῇ πόλει ὡς φῶς καύματος μεσημβρίας, καὶ ὡς νεφέλη δρόσου ἡμέρας ἀμήτου ἔσται. 5 πρὸ τοῦ θερισμοῦ, ὅταν συντελεσθῇ ἄνθος καὶ ὄμφαξ ἀνθήσει ἄνθος ὀμφακίζουσα, καὶ ἀφελεῖ τὰ βοτρύδια τὰ μικρὰ τοῖς δρεπάνοις καὶ τὰς κληματίδας ἀφελεῖ καὶ κατακόψει 6 καὶ καταλείψει ἅμα τοῖς πετεινοῖς τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ τοῖς θηρίοις τῆς γῆς, καὶ συναχθήσεται ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, καὶ πάντα τὰ θηρία τῆς γῆς ἐπ’ αὐτὸν ἥξει.

aφερομένου] SB; καταφερομένου ARZ b ἑσπέραν] SARZ; ἑσπέραν, καὶ B c τοῖς ὑμᾶς κληρονομήσουσιν] S*; τοῖς ὑμᾶς κληρονομήσασιν ScaBRZ; των υμας κληρονομησαντων A

17:12–18:6

101 Woe to many nations

123 (17:12–14)

12 Woe to you, multitude of many nations! Like a swelling sea, so you will be troubled, and the backside of many nations will roar like water. 13 Many nations are like much water, as when much water is flowing with force. And he will dismiss him and pursue him far, like chaff dust when they winnow before the wind, and like a squall carrying a cloud of dust from a wheel. 14 Toward evening there will be grief, before morning, and it will not be. This is the portion of those who plundered you and an inheritance for those who inherit you. 102 Woe to the land beyond Ethiopia

(18:1–3)

18. 1 Woe to you, wings of a land of ships beyond the rivers of Ethiopia, 2 the one who sends hostages by sea and papyrus letters over the water. For swift messengers will go to a lofty nation and to a foreign and harsh people. Who is beyond it? A hopeless and trampled nation. Now as for all the rivers of the land, 3 their territory will be inhabited like an inhabited territory; it will be raised from a mountain as if it were a sign; it will be heard like a trumpet’s sound. 103 Lord will prune before harvest

(18:4–6)

4 Because Lord said this to me: “There will be security in my city like the light of the heat of mid-day, and it will be like a cloud of dew on a day of harvest. 5 Before the harvest, when the blossom is completed and the unripe grape will blossom, a blossom bearing sour grapes, and he will take away the little clusters with the pruning hooks and take away and cut up the branches 6 and leave them together for the birds of the sky and for the wild animals of the land. And the birds of the sky will be gathered upon them, and all the wild animals of the land will come upon him.”

17:12 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.73, 75; 2.46 17:13 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.73, 75 17:14 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.73 18:1 Hippolytus Antichr. 58; Origen Fr. Luc. (PG 13.24); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.73 18:2 Hippolytus Antichr. 58; Origen Fr. Luc. (PG 13.24); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.73, 75 18:3 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.73 18:4 Odes Sol. 36.7; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.73 18:5 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.73 18:6 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.73

124 104 Gifts brought to Lord Sabaoth

Text and Translation

(18:7)

7 Ἐν τῷ καιρῷ ἐκείνῳ ἀνενεχθήσεται δῶρα Κυρίῳ Σαβαώθ ἐκ λαοῦ τεθλιμμένου καὶ ταπεινοῦ καὶ τετιλμένου καὶ ἀπὸ λαοῦ μεγάλου ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν καὶ εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα χρόνον· ἔθνος ἀνέλπιστον καὶ καταπεπατημένον, ὅ ἐστιν ἐν μέρει ποταμοῦ τῆς χώρας αὐτοῦ, εἰς τὸν τόπον, οὗ τὸ ὄνομα Κυρίου Σαβαώθ ἐπεκλήθη, ὄρος Σιών. 19.1 Ὅρασις Αἰγύπτου. 105 A vision of Egypt

(19:1–4)

Ἰδοὺ Κύριος κάθηται ἐπὶ νεφέλης κούφης καὶ ἥξει εἰς Αἴγυπτον, καὶ σεισθήσεται τὰ χειροποίητα Αἰγύπτου ἀπὸ προσώπου αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἡ καρδίαa αὐτῶν ἡττηθήσεταιb ἐν αὐτοῖς. 2 καὶ ἐπεγερθήσονταιc Αἰγύπτιοι ἐπ’ Αἰγυπτίους, καὶ πολεμήσει ἄνθρωπος τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ καὶ ἄνθρωπος τὸν πλησίον αὐτοῦ πολέμησει, καὶd πόλις ἐπὶ πόλιν καὶ νομὸς ἐπὶ νομόν. 3 καὶ ταραχθήσεται τὸ πνεῦμα τῶν Αἰγυπτίων ἐν αὐτοῖς, καὶ τὴν βουλὴν αὐτῶν διασκεδάσω, καὶ ἐπερωτήσουσιν τοὺς θεοὺς αὐτῶν καὶ τὰ ἀγάλματα αὐτῶν καὶ τοὺς ἐκ τῆς γῆς φωνοῦντας καὶ τοὺς ἐγγαστριμύθους καὶ τοὺς γνώσταςe. 4 Καὶ παραδώσω Αἴγυπτον εἰς χεῖρας ἀνθρώπων κυρίων σκληρῶν, καὶ βασιλεῖς σκληροὶ κυριεύσουσιν αὐτῶν. 106 Egyptian rivers will fail

(19:4–11)

Τάδε λέγει Κύριος Σαβαώθ. 5 καὶ πίονται οἱ Αἰγύπτιοι ὕδωρ τὸ παρὰ θάλασσαν, ὁ δὲ ποταμὸς ἐκλείψει καὶ ξηρανθήσεται· 6 καὶ ἐκλείψουσιν οἱ ποταμοὶ καὶ αἱ διώρυγεςf τοῦ ποταμοῦ, καὶ ξηρανθήσεται πᾶσα συναγωγὴ ὕδατος καὶ ἐν παντὶ ἕλει καλάμου καὶ παπύρου· 7 καὶ τὸ ἄχι τὸ χλωρὸν πᾶν τὸ κύκλῳ τοῦ ποταμοῦ καὶ πᾶν τὸ σπει-

aἡ καρδία] SBRZ; αἱ καρδίαι A b ἡττηθήσεται] SBRZ; ἡττηθήσονται A c ἐπεγερθήσονται] SBBRZ; ἐπεγερθήσεται S*A d πολέμησει, καὶ] S; ἐπεγερθήσεται A; om. BRZ eκαὶ τοὺς γνώστας] SA; om. BRZ f διώρυγες] SARZ; διώρυχες B

18:7–19:7

104 Gifts brought to Lord Sabaoth

125 (18:7)

7 At that time gifts will be brought up to Lord Sabaoth from a people distressed and humble and plucked, and from a great people from now and forever, a hopeless and trampled nation, which is in the river district of its territory, to the place where the name of Lord Sabaoth is invoked: Mount Zion. 19.1 A vision of Egypt. 105 A vision of Egypt

(19:1–4)

Look, Lord is sitting on a swift cloud and will come to Egypt, and the handiworks of Egypt will be shaken from his face, and their heart will be defeated within them. 2 And Egyptians will be raised against Egyptians, and a person will make war against his brother, and a person will make war against his neighbour, city against city and district against district. 3 And the spirit of the Egyptians will be troubled within them, and I will scatter their plot and they will inquire of their gods and their statues and those from the land who speak and the ventriloquists, and the wizards. 4 And I will give Egypt into the hands of humans that are harsh masters, and harsh kings will rule them. 106 Egyptian rivers will fail

(19:4–11)

Thus says Lord Sabaoth. 5 And the Egyptians will drink water that is beside the sea, but the river will cease and be dried up. 6 And the rivers and the canals of the river will cease and every gathering of water will be dried up, even in every marsh of reed and papyrus. 7 And the green reed-grass, everything that

18:7 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.73, 75 19:1 Tertullian Adv. Jud. 9.15; Marc. 3.13.10; Hippolytus Comm. Isa. (GCS 1,2.180); Origen Comm. Matt. 50; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.64, 73, 75, 76, 83; 2.23; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.912); Ecl. proph. 4.10; Dem. ev. 6.20.1–2, 6, 8; 8.5.1, 3, 4; 9.2.1, 4; 9.3.2; 9.4.11; Athanasius Inc. 33.5; 37.6; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 10.10 19:2 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.75, 77; Dem. ev. 6.20.5, 13, 16; 8.5.3 19:3 Pistis Sophia 18; 21; Origen Fr. Joh. (GCS 10.521); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.75; Dem. ev. 6.20.5, 17; 8.5.1, 3, 4 19:4 Tertullian Adv. Jud. 9.15; Marc. 3.13.10; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.75; Dem. ev. 6.20.1, 5, 19, 20, 21 19:5 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.75, 77 19:6 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.75, 77 19:7 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.75

126

Text and Translation

ρόμενονa διὰ τοῦ ποταμοῦ ξηρανθήσεται ἀνεμόφθορον. 8 καὶ στενάξουσιν οἱ ἁλεεῖς, καὶ στενάξουσιν πάντες οἱ βάλοντες ἄγκιστρονb εἰς τὸν ποταμόν, καὶ οἱ βάλλοντες σαγήνας καὶ οἱ ἀμφιβολεῖς πενθήσουσιν. 9 καὶ αἰσχύνη λήμψεται τοὺς ἐργαζομένους τὸ λίνον τὸ σχιστὸν καὶ τοὺς ἐργαζομένους τὴν βύσσον, 10 καὶ ἔσονται οἱ ἐργαζόμενοιc αὐτὰ ἐν ὀδύνῃ, καὶ πάντες οἱ τὸν ζυγὸν ποιοῦντεςd λυπηθήσονται καὶ τὰς ψυχὰς πονέσουσιν. 11 καὶ μωροὶ ἔσονται οἱ ἄρχοντες Τάνεως· οἱ σοφοὶ σύμβουλοι τοῦ βασιλέως, ἡ βουλὴ αὐτῶν μωρανθήσεται. πῶς ἐρεῖτε τῷ βασιλεῖ Υἱοὶ συνετῶν ἡμεῖς, υἱοὶ βασιλέων τῶν ἐξ ἀρχῆς; 107 Egyptian leaders will fail

(19:12–15)

12 ποῦ εἰσιν νῦν οἱ σοφοί σου; καὶ ἀναγγειλάτωσάν σοι καὶ εἰπάτωσαν τί βεβούλευται Κύριος Σαβαώθ ἐπ’ Αἴγυπτον. 13 ἐξέλιπον οἱ ἄρχοντες Τάνεως, καὶ ὑψώθησαν οἱ ἄρχοντες Μέμφεως, καὶ πλανήσουσιν Αἴγυπτον κατὰ φυλάς. 14 Κύριος γὰρ ἐκέρασεν αὐτοῖς πνεῦμα πλανήσεως, καὶ ἐπλάνησαν Αἴγυπτον ἐν πᾶσι τοῖς ἔργοις αὐτῶν, ὡς πλανᾶται ὁ μεθύων καὶ ὁ ἐμῶν ἅμα. 15 καὶ οὐκ ἔσται τοῖς Αἰγυπτίοις ἔργον, ὃ ποιήσει κεφαλὴν καὶ οὐράν, ἀρχὴνe καὶ τέλος. 108 Egyptians will fear Judeans

(19:16–17)

16 Τῇ δὲ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ἔσονται οἱ Αἰγύπτιοι ὡς γυναῖκες ἐν φόβῳ καὶ ἐν τρόμῳ ἀπὸ προσώπου τῆς χειρὸς Κυρίου Σαβαώθ, ἣν αὐτὸς ἐπιβαλεῖ αὐτοῖς. 17 καὶ ἔσται ἡ χώρα τῶν Ἰουδαίων τοῖς Αἰγυπτίοις εἰς φόβητρονf· πᾶς, ὃς ἀνg ὀμόσῃh αὐτοῖς αὐτήνi, φοβηθήσονται διὰ τὴν βουλήνj, ἣν βεβούλευται Κύριος ἐπ’ αὐτούςk.

aπᾶν τὸ σπειρόμενον] SARZ; πᾶν B b βάλοντες ἄγκιστρον] S; βάλλοντες ἄγκιστρα B; βάλλοντες ἄγκιστρον ARZ c ἐργαζόμενοι] SB; Διαζόμενοι ARZ d τὸν ζυγὸν ποιοῦντες] S; ποιοῦντες τὸν ζῦθον B; τὸν ζῦθον ποιοῦντες AR; τὸν ζῦτον ποιοῦντες Z eοὐράν, ἀρχὴν] SARZ; οὐρὰν καὶ ἀρχὴν B fφόβητρον] SARZ; φόβηθρον B g ἀν] SAZ; ἐὰν BR h ὀμόσῃ] S; ὀνομάσῃ ABRZ i αὐτοῖς αὐτήν] S; αὐτὴν αὐτοῖς ABRZ j βουλήν] SBRZ; βουλὴν Κυρίου σαβαώθ A k αὐτούς] S; αὐτήν ABRZ

19:8–17

127

is around the river and everything that is sown through the river, will be dried up, blasted by the wind. 8 And the fishers will groan, and all those who cast hooks into the river will groan, and those who cast seines and the net-fishers will mourn. 9 And shame will take those who work the split flax and those who work the linen. 10 And those who work them will be in pain, and all those who make the yoke will be grieved, and they will distress their lives. 11 And the rulers of Tanis, the wise counsellors of the king, will be foolish; their counsel will be foolish. How will you say to the king, “We are sons of intelligent people, sons of kings who were from the beginning?” 107 Egyptian leaders will fail

(19:12–15)

12 Where now are your wise? And let them tell you and let them say what Lord Sabaoth has planned against Egypt. 13 The rulers of Tanis ceased, and the rulers of Memphis were exalted, and they will deceive Egypt tribe by tribe. 14 For Lord mixed for them a spirit of deception and they deceived Egypt in all their works, as the drunkard and the one who vomits are deceived together. 15 And there will be for the Egyptians no work that will make head or tail, beginning or end. 108 Egyptians will fear Judeans

(19:16–17)

16 But on that day the Egyptians will be in fear like women and in trembling in the face of the hand of Lord Sabaoth, which he himself will lay upon them. 17 And the territory of the Judeans will be a fright to the Egyptians. Everyone who swears by it to them, they will be frightened because of the plan which Lord has planned against them.

19:8 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.75 19:9 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.75 19:10 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.75; Dem. ev. 9.11.7 19:11 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.75, 77; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.912); Onom. (GCS 11,1.164) 19:12 Pistis Sophia 18; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.75, 98 19:13 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.75, 77, 98; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.912); Dem. ev. 9.11.7 19:14 Origen Hom. Jer. 20.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.75 19:15 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.75 19:16 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.76 19:17 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.76, 77

128

Text and Translation

109 Egyptian cities swear by Lord

(19:18)

18 Ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ἔσονται πέντε πόλεις ἐνa Αἰγύπτῳ λαλοῦσαι τῇ γλώσσῃ τῇ Χανανίτιδι καὶ ὀμνύοντεςb τῷ ὀνόματι Κυρίου· Πόλις Ἁσεδηλίουc καὶ κληθήσεταιd ἡ μία πόλις. 110 An Egyptian altar to Lord

(19:19–20)

19 Τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ἔσται θυσιαστήριονe τῷ Κυρίῳ ἐν χώρᾳ Αἰγυπτίων καὶ στήλη πρὸς τὸ ὅριον αὐτῆς τῷ Κυρίῳ 20 καὶ ἔσται εἰς σημεῖον εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα Κυρίῳ ἐν χώρᾳ Αἰγύπτου, ὅτι κεκράξονταιf διὰ τοὺς θλίβοντας αὐτούς, καὶ ἀποστελεῖ αὐτοῖς Κύριοςg ἄνθρωπον, ὃς σώσει αὐτούς. 111

Egyptians will know Lord

(19:20–21)

κρίνων σώσει αὐτούς. 21 καὶ γνωστὸς ἔσται Κύριος τοῖς Αἰγυπτίοις, καὶ γνώσονται οἱ Αἰγύπτιοι τὸν Κύριον ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ καὶ ποιήσουσιν θυσίας καὶ εὔξονται εὐχὰς τῷ Κυρίῳ καὶ ἀποδώσωσινh. 112 Egyptians will return to Lord

(19:22)

22 καὶ πατάξει Κύριος τοὺς Αἰγυπτίους πληγῇ μεγάλῃi καὶ ἰάσεται αὐτοὺς ἰάσει, καὶ ἐπιστραφήσονται πρὸς Κύριον, καὶ εἰσακούσονταιj αὐτῶν καὶ ἰάσεται αὐτούς. 113 Egyptians will serve the Assyrians

(19:23)

23 Τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ἔσται ὁδὸς Αἰγύπτου πρὸς Ἀσσυρίους, καὶ εἰσελεύσονται Ἀσσύριοι εἰς Αἴγυπτον, καὶ Αἰγύπτιοι πορεύσονται πρὸς Ἀσσυρίους, καὶ δουλεύσουσιν Αἰγύπτιοιk τοῖς Ἀσσυρίοις.

aἐν] S; om. ABRZ bὀμνύοντες] S*; ὀμνύουσαι Scb2ARZ; ὀμνύντες B cΠόλις Ἁσεδηλίου] S*; Πόλις Ἁσε Sca; πόλεις ἁσεδὲκ Scb3; πόλις ἁσεδὲκ ABRZ d καὶ κληθήσεται] S*; κληθήσεται ScaABRZ eθυσιαστήριον] SBRZ; τὸ θυσιαστήριον A f κεκράξονται] S; + πρὸς Κύριον ABRZ g Κύριος] SARZ; om. B hἀποδώσωσιν] S; ἀποδώσουσιν ABRZ i μεγάλῃ] SARZ; om. B jεἰσακούσονται] S*; εἰσακούσεται SBBRZ; ἐπακούσεται A k δουλεύσουσιν Αἰγύπτιοι] SB; δουλεύσουσιν οἱ Αἰγύπτιοι ARZ

19:18–23

109 Egyptian cities swear by Lord

129 (19:18)

18 On that day there will be five cities in Egypt speaking the Chananite language and swearing by the name of Lord. The one city will also be called City of Asedelios. 110 An Egyptian altar to Lord

(19:19–20)

19 On that day there will be an altar to Lord in the territory of the Egyptians and a stele to Lord towards its border. 20 And it will be a sign forever to Lord in the territory of Egypt, because they will cry out because of those oppressing them, and Lord will send them a person who will save them. 111

Egyptians will know Lord

(19:20–21)

By judging, he will save them. 21 And Lord will be known to the Egyptians and the Egyptians will know Lord, on that day, and they will make sacrifices and they will vow vows to Lord and may they fulfil them. 112 Egyptians will return to Lord

(19:22)

22 And Lord will strike the Egyptians with a great blow and he will heal them with healing, and they will return to Lord, and they will listen to them, and he will heal them. 113 Egyptians will serve the Assyrians

(19:23)

23 On that day there will be a path from Egypt to the Assyrians, and Assyrians will enter into Egypt and Egyptians will go to the Assyrians and Egyptians will serve the Assyrians.

19:18 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.64, 76; 2.23; Onom. (GCS 11,1.38) 19:19 Sib. Or. 5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.75, 77; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.880); Ecl. proph. 4.11; Dem. ev. 1.6.45, 47; 2.3.33; 8.5.2, 3, 4 19:20 Clement of Alexandria Ecl. 16.2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.75, 77; 2.24; Ecl. proph. 4.11; Lactantius Inst. 4.13.10; Epit. 39.6; Eusebius Dem. ev. 1.6.52; 8.5.4, 5 19:21 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.75, 77; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.880); Ecl. proph. 4.11; Dem. ev. 2.3.33; 8.5.2, 4; 9.2.2, 3 19:22 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.77; Dem. ev. 1.6.45, 47 19:23 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.77

130 114 Israel a peer of Assyrians and Egyptians

Text and Translation

(19:24–25)

24 Τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ἔσται Ἰσραὴλ τρίτος ἐν τοῖς Ἀσσυρίοις καὶ ἐν τοῖς Αἰγυπτίοιςa εὐλογημένος ἐν τῇ γῇ, 25 ἣνb εὐλόγησεν Κύριος Σαβαώθ λέγων Εὐλογημένος ἔσταιc ὁ λαός μου ὁ ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ καὶ ὁ ἐν Ἀσσυρίοις καὶ ἡ κληρονομίαd μου Ἰσραήλ. 115 Isaiah goes naked and barefoot

(20:1–21:1)

20.1 Τοῦ ἔτους οὗe εἰσῆλθεν Ναθὰνf εἰς Ἄζωτον, ἡνίκα ἀπεστάλη ὑπὸ Ἀρνὰg βασιλέως Ἀσσυρίων καὶ ἐπολέμησεν τὸνh Ἄζωτον καὶ κατελάβετοi αὐτήν. 2 Τότε ἐλάλησεν Κύριος πρὸς Ἠσαίανj λέγων Πορεύου καὶ ἄφελε τὸν σάκκον ἀπὸ τῆς ὀσφύος σου καὶ τὰ σανδάλιά σου ὑπόλυσαι ἀπὸ τῶν ποδῶν σου· καὶ ποίησονk οὕτως πορευόμενος γυμνὸς καὶ ἀνυπόδετοςl. 3 Καὶ εἶπεν Κύριος Ὃν τρόπον πεπόρευται ὁ παῖς μου Ἠσαίαςm γυμνὸς καὶ ἀνυπόδετος τρία ἔτηn, ἔσται σημεῖονo καὶ τέρατα τοῖς Αἰγυπτίοις καὶ Αἰθίοψιν· 4 καὶ νοήσουσινp ὅτι οὕτως ἄξει ὁ βασιλεὺς Ἀσσυρίων τὴν αἰχμαλωσίαν Αἰγύπτου καὶ Αἰθιόπων, νεανίσκους καὶ πρεσβύτας, γυμνοὺς καὶ ἀνυποδέτους ἀνακεκαλυμμένουςq τὴν αἰσχύνην Αἰγύπτου. 5 καὶ αἰσχυνθήσονται ἡττηθέντες Αἰγύπτιοιr ἐπὶ τοῖς Αἰθίοψιν, ἐφ’ οἷς ἦσαν πεποιθότες οἱ Αἰγύπτιοι, οἳ ἦσαν αὐτοῖς δόξα. 6 καὶ ἐροῦσιν ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκεῖνῃ οἱ κατοικοῦντες ἐν τῇ νήσῳ ταύτῃs Ἰδοὺ ἡμεῖς ἦμεν πεποιθότες τοῦ φυγεῖν εἰς αὐτοὺς εἰς βοήθειαν, καὶ αὐτοὶt οὐκ ἠδύναντοu σωθῆναι ἀπὸ βασιλέως Ἀσσυρίων· καὶ πῶς ἡμεῖς σωθησόμεθα; 21.1 Τὸ ὅραμα τῆς ἐρήμου. 116 The vision of the desert

(21:1–2)

Ὡς καταιγὶς δι’ ἐρήμου διέλθοι ἐπ’v ἐρήμου ἐρχομένη ἐκ γῆς, φοβερὸν 2 τὸ ὅραμα καὶ σκληρὸν, ἀνηγγέλη μοι. ὁ ἀθετῶν ἀθετῇw, ὁ ἀνομῶν ἀνομεῖ. ἐπ’ ἐμοὶ οἱ Ἐλαμῖταιx, καὶ οἱ πρέσβεις τῶν Περσῶν ἐπ’ ἐμὲ ἔρχονται.

aἈσσυρίοις καὶ ἐν τοῖς Αἰγυπτίοις] SARZ; Αἰγυπτίοις καὶ ἐν τοῖς Ἀσσυρίοις B b ἣν] SBRZ; ᾗ A cἔσται] SBRZ; om. A dἡ κληρονομία] SARZ; ἡ γῆ κληρονομία B eοὗ] SARZ; ὅτε B fΝαθὰν] S*A; Ταναθὰν ScaBRZ gἈρνὰ] SABR; Σαρναν Z hτὸν] S*; τὴν ScaABRZ iκατελάβετο] SARZ; ἔλαβεν B j Ἠσαίαν] SARZ; Ἠσαίαν υἱὸν Ἀμὼς B k ποίησον] S*ABQ; ποιησεν Sca; ἐποίησεν RZ (MT) l ἀνυπόδετος] SBRZ; ἀνυπόδητος A m ὁ παῖς μου Ἠσαίας] SB; Ησαίας ὁ παῖς μου ARZ nτρία ἔτη] ABRZ; τρία ἔτης S oσημεῖον] S; σημεῖα ScaARZ; εἰς σημεῖα B pκαὶ νοήσουσιν] S; om. ABRZ q ἀνακεκαλυμμένους] SARZ; ἅμα, κεκαλυμμένους B r ἡττηθέντες Αἰγύπτιοι] S; ἡττηθέντες οἱ Αἰγύπτιοι ARZ; ἡττηθέντες B s ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκεῖνῃ οἱ κατοικοῦντες ἐν τῇ νήσῳ ταύτῃ] S; om. ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκεῖνῃ ARZ; οἱ κατοικοῦντες ἐν τῇ νήσῳ ταύτῃ ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκεῖνῃ B tκαὶ αὐτοὶ] S; οἳ ABRZ uἠδύναντο] SA; ἐδύναντο BRZ v ἐπ’] S*; ἐξ ScaABRZ w ἀθετῇ] S; ἀθετεῖ Scb3ABRZ x Ἐλαμῖται] S; Ἐλαμεῖται AB; Αιλαμῖται RZ

19:24–21:2

114 Israel a peer of Assyrians and Egyptians

131 (19:24–25)

24 On that day Israel will be third among the Assyrians and among the Egyptians, praised in the land 25 which Lord Sabaoth praised, saying, “My people will be praised, who is in Egypt and is among the Assyrians, even my inheritance, Israel.” 115 Isaiah goes naked and barefoot

(20:1–21:1)

20. 1 In the year when Nathan entered into Azotos, when he was sent by Arna king of Assyrians, he also waged war against Azotos and seized it. 2 Then Lord spoke to Isaiah saying, “Go, and remove the sackcloth from your loins and untie your sandals from your feet. And do so, going naked and barefoot.” 3 And Lord said, “As my servant Isaiah has gone naked and barefoot for three years, there will be a sign and wonders for the Egyptians and Ethiopians, 4 and they will realize that in this same way the king of Assyrians will lead the captivity of Egypt and Ethiopians, youths and seniors, naked and barefoot, uncovered, the shame of Egypt. 5 And being subjugated, Egyptians will be ashamed because of the Ethiopians on whom the Egyptians were trusting; they were glory to them. 6 And on that day those who dwell in this island will say, ‘Look, we were trusting to flee to them for help, and they themselves could not be saved from the king of Assyrians! And how will we be saved ourselves?’ ” 21. 1 The vision of the desert. 116 The vision of the desert

(21:1–2)

As a squall might pass through a desert upon a desert, coming from land, fearsome 2 and harsh is the vision; it was reported to me; let the rebel rebel; the lawless one acts lawlessly; the Ailamites are upon me, and the ambassadors of the Persians are coming upon me. 19:24 Justin Dial. 123.5; 125.2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.77 19:25 Justin Dial. 123.5; 125.2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.77 20:1 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.78 20:2 Clement of Alexandria Paed. 2.112.3; Strom. 3.53.5; Origen Cels. 7.7; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.78 20:3 Origen Cels. 7.7; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.78 20:4 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.78, 79 20:5 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.78 20:6 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.78; Dem. ev. 1.6.54 21:1 Origen Comm. Matt. 4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.65, 79 21:2 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.79

132 117

Text and Translation

Groans of remorse and dread

(21:2–5)

νῦν στενάξω καὶ παρακαλέσω ἐμαυτόν. 3 διὰ τοῦτο ἐνεπλήσθη ἡ ὀσφύς μου ἐκλύσεως, καὶ ὠδῖνες ἔλαβόν με ὡς τὴν τίκτουσαν· ἠδίκησανa ὡςb τὸc μὴ ἀκοῦσαι, ἐσπούδασα τὸ μὴ βλέπειν. 4 ἡ καρδία μου πλανᾶται, ἀνομία με καὶ ἡ ἁμαρτία μεd βαπτίζει, καὶ ἡ ψυχήe μου ἐφέστηκεν εἰς φόβον. 5 ἑτοιμάσατεf τὴν τράπεζαν· πίετε, φάγετεg· ἀναστάντες, οἱ ἄρχοντες, ἑτοιμάσατε θυρεούς. 118 Babylon has fallen

(21:6–11)

6 διότιh οὕτως εἶπεν πρὸς μὲ Κύριοςi Βαδίσας ἑαυτῷj στῆσον σκοπὸν καὶ ὃν ἂνk ἴδῃς ἀνάγγειλον· 7 καὶ εἶδον ἀναβάτας ἱππεῖς δύο, ἀναβάτηνl ὄνου καὶ ἂνm ἀναβάτην καμήλου. ἀκρόασαι ἀκρόασιν πολλὴν 8 καὶ κάλεσον Οὐρίαν εἰς τὴν σκοπιὰν Κυρίουn. καὶ εἶπενo Ἔστην διὰ παντὸς ἡμέρας καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς παρεμβολῆς ἐγὼp ἔστην ὅλην τὴν νύκτα, 9 καὶ ἰδοὺ αὐτὸς ἔρχεται ἀναβάτης συνωρίδος. καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν Πέπτωκενq Βαβυλών, καὶ εἰπόνταr τὰ ἀγάλματα αὐτῆς καὶ τὰ χειροποίητα αὐτῆς συνετρίβησανs εἰς τὴν γῆν. 10 ἀκούσατε, οἱ καταλελειμμένοι καὶ οἱ ὀδυνώμενοι, ἀκούσατε ἃ ἤκουσα παρὰ Κυρίου Σαβαώθ· ὁ θεὸς τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ ἀνήγγειλεν ἡμῖν. 11 Τὸ ὅραμα τῆς Ἰδουμαίας. 119 The vision of Idoumaia

(21:11–12)

Πρὸς ἐμὲ καλεῖ παρὰ τοῦ Σηείρ Φυλάσσετε ἐπάλξεις. 12 φυλάσσω τὸ πρωῒ καὶ τὴν νύκτα· ἐὰν ζητῇς, ζήτει καὶ παρ’ ἐμοὶ ᾤκειt.

aἠδίκησαν] S*; ἠδίκησα Scb3ABRZ b ὡς] S*; om. Scb3ABRZ c τὸ] SARZ; τοῦ B d ἀνομία με καὶ ἡ ἁμαρτία με] S*; ἀνομία με Sca; καὶ ἡ ἀνομία με Scb2ABRZ e καὶ ἡ ψυχή] S; om. καὶ ABRZ f ἑτοιμάσατε] S; ἑτοίμασον ABRZ g πίετε, φάγετε] SARZ; φάγετε, πίετε B h διότι] S; ὅτι ABRZ i πρὸς μὲ Κύριος] SB; κύριος πρός με AQRZ jἑαυτῷ] S; σεαυτῷ ABRZ kὃν ἂν] S*; ὃ ἐὰν ScaAZ; ὃ ἂν BR l ἀναβάτην] SARZ; καὶ ἀναβάτην B m ἂν] S; om. ABRZ nΚυρίου] SA; κυρίου RZ; om. B oκαὶ εἶπεν] SARZ; Κύριος εἶπεν B pἐγὼ] SB; om. ARZ q Πέπτωκεν] SARZ; Πέπτωκεν πέπτωκεν B rεἰπόντα] S*; πάντα Scb3ABRZ s συνετρίβησαν] SARZ; συνετρίβη B t ᾤκει] S; οἴκει ABRZ

21:3–12

117

My groans of remorse

133 (21:2–5)

Now I will groan and comfort myself. 3 Because of this, my loins have been filled with faintness, and pangs have taken me like the woman giving birth; they did wrong like not hearing; I was hasty by not seeing. 4 My heart is deceived, lawlessness and sin immerse me, and my soul stands in fear. 5 Prepare the table; drink; eat! Rise up, rulers, and prepare shields! 118 Babylon has fallen

(21:6–11)

6 Because Lord said this to me: “Go, post for yourself a watchman, and announce whomever you happen to see.” 7 And I saw riders, two horsemen: a rider of a donkey and a rider of a camel. Listen with much hearing, 8 and call Ourias to the lookout of Lord. And he said, “I stood throughout the day and I myself stood over the camp the whole night. 9 And look, he himself is coming, a rider of a pair of horses!” And answering, he said, “Babylon has fallen! And all its statues were saying, and its handiworks were crushed into the land!” 10 Hear, you who are left and you who are distressed; hear what I heard from Lord Sabaoth; the god of Israel reported to us. 11 The vision of Idoumaia: 119 The vision of Idoumaia

(21:11–12)

He calls to me from Seir, “Guard defences!” 12 I guard in the morning and in the night. If you would seek, seek, and you were dwelling beside me.

21:3 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.72, 79 21:4 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.79 21:5 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.79 21:6 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.79 21:7 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.79 21:8 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.79 21:9 Victorinus Comm. Ap. (CSEL 49.132); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.79 21:10 Origen Comm. Matt. 4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.79; Dem. ev. 2.3.131 21:11 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.80; Onom. (GCS 11,1.152) 21:12 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.80

134 120 The multitude of victims of war

Text and Translation

(21:13–15)

13 ἐν τῷ δρυμῷ ἑσπέρας κοιμηθήσῃ ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ Δαιδάν. 14 εἰς συνάντησιν διψῶντι ὕδωρ φέρετε, οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες ἐν χώρᾳ Θαιμάν, ἄρτοις συναντᾶτε τοῖς φεύγουσιν 15 διὰ τὸ πλῆθος τῶν φευγόντωνa καὶ διὰ τὸ πλῆθος τῶν πλανωμένων καὶ διὰ τὸ πλῆθος τῆς μαχαίρας καὶ διὰ τὸ πλῆθος τῶν τοξευμάτων τῶν διατεταμένων καὶ διὰ τὸ πλῆθος τῶν πεπτωκότων ἐν τῷ πολέμῳ. 121 Kedar will fail in a year

(21:16–22:1)

16 Διότιb οὕτως εἶπέν μοι Κύριος Ἔτι ἐνιαυτὸς ὡς ἐνιαυτὸς μισθωτοῦ, καὶc ἐκλείψει ἡ δόξα τῶν υἱῶν Κηδάρ, 17 καὶ τὸ λοιπὸνd τῶν τοξευμάτων τῶν ἰσχυρῶν υἱῶν Κηδὰρ ἔσται ὀλίγον, διότιe Κύριος ἐλάλησεν, ὁ θεὸς Ἰσραήλf. 22.1 Τὸ ῥῆμαg τῆς φάραγγος Σειών. 122 The word of the gully of Zion

(22:1–7)

Τί ἐγένετό σοι, ὅτι νῦνh ἀνέβητε πάντες εἰς δώματα μάταια; 2 ἐνεπλήσθη ἡ πόλις βοώντων· αἱi τραυματίαι σου οὐ τραυματίαι μαχαίραςj, οὐδὲ οἱ νεκροί σου νεκροὶ πολέμουk. 3 πάντες οἱ ἄρχοντές σου πεφεύγασιν, καὶ οἱl ἁλόντεςm σκληρῶς δεδεμένοι εἰσίν, καὶ οἱ ἰσχύοντες ἐν σοὶ πόρρω πεφεύγασινn. 4 διὰ τοῦτο εἶπα Ἄφετέ με, πικρῶς κλαύσομαι, καὶo μὴ πεφεύγασιν κατισχύσητε παρακαλεῖνp με ἐπὶ τὸ σύντριμμα τῆς θυγατρὸς τοῦ γένους μουq. 5 ὅτι ἡμέρα ταραχοὺςr καὶ ἀπωλείας καὶ καταπατήματοςs· παρὰ Κυρίου Σαβαὼθ ἐν φάραγγι Σιὼνt πλανῶνται· ἀπὸ μικροῦu ἕως μεγάλου, πλανῶνται ἐπὶ τὰ ὄρη. 6 οἱ δὲ Ἐλαμῖται ἔλαβον φαρέτρας, ἀναβάται ἄνθρωποι ἐφ’ ἵππουςv καὶ συναγωγὴ παρατάξεως. 7 καὶ ἔσονται ἐκλεκταὶw φάραγγές σου πλησθήσονται ἁρμάτων, οἱ δὲ ἱππεῖς ἐμφράξωσιx τὰς πύλας σου.

aφευγόντων] SARZ; πεφονευμένων B b Διότι] SB; ὅτι ARZ c καὶ] S; om. ABRZ d λοιπὸν] S; κατάλοιπον ABRZ e διότι] SARZ; ὅτι B f ἐλάλησεν, ὁ θεὸς Ἰσραήλ] SARZ; ὁ θεὸς Ἰσραὴλ ἐλάλησεν B gῥῆμα] SBR; ὅραμα AZ h ὅτι νῦν] SB; νῦν ὅτι ARZ i αἱ] S; οἱ ScaABRZ j μαχαίρας] SARZ; ἐν μαχαίραις B k πολέμου] SARZ; πολέμῳ B l οἱ] SAQRZ; om. B mἁλόντες] SBAQRZ; λαλωνταις S* nπεφεύγασιν] ScaABRZ; πεφεύασιν S* oκαὶ] S; om. ABRZ p παρακαλεῖν] Scb3ABRZ; παραλειν S* q μου] ScaABRZ; μο S* r ταραχοὺς] S*; ταραχῆς ScaABRZ s καταπατήματος] S*; καταπάτημα καὶ πλάνησις B; καταπατήματος καὶ πλανήσεως Sca; καταπατήματος καὶ πλάνησις SdARZ tΣιὼν] SBARZ; ὧν S*; Σειὼν B u μικροῦ] ScaABRZ; μικοῦ S* v ἵππους] SB; ἵπποις ARZ w ἐκλεκταὶ] S; αἱ ἐκλεκταὶ ABRZ x ἐμφράξωσι] S; ἐμφράξουσι ABRZ

21:13–22:7

120 The multitude of victims of war

135 (21:13–15)

13 You will sleep in the thicket at evening, in the way of Daidan 14 bring water for a meeting with one who is thirsty, you who inhabit the territory of Thaiman; meet with loaves of bread those who flee 15 because of the multitude of those fleeing, and because of the multitude of those deceived, and because of the multitude of the sword, and because of the multitude of the pulled arrows and because of the multitude of those who have fallen in the war. 121 Kedar will fail in a year

(21:16–22:1)

16 Because Lord said this to me: “Yet a year, like a year of a hired worker, the glory of the sons of Kedar will cease, 17 and the rest of the arrows of the powerful sons of Kedar will be few, because Lord has spoken, the god of Israel.” 22. 1 The word of the gully of Zion: 122 The word of the gully of Zion

(22:1–7)

What happened to you, that now you all went up into pointless households? 2 The city was filled with those crying out. Your wounded were not wounded by the sword, nor your dead dead from war. 3 All your rulers have fled, and those who were captured are harshly bound, and the powerful among you have fled far. 4 Because of this, I said, “Leave me; I will weep bitterly. And do not try to comfort me over the shattering of the daughter of my family.” 5 Because it is a day of troubles and destruction and trampling; from Lord Sabaoth in the gully of Zion they are deceived, from small to great; they are deceived on the mountains. 6 And the Elamites took quivers, riding men on horses and a gathering of battle lines. 7 And they will be; your select gullies will be filled with chariots; and may the horsemen block your gates. 21:13 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.65, 80; Onom. (GCS 11,1.80, 102) 21:14 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.80; Onom. (GCS 11,1.102) 21:15 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.80 21:16 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.80; Onom. (GCS 11,1.118) 21:17 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.80 22:1 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.65, 81, 82; 2.10 1.65, 81, 82; 2.10 22:2 Origen Comm. Matt. 35; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.81 22:3 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.81 22:4 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.81 22:5 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.81 22:6 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.81 22:7 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.81

136 123 Lack of repentance in the city of David

Text and Translation

(22:8–14)

8 καὶ ἀνακαλύψουσιν τὰς πύλας Ἰούδα καὶ ἐμβλέψονται τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ εἰς τοὺς ἐκλεκτοὺς οἴκους τῆς πόλεως 9 καὶ ἀνακαλύψουσιν τὰ κρυπτὰ τῶν οἴκων τῆς ἄκρας Δαυίδ. καὶ εἴδοσαν ὅτι πλείους εἰσίν, καὶ ὅτι ἀπέστρεψανa τὸ ὕδωρ τῆς ἀρχαίας κολυμβήθρας εἰς τὴν πόλιν 10 καὶ ὅτι καθείλοσαν τοὺς οἴκους Ἰερουσαλὴμ εἰς ὀχύρωμα τοῦb τείχους τῇ πόλει. 11 καὶ ἐποιήσατε ἑαυτοῖς ὕδωρ ἀνὰ μέσον δύοc τειχέωνd ἐσώτερον τῆς κολυμβήθρας τῆς ἀρχαίας καὶ οὐκ ἐνεβλέψατε εἰς τὸν ἀπ’ ἀρχῆς ποιήσαντα αὐτὴν καὶ τὸν κτίσαντα αὐτὴν οὐκ εἴδετε. 12 καὶ ἐκάλεσεν Κύριος Σαβαὼθ ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ κλαυθμὸν καὶ κοπετὸν καὶ ξύρησιν καὶ ζῶσιν σάκκων, 13 αὐτοὶ δὲ ἐποιήσαντο εὐφροσύνην καὶ ἀγαλλίαμα σφάζοντες μόσχους καὶ θύοντες πρόβατα ὥστε φαγεῖν κρέα καὶ πιεῖν οἶνον λέγοντεςe Φάγωμεν καὶ πίωμεν, αὔριον γὰρ ἀποθνῄσκομεν. 14 καὶ ἀνακεκαλυμμένα ταῦτά ἐστιν ὠσὶνf Κυρίου Σαβαώθ, ὅτι οὐκ ἀφεθήσεται ὑμῖν αὕτη ἡ ἁμαρτία, ἕως ἂν ἀποθάνητε. 124 The tomb of Somnas

(22:15–16)

15 Τάδε λέγει Κύριος Σαβαώθ Πορεύου εἰς τὸ παστοφόριον πρὸς Σόμναν τὸν ταμίαν καὶ εἰπὸν αὐτῷ 16 Τί ὧδε σὺg καὶ τί σοί ἐστιν ὧδε, ὅτι ἐλατόμησας σεαυτῷ ὧδε μνημεῖον καὶ ἐποίησαςh καὶ ἔγραψας σεαυτῷ ἐν πέτρᾳ σκηνήν; 125 Lord Sabaoth will depose Somnas

(22:17–19)

17 Ἰδοὺ δὴ Κύριος Σαβαώθ ἐκβάλλειi καὶ ἐκτρίψει ἄνδρα καὶ ἀφελεῖ τὴν στολήν σου καὶ τὸν στέφανόν σου τὸν ἔνδοξον 18 καὶ ῥίψει σε εἰς χώραν μεγάλην καὶ ἀμέτρητον,

aἀπέστρεψαν] SARZ; ἀπέστρεψεν B b ὀχύρωμα τοῦ] SARZ; ὀχυρώματα B c δύο] S; τῶν δύο ABRZ dτειχέων] SARZ; τειχῶν B e λέγοντες] SARZ; om. B f ὠσὶν] S*; ἐν τοῖς ὠσὶν SBScb2ABRZ gὧδε σὺ] S; σὺ ὧδε ABRZ h ἐποίησας] S; ἐποίησας σεαυτῷ ἐν ὑψηλῷ μνημεῖον ABRZ i ἐκβάλλει] SB; ἐκβαλεῖ ARZ

22:8–18

123 Lack of repentance in the city of David

137 (22:8–14)

8 And they will uncover the gates of Judah and look on that day into the choicest houses of the city. 9 And they will uncover the secrets of the houses of the citadel of David. And they saw that they were many and that they had returned the water of the old reservoir into the city 10 and that they tore down the houses of Jerusalem for a fortress of the wall for the city. 11 And you made for yourselves water between the two walls, in farther than the old reservoir. And you did not look to the one who made it from the beginning, and you did not see the one who created it. 12 And on that day Lord Sabaoth called for weeping and lamentation and shaving and girding of sackcloth. 13 But they acted with happiness and rejoicing, slaughtering calves and sacrificing sheep in order to eat meat and drink wine, saying, Let’s eat and drink, for tomorrow we die. 14 And these things are revealed in the ears of Lord Sabaoth, because this sin will not be forgiven you until you die. 124 The tomb of Somnas

(22:15–16)

15 Thus says Lord Sabaoth, “Go into the priest’s chamber, to Somnas the treasurer, and say to him, 16 ‘Why are you here? And what is yours here, that you have cut out for yourself a tomb here, and you made and you wrote a tent for yourself on rock?’” 125 Lord Sabaoth will depose Somnas

(22:17–19)

17 Look now, Lord Sabaoth is casting out and will rub out a man, and he will take away your robe and your esteemed crown. 18 And he will throw you into a

22:8 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.81 22:9 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.81 22:10 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.81 22:11 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.81 22:12 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.81 22:13 Clement of Alexandria Paed. 2.8.1; Cyprian Test. 3.60; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.81; Athanasius Ep. fest. 2.7; 7.2 22:14 Clement of Alexandria Paed. 2.8.2; Cyprian Test. 3.60; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.81; Athanasius Ep. fest. 7.2 22:15 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.82; 2.10 1.82; 2.10 22:16 Origen Fr. Ps. (PG 12.1445); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.82 22:17 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.82 22:18 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.82

138

Text and Translation

καὶ ἐκεῖ ἀποθανῇ· καὶ θήσει τὸ ἅρμα σου τὸ καλὸν εἰς ἀτιμίαν καὶ τὸν οἶκον τοῦ ἄρχοντός εἰς καταπάτημαa, 19 καὶ ἀφαιρεθήσῃb ἐκ τῆς οἰκονομίας σου καὶ ἐκ τῆς στάσεώς σου. 126 Eliakim will take Somnas’ place

(22:20–25)

20 Καὶ ἔσται ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ καλέσωc τὸν παῖδά μου Ἐλιακὶμ τὸν τοῦ Χελκίου 21 καὶ ἐνδύσω αὐτὸν τὴν στολήν σου καὶ τὸν στέφανόν σου δώσω αὐτῷ καὶ τὸd κράτος καὶ τὴν οἰκονομίαν σου δώσω εἰς τὰς χεῖρας αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἔσται ὡς πατὴρ τοῖς ἐνοικοῦσιν ἐν Ἰερουσαλὴμ καὶ τοῖς ἐνοικοῦσιν ἐν Ἰούδᾳ. 22 καὶ δώσω καὶ αὐτῷ τὴν κλείδα οἴκου Δαυὶδ ἐπὶ τῷ ὤμῳ αὐτοῦe, καὶ ἀνοίξειf, καὶ οὐκ ἔσται ὁ ἀντικλίνων, καὶ κλείσει, καὶ οὐκ ἔσται ὁ ἀντιλέγωνg. 23 καὶ στήσω αὐτοῖςh ἄρχοντα ἐν τόπῳ πιστῷ, καὶ ἔσται εἰς θρόνον δόξης τοῦ οἴκου τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ. 24 καὶ ἔσται πεποιθὼς ἐπ’ αὐτὸν πᾶς ἔνδοξος ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἔσται πεποιθὼς ἐπ’ αὐτὸν πᾶς ἔνδοξος ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦi ἀπὸ μικροῦ ἕως μεγάλου καὶ ἔσονται ἐπικρεμάμενοι αὐτῷ 25 ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ. τάδε λέγει Κύριος Σαβαώθ—κινηθήσεται ὁ ἄνθρωπος ὁ ἐστηριγμένος ἐν τῷj πιστῷ καὶ πεσεῖται, καὶ ἀφαιρεθήσεταιk ἡ δόξα ἡ ἐπ’ αὐτόν, ὅτι Κύριος ἐλάλησεν. 127 The vision of Tyre

(23:1–3)

23.1 Τὸ ὅραμαl Τύρου. Ὀλολύζετε, πλοῖα Χαρκηδόνοςm, ὅτι ἀπώλετο, καὶ οὐκέτι ἔρχονται ἐκ γῆς Κιτιαίωνn· ἦκται αἰχμάλωτος. 2 τίνι ὅμοιοι γεγόνασιν οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες ἐν τῇ νήσῳ μεταβόλοι Φοινίκης διαπερῶντες τὴν θάλασσαν 3 ἐν ὕδατι πολλῷ, σπέρμα μεταβόλων; ὡς ἀμητοῦ εἰσφερομένου οἱ μεταβόλοι τῶν ἐθνῶν.

aεἰς καταπάτημα] SA; σου B; σου εἰς καταπάτημα RZ b ἀφαιρεθήσῃ] SRZ; ἀφαιρεθήσει AB c καλέσω] SARZ; καὶ καλέσω B dκαὶ τὸ] SARZ; κατὰ B eκαὶ αὐτῷ τὴν κλείδα οἴκου Δαυὶδ ἐπὶ τῷ ὤμῳ αὐτοῦ] S; τὴν δόξαν Δαυεὶδ αὐτῷ BRZ; τὴν δόξαν Δαυεὶδ αὐτῷ, καὶ ἄρξει, καὶ οὐκ ἔσται ὁ ἀντιλέγων, καὶ δώσω τὴν κλεῖδα οἴκου Δαυεὶδ ἐπὶ τοῦ ὤμου αὐτοῦ A f ἀνοίξει] SA; ἄρξει BRZ g καὶ οὐκ ἔσται ὁ ἀντιλέγων] SRZ; + καὶ δώσω τὴν κλεῖδα οἴκου Δαυεὶδ ἐπὶ τοῦ ὤμου αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἀνοίξει καὶ οὐκ ἔσται ὁ ἀποκλείσων, καὶ κλείσει καὶ οὐκ ἔσται ὁ ἀνοίγων A; + καὶ κλείσει καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ὁ ἀνοίγων B h στήσω αὐτοῖς] S; στηλῶ αὐτὸν B; στήσω αὐτὸν ARZ i καὶ ἔσται πεποιθὼς ἐπ’ αὐτὸν πᾶς ἔνδοξος ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ] S*; om. ScaABRZ j τῷ] S; τόπῳ ABRZ kκαὶ πεσεῖται, καὶ ἀφαιρεθήσεται] SARZ; καὶ ἀφαιρεθήσεται καὶ πεσεῖται, καὶ ἐξολεθρευθήσεται B l ὅραμα] SARZ; ῥῆμα B m Χαρκηδόνος] S; Καρχηδόνος ScaABRZ n Κιτιαίων] SBZ; Κιτιέων Z; Κητιαίων A

22:19–23:3

139

great and immeasurable territory, and there you will die. And he will turn your fine chariot into a disgrace and the ruler’s house into a trampled ruin. 19 And you will be removed from your stewardship and from your position. 126 Eliakim will take Somnas’ place

(22:20–25)

20 And it will be on that day: I will call my servant Eliakim the son of Chelkias, 21 and I will clothe him with your robe and I will give him your crown, and I will give your power and stewardship into his hands, and he will be like a father to those who live in Jerusalem, and to those who live in Judah. 22 And I will give also to him the key of the house of David upon his shoulder, and he will open, and there will be no-one who turns against him, and he will close, and there will be no one who opposes him. 23 And I will set a ruler for them in a secure place, and he will become a throne of glory of the house of his father. 24 And every esteemed person in the house of his father will trust upon him, from small to great, and they will be hanging over him, 25 on that day. Thus says Lord Sabaoth: “The person who has been firmly set in the secure place will be removed and will fall, and the glory that was upon him will be taken away,” for Lord has spoken. 127 The vision of Tyre

(23:1–3)

23. 1 The vision of Tyre: Wail, ships of Carthage, for it has perished, and they no longer come from the land of the Kitienes; it has been led captive. 2 To whom have those living on the island become comparable, traders of Phoenicia, crossing the sea 3 in much water, the seed of traders? The traders of the nations are like when a harvest is being gathered in.

22:20 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.82 22:21 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.82 22:22 Origen Comm. Jo. 5; Gregorius Thaumaturgus In Origenem oratio panegyrica 15.180; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.82 22:24 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.82 22:25 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.82; 2.10 23:1 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.65, 83; Onom. (GCS 11,1.118) 23:2 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.83; Athanasius Ep. fest. 2.3 23:3 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.83

140 128 The esteemed of Tyre will be disregarded

Text and Translation

(23:4–9)

4 Αἰσχύνθητι, Σειδώνa, εἶπεν ἡ θάλασσα· ἡ δὲ ἰσχὺς τῆς θαλάσσης εἶπεν Οὐκ ὤδινον οὐδὲ ἔτεκον οὐδὲ ἐξέθρεψα νεανίσκους οὐδὲ ὕψωσα παρθένους. 5 ὅταν δὲ ἀκουστὸν γένηται Αἰγύπτῳ, λήμψεται αὐτοὺς ὀδύνη περὶ Τύρου. 6 ἀπέλθατε εἰς Καρχηδόνα, ὀλολύξατεb, οἱ ἐνοικοῦντεςc ἐν τῇ νήσῳ ταύτῃ. 7 οὐκ αὐτὴd ἦν ὑμῶν ἡ ὕβρις ἡe ἀπ’ ἀρχῆς πρὶν ἢ παραδοθῆναι αὐτήν; 8 τίς ταῦτα ἐβουλεύσατοf ἐπὶ Τύρον; μὴ ἥσσων ἐστὶν ἢ οὐκ ἰσχύουσινg οἱ ἔμποροι αὐτῆς οἱ ἔνδοξοιh, οἱ ἄρχοντεςi τῆς γῆς. 9 Κύριος Σαβαὼθ ἐβουλεύσατο παραλῦσαι πᾶσαν τὴν ὕβριν τῶν ἐνδόξων καὶ ἀτιμάσαι πᾶν ἔνδοξον ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. 129 Tyre loses power over the sea

(23:10–12)

10 ἐργάζου τὴν γῆν σου, καὶ γὰρ πλοῖα οὐκέτι ἔρχεται ἐκ Καρχηδόνος. 11 ἡ δὲ χείρ σου οὐκέτι ἰσχύει κατὰ θάλασσαν, ἡ παροξύνουσα βασιλεῖς· Κύριος Σαβαὼθ ἐνετείλατο περὶ Χανάαν ἀπολέσαι αὐτῆς τὴν ἰσχύν. 12 καὶ ἐροῦσιν Οὐκέτι μὴ προσθῆτεj τοῦ ὑβρίζειν καὶ ἀδικεῖν τὴν θυγατέρα Σειών. 130 No rest for Tyre

(23:12–13)

καὶ ἐὰν ἀπέλθῃς εἰς Κιτιεῖς, οὐδὲ ἐκεῖ ἀνάπαυσις ἔσται σοιk· 13 καὶ εἰς γῆν Χαλδαίων, καὶ αὕτη ἠρήμωται ἀπὸ τῶν Ἀσσυρίων, οὐδὲ ἐκεῖ σοι ἀνάπαυσις ἔσται, ὅτιl ὁ τοῖχος αὐτῆς πέπτωκεν. 131 Tyre abandoned for 70 years

(23:14–16)

14 Ὀλολύζετεm, πλοῖα Χαρκηδόνοςn, ὅτι ἀπώλετοo τὸ ὀχύρωμα ὑμῶν. 15 καὶ ἔσται ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ καταλειφθήσεται Τύρος ἔτη ἑβδομήκονταp ὡς χρόνος βασιλέως, ὡς

aΣειδών] SB; Σιδών ARZ bὀλολύξατε] SBR; ὀλολύζετε AZ cἐνοικοῦντες] SARZ; κατοικοῦντες B dοὐκ αὐτὴ] S; οὐχ αὕτη ABRZ e ἡ] SARZ; om. B fἐβουλεύσατο] S; ἐβούλευσεν ABRZ g ἰσχύουσιν] S; ἰσχύει ABRZ h οἱ ἔνδοξοι] S; ἔνδοξοι ABRZ i οἱ ἄρχοντες] S; ἄρχοντες ABRZ j προσθῆτε] SARZ; προστεθῆτε B k ἀνάπαυσις ἔσται σοι] SB; σοι ἀνάπαυσις ἔσται ARZ l οὐδὲ ἐκεῖ σοι ἀνάπαυσις ἔσται, ὅτι] SAR; om. BZ mὈλολύζετε] SARZ; ὀλολύξατε ScaB n Χαρκηδόνος] S*; Καρχηδόνος ScaABRZ o ἀπώλετο] SARZ; ἀπόλωλε B p ἔτη ἑβδομήκοντα] SARZ; ἑβδομήκοντα ἔτη B

23:4–15

128 The esteemed of Tyre will be disregarded

141 (23:4–9)

4 “Be ashamed, Sidon!” said the sea, and the power of the sea said, “I did not have pangs or give birth or rear young men or raise maidens.” 5 But when it is heard in Egypt, pangs will take them concerning Tyre. 6 Go away to Carthage; wail, you living on this island! 7 Was she not your pride from the beginning, before she was handed over? 8 Who planned these things against Tyre? Is she weaker? Are her esteemed merchants not powerful, the rulers of the land? 9 Lord Sabaoth planned to undo all the pride of the esteemed, and to disregard every esteemed person on the land. 129 Tyre loses power over the sea

(23:10–12)

10 Work your land, for even ships no longer come from Carthage. 11 But your hand that provoked kings no longer has power over the sea; Lord Sabaoth commanded concerning Chanaan to destroy its power. 12 And they will say, “You will certainly no longer continue to abuse and to wrong the daughter of Zion.” 130 No rest for Tyre

(23:12–13)

And if you go away to Kitieis, there will be no rest for you even there, 13 and to the land of Chaldeans, even this has been made desolate by the Assyrians; not even there will there be rest for you because its wall has fallen. 131 Tyre abandoned for 70 years

(23:14–16)

14 Wail, ships of Carthage, because your fortress has perished. 15 And it will be on that day: Tyre will be left for seventy years, like a king’s time, like a person’s

23:4 Hippolytus Antichr. 52; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.83 23:5 Hippolytus Antichr. 52; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.83 23:6 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.83 23:7 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.83 23:8 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.83 23:9 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.83 23:10 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.83 23:11 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.83 23:12 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.83 23:13 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.83 23:14 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.83 23:15 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.83

142

Text and Translation

χρόνος ἀνθρώπου· καὶ ἔσται μετὰ ἑβδομήκοντα ἔτη ἔσται Τύρος ὡς ᾆσμα πόρνης. 16 λαβὲ κιθάραν, ῥέμβευσον, πόλις, πόρνη ἐπιλελησμένη· καλῶς κιθάρισον, πολλὰ ᾆσον, ἵνα σου μνεία γένηται. 132 Tyre re-established, holy to the Lord

(23:17–18)

17 καὶ ἔσται μετὰ ἑβδομήκοντα ἔτη ἐπισκοπὴν ποιήσει ὁ θεὸς Τύρου, καὶ πάλιν ἀποκατασταθήσεται εἰς τὸ ἀρχαῖον καὶ ἔσταιa ἐμπόριον πάσαιςb βασιλείαις τῆς οἰκουμένηςc. 18 καὶ ἔσται αὐτῆς ἡ ἐμπορίαd καὶ ὁ μισθὸς ἅγιον τῷ Κυρίῳe· οὐκ αὐτοῖς συναχθήσεται, ἀλλὰ τοῖς κατοικοῦσιν ἔναντι Κυρίου ἐν Ἰερουσαλὴμf πᾶσα ἡ ἐμπορία αὐτῆς φαγεῖν καὶ πιεῖν καὶ ἐμπλησθῆναι εἰςg συμβολὴν, μνημόσυνον ἔναντι Κυρίου. 133 Lord will desolate the world

(24:1–3)

24.1 Ἰδοὺ Κύριος καταφθείρει τὴν οἰκουμένην καὶ ἐρημώσει αὐτὴν καὶ ἀνακαλύψει τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτῆς καὶ διασπερεῖ τοὺς πάνταςh ἐνοικοῦντας ἐν αὐτῇ. 2 καὶ ἔσται ὁ λαὸς ὡς ὁ ἱερεὺς καὶ ὁ παῖς ὡς ὁ κύριος καὶ ἡ θεράπαινα ὡς ἡ κυρία, καὶi ἔσται ὁ ἀγοράζων ὡς ὁ πωλῶν καὶ ὁ δανείζων ὡς ὁ δανειζόμενος καὶ ὁ ὀφείλων ᾧ ὀφείλει. 3 φθορᾷ φθαρήσεται ἡ γῆ, καὶ προνομῇ προνομευθήσεται ἡ γῆ· τὸ γὰρ στόμα Κυρίου ἐλάλησεν ταῦτα. 134 The land acted lawlessly

(24:4–6)

4 Ἐπένθησεν ἡ γῆ, καὶ ἐφθάρη ἡ οἰκουμένη, ἐπένθησαν οἱ ὑψηλοὶ τῆς γῆς. 5 καὶ ἡj γῆ ἠνόμησεν διὰ τοὺς κατοικοῦντας αὐτήν, διότι παρήλθοσανk τὸν νόμον καὶ ἤλλαξαν τὰ προστάγματα, διεσκέδασανl διαθήκην αἰώνιον. 6 διὰ τοῦτο ἀρὰ ἔδεται τὴν γῆν, ὅτι ἡμάρτοσαν οἱ κατοικοῦντες αὐτήν· διὰ τοῦτο πτωχοὶ ἔσονται οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες ἐν τῇ γῇ, καὶ καταλειφθήσονται ἄνθρωποι ὀλίγοι.

aμετὰ ἑβδομήκοντα ἔτη ἐπισκοπὴν ποιήσει ὁ θεὸς Τύρου, καὶ πάλιν Κητιαίων ἀποκατασταθήσεται εἰς τὸ ἀρχαῖον καὶ ἔσται] SR; om. ABZ bπάσαις] S; πάσαις ταῖς ABRZ cοἰκουμένης] SARZ; οἰκουμένης ἐπὶ πρόσωπον τῆς γῆς B d αὐτῆς ἡ ἐμπορία] SARZ; ἡ ἐμπορία αὐτῆς B e τῷ Κυρίῳ] SARZ; Κυρίῳ B fἐν Ἰερουσαλὴμ] S; om. ABRZ gεἰς] SARZ; καὶ εἰς B h πάντας] S*; om. ScaABRZ i καὶ] S; om. ABRZ j καὶ ἡ] S; ἡ δὲ ABRZ k παρήλθοσαν] SB; παρέβησαν ARZ l διεσκέδασαν] S; om. ABRZ

23:16–24:6

143

time. And it will be that after seventy years Tyre will be like a song of a prostitute: 16 Take a lyre; roam, O city, forgotten prostitute! Play the lyre well; sing many things, so that there might be remembrance of you. 132 Tyre re-established, holy to the Lord

(23:17–18)

17 And it will be that after seventy years, God will examine Tyre, and it will be re-established to the ancient way and it will be a marketplace for all kingdoms of the inhabited world. 18 And her commerce and earnings will be a holy thing to the Lord, all her commerce will be collected not for them but for those residing in the presence of Lord in Jerusalem, to eat and drink and be filled, as a contribution, a memorial in the presence of Lord. 133 Lord will desolate the world

(24:1–3)

24.1 Look, Lord is destroying the inhabited world, and will desolate it, and he will uncover its face and scatter all those living in it. 2 And the people will be like the priest, and the servant like the lord, and the maid like the lady, and the buyer will be like the seller; and the lender like the borrower, and the debtor to whom he owes. 3 The land will be ruined with ruin and the land will be plundered with plundering, for the mouth of Lord has spoken these things. 134 The land acted lawlessly

(24:4–6)

4 The land mourned, and the inhabited world was ruined; the exalted of the land mourned. 5 And the land acted lawlessly because of those inhabiting it, because they transgressed the law and changed the ordinances, they dissolved an eternal testament. 6 Because of this, a curse will devour the land, because those inhabiting it sinned; because of this, those living in the land will be poor and few humans will be left.

23:16 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.83 23:17 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.83 23:18 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.83 24:1 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.84, 89 24:2 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.84 24:3 Origen Fr. Lam. (GCS 6.253); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.84; 2.58 24:4 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.84; Dem. ev. 2.3.133 24:5 Origen Hom. Ezech. 4.1; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.84 24:6 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.84; Dem. ev. 2.3.133

144 135 Cheer has ceased

Text and Translation

(24:7–10)

7 πενθήσει οἶνος, πενθήσει ἄμπελος, στενάξουσιν πάντες οἱ εὐφραινόμενοι τὴν ψυχήν. 8 πέπαυται εὐφροσύνη τυμπάνων, πέπαυται αὐθάδεια καὶ πλοῦτος ἀσεβῶν, πέπαυται φωνὴ κιθάρας. 9 ᾐσχύνθησαν, οὐκ ἔπιον οἶνον, πικρὸν ἐγένετο τὸ σίκερα τοῖς πίνουσιν. 10 ἠρημώθη ὅλη ἡ γῆa, πᾶσα πόλις κλείσει οἰκίαν τοῦ μὴ εἰσελθεῖν. 136 Remnant cheered by Lord’s glory

(24:11–15)

11 Ὀλολύζετε περὶ τοῦ οἴνου πανταχῇ· πέπαυται πᾶσα εὐφροσύνη τῆς γῆςb. 12 καὶc καταλειφθήσονται πόλεις ἔρημοι, καὶ οἶκοι ἐγκαταλελειμμένοι ἀπολοῦνται. 13 ταῦτα πάντα ἔσταιd ἐν τῇ γῇ ἐν μέσῳ τῶν ἐθνῶν, ὃν τρόπον ἐάν τις καλαμᾶταιe ἐλαίαν, οὕτως καλαμήσονται αὐτούς. Καὶ ἐὰν παύσηται ὁ τρύγητος, 14 οὗτοι φωνῇ βοήσονταιf, οἱ δὲ καταλειφθέντες ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς εὐφρανθήσονται ἅμα τῇ δόξῃ Κυρίου. ταραχθήσεται τὸ ὕδωρ τῆς θαλάσσης· 15 διὰ τοῦτο ἡ δόξα Κυρίου ἐν ταῖς νήσοις ἔσται τῆς θαλάσσης, τὸ ὄνομα Κυρίου ἔνδοξον ἔσται. 137 No escape for the lawless

(24:16–18)

16 Κύριε ὁ θεὸς Ἰσραήλ, ἀπὸ τῶν πτερύγων τῆς γῆς τέρατα ἠκούσαμεν Ἐλπὶς τῷ εὐσεβεῖ. καὶ ἐροῦσιν Οὐαὶ τοῖς ἀθετοῦσιν, οἱ ἀθοῦντεςg τὸν νόμον. 17 φόβος καὶ βόθυνος καὶ παγὶς ἐφ’ ἡμᾶςh τοὺς κατοικοῦντας ἐν τῇ γῇi· 18 καὶ ἔσται ὁ φεύγων τὸν φόβον ἐμπεσεῖται εἰς τὸν βόθυνον, ὁ δὲj ἐκβαίνων ἐκ τοῦ βοθύνου ἁλώσεται ὑπὸ τῆς παγίδος, ὅτι θυρίδες ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ἠνεῴχθησανk, καὶ σεισθήσεται τὰ θεμέλια τῆς γῆς.

aὅλη ἡ γῆ] S; om. ABRZ b τῆς γῆς] SARZ; om. B c καὶ] SARZ; om. B d ἔσται] SARZ; ἔσονται B e καλαμᾶται] S; καλαμήσηται ABRZ f φωνῇ βοήσονται] SARZ; βοῇ φωνήσουσιν B g ἀθοῦντες] S; ἀθετοῦντες ABRZ hἡμᾶς] S; ὑμᾶς ABRZ iκατοικοῦντας ἐν τῇ γῇ] S; ἐνοικοῦντας ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ABRZ j ὁ δὲ] SARZ; καὶ ὁ B k ἠνεῴχθησαν] SARZ; ἀνεῴχθησαν B

24:7–18

135 Cheer has ceased

145 (24:7–10)

7 Wine will mourn; a vine will mourn; all those cheering the soul will groan. 8 The cheer of drums has ceased; the stubbornness and wealth of impious people has ceased; the sound of the lyre has ceased. 9 They were ashamed; they did not drink wine; the sikera became bitter to those drinking it. 10 The whole land is desolated; every city will close a house so as not to enter it. 136 Remnant cheered by Lord’s glory

(24:11–15)

11 Wail about the wine everywhere; all the land’s happiness has ceased 12 and cities will be left behind as deserts and forsaken houses will be destroyed. 13 All these things will be in the land, in the midst of the nations; in the same way that someone gleans an olive tree, so will they glean them. And if the harvest has ceased, 14 these people will cry out with their voice, but those left on the land will be cheered at the same time by the glory of Lord. The water of the sea will be troubled. 15 Because of this, the glory of Lord will be in the islands of the sea; the name of Lord will be esteemed. 137 No escape for the lawless

(24:16–18)

16 O Lord, god of Israel, from the wings of the land we heard wonders: Hope for the pious one! And they will say, “Woe to those who rebel—you who rebel against the law!” 17 Fear and pit and trap are upon us who inhabit the land. 18 And this will happen: the one who flees the fear will fall into the pit, and the one who steps out of the pit will be caught by the snare, because windows from the sky were opened, and the foundations of the land were shaken.

24:7 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.84 24:9 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.84 24:10 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.84 24:11 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.84 24:12 Eusebius Dem. ev. 2.3.134 24:13 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.84 24:14 Origen Hom. Ezech. 4.1; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.84; Dem. ev. 2.3.134 24:15 Origen Fr. Ezech. (PG 13.788); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.84 24:17 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.84 24:18 Dial. Sav. 132.22; Hippolytus Cant. 1; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.84

146 138 The land troubled by lawlessness

Text and Translation

(24:19–20)

19 ταράχθῃa ταραχθήσεται ἡ γῆ, καὶ ἀπορίᾳ ἀπορηθήσεται ἡ γῆ· 20 ἔκλινεν καὶ σεισθήσεται ἡ γῆ, ἔκλινενb καὶ σεισθήσεται ὡς ὀπωροφυλάκιον ἡ γῆ ὡς ὁ μεθύων καὶ ὁ κραιπαλῶν καὶ πεσεῖται καὶ οὐ μὴ δύνηται ἀναστῆναιc, κατίσχυσεν γὰρ ἐπ’ αὐτῆς ἡ ἀνομία. καὶ πεσεῖται καὶ οὐ μὴ δύνηται στῆναιd. 139 Lord will reign in Jerusalem

(24:21–23)

21 Καὶ ἐπάξει ὁ θεὸς ἐπὶ τὸν κόσμον τοῦ οὐρανοῦ τὴν χεῖρα καὶ ἐπὶ τοὺς βασιλεῖς τῆς γῆς· 22 καὶ συνάξουσινe καὶ ἀποκλείσουσιν εἰς ὀχύρωμα καὶ εἰς δεσμωτήριονf, διὰ πολλῶν γενεῶν ἐπισκοπὴ ἔσται αὐτῶν. 23 καὶ τακήσεται ἡ πλίνθος, καὶ πεσεῖται τὸ τεῖχος, καὶ ἐντραπήσεται ἡ σελήνη· καὶ αἰσχυνθήσεται ὁ ἥλιοςg, ὅτι βασιλεύσει Κύριος ἐν Σιὼνh καὶ ἐν Ἰερουσαλήμi καὶ ἐνώπιον τῶν πρεσβυτέρων δοξασθήσεται. 140 A song glorifying Lord

(25:1–2)

25.1 Κύριε ὁ θεός μουj, δοξάσω σε, ὑμνήσω τὸ ὄνομά σου, ὅτι ἐποίησας θαυμαστὰ πράγματα, βουλὴν ἀρχαίαν ἀληθινήν· γένοιτο, Κύριε. 2 ὅτι ἔθηκας πόλινk εἰς χῶμα, πόλεις ὀχυρὰς τοῦ πεσεῖνl αὐτῶν τὰ θεμέλια· τῶν ἀσεβῶν πόλιςm τὸν αἰῶνα οὐ μὴ οἰκοδομηθῇ. 141 The poor will praise you for your help

(25:3–5)

3 διὰ τοῦτο εὐλογήσει σε ὁ λαὸς ὁ πτωχός, καὶ πόλεις ἀνθρώπων ἀδικουμένων εὐλογήσουσίν σε· 4 ἐγένου γὰρ πάσῃ πόλει ταπεινῷn βοηθὸς καὶ τοῖς ἀθυμήσασιν διὰ ἔνδειαν σκέπη, ἀπὸ ἀνθρώπων πονηρῶν ῥύσῃ αὐτούς, σκέπη διψώντων καὶ πνεῦμα ἀνθρώ-

aταράχθῃ] S; ταραχῇ ABRZ bἔκλινεν καὶ σεισθήσεται ἡ γῆ, ἔκλινεν] S; ἔκλινεν ὡς ὁ μεθύων καὶ κραιπαλῶν B; ἔκλινεν AR; ἔκλινε Z cὡς ὁ μεθύων καὶ ὁ κραιπαλῶν καὶ πεσεῖται καὶ οὐ μὴ δύνηται ἀναστῆναι] SARZ; om. B d καὶ πεσεῖται καὶ οὐ μὴ δύνηται στῆναι] S; καὶ πεσεῖται καὶ οὐ μὴ δύνηται ἀναστῆναι B; om. ARZ eσυνάξουσιν] SARZ; συνάξουσιν συναγωγὴν αὐτῆς εἰς δεσμωτήριον B fκαὶ εἰς δεσμωτήριον] SARZ; om. B gκαὶ ἐντραπήσεται ἡ σελήνη· καὶ αἰσχυνθήσεται ὁ ἥλιος] S; om. ABRZ hἐν Σιὼν] SAR; ἐκ Σειὼν B; ἐκ Σιων Z iἐν Ἰερουσαλήμ] SARZ; εἰς Ἰερουσαλήμ B jμου] SARZ; om. B k πόλιν] S*; πόλεις Scb3ABRZ l τοῦ πεσεῖν] SAR; τοῦ μὴ πεσεῖν BZ m πόλις] SAB; πόλις εἰς ScaRZ n ταπεινῷ] S*; ταπεινῇ ScaABRZ

24:19–25:4

138 The land troubled by lawlessness

147 (24:19–20)

19 May it be troubled; the land will be troubled, and the land will be perplexed with perplexity. 20 The land has tipped and will be shaken; it has tipped and will be shaken like a garden-watcher’s hut, like the one who gets drunk and is inebriated, and it will fall and it will certainly not be able to get up, for lawlessness has gained power over it, and it will certainly not be able to get up. 139 Lord will reign in Jerusalem

(24:21–23)

21 And God will bring his hand against the array of the sky and against the kings of the land, 22 and they will gather and shut them up in a fortress and in a prison; their examination will be for many generations. 23 And the brick will melt away, and the wall will fall, and the moon will feel shame and the sun will be ashamed, because Lord will reign in Zion and in Jerusalem, and he will be held in honour in the presence of the elders. 140 A song glorifying Lord

(25:1–2)

25.1 O Lord my God, I will glorify you; I will sing of your name, because you have done wondrous deeds, an ancient, true plan. So be it, Lord, 2 because you have turned a city into a heap, fortified cities, so that their foundations fall. A city of the impious certainly will not be built, for eternity. 141 The poor will praise you for your help

(25:3–5)

3 Because of this, the poor people will praise you, and cities of mistreated humans will praise you. 4 For you became a helper for a humble man in every city and a shelter for those disheartened because of need; you will rescue them from evil humans, a shelter for the thirsty and a breath for mistreated humans.

24:19 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.84 24:20 Dial. Sav. 132.22; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.84 24:21 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.84 24:22 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.84 24:23 Mart. Ascen. Isa. 4.15; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.84, 85; 2.58 25:1 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.85; Dem. ev. 1.10.30; 2.3.17 25:2 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.85, 86 25:3 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.85 25:4 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.85; Dem. ev. 2.3.17

148

Text and Translation

πων ἀδικουμένων. 5 εὐλογήσουσίν σεa ὡς ἄνθρωποι ὀλιγόψυχοι διψῶντες ἐν Σιών ὅτι ῥύσῃ αὐτοὺςb. 142 Lord will act on this mountain toward all nations

(25:5–7)

ἀπὸ ἀνθρώπων ἀσεβῶν, οἷς ἡμᾶς παρέδωκας 6 καὶ ποιήσει Κύριος Σαβαώθ πᾶσι τοῖς ἔθνεσιν ἐπὶ τὸ ὄρος τοῦτο. πίονται εὐφροσύνην, πίονται οἶνον. 7 χρίσονται μύρον ἐν τῷ ὄρει τούτῳ. παράδος πάντα ταῦταc τοῖς ἔθνεσιν· ἡ γὰρ βουλὴ αὕτη ἐπὶ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη. 143 Lord took away every tear

(25:8)

8 Κατέπιεν ὁ θάνατος ἰσχύσας, καὶ πάλιν ἀφεῖλεν Κύριος ὁ θεὸς πᾶν δάκρυον ἀπὸ παντὸς προσώπου· τὸ ὄνειδος τοῦ λαοῦ ἀφεῖλεν ἀπὸ πάσης τῆς γῆς, τὸ γὰρ στόμα Κυρίου ἐλάλησεν. 144 God will provide rest on this mountain

(25:9–10)

9 καὶ ἐροῦσιν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ Ἰδοὺ Κύριοςd ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν, ἐφ’ ᾧ ἠλπίζομεν καὶ ἠγαλλιώμεθα, ἐπὶ τῷ σωτῆριe ἡμῶν καὶ εὐφρανθησόμεθαf. 10 ὅτιg ἀνάπαυσιν δώσει ὁ θεὸς ἐπὶ τὸ ὄρος τοῦτο. 145 Moabitis will be brought down

(25:10–12)

καὶ καταπατηθήσεται ἡ Μωαβῖτις, ὃν τρόπον πατοῦσιν ἅλωνα ἐν ἁμάξαις· 11 καὶ ἀνήσει τὰς χεῖρας αὐτοῦ, ὃν τρόπον καὶ αὐτὸς ἐταπείνωσεν τοῦ ἀπολέσαι, καὶ ταπεινώσει τὴν ὕβριν αὐτοῦ ἐφ’ ᾗh τὰς χεῖρας ἐπέβαλεν· 12 καὶ τὸ ὕψος τῆς καταφυγῆς τοῦ τοίχου σου ταπεινώσει, καὶ καταβήσεταιi ἕως τοῦ ἐδάφους.

aεὐλογήσουσίν σε] SR; om. ABZ bὅτι ῥύσῃ αὐτοὺς] S*; om. ScaABRZ cπάντα ταῦτα] SB; ταῦτα πάντα ARZ dΚύριος] S; om. ABRZ eτῷ σωτῆρι] S*; τῇ σωτηρίᾳ ScaABRZ fκαὶ εὐφρανθησόμεθα] S; om. ABRZ gὅτι] SARZ; om. B hᾗ] S; ἃ ABRZ i καταβήσεται] SARZ; Καταβήσονται B

25:5–12

149

5 They will praise you like faint-hearted humans thirsting in Zion, because you will save them. 142 Lord will act on this mountain toward all nations

(25:5–7)

From impious people, to whom you handed us over, 6 Lord Sabaoth will also act on this mountain toward all the nations. They will drink happiness; they will drink wine. 7 They will anoint themselves with perfume on this mountain; deliver all these things to the nations, for this plan is toward all the nations. 143 Lord took away every tear

(25:8)

8 Having power, death swallowed; and again Lord God took away every tear from every face; he took away the reproach of the people from all the land, for the mouth of Lord has spoken. 144 God will provide rest on this mountain

(25:9–10)

9 And they will say on that day, “Look, Lord our God on whom we were hoping and rejoicing; we will also delight over our saviour.” 10 Because God will provide rest on this mountain. 145 Moabitis will be brought down

(25:10–12)

And Moabitis will be trampled down in the same way that they tread a threshing floor with wagons. 11 And he will send out his hands; in the same way that even he himself lowered it to destroy, also he will lower his pride, upon which he set his hands. 12 And he will lower the height of the refuge of your wall, and it will go down to the ground.

25:5 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.85 25:6 Origen Hom. Ex. 7.8; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.85; Dem. ev. 1.10.31; 2.3.18 25:7 Origen Hom. Ex. 7.8; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.85; Dem. ev. 1.10.31 25:8 Origen Fr. Ps. 123.3 (Analecta sacra 3.321); Comm. Jo. 13.418; Or. 13.3; Hom. Lev. 5.3; Comm. Matt. 12.35; Methodius Res. 3.23.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.85–86, 92; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.313, 745); Dem. ev. 2.3.18; 4.12.4; 10.8.91; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 12.15 25:9 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.86 25:10 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.86 25:11 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.86 25:12 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.86

150 146 Song over the land of Judah

Text and Translation

(26:1–6)

26.1 Τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ᾄσονται τὸ ᾆσμα τοῦτο ἐπὶ γῆς Ἰούδαa Ἰδοὺ πόλις ὀχυρά, καὶ σωτήριον ἡμῖνb θήσει τεῖχοςc καὶ περίτειχος. 2 ἀνοίξατε πύλας, εἰσελθάτωd λαὸς φυλάσσων δικαιοσύνην. Καὶ φυλάσσων ἀλήθειαν, 3 ἀντιλαμβανόμενος ἀληθείας καὶ φυλάσσων εἰρήνην. ὅτι ἐπὶ σοὶe 4 ἤλπισαν, Κύριε, ὡςf τοῦ αἰῶνος, ὁ θεὸς ὁ μέγας ὁ αἰώνιος, 5 ὃς ταπεινώσας κατήγαγες τοὺς ἐνοικοῦντας ἐν ὑψηλοῖς· πόλεις ὀχυρὰς καταβαλεῖς καὶ κατάξεις ἕως ἐδάφους, 6 καὶ πατήσουσιν αὐτοὺςg πόδες πραέων καὶ ταπεινῶν. 147 The path of Lord is judgement

(26:7–9)

7 ὁδὸς εὐσεβῶν εὐθεῖα ἐγένετο, καὶ παρεσκευασμένη ἡ ὁδὸς τῶν ἀσεβῶνh. 8 ἡ γὰρ ὁδὸς Κυρίου κρίσις· ἠλπίσαμεν ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματί σου καὶ ἐπὶ τῇ μνείᾳ, 9 ᾗi ἐπεθυμεῖj ἡ ψυχὴ ἡμῶν. 148 Learn righteousness

(26:9–10)

ἐκ νυκτὸς ὀρθρίζει τὸ πνεῦμά μου πρὸς σέ, ὁ θεός, διότι φῶς τὰ προστάγματά σου ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. δικαιοσύνην μάθετε, οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. 10 πέπαυται γὰρ ὁ ἀσεβής, πᾶς ὃςk οὐ μὴ μάθῃ δικαιοσύνην ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, ἀλήθειαν οὐ μὴ ποιήσῃl· ἀρθήτω ὁ ἀσεβής, ἵνα μὴ ἴδῃ τὴν δόξαν Κυρίου.

aἸούδα] S; τῆς Ἰουδαίας B; Ιουδα λέγοντες ARZ b ἡμῖν] S; ἡμῶν R; ἡμῖς A; om. BZ cτεῖχος] SARZ; τὸ τεῖχος B d εἰσελθάτω] SARZ; εἰσελθέτω B e σοὶ] SARZ; σοὶ ἐλπίδι B fὡς] S; ἕως ABRZ gαὐτοὺς] SABR; αὐτὰς Z h καὶ παρεσκευασμένη ἡ ὁδὸς τῶν ἀσεβῶν] S; καὶ παρεσκευασμένη ἡ ὁδὸς τῶν εὐσεβῶν ARZ; ἡ ὁδὸς τῶν εὐσεβῶν καὶ παρεσκευασμένη B iᾗ] SABZ; ἧ R jἐπεθυμεῖ] S; ἐπιθυμεῖ ABRZ k πᾶς ὃς] SB; om. ARZ l ποιήσῃ] SARZ; ποιήσει B

26:1–10

146 Song over the land of Judah

151 (26:1–6)

26.1 On that day, they will sing this song over the land of Judah: “Look, a powerful city, and he will make a wall and surrounding wall into a deliverance for us.” 2 Open the gates! Let a people that keeps righteousness enter! And a people that keeps truth, 3 who lays hold of truth and keeps peace, because 4 they hoped on you, Lord, as eternity, the great, eternal god, 5 who lowered and brought down those living in high places. You will overthrow secure cities and bring them down to the ground, 6 and meek and low people’s feet will tread on them. 147 The path of Lord is judgement

(26:7–9)

7 The path of the pious has become straight, and the path of the impious is ready. 8 For the path of Lord is justice; we hoped on your name and on the remembrance 9 that our soul was longing for. 148 Learn righteousness

(26:9–10)

My breath rises early from the night to you, God, because your ordinances are light on the land. Learn righteousness, you who dwell on the land; 10 for the impious, everyone who does not learn righteousness on the land, has ceased; he will not perform truth. Let the impious person be taken away, so that he does not see the glory of Lord.

