Introductory Food Chemistry 9780801450754

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Introductory Food Chemistry
 9780801450754

Table of contents :
Contents
Preface
1. Food Chemistry: An Introduction
What Is Food Chemistry?
Basic Review
Atoms and Molecules
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Phosphorous
Halogens
Transition Metals
Review of Thermodynamics
The First Law of Thermodynamics
Heat Capacity
Heat Evolved during Physical Changes
Thermochemistry: Enthalpies of Formation
Hess's Law
Calorimetry
Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
Free Energy
Mixtures and Solutions
Chemical Equilibrium
Phases and Phase Changes
Colligative Properties
Freezing Point Depression
Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure
Suggested Reading
2. Water in Foods
Physical Properties of Water
Molecular Structure and Hydrogen Bonding
Hydrogen Bonds
Types of Hydrogen Bonds in Biological and Food Molecules
Hydrogen Bonds in Water: Ice and Liquid Water
Aqueous Solutions
Solutions with Multiple Solutes: The Hofmeister Series
Solutions of Gases in Liquids: Carbonated Beverages
Water Activity and Mobility
Food Glasses
Freezing and Freeze-Drying
Ice Nucleation and Growth
Suggested Reading
3. Dispersed Systems: Food Colloids
Colloids and Types of Dispersions
Gels
Emulsions
The Importance of Surface Area
The Thermodynamics of Surfaces
The "Mentos Eruption
Curved Surfaces, the Kelvin Equation, and Ostwald Ripening
Antifreeze Proteins and Ice Nucleating Proteins
Adsorption at Liquid Surfaces
Adsorption at Solid Surfaces
Hysteresis in Moisture Sorption Isotherms
Producing Emulsions
HLB Numbers
Emulsion Stability
Solvation Forces
DLVO Theory
Steric Stabilization
Effects of Dissolved Polymers on Emulsion Stability
Sedimentation and Creaming
Foams
Suggested Reading
4. Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates in Foods
Carbohydrate Structures
The D-Aldoses
The D-Ketoses
Systematic Nomenclature
Carbohydrate Rings
The Relationship between D- and L-Sugars
Tautomerization
Sugar Derivatives
Alditols
Aldonic and Uronic Acids
Aldaric Acids
Sugar Amides
Deoxy Sugars
Inositols
Reactions of Carbohydrates
Acid-Catalyzed Reactions
Mutarotation
Glycosidic Condensation: The Formation of Glycosides
Glycyrrhizin and Stevioside
Cyanogenic Glycosides
S-Glycosides: Mustard, Horseradish, and Wasabi
Common Food Disaccharides
Sucrose
Food Oligosaccharides
Internal Glycosidic Condensation: Levoglucosan
Acid Hydrolysis
Enzymatic Hydrolysis
Production of Corn Syrups and High-Fructose Corn Syrups
HFCSs as Sweeteners
Reactions under Basic Conditions
Enolization
Dehydration and Thermal Degradation
Non-Oxidative Browning
Caramelization
Maillard Reaction
The Strecker Reaction
Acrylamide
Functional Properties
Sweetness
Water Binding and Solubility
Polysaccharides
Homopolymers
Starch
Cyclodextrins
Chemically Modified Starches
Cellulose
Chitin and Chitosan
Heteropolymers
Hemicellulose
Seaweed Polysaccharides
Alginates
Carrageenans
Agar, Agarose, and Agaropectin
Bacterial Polysaccharides
Xanthan
Pullulan
Gellan
Plant Polysaccharides
Pectins
Seed Gums
The Galactomannans
Tamarind Seed Gum
Glucomannans
Exudate Gums
Suggested Reading
5. Proteins
Proteins in Foods
Polypeptide Chains
Amino Acids
Amino Acid Configurations and Taste; MSG
Aspartame
Tryptophan and Serotonin
Protein Conformations
Protein Folding
Ramachandran Maps
Secondary Structures
Alpha Helices
Beta Sheets
Reverse Turns
Prolines
Collagen
Gelatin
Disulfide Bonds
Gluten
Folding of Globular Proteins
The Chain Configurational Entropy Contribution to the Free Energy of Folding
Tertiary Structure of Globular Proteins
Milk Proteins
Whey Proteins
beta-Lactoglobulin -- An Example of a Typical Globular Food Protein
Other Whey Proteins
Caseins: Random Coil-Like Chains
Sweet-Tasting Proteins
Botulinum Toxin
Legume Proteins
Soy Proteins
Peanut Allergies
Zein Proteins
Egg White Proteins: Albumen
Egg Yolk Proteins: Lipoproteins
Meat Proteins
Mad Cow Disease
Reactions of Proteins
Acid Hydrolysis
Racemization and Cross Linking
