Ireland and the Irish question

Articles, speeches, letters and correspondence by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels on Ireland.

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Ireland and the Irish question

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Workers

of

All

Countries,

Unite!

MARX ENGELS Ireland

and Irish

the Question

PUBLISHERS’

The M.A.

text

Russian

publication

by

was

collection and

L.I.Golman

V.E.

prepared

Kunina,

for

assisted

by

Zhelnova. Translated

from

Italian

by

B.

The Ireland”’ Songs”

History

Ireland,

of

“Notes

have

by

and

S.Ryazanskaya

K.

Cook,

to

a

been by

R.

translated

and

from

the

Ha

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Third

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the

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Dixon.

HPJIAHTUH

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for

‘“‘Notes

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for

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ener

eens

620

eenene

660

. .. , , eee

1

an d L a ura et ee ee

--0 -

ee

ee e

eee

renee ees

eee

L a f argue

eee

cere

M arc h

3 11

5

eee

e te

4 11

rec

ecees

OO

FOREWORD

are

There volume

the

of

welcomed.

It

was

struggle

the

reasons

writings is

timely has

since been

area, to

which

Marx

faced

ally

and

Engels

those

reader

that

still lie

this

of

from that guide-lines

book

and

the the

publication

on

Engels

myth

that

partition

brought

it

and

solved

before

us

who

has

the

still

is

knowledge

will

freed

himself

totally

of

the day

essenti-

apparent

be

held

their

are

which

today

it

m

That

problems

limitation. Consequently which, mutatis mutandis,

national

position

about.

be

‘Northern

1921,

of

is to

Insh in

one

in

Ireland

events

by

present tangled those who lack

The

incomprehensible events

historical

the

exploded

since

Union.

why

Marx

of

over

the

Ireland’’,

within

many

to

any

even

modestly

provides have high

numerous relevance

today. It

give in

should

the the

Irish

founders

they

what

has

English ism (in her

question, it.

best

radicals

have

surrounding struggles

resemble

them

find

it

content

so

hard

as

with

that

how

it, and

the

sheer

should

of

it should

fresh

interest

seriously

the

volume

of

the

in

them

on

in

their

blindest

their all

struggle

Irish

own

to

sides,

Perhaps

contrast that

help

the

of

tended,

believe

First

a

restore vision in spots of the England has centuries of imperialbehind her. Consequently most of it

one

reaction.

much,

to

see

And

become

labour movement. the broad sense)

National

Same

regarded

to

they

when

to

devoted tended

chauvinism

they

of

Marxism

of

work

two valuable functions. England and the world,

perform

Marxists,

since

to peoples

identify

Irish

class,

has

the all

people

further

nationalism ruling

against

afield,

not

which

the they

18

FOREWORD

have rejected. Wisdom begins tional recognition of the right

own

mine

its

that

the

England

it

in Marxism, represent as

of

this

nation tion

who

book

been

guarded At

out

in

turn

the

a

on

within

the

a

of

time

Fox

except

fifties

The

a

not the

of

but

copies

in

But collec-

some

thirties,

few

in

Ireland

read.

the

a

for

and

politics,

contained in

masses

libraries.

after

would

to

tried

craftsmen

defended

thirsts

people

the

forties

in public

influence

print,

century

the

of

man

it has

zealously

great

the taught

Irish

himself

Marxist

James

German,

spread

the Letters to Kugelmann. Connolly’s life the revival and application of Marx’s teach-

He

the

the

of

had

national

become

independence

aware

Democratic

Social

this

of

was

still

alive

development

of

the

world

struggle

teaching

Federation

Engels

when

theoretical

who

of

primacy

Ireland.

member

Marx

few

Ralph

some

working

knowledge was indeed

work

old

that

know,

late

of

many

available

Irish

have

were

the

of

Dublin.

Connolly,

some

the

classes that

freedom

would

the

Not of

class

in practice.

them. days

well

been

working of

ruling

to

dark

knew has

exercised

long

the

national

by

and

interest

it. There

in

Many

made

letters

ing

even

the

alien

the

to operate

begins

present

the

believed

seeking

economics.

at

which

The

between

arouse

something

parts, century,

Capital.

Ireland

of

should

altogether

country

interest

of

tnat

and

Second,

have

frank, total and uncondithe Irish nation to deterdestiny, and it 1s from that point

International

identity

in of

and

in

a

while

Edinburgh,

influencing

the

move-

proletarian

ment.

The

to compact tion be

extension Ireland but

lightly

importation.

ist-oriented ists.

The

of

is

the International Workingmen’s Associareferred to m Dr. Golman’s admirably

comprehensive

assumed, There

groups

however,

were in

attempts

of

a

introduction. that

number

Ireland

during

O’Connell’s

arose

it of

left

the

must

It

a

from

radical

times

followers

not foreign

and

social-

of

the

Chart-

to

extinguish

Chartism in Drogheda received attention in the Northern Star. It is surely no accident that Feargus O’Connor, who became the leader of Chartism in England during one of its most virile periods, was the nephew of Arthur O’Connor, the

United

Irishman,

and

that

he

chose

for

the

name

of

his

paper

19

FOREWORD

the

name

given

by

the

United

Irishmen

own paper

to their

in

Belfast.

The of

deepest

most

and

Republicanism,

It

Fenians.

best

As

tradition

in

expressed

in

orginated

Revolution.

abiding

response

wrote:

“In

a test

day

to

a

by

the

little

every

is that

Ireland

Marx’s

Imish

the

Tone

Wolfe

in

the

French time

the

man’s

political into two great creed, and the nation was fairly divided parties, the Aristocrats and the Democrats.... It is needless. I believe, to say I was a Democrat from the beginning.” In his centenary book The Internationale Mr. R. Palme Dutt remarks that “The international communist movement developed in direct line of descent from the left wing of the democratic revolution and the first beginnings of the working-class movement’’. He quotes Marx in 1848: “The Jacobin of 1793 has become the Communist of today.” Because of political movements of the their common origins in the nineteenth century, oppressed classes of Europe in the early French

Revolution

Republicanism,

became

pragmatic

of

rather

than

con-

but

scientific,

a constant receptivity to said that Stephens, the Young Ireland revolutionary forced to flee to Paris after the failure of the rising of 1848, had contact with revolutionary socialist groups, before returning to Ireland (after a stay in America) Fenian John Devoy, while to found Fenianism. The great sistently

revolutionary,

socialist

ideas.

scarcely

describable

First

showed

Thus

it

as

International.

is

a

Why

worked

Marxist, then

did

the

closely

United

with

Irishman

the of

1798 not become the Communist of 1848? The full answer of this book must must await a study that the publication surely stimulate, namely, the analysis of ideological developments in the Irish national movement during the nineteenth century. But a decisive factor must surely have been the diaspora

following

over

revolutionaries

was

English

revolution The tracted Pearse Connolly

the the

face

imperialism’s

and

against

radical towards and

wing the

1916.

of

the

the

forces

The

safeguard

Republicanism working revolutionary

were

Irish

emigrant

ship

alike

against

ideas.

of

Similar

of

scattering

earth.

strongest

revolutionary

MacDermott

in

and

“famine”

drawn

came

was

into

constantly

class.

an

together

Thus

Clarke,

alliance in

at-

with 1921-22.

20

, , , ,. ,

FOREWORD

, . , . , , , . . , , , , . . ., . , , ., , , , . . , . ..

a c onf u se d and f ear f ul L a b o u r t o ac cep t part it ion w hic h Llo y d G eorge ha d f orce d o n I re la nd a t t h e po int o f t he g un T he i can R ep u b l part y S inn F e in sp lit A mong t hose w ho op po se d t h e mons t ro u s se tt lemen t w ere lea d ers s uc h as Lia m Me l l ow s s t rong ly inf luence d b y C onno lly ’ s t ea c hings an d M arx i s t s w it hin t h e R ep u b lic a n mo v em en t s uc h as Pea d ar l O ’ D onne l O ut s i de t h e R ep u b lic a n rank s t h e only par t y t o s t P art y o f oppose t h e T rea t y w as t he y o ung C omm uni I re la nd le d b y J a mes C onno lly ’ s son and a num b e r o f it s mem b ers t oo k par t in t he f ig ht ing t ha t ens u e d In t he t w en t ie s and t hir t ies t h e R ep u b li c a n ne w sp a per A n Ph o b la c h t reg u lar ly ca rrie d art ic le s b y in t ema t iona lly k no w n M arx is t s It m a y t here f ore b e sa id and t he Iris h rea d er o f t his b oo k c a n f f rom j ud ge f or himse l his o w n e x perience t h a t s o litt le is backed prepa re d

b o u rgeo i s ie T he lea d ers hip was

by

-

a lien t o t he Ir is h t ra dit ion t ha t reac t ionary ruling c lasses ac t ua l or prospec t iv e ha v e a lw a y s so ug ht spec ia l mea ns f or ins u la t ing t he peop le f rom it s inf luence T here w as perh aps ins t inc t iv e recognit ion o f t his f ac t in E nge ls ’ s env io us c r y w hen O ’ C o nne ll w as para d ing Ire land w it h t w o h un d re d t h o u sa n d f o llo w ers a b o ut him “ ‘ G iv e me ” ’ (s ure ly t h is emp ha s is is imp lie d ) “ t w o h un d re d t h o u s a n d I r is hmen and I co uld o v e r t h ro w t he ent ire B rit is h mona r c hy ” E nge ls ’ s f a v o ur it e reso rt w as t he hom e o f t h e B u rns f a m ily w ho ha d F en ia n c onnec t ions A f t er t h e d ea t h o f h is cons t a nt c om pa n io n M a r y B urns in 1863 h er s is t e r Liz z ie b ec a me his sec on d w if e and a c c om pa nie d him on his v is it t o I re lan d in 1869 T h e f a sc ina t ion w hic h t he c o un t ry he ld f or hi m w as e x presse d in his d esc r ip t ion o f t he Irs h c lima t e : M ar x ism

-

-

w ea t her lik e t h e i nh a bit ant s ha s a more ac ut e c harac t er 1t m o v es in s harper more s u d d en cont ras t s ; t he s k y 1s lik e a n Ir is h w oma n’ s f a ce : here a lso ra in a nd s uns hine s u cc ee d ea c h o t h er s u d d enly an d u ne x p ec t e d ly an d t here is none o f t h e gre y Eng lis h b ore d om ” ’ T here is a researc h s ubj ec t f or some y o u ng his t orian in t he d e t a ils o f E nge ls ’ s c onnec t ions w it h Ire land and t h e F enia ns o f L ancas hire I nd ee d t h e p ub lica t ion o f t his co llec t ion prepa re d b y D r ‘ T he

Go l m an

an d

Dr

V a leria

K u n ina

m ig h t

w e ll sp u r

m uc h

researc h in Ir is h a nd E ng lis h po lit ica l a nd e c onom ic his t o r y a t e d a s pec ia l v ar iant o f t he un iv ersa l la w o f T ha t M a r x pos t ul

21

FO REW O RD

capitalist

accumulation

even

appreciated generally

in

goods

England.

It

has

where

that

such

economic

followed

the

would

be

very little it still appears to be categories as prices of

Ireland

Ireland,

accepted

capital

in

same

been

pattern

in

to expand

interesting

as

in

analysis

of

Ireland

Marx’s

the eighteen sixties, in Capital, to cover a longer period and to collate the data throughout the whole field of Irish economic life. It would also not be impossible to find evid-

ence by

that

the

Marx

special

mode

over

a

and

Engels

capital

of

years

hundred

ago

accumulation is

discerned

no means

by

defunct

today. Marx and

systematise

a state

suitable

despite

look,

the

it

Engels’s is

their

had

existence

to

“gleaned

be there

are

views

to

going

not

be

no

is

the

thorny. help to

Viewed as dogma solve them. But

dogma.

Viewed genius,

proached this

and

book

equipment Ireland,

as

and

how

great

the

to

their

Dr.

a

of

and

Irish

history

notes Marx’s

and

thought.

And

compilation.

The

ordered

handwritten

on

subject value

in

out, outand

completely

from

arrange

points

Golman

which

of

further

of

this

internally, and in her relations the world, are complex and

Marx’s or Engels’s their writings were

examples

of

revealing

the

out

the

writings will not not intended as

analytical

way

methods

problems

and

solved,

were

C.

Liverpool,

the

Desmond

September

a

of

ap-

contents most important contribution to Labour and Republican movements progressive counterparts in Britain.

thought

a

make of

As

to

opportunity

Ireland

provocative

problems oi Ireland today, with England, Europe and

scientific

on

publication.

for

But

the

ideas

obvious

has

fragments”.

this

all

never

of

the in

Greaves

1970

INTRODUCTION

This

is

the

of

works

Ireland in part,

and

the

to

make

Marx

and

endeavour

first

lection

Karl

of

sketches.

The

supplement

contains

er

and

documents

of

Jenny

comprehensive

synopses

of

articles

the

col-

on

Engels

and articles, whole or transcripts and outlines

Irish question—letters excerpts from bigger works, speeches and reports, a number

of

a

Frederick

by

and

rough daught-

Marx’s

international

move-

labour

ment.

This

collection

the works International

edition Engels

of Marx Russian),

the

in

the

of

C.C.

are a

documents

and

Engels

more

Works (in

of

and

on and

collected

the

and

sections

process

of

these

the

First

editions

their

more

Marxism-Lenin-

of

Moscow.*

Included

unknown

on

light and

the

in

works, views the

affording

the

letters Marx

of

a

student

heritage.

about

Ireland

preliminary However,

the Russian of

International.

than

covers. Their precis and economy are given in part only, of

of

of

First

these

deciphering.

Documents

the

previously

question

wrote

latest

and Engels, the Marxand the five-volume

Institute

additional

knowledge

Stantial

Moscow.-—Ed.

of

Irish

Engels

between

history

C.P.S.U.,

number casting

complete

Marx

*

Men’s

X

the

from

Engels and of documents Association—the second

General Council issued recently by the

collection

Irish

and

The

Minutes, of

on texts

based

of

of the Collected Archives, Vol.

edition, ism

is

Marx Working

of

summaries

this

International,

book 5

vols.,

has been notes on since

are

comprises Progress

sub-

still

in

their

Publishers,

23

INTRODUCTION

most pertinent statements on the subject at hand and resents a comprehensive picture of their views. Ireland claimed the attention of Marx and Engels from the 1840s onward. They followed the developments there, responded to them in the press, spoke on Ireland at meetings the

of

General

cussed

the

a

made tion,

close and of

wrote

it,

for

a

write

plete

his

some

while

Capital,

an

wrote

and

the

operation

poorly the

his

of

interest

in

capitalist

society,

and

they

seized

capitalist

of

land.

influence

exerted

Ireland

to

the

of

the

two

the

scientifically

the

in

and

working

socialist

the

of

The

paid

travels

of

was

masses the

reconstruction

of of

agrarian

Ireland

demon-

then

were

socialist

of

a

examine

an

in

which they of capitalist

conception and

of

afield.

sociolog-

to

opportunity

what

of

far

economists,

development

peasant

at the peasants

ranged

example

by

theorists

as

the

laws

developed

countries

concem with

who

his

of

letters

Capitalist country, England, from main data for analysing the laws

arrived

dis-

Both

political situaMarx used his

Engels,

account

Engels’s

historians,

Peasant

and

to bthers.

and

to Marx. Engels intendhistory of Ireland, gathered a store of material the opening chapters, but did not live to comin

of

ists

strated

work,

Ireland,

and

students

and

International,

other

project.

Marx’s As

main

to

1869

and

to

ed

his

visits

1856

First

to each

letters

study of Ireland’s economic and her history and social relations.

in

findings

several

in

the

of

Council

subject

the

classic

derived their production. continuous

of

revolution,

workers’

peasants’ society under the

who

alliance

involvement the

guidance

proletariat.

However, Ireland was and Engels saw her as

sion

became

lords

interlaced

descended

ploiters

of

of the tributing

sources

with

Marx

the

to the and

not

an

agrarian country. to colonial domination by a more powerful neighbour. Engels described Ireland as England’s first colony (see p. 93), whose conquest dated back to the latter half of the twelfth century. Social oppresMarx

with

from the Irish peasants.

a

land

simply subject

national

oppression,

conquerors The

plunder

since

were

the

of

Ireland

main

Lenin

described

the

process

as

ex-

was one

of England’s industrial development, rapid growth of her capitalist economy. Engels,

land-

conAlong

follows:

24

INTRODUCTION

owes

“Britain the of

the

Russian

“While

material.

shared

Marx

national

ment

programme For

of

her

colonial

Capital the latter

against

was to

them

movement

“an

p.

(see

114).

all

of

material

Ireland

social their

for

up

raw

of

agricultural “corn, wool,

with

drawing

for

ruthless-

suppliers

as

in

abundant

and

tenant

countries

and

opponents

with

ex-

towards

semi-barbarous,

148.)

recruits”

resistance

the

other

p.

Engels,

Ireland

convinced

20,

military

struggle

liberation

Vol.

and

of

misdeeds

poverty-stricken

and

them,

continual

of

of

to

colonialism

of

land

supplying

oppression,

the

moved

undeveloped,

appendages

referred

industrial

provided

lot

agrarian

England”

of

cattle,

the

as

Marx

district

and

an a

country, (Collected Works,

Ireland

to her

largely

recalls

Ireland

‘flourished’,

remained

exploited

which

and

Saltychikha.

agrarian

farmers.”

development

commerce

and

peasantry,

serf-owner

and

purely

ance

industry

Irish

Britain

tinction

ly

the

of

economic

‘brilliant’

her

of

‘prosperity’

treatment

her

the

and indict-

workers’

it.

oppression.

of

the

of

even even

as

the

Centuries

of

Irish

vitality

of

special

of

interest

boundless such

a

relatively

seat

the

of

resist-

national

small

people,

most systematic and cruel it. “‘After the most savage suppression, to exterminate them,” Engels wrote in

futility

of

the

measures to suppress after every attempt one of his fragments, “the Irish, following a short respite, stood stronger than ever before”’ (see p. 304). Marx and Engels were deeply impressed by the inexhaustible revolutionary energy of the Irish. ‘““Give me two hundred thousand Irishmen,” young Engels said, “and I could overthrow the entire British monarchy” (see p. 43). In Ireland Marx and Engels traced the ongins of the anti-colonial forces in an oppressed country, the gradual movement, its specific The and

Engels

biased English and

writings

here

studied

notion

features

Irish

down

the

the

the

national

liberation

trends.

show

history.

to

historians,

to earth

of

and

collected

traceable

bourgeois

brought

development

how They

thoroughly

economists romanticism

many

confuted

chauvinist

Marx

prejudices and of

a of

geographers, Insh

national-

ist historians. Bias, often disguised as objectivism, and tions of history to suit the class interest of privileged

distorsocial

25

ON I NT R O D UC T I

groups,

Marx

infuriated

and

Engels.

one

In

his

of

sketches,

into a commodity, hence also the writing of history. It is part of its being, of its condition for existence, to falsify all goods: it

wrote:

Engels

“The

turns

bourgeoisie

everything

falsified the writing of history. And the best-paid historiography is that which is best falsified for the purposes of the

(see p. 304). considered the

bourgeoisie”’

Engels Insh

History

and

interpretation volume,

the

tendency

p.

the

English

356).

posedly

of

In

that of

enslavement

this

cloak

(see

history.

shows

colonial

liberal

a

Character

characteristic

of

a

behind

‘the

Engels

the

intentions

Irish

of

this justify

Irish

English

English

his

typically

of

published

conception

English

“The

professor

in

reflects

bourgeoisie

Ireland.

bourgeois

Smith’s chauvinist

“Notes”,

Smith’s

the

Goldwin

to

apologetic

are

concealed

comments Engels about Smith exposes Smith’s attempt at whitewashing by specious explanations of their sup-

objectivity,”

Engels

invaders

civilising

mission,

that

they

cared

about

Concerning Smith’s discourse about the “spirit of patience’ and “liberal ideas” that supposedly motivated the policies of England’s ruling classes

flowering

towards

the

claiming

of

Ireland

country”.

writes: ‘And this when the English have been engaged in conquests throughout the century! ” (see p. 370). A bitter opponent of Irish independence who would not shrink from any argument to prove the “‘necessity” for England to retain power over the Irish people, Smith, as Engels emphasised, strove in every way to discredit the Irish national movement and present it as a futile undertaking causing fruitless sedition. Using of

liberal

tionary

her

as an

book

Smith’s

and

other

example,

historiographers

actions

ty remains retrograde

by

the

colonies,

Engels

was

popular

their

masses.

Engels

noted

that

another

trait

abhorrence of revolutrace of objectivi-

“No

wrote, describing in particular Smith’s attacks on the French Revolution of the end of the eighteenth century which had given a powerful push to, and led to an upsurge of, the liberation struggle in Ireland (see p. 365). The treatment by Marx and Engels of some of the key problems of Irish history 1s a credit to their scholarship. They created

an

here,”

he

essentially

new

conception

of

Irish

history

based

26

INTRODUCTION

on

the analytical method of historical materialism. Regrettably, neither published a complete study, elucidating the results of their investigation. We are compelled to glean their conclusions from handwritten notes and fragments, some of which

to

saw

first

Ireland

these

in

light

articles

provide

history

most

least

the

They

likewise

and

the

recently,

and

basis

Ireland,

of

only

letters.

a

of

important

English

history,

the

not

only

links

whole,

general

of

method,

but

entirely

valid,

however,

and

to

the at times.

of

explaining

modern

interconnection

between

their

references

interpretation

periods

True, many been made clarified and

But

still

as a

close

those

significance—are

Taken

antiquity

the

of St. George’s Channel. historical discoveries have Engels’s time, some facts published.

their

main

from

demonstrated

from

scientific

its

defining

and

observations

of

Insh

events on either archaeological since Marx’s

side

many and

many

of

since

the

new

and and

sources

judgments—and

purely

new

historical

material

has

corroborated them, adding to their value. Permanently valid, for example, is Engels’s assessment, his History of Ireland (1870), of the main sources knowledge equally

about

so

is

the

his

early

periods

characterisation

the

of

system of the Celts in exposed the chauvinist

Ireland,

their

content

of

special

philosopher

Imsh

of

history,

social

customs

argument

and

political

culture.

He

the Irish were culturally backward and incapable of running a state of their own. He demonstrated the significant contribution to Europe’s culture made in the early Middle Ages by Irish Christian missionaries and scholars, among whom he makes mention

the

of

whose doctrine, he wrote, “‘was led “‘close to Pantheism” (see p.

the

and

and

in of

Johannes

very

bold Irish

295).

that

Erigena,

Scotus

the history

time’’, before

for

and the

conquest, too, Engels stressed, abounded in resistance to foreign invaders—the Vikings, culminatthe Irish victory over the Norsemen at Clontarf in

Anglo-Norman

heroic ing

in

1014. Engels’s

study

of

the

survivals of clan relationships him to anticipate in 1870 some

the Insh Celts enabled conclusions about primitive Morgan,

the

distinguished

Ancient

Society

did

not

societies American

appear

drawn

by

ethnologist,

until

1877.

Lewis

among of

Henry

whose

Engels

the

used

book

the

27

INTRODUCTION

results of his investigations of Irish history in his book, The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State, published in 1884. In his appraisal of the degree of social development of Ireland im early feudal times, he recorded traits typical of that period (political disunity, feudal decentralisation, etc.), which made it relatively easy for the

conquerors,

Anglo-Norman

developed of

twelfth

In

Marx’s

16,

1867,

to

tion

and

the

the

Union

other

known

as

the

fought

was

Pale

and

conquer

suppressed, confiscated

the and

Ireland,

are

shown

in

subject,

the

clearer

it

19,

development turies back.

p.

1870,

by And

in

Engels’s

in

Engels’s

24,

February

we

day

an account

find

Ireland,

of

the

in the

English

of

showing base

later

part

south-eastern

a

1881,

of

entire island in the colony of English

as

put

Marx

253).

Destructive

national

risings

it,

wars

were

“of

were

brutally

bold

to

is

me,” Ireland

“‘that

the this

relief.

English

ever

“The Engels has

invasion since the

more wrote

been

and 12th

I study

to

Marx

stunted

in

thrown century”

the

on her

cen(see

400).

The decisive Engels stressed, the

Notes’’,

clan system forcibly exterminated, and land appropriated by aliens. The tragic conse-

quences January

Revolu-

Ireland,

“bulwark”,

p.

half

December

American

subjection

the

(see

latter

of

subjugation of the Ireland became

capitalists,

the

more

and

dated

the

from

established

landlordism”

to

the

collection,

colonial

until the centuries,

landlords

this

the

dated

History

Jenny

centunes,

the

the island 16th-17th English

of

in

Ireland

Extracts

his

for

daughter

stages

over

1801.

of

in

from

a

of

Ireland

on

“Ireland

notes works

invade

a report

for

work

Marx’s

main

how,

his

and

to in

notes

in

fragments

letter

to

feudal society, century.

the

representatives

17th-century

system

phase

came

in

at

the conquest of Ireland, Marx the time of English absolutism

bourgeois

revolution,

when

the

and and

capitalist

gradually expanded and the feudal barriers to its growth were torn down. Ireland then fell prey to the rising bourgeoisie and the gentry who were turning bourgeois. Marx and Engels demonstrated that every change in England in that stormy age—the Tudor and early Stuart era, the English revolution and Cromwell’s protectorate, the Stuart Restora-

ON I NT R O DU C T I

28

tion,

an

and

the

intensification

colonial

among

estates

English

of

crushed

the

the

and

‘‘The

a

bloody

Insh

James

people

into

phase

nation

and in

the

completely William

to

English

own

land wrote

Engels

|

Marx

and

in

Engels

the

at

issued

studied

subsequent

the

end

combating

the

and (see

383).

rule

of

and

given

their

outcasts,”

of

for

expansion

were

Cromwell

outlawed

her

redivision and

people

robbed

which

methods

forcible

I, Oliver

Ireland

for

in

consolidation

landholdings

Irish

a new

most

the

invaders

their

Orange,

1688—was

accumulation’,

Elizabeth,

transformed

of

used

landlordism.

by

invaders,

p.

suppression,

“primitive

of

of

Revolution’’

of

ravishers

purposes

of

“Glorious

forms

periods.

the

of

the

seventeenth

plots,

Catholic

For

century, enslavement of and civil rights,

eighteenth

and

were

them

the

century

on

tool

the

for

colonial

penal

laws

pretext

the

almost

enforced

a

English

of

throughout expropria-

final

tion and the Irish people, robbing them of political rooting out their national culture, customs and traditions. In his excerpts and notes about one of the most dramatic periods in Irish history—from the midto

seventies

the

end

of

the

colonial

clearly

exposes

English

ruling

classes.

period

under

the

the

eighteenth

oppression

Public

imposed

by

the

in Ireland developed in that two revolutionary events of

life

influence

very

century—Marx

of

world-historical importance—the American War of Independence of 1775-83 and the French bourgeois revolution of

1789-94. In the powerful ruling and

Irish

circles

accusatory

and

then

courts,

use

of

shows

a

means

spying,

in

mercenaries

of

a

“divide

acting and

on rule’,

the

ancient

England’s

whole

oppression:

and.

of

terrorist

Roman

statesmen

the

colonialists’

series

of

police

arbitrari-

patriots

groups, Marx

conquerors’

went

on

exceptional

hypocritical only.

vicious

light of

the

by

England’s

especially

that

persecution

moments, of back-tracking, temporary concessions for show

that,

an

casting

it

critical and

overthrown

document

contained

political

provocations,

to

manuscript is

rule

movement,

years

policy

Marx

their

liberation

those

Marx’s

force.

economic

ness,

in

this

of

already

having

national

policy.

crafty

avoid

resorted

particularities arsenal

to

order

out

both in

aw

and, promises,

emphasised principle of

their

of

way

29

INTRODUCTION

carry

to

social

dissent

and

(England

them

by

these

the

forced

between

methods

that

union

Great

of

firing

the

Pro-

the

Irish

Britain

Scotland) and Ireland. Engels demonstrated the colonialist nature of Act of Union of 1801, and stressed that it was a sequel to suppression of the Trish rising of 1798, the military

the the

and

occupation

and

Parliament.

made

during

laws

autonomy. tive

in

Farming local

in

by

the

tion

The

any

at

land,

of

Union

peasants

by

landlords

capitalist

exploitation of

product.

This

Engels

in

English

his

ruling

the

industries

apply

a system and

(Marx

(and

it” This

Engels’s

of

the

Irish

called

by

a

it

features

semi-feudal

shown by Marx in to N. F. Danielson of June 10, 1890. The classes, Marx wrote in his article, ‘““The Indian Tenant

(see p. system

Right’’, of

created

society’

which

to to

in

Ireland

enable

a

‘“‘those

small

caste

the Insh people the terms hold the land and to live

71). of

exploitation

population The

now occupa-

too often the necessary) Capital (Vol. III) and by

all

is

‘conditions

Irish

the

had the

worst

the

appropriation,

a

142).

middlemen combined

as

crippled.

people

p.

protec-

which

between (see

and

lifted

to

plunder

with

The

were were

of

which

surplus

rule.

“The

of

parliamentary

activity

itself.

rapacious lordlings to dictate which they shall be allowed

upon

only

French

most

letter

Question—Irish

abominable

budding the

was

Parliament

colonial

Parliament

established

rack-renting”’)

methods,

Irish

wrote, “the choice rent, or starvation”

of

“system

Britain’s

practically Marx

the

the

of

Government

Irish

could

them,”

the

of

abolished

Ireland’s

population

before

English

the

gains

decades and

phase

became

latter

the

of

repeal

a new

and

the

the

on

bear

Irish

American

Union

passed

in

the

important concessions, to and to recognise Irish

The

tariffs

result,

when

grant

penal

revival

to

brought

robbed

pressure

under

to

revolutions

brutally

Union

national

century,

compelled,

ushered

The

the

eighteenth

the

pressure

the

Irish

the

was

bribery,

of

discord

on

playing

and

Marx

on

on

thrust

use

wide

sowing

It

camp,

national

making

Catholics.

had

Irish

and

fanaticism

people

Of

the

contradictions,

religious testants

of

into

Condition

to of

of

appalling the

the

small

tenant

poverty,

Working-Class

reduced

described in

England

in and

30

in

INTRODUCTION

other

works

failures

resulted

passed,

however,

perienced.

people.

the

periodic

so

the

basis

‘The

Irish

population,’

millions.

some

of

Atlantic” In

the

p.

(see

whom

by

the

of

on

itself

was

potato

the

disastrous

crop

1845-47

of

been

of

previously

crop surex-

Recurrent

That

had

failure

more

was

that

that

total

impressed

Marxism.

of

famines.

anything

almost

grain

of has

two

founders

immeasurably

export event

in

The

rendered

the

of

the

starved,

while

No

the

of

wrote,

Marx

rent.

landlords’

memory

the

continued Irish

“decreased

others

by

fled

across

by

a new

105).

century

mid-19th

the

were

Irish

struck

part precipitated by the famine. Landowners began to refuse to rent out the small strips of land customarily sown to grain or potatoes. Instead, they took up large-scale grazing, to the accompaniment of wholesale evictions. disaster,

in

Marx

acute the

and

social

causes,

showing lords, after

and

national

nature

that

it

the

repeal

prices, wanted Irish nation,

of

in

and

corn

cheaper however,

even

livelihood,

pursued the

as

contradictions.

farmers of

process

this

consequences

and

was

tenant

big

saw

Engels

the

laws

the

1846

animal products. For the agrarian change

the

home.

Marx

big

bourgeoisie the

and

upheaval,

the

of

and

hearth

of

demonstrated

agrarian

interest English

in

source

fresh

They

of

the

a

landwho,

fall in bread

bulk

of the loss of

meant described

it

as

“quiet business-like extinction” (see p. 133), marking the beginning of a continuous decline in the population of Ireland mainly by forced emigration. As Marx’s daughter Eleanor put it, Ireland became the Niobe of the nations, a country that was losing her children. “In

1855-66,”

Marx

wrote,

“1,032,694

Irishmen

were

displaced by 996,877 head of cattle.”” The most urgent need was to end the forcible eviction of peasants and to stop the landlords, backed by the English authonities, from robbing the Insh farmers of their livelihood. This, Marx and Engels stressed, must be the first objective for the Irish national liberation movement. They focussed their attention emancipation, tracing it back to the clans the

to

the

Middle

invasion Ages,

of

which

on

the

stout

the

Anglo-Norman

was

repeated

at

Irish fight resistance of feudal

the

time

knights of

for the

in

Britain’s

31

INTRODUCTION

16th-

and

17th-century

colonial

expansion.

Thus,

1641-52

in

1689-91, Ireland was the scene of general insurrections against English rule. The national resurgence at the end of the eighteenth century was another important landmark, culminating in the 1798 rising. Marx and Engels wrote in glowing terms of the Irish revolutionaries of that period, the and

founders

Tone,

the

of

Edward

The

and

others.

Marx

and

Engels

of

features

are

of the

Irish

examined

outlook. Thus, manuscript “Ireland of

tions by

of

the

a

various

main

their

of

classes

author

scien-

of

Irish the

clearly

the

the

the

a

profound of

the

the

role

poor.

dialectical

Irish

forces

shows

society, urban

the

of

gives

motive

and

and of

course

the

and

time

Irish movement stages of its evolution,

examined the main

light

detail

The roots

that

masses grasp

perfect

in

social

at

peasant

the

with

the

of

movement

national it

traces struggle.

liberation

people’s

explanation

the

for

Marx

1801’?

in

a

of

example, in his above-mentioned from the American Revolution to the

tific

Union

Wolfe

provide something liberation movement. Its

national

closely

United*Irishmen,

of

Society

Fitzgerald

works

chronicle

patriotic

A

posi-

played

in

researcher

method,

Marx

in its development, revealed and exposed the antagonistic

within it, pointing out which of these gained the upper hand at various stages. Marx considered the main characteristic of this process to be the growth of the struggle for parliamentary autonomy—a struggle led in the main within a constitutional framework under the aegis of liberal elements in the Irish nobility and bourgeoisie who stood at the head of the armed patriotic organisation of Irish tendencies

a

Volunteers—into bourgeoisie

They

call

republic The

the

national

interests

Catholic Orientation

for

was on

was

to

as

from

parliamentary

of

in

this

a

call

be

methods

of

for

the

national

one:

radical

independent

France

equal

the

semi-feudal

a

an in

given

meaning

by

for

the

movement. masses and the

popular replaced

proclaimed

Catholics

masses

struggle

elements fore

the

of

that

of

interpreted

peasant

the

became

for

demand

to

programme

autonomy along the lines

Protestants

revolutionary

Progressive

came

gradually

expressed

moderate the

genuinely

independence.

country’s

in

1792.

rights

liberation

with of

the

slavery, while the struggle gave way to

39

INTRODUCTION

—_—-__

calls

national

for

rebellion.

was

to the

resistance—up

Marx

considered that formation in 1791 of the

the

moment,”

this

“From

merges

Volunteers

question

Catholic

was

that

became

struggle the

longer

came,

as

Irishmen

“the

movement

that

United

the

of

Irish

changes Society. the

of

Irishmen.

people.

The

ques-

The

to remove disabilities from the Catholic upper and middle classes, but to emancipate the Insh peasant, for the vast part Catholic. The question became social as to its matter, assumed French political principles, as to its form, remained national”’ (see p. 175). The highest stage of the development of the liberation tion

no

armed

in these

United the

of

an

including

Rubicon

wrote,

he

into

and

United

giving

Marx

Irishmen

popular

uprising

progressive

strata of dependence

colonial

Irish

of

the

United

ance

the

of

the

In

time

and

stressed

role

of

path,

character.

heroic

explaining

efforts

in

the

The the

of

the

deepening

weaker

reasons

the

events

revolutionary their

wing

Left

revolutionary

the

movement

same

the

Irish

century,

eighteenth

open

Irishmen

at

Marx

defeat,

the

the

to berate the country from the doors to the unavoidable

society

reforms.

when

democratic

crowned

and

bourgeois-democratic

took

profoundly

1798

of

1795

in

society

a

movement

the

noted,

for

histoncal

at

the and

sides its

signific-

end

the

of

consolidating

Insh people’s traditions of freedom. His work demonthe importance of analysing the lessons to be drawn

strates

events for which oppressed

these

from

under necessity of

the

the

mass

Irishmen’s

come

the

for

enslaved

the

achieve gressive Marx’s

of

struggle nation the

an

understanding

and

revolutionary national forces and

for

Engels’s

conditions

social

and

interests needs

the

striving

the of

United

to

over-

Protestants

and

Catholics

and

the

Irish

people’s

pro-

of

democratic works

the

considered

legacy—their

between

a

satisfying

Marx

consolidation

on

the

people may be liberated to be both for the national

people.

discord

of

and

basis—to

be

letters

give

very valuable. an assessment

of the revolutionary deeds of the Irish peasantry (Whiteboys, Ribbonism, etc.); the movement for repeal of the Anglo-Irish

Union; the Irish revolutionary organisations—Young Ireland and the Insh Confederation—which attempted insurrection in 1848; the petit-bourgeois Fenians who repeated the attempt

33

ON I NT R O DU C T I in

1867;

the

account

Their thorough.

of

movement;

Rule

the

agitation

of

the

Land

etc.

League,

mass

Home

Marx

the

the

of

people,

the

movement

Fenian

maintained

that

lower

it

orders”’

“‘took

(see

p.

is particularly root only in the 136), expressing

protest against evictions and the nation’s craving for national independence and social emanéipation. Marx and Engels alike praised the bourgeois Home Rule Confederation and its leader, Charles Stewart Parmell (whose work is examined in many of Marx’s and Engels’s letters of the late seventies and early eighties and by Engels after Marx’s death), who, at the height of the movement, sought contact with the Irish masses. They praised Parnell for his part in founding the Land League. It was popular support, indeed, that helped the champions of Home Rule to gain their impressive political strength and to profit by the contradictions between the English ruling parties. Marx and Engels admired the freedom-loving traditions of the

the

farmers’

Irish.

Moreover,

they

believed

that

the

Irish

people’s

struggle had a fruitful influence on the English public mind. The Irish are teaching our leisurely John Bull to get a move ” Engels wrote to one of his correspondents (see p. 450). And in ““The English Elections’’, an article written in 1874, he described the fighting Irish and the demonstrations of the English workers as the “motive forces of English political development”’ (see p. 428). At

same

the

time,

they

were or

far

from

idealising

the

movement in Ireland, anywhere else, for they were always keenly aware of its weak sides at different stages of its growth and of its heterogeneous class composition. Ina letter to Eduard Bernstein dated June 26, 1882, Engels observed that the Irish movement consisted of two trends: the radical agrarian that erupted into spontaneous peasant national

actions

was

and

tionaries, tion of the sympathies

2-226

by

democrats

and_

revolu-

on

the one hand, and the “liberal-national opposiurban bourgeoisie” (see p. 451), on the other. The of Marx and Engels lay naturally with the radical

wing which was of Ireland and The

represented

policy

of

oriented expressed the

towards the the social

Imsh

liberals

revolutionary liberation demands of the people. (their

narrow

national

34

INTRODUCTION

programme,

their

fear

setting

of

loose

energy of

of the people, their appeals conciliation and of deals with

severe

evoked

as

sharp,

the

the

errors

and

either.

Marx

They

and

indeed,

extremely

often

O’ Connell.

the

of

Engels

disapproved

revolutionary

moderation, their love English ruling classes)

for the

was,

which

case of Daniel class narrowness

in

But

criticism,

the

radicals,

criticised, the

of

pick the national

many

and

leaders’

right

illusions

escape

not

did

F enian

plotting, their inability to to a given situation, their

whose

them

adventurist

means

tactical

suited typical of so

narrowness,

to understand the importance of contacts with the English democratic, especia’ ly proletarian, movement. Engels wrote scathingly that‘ these gentry the whole labour movement is pure heresy and the Irish peasant must not on any account be allowed to other

know

Irish

that

p.

(see

the

refusal

are

socialist

workers

Irish

proietariat

rising

prominent

ment.

role

his

sole

allies

in

Europe”

Marx

tion

Land

in

the

on

1869

national.

a

class

Labour

mitiative

They

the

among

and,

and

the

course,

of

League the

of

welcomed

International

other

the

things,

in

founded

General

move-

Men’s

autumn

the

the

Insh

of

Association

its

of

participa-

of

Council

establishment

Working

its

a

play

the

and

as

must,

country’s national liberation Engels welcomed the early signs

in

awakening

of

their

397).

The

of

leaders,

in

Inter-

sections Ireland,

Britain and the United States, and gave rebuff to the attempts of the reformists from the British Federal Council to gain control over these sections. They cultivated the Great

friendship him

where In

the

of

Secretary with

was

the

interested

in

of

trade

unions

national Marx

General

the

fact

with the

settled

the

Irish

that

Irish

workers

branches

in

Party

interests

of

the

and

Engels

for

Irish

were

their

the

United

was

were one

Labourers,

He

keenly

joining

the

the

new

of

censured

Federation sectarian

States,

workers.

Engels

Ireland.

contacts

Their

immigrant

nineties

Social-Democratic

Labour

in

early General

Corresponding

Ireland.

for

and and

Gasworkers

of

he

after

eighties

MacDonnell,

Council

among

active

late

Union

dependent

Patrick

continued

he

leaders

Joseph

of

and disregard

the

the of

Inthe

workers. untiring

in

their

exposure

of

35

INTRODUCTION

English

police

brutality

agaist

Irish

revolutionaries.

Their

public statements, together with the articles of Jenny, Marx’s elder daughter, and those of other leaders of the International denouncing English reprisals against Irish freedom fighters, inhuman treatment in English jails and the humiliating

conditions

for

amnesty,

English

imposed

were,

etc.,

the in

English

a

effect,

as

authorjties scathing

the

price

indictment

of

were

rigid police control and coercion laws, on the one hand, and petty half-hearted reforms, on the other, designed to distract attention from the crying need for more fundamental changes. These were coupled with small concessions to the upper crust of Insh society—the Irish bourgeoisie, landowners and top Catholic clergy—designed to split

rule.

by

and

There

weaken

the

camp.

national

was

brutality

Gross

accompanied by demagogy and half-measures that did little alleviate the lot of the Irish people. Thus Marx and Engels assessed the agrarian and other English-sponsored reforms in Ireland, particularly the Land Acts of 1870 and 1881. “But something had to be done to pull the wool over the eyes of the public. It was essential to appear to be doing something for Ireland,’’ Marx wrote (see p. 260).

to

The the

only

Irish

people

contained

in

programme

was

based

the

Insh

on

the

English

2*

liberation

other

Irish

to

of

the

oppressed

Marx

and

saw free

form

with

It

relationship the oppressed

working

national

and

insisted

pointed for

oppression

the

Their

social

revival

was

repeal

of of

and Ireland, and of secession. As

and

England

political

in

the

changes in the

the

choice

the

of

the two countries The duty of the

to

support elimination

and

is

been the slogans of not rule out a future

that

out,

democracy

demanded

between nation.

to

and

did

Ireland

of

social

of

choice

have

They

federation

they

this

should

of

to self-determination

right peoples.

it, those movement.

interests Engels.

and

imposed union of Great Britain for Ireland including the right

workers,

independence,

forms

by

of

basic

true

of

written

and

appropriate should rest

the

principles

of propitious radical country. But they

latter

the

national

labour

voluntary

the

with

[reland’s

Engels

English

event

and

recognition

and

and

consistent

documents for

the forcibly independence Marx

solution

coercion.

back

the

the

Irish in

right

fight

Ireland

Lenin

of

for of

all

described

36

this

INTRODUCTION

as

splendid

“‘a

example

the

of

attitude

the

proletariat

of

the oppressor nations should adopt towards national movements, an example which has lost none of its immense practical importance.” (Collected Works, Vol. 20, p. 442.) Marx’s recommendations are still valid. He pointed out that the struggle for Ireland’s national independence should fuse with that for the revolutionary remaking of the agrarian system (he spoke of it as “agrarian revolution’’, see p. 158), stressing that political mdependence in itself, necessary though it is, cannot guarantee that the former colony is relieved

every

of

country.

metropolitan achieve

economic

introduce tion

element To

English

of

30,

November

be

genuinely

independence.

protective

industry

p.

1867,

(see

the

former

must Irish to

independent

Marx

against

tariffs

on

dependence

of

advised

it

the

the

destructive

Marx’s

letter

competi-

to

Engels,

158).

The liberation of colonial and dependent countries in recent years, and the subsequent history of Ireland, bear out these views of Marx and Engels. Their orientation towards revolutionary methods is proved correct by the experience of the

colonial

and

struction social

up In

ed

the

who

have

shaken

off

the

struggle

for

idea

that

with

intemal

combmed

the

their

away

interest

on

writings

essential

Ireland,

connection

recon-

social

economic

an

the

be

peoples is

of the masses, sweeping consequences of colonial rule independent economy.

in

and

so

And

must

independence

ing

dependent

oppressors.

their

Marx

and

Engels

between

the

national

and

the build-

demonstratliberation

movement and the workers’ struggle for the socialist reconstruction of the world. They called on the English workers and the fighters for Ireland’s independence to join hands. Engels,

and

Chartists

1840s

(see

Chartists”

the

example,

for

time

workers

his and of

time

the

advocated

Irish

First

and

International,

time

again

no

emancipation

of Ireland

is

humanitarian

sentiment.

but

social

emancipation”

and

O’Connor

“‘Feargus

Bill

Coercion

‘The

(see

p.

bonds

that

Marx

408).

first

Marx

for

of

Irish

in

the the

People”’).

At

the the

abstract

Engels

the

and

told

condition

and

as

early Ireland

them

“for

question the

the

between

as

movement

liberation

articles, the

close

of

English national

justice their

or own

emphasised

37

INTRODUCTION

_

the and

on

ruinous effects national strife

among

them.

Anglo-Irish the

They

it

class.

colonial

development

strengthened

Looking

way

back,

conquest out the ress”’

the

they

hand

window,” how

people

the

of

the

Union,

he

upper

colonising in

an

standing

army

and

the

people

on

both

another

forges

his

key

postulates

ers

to

p.

an

a

the

things,

that

chains,’’

that

show

the

the

how

the The and

of

suppress

the

the

oppresses worded one of

he

for

position

in

that

importance

internationalist

size

to

used

was

of

177).

aristocracy

nation

“Any

p.

(see

English

machine

islands.

having

passage

its

of

the

Republic

1801,

of

itself

in

“England’s distfor the English

increasing

for

police

Marx’s

exploiting

English

138).

result state

parent

own

(see

well,

in

the

work-

co-

national

Communication”’,

“Confidential

255).

was

For

an

Marx ally

and

of

exploitation.

processes

the

the

ally

itself

capitalist

of

the

national

working-class

saw they

the with

saw human the

oppression

against

interaction

and

the it,

was

peasants and

the

Whereas

{reland

would

English probable

the

system

the

liberative

countries.

decisive

factor

from all exploitation, in the fight against

with

the

movement in freeing the oppressed peoples. Ireland’s fight for independence was tionising effect on the English workers, action.

of

metropolitan

race

movement

liberation

struggle

the

colonies

as

class,

emancipation

must

Engels

They

in

working

and

as

the

Union

of

gave excuse

working

adopt matter

on

as

engaging

consequences

out,

bourgeoisie

lonial

brake

nation

other

“By

p.

(see

the Act

the

pointed

its

was a ruling

among

threw

wrote

evaluated

régime

of

the

the implantation of the new under Oliver Cromwell paved

Cromwell

intensification

oligarchic

case

in

the

of

Restoration.

Marx

Marx

ideology cultivate

were eager to

oppressor

showed,

Stuart

Ireland,

of

is

mind

the

for

chauvinist

oppression

the

of

the plunder of Irish land and English aristocracy in Ireland the

the

demonstrated—graphically

relations—that

progressive

because

the workers of that the capitalists

national

to

have rousing

of

The in

the

but it feudal

liberation

a

revoluthem to

in the forties and fifties Marx had held that gain her freedom through the victory of the working class, in the sixties he considered it more that Irish victory would spark off the English

38

INTRODUCTION

workers’ Marx to

fight Engels,

wrote class

Marx

“the

in

as

not

oppressor

liberated

“However,

under

influence

a

‘What

another.’ Ireland

English

freed

strengthened

as

reaction

number

is

).”’

allowing

the

for

would

liberate

working

people

of

the

English of

nologically. first

At

included

the

publication,

English

translation

the

end

in

this

of

each

language

was

the

kK

made

in

440.)

forms

the

oppressed

and

on

depend

cases.

between

a world as a as well as

a

of

convinced that and the fighters

all

is

(just

the

these

in

union

p.

20,

workers,

England,

x works

class

England

Ireland

enslavement

which

essential

fraternal

them and all the workers free, progressive future for

The

by

until

free

in of

variety

were

and Engels the working

was

idea and

inevitable

assumed correctsubjugated

and be

Vol.

a

adopting bourgeois

and

Reaction

Works,

the

time,

by The

never

her

the

of

long

fairly

enslavement

of

class

to have

wil

by

Ireland

working

view

nation

processes

mdependence the

his

themselves—for

varying situations—Marx internationalist unity of championed

a

for

yoke.

the

Marx’s

movement movement

stronger

class

(Collected

revolutionary

national

a

fostered

the

of

peoples

by

chronic,

that

English

grew

English

Russia

the

liberals

it is for

the

nations!

of

While

course

in

that

reconsidered

fostered

1870,

in

thought

national

working

from

and

Marx

Ireland

misfortune

The is

in Marx

and

by lost,

5,

change

the liberals, and itself leaderless.

left

forms.

the

working-class

the

of to

was

March

somnolent

for

the

the

letter

404).

first

happened

appendage policy

revolutionary

p.

by by

movement

liberation it.

so

it

the

became an liberal-labour

ed

“At

nation, but nation...

now

reasons

the

on

Lafargue

till

(see

forms”’

follows:

be

Laura

England,

acute

oppressed

fell

and

explained

viewpoint would

Paul

war

Lenin

(see above—mentioned 10, 1869). Once Ireland

December

to

assume

will

socialism

for

union

the for

They

the

Irish

between

condition Ireland.

a

for

Ok

collection

are of

the and,

are

arranged

chro-

indicated

the

of

original

from

wherever

the

date

its

which

the

text

was

39

INTRODUCTION

originally tion

Engish,

is

supplied

indexes,

though of

“Chronology

or

damaged

same

the

various

also

edition

here

reproduced.

with

notes,

and

with

some

minor

characters

notes

illegible.

given

themselves

collec-

and

subiect

mentionea

have

where

abbreviations

supplied

by

untitled

left

brackets.

square

name

brackets places

titles

fragments

square

used

the

Certain

The

and

in

in

The

in

the

listed.

square

in

editors

method. works

are not

Ireland”’

Explanatory text by the

the

the

In

brackets,

the

these

to

manuscript

is

af¥e

given

the

editors

by

cases

the

added

been

their

where

have

in

full

the

authors

are

the

been

by

for

authors

changed

to

cursive. This

edition

printed

twice, the

from

an

is

enlarged

1971

in

American

Engels’s

Goldwin

Character’? have been former work was for archives

the

of

Longuet,

and

researchers.

additional

volume

(Vol.

Collected

History

text

this in

only works

the in

descendants has

of

Works

of

the

Irish

Marx

and

In

view

troduction

and

reference

first

to the

45.

Union

Engels.

of

the

material

Irish

the

an

edition

of

“‘Varia

on

Russian

included

accordance

with

contents,

edition

of

in

1975

in

Engels’s

this

Jenny

hands

previously

changed

in

and

and

daughter,

published

Confiscations’’, reprinted in

1801”

collection. The in the personal

into

second

“Ireland

History

eldest

come

of

was

which

manuscript

Irish

Marx’s

45)

now

Vol.

of

were

is

first,

in the present time preserved

recently

collection,

the

of

Marx’s to the

Smith’s

added a long

Both

the

1974.

and

Revolution

on

“Notes

version

the

have

the In-

been

revised. L.

I.

Golman

Moscow

KARL

MARX AND

FREDERICK

ENGELS

Ireland and

the

Irish

Question

Frederick

LETTERS

One hears Irish Repeal gland).2

the

pass

to

helped

House

himself

again

about

it

again

more; raking up

in

the

the

then

order

to

be

stale

obsolete

Enthe and

rejected

by

London

left

and

and 1s now one was thinking up in Dublin and

debates No

turns

Dan*

Old

and

Commons

suddenly

the

during

of

repeal.

of

who

House

parliamentary

question and

lawyer,

in

has

and

O’Connell of Ireland

Union

measures the

about

old

O’Connell

old

any

talk

the

calmly

from

his

LONDON!

cunning

“liberal’’ Lords,

of

absented raising

sat

but

of

the

government

Whig

is

(abolition

O’Connell,

FROM

now

nothing

Engels

It is not

lumber.

surpnis-

yeast is now producing remarkable airbubbles. The cunning old fox is going from town to town, always accompanied by a bodyguard such as no king ever ing

that

the

had—two How

old

hundred

much

could

men, seen

and

a

thousand

to

nothing genuine

have

lose,

people

been

done

or

popularity

O’Connell’s

understanding hundred

thousand if

little

if

always

a

had

men—and

egoism

what

two-thirds

child

of

under

a

The

nature.

Irishman From

broken-down

his roof,

===

*

Daniel

is

O’Connell.—£ad.

a

carefree,

native

on

weak

who

tea

the where and

have

in

rags,

has

Irish-

never

two

cheerful,

heath,

who

moreover,

me

Irishmen cannot know them. Give thousand Irishmen and I will overthrow

Two

clothed

proletarians and sansculottes and, wild, headstrong, fanatical Gaels. One

monarchy.

vanity!

