Introduction to computing. Введение в компьютерные вычисления: учебное пособие 9786010405516

Пособие составлено на основе оригинальных текстов англоязычных авторов. Предназначено для студентов бакалавриата механик

124 77 2MB

English Pages [178] Year 2014

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

Polecaj historie

Introduction to computing. Введение в компьютерные вычисления: учебное пособие
 9786010405516

Citation preview

       .  -

.. , . . !, .. "#$!%

INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTING &    ' (  )                 -        

*+ «/02 "345$4**6» 2014

 811.111(075.8)  81.2  .-923

52

            ,              . -!  "

:         ,  ..           ,  ..       -      ,  .. 

 ..  .

52 Introduction to computing.    ! ! ": #. #   . ". "   .- .  . / .$.   , %.&.   , '.*. + ". –   !: 4  6 ;, 2014. – 178 . ISBN 978–601–04–0551–6 @ (The Article)  2#3S$! %0+! $"Z$*"* @ 4*3!%: 24@22+S ( n) 3 4@22+S the. 4@22+S 4*3!F ( n) 430] * 3$3*F2# one — “ ” 3 [*" "*4K%*$% *F! $ 3$3$%+3 $"Z$*3*F2+3  @32$*22 3$. 4@22+S 4*3!F 3* @ B4+: 1) , $*%Z"H 4@ $"Z$*3*F2+3, 232HZ33$% $ $#$2# 0"! 33 3HZ33 4@3 $K% 4@23, 232HZ$% $ $#$2# 0"!, 2434: a book [¬'buk] !23#, a big apple [¬ 'bI² 'æpl] KF] %K!; 2) an, $*%Z"H 4@ $"Z$*3*F2+3, 232HZ33$% $ #$2# 0"! 33 3HZ33 4@3 $K% 4@23, 232HZ$% $ #$2# 0"!, 2434: an egg [¬n 'g] %SE, an old man [¬n 'ould 'mæn] $*43!. 4@22+S 4*3!F 2 4"$$!3S %0+! 2 4@3*$% 3 4@* 3]F "!023 2 432@\2$*F 4@* ! !!"-3K !$$" @24@2+A 4@*. 434: a book 023*   -,  ,  ,   -   . $3 + #43 Give me a book ['gIv mi: ¬ 'buk], * + A*3 @4!2"*F, * 2 2"\2 !23#,  2 **4@F, 4"!, !4mail protected]] 3 *. @. 4@22+S 4*3!F 43$A@3* * "!0*F2# $*323% that [ðæt] « » 3 3* @2" B4" the, !*4% 4302$3*$% [ð¬] 4@ $"Z$*3*F2+3, 232HZ33$% $ $#$2# 0"!, 2434: the room [ð¬ 'rum] ([*) !2*, the big apple [ð¬ 'bI² 'æ41] ([*) KF] %K!, 3 [ði:] 4@ $"Z$*3*F2+3, 232HZ33$% $ #$2# 0"!, 33 4@ 4@23, 232HZ3$% $ #$2# 0"!, 2434: the evening [ði:'i:vnI¸] ([**) 4, the old house [ði:'¬uld 'haus] ([**) $*4+S @. 4@22+S 4*3!F \* "*4K%*F$% !! $ 3$3$%+3, *! 3 $ 23$3$%+3 $"Z$*3*F2+3  @32$*22 3 2\$*22 3$. 4@22+S 4*3!F "*4K%*$%, !#@ 2"\2 [email protected]3*F !!S-3K 4@*, 3E 33 %23 30 !$$ " @K2+A, 2434: Giye me the book ['²Iv mi: ð¬ 'buk]. &S* 2 [*" !23#" (, !  &    ). % +   %   > ? 4@22+S 4*3!F "*4K%*$%: 103

1) $ $"Z$*3*F2+ — 322+ 2 $$*2# $!0"#: Mike is a student. 3] $*"@2*. 2) 3)

$ $"Z$*3*F2+-@\Z3 $ K4* there is (there was, there will be): There's a good library in our school.  2]S ]! /@ A4]% ++  > . $ @223 $ ## have: I have a sister.

 2% /@ // . % +  %   > ? / // ?   /*'/ @ 

4@22+S 4*3!F "*4K%*$%, !#@ $K$@23! (33 3]"Z" 3 3**H) 30$*2 30 !4"\HZS K$*2!3 ($3*"E33), 4@]$*"HZ# +* 33 $$2# !4"\23% (!2*!$*),  !! 33 !!3A 322 4@*A (3EA, %23%A) [email protected]* 4F. 1. 4@22+S 4*3!F K+2 "*4K%*$%, !#@ 4@ $"Z$*3*F2+ $*3*: ) 4%@! 3$3*F2: Gagarin was the first man to fly into space.

°#432 K+ %  > , !*4+S *  !$$.

K) 43#*F2  4$A@2S $*23: This is the shortest way to the town. Jack is the best runner in our school.

¹* >  =;= "*F ! #4@". &\! – *;= K#"2  2]S ]!.

) @2 30 43#*F2+A – following, last, next, same: Copy the following sentences. You've made the same mistake. The next stop is ours.

3]3* / *F' 4@\23%. + [email protected]3 * & / *F ]3K!". Q *F' ? $*2! 2].

'!   : "Z$*3*F2+ $ 43#*F2+3 next  last "*4K%H*$% K0 4*3!%  $*23%A next door ( $$@2 @), next week (2 K"@"ZS 2@), next month, next summer, next year, next Sunday ( K"@"Z $!4$2F), next time ( $@"HZ3S 40), last week (2 4]S 2@), last month, last year, last Saturday 3 *. .: Tom lives next door to me.  \3* ? $ 2S. I'll be on duty next week.  K"@" @\"43*F  / *F'=  . I was there last night.  K+ *  . 2. 4@22+S 4*3!F "*4K%*$%, !#@ 0 $"Z$*3*F2+ $@"* 4@23: # is the book I bought yesterday. * > ,      . Can you show me the way to the sta- + \* 2 !0*F   *  tion?   ? The trees planted by us have taken root. @?,    23, 43\33$F. This is the house where I was born. *  , !   !. 3. 4@22+S 4*3!F "*4K%*$%  *A $"%A, !#@ 30 4@]$*"HZ# !2*!$* %$2,  !! 4@* (3E, %233) 33 !!3A 4@*A (3EA, %23%A) [email protected]* 4F: We've received a letter from an English schoolgirl. The girl writes in the letter that she wants to correspond with Russian schoolchildren. Petrov mis-spelt a word in his sentence. Who has noticed the mistake? 104

 @22+A 434A 30 4+A 4@\23S %$2,  !!3A 322 4@*A (3EA, %23%A) [email protected]* 4F (the letter, the girl, the mistake). 4. 4@22+S 4*3!F "*4K%*$% $ $"Z$*3*F2+3, K02HZ33 4@*+, @32$*22+  $ 4@: the sun, the moon, the earth, the ground, the world, the sky, the air 3 2!*4+ @4"#3: Our scientists were the first to photograph the far side of the Moon. Our sportsmen are among the best in the world.

]3 "2+ K+3 4+3, !* $B*#4B34 K4*2"H $*42" *. ]3 $4*$2+ @23 30 "]3A  .

5. 4@22+S 4*3!F \* "*4K%*F$% $ 3$3$%+3 $"Z$*3*F2+3  @32$*22 3$, 2 [email protected]%% 4@* 30 4%@ " @K2+A,  K02% $F !$$ @24@2+A 4@*: The rose is a beautiful flower. 0 – !4$3+S E*!. The dog is the friend of man. K! – @4"# !. *$"*$*3 4*3!S 4@ 3$3$%+3 $"Z$*3*F2+3 4*3!3 2 "*4K%H*$% $ 3$3$%+3 $"Z$*3*F2+3  $@"HZ3A $"%A: 1) $3 $"Z$*3*F2 %%*$% K4Z23: Children, be quiet! , *3]. 2) 4@ $3 Father, Mother  +$!0+23%A 2 $F3: Ann, hasn't Father come yet? 2%, % % Z 2 43]? 3) 4@ 2023%3 @2S 2@3, $%E 3 42 #@: Spring has come at last! ‚/ , 2!2E, 43]. July is a summer month. †F @ – *23S $%E. We do not go to school on Sunday. + 2 A@3  ]!"   />/@. 4) 4@ $"Z$*3*F2+3 breakfast, dinner, lunch, supper: I have breakfast at seven. Will you stay to dinner?

