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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РФ ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ «ВОРОНЕЖСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

С.Н. Черникова

INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

Учебно-методическое пособие

Воронеж Издательский дом ВГУ 2018

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Утверждено решением научно-методического совета факультета романогерманской филологии 13 февраля 2018 г., протокол № 6

Рецензент – кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры общегуманитарных дисциплин и иностранных языков Воронежского института (филиала) автономной некоммерческой организации высшего образования Московского гуманитарно-экономического университета И.Н. Никитина

Учебно-методическое пособие подготовлено на кафедре английского языка естественно-научных факультетов факультета романо-германской филологии Воронежского государственного университета.

Рекомендовано для студентов второго курса дневной формы обучения факультета географии, геоэкологии и туризма.

Для специальности 05.03.06 – Экология и природопользование 2

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ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА Целью учебно-методического пособия Introduction to Environmental Science является развитие у студентов продуктивных и рецептивных видов речевой деятельности: говорения, чтения и аудирования в рамках профессиональной сферы общения. Тренируются различные стратегии чтения (просмотровое, поисковое, детальное), развиваются навыки диалогической и монологической речи. В качестве сопутствующей задачи предполагается развитие умений группового и парного взаимодействия. Пособие рассчитано на 54 часа аудиторной и 58 часов самостоятельной работы. Пособие состоит из 6 разделов (Units), охватывающих основную тематику общения в профессиональной сфере, приложений, текстов аудиозаписей и списка использованной литературы. В данном пособии рассматриваются

основные понятия и термины, используемые в

экологической науке: биосфера, экосистема, биомы, биологическое разнообразие и пищевые цепи. Каждый

раздел

(Unit)

содержит

предтекстовые

упражнения;

аутентичные письменные тексты и тексты для аудирования; послетекстовые упражнения, направленные на проверку понимания; блок упражнений на обсуждение информации, полученной из текстов; а также упражнения, направленные на формирование и развитие навыков письменной речи.

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CONTENT UNIT I

HOME SWEET HOME

5

UNIT II THE BIOSPHERE

14

UNIT III

21

FOOD WEBS

UNIT IV ECOSYSTEMS

28

UNIT V BIOMES

37

UNIT VI BIODIVERSITY

46

APPENDIX 1

54

APPENDIX

2

56

AUDIOSCRIPTS

59

ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННАЯ ЛИТЕРАТУРА

64

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UNIT I

HOME SWEET HOME

Lead- in 1 Choose the answer to the questions and check the answers. 1. Which star provides Earth with solar energy? a) Polaris - the North Star

c) the Sun

b) Sirius

d) the Moon

2. Earth receives almost all of its life-supporting energy from a) geothermal heat

c) the Sun

b) atmospheric gasses

d) carbon

3. About how much of the Earth's surface is covered by water? a) 50%

c) 70%

b) 60%

d) 80%

4. Most of Earth's water is contained in: a) rivers

c) atmosphere

b) polar ice

d) oceans

5. The largest ocean on Earth is: a) Atlantic Ocean

c) Arctic Ocean

b) Indian Ocean

d) Pacific Ocean

6. Most of the oxygen we breathe is produced by: a) clouds

c) algae

b) grasses

d) trees

7. The age of the Earth is about: a) 550 million years

c) 4.5 billion years

b) 1.8 billion years

d) 8.8 billion years

8. The first modern tree appeared on Earth about: 5

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a) 100 million years ago

c) 750 million years ago

b) 370 million years ago

d) 1.2 billion years ago

9. The first modern plants - vascular plants with roots that carry water and nutrients to the rest of the plant - first began to appear on Earth about: a) 470 million years ago

c) 1.3 billion years ago

b) 850 million years ago

d) 370 million years ago

Reading 2a Scan the text below and say what ingredients for life are mentioned. THE INGREDIENTS FOR LIFE (i) Earth is the only planet that can support life. This is amazing because it is made out of the same matter as other planets in our solar system, it was formed at the same time and through the same processes as every other planet, and it gets its energy from the sun. To a universal traveller, Earth may seem to be a harmless little planet in one of spiral galaxies in the universe. It has an average size star of average brightness and is joined by eight other planets - which support no known life forms - in its solar system. However, Earth is a planet teeming with vitality and is home to billions of plants and animals. (ii) How and why did we get here? What processes made this to happen? And where do we go from here? No one knows exactly what led to the origin of life, and we may never know. But scientists have made significant progress in understanding what chemical processes may have led to the origins of 6

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life. (iii) There are many theories about how things came to be the way they are. It is thought that the biosphere evolved at least some 3.5 billion years ago. Biologists agree on one thing. Liquid water is absolutely essential for life to evolve and survive. But why is water so precious? For life to evolve, simple chemicals must combine to form more complex ones. Many chemicals dissolve in water allowing them to mix together and react. Liquid water has the right temperature for chemical reactions to happen. Many chemicals have parts which are attracted to water and parts which are repelled by it. These forces also help reactions happen. (iv) Carbon is important because of its ability to form long chain-like molecules. Carbon chains form the backbone of organic molecules. Hydrogen and oxygen can both bond with carbon in lots of different ways. These two elements make up water molecules. So if water is present, hydrogen and oxygen will already be there. Like hydrogen and oxygen, nitrogen can also combine with carbon in lots of different ways. Large molecules made from carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen also tend to be very stable. Sulphur, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper and zinc are all needed for life as we know it on Earth. (v) All chemical reactions need an energy source to drive them. On Earth, most primitive animals and plants get their energy by absorbing ultraviolet light from the Sun. This is called photosynthesis. Humans and other animals get their energy by eating plants, or other animals. All animals ultimately rely on energy from the Sun to live. Until recently, it was thought that life couldn't exist anywhere that was shaded from the Sun's light. However, scientists have recently discovered organisms living deep beneath the ocean. These organisms absorb energy directly from chemicals in the water around them. Three moons in our Solar System (Europe, Calisto and Titan) may all harbour deep underground 7

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oceans. Could they also harbour extra-terrestrial life? 2b Match up the beginning of the sentence (column A) with the ending (column B). A a) Planet Earth

B 1) evolved at least some 3.5 billion years ago.

b) Liquid water

2) make up water molecules.

c) Organisms living deep be- 3) is able to form long chain-like moleneath the ocean

cules.

d) All chemical reactions

4) is teeming with life.

e) The biosphere

5) absorb energy directly from chemicals in the water around them

f) Carbon

6) need an energy source to drive them.

g) Hydrogen and oxygen

7) is absolutely essential for life to evolve and survive.

2c Answer the questions. 1. What do all planets in the Solar System have in common? 2. What information about the Solar System does the text provide? 3. What part of the Solar System abounds with life? 4. When did the biosphere on the Earth evolve? 5. Why is the liquid water so precious? 6. What ability does carbon have? 7. What are the elements that are important for the development of life? 8. What energy source do you know? 9. How do animals and plants get their energy from the Sun? 10. Can life exist in the places that are shaded from the Sun’s light?

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2d

Say whether the following statements true or false. Correct the false

ones. 1)

Earth is made out of the different matter as other planets in our solar system.

2)

Earth is situated in one of spiral galaxies in the Universe.

3)

Scientists were able to come close to knowing exactly what led to the origins of life.

4)

Scientists have made little progress in understanding what chemical processes that may have led to the origins of life.

5)

So if water is present, hydrogen and nitrogen will already be there.

6)

Very few chemicals dissolve in water allowing them to mix together and react.

7)

Large molecules made from carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen are unstable.

8)

Organisms living deep beneath the ocean absorb energy from chemicals in the water around them.

2e

Put the following words in the correct order to make up a sentence.

1)

need, all, them, chemical reactions, to drive, an energy source;

2)

that, is, only, life, support, the, Earth, planet, can;

3)

and, survive, absolutely, is, for life, water, to evolve, essential, liquid.

4)

the Sun, animals, from, to live, all, rely on, energy.

5)

combine, ones, to form, simple, more complex, chemicals, must.

6)

the ocean, living, recently, deep, scientists, organisms, beneath, have discovered. Vocabulary Practice

3a

Match up and explain the meaning.  solar

 molecules

 spiral

 water 9

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3b

 chemical

 organisms

 primitive

 life

 liquid

 light

 organic

 system

 ultraviolet

 galaxies

 extra terrestrial

 reactions

Write down the chemical formulas for the following.  sulfur



 manganese



 carbon



 iron



 hydrogen



 water



 oxygen



 cobalt



 magnesium



 copper



 calcium



 zinc



Listening 4a

Match up the words with their explanations. A

B

1. orbit

a. the central part of an object

2. massive

b. what something is made of: solid, liquid or gas

3. core

c. the surface of a star

4. energy

d. be created

5. matter

e. the ability of a physical object or process to work

6. photosphere

f. very large and heavy

7. come into being

g. circle around a bigger object, for example another planet or star 10

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4b Listen to the BBC program 6 Minute English devoted to the sun and fill in the gaps in the following sentences (Audio File 1). 1. The sun is our nearest star – although it’s a staggering _______ kilometres away. 2. Life on Earth couldn’t exist without its ________. 3. The sun’s core – that’s the centre – is a blistering _______ degrees Celsius. 4. The sun is just a big ball of _____. 5. The sun is roughly made of ______ hydrogen, it’s maybe ______ helium, and the rest of it’s made up of things like iron, carbon, oxygen, nickel. 6. Heat and light energy are a result of gas explosions or ________. 7. It takes only _______ for light energy from the sun to reach the Earth. 8. Scientists these days are able to see ________ in fantastic detail using powerful telescopes. 9. The sun came into being around _________ years ago. 10. The sun’s surface is ______ degrees Celsius. Speaking 5 Read the following Earth factfile on page 13. Pay special attention to pronouncing numbers and figures. Add some other facts about our planet.