People

are

whom

of

and

men!

him!

man possessed a little more

sensible

O’Connell

less

surround

hundred entire British potato-eating he

meagre

grew food,

up, he

44

is

. .

s u d d en ly t hro w n

in t o

. ,, ,

o u r c iv ilisa t ion

FREDERICK

ENGELS

. , , . ., . , , . , H u nge r

-

d r iv es

-

hi m

to

y b ur ly o f ice co ld hur l t h e mec ha n ica l ego is t ic his pass i ons a re a ro u se d W h a t t h e Eng lis h f a c t ory t o w ns l o w — w h o s e y o u t h w a s spen t p la y ing d oes t h is ra w y o u ng f e l on mo ors and b egg ing a t t he roa d s id e — k no w o f t h rif t ? He sq u a nd ers w h a t h e e arns t h en h e s t arv es unt il t he ne x t pa y d a y or u n t il h e aga in f in d s w or k H e is a c c u s t ome d t o go ing h ungry T h en h e go e s b a c k s ee k s o ut t he me m b ers o f h is f a m ily on t h e roa d w h ere t h e y ha d sc a tt ere d in or d er t o b eg f rom t ime t o t ime assem b ling aga in aro u n d t h e t eapo t w hic h t h e m o t h er carr ie s w it h h er B ut in E ng la n d t h e I r is h ma n sa w a grea t d ea l he a t t en d e d p u blic mee t ings a n d w or k ers ’ assoc ia t ions h e k no w s w h a t R epea l is and w h a t S ir R o b er t P ee l s t an d s f o r h e q u it e c ert a inly h as o f t en h a d f ig h t s w it h t h e po lice an d co uld t e ll y o u a grea t d ea l a b o u t t he h eart less ness a n d disgra ce f ul b e h a v io u r o f t he “ P ee lers ’ ’ ( t he po lice ) H e h as a ls o heard a lo t a b o u t D anie l O ’ C onne ll N o w h e onc e more re t u ms t o h is o ld co tt age w it h it s bit o f land f o r po t a t oes T he po t a t oes are rea d y f o r ha r v es t ing he digs t h em up a nd no w h e h a s s om e t hing t o liv e on d u ring t he w int er B u t h ere t h e pr inc ipa l t enan t ? appears d e m a n d ing t h e ren t G oo d G o d w h ere ’ s t h e mo ne y t o c o me f rom ? T he pr inc ipa l bl e t o t he la n d o w ne r f o r t he re n t an d t he re t ena nt 1s respons i f ore h as his proper t y a t t ac he d T he I r is h man o ff ers res is t a nce and is t h ro w n int o go a l F ina lly h e is se t f re e aga in and soon a f t erw ard s t h e princ ipa l t enant o r some one e lse w h o t oo k pa rt in t h e a t t a c h me n t o f t he propert y is f o u n d d ea d in a it c h T ha t is a s t ory f rom t he lif e o f t h e Ir is h pro le t arians w hic h is o f d a ily occ urrence T he h a lf sa v a ge u p b r ing ing and la t e r t h e c omp le t e ly c iv ilise d en v ironm ent b ring t he Eng l a nd

In

,,. . ,, ,

, ., .

. . ,

-

-

-

. , , . , ,, ,. , , ,

I ris h ma n

-

in t o

c on t ra d ic t ion

w it h

hi mse lf

in t o

a

s t at e

of

permane n t irr it a t ion o f con t in ua lly s mo u ld er ing f u ry w hic h ma k es him capa b le o f an y t hing In a ddit ion h e b ea rs t he b u r d en o f f iv e cent ur ies o f oppress ion w it h a ll it s c onseq u enc es Is it s urpris ing t ha t lik e an y o t h er h a lf sa v age he s t rik es o ut b lindly a nd f urio us ly on e v er y oppor t u n it y t h a t his e y es b urn w it h a perpe t u a l t hirs t f o r re v enge a d es t ru c t iv e f ury f or w hic h it is a lt oge t h er a ma t t er o f indiff erence w ha t it 1s d irec t e d aga ins t so long as

-

LETTERS

it

FROM

can

out

strike

violent

national

orthodox

45

LONDON

and

the

of

that

Protestant-episcopal arrogance—with ing can be accomplished. And all hands.

O’Connell’s his

disposal!

The

men,

so

emperor

had.

ever

were

not

could

a

such

all

Repeal

as is

to

has.

his

Union;

of

had

the

people,

upright, would be

i.e.,

But

consistent have

any

left

idle

Old-Norman

the

people

Daniel be

just

were

O’Connell

as

much

Tories high association his

Irishmen

rejects

the

appearances

and with

to

sake

in

what

does

he

solely

for

Robert the

Peel

head

achieve

and

of

with

desperate

the

because

into

office this

a

wretched he

his

is

juste-milieu

well

enough,

in

his

the

purely

and

Catholic

That

is

offered

now

by

that

is

socialism, the and

is

rub.

If

would

soon

to

leave

that talks

wams

he is

the close

Daniel’s

why

Chartists,5

again

the

then

aristocrats

the clergy,

or

moment,

as he wants reason for

dry

dangerous

a

longer

districts,

there for

soldier

no

would

an

but

English

Catholic

But

even

moneyed

dry. the

last

there

castle.

and

Whig,

double-faced

free

high

he

at

since,

his

set

left

against

support

long

be

and

agitation

Sir

while

then

priest

baron

the

what

knows

not

democrat, Ireland

welfare

quite enough to keep all Ireland really the man of the people, if and were not himself afraid of

were

Protestant

any

too,

are were

he

if

the

not he is misusing the impoverished, in order to embarrass the Tory

courage

sufficient

had

it

course

Peel,

hence 25,000 soldiers in check. If O’Connell he

Cork—150,000

millions of valiant to accomplish even

unable

Robert

Sir

and

know

serious about it, because oppressed Irish people Ministers and to put back friends.

anythare in are at

really concerned to petty juste-milieut aims

demanded

now

he

the

of

the

were

clamour

like

he

if

and

He

in

The

against

people

of

really

O’Connell

the

truly

power

his

Irishmen?

clergy

elements elements

yesterday

view, if he his miserable,

him

force

if

all

should

refuse

these these

multitude

before

And

behind

Repeal—I

the

all.

Saxons,

in Nenaph—200,000, today in Kilkenny— it goes on. A triumphal procession lasting triumphal procession such as no Roman

people in poverty—if

of

a

what

day

yesterday 400,000, and a fortnight, a the abolish

And

the

by

fostered

not

is

against

Gaels

fanaticism

Catholic

But

destroy?

hatred

why

although about

he for

de-

46

FREDERICK

mocracy—just Republican succeed

the

in

Irish

achieving

people,

dangerous

Published

than

in

Republikaner

June

as Louis Philippe in his day talked institutions-and that is why he will

27, 1843

anything

which

to

51,

the

long

the

political

run

is

to

about

never

education

no

one

and

F.

of

more

himself.

Schwetzerischer

No.

in

but

ENGELS

K.

Marx

Collected

pp.

Works,

389-91

Engels,

Vol.

3,

Frederick

THE

CONDITION

London Giles

couple

part

avenues

in

crooked,

market fruits,

still

appearance

wish

to

with

the

the

slums the

in

in

the

broad,

a

a

most

splendid

about,

in

the

Regent

Street,

disorderly

collec-

houses,

there

of

by

the

of

idles

is

order.

rookery

midst

Street,

It

Strand.

their

penetrated

by

Oxford

which

be

London

of

in

famous

to

four-storied

narrow,

with

as

is quite

much

as

life

live

the

with places I had

in

below

the

working-class

said.

note-book

given

article

almost of

narrow

the

literally

The

article

an

M.D.”

is

is

districts and entitled

and

in ““The

are

without,

and

could

in

Dwellings

between

the

houses,

all description.

been

London

possibly

comparison

alleys

written

Magazine

everywhere

houses

between

already

Illuminated

the

in

surpass

ruin had

and

being

passages

from

The

nothing

courts

as

well

within

human

this

tottermg

an

in

no

all

as

smell.

filthy

covered

and

filth

horrible

that the

by

description

across

a

But

these,

from

garret,

such

them.

entered

which The

1s

in

dwellings

streets,

to

the

of

arises

cellar

from

their

what

the

and

further, stalls,

occupied

many

TOWNS

surrounded of

or

is

Giles

thoroughfares

fish-dealers’

dealing

GREAT

world

and

streets,

filthy

sidewalk

*

rf

town, except that, here, of the working-class only are to be seen. A vegetable is held in the street, baskets with vegetables and naturally all bad and hardly fit to use, obstruct the

people

came

gay

three

great

the

in

St.

town,

the

Square

tall,

of

the

THE

neighbourhood

Trafalgar

in

chapter

the

of

which

immediate tion

ENGLAND6

streets.

broad

of

populous

of

WORKING-CLASS

us investigate some of the comes first,* and in London which is now, at last, about

Let St.

the

THE

OF

IN

From

Engels

when

(October

which

coincidés—in

general of

1844)

the

tenor—with

Poor,

from

|

48

°

FREDERICK

a

Scarcely

whole

crumbling,

doors

door-posts

old

of

tions,

and

paid

pools.

Here

workers

and

moral

of

deeper,

thieves

and

losing

ruin

more

separate

on

spots

the

in

Manchester

Road,

and

a curve

is

the

of

ruts

and

tions; and

the

here,

heaps

and

as

be

equalled

in

these

in

the

a

in

the

reached and

forces

the

the

by

swine

and

that

In

doors,

in the the

upon

as

if

with

the

of

beholder.

But

in all directhese,

tall

factory

children

swarm

upon

the

whole

The

rookery

windows,

mended

or

stench,

this

this the

what

garbage

as can hardly race that lives

door-posts,

which

refuse,

from

in

race

humanity.

of

old, into

of

dozen

the

a purpose, thought

are fallen

a

broken and

by

effluvia

Irk.

rotten

filth

stage

lowest line

and

in

thousand

pools

spectacle

the

sides

four

masses

thrive

short,

lies

hole,

four

and

repulsive

worst court on cottages, behind

measureless

of

women

deep

uneven,

the

the

Oxford

cottages

The

streets

smoke

ragged

puddles.

sprung

wet cellars, in sphere penned impression

poisoned by

hateful

ruinous

oulskin,

is

as

Irish. the

all

with buildings, cottages, built

about

or pavement; among standing

he

of

filthy

live

resist

end) of

all

drains

filth

horde

such

furnishes

district

sort,

darkened

A

about

have

them

without

and

which

of

atmosphere

chimneys.

in

smallest

sickening

laden

with

most

part

in

and

offal

back,

the

of

on

surrounded

the daily

to

the

rather

embankments, covered of about two hundred

to

beings, and

and

a

In

in

describe

to

of

surround-

south-west

Ireland.

or

sunk

evil

high

groups

back

human

Little

Medlock

and

factories stand two chiefly

as

in

worst

the

power

come

immediately

gather

sinking

and

I should

never

I should

side,

known

tall

dirty,

detail

yet

their

of

bein direc-

Irish,

them,

filth,

in

prostitution

of

not

surrounds

and

there in all

majority

have

the demoralising influence of want, ings. ...But the most horrible spot (if

wanting

poor,

victims the

who

which

more

daily

the

broken,

doors

the

are

walls

and

lie

the

of

together,

those

ashes

before

poorest

the

huddled

extraction,

whirlpool

emptied

live

with

loose

no doors garbage and

liquids

the

found,

or altogether are needed,

together,

where Heaps of

indiscriminately Insh

nailed

foul

be

window-frames

quarter, steal. the

stinking

and

boards

this thieves’ nothing to

can

window-pane

ENGELS

in

must

dark,

atmoreally

This

is

the

exterior

of

this

must

one

think

THE

CONDITION

when

he

hears

hundred

privy

epidemic tion

perhaps

beings

live;

that

spite

Little

1844,

asserts*

that

the

in this

in

spite

only

the

are

cellars

up with earth have now more by Irish people;

filled

once

up

constantly

wells

cellar

lying

below

loom

weaver,

had

every

morning

and

From

If

the

chapter

England

river

level,

so

bale

out

the

and

Wales

Dr.

are

and cellar

once

occupied

water clay, the

the

stopped with that its occupant,

a

his

from

all the

of

cellars

of

of

Kay

hand-

dwelling

street!

results

on a

floors

water

the

the

first

condi-

year

this

1831!

one

AGRICULTURAL

illustrates

on a large scale consequences of

hole

in

cholera

the

asin

the

of

the of

number

in

to

THE

which

reaSon

the

each

for

inaccessible

preachings

emptied

that

it into

by

a

that

the

pour

into

but

a

the

state

been

through

region,

most

average

the

usually

everything,

of

same

damp;

whole all

of

police

the

on

one

spite

at

containing

cellar,

the

excitement

almost

district

in

sanitary

Ireland,

not

in

the

of

it is in

that

houses

and

a

persons,

twenty

49

ENGLAND

pens,

these

of

and

plunged

of

grace

in

each

garret

is provided;

physicians,

in

and

IN

WORKING-CLASS

that

two rooms, a twenty human

one

THE

OF

PROLETARIAT

small

system

the

of

one,

of

Jreland

farming

exhibits

the

great mass of the population of Ireland consists of small tenants who occupy a sorry hut without partitions, and a potato patch just large enough to supply them most scantily with potatoes through the winter. In consequence of the great competition which prevails among these small tenants, the rent has reached an unheard-of

height,

England. For tenant farmer, far,

there

for

plots.

are

cultivated,

Britain

overdividing

still

and

Although and

produces

Dr.

Kay,

in in

loc.

cit./

of

Britain

Great

Ireland

Ireland

and

quadruple

labourers

in

32,000,000

14,000,000;

but

of

The

labourer seeks division of land

numbers

agricultural and

soil.

treble,

agricultural though the

remain

£150,000,000,

*

double,

every

the

products but

to

£36,000,000,

that

to

paid

in

become

a so

gone

has

competition

acres the

land

of

although

Great

value there

are

of

in

50

, . , . ,, . ,, . , ., , ., , , ,, ,, , . ,

FREDERICK

ENGELS

I re land 7 5 0 0 0 agr ic ult ura l pro le t aria ns more t han in t he ne ig hb o u r ing is la nd * H o w grea t t he c ompe t it ion f o r land in I re la nd m u s t b e is e v iden t f rom t his e x t ra ord ina r y disprop

.,

-

ort ion espec ia lly w h e n one re f lec t s t ha t t h e la b o u rers in G rea t B r it a in are liv ing m t he u t mos t dis t ress T he conse q u enc e o f t his c ompe t it io n is t ha t it is imposs ible f o r t he t enant s t o liv e m u c h b e tt er t h an t h e l a b o urers b y reason o f t h e hig h ren t s p a id T he Ir is h peop l e is t h u s he ld in crus hing po v ert y f rom w hic h it c anno t f ree it s e lf u nd er o u r presen t soc ia l con d it ions T hese peop le liv e in t he mos t w re t c h e d c la y hut s scarce ly goo d e no u g h f or ca tt le pens h a v e scan t f oo d a ll w int er lo ng or as t he report a b o v e q u o t e d e x presses it t he y ha v e po t a t oes h a lf eno u g h t hirt y w ee k s in t h e y e ar and t h e res t o f t h e y ea r no t hing W h en t h e t ime c om es in t h e on spring a t w hic h t h is pro v is i reac hes it s end or c an no longer b e use d b eca use o f it s spro ut ing w if e and c hildren go f o r t h t o b e g an d t ra mp t h e c o un t ry w it h t h e ir k e tt le in t h e ir l e t he hus b a nd h and s M ea n w hi a f t e r p la nt ing po t a t oes f or t h e ne x t y ear goes in searc h o f w or k e it her in Ire land or Eng l an d an d re t urns a t t h e po t a t o ha rv es t t o his f am ily T his is t h e con dit ion in w hic h nine t ent hs o f t h e Ir is h c o u n t r y f o lk s liv e T he y are poor as c h urc h m ic e w ear t he mos t w re t c h e d rags and s t a nd u pon t h e lo w es t p lane o f in t e l ligence poss ible in a ha lf c iv ilis e d co u nt ry A c c o r d ing t o t h e report q uo t e d t h ere are in a pop u la t ion o f 8 !/9 m illions

, , , , . ,. , ,

-

-

-

585 000

hea d s

of

f am i l i es

in

,

-

a s t a te

o f t ot a l

on; d es t i t ut i

and

a cc ord ing t o o t her a ut h orit ies c it e d b y S heriff A lison * * t here are in Ire la nd 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 persons w h o co uld no t liv e w it h o u t p u blic or pr iv a t e a ss is t ance — or 27 pe r cen t o f t he w ho le pop u la t ion pa upers ! T he ca u se o f t h is po v ert y lie s in t he e x is t ing so c ia l con dit ions espec ia lly in c ompe t it ion he re f o u nd in t he f orm o f t he s ubdiv is ion o f t he so il M uc h e ff ort ha s b een spent in f ind ing o t h er ca uses It h as b een a ssert e d t h a t t h e re la t ion o f t he t enant t o t he landlord w h o le t s his es t a t e in large

lo t s

* Session

Report of 1837

** nection

to

Archibald with

t enant s

of the ].

Poor

Alison,

Human

w ho

Law The

Happiness,

aga in

.

ha v e

Commission Principles Vol.

11,

of

t h e ir

on

Ireland

Population,

London,

-

sub t enant s

,

and

[Parliamentary and

1840.—Ed.

their

Con-

THE

CONDITION

THE

OF

sub-sub-tenants,

between

the

asserted

that

right

expropriating

of

rent

duly,

this

law

landlord the

determines

even years

children

improved in

assertion English

and

the

rapid

who

now

die

Church

forced

upon

what

six

the

Or the

a a

shillings

trouble. this

of

is

takes

head.

again

their

1s

It

improve-

few

population.

of

not

but

of

the the

by

cause

the

the

of

the

of

the

on

laid nation;

Besides,

a

in

up under consequence side comes

poverty,

the Protestant but divide among

them,

from

what

holdings

From another oppression inflicted

blame Catholic

Church

and

lost

in

this

manifests

slight

grow

to

his that

all

himself

increase

live

the

paid

But

upon any

be

then

the

itself.

Irish

would

early childhood. that the shameless

poverty

reach

pay,

cause of the earlier appearance

is

somewhat

the

rent to take place

conditions

poverty

landowner

been

landlord,

thetpoverty live

of

have

the

poverty.

not

would

has

landlord

may

pay

this

a

the

who

to

which

no

might

gives

could

consequence

in

The

in

tenant

small

had

which

all

form

majority

they

if

ment

the The

follows?

which

come

middlemen

cultivator—it

cultivator

for

the

ten

actual

fails

51

ENGLAND

often

law

the

blame

only

Make

itself.

the

tenant

first

to

is

and

that

shameful

the

if

so

turn,

in

IN

WORKING-CLASS

tithes

and

are

it

a

not

does

upon may

tax

upon the tenant, though he nominally pay them; now, since the Commutation Bill of 1838,8 the landlord pays the tithes directly and reckons so much higher rent, so that the tenant is none the better off. And in the same way a hundred other causes of this poverty are brought forward, all proving as little as these. This poverty is the result of our social conditions; apart from these, causes may be found for the manner in which property,

landed

it

manifests

their in

manifests

is

Otherwise,

owing

historical their

not

but

itself,

poverty

That

not

whole

to

the

for

in

itself

the

The

to

are

Latin

its

existence.

thus

the

of

Irish

the

of

Ireland

character

development. character

fact

and

people,

a

and

people

not to

related

to

nations,

the

French, and especially to the Italians. The bad features of their character we have already had depicted by Carlyle.9 Let

us

the

truth

Teutonic

now

hear

than

an

Irishman,

Carlyle,

character:

with

at least prejudice

who

his

comes in

nearer

favour

of

to the

52

FREDERICK

are

“They impatient,

restless, yet improvident;

and

renounce

revenge

to

quick

reflection,

indolent, clever brave by instinct,

friendships,

and

indiscreet, stormy, without much

and

generous

to

insults,

forgive

with

gifted

genius

ENGELS

make

prodigally,

to

and

sparingly

with

judgement.’’*

With

must

the

bow

Irish,

and

feeling

before

Their

sensuous,

and

quiet,

persevering

reflection

reaching

development—such

as

agriculture, that.

and

With

here

now

division

small

capital

of

to

according bring

the

England, produce

own

be

thankful

attempts

The

present

are

These

are

the

the

English of

with

the

most

the in

to

the

the

order

the

the

of

the

landlords’

hand,

are

crimes

*

The

**

ever

before

ownership;

directly

edition

or of

Small-scale

since the that

the

Middle

Ages.

Revolution. it

indirectly,

1892.

London,

agriculture

|

took

to

The

away the

from

peasants.

the

of

into

which have

will

little

for

the

1807;

had

are

2nd

the thing

feudal

[Added

ed.,

up

and

1821.

of

Such

West.

On

Pamphlet.

prevailing form of peasant farm existed

latter lords

by

made

the

small the

servants,

families.

South

been

districts, immediate

obedient

farms

crimes.

of

most

the

their

from

agricultural

ejected

of

the

civilisation,

form

their

large

Thus

only

to

fertility

immigration

the

the

in

frequent

Ireland,

of

State

Mistake.

farming

even

especially

in

or

Protestant intruders, whose potato patches of hundreds

the

of

themselves

against

agents,

would,

immigration,

they

take

day

directed

time

immigration.

save

to

Irish

by

sterling

leaven

future,

English

one

always

a

Rhine,

plundering

their

England

results

the

by

of

not

it

Irish

brutal

Irish,

even were

investment

state

The

nearly

enemies,

the

pounds

high

to

from

and

standard

of

on

ruin,

by of;

the

furnished

its

to

which

soil

very

the

for

fast

which

existed

million

England.

while

have

the

not

held

on

have

from

unfit

plane

land,

raised

itself and

they

thought

120

the

in

have

people;

and

to

utterly

and

but of

activity

lowest

of

France

be

require

up

contented

Irish

to

Alison,

might

in

is

the

estates,**

not

attained

which

as

improvement

soil

already

has

great

an was

immemorial,

upon

nature

excitable

Hence

subdivisions

created,

of

nation

conducted.

remained

the

artificially

the

a

reason

predominate;

them.

prevents

manufacture

passion

Engels

changed and

in

was

its

transferred,

the

German

THE

CONDITION

the

other

THE

OF

hand,

agitation England.!9

IN

WORKING-CLASS

the

Insh

hope

53

ENGLAND

for

relief

means

by

of

the

repeal of the Legislative Union with all the foregoing, it is clear that the uneducated Irish must see in the English their worst enemies; and their first hope of improvement in the conquest of national independence. But quite as clear is it, too, that Irish distress cannot be removed by any Act of Repeal. Such an Act would, however, at once lay bare the fact that the cause of

Irish

whether

has

readily,

nell’s

trial!

more

and

Friedrich der

had

the

to

come

from

Meanwhile,

it is

an open

the

Engels,

the been

known

book: Die

Repeal the in

of

Lage

1845

is

question necessary to

be

neither

Chartism

nor

Ireland. Ireland

Agitation

means

will

abroad,

of

making

at

this

point

the

1843

and

O’Con-

the

Irish

distress

Germany.

Printed

Klasse

Leipzig,

repeal

Hitherto,

success in observations upon

as

more

of

Irish.

marked

! have

arbettenden

in England,

to

my

more

in

seems

accomplishment

close

P ublished

at home.

clear

Socialism

now

which

found

the this

I

the From

misery,

to be

really make

for

to

the

according authonised

English London,

edition,

1892

Frederick

From

[THE

THE

In

COMMERCIAL

CHARTIST

the

meantime

terrible

convulsions.

beggars,

the

Poor

Tax,

ransack the

and

ENGLAND—

2]

is

people

are are

were

still

most with

the

overflowing to pay

in

the

of

in

the

refusing

gather

cattle-sheds who

writhing

*

their

to

not

die

even of a short

and

farmers

sacred

to

thousands them

ago. It

looks

calmly

next

as

though

an average far this year

is

arriving This

will

become

present government

the

in

and that

crisis

to

grant

last

winter.

220,000.

it such

reforms

would

an uproar of a most

K.

Reforme,

October

*

26,

Headings of

Marx

set

Moscow,

in

square

Marxism-Leninism

in

brackets

have

Moscow.—Ed.

been

the

to

workers

it compelled

Collected

1847

345

all surprising

important

newspaper

the

at

that

is estimated the number increased

between be

immigration

September,

figure

not

as

hunger

of

Irish

In

this

October

competition

and

caused

will

alarming each day. It Irish arrive each year;

in the

stronger,

did

over

already

daily

means

511.

Published

1s

Irish

they

getting more of 50,000

England

that

so were

the

as

winter

to

tute

and

priests,

Catholic

time

La

hungry

barns

Ireland

The workhouses property owners

the

IN

CRISIS

MOVEMENT-—IRELAND!

starving

ruined

the

Engels

provided

if

the

nature.

and

F.

Engels,

Works,

1976,

by

Vol.

p.

the

309

Inst1-

6,

Frederick

{THE

The day. of

Insh

The

the

the and

THE

Lord has

powers

Tipperary

with

applied

to

and

Waterford,

Clare,

and

Longford

It

to

measure

will

over

last

force

slow

which

several

in

taking

this

new

law

the

counties

baronies

in

advantage invests

him;

Limerick

of

the

Roscommon,

Wednes-

counties

Leitrim,

of

Cavan,

County.14

seen

be

be.

*

into

not

all

Cork,

King’s

remains

came

was

Lieutenant

been

IRELAND

FOR

CHARTISTS]

Bill! 3

Coercion

despotic

Act

BILL

COERCION

AND

Engels

In

what

this

the

effect

we

connection

this

of

already

odious have

the

measure was taken, namely, the Irish landowners. They announce to the world in their organs that the measure will have no effect whatsoever. And in order to achieve this a whole country 1s being placed in a state of siege! To achieve this nine-tenths opinion

of

the

the

of

Irish

This During

a

discussion

Bill,

outright

a * **

also

put

borough

Daniel A

the

deserted the

the

their

outskirts

support only

Wakley, of

general

one.

family

itself

on

not

homeland, only

several

for

the

supported

the

member

Chartist

who

demanded

O’Connell.—Ed.

mistake

in

La

Reforme;

it

should

read

voted

occasions.

voted

twenty

London,

deceased

their

who the

the

of

O’Connell,

and

Mr.

a

O’Connell

members

Bill,

country!

been

two faithful to

in its

by

the

Maurice,

Morgan

the

of

forward

has

Bill

eighteen

on

interests

remained spoke

only

rejection

amendment for

but

have

and

cousin,**

were

There

of

sons,

their

the

whose

desertion

John

‘“Liberator’s”*

for

The

fact.

divided:

whereas

in

representatives

is the

became

class

“brother’.—Ed.

56

FREDERICK

that

the

Bill

Coercion

should

measures aimed at reducing was proposed to repress. twenty voters there were two out

and that

Irishmen the

of

hundred

Ireland

great ment

agitator Mr. the

after

the

in

debate

in

Feargus

whom

succeeded

was

he

who

was

it

the

which

none

The

he

of

Irish

simple

allow

them

But

possibly

do

are

they Ireland,

word

trying they

are

to

in

leader

up

was

it

he

hin;

the

it

voting

up

summed the

they

Biull;

and

fundamentally

He

O’Connor.

repeal

for

will

not

as a means

to when the latter come to who support repeal cannot

favour

like

undermine

to

about

time

campaign

“repeal’?

obliged

against

Mr.

members

a

Bill;

speeches

hearts

of of

Tories

Irish

without

heart

energy

the

leader

since 1835 reintroUnion,!*> a motion would have put forward. this leader with a bad grace.

accepted

the

formidable

the

of

members

using

leading

of

a

in

evident

behind

held

in his

first

Repeal

their

go on

the

who

the

in

very

the

who

for

Irish

capable found

opposition

who

democratic

overthrowing

the

opposition

for

became

Coercion

the

members

to

the

clause,

he

acknowledged

are

of

the

Whigs

the

power.

was

Parlia-

of

happy to make the O’Connor’’, put himself single bound. It was he who

of

all

each

it

motion

detest

forget

rallying

arguments

the

duced

for

in

of

the

of

F.

a

rejection

opposed

had

death

place

opening

soon

it

‘‘We

in

the

Parlia-

question

the

democratic

Mr.

of

party

Inish

possible;

finaliy

As

a present

outright

who

all

said,

O’Connell

the

This

in

opposition

the

tacitly

he

has

since

was not

he

that

it

meaning

serious

take

to

Up

which

important

held

But

that

more,

is

an

been

O’Connor.

Daniel

whenever

begun

what

English Chartists at the head of the proposed

had

Ireland

would

successor.

had

and,

been who

Ireland.

father’s

party

rival

had

decide

O’Connell

his

on

crimes

boroughs,

up

put

discussion

leading

John

as

Ireland

to

the

by

these eighteen and five English Radicals

which

who

accompanied

of

English

dozen

which

was

It

O’Connell.

causes

the

members

a

be

And among also four or

representing

ment there were only to the Bill. This was the first affecting

also

ENGELS

his

submit

of

the

O’Connor

growing

to his

Whigs

and,

and

although

popularity

leadership

in

in

Parlia-

ment.

When

the

parliamentary

session

is

over

O’Connor

will

THE

CONDITION

OF

go

probably

on

repeal

and

to

doubt

that

if

the

leader

uniting his

he

this

will

British

leave

democracy

are

swelled

people

before

will by

advance

two

million

Ireland

step

liberation.

Published

La

,, in

her

the

R e f orme

J anuary

8

1848

newspaper

will

There

at

than

the

of

agitation

doing

less

position

can

this six

three

which

him.

to our readers between the

poverty-stricken towards

in

leadership

held

it

the

party. in

successful

a

has

revive

Chartist

occupy

alliance

future

ranks

is

57

ENGLAND

to

Ireland

Irish

Irish

will

O’Connell,

We

of

O’Connor

democratic

hands,

even

a tour an

the

IN

WORKING-CLASS

found

of

the

THE

he

for

be

no

will

be

months.

By

kingdoms!

no c

® in not

agitator,

to judge the importance of peoples of the two islands.

more

much brave

last

and

have

K.

Marx

ardent

when Irish,

an

taken

and

important

F.

Engels

W ork s

Vol

197 6

its and

. , , , ,.

Col lec t e d M osco w

quickly

pp

6

-

44 5 47

Frederick

FEARGUS

The

an

to

address

known leader in Parliament.

to

ning

our

end

AND

O’CONNOR

first

issue

of

the

Irish

of

and

THE

IRISH

PEOPLE!

Star'® for 1848 Feargus O’Connor,

Northern

people

by

English address

carefully

space

restricted

The

the This

Engels

?

contains the

well-

Chartists

and

deserves

to

their representative be read from begin-

considered

by

every

us

prevents

democrat,

reproducing

from

it in

but

full.

our duty if we were to pass it over m silence. The consequences of this forceful appeal to the Irish people will very soon be strongly felt and seen. Feargus O’Connor, himself of Irish descent, a Protestant and for over ten years a leader and main pillar of the great labour movement in England, must henceforth be regarded as We

the

would,

virtual

chief

His

reform.

however,

published

him

first

the

tinued

is just

being

the

of

Union,

that

able

posts private In

his

O’Connell,

deceived Repeal’.

business that them

of

Irish

and

the

Irish

cause

Ireland

needs.

Ireland.

his

the

Bill

con-

friends

that

Feargus

about

the

and

well-

abolition

an mdependent a pretext for

not

the

subsequently

shows

of

of

against

given

Repeal—the

word,

advocates have

concerned

achievement and

and

Commons

Coercion

status,

an empty

himself

address

Repealers!9 House

seriously

in

the

not

in

this

indeed

is,

for

the

man

the

millions

Parliament—is

ing

for

is

Irish

in

to

claim

O’Connor

remiss

disgraceful

agitation

O’Connor

the

of

speeches

recently

be

for

of

the Irish

obtain-

making

profit-

that

Daniel

transactions. he

shows

the

Irish

people

political juggler, led them by for thirteen years by means

the of

nose the

and word

O' C O NNO R

F EA R G U S

A ND

I RI SH

THE

59

PE O PLE

true light the conduct of John O’Connell, who has taken up his father’s political heritage and who like his father is prepared to sacrifice millions of credulous Irishmen for the sake of his personal ventures and interests. All .O’Connell’s speeches at the Dublin Conciliation Hall? 9° He

shows

and

all

will

not

his

its

hypocritical

obliterate

earlier

and

during

in

in

the

protestations

the

disrepute

now

particular

on

debates

the

Irish

then

he

has

brought

in

the

House

upon of

himself

Commons

Bill.

Coercion

who

Irish

purses and John political rogue, will be their

If

were

this

especially For

a

address

it.

But

as an

which

shows

might

and

all.

contained,

we

first

is

of

in

it

much

not

English

wider

even

not

have

importance. Irishman

as a

Chartist.

most obtuse must fight with

the

people

association

and

as an

democrat,

Irish

close

papist

should

only

escape

cannot that the

in

fanatical of

it

speaks

primarily,

O’Connor

their

out

kicked

the

lucidity

the

O’Connell,

O’Connor

and

With

mind,

all

mentioned

Feargus also,

all

phrases

beautiful

people must and will see how things stand, and it will kick out the entire gang of so-called Repealers, under cover of this cloak laugh up their sleeves and in

The

but

and

with

the

English

working classes and the Chartists in order to win the six points of the People’s Charter—annual parliaments, universal suffrage, vote by ballot, abolition of the property qualification for members of Parliament, payment of M.P.s and the establishment

are won

points

equal

of

will

electoral

the

achievement

advantages for Ireland. Furthermore O’Connor has

a

already

petition

now

been

which

districts.

points

demanded

received

earlier

3%

the

of

these

after

Only

Repeal

any

have

out

that

justice

for

by

the

English

workers

million

signatures,*!

six

Ireland and

in

that

the

English Chartists have again protested against the Coercion Bill in numerous petitions and that the oppressed classes in England and Ireland must at last fight

Irish

together the

ence

same on There

and

conquer

oppression the privileged

can

Irish people Chartists and

be

no

will will

act

together and live in and ruling doubt

that

or

to languish

continue

the same capitalist

misery class.

henceforth

the

and

mass

under dependof

the

unite ever more closely with the English with them according to a common plan.

60 —

As the

a

result

the

liberation

That

is

the

+

—_«-

victory

FREDERICK

the

of

Ireland,

of

significance

will

of

Fnglish be

democrats,

hastened

-Z et tung

., in

No

-

,

sse ler De ut sc he B ri 3

J anuary

9

-

18 4 8

by

and

K

.

to

years.

the

Irish

., ., , , ,.

Marx

C ol l ec t e d

M osc o w

hence

many

address

O’Connor’s

people.

P ubl i s he d

ENGELS

oo:

and

F

Enge ls

W or k s

1976

V ol

p

6

-

44 8 4 9

Karl

From

[THE

SPEECH

ON

FEBRUARY

Marx

THE

POLISH

22,

QUESTION,

¢

184822]

the

The Cracow revolution has given a glorious whole of Europe, by identifying the national

the

democratic

cause

and

the

has

been

emancipation

of

to

example

cause

the

with

oppressed

class. If

this

bloody

revolution

hands

triumphantly

of

hired

assassins

in

Switzerland

stifled

it 1s and

the

for

now

Italy.

rising It

sees

tion of these principles in Ireland, where nationalist party has gone to its grave with where the new national party is above all democratic. 2 3

Published

in

a

Célébration,

du

deuxteme

de

la

du

22

the

Bruxelles,

K.

Marx

Bruxelles,

Collected

anniversaire

Moscow,

Polonaise

Révolution Février

collection

1846,

1848

moment by the gloriously and the

confirma-

the narrowly O’Connell, and reforming and

and

F,

Engels,

Works,

1976,

Vol.

p.

549

6,

Frederick

From

Cologne,

arrived,

as

June

the

as

far

10.

are

there

IN

COLOGNE

The

were

fields

Engels

lovely

green,

people

DANGER24

holiday

trees

the

who

of

Whitsuntide

had

were

blossoming

and

dative

the

the

confuse

with

preparations were made to pour out the holy reaction over all lands in a single day.25 The moment is well chosen. In Naples guard lieutenants Swiss mercenaries have succeeded in drowning the young

accusative,

spirit and

of

hberty

in

the

capitalists and

appomts

England

on

and

thrown

the

General

Guizot

Hédtel

people’s

fetters

gaol

In

dragoons.*®

In

France,

by

means

Perrot,

masses

and

the

triumvirate

and

the

superiority the

of

Published

No.

in

11,

June

null

the

entire

the

Rheinische 11,

blow and

and

the

by

blow

the by

are

dispersed

by

itself

Federal

rejected.

through

Prince

of

In

Repealers

are

blessed

Fifty?’

at the

Vincennes.

Assembly

of

void

nation’’.2

and

of

laws

shooting of

meetings

National

assembly Draconic

the

Chartists

which

drumming,

revolution

of

Committee

winning

and

“property

Neue

is

an of

commandant

the

Frankfurt

proposed

Right

ordered

unarmed

appoints

the

who

23,

February

Ireland

into

blood.

Republic

now Diet

In

Berlin

numerical

Prussia

moving

back

K.

and

declares into

the

8

Marx

Zeitung

Collected

1848

Moscow,

F.

Engels,

Works, 1976,

Vol.

p.

68

7,

Karl

From THE

Marx

ELECTIONS—

DUCHESS

OF

FINANCIAL

CLOUDS—

AND

SUTHERLAND

SLAVERY?

?

r

process

The

have 16th,

17th

plains

it

of

Ireland

it

ston,

is

some

exactly

any

If of literally

of

of

British

in

this

ago

accompanied

property

the

into

to

process may

middle

class—in

favour

private

their

were

see

sense

Published

in

Tribune

to The No.

9,

1853,

Paper

March

12,

1853

rose

where

the

3687,

No.

in in

by

English

a

lawyer law

the

nobility

favour

enriched

case

it

was

class the

Feudal

of

or

titles

services

of

of last Pro-

deed

concerm-

in

England,

lawyers, in

the

what

servile

Mistory

every

in wealth, either

And

and

feudal

are

property—these

possessions.

an

the

of

the

of

middle

themselves,

interpreted

in

in

people.

New-York,

and

and

Palmer-

property

his

murder,

performed

from

nobility—in

People’s

February

The

the

hostile

Datly

class

Scotland,

of

comwas

above.

by

century, Dalrymple, who, in his perty, 30 very naively proves that ing property was interpreted by when

19th,

Viscount

men

described

It

the

was true that it was robbery, it property of the British aristocracy. property, robbery of commons, fraudu-

Church

you

the

of

of

already

century.

noble

cleared

in

the

of

latter

The

we

Scotland,

England

16th

beginning

the

aristocrats

lawyers,

the

progress.

manner property it ever in

transformation,

patriarchal

in

full

years

true

Robbery lous

in

in Morus

the

of

in

out

Thomas

begmning

Scotland

which,

carried

centuries.

the

now

is

too,

Ireland,

18th

in in

performed

was

described,

and

estates

clearing

of

now

just

Printed of

in

45,

and

of

The

according New-York

verified

The

with

People’s

to

the

Daily the

Paper

text

text Tribune

a

Karl

From

FORCED

MAZZINI—THE

the

years

1851

the

total

to

and

home usual

gold

and

to

published

of

exports

£71,429,548

in

trade

and

in

Feb.

amounted 1852;

of

navigation

we

last,

to

the

see

for that

£68,531,601

latter

amount,

silver.

The

Colonial

retum

of

Ireland,

to

30,

relating

the export of cotton, wool, linen and silk The quantity of zmports for 1852 is below year 1851. The proportion of imports entered consumption not having diminished, but rather it follows that England has re-exported, instead of quantity of colonial produce, a certain amount of

increased, the

ENGLAND—MR.COBDEN

1852,

value

QUESTION—ELECTION

go to

£47,209,000 manufactures. that for the for

and

declared

1851,

in

IN

accounts

the

AND

EMIGRATION—KOSSUTH REFUGEE

BRIBERY

From

Marx

the

all

Land

Emigration

emigration

parts

of

the

from

world,

Office

gives

England,

from

Jan.

the

following

Scotland,

1,

1847

and

to June

1852:

Year

1847 1848 1849 1850 1851

....... ....... ....... ....... ....... .....

1852 (till June) Total

English

Scotch

Irish

Total

34,685

8,616

214,969

258,270

58,865

11,505

177,719

248,089.

73,613

17,127

208,758

299,498

57,843

15,154

207,852

280,849

69,557

18,646

247,763

335,966

40,767

| 11,562

143,375

195,704

1,200,436

1,618,376

335,330

82,610

FORCED

EMIGRATION,

remarks

“Nine-tenths,”’

are

pool

to be

assumed

are

Scotland

65

ETC.

the

Irish.

either

Celts,

emigrants

three-fourths

the

from

the

‘‘of

Office,

About

the

of

or

Highlands,

Liver-

from

emigrants Ireland

from

from

through

Glasgow.”

Nearly four-fifths of the whole emigration are, accordingly, to be regarded as belonging to the Celtic population of Ireland and of the Highlands and islands tof Scotland. The London

Economist

“It is founded

on

says on

consequent small

of

the

Highlands

of

Scotland

improvement....

from

the

taken

place.

famine

£4,281,999,

when

with

there

they

have

sum

and down

by

Political employs of

real

a

from

net

the

rents

The

King*)

supposing the

population entity,

“the

3-226

George

in

and

every that

the

kind

any

in

amounted

of

degree

has

since to

1851

in

1843.”

a country,

of

that

it

twelve

King

“Is

and

(at

alone

automatic

net

the

that

in

the

real

income

the

same,

it

from

ten

Sismondi,

answers,

politique,>2 matter, the

he

Ricardo,

derived

millions.

in

capitalist whether

says

The

”’

is

a

of him

not,”

remaining

whether

from

profits to

similar?

profits,

the

English

disappearance

is in

no milhis

that, nation of

the

it

was

no

Queen,

midst

of

the

island, him to

time

machinery

enabled

amount of Net Revenue now produced by a of twenty millions. Indeed, that grammatical national wealth’’, would in this case not be

diminished.

*

emigration

it matter

men?

nation

and

or

does

1,000

remaining

only

procure

the

annual

what

a

of

population,

a

but

to

suffered

inhabitants

Nouveaux principes d’économie according to this view of the would not be interested at all whole

not

Ireland

of

preliminary

revenue greater than

£184,000

consideration people

of

or her

pauperising

income of

lions

1846-47,

about

population has

of society adds: “‘The

and

is no more profit to be ground out of them, when grown a burden to the revenue, drive them away, up your Net Revenue! Such is the doctrine laid Ricardo m his celebrated work, The Principles of

nation,

subject

Ireland

of

contrary,

Economy.3! to £2,000, 100 men or

amounting “the

of the

system

breaking down of the and potato cultivation’;

revenue

being

Begin

an

is

emigration:

part of the indispensable

redundant

The On

the

holdings

departure

this

of

III.—Ea.

66

KARL

a

In

letter

former

estates tinues to

be

may

from

in

of

see

the

I have

Highlands

of

upon

forced

the

an

given

instance That

Scotland.

Ireland

by

clearing

conyou

emigration

same

the

quotation

following

the

of

MARX

process The

from

Galway

Mercury: people are The landlords

‘“The

Ireland.

all the smaller extermination daily

is

practised

passing away from the land in Connaught are tacitly combined

fast of

occupiers, against whom being waged.... The most in

this

province,

a

West of weed out

to

regular systematic war heart-rending cruelties

which

of

the

the

are

public

not

of

are

at

all

aware.”

But Erin* by

is

not

of

the

it and

agricultural

the

the

pauperised

Highlands

of

system

agricultural

and

by

society’’.

of

inhabitants

labourers

the

1s

It

only

England,

from

of

which

farms

no

especially

other

would

enable

alternative

country

those

prospects for capital to make

bad

sufficient

and

of

the

able-

Wales,

and

Emigration now seizing

the

farmers,

with

the Is

away

most stationary class in England. A startmovement has sprung up among the smaller

another class, ling emigration English

Green

down

“breaking

not

Lower Scotland, whose passages are paid by Commissioners. The wheel of * ‘improvement”’

who,

of

are swept

that

Scotland

improvements,

antiquated

bodied

only

emigration

caused

compulsory

emigration

tion of farms, introduction of

by

the

harvest,

soils, in want

great improvements on to pay their old rents,

gold

sea

the

not

in

by

and

search but

have

a new

of

of

the

only

of

the

concentra-

landlordism,

machinery to the of agriculture

of

their

now

speaking

mania,*>3

produced

application the modern

clay

the

cross I am

lands.

heavy

coming

them

to

but

new

of

holding

the

system

soil,

and

on a great

scale. In

the

ancient

emigration,

ment

of

assuming colonies,

society.

The

certain

limits

not

be

antique

*

States,

the

formed

in

shape

a

whole

system

to

numbers

the

surpassed

without

civilisation

itself.

Treland.—Ed.

Greece

of

regular

those

of of

the

and

the link

Rome,

periodical

States

why

structure

of

was

founded

on

population,

was

the it

establish-

the

in

endangering But

compulsory

so?

which

could

condition Because

of

the

ON EM I G RA T I

FO R C E D

application

, . to

science

of

unknown to them. To remain few. Otherwise bodily

drudgery

on

disturbed. It was to

that

the

a

under tribes,

space

for

tribes

in

North-America. each

other’s

population

was

migratory

movements

peoples

a power

and

not

population

power

productive Now regards

that

I “‘Net

that

must

populations complaint,

nor

from

as

industry, is

Society submitted

existences houses

it

master

the

breaks

subverts.

new

a

be

anything

views

of

those

1s

The

more

Economists

surplus

adventurous

the

the

of

or

would

than classes of

puerile,

of

revolution,

no

more

an

races,

the

more believe

give all

as

much who, in

his

retain

the

the

of

science

human

regards

too

way.

short-sighted, in

is

Republic. +4 which must be

notice

must

it

his

earthquake

and life,

It

so

proscribe

from

popula-

Ricardo, who whom entire

to

forcibly

poets

of

emigration.

power;

of

and

stands

power

increase

without even of Sismondi,

silent

who

the

diminution famine

agriculture

takes

down

large they

foundation

opinion Moloch

expelled

conditions

there



of

Plato

undergoing to, and which it

a

the the

philanthropy, methods

war-

numbers

Thus

it

by

be sacrificed, in the opinion

hypochondriacal superannuated

in

they

Indian

presses on productive presses on population. as

there,

emigration the case want of productive

surplus

share neither Revenue”

of

Europe.

demands

the

plains

the

great

the

population;

which

of

acted

with

in

those

laid

compulsory it is not the

away

drives

case

the

undertake

surplus

high

powers

barbarians

production.

modern

the

cause

augmenting of

the

remain

now

which

and

creates

productive is

to

with modern opposite. Here

which tion,

field

on

pastoral, hunting, production required a

is

By

forced

ancient

of

But

as

citizenship not to be

were

They manner of

a

into

renfedy.

same

To

few.

individual,

made numbers

from

The

form.

citizen

free

the only population

World.

Old

in

barbanans

different

whose

every

curtailed

quite

the

to remain

forced

waging

power

drove

invade

although

were

of productive certain proportion of

utterly

they were forced to had to submit to the

the

was

was

production

transformed

Forced emigration the same pressure

production, Asia

a

material

remain civilised they would have

which

want

slave. The dependent

67

ET C

earnest

weak

the

to

But

can

than

the

that

this

68

KARL

the

acquisitive

propensities In

money-lords?

most

centrates

The

clears

the

‘‘No

land

assisted

by

Paisley

the

Emigration

and

modern

The

and

process

is

to

science it

con-

“have

been

but

Economist,

a

except

or none

few

landlords that

of

mhabitants,

Commissioners,

weavers,

hand-loom

to

society

towns. says

workmen,’

both

of

its

of

manufacturing

manufacturing

adapting

working

application

the in

but

capitalists,

of

3

people

nothing

Britain

Great

transparent.

production

means

state

transitory

woeful

MARX

have

few

and

Spitalfields

at

emigrated

own

their

expense.”

The

Economist

at

emigrate class

not

tion,

proletariat,

finds

itself

productive been forces,

to

will

the

be

modern the

in

which

tenant,

numberless

what

does

to art

and

women;

landlord

and

the

“rights

the

its

Scotch

they

will

whole

it will The

property’.

down

the

appropriation.

of

clansman, the in

the

Irish

hand-loom

generations

expropriate,

to

according

broken

yeoman,

English

Where

Then,

have,

modes

these

before?

of

themselves, and

prevent

will

Nowhere!

production

of

hitherto

appropriating

appropriated

the

society the

and

great

the

has

Who

and the

produc-

around

creation

them?

handicrafts,

children

of

due

factory

time,

the

cotton-lord.

the Continent heaven is fulminating, but in England itself is trembling. England is the country where the

the

earth

real

revulsion

of

in

Tribune

March

22,

in

People’s 16,

been

expropriated

weaver,

April

have

the of

and

The

middle

modern

of

labourers.

further,

Economists

cottier

Daily

to

Now,

not

could

industrial

centres, of

step

appeal

system

have

the

resisting

of

in

Bourgeois

Published

they

the

working

history

of

they

power use to

antiquated

On

that

mighty

whose

a

changes

They

that

emigrating.

very

gathered

going

no

of

in

the

martyrology

from

be

them

by

forces,

the

them

assist

well

The rural population, the most stationary element of modern society, disappears while

this lead? conservative industrial

own

their

would

very expense, and

knows

The No.

1853,

1853

modern

society

New-York

3722,

Printed of

and

Paper

begins.

and

No.

50,

of

The

according New-York

verified

The

with

People’s

to

the

Daily the

Paper

iext

text Tribune

Karl

THE

INDIAN

Marx

TENANT

QUESTION-—IRISH

RIGHT

r

London,

The India

on

to

27th

When

that

the

shall

on

observations As

the

the

of

23rd,

inst.,

on

not

has

been

the

as so

and

Commons

the

other

nicely

a close. to resume my

on

to

support

the

parties

balance

and

each

of

composing

the

other

the

that

turn the scales which way they please, concessions are at last about to be made to the Irish tenants. The ‘‘Leasing powers (Ireland) Bill’’, which passed

the

any

all

to

24th,

brought

depends

1853

respect

with

continued

Ministry2®©

Coalition

may at some

motion

Stanley’s

at length have arrived, I intend the Indian question.35

party,

Irish

House Irish

Lord

commenced

adjoumed

the

on

debate

28,

June

moment

House

of

that

for

the

separable

from

the

soil,

tion

his

of

tenant

at to

being

respect

with

them shall be the tenant.37

tenant

A

another,

ment

in of

manure, cultural

the

will

by

and either

or indirectly purposes, in

be very tenant,

take

contract

by

having directly

last,

on

made shall

at

the

the

soil,

his

by

construction

the

termina-

the

the in

effected

while

landlord

one an

irrigation, of

and

incoming

valuation,

capital,

thus

soil

compensation

between

a

contains the

at

have,

money,

in

them in

incorporated

land, soi,

buildings

form

for

and

or

improvedrainage, for

agri-

steps the landlord with demand for tenant concede, he has to pay the own money to the landlord. If he resist, he unceremoniously ejected, and supplanted by a the latter being enabled to pay a higher rent by

increased rent. interest for his

new

to

improvements

having the

the

liberty

arranged

Friday

improvements

tenant compensation

a

lease,

on

Commons

provision

If

the

K A RL

70

very

the in

expenses turn,

his

replaced

way not

has

Class

same

of

absentee

merely

the

tions,

each

in

social

the

by

way,

predecessors,

landlords

labour,

but

generation scale,

his

until

an improver of the or put on worse terms.

become

the

in

a

incurred

also

exactly

been

the

In

to

he

became

taxed

was

He

a

by

this

Irish

may may

are a

take be

it

outlay

so

before

the

proper

the

the

assurance

Where capitalists

who

commerce,

in

doubt but long leases

that

for

time

nearly

this

Ireland—a

us see

Let

or state

in

attempts

the

of

of

soil

manner

what

to

of

right

break

down

occupation.

farm

course

his the

term.

run

not

of

a tenant

Either

a fixed number of years, or his upon certain notice. In the first

all

his

of

should of

the

land

obviously

or

all, he

industry,

improvements

leader,

systems

any

at

expiration

that

the

charges.

general

be

that

in

to to

but

by in

Celtic

left

oppose

proclaimed

but

the

of

he

Right’’38:

of

would

was

and

to

and

negligent,

alternative

himself

and

industry

and

faults

other

order

Saturday’s

two

lease

In

soil

cost its

terminable

events,

obvious

in

in

““Tenant

‘“There

no

pauperise

Right’’

tenant, not effected at his Times,

“aboriginal

negligence.

“Tenant

inert

lower

and that of enterprising,

very

his

of

grew

he

accordingly,

the

The

the

pauper—to

pauperise things,

with

had,

become

contrary,

the

reproached

race’.

consequence

in

on

If,

genera-

grade

made for the raising of their condition families. If the tenant was industrious and

enterprise.

is

easy

exertions

sacrifices

their

and

to pocket,

a

the

also,

this

whole

of

sinking

in proportion

he

land,

enabled

capital,

peasants

Irish

of

has

MA RX

to

would

benefit

In the

the

adjust

second

risk

of

the

and

these

apportion

way seems

it

investment

his

to

its

find

case

holding of

him

equally

a

without

return.”’

landlords

may,

as

they

manufactures

or no

these time

to

have

deal

with

please,

or

capitalist leases at

in

invest

all,

know

class their

there

farming,

farmers,

a

whether how to

large

of

stock

can

be

they

secure

in

no take the

“proper” return of their outlays. But with regard to Ireland supposition is quite fictitious. On the one side you have there a small class of land monopolists, on the other, a very large class of tenants with very petty fortunes, which they have no chance to invest in different ways, no other field of the

production fore,

forced

opening

to

to

become

them,

except

tenants-at-will.

the

soil.