26:1–6 Origen Fr. Cant. (GCS 33.233); Eusebius. Comm. Isa. 1.86–87; Didymus Comm. Zach. 1.7, 29; 3.229; 5.387; Trin. 2.5; Epiphanius Pan. 76.7.3–5 26:3 Justin Dial. 24.2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.86 26:6 Gregory of Nazianzus Or. Bas. 42.8 26:7–9 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.86–87; Athanasius Ep. fest. 2; Didymus Comm. Eccl. 93.6; 309.9; 327.3; Comm. Job 11.18; 210.22; Comm. Oct. Reg. 87; 121; Comm. Ps. 23.9; Comm. Zach. 1.74; 2.128; 2.164; Fr. Ps. 636; 1169; Trin. 2.12; Origen Comm. Jo. 2.159; Fr. Ps. 126.2; Fr. Prov.; Chrysotom Hom. 1Tim. 14; Gregory of Nazianus Or. Bas. 40.6 26:10 Athanasius Ep. fest. 7; 20; Didymus Comm. Eccl. 327.3; 93.6; 309.9; Comm. Job 11.18; 210.22; Comm. Oct. Reg. 87; 121; Comm. Ps. 23.9; Comm. Zach. 1.74; 2.128; 2.164; Fr. Ps. 636;1169; Trin. 2.12; Origen Comm. Jo. 2.159; Fr. Ps. 126.2; Fr. Prov. (PG 17 149–252); Chrysotom Hom. 1. Tim. 14; Hom. Jo. 12.; Theodoret; Basil of Caesarea Enar. Es.; Gregory Nazianzus Or. Bas. 40.6; Gregory of Nyssa. V. Moys. 2.218; Beat. 6; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.87; Comm. Ps.; Ambrose Iob. Dav. 4.5.19; Ps. 118. 14.38; 19.30; Hippolytus Apoc. 1; 2; 8–14; 19–20; Antichr. 63; Comm. Dan. 4.55.4; Procopius of Gaza Comm. Isa. 2; Oct. Com.

152 149 Lord, your arm is high

Text and Translation

(26:11)

11 Κύριε, ὑψηλός σου ὁ βραχίων, καὶ οὐκ ᾔδεισαν, γνόντες δὲ αἰσχυνθήτωσανa· ζῆλος λήμψεται λαὸν ἀπαίδευτον, καὶ νῦν πῦρ τοὺς ὑπεναντίους ἔδεται. 150 Lord, give us peace

(26:12–18)

12 Κύριε ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν, εἰρήνην δὸς ἡμῖν, πάντα γὰρ ἀπέδωκας ἡμῖν. 13 Κύριε ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶνb, κτῆσαι ἡμᾶς· Κύριε, ἐκτὸς σοῦ ἄλλον οὐκ οἴδαμεν, τὸ ὄνομά σου ὀνομάζομεν. 14 οἱ δὲ νεκροὶ ζωὴν οὐ μὴ ἴδωσιν, οὐδὲ ἰατροὶ οὐ μὴ ἀναστήσωσινc· διὰ τοῦτο ἐπήγαγες καὶ ἀπώλεσας καὶ ἦρες πᾶν ἄρσεν αὐτῶν. 15 πρόσθες αὐτοῖς κακά, Κύριε, προσθήσει κακὰ πᾶσινd τοῖς ἐνδόξοις τῆς γῆς. 16 Κύριε, ἐν θλίψει ἐμνήσθην σου, ἐν θλίψει μικρᾷ ἡ παιδεία σου ἐγενήθῃe ἡμῖν. 17 καὶ ὡς ἡ ὠδίνουσα ἐγγίζει τεκεῖνf καὶg ἐπὶ τῇ ὠδῖνι αὐτῆς ἐκέκραξεν, οὕτως ἐγενήθημεν τῷ ἀγαπητῷ σου. 18 διὰ τὸν φόβον σου, Κύριε, ἐν γαστρὶ ἐλάβομεν καὶ ὠδινήσαμεν καὶ ἐτέκομεν· πνεῦμα σωτηρίας σουh ἐποιήσαμεν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, ἀλλὰ πεσοῦνταιi οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. 151 The dead will rise

(26:19)

19 ἀναστήσονται οἱ νεκροί, καὶ ἐγερθήσονται οἱ ἐν τοῖς μνημείοις, καὶ εὐφρανθήσονται οἱ ἐν τῇ γῇ· ἡ γὰρ δρόσος ἡ παρὰ σοῦ ἴαμα αὐτοῖς ἐστιν, ἡ δὲ γῆ τῶν ἀσεβῶν πεσεῖται.

aαἰσχυνθήτωσαν] S; αἰσχυνθήσονται ABRZ b Κύριε ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν] SARZ; om. B c ἀναστήσωσιν] SRZ; ἀναστήσουσιν AB d πᾶσιν] SARZ; om. B e ἐγενήθῃ] S; om. ABRZ fτεκεῖν] SB; τοῦ τεκεῖν ARZ g καὶ] SARZ; om. B h σου] SABR; οὐκ Z i πεσοῦνται] SARZ; πεσοῦνται πάντες B

26:11–19

149 Lord, your arm is high

153 (26:11)

11 Lord, your arm is high, and they have not seen it, but when they know it, they should be ashamed. Zeal will take hold of an undisciplined people, and now fire will consume the opponents. 150 Lord, give us peace

(26:12–18)

12 Lord, our god, give us peace; for you have delivered all things to us. 13 Lord, our god, take possession of us. Lord, we do not know any other but you; we name your name. 14 But the dead certainly will not see life, and healers certainly will not rise; because of this you brought and destroyed and took away every male of theirs. 15 Give them evils, Lord! He will give evils to all the esteemed of the land. 16 Lord, in distress I remembered you; in a little distress, your discipline came to us. 17 And as the woman having pangs approaches childbirth and cries out at her pangs, so we became to your beloved. 18 Because of fear of you, Lord, we conceived in the womb, and had pangs, and gave birth; we made a spirit of your deliverance on the land, but those dwelling on the land will fall. 151 The dead will rise

(26:19)

19 The dead will rise, and those in the tombs will be raised, and those in the land will rejoice; for the dew from you is a remedy for them, but the land of the impious will fall.

26:11 Cyprian Adv. Jud.; Gregory Nazianzen Or. 16.7; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.87 26:12–18 Did. apost. 20; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.87–88; 2.11; 2.48; Ecl. proph. 4.12; Praep ev. 12.45; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.389); Origen Fr. Lam. (GCS 6.260); (PG 17.276; 17.29); Hom. Exod. 10.3; Hom. Gen. 6.3;12.3; Hom. Lev. 12.7; Hom. Num. 20.21; Comm. Matt. 38; 43; 54; Fr. Cant 3; Methodius Sang. 1.5; Conviv. 7.4 26:19 Tertullian Res. 31.6; Clement of Alexandria Protr. 114.3; Didymus Comm. Zach. 2.174; Fr. Ps. 686; 1188; Iraeneus Dem. 67; Gregory of Nyssa Cant. 11; Refut. 225; Eusebius Caesarea Comm. Isa. 1.88–89; Hippolytus Antichr. 65; Epiphanius Pan. 56.2.10; 64.70.5; Pamphilius Apol. pro Orig. 7; Procopius of Gaza Comm. Isa. (PG 87.2.224).

154 152 Hide from Lord’s wrath

Text and Translation

(26:20–21)

20 Βάδιζε, λαός μου, εἴσελθε εἰς τὰ ταμίειάa σου, ἀπόκλεισον τὴν θύραν σου, ἀποκρύβηθι μικρὸν ὅσον ὅσον, ἕως ἂν παρέλθῃ ἡ ὀργὴ Κυρίου· 21 ἰδοὺ γὰρ Κύριος ἀπὸ τοῦ ἁγίου ἐπάγει τὴν ὀργὴν αὐτοῦb ἐπὶ τοὺς κατοικοῦνταςc ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, καὶ ἀνακαλύψει ἡ γῆ τὸ αἷμα αὐτῆς καὶ οὐ κατακαλύψειd τοὺς ἀνῃρημένους ἐπ’ αὐτῆςe. 153 Lord will slay the dragon

(27:1)

27.1 Τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ἐπάξει Κύριοςf τὴν μάχαιραν τὴν ἁγίαν καὶ τὴν μεγάλην καὶ τὴν ἰσχυρὰν ἐπὶ τὸν δράκοντα ὄφιν φεύγοντα, ἐπὶ τὸν δράκοντα ὄφιν σκολιὸν καὶg ἀνελεῖ τὸν δράκοντα τὸν ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃh. 154 Israel the beautiful vineyard

(27:2–6)

2 Τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ἀμπελὼν καλός· ἐπιθύμημα ἐξάρχειν κατ’ αὐτῆς. 3 ἐγὼ πόλις ἰσχυράi, πόλις πολιορκουμένη, μάτην ποτιῶ αὐτήν· ἁλώσεται γὰρ νυκτός, ἡμέρας δὲ πεσεῖται τὸj τεῖχος. 4 οὐκ ἔστιν ἣ οὐκ ἐπελάβετο αὐτῆς· Τίς με θήσει καλάμην φυλάσσεινk ἐν ἀγρῷ; διὰ τὴν πολεμίαν ταύτην ἠθέτηκα αὐτήν. Τοίνυν διὰ τοῦτο ἐποίησεν Κύριος πάνταl, ὅσα συνέταξεν Κύριοςm. κατακέκαυμαι, 5 βοήσονται οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες ἐν αὐτῇ, ποιήσωμεν εἰρήνην αὐτῷn, ποιήσωμεν εἰρήνην. 6 οἱ ἐρχόμενοι, τέκνα Ἰακώβ, βλαστήσει καὶ ἐξανθήσει Ἰσραήλ, καὶ ἐμπλησθήσεταιo ἡ οἰκουμένη τοῦ καρποῦ αὐτοῦ. 155 The slayer will be slain

(27:7–11)

7 Μὴ ὡς αὐτὸς ἐπάταξεν, καὶ αὐτὸς οὗτοςp πληγήσεται, καὶ ὡς αὐτὸς ἀνεῖλεν, οὕτως ἀναιρεθήσεται; 8 μαχόμενιοςq καὶ ὀνειδίζων ἐξαποστέλλειr αὐτούς· οὐ σοιs ἦσθα ὁt μελετῶν τῷ πνεύματι τῷ σκληρῷ ἀνελεῖν αὐτοὺς πνεύματι θυμοῦ; 9 διὰ τοῦτο ἀφαιρεθήσεται ἡ ἀνομίαu Ἰακώβ, καὶ τοῦτό ἐστιν ἡ εὐλογία αὐτοῦ, ὅταν ἀφέλωμαι αὐτοῦ

aταμίειά] SAR; ταμεῖά BZ b αὐτοῦ] S; om. ABRZ cκατοικοῦντας] S; ἐνοικοῦντας ABRZ d κατακαλύψει] SBRZ; + ἡ γῆ A e ἐπ’ αὐτῆς] S; om. ABRZ fΚύριος] S; ὁ θεὸς ABRZ g καὶ] SARZ; om. B h τὸν ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃ] S; om. ABRZ i ἰσχυρά] SARZ; ὀχυρά B j τὸ] SARZ; om. B k καλάμην φυλάσσειν] S; φυλάσσειν καλάμην ABRZ l Κύριος πάντα] SB; κύριος ὁ θεὸς πάντα ARZ m Κύριος] S; om. ABRZ n ποιήσωμεν εἰρήνην αὐτῷ] SARZ; om. B o ἐμπλησθήσεται] SARZ; πλησθήσεται B p οὗτος] S*; οὕτως ABRZ q μαχόμενιος] S; μαχόμενος ABRZ r ἐξαποστέλλει] S; ἐξαποστελεῖ ABRZ s σοι] S; σὺ ABRZ t ὁ] SARZ; om. B u ἡ ἀνομία] SARZ; ἀνομία B

26:20–27:9

152 Hide from Lord’s wrath

155 (26:20–21)

20 Go, my people, enter into your chambers; shut your door; hide as little as a little while, until the anger of Lord passes. 21 For look, Lord is bringing his anger from the holy place upon those who dwell upon the land; and the land will uncover its blood and it will not cover up those slain upon it. 153 Lord will slay the dragon

(27:1)

27.1 On day, that Lord will bring the holy and great and powerful sword upon the dragon, fleeing serpent, upon the dragon, twisted serpent, and he will slay the dragon that is in the sea. 154 Israel the beautiful vineyard

(27:2–6)

2 On that day, a vineyard will be beautiful, a desire to take the lead with it. 3 I am a mighty city, a besieged city; pointlessly I will water it, for it will be captured by night, and by day the wall will fall. 4 There is no city that did not seize it. Who will set me as a stalk to keep watch in a field? I set it because of this warring city. Accordingly, because of this, Lord did all that Lord ordained. I have been burned up. 5 Those dwelling in it will cry out: Let us make peace with him; let us make peace! 6 Those coming are children of Jacob; Israel will bud and bloom, and the inhabited world will be filled with his fruit. 155 The slayer will be slain

(27:7–11)

7 As he himself struck, will this one himself also be struck? And as he himself slayed, so will he be slain? 8 Fighting and reproaching, he sends them away. Were you not the one muttering by the harsh wind to slay them with a wind of wrath? 9 Because of this, the lawlessness of Jacob will be taken away. And this is 26:20–21 Matt 6:6; Heb 10:37; Tertullian Res. 27.4; Hippolytus Antichr. 64; Gaivm (CSCO 60.14); Origen Hom. Jer 12.10; Hom. Gen. 2.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.89; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.240); Fr. (PG 24.585) 27:1 Justin Dial. 91.4; 100.4; 112.2; Tertullian Marc. 4.24.10; Hippolytus Gaivm (CSCO 60.14); Origen Princ. 2.8.3; 3.2.1; Hom. Lev. 8.3; Methodius Lib. Arb. (PO 22.5.815); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.89, 97; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.637; 1088); Vit. Const. 3.3.1; 3.3.3 27:2–6 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.90, 92; 2.3 27:7–11 Did. apost. 13; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.90–91; Tertullian Marc. 4.43.2; Origen Fr. Matt. 563; 567; 141; Matt.Com A. 141; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 14.14

156

Text and Translation

τὴν ἁμαρτίαν, ὅταν θῶσιν πάντας τοὺς λίθους τῶν βωμῶν κατακεκομμένους ὡς κονίαν λεπτήν· καὶ οὐ μὴ μείνῃ τὰ δένδρα αὐτῶν, καὶ τὰ εἴδωλα αὐτῶν ἐκκεκομμένα ὥσπερ δρυμὸς μακράν. 10 τὸ κατοικούμενον ποίμνιον ἀνειμένον ἔσται ὡς ποίμνιον καταλελειμμένον· καὶ ἔσται πολὺν χρόνον εἰς βόσκημα, καὶ ἐκεῖa ἀναπαύσονται. 11 μετὰ πολὺb χρόνον οὐκ ἔσται ἐν αὐτῇ πᾶν χλωρὸν διὰ τὸ ξηρανθῆναι. 156 The destroyed sons of Israel will return

(27:11–13)

Γυναῖκες ἐρχόμεναι ἀπὸ θέας, δεῦτε· οὐ γὰρ λαός ἐστιν ἔχων σύνεσιν, διὰ τοῦτο οὐ μὴ οἰκτιρήσειc ὁ ποιήσας αὐτούς, οὐδὲ ὁ πλάσας αὐτοὺς οὐ μὴ ἐλεήσῃ. 12 Καὶ ἔσται ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ συνταράξειd Κύριοςe ἀπὸ τῆς διώρυγοςf τοῦ ποταμοῦ ἕως Ῥινοκορούρων, ὑμεῖς δὲ συναγάγετε τοὺς υἱοὺς Ἰσραήλ κατὰ ἕνα ἕναg. 13 καὶ ἔσται ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ σαλπιοῦσιν τῇ σάλπιγγι τῇ μεγάλῃ, καὶ ἥξουσιν οἱ ἀπολόμενοι ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ τῶν Ἀσσυρίων καὶ οἱ ἀπολόμενοι ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ καὶ προσκυνήσουσιν τῷ Κυρίῳ ἐπὶ τὸ ὄρος τὸ ἅγιον ἐνh Ἰερουσαλήμ. 157 Woe to the crown of pride

(28:1–3)

28.1 Οὐαὶ τῷ στεφάνῳ τῆς ὕβρεως, οἱ μισθωτοὶ Ἐφράιμ· τὸ ἄνθος τὸ ὠραῖονi τὸ ἐκπεσὸν ἐκ τῆς δόξης ἐπὶ τῆς κορυφῆς τοῦ ὄρους τοῦ παχέος, οἱ μεθύοντες ἄνευ οἴνου. 2 ἰδοὺ ἰσχυρὸν καὶ σκληρὸν παρὰ Κυρίουj ὁ θυμὸς Κυρίου ὡς χάλαζα καταφερομένηk· ὡς ὕδατος πολὺ πλῆθος σῦρον χώραν τῇ γῇ ποιήσει ἀνάπαυσινl καὶ ταῖς χερσίνm. 3 καὶ τοῖς ποσὶν καὶn καταπατηθήσεται ὁ στέφανος τῆς ὕβρεως, οἱ μισθωτοὶ Ἐφράιμo. 158 Woe to the mountain blossom

(28:4)

4 καὶ ἔσται τὸ ἄνθος τὸ ἐκπεσὸν τῆς ἐλπίδος τῆς δόξηςp ἐπ’ ἄκρου τοῦ ὄρους τοῦ ὑψηλοῦ ὡς πρόδρομος σύκου, ὁ ἰδὼν αὐτὸ πρὶν ἢ εἰς τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦ λαβεῖν αὐτόq, θελήσει αὐτὸ καταπιεῖν.

aκαὶ ἐκεῖ] SABR; κἀκεῖ Z bπολὺ] S; om. ABRZ c οἰκτιρήσει] S; οἰκτιρήσῃ ABRZ dσυνταράξει] S; συμφράξει ABRZ eΚύριος] SARZ; ὁ θεὸς B fδιώρυγος] SARZ; διώρυχος B gτοὺς υἱοὺς Ἰσραήλ κατὰ ἕνα ἕνα] SRZ; τοὺς υἱοὺς Ἰσραὴλ κατ’ ἕνα ἕνα A; κατὰ ἕνα τοὺς υἱοὺς Ἰσραήλ B h ἅγιον ἐν] SABR; ἐν ἅγιον Z i τὸ ὠραῖον] S; om. ABRZ jπαρὰ Κυρίου] S; om. ABRZ kκαταφερομένη] S; καταφερομένη οὐκ ἔχουσα σκέπην, βίᾳ καταφερομένη ABRZ l ἀνάπαυσιν] SARZ; ἀνάπαυμα B m καὶ ταῖς χερσίν] S; ταῖς χερσίν ABRZ nκαὶ] SZ; om. ABR o Ἐφράιμ] SBZ; τοῦ Εφραιμ AR pδόξης] SARZ; ζωῆς B q λαβεῖν αὐτό] S*B; λαβεῖν λαβεῖν αὐτὸ SB; λαβεῖν ARZ

27:10–28:4

157

his praise, when I take away his sin, when they make all the stones of the altars crushed like fine dust; and their trees will not remain, and their idols will be cut out, just like a forest far away. 10 The governed flock will be neglected, like a flock that was left, and for a long time it will be fodder and there they will rest. 11 After a long time, there will not be anything green in it, because it has been dried up. 156 The destroyed sons of Israel will return

(27:11–13)

Women coming from a show, come! For there is no people that has intelligence. Because of this, the one who made them certainly will not have pity, and the one who formed them certainly will not show mercy. 12 And it will be on that day: Lord will disturb from the channel of the river as far as Rhinokoroura. But you, gather the sons of Israel one by one. 13 And it will be on that day: they will trumpet with the great trumpet and those destroyed in the territory of the Assyrians and those destroyed in Egypt will come and worship Lord on the holy mountain in Jerusalem. 157 Woe to the crown of pride

(28:1–3)

28.1 Woe to the crown of insolence, the hired workers of Ephraim, the beautiful blossom that fell from the glory upon the top of the substantial mountain, those getting drunk without wine. 2 Look, powerful and harsh from Lord is the wrath of Lord, like hail rushing down like a great mass of water sweeping a territory, it will produce a respite for the land and for the hands. 3 And the crown of insolence, the hired workers of Ephraim, will also be trampled down with the feet. 158 Woe to the mountain blossom

(28:4)

4 And the blossom that fell from the hope of glory upon the topmost extremity of the high mountain will be like an early fig; the one who sees it before taking it into his hand will want to gobble it up.

27:11–13 Did. apost. 13; Tertullian Marc. 4.43.2; Origen Fr. Matt. 563; 567; Matt. Com. A. 141; Or. 11.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.90–91; Onom. (GCS 11.148); Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 14.14 28:1–3 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.92–98 100; Dem.ev. 2.3.135–136 28:3 Gregory Nazianzen Orat. 42.11 28:4 Eusebius Comm. Isa 1.92

158 159 Lord Sabaoth will be the crown of hope

Text and Translation

(28:5–6)

5 Τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ἔσται Κύριος Σαβαὼθ ὁ στέφανος τῆς ἐλπίδος ὁ πλακεὶςa τῆς δόξης τῷ καταλειφθέντι τοῦ λαοῦb· 6 καταλειφθήσεταιc ἐπὶ πνεύματι κρίσεως ἐπὶ κρίσιν καὶ ἰσχὺν κωλύων ἀνελεῖν. 160 Priest and prophet misled by drink

(28:7–8)

7 οὗτοι γὰρ οἴνῳ πεπλανημένοιd εἰσίν, ἐπλανήθησαν διὰ τὸ σίκερα· ἱερεὺς καὶ προφήτης ἐξέστησαν διὰ τὸν οἶνονe, ἐσείσθησαν ἀπὸ τῆς μέθης τοῦ σίκεραf, ἐπλανήθησαν· τοῦτ’ ἔστι φάσμα. 8 ἀρὰ ἔδεται ταύτην τὴν βουλήνg· ἕνεκεν πλεονεξίας. 161 Our report

(28:9–12)

9 Τίνι ἀνηγγείλαμεν κακὰ καὶ τίνι ἀνηγγείλαμεν ἀγγελίαν, καὶh οἱ ἀπογεγαλακτισμένοι ἀπὸ γάλακτος, οἱ ἀποσπασμένοιi ἀπὸ μαστοῦ; 10 θλῖψινj ἐπὶ θλῖψιν προσδέχου, ἐλπίδα ἐπ’ ἐλπίδι, ἔτι μικρὸν ἔτι μικρὸν 11 διὰ φαυλισμὸν χειλέων διὰ γλώσσης ἑτέρας, ὅτι λαλήσουσιν τῷ λαῷ τούτῳ 12 λέγοντες αὐτοῖςk Τοῦτο τὸ ἀνάπαυμα τῷ πεινῶντι καὶ τοῦτο τὸ σύντριμμα, καὶ οὐκ ἠθέλανl ἀκούειν. 162 Lord God’s oracle will be oppression

(28:13)

13 καὶ ἔσται αὐτοῖς τὸ λόγιον Κυρίου τοῦ θεοῦm θλῖψις ἐπὶ θλῖψιν, ἐλπὶς ἐπ’ ἐλπίδαn, ἔτι μικρὸν ἔτι μικρόν, ἵνα πορευθῶσινo καὶ πέσωσιν εἰς τὰp ὀπίσω καὶ κινδυνεύσωσιν καὶ συντριβήσονταιq καὶ ἁλώσονται. 163 Covenant with death

(28:14–15)

14 Διὰ τοῦτο ἀκούσατε λόγον Κυρίου, ἄνδρες τεθλιμμένοι καὶ ἄρχοντες τοῦ λαοῦ τοῦr ἐν Ἰερουσαλήμ. 15 Ὅτι εἴπατε Ἐποιήσαμεν διαθήκην μετὰ τοῦ ᾅδου καὶ μετὰ τοῦ θανάτου συνθήκας, καταιγὶς φερομένη ἐὰν παρέλθῃ οὐ μὴ ἔλθῃ ἐφ’ ἡμᾶςs, ἐθήκαμεν ψεῦδος τὴν ἐλπίδα ἡμῶν καὶ τῷ ψεύδει σκεπασθησόμεθα. aπλακεὶς] SARZ; πλεκεὶς B b τοῦ λαοῦ] SB; μου λαῷ ARZ c καταλειφθήσεται] S; καὶ καταλειφθήσονται A; καταλειφθήσονται BRZ d πεπλανημένοι] SARZ; πεπλημμελημένοι B e διὰ τὸν οἶνον] SARZ; διὰ τὸ σίκερα, κατεπόθησαν διὰ τὸν οἶνον B f τοῦ σίκερα] SARZ; om. B g βουλήν] S; βουλήν αὕτη γὰρ ἡ βουλὴ ABRZ h καὶ] S; om. ABRZ i ἀποσπασμένοι] SB; ἀπεσπασμένοι ARZ j θλῖψιν] SR; θλίψιν ABZ kαὐτοῖς] SB; αὐτῷ ARZ lἠθέλαν] S; ἠθέλησα ABRZ mτοῦ θεοῦ] SARZ; om. B n ἐλπίδα] S; ἐλπίδι ABRZ o πορευθῶσιν] SARZ; πορεύσωσιν B p εἰς τὰ] SARZ; om. B q κινδυνεύσωσιν καὶ συντριβήσονται] SARZ; συντριβήσονται καὶ κινδυνεύσουσιν B r τοῦ] S; τούτου AZ; τούτου τοῦ BR s ἐφ’ ἡμᾶς] SBR; ἡμῖν AZ

28:5–15

159 Lord Sabaoth will be the crown of hope

159 (28:5–6)

5 On that day, Lord Sabaoth will be the crown of hope that was woven of glory for what was left of the people. 6 It will be left on a wind of justice, on justice and power preventing destruction. 160 Priest and prophet misled by drink

(28:7–8)

7 For these are led astray with wine; they were led astray because of the sikera; priest and prophet lost their senses because of the wine; they were shaken by the drunkenness of the sikera; they were led astray; this is an omen. 8 A curse will devour this plan because of greediness. 161 Our report

(28:9–12)

9 To whom did we report evil things, and to whom did we report a message? And those weaned from milk, torn from the breast? 10 Accept oppression upon oppression, hope upon hope, yet a little, yet a little, 11 because of the contempt of lips, through a different tongue, because they will speak to this people, 12 saying to them, “This is the rest for the hungry person, and this is the ruin.” And they did not wish to hear. 162 Lord God’s oracle will be oppression

(28:13)

13 And the oracle of Lord God will be for them oppression upon oppression, hope upon hope, yet a little, yet a little, so that they will go and fall backward, and they will be in peril and crushed and captured. 163 Covenant with death

(28:14–15)

14 Because of this, hear the word of Lord, oppressed men and rulers of the people that is in Jerusalem. 15 Because you said, “We have made a covenant with the nether world and treaties with death; if a rushing squall passes by, certainly it will not come upon us; we have made a lie our hope and by a lie we will be protected!” 28:5 Eusebius Comm. Isa 1.92–93; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.644); Dem. ev. 2.3.135–136 28:7–8 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.92 28:9–12 Origen Mart. (PG 17.61); Fr. 1 Cor. 65; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.93 28:13 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.93 28:14–15 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.93; Ecl. proph. 4.13

160 164 Zion’s cornerstone

Text and Translation

(28:16–20)

16 Διὰ τοῦτο οὕτως λέγει Κύριος Ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ ἐμβαλῶa εἰς τὰ θεμέλια Σειὼν λίθον πολυτελῆ ἐκλεκτὸν ἀκρογωνιαῖον ἔντιμον εἰς τὰ θεμέλια αὐτῆς, καὶ ὁ πιστεύων ἐπ’ αὐτῷb οὐ μὴ καταισχυνθῇ. 17 καὶ θήσω κρίσιν εἰς ἐλπίδα, ἡ δὲ ἐλεημοσύνη μου εἰς σταθμούς, καὶ οἱ πεποιθότες μάτην ψεύδει· ὅτι οὐc μὴ παρέλθῃ ὑμᾶς καταιγίς, 18 μὴ καὶ ἀφέλῃ ὑμῶν τὴν διαθήκην τοῦ θανάτου, καὶ ἡ ἐλπὶς ὑμῶν ἡ πρὸς τὸν ᾅδην οὐ μὴ ἐμμείνῃ· καταιγὶς φερομένη ἐὰν ἐπέλθῃ, ἔσεσθε αὐτῇ εἰς καταπάτημα. 19 ὅταν παρέλθῃ, λήμψεται ὑμᾶς· πρωῒ πρωῒ παρελεύσεται ἡμέρας, καὶ ἐν νυκτὶ ἔσται ἐλπὶς πονηρά. Μάθετε ἀκούειν. 20 στενοχωρούμενοι οὐ δυνάμεθα μάχεσθαι, αὐτοὶ δὲ ἀσθενοῦμεν τοῦ ἡμᾶς συναχθῆναι. 165 Lord’s deeds of anger

(28:21–22)

21 Ὥσπερ ὄρος ἀσεβῶν ἀναστήσεται Κύριοςd καὶ ἔσται ἐν τῇ φάραγγι Γαβαών· μετὰ θυμοῦ ποιήσει τὰ ἔργα αὐτοῦ, πικρίας ἔργαe· ὁ δὲ θυμὸς αὐτοῦ ἀλλοτρίως χρήσεται, καὶ ἡ πικρίαf αὐτοῦ ἀλλοτρία. 22 καὶ ὑμεῖς μὴ εὐφρανθείητε, μηδὲ ἰσχυσάτωσαν ὑμῶν οἱ δεσμοί οἱ ὀφθαλμοίg· διότι συντετελεσμένα καὶ συντετμημένα πράγματα ἤκουσα παρὰ τοῦh Κυρίου Σαβαώθ, ἃ ποιεῖi ἐπὶ πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν. 166 Parable of the sower

(28:23–26)

23 Ἐνωτίζεσθε καὶ ἀκούετε τῆς φωνῆς μου, προσέχετε καὶ ἀκούετε τοὺς λόγους μου. 24 μὴ ὅλην τὴν ἡμέραν μέλλειj ὁ ἀροτριῶν ἀροτριᾶνk; ἢ σπόρον ἑτοιμάσειl πρὶν ἐργάζεσθαιm τὴν γῆν; 25 οὐχ ὅταν ὁμαλίσῃ αὐτῆς τὸ πρόσωπονn, τότε σπείρει μικρὸν μελάνθιον καὶ κύμινον καὶ πάλιν σπείρει πυρὸν καὶ κριθὴνo καὶ ζέαν ἐν τοῖς ὁρίοις σου; 26 καὶ παιδευθήσῃp.

aἐμβαλῶ] SARZ; ἐμβάλλω B bἐπ’ αὐτῷ] SARZ; om. B cοὐ] SARZ; om. B dΚύριος] SAB; om. RZ e ἔργα] S; ἔργον ABRZ f πικρία] SARZ; σαπρία B g οἱ ὀφθαλμοί] S; om. ABRZ h τοῦ] S; om. ABRZ iποιεῖ] S; ποιήσει ABRZ jμέλλει] SARZ; ἀροτριάσει B kἀροτριᾶν] SARZ; om. B l ἑτοιμάσει] S; προετοιμάσει ABRZ m ἐργάζεσθαι] S; ἐργάσασθαι ABRZ n αὐτῆς τὸ πρόσωπον] SARZ; τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτῆς B oκαὶ κριθὴν] SARZ; κριθὴν καὶ κέγχρον B pπαιδευθήσῃ] S*; παιδευθήσῃ κρίματι θεοῦ σου καὶ εὐφρανθήσῃ ScaARZ; παιδευθήσει κρίματι θεοῦ, καὶ εὐφρανθήσῃ B

28:16–26

164 Zion’s cornerstone

161 (28:16–20)

16 Because of this, thus says Lord: “Look, I will lay in the foundations of Zion a precious chosen cornerstone, honored in its foundations, and the one who trusts on it certainly will not be disgraced. 17 And I will turn justice into hope and my mercy into balances, and those trusting a lie pointlessly (because a storm certainly will not pass you by 18 lest it also take away your covenant of death) even your hope towards the nether world certainly will not stand fast. If a rushing storm comes, you will be trampled by it. 19 When it passes by, it will take hold of you; early, early it will pass by day, and at night it will be an evil expectation.” Learn to listen. 20 We are cramped, we are unable to fight, and we ourselves are too weak to be assembled. 165 Lord’s deeds of anger

(28:21–22)

21 Lord will rise up just like a mountain of impious people, and he will be in the ravine of Gabaon; he will do his deeds with wrath, deeds of bitterness. But his wrath will deal unfavourably, and his bitterness unfavourably. 22 And you, may you not be glad, nor your bonds, your eyes, powerful, because I have heard things completed and cut short from Lord Sabaoth, things that he is doing on all the land. 166 Parable of the sower

(28:23–26)

23 Give ear and hear my voice; pay attention and hear my words! 24 Is the one who ploughs going to plough the whole day? Or prepare seed before working the land? 25 When he levels its face, then does he not sow a little cumin and black cumin and again he sows wheat and barley and emmer within your boundaries? 26 And you will be disciplined.

28:16–20 Sib. Or. 8; Odes Sol. 9.7; Acts. Pet. 1 24; Origen Ps.Cat.C (CELS 5.33); Comm. Jo 1.225; Tertullian Marc. 4.35.15; 5.6.10; Hippolytus Haer. 5.7.35; Cyprian Test. 2.16; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.93–94; Ecl. proph. 3.42; 4.13; Comm. Ps. (PG 39.1561); Fr. (PG 24.568; 641); Dem. ev. 1.7.14; Theoph. (GCS 11.186); Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 10.3; 13.35 28:23–26 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.94

162 167 A relenting discipline

Text and Translation

(28:27–29)

27 οὐ γὰρ μετὰ σκληρότητος καθαίρεται τὸ μελάνθιον, οὐδὲ τροχὸς ἁμάξης περιάξει ἐπὶ τὸ κύμινον, ἀλλὰ ῥάβδῳ ἐκτινάσσεταιa τὸ μελάνθιον, τὸ δὲ κύμινον 28 μετὰ ἄρτου βρωθήσεται. οὐ γὰρ εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα ἐγὼ ὑμῖν ὀργισθήσομαι, οὐδὲ φωνὴ τῆς πικρίας μου καταπατήσει ὑμᾶς. 29 καὶ ταῦτα παρὰ Κυρίου Σαβαώθ ἐξῆλθεν τὰ τέρατα. Βουλεύσασθε, ὑψώσατε ματαίαν παράκλησιν. 168 Woe to Ariel

(29:1–4)

29.1 Οὐαὶ πόλις Ἀριὴλb, ἣν Δαυὶδ ἐπολέμησενc· συναγάγετε γενήματα ἐνιαυτὸν ἐπ’d ἐνιαυτόν, φάγεσθε, φάγεσθε γὰρ σὺν Μωάβ. 2 ἐκλείψωe γὰρ Ἀριήλ, καὶ ἔσται αὐτῆς ἡ ἰσχὺς καὶ τὸf πλοῦτος ἐμοί. 3 καὶ κυκλώσω ὡς Δαυὶδ ἐπὶ σὲ καὶ βαλῶ περὶ σὲ χάρακα καὶ θήσω περὶ σὲ πύργους, 4 καὶ ταπεινωθήσονται οἱ λόγοι σου εἰς τὴν γῆνg, καὶ εἰς τὴν γῆν οἱ λόγοι σου δύσονται· καὶ ἔσταιh ὡς οἱ φωνοῦντες ἐκ τῆς γῆς ἡ φωνή σου, καὶ πρὸς τὸ ἔδαφος ἡ φωνή σου ἀσθενήσει. 169 The wealth of the impious is ephemeral

(29:5–8)

5 Καὶ ἔσται ὡς κονιορτὸς ἀπὸ τροχοῦi ὁ πλοῦτος τῶν ἀσεβῶν καὶ ὡς χνοῦς φερόμενοςj, καὶ ἔσται ὡς στιγμὴ παραχρῆμα 6 παρὰ Κυρίου Σαβαώθ· ἐπισκοπὴ γὰρ ἔσται μετὰ βροτῆςk καὶ σεισμοῦ καὶ φωνῆς μεγάληςl, καταιγὶς φερομένη καὶ φλὸξ πυρὸς κατεσθίουσα. 7 καὶ ἔσται ὡς ἐνυπνιαζόμενος ἐν ὕπνῳm ὁ πλοῦτος τῶν ἐθνῶν πάντωνn, ὅσοι ἐπεστράτευσαν ἐπὶ Ἰσραήλo, καὶ πάντες οἱ στρατευόμενοιp ἐπὶ Ἰερουσαλήμ καὶ πάντες οἱ συνηγμένοι ἐπ’ αὐτὴν καὶ θλίβοντεςq αὐτήν. 8 καὶ ἔσονταιr ὡς οἱ ἐν τῷ ὕπνῳs πίνοντεςt καὶ ἔσθοντες, καὶ ἐξαναστάντων ματαίων αὐτῶνu τὸ ἐνύπνιον, καὶ ὃν τρόπον ἐνυπνιάζεται ὁ διψῶν ὡς πίνων καὶ ἐξαναστὰς ἔτι διψᾷ, ἡ δὲ ψυχὴ αὐτοῦ εἰς κενὸν ἤλπισεν, οὕτως ἔσται ὁ πλοῦτος πάντων τῶν ἐθνῶν, ὅσοι ἐπεστράτευσαν ἐπὶ τὸ ὄρος Σιών.

aἐκτινάσσεται] SARZ; τινάσσεται B b πόλις Ἀριὴλ] SARZ; Ἀριὴλ πόλις B c Δαυὶδ ἐπολέμησεν] SARZ; ἐπολέμησεν Δαυείδ B d ἐπ’] SARZ; ἐπὶ B e ἐκλείψω] S; ἐκθλίψω ABRZ f τὸ] SARZ; ὁ B gοἱ λόγοι σου εἰς τὴν γῆν] SARZ; εἰς τὴν γῆν οἱ λόγοι σου B h ἔσται] SARZ; ἔσονται B i τροχοῦ] SARZ; τοίχου B jφερόμενος] SARZ; φερόμενος τὸ πλῆθος τῶν καταδυναστευόντων σε B kβροτῆς] S; κραυγῆς A; βροντῆς BRZ l φωνῆς μεγάλης] SARZ; φωνὴ μεγάλη B m ἐν ὕπνῳ] SRZ; ἐνύπνιον A; καθ’ ὕπνους νυκτὸς B nτῶν ἐθνῶν πάντων] SARZ; ἁπάντων τῶν ἐθνῶν B o Ἰσραήλ] SA; Ἰερουσαλήμ B; Αριηλ QmgRZ p στρατευόμενοι] SB; στρατευσάμενοι ARZ q θλίβοντες] SAR; οἱ θλίβοντες BZ r ἔσονται] SARZ; om. B s τῷ ὕπνῳ] SB; ὕπνῳ ARZ t πίνοντες] SABR; πεινῶντες Z u ματαίων αὐτῶν] S; μάταιον αὐτῶν ARZ; μάταιον B

28:27–29:8

167 A relenting discipline

163 (28:27–29)

27 For the black cumin is purified not with harshness, and a wagon wheel will not be led around upon the cumin; rather the black cumin is shaken with a rod, and the cumin 28 will be consumed with bread, for I will not be angry at you forever, nor will the sound of my bitterness trample you. 29 And these wonders came forth from Lord Sabaoth. Deliberate; raise a pointless appeal! 168 Woe to Ariel

(29:1–4)

29.1 Woe to you, city of Ariel, against which David waged war! Gather produce year after year, you will eat, for you will eat with Moab. 2 For I will forsake Ariel, and its power and wealth will be mine. 3 And like David I will surround you; and I will set up an entrenched camp around you, and I will put towers around you. 4 And your words will be brought down into the land, and your words will sink into the land, and your voice will be like those who call from the land, and your voice will be weak, towards the ground. 169 The wealth of the impious is ephemeral

(29:5–8)

5 And the wealth of the impious will be like a cloud of dust from a wheel, and like dust carried along, and it will be like a moment, instantly 6 from Lord Sabaoth. For there will be an inspection, with thunder and quaking and a great sound, a rushing storm and a consuming flame of fire. 7 And the wealth of all the nations will be like one who dreams during sleep, as many as waged war against Israel and all those who are waging war against Jerusalem and all those who had gathered together against it and oppressed it. 8 And they will be like those who drink and eat in their sleep, and when they awake, the dream is of pointless things. And in the same way that the one who is thirsty dreams as if he is drinking, and when he awakes he is still thirsty and his soul has hoped to no avail, so will be the wealth of all the nations, as many as waged war against Mount Zion.

28:27–29 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.94 29:1–4 Origen Hom. Num. 16.7; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.95 29:5–8 Tertullian Res. 59.5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.95

164

Text and Translation

170 Lord makes you imperceptive

(29:9–10)

9 Ἐκλύθητε καὶ ἔστητεa καὶ κραιπαλήσατε οὐκ ἀπὸ σίκερα οὐδὲb ἀπὸ οἴνου· 10 ὅτι πεπότικεν ὑμᾶς Κύριος πνεύμαc κατανύξεως καὶ καμμύσει τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτῶν καὶ τῶν προφητῶν αὐτῶν καὶ τῶν ἀρχόντων αὐτῶν, ὃι ὁρῶντες τὰ κρυπτά. 171

Incomprehensible sayings

(29:11–12)

11 καὶ ἔσταιd ὑμῖν τὰ ῥήματα πάνταe ταῦτα ὡς οἱ λόγοι τοῦ βιβλίου τούτου τοῦ ἐσφραγισμένουf, ὃ ἐὰν δῶσιν αὐτὸ ἀνθρώπῳ ἐπισταμένῳ γράμματα λέγοντες Ἀνάγνωθι ταῦ τοῦτοg· καὶ ἐρεῖ Οὐ δύναμαι ἀναγνῶναι, ἐσφράγισται γάρ. 12 καὶ δοθήσεται τὸ βιβλίον τοῦτο εἰς χεῖρας ἀνθρώπου μὴ ἐπισταμένου γράμματα, καὶ ἐρεῖ αὐτῷ Ἀνάγνωθι ταῦταh· καὶ ἐρεῖ Οὐκ ἐπίσταμαι γράμματα. 172 Hypocrisy of the “wise”

(29:13–14)

13 Καὶ εἶπεν Κύριος Ἐγγίζει μουi ὁ λαὸς οὗτος τοῖςj χείλεσιν αὐτῶν τιμοῦσίνk με, ἡ δὲ καρδία αὐτῶν πόρρω ἀπέχει ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ, μάτην δὲ σέβονταί με διδάσκοντες ἐντάλματα ἀνθρώπων καὶ διδασκαλίας. 14 διὰ τοῦτο ἰδοὺ ἐγὼl προσθήσω τοῦ μεταθεῖναι τὸν λαὸν τοῦτον καὶ μεταθήσω αὐτοὺς καὶ ἀπολῶ τὴν σοφίαν τῶν σοφῶν καὶ τὴν σύνεσιν τῶν συνετῶν κρύψω. 173 Woe to schemers

(29:15–17)

15 Οὐαὶ οἱ βαθέως βουλὴν ποιοῦντες καὶ οὐ διὰ Κυρίου. Οὐαὶ οἱ ἐν κρυφῇ βουλὴν ποιοῦντεςm καὶ ἔσται ἐν σκότει τὰ ἔργα αὐτῶν καὶ ἐροῦσιν Τίς ἡμᾶς ἑώρακενn καὶ τίς γνώσεταιo ἃ ἡμεῖς ποιοῦμεν;

aἔστητε] S; ἔκστητε ABRZ b οὐδὲ] SBR; οὐδ’ AZ cπνεύμα] S; πνεύματι ABRZ d ἔσται] SB; ἔσονται ARZ eτὰ ῥήματα πάντα] SB; πάντα τὰ ῥήματα ARZ fτούτου τοῦ ἐσφραγισμένου] S; τοῦ ἐσφραγισμένου τούτου ARZ; τοῦ ἐσφραγισμένου B g ταῦ τοῦτο] S*; ταῦτα ScaABRZ; τοῦτο Scb2 h ταῦτα] S; τοῦτο ABRZ iμου] S; μοι ABRZ jτοῖς] SARZ; ἐν τῷ στόματι αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἐν τοῖς B kτιμοῦσίν] S; τιμῶσίν ABRZ l ἐγὼ] SAR; om. BZ mοὐ διὰ Κυρίου. Οὐαὶ οἱ ἐν κρυφῇ βουλὴν ποιοῦντες] SABabRZ; om. B*. n ἡμᾶς ἑώρακεν] SARZ; ἑόρακεν ἡμᾶς B oγνώσεται] S; ἡμᾶς γνώσεται ἢ ABRZ

29:9–15

170 Lord makes you imperceptive

165 (29:9–10)

9 Be feeble and you will stand, and be intoxicated not from sikera or from wine. 10 Because Lord has made you drink a spirit of stunning; and he will close the eyes of them and of their prophets and of their rulers, who see the secrets. 171

Incomprehensible sayings

(29:11–12)

11 And all these sayings will be for you like the words of this sealed document, which if they give it to a person who understands letters, saying, “Read this T!” he will say, “I am not able to read it, for it has been sealed.” 12 And this document will be given into the hands of a person who does not understand letters, and he will say to him, “Read these things!” and he will say, “I do not understand letters.” 172 Hypocrisy of the “wise”

(29:13–14)

13 And Lord said, “This people approaches me; with their lips they honour me, but their heart stays far away from me. And they pointlessly act piously toward me, teaching rules and instructions of humans. 14 Because of this, look, I will continue to change this people, and I will change them and I will destroy the wisdom of the wise and I will hide the intelligence of the intelligent.” 173 Woe to schemers

(29:15–17)

15 Woe, those who make deliberation deeply and not through Lord! Woe, those who make deliberation in secret; also their deeds will be in darkness! And they will say, “Who has seen us and who will know what we are doing?” 29:10 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.96; Cyprian Ep. 59.13; Gregory Nazianzen Orat. 16.10 29:11 Cyprian Test. 4; Origen Comm. Jo. 5.4; Fr. Ezech. (PG 17.288); Hom. Exod. 12.4; Hom. Ezech. 14.2; Hom. Num. 13.2; Hilary of Poiters De Trin. 12.57; John of Damascus De Fide Orth. 4.14; Didymus Comm.Ps. 286.9; Eusebius Comm. Isa 1.96; Dem. ev. 8.2.32; Hippolytus Daniel 4.33.5; Epiphanius Pan. 64.6.6 29:13–14 Matt 5:8; Mark 7:6; Col 2:22; Ox. 270 (Hunt 11); Tertullian Marc. 3.6.5; 3.6.6; 3.16.1; 4.254; 5.11.9; Athanasius Ep. fest. 26; Didymus Comm. Ps. 29.3; 211.4; Origen Comm. Jo. 28.246; Comm. Luc. 16; Comm. Matt. 11.11; 14.3; Mart. 5; Fr. Ps. (Studi e Testi 264.86; PG 12.1452; 1445; 1648; Analecta Sacra 3.51); Fr.Prov. 9; Ps.Hom 5.3; 4.22; Chrysotom Hom. Matt. 11; Hom.Rom 4;18; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.75; 1.96; 2.48; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.924); Justin Dial. 27.4; 32.5; 39.5; 48.2; 78.11; 80.4; 123.4; 140.2 29:15–17 Origen Comm. Matt. 11.11; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 2.99.5; Eusebius Comm. Isa 1.96; 2.3

166

Text and Translation

16 Οὐχ ὡς ὁ πηλὸς τοῦ κεραμέως λογισθήσεταιa; μὴ ἐρεῖ τὸ πλάσμα τῷ πλάσαντιb Οὐ σοιc με ἔπλασας; ἢ τὸ ποίημα τῷ ποιήσαντι Οὐ συνετῶς με ἐποίησας; 17 οὐκέτι μικρὸν καὶ μετατεθήσεται ὁ Λίβανος ὡς τὸ ὄρος τὸ Χερμέλ, καὶ τὸ Χελμὲλd εἰς δρυμὸν λογισθήσεται; 174 Fortunes will be reversed on that day

(29:18–21)

18 Καὶ ἀκούσονται ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ κωφοὶ λόγους βιβλίου, καὶ οἱ ἐν τῷ σκότει καὶ οἱ ἐν τῇ ὁμίχλῃ ὀφθαλμοὶ τυφλῶν ὄψονταιe· 19 καὶ ἀγαλλιάσονται πτωχοὶ διὰ Κύριον ἐν εὐφροσύνῃ, καὶ οἱ ἀπηλπισμένοι τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἐμπλησθήσονται εὐφροσύνης. 20 ἐξέλιπεν ἄνομος, καὶ ἀπώλετο ὑπερήφανος, καὶ ἐξωλεθρεύθησαν οἱ ἀνομοῦντες ἐπὶ κακίᾳ. 21 Καὶ οἱ ποιοῦντες ἁμαρτεῖν ἀνθρώπους ἐν λόγῳ· πάντας δὲ τοὺς ἐλέγχοντας ἐν πύλαις πρόσκομμα θήσουσιν καὶ ἐπλαγίασαν ἐν ἀδίκοις δίκαιον. 175 The house of Jacob will sanctify their God

(29:22–24)

22 Διὰ τοῦτο τάδε λέγει Κύριος ἐπὶ τὸν οἶκον Ἰακώβ, ὃν ἀφώρισεν ἐξ Ἀβραάμ Οὐ νῦν αἰσχυνθήσεται Ἰακώβ οὐδὲ νῦν τὸ πρόσωπον μεταβαλεῖ Ἰσραήλ· 23 ἀλλὰ τὰ νῦν δῶσινf τὰ τέκνα αὐτῶν τὰ ἔργα μου, δι’ ἐμὲ ἁγιάσουσινg τὸ ὄνομά μου καὶ ἁγιάσουσιν τὸν ἅγιον Ἰακώβ καὶ τὸν θεὸν Ἰσραὴλh φοβηθήσονται. 24 καὶ γνώσονται οἱ τῷ πνεύματι πλανώμενοιi σύνεσιν, οἱ δὲ γογγύζοντες μαθήσονται ὑπακούειν Κυρίῳj, καὶ αἱ γλῶσσαι αἱ ψελλίζουσαι μαθήσονται λαλεῖν εἰρήνην. 176 Woe to those who trust in Egypt

(30:1–5)

30.1 Οὐαὶ τέκνα ἀποστάται, τάδεk λέγει Κύριος, ἐποιήσατε βουλὴν οὐ δι’ ἐμοῦ καὶ συνθήκας οὐ διὰ τοῦ πνεύματός μου προσθεῖναι ἁμαρτίαςl ἐφ’ ἁμαρτίαις, 2 οἱ πορευόμενοι καταβῆναι εἰς Αἴγυπτον, ἐμὲ οὐκm ἐπηρώτησαν τοῦ βοηθηθῆναιn ὑπὸ Φαραὼ καὶ

aλογισθήσεται] S*; λογισθησεσθαι Sca; λογισθήσεσθε ABRZ b πλάσαντι] SARZ; πλάσαντι αὐτό B cσοι] S*; σου Sca; σύ Scb1ABRZ dτὸ Χελμὲλ] S*; τὸ ὄρος Χερμὲλ Scb2ARZ; τὸ Χερμὲλ B e ὄψονται] S*B; βλέψονται Scb2ARZ fτὰ νῦν δῶσιν] S*; ὅταν ἴδωσιν Scb3ABRZ gἁγιάσουσιν] SARZ; ἁγιάσωσιν B hθεὸν Ἰσραὴλ] S*; θεὸν τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ ScaABRZ iοἱ τῷ πνεύματι πλανώμενοι] SARZ; πλανώμενοι τῷ πνεύματι B j Κυρίῳ] S; om. ABRZ kτάδε] SARZ; om. B lἁμαρτίας] S; ἁμαρτίας ABRZ m οὐκ] S; δὲ οὐκ ABRZ n βοηθηθῆναι ScaABRZ; βοηθῆναι S*

29:16–30:2

167

16 Will it not be reckoned as the clay of the potter? Will the shape say to the one shaping it, “You did not shape me for you,” or the thing made to the one making it, “You did not make me intelligently.” 17 In what is no longer a little while, Lebanon will be changed like Mount Chermel, and Chelmel will be considered a forest. 174 Fortunes will be reversed on that day

(29:18–21)

18 And on that day, the deaf will hear the words of a document, and the blind peoples’ eyes in the darkness and in the fog will see. 19 And the poor will rejoice with gladness because of Lord, and those humans who are despairing will be filled with gladness. 20 A lawless person has ceased and an arrogant person has perished, and those acting lawlessly in vice have been utterly destroyed. 21 And those who cause humans to sin in word. But they will set up an obstacle for all those who reprove in the gates, and they have turned aside a just person by unjust means. 175 The house of Jacob will sanctify their God

(29:22–24)

22 Because of this, thus says Lord about the house of Jacob, which he set apart from Abraham: “Not now will Jacob be ashamed, and not now will Israel change its face. 23 Rather, now their children might give my deeds. They will sanctify my name because of me,” and they will sanctify the holy one of Jacob and they will fear the God of Israel. 24 And those deceived in the spirit will know intelligence, and those who grumble will learn to obey Lord, and the faltering tongues will learn to speak peace. 176 Woe to those who trust in Egypt

(30:1–5)

30.1 Woe, rebel children! Thus says Lord: “You made a plan, not through me, and treaties, not through my spirit, to add sins to sins. 2 Those who proceed to go down into Egypt did not ask me, to be helped by Pharaoh and to be sheltered by

29:18–21 Justin 1 Apol. 22.6; 1.48.2; Dial. 12.2; Irenaeus Dem. 67; Tertullian Marc. 4.26.10; Cyprian Test. 1.4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.73; 1.96–97; 2.3 29:18 Matt 11:5; Luke 7:22. 29:22–24 Eusebius Comm. Isa 1.97 30:1 Justin Dial. 79.3; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 1.78.1; Tertullian Pud. 8.6; Origen Fr. Ps. D (SC 189.378); Ps.-Cyprian Novat. 2.4; Cyprian Ep. 59.5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.98 30:2 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.98

168

Text and Translation

σκεπασθῆναι ὑπὸ Αἰγυπτίων. 3 ἔσται γὰρ ὑμῖν ἡ σκέπη Φαραὼ εἰς αἰσχύνην καὶ τοῖς πεποιθόσιν ἐπ’ Αἴγυπτον ὄνειδος. 4 ὅτι εἰσὶν ἐν Τάνει ἀρχηγοὶ ἄγγελοι πονηροί· μάτην κοπιάσουσιν 5 πρὸς λαόν, ὃς οὐκ ὠφελήσει αὐτοὺς εἰς βοήθειανa, ἀλλὰ εἰς αἰσχύνην καὶ ὄνειδος. 6 Ὅρασιςb τῶν τετραπόδων τῶν ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ. 177 A vision of the desert animals

(30:6–7)

Ἐν τῇ θλίψει καὶ ἐν τῇ στενοχωρίᾳc, λέων καὶ σκύμνος λέοντος ἐκεῖθεν ἀσπίδεςd καὶ ἔκγονα ἀσπίδων πετομένωνe, οἳ ἔφερον ἐπ’ ὄνων καὶ καμήλων τὸν πλοῦτον αὐτῶν πρὸς ἔθνος. οὐκ ὠφελήσει αὐτοὺς εἰς βοήθειαν, ἀλλὰ εἰς αἰσχύνην καὶ ὄνειδοςf. 7 Αἰγύπτιοι μάταια καὶ κενὰ ὠφελήσουσιν ὑμᾶς· ἀπάγγειλον αὐτοῖς ὅτι Ματαία ἡ παράκλησις ὑμῶν αὕτη. 178 Write for those unwilling to listen

(30:8–11)

8 Νῦν οὖν καθίσας γράψον ἐπὶ πυξίου ταῦτα καὶ εἰς βιβλίον, ὅτι ἔσται εἰς ἡμέραν καιρῶν ταῦταg καὶ ἕως εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα. 9 ὅτι λαὸς ἀπειθής ἐστιν, υἱοὶ ψευδεῖς, οἳ οὐκ ἠβούλοντο ἀκούειν τὸν νόμον τοῦ θεοῦ, 10 οἱ λέγοντες τοῖς προφήταις Μὴ ἀναγγέλλετε ἡμῖν, καὶ τοῖς τὰ ὁράματα ὁρῶσιν Μὴ λαλεῖτε ἡμῖν, ἀλλὰ ἡμῖν λαλεῖτε καὶ ἀναγγέλλετε ἡμῖν ἑτέραν πλάνησιν 11 καὶ ἀποστρέψατε ἡμῖνh ἀπὸ τῆς ὁδοῦ ταύτης. Ἀφέλετε ἀφ’ ἡμῶν τὴν τρίβον ταῦτηνi καὶ ἀφέλετε ἀφ’ ἡμῶν τὸ λόγιονj τοῦ Ἰσραήλ. 179 Your sin will be like a collapsing wall

(30:12–14)

12 Διὰ τὸ τάδεk οὕτως λέγει Κύριος ὁ ἅγιος τοῦ Ἰσραήλ Ὅτι ἠπειθήσατε τοῖς λόγοις τούτοις καὶ ἠλπίσατε ἐπὶ ψεύδει καὶ ὅτι ἐγόγγυσας καὶ πεποιθὼς ἐγένου ἐπὶ τῷ λόγῳ τούτῳ, 13 διὰ τοῦτο ἔσται ὑμῖν ἡ ἁμαρτία αὕτη ὡς τεῖχος πῖπτον παραχρῆμα πόλεως

aεἰς βοήθειαν] S*B; οὔτε εἰς βοήθειαν οὔτε εἰς ὠφέλειαν Scb2ARZ b Ὅρασις] S; Ἡ ὅρασις ABRZ cἐν τῇ στενοχωρίᾳ] SA; τῇ στενοχωρίᾳ BRZ d ἀσπίδες] S; καὶ ἀσπίδες ABRZ e πετομένων] SARZ; om. B fεἰς βοήθειαν, ἀλλὰ εἰς αἰσχύνην καὶ ὄνειδος] SARZ; om. B g ἡμέραν καιρῶν ταῦτα] S*; ἡμέρας καιρῶν ταῦτα ScaScb3ARZ; ἡμέρας ταῦτα καιρῷ B hἡμῖν] S*; ἡμᾶς SBScb3ABRZ iτὴν τρίβον ταῦτην] S*; τὸν τρίβον τοῦτον ScaScb3ABRZ j τὸ λόγιον] SAB; τὸν ἅγιον RZ k τὸ τάδε] S*; τοῦτο τάδε ScaB; τοῦτο οὕτως Scb2A

30:3–13

169

the Egyptians. 3 For the protection of Pharaoh will become a shame to you and a reproach to those who trust in Egypt. 4 For there are evil emissary leaders in Tanis; they will grow pointlessly weary 5 towards a people that will not benefit them for aid, but rather for shame and reproach.” 6 A vision of the quadrupeds that are in the desert: 177 A vision of the desert animals

(30:6–7)

A lion and a cub of a lion are in oppression and distress. From there asps and offspring of flying asps who were bringing their wealth on donkeys and camels, to a nation. It will not benefit them for aid, but rather for shame and reproach. 7 Egyptians will benefit you in respect to pointless and empty things; report to them, “This summoning of you is pointless.” 178 Write for those unwilling to listen

(30:8–11)

8 Now then, sit and write these things on a tablet and in a document, because these things will be for a day of times and as long as for eternity. 9 Because it is a resistant people, lying sons who are unwilling to listen to the law of God, 10 who say to the prophets, “Do not tell us!” and to those who see the visions, “Do not speak to us, but rather speak to us and tell us a different deception, 11 and turn us back from this way. Remove this path from us, and remove the oracle of Israel from us.” 179 Your sin will be like a collapsing wall

(30:12–14)

12 Because of this, thus says Lord, the holy one of Israel: “Because you resisted these words and hoped on a lie, and because you grumbled and you began trusting on this word, 13 because of this, this sin will be for you like an instantly

30:3 Theophilus Autol. 2.38; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.100; 2.3 30:4 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.98 30:5 Justin Dial. 79.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.98 30:6 Origen Comm. Jo. 10.208; Hom. Lev. 16.6; Hom. Luc. 37; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.98; Hist. eccl. 6.32.1 30:7 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.98; 2.30 30:9 Justin Dial. 130.3; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 1.79.1; Origen Fr. Matt. 29; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.98 30:10 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.98; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 14.14 30:11 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.98

170

Text and Translation

ὀχυρᾶς ἑαλωκυίης, ἧς παραχρῆμα πάρεστιν τὸ πτῶμα, 14 καὶ τὸ πτῶμα αὐτῷa ἔσται ὡς σύντριμμα ἀγγείου ὀστρακίνου, ἐκ κεραμίου λεπτὰ ὥστε μὴ εὑρεῖν ἐν αὐτοῖς ὄστρακον ἐν ᾧ πῦρb μικρόν. 180 The object of your trust will backfire

(30:15–18)

15 οὕτωςc λέγει Κύριος ὁ ἅγιος τοῦ Ἰσραήλ Ὅταν ἀποστραφεὶς στενάξῃς, τότε σωθήσῃ καὶ καὶ γνώσῃ ποῦ ἦσθα· ὅτε ἐπεποίθεις ἐπὶ τοῖς ματαίοις, ματαία ἰσχὺς ὑμῶν ἐγενήθη. καὶ οὐκ ἐβούλεσθεd ἀκούειν, 16 ἀλλ’ εἴπατε Ἐφ’ ἵππων φευξόμεθα· διὰ τοῦτο φεύξεσθε· καὶ εἴπατε Ἐπὶe κούφοις ἀναβάταιf ἐσόμεθα. Διὰ τοῦτο κοῦφοι ἔσονται οἱ διώκοντες ὑμᾶς. 17 Διὰ φωνὴν ἑνὸςg φεύξονται χίλιοι, καὶ διὰ φωνὴν πέντε φεύξονται πολλοί, ἕως ἂν καταλειφθῆτε ἱστὸςh ἐπ’ ὄρους καὶ ὡς σημαίαν φέρων ἐπὶ βουνοῦ. 18 καὶ πάλιν μενεῖ ὁ θεὸς τοῦ οἰκτιρῆσαιi ἡμᾶς. Καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ὑψωθήσεται τοῦ ἐλεῆσαι ὑμᾶςj· διότι κριτὴς Κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὑμῶνk ἐστιν. Καὶ ποῦ καταλείψετε τὴν δόξαν ὑμῶνl; 181 Blessed are those who remain faithful

(30:18–23)

μακάριοι οἱ ἐμμένοντες ἐν αὐτοῖςm. 19 Διότι λαὸς ἅγιος ἐν Σιὼν οἰκήσει. Καὶ Ἰερουσαλὴμ κλαυθμῷ ἔκλαυσεν Ἐλέησόν με· ἐλεήσειn τὴν φωνὴν τῆς κραυγῆς σου· ἡνίκα εἶδεν, ἐπήκουσέν σου. 20 καὶ δώσει Κύριος ὑμῖν ἄρτον θλίψεως καὶ ὕδωρ στενόν, καὶ οὐκέτι μὴ ἐγγίσωσίν σεo οἱ πλανῶντές σε· ὅτι οἱ ὀφθαλμοί σου ὄψονται τοὺς πλανῶντάς σε, 21 καὶ τὰ ὦτά σου ἀκούσονται τοὺς λόγους τῶν ὀπίσω σε πλανησάντων, οἱ λέγοντες Αὕτη ἡ ὁδός, πορευθῶμεν ἐν αὐτῇ εἴτε δεξιὰ εἴτε ἀριστερά. 22 καὶ μιανεῖςp τὰ εἴδωλα τὰ περιηργυρωμένα καὶ τὰ περικεχρυσωμένα, λεπτὰ ποιήσεις καὶ

aαὐτῷ] S; αὐτῆς ABRZ b πῦρ] S*; πῦρ ἀρεῖς, καὶ ἐν ᾧ ἀποσυριεῖς ὕδωρ ScaABRZ c οὕτως] SAZ; οὕτω BR dἐβούλεσθε] SAZ; ἠβούλεσθε B*R eεἴπατε Ἐπὶ] SARZ; ἐπὶ B fἀναβάται] SARZ; ἀναβάταις B gΔιὰ φωνὴν ἑνὸς] SRZ; καὶ διὰ φωνὴν ἑνὸς A; χίλιοι διὰ φωνὴν ἑνὸς B; hἱστὸς] S*; ὡς ἱστὸς ScaABRZ iοἰκτιρῆσαι] SRZ; οἰκτειρῆσαι AB jὑμᾶς] Scb3ABRZ; ἡμᾶς S* kὑμῶν] S*B; ἡμῶν Scb3ARZ lἐστιν. Καὶ ποῦ καταλείψετε τὴν δόξαν ὑμῶν] SARZ; om. B mἐν αὐτοῖς] S*; ἐν αὐτῷ ScaScb3ARZ; ἐπ’ αὐτῷ B nἐλεήσει] SA; ἐλεήσει σε BRZ oσε] S*; σοι ScaABRZ pμιανεῖς] S*B; ἐξαρεῖς Scb2ARZ

30:14–22

171

falling wall of a secure city that has been captured, whose fall comes instantly.” 14 And the fall will be for him like the breaking of a clay vessel, tiny pieces from a jar, so that one cannot find among them a shard in which is a little fire. 180 The object of your trust will backfire

(30:15–18)

15 Thus says Lord, the holy one of Israel: “When you turn back and groan, then you will be delivered and you will also know where you were. When you put trust in pointless things, your power became pointless, and you were unwilling to listen. 16 Rather, you said, ‘We will flee on horses!’ Because of this, you will flee! And you said, ‘We will be riders on swift things!’ Because of this, those pursuing you will be swift. 17 A thousand will flee because of the voice of a single person, and many will flee because of the voice of five, until you are left, a pole on a mountain, and like one carrying a standard on a hill.” 18 And again God will continue to have pity on us. And because of this, he will be exalted to show mercy to you, because Lord our God is a judge. And where will you leave your glory? 181 Blessed are those who remain faithful

(30:18–23)

Blessed are those who remain faithful to them. 19 Because a holy people will reside in Zion. And Jerusalem wept with weeping, “Have mercy on me!” He will have pity on the sound of your crying; when he saw, he listened to you. 20 And Lord will give to you the bread of oppression and scant water, and those who deceive you shall not approach you any longer, because your eyes will look at those who deceive you, 21 and your ears will hear the words of those deceiving you from behind, those who say, “This is the way, let us go on it, whether right or left.” 22 And you will defile the silver-plated and gold-plated idols; you will turn them into tiny

30:14 Origen Fr. Lam. (GCS 6.269); Hom. Jer. 3.3 30:15 Exeg. Soul 136.4; 137.9; Origen Hom. Ex. 6.9; Hom. Lev. 9.8; Cyprian Ep. 34.1; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.98; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.273); Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 2.15 30:16 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.98 30:17 Sib. Or. 3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.98 30:18 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.98–99 30:19–20 Exeg. Soul 136.9; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.99 30:21–22 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.99

172

Text and Translation

λικμήσεις ὡς ὕδωρ ἀποκαθημένης καὶ ὡς κόπρον ὤσεις αὐτά. 23 τότε ἔσται ὁ ὑετὸς τῷ σπέρματι τῆς γῆς σουa, ἔσται πλησμονὴ καὶ λιπαρός. 182 Fertility will be restored

(30:23–25)

καὶ βοσκηθήσεταί σου τὰ κτήνη τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ τόπον πίονα καὶ εὐρύχωρον, 24 οἱ ταῦροι ὑμῶν καὶ αἱb βόες οἱ ἐργαζόμενοι τὴν γῆν φάγονται ἄχυρα ἀναπεποιημέναc ἐν κριθῇ λελικμημέναd. 25 καὶ ἔσται ἐπὶ παντὸς ὄρους ὑψηλοῦ καὶ ἐπὶ παντὸς βουνοῦ μετεώρου ὕδωρ διαπορευόμενον ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ, ὅταν ἀπόλωνται πολλοὶ καὶe ὅταν πέσωσιν πύργοι. 183 The day Lord heals his people

(30:26)

26 καὶ ἔσται τὸ φῶς τῆς σελήνης ὡς τὸ φῶς τοῦ ἡλίου καὶ τὸ φῶς τοῦ ἡλίου ἔσται ἑπταπλάσιον ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ, ὅταν ἰάσηται Κύριος τὸ σύντριμμα τοῦ λαοῦ αὐτοῦ, καὶ τὴν ὀδύνην τῆς πληγῆς σου ἰάσεται. 184 Lord’s wrath will trouble nations

(30:27–28)

27 Ἰδοὺ τὸ ὄνομα Κυρίου διὰ χρόνου ἔρχεται πολλοῦf, καιόμενος ὁ θυμός, μετὰ δόξης τὸ λόγιον τῶν χειλέων αὐτοῦ, τὸ λόγιον ὀργῆς πλήρηςg, καὶ ἡ ὀργὴ τοῦ θυμοῦ ὡς πῦρ ἔδεται. 28 καὶ τὸ πνεῦμα αὐτοῦ ὡς ὕδωρ ἐν φάραγγι σῦρον ἥξει ἕως τοῦ τραχήλου καὶ διαιρεθήσεται τοῦ ἔθνη ταράξαιh ἐπὶ πλανήσει ματαίᾳ, καὶ διώξεται αὐτοὺς πλάνησις καὶ λήμψεται αὐτοὺς κατὰ πρόσωπον αὐτῶν. 185 Is rejoicing necessary?

(30:29–30)

29 Μὴ διὰ παντὸς δεῖ ὑμᾶς εὐφραίνεσθαι καὶ εἰσπορεύεσθαι εἰς τὰ ἅγιά μου διὰ παντὸς ἑορτάζονταςi καὶ ὡσεὶ εὐφραινομένους εἰσελθεῖν μετὰ αὐλοῦ εἰς ὄροςj τοῦ Κυρίουk πρὸς τὸν θεὸν τοῦ Ἰσραήλ; 30 καὶ ἀκουστὴν ποιήσει ὁ θεὸςl τὴν δόξαν τῆς φωνῆς αὐτοῦ καὶ τὸν θυμὸν τοῦ βραχίονος αὐτοῦ δεῖξαιm μετὰ θυμοῦ καὶ ὀργῆς καὶ φλογὸς κατεσθιούσης· κεραυνώσει βιαίωςn καὶ ὡς ὕδωρ καὶ χάλαζα συγκαταφερομένη βίᾳ.

aσου] S*; σου, καὶ ὁ ἄρτος τοῦ γενήματος τῆς γῆς σου Scb1Scb2ABRZ b αἱ] S*; οἱ Scb3ABRZ c φάγονται ἄχυρα ἀναπεποιημένα] SARZ; ἄχυρα ἀναπεποιημένα φάγονται B dλελικμημένα] SARZ; λελικμημένῃ B e πολλοὶ καὶ] SARZ; om. καὶ B f διὰ χρόνου ἔρχεται πολλοῦ] SARZ; ἔρχεται διὰ χρόνου B gπλήρης] S; πλῆρες ABRZ hἔθνη ταράξαι] SARZ; ταράξαι ἔθνη B iἑορτάζοντας] S; ὡσεὶ ἑορτάζοντας ABRZ j ὄρος] S; τὸν οἶκον A; τὸ ὄρος BR k τοῦ Κυρίου] SAR; Κυρίου BZ l ὁ θεὸς] SARZ; Κύριος B m δεῖξαι] SAB; δεῖξει RZ n βιαίως] SARZ; βιαίῳ B

30:23–30

173

pieces and you will scatter them like the water of a woman who sits apart, and you will thrust them out like dung. 23 Then the rain will be for the seed of your land; it will be an abundance and rich. 182 Fertility will be restored

(30:23–25)

And your herds will be fed on that day at a fertile and spacious place. 24 Your bulls and cows that work the land will eat prepared straw winnowed with barley. 25 And there will be running water on every high mountain and on every lofty hill, on that day, when many will perish, and when towers will fall. 183 The day Lord heals his people

(30:26)

26 And the light of the moon will be like the light of the sun, and the light of the sun will be sevenfold, on the day when Lord heals the injury of his people, and he will heal the pain of your wound. 184 Lord’s wrath will trouble nations

(30:27–28)

27 Look, the name of Lord comes after much time; the wrath is burning; the oracle of his lips with glory, the oracle is a man full of anger, and the anger of wrath will devour like fire. 28 And his breath, like sweeping water in a valley, will come up to the neck and be divided to trouble nations at pointless deception. And deception will pursue them and it will take hold of them to their face. 185 Is rejoicing necessary?

(30:29–30)

29 Is it necessary for you to rejoice through everything and to enter into my holy places through everything, observing a feast and as if rejoicing, to enter the mountain of the Lord with the flute, towards the God of Israel? 30 And God will make the glory of his voice heard, and to show the wrath of his arm with wrath and anger and a devouring flame, he will thunder violently, even like water and hail carried down together with force. 30:23–25 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.99 30:26 Hippolytus Capita contra Gaium (CSCO 60.20); Origen Hom. Num 23.11; Comm. Matt. 49; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.99; Fr. var. (PG 24.600); Lactantius Inst. 7.24.7; Epit. 67.4 30:27 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.100; Ecl. proph. 4.14 30:28 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.100 30:29 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.100 30:30 Theophilus Autol. 2.38; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.100; 2.3

174 186 Assyrians will be defeated

Text and Translation

(30:31–33)

31 Διὰ γὰρ φωνῆςa Κυρίου ἡττηθήσονται Ἀσσύριοι τῇ πληγῇ, ᾗ ἂν πατάξῃ αὐτούς. 32 καὶ ἔσται αὐτῷ κυκλόθεν, ὅθεν ἦν αὐτῷb ἡ ἐλπὶς τῆς βοηθείας, ἐφ’ ἧςc αὐτὸς ἐπεποίθειd· αὐτοὶ μετὰ αὐλῶνe καὶ κιθάρας πολεμήσουσιν αὐτὸν ἐκ μεταβολῆς. 33 οὐf γὰρ πρὸ ἡμερῶν ἀπατηθήσῃ· μὴ καὶ σὺg ἡτοιμάσθη βασιλεύεινh φάραγγα βαθεῖαν, ξύλα κείμενα, πῦρ καὶ θεῖονi καὶ ξύλα πολλά; ὁ θυμὸς Κυρίου ὡς φάραγξ ὑπὸ θείου καιομένη. 187 Woe to those depending on Egypt

(31:1–2)

31.1 Οὐαὶ οἱ καταβαίνοντες εἰς Αἴγυπτον ἐπὶ βοήθειαν, οἱ ἐφ’ ἵπποις πεποιθότες καὶ ἐφ’ ἅρμασιν, ἔστιν γὰρ πολλά, καὶ ἐφ’ ἵπποις, πλῆθος σφόδρα, καὶ οὐκ ἦσαν πεποιθότες ἐπὶ τὸν ἅγιον τοῦ Ἰσραήλ καὶ τὸν θεὸνj οὐκ ἐξεζήτησανk. 2 καὶ αὐτὸς σοφὸς ἦγεν ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς κακά, καὶ ὁ λόγος αὐτοῦ οὐ μὴ ἀθετηθῇ. 188 Lord will oppose their pointless hope

(31:2–3)

καὶ ἐπαναστήσεται ἐπ’ οἴκους ἀνθρώπων πονηρῶν καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν ἐλπίδα αὐτῶν τὴν ματαίαν, 3 Αἰγύπτιον ἀνθρώπωνl καὶ οὐ θεόν, ἵππων σάρκας καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν βοήθεια· ὁ δὲ Κύριος ἐπάξει τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦ ἐπ’ αὐτούς, καὶ κοπιάσουσιν οἱ βοηθοῦντες, καὶ ἅμα ἀπολοῦνται πάντεςm. 189 Lord Sabaoth will fight Mount Zion

(31:4–5)

4 Ὅτι οὕτως εἶπέν μοιn Κύριος Ὃν τρόπον βοήσειo ὁ λέων ἢ ὁ σκύμνος ἐπὶ τῇ θήρᾳ, ᾗ ἔλαβεν, καὶ κεκράξῃ ἐπ’ αὐτῇ, ἕως ἂν ἐμπλησθῇp τὰ ὄρη τῆς φωνῆς αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἡττήθησαν καὶ τὸ πλῆθος τοῦ θυμοῦ ἐπτοήθησαν, οὕτως καταβήσεται Κύριος Σαβαὼθ ἐπιστρατεῦσαι ἐπὶ τὸ ὄρος Σειώνq ἐπὶ τὰ ὄρη αὐτῆς. 5 ὡς ὄρνεα πετόμενα, οὕτως ὑπερασπιεῖ Κύριος Σαβαώθr ὑπὲρ Ἰερουσαλὴμ ὑπερασπιεῖs καὶ ἐξελεῖται σεt καὶ περιποιηθήσονταιu καὶ σώσει.

aφωνῆς] SRZ; τῆς φωνῆς B; τὴν φωνὴν A bαὐτῷ] SARZ; αὐτῶν B cἧς] S*; ἧ Scb3ABRZ dἐπεποίθει] SARZ; πεποίθει B e αὐλῶν] SARZ; τυμπάνων B f οὐ] SA; σὺ BRZ g σὺ] SAB*; σοὶ BRZ h ἡτοιμάσθη βασιλεύειν] SARZ; βασιλεύειν ἡτοιμάσθη B i καὶ θεῖον] S*; om. ScaABRZ j θεὸν] SARZ; κύριον B k ἐξεζήτησαν] SARZ; ἐζήτησαν B l ἀνθρώπων] S*; ἄνθρωπον Scb2ABRZ m ἀπολοῦνται πάντες] S; πάντες ἀπολοῦνται ABRZ n μοι] ScaABRZ; +πάντες S*; o βοήσει] S*; ἐὰν βοήσει Scb2; βοήσῃ B; ἐὰν βοήσῃ ARZ p ἂν ἐμπλησθῇ] SBARZ; om. ἂν B; ἂν ἐμπληση S* q Σειών] S; τὸ Σειών B; τὸ Σιων ARZ r Κύριος Σαβαώθ] SB; κύριος ARZ s ὑπερασπιεῖ] S*B; om. Scb2ARZ t σε] S*; om. Scb2ABRZ u περιποιηθήσονται] S*; περιποιήσεται ScaABRZ

30:31–31:5

186 Assyrians will be defeated

175 (30:31–33)

31 For through the voice of Lord, Assyrians will be defeated by the blow with which he strikes them. 32 And it will be for him from all around, from whence was his hope of aid, on which he himself trusted; they with flutes and lyres will make war on him by way of a change. 33 For you will be required to repay, not before some days. Was it not prepared for even you to rule a deep valley, piled trees, fire and brimstone and many trees? The wrath of Lord is like a valley burning with brimstone. 187 Woe to those depending on Egypt

(31:1–2)

31.1 Woe, you who go down to Egypt for aid, who trust on horses and on chariots, for they are many and on horses, an exceeding multitude, but they did not trust on the holy one of Israel and did not seek God. 2 And a wise man himself kept bringing evils on them, and his word certainly will not be disregarded. 188 Lord will oppose their pointless hope

(31:2–3)

And he will rise against evil people’s houses and against their pointless hope, 3 an Egyptian of people, and not a god, muscles of horses! And it is no help. But the Lord will set his hand against them and the helpers will grow weary, and all will perish together. 189 Lord Sabaoth will fight Mount Zion

(31:4–5)

4 Because thus Lord said to me, “As the lion will roar, or the cub over the prey that he took, and would cry out over it until the mountains are filled with its voice and they were overcome and they were terrified of mass of the wrath, so Lord Sabaoth will go down to make war against Mount Zion, against its mountains. 5 Like birds flying, so Lord Sabaoth will hold a shield over Jerusalem; he will shield and rescue you, and they will be preserved and he will save them.”

30:31–33 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.100 31:1 Did. apost. 13; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.1 31:2 Origen Comm. Matt. 114; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.1 31:3 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.1 31:4 Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.1 31:5 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.1

176 190 Schemers, repent or flee!

Text and Translation

(31:6–9)

6 Ἐπιστράφητε, οἱ τὴν βαθεῖαν βουλὴν βουλευόμενοι καὶ ἄνομονa. 7 ὅτι τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ἀπαρνήσονται οἱ ἄνθρωποι τὰ χειροποίητα αὐτῶν τὰ ἀργυρᾶ καὶ τὰ χρυσᾶb, ἃ ἐποίησαν οἱ δάκτυλοιc αὐτῶν. 8 καὶ πεσεῖται Ἀσσούρ· οὐ μάχαιρα ἀνδρὸς οὐδὲ μάχαιρα ἀνθρώπου καταφάγεται αὐτόν, καὶ φεύξεται οὐκ ἀπὸ προσώπου μαχαίρας· οἱ δὲ νεανίσκοι ἔσονται εἰς ἥττημα, 9 πέτρᾳ γὰρ περιλημφθήσονται ὡς χάρακι καὶ ἡττηθήσονται, ὁ δὲ φεύγωνd ἁλώσεται. 191 A just king will reign

(31:9–32:4)

Τάδε λέγει Κύριος Μακάριος ὃς ἔχει ἐν Σειὼν σπέρμα καὶ οἰκείους ἐν Ἰερουσαλήμ. 32.1 ἰδοὺ γὰρ βασιλεὺς δίκαιος βασιλεύσει, καὶ ἄρχοντες μετὰ κρίσεως ἄρχουσινe. 2 καὶ ἔσται ὁ ἄνθρωπος κρύπτων τοὺς λόγους αὐτοῦ καὶ κρυβήσεται ὡς ἀφ’ ὕδατος φερομένου· καὶ φανήσεται ἐν Σιών ὡς ποταμὸς φερόμενος ἔνδοξος ἐν γῇ διψώσῃ. 3 καὶ οὐκέτι ἔσονται πεποιθότες ἐπ’ ἀνθρώποις, ἀλλὰ τὰ ὦτα δώσουσιν ἀκούεινf. 4 καὶ ἡ καρδία τῶν ἀσθενούντων προσέξειg τοῦ ἀκούειν, καὶ αἱ γλῶσσαι αἱ ψελλίζουσαι ταχὺ μαθήσονται λαλεῖν εἰρήνην. 192 The counsel of the foolish

(32:5–8)

5 καὶ οὐκέτι μὴ εἴπωσιν τῷ μωρῷ ἄρχειν, καὶ οὐκέτι μὴ εἴπωσιν οἱ ὑπηρέται σου Σίγα. 6 ὁ γὰρ μωρὸς μωρὰ λαλήσει, καὶ ἡ καρδία αὐτοῦ μάταια νοήσει τοῦ συντελεῖν ἄνομα καὶ λαλεῖν πρὸς Κύριον πλάνησιν τοῦ διασπεῖραι ψυχὰς πεινώσας καὶ τὰς ψυχὰς τὰς πινώσαςh κενὰς ποιῆσαιi. 7 ἡ γὰρ βουλὴ τῶν πονηρῶν ἄνομα βουλεύεταιj καταφθεῖραι ταπεινοὺς ἐν λόγοις ἀδίκοις καὶ διασκεδάσαι λόγους ταπεινῶν ἐν κρίσει. 8 οἱ δὲ εὐσεβεῖς συνετὰ ἐβουλεύσαντο, καὶ αὕτη ἡ βουλὴ μενεῖ.

aἄνομον] SARZ; ἄνομον υἱοὶ Ἰσραήλ B bτὰ χρυσᾶ] SARZ; τὰ χειροποίητα τὰ χρυσᾶ B cοἱ δάκτυλοι] S*; αἱ χεῖρες Scb1ABRZ d φεύγων] ScaSdABRZ; φευων S* e ἄρχουσιν] S*; ἄρξουσιν Scb3ABRZ fδώσουσιν ἀκούειν] SARZ; ἀκούειν δώσουσιν B gπροσέξει] SARZ; προσήξει B hπινώσας] S*; διψώσας ScaABRZ i ποιῆσαι] SARZ; ποιήσει B j βουλεύεται] S*A; βουλεύσεται ScaBRZ

31:6–32:8

190 Schemers, repent or flee!

177 (31:6–9)

6 Turn, you who are planning the deep and lawless plan, 7 because on that day, humans will disown their silver and gold handiworks that their fingers made. 8 And Assour will fall; no man’s sword or person’s sword will devour him, and he will not flee in the face of the sword, but the young men will become at a loss, 9 for they will be encompassed by a rock, as if by an entrenched camp, and they will be defeated, and the one who flees will be captured. 191 A just king will reign

(31:9–32:4)

Thus says Lord: “Blessed is he who has seed in Zion, and relatives in Jerusalem.” 32.1 For look, a just king will reign, and rulers are ruling with justice. 2 And the person will be hiding his words, and he will be hidden as if from rushing water, and he will appear in Zion like a rushing river, esteemed in a thirsting land. 3 And they will no longer trust in humans, but rather they will set their ears to listen. 4 And the heart of the weak will endeavour to listen, and the faltering tongues will quickly learn to speak peace. 192 The counsel of the foolish

(32:5–8)

5 And they will no longer tell the foolish person to rule, and your assistants shall no longer say, “Be quiet!” 6 For the fool will speak foolish things, and his heart will think pointless things, to accomplish lawless things and to speak deception against Lord, to scatter hungering souls and to empty the souls that drink. 7 For the council of the evil plans lawless things, to ruin lowly people by unjust words and to scatter lowly people’s words in justice. 8 But the pious planned intelligent things; and this council will remain.