Extra Activities 6a Using the words from the box fill in the gaps. more complex

space

single celled

building

essential

amino acids

Universe

lightning storms

ingredients

THE RECIPE FOR LIFE To find out if there is life in the __(1)____, it is useful to look at how it began here on Earth. Follow our step-by-step recipe to see how life started. 11

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1) Mix the ingredients. For life to evolve, simple molecules have to combine to form ___(2)____ ones. This mixing would have happened in the seas of the early Earth, often called the primordial soup. The seas of the early Earth are often referred to as the primordial soup. They contained a cocktail of simple chemicals, with all the ___(3)____ for life. 2) Add energy. Next you need energy. This may have come from ___(4)____ or hot underwater springs. This injection of energy sparked chemical reactions. These simple molecules began joining to form larger, more complex ones called amino acids. In a classic experiment in 1953, Stanley Miller and Harold Urey recreated the primordial soup in the laboratory. By passing electricity through a mixture of simple molecules, they were able to make ___(5)____. 3) Form complex molecules. Amino acids then joined together end-to-end to form long, chain-like molecules, known as proteins. Proteins are essential for ___(6)___ a living creature. They are involved in the formation of just about everything in your body, from the colour of your skin to the layout of neurons in your brain. 4) Wait for life to reproduce. Another complex molecule that was formed during these reactions was DNA. DNA has an amazing characteristic that makes it ___(7)____ for life - it can reproduce itself. It also carries all the code to make a living creature. Over millions of years, this concoction of molecules evolved into bacteria. The earliest fossils we have found on Earth are simple, ___(8)____ bacteria about 3.8 billion years old. These are the ancient ancestors of all life on planet Earth today. But not all scientists agree that life evolved from chemicals in the primordial soup. Some think the seeds of life may have come from ___(9)___ on a comet. 12

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6b

Sum up the information from the text (Appendix 2) and retell it.

     

  

EARTH FACTFILE The age of Earth is about 4.5 Billion Years. Earth’s distance from the sun is 92,955,820 miles. Earth is the 3 rd planet from the sun. The atmospheric pressure is 14.7 pounds per square inch at sea level. Total surface area of Earth is approximately 197,000,000 square miles. The highest point of Earth is 29,028 feet above sea level, Mount Everest, formed 60 million years ago, located on the border of Tibet and Nepal in the Central Himalayas in southeast Asia. The lowest point on land is 1,320 feet below sea level. The Dead Sea is also the saltiest on Earth, that it is unable to support any type of life. The deepest point on Earth is 35,802 feet, Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean. The water pressure there is over 8 tons per square inch. The air consists of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% other content (including greenhouse gases).

 Highest temperature on Earth (136.4° F) was recorded at Al Asisiyah, Libya.  Lowest temperature (-129° F) on Earth was recorded at Vostok station, Antarctica, on July 31, 1983. 

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UNIT II

THE BIOSPHERE

Lead - in 1a

Match up the definitions (column A) with the explanations (column B). A

1) Hydrosphere

B a) the layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth and retained by the Earth's gravity;

2) Lithosphere

b) that part of a planet's outer shell—including air, land, and water—within which life occurs, and which biotic processes in turn alter or transform, the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships;

3) Biosphere

c) the solid outermost shell of a rocky planet; it includes the crust, the mantle and the core;

4) Atmosphere

d) the collective mass of water found on, under, and over the surface of a planet.

1b Listen to the textbook chapter (Audio File 2). What are the parts of the atmosphere and lithosphere? 1c Listen to a conversation between a teacher and a student (Audio File 3). Check the spheres that the student identifies.  biosphere

 atmosphere

 stratosphere

 geosphere

 troposphere 1d Listen again and complete the conversation. Teacher: Leon, are you pretty comfortable I with the spheres? Student: I think so. I’ll give it a try. 14

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Teacher: Okay. What layer contains most of the ____1___? Student: Let's see. That's the ___2____, right? Teacher: You got it. And what larger sphere is it ____3___? Student: It's part of the _____4____. No, wait, that's a separate layer. Teacher: That's right. And they ____5___ to which sphere? Student: They're both part of the ____6____. 1e

Act out the roles below based on 1d. Then switch roles. USE LANGUAGE SUCH AS: What layer contains ...? That's the ... right? No, wait, that's... Student A:

Student B:

You are a teacher. Talk to Student B You are a student. Talk to Student A about about:

the Earth's spheres.

 the Earth's spheres  which layers belong to each sphere Reading 2a Read the text and put the following sentences into the numbered gaps. a)

Some species occupy a broad biological niche, while others are more specialized.

b)

Ecology is the study of how all living things interrelate with one another and their nonliving environment.

c)

Plants store the glucose, which is then transferred to other organisms within the biotic community through the food web.

d)

They drop their loads in the form of rain, snow, sleet, or hail. 15

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e)

The biological, or organic, part of the biosphere (biota) includes all life forms.

f)

Where water is abundant, we have forests, if water is scarce, we have deserts.

g)

Soil consists of rocks, gravel, sand, clay, mud, muck, and decaying organic materials.

h)

Both are necessary for life support. THE BIOSPHERE (i) The idea of the biosphere originated rather casually more than a

century ago. The concept played little part in scientific thought, until it was developed by the Russian scientist V. I. Vernadsky. It is essentially his concept of the biosphere that we accept today. (ii) All life on Earth exists within the biosphere. The biosphere is thought to have evolved some 3.5 billion years ago. There are two major parts to the biosphere, the physical and the biological. ___(1)____. The physical (inorganic or nonliving, abiotic) portion can be divided into three parts: the solid Earth – lithosphere, liquid water – hydrosphere, air – atmosphere. It consists of soil, water, air, and light energy. ___(2)____. It has the ability to contain and support life. A major percentage of insects spend part of their life cycle in the soil. Vegetation depends on the soil for its nutrients. The soil is the Earth's medium for growth. (iii) Water is the liquid portion of the biosphere, and it is everywhere. The amount of water determines which type of biotic (living) community will form. ___(3)___. Water travels throughout the biosphere on the hydrological cycle. As the sun radiates energy to the Earth, it causes surface water and vapor (given off by plants in a process called transpiration) to rise into the air as a gas. This is evaporation. As this water rises, it cools and condenses into clouds. These clouds are transported by wind to all parts of the biosphere. ___(4)___. This is 16

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precipitation. (iv) The principal source of energy for the biosphere is sunlight. Green plants, in a process called photosynthesis, convert light energy into chemical energy and then into glucose, a simple sugar. ___(5)____. Thus, all life on the Earth depends upon solar energy for its existence. Most forms of energy within the biosphere are transformed forms of solar energy. (v) ___(6)____. All biotic communities consist of these basic components: the autotrophic, organisms that fix energy from the sun and manufacture glucose; and the heterotrophic, organisms that utilize the food stored by the autotrophs. Autotrophs are found in the areas of the community that are most exposed to light energy, while heterotrophic organisms are found closer to the ground, in the lower strata. (vi) The place where any organism lives as well as the space it occupies is called its habitat. All organisms have specific habitats where they can fulfill their biological function. What the organism does is related to its niche. ___(7)____. In the community the total mass of living organisms is referred to as the biomass. (vii) Ecology isn't a new word. In Greek oikos means the home, the place where we live. ___(8)___. Ecology is a multidisciplinary science. Facts about ecological systems are taken from biology, geology, chemistry, physics, and other sciences. The planet Earth is an assemblage of plant and animal species inhabiting a common area, the biosphere, and, therefore, having a great effect on one another and on their nonliving surroundings. The study of ecology is a lengthy process. It has taken many years to understand what has been happening to the environment, and it will probably take many years more to correct these problems. But the first step is the understanding. 2b Answer the following questions. 1.

What are the two major parts to the biosphere?

2.

What does the physical part of the biosphere consist of? 17

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3.

What is importance of soil on the Earth?

4.

How does the amount of water determine the type of biotic community?

5.

What is the hydrological cycle?

6.

What process is called photosynthesis?

7.

What are the basic components of all biotic communities?

8.

What is called habitat?

9.

What is the word “ecology” derived from? What does it mean?

10. What does ecology study? 2c Say whether the following statements are true or false. Correct the false ones. 1.

The biosphere is necessary to sustain energy on the Earth.

2.

Organic materials are included to the physical part of the biosphere.

3.

The shortage of water cause deserts.

4.

The process of transpiration is caused by the sun radiation.

5.

Rain, snow, sleet and hail are result of evaporation.

6.

Precipitation is the process of water rising into the air as a gas.

7.

Autotrophs are the organisms that store food which heterotrophs utilize.

8.

Heterotrophic organisms inhabit closely to the light areas, in the upper strata.

2d Complete the following sentences according to the information in the text. 1)

Two major parts of the biosphere are necessary for life ……….. .

2)

Soil has the ability to ………. and ………. life.

3)

The soil is the Earth's ……….. for growth.

4)

Where water is ……….., we have forests, if water is ……….., we have deserts.

5)

As this water rises, it ……… and ……….. into clouds.