They

Being

once

are,

there-

tenants-at-

THE

INDIAN

will,

they

provided

could

their

and

some

losing

of

small

they

in

the

conditions

as say

tenant, contract. We and

arrangements, be effectually

revenue,

their

capital.

Investing

it, in

run

the

of

losing

their

may

be

risk

want no tenant,

that

society’, of

the

are

all

of

not

hangman.

the

make

supreme

useless

power.

social

the

Has,

ments”

the

Parliamentary

the

own under

landlord

the

original

regulate

these

can

enactment

with

Does

them,

Irish

the and

been

of

which

a

third

converted

into

of

social

and

instead

force,

men

intervention

a

of

conditions

among

want

land-

policeman, armed

improper

society”

should

conditions

of

Times

it

of

the

“‘proper

magistracy of

we

society’’,

of

soldier,

The

“‘conditions

from

should

arrangements

perhaps,

emanating

no

compulsory

revolutionist?

reorganising

society

offspring

those

in

a the

There

ought,

between for

of

under

Legislature,

but

created

provided

interference of

upon

agency.”’

want,

interference

any case

in left

the tenant’s forthcoming.

adjusted

be

conditions

“‘proper

preventing

would

an

such

for

that

being

thus

easily

that

Parliamentary

them

society,

be fate,

believe

should

the

and

to

demand

conditions

we

under

the

any

at

substituted

more as we

but

the

said,

something

another, representing compensation should be

society,

might,

because

Indeed,

or

‘it

without

remark,

of it

Times,

expire

shape for this

that

truth

The

hardly

some

in

property,

a

risk

revenue,

their

continues

‘Perhaps,’

proper

the

invest

71

RIGHT

also.

tenantry ground, is

not

do

secure

capital,

run

naturally

they

to

order

TENANT

QUESTION—IRISH

revolution,

“arrange-

the

“Parliamentary

of

enactments”? England has subverted the conditions of Irish society. At first it confiscated the land, then it suppressed the industry?? by ‘Parliamentary enactments”, and lastly, it broke

the

created

Irish the

those

a

enable

and

The

on

the

least 1f

advice

bayonets,

of

‘‘conditions

of

of

their

mitigation

you

don’t

can’t

Parliament

conditions

to

And

force.

thus

England which

society’?

caste of rapacious lordlings to dictate to the terms on which they shall be alowed to hold to live upon it. Too weak yet for revolutionising conditions’, the people appeal to Parliament,

Times;

society,

armed

the

those “social demanding at

says

by

abominable

small

people land

energy

active

The

society, and

to

mend

Times,

The

pour

regulation.

under

that. tried

Times

out

and

live

proper

And

the

if

tomorrow

would

sanguinary

be

the

But

““No”’,

conditions Irish

to first

people,

mend

to

denunciations

of their

appeal of

the

MA R X

K A RL

72

“aboriginal

faults

taste

Saxon

a

“If

for

so

find

it

says

tion

consists

much in

The

the

letting

Celtic

and

Times,

Jand,

he

legal

get

will

another, his

find

the

Anglo-

amelioration.

‘deliberately

to

harder

wanting

race”,

progress

pacific

landlord,”

will

the

of

one

injures

and

tenant, he his occupa-

whereas the

more

Ireland.

The

land

all

difficult

to let.”

case

The

stands

rather

in

differently

one

injuring

tenant, the easier another. The tenant who comes the ejected one, and the ejected

keeping

down

landlord

injures

oppress

the

landlord,

and

ruin

Ireland—a

of

comfort “The

occupant.

fact

to

not

the

relations

a

only

between

This

precisely

The

will

im,

is

it

a to

the

means

of

one

is the

means

of

due

course

in

tenant,

will

probability,

time,

of

mnjure

but

a very

however,

more

find

himself

very

the

fact,

source

precarious

tenant.

ruined

says

That,

the

affording,

traders,’’

is

injuring

is

himself,

in

two

new

the

beside

he

the

landlord

are

tenant

and

those

between

Times.

which pervades the whole leader of The Times. The needy Irish tenant belongs to the soil, while the soil belongs to the English lord. As well you might call the relation between the robber who presents his pistol, and the traveller who presents his purse, a relation between two traders.

says

“But,” landlords than

that

hands,

must

and

at

Here,

not is

landlord

least,

terminating

in

by

the

hammer

and

the

latter

a

case

“potent both

ing

of

the

pending agency”

parties.

of

the

fact,

by

reformed

property

Ireland

of

emigration

of

relation

between

an agency is

more

passing

fast

continues,

its

Irish potent

into

new

cultivation

the

of

Sultan

between for

the

tenant,

expelled old

has

truth.

British

Parliament

a moment when the worked-out old the common ruin, both of the thrifty

needy

down

us

be

Times

at

sion,

reminds

point

rate

The

the

principi

transfer.”’

interfere

and

“in

The

same

the

petitio

soon

present

the

if

undergo

system

The Times, tenants will

legislation.

of

and,

does

the

two

settling

the

Encumbered by of

compulsory Morocco. parties,

their

being

knocked

Estates

Commis-

former

emigration.

Whenever he

knew

controversy,

there of

than

no by

This

was more kill-

THE

INDIAN

could

“Nothing Right,

tend,”

greater

“‘to

ownership.

TENANT

QUESTION—IRISH

The

concludes than

confusion

person

only

The

Times

a

such

any

with

73

RIGHT

with

communistic

right

in

the

to

regard

Tenant

distribution

land,

is

the

of

landlord.”

Times seems to have been the sleeping Epimenides of past half century, and never to have heard of the hot controversy going on during all that time tipon the claims of the landlord, not among social reformers and Communists, The

the

among

but

Ricardo,

Great

Britain,

as

was

he

very

the

class.

political

not

did

quite

economists

creator

the

controvert

convinced

that

the

of

modem

of

British

the

“right’’

their

claims

the

of

middle

economy

political

were

in

landlords,

upon

based

on

right, and that political economy in general to do with questions of right; but he attacked land-monopoly in a more unassuming, yet more scienand not nothing

fact,

had the

and

tific,

private

more

therefore

proprietorship

respective

claims

relation

quite

that

advantage, the interest

interest

all

be

to

tedious these

from

landed

other

three

the

of

of

my

For

most

the

the

was

conclusions

recent

economical

Economist,

whose

might,

the State; opposed to

the it

whole

economical

society.

end,

was

land,

of

by

Ricardo

the

from

the

rent

the

that

farmer,

modern all

by

proved

with,

that

and

enumerate

premises

monopoly.

incoherent

appropriated the landlord

classes

the

of

production; be of

He

distinguished and

and

relationship

with great finally that of

in,

modern

of of

as

land, labourer,

superfluous

framework

expression

in the

of

manner.

dangerous

It

would drawn

against

School

and the

the

suffice

to

quote

authorities

of

Great

will

Britain. The

London

son,

is not only and not only appendage in every

a

too, ed

in

no

title

different

viduals,

a

claim

or

Whig

articles the

oracle,49

an

also

composite

that

any

authorising

to

Free Trade Whig, but

exactly

individual,

exclusive

editor,

chief

Mr.

a

but

Whig

inevitable ministry,

speaking

or any

proprietorship

Wil-

one,

Treasury-

has

contend-

can

there number in

J.

the

of

exist indi-

soil

ofa

Nation.

Mr.

Ing

Newman,

in

his

Lectures

1851, professedly socialism, tells us:

written

London,

on for

Political

the

purpose

Economy,

of

refut-

a

74

he

KARL

‘‘No man has, occupies it in

other

right

is

as

ments

the

The

This

the

exactly

held

artificial

call

it)....

of

private

right

long as only. All enactbecomes

Parhamentary

any time, land possessors to withhold

in

Ireland,

of

the

most

so

at

case

the

before

(or

law’’

‘If,

claims

the the

confirms

lectures

of

would

upon,

is

have, a natural right to /and except His right is to the use, and to the use

creation

Times

needed to live to an end.”

expressly

or can person.

and

Mr.

audiences

Newman and

the

of

comes

it

tenantry,

Irish

select

MARX

in

British

aristocracy. In

conclusion

bert

to

purporting acknowledged Trade

one

“‘No

a

as

the

land,

or

men

never

rest

the

might

be

Not

lawyers given

wax.

Could

in

becomes obtained?

Does

exist? at

laws

which by

were be

or

by

let

as

to

large

can

the

become

legislation.

would

leasing

his

them

from

John,

or

a

Is

community. and

be

held

acres

from

the

nation.

His

surface

earth’s

It

is

canal,

is

still

despotism.”’

were in

It

The

current

the

to

preference if not,

And

what

.

so

estates

of

.

where

a

railway,

valid,

to

impossible

property....

private

Grace, Stewards

he

great

by

the

an

isolated

Instead will would

tenantry the only land a claim to exclusive

quences,

pen.

If

We

or a

daily

turnpike

pay be

corporate

of

it

not

did

the

paying

rent

an

public

tenure.... possession

his

agent, officials,

Pushed

of

the

any

deny road

be of

or

the

to

be

made?

a

be

We

of

do

change

the

Instead would

agent

deputy-agent

instead

in

landlordism

individuals,

farmer

to

mode

requisite.

simply

of

customs

deeds,

body—society.

proprietor,

to

all

discover

We do not scruple to seize just as many acres as may not wait for consent.... The change required would of landlords.... Instead of being in the possession

country

the Chronicles. than with the

holders right

in

land-

can are

Hardly.

a

The

property

such

used

subsequent

rest

the

property

only.

blows

was

blood

generate

bequest

prevent

Free

altogether....

to

constituted?

all

to

permit

earth

titles

the

of

sufferance

conveyancers:

of

and

him look in sword, rather

seals

thus

communism,

not

the

from

the

for

pretensions sale

earth

so

the

and

way does

existing

think with

notwithstanding.

land

our

the

written

a

such

expelled

anyone

.

the

also,

one act of transfer can give no title, can many? per annum do invalid claims become valid? The right

rate

mankind

be that

claims

the

of

in

Her-

1851,

development

therefore,

on

live

but soldiers payment;

valid

earth

Equity,

equitably

previously

and

the

pretended,

coin

what

England.

would

legitimate. Should original deeds were

At

modern

of

Mr.

from

London,

refutation

elaborate

it.

passages

Statics,

most

use

using

some

quote Social

complete

of

may

simuarly

less

be

doctrines

from

me

let work,

Spencer’s

private

of

lease

of of

Sir

the

ones, conse-

to its ultimate soil involves landowning

T HE

I NDI AN

SH Q U ES T I O N— I RI

Thus,

from

political but

in

the

the

ing

very

economists,

it

tenants and of their native

Insh

soil

the

the

demands

to

antagonism

of

T ENA NT

the

British

point is

not

view

of

the

who

country,

The places

modem

English

English

have

and

people,

middle-class

of

usurping

labourers, Irish

75

RI G HT

the

Times, itself

landlord only

right

in

oppos-

into

direct

science. c

Published Daily July

in

The

Tribune 11,

1853

No.

New-York 3816,

Printed of

the

according

newspaper

to

the

text

Karl

From

Marx

FAILURE

FINANCIAL

CABS—IRELAND—THE

Like

the

particular

quence are so such side

world

is of

in and

famine

high

in

over

the

“pond’’,*

every

such

insanity

has

1847,

and

from

the

Sixth

Asylums

(1,301 L852

wages

really

to

used the

of

on

at

Look District

return

Irish

that,

the

in

flocking

after

people

other

since

following

and

data

Private

admissions

of

males

and

ce

males

and

ee

males

and

in

Lunatic

1,283

eee 1,386

2,584

Asylums

females.)

ee

ee

teen

eens

2,662

eens

2,870

females. )

ce

ce

ee ee

1,423

females.)

And this is the same country in which the celebrated Swift, the founder of the first Lunatic Asylum in Ireland,42 doubted whether 90 madmen could be found.

Published Daily

in

The

Tribune

August

*

12,

Marx

New-York

No.

Printed

3844,

of

1853

means

here

1s

hand,

them

Criminal

this

Ireland’’:

1...

(1,447

the

conse-

are

on the progress among

1851?

on

if

in

in

permanently

formerly

terrific

Ireland

labourer,

labourers

settle

it

that

then,

amelioration

ee

1853

March,

the

social

since

LL

(1,276

for

they

Report

total

1851—Sum

assured

while

such

in

are

Irish

is

QUESTION

Why

to

how

especially

‘“‘the

Lunatic

it that

England

progress, made

paradise

is

to

If

harvest?

making

we

exodus.+!

Ireland,

masses of

a

GOVERNMENT—

RUSSIAN

general,

becoming

OF

the

Irish

Sea.—Ed.

the

according

newspaper

to

the

text

Karl

From

THE

and

WAR

TRADE

Marx

QUESTION—

BRITISH

RETURNS—DOINGS

POPULATION

PARLIAMENT

OF

cr

In

on

its

the

sitting

fate

mons

ten

after

Tenant

three

of

Bill,

9, the

Aug.

of

Ireland

Bills,

the

laws

Lords

of

carned

deliberation,

months’

removing

House

to

had

through

viz.:

the

decide

the

Com-

Landlord

mortgages,

conceming

and

which

present an insuperable bar to the effective sale of the smaller estates not falling under the Encumbered Estates Act*3; the Leasing Powers Bill, amending and consolidating more than sixty acts of Parliament which prohibit leases to at

form

be

entered

into

pensation exist,

improvements

for

and

preventing

Tenant's

any

of

clause

for

the

House

of

Lords

statute

book

acts

legislation

is

founded

as

sitting

run

a

‘Such

was heard

was

never of

Bill,

before,

any

Carried

quite

such he

in

the

the

total

believed,

government out

a

and This

Earl

in of

violation submitted

having

retrospective

a

containing provision.

The

to parliamentary

as

time,

cause,

surprising

exclaimed

bill,’’

Compensation

own

their

the

it has

laden

the

IV

meddling

of Entail.

in

to the present day, tenant, and as its very with landed property,

Edward

landlord laws

this

object

tenant,

and

of

on

Law

on

passion

time

on

the

judges

a

into

landlord

and

the

com-

tenant

the

of

not

lastly,

providing

landlord,

operation

course,

of

the

from

instance

for

could,

the

contracts

where

Bill, by

com-

tenant’s

subletting;

of

effected

with

the

instances

system

retrospective

of

existence

as

contract

between

interference

all

Compensation

improvements

for

absence

regulating in

the

Improvement

pensation

with

years,

21

for

allowed that

to

disregard

Parliament,

ventured

to

clauses

of

propose the

bill.”

noble

lords

themselves

hospital

Clanricarde,

and

the

‘“‘as of

nor such

to

invalids.

of the all

Tenants’

contracts,

had

he

a measure

ever

as

78

KARL

The

withdrawal prospect of “The

whole

as

went of their

Lords

a

9}

question

rebellion

loyalty

same

confidence

my

Gently,

to

obedience and two

lord,

there

But

for

ever a

long

the

of

House

the

sake

their what

was

and

their

was

Lords

am

I

was to

obedience

tts

Britain!

Great

anachronism?

only

upon

lived

to

themselves

resist

opinion.

account

“I

prop-

what

to secure their One magistrate

have

encourage

the

landed

said old Lord St. Leonards, collision with the other

or on

the

know

“‘for the sake House, or for

a

like these.” Roden, ‘‘but

out

proprietors

saw to

like

the

public

called

popularity,

of

and

the

nearly

landed

they

If

What

of

with

hold

“‘touched

the

of

would

Crown,

naturally

lordships,”

imperfect measures claimed the Earl of

he

poor

the

Commons

‘Let not preventing

nobleman,

gently!

time They

of

to

Crown? A landlord rebellion in uttered a more monstrous

been

anachronisms.

the

Crown

and

country.

this

way,

supremacy

the

constables.

Has

to

attachment

the

Ireland.

the

in Ireland in the Government of erty in Ireland treated in such a to secure their supremacy? ”’

in

and

remarked

the

of

threaten

allegiance,

feudal

landlord

question,”

as to

far

MARX

a pressure

of

do not highly

pass

without,

from

any

belong to interested

in

ex-

party,”

the

welfare

of

Ireland.”

interested

say,

to

That is

in

the

party

question,

shout

of

Whig

Lords

tion

Lords,

the

sioned the

and there

to

which

will formed

originated, the that

not

Lords’

so

Earl

was.

of

substantial

measures cluding

was

has

existed

throw

the

out,

bills

a mere

farce,

“This is

the

no

unanimous both

parties,

Lords#*

and

a

Opposisecret

whole

impas-

the

benefit

the

from

highly

between

Coalition

beginning

and

the

performed

for

reporters.

be

evident the by

when

subject the

of

Coalition

we so

these

change

bills made

introduced by of the growing

remember hot

a

that

the

bills

were

controversy but

Cabinet,

Irish Attorney-General under the Tories at the last elections

testimony

Roden.

of

But

to be

Ireland

question,”

it

Lords,

was

discussion

the

of

and

Tory

newspaper

This

a

but

supposes

lordship

welfare

House;

understanding of

his

by

Mr.

Napier,

the Derby Ministry, and in Ireland appealed to the

introduced

them.

The

only

by

the

the

Tory Government was the exfrom being distrained upon.

crops

House

by of

Commons

in

the

WAR

QUESTION—BRITISH

are

bills

“The

mesbury,

him.

assertion

the

Mr.

ing

Tories

had

the the

fell

introduced

could,

of

course,

mons;

but

they

Lords.

Lord

The formally

out

for

Derby,

the

chief

the

Daily

of

August

24,

No.

1853

a

a

letter

same.” stat-

New-York

3854,

their

This

late

of

the

largest absent

own

in

being made

the

the

own

reading,

accordingly and

and

cabinet, of

the

Com-

House

resistance

faint

contented

present

in with

and

was Lord

ministry,

proprietors of land indisposition.

the The

Tories

House

burked

a

would

on

in,

measures.

their

info

ministry,

Lords

being

from

bills

second

session. the

the

himself

through the

President

The

Tribune

Napier,”

Napier,

Coalition

bills

Newcastle

of

time one of the managed, wisely, to be

in

whose

the

Mr.

qf

not

did

is

not

Coalition their

party

Irish

oppose sure of

not

same

Published

Mr.

“‘here

are

letter the

The

these

declared

thrown

in,

Bills.

opposing

of

Duke

Aberdeen

nominal

remained

were

passing

the

he “But

of

Mal-

of

Duke.

Earl,

bills

Earl

whether

“That the

the

another

inherited

having

of

that

Ireland task

having

Coalition

said

“‘Now,”

“‘is

the

the

believe?”

stating Duke,

exclaimed

replied

79

RETURNS

are.”’

opposed

Tories

then

TRADE

Newcastle

of

not,”

you

the

they the

If

Duke

Duke.

said

that

have

the

Napier,

“There,”

same,’

the

“‘Certainly

would

answered

from

not

asking

believe

AND

POPULATION

but

the

bills

being

really

done.

Lord

Lansdowne,

yet in

at

the

Ireland,

from

Printed of

the

according

newspaper

to

the

text

Karl

From

us now

Let

tion,+®

one

people.

I shall

declared of

Ministry,

Perhaps

Lord

those

committee.’

And

(House

‘Because political

for

of

the

may

they

you mass

have

be

welfare

which

1,

1813.)

people

other

considered,

right....

1,

and It

was

then

condescended

what

was

(House

favour’.

lurking

entirely

to

of

asking has

the

their the

the

of

cynic

the

discontinue

behind

this

by

the

will

the

go

the

into

right? to impose

right

as

whole....

it

This

government

no

rights

ruling

of

at

all,

10,

to

made,

but

immunities,

a

such deem

belongs

ever

class—may

Feb.

may

ts founded.”

confession

ground the

never

I

not

community,

Commons,

upon

as one

If I thought

would

them. Accordingly, Lord Palmerston words, ‘Catholic Emancipation to be

erace

Wel-

1813.)

amount

words,

the

with

be

civilised

have

that

member

liberty

of

one,

for

the

of

most

Irish

having

emancipation.

grant

plain

he

in

I,

their

class the

allowed

to

ground

on

the

the

of

Legislature--or,

to

and

March

Commons,

There that

safety

principles

that

intermeddled

a country

of

a

when

religious

March

to

any

the

of

that,

nevertheless,

to

claims

right,

opposed

gratitude

himself:

the

Commons,

upon

the

fundamental

(House

upon

Legislature

be

for

their

for

he

the

to

Catholic

stand of

disabilities

necessary the

is

not

the

to

asking

why

entered, hostile

answer

I wish

the

circumstances,

considered

Man,

claims

were

Catholics

he

Emancipa-

Catholic

Emancipation,

Catholic

may

He

the

avowedly

of

‘‘Although

admit

upon

for

on

“claims”

Palmerston

Rights

Legislature.

exertions

Ministry,

Canning

the

PALMERSTON45

his

dwell for

lington of

at

great

his not

himself

the

LORD

look

of

Marx

deem

that the fit

declared

in

measure

of

1829.)

of

expediency

that

Catholic

disabilities.

And

expediency?

LORD

81

PALMERSTON

Being to

ed

entertain

evils

than

cure

Laws.

(House

estates

sky

“It

is

of

think

of

Still,

he

is

“at

a

well

said,

“‘that

the

are

enjoyed

with

all

the

a

by

and

sufferer!

his

Irish

alfow

Irish

to

misery clouds,

the

is

at

rate

the

peasant

Irish

seldom”

(only

not

do

of

family

the

Ireland

of

peasantry

all

(only

a

week).

7s.

of

has

his

comforts.

out

days

four

enjoy

England”

six)

of

food.”’

(House

’’

to

the

as

in

cleared

inauspicious

peasantry

however,

fuel,

its

a comfort! But this is not a greater cheerfulness of mind

has

As

“‘still,

Poor

for

moneylords.*

by

enjoyed

comforts

supplied

What

them

and

it

1829.)

not

with

that

substitute

afterwards

could

landlords

the

for

natives,

Irish

for

impossible,

a

18,

want-

he

remedies

are

who

the he

other

March

a moment,

continues,

loss

“he

Irish

proprietors,

prove

and

Commons,

which

all

that

for

true,’

comforts

Irish

Emancipation

philanthropist,

even

bright

He

of

their

of

darken,

delusion,

absenteeism,

great

The

the

great

the

of

Catholic

would

the

one

himself

of

of

a way

pleasant

as

the

than

7,

May

Commons,

extortions

all

he

comfort

his

English

has—

fellow-

1829.)

Irish

landlords,

with

the

he

comforts

deals

with

the

Insh

of

peasantry. is

said

can

_,

ance;

be

that

certainly

in

we

Are initiated stitution”,

in

Paper

77,

The

The

New-York

October

19,

1853

the

version

Tribune

sentence and

as

“comforts

of

follows

the is

highest

a

not

same

the

rent

possible

singular

circumst-

thing.”

(House

her

of

them

over

all

1853,

Daily

verified Daily

of

this

October

moneylords.’’—Ed.

“‘The

article

which

19,

1853,

bright

sky

of

deeply

con-

institutions’’,

to

according

with

The

text

the

Paper

People’s

and

New-York

Tribune

worded the

so

English

Continent?

appeared

Marx

over

the

free

the

The

of

man,

the of

Printed

22,

October

3902,

In

does

People’s

No.

*

landlord

that

surprised that of the “glories

spreading

Tribune

Daily

the

on

insists

I believe

1829.)

the

at

aspire

in

7,

and

Published

and

landlord Sir,

then to be the mysteries

in

No.

Irish Why,

England

March

Commons,

should

the

extorted.

:

“It that

in

The the

Parliament

New-York end of

of

the

landlords

Karl

From

Mr.

I.

Marx

[THE BLUE BOOKS—PARLIAMENTARY DEBATES OF FEBRUARY 6...— THE IRISH BRIGADE]

Butt,

in

sitting

yesterday’s

the

of

gave

Commons,

notice to-morrow the table

‘that

at

clerk,

to-day, and imputing to

money.

Mr.

Butt

money

will

be

legality

of

any

session.

mercy have

1834 Peel

the

of

Irish and

they In

compelled

to

was

posed

to

restore

British

by

the

Times

was

the Sir

down

majority

in

their

the

who

and

to

IV

the

mind.

J. Graham

Melbourne

1837

at

members

to

the

during

placed

Irish

for

that

settled

been

William

the of

of

the

trafficking

Ministers

Cabinet

election

a

read

The

remember

has

is

the

they

there

dismiss

In

Lord the

Administration.

to

that

Lower

1841,

of

House

op-

that Administration, the votes of the Irish Brigade strong enough to turn the scale and keep it in office. It the

Cabinet.

Irish With

never

any

was

Brigade all

this

injustice

power To

never

what

again

power any

prevented

greatest

1834-1841. tion

It

in place

1835

while

their

Downing-st.

Brigade.4’

and

be

in

the

who

trafficking

the

general

nor

of

from

the

have

those

drove

Ministry

at

only

by

mode

kept

From

were was

as

1830

should

published

The Dublin Freeman's Journal, House a trafficking in places for

of the

indignant

other

there

article

a Select Committee to inquire into contained in these publications”’.

for

understood

Since

created

Stanley.

is

that

an

House,

also move trafficking

He should allegations of such

last

move

should

the

previous statements [/rish ] members of

the the

Why

he

of

to

of

installed

the

against

English

at account but

the

the

was a cry

people. time it

of

turned?

for

the

their

Coalition

the

Cabinet-making,

infamies

was

anything

who

Brigade

own

The

country period of

O’Connell,

The Whigs

Irish against

from

agitathe

BLUE

BOOKS—PARLIAMENTARY

Tories, who

in

to

order

knows

against,

own put put

the

differ

was on

Whigs

Magistrates

in

condition

Ireland.

patriotic

off

their

dumb

hatred

to

an account

in

Tribune

February

21,

The

New-York

No. 1854

4008,

the

so-called

83

Whigs.

Nobody

Lichfield-House

from this opinion—that contract by to vote for, but hcensed to spout

their

Published

from

the

6...

FEBRUARY

OF

places

about

off

representatives

Daily

extort

anything

Contract,*® will which O’Connell

DEBATES

airs.

that

he

should

It

is

time

for

It

is

time

fortthe

of

the for

English their

the and

nominate Irish

Brigade

Irish

people

call

his

to to

their

own

to

text

wrongs.

Printed

of the

according

newspaper

the

Karl

Marx

IRELAND’S

London,

England, English

and

13.

March

socially—by industrial,

REVENGE#49

Ireland

has

bestowing

an

or

maritime

commercial

furnishing the English ‘Trish Brigade’. In 1833, Daniel O’Connell as “‘base, bloody and brutal’. In 1835, he tool

opposed

office support What of

to from it

the

of

the

1835

April received

the

from

O’Connell

between

O’Connell

English

and

Contract,

O’Connell promised Parliament.

size,

with the

most

was

remained

because

his

an

Whigs

the

majority it

of

Insh

1833

of

any

became

1841

August

every

decried

Administration,

to

upon

on

town of Parliament

and

in

the

Brigade. O’Connell

agreement, known as the Lichfreld-House according to which the Whig Cabinet granted government “‘patronage”’ in Ireland, and O’Connell the Whig Cabinet the votes of the Irish Brigade in An

1835?

the

although

Melbourne

intervened

tely

Whigs;

herself

quarter

politically—by

efficient

°

revenged

Irish

“King

Dan’s”

were

Whigs

Repeal

agitation®

overthrown,

as

but

began

soon

were mon

as

immediathe

Tories

defeated “King Dan” sank again to the level of a comadvocate. The influence of the Irish Brigade by no means came to an end with O’Connell’s death. On the contrary, it became evident that this influence did not depend on the talent of one person, but was a result of the general state of affairs. The Tories and Whigs, the big traditional

equally

parties

the

balanced.

numerically Irish

in

Brigade,

ment,

should

scale.

Hence

small

English

It

is

which play the

thus the

factions,

took

a

not

suprising

Manchester

seats

their

decisive

importance

were

Parliament,

role of

in and

the

more that

or

the be

“Irish

reformed

able

new,

the

School*!

to

quarter’

less

and

the

parlia-

turn in

the the

IRELAND’S

English

Parliament.

longer

The

and

erty

and

slogan

malady

their

that

would

help

But having taken rights of the tenants,

a means The had

Irish

Brigade

to

ownership

The

patriotism

the

of

propose

these

Irish

P.s

M.

knows Keogh,

a

also

has

liberal

legal

to

counsel

so that the juridical general now composed entirely of the

of

Clerk

by

Muntz,

rightly

to

to

the

close other the

ment

side,

Irish

policy

fact and

that also

officers

is already Sergeant from

He

has

appointed of

Lieutenant

of

Ireland,

fact

Irish

has that

has

been

government

Irishmen.

is

Monsell,

government, has been hesitation, although—

an arms the

manufacturer,

a

musket

Irish

influence

the

Catholic

over to

Irish

of

colonels

militia.

an gone

the

of

proteges

nominating

the

froma

lieutenants

the

when in

Ireland, Brigade

to

exerting Shee

the

Lichfield-House

the

advised

Brigade

and

of

distinguish

preference

high-ranking

Palmerston’s from

has

birth

member

coalition

cannot

to the

of

Ireland,

and

and

the

for

Catholics

some

give

the

the

of

after

Palmerston always

support by

the

landed

decided

Irishman

Lord

staff

coalt-

had

the

basis.

the

helped taken

an

Birmingham

observed—Monsell

counties and

for

in

and

having

gain

M.P.

Com-

reform

to

third

the

the

Palmerston

deputy

needle-gun. priests

in

Ordnance

reappointed

as

a

of

Attorney-General

Catholic

and

to

renewed

Brigade,

Solicitor-General,

become

is

a

they used Repeal—as

It

granted,

for

all-embracing

the

of

one,

themselves,

order

cause

prop-

ministry

position?

designed

who

on an

chief

Fitzgerald, has

in

always

words

House

Derby

minor

its

Brigade

quarter’,

1835

the

made

Irish

Irish

Contract.

the

a

use

it

other

the

no

the

had

in the House, formerly the

as

Tories

measures

“‘Irish

of

Contract

did

Palmerston,

his

into

though

measures

Ireland.

get seats

overthrown

even

only

could

Thus

in

Lichfield-House

government. How coalition to burke

tion

in

slogan,

their etc.—just

used it

to explore the real relations of landed

is,

the

election

had

a seat,

obtained

what

that

a new

to conclude

O’Connell

do

them

mons. the

to

no

“Repeal”

be ?

theme.

make

the

reform

could

Emancipation?

was

it

the

propaganda

do,

to

and

with

too,

problem, Catholic

to

refused

Irish

masses

Irish

as a permanent were compelled

politicians the

the

the

Since

serve

avoided

stir

scene

the

left

O’Connell

‘“Catholic’’

occasionally. longer

After

to

possible

slogan.

of

85

REVENGE

That

is evident the

govern-

Bishop

of

86

KARL

Athlone

has

pushed

that

moreover

tion

of

the

have

the

Wherever

taken

their

re-election

clergy

Catholic

Fitzgerald.

clergy

through the

has

ranks

patriotism”

“‘Irish

Keogh

of

promoted

lower

MARX

the

re-elec-

the

of

and

Catholic

seriously

and

have

up

to those members of the Irish Brigade who deserted to the government, they have been rebuked by their bishops who are well aware of the diplomatic secret. stood

protestant

A

existing merston

between

who

hand

will

The

and

condition

and Irish

“Irish

be

equally

Irish

in

the

soczal

quarter”

in

is

being

revolution.

capitalist,

is

The

taking

chief

one

Australia, still

are:

and the

million which

carries

1848,54

off

which

or

starvation

removed

this by

Irish

the

old

the

the

clergy

a very as the

England, Ireland.

their

an

the

to the

Anglothe

English and

Both

back

by

the

seem

clergy

revolution

tenures,

big

sell

measure

behind

of

to

of

in

the

the

however,

decreases

Irish

system, modern

landowner.

another

million

the

unsuccessful

thousands;

finally

destroyed

from

the

land

and

insurrection

Ireland’s

in

faith

of

herself;

Parliament which exposed the estates of Irish aristocrats to the hammer of the

bailiff,°5

drove

is,

English

Brigade; other

power

It

in

replaced of

the

transformed

by

place

PalM.P.s

which prepared the ground for this 1847, the year of famine,53 which killed Irishmen; emigration to America and

lastly the Act of debt-ridden old

auctioneer

as

the

factors

transformation

nearly

tenures

small

of

being

elect

the

the

same grows

the

that

course

the

1s

the

and

fact

to

and

it.

sphere

radically

In

system

system

the

of

When

will

dominate

buy

sphere

Parliament

unaware

to

to

in

political

agricultural the

that

the

clergy.

priests

salaries

strengthen

in

society

Saxon

and

acknowledge

and

Irish the

congruity

“‘complete

Palmerston.”’

one

the

both

the

Brigade

posts

phenomenon

influence

the

and

the

priests,

Lord

Irish

toss

permits

influence

Celtic

the

extend

remarkable

to

England

that

to

help

Palmerston to the

they

clergy

Catholic

bemoans

Ireland

use

Whigs

Parliament

on

Lord

over over

hands

newspaper

Tory

thus

away

their

driving

small

them

from

tenants,

the

land

subtenants

just

and

cottagers. Published No.

127,

in

Neue

March

Oder- Zeitung 16,

1855

Translated

from

the

German

Karl

Marx

PARLIAMENT]

[FROM

years

two

For

considering

as

Parliament,

three

bills

c

]

{Excerpt

is

to

designed

well

known,

regulate

the

has

been

relations

of

landowners and tenants. One of the bills determines the amount of compensation which the tenant should be entitled to claim for the improvements he made on the land, in the event of the landowner terminating the lease. Hitherto, all improvements made by Irish tenants—most of whom hold a temporary lease concluded for one year—have merely enabled the landowner to demand a higher rent on the expiration of the existing lease. Thus the tenant either loses the farm, if he does not wish to renew the lease under less favourable cond!Irish

tions,

and

in

the

improvements,

in

addition

made

with

with

mentioned coalition

to

the the (the

bills

was

cabinet therefore,

mons,

but

Ministers then

the

loses is

compelled

rent,

interest

one

House

the

them them

till in

a

them

back

to

distorted

form.

There

the

main

Bill

was

Thursday, had of

been the

sacrificed

and

the

turned

government

associated

with

the

the

were

astonished

them

partly

and them.

partly

altar

by

Sergeant

the

votes

Shee’s

of

In

Comof

the

(in

1855)

and

their

point

was in

Commons

the

see

property that

votes of

this

Compensation

landed

to

the

Brigade.

House

of of

by

which

Insh

that

of

the

with

earlier

connivance

House

on

invested landlord,

the

for

session

clause

has the

improvements

the

way

Irish

against

the

the

next

the

sending

on

by

with

such

blunted,

he

pay

to

Support

passed

Lords

of

capital

arrangements votes of the

the

of

were

they

the

capital.

tenant’s)

purchased

shelved

amended

or

original

his

1854,

he he

farm

the

members

of

those

furious

last scales

directly

attack

on

88

KARL

threatened to this moment

Palmerston which at Palmerston Brigade. visit

the

of

He

him

the

day his

rescinded

and

to

Commons

in

promise

Irish

the

of

the order

to

vote

on

of

this

gave decline

the

of

had

Palmerston

no

is

longer

in

that

the

to

use way

the

of

the

motion. House

scenes The

18.

Irish

of

1s ready

of

typical

Irish

have

of

M.P.s

majonty

of

was

House

the

scandalous

to vote

support

the

deputation able

he

course,

parliament.

known

whether

no-confidence

intrigue

oligarchic

votes, but it became not authorised the

105

M.P.s

the

of

secure

those

of

Irish

Irish

through

the

the

parliamentary

Palmerston,

in

exposure rise to one

the

an

Sadleir,

of

to enquire

the

of

18

of

quarter’”’

consequences.

middleman

clause

division.

“Irish

serious the help

have

during

premature

Commons

to

anything

Brigade

The

have with

yesterday

carry

in the

deputation

influence

another

riot

and

a

for

before

use

to

coalition

arranged

to

willing

could negotiated

therefore

ex-member

a

unleash

MARX

Altogether,

govern-

during

ment crises in quite the same as in O’Connell’s time. Along with the dissolution of the old established parliamentary factions, the “Insh quarter’, too, crumbles and disintegrates. makes At

the

use same

of

of

war,

theatre

the

time

some

small

incident

sphere,

if

telegraph

the

hands

amateurish

mentary and

the

case, the incident shows time won to influence the he waits for some favourable

parliamentary

submarine

from

any

In

wrenched

generals

and

astrological

whims

of

and

quite

has

not

the

of

diplomatic unparalleled

intrigues. character

can

which

in the

made

Palmerston

various

cliques.

news be

the

from

military. of

it dependent

Hence the

the

exploited

direction

Bonaparte of

how

on

and the

in

The

the

on

war the

parlia-

inexplicable

second

Crimean

campaign.°®

Published No.

325,

in July

Neue

16,

Oder-Zeitung

1855

Translated

from

the

German

Karl

From

LORD

Marx

JOHN

RUSSELL? r

IV

London,

the

war,’® lower

to

lower.

throw

and

into

it

but

Commons,

through

then

George

III.

thrust

themselves

on

with

Ireland.

were

for

reformed

which

old

tion.69

and

on

Irish

Church

*

The

part

measure’,

to

which

by

Judges

men and

“fire,

bigot

in vain,

to

IV)

on

George

a

reconciliation agitation

Reform

were

of

a

they

the

Irish

to

Juries.”-

be

civil

Coercion

tried Ed.

in

they

war

as

Ireland

by

fulfilled

transportation the

for

sedi-

Coercion

Bill

would

follows

against

‘Red-Coat

Bill,>9

Whigs

stipulating

reads

Ireland,

prosecuted

carried

that

clause

of

against Coercion

The

was

and

sentence

the

declaration

Irish

imprisonment,

stipulation with

war

of

Ireland.*

O’Connell

introduced

Bill,

: a

on

law

death’.

express

last

the

of

“hopes

a declaration measure’’, the

with

they

the

Tribune

bloody

martial

with

only

Daily

was

bloody

promise But

House

flatter

about

the

the

the

though

(later

bring

during

in

to

sought,

into

Emancipation

reading

Regent

could

and

Irish

it

they

Prince

they

parliament

even

and

only

imposed

their

the

small

stepped

raised in Ireland” merely powerful instruments to be used for Yet their first act at the first meeting of the

them

“brutal

a

withdrew

and O’Connell,

purposes.

party

anti-Jacobin

temporarily

second

1812,

In

Before

upon

fawned

a

that

the

they

of

ground

the

of

in

they

introduced

idiocy the

outbreak

Whigs

When

they

carried

the

the

of

standard.

1806,

in

office

Bill

her

party

With

England began to ebb They therefore turned to Ireland, decided the scales and wrote Jrish Emancipation on

influence

and

their

4.

August

a

that in

Ireland, Tribunal

military

bring

The

a Bill’,

officers,

in

an

certain New-York

‘brutal

and

according instead

of

90

KARL

portion should

be

of

this

use

to

clause

principle

that

Established

to

ought of

his

to

ground

a

consists

of

had

been

or

stand

the

by

a

the

expropriate

the

John

Russell

certainly

immense

property

with

as

the

they

had

hastened—on

the

though

Bull, the

soon

As

Whigs,

Church

collision

the

plunder. the

Parlia-

importance

acknowledges

to

whole

church

passed,

fall

avoiding

of

very

Lord

since

Ireland

that

The

it

power

the

principle of

that

fact

has

convinced

Bill

engaged

the

and

Ireland.

of

in

Church

Parliament

of

benefit

Parliament

family

Coercion

the from

Church,

be

Established

disposal

it for

flows

the

of

at the

placed

was

ment

revenue

the

of

MARX

Lords—to

out

take

any value at all. They then voted against and defeated their own measure. This happened in 1834. But towards the end of the year the Whigs’ sympathies for the Irish were aroused again as if by an electric shock. For Sir Robert Peel came into office in the that

clause,

autumn tion

1834

of

benches.

busily

only

part

the

Whigs

and And

engaged

was

the

in

the

of

on

to

had

we

immediately working

Bill

of

to

retire

see

our

reconciliation

the

Opposi-

John

Russell

with

Ireland.

He

agent in bringing about, in January 1835, the Lichfield-House Compact,®} through which the Whigs surrendered to O’Connell the Irish patronage (the right to distribute offices, etc.), and O’Connell secured to them the the

principal

votes,

Irish

both

pretext

for

needed.

With

ejecting

Ministry

ago,

a

as

war-cry. was

Peel

formed,

and the

of

one

the

he

clause,

and

acting

upon

his

he

mental

of

still

on

Under John his

the Prime

firmness

to

other

hand

views.

He

Minister,

to

such

firmness,

his of

never his

his

moral

acted moral

an extent

time

was

Secretary

and

to boast

on

now

in

although the

appropriation

moderation

upon

them.

moderation

that

short

the

Cabinet

began

for

on

views

in

“appropniation

Home

now

He

Commons.

mental

a

Melbourne

became

name

colleagues the

of

used

the

abandoned

slogan The

Russell

of

his

the

and

under

and and

the

defeated.

adhered

those

was

he

was

chose

battlefield

a

But

Street

Russell

the

notorious

withdrawn

House

hand

office

when

Lord

as

it.

of

Downing

“impudence’’,

Ireland

became

had

out

and

from

clause’’—which

Reform

clause”

Tories

of

clause—it

“appropriation

Leader

the

Revenues

very

Parliament

characteristic

Ecclestastical the

inside

he

in not

In

1846,

overcame

renounced

his

LORD

JOHN

too.

“views”

more

fatal

Reform

of

King,

than

Mr.

once

at

and

he

not

could

endangering

in

an

proposed

conceive

a

of

revenues,

the

the

be

of

and

United

Kingdom,

the

leader

1834,

the

King’s

Speech,

the

object

Parliament,

the

of

to

real

a

and

and

stated

the

agitation

some

in

in

the

was

place

of

parliament

of

chief”’.

was

agitation

and

the

of

toestablish,

the

Repeal

member

the

again

Ministry

Reform

address

record

in

to

Parliament

United

was

February

denounced

the

Commons

O’Connell

In

that

Commons

Lords,

“to

that those

of

overturn

“to

which

professed

the Established Church. February 1833, John Russell as Ministry denounced Irish Repeal,

In House

He

measure

root

essential

91

RUSSELL

most

the

maintain

manner

solemn

unimpaired

the

and

determination

fixed

undisturbed

the

of

legislative

union’’.

on

Immediately

very

the

same

that

is, In

or

The

to

then

was

became

Premier,

same

John

with

the

Bill.

Peel’s Lord

John

and But

his he

Union,

any

Russell

up

Arms

act

first

dealing

in

to

with

alliance

beer.

with

the

to punish Peel for the Peel’s administration.

Bill,

Russell

was open

subject

legislature”,

Bill

passion

exposed

the the

of

broke

Irish

benches,

Opposition

that

than

Laws,62

Corn

outraged

less

the

act

other

Lord

burning

of the pretext

the

of

any

nor

1846,

March

declared

Repeal like

more

morally that

the

to

shifted

Russell

question,

neither

Tories,

repeal

John

respect

‘“‘with amendment

being

against

resolutely

was himself

an

which

protested..He

attempt to

the

renew

to

ridicule

without

any

result. O’Connell had just conjured up huge protest meetings against Peel’s Bill and had obtained 50,000 signatures to petitions—he was in Dublin where he brought all achieving

the

means

was

O’Connell

revenue

agitation

of

generally this

moment

plice.

He

therefore

angrily

Arms

Bill

immediately.

if

at

into

association

with

the

and

defeat,

the

in

this

called)

would

he told

appeared the little

Russell Whigs,

he

play.

was

King have

Dan lost

(as

Daniel

empire

and

as Russell’s accomman to withdraw his

secret O’Connell added humiliation to a past master. To make it quite withdrew

it. Despite

his

92

KARL

obvious the

who

had

withdrawal

ordered the

of

on

ciliation Hall in Dublin John Russell announced

1844,

Russell

Ireland occupying

that

militarily,

the

of

had

charged

troops,

with

was

a pretence.

on

and

and

ly,

the

other

were

latter and

taken

by

of

In

side

the

Published 365,

No. A

in

August

shortened

was

of

Neue 8,

English

acting

version

The

Tribune

of

August

New-York

28,

by

Con-

in

“having but

proclaimed

the

were

collusion

and

his

with

the

“vigorous

employed

circumstances.

regime

in

in

Their

aim

Ireland,

but

England.

Translated

from

but

analogous

the

English

have

The

serious-

measures”’

brutality rule

the

Whigs,

game

The

English

side

followers.65

Repeal

the

the

energy,

of

one

the

the

and

Ireland

about

display

on

filled

suspension

bragged This

day In

militarily

occupied

and

the

of ‘the

Whig

1855.

in

1855

the

the

Russell

there

Government

Oder-Zeitung

published

Daily

1848,

Ireland

with

governing

Smith O’Brien who took to a comic end.

Russell

prolongation

Peel

not

Clarendon.64

were thus not demanded was, not the maintenance the

Robert

Sir

with

dupes

came

announced

at

August 17, that 1s, on the very it in the House of Commons.

In

priests

simply

hence

retreat, O'Connell to the Repealers

Felony Acts, Corpus Act,®3

measures’

O’Connellites

Bill

the

Habeas

“vigorous

too,

and

country’’.

passed

the

Arms

MARX

been

the

passages

version used

German, from

ENGELS

MARX

TO

23,

"May

Dear

Marx,

During to

then

our

tour

in

the

west

coast,

on

Galway

Limerick,

Killarney

and

English

two-thirds

Dublin,

to

one-time

capital,

country,

and

or

France absence

understand

country

itself,

so

that

the

whole

it.

With

the

same

and

has

Italy.

all

at

“Strong

the

as

regarded its

proximity, already

is

citizens

never

have sodden

seen

look

to

its

are

armed

is

highest

based

so many

Characteristic dating from the

colony

on

the

live

carbines, of fifth

this and

here

bayonets

country sixth

any the

and

lawyers,

a

total

to

on

if

the

half

of

the

corner

of

the

of

so-

may

be

Ireland which,

of

the

because

colonies.

country,

gendarme

among

in

in the old way, and so-called liberty of

oppression in

entire

everything,

a trace. and as one

Prussian

small

difficult

other

every

with

gendarmes

bibulous

perfection

with

growths the

Dus-

a

were

and

be

still governed exactly notice here that the

the

of

not

is

one

if

of

as the

of

priests,

in

seen

have

of

it would

visible

meddles

first

look

as

500

exception

profusion

supply

are

there

England’s

can

English

not

did

measures’

self-government

that

parasitic

government

the

pleasing

so

all,

these

peasants

of

picture.

in

to

London

Gendarmes,

squires

we

character

too, the towns, is

the

of

the

Tralee,

450

the

to

relation

quite

English-built,

industry

what

distress

called

the

especially

any

of

country,

about

of

inland,

Tarbert,

of

Berlin

country

to

north

total

to

Dublin

from

miles

Shannon

bears

all

twenty

then the

came

Dublin—a

Northern

bureaucrats,

one

of

which

does

seldorf

to

inside

we

Ireland®®

down

back

miles

about

of

1856

is

and

I the

developed

constabulary,

who

handcuffs.

are

centuries,

its

ruins, the oldest the latest from the

94

ENGELS

nineteenth—with

every

are

after

all

churches;

houses

peasants.

of

neighbourhood

never Whole

people

tion

and

still

even

desert it

Galway,

and

the

mostly and

by

a

has lot

of

luxuriant especially in

pastures, of

one

which,

big

can

are

the

are

there

at

ruins

have

appearance.

mountains

and

bogs

is

gradually

is

an of

cattle,

away

cleared In

but

the

south-

there

is

also

that again fine Dublin there is

forest

see,

There

cultivated,

been

bourgeois

the

south

least

excellently

7

the

land

Clare,

I

emigra-

this. The

fields. County

Here

lie

almost

Famine,

land; beyond Tipperary, and towards

wonderfully

land

the In

Limerick

farmers,

Scottish

in

1846. reality.6

them

are

who

accomplished

wants.

better.

towards

a

seen

be

the

since

tangible

lawyers.

have

in

peasant

ruined

among

there

mostly

together

somewhat

are

and

such

landlords,

there,

to

have

1800,

after

deserted

1856

ancient

especially

with

been

could

nobody

country

there

only

lesser

living

cattle

hills

the

west

the

which is

have

castles;

west,

covered

23,

May

most

The

and

the

of

is

devastated,

of

clearances

not

utter

whole

famine

are

parks

only

are

that

period.

churches

Galway,

which

of

villages

splendid

1100,

The

of

most thought

houses,

intervening

MARX.

TO

coming

into

the

hands

farmers.

country was completely ruined by the English wars of conquest from 1100°® to 1850 (for in reality both the wars and the state of siege lasted as long as that). It has been established as a fact that most of the ruins were produced by destruction during the wars. The people itself has got its The

peculiar

character the

fanaticism

own

their

country.

realised. the

respect;

indeed

exclusively,

to

dogs.

achieve

something,

politically been

nation

and

supplying casual

comes

emigration

the and

now, England,

labourers,

How and

often

every

as

converted

everyone America,

pimps,

have

into

the

of

with in

population

started

they

have

been

Australia,

being

superior

Irish

an

in

predominantly,

the

knows,

pickpockets,

now

compete

the

consistent

Irish

at home is

means

with until

character

time By

That

cannot

he

go on

national

longer

Saxon!

equipped Celtic

their

are no

that

will

industrially.

artificially

the

for

all

for

they

knows

almost

gone

have

Ireland

who

and

that

feel

Irishman

Englishman,

every is

The

this,

from

fellows

out

crushed,

oppression

utterly fulfil

the

etc.,

with

swindlers,

to

they

impovenshed function

of

prostitutes, beggars

and

ENGELS

MARX.

TO

other

rabble.

23,

May

1856

95

Impoverishment

characterises

the

aristocracy

too. The landowners, who everywhere else have become bourgeoisified, are here reduced to complete poverty. Their country-seats are surrounded by enormous, amazingly beautiful parks, but all around is waste land, and where the money is to come from it is impossible to sce. These fellows are droll enough to make your sides burst with laughing. Of mixed blood, mostly tall, strong, handsome chaps, they all

wear

enormous

themselves

around and

the

the

an

makes

live

moustaches

country dread

haven’t

the

Bonaparte

ways

attempted

over soon.

of

a penny,

and

about

I shall

by

colonels,

pleasures,

are

Estates

means

and

this,

How

sorts

noses,

Roman

retired

of

Encumbered

country—repression

come

colossal

airs

all

after

they

of the

Concerning

this

military

false

inquiry,

in

under

laden

travel

if

with

debts,

Court.®?

which

England

shortly

if

zwischen Bd.

I,

in F.

Der

Briefwechsel

Engels

Stuttgart,

und

1913

K.

Marx,

rules before

you

won’t

it? Yours,

Published

one

and

corruption—long

write

give

Translated

from

the

F.E.

German

Karl

From

THE

QUESTION

to

According

grasps

after

principles Ionian free

very

oracle only

public

liberty;

of home,

moment,

Daily January

in

Tribune

6,

No.

1859

in

India

and

Bull

must

giving

New-York 5526,

IONIAN

we

1f

Ireland, enslave

prove

them

to only

abroad.

the

in

the

facts,

the

according

newspaper

to

that

Thus,

vent to his virtuous system at Paris, he

of

he

Square,’!

adhere

Printed

©

ISLANDS’

Printing-House order to educate

but,

like while

The

in

John

against Bonaparte’s spy introducing it at Dublin.

Published

THE

OF

colonies

Islands,

at

his

Marx

at

be this

indignation is

himself

to

the

text

Karl

THE

Marx

IN

EXCITEMENT

IRELAND

London,

A Government, Ministry, a party getting

rid

When

installing

doubtless, in

up

past

Ireland;

principles, his

had

and

than

to

mind

versatile

atone

the

for

name

his

old

connections. Lord

Derby,

blunders

which

Street,

a

into

byword

hesitate

in

Ireland,

for

Attorney-General

one moment

not bound

would

its

of

Downing

converted

his

Whiteside,

at

himself

made

times

Mr.

old

1858

like the present British always better succeed in

representing, in decay, will

its

of

24,

Dec.

to the 2 But,

flinging

him to the Orange Lodges.‘ then, Lord Derby’s advent to power gave, simultaneously, the signal for one coterie of the governing class to rush in and fill the posts just vacated by the forcible ejection of the other wind

the

coterie.

oaths

The

formation

consequence

among

a

become

that

that

all

Thus,

resuscitate

was

Castle,/3

and

landlordism,

couple,

course,

seriously

4-226

places

still

by

share

club

should

a party

marching

having

past,

the

united

in

intrigues, the

be

name

under

nothing

together

involved

Cabinet

and, loaves

the

divided

which

has torn

a banner common above and

save

all,

the

fishes

of

Eglinton, the Don Quixote who wanted to tournaments of chivarly in money-mongering to be enthroned Lord Lieutenant at Dublin Lord Naas, notorious as a reckless partisan of

worthy

their

Derby

Lord the

England,

with

and fact

to

resolution

office.

Irish

still

meaningless, in

the

Government

crew

motley

to tatters, but reminiscences of firm

of

was

to

arcades

enjoined

crotchets,

be

ambo, to

by behave

made

his

on

leaving

their

First

superiors

properly,

Minister.