31:6 Theophilus Autol. 3.11; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.1; Cyprian Exhortation to Repentance 31:7 Cyprian Ep. 122.2; Jerome Letter 122.2; Bede Ezra and Nehemiah 3; Gregory the Great Homilies on Ezekiel 2.9.10. 31:8 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.1 31:9–32:1 Irenaeus Haer. 5.34.3; Cyprian Ep. 57.11; Ep. 122.2; John Cassian Collat. 3.21.32; John of Damascus Orthodox Faith 4.24 32:6 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.2; Origen Fr. Catenis in Job (PG 12.1041) 32:7 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.2 32:8 Clement of Alexandria Strom. 2.15; John Chrysostom Hom. Act. 2; Hom. Rom. 20; Jerome Ruf. 3.1; Epist. 51.6; 146.1; Athanasius Apol. Const. 17; Ep. Adelph. 2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.2

178

Text and Translation

193 Wealthy women, grieve the coming loss

(32:9–13)

9 Γυναῖκες πλούσιαι, ἀνάστητε καὶ ἀκούσατε τῆς φωνῆς μου· θυγατέρες ἐν ἐλπίδι. Ἀκούσατεa λόγουςb μου. 10 ἡμέρας ἐνιαυτοῦ μνείαν ποιήσασθε ἐν ὀδύνῃ μετ’ ἐλπίδος· ἀνήλωται ὁ τρύγητος, πέπαυται ὁ σπόρος καὶc οὐκέτι μὴ ἔλθῃ. 11 ἔκστητε, λυπήθητε, αἱ πεποιθυῖαι, ἐκδύσασθε, γυμναὶ γένεσθε, περιζώσασθε σάκκουςd τὰς ὀσφύας ὑμῶνe 12 καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν μαστῶν κόπτεσθε ἀπὸ ἀγροῦ ἐπιθυμήματος καὶ ἀμπέλου γενήματος. 13 ἡ γῆ τοῦ λαοῦ μου ἄκανθα καὶ χόρτος ἀναβήσεται, καὶ ἐκ πάσης οἰκίας εὐφροσύνη ἀρθήσεται· πόλις πλουσία. 194 Chermel will be deserted

(32:14–19)

14 οἶκοι ἐγκαταλελειμμένοιf πλοῦτον πόλεως ἀφήσουσιν. οἴκους ἐπιθυμηματόςg· καὶ ἔσονται αἱ κῶμαι σπήλαια ἕως τοῦ αἰῶνος, εὐφροσύνη ὄνων ἀγρίων, βοσκήματα ποιμένων, 15 ἕως ἂν ἐπέλθῃh ἐφ’ ἡμᾶςi πνεῦμα ἀφ’ ὑψηλοῦ. καὶ ἔσται ἔρημος ὁ Χερμέλ, καὶ ὁ Χερμὲλ εἰς δρυμὸν λογισθήσεται. 16 καὶ ἀναπαύσεται ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ κρίμα, καὶ δικαιοσύνη ἐν τῷ Καρμήλῳ κατοικήσει· 17 καὶ ἔσται τὰ ἔργα τῆς δικαιοσύνης εἰρήνη, καὶ κρατήσει ἡ δικαιοσύνη ἀνάπαυσιν, καὶ οἱj πεποιθότεςk ἕως τοῦ αἰῶνος· 18 καὶ κατοικήσειl ὁ λαὸς αὐτοῦ ἐν πόλει εἰρήνης καὶ ἐνοικήσει πεποιθώς, καὶ ἀναπαύσονται μετὰ πλούτου. 19 ἡ δὲ χάλαζα ἐὰν καταβῇ, οὐκ ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς ἥξει. καὶ ἔσονται οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες ἐν τοῖς δρυμοῖς πεποιθότεςm ἐν τῇ πεδινῇ. 195 Woe to those who distress you

(32:20–33:1)

20 Μακάριοι οἱ σπείροντες ἐπὶ πᾶν ὕδωρ, οὗ βοῦς καὶ ὄνος πατεῖ.

aἈκούσατε] S*ARZ; εἰσακούσατε SdB b λόγους] S*B; τοὺς λόγους Scb2ARZ c ὁ σπόρος καὶ] SARZ; om. B d σάκκους] SARZ; om. B e ὀσφύας ὑμῶν] S; ὀσφύας ARZ; ὀσφῦς B fἐγκαταλελειμμένοι] SRZ; ἐγκαταλελιμμένοι AB g ἀφήσουσιν. οἴκους ἐπιθυμηματός] SB; καὶ οἴκους ἐπιθυμητοὺς ἀφήσουσιν ARZ hἐπέλθῃ] SARZ; ἔλθῃ B iἡμᾶς] S*; ὑμᾶς Scb3ABRZ jοἱ] S*; om. Scb2ABRZ kπεποιθότες] S*BRZ; Scb2A +ἔσονται lκατοικήσει] SARZ; οἰκήσει B mπεποιθότες] S; πεποιθότες ὡς B; πεποιθότες ὡς οἱ ARZ

32:9–20

193 Wealthy women, grieve the coming loss

179 (32:9–13)

9 Rise up, wealthy women, and listen to my voice, daughters with hope. Hear words of mine. 10 Make remembrance of days of a year, in pain with hope; the harvest has been consumed; the sowing has ceased and it will come no longer. 11 Be astounded; grieve, you confident women; strip; become exposed; gird your loins with sackcloth 12 and strike yourselves on your breasts for longing for a field and a vine’s produce. 13 The land of my people will come up thorns and grass, and happiness, a wealthy city, will be taken away from every house. 194 Chermel will be deserted

(32:14–19)

14 Forsaken houses will give up a city’s wealth, houses of desire; and the villages will be caverns for eternity, wild donkeys’ happiness, a feeding place for shepherds, 15 until a spirit comes upon you from on high. And Chermel will be a desert, and Chermel will be considered forest. 16 And justice will repose in the desert, and righteousness will settle in Carmel. 17 And the deeds of righteousness will be peace, and righteousness will grasp rest, those who trust for eternity. 18 And his people will settle in a city of peace and they will dwell secure, and they will rest with wealth. 19 And the hail, if it comes down, will not come upon you, and those who dwell in the forests will trust in the plain. 195 Woe to those who distress you

(32:20–33:1)

20 Blessed are those who sow upon every water, where ox and donkey tread.

32:9 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.3; 2.8; Tertullian Marc. 4.19.1. 32:10 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.3; 2.8; Tertullian Marc. 4.19.1 32:11 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.3 32:12 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.3 32:13 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.3 32:14 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.3 32:16 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.3; 2.4 32:17 Rom 5:1; Jas 3:18; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.3 32:18 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.3 32:19 Gregory the Great Pastor. 3.14; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.3; Onoma. (GCS 11.162) 32:20 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.3; 2.4; Origen Fr. Jer. (GCS 6.212); Hom. Deut. (PG 12.813); Clement of Alexandria Strom. 6.1.2

180

Text and Translation

33.1 Οὐαὶ τοῖς ταλαιπωροῦσιν ὑμᾶς, ὑμᾶς δὲ γὰρa οὐδεὶς ποιεῖ ταλαιπώρους, καὶ ὁ ἀθετῶν ὑμᾶς οὐκ ἀθετεῖ· ἁλώσονται οἱ ἀθετοῦντες καὶ παραδοθήσονται καὶ ὡς σὴς ἐπὶ ἱματίῳb οὕτως ἡττηθήσονταιc. 196 Lord, have pity on us

(33:2–4)

2 Κύριε, ἐλέησον ἡμᾶς, ἐπὶ σοὶ γὰρ πεποίθαμεν· ἐγενήθη τὸ σπέρμα τῶν ἀπειθούντων εἰς ἀπώλειαν, ἡ δὲ σωτηρία ἡμῶν ἐν καιρῷ θλίψεως. 3 διὰ φωνὴν τοῦ φόβου σουd ἐξέστησαν λαοὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ φόβου σου, καὶ διεσπάρησαν τὰ ἔθνη. 4 νῦν δὲ συναχθήσεται τὰ σκῦλα ἡμῶνe μικροῦ καὶ μεγάλου· ὃν τρόπον ἐάν τις συναγάγῃ ἀκρίδαςf, οὕτως ἐμπαίξουσιν ὑμῖν. 197 Warehouses of righteousness

(33:5–9)

5 Ἅγιος ὁ θεὸς ὁ κατοικῶν ἐν ὑψηλοῖςg, ἐνεπλήσθη Σιὼν κρίσεως καὶ δικαιοσύνηςh. 6 ἐν νόμῳ παραδοθήσονται, ἐν θησαυροῖς ἡ σωτηρία ἡμῶν, ἐκεῖi σοφία καὶ ἐπιστήμη καὶ εὐσέβεια πρὸς τὸν θεὸνj· οὗτοί εἰσιν θησαυροὶ δικαιοσύνης. 198 Those you feared will fear you

(33:7–9)

7 ἰδοὺ δὴ ἐν τῷ φόβῳ ὑμῶν αὐτοὶk φοβηθήσονται· οὓς ἐφοβεῖσθε, βοήσονταιl ἀφ’ ὑμῶν· ἄγγελοι γὰρm ἀποσταλήσονται πικρῶςn κλαίοντες παρακαλοῦντες εἰρήνην. 8 ἐρημωθήσονται γὰρ αἱ τούτων ὁδοί· πέπαυται ὁ φόβος τῶν ἐθνῶν, καὶ ἡ πρὸς τούτους διαθήκη αἴρεται, καὶ οὐ μὴ λογίσησθε αὐτοὺς ἀνθρώπους. 9 ἐπένθησεν ἡ γῆ, ᾐσχύνθη ὁ Λίβανος, ἕλη ἐγένετο ἄσαρων· φανερὰ ἔσται ἡ Γαλιλαία καὶ ὁ Κάρμηλος. 199 Now I will be exalted and you will see

(33:10–12)

10 Νῦν ἀναστήσομαι, λέγει Κύριος, νῦν δοξασθήσομαι, νῦν ὑψωθήσομαι· 11 νῦν ὄψεσθε, νῦν αἰσθηθήσεσθε· ματαία δὲo ἔσται ἡ ἰσχὺς τοῦ πνεύματος ὑμῶν, πῦρ ὑμᾶς

aγὰρ] S; om. ABRZ b ἐπὶ ἱματίῳ] S; ἐφ’ ἱματίου BZ; ἐπὶ ἱματίου AR c ἡττηθήσονται] SARZ; ἡττήσονται B dσου] SARZ; om. B eἡμῶν] S; ὑμῶν ABRZ fἀκρίδας] SARZ; ἀκρίδα B gὑψηλοῖς] SARZ; ὑψηλῷ B h δικαιοσύνης] SARZ; δικαιοσύνῃ B i ἐκεῖ] SARZ; ἥκει B j θεὸν] S*; κύριον Scb2ABRZ k αὐτοὶ] SARZ; οὗτοι B l βοήσονται] S*B; φοβηθήσονται Scb1ARZ m γὰρ] SARZ; om. B n πικρῶς] S*B; ἀξιοῦντες εἰρήνην πικρῶς ScaARZ o δὲ] S; om. ABRZ

33:1–11

181

33.1 Woe to those who distress you, for no one makes you distressed, and the rebel does not rebel against you; the rebels will be captured, and they will be handed over, and like a moth on a garment, so they will be defeated. 196 Lord, have pity on us

(33:2–4)

2 Lord, have pity on us, for we trust on you. The seed of the resistant turned into destruction, but our deliverance is in a time of oppression. 3 Because of the sound of the fear of you, peoples were amazed because of the fear of you, and the nations were scattered. 4 But now our spoils will be gathered, that of small and of great. As one might gather grasshoppers, so they will ridicule you. 197 Warehouses of righteousness

(33:5–6)

5 God who dwells in high places is holy; Zion was filled with justice and righteousness. 6 By a law they will be handed over. Our deliverance is in storehouses; wisdom and knowledge and piety towards God are there; these are store-houses of righteousness. 198 Those you feared will fear you

(33:7–9)

7 Look, now; they themselves will be frightened with the fear of you; those whom you feared will cry out because of you; for messengers will be sent bitterly weeping, beseeching peace. 8 For the ways of these people will be made desolate; the fear of the nations has ceased and the covenant with these people is being revoked, and certainly you will not consider them humans. 9 The land mourned; Lebanon was ashamed; Asaron became marshes; Galilaia and Karmel will be visible. 199 Now I will be exalted and you will see

(33:10–12)

10 Now I will rise, says Lord. Now I will be glorified; now I will be exalted. 11 Now you will see; now you will perceive. The power of your breath will be pointless; 33:1 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.3; 2.4 33:2–4 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.4 33:5–6 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.4 33:7–9 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.4 33:10 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.4; Cyprian Test. 2.26 33:11 Clement of Alexandria Protr. 10; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.4; Cyprian Test. 2.26; Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 1

182

Text and Translation

κατέδεταιa. 12 καὶ ἔσονται ἔθνη κατακεκαυμένα ὡς ἄκανθα ἐν ἀγρῷ ἐρρισμμένηb καὶ κατακεκαυμένη. 200 All will know my power

(33:13–14)

13 Ἀκούσονται οἱ πόρρωθεν ἃ ἐποίησα, γνώσονται οἱ ἐγγίζοντες τὴν ἰσχύν μου. 14 ἀπέστησαν οἱ ἐν Σιὼν ἄνομοι, λήμψεται τρόμος τοὺς ἀσεβεῖς. 201 The blameless will warn you

(33:14–15)

τίς ἀναγγελεῖ ὑμῖν ὅτι πῦρ καὶ ἔσταιc; τίς ἀναγγελεῖ ὑμῖν τὸν τόπον τὸν αἰώνιον; 15 πορευόμενος ἄμωμοςd ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ, λαλῶν εὐθεῖαν ὁδόν, μισῶν ἀνομίαν καὶ ἀδικίαν καὶ τὰς χεῖρας ἀποσειόμενος καὶ ἀπὸe δώρων, βαρύνων τὰ ὦτα ἵνα μὴ ἀκούσῃ κρίσιν αἵματος, καμμύων τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς ἵνα μὴ ἴδῃ ἀδικίαν. 202 You will see distant land

(33:16–18)

16 οὗτος οἰκήσῃf ἐν ὑψηλῷ σπηλαίῳ πέτρας ἰσχυρᾶς· ἄρτος αὐτῷ δοθήσεται, καὶ τὸ ὕδωρ αὐτοῦ πιστόν. 17 βασιλέα μετὰ δόξης ὄψεσθε, οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶg ὑμῶν ὄψονται γῆν πόρρωθεν. 18 Ἡ ψυχὴ ἡμῶνh μελετήσει φόβον. 203 Where are the scholars?

(33:18–19)

ποῦ εἰσιν οἱ γραμματικοί; ποῦ εἰσιν οἱ συμβουλεύοντες; ποῦ ἐστιν ὁ ἀριθμῶν τοὺς συστρεφομένουςi 19 μικρὸν καὶ μέγαν λαόν; ᾧ οὐ συνεβουλεύσαντοj οὐδὲ ᾔδει βαθύφωνον ὥστε μὴ ἀκοῦσαι λαὸς πεφαυλισμένος, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν τῷ ἀκούοντι σύνεσις.

aὑμᾶς κατέδεται] SARZ; κατέδεται ὑμᾶς B b ἐρρισμμένη] S*; ἐρριμμένη ScaABRZ c καὶ ἔσται] S*; καίεται Scb3ABRZ d ἄμωμος] S; om. ABRZ eκαὶ ἀπὸ] S*; ἀπὸ Scb2ABRZ f οἰκήσῃ] S; οἰκήσει ABRZ g οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ] S*B; καὶ οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ ScaARZ h ἡμῶν] SB; ὑμῶν ARZ i συστρεφομένους] SAZ; τρεφομένους BR j συνεβουλεύσαντο] SARZ; συνεβουλεύσατο B

33:12–19

183

fire will devour you. 12 And nations will be burned up like a thorn in a field, thrown out and burned up. 200 All will know my power

(33:13–14)

13 Those far away will hear the things that I did; those who come near will know my power. 14 The lawbreakers in Zion departed; trembling will take hold of the impious. 201 The blameless will warn you

(33:14–15)

Who will tell you that there will also be a fire? Who will tell you about the eternal place? 15 One who walks blamelessly in righteousness, speaks in a right way, hates lawlessness and wrongdoing, and shakes off his hands from gifts, who dulls his ears so that he might not hear justice of blood, shuts his eyes so that he might not see wrong-doing. 202 You will see distant land

(33:16–18)

16 May this man reside in a high cave of a powerful rock; bread will be given to him, and his water will be secure. 17 You will see a king with glory; your eyes will see a land from afar. 18 Our soul will mutter with fear. 203 Where are the scholars?

(33:18–19)

Where are the scholars? Where are the advisors? Where is the one who numbers those who grow up, 19 a small and great people, whom they did not consult, nor did a disparaged people know deep speech so as not to hear, and there is no comprehension for the hearer.

33:13–14 Barn. 9.1; Justin Dial. 70.2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.5; Praep. ev. 11.38.8; Origen Hom. Isa. 6.7; Tertullian Marc. 4.34.13; 4.34.16; Cyprian Test. 2.29. 33:14–15 Tertullian Marc. 4.34.14; Origen Hom. Gen. 3.5; Hom. Isa. 6.7; Comm. Matt. 34; 64; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.5; 2.9; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.752) 33:16 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.5; Justin Dial. 70.1; 78.6; Barn. 11.5 33:17 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.5; Cyprian Test. 2.29; Hippolytus In. Prov. (Richard 94); Tertullian Adv. Jud. 13.4 33:19 Justin Dial. 70.2

184 204 Jerusalem is our salvation

Text and Translation

(33:20–22)

20 Ἰδοὺ Σιὼν ἡ πόλις τὸ σωτήριον ἡμῶν· οἱ ὀφθαλμοί σου ὄψονται Ἰερουσαλήμ, πόλις πλουσία, σκηναὶ αἳ οὐ μὴ σεισθῶσιν, οὐδὲ μὴ κινηθῶσιν οἱ πάσσαλοι τῆς σκηνῆς αὐτῆς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα χρόνον, οὐδὲ τὰ σχοινία αὐτῆς οὐ μὴ διαρραγῶσιν. 21 ὅτι τὸ ὄνομα Κυρίου μέγα ὑμῖν· τόπος ὑμῖν ἔσται, ποταμοὶ καὶ διώρυγεςa πλατεῖς καὶ εὐρύχωροι· οὐ πορεύσῃ ταύτην τὴν ὁδόν, οὐδὲ πορεύσεται πλοῖον ἐλαῦνον. 22 ὁ γὰρ θεός μου Μέγαρb ἐστίν, οὐ παρελεύσεταί με. 205 Lord our king will save us

(33:22–24)

Κύριος κριτὴς ἡμῶν. Κύριος ἄρχων ἡμῶν. Κύριος βασιλεὺς ἡμῶν. Κύριος οὗτος ἡμᾶς σώσει. 23 ἐρράγησαν τὰ σχοινία σου, ὅτι οὐκ ἐνίσχυσενc· ὁ ἱστός σου ἔκλινεν, οὐ χαλάσει τὰ ἱστία· οὐκ ἀρεῖ σημεῖον, ἕως οὗ παραδοθῇ εἰς προνομήν· τοίνυν πολλοὶ χωλοὶ προνομὴν ποιήσουσιν. 24 καὶ οὐ μὴ εἴπῃd ὁ λαὸς ὁ ἐνοικῶν ἐν αὐτοῖς Κοπιῶe· ἀφέθη γὰρ αὐτοῖς ἡ ἁμαρτία. 206 Lord’s anger is against all the nations

(34:1–4)

34.1 Προσαγάγετε, ἔθνη, καὶ ἀκούσατε, ἄρχοντες· ἀκουσάτω ἡ γῆ καὶ οἱ ἐν αὐτῇ οἰκοῦντεςf καὶ ὁ λαὸς ὁ ἐν αὐτῇ. 2 διότι θυμὸς Κυρίου ἐπὶ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη καὶ ὀργὴ ἐπὶ τὸν ἀριθμὸν αὐτῶν τοῦ ἀπολέσαι αὐτοὺς καὶ παραδοῦναι αὐτοὺς εἰς σφαγήν. 3 οἱ δὲ τραυματίαι αὐτῶν ῥιφήσονται καὶ οἱ νεκροί, καὶ ἀναβήσεται αὐτῶν ἡ ὀσμή, καὶ βραχήσεται τὰ ὄρη ἀπὸ τοῦ αἵματος αὐτῶν. 4 καὶ ἑλιγήσεταιg ὁ οὐρανὸς ὡς βιβλίονh, καὶ πάντα τὰ ἄστρα πεσεῖται ὡς φύλλα ἐξ ἀμπέλου καὶ ὡς πίπτει φύλλα ἀπὸ συκῆς.

aδιώρυγες] SARZ; διώρυχες B bΜέγαρ] S*; μέγας ScaABRZ cἐνίσχυσεν] SARZ; ἐνίσχυσαν B dεἴπῃ] SARZ; εἴπωσιν B e Ὁ λαὸς ὁ ἐνοικῶν ἐν αὐτοῖς κοπιῶ] S; Κοπιῶ ὁ λαὸς ὁ ἐνοικῶν ἐν αὐτοῖς ARZ; Κοπιῶ ὁ λαὸς ἐνοικῶν ἐν αὐτοῖς B; f οἰκοῦντες] S*; οἰκουμένη Sca; ἡ οἰκουμένη ScbABRZ g ἑλιγήσεται] SARZ; τακήσονται πᾶσαι αἱ δυνάμεις τῶν οὐρανῶν, καὶ ἑλιγήσεται B h ὁ οὐρανὸς ὡς βιβλίον] SARZ; ὡς βιβλίον ὁ οὐρανός B

33:20–34:4

204 Jerusalem is our salvation

185 (33:20–22)

20 Look, the city of Zion is our salvation! Your eyes will see Jerusalem, a wealthy city: tents that certainly will not be shaken; and the pegs of its tent will not be moved for eternity time, and certainly its cord will not be broken. 21 Because the name of Lord is great to you, there will be a place for you, rivers and canals, broad and spacious. You will not go this way, nor will a ship go driving along. 22 For my God is Megar; he will not pass me by. 205 Lord our king will save us

(33:22–24)

Lord is our judge; Lord is our ruler; Lord is our king; This lord will save us! 23 Your cords have broken because they did not grow powerful; your mast has bent over; it will not release the sails; it will not raise a signal until it is handed over for plunder. Accordingly, many lame will make plunder. 24 And certainly the people who dwell in them will not say, “I am weary,” for the sin has been forgiven them. 206 Lord’s anger is against all the nations

(34:1–4)

34.1 Draw near, nations, and listen, rulers! Let the land hear, and those inhabiting it, and the people in it, 2 because Lord’s wrath is against all the nations, and anger against their number, to destroy them and to give them over for slaughter. 3 And their wounded and dead will be thrown away, and their odour will come up and the mountains will be drenched by their blood. 4And the sky will be rolled up like a scroll, and all the stars will fall like leaves from a vine and as leaves fall from a fig-tree.

33:20–21 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.6 33:22 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.6–8; Acts Pil. 16 33:24 Acts 10:43 34:1–3 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.7; 34:4 Matt 24:29; Mark 13:25; Luke 21:26; Heb 1:12; Rev 6:13; Tertullian Herm. 34; 2Clem 16.3; See also Sib. Or. 3.80; John Chrysostom Theod. laps. 1.12; Origen Comm. Gen. 3; Ezek. Hom. 13.2; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 15.; Hippolytus De consummatione mundi 37; Procopius Catena in Esaiam 2; Procopius Comm. Oct.; Eusebius Comm. Isa 2.7; Praep. ev. 6.11.64; 11.32.1; Epiphanius Ancoratus 99.4; Jerome Pelag. 2.24; Ambrose Exameron 1.6.21; Theodoret In. Isa.; Didymus Fr. Ps. 976; Ennarat. Ep. Cath.

186 207 Sword and land drunk with blood and fat

Text and Translation

(34:5–7)

5 Ἐμεθύσθη ἡ μάχαιρά μουa ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ· ἰδοὺ ἐπὶ τὴν Ἰδουμαίαν καταβήσεται καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν λαὸν τῆς γῆςb μετὰ κρίσεως. 6 ἡ μάχαιρα Κυρίουc ἐνεπλήσθη αἵματος, ἐπαχύνθη ἀπὸ στέατος ἀρνῶνd καὶ ἀπὸ στέατος τράγων καὶ κριῶν· ὅτι θυσία Κυρίῳe ἐν Βοσόρ, καὶ σφαγὴ μεγάλη ἐν τῇ Ἰδουμαίᾳ. 7 καὶ συμπεσοῦνται ἁδροὶf μετ’ αὐτῶν καὶ οἱ κριοὶ καὶ οἱ ταῦροι, καὶ μεθυσθήσεται ἡ γῆ ἀπὸ τοῦ αἵματος καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ στέατος αὐτῶν ἐμπλησθήσεται. 208 Creatures will occupy the land

(34:8–15)

8 ἡμέρα γὰρ κρίσεως Κυρίου καὶ ἐνιαυτὸς ἀνταποδόσεως κρίσεως Σιών. 9 καὶ στραφήσονται αὐτῆς αἱ φάραγγες εἰς πίσσαν καὶ ἡ γῆ αὐτῆς εἰς θεῖον, καὶ ἔσται αὐτῆς ἡ γῆ καιομένη ὡς πίσσαg 10 νυκτὸς καὶ ἡμέρας καὶ οὐ σβεσθήσεται εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα χρόνον, καὶ ἀναβήσεται ὁ καπνὸς αὐτῆς ἄνω· εἰς γενεὰςh ἐρημωθήσεται καὶ εἰς χρόνον πολὺνi ἐρημωθήσεταιj. 11 καὶ κατοικήσουσιν ἐν αὐτῇk ὄρνεα καὶ ἐχῖνοι καὶ ἴβεις καὶ κόρακεςl, καὶ ἐπιβληθήσεται ἐπ’ αὐτὴν σπαρτίον γεωμετρίας ἐρήμου, καὶ ὀνοκένταυροι οἰκήσουσιν ἐν αὐτῇ. 12 οἱ ἄρχοντες αὐτῆς οὐκ ἔσονται· οἱ γὰρ βασιλεῖςm καὶ οἱ ἄρχοντεςn αὐτῆς ἔσονται εἰς ἀπώλειαν. 13 καὶ ἀναφύσει εἰς τὰς πόλεις αὐτῶν ἀκάνθινα ξύλα καὶ εἰς τὰ ὀχυρώματα αὐτῆς, καὶ ἔσται ἔπαυλιςo σειρήνων καὶ αὐλὴ στρουθῶν. 14 καὶ συναντήσουσιν δαιμόνια ὀνοκενταύροις καὶ βοήσουσινp ἕτερος πρὸς τὸν ἕτερον· ἐκεῖ ἀναπαύσονται ὀνοκένταυροι, εὗρον γὰρq αὑτοῖς ἀνάπαυσιν. 15 ἐκεῖ ἐνόσσευσεν ἐχῖνος, καὶ ἔσωσεν ἡ γῆ τὰ παιδία αὐτῆς μετὰ ἀσφαλείας.

aἡ μάχαιρά μου] SARZ; om. B bγῆς] S*; ἀπωλείας ScaABRZ c Κυρίου] SARZ; τοῦ κυρίου B dἀρνῶν] SARZ; ἀπὸ αἵματος τράγων καὶ ἀμνῶν B e Κυρίῳ] SARZ; τῷ κυρίῳ B f ἁδροὶ] S*; οἱ ἁδροὶ ScaABRZ gαὐτῆς ἡ γῆ καιομένη ὡς πίσσα] SARZ; ἡ γῆ αὐτῆς ὡς πίσσα καιομένη B hγενεὰς] SARZ; +αὐτῆς B iκαὶ εἰς χρόνον πολὺν] S*B; om. Scb2A j ἐρημωθήσεται] S*Z; ερημωθησεται [και ουκ] εσται [ο] δια]π̣ ορ̣ ευο̣[μενος [δι] αυτης] Sca; om. ABRScb2 k καὶ κατοικήσουσιν ἐν αὐτῇ] SRZ; καὶ κατοικήσονται ἐν αὐτῇ A; om. B l κόρακες] SARZ; κόρακες κατοικήσουσιν ἐν αὐτῇ B mβασιλεῖς] S*B; βασιλεῖς αὐτῆς Scb2ARZ nἄρχοντες] S; μεγιστᾶνες B; ἄρχοντες αὐτῆς καὶ οἱ μεγιστᾶνες ARZ oἔπαυλις] SRZ; ἐπαύλεις Scb3AB pβοήσουσιν] SR; βοήσονται Scb2ABZ qεὗρον γὰρ] SARZ; εὑρόντες B

34:5–15

207 Sword and land drunk with blood and fat

187 (34:5–7)

5 My sword is drunk in the sky. Look, it will come down upon Idumea and upon the people of the land with justice. 6 The sword of Lord has been filled with blood; it has been glutted with the fat of lambs, and from the fat of goats and rams, because Lord has a sacrifice in Bosor and a great slaughter in Idoumaia. 7 And the well-grown will fall with them, both the rams and the bulls. And the land will be drunk from the blood, and it will be filled with their fat. 208 Creatures will occupy the land

(34:8–15)

8 For it is a day of Lord’s justice and a year of repayment of Zion’s justice. 9 And its ravines will be turned into pitch, and its land into brimstone; and its land will be burning like pitch, 10 night and day, and it will not be extinguished for eternity time, and its smoke will go up on high; it will be desolate for generations, and it will be desolate for much time. 11 And birds and hedgehogs and ibises and ravens will settle in it, and a measuring cord of a desert will be cast upon it, and donkey-centaurs will dwell in it. 12 It will have no rulers, for its kings and rulers will come to destruction. 13 And thorny trees will grow again in their cities and in its fortresses, and it will be a dwelling of Sirens and a courtyard of sparrows. 14 And divine beings will meet donkey-centaurs, and one will cry out to the other; there donkey-centaurs will rest, for they found rest for themselves. 15 There a hedgehog made a nest, and the land preserved its young with security.

34:5–6 Matt 11:5; Luke 7:22; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.7 34:7 Rev 17:6; Origen Fr. Exod. (Bährens 223); Or. 26; Hom. Exod. 13 8.3; Jerome Epist. 22.3; 125.7; Adv. Pelag. 2.25; Didymus Comm. Job 392.22; Comm. Ps. 260.24, 28; Comm. Zach. 1.79; Gregory of Nazianzus Or. 16.7; Procopius Comm. Oct.; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.7 34:8 Eusebius Comm. Isa 2.8–9; 2.23 34:9 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.8–9 34:10 Rev 14:11; 18:18; 19:3 34:11 Rev 18:2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.8; 2.9 34:12 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.8 34:13 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.8; Gregory of Nyssa Cont. Eun. 13 34:14 Matt 12:43; Rev 18:2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.8; 2.9

188 209 Lord protects the deer

Text and Translation

(34:15–17)

ἐκεῖ ἔλαφοι συνήντησανa καὶ εἶδον τὰ πρόσωπα ἀλλήλων· 16 ἀριθμῷ παρήλθωσανb, καὶ μία αὐτῶν οὐκ ἀπώλετο, ἑτέρα τὴν ἑτέραν οὐκ ἐζήτησαν· ὅτι Κύριος αὐτοῖς ἐνετείλατο πνεῦμαc αὐτοῦ συνήγαγεν αὐτάd. 17 καὶ αὐτὸς ἐπιβαλεῖ αὐτοῖς κλήρους, καὶ ἡ χεὶρ αὐτοῦ διεμέρισεν βόσκεσθαι· εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα χρόνον κληρονομήσετε γενεὰςe γενεῶν, καὶ ἀναπαύσονταιf ἐπ’ αὐτῆς. 210 Rejoice, deserted land!

(35:1–2)

35.1 Εὐφράνθητι, ἔρημος διψῶσα, ἀγαλλιάσθω ἔρημος καὶ ἀνθείτω ὡς κρίνον, 2 καὶ ἐξανθήσει καὶ ἀγαλλιάσεται τὰ ἔρημα τοῦ Ἰορδάνου· καὶ ἡ δόξαg τοῦ Λιβάνου ἐδόθη αὐτῇ, καὶ ἡ τιμὴ τοῦ καμήλουh. καὶ ὁ λαός μου ὄψεται τὴν δόξαν Κυρίου καὶ τὸ ὕψος τοῦ θεοῦ. 211 Our God will repay

(35:3–4)

3 Ἰσχύσατε, χεῖρες ἀνειμέναι καὶ γόνατα παραλελυμένα· 4 παρακαλέσατε, οἱ ὀλιγόψυχοι τῇ διανοίᾳ· ἰσχύσατε, μὴ φοβεῖσθε· ἰδοὺ ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν κρίσιν ἀνταποδίδωσιν καὶ ἀνταποδώσει, αὐτὸς ἥξει καὶ σώσει ἡμᾶς.

aἔλαφοι συνήντησαν] SARZ; συνήντησαν ἔλαφοι B bπαρήλθωσαν] S; παρῆλθον ABRZ cαὐτοῖς ἐνετείλατο πνεῦμα] S; ἐνετείλατο αὐτοῖς, καὶ τὸ πνεῦμα ARZ; αὐτοῖς ἐνετείλατο, καὶ τὸ πνεῦμα B d αὐτά] S*B; αὐτάς Scb2ARZ eγενεὰς] S*B; εἰς γενεὰς Scb3ARZ fκαὶ ἀναπαύσονται] S; ἀναπαύσονται ABRZ g καὶ ἡ δόξα] SARZ; om. καὶ B h καμήλου] S*; Καρμήλου ScaABRZ

34:16–35:4

209 Lord protects the deer

189 (34:15–17)

There deer met and saw the faces of one another. 16 They passed by in number and not one of them perished; one did not seek the other, because Lord commanded them; his spirit gathered them. 17 And he himself will cast lots for them and his hand apportioned [food] for them to be fed. You will inherit generations of generations for eternity time; and they will rest on it. 210 Rejoice, deserted land!

(35:1–2)

35.1 Rejoice, thirsty desert! Let a desert rejoice; and let it blossom like a lily. 2 And the deserted places of the Jordan will blossom and rejoice, and the glory of Lebanon and the honour of the camel has been given to it; and my people will see the glory of Lord and the exaltation of God. 211 Our God will repay

(35:3–4)

3 Be powerful, impotent hands and feeble knees! 4 Give comfort, faint-hearted in mind! Be powerful; do not be frightened! Look, our God is repaying justice, and he will repay! He himself will come and save us!

34:16 Victorinus Apoc. (CSEL 49.154); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.8 34:17 Didymus Trin. 1.18; Basil of Caesarea Contra Eunomium 5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.8–9 35:1 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.9; 2.23; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.653, 804, 805); Fr. var. (PG 24.661); Ecl. proph. 4.16; Hist. eccl. 10.4.32; 10.4.33; 10.4.47; Dem. ev. 6.21.1; 6.21.3; 9.6.1; Origen Hom. Jes. 2.4; Fr. Jes. (GCS 30.298); Justin Dial. 69.5; Philo QE I 2.76 35:2 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.9; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.805); Fr. var. (PG 24.661); Ecl. proph. 4.16; Dem. ev. 6.21.3; 6.21.5; 6.21.6; 9.6.1; 9.6.6; 9.6.9. 35:3 Heb 12:12; Pistis Sophia 65; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.9; Fr. var. (PG 24.661); Hist. eccl. 10.4.34; Dem. ev. 9.6.2; 9.13.1; 9.13.6; Lactantius Div. inst. 4.15.13; Origen Pasch. 1.31; Novatian Trinity 12.4; Cyprian Test. 2.7; Tertullian Marc. 4.24.12; Irenaeus Dem. 67 35:4 John 12:15; Ignatius Magn. 9; Irenaeus Haer. 3.20; Const. Ap. 2.40; Athanasius Inc. 38; Ambrose Ep. 63; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 12.12; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.9; Hist. eccl. 5.8.10; 10.4.32; 10.4.36; Dem. ev. 9.13.7; 9.13.10; 9.13.13; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 9.30; Marc. 4.10.1; Hymenaeus Ad Paulum Samosatum 3

190

Text and Translation

212 The redeemed will return with eternal happiness

(35:5–10)

5 τότε ἀνοιχθήσονται ὀφθαλμοὶ τυφλῶν, καὶ ὦτα κωφῶν ἀκούσονται. 6 τότε ἁλεῖται ὡς ἔλαφος χωλός, καὶ τρανὴa ἔσται γλῶσσα μογιλάλων, ὅτι ἐρράγη ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ ὕδωρ καὶ φάραγξ ἐν γῇ διψώσῃ, 7 καὶ ἡ ἄνυδρος ἔσταιb εἰς ἕλη, καὶ εἰς τὴν διψῶσαν γῆν πηγὴ ὕδατος ἔσται· ἐκεῖ εὐφροσύνη ὀρνέων, ἔπαυλις ποιμνίωνc καὶ ἕλη. 8 ἔσται ἐκεῖd ὁδὸς καθαρὰ καὶ ὁδὸς ἁγία κληθήσεται, καὶ οὐ μὴ παρέλθῃ ἐκεῖ ἀκάθαρτος, οὐδὲ ἔσται ἐκεῖ ὁδὸς ἀκάθαρτος· οἱ δὲ διεσπαρμένοι πορεύσονται ἐπ’ αὐτῆς καὶe οὐ μὴ πλανηθῶσιν. 9 καὶ οὐκ ἔσται ἐκεῖ λέων, οὐδὲ τῶν θηρίων τῶν πονηρῶνf οὐ μὴ ἀναβῇ ἐπ’g αὐτὴν οὐδὲ μὴ εὑρεθῇ ἐκεῖ, ἀλλὰ πορεύσονται ἐν αὐτῇ λελυτρωμένοι 10 καὶ συνηγμένοι διὰ Κύριον. καὶh ἀποστραφήσονται καὶ ἥξουσιν εἰς Σιὼν μετ’ εὐφροσύνης, καὶ εὐφροσύνη αἰώνιος ὑπὲρ κεφαλῆς αὐτῶν. Ἐπὶ γὰρ κεφαλῆς αὐτῶνi αἴνεσις καὶ ἀγαλλίαμα, καὶ εὐφροσύνη καταλήμψεται αὐτούς, ἀπέδρα ὀδύνη καὶ λύπη καὶ στεναγμός. 213 Assyria attacks Jerusalem

(36:1–2)

36.1 Καὶ ἐγένετο τοῦ τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτου ἔτους βασιλεύοντος Ἑζεκίου ἀνέβη Σενναχηρεὶμj βασιλεὺς Ἀσσυρίων ἐπὶ τὰς πόλεις τῆς Ἰδουμαίαςk τὰς ὀχυρὰς καὶ ἔλαβεν αὐτάς. 2 καὶ ἀπέστειλεν βασιλεὺς Ἀσσυρίων Ῥαψάκηνl ἐκ Λαχεὶς εἰς Ἰερουσαλὴμ

aκαὶ τρανὴ] SARZ; τρανὴ δὲ B bἡ ἄνυδρος ἔσται] SARZ; ἔσται ἡ ἄνυδρος B cἔπαυλις ποιμνίων] S*; ἐπαύλεις ποιμνίων Scb3; ἐπαύλεις καλάμου AB; ἔπαυλις καλάμου RZ dἔσται ἐκεῖ] SB; ἐκεῖ ἔσται ARZ eαὐτῆς καὶ] SARZ; om. καὶ B fτῶν θηρίων τῶν πονηρῶν] SARZ; τῶν πονηρῶν θηρίων B gἐπ’] SARZ; εἰς B hκαὶ] SB; om. Scb2ARZ i Ἐπὶ γὰρ κεφαλῆς αὐτῶν] SARZ; om. B j Σενναχηρεὶμ] SAB; Σενναχηρὶμ RZ kἸδουμαίας] S; Ἰουδαίας ABRZ lῬαψάκην] SARZ; Ῥαβσάκην B

35:5–36:2

212 The redeemed will return with eternal happiness

191 (35:5–10)

5 Then the eyes of the blind will be opened and the ears of the deaf will hear. 6 Then the lame person will leap like a deer and a mute person’s tongue will be clear, because water has broken forth in the desert, and a ravine in a thirsting land. 7 And the waterless place will turn into marshes, and there will be a spring of water in the thirsty land; there it will be the pleasure of birds, a dwelling of shepherds, and marshes. 8 A pure path will be there, and it will be called a holy path, and certainly no impure person will go by there, nor will there be any impure path there, but those scattered abroad will walk on it and certainly they will not be deceived. 9 And there will be no lion there, and certainly none of the evil beasts will come up on it or be found there, but rather the redeemed will walk on it, 10 and those gathered because of Lord. And they will return, and will come into Zion with happiness; and eternal happiness will be over their head. For praise and rejoicing will be upon their head, and happiness will overtake them; pangs and sorrow and groaning fled away. 213 Assyria attacks Jerusalem

(36:1–2)

36.1 And it was in the fourteenth year when Hezekiah was reigning: Sennachereim, king of Assyrians, went up against the secure cities of Idoumaia and took them. 2 And the king of the Assyrians sent Rapsakes from Lacheis to Jerusalem,

35:5 Eusebius Dem. ev. 6.21.2; 6.21.7; 9.13.4; 9.13.10; 9.13.13; Comm. Isa. 2.9; Comm. Ps. (Pitra 3.503); Lactantius Ep. 40.2; Div. Inst. 4.15.7; 4.15.11; 4.15.23; 4.26.4; 4.26.6; 7.27.13; Origen Cels. 2.48; Fr. Jo. (GCS 10.536); Novatian Trinity 9.6; Tertullian Res. 20.6; Marc. 4.24.12; Adv. Jud. 9.30; Justin Dial. 69.3; Res. (TU 20.40); 1 Apol. 54.10. 35:6 Matt 11:5; Mark 7:37; Luke 7:22; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 12.12; 17.21; Athanasius Inc. 38.3; Eusebius Dem. ev. 6.21.2; 6.21.7; 9.6.2; 9.13.1; 9.13.4; Comm. Isa. 1.97; 2.9; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.653; Pitra 3.503); Fr. Var. (PG 24.661); Ecl. proph. 4.16; Hist. eccl. 10.4.32; 10.4.34; Lactantius Div. Inst. 4.15.7; 4.15.11; 4.15.13; 4.15.23; 4.26.7; 7.27.13; Epit. 40.2; Cyprian Test. 2.7; Origen Comm. Matt. 11.18; Cels. 2.48; Novatian Trinity 9.6; 12.4; Tertullian Res. 20.6; Marc. 4.24.12; Adv. Jud. 9.30; Hymenaeus Ad Paulus Samosatenum 3; Irenaeus Dem. 67; Justin 1 Apol. 54.10 35:7 Eusebius Dem. ev. 6.21.1; Hist. eccl. 10.4.32; 10.4.34; Ecl. proph. 4.16; Comm. Isa. 2.9; Justin Dial. 69.5 35:8 Rev 21:27; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.9; Tertullian Marc. 4.24.11 35:9 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.9; Tertullian Marc. 4.24.11 35:10 Rev 21:4 36:1 Eusebius Chron. (GCS 20.13); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.10, 15 36:2 Eusebius Comm. Isa 2.10, 15; Onoma. (GCS 11.120)

192

Text and Translation

πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα Ἑζεκίαν μετὰ δυνάμεως πολλῆς, καὶ ἔστη ἐν τῷ ὑδραγωγῷ τῆς κολυμβήθρας τῆς ἄνω ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ τοῦ ἀγροῦ τοῦ γναφέως. 214 An embassy meets Rapsakes

(36:3)

3 καὶ ἐξῆλθεν πρὸς αὐτὸν Ἐλιακεὶμ ὁ τοῦ Χελκίουa ὁ οἰκονόμος καὶ Σόμναςb ὁ γραμματεὺς καὶ Ἰὼχc ὁ τοῦ Ἀσὰφ ὁ ὑπομνηματογράφος. 215 Rapsakes denigrates Egypt’s help

(36:4–6)

4 Καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Ῥαψάκης Εἴπατε Ἑζεκίᾳ Τάδε λέγει ὁ βασιλεὺς ὁ μέγας βασιλεὺς Ἀσσυρίων Τί πεποιθὼς εἶ; 5 μὴ ἐν βουλῇ ἢd λόγοις χειλέων παράταξις γίνεται; καὶ νῦν ἐπὶ τίνιe πέποιθας ὅτι ἀπειθεῖς μοι; 6 ἰδοὺ πεποιθὼς εἶ ἐπὶ τὴν ῥάβδον τὴν καλαμίνην τὴν τεθλασμένην ταύτην, ἐπ’ Αἴγυπτον· ὃς ἂν ἐπ’ αὐτὴν ἐπιστηριχθῇf, εἰσελεύσεται εἰς τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦ· οὕτως ἐστὶν Φαραὼ βασιλεὺς Αἰγύπτου καὶ πάντες οἱ πεποιθότες ἐπ’ αὐτῷ. 216 Rapsakes denigrates Lord

(36:7–9)

7 εἰ δὲ λέγετε Ἐπὶ Κύριον τὸν θεὸν ἡμῶν πεποίθαμεν, 8 νῦν μίχθητε τῷ κυρίῳ μου τῷ βασιλεῖ Ἀσσυρίων, καὶ δώσω ἡμῖνg δισχιλίαν ἵππον, εἰ δυνήσεσθε δοῦναι ἀναβάτας ἐπ’ αὐτούς. 9 καὶ πῶς δύνασθε ἀποστρέψαι εἰς πρόσωπον τῶν τοπαρχῶνh; 217 Rapsakes claims Lord’s commission

(36:9–11)

οἰκέται εἰσὶν οἱ πεποιθότες ἐπ’ Αἴγυπτονi εἰς ἵππον καὶ ἀναβάτην. 10 καὶ νῦν μὴ ἄνευ Κυρίου ἀνέβημεν ἐπὶ τὴν χώραν ταύτην πολεμῆσαι αὐτήν; Κύριος εἶπεν πρὸς με Ἀνάβηθι καὶ κατάφθειρον τὴν γῆν ταύτηνj. 11 καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτὸν Ἐλιακεὶμ ὅτι ὁ οἰκονόμοςk καὶ Σόμνας ὁ γραμματεύςl Λάλησον πρὸς τοὺς παῖδάς σου Συριστί, ἀκούομεν γὰρ ἡμεῖς, καὶ μὴ λάλει πρὸς ἡμᾶς Ἰουδαιστί· καὶ ἵνα τί λαλεῖς εἰς τὰ ὦτα τῶν ἀνθρώπωνm τῶν ἐπὶn τῷ τείχει;

aΧελκίου] SARZ; Χελκείου B b Σόμνας] SARZ; Σόβνας B c Ἰὼχ] S*; Ἰωὰχ ScaABRZ d ἢ] SARZ; καὶ B e τίνι] SARZ; τίνα B f ἐπ’ αὐτὴν ἐπιστηριχθῇ] S; ἐπιστηριχθῇ ἐπ’ αὐτήν A; ἐπιστηρισθῇ ἐπ’ αὐτήν B; ἐπ’ αὐτὴν ἐπιστηρισθῇ RZ g ἡμῖν] S*; ὑμῖν ScaABRZ h τῶν τοπαρχῶν] S*B; τοπάρχου Scb1; τοπάρχου ἑνός Scb2ARZ i Αἴγυπτον] SB Αἰγυπτίοις ARZ j Κύριος εἶπεν πρὸς με Ἀνάβηθι καὶ κατάφθειρον τὴν γῆν ταύτην] S; om. ARZ; Κύριος εἶπεν πρὸς μέ Ἀνάβηθι ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν ταύτην καὶ διάφθειρον αὐτήν B k ὅτι ὁ οἰκονόμος] S*; ὁ τοῦ Χελκιου ὁ οἰκονόμος SB; om. Scb2ABRZ lὁ γραμματεύς] S; καὶ Ἰώας B; καὶ Ιωαχ ARZ mἀνθρώπων] SBRZ; ἀνδρῶν τῶν καθημένων A nτῶν ἐπὶ] SRZ; om. τῶν AB

36:3–11

193

to Hezekiah the king, with great force. And he stood at the aqueduct of the upper reservoir, at the way of the field of the fuller. 214 An embassy meets Rapsakes

(36:3)

3 And Eliakim the son of Chelkias the manager, and Somnas the secretary, and Ioch the son of Asaph the recorder went out to him. 215 Rapsakes denigrates Egypt’s help

(36:4–6)

4 And Rapsakes said to them, “Tell Hezekiah, ‘Thus says the king, the great king of the Assyrians: “Why are you confident? 5 Does marshalling happen by counsel or words of lips? And now whom do you trust, that you resist me? 6 Look, you trust this crushed reed rod, Egypt! Whoever leans on it, it will penetrate his hand! So is Pharaoh, king of Egypt, and all those who trust him.” ’ 216 Rapsakes denigrates Lord

(36:7–9)

7 And if you say, ‘We trust Lord our God,’ 8 now meet my lord the king of Assyrians, and I will give us two thousand cavalry, if you can provide riders for them! 9 And how can you turn back in the face of the governors? 217 Rapsakes claims Lord’s commission

(36:9–11)

Those who trust Egypt for horse and rider are household slaves. 10 And was it without Lord that we came up against this territory to make war against it? Lord told me, ‘Go up and destroy this land!’” 11 And Eliakim said to him (because he was the manager and Somnas was the secretary), “Speak to your servants in Syrian, for we understand it, and do not speak to us in Judean. And why do you speak to the ears of the humans on the wall?”

36:3 Eusebius Comm. Isa 1.82; 2.10 36:4–5 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.10 36:6 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.10; Origen Comm. Matt 125 (GCS 41.262); Fr. Matt. 550 (GCS 41.224) 36:7 Matt 27:43; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.10; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 5.135.1 36:8 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.10; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 5.135.1 36:9 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.10 36:10 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.10; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 5.135.1 36:11 Justin Dial. 83; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 5.14

194 218 Rapsakes refuses to speak Aramaic

Text and Translation

(36:12)

12 Καὶ εἶπεν Ῥαψάκης πρὸς αὐτούς Μὴ πρὸς τὸν κύριον ὑμῶν ἢ πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἀπέσταλκέν με ὁ κύριός μου λαλῆσαι τοὺς λόγους τούτους; οὐχὶ πρὸς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τοὺς καθημένους ἐπὶ τῷ τείχει, ἵνα φάγωσιν κόπρον καὶ πίωσιν οὐρὰνa μεθ’ ὑμῶν ἅμα; 219 Rapsakes addresses the people in Hebrew

(36:13–16)

13 Καὶ ἔστη Ῥαψάκης καὶ ἐβόησενb φωνῇ μεγάλῃ Ἰουδαιστὶ Ἀκούσατε τοὺς λόγους τοὺςc βασιλέως Ἀσσυρίων τοῦ μεγάλουd 14 Τάδε λέγει ὁ βασιλεύς Μὴ ἀπατάτω ὑμᾶς Ἑζεκίας λόγοις, οἳ οὐ δυνήσονταιe ῥύσασθαι ὑμᾶς· 15 καὶ μὴ λεγέτω ὑμῖν Ἑζεκίας ὅτι Ῥύσεται ὑμᾶς ὁ θεός, καὶ οὐ μὴ παραδοθῇ ἡ πόλις αὕτη ἐν χειρὶ βασιλέως Ἀσσυρίων· 16 μὴ ἀκούετε Ἑζεκίου. 220 Rapsakes calls the people to surrender

(36:16–17)

ὅτιf τάδε λέγει ὁ βασιλεὺς Ἀσσυρίων Εἰg βούλεσθε εὐλογηθῆναι, ἐκπορεύεσθε πρός με καὶ φάγεσθε ἕκαστος τὴν ἄμπελον αὐτοῦ καὶ τὰς συκᾶς καὶ πίεσθε ὕδωρ τοῦ λάκκουh ὑμῶν, 17 ἕως ἂν ἔλθω καὶ λάβω ὑμᾶς εἰς γῆν ὡς ἡ γῆ ὑμῶν, γῆ σίτου καὶ οἴνου καὶ ἄρτων καὶ ἀμπελώνων. 221 Rapsakes points to past victories

(36:18–21)

18 μὴ ὑμᾶς ἀπατάτωi Ἑζεκίας λέγων Ὁ θεὸς ὑμᾶς ῥύσεταιj. μὴ ἐρρύσαντο οἱ θεοὶ τῶν ἐθνῶν ἕκαστος τὴν ἑαυτοῦ χώραν ἐκ χειρὸς βασιλέως Ἀσσυρίων; 19 ποῦ ἐστιν ὁ θεὸς Ἀμὰρk καὶ Ἀρφάθ; ποῦ ἐστινl ὁ θεὸς τῆς πόλεως Σεπφαρίνm; μὴ ἐδύναντο ῥύσασθαι Σαμάρειαν ἐκ χειρός μου; 20 τίς τῶν θεῶν τῶν ἐθνῶνn τούτων ἐρρύσατοo τὴν γῆν αὐτοῦ ἐκ τῆςp χειρός μου, ὅτι σεq ῥύσεται ὁ θεὸς Ἰερουσαλὴμ ἐκ χειρός μου; 21 καὶ ἐσιώπησαν, καὶ οὐδεὶς ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ λόγον διὰ τὸ προστάξαι τὸν βασιλέα μηδένr ἀποκριθῆναι.

aοὐρὰν] S*; οὖρον ScaABRZ b ἐβόησεν] SARZ; ἀνεβόησεν B c τοὺς] S; τοῦ ABRZ d Ἀσσυρίων τοῦ μεγάλου] S*; Ἀσσυρίων βασιλέως τοῦ μεγάλου Sca; τοῦ μεγάλου βασιλέως Ἀσσυρίων Scb2ABRZ eοἳ οὐ δυνήσονται] SRZ; οἱ οὐ μὴ δυνήσονται A; οὐ μὴ δύνηται B fὅτι] S; om. ABRZ gΕἰ Scb3ABRZ; Ἧι S* hλάκκου] SARZ; χαλκοῦ B iὑμᾶς ἀπατάτω] SARZ; ἀπατάτω ὑμᾶς B jὑμᾶς ῥύσεται] S* 902; ὑμῶν ῥύσεται ὑμᾶς Scb2ARZ; ῥύσεται ὑμᾶς B k Ἀμὰρ] S*; Αἱμὰρ A; Αιμαθ SdRZ; Ἑμὰθ B l ποῦ ἐστιν] S*; καὶ A; καὶ ποῦ Scb2BRZ mΣεπφαρίν] S; Σεπφαρείμ A; Ἐπφαρουαίμ B; Σεπφαριμ RZ nτῶν ἐθνῶν] S; πάντων τῶν ἐθνῶν ABRZ oἐρρύσατο] SARZ; ὅστις ἐρρύσατο B pτῆς] SARZ; om. B q σε] S*; om. ScaABRZ r μηδέν] S*; μηδένα SBABRZ

36:12–21

218 Rapsakes refuses to speak Aramaic

195 (36:12)

12 And Rapsakes said to them, “Was it to your lord or to you that my lord sent me to speak these words? Was it not to the humans sitting on the wall, that they might eat dung and drink a tail together with you?” 219 Rapsakes addresses the people in Hebrew

(36:13–16)

13 And Rapsakes stood and cried out with a great voice in Judean: “Hear the words, those of the great king of the Assyrians. 14 Thus says the king: ‘Do not let Hezekiah trick you with words that cannot rescue you. 15 And do not let Hezekiah tell you, God will rescue you, and certainly this city will not be handed over into the hand of the Assyrians’ king. 16 Do not listen to Hezekiah!’ 220 Rapsakes calls the people to surrender

(36:16–17)

Because thus says the king of the Assyrians: ‘If you want to be blessed, walk out to me and each of you will eat from his own vine and fig tree and drink water from your own well, 17 until I come and take you to a land like your own land, a land of grain and wine and loaves and vineyards. 221 Rapsakes points to past victories

(36:18–21)

18 Do not let Hezekiah trick you, saying, “God will rescue you.” Have any of the gods of the nations rescued his own territory from the hand of Assyrians’ king? 19 Where is the god of Amar and Arphath? Where is the god of the city of Seppharin? Were they able to rescue Samareia from my hand? 20 Which of the gods of these nations has rescued his land from my hand, that the god of Jerusalem will rescue you from my hand?’” 21 And they kept silent, and no one answered a word to him, because the king had commanded that no one answer.

36:12 Eusebius Comm. Isa 2.10; Chrysostom Homily 37 36:13 Origen Comm. Matt. 47 36:18 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.10; Onoma. (GCS 11.38). 36:19 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.10; Onoma. (GCS 11.38, 160) 36:20 Matt 27:43; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.10; Origen Comm. Matt. 47 36:21 Eusebius Comm. Isa 2.10; Onoma. (GCS 11.38, 160); Origen Comm. Matt 47

196 222 The embassy reports back to Hezekiah

Text and Translation

(36:22)

22 Καὶ εἰσῆλθεν Ἐλιακεὶμ ὁ τοῦ Χελκίου ὁ οἰκονόμος καὶ Σόμνας ὁ γραμματεὺς τῆς δυνάμεως καὶ Ἰωὰχ ὁ τοῦ Ἀσὰφ ὁ ὑπομνηματογράφος πρὸς Ἑζεκίαν ἐσχισμένοι τοὺς χιτῶνας καὶ ἀνήγγειλανa αὐτῷ τοὺς λόγους Ῥαψάκου. 223 Hezekiah reacts to the embassy’s report

(37:1–2)

37.1 Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ ἀκοῦσαι τὸν βασιλέα Ἑζεκίαν ἔσχισεν τὰ ἱμάτια καὶ σάκκον περιεβάλετοb καὶ ἀνέβη εἰς τὸν οἶκον Κυρίου. 2 καὶ ἀπέστειλεν Ἐλιακὶμ τὸν οἰκονόμον καὶ Σόμναν τὸν γραμματέα καὶ τοὺς πρεσβυτέρους τῶν ἱερέων περιβεβλημένους σάκκους πρὸς Ἠσαίαν υἱὸν Ἀμὼς τὸν προφήτην, 224 The embassy consults Isaiah

(37:3–4)

3 καὶ εἶπαν αὐτῷ Τάδε λέγει Ἑζεκίας Ἡμέρα θλίψεως καὶ ὀνειδισμοῦ καὶ ἐλεγμοῦ καὶ ὀργῆς ἡ σήμερον ἡμέρα, ὅτι ἥκει ὠδὶνc τῇ τικτούσῃ, ἰσχὺν δὲ οὐκ ἔχει τοῦ τεκεῖν. 4 εἰσακούσαι Κύριος ὁ θεός σουd τοὺς λόγους Ῥαψάκουe, οὓς ἀπέστειλεν βασιλεὺς Ἀσσυρίων ὀνειδίζειν θεὸν ζῶντα καὶ ὀνειδίζειν λόγους, οὓς ἤκουσεν Κύριος ὁ θεός σου· καὶ δεηθήσῃ πρὸς Κύριον τὸν θεόν σουf περὶ τῶν καταλελιμμένων τούτων. 225 Isaiah’s reply

(37:5–7)

5 Καὶ ἦλθον οἱ παῖδες τοῦ βασιλέως Ἑζεκίουg πρὸς Ἠσαίαν. 6 Καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Ἠσαίας υἱὸς Ἀμώςh Οὕτως ἐρεῖτε πρὸς τὸν κύριον ὑμῶν Τάδε λέγει Κύριος Μὴ φοβηθῇς ἀπὸ τῶν λόγων, ὧν ἤκουσας, ὧνi ὠνείδισάν με οἱ πρέσβεις βασιλέως Ἀσσυρίων. 7 Ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ ἐμβάλλω εἰς αὐτὸν πνεῦμα, καὶ ἀκούσας ἀγγελίαν ἀποστραφήσεται εἰς τὴν χώραν αὐτοῦ καὶ πεσεῖται μαχαίρᾳ ἐν τῇ γῇ αὐτοῦ.

aἀνήγγειλαν] SBZ; ἀπήγγειλαν AR bσάκκον περιεβάλετο] SARZ; περιεβάλετο σάκκον B c ὠδὶν] S; ἡ ὠδὶν ABRZ dσου] SBRZ; om. A 902 eῬαψάκου] SARZ; Ῥαβσάκου B fκαὶ δεηθήσῃ πρὸς Κύριον τὸν θεόν σου] SBRZ; om. Scb2A g Ἑζεκίου] SB; om. ARZ h υἱὸς Ἀμώς] S*; om. Scb2ABRZ iὧν] S*; οὓς Scb2ABRZ

36:22–37:7

222 The embassy reports back to Hezekiah

197 (36:22)

22 And Eliakeim son of Chelkias the manager, and Somnas the secretary of the army, and Ioach son of Asaph the recorder came in to Hezekiah, tearing their shirts, and they reported to him the words of Rapsakes. 223 Hezekiah reacts to the embassy’s report

(37:1–2)

37.1 And it was: when king Hezekiah heard it, he tore his clothes and put on sackcloth and went up to the house of Lord. 2 And he sent Eliakim the manager and Somnas the secretary and the elders of the priests, wearing sackcloth, to Isaiah son of Amos the prophet. 224 The embassy consults Isaiah

(37:3–4)

3 And they said to him, “Thus says Ezekias, ‘Today is a day of oppression and reproach and reproving and anger, because pangs have come to the one in labour, but she does not have the strength to give birth! 4 May Lord your god hear the words of Rapsakes, which the king of the Assyrians sent to reproach a living God and to reproach with words that Lord your god heard, and you shall pray to Lord your god about these that are left.’” 225 Isaiah’s reply

(37:5–7)

5 And the servants of the king came to Isaiah. 6 And Isaiah son of Amos said to them, “Thus you shall say to your lord: ‘Thus says Lord: “Do not be frightened by the words that you heard, with which the ambassadors of Assyrians’ king reproached me. 7 Look, I am casting a spirit into him, and when he hears a message he will return to his territory and he will fall by the sword in his own land.” ’ ”

36:22 Eusebius Comm. Isa 2.11 37:1 Eusebius Comm. Isa 2.11–12 37:2 Rev 11:3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.12 37:3 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.11; Origen Hom. Exod. 10.3 37:4 Justin Dial. 83; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.11; Origen Hom. Exod. 10.3; Fr. Ps. (PG 12.1417); Hippolytus Comm. Dan. 3.4.8 37:6 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.11 37:7 Eusebius Comm. Isa 2.11; Hippolytus Comm. Dan 3.4.8

198 226 Rapsakes returns

Text and Translation

(37:8)

8 Καὶ ἀπέστρεψεν Ῥαψάκηςa καὶ κατέλαβεν πολιορκοῦντα τὸν βασιλέαb Λόμνανc. 227 Rapsakes sends another warning to Hezekiah

(37:8–13)

καὶ ἤκουσεν βασιλεὺς Ἀσσυρίων 9 ὅτι ἐξῆλθενd Θαράθαe βασιλεὺς Αἰθιόπων πολιορκῆσαι αὐτόν· καὶ ἀκούσας ἀπέστρεψεν καὶ ἀπέστειλεν ἀγγέλους πρὸς Ἑζεκίαν λέγων 10 Οὕτως ἐρεῖτε Ἑζεκία βασιλεῖ τῆς Ἰουδαίας Μή σε ἀπατάτω ὁ θεός σου, ἐφ’ ᾧ πεποιθὼςf ᾖςg ἐπ’ αὐτῷ λέγων Οὐ μὴ παραδοθῇ Ἰερουσαλὴμ εἰς χεῖραςh βασιλέωνi. 11 ἢj οὐκ ἤκουσας ἃ ἐποίησαν βασιλεῖς Ἀσσυρίων πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν ὡς ἀπώλεσανk; 12 καὶ μὴ ἐρρύσαντο αὐτοὺς οἱ θεοὶ τῶν ἐθνῶν, οὓς οἱ πατέρες μου ἀπώλεσανl, τήν τε Γωζὰν καὶ Χαρὰν καὶ Ῥάφεςm, αἵ εἰσιν ἐν χώρᾳ Θεμάn; 13 ποῦ εἰσιν οἱ βασιλεῖς Ἀμὰρo καὶ Ἀρφὰθp καὶ πόλεως Ἐμφαρίνq, Ἀνάγ, Οὐγαυά; 228 Hezekiah prays for salvation

(37:14–20)

14 Καὶ ἔλαβεν Ἑζεκίας τὸ βιβλίον παρὰ τῶν ἀγγέλων καὶ ἀνεγνοι αὐτὸ καὶ ἀνέβη εἰς οἶκον Κυρίουr καὶ ἤνοιξεν αὐτὸ ἐναντίον Κυρίου, 15 καὶ προσηύξατοs Ἑζεκίας πρὸς τὸνt Κύριον λέγων 16 Κύριεu Σαβαώθ, θεὸςv Ἰσραήλ, ὁ καθήμενος ἐπὶ τῶν χερουβείνw, σὺ θεὸς μόνος εἶx πάσης βασιλείας τῆς οἰκουμένης, σὺ ἐποίησας τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν γῆν. 17 εἰσάκουσονy, Κύριε, εἴσβλεψονz, Κύριε, καὶ ἰδὲ τοὺς λόγους, οὓς ἀπέστειλεν Σενναχηρεὶμaa ὀνειδίζειν θεὸν ζῶντα. 18 ἐπ’ ἀληθείας γὰρ ἠρήμωσαν βασιλεῖς Ἀσσυρίων τὴν οἰκουμένην ὅλην καὶ τὴν χώραν αὐτῶν 19 καὶ ἐνέβαλον τὰ εἴδωλα αὐτῶν εἰς τὸ πῦρ, οὐ γὰρ θεοὶ ἦσαν ἀλλὰ ἔργα χειρῶν ἀνθρώπων, ξύλα καὶ λίθοι, καὶ ἀπώλεσανbb αὐτούς.

aῬαψάκης] SARZ; Ῥαβσάκης B b πολιορκοῦντα τὸν βασιλέα] SARZ; τὸν βασιλέα Ἀσσυρίων πολιορκοῦντα B c Λόμναν] SR; Λόβνα A; Λόβναν B; Λομνα Z d ἐξῆλθεν] SARZ; καὶ ἐξῆλθεν B e Θαράθα] SA; Θαράκα BRZ f πεποιθὼς] SARZ; πέποιθας B g ᾖς] S; εἶ ARZ; om. B hεἰς χεῖρας] SARZ; ἐν χειρὶ B iβασιλέων] S; βασιλέως Ἀσσυρίων ABRZ jἢ] SARZ; σὺ B kἀπώλεσαν] SARZ; ἀπώλεσαν, καὶ σὺ ῥυσθήσῃ B lοἱ πατέρες μου ἀπώλεσαν] SARZ; ἀπώλεσαν οἱ πατέρες μου B mῬάφες] SRZ; Ῥάφεις A; Ῥάφεθ B n Θεμά] S; Θαιμάδ A; Θεεμάθ B; Θεμαδ R; Θελσαδ Z o Ἀμὰρ] SA; Ἑμὰθ BZ; Αιμαθ R pἈρφὰθ] SABR; Αρφαδ Z qἘμφαρίν] S; Σεπφαρείμ A; Ἐπφαρουαίμ B; Σεπφαριμ RZ r καὶ ἀνεγνοι αὐτὸ καὶ ἀνέβη εἰς οἴκον Κυρίου] S; καὶ ἀνέγνω αὐτό, καὶ ἀνέβη εἰς οἶκον Κυρίου B; om. ARZ s προσηύξατο] SAZ; προσεύξατο BR. t τὸν] S; om. ABRZ u Κύριε] SARZ; Κύριος B vθεὸς] S; ὁ θεὸς ABRZ w χερουβείν] SB; Χερουβείμ A; Χερουβιν RZ x θεὸς μόνος εἶ] SARZ; εἶ ὁ θεὸς μόνος B y εἰσάκουσον] SARZ; κλῖνον, Κύριε, τὸ οὖς σου, εἰσάκουσον B z εἴσβλεψον] SARZ; ἄνοιξον, Κύριε, τοὺς ὀφθαλμούς σου, εἴσβλεψον B aa οὓς ἀπέστειλεν Σενναχηρεὶμ] SARZ; Σενναχηρεὶμ, οὓς ἀπέστειλεν B bb ἀπώλεσαν] SARZ; ἀπώσαντο B

37:8–19

226 Rapsakes returns

199 (37:8)

8 And Rapsakes returned and overtook the king beseiging Lomna. 227 Rapsakes sends another warning to Hezekiah

(37:8–13)

And the king of the Assyrians heard that 9 Tharatha, the king of the Ethiopians had gone out to besiege him. And when he heard this, he returned and sent messengers to Hezekiah, saying, 10 “Thus you shall say to Hezekiah, king of Judea: ‘Do not let your god, in whom you might be trusting, trick you, saying, “Certainly Jerusalem will not be handed over into the hands of kings.” 11 Or did you not hear the things that the king of the Assyrians did, how they destroyed all the land? 12 And did the gods of the nations rescue them that my fathers destroyed: Goza and Charan and Rhaphes, which are in the territory of Thema? 13 Where are the kings of Amar and Arphath and the city of Empharin, Anag, Ougaua?’” 228 Hezekiah prays for salvation

(37:14–20)

14 And Hezekiah received the document from the messengers and read it and went up into the house of Lord and opened it before Lord. 15 And Hezekiah prayed to Lord, saying, 16 “O Lord Sabaoth, God of Israel, seated on the cherubein, you alone are god of every kingdom of the inhabited world; you made the sky and the land. 17 Listen, Lord, look, Lord, and see the words that Sennachereim sent to reproach a living god. 18 For in truth the kings of the Assyrians have desolated the whole inhabited world and their territory, 19 and has thrown their idols into the fire, for they were not gods but rather works of people’s hands, wood and stones,

37:8 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.12; Eusebius Onoma. (GCS 11.120) 37:9 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.12 37:10 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.12; Origen Comm. Matt. 47 37:11 Eusebius Onom. (GCS 11.38) 37:12 Eusebius Onom. (GCS 11.74, 146, 174) 37:13 Eusebius Comm. Isa 2.12; Onom. (GCS 11.38, 74); Origen Comm. Matt. 47 37:14 Tertullian Marc. 5.9.7 37:16 Acts 4:24; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.12 37:19 Gal 4:8

200

Text and Translation

20 σὺa δέ, Κύριε ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν, σῶσον ἡμᾶς ἐκ χειρὸς αὐτοῦb, ἵνα γνῷ πᾶσα βασιλεία τῆν γῆνc ὅτι σοιd, θεὸς μόνος. 229 Isaiah confirms Hezekiah’s prayer

(37:21)

21 Καὶ ἀπεστάλη Ἠσαίας υἱὸς Ἀμὼς πρὸς Ἑζεκίαν καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Τάδε λέγει Κύριος ὁ θεὸς Ἰσραήλ Ἤκουσα ἃ προσηύξω πρός με περὶ Σενναχηρὶμ βασιλέως Ἀσσυρίων. 230 God’s word about Sennacherib

(37:22–25)

22 Οὗτος ὁ λόγος, ὃν ἐλάλησεν περὶ αὐτοῦ ὁ θεός Ἐφαύλισέν σε καὶ ἐμυκτήρισέν σε παρθένος θυγάτηρ Σιών, ἐπὶ σοὶ κεφαλὴν ἐκίνησεν θυγάτηρ Ἰερουσαλήμ. 23 τίνα ὠνείδισας καὶ παρώξυνας; ἢ πρὸς τίνα ὕψωσας τὴν φωνήν σου; καὶ οὐκ ἦρας εἰς ὕψος τοὺς ὀφθαλμούς σου εἰςe τὸν ἅγιον τοῦ Ἰσραήλ. 24 ὅτι δι’ ἀγγέλων ὠνείδισας Κύριον· σὺ γὰρ εἶπας Τῷ πλήθει τῶν ἁρμάτων ἐγὼ ἀνέβην εἰς ὕψος τῶνf ὀρέων καὶ εἰς τὰ ἔσχατα τοῦ Λιβάνου καὶ ἔκοψα τὸ ὕψος τῆς κέδρου αὐτοῦ καὶ τὸ κάλλος τῆς κυπαρίσσου καὶ εἰσῆλθον εἰς ὕψος μέρους τοῦ δρυμοῦ 25 καὶ ἔθηκα γέφυραν καὶ ἠρήμωσα ὕδατα καὶ πᾶσαν συναγωγὴν ὕδατος. 231 God has brought down mighty nations

(37:26–27)

26 οὐ ταῦτα ἤκουσαg πάλαι, ἃ ἐγὼ ἐποίησα; ἐξ ἀρχαίων ἡμερῶνh συνέταξα γὰρi νῦν δὲ ἐπέδειξα ἐξερημῶσαj ἔθνη ἐν ὀχυροῖς καὶ ἐνοικοῦνταςk ἐν πόλεσιν ὀχυραῖς· 27 ἀνῆκα τὰς χεῖρας, καὶ ἐξηράνθησαν καὶ ἐγένοντο ὡς χόρτος ξηρὸς ἐπὶ δωμάτων καὶ ὡς ἄγρωστις.

aσὺ] SARZ; νῦν B b αὐτοῦ] SB; αὐτῶν ARZ c τῆν γῆν] S; τῆς γῆς ABRZ d σοι] S; σὺ εἶ A; σὺ εἶ ὁ BRZ e εἰς] SARZ; πρὸς B f τῶν] S; om. ABRZ g ἤκουσα] SB; ἤκουσας ARZ h ἀρχαίων ἡμερῶν] SARZ; ἡμερῶν ἀρχαίων B iγὰρ] S; om. ABRZ jἐξερημῶσα] S; ἐξερημῶσαι ABRZ kἐνοικοῦντας] SARZ; οἰκοῦντας B

37:20–27

201

and they destroyed them. 20 But you, Lord, our god, save us from his hand, so that every kingdom might know the land, because it is yours, only God.” 229 Isaiah confirms Hezekiah’s prayer

(37:21)

21 And Isaiah son of Amos was sent to Hezekiah, and he said to him, “Thus says Lord, the god of Israel: ‘I heard the things that you prayed to me concerning Sennacherim the king of the Assyrians.’” 230 God’s word about Sennacherib

(37:22–25)

22 This is the word that God spoke concerning him: “Virgin daughter Zion has disparaged you and mocked you; daughter Jerusalem has shaken her head at you. 23 Whom did you reproach and provoke? Or against whom did you raise your voice? And you did not lift your eyes to the height, to the holy one of Israel! 24 Because you reproached Lord through messengers, for you said, ‘I went up to the top of the mountains and to the furthest parts of Lebanon by the great number of the chariots, and I cut the top of its cedar and the beauty of the cypress, and I entered into the height of part of the forest, 25 and I put up a bridge and I desolated waters and every gathering of water.’ 231 God has brought down mighty nations

(37:26–27)

26 Did I not hear these things long ago, things that I did? I appointed them from ancient days, but now I have revealed them, I have desolated nations that are in secure places and that dwell in secure cities. 27 I have enfeebled their hands and they have withered, and they have become like dry grass on top of houses, and like wild grass.

37:20 John 5:44; Jos. Asen. 8.9; Tertullian Marc. 5.9.7; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.12; Novatian Trinity 30.12 37:21 Origen Fr. Lam (GCS 6.243); Eusebius Comm. Isa 2.13 37:22 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.13; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.625); Origen Fr. Lam. (GCS 6.243); Jerome Adv. Jov. 1.32. 37:23 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.13 37:24 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.13 37:26–28 Eusebius Comm. Isa 2.13

202 232 The survivors will be from Jerusalem

Text and Translation

(37:28–32)

28 νῦν δὲ τὴν ἀνάπαυσίν σου καὶ τὴν ἔξοδόν σου καὶ τὴν εἴσοδόν σου ἐγὼ ἐπίσταμαι· 29 ὁ δὲ θυμός σου, ὃν ἐνεθυμήθῃςa, καὶ ἡ πικρία σου ἀνέβη πρός με, καὶ ἐμβαλῶ φιμὸν εἰς τὴν ῥῖνά σου καὶ χαλινὸν εἰς τὰ χείλη σου καὶ ἀποστρέψω σε τῇ ὁδῷ, ᾗ ἦλθες ἐν αὐτῇ. 30 τοῦτο δὲ σὺb τὸ σημεῖον παρὰ Κυρίουc· φάγε τοῦτον τὸν ἐνιαυτὸν ἃ ἔσπαρκας, τῷ δὲ ἐνιαυτῷ τῷ δευτέρῳ τὸ κατάλειμμα, τῷ δὲ τρίτῳ σπείραντες ἀμήσατε καὶ φυτεύσατε ἀμπελῶνας καὶ φάγεσθε τὸν καρπὸν αὐτῶν. 31 καὶ ἔσονται οἱ καταλελειμμένοι ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ φυήσουσιν ῥίζαν κάτω καὶ ποιήσουσιν σπέρμα ἄνω. 32 ὅτι ἐξ Ἰερουσαλὴμ ἔσονταιd οἱ καταλελειμμένοι καὶ οἱ σῳζόμενοι ἐξe ὄρους Σιών· ὁ ζῆλος Κυρίου Σαβαώθ ποιήσει ταῦτα. 233 Sennacherib will turn back the way he came

(37:33–34)

33 Διὰ τοῦτο οὕτως λέγει Κύριος ἐπὶ βασιλέα Ἀσσυρίων Οὐ μὴ εἰσέλθῃ εἰς τὴν πόλιν ταύτην οὐδὲ μὴ βάλῃ ἐπ’ αὐτὴν βέλος οὐδὲ μὴ ἐπιβάλῃf ἐπ’ αὐτὴν θυρεὸν οὐδὲ μὴ κυκλώσῃ ἐπ’ αὐτὴν χάρακα, 34 ἀλλὰ τῇ ὁδῷ, ᾗ ἦλθεν, ἐν αὐτῇ ἀποστραφήσεταιg· τάδε λέγει Κύριος. 234 God will shield Jerusalem

(37:35)

35 Ὑπερασπιῶ ὑπὲρ τῆς πόλεως ταύτης τοῦ σῶσαι αὐτὴν δι’ ἐμὲ καὶ διὰ Δαυὶδ τὸν παῖδά μου. 235 Lord’s angel kills the Assyrian army

(37:36)

36 Καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἄγγελος Κυρίου καὶ ἀνεῖλεν ἐκ τῆς παρεμβολῆς τῶν Ἀσσυρίων ἑκατὸν ὀγδοήκοντα πέντε χιλιάδας, καὶ ἐξαναστάντεςh πρωῒi εὗρον πάντα τὰ σώματα νεκρά.

aἐνεθυμήθῃς] S; ἐθυμώθης ABRZ b δὲ σὺ] S*; δέ σοι Scb3ABRZ c παρὰ Κυρίου] S; ABRZ dἔσονται] SBZ; ἐξελεύσονται AR e ἐξ] SBRZ; ἐπ’ A fἐπιβάλῃ] SBR; βάλῃ AZ g ἀποστραφήσεται] SARZ; ἀποστραφήσεται, καὶ εἰς τὴν πόλιν ταύτην οὐ μὴ εἰσέλθῃ B h ἐξαναστάντες] SARZ; ἀναστάντες B i πρωῒ] S; τὸ πρωὶ ABRZ

37:28–36

232 The survivors will be from Jerusalem

203 (37:28–32)

28 But now I know your repose and your going out and your coming in. 29 And your wrath that you pondered, and your bitterness has come up to me, and I will put a muzzle on your nose and a bit on your lips and I will turn you back on the way in which you came. 30 And you are this sign from Lord: this year eat what you planted, and in the second year the remainder, and on the third, after sowing, reap and plant vineyards and you will eat from their fruit 31 and those left will be in Judea; they will put down a root below and they will make seed above, 32 because those left will be from Jerusalem, and those saved, from Mount Zion. The zeal of Lord Sabaoth will do these things.” 233 Sennacherib will turn back the way he came

(37:33–34)

33 Because of this, thus says Lord against the king of the Assyrians: “Certainly he will not enter into this city and he will shoot no arrow against it and he will set no shield against it and he will surround it with no stockade. 34 Instead, by the way in which he came, he will return by it.” Thus says Lord. 234 God will shield Jerusalem

(37:35)

35 “I will shield this city to save it, because of me and because of David my servant.” 235 Lord’s angel kills the Assyrian army

(37:36)

36 And Lord’s messenger went out and slew a hundred eighty-five thousand of the camp of the Assyrians, and when they got up in the morning, they found all the bodies dead.