6)

The principal source of energy for the biosphere is ………… . 18

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7)

All life on the Earth depends upon ……….. energy for its existence.

8)

The place where any organism lives as well as the space it occupies is called its ……….. . Vocabulary Practice

3a Match the terms from the left column and the definitions from the right column. Memorize them. 

a) transpiration

process of turning from solid or liquid into vapour

b) evaporation



organisms that are not self-feeding

c) precipitation



evaporative water loss from leaves of plants

d) photosynthesis



organisms that are self-feeders

e) heterotrophs



rain or snow falling to the ground

f) autotrophs



process in which the energy of sunlight is used by organisms, esp. green plants, to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water

3b Fill in the appropriate word from the list. decaying

underground

biotic

specific

biological

liquid

ocean

food

solar

nonliving

___________ environment

_________ habitats

____________organic materials

_________ energy

___________ portion

_________ springs

___________

_________ web

currents

___________ niche

_________ community

3c There are several definitions in the text. Find them and complete the sentences. 1)

……is an area of the earth's crust and atmosphere occupied by living things.

2)

……is a plant life. 19

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3)

……is a region of gases enveloping the Earth or any other planet.

4)

……is a part of the biosphere consisting of fauna and flora.

5)

……is the solid Earth with rocks, soils and sediments on its crust.

6)

……is the sum of water of the earth's surface.

7)

……is a nonliving part of the biosphere.

8)

……is the total amount of living organisms.

9)

……is a layer or set of layers of any deposited substance or atmospheric layer.

10) ……is a natural home of an animal or plant. 11) …… is a branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their environments. 3d Put the words in the right order to make sentences. 1.

and, water, inorganic, light energy, consists of, soil, portion, air.

2.

nutrients, the soil, depends on, vegetation, for, its.

3.

travels, on, the hydrological cycle, water, through, the biosphere.

4.

streams, give birth, lakes, and, to, creeks, rivers, in turn.

5.

of, are transported, the biosphere, clouds, by wind, to, all, parts.

3e Ecology is a broad biological science and it can be divided into many subdisciplines or specialized branches. Match up the branches of ecology with their subject of study. 1) conservation ecology

 studies how to reduce the risk of species extinction;

2) global ecology

 is the practice of employing ecological principles and understanding to solve real world problems;

3) applied ecology

 deals with the interactions between discrete elements of a landscape;

4) urban ecology

 is the study of small scale phenomena; 20

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5) landscape ecology

 considers ecosystems in urban areas;

6) micro ecology

 examines ecological phenomena at the largest possible scale.

Speaking 4a

Comment on the following statement from the text: “The first step of

studying ecology is the understanding.” How do you think what people should understand? 4b Find some information about V. I. Vernadsky and present it to the group.

UNIT III

FOOD WEBS

Lead-in 1 Look at the food chain presented on the diagram below. Give examples of other food chains. Grass (producer) → Rabbit (primary consumer) → Fox (secondary consumer)

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Reading 2a Read the text and answer the following questions. 1.

What is the food web?

2.

What do plants do through the process of photosynthesis?

3.

Do herbivores eat vegetation or animal tissue?

4.

How are herbivores adaptable to a diet of cellulose?

5.

What forms the third energy level of the food web?

6.

Are carnivores stronger than herbivores?

7.

What levels of carnivores are there?

8.

Give the examples of omnivores.

9.

Can the ecosystem survive if a deciduous forest consists of only American elms?

10. What does the existence of a given organism depend upon within the ecosystem? FOOD WEBS Most organisms fulfill their functions by performing their part in the food web, a general term used to describe the food relationships within the ecosystem. The food web is a way of transferring and transforming energy throughout the system. Since organisms may occupy one or more niches, these interrelationships resemble a web. All food relationships within a system begin with green plants, the producers. Plants form the base of the food web at the lowest energy level. Through the process of photosynthesis, they absorb sunlight, convert it to chemical energy, and then use this energy to produce glucose. They store this glucose and convert it to fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. Herbivores are the second energy level of the food web. These are animals that eat only vegetation, because they are capable of converting energy stored in plant tissue into animal tissue. The role of the herbivores, their niche, is essential to the survival of the ecosystem, for without them energy could not be 22

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transferred, and the other levels could not exist. Herbivores are adaptable to a diet of cellulose. Specialized stomachs and teeth allow these animals to ingest plant fiber, break it down, and convert it to usable energy for their bodies. Carnivores, animals adapted to eat meat, form the third energy level of the food web. These animals are often larger and stronger than the herbivores they prey upon. They are the predators: animals that must kill in order to survive. There are many levels of carnivores. First-level carnivores feed directly upon herbivores, transforming this food source into their own animal protein. Secondlevel carnivores feed upon the first level. There may be higher levels of carnivores within an ecosystem, but the stored energy of the top level is eventually utilized by the decomposers when these larger animals die. The word omnivore comes from omni, the Greek word meaning "all." Omnivores can be placed at all energy levels of the food web. The black bear feeds on small rodents, berries, and honey; it is a herbivore as well as a carnivore. The painted turtle feeds on vegetation, small fish, frogs, and dead fish. It feeds at all energy levels and also acts as a scavenger. The detritus food web is the food web of the decomposers. It is often referred to as part of the nitrogen cycle. All living matter requires nitrogen, which is needed to build amino acids (proteins). Plants cannot fix or utilize nitrogen from the air but must obtain it through absorption from the soil, where bacteria convert it to usable form. The ecosystem is an amalgam of species. It is the aggregation that gives the community its strength. Diversity within the ecosystem directly reflects the diversity of the physical environment. The more niches to fill, the more species to fill them. But diversity is also the key to survival for the ecosystem. Imagine a deciduous forest composed only of American elms. Along comes the Dutch elm beetle, and the ecosystem is destroyed. Where a given organism exists within an ecosystem depends upon the 23

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limiting factors of the environment. All organisms possess limiting factors (extreme limits of the conditions under which they can survive). Plants and animals that cannot tolerate temperatures below the freezing level do not exist within the boreal forest. Desert plants do not develop in a rain forest. The limiting factors of an ecosystem greatly determine its carrying capacity (the number of organisms it can support). 2b Say if these sentences are true or false. If you don’t agree, correct the statement. 1)

The base of the food web at the lowest energy level is formed by plants.

2)

Through the process of photosynthesis plants produce fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.

3)

Carnivores are the animals that only feed upon plant leaves and grass.

4)

Parasite is any organism that usually eats some other living organism in whole or in part to obtain organic nutrients.

5)

Herbivore is a plant-eating animal.

6)

Vegetarian is the suitable name for omnivore.

7)

Biodiversity is the main factor of survival for the ecosystem.

8)

Decomposers play an important role in the nitrogen cycle. They convert nitrogen to the form that plants can absorb from the soil.

9)

Scavengers and detritivores make up the detrital food web.

10) Limiting factors are called the conditions under which species can survive. Vocabulary Practice 3a Explain the meaning of the following words and word combinations. The food web, the food relationship, the ecosystem, producer, to survival, detritus food web, to exist, adaptable, stomach, to ingest, prey, the nitrogen cycle, absorption, the limiting factors, tolerate, carrying capacity.

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3b Match up to make word combinations from the text. 1. diversity

a) to convert

2. amalgam

b) boreal forest

3. fiber

c) tissue

4. eventually

d) to fill

5. to fulfill

e) aggregation

6. deciduous forest

f) essential

7. carbohydrate

g) variety

8. to transform

h) finally

9. proteins

i) cellulose

10. key

j) amino acids

3c Match the terms from the left column (a-g) and the definitions from the right column (1-7). a. Herbivore

1. animals feeding on both plant and animal material

b. Carnivore

2. organisms that feed on partly decayed dead plant and animal tissues and organic wastes

c. Scavenger

3. animals that feed upon plants

d. Decomposer

4. animals that eat flesh or meat

e. Detritivore

5. animals or birds that live on decaying flesh

f. Parasite

6. organisms that obtain organic nutrients by breaking down the remains or products of other organisms

g. Omnivore

7. insects that take in blood and other tissues from living organisms

Listening 4a Listen to a conversation between two scientists (Audio File 4). Choose 25

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the correct answers. 1 What is the main idea of the conservation? a) how to reduce the number of producers b) why there too many rabbits in the population c) which trophic level an organism belongs to d) how the loss of a consumer affects the ecosystem 2 Which organism gets its nutrients from decomposers? a) rabbit b) hawk c) wolf d) grass 4b Listen again and complete the conversation. Scientist 1: Do you now about the crisis in Greenfield Meadow? Scientist 2: Yes. I am studying it. 1_______ rabbits were killed by hunters last year. Scientist 1: That can’t be good for the ecosystem. They are 2_______. Scientist 2: I know. Now the secondary consumers don’t have 3_________. Scientist 1: That must affect the 4 ______ of wolves and hawks. Scientist 2: It does. And without those animals, the 5______ won’t have much to eat either. Scientist 1: And then the producers, 6_______, don’t get enough nutrients. Wow, that’s bad. Scientist 2: Yeah, we really need to increase the rabbit population. 4c

Act out the roles below based on 4b. Then switch roles. USE LANGUAGE SUCH AS: That can’t be good… Now the … don’t have enough… That must affect … 26

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Student A:

Student B:

You are a scientist. Talk to Student B You are a scientist. Talk to Student A about:

about a problem in an ecosystem.

 a problem in an ecosystem  how

the problem affects the

trophic levels  what needs to be done Speaking 5a

Study the food web and then answer the questions below.

