Introduction To Modern Physics [5th Edition]

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Introduction To Modern Physics [5th Edition]

Table of contents :
INTRODUCTION TO MODERN PHYSICS FIFTH EDITION......Page 1
HALF-TITLE......Page 2
INTERNATIONAL SERIES IN PURE AND APPLIED PHYSICS......Page 3
TITLE-PAGE......Page 4
COPYRIGHT......Page 5
PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION......Page 6
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION......Page 8
CONTENTS......Page 12
INTRODUCTION......Page 18
4. Anaxagoras and Empedocles......Page 22
6. Aristotle......Page 23
9. From the Greeks to Copernicus......Page 26
10. The Copernican System......Page 28
11. Galileo Galilei......Page 29
12. Tycho Brahe and Kepler......Page 33
13. The Experimental Method Spreads......Page 36
14. Sir Isaac Newton......Page 37
17. Heat during the Eighteenth Century......Page 44
18. Light during the Eighteenth Century......Page 45
19. Electricity during the Eighteenth Century......Page 46
20. Close of the Second Period......Page 47
22. Heat and Energy......Page 48
23. Light......Page 50
24. Electricity and Magnetism......Page 52
25. Michael Faraday......Page 53
26. Joseph Henry......Page 60
27. James Clerk Maxwell......Page 61
28. The Completion of Electromagnetic Theory......Page 64
29. Newtonian Relativity......Page 66
30. Relativity and the Propagation of Light......Page 67
31. The Michelson-Morley Experiment......Page 69
32. The New Relativity of Einstein......Page 73
33. Simultaneity and Time Order......Page 74
34. The Lorentz Transformation......Page 76
35. Contractions in Space and Time......Page 78
36. The Transformation of Velocities._......Page 80
37. Relativistic Mechanics The Variation of Mass......Page 81
38. Force and Kinetic Energy......Page 84
39. A Relation between Mass and Energy......Page 85
40. Relativity and Electromagnetism......Page 87
41. General Theory of Relativity......Page 90
42. Einstein's Law of Gravitation......Page 91
43. Discovery of the Photoelectric Effect......Page 94
44. A Problem......Page 95
45. Electricity in Matter......Page 96
46. The Zeeman Effect......Page 97
47. The Discovery of the Electron......Page 100
48. Electronic Magnitudes......Page 103
49. Photoelectrons......Page 106
51. Energy Distribution of Photoelectrons......Page 108
52. Relation between the Velocities of Photoelectrons and the Frequency of the Light......Page 110
53. Other Properties of Photoelectric Emission......Page 111
54. Thermionic Emission......Page 112
55. What Is the Photoelectric Mechanism ?......Page 114
56. The Free-electron Theory of Metals......Page 117
57. Origin of Photoelectrons......Page 119
59. The Isothermal Enclosure and Black-body Radiation......Page 123
60. Pressure and Energy Flux Due to Isotropic Radiation......Page 125
61. The Stefan-Boltzmann Law......Page 127
62. Reflection from a Moving Mirror......Page 130
63. Effect of an Adiabatic Expansion upon Black-body Radiation......Page 132
64. The Wien Displacement Law......Page 134
65. The Formula for Black-body Radiation......Page 135
66. The Principle of the Equipartition of Energy......Page 136
67. Degrees of Freedom in an Enclosure......Page 138
68. The Rayleigh-Jeans Formula......Page 140
69. Planck's Investigation of Black-body Radiation......Page 141
70. Distribution and Average Energy of Harmonic Oscillators in Thermal Equilibrium......Page 142
71. Planck's Quantum Hypothesis......Page 144
72. Planck's Radiation Law......Page 147
CHAPTER 5 THE NUCLEAR ATOM AND THE ORIGIN OF SPECTRAL LINES......Page 150
73. Spectroscopic Units......Page 151
74. Early Search for Regularities in Spectra......Page 152
75. Spectral Series and Their Interrelations......Page 155
76. Further Relationships between Series. Spectral Terms......Page 156
77. Early Views on Atomic Structure......Page 158
78. The Scattering of Alpha Particles by Atoms......Page 159