37:29 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.13; Origen Fr. Eph. 22; Theodoret Ep. 180 37:30 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.13 37:31 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.13; Dem. ev. 2.3.137; 2.3.138; 2.3.146; Gregory Nazianzen Orat. 21.24. 37:33 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.13; Origen Fr. Ps. (Pitra 3.150) 37:35 Chrysostom Homily 26; 32; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.13; Origen Fr. Ps. (Pitra 3. 150) 37:36 Eusebius Chron. (GCS 20. 183); Comm. Isa. 1.61; 2.13; 2.14; 2.15; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 2.15; Hippolytus Comm. Dan. 3.4.8; Origen Fr. Ps. (PG 12.1417; Pitra 3.101)

204 236 Sennacherib turns back and is killed

Text and Translation

(37:37–38)

37 καὶ ἀποστραφεὶς ἀπῆλθενa Ἐνναχηρειμb βασιλεὺς Ἀσσυρίων καὶ ᾤκησεν ἐν Νινευή. 38 καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτὸν προσκυνεῖν ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ Κωασαρὰκc τὸν πάτραρχονd αὐτοῦ, Ἀνδραμέλεχe καὶ Σαράσαf οἱ υἱοὶ αὐτοῦ ἐπάταξαν αὐτὸν μαχαίρας, αὐτοὶ δὲ διεσώθησαν εἰς Ἀρμενίαν· καὶ ἐβασίλευσεν Ναχορδὰνg ὁ υἱὸς αὐτοῦ ἀντ’αὐτοῦ. 237 Hezekiah becomes sick

(38:1)

38.1 Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ καιρῷ ἐκείνῳ ἐμαλακίσθη Ἑζεκίας ἕως θανάτου· Καὶ ἦλθεν πρὸς αὐτὸν Ἠσαίας ὁ υἱὸςh Αμως ὁ προφήτης καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτόν Τάδε λέγει Κύριος Τάξαι περὶ τοῦ οἴκου σου, ἀποθνῄσκειςi γὰρ σὺ καὶ οὐ ζήσῃ. 238 Hezekiah prays to Lord

(38:2–3)

2 καὶ ἀπέστρεψεν Ἑζεκίας τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ εἰςj τὸν τοῖχον Καὶ προσηύξατοk πρὸς Κύριον 3 λέγων Μνήσθητι, Κύριε, ὡς ἐπορεύθην ἐνώπιόν σου μετὰ ἀληθείας καὶ ἐν καρδίᾳl ἀληθινῇ Καὶ τὰ ἀρεστὰ ἐνώπιόν σου ἐποίησα· Καὶ ἔκλαυσεν Ἑζεκίας κλαυθμῷ μεγάλῳ. 239 Isaiah delivers Lord’s answer

(38:4–9)

4 Καὶ ἐγένετο λόγος Κυρίου πρὸς Ἠσαίαν λέγων 5 Πορεύθητι καὶ εἰπὸν Ἑζεκίᾳ Τάδε λέγει Κύριος ὁ θεὸς Δαυὶδ τοῦ πατρός σου Ἤκουσα τῆς φωνῆςm τῆς προσευχῆς σου καὶ εἶδον τὰ δάκρυά σου· ἰδοὺ προστίθημι πρὸς τὸν χρόνον σου ἔτη δέκα

aἀποστραφεὶς ἀπῆλθεν] SARZ; ἀπῆλθεν ἀποστραφεὶς B bἘνναχηρειμ] S; Σενναχηρεὶμ B; om. ARZ cΚωασαρὰκ] S; Ἀσαρὰχ A; Νασαρὰχ BRZ dπάτραρχον] SAB; Παταχρον RZ eἈνδραμέλεχ] S; Ἀδραμέλεχ ABRZ f Σαράσα] S; Σαράσαρ ABRZ g Ναχορδὰν] S; Ἀσορδὰν ABRZ h ὁ υἱὸς] S; υἱὸς ABRZ iἀποθνῄσκεις] ScaABZR; Αποθνκις S* jεἰς] S*; πρὸς Scb2ABRZ kπροσηύξατο] SARZ; προσεύξατο B l καὶ ἐν καρδίᾳ] S; ἐν καρδίᾳ ABRZ m τῆς φωνῆς] SARZ; om. B

37:37–38:5

236 Sennacherib turns back and is killed

205 (37:37–38)

37 And Ennachereim, king of the Assyrians, turned back and went away and lived in Nineveh. 38 And when he was worshipping in the house of Koasarak his tutelary god, Andramelech and Sarasa his sons struck him with swords, but they escaped into Armenia; and Nachordan his son reigned in his place. 237 Hezekiah becomes sick

(38:1)

38.1 And it happened at that time that Hezekiah became weak to the point of death. And Isaiah the son of Amos the prophet came to him and said to him, “Thus says Lord: ‘Arrange your house, for you are dying and you will not live.’ ” 238 Hezekiah prays to Lord

(38:2–3)

2 And Hezekiah turned his face to the wall. And he prayed to Lord, 3 saying, “Remember, Lord, how I walked before you with truth, by a true heart. And I did the things that are pleasing to you!” And Hezekiah wept with great weeping. 239 Isaiah delivers Lord’s answer

(38:4–9)

4 And the word of Lord came to Isaiah, saying, 5 “Go and say to Hezekiah, ‘Thus says Lord, the god of your father David, “I have heard the sound of your prayer and I have seen your tears. Look, I am adding fifteen years to your time. 6 And I will save you from the hand of the kings of the Assyrians, and I will

37:37 Eusebius Chron. (GCS 20. 183) 37:38 Eusebius Chron. (GCS 20. 13; 14); Comm. Isa. 2.15; Onom. (GCS 11.4; 38); Hippolytus Comm. Dan. 3.4.8 38:1 Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 2.15; Eusebius Chron. (GCS 20.13); Comm. Isa. 2.14–15; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.197); Origen Cels. 8.46; Or. 13.2,4; Comm. Jo. 6.130; Fr. Ps. (PG 12.1249); Hippolytus Comm. Dan. 1.7.3 38:2 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.14; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 2.15 38:3 Heb. 10:22; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 2.15; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.14; Origen Fr. Ps. (PG 12.1249) 38:5 Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 2.15; Athanasius Ep. fest. 7.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.14; 2.15; Tertullian Marc. 5.11.2; Ascens. Isa. 1.4 38:6 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.14; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.197)

206

Text and Translation

πέντε· 6 καὶ ἐκ χειρὸς βασιλέωνa Ἀσσυρίων σώσωb σε καὶ ὑπὲρ τῆς πόλεως ταύτης ὑπερασπιῶc. 7 τοῦτο δέ σοι τὸ σημεῖον παρὰ Κυρίου ὅτι ὁ θεὸς ποιήσειd τὸ ῥῆμα τοῦτο· 8 Ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ στρέφωe τὴν σκιὰν τῶν ἀναβαθμῶν, οὓς κατέβη ὁ ἥλιοςf, δέκα ἀναβαθμοὺς τοῦ οἴκου τοῦ πατρός σουg, ἀποστρέψω τὸν ἥλιον τοὺς δέκα ἀναβαθμούς. καὶ ἀνέβη ὁ ἥλιος τοὺς δέκα ἀναβαθμούς, οὓς κατέβη ἡ σκιά. 9 Προσευχὴ Ἑζεκίου βασιλέως Ἰουδαh, ἡνίκα ἐμαλακίσθη καὶ ἀνέστη ἐκ τῆς μαλακίας αὐτοῦ. 240 Prayer of Hezekiah

(38:10–20)

10 Ἐγὼ εἶπα Ἐν τῷ ὕψει τῶν ἡμερῶν μου ἐν πύλαις ᾅδου καταλείψω τὰ ἔτη τὰ ἐπίλοιπά μουi. 11 εἶπα Οὐκέτι μὴ ἴδω τὸ σωτήριον τοῦ θεοῦ ἐπὶ γῆςj, οὐκέτι μὴ ἴδω ἄνθρωπον 12 ἐκk τῆς συγγενείας μου. Κατέλιπον τὸ ἐπίλοιπονl τῆς ζωῆς μου· ἐξῆλθεν καὶ ἀπῆλθεν ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ ὥσπερ ὁ καταλύων σκηνὴνm πήξας, τὸ πνεῦμά μου παρ’ ἐμοὶ ἐγένετο, ὡς ἱστὸςn ἐρίθου ἐγγιζούσης ἐκτεμεῖν. ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ παρεδόθην 13 ἕως πρωῒ ὡς λέοντι· οὕτωςo τὰ ὀστᾶ μου συνέτριψενp, ἀπὸ γὰρ τῆς ἡμέρας ἕως τῆς νυκτὸςq παρεδόθην. 14 ὡς χελιδών, οὕτως φωνήσω, καὶ ὡς περιστερά, οὕτως μελετήσωr· ἐξέλιπον γάρ μου οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ μουs τοῦ βλέπειν εἰς τὸ ὕψος τοῦ οὐρανοῦ πρὸς τὸν Κύριον, ὃς ἐξείλατό με 15 καὶ ἀφείλατό μου τὴν ὀδύνην τῆς ψυχῆς. 16 Κύριε, περὶ αὐτῆς γὰρ ἀνηγγέλη σοι, καὶ ἐξήγειράς μου τὴν πνοήν, καὶ παρακληθεὶς ἔζησα. 17 εἵλου γάρ μου τὴν ψυχήν, ἵνα μὴ ἀπόληται, καὶ ἀπέρριψας ὀπίσω μου πάσας τὰς ἁμαρτίας μουt. 18 οὐ γὰρ οἱ ἐν ᾅδου αἰνέσουσίν σε, οὐδὲ οἱ ἀποθανόντες εὐλογήσουσίν σε, οὐδὲ ἐλπιοῦσινu ἐν ᾅδου τὴν ἐλεημοσύνην σου· 19 Οἱ ζῶντες εὐλογήσουσίν σε ὃν τρόπον κἀγώ. ἀπὸ γὰρ τῆς σήμερον παιδία ποιήσω.

aβασιλέων] S; βασιλέως ABRZ b σώσω] SARZ; ῥύσομαί B c ὑπὲρ τῆς πόλεως ταύτης ὑπερασπιῶ] SARZ; ὑπερασπιῶ ὑπὲρ τῆς πόλεως ταύτης B dὁ θεὸς ποιήσει] SARZ; ποιήσει ὁ θεὸς B eἸδοὺ ἐγὼ στρέφω] SB; ἰδοὺ στρέφω A; om. RZ f ὁ ἥλιος] SARZ; om. B g σου] SARZ; σου ὁ ἥλιος B h Ἰουδα] S; Ἰουδαίας B; τῆς Ιουδαίας ARZ iἐπίλοιπά μου] S; ἐπίλοιπα ABRZ jἐπὶ γῆς] S; ἐπὶ γῆς ζώντων, οὐκέτι μὴ ἴδω τὸ σωτήριον τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ ἐπὶ γῆς B; ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ARZ kἐκ] SARZ; ἐξέλιπεν ἐκ B l ἐπίλοιπον] SB; λοιπὸν ARZ m καταλύων σκηνὴν] SARZ; σκηνὴν καταλύων B n τὸ πνεῦμά μου παρ’ ἐμοὶ ἐγένετο ὡς ἱστὸς] SARZ; ὡς ἱστὸς τὸ πνεῦμά μου παρ’ ἐμοὶ ἐγένετο B oοὕτως] SARZ; om. B p τὰ ὀστᾶ μου συνέτριψεν] SARZ; συνέτριψεν πάντα τὰ ὀστᾶ μου B q τῆς νυκτὸς] SARZ; νυκτὸς B r μελετήσω] SARZ; μελετῶ B s μου] S*; om. Scb3BARZ t μου] SARZ; om. B uἐλπιοῦσιν] S; ἐλπιοῦσιν οἱ ScaABRZ

38:6–19

207

shield this city.” 7 And this is the sign from Lord for you that God will perform this word: 8 “Look, I am turning the shadow of the steps that the sun has gone down, ten steps of the house of your father. I will turn the sun back the ten steps.”’ ” And the sun went up the ten steps that the shadow had gone down. 9 Prayer of Hezekiah king of Judah, when he became weak and arose from his weakness: 240 Prayer of Hezekiah

(38:10–20)

10 I said, “At the height of my days I will leave my remaining years at the gates of Hades.” 11 I said, “Certainly I will no longer see the salvation of God on the land; certainly I will no longer see a person 12 of my family.” I have left the remainder of my life behind; it has gone out and away from me just the one who breaks down a tent after pitching it; my breath was beside me, like a weaving when a weaver comes to cut it off. 13 In that day I was given over until morning, as to a lion; so he crushed my bones, for I was given over from day to night. 14 I will call like a swallow and I will mutter like a dove, for my eyes have ceased from looking to the height of the sky, to the Lord, who delivered me, 15 and took away from me the pangs of soul. 16 For Lord, it was reported to you about it, and you raised up my breath, and being comforted, I lived. 17 For you selected my soul so that it would not perish, and you cast all my sins behind me. 18 For those in Hades will not praise you, nor those who die praise you, nor those in Hades expect your mercy. 19 The living will bless you, in the way that I also do. For from today on, I will produce children.

38:7 Luke 2:12; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 2.15; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.14; 2.15; Pamphilius Apol. Orig. 6; Origen Comm. Phil. (PG 17.593) 38:8 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.44; 2.14–15; Athanasius Ep. fest. 7.3; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 2.15; Pamphilius Apol. Orig. 6; Origen Cels. 8.46; Comm. Phil. (PG 17.503); Or. 13.2, 4; Comm. Jo. 6.130; Hippolytus Comm. Dan. 1.7.3; 1.8.5 38:9 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.14–15 38:10 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.14 38:11 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.14; Origen Hom. Num. 26.5 38:12 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.14 38:13 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.14; Origen Fr. Ps. (PG 17.137) 38:14 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.14; Origen Hom. Lev. 2.4 38:15–17 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.14 38:18 Athanasius Ep. fest. 7.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.14 38:19 Athanasius Ep. fest. 7.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.14; Jerome Adv. Jov. 1.5; Origen Cels. 8.46

208

Text and Translation

Ἃ ἀναγγελοῦσιν τὴν δικαιοσύνην σου, 20 Κύριε τῆς σωτηρίας μου· καὶ οὐ παύσομαι εὐλογῶν σε μετὰ ψαλτηρίου πάσας τὰς ἡμέρας τῆς ζωῆς μου κατέναντι τοῦ οἴκου τοῦ θεοῦ. 241 Isaiah tells Hezekiah the cure

(38:21–22)

21 Καὶ εἶπεν Ἠσαίας ὁ προφήτηςa πρὸς Ἑζεκίαν Λαβὲ παλάθην σύκωνb καὶ τρῖψον καὶ κατάπλασαι, καὶ ὑγιὴς ἔσῃ. 22 καὶ εἶπεν Ἑζεκίας Τοῦτο τὸ σημεῖονc, ὅτι ἀναβήσομαι εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ θεοῦd. 242 Maiodach hears of Hezekiah’s recovery

(39:1)

39.1 Ἐν τῷ καιρῷ ἐκείνῳ ἀπέστειλεν Μαιωδὰχe υἱὸς τοῦ Λααδὰνf ὁ βασιλεὺς τῆς Βαβυλωνίας ἐπιστολὰς καὶ πρέσβεις καὶ δῶρα Ἑζεκίᾳg· ἤκουσεν γὰρ ὅτι ἐμαλακίσθη ἕως θανάτου καὶ ἀνέστη. 243 Hezekiah shows the embassy the storehouses

(39:2)

2 Καὶ ἐχάρη ἐπ’ αὐτοῖς Ἑζεκίας χαρὰν μεγάληνh καὶ ἔδειξεν αὐτοῖςi τὸν οἶκον τοῦ νεχωτὰj καὶ τῆς τακτῆςk καὶ τῶν θυμιαμάτων καὶ τοῦ μύρου καὶ τοῦ ἀργυρίου καὶ τοῦ χρυσίουl καὶ πάντας τοὺς οἴκους τῶν θησαυρῶνm σκευῶν τῆς γάζης καὶ πάντα, ὅσα ἦν ἐν τοῖς θησαυροῖς αὐτοῦ· καὶ οὐκ ἦν οὐθέν, ὃ οὐκ ἔδειξεν Ἑζεκίας ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ αὐτοῦ. 244 Isaiah asks Hezekiah about the embassy

(39:3–4)

3 Καὶ ἦλθεν Ἠσαίας ὁ προφήτης πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα Ἑζεκίαν καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτόν Τί λέγουσιν οἱ ἄνθρωποι οὗτοι καὶ πόθεν ἥκασιν πρὸς σέ; Καὶ εἶπεν Ἑζεκίας Ἐκ γῆς πόρρωθεν ἥκασιν πρός με, ἐκ Βαβυλῶνος. 4 Καὶ εἶπεν Ἠσαίας Τί εἴδοσαν ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ σου; Καὶ εἶπεν Ἑζεκίας Πάντα τὰ ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ μου εἴδοσαν, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ μου ὃ οὐκ εἴδοσαν, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὰ ἐν τοῖς θησαυροῖς μου.

aὁ προφήτης] S*; om. Scb2ABRZ bσύκων] S; ἐκ σύκων ABRZ cσημεῖον] SARZ; σημεῖον πρὸς Ἑζεκίαν B dτοῦ θεοῦ] SBZ; κυρίου τοῦ θεοῦ AR eΜαιωδὰχ] S; Μαρωδὰχ Βαλαδὰν ὁ B; Μαρωδαχ ARZ fΛααδὰν] SARZ; Βαλαδὰν B gἙζεκίᾳ] SARZ; om. B hχαρὰν μεγάλην] SARZ; om. B iαὐτοῖς] SBRZ; om. A jνεχωτὰ] S*; νεχωθὰ ScaARZ; νεχωθὰ καὶ τοῦ ἀργυρίου καὶ τοῦ χρυσίου B kτακτῆς] S*; στακτῆς ScaABRZ l καὶ τοῦ ἀργυρίου καὶ τοῦ χρυσίου] SARZ; om. B m θησαυρῶν] S; om. ABRZ

38:20–39:4

209

Those who will proclaim your righteousness. 20 Lord of my salvation, I will also not stop blessing you, with a harp all the days of my life, before the house of God. 241 Isaiah tells Hezekiah the cure

(38:21–22)

21 And Isaiah the prophet said to Hezekiah, “Take a cake of figs and crush it and apply it as a plaster and you will be healthy.” 22 And Hezekiah said, “This is the sign that I will go up to the house of God.” 242 Maiodach hears of Hezekiah’s recovery

(39:1)

39.1 At that time Maiodach son of Laadan the king of Babylonia sent letters and ambassadors and gifts to Hezekiah, for he had heard that he had become weak to the point of death and he arose. 243 Hezekiah shows the embassy the storehouses

(39:2)

2 And Hezekiah rejoiced over them with great joy, and he showed them the house of the Nechota and of the prescribed and of the incenses and of the perfume and of the silver and of the gold, and all the houses of the store-rooms of vessels of the treasure and all that were in his store-houses, and there was nothing in his house that Hezekiah did not show. 244 Isaiah asks Hezekiah about the embassy

(39:3–4)

3 And Isaiah the prophet came to King Hezekiah and said to him, “What are these people saying, and where did they come to you from?” And Hezekiah said, “They came to me from a land far away, from Babylon.” 4 And Isaiah said, “What did they see in your house?” And Hezekiah said, “They saw all the things in my house, and there is nothing in my house that they did not see, no, even the things in my store-houses.”

38:20 Athanasius Ep. fest. 10.3; C. Ar. 2.4; Chrysostom Hom. Rom. 18; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.14–15 38:21 Methodius Symp. 10.5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.14–15; Fr. var. (PG 87.1796) 39:1 Josephus Ant. 10.30; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.15; Chron. (GCS 20.13); Hippolytus Comm. Dan. 1.9.1 39:2 Matt 2:10; Josephus Ant. 10.31; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.15 39:3 Hippolytus Comm. Dan. 1.9 39:4 Josephus Ant. 10.32

210 245 Isaiah delivers the word of Lord

Text and Translation

(39:5–8)

5 Καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Ἠσαίας Ἄκουσον τὸν λόγον Κυρίου Σαβαώθ 6 Ἰδοὺ ἡμέραι ἔρχονταιa καὶ λήμψονται πάντα τὰ ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ σου, καὶ ὅσα συνήγαγον οἱ πατέρες σου ἕως τῆς ἡμέρας ταύτης, εἰς Βαβυλῶνα ἥξει, καὶ οὐδὲν οὐ μὴ καταλίπωσιν. Εἶπεν δὲ ὁ Κύριοςb 7 ὅτι καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν τέκνων σου, ὧν ἐγέννησαςc, λήμψονται καὶ ποιήσουσιν σπάδοντας ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ τοῦ βασιλέως τῶν Βαβυλωνίων. 8 Καὶ εἶπεν Ἑζεκίας Ἠσαίᾳd, Ἀγαθὸς ὁe λόγος Κυρίου, ὃν ἐλάλησεν· γενηθήτωf δὴ εἰρήνη καὶ δικαιοσύνη ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραιςg. 246 Comfort Jerusalem!

(40:1–2)

40.1 Παρακαλεῖτε παρακαλεῖτε, λαόςh μου, λέγει ὁ θεός. 2 ἱερεῖς, λαλήσατε εἰς τὴν καρδίαν Ἰερουσαλήμ, παρακαλέσατε αὐτήν· ὅτι ἐπλήσθη ἡ ταπείνωσις αὐτῆς, λέλυται γὰρi αὐτῆς ἡ ἁμαρτία· ὅτι ἐδέξατο ἐκ χειρὸς Κυρίου διπλᾶ τὰ ἁμαρτήματα αὐτῆς. 247 Prepare Lord’s way!

(40:3–5)

3 Φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ Ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν Κυρίου, εὐθείας ποιεῖτε τὰς τρίβους τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν· 4 πᾶσα φάραγξ πληρωθήσεται καὶ πᾶν ὄρος καὶ βουνὸς ταπεινωθήσεται, καὶ ἔσται πάντα τὰ σκολιὰ εἰς εὐθεῖαν καὶ ἡ τραχεῖα εἰς πεδίαj· 5 καὶ ὀφθήσεται ἡ δόξα Κυρίου, καὶ ὄψεται πᾶσα σὰρξ τὸ σωτήριον τοῦ θεοῦ· ὅτι Κύριος ἐλάλησεν.

aἔρχονται] SB; ἔρχονται, λέγει κύριος ARZ bΚύριος] S*Scb3; θεὸς Scb2ABRZ cἐγέννησας] SARZ; γεννήσεις B dἨσαίᾳ] S*B; πρὸς Ησαιαν Scb2ARZ eὁ] SARZ; om. B f γενηθήτω] S; γενέσθω ABRZ gἡμέραις] S*; ἡμέραις μου Scb2ABRZ hλαός] S*; λαόν ScaABRZ iγὰρ] S; om. ABRZ j πεδία] S*BR; ὁδοὺς λείας ScaAZ

39:5–40:5

245 Isaiah delivers the word of Lord

211 (39:5–8)

5 And Isaiah said to him, “Hear the word of Lord Sabaoth: 6 ‘Look, days are coming,’ says Lord, ‘and they will take all the things in your house, and what your fathers collected up to this day will come to Babylon, and certainly they will not leave anything.’ And Lord said 7 that they will even take some of your children whom you begat and make them eunuchs in the house of the king of the Babylonians.” 8 And Hezekiah said to Isaiah, “The word of Lord that he spoke is good. Let there now be peace and righteousness in the days.” 246 Comfort Jerusalem!

(40:1–2)

40.1 “Comfort, comfort my people,” says God. 2 “Priests, speak to the heart of Jerusalem; comfort her,” because her humiliation has been satisfied, for her sin has been forgiven, because she has received double for her sins from the hand of the Lord. 247 Prepare Lord’s way!

(40:3–5)

3 A voice of one calling in the desert, “Prepare the way of the Lord, make the paths of our God straight!” 4 Every valley will be filled, and every mountain and hill shall be levelled, and all the crooked ways shall be made straight and the rough place into plains. 5 And the glory of Lord will be seen and every body will see the salvation of God, for Lord has spoken.

39:5 Origen Hom. Ezech. 14 4.8 39:6 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.15; Tertullian Marc. 4.15.9 39:7 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.15; Origen Ep. Afr. (PG 11.80); Comm. Matt. 10–17 15.5; Hom. Ezech. 14 4.8; Or. 16.3; Hippolytus Comm. Dan. 1.9; Julius Africanus Ep. ad. Or. (Reichhard, TU 34,3.79) 39:8 Josephus Ant. 10.33–34 40:1 Luke 2:25; Justin Dial. 50 40:2 Rev 1:5; 18:6; Origen Comm. Matt. 13.30; Herm. Vis. 1.3–4 40:3 Mark 1:3; Matt 3:3; Luke 3:4; John 1:23; Barn. 9.3; Justin Dial. 50; Origen Comm. Jo. 2.25; Victorinus Comm. Rev. 4:7–10; Cyprian Test. 2.6 40:4 Luke 3:5–6; S. Sol. 8:17; 11:4; Sib. Or. 3.680; As. Mos. 10.4; Baruch 5.7; Later Apocalypse of John 1 40:5 Luke 2:30; Acts 28:28; Theodoret Eranistes 2; Clement of Alexandria Prot. 1

212 248 Every body withers like grass

Text and Translation

(40:6–8)

6 Φωνὴ λέγοντος Βόησον· καὶ εἶπα Τί βοήσω; Πᾶσα σὰρξ χόρτος, καὶ πᾶσα δόξα ἀνθρώπου ὡς ἄνθος χόρτου· 7 ἐξηράνθη ὁ χόρτος, καὶ τὸ ἄνθος ἐξέπεσεν, 8 τὸ δὲ ῥῆμα τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν μένει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα. 249 Lord comes to tend his flock

(40:9–11)

9 Ἐπ’ ὄρος ὑψηλὸν ἀνάβηθι, ὁ εὐαγγελιζόμενος Σειών· ὕψωσον τῇ ἰσχύι σου τὴν φωνήνa, ὁ εὐαγγελιζόμενος Ἰερουσαλήμ· ὑψώσατε, μὴ φοβεῖσθε· εἰπὸν ταῖς πόλεσιν Ἰούδα Ἰδοὺ ὁ θεὸς ὑμῶν. 10 Κύριοςb μετὰ ἰσχύος ἔρχεται καὶ ὁ βραχίων μετὰ κυρίαςc, ἰδοὺ ὁ μισθὸς αὐτοῦ μετ’ αὐτοῦ καὶ τὸ ἔργον ἐναντίον αὐτοῦ. 11 ὡς ποιμὴν ποιμανεῖ τὸ ποίμνιον αὐτοῦ καὶ τῷ βραχίονι αὐτοῦ συνάξει ἄρνας καὶ ἐν γαστρὶ ἐχούσας παρακαλέσει. 250 Who has ever instructed Lord?

(40:12–17)

12 Τίςd ἐμέτρησεν τῇ χειρὶ τὸ ὕδωρ καὶ τὸν οὐρανὸν σπιθαμῇ καὶ πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν δρακί; τίς ἔστησεν τὰ ὄρη σταθμῷ καὶ τὰς νάπας ζυγῷ; 13 τίς ἔγνω νοῦν Κυρίου, καὶ τίς

aσου τὴν φωνήν] S*; σου τὴν φωνήν σου SB; τὴν φωνήν σου ABRZ b Κύριος] S*; ἰδοὺ κύριος Scb2ARZ; ἰδοὺ κύριος Κύριος B (MT) c κυρίας] SAB; κυριείας RZ d Τίς] SBScaABRZ; Τί S*

40:6–13

248 Every body withers like grass

213 (40:6–8)

6 A voice of one saying, “Cry out!” And I said, “What shall I cry out?” “All flesh is grass, and every glory of humanity is like a flower of grass.” 7 The grass has been withered, and the flower has fallen off, 8 but the word of our God remains forever. 249 Lord comes to tend his flock

(40:9–11)

9 Go up on a high mountain, O messenger of good news to Zion; lift up your voice with strength, O messenger of good tidings to Jerusalem. Lift it up, do not fear. Say to the cities of Judah, “Look; your God!” 10 Look, Lord comes with might, and his arm is with power; look, his reward is with him, and his work before him. 11 He will tend his flock like a shepherd, and he will gather the lambs in his arm, and he will comfort those who are pregnant. 250 Who has ever instructed Lord?

(40:12–17)

12 Who measured the water with his hand and the sky with his span and all the land with a measure? Who has put the mountains in a balance and the

40:6 1 Pet 1:24; Jas 1:10; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.16; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.324; 556; 724; 1253; PG 24. 61; Pitra 3. 506); Origen Hom. Ps. 1.2 (PG 12.1323); Comm. Matt. 11.3; 11.19; Hom. Jer. 20.2; Hom. Isa. 9; Or. 17.2; Comm. Jo. 13:48 6.100; Fr. Ps. (PG 17.120); Hippolytus Comm. Dan. 3.6.7; Tertullian Ad. Val. 32.1; Res. 10.2; 59.2; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 3.17/ 3.103.2; 4.26/4.163.5; Apophasis megale (BP 1.16); Cyprian Hab. virg. 6; Test. 3.58; Methodius Res. 1.12.8; LAE (Vita) 10 40:7 1 Pet 1:24; Jas 1:11; Origen Hom. Ps. 1.2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.16; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.324; 556; 724; 1180) 40:8 Matt 24:35; Luke 21:33; 1 Pet 1:25; Hippolytus Haer. 8.7; Eusebius Comm. Ps. (PG 23.556); Comm. Isa. 2.16 40:9 John 12:15; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 12.8; 17.21; Eusebius Dem. ev. 3.1.5; Ecl. proph. 4.18; Comm. Isa. 1.81; 1.92; 2.17; 2.23; 2.47; Origen Cant. 3; Hom. Jer. 19.13; Comm. Jo. 1.64; Fr. Ps. 112.6; Tertullian Marc. 4.13.1; 5.2.5 40:10 Rev 22:7; 22:12; Barn. 21.3; 1 Clem. 34; Origen Hom. Num. 15.4; Origen Mart. 42; Comm. Jo. 13.298; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.17; 2.52; Ecl. proph. 4.18; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 12.8 40:11 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.17; Dem. ev. 3.1.5; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 1.15.4 40:12 Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 4.5; 7.12; Eusebius Praep. ev. 7.11.6; 13.13.51; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.18; Novatian Trinity 3.1; 30.11; Origen Comm. Eph. 9; Hom. Ps. 1.9; Anonymous Papyrus Berlin 9794 (PO 18.432); 6 Ezra 16.58; Cyprian De montibus Sina et Sion 4; Tertullian Herm. 45.2; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 5.125.1; Protr. 78.2; Irenaeus Dem. 45

214

Text and Translation

αὐτοῦ σύμβουλοςa ἐγένετο, ὃς συμβιβᾷ αὐτόν; 14 ἢ πρὸς τίνα συνεβουλεύσατο καὶ συνεβίβασεν αὐτόν; ἢ τίς ἔδειξεν αὐτῷ κρίσιν; ἢ ὁδὸν συνέσεως τίς ἔδειξεν αὐτῷ; ἢ τίς προέδωκεν αὐτῷ καὶ ἀνταποδοθήσεται αὐτῷb; 15 εἰ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη ὡς σταγὼν ἀπὸ κάδου καὶ ὡς ῥοπὴ ζυγοῦ ἐλογίσθησαν, καὶ ὡςc σίελος λογισθήσονται· 16 ὁ δὲ Λίβανος οὐχ ἱκανὸς εἰς καῦσιν, καὶ πάντα τὰ τετράποδα οὐχ ἱκανὰ εἰς ὁλοκάρπωσιν, 17 καὶ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη ὡς οὐδέν εἰσι καὶ εἰς οὐδὲνd ἐλογίσθησαν. 251 To whom will you compare the Lord?

(40:18–24)

18 Τίνι ὡμοιώσατε Κύριον καὶ τίνι ὁμοιώματι ὡμοιώσατε αὐτόν; 19 μὴ εἰκόνα ἐποίησεν τέκτων, ἢ χρυσοχόος χωνεύσας χρυσίον περιεχρύσωσεν αὐτόν, ὁμοίωμα κατεσκεύασεν αὐτόν; 20 ξύλον γὰρ ἄσηπτον ἐκλέγεται τέκτων καὶ σοφῶς ζητήσειe πῶς στήσει αὐτὸ εἰκόνα καὶ ἵνα μὴ σαλεύηται. 21 Οὐ γνώσεσθε; οὐκ ἀκούσεσθε; οὐκ ἀνηγγέλη ἐξ ἀρχῆς ὑμῖν; οὐκ ἔγνωτε τὰ θεμέλια τῆς γῆς; 22 ὁ κατέχων τὸν γῦρον τῆς γῆς, καὶ οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες ἐν αὐτῇ ὡς ἀκρίδες, ὁ στήσας ὡς καμάραν τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ διατείνας ὡς σκηνὴν κατοικεῖν, 23 ὁ διδοὺς ἄρχοντας εἰςf οὐδὲν ἄρχειν, τὴν δὲ γῆν ὡς οὐδὲν ἐποίησεν. 24 οὐ γὰρ μὴ σπείρωσιν οὐδὲ μὴ φυτεύσωσινg, οὐδὲ μὴ ῥιζωθῇ εἰς τὴν γῆν ἡ ῥίζα αὐτῶν· ἔπνευσεν ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς καὶ ἐξηράνθησαν, καὶ καταιγὶς ὡς φρύγανον λήμψεταιh αὐτούς.

aαὐτοῦ σύμβουλος] SBR; σύμβουλος αὐτοῦ AZ bαὐτῷ; ἢ τίς προέδωκεν αὐτῷ καὶ ἀνταποδοθήσεται αὐτῷ] S*Scb3A; αὐτῷ Scb2BRZ c καὶ ὡς] SARZ; ὡς B d οὐδὲν] S; οὐθὲν ABRZ e ζητήσει] S*B; ζητεῖ Scb2ARZ f εἰς] SARZ; ὡς B g σπείρωσιν οὐδὲ μὴ φυτεύσωσιν] SRZ; φυτεύσωσιν οὐδὲ μὴ σπείρωσιν B (MT); σπείρουσιν οὐδὲ μὴ φυτεύσουσιν A hφρύγανον λήμψεται] S*; φρύγανα ἀναλήμψεται Scb2ARZ; φρύγανα λήμψεται B

40:14–24

215

valleys on a scale? 13 Who has known the mind of Lord, and who has become his counsellor? Who might instruct him? 14 With whom has he consulted and who has instructed him? Who has shown him a decision? Who has shown him a way of understanding? Or who has given him before and paid him back? 15 If all the nations were reckoned as a drop from the bucket and as a tipping of the balance, they shall also be considered like spittle. 16 And Lebanon will not be enough for burning, and all the four-footed animals will not be enough for a whole burnt offering, 17 and all the nations are like nothing, and they were reckoned as nothing. 251 To whom did you compare the Lord?

(40:18–24)

18 To whom did you compare the Lord, and to what likeness did you compare him? 19 Has a craftsman made his image, or a goldsmith smelted gold and gilded it, or constructed him into a likeness? 20 For a craftsman selects a hard piece of wood and he will consider wisely how he will set it up as an image also so that it does not shake. 21 Will you not know? Will you not hear? Was it not been announced to you from the beginning? Have you not known the foundations of the land? 22 He is the one who holds the circle of the land, and those who dwell in it are like locusts. He is the one who set up heaven like an arched vault and stretched it out like a tent for living in. 23 He is the one who sets rulers to rule for nothing; he made the land like nothing. 24 For they will certainly not sow or plant, nor will their root take root in the land; he blew upon them and they withered, and a squall will take them like a twig. 40:13 1 Cor 2:16; Rom 11:34; Philo Sacr. 10; Hippolytus Noet. 10; 11; Tertullian Marc. 2.2.4; Origen Or. 1; Ep. Thess. (Labourt 6.114); Comm. Matt. 17.13; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 5.129.4; Eusebius Praep. ev. 7.11.6; 13.13.56; Comm. Isa. 2.18; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.896) 40:14 Tertullian Marc. 2.2.4 40:15 Origen Cant. 2.3; Hom. num. 7.4; Fr. cant. 2; Hippolytus Haer. 5.9.21; Tertullian Marc. 4.25.11; Adv. Jud. 1.3; Paen. 4.3; Praescr. 8.9; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 4.154.4; 6.111.2; 7.110.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.18; Ecl. proph. 3.5 40:16 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.18; Methodius Convivium 9.3 40:17 Acts 19:27; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.18; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.93) 40:18 Mark 4:30; Acts 17:29; Eusebius Praep. ev. 13.13.35; 13.13.43; Comm. Isa. 2.18; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 5.117.3; Protr. 79.5 40:19 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.18; Praep. ev. 13.13.43; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 5.117.3; 5.117.4; Protr. 79.5 40:21 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.18 40:22 Origen Fr. Ps. (Pitra 181); Hippolytus Noet. 18.; Novatian Trinity 3.1.; Eusebius Praep. ev. 7.11.6; Comm. Isa. 2.18; Theophilus Autol. 2.13; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 6.3; 7.12; 9.5 40:23–24 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.18

216 252 The holy one is incomparable

Text and Translation

(40:25–26)

25 Νῦν οὖν τίνι με ὁμοιώσατεa καὶ ὑψωθήσομαι,b εἶπεν ὁ ἅγιος. 26 ἀναβλέψατε εἰς ὕψος τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς ὑμῶν καὶ ἴδετε· τίς κατέδειξεν ταῦτα πάνταc; ὁ ἐκφέρων κατὰ ἀριθμὸν τὸν κόσμον αὐτῶνd πάντας ἐπ’ ὀνόματι καλέσει. 253 Do not say God has removed my judgement

(40:26–28)

ἀπὸ πάσηςe δόξης καὶ ἐν κράτει ἰσχύος οὐδέν σε ἔλαθεν. 27 μὴ γὰρ εἴπῃς, Ἰακώβ, καὶ τί ἐλάλησας, Ἰσραήλ Ἀπεκρύβη ἡ ὁδός μου ἀπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ, καὶ ὁ θεός μου τὴν κρίσιν ἀφεῖλεν καὶ ἀπέστη; 254 Those who wait upon God will not grow weary

(40:28–31)

28 καὶ νῦν οὐκ ἔτι γνώσῃf εἰ μὴ ἤκουσας; θεὸς αἰώνιος ὁ θεὸς ὁ κατασκευάσας τὰ ἄκρα τῆς γῆς, οὐ πεινάσει οὐδὲ διψήσει οὐδὲg κοπιάσει, οὐδὲ ἔστιν ἐξεύρεσις τῆς φρονήσεως αὐτοῦ· 29 διδοὺς τοῖς πεινῶσιν ἰσχὺν καὶ τοῖς μὴ ὀδυνωμένοις λύπην. 30 πεινάσουσιν γὰρ νεώτεροι, καὶ κοπιάσουσιν νεανίσκοι, καὶ ἐκλεκτοὶ ἀνίσχυες ἔσονται· 31 οἱ δὲ ὑπομένοντες τὸν θεὸν ἀλλάξουσιν ἰσχύν, πτεροφυήσουσιν ὡς ἀετοί, δραμοῦνται καὶ οὐ κοπιάσουσιν, βαδιοῦνται καὶ οὐ πεινάσουσιν. 255 Who has renewed righteousness?

(41:1–4)

41.1 Ἐγκαινίζεσθε πρός με, νῆσοι, οἱ γὰρ ἄρχοντες ἀλλάξουσιν ἰσχύν· ἐγγισάτωσαν καὶ λαλησάτωσαν ἅμα, τότε κρίσιν ἀναγγειλάτωσαν. 2 τίς ἐξήγειρεν ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν

aὁμοιώσατε] S; ὡμοιώσατε ABRZ bὑψωθήσομαι] SABR; ἰσωθήσομαι Z cταῦτα πάντα] S; πάντα ταῦτα ABRZ d αὐτῶν] S*; αὐτοῦ ScaABRZ e πάσης] S*; πολλῆς Scb2ABRZ f ἔτι γνωσει] S*Scb3; ἔγνως Scb2ABRZ g διψήσει οὐδὲ] S*Scb3; om. Scb2ABRZ

40:25–41:2

252 The holy one is incomparable

217 (40:25–26)

25 “Now then, compare me to someone, and I will be exalted,” says the holy one. 26 “Look up with your eyes to the height and see! Who has unveiled all these things? The one who brings forth their world by number will call them all by name.” 253 Do not say God has removed my judgement

(40:26–28)

Nothing has escaped you from all glory and by the might of power. 27 For, Jacob, do not say, and what have you said, Israel, “My way has been hidden from God, and God has taken away my justice and departed”? 254 Those who wait upon God will not grow weary

(40:28–31)

28 And now will you still not know unless you have heard? Eternal God, the God who made the extremities of the earth will not get hungry or thirsty or weary (and there is no discovering his insight), 29 he who gives strength to the hungry and pain to those who are not distressed 30 For young men will be hungry and youths will grow weary and choice men will be weak, 31 but those who wait upon God will exchange strength, they will grow feathers like eagles; they will run and not grow weary, they will walk and not be hungry. 255 Who has renewed righteousness?

(41:1–4)

41.1 Be restored to me, O islands, for the rulers will exchange strength, let them draw near and speak together, then let them announce justice. 2 Who has raised 40:25 Tertullian Marc. 1.4.2; 1.5.2; Athanasius Ep. fest. 2.3; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 5. 108. 4; 5.117.4; Eusebius Praep. ev. 13.13.35; Comm. Isa. 2.18 40:26 Rom 1:20; Eph 1:19; 6:10; Hippolytus Comm. Dan. 3.26.3; Origen Hom. Jer. 19.13; Comm. Jo. 13.274; 28.33; Fr. Ps. 120.1; (Pitra 358); Clement of Alexandria Strom. 6.30.6; Eusebius Praep. ev. 3.10.12; 7.11.6; 12.52.33; Eccl. theol. 3.3; Comm. Isa. 2.18–19; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.417) 40:27 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.19; 2.20 40:28 Heb 3:4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.19; Tertullian Jejun. 6.7; Marc. 2.22.2; Theophilus Autol. 2.35 40:29 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.19 40:30 Origen Fr. Jer. (GCS 6.218; 219); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.19 40:31 Rev 12:14; Origen Comm. Matt. 47; Hom. Ezech. 11.3; 12.5; Fr. Jer. (GCS 6.218); Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 3.6; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.19 41:1 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.19 41:2 Rev 16:12; Origen Hom. Isa. 5.1; Eusebius Eccl. Theol. 1.20; Praep. ev. 11.23.9; Comm. Isa. 2.19; 2.21; Ecl. proph. 4.19

218

Text and Translation

δικαιοσύνην, ἐκάλεσεν αὐτὴν κατὰ πόδας αὐτοῦ, καὶ πορεύσεται; δώσει ἐναντίον ἐθνῶν καὶ βασιλεῖς ἐκστήσει καὶ δώσει εἰς γῆν τὰς μαχαίρας αὐτῶν καὶ ὡς φρύγανα ἐξωσμένα τὰ τόξα αὐτῶν· 3 καὶ διώξεται αὐτοὺς καὶa διελεύσεται ἐν εἰρήνῃ ἡ ὁδὸς τῶν ποδῶν αὐτοῦ. 4 Τίς ἐνήργησεν καὶ ἐποίησεν ταῦτα; ἐκάλεσεν αὐτὴν ὁ καλῶν αὐτὴν ἀπὸ γενεῶν ἀρχαίωνb. 256 Craftsmen work well

(41:4–7)

Ἐγὼ θεὸς πρῶτος καὶ εἰς τὰ ἐπερχόμενα ἐγώ εἰμι. 5 εἴδοσαν ἔθνη καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν, τὰ ἄκρα τῆς γῆς ἤγγισαν καὶ ἤλθοσανc ἅμα 6 κρίνων ἕκαστος τῷ πλησίον καὶ τῷ ἀδελφῷ βοηθῆσαιd καὶ ἐρεῖ 7 Ἴσχυσεν ἀνὴρ τέκτων καὶ χαλκεὺς τύπτων σφύρᾳe ἅμα ἐλαύνων· ποτὲ μὲν ἐρεῖ Σύμβλημα καλόν ἐστιν· ἰσχύρωσανf αὐτὰ ἐν ἥλοις, θήσουσιν αὐτὰ καὶ οὐ κινηθήσονται. 257 I have chosen you, servant Israel

(41:8–11)

8 Σὺ δέ, Ἰσραήλ, παῖς μου Ἰακώβ, ὃν ἐξελεξάμην, σπέρμα Ἀβραάμ, ὃν ἠγάπησα, 9 οὗ ἀντελαβόμην ἀπ’ ἄκρων τῆς γῆς καὶ ἐκ τῶν σκοπιῶν αὐτῆς ἐκάλεσά σε καὶ εἶπά σοι Παῖς μου εἶ, ἐξελεξάμην σε καὶ οὐκ ἐγκατέλιπόν σε, 10 μὴ φοβοῦ, μετὰ σοῦ γάρ εἰμι· μὴ πλανῶ, ἐγὼ γάρ ὁ θεός, ἐνισχύσαg σε καὶ ἐβοήθησά σοι καὶ ἠσφαλισάμην σε τῇ δεξιᾷ τῇ δικαίᾳ μου. 258 Your opponents will vanish

(41:11–14)

11 ἰδοὺ αἰσχυνθήσονται καὶ ἐντραπήσονται πάντες οἱ ἀντικείμενοί σοι· ἔσονται γὰρ ὡς οὐκ ὄντες καὶ ἀπολοῦνται πάντες οἱ ἀντίδικοί σου. 12 ζητήσεις αὐτοὺς καὶ οὐ μὴ εὕρῃς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, οἳ παροινήσουσιν εἰς σέ· ἔσονται γὰρ ὡς οὐκ ὄντες καὶ οὐκ ἔσονται

aαὐτοὺς καὶ] SARZ; αὐτούς B bἀρχαίων] S; ἀρχῆς ABRZ cἤλθοσαν] SARZ; ἦλθον B dκαὶ τῷ ἀδελφῷ βοηθῆσαι] SARZ; βοηθῆσαι καὶ τῷ ἀδελφῷ B e σφύρᾳ] S*Scb3; σφύρῃ Scb2ABRZ fἰσχύρωσαν] SARZ; ἰσχύρωσεν B g ὁ θεός, ἐνισχύσα] S; εἰμι ὁ θεός σου ὁ ἐνισχύσας ABRZ

41:3–12

219

righteousness up from the east, called it to his feet and it will go? He will give it before nations and will amaze kings and will give up their swords to the land, and their bows like discarded sticks. 3 And he will pursue them and the way of his feet will pass through in peace. 4 Who has produced and made these things? The one who called her from ancient generations has called her. 256 Craftsmen work well

(41:4–7)

I am the first God, and I am in what is to come. 5 Nations have seen and were frightened; the extremities of the earth have approached and come together. 6 Each judges his neighbour and his brother to help and he will say, 7 “A man who is a woodworker and smith has become strong, beating with a hammer, forging together.” Some time he will say, “It is a good seam.” They reinforce them with nails; they set them and they will not be moved. 257 I have chosen you, servant Israel

(41:8–11)

8 But you, Israel, my servant Jacob, whom I have chosen, seed of Abraham, whom I have loved, 9 whom I have taken hold of from the extremities of the earth, and called you from its heights, and said to you, “You are my servant,” I have chosen you and I have not forsaken you. 10 Do not be frightened, for I am with you; do not be deceived, for I am God, strengthening you, and I have helped you and have established you with my righteous right hand. 258 Your opponents will vanish

(41:11–14)

11 Look, all who oppose you will be dishonoured and will feel shame, for they will be as those who are not, and all your adversaries will be destroyed. 12 You will look for them and you will not find the people who rage against you, for 41:3 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.19; Ecl. proph. 4.19 41:4 Rev 1:4; Origen Hom. Isa. 22 5.1; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.19; 2.21; Ecl. proph. 4.19; Praep. ev. 11.23.9; 11.13.6; Eccl. theol. 1.20; 2.19 41:5–7 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.19; Ecl. proph. 4.19 41:8 CD 4.2; Song of Three Youths 11; Luke 1:54; Heb 2:16; Jas 2:23; Philo Cher. 7; Apoc. Ab. 9.7; T. Ab. 2.6; 1 Clem. 10.1; Ignatius Magn. 10; Origen Comm. Jo. 1.260; Hippolytus Haer. 5.8.16; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.20; 2.22; 2.31 41:9 Matt 12:18; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.20 41:10 Acts 18:9 41:11–13 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.20

220

Text and Translation

οἱ ἀντιπολεμοῦντές σε. 13 ὅτι ἐγὼ ὁ θεόςa ὁ κρατῶν τῆς δεξιᾶς σου, ὁ λέγων σοι Μὴ φοβοῦ, 14 Ἰακώβ, ὀλιγοστὸς Ἰσραήλ· ἐγὼ ἐβοήθησά σοι, λέγει ὁ θεὸς ὁ λυτρούμενός σεb, Ἰσραήλ. 259 You will pulverize them

(41:15–16)

15 Ἰδοὺ ἐποίησά σε ὡς τροχοὺς ἁμάξηςc καινοὺς πριστηροειδεῖς, καὶ ἀλοήσεις ὄρη καὶ λεπτυνεῖς βουνοὺς καὶ ὡς χνοῦν θήσεις· 16 καὶ λικμήσεις, καὶ ἄνεμος λήμψεται αὐτοῖςd, καὶ καταιγὶς διασπερεῖ αὐτούς. 260 The holy one of Israel will water the thirsty land

(41:16–20)

σὺ δὲ εὐφρανθήσῃ ἐν τοῖς ἁγίοις Ἰσραήλ. 17 καὶ ἀγαλλιάσονται οἱ πτωχοὶ καὶ οἱ ἐνδεεῖς· ζητήσουσιν γὰρ ὕδωρ, καὶ οὐκ ἔσται, ἡ γλῶσσα αὐτῶν ἀπὸ τῆς δίψης ἐξηράνθη. Ἐγὼ Κύριος ὁ θεός, ἐγὼ ἐπακούσομαι, ὁ θεὸς Ἰσραήλ, καὶ οὐκ ἐγκαταλείψω αὐτούς, 18 ἀλλὰ ἀνοίξω ἐπὶ τῶν ὀρέων ποταμοὺς καὶ ἐν μέσῳ πεδίων πηγάς, ποιήσω τὴν ἔρημον εἰς ἕλη ὑδάτωνe καὶ τὴν διψῶσαν γῆν ἐν ὑδραγωγοῖς, 19 θήσω εἰς τὴν ἄνυδρον γῆν κέδρωνf καὶ πύξον μυρσίνην καὶ κυπάρισσον καὶ λεύκην, 20 ἵνα ἴδωσιν καὶ γνῶσιν καὶ ἐννοηθῶσιν καὶ ἐπιστῶνται ἅμα ὅτι χεὶρ Κυρίου ἐποίησεν ταῦταg καὶ ὁ ἅγιος τοῦ Ἰσραήλ κατέδειξεν. 261 Tell us the future

(41:21–24)

21 Ἐγγίζει ἡ κρίσις ὑμῶν, λέγει Κύριος ὁ θεός· ἤγγισαν αἱ βουλαὶ ὑμῶν, λέγει ὁ βασιλεὺς Ἰακώβ. 22 ἐγγισάτωσαν καὶ ἀναγγειλάτωσανh ὑμῖν ἃ συμβήσεται, ἢ τὰ πρότεραi τίνα ἦν εἴπατε, καὶ ἐπιστήσατεj τὸν νοῦν καὶ γνωσόμεθα τί τὰ ἔσχατα, καὶ τὰ

aθεός] S*A; θεός σου Scb2BRZ bσε] SARZ; om. B cἁμάξης] S*; ἁμάξης ἀλοῶντας ScaABRZ dαὐτοῖς] S*; αὐτούς Scb3ABRZ e ὑδάτων] S*Scb3B; om. Scb2ARZ f κέδρων] S*; κέδρον ScaABRZ gταῦτα] S*BZ; πάντα ταῦτα Scb2; ταῦτα πάντα AR h καὶ ἀναγγειλάτωσαν] SBABRZ; om. S* iπρότερα] SARZ; πρότερον B j ἐπιστήσατε] S; ἐπιστήσομεν Scb2ABRZ

41:13–22

221

they will be as those who are not, and there will not be any who wage war against you 13 for I am God, who holds your right hand, who says to you, “Do not be frightened. 14 Jacob, little Israel, I have helped you,” says the god who ransoms you, Israel. 259 You will pulverize them

(41:15–16)

15 “Look, I have made you like new saw-shaped wheels of a wagon, and you will thresh mountains and grind hills to powder and make them like dust. 16 And you will winnow them, and the wind shall take them away, and a storm will scatter them. 260 The holy one of Israel will water the thirsty land

(41:16–20)

But you will be glad among the holy ones of Israel. 17 And the poor and the needy will rejoice, for they will look for water and there will not be any; their tongue will dry up from thirst. I am Lord God; I, the God of Israel, will hear and not forsake them. 18 Instead, I will open rivers upon the mountains and springs in the middle of the plains; I will turn the desert into marshlands of waters, and the thirsty land into water channels. 19 I will place in the waterless land of cedars a myrtle, a boxwood and a cypress and a white poplar, 20 so that they may see and know and think and pay attention together that the hand of Lord has done all these things; and the holy one of Israel has unveiled them.” 261 Tell us the future

(41:21–24)

21 “Your justice approaches!” says Lord God. “Your counsels have approached!” says the king of Jacob. 22 Let them approach and announce the things that will happen, or say what the former things were. And set on the mind and we will

41:14 Luke 12:32; 24:21; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.20; Comm. Ps. (PG 23:205) 41:15–16 Cyprian Test. 2.4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.94; 2.20; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.205) 41:17 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.20 41:18 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.20; 2.21 41:19 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.20; 2.21; Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 2; Tertullian Marc. 3.5.3 41:20 Cyprian Test. 2.4; Tertullian Marc. 3.5.3; Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 2 (PO 27:198); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.20; 2.21; Comm. Ps. (PG 23:205) 41:21 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.21 41:22 Pamphilius Apol. Orig. 4; Origen Hom. Isa. 1.2; Princ. 4.3.14; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.21

222

Text and Translation

ἐπερχόμενα εἴπατε ἡμῖν. 23 ἀναγγείλατε ἡμῖν τὰ ἐπερχόμενα ἐπ’ ἐσχάτου, καὶ γνωσόμεθα ὅτι θεοί ἐστε· εὖ ποιήσατε καὶ κακώσατε, καὶ θαυμασόμεθα καὶ ὀψόμεθα ἅμα· 24 ὅτι πόθεν ἐστὲ ὑμεῖς καὶ πόθεν ἡ ἐργασία ὑμῶν; ἐκ γῆς βδέλυγμα ἐξελέξαντο ὑμᾶς. 262 Who will foretell the future?

(41:25–26)

25 ἐγὼ δὲ ἤγειρα τὸν ἀπὸ βορρᾶ καὶ τὸν ἀφ’ ἡλίου ἀνατολῶν, κληθήσονται τῷ ὀνόματί μου· ἐρχέσθωσαν ἄρχοντες, καὶ ὡς πηλὸς κεραμέως καὶ ὡς κεραμεὺς καταπατῶν τὸν πηλόν, οὕτως καταπατηθήσεταιa. 26 τίς γὰρ ἀναγγελεῖ τὰ ἐξ ἀρχῆς, ἵνα γνῶμεν, καὶ τὰ ἔμπροσθεν, καὶ ἐροῦμεν ὅτι ἀληθῆ ἐστιν; οὐκ ἔστιν ὁ προλέγων οὐδὲ ὁ ἀκούων ὑμῶν τοὺς λόγουςb. 263 No one else can do this

(41:27–29)

27 Ἀρχὴν Σειὼν δώσω καὶ Ἰερουσαλὴμ παρακαλέσω εἰς ὁδόνc. 28 ἀπὸ γὰρ τῶν ἐθνῶν ἰδοὺ οὐδείς, καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν εἰδώλων ἄτωνd οὐκ ἦν ὁ ἀναγγέλλων· καὶ ἐὰν ἐρωτήσω αὐτούς Πόθεν ἐστέ, οὐ μὴ ἀποκριθῶσίν μοι. 29 εἰσὶνe γὰρ οἱ ποιοῦντες ὑμᾶς, καὶ μάτην οἱ πλανῶντεςf ὑμᾶς. 264 Israel will bring justice

(42:1–4)

42.1 Ἰακωβ ὁ παῖς μου, ἀντιλήμψομαι αὐτοῦ· Ἰσραήλ ὁ ἐκλεκτός μου, προσεδέξατο αὐτὸν ἡ ψυχή μου· ἔδωκα τὸ πνεῦμά μου ἐπ’ αὐτόν, κρίσιν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν ἐξοίσει. 2 οὐ κεκράξεται οὐδὲ ἀνήσει, οὐδὲ ἀκουσθήσεται ἔξω ἡ φωνὴ αὐτοῦ. 3 κάλαμον τεθλασμένον οὐ συντρίψει καὶ λίνον καπνιζόμενον οὐ σβέσει, ἀλλὰ εἰς ἀλήθειαν ἐξοίσει κρίσιν.

aκαταπατηθήσεται] S*; καταπατηθήσεσθε ABRZ καταπατηθήσεσθαι ScaScb3 bὑμῶν τοὺς λόγους] S*B; τοὺς λόγους ὑμῶν Scb2AZQ c εἰς ὁδόν] SBabRZQ; om. B*; εν οδω A d ἄτων] S*; αὐτῶν ScaABRZ e εἰσὶν] SABR; οὐθὲν Z f πλανῶντες] SABR; πλάσσοντες Z

41:23–42:3

223

know what the last things were, and tell us the future. 23 Announce to us the future at the end, and we will know that you are gods. Do good and do evil, and we shall wonder and see together. 24 For where are you from and where is your work from? They have chosen you from the land as an abomination. 262 Who will foretell the future

(41:25–26)

25 I have roused the one from the North and the one from the rising of the sun; they will be called by my name. Let rulers come, and he will be trampled down like potter’s clay and like a potter trampling down the mud. 26 For who will announce the things from the beginning, so that we might know them, and the things before, and we will say that it is true? There is no-one who foretells or one listens to your words. 263 No one else can do this

(41:27–29)

27 I will give dominion to Zion and I will comfort Jerusalem on the way. 28 For look, there is no-one from the nations, and there is no-one from the idols, delusions, who proclaims it, and if I ask them, “Where are you from?” They do not answer me. 29 For they are those who make you, and deceive you pointlessly. 264 Israel will bring justice

(42:1–4)

42.1 Jacob is my servant; I will help him. Israel is my chosen one, my soul has accepted him. I have given my spirit upon him; he shall bring forth justice for the nations. 2 He will not cry out nor lift up his voice, nor will his voice be heard outside.3 He will not crush a bruised reed, and he will not extinguish smoking

41:23 Origen Princ. 4.1.26; 4.3.14; Hom. Isa. 1.2; Pamphilius Apol. Orig. 4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.21; Praep. ev. 13.13.22. 41:24 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.21 41:25 Rev 7:2; 16:12; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.21; Praep. ev. 13.13.22 41:26 Origen Hom. Isa. 4.1; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.21; Praep. ev. 13.13.22 41:27–29 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.21 42:1 Matt 3:17; 12:18–21; Luke 3:22; 9:35; 23:35; Justin Dial. 123.8; 135.2; Cyprian Mort. 15; Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. (PO 27.106); Origen Comm. Jo. 1.144; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.20; 22; 24; 25; 26; 27; 31; 48; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.904); Ecl. proph. 4.20; 21; 24; Dem. ev. 2.2, 3; 3.2; 8.1; 9.13, 15; Eccl. Theo. 1.20; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 16.30 42:2 Tertullian Adv. Jud. 9.28; Pat. 3.4; Marc. 3.17; 4.23; Cyprian Test. 2.13; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.22 42:3 De recta in Deum fide (GCS 4:48); Irenaeus Frag. (TU 36, TU 3:138); Tertullian Adv. Jud. 9.28; Pat. 3.4; Marc. 3.17; 4.23; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.22

224

Text and Translation

4 ἀναλάμψει καὶ οὐ σβεσθήσεταιa, ἕως ἂν θῇ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς κρίσιν· καὶ ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματιb αὐτοῦ ἔθνη ἐλπιοῦσιν. 265 Lord God called you to bring freedom

(42:5–8)

5 Οὕτως λέγει Κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ ποιήσας τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ πήξας αὐτόν, ὁ στερεώσας τὴν γῆν καὶ τὰ ἐν αὐτῇ καὶ διδοὺς πνοὴν τῷ λαῷ τῷ ἐπ’ αὐτῆς καὶ πνεῦμα τοῖς πατοῦσιν αὐτήν. 6 Ἐγὼ Κύριος ὁ θεὸς ἐκάλεσά σε ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ καὶ κρατήσω τῆς χειρός σου καὶ ἐνισχύσω σε ἔδωκά σε εἰς δικαιοσύνηνc εἰς διαθήκην γένους μουd, εἰς φῶς ἐθνῶνe 7 ἀνοῖξαι ὀφθαλμοὺς τυφλῶν, ἐξαγαγεῖν ἐκ δεσμῶν δεδεμένους καὶ ἐξ οἴκου φυλακῆς καθημένους ἐν σκότει. 8 ἐγὼ Κύριος ὁ θεός, τοῦτό μού ἐστιν ὄνομαf· τὴν δόξαν μου ἑτέρῳ οὐ δώσω οὐδὲ τὰς ἀρετάς μου τοῖς γλυπτοῖς. 266 Lord God will inform you of his plans

(42:9)

9 τὰ ἀπ’ ἀρχῆς ἰδοὺ ἥκασιν, καὶ καινὰ ἃ ἐγὼ ποιῶg ἀναγγελῶ, καὶ πρὸ τοῦ ἀναγγεῖλαιh ἐδηλώθη ὑμῖν.

aκαὶ οὐ σβεσθήσεται] S*; καὶ ἐγὼ θραυσθήσεται Scb1; καὶ οὐ θραυσθήσεται ABRZ b ὀνόματι] SABR; νόμῳ Z cεἰς δικαιοσύνην] S*; om. ScaABRZ d μου] S*; om. Scb2ABRZ e εἰς φῶς ἐθνῶν] SARZ; om. B* fὄνομα] SQ*; τὸ ὄνομα ABRZ g ποιῶ] S*Scb3; om. Scb2ABRZ h ἀναγγεῖλαι] SB; ἀνατεῖλαι ARZ

42:4–9

225

flax, but he will bring forth justice for the truth. 4 He will shine out, and will not be extinguished until he brings justice upon the land; and the nations will hope in his name. 265 Lord God called you to bring freedom

(42:5–8)

5 Thus says Lord God, who made the sky and secured it, who firmed up the land and the things in it, and gave breath to the people who were upon it, and a spirit to those who walk upon it. 6 “I, Lord God, called you in righteousness, and I will hold your hand and strengthen you. I gave you, for righteousness to be a covenant of my family, to be a light of nations, 7 to open the eyes of the blind, to bring those who have been bound out from their bonds those who have been bound, and those seated in darkness from the prison-house. 8 I am Lord God; this is my name; I will not give my glory to another, or my magnificent deeds to graven things. 266 Lord God will inform you of his plans

(42:9)

9 Look, the things from the beginning have come, and I will announce new things that I am doing, and I have made them known to you before they have been reported.”

42:4 Justin Dial. 123.8; 135.2; Cyprian Mort.15; Test. 2.13; Tertullian Marc. 3.21.2; 5.2.5; Origen Comm. Jo. 1.144; Cels. 1.53; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.22; 2.26; Comm. Ps. 9:21 (PG 23:904); Ecl. proph. 4.20; Dem. ev. 2.2; 2.3; 3.2; 8.1; 9.15 42:5 Acts 17:24–25; Theophilus Autol. 2.35; Justin Dial. 65.4; Tertullian An. 11.3; Hippolytus Noet. 18; Origen Princ. 1.3.4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.22; Ecl. proph. 4.23; Praep. ev. 7.11.6 42:6 Luke 2:30, 32; Barn. 14.7; Justin Dial. 26.2; 122.3; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 12.2; Marc. 3.20.4; Origen Comm. Jo. 1.228; 2.154; Cyprian Test. 2.7; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.22; 2.23; 2.38; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.689; PG 24.64); Ecl. proph. 4.20, 24; Dem. ev. 2.2.13; 9.15.9; Praep. ev. 7.11.6; Lactantius Inst. 4.20.12; Epit. 43.7 42:7 Matt 11:5; Luke 1:79; Acts 26:18; Barn. 14.7; Did. apost. 9; Justin Dial. 26.2; 122.3; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 12.2; Marc. 3.20.4; Origen Fr. Jo. (GCS 10:536); Fr. Lam. (GCS 6:236); Comm. Gen. 7.6; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.22–23; Comm. Ps. (PG 23:689; PG 24:64); Ecl. proph. 4.20, 24; Dem. ev. 9.15.1,9; Praep. ev. 4.21.2–3; Lactantius Inst. 4.20.12; Epit. 43.7 42:8 Justin Dial. 65.1; Cyprian Test. 2.7; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.22 42:9 Dionysius of Alexandria Ad Herm (Feltoe 1904, 77); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.22; Hist. eccl. 7.23.2; Dem. ev. 2.2.13

226 267 Sing a new song to God, distant peoples

Text and Translation

(42:10)

10 Ὑμνήσατε τῷ θεῷa ὕμνον καινόν, ἡ ἀρχὴ αὐτοῦb ἀπ’ ἄκρου τῆς γῆς, οἱ καταβαίνοντες εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν καὶ πλέοντες αὐτήν, αἱ νῆσοι καὶ οἱ κατοικοῦντες αὐτάς. 268 Surrounding nations will praise God

(42:11–12)

11 Εὐφράνθητι, ἔρημος καὶ αἱ κῶμαι αὐτῆς, ἐπαύλεις καὶ οἱ κατοικοῦντες Κηδάρ· εὐφρανθήσονται οἱ κατοικοῦντες Πέτραν, ἐπ’c ἄκρωνd τῶν ὀρέων βοήσουσιν· 12 δώσουσιν τῷ θεῷ δόξαν, τὰς ἀρετὰς αὐτοῦ ἐν ταῖς νήσοις ἀναγγελοῦσιν. 269 Lord will no longer wait

(42:13–14)

13 Κύριος ὁ θεὸς τῶν δυνάμεων ἐξελεύσεται καὶ συντρίψει πόλεμον, ἐπεγερεῖ ζῆλον καὶ βοήσεται ἐπὶ τοὺς ἐχθροὺς αὐτοῦ μετὰ ἰσχύος. 14 Ἐσιώπησα, μὴ καὶ ἀεὶ σιωπήσωμαιe καὶ ἀνέξομαι; ἐκαρτέρησα ὡς ἡ τίκτουσαf, ἐκστήσω καὶ ξηρανῶ ἅμα. 270 I will rectify the land

(42:15–17)

15 καὶ θήσωg ποταμοὺς εἰς νήσους καὶ ἕλη ξηρανῶ. 16 καὶ ἄξω τυφλοὺς ἐν ὁδῷ, ᾗ οὐκ ἔγνωσαν, καὶ τρίβους, οὓςh οὐκ ᾔδεισαν, πατῆσαι· ποιήσω αὐτοῖς τὸ σκότος εἰς φῶς καὶ τὰ σκολιὰ εἰς εὐθεῖανi· ταῦτα τὰ ῥήματα ποιήσω καὶ οὐκ ἐγκαταλείψω αὐτούς. 17 αὐτοὶ δὲ ἀπεστράφησαν εἰς τὰ ὀπίσω· αἰσχύνθητε. 271 You shameful idolaters!

(42:17)

Αἰσχύνην, οἱ πεποιθότες ἐπὶ τοῖς γλυπτοῖς οἱ λέγοντες τοῖς χωνευτοῖς Ὑμεῖς ἐστε θεοὶ ὑμῶνj.

aθεῷ] S*; κυρίῳ Scb2ABRZ b αὐτοῦ] S; αὐτοῦ, δοξάζετε τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ ABRZ c ἐπ’] SA; ἀπ’ BRZ dἄκρων] SARZ; ἄκρου B e σιωπήσωμαι] S; σιωπήσομαι ABRZ f ἐκαρτέρησα ὡς ἡ τίκτουσα] SARZ; ὡς ἡ τίκτουσα ἐκαρτέρησα B gκαὶ θήσω] SARZ; ἐρημώσω ὄρη καὶ βουνούς, καὶ πάντα χόρτον αὐτῶν ξηρανῶ καὶ θήσω B h οὓς] SARZ; ἃς B i εἰς εὐθεῖαν] SARZ; εὐθεῖαν B* j ὑμῶν] S*; ἡμῶν ScaABRZ

42:10–17

267 Sing a new song to God, distant peoples

227 (42:10)

10 Sing a new song to God (his rule is from the extremity of the earth), you who go down to the sea and sail it, you islands and you who dwell in them. 268 Surrounding nations will praise God

(42:11–12)

11 Rejoice, desert and its villages, unwalled villages and you who inhabit Kedar, those who inhabit Petra shall rejoice, they shall shout on the extremities of the mountains. 12 They will give God glory; they will announce his magnificent deeds among the islands. 269 Lord will no longer wait

(42:13–14)

13 Lord, God of might, will go out and will crush a war; he will arouse zeal and will shout over his enemies with power. 14 I was silent. Must I always be silent, and will I be tolerant? I was patient like a woman giving birth; I will be confounded and will dry up together. 270 I will rectify the land

(42:15–17)

15 And I will turn rivers into islands and I will dry marshlands up. 16 And I will lead the blind in a way that they have not known, and to walk in paths that they have not seen. I will make the darkness into light for them, and the crooked things into a straight path. I will perform these words and I will not forsake them. 17 But they have been turned back to the things behind; be ashamed! 271 You shameful idolaters!

(42:17)

You who trust shamefully in graven things, you who say to molten things, “You are your gods.” 42:10 Rev 14:3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.23 42:11 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.23; Comm. Ps. (Mercati 1937, 61) 42:12 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.23 42:13 Justin Dial. 65.4; Cyprian Test. 2.28; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.23 42:14 Tertullian Pud. 2.7; Origen Fr. Jer. (GCS 6:231); Cyprian Test. 2.28; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.23; Comm. Ps. (PG 23:313) 42:15 Tertullian Adv. Herm. 34.2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.23 42:16 Acts 26:18; Justin Dial. 122.1; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.23; Comm. Ps. (PG 23:228) 42:17 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.23

228 272 Senseless people will be plundered

Text and Translation

(42:18–22)

18 οἱ κωφοί, ἀκούσατε, καὶ οἱ τυφλοί, ἀναβλέψατε ἰδεῖν. 19 καὶ τίς τυφλὸς ἀλλ’a οἱ παῖδές μου καὶ κωφοὶ ἀλλ’b οἱ κυριεύοντες αὐτῶν; καὶ ἐτυφλώθησαν οἱ δοῦλοι τοῦ θεοῦ. 20 εἴδεc πλεονάκις, καὶ οὐκ ἐφυλάξασθε· ἠνοιγμένα τὰ ὦτα, καὶ ἠκούσατεd. 21 Κύριος ὁ θεὸς ἐβουλεύσατοe ἵνα δικαιωθῇ καὶ μεγαλύνῃ αἴνεσιν. 22 καὶ εἶδον, καὶ ἐγένετο ὁ λαὸς πεπρονομευμένος καὶ διηρπασμένος· ἡ γὰρ παγὶς ἐν τοῖς ταμείοιςf πανταχοῦ, καὶ ἐν τοῖς οἴκοιςg ἅμα, ὅπου ἔκρυψαν αὐτούς, ἐγένοντο εἰς προνομήν, καὶ οὐκ ἦν ὁ ἐξαιρούμενοςh ἅρπαγμα, καὶ οὐκ ἦν ὁ λέγων Ἀπόδος. 273 Israel was plundered for rebellion

(42:23–25)

23 Τίς ἐν ὑμῖν, ὃς ἐνωτιεῖται ταῦτα, εἰσακούσεται τῆς φωνὴς τοῦ παιδὸς αὐτοῦi εἰς τὰ ἐπερχόμενα; 24 Τίςj ἔδωκεν εἰς διαρπαγὴν Ἰακὼβ καὶ Ἰσραήλ, τοῖς προνομεύουσιν αὐτόν; οὐχὶ ὁ θεός, ᾧ ἡμάρτοσαν αὐτῷ καὶ οὐκ ἐβούλοντο ἐν ταῖς ὁδοῖς αὐτοῦ πορεύεσθαι οὐδὲ ἀκούειν τῆς φωνὴς τοῦ νόμουk αὐτοῦ; 25 καὶ ἐπήγαγεν ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς ὀργὴν θυμοῦ αὐτοῦ, καὶ κατίσχυσειν ἐπ’l αὐτούς. πόλεμος καὶ οἱ συμφλέγοντες αὐτοὺς κύκλῳ, καὶ οὐκ ἔγνωσαν ἕκαστος αὐτῶν οὐδὲ ἔθεντο ἐπὶ ψυχήν. 274 Lord God will protect Israel

(43:1–3)

43.1 Καὶ νῦν οὕτως λέγει Κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ ποιήσας σε, Ἰακώβ, ὁ πλάσας σε, Ἰσραήλ· Μὴ φοβοῦ, ὅτι ἐλυτρωσάμην σε· ἐκάλεσά σε τὸ ὄνομά σου, ἐμὸς εἶ σύ. 2 καὶ ἐὰν διαβαίνῃς

aἀλλ’] S; ἀλλ’ ἢ ABRZ b ἀλλ’] S; ἀλλ’ ἢ ABRZ c εἴδε] S*; εἴδεται Scb1; εἴδετε BRZ; ἴδετε A d ἠκούσατε] S*; οὐκ ἠκούσατε Scb1ABRZ e ἐβουλεύσατο] SAB; ἐβούλετο RZQ f ταμείοις] S*B*; ταμιείοις Scb2ARZ g τοῖς οἴκοις] S*; οἴκοις Scb2ABRZ h ὁ ἐξαιρούμενος] SARZ; ἐξαιρούμενος B i εἰσακούσεται τῆς φωνὴς τοῦ παιδὸς αὐτοῦ] S*Scb3; εἰσακούσεται Scb2ARZ; εἰσακούσατε B j Τίς] SARZ; οἷς B kτῆς φωνὴς τοῦ νόμου] S*Scb3; τὸ ὄνομα Scb2; om. τῆς φωνὴς ABRZ l κατίσχυσιν ἐπ’] S*; κατίσχυσιν Sca; κατίσχυσεν ἐπ’ Scb3A; κατίσχυσεν BRZ

42:18–43:2

272 Senseless people will be plundered

229 (42:18–22)

18 Deaf people, listen! And blind people, look up to see! 19 And who is blind other than my servants, and deaf other than those who rule over them? And the bondservants of God have been blinded. 20 You have often seen, and you have not kept watch; your ears have been opened, and you have heard. 21 Lord God wished that he would be justified and she would magnify with praise. And I saw, 22 and the people became spoiled and plundered, for the snare was in their private rooms everywhere, and in their houses together, wherever they hid them, they became booty, and there was no one who rescues the prey, and there was no one who says, “Return it!” 273 Israel was plundered for rebellion

(42:23–25)

23 Who is among you, who lends an ear to these things, who listens to the voice of his child, for the things that are to come? 24 Who gave Jacob and Israel as plunder to those who captured him? Was it not God, against whom they sinned and were unwilling to walk in his ways or to listen to the voice of his law? 25 And he brought the wrath of his passion upon them, also to prevail over them. A war and those burning them up were all around, and each of them did not know, nor did they put it upon their soul. 274 Lord God will protect Israel

(43:1–3)

43.1 And now thus says Lord God who made you, Jacob, who formed you, Israel: “Do not be frightened, for I have redeemed you; I have called you by my name; you are mine. 2 And if you pass through water, I am with you, and rivers will 42:18 Matt 11:5; Luke 7:22; Justin Dial. 27.4; Tertullian Apol. 21.17; Origen Comm. Matt. Frag. 253 (GCS 41,1:117); Comm. Isa. 6.7; Dial. 17; Comm. Matt. 11.18; 16.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.23–24 42:19 Did. apost. 26; Justin Dial. 27.4; 123.2–3; Tertullian Marc. 3.6.6; 5.17.5; Origen Dial. 17; Comm. Matt. 16.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.23–24 42:20 Justin Dial. 123.3; Tertullian Apol. 21.17; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.23 42:21 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.23 42:23 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.23–24 42:23 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.23 42:24 Cyprian Dom. or. 25; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.23 42:25 Cyprian Dom. or. 25; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.23–24 43:1 Hippolytus Haer. 5.8.16; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.24 43:2 Odes Sol. 39.6; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 1.84.4; Hippolytus Haer. 5.8.16; Origen Fr. Jes. Nav. (GCS 30.308); Fr. Ps. A (PG 17.128); Hom I Reg. 9; Hom. Ps. XXXVI 3.1; Hom. Jes. Nav. 4.1; Methodius Res. 1.56.9; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.24

230

Text and Translation

δι’ ὕδατος, ἐγὼ εἰμι μετὰ σοῦa, καὶ ποταμοὶ οὐ συγκλύσουσίν σε· καὶ ἐὰν διέλθῃς διὰ πυρός, οὐ μὴ κατακαυθῇς, φλὸξ οὐ κατακαύσει σε. 3 ὅτι ἐγὼ Κύριος ὁ θεός σου ὁ ἅγιος Ἰσραήλ ὁ σῴζων σε. 275 Do not be frightened

(43:3–8)

ἐποίησά σουb ἄλλαγμα Αἴγυπτον καὶ Αἰθιοπίαν καὶ Σοήνην ὑπὲρ σοῦ. 4 ἀφ’ οὗ ἔντιμος ἐγένου ἐναντίον μουc, ἐδοξάσθης, καὶ ἐγώd σε ἠγάπησα· καὶ δώσω ἀνθρώπους πολλοὺςe ὑπὲρ σοῦ καὶ ἄρχοντας ὑπὲρ τῆς κεφαλῆς σου. 5 μὴ φοβοῦ, ὅτι μετὰ σοῦ εἰμι· ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν ἄξω τὸ σπέρμα σου καὶ ἀπὸ δυσμῶν συνάξω σε. 6 ἐρῶ τῷ βορρᾷ Ἄγε, καὶ τῷ λιβί Μὴ κώλυε· ἄγε τοὺς υἱούς μου ἀπὸ γῆς πόρρωθεν καὶ τὰς θυγατέρας μου ἀπ’ ἄκρουf τῆς γῆς, 7 πάντεςg ὅσοι ἐπικέκληνται τῷ ὀνόματί μου. ἐν γὰρ τῇ δόξῃ μου κατεσκεύασα αὐτὸν καὶ ἔπλασα αὐτὸνh καὶ ἐποίησα αὐτόν· 8 καὶ ἐξήγαγον λαὸν τυφλόν, καὶ ὀφθαλμοί εἰσιν ὡσαύτως τυφλοί, καὶ κωφοὶ τὰ ὦτα ἔχοντες. 276 The nations assembled

(43:9)

9 πάντα τὰ ἔθνη συνήχθησαν ἅμα, καὶ συναχθήσονται ἄρχοντες ἐξ αὐτῶν· Τίς ἀναγγελεῖ ταῦτα; ἢ τὰ ἐξ ἀρχῆς τίς ἀναγγελεῖ ὑμῖν; ἀγαγέτωσαν τοὺς μάρτυρας αὐτῶν καὶ δικαιωθήτωσαν καὶ εἰπάτωσανi ἀληθῆ. 277 You are my witnesses

(43:10–13)

10 γένεσθέ μοι μάρτυρες, καὶ ἐγὼj μάρτυς, λέγει Κύριος ὁ θεός, καὶ ὁ παῖς, ὃν ἐξελεξάμην, ἵνα γνῶτε καὶ πιστεύσητε καὶ συνῆτε ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι, ἔμπροσθέν μου οὐκ ἐγένετο ἄλλος θεὸς καὶ μετ’ ἐμὲ οὐκ ἔσται· 11 ἐγὼ ὁ θεός, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν πάρεξ ἐμοῦ σῴζων. 12

aἐγὼ εἰμι μετὰ σοῦ] S; μετὰ σοῦ εἰμι ABRZ bσου] SBABRZ; σοι S* cμου] SARZ; ἐμοῦ B dκαὶ ἐγώ] SB; κἀγώ ARZ e πολλοὺς] SARZ; om. B f ἄκρου] S; ἄκρων ABRZ g πάντες] S; πάντας ABRZ h ἔπλασα αὐτὸν] S*Scb3B; ἔπλασα Scb2ARZ i εἰπάτωσαν] SARZ; ἀκουσάτωσαν, καὶ εἰπάτωσαν B j καὶ ἐγὼ] SB; κἀγώ ARZ

43:3–12

231

not overwhelm you; and if you pass through fire, you will not be burned up; the flame will not burn you up. 3 Because I am Lord your God, the holy one of Israel who saves you. 275 Do not be frightened

(43:3–8)

I have made Egypt and Ethiopia your payment, and Somne on your behalf, 4 because of which you have become honoured before me; you have been glorified, and I have loved you. And I will give many humans on your behalf, and rulers on behalf of your head. 5 Do not be frightened, for I am with you, I will lead your offspring from the east and I will gather you from the west. 6 I will say to the north, ‘Bring!’ and to the south, ‘Do not hinder!’ Lead my sons from a land afar and my daughters from the extremities of the earth, 7 all you who are called by my name. For by my glory I have prepared him and I have formed him and made him. 8 And I have brought a blind people out, and their eyes are likewise blind, and deaf though they have ears.” 276 The nations assembled

(43:9)

9 All the nations gathered together, and rulers will be gathered from them. Who will announce these things, or who will announce the things from the beginning to you? Let them bring their witnesses and let them be vindicated and speak what is true. 277 You are my witnesses

(43:10–13)

10 “Become witnesses for me; I also am a witness,” says Lord God, “and the servant whom I have chosen so that you might know and believe and understand what I am; there is no other God before me and there will be none after me. 11 I

43:3 Origen Mart. 13; Hom. Exod. 10.4; Hom. Jes. Nav. 4.1; Hom. Lev. 9.3; Comm. Matt. 12.28; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.24 43:4 Rev 3:9; Origen Mart. 13; Hom. Lev. 9.3; Comm. Matt. 12.28; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.24 43:5 Matt 8:11; Luke 13:29; Acts 18:9; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.24 43:6 2 Cor 6:18; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.24 43:7 Methodius Lib. arb. (PO 22,5.829); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.24 43:8 Did. apost. 26; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.24 43:9 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.24 43:10 John 8:28; 13:19; Mart. Ascen. Isa. 4.6; Origen Comm. Jo. 2.209; Mart. 34; Dial. 34; Cels. 2.9; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.24–26; Eccl. proph. 4.21; Eccl. theol. 2.19 43:11 Mart. Ascen. Isa. 4.8; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.24; Eccl. theol. 2.19

232

Text and Translation

ἀνήγγειλα καὶ ἔσωσα, ὠνείδισα καὶ οὐκ ἦν ἐν ὑμῖνa ἀλλότριος· ὑμεῖς ἐμοὶ μάρτυρες κἀγὼ Κύριοςb ὁ θεός. 13 ἔτι ἀπ’ ἀρχῆς καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ὁ ἐκ τῶν χειρῶν μου ἐξαιρούμενος· ποιήσω, καὶ τίς ἀποστρέψει αὐτό; 278 Lord God will send to Babylon

(43:14–15)

14 οὕτως λέγει Κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ λυτρούμενος ὑμᾶς ὁ ἅγιος Ἰσραήλ Ἕνεκεν ὑμῶν ἀποστελῶ εἰς Βαβυλῶνα καὶ ἐπεγερῶ πάντας φεύγονταςc, καὶ Χαλδαῖοι ἐν πλοίοις. Δεθήσονται. 15 ἐγὼ Κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ ἅγιος ὑμῶν ὁ καταδείξας Ἰσραὴλ βασιλέα ὑμῶν. 279 Lord provides a path through the sea

(43:16–17)

16 Οὕτως λέγει Κύριος ὁ διδοὺς ὁδὸν ἐν θαλάσσῃd καὶ ἐν ὕδατι ἰσχυρῷ τρίβον 17 ὁ ἐξαγαγὼν ἅρματα καὶ ἵππον καὶ ὄχλον ἰσχυρόν, ἀλλὰe ἐκοιμήθησανf καὶ οὐκ ἀναστήσονται, ἐσβέσθησαν ὡς λίνον ἐσβεσμένον. 280 Lord is doing new things

(43:18–21)

18 μὴ μνημονεύετε τὰ πρῶτα καὶ τὰ ἀρχαῖα μὴ συλλογίζεσθε. 19 ἰδοὺ ἐγὼg ποιῶ καινὰ ἃ νῦν ἀνατελῶh, καὶ γνώσεσθε αὐτά· καὶ ποιήσω ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ ὁδὸν καὶ ἐν τῇ ἀνύδρῳ ποταμούς. 20 εὐλογήσειi με τὰ θηρία τοῦ ἀγροῦ, σειρῆνες καὶ θυγατέρες στρουθῶν, ὅτι

aὑμῖν] SAR; ἡμῖν BZ bκἀγὼ Κύριος] S; κἀγὼ μάρτυς, λέγει κύριος ARZ; καὶ ἐγὼ Κύριος B cπάντας φεύγοντας] SARZ; φεύγοντας πάντας B d ὁδὸν ἐν θαλάσσῃ] SARZ; ἐν θαλάσσῃ ὁδὸν B e ἀλλὰ] SABR; ἅμα Z f ἐκοιμήθησαν] SARZ; Κοιμηθήσονται B g ἐγὼ] S*Scb3B; om. Scb2ARZ hἀνατελῶ] S*; ἀνατελεῖ ScaABRZ i εὐλογήσει] SARZ; εὐλογήσουσί B

43:13–20

233

am God, and there is no-one besides me who saves. 12 I proclaimed and I saved; I reproached and there was no other among you. You are witnesses for me, and I am Lord God. 13 Since the beginning also there is no one who removes from my hands. I do it, and who will turn it back?” 278 Lord God will send to Babylon

(43:14–15)

14 Thus says Lord God who redeems you, the holy one of Israel: “For your sake I will send to Babylon and awaken all who flee, and Chaldeans will be in ships. “They will be bound. 15 I am Lord your holy god, who unveiled Israel as your king.” 279 Lord provides a path through the sea

(43:16–17)

16 Thus says Lord, who provides a way in the sea and a path in the powerful water, 17 who has brought chariots and horse and a mighty multitude out, but they have fallen asleep and will not awake; they have been extinguished like extinguished flax. 280 Lord is doing new things

(43:18–21)

18 “Do not remember the former things and do not consider the ancient things. 19 Look, I myself am doing new things that I will now make spring forth, and you will know them, and I will make a way in the desert and rivers in the waterless place. 20 The beasts of the field will bless me, Sirens and the daughters of sparrows, because I have provided water in the desert and rivers in a thirsty land,

43:12 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.24 43:13 John 8:58 ; 1 John 1:1; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.24 43:14 Luke 24:21; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.25; 2.32 43:15 Justin Dial. 135.1; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.25 43:16 Matt 14:25; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.25 43:17 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.25 43:18 2 Cor 5:17; Rev 21:4; Did. apost. 26; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.25; Dem. ev. 2.3.19; Cyprian Test. 1.12; Ep. 63.8; Origen Comm. Matt. 17.33; Tertullian Marc. 1.20.4; 4.1.6; Pud. 6.2; Irenaeus Dem. 89 43:19 John 7:38; Rev 21:5; Did. apost. 26; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 2.15.3; Origen Comm. Matt. 17.33; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.25; Hist. eccl. 7.23.2

234

Text and Translation

ἔδωκα ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ ὕδωρ καὶ ποταμοὺς ἐν γῇ διψώσῃa ἐν τῇ ἀνύδρῳ ποτίσαι τὸ γένος μου τὸ ἐκλεκτόν, 21 λαόν μου, ὃν περιεποιησάμην τὰς ἀρετάς μου διηγεῖσθαι. 281 Lord does not desire sacrifices

(43:22–24)

22 Οὐ νῦν ἐκάλεσά σε, Ἰακώβ, οὐδὲ κοπιᾶσαί σε ἐποίησα, Ἰσραήλ· 23 οὐκ ἐμοὶ πρόβαταb τῆς ὁλοκαρπώσεώς σου, οὐδὲ ἐν ταῖς θυσίαις σου ἐδόξασάς με, οὐδὲc ἔγκοπον ἐποίησά σε ἐν λιβάνῳ, 24 οὐδὲ ἐκτήσω μοι ἀργυρίου θυμίαμαd, οὐδὲ στέαρe τῶν θυσιῶν σου ἐπεθύμησα, ἀλλὰ ἐν ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις σου καὶ ἐν ταῖς ἀδικίαις σου προέστην σουf. 282 Your fathers broke the law

(43:25–28)

25 ἐγώ εἰμι ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ἐξαλείφων τὰς ἀνομίας σουg καὶ οὐ μὴ μνησθήσομαι. 26 σὺ δὲ μνήσθητι καὶ κριθῶμεν· λέγε σὺ τὰς ἀνομίας σου πρῶτονh, ἵνα δικαιωθῇς. 27 οἱ πατέρες ὑμῶν πρῶτοι καὶ οἱ ἄρχοντες αὐτῶνi ἠνόμησαν εἰς ἐμέ, 28 καὶ ἐμίαναν οἱ ἄρχοντες τὰ ἅγιά μου, καὶ ἔδωκα ἀπολέσαι Ἰακώβ καὶ Ἰσραὴλ εἰς ὀνειδισμόν. 283 Lord God will provide water and spirit