1)

Explain the function of the decomposer.

2)

Describe what would happen if all the weasels died of poisoning.

For hints 1) Decomposers, such as fungi and bacteria, feed off dead plant and animal material. This makes things decompose (rot) faster, so the nutrients they contain go back into the soil. 2) If all weasels died, small birds and voles would not have a predator. In the short term, numbers of voles and small birds would increase. In the long term, there may be too many birds and voles, as a result there would be too much competition for food, and the numbers of insects would drop, causing a food shortage for the birds and voles. 27

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5b Read the following statements. "We are all one… birds, plants, animals, minerals. We are all different manifestations of the same essential energy." Alejandro Lerner (Argentinean Writer and Composer); "At the deepest level of ecological... is an understanding of being imbedded in a larger whole, a cosmic whole, of belonging to the universe." Fritj of Capra (Famous Physicist and Author).  Do you agree with the statements? Prove you opinion.  Do you feel yourself a part of the universe?  How do we interact with other parts (biotic, abiotic) of the biosphere in our ordinary life?  Give the examples of such interrelation.

UNIT IV ECOSYSTEMS

Lead - in 1 Listen about the Kangaroo Rat's ecosystem (Audio File 5) and answer the questions. (1) What is an ecosystem made of? (2) Where does each species live? (3) Where do Kangaroo rats live? (4) How are Kangaroo rats adapted to desert conditions?

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Reading 2a Read the text and say which paragraph: 1) describes the value of wetland ecosystem; 2)

gives the definition of the ecosystem;

3)

defines an ecological niche;

4)

mentions the diversity of ecosystem;

5)

describes functions performed by healthy ecosystems;

6)

describes consequences caused by disturbances. ECOSYSTEMS (i) All biomes are separated into various specialized communities or

ecosystems that form an interacting network of systems within the biotic community. An ecosystem is an area on the Earth that is a community of living organisms and their surrounding environment. Every person, animal, plant, rock, stream, and piece of land belongs to one or more ecosystems. For example, imagine an ecosystem made up of a freshwater pond that serves as a home for frogs, lily pads, fish, dragonflies, algae, and protozoa. Each of these organisms, along with its sources of food, sediments, nutrients, and the water itself, is a part of the pond ecosystem, which functions as a unit or a single community. Imagine that this pond lies deep inside a forest. The pond and its inhabitants belong to the larger forest ecosystem, which also contains several rivers, other ponds, many kinds of wildlife, flowering plants, and trees. (ii) Ecosystems on Earth are incredibly diverse, both in size and in form–a large city that contains millions of people, their homes, and a built-up landscape is an urban ecosystem, while a small wildlife preserve within that city serves as a natural ecosystem. All organisms within the ecosystem have their own specific habitat. For plants this is largely determined by the soil, light conditions, temperature, and moisture. Animals also depend upon these factors, but depend even more on the types of plants and other animals providing food and shelter. 29

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(iii) Much like a person, an ecosystem has a given level of health. A healthy ecosystem performs many valuable functions, such as flood control, water purification, seed dispersal, pollination, pollutant removal, nutrient cycling, and habitat provision. These functions are beneficial to both humans and other inhabitants of ecosystems. Consider the value of one wetland ecosystem that helps remove toxic substances from drinking water, provides a nursery for baby fish, and supplies shelter for clams and mussels–and these are only a few of the services provided by this ecosystem. (iv) The function an organism performs, or the job it does, is referred to as its niche. Some organisms may have many functions and thus fulfill a broad niche within the community. Other organisms fulfill specific functions and, thus, develop highly specialized niches. The hog-nose snake, for example, is specifically adapted to eat only toads. The spectacle snake, on the other hand, consumes a much wider variety of organisms and thus, has a broader, more general range. (v) Many ecosystems experience the effects of disturbances. These disturbances can be caused by human actions, such as bulldozing a forest to build a highway, or they can be a result of natural events, such as soil erosion from heavy rains. Disturbances often decrease the ability of an ecosystem to provide valuable function, and thereby decrease the health of the ecosystem. A feature of ecosystems, from the smallest backyard to the entire globe, is that they tend to be resilient. Given time, ecosystems can often recover from disturbances, maintain their health, and continue to provide the functions necessary to sustain life on Earth. 2b

Match the beginning of a sentence in column A with an ending in

column B to produce a statement which is true according to the text.

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A

B

1. An ecosystem

a. serves as a natural ecosystem.

2. An ecosystem

b. are beneficial to humans and other inhabitants of ecosystems.

3. Ecosystems on Earth

c. helps remove toxic substances from drinking water.

4. Disturbances experienced by

d. can be caused by human actions

some ecosystems 5. Functions

and by natural events.

performed by a

e. is a community of living organisms

healthy ecosystem 6. The

function

and their surrounding environment.

an organism

f. have their own specific habitat.

performs 7. A

small

wildlife

preserve

g. is characterized by a given level of

situated within a city

health.

8. A wetland ecosystem 9. All

organisms

within

h. are incredibly diverse. the

i.

is called its niche.

ecosystem 2c Say whether the following statements true or false and give paragraph reference. Correct false statements. Statement

True/ False

1) All biomes are separated into various specialized communities or ecosystems. 2) Every person, animal, plant, rock, stream, and piece of land belongs to one ecosystem only. 3) Ecosystems form an interacting network of systems within the abiotic community. 4) Disturbances often decrease the ability of an ecosystem to perform valuable functions. 31

# paragraph

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5) An ill ecosystem can often recover from disturbances if it is not disturbed for some time. 6) An ecosystem can be situated within another ecosystem. 7) Any ecosystem provides functions necessary to sustain life on Earth. 8) Some natural events can disturb ecosystems. 9) For animals habitat is largely determined by the soil, light conditions, temperature, and moisture. Vocabulary Practice 3a Match up and explain the meaning. 

1) living

community



2) urban

preserve



3) wildlife

provision



4) water

event



5) single

cycling



6) natural

organisms



7) habitat

purification



8) nutrient

ecosystem

3b Find in the text words and word combinations which mean the following. 1.

An adjective meaning “able to recover quickly from an illness or a misfortune” (para v);

2.

a verb meaning “to support something or to keep it going for a period of time” (para v);

3.

an adjective meaning “various” (para ii);

4.

a noun meaning “animals and other living things that live in the wild” 32

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(para i); 5.

a noun meaning “a large amount of water covering an area or a place which is usually dry” (para iii);

6.

a noun meaning “a small area of water, smaller than a lake” (para i);

7.

a noun meaning “a place that provides protection” (para ii);

8.

a noun meaning “animals and people living in some place” (para iii);

9.

a noun meaning “deposits” (para i);

10. a noun meaning “a substance that is absorbed by plants and animals and helps them to grow” (para i); 11. a noun meaning “fertilization of plants with pollen” (para iii). 3c

Complete the following table of corresponding nouns and verbs (most

can be found in the text). Make sure you know the meaning. Noun

Verb

function

?

disturbance

?

?

to provide

purification

?

dispersal

? ?

to recover

?

to inhabit

removal

?

pollination

?

nursery

? ?

3d

to serve

Complete the following table of corresponding nouns and adjectives

(most can be found in the text). Make sure you know their meaning.

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Noun

Adjective

?

healthy

value

? ?

natural

ability

? ?

diverse

Listening 4a Listen to a conversation between two scientists (Audio File 6). Choose the correct answer. 1

What is the main idea of the conversation? a. how to identify missing components of an ecosystem b. what is causing the death of a fish population c. where to find a better fish habitat d. which type of waste is destroying a species of fish

2

According to the man what will happen to the fish? a. They will all die out soon. b. The strong ones will keep the population going. c. They will move to a thriving habitat. d. They will be removed by scientists.

4b Listen again and complete the conversation. Scientist 1: Have you been to Rufford Lake recently? Scientist 2: Yes. There aren't very many fish in the water anymore. Scientist 1: Five years ago that lake was a thriving ___1____. What happened? Scientist 2: They're dying. It’s because people ___2____ in the lake. Scientist 1: Really? That's terrible. Do you think the fish will ____3____ eventually? 34

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Scientist 2: I doubt it. The species has a lot of ___4____. Scientist 1: You mean that some fish ____5____ than others? Scientist 2: Exactly. I think there are enough left to keep the ____6____. 4c

Act out the roles below based on 4b. Then switch roles. USE LANGUAGE SUCH AS: Have you ever been to …? It’s because of … You mean that … Student A:

Student B:

You are a scientist. Talk to Student B You are a scientist. Talk to Student A about:

about changes in the ecosystem.

 an ecosystem  how the ecosystem has changed  what you think will happen in the future Writing 5

Write about an ecosystem you know well. Describe the living and non-

living things in the ecosystem. How big is it? How do living things there stay alive? Write 80-120 words. Speaking 6 Get ready to talk about one of the following: (1) Ecosystems are more than wildlife habitats. (2) Ecosystems services for human well-being. (3) Services of an ecosystem.