   > F  $F $. + $*2*$F + @?

% +  > = / // ?   /*'/ @  3$3$%+ $"Z$*3*F2+ (*22+ 3 Z$*22+) "*4K%H*$%, !! 43, K0 4*3!S: I like music.

 HKH *>*.

Mathematics and physics are my favourite subjects.

|  > 3 ‡> – 3 HK3+ 4@*+.

Give me a glass of water, please. We struggle for peace.

&S* 2 $*!2  , \"S$*. + K4$% 0 .

$3 *`22+ 3 Z$*22+ $"Z$*3*F2+ 3H* 43 $K #4233*F2+ 4@23% 33 "*2%H*$% $3*"E3S, 23 "*4K%H*$% $ 4@`22+ 4*3!: Pass me the bread, please.

'4@S* 2 AK, \"S$*. 105

>  /    / +/  2 $K$*22+ "*4K%H*$%, !! 43, K0 4*3!S: Zaure, Almaty, Kazakhstan, Australia, Gogol Street: Astana is the capital of Kazakhstan. $*2 – $*3E 0A$*2. I live in Gogol Street.

 \3" 2 "3E °#%.

 4@`22+ 4*3! "*4K%H*$% $@"HZ3 32 $K$*22+: 1) 2023% 4S, !2, 4!, !2, 43, #42+A ES, "$*+2F, #4" $*4: the Caspian Sea, the Pacific Ocean, the Ili, the Lena, the Beringov Channel, the Ili Alatau, the Karakum: Almaty is situated in the vicinity of the Ili Alatau. *+ 4$\2  4@#4F%A 33S$!# -". 2) 023% $*42 $*: the North, the South, the West, the East: They live somewhere in the North. 23 \3"* #@-* 2 $4. 3) 333  2o\$*22 3$ @% K0223% $S ($A 2) $F3: Next year the Askarovs will go to Siberia.  $@"HZ #@" $!4+ @"*  3K34F. }   @  (The Adjective)  2#3S$! %0+!, !! 3  4"$$!, 43#*F2+ K02H* 4302!3, !$* 33 $S$* 4@*. ' 0223H 43#*F2+ @%*$% 2 @ #4"+: !$*22+ 3 *2$3*F2+. $*22+ 43#*F2+ K02H* 4302!3 3 !$* 4@*, $@*F2, 3H* $*23 $4223%. Q% / ?  ˆ %   @`   = @2$\2+ 3 @"$\2+ 43#*F2+ K40"H* $*23 $4223% "*` 43K23% $"BB3!$: -er  $423*F2S $*23, '\3*F2% $*2F short [º±:t] !4*!3S

423*F2% $*2F shorter ['º±:t¬] !4

big [ bI²] KF]S

bigger ['bI²¬] KF]

long [ l±¸] @322+S

longer ['l±¸²¬] @[email protected];

easy ['i:zI] `#!3S

easier ['i:zI¬] #

106

-est  4$A@2S $*23. '4$A@2% $*2F shortest ['º±:tIst] / = !4*!3S biggest ['bI²Ist] / = KF]S longest ['l±¸²Ist] / = @322+S easiest ['i:zIIst] / = `#!3S

'43 K40233 4$*+A B4 $423*F2S 3 4$A@2S $*2S 2KA@3 $K[email protected]*F $@"HZ3 43: 1) "@3*F  23$233 !22"H $#$2"H  $423*F2S 3 4$A@2S $*2%A @2$\2+A 43#*F2+A, !23HZ3A$% 2 @2" $#$2"H $ 4@]$*"HZ3 !4*!3 #$2+ 0"!: hot – hotter – hottest big – bigger – biggest 2) 302%*F K"!" * 2 i  $423*F2S 3 4$A@2S $*2%A 43#*F2+A, !23HZ3A$% 2 -* $ 4@]$*"HZS $#$2S: lazy – lazier – laziest happy – happier – happiest 3) "$!*F 2 e  $423*F2S 3 4$A@2S $*2%A: large – larger – largest simple – simpler – simplest !*4+ 43#*F2+ (243%) K40"H* B4+ $*2S $4223% * @4"#3A !42S: good A4]3S better ['bet¬] "], best [best] $+S "]3S, 23"]3S, "] $# well A4] bad AS badly A worst [w¬:st] $+S A"@]3S, 23A"@]3S, A"\ $# many 2#, much 2# little 2F!3S,  – less [les] 2F], least [li:st] 232F]3S, 2F] $# '43#*F2+, $$*%Z3 K  30 @"A $#, K40"H* $*23 $4223% "* $*2!3 4@ 233 $ m# [m±:] ( $423*F2S $*23) 3 most [m¬ust] ( 4$A@2S $*23).  '\3*F2% $*2F interesting 32*4$2+S beautiful !4$3+S

423*F2% $*2F more interesting K 32*4$2+S more beautiful K !4$3+S

'4$A@2% $*2F most interesting $+S 32*4$2+S most beautiful $+S !4$3+S

"$$!" K4*" « > = & ..., > >» $**$*"* 2#3S$!3S K4* as ... as, K4*" «  > = ..., > >» — K4* not so ... as, K4* «+  ...,  », « ...,  » – !2$*4"!E3% $ than: This flower is as beautiful as that one.

¹** E*!  > = & !4$3+S, > > 3 **. ( one 02%* $ « >».) This story is not so interesting as that one. ¹** 4$$!0   > = 32*4$2+S, > > ** (4$$!0). This exercise is easier than that one. ¹* "4\223 #,   (*% &).

107

*2$3*F2+ 43#*F2+ K02H* 4302!3 3 !$* 4@* 40 *2]23 ! @4"#3 4@*, 2434: golden hair 0*3$*+ $+, political economy 3*3$!% [!23%.  02233 *2$3*F2+A 43#*F2+A  2#3S$! %0+! +$*"H* $"Z$*3*F2+-4@3*3: a school library ]!F2% K3K3*! a gold watch 0*+ $+ the autumn sky $22 2K a London street [email protected]2$!% "3E

_/  @ (Numerals)  2#3S$! %0+!, !! 3  4"$$!, 403H*$% !3$*22+ 3$3*F2+ (Cardinal Numerals) 3 4%@!+ (Ordinal Numerals).    3   $ *   2 2 +  3$3*F2+ K02H* 3$ 4@* 3 *H* 2 4$: How many? (!F!?) – I have two pens and three pencils. '  4 % @ !   +  3$3*F2+ K02H* 4%@! 43 $* 3 *H* 2 4$: Which? (*4+S  4%@!"?) The school year begins on the first of September. July the twenty-second is my mother's birthday. ‰+    > /`  % ?> ` /  @` 1. '43$@32%% $"BB3!$ -teen ! $**$*"HZ3 4$*+ 3$3*F2+, \2 K40*F 3$3*F2+ * 13 (thirteen) @ 19 (nineteen): four + teen = fourteen six + teen = sixteen seven + teen = seventeen '!   : )3$3*F2+ thirteen 3 fifteen 3H* 30223%  $2 ($423*: three, five). 2. "BB3!$ -ty, 43$@32%%$F ! 4$*+ 3$3*F2+, K40"* @$%*!3: * 20 (twenty) @ 90 (ninety): seven + ty = seventy six + ty = sixty nine + ty = ninety '4323: )3$3*F2+ twenty, thirty 3 fifty 3H* 30223%  $2 ($423*: two, three, five),   3$3*F2 forty +@* K"! u. 3.  $$*2+A 3$3*F2+A @323E+ 2$4@$*22 43$@32%H*$% ! @$%*! 3 3]"*$% 40 @B3$,  \@" @$%*!3 3 $*2%3 $*3* $H0 and: thirty-seven, eight hundred and fifty-four. 4. '4@ 3$3*F2+3 hundred, thousand, million $*3*$% 24@22+S 4*3!F 33 3$3*F2 one; a (one) hundred, a (one) thousand, a (one) million. 108