79. The Nuclear Atom......Page 161
80. The Bohr Theory of Atomic Hydrogen......Page 165
81. Quantum States of One Electron in an Atom......Page 167
82. Spectrum of a One-electron Atom......Page 171
83. The Spectrum of Atomic Hydrogen......Page 173
84. Ionized Helium......Page 175
85. Energy Levels and Series Relationships for Sodium......Page 176
86. Excitation and Ionization of Atoms by Electrons......Page 178
87. Absorption and Reemission of Radiation.......Page 181
88. The Boltzmann Distribution Law......Page 185
89. The Extension of Bohr's Theory......Page 186
90. Matter Waves......Page 189
91. Mechanics as Geometrical Optics of the Waves......Page 192
92. Refraction of Matter Waves......Page 193
93. The de Broglie Wave Length......Page 194
94. Experiments on Electron Waves......Page 197
95. Diffraction of Molecule Waves......Page 201
96. Schrodinger's Wave Equation......Page 202
97. Physical Significance of psi......Page 206
98. The Probability Stream Density......Page 209
99. The Indeterminacy Principle......Page 210
100. Stationary or Quantum States......Page 212
101. Physical Magnitudes as Operators......Page 214
102. Particle in a Box; the Harmonic Oscillator......Page 216
103. Perturbation Theory......Page 218
104. The One-electron Atom......Page 220
105. Relativistic Effects and Electron Spin......Page 228
106. Two Noninteracting Particles in a Box......Page 230
107. Electron Spin The Exclusion Principle......Page 234
108. Emission and Absorption of Radiation......Page 238
109. The Central-field Approximation for a Many-electron Atom......Page 241
110. Shells and Subshells......Page 244
111. General Features of the Periodic Table......Page 245
112. The First Two Periods......Page 248
113. Valence Bonds......Page 252
114. Remainder of the Periodic Table......Page 255
115. Angular Momentum and its Selection Rules......Page 257
116. Alkali-type Spectra......Page 259
117. Term Energies of the Alkali Metals......Page 263
118. The Spin-orbit Effect in a Central Field......Page 267
119. Fine Structure in Alkali-type Spectra......Page 271
120. Multiplet Levels for One-electron Atoms......Page 275
121. Fine Structure of Spectral Lines from One-electron Atoms......Page 277
122. Many-electron Wave Theory......Page 283
123. LS or Russell-Saunders Coupling......Page 286
124. LS Multiplets of Levels......Page 289
125. Spacing of the LS Multiplet Levels......Page 291
126. The Arc Spectrum of Mercury......Page 292
127. Equivalent Electrons......Page 295
128. Coupling of the jj Type......Page 296
129. Effects of a Magnetic Field on an Atom......Page 299
130. Zeeman Effect in a Huge Field......Page 304
131. Zeeman Effect in a Weak Field......Page 308
132. Zeeman Patterns of LS Multiplets in a Weak Field......Page 309
133. The Paschen-Back Effect......Page 312
134. The Stern-Gerlach Experiment......Page 315
135. Isotope Structure and Hyperfine Structure......Page 317
136. Magnetic Beam Measurement of Nuclear Spins and Moments......Page 322
137. The Breadth of Spectral Lines......Page 328
138. Molecular Spectra......Page 331
139. Rotation Spectra......Page 333
140. Vibration-rotation Spectra......Page 335
141. General Theory of Molecular Quantum States......Page 341
142. Electronic Bands......Page 345
143. The Raman Effect......Page 347
144. Homonuclear Molecules......Page 352
145. The Ammonia Inversion Spectrum......Page 356
146. The Discovery of X-rays......Page 362
147. Production and Measurement of X-Rays......Page 364
148. Classical Pulse Theory of X-rays......Page 366
149. Polarization, Absorption and Fluorescence of X-rays......Page 368
150. The Crystal Diffraction Grating......Page 372
151. The X-ray Spectrometer......Page 376
152. Monochromatic Characteristic Radiations......Page 379
153. Moseley's Law......Page 381
154. The Origin of X-ray Lines......Page 382
155. X-ray Energy Levels and Selection Rules......Page 387
156. The Continuous X-ray Spectrum......Page 391