London, and

to by

The

were,

of

have

done

no

capni-

98

KARL

cious

to

pranks

path

across

good

intentions,

Dublin

the

clearance

whatever

their

been

officially

ment

itself

as

to

burning

of

their

individual

its

for

the

arrival

that

himself

down

were

be.

men, had

Orangeism

loyalty,

denounce

had place,

those

of

the

this

at the

cottages,

of

inmates

position might

to

dancing

his

poor

intruding

compelled

on

with

as party necessities men in the wrong

intentions

snubbed been

once

paved

baubles

Naas,

the

ratio. Yet instal wrong

at

Eglinton’s

doubt,

satisfy

proper to

Lord

Vice-royal Lord

unhousing

falsified

had

the

of

not

do

while

estates,

of

merciless

necessities

employers.

determined

proceeding at the forced Lord Derby

party

vista mind;

was

Castle,

the

own was, we

their

channel

childish

wholesale and

the

his

before

upset

MARX

Govern-

organisation

very unceremoniously it was told that it was no any earthly purpose, and that it must vanish. The mere advent of a Tory Government, the mere occupancy of Dublin Castle by an Eglinton and a Naas revived the hopes of the chop-fallen Orangemen. The sun shone again on the ‘true blues’; they would again lord it over the land as in the days of Castlereagh, and the day for taking their revenge had illegal,

and

longer

good

visibly

dawned.

and,

one

last,

temerarious

Lieutenant,

placing

turning,

through

trade

the

of

was

world

provocateur

spy,

Ireland

announcing

societies

were

Kenmare, from

annex tives

an

the

which, other

side

Skibbereen,

secret of

nocturnal on; from

themselves

arrests the

took south-west

and

in

perjurer,

Counties

and

rewards,

the

Erin. of

The

secret fellow,

at

Killarney,

of

Killarney,

a

formidable

with

filibusters

boys of

not

only,

institutions’, Consequently, of

agent

the

infamous

intended

Lord

siege,

of

detection

members

English Republic.

the

of

Green

apprentice

some

morning

fine

and

in

an

when

Atlantic,

the

street

£50

understanding

the

Downing

a state

in

the

for

as

weak,

one

trade

apothecary’s

Bright, to ‘‘Americanise Ireland to the model busied

say) the

and

bungling, of

until

profitable

father

in

the

proclamation

£100

of

posted,

own

Bantry,

conspiracy Mr.

hardly

his

to

rewards

O’Sullivan,

denounced

a

informer,

most

led

other, by

(so

means

the the

placards named

the

startled

the

into

they

representatives

to

position

false

the

step,

by

Step

therefore,

from

at

for

Kerry

and

place, mysterious informations the conspiracy hunting spread

like

but to detecCork,

went to the

THE

IN

EXCITEMENT

north-east,

masters,

and

alarmed

attorneys’ the streets

through the

scenes

farcical

Monaghan,

worse

thing

judicial

99

IRELAND

occurred

and

and

the

veil

was

Bail

became

were

secret, copies of the arrests had been made

kept

stipendiary

seats

judicial all

Ireland

to at

the

be

up

in the

of

mystery

the

of

were

the

might

defendants

believe

order

magistrates

paraded

What

rendered

cases, the

and

of

said,

Rea,

what

Mr.

remarked

Dublin

left

and

all

the the

and

counsel

to

their

from

Castle,

the

has

which refused,

down

respect

with

Constitution

inquisitions

regularly

up

whirling

the

midnight

on

informations

were

over

thrown all

school-

of

clerks

jails.

day,

of

County

dozen

in,all

ante-chambers

Belfast,

British

some

declined

surprises arbitrary

the

the

merchants’

locked

was

proceedings.

saw

Belfast

clerks

in

that

of the

for

place, this

Belfast

“I

last

week.” Now,

through

that

had

agents, of

and

given

way

who,

the it

ing

its

in

was

the

Phoenix

whole

it

more awful to may be Express,

and

disgust,

in editor.

There events, it thought

from

4*

the

rumours the

own

its

may exist is a very fit

to

men

of

there

Government,

stifle

Peep-o’-Day

new,

murders

thing affair,

this

never end boys

of

extend-

the

north-east

from

the

American-

Ribbonism75;

of

unknown,

and

of

The

Dublin

day

by

day

their

so

Daily

treats To

own upon

depended the eighteenth

combined

to

wage

by

at

all itself

ashes.

As

secret century,

war

and of

Phoenix Club, but since the Government its

its

graves,

disposed

as a

in

its

men

armed

place.

from

being

the

is driven

Government

taking

Phoenix

At

to

committed,

return

against

places.

conspiracy,

quite the

shifts

killed

a

their

revival

meetings

columns such small

a

manoeuvres organ, which

midnight

Ribbonism, its existence spirators. When, at the Protestant

The

and

issued

was

it

quite

Government

iuding,

the

south-west

Ireland,

of

that.

judged false

intense

has

all

for

mystery,

this

of

dangerous

the

Then

something

to

protest the

surface

is

anxiety

reputation

the

from

Club.’4

the

readers,

ma

that

ramifications

now

their

pretended

ising

the

to the pressure of its credulous Irish turn, were mere playthings in the hands how to get out of the awkward fix

once

at

hubbub

more

their

losing

over but

this

Orangemen,

without first,

all

more

transpires

to

conthe

against

100

KARL

the

in

Catholics

the

the

boys

merged

own

days,

the

Ribbon

the

by

Eglinton

Lord

its

fill

may,

societies. would

as

mushrooms.

The

call

it,

they

clearing

of

the

are

tenants vermin

is

secret

land

to by

part,

their

combine disposed

a

anything

effecting

beyond

and

societies

no

as

experiment small

more

by

for

or,

cotters;

The

and

native

ado

than

wretches,

on

formation

of

the

land,

present agrarian

confederated

despairing

the

may place

producing

economical

resistance

over

as

At

of

the

with

The

feeble

scattered

are

mouths.

of

housemaid.

attempt

societies,

useless

of

be the

the

taken

to

except such

woodland against

for

life,

steps

partisans.

Ireland

of

of

Constabulary,

producing

accuse

Orangeism,

Ribbonism,

Ireland

of

our

in

condition

Irish

in

extermination

of

last,

Orangemen

own

their

landlords

war

fiendish

at

revive

Ireland as to

judicious

its

the

of

the

disavowed

Dublin

societies

accuse

the

fact, of

society

Peep-o’Defenders trans-

extraordinary

the

with

1791,

The

head

secret

To be

they

ranks

no

exist

in of

opposing

When,

lost

voluntarily.

inferior

there

a

having

attempts officers at the

English

in

Government

present

the

When,

Ribbonmen.

Society,

itself

the

Orangeism,

into

British

dissolved

Ireland,

up.

into

themselves

formed

of

sprang

Defenders’®

Day

north

MARX

powerless

demonstrations

for

individual

of

vengeance. But

mere

of

airy

press

mob

The

with

shilling

into

the

detection

county rural

be

detected.

From

the

immediately

enrol

swear

blood-money. the

suffice Sir

To

effect

to

Robert

characterise

on

them

one

quote Peel

to

in

the

of

passage House

and

to

entrails who,

delegates,

travel

administer the

body

to

race

Government

from

a

create

the

every

through

the

denounce pocket

Irish

the

informers

rewards,

speech

Commons:

the

of

and

of

for

transforming

oaths,

gallows,

this

of

by

reward

blacklegs

members, them

a sure

than

rise

districts,

and

service,

revolutionary

out

held

shape

a

is

sergeant is no more sure gin some of the Queen’s

his

is

into

victims,

giving

societies

to

themselves

and

Ireland

premiums

secret

Irish

there

the in

in

after

recruiting

Queen’s

of

societies

succeed

nothing.

his

hunted

Orangeism,

may

Government

the

the

conspiracy

invention

the

to

the

if

it will

delivered

by

THE

“When ted

a

offered

Chief

can

and

and

Mr.——,

and

Clonmel;

reward it

be

of

he

was

There

a

was,

by

£500

believed,

employed

placing He

this

side

two

men

on

the very man who came and gave their execution, and with these hands the

Published Daily January

sum

in

Tribune

11,

of

The No.

1859

£2,000

New-York 5530,

to

that

monster

who

at

each

each

each

Suir,

from

escape

the

murdered,

that

bribed

guineas

River

road,

foully

éf

two

the

of

crime,

discovery

miscreant

was

Castle

men

four

each

therefore,

was commita deadly re-

murder

Mr.——had

on

heinous

the

for the

A

Clonmel.

road

a

Ireland,

of

Secretary

was impossible. was so shocked

country And

a

him.

to

victim

101

IRELAND

Carrick-on-Suir

toward

murder

Carrick

his

was

I

between

venge to

IN

EXCITEMENT

the

Government

the

murderers. murderers

led to Dublin

the information which I paid in my office in in

human

Printed of

the

of

the

four

of the

and

shape.”’

according

newspaper

to

the

text

Karl

From

POPULATION,

There must be social system which its

misery,

and

numbers.

It

true

rotten

in

enough

its

that,

years,

number

committed

to

amounted

the

people

number

quite

in

Offenders’

which

sentences

working

as

fate

so

may

tion. dark

not

of

only

professional

Thus,

historian, its

far

thousands

of

itself law of

or as

crimes

that views

it

has the of

the Act

to

being

men,

and

punish lawyers been Catholic

human

is

the

fallen

off, of

to in

certain This

tone

but

some second

Act

of

pass

prisoners.

economas the

of

but,

it depends

to

violations

of

difference

of

on

the

decides

of

not

society.

Law

improvise it, and the work in this direc-

to

remarked the

if

to

legislator,

moral

of

the

the

of

and

Juvenile

Justice

offspring

only.

apt

nature,

a

crime,

to

the

indifferent,

very

clergy

1858;

in

testifies,

crime, justly

1854

and,

stamp

transgressions from

in

Magistrates

the of

Offenders’

society

which

decrease

consent

the

control

official

nomenclature,

Police

with

total

Criminal

generally

the

Juvenile

on

degree

are

law

the

The

attributed

instance,

the

periods,

beyond the

of

rules

the

of

agencies

some

short

greatly

jurisdiction; of

1858.

17,855

exclusively

first

authorises

for

Violations

the

operation

to

apparent

British

in

the

also

be

trial,

down

This

to

to

1855 for

had

is in

Act‘?

to

1855,

1854,

if

sunk

ratio.

changes

instance,

its

same

since

technical

had

convicted

of

the

however,

ical

29,359,

the very core of without diminishing

in

even more rapidly than in we compare the year 1855 seems to have occurred a

there from

crime

PAUPERISM

wealth

crimes

with the preceding sensible decrease of of

AND

CRIME

something increases

increases

is

Marx

by

medieval

introduced

by

an

eminent

times, its

with

influence

POPULATION,

into

criminal

given which

legislation,

say,

to

crime

per

75

cent,

has

nature,

1s

ruler,

instead but

a

more

created

demand

for

crimes

nature. following

Irish

the

of

the

tabular

say

by

50,

harmonise according

misrule,

is

no act consequence of

than

for-

on of

has

that

the

a

statements

in

even

by

and

fact

with

to which

this

Irish

part

be,

of

famine,’8

worked

may

Kingdom

responsible

circumstances

that

However

United

can we

again,

labour,

the

England,

How

British is,

of

decreased,

combination Irish

part

only

slang of

It

simply

general

the

Ireland.

shortcomings?

in

has

seriously

public-opinion

and

103

PAUPERISM

sins. Strange

the

AND

CRIME

the

an

favourable

this the

Irish

for

happy

British exodus,

to

change

significance

cannot

be

the of

misunder-

stood.

I.—Crimes —Committed

1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857

1858

...

Males

Ireland. for

Trial—

Females

Total

Convicted

14,799

4,649

19,448

8,042

12,807

3,889

16,696

7,101

14,204

4,288

18,492

8,639

23,552

7,657

31,209

15,233

28,765

9,757

38,522

18,206

31,340

10,649

41,989

21,202

22,682

3,644

31,326

17,108

17,337

7,347

24,684

14,377

12,444

5,234

17,678

10,454

10,260

4,884

15,144

8,712

7,937

3,851

11,788

7,051

6,019

2,993

9,012

5,220

5,097

2,002

7,099

4,024

5,458

1,752

7,210

3,925

4,708

1,600

6,308

3,350

|

...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......

Years

in

104

KARL

IY.— Paupers

Years

No.

in

Ireland.

No.

of

Parishes

}

MARX

Paupers

Years

of

Parishes

|Paupers

1849

880

82,357

1854...

883

78,929

1850

880

79,031

1855...

883

79,887

1851

88]

76,906

1856...

883

79,973

1852

889

75,111

1857...

883

79,217

1853

882

75,437

1858..

883

79,199

Published

Daily

in

The

Tribune

September

16,

New-York

No.

1859

5741,

Printed of

the

according

newspaper

to

the

text

Karl

From

THE

Marx

IN

CRISIS

9

ENGLAND’

r

as

Today, which

fifteen

years

to

undermine

threatens

system.

economic food

the

of

working

1846 big

and

population the

others

are

party;

the

one

Repeal

known. At

the

landed

of

the

Corn reproduction

the

potato

and

and

the

that

of

population

starved,

while

time,

English

was

aristocracy

most profitable Laws8® ensured

its

results

same

the

only

English

1845

Irish

victory

the

of

whom

of

entire

the

of

The

The

some

her

almost

part rot.

catastrophe of

blight

with

Atlantic.

English

were

potato

life

promoted

of

the

of for

well the

calamity

sacrifice

of

millions,

across

enormous

basis

two

by fled

Trade

root

foundation

is known

the

a

faces

considerable

when

Irish

catastrophe

decreased

a

of

England the

as

Potatoes

Irish

struck

ago,

this

Free-

compelled

to

monopolies,

and

a

and

sounder

the

working

wider

maintenance

of

the

millions. What dominant ing

branch

depends

which

is

the

1861

and

that

million

people

on

plant

a

of

the

a mass

of

whole

England

few

areas

Scotland

and

of

the

population

Asia

or to

was more

3,061,117, than

live

cotton

is

world. for

Scotland

According

of

True,

the its On

clothing and

process-

the

Scotland

Neither

material America,

while

the

its

Ireland.

of

of

industry.

disease.

of

is to

On

population

5,764,543,

only

cotton

industry.

population

cotton

in

agriculture,

population

providing

areas

the

present

any

contracted

extensive

than

in the

Irish Britain’s

Great

Ireland

of

to

subsistence

census,

monopoly other

the

of

indirectly

not

of

the

greater

two-thirds

was

four

directly plant

production the

contrary,

thrives

Africa.

The

on

or has the

no such

cotton

106

KARL

states

monopoly of the slave-owning is not natural, but historically simultaneously industry on the

the

Suddenly

of

English

the

harvest

source

of

to

ports.

this

to the

,

P ub l is h e d

in

No v e m b e r

6

and is

Die

P resse

1 861

off

by

its

this

export the

be in

No

the favour of

., 3 05

ports

of

this

year's

secessionists’

main

decision

compulsive

not

moreover,

cotton herself from driven to break through

war on

mainstay

the of

imparts

and,

cotton

English

blockades

the

voluntarily

the

fetch

to

declare scales

Union

American Union grew and developed

threatens

Confederation

merely

cotton

come

England

by force, sword on

the

blockade

to

the

It of

War

Civil

prevent thereby cut

and

of

shaped.

to

income,

bale

England

While

States

cotton force

American

the

of

the monopoly market....

industry.

Southern

single

with world

MARX

Union, and thus the slave-owning

T rans l a te d

f rom

to export a to force

the

southern

the

blockade her

to throw states.

the

G erman

Karl

From

This ties,

to

ENGLISH

time

it

is

tastelessly the

up

wives

their

display

of

not

cries

of

jewels who

and

comparable that

provide

not

ladies

far

set

any

parliamentarian

distress

of

the

Irish

women,

not

do

and

own

lips

in

who,

the

starve

in

no

slaves)

motion;

because

and

as

have

a

elicited

single

echo

landownership.8!

a

ened

to

kind

take

or

in

of

a

land

where

keep

of

Lords,

on

the

free

ladies These

ladies of

themselves They

have

that

could

at

portion

the

that of

like

the

yet Her

rights

of

That

Orleans!

far

into

as and

absolute

were

war

Erin, house

from

Commons

New

of

turmoil

and

invasion,

the

too

is

enlight-

goddesses

the

flames

like

invented

a new

and

of

the safe

have

been

by

women

slave-owners

population

consists

the

invented

only

of

or sugar or tobacco merchants, who do cwes of antiquity did. When their away from New Orleans or hidden in their ladies ran out into the streets to spit in the

cotton

had

at

kind

the

slaves

back-rooms,

tongues

a

slave-owners,

husbands face

part in the to throw

Saguntum.§2

shop-keepers,

not

the

matter.

heroism,

of

women

by

Tatar

from

But

different

Olympus,

women

a

Government—homilies

Majesty’s

quite

were

the

of

Green

there

a

was

it

who

eat

for

concentration of small tenancies in half-naked into the streets and chased if

a way

occasion

progressive are thrown home

beau-

in

they

the

women

English

are

they

yellow

Orleans,

humanism—formerly

The

then

AMERICA

except

Mexicans,

natura, aristocratic

(but

so

New

from

with

Charleston.

Lancashire have

ladies

old

in

British

of

ports

the

the

of

AND

HUMANISM

adorned

slaves

Marx

run these

as

victorious

them

or,

the

Unionist

generally,

troops,83

like

to

stick

Mephistopheles,

out

their

to

make

108

KARL

“obscene

accompanied

gestures’

megaeras

thought

they

would

with

be

MARX

invectives.

to

allowed

be

These

insolent

“with

impunity”.

was

That

their

tion in which street-walkers Butler,

a

though

English

analogy

with

has

Butler

General

a

issued

proclama-

he announced that they would be treated like if they continued to behave like street-walkers.

studied lereagh,85 streets at

heroism.

he all.

lawyer

by

would

properly.84

on

imposed

have

prohibited warning to the

Butler’s

made

the

Earl

ridiculous

and

odious

of

Carnarvon,

steps

what

to

them J.

Cast-

foot

in the

New

of

Walsh

of

both

expected

Washington,

and

December

185186

even

dead

his

shot the

ladies

vent their peasants,

only,

(on and

(who

Orleans

a

played

same was an

even wrath

own and

artisans,

their and

spite

other

on

coup

d’etat

the

Indeed,

not

rabble

with

of

Zouaves8” )

knowledge declared be

by that

moreover

ladies,

even

ordinary

for

were

“ladies”?

by

Viscount

should

Butler,

Government who,

previous

“‘infamy’’.

affronted

Palmerston,

some

raped

without

the

the

occasion

of

chastised

by

sensitive

sensitive

slaves,

name

Palmerston

were

and

Mr.

the

disavowed

which

back

in

recognised

others

that

warning who

and

be

very

the

Queen’s

colleagues,

Butler’s

to

admiration

‘“humane”’

behind

Russell

him

take

and

under

set

“ladies”

Sir

Ireland),

to

intended

Both

‘humanism’.

and

it

in

Ireland

Gregory, who demanded the recognition of the Confederation already a year ago, so morally indignant, that the Earl in the Upper House, and the knight and man “without a handle to his name” in the Lower House have questioned the government

on

role

not seem to have Otherwise, by

does

profession,

Law

Statute the laws

to

allowed

Unionist

troops,

impunity!

It

“infamous”.

Published

June

20,

in

Die

1862

Presse

No.

168,

Translated

from

the

German

is

Kar!

From

XXV

CHAPTER

Marx

OF

CAPITAL,

I88

VOLUME

r 5.

Section

Hlustrations

of

Law

General

Accumulation

Capitalist

Ireland

(f.)

In to

the

of

concluding

Ireland.

The

First,

main

The

it

1866,

in

facts

diminution

must the

of

Ireland

of

1851,

in

5,850,309;

1801.

the

we

section,

population

8,222,664; to

this

had

to

began

the

1841,

in

to

millions,

with

reached

6,623,985; its

year,

famine

that Ireland, in less than twenty years, lost more than its people.* Its total emigration from May, 1851,

of

1865,

1,591,487:

numbered

the

emigration

1861,

in

to

nearly

_

a moment

for

case.

had,

dwindled 5!/9

travel

during

level

in

1846,

so

5/16

ths

to July, the

years TableA

LIVE-STOCK

Horses Year

1860 1861

Cattle

Total

.. .

Total

Nunrber

Decrease

Number



619,811

Decrease

Increase

-

3,606,374

614,232

5,579

3,471,688

134,686

602,894

11,338

3,254,890

216,798

1863...

579,978

22,916

3,144,231

110,659

1864.

562,158

17,820

3,262,294

--

118,063

547,867

14,291

3,493,414



231,120

1811,

6,084,996;

1862...

1865...

*

1821,

Population

6,869,544;

of

Ireland,

1831,

1801,

7,828,347;

5,319,867 1841,

persons;

8,222,664.



-—

KA RL

110

MA RX

C ont i nued

S heep

Y ea r

T o tal

T ota l

nu m b e r

D ec rea se

,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,,

18 60 ;

3 5 4 2 08 0

18 61]

3 55 6 05 0

, ,, ,, -

1 8 63 | 3 3 08 2 04 ]

was

inhabited

solely

fore,

8 6 86 6

— !|

58 7 3 7 ]

1 058 480

8 978

—)

3 2 1 8 01 ]

1 2 9 9 893

to

their

The nied it of

a over

Pigs

in

in

of

to

15

above

was

naturally

acres—

mass

the

of

products.

For

years

5

the

from

emigrated than

table

!/3

and

a

of

accompaour purpose,

1861-1865

during

absolute

number

the

million.

it results:—

Cattle

Sheep

Pigs

Absolute

Absolute

Absolute

Absolute

Decrease

Decrease

Increase

Increase

71,944

112,960

146,662

28,821*

turn

result

to

cattle

for

1865,

there-

fall,

Horses

back.

acres

109,000,

under

farms

of

From

30

a

120,000,

fell

population

more

by

us now

The

the

of

half-a-million

the

subsistence *

farms

suppression

consider

sank

From

Let

the

all

number

acres,

30



2 41 4 1 3

52,990.

15

of

over



centralisation.

to

people

further

to

decrease

suffices

which

of

The by

holdings

holdings

52 282

— |{

1851-1861,

of

number

—!

half-a-million.

from of

decrease

by

than

that

due



1 067 458

number

total

the



—}

the

whilst

1 102 042 |

1 47 928

fell,

61,000,



16 9 03 0

1 2 7 1 07 2

1 15 4 3 2 4

houses

1851-1861,

,,, ,,, , , ,, ,, ,, ,, ,

—|

13 9 7 0 !

more

increased

|I ncrease

—}

3 68 8 7 42

1861-1865

| D ecrea se

99 918

1 8 6 4 | 3 3 6 6 941 186 5 !

| num b er

| I ncrease



186 2 | 3 45 6 132

1.e.,

Pigs

would

Thus:

agriculture, and

be

1,299,893,

but

men.

for

found

yet

1865,

in

Sheep

in

which

1858,

In

more

yields

the

1,409,883.

but

in

1856,

of

table

following

unfavourable

3,688,742,

means

the

if

we

went

3,694,294.

is

T AL C A PI

, ., . I CH

VOL

111

XXV

Table

INCREASE

OR

AND

Cereal

IN

DECREASE

Green

Crops

THE

IN

GRASS

UNDER

CROPS

ACREAGE

and

Grass

Crops

AREA

B

Flax

Clover

Total

Culti-

vated

Land

Year

De-

De-

Crease|

crease

Acres

In-

De-

Acres}

In-

crease

creaS2

Acres|

De- |_

crempe

Acres}

In-

crease

Acres|

De-

Acres}

In-

crease

crease]

Crease}

Acres

{Acres

jAcres

1861]

15,701

|36,974



47,969)





19,271)

81,373



1862)

72,734

|74,785





6,623



2,055

138,841



1863

1144,719

|19,358





7,724



63,922

|92,431

1864

{122,437

| 2,317





|47,486



87,761



1865|

72,450;



1861-|428,041



25,241



{108,193

{68,970





{50,159

—-—

|82,834|

{122,850

— 10,493

28,39



530,55



65

calculated

the

compared

with

its

wheat,

Crops,

potatoes, parsnips,

In the heading

year

the

heading

of

1865,

“‘grass

101,543

acres.

decrease

in

we

cereals

of

potatoes was tion increased

Cereal

peas;

and

beet-root,

127,470 additional land’’, chiefly because

waste

and

If

beans,

The

Crops

the

Green

oats,

acres

unoccupied’’,

compare

1865

with

246,

qrs.,

of

667

29,892

barley,

came area

the

decreased

1864, the

decrease

its

capitalists.

in

reflected

the

remembered those

of

that

Schedules State

rise

the C.

the

and

and

of

fall

D.

includes incomes

and incomes

fundholders,

farmers,

Schedule

farmers),

profits—i.e., include

larger

E.,

in of

&c.

the

lawyers,

which employés,

no

purse

in the

with

the

so-called

in

cultiva-

agricultural of

It

is

may

be

exception

of

Income-tax.

(profits

also of

the

their

the

industrial

a

is

were

of

446,398

by

there

48,999

which

&c.:

under under

tons, although the area in 1865. [See Table C.| From the movement of population and produce of Ireland, we pass to the movement landlords,

car-

cabbages,

&c.

“‘bog

166,605

wheat,

rye,

mangolds,

year, as

separate

each

for

predecessor.

barley,

turnips,

vetches,

the

increase

immediate

oats,

include

rots,

or

decrease

It

“‘professional”’

doctors,

&c.;

special

details

officers,

State

and

are

the

given,

sinecurists,

KARL

112

INCREASE

OR

IN

DECREASE

THE

AREA

UNDER

MARX

CULTIVATION,

PRODUCT

Acres

of

Cultivated

or

Increase

Land

1865

Decrease,

Product

per

Acre

Product

1864

Wheat.

Oats.

Barley

. ... . .

| 276,483

Rye.

1864 |1865

266,989

9,494;

Wheat,

13.3|

13.0

12.1;

12.3

15.9)

14.9

cwl.

{1,814,886

{1,745,228

172,700

177,102

|

69

658]

cwt.

Oats,

4,402

Barley, cwt.

...

Bere.

1865

8,894

1,039,724

Potatoes

| Bere,

cwt.

16.4|

14.8

eye,

cwt.

8.5}

10,4

4.1

3.6

10.3)

9.9

10.5]

13.3

1,197

10,091]

1,066,260;

26,536

Potatoes, tons

337,355

Turnips

.

Mangold-

wurzel

334,212

3,143]

Turnips, tons

14,073

14,389

316

Mangoldwurzel, tons

..

31,821

Cabbages

Flax.

Hay....

*

the

|301,693

data

estimated

curred

1,678,493

of

and

in

the

68,924

put

Ireland,

laid

area

before for

the

under

cultivation

Parliament

year

Flax,st.

{(14lb)]

Dublin,

green

show,

25.2

1866’’.

[Note

as

materials Tables

These

to

2nd

compared

tumips,

acres.

of

the

for

the

showing

are

statistics

edition. with

An

1.8

16}

Dublin’’,

Ireland.

134,915

crops,

the

from Abstracts,

annually. of

tons

|Hay,

Statistics,

1872

cultivation

of

together

General

seq., and “Agricultural average produce, &.,

statistics in

are

text

the

Statistics,

et

1860,

decrease

50,260}

34.2

The

official

9.3 | 10.4

Cabbages,

251,433

|1,609,569]

official,

1,801

tons

“Agricultural

years

33,622;

The

a

1871,

increase

mangold-wurzel,

ocand

C A PI T AL

, ., . 1

VO L

CH

113

X XV

Table

PER

AND

ACRE,

TOTAL

PRODUCT

1865

OF

COMPARED

WITH

1864

or

Decrease,

C

or

Increase Decrease,

Total

Product

1865

r 1864

1865

Increase

1865

Qrs.

0.3

875,782

0.2

7,826,332

7,659,727”

166,605





732,017



29,892



1.6

15,160



13,989



1,171



12,680



18,364

ts.

4,312,388

0.4

like;

a



147,284

=”

191,937



| 44,653



350,252

=”

52,877

st.

2,607,153

ts.

decrease

in

for

14,000;

grass,

barley

clover,

wheat

shows 285,000

244,000;

228,000.

1872, of

decrease

of

2,600

236,000

horses,

under

and

vetches,

decrease:—1868,

increase

area

the

acres; For 80,000

pigs.|

rye, last 1869,

1872



4,000;

for

years

The the

280,000;

we

horned

wheat

potatoes,

30,000.

5

st.*

461,554”

cultivation

rape-seed, the

for

ts.

24,945

ts.

3,068,707



165,976

st.

39,561

ts.

446,398

3,301,683

64,506

oats,

34,667;

ts.

3,865,990

297,375

0.2

ars.

5,684

{|

=”

1.1

9.0

”°

3,467,659

2.8

tion



qrs.

48,999

761,909

0.51

acres;

826,783”

1.0

1.9

the

Ors.



find, cattle,

of

66,632;

soil

under

following 1870,

in

flax,

cultiva-

stages

259,000,

round 68,609

16,000

numbers, sheep,

of

1871,

and

an a

K A RL

114

MA RX

Table

INCOME-TAX

THE

ON

1860

SUBJOINED

1861

IN

INCOMES

1862

|

THE

POUNDS

1863

D

STERLING

1864

1865

Sched-

ule

A.

Rent

of

Land

13,003,554

{12,893,829

13,398,934

13,494,091)

13,470,700]/13,801,616

Sched-

ule

B.

Farmers, Profits

| 2,765,387)

2,773,644

| 2,937,899

2 938,923

2,930,874

}

|2

946,072

Sched-

ule

D.

Industrial,

&c.,

ree

4,891,652

4,836,203

EJ22,962,885]

22,998,394

4,858,800

4,846,497)

4,546,147|

23 658,63

1123,236,298/23

4,850,199

ota

Sched-

ules

A.

to

Under in

distribution

of

was the

average 4.58.

annual whilst,

The

years

the

1864

930,340*

increase in

of

income

same

the

period,

table

following

(with

profits

the

for

574

0.93;

only

it of

farmers)

Table

the

was

Britain,

Great

the

D.

Schedule

1853-1864

from

23,597

exception

and

shows of

those

1865:—[See

E.| England, and

duction,

death

But

with

England,

is

marked it

yields

a

drain

at

of

by

off

corn,

a

would

industrial,

as

population

present

an

only wide

wool,

capitalist

developed

fully

with

pre-eminently

such

Ireland

which

a country

have

Ireland

has

agricultural!

channel cattle,

the

from

industrial

bled

to

suffered.

district country

and

pro-

of to

military

recrults.

out

866

The depopulation of Ireland has thrown much of the land of cultivation, has greatly diminished the produce of the

Tenth

Report

of

the

Commissioners

of

Inland

Revenue.

London,

C API T AL

, ., . VO L

S C HEDULE

D

.

115

XXV

I CH

Table

FR O M

I N CO ME

R EL A ND £ 6 0 ) IN I

(O V ER

PR O FI TS

1864

1865

£ Total

yearly

come

£

in-

4,368,610

of......

among persons.

divided

17,467 Yearly

... ....... ......

Remainder total

these

soil,**

” |2,418,833



1,194



1,010 121

” | 1,097,927 ” |1,320,906

” ”

1,044 150

” ”

” ” ”

spite

"

1n

with

The

total that

the

which

of

by

Ireland, making

this

throwing

up

of

to

cattle-

scarcely

as

not

worthy

of

Never-

rents

holdings

and

as

steadily

comprehensible. small

an

branches,

population,

latter

easily

its

retrogressions.

the

of

the is

by

122 ” 28 ” 3*”

devoted of

advance

numbers

the the

On

into

large

arable into pasture land, a larger part transformed into surplus-produce.

of

was

increased, income

appears

although

under

in

the

Schedule

the

preceding

diminishes

relatively

total D.

ones,

is

produce,

different

because

in

of

of

this

certain

law.

also

a century

for

area

some

interrupted

of

yearly

product

that

an

although

the

allowed

forgotten

others,

in

fall

rose, reason

surplus-produce

from

in

” ” ”

584,458 736,448 274,528

greater

about,

constantly the

95 ” 26 ” 3.”

the

of

brought

and

deductions

ed.

1,131

*



and the change whole produce

for

”»

430,535 646,377 262,819

in

hand,

soil



1,073,906 1,076,912

The

Tf

12,184

2,150,818

with

**





former.

*

” | 2,028,571

1,979,066

profits

table

11,321,

.|

farmers’

The



5,015

diminution,

mention,

the

4,703

*

has

absolute

one ones,



238,726

and,

theless,

222,575

.|

in-

breeding,

means

18,081

the

of

yearly

come

the

among persons.

divided

to-

Of the yearly talincome

of

4,669,979

income

over £60 and under £100...

Of

E

without the

and

as

a

England

half

as

much

constituents

of

the

per acre, has

allowing soil

that

it

must

indirectly its had

not

cultivators been

be

exported the

exhaust-

116

KARL

which

it

a

formed

money-value

of

this

rapidly

than

its

mass,

English

market-price

and

especially The

ers

without the

as

by

employed capital

total

decades

and

slowly,

it had

increased

Here,

process

and

a

that

far

middle

of

Note

to

apply, into

the

plague

product

mass

the the

of

a part

because

of

was

scattered,

employed

the

the

And,

the

two

last

constantly did

recurring

concentration

however

dwindling

is

eyes

which

small

its

population

the

conditions

the

the

so

of

overlooked decimation

was

the that

of

the

its

of

the

plague in

14th,

that

the

Malthusians.89

population this

whilst,

accompanied

1s

This

schoolmaster

and

fact

could

support

of

the

production

standard

excellent

depopulation.

belauded of

a

scale,

surplus-population,

by than

naivete

large

the

for

absolute

re-established

only

more

economy from

century

14th If

on a

and

nothing

the

bargain, and

own

springs

century,

nineteenth

of

production

the

during

and

to

experiment

the

a

agriculture,

rapidly

important

further:

produc-

of

formerly

develop.

orthodox

misery

equilibrium

more

great

our

than

by

for

that

the

If, with

means

outside

proportion

under

revealed,

wished

dogma:

20,

largely.

then,

is

in

were

more

constituents

increase,

last

than

commodity.

accumulated

the

the

capital.

with

much

individual

absolute

be

and

so

the

subsistence,

of

capital

increased,

Ireland

trade,

in

incorporation

diminished,

into

of

the

the

of

that

turned

and

by

more is a

agriculture

capital

fluctuations;

its

in

production

industry

of

also

and

value

producer

agriculture

of

concentrated in

own are no

serve

that

employment

that

employed

The

production

population,

in

means

the

own

its

the

of

their

more

yet rise

during

the

years.

10,

of

hand,

the

of

&c.,

wool,

last of

others,

of

consumed

mass

the

expanding

labour

meat,

other

increased

consequence

in

means means

scattered

the

On

surplus-produce of

during

themselves

decreased.

fraction,

MARX

it,

could of

the

naivete, after

followed

the

on

this side of the Channel, in England, enfranchisement and enrichment of the agricultural population, on that side, in France, *

As

greater

followed Ireland

population’”’,

Th.

is

and

more

as

the

promised

before

the

publication

regarded

Sadler,

servitude

land of

misery.* of his

the

“principle

work

on

of

popula-

CAPITAL,

I, CH.

VOL.

The

Irish

people,

but

country

it

next

years,

20

as,

e.g.,

of

killed

poor

not

did

an

an

sands

miles

year

troop next.

as

that

Years’

away

from

the

the

United

emigrates instead

one

Finally,

of

the

1s

a

it

every that

the

were

What

and

relative

surplus-population

wages

that

ers new

has

The

pace

kept

as

to

arable

than in increases

tion,

land

issued

2nd

his

edition,

individual

proves to

the

ed

to

*

more

Every

the

1829.

provinces, the

and

than

misery

number

emigration

by

the

the

of

edition

of

Between

1851

and

[Note

Irish

by

left

That

the

revolution

the

pace

the

the

French

its

relative

the

absolute change in

and

counties

Malthus

total

of

crops

decreases.

in

would

in inverse number

edition

of

of

Remedies”,

statistics

each have

ratio

lie of

formerly,

their

the

of

Ireland

green it

unused

Evils

a

agriculture of

with

were

comparison

individual

1874,

labour-

towards

in

production

that

by

is

1846;

before of

country

the

so

year.*

labourers

as

kept

but 1872-75.—Ed. |

to

births,

year

falls

that were formerly tilled, into grass-land, a great part

not as population,

there

French

2,325,922.

the

the

its

of

The

“Ireland,

Here,

of

it

after

oppression

The

bogs

book,

famous

exiles

money

at Table C shows that the must work yet more acutely

peat

and

London,

that

to

tion

simple.

large number of acres, are turned permanently

waste

the

thou-

of

anything,

as great

the

is forcing

emigration.

land

the

discov-

behind.

another

the

to-day

with

pasture

sums

replaced for

that

are

glance

with

The

England. In England the cultivation of with the breeding of cattle; in Ireland,

a

Whilst idle or

1s

facts

A

not,

people

surplus-population?

misery

has

did

genius

left

population

the

low,

that

surplus-population depopulation.

the

from

just

increased,

crisis.

has

freed

are

are

than

behind

the

along

home

branches

consequences

the

of

export trade. process, which does not simply population, but sucks out of it

the of

exodus

misery.

those

draws

lucrative

level

its

of

Ireland

the

a poog

send

States,

systematic

absolute

scene

of

Irish

spiriting

of

wealth

increasing,

decimate,

costing

of

The

production.

for

most

the

constantly

1,000,000

than

To

damage.

expenses one year,

a passing gap in year more people

make

only.

War,99

of

travelling

Thus,

forms

still

means new way

to

transplanted

every

exodus

altogether

of

devils

slightest

their

more

killed

the

Thirty

beings,

ered

1846

famine

it

the

human

117

XXV

of

the

province,

he

propor-

it, in

to

this.

amount-

emigrants

1872-75.—Ed.

[Note

]

118

KARL

become

of

smaller

and

not

do

8/10 and

service

of

with

a

the

they

fore

employs

part

requires

rose

relative it.

The

pedestal

for

are,

the

encounter industry,?!

own

its

ers.

increase gigantic

most

constant emigration

although

but

also

tradespeople between £60

is

*

2nd reach

“‘Reports

from

Labourers

in

Labourers

is

(Ireland).

the

to be

a

with

absorbed

by

forms

the

of

country.

labourers

we

Here,

of

domestic

over-work,

possesses labour-

not

destruc-

has

such

only

the

Poor

Ireland’’,

Return,

in

and

Law

exceed

etc.”,

8th

a

to

1870.

March,

agricultural the

of

Irish

a

government state of siege,

table

in

per

94.6

Murphy’s

cent

of

the

acres.

100

Inspectors

Dublin,

by

incomes

a

of

1870,

Social”,

5.4

Reports

Officials

artisans,

in

the

of

the

According

and

acres,

diminution

bayonets

edition.] 100

shopkeepers,

condition

found

by

in

the E.

(1870).**

Political

not

do

even

supernumerary

small

of

Hence in Table of

maintained

to

result

incomes

Inspectors

Industrial,

holdings **

the

Ireland

[Note

‘Treland

modern

fluctuations,

above

depopulation

would

statement

in

Law

which

great

armies

the

creating

for

the

as

generally. and £100

clear

labourers

tural

means

insignificant

a country with fully capitalistic production, it does not go on without reaction upon the home-market. The gap which causes here, limits not only the local demand for

developed

Poor

over

scattered

only price

population

system described which in underpayment and

linen-

the

beings

whose

of

and

sphere,

human

of

the

consequences

A

own

class

since

incessant

its

shirt-factories,

systematic

labour,

by

the

there-

men

other

agricultural

part,

again

Finally,

tive

mass

the

the

of

all

by

the

comparatively

within

other,

Ireland,

of

expansion

Like

the and

to

adult

few

a

about

crushed

capital,

who

up

before,

by

The

all

after

recruits

its

of

produces,

in

make

industry

1861-1866,

population

misery

for

spite

it constantly

absolute

great

population.

surplus-

new

these

are, one

managed

relatively in

in

the

of

industries,

an

one

altogether,

cotton

unknown

furnish

The

manufacture,

They

agriculture

continually

wage-labourers.

of

torce

among

acres—still

number.*

ot

an

of

cattle-breeding.

of

reckon

100

than

whole

degree

competition

extension

farmers—I

more

cultivate

ths

the

for

medium

MARX

on

the

See

Wages also

1861.

of

Agricul-

“Agricultural

[The

text

based

C A PI T AL

now

, ., . I CH

VOL

open,

tions

in

risen

per

per

week.

that

in

has

price

taken

low,

has this

it

does

in

the the

from

precau-

all the

England

within

disdain.

the

on

20

last

average,

the

apparent Fise, is not correspond

necessary

the

place

in

now,

stands

for

observe

In

not let their government to them the rate of wages

do

behind

of

extract

following

colleagues

According and

But

wages,

in

fall

rise

cent.,

to

have

they

very

still

50-60

actual

their

illusions.

country,

9s.

the

that

they

however,

in

itself

the

to

this,

of

cradle

disguised,

language

of

spite

now

119

X XV

means

of

meantime.

at

6s.

an

hidden

at

to

all

subsistence

For

accounts

official

years

proof, of

an

the Irish

workhouse.

AVERAGE

Year

WEEKLY

Provisions

ended

and

PER

COST

HEAD

| Clothing

Total

Necessarles

29th

Sept.,

1849

29th

Is.

fore

as

fully

d.

2s.

7%

d.

of

the

necessary

twice,

and

that

price

3d.

ls.

6%

d.

6d.

3s.

1%

d.

Sept.

1869

The

3%

of

means clothing

of

subsistence

exactly

twice,

is there-

as

much

were 20 years before. Even apart from this disproportion, the mere comparison of the rate of wages expressed in gold would give a result far from accurate. Before the famine, the great mass of agricultural wages were paid in kind, only the smallest part in money; to-day, payment in money is the rule. From this it follows that, whatever the amount of the real wage, its money rate must rise. they

on the first source to the French edition

and

of

references

to

it

1872-75.—Ed. |

(sec

pp.

118-22)

are

added

. .

120

KARL

to

‘“Previous

or

rood,

toes.

was

He

buy

the

acre to rear

able

bread,

fowl,

and

fowl,

or

and

they

they

have

tact, of

kind

of

rearguard

they

found

the

have

they

masters

a

then

English

agricultural

the

a

with

potahave to

of

a

feed

sale

or

pig

a

of

pig,

Ireland,

in

King’s

in

an

inspector

pieces

the

the

“The

part

The

as

us

offered

in

first

Queen’s

&c.;

&c.

this

Ulster;

Kilkenny,

centre

the

&c.;

in

in

of

the

Sligo,

Christianti-

this

thereto

from

time

corresponding whom

the

they

In

order

to

labourers,

the

immemorial,

are

.

this

sentiments

proscribed

agricultural

the

country.’’**

has

1.

day,

And of

west,

to

disgrace for

as... a

1n

the

holes

by

the

of

by

a

to

those

in

labourers’

agents,

the

wage-

“The agricultural

“‘are

of

in

these

of

way. tracts

Dublin,

County,

Tyrone,

subject

of

purely

dwellings

this

&c.;

their

act

its

Limerick,

Cork,

Wexford,

Galway, cries out,

treated

of

overcrowded worst that the

certain

of

of

Wicklow,

to

1846

in

farmers surpasses the

exist

being

pp. 29, c., p. 12. c., p. 12.

*l.c.,

the

and

towards

class

worse. A part grows less day

yet

however,

they

labourers

a

which of

with their

of

that

the

themselves

the

of

landlords

dissatisfaction

of

grown

civilisation

sense

the

on

farms

the

part

catastrophe

confiscated.

mere of

the

conditions

counties

belonging

systematically

large

but

most

the

for

connected

exception

attractions

land

of

the

Antrim,

Mayo,

to

and

increase

the have

and

Down,

Roscommon, huts,’

in

were

relations.

labourers the

east,

the

north,

in

and

fraction

which,

with

south, in

Io

can the

labourers

formed

class,

the holdings of hideousness far

generally

1

cabin

a crop they now

But

fowl....

since

a

form

they

on

still whose

and

Only

were

what

dwells huts,

**

keep

his

for

upon which they no benefit from

medium

monetary

by

Since

holds

the

special

labourers

*EX

enjoyed

facilities

agricultural

farmers,

to

begun

know

1846.

the

of

agricultural

minds

and

refuse

employment.

only

We

the

and

consequently

small

wage-labourers,

ty

pig

no

formerly,

smallest

&c.;

his

have

labourer

land,

of

eggs.’’*

In

in

the

famine,

or

half-acre

MARX

are

of

ban,

on

birth

in

the

species given of thus

antagonism led

to

and regard

race.***

revolution

was

to

sweep

CAPITAL,

I, CH.

VOL.

away the huts on the largest from on high. shelter

in

back

neighbouring under

wet,

disease

most

the

and

and

then

people

towns

the

spring,

on are

carried hands

crop

there

is the

These of

most

aggravated

of

the

to

purity

the their

transplanted

****;

idle’

no

in

of

a

into of

and

work, often in sickness,

times

as

“from

the

The

early

of

spring and

to

subject

truth

is

or operations are the year many

out

digging

the

threatened

harvest-time, of

them”*****;

“are

they

“in

what **;

labour

of

or a

scarcity

periods

division”

surplus

agricultural

until

for

a

year

to

rural

divisions”.***

other

October

employment

active

either

perceptible

at

that

the

is still

times

activity;

year

from of

“there

country

the such

the

main

following

further,

broken

days

that and

interruptions’’.******

results

of

arable

into

the

by

the

25. 27.

#*¥

* 1c.,p.

26.

#¥**

Tl,

p.

FREKE

1c.)

pp.

Lc.,

p.

1. 31,32 25.

agricultural

pasture

economy

Le,p.

2K ok kok

worst to the

the

and

suddenly

and

or at

Lo,p.

*

in

according

now obliged to seek work and are only hired by the day, precarious form of wage. Hence

becomes

rigorous

**

like

are

wonder

of

with

to all kinds change

thrown

national

gaiety

only

potatoes

of

during

who

seek

as these are with rare attachment

had to receive surplus-labour

villages,

some

want

this

during

still

and

in

Scarcity

that

and

to

want.’’*

“The towns have deemed to be the

was

.

men

were corners,

they

done

command

sometimes have long distances to go to and from and suffer much hardship, not unfrequently ending

‘they

get

their

farmers

compelled

up

themselves The

were

their

for

for

vice.

of

therefore

in

notable

a

to

families,

eaten

English,

found

hotbeds

cellars

was

This

obedience

There

Irish

of

labour.

of

in

labourers

holes,

hearth,

home-life,

field if

towns.

and

the

are

prejudice, domestic

many

Thus

of

the

as

and

Thousands

testimony

the

scale,

garrets,

slums.

on

situated

villages

into

refuse

121

XXV

model

of

land,

the

labour,

landlords,

revolution—1.e.,

use &c.,

who,

of

the

machinery,

are instead

still of

the

further

spending

K A RL

12 2

rents

their

on

in

their

other

demesnes.

may

demand

attend

many

when

be

and

of

being

or

reaping’’.*

to

Ireland

of

supply

draw

their

rates

at

and

of

ordinary

to

the

tenant

periods

of

sowing

employment,

the

loss

critical

irregularity

to

paid

or

inconvenience

business

in

tenants, who are obliged work, at rates of wages, in

current

the

the

own

and

small

live

law

gentlemen

landlord’s

under to

the

their

the

his

uncertainty

these

do

regard

neglect

that

from

to

considerably without

obliged

The

chiefly

to

condescend

order

broken,

required

instances,

labourers,

In

.

not

“‘labour-supply

to

countries,

M A RX

constant return and long duration of gluts of labour, all these symptoms of a relative surplus-population, figure therefore in the reports of the Poor Law administration, as so

many

hardships

remembered tariat,

a

with

an

England, itself

the

of

we

that

similar

country, the towns, the cities

are

In

the

into

constantly

will that

reserve

industrial whilst

in

reserve

recruits

be

prole-

is

difference

in

recruits

an

Ireland,

agri-

itself

from

of the expelled agricultural supernumeraries of agriculture operatives;

factory

at

the

wages

the

the

It

agricultural

the

the

refuge

towns, whilst in towns, remain sent back to the

into

forced

But

agricultural of

proletariat.

English

districts,

former,

transformed

the

country,

country

cultural

the labourers.

in

spectacle.

industrial the

from

agricultural

met,

in

same

the

time

agricultural

country

the

latter,

those

press

they

labourers,

on are

and

districts

in

search

of

material

condition

of

work. The the

agricultural

to

he

and

wife,

the

upon

this,

After

mous

**

to

it

testimony

through *

the

Leo.,p. Le,

The

pp.

ranks

30. 21, 13.

are

low

fever

is

no

of

the

an

and

to,

has

pulmonary

that,

inspectors, class,

these

of

subjected

that

and

family

means

the

for

own

his

frugality,

ordinary

wonder this

the

follows:

atmosphere

they

of

up

strictest

for

sources

other

privations

susceptible

the

food

children....

other

cularly

with

provide

depends

as

labourer

living

‘Though

sufficient

sum

inspectors

official

clothing

of

cabins, made

sombre they

himself,

combined this

class

his with

parti-

consumption.’’**

according

a

wages are barely pay his rent, and

long

to

the

discontent for

the

unani-

runs return

CAPITAL,

past,

the

of

I, CH.

VOL.

loathe

up

themselves

depopulation, example

an

in

and

I give

was

a

his

and

Friday.

rest).

week;

my

wife

12,

gets

She

along

with

child

of

at

me.

till of

Indian

potatoes, get back

get care

see

a

children

week.

land

one

leads,

school,

for

Peat

At

for

a

week.

A

eat)

girl

going wife

we

we

eight

ourselves;

much

tired

we costs

when

The

we

we

they

as

it

always done

get

once

tea

we

a

get

a

few

done

we

get

are may

a

some-

be.

So

the

same

the

at

night.

We

very seldom. Three of our ld. a week a head. Our rent is 6d. a fortnight at the very

but

pay

whom

goes

work.

winter

milk

I have

house

oat-meal,

the

who

and

and

summer

day,

a

have.

the

get

We

when

little

week

sometimes,

In

girl

we

up to

of

the

and

a

get and

it.

In

past gets day,

home.

get

meal.

we

the

sometimes

to

able

go

am Monday

oldest

come

all

he

was

he

from

servant

the

My

children

That

that

hours of it (for I get 10s. 6d. a

The

all

before

Sunday

firing

work

school.

Indian

very meat

three

and

little

are

get this

of

children;

‘Johnson.—I

and

5s.

say

I

For

cook,

English

evidence

his

at night,

11

morning.

(to

patch

day,

all.

the

mouth.

when

market.

stirabout,

we

flesh

of

attend

a

9d.

bit

the

Sometimes

we go on from day to year round. I am always may

is the

panacea,

to

his

from

till

gets

for

in

our

small

stirabout.

in

also

the

as

it

p.m.,

6

and

get

to

a

planting

to

at

eight.

meal,

water

and

off

is

of

we

times

I took

morning

nothing

at

breakfast

other

sugar

little

have

following

education

Manchester

ready

the

understood

also,

five

with

afford

the

She

ones

takes

at

week;

here

past

We

as be

children

five

house.

half

12

nothing

we

young

the

me

times

the

the

6 in leave

I have works

minds

wakes

and

says

Ireland,”

of

met

to

may

for

from

Saturday

and

North

verbatim,

hand,

goods

meals is

give

future,

operative

factory

“I

workman

evidence

work

the

Baker,

skilled

factory

on

employed

beetler

the

of

Erin.

Green

Insh

to

visit Robert

Irish

skilled

the

life

recent

Inspector,

effort

despair

show:

my

“On

transformed

happy

will

Factory

to

has

a

present,

the

the evil influence of agitators’, idea, to emigrate to America. This into which the great Malthusian

“‘to

only one fixed of Cockaigne, What

123

XXV

1s.

lowest.’’’*

are

Such

In in

the

fact

England.

one

the

of

solution

in

From

total *

misery

At

the

such

Ireland

of

end

is Irish

of

1866

magnates,

Insh

land

The

Times.

‘“‘Wie

life!

is again and

the

Lord

the

topic

beginning set

Dufferin,

menschlich

von

the

of

solch

of

day

1867,

about

its

grossem



Herrn! of

wages,

Irish

Table

E

profits,

“Rept.

of

Insp.

we three of

saw

that,

Fact.,

31st

1864,

during

surplus-value Oct.,

makers 1866’,

p.

of

£4,368,610

pocketed 96.

only

124

KARL

£262,819;

same

the

£274,528;

in

£646,377;

in

£736,448;

1865,

1864,

in

total

annual lion’s

magnates yearly

in

national

English

the

as

That

their

depopulation soil,

and,

the

soil.

He

populated,

be

third this of

a

lord,

better,

only,

a

instead

the

getting

The

proof is easily

rid

15

farms

acres.

of

of

supposition

4

has first

the

with

is

also is

benefits

lazily.

the

of

his

onethat school

his

patient until

blood.

the

Lord

one-third

millions;

in

over-

still

too

find

of

millennium

of

at least imagine

of

as

that

accessory

phlebotomy, time

the

swell;

physician

again

as

that,

flows

not

plethora

“disreputable”

rid

did

same two

“excessive’’,

no man

blood-letting

1851

from

three

must

farmers,

and

after

1,228,232 the

to

in

not

is

a

of

without

fact,

Erin

1861

categories,

all

above

persons, that,

a

is he

and

about

of

be

statistical

to

be.

given.

the

These

“supernumerary”

average

as the

new

these,

of

Centralisation

pally

bargain,

at

get Let

men.

often

sickness

demands

must

Ireland

labouring the

land

mere still

the

those

Ireland

emigration

of

phlebotomy

his

that

therefore,

of

of

fact

that

the

the

therefore

people,

of

about

rent-rolls

landlords, the

as

who

one can ever

Irish

up

same as

is

The

facts.

the

the

into

ordered

million

to

stream of

poetic

Dufferin

is, of

happy,

million

lost

profits

the

land

of

wisdom

any way connected course, an idea as

in

declares,

Sangrado,

patient

is

the

But

profit.

number

rents

of

Dufferin

and

therefore,

perfectly

of

Lord

keeps

the

that

the

of

makers,

swallow

to afford

fit

diminishes,

and

Ireland

distribution

benefits

the

To

think

annual

small

so monstrous

is

misery

population

total

and

Scotland

plethora He

the

of

half

surplus-value

inconceivably

in

1864,

in

nearly

1,194

to to

£1,076,912;

£1,320,906;

£2,150,818,

half

rent-rolls

people’s

makers,

makers,

profits.