5. )3$3*F2+ hundred, thousand 3 million 2 4323H* !223% -s, !#@ 4@ 233 $*%* 3$3*F2+ two, three, four 3 *. @.: two hundred, three thousand, four million. Hundred, thousand 3 million #"*, @2!, 4323*F !223 -s, !#@ 23 +4\H* 24@22 !3$* $*2, *+$%, 332.  [* $" 23 44ZH*$%  $"Z$*3*F2+ 3 $ 23A "*4K%*$% $"Z$*3*F2 $ 4@# of: Hundreds of students were present at the *23 $*"@2* 43$"*$*3 2 meeting. $K4233. Thousands of people met the Russian +$%3 [email protected]S $*43 4[email protected]2* President. $$33. 6. '4%@!+ 3$3*F2+, !4 first, second, third, K40"H*$% * $**$*"HZ3A !3$*22+A 3$3*F2+A "* 43K23% $"BB3!$ -th 33 -eth. "BB3!$ -eth 43K%*$% ! 3$3*F2+, !23HZ3$% 2 -ty, 43 K"! * 43 [* 02%*$% 2 i: thirty – thirtieth, sixty – sixtieth, etc.  $*F2+A $"%A 43K%*$% $"BB3!$ -th: six – sixth, seven – seventh, hundred – hundredth, etc. $*2+ 4%@!+ 3$3*F2+ K40"H*$% * $**$*"HZ3A !3$*22+A 3$3*F2+A "* 02+ $@2# !3$*22# 3$3*F2# 4%@!+: twenty-one – twenty-first, thirty-seven – thirty-seventh. _/  @ (Numerals)  3$*22+ (Cardinal Numerals) 1 one [wµn] 2 two [tu:] 3 three [´ri:] 4 four [f±:] 5 five [faIv] 6 six [sIks] 7 seven ['sev¬n] 8 eight [eIt] 9 nine [naIn] 10 ten [ten] 11 eleven [I'lev¬n] 12 twelve [twelv] 13 thirteen ['´¬:'ti:n] 14 fourteen ['f±:'ti:n] 15 fifteen ['f If 'ti:n] 16 sixteen ['sIks'ti:n] 17 seventeen ['sevn'ti:n] 18 eighteen [ ¼eI'ti:n] 19 nineteen ['naIn'ti:n] 20 twenty ['twentI] 21. twenty-one ['twentI 'wµn] 30. thirty ȏ'´¬:tI]

'4%@!+ (Ordinal Numerals) the first [ð¬ 'f¬:st] the second [ð¬ 'sek¬nd] the third [ð¬ '´¬:d] the fourth [ð¬ 'f±:´] the fifth [ð¬ 'f If´] the sixth [ð¬ 'sIks´] the seventh [ð¬ 'sevn´] the eighth [ði:'eIt´] the ninth [ð¬ 'naIn´] the tenth [ð¬ 'ten´] the eleventh [ði:I'lev¬n´] the twelfth [ð¬ 'twelf´] the thirteenth [ð¬ '´¬:'ti:n´] the fourteenth [ð¬ 'f±:'ti:n´] the fifteenth [ð¬ 'fIf 'ti:n´] the sixteenth [ð¬ 'sIks'ti:n´] the seventeenth [ð¬ 'sevn'ti:n´] the eighteenth [ði: ¼eI'ti:n´] the nineteenth [ð¬ 'naIn'ti:n´] the twentieth [ð¬ 'twentII´] the twenty-first [ð¬ 'twentI 'f¬:st] the thirtieth [ð¬ '´¬:tII´] 109

40. forty ['f±:tI] 50. fifty ['f IftI] 60. sixty ['sIkstI] 70. seventy ['sev¬ntI] 80. eighty ['eItI] 90. ninety ['naIntI] 100. one hundred ['wµn 'hµndrId] 101. one hundred and one ['wµn 'hµndrId ¬nd 'wµn] 110. one hundred and ten ['wµn 'hµndrId ¬nd 'ten] 1,000 one thousand ['wµn ' ´auz¬nd] 1,000,000 one million ['wµn 'm Ilj¬n]

the fortieth [ð¬ 'f:tII´] the fiftieth [ð¬ 'fIftII´] the sixtieth [ð¬ 'sIkstII´] the seventieth [ð¬ 'sevntII´] the eightieth [ði: 'eItII´] the ninetieth [ð¬ 'naIntII´] the hundredth [ð¬ 'hµndrId´] the one hundred and first [ ð¬ 'wµn'hµndrId ¬nd 'f¬:st] the one hundred and tenth [ ð¬ 'wµn 'hµndrId ¬nd 'ten´] the thousandth [ð¬ '´auz¬nd´] the millionth [ð¬ 'mIlj¬n´]

|/   (The Pronoun)  2#3S$! %0+! $*323%  $" 0223H @%*$% 2 9 #4". \@% #4" $*323S 3* $3 $K22$*3, !!  0223H, *! 3  $32*!$3$!3 3 4B#3$!3 B"2!E3%. 3\ K"@"* 4$$*43*F$% 3]F * #4"+ $*323S, !*4+ $*4H*$%  @22 "K23!.  /  ? (Personal Pronouns) @32$*22 3$ 1- 3E I 2- 3E you 3- 3E he she it

2\$*22 3$

[aI] % we [wi:] + [ju:] *+ you [ju:] + [hi:] 2 they [ðeI] 23 [i:] 2 [It] 2, 2, 2 ( 2@"]22+A 4@*A 3 \3*2+A)

1. 32 $*323 I $#@ 3]*$% $ 0#2S K"!+. 2.  $422 2#3S$! %0+! 3*$% *F! @2 32 $*323 @% 2-# 3E @32$*22# 3 2\$*22# 3$ — you, !*4 3]*$% $ 2F!S K"!+.  4"$$!3S %0+! you 4@3*$% «» 3 «»  03$3$*3 * !2*!$*. 3. 32+ $*323% 3H* *F! @ @\: 323*F2+S 3 K!*2+S. K!*2+S @\ 32+A $*323S 4@3*$% 2 4"$$!3S %0+! @23 30 !$22+A @\S.     & I you he she it we you they

*  & me [mi:] you [ju:] him [hIm] her [h¬:] its [Its] us [µs] you [ju:] them [ðem] 110

}?&  @ /  ? (Possessive Pronouns) '43*%\*F2+ $*323% +4\H* 432@\2$*F. \@ 32 $*323 3* $**$*"HZ 43*%\*F2 $*323. "Z$*"H* @ B4+ 43*%\*F2+A $*323S: 4% B4 (Conjoint form), 4@%HZ% $"Z$*3*F2, 3 *4% B4 (Absolute form), 02%HZ% $"Z$*3*F2. }?&  @ /  ? % = ‡   @32$*22 3$ 1- 3E my 2- 3E your 3- 3E his her its

2\$*22 3$

[maI] S our [u¬] 2] [j±:] *S your [j±:] ] [hIz] # their [ð½¬] 3A [h¬:]  [Its] #,  (@% 2@"]22+A 4@*)

}?&  @ /  ?   = ‡   @32$*22 3$ 1- 3E mine 2- 3E yours 3- 3E his hers its

2\$*22 3$

[maIn] [j±:z] [hIz] [h¬:z] [Its]

ours [au¬z] yours [j±:z] theirs [ð½¬z]

'43*%\*F2 $*323 4S B4+  4@\233 3* B"2!E3H 43#*F2# — 4@23% ! $"Z$*3*F2": Please give me my pen. '\"S$*, @S* 2 F 4"!". His story is too long. € 4$$!0 $3]! @322. Don't take this chair, its leg is broken. He K43* [** $*",  2\! $2. I have not seen their wall newspaper.  2 [email protected] ` $*22S #0*+. '43*%\*F2+ $*323% *4S B4+  4@\233 02%H* $"Z$*3*F2+  B"2!E33 @\Z#, $*3 $$*2# $!0"# 3 @223%: My room is large, yours is larger and % !2* KF]%,  ; — KF], hers is the largest.   — $% KF]%. Whose school did he visit? He visited !"H ]!" 2 $Z? 2 $Z ours.  ;*. Whose book is it? It is mine. )F% [* !23#? | ?.