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Extra Activities 7 Using the words from the box fill in the gaps in the text. An ecosystem is a ___(a)___ of organisms living in a particular environment and the physical elements in that environment with which they ___(b)___. But where does one particular ecosystem end and another __(c)___? An ecosystem can be as small as a field or as __(d)___ as the ocean. The borders of an ecosystem may be clear, such as a pond. Other borders may be less easy to define, such as grassland that gradually changes into brush. There is a rich diversity of ecosystems, from the icy __(e)___ zones to __(f)___forests lush with plants and animals. Even the depths of the oceans, once thought to be barren, are now known to be teeming with living ___(g)____ and other life. There is much that remains to be discovered. Biologists do not know with any certainty how many species there are or even why some areas, such as the tropics, are richer in biological diversity than others. It is known that human activities __(h)____ biodiversity by altering habitats and introducing non-native species. There is general agreement on the importance of protecting biological diversity,

especially since humans

___(i)_____ the services provided by living organisms and ecosystems. There is less agreement on the best approaches to __(j)____ and how to balance preservation of habitats with __(k)____ human needs. 

begin

 community



tropical



meeting



interact

conservation

 micro-organisms 

depend on

large

 Arctic

threaten

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UNIT V BIOMES

Lead- in 1 Listen to the text (Audio file 7) and fill in the missing words. (1)

_____ is an area where plants and animals live.

(2)

Some live in dry ________.

(3)

Others live in ______.

(4)

Some live in cold _______ or __________.

(5)

Others live in wet _________.

(6)

Many live in ___________ forests, where there are four seasons.

(7)

The living and nonliving parts of a biome form _________.

(8)

Plants and animals are ______.

(9)

Nonliving things are ___________.

(10) Each kind of a living thing is called _______. (11) All _________ living in the same area form a population. (12) Two or more populations of living things from the same area form ________. Reading 2a Read the text and take notes to complete the table below. Biomes

climate

precipitation

desert deciduous forest tropical rain forests Arctic tundra coniferous taiga 37

soil

plants

animals

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grassland chaparral BIOMES OF THE EARTH The biosphere is divided into major biotic communities, composed of all the plants, animals, and ecosystems of a large geographical region. The biome is a system of climax (mature) communities of plants and animals. All biomes possess similarities: climate, geography, and plant and animal life forms. The desert biome, represented on every major continent, is usually located between mountains and grasslands. Deserts are characterized by low or scattered precipitation throughout the year. All deserts have sandy, loose soil. Desert plants are called xerophytes, in other words they require very little water. There are three types of desert plants: those that store water in their tissues; shrubs with roots that penetrate deep into the soil to obtain water; and wildflowers and grasses, which appear only after a rain and go through their entire cycle within a few weeks. Most animals of the desert are specially adapted to conserve water. The insects and reptiles each have a thick outer skin, which minimizes the loss of water through evaporation. Most of the mammals are nocturnal and do not usually drink water. They obtain liquid from the food they eat. The temperate deciduous forest biome consists mainly of trees that shed their leaves each autumn. This biome, usually found between grasslands and the northern coniferous forests, is characterized by a rich organic soil resulting from the decomposition of the fallen leaves. The community is also distinguished by moderate temperatures and harsh, cold winters with abundant snow. The precipitation is about the same throughout the year. The deciduous forest is famous for abundance of niches and habitats. It has a varied and productive animal community. Belting the Earth at the equator, tropical rain forests form the most 38

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productive biome within the biosphere. Marked by 80 or more inches (200 cm) of rain and little variance in temperature, this biome displays more varieties of plant and animal species than any other. Most life within the rain forest exists within the canopy, or cover, of trees. Due to plentiful precipitation, the trees grow so large and thick that very little light can penetrate the canopy. Therefore on the floor of a tropical rain forest one can find the huge trunks of the gigantic trees; a moist, spongy soil; and very little air movement. The Arctic tundra caps the Northern Hemisphere. The region has long, cold winters and short summers with moderate to cool temperatures. Precipitation comes mostly in the form of snow. There is very little precipitation in the summer. Yet during the summer the soil is constantly wet and soggy, due to a low evaporation rate and a permafrost layer 6 inches (15.2 cm) beneath the surface. The vegetation in this area is low-growing in order to protect itself from the cold and the mantle of snow. All trees and shrubs are dwarfed. Plant life consists mainly of grasses, sedges, and lichens. All the plants complete their growing cycles during the very short summer. Most of the wildlife in the tundra is migratory, but there are some permanent residents who remain active throughout the year. Some of these are the polar bear, musk ox, Arctic fox, and wolf. Tundra animals feed voraciously during the summer months, and, during the winter, they depend upon the layers of fat put on in the summer. Also during the summer months, the tundra has a high percentage of the Earth's waterfowl. The marsh like soil not only serves these water birds, it also hosts a myriad of insect life. The coniferous taiga or boreal forest biome forms the timberline that serves as the southern border of the tundra. This biome is characterized by evergreen trees, mostly spruce, pine, fir, and hemlock, and covers parts of North America, Europe, and Asia. The boreal forest is also a region of long, cold 39

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winters and short summers, but because there is no permafrost, trees can develop. Due to the nature of the forest, the soil is of very poor quality. Needles and other debris from the trees fall and decay slowly on the forest floor. During the process of decomposition, they form a weak acid, which leaches nutritive minerals from the soil. Squirrels, birds, and insects feed upon the bounties of this forest. Larger rodents, greatly dependent on a low-growing shrub layer, cannot live in it. Deer are plentiful, and elk and caribou can be found in the northern regions of this biome. Foxes, wolves, hawks, and many other predators are abundant, feeding upon the snowshoe hare and mice. The grassland community can be found between forests and deserts on every continent. These vast expanses of flat lands experience 25 to 30 inches (63.5 to 76.2 cm) of rain annually but are subject to long periods of drought. The vegetation, such as buffalo grass, survives by developing specific adaptations to the climatic trends of the biome. However, even with these adaptations, after long periods of drought, the vegetational composition of these prairies changes. Grassland biomes experience cold, harsh winters and long, hot summers. The animals of this community must be hardy and well adapted to long periods of little food. Within the mulch a community of insects lives, including beetles, spiders, ants, grasshoppers, crickets, leafhoppers, and others. The primary consumers that live in the grasslands include prairie dogs, deer mice, jackrabbits, and grouse. Large grazing animals, such as deer, buffalo, and antelope, are abundant. These animals provide food for the predators: coyotes, bobcats, badgers, kit foxes, and others. The chaparral biome is the most hospitable to people. The winter rainfall is low (about 15 to 20 inches, or 37.5 to 50 cm), and the summers are long, hot, and dry. This biome can be found in Southern California, around the 40

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Mediterranean coast, and on the southeastern tip of Australia. This community is composed of mostly tall shrubs and dwarf trees: In California, mesquite, manzanita, California laurel, and small oak trees; and in Australia, eucalyptus trees and shrubs. The biome is often interspersed with grassland or shrub savanna. The chaparral is home to the mule deer as well as wood rats, bobcats, cougars, brush rabbits, and mountain quail. 2b Answer the following questions. 1.

What is the biome?

2.

Where is the desert biome located?

3.

What are there types of desert plants?

4.

Why do the desert insects and reptiles have a thick outer skin?

5.

What is temperate deciduous forest biome is characterized by?

6.

What is the most productive biome within the biosphere?

7.

What is the climate of the Arctic tundra?

8.

Why is the Arctic vegetation low-growing?

9.

Name the species of the Arctic tundra that live there throughout the year.

10. What is the coniferous taiga characterized by? 11. How is the soil of the coniferous taiga formed? 12. Name the main inhabitants of the boreal forests. 13. Where is the grassland community found? 14. How does the vegetation of the grassland survive? 15. What is the chaparral community composed of? 2c Say whether the following statements are true or false, correct the false ones. 1.

The desert biome is represented only in African continent.

2.

Deserts are distinguished by heavy rain throughout the year.

3.

Xerophytes are plants which need a lot of water. 41

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4.

Most of the desert animals are active at night.

5.

The trees of temperate deciduous forest biome usually shed their leaves each season.

6.

The deciduous forest is noted for many niches and habitats.

7.

Plentiful precipitation in the tropical rain forest causes the growth of the gigantic trees.

8.

The Arctic tundra is characterized by low precipitation in summer.

9.

Waterfowl are permanent residents of the arctic tundra.

10. The grassland animals have to be adapted to the lack of food in winter. 11. The most comfortable for people is the chaparral biome. 2d Using information from the text, match the sentences (1-15) with biomes they belong to. desert biome

1. The animals of this community are well adapted to long periods of little food. 2. Most life within this biome exists within the cover of trees.