‘‘unsound’’.

Irish

surplus-value

1865,

the

of

magnates. of

reached

not

does

about

distribution

that

reached

makers

an

rental,

State

materials

or

makers

than

England,

pocketed

surplus-value

in

which

“abstinence”

28

makers,

more share,

of

total

surplus-value

121

profit;

£2,418,833,

the

virtuosi

£4,669,979

of

26

surplus-value

surplus-value

out

however,

three

1864, 1865,

150

1,131

1865,

in

that

profits,

MARX

destroyed

This

reckoning

the

persons.

On

agricultural

| and

under

disappear.

gives

families

the

revolution

princi-

not over 307,058 the low

extravagant is complete

VOL.

I, CH.

NUMBER

AND

CAPITAL,

(1)

Farms

over

not!(2)

acre.

1

125

XXV

EXTENT

over

Farms

over

|not

OF

FARMS

1}

(3)

acres.

5

Acres.|

48,653

25,394

(5)

Farms

30,

not

No.

over

| (6)

over

over

Farms

No.

(8)

acres.

Acres.

No.

Acres.

No.

Acres.

71,961)

2,906,274

54,247|

3,983,880

31,927}

8,227,807}

over

acres,

breeding

are

almost

position

as

before,

small

persons

to

because

quantities.

1,709,532.

total,

eyes

that

is

still

always

over-populated.

all

method *

The

** have

its

total

to

[Note been

lords

things

area

includes

the

by

the

2nd

revolution

Vol.

this

II]

of

w6rk,

in

may

bogs of,

both

the

the

section

depopulation

true

to

on

and by

forcibly

population

landlords,

this

waste

and

most

to thin to the

vient

Ireland, miserable destiny,

profitable

accumulation

famine

legislature,

that

her

world,

the

the

/88,761

and

fulfil

bad the

peat

also

made

and

satisfactory

and

sup-

l’appetit

her

edition. |How

English

proportion

15

cattle-pasture.**

this With

as

discover

miserable,

she

in

drawbacks.

deliberately

and

cultural

good

has

for

same

the

further

Therefore

and

of

Like

over

of

On

And

soon

will

go yet further, that thus an English sheep-walk

must

6

are

there

therefore,

millions, is

5,

remain

known long since in England, cultivation of corn, and for sheep-

Rent-roll’s

she

20,319,924*

there

4,

Categories

vanishing

emigrate;

31/2

absorbable,

Acres.

are, as was

capitalistic

en mangeant, with

again

persons.

100 for

not too

are

these

921,174

emigration

Total

area.

No.

of

3,051,343

136,578]

acres.

100

one-fourth

Acres.

over

Farms

over acres.

not

30

1,836,310)

100

over

Farms

15,

Acres.

(7)

over

not

50,

(4)

over acre s,.

|1 76,368}

1864

IN

not

No.

82,03 7| 288,916

acres.

50

|Acres.

IRELAND

over

Farms

5, 15

No.

IN

I

of

shall

landed

of

rents

in

land. its

the

consequences

individual

carry Ireland show

property.

out

land-

the

down

more There

agri-

to

the

fully

also

in |

126

KARL

Ireland, The

the

accumulation

Irishman,

other

side

the

banished

queen of the young

old

tening,

by

ocean

the

of

giant

in

Marx,

the

Krittk

der

Erster

Band.

and

face

threatening

and

necis.

fraternae

the

of

ers.

Oekonomte.

1867

which

things,

in

his

threa-

posthumous

work,

Nassau

edition

the

of

1965,

Moscow,

the

follows

W.

“Journals,

1,

fourth 1890

of

agricultural

says,

Senior

text

the

edition

Vol.

and

farmers

to

according

Capital,

to the condition of the small present, only one quotation.

At

more

English

German

retum

with

face

*

Printed

Hamburg,

to

agunt

Romanos

fata

Kapital.

politischen

pace. on the

keeps

ox, re-appears

and

book:

Das

America

Fenian,92

rises,

Scelusque

Karl

in

Republic:

Acerba

Published

Irish

sheep

as a

seas

the

the

of

MARX

labour-

with

other

and

Conversations

Essays

to Ireland”, 2 vols. London, 1968; Vol. II., p. 282. “‘ Well,” said “‘we have got our Poor Law and it is a great instrument for giving the victory to the landlords. Another, and a still more powerful instrument is emigration.... No friend to Ireland can wish the war to be prolonged [between the landlords and the small Celtic farmers |—still less, that it should end by the victory of the tenants. The sooner it is over—the sooner Ireland becomes a grazing country, with the comparatively thin population which a grazing country requires, the better for all classes.”’ The English Corn Laws of 1815 secured Ireland the monopoly relating

Dr.

of

G.,

the

free

cially,

importation the

therefore,

Laws

1846,

in

corm

of

cultivation

this

event

circumstances, this impulse to the turning of of

farms,

the

fruitfulness

of

proclaimed

loudly

wheat,

English

that

it

ene

has

takes

*

is

a

the

soil

by

good

for

“‘serious”

Epod

nothing

to

repeat

man,

ala

7.—Ed.

was

arable

into

eviction

had

With

suddenly

alone

herself

but

to

the

Lavergne,

to

for

forage.

other

the

M.

Leonce of

by

Corn

from

the such

all

a great concenAfter

the

1846,

and

cultivation

discover

side

caught

to

1815

from

politicians,

be

Apart

cultivators.

artifi-

the

of

sufficient to give pasture land, to the

destined

produce

on

this

favoured

abolition

removed.

praised

economists,

They

the

small

of

been

Nature

agronomists,

hastened

Horace,

Irish

as

Irish

to

and

Britain.

Great

com.

of

was

monopoly

other

tration

into

of

suddenly de

Laver-

Channel. childishness.

It

Karl

From

Marx

XXXVII

CHAPTER

OF

CAPITAL,

III9 3

VOLUME r

We

rent,

the

ist

mode

of

the

are not manner capitalist

in

Ireland.

tenant

he

pays

to not

the (to

instruments which

he

labour.

would

nor

one.

is

there

is

a part which

his

but

receive

landlord,

the

land,

also

under

usurer

the tion.

does

Irish

to to

compel

continual Tenancy the

his

wave

capital this

“The

Published Karl

Marx,

Krittk

der

Dritter

latter aside

of

in

book:

Friedrich

Bill.

is

his

own core

the

house

Oekonomie.

own own

land would

difference

that

usurer in

the

dispute

Bill

the

off

on

operaover

this

of

tenant

land.94

capital, the

the

of

his

cynical

the

Palmerston

is

land

land,

or

used

to

answer:

landed

of

in

purpose

main

of

his

small

capital

proprietors.”’

Printed

Herausgegeben

Engels

the

improvements

the

a

just

ordering

in

with

the

The

his

for

Kapital.

politischen

Band.

Commons

his is

when

incorporated

House

Das

risk

plunder Rights

demand

the

least

landlord the

indemnify

for

at

with

his

of

normal wage, the same amount of nothing at all for the

expropriates

circumstances,

would

This

the

von

similar

frequently

is,

which the tenant for the most part incorporates through his own labour. This is precisely what a do

What

his

of

for

who

of

case, e.g.,

farmer.

as possessor

a part

also

the

type

the the

that

profit,

existence

rent

of

capital-

without

small

form

is entitled

the

of

the of

he

a

generally

in

otherwise

Besides,

improvement

capitalist,

capitalist

Such

ground-

the

the

industrial

labour),

of

without i.e.,

landlord

merely

surplus-labour

in

itself,

a

being

The

exists

production

of

an

being

in which

property

landed

formally

mode

tenant himself his management

conditions

of

expressing

of

production,

of

absorbs

now

speaking

the

according English

Capital,

Moscow,

Vol.

1966

to

edition III,

the of

text

Karl

THE

FENIAN

a at

held

evening

special

meeting

office

following

Men’s

“The

memorial the

“That

at

of

England

the

four

same

the

But

even

evidence

Wednesday

adopted: the

of

Council

International her

Gathorne-Hardy,

the

of

execution

Majesty’s

which,

stamp if

it

the

the

of

a

the

Government

itself,

between

blood-handed

the

magnanimous public.9 ©

humanity

act,

the

of

not

had

latter

but

Manchester tainted

would

now

the

young

and

old

of

the

have

been

erroneous,

will

revenge.

political

of

of

Execution

Maguire,

other

to

influence

evidence

been

practices of

of

the

condemned moral

The

same

pardon

false,

judicial

verdict

upon

the

Continent.

free

one

the

not

rests

by

prisoners

the

working

showeth:

impair

upon

resting

declared,

Irish

greatly

European

representing

Europe,

of

the

of

will

the

prisoners

undersigned,

all parts

in

upon

verdict

bear

Hon.

Manchester

officially

on

W.,

I.W.A.

State.

associations

death

was

General

Right

of

East,

Street,

the

of

Council

5

Association.

the

“To

Secretary

Castle

THE

ASSOCIATION?

General

memorial

the

of

“Memorial

men’s

16,

the

MEN’S

the

of

AND

MANCHESTER

WORKING

the

Working

AT

PRISONERS

INTERNATIONAL

At

Marx

jury

and

the

by

the

British

have

to

choose

Europe

and

Transatlantic

the Re-

FENIAN

AT

PRISONERS

“The will be an

commutation act not only order

‘By

of

129

MANCHESTER

the

the sentence for which we of justice, but of political wisdom. General

of

Council

the

“JOHN R.

EUGENE

KARL HERMANN P.

SHAW,

MARX, JUNG,

Published

francais November

in

No.

Le

for for

Secretary

America

France

for

Secretary

Germany

Switzerland

for

Secretary

for

Secretary

Spain

Poland

Secretary

for

Holland

Secretary

for

Belgium

ECCARIUS,

General

Secretary.”

1867

courrier

163, 24,

Chairman for

Secretary

LAFARGUE,

BESSON,

20,

Association,

Secretary

DERKINDEREN, G.

I.W.

WESTON,

DUPONT,

ZABICKI,

November

pray

of

1867

Printed

according

of

the

book

of

the

First

1866-1868.

The

to

the

General

text Council

International. Minutes,

Moscow

Karl

[NOTES

Marx

AN UNDELIVERED ON IRELAND] 97

FOR

I. EXORDIUM.

our

Since

nianism, blood

at

last

has by

Ireland

and

England.

responsible.

to

a

tical,

but

upon

Europe

the

Act

to

right

up

keep

quite

of the

Long

the

Insh

as

Act.99 mental Case of

State of siege. organisation of

the

an

on

Bntish

outlaw.

Bonaparte.!

is

discussion,

been

baptised

Political

fate

of

John

in

the

hypocrisy

that The

affair.

at

Brown

Har-

between

and

liberal

this

was

press

their

soil, in

Government

the

of

Suspension

Facts from the “Assassination

to

keep

a

divine

every

Irish

[have] but

poli-

produced

anxious

English

native

no

effect

seem

They

England Habeas

to

have

at

least

text

is

Chronicle. Govemand Violence’’.!

QUESTION

treated

crossed

out

John

Brown

in

be

Corpus

9!

following

°

in

Executions

struggle

Parliament

Fe-

Fenianism?

the

Ed.

has

The

contrary.

Il. THE

felon.”

It

Parliament.98

treated

slaveholders

our

of

period

whole the

the

against

Here

the

of

criminal

fighting

*

phase.

anew

The

common

fight

What

object

Gladstone.

Reason:

up

us

open

They

EXECUTION

Government.

remind

Ferry.*

the

a new

English

Manchester

pers

meeting

entered

the

THE

SPEECH

the

as a

manuscript: rebel,

not

“But

the

as common

NOTES

AN

FOR

UNDELIVERED

SPEECH

Ill. THE

LAND

Decrease

ON

IRELAND

13]

QUESTION Population

of

1846 1841:

8,222,664

1866:

5,571,971

in

2,650,693

2,650,695

1855:

6,604,665

1866:

5,571,971

25

1801:

Jahren*

years

11

|in

5,319,867

$1,032,694

1,032,694

not

Population the

deaf-mutes,

increased

of Live-Stock

In

same

decrepit,

numbers

period

to

1855

the

the

lunatic,

the

of

1855

from

but

number

of

and

the

idiotic

population.

1866

to

1866

[the ] number of the live-stock increased as follows: cattle by 178,532, sheep by 667,675, pigs by 315,918. If we take into account the simultaneous decrease of horses by 20,656, and equalise 8 sheep to 1 horse total increase of live-stock: 996,877, about

one

the

decreased, the

to the

relatively

Increase

only

blind,

from

million.

1,032,694

Thus

one

million The

them?

Inshmen

cattle,

pigs,

emigration

list

have

and

been

sheep.

displaced

What

has

by

about

become

of

answers.

Emigration From Character

Ist of

that

or

to

31

been

brought

enlarging

scale

consolidation of farms (eviction) conversion of tillage into pasture. by

1866:

December

1,730,189.

emigration.

process has upon an always The

ing

1851

May

about by

and the

and

by

is still

function-

throwing

together

the

simultaneous

From 1851-1861 |the| total number of farms 120,000, while simultaneously the number of *

Years.—Ed.

decreased farms

of

132

KARL

acres

15-30

increased

(together

170,000).

to

owed than

the

amongst

the

portion How

of

the

a)

is

not

have

means Leshe, m says: a

loss

island,

the

go

further

the

food

b)

than

470,917,

cereal

potatoes

the

of of

exact

has

an

London

did

and,

the

partly

partly, in

farmer

the

land

the

profit *

See

less

that larger

a

than

off

under

acre

exodus,

the

the

him.

for of pp.

the

Rents soil

123-24.-Fd.

every

of

this

land

16.3,

rise

in

shilling in

since has

crop. 1847 47.9,

a greater

most

does

his

not

ordinary

There

to

crops: acres

has

been

1865

per 36.1,

turnips

decrease,

but

1847. been

underfed

consolidation

and

of

overfarms,

corn-acre to

profits

decreases.

green

128,061,

flax

show

injudicious

and

9,

ago.”’

greater

but

oats

decrease:

Professor

throughout

a

1861-66:

wheat,

the

February

day;

years

10

200%;

crops.

because, under the great measure trusted

a

to

Owing

was

he

years, a

the

potato

the

dated

Is.

1846.

of before

100%.

by

21

in

only

as

nearly

Decrease

in

from

risen

population

wages is now 21 years ago.

deteriorated, that

since

Economist

potatoes 50%. Some years would on the whole it has been gradual worked,

to

only is

has

to great

average

acres

yeld

of

on

life

per statute

Decrease

Since

means

similar

20%,

crops:

in

the

people

than

worse

is

1861-66:

cent;

the

crisis

more

the

6d.

of

a

as

of

rate

Decrease

decrease

farms

now

The Land. Decrease of land

2)

one

there

of

population

of

of 2/5

labourer

to

risen

price

necessary

“After

mass

verging

surplus

The

the

exclusively

than

dimension.

the

of

state

Wages

of

almost

Works

situation

The relative famine.

Cliffe 1867,

was

109,000

by

People.

their

famine.

number

large

of

Process

The and

acres

30

of

decrease

decreased

farms

The

The

that

extinction of farms from less Lord Dufferin.* The increase

acres.

15

61,000,

by

MARX

his

may The

system,!%* the labourers to manure increase, total

although

produce

may

N O T ES

FO R

V ERED UND ELI

AN

diminish,

but

produce,

falling

the

labourer.

rioration

the

price

gradual

and

and

exhaustion

the

of

of

is

converted

greater

expulsion

into

the

produce

natives,

source

surplus

instead

farmers,

surplus

of

the

133

I RELA N D

it, which

of

to landlord

And

result:

So

part

that

ON

S PEE C H

to

has

risen.

gradual

dete-

national

of

of

the

life,

soil. Process

of

process

This strides.

The

has

only

begun;

consolidation

one

under

7

Consolidation

to

has

It

is

will

be

The farms of

to

569,844

and

Of

cleared

their

In

price

acres,

=8,227,807,

2/5

bogs and

form

in

under 1864:

waste

land:

this

and

,=12,092,117 100

under

if all farms

was

acres, are in

farms

of

having

still

form

the

hands

100

from

till

and are in the hands of 31,927 persons. Thus 2,847,220, if we number only the farmers

English

[is

offspring

abolition

Character

district, from of

minus

England the

English

its by

of

the

in

policy:

the

Highlands

displacing

the

heads!95

of Irish

it

transforming

resident

a

broad

Rule

the

lords

water

English

in

and

an

their

ditch.

in Ireland

Scotland.19*) by

of

and

systematic.

only tool of the landlords. Eviction, also of political punishment. (Lord Abercorn.*

State

as means

famine

corn-laws,!93

of

meat and wool, now the estate of Ireland,

separated of

natural

the

of

agricultural

retainers,

a]

by

of

Clearing

Gaels:

including 3/5

farms

from

families.

the

Change

those

rapid

off

This system 1846, accelerated rise

Ireland,

to

1

farmers;

acres,

500 be

of

under

from

over

area acres.

total

in

the

far

reached the English point of consolidation, 100 acres have disappeared. Now the state 20,319,924

on

going

attacked

first

acres.

15

under

it

employed England.

Former (Elizabeth),

English round-

(Cromwell). Since Anne 18th-century politicocharacter only again in the protectionist measures of England against her own Irish colony; within that colony making religion a proprietary title. After the Union! °® [the} system of rack-renting and middlemen, but left the Insh, however ground to the dust, holder of their native soil. economical

*

See

pp.

153-54.—Ed.

134

KARL

system,

Present

ment

only

From 1)

quiet

business-like

instrument

this

extinction,

landlords

of

(and

MARX

govem-

and

usurers).

state:

altered

Distinguishing

character

of Fenianism:

lower-

Socialist,

movement.

class 2)

Not

Priests leader,

Ridiculous

pniests

against No

Character

4)

of

5)

ership 6)

remained

Popishism

leader

the

of

and

the

of

English.

move-

Irish

High

their

Catholic

representatwe

leader

of

O’Connell’s

physical

party

Parliament.

Insh

in

Influence

in

the

British

force

movement.!97

Ex-

movement,

and

action,

lead-

European

of

Parliament.

phraseology. Amenica,

Ireland,

Republican,

because

now

the

given

IV.

THE

of

Aristocracy

b)

Irish

and

of

the

and

Chastity of Irishmen. Diminution of crimes.

1866

for

......588.

above

Army.

Irish.

Attempts

..........

Committed

but

in

at

etc.

The

education

Convicted:

17,678 4,326

10,454 2,418

specific

Algiers.)

Lowering

Irish

Ireland

trial:

a

all

(France,

on wages,

and

Convicted

1852

and

Influence

English

Fenianism.

of

PEOPLE

right,

Church

in England.

republic.

ENGLISH

of humanity question.

a)

America

characteristics

cause

character

fields

England—three

America.

of

I have

A English

Emancipation

Catholic

Fenianism.

Nationality.

English

as

long

O’Connell,

ment.

tinction

as

leaders

Daniel

3)

movement.

Catholic

the

Character.

in

Ireland.

NO T ES

FO R

The trial

decrease

in

short

for

for

Progress

1855,

is

committed partly

authorising

with trial

to

of

the

the

to

Justices

consent

the

the

of

to

due

for the

pass

prisoners,

sessions.

English

people.

Infamy

of

press.

English c)

periods

committing

of

1855,

of

persons

of

since

13 5

I R ELA ND

ON

numbers

Wales,

Act

Birmingham. the

the

and

Justice

sentences instead

in

England

Criminal

S PEE C H

UND EL I V ERED

AN

The

Foreign

Policy.

etc.

Poland,

Palmer-

Castlereagh.

ston.108

V.

Foolishness

Error

the

of

as

Repeal

of

the

minor

of

REMEDY

parliamentary

League.!

Reform

one

THE

the

propositions.

99

articles

of

the

English

Democratic

Party.

Published

in:

Collected

Works,

Russian Moscow,

ed.,

Marx

Vol.

1960

and

Engels,

Printed

second

of

the

16,

Council

to

according book of

1866-1868.

The the

the

text

General

First

Minutes,

International. Moscow

Karl

[OUTLINE

THE

TO

A

OF

Marx

REPORT

EDUCATIONAL

OF

WORKERS

is

the

from

But

in

GERMAN

That

16,

the

in

characterises

the

priests

King

mass

only

of

the

during

the

England,

m

bourgeois also

rising

1798.

Fenjanism,

attitude

against

it

the all

it

chiefs

and

James

of

the

I, Pro-

Lord Fitzthis century clergy,

Catholic

movements

earlier

a

decreed

not lift until all influence

did

deprive

by in

clergy

Catholic

and

III;

(Wolfe Tone, and, finally, in

role

men,

even

Wilham

orders.

movements

Anglo-Irish

supported

leading

really

lower

Irnsh

Cromwell;

leaders.

still

middle-class

against

of Ulster revolution

The

which

would

or

is

the

earlier

originates

and

(and

people, all

it

initiators

root

The

war

the

a

the

aristocracy

O’Connell

played

excepting

In

churchmen.

Republicans gerald)!!! in the 1798

which

the

it.

Catholic

testant the

are

of

the

LONDON

Actually,

took

followed

ASSOCIATION

IN

Fenianism?

movement

the

QUESTION

1867119]

They

what

people

always

of

Americans.

Ireland

is

the

distinctive

Irish

rooted)

IRISH

COMMUNIST

December

What

THE

ON

ban

on its

it

realised

that

on

the

Irish

masses.

find

the

present

II

Here regime

why

So

the

this

to

1846,

leaving

no

England

who

secession,

though

less

English:

they

England’s

What side do but

life-and-death

I want with

not in

and

to

the

Ireland’s struggle.

irreconcilable

show—and

Irish,

see—is form,

oppression

former

determined

barbarian

alternative

or

with

most

now?

Englishmen right

the

baffles

compared

opposition

those

by

what

mild

Ireland. of

is

is

who

that

the

in

effect

voluntary

what

of form

even

concede

them

regime

since

destructive,

emancipation

OUTLINE

OF

REPORT

ON

IRISH

137

QUESTION

Ii!

past

Concerning

history the

Hence,

a

out

now

called

The

the

present

the

Irish

English

about

are

facts

give

points

few

the

I shall

between

difference

bring

a)

book.

history

a

only

few,

to

clarify

secondly,

those

of

who

to

are

r

people.

in Ireland

and,

character

any

in

firstly,

past

and

the

available

the

Before

Protestant

Reformation

1172.

Henry

conquest.

nominal

man.

1576),

English

A

Anglo-Norman

was

conquest

Indians.

nobles

No

with

Inish

IV,

the

English-

(in

Elizabethan

colonists

(originally) sent

reinforcements

It

from

to

with

Irish,

and

the

war

Otherwise,

as

the

Capital:

Pale’’.113

chiefs.

was a

Ireland.

present

the

“English

conducted

English

Pope

back

common

English

of

of

Adrian

another took

The

%

than

Pope

later XIII,

Gregory

Mixing

less

from

(Elizabeth).!!2

Dublin. of

gift

years

400

Some

times,

of

II conquered

against

Ireland

Red 1565

until

(Elizabeth).

b)

Protestant Epoch. Elizabeth. James I. Charles I. Cromwell. Colonisation Plan (16th and 17th Centuries) Elizabeth.

up

to

the

The

river

colonists

in

Shannon,

their

still

Catholic

The

avowed

plan

Clearing

the

loyal

ing

place,

Anglo-Irish of

ceded

estates

Not

until

the

the

English

natives,

at

Irish settle

least

English

Elizabeth

alongside

and

the

natives.

stocking

only to plant “adventurers”

succeeded

Protestant

Jrish of

English

(Jacobite stock

the

are

7613

were

they The

Persecution

to take their land and etc. In battles against

of

native

Ulster. “‘to

mies”.

the

English:

They

with

I.

previously

the

English

undertakers,

Irish’’.

exterminate

a

it

with

landown-

(merchants,

obtained from the English crown the confiscat‘“‘gentlemen undertakers” who were to plant the

who and

James

to

fought

island

Englishmen.

aristocracy.

usurers), ed lands,

was

plan

plantation,

Irish

looked

considered

upon

as

1609-12.) stolen

confiscated,

Parliament!14

Catholics.

families.

English

“outlaws”

governed

only

British

lands

with

subjects; and

“ene-

the

Pale.

138

KARL

Elizabeth and

settled

James

yet

been

I,

Ulster,

purged.

but

Leinster

to

I tried

Charles

Connaught.

First

Cromwell.

plete

national

Partial

Conquest.

Irish in

not

have

Connaught

purge

Munster,

MARX

Revolution

Dublin.

revolt

Ireland,

of

Re-colonisation.

1641.

of

(Followed

by

2nd

Com-

(1641-60. )

1649

August

Ireton,

its

landing

Cromwell

Lambert,

Fleetwood,

Henry

Cromwell. )

In 1652 Division

ed.

ers’’

the 2nd Complete Conquest of lreland completof spoils: the Government itself, the “‘adventur-

who

had and

officers

12

lent

£360,000

soldiers,

August,

Amalekites

by

1652,

and

the

Irish

of

re-devastated

land

many

of

into

slavery

and

English thigh,

colonies

the

Thence

the

Restoration

Second

Irish

West

of

Irish

mistrust

to

other

the

Revolt,

Stuarts. and

the

the

replant

the

Puritan entire

of

regions,

sale

of

Indies.

the

English

William

HI.

of

and

Smite

brand-new

of

the

Parliament,

depopulation

inhabitants

in

war,

of

1653.115

By engaging in the conquest of Ireland, English Republic out the window.

the

c)

hip

new

their

the

of

devastation,

removal

Irish

Acts

September,

Nation

with

English.—_Bloodshed, counties,

the

26

years

11

the

for

party.

people’s

on

Capitulation

threw

Cromwell

Terms116

1660-1692. * The

any of

British

were

more

then

other time. Never higher the Irish population.

1684. Ireland,

1685.

repealed

some

calls

1689.

landed

at

capitulates *

gives

and

that

Acts

proprietors

to

III

at

the

head

William

HI,

1691.

by

‘‘(1701)

of

Ireland lower

Catholic

The

than

7/11

interest

soon

Catholics

Settlement

of

Ireland.

of

Catholics

at

than

must

re-established.

be James

England.

Kinsale

Followed

the

1641

of

William

to

in

the

favoured.

the

regiments

to

rein

full

increased the

Irish

army.

IT

declare and

Catholic

a

army to

favour

enlist

James

Catholic

began

to

and

to

II begins

Charles

than

numerous in 3/11, never

12

England.

(Anne)”

March,

Irish

of

Shameful in

the

1689:

soldiers. violation

manuscript.—Ea.

James

Limenck of

the

OUTLINE

OF

treaty, d)

REPORT

already

Ireland

under

4,

All

notions

German

and

tants

the

in

ists)

William and

III,

more

still

to

Humbled

under

the

Anne.

Dust.

and

Protestants (woollen

the

attempted.

Parliament

command

on

tax

prohibitory

Irish

English

and

Settling

French

Protes-

the

English

obedient

colon-

flee

system.

mercantile

on

with

discarded.

manufacturers)

Anglo-Irish

passed,

were

tenant

towns The

country

“planting” the farmers

of

or French

protectionist

1698.

139

QUESTION

1776

yeomen

Scotch

IRISH

Defrauded

1692-July

a)

ON

(like the

of

woollen

country, a to foreign

mother

export

goods

countries.

1698.

In

on

tax

heavy England

and

other

same

the the

Jreland,

upon

and

English

the

of

absolutely struck

She

depopulated

the

the

import

Wales,

countries.

year,

her

home

cities

the

and

legislation Molyneux

against for the

1698:

Parliament

struggle

between

William

III

to

the

of

people

back

the

Ireland the

resisted

the

the

Anglo-Insh the

of

Colony in Ireland) against struggle of the English English Nation. Simultaneously,

the

to

and

Colony

shameful

Parliaments

Irish Cattle. independence

Cry

English

began

and

absentees.117

the

attempts

of

the

treaties

violate

Irish

the

Nation.

English

and

Limerick

of

Galway.

B) with

Penal Code!!9 assent of the

make

a

(1701-13;

of

Catholic

Protestant

to

Catholics

to

was

be

a

Catholicism

by

the

code

a

Most

for

(Education. private

transportable

an act

of

1776).

Anglo-Irish

amongst

Protestants,

title.

able

religion

to

A

“Property”.

until

George

Parliament.

Proselytes

proprietary

Catholic

up

built English

Protestant

from

erty”? ism”

Anne.

Queen

regulations

(No

pamphlet

Thus

in

Anglo-Inmsh

of England

(i.e.,

English.!1!8

Colony

to

export

their

land.

Similar

and

in

manufactures

threw

lords) 1692.

the

a

laid

manufactures

prohibited

down

The Wailliamite (imported against absentee landlords since

Irish

Parliament

the

Parliament

Irish

Catholics

the

transfer

or to

make

soldier.) To

“Prop-

disabilities.) To

felony,

of

by

“Anglican-

Personal

treason.

means

infamous

teach

to be

the

convert

a

Catholic

a

140

KARL

Archbishop—banishment, of

treason;

high

returning

if

hanged,

banishment—act

from

disembowelled

MARX

alive,

and

afterwards

quartered. the

Anglican

coerce

to

Experiment

religion.

mass

the

poor

people

During the e)

the in

Catholics

1776-1801. a)

the

palmy

English

English

of

into

for

members

the

Catholic

indolence.

of

Protestant

Protestants

ascendancy

and

encroach

upon

not

did

Transition

of

dealing

of

of

hold

nation

numbers.

Time

Before

result

the

the

habits

days

degradation,

Catholic

into

fell

Irish

of vote

deprived

Catholics

of Parliament.' 2° This Penal Code intensified Priesthood upon the Irish people. The

the

of

with

this

transition

penod,

was

what

terrorism?

incomers

absorbed

into

the

Irish

people

and

Cathohcised.

The

towns

No

English

by

founded

colony

the

English

(except

Insh.

Ulster

Scotch)

but

English

landowners.

The point 8B)

to

North

in Irish

1777

the

Amencan

the

to

army

British

American

concessions

Revolution

the

forms

first

turning-

Saratoga

Spnngs

history. surrendered Brittsh

“rebels”.

the

Nationalist

at

cabinet

party

(English)

to

forced

make

in Ireland.

1778. Roman Catholic Relief Bill (passed by the AngloIrish Parliament). (Catholics were still excluded from acquiring by purchase, or as tenants, any freeholds!2! interest. ) 1779. Free Trade with Great Britain. Almost all restraints put upon Irish industry swept away. 1782.

The

simple,

1783. Winter nexed another

portion

become

Colonels

ment,

étc.

nights

1792-93.

Belgium

acquire

open

and—to Equal

in

property

freehold

the

After

Anglo-Irish the

England the

released.

further

The for

Roman

or

life,

in

schools. of

and of

still

Code

to

allowed

Catholics

fee

Penal

Penal

Army,

French resolved Code

elective

was

Parliament. had

Government

upon

French

released.

franchise

for

Irish Irish

anwar,

could Parlia-

OF

O U T LI NE

Rebellion Lord

Irish

Anglo-Irish passed

of Britain Insh and

illegal

1800.

in

and Ireland the English.

Act

Republicans

Belfast

peasants

House

14 1

Q UES T I ON

I RI SH

1798.

of

Fitzgerald).

Union

ON

R E P O RT

of

By

not

ripe. voted

Commons

the

Tone,

(Wolfe

Legislature

the

for

and

Act

Union

Customs

closed the struggle between The colony itself protested

of

the Angloagainst the

Union.

of

c

1801-1846

a) 1801-1831. At this time (after the end of the war! 22) movement for emancipation of Catholics under way among

a

Irish

and

English

From

1783

which

after

legislative

duties her

of

independence

on

imposed with

to

people

the

employ

Ireland,

of

various

articles

intention

some

of

that

Irish

shortly

of foreign enabling

of

their

surplus

etc.

labour,

The

es

were

avowedly

manufacture,

some

(1829).

consequence as

natural

gradually

disappeared

was the

Act

of

manufactur-

came

Union

into

effect.

Dublin

Master

woollen

Hands

employed

manufacturers

Master

.......++.-. woolcombers ---+-.++-

Hands

employed...........

Carpet

Hands

manufacturers

weavers

Kilkenny

Hands

ee

.1800

..

eee

employed.-.-...++.++--s

Silk-loom

Blanket

oe

.

at

work

...........

manufacturers.......

employed

Balbriggan Calico-looms

at

work

........

91

1840



4,918



30

1834

5



230

1834

66



13



720



2,500

1840

250

56

1822

42

1800



3,000



12

602

1841

]



0



1799

2,500

184]

1800

1,000

184]

925

226

Wicklow Handlooms

atwork

-+.++4+8-+

0

K A RL

142

MA RX

Cork

weavers

Braid

Worsted

weavers

HosterS

«2c

Woolcombers Cottonweavers

etc.

The

has

been



90

wwe nccee cence



300



28

.....ceceeee ese ree «1+.



700



110



2,000



220

industry

the

flannel

Kilkenny,

of of

That

business—which

fortunate

which

been

ratteen

destroyed.

of

and

Union

that favoured, and privileged, and patronised maker’s’’ (Speech of T. F. Meagher, 1847. )

was

has

been

operatives, the

Bandon,

frieze

Act

14,000

have

1,491

blanket

the

alone

not

business

is

of

survives!

struck

the

.

worsted

manufactures

business

One

the

looms

Rathdrum,

of

trade

this.

for

employed

silk

employed

camlet the

Waterford,

have

which

3,400

manufacture

the

Carrick-on-Suir

compensate

Dublin, the

manufacture,

destroyed;

not

did

of

destroyed;

serge

manufactures

(Ulster)

manufacture

been

the

manufacture

40

2,000

has

destroyed;

1834



cotton

Operatives,

1,000

---..+-++.4-.

linen

“The

1800

......5+506-

down—

Irish

coffin-

Every time Ireland was about to develop industrially, she crushed and reconverted into a purely agricultural land. After the latest General Census of 18617: Agricultural

(including labourers

In

in

of

cottiers!23

with

their

small

Ireland

and

families) (of which

towns

798 fact

the

were

Population

all

market

farm 4,286,019

many 1,512,948

towns)

5,798,967

(1861)

Therefore

approximately

4/5

purely

agricultural,

towns are also counted. Ireland is therefore purely agricultural: ‘‘Land is life’’ (Justice Blackburne). Land became the great object of pur-

and

actually

suit. the

The

perhaps

people

occupation

6/7

now

had land,

of

market

if

at

before

them

any

rent,

or

thus

enabled

the

choice

starvation.

between System

of

rack-renting. ‘The and

lord

the has

land been

five

and

times

water.”

as

was

we have heard per acre. Enormous

that

much as £10 of an enormous extent, let by rapacious monopolising landjobbers, to be relet by

8,

even

of

it

therefore

their

value,

among

the

wretched

and

to of

dictate the

rents,

low

indolent

terms,

of

wages,

£5,

on

potatoes

6,

farms

proprietors

oppressors,

intermediaté

starvers

own

his

payment

to for and

OUTLINE

OF

IRISH

143

QUESTION

starvation.

in England create a monopoly to a certain export of Irish com to England. The average grain in the first 3 years following the passage of Union about 300,000 qrs,

Laws

Corn

extent

for

export

of of

Act 1820 1834

ON

popular

of

State

the

REPORT

the

over

qrs, average of 2/2 million qrs, Amount to pay rent to absentees, and gages (1834), over 30 million dollars (or 1 million

yearly

to

interest

7 million

mort-

pounds

sterling). Middlemen accumulated fortunes that they would not invest in the improvement of land, and could not, under the system which prostrated manufactures, invest in machinery, etc. All their accumulations were sent therefore to England the

investment.

for

British

securities Irish

of

in

to

England,

in

trade

free

pounds

sterling,

cheap works

England

labour

and

and

of

Britain”’.

Many

pigs

to In

the

of

by

British

investment the

as many

to

to

the

following

Ireland

adop-

millions

to

forced

of

contribute

up

building

of

great

“‘the

same.

of

Accretion

years same

more The

was

transfers

1.e.,

amounted

published

Ireland’s

of

population

from

8,175,238

10

In

the

years

13

the

capital

export

and

1831-1841. 7,767,401

thus

cheap

that

Ireland,

1821,

in

document

official

shows

Government

from

capital

tion

An

with

O’Connell. Whigs.!24#

Acts,

Coercion

period

being...

..............

ee

there

per

year)

2...

2.

40,000

than

total

cee

2...

ee

te

ee ee

te

emigrated

cee

Repeal Movement. Partial famines.

ee

ene

407,837

(somewhat

ee

eee

ee

450,873

ee

858,710

Lichfield-House Contract Insurrection Acts, Arms

Acts. IV

The

Period

the

of

Clearing

Earlier, general. This

(1846-47),

repeated

new

period

starvation

of

cases was and

Last

20

Years

the

Estate

of

partial

ushered

the

(from

1846).

Ireland

of

Now

famine.

in

consequent

by

famine

potato exodus. the

was

blight

144

KARL

one

million

die,

partly

etc..

(caused

by

hunger).

Over

diseases, 1,656,044

The

revolution

a

but

natural

(Families small

the

of

result

clubbed

most

and

In

partly

years,

nine

from

1847-55,

country.

the

left

hunger,

from

MARX

old

the

of

barren

to

together

enterprising.)

leaseholds

send

Hence,

and

of

substitution

People fled. youngest

fields.

away course,

the the

pooling

pasturage

of

was

system

agricultural

of

crop

for

farming.

a

However, soon circumstances conscious and deliberate system. Firstly,

one

the

of

result, in

be

and

of

Now,

the

In

products

was

English

now,

market

as

horned

by

the

could

meat, in the

of

wool

connected

and

market

steadily the

of

Act

industry

with cattle.

the

old

Deprived

Union

of

a

As

Rents price

increased

partly

sheep

chiefly

English

the

was

disaster.

dropped.

growth

became

Laws

Corn

the

meantime,

Tremendous

this

Irish

on

prices

the

Pig-raising

the

of

Corn

the

of

monopoly

aminal

years.

England.

system.

paid.

other 20

its

years.

ordmary

preceding in

lost

whereby

Repeal

factor:

consequences

corn

longer

wool

chief

direct

Irish

the

no

the

arose

her

of

own. circumstances

Contributing

Reorganisation

Secondly:

of

Caricature

Thirdly:

same The

this

systematic:

agriculture

of

hovels,

flight

of

starving

workhouses

ter, Birmingham, Glasgow state almost of starvation. Act

made

in

England.

in Ireland. despairing

basements,

filled

that

in

men,

with

Irish

to

Liverpool,

women,

England Manches-

children

in

a

Parliament passed (1847-48) that Irish landlords had to support their own paupers. (The English Pauper Law is extended to Ireland.) Hence, the Irish (especially English) landlords, mostly deep in debt, try to get nd of the people and clear their estates. of

Fourthly: “The

landlord

at the same maintenance

mortgages

pay

no

Encumbered was

time

of

and imterest;

ruined,

hable

his

poor now a

he

for

Act

could

the

created law

was

when

(1853°?.) no

collect

payment neighbours. His

for

settlements, and

Estates

land food

passed,

rents,

and

he

was

enormous

of

by

was was aid

taxes for the encumbered with

high, of

and

which

he

could

property

OUTLINE

could

OF

be

REPORT

ON

summarily

among

distributed

IRISH

disposed

those

who

145

QUESTION

of

had

a

at legal

public

sale,

upon

claims

and

the

proceeds

it.”

Absentee Proprietors. (English capitalists, insurance societies, etc., thereby multiplied, equally former middlemen, etc., who wanted to run their farms on moder economic lines. Eviction of farmers partly by friendly agreement

tenure.

terminating ly

by

But

crowbar

brigades,

forcible

ejection.

roofs),

more

much

beginning (Also

masse

evictton*en with

as

used

the

(forcib-

destruction

political

of

retribution. )

has continued since 1847 to this day. (Abercorn, Viceroy of Ireland.) African razzias (razzias of the little African kings). (People driven from the land. The starving population of the towns largely increased. ) This

are

tenantry agents direct

‘The

Land police

and

brigade’ houses....

Paper,

soldiery.

sun

The

1852.)

us

Let Ireland,

(Abercorn.

*)

now

how

see

where

work

protection

devoted

rose

that

The

the

the

cottages

the

of

operation.

Under

to

advances

out

tumed

the

the

of

scores at a time.... a large force of

by

done

by

latter,

township, takes village sets on

on a

system

this

are

quite

Cultivated

Land.

conditions

is

the

‘crowbar

possession

a

(Galway

the

affected different

the

of

desert.”

from

land

in

those

in

England. Decrease

of

1861-66

Decrease

in

cereal

crops

1861-65

428,041

acres

107,984

acres

42,876

acres

20,077

acres

1866

Decrease

green

in

crops

Total 470,917

decrease

Decrease

of

per

1547-1865

47.9,

turnips

greater

Yield

per

cent:

36.1,

decrease,

128,061

See

pp.

the

potatoes

but

1847,

*

Statute

153-54.—Ed.

on

the

Acre

exact

50. whole

of Every

decrease:

oats,

years

Some

it

Crop

has

been

16.3,

would gradual

flax

show since

a

146

KARL

MARX

~

ESTIMATED

AVERAGE

PER

STATUTE

Wheat

PRODUCE

ACRE

Potatoes

Flax

tons

stones

cwts

(14

1851

12.5

5.1

38.6

1866

11.3

2.9

24.9

Though wheat

in

Ireland

exported

past,

the

oats

ing

Ibs.)

(the

it

now

is

yield

considerable

to be

said

per

which

of

good

acre

quantities only

cultivat-

for

also

of

continuously

decreases). In

1866

fact:

wheat

48,589

against

fold).

Meanwhile,

qrs

oats

of

the

worked,

and

partly

decreases.

produce

risen.

of

1801: 1861:

show,

1871,

total

consolidation

to

his

although

the

may

diminish, produce,

sterilisation (gradual) of the Romans (ditto in Egypt. )

land,

as

speak

of

the

livestock,

but

and

still

to surplus

falling

the in

about

first

the

of

by

Sicily

popu-

the

Population

5,319,867; in

And

farmer.

farms,

produce

surplus

produce into

of

system,!4*5 the to manure the farmer is no

(where

profits

over-

labourers

of

1841: If

1871,

however,

even

and

converted

5,764,543.

5,300,000

million

and

underfed

corn-acre

the

trusted

increase,

(great)

been

price

the

of

four-

one

the

shall

Decrease

may

has

injudicious

under

Rents

it be

and

has

We lation.

the

The

of

Hence, ancient

land

measure

greater part the landlord

the

the

because,

the land for him. peasant farmer) soil

shipped shipped out approximately

from

a great

in

qrs

exodus,

partly

farmer

it

qrs

out only 13,250 in (that is, almost

shipped

£1,201,737).

(for

Since

Ireland

though

the that

that the

the

8,222,664; trend

is,

less

continues, than

population

emigration

1851:

rate

6,515,794;

there

in

1801.

will

be

remains

will

I shall

lower

be

now

still

constant.

in

OUTLINE

OF

REPORT

ON

IRISH

147

QUESTION

Emigration

accounts

Emigration 1845-66

ly

2,000,000

Irish.

emigration

was

4,657,588).

equalled and

1847

after

However,

the

about

Natural

accretion

same

the

9,074,514

for.

the the

decade,

accretion.

account

died

growth is

in

the

for

population

the

decreased

increased

have

been

6,515,794.

only

this

of

figure,

1,284,507

leaves

the

or

cent,

whole

deficit

evidently,

of

natural

1841-51.

decade

1851-61.

of

to

6,515,794

from

No

famine.

5,764,543.

decrease: 751,251. Yet emigration in this period 1,210,000. Hence there was an accretion of 460,000 during the ten years. Because 751,251 +

over

claimed

nearly

460,000=the

claimed

number

almost

0.7 1.1 The

triple

must

births those

munity.

20 and 1:3.98

the

35

or

accretion.

and

population

of

And

per the

probably

to

persons

in the 25.06 of

depend bear

of

even

The

35

proportion

Emigration

the while

increase

on the

lower of

the

rest

accretion

of

considerably

simple.

the

rate

The

hence

principally

20

between

Now

emigration

per cent.

emigrants=1,211,251.

of

per cent per year, per cent of 1831-41. explanation is very

by

which

by

in

not

Hence,

famine.

had

Out

That

but

per

would

was

it

1,274,213.

the

out

it

2,558,720.

million,

1.1

population

however,

decreased

borne

was

1841-51,

was

for

a

the

If

fact,

Over

1,284,507,

tion

approximate-

than

not

1831-41

in

deficit

accounted

population

Absolute

In

the

unaccounted

This

a year.

cent

1851.

in

emigration

the

or

Accretion

in

proportion

Consequently,

was

Annual

(annual)

per

11/19

The

1847.

decrease.

Population

The in

does

since

the

during

higher

alone

population

the

of

emigration

considerably

of

2/5 of the total 1845-66 which approximately

in

population

of

emigration the

of

Decrease

was

it

Kingdom

1831-41

accretion

(About

of.)

United

In

the

half

decrease

of

(Unheard the

from

part

for

1,990,244,

emigrated

there

In

naturally

a

than

popula-

proportion of

between

the

United Kingdom their proportion

cent, present day is about 1:1.89 still greater in Ireland.

comages of

the

is about in the

or

52.76

K A RL

148

Physical

Deterioration 1806,

In

excess of with a total

males

over

females

but

an

absolute

Insane,

idiotic,

the

of

total

total

total ber

the

the

on

number

lame

the

their

had and

and

total

the

decrease

1861, notwithstanding 14,098.

blind,

1851

on

473,

on

the

their

on

225,

by

9,980;

of

enormously,

by

by

relative,

Contrasting

1,092,

idiotic,

a

of

deaf-mutes,

decrepit

by

former

only

decreased

increased

blind

lunatic

of

1867,

in

an excess

is

not

time

was

there

whilst

there

inhabitants. had

the

4,375;

of

4,118,

of

in

population

5,180;

of

same

the

deaf-mutes

5,767;

of

At

decrepit the

5,574,107,

of

50,469,

by

5,557,196,

of

increase

number

former

population females

and

whilst

former

total

males.

1861,

Population

over

population

the

with

a

with

an

the

of

MA RX

their

their

former

numup, in

immense mounting

in

the

population,

20

per

cent

to

Wages Wages

not

have

potato famine. cent, and 100

more

risen

The

price

per

than

potatoes

of

on

cent

has

risen

an

average

the

Economist

since

the

per

200

nearly

essential

of

food

products. Professor

Leslie,

Cliffe

a

“After

out

loss

of

two-fifths

most does not

of

the

go

farther

than

ordinary

food

the

labourer

Partial

island

famines

Bankruptcy of etc., fall to ruin.

In

Results

of

1855-66,

livestock

This

(cattle, of

crease

horses

of horse),

cretion.

did

worse

especially

than

off

in

shopkeepers

9,

he

Munster is

to

Owing

was

years, througha day; a shilling

21 1s.

in only

ten

and

this

rise

years

in

the

ago.”

Connaught.

permanent.

Market

towns,

Process Inshmen

sheep

livestock which

population

wages is now 21 years ago.

of

6d. is

the

of

rate

the

1,032,694

accretion

one

February

of

says:

1867,

The

in

(20,656)

are

and

replaced

pigs).

during

That,

that

in

period,

compensated therefore

996,877

by

by

subtracted

fact,

with eight from

head

of

was

the

the

de-

sheep

(to

the

ac-

OUTLINE

OF

REPORT

120,000. particularly

and

over of

who

and

about

500

acres

tion

flax;

on

Viceroy

sum,

In

Protestant

a

it is

Meagher,

question

Hennessy, DECREASE

was

total

held

area:

569,544

by

of

gear.

full

Ulster.

(Cultiva-

tenants.)

over-population,

Dufferin:

(Ireland’s

to less than 100 acres, tenants with over 100 and

in

officially etc., system. He, too,

this

affected

up

by

consolidation

Scottish

decrease

farms

tenants).

(31,927

of

Times,

The

area acres

one

of

acres)

and

farms

the

was

farms

acres.

15

the

of

acre

Thus,

under

12,000,000

plots

decrease

15-30

of

of

million

over

process

of

Lord

(8

and

The

3/5

worked 2/5

total

increased.)

one to

or

acres)

the

number

about

20,319,924

tenants

the

farms

1861

In

149

QUESTION

1861

(Though

acres

30

to

1851

From

IRISH

of Farms

Consolidation

of

ON

life

Abercorn

congratulates is one etc.* and

these

of

devastators.

death.

** Jrishman.14® OF

CRIME

IN

IRELAND

Committed

for

Convicted

trial

1852

17,678

10,454

1866

4,326

2,418

V

S T A T ES

T ED UNI

., , ,. ,

i s he d P ubl

in : Marx

l ec t e d Co l

W ork s

ed

Russ ian M osco w

Vol

an d

Enge ls

second 16

1960

* **

See See

pp. p.

124-25.—Ed. 158.—Ed.

,

A ND

A NI SM FENI

.

nt e d P ri

according t o t h e in

manuscrip t

sh E ng li

P art

t rans la t e d

G e rm an

and

o f t h e manuscrip t

f rom

the

G erma n

as

[RECORD

A

OF

DELIVERED

SPEECH

BY

WORKERS’

IN

KARL

MARX

LONDON

ON

16,

Karl

IRISH

GERMAN

ASSOCIATION

16,

DECEMBER

Marx

_

QUESTION

THE

TO

EDUCATIONAL

December

On

THE

ON

1867]

a

delivered

to

lecture

the

German Workers’ Educational Association on conditions in Ireland, in which he proved that all attempts the English government to Anglicise the Irish population

London

past

the of

in

centuries had ended in failure. The English, including aristocrats, who immigrated before the Reformation!’ were transformed into Irishmen by their Irish wives and their descendants

war of

against

crops

area

the

Irish

and

to

the

anything. received

they

would

be

time,

the

the

West

Indies.

favours.

which

only

to

Protestant

action

means

to

allowed

were itance;

were

not

to

means

Queen

oppression. hold

allowed

be

a for

an

on

a

III, the

any

price.

the

new

and Irish

Anne.

The who

with

power Irish industry was to sell their raw the

help

be

to make wills, Catholic bishop

could

not

claim

Irish

was of

freedom

was a

were

Catholic not

the

the

of

Parliament!29

could

robbing

in

received

received

were

Irish

slaves

to

post,

official

that

the

as

came

With

Irish

not

Ireland

aristocrats

Those

did

Cromwell’s

of them class

money,

one

merchant

In

fought

many

from

condition

people.

colonists

force

at

Laws,

and

Restoration,!28

make

to

England

under

of

to

population

land

the

of

destruction

colonists

English

sold

the

English of

William

order

Penal

by

the

Under

in

materials

plots

of these Cromwell

Under

wanted

suppressed

large

brutalities

gentlemen

for

time,

colonised

English.

the

of

place

that

The

Elizabeth,

Queen

make

descendants

the

many

of

under

At

adventurers

against

England.

displacement

to

another

change

against

fought

not

landowners,

high

treason.

their

land;

yet

an

inher-

All

these 50

over

RECORD

OF

MARX’S

per

cent Catholic.

SPEECH

the

of

The

people

were

who

aristocracy

become

in

Irish.

among

the During

a

during

little.

the

French drove

by

The

bribery.

Irish is

the

have

land;

tors;

land

reached high.

London,

the

set

in

there

was

a

starvation.

soil,

Through

and

there,

position be

of

the

still

paid.

on High

remaining

names

a

prices

on

and

owing

1846.

A

of

the

the English

prices

small

landowners

Irish been

stages

were

to

speculait

before

water; eaten up

and

was

was

to

blight

people

the

died

of

exhaustion

Ireland the

with

Famine

potato

the

and

sent

exported

exhausted.

Laws

meat

all have

£7,000,000

market,

for

reviving

to

lands

million

Corn

Union

necessity

potatoes the rent

was

soil

the

we

her

English

disproportionately

Fertilisers the

that

to

vital

were

granted

said:

lease

five

1836,

In

be The

all

their

England;

in

famine

repeal

no

have

reins

blow

potato blight resulted from product of English rule.

monopoly longer

or

Florence.

here

the

an

achieved

became

lived

to

and

was a

it

sent

rent,

The

the

plant

quickly

Meagher

made

landowners.

general

that

to

the

death

leased

this

and

produce

It

four

and

and

All

to

destroyed,

population

absent

often

the

through

Paris

to

abroad

the

been

coffins.

were

and

occasion

landowners

meat

and

the

English

English.

rebellion

the

agrarian

of

English

had

the

delivered have

peasant,

the

rose so

Ireland

of

passed

The

to

one

big

by

are so many

outstrip

them On

built

concessions

making

the

wheat in

to

industry

of

was

Independence

of

revolution.

Union

industry.

branches

arms

the

doing

remained

e War

Further

threatened

government

left

is why

Fenians. the American

loosened people

That

have

powerful.

in

towns there

The

Ulster

into

became

succeeded

Ireland.

in

driven

thus

151

QUESTION

descendants

government

English

IRISH

English

clergy,

Catholic

ON

rent

old the

lost

of

her could

bankruptcy

contributed

to

transformation

of

a

of

further

the eviction of their land mto

the small peasants and the sheep pastures. Over half

arable

not been tilled since 1860. The yield per oats by 16 per cent, flax by 36 per cent, per cent. At present only oats are cultivated

acre

acres

land have has dropped:

potatoes for

million

the

With riorated

by

50

English

market,

and

wheat

the exhaustion of the physically. There has

1s imported. soil, been

the

an

population has deteabsolute increase in

152

RECORD

the

number

decreasing

sheep.