‚    */  @ /  ? (Reflexive and Emphatic Pronouns) 04*2+ $*323% K40"H*$% "* 43K23% !223% -self ! 32+ 33 43*%\*F2+ $*323% @32$*22# 3$ 3 !223% -selves ! 32+ 33 43*%\*F2+ $*323% 2\$*22# 3$. 04*2+ $*323%  4"$$! %0+! $**$*"* $*3E –/? (-/@)  04*2+A ##A 3 $*323 /+?, /+, / + =. 111

+    

/&   

1- 3E myself [maI'self] 2- 3E yourself [j±:'self] himself [hIm'self] herself [h¬:'self] itself [It'self] I dressed myself. He washes himself with cold water. She said to herself. I myself saw the man.

ourselves [au¬'selvz] yourselves [j±:'selvz] themselves [ðem'selvz]

 @/?. 2 "+*/? A@2S @S. 2 $!0 /+.  / [email protected] [*# !.

|/  ? many, much, (a) few, (a) little ‚ 2#3S$! %0+! $"Z$*"* #4" 24@22+A $*323S: many, much, few, a few, little, a little. 4@22+ $*323% many (2#, 2#3, 2#), few (), a few (22#, 22#3, 2$!F!), much (2#), little (), a little (22#, 22\!), +4\HZ3 24@22 !3$*, 403H*$%  $ "*4K233. $*323% many, few, a few 4@%H* 33 02%H* 3$3$%+ $"Z$*3*F2+  2\$*22 3$. ¹*3 $*323% *H* 2 4$: How many? (!F!?) She bought many pencils for her son. Few students were in the room. I saw a few buses in the village.

2 !"3   !4mail protected]]S $+2".  !2* K+ $*"@2*.  $! % "[email protected] /> @> *K"$.

$*323% much, little, a little 4@%H* 33 02%H* 23$3$%+ $"Z$*3*F2+ (3HZ3 *F! @32$*22 3$). ¹*3 $*323% *H* 2 4$: How much? (!F!?) I don't like to eat much bread.  2 HKH $*F   AK. My brother puts little sugar in his tea. S K4* !@* $A4  S. Pass me a little fish, please. '4@S* 2, \"S$*,    4+K+.  much, little, a little #"* *2$3*F$% 2 *F! ! $"Z$*3*F2+, 2 *!\ ! ##", 43$*3H 3 43#*F2" 3  [* $" 3H* 0223 243S. Ann writes not so much. He looked a little tired.

2% 3]* 2 2F   . 2 +#%@    "$*+.

 a few, a little 3H* \3*F2 0223, K02% 233 2KF]# !3$*,  * 4% !! few 3 little @4!3H* 2@$**2$*F !3$*, *. . 3H* *43E*F2 0223. The student has few English books.  [*# $*"@2* 2#3S$!3A !23#. This student has a few English books.  [*# $*"@2* $*F /> @> 2#3S$!3A !23#.

112

Š  (The Verb) ‚  *%% Simple (Indefinite) Tenses $ 42 #4"+ Indefinite "*4K%H*$% @% +4\23% B!* $4]23% @S$*3%,  *!\ @% +4\23% K+2+A, 4#"%42 *4%HZ3A$% @S$*3S  2$*%Z, 4]@] 3 K"@"Z. ‹ / ?'  %    ? (The Present Simple (Indefinite) Tense) $*%Z 24@22 4% (Present Simple (Indefinite)) K40"*$% 30 $22S B4+ ##+ (32B323*3 $4%## ## K0 $*3E+ to) @% $A 3E, !4 3-# 3E @32$*22# 3$. &% K4023% 3-# 3E @32$*22# 3$ ! $22S B4 ## 43K%*$% !223 -(e)s. 3\ 43@3 $4%\23 ## write  "*[email protected]*F2S B4: I write. We write. You write. You write. He (she, it) writes They write. !223 -s 4302$3*$% !! 0"! [s] $ #"A3A $#$2+A 3 !! 0"! [z] $ 02!3A $#$2+A 3 #$2+A:  works. [hi: 'w¬:ks]  sees. [hi: 'si:z] He learns. [hi: 'l¬:nz] } ? > /   * @ % &  '@\Z I

!0" speak

$*F2% $*F 4@\23% English every day.

4$3*F2% B4 K40"*$% 43 Z3 $#*F2# ## do (does  3- 3E @32$*22# 3$), !*4+S $*3*$% 4@ @\Z3, 0 23 $@"* @\Z 3 $4%#+S ##  $22S B4. $3  4@\233 3*$% 4$3*F2 $, * 2 $*3*$%  $ 2 4@\23%. } ? > /    % / @ % & 4$3*F2 $

$#*F2+S ##

'@\Z

+$S ##

Where

does do

she you

live work

$*F2% $*F 4@\23% in summer? in the morning?

*43E*F2% B4 K40"*$% 30 "*[email protected]*F2S "* $*2!3 $#*F2# ## do (does) 3 *43E23% not 4@ $4%#+ ##  $22S B4, 2434:  does not go to school on Sundays. 2 2 A@3*  ]!"  $!4$2F%.

113

} ? > /     @ % &  C!0" '@\Z $#*F2+S ## We

do

*43E23 not

+$S ## go

$*F2% $*F 4@\23%

to the cinema every day.

'!   : Present Simple (Indefinite) "*4K%*$% *!\ @% +4\23% K"@"Z# @S$*3%  [email protected]*2+A K$*%*F$*22+A 4@\23%A 423 3 "$3%: If you study English hard, you will learn it. $3 + +*   @/? 2#3S$!3 %0+! "42, + * #. When we go to the theatre, I shall meet you #@ + % =  **4, % /* *K% at the bus stop. " *K"$2S $*2!3. } ;;  %    ? (The Past Simple (Indefinite)Tense)  2#3S$! %0+! $ ##+  03$3$*3 * $$K K4023% 423 Past Simple (Indefinite) @%*$% 2 @ #4"+: 43F2+ ##+ 3 243F2+. 4+ Past Simple (Indefinite) ##, !*4+ K40"H*$% 2  43", 43@%*$%  *K3E 243F2+A ## ($. $. 130), 3 3A $@"* +"3*F. $ 43F2+ ##+ K40"H* Past Simple (Indefinite) "* @K23% !223% -ed ! $22S B4 $4%## ##. ¹* !223 4302$3*$% !! 0"! [d], $3 2 $@"* 0 02!3 $#$2+ 3 #$2+, !! [t], $3 2 $@"* 0 #"A3 $#$2+, 3 !! [Id], $3 $2 $4%## ## !23*$% 2 0"!3 [t] 3 [d]: ask live count decide

[³:sk] [lIv] [kaunt] [dI'saId]

asked [³:skt] lived [lIvd] counted ['kauntId] decided [dI'saIdId]

°#+  Past Simple (Indefinite) 23  3E, 23  3$ 2 302%H*$%. *43E*F2% 3 4$3*F2% B4+  Past Simple (Indefinite) $*4%*$%  *" \ 432E3", * 3  Present Simple (Indefinite). @2! 2@ 23*F, * $#*F2+S ##  Past Simple (Indefinite) 3* B4" did, 2434: Did Ann go to the park yesterday? We did not see the film yesterday.

2% A@3  4! 4? + 2 [email protected]3 [** B3F 4.