Reactions with Nitrites and the Formation /V-Nitrosamines
Methionine Oxidation
The Kjeldahl Method
Maillard Reactions
Reactions with Aldehydes
Ionizing Radiation
Acylation
Homocysteine
Aspartame Degradation
Heterocyclic Amine Formation
GMO Foods: "Frankenfoods
Suggested Reading
6. Enzymes in Foods
Enzymes in Foods
Enzyme Kinetics
Enzyme Thermodynamics: The Production of High-Fructose Corn Syrups
Proteases
Endopeptidases
Exopeptidases
Glycosidases and Other Enzymes with Carbohydrate Substrates
Amylases
Pectic Enzymes
Lactases
Lipases
Foaming in Beer
Enzymatic Browning: Polyphenol Oxidases
Suggested Reading
7. Lipids
Fats in Foods
Fatty Acids
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA)
Glycerol and Triacylglycerols (Triglycerides)
Diglycerides and Monoglycerides
Stereospecific Numbering
Phospholipids
Waxes
Cholesterol and Phytosterols
Reduced-Calorie Synthetic Fat Substitutes
Synthetic Fat Replacers
Fat Compositions
Animal Fats
Dairy Fats
Oils from Plants
Reactions of Lipids
Fractionation
Interesterification
Saponification
Hydrogenation of Vegetable Oils
Bromination and Brominated Vegetable Oil (BVO)
Lipid Oxidation
Autoxidation
Photosensitizer-Induced Singlet Oxygen Oxidation
Enzymatic Lipid Oxidation
Tests for Lipid Oxidation
The Control of Lipid Oxidation
Frying
Smoke Points
Fat Crystallization
Crystal Phases
Chocolate
Three-Component Phase Diagrams
Suggested Reading
8. Flavors
Taste and Odor Perception
Sweeteners
Nutritive Sweeteners
Nonnutritive Sweeteners
Saccharin
Cyclamate
Aspartame
Neotame
Alitame
The Safety of Peptide Sweeteners
Acesulfame K
Sucralose
Choice of Sweeteners
Nonsweet (Savory) Flavors and Odors
Volatile Sulfides and Mercaptans: Onions and Garlic
Furfuryl Mercaptan
Aldehydes, Esters, and Ketones
Diacetyl
Essential Oils
Carvone: Spearmint and Caraway
Vanillin
Citrus Oils
Cinnamon, Cloves, Nutmeg, and Bay 480 Thyme and Thymol
Menthol
Phellandrene
Pinene
Sage
Dill Ether
Parsley and Apiol
Substituted Aromatics, Phenolics, and Polyphenolics
Tumeric
Rosemary
Phenylpropenes: Tarragon, Anise, Estragole, and Anethole
Brett Character in Wines and Beers
Ethylene, Carrots, and Isocoumarin
Pyrazines and Methoxypyrazines
"Foxy" Grape Aromas
Hot (Spicy) Tastes
Piperine
Capsaicin
Ginger
Bitter Tastes
Alkaloids
Quinine
Caffeine
Humulone
Protein Decomposition Products
Suggested Reading
9. Food Colors
The Importance of Food Colors
Visible Light and Color
Natural Colors in Foods
Tetrapyrrole Pigments
Heme Compounds and Meat
Chlorophyll
Carotenoids
Provitamin A Activity of Carotenoids
Flavonoids
Anthocyanins
Polyphenolic Flavonoid Antioxidants
Flavanols
Flavanones, Flavones, Flavonols, and Isoflavonols
Resveratrol
Tannins
Polyphenolic Chemistry in Wines
Betalains
Cochineal
Colorants
Titanium Dioxide
Synthetic Colors
Azo Dyes
Triphenylmethane Dyes
Indigotine
Xanthines
Commercial Use of Synthetic Colors
Suggested Reading
10. Food Additives
Food Additives and the Law
Acids
Chelating Agents
Antioxidants
Antimicrobial Agents
Epoxides
Antibiotics
Anticaking Agents
Chemical Leavening Agents
Confectioner’s Glaze
Polydextrose
Suggested Reading
11. Food Toxicology
Toxicity and Dose
Chinese Restaurant Syndrome
Toxins in Foods
Industrial Pollutants
Dioxins and PCBs
Mercury
Arsenic in Drinking Water
Toxins from Packaging and Containers
Pesticides
Organochlorine Compounds
Organophosphates
Pyrethroids
Naturally Occurring Toxins
Toxins in Fish and Shellfish
Scombroid Fish Poisoning
Fugu and Tetrodotoxin
Ciguatoxin
Brevetoxins and Shellfish Contaminated by Red Tide
Mycotoxins
Molds
Afiatoxin
Fusarium
Ergot
Mushrooms
Amanitin
Other Mushroom Toxins
Suggested Reading
12. Vitamins
What Are Vitamins?
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin A
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin K
Water-Soluble Vitamins
B Vitamins
Vitamin B1: Thiamine
Vitamin B2: Riboflavin
Vitamin B5: Niacin or Nicotinic Acid
Vitamin B5: Pantothenic Acid
Vitamin B6
Vitamin B7: Biotin
Vitamin B9: Folic Acid
Vitamin B12
Vitamin C
Suggested Reading
Bibliography
Index

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