(44:1–5)

44.1 νῦν δὲ ἄκουσον, παῖς μου Ἰακώβ καὶ Ἰσραήλ, ὃν ἐξελεξάμην. 2 Οὕτως λέγει Κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ ποιήσας σε καὶ ὁ πλάσας ἐκ κοιλίας Ἔτι βοηθηθήσῃ, μὴ φοβοῦ, παῖς μου Ἰακώβ καὶ ὁ ἠγαπημένος Ἰσραήλ, ὃν ἐξελεξάμην· 3 ὅτι ἐγὼ δώσω ὕδωρ ἐν δίψει τοῖς πορευομένοις ἐν ἀνύδρῳ, ἐπιθήσω τὸ πνεῦμά μου ἐπὶ τὸ σπέρμα σου καὶ τὰς εὐλογίας μου ἐπὶ τὰ τέκνα σου, 4 καὶ ἀνατελοῦσιν ὡς ἀνὰ μέσον ὕδατος

aἐν γῇ διψώσῃ] S*Scb3; om. Scb2ARZ bπρόβατα] SARZ; πρόβατά σου B cοὐδὲ] S*BRZ; οὐδὲ ἐδούλευσας ἐν ταῖς θυσίαις σου, οὐδὲ ScaA d θυμίαμα] SARZ; θυσίασμα B e στέαρ] S*A; τὸ στέαρ Scb2BRZ fκαὶ ἐν ταῖς ἀδικίαις σου προέστην σου] SARZ; προέστης μου καὶ ἐν ταῖς ἀδικίαις σου B gτὰς ἀνομίας σου] SAR; τὰς ἀνομίας σου ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ, καὶ τὰς ἁμαρτίας σου BZ h πρῶτον] S; πρῶτος ABRZ i αὐτῶν] SARZ; ὑμῶν B

235

43:21–44:4

in the waterless place, to give drink to my chosen family, 21 my people whom I have preserved, to describe my magnificent deeds. 281 Lord does not desire sacrifices

(43:22–24)

22 I have called you not now, Jacob, nor made you toil, Israel; 23 sheep of your whole burnt offering are not for me, nor have you glorified me by your sacrifices, nor have I made you weary with frankincense, 24 nor have you acquired an incense-offering of silver for me, nor have I desired fat of your sacrifices, but I have stood before you in your sins and in your injustices. 282 Your fathers broke the law

(43:25–28)

25 I am, I am the one who wipes out your lawless acts and I will not remember. 26 But as for you, remember and let us judge; say your lawless acts first, so that you may be justified. 27 Your first fathers and their rulers acted lawlessly toward me, 28 and the rulers have defiled my holy things, and I have given Jacob for destruction, and Israel for reproach. 283 Lord God will provide water and spirit

(44:1–5)

44.1 But now listen, my servant Jacob, and Israel, whom I have chosen.” 2 Thus says Lord God who made you and who formed you from the womb: “You will still be helped; do not be frightened, my servant Jacob, and beloved Israel, whom I have chosen, 3 because I will provide water in thirst to those who walk in a waterless place; I will put my spirit upon your seed and my blessings upon your children.” 4 And they will spring up like grass from the middle of the

43:21 Irenaeus Dem. 89; Cyprian Test. 1.12; Ep. 63.8; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.25–26 43:22–23 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.25 43:24 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.25; Dem. ev. 2.3.19 43:25 Mark 2:7; Luke 5:21; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.25 43:26 Origen Fr. Jer. (GCS 6.227); Hom. Lev. 3.4; 9.8; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.25 43:27–44:1 Eusebius Comm. Isa 2.25 44:1 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.25 44:2 Eph 1:6; Rev 1:17; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.25; 2.27; Hippolytus Haer. 6.14.7 44:3 Irenaeus Dem. 89; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.25; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 16.30 44:4 Origen Hom. Ezech. 1.5; Methodius Convivium 4.3; 9.4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.25

236

Text and Translation

χόρτος καὶa ὡς ἰτέα ἐπὶ παραρρέον ὕδωρ. 5 οὗτος ἐρεῖ Τοῦ θεοῦ εἰμι, καὶ οὗτος βοήσεται ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματι Ἰακώβ, καὶ ἕτερος ἐπιγράψῃb Τοῦ θεοῦ εἰμι, ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματι Ἰσραήλ καὶ βοήσεταιc. 284 There is no god but the God of Israel

(44:6–8)

6 οὕτως λέγει ὁ θεὸς τοῦ Ἰσραὴλd ὁ ῥυσάμενος αὐτὸν θεὸς Σαβαώθ Ἐγὼ πρῶτος καὶ ἐγὼ μετὰ ταῦτα, πλὴν ἐμοῦ οὐκ ἔστιν θεός. 7 τίς ὥσπερ ἐγώ; στήτω καὶ λαλησάτωe καὶ ἑτοιμασάτω μοι ἀφ’ οὗ ἐποίησα ἄνθρωπον εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, καὶ τὰ ἐπερχόμενα πρὸ τοῦ ἐλθεῖν ἀναγγειλάτωσαν ὑμῖν. 8 μὴ παρακαλύπτεσθεf· οὐκ ἀπ’ ἀρχῆς ἠνωτίσασθε καὶ ἀπήγγειλα ὑμῖν; 285 Idol makers will not benefit

(44:8–9)

μάρτυρες ὑμεῖς ἐστε, εἰ ἔστιν θεὸς πλὴν ἐμοῦ· καὶ οὐκ ἦσανg τότε. 9 οἱ πλάσσοντες καὶ οἱ γλύφοντεςh πάντες μάταιαi οἱ ποιοῦντεςj τὰ καταθύμια αὐτῶν, ἃ οὐκ ὠφελήσει αὐτούς. 286 Idol makers will be put to shame

(44:9–11)

ἀλλὰ αἰσχυνθήσονται 10 πάντεςk οἱ πλάσσοντες θεὸν καὶ γλύφοντες ἀνωφελῆ, 11 καὶ πάντες ὅθεν ἐγένοντο ἐξηράνθησαν, καὶ κωφοὶ ἀπὸ ἀνθρώπων. 287 Idols are inanimate objects

(44:11–17)

συναχθήτωσαν πάντες καὶ στήτωσαν ἅμα, ἐντραπήτωσανl καὶ αἰσχυνθήτωσαν ἅμαm. 12 ὅτι ὤξυνεν τέκτων σίδηρον, σκεπάρνῳ εἰργάσατο αὐτὸ καὶ ἐν τερέτρῳ ἔστησενn

aὡς ἀνὰ μέσον ὕδατος χόρτος καὶ] S*B; ὡσεὶ χόρτος ἀνὰ μέσον ὕδατος Scb2; ὡσεὶ χόρτος ἀνὰ μέσον ὕδατος καὶ ARZ bἐπιγράψῃ] S; ἐπιγράφει A; ἐπιγράψει χειρὶ αὐτοῦ B; ἐπιγράψει RZ cκαὶ βοήσεται] SB; om. Scb2ARZ dτοῦ Ἰσραὴλ] S*; ὁ βασιλεὺς τοῦ Ἰσραήλ ScaARZ; ὁ βασιλεὺς Ἰσραήλ καὶ B e στήτω καὶ λαλησάτω] S*; στήτω καὶ καλεσάτω καὶ λαλησάτω Sca; στήτω καὶ καλεσάτω καὶ ἀναγγειλάτω B; gἦσαν] στήτω καλεσάτω ARZ fπαρακαλύπτεσθε] SARZ; παρακαλύπτεσθε μηδὲ πλανᾶσθε B SARZ; ἤκουσαν B h οἱ γλύφοντες] SB; om. οἱ ARZ i μάταια] S*B; μάταιοι ScaARZ j οἱ ποιοῦντες] SARZ; ποιοῦντες B k πάντες] S*Scb3ARZ; om. Scb2B l ἐντραπήτωσαν] SARZ; καὶ ἐντραπήτωσαν B mἐντραπήτωσαν καὶ αἰσχυνθήτωσαν ἅμα] S*Scb3ABRZ; om. Scb2 nἔστησεν] S*B; ἔτρησεν Scb1ARZ

44:5–12

237

water, and like a willow at flowing water. 5 This one will say, “I am God’s!” and this one will cry out at the name of Jacob, and may another be labelled, “I am God’s”; he will also cry out at the name of Israel. 284 There is no god but the God of Israel

(44:6–8)

6 Thus says the God of Israel, who rescues him, God Sabaoth: “I am first and I am after these things; there is no god except me. 7 Who is like me? Let him stand and speak and prepare for me that from which I made humanity forever, and let them proclaim to you the things to come before they come. 8 Do not hide yourselves! Did you not lend your ears from the beginning and I proclaimed it to you? 285 Idol makers will not benefit

(44:8–9)

“You yourselves are witnesses, whether there is a god other than me, and there were not then.” 9 All those who form and carve pointless things are those who make their hearts’ desires, which will not benefit them. 286 Idol makers will be put to shame

(44:8–11)

But they will be ashamed, 10 all who form a god and carve to no benefit, 11 and all they from where they came and the deaf among humans have dried up. 287 Idols are inanimate objects

(44:11–17)

“Let all people be gathered together and let them stand together; let them be ashamed and dishonoured together. 12 Because a craftsman sharpened iron; he worked it with an axe and set it with an awl; he worked it by the arm of his

44:5 Rev 13:16; Tertullian Marc. 4.39.6; Scorp. 7.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.25; Mart. Pal. (Cureton 27; 40) 44:6 Rev 1:17; Hippolytus Noet. 2; Novatian Trinity 30.10; Methodius Res. 1.36.5; Lactantius Inst. 4.29.10; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.26; Marc. 2.2; Eccl. theol. 2.19; 2.22 44:7 Novatian Trinity 30.10; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.26; Eccl. theol. 2.22 44:8 Tertullian Idol. 4.4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.26; Eccl. theol. 2.22 44:9 Tertullian Idol. 4.4; Arnobius Adversus Nationes 6.14; Athanasius C. Gent. 14; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.26; Eccl. theol. 2.22 44:10 Evangelium Philippi copticum 85; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.26 44:11 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.26

238

Text and Translation

αὐτό, εἰργάσατοa αὐτὸ ἐν τῷ βραχίονι τῆς ἰσχύος αὐτοῦ· καὶ πεινάσει καὶ ἀσθενήσει καὶ οὐ μὴ πίῃ ὕδωρ. 13 ἐκλεξάμενος τέκτων ξύλον ἔστησεν αὐτὸ ἐν μέτρῳ καὶ ἐν κόλλῃ ἐρρύθμισεν αὐτό, ἐποίησεν αὐτὸ ὡς μορφὴν ἀνδρὸς καὶ ὡς ὡραιότητα ἀνθρώπου στῆσαι αὐτὸb. 14 ὃ ἔκοψενc ξύλον ἐκ τοῦ δρυμοῦ, ὃ ἐφύτευσεν Κύριοςd καὶ ὑετὸς ἐμήκυνεν, 15 ἵνα ᾖ ἄνθρωποςe εἰς καῦσιν· καὶ λαβὼν ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ ἐθερμάνθη, καὶ καύσαντες ἔπεψαν ἄρτους ἐπ’ αὐτῶν· τὸ δὲ λοιπὸν εἰργάσαντο εἰς θεούςf, καὶ προσκυνοῦσιν αὐτούς. 16 οὗ τὸ ἥμισυg κατέκαυσανh ἐν πυρὶ καὶ καύσαντες ἔπεψαν αὐτοὺς ἐπ’ αὐτῶνi· καὶ ἐπ’ αὐτοῦ κρέας ὀπτήσας ἔφαγεν καὶ ἐνεπλήσθη· καὶ θερμανθεὶς εἶπεν Ἡδύ μοι ὅτι ἐθερμάνθην καὶ εἶδον πῦρ. 17 τὸ δὲ λοιπὸν ἐποίησεν εἰς θεὸν γλυπτὸν καὶ προσκυνεῖ αὐτῷj καὶ προσεύχεται πρὸς αὐτὸνk λέγων Ἐξελοῦ με, ὅτι θεός μου εἶ σύ. 288 Idols are false

(44:18–20)

18 οὐκ ἔγνωσαν φρονῆσαι, ὅτι ἀπημαυρώθησαν τοῦ βλέπειν τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς αὐτῶν καὶ τοῦ νοῆσαι τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτῶν. 19 καὶ οὐκ ἐλογίσατο τῇ καρδίᾳl αὐτοῦ οὐδὲ ἐνελογίσατο ἐνm τῇ ψυχῇ αὐτοῦ οὐδὲ ἔγνω τῇ φρονήσει ὅτι τὸ ἥμισυ αὐτοῦ κατέκαυσεν ἐν πυρὶ καὶ ἔπεψεν ἐπὶ τῶν ἀνθράκων αὐτοῦ ἄρτους καὶ ὀπτήσας κρέαςn ἔφαγεν καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν αὐτοῦ εἰς βδέλυγμα ἐποίησεν καὶ προσκυνήσουσινo αὐτῷ. 20 γνῶτεp ὅτι σποδὸς ἡ καρδία αὐτῶν, καὶ πλανῶνται, καὶ οὐδεὶς δύναται ἐξελέσθαι τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ· ἴδετε, οὐκ ἐρεῖτε ὅτι Ψεῦδος ἐν τῇ δεξιᾷ μου; 289 Remember me and I will forgive you

(44:21–22)

21 μνήσθητι ταῦτα, Ἰακὼβ καὶ Ἰσραήλ, ὁq παῖς μου εἶ σύ· ἔπλασά σε παῖδά μου, καὶ σύ, Ἰσραήλ, μὴ ἐπιλανθάνου μου. 22 ἰδοὺ γὰρ ἀπήλειψα ὡς νεφέλην τὰς ἀνομίας σου καὶ ὡς γνόφον τὰς ἁμαρτίας σου· ἐπιστράφητι πρός με, καὶ λυτρώσομαί σε.

aεἰργάσατο] SARZ; καὶ εἰργάσατο B b στῆσαι αὐτὸ] S*; στῆσαι αὐτὸ ἐν οἴκῳ Scb2ABRZ c ὃ ἔκοψεν] SARZ; ἔκοψεν B dΚύριος] SARZ; ὁ κύριος B e ἄνθρωπος] S*; ἀνθρώποις ScaABRZ fεἰς θεούς] SARZ; Θεούς B g ἥμισυ] S*; ἥμισυ αὐτοῦ Scb2ABRZ h κατέκαυσαν] SRZ; κατέκαυσεν AB i πυρὶ καὶ καύσαντες ἔπεψαν αὐτοὺς ἐπ’ αὐτῶν] S*; πυρί ScaZ; πυρὶ καὶ καύσαντες ἔπεψαν ἄρτους ἐπ’ αὐτῶν Scb1 AR; πυρί ἐπὶ τοῦ ἡμίσους αὐτοῦ ἔπεψεν ἐν τοῖς ἄνθραξιν ἄρτους B j αὐτῷ] SARZ; om. B k πρὸς αὐτὸν] S; πρὸς αὐτὸ B; om. ARZ lτῇ καρδίᾳ] SBARZ; ἡ καρδία S*; om. B mαὐτοῦ οὐδὲ ἐνελογίσατο ἐν] S; οὐδὲ ἀνελογίσατο ἐν A; om. B; αὐτοῦ οὐδὲ ἀνελογίσατο ἐν RZ nκρέας] SARZ; κρέα B oπροσκυνήσουσιν] S; προσκυνοῦσιν ABRZ p γνῶτε] SARZ; γνῶθι B q ὁ] S*; ὅτι ScaABRZ

44:13–22

239

strength. And he will get hungry and weak and certainly will not drink water. 13 After choosing a piece of wood, a craftsman set it with a measure, and fit it with glue; he made to set it like a shape of a person and as the beauty of a person. 14 That which he cut is wood from the forest, that Lord planted and rain made grow, 15 so that a person might be for burning. And after taking some of it he was warmed, and they burned them and baked bread on them, but they worked the rest into gods, and they worship them. 16 They burned half in the fire, and they burned and they baked them on them, and he roasted meat on it and ate and was satisfied, and he warmed himself and said, “It was pleasant to me that I was warmed and saw fire.” 17 He made the rest into a carved god and worships it and prays to it, saying, “Rescue me, because you are my god!” 288 Idols are false

(44:18–20)

18 They did not know to be intelligent, for they were deprived of sight to see with their eyes and to think with their heart. 19 He did not reckon in his heart or calculate in his soul or know in his mind that he burned the half of it in fire and baked bread upon its coals and roasted and ate meat and made the rest of it into an abomination and they will worship it. 20 Know that their heart is ashes and they are deceived, and no one is able to rescue his soul. Look, will you not say, “There is a falsehood in my right hand”? 289 Remember me and I will forgive you

(44:21–22)

21 Remember these things, Jacob and Israel; you are my servant; I formed you, my servants, and you, Israel, do not forget me. 22 For look, I have blotted your lawless acts out like a cloud and your sins like darkness. Return to me and I will redeem you.

44:14 Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 6.10 44:15 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.26; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 6.10 44:17 Gos. Phil. 85; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 6.10 44:20 Tertullian Idol. 4.4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.26; Arnobius Aversus nationes 6.14; Athanasius C. Gent. 14 44:21 Luke 3:22; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.26 44:22 Clement of Alexandria Strom. 2.65.1; Origen Fr. Ps. (SC 189.240); Fr. Rom. 50; Hom. Ps. 2.5; Hom. Gen. 13.4; Hom. Luc. 17; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 18.35; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.26

240

Text and Translation

290 Rejoice, for God has redeemed Israel

(44:23)

23 εὐφράνθητε, οὐρανοί, ὅτι ἠλέησεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν Ἰσραήλ· σαλπίσατε, τὰ θεμέλιαa τῆς γῆς, βοήσατε, ὄρη, εὐφροσύνην, οἱ βουνοὶ καὶ πάντα τὰ ξύλα τὰ ἐν αὐτοῖς, ὅτι ἐλυτρώσατο ὁ θεὸς τὸν Ἰακώβ, καὶ Ἰσραὴλ δοξασθήσεται. 291 Your redeemer created the world

(44:24)

24 Οὕτως λέγει Κύριος ὁ λυτρούμενός σε καὶ ὁ πλάσαςb σε ἐκ κοιλίας Ἐγὼ Κύριος ὁ συντελῶν πάντα ἐξέτεινα τὸν οὐρανὸν μόνος καὶ ἐστερέωσα τὴν γῆν. 292 Lord will rebuild Jerusalem

(44:25–28)

25 τίς ἕτερος διασκεδάσει σημεῖα ἐγγαστριμύθων καὶ μαντείας ἀπὸ καρδίας, ἀποστρέφων φρονίμους εἰς τὰ ὀπίσω καὶ τὴν βουλὴν αὐτῶν μωρεύων 26 καὶ ἱστῶν ῥήματα παιδὸς αὐτοῦ καὶ τὴν βουλὴν τῶν ἀγγέλων αὐτοῦ ἀληθεύων; ὁ λέγων Ἰερουσαλήμ Κατοικηθήσῃ, καὶ ταῖς πόλεσιν τῆς Ἰουδαίαςc Οἰκοδομηθήσεσθε, καὶ τὰ ἔρημα αὐτῆς ἀνατελεῖ· 27 ὁ λέγων τῇ ἀβύσσῳ Ἐρημωθήσῃ, καὶ τοὺς ποταμούς σου ξηρανῶ· 28 ὁ λέγων Κύρῳ φρονεῖν, καὶ Πάντα τὰ θελήματά μου ποιήσει· ὁ λέγων Ἰερουσαλήμ Οἰκοδομηθήσῃ, καὶ τὸν οἶκον τὸν ἅγιόν μου θεμελιώσω.

aτὰ θεμέλια] SB; θεμέλια ARZ Ἰδουμαίας BR

bὁ πλάσας] S; πλάσσων ABZ; ὁ πλάσσων R

cἸουδαίας] SAZ;

44:23–28

290 Rejoice, for God has redeemed Israel

241 (44:23)

23 Rejoice, skies, for God has shown mercy to Israel! Blow the trumpet, foundations of the land! Call out with joy, mountains, hills and all the trees in them, for God has redeemed Jacob, and Israel will be glorified. 291 Your redeemer created the world

(44:24)

24 Thus says Lord who redeems you and who formed you from the womb: “I am Lord who accomplishes all things; I alone stretched out the sky and firmed up the land. 292 Lord will rebuild Jerusalem

(44:25–28)

25 “Who else will scatter signs of diviners, and the divinations from the heart, returning the wise to the things behind, and making their counsel foolish, 26 establishing the words of his servant and verifying the counsel of his messengers? The one who says to Jerusalem, ‘You will be inhabited!’ and to the cities of Judea, ‘You will be built!’ will cause even its deserted places to sprout. 27 The one who says to the abyss, ‘Be desolated!’ will also dry up its rivers. 28 The one who tells Cyrus to think will do all my will. I, the one who says to Jerusalem, ‘You will be built!’ will also lay the foundation of my sacred house.”

44:23 Rev 12:12; Athanasius Ep. fest. 6.9; John Chrysostom Hom. Rom. 14; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.26; 2.27 44:24 Luke 24:21; Tertullian Herm. 6.2; Prax. 18.5; 19.1; 19.4; 19.5; Athanasius Decr. 9; C. Ar. 3.9; Didymus Comm. Zach. 4.323; Trin. 3.16; 1.36; John Chrysostom Exp. Ps. 8; Fem. Reg. (Dumortier 137); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.27; Praep. ev. 7.11.6; Hippolytus Antichr. 32; Haer. 6.14.7 44:25 1 Cor 1:20; Tertullian Marc. 4.25.4; Prax. 19.4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.27 44:26 Tertullian Marc. 4.22.10; Prax. 19.4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.27; 2.34 44:27 Rev 16:12; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.27 44:28 Acts 13:22; Didymus Comm. Eccl. 28.10; Comm. Zach. 2.166; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.67; 2.27; 2.28; 2.34

242 293 Cyrus, Lord God’s anointed

Text and Translation

(45:1–6)

45.1 Οὕτως λέγει Κύριος ὁ θεὸς τῷ χριστῷ μου Κύρῳ, οὐκa ἐκράτησα τῆς δεξιᾶς ἐπακοῦσαι ἔμπροσθεν αὐτοῦ ἔθνη, καὶ ἰσχὺν βασιλέων διαρρήξω, ἀνοίξω ἔμπροσθεν αὐτοῦ θύρας, καὶ πόλεις οὐ συγκλεισθήσονται 2 Ἐγὼ ἔμπροσθέν σουb πορεύσωμαιc καὶ ὄρη ὁμαλιῶ, θύρας χαλκᾶς συντρίψω καὶ μοχλοὺς σιδηροῦς συγκλάσωd 3 καὶ δώσω σοι θησαυροὺς σκοτεινούς, ἀποκρύφουςe ἀοράτους ἀνοίξω σοι, ἵνα γνῷςf ὅτι ἐγὼ Κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ καλῶν τὸ ὄνομά σου, θεὸς Ἰσραήλ. 4 ἕνεκεν Ἰακὼβ τοῦ παιδός μου καὶ Ἰσραὴλ τοῦ ἐκλεκτοῦ μου ἐγὼg καλέσω σε τῷ ὀνόματί σουh καὶ προσδέξομαί σε, σὺ δὲ οὐκ ἔγνωςi 5 ὅτι ἐγὼ Κύριος ὁ θεός, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ἔτι πλὴν ἐμοῦ θεόςj, καὶ οὐκ ᾔδειςk με, 6 ἵνα γνῶσιν οἱ ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν ἡλίου καὶ οἱ ἀπὸ δυσμῶν ὅτι οὐκ ἔστιν πλὴν ἐμοῦ. 294 Lord God makes all things

(45:6–7)

ἐγὼl Κύριος ὁ θεός, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ἔτι· 7 ἐγὼ ὁ κατασκευάσας φῶς καὶ ποιήσας σκότος, ὁ ποιῶν εἰρήνην καὶ κτίζων κακά· ἐγὼ Κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ ποιῶν πάντα ταῦταm.

aοὐκ] S*; οὗ SccABRZ b σου] SBRZ; αὐτοῦ A c πορεύσωμαι] S; πορεύσομαι ABRZ d συγκλάσω] SAR; συνκλάσω B e ἀποκρύφους] SRZ; ἀποκυρύφους AB f γνῷς] SBRZ; γνώσῃ A g ἐγὼ] SBRZ; ἐρὼ A hσου] S*R; μου Scb2ABZ i ἔγνως] S*; ἔγνως με Scb3ABRZ j θεός] SARZ; ἐνίσχυσά σε B kᾔδεις] SBRZ; ᾔδεισα A l ἐγὼ] SBRZ; καὶ ὅτι ἐγὼ A m πάντα ταῦτα] SB; ταῦτα πάντα ARZ

45:1–7

293 Cyrus, Lord God’s anointed

243 (45:1–6)

45.1 Thus says Lord God to my anointed, Cyrus: “I have not grasped your right hand for nations to listen before him. And I will tear the power of kings; I will open doors before him, and cities will not be enclosed. 2 May I go before you, and I will level mountains; I will crush brass doors and shatter iron bars. 3 And I will give you dark treasures; I will open hidden unseen things for you, so that you might know that I am Lord God who calls your name, the God of Israel. 4 For the sake of Jacob, my servant, and Israel, my chosen, I will call you by your name and I will accept you, but you did not know 5 that I am Lord God, and there is yet no God except me, and you have not known me, 6 so that those from the rising of the sun and those from the west might know that there is none besides me. 294 Lord God makes all things

(45:6–7)

“I am Lord God, and yet there is no one. 7 I am the one who prepared light and made darkness, the one who makes peace and who creates evil things. I am Lord God who makes all these things.

45:1 Barn. 12.11; Irenaeus Dem. 49; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 7.2; 7.5; Origen Comm. Gen. 3; Fr. Jer. (GCS 6.220); Novatian Trinity 26.7; Cyprian Test. 1.21; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.67; 2.27; 2.28; Praep. ev. 6.11.22; Lactantius Inst. 4.12.18 45:2 Odes Sol. 17.9; Barn. 11.4; Origen Fr. Jer. (GCS 6.220); Princ. 4.3.11; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.27; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.97); Dem. ev. 10.8.64 45:3 Col 2:3; Barn. 11.4; Lactantius Inst. 4.12.18; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 7.5; Marc. 4.25.4; 5.6.1; 5.14.9; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 3.87.3; Strom. 5.64.1; Origen Comm. Jo. 2.173; Comm. Matt. 14.11; Princ. 4.3.11; Hom. Cant. 1.5; John Chrysostom Coemet. (PG 49.395); Basil of Caesarea Hom. Ps. (PG 29.337); Gregory of Nazianzus Or. Bas. 2.96; Methodius De sanguisuga 5.4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.27 45:4 Origen Comm. Gen. 3; Fr. Jer. (GCS 6.179); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.27; Praep. ev. 6.11.22 45:5 Tatian Fr. var. (TU 4,1.49); Tertullian Val. 21.1; Carn. Chr. 24.2; Hippolytus Haer. 6.33; Origen Princ. 2.4.1; Methodius Res. 3.23.5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.24, 26–27, 34; Praep. ev. 7.11.6 45:6 Novatian Trinity 3.5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.27 45:7 Philo Spec. 2.192; Tertullian Herm. 32.2; Marc. 1.2.2; 1.16.4; 2.14.1; 2.24.4; 4.1.10; Origen Princ. 4.2.1; Hom. Isa. 4.1; Cels. 6.55; 6.56; Novatian Trinity 3.5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.27; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 6.27; 9.7

244 295 Lord God formed you

Text and Translation

(45:8–10)

8 Εὐφρανθήτω ὁ οὐρανὸς ἄνωθεν, καὶ νεφέλαιa ῥανάτωσανb δικαιοσύνην· ἀνατειλάτω ἡ γῆ ἔλεοςc καὶ δικαιοσύνην ἀνατειλάτω ἅμαd· ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος ὁ θεὸςe ὁ κτίσας σε. 9 Ποῖον βέλτιον κατεσκεύασα ὡς πηλὸν κεραμέως; μὴ ὁ ἀροτριῶν ἀροτριᾷ εἰςf τὴν γῆν ὅλην τὴν ἡμέρανg; μὴ ἐρεῖ ὁ πηλὸς τῷ κεραμεῖ Τί ποιεῖς, ὅτι οὐκ ἐργάζῃ οὐδὲ ἔχεις χεῖρας; 10 μὴ ἀποκριθήσεται τὸ πλάσμαh τῷ πρὸςπλάσαντι αὐτὸνi ὁ λέγων τῷ πατρί Τί γεννήσεις; καὶ τῇ μητρί Τί ὠδινήσειςj; 296 Ask Lord God about what he produced

(45:11)

11 Ὅτι οὕτως λέγει Κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ ἅγιος Ἰσραὴλ ὁ ποιήσας τὰ ἐπερχόμενα Ἐρωτήσατέ με περὶ τῶν υἱῶν μου καὶ περὶ τῶν θυγατέρων μουk καὶ περὶ τῶν ἔργων τῶν χειρῶν μου ἐντείλασθέ μοι. 297 Lord Sabaoth ordered the world

(45:12–13)

12 ἐγὼ ἐποίησα γῆν καὶ ἄνθρωπον ἐπ’ αὐτῆς, ἐγὼ τῇ χειρί μου ἐστερέωσα τὸν οὐρανόν, ἐγὼ πᾶσι τοῖς ἄστροις ἐνετειλάμην. 13 ἐγὼ ἤγειρα αὐτὸν μετὰ δικαιοσύνης βασιλέαl, πᾶσαιm αἱ ὁδοὶ αὐτοῦ εὐθεῖαι· οὗτοςn οἰκοδομήσει τὴν πόλιν μου καὶ τὴν αἰχμαλωσίαν τοῦ λαοῦ μου ἐπιστρέψει οὐ μετὰ λύτρων οὐδὲ μετὰ δώρων, εἶπεν Κύριος Σαβαώθ. 298 Foreigners will worship you

(45:14–16)

14 Οὕτως λέγει Κύριος Σαβαώθ Ἐκοπίασεν Αἴγυπτος καὶ ἐμπορία Αἰθιόπων, καὶ οἱ Σαβαεὶνo ἄνδρες ὑψηλοὶ ἐπὶ σὲ διαβήσονται καὶ σοὶ ἔσονται δοῦλοι καὶ ὀπίσω σου ἀκολουθήσωσινp δεδεμένοι χειροπέδαις καὶ προσκυνήσουσίνq σοι καὶ ἐν σοὶ προσεύ-

aνεφέλαι] S*; αἱ νεφέλαι ScaABRZ b ῥανάτωσαν] SBRZ; ῥαινέτωσαν A c ἔλεος] SRZ; καὶ βλαστησάτω ἔλεος AB dἀνατειλάτω ἅμα] SARZ; ἀναγγειλάτω ἅμα B eὁ θεὸς] S*Scb3; om. Scb2ABRZ fἀροτριᾷ εἰς] S*; ἀροτριάσει Scb3ABRZ gὅλην τὴν ἡμέραν] S*Scb3BR; om. Scb2AZ hμὴ ἀποκριθήσεται τὸ πλάσμα] S*Scb3B; om. Scb2ARZ i τῷ πρὸς πλάσαντι αὐτὸν] S*Scb3; om. Scb2ARZ; τὸν πλάσαντα αὐτό B jὠδινήσεις] SARZ; ὠδίνεις B kκαὶ περὶ τῶν θυγατέρων μου] SARZ; om. B l βασιλέα] SBR; om. Scb3AZ m πᾶσαι] S*; καὶ πᾶσαι ScaABRZ nοὗτος] SBRZ; αὐτὸς A o Σαβαεὶν] S; Σεβωεὶμ AB; Σεβωιν RZ p ἀκολουθήσωσιν] S; ἀκολουθήσουσιν ABRZ q προσκυνήσουσίν] SARZ; διαβήσονται πρὸς σὲ καὶ προσκυνήσουσίν B

45:8–14

295 Lord God formed you

245 (45:8–10)

8 “Let the sky above rejoice, and let clouds sprinkle righteousness; let the land cause mercy to sprout and let it sprout righteousness together. “I am Lord, the God who created you. 9 What better thing have I prepared as potter’s clay? Does the ploughman plough into the land the whole day? Will the clay say to the potter, ‘What are you doing, because you do not work or have hands?’ 10 Does the shape answer the one shaping it? The one who says to the father, ‘What will you beget?’ and to the mother, ‘With what will you be in labour?’” 296 Ask Lord God about what he produced

(45:11)

11 For thus says Lord God, the holy one of Israel, who made the things to come: “Ask me about my sons and about my daughters, and command me concerning the works of my hands. 297 Lord Sabaoth ordered the world

(45:12–13)

12 “I myself made the land and humanity upon it; I myself firmed up the heaven by my hand, I myself commanded all the stars. 13 I myself raised him as king with righteousness; all his ways are straight. This one will build my city and will turn back the captivity of my people not by ransoms or gifts,” said Lord Sabaoth. 298 Foreigners will worship you

(45:14–16)

14 Thus says Lord Sabaoth: “Egypt and the trade of Ethiopians has grown weary, and the Sabaein, haughty men, will come over to you and they will be bondservants to you, and they will follow behind you, chained in handcuffs, and they

45:8 Clement of Alexandria Paed. 1.41.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.27; Lactantius Inst. 4.12.9 45:9 Rom 9:20; Did. apost. 9; Tertullian Marc. 2.2.7; 2.9.7; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.28 45:10 Rom 9:20; Did. apost. 9; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.28 45:11 Hippolytus Noet. 4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.28 45:12 Theophilus Autol. 2.35; Origen Princ. 1.7.3; Hom. Num. 15.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.28; Dem. ev. 5.4.1; Ecl. proph. 4.22; Eccl. theol. 2.21; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 13.28 45:13 Origen Hom. Ps. 3.22; Fr. Jer. (GCS 6.209); Princ. 4.2.1; Hippolytus Noet. 4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.28; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.1044; 1220); Ecl. proph. 4.22; Dem. ev. 5.4.1–2 45:14 1 Cor 14:25; Hymenaeus of Jerusalem Ad Paulum Samosatenum 3; Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 2; Noet. 2; 4; Cyprian Test. 2.6; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.28; Ecl. proph. 4.22; Dem. ev. 5.4.3; 5.4.4; 5.4.7; 5.4.15; 5.4.16; Eccl. theol. 2.19; Lactantius Epit. 39.4; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 11.16

246

Text and Translation

ξονται, ὅτι ἐν σοὶ ὁ θεός ἐστιν, καὶ οὐκa ἔστιν θεὸςb πλὴν σοῦ· 15 σὺ γὰρ εἶ ὁ θεόςc, καὶ οὐκ ᾔδειμεν, ὁ θεὸς τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ σωτήρd. 16 αἰσχυνθήσονται καὶ ἐντραπήσονται πάντες οἱ ἀντικείμενοι αὐτῷ καὶ πορεύσονται ἐν αἰσχύνῃ. 299 Lord will restore Israel

(45:16–17)

Ἐγκαινίζεσθε πρός με, νῆσοι. 17 Ἰσραὴλ σῴζεται ὑπὸ Κυρίου σωτηρίαν αἰώνιον· οὐκ αἰσχυνθήσονται οὐδὲ μὴ ἐντραπῶσιν ἕως τοῦ αἰῶνος. 300 Only Lord announces truth

(45:18–19)

18 Οὕτως λέγει Κύριος ὁ ποιήσας τὸν οὐρανόν, οὗτος ὁ θεὸς ὁ καταδείξας τὴν γῆν καὶ ποιήσας αὐτήν, αὐτὸς διώρισεν αὐτήν, οὐκ εἰς κενὸν ἐποίησεν αὐτὴνe ἀλλὰ κατοικεῖσθαιf Ἐγώ εἰμι, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ἔτι. 19 οὐκ ἐν κρυφῇ λελάληκα οὐδὲ ἐν τόπῳ γῆς σκοτεινῷg· οὐκ εἶπα τῷ σπέρματι Ἰακώβ Μάταιον ζητήσατε· ἐγώ εἰμι ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος ὁh λαλῶν δικαιοσύνην καὶ ἀναγγέλλων ἀλήθειαν. 301 Only Lord is righteous

(45:20–21)

20 συνάχθητε καὶ ἥκετε, βουλεύσασθε ἅμα, οἱ σῳζόμενοι ἀπὸ τῶν ἐθνῶν. οὐκ ἔγνωσαν οἱ αἴροντες τὸ ξύλον γλύμματαi αὐτῶν καὶ προσευχόμενοι ὡςj πρὸς θεούς, οἳ οὐ σῴζωσιν. 21 εἰ ἀναγγελοῦσινk, ἐγγισάτωσαν, ἵνα γνῶσινl ἅμα τίς ἀκουστὰ ἐποίησεν ταῦτα ἀπ’ ἀρχῆς. πότεm ἀνηγγέλη ὑμῖν ἐγὼ ὁ θεός, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ἄλλος πλὴν ἐμοῦ· δίκαιος καὶ σωτὴρ οὐκ ἔστιν πάρεξ ἐμοῦ.

aοὐκ] SB; ἐροῦσιν Οὐκ ARZ b ἔστιν θεὸς] SBRZ; ἔστιν ὁ θεὸς A c εἶ ὁ θεός] S*; εἶ θεός Scb2ABRZ dσωτήρ] SARZ; om. B e αὐτὴν] SARZ; om. B fκατοικεῖσθαι] SARZ; κατοικεῖσθαι ἔπλασεν αὐτήν B g σκοτεινῷ] SBRZ; σκοτινῷ A h Κύριος ὁ] SB; om. A; κύριος RZ i γλύμματα] S; γλύμμα ABRZ j ὡς] SARZ; om. B kἀναγγελοῦσιν] SBRZ; ἀναγγέλλουσιν A l γνῶσιν] SBRZ; γνῶμεν A m πότε] S; τότε ABRZ

45:15–21

247

will worship you and pray by you, because God is among you, and here is no God except you, 15 for you are God, and we did not know it. The God of Israel is a saviour. 16 All who oppose him will be put to shame and dishonoured, and they will walk in shame. 299 Lord will restore Israel

(45:16–17)

“Be renewed to me, islands! 17 Israel will be saved by Lord with an eternal salvation; they will not be put to shame or be dishonoured forever.” 300 Only Lord announces truth

(45:18–19)

18 Thus says Lord who made the sky; this is God who has unveiled the land and made it; he delimited it; he did not make it for nothing, but for it to be inhabited: “I am, and there is none besides. 19 I have not spoken in secret or in a dark place of land. I did not say to the seed of Jacob, “Seek pointlessly!” I am; I am Lord who speaks righteousness and announces truth. 301 Only Lord is righteous

(45:20–21)

20 “Gather together and come, deliberate together, you who are saved from the nations! They have not known, those who lift up the tree, their engravings, and pray as if to gods who do not save. 21 If they announce, let them approach, so that they might know at once who made these audible things from the beginning. At some time it will be announced to you, I am God, and there is no other besides me, there is no one righteous or a saviour except me.

45:15 Hymenaeus of Jerusalem Ad Paulum Samosatenum 3; Hippolytus Noet. 2; 4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.28; Ecl. proph. 4.22; Dem. ev. 5.4.4; 5.4.5; 5.4.7; 5.4.15; Eccl. theol. 2.19; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 11.16 45:16 Luke 13:17; Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 2; Cyprian Test. 2.6; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.28–29; Ecl. proph. 4.22; Dem. ev. 5.4.3; Lactantius Inst. 4.13.7; Epit. 39.4; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 6 45:17 Heb 5:9; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.28–29; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 6 45:18 Tertullian Herm. 29.2; 29.7; 29.8; Methodius Res. 1.47.7; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.29 45:19 John 18:20; Clement of Alexandria Protr. 79.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.29 45:20 Origen Hom. Jes. 3.4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.29 45:21 Mark 12:32; Acts 15:18; Acts of Thomas 1 (Wright 165); Clement of Alexandria Strom. 4.170.3; Tertullian Marc. 2.26.1; Novatian Trinity 3.2; 30.9; Methodius Res. 3.23.5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.29; Eccl. theol. 2.19; 2.20; 2.22

248 302 Every knee will bend to Lord

Text and Translation

(45:22–25)

22 ἐπιστράφητε πρός μεa καὶ σωθήσεσθε, οἱ ἀπ’ ἐσχάτου τῆς γῆς· ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ θεός, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ἄλλοςb. 23 κατ’ ἐμαυτοῦ ὀμνύων Εἰ μὴc ἐξελεύσεται ἐκ τοῦ στόματός μου δικαιοσύνη, καὶ οἱ λόγοιd μου οὐκ ἀποστραφήσονται ὅτι ἐμοὶ κάμψει πᾶν γόνυ καὶ ὀμνεῖταιe πᾶσα γλῶσσα τὸν Κύριονf 24 λέγων Δικαιοσύνη καὶ εἰρήνηg πρὸς αὐτὸν ἥξειh, καὶ αἰσχυνθήσονται πάντες οἱ διορίζοντεςi ἑαυτούςj· 25 ἀπὸ Κυρίου δικαιωθήσεταιk καὶ ἐνδοξασθήσεταιl πᾶν τὸ σπέρμα τῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραήλ. 303 Bel and Dagon have fallen

(46:1–2)

46.1 Ἔπεσε Βήλ, συνετρίβη Δαγώνm, ἐγένετο τὰ γλυπτὰ αὐτῶν εἰς θηρία καὶ κτήνηn· αἴρετε αὐτὰ καταδεδεμένα ὡς φορτίον κοπιῶντι 2 καὶ πεινῶντι οὐκ ἰσχύοντι ἐκλελυμένῳo ἅμα, οἳ οὐ δυνήσονταιp σωθῆναι ἀπὸ πολέμου, αὐτοὶ δὲ αἰχμάλωτοι ἤχθησαν. 304 I made you and lift you up

(46:3–4)

3 Ἀκούετεq, ὁ οἶκοςr τοῦ Ἰακὼβ καὶ πᾶν τὸ κατάλοιπον τοῦ Ἰσραήλ οἱ αἰρόμενοι ἐκs κοιλίας καὶ παιδευόμενοι ἐκ παιδίου 4 ἕως γήρους·t ἐγώ εἰμι, καὶ ἕως ἂν καταγηράσητε, ἐγώ εἰμι· ἐγὼ ἀνέχομαι ὑμῶν, ἐγὼ ἐποίησα καὶ ἐγὼ ἀνήσω, ἐγὼ ἀναλήμψομαι καὶ σώσω ὑμᾶς. 305 Fabrications cannot save

(46:5–7)

5 Τινί με ὁμοιώσατε. ἴδετε, ἴδετεu τεχνάσασθε, οἱ πλανώμενοι. 6 οἱ συμβαλλόμενοι χρυσίον ἐκ μαρσιππίουv καὶ ἀργύριον ἐν ζυγῷ στήσουσιν ἐν σταθμῷ καὶ μισθωσάμενοι χρυσοχόον ἐποίησαν χειροποίητα καὶ κύψαςw προσκυνεῖx αὐτῷy. 7 αἴρουσιν αὐτὸ ἐπὶ

aπρός με] SARZ; ἐπ’ ἐμὲ B b ἄλλος] SBRZ; ἄλλος πλὴν ἐμοῦ· δίκαιος καὶ σωτὴρ οὐκ ἔστιν πάρεξ ἐμοῦ A c ὀμνύων Εἰ μὴ] S*; ὀμνύω, εἰ μὴν, Scb1A; ὀμνύω, εἰ μὴ B; ὀμνύω Ἦ μὴν RZ d καὶ οἱ λόγοι] S*Scb3; οἱ λόγοι Scb2ABRZ eὀμνεῖται] S*Scb3; ὀμεῖται ScaB; ἐξομολογήσεται Scb1ARZ; fτὸν Κύριον] S*; τὸν θεόν ScaB; τῷ θεῷ Scb2ARZ gεἰρήνη] S*Scb3; δόξα Sca h ἥξει] S*B; ἥξουσιν Scb2ARZ iδιορίζοντες] S*B; ἀφορίζοντες ScaARZ j ἑαυτούς] SRZ; αὐτούς AB k δικαιωθήσεται] S*; δικαιωθήσονται Scb2ABRZ lἐνδοξασθήσεται] S*; ἐν τῷ θεῷ ἐνδοξασθήσεται Scb2B; ἐν τῷ θεῷ ἐνδοξασθήσονται ARZ mΔαγών] SARZ; Ναβώ B n κτήνη] SARZ; τὰ κτήνη B o καὶ πινῶντι οὐκ ἰσχύοντι ἐκλελυμένῳ] S*; καὶ πεινῶντι ἐκλελυμένῳ οὐκ ἰσχύοντι Scb2; καὶ πεινῶντι καὶ ἐκλελυμένῳ, οὐκ ἰσχύοντι ARZ; ἐκλελυμένῳ καὶ πεινῶντι, οὐκ ἰσχύοντι B p δυνήσονται] SBRZ; μὴ δύνωνται A q Ἀκούετε] S*; Ἀκούετέ μου Scb2B; Ἀκούσατέ μου SdARZ r ὁ οἶκος] S; οἶκος ABRZ s ἐκ] SBRZ; ἀπὸ A t γήρους] S*BRZ; γήρως Scb3A uἴδετε, ἴδετε] S*; ἴδετε Scb2ABRZ vμαρσιππίου] SBRZ; μαρσίππου A wκύψας] S*; κύψαντες Scb2ABRZ x προσκυνεῖ] S*; προσκυνοῦσιν Scb1ABRZ y αὐτῷ] S; αὐτοῖς BRZ; αὐτό A

45:22–46:7

302 Every knee will bend to Lord

249 (45:22–25)

22 “Return to me and you will be saved, you from the end of the land. I am God, and there is no other, 23 swearing by my own self: ‘Unless righteousness will go forth my mouth, and my words will not return, because every knee will bend to me, and every tongue will swear by Lord, 24 saying, “Righteousness and peace will be present with him, and all who distinguish themselves will be put to shame. 25 He will be justified by Lord, and every seed of the sons of Israel will be glorified.”’ 303 Bel and Dagon have fallen

(46:1–2)

46.1 “Bel has fallen, Dagon has been shattered. Their graven images became wild animals and cattle. Lift them up, bound like a burden for an exhausted 2 and hungry person, lacking power, weary at the same time, those who will not be able to be saved from war, but they were led captive. 304 I made you and lift you up

(46:3–4)

3 “Listen, house of Jacob and all the remnant of Israel who have been raised from the womb and trained from childhood4 until old age. I am the one, and until you have become old, I am the one. I put up with you; I made you and I will lift you up, I will take you up and save you. 305 Fabrications cannot save

(46:5–7)

5 “Compare me to someone! Look, look! Be skilful, you who are deceived. 6 Those who contribute gold from a bag and silver in a scale will set it with a weight, and they hired a goldsmith and made handmade things, and bowing,

45:22 Tertullian Marc. 1.11.5; Origen Hom. Num. 8.1; 19.2; 24.2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.29; Dem. ev. 2.3.21 45:23 Rom 14:11; Phil 2:10, 11; Clement of Alexandria Protr. 79.3; Tertullian Herm. 6.1 Marc. 2.26.1; Origen Or. 31.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.29 45:24 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.29 45:25 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.29; 2.30; Dem. ev. 2.3.21 46:1–2 Cyprian Test. 3.59; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.30 46:3 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.30–32; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 4.2 46:4 Origen Fr. Matt. 22; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.30–31; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 4.2 46:5 Philo Leg. 2.5; Cyprian Test. 3.59; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.31–32 46:6 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.31

250

Text and Translation

τῶν ὤμωνa, καὶ πορεύσονταιb· ἐὰν δὲ θῶσινc αὐτό, ἐπὶ τοῦ τόπου αὐτοῦ μένει, καὶ οὐ μὴ κινηθῇd· καὶ ἐὰνe βοήσειf πρὸςg αὐτόν, οὐ μὴ ἀκούσῃh, ἀπὸ κακῶν οὐ μὴ σώσῃi αὐτόν. 306 I will do what I have decided

(46:8–11)

8 μνήσθητε ταῦτα καὶ στενάξατε, μετανοήσατε, οἱ πεπλανημένοι, ἐπιστρέψατε τῇ καρδίᾳ. 9 καὶ μετανοήσατεj μνήσθητε τὰ πρότερα ἀπὸ τοῦ αἰῶνος, ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ θεός, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ἔτι πλὴν ἐμοῦ 10 ἀναγγέλλων πρότερον τὰ ἔσχατα πρὶν αὐτὰ γενέσθαιk, καὶ ἅμα συνετελέσθη· καὶ εἶπα Πᾶσά μου ἡ βουλὴ στήσεται, καὶ πάντα, ὅσα βεβούλευμαι, ποιήσω· 11 καλῶν ἀπ’ ἀνατολῶν πετεινὸν καὶ ἀπὸ γῆς πόρρωθεν περὶ ὧν βεβούλευμαι, ἐλάλησα καὶ ἐποίησαl, ἔκτισα καὶ ἐποίησα, ἤγαγον αὐτὸν καὶ εὐόδωσα τὴν ὁδὸν αὐτοῦ. 307 I have brought salvation to Israel

(46:12–13)

12 Ἀκούσατέ μου, οἱ ἀπολωλεκότες τὴν καρδίαν οἱ μακρὰν ἀπὸ τῆς δικαιοσύνης. 13 ἤγγισα τὴν δικαιοσύνην μου καὶ τὴν ἀλήθειανm καὶ τὴν σωτηρίαν τὴν παρ’ ἐμοῦ οὐ βραδυνῶ· δέδωκα ἐν Σιὼν σωτηρίαν τῷ Ἰσραὴλ εἰς δόξανn. 308 Virgin daughter of the Chaldeans

(47:1–4)

47.1 κατάβηθι κάθισον ἐπὶ τὴν γῆνo, παρθένος θυγάτηρ Βαβυλῶνος, εἴσελθεp εἰς τὸ σκότοςq, παρθένος θυγάτηρr Χαλδαίων, ὅτι οὐκέτι προστεθήσῃ κληθῆναι ἁπαλὴ καὶ τρυφερά. 2 λάβε μύλον, ἄλεσον ἄλευρον, ἀποκάλυψαι τὸ κατακάλυμμαs, ἀνακάλυψαι τὰς πολιάς, ἀνάσυραι τὰς κνήμας, διάβηθι ποταμούς· 3 ἀνακαλυφθήσεται ἡ αἰσχύνη σου, φανήσονται οἱ ὀνειδισμοί σου· τὸ δίκαιον ἐκ σοῦ λήμψομαι, οὐκέτι μὴ παραδῶ σεt ἀνθρώποις. 4 ὁ ῥυσάμενόςu σε Κύριος Σαβαώθ ὄνομα αὐτῷ ἅγιος Ἰσραήλ.

aτῶν ὤμων] SARZ; τοῦ ὤμου B b πορεύσονται] S*; πορεύονται Scb2ABRZ c δὲ θῶσιν] SBRZ; θῶσιν A d καὶ οὐ μὴ κινηθῇ] S*; οὐ μὴ κινηθῇ Scb2ABRZ e καὶ ἐὰν] S*; ὃς ἂν ScaARZ; καὶ ὃς ἐὰν B fβοήσει] S; βοήσῃ ABRZ gπρὸς] SBRZ; πρὸ A h ἀκούσῃ] S*A; εἰσακούσῃ ScaBRZ iσώσῃ] SBRZ; σώσει A j μετανοήσατε] S*Scb3; om. Scb2; μνήσθητε ABRZ k γενέσθαι] SBRZ; γενέσθι A l ἐλάλησα καὶ ἐποίησα] S*Scb3; ἐλάλησα καὶ ἤγαγον Scb2ABRZ m καὶ τὴν ἀλήθειαν] S*Scb3; om. Scb2ABRZ n δόξαν] S*Scb3; δόξασμα Scb2ABRZ o τὴν γῆν] SARZ; γῆν B p εἴσελθε] SARZ; κάθισον B q τὸ σκότος] SARZ; τὴν γῆν B r παρθένος θυγάτηρ] S; θυγάτηρ ABRZ s κατακάλυμμα] S*; κατακάλυμμά σου ScaABRZ t σε] S; om. ABRZ u ὁ ῥυσάμενός] S*B; εἶπεν ὁ ῥυσάμενός ScaARZ

46:8–47:4

251

he worships it. 7 They lift it up on their shoulders and they will walk; and if they set it in its place, it stays in place, and it certainly does not get moved. And if he calls out to it, it does not hear; it certainly cannot save him from evil things. 306 I will do what I have decided

(46:8–11)

8 “Remember these things and groan; repent, you who have been deceived; return in your heart, 9 and repent. Remember the former things from eternity, that I am God, and there is no other except me, 10 who proclaim beforehand the final things before they happen, and they are completed at once. And I said, ‘All my counsel will stand, and I will do all the things I have decided, 11 calling a bird from the east and from a land from afar. Concerning which things I have decided. I spoke and made, I created and made; I led him and I prospered his path.’ 307 I have brought salvation to Israel

(46:12–13)

12 “Listen to me, you who have destroyed the heart, who are far from righteousness. 13 I have brought my righteousness, and I will not delay the truth and the salvation which is from me. I have provided salvation to Israel in Zion for glory. 308 Virgin daughter of the Chaldeans

(47:1–4)

47.1 “Come down, sit upon the land, virgin daughter of Babylon! Enter into the darkness, virgin daughter of the Chaldaeans, because you will no longer continue to be called tender and delicate. 2 Take a millstone, grind flour, remove the veil, uncover your greyness, bare your legs, go through rivers! 3 Your shame will be revealed, your reproaches will be apparent. I will take your righteousness from you; I will certainly no longer hand you over to humans. 4 The one who rescues you (Lord Sabaoth is his name) is the Holy One of Israel.

46:7 Cyprian Test. 3.59; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.31 46:8 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.31; Eccl. theol. 2.19 46:9 Acts of Thomas 1 (Wright 173); Clement of Alexandria Ecl. 38.1; Tertullian Carn. Chr. 24.2; Hippolytus Haer. 6.33; Origen Princ. 2.4.1; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.19; Eccl. theol. 2.19 46:10 John 13:19; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.39; 1.56; 2.12; 2.21; 2.31; 2.33 46:11 Rev 16:12; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.27; 2.31 46:12 Tertullian Marc. 3.22.1; 5.17.14; Origen Dial. 22; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.32 47:1 Hippolytus Antichr. 34; Origen Comm. Gen. 3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.32; Praep. ev. 6.11.81 47:2–4 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.32

252 309 Sit down, daughter of the Chaldeans

Text and Translation

(47:5–7)

5 κάθισον κατανενυγμένη, εἴσελθε εἰς τὸ σκότος, θυγάτηρ Χαδλέωνa, οὐκέτι μὴ κληθῇςb ἰσχὺς βασιλείας. 6 παροξύνθῃςc ἐπὶ τῷ λαῷ μου, ἐμίανας τὴν κληρονομίαν μου· ἐγὼ ἔδωκα αὐτοὺςd εἰς τὴν χεῖρά σου, σὺ δὲ οὐκ ἔδωκας αὐτοῖς ἔλεος οὐδὲνe, τοῦ πρεσβυτέρου ἐβάρυνας τὸν ζυγὸν σφόδρα. 7 καὶ εἶπας Εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα ἔσομαι ἄρχουσα· οὐκ ἐνόησας ταῦτα ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ σου οὐδὲ ἐμνήσθης τὰ ἔσχατα. 310 Hear this, conceited woman

(47:8)

8 νῦν δὲ ἄκουεf ταῦτα, ἡ τρυφερὰg ἡ καθημένη ἡh πεποιθυῖα ἡ λέγουσα ἐν καρδίᾳi αὐτῆς Ἐγώ εἰμι, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ἑτέρα· οὐ καθιῶ χήρα οὐδὲ γνώσομαι ὀρφανείαν. 311 Calamity will come upon you

(47:9–12)

9 νῦν δὲ ἥξει ἐπὶ σὲj τὰ δύο ταῦταk ἐν μιᾷ ἡμέρᾳ· χηρεία καὶ ἀτεκνία ἥξει ἐξαίφνης ἐπὶ σὲl ἐν τῇ φαρμακείᾳ σου ἐν τῇ ἰσχύι τῶν ἐπαοιδῶν σου σφόδρα 10 τῇ ἐλπίδι τῆς πορνίαςm σου. σὺ γὰρ εἶπας Ἐγώ εἰμι, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ἑτέρα. γνῶθιn ἡ σύνεσις τούτων ἔσταιo ἡ πορνεία σου σοὶp αἰσχύνη. καὶ εἶπας τῇ καρδίᾳ σου Ἐγώ εἰμι, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ἑτέρα. 11 καὶ ἥξει ἐπὶ σὲ ἀπώλεια, καὶ οὐ μὴ γνῷς βόθυνονq, καὶ ἐμπεσῇ εἰς αὐτόν· καὶ ἥξει ἐπὶ σὲ ταλαιπωρία, καὶ οὐ μὴ δυνήσῃ καθαρὰ γενέσθαι· καὶ ἥξει ἐπὶ σὲ ἐξαπίνης ἀπώλειαr, καὶ οὐ μὴ γνῷς. 312 Let your witchcraft save you

(47:12–13)

12 στῆθι νῦν ἐν ταῖς ἐπαοιδαῖς σου καὶ τῇ πολλῇs φαρμακείᾳ σου, ἃ ἐμάνθανες ἐκ νεότητός σου, ἑν δυνήσῃt ὠφεληθῆναι. 13 καὶu κεκοπίακας ἐν ταῖς βουλαῖς σου.

aΧαδλέων] S*; Χαλδέων ScaABRZ b κληθῇς] SR; κληθήσῃ ABZ c παροξύνθῃς] S*Scb3; παροξυνθην Scb2ABRZ dαὐτοὺς] S; om. ABRZ e οὐδὲν] S*; om. ScaABRZ f ἄκουε] S*B; ἄκουσον Scb2ARZ g ἡ τρυφερὰ] SARZ; τρυφερά B h ἡ] SAB; om. RZ i καρδίᾳ] S*B; τῇ καρδίᾳ Scb2ARZ j ἐπὶ σὲ] S*; ἐξαίφνης Scb2ABRZ k τὰ δύο ταῦτα] SARZ; om. B lτὰ δύο ταῦτα ἐν μιᾷ ἡμέρᾳ· χηρεία καὶ ἀτεκνία ἥξει ἐξαίφνης ἐπὶ σὲ] SARZ; om. B mπορνίας] S; πονηρίας ABRZ n γνῶθι] S*Scb2B; +ὅτι ScaARZ o ἔσται] S*; καὶ ἔσται ScaScb3; καὶ Scb2ARZ; ἔσται καὶ B pσοὶ] SB; ἔσται σοι ARZ qβόθυνον] S*; βόθυνος Scb2ABRZ rἀπώλεια] ScaABRZ; ἀπώλειας S* sτῇ πολλῇ] SBRZ; ἐν τῇ πολλῇ A t ἑν δυνήσῃ] S*; εἰ δυνήσῃ ScaRZ; εἰ δυνήσει AB u καὶ] S; om. ABRZ

47:5–13

309 Sit down, daughter of the Chaldeans

253 (47:5–7)

5 “Sit down, cut to the heart, enter into the darkness, daughter of the Chaldaeans, you will no longer be called the strength of a kingdom. 6 May you be provoked at my people; you have defiled my inheritance, I gave them into your hand, but you did not give them any mercy; you very much weighed down the yoke of the old. 7 And you said, ‘I will be a ruler forever!’ You have not realized these things in your heart nor remembered the final things. 310 Hear this, conceited woman

(47:8)

8 “But now hear these things, delicate woman who sits confident, who says in her heart, ‘I am the one, and there is no other woman, I will not sit as a widow or experience orphanhood.’ 311 Calamity will come upon you

(47:9–12)

9 “And now these two things will come upon you in one day: widowhood and childlessness will suddenly come upon you powerfully in your witchcraft, in the power of your enchanters, 10 in the hope of your fornication. For you said, ‘I am the one, and there are no other women.’ Know, understanding of these things: your fornication will be shame for you. And you said in your heart, ‘I am the one, and there is no other woman.’ 11 And destruction will come upon you, and you will certainly not know a pit, and you will fall into it, and distress will come upon you, and you will not be able to become clean, and destruction will come upon you suddenly, and you will certainly not know it. 312 Let your witchcraft save you

(47:12–13)

12 “Stand now in your enchantments and in your great witchcraft, which you learned from your youth; you will be able to benefit one thing. 13 And you have become weary in your counsels. 47:5 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.32; Praep. ev. 6.11.81; Origen Comm. Gen. 3 47:6–7 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.32 47:8 Rev 18:7 47:9 Rev 18:8, 23; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.32 47:10Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.32 47:12 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.32 47:13 Origen Fr. Jer. (GCS 6.223); Comm. Gen. 3 (SC 26.194); Eusebius Praep. ev. 6.11.81; Comm. Isa. 2.32

254 313 Let the astrologers save you

Text and Translation

(47:13–15)

στήτωσαν καὶ σωσάτωσάν σε οἱ ἀστρολόγοι τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, οἱ ὁρῶντες τοὺς ἀστέρας ἀναγγειλάτωσάν σοι τί μέλλει ἐπὶ σὲ ἔρχεσθαι. 14 ἰδοὺ πάντες ὡς φρύγανα ἐπὶ πυρὶ κατακαυθήσονταιa καὶ οὐ μὴ ἐξέλωνται τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτῶν ἐκ φλογός· ὅτι ἔχεις ἄνθρακας πυρός, κάθισαι ἐπ’ αὐτούς. 15 οὗτοι ἔσονταί σοι βοήθεια, ἐκοπίασας ἐν τῇ μεταβολῇ σουb ἐκ νεότητος, ἄνθρωπος καθ’ ἑαυτὸν ἐπλανήθη, σοὶ δὲ οὐκ ἔσται σωτηρία. 314 Listen, Israel

(48:1–2)

48.1 Ἀκούσατε ταῦτα, οἶκος Ἰακώβ οἱ κεκλημένοι ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματι Ἰσραὴλ καὶ οἱ ἐξ Ἰουδα ἐξελθόντες οἱ ὀμνύοντες τῷ ὀνόματι Κυρίου θεοῦ Ἰσραὴλ μιμνῃσκόμενοι οὐ μετὰ ἀληθείας οὐδὲ μετὰ δικαιοσύνης 2 καὶ ἀντεχόμενοι τῷ ὀνόματι τῆς πόλεως τῆς ἁγίας καὶ ἐπὶ τῷ θεῷ τοῦ Ἰσραήλ ἀντιστηριζόμενοςc Κύριος Σαβαὼθ ὄνομα αὐτῷ. 315 I did what I foretold

(48:3–5)

3 Τὰ πρότερα ἔτι ἀνήγγειλα, καὶ ἐκ τοῦ στόματός μου ἐξῆλθονd καὶ ἀκουστὸνe ἐγένετο· ἐξάπινα ἐποίησα, καὶ ἐπῆλθεν. 4 Γινώσκω ἐγὼ ὅτι σκληρὸς εἶ, καὶ νεῦρον σιδηροῦν ὁ τράχηλός σου, καὶ τὸ μέτωπόν σου χαλχοῦν. 5 καὶ ἀνήγγειλά σοι πάλαιf, πρὶν ἐλθεῖν ἐπὶ σὲ ἀκουστόν σοι ἐποίησα· μὴg εἴπῃς ὅτι Τὰ εἴδωλά μοιh ἐποίησανi, καὶ μὴ εἴπῃςj ὅτι Τὰ γλυπτὰ καὶ τὰ χωνευτὰ ἐνετείλατό μοι. 316 You do not know the future

(48:6–9)

6 ἠκούσατε πάντα, καὶ ὑμεῖς οὐκ ἐγνώκατεk· ἀλλὰ καὶ ἀκουστάl σοι ἐποίησα τὰ καινὰ ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν, ἃ μέλλει γίνεσθαι, καὶ οὐκ εἶπας. 7 νῦν γίνεται καὶ οὐ πάλαι, καὶ οὐ

aκατακαυθήσονται] SB; κατακαήσονται ARZ b σου] SARZ; om. B c ἀντιστηριζόμενος] S*; ἀντιστηριζόμενοι ScaABRZ dἐξῆλθον] S*; ἐξῆλθεν ScorrABRZ eἀκουστὸν] SBRZ; ἀκουστὰ A fπάλαι] S*R; τὰ πάλαι Scb2AZ; παλαιὰ B g μὴ] SARZ; μή ποτε B h μοι] μου R i ἐποίησαν] SARZ; ἐποίησεν B jκαὶ μὴ εἴπῃς] SARZ; καὶ εἴπῃς B kἐγνώκατε] S*Scb3; ἔγνωτε Scb2ABRZ lκαὶ ἀκουστά] SARZ; ἀκουστά B

47:14–48:7

313 Let the astrologers save you

255 (47:13–15)

“Let the astrologers of the sky stand and save you; let those who look to the stars proclaim to you what is about to come upon you. 14 Look, all people will be burned up like sticks on a fire, and they will certainly not rescue their soul from the flame, because you have coals of fire to set upon them. 15 These will be a help to you; you have become weary in your business from your youth. Every person has been deceived; there will be no salvation for you.” 314 Listen, Israel

(48:1–2)

48. 1 Listen to these things, house of Jacob, who are called at the name of Israel and who have come out from Judah, who swear by the name of Lord God of Israel, remembering not with truth or with righteousness, 2 and clinging to the name of the holy city and one who leans on the God of Israel, Lord Sabaoth is his name. 315 I did what I foretold

(48:3–5)

3 “I still declared the former things, and they went out from my mouth and it became heard; I acted suddenly and it came upon them. 4 “I know that you are hard and your neck is an iron sinew, and your forehead is brass. 5 And long ago I proclaimed to you; I made them audible to you before they came upon you. Do not say, ‘They made idols for me,’ and do not say, ‘The graven and molten things have commanded me.’ 316 You do not know the future

(48:6–9)

6 “You have heard all things, and you did not know; rather, I even made new things from the present time audible to you, things that are about to happen, and you did not speak. 7 It is happening now, and not long ago, and you have 47:14 Rev 18:8; Origen Princ. 2.5.3; 2.10.6; Hom. Ezech. 1.3; Cels. 5.15; 6.56; Pamphilius Apol. Orig. 8; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.32; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 4.18 47:15 Hippolytus Antichr. 34; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.32; Origen Princ. 2.5.3; 2.10.6; Hom. Ezech. 1.3.; Cels. 5.15; 6.56; Pamphilius Apol. Orig. 8; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 4.18 48:1 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.33 48:2 Matt 4:5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.33 48:3–5 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.33 48:6 Rev 1:19 48:7–8 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.33

256

Text and Translation

προτέραις ἡμέραις ἤκουσας αὐτά· μὴ εἴπῃςa Ναί, γινώσκω αὐτά. 8 οὔτε ἔγνοιςb οὔτε ἐπίστωc, οὔτε ἀπ’ ἀρχῆς ἤνοιξά σου τὰ ὦταd· ἔγνων γὰρ ὅτι ἀθετῶν ἀθετήσεις καὶ ἄνομος ἔτι ἐκ κοιλίας κληθήσῃ. 9 ἕνεκεν τοῦ ἐμοῦ ὀνόματος δείξω σοι τὸν θυμόν μου καὶ τὰ ἔνδοξά μου ἐπάξω σοίe, ἵνα μὴ ἐξολεθρεύσω σε. 317 I will rescue you for my own reputation

(48:10–11)

10 ἰδοὺ πέπρακά σε οὐχ ἕνεκεν ἀργυρίου, ἐξειλάμην δέ σε ἐκ καμίνου πτωχείας· 11 ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ ποιήσω σοι, ὅτι τὸ ἐμὸν ὄνομα βεβηλοῦται, καὶ τὴν δόξαν μου οὐ δώσω ἑτέρῳf. 318 The creator will call them

(48:12–14)

12 Ἄκουέ μου, Ἰακώβ καὶ Ἰσραὴλ ὃν ἐγὼ καλῶ· ἐγώ εἰμι πρῶτος, καὶ ἐγώ εἰμι εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, 13 καὶ ἡ χείρ μου ἐθεμελίωσεν τὴν γῆν, καὶ ἡ δεξιά μου ἐστερέωσεν τὸν οὐρανόν· καλέσω αὐτούς, καὶ στήσονται ἅμα 14 καὶ συναχθήσονται πάντες καὶ ἀκούσονται. τίς ἀνήγγειλεν αὐτοῖςg ταῦτα; 319 If you had obeyed, you would have prospered

(48:14–19)

ἀγαπῶν σε ἐποίησα τὸ θέλημά σου ἐπὶ Βαβυλῶναh τοῦ ἆραι σπέρμα Χαλδαίων. 15 ἐγὼ ἐλάλησα, ἐγὼ ἐκάλεσα, ἤγαγον αὐτὸν καὶ εὐόδωκαi τὴν ὁδὸν αὐτοῦ. 16 Προσαγάγετε πρός με καὶ ἀκούσατε ταῦτα· οὐκ ἀπ’ ἀρχῆς ἐν κρυφῇ ἐλάλησα οὐδὲ ἐν τόπῳ γῆς σκοτεινῷj· ἡνίκα ἐγένετο, ἐκεῖ ἤμην, καὶ νῦν Κύριος ἀπέσταλκένk με καὶ τὸ πνεῦμα αὐτοῦ. 17 Οὕτως λέγει Κύριος ὁ ῥυσάμενός σε ὁl ἅγιος Ἰσραήλ Ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ θεός σου, οὐm δέδειχά σοι τοῦ εὑρεῖν σε τὴν ὁδόν, ἐν ᾗ πορεύσῃ ἐν αὐτῇ. 18 καὶ ἤκουσαςn μου τῶν

aεἴπῃς] S*B; εἴπῃς ὅτι Scb2ARZ bἔγνοις] S*; ἔγνως ScaABRZ cἐπίστω] S; ἠπίστω ABRZ dσου τὰ ὦτα] SBRZ; τὰ ὦτά σου A e σοί] S; ἐπὶ σοί ScaARZ; ἐπὶ σέ B f οὐ δώσω ἑτέρῳ] S; ἑτέρῳ οὐ δώσω ABRZ gἀνήγγειλεν αὐτοῖς] S; αὐτοῖς ἀνήγγειλεν ABRZ hτὸ θέλημά σου ἐπὶ Βαβυλῶνα] SBRZ; ταῦτα ἐπὶ Βαβυλῶνα, τὸ θέλημά σου A iεὐόδωκα] S; εὐόδωσα ABRZ jἐλάλησα οὐδὲ ἐν τόπῳ γῆς σκοτεινῷ] S*AR; ἐλάλησα ScaZ; λελάληκα B k ἀπέσταλκέν] SARZ; ἀπέστειλέν B l σε ὁ] SARZ; om. B m οὐ] S*; om. ScaABRZ n ἤκουσας] S*; εἰ ἤκουσας ScaABRZ

48:8–18

257

not heard them in former days. Do not say, ‘Yes, I know these things.’ 8 You have neither perceived nor known, nor have I opened your ears from the beginning, for I knew that you would rebel rebelliously, and you will still be called lawless from the womb. 9 For the sake of my name I will show you my wrath and I will bring my esteemed things upon you, so that I might not totally destroy you. 317 I will rescue you for my own reputation

(48:10–11)

10 “Look, I have sold you not for money, but I have rescued you from a furnace of poverty. 11 I will act for you for my sake, because my name is being profaned, and I will not give my glory to another. 318 The creator will call them

(48:12–14)

12 “Listen to me, Jacob, and Israel whom I myself call: I am first and I am forever, 13 and my hand laid the foundation of the land, and my right hand firmed up the heaven. I will call them, and they will stand together, 14 and all people will be gathered and they will listen. Who has proclaimed these things to them? 319 If you had obeyed, you would have prospered

(48:14–19)

“I, loving you, have done your will against Babylon, to carry away the seed of the Chaldeans. 15 I spoke, I called; I led him and prospered his path. 16 “Come to me and hear these things; I have not spoken in secret from the beginning or in a dark place of the land. When it happened, I was there, and now Lord has sent me and his spirit.” 17 Thus says Lord who rescued you, the holy one of Israel: “I am your God; I did not you how to find the way in which you might walk in it. 18 And you lis-

48:9 Origen Cels. 5.15 48:10 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.33 48:11 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.33; Novatian Trinity 3.2 48:12 Rev 1:17; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.34; Ecl. proph. 4.23; Dem. ev. 5.6.1; 5.6.2; 6.22 48:13 Rom 4:17; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 13.28; Eusebius Dem. ev. 5.6.5; 6.22; Comm. Ps.; Tertullian Herm. 45.2 48:14–15 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.34 48:16 Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 16.30; Eusebius Ecl. proph. 4.23; Dem. ev. 5.6.1; 5.6.2; 5.6.5; 5.6.7; 6.22; Comm. Isa. 2.34; Origen Comm. Jo. 2.79; 2.81; 2.83; Comm. Matt. 13.18; Cels. 1.46 48:17–19 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.34

258

Text and Translation

ἐντολῶνa, ἐγένετο ἂν ὡσεὶ ποταμὸς ἡ εἰρήνη σου καὶ ἡ δικαιοσύνη σου ὡς κῦμα θαλάσσης· 19 καὶ ἐγένετο ἂν ὡς ἡb ἄμμος τῆς θαλάσσηςc τὸ σπέρμα σου καὶ τὰ ἔκγονα τῆς κοιλίας σου ὡς ὁ χοῦς τῆς γῆς· οὐδὲ νῦν οὐ μὴ ἐξωλεθρευθῇςd, οὐδὲ μὴe ἀπολεῖται τὸ ὄνομά σου ἐναντίονf μουg. 320 Lord will provide water for his servant Jacob

(48:20–22)

20 Ἔξελθε ἐκ Βαβυλῶνος φεύγων ἐκ γῆςh Χαλδαίων· φωνὴν εὐφροσύνης ἀναγγείλατεi, καὶ ἀκουστὸν γενέσθω τοῦτο, ἀπαγγείλατε ὡςj ἐσχάτου τῆς γῆς, καὶ ἀκουστὸν γενέσθω τοῦτοk λέγετε ὅτιl Ἐρρύσατο Κύριος τὸν δοῦλονm αὐτοῦ Ἰακώβ. 21 καὶ ἐὰν διψῶσινn, δι’ ἐρήμου ἄξει αὐτοῖςo, ὕδωρ ἐκ πέτρας ἐξάξει αὐτοῖς· σχισθήσεται πέτρα, καὶ ῥυήσεται ὕδωρ, καὶ πίεται ὁ λαός μου. 22 οὐκ ἔστιν χαίρειν τοῖς ἀσεβέσιν, λέγει Κύριοςp. 321 Lord called me as his servant Israel

(49:1–4)

49.1 ἀκούσατέ μου, αἱ νῆσοιq, καὶ προσέχετε, ἔθνη· διὰ χρόνου πολλοῦ στήσεται, λέγει Κύριος. ἐκ κοιλίας μητρός μου ἐκάλεσεν τὸ ὄνομά μου 2 καὶ ἔθηκεν τὸ στόμα μου ὡσεὶr μάχαιραν ὀξεῖαν καὶ ὑπὸ τὴν σκέπην τῆς χειρὸς αὐτοῦ ἐσκέπασένs με, ἔθηκέν με ὡς βέλος ἐκλεκτὸν καὶ ἐν τῇ φαρέτρᾳ αὐτοῦ ἔκρυψέν με. 3 καὶ εἶπέν μοι Δοῦλός μου εἶ σύ, Ἰσραήλ, καὶ ἐν σοὶ δοξασθήσομαιt. 4 καὶ ἐγὼ εἶπα Κενῶς ἐκοπίασα καὶ εἰς μάταιον καὶ εἰςu οὐδὲνv δέδωκαw τὴν ἰσχύν μου· διὰ τοῦτο ἡ κρίσις μου παρὰ Κυρίῳx, καὶ ὁ πόνος μου ἔναντιy τοῦ θεοῦ μου.

aμου τῶν ἐντολῶν] S; τῶν ἐντολῶν μου ABRZ b ὡς ἡ] SBRZ; ὡσεὶ A c τῆς θαλάσσης] S; om. ABRZ dἐξωλεθρευθῇς] S; ἐξολεθρευθῇς ABRZ eοὐδὲ μὴ] S*; οὐδὲ Scb2ABRZ fἐναντίον] S*; ἐνώπιόν Scb2ABRZ gμου] SARZ; ἐμοῦ B hἐκ γῆς] S*; ἀπὸ τῶν Scb2ABRZ iἀναγγείλατε] SARZ; ἀναγγείλατε B j ὡς] S*; ἕως SccABRZ k καὶ ἀκουστὸν γενέσθω τοῦτο] S*Scb3; om. Scb2ABRZ l ὅτι] *Scb3; om. Scb2ABRZ m δοῦλον] SBRZ; λαὸν A nδιψῶσιν] S; διψήσωσιν ABRZ oαὐτοῖς] SB; αὐτούς ARZ p τοῖς ἀσεβέσιν, λέγει Κύριος] SARZ; λέγει Κύριος, τοῖς ἀσεβέσιν B q αἱ νῆσοι] SBRZ; νῆσοι A r ὡσεὶ] ARZ; ὡς B s ἐσκέπασέν] S*; ἔκρυψέν ScaABRZ t δοξασθήσομαι] SARZ; ἐνδοξασθήσομαι B u καὶ εἰς] SARZ; εἰς B v οὐδὲν] SBR; οὐθὲν AZ w δέδωκα] S; ἔδωκα ABRZ x Κυρίῳ] SBRZ; Κυρίου A y ἔναντι] S; ἐναντίον ABRZ

48:19–49:4

259

tened to my commandments; your peace would have been like a river, and your righteousness like a wave of the sea, 19 and your seed would have been like the sand and offspring of your womb like the dust of the land. And now you might not be utterly destroyed, and your name would not perish before me.” 320 Lord will provide water for his servant Jacob

(48:20–22)

20 “Come out of Babylon, fleeing from the land of the Chaldaeans. Proclaim it with a voice of joy, and let this be heard; report it like the end of the land, and let this become audible, say ‘Lord has rescued his bondservant Jacob.’ 21 And if they thirst, he will bring water for them through the desert, he will bring it out from a rock. A rock will split open and water will flow, and my people will drink. 22 There is no rejoicing for the ungodly,” says Lord. 321 Lord called me as his servant Israel

(49:1–4)

49.1 “Listen to me, islands, and pay attention! Nations will stand through much time,” says Lord. He called my name from my mother’s womb, 2 and he set my mouth like a sharp sword, and he sheltered me under the shelter of his hand; he made me like a choice arrow and he hid me in his quiver. 3 And he said to me, “You are my bondservant, Israel, and I will be glorified in you.” 4 And I said, “I have toiled in vain and pointlessly, and I have given my strength for nothing.” Because of this, my justice is with Lord, and my hard work is before my God.

48:20 Rev 18:4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.34 48:21 Cyprian Test. 1.12 (14); Ep. 63.8; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.34 48:22 Athanasius Ep. fest. 2.4; 3.2; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 1.94.2; Philo Mut. 169; Origen Hom. Num. 11.8; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.34 49:1 Gal 1:15; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 10.12; Origen Comm. Jo. 1.134; 1.136; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.35; Eusebius Ecl. proph. 4.24; Dem. ev. 2.1.24; 2.2.14 49:2 Eph 6:17; Heb 4:12; Rev 1:16; 2:12; 19:15; Eusebius Comm. Ps. (PG 23.897); Comm. Isa. 2.35; Ecl. proph. 4.24; Dem. ev. 2.2.14; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 10.12; Origen Fr. Ps. (PG 12.1629); Fr. var. 6 (TU 38,3.23); Comm. Jo. 1.228; 1.229; 1.267; Hom. Ps. 1.2 (PG 12.1373); 2.8 (PG 12.1335); 3.3. (PG 12.1238); Hom. Cant. 2.8 (GCS 33.54); Cant. (Adulesc.) (GCS 33.67); 3 (GCS 33.194–195). 49:3 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.20; 2.35; Ecl. proph. 4.24; Origen Comm. Jo. 1.134; 1.136; 1.228; 1.230; 1.260; 1.267 49:4 Phil 2:16; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.30; 2.35; Ecl. proph. 4.24

260 322 Lord formed me as his servant to gather Israel

Text and Translation

(49:5–6)

5 Καὶ νῦν οὕτως λέγει Κύριος ὁ πλάσας με ἐκ κοιλίας δοῦλον ἑαυτοῦa τοῦ συναγαγεῖν τὸν Ἰσραὴλ καὶ Ἰακὼβ πρὸς αὐτόνb—συναχθήσομαι καὶc δοξασθήσομαι ἔναντιd Κυρίου, καὶ ὁ θεός μουe ἔσται μουf ἰσχύς 6 καὶ εἶπέν μοι Μέγα σοί ἐστιν τὸg κληθῆναί σε παῖδά μου τοῦ στῆσαι τὰς φυλὰς Ἰακὼβ καὶ τὴν διασπορὰν τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ ἐπιστρέψαι. 323 A covenant, a light of nations

(49:6)

ἰδοὺ τέθεικάh σε εἰς διαθήκην γένους εἰςi φῶς ἐθνῶν τοῦ εἶναί σε εἰς σωτηρίαν ἕως ἐσχάτου τῆς γῆς. 324 Nations will worship him

(49:7)

7 Οὕτως λέγει Κύριος ὁ ῥυόμενόςj σε ὁ θεὸς Ἰσραήλ Ἁγιάσατε τὸν φαυλίζοντα τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ τὸν βδελυσσόμενον ὑπὸ τῶν ἐθνῶν τῶν δούλωνk τῶν ἀρχόντων· βασιλεῖς ὄψονται αὐτὸν καὶ ἀναστήσονται, ἄρχοντες καὶ προσκυνήσωσινl αὐτῷ ἕνεκεν Κυρίου· ὅτι πιστός ἐστιν ὁ ἅγιος Ἰσραήλ, καὶ ἐξελεξάμην σε. 325 A light of nations

(49:8–9)

8 Οὕτως λέγει Κύριος Καιρῷ δεκτῷ ἐπήκουσά σοιm καὶ ἐν ἡμέρᾳ σωτηρίας ἐβοήθησά σοιn καὶ ἔδωκά σε εἰς διαθήκην γένους εἰς φῶςo ἐθνῶν τοῦ καταστῆσαι τὴν γῆν καὶ

aἑαυτοῦ] S; ἑαυτῷ ABRZ bἸσραὴλ καὶ Ἰακὼβ πρὸς αὐτόν] S*; Ἰακὼβ καὶ Ἰσραὴλ πρὸς αὐτόν Scb2ARZ; Ἰακὼβ πρὸς αὐτὸν καὶ Ἰσραήλ B c συναχθήσομαι καὶ] SARZ; om. B dἔναντι] S; ἐναντίον ABRZ e θεός μου] SARZ; θεὸς B f μου] SARZ; μοι B g τὸ] S; τοῦ ABRZ h τέθεικά] SARZ; δέδωκά B i διαθήκην γένους εἰς] SBR; om. AZ j ῥυόμενός] S; ῥυσάμενός ABRZ k τῶν δούλων] SABR; τὸν δοῦλον Z l προσκυνήσωσιν] S; προσκυνήσουσιν ABRZ m σοι] S*; σου ScaABRZ n σοι] SARZ; σοι καὶ ἔπλασά σε s o γένους εἰς φῶς] S*; om. ScaABRZ

49:5–8

322 Lord formed me as his servant to gather Israel

261 (49:5–6)

5 And now thus says Lord, who formed me from the womb as his own bondservant, to gather Israel and Jacob to himself. I will be gathered and glorified before Lord, and my God will be my strength.6 And he said to me, “You being called my servant is a great thing for you, to set up the tribes of Jacob and to turn back the dispersion of Israel. 323 A covenant, a light of nations

(49:6)

“Look, I have set you as a covenant of a family to be a light of nations, for you to become a salvation until the end of the land.” 324 Nations will worship him

(49:7)

7 Thus says Lord who rescues you, the God of Israel: “Sanctify the one who disparages his soul, who is abhorred by the nations, the bondservants of the rulers. Kings will see him and they will rise up; may rulers also worship him for the sake of Lord, because the holy one of Israel is faithful, and I have chosen you.” 325 A light of nations

(49:8–9)

8 Thus says Lord: “I have listened to you at an acceptable time, and I have helped you in the day of salvation, and I have given you as a covenant of a family for light of nations, to establish the land and to inherit an inheritance of a

49:5 Barn. 6.16; Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. (PO 27.110); Irenaeus Dem. 50; 51 (SC 62.111); Origen Comm. Jo. 1.133; 1.135; 1.232; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.35; Ecl. proph. 4.24 49:6 Luke 2:32; Acts 7:8; 13:47; Rev 7:4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.20; 2.23; 2.35; 2.38; Ecl. proph. 4.20;4.24 (PG 22.1223, 1236–1237); Dem. ev. 2.1.24; 2.2.15; 2.3.41; 2.3.42; 6.18.6; 9.1.17; Justin Dial. 121.4; Origen Comm. Jo. 1.133; 1.135;1.159; 1.228; 1.230; 1.233; 1.232; 1.267; Hom. Cant. 2.8; Tertullian Paen. 2.5; Marc. 4.25.5; 4.25.11; 5.2.5; 5.6.1; 5.7.1; Irenaeus Dem. 50 (SC 62.111); 51 (SC 62.111) 49:7 Barn. 14.8; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 6.44.2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.35; Ecl. proph. 4.24 (PG 22.1223, 1237); Dem. ev. 2.2.16 2Cor 6:2; Justin Dial. 122.5; Origen Fr. Ps. (SC 189.392); Mart. 42; Hom. Lev. 15.2; Comm. Matt. 14.20; Cels. 1.53; Dionysus of Alexandria Ad Dometium et Didymum (Feltoe 66); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.35; Comm. Ps. (Pitra 381); Ecl. proph. 4.24; Hist. eccl. 7.11.21; Dem. ev. 2.2.17; 2.3.42; Athanasius Ep. fest. 1.2; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 1.5

262

Text and Translation

κληρονομῆσαι κληρονομίαν ἐρήμουa, 9 λέγοντα τοῖς ἐν δεσμοῖς Ἐξέλθατε, καὶ τοῖς ἐν τῷ σκότει ἀνακαλυφθῆναι. 326 I will ease their way

(49:9–12)

καὶb ἐν πάσαις ταῖς ὁδοῖς αὐτῶνc βοσκηθήσονται, καὶ ἐν πάσαις ταῖςd τρίβοις ἡ νομὴ αὐτῶν· 10 οὐ πεινάσουσιν οὐδὲ διψήσουσιν, οὐδὲ πατάξει αὐτοὺς καύσων οὐδὲ ὁ ἥλιος, ἀλλὰ ὁ ἐλεῶν αὐτοὺς παρακαλέσει καὶ διὰ πηγῶν ὑδάτων ἄξει αὐτούς· 11 καὶ θήσω πᾶν ὄρος εἰς ὁδὸν καὶ πάνταe τρίβον εἰς βόσκημα αὐτοῖς. 12 ἰδοὺ οὗτοι πόρρωθεν ἔρχονταιf, καὶ οὗτοι δὲg ἀπὸ βορρᾶh καὶ θαλάσσηςi, ἄλλοι δὲ ἐκ γῆς Περσῶν. 327 Let creation rejoice

(49:13)

13 Εὐφράνητεj, οὐρανοί, καὶ ἀγαλλιάσθω ἡ γῆ, ῥηξάτωσαν τὰ ὄρη εὐφροσύνην καὶ οἱ βουνοὶ δικαιοσύνηνk, ὅτι ἠλέησεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ καὶ τοὺς ταπεινοὺς τοῦ λαοῦ αὐτοῦ παρεκάλεσεν. 328 I will never forget you

(49:14–15)

14 εἶπεν δὲ Σιών Ἐγκατέλιπέν με Κύριος, καὶ ὁl Κύριος ἐπελάθετό μου. 15 Μὴ ἐπιλήσεται γυνὴm τοῦ παιδίου αὐτῆς ἢn τοῦ μὴ ἐλεῆσαι τὰ ἔκγονα τῆς κοιλίας αὐτῆς; εἰ δὲ καὶ ἐπελάθετο ταῦταo γυνή, ἀλέγωp οὐκ ἐπιλήσομαί σουq.

aκληρονομίαν ἐρήμου] SARZ; κληρονομίας ἐρήμους B b καὶ] SARZ; om. B cαὐτῶν] SARZ; om. B dπάσαις ταῖς] SARZ; πᾶσιν B eπάντα] S*; πᾶσαν Scb2ABRZ fἔρχονται] SARZ; ἥξουσιν B gκαὶ οὗτοι δὲ] S*; οὗτοι δὲ Sca; οὗτοι Scb2ABRZ hβορρᾶ] ScaABRZ; βοραν S* iθαλάσσης] S*B; οὗτοι ἀπὸ θαλάσσης Scb2ARZ jΕὐφράνητε] S; εὐφραίνεσθε ABRZ kκαὶ οἱ βουνοὶ δικαιοσύνην] SR; om. ABZ l ὁ] SARZ; ὅτι B m γυνή] SBR; μήτηρ AZ n ἢ] SB; om. Scb2ARZ oἐπελάθετο ταῦτα] S*; ἐπιλάθοιτο ταῦτα Scb3ARZ; ταῦτα ἐπιλάθοιτο B pἀλέγω] S*; ἀλλ’ ἐγὼ ScaABRZ q σου] S*; σου, εἶπεν Κύριος ScaABRZ

49:9–15

263

desert, 9 telling those in bonds, ‘Come out!’ and those in the darkness to be revealed.” 326 I will ease their way

(49:9–12)

And they will be fed in all their ways, and their pasture will be in all their paths. 10 They will not get hungry or thirsty, nor will the burning or the sun strike them, but the one who has mercy will encourage them and he will lead them through springs of waters. 11 And I will turn every mountain into a way and every path into a feeding ground for them. 12 Look, these people are coming from afar, and some of these are from the north and sea, and others are from the land of the Persians. 327 Let creation rejoice

(49:13)

13 Rejoice, skies, and let the land rejoice! Let the mountains burst forth with joy, and the hills with righteousness, because God has shown mercy to his people, and he has encouraged the humble of his people. 328 I will never forget you

(49:14–15)

14 But Zion said, “Lord has left me behind, and the Lord has forgotten me.” 15 Will a woman forget her child, or to show mercy to the offspring of her womb? But even if a woman forgot these, I care; I will not forget you.