Arctic tundra

3. In summer the soil is constantly wet and soggy, due to a permafrost layer. 4. The forest has a varied and productive animal community.

grassland

5. This biome is home to the predators: coyotes, bobcats, badgers, kit foxes. 6. This biome has a moist, spongy soil and very little air movement.

tropical rain forests

7. Deer and elk are plentiful in the northern regions of this biome. 8. This biome has cold, harsh winters and long, hot 42

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summers. coniferous taiga

9. Most of the mammals do not usually drink water. 10. This biome is characterized by evergreen trees. 11. Precipitation comes mostly in the form of snow.

chaparral biome

12. This biome is the most hospitable to people. 13. Plants require very little water.

deciduous

forest 14. Soil is sandy and loose.

biome

15. All trees and shrubs are dwarfed.

Vocabulary Practice 3a Give the English equivalent for the following Russian word combinations. Рыхлая почва; вечная мерзлота; вечнозеленые деревья; лиственный лес; хвойный лес; густая заросль кустарников; лугопастбищный биом, тропический лес (сельва). 3b Find the pairs of synonyms from the following words. Spongy, dwarf, voracious, myriad, canopy, nutrition, bounty, drought, to be characterized by, climax, innumerable, to be famous for, to be distinguished by, soggy, plentiful, low-growing, cover, greedy-eater, mature, food, dryness, hospitable, generosity, interspersed, friendly, to be noted for, abundant, scattered. 3c Match the terms from the left column and the definitions from the right column. 1. mammals

a. animal which eats another animal

2. predator

b. animal with strong front cutting-tooth and no canine teeth

3. grazing animal

c. warm-blooded vertebrate (having backbone) the class of animals secreting milk to feed its young

4. rodent

d. cold-blooded 43

scaly

(thin

horny

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protecting the skin) animal 5. reptile

e. birds living on water

6. nocturnal species

f. animal that pastures and feeds in grassland

7. waterfowl

g. species that are active in the night

3d

Match each species from the list with the group it belongs to. Some

species can be used more than once. Use dictionary to study the following words. Groups:

insects, Polar bear, fir, grasshopper, musk, Arctic fox, snake,

mammals, reptiles, birds, tiger, cow, wolf, swan, squirrel, deer, duck, birch, plant, predator, grazing caribou, fox, beetle, spruce, spider, horse, cricket, animal, rodent, nocturnal leafhopper, goat, prairie dog, pine, mouse, grouse, species, waterfowl

buffalo, antelope, coyote, owl, bobcat, badger,

maple, mule, rat, mesquite, cougar, lichens, mountain quail, willow, ox, elk, ant, jackrabbit, oak, hare, hawk, lizard, eucalyptus, crocodile, turtle, lion, manzanita, beaver, porcupine, bat, camel, sheep, donkey, heron, wildflowers, hemlock, sedges, California laurel, lime. Listening 4a Listen to a conversation between a student and a teacher (Audio File 8). Mark the following statements as true (T) or false (F). 1 The woman is mistaken about the characteristics of tundra. ______ 2 The woman lists similarities between tundra and rainforests. _______ 3 They discuss how precipitation affects savannas. _________ 4b Listen again and complete the conversation. Student: I am confused about savannas and tundras. Teacher: Sure. First of all, what do they have _____1____? Student: Well, I know they’re both ____2_____. They have large open 44

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spaces with few trees. Teacher: And how are they ___3____? Student: I know savannas get a lot more heat and precipitation. They're more like ____4 ____ than tundras. Teacher: You're right about the ___5____. But they also have long dry seasons. You see what I mean? Student: Oh, I get it. So they get _____6_____ to support grass, but not tall trees. Teacher: You got it. 4c

Act out the roles below based on 4b. Then switch roles. USE LANGUAGE SUCH AS: I’m confused about… They should be more like… You’re right about… Student A:

Student B:

You are a student. Talk to Student B You are a teacher. Talk to Student A about about:

the characteristics of biomes.

 characteristics of biomes  similarities between biomes  differences between biomes Speaking 5 Prepare a presentation (5-6 min) on one of the biomes (Appendix 1).

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UNIT VI BIODIVERSITY

Lead - in 1 Look at the biodiversity hotspot map and

1. How many biodiversity

answer the questions.

hotspots are there? 2. What continents are they on? 3. Is there a biodiversity hotspot in your country?

Reading 2a Read the text and put the sentences (A-E) in to the numbered gaps. A. There are varying opinions about the best approach to protecting biodiversity. B. The basic unit of biodiversity is a species. C. New species are being discovered all the time. D. The major threat to biodiversity stems from land use. E. Biodiversity, or biological diversity, is a term describing the immense variety and richness of life on this planet. BIODIVERSITY (1) ___1_____. Biodiversity includes not only the many species that exist, but also the diversity of populations that make up a species, the genetic diversity among individual life forms, and the many different habitats and ecosystems 46

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around the globe. (2) ____2____. How many species are there? One of the first challenges faced by conservationists is to answer this question. This is an enormous undertaking, because there are vast areas of the planet that are only now beginning to be studied. Areas such as the bottom of the ocean, for example, were once considered to be lifeless, but new technologies of exploration have revealed that they are full of life. (3) ____3_____. The black-faced lion tamarin, a new monkey in Gabon, a muntjak deer in Vietnam, and a pygmy beaked whale have all been discovered in just the last decade. The Washington Post recently reported the discovery of a tiny new monkey in Brazil, a "squirrel-sized marmoset." (4) ____4____. About 1 to 2 percent of the Earth's surface is devoted to urban use, but modifications of surface area are more extensive. Land acquisition for agriculture and forest products has intensified in many developing countries, which (i) are experiencing rapid population growth. Introduction of species into new areas, either by accident or intention, is a second major cause of threats to species. (5) _____5____. In past decades, conservation efforts have been focused on individual endangered species, particularly mammals, but this (ii) is costly and there are concerns about the adequacy of a species-by-species approach. To provide protection, wildlife preserves and wilderness areas have been set aside in some countries. However, this approach has been criticized as insufficient or ineffective, particularly in developing countries in which (iii) the population is heavily dependent upon natural resources for survival. Ecotourism and bioprospecting (deriving medicines and other products from natural resources) are strategies to help these (iv) populations extract products and value from existing forests, but questions have been raised about the effectiveness of these efforts. 47

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2b What do the following words refer to:  which (i) (paragraph 4)

 which (iii) (paragraph 5)

 this (ii) (paragraph 5)

 these (iv) (paragraph 5

2c Match up the beginning of a sentence (column A) with the ending (column B). A

B

1) Biodiversity

a)

makes up a species.

2) New species

b)

have revealed some areas to be

full of life. 3) A tiny monkey

c)

are strategies to help

these

populations extract products and value from existing forests 4) New technologies of exploration

d) are costly.

5) Ecotourism and bioprospecting

e)

was discovered in Brazil.

6) Conservation efforts focused on

f)

describes the immense variety

individual endangered species

and richness of life on this planet.

7) The diversity of populations

g)

are being discovered all the

time. 2d Say whether the following statements true or false and give paragraph number to show where your information comes from. Statement 1)

True/ False

About 1 to 2 % of the Earth's surface is

used in agriculture. 2)

The bottom of the ocean is lifeless.

3)

All places on the Earth have been carefully

studied by man. 4)

A new species of deer was discovered in

Vietnam. 48

# paragraph

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5)

The major threat to biodiversity stems from

water use. 6)

Developing countries are experiencing

rapid population growth. 7)

Introduction of species into new areas can

be either accidental or intentional. 8)

The conservation of individual endangered

species is not expensive. 9)

The population in developing countries is

dependent upon natural resources for survival. 2e

Answer the questions. 1. What does biodiversity include? 2. What is the basic unit of biodiversity? 3. What are the new species that have been discovered recently? 4. What are the threats to biodiversity? 5. Are there any effective solutions to protecting biodiversity? Why? Vocabulary Practice

3a Match up and explain the meaning. 1) biological



unit

2) population



reserve

3) endangered



resources

4) wildlife



species

5) basic



country

6) natural



forms

7) life



growth

8) developing



diversity

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3b

Find the following in the text.

1)

a phrasal verb meaning “to put together, to constitute”(para 1);

2)

a noun meaning “an active supporter of conservation” (para 2);

3)

a noun meaning “a summon to a contest, a task to fulfil”(para 2);

4)

an adjective meaning “extremely large”(para 2);

5)

a noun meaning “job, work needing effort”(para 2);

6)

an adjective meaning “dead, without life”(para 2);

7)

a phrasal verb meaning “to exist or happen as a result of”(para 4);

8)

a noun meaning “a small change made in something”(para 4);

9)

an adjective meaning “very small”(para 3);

10)

an adjective meaning “large in amount, area, or including many parts”(para

4); 11)

an adjective meaning “costing a lot of money”(para 5);

12)

a phrasal verb meaning “to save for a special purpose”(para 5);

13)

an adjective meaning “fast, quick”(para 4). Listening

4a

Read the words and their definitions that are used in the dialogue

“Secrets of the rainforests” (Audio File 9). Give their Russian equivalents. 1. species

a group of living things, such as plants, animals and insects that share the same general features

2. an ecosystem

all the life forms in an area that exist together and depend on each other

3. creepy-crawlies

an informal expression for insects and spiders

4. a bug

informal word for an insect

5. biologically diverse

areas where many different living things have their

habitats

natural home 50

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4b

Listen to the dialogue and put the ideas in the order they mention it.

a) the longest insect discovered in the Borneo rainforest; b) the number of species on the planet; c) the atmosphere of the rainforest; d) an agreement to protect rainforests; e) the frog that has no lungs. 4c

Listen again and answer the questions.