![email protected]" 023*F 23K 4$4$*4222+ "*4K%+ $ ##3  Past Simple (Indefinite): yesterday at that time the day before yesterday last week (month, year) two days ago

K$*%*F$*

423,

4  * 4% 04 2 4]S 2@ ( 4] $%E, #@") @ @2% *" 20@

114

**'  %    ? (The Future Simple (Indefinite)Tense) "@"Z 24@22 4% (Future Simple (Indefinite)) K40"*$% 30 $#*F2+A ## shall 3 will 3 $22S B4+ $4%## ##. $#*F2+S ## shall "*4K%*$%  1- 3E @32$*22# 3 2\$*22# 3$,   $*F2+A 3EA "*4K%*$% will: I shall write. You will write. He (she, it) will write.

We shall write. You will write. They will write.

4$3*F2% B4 $*43*$% "* $*2!3 $#*F2# ## shall 33 will 4@ @\Z3, 2434: Will you go to the cinema tomorrow?

+ % =;@  !32 0*4?

*43E*F2% B4 K40"*$% "* $*2!3 *43E23% not $ $#*F2# ## shall 33 will, 2434: I shall not g to the cinema tomorrow.

  % =*  !32 0*4.

‚  *%% Continuous (Progressive) (Continuous (Progressive)Tenses) ‹ / ?' %  &   ? (The Present Continuous (Progressive) Tense) Present Continuous (Progressive) K40"*$% 43 Z3 $#*F2# ## to be  2$*%Z 423 (am, is, are) 3 43$*3% 2$*%Z# 423 $+$# ##: I am reading.  is reading. We are reading. 4$3*F2% B4 K40"*$% "* $*2!3 $#*F2# ## to be (am, is, are) 4@ @\Z3, 2434: Am I reading? Is he reading? Are they reading? *43E*F2% B4 K40"*$% "* $*2!3 *43E23% not $ $#*F2# ##, 2434: I am not reading.  is not reading. We are not reading. Present Continuous (Progressive) "*4K%*$% @% +4\23% @S$*3%, 43$A@%Z#  @22+S 2* 2$*%Z# 423: I am speaking now.      F $S$. The boy is running. F3! +&. They are doing their laboratory work. 23  F K4*42"H 4K*". } ;;   @   ? (The Past Continuous (Progressive) Tense) Past Continuous (Progressive) K40"*$% 43 Z3 $#*F2# ## to be  4]@] 423 (was, were)  $*233 $ 43$*3 2$*%Z# 423 $+$# ##: 115

I was speaking. They were speaking. 4$3*F2% B4 K40"*$% "* $*2!3 $#*F2# ## to be (was, were) 4@ @\Z3, 2434: Was I speaking? Were they speaking? *43E*F2% B4 K40"*$% "* $*2!3 *43E23% not $ $#*F2# ##, 2434: I was not speaking. They were not speaking. Past Continuous (Progressive) "*4K%*$%: 1) !#@ *2 "!02 4% (33 *40! 423) $4]23% @S$*3%  4]: I was writing a letter at 8 o'clock  3$ 3$F  8 $ 4 4. yesterday. 2) !#@ $4]2 @ @S$*3%  4] 3 @2 30 23A 3* 4@\22"H B4" (Past Continuous (Progressive)),  @4"# — 0!222"H B4" (Past Simple (Indefinite)): Pete was going to school when he met '*% ]  ]!", !#@ 2 $*4*3 his friend. $# @4"#. ('*% ]  ]!" @ $*43 $ @4"# 3 $, [*" [* @S$*3 p$$*43*$% !! @3*F2 3 +4\*$% ##  Past Continuous (Progressive)) She was reading when her mother entered the room.

2 3*, !#@ ] . ( 2 3* @ 43A@ +  *23 !!#-* 423, [*" [* @S$*3 4$$*43*$% !! @3*F2 3 +4\*$% ##  Past Continuous (Progressive).

‚  *%% Perfect (Perfect Tenses) ‹ / ?' / ;   ? (The Present Perfect Tense) Present Perfect K40"*$% 43 Z3 $#*F2# ## to have  2$*%Z 423 (have, has) 3 43$*3% 4]@]# 423 $+$# ##: I (we, you, they) have worked. He (she, it) has worked. 4$3*F2% B4 K40"*$% "* $*2!3 $#*F2# ## to have 4@ @\Z3, 2434: Have I worked? Has he worked? *43E*F2% B4 K40"*$% "* $*2!3 *43E23% not $ $#*F2# ##, 2434: I have not worked.  has not worked. 116

Present Perfect "*4K%*$% @% +4\23% 0!23]#$% @S$*3%, !#@ 4% $4]23% # "!0+*$% 24@22,  40"F** @S$*3% 23E  2$*%Z3S 2*. ( *A $"%A, !#@ 4% $4]23% @S$*3%  4] "!0+*$% 4@22, "*4K%*$% Past Simple (Indefinite). Present Perfect Z $# 4@3*$% 2 4"$$!3S %0+! ##3 $4]22# [email protected]  4]@] 423: I have written a letter.

We have bought a TV set.

Pete has broken his pencil.

 23$ 3$F. ('    ,     ,      , 0 !  Present Perfect.) + !"33 *304. (1  !  .    . # !  !     %, ! !2        .) '*% $ !4mail protected]]. (       3: !  2       . 4! !2        .)

Present Perfect $* "*4K%*$% $ 243%3 24@22# 423, !*4+ $*%*$% \@" $#*F2+ ## 3 43$*3 4]@]# 423 $4%## ##: Ann has just come in. 2%  "   ; . We have already seen this film. +    (% /  )[** B3F. 3K $* "*4K%+ 243% 24@22# 423: ever ['ev¬] !#@-3K never ['nev¬] 23!#@ just [d¶µst] *F! * already

[±:l'redI] "\ (not)

(not) yet [(n±t) jet] Z (2) } ;; / ;   ? (The Past Perfect Tense) Past Perfect K40"*$% 43 Z3 $#*F2# ## to have  4]@] 423 (had) 3 43$*3% 4]@]# 423 $+$# ##: I had worked.  had worked. 4$3*F2% B4 K40"*$% "* $*2!3 $#*F2# ## to have (had) 4@ @\Z3, 2434: Had I worked? Had he worked? *43E*F2% B4 K40"*$% "* $*2!3 *43E23% not $ $#*F2# ##, 2434: I had not worked.  had not worked. Past Perfect "*4K%*$% @% +4\23% @S$*3%, $4]22# ! !!"-* 2*"  4]. ¹** 2* \* K+*F K022 3K *2+ "!023 423, 3K @4"#3 @S$*3  4]: 117

 had written his work by 2 o'clock. We had finished our laboratory work before the bell rang.

2 23$ $H 4K*" ! @" $. + 0!233 2]" K4*42"H 4K*" @ *#, !! 402 02!.

)$* Past Perfect "*4K%*$%  [email protected]*2+A @23*F2+A 4@\23%A, !#@ + A*3 @4!2"*F 4@]$*23 @2# @S$*3% @4"#": She said (that) she had read this 2 $!0, * 3* [*" $**FH. article. (   !  ,   0   .) }  /  /  ?   (The Sequence of Tenses)  2#3S$! %0+! $"Z$*"* 43 $#$23% ($@*F2$*3) 42  $\2@3222+A 4@\23%A $ [email protected]*2+3 @23*F2+3. $3  #2 4@\233 ## $*3*  2$*%Z 33 K"@"Z 423, *  [email protected]*2 @23*F2 4@\233 ## \* $*%*F  HK 423, *4K"  $+$", 3  [* $" 43 $#$23% 42 2 @S$*"*:  says that Ann takes English lessons.

2   , * 2% + "4!3 2#3S$!# %0+!. 2   , * 23 +  A4]33 @4"0F%3  *23 2#3A *. 2   , * 23 % *  3#" *.

 says that they were good friends for many years.  says that they will go to Riga in summer. '43 $#$23% 42 @S$*"* 3]F  * $", $3  #2 4@\233 ## $*3*  Past Simple (Indefinite)   Past Continuous (Progressive).  [* $"  [email protected]*2 4@\233 "*4K%*$%: 1) @% +4\23% @2422# @S$*3% Past Simple (Indefinite)   Past Continuous (Progressive): He said that Ann took English lessons. 2)

2 />  , * 2% + "4!3 2#3S$!# %0+!.