157. The Absorption of X-rays......Page 394
158. The Photoelectric Effect for X-rays......Page 397
159. The Scattering of X-rays......Page 400
160. The Compton Effect......Page 403
161. Refraction and Reflection of X-rays......Page 409
162. The Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation......Page 410
163. Multiple Ionization of Inner Electron Shells......Page 413
164. X-ray Spectra and the Outer Part of the Atom......Page 417
165. X-ray Spectroscopy of Solids......Page 419
166. The Specific Heats of Ideal Gases......Page 422
167. The Specific Heats of Simple Solids......Page 426
168. The Ideal Gas......Page 431
170. The Fermi-Dirac Gas......Page 433
CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS......Page 437
171. The Atomic Approach in the Wave Mechanics of Crystals......Page 438
172. Conductors and Insulators......Page 440
173. The Collective-electron Approach......Page 443
174. Metals and Nonmetals......Page 444
NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY......Page 448
175. The Discovery of Radioactivity......Page 449
176. Radiations from Radioactive Substances......Page 450
177. Radioactive Transformations......Page 454
178. Detection of Individual Charged Particles......Page 461
179. Nuclear Spectra of the Radioelements......Page 465
180. Positive Rays......Page 472
181. Isotopes of Stable Elements......Page 475
182. Discovery of Artificial Transmutation......Page 480
183. Discovery of the Neutron......Page 483
184. Properties of Nuclei......Page 487
185. Constituents of Nuclei......Page 490
186. Masses and Binding Energies......Page 491
187. Nuclear Forces......Page 496
188. The Positron......Page 507
189. Induced Radioactivity......Page 512
190. Nuclear Transformations with Artificially Accelerated Particles......Page 513
191. Accelerators......Page 515
NUCLEAR REACTIONS AND NUCLEAR MODELS......Page 521
192. General Features of Nuclear Reactions......Page 522
193. Masses of Mirror Nuclides......Page 527
194. Particle Groups......Page 529
195. Nuclear Resonances......Page 532
196. Liquid-drop Model......Page 536
197. Neutron Reactions......Page 539
198. Energy Levels of Nuclei......Page 548
199. The Shell Model......Page 551
200. Discovery of Fission......Page 557
201. Theory of Fission......Page 560
202. Prompt Neutrons-Chain Reactions......Page 562
203. Fast Fission-Explosive Reactors......Page 566
204. Fusion: Energy from the Light Elements......Page 569
205. Early Work on Cosmic Rays......Page 572
206. The Measurement of Cosmic-ray Ionization......Page 575
207. The Altitude-depth Curve......Page 576
208. Discovery of the Latitude Effect......Page 579
209. Theory of Geomagnetic Effects......Page 583
210. Primary Momentum Spectrum......Page 586
211. Observations on Single Cosmic-ray Particles......Page 590
212. Showers and Bursts......Page 594
213. Theory of the Shower Phenomenon......Page 598
214. Discovery of the Mu Meson......Page 607
215. Properties of Mu Mesons......Page 611
216. The Pi Meson......Page 617
217. Artificial Production of Pi Mesons......Page 620
218. Heavy Mesons and Hyperons......Page 626
219. Nuclear Interactions of Cosmic Rays......Page 633
220. Cosmic-ray Primaries......Page 639
221. Development of the Cosmic Radiation in the Atmosphere......Page 642
222. Origin of Cosmic Rays......Page 645
224. Electromagnetic Energy......Page 650
225. Electromagnetic Momentum......Page 651
226. Electromagnetic Waves......Page 652
227. Field of a Moving Point Charge......Page 653
228. Energy Radiated by Accelerated Point Charges......Page 654
APPENDIX II COMPOSITION OF THE ELEMENTS
AND MASSES OF ISOTOPES......Page 656
APPENDIX III FIRST IONIZATION POTENTIAL V, LOWEST SPECTRAL
TERM T, AND ELECTRON CONFIGURATION
OF THE ELEMENTS......Page 665
SOME USEFUL CONSTANTS AND RELATIONS......Page 668
INDEX......Page 670
Back Cover......Page 685

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