1. When was there an agreement to protect large areas of rainforests? 2. How much time did Kaz spend in the Borneo rainforest? 3. What organization does David Norman work for? 4. Why is the Borneo rainforest the most biologically diverse habitat on the whole Earth? 5. What animals did Kaz see in Borneo? 6. What animals can you hear on the rainforest recording made by Kaz? 7. How long is the longest insect? 8. How many examples of the longest species have been found? 9. How does the frog breathe? 10. How many species have been discovered? 4d

Read the dialogue and act it out. Speaking

5

Using on-line resources below make a presentation of one of the

biodiversity hotspots (Appendix 1). Extra activities 6a

Fill the words below into the gaps in the following text. One of the most remarkable characteristics of Earth is its amazing variety of

life forms. Approximately 1.4 million ___(i)_____ have been described, but of 51

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many of these species little more is known than their name and where they were found. It is believed that two-thirds of all terrestrial species are found in lowland humid __(ii)___ forests. At the same time many tropical forests are particularly __(iii)___. According to the UN, some countries are losing their forest areas at a significant rate. Poverty, war, insecure property rights, slash and burn agriculture practices contribute to __(iv)___ and complicate conservation efforts. There may be agreement that a species-rich area should be protected, but it can be difficult to __(v)___ conservation goals with the needs of the people who live there. In order to concentrate resources on those areas that are most vulnerable, __(vi)____ have identified certain areas as biodiversity “hotspots”. Actually ecologists identified 25 ___(vii)___ that together comprise only 1.4 % of the Earth’s surface yet contain 44 % of all species of higher plants and 35 % of all land vertebrate species. Hotspots are defined according to their plant vegetation. A hotspot has to contain at least 0.5 % of the world’s 300,000 plant species as endemics. Plants are important because __(viii)___ is what determines the primary productivity of an ecosystem. Most hotspots are in tropical areas; many are in developing countries where populations rely on species-rich ecosystems for food, firewood, __(ix)___, and income from timber. In Madagascar, for example, about 85 % of the plants and animals are found nowhere else in the world, but its people are also among __(x)____ and rely on slash and burn agriculture for subsistence farming. Other hotspots are in wealthy countries and face different pressures. The islands of Hawaii have many unique plants and animals that are __(xi)__ by introduced species and land development.  threatened

 species

 conservationists

 the poorest

 cropland

 hotspots

 reconcile

 vegetation

 vulnerable

 tropical

 forest loss 52

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6b

Read the text again and choose the best title for the text. a)

Diversity value.

b)

Biodiversity under threat.

c)

Conservation, protection and preservation of biodiversity.

d)

Biodiversity hotspots.

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APPENDIX 1

The language of presentations I.

Introduction

Good evening, everyone. Thank you for inviting me to speak on… Tonight I am going to talk about … I am here to talk about / give a presentation on … The subject of my talk is … The talk is in (three) parts. The first second

part looks at … / is about …

last I would like to start by … I shall begin by … Then I will speak about … Thirdly I will talk about … And lastly … II.

The main part of the talk

Let us begin with … As far as …… is concerned … Moving on to … My third point deals with … And last but not the least … Let us look at … To illustrate this, let us have a closer look at... The picture on the next slide shows … III.

Summing up / conclusion 54

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So, in conclusion, you can see that … Thank you all for listening so attentively. I hope I have been able to tell you a little bit about … Before I sit down I would first like to thank … for … Does anyone have any questions? IV.

Dealing with questions

I'm afraid I didn't (quite) catch that. So, in other words you would like to know whether... Does that answer your question? If you don't mind, could we discuss that on another occasion? Now, look at the following sentences. What part of a presentation do they belong to? 1

You can see …. on this slide.

2

Are there any questions so far?

3

It’s good to see you all here.

4

I have divided my presentation into three main parts.

5

I’ll end with…

6

I have a slide here that shows...

7

This leads directly to my next point.

8

My presentation will take about 30 minutes.

9

My topic is very important for you because …

10

That covers just about everything I wanted to say about …

11

As you can see here ...

12

Let me just start by introducing myself. My name is …

13

So much for point two.

14

Just to summarize the main points of my talk …

15

Now let's look at the following slide that shows … 55

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16

Well, actually, I'd prefer not to discuss that today.

APPENDIX 2 TIPS FOR MAKING SUMMARY Реферат (от лат. refero - сообщаю) - это краткое изложение в письменном виде или в форме доклада содержания научного текста или статьи в результате его (или ее) смысловой переработки. В реферате констатируются факты и перечисляются основные положения оригинала. Рассуждения, доказательства, аргументация из текста (статьи) исключены. Исключаются

также

всякого

рода

примеры,

сравнения,

сноски,

иллюстративные материалы, ссылки. Отличительной чертой реферата является его информативность. Объем реферата составляет 1/8 или 10-15 % объема реферируемой статьи. Реферат, как правило, включает следующие разделы: 1) библиографическое описание оригинала; 2) основной текст; 3) результаты и выводы. При изложении темы реферата рекомендуется пользоваться в первую очередь формами Present Simple. Запомните наиболее употребляемые глаголы:

study, describe, obtain, investigate, discuss, determine, examine,

outline, find, analyze, design, establish, consider, construct, produce, develop, carry out, create. Для характеристики измерения, вычисления и т. д. рекомендуется использовать следующие наречия и прилагательные: detailed, careful, thorough

extensive, accurate, comprehensive, brief, short, preliminary,

accurately, thoroughly, carefully, in detail. Существительные, употребляемые для обозначения цели статьи и основных характеристик предмета ее изложения: aim, feature, object, characteristics, purpose, peculiarity, task, property, method, approach. 56

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Существительные

feature,

characteristics,

peculiarity

могут

определяться следующими прилагательными: important, essential, most important, remarkable, main, distinguished, chief, notable, basic, specific, unique, peculiar. Реферат отличается наличием большого количества емких слов, несущих наибольшую смысловую нагрузку. В роли таких слов выступают термины или терминологические сочетания, несущие точную информацию. При написании реферата следует выделять в тексте оригинала ключевые фрагменты, т. е. предложения, словосочетания (часть предложения) или отдельные слова, которые выражают наиболее важную часть информации текста. Заключительные предложения рефератов часто вводятся следующими словами и словосочетаниями: conclude, reach a conclusion, make a conclusion, come to a conclusion that..., draw a conclusion, lead to a conclusion, make it possible to conclude that..., concerning as to ..., from the results, it is concluded that... , it may by noted that... , it may be stated that ... , therefore ... , consequently as a result. В качестве примера приведем реферат к следующему тексту. The Amazon Forest and the Future of the World The Amazon forest, in Brazil covers five million square kilometers, an area as big as the whole of Europe excluding Russia. It contains one third of the world’s trees. However, the trees are disappearing. By 2004 a quarter of the forest had already been cut down. In the following year 4 % of the remaining trees went. If the destruction of the forest continues at the same rate, there will be nothing left by the year 2025. Scientists say that the disappearance of the trees is already causing changes in the climate in Peru, there is less snow than before on the high peaks of the Andes mountains. In Bolivia, there is less rain than before and more wind. In 57

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some parts of north-east Brazil there is now very little rain. What will happen if more of the Amazon forest is cut-down? According to climatologists, two things are likely to happen: there will be serious effects of the world’s climate, and the air that we breathe will lose some of its oxygen. Why is this? Threes absorb the gas carbon dioxide from the air, and give out oxygen into the air. The trees of the Amazon rain forest are chemically very active, and some scientists believe that they provide 50 % of the world’s annual production of oxygen. If we lose the tropical forests, the air will contain much less oxygen and much more carbon dioxide. It will become difficult - perhaps even impossible - to breathe. With more carbon dioxide in the air, the temperature will rise, the icecaps at the North and South Poles will melt; the sea level will rise, and hundreds of coastal cities will be flooded.

Scientists do not all agree about the exact figures - the

calculations can be done in different ways with different results. But all scientists agree that if we destroy the Amazon forest it will be environmental suicide - like losing an ocean. Life on earth will become difficult, and it may become impossible. SUMMARY The article deals with the problem of deforestation in Amazonia. The primary aim of the paper is to show the consequences of the disappearance of the Amazon Forest on our planet. The author shows great concern about the destruction of the Amazon Forest by cutting it down. This will lead to serious effects of the world’s climate and the air will lose some of its oxygen and there will be more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The author makes explanation how the disappearance of the trees is causing changes in the climate in some of the countries of the Amazon region. It is stressed in the article that the role of the Amazon Forest due to its great area is significant for supporting life not only in some particular region but on the whole planet. It is concluded that the destruction of the Amazon Forest may be environmental suicide for mankind. 58

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AUDIOSCRIPTS Audio File 1 Rob: Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English. I'm Rob… Neil: … and I'm Neil. Hello. R: Hello, Neil… we’re discussing the sun in this programme. N: Yes, that’s right. The sun is our nearest star – although it’s a staggering 150 million kilometres away. Earth is one of nine planets that orbit – or circle around – the sun. And life on Earth couldn’t exist without its warmth and light. R: And we should mention… The sun is absolutely massive. Its volume is so large you could fit a million Earths inside it. N: That’s amazing! It’s also incredibly hot. Hotter than anything you could imagine. R: The sun’s core – that’s the centre – is a blistering five million degrees Celsius. But now let’s listen to Professor of Solar Physics Louise Harra to discover what the sun is made of. Louise Harra, Professor of Solar Physics at UCL Mullard Space Science: It’s just a big ball of gas. And we measure it… it’s made mostly of hydrogen. So it’s roughly 90% hydrogen, it’s maybe 8% helium, and the rest of it’s made up of things like iron, carbon, oxygen, nickel. N: So the main gas is hydrogen, which accounts for 90% of the sun’s matter. Now, 'matter' means what something is made of. R: And hydrogen creates all the sun’s energy. Heat and light energy is created all the time in the sun’s core as a result of gas explosions or nuclear reactions. And this bit is hard to believe – it takes a hundred thousand years for this light energy to travel from the sun’s core to the sun’s surface. N: But once it reaches the sun’s surface – the photosphere – it can escape. In fact, it takes only eight minutes for light energy from the sun to reach the Earth. Scientists these days are able to see the photosphere in fantastic detail using powerful telescopes. R: Though Galileo observed dark spots on the sun through his telescope several hundred years ago, didn’t he? Which brings us on to another question: How old is the sun? N: Well, I happen to know that it came into being around four and a half billion years ago. R: Did you study solar physics at university, Neil? N: No, just… you know, just general knowledge. R: How hot s the sun’s surface is it a) 1.5 billion b) 1.5 million or c) 5500 degrees Celsius? The answer is actually 5500 degrees Celsius. But still, if you’re planning on visiting the sun, 59