@% +4\23% @S$*3%, 4@]$*"HZ# @S$*3H #2# 4@\23% — Past Perfect:

 said that they had been good friends for many years.

2 />  , * 23 +  !#@-* 42F] A4]33 @4"0F%3  *23 2#3A *.

3) @% +4\23% K"@"Z# @S$*3% "*4K%*$% $K 4%, !*4 20+*$% Future in the Past (K"@"Z  4]@]):  said that they would go to Riga in summer.  said that we should learn English.

2 />  , * 23 % *  3#" *. 2 />  , * + +* * @ 2#3S$!3S %0+!.

'!   : Future in – the – Past K40"* "*[email protected]*F2"H, 4$3*F2"H 3 *43E*F2"H B4+ *!3 \ K40, !! 3 Future Simple (Indefinite). 023E 0!H*$% 3]F  *, *  Future in – the –Past $* ## shall 3 will $**$*22 "*4K%H*$% should 3 would.  4"$$!3S %0+! 4@\23%  Future in – the – Past 4@%*$% K"@"Z3 42. '23*, * Future in – the – Past "*4K%*$% *F!  [email protected]*2+A @23*F2+A 4@\23%A:

118

2  , * % (+ K"@) +** % /' @ [*3 !E33. 2  , * + (2, 2 +*, 23 +**) +* % /' @ [*3 !E33.

She knew that I (we) should attend these lectures. She knew that you (he, she, they) would attend these lectures.

Q   @=   (The Passive Voice)  2#3S$! %0+! $"Z$*"* @ 0# ##: @S$*3*F2+S (the Active Voice) 3 $*4@*F2+S (the Passive Voice).  * $", !#@ @\Z %%*$% @S$*"HZ3 3E, + 3 @ $ @S$*3*F2+ 0#, 2434: I read a newspaper every day.

  F #0*" !\@+S @2F. (' & % I     %  3, 0  ! ,    ! &           .)

$3 \ @\Z 2 %%*$% @S$*"HZ3 3E,  @S$*3 242 2 @\Z, *  [* $" + 3 @ $ 4@\23  $*4@*F2 0#, 2434: The book was written by my friend.

23# +  %/  3 @4"#. (@$F @S$*3 242 2 @\Z the book.) *4@*F2+S 0# K40"*$% 43 Z3 $#*F2# ## to be  $**$*"HZ 423, 3E 3 3$  $*233 $ Past Participle (43$*3 4]@]# 423) $+$# ##. 4" K4023% $*4@*F2# 0#: to be ( $**$*"HZ 423, 3E 3 3$) 434: The house was built last month. The teacher was sent for.

+

Past Participle $+$# ##

& + % /   4] $%E. # "3* % / .

! [email protected] 30 +]43@22+A 434, ##  $*4@*F2 0#  2#3S$! %0+! \2 4@3*F 2 4"$$!3S %0+! $@"HZ33 *4% $$K3: 1) $*23 ## «+@» $ !4*!S B4S $*4@*F2# 43$*3% —  [* $*233 ## to be  2$*%Z 423 2 4"$$!3S %0+! 2 4@3*$%; 2) ##, !23HZ3$% 2 -/? (-/@); 3) ##  @S$*3*F2 0#  3- 3E 2\$*22# 3$  $$* 24@22-32# 4@\23%. *4@*F2+S 0# "*4K%*$%: 1) !#@ 2 230$*2 3E, $4]HZ @S$*3, 33  !!3-* 4332 + 2 A*3 "32*F #: A lot of books are published in our 2F 2# !23# \#@2   country every year.  2]S $*42. 2) !#@ 4@* @S$*3% 4@$*%* @% 2$ KF]3S 32*4$,  @S$*"HZ 3E: The picture was bought yesterday. 4*32 + >*%  4.

119

}   @   >  (The Imperative Mood) '3*F2 2!223 +4\* 4$FK" 33 43!023 #4%Z#.  3*F2 2!2233 403H*$% "*[email protected]*F2% 3 *43E*F2% B4+. *[email protected]*F2% B4 ## K40"*$% 30 32B323*3 + $*3E+ to: Read! )3*S! )3*S*! Write! '3]3! '3]3*! Look at the blackboard! *43 (*43*) 2 @$!"! *43E*F2% B4 ##  3*F2 2!2233 K40"*$% "* $*2!3 $#*F2# ## do, $3*#  @2 $ $ *43E*F2S $*3ES not — don't: Don't write now! ‹ 3]3* $S$! Don't be late! ‹ mail protected]+S*! Don't talk! ‹ 40#43S*! &% +4\23% 4$FK 33 43!023S, K4Z22+A ! 3-" 3E", "*4K%*$% $*23 ## let $ 32+ $*323  B4 K!*2# @\ (33 $"Z$*3*F2+  B4 KZ# @\) 3 32B323*3 K0 $*3E+ to. ¹*3 $*23% 4@%*$% 2 4"$$!3S %0+! 43 Z3 $ «%*/@», «%*/> =», «  =», « =» $ $*323 ($"Z$*3*F2+) 3 ##: Let him translate! }*/@ (}*/> =) 2 4@3*!  = (-) " 4$*3! Let them translate! }*/@ (}*/> =) 23 4@%*!  = (-) 3 4$*3! *23 ## let $ 32+ $*323 1-# 3E 2\$*22# 3$  B4 K!*2# @\ 3 32B323*3 K0 $*3E+ to +4\* K"\@23 ! $$*2" @S$*3H: Let us go! } = (% = )! (  = (-) [email protected]!) Let us talk! }    ! (  = (-) #43!) *43E*F2% B4 K40"*$% 43 Z3 do not (don't): Don't let him do it! '"$*F 2 [*#  @*! Don't let them go there! '"$*F 23  A@%* *"@! Š  to be 4+ ## to be  2$*%Z 423 (Present Simple (Indefinite))  *[email protected]*F2% B4 I am ‹ (she, it) is We (you, they) are

4$3 *F2% B4 Am I? Is he? Are we?

*43E*F2% B4 I am not He is not We are not

4$3*F2-*43 E*F2% B4 Am I not? Is he not? Are we not?

°# to be "*4K%*$%  !$* $+$# ##, ##-$%0!3  $$*2 322 $!0" 3 $#*F2# ##.

120

1.  43 $+$# ## to be $**$*"*  4"$$! %0+! ## «+@», « ` @/?».  [* $"  2$*%Z 423 to be 2 4"$$!3S %0+! $* 2 4@3*$%, 2434: Ann is at school.

2% …  ]!.

2.  43 ##-$%0!3  $$*2 322 $!0" to be $**$*"*  4"$$! %0+! ## «+@», «? ?@/?», «/ / ?@», « > F @/?».  2$*%Z 423 $%0! 2 4"$$!3S %0+! *\ $* 2 4@3*$%: I am a student.  … $*"@2*. ( ? ?F/@ $*"@2*.) 3.  43 $#*F2# ## to be "*4K%*$% @% K4023% $A 42 #4"+ Continuous 3 $*4@*F2# 0# (Passive Voice).  [* $" to be 2 3* $$*%*F2# 0223%,  +2%* 3]F 4032+ #4*3$!3 B"2!E33, %%%$F !0* 423, 3E, 3$, 0# 3 *. @.  \ @S$*3 +4\*$% $+$+3 ##3:  is sitting at the table now. The house was built last month.

2 / 0 $* $S$. & + % /   4] $%E.