49:9 Luke 2:32; Athanasius Ep. fest. 1.2; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 1.5; Dionysius Ad Dometium et Didymum (Feltoe, Dionysiou Leipsana, 66); Eusebius Comm. Ps. (Analecta Sacra, 3.381); Ecl. proph. 4.24 (PG 22.1237, 1223, 1236); Comm. Isa. 2.35; Hist. eccl. 7.11.21; Dem. ev. 2.2.17; 2.3.42; Justin Dial. 122.5; Origen Mart. 42; Hom. Lev. 15.2; Comm. Matt. 14.20; 115; Cels. 1.53; 8.54; Fr. Ps. (Analecta sacra, 3.83); Hom. Ezech. 1.3; Hom. Isa. 6.7; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 6.44.2; Did. apost. 9; Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 2 (PO 27.162) 49:10 John 7:37; Rom 9:16; Rev 7:16–17; Origen Pasch. 1.24; Hom. Num. 23.11; Tertullian Marc. 4.14.9; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.35 49:11 Eusebius Ecl. proph. 4.24; Comm. Isa. 2.35 49:12 Luke 13:29; Eusebius Comm. Isa.2.35; 2.36; 2.49; Tertullian Marc. 4.13.7 49:13 Luke 2:25; 2 Cor 7:6; Rev 12:12; Athanasius Ep. fest. 6.9; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 3.1; 18.35; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.35; 2.49; Dem. ev. 2.2.17 49:14 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.36 49:15 Hippolytus Haer. 5.8.17; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.36

264 329 You will be rebuilt quickly

Text and Translation

(49:16–17)

16 ἰδοὺ ἐπὶ τῶν χειρῶν μου ἐζωγράφηκάa σου τὰ τείχη σουb, καὶ ἐνώπιόν μου εἶ διὰ παντός· 17 καὶ ταχὺ οἰκοδομηθήσῃ ὑφ’ ὑμῶνc καθῃρέθης, καὶ οἱ ἐρημώσαντές σε ἐκ σοῦ ἐξελεύσονται. 330 You will be crowded with settlers

(49:18–21)

18 ἆρον κύκλῳ τοὺς ὀφθαλμούς σου καὶ ἴδε πάντας, ἰδοὺ συνήχθησαν καὶ ἤλθοσαν πρὸς σέ. Ζῶ ἐγώ, λέγει Κύριος ὅτι πάντας αὐτοὺς ἐνδύσῃd καὶ περιθήσῃe αὐτοὺς ὡς κόσμον νύμφηςf. 19 ὅτι τὰ ἔρημά σου καὶ τὰ κατεφθαρμέναg καὶ τὰ κατεπτωκόταh νῦν στενοχωρήσει ἀπὸ τῶν κατοικούντων σεi, καὶ μακρυνθήσονται ἀπὸ σοῦ οἱ καταπίνοντές σε. 20 ἐροῦσιν γὰρ εἰς τὰ ὦτά σου οἱ υἱοί σου οὓς ἀπολώλεκας Στενός μοι ὁ τόπος, ποίησόν μοι τόπον ἵνα κατοικήσω. 21 καὶ ἐρεῖς ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ σου Τίς ἐγέννησέν μοι τούτους; ἐγὼ δὲ ἄτεκνος καὶ χήρα, τούτους δὲ τίς ἐξέθρεψέν μοι; ἐγὼ δὲ κατελείφθην μόνη, οὗτοι δέ μοι ποῦ ἦσαν; 331 Foreigners will serve you

(49:22–23)

22 Οὕτως λέγει Κύριος Ἰδοὺ αἴρω εἰς τὰ ἔθνη τὴν χεῖρά μου καὶ εἰς τὰς νήσους ἀρῶ σύσσημόν μου, καὶ ἄξουσιν τοὺς υἱούς σου ἐν κόλπῳ σουj, τὰς δὲ θυγατέρας σου ἐπ’ ὤμων ἀροῦσιν, 23 καὶ ἔσονται βασιλεῖς τιθηνοί σου, αἱ δὲ ἄρχουσαι αὐτῶνk τροφοί σου· ἐπὶ πρόσωπον τῆς γῆς προσκυνήσουσίν σοι καὶ τὸν χοῦν τῶν ποδῶν σου λείξουσιν· καὶ γνώσῃ ὅτι ἐγὼ Κύριος, καὶ οὐκ αἰσχυνθήσῃl.

aἐζωγράφηκά] SB; ἐζωγράφησά ARZ b σου] om. ABRZ cὑμῶν] S*; ὧν ScaABRZ d ἐνδύσῃ] SARZ; ὡς κόσμον ἐνδύσῃ B eπεριθήσῃ] SARZ; περιθήσεις B fνύμφης] SARZ; ὡς νύμφη B gκατεφθαρμένα] S*; διεφθαρμένα Scb2BARZ hκατεπτωκότα] S*; πεπτωκόκα Scb2ABRZ iκατοικούντων σε] S*; κατοικούντων ScaBRZ; ἐνοικούντων A j κόλπῳ σου] S; κόλπῳ ABRZ k ἄρχουσαι αὐτῶν] S*Scb3B; ἄρχουσαι Scb2ARZ l αἰσχυνθήσῃ] SARZ; αἰσχυνθήσονται οἱ ὑπομένοντές με B

49:16–23

329 You will be rebuilt quickly

265 (49:16–17)

16 Look, I have painted your walls on my hands, and you are before me always. 17 And you will be built quickly by you. You were torn down, and those who desolated you will go out from you. 330 You will be crowded with settlers

(49:18–21)

18 Lift up your eyes around, and see all these people. Look, they have gathered and come to you. “I live!” Lord says, “You will put them all on and you will place them around like a bride’s ornamentation, 19 because your deserted places and the destroyed things and the fallen things will now crowd from those who inhabit you; and those who swallow you will be distanced from you. 20 For your sons whom you destroyed will say in your ears, ‘The place is too crowded for me; make me a place so that I might live in it!’ 21 And you will say in your heart, ‘Who produced these sons for me? I am childless and a widow. Who raised them for me? I have been left alone, but where were these sons for me?’ ” 331 Foreigners will serve you

(49:22–23)

22 Thus says Lord, “Look, I am raising my hand to the nations, and I will raise my signal to the islands, and they will bring your sons in your bosom, and they will carry your daughters on their shoulders, 23 and kings will take care of you, and their ruling women will be your nurses; they will bow to you to the face of the land, and they will lick the dust of your feet, and you will know that I am Lord, and you will not be put to shame.”

49:16 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.36 49:17 Barn. 16.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.36 49:18 Rom 14:11; Eusebius Hist. eccl. 10.4.51; Comm. Isa. 2.36; Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 1; Origen Comm. Jo. 2.116; 2.123; 2.124; Tertullian Marc. 3.24.11; 4.11.7; 4.13.7 49:19 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.36 49:20 Origen Hom. Isa. 3.4; Fr. Cat. (PG 12.820); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.36 49:21 Prot. Jas. 4.4; Eusebius Hist. eccl. 10.4.51; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.36; Origen Hom. Isa. 3.4; Tertullian Marc. 4.13.7 49:22 Luke 15:5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.36; Origen Comm. Matt. 13.26; Or. 15.3 49:23 Rev 3:9; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.36; 2.57; Origen Comm. Matt. 13.26; Or. 15.3

266

Text and Translation

332 Lord will rescue you from your giant oppressors

(49:24–26)

24 Μὴ λήμψεταί τις παρὰ γίγαντος σκῦλα; καὶ ἐὰν αἰχμαλωτεύσῃ τις ἀδίκως, σωθήσεται; 25 οὕτως λέγει Κύριος Ἐάν τις αἰχμαλωτεύσῃ γίγαντα, λήμψεται σκῦλα· λαμβάνων δὲ παρὰ ἰσχύοντος σωθήσεται· ἐγὼ δὲ τὴν κρίσιν σου κρινῶ, καὶ ἐγὼ τοὺς υἱούς σου ῥύσομαι· 26 καὶ φάγονται οἱ θλίψαντέςa σε τὰς σάρκας αὐτῶν πίονταιb ὡς οἶνον νέον τὸ αἷμα αὐτῶν καὶ μεθυσθήσονται, καὶ αἰσθανθήσονταιc πᾶσα σὰρξ ὅτι ἐγὼ Κύριος ὁ ῥυσάμενός σε καὶ ἀντιλαμβανόμενος ἰσχύος Ἰακώβ. 333 You were sold for your sins

(50:1–2)

50.1 Οὕτω λέγει Κύριος Ποῖον τὸ βιβλίον τοῦ ἀποστασίου τῆς μητρὸς ὑμῶν, ᾧ ἐξαπέστειλα αὐτήν; ἢ τίνι ὑπόχρεῳ πέπρακα ὑμᾶς; ἰδοὺ ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις ὑμῶν ἐπράθητε, καὶ ταῖς ἀνομίαις ὑμῶν ἐξαπέστειλα τὴν μητέρα ὑμῶν. 2 διότιd ἦλθον καὶ οὐκ ἦν ἄνθρωπος. ἐκάλεσα καὶ οὐκ ἦν ὁe ἐπακούωνf. 334 I will dry up the waters

(50:2–3)

Μὴ οὐκ ἰσχύει ἡ χείρ μου τοῦ ῥύσασθαι; ἢ οὐκ ἰσχύω τοῦ ἐξελέσθαι; ἰδοὺ τῷ ἐλεγμῷ μου καὶg τῇ ἀπειλῇ μου ἐξερημώσω τὴν θάλασσαν καὶ θήσω ποταμοὺς ἐρήμους, καὶ ξηρανθήσονται οἱ ἰχθύες αὐτῶν ἀπὸ τοῦ μὴ εἶναι ὕδωρ καὶ ἀποθανοῦνται ἐν δίψει. 3 καὶh ἐνδύσω τὸν οὐρανὸν σκότος καὶ ὡς σάκκονi τὸ περιβόλαιον αὐτοῦ.

aθλίψαντές] SBRZ; θλίβοντές A b πίονται] S*; καὶ πίονται ScaABRZ c αἰσθανθήσονται] S*; αἰσθανθήσεται Scb3ABRZ dδιότι] S; τί ὅτι ABRZ e οὐκ ἦν ὁ] SBRZ; οὐχ A f ἐπακούων] S*; ὑπήκουσεν ScaABRZ gτῷ ἐλεγμῷ μου καὶ] S*Scb3; om. Scb2ABRZ h καὶ] SARZ; om. B i ὡς σάκκον] S*; θήσω σάκκον Scb2; θήσω ὡς σάκκον Scb3ARZ; ὡς σάκκον θήσω B

49:24–50:3

332 Lord will rescue you from your giant oppressors

267 (49:24–26)

24 Will anyone take spoils from a giant? Even if someone captures unjustly, will he be saved? 25 Thus says Lord, “If anyone captures a giant, he will take spoils, and when he takes from a strong man, he will be saved, but I will decide your justice, and I will rescue your sons. 26 And those who oppress you will eat their own flesh; they will drink their own blood like new wine and be drunk, and every body will perceive that I am Lord, who rescues you and who aids the strength of Jacob.” 333 You were sold for your sins

(50:1–2)

50.1 Thus says Lord, “Of what kind is the document of divorce of your mother with which I sent her away? Or to which debtor have I sold you? Look, you were sold for your sins, and I sent your mother away for your transgressions. 2 Therefore I came and there was no person. I called and there was no-one who listens. 334 I will dry up the waters

(50:2–3)

Is my hand not strong enough to rescue? Or am I unable to rescue? Look, by my reproach and my threat I will desolate the sea and I will make rivers deserts, and their fish will dry up from lack of water, and they will die in thirst. 3 And I will clothe the sky with darkness and its covering like sackcloth.”

49:24 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.36; Origen Hom. Num. 7.5 49:25 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.36; 2.37 49:26 Rev 16:6; Origen Hom. Judic. 6.2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.36 50:1 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.33; 2.37; 2.38; 2.40; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.145); Dem. ev. 2.3.22; 6.17.4; 6.23.1; 6.23.3; 6.24.2; Ecl. proph. 4.25 (PG 22.1237, 1240); Clement of Alexandria Strom. 2.144.4; 3.89.2; 7.82.3; Origen Comm. Matt. 14.17; 14.19; Fr. (GCS 29.228); Hom. Exod. 6.9; 8.5; Rec. Fid. (GCS 4.54) 50:2 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.40; 2.48; 2.55; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.145); Dem. ev. 2.3.22; 6.23.1; 6.23.3; 6.24.2; 9.11.11; Origen Comm. Matt. 113 (GCS 38. 234, 235) 50:3 Rev 6:12; Tertullian Marc. 4.42.5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.37; Ecl. proph. 4.25

268 335 I obey Lord despite suffering

Text and Translation

(50:4–8)

4 Κύριος μοι δίδωσίνa γλῶσσαν παιδείαςb τοῦ γνῶναιc ἡνίκα δεῖ εἰπεῖν λόγον, ἔθηκέν μοι πρωίd, προσέθηκέν μοι ὠτίον ἀκούειν· 5 καὶ ἡ παιδείαe Κυρίου ἀνοίγει μου τὰ ὦτα, ἐγὼ δὲ οὐκ ἀπειθῶ οὐδὲ ἀντιλέγω. 6 τὸν νῶτόν μου ἔδωκαf εἰς μάστιγας, τὰς δὲ σιαγόνας μου εἰς ῥαπίσματα, τὸ δὲ πρόσωπόν μου οὐκ ἀπέστρεψα ἀπὸ αἰσχύνης ἐμπτυσμάτων· 7 καὶ Κύριος Κύριοςg βοηθός μου ἐγενήθη, διὰ τοῦτο οὐκ ἐνετράπην, ἀλλ’ ἔθηκα τὸ πρόσωπόν μουh ὡς στερεὰν πέτραν καὶ ἔγνων ὅτι οὐ μὴ αἰσχυνθῶi. 8 ὅτι ἐγγίζει ὁ δικαιώσας με. 336 Who will judge me?

(50:8–9)

Τίς ὁ κρινόμενός μοι; ἀντιστήτω μοι ἅμα· καὶ τίς ὁ κρινόμενός μοι; ἐγγισάτω μοι. 9 ἰδοὺ Κύριος βοηθήσειj μοι· τίς κακώσει με; ἰδοὺ πάντες ὑμεῖς ὡς ἱμάτιον παλαιωθήσεσθε, καὶ σὴςk καταφάγεται ὑμᾶς. 337 Who fears Lord?

(50:10)

10 Τίς ἐν ὑμῖν ὁ φοβούμενος τὸν Κύριον; ἐπακουσάτωl τῆς φωνῆς τοῦ παιδὸς αὐτοῦ· οἱ πορευόμενοι ἐν σκότει καὶ οὐκm ἔστιν αὐτοῖς φῶς, πεποίθατε ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματι Κυρίου καὶ ἀντιστηρίζεσθεn ἐπὶ τῷ θεῷ.

aμοι δίδωσίν] S; δίδωσίν μοι ABRZ b παιδίας] SB; σοφίας A; παιδείας RZ c γνῶναι] SBZ; γνῶναι ἐν καιρῷ AR dπρωί] SBRZ; τὸ πρωί A eπαιδία] SAB; παιδεία RZ f ἔδωκα] SB; δέδωκα ARZ gΚύριος Κύριος] S*; Κύριος Scb2ABRZ h μου] SARZ; μοι B i αἰσχυνθῶ] S*ABRZ; καταισχυνθῇ SB jβοηθήσει] S*B; βοηθεῖ ScaARZ k σὴς] S*B; ὡς σὴς ScaARZ l ἐπακουσάτω] ἀκουσάτω SARZ; ὑπακουσάτω B m καὶ οὐκ] S*B; οὐκ ScaARZ n ἀντιστηρίζεσθε] S; ἀντιστηρίσασθε ABRZ

50:4–10

335 I obey Lord despite suffering

269 (50:4–8)

4 Lord gives me a tongue of discipline, to know when it is necessary to speak a word; he appointed me early, he added to me an ear to hear, 5 and the discipline of the Lord opens my ears; I do not resist or oppose it. 6 I gave my back to scourges, and my cheeks to blows, and I did not turn my face away from the shame of spittings. 7 And Lord, Lord has become my helper, therefore I was not ashamed, but I set my face like a solid rock and I knew that I would certainly not be put to shame, 8 because the one who justifies me is approaching. 336 Who will judge me?

(50:8–9)

Who is the one who judges me? Let him stand against me at once, and who is the one who judges me? Let him approach me. 9 Look, Lord will help me; who will harm me? Look, all you will become old like a garment, and a moth will devour you. 337 Who fears Lord?

(50:10)

10 Who among you is the one who fears the Lord? Let him listen to the voice of his servant. You who walk in darkness (and there is no light for them) trust in the name of Lord and lean upon God.

50:4 Clement of Alexandria Strom. 6.116.3; Eusebius Ecl. proph. 4.25; Comm. Isa. 2.37; Justin Dial. 102.5; Methodius Lepra. 8.5; Origen Comm. Matt. 113; Fr. 24; Hom. Exod. 3.2; Philo Her. 25; Tertullian Marc. 4.39.7; 4.39.19; 4.42.3 50:5 Eusebius Dem ev. 6.23.2; Ecl. proph. 4.25; Comm. Isa. 2.37; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 6.116.3; Cyprian Test. 2.13; Cyprian Ep. 13.4; Lactantius Epit. 41.1; Inst. 4.18.13; Origen Hom. Exod. 3.2 50:6 Matthew 5:39 26:67; Mark 10:34; Barn. 5.14; Cyprian Ep. 13.4; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 13.13; Eusebius Dem ev. 6.23.2; 6.23.4; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.309, 365, 748); Ecl. proph. 4.25; Comm. Isa. 2.37; Irenaeus Dem. 34 (SC 62.86); 68 (SC 62.135); Justin 1 Apol. 38.2; Dial. 89.3; Lactantius Epit. 41.1; Inst. 4.18.13; Origen Comm. Matt. 113 (GCS 38.235); Hom. Jer. 19.12; Tertullian Marc. 3.5.2 50:7 Barn. 5.14; 6.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.37; Cyprian Ep. 13.4; Origen Comm. Matt. 33 (GCS 38.63); 113 (GCS 38.234) 50:8 Rom 8:33; Barn. 6.1; Eusebius Ecl. proph. 4.25; Comm. Isa. 2.37; Irenaeus Dem. 88 (SC 62.155); Justin 1 Apol. 38.2 50:9 Heb 1:11; 1 Pet 3:13; Barn. 6.1; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 3.86.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.37; Ecl. proph. 4.25; Irenaeus Dem. 88 (SC 62.155) 50:10 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.37; Dem. ev. 2.3.23; Ecl. proph. 4.25; Tertullian Marc. 3.17.5; 4.22.8; 4.22.10

270 338 Walk in the light of your fire

Text and Translation

(50:11)

11 ἰδοὺ πάντες ὑμεῖς πῦρ καίετε καὶ κατισχύσατεa φλόγα πυρὸςb· πορεύεσθε τῷ φωτὶ τοῦ πυρὸς ὑμῶν καὶ τῇ φλογί, ᾗ ἐξεκαύσατε· δι’ ἐμὲ ἐγένετο ταῦτα ὑμῖν, ἐν λύπῃ κοιμηθήσεσθε. 339 I will turn desolation into paradise

(51:1–3)

51.1 Ἀκούσαντέςc μου, οἱ διώκοντες τὸ δίκαιον καὶ ζητοῦντες τὸν Κύριον, ἐμβλέψατε εἰς τὴν στερεὰν πέτραν, ἣν ἐλατομήσατε, καὶ εἰς τὸν βόθυνον τοῦ λάκκου, ὃν ὠρύξατε. 2 ἐμβλέψατε εἰς Ἀβραὰμ τὸν πατέρα ὑμῶν καὶ εἰς Σάρανd τὴν ὠδίνουσαν ὑμᾶς· ὅτι εἷς ἦν, καὶ ἐκάλεσα αὐτὸν καὶ εὐλόγησαe αὐτὸν καὶ ἠγάπησα αὐτὸν καὶ ἐπλήθυνα αὐτόνf. 3 καὶ σὲ νῦν παρακαλέσω, Σειώνg, καὶ παρεκάλεσα πάντα τὰ ἔρημα αὐτῆς καὶ θήσω τὰ ἔρημα αὐτῆς ὡς παράδεισον καὶ τὰ πρὸς δυσμὰς ὡς παράδεισον Κυρίου· εὐφροσύνην καὶ ἀγαλλίαμα εὑρήσουσιν ἐν αὐτῇ, ἐξομολόγησιν καὶ φωνὴν αἰνέσεως. 340 My justice will spread throughout the world

(51:4–5)

4 Ἀκούσατέ μου ἀκούσατέ μουh, λαός μου, καὶ οἱ βασιλεῖς, πρός με ἐνωτίσασθε· ὅτι νόμος παρ’ ἐμοῦ ἐξελεύσεται καὶ ἡ κρίσις μου εἰς φῶς ἐθνῶν. 5 ἐγγίζει ταχὺ ἡ δικαιοσύνηi, καὶ ἐξελεύσεται εἰς φῶςj τὸ σωτήριόν μου, καὶ εἰς τὸν βραχίονά μου ἔθνη ἐλπιοῦσιν· ἐμὲ νῆσοι ὑπομενοῦσιν καὶ εἰς τὸν βραχίονά μου ἐλπιοῦσιν.

aκατισχύσατε] S; κατισχύετε ABRZ bφλόγα πυρὸς] S; φλόγα ABRZ cἈκούσαντές] S*; Ἀκούσατέ Scb3ABRZ d Σάραν] S*; Σάρραν ScaABRZ e εὐλόγησα] SBRZ; ηὐλόγησα A f καὶ ἐπλήθυνα αὐτόν] SARZ; om. B g Σειών] SB; Σιών ARZ h Ἀκούσατέ μου ἀκούσατέ μου] SB; ἀκούσατέ μου ἀκούσατε ARZ i δικαιοσύνη] S; δικαιοσύνη μου ABRZ j εἰς φῶς] ὡς φῶς SBR; om. AZ

50:11–51:5

338 Walk in the light of your fire

271 (50:11)

11 Look, all you, light a fire and strengthen a flame of fire! Walk in the light of your fire and in the flame which you have burned. These things have happened to you on my account me; you will lie down in sorrow. 339 I will turn desolation into paradise

(51:1–3)

51.1 Listen to me, you who pursue what is right and seek the Lord, and look to the solid rock which you hewed, and to the hole of the pit that you dug. 2 Look to Abraham your father and to Sara who laboured with you, because he was one, and I called him and blessed him and loved him and multiplied him. 3 And now I will encourage you, Zion, and I have encouraged all her deserted places and I will make her deserted places like a paradise and the things toward the west like a paradise of Lord. They will find joy and rejoicing in her, acknowledgement and a sound of praise. 340 My justice will spread throughout the world

(51:4–5)

4 Listen to me, listen to me, my people, and you kings, lend me your ears, because law will go out from me, and my justice for a light of nations. 5 Righteousness approaches quickly, and my salvation will go forth to be a light, and nations will hope in my strength; islands will wait on me and will hope in my arm.

50:11 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.37; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.200, 884, 1000); Dem. ev. 2.3.23; Ecl. proph. 4.25; Origen Fr. Ezech. (GCS 33.355); Hom. Ezech. 3.7; Hom. Lev. 9.8; Princ. 2.10.4; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 13.27; Marc. 3.23.4 51:1 Rom 9:31; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 13.35; 14.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.37; Origen Fr. Matt. 46 (GCS 41.34) 51:2 Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 7.10; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.37; Origen Comm. Jo. 13.401 51:3 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.42; 2.37; 2.38 51:4 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.38; 2.40; Dem. ev. 2.3.24; Justin Dial. 11.3; 11.4; 34.1; 43.1; Tertullian Marc. 4.1.5 51:5 Rom 1:17; 3:21; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.38; 2.39; Dem. ev. 2.3.24; Justin Dial. 11.3; Tertullian Res. 59.5

272 341 My righteousness will never fail

Text and Translation

(51:6)

6 ἄρατε εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς ὑμῶν καὶ ἐμβλέψατε εἰς τὴν γῆν κάτω, ὅτι ὁ οὐρανὸς ὡς καπνὸς ἐστερεώθη, ἡ δὲa γῆ ὡς ἱμάτιον παλαιωθήσεται, καὶ οἱb κατοικοῦντεςc ὥσπερ ταῦτα ἀποθανοῦνται, τὸ δὲ σωτήριόν μου εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα ἔσται, ἡ δὲ δικαιοσύνη μου οὐ μὴ ἐκλίπῃ. 342 My salvation is forever

(51:7–8)

7 Ἀκούσατέ μου, οἱ εἰδότες κρίσιν, λαός μουd, οὗ ὁ νόμος μου ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ ὑμῶν· καὶ φοβεῖσθε ὀνειδισμὸν ἀνθρώπων καὶ τῷ φαυλισμῷ αὐτῶν μὴ ἡττᾶσθε. 8 ὡςe γὰρ ἱμάτιον βρωθήσεται ὑπὸ χρόνου καὶ ὡςf ἔρια βρωθήσεται ὑπὸ σητός· ἡ δὲ δικαιοσύνη μου εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα ἔσται, τὸ δὲ σωτήριόν μου εἰς γενεὰνg γενεῶν. 343 The ransomed will return with joy

(51:9–11)

9 Ἐξεγείρου ἐξεγείρου, Ἰερουσαλήμ, καὶ ἔνδυσαι τὴν ἰσχὺν τοῦ βραχίονός σου· ἐξεγείρου ὡς ἐν ἀρχῇ ἡμέρας, ὡς γενεὰ αἰῶνος. οὐ σὺ εἶ 10 ἡ ἐρημοῦσα θάλασσαν, ὕδωρ ἀβύσσου πλῆθος; ἡ θεῖσα τὸ βάθοςh τῆς θαλάσσης ὁδὸν διαβάσεως ῥυομένοις 11 καὶ λελυτρωμένοιςi; ὑπὸ γὰρ Κυρίου ἀποστραφήσονται καὶ ἥξουσιν εἰς Σειὼν μετ’ εὐφροσύνης καὶ ἀγαλλιάματος αἰωνίου· ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς γὰρj αὐτῶν ἀγαλλίασιςk καὶ αἴνεσις, καὶ εὐφροσύνη καταλήμψεται αὐτούς, ἀπέδρα ὀδύνη καὶ λύπη καὶ στεναγμός. 344 You feared humans and forgot God

(51:12–13)

12 Ἐγώ εἰμι ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ παρακαλῶν σε· γνῶθι σὺl τίνα εὐλαβηθεῖσαm ἐφοβήθης ἀπὸ ἀνθρώπου θνητοῦ καὶ ἀπὸ υἱοῦ ἀνθρώπου, οἳ ὡσεὶ χόρτος ἐξηράνθησαν. 13 καὶ ἐπελά-

aἡ δὲ] SBRZ; καὶ ἡ A b καὶ οἱ] S; οἱ δὲ ABRZ c κατοικοῦντες] S*B; κατοικοῦντες αὐτὴνScb2; κατοικοῦντες τὴν γῆν ARZ dλαός μου] SARZ; λαὸς B eὡς] S*B; ὥσπερ ScaARZ fὡς] SBRZ; ὥσπερ A gγενεὰν] S*; γενεὰς ScaABRZ hτὸ βάθος] S; τὰ βάθη ABRZ iλελυτρωμένοις] ScaABRZ; ελυτρωμενους S* j τῆς κεφαλῆς γὰρ] S; κεφαλῆς γὰρ B; γὰρ τῆς κεφαλῆς ARZ k ἀγαλλίασις] SRZ; ἀγαλλίαμα καὶ A; om. B l σὺ] S*Scb3; om. Scb2ABRZ mτίνα εὐλαβηθεῖσα] SARZ; τίς οὖσα B

51:6–13

341 My righteousness will never fail

273 (51:6)

6 Lift your eyes up to the sky and look at the land below, because the sky has been made firm like smoke, and the land has become old like a garment, and those who dwell will die just like these things, but my salvation will be forever, and my righteousness will certainly not cease. 342 My salvation is forever

(51:7–8)

7 Listen to me, you who know justice, my people of whom my law is in your heart: fear the reproach of humans and do not be overcome by their contempt. 8 For while a garment will be eaten up by time and while wool will be eaten up by a moth, however my righteousness will be forever, and my salvation for a generation of generations. 343 The ransomed will return with joy

(51:9–11)

9 Awake, awake, Jerusalem, and put on the strength of your arm! Awake as at the beginning of a day, as a generation of an age. Are you not 10 the one who desolated the sea, an abundance, water of the abyss, the one who set the bottom of the sea as a a way of passage for those being rescued and those who have been ransomed? 11 For they will be brought back by Lord and they will come to Zion with joy and eternal rejoicing, for joy and praise will be upon their head, and joy will overtake them; grief and sorrow and groaning have fled. 344 You feared humans and forgot God

(51:12–13)

12 I am the one, I am the one who comforts you. Know whom of mortal humanity and of the son of humanity you have dreaded and feared, who have dried up like grass. 13 And you have forgotten God who made you, the one who made 51:6 Mark 13:31; Heb 1:11 Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 11.11; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.38; Tertullian Marc. 4.39.18; Methodius Res. 1.8.1; 1.8.3; 1.8.4; 1.48.1 51:7 Matt 5:11; Rom 2:15; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.38–39; Origen Mart. 4 (GCS 2.6); Tertullian Marc. 4.14.15 51:8 Matt 6:19; Rom 1:17; 3:21; Jas 5:2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.38; Origen Fr. Ps. (PG 12.1216) 51:9 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.39; Tertullian Res. 26.12 51:10 Rev 16:12; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.39 51:11 Rev 21:4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.39; 2.40; 2.41; 2.50; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.881); Praep. ev. 11.38.9; Hippolytus Haer. 7.27.3; Origen Comm. Jo. 2.62; Hom. Lev. 7.2; Hom. Ps. 6.3 51:12 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.39

274

Text and Translation

θου θεὸν τὸν ποιήσαντά σε, τὸν ποιήσαντα τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ θεμελιώσαντα τὴν γῆν, καὶ ἐφόβου ἀεὶ πάσας τὰς ἡμέρας τοῦ προσώπου τοῦ θυμοῦ αὐτοῦ θλίβοντόςa σε. 345 Lord Sabaoth will shelter you from your oppressor

(51:13–16)

ὃν τρόπον γὰρ ἐβουλεύσατο τοῦ ἆραί σε, καὶ νῦν ποῦ ὁ θυμὸς τοῦ θλίβοντός σε; 14 ἐν γὰρ τῷ σῴζεσθαί σε οὐ στήσεται οὐδὲ χρονιεῖ· 15 ὅτι ἐγὼ ὁ θεός σου ὁ ταράσσων τὴν θάλασσαν καὶ ἠχῶν τὰ κύματα αὐτῆς, Κύριος Σαβαώθ ὄνομά μοι. 16 θήσω τοὺς λόγους μου εἰς τὸ στόμα σου καὶ ὑπὸ τὴν σκιὰν τῆς χειρόςb μου σκεπάσω σε, ἐν ᾗ ἔστησα τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ ἐθεμελίωσα τὴν γῆν· καὶ ἐρεῖ Σιών Λαός μου εἶ σύ. 346 Jerusalem, you have suffered my wrath

(51:17–20)

17 Ἐξεγείρου ἐξεγείρου ἀνάστηθι, Ἰερουσαλήμ ἡ πιοῦσα τὸ ποτήριον τοῦ θυμοῦ ἐκ χειρὸς Κυρίουc· τὸ ποτήριον γὰρ τῆς πτώσεως, τὸ κόνδυ τοῦ θυμοῦ μουd ἐξέπιεςe καὶ ἐξεκένωσας. 18 καὶ οὐκ ἦν ὁ παρακαλῶν σε ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν τέκνων σου, ὧν ἔτεκες, καὶ οὐκ ἦν ὁ ἀντιλαμβανόμενος τῆς χειρός σου οὐδὲ ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν υἱῶν σου, ὧν ὕψωσας. 19 δύο ταῦτα ἀντικείμενα· τίς σοιf συλλυπηθήσεται; πτῶμα καὶ σύντριμμα, λιμὸς καὶ μάχαιρα· τίς παρακαλέσει σεg; 20 οἱ υἱοί σουh οἱ ἀπορούμενοι, οἱ καθεύδοντες ἐπ’ ἄκρου πάσης ἐξόδου ὡς σιταῖονi ἡμίεφθον, οἱ πλήρεις θυμοῦ Κυρίου, ἐκλελυμένοι διὰ Κυρίου τοῦ θεοῦ. 347 I will transfer the wrath from you to your oppressors

(51:21–23)

21 διὰ τοῦτο ἄκουε, τεταπεινωμένη καὶ μεθύουσα οὐκ ἀπὸ οἴνου· 22 Οὕτωj λέγει Κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ κρίνων τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ Ἰδοὺ εἴληφα ἐκ τῆς χειρός σου τὸ ποτήριον τῆς πτώσεως, τὸ κόνδυ τοῦ θυμοῦk, καὶ οὐ προσθήσειl ἔτι πιεῖν αὐτό· 23 καὶ δώσωm αὐτὸ εἰς τὰς χεῖρας τῶν ἀδικησάντων σε καὶ τῶνn ταπεινωσάντων σε,

aτοῦ προσώπου τοῦ θυμοῦ αὐτοῦ θλίβοντός] Sca; τοῦ προσώπου τοῦ θυμοῦ μου τοῦ θλίβοντές S*; τὸ πρόσωπον τοῦ θυμοῦ τοῦ θλίβοντός ABRZ b σκιὰν τῆς χειρός] SBRZ; δεξιάν A c τὸ ποτήριον τοῦ θυμοῦ ἐκ χειρὸς Κυρίου] SARZ; ἐκ χειρὸς Κυρίου τὸ ποτήριον τοῦ θυμοῦ αὐτοῦ B dθυμοῦ μου] S; θυμοῦ ABRZ e ἐξέπιες] SBRZ; ἔπιες A f τίς σοι] S*; σοι τίς σοι ScaABRZ g τίς παρακαλέσει σε] SB; τίς σε παρακαλέσει ARZ h σου] SBRZ; σοι A i σιταῖον] S*; σευτλίον ScaABRZ j Οὕτω] S*; οὕτως ScaABRZ k θυμοῦ] SARZ; θυμοῦ μου B l προσθήσει] S; προσθήσῃ ABRZ m δώσω] SB; ἐμβαλῶ ARZ n καὶ τῶν] SARZ; τῶν B

51:14–23

275

the sky and founded the land, and you always feared all the days of the face of his wrath, of the one who oppresses you. 345 Lord Sabaoth will shelter you from your oppressor

(51:13–16)

For just as he decided to take you out, and now where is the passion of the one who oppresses you? 14 For he will not stand still or delay when saving you, 15 for I am your God, the one who stirs up the sea and causes its waves to roar, Lord Sabaoth is my name. 16 I will put my words into your mouth and I will shelter you under the shadow of my hand, by which I established the sky and founded the land. And Zion will say, “You are my people.” 346 Jerusalem, you have suffered my wrath

(51:17–20)

17 Awake, awake, rise up, Jerusalem who drank the cup of wrath from the hand of Lord, for you drank from and you emptied the cup of collapse, the drinkingvessel of my wrath. 18 And not there was no-one who encouraged you, of all your children whom you bore, and there was no-one, not even of all your sons whom you raised, who took your hand. 19 These two things are opposed; who will grieve with you? Collapse and injury, famine and sword, who will comfort you? 20 Your sons who are at a loss, who sleep at the extremity of every exit like a half-cooked corn-rent, who are full of the wrath of Lord, have been become weary through Lord God. 347 I will transfer the wrath from you to your oppressors

(51:21–23)

21 Because of this, listen, you who have been brought down and are drunk not from wine. 22 Thus says Lord God who judges his people: “Look, I have taken the cup of collapse, the vessel of wrath, from your hand and you will no longer continue to drink it. 23 And I will give it into the hands of those who have wronged you

51:14–16 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.39 51:17 Matt 26:39; Rev 14:10; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.40; Hist. eccl. 10.4.50; Origen Fr. Lam. (GCS 6.251); Hom. Ezech. 13.2 51:18 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.40; Hist. eccl. 10.4.50; 51:19–21 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.40 51:22 Matt 26:39; Rev 14:10; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.40; Hist. eccl. 10.4.50 51:23 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.40; Hist. eccl. 10.4.50

276

Text and Translation

οἳ εἶπαν τῇ ψυχῇ σου Κύψον, ἵνα παρέλθωμεν· καὶ ἔθηκας ἴσα τῇ γῇ τὰ μετάφρενάa σου ἔξω τοῖς παραπορευομένοις. 348 Get up, Jerusalem!

(52:1–2)

52.1 Ἐξεγείρου ἐξεγείρου, Σιών, ἔνδυσαι τὴν ἰσχύν σουb, καί συc ἔνδυσαι τὴν δόξαν σου, Ἰερουσαλήμ πόλις ἡd ἁγία· οὐκέτι προστεθήσεται διελθεῖν διὰ σοῦ ἀπερίτμητος καὶ ἀκάθαρτος. 2 ἐκτίναξαι τὸν χοῦν καὶ ἀνάστηθι κάθισον, ερουσαλήμ· ἔκδυσαιe τὸν δεσμὸν τοῦ τραχήλου σου, ἡ αἰχμάλωτος θυγάτηρ Σιών. 3 Ὅτι τάδε λέγει Κύριος Δωρεὰν ἐπράθητε καὶ οὐ μετὰ ἀργυρίου λυτρωθήσεσθε. 349 Lord’s people were taken by force

(52:4–6)

4 Οὕτωf λέγει Κύριος Εἰς Αἴγυπτον κατέβη ὁ λαός μου τὸ πρότερον παροικῆσαι ἐκεῖ, καὶ εἰς Ἀσσυρίους βίᾳ ἤχθησαν· 5 καὶ νῦν τί ὧδέ ἐστεg; Τάδε λέγει Κύριος. ὅτι ἐλήμφθη ὁ λαός μου δωρεάν, θαυμάζετε καὶ ὀλολύζετε· Τάδε λέγει Κύριος. δι’ ὑμᾶς διὰ παντὸς τὸ ὄνομά μου βλασφημεῖται ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν. 6 διὰ τοῦτο γνώσεται ὁ λαός μου τὸ ὄνομά μου ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ, ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι

aμετάφρενά] SARZ; μέσα B b σου] S; σου, Σιών ABRZ c συ] S*Scb3B; om. Scb2ARZ d ἡ] SBRZ; om. A e ἔκδυσαι] SARZ; ἔκλυσαι B f Οὕτω] S*Scb3; οὕτως ScaABRZ g ἐστε] SBRZ; ἔσται A

52:1–6

277

and of those who have brought you down, who said to your soul, ‘Bow, so that we might pass by!’ and you made your backs flat to the land, for those who pass by outside.” 348 Get up, Jerusalem!

(52:1–2)

52.1 Awake, awake, Zion! Put on your strength and put on your glory, Jerusalem, holy city! No uncircumcised or unclean person will continue to pass through you any more. 2 Shake off the dust and rise up and sit, Jerusalem! Take off the bond from your neck, captive daughter of Zion. 3 Because thus says Lord: “You were sold for nothing and you will be redeemed without money.” 349 Lord’s people were taken by force

(52:4–6)

4 Thus says Lord: “My people went down into Egypt earlier, to sojourn there, and they were led to the Assyrians by force. 5 And now why are you here?” Thus says Lord: “Because my people were taken for nothing, be amazed and wail.” Thus says Lord: “My name is blasphemed everywhere among the nations on your account. 6 Because of this, my people will know my name on that day, that I am the one.

52:1 Matt 4:5; Rev 21:2, 27; Methodius Lepra 10.4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.40; Hist. eccl. 10.4.51 52:2 Methodius Res. 1.47.6; Origen Comm. Jo. 1.54; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.40; Hist. eccl. 10.4.51 52:3 1 Pet 1:18; Rec. Fid. (GCS 4.54); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.40 52:4 Origen Hom. Exod. 1.2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.40 52:5 Rom 2:24; 1 Tim 6:1; 2 Pet 2:2; Rev 16:9; Did. apost. 3 (Connolly R.H. 26); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.40; 2.54; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.877); Dem ev. 6.24.1–2; Ecl. proph. 4.26; Ignatius Tral. 8.2; Justin Dial. 17.2; Origen Comm. Jo. 20.350; 32.360; Comm. Matt. 16.22; Hom. Lev. 5.7; PseudoClementines Cor. 13.2; 13.4; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 13.26; Idol. 14.2; Marc. 3.23.3; 4.14.16 52:6 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.40; Dem ev. 6.24.3; Ecl. proph. 4.26; Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 2 (PO 27.172); Origen Comm. Jo. 1.63; Hom. Cant. 1.2; Tertullian Marc. 4.13.1

278 350 I announce good news

Text and Translation

(52:6–7)

Αὐτὸς ὁ λαλῶν· πάρειμι 7 ὡς ὥρα ἐπὶ τῶν ὀρέων, ὡς πόδες εὐαγγελιζομένου ἀκοὴν εἰρήνης, ὡς εὐαγγελιζόμενος ἀγαθά, ὅτι ἀκουστὴν ποιήσω τὴν σωτηρίαν σου λέγων Σιών Βασιλεύσει σου ὁ θεός. 351 Let Jerusalem’s protectors rejoice

(52:8–9)

8 ὅτι φωνὴ τῶν φυλασσόντων σε ὑψώθη. Καὶ τῇ φωνῇ ἅμα εὐφρανθήσονται· ὅτι ὀφθαλμοὶ πρὸς ὀφθαλμοὺς ὄψονται, ἡνίκα ἂν ἐλεήσει Κύριος τὴν Σιών. 9 Ῥηξάτω εὐφροσύνην ἅμα τὰ ἔρημα Ἰερουσαλήμ, ὅτι ἠλέησεν αὐτὴν καὶ ἐρρύσατο. 352 Nations will see Lord’s salvation

(52:10)

10 καὶ ἀποκαλύψει Κύριος τὸν βραχίονα τὸν ἅγιον αὐτοῦa ἐνώπιον πάντων τῶν ἐθνῶν, καὶ ὄψονται πάντα τὰ ἔθνη τὰb ἄκρα τῆς γῆς τὴν σωτηρίαν τὴν παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶνc. 353 Come out, carriers of Lord’s vessels

(52:11–12)

11 ἀπόστητε ἀπόστητε ἐξέλθατε ἐκεῖθεν καὶ ἀκαθάρτου μὴ ἅπτεσθεd, ἐξέλθατε ἐκ τοῦe μέσου αὐτῆς ἀφορίσθητε, οἱ φέροντες τὰ σκεύη Κυρίου· 12 ὅτι οὐ μετὰ ταραχῆς ἐξελεύσεσθε οὐδὲ φυγῇ πορεύσεσθε, προπορεύσεταιf γὰρ πρὸ προσώπουg ὑμῶν Κύριος, καὶ ὁ συνάγωνh ὑμᾶς Κύριος ὁ θεὸς Ἰσραήλ.

aτὸν ἅγιον αὐτοῦ] SB; αὐτοῦ τὸν ἅγιον ARZ bτὰ ἔθνη τὰ] S*; τὰ Scb2ARZ; om. B c ἡμῶν] SB; om. ARZ d ἅπτεσθε] SARZ; ἅψησθε B e τοῦ] S; om. ABRZ fπροπορεύσεται] SB; πορεύσεται ARZ gπρὸ προσώπου] S; πρότερος ABRZ h συνάγων] S*; ἐπισυνάγων ScaABRZ

52:7–12

350 I announce good news

279 (52:6–7)

I myself, the one who speaks, am present 7 as an hour upon the mountains, as the feet of one who brings the good report of peace, as one who brings good news of good things, for I will make your salvation known, saying to Zion, ‘God will rule over you.’ ” 351 Let Jerusalem’s protectors rejoice

(52:8–9)

8 For the voice of those who guard you was lifted up. And with their voice they will rejoice together, because eyes will look to eyes, when Lord will show mercy to Zion. 9 Let the deserted places of Jerusalem burst out together with joy, because he has shown pity on and rescued Jerusalem. 352 Nations will see Lord’s salvation

(52:10)

10 Lord will reveal his holy arm before all the nations, and all the nations to the extremities of the earth will see the salvation that is from our God. 353 Come out, carriers of Lord’s vessels

(52:11–12)

11 Go away, go away! Come out from there and do not touch an unclean thing. Come out from among her; be separate, you who carry the vessels of Lord, 12 because you will not come out with trouble nor will you go in flight, for Lord will go before your face, and the one who gathers you is Lord God of Israel.

52:7 Acts 10:36; Rom 10:15; Eph 2:17; 6:15; Rec. Fid. (GCS 4.24); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.90; 2.41; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.660); Dem ev. 3.1.3; 6.24.3–5, 9; Ecl. proph. 4.26; Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 2 (PO 27.172,193); Irenaeus Dem. 86 (SC 62.153); Odes Sol. 9.6; Origen Comm. Jo. 1.51; 1.55; 1.57; 1.63; 1.65; 1.86; 32.77; 32.78; 32.80; 32.86; 32.87; 32.101; Fr. Eph. 17; Hom. Exod. 10.3; Hom. Isa. 5.2; Tertullian Marc. 3.22.1; 4.13.1; 4.34.16; 5.2.5 52:8 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.41; Dem. ev. 6.24.4 52:9 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.41; Dem. ev. 6.24.5; 6.24.7 52:10 Luke 2:30–32; Cyprian Test. 2.4; Did. apost. 20; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.41–42; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.461); Dem ev. 6.24.1; 6.24.8–9; Eccl. theol. 1.20; Ecl. proph. 4.27; Mart. Pal.; Justin Dial. 13.2; Origen Ps. Cat. (PG 12.1208); Tertullian Marc. 3.22.3. 52:11 2 Cor 6:17; Rev 18:4; Cyprian Test. 3.34; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.41; Ecl. proph. 4.27; Origen Fr. Jer. (GCS 10.527); Hom. Exod. 8.4; Hom. Lev. 5.12; 11.1; 14.3; Tertullian Marc. 3.22.2 52:12 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.41

280

Text and Translation

354 Kings will shut their mouth because of my servant

(52:13–15)

13 ἰδοὺ συνήσει ὁ παῖς μου καὶ ὑψωθήσεται καὶ δοξασθήσεται σφόδρα. 14 ὃν τρόπον ἐκστήσονται ἐπὶ σὲ πολλοί οὕτως ἀδοξήσει ἀπὸ ἀνθρώπων τὸ εἶδός σου καὶ ἡ δόξα σου ἀπὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων, 15 οὕτωςa θαυμάσονται ἔθνη πολλὰ ἐπ’ αὐτῷ, καὶ συνέξουσινb βασιλεῖς τὸ στόμα αὐτῶν· ὅτι οἷς οὐκ ἀνηγγέλη περὶ αὐτοῦ, ὄψονται, καὶ οἳ οὐκ ἀκηκόασιν, συνήσουσιν. 355 His appearance was despised

(53:1–3)

53.1 Κύριε, τίς ἐπίστευσεν τῇ ἀκοῇ ἡμῶν; καὶ ὁ βραχίων Κυρίου τίνι ἀπεκαλύφθη; 2 ἀνηγγείλαμενc ἐναντίον αὐτοῦ ὡς παιδίονd, ὡς ῥίζα ἐν γῇ διψώσῃ, οὐκ ἔστιν εἶδος αὐτῷ οὔτεe δόξα· καὶ εἴδομεν αὐτόν, καὶ οὐκ εἶχεν εἶδος οὐδὲ κάλλος· 3 ἀλλὰ τὸ εἶδος αὐτοῦ ἄτιμον καὶ ἐκλιπόνταf παρὰ πάντα τοὺς υἱοὺς τῶν ἀνθρώπωνg, ἄνθρωπος ἐν πληγῇ ὢν καὶ εἰδὼς φέρειν μαλακίαν, ὅτι ἀπέστραπται τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ, ἠτιμάσθη καὶ οὐκ ἐλογίσθη.

aοὕτως] SARZ; οὕτω B bσυνέξουσιν] SBRZ; συνάξουσιν A c ἀνηγγείλαμεν] SABR; ἀνέτειλε μὲν Z dἐναντίον αὐτοῦ ὡς παιδίον] Scb3ARZ; ἐναντίον αὐτοῦ ὡς πεδίον S*; ὡς παιδίον ἐναντίον αὐτοῦ B e οὔτε] S; οὐδὲ ABRZ f καὶ ἐκλιπόντα] S; καὶ ἐκλιπὸν B; ἐκλεῖπον ARZ g πάντα τοὺς υἱοὺς τῶν ἀνθρώπων] S; τοὺς υἱοὺς τῶν ἀνθρώπων B; πάντας ἀνθρώπους ARZ

52:13–53:3

354 Kings will shut their mouth because of my servant

281 (52:13–15)

13 Look, my servant will understand and be raised up and will be glorified exceedingly. 14 In the same way that many will be amazed at you, so your appearance will be held in contempt by humans and your glory by humans. 15 Thus many nations will be amazed at him, and kings will shut their mouth, because those to whom it has not been declared concerning him will see and those who have not heard will understand. 355 His appearance was despised

(53:1–3)

53.1 Lord, who has believed our report? And to whom has the arm of Lord been revealed? 2 We proclaimed before him like a child, like a root in a thirsty land; he has no appearance or glory. And we saw him, and he had no appearance or beauty. 3 Instead, his appearance was dishonoured and things were failing beyond all the sons of men, being a man in calamity and one who knows how to bear sickness, for his face has been rejected; he was dishonoured and was not esteemed.

52:13 John 3:14; Acts 3:13; Ascen. Isa. 4.21; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.42; Ecl. proph. 4.27; Justin 1 Apol. 50.3; Origen Cels. 1.54–55; Fr. Ps. (PG 12.1104) 52:14 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.42; Ecl. proph. 4.27; Justin Dial. 121.3; Origen Cels. 1.55; 6.75; Tertullian Marc. 3.17.1 52:15 Rom 15:21; 1 Cor 2:9; Cyprian Test. 1.21; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 13.7; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.42; 2.44; 2.58; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.145); Dem. ev. 8.2.130; Ecl. proph. 4.27–28; Justin 1 Apol. 50.3; Dial. 13.2; Origen Cels. 1.54; Ps. Cat. A (PG 17.108) 53:1 Luke 24:25; John 12:38; Rom 10:16; Ep. Ap. 30; Cyprian Test. 2.; 2.13; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 13.7; 13.13; 13.19; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.42; Dem. ev. 3.2.48; 3.2.50; Ecl. proph. 4.27; Hippolytus Noet. 17; Irenaeus Dem. 68 (SC 62.134); Justin 1 Apol. 50.5; Dial. 42.2; 42.3; 114.2; 118.4; Lactantius Inst. 4.16.15; Origen Cels. 1.54–55; 6.75; Fr. Lam. (GCS 6.259); Hom. Jer. 14.9 53:2 Clement of Alexandria Paed. 3.3.3; Strom. 3.103.3; 6.151.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.42; 2.44; Ecl. proph. 1; 2.4; 2.14; 4.19; 4.27; Dem. ev. 3.2.48; 3.2.49; 3.2.50; 3.2.53; 4.16.19; 4.16.39; Hist. eccl. 5.1.17; 5.1.23; Justin 1 Apol. 52.3; Dial. 14.8; 32.1; 32.2; 32.6; 42.2; 42.3; 49.2; 85.1; 88.8; 100.2; 110.2; Origen Cels. 4.16; 6.75–77; 7.16; Comm. Matt. 12.29–30; 12.32; 14.1; 32; 143; Comm. Cant. 3; Hom. Exod. 6.1; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 14.2; Carn. Chr. 9.6; 15.5; Idol. 18.5; Marc. 3.7.2; 3.17.1 53:3 Mark 9:12; Phil 2:7; Sib. Or. 8; Rec. Fid. (GCS 4.48); Athanasius Inc. 34.2; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 3.3.3; Protr. 110.1; Strom. 2.22.8; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.42; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.308, 756, 1209); Dem. ev. 3.2.53; 3.2.54; 3.2.57; 3.2.61; 4.16.19; 4.16.20; 4.16.39; Ecl. proph. 2.4; 2.14; 4.27; Hist. eccl. 5.1.17; 5.1.23; Justin Dial. 14.8; 32.1; 36.6; 49.2; 85.1; 88.8; 100.2; Lactantius Inst. 4.16.17; Origen Cels. 4.16; 6.75–77; 7.16; Comm. Jo. 28.164; Comm. Matt. 32; 12.29; 12.32; Comm. Cant. 3 (GCS 33.175); Hom. Exod. 6.1; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 9.28; 14.2; Carn. Chr. 9.6; 15.1; 15.5; Marc. 3.7.2; 3.17.1; 3.17.4; Theodotus Fr. (GCS 31.322)

282 356 He was wounded for our sins

Text and Translation

(53:4–7)

4 οὗτος τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἡμῶν φέρει καὶ περὶ ἡμῶν ὀδυνᾶται, καὶ ἡμεῖς ἐλογισάμεθα αὐτὸν ἐν πόνοιςa. Καὶ ἐν πληγῇ καὶ ἐν κακώσει. 5 αὐτὸς δὲ ἐτραυματίσθη διὰ τὰς ἀνομίαςb ἡμῶν καὶ μεμαλάκισταιc διὰ τὰς ἁμαρτίαςd ἡμῶν· παιδεία εἰρήνης ἡμῶν ἐπ’ αὐτόν, τῷ μώλωπι αὐτοῦ ἡμεῖς ἰάθημεν. 6 πάντες ὡς πρόβατα ἐπλανήθημεν, ἄνθρωπος τῇ ὁδῷ αὐτοῦ ἐπλανήθη· καὶ Κύριος παρέδωκεν αὐτὸν ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις ἡμῶν. 7 καὶ αὐτὸς διὰ τὸ κεκραγῶσθαιe οὐκ ἀνοίγει τὸ στόμα·

aἐν πόνοις] S*; εἶναι ἐν πόνῳ Scb2ABRZ bἀνομίας] SARZ; ἁμαρτίας B cμεμαλάκισται] SBRZ; ἐμαλακίσθη A d ἁμαρτίας] SARZ; ἀνομίας B e κεκραγῶσθαι] S*; κεκακῶσθαι Scb3ABRZ

53:4–7

356 He was wounded for our sins

283 (53:4–7)

4 This one carries our sins and is in pain concerning us, and we regarded him in toils and in calamity and in misfortune. 5 But he was wounded on account of our lawless acts and became sick on account of our sins. The discipline of our peace was upon him; by his bruise we were healed. 6 We all were misled like sheep, each person was misled in his own path, was led astray and Lord handed him over for our sins. 7 And he does not open his mouth, because of the outcry.

53:4 Matt 8:17; 1 Pet 2:24; Diogn. 9.2; Athanasius Ep. fest. 20.1; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 2.74.3; Cyprian Dom. or. 14; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 13.34; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.42; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.308, 736, 756, 1060, 1065); Ecl. proph. 4.27; 4.33; Dem. ev. 1.10.16; 3.2.63; 4.16.20; 4.17.17; 10.1.19; 10.1.21; 10.8.35; Hist. eccl. 10.4.12; Laud. Const. 15.12; Theoph. (GCS 11.10, 155); Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 1 (PO 27.20); Noet. 18; Ignatius Pol. 1.3; Irenaeus Dem. 67 (SC 62.132); Irenaeus Fr. A (TU 36,3.61); Origen Cels. 1.55; Comm. Cant. 3 (GCS 33.197); Comm. Jo. 2.164; 6.290; 28.160; 28.165; 32.83; Comm. Matt. 12.29; 72; 125; Pasch. 2.41; Hom. Jer. 14.9; Hom. Lev. 5.3; 7.2; Hom. Luc. 19 (GCS 49.115); 34 (GCS 49.193); Ps. Cat. C (Pitra 152, 327); Tertullian Marc. 3.17.5; 4.8.4; 4.9.10; Theodotus Fr. (GCS 31.322); 53:5 Rom 4:25; 5:1; 1 Cor 15:3; Barn. 5.2; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 2.74.3; Strom. 2.64.4; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 13.34; Eusebius Comm. Ps. (PG 23.308, 756, 1065); Dem. ev. 4.17.17; 10.1.21; 10.1.23; 10.8.36; Ecl. proph. 4.27; Hist. eccl. 5.1.23; 10.4.12; Comm. Isa. 2.42; Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 1 (PO 27.20); Irenaeus Dem. 68–69; Justin Dial. 17.1; 43.3; 63.2; 95.3; 137.1; Origen Cels. 1.55; 3.2; Comm. Jo. 28.165; Comm. Matt. 125 (GCS 38.261); Pasch. 2.41; Hom. Jer. 14.9; 53:6 1 Pet 2:25; Athanasius Inc. 34.2; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 1.67.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.42; Comm. Ps. (PG 22.756, 1060, 1065); Dem. ev. 1.10.16; 10.1.23; 10.8.35; Ecl. proph. 4.27; Laud. Const. 15.12; Theoph. (GCS 11.10, 155); Hippolytus Prov. (Richard 94); Irenaeus Dem. 69; Lactantius Inst. 4.16.15; Origen Comm. Jo. 28.166 53:7 Matt 27:12; Mark 14:49, 61; John 1:29; Acts 8:32; Rev 5:6, 9; Odes Sol. 31.10; Athanasius Ep. fest. 1.9; 6.8; Inc. 37.7; Clement Pasc. (GCS 17.216); Cyprian Ep. 13.4; Test. 2.13; 2.15; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 10.3; 10.5; 13; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.42; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.261, 313, 365, 1065); Dem. ev. 1.10.15; 1.10.18; 1.10.21; 1.10.23; 3.2.70; 4.16.39; 9.4.4; 10.3; 10.4; 10.7; 10.8.32; 10.8.36; Ecl. proph. 1 (PG 22.1025); 3.33; 4.27; Laud. Const. 15.12; Mart. Pal. (Cureton 4.3); Praep. ev. 6.10.9; Hippolytus Helc. Ann. (GCS 1,2.122); Fr. Prov.; Irenaeus Dem. 69 (SC 62.135); Lactantius Inst. 4.18.9; 4.18.16; Epit. 40.8; 41.1; Origen Comm. Jo. 1.233; 6.273; 6.284; 28.166; Comm. Matt. 70 (GCS 38.166); 81 (GCS 41.48); Cels. 2.59; 7.55; Hom. Gen. 14.1; Hom. Jer. 10.1; Pasch. 2.41; 2.42; Pr. Cat. (PG 17.240); Justin Dial. 72.3; 90.1; 111.3; 114.2; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 9.28; 13.21; 14.1; Fr. 29 (TU 38.34); Marc. 3.7.1; 3.17.4; 4.42.3; Pat. 3.7; Res. 20.5; Victorinus Apoc. (CSEL 49.62)

284 357 Though innocent, he was killed

Text and Translation

(53:7–10)

ὡς πρόβατον ἐπὶ σφαγὴν ἤχθηa καὶ ὡς ἀμνὸς ἐναντίον τοῦ κείροντοςb ἄφωνος οὕτως οὐκ ἀνοίγει τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ. 8 ἐν τῇ ταπεινώσει ἡ κρίσις αὐτοῦ ἤχθη· τὴν γενεὰν αὐτοῦ τίς διηγήσεται; ὅτι αἴρεται ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς ἡ ζωὴ αὐτοῦ, ἀπὸ τῶν ἀνομιῶν τοῦ λαοῦ μου ἤχθη εἰς θάνατον. 9 καὶ δώσω τοὺς πονηροὺς ἀντὶ τῆς ταφῆς αὐτοῦ καὶ τοὺς πλουσίους ἀντὶ τοῦ θανάτου αὐτοῦc· ὅτι ἀνομίαν οὐκ ἐποίησεν, οὐδὲ δόλονd ἐν τῷ στόματι αὐτοῦ. 10 Καὶ Κύριος βούλεταιe καθαρίσαι αὐτὸν τῆς πληγῆςf· ἐὰν δῶτε περὶ ἁμαρτίας, ἡ ψυχὴ ὑμῶν ὄψεται σπέρμα μακρόβιον. 358 Lord removes him to justify the righteous

(53:10–11)

καὶ Κύριος βούλεται ἀφελεῖν ἀπὸ τοῦ πόνου τῆς ψυχῆς αὐτοῦ, 11 δεῖξαι αὐτῷ φῶς καὶ πλάσαι τῇ συνέσει, δικαιῶσαι δίκαιον εὖ δουλεύοντα πολλοῖς, καὶ τὰς ἁμαρτίας αὐτῶν αὐτὸς ἀνοίσει.

aἤχθη] S*; ἤρθη ScaABRZ bκείροντος] S*B; κείραντος αὐτὸν ScaA; κείροντος αὐτὸν RZ cθανάτου αὐτοῦ] SARZ; θανάτου B d δόλον] S*B (= MT); εὑρέθη δόλος ScaARZ eΚύριος βούλεται] S; βούλεται Κύριος ABRZ f τῆς πληγῆς] SBRZ; ἀπὸ τῆς πληγῆς A

53:8–11

357 Though innocent, he was killed

285 (53:7–10)

As a sheep was led to the slaughter, and as a lamb is without voice before the one who shears it, so he does not open his mouth. 8 His justice was brought in humiliation; who will recount his family? For his life was taken up from the land, he was led to death because of the lawless acts of my people. 9 And I will give the wicked in place of his tomb and the wealthy in place of his death, because he did no lawless act, nor was there deceit with his mouth. 10 The Lord wishes to cleanse him of the blow. If you give concerning sin, your soul will see long-lived seed. 358 Lord removes him to justify the righteous

(53:10–11)

And Lord wishes to remove him 11 from the toil of his soul, to show him light and to form him with understanding, to justify a righteous person who serves many well, and he himself will take up their sins.

53:8 Odes Sol. 12.6; Athanasius Inc. 34.2–3; 37.2; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 11.5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.42; Ecl. proph. 4.27; 4.29; Dem. ev. 3.2.54; 3.2.57; 3.2.58; 3.2.70; 4.3.13; 4.15.53; 4.16.39; 5.1.14; 5.18; 5.1.25; 10.4; Hist. eccl. 1.2.2; Hippolytus Haer. 5.7.2; Irenaeus Dem. 69–70; Justin 1 Apol. 50.5; 1.51.1; Dial. 43.3; 63.2; 68.4; 76.2; 89.3; Lactantius Inst. 4.8.6; 4.18.24; Melito Pasc. 64; Origen Cels. 1.54–55; Comm. Jo. 28.167; Hom. Exod. 6.1; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 10.15; 13.22; 14.6; Marc. 3.7.6 53:9 1 Pet 2:22; Rev 14:5; Cyprian Test. 2.15; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 13.3; 13.34; 14.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.42; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.161, 204); Dem. ev. 1.10.16; 3.2.59; Ecl. proph. 2.; 3.30; 4.22; 4.27; 4.33; Comm. Jer. Fr. C (Ghisler); Lactantius Inst. 4.18.24; Origen Cels. 1.69; Comm. Jo. 28.160; Comm. Matt. 107 (GCS 38.226); Fr. Ps. (PG 12.1444); Fr. Jo. (GCS 10.501); Hom. Lev. 12.2–4; Pasch. 2.41; Princ. 2.6.4; Ps. Cat. F (GCS 1,2.141); Justin Dial. 32.2; 97.2; 102.7; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 10.4; Marc. 3.23.5 53:10 Matt 20:28; Mark 10:45; Athanasius Inc. 34.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.42; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 10.15; Dem. ev. 3.2.60–63; 3.2.70 53:11 Acts 3:13; Rom 5:19; Phil 2:7; Did. apost. 16; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.42; Dem. ev. 3.2.60; 3.2.63; 3.2.70

286

Text and Translation

359 He took up the sins of many

(53:12)

12 διὰ τοῦτο αὐτὸς κληρονομήσει πολλοὺς καὶ τῶν ἰσχυρῶν μεριεῖ σκῦλα, ἀνθ’ ὧν παρεδόθη εἰς θάνατον ἡ ψυχὴ αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἐν τοῖς ἀνόμοις ἐλογίσθη· καὶ αὐτὸς ἁμαρτίας πολλῶν ἀνήνεγκεν καὶ διὰ τὰς ἀνομίαςa αὐτῶν παρεδόθη. 360 The widow will have plenty of children

(54:1–3)

54.1 Εὐφράνθητι, στεῖρα ἡ οὐ τίκτουσα, ῥῆξον καὶ βόησον, ἡ οὐκ ὠδίνουσα, ὅτι πολλὰ τὰ τέκνα τῆς ἐρήμου μᾶλλον ἢ τῆς ἐχούσης τὸν ἄνδρα, εἶπεν γὰρ Κύριος. 2 πλάτυνον τὸν τόπον τῆς σκηνῆς σου καὶ τῶν αὐλαιῶν σου, πῆξον, μὴ φείσῃ· μάκρυνον τὰ σχοινίσματά σου καὶ τοὺς πασσάλους σου κατίσχυσον. 3 ἔτι εἰς τὰ δεξιὰ καὶ εἰς τὰ ἀριστερὰb ἐκπέτασον, καὶ τὸ σπέρμα σου ἔθνη κληρονομήσει, καὶ πόλεις ἠρημωμένας κατοικιεῖςc. 361 You will not remember the reproach of your widowhood

(54:4–6)

4 μὴ φοβοῦ ὅτι κατῃσχύνθης, μηδὲ ἐντραπῇς ὅτι ὠνειδίσθης· ὅτι αἰσχύνην αἰώνιον ἐπιλήσῃ καὶ ὄνειδος τῆς χηρείαςd σου οὐe μνησθήσῃ. 5 ὅτι ἐγὼf Κύριος ὁ ποιῶν σε, Κύριος Σαβαώθ ὄνομα αὐτῷ· ὁ ῥυσάμενόςg σε αὐτὸςh θεὸς Ἰσραήλ, πάσῃ τῇ γῇ κληθήσεται. 6 οὐχ ὡς γυναῖκα καταλελειμμένην. Καὶ ὀλιγόψυχον κέκληκέν σε Κύριος οὕτωi γυναῖκα ἐκ νεότητος μεμισημένην, εἶπεν ὁ θεός σου.

aἀνομίας] SB; ἁμαρτίας ARZ b εἰς τὰ ἀριστερὰ] SARZ; τὰ ἀριστερὰ B c κατοικιεῖς] SBRZ; κατοικήσεις A dχηρείας] SBRZ; Χηρίας A eοὐ] S; οὐ μὴ ABRZ fἐγὼ] S*Scb3; om. Scb2ABRZ g ὁ ῥυσάμενός] S*; καὶ ὁ ῥυσάμενός Scb2ABRZ h αὐτὸς] SABR; ἅγιος Z i Κύριος οὕτω] S*; Κύριος, οὐδ’ ὡς ScaARZ; ὁ κύριος, οὐδ’ ὡς B

53:12–54:6

359 He took up the sins of many

287 (53:12)

12 Because of this he will inherit many people, and he will divide up the spoils of the mighty, in place of whom his soul was betrayed to death and he was reckoned among the lawless. And he himself took up the sins of many people, and he was betrayed on account of their sins. 360 The widow will have plenty of children

(54:1–3)

54.1 Rejoice, barren one who does not bear children, burst out and call out, you who are not in labour, because the children of the deserted woman will be more numerous than those the woman who has a man, for Lord has said. 2 “Widen the place of your tent and of your curtains, set it up, do not hold back. Lengthen your allotment and reinforce your stakes. 3 Spread out farther to the right and to the left and your seed will inherit nations, and you will settle wasted cities. 361 You will not remember the reproach of your widowhood

(54:4–6)

4 “Do not be afraid because you were put to shame, nor feel shame because you were reproached, because you will forget eternal shame, and you will not remember the reproach of your widowhood. 5 For I am Lord who made you (Lord Sabaoth is his name), God of Israel himself who rescues you, will be called in all the land, 6 not like an woman who has been left. “And the Lord has called you disheartened in this way; a woman hated from her youth,” your God said.

53:12 Matt 12:29; 26:28; 27:38; Mark 14:24; 15:27; Luke 11:22; 22:37; 23:34; Rom 4:24; Rom 5:15; 1Cor 15:3; Heb 9:28; 1 Pet 2:24; 1 John 3:5; Did. apost. 8; Cyprian Test. 2.15; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 13.30; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.42; Dem. ev. 3.2.64; 3.2.66; 3.2.68–69; Ecl. proph. 4.7; Justin 1 Apol. 50.2; 1.51.1; Dial. 89.3; Lactantius Inst. 4.18.25; Origen Cels. 8.54; Comm. Matt. 131 (GCS 38.267); Tertullian Adv. Jud. 10.16; Marc. 3.19.9; 4.10.2; Res. 20.5 54:1 Luke 23:39; Gal 4:27; Clement of Alexandria Protr. 9.4; Cyprian Test. 1.20 (CCL 3.19); Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 18.26; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.9; 2.37; 2.43; 2.44; Dem. ev. 3.2.73; Ecl. proph. 4.27; Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 2; Haer. 5.8.36; Irenaeus Dem. 94; Justin 1 Apol. 53.5; Origen Comm. Jo. 28.211; Comm. Matt. 10.23; Hom. Gen. 6.3; Hom. Jer. 3.2; 9.3; Io. Cat.; Hom. Jes. Nav. 2.4 (GCS 30.298); Hom. Luc. 21; 33; Philo Praem. 158 54:2 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.43–44; Origen Hom. Jes. Nav. 3.4 54:3 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.43; Dem. ev. 3.2.73–74 54:4 Cyprian Test. 1.20; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.43; Hist. eccl. 10.4.49; Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 1 54:5 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.43 54:6 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.43; Hist. eccl. 10.4.49

288 362 My anger will be replaced by mercy

Text and Translation

(54:7–11)

7 χρόνον μικρὸν κατέλιπόνa σε καὶ μετὰ ἐλέους μεγάλου ἐλεήσω σε, 8 ἐν θυμῷ μικρῷ ἀπέστρεψα τὸ πρόσωπόν μου ἀπὸ σοῦ καὶ ἐν ἐλέει αἰωνίῳ ἐλεήσωb σε, εἶπεν ὁ ῥυσάμενός σε Κύριος. 9 ἀπὸ τοῦ ὕδατος τοῦ ἐπὶ Νῶε τοῦτό μοί ἐστιν ὄνομαc· καθότι ὤμοσα αὐτῷ ἐν τῷ χρόνῳ ἐκείνῳ τῇ γῇ μὴ θυμωθήσεσθαι ἐπὶ σοὶ ἔτι μηδὲ ἐν ἀπειλῇ σου 10 τὰ ὅριαd μεταστήσασθαι οὐδὲ οἱ βουνοί μετακινηθήσονται, οὕτως οὐδὲ τὸ παρ’ ἐμοῦ σοι ἔλεος ἐκλείψει οὐδὲ ἡ διαθήκη τῆς εἰρήνης σου οὐ μὴ μεταστῇ· εἶπεν γὰρ Κύριος· Ἵλεώς σοιe. 11 ἡf ταπεινὴ καὶ ἀκατάστατος ἔσται παρακεκλήμενηg. 363 You will be built up in righteousness

(54:11–14)

Ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ ἑτοιμάζωh ἄνθρακα τὸν λίθον σου καὶ τὰ θεμέλιά σου σάπφειρον 12 καὶ θήσω τὰς ἐπάλξεις σου ἴασπιν καὶ τὰς πύλας σου λίθους κρυστάλλου καὶ τὸν περίβολόν σου λίθους ἐκλεκτοὺς 13 καὶ πάντας τοὺς υἱούς σου διδακτοὺς θεοῦ καὶ ἐν πολλῇ εἰρήνῃ τὰ τέκνα σου. 14 καὶ ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ οἰκοδομηθήσῃ. 364 You will overcome your opponents

(54:14–17)

ἀπέχου ἀπὸ ἀδίκου καὶ οὐ φοβηθήσῃ, καὶ τρόμος οὐκ ἐγγιεῖ σοι. 15 ἰδοὺ προσήλυτοι προσελεύσονταί σοι δι’ ἐμοῦi καὶ ἐπὶ σὲ καταφεύξονται. 16 Ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ κτίζωj σε, οὐχ ὡς χαλκοῦςk φυσῶν ἄνθρακας καὶ ἐκφέρων σκεῦος εἰς ἔργον· ἐγὼ δὲ ἔκτικάl σε οὐκ εἰς ἀπώλειαν. φθεῖραι 17 πᾶν σκεῦος τὸνm ἐπὶ σὲ οὐκ εὐοδώσωn, καὶ πᾶσα φωνὴ ἀναστήσεταιo ἐπὶ σὲ εἰς κρίσιν· καὶ πάνταςp αὐτοὺς ἡττήσετεq, οἱ δὲ ἔνοχοί σου ἔσονται ἐν αὐτῇ. ἔστιν κληρονομία τοῖς θεραπεύουσιν Κύριονr, καὶ ὑμεῖς ἔσεσθέ μουs ἅγιοιt, λέγει Κύριος.

aἐνκατέλιπόν B b ἐλεήσω] SBR; ἐλέησά Scb2; ἠλέησά AZ c ὄνομα] S*; om. Scb2ABRZ d ὅρια] S; ὄρη ABRZ e Κύριος Ἵλεώς σοι] SARZ; Ἵλεώς σοι, Κύριε B f ἡ] S; om. ABRZ g ἔσται παρακεκλήμενη] S*Scb3; om. Sca; οὐ παρεκλήθης Scb2ABRZ (= MT) hἑτοιμάζω] S*; ἑτοιμάζω σοι ScaABRZ i ἐμοῦ] SARZ; ἐμοῦ, καὶ παροικήσουσίν σοι B j κτίζω] SARZ; ἔκτισά B k χαλκοῦς] S*; χαλκεὺς Scb3ABRZ lἔκτικά] S; ἔκτισά ABRZ m τὸν] S*; φθαρτόν Scb2ARZ; σκευαστὸν B n εὐοδώσω] SBRZ; εὐδοκήσω A o ἀναστήσεται] S*BR; ἣ ἀναστήσεται Scb1AZ p καὶ πάντας] S*; πάντας Scb2ABRZ q ἡττήσετε] S; ἡττήσεις ABRZ r Κύριον] SBRZ; Κυρίῳ A s μου] S*; μοι ScaABRZ tἅγιοι] S*; δίκαιοι Scb1ABRZ

54:7–17

362 My anger will be replaced by mercy

289 (54:7–11)

7 “I forsook you for a little time, and I will show mercy to you with great mercy. 8 I turned my face away from you with a little wrath, but I will show mercy to you with eternal mercy,” said Lord who rescued you. 9 “This is my name since the water at the time of Noe. Just as I swore to him at that time not to be angry at the land any longer because of you, nor 10 as a threat to you to shift the boundaries, nor will the hills be moved, so neither will the compassion from me to you cease nor the covenant of your peace change.” For the Lord has said, “[God have] mercy on you. 11 The lowly and unstable one will be comforted. 363 You will be built up in righteousness

(54:11–14)

“Look, I am preparing your stone as a coal and your foundations as a sapphire. 12 And I myself will make your bulwarks jasper and your gates stones of ice, and your wall choice stones. 13 And all your sons will be instructed by God and your children will be in great peace. 14 And you will be built up in righteousness. 364 You will overcome your opponents

(54:14–17)

“Stay away from an unjust person and you will not be afraid, and trembling will not approach you. 15 Look, proselytes will come to you through me, and they will take refuge in you. 16 “Look, I am creating you, not like a coppersmith blowing on coals and bringing out a vessel for work, but I bore you not for destruction. 17 I will not prosper any vessel that is against you to ruin, and every voice will rise up against you in justice, and you will overcome them all, but they will be your subjects by it. There is an inheritance for those who serve Lord, and you will be my holy ones,” says Lord.