The

Irish

question,

to

else

decide be

emigration

English

Published Collected

Russian Moscow,

QUESTION

insane

in

at

will

the

and

the

Marx

Works, ed.,

Vol.

1960

and second

16,

question

lead

Engels,

to

of

If that

a war

does with

amounts

not

with

a

once

place

for

simply

a

are

happen leave

The

sheep.

discussion sheep. nationality

or

Ruin

convinced

that

quickly. it to the

The Irish

landownership. not happen America.

to collecting

Translated

with

Europe.

existence.

Irish

separation

at present aristocracy.

in:

and

the

must

all

in

of

there

it

useless.

Ireland

all

replaced

Russians,

was

land

of

happen

would

with

to make therefore not

is

demand

been

towns

watchword;

to

should

over

IRISH

and

unheard

China

question

the

is

themselves Irish tion

a

in

destroy

question

is

anything

thing

ON

dumb,

have

thing

Poles

Mongols

but

revolution

a

is

evicted

the

or not to

whether

SPEECH

and

deaf

people

This

replace

under

English

blind,

1,100,000

Russians

if

lame,

MARX’S

population.

Over 9,600,000

Only

of

OF

from

The

Every-

soon

the domina-

rent

for

the

German

the

EXCERPTS

FROM

WRITTEN

LETTERS

1867

BETWEEN

MARX

TO

LUDWIG

[IRELAND

ON

1868

AND

KUGELMANN 11,

1867

people

asa

October

Ernest

representative there

is

was

Jones

speak

in

party,

the

of

identical

to

with

and,

England’s

to

Ireland since

Irish

big

ownership

landownership

of Ireland,

never

to speak against big landownership. You should for general principles in the hustings speeches politicians

but

only

what

for

MARX

is useful

TO

the

for

proceedings

every

inch

what

a row

have the

what

could

zmmediate

in

every

workers

Fenians

in

expected.}39

up

kicked

way

to support

in

aim.

ENGELS

the

be

people”

“our

sought English

against

look

English

of

2,

November

The

was

he

in

provoke of

1867

were

Manchester

You the

will

League.

Reform

this

seen

have

manifestation

Fenianism.!

[ of

31

Greetings. Yours, K.

Previously impossible. tion

*

Now

may

there

evidenced year,!32 form of

I thought

by

I think

come the

it

federation.

Abercorn.—Ed.

separation

inevitable,

Agricultural

which appeared the eviction. The

Lord

Ireland’s

a

few

Irish

How

the

Statistics

days Viceroy,

ago.

England

from

although English for

M.

separacarry on is

after

the

current

Furthermore, Lord Abicorn*

the (that

154

MARX

seems

to

be

weeks

by

forcibly

were

his

name),

did

foreign

the

stock

political

thousands

tenants,

whose

adopt

this

population.

grounds;

the

ENGELS

How

low

first

swore

M.):

“Then

John?

invest-

country

expropriation

of

solely

on

Prussia

out.

buy

MARX

TO

judges

when

Willzam

you

reward

is

Abercom’s

but

later

5,

demonstrated

witness said

that

Beck

(who

was

John

it

to swear to fall to pieces more

will

accused;

of

perjury

where

can

I

read

greater

in

detail

about

evictions?

TO

ENGELS

7,

November

about

was a

to

get

There

manage

a

for

incredible.

MARX

tions

1867

you meant

and

batch

was

sunk

asked

prosecution

simply

me

tell

have

he

William

new

each

£200

you

Can

to whole

the

with

of

Martin

swore

I think



Lord

English

Blackburne

to

more

and

the

by

them

and

November

yesterday

few

Among

confiscate

in Wester

1867

last

European

direct

of

Russians

Prussians

the

improvements

form

The

in

people.

other

7,

NOVEMBER

estate of

no

In

confiscated!

rule

ENGELS,

his

“cleared”

evicting

prosperous were thus

ments

TO

a

detailed

again

description

ago

fortnight

in

the

issue

at

which

The that

the

of

Abercom

Irishman

was

lent

1867

evic-

(Dublin).

to

me

for

I only

may 24

hours. At

the

meeting,

Bradlaugh seconded Fenians

by

Acland’s

our the

was

lecture

we

is

in

intelligent

the

speech and

a stormy

heads,

which

Fox

which

was

there

a

made

on had

Cremer,

passed

our

Ireland,

a

tabled

unanimously.

demonstration the

Dickson

Colonel

about

Reform meeting

Bill

in

down

old

the

basement). This business stirs part of the working class here.

for

the

too,

Tuesday,

33

during

Hall

{above

coffee

room,

Fenians!

Cleveland in

and

Weston,

resolution Last

the

for

presided

our

the

feelings

of

ENGELS

MARX,

TO

ENGELS

The

ness,

and

the

openly

thing

1867

155

LUDWIG

a very

London the

for

splendid

TO

are

too,

Irish,

29,

NOVEMBER

KUGELMANN

substantial

proletarians

Fenians

and,

here—for,

November

8,

1867

in

this

busi-

ferment

_cvery

declare

hence—an*

a

first,

violent

day

more

unheard-of

and

and,

movement.

anti-English

ENGELS

MARX

TO

24,

November Dear

an

secondly,

1867

Moor,

am

I

returning

yesterday

So England

and

lacked

were

Derby

and

made

the

which

it

now

well

To

my

executed of

They

have

been

as

a

John

have

wished

least

the

the

a

at

is

being

a common

crime.

Deasy

Irish

only

with the

of

the

babe

the

beastliness *

Michael

of

the the

Larkin,

by has

deed

as

cradle

in

will

civilised

Ferry.

precedent.

treat

done

that

a

do

J.

to

Brown

that

Fenians

English William

must Allen

the

not had at

could

Southerners

as a rebel, a political

been

was

whereas

here

attempt

into

29,

1867

MARX

TO

you

Fenians

has

country

The The

transform

anybody

November

regards

these

heroic

in

still

three*

women

Irish

time in

ENGELS

As

Colbetween

Fenians

provided

and

Harpers

better

to

decency

everything

the

execution

The

Mr.

of

separation that

every

matter

similar

Brown

hand

women.

Polish

for

to

America.

knowledge, for

Kelly

sung

and

the

the

the

of

thing

of

be

by

only

Only

liberation

as

Tories, final act

The

Hardy.

England

the

the

martyrs. G.

letters.

morning

Ireland.

will

Ireland,

case

encl.

accomplished

craft,

just

the

are not

and

quite

make Michael

us O’

right.!34* forget Brien.—Ed.

that

The the

156

MARX

leaders

we

are in any way which occur sect

this

of

cannot

stupidities

TO

asses

mostly make

and

30,

NOVEMBER

partly

ourselves

every

in

ENGELS,

1867

exploiters

responsible

conspiracy.

And

and

for

the

they

are

to happen. I need not tell you home too.!3° The

certain

that black and green predominate in my English press has once again behaved most meanly. Larkin is said to have fainted and the others* to have looked pale and confused. The Catholic pnests who

were

there

declare

on a

stumbled

courage.

Allen nothing to

same

again.

By

insolent—on churches

not of

the

he

way, the it was given three men had

these

MARX

TO

them

deed,

out

he

he

you

read

the

papers

do

the

very m

pulpit

all

murdered.

ENGELS

30,

November

If

had

were

the

from

been

bitterly

would

priests

Catholic

great

showed

saying

liberty

say,

they

complained

his

at

Larkin,

of

Salford

of

were

lie.

three

of

repent

and

a

is

the

Sunday

that

and

bishop

Catholic

would repent

this

spot

rough

The

that

that

you

will

seen

have

1867

that

1)

the

Memorial of the International Council for the Fenians** was sent to Hardy, and that 2) the debate on Fenianism was public (last Tuesday*** week) and reported in The Times.13® Reporters of the Dublin /rishman and Nation were among those present. [ came very late (I ran a temperature for about a fortnight and the fever passed only two days ago) and really did not intend to speak, firstly because of my troublesome

physical

ticklish

situation.

to obliged

force

tried what

the

me

I had

pomts *

See

***

The

FXE*E

to, speak

a

pp. 19th

pp.

I moved

and

secondly

for

an

Tuesday.****

for

Tuesday

But

Michael

O’

of

November. 26th.—Ed.

130-35—Ed.

See

was Irish

Brien.—Ed.

pp.

in

485-89.—Ed.

a matter not

a

of

the

adjournment,

As

last

the

because

was

who

last

speech.*****

Allen

and

Weston,

128-29.—Ed.

November See

so

prepared

of

William

**

****

me to

condition,

However

the

chair,

which

of

fact

speech

but

reporters

failed

to

MARX

TO

come, the

ENGELS,

and

waiting

them

for

it

157

had

9

become

o’clock,

while

was at our disposal only till 10.30. Fox quarrel in the Council he had not shown the past 2 weeks, and had moreover sent in his as member of the Council, contaming rude Jung!37) had, at my request, prepared a long the

of

himself

for

resignation attacks on speech.

the

After

would

yield

the

opening

Fox)

instead

the

meeting, crowd

did like

ered

an

only

the

he

it and

it referred

What

new

and

analysing

one

to

Roman

sense),

that,

by

1801-46,

with

its

cattle-raising.)

any

at of

its

that

rate

of

was the

affairs

because

be

more

by

pigs

period

and

of

hastened of

the

a

or

were land

entirely

and

by

than

Corn

(in

the

wants system

to

collapsed

in

which The

by

the

Irish

England’s

com

especially

Laws,

partly

of

occurrgood the

for

result

deprived

famine,

supply

to

who

Cromwell,

exceptional,

the

a

being

colonists

is

1s

sense,

negative

oxen!

of

Fenianism

middlemen,

evictions

where

an

into

the

aim

ridiculous

system, and

1846

since

soil)

English

present

rack-rents

repeal

the

Elizabeth

Insh

sheep,

monopoly

can

(in

of

to

38

political this,

of

The

I objected

is that

tendency

of

the

inane.

entered

very

For that things.

Committee.!

have

What

of

the

deliv-

it concemed

aspects.

also

was

it

because

know

appropriation

Leinster The

yet

Ireland

the

because

and

therefore

precisely

with

them

in

had

Irish

surface

Standing

socialistic

the

supplant

(During

that

state

the

thing

absurd

not

do

supplant

mainly

hour.

revolutionary

The

another

for

the

barbarities

wanted

Ireland

to

in

a

hurl

intended.

was

movement.

the

confuse

or

up

and

by

against orders

1846.

to

forced

for

and

English

characterised lower

good,

content

phase,

belated

I

reporters away and delaying the opening of the service for me. I don’t like to mix with a Stephens, and the rest.

domination

directed

soberly I had

handed

the

economic English

been

of

Englishman

resolution had

stated

executions

political and international just skimmed along the

he

the

of

Manchester

as

was

speech

by

reason

signal

Roberts,

Fox’s

I tlterefore

on account

Fox

have

movement therefore, by staying and

sitting

the meantime—our subject, Fenianism, the passions to such heat that J (but not would

thunderbolts

the

of

the

of

place in to inflame

abstract

to

floor

Actually—because

taken liable

of

1867

establishment

(because

ing

30,

NOVEMBER

in

normal

158

MARX

times.

Wool

tillage

into

meat pasture.

and

consolidation

of

a mass

turned lords,

hastened

land!

is

stupid

it.

the

from

then

purpose

Meagher’s

hence

rule

in London change since

Hennessy

systematic

Estates

Proclamation

of

of

Act,

which

middlemen into landof the Estate of Ire-

English

of

1867

conversion

onwards

enriched Clearing

immense

manifesto

(1866),

slogan,

30,

NOVEMBER

Encumbered

government

From

election

one

this

itself

know

The

ENGELS,

the

previously the process.

the

English of

course

Hence

farms.

of

now

became

TO

in

knows 1846.

The

nothing of But the Irish

(1848)

(Tory

Ireland.

to

down

and

the

Urquhartite)

Irish

have expressed their consciousness of it in the clearest and most forcible manner. The question now 1s, what shall we advise the English workers? In my opinion they must make the Repeal of the Union (in short, the affair of 1783, only democratised and adapted to the conditions of the nunztamento.139 This is the only sible

form

Irish

of

programme of whether a mere the

two

2) world

can

the

personal

think

and

their

pro-

therefore

only

pos-

An

agrarian

revolution.

English

cannot

the

to subsist

continue

can

it

if it takes

independence

the

them

and

of

article

between

place in

time.

1s:

need

Self-government

give

legal

can

union

I half

Irish

an

emancipation which can be admitted in the English party. Experience must show later

countries.

What

1)

an

time)

With

the

accomplish

means

legal

England.

from best

this

intentions them,

for

accomplishing

of

in the

but

it

they them-

for

selves.

1801

3) Protective tariffs against England. Between 1783 and every branch of Irish industry flourished. The Union,

which

overthrew

Parliament,

linen

had

measures etc., and

others.

turn

them

taken

Before

no

is

just the

for

by

industrial

same English

the

I present

this

you to

time give

are as

views

fortunately

me

the

Parliament

Irish

my

on

of

protectionists,

Tuesday,

life

your

in

by

Ireland.

whatever.

effect

suppression

the Once

into

all

established

tariffs

compensation

the

would

like

protective

destroyed

industry

1801

the

the The

The

Insh

woollen

under

Anne,

independent,

bit

Union

as

industry

Irish

the

George

etc.

Australia,

in

the

Central

Council

(next

reporters),!4#9

a

few

I,

will

Canada,

in

of

necessity

did

without

of

industry,

it

opinion

Irish

lines.

|

MARX

TO

ENGELS,

16,

MARCH

1868

MARX

159

TO

ENGELS

14,

December

Dear

Fred,

The

very

last

exploit

stupid

sympathy

thing.

the

of The

Ireland, will be of the government proletarians to allow

London honour

of

the

fatality

about

Fenian

in

masses,

to

themselves There

éemissaries.

a secret,

such

Clerkenwell! 4! was a who haye shown great made wild by it and driven into party. One cannot expect the

Fenians

London

for

arms

the

be

is

a

The

stupid

few

spiracies

in

affair

specialised

MARX

TO

that

they

to

lead

was

Clerkenwell it

fanatics;

such

in of

conspiracy.

of

December

a

up kind

blown

always

sort

melodramatic

ENGELS

of

1867

is

the

obviously

misfortune

stupidities,

of

because

19,

1867

the

work

con-

all

all

“‘after

something must happen, after all something must be done”. In particular, there has been a lot of bluster in America about this blowing up and arson business, and then a few asses

come

and

are

instigate

seems

generally to have

the

idea

of

on

fire!

shop

nonsense.

such

greatest

the

already

liberating

Moreover,

cowards,

turned Ireland

MARX

TO

like

this

setting

a

who

and

then

London

present

prisoners enced and

to

in

Ireland,

ordinary

Sullivan

happening

way

on

of

the

in and

prison the

which also

Continent,

42

16,

1868

the English treat political suspects, or even those sent-

terms

News)!

tailor’s

ENGELS

March

The

cannibals

Allen,

evidence,

Queen’s

by

these

(like is

except

Pigott

really in

The

Inshman

worse

than

anything

Russia.

What

of

dogs!

MA RX

16 0

MARX

TO

K U G EL MA NN

L UDW I G

TO

LUDWIG

, ,

been

Irish

exploited

to

order

as

the

the

workers’

party;

the

and

Potter,

now

have

bourgeois

However,

6, 1868

a new

Ireland.

is

a

only

England

And in

penalty

what

bulwark time

as

a

Church

in

Ireland

will

Ireland

and

from

the

from

the

am

(I

will

followed then

first

of

the

events

is

workers,

into

attaching

in

that

bottom,

long

run

speaking The

mean by

the

England.

the

that

which

the

next

themselves

con-

England—and

it will

see, the English use to call here

landowner.)

be

based

paying

many

benefit

the

for the centuries English

Established Church the Jnsh Church—is

of English landlordism im Ireland, and outpost of the Established Church in

the

herself.

Church

two

get

working class—is committing for

the

You they

itself.

the religious at the same

turn

in

an on

have

Liberals.

this

working class in Ireland—or

to

for

be

among

intriguers

excuse

will

has

only

to

all,

this

It

course,

of

which

want

now.

just

above

moment

who

sequently also the English great crime she has been against

and,

elections,

For

Odger

Parliament,

to

next

the

here

company,

and again,

office

suffrage.!43

the

for

at

predominates

Gladstone

into

cry

household such

by

get

electoral bad

question

18 68

KUGELMANN

April The

6

A PRI L

social

is, from

here

overthrow

its

downfall doom

I have,

of

of of

in

Established

the

Established

and

the

landlordism—first

in

however,

must landownership.

revolution

the

England been

begin

convinced

seriously

Karl

Marx

[ON THE REFUSAL BY THE ENGLISH PRESS TAKE NOTICE OF THE GROWTH OF SYMPATHY WITH IRELAND AMONG ENGLISH WORKERS AND ON THE OPENING OF THE DEBATE ON THE IRISH QUESTION

TO

(Record From

the

of

the

Minutes

26

of October

and

Speech

the

of

and

General

Meetings

Council

9,

November

the Letter.

of

Content

1869)

}

I

Marx

Cit.

passed

would

feature

that

said

at

be

prejudice

against

addressed

to

good

suppressed

a part

least

principal by

the

the

English

Irish.

This

of

the

not

somebody,

to

opportunity

do

was

thing

demonstration!44

the

of

the

press.

London had

been

working

was

whatever The

ignored,

class

had

main

was

it

lost

their

put in writing government. He thought

might

the

be

and

a

it

something.... i

The had

been

Cit.

English

to The

put

on

Published The First

the

6-226

it

prisoners.

Jung

a

read

on

in

class

was

Moscow

Marx

Cit.

Marx

the

the

attitude (2) The Irish.

support

in

proposed

(1) The question;

towards

adopted

of

the

Cit.

of

the

discussion

of

of the attitude Marx

British of the volunte-

and

the

questions

Printed of

to be

ordered

day.

book

Council

International.

from

debate.

order the

Cit.

questions: the Irish

the

report the

letter

adopted,

working

open

General

Minutes,

that

Sub-Committee

not to proceed with an address on the Irish because if the views of the Council were properthe government and the press would turn them

report and, if the following Government ered

the

from

agreed

question! 45 ly set forth, against

reported

Secretary

the

1868-1870.

of

the

according book

to

the

text

Karl

THE

[ON

POLICY

WITH

(Record From

the

of

the

Meeting

and the

of

Marx

Cit.

then

GOVERNMENT

IRISH

PRISONERS

Resolution.

Draft General

16,

of November

BRITISH

THE

TO

Speech

Minutes

THE

OF

RESPECT

Marx

Council

1869)|

opened

the

on

debate

the

attitude

the

of

British Government on the Irish question. He said political amnesty proceeds from two sources: 1. When a government is strong enough by force of arms and public opinion, when the enemy accepts the defeat, as was the case in America,!46 then amnesty is given. 2. When misgovernment is the cause of quarrel

and

the

opposition

Austria

and

Hungary.!

4’

gains

its

poimt,

the

case

in

been

the

case

in

to have

ought

Such

as was

Ireland.

Both

Disraeli ought to

ment

revolution would

was

do

would

always made.

revolted

nife

During

the

and

Bright

he

nothing.

municipalities.

petition prisoners

appearance came, it was Then it was

a

When

anticipated

it

way

giving

of

got

up

mooted

in

not

have

as

by the

change

the

Fenian have

taunted

in

was

in

against

Ireland

about

signatures

the

for

some pressure.

releasing

to

would

the the

“Ireland ought to be an end to the “‘policy

movement

by

Ireland

begun like America became minister. He

he

a

countries that

nation

When

govern-

the

radical

declarations

deputation

200,000

containing he

to

amnesty

the

other

that To put

as soon

a

justified

implied

ought

other

unless

fiery

ideas’.

that

repeatedly

Gladstone

his

amnesty

Then

in

circumstances.

“policy of conquest”!48 ruled according to Irish

conquest” Austria by an

what

every

that

equivocated

of

said

asserted

election

similar

have

revolution

for

said

under he

Gladstone for Ireland

do.

be

insurrection

House

and

Irish Fenians,

but

House

that

he the

by

and did the

to start with a release of the to prevent the The

gave

petition

no

prisoners

answer. were

THE

ON

POLICY

treated.

infamously impartial;

in

THE

OF

treats

it

Europe

BRITISH

In this at least the English Government is Irish and English alike; there is no country

where

England

and

political

Russia.

at which

was was

Bruce

30,000

the

unconditional

all

the

towns

announced announced trade

in

in

weeks

societies

tion

of

was was

not

the

a

wanted

people the

for

in

Isaac

procession.

to

The

the

procgo

8th

to

procession

interpreted

went

They

It

October.

On

as a

it

to

Fortescue

in

was was

meeting

10th

the

for

held

attended.

procession.

Butt

were

great

the

fact.

memorial

Meetings

prohibiting

streets.

collision.

of

After

August

procession

was

abandoned

the soldiers occasion.

had

been

The

shot

that for the

that

Gladstone

answered

the

a

roundabout

way.!49

He

in

There were demanding

varied much. bad language of

go

to

issued

afterwards

rounds

Then

200,000

the

commenced meeting was

a

and

in

prohibi-

ask

but

he

at home, his Secretary Burke did not know. A letter to be replied to; he equivocated. The government

left

found

North. where

wanted

certain

adopted.

beforehand

were

lamations through

the

Dublin

Then Limerick. A

present

like

admit

refused.

at

was

treated

to

obliged

were

people

release

are

prisoners

Moore wanted an inquiry; it the popular amnesty movement held

163

GOVERNMENT

and

with

40

memorial

of

supplied

Limerick

says

was

it

the

proceedings

loyal people and others who right what could only be

used

as a

an act

clemency.

an

1s

It

servant The

act

of

a

to teach next

How that

does

they

meeting is

designs

entertain

know

wants

He

degrade

them

renounce

their republican and Prussia attached

amnesty Then America.

he

If it did,

only

morally.

them

says

the

Scotland

“disaffection

of

Napoleon

cut their

he

short designs

their

Yard

would

700

years’

exists

soon

be

ask

were

and

in

to to

gave

England

The

upon Irish

a

into

people

he

down

standing’’.

their

principles,

[not]

still

not

by

them

principles before no such conditions.

conspiracy

public

have

tortured

renounce did

paid

prisoners

were what

a

of

speak.

the

Has

to

to

how

that

them?

part

the

which

Gladstone

still

confession?

public

objection

abandoned their imprisonment.

on

presumption

an and

it. It

is

have

164

KARL

declared of in

they

would

conciliation. America, his

Head

receive

cannot quell the Fenian conspiracy promotes it, one paper calls him the finds fault with the press. He has not the

conduct

He

courage

to

prisoners

responsible.

the

has

been

This

is

to

keep

people

to

to

had of

dismissed

and

was

crowded

them.

with

untried

we

M’Donnell

higher

was

Murray

says:

a

to

prisons,

He then released; the

“‘it

point’’.

point.

suppressed

inspector

says

utmost

the

the

hostages

He

outside?

leniency

make

as

them

wrote letter after letter to treatment. Lord Mayo said

their

Murray

carry

utmost

Mountjoy

M’Donnell

about

the

wants

he

want

he

of

to

desire

the

press;

the

Does

behaviour

our

then

When Dr.

prosecute

good

as an act

freedom

Gladstone

Centre.!5°

for

unconditional

MARX

Joseph

Murray that

afterwards

wrote

then

was

He

official.

prisoners,

to

the

afterwards

promoted.*

principal

have advised leaders and

positive

lie.

There

years

each.

the minor organisers

offenders

we

could

to be not set

free.

This

a

is

15

them

who

had

made

him

set

years,

he he

is in could

home, He

the

English,

can

tion

the

have

The

enlightened Irish

give

was

could the

Irish

The

badge the

is

interest

See

the

were

the

the

only

p.

5!

servants

to

is

259.—Ed.

the

resolved

have

before

upon

question

and

an only

catch

excuse the

administra-

badge

continue

because

Irish the of

of

crimes.

a great

done

remains.

to

of

knees

the

against

oppressors

the

which

servitude

to

of

their

Parliament

criminals

not

punishment

on

fall

place-hunters but

the

the

Imsh

was

continues, the

are and

was

except

him

the public order in this country. it

because

He

ministers

church

removed,

government *

no

become

selves.152

right

government.!

sovereign

They

was

wanted

family

rise in revolt against in this country. Only

revolt

wants

He

justice. Bright

to

crime

administration

Jreland.

the

says:

Davis’s

Carey

lunatic asylum, his upset the government.

not

a

been

Jefferson

free.

the

further

ever

has

them

were two Americans amongst It was fear for America that was sentenced in 1865 to 5

people.

act

of

an of

But

Gladstone

and

dissenters

and

selling

them-

conquest.

The

states

that

He

remove

any

griev-

THE

ON

POLICY

ance,

but

that

property

own power

same

greatest could

stupidity

to

more

his

“You

cases

leaven

letter

to

Isaac

Butt

me

that

The

guilty

were

I

and

exceptional

tribunals

the

government

for

a

If

poacher

by

his

is

and

of

Parliament,

are. out

whole

the

It of

is

the

prison

nation.

comes

out

The

in

the

ask.

for

foreigners.

when

sentenced

by

lawful

The

prisoners

were

tried

judges

who

they

two custom

the

Can

to

of

were

they

depended

bread.”

tried

by

countrymen.

It

a is

are made up of purveyors to upon their verdict. Oppression England the judges can be cannot. Their promotion government. Sullivan the the

a

aris-

nothing

they

according countrymen.

their

of

tried

by

to

conqueror you must he says:

not

tried

and

impairing

know

prisonérs

once pleaded were tried

jury

and

upon

tried

the

Fenians

a

by

arrested

them where

insulting

the but

without

Irsh

leave

than

of grant

the

them that

will

found

Naples

think

we

remind

to life

security

laws!53

but

landed

dangerous

correspond?

and

own

her

empire, they must

has

to give

integrity of the empire. endangered by the English

are

the

affairs,

old English statement:

the

makes

165

GOVERNMENT

determined

property

that

be

In

are

maintain

tocracy. Canada the integrity of their

BRITISH

they

and and

Life

THE

OF

jury

country

of

notorious the is

that

squires the

Irish

1s

he

juries

castle whose bread depends always a lawful custom. In

independent,

depends

upon

prosecutor

has

in

Ireland

how been

they made

they

serve

the

master

of

rolls. To

the

Ancient

Order

Foresters

of

in

Dublin

he

answered

not aware that he had given a pledge that Ireland to be governed according to Irish ideas.!°4 And after all he comes to Guild-Hall and complains that he is inade-

that

was

he

was this

quate for the task. The upshot is broken

up;

broken

with

Ireland it.*

is to

They

ing

him *

This

Book.—Ed.

have

a

they the

that all the tenant right meetings are want the prisoners [released]. They have clerical party. They now demand that

govern

herself.

resolved

member

of

sentence

was

to

Moore liberate

Parliament.! inserted

and

Butt

have

O'Donovan

declared

Rossa

by

for

elect-

55

between

the

lines

of

the

Minute

166

KARL

Marx

Cit.

ended

by

proposing

the

MARX

resolution:

following

Resolved,

That

the

in

his

to

letter

d.d.

Mr.

the

Irish

d.d.

O’Shea

1869)

18,

Oct.

Mr.

1869,

release

contained to

and

has

Gladstone

the

for

Mr.

in

Isaac

deliberately

of

his Butt

insulted

nation;

That

he

clogs

to

degrading they

Irish

23,

Oct.

to the Irish demands patriots (in a reply

reply

imprisoned

amnesty

political

the

victims

with

conditions

misgovernment

of

and

alike

the

people

to;

belong

That publicly

having in the teeth of his responsible position and enthusiastically cheered on the American slave-

holders’

rebellion,

people

the

That

whole

That Men’s

by

ousted

Gladstone

the

true the

the his

General

Tory

Council

express manner in

Association

and high-souled their amnesty movement; That of,

this

and

tional

resolution

be

men’s

working

Working

Men’s

to

in

preach

to

the

Insh

reference

to

the

Irish

obedience;

proceedings

are

conquest’

of

steps

passive

of

question

“policy Mr.

doctrine his

amnesty

now

he

with and

genuine

denunciation

fiery rivals

from

the

of

their

which

spirited

carry

people

to

connected

that

Working

the

of

Irish

communicated

in

of

International

the

Association

of

office;

admiration

which

bodies

offspring

all the

with,

Europe

branches

the

and

on

Interna-

the

United

States.

‘The

resolution

published

November-December number

papers.

the

of

of

in:

Collected

Works,

Russian

ed.,

a

International’s

Record

published

Moscow,

in

in

Marx

Vol.

1960

the

speech

and second

16,

Engels,

Printed

according

of

the

book

of

the

First

1868-1870.

The

to

the

General

text Council

International.

Minutes,

Moscow

Karl

THE

[ON

POLICY

WITH

(Record Council From

the

Minutes

General

23

of November

PRISONERS

of the

General

Council

30,

and

GOVERNMENT

IRISH

in Support

the

of

BRITISH

THE

TO

of the Speeches Resolution.

Meetings

THE

OF

RESPECT

Marx

1869)|

I

Marx. I could

Cit.

stone.

Mottershead another, but

Cit.

give

the

question

before

us.

the

meetings

were

quite

which

they

speeches

by

a man

good

Register

as

that

When

didates

the

Irish

spoken

We

comparison I repeat

as

he

might not

as

Political

the

as

reply

as

Irish

I have

writers.

I have

These

the

him

Irish

a

is the

read

killed

war it

abroad,

with

the

because Fenian

in-

1798158 and then to the English. not treated anywhere

with

favourable

prisoners

are

going

to tell other

always

Irish of

of

the

have

and

with

government,

it

Gladstone

has

Times,

the

Saturday

his

opinion

people other

to

of

the

of

the

Continental

that.

the

may

think

and do so still. to release the pnis-

abandoned

sympathy

together. the

us

defended the English are not to be passed

themselves

of

what

Ledru-Rollin!59

resolution

conduct

opposition

be

not know

is

to

resolutions

the

all the Irish canGladstone did nothing

people

compare

political

wants

let

and

was

England.

English

of

same

but

Hungarian

would

that

in

if

It

the

the

commenced

the

the

Mottershead

Cit.

oners,

in

against

at

moved. of

compare

surrection.!57

bad

tour

amnesty,

about

municipalities

cannot

Irish;

with

fault

today

the

adopted

Castlereagh

words

made

electoral

not

I have

so

found

I found

same

the

Cobbett

he

supported.

and

used

spouted

till the

the

but

were

were

which

56

done,.!

you

petitions

civil,

Gladstone

he

and

Gladstone,

The

given a history of Gladhas nothing to do with

has that

Irish

and

bring contend Review,

a

the

review English

with

etc.,

the if

we

168

out

speak

succumb.

was

He he

in

what

for

when

the

to

opposition

responsible low

on

boldly;

an

against

his

declaration,

Cit.

this

to

Odger

not

would

a

make

as

to do

right,

be

the

a

no

had Prime

everything

if

we

way

to

to

concession

Marx

Cit.

ately’,

is

the

Irish

objection Minister

deliberately

.. . .

_

did

so

much

the

the

if the

more

it, but

it

is

people

than

and North

worse

prisoners

to

him

to

have

War

Civil

and

MARX

support

otherwise

the

wanted do

may

might

government

patriotism.

we

side,

he

during

office

the

made

other which

KARL

for

was was his

released, important

Gladstone...

to leave out the word “‘delibermust necessarily be considered .169

II

.

sa id if O d ger’ s s ugges t ions w ere f o llo w e d t he p ut t h emse lv es on a n Eng lis h par t y s t and po int 16 1 T h e y co uld no t d o t h a t T he C o unc il m u s t s h o w t h e Ir is h t ha t t he y u n d ers t oo d t h e q ues t i on and t h e C on t inent t h a t t he y s h o w e d no f a v o ur t o t he B rit is h G o v ern l m u s t t rea t t h e Ir is h lik e t h e E ng lis h w o u l d ment T he C o u nc i t rea t t h e P o lis h C it M a rx C o u nc i l w oul d

, ., , ,.

in : M arx

Publ i s hed C ol l ec t e d

Russ i an M osc o w

T he First

W or k s

ed

Vol

1 96 0

second

a nd

International Moscow

,

16 in

l G enera l C o unc i

Minutes,

E nge ls

an d

t he

b oo k

of t h e

1868-1870.

=

-

~

according t o t h e t e x t

— — P r in t e d

. . ,

of the

b oo k

of t he

Firs t

-

8 68 1 87 0 1

M osco w

T he

l G enera l C o unc i

I nt erna t iona l

nut es Mi

Karl

[IRELAND

FROM THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION TO THE UNION OF 1801 EXTRACTS AND NOTES]!62

1778

I, FROM

A)

The class,

The

the

faith

Ill,

for

movement

the

English

generally.

although conquered, remained of the king up to the peace Britain,

Great

working

France,

and

Ireland,

a separate

and Amiens:163

of

defender

of

the

etc.”’

The Dublin

on

appelate the

mn

regard to with a view

English usurpations principally calculated

monopoly, in

of

1782

before

question

working-class

King

INDEPENDENCE

Parliament

the

of

Until 1800 Ireland, federate kingdom. Title “George

1782.

TO

Irish

importance

and

Marx

one

the

jurisdiction last

hand,

in

to

instance

be

on

and,

regard

to

Parliament at to the mercantile the other, to have the titles of landed estates

the

at

decided

the

London,

only

in

English

courts.

POYNINGS’

A Statute of Edward Poynings, law

whatever,

could

be

Lieutenant

who

British

power then

pass

in

the

discussed, Ireland

of

64

Henry VII, framed by his Attomey General, restrained the Irish Parliament from originating

either

finally

LAW!

and

Lords it his

was Privy

or

Commons.

previously

for

Council,

at their pleasure reject tt, or transmit Attommey General and Privy Council were

might

to

either

return

it

suppress to

Ireland,

it altogether,

with

or

model

permission

it into law. Already Molyneux century). Later, in the 18th century,

etc. Swift

any

Before

to

submitted

to

their

it

Sir

any

statute the

Lord

consideration,

to England. invested with

The and

the

it at

their

own

the

Irish

Parliament

protested against and Dr. Lucas.

will,

this

to

(17th

170

KARL

6, GEORGE

STATUTE

(It

declared

British

instrument

I,

an

decree

to

and

disturb,

rendered

English

nobility.

(This

was

Many

British of

interested

estates.

“and

in which

mere

consequently,

she

the

lst

legislation

the

of

the

or

bad

titles

Irish

property,

or

by

a vote

through

whose

Britain

Union!

encouraged

George

to

for

legislate

and

whereby

which

would

the

British

of of

might

the

be

Scotch

) this

influence

enacted, had themselves been deeply to secure their own grants of Irish of this law England assumed a despotic

measure,

clause

success

the

Lords,

courts,

Commoners,

been

altogether,

British

declared her inherent right to bind should be expressly designated.”

was

It

and,

a

to

Commons

superior

estates

Great

by

that

effecting

to

Irish

Irish

in

and

I had

George in

Irish

questionable

to

re-enacted

Under

power

the

abortive

Peers

the

the

of

absentees!®®

or

Statute

of

nations,

jurtsdiction

judgment

or

or

reversed

House

both

of

neutralise

appellant

and

affect

adventures

to

Statute,

establish

tend

the

of

)

Irish

Council

supremacy

Cabinet.

George

every

Privy

the

1165

legislative

Ireland.

reduced

the

of

British

to

law

the

fact

over

Parliament

Poynings’ the

in

MARX

that

of

III and

America.

vicious

his

cost

by

precedent

British

This

Ireland

Parliament

them

the

every

Statute

which

to

had

attempt

North-American

colonies.

CENERAL

IN

THE

CHARACTER

EIGHTEENTH

Protestant

THE

OF

the

Parliament

of

the

Conquerors.

in

to

the

British

themselves

Irish

people.

rigorously

were

As

more

The by

carried

from

Parliament

ruining

on

by

mere

Irish the

the

UPHEAVING

electors. instrument,

They Catholic

against

Code

Only

that

A

Government.

against

Penal

legislature

principally the

despotism

enforced.

made

mercial of

by

THE

Protestants

Only

serf

relation

UNTIL

CENTURY

Parliament.

PARLIAMENT

IRISH

In

fact

a mere

compensated

mass

of

the

Catholics!67 was time some efforts the English comand commerce, then Scotch-English part

the time to to resist

industry

Protestant,

population.

to will

the internal be said by and

composition by.

of

this

Parhament

etc.

I R E LA ND

new

A

state

Independence

things

of

and

the

B)

*

RELAXATION

proclaimed

War

6

1778: of

the

of

American

to

support

Catholics,

a

Irish,

who

relaxation

1778: Penal

CATHOLICS

of

Independence

the

Constitution

France,

was

Republic the

Americans,

by

which

the

recognised

and

until

had

by

the

they

under

the

the

long

Penal

time

side

had

States

of

in

moved

Code

from

United

other

events

American

Presbyterians

on

a

the

Insh

to

was

“What

take

stitution

which

brethren

shared

gratitude to relapse

to

In

united

the

vain again

in

Ulster, banners

Atlantic.

supplicated in

1776,

in

had the

been danger

manuscript

marked

“‘A”’

lost

severity

obliterated,

of

the

Catholics

(1792,

in

even

of

of

by

the

a

debate

partial

on

union

Catholic

with

two bodies restored their separation.... Your the

that

your con-

Catholic

of the conflict, but you had not justice or the fruits of the victory. You suffered them imsignificance and depression. And, let me

this and

were

the

of land.

efforts

let them share into their former

the is

leases

consequence

the

relaxed

features

afterwards

The

countrymen?

Parliament

worst

its

Code,

Curran said Emancipation):

*

priar

AGAINST

with

mainly

for

of

the

allowed

section

War

tones.

louder

were

CODE

produced

to America, enrol against England

The

England.

English.

emigrate

fight

of

Amenca.

the

Many

and

War

Republic.

and

Ireland.

for

American Ireland

Treaties

fermentation

Great

upon

proclaims

American

promised

rid

PENAL

England

February,

France

on

American

Independence

Congress

the

of

between

independence

got

THE

the

States) Declaration Congress, 4 July, 1776.

1777:

(American)

the

of

Legislative

OF

with

171

1801

OF

(United by

April

Effects

UNI ON

TO

it brought

Independence

to

American

opened

disasters

First

of

A)

ON R EV O LUT I

A M ERI CA N

F RO M

section the

is

following

marked

II, though

“‘C’’.—-Ed.

the

preceding

172

KARL

ask

you,

ask

you

if

feet

of

the

has

not fared Parliament

it

the

British

Parliament?

you

of

Ireland

Minister,

can at

than

boast

that

your

to

according

deserts?

now

being

of

period

was

it

Let

me

at

the

less the

of

British

”’

you

“But

with

MARX

to

affect

think

your

property

in

danger,

by

admitting

them into the state.... Thirteen years ago you expressed the same fears, yet you made the experiment; you opened the door to landed property, and the fact has shown the fear to be without foundation.”+68 Then

on

Protestant

testant

Ascendancy.169 in

Church

The

main

measure

on

the

Minister

and

their

b)THE

part

of absentees.

the

for

or

4

as

supplicated

In

was

etc.

sidered

by

This

the

steady

were

Commons,

Pro-

the

seen.

have]

the In

of

every

had

to in

the

both

MOVEMENT.

Penal

proclaimed

their

year

Irish

same

the

demanded

the

division

of

Lords,

ENGLAND

Americans In

the

transferred

FREE-TRADE

OF

useful

adherents in

THE

CONCESSIONS

and

proxies

ORGANISATION.

a

relaxation

1777

proclaimed.

vances

Their

at

[we for)

April

Always

being.

Independence.

of

Catholics,

the

1776

July,

Declaration

the

of

innovation

and

FIRST

On

property

the

im a letter, phalanx.

card formed

VOLUNTEER

time in

influence

a

and

every

to

opposition

the

Minister on Houses they

Tithes

Ireland.

(they

the had

before

redress.

Code,

Constitution of the American Republic 1778 first redress of the Catholic grie-

enabled

English

the

as

their

/rish

Protestants,

gaolers

and

till

bailiffs,

now to

con-

move.

To understand the movement from 1779-1782 (Legislatwe Independence) it becomes necessary briefly to allude to the state in which England found herself. In June 1778 commenced the war between England and France. In 1780 France sent not only, as she Had done till then, money subsidies and men-of-war to America, but also an auxiliary army. (6,000 men under the Marquis of Rochambeau.) The French army landed on 10 July, 1780 in Rhode Island, surrendered to him by the English. In September 1780 the English colonel Ferguson was defeated in the West of North Carolina. 19 October, 1781, Cornwallis (General) included

by

Washington

in

York

Town

(Virginia)

had

to

IRELAND

FROM

capitulate.

AMERICAN

REVOLUTION

men,

(5-6,000

many

TO

UNION

English

1801

OF

173

were

etc.

men-of-war

captured. )

27

1778,

July,

sea-battle

Summer 1779: United States and

one.

The

and

only

the

saved

1780

In much

26

and

and

5

August,

His

not

1779. invasion

great

A

part

testantism

of

have

supposed,

associations,

self-raised

of

the

*

this

the

history

Charles

of

the

destruc-

the

sea,

but

neutral

lost

maritime

it will this

III.—Ed.

was

the

the

be

and

Peace

Treaty

navy

consist-

French

English

coast

Spanish

navy.

and

Volunteers—the

partly

for In

less

the

island

armed

defence time

commencement of

an

ungarnsoned,

left

threatened,

united

surface

patriot

Undecided.

Sea.

army

English

/1!—arose, from

of

place,

June,

OX

Ireland

from than

these

of

was

Pro-

the

could armed

covered

with

soldiers.

x

At

in

from

Preliminary

self-vindication.

whole

host

French Spanish

all

North

France

by

for

the

the

the

of

by

Ireland!

partly

been

the and

on

invites

*

circumstances

foreigner,

a

to

ally

England.

1779

In

menaced

these

French

1779)

at Paris

and

Ireland

of

(Plymouth) Under

as

coast

English the

defeated

in

1782,

States

Inshmen.

of

at

Neutrality.1/9 England pounces upon 1782, naval battle between the English

*

ed

English

ships.

Russia

at Doggersbank,

United

the

amongst (August

was

30 November,

between

Spazin* accedes navy united with

mercantile

1780,

Armed

Dutch, On

and

arsenals.

England

to

Holland. and

French

of

assailed

fleets

February,

powers

France.

Plymouth

money

in

King

dissension

its wharfs

of

The

hostile

Admirals tion

between

Undecided.

Quessant.

*

*

interesting

Volunteer

force,

to

anticipate because,

the in

whole

fact,

it

ts

174

KARL

the

history

the

one

tional merely

to

Ireland

of

hand, the movement, national

character

1800,

1.e.

the

merged

on

the

and

constitu-

stripped

a

into

other

its

off

truly

revolu-

the

British

hand,

secret

intrigue for brutal force intended succeeding in bringing about the Union

annihilation

an

mto

transformation

them,

on

1795,

since

national

by

and

and,

Government changed to bring about, and of

when,

popular,

represented

movement,

tionary

moment

the

general

MARX

out

as a

Ireland

of

way

nation,

country

of

the

Volunteer

and

its

district

of

England.

are

There

four

I Period.

of

the

1779

to

1783:

From

Volunteers, vital

periods

the

elements

armed

labourers.

farmers,

Their

commercial

and

Jealousy

England

of

Emancipation

as one

tion!

Their

give

official.

new

them of

the The

Irish.

as

a

bodies

as

(minority)

element

and the

of

the

of

the

popular

French

to

the

Revolution

power

their

in

Rotunda, treason of

Irish

House

them

(October) from without

of

Commons,

national of

reactionary element

pushes

of

victory. exalt them.

The

the

ones)

own

Reform.

by

the

of

into

the

upon the and as armed

Irish

1791

House House

(commercial

of

ruin,

Whig,

Dublin

and

force

thcir

of

in the

them

of

pressure

especially

support

popular

The

1783

From

germ

England

of

aristocratic

apogee

The

assembled

Parliamentary their

Catholic Resurrec-

claim as their Irish Commons

them.

disavowal

important

Parliament,

drew,

the

breaks

II Period.

in

National

and

disasters

the

bigot,

victories

first

delegates for

and

chief

Commons background.

tee.

enroll

their

Convention

Still

also

week,

they justly thanks by the

of

when

their

The

lay

the

mercantile

National

of

the

from

Then

Parliament

and

Commons

votes

1783,

but

a

to

them

them.

all

merchants,

mere

the

conditions

organisation

Charlemont.

Catholic

the

embrace

emancipation

around

of

the

of

strength,

subordinating

Earl

thrown

Reform

Ireland,

which

the

formation

gentlemen,

object,

fetters

had

Then

first

of

noblemen,

first

industrial

Independence.

its

Protestantism

all classes,

of

In

movement.

and

reforming

Opposition

The

aristocratic

Commons.

part

of

and

the

middle-class

with-

prevailing. (1789)

finds

both

the

Catholic

Commit-

FR O M

I RELA ND

(principally

composed

and the

Club172

Whig

ON R EV O L UT I

A M ERI CAN

of

ON UN I

TO

175

18 0 1

OF

noblemen)

Catholic

(Reformers) and

feeble

dispirited.

was

There

the

strength A

a

In

stamp,

his

of And

in

testant

Party,

tion

which

the

French

of

the

Union*

in

the

of

In

wrongs with

the

Now

called:

and

or

a

argument and

in

failing

wrote

received

half

pack

of

restore

Catholics,

he

“An

Whig,”

corrup-

a

and

of

Regency

to push

wife

these,

republic.

Northern

a

of

think

the

coach-maker

half

with

to

Pro-

to

them,

zn on behalf of every mark pamphlet

clients.

1791,

October,

a

by

new

ever.

a

headed

by

began

than

and

dread.

soon

began fearful

aman,

emancipation,

his

from

of

Lords

merchant,

etc.,

harder

and

Commons,

Ireland,

of

Catholics

gratitude

and

Catholic

slavish

Revolution, of

the

independent

Catholic

but

barrister,

redress

the

an

country

his

son

the

briefless

to

resolved

representation

of

Tone,

and

in

McCracken

rendered

by

Wolfe

or

sagacious

flying

Reform,

desperate

children,

the

Russel,

principles

poor

orgqnisation,

orators

rough,

nobles

the

a

favour

a strong, Catholic

advocated government

The

Theobald

make

the

and

and

farmer,

from

Neilson,

Belfast,

Volunteer

1790. Whig Club

until

public.

Keogh,

sent

Republicanism.

dispute,

the

the

of

Party

men

of

to act on Dublin, John

began

men

decline

Liberal

race

different

now

steady

the

of

in

he

Belfast

the

first

United

of

the

Volunteers

founded

Irish

Society.

From

merges

this

into

moment, that of the

tion

became that longer to remove middle

vast

classes,

part

matter,

II recall

* The

people.

The

the

question political

The

The the

from

emancipate

French

was

upper

Catholic

peasant,

Irish

became

social

as

principles,

ques-

Catholic

question

to

no and

for

the

as

to

its

form,

its

national.

1791

From

Fitzwilliam.

movement

the

of

to

(October)

1795

(After

the

that

the

) Volunteers

merged

into

of

Irishmen.

Probably

a

Speeches

John

principles

to

Catholic.

of Lord

The

Irish

disabilities

but

Period.

United

the

of

assumed

remained

movement United Irishmen. the

of

slip

of

the

Davies

disunion”’.—Ed.

pen;

in

writes:

his

introduction

“to

push

to

Curran’s

corruption

and

book the

176

. ,, . , un t il

Pu blic

,

t he go v e mmen t meas ures t o t he num bers in i ncrease d I ri s hmen Uni t ed t h e ir t ore t o res b egan unteer C orps and t h e V ol

T he

d ence in conf i t h e ir disc ip line v e and impro

i cs Ca t ho l

arra y

MARX

by

f orce d

w hen

1794

secre t

b ec ome

KARL

o f t heir ac t ion:

A cme 15

1793:

February,

resolutions

in

permanent

A

favour

Volunteer

The

Committee.

Bill

Relief

at

Convention

Emancipation

of

and

and

was

1793

Apri

of

Dungannon,

Reform,

passed

a

named

carried

by

this

pressure.

But now, the movement; pitched into

the

Secret

tocratic

and

laws

Alten

Act—the

vention

Militia,

Acts,

Parliament,

The recall

in

had

United

IV

retum

this

high

first

provincial

and

Dublin

were

prohibited

by

mto

calmness

and

be gaining assumed a

a

Acts

were

statute

The

by

organisation.

The

force.

merged

into

the

under

assisted they

Volunteer Parliament

Armed

North

First

this

against

cry first. arms im

forwarding

themselves patriotism

at (Ulster)

Associations,

in the

bearing in

the Irish

of the

Protestants. from

their

relaxation

same

to

of

strongest

rallied

which and

the

development the

zealously

passed

1795.

Only

farmers

they

associations

friends,

local,

the Con-

Bill.

decision

pression.

(Leinster).

Protestant

Their

popular

and

sion.

However,

the and

whole

and and

Movement

since

to

the

1793,

Gunpowder

a secret

the

arts-

the

and

March,

was

Relief

became

Volunteer

1779-83,

11

coercion

of

Catholic

left

movement

now

We

the

only

The

revolutionary

Movement,

code

full

(merging

yeomen.

drilling,

on

passed

the

from

Irishmen)

Correspondence,

Irishmen

Period.

under

a

passed

Fitzwilliam

of

United

societies,

were

secede

Volunteers

middle-class

military

Foreign

fact,

that

the

of

Volunteers

classes

ci-devant

bigottedly

against

the

of

the

Societies

stupidly,

Coercive

machinery

higher

Catholic against

had

no

gained

Inva-

Catholics

Ireland.

those

very

admission. them

many

intolerance appeared rapidly to was not until the Volunteers had

of

ground, but it deliberative capacity,

that

the

necessity

of uniting

IRELAND

FROM

object

first

against

of

invasion—was

an

industrially, the

REVOLUTION

TO

UNION

population of the country became distinctly obvious.

the whole pendency The

AMERICAN

Insh

Volunteers—after

to

free

themselves

then

almost

although

by

observed,

legislate

had,

in

and

the

that

Ireland,

by

the

dissimulation

fact,

for

its

very

interfere

with

the

and

hands

a

nature

ment

the

of

was

Parliament,

a

quence

the

of

national

concerns

altogether

might

The

might

be

hence

Council;

suppressed

the

determined

they

manageher own

the

Ireland,

by

Great

Britain,

be

the

might

unless

conse-

probable

legislative encouragement. spirit; the measures of the by an act of the Privy

successful industry and peers [showed] no public

of

Commons

commerce

as

far

have

supporters,

its

because

to

immaterial

rivalship

might

of her

so

of

authonty

of

it of

restraint

England;

of

local

commercial

ingenuity

manufactures,

interests

merely

assumption colouring

or

object

of her

the

British

whatever

real

suppression

where

this

for

received

co-operation

the

of

whole

necessary.

people

moment

The the

(the

instances

suspended,

ists

of

the

Irish

[the

in

the

armed

she

had

that]

fact

others

prohibited,

inundated

own;

a

to destroy

England

force

the

Irish

combination

Irish

the

of

by

manufacture

in some exporta-

the

markets

with

great capitalinundation of

market.

Hence

the

Insh

non-consumption by excluding not

any measure

British

it

quicker

of

flew

and

her

of

and

favourable.

manufactures,

species

England

of

notwithstanding

of Insh

every

distress

was

Volunteers)

England, tion

defence

r was

It

of

the

in

interest.

to

inde-

of

mercantilely

wholly

its

177

cause

the

the

interest

Protestants,

in

1801

OF

agreement only

than

the

the

every

soldier.

Self-formed,

Crown,

no

independent connexion

their

own

non-importation

throughout in

the but

Ireland.

than

wind

Volunteer

a

adopt

zmportation,

proposed,

almost

appointed

the

manufacture

publicly

Meanwhile

to

resolved

throughout

no

self-governed,

whatever officers

with

etc.

sooner

was

universally

organisation Protestant

whole kngdom, consumption

the

No

was

it

the

enrolled

whole at

as

commissions the

this

adopted;

nation.

spread;

Yet

and

length

a

patriot from

Government,

subordination

the they

was

178

KARL

complete. but

the

an

had

required not

it

did

arms in

Important ranks.

these

House

the

head

occasion;

the

Irish

Robert

Sir

beseech

but

Your

we

are

who

became

etc.

noblemen

1779-80.

Deane,

all

of

a

After

)* in the moved in moved

Grattan

of

our

of

Your

Irish

trade,

country

Mr.

Majesty’s

subjects

Hussey

Attorney

Burgh, moved

General) it

‘That

not

is

by

movement. in

confidence

Although attention

was

state

of

that

with

his

usual

Lord

even called

country,

the

on

is

open

the

present

and

calamity,

our

and

with

the

the

un-

that

the

manufacturers

are

hopeless wretchedness; trade of this miserable

a

export

free

trade,

and

birthright.”

Prime following

Sergeant (above amendment:

expedients,

that

this

nation

the now

is

to

74

nghtly

It greatly

this

increased

success

unexpected

both

the

numbers

and

associations.

in

both

to

Houses

the

Lord

Irish North

superciliousness

Buckingham

it

you

such

hand with the expiring

the

rmuin.”!