‰+   there is (there are)  $*233 $ @2+ $ there ## to be  32S B4 K40"* K4* there is (there are) $ 0223 «/@», « /?», « ` /?». °# to be  [* K4* \* $*%*F  2$*%Z, 4]@] 3 K"@"Z 423 (Present, Past, Future Simple (Indefinite)) 3 $#$"*$% $ $@"HZ3 $"Z$*3*F2+.  4"$$!3S %0+! 4@\23% $ K4* there is (there are) 4![email protected]"*$% 4@3*F, 232% $ K$*%*F$* $*: There is a bus in the street. $   (/@,  ` /?, / ) *K"$. There is a book on the table. $   … !23#. There are two pens on the desk. $   … @ 4"!3. There is a man there.  % … !.  4$3*F2S B4 ## to be $*3*$% 4@ @2+ $ there: Is there a pencil in your bag?  * 4*B /@ !4mail protected]]? Are there any cars in the street?  "3E / ? ]32+? &% K4023% *43E*F2S B4+ *43E23 n $*3*$% $ K4* there is (there are): There is no book on the table.  $*  !23#3. There are no buses in the street.  "3E  *K"$. @2!  !4*!3A *43E*F2+A **A 3$F0"*$% *43E23 not: Is there a clock on the table?  $* $*F $+? No, there is not. ‹. Are there any exercise-books in your $*F 3 " $  4*B **4@3? bag? No, there are not. ‹.

121

Š  to have      to have   / ?'   (Present Simple (Indefinite))  *[email protected]*F2% 4$3*F2% *43E*F2% 4$3*F2B4 B4 B4 *43E*F2% B4 I (you, we, they) Have I? I have not Have I not? have He (she, it) Has he? He has not Has he not? has '!   :  *43E*F2S B4 ## to have \* 4323*F *43E23 n . 434: I have no books.  2% 2* (23!!3A) !23#. : I haven't the book.  2% 2* [*S !23#3. °# to have "*4K%*$%  !$* $+$#, $#*F2# 3 @F2# ## (023*F ## must [mµst] —  &). 1.  43 $+$# ## to have $**$*"*  4"$$! %0+! ## « @», « +  @», 2434: I have a book. She has a watch.

 2% /@ !23#. (  F !23#".)  2 /@ $+. (‰   $+.)

2.  43 $#*F2# ## to have "*4K%*$% @% K4023% 42 #4"+ Perfect  $*233 $ 43$*3 4]@]# 423 (Participle II) $+$# ##. °# to have  [* $" $$*%*F2# 0223% 2 3*,  +2%* 3]F 4032+ #4*3$!3 B"2!E33, %%%$F !0* 423, 3E, 3$ 3 *. @.  \ @S$*3 +4\*$% $+$+ ##,  $*233 $ !*4+ 2 "*4K%*$%, 2434: I have read this book.  has bought a watch.

 %  [*" !23#". 2 >*% $+.

3.  43 @F2# ## to have to "*4K%*$% !! 023*F ## must, 2434: You will have to come here again.  %ˆ/? $2 43S*3 [email protected]. +  & K"@* $2 43S*3 [email protected]. |  @    (Modal Verbs)  2#3S$! %0+! 3*$% #4" ##, !*4+ 20+H*$% @F2+3 33 2@$**2+3.  [*" #4"" A@%* ##+: can [kæn] #", "H may [meI] #", 2 02, 404]2 must [mµst] @\2 @$**2+3 23 20+H*$% *", * 3H* *F! 2!*4+ 32+ B4+ 3 $$ 2 3H* 232+A B4 (32B323*3, 43$*3S 3 #4"[email protected]%),  [*" 2 3H* 23!!3A $\2+A ##F2+A B4. 3 @32 30 [*3A ## 2 3* !223% -s  3- 3E @32$*22# 3$ 2$*%Z# 423 (Present Simple (Indefinite)). $*%*F2 [*3 ##+ 2 "*4K%H*$%.  233 $#@ $@"* @4"#S ##  32B323*3 K0 $*3E+ to: I can … speak English. You may … sit down.

 * F   @ -2#3S$!3. + & //@ (%   ; F). 122

Š  / n °# $ 3* @ B4+: 1) B4" 2$*%Z# 423: I can, he / n; 2) B4" 4]@]# 423: I could, he could. &% +4\23% K"@"Z# 423 33 !!3A-3K @4"#3A 422+A B4 ## / n 2 "*4K%*$%,  "*4K%*$% +4\23 be able to:  will be able to read English books 2 / & 3**F 2#3S$!3 !23#3 in a month. 40 $%E. °# $ +4\* B303$!"H 33 "$*22"H $$K2$*F $4]23% @S$*3%,  *!\ "23 $4]3*F !!-3K @S$*3 She can run quickly.  can skate. Can you play tennis? Yes, I / n. No, I can’t (cannot).

2 & K+$*4 K#*F. 2 *  !**F$% 2 !2F!A. + *  3#4*F  *223$? &. *. Š  may

°# may 3* *!\ @ B4+: 1) B4" 2$*%Z# 423: I may, he may; 2) B4" 4]@]# 423: I might, he might. &% +4\23% K"@"Z# 423 33 !!3A-3K @4"#3A 422+A B4 ## may 2 "*4K%*$%,  "*4K%*$% +4\23 be allowed to: Ann will be allowed to pass her exam 2 +*  ; [email protected]*F [!02  A333. in chemistry. °# may 3* 0223 0\2$*3 $4]23% @S$*3%  03$3$*3 * 404]23% 33 4%*2$*3 # $4]23%: May I take the book? Yes, you may. No, you can't. It may snow today.

| & 2 0%*F !23#"? &, & (% 404]H). *,  @?. ‚  & , $#@2% K"@* $2#. Š  must

°# must 3* *F! @2" B4" – 2$*%Z# 423: I must, he must. We must do our lessons every day. +  & @*F "4!3 \@22. Must he go there?  & 2 S*3 *"@? Yes, he must. &. No, he needn't. *. &% +4\23% 4]@]# 423 33 K"@"Z# 423 "*4K%*$% # 023*F – ## have to: She had to do this work. 2  & + (S %; /@) [email protected]*F [*" 4K*".  will have to read this English book. 2  & +* (" %/?) 3**F [*" 2#3S$!"H !23#". †‡ (The Infinitive) !  4"$$!, *! 3  2#3S$! %0+! 32B323*3 3* $S$* ## 3 $"Z$*3*F2#. 2B323*3 K+2 "*4K%*$% $ $*3ES to. 123

_ /*'/ @ 

1. 2B323*3 \* K+*F @\Z3  4@\233: study well is your duty. @/? A4] — ] K%022$*F. speak English is not difficult. Š  @ -2#3S$!3 2*4"@2. 2. 2B323*3 \* K+*F 4%+ @223: Our students like to read. My sister asked me to go there with her.

]3 $*"@2*+ HK%* 3**F. % $$*4 4$3 2% S*3 *"@ $ 2S. 3. 2B323*3 \* K+*F 322S $*FH $$*2# $!0"#: Your task is to study well. ] 0@ — *@/? A4]. ‘  >/>   1.  32B323*3 \* $@*F 4% @223:  likes to read English books. 2 HK3* 3**F 2#3S$!3 >. 2. 2B323*3 \* 4@%*F$% 243: They were surprised to see me so early. 23 "@333$F, * 2%  >   . 3. 2B323*3 \* K+*F $*FH $$*2# ##F2# $!0"#:  must do his homework this evening. 2 !   @ @]2 0@23 4. Ann began to read English books.

2%     @ 2#3S$!3 !23#3.

4 *#, 32B323*3 3* Z 3 @4"#3 $32*!$3$!3 B"2!E33. 1. 2B323*3 \* K+*F 4@23, 02%HZ3 E [email protected]*2 4@3*F2 4@\23. My friend has brought me an interest – ing book to read.

S @4"# 432$ 2 32*4$2"H !23#", >  *F ? * %  @.

2. 2B323*3 \* K+*F K$*%*F$* E3, 02%HZ3 [email protected]*2 K$*%*F$*22 4@\23 E3:  gave me his 4n to write a letter to Furhat .

2 @ 2 4"!",  + ?  %/ %/@ *` *.

3. 2B323*3 \* A@3*F  $$* $\2# @223%: I want you to come early today.

 A",    %; 42 $#@2%.