54:8 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.43; Hist. eccl. 10.4.49 54:9 Justin Dial. 138.1–2 54:11 Rev 21:19–20; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.43; Hist. eccl. 10.4.62; Praep. ev. 11.36.2; Origen Cels. 7.30; 8.19–20; Comm. Jo. 10.293; Princ. 2.11.2 54:12 Rev 21:19–20; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.43; Praep. ev. 11.36.2; Origen Cels. 7.30; 8.20; Princ. 2.11.2 54:13 John 6:45; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.43 54:14 Did. apost. 18; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.43; Hist. eccl. 10.4.62; Origen Cels. 8.19; Comm. Jo. 10.293 54:15 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.43; 2.45; Origen Comm. Jo. 10.295; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 4.4; Marc. 3.21.2 54:16 Rom 9:22; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.43 54:17 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.43; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.116); Clement of Alexandria Protr. 93.2; 94.1

290 365 Buy food and drink with no money

Text and Translation

(55:1–2)

55.1 οἱ διψῶντες, πορεύεσθε ἐφ’ ὕδωρ, καὶ ὅσοι μὴ ἔχετε ἀργύριον, βαδίσαντες ἀγοράσατε καὶ πίετεa ἄνευ ἀργυρίου καὶ τιμῆς οἴνου καὶ στέαρ. 2 ἵνα τί τιμᾶσθε ἀργυρίῳb, καὶ τὸν μόχθον ὑμῶν οὐκ εἰς πλησμονήν; 366 Listen to me and you will have good things

(55:2–3)

Ἀκούσασθέc μου καὶ φάγεσθε ἀγαθά, καὶ ἐντρυφήσει ἐν ἀγαθοῖς ἡ ψυχὴ ὑμῶν. 3 προσέχετε τοῖς ὠσὶνd ὑμῶν καὶ ἐισακολουθήσατεe ταῖς ὁδοῖς μου· ἐπακούσατέf μου, καὶ ζήσεται ἐν ἀγαθοῖς ἡ ψυχὴ ὑμῶν· καὶ διαθήσομαι ὑμῖν διαθήκην αἰώνιον, τὰ ὅσια Δαυὶδ τὰ πιστά. 367 Nations will call upon you

(55:4–5)

4 ἰδοὺ μαρτύριον αὐτὸν ἐν ἔθνεσιν δέδωκαg, ἄρχοντα καὶ προστάσσοντα ἔθνεσιν. 5 ἔθνη, ἃ οὐκ οἴδασίνh σε, ἐπικαλέσονταί σε, καὶ λαοί, οἳ οὐκ ἐπίστανταί σε, ἐπὶ σὲ καταφεύξονται ἕνεκεν Κυρίου τοῦ θεοῦ σου τοῦ ἁγίου Ἰσραήλ. Ὅτι ἐδόξασέν σε. 368 My ways are not like your ways

(55:6–9)

6 ζητήσατε τὸν Κύριονi καὶ ἐν τῷ εὑρίσκειν αὐτὸν ἐπικαλέσασθε· ἡνίκα δ’j ἂν ἐγγίζῃ ὑμῖν, 7 ἀπολιπέτω ὁ ἀσεβὴς τὰς ὁδοὺς αὐτοῦ καὶ ἀνὴρ ἄνομος τὰς βουλὰς αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐπιστραφήτω ἐπὶ Κύριον, καὶ ἐλεηθήσεται, ὅτι ἐπὶ πολὺ ἀφήσει τὰς ἁμαρτίας ὑμῶν. 8 οὐ γάρ εἰσιν αἱ βουλαί μου ὥσπερ αἱ βουλαὶ ὑμῶν οὐδὲ ὥσπερ αἱ ὁδοὶ ὑμῶν αἱ ὁδοί

aπίετε] SARZ; φάγετε B b ἀργυρίῳ] S*; ἀργυρίου ScaABRZ c Ἀκούσασθέ] S*; ἀκούσατέ ScaARZ; om. B d ὠσὶν] SB; ὠτίοις ARZ e ἐισακολουθήσατε] S*; ἐπακολουθήσατε Scb2ABRZ f ἐπακούσατέ] SARZ; εἰσακούσατέ B gαὐτὸν ἐν ἔθνεσιν δέδωκα] S; ἐν ἔθνεσιν δέδωκα αὐτὸν ARZ; ἐν ἔθνεσιν ἔδωκα αὐτὸν B h οἴδασίν] SB; ᾔδεισάν ARZ i Κύριον] S*B; θεόν Scb2ARZ j δ’] SBRZ; om. A

55:1–8

365 Buy food and drink with no money

291 (55:1–2)

55.1 You who are thirsty, go to the water, and whoever has no money, go and buy and drink some wine and fat, without money and price. 2 Why do you value silver when your labour does not bring satisfaction? 366 Listen to me and you will have good things

(55:2–3)

Listen to me and you will eat good things, and your soul will delight in good things. 3 Pay attention with your ears and follow in my ways; obey me, and your soul will live among good things, and I will make an eternal covenant with you, the faithful holy things of David. 367 Nations will call upon you

(55:4–5)

4 Look, I have given him as a testimony among nations, a ruler and commander of nations. 5 Nations that do not know you will call upon you, and peoples that do not know you, will flee to you on account of Lord your God, the holy one of Israel. Because he has magnified you. 368 My ways are not like your ways

(55:6–9)

6 Seek the Lord and call upon him when you find him. Whenever he approaches you, 7 let the ungodly person abandon his ways and the lawless man his counsels, and let him return to Lord, and he will be shown mercy, because he will greatly forgive your sins. 8 For my counsels are not like your counsels, nor my 55:1 John 7:37; Rev 3:18; 21:6; 22:17; Clement of Alexandria Protr. 94.1; Strom. 1.10.1; Cyprian Test. 3.100; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 18.34; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.44 55:2 Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 18.34; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.44; Ecl. proph. 4.28 55:3 Acts 13:34; Heb 13:20; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.44; Dem. ev. 2.219; Ecl. proph. 4.28; Justin Dial. 11.2; 12.1; 14.4; Tertullian Marc. 3.20.5; 3.20.8; 3.20.10; 4.1.7 55:4 Rev 1:5; Cyprian Test. 1.21; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.62; 2.44; Dem. ev. 2.3.42; Ecl. proph. 4.28; Tertullian Marc. 3.20.5 55:5 Cyprian Test. 1.21; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.44; Dem. ev. 2.2.19; 2.3.42; Ecl. proph. 4.28; Justin Dial. 12.1; Tertullian Marc. 3.20.5; 3.20.10 55:6 Acts 17:27; Athanasius Ep. fest. 11.3; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 2.135.4; Cyprian Test. 3.11; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.44; Theophilus Autol. 3.11 55:7 Luke 5:21; Athanasius Ep. fest. 11.3; Cyprian Test. 3.11; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.44; Theophilus Autol. 3.11 55:8 Eusebius, Comm. Isa. 2.44; 2.56

292

Text and Translation

μου, λέγει Κύριος· 9 ἀλλ’ ὡς ἀπέχει ὁ οὐρανὸς ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς, οὕτως ἀπέχει ἡ ὁδός μου ἀπὸ τῶν ὁδῶν ὑμῶν καὶ τὰ διανοήματα ὑμῶν ἀπὸ τῆς διανοίας μου. 369 My word will accomplish my purpose

(55:10–13)

10 ὡς γὰρ ἂνa καταβῇ ὑετὸςb ἢ χιὼν ἐκc τοῦ οὐρανοῦ. Καὶ οὐκ ἀποστραφησεταιd, ἕως ἂν μεθύσῃ τὴν γῆν, καὶ ἐκτέκῃ καὶ ἐκβλαστήσῃe καὶ δῷf σπέρμα τῷ σπείροντι καὶ ἄρτον εἰς βρῶσιν, 11 οὕτως ἔσται τὸ ῥῆμά μου, ὃ ἐὰν ἐξέλθῃ ἐκ τοῦ στόματός μου, οὐ μὴ ἀποστραφῇ, ἕως ἂν συντελεσθῇg ὅσα ἠθέλησα καὶ εὐοδώσω τὰς ὁδούςh καὶ τὰ ἐντάλματά μου. 12 ἐν γὰρ εὐφροσύνῃ ἐξελεύσεσθε καὶ ἐν χαρᾷ διδαχθήσεσθε· τὰ γὰρ ὄρη καὶ οἱ βουνοὶ ἐξαλοῦνται προσδεχόμενοι ὑμᾶς ἐν χαρᾷ, καὶ πάντα τὰ ξύλα τοῦ ἀγροῦ ἐπικροτήσει τοῖς κλάδοις, 13 καὶ ἀντὶ τῆς στοιβῆς ἀναβήσεται κυπάρισσος, ἀντὶ δὲ τῆς κονύζης ἀναβήσεται μυρσίνη· καὶ ἔσται Κύριος εἰς ὄνομα καὶ εἰς σημεῖον αἰώνιον καὶ οὐκ ἐκλείψει. 370 Preserve justice

(56:1–2)

56.1 Τάδε λέγει Κύριος Φυλάσσεσθε κρίσιν, ποιήσατε δικαιοσύνην· ἤγγικενi γὰρ τὸ σωτήριόν μου παραγίνεσθαι καὶ τὸ ἔλεός μου ἀποκαλυφθῆναι. 2 μακάριος ἀνὴρ ὁ ποιῶν ταῦτα καὶ ἄνθρωπος ὁ ἀντεχόμενος αὐτῶν καὶ φυλάσσων τὰ σάββαj μὴ βεβηλοῦν καὶ διατηρῶν τὰςk αὐτοῦ μὴ ποιεῖν ἀδίκημαl. 371 Eunuchs will have an eternal legacy

(56:3–5)

3 Μὴ λεγέτω ὁ ἀλλογενὴς ὁ προσκείμενος Κυρίῳm Ἀφοριεῖ με ἄρα Κύριος ἀπὸ τοῦ λαοῦ αὐτοῦ· καὶ μὴ λεγέτω ὁ εὐνοῦχος ὅτι Ἐγώ εἰμι ξύλον ξηρόν. 4 τάδε λέγει Κύριος τοῖς εὐνούχοις, Ὅσοι ἐὰνn φυλάξωνται τὰ προστάγματαo μου καὶ ἐκλέξωνται ἃ ἐγὼ

aἂν] SB; ἐὰν ARZ bὑετὸς] SARZ; ὁ ὑετὸς B cἐκ] SBRZ; ἀπὸ A dοὐκ ἀποστραφησεται] S*; οὐ μὴ ἀποστραφῇ Scb2ABRZ e ἐκβλαστήσῃ] SBRZ; βλαστήσει A f δῷ] SBRZ; δώσει A g συντελεσθῇ] SARZ; τελεσθῇ B hὁδούς] S*; ὁδούς σου Scb2ABRZ iἤγγικεν] SB; ἤγγισεν ARZ jσάββα] S*; σάββατα μου Sca; σάββατα ABRZ k τὰς] S; τὰς χεῖρας; ScaABRZ lἀδίκημα] SARZ; ἄδικα B m Κυρίῳ] S; πρὸς Κύριον ABRZ n ἐὰν] SB; ἂν ARZ o προστάγματα] S*; σάββατά Scb1ABRZ

55:9–56:4

293

ways like your ways, says Lord. 9 But as the sky is distant from the land, so my way is distant from your ways, and your thoughts from my mind. 369 My word will accomplish my purpose

(55:10–13)

10 For as rain or snow comes down from the sky, and it will not return until it makes the land drunk and it produces and sprouts and gives seed to the one who sows and bread for food, 11 so will be my word, which when it goes out from my mouth will certainly not return, until as much as I wanted has been accomplished. And I will prosper my ways and commandments.12 For you will go out with joy and you will be taught with delight, for the mountains and the hills will leap, and welcoming you with joy, and all the trees of the field will applaud with their branches. 13 And a cypress will come up instead of the thornbush; a myrtle will come up instead of the fleabane, and Lord will become a name and an eternal sign, and he will not cease. 370 Preserve justice

(56:1–2)

56.1 Thus says Lord: “Protect justice, practice righteousness, for my salvation is close to appearing, and my mercy to being revealed.” 2 Blessed is the man who does these things, and the man who holds to them and is careful to not profane the sabbs and watches his women to not do injustice. 371 Eunuchs will have an eternal legacy

(56:3–5)

3 Let the stranger who adheres to Lord not say, “Therefore Lord will separate me from his people,” and let the eunuch not say, “I am a dry tree.” 4 Thus says Lord to the eunuchs: “Whoever keeps my commandments and chooses the things I

55:9 Clement of Alexandria Strom. 2.135.4 55:10 2 Cor 9:10; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.44 55:11 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.44 55:12 Origen Mart. 18 (GCS 2.17); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.44 55:13 Justin Dial. 14.4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.44 56:1 Rev 22:11; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.45 56:2 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.45 56:3 Acts 8:27; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 3.91.2; 3.98.1; 3.99.1; Julius Cassianus Cont. (GCS 52.238); Origen Comm. Matt. 15.5; Ps. Cat. (PG 12.1488) 56:4 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.45

294

Text and Translation

θέλω καὶ ἀντέχωνται τῆς διαθήκης μου, 5 καὶ δώσωa αὐτοῖς ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ μου καὶ ἐν τῷ τείχει μου τόπον ὀνομαστὸν κρείσσωνb υἱῶν καὶ θυγατέρων, ὄνομα αἰώνιον δώσω αὐτοῖς καὶ οὐκ ἐκλείψει. 372 A house of prayer even for foreigners

(56:6–8)

6 καὶ τοῖς ἀλλογενέσι τοῖς προσκειμένοις Κυρίῳc δουλεύειν αὐτῷ καὶ ἀγαπᾶν τὸ ὄνομα Κυρίου τοῦd εἶναι αὐτῷ εἰς δούλους καὶ δούλας καὶ πάντας τοὺς φυλασσομένους τὰ σάββατά μου μὴ βεβηλοῦν. Καὶ ἀντεχομένοιςe τῆς διαθήκης μου, 7 εἰσάξω αὐτοὺς εἰς τὸ ὄρος τὸ ἅγιόν μου καὶ εὐφρανῶ αὐτοὺς ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ τῆς προσευχῆς μου· τὰ ὁλοκαυτώματα αὐτῶν καὶ αἱ θυσίαι αὐτῶν ἔσονται δεκταὶ ἐπὶ τοῦ θυσιαστηρίουf μου· ὁ γὰρ οἶκός μου οἶκος προσευχῆς κληθήσεται πᾶσιν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν, 8 εἶπεν Κύριος. 373 People have become like beasts

(56:8–11)

ὁ συνάγων τοὺς διεσπαρμένους Ἰσραήλ, ὅτι συνάξω ἐπ’ αὐτοὺςg συναγωγήν. 9 πάντα τὰ θηρία τὰ ἄγρια, δεῦτε φάγετε, πάντα τὰ θηρία τοῦ δρυμοῦ. 10 ἴδετε ὅτι πάντες ἐκτετύφλωνταιh, οὐκ ἔγνωσαν φρονῆσαι, πάντεςi κύνες ἐνεοί, οἱ οὐj δυνήσονται ὑλακτεῖν, ἐνυπνιαζόμενοι κοίτην, φιλοῦντες νυστάξαι. 11 καὶ οἱ κύνες ἀναιδεῖς τῇ ψυχῇ, οὐκ εἰδότες πλησμονήν· καί εἰσιν πονηροὶ οὐκ εἰδότες σύνεσιν, πάντες ταῖςk ὁδοῖς αὐτῶν ἐξηκολούθησαν, ἕκαστος κατὰ τὸ αὐτό.

aκαὶ δώσω] S*; δώσω Scb2ABRZ bκρείσσων] SAZ; κρείττω BR cΚυρίῳ] SBRZ; πρὸς Κύριον A dτοῦ] SARZ; τῷ B e ἀντεχομένοις] S*; ἀντεχομένους ScaABRZ f τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου] SARZ; τὸ θυσιαστήριόν B g ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς] S*; ἐπ’ αὐτὸν Scb2ABRZ h πάντες ἐκτετύφλωνται] SARZ; ἐκτετύφλωνται πάντες B i φρονῆσαι, πάντες] SARZ; om. B j οἱ οὐ] S; οὐ ABRZ k ταῖς] S*B; ἐν ταῖς Scb2ARZ

56:5–11

295

want, and holds to my covenant, 5 I will also give them in my house and in my wall a famous place, better than sons and daughters; I will give them an eternal name and it will not cease. 372 A house of prayer even for foreigners

(56:6–8)

6 Also to the foreigners who adhere to Lord to serve him and to love the name of Lord, to become for him bondmen and bondwomen and all who are careful not to profane my Sabbaths. “And as for those who hold to my covenant, 7 I will bring them to my holy mountain and I will make them rejoice in my house of prayer; their whole burnt-offerings and their sacrifices will be acceptable upon my altar, for my house will be called a house of prayer for all the nations,” 8 said Lord. 373 People have become like beasts

(56:8–11)

“The one who gathers the scattered ones of Israel, because I will gather a gathering around them. 9 All the wild beasts, come; eat all the beasts of the forest. 10 Look, because all people have become blind; they did not know how to think; all are mute dogs, who cannot bark, dreaming in bed, loving to nap. 11 And the dogs are shameless in soul, not knowing satisfaction, and they are evil, not knowing intelligence. They all have followed their ways, each in the same way.”

56:5 Clement of Alexandria Strom. 3.98.1; 3.99.1; Ps.-Clement Virg. 1.4.2; Origen Comm. Matt. 15.5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.45 56:6 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.45 56:7 Matt 21:13; Mark 11:17; Luke 19:46; Phil 4:18; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 1.91.4; Origen Comm. Matt. 89; 16.20; 16.22; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.45 56:8–9 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.45 56:10 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.45–46; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.540); Dem. ev. 10.8.83; Origen Ps. Cat. C (Pitra 64)

296 374 The righteous has been taken away

Text and Translation

(57:1–2)

57.1 ἴδετε ὡς ὁ δίκαιος ἀπώλετο, καὶ οὐδεὶς κατανοεῖ καὶ ἄνδρες δίκαιοι αἴρονται, καὶ οὐδεὶς ἐκδέχεται τῇ καρδίᾳa. ἀπὸ γὰρ προσώπου ἀδικίας ἦρται ὁ δίκαιος· 2 ἔσται ἐν εἰρήνῃ ἡ ταφὴ αὐτοῦ. Ἦρται ἐκ τοῦ μέσου. 375 Idolaters will reap the consequences

(57:3–6)

3 ὑμεῖς δὲ προσαγάγετε ὧδε, υἱοὶ ἄνομοι, σπέρμα μοιχῶν καὶ πόρνης· 4 ἐν τίνι ἐνετρυφήσατε; καὶ ἐπὶ τίνιb ἠνοίξατε τὸ στόμα ὑμῶν; καὶ ἐπὶ τίνα ἐχαλάσατε τὴν γλῶσσαν ὑμῶν; οὐχ ὑμεῖς ἐστε τέκνα ἀπωλείας, σπέρμα ἄνομον; 5 οἱ παρακαλοῦντες ἐπὶc τὰ εἴδωλα ὑπὸ δένδρα δασέα, σφάζοντες τὰ τέκνα αὐτῶν ἐν ταῖς φάραγξιν ἀνὰ μέσον τῶν πετρῶν. 6 ἐκείνη σου ἡ μερίς, οὗτός σου ὁ κλῆρος, ἐχῖνοιςd ἐξέχεας ποδὰςe ἐκείνοιςf ἀνήνεγκας θυσίας· ἐπὶ τούτοις οὖν οὐκ ὀργισθήσομαι; λέγει Κύριοςg. 376 Your unfaithfulness alienated us

(57:7–10)

7 Ἐπ’ ὄρος ὑψηλὸν καὶ μετέωρον, ἐκεῖ σου ἡ κοίτη. Κἀκεῖh ἀναβίβασαςi θυσίας, 8 καὶ ὀπίσω τῶν σταθμῶν τῆς θύρας σου ἔθηκας μνημόσυνόνj σου· ὡςk ὅτι ἐὰν ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ ἀποστῇς, πλεῖόν τι ἕξεις· Ἠγάπησας τοὺς κοιμωμένους μετὰ σοῦ 9 καὶ ἐπλήθυνας τὴν πορνείαν σου μετ’ αὐτῶν καὶ πολλοὺς ἐποίησας τοὺς μακρὰν ἀπὸ σοῦ καὶ ἀπέστειλας πρέσβεις ὑπὲρ τὰ ὅριά σου καὶ ἐταπεινώθηl ἕως ᾅδου. 10 ταῖς πολυοδίαις σου ἐκοπίασας καὶ οὐκ εἶπας Παύσομαι ἐνισχύουσα ὅτι ἔπραξας ταῦτα, διὰ τοῦτο οὐ κατεδεήθης μου.

aἐκδέχεται τῇ καρδίᾳ] S; κατανοεῖ ABRZ b τίνι] S; τίνα ABRZ c ἐπὶ] SRZ; om. AB d ἐχῖνοις] S*; κἀκείνοις Scb3ABRZ e ποδὰς] S*; σπονδὰς ScaABRZ f ἐκείνοις] S*; κἀκείνοις ScaARZ; καὶ τούτοις B g λέγει Κύριος] S; om. ABRZ hΚἀκεῖ] SRZ; καὶ ἐκεῖ AB i ἀναβίβασας] S*; ἀνεβίβασας ScaABRZ j μνημόσυνόν] S*; μνημόσυνά Scb3ABRZ k ὡς] S; ᾤου ABRZ l καὶ ἐταπεινώθη] S*; καὶ ἐταπεινώθης Scb3B; καὶ ἀπέστρεψας καὶ ἐταπεινώθης ARZ

57:1–10

374 The righteous has been taken away

297 (57:1–2)

57.1 See how the righteous person has perished, and no one comprehends, and, and righteous men are taken away, and no one takes it to heart. For the righteous person has been taken away from the face of injustice, 2 his grave will be in peace. He has been taken up from the middle. 375 Idolaters will reap the consequences

(57:3–6)

3 “But you, come here, evil sons, seed of adulterers and prostitutes! 4 In what did you revel? And at what did you open your mouth? And against whom have you loosened your tongue? Are you not children of destruction, evil seed, 5 you who call upon idols under thick trees, who slaughter their children in the ravines between the rocks? 6 That is your portion, this is your lot; you poured out feet to hedgehogs; you brought up sacrifices to those things; therefore will I not be angry at these things?” says Lord. 376 Your unfaithfulness alienated us

(57:7–10)

7 “Your bed is there upon a high and tall mountain. “And there you offered sacrifices 8 and also placed your memorial behind the posts of your door, as whatever you draw away from me, you will have somewhat more. “You loved those who sleep with you 9 and you multiplied your fornication with them, and you have made them who are far from you many, and you sent ambassadors over your borders and it was brought down to Hades. 10 You toiled on your long journeys and you did not say, “I will cease being strengthened.” Because you have done these things, therefore you did not entreat me. 57:1 Did. apost. 20; Cyprian Test. 2.14; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 14.3; 15.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.45; 2.48; Ecl. proph. 4.29; Irenaeus Dem. 72; Justin Dial. 16.5; 110.6; 1 Apol. 48.5; Tertullian Marc. 3.22.5; 4.21.9; 4.28.3; Scorp. 8.2 57:2 Did. apost. 20; Cyprian Test. 2.14; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 14.3; Eusebius Comm. Ps. (PG 23.1057); Comm. Isa. 2.45; 2.48; Ecl. proph. 4.29; Irenaeus Dem. 72; Justin Dial. 97.2; 118.1; 1 Apol. 48.5; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 10.16; Marc. 3.19.8; Scorp. 8.2 57:3 2 Thess 2:3; Jas 4:4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.46; Eusebius Ecl. proph. 4.29 57:4 2 Thess 2:3; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 13.15; Eusebius Ecl. proph. 4.29; Comm. Isa. 2.45; Justin Dial. 16.5 57:5 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.45; Justin Dial. 46.6 57:6 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.45; Cyprian Ep. 59.12; 65.1 57:7–11 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.45

298 377 I will publicize your scorn

Text and Translation

(57:11–13)

11 σύ τίνα εὐλαβηθεῖσα ἐφοβήθης καὶ ἐψεύσω με καὶ οὐκ ἐμνήσθης μουa οὐδὲ ἔλαβές με εἰς τὴν διάνοιάν σουb, οὐδὲ εἰς τὴν καρδίαν σου. καὶ ἐγώ σε ἰδὼν παρορῶ, καὶ ἐμὲ οὐκ ἐφοβήθης. 12 καὶ ἐγὼ ἀπαγγελῶ τὴν δικαιοσύνην σουc καὶ τὰ κακά σου, ἃ οὐκ ὠφελήσειd σε. 13 ὅταν ἀναβοήσειςe, ἐξελέσθωσάν σε ἐν τῇ θλίψει σου· τούτους γὰρ πάντας ἄνεμος λήμψεταιf καὶ ἀποίσεται αὐτοὺςg καταιγίς. 378 Ease for the devoted

(57:13–14)

οἱ δὲ ἀντεχόμενοί μου κτήσονται γῆν καὶ κληρονομήσουσιν τὸ ὄρος τὸ ἅγιόν μου. 14 καὶ ἐροῦσιν Καθαρίσατε ἀπὸ προσώπου αὐτοῦ ὁδοὺς καὶ ἄρατε σκῶλα ἀπὸ τῆς ὁδοῦ τοῦ λαοῦ μου. 379 The most holy one will not punish forever

(57:15–16)

15 Τάδε λέγει ὁ ὕψιστος ἐν ὑψηλοῖςh κατοικῶν τὸν αἰῶνα, ἅγιος ἐν ἁγίοις ὄνομα αὐτῷ, Κύριος ὁ ὕψιστος εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, ὁi ἐν ἁγίοις ἀναπαυόμενος καὶ ὀλιγοψύχοις διδοὺς μακροθυμίαν καὶ διδοὺς ζωὴν τοῖς συντετριμμένοις τὴν καρδίανj 16 Οὐκk εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα ἐκδικήσω ὑμᾶς οὐδὲ διὰ παντὸς ὀργισθήσομαι ὑμῖν· πνεῦμα γὰρ παρ’ ἐμοῦ ἐξελεύσεται, καὶ πνοὴν πᾶσαν ἐγὼ ἐποίησα. 380 Peace and comfort will come shortly

(57:17–20)

17 δι’ ἁμαρτίαν βραχύ τι ἐλύπησα αὐτὸν καὶ ἐπάταξα αὐτὸν καὶ ἀπέστρεψα τὸ πρόσωπόν μου ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἐλυπήθη καὶ ἐπορεύθη στυγνὸς ἐν ταῖς ὁδοῖς αὐτοῦ. 18 τὰς ὁδοὺς αὐτοῦ ἑώρακα καὶ ἰασάμην αὐτὸν καὶ παρεκάλεσα αὐτὸν καὶ ἔδωκα αὐτῷ παράκλησιν ἀληθινήν, 19 εἰρήνην ἐπ’ εἰρήνην τοῖς μακρὰν καὶ τοῖς ἐγγὺς οὖσιν.

aμου] SARZ; om. B b διάνοιάν σου] S; διάνοιαν ABRZ cσου] SB; μου ARZ dὠφελήσει] S*B; ὠφελήσουσίν ScaARZ e ἀναβοήσεις] S; ἀναβοήσῃς ABRZ f ἄνεμος λήμψεται] SARZ; λήμψεται ἄνεμος B g ἀποίσεται αὐτοὺς] S; ἀποίσει ABRZ h ὁ ὕψιστος ἐν ὑψηλοῖς] S*B; ὁ ὕψιστος ὁ ἐν ὑψηλοῖς Sca; Κύριος ὁ ὕψιστος ὁ ἐν ὑψηλοῖς Scb2ARZ iΚύριος ὁ ὕψιστος εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα ὁ] S*Scb3; Κύριος ὕψιστος ARZ; Ὕψιστος Scb2B jσυντετριμμένοις τὴν καρδίαν] SARZ; τὴν καρδίαν συντετριμμένοις B kΟὐκ] SBRZ; καὶ οὐκ A

57:11–19

377 I will publicize your scorn

299 (57:11–13)

11 “Whom did you dread then fear? And you cheated me and you did not remember me or take me into your mind or your heart. And although I see I overlook you, and you did not fear me. 12 And I will proclaim your righteousness and your evil deeds that will not benefit you. 13 When you will call out, let them rescue you in your distress; for a wind will take all these people, and a squall will carry them away. 378 Ease for the devoted

(57:13–14)

“But those who hold to me will acquire land and will inherit my holy mountain. 14 And they will say, ‘Cleanse paths away from his face and take away obstacles from the path of my people.’” 379 The most holy one will not punish forever

(57:15–16)

15 Thus says the most high who dwells in the heights for eternity, a holy one among the holy ones is his name, Lord most high forever, who rests among the holy ones, and provides perseverance to the faint-hearted and provides life to those who are heart-broken: 16 “I will not punish you forever and I will not be angry with you forever, for a spirit will go out from me, and I have made every breath. 380 Peace and comfort will come shortly

(57:17–20)

17 “I distressed him briefly because of sin, and I struck him and turned my face away from him, and he was saddened and went, gloomy, in his ways. 18 I have seen his ways and I healed him and comforted him and gave him true comfort, 19 peace upon peace to those who are far away and to those who are near.”

57:12 Did. 26; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.45 57:13–14 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.45 57:15 Matt 5:3; 1 Thess 5:14; Ascen. Isa. 6.8; 7.17; 10.6; Eusebius Eccl. theol. 3.5; Comm. Isa. 2.46; Origen Comm. Matt. 160; Origen Ps. Cat. C (Pitra 108) 57:16 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.46; Cyprian (Ps.) Novat. 10.5; Tertullian An. 11.3; Herm. 32.3 57:17–18 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.46; Cyprian (Ps.) Novat. 10.6 57:19 Acts 2:39; Eph 2:17; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.41; 2.46; Eusebius Theoph. 1; 2 (GCS 11 2.29; 2.195); Cyprian (Ps.) Novat. 10.6

300

Text and Translation

Καὶ εἶπεν Κύριος Ἰάσομαι αὐτούς. 20 οἱ δὲ ἄδικοι οὕτωςa κλυδωνισθήσονται καὶ ἀναπαύσασθαι οὐ δυνήσονται. 381 Proclaim my people’s sins

(57:21–58:2)

21 οὐκ ἔστιν χαίρειν τοῖς ἀσεβέσιν, εἶπεν Κύριος ὁ θεόςb. 58.1 Ἀναβόησον ἐν ἰσχύι καὶ μὴ φείσῃ, ὡς σάλπιγγοςc ὕψωσον τὴν φωνήν σου καὶ ἀνάγγειλον τῷ λαῷ μου τὰ ἁμαρτήματα αὐτῶν καὶ τῷ οἴκῳ Ἰακώβ τὰ ἀνομήματαd αὐτῶν. 2 ἐμὲ ἡμέραν ἐξ ἡμέρας ζητοῦσινe καὶ γνῶναί τὰς ὁδοὺς μουf ἐπιθυμησοῦσινg· ὡς λαὸνh δικαιοσύνηνi πεποιηκὼς καὶ κρίσιν θεοῦ αὐτοῦ μὴ ἐγκαταλελοιπὼς. 382 Improper fasts

(58:2–6)

αἰτοῦσίν με νῦν κρίσιν δικαίαν καὶ ἐγγίζειν θεῷ ἐπιθυμοῦσιν 3 λέγοντες Τί ὅτι ἐνηστεύσαμεν καὶ οὐκ εἶδες; ἐταπεινώσαμεν τὰς ψυχὰς ἡμῶν καὶ οὐκ ἔγνωςj; ἐν γὰρ ταῖς ἡμέραις τῶν νηστειῶν ὑμῶν εὑρίσκετε τὰ θελήματα ὑμῶν καὶ πάντας τοὺς ὑποχειρίους ὑμῶν ὑπονύσσετε. 4 εἰς κρίσεις καὶ μάχας νηστεύετε καὶ τύπτετε πυγμαῖς ταπεινόν, ἵνα τί μοι νηστεύετε ὡς σήμερον ἀκουσθῆναι ἐν κραυγῇ τὴν φωνὴν ὑμῶν; 5 οὐ ταύτην τὴν νηστείαν ἐξελεξάμην καὶ ἡμέραν ταπεινοῦν ἄνθρωπον τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ· οὐδ’ ἂν κάμψῃς ὡςk κρίκον τὸν τράχηλόν σου καὶ σάκκον καὶ σποδὸν ὑποστρώσῃ, οὐδ’ ὡς καλέσετε νηστείαν δεκτήν. 6 οὐχὶ τοιαύτην νηστείαν ἐγὼ ἐξελεξάμην, λέγει Κύριος.

aοὕτως] SARZ; om. B bτοῖς ἀσεβέσιν, εἶπεν Κύριος ὁ θεός] SARZ; εἶπεν ὁ θεός τοῖς ἀσεβέσιν B cσάλπιγγος] S; σάλπιγγα ABRZ d τὰ ἀνομήματα] S; τὰς ἀνομίας ABRZ e ζητοῦσιν] SBRZ; ζητήσουσιν A f τὰς ὁδοὺς μου] S; μου τὰς ὁδοὺς ABRZ g ἐπιθυμησοῦσιν] S; ἐπιθυμοῦσιν ABRZ h λαὸν] S*; λαὸς ScaABRZ i δικαιοσύνην] SBRZ; δικαιοσύνην θεοῦ A jοὐκ ἔγνως] SBRZ; οὐ προσέσχες A kὡς] S; οὕτως ABRZ

57:20–58:6

301

And Lord said, “I will heal them.” 20 But the unjust will thus be tossed around and will not be able to rest. 381 Proclaim my people’s sins

(57:21–58:2)

21 “There can be no rejoicing among the impious,” says Lord God. 58.1 Cry out with strength and do not hold back; lift up your voice like that of a trumpet, and proclaim their sins to my people and their lawless acts to the house of Jacob. 2 They seek me day by day and they will desire to know my ways, who has done righteousness like a people, and has not forsaken the justice of his God. 382 Improper fasts

(58:2–6)

“They ask me now for righteous justice, and they desire to approach God, 3 saying, ‘Why is it that we fasted and you did not see it? We humbled our souls and you did not know it.’ For in the days of your fasts you find your wishes and you sting all your subjects. 4 You fast for judgments and fights, and you strike a humble person with fists. Why do you fast before me like today, for your voice to be heard with your shouting? 5 I have not chosen this fast and day for a man to humble his soul; not even if you bow your neck like a ring and spread sackcloth and ashes under yourselves; not even then shall you call it an acceptable fast. 6 I have not chosen such a fast as this,” says Lord.

57:20 Eph 4:14; Jude 13; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.46; Peter of Alexandria Canon. 4 57:21 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.46; 2.47; Peter of Alexandria Canon. 4 58:1 5 Ezr. 1.5; Cyprian Test. 3.1; Justin Dial. 15.1; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.47; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 9.30 58:2 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.5; 2.47; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 9.30; Justin 1 Apol. 35.3 58:3 Matt 9:14; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.47; Athanasius Ep. fest. 19.2; Tertullian Jejun. 15.7 58:4 Barn. 3.1; Athanasius Ep. fest. 19.2; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 3.90.1; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.47; Tertullian Jejun. 2.6 58:5 Matt 6:16; Luke 4:18–19; Barn. 3.1; Athanasius Ep. fest. 1.4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.47; Justin Dial. 40.4; Origen Hom. Ezech. 6.10; Hom. Lev. 10.2; Ps. Cat. A (PG 17.145); Tertullian Jejun. 2.6; 15.7 58:6 Luke 4:18; Acts 8:23; Barn. 3.3; Did. 7; 11; Cyprian Dom. Or. 33; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.47; Ignatius Phil. 8.1; Justin Dial. 40.4; Lactantius Inst. 6.10.9; Origen Hom. Jer. 9.4; Hom. Lev. 10.2; Tertullian Marc. 2.19.2; 4.37.1; Res. 27.3; Theophilus Autol. 3.12

302 383 End injustice and you will be rewarded

Text and Translation

(58:6–8)

Ἀλλὰ λῦε πάντα σύνδεσμον ἀδικίας, διάλυε στραγγαλιὰς βιαίων συναλλαγμάτων, ἀπόστελλε τεθραμμένουςa ἐν ἀφέσει καὶ πᾶσαν συγγραφὴν ἄδικον διάσπα· 7 διάθρυπτε πεινῶντι τὸν ἄρτον σου καὶ πτωχοὺς ἀστέγους εἴσαγε εἰς τὸν οἶκόν σου· ἐὰν ἴδῃς γυμνόν, περίβαλε, καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν οἰκείων τοῦ σπέρματός σου οὐχ ὑπερόψῃ. 8 Τότε ῥαγήσεται πρόιμον τὸ φῶς σου, καὶ τὰ ἰάματά σου ταχὺ ἀνατελεῖ, καὶ προπορεύσεται ἔμπροσθέν σου ἡ δικαιοσύνη σου, καὶ ἡ δόξα τοῦ θεοῦ περιστελεῖ σε. 384 Then God will listen to you

(58:9–10)

9 τότε βοήσῃ, καὶ ὁ θεὸς εἰσακούσεταί σου· ἔτι λαλοῦντός σου ἐρεῖ Ἰδοὺ πάρειμι. ἐὰν ἀφέλῃς ἀπὸ σοῦ σύνδεσμον καὶ χειροτονίαν καὶ ῥῆμα γογγυσμοῦ 10 καὶ δῷς πεινῶντι τὸν ἄρτον ἐκ ψυχῆς σου καὶ ψυχὴν τεταπείνωμεν ἐμπλήσεις. 385 Then your yearnings will be satisfied

(58:10–12)

τότε ἀνατελεῖ ἐν τῷ σκότει τὸ φῶς σου, καὶ τὸ σκότος σου ὡς μεσημβρία ἔσταιb. 11 καὶ ἔσταιc ὁ θεός σου μετὰ σοῦ διὰ παντός· καὶ ἐμπλησθήσῃ καθάd ἐπιθυμεῖ ἡ ψυχή σου, καὶ τὰ ὀστᾶ σου πιανθήσεται, καὶ ἔσται ὡς κῆπος μεθύων καὶ ὡς πηγὴ ἣν μὴ ἐξέλιπεν ὕδωρe. 12 καὶ οἰκοδομηθήσονταί σου αἱ ἔρημοι αἰώνιοι, καὶ ἔσται σου τὰ θεμέλιαf αἰώνια γενεῶν γενεᾶςg· καὶ κληθήσῃ Οἰκοδόμος φραγμῶν, καὶ τοὺς τρίβους τοὺςh ἀνὰ μέσον παύσεις.

aτεθραμμένους] S; Τεθραυσμένους ABRZ b ἔσται] S*; om. Scb2ABRZ c ἔσται] SABZ; ἔσῃ R dκαθά] S*; καθάπερ Scb2ABRZ e ὕδωρ] S*BZ; ὕδωρ καὶ τὰ ὀστᾶ σου ὡς βοτάνη ἀνατελεῖ καὶ πιανθήσεται, καὶ κληρονομήσουσι γενεὰς γενεῶν Scb2AR fσου τὰ θεμέλια] SARZ; τὰ θεμέλιά σου B gγενεᾶς] S*; γενεαῖς ScaABRZ h τοὺς] SARZ; σου B

58:7–12

383 End injustice and you will be rewarded

303 (58:6–8)

Instead, release every fetter of injustice; untie knots of violent contracts of strangling, send away in forgiveness those who have grown up, and tear up every unjust document. 7 Break up your bread for a hungry person, and bring homeless poor people into your house. If you see a naked person, clothe him, and you will not overlook any of the families of your seed. 8 Then your light will burst forth early, and your healings will spring forth quickly, and your righteousness will go before you, and the glory of God will wrap around you. 384 Then God will listen to you

(58:9–10)

9 Then you will cry out, and God will listen to you; while you are still speaking he will say, “Look, I am here.” If you remove a bond and finger-pointing and a word of grumbling from yourself, 10 and give the bread from your soul to the hungry (also we have humbled our soul), you will fill. 385 Then your yearnings will be satisfied

(58:10–12)

Then your light will rise in the darkness, and your darkness will be like midday. 11 And your God will be with you always, and you will be filled, just as your soul desires, and your bones will be cheered, and they will be like a drunken garden, and like a fountain for which water never ceases. 12 And your deserts will be built up eternal, and your foundations will be eternal from generations to generations; and you will be called “Builder of Hedges,” and you will stop the paths in between.

58:7 Matt 25:35; Sib. Or. 2; Odes Sol. 20.6; Did. 14; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 3.89.4; 3.90.1; Cyprian Test. 3.75; Justin Dial. 40.4; Lactantius Inst. 6.10.9; Methodius Lepra. 12.4; Vita. 8.3; Origen Hom. Jer. 9.4; Hom. Lev. 9.4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.47; Tertullian Res. 27.3; Jejun. 2.6–7; Marc. 2.19.2; 4.16.16; 4.17.8; 4.31.1; 4.37.1 58:8 Rev 21:11; Odes Sol. 8.21; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.47; Tertullian Res. 27.3; Theophilus Autol. 3.12 58:9 Clement of Alexandria Paed. 1.84.4; 3.89.4; Protr. 116.4; Strom. 4.47.3; 5.120.3; Ps.-Clement of Rome Cor. 15.3; Cyprian Dom. or. 33; Test. 3.1; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.14; 2.47; 2.52; Comm. Ps. (PG 23.249, 277, 497, 513, 580, 1193; 24.9; Pitra 2.381); Eusebius Dem. ev. 7.2.33; 10.8.94; Ecl. proph. 4.35; Fr. C (Ghisler 61); Praep. ev. 13.13.47; Origen Comm. Matt. 230; 11.6; Comm. Jo. 28.39; Jer. Cat. (GCS 6.231); Orat. 10.1; Ps. Cat. (PG 12.1136) 58:10 Matt 4:16 58:11 John 4:14; Acts 10:38; Barn. 3.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.47; Origen Hom. Lev. 9.4

304

Text and Translation

386 Keep the Sabbath holy, and Lord will reward you

(58:13–14)

13 Ἐὰν ἀποστρέψῃς τὸν πόδα σου ἀπὸ τῶν σαββάτωνa τοῦ μὴ ποιεῖν τὰ θελήματά σου ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ ἁγίᾳ καὶ καλέσεις τὸ σάββατονb τρυφερά, ἅγια τῷ θεῷc, οὐκ ἀρεῖς τὸν πόδα σου ἐπ’ ἔργῳ οὐδὲ λαλήσεις λόγον ἐν ὀργῇ ἐκ τοῦ στόματός σου, 14 καὶ ἔσῃ πεποιθὼς ἐπὶ Κύριον, καὶ ἀναβιβάσῃd σε ἐπὶ τὰ ἀγαθὰ τῆς γῆς καὶ ψωμιεῖ σε τὴν κληρονομίαν Ἰακὼβ τοῦ πατρός σου· τὸ γὰρ στόμα Κυρίου ἐλάλησεν ταῦτα. 387 All of you are chronic sinners

(59:1–6)

59.1 Μὴ οὐκ ἰσχύει ἡ χεὶρ Κυρίου τοῦ σῶσαι; ἢ ἐβάρυνεν τὸ οὖςe τοῦ μὴ εἰσακοῦσαι; 2 Ἀλλὰ τὰ ἁμαρτήματα ὑμῶν διιστῶσιν ἀνὰ μέσον ὑμῶν καὶ ἀνὰ μέσονf τοῦ θεοῦ, καὶg διὰ τὰς ἁμαρτίας ὑμῶν ἀπέστρεψεν τὸ πρόσωπονh ἀφ’ ὑμῶν τοῦ μὴ ἐλεῆσαι. 3 αἱ γὰρ χεῖρες ὑμῶν μεμολυμμέναιi αἷμαj καὶ οἱ δάκτυλοι ὑμῶν ἐν ἁμαρτίαις, τὰ δὲ χείλη ὑμῶν ἐλάλησεν ἀνομίαν, καὶ ἡ γλῶσσα ὑμῶν ἀδικίαν μελετᾷ. 4 οὐδεὶςk λαλεῖ δίκαια, οὐδὲ ἔστιν κρίσις ἀληθινή· πεποίθασιν ἐπὶ ματαίοις καὶ λαλοῦσιν κενά, ὅτι κύουσιν πόνον καὶ τίκτουσιν ἀνομίαν. 5 ᾠὰ ἀσπίδων ἔρρηξαν καὶ ἱστὸν ἀράχνης ὑφαίνουσιν· καὶ ὁ μέλλων τῶν ᾠῶν αὐτῶν φαγεῖν συντρίψας οὔριονl εὗρεν, καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ βασιλίσκονm· 6 ὁ ἱστὸς αὐτῶν οὐκ ἔσται εἰς ἱμάτιον, οὐδὲ μὴ περιβάλωνται ἀπὸ τῶν ἔργων αὐτῶν. 388 They do not recognize peace

(59:6–8)

τὰ γὰρ ἔργα αὐτῶν ἔργα ἀνομίας. 7 οἱ δὲ πόδες αὐτῶν ἐπὶ πονηρίαν τρέχουσιν ταχινοὶ ἐκχέαι αἷμα· καὶ οἱ διαλογισμοὶ αὐτῶν διαλογισμοὶ ἀφρόνωνn, σύντριμμα καὶ ταλαιπωρία ἐν ταῖς ὁδοῖς αὐτῶν. 8 καὶ ὁδὸν εἰρήνης οὐκ οἴδασινo, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν κρίσιςp ἐν

aτὸν πόδα σου ἀπὸ τῶν σαββάτων] SARZ; ἀπὸ τῶν σαββάτων τὸν πόδα σου B bτὸ σάββατον] S*; τὰ σάββατα Scb3ABRZ cθεῷ] S*; θεῷ σου ScaABRZ d ἀναβιβάσῃ] S; ἀναβιβάσει ABRZ e οὖς] S; οὖς αὐτοῦ ABRZ f ἀνὰ μέσον] S*Scb3BRZ; om. AScb2 g τοῦ θεοῦ, καὶ] SBRZ; om. A h πρόσωπον] S*B; πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ ScaARZ iμεμολυμμέναι] SARZ; μεμολυσμέναι B jαἷμα] S*; αἵματι ScaABRZ kοὐδεὶς] SARZ; οὐθεὶς B lοὔριον] SARZ; αὔριον B mβασιλίσκον] S; βασιλίσκος ABRZ nδιαλογισμοὶ ἀφρόνων] S*ARZ; διαλογισμοὶ ἀπὸ φόνων Scb2; ἀπὸ φόνων B* oοἴδασιν] SBRZ; ἔγνωσαν A p κρίσις] ScaABRZ; κρίσιν θεοῦ S*

58:13–59:8

386 Keep the Sabbath holy, and Lord will reward you

305 (58:13–14)

13 If you turn your foot away from the Sabbaths to not do your wishes on the holy day, then you will call the Sabbath a delightful day, holy to God, you will not raise your foot upon a work, nor speak a word in anger from your mouth, 14 and you will trust upon Lord, and he may lift you onto the good things of the land, and he will feed you the inheritance of Jacob your father, for the mouth of Lord has spoken these things. 387 All of you are chronic sinners

(59:1–6)

59.1 Is the hand of the Lord not powerful to save? Or has he hardened his ear to not hear? 2 But your sins make a divide between you and God, and he has turned his face away from you to not show mercy, because of your sins. 3 For your hands have become defiled with blood, and your fingers by sins, and your lips have spoken lawlessness, and your tongue mutters injustice. 4 No one speaks just things, and there is no true justice; they have trusted pointless things, and they speak empty things, because they conceive toil and beget lawlessness. 5 They have broken serpents’ eggs and they weave a spider’s web; and the one about to eat some of their eggs broke and found an empty-egg, and a serpent in it. 6 Their web will not become a garment, and they will certainly not clothe themselves with their works. 388 They do not recognize peace

(59:6–8)

For their works are works of lawlessness. 7 Their feet run to evil, quick to pour out blood; and their discussions are the discussions of foolish things; affliction and misery are in their paths. 8 And they do not know a way of peace, and there

58:13 Did. 21; Justin Dial. 12.3; 27.1; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.47 58:14 Justin Dial. 27.1; Origen Fr. Ps.; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.47 59:1 Passio Pionii 12.14; Origen Hom. Ps. 2.5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.48; Eusebius Dem. ev. 2.3.25 59:2 Passio Pionii 12.14; Origen Fr. Ps.; Hom. Ps. 2.5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.48; Comm. Ps. 59:3 4 Ezra 1.26; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.48 59:4 Cyprian Test. 2.4; 3.47; Origen Comm. Matt. 37; Didymus Comm. Job 221.22; Theodoret In. Isa.; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.48; Procopius of Gaza Catena in Esaiam 59:8 Luke 1:79; 4 Ezra 1.26; Odes Sol. 11.3; Did. 7; Hippolytus Dav. Gol. 7.12; Origen Fr. Ps.; Fr. Rom. 13; Hom. Jes. Nav. 15.6; Hom. Lev. 9.7; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.48; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 5.5.1

306

Text and Translation

ταῖς ὁδοῖς αὐτῶν· αἱ γὰρ τρίβοι αὐτῶν διεστραμμέναι, ἃς διοδεύουσιν, καὶ οὐκ οἴδασιν εἰρήνην ἠνa. 389 Light will become darkness for them

(59:9–11)

9 διὰ τοῦτο ἀπέστη ἡ κρίσις ἀπ’ αὐτῶν, καὶ οὐ μὴ καταλάβῃ αὐτοὺς δικαιοσύνη· ὑπομεινάντων αὐτῶν φῶς ἐγένετο αὐτοῖς σκότος, μείναντες αὐγὴν ἐν ἀωρίᾳ περιεπάτησαν. 10 ψηλαφήσουσιν ὡς τυφλοὶ τοῖχον καὶ οὐχ ὡςb ὑπαρχόντων ὀφθαλμῶν ψηλαφήσουσιν· καὶ πεσοῦνταιc ἐν μεσημβρίᾳ ὡς ἐν μεσονυκτίῳ, ὡς ἀποθνῄσκοντες στενάξουσιν. 11 ὡς ἄρκος καὶ ὡς περιστερὰ ἅμα πορεύσονται. 390 We have acted unjustly

(59:11–15)

Ἀνεμείναμεν κρίσιν, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν· σωτηρία μακρὰν ἀφέστηκεν ἀφ’ ἡμῶν. 12 πολλὴ γὰρ ἡμῶν ἡ ἀνομία ἐναντίον σου, καὶ αἱ ἁμαρτίαι ἡμῶν ἀντέστησαν ἡμῖν· αἱ γὰρ ἀνομίαι ἡμῶν ἐν ἡμῖν, καὶ τὰ ἀδικήματα ἡμῶν ἔγνωμεν· 13 ἠσεβήσαμεν καὶ ἐψευσάμεθα καὶ ἀπέστημεν ἀπὸ ὄπισθενd τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν· ἐλαλήσαμεν ἄδικα καὶ ἠπειθήσαμεν, ἐκύομεν καὶ ἐμελετήσαμεν ἀπὸ καρδίας ἡμῶν λόγους ἀδίκους· 14 καὶ ἀπεστήσαμεν ὀπίσω τὴν κρίσιν, καὶ ἡ δικαιοσύνη μακρὰν ἀφέστηκενe, ὅτι καταναλώθη ἐν ταῖς ὁδοῖς αὐτῶν ἡ ἀλήθεια, καὶ δι’ εὐθείας οὐκ ἠδύναντο διελθεῖν. 15 καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια ἦρται, καὶ μετέστησαν τὴν διάνοιαν αὐτοῦf τοῦ συνεῖναι. 391 Lord could find no one who was just

(59:15–18)

καὶ εἶδεν Κύριος, καὶ οὐκ ἤρεσεν αὐτῷ, ὅτι οὐκ ἦν κρίσις. 16 καὶ εἶδενg καὶ οὐκ ἦν ἀνήρ, καὶ κατενόησεν καὶ οὐκ ἦν ὁ ἀντιλημψόμενος, καὶ ἠμύνατο αὐτοὺς τῷ βραχίονι αὐτοῦ καὶ τῇ ἐλεημοσύνῃ ἐστηρίσατο. 17 καὶ ἐνεδύσατο δικαιοσύνην ὡς θώρακα καὶ περιέθετο περικεφαλαίαν ὡς σωτηρίουh ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς καὶ περιεβάλετο ἱμάτιον ἐκδικήσεως καὶ τὸ περιβόλαιον 18 ὡς ἀνταποδώσων ἀνταπόδοσιν ὄνειδος τοῖς ὑπεναντίοις.

aἠν] S*Scb3; om. ScaABRZ b οὐχ ὡς] S; ὡς οὐχ ABRZ c καὶ πεσοῦνται] SARZ; πεσοῦνται B d ἀπὸ ὄπισθεν] SARZ; ὄπισθεν B e ἀφέστηκεν] SBRZ; ἀφέτηκεν ἀφ’ ἡμῶν A f αὐτοῦ] S*; om. ScaBRZ; αὐτῶν A g εἶδεν] SBRZ; ἴδεν A h ὡς σωτηρίου] S; σωτηρίου ABRZ

307

59:9–18

is no justice in their ways. For their paths on which they travel are twisted, and they do not know there was peace. 389 Light will become darkness for them

(59:9–11)

9 Because of this, justice has left them, and righteousness will not overtake them; while they were waiting, light became darkness for them; although they waited for brightness they walked in darkness. 10 They will feel a wall like blind people, and they will feel about unlike people of existing eyes, and they will fall at mid-day as at midnight; they will groan like dying people. 11 They will walk together like a bear and like a pigeon. 390 We have acted unjustly

(59:11–15)

We expected justice, and there is none. Salvation has gone away, far from us. 12 For our lawlessness is great before you, and our sins stand against us, for our lawless acts are with us, and we know our injustices. 13 We have acted impiously and have lied and have gone away from behind our God; we have spoken unjust things and we have resisted; we have conceived and have muttered unjust words from our heart. 14 And we have turned justice back, righteousness has departed far away, because the truth has been consumed in their ways, and they could not pass through a straight way. 15 And the truth has been taken away, and they have substituted his mind in order to understand. 391 Lord could find no one who was just

(59:15–18)

And the Lord saw, and it displeased him, because there was no justice. 16 And he saw and there was no man, and he observed and there was no one would help, and he defended them with his arm and established them with mercy. 17 He clothed himself with righteousness like a breastplate and put on a helmet as of salvation on his head and put on a garment of vindication and his cloak 18 as one who would repay a repayment, a reproach to the opponents.

59:11 Victorinus Apoc. (CSEL 49, 102); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.47–48, 34; Dem. ev. 2.3.25 59:14 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.34, 48; Dem. ev. 2.3.25 59:17 Eph 6:14, 17; 1 Thess 5:8 59:15–18 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.48

308 392 My eternal covenant is my spirit and words

Text and Translation

(59:19–21)

19 Καὶ φοβηθήσονται ἀπὸ δυσμῶν τὸ ὄνομα Κυρίου καὶ οἱ ἀπ’ ἀνατολῶν ἡλίου τὸ ὄνομα τὸ ἔνδοξον· ἥξει γὰρ ὡς ποταμὸς βίαιος ἡ ὀργὴ παρὰ Κυρίου, ἤξει μετὰ θυμοῦ. 20 καὶ ἥξει ἕνεκεν Σειὼν ῥυόμενοςa καὶ ἀποστρέψει ἀσεβείας ἀπὸ Ἰακώβ. 21 καὶ αὕτη αὐτοῖς ἡ παρ’ ἐμοῦ διαθήκη, εἶπεν Κύριος· τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἐμόν, ὅ ἐστιν ἐπὶ σοί, καὶ τὰ ῥήματα, ἃ ἔδωκα εἰς τὴνb καρδίαc σου, οὐ μὴ ἐκλίπῃ ἐκ τοῦ στόματός σου καὶ ἐκ τοῦ στόματος τοῦ σπέρματός σου, εἶπεν γὰρ Κύριος, ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν καὶ εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα. 393 Lord’s glory will shine on you

(60:1–4)

60.1 Φωτίζου φωτίζου, Ἰερουσαλήμ, ἥκει γάρ σου τὸ φῶς, καὶ ἡ δόξα Κυρίου ἐπὶ σὲ ἀνατέταλκεν. 2 ἰδοὺ σκότος καὶ γνόφος καλύψει γῆνd ἐπ’ ἔθνη· ἐπὶ δὲ σὲ φανήσεται Κύριος, καὶ ἡ δόξα αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ σὲ ὀφθήσεται. 3 καὶ πορεύσονται βασιλεῖς τῷ φωτί σου καὶ ἔθνη τῇ λαμπρότητί σου. 4 ἆρον κύκλῳ τοὺς ὀφθαλμούς σου καὶ ἰδὲ συνηγμένα τὰ τέκνα σου· ἥκασινe πάντες οἱ υἱοί σου μακρόθεν, καὶ αἱ θυγατέρες σου ἐπ’ ὤμων ἀρθήσονται. 394 Foreigners will bring you gifts

(60:5–7)

5 τότε ὄψῃ καὶ φοβηθήσῃ καὶ ἐκστήσῃ τῇ καρδίᾳ σουf, ὅτι μεταβαλεῖ ἐπίg σε πλῆθοςh θαλάσσης καὶ ἐθνῶν καὶ λαῶν. καὶ ἕξουσίνi σοι 6 ἀγέλαι καμήλων, καὶ καλύψουσίν σε κάμηλοι Μαδιὰμ καὶ Γαιφάρj· πάντες ἐκ Σαβὰ ἥξουσιν φέροντες χρυσίον καὶ λίβανον οἴσουσιν καὶ λίθον τίμιονk καὶ τὸ σωτήριον Κυρίου εὐαγγελιοῦνταιςl σοιm. 7 καὶ πάντα τὰ πρόβατα Κηδὰρ συναχθήσονταί σοιn, καὶ κριοὶ Ναβαιὼθ ἥξουσίν σοιo, καὶ ἀνενεχθήσεται δῶραp δεκτὰ ἐπὶ τὸ θυσιαστήριόν μου, καὶ ὁ οἶκος τῆς προσευχῆς μου δοξασθήσεται.

aῥυόμενος] S*; ὁ ῥυόμενος ScaABRZ bτὴν] S; τὸ ABRZ cκαρδία] S*Scb3; στόμα Scb2ABRZ dκαὶ γνόφος καλύψει γῆν] SRZ; καλύψει γῆν, καὶ γνόφος B; καὶ γνόφος καλύπτει γῆν A e ἥκασιν] SB; ἰδοὺ ἥκασιν ARZ f καρδίᾳ σου] S*; καρδίᾳ Scb2ABRZ g ἐπί] S; εἰς ABRZ h πλῆθος] S*; πλοῦτος Scb2ABRZ iἕξουσίν] S*; ἥξουσίν Scb3 ABRZ jΓαιφάρ] SAZ; Γαιφά BR kκαὶ λίθον τίμιον] S*Scb3A; om. Scb2BRZ l εὐαγγελιοῦνταις] S*; εὐαγγελιοῦνται ScaABRZ m σοι] S*Scb3; om. Scb2ABRZ n συναχθήσονταί σοι] SRZ; συναχθήσονται AB oἥξουσίν σοι] SARZ; ἥξουσιν B pδῶρα] S*Scb3; om. Scb2ABRZ

59:19–60:7

392 My eternal covenant is my spirit and words

309 (59:19–21)

19 And those from the west will fear the name of Lord, and those from the rising of the sun will fear his glorious name, for anger will come like a forceful river from Lord; it will come with wrath. 20 And a deliverer will come for the sake of Zion, and he will turn impiety away from Jacob. 21 “And this is the covenant with them from me,” said Lord: “My spirit that is upon you and my words that I provided in your heart will not cease from your mouth and from the mouth of your seed (for Lord has said it) from now to forever.” 393 Lord’s glory will shine on you

(60:1–4)

60.1 Shine, shine, Jerusalem, for your light has come, and the glory of Lord has risen upon you. 2 Look, darkness and gloom will cover land over nations, the Lord will shine over you, and his glory will be seen over you. 3 And kings will walk by your light; and nations by your brightness. 4 Lift up your eyes all around and see your children gathered together; all your sons have come from far away, and your daughters will be carried on shoulders. 394 Foreigners will bring you gifts

(60:5–7)

5 Then you will see and be frightened and be amazed in your heart, because the multitude of sea and nations and peoples will transfer over to you. And herds of camels will have it for you, 6 and camels of Madiam and of Gaiphar will cover you; all people will come from Saba bringing gold, and they will bring frankincense and a valuable stone, and the salvation of Lord to those bringing you good news. 7 And all the sheep of Kedar will be gathered to you, and the rams of Nabaioth will come to you, and acceptable gifts will be offered upon my altar, and my house of prayer will be glorified. 59:19–21 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.32; 2.49, 50; Ecl. proph. 4.30; Dem. ev. 2.3.29; Comm. Ps. (PG 23:148; Pitra 502); Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 16.30 59:20–21 Rom 11:26–27 60:1–4 Sib. Or. 3.785; Origen Cels. 6.5; Princ. 2.11.2; Victorinus Apoc. (CSEL 49.150, 154); Methodius Symp. 4.5; 8.5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.50; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 18.34 60:1 John 8:12; Rev 21:23 60:2 Luke 1:78 60:3 John 8:12; Rev 21:24 60:5–7 Origen Princ. 2.11.2; Victorinus Apoc. (CSEL 49.154); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.50; 1.93; Eusebius Onom. (GCS 11,1.74, 138) 60:5 Rev 21:24 60:6 Matt 2:11

310 395 Distant lands will restore your children

Text and Translation

(60:8–9)

8 Τίνες οἵδε ὡς νεφέλαι πέτονταιa καὶ ὡς περιστεραὶ σὺν νοσσοῖςb; 9 ἐμὲc αἱ νῆσοιd ὑπέμειναν καὶ πλοῖα Θαρσὶς ἐν πρώτοις, ἀγαγεῖν τὰ τέκνα σου μακρόθεν καὶ τὸν ἄργυρον καὶ τὸν χρυσὸν αὐτῶνe μετ’ αὐτῶν διὰf τὸ ὄνομα Κυρίου τὸ ἅγιον καὶ διὰ τὸνg ἅγιον τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ ἔνδοξον εἶναι. 396 Nations will serve you

(60:10–12)

10 καὶ οἰκοδομήσουσιν ἀλλογενεῖς τὰ τείχη σου, καὶ οἱ βασιλεῖς αὐτῶν παραστήσονταί σοι· διὰ γὰρ ὀργήν μου ἐπάταξά σε καὶ διὰ ἔλεονh ἠγάπησά σε. 11 καὶ ἀνοιχθήσονται αἱ πύλαι σου διὰ παντός, ἡμέρας καὶ νυκτὸς οὐ κλεισθήσονται, εἰσαγαγεῖν πρὸς σὲ δύναμιν ἐθνῶν καὶ βασιλεῖςi ἀγομένους. 12 τὰ γὰρ ἔθνη καὶ οἱ βασιλεῖςj, οἵτινες οὐ δουλεύσουσίν σοι, ἀπολοῦνταιk, καὶ τὰ ἔθνη ἐρημίᾳ ἐρημωθήσονταιl. 397 Your oppressors will serve you

(60:13–16)

13 καὶ ἡ δόξα τοῦ Λιβάνου πρὸς σὲ ἥξει ἐν κυπαρίσσῳ καὶ πεύκῃ καὶ κέδρῳ ἅμα, δοξάσαι τὸν τόπον τὸν ἅγιόν μου. 14 καὶ πορεύσονται πρὸς σὲ δεδοικότες υἱοὶ ταπεινωσάντων σε καὶ παροξυνάντων σε, καὶ κληθήσῃ Πόλις Κυρίου Σιὼν Ἀγίου Ἰσραήλ. 15 διὰ τὸ γεγενῆσθαί σε ἐγκαταλελειμμένην καὶ μεμισημένην καὶ οὐκ ἦν ὁ βοηθῶν, καὶ θήσω σε ἀγαλλίαμα αἰώνιον, εὐφροσύνην γενεῶν γενεαῖς. 16 καὶ θηλάσεις γάλα ἐθνῶν καὶ πλοῦτον βασιλέων φάγεσαι· καὶ γνώσῃ ὅτι ἐγὼ Κύριος ὁ σῴζων σε ἐξαιρούμενόςm σε θεὸς Ἰσραήλ.

aπέτονται] SB; πέτανται ARZ bνοσσοῖς] SB; νεοσσοῖς ARZ c ἐμὲ] S*ARZ; ἐπ’ ἐμέ Sca; ἐπ’ ἐμέ; ἐμὲ B dαἱ νῆσοι] S*Β; om. Sca; νῆσοι ARZ eχρυσὸν αὐτῶν] SBRZ; χρυσὸν A fδιὰ] SARZ; καὶ B gδιὰ τὸν] S*; διὰ τὸ τὸν ScaABRZ hἔλεον] SBRZ; ἔλεος A iβασιλεῖς] SARZ; βασιλεῖς αὐτῶν B j βασιλεῖς] SBRZ; βασιλεῖς αὐτῶν A k ἀπολοῦνται] SBRZ; ἀποθανοῦνται A l ἐρημωθήσονται] SARZ; ἐρημωθήσεται B m ἐξαιρούμενός] S*; καὶ ἐξαιρούμενός ScaABRZ

311

60:8–16

395 Distant lands will restore your children

(60:8–9)

8 Who are these that fly like clouds and like doves with nestlings? 9 The islands have waited for me, and ships of Tharsis in former times, to bring your children from far away, and their silver and gold with them because of the holy name of Lord, and because he the holy one of Israel is honored. 396 Nations will serve you

(60:10–12)

10 And strangers will build your walls, and their kings will stand by you, for I struck you because of my anger and I have loved you because of mercy. 11 And your gates will always be open; they will not be closed day and night, to bring in to you the might of the nations, and escorted kings. 12 For the nations and the kings who will not serve you will perish, and the nations will be desolated with desolation. 397 Your oppressors will serve you

(60:13–16)

13 And the glory of Lebanon will come to you in cypress and pine and cedar together, to magnify my holy place. 14 And the sons of those who humbled and provoked you will come terrified to you, and you will be called City of Lord, Zion of the Holy One of Israel. 15 Because you have become forsaken and hated and there was no-one who helped. I will give you eternal rejoicing, joy for generations of generations. 16 And you will suck the milk of nations and you will eat the wealth of kings, and you will know that I am Lord who saves you, and the God of Israel who brings you out.

60:8–9 Tertullian Marc. 3.24.11; 5.15.4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.50; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 18.34 60:10–12 Origen Princ. 2.11.2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.50 60:11 Rev 21:25–26 60:13–16 Origen Comm. Jo. 10.294; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.50 60:14 Rev 3:9

312

Text and Translation

398 Future prosperity, righteousness, peace, and light from Lord (60:17–21) 17 καὶa ἀντὶ χαλκοῦ οἴσω σοι χρυσίονb, ἀντὶ δὲ σιδήρου οἴσω σοι ἀργύριον, ἀντὶ δὲ ξύλωνc οἴσω σοι χαλκόν, ἀντὶ δὲ λίθων σίδηρον. καὶ δώσω τοὺς ἄρχοντάς σου ἐν εἰρήνῃ καὶ τοὺς ἐπισκόπους σου ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ· 18 καὶ οὐκέτιd ἀκουσθήσονταιe ἀδικία ἐν τῇ γῇ σου οὐδὲ σύντριμμα οὐδὲ ταλαιπωρία ἐν τοῖς ὁρίοις σου, ἀλλὰ κληθήσονταιf Σωτήριον τὰ τείχη σου, καὶ αἱ πύλαι σου Γλύμμα. 19 καὶ οὐκ ἔσταιg ὁ ἥλιος εἰς φῶς ἡμέρας, οὔτεh ἀνατολὴ σελήνης φωτιεῖ σεi τὴν νύκτα, ἀλλ’ ἔσται σοι Κύριος φῶς αἰώνιον καὶ ὁ θεὸς δόξα σου. 20 οὐ γὰρ δύσεται ὁ ἥλιός σοιj, καὶ ἡ σελήνη σοι οὐκ ἐκλείψει· ἔσται γὰρ Κύριός ὁ θεόςk σοι φῶς αἰώνιον, καὶ ἀναπληρωθήσονται αἱ ἡμέραι τοῦ πένθους σου. 21 καὶ ὁ λαός σου πᾶς δίκαιος, καὶ δι’l αἰῶνος κληρονομήσουσιν τὴν γῆν. 399 The least will be great

(60:21–22)

φυλάσσων τὸ φύτευμα, ἔργα χειρῶν αὐτῶνm εἰς δόξαν. 22 ὁ ὀλιγοστὸς ἔσται εἰς χιλιάδας καὶ ὁ ἐλάχιστος ἔσταιn εἰς ἔθνος μέγα· ἐγὼ Κύριος κατὰ καιρὸν συνάξω αὐτούς. 400 Lord anointed me with his spirit to proclaim good news

(61:1–3)

61.1 Πνεῦμα Κυρίου ἐπ’ ἐμέ, οὗ εἵνεκεν ἔχρισέν με· εὐαγγελίσασθαι ταπεινοῖςo ἀπέσταλκέν με, ἰάσασθαι τοὺς συντετριμμένους τῇ καρδίᾳp, κηρύξαι αἰχμαλώτοις ἄφεσιν

aκαὶ] SARZ; om. B b χρυσίον] SARZ; χρυσίον, ἀντὶ δὲ σιδήρου οἴσω σοι ἀργύριον, ἀντὶ δὲ ξύλων οἴσω σοι χρυσίον B cξύλων] SBRZ; ξύλου A d οὐκέτι] S; οὐκ ABRZ e ἀκουσθήσονται] S*; ἀκουσθήσεται Scb3 f κληθήσονται] S*; κληθήσεται Scb3ABRZ g ἔσται] S*; ἔσται σοι ScaARZ; ἔσται σοι ἔτι B hοὔτε] S; οὐδὲ ABRZ iσε] S; σοι ABRZ j ἥλιός σοι] SBRZ; ἥλιός σου A kὁ θεός] S*Scb3; om. Scb2ABRZ l καὶ δι’] SRZ; καὶ διὰ A; δι’ B m αὐτῶν] S; αὐτοῦ ABRZ nἐλάχιστος ἔσται] S*; ἐλάχιστος Scb2ABRZ o ταπεινοῖς] S*; πτωχοῖς ScaABRZ p τῇ καρδίᾳ] SARZ; τὴν καρδίαν B

60:17–61:1

313

398 Future prosperity, righteousness, peace, and light from Lord (60:17–21) 17 And instead of brass I will bring you gold, and instead of iron I will bring you silver, and instead of wood I will bring you brass, and instead of stones, iron. And I will provide your rulers with peace, and your supervisors with righteousness. 18 And injustice will no longer be heard in your land, nor oppression or trouble within your boundaries, but your walls will be called Salvation, and your gates Engraving. 19 And the sun will not serve as light of day, and the rising of the moon will not illuminate you by night, but rather Lord will be an eternal light for you, and God will be your glory. 20 For the sun will not set for you, and the moon will not cease for you. For Lord God will be an eternal light for you, and the days of your mourning will be completed. 21 And all your people will be righteous, and they will inherit the land through eternity. 399 The least will be great

(60:21–22)

One who watches the plant, the works of their hands, are for glory. 22 The least person will be like a thousand, and the smallest will become a great nation; I, Lord, will gather them at the right time. 400 Lord anointed me with his spirit to proclaim good news

(61:1–3)

61.1 A spirit of Lord is upon me, on account of which he anointed me; he has sent me to bring good news to humble people, to heal those crushed in heart, to proclaim forgiveness to captive people and restoration of sight to blind people,

60:17–21 Gos. Phil. 126; Victorinus Apoc. (CSEL 49:150, 152); Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.50, 53; Comm. Ps.; Justin Dial. 113.5; Origen Fr. Ps.; Hom. Ps. 3.9; Cels. 6.51; Comm. Jo. 10.294; Pamphilius Apol. Orig. 7 60:21–22 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.50–51 61:1 Matt 11:5; Luke 4:18; 7:22; Acts 4:27; 10:38; Barn. 14:9; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 16.30; Eusebius Dem. ev. 3.1.1; 3.1.3; 4.15.28; 4.15.30; 4.15.43; 4.16.49; 4.17.13; 5.2.6; 6.18.12; 8.2.42; 9.10.1; 9.10.6; 9.10.7; Praep. ev. 4.21.2; 4.21.3; Comm. Isa. 1.35; 1.95; 2.3; 2.8; 2.35; 2.51; Comm. Ps (Mercati 1); Comm. Ps. (PG 23); Ecl. proph. 3.23; 4.5; 4.31; Hist. eccl. 1.3.13; Peter of Alexandria Epistula Canonica 2; Origen Cels. 3.14; Hom. Ezech. 1.3; Hom. Lev. 9.5; 15.2; Hom. Luc. 32; Hom. Ps. 6.29; Comm. Jo. 1.47; 1.66; 1.75; 6.196; Princ. 4.2.1; Fr. Luc. 100; Fr. Jer.; Fr. Jo.; Fr. Ps.; Fr. Ps. C; Fr. Lam.; Cyprian Test. 2.10; Novatian Trinity 29.13; Tertullian Marc. 4.14.13; Hippolytus Comm. Dan. 4.32.4; Irenaeus Dem. 53

314

Text and Translation

καὶ τυφλοῖς ἀνάβλεψιν, 2 καλέσαι ἐνιαυτὸν Κυρίου δεκτὸνa καὶ ἡμέραν ἀνταποδόσεωνb, παρακαλέσαι πάντας τοὺς πενθοῦντας, 3 δοθῆναι τοῖς πενθοῦσιν Σειὼν αὐτοῖςc δόξαν ἀντὶ σποδοῦ, ἄλειμμα εὐφροσύνης τοῖς πενθοῦσινd, καταστολὴν δόξης ἀντὶ πνεύματος ἀκηδίας. 401 They will restore what was abandoned

(61:3–4)

καὶ κληθήσονται γενεαὶ δικαιοσύνης, φύτευμα δικαιοσύνηςe Κυρίου εἰς δόξαν. 4 καὶ οἰκοδομήσουσιν ἐρήμους αἰωνίας, ἐξηρημωμένας τὸf πρότερονg ἐξαναστήσουσιν· καὶ καινιοῦσιν πόλεις αἰωνίουςh ἐξῃρημέναςi εἰς γενεάς. 402 Foreigners will serve you, priests of Lord

(61:5–7)

5 καὶ ἥξουσιν ἀλλογενεῖς ποιμαίνοντές σου τὰ πρόβαταj, καὶ ἀλλόφυλοι ἀροτῆρες καὶ ἀμπελουργοί· 6 ὑμεῖς δὲ ἱερεῖς Κυρίου κληθήσεσθε, λειτουργοὶk θεοῦ ὑμῶνl· ἰσχὺν ἐθνῶν κατέδεσθε κἄνm ἐνn τῷ πλούτῳ αὐτῶν θαυμασθήσεσθε. 7 οὕτως ἐκ δευτέρας κληρονομήσουσιν τὴν γῆνo, καὶ εὐφροσύνη αἰώνιος ὑπὲρ κεφαλῆς αὐτῶν. 403 You will be known among the nations

(61:8–10)

8 ἐγὼ γάρ εἰμι Κύριος ὁ ἀγαπῶν δικαιοσύνην καὶ μισῶν ἁρπάγματα ἐξ ἀδικίας· καὶ δώσω τὸν μόχθον αὐτῶν δικαίοιςp διαθήκηνq αἰώνιον διαθήσομαι αὐτοῖς. 9 καὶ γνωσθήσεσθεr ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν τὸ σπέρμα αὐτῶν καὶ τὰ ἔκγονα αὐτῶν ἔμμεσῳ τῶν λαῶνs·

aδεκτὸν] SBABRZ; δεκτὸς S* bἀνταποδόσεων] S*; ἀνταποδόσεως ScaABRZ c αὐτοῖς] S*B; om. Scb2ARZ d τοῖς πενθοῦσιν] SABR; ἀντὶ πένθους Z e δικαιοσύνης] S; om. ABRZ fτὸ] S; om. ABRZ g πρότερον] SB; προτέρας AZ h αἰωνίους] S*; ἐρήμους Scb2ABRZ i ἐξῃρημένας] S; ἐξηρημωμένας ABRZ jσου τὰ πρόβατα] S; τὰ πρόβατά σου ABRZ kλειτουργοὶ] SBRZ; pr. καὶ A l ὑμῶν] S*; om. Scb2ABRZ m κἄν] S*; καὶ ScaABRZ nἐν] SBRZ; ἐπὶ A oἐκ δευτέρας κληρονομήσουσιν τὴν γῆν] SARZ; τὴν γῆν ἐκ δευτέρας κληρονομήσουσι B pδικαίοις] SABR; δικαίως Z qδιαθήκην] S*; pr. καὶ ScaABRZ rγνωσθήσεσθε] S*; γνωσθήσεται ScaARBZ sἔμμεσῳ τῶν λαῶν] S*Scb3; om. Scb2ARZ; ἐν μέσῳ τῶν λαῶν B

61:2–9

315

2 to call an acceptable year of Lord and day of repayments, to comfort all those who mourn, 3 glory to be given to them instead of ashes, to those who mourn in Zion, an oil of joy for those who mourn, a clothing of glory instead of a spirit of weariness. 401 They will restore what was abandoned

(61:3–4)

And they will be called generations of righteousness, a plant of righteousness of Lord for glory. 4 And they will build deserts into eternal places; they will raise up those that were formerly abandoned, and they will renew eternal cities, rescued for generations. 402 Foreigners will serve you, priests of Lord

(61:5–7)

5 Strangers will come tending your sheep, and foreigners will be husbandmen and vineyard workers. 6 But you will be called priests of Lord, servants of your God, you will devour the strength of nations and you will be amazed by their wealth. 7 Thus they will inherit the land a second time, and eternal joy will be above their head. 403 You will be known among the nations

(61:8–10)

8 For I am Lord who loves righteousness and hates the spoils of injustice and I will give their hardship to righteous people; I will make an eternal covenant with them. 9 And you will be known among the nations; their seed and their offspring are among the peoples; everyone who sees them will recognize them,

61:2 Matt 5:4; Luke 4:19; 6:21; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.95; 2.3; 2.8; 2.23; 2.51; 2.53; 2.57; Dem. ev. 9.10.1; 9.10.2; 9.13.11; Comm. Ps.; Ecl. proph. 4.31; Peter of Alexandria Epistula Canonica 2; Origen Comm. Matt. 75; Or. 20.1; Hom. Gen. 1.6; Hom. Lev. 9.5; 15.2; Cyprian Test. 2.10. 61:3 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.8; 2.51; Ecl. proph. 4.31; Dem. ev. 4.17.13; Origen Comm. Matt. 2; Tertullian Marc. 4.14.13; Did. apost. 21 61:4 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.51 61:5 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.51; Origen Princ. 2.11.2 61:6 Rev 1:6; 5:10; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.51; 2.58; Victorinus Apoc.; Origen Princ. 2.11.2; Hom. Lev. 4.6; 61:7 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.51 61:8 Heb 13:20; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.51; Origen Fr. Jo. 61:9 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.51; Pistis Sophia 65

316

Text and Translation

πᾶς ὁ ὁρῶν αὐτοὺς ἐπιγνώσεται αὐτούς, ὅτι οὗτοί εἰσιν σπέρμα εὐλογημένον ὑπὸ θεοῦ 10 καὶ εὐφροσύνηνa εὐφρανθήσονται ἐπὶ Κύριον. 404 Lord has clothed me with salvation

(61:10–11)

Ἀγαλλιάσθω ἡ ψυχή μου ἐπὶ τῷ Κυρίῳ· ἐνέδυσεν γάρ με ἱμάτιον σωτηρίου καὶ κιτῶναb εὐφροσύνης ὡς νυμφίῳ περιέθηκέν μοιc μίτραν καὶ ὡς νύμφην κατεκόσμησέν με κόσμῳ. 11 καὶ ὡς γῆν αὔξουσαν ἄνθοςd αὐτῆς καὶ ὡς κῆποςe τὰ σπέρματα αὐτοῦ, οὕτως ἀνατελεῖ Κύριος δικαιοσύνην καὶ ἀγαλλίαμα ἐναντίον πάντων τῶν ἐθνῶν. 405 My righteousness will shine to the nations

(62:1–2)

62.1 διὰ Σιὼν οὐ σιωπήσωμαιf καὶ διὰ Ἰερουσαλὴμ οὐκ ἀνήσω, ἕως ἂν ἐξέλθῃ ὡς φῶς ἡ δικαιοσύνη μουg, τὸ δὲ σωτήριόν μου ὡς λαμπὰς καυθήσεται. 2 καὶ ὄψονται ἔθνη τὴν δικαιοσύνην σου καὶ βασιλεῖς τὴν δόξαν σου. 406 Lord will give you a new name

(62:2)

καὶ καλέσει σε τὸ ὄνομά σουh τὸ καινόν, ὃ ὁ Κύριος ὀνομάσει αὐτό. 407 Lord will adorn and rejoice over you

(62:3–7)

3 καὶ ἔσῃ στέφανος κάλλους ἐν χειρὶ Κυρίου καὶ διάδημα βασιλείας ἐν χειρὶ θεοῦ σου. 4 καὶ οὐκέτι κληρονομηθήσῃi καταλελειμμένη, καὶ ἡ γῆ σου οὐ κληθήσεται Ἔρημος· σοὶ γὰρ κληθήσεται Θέλημα ἐμόν, καὶ τῇ γῇ σου Οἰκουμένηj. 5 καὶ ὡς συνοικῶν νεανίσκος παρθένῳ, οὕτως κατοικήσουσιν οἱ υἱοί σου μετὰ σοῦk· καὶ ἔσται ὃν τρόπον εὐφρανθήσεται νυμφίος ἐπὶ νύμφῃ, οὕτως εὐφρανθήσεται Κύριος ἐπὶ σοί. 6 καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν

aεὐφροσύνην] S; εὐφροσύνῃ BRZ; ἐν εὐφροσύνῃ A bκιτῶνα] S*; χιτῶνα ScaABRZ c ὡς νυμφίῳ περιέθηκέν μοι] SARZ; περιέθηκέν μοι ὡς νυμφίῳ B dἄνθος] S*; pr. τὸ Scb2ABRZ eκῆπος] SBR; κῆπον AZ f σιωπήσωμαι] S*Scb3; σιωπήσομαι ScaABRZ g μου] SARZ; αὐτῆς B h σου] SARZ; om. B iκληθήσεται] S*; κληθήσῃ ScaABRZ j Οἰκουμένη] SARZ; Οἰκουμένη, ὅτι εὐδόκησεν Κύριος ἐν σοί, καὶ ἡ γῆ σου συνοικισθήσεται B k μετὰ σοῦ] SARZ; om. B

61:10–62:6

317

because these are the seed blessed by God, 10 and they will rejoice over Lord with joy. 404 Lord has clothed me with salvation

(61:10–11)

Let my soul rejoice over the Lord, for he has clothed me with a garment of salvation and a tunic of joy; he has put a diadem on me as on a bridegroom, and he has ornamented me with ornamentation like a bride. 11 And like the land growing its flower and like a garden its seeds, so Lord will raise righteousness and joy before all the nations. 405 My righteousness will shine to the nations

(62:1–2)

62.1 May I not be silent because of Zion and may I not lift up my voice because of Jerusalem, until my righteousness goes forth like a light, and my salvation will burn like a torch. 2 And nations will see your righteousness, and kings your glory. 406 Lord will give you a new name

(62:2)

And he will call you your new name, which the Lord will name it. 407 Lord will adorn and rejoice over you

(62:3–7)

3 And you will be a crown of beauty in the hand of Lord and a diadem of a kingdom in the hand of your God. 4 And you will no longer be inherited, one who is left, and your land will not be called “Desert,” for it will be called for you “My Will,” and for your land, “Inhabited.” 5 And as a young man lives with a virgin, so will your sons live with you, and it will be in the same way as a bridegroom will rejoice over a bride, so Lord will rejoice over you. 6 And upon your walls, 61:10 Luke 1:47; Rev 19:8; 21:2; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 3.2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.52; 2.58; Ecl. proph. 4.32; Hist. eccl. 10.4.48; Methodius Lepra 15.3; 16.1; Res. 3.8.5; Origen Fr. Cant. 1; Hom. Gen. 14.1; Tertullian Marc. 4.11.7 61:11 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.52; Ecl. proph. 4.32; Hist. eccl. 10.4.48 62:1 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.37; 2.52 62:2 Rev 2:17; 19:12; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.52; 2.56; Hippolytus Noet. 4; 15. 62:3 Rev 19:12; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.52 62:4 Matt 3:17; Luke 3:22; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.52 62:5 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.52; 2.53; 2.58; Origen Fr. Cant. 62:6 Revelatioin 21:12; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.52

318

Text and Translation

τειχέων σου, Ἰερουσαλήμ, κατέστησα φύλακας ὅλην τὴν ἡμέραν καὶ ὅλην τὴν νύκτα, οἳ διὰ τέλους οὐ σιωπήσονται μιμνῃσκόμενοι Κυρίου. 7 οὐ γὰρ ἔστινa ὑμῖν ὁ οἶκοςb, ἐὰν διορθώσῃ καὶ ποιήσῃ Ἰερουσαλὴμ ἀγαυρίαμα ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. 408 Lord will no longer give your produce to your enemies

(62:8–9)

8 ὤμοσεν Κύριος κατὰ τῆς δόξηςc αὐτοῦ καὶ κατὰ τῆς δόξηςd τοῦ βραχίονος αὐτοῦ Εἰ ἔτι δώσω τὸν σῖτόν σουe τοῖς ἐχθροῖς σου, καὶ εἰf ἔτι πίονται υἱοὶ ἀλλότριοι τὸν οἶνόν σου, ἐφ’ ᾧ ἐμόχθησας· 9 ἀλλ’g οἱ συνάγοντεςh φάγονται αὐτὰ καὶ πίονταιi ἐν ταῖς ἐπαύλεσιν ταῖς ἁγίαις μουj. 409 Lord ransoms Zion

(62:10–12)

10 Πορεύεσθε διὰ τῶν πυλῶν μου καὶ ὁδοποιήσατε τῷ λαῷ μου καὶ τοὺς λίθους τοὺςk ἐκ τῆς ὁδοῦ διαρρίψατε· ἐξάρατε σύσσημον εἰς τὰ ἔθνη. 11 ἰδοὺ γὰρ Κύριος ἀκουστὸν ἐποίησενl ἕως ἐσχάτου τῆς γῆς. Εἴπατε τῇ θυγατρὶ Σιών Ἰδού σοι ὁ σωτὴρm παραγίνεταιn ἔχων τὸν ἑαυτοῦ μισθὸν καὶ τὸ ἔργον αὐτοῦo πρὸ προσώπου αὐτοῦ. 12 καὶ καλέσει αὐτὸν Λαὸν Ἅγιον, λελυτρωμένον ἀπὸp Κυρίου, συνεκλήθηq Ἐπιζητουμένη Πόλις καὶ οὐ καταλελειμμένηr. 410 Who comes in power from Edom?

(63:1)

63.1 Τίς οὗτος ὁ παραγινόμενος ἐξ Ἐδώμ, ἐρύθημαs ἱματίων ἐκ Βόσορ, οὕτως ὡραῖος ἐν στολῇ, βίᾳ μετὰ ἰσχύος; ἐγὼ διαλέγομαι δικαιοσύνην καὶ κρίσιν σωτηρίαςt.

aοὐ γὰρ ἔστιν] S; οὐκ ἔστιν γὰρ ABRZ b ὁ οἶκος] S*; ὅμοιος ScaABRZ c δόξης] SAB; δεξιᾶς RZ dδόξης] S; ABRZ ἰσχύος e σῖτόν σου] S; σῖτόν σου καὶ τὰ βρώματά σου ScaABRZ f εἰ] SBRZ; om. A gἀλλ’] SB; ἀλλ’ ἢ ScaARZ hσυνάγοντες] SARZ; συναγαγόντες B iπίονται] S; αἰνέσουσιν Κύριον, καὶ οἱ συναγόντες πίονται αὐτὰ ScaARZ; αἰνέσουσιν Κύριον, καὶ οἱ συναγαγόντες πίονται αὐτὰ B j μου] SBRZ; σου A kτοὺς] SAR; om. Scb2BZ lἀκουστὸν ἐποίησεν] S; ἐποίησεν ἀκουστὸν ABRZ mσοι ὁ σωτὴρ] SARZ; ὁ σωτήρ σοι B nπαραγίνεται] S*Scb3ARZ; παραγέγονεν Scb2B oαὐτοῦ] SB; om. AZ p ἀπὸ] S*; ὑπὸ ScaABRZ q συνεκλήθη] S*; σὺ δὲ κληθήσῃ ScaABRZ r οὐ καταλελειμμένη] S; οὐκ ἐγκαταλελειμμένη ABRZ s ἐρύθημα] S*BRZ; εριθρημα Scb1; ἐρυθήματα A t σωτηρίας] S*; σωτηρίου ScaABRZ

62:7–63:1

319

Jerusalem, I have appointed guards the whole day and the whole night, who will not be silent through the ends, as they remember Lord. 7 For the house is not for you, if he makes straight and makes Jerusalem boastfulness upon the land. 408 Lord will no longer give your produce to your enemies

(62:8–9)

8 The Lord swore by his glory and by the glory of his arm: “I will no longer give your grain to your enemies, and foreign sons will no longer drink your wine over which you laboured. 9 Rather, those who gather them will eat them and will drink in my holy residences. 409 Lord ransoms Zion

(62:10–12)

10 “Walk through my gates and make a way for my people, and throw aside the stones that are from the path; raise a signal for the nations.” 11 For look, the Lord has made it heard to the end of the land. Say to the daughter of Zion, “Look, the saviour has come near to you, holding his own reward and his work before his face.” 12 And he will call him a holy people ransomed from the Lord, and a desirable and not forsaken city was summoned. 410 Who comes in power from Edom?