Volunteer

in

the

Unanimously carried. The Volunteers attributed

to their

decayed,

that

absentees,

caused

is to natural

temporary

impending

from

their

supply

have

has

dominions,

enjoy

to

drain

our

of

to believe, to approach

Majesty

constrained

constant

the

support

your

*

20,000

association

familiar

Parliament

dying for want: famine stalks hand and the only means left to support

Ed.

corps

and,

men

Americans

the Lord Lieutenant (Harcourt? and the usual adulatory address

prohibition

saved

demand;

of

reluctance

fortunate

be

their

the the

of

the

Government;

refuse

against

States

movement

by

we

‘That

part let

the

by

amendment:

following

natural

At

the

of

Commons

utmost

rendered supply

sufficient

circumstances:

speech of Lords,

frivolous

the

United

this

Sessions

themselves;

eye, handed out to the Volunteers from the Castle of Dublin.!’3 Many

the

in

to

safe

by

numbers

to

think

sergeants.

drill

Under

their

of

they

served

their

increase

procure a arms from

averted

of

provided

first

unable

Government

with

at

length

purchase;

stands

were

extraordinary

at

them

arms

Their

MARX

was

Lord

and

of

the

distress

and

treated

the

frivolity.

Lieutenant

British

of

Parliament

the

dangerous

whole

Nothing Ireland

at

[matter]

was

done.

the

time.—

IRELAND

FROM

The

AMERICAN

REVOLUTION

non-importation

now

became

general

and

in

TO

UNION

1801

OF

movement

non-consumption

Ireland.

At

a

length,

179

general

meeting

was

convened by the High Shenff of the city of Dublin, and resolutions then entered into by the whole metropolis, which finally

at

and

length

longer

to to

resolved

William,

Duke

measure of every

of

rank

seduce

the

popular

[their their

for

Volunteers

to

society.

Secret

of

soldier

his

from

officers

Ireland ‘These The

resolutions

Volunteers

organisation],

the

of

or

command

chose

was the first army composed

regular

efforts

of

This

Chief.

a

form officers,

the

from

that

strictness.

consolidate

measure, would no

judicious

domination.

and

Leinster,

of

the

and

vigour

that

Britain,

Great

msult

with

enforced

Dublin

consummated

convinced

submit

were

and

confirmed

to

detach

the

of

to most

Government

the

in

soldiers—all

vain! The mand of of

appointment of the Duke the Dublin Volunteers, was

other

cial

district

generals;

was

regularly

armies

appointed

the

the

armies

other

Provincial

Earl

[was

now

Affairs

commerce

the

people,

trade’ of

the

was

the

Nation;

the

parade,

commanded

the mouths tton.”’ Lord

of

adopted;

December,

1781.

and

army

commander-in-chief,

in

their

organisation.

everything

movement.

provin-

four

Ulster

a

Soon

assumed General

the Com-

the first

most

object

watchword Dublin by

their

the

freedom

the

ideas

solicitude.

Artillery

Napper

repealing

Now all

“Free

the

to

Volunteers,

Volunteer

cannon:

crisis;

familiar

of of

James

a

towards

fast

subject

Tandy,

these the

Acts

Trade

“‘A

and

free

the

appeared with

of

labels

cry on on

or

Speedy RevoluNorth got now frightened. America was already lost. On 24th November, 1781, a speech from the throne wherein he [the king] called the immediate attention of his British Parlament to the situation of Ireland. Now in hot haste these blockheads acceded to the Irish claims. The British Parliament met on the 25 November, and the first Bills of concessions received the royal assent on the 21 distinctly

their

its

of

The

that

appointed}.

the

became

with.

rapidly

approached

being

organisation

Charlemont

were

mander-in-Chief

of

of

systematic

of

the

proceeded

proceeded

reviews

appearance

and

com-

Leinster to the quickly followed by of

dunderheads which

their

passed predecessors

Bills, had

180

KARL

declared

absolutely

England

the

from

were

Messages the

of

hberality

North

the then

thus

endeavouring

at

which, and

wear

to

length

“Free

was

fuss

Britain.

made

Meanwhile

1782,

by

continuing

from

time

to time, country,

in

favour

the

that

of

to

now and

session.

the

duplicity

to

purported

the

of

extend

proceed-

to

benefits

paramount authority of Great Bniits acts of concession into declaratory supremacy. Fourteen Irish Counties at

the

to

the

fortunes,

Irish.

much

Great

of

year

perceived

own

its

of

the

of

prosperity

affairs

out

they

the

Ireland, of

resolution

while

avowed

to

over the on Irish

converted

Statutes

of

justice

asserted

Ireland?!,

once

and

a

passing

Ireland

tain,

over

Committee

and

industry

sent

pass

to

tried

open

ings

dangerous

secure

to

essential

MARX

at

establish,

independence

was

Trade’

the

the

of

now

risk

their

of

Irish

lives

Legislature.

accompanied

with

and

cry

The

that

“‘Free

ofa

Parliament”.

pass

The with

Army

British

loyalty

fidelity

Ireland,

corporate

the

into

by

body,

those

been

army,

as

an

regulations

of

people.

under

the

revenue

became

every

almost

that

enacted

or the aware

authority

they

the

of

by

the

the

Judges

control

Crown,

no

King,

the

army Parlia-

Resolutions

corps,

and

every

obey

any

laws,

longer

Lords

its

of

this.

of

military

would

to

speech),

perpetual mutiny bill,1}’5 enabled to command at all times a standing

Volunteers

entered

the

of

hereditary

the

(in his

Volunteer

had

without

The

the

Ireland

a

of

and

throne

and

Government

ment.

save

on

in

aid

the

from

eulogiums

Statute,

the

were

the

of

British

in

forced,

unqualified

expression

a

was

III

George

and

of

Commons

Ireland. The

salaries

to

sufficient offices

remove at

his

people, The

years,

only

keep during

at

them control. the

the

pleasure:

all

Irish

justice,

questions

between

purity

of

the

was

Parliament,

superintendence Council

his

the

then

them above want, and they the will of the British Minister, all

in

were

Ireland

of

In

Irish

and

of

judge

at

this

Attorney

their

proceedings

of

alteration

and

met

rejection

General

and of

their

held who

their might

therefore, Crown

consequently

period,

British

the

barely

but

was

in the

and

was the

suspected.

once

in

vested British

Statutes.

two the Privy

IRELAND

9

FROM

AMERICAN

1781.

OCTOBER,

opened,

speech

of

the

(House

of

Mr.

O’Nedl

the

Volunteers

Ireland,

corps

within

This

be

the

supremacy

tion

and

the

of

of

of

UNION

and

be

the

down

Volunteers,

to

“‘all

It

was

to

the

continuance’’.

circulated

sheriffs

the

and

Britain,

self-armed,

passed,

throughout

the

of

all

counties

r

brought

of

Parliament

to His Majesty resolution of thanks

a

to by

181

Irish

Commons.

exertions

directed

1801

OF

address

bailiwicks.

resolution

feet

their

for

communicated

their

the

House

etc., after Commons) moved

voted, to

and

Irish

TO

Viceroy

Ireland,

of

unanimously

REVOLUTION

raised

a

by

British the

direct

Volunteers

Parliamentary

and

self-governed,

to

Government

above approbaassocia-

self-disciplined

tions.

These whole

Volunteers

regular

Portugal Ireland

been

to

factures

improve

Ministers) happened

The

liberty

statutes.

she Irish

Portuguese

all her

enemies.”

The

House

Now

the

nection

almost

British

had

been

previously tried

manufacturers

(under

motion calling that

orders

to

exclusive

to

British

merchandise the Irish

Fitzgibbon, the King

kingdom,

“by

Sir

as

(this House

Luctius King of

hostility

with

(Ireland)

and

in only

the

to pass it. country, that

has

astonish

courage

the

was

the

to

upon

of

explicitly

of

not that Nation maintain all her rights,

heard]

England the

a

and

immediately

doubt

“We

have

[was

Legislature,

This

federatwe.

consideration

of

the

con-

their

engrossed

armed

associa-

Ireland.

of

protection

of

Corpus

Repeal

of

Volunteers

and

the Engltsh corporate

meetings

a

in

February,

1782,

Grievances.

Statute bodies

personal

liberty

in

Ireland:

No

general agreed

the

armed

delegates assembly.

upon

of 6, George I asked by the armed etc. Catholic bodies now also entered by

officered

of

appointed

first

province,

for

Act.17?

army,

Volunteer

deliberative Ulster

not

did

the

Emprre. the

of

Ministry

sufficient

cry

with

Want

of

with:

resources

and

the

British

number

export her linen and woollen manuto the provistons of the Treaty of

agreeable

concluding

vigour

Habeas

the

in

peremptorily refused, and seized the Irish in 1782). Petition of the Dublin merchants

Portugal’?

tions

exceeded

resolutions

to

of Commons. In opposition to O’Brien moved an amendment, Ireland, to assert the rights of

now

time

of

the

which

express

this.

force

By

from

by

this

admitted

ePortugal,

Methuen,1"®

prohibited

military

Affatr:

had

by

the

Protestants.

Volunteers. to The

declare

Regular

The the

Convention

celebrated

and

armed

sentiments

at

Declaration

public

associations of

their

Dungannon,

15

Rights

and

of

182

KARL

were

They voice

AT

propriety

million

THE

DECLARATION

it

has

citizen,

by

or

learning

a

That

that

the

delay

be

no

prevail;

decided

ances

.

may

in

unalterable

redress,

as

our

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Irishmen, the

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birth,

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to

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Peer

Fitzgerald)

and

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Emancipation).

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the

to

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of

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committee

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resolutions;

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relaxation

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and

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be

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Kingdoms,

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perfect

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committee

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rejoice

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Catholic

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icate

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determination

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unanimously:

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jealousy

Protestants,

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Poynings,

Ireland,

excite

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itself

speedy

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Ireland,

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men, other than the King, Lords, to bind thts Kingdom, is uncon-

judges

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laws the

law

by

1782

FEBRUARY,

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power

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THE

OF

soldiers,

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CONVENTION,

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and Commons of Stitutional, tllegal, that

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inhabitants

DUNGANNON

debate

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25,000

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THE

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MARX

Dungannon

resolutions

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people whole

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IRELAND

FROM

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.

, ,, biennia l

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T he i r

REVOLUTION

TO

UNION

1801

OF

183

t h e ir

c onseq u ent ly

and

gra n t s t o G o v ernme nt w ere f or t w o y ears a t once ; and t ill more mo ne y w as req uire d t h e ir le g is la t iv e [po w er ] w as inac t iv e T hey no w d e t erm ine d on grant ing s upp lies t o t he C ro w n f o r 6 mon t h s on l y asa hint t ha t t he y w o u ld grant no es more t ill t he ir grie v anc w ere re d resse d ; t his h a d it s e f f ec t T he proc ee d i ngs o f t h e V o lu n t eers and m u n ic ipa l b o d ies b ec a m e e v ery d a y more serio us a nd d ec is iv e t he t one in t he H o u se o f C ommo ns more me na c i ng t i ca bl e It w as i mpra c t o proc ee d w it h L or d N or t h an y longer A b o ut A pril 178 2 t h e M a rq u is o f R oc k ing ha m ’ s ne t (J ames Fo x Cab i e t c ) [w a s f orme d ] T he D uk e of

.

, . ., ,. . , ,. , , .

P ort l and

nom i na t e d

i n D ub l

14

on t h e

16 t h

A pr il

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178 2

Declarations

of

M ess a ge o f G eorge ng : 178 2 St ati mistrusts

“that

and to

necessary to... a final

order

The

to

mee t

arriv e d

I re land

t he

at

a ment P a rl i

I r is h

Irish

take

the

independence

of

t h e B rit is h P a r liamen t

III t o

jealousies

legislative

had

arisen

same

into

in

Ireland,

and

immediate

18 A pril

that

was

it

consideration,

in

adjustment.”

British

entire

“their

ha d

of

A pr il

C)

highly

Li e u t e na n t

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House

and

concurrence

cheerful

express

in reply:

of Commons in

His

Majesty’s

views

a

final

by

the

of

adjustment”.

same

The Irish

Ministry,

ment

zn

The

to

House

of

that

was

were

repeated,

to the

proposed

Irish

16

of

motion,

1782:

when

Grattan

Mr.

Hely

on

the

weight

into

their

had

to

concerned

amongst

point

Hutchinson

and said, the Lord Lieutenant from the King, importing that

great

same

April,

rose

Majesty, being were prevailing

“His

to procrastinate. Grattan impossible without provoking

wanted

was

this

Commons,

Independence

the

Union

Portland

of

him,

jealousies take

a

adjustment”

Parlia-

1800.

State in Ireland) deliver a message

matters

“final

when

Duke

icated the

words

his

find that loyal subjects

and importance, recommended most serious consideration, in

of

communanarchy. proposing

of

(Secretary

ordered discontents of Ireland, the order

him

to and

upon

House to to effect

184

KARL

such

a final adjustment as might give satisfaction to both kingdoms.” Hutchinson accompanied this message, and his statement of his on

views

the same time, that therefore silent to all

at

simply to deliver the message; he was and pledged the Government to none.

he had details

Ponsonby proposed a short address. Grattan spoke: “America has shed America Is to be free: Ireland has shed her

to

is Ireland Ponsonby’s subjects

of

crown,

but

men and

of

people,

free

connected

English blood

blood,

and

England,

for

very

the

all

the

sort

His

essence

of

people

any

whatever

assure

to

nor

Ireland,

of

any

of

Ireland;

that

the

Crown

of

Ireland

with

the

Crown

of

Great

our

do

which

we as

claim

only

humbly

a

exists,

Ponsonby

the

is

Ireland, object

to do utmost

wished

use on

would

his which

(1799.

birth-right,

on

and

in the

which

most

he

“that

authority

that

we,

which

stated

he

this

in

his

influence

in

obtaining

had

resolutions unanimous their

openly

shortly

on

part

of

firmness

was

matters

resolved

should

verging,

for

defending

life

and

fortune

(This

true

he

their into

man

not

common the

of

scale.”’

the

that

we

willingand of

(Portland) Ireland,

an

a

an

rights

.

in

never

had

final.)

scene

very It

Corps.

not

the

decided

was

abstract

the

virtue

revolution.

patriot;

and

Clonmel,

insignificant

had

Pitt-Castlereagh

Mr.

even

to lord

executing

extremity he

as

1782

determined

villain

he

passed.

this

Lord

were the

be

1799

and

[himself]

to

of

Volunteer

afterwards

proceed should

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achieved

of Great Britain not to be their

“he

this

after

people,

declared

General,

Parliament

if

which

had

Attorney

the

of

and réghts

in

was

Motion

Grattan’s

the

in

England

of

and

delegates,

he

avowed

concession

etc.” the

this part

heart.”

before

Fitzgibbon then

his

fixed

Unanimously

Shortly

power

everything

Portland

considered

were

an

Britain

ly consented [on behalf of Portland] to the proposed amendment, would answer that the noble lord who presided in the Government

the

to his

Parliament

conceive

right

their

any

hath

save

country,

this

that

liberty

Ireland,

of

Parliament

in

Majesty

cannot yield but with our lives.”’ Brownlow seconded. George

of

and

that the Kingdom of Ireland is a distinct kingdom, with a Parliaof her own the sole legislature thereof, that there is no body of competent to make laws to bind the Nation but the King, Lords,

or power right

a

inseparably

Commons

of

are

Ireland

much

own

proposes an Amendment assure His Majesty that

in fetters?”’ etc. He address’, etc. “to

remain “‘short

imperial

ment

own

subject, with a determination to support a declaration of and constitutional “independence’’. Hutchinson declared

the rights”

“Irish

.

MARX

to

Scott, “If

over

it

Ireland, tyranny. That

he

feared they to the fund to throw his

their

which

John declared:

subscriber

determined

school!)

IRELAND

FROM

AMERICAN

on

Immediately

one

England, and

cultivating

entirely

his

tone

siderable The

to

to

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was

Parliament

effectives.

Besides

very

many

simulation} 27

On

of

omit

.

Portland late

were

124,000,

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in

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the

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Majesty

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Britain,

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generosity,

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to limit Accommodation

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to

is

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pledge

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of

etc.”’

up

every

that

she

should

usurped

formerly

our

faith,

afford

you,

reception

be most given it

unaccompanied

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unfeigned

magnanimity

unconditional

wisdom

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obedience

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once:

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in

before

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to

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Britain

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had

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nation,

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fool

.

Majesty

English)

Bills

of

Regulation

Kingdom,

and

to

expressed

Legislative

most

them

of

better

whatever.

disposition,

Government

Parliament

Irish,

pursuant

cordial

disposition

suppression

His

of

(the

declaration

assure

tissue

met,

the

from

gracious

alteration

for

this

as he

the

intentions

Grattan “That

the

Act

corresponding

Ireland,

then

“‘King

be

of

and

first

his

of

forces

condition of

you

and

Maesty’s

or

100,000

of

was

every wish papers which,

testimony

whose

to prevent

Kingdom,

honour

and

to

most

the

army

of

directed

convincing

Majesty

assure

to

benevolent

to

had

of

appeared and

gratify

By

I have

representations

but

duration

any

who

premeditated

House

united

commands,

the

command

tion

opportunity

upwards

English

exercise his Royal Prerogative in such a manner ducive to the welfare of his faithful subjects, has

His

necessity

no

Irish

conduct

Address

Britain,

this

the

for three weeks, to wait Independence. Meanwhile unremitting vigour by the

prorogued

Declaration of continued with

about

satlors

Majesty’s

assent

other,

Administration,

whom

to private

despatches

Charlemont,

his

over

bodies

their

nearly

May,

Parliament

which

Earl in

for

would

185

)

adjournment.

will

the

meanwhile

now

(Portland’s

His

“he

confidence

armed

King’s Reply to and discipline

army,

to

with

place

two the

reasons

the

that

1801

OF

sent off document,

explained

connexion

Volunteer

your

He

conclusion

UNION

influence”’.

for the reviews

ditto

Fox.

in

disposed

a proper

turn, Portland Cabinet as a public

to

Stated

TO

this

the

confidential,

acceding.... of

to

REVOLUTION

of

that

repeal

justice”’

of

be

also

that

affection

to

His

Majesty,

and

we

conceive

the

the

6,

to

claim

George

authority

over

to

make

bound

power.

I

His

Royal

the

move

wisdom

of

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for

an

a measure

of

resolution

I, to

be

you

Person

186

KARL

and

similar

talk,

no

“that longer Sir

constitutional

“I

repeat

own be

it,

that

bind

two

the

nations

any

wil

and

declared

an

that

English

“the

Irish Ditto

statute”.

unequivocally,

no right, power of

an

by

have

Act

to

instance,

English

we

relinquished....

any

in

of

make

Legislation

never

power

assert

the

to

was

the Irish purchase

and

into

fear.

it

to

enact

the

prepared

precipitancy. Ireland

on

was

now

hastily

tion

by

the

the

a

already

carry

to

intoler-

the

capitu-

soon

too

it

demanded

expedition

Parliament

and

and

the

into

Legislature.

This

of

Britain,

Great

qualtfica-

obtained

the

royal

to

the

Irish

transmitted

by

establ-

dependence

or any

repeal

instantly

and

of,

debate,

were, on

Ireland

bordering

eternal

Cabinet

without

communicated

by

nearly

I, declaratory

England,

was

signed

lost.

George

of

copy

and

of

repealed,

British

and

an

consider

Their

frightened.

had

concessions

6th

supremacy

the

now

They

“‘to

committee

should grant, to build a for their deliverer” ({i-e.

estate

already

with

The

an

impossible

was

a

appoint

Parliament

was

Cabinet

America

therefore,

to

proposed

sum

thought

execution.

Viceroy,

declares

had

usurped

as

Bagenal

British

assent,

hand

under

accomplish our independence as a nation.”’ triumphantly carried (only two votes were Fitzpatrick, the secretary, had accelerated the vote by

degenerated

ishing

she

the

us

and address

it.

Bills

England

that

by

and report what suitable mansion Grattan).

Jation,

other

men,

against

The

the

moment

that

until

Ireland,

considered

artifice). Beauchamp

of

between

Walsh:

rights as Grattan’s

ance

on

at

Legislature,

to

laws

sat

actually

David

cast

question

Broadstreet

Samuel

Flood,

can our

in particular

exist”.178

Parliament

her

and

MARX

to

circulars

the

Volunteer

commanders. HI:

Chap.

reign of securing

An

Act,

his late Majesty the dependency

repeal

an

Act

made

in

the

King George I, entitled, An of the Kingdom of Ireland

year

6th

Act

of

the

for the better the Crown of

upon

Britain.

Great

an

‘Whereas, Majesty,

that

Excellent

it

and

assembled,

and

by

this

Act,

things

be

by

therein

the

the

with and

may

etc.,

passed

enacted,

and

temporal,

passing

of

was

Act

may

Majesty,

spiritual

and

to

and

be

it

the

advice

of

the

same,

above-mentioned

contained,

shall

be,

and

your

please by

the

excellent

King’s

Most

consent of the Lords this present Parliament

and in

Commons,

authority

it

enacted,

Act,

that

from

and

the

is, and

are

and

after

several

here by

the

matters

repealed.”

IRELAND

FROM

Irish subject

House

declared

of

that

‘‘the

Mr.

Viceregal

—the

King’s

best

The

Viceroy

emancipated in

any

told,

her

a

in

was,

This

got

Grattan

her

having

ing

to

Irish

House

concession, reward had their

to

any the

through

both

growth Whigs.

of But

a

zeal their

and last

the

severity

to

Great

ever

occurred

of

England,

her

of

House

having

of

horrors,

arrogance.

humbled

Irish

King

for

that

history

and

1795,

in

of

Commons.

was

a most

in

prosperity.

of

impeach

Curran

Westmoreland

for

troops (which, accordremain in Ireland) to be

always for

service.

foreign Fiasco

to the

of

patriotism,

stages

in

the

Reform

Bill

and

ameliorate,

by

partial

were

of

by

Code

concessions the

bigotism

on.

Catholics,

and

Commons,

Those

passed

[though]

the

some

introduced,

House stirring

Penal

and

Catholics,

Opposed

powers

to

the

of

Bills

state

satisfaction

Westmoreland

12,000

the

the

Lord

Ireland

state to

Castle

The

tolerating length

When

opposition. of

Houses.

at

period:

of

depressed

great

(the

House.

Commons:

effective

afforded

this

kingdom

stages,

latter

that

had

from

the

to 1783. (The Volunteers. )

their

for

relaxing still

by

should

of

the

arrived

without

rejected

a part

1782 of the

A) From Great Defeat

seryices

as

whole

intention

stipulation, out of that

drafted

he

grant

the

of

domination

emanating the

behalf

his

the

extraordinary

progressive

an

permitted

.

people intended

Park’”’

on

reward

Ireland,

and

even

suggested

the

Phoenix

artifice

on

from

unexampled

Irish

the

Conolly

1782 (AFTER THE DECLARATION INDEPENDENCE) TO 1795

remark

removed

as

from

Il. FROM OF

was

the

shallow

£50,000

General

of

from

and,

course,

of

to

sentence,

single

the

proposing,

country

Government,

jealousies,

in

Ireland

incident

with

resumed

Thomas

in Ireland.

Grattan

his

was an

Britain,

Palace

Bagenal

a part

felt

187

180!

OF

£100,000.Mr.

as

offer,

Palace

of

to

England,

of

to

UNION

1782.

May,

of Portland

begged

the

Grattan,

30

TO

proposed

Grattan;

Duke

Lieutenant)

REVOLUTION

Commons,

to

reward

of

Lord

AMERICAN

very as

in Bills

however limited, the

first

principle. Grattan still believed in the Fox himself, wearied by a protracted

188

KARL

course the

of the

slow

of

Irish

people,

madequacy

been

on

the

to

state ‘‘that

the

connexion’’,

that

Irish

“‘some

treaty,

which

ments,

and

by

plans

the

when

statute

not

and

nature

that

on,

an

had

would

be

a

might

be

adopted

by

be

permanent before

the

upon,

entered

arrangement

zrrevocable

must

but of

laid

treaty

to,

alluded

alone, basis

and

Parliament,

there

solid

Ireland

heretofore

British

stand

a

by

Ministers,

proceeded become

finally

the

I being

could

of

Irish

that

in

George

adjustment,

final

Parliament

6th

that

of

a

measures

opinions

to

proclaimed

occasion

the

the

confirmed

openly

the

took

of

repeal by

all

He

repeal

accompanied

and

of

adopted.

once

at

deception,

MARX

both

Parlia-

between

the

two

countries”.

By in

was

that

indisputably

mons,

but

19

Even

in

‘that

moved the

of

concerns

all

in

| the

of

Irish

to

Parliament,

external

and

this

of

House

of

Com-

“to

affirm

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leave

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introduction hand,

was

leave

and

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Flood right

other

exclusive

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support

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bring in a to make

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laws

affecting

whatsoever”.

was

Bill

Bill

negatived

without

Grattan!

On the Grattan:

and

the

1782,

the

division. of

feebly

exclusive

country,

that

was

[had

July,

sole

final adjustment duplicity became

proved.

Flood

Still

the

a

speech, the Irish delusion of dissipated, the Viceroy’s

a moment

fully,

to

refused

to

right

externally

been

Parliament

bring

legislate

had

for

been

in

Mr. by

the

in the

irrevocably

cases

all

motion

foolish

bill,

Flood’s

Ireland

asserted

and

finally

passed

because

the

whatsoever,

Parliament

acknowledged

of

by

sole inter-

Ireland, the

and

British

Parliament”

was

(which contrary!) missed

27

“your

of

his

of

office

1782,

July,

proroguing claims

speech

were

to

as

the

councils

of

the

Constitution.

liberty

of

of

Great

that

(For

his

scepticism

by

Parliament

Flood

the

Kingdom

same and

were

spirit could

declared had

the

been

dis-

)

was

prorogued.

amongst

stated

Britain,

had

himself

Vice-Treasurer.

the

Portland directed

ty

the

true).

(Because

from

On

not

other

that

not

influenced

gave

In

the

things:

rise

and

stabili-

fail

of

success,

as soon

by

the

avowed

friends

IRELAND

FROM

the

‘Convince

convinced,

AMERICAN

removed;

that

your

people in

every

that

REVOLUTION

cause

both

several

past

of

countries

them

Convince nected

in

The North

that

unity

of

two

the

pledged

their

an

be

and

are now

unity

Rockingham

of

of

ourselves

ts finally to each adherence to that

good

faith

Britain

Ireland, equally

kingdoms

are y

discontents

inviolable Great

189

has

reposed

engages

your

liberal

and

one,

on

national enlarged.

con-

indissolubly

interests.”

died

(1782).

Fox

and

Lord

Coalition.

Marquis

superseded

by

of Buckingham) Lord,

afterwards

1783).

Temple

credit

Earl

(his

amongst

the

the

his

aristocracy

he

the

of

brother

Mr.,

1782—3

Though

people,

became

he

June,

no

obtained

made

considerable

patriots

(Charlemont,

etc.).

Grattan

The

armed

capacity: More

Volunteers

They

regimental

to

longer

any statute or law theretofore oppose their execution with magistrates

embarassed,

under

the

no

in

was

spelt)

Administration was]

In

the

placeman opposed Protested could

was

House in

by

British of

Ireland,

the Bill against not

them,

causes

could

many

act

of

Cathol-

to be

obeyed,

England,

and

and

The

judges

were on,

proceeded though

Statutes,

them, no important

juries Laws,

Flood

and

the

injudicious

to

fortunes.

the be

the

naming

would find theretofore Grattan,

conduct

the

British nation. of

some

Parliament. (British)

Commons

although

of Concession the Power of against

upon

them

suffer

in

citizens.

always in the majority. The to foster this division of the

wanted

the

to

or

under

plead

as

appeared

lives

British

of

baffled of

their

necessarily suspended. was divided between

(Whig

members

now obey,

deliberative

debated

enacted

legal

counsel would the operation of

Parliament

latter

act

no

authority

Ireland, for them, force,

to

refused

greatly

and

accession

Strong

no

resolved

a

assumed

soldiers

Volunteers

muster-rolls.

They

now

had

as

paraded

150,000

than

(But

later

September,

reforms.

of

(who

Secretary

(15

small

body

Temple

Chief

Grenville)

made

the

from

progress

(He

and

which

1801

OF

as you

districts,

candour of sentiments

constitution,

Marquis

Portland

ics.

and of

UNION

jealousies

have

other, and their best security will compact; that the implicit reliance the honour, generosity, character to a return

TO

the

not to

will

Irish,

Sir

viz.

George

Ireland, and Repeal King and Parliament to of

the

Young

(Sinecure

Vice-treasurer

Ministers.

)

of

pass

of

6,

Ireland)

George I. such bills.

190

KARL

Lord

to

ed

appeal law

notwithstanding

Mansfield,

entertain, the

from

depriving

of had

money

per

cent.

by

the

in

the

Felt

Bench

British

per

5

sums

large that

in

not

appelant jurisdiction transferred to Ireland herself: Lord the

of

and

to

leave

for

to

Abingdon,

King

taken

hence

his

House

dissipated. Now

new

waiting

for

further

Ireland,

they

ANNO

Ch.

XXVIII.

Parliaments

and

Majesty’s

adjudged

said

any

in

Britain.

.

last}

are

Act

etc.

be

it

of

Ireland,

declared

be

that

Kingdom,

decided

appeal

established

and

questioned

or

thence,

any

have

preventing the

or

in

ascertained

secure

appeal

to

questionable.

And

be

it

received

or

adjudged,

*

In

the

further

enacted

or any

that

the

by

laws

twenty-third

.

Majesty’s be,

regnal

and

ever, that

other

of

heard, of

provisions

the

people

said

right

enacted

claimed by

and

no

is

of

thereby

shall, writ

proceeding

year

therein

Courts it

King

at

no

error

of

be

Great

time

or

by

Hts

etc. the

and to have instituted in and

finally,

to

be

hereafter,

be

appeal by

the

Ireland

Majesty

declared

heard

George

His

of

and

of

of

the

and

any

from

Kingdom the

which

rights

bound only by laws enacted by Kingdom, in all cases whatever

only

His for

from

doubts

received,

the

whether

to

enacted...

shall

the

Without

legislation

of

being

Courts

arisen

bound

error

of

from

all

exclusive

matters

in

writ

sufficient

in

Great

amongst

Ministry.

and the Parliament of that Kingdom, in all cases whatever, all actions and suits at law or in equity, which may be without

in

confidence

(1783)

and

Kingdom

Majesty’s

and to

whole

III. REGIS*

the rights claimed by them, to be Majesty and the Parliament of that people

authority

the

ground

TERTIO

Ireland,

that

His

the

remonstrances

concerning

of

doubts

denied

and

Statute:

removing

for

arise,

in

facilities

British courts to part with it.

throughout

peremptory

preventing

of

Whereas

(their

.

for

Courts

additional

totally

British

following

Courts

the

much

VICESSIMO

Act

might

and

judicature;

His

An

or

arisen,

any

All

the

GEORGII

have

gain

arms

of

and the

interest

Ireland.

of

gained

panic

passed

no

in Ireland. Mansfield gain the additional 1

reluctance

paraded.

Flood

people.

The

of

to emancipate Ireland; he moved Bill to re-assert the right of England

to

beat

120,000

above

knew

“he

England

concerns

the

that

from

Lords,

of

an

Westminster,

jurisdiction”’.

to

likely

Declaratory in

vested

I, proceed-

George

at

observing

being

of

Volunteers

kingdom;

Britain

a

in

externally

The

the

Parliament

bring

legislate

in

its

of

6,

of

Bench,!79

England, 6 per cent of Irish mortgages to

were

they

repeal

Ireland,

of

Court

cent

the

King’s

of

Court

King’s

was very

placed

the

MARX

or

II].—Ed.

in

shall

be

any

of

IRELAND

His

FROM

Majesty’s

equity,

in

Courts

instituted

etc.

Ireland

by

AMERICAN

any

in

measure

Mr.

Townshend, the

observation. entered

to

to

patriots.

Irish

had

was

events and borough of

of

the

nominated

House Peers,

representation

money,

and

for

office.

These

executive

One

individuals bidder,

Viceroy

to

the

the

purity its

came their

of

efficiency

were Peers,

the

Peers

of

that

trust,

nominated sold their returned

representatives compose 1/4 of

elected the Irish

.of

determined

to

several

it

uses

for at

by Commons.

demand

a

voted

was

reform

by

purchased

the

was

sold

of

the

purposes

and

had

the

etc.

money,

of facts

Many to the

nomination

that

the

of

again

of

number

the people did The Volunteers

regiments

the

The

Commoners.

appeared

freely

of

constitutionally

Commoners

members

the

individuals

way

this

patronage and

by

Volunteers

nine

Volunteer

members

representation made by servants

The

its

England.

King

the

for

measures.

against

Commons

were

on the neces-

the

of

Irish

security

created

exercise

the

without

in

The

of

Irish

because,

nominated

the

in

among

Many

who

the

discussion

no of

Act

with

conclusion

duplicity

Secretary;

from

was

in

carry

others

The

the

system.!8®

his

Delegates

to

purchases

Peer openly

or

the

prominent

people

Government,

ministers

measure

Parliament

Commons.

and

the

of

for

little

arrangement

Renunciation

Parhament,

Commons

proxy

in

very

consequential

either

of

The

there

Reform,

and

length

of

re-

and

with

mere

as to

enemy. led

own

(borough-mongers)

the

in

Commons

Houses,

and

a

them

Irish

his

rotten

House

best

or

law

Kingdom

of

nations.This

most

Act

their

reform

sifted.

the

constitutional

people

the

become

Grattan

of

both

out

liberties.

Renunciation

instability

its

at

otherwise the Renunciation Act of the Would have been quite unnecessary. They their

comprehensive

Irish

in

19]

suit

House

debate

two

convinced

discredited

Flood

The

or

Courts

British

general the

the It

secure had

the

held

a

of

satisfy

had

to

1801

OF

action

through

England

corruption, British Parliament

sity

any

in

without

between

Parliament.

English

UNION

Majesty’s

into

assent

In

own or

Ireland people. Mr.

His

of

passed

part

into

late

Kingdom,

brought

Royal

declaratory

too

this

TO

etc.

This ceived

REVOLUTION

not at

Parliament. assembled

192

at

KARL

to

Dungannon,

immediate

now.

reform

300 by

10

the

of

of

Derry

and

their

from

Earl

of in

Then

England.

Charlemont

of

Derry,

mont

Flood his

Flood

and

the

on

by the

tt

could

to

question.

a

the

presidency. Parliament

of

withheld

Earl

one

he

the

of

(support-

Bristol,

of in

the

from

jealousy

intrigue

plan

of

Bishop

Convention

side,

reform,

and

Charle-

Flood

till

obeyed

his

the

Mr.

to

directed

and

forthwith,

by

framed

was

Convention,

permanent

made Mr.

the

long

[occurred]

Parliament

were

the

on

magnificent Bishop of

commercial By

was

Rotunda

other.

deliberation, him

the tool.

Bishop

by

Dublin. [The detachments of

for

be

of

at

reform

not

before

the

a

were

sitting

first

The

rivals tf

also] their

collision

and

Convention

decided

A

approved

presented

that

elected

friends

much

After

the

was

arrived.

and

knew

was was

[there

Grattan)

between

the

for

an

them

of

Commons

counties.

were

of

influence

many

the

meeting (vis-a-vis the House of Parliament).

Ireland,

England.

by

and

proclaimed

Charlemont

Ministers

effected

ed

great

[had]

influence,

Lords

respective

their place of the Commons’

British

were

Flood

means

and

National Convention of Ireland arrived there escorted by small

as

chosen dome

expediency

great

of of

corps. 1783 was

November,

Volunteers

The

men

House

different

the Grand delegates]

the

Parliament.

of

delegates,

members chosen

consider

MARX

sittings

be of

Parliament

had

instructions,

and

moved for leave to bring in a Bill of reform of the Parliament. The Government knew that the triumph of the Parliament implied not only the destruction of the Convention, but of the

Volunteers.

Government refused leave to bring in Flood’s Bill, it had originated from their (the Volunteers) deliberations. (Yelverton now Attorney-General.) (Furious speech of Fitzgibbon.) Unprecedentedly violent debate. The

The because

was

Bill

rejected

placemen

and

to

intended Union

never by

Bill

could

Conolly),

Charlemont,

the

very

operate. 1800,

in

have

to

158

by

49;

persons Ditto

158

which,

if

been

passed.

offending

against

suppressing

this

An

158

on

the

of whom

placemen the

address the

news,

the who

Reform

to

had

the

Volunteers, told

the

were

majority reform

carried

was the

succeeded,

King

(moved

carried. Volunteers,

Earl he

IRELAND

had

FROM

a note

received

no

hopes Bill

own

the

was now

door

became

was

a

the

opposite.

the

other

high.

no

die.

the

“The longer

man.

the

theme

a

nor

constitution;

calling

the

realm,

The

Bishop

conclusion “The

herself

your

or

once

3

in

millions I

ts

Tyranny

The the

not

when those

a part

one

Government,

of

and

resolved

events. Many too strong.

ment

language very rapidly

ment

etc.

December

But,

1,

lost

ground.

1783.—Ed.

million

of

a

gentlemen

Allegiance

(too the

The No

is

January,

the

impotent

to

patriots

in all

of

1784): avail

to

better the

dearest

Protestants

Bill to

due

best

the

counterpoise

you

the

our

encroachments,

over

only

idea of military

in

from

aid

divided

of

summon

and

of

be

no

necessarily

foreign

community

Government,

of

can

coadjutors,

encroachments, the

of

Human yourselves,

14

in

engines

united

the

of

must

off

of

Catholics.

are

All

(dated

ward

says

Ireland

virtuous

Ireland

to

force

of

strain

scale

to

the

those of

destitute

For

Bishop’s

*

same

under

Government

progress

.

be

others.

appeal

all

corruption

of

your

and

of

united

dispute

on ran

toleration

bigotry,

interests

rights the

of

Battalion,

come

tyranny

and

liberty, the

internal

acquiesce the

inalienable

can never,

in

now

is whole

more anew

exercise and

her

He quite

Battalion’’,

persuasions.

Lordship

said:

hour of

was

effected

Rights

of

extermination

religious

answered he

Bishop

down.

The

This

the

religious

of

object—the

professions.”

in

and

partisans.

superstition

of

from

and

the

separate.

itself ‘Bill other things:

among

can

civil

The

expected.

diversity

great

side,

the

came,

delegates

Bishop

one

of

to

began

the

the

the

he only

adjourned

went

on

that

sitting;

of

dissolved.

Exclusion

measures,

decided

HE

of

to

ought

Charlemont

Catholics,

clouds

by

residue

left

morning

hour

present.

the

fled

one

Monday

Convention

Government

suffer

promoting

the

the usual

hated

being of

the

secretly

and

gloomy

pursuit

the

which

ulterior

had

popular

A Northern Corps, Address to the Bishop disunion,

On

193

Convention

upon

the

people

mischief

He

1801

OF

Commons,

the

were

When

UNION

of

decide

before

partisans

became

The

to

more.

closed,

bigot,

House

rejected.

Rotunda

sine

TO

decision,

then

be

immediate

Convention

the

speedy

meet

to

the

from

should

should

repaired his

REVOLUTION

till Monday,*

the

they

a

of

adjourn if

AMERICAN

against

Rights

of

consistency—

to

Protection.”’

act)

to

watch

thought

coercing the language to

the

ParliaParlia-

194

KARL

The

people

were

the

Parliament

compact; paralysed, declension.

and

the

weak

and

the

Convention,

to

presented bodies, military,

now

Meetings

of

had

the

as

military

scouted

the

the

were

Volunteers the

Of

Bill,

suspended,

languid

vanity

from

civil the

was

it

was

it

popular.

their

reviews

their

of

be

course,

because

because

rapid

to

Bill

solely

character.

Bill,

a

dissolution

Reform

military

civil

the

after

a

were

Volunteers exhibited

emanating

with

amuse

the

Nation

recommended

rejected

to

continued,

the

of

remained

Government

Charlemont,

Parliament,

who

the

corrupted,

spirit

foolish

unconnected

placemen,

but

was

high

The

of

severed,

MARX

deluded

general.

temperate

The gamed

ground.

blows ground

The

some

for

and

(bourgeois The

1783.

Pitt

From

the

Pitt

Marquis

[became

for

Duke

1787—5

John

of the]

Fane,

(Hobart,

from

Sale

to

United

(Lord

lost

of

Rutland

died

October,

1791

Irishmen)

second

Earl

of

Viceroy

(16

Westmoreland

5 January,

1790

onwards

House

of

Grattan,

Pension

of Peerages

moreland’s

Earl

of

Temple)

December,

1790). of

material

(formerly

time

Earl

Bill,

Lieutenant)

Buckingham

afterwards

the Insh (Flood,

France.

Duke

1783

of

the

of

Rutland

of

January,

Place

these

etc.)

in England.

The 1787. The

In

survived

(Grattan

Minister.

End

(Foundation

Reform

orators

(!)

B)

ry)

Ireland

of

Whig

influence.

December Viceroy

Volunteers

years.

now

system

parliamentary)

and

measures Office,

Bill,

[was

(until etc.)

Police

pressed

by

hence

after

the the

1795).

attempts

at

failed.

Responsibility the

Lieutenant] Secre ta-

Chief

repeated

Commons

Curran

into

Lord

Buckinghamshire,

Bill,

of

Inquiry

Dublin

Opposition

Revolution

were

into the

during of

the

most West-

1789

in

IRELAND

FROM

The

AMERICAN

Place,

Mr.

Grattan,

The

Place

thereby

to

was

There strength

a

the

Irish

teers.

into

decline of party

bona

for

of

and

behalf

the

also

Emancipation,

Volunteer organisation, to 1790. We have Tone’s

up

out,

broke

both

the

and

Lord

clothing

the

and

by

a

forth the

violently

studied

defence

in

their the

the

of

This

Committee

the

Union}

motion

was

a

told

pockets,

between

“in

rank’’,

he

a grant

of

at the

levelled

reasons

its

of

to

efforts

elect

attached

by

and this

still

the for

reform

members the

King’s

1785, Mr. court, for the

to

a

*

7*

few other 1783-1791.

were

made

the

of

in

1784.

of

County

congress. a

moved Speech

“The

a great fool-rogue”

independent

crown a vote

was

inserted

by

In

of

of

Curran.

Marx.—Ed.

censure

we

treated

in

consequence

of

summoned 25

the

this

motion,

minority.

them,

of

Dublin,

for

For

71.

still

the

the things questions

objects

Kilmainham

of

on

Bench,

attachment.

Shows

a

to

national

a

to

even com-

friends,

(Curran’s)

speaking

before

period

Brownlow

that

his

the Regency Bills were period as international

England;

February, 143

to

than

Henry Rezlly, Sheriff to the court-house

bailiwick

1784,

being

FitzgibCurran, (Curran)

of the Volunteers.... I shall to gentlemen, with the King’s

rather

allude

during

requisition,

his

and

however,

Renewed

a

Volun-

streets.”’

Iraland

Parliament

Volunhim,

higher

moved

the

of

One

against

Curran

to

raised

debated.

panegyric country

Propositions important during

shall,

that

parties—were

Milttia

as

and,

being

by

Militia.

Orde’s

most

the

of

word

Catholic

Reform

1785.

Minister,

Mountjoy the

14,

February of

rewarded,

therefore

in

the

Castle-

carried—the fool-rogue* Grattan went with the Government. bon, the Attorney General, said amongst other things against who opposed the Bill and defended the Volunteers: ‘‘he

beggars

fide

packing

of

mstruments

as

Emancipation

Commons.

on

being

of

£20,000

mission

laws.

accepting

failed.

Revolution

of

{

actually

poured entrust

by

dispirited.

became teers,

proposed

passed

power

the the

of

things

Liberal

House

hope

Viceroy,

Minister

one

these

Club—the

Gardiner

the

Bills

195

Union.

all

steady

Whig

and

feeble

the

French

the

the

questions

the

of

the

1801

OF

Responsibility

by

was

Bill

1790

Tithe

Reform,

and

leaving

carrying

Up

UNION

bill

this

for

TO

to vacate the seats of members Government, omitting the term of

offices,

Parliament;

and to

acceded

under

when

Pension

Bill—a

offices

reagh

REVOLUTION

Mr. and

on

Motion

October,

Reilly

on the

the

was 24

judges

rejected

by

196

KARL

PENSIONS,

DISFRANCHISEMENT GOVERNMENT

The

began

force,

to

endeavour

regain

1782,

in

and

OF

EXCISE

MARX

OFFICERS,

CORRUPTION

by

corruption

increased

was

what

greatly

the

after

to

surrendered defeat

of

Orde’s

Propositions. Pensions

13

Pensions,

1786.

March,

to limit the amount Calendas Graecas,* was

Forbes

ad

was

to

the

“restrain

Irish

carried.

As

the

for

independence

House)

have

‘“‘will

..

the

Parliament

of

this

security

said

Curran

i.e.

the

they’’

(the

no

people,

or

found

authority”

a

interest

hoped

(these

Secretaries), with

as

tions”

tion

in

honourable

was

a

the

honours

shameful

a new

independence

*

**

Viceroy,

the

good

responsibility A

succession

look

his

for

and of

the

can

be

men”

of

with

hearts,

Orde’s

responProposi-

Commercial

opposes

the

principle

gross

A

encouragement

the

as

Bill

general

every

of

the

of

and

applica-

human

pension list, at the best of the present abuses of it have

force of

February,

Until

See

grant

of

the

below,

the

of

the

Riot

to

the

The

the

Greek

pp.

the

that

vice,

was

times,

gone

from

beggar

badges

a

penal

law

steals

a

beyond

a

magistrate.

any

a

is

It is

law

a

Bill

to

was

from

that

Great

to

lay

child. It to badges

necessary

from

a

to

man

Secretary

adopted

prostitu-

of

titles,

dignity

of

would “restrain public treasure.... It

and

suffering

Bill

executive Irish

the

barren

species

honours

of

pension,

a

a new

by

granting

a

State

Act,

Parliament” 1790.

degraded

of

purpose

(Curran). of

been

before,

the

profusion

counterpotse

has

the

for for

reducing

11

list

dignity,

mendicancy”’

giving

a

in

sometimes

you

remember

Bounty....

to

The but

unknown

foundation

steal

heads, will

any

while

(Curran). unhappy

“That

that

Royal

money

grievance.... this country:

all bounds”

the

will

member

the

of

people’s

is a crying scandal to

tion

with “Where

You

Minister?

restraint the

of

‘‘sometimes (Curran).

.

this

of

that

to

first

What

Secretary?

coming

one” (Curran). limiting Pensions.

interest

etc....

fame

English

no

have

Bill

(Curran). right

‘“‘A

being

an

‘‘delegated

can

future

in

neither”

a

**

in

for

oftener

sibility

(here) who

Secretary,

the

of

members

in the kingdom has a shilling, they will not want 12 March, 1787. (Forbes renewed his Bill for Curran supported him. Orde, Secretary. Also failed.) “The King’s it falls to

of

necessity”.

sins

independence,

man

next

.

object

physical of

Bill

adjournment

ts laying a foundation

Crown

their

for

The

Commons.

defeated,

wrong by a covers a multitude

Pension List, like charity, to the members of this House

“The

home

of

was

doing

from

Crown

House

pensions

of

of

as

Britain,

preserve

the

(Curran). House

calends.—Ed.

198-201.—Ed.

of

Commons

(Government

Corrup-

a

FRO M

tion

Patriot

and

convinced

nothing

address

it.

The

and

House

of

The

Executive

Ireland,

then

us,

in

and

Crown

to

general,

revenue

the

refuse

of

of

boroughs

House

of

Commons.

H.

Sir

Dublin The

Police

opposed

was

the

naturally House

Viceroy,

says

Curran increased

had

“In

of

he

mit

to

told the

the

that

*

See

men,

78.

he

that

it

is

below,

pp.

Harcourt

a compact

management

to

the

loose rob

our honour among us them

201-02—Ed.

.

have

of

and

our

the

sell

”’

stamps! “I

liberty,

property, who

for

appalled: rise

now and them

an

Tam

we are

if

but in

pensions....

people

by

places

debased.”

or

of

Bill,* to the

executed

into

became

places

their

gentlemen

be

make

prying

tyrant

by

West-

was made that stamps { stamp

should to

became

whom

honest

}

addition

order

members

your you

and

in

Salaries.

Marquts

Regency

the

of

times

them

county

arises

the

£13,000

union, of

to

lawful

among

by

100 let

corruption.)

in

to

night,

Rejected

(afterwards

failure

Harcourt’s

you,

sunk

corruption

Lord

the

‘“Two

persons,

etc.

Ordnance,

separated

rose

Temple

_

per

4d.

Officers’

down

government

his

the

and

as you

of

of

(Under

in

of

Stamp

the

1784,

in

at

taking

patronage.

to

132

by

them

of

that

effect

useless

disturbances

1790.

Earl

Board,

Parliament.

danger

have

plunder

and

Secretary.

the

granted

300

of

showing

the and

old

of

cut

means

because

list;

divided,

assembly

watch

them,

his

alia:

Buckingham

proportion

when

some

of

A

February,

one

Accounts

been

board).

was

Revenue

of

members

taken

Hobart

Pension

Board

duties

one

things:

4

incensed

the

infamous

Rejected

regulate

inter

Buckingham),

the

to

(This

81.$

moreland

to

waste,

Resolutions.

police.

Commons.

proposes

to

141

a

nation,

(Curran). Police.

among

been

by

servants

avowed

the

of

Dublin

other

on

sent to grind us are, of excise of ficers—

Cart-loads

resolutions with

measures

ineffectual.”’ of

Curran

the

the

men

the

election”

1789.

two

attended

said

had

capital

an

The

fulfilled.

our misfortunes to as arguments against

from

corner

of

April,

was

support

in

“Advantage enslave

25

System

Ministers Curran

eve

the

moved

Cavendish

.

was

Excise

of

and

events

comes

every

from

on

possession

very allia:

Britain....

Great

92.

corrupt

and

crime

Administration

troops—collected

to

occasion

men

these inter

measure

this

the

Ministers.) Forbes several recent penstons.

that

own

her

uses said

every

of

on

speech of

136

save

Disfrancitisement to 93.

148

by

incompetent

Curran

opposition

‘‘The

his

now

and

1789.

April,

advantage

independence.

the

in

by

more

being

could

CORRUPTION

rejected

inflicted

took

provincialise

our

was

Bill

prophecy

Curran’s

English

21

Commons.

Bill.

the

rejected

GOVERNMENT

Officers’

of

censuring

was

motion

daily

Commons

policy

197

180 1

OF

public

the

of

foul

describing

supported

Curran

the

reform

the

from

U NI ON

TO

proceeded,

a

but

1782

of

an

moved

opposition

that

Constitution

ON REV O LUT I

A M ERI CAN

I R E LA ND

subfairly

divide

to

the

198

KARL

MARX

administration.”’

In

his

bold

speech

to the French

alludes

Gurran

Revolution.

House of Commons. February 12, 1791. Government Corruption. New attempt of Curran to prove the impurities of Government. principal disposed

Curran’s

was

which

theme: “Raising of to purchase the

men

the peerage for of the people.”

to

liberties

“Miserable men introduced” (by these means) “‘into beasts of burden, to drudge for their employers.” On “those

introduced

the

by

which

have

have

to

tion

of

have

passed

.

in

this

a

a

This

a contract to

raise

people

to

law

laws,

frame

direction

and

that

of

dispose

corruption

Ireland,

of

and

it

been

certain

been

the

entered

from

on

House.” (1790) them

uniformly

shameful

into

persons,

of seats in this of last session

demanded

has

restrain

has

peerage

the

we

in

Constttu-

We

a

of

the

have,

the

denied.

profusion

by

condition

would

pension-list

a Majority. We would have passed a law to exclude ever be the chattels of the government, from sitting was refused by a Majority. A bill to make some among you, and therefore amenable to public justice,

refused by who must

House--it resident

responsible

by

the

House, like other hand

raised’’.

that

Britain,

Great

it was persons,

person,

the

of

to

Lords,

of

under

a certain number ‘‘During the whole

their purchasing Curran states:

name

.

House

Kingdom,

been

proof

ministers

the

the

the

of

they

“Tl present of

into

property

of

this the

money,

.

acts of your governors—has been refused to Ireland gentlemen calling themselves her representatives...

the

for

majority

of

dental

unzform

a

is

to

proof

them”

(the

people)

“that

the

imputation of corrupt practices is founded in fact.” The vain attempt—in 1790-91—of the Parliamentary Minority against government corruption proves on the one hand its increase, on the

other

the

shows

why,

at

1791,

since

all

mere

tool

in

influence

last,

the

of

the

Parliamentary

the

French

foundation

hands

action

the

of

IRISH OF

OF

a)

In inquiry

May in

desired to competition

1784, the

Orde’s Duke

THE

etc.

REPELLED

that

Irish

the

Majority

in

a

proposed intercourse Trade

ON

OCCASION

BILL

Propositions. Lord

in

AGAINST

PROPOSITIONS

REGENCY

Commercial

Griffith

also

place]

and

GOVERNMENT

of Rutland,

commercial

show

THE

COMMERCIAL

ORDE’S

futile,

It

[took

* *

INDEPENDENCE

AND

(The

proved

1789.

of

Irishmen

Government.

x

ATTEMPTS

Revolution

United

of

the

Lieutenant) Irish

between should

be

House

of

Britain

and

protected

Commons

an

Ireland.

He

from

English

IRELAND

FROM

The 7

February,

on

11

February

called

the

Irish

(in fact,

1)

are

on

countries,

placing

the

of

Mr.

UNION

out

proposal the

Orde,

moved,

Chief

1801

OF

his

of

199

hand. announced,

Secretary,

on

11 propositions

the

English

of

principles

four

Taxes

1785,

he

this

TO

trade,

commonly

propositions

they

were

There

REVOLUTION

took

Government

On

and

two

AMERICAN

established

all

goods,

should

be

England

origin). in these and

foreign

propositions:

domestic,

passing

between

the

equal

and

on

Ireland

same

the

footing,

to the

ruin

on

same

latter.}

2)

on

Taxes

articles

goods

foreign

produced

in

either

Spanish, and American competition ).