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remember to take your sunglasses and plenty of sunscreen! Well, that brings us to the end of today's 6 Minute English. We hope you enjoyed today’s programme. Bye bye. N: Bye. Audio File 2 The Earth is made of several layers, or spheres. The hot core is at the center. Around the core is the mantle and the crust. The mantle makes up most of the Earth`s volume. We see rocks and soil at the crust. The Earth`s lithosphere is the rigid outer layer that is made up of the crust and the part of the mantle just below it. The core, mantle, and crust are the geosphere. Everything above the crust is part of the biosphere that supports life. Many living things exist underwater in the hydrosphere. The hydrosphere includes water vapor above the Earth, too. All around the Earth is the atmosphere. Most of the air is in the inner part, the troposphere. The outer part, the stratosphere, protects us from the sun. Audio File 3 Teacher: Leon, are you pretty comfortable I with the spheres? Student: I think so. I’ll give it a try. Teacher: Okay. What layer contains most of the planet’s air? Student: Let's see. That's the troposphere, right? Teacher: You got it. And what larger sphere is it part of? Student: It's part of the stratosphere. No, wait, that's a separate layer. Teacher: That's right. And they both belong to which sphere? Student: They're both part of the atmosphere. Audio File 4 Scientist 1: Do you now about the crisis in Greenfield Meadow? Scientist 2: Yes. I am studying it. Too many rabbits were killed by hunters last year. Scientist 1: That can’t be good for the ecosystem. They are the primary consumers. Scientist 2: I know. Now the secondary consumers don’t have enough to eat. Scientist 1: That must affect the population of wolves and hawks. Scientist 2: It does. And without those animals, the decomposers won’t have much to eat either. Scientist 1: And then the producers, like grass, don’t get enough nutrients. Wow, that’s bad. 60

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Scientist 2: Yeah, we really need to increase the rabbit population. Audio File 5 An ecosystem is made up of living things and nonliving things. Each species lives where it finds the things it needs. That place is its habitat, or home. The living things are adapted to live in that place. Kangaroo rats live in burrows (holes in the ground) in hot, dry, desert conditions. They do not have to drink water. They get all their water from the seeds they eat. Audio File 6 Scientist 1: Have you been to Rufford Lake recently? Scientist 2: Yes. There aren't very many fish in the water anymore. Scientist 1: Five years ago that lake was a thriving fish habitat. What happened? Scientist 2: They're dying. It’s because people dump waste in the lake. Scientist 1: Really? That's terrible. Do you think the fish will die out eventually? Scientist 2: I doubt it. The species has a lot of genetic diversity. Scientist 1: You mean that some fish are stronger than others? Scientist 2: Exactly. I think there are enough left to keep the population going. Audio File 7 A biome is an area where plants and animals live. Different plants and animals live in different biomes. Some live in dry grasslands. Others live in deserts. Some live in cold tundra or taiga. Others live in wet rain forests. Many live in deciduous forests, where there are four seasons. Each of these large areas is a biome.

The living and nonliving parts of a biome form an

ecosystem. Plants and animals are living things. Nonliving things include rocks, water, and soil. An ecosystem can be large or small. Living things in ecosystems are divided into smaller units. Each kind of a living thing is called a species. All members of a species living in the same area form a population. Two or more populations of living things from the same area form a community. Audio File 8 Student: I am confused about savannas and tundras. Teacher: Sure. First of all, what do they have in common? Student: Well, I know they’re both grasslands. They have large open spaces with few trees. Teacher: And how are they different? Student: I know savannas get a lot more heat and precipitation. They're more like rainforests 61

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than tundras. Teacher: You're right about the precipitation. But they also have long dry seasons. You see what I mean? Student: Oh, I get it. So they get enough rain to support grass, but not tall trees. Teacher: You got it. Audio File 9 Callum: Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English, I'm Callum Robertson and with me today is Kaz, hello Kaz. Kaz: Hello Callum. C: Today we're going to be talking about the rainforest and in particular the rainforest in Borneo. In 2007 there was an agreement to protect a large area of rainforest and environmental scientists have just revealed some of the strange and rare animals and insects that live there. Kaz, have you ever been to Borneo or any other rainforests? K: I've been to rainforests and I've been lucky enough to have been to Borneo too. I spent two years there. C: Fantastic, right, well you'll be an expert on this topic. David Norman from the World Wide Fund for Nature, the WWF, spoke to the BBC about the Borneo rainforest and the discoveries there. He talks about rainforests being some of the most biologically diverse habitats on earth. OK. Let's listen to David Norman. David Norman: These are some of the most biologically diverse habitats on the whole of the Earth. It's one of only two places on Earth where you have elephants, and orang-utans and rhinoceros and clouded leopards all living in the same territory. So it's really extraordinarily rich tropical rainforest. C: And in your time in Borneo did you ever see any of these, these animals? K: In a protected area I saw orang-utans and that was in Sabah, that's the northern part of Borneo. But in my wonderings around the rainforests of Borneo I saw many birds, many insects and many different kinds of apes and monkeys, gibbons in particular. In the rainforest you tend to hear more than you see. And the rainforest sounds a bit like this. This is a recording that I made at night. And the animals are mainly frogs. Rainforest recording C: Fantastic, that's really, there's a lot of atmosphere there, isn't there? K: It's a very atmospheric place. And as I said you tend to hear things before you 62

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see them. C: David goes on to talk about some of the more unusual creatures that have been discovered in the Borneo rainforest. Here he talks about two different species. David Norman: You know quite remarkable insects just found nowhere else on earth. There's the world's longest insect has been discovered here. This is about half a metre long, so if this thing lands on your head, its tail is somewhere down near your hand. It's amazing that only three examples of this have ever been discovered, that's how rare it is, it's up in the forest canopy. There's a frog, for example, as well, that has no lungs, this is extraordinary. This is a creature that has evolved to breathe entirely through its skin, so you know, extraordinary stories from the natural world. C: Extraordinary stories from the natural world indeed. What two discoveries did he mention Kaz? K: He mentioned a frog that has no lungs. So, I have lungs, I breathe like this. This frog, doesn't have lungs, it breathes through its skin. And he also mentioned the world's longest insect at half a metre. Now just imagine that landing on your head Callum! C: I'd rather not! How about you Kaz, how do you feel about things like insects and spiders? K: Well, insects and spiders, creepy-crawlies, I have no problem with them. C: You don't mind touching and holding creepy-crawlies? K: I don't mind them, in fact, as a young boy I used to keep stick insects at home. C: Right, fascinating! K: But they weren't half a metre long, these were small, these were about four inches long. David Norman: There are about 10 million species perhaps on the planet and we've only discovered 1.7 million of those. C: Well, that's all from us today but do join us again for more 6 Minute English. Thank you very much Kaz, Goodbye. K: Goodbye Callum.

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ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННАЯ ЛИТЕРАТУРА 1.

Carattoli M. C. Nature and Environment / M. C. Carattoli. – Richmond Publishing, 2002. – 66 p.

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Collins T., Maples M. J. Gateway to Science / T. Collins, M. J. Maples. – Thomson Heinle, 2008. – 280p.

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Dictionary of Environmental Science / McGraw-Hill, 2009. – 388p.

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Douglas N. Reading Explorer 3 / N. Douglas. – Heinle Cengage Learning, 2010. – 192 p.

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Environmental Literacy Council – http://enviroliteracy.org

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Environmental Science – https://www.environmentalscience.org

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Evans V., Dooley J., Blum E. Career Path: Environmental Science / V. Evans, J. Dooley, E. Blum. – Express Publishing, 2013. – 128 p.

8.

Grussendorf M. English for Presentations / M. Grussendorf. – Oxford University Press, 2007. – 80 p.

9.

Hashemi L., Murphy R. English Grammar in Use. Supplementary Exercises / L. Hashemi, R. Murphy. – Cambridge University Press, 2001. – 126 p.

10. Learning English – http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish 11. Maclntyre P. Reading Explorer 2 / P. Maclntyre. – Heinle Cengage Learning, 2009. – 192 p. 12. Rillero P., Zuke D. Ecology / P. Rillero, D. Zuke. – Glencoe McGraw Hill, 2005. – 198 p. 13.

Шалимо И. Г., Елисеева Т. В., Шарейко И. JI., Гребнева Г. О. Английский язык для самостоятельной работы студентов географов = English for the Students of Geography: Student’s Resource and Activity Manual: практикум / авт.-сост.: И. Г. Шалимо, Т. В. Елисеева, И. J1. Шарейко, Г. О. Гребнева. – Минск: БГУ, 2007. – 100 с.

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Учебное издание

Черникова Светлана Николаевна

INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Учебно-методическое пособие

Издано в авторской редакции Подписано в печать 26.03.2018. Формат 60×84/16 Уч.-изд. л. 3,4. Усл. печ. л. 3,7. Тираж 50 экз. Заказ 138 Издательский дом ВГУ 394018 Воронеж, пл. им. Ленина, 10 Отпечатано с готового оригинал-макета в типографии Издательского дома ВГУ 394018 Воронеж, ул. Пушкинская, 3

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