(63:1)

63.1 Who is this who arrives from Edom, redness of garments from Bosor, thus beautiful in clothing, in violence, with power? I discuss righteousness and justice of salvation.

62:7 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.52 62:8 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.52 62:9 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.52 62:10 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.52; Ecl. proph. 4.33 62:11 Matt 21:5; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 10.12; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.52–53; Ecl. proph. 4.33; Origen Cels. 3.14; Hom. Luc. 35; Hom. Num. 15.4 62:12 Barn. 14.6; Justin Dial. 119.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.52; Ecl. proph. 4.33 63:1 Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 13.27; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.7; 2.53; Comm. Ps.; Ecl. proph. 4.33; Onom.; Pamphilius Apol. Orig. 7; Origen Comm. Jo. 6.288; Hom. Judic. 7.2; Comm. Matt. 16.19; Tertullian Marc. 4.40.5; Justin Dial. 26.3

320 411 Why are your clothes wine red?

Text and Translation

(63:2–3)

2 διὰ τί σου ἐρυθρὰ τὰ ἱμάτια καὶ τὰ ἐνδύματά σου ὡς ἀπὸ πατητοῦ ληνοῦ 3 πλήρουςa καταπεπατημένης; 412 I trampled them in my anger

(63:3–6)

καὶ τῶν ἐθνῶν οὐκ ἔστιν ἀνὴρ μετ’ ἐμοῦ, καὶ κατεπάτησα αὐτοὺς ἐν θυμῷb καὶ κατέθλασα αὐτοὺς ὡς γῆν καὶ κατήγαγον τὰ ἱμάτιαc αὐτῶν εἰς γῆν. 4 ἡμέρα γὰρ ἀνταποδόσεως ἐπῆλθενd αὐτοῖς, καὶ ἐνιαυτὸς λυτρώσεως πάρεστιν. 5 καὶ ἐπέβλεψα, καὶ οὐδεὶς βοηθόςe· καὶ προσενόησα, καὶ οὔδεις ἀντελαβετοf· καὶ ἐρρύσατο αὐτοὺς ὁ βραχίων μου, καὶ ὁ θυμός μου ἔστηg. 6 καὶ κατεπάτησα αὐτοὺς τῇ ὀργῇ μου καὶ κατήγαγον τὸ αἷμα αὐτῶν εἰς γῆν. 413 Lord is a merciful judge

(63:7–9)

7 Τὸν ἔλεον Κυρίου ἐμνήσθην, τὰς ἀρετὰς Κυρίου ἐν πᾶσιν, οἷςh ἡμῖν ἀνταποδίδωσιν· Κύριος κριτὴς ἀγαθὸς τῷ οἴκῳ Ἰσραήλ, ἐπάγει ἡμῖν κατὰ τὸ αὐτοῦ ἔλεοςi κατὰ τὸ πλῆθος τῆς δικαιοσύνης αὐτοῦ. 8 καὶ εἶπεν Οὐχ ὁ λαός μου τέκνα μουj οὐ μὴk ἀθετήσουσινl; καὶ ἐγένετο αὐτοῖς εἰς σωτηρίαν 9 ἐκ πάσης θλίψεως αὐτῶνm. 414 They provoked his holy spirit

(63:10–11)

οὐ πρέσβυςn οὐδὲ ἄγγελος, Ἀλλ’ αὐτὸς Κύριοςo ἔσωσεν αὐτοὺς διὰ τὸ ἀγαπᾶν αὐτοὺς καὶ φείδεσθαι αὐτῶν· αὐτὸς ἐλυτρώσατο αὐτοὺς καὶ ἀνέλαβεν αὐτοὺς καὶ ὕψωσεν αὐτοὺς πάσας τὰς ἡμέρας τοῦ αἰῶνος. 10 αὐτοὶ δὲ ἠπείθησαν καὶ παρώξυναν τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον αὐτοῦp· καὶ

aπλήρους] S; πλήρης ABRZ b θυμῷ] SARZ; θυμῷ μου B c τὰ ἱμάτια] S*; τὸ αἷμα Scb2ABRZ dἐπῆλθεν] SARZ; ἦλθεν B eοὐδεὶς βοηθός] SARZ; οὐκ ἦν βοηθός B fοὔδεις ἀντελαβετο] S; οὐθεὶς ἀντελαμβάνετο ABRZ gἔστη] S; ἐπέστη ABRZ hοἷς] SB; οἷς ὁ Κύριος ARZ iαὐτοῦ ἔλεος] S; ἔλεος αὐτοῦ καὶ ABRZ j τέκνα μου] S; τέκνα ABRZ k οὐ μὴ] SBRZ; καὶ οὐ μὴ A l ἀθετήσουσιν] S; ἀθετήσωσιν ABRZ mθλίψεως αὐτῶν] SB; θλίψεως ARZ nπρέσβυς] SBRZ; πρέσβεις A oΚύριος] SARZ; om. B p ἅγιον αὐτοῦ] SBRZ; ἅγιον A

63:2–10

411 Why are your clothes wine red?

321 (63:2–3)

2 Why are your clothes red and your garments as from a trodden winepress, 3 full, trodden? 412 I trampled them in my anger

(63:3–6)

And there is no man of the nations with me, and I trampled them in wrath and I crushed them like land, and I brought down their garments to the land. 4 For a day of repayment has come upon them, and the year of redemption is present. 5 And I looked, and there was no helper, and I observed, and no one helped, and my arm rescued them, and my anger stopped. 6 And I trampled them in my wrath and I brought their blood down to the land. 413 Lord is a merciful judge

(63:7–9)

7 I remembered the mercy of Lord, the magnificent acts of Lord in all things, in which he repays us; Lord is a good judge to the house of Israel, he brings things upon us according to his mercy, according to the abundance of his righteousness. 8 And he said, “Is it not true that my people, my children, will certainly not rebel?” And he became a salvation for them 9 from all their affliction. 414 They provoked his holy spirit

(63:10–11)

Neither an elder nor a messenger rather the Lord himself has saved them because he loved them and spared them; he himself redeemed them and took them up and lifted them up all the days of the age. 10 But they resisted and provoked his holy spirit, and he 63:2–3 Rev 14:19; 19:13; 19:15; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 13.27; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.53; Comm. Ps.; Ecl. proph. 4.33; Cyprian Ep. 63.7; Origen Comm. Jo. 6.289; Tertullian Marc. 4.40.5 63:3–6 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.53; Comm. Ps.; Ecl. proph. 4.33; Origen Comm. Jo. 6.289; Fr. Ps.; Tertullian Marc. 4.40.6 63:4 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.53; 2.57 63:5 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.53 63:6 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.53 63:7 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.54 63:8 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.54 63:9 Athanasius Inc. 40.5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.54; Cyprian Test. 2.7; Origen Fr. Cant. 1; Tertullian Carn. Chr. 14.6; Marc. 4.22.11; Irenaeus Dem. 88 63:10 Acts 7:51; Eph 4:30; Did. apost. 21; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 16.30; Lactantius Inst. 4.12.8; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.54

322

Text and Translation

ἐστράφη αὐτοῖς εἰς ἔχθραν, καὶ αὐτὸςa ἐπολέμησεν αὐτούς. 11 καὶ ἐμνήσθη ἡμερῶν αἰωνίων. 415 Lord’s holy spirit led Moses and the people

(63:11–14)

ὁ ἀναβιβάσαςb ἐκ γῆς τὸν ποιμένα τῶν προβάτων· ποῦ ἐστιν ὁ θεὶς ἐν αὐτοῖς τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον; 12 ὁ ἀγαγὼν τῇ δεξιᾷ Μωυσῆνc, ὁ βραχίων τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ; κατίσχυσενd ὕδωρ ἀπὸ προσώπου αὐτοῦ ποιῆσαι αὐτῷe ὄνομα αἰώνιον. 13 ἤγαγεν αὐτοὺς διὰ τῆςf ἀβύσσου ὡς ἵππον δι’ ἐρήμου, καὶ οὐκ ἐκοπίασαν. 14 καὶ ὡς κτήνη διὰ πεδίου, κατέβη πνεῦμα παρὰ Κυρίου καὶ ὡδήγησεν αὐτούς· οὕτως ἤγαγες τὸν λαόν σου ποιῆσαι σεαυτῷ ὄνομα δόξης. 416 Rescue us, father

(63:15–16)

15 ἐπίστρεψον ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ ἴδε ἐκ τοῦ οἴκου τοῦ ἁγίου σου καὶ δόξης· ποῦ ἐστιν ὁ ζῆλός σου καὶ ἡ ἰσχύς σου; ποῦ ἐστιν τὸ πλῆθος τοῦ ἐλέους σου καὶ οἰκτιρμοίg σου, ὅτι ἀνέσχου ἡμῶν; 16 σὺ γὰρh εἶ ἡμῶν πατήρi, ὅτι Ἀβραὰμ οὐκ ἔγνω ἡμᾶς, καὶ Ἰσραὴλ οὐκ ἐπέγνω ἡμᾶς, ἀλλὰ σύ, Κύριε, ὁj πατὴρ ἡμῶν· ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς, ἀπ’ ἀρχῆς τὸ ὄνομά σου ἐφ’ ἡμᾶς ἐστινk. 417 Do not keep us from you

(63:17–19)

17 Τί ἐπλάνησας ἡμᾶς, Κύριεl, τῆς ὁδοῦ σου, ἐσκλήρυνας τὰς καρδίας ἡμῶνm τοῦ μὴ φοβεῖσθαί σε; ἐπίστρεψον διὰ τοὺς δούλους σου, διὰ τὰς φυλὰς τῆς κληρονομίας σου, 18 ἵνα μικρόν τιn κληρονομήσωμεν τοῦ ὄρους τοῦ ἁγίου σουo. 19 ἐγενόμεθα ὡς τὸ ἀπ’ ἀρχῆς, ὅτε οὐκ ἦρξας ἡμῶν οὐδὲ ἐκλήθηp τὸ ὄνομά σου ἐφ’ ἡμᾶς.

aκαὶ αὐτὸς] S*ARZ; αὐτὸς Scb2B b ὁ ἀναβιβάσας] SARZ; ποῦ ὁ ἀναβιβάσας B c Μωυσῆν] SRZ; Μωσῆ A; Μωσῆν B dκατίσχυσεν] SABR; κατέσχισεν Z eαὐτῷ] SARZ; ἑαυτῷ B f διὰ τῆς] SARZ; δι’ B gοἰκτιρμοί] S*; οἱ οἰκτιρμοί Sca; τῶν οἰκτειρμῶν Scb2AB; τῶν οἰκτιρμῶν RZ h γὰρ] SBRZ; om. A iεἶ ἡμῶν πατήρ] S; ἡμῶν εἶ πατήρ SARZ; εἶ πατήρ ἡμῶν B j Κύριε, ὁ] S; κύριε ABRZ kἐφ’ ἡμᾶς ἐστιν] SBRZ; ἐστιν ἐν ἡμῖν A lΚύριε] S*; Κύριε, ἀπὸ ScaABRZ mτὰς καρδίας ἡμῶν] S*B; ἡμῶν τὰς καρδίας Scb2ARZ n μικρόν τι] S*Scb3; μικρὸν Scb2ABRZ o σου] S; σου· οἱ ὑπεναντίοι ἡμῶν κατεπάτησαν τὸ ἁγίασμά σου ABRZ p ἐκλήθη] SB; ἐνεκλήθη ARZ

63:11–19

323

turned to enmity against them, and he himself made war against them. 11 And he remembered the eternal days. 415 Lord’s holy spirit led Moses and the people

(63:11–14)

You who bring the shepherd of the sheep up from the land, where is the one who put the holy spirit among them, 12 who led Moses by the right hand, the arm of his glory? He overpowered the water from his face to make an everlasting name for himself. 13 He led them through the abyss like a horse through a desert, and they did not become weary. 14 And like cattle through a plain, a spirit came down from Lord and led them on the way; thus you led your people, to make a name of glory for yourself. 416 Rescue us, father

(63:15–16)

15 Turn from heaven and look from your holy house and glory. Where is your zeal and your power? Where is the abundance of your mercy, and your compassions, that you have upheld us? 16 For you are our father, because Abraham did not know us, and Israel did not recognize us, but you, Lord, are our father; rescue us! From the beginning your name is upon us. 417 Do not keep us from you

(63:17–19)

17 Why have you led us astray, Lord, from your way? You have hardened our hearts to not fear you. Turn, on account of your bondservants, on account of the tribes of your inheritance, 18 so that we might inherit some little bit of your holy mountain. 19 We have become as from the beginning, when you did not rule over us and your name was not given to us.

63:11 Heb 13:20; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 14.20; 16.30; Lactantius Inst. 4.12.8; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.54; Ecl. proph. 4.34 63:12–15 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.54 63:16 Matt 6:9; John 8:41; Jas 3:9; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.54; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 7.10 63:17 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.54; 2.55; Origen Princ. 3.1.12 63:18 Rev 11:2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.54; Origen Princ. 3.1.12; Justin Dial. 25.6

324 418 Mountains will tremble at you

Text and Translation

(64:1–3)

64.1 ἐὰν ἀνοίξῃς τὸν οὐρανόν, τρόμος λήμψεται ἀπὸ σοῦ ὄρη, καὶ τακήσονται, 2 ὡς κηρὸς ὑπὸa πυρὸς τήκεται. καὶ κατακαύσει πῦρ τοὺς ὑπεναντίους, καὶ φανερὸν ἔσται τὸ ὄνομά σουb ἐν τοῖς ὑπεναντίοις· ἀπὸ προσώπου σου ἔθνη ταραχθήσονται. 3 ὅταν ποιησῇςc τὰ ἔνδοξα, τρόμος λήμψεται ἀπὸ σοῦ ὄρη. 419 We know no other god

(64:4–5)

4 ἀπὸ τοῦ αἰῶνος οὐκ ἠκούσαμεν οὐδὲ οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ ἡμῶν εἶδον θεὸν πλὴν σοῦ καὶ τὰ ἔργα σου, ἃ ποιήσεις τοῖς ὑπομένουσιν ἔλεον. 5 συναντήσεται γὰρd τοῖς ὑπομενοῦσινe τὸ δίκαιον, καὶ τῶν ὁδῶν σου μνησθήσονται. 420 You have humbled us because of our sins

(64:5–12)

ἰδοὺ σὺ ὠργίσθης, καὶ ἡμεῖς ἡμάρτομεν· διὰ τοῦτο ἐπλανήθημεν. 6 καὶ ἐγενήθημεν ὡς ἀκάθαρτοι πάντες ἡμεῖς, ὡς ῥάκος ἀποκαθημένης πᾶσα ἡ δικαιοσύνη ἡμῶν· καὶ ἐξερρύημεν ὡς φύλλα διὰ τὰς ἀνομίας ἡμῶν, οὕτως ἄνεμος οἴσει ἡμᾶς. 7 καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ὁ ἐπικαλούμενος τὸ ὄνομά σου καὶ ὁ μνησθεὶς ἀντελάβετοf σου· ὅτι ἀπέστρεψας τὸ πρόσωπόν σου ἀφ’ ἡμῶν καὶ παρέδωκας ἡμᾶς διὰ τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἡμῶν. 8 καὶ νῦν, Κύριε, πατὴρ ἡμῶν σύ, ἡμεῖς δὲ πηλὸς ἔργαg χειρῶν σου πάντες· 9 μὴ ὀργίζου ἡμῖν σφόδρα καὶ μὴ ἐν καιρῷ μνησθῇς ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν. καὶ νῦν ἐπίβλεψον, ὅτι λαός σου πάντες ἡμεῖς. 10 πόλις τοῦ ἁγίου σου ἐγενήθη ἔρημος, Σιών ὡς ἔρημος ἐγενήθη, Ἰερουσαλήμ. εἰς κατάραν 11 ὁ οἶκος, τὸ ἅγιον ἡμῶν, καὶ ἡ δόξα, ἣν εὐλόγησαν οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν, ἐγενήθη πυρίκαυστος, καὶ πάντα τὰ ἔνδοξα ἡμῶνh συνέπεσεν. 12 καὶ ἐπὶ πᾶσι τούτοις ἀνέσχου, Κύριε, καὶ ἐσιώπησας καὶ ἐταπείνωσας ἡμᾶς σφόδρα.

aὑπὸ] S*; ἀπὸ ScaBRZ; ἀπὸ προσώπου A b ὄνομά σου] S*B; ὄνομα Κυρίου Scb2ARZ c ποιησῇς] S; ποιῇς ABRZ dγὰρ] SARZ; om. B eὑπομενοῦσιν] S; ποιοῦσιν ABRZ fἀντελάβετο] S*; ἀντιλαβέσθαι ScaABRZ g ἔργα] S*; ἔργα τῶν Scb2B; ἔργον τῶν ARZ hτὰ ἔνδοξα ἡμῶν] τὰ ἔνδοξα SARZ; ἔνδοξα ἡμῶν B

64:1–12

418 Mountains will tremble at you

325 (64:1–2)

64.1 If you open the sky, trembling because of you will take hold of the mountains, and they will melt, 2 like wax is melted by a fire. Fire will burn the opponents up, and your name will be evident among the opponents; the nations will be troubled before your face.3 When you do glorious things, trembling at you will take hold of the mountains. 419 We know no other god

(64:4–5)

4 We have never heard, from eternity, and our eyes have seen no god except you and your works that you will do for those who wait for mercy.5 For he will meet with those who wait for what is righteous, and they will remember your ways. 420 You have humbled us because of our sins

(64:5–12)

Look, you have become angry, and we have sinned; because of this we have been misled.6 We all have become like unclean people; all our righteousness is like a rag of a woman sitting apart, and we have fallen off like leaves because of our lawless acts; the wind will carry us away like this.7 There is no-one who calls upon your name, and let the one who remembers take hold of you, because you turned your face from us and handed us over because of our sins.8 And now, Lord, you are our father, and we all are clay, works of your hands.9 Do not be extremely angry with us, and do not remember our sins at the time. And now, look upon us because we all are your people.10 A city of your holy place has become a desert; Zion has become like a desert, Jerusalem. 11 The house, our holy place, has become a curse, and the glory, which our fathers blessed, has become burned by fire, and all our glorious things have collapsed. 12 And you have endured these things, Lord, and you have been silent and have humbled us extremely.

64:1 Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 9.1; Eusebius Praep. ev. 13.13.51; Fr. var. (PG 24); Comm. Isa. 2.54; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 5.124.2 64:3 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.54 64:4 1 Cor 2:9; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.54; Praep. ev. 6.6.67; Laud. Const. 6.21 64:5–6 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.54 64:7–8 Matt 6:9; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 7.8; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.54 64:10 Justin 1 Apol. 47.2; Origen Comm. Matt. 76; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.54 64:11 Justin 1 Apol. 52.12; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.54 64:12 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.54; Ecl. proph. 4.35; Justin 1 Apol. 47.2; Dial. 25.2

326

Text and Translation

421 I was available to those who did not seek me

(65:1–2)

65.1 Ἐμφανὴς ἐγενόμηνa τοῖς ἐμὲ μὴ ζητοῦσινb, εὑρέθην τοῖς ἐμὲ μὴ ἐπερωτῶσινc· εἶπονd Ἰδού εἰμι, τῷ ἔθνει οἳ οὐκ ἐκάλεσάν μου τὸ ὄνομαe. 2 ἐξεπέτασα τὰς χεῖράς μου ὅλην τὴν ἡμέραν πρὸς λαὸν ἀπειθοῦντα καὶ ἀντιλέγοντα, τοῖς πορευομένοιςf ὁδῷ οὐκ ἀληθῇg, ἀλλ’ ὀπίσω τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν αὐτῶν. 422 Lord will repay false worshippers

(65:3–7)

3 ὁ λαὸς οὗτος ὁ παροξύνων με ἐναντίον μουh, αὐτοὶ θυσιάζουσιν ἐν κήποιςi καὶ θυμιοῦσιν ἐνj ταῖς πλίνθοις τοῖς δαιμονίοις, ἃ οὐκ ἔστινk· 4 καὶ ἐν τοῖς μνήμασινl καὶ ἐν τοῖς σπηλαίοις κοιμῶνται δι’ ἐνύπνια, οἱ ἔσθοντες κρέα ὕεια καὶ ζωμὸν θυσιῶν, μεμολυμμένα πάντα τὰ σκεύη αὐτῶν· 5 οἱ λέγοντες Πόρρω ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ, μὴ ἐγγίσῃς μοιm, ὅτι καθαρός εἰμι· οὗτος καπνὸς τοῦ θυμοῦ μου, πῦρ καίεται ἐν αὐτῷ πάσας τὰς ἡμέρας. 6 ἰδοὺ γέγραπται ἐναντίονn μου Οὐ μὴo σιωπήσωp, ἕως ἂν ἀποδῶq καὶ ἀνταποδώσωr εἰς τὸν κόλπον αὐτῶν· 7 τὰς ἁμαρτίας αὐτῶν καὶ τῶν πατέρων αὐτῶν, λέγει Κύριος, οἳ ἐθυμίασαν ἐπὶ τῶν ὀρέων καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν βουνῶν ὠνείδισάν με, ἀποδώσωs τὰ ἔργα αὐτῶν ἐπὶt τὸν κόλπον αὐτῶν. 423 For the sake of one faithful, I will not destroy all people

(65:8–10)

8 Οὕτω λέγει Κύριος Ὃν τρόπον εὑρεθήσεται ὁ ῥὼξ ἐν τῷ βότρυι καὶ ἐροῦσιν Μὴ λυμήνηταιu αὐτὸν ὅτι εὐλογία ἐστὶν ἐν αὐτῷ, οὕτως ποιήσω ἕνεκεν τοῦ δουλεύοντός

aἐγενόμην] S*Scb3ARZ; ἐγενήθην Scb2 b ζητοῦσιν] SARZ; ἐπερωτῶσιν B c ἐπερωτῶσιν] SARZ; ζητοῦσιν B dεἶπον] S; εἶπα ABRZ e μου τὸ ὄνομα] SBR; τὸ ὄνομά μου AZ fτοῖς πορευομένοις] S*Scb3B; οἳ οὐκ ἐπορεύθησαν Scb2ARZ gοὐκ ἀληθῇ] S*; οὐ καλῇ ScaB; ἀληθῇ Scb2; οὐκ ἀληθινῇ Scb3; ἀληθινῇ ARZ h μου] S*; ἐμοῦ διὰ παντός Scb2ABRZ i κήποις] S*; τοῖς κήποις Scb2ABRZ j θυμιοῦσιν ἐν] S; θυμιῶσιν ἐπὶ ABRZ k ἔστιν] SBRZ; ἔσται A l καὶ ἐν τοῖς μνήμασιν] SARZ; ἐν τοῖς μνήμασιν B m μοι] SB; μου ARZ n ἐναντίον] S*; ἐνώπιόν Scb2ABRZ o μὴ] S*Scb3; om. Scb2ABRZ pσιωπήσω] SBRZ; σιωπήσομαι A q ἀποδῶ] SARZ; ἀποδώσω B r καὶ ἀνταποδώσω] S; om. ABRZ sἀποδώσω] SBRZ; ἀποδώσα A t ἐπὶ] S; εἰς ABRZ u λυμήνηται] S; λυμήνῃ ABRZ

65:1–8

421 I was available to those who did not seek me

327 (65:1–2)

65.1 I became evident to those who were not seeking me; I was found by those who did not ask me; I said, “Look, I am the one!” to the nation who did not call my name. 2 I stretched out my hands the whole day to a people who resisted and opposed, to those who walked in a way that was not true but was after their sins. 422 Lord will repay false worshippers

(65:3–7)

3 “This people who provokes me is before me; they sacrifice in gardens and burn incense with their bricks to demons which do not exist. 4 And they sleep in the graves and in the caves for dreams, they who eat pig meat and soup of sacrifices. All their vessels are defiled. 5 Those who say, ‘Stay far from me, do not approach me, for I am clean.’ This is the smoke of my wrath; fire burns in it all the days. 6 Look, it is written before me, I will not be silent until I repay and pay back 7 their sins and those of their fathers into their bosom,” says Lord. “Those who burn incense upon the mountains and they reproached me upon the hills. I will repay their deeds upon their bosom.” 423 For the sake of one faithful, I will not destroy all people

(65:8–10)

8 Thus says Lord: “In the same way that the grape will be found in the cluster and they will say, ‘May he not spoil it because a blessing is in it,’ so I will do for the

65:1 Rom 10:20; Did. apost. 21; Athanasius Inc. 38.1; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.55; 2.58; Ecl. proph. 4.1; 4.35; Origen Fr. Matt. 252; Cels. 2.78; Cyprian Test. 2.78; Hippolytus Noet. 12; Irenaeus Dem. 92; Justin Dial. 24.3; 119.4; 1 Apol. 49.2 65:2 Barn. 12.4; Did. apost. 21; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 13.27; 13.28; Athanasius Inc. 38.1; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.55; Comm. Ps.; Ecl. proph. 1.21; 4.35; Cyprian Test. 2.20; Novatian Trinity 9.8; 28.10; Origen Hom. Exod. 6.6; 6.8; 11.4; Hom. Lev. 3.1; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 13.10; Irenaeus Dem. 79; Justin Dial. 97.2; 114.2 65:3 Did. apost. 21; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.55; Justin 1 Apol. 49.2; Dial. 24.3 65:4 Matt 8:28; Mark 5:3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.55 65:5 Origen Comm. Matt. 20; 89; Comm. Tit.; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.55 65:6 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.55 65:7 Clement of Alexandria Exc. 8.2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.55 65:8 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.55; Dem. ev. 2.3.140; Justin Dial. 136.1

328

Text and Translation

μοι, τούτου ἕνεκεν οὐ μὴ ἀπολέσω πάντας. 9 καὶ ἐξάξω τὸ ἐξ Ἰακὼβ σπέρμα καὶ τὸ ἐξ Ἰούδα, ὃςa κληρονομήσει τὸ ὄρος τὸ ἅγιόν μου, καὶ κληρονομήσουσιν οἱ ἐκλεκτοί μου καὶ οἱ δοῦλοί μου καὶ κατοικήσουσιν ἐκεῖ. 10 καὶ ἔσονται ἐν τῷ δρυμῷ ἐπαύλεις ποιμνίων καὶ φάραγξ Ἀχὼρ εἰς ἀνάπαυσιν βουκολίων τῷ λαῷ μου, οἳ ἐζήτησάν με. 424 False worshippers will fall by the sword

(65:11–12)

11 ὑμεῖς δὲ οἱ ἐγκαταλιπόντες με καὶ ἐπιλανθανόμενοι τὸ ὄρος τὸ ἅγιόν μου ἑτοιμάζοντεςb τῷ δαίμονιc τράπεζαν καὶ πληροῦντες τῇ τύχῃ κέρασμα, 12 ἐγὼ παραδώσω ὑμᾶς εἰς μάχαιραν, καὶ πάντεςd σφαγῇ πεσεῖσθε, ὅτι ἐκάλεσα ὑμᾶς καὶ οὐχ ὑπηκούσατε, ἐλάλησα καὶ παρηκούσατε καὶ ποιήσατεe τὸ πονηρὸν ἐναντίον ἐμοῦ καὶ ἃ οὐκ ἐβουλόμην ἐξελέξασθε. 425 Lord’s servants will prosper, but not you

(65:13–16)

13 Διὰ τοῦτο τάδε λέγει Κύριος Ἰδοὺ οἱ δουλεύοντές μοι φάγονται, ὑμεῖς δὲ πεινάσετε. Ἰδοὺ οἱ δουλεύοντές μοι πίονται, ὑμεῖς δὲ διψήσεσθε. Ἰδοὺ οἱ δουλεύοντές μοι εὐφρανθήσονται, ὑμεῖς δὲ αἰσχυνθήσεσθε· 14 ἰδοὺ οἱ δουλεύοντές μοι ἀγαλλιάσονται ἐν εὐφροσύνῃ, ὑμεῖς δὲ κεκράξεσθε διὰ τὸν πόνον τῆς καρδίας ὑμῶν καὶ ἀπὸ συντριβῆς πνεύματοςf ὀλολύζετεg. 15 καταλείψετε γὰρ τὸ ὄνομα ὑμῶν εἰς πλησμονὴν τοῖς ἐκλεκτοῖς μου, ὑμᾶς δὲ ἀνελεῖ Κύριος.

aὃς] S*; καὶ ScaABRZ b ἑτοιμάζοντες] S*; καὶ ἑτοιμάζοντες Scb2ABRZ c δαίμονι] SR; δαιμονίῳ ABZ dκαὶ πάντες] S*; πάντες Scb2ABRZ eποιήσατε] S*; ἐποιήσατε ScaABRZ fπνεύματος] SAR; πνεύματος ὑμῶν BZ g ὀλολύζετε] S*; ὀλολύξετε ScaABRZ

65:9–15

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sake of the one who serves me; on account of this person I will not destroy all people. 9 I will bring out the seed that is from Jacob and the [seed] from Judah, who will inherit my holy mountain, and my choice ones and my bondservants will inherit it, and they will dwell there. 10 And habitations of flocks will be in the forest, and the valley of Achor will become a resting place of herds for my people who have sought me. 424 False worshippers will fall by the sword

(65:11–12)

11 “But you who have forsaken me and who forget my holy mountain, who prepare a table for the demon and fill up an oblation to Fortune, 12 I will hand you over to the sword, and you will all fall in a slaughter, because I called you and you did not listen; I spoke and you disobeyed. Also do evil before me! And you chose the things that I did not want.” 425 Lord’s servants will prosper, but not you

(65:13–16)

13 Because of this, thus says Lord: “Look, those who serve me will eat, but you will go hungry; look, those who serve me will drink, but you will be thirsty; look, those who serve me will rejoice, but you will be ashamed; 14 look, those who serve me will be glad with joy, but you will cry out because of the sorrow of your heart, and you are wailing from crushing of spirit. 15 For you will leave your name for the gratification of my chosen people, but Lord will do away with you.

65:9 Gregory of Nazianzus Or. 42.8; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.55; Dem. ev. 2.3.143; Justin Dial. 135.3; 136.1 65:10 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.55; 2.56; Dem. ev. 2.3.143 65:11 1 Cor 10:21; Origen Mart. 40; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.55; Ambrose Hel. 10.33; Epiphanius Pan. 79.8.1 65:12 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.55–56; Dem. ev. 2.3.140; Justin Dial. 135.3; 136.2 65:13 Cyprian Test. 1.22; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 13.16; Marc. 4.14.10; 4.14.11; 4.15.13; Didymus Fr. Ps. 1266; Origen Comm. Jo. 13.222; Princ. 2.11.2; Hom. Lev. 7.1; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.56; Comm. Ps.; Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 1; Ambrose Hel. 10.33; Parad. 9.42; Exp. Luc. 5.30; Jerome Epist. 108 65:14 Tertullian Marc. 4.14.11; Origen Fr. Ps.; Hilary De Trinitae 5.28; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.56; Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 1 65:15 Rev 2:17; Irenaeus Dem. 88; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 1.14.5; Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 1; Origen Mart. 40; Cyprian Test. 1.22; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.56; Hist. eccl. 1.4.3; Dem. ev. 2.3.144; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 10.16

330

Text and Translation

Τοῖς δὲ δουλεύουσίν μοιa κληθήσεται ὄνομα αἰώνιονb, 16 ὃ εὐλογηθήσεται ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς· ἐλλογήσουσινc γὰρ τὸν θεὸν τὸν ἀληθινόν. Καὶ οἱ ὀμνύοντες ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ὀμοῦνται τὸν θεὸν τὸν ἀληθινόν· ἐπιλήσονται γὰρ τὴν θλῖψιν αὐτῶνd τὴν πρώτην, καὶ οὐκ ἀναβήσεται αὐτῶν ἐπὶ τὴν καρδίαν. 426 They will look ahead to the new, not back to the old

(65:17–18)

17 ἔσται γὰρ ὁ οὐρανὸς καινὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ καινή, καὶ οὐ μὴ μνησθῶσιν τῶν προτέρων, οὐδὲe μὴ ἐπέλθῃ αὐτῶν ἐπὶ τὴν καρδίαν, 18 ἀλλ’ εὐφροσύνην καὶ ἀγαλλίαμα εὑρήσουσιν ἐν αὐτῇ. 427 No death before its time

(65:18–20)

Ἰδοὺf ἐγὼ ποιῶ Ἰερουσαλὴμ ἀγαλλίαμα καὶ τὸν λαόν μου εὐφροσύνην. 19 καὶ ἀγαλλιάσομαι ἐνg Ἰερουσαλήμ, καὶ εὐφρανθήσομαι ἐπὶ τῷ λαῷ μου, καὶ οὐκέτι μὴ ἀκουσθῇ ἐν αὐτῷh φωνὴ κλαυθμοῦ καὶ φωνὴi κραυγῆς. 20 καὶ οὐκέτιj μὴ γένηταιk ἐκεῖ ἄωρος καὶ πρεσβύτης, ὃς οὐκ ἐμπλήσει τὸν χρόνον αὐτοῦ· ἔσται γὰρ ὁ νέος ἑκατὸν ἐτῶν, ὁ δὲ ἀποθνῄσκων ἁμαρτωλὸς ἑκατὸν ἐτῶν καὶ ἐπικατάρατος ἔσταιl. 428 They, not others, will enjoy their produce

(65:21–24)

21 καὶ οἰκοδομήσουσιν οἰκίας καὶ αὐτοὶ ἐνοικήσουσιν, καὶ καταφυτεύσωσινm ἀμπελῶνας καὶ αὐτοὶ φάγωνταιn τὰ γενήματα αὐτῶν· 22 οὐ μὴ οἰκοδομήσουσιν καὶ ἄλλοι ἐνοικήσουσιν, καὶ οὐ μὴ φυτεύσωσινo καὶ ἄλλοι φάγονται· κατὰ γὰρ τὰς ἡμέρας τοῦ ξύλου τῆς ζωῆς ἔσονταιp αἱ ἡμέραι τοῦ λαοῦ μου, τὰ ἔργα τῶν πόνων αὐτῶν παλαιώσουσιν. 23 οἱ δὲq ἐκλεκτοί μου οὐδὲr κοπιάσουσιν εἰς κενὸν οὐδὲ τεκνοποιήσουσινs εἰς

aμοι] SB; αὐτῷ ARZ b αἰώνιον] S*; καινόν ScaABRZ c ἐλλογήσουσιν] S*; εὐλογήσουσιν ScaABRZ dθλῖψιν αὐτῶν] SARZ; θλίψιν B eοὐδὲ] S; οὐδ’ οὐ ABRZ fἸδοὺ] SA; ὅτι ἰδοὺ Scb2BRZ gἐν] S*; ἐπὶ Scb3ABRZ hαὐτῷ] S; αὐτῇ ABRZ iκαὶ φωνὴ] S*B; οὐδὲ Scb2ARZ jοὐκέτι] S*Scb3; καὶ οὐ Scb2ARZ; οὐδ’ οὐ B k γένηται] SARZ; γένηται ἔτι B l ἔσται] SBRZ; ἐστιν A m καταφυτεύσωσιν] S; καταφυτεύσουσιν ABRZ nφάγωνται] S; φάγονται ABRZ oφυτεύσωσιν] S; φυτεύσουσιν ABRZ pἔσονται] SARZ; om. B q δὲ] SARZ; om. B r οὐδὲ] S*; οὐ ScaABRZ sτεκνοποιήσουσιν] SBRZ; τέκνα ποιήσουσιν A

65:16–23

331

“But an eternal name will be given to those who serve me, 16 which will be blessed upon the land, for they will reckon God to be true.” “And those who swear an oath upon the land will swear by the true God, for they will forget their former oppression, and it will not come upon their heart. 426 They will look ahead to the new, not back to the old

(65:17–18)

17 “For the sky will be new, the land will be new, and they will certainly not remember the former things, and it will not come upon their heart, 18 but they will find rejoicing and gladness in it. 427 No death before its time

(65:18–20)

“Because look, I am making Jerusalem gladness and my people joy. 19 And I will be glad over Jerusalem, and I will rejoice over my people; and no sound of weeping or sound of crying will be heard in her any longer. 20 And there will certainly be no premature baby or old man who does not fulfill his time. For the young person will be a hundred years old, and the sinner who dies a hundred years old will even be accursed. 428 They, not others, will enjoy their produce

(65:21–24)

21 And they will build houses and they themselves will inhabit them, and may they plant vineyards and themselves eat their products. 22 They will surely not build and others inhabit, they will surely not plant and others eat; For the days of my people will be according to the days of the tree of life; they make the works of their labour grow old.23 My chosen ones will not toil for nothing, nor

65:16 1 Cor 2:9; Rev 3:14; Irenaeus Dem. 88; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 1.14.5; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 13.16; Hippolytus Ben. Is. Jac. 1; Cyprian Test. 1.22; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.56; 2.58; Hist. eccl. 1.4.3; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 10.16; 18.35 65:17 2 Pet 3:13; Rev 21:1; Justin Dial. 81.1; 131.6; Origen Fr. Eph. 12; Princ. 1.6.2; 1.6.4; 3.5.3; Hom. Lev. 7.2; Hom. Num. 23.11; Comm. Matt. 17.33; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.56; 2.58; Comm. Ps.; Praep. ev. 11.32.1 65:18 Luke 6:21; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.56; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 18.34 65:19 Rev 21:4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.56 65:20 Philo Praem.. 110; Origen Hom. Lev.16.7; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.56 65:21 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.56 65:22 Justin Dial. 81.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.56 65:23 1 Cor 15:58; Phil 2:16; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 3.98.3; 3.98.5; Origen Hom. Luc. 39; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.56

332

Text and Translation

κατάραν, ὅτι σπέρμα εὐλογημένον ὑπὸ θεοῦa ἐστιν, καὶ τὰ ἔκγονα αὐτῶν μετ’ αὐτῶνb ἔσταιc. 24 καὶ ἔσται πρὶνd κεκράξαι αὐτοὺς ἐγὼ ἐπακούσομαιe αὐτῶν, ἔτι λαλούντων αὐτῶν ἐρῶ Τί ἐστιν; 429 No creature will harm another

(65:25)

25 τότε λύκοι καὶ ἄρνες βοσκηθήσονται ἅμα, καὶ λέων ὡς βοῦς φάγεται ἄχυρα, ὄφις δὲ γῆν ὡς ἄρτον· οὐκ ἀδικήσουσιν οὐδὲ μὴf λυμανοῦνται ἐπὶ τῷ ὄρει τῷ ἁγίῳ μου, λέγει Κύριος. 430 What house would you build for me?

(66:1–2)

66.1 οὕτωg λέγει Κύριος Ὁ οὐρανός μοιh θρόνος, ἡ δὲi γῆ ὑποπόδιον τῶν ποδῶν μου· ποῖον οἶκον οἰκοδομήσετέ μοι; ἢj ποῖος τόπος τῆς καταπαύσεώς μου; 2 πάντα γὰρ ταῦτα ἐποίησεν ἡ χείρ μου, καί ἐστιν ἅμαk πάντα ταῦτα, λέγει Κύριος· καὶ ἐπὶ τίνα ἐπιβλέψω ἀλλ’ ἢ ἐπὶ τὸν ταπεινὸν καὶ ἡσύχιον καὶ τρέμοντα τοὺς λόγους μου; 431 I will repay those who rebuff me

(66:3–4)

3 ὁ δὲ ἄνομος ὁ θύων μοι μόσχον ὡς ἀποκτέννωνl κύνα, ὁ δὲ ἀναφέρων σεμίδαλιν ὡς αἷμα ὕειον, ὁ διδοὺς λίβανον εἰς μνημόσυνον ὡς βλάσφημος· καὶ οὗτοιm ἐξελέξαντο τὰς ὁδοὺς αὐτῶν καὶ τὰ βδελύγματα αὐτῶν, ἃn ἡ ψυχὴ αὐτῶν ἠθέλησεν, 4 καὶ ἐγὼo

aθεοῦ] SBRZ; τοῦ θεοῦ A b καὶ τὰ ἔκγονα αὐτῶν μετ’ αὐτῶν] SABR; om. Z c ἔσται] S; om. BZ; ἔσονται AR d πρὶν] SBR; πρὶν ἤ AZ e ἐπακούσομαι] SARZ; ὑπακούσομαι B f μὴ] SARZ; om. B gοὕτω] S; Οὕτως ABRZ h μοι] SARZ; μου B i ἡ δὲ] SARZ; καὶ ἡ B j ἢ] SARZ; καὶ B k ἅμα] S*; ἐμὰ ScaABRZ l ἀποκτέννων] S*B; ὁ ἀποκτέννων Scb2 mοὗτοι] SA; αὐτοὶ B n ἃ] SARZ; om. B oκαὶ ἐγὼ] SB; κἀγὼ ARZ

65:24–66:4

333

bear children for a curse, because they are a seed blessed by God, and their offspring will be with them. 24 And it will be that I will hear them before they cry out; while they are still speaking I will say, ‘What is it?’ 429 No creature will harm another

(65:25)

25 Then wolves and lambs will feed together, and a lion will eat land like an ox, and a snake land like bread; they will not do any injustice and they will not harm on my holy mountain,” says Lord. 430 What house would you build for me?

(66:1–2)

66.1 Thus says Lord: “Heaven is a throne for me, and the land is a footstool for my feet; what kind of house will you build for me, or what kind of place of my rest? 2 For my hand made all these things, and all these things are together,” says Lord, “And upon whom will I look other than upon the one who is humble and quiet and trembles at my words? 431 I will repay those who rebuff me

(66:3–4)

3 But the lawless person who sacrifices a calf for me is like one who kills a dog, and who offers up fine flour like swine’s blood, who gives frankincense as a remembrance like a blasphemer. And these people have chosen their ways and their abominations, which their soul wanted. 4 And let me select their

65:24 Origen Fr. Ps.; Cant. 1.2; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.56 65:25 Justin Dial. 81.1; Origen Hom. Ezech. 11.3; Cels. 4.93; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.56; Lactantius Inst. 7.24.8; 7.24.12; Epit. 67.5 66:1 Matt 5:34, 35; John 4:21; Philo Spec. 1.66; Justin 1 Apol. 37.3; Irenaeus Dem.45; Clement of Alexandria Strom. 2.6.3; 5.74.5; 5.124.1; Tertullian Marc. 2.25.2; Origen Fr. Eph. 9; Fr. Ezech; Fr. Gen.; Fr. Ps.; Princ. 2.1.3; 2.4.1; Comm. Jo. 6.201; Or. 22.5; 23.3; 23.4; 26.3; 26.4; Hom. Gen. 1.2; 1.13; Comm. Matt. 8; Novatian Trinity 3.3; 6.1; 6.5; Cyprian Test. 2.4; 3.5; Methodius Lib. arb.; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 1.41; 2.56; Eccl. proph. 3.8; Scholia in Jeremiam; Dem. ev. 9.12.4; Praep. ev. 3.10.6; 13.13.51; Laud. Const. 1.1; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 6.8 66:2 Did. 3.8; Barn. 19.4; Did. apost. 4; Clement of Alexandria Paed. 1.19.3; Strom. 2.101.2; Origen Fr. Luc.163; Princ. 2.3.6; Hom. Ezech. 4.1; Hom. Lev. 6.2; Cant. (Adulesc.) 2; Novatian Trinity 3.4; Cyprian Test. 2.4; 3.5; 3.20; Ep. 26; Victorinus Apoc.; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.29; 2.56; 2.57; Comm. Ps. 66:3 Irenaeus Dem. 96; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.56; Hist. eccl. 7.10.7 66:4 2 Thess 1:8; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.56; Hist. eccl. 7.10.7

334

Text and Translation

ἐκλέξωμαιa τὰ ἐμπαίγματα αὐτῶν καὶ τὰς ἁμαρτίαςb ἀποδώσωc αὐτοῖς· ὅτι ἐκάλεσα αὐτοῖςd καὶ οὐχ ὑπήκουσάν μοιe, ἐλάλησα καὶ οὐκ ἤκουσαν, καὶ ἐποίησαν τὸ πονηρὸν ἐναντίον ἐμοῦf καὶ ἃ οὐκ ἠβουλόμηνg ἐξελέξατοh. 432 Those who hate us will be put to shame

(66:5)

5 Ἀκούσατε τὸ ῥῆμαi Κυρίου, οἱ τρέμοντες τὸν λόγον αὐτοῦ· εἴπατε, ἀδελφοὶ ἡμῶν, τοῖς μισοῦσιν ἡμᾶςj καὶ βδελυσσομένοις, ἵνα τὸ ὄνομα Κυρίου δοξασθῇ καὶ ὀφθῇ ἐν τῇ εὐφροσύνῃ αὐτῶν, καὶ ἐκεῖνοι αἰσχυνθήσονται. 433 Repayment; bearing a son before going into labour

(66:6–7)

6 φωνὴk ἐκ ναοῦ, φωνὴ Κυρίου ἀνταποδιδόντος ἀνταπόδοσιν τοῖς ἀντικειμένοις. 7 πρὶν ἢl τὴν ὠδίνουσαν τεκεῖν, καὶ πρὶνm ἐλθεῖν τὸν πόνον τῶν ὠδίνων, ἐξέφυγεν καὶ ἔτεκεν ἄρσεν. 434 Zion was in labour

(66:8–9)

8 τίς ἤκουσεν τοιαῦταn, καὶ τίς ἑώρακεν οὕτως; ἦo ὤδινεν γῆ ἐν ἡμέρᾳ μιᾷp, εἰq καὶ ἐτέχθη ἔθνος εἰς ἅπαξ; ὅτι ὤδινεν καὶ ἔτεκεν Σιὼν τὰ παιδία αὐτῆς. 9 ἐγὼ δέδωκαr τὴν προσδοκίαν ταύτην, καὶ οὐκ ἐμνήσθης μου, εἶπεν Κύριος. οὐκ ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ στεῖραν καὶ γεννῶσανs ἐποίησα; εἶπεν ὁ θεόςt. 435 Enjoy Mother Jerusalem

(66:10–11)

10 Εὐφράνθητι, Ἰερουσαλήμ, καὶ πανηγυρίσατε ἐν αὐτῇu, πάντες οἱ ἀγαπῶντεςv αὐτῇw, χάρητε χαρᾷx, πάντες ὅσοι πενθεῖτε ἐπ’ αὐτῇy, 11 ἵνα θηλάσητε καὶ ἐμπλησθῆτε ἀπὸ μαστοῦ παρακλήσεως αὐτῆς, ἵνα ἐκθηλάσαντες πᾶνz τρυφήσητε ἀπὸ εἰσόδου δόξεωςaa αὐτῆς.

aἐκλέξωμαι] S; ἐκλέξομαι ARZ; ἐκδέξομαι B b τὰς ἁμαρτίας] SBRZ; τὰς ἁμαρτίας αὐτῶν A c ἀποδώσω] S; ἀνταποδώσω ABRZ d ἐκάλεσα αὐτοῖς] S*; ἐκάλεσα αὐτοῖς Scb3ABRZ e μοι] S*; μου ScaABRZ f ἐμοῦ] SB; μου ARZ g ἠβουλόμην] S; ἐβουλόμην ABRZ h ἐξελέξατο] S*; ἐξελέξαντο ScaABRZ i τὸ ῥῆμα] SARZ; ῥήματα B jἡμᾶς] SARZ; ὑμᾶς B kφωνὴ] S*; φωνὴ κραυγῆς ἐκ πόλεως, φωνὴ Scb1ABRZ lπρὶν ἢ] SARZ; πρὶν B mκαὶ πρὶν] S*; πρὶν Scb2BRZ; πρὶν ἢ A nτοιαῦτα] S*Scb3; τοιοῦτο Scb2ABRZ oἦ] SR; εἰ ABZ pἡμέρᾳ μιᾷ] SB; μιᾷ ἡμέρᾳ ARZ qεἰ] SAZ; ἢ BR r δέδωκα] S; δὲ ἔδωκα ABRZ s στεῖραν καὶ γεννῶσαν] S; γεννῶσαν καὶ στεῖραν ABRZ t θεός] SARZ; θεός σου B uἐν αὐτῇ] SBRZ; om. A vἀγαπῶντες] S*Scb3BRZ; κατοικοῦντες Sca; ἐνοικοῦντες A w αὐτῇ] S*; αὐτήν ScaBRZ; ἐν αὐτῇ A x χαρᾷ] SRZ; ἅμα αὐτῇ χαρᾷ B; χαρὰν A y αὐτῇ] SB; αὐτῆς ARZ z πᾶν] S*; om. ScaABRZ aa δόξεως] S*; δόξης ScaABRZ

66:5–11

335

mockeries and I will repay them their sins, because I called to them and they did not listen to me; I spoke and they did not hear. And they did what is evil before me and they chose things that I was not desiring.” 432 Those who hate us will be put to shame

(66:5)

5 Hear the word of Lord, you who tremble at his word; our brothers, tell those who hate and abhor us, so that the name of Lord might be magnified and seen in their joy, and those people will be put to shame. 433 Repayment; bearing a son before going into labour

(66:6–7)

6 A voice from the temple, the voice of Lord recompensing a recompense to the opponents. 7 Before the woman in labour gave birth, and before the pain of the labour arrived, she escaped and bore a male. 434 Zion was in labour

(66:8–9)

8 Who has heard such things, and who has seen so? Or was the land in labour for a single day, if also a nation was born at once? For Zion was in labour and bore her children. 9 “I have given this expectation, and you did not remember me,” said Lord. “Look, did I not make the sterile and the fertile woman?” said God. 435 Enjoy Mother Jerusalem

(66:10–11)

10 Rejoice, Jerusalem, and celebrate in her, all you who love by her, rejoice with joy, all you who mourn over her, 11 so that you might nurse and be filled from the breast of her comfort, in order that you who suck everything might revel because of the entrance of her glory.

66:5 2 Thess 1:12; Did. apost. 21; Theophilus Autol. 3.14; Justin Dial. 85.8; 96.2; Tertullian Marc. 4.16.1; Eusebius Comm. Isa.2.57 66:6 Rev 16:1, 17; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.57 66:7 Rev 12:2, 5; Irenaeus Dem. 54; Methodius Symp. 8.7; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.57 66:8 Origen Hom. Jer. 9.3; Hom. Exod. 10.3; Hom. Gen. 6.3; Cels. 8.43; Methodius Symp. 8.7; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.57; Comm. Ps.; Hist. eccl. 1.4.3; Dem. ev. 10.8.111; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 18.34 66:9 Origen Hom. Gen. 6.3; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.57 66:10 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.57; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 14.1 66:11 Justin Dial. 85.8; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.57

336

Text and Translation

436 Lord will comfort you like a mother in Jerusalem

(66:12–14)

12 Ὅτι τάδε λέγει Κύριος Ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ ἐκκλίνω εἰς αὐτοὺς ὡς ποταμὸς εἰρήνης καὶ ὡς χειμάρρους ἐπικλύζων δόξαν ἐθνῶν· τὰ παιδία αὐτῶν ἐπ’ ὤμων ἀρθήσονται καὶ ἐπὶ γονάτων παρακληθήσονται. 13 ὡς εἴ τινα μήτηρ παρακαλέσει, οὕτωςa κἀγὼ ὑμᾶς παρακαλέσωb, καὶ ἐν Ἰερουσαλὴμ παρακληθήσεσθε. 14 καὶ ὄψεσθεc, καὶ χαρήσεται ὑμῶν ἡ καρδίαd, καὶ τὰ ὀστᾶ ἡμῶνe ὡς βοτάνη ἀνατελεῖ· καὶ γνωσθήσεται ἡ χεὶρ Κυρίου τοῖς σεβομένοιςf αὐτόν, καὶ ἀπειλήσῃg τοῖς ἀπειθοῦσιν. 437 Lord’s fire will judge the land

(66:15–16)

15 ἰδοὺ γὰρ Κύριος ὡς πῦρ ἥξει καὶ ὡς καταιγὶς τὰ ἅρματα αὐτοῦ ἀποδοῦναι ἐν θυμῷ ἐκδίκησιν καὶ ἀποσκορακισμὸνh ἐν φλογὶ πυρός. 16 ἐν γὰρ τῷ πυρὶ Κυρίου κριθήσεταιi πᾶσα ἡ γῆ καὶ ἐν τῇ ῥομφαίᾳ αὐτοῦ πᾶσα σάρξ· πολλοὶ τραυματίαι ἔσονται ὑπὸ Κυρίου. 438 False worshippers will be destroyed

(66:17–18)

17 οἱ ἁγνιζόμενοι καὶ καθαριζόμενοι εἰς τοὺς κήπους καὶ ἐν τοῖς προθύροις ἔσθοντες κρεῖαj ὕειαk καὶ τὰ βδελύγματα καὶ τὸν μῦν ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ ἀναλωθήσονταιl, εἶπεν Κύριος, 18 κἀγὼ τὰ ἔργα αὐτῶν καὶ τὸν λογισμὸν αὐτῶν ἐπίσταμαιm. 439 All nations will see my glory

(66:18–19)

ἔρχομαι συναγαγεῖν πάντα τὰ ἔθνη καὶ τὰς γλώσσας αὐτῶνn, καὶ ἥξουσιν καὶ ὄψονται τὴν δόξαν μου. 19 καὶ καταλείψωo ἐπ’ αὐτῶν σημεῖον καὶ ἐξαποστελῶ ἐπ’p αὐτῶν σεσῳσμένους εἰς τὰ ἔθνη, εἰς Θαρσεὶς καὶ Φοὺθq καὶ Λοὺθr καὶ Μόσοχ καὶ Θοβὲλs καὶ

aοὕτως] SBRZ; ὅτι οὕτως A b ὑμᾶς παρακαλέσω] S; παρακαλέσω ὑμᾶς ABRZ c ὄψεσθε] S*BRZ; ὄψεσθαι Scb3; ὄψεται A d ὑμῶν ἡ καρδία] SARZ; ἡ καρδία ὑμῶν B e ἡμῶν] S*; ὑμῶν ScaABRZ fσεβομένοις] SARZ; φοβουμένοις B gἀπειλήσῃ] S; ἀπειλήσει ABRZ hἀποσκορακισμὸν] ScaARZ; ἀποσκορακισμῶν S*; ἀποσκορακισμὸν αὐτοῦ B iκριθήσεται] SBRZ; καταναλωθήσεται A jκρεῖα] S*; κρέα Sca; κρέας Scb2ABRZ kὕεια] S*; ὑειῶν Scb2; ὕειον Scb2; ὕιον ABRZ lἀναλωθήσονται] SBRZ; καταναλωθήσονται A m ἐπίσταμαι] SRZ; om. AB n γλώσσας αὐτῶν] S; γλώσσας ABRZ oκαταλείψω] S*B; σημεῖα Scb2ARZ pἐξαποστελῶ ἐπ’] S*; ἐξαποστελῶ ἐξ ScaABRZ qΦοὺθ] S; Φοὺδ ABRZ r Λοὺθ] S; Λοὺδ ABRZ s Θοβὲλ] SARZ; εἰς Θοβὲλ B

66:12–19

436 Lord will comfort you like a mother in Jerusalem

337 (66:12–14)

12 Because thus says Lord, “Look, I am diverting the glory of the nations to them like a river of peace and like an overflowing torrent; their children will be carried on shoulders and will be comforted upon knees. 13 As a mother would comfort someone, so I also will comfort you, and you will be comforted in Jerusalem.” 14 And you will look, and your heart will rejoice, and our bones will spring up like a plant, and the hand of Lord will be known to those who revere him, and you will warn those who resist. 437 Lord’s fire will judge the land

(66:15–16)

15 For look, Lord will come like fire and his chariots like a storm, to repay vengeance in wrath, and dismissal in a flame of fire. 16 For all the land will be judged by the fire of Lord and all flesh by his sword; there will be many wounded by Lord. 438 False worshippers will be destroyed

(66:17–18)

17 “Those who purify and cleanse themselves for the gardens and eat swine’s bodies and abominations and the mouse in the doorways, they will be destroyed together,” said Lord. 18 “And I know their works and their reasoning. 439 All nations will see my glory

(66:18–19)

“I am coming to assemble all the nations and their tongues, and they will come and will see my glory. 19 And I will leave a sign on them and I will send upon them those who have been saved to the nations, to Tharseis and Phouth and

66:12 Clement of Alexandria Paed. 1.21.1; Origen Hom. Ezech 13.4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.57 66:13 Clement of Alexandria Paed. 1.21.1; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.57 66:14 John 16:22; Origen Fr. Cant.; Tertullian Res. 31.4; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.57; 2.58 66:15 2 Thess 1:8; Hippolytus Antichr. 5; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.58; Dem. ev. 6.25.1–2 66:16 Hippolytus Antichr. 5; Origen Princ. 2.10.6; Pamphilius Apol. Orig. 8; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.58 66:17 Origen Princ. 2.10.6; Pamphilius Apol. pro Orig. 8; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.58; Dem. ev. 6.25.1 66:18 Cyprian Test. 1.21; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.58; Dem. ev. 6.25.4; 6.25.5; Lactantius Inst. 4.11.10; Epit. 43.6; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 12.8 66:19 Cyprian Test. 1.21; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.58; Dem. ev. 6.25.1; 6.25.4; Lactantius Inst. 4.11.10; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat. 12.8

338

Text and Translation

εἰς τὴν Ἑλλάδα καὶ εἰς τὰς νήσους τὰς πόρρω, οἳ οὐκ ἀκηκόασίν μου τὸ ὄνομα οὐδὲa ἑωράκασίν μου τὰ ἔργα καὶ τὴν δόξανb, καὶ ἀναγγελοῦσίν μου τὴν δόξανc ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν. 440 Your brothers will return from the nations

(66:20–21)

20 καὶ ἄξουσιν τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς ὑμῶν ἐκ πάντων τῶν ἐθνῶν δῶρον Κυρίῳ μεθ’ ἵππων καὶ ἁρμάτων ἐν λαμπήναις ἡμιόνων μετὰ σκιαδίωνd εἰς τὴν ἁγίαν πόλιν Ἰερουσαλήμ, εἶπεν Κύριος, ὡς ἂν ἐνέγκαισαν οἱ υἱοὶ Ἰσραὴλ τὰς θυσίας αὐτῶν ἐμοὶe μετὰ ψαλμῶν εἰς τὸν οἶκον Κυρίου. 21 Καὶ ἀπ’ αὐτῶν λήμψομαι ἐμοὶf ἱερεῖς καὶ Λευίτας, εἶπεν Κύριος. 441 All people will worship in Jerusalem and see the transgressors’ corpses (66:22–24) 22 ὃν τρόπον γὰρ ὁ οὐρανὸς καινὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ καινή, ἃ ἐγὼ ποιῶ, μένει ἐνώπιόν μουg, εἶπενh Κύριος, οὕτως στήσεται τὸ σπέρμα ὑμῶν καὶ τὸ ὄνομα ὑμῶν. 23 καὶ ἔσται μῆνα ἐκ μηνὸς καὶ σάββατον ἐκ σαββάτου καὶ ἥξειi πᾶσα σὰρξ ἐνώπιον ἐμοῦ προσκυνῆσαιj ἐν Ἰερουσαλήμ, εἶπεν Κύριος ὁ θεόςk. 24 καὶ ἐξελεύσονται καὶ ὄψονται τὰ κῶλα τῶν ἀνθρώπων τῶν παραβεβηκότων ἐν ἐμοί· ὁ γὰρ σκώληξ αὐτῶν οὐ τελευτήσειl, καὶ τὸ πῦρ αὐτῶν οὐ σβεσθήσεται, Καὶ ἔσονται εἰς ὅρασιν πάσῃ σαρκί.

aοὐδὲ] SARZ; οὔτε B b μου τὰ ἔργα καὶ τὴν δόξαν] S*; μου τὴν δόξαν Scb2B; τὴν δόξαν μου ARZ cμου τὴν δόξαν] SARZ; τὴν δόξαν μου B dσκιαδίων] S*ABRZ; σκιαζιων Sca e ἐμοὶ] SB; om. ARZ f ἐμοὶ] SRZ; ἐμαυτῷ A; om. B gἐνώπιόν μου] SARZ; ἐνώπιον ἐμοῦ B h εἶπεν] S*Scb3; λέγει Scb2ABRZ iκαὶ ἥξει] S; ἥξει ABRZ jἐνώπιον ἐμοῦ προσκυνῆσαι] S; ἐνώπιόν μου προσκυνῆσαι ARZ; τοῦ προσκυνῆσαι ἐνώπιον ἐμοῦ B kὁ θεός] S*Scb3; om. Scb2ABRZ l τελευτήσει] SBRZ; τελευτᾷ A

66:20–24

339

Luth and Mosoch and Thobel and to Greece and to the far islands, who have not heard my name or seen my works and glory, and they will proclaim my glory among the nations. 440 Your brothers will return from the nations

(66:20–21)

20 “And they will bring your brothers from all the nations as a gift to Lord, with horses and chariots in covered chariots of mules with sunshades, into the holy city Jerusalem,” said Lord, “as the sons of Israel would bring their sacrifices to me with psalms into the house of Lord.” 21 “And I will take priests and Levites from among them for myself,” said Lord. 441 All people will worship in Jerusalem and see the transgressors’ corpses (66:22–24) 22 “For in the way that the new sky and the new land, which I am making, remain before me,” said Lord, “so will your seed and your name be established. 23 “And it will be for month after month and Sabbath after Sabbath that all flesh will come before me to worship in Jerusalem,” said Lord God. 24 “And they will go out and see the corpses of the people who transgressed against me, for their worm will not die, and their fire will not be quenched, and they will become a spectacle to all flesh.”

66:20 Rom 15:16; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.58 66:21 Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.58 66:22 2 Pet 3:13; Tertullian Res. 31.8; Origen Princ. 1.6.2; 3.5.3; Hom. Num. 23.11; Comm. Matt. 17.33; Methodius Res. 1.47.7; Eusebius Comm. Isa 2.58; Comm. Ps.; Praep. ev. 11.32.1 66:23 Justin Dial. 44.3; Tertullian Adv. Jud. 4.3; Res. 31.7; Eusebius Comm. Isa. 2.58; Dem. ev. 2.3.38 66:24 Mark 9:48; Justin 1 Apol. 52.8; Dial. 44.3; 130.2; 140.3; Origen Fr. Cant.; Hom. Jer. 20.4; Hom. Exod 7.6; 7.8; Hom. Luc 9.8; Comm. Matt. 72; Tertullian Res. 31.9; Hippolytus Antichr. 65; Peter of Alexandria Epistula Canonica 4; Eusebius Comm. Isa 2.34; 2.58; Praep. ev 11.38

Commentary The book of Isaiah in Greek does not differ in structure from its Hebrew version. It contains the same sections in the same order: the visions against nations (chapters 1–23), first against Judah and Jerusalem (1–12), then against surrounding nations (13–23), with two intervening narrative sections (6–9 and 20); the apocalypse (24–25); the warnings against military alliance with Egypt (26–35), the narratives about Isaiah and Hezekiah (36–39), the Oracles of Comfort (40– 55), and the final section promoting ritual purity (56–66). Isaiah is presented primarily in the form characteristic of Hebrew poetry. Only a few chapters (6–9; 20; 36–39) are presented with a narrative framework. Hebrew poetry is characterized by parallelism, and the Greek translation retains this formal feature. The poetry most commonly conveys messages from Lord God Sabaoth, the Holy One of Israel. The messages are directed to the people of Judah, even if they are addressed to the nations surrounding Judah. The message varies from section to section, of course, but some uniting themes carry through from beginning to end. The themes include monotheism, trust, reversal, justice & righteousness, pride, judgement, and restoration. Isaiah has some of the most beautiful poetry of the ancient world, and this beauty was apparent even in Greek translation. Codex Vaticanus has marginal notes to point out particularly beautiful passages of Isaiah. Isaiah is one of the three most influential books in Early Judaism. The Dead Sea Scrolls and the New Testament both quote from and allude to the Psalms, Deuteronomy, and Isaiah more than any other literature. This is the book that shaped Jesus’ self-understanding (Luke 4) and preaching (the upside-down kingdom), and helped Christians make sense of Jesus’ significance, including his role as the suffering servant (49; 53), as righteous judge (11) and his special origins (born of a virgin Isa 7:14; divinity 7; 9). It shaped the self-understanding of the early church as a light to the Gentiles (2; 8) who they thought were replacing the Jews as God’s people because of Jewish rejection of Jesus (6). The book of Revelation drew heavily on the imagery provided by Isaiah, and Isaiah even shaped later ideas about the devil as Lucifer (14). Chapters 1–23 are united by their form and message. They are prophecies primarily of judgement, in the form of visions. Chapters 1–5 are visions directed against Judah and Jerusalem. Chapters 6–9 continue that geographic interest, but are in the form of narratives about the prophet Isaiah. Chapters 10–12 return to the form of poetic oracles, again in the form of woes. As noted in the introduction, the standard physical divisions marked in S are threefold: ekthesis of a line (which I convey in the transcription as inden-

© koninklijke brill nv, leiden, 2021 | doi:10.1163/9789004427235_004

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tation), marginal numerals (which I convey in the transcription as numbered section headings), and punctuation marks. But beyond these physical divisions we also find verbal structure signals, most prominently introductory formulae and inclusiones.

1

Title

(1:1)

Greek Isaiah opens with an introduction, identifying the genre, the prophet, the topic, and the time. What is not clear is how much of Isaiah this title is intended to cover. 1 The genre is ὅρασις, “vision,” which is also the normal translation of ‫ מראה‬in LXX. That would seem to limit this title to the initial prophecies that could have been preceived by the prophet in a visionary experience. The narratives beginning in chapter 6 would not fit well under the label of vision. The words ἣν εἶδεν “which he saw” have no counterpart in the MT. Perhaps they were added to the translation as an interpolation by analogy with 13:1, which reads Ὅρασις, ἣν εἶδεν Ἠσαίας υἱὸς Ἀμὼς κατὰ Βαβυλῶνος (van der Vorm-Croughs 2010, 46), creating a relative clause to replace the Hebrew apposition (van der Vorm-Croughs 2010, 333). Similar unnecessarily repeated expressions appear in 23:6–7; 41:25; 51:11; 57:11; 65:4. Isaiah is called son of Ἀμώς. Although the Hebrew name ‫ אמוץ‬is not spelled like that of the prophet Amos ‫עמוס‬, in Greek (and Ethiopic) they are the same (Ottley 1904, 1:2.105). This confusion leads the Mart. Ascen. Isa. 4.22 (and possibly 1.3) to call Isaiah’s father a prophet as well. Although κατά with the genitive can be used to indicate the topic without value judgement “concerning,” as can the Hebrew ‫על‬, it more often carries a hostile sense, stronger than that of the Hebrew ‫( על‬BDAG, s.v. κατά A.②ⓑ). This is the only place in Isaiah where ‫ על‬is rendered by κατά with the genitive; by far the most common equivalent for ‫ על‬is ἐπί. Isaiah uses κατά with the genitive only eleven times, two of which are in this verse and three others of which are in similar constructions, in 13:1, 15:1, and 17:1 (Babylon, Moab, and Damascus, respectively). Note the parallel with 2:1, which uses περί with the genitive: Ὁ λόγος ὁ γενόμενος παρὰ Κυρίου πρὸς Ἠσαίαν υἱὸν Ἀμὼς περὶ τῆς Ἰουδαίας καὶ περὶ Ἰερουσαλήμ. Κατά is added before Jerusalem probably because Jerusalem is indeclinable (van der Vorm-Croughs 2010, 55). The evidence in Matthew chapter 1 indicates that indeclinable names tend to take the article in the dative and accusative cases and omit it in nominative and genitive cases. In place of Hebrew ‫“ ימי‬days” βασιλείᾳ is found (here “reign” rather than “kingdom”) for no evident reason. To improve the Greek style, καί is added between the kings’ names. Οἱ ἐβασίλευσαν represents ‫מלכי‬,

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reading the yod as a waw. In most manuscripts, OI can be understood as the relative pronoun, as the accentuation added to B confirms. However, in Sinaiticus, the Ο hangs from the left margin, indicating it begins a new paragraph, and is therefore not a relative clause connected to what precedes. Verse two also begins with a hanging indent, so it is not a relative clause connected to what follows, either. Therefore in Sinaiticus, if we are to take the paragraphing seriously, we have an independent sentence, with the OI understood as the article (Jongkind 2007, 100). However, it is not certain that the paragraphing is to be taken so seriously, since we find similar paragraph fragments in 3:3 and 3:20, which cannot be made sensible on their own since they have no verbs and the nouns are in the accusative case. The phrase τῆς Ἰουδαίας is in the genitive because βασιλεύω takes the genitive of the subjects ruled. The early Christian interpreters emphasized the supernatural aspect of prophetic “vision.” Origen mentioned the incomprehensibility of “the vision that Isaiah son of Amos saw” in expounding the “well of vision” of Gen 23:11. Eusebius called this “vision” not with eyes, but prophetic, “as the divine Spirit shone upon his soul” (1.1) (McKinion 2004, 3). His comments on the unity of the book are worth quoting: “The reader should notice that the book as a whole appears to have been joined together into a unity, and [that the message] was delivered by the prophet in parts over the duration of several lengthy intervals of time, so that [the book appears] to offer little precise information about the [events that] are to arise. [Isaiah wrote in this fashion in order that] the interpretation of the [prophecies] recorded therein [could be] determined after a while and [so that] the prophecy [would also be] applicable to the events that occurred during each kingdom. After a fifty year period, the time of the appointed kings had been completed, in alignment with what has been said and conveyed through the whole book.” Chrysostom said the prophets “have said nothing on their own initiative … their words are divine oracles and their writings have come down from heaven” (Wilken 2007, 17); “the words come from the hand of God who holds the pen.” The prophecy is about the future: “the souls of the prophets when illuminated by the gift of the Spirit had access to the future” (Wilken 2007, 19). Cyril said the prophets “had knowledge of what was going to happen in the future, since these things had been revealed to them by the Holy Spirit,” but also that “they were informed about the things that were happening in their own time of which they were spectators.” Isaiah “was able to see with the eye of the mind what was going to happen to Judah at a later time.” He saw enemies and war, and “it is to these things that the beginning of the prophecy refers” (Wilken 2007, 19). In Eusebius’ view, the mention of the four kings indicates that the prophecy is against the Jewish nation (1.3). He began with those closest to him, and then moved to prophesying against Babylon and Egypt (1.3). Chrysostom

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acknowledged that the kings are named “so that the diligent reader will know the history of that time. If one understands the situation and the remedies that the prophets applied to the trials of the Israelites, the prophecy will be clearer and more understandable” (Wilken 2007, 19). Eusebius called Isaiah an “evangelist,” since he “performed the same duty as the evangelists. For he preaches the Son of God surpassingly” (1.2), referring to the prophecies of the virgin birth (7:14) and the resurrection.

2

Sub-human knowledge

(1:2–3)

The first vision opens with words that anticipate Isa 6:9–10, with its theme of listening without comprehending. The totality of the created order is called as legal witnesses to the fairness of the lord’s judgment. The prophet implies Israel’s moral capacity is below that of irrational creatures, who at least are able to acknowledge their masters. In Greek, heaven is addressed with the singular οὐρανέ although the Hebrew is plural. The verb ἐνωτίζου “give ear” is etymologically related to ὦτα ears. Κύριος is capitalized because it appears to be considered a proper name, judging by the lack of article. See the discussion on Κύριος in the Introduction. See Exod. 21:28, 29, 36; 22:10–11, 13–14 for κύριος as owner of a ταῦρος. Clement of Alexandria Protr. 10 used this passage to argue that God seeks his creatures. See also Paed. 1.9, Strom. 5.8, and Strom. 4.26, where he said “heaven” refers to the one who contemplates heaven. But Eusebius did not treat “heaven” and “earth” as metaphors; they can hear because they actually have souls (1.5). 2 This very first “vision” has Lord speaking directly. Justin quoted 1:3, 4, 8 to show the Father can be the speaker in prophecy: Ἔγνω βοῦς τὸν κτησάμενον καὶ ὄνος τὴν φάτνην τοῦ κυρίου αὐτοῦ, Ἰσραὴλ δέ με οὐκ ἔγνω καὶ ὁ λαός μου οὐ συνῆκεν. Οὐαὶ ἔθνος ἁμαρτωλόν, λαὸς πλήρης ἁμαρτιῶν, σπέρμα πονηρόν, υἱοὶ ἄνομοι· ἐγκατελίπετε τὸν κύριον. Eusebius likewise took this example of divine speech as an opportunity to explain how prophecy works: “The divine Spirit filled the soul of the prophet with the appropriate power and uttered through the prophetic mouth as through an instrument the things that had been appointed and prepared in advance for the hearers of the words spoken by the Lord” (1.5). To explain ἐγέννησα Scholz and Lowth suggest G read ‫ ילדתי‬for ‫גדלתי‬, but Ottley appealed to Ezek 31:4 ἐξέθρεψα as a parallel, where Lord begat and exalted sons. Acts 13:17 has a verbal allusion to ὕψωσα in τὸν λαὸν ὕψωσεν ἐν τῇ παροικίᾳ ἐν γῇ Αἰγύπτου, raising the people up in the land of Egypt. (Minuscule 93 has εδοξασα.) Eusebius interpreted begetting sons as the creation of Adam and

344

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Eve, created “according to his image,” with rational souls and a γέρους ἐξαιρέτου (“special prerogative?” 1.6). But he also said those deemed worthy to be called the people of God have been honored by the appellation “sons” (1.7), and these are the Gentiles who “will understand”, in contrast to Israel, who “will not understand.” He claimed that the Holy Spirit reckons the Jewish nation “miserable and the worst of all the nations” for not recognizing the love of God (1.8) and for “abandoning” the Lord Christ (1.10); pride in one’s lineage is folly (1.9) Chrysostom interpreted begetting sons as an act of adoption, “special act of grace by which they become God’s children,” which in the New Covenant is “the bath of regeneration,” baptism. Cyril said Israel was by grace made worthy to be treated as God’s children, and through faith in Christ, “we have experienced the true spiritual rebirth, begotten by water and the Spirit,” quoting Gal 4:6. These children were not only begotten, but also cared for. Israel was nurtured spiritually by the law and the prophets, to lead to the knowledge of Christ, quoting Gal 3:24. Athanasius said humans were “disinherited because of their rebellion,” and Pharisees are no longer children. The Arians against whom Alexander wrote (1.3) used 1:2 to argue that humans could become sons of God; see also 1.8. Ottley said the usual emphatic force of the nominative third person personal pronoun αὐτοί is “hard to perceive” (Ottley 1904, 1:2:396). ἀθετέω is one of Greek Isaiah’s favourite words. It usually translates ‫בגד‬, and (as here) it is the normal translation of ‫ פשׁע‬as well. It is used of treaty-breaking and promise-breaking, here with an accusative for the person mistreated, as in Polybius, Histories 9.36.10 and Mark 6:26 in the story of Salome. 3 The absence of οὐκ in S of course makes quite a difference to the meaning of 1:3. Athough Israel knows Lord, the people still do not understand him. Irenaeus (Haer. 1.19.1) quoted 1:2 against the heretics, insisting that the one not known was the Creator, God the Father. See also 4.2.1 and 4.41.2, where those who do not do God’s works are not his children. The noun βοῦς here is a singular (rather than plural accusative) because the sentence requires a nominative subject. The aorist participle of κτάομαι “acquire” is naturally translated “owner.” This is the passage from which the ox and donkey appear in manger (φάτνη) scenes, as models of those who know Lord, in contrast to his people, Israel, who rejects him. Jerome (Ep. 108.10) mentioned “the inn made sacred by the virgin and the stall where the ox knew his owner and the ass his master’s crib.” The noun κυρίου in this single instance in G translates not the tetragrammaton but ‫בעל‬, “master”. The Hebrew preposition ‫ב‬, in this case marking the direct object, is rendered with the accusative με, rather than with the literal ἐν. Eusebius insisted on reading not συνῆκεν but συνήσει (Comm. Isa. 1.7), even though the Hebrew has a qatal and Ziegler mentions no support for the future in either apparatus. The

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identity of the accused appears clear enough: Lord’s people Israel. Yet what early Christian interpreters considered open for interpretation is which generation of Israel is in view. Lactantius, Inst. 4.11 saw 1:2–3 referring to the Jews at the time of Christ. Eusebius (1.7) supposed there was an allusion to Christ as well. In Marc. 3.23, Tertullian took the referent to be the period from Tiberius to Vespasian. Barn. 9.3 used 1:2 to argue that God has circumcised the ears of Christians, with the words Ἄκουε οὐρανέ, καὶ ἐνωτίζου γῆ, ὅτι Κύριος ἐλάλησεν ταῦτα εἰς μαρτύριον. Tertullian, Adv. Jud. 3 said circumcision was to distinguish the Jews so that they could be excluded from Jerusalem, as had happened in his day.

3

Lawlessness provokes injury

(1:4–6)

The prophecy shifts from addressing the witnesses to addressing the people directly. Their sin has angered Lord, but the consequences can still be stopped. The cause of the punishments listed here is explained in 1:10–15. 4 The nominative case of ἔθνος is to be expected with οὐαί, which more commonly takes the nominative (14 times) than the dative (7 times) in Isaiah. οὐαί with the dative is by far more common in Isaiah than elsewhere in the LXX (Ezek 13 and Sirach have two instances each). According to the transcription at codexsinaiticus.org, a new paragraph begins at σπέρμα πονηρόν. These two words (σπέρμα πονηρόν) are also nominative, like ἔθνος, λαός, and υἱοὶ ἄνομοι. This phrase appears only elsewhere in 14:20. Thackeray (1978, sec. 17.2) notes the rarity of the non-sigmatic first aorist of ἐγκαταλείπω, which also appears in Sir 41:8. The second person address ἐγκατελίπατε suggests that although the words υἱοὶ ἄνομοι are grammatically nominative, they are semantically vocative. The “people” here were understood by the early Christians as the Jews, the Lord’s “sons,” provoking him by their sins. Eusebius commented, “they did not understand the Christ of God who dwelt among them” (1.11), and he claimed the distress refers to the Roman siege (1.11). The article is present on τὸν κύριον, hence the translation “the lord” not as a proper noun (as it was in 1:2) but as a common noun. See the discussion “Lord” in the Introduction. The Hebrew direct object marker does appear here, but it is not a reliable predictor of when the translator adds τόν, especially in the latter half of Isaiah. Ἰσραήλ is indeclinable and therefore could be understood here as accusative or genitive. S records no article here, so the most natural reading is that Ἰσραήλ is in the accusative case, and therefore is the one provoked. With the corrector ca’s addition of the genitive article τοῦ, the one provoked is the Holy One “of” Israel.

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Isaiah 1:4 in Codex Sinaiticus

For our English translation, the principle followed is that the earliest intelligible text is to be translated. The words ‫ נזרו אחור‬have no equivalent in G, although Aquila includes them as οὐκ ἔστιν ἐν αὐτῷ ὁλοκληρία, and they are under asterisk in 48. Mirjam van der Vorm-Croughs commented, “According to e.g. Duhm, Ziegler, and Watts the Isaiah translator may not have read ‫נזרו‬ ‫ אחור‬in his Hebrew manuscript, as ‘the two words appear to exceed the metric form and the compact composition and probably should be judged a gloss.’ In Ziegler’s view the words may have entered the MT version from Isa 42:17 (‫)נסגו אחור‬. The Qumran manuscripts of Isaiah agree with the MT, however. Hence, it seems more likely to me that the translator omitted the clause in order to shorten the text, because in content ‫ נזרו אחור‬is close to the two preceding lines” (2010, 378), referring to Duhm (1892, 3), Ziegler (1934, 53), and Watts (1998, 14). With an anarthous noun, πᾶς normally conveys every individual entity in a collection rather than the whole of one entity, unless it is a proper name. So the absence of the article with πᾶσα indicates that G understood the ‫ כל‬as distributive “every” rather than “whole.” Nevertheless, there are exceptions; BDAG notes πᾶς οἶκος Ἰσραήλ from 1Kingdoms 7:2, 3. Silva offered both possibilities; his translation reads, “Every head has become troubled, and every heart has become sad,” with the note, “Or, The whole head is pained, and the whole heart is sad” (Silva 2007). 5 Because πληγῆτε is an aorist passive subjunctive (of πλήσσω), I translate as a rhetorical question, “should you be struck.” S actually has the singular πληγηται, but in scribe B’s orthography αι and ε are interchangeable. The plural nominative that follows requires the plural form. The Hebrew ‫ נכה‬usually is translated πατάσσω in the OG, as also in a couple of other places in Isaiah. προστίθημι is used here in the sense of “increase” as in Luke 17:5. The participle προστιθέντες indicates the reason for being struck. Where S has the plural ἀνομίας, other uncials have the singular abstract noun, “lawlessness.” Ottley adduces Jer 8:7 as a parallel usage. A natural reading of the directional preposition εἰς would be that it indicates the fate of the head and heart, but Eusebius understood that the head and heart have an incurable disease (1.11), interpreting this as a prophecy of the Roman siege.

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6 The negation in 1:6 is difficult, with a nominative string of three kinds of injury each preceded by οὔτε, followed by three kinds of treatment (neuter nouns, presumably in the accusative), each also preceded by οὔτε, except the first, which has οὐκ ἔστιν. The string of nominatives should normally be interpreted as the subject of the verb οὐκ ἔστιν, and therefore would as indicating the absence of the injuries: “from feet to head there is neither a wound nor a bruise nor a purulent blow, to put on emollient or oil or bandages.” In context, however, this expression must indicate the total absence of treatment, not even for the kinds of injuries listed, hence the translation of ἐπιθεῖναι as “one can treat.” The noun μώλωψ appears only here and Isa 53:5, both translating ‫ַחבּוּ ָרה‬, precedented by Gen 4:23; Exod 21:25. This is the deserved punishment (Deut 28:59–61) borne by the servant in Isa 53.

4

Desolation, present and future

(1:7–9)

As in the rest of Isaiah 1–39, God fights against Israel; this is in contrast to Isaiah 40–66 where God takes initiatives on their behalf. The addressees are guilty as guilty as Sodom and Gomorrah; they deserve the same fate. Eusebius wrote, “they burned with impiety, like the men who lived in Sodom and Gomorrah, and on account of the similarity of their lifestyle” (1.15). It is only God’s grace that prevented that same fate. 7 First, the desolation of land is described by means of adjectives. The first, ἔρημος, tends to be used substantivally rather than attributively in Isaiah. This can be demonstrated by the grammatical mismatch in 5:9 (plural subject but singular ἔρημος) and 15:6 (neuter subject but feminine ἔρημος). The pronoun αὐτήν refers to the noun τὴν χώραν. In keeping with the verbless clauses describing the present situation, the perfect ἠρήμωται is used rather than the aorist ἠρημώθη. Likewise, the feminine passive participle of καταστρέφω is in the perfect tense. S* lacks the σ of πυρίκαυστοι, which was added by a corrector; G turns the Hebrew ‫ ְשׂרוף אש‬into a compound word (see also 9:5; 64:10). Finally, a present tense verb κατεσθίουσιν provides the time frame for the preceding list of adjectives. Justin Martyr (1 Apol. 47) took this as a prophecy that Jesus and his followers would be killed, and Cyprian that the Jews would lose Jerusalem and leave their land. 8 The future verb ἐγκαταλειφθήσεται indicates the desolation is to continue. S has vineyards in the plural (ἀμπελῶσιν); the other uncials have the singular ἀμπελῶνι, which makes more sense since the tent (σκηνή) is singular. This is

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the first mention of vineyards, an image that gets developed in chapters 5 and 27. Eusebius (1.12) recognized the vineyard here as the same one mentioned in 5:7: the entire nation. The hut is then the temple. ὀπωροφυλάκιον occurs also in 24:20, also translating ‫מלונה‬. In Ps 78:1 and Micah 1:6 and 3:12, it translates ‫עי‬. The watcher’s hut is in a συκυηράτῳ, according to the original scribe of S, but was changed to σικυηράτῳ by corrector cb3, then reverted to συκυηράτῳ by corrector d. The difference is between fig σῦκον and cucumber σίκυος, cucumber. A shift of liquids has taken place in Koine, from σικυήλατον (from ἐλαύνω “plant”) (Thackeray 1978, 107). The present tense of πολιορκουμένη refers to a city in the process of being besieged. According to