3) That lation). 4)

the

That

trade

regulations

the

customs,

should

be

Imperial Yet

(English) this plan

and

over

patd

then

the

of

excises, to

always

(this

be

be

the

realities

of

French,

profits

of

English

to

the

English

(thus

revenue over

hereditary

to]

Treasury,

as a

than

the

unalterable

[amounting

navy. was proffered

higher

sacrificed

increasing,

should

surplus

certain

should

island

a

boon,

abdicating

legts-

(hearth

tax,

£656,000

a

reciprocity

plan;

and year)

support

the

for

the

of

the

Orde

(in

otherwise

Flood) hurried the Commons on to seize upon it, because the jealousy of the English monopolists might be awakened.

The

thing

was

and

voted

contrast

to

a

the

On

British

for

22nd

House

allowed

the

be

favour—to

return

in

by

for

1765

February,

of

of

paid

£140,000

new

of

taxes,

which

Commons

advantages

(i.e.

Pitt

moved

declared

competition)

the

that British

of

Resulution

Ireland

should

she had ““trvrevocably”’ granted to England an “aid”’ (i.e. general defence. North and the Tories, Fox and the Whigs—

in English Minister’.

out’’,

from

a

any

the

ingenuity

The addition

and

Good

interdicts

of

He

to

approved

Ireland

of

11

a

jealousy to Ireland a sure resource Fox obtained adjournments, and to

Lancashire

parley.

adverse

tribute)

for

Manoeuvre—

—saw born ed

in be

as soon

Commerce

as

as a party

asked

it.

London,

to

submitted Irish

by

serviceable

him

in

the

propositions injury.

fresh

Hope,

were

was

some

was

also

taken

had Half

on

away

been the

3

certain

by

terms:

their

of

to Irish form of 20

(articles

latd

Gloucester

the

suffered

Constitution,

be

from

trade.

English

increased

in

interdicted

clauses

which

all

“spoke

Pitt

retained of

“heaven sound-

was

all that that the

could

by

Act

thus

20,

each

propositions.

and

The

York.

Returned

namely,

9)

to

loss

globe, goods.

against the all England

whole

forced

England all

to

between

Magellan

to Ireland’s ships: customs legislation her

(art.4)

to

enact

200

KARL

(register) and

all

8),

navigation

toimpose

same

to adopt the finally {art. 17 to England.

laws

all the

or to

passed

colonial

duties

be

passed

that

system in custom-houses 18) to recognise all patents

and

by

England

England

did

that

(art.

England

MARX

(art. 5 6 and 7), did,

and

and

copyrights

granted

Irish House of Commons. 30 June, 1785: Orde of the House till Tuesday Fortnight. Curran adjournment is carried. Curran says:

moves the opposes

adjournthis. The

ment

we

‘“‘When

with

them.

endearing

23 the

had

word

adjournment

11

{ and

they

moves

asks

Curran

them only system of final

2 kingdoms’. this system, we

did

were

understand

corner

a new

Yes,

the

streets.”

the

of

charmed

them.

adjournment; what

Orde

that and

of

as a

between the advantages of

every

at

us, we

before

not

did

opposes;

Curran

carried.

1785.

“as

‘proposed

we rang

Orde

is

August,

propostttons

propositions

reciprocity

1785.

July,

11

the

—because

Why?

has

permanent

a

compensation called upon

“As

were

11

the

of

“become

could treat.’’ They were commercial adjustment

Parltament

the

for

expected

so!}

£ 140,000 a year on this exhausted country.” “We submithave oppressed the people with a load of taxes, as a comfor a commercial adjustment: we have not got that adjust-

to

impose ted.’’ “‘We pensation

ment.”

plainly

Curran

revenge

against

accept

that

would

be

from 12

be

speech

by

to

108

(i.e.

House, the

of

take would

He

threa-

Constitution

words’’.

All

this

is taken

Bill

20

propositions).

July. his

Leave

Curran.

votes:

19

by

would

adjournment.

“‘by

moved

Orde Flood,

Grattan,

127

by

23

thin

surrender

for

merely

of

1785.

August,

carried

not

people

a

in the

after

demand

answered

Curran’s

Opposed

a

the

who,

propositions

such

that

persons

the

20

the

tened

threatened

this

(the

to bring in the Bill was showed that the Bill would

rejected). Curran:

tion:

this

for

liberties

temper business

Bill

Ireland,

of

was

here

changed.

The

surrender submitted

of

to

England

should

Ireland.

The

Commons

for

I

and

fear

are rights, Bill. It

think

people

relief;

on

and

it’’

surrender British

of

by

it

by

purchase

enlightened

and

(the

Bill) the

of

they

go

must for

a

out

‘‘is is

majorities

of

strong, be the

they

.

enact the

to

bar

English

circuitous

not

such

annihilate of

the

trade

to

the

the

things

will

consequence, to

the

in

Formerly

would the

and

mistaken

times.

former

ques-

the

of

Constitution

Minister

which would contains a covenant

proper: here

of

the

judges

carried

people

thew this

a

portends

Ireland....

of

part

commercial

““The

have bear

Parliament

England,

a

if they laws as House

we

of of

are

IRELAND

FROM

a

accepting would Great

circuitous

to

strength

in

fact,

our

enforce

utter slavery, or rights through blood,

is

be

the

15

and

or

1785:

August,

session,

be

Ireland

in

cases

all

she

In

such

a

to

201

bind

externally,

gives the power of the compact,

This law breach

pleased;

while

an event

on

it

of

her

new

either

sink

gives

we must

to

what, the

Flood

into any Parliament

the

of

as

well

Bill,

the

Minister

abandoned

moved:

enter

whatsoever,

I,suspect,

best.”

presenting

Thereupon

to

and

at

Union

internally.”’ Curran supported House adjourned, and Orde’s the

as

Ireland,

of

ourselves bound not and exclusive nght

hold sole

power

A

1801

OF

must wade to a reassumption of their obliged to take refuge in a Union, which

Orde,

ever.

for

us

UNION

people

war or a

Civil

TO

internally. would be

obedience.

the

annthilation

at....

driving

bind what taxing

of

into

would

to

judging

of

it;

REVOLUTION

constitution....

a power

involve Britain,

construing

AMERICAN

engagement

the

we

as

externally

give up legislate

to to

Ireland

of

it for

“‘Resolved—That

commercially

him. Flood withdrew Propositions merged in

the for and

his

motion, secret design

a

the for

Union.

b)

Regency

Bill

(1789)

George III was mad for some time, this was concealed, in the end of it could no longer be hid. In the ministers’ draft of the address in answer to the Lord Lieutenant (Buckingham) (he had again become Viceroy in December 1787), they praised themselves.

1788

Irish

House

Amendment, in

support.

of

a sees

man

“Every

6,

February

Commons.

substituting

general the

1789.

expression

change

of public

moved

Grattan

loyalty.

of

Curran

administration

an

spoke

ts

that

approaching.”

(People thought Prince of Wales. )

the

been delayed principle of opposition etc? ”’

“It

Upon that

that

has what

Fox

so

with

February

was as

Fox

11,

23

reached

Britain

with

January, the

Irish

a party in another can Ireland enlist

the

without

Chief at

Castle

a

division

under

kingdom. herself in

although

he

Secretary),

the

prospect

of

the

Prince’s

The

Ministers

tried

to

postpone

the

discussion

Their avowed motive to have from England the British Parliament, appointing the Prince Regent of

the Regency. Resolutions of the Great

carried mask”’

Minister

Primer.

1789:

on

on

a

Buckingham’s

prostrated

Regency,

become

and opposed by wisdom or justice

Grattan’s Amendment was called Buckingham ‘‘a jobber in

(Fitzherbert

would

limited

and

powers.

accepted

Government.

by

These

the The

Resolutions

had

been

passed

Prince on 31st January, but postponement was refused by

not the

202

KARL

House.

Conolly

Prince

Regent

passed

without

a

to

address

full

to be kingly

to the Prince, as The. Motion was

presented

Powers.

division.

Buckingham.

agreed

an with

moved

Ireland

12, 1789. Conolly moved the address. February 17, conLords brought up and agreed to. On 19 February presented

February currence of to

then

of

MARX

He

to

refused

transmit

it

by

tt.

transmit

deputation.

20, 1789, it was against Buckin-

February

Vote

censure

of

gham.

27, 1789. Deputation (Conolly, Commons with the answer of the

February letter to the the

“warmly”

Irish

20,

March

announcing

deliver thanking

Parliament.

1789.

his

O’Neill, etc.) Prince Regent,

A

more

still

letter

fervent

recovery,

father’s

is

read

im

the

of

the

Irish

Prince

Regent,

House

of

Com-

mons. maintain his power, had defended the nght of election of the Regent,

to

Pitt, England,

to restrain The tion

and carried in hence the right

power.

his Irish

in

against

case

this

the

maintained

oligarchic

and

common

the

ministerial

Constitu-

encroachments

of

Pitt.

are

There

this

for

lapse

of

two

time

things

to

still

be

considered,

1) Irish

the

Tithe

showing

peasantry at that time, and 2) The Dublin Lord Mayor

fluence

of

the

Protestant)

French

Irish

Irish

House

Disturbances Rents,

the

absenteeism,

Towards 1791)

of

in

RIOT

republicans

the

of

Catholic

zn-

election,

showing

the

upon

(into

bargain

1) TITHE RIOTS ETC. ACT INTRODUCED

South

bad

parties

of

caused

tenures,

close the

19,

January

Commons.

the

political

Revolution

state

the

the

the

middle-class.

ENGLISH

(the

etc.

Riots

of

by

the

united

North).

1787. misery

treatment

harsh

the

IN IRELAND

18

century

themselves

Outrages

the

of

in

the

people,

South.

Ttthes,

etc.

(since with

the the

end of peasants

a

IRELAND

FROM

AMERICAN

TO

UNION

1801

OF

203

the Lord Lieutenant’s Opening Speech, he referred to the outrages” (“Right Boys” of Kilkenny, who were bound each other by oath).181 Yet the only Bili on disturbances

1786.

In

“frequent

amongst brought

in

the

petitioned.

City

REVOLUTION

1787. Southern

by

the

The

Viceroy’s

outrages,

violent.

speech

and

During

instance) landlords

was

Government

the

this

Dublin

on

Police

the

Address

government

the

as

disturbances the people,

Bill,

more

much

referred

debates

debate

treated the of grinding

a

against

which

to

positively

in

to

reply

party

the

were

it

(Fitzgibbon

for

against thé clergy, accused abetting the disturbances,

and

the and

asked for fresh powers. House of Commons.

19 January, 1787. Fitzgibbon, in his speech (1787) said the disturbances commenced in Kerry, the people assembled in a mass-house, there took an oath to obey the laws of Captain Right. They soon spread through the province of Munster. Their objects were the tithes, then to regulate the price of lands, to raise the price of labour, and to oppose the collection of hearth-money and other taxes. “I am very well acquainted with the province of Munster, and I know that it is impossible for human wretchedness to exceed that of the miserable peasantry in that province. I know that the unhappy tenantry are ground to powder by relentless landlords—far from being able to give the clergy their just dues, they have not food or raiment for themselves, the landlords grasp the whole; and not satisfied with the present extortion, some landlords have been so base as to instigate the insurgents to rob the clergy of their ttthes, not in order to alleviate the distresses of the tenantry, but that they might add the clergy’s share to the cruel rack-rents already paid.... The poor people of Munster live in a more abject state of poverty than human nature can be supposed able to bear—their miseries are intolerable, but they do not originate with the clergy: nor can the Legislature stand by and see them take the redress into their own hands. Nothing can be done for their benefit while the country remains in a state of anarchy.”

.

a

Longfield,

were ment

a

without selves

division). been

exhausted;

their

House,

no

but

existence

the

peasantry

property “You

present set

are

of

be

to

Why, public

the

sale;

been

they

in

the

was

(it

Govern-

purpose. withdrawn

refused

.

this have

The

House

totally

song

of

landlords. No

revolt....

Not

with

a proper it?

are

become

been

and

bought

an

You

dented

wonder

that

a

man

single

the rebels... reformation

No;

this

non-restdence

redress....

and

you grant

has

empty

the

you your-

when

people

followed.

[was} connected solemnly for seats

disturbances

political

effects,

the

of

ever

rebellion

did

a

address

intermediate

of

the

accused

for

inevitable

long)

and

for

that

He

:

has

effect

people: Sir,

the

patience

(have

ripe

or consequence were called on the

to

alia

grievance,

not.

disturbances,

inter

tyranny

the the

of

the

complaints

productive

should

stand?

up

said

grievances

of

representation

at

causes...

the

landholders,

the

of

He

was

distress

amendment

to utteridle

have

the

an

stated

Gentleman,

the

a year

for

moved

“Cease

Cork

though

looking

of

Curran

of

County

exaggerated,

how and

absolute

in

the it at

does sold.

They

article

of

204

KARL

commerce—a

they

traffic

have

should People, als;

the

and

are

these

.

sent

may

they

to

down talk of

do

of

or

the

of

expanding

wretched

peasantry?

it

boroughs.

is

disturbances.

.

natural

As

they

of relief.... make repnisvile

of

System

demolish

administered.

which

name,

have

Bill’.

One

was

abandoned,

at

mass-houses

oaths

unlawful

was

which

Government,

but what, in God’s ” 1787. “Right Boy

19,

February

Commons.

to

magistrates found,

the

the

of

causes

real

money,

of

have formed hopes oppressed by law, will

though

commerce

with

House clause

the

peasantry

rotten

Saleable

a sum

for

to commissions of the peace (24 commissions of the to the County of Clare in one post) and to the sheriffs.

extends

You

constitution....

people

sell. them.... The when oppressed,

jobbing

peace

the

of

bought

MARX

dzrecting

combinations resisted

Curran

the

shall Bill

be

altoge-

ther:

strength

code

as

to

now

much

He

proposed....’’

us

into

imbrue committed

us

to

the

by

20,

February

was

barbarism

in the 192 to

a

of

the

we

were

.

“I

said

fear,”’

are

Discussion of to limit

until... 13

the

whole

were

would consider division. Curran

set

at

restored,

law

the

a

Question.

and

an

of Ireland.

to

should

thetr

ever

be

gentlemen with

an

period,

execute

express

peasants,

clergy,

whatever

not

may

have

are be

the

too wise to say that length of time.”

said idea

the

the

all

of

been of

inveterate

an

pass

intention

connived English evils

the

in

Bill

as no

and

go

the

can

resolution session,

dark

’’

.

of

causes

of the

men

he

““The

adverse

these

Secretary,

any

that

a

is they

honourable

accompanying

in

at

the

hope

or

alleviate,

as

receive

all example

) ‘‘declares

complaints.”’

of

a

without

of

any

if

House

state

without

to

.

beyond

that

the

lost,

partial miserable

(an Englishman! not hold out Act

a

was

severe

represented

have

and

In

so great,

next

The motion Motion.

listen to their ‘‘That very body

to

Riot

etc.

moved the

of

Parliament!

Riot

a

oath

will

was

flame.”

to

distant, law)?

who

and

will

by

let

disavowal

however it” (that

the

and

perhaps

Bill

which

43.)

ts rebellion

having

penalties

Secretary”’

considered

could

the

The

dtstresses,

to to

Limerick,

by

to

coercion

former period.... The offence was local and such offence were universal.... The abject and

stranger

a

Wood-

or,

(The

Kerry,

176

any

peasantry

Bill,

Cork,

poor,

opening

Grattan’s

pains

of

in

Grattan

Dr.

of

emerging,

same

the tt to

the

the

of

Tithes.

the Tithe supported

“A

Curran:

relief

Kingdom

1787.

March,

tranquillity

the

for

as

“that,

Curran,

taken

of

sanguinary

war’’....

Tipperary. (The limiting motion rejected by Todesstrafe—capital punishment—for tendering

means

so

pamphlet

religious

moved

O'Neill

consciousness

of

of tithes “tending manifestly had so recently emerged, and

which

from

a

by

objects

to

alludes

bloodshed 31.)

1787.

passed.

raised

proper

be

Bishop of Cloyne, in defence the dtssensions from which we

plunge

Act

too

people

and

that

ward, revive

are

consequence

“The

Curran:

their

even

‘““‘Who the class

to

the

offences.” this

House

sanction

at

.

are

it

any to

above

rights

of

‘But must be from

any

IRELAND

FROM

AMERICAN

2) ELECTION

The with

disputed

THE LORD (1790)

OF

election

Ireland in

their

the

for

not

guilds

to

Parliament for the city, ment. Alderman James

16

1790

April,

the

year,

ensuing

names

any

return

who

the

The

Council.

interference

10

On the

He

the

Privy

Council,

1790,

and

Lord

The

that

Privy

Council

Howtson

was

Then

decided

a

meeting

was

meeting of

3d

the

on

James,

the

Privy

July, after

The

dispute Common

Aldermen

process,

with

times.

Common

Council

before

(who

became

Lord

he

Thus

and

this

Council,

and

on

resigned,

Aldermen,

Council,

and

20

the

for

the

whole

several

popular

This

election. This

Common

the

for

for

other

1789.)

for

August,

a new

the

James.

pleaded

Curran

elect

masterly.

by

freemen

of

one

in

Seven

led

of

Governthe old

struggle

Napper the

5th

August,

approved

by

ended

Tandy

in

carried

Aldermen,

and

the

the 17

sum-

82 at the Exchange. This Hamilton Rowan was in the chair; it appointing a committee to prepare a freeholders!

facts.

3rd

was

of

held

to

adjourned State

censuring

election

Fitzgibbon

Common Council and Privy Council. utter defeat of the Government. On the 16 July, in the Common Resolutions

Tandy

for

by

fellow

chosen

Napper

Howison.

in June

Clare,

them-

Member

as mayor

James

rejected.

pleads

Curran

or

similarly

is repeated

presided

connected

provincialtse

pledged

Mayor

him.

decided

Councilmen

Council,

Dublin

Lord

rejected

where

Council,

Council

flagellated

moned

or

Alderman

their

the

July,

Chancellor,

were

and of

Privy

1790,

was

govern

Council

Howtson:

repeated

Privy

Privy

James

chose

down

Alderman

Aldermen

before

re-elect

Dublin

to of

and Aldermen sat and voted Councilmen in a second.

Common

sent

elected The

came

of

place or pension from the Police Commissioner. Under

a

former

as

205

OF DUBLIN

MAYOR

one

1801

OF

a

held

was

the

afterwards

Council

party.

UNION

Mayoralty

Corporation laws the Lord Mayor chamber, the Sheriffs and Common the

TO

attempt of the English Government by corruption. Hence the bourgesses

the

selves

REVOLUTION

August

that

State

of

Facts

was

read,

and

James’s

resignation

announced.

Sir E, House of

Newenham Peers made

of the Whig Club and attacked avowed the Resolution. (The summer of 1789.)

(The Whig Fitzgibbon.)

Club,

met

on

on

24 July had in the read a Resolution them, until Lords Charlemont and Moira Whig Club was founded in Dublin, in the

denounced Fitzgibbon, who an audacious speech, where

2d

August,

drew

he

up

a

Report

against

Fitzgibbon had become so unpopular, that the guild of merchants, had, in the previous winter, voted him an address in a gold box, for services to their trading interests, expunged the resolutions on 13 July, who

1790,

as

“‘disgraceful’’.

206

KARL

From

the

above-quoted

of

“State

(Aggregate meeting of the citizens change.) Among other things it said:

we

“That citizens of

country

etc.

do to

refused

we

“that

sion,

. . only:

that

been,

in

in

dent

to

and

that

if

must

and

period c)

told

an

be

opposition

bought

on

the

the

to

1791

October

ers.

The

end

of

far

and the

as

West

of

rebellious

by

Dutch

were

December Worms.

nation

had

bought

in

for

by

a

half

administration,

Army

feet

bound

two

the

of

by last

indepenBritish

the

laws

of

points

apply

to

by

to of

Lord

4

and

English

on

repulsed they

The France Lyons

to

had well. and

in

1793.

to

has

(Arrival

Duke

Upper

October

December

1793, 1793

siege Fland-

towards

whole

victorious

the into

Rhine,

the

8

York,

of

back

of

Govern-

abandon

thrown

were

In

1795.

Westmoreland’s

abandon

Republicans

as

the

1795

April

Camden)

January,

Houchard,

of

Recall

Fitzwilliam’s

1791

thrashed allies

the

the

Fitzwilliam.) Continuation Lord ment. (His Secretary Major Hobart.)} French events during this time: the

this

present

commencement

the

replacement

October

Dunkirk,

corruption

etc.”

at

{ The

that

(Fitzgibbon)

Parliament

the

the

of

1782}

and

September

save

occa-

.

session

authority

Crown,

people

Delegates.

last

object,

of

etc.

Legislature

and

before

{From

the

former

Townshend,

to

again

a

Parliament, of

Members

sold

etc.;

approbation

the

high

in

continued

and

our in

or

avery

Marquis

the

dependent

English

From

by

Dublin

of

etc.;

meaning,

by

the

(Lord

of

the their

of

City

on

did,

expressed

opposition of

sold

Attomey-General,

the

1790: Ex-

years

11 liberty

the

of

us

Parliament

view,

was

defeat

Parliament,

Scotch

Royal

or

Westmoreland

of

Duties

late

other

nation

Judges,

of

the

10 the

last for

freedom

among

to have the

of

Administration

and

The

no

had

the

Earl

many

that

acknowledge

Government,

nation

the

the

of Protective

minority

order

the

million,

this

do

that

deny

scheme

the

of

that

Excellency

not

measures

those

the

His

the

we

‘‘that

acknowledge

do

favour

conduct

that for the active part

an

at

held

etc.;

we

“that

was

do acknowledge, Dublin did take

3,

August

Facts’,

Dublin,

of

MARX

the

territory in

the

they Toulon,

as

South

subdued which

I RELA N D

had

been

over

the

occupied

the

Moreau

they

them

and

2 07

180 1

OF

drove

the

Spanish

own country. won a total victory

in

their

Souham

at Tourcoing. battle of Fleurus

second

were

English,

attacked

conquered.

troops

the

ON UN I

TO

York

of

June,

quickly

and

May,

Duke

26

by

Pyrenees

1794—18

over

ON R EV O LUT I

CA N A MERI

FROM

The

leaders

to

compelled

(Jourdan). the

of

think

only

English of¢the

was

Belgium and

Dutch

defence

of

the

Netherlands. In

and

October

November

the

Dutch

lost

all

their

frontier

fortresses.

In

Jourdan

October

the

entire

he

entered

bank

left

Luxembourg

27

On

remained

In

of

the

the

Austrians

up to the

hands

26

October

Mainz

and

allies.

into

the

entry

Pichegru’s

abandon

only

the

of

marched

1795,

on

Mainz,

Rhine,

to

Netherlands. into

Amster-

Republic. Disseldorf

September

Mannheim

Rhein

in

January,

Batavian

the Left

Pichegru

October,

1795—20 dam.

of

Coblenz.

compelled

into

into

fell

hands.

Pichegru’s

hands

Jourdan’s

The

Austrians

and

had

to

across the Main. Clairfait defeated the French army on 29 October. Pichegru and Jourdan had to retreat. An armistice came into force towards the end of the year. Moreau was given the command of the Rhine army. At the beginning of 1795 a peace treaty was concluded withdraw

at Mainz

with the leaders of the Vendée. (The Peace of La Mabilois.) Pitt landed an émigré army at Quiberon on 27 June, 1795, etc. On 20 July tt was crushed by Hoche etc.183 {In February and March 1796 Stofflet, Charette and

were

others

1796

July civil

war

The in

Their objects

he

{Hoche]

in the

1796

Tone

court-martialled

to

First

97.

avowed

executed

to

the

brought

to

reported

had

been

Bonaparte

United

October

were

West

and

Irishmen

in

by

firing-squad.

Directory

an

that

In the

end.

Italy.

was

Society

by

founded

Theobald

Wolfe

1791.

(and Union

by

the

between

mass

of

the

Catholics

Societies

and

alone

wished

Protestants,

for)

perfect

208

KARL

Emancipation

1783)

and

and

others

out the

the

Whigs,

and

ing

in

political

ics

and

were The the

1792

independent have

already

in

creeds.

(Tone

Republic.

With-

been

overruled

by

as

on

did all the United Irish part, were rapidly advanc-

their

information.

(not

aristocratic

and

The

Whiggish)

now

to

Cathol-

28

in

the 4

printed

with

chiefly

soon

after,

but

1797.

we

Administration,

and

organ

itself

Dublin

September,

Westmoreland’s

of

chief

paper,

this

occupied

appeared

Star

until

support Its

the

Corps.

of

Netlson),

Emancipation

Catholic

two

Evening

received

Volunteer number

first

Samuel

commence

Dublin,

the

of

the

Star:

not

did

to

many

of

(manager

politics.

Returning the

this

both

of

would

publicly,

Catholics,

extended

and

Northern

Press

that

an

they

proposed

men

Societies. )

met

and

Confederation

French

for

were

the

leading

citizens,

January, the

the

the

United.

leading

was

in

The

spirit

for

Government

Soctety 1794.

until

Keogh

the

outvoted

Belfast

Socteties

men

leading

of

had

(Belfast

Catholics

Representation

the

of

cruelty

The

the

for

Popular

MARX

Parliamentary

remark

were

Reform

cries!

Irish

House

of

18

Commons.

1792.

February,

Emancipa-

Catholic

tion. These

proceedings

Protestants

the

of

by

the

was

thing

presentation

Antrim

of

County

small

Some

began

the

for

a

of

petition

from

the

(It

was

re-

Bill.

proposed

by

Grattan

jected.) Curran,

step

was

was

to to

.

and

the

and

modest

create

hold

them

their

Protestant

a partial our people, consequence desires

to

emigration

would know

what

every

of

extinction This

of

of

petition

23.

.

It

that

of

and

corruption

an

Union

with

that

would

be,

be

man

of

British

the

Irish

for

the

rejection

Great I will

consequence taxes,

name

English

a

Catholics

inflamed

people

was the

Britain. tell

him.

British

.

own of

trade;

next

merely

3

of

millions

the

of

mevitable

any

if

would

Ireland;

next

the

preservation

And

Jt

a most

The

Government,

question

fourth

from

without

as a

a

in

reject city.

themselves:

not

is

to

pleased

Catholics

fellow-subjects....

subserviency

the

to

the

their relief—it is a question of your liberty cannot long subsist alienation

participation The

was

Viceroy

from

or

the

208

petition

a division amongst the Catholics up as a body formidable to the

to

sufferings

present

the

Cork,

“At

moderate

one

be

the

it

would

be

it

would

be

etc.”

rejected Catholics.

with

indignation,

by

FRO M

I RELA ND

CA N A M ER I

ON REV O L UT I

DOINGS

CATHOLICS,

THE AND

OF

UNTIL

ADMINISTRATION

In

1792, the Catholic of delegates) met,

March a body

was

agitation

by

progress

of

societies

in

increased

means the

England in

to

grew

ligence

.

restore

the

aided

array,

their

the

in

Catholics

“In

were

they

BILL

or

rather Convention named its secretary.

them.;¢The

and

improve (1792)

supported

by

was

Dumourter

shining

political

Volunteer

discipline.

the

The

thundered

Catholics

all

in

(for The

Irishmen

the

their

the

The

the

United and

confidence,

December

Dissenters.185

RELIEF

most vigorous. organisation of

became

and

Scotland!84

alarmed.

demands

of

societies

the

IRISHMEN

CATHOLIC

Committee, and Tone was

Revolution,

and

number,

began

Corps

ministry out their

these

of

French

UNITED

THE

20 9

18 0 1

OF

U NI ON

1793

OF

it

TO

and

intel-

Brabant—Holland

spirit

was

prostrate

before him.”’ (Wolfe Tone. ) 7 December, 1792. Government Proclamation against meetings: In this Proclamation we read: ‘‘The first battalion Guards were to have paraded clothed like Frenchmen

was

Proclamation

16

1792,

was

Dr.

address

The

voted,

Rowan

your

“To

in

reform

this

in

in

today,

in

words

The

pursuit liberties

paratory to the to communicate not

soon

into

the

malignity

lies

but

as

nearly

that

our

the

the

.

adhere

4)

would For

we

wish

to

the

to

our cause, no

to

for

consider temple

sect,

but

of and to

were it (Catholic we go on as we do still

both

be

these

should

wanting

purposes

assemble

to it

pre-

The

not soon follow, and Is common cause will split

other,

does the

will

relapse

local

enemy,

island...

portal

conventions

people

of

which

one part

the

some

common

.

this

of the Protestant Convention (this is then Catholic Committee or Convention in

interest—the

probably,

of

representative

still

subordinate

we

own.

partial

tranquillity

1) It called

therefore,

but

people, tomorrow would

provisional

convocation with the

and

We,

whole

Reform,

as

well

the

is

Irishmen,

the

tomorrow,

of

Emancipation

cause

Catholic

that

our

of

protection

modification,

on

of

account

was:

and

our power....

all

any as

Untted

peace

the

If a Convention on connected with that

inertness—too

the

owing its relapse into impotence and to the whole body of the people

Universal

without

for,

necessary

Dublin. )...

3)

obtained

the

their

appears

the

4

as party,

it;

on

prosecuted,

owing

enfranchisement

Emancipation) ratify

was

has been franchise

no

society—to

when

Chairman,

Proclamation,

were

relaxation 2) Elective

freedom....

included

was

it.

this

formation

these

necessary

national

National etc.” This

arms:

Emancipation

Catholic

seditious

of

Irishmen.

Dublin)

wrote

of

representation.

legislature,

United (of

Drennan

to

Volunteers

the

Drennan

and

island; to your insignificance.

by Rowan

content

main

which the

answered

December,

all

into

insurrections,

may 15th

commit

of

the

February

inattention instigated

character,

and

by

the

and

risk

approaches....

Let

210

parochial

meetings

delegates;

let

Soldiers

school,

in

as

to bail. Northern

The

Declaration

Ist)

on

no

has

.

That

this

inferior

to

the

in....

7)

to

obtain

our

entreat

tion,

and

in

object

without

an

going

and

information

publishing

for

name

(the

other

the the

of

things:

(meaning

the

Kingdom

of

all its citizens. 4th) That without a cordial, steady,

a

unlettered African, is this most desirable

collect

radical

which

these

the

(natural

of

denomination in to a National

the

ever

for

live men)

Ireland, Conven-

most

the

Parliamentary

must

kingdoms

as to

people

complete

we

land

rights

thoughts

of

and

to

disgrace end

every

of their

sense

the

a

obtaining

the and

people of every denomination. 5) That have for upwards of a century doomed Catholics of this Kingdom, to a state

fellow-citizens to turn

to

order of

fencing

side-arms

says among

Kingdom

Scotland,

means

on

Jacobins

franchise to be obtained

elective

can never

little

England,

their

Declaration

persevering union of all the Irish the penal code of statutes which our fellow-citizens, the Roman

we

with

a

at

meeting

prosecuted

“Irish

return

Dungannon....

from

a

in

parish

government, inasmuch as the great mass of the represented in Parliament. 3d) That the people of effectually constitute their own laws, without an

extension of the elective franchise

That

was

the

each

declared

issued

arrested

Belfast,

let

MARX

national

are not can never

people Ireland

again

was

Volunteers

of

of

possible;

15 December, 1792. the “Irish Jacobins”’

of

Resolved

Ireland)

of

Address

society ) of Belfast” The Declaration

be

Tandy etc.) Rowan was

Star

and

as

address

corps

several

well as Napper December 1792

admitted

soon

Ulster

of

(This

etc.’”’

Dublin,

as

held

sense

the

Citizen

there, In

be

KARL

effective

an

reform,

remain

wretched

etc.”

*‘Address. of

It derived

says

stitution;

acting

more

among we

need

of

representing

interests,

and

tended to country.... be

say

liberated

renovated

a

such the

Jacobins

the

Public’’

the

representation

Ireland;

a government than

the

to

of

the

House

the

nation,

whose

etc.

principles and

shackles that

of

this

liberty

will

90

this

It

instead

by

English

be

have

and

divided

is

by

of

who

exertions

unhappy

Out

an has

indtviduals

influenced

tyranny....

con-

only

rights....

Commons,

baneful of

is not

no

authority

people)

are

perseverance of

his

defend

Irish

possesses

it

supreme

the

of

aristocracy vital

with

subject

voice

unanimity

from

case

the

(meaning

majority the

the

By

is

people

that

sap

to

Belfast

this

government: in power to oppress

5 miltons of actually return

Irish

other things: “Where the mode of government the people clearly expressed, that nation has

all

from

The

ever

wretched land

will

a

procuring

established

in

this

IRELAND

FROM

country;

AMERICAN

can

this

REVOLUTION

only

be

15

1793:

February,

Emancipation

and

Committee.

This

it

made

the

ciliated Irish

opens

Parliament.

a

the

of

the

of

that

the

carrying

crush

10

the

and

the

Volunteers.

against but

did

1793.

them United In

of

Bill,

while

but

con-

it

Westmoreland

The

This

was

moved

recommended

the

motives:

the

Custine had conquered battle of Jemappes (6

speech

military

militta.

spirit

Jones

the

the

He

was a

last the

also

stated

establishment,

to

echo

and

stroke

against

the

speech,

Amendment.

acquired

Todd

with

the

for

a

of

Address

trivial

Byrne,

negotiated

favour

Reltef

Lord

the Republic. not mention

Belgium.

of

increased

formation

had

Catholics Keogh,

annexation had

The

a

moved

Grattan

the

of

Protestants,

January,

fetters,

Government

recommended the

represent

in

r

conspiracy

Catholic

1792)

the

to

said

resolutions

English declaration of war against France,!86 the Rhine (21 October, 1792), Dumourier’s

November,

Conven-

Protestants

He

European

relaxation

the

complained of the discontent of Ireland, but said corruption, extravagance, and alien policy of ministers. of the invasion of Holland by France, but was silent

complained

about

to

let

a permanent

assisted

resolve

211

National

convened;

passed

named

the Catholics. House of Commons.

nothing

He

and

a

by

1801

OF

Convention,

Dungannon,

doubtless,

Ministry

already

Volunteer

met at Reform,

people,

UNION

accomplished

tion. The Roman Catholics are follow their peaceful example.” 1,250,000

TO

and

organisation The

successes

the

Government,

baseness

and

M’Cormick.

by

of

France

of their

[Catholic | aristocracy.

Catholic

Committee

Tone,

Wolfe

Catholic

Committee compensated

by

Supported

the

Irishmen.

to

opposition

Ministry doors

Protestant

got

exclusive

they

other with

the

stimulated the

Irish Corporations the Aristocracy (lay

they found the 11 January, was carried.

no

this

House

connexion raises

.

with

United

to

Dublin

of

Corporation

Irishmen,

division.

Catholic

the of

Out

address

the

against Emancipation, and they intrigued and clerical) of the Catholics. In Parliament Party. Amendment

Grattan’s

unpopular in the country.... its independency? ...More

become survive the

people....

this—the

from

the

and

relics of the old exclusion 1793: Curran supported

“Parliament has credit of Parliament have

and

bigotry

The

people

disunion

are

not

of

How than the

which

could the half of us

people

represented.

from

to

And

restore the Union wanted aradical Reform of the Commons.... Without them (the Catholics) the country cannot be saved. Give them no Emancipation....

qualified

a

ment, rejected

by

Early

* to

The

discontented in

the

Speeches

the

Irish

of

of

1793*

to

According

Davies the

hated

The

influence

January

A

people....

Right

Curran

on

an

Government,

Petition

Catholic

unpopular

(1792)

Parlia-

has

been

Administration.” unsuccessfully

January

Honourable

29,

resists

1793-—cf.

J.Ph.

Curran.

his

the

Attorney

commentary

—Ed.

212

KARL

motion

General’s

Hibernian

the

for

Journal,

committal

of

publishing

for

that

M’Donnel,

the

the

was

House

MARX

printer

of

not

the

and

free

independent.

a

obtained tation,

and

members

cities,

moved

together by

are

Whole

the

of

Catholic

by

manors.

this.

He

Question

to

consented

Proclamation,

Machinery

in Parliament

said: must precede

Volunteers,

1793:

to property;

are

state amendment.” the

Their

Reform,

that

place

an

without

Bill the

excluding

indeed,

that

the

The

Same

Act,

the

tion

Acts, 20,000

Military

in

in

of

the

immediate

Bill

‘(A

law,”’

The

smaller

This

1s

law

says

in

any

was

by

law.

in

1793,

for

(Cobbett.

)188

*

On

days

the

passed,

to

from

whole

admitting

all

the

State

the

after

Bill,

Relief

Correspondence,

rights

Offices,

a

and

declaration

passed

Gunpowder,

code of coercion 16,000 Militia.

Curran,

declares

to

number,

representations It

full and

the

Secret

the

and

Alien

Conven

Committee.

He

Bull:

fact

against grievances. misdemeanour in choosing

a

fact,

passed

and

conceded.187

10

in

Government

and

Parliament,

1829

of

was

university,

from

the

therefore

them.

Catholics

the

and

another drilling,

naming

the

of

which

Foreign

Regulars

Convention

tion.”’

Parliament

1793,

societies,

bar,

them

Bills,

Gunpowder

The Bill of 1793 was brought of war against France. *

any

and

requires

a

March,

without

Relief

franchise,

but

all,

from

The

the

and

11 military

forbidding

Catholics and

Militia

resisted.

the

of

April

the

were

Resolutions

got

300

of

But the Opposition had already ytelded to the Ministers Indemnity thetr violent Proclamations against the Republican Volunteers: they

had

of

the

of

“‘Resolued—That

state must be decided first.... Ireland feels, Reform her liberty is gone.”’ The Motion was lost by 71 to 153. for

Represen-

that

counties

the

Grattan

towns remaining 216

others

while

Finis:

victories)

Parltamentary

counties,

university,

people

French

among

Resolutions

and

supported

Curran

the

the

boroughs

representation “The

persuasive

returned

with

were House on

(so

several

84

only

returned

the

14, 1793 Committee of

January

On

a

bill

any

the

intended the

February

“‘not

to

no

body

act, think,

to

prevent

or

restrain

of

to

21,

an

put of

1793.—Ed.

may

end

the

of

Conventon to assemble in

framing

change

to

procuring

in

societies

a

promote

insurrec-

a power

delegate

to

them.

for

assemblies

to act for them producing of any

purpose

to

but

men

petition

According to the part of the people

persons for

that

people

to

Act it for the

a high purpose of or

petitions

anything formed

petition

is

other

established and

Parliamentary

forming, Reform.

IRELAND

FROM

Thus

AMERICAN

armed,

the

REVOLUTION

TO

UNION

commenced

Government

prosecuting and persecuting, and obtained time to time, and, after the truce of 1795, to an Insurrection and to the Union. 1794, The agitation continued. Volunteers, United Irishmen etc.) changed Irish

a secret

into

laboured;

the

and

French

Jacobin

their

of

and

Resolutions

Belfast,

Tone.

assist the there as an

was

He

betrayed;

laws

drove

body.

the

crusade

fresh

the

The

session

meet

but

has

The

for

the

in

time

first

suggestions discontented

agent,

put

arraigned

4 JANUARY,

Whig,

was

who

sent

by

1795

opposed to

him

Ireland. The men and the Pyrenees,

French

the

army,

causes

charged Reform

effect

com-

in

treason

(after

censured; if a to be sure, in

us not create

the

law

of

last

through

of

pacification

of

a

be

crime.”

END

OF

1795.

MARCH

who the

with

the

Bill),

and

carrying the

the rapid progress of the United Irishhad driven the Spaniards behind the

behind

prepared

THE

TO

are

armies,

Austrians and

to

meetings

.

Irish

Pitt,

(and

apparent

it

to

Insh himself

for

the

some

of

FITZWILLIAM

Ireland,

Emancipation

Catholic

York’s

had

such

do

still

by

1s flourishing.

LORD

a

cannot

they

declared

system

informer

From

delegation,

quarrel

Catholics

29 January, 1794, Curran as defender of Rowan: “But now, if any aggregate assembly meets, they are printer. publishes their resolutions, he is punished; nghtly, both cases, for it has been lately done. If people say, let tumult,

of

from

aroused

Government,

to

patriots, bethought themselves a separation. Rev.Jackson sent munication with arrest), hanged.

organised

conquered;

its

213

prosecutions against Jrishmen Society was

(Government The United

secretly

had

1801

OF

the

Rhine,

occupation

destroyed

of

Holland

the

Duke

of

the

winter

of

in

1794-95,

But

papers

from

Fitzwilliam

and

published

Lord

Carlisle)

Irish,

inflame

Fitzwilliam Ireland Catholics

and

to

very the

them,

was

and

one

when chosen

King’s and as a tool to

height

drive

of

popular. of

the

What

between

that

perhaps, on second thoughts, ford’s influence prevailed) has the

(correspondence

it is evident the him

them

most Pitt

expectation,

into

Pitt

Beresagitate

Rebellion.

indulgent wanted, and

was,

(this

by

was

landlords to raise

suddenly

of the

recal-

214

KARL

ling

to

Fitzwilliam,

would

throw

protection,

mingled

the whilst

the

conflicts

Pitt

them

into

into

horrors

the

of

sent

had

drive

Protestants

commotions,

arms

the

would

parties,

be

which

England

of

aggravated

Royalists to Ireland

Fitzwilliam

MARX

and

for

by

the

Republicans.

with

unlimited

powers. The

day

throughout

all

Irish

House

plausible

to

Ireland.

peace

arrived, The

day

he

was

quitted

proclaimed

it,

she

prepared

insurrection.

for

a

Fitzwilliam

the

of

were

the

Emancipation

a

voted,

upon

got

frenzy

An

£2

certain

1795:

January,

outdid

Grattan

Address).

supplies

22

Commons.

speech.

millions

classes.

was

Bill

was

loan

in

servile

a

read

Fitzwilliam

opens

Fitzwilliam

Ministers

time,

first

voted,

with

adulation*

and

but

(as

ample

Anti-Gallican

was‘recalled.

HI

B)

Lord

outrages.

The Chancellor, i.e.

was

by

by

almost

insurrectionary

assaulted, Clare (the Lord almost killed in his carriage. Mr.

his

1798

of July

were was

Secretary

replaced

afterwards

End

attended

Beresfords Fitzgibbon) Chief

Camden’s



was

arrival

Camden’s

Administration.

Camden’s 1795

April

Pelham

nephew

(Earl

Chichester)

(Lord

Stewart

Castle-

reagh). became

Camden

associations Yeomen. Irish

was

He House

Emancipation Fitzwilliam’s

now

Republic of

the

of

Catholics made

ready

An

one

to *

became

the

Davies

of

only

Down,

North

of

1795.

Second

May,

and

were

Catholics

Defenders

was

passed,

oath

of

Association;

wrote

“he

outdid

armed

the

that

title

Reading

of

the

to

in

or

making

ministers

of

Institution.

84. the separation party. An object of the United Irishmen. The Antrim, and Tyrone joined them

an

the

the

under

guardian

worst. Act

for

Insurrection

take

the

Protestants

of

Ireland

It was rejected by 155 recall was a triumph for

Presbyterians

multitudes

in

the 4

Commons.

amongst

popular

raised

considered

of

Bill

extremely

were

which

Leinster.

this

Ribbonmen.189 death another

in

At

the

loyalty.—Ed.

bulk

as

time

Both

penalty

allowing

Irish

for

the

did the

sides

any Lord

IRELAND

FROM

to

Lieutenant

AMERICAN

proclaim

REVOLUTION

counties,

power

troduction

troops

and

perpetrated

by

serve

to

sending

no

one

215

go out

could

establishing

succession. Tory Gentry,

the

or

leisure

the

their

villainy

tn-

dependants,

was

but

whole

facilities

the

Yeomanry

No half—or

at

houses, and Other acts—

and

bandittti.

pitch-capping,

navy—as

the

and

legal

Whipping,

in

case

of breaking into they suspected.

(Germans),

unprincipled,

them.

which

whom

Corps—followed each other 1n quick The Yeomanry consisted of the

undisciplined

1801

OF

magistrates guilty of any ilegality—giving of arrest without bail—licensing the

granting indemnity for Lord Lieutenant the of foreign

UNION

power

in

night; and magistrates obtained the transporting to the navy all persons

TO

hanging,

the

of

officer

allo wed.

1795.

was

Among

View

of Ireland,

“The whole

Established

exclusively,

senters.... lowest

change,

can

make

.

The

ers.

are

They

sentiments

etc. of

Acts the

so

bold,

situated

known,

proceeding

the

ignorant

First

were the

labouring

they

appeared

armed;

houses

they

make

excellent

.

but

one

All

Parliamentary,

whose

way

to

left

interest

in

change

most

the

soldiers.

have

The

Lords

Within various Defend-

make

their

Grand

Jury

to

is adverse

that

of 1793

Committee

United

the

Drogheda,

not

Assizes,

guilty.

James Weldon, connected House of Commons. February,

transportation

to

1796.

mostly

of

took

the

from

Meath,

and

April

The

Dublin

their

1793,

several

night,

forced

their

them

Cavan,

Defenders,

was

Insurrection

Bull

).

of

to

their

arms.

They

and

other

Monagnan

connect tried

to

of

way

them with trace them to

French gold. [Appearing] before 23, 1794, the Drogheda Defenders,

with them, February 3d,

magistrates

in

cause,

Catholic

lowering

April

in

Committee tried crown prosecutors

the

Association

Spring

Louth,

and

counties

cesses,

county

County

Secret and

Irishmen

declared

in

the

for

men’’,[fighting]

assembled

the

Gentlemen,

the

25

no

Ireland,

of

Dis-

people,

because

war.

tithes,

Protestants

of

soon through adjacent parts. The

spread

Catholic

North).

hearth-money,

from

rents.

were

by

the

them

poor

relieve

into

is

Anstocrats,

said to be Catholic. of information,

be degree

the

country

Revolution.

of

change,

peasantry

Aristocrats,

from

(in

Defenders

them

they

that

French

body

may

and

besides the

people.

describes ‘fas

that

and

the

any

whole

race,

engrossed,

honours of landed property.

great

for

Europe, a certain

hardy

have

and of

the

ready

oppressed and wretched in these 2 years have received insurrections,

Ireland

enemies

Catholics,

worse.

them

in

decided

ignorance,

of

possessions

Tone:

all the profits great share of the

Republicans.

degree

in Jackson’s

found

Churchmen

a very

and

any

to

adverse

by

patronage,

church

papers

the

(tt

gave

22,

December

hanged. 1796. Indemnity the

1795,

Bull. right

of

arbitrary

216

KARL

“It

Curran:

Bill

a

is

puts

which

Bill

the

the

for

liberty

rich,

and

poor

the

of

against

man,

of living but labour, in the discretion of where poverty [is] general, “‘it constitutes

men

Ireland,

of

therefore,

the

no

law

a

is

means

visible

In Ireland,” “Let the rich

magistrates? a crime.”

a

“‘What

poor.”

has

poverty they enact

when

fear

the

who

MARX

poverty,

against

enact a counter-law against riches.” “Gentlemen to prove that he who should be transported by this law would only be sent into an honourable retirement, where he might gain glory by fighting for his country from which his poverty had expelled poverty

lest

have

should

reasoned

him.” Irish

House

opened just

[the

till

with Brest,

reached

the

28.)

13

Commons.

at

assembling

expedition,

it

of

sitting

the

call:]

and

Wolfe

Bantry

October,

1796.

resist

invasion!

Tone,

on

Bay

also

War.

Camden

(Hoche’s and

Grouchy,

22

the

denounced

Camden

French

December

“popular

a

and

part

that

of not

did

passion

was

force

and

leave

popular

opinion”’.

Curran.

of the against

encourages

‘‘Government

every

most wicked at the scene

Catholics, and the their lives.’’ ‘““Look

upon

attack

and that

the

reputation

groundless prosecutions has been exhibited for 2

years

in one of your counties, of robbery, and rape, and murder, and extermination (of the Catholics). Law can give them no protection under a hostile and implacable government.”

was

Ponsonby’s Amendment Attorney General moved for have

been

on

enacted to take

like

occasions

in

to

149 Bill,

a

Then the such as

to

empower

to

England,

12. similar

the

Lord

as were suspected of treasonable practices. Leave being given, the Bill was forthwith presented, read a first and second time, and committed for the morrow. Lieutenant,

14 the

it

was

in

detain

was

It

1797.

January,

brought palaver,

in

Curran. “You beggar peasants; wealth they have? 24

when spirit

scourges under of

the

Curran. demand * The

the

of

etc.

the and

bribe

Lord

Leave

to in

especially

the

Pelham

Secretary

Lieutenant

full

English

of

expedition

Defence.

Sir

the

domestic

army,

of

and

how

the

Laurence

of

the

Ministers

Patriots

of

people—traitors

of payment,

the

this

moment

an act

of

Commoners.—é£a.

the

treason.

Parsons

especially

the

opposed,

the

Clubs

Hoche.

would

moved

Yeomen Address. turn

into

to their country and their oath, the compulston of discipline, and the

army. “At

few

Bill rejected.

Internal

increase

the

redress

a

in

minutes

Act.

Corpus all

have already laid a shilling on the brogues of your will you impose another shilling upon them? What Seven pence per day.”’

foresaw of

Habeas

Expedition.199

from

supported,

Grattan

party

Neither the

an

for

the twice,

Emancipation

France

1797.

February,

Address

infantry.

to

reference

of

read,

Hoche’s

a message

down

persons

all such

Suspension

granted;

morning after midnight. 17 October, 1796. Catholic

6

an

and

1796.

October,

bring

up

by in

defeated to bring

leave

gaols

are

crowded

.

they*

make

a

IRELAND

FROM

the

Since

proclaimed House

of

end

(put of

Lord

(Pelham

18,

to

still

disarm

1797.

“The

Curran.

your

denies the

the

natural

second,

against

We

ditto

laws,

the

the

their

of

determined

to

abandon

and

Government

strengthened

as

and

was

Orr ered

the

a

14

The

of

United

achievement 1792-93

Tone but

it

and the

of

an

Irish

of

consequent

labour

laws,

progress

of

a

gallantly

Ireland.

But

a

Ulster

its

both

were was

rapidly

the

of

the spread

was

The

the

The

Catholics,

French the

when

1791,

1794,

for

Reform. the

views

republic,

on

recall

it

the

penalty.

in

independent

first,

public delegaAct makes the

death

In

is:

religious

Parliamentary to

Parliamentary

objects.

administall

of

added

formed

when,

Newell,

Oath

of

any

(such

calumny.

(allegedly)

offence for Insurrection

and

an

(Bird,

men

The

face.

Irishmen

and

attainment

was

to

face

soldier.

among

unchanged, of

the

United

having

original

completed.

their

now

carrying

1791

desired

of

violence

testimony”

this

Emancipation

prospects

quarrel,

felony of

of

circumstances,

the

patronage,

the

a criminal purpose. The

retaining

who

for

suspension

their

of for

it

oath

Catholic

the

the

of

the

private

secrecy,

of

disappointment

coercive

he

and

who of

on

affection

Society

objects

a

to

of

to

such

Neilson, formal

1797,

Irish

obligation

increased,

organisation

“battalion

October,

Convention Law had made tion to meet for that administering

attend,

the

these

Irishmen

spies

prosecutions,

United

secondly,

an

jury

contest.

the

by

the

brotherhood

3dly,

Reform;

a

of

despotism

and

Under

United

itself

quarters, the

of

to promote distinctions;

the

others),

hanged

oath

first

complaint;

Commons,

party

the

administration,

intimidation.

free

to

continued

augmented

to

etc.),

The

Secretary.

the

of

or

of

constitution

Emancipation,

trusted

Maguane

House

Chief

minorities

Act.

defence

ceased

Opposition Castlereagh

incessantly

Government O’Brien,

the

the

own

Your

what?

petition

third,

in

Curran

parliamentary

and

and

profligacy

The

the

entire

Grattan. 127 to 16.

By

of

one

attaints

of by

Insurrection

right

the

powerless. The people looked to the United Irish to arms, to Revolution. The Government perstst-

Reform

soldiery—they Opposition

of

decreasing

daily more to France,

refusing

self-defence

power.”’

the

.

sufferers—the

speech

Lieutenant

Act,

with

1797.

discontented.

of

maintain

Constitution,

deeply

Grattan; the 3 July, 1797.

on

seen

to

Executive, in

it,

have

grew

the

Last

adjourned

struggled

ed

1797.

from

House

they

of

Ireland

of

together

March,

Amendment was rejected

Gunpowder

of

attempts

15,

secedes

is

13

Lord

Act,

right

power

the

the

May

North

217

counties

inhabitants

Belfast,

“‘The

Grattan:

Convention

1801

OF

1797: Disarming of Ulster. Message Secretary.) General Lake—cowardly,

province of Ireland of High Treason.’’ 20 March, 1797. The Amendment laws,

whole

the

Proclamation.

Lake’s

March,

is

UNION

siege).

of

March

Commons.

TO

1796

March

state

cruel—was

magistrates.

REVOLUTION

of

in

Camden.

infamous, 19

AMERICAN

the

In of

spread;

10

May,

of

Fitzwilliam,

the

accumulation

of

the

1795,

Alliance,

and

the

influence,

and

altered

the

natural the

218

KARL

whole

character

the

of

system spread to Leinster. So formally communicated with

on

Only

test

The

Society.

the

of

19

diverted

1798

February,

by

the

Lord

resolved

anything

more

made

of 1796 the organisamiddle of 1797, this

1796,

May

through

they

purpose

their

from

as

back

far

France,

was

Society

and less constitutional. In the autumn made military in Ulster. Towards the

decisive, tion was

MARX

“that

which

Executive

Edward they

could

not be Parlia-

would

be

had

Fitzgerald.

done

in

ment”’.

In

the for

reason the

order

so

not

leaders

sent were

And

quarters, tion.

the

a

an

again,

in

they

into

their

councils

was

arrested

a were