Š*= (The Gerund)  2#3S$! %0+! $*F 232% B4 ##, !23HZ%$% 2 -ing, !*4S 2* 23  4"$$! %0+!, 23  !0A$!. ¹* ing-B4 20+*$% the Gerund (#4"[email protected]). °4"[email protected] 43$"Z3 A4!*43$*3!3 !! ##, *! 3 $"Z$*3*F2#. ‘  >/> /*'/ @ 

1. °4"[email protected] "*4K%*$%  43 @\Z# 33 @223%: Reading is useful. _ 02. I like reading.  HKH  @. 2. °4"[email protected] \* 3*F 43 $K 4@23, +4\22 43*%\*F2+ $*323 33 $"Z$*3*F2+: 124

We were pleased with Alec's coming. + K+3 @F2+,  %;  > (… %`   > ). 3.  43 4@23% 33 K$*%*F$* #4"[email protected] $#@ "*4K%*$% $ 4@#: I don't like his way of doing it.

2 2 243*$%,    ’  .

‘  >/>   1. °4"[email protected] 4@%*$% 243: I like your speaking English so fast.

2 243*$%, * +   

   -2#3S$!3.

2. °4"[email protected] \* 3*F 43 $K 4% @223: She likes reading French books.

2 HK3*  @ &    (  &   % ).

! [email protected] 30 4@[email protected]"Z3A 434, #4"[email protected] 4@3*$% 2 4"$$!3S %0+! $"Z$*3*F2+, ##  24@22S B4 33 [email protected]*2+ 4@\23. } /  / ?'   (Present Participle,   Participle I) Present Participle \* K+*F K402 * HK# ## (!4  @` 3 /%   @` ## shall 3 will) "* 43K23% !223% -ing, $**$*"HZ# 4"$$!3 !223% -Z(-%Z)3S($%), -"Z(-HZ)3S($%): standing – $*?'= turning – 43F'=/? burning – #4?'= $3 ## !23*$% 2 24302$3 -, * 43 K40233 Present Participle - "$!*$%: smile – smiling write – writing $3 ## $$*3* 30 @2# $#, * 43 K40233 Present Participle "@3*$% !22% $#$2%: sit – sitting run – running swim – swimming Present Participle "$*"*  K40233 42 #4"+ Continuous  $*233 $ 32+3 B43 $#*F2# ## to be: They are drawing now.

23 4*%* $S$.

 4@\233 Present Participle \* +$*"*F  B"2!E33: 1) 4@23% ! $"Z$*3*F2": I like to see smiling faces.

 HKH [email protected]*F * + F'/? 3E.

2) K$K22# 4@23%, 02%HZ# [email protected]*2 4@3*F2 4@\23: The boy sitting at the table is her F3!, /?'= 0 $*,  K4*. 125

brother. (The boy who is sitting at the table (F3!, >  = / 0 $*, is her brother.)  K4*.) 3)

K$*%*F$* ( [*3A $"%A 2#3S$! 43$*3 2$*%Z# 423 4@3*$% 4"$$!3 @43$*3): She went out smiling.

2 +] * + ?/@.

} / % ;;   (Past Participle,   Participle I I ) 4 Past Participle 43F2+A ## K40"*$% "* 43K23% $"BB3!$ -ed ! $22S B4 ##, 2434: decide – 4]*F

decided – 4]ˆ=

4 Past Participle 243F2+A ## K40"*$% $K+3 $$K3 ($. *K3E" 243F2+A ## 2 $. 130), 2434: write – 3$*F

written –  3$ =

4+ Past Participle 23K "*4K3*F2+A ## 2"\2 +"3*F. Past Participle "$*"*  K40233 42 #4"+ Perfect $*4@*F2# 0#: I have just got tickets to the cinema.

 *F! * >*% K3*+  !32.

This article was written by my friend.

¹* $**F% +  %/  % @4"# %.

 4@\233 Past Participle \* +$*"*F  B"2!E33: 1) 4@23% ! $"Z$*3*F2": The broken cup was on the floor.

 + ? ]! \ 2 ".

2) K$K22# 4@23%, 02%HZ# [email protected]*2 4@3*F2 4@\23: Here is the letter received from Nick. ( # is the letter which I received

* 3$F, % *  * 3. (* 3$F, >    ? % * * 3

from Nick yesterday.)

4.) }  (Prepositions)

[email protected]" *#, *  2#3S$! %0+! *3 *$"*$*"H* @\3, 4@#3 !0+H* 2 *F! *2]23% \@" $"Z$*3*F2+3 3 @4"#33 $*%3 43, 2 3 +2%H* B"2!E3H @\2+A !223S. 23* 0223% $22+A 4@# 2#3S$!# %0+!: 1. '4@# of +2%* B"2!E3H 4"$$!# 4@3*F2# @\: London is the capital of Great Britain. [email protected]2 – $*3E 3!K43*233. 2. '4@# to +2%* B"2!E3H @*F2# @\ 43 +4\233 *2]23% ## ! @223H: I gave the pen to my brother.  *@ 4"!" K4**. 3. '4@# about $**$*"* B4 4@\2# @\:  told me about that party.

2 4$$!0 2 * 4.

4. '4@#3 by, with +2%H* B"2!E3H *43*F2# @\. By K02* @"]22# @%*%, with — 4"@3 @S$*3%: We write with a pen.

+ 3] 4"! =. 126

“'*” K+ 23$2 '"]!32 . “Poltava” was written by Pushkin. '23*, * @32 3 ** \ 4@# \* 4@3*F$% 2 4"$$!3S %0+! -402". 434: in She was in the street. We shall meet in a month. The work was done in May. at She was at the lesson. I worked at my homework. The teacher was at his desk when I came in. At 7 o'clock we shall go to Sochi.

2 K+  "3E. + $*4*3$%  $%E. K* K+ [email protected]2  . 2 K+  "4!.  4K*   3 @]23 0@23. 3*F K+  $3 $*, !#@ % ]. ‚ $F $ + @  3.

to  goes to school in the morning. 2 A@3*  ]!" "*4. “Come to the blackboard!” he said. “'@[email protected] > @$!!” — $!0 2. Today we shall go to the meeting. #@2% + [email protected]  $K423. 23* 0223% $@"HZ3A 4@#: on above under into out of behind below

[±n] 2 [¬'bµv] 2@ ['µnd¬] @ ['Int¬] 2"*4F ['aut ¬v] 302"*43 [bI'haInd] $0@3 [bI'l¬u] 23\

in [In] 2"*43 near [nI¬] !, 0 to [tu:] "!0+* @3\23 ! 4@*" before [bI'f±:] 4@, @ in front of [In 'frµnt ¬v] 4@ from [fr¬m] "!0+* @3\23 * 4@* 33 $ 4A2$*3 #-3K

} ? > /    =/> % & (Word Order)  2#3S$! %0+! $"Z$*"* *[email protected]+S 4%@! $  4@\233. ¹* K%$2%*$% *, *  %0+! 3*$% 2F 2KF] !3$* #4*3$!3A !223S 3 $K40*F2+A $"BB3!$ 3 B"2!E3% $  4@\233 4@%*$% # $*  4@\233. KA@3 023*F $@"HZ3S   4 % @  ! $    @  % " *   4 @ 3 *   F 2  #   4  @   \  2 3 % : 2 4 $* $*3* %  & ' ($ 4@%HZ33 # $3), 0 23 $@"* /> * , 0 $!0"+ — / @ ?  /@ % &?.  '@\Z Kate

!0" reads

$*F2% $*F 4@\23% English books.

 4$3*F2 4@\233 K4*2+S 4%@! $: $!0" 33 $*F $!0"# $*3* 4@ @\Z3. E3F2+S 4$ 232*$% $ 4$3*F2# $,  KZ3S 4$ — $ $!0"# 33 $*3 $!0"#.  

127

4$3*F 2 $ When Where What

$#*F2+S ## do do did will

'@\Z you you your friend you

+$S ##

$*F2% $*F 4@\23%

speak learn do do

English? your English? yesterday? tomorrow?

$3 ##-$!0" 4@\23% $*3*  @2 30 $\2+A 42 @S$*3*F2# 33 $*4@*F2# 0#, * 43 K40233 4$3*F2S B4+ 4+S $#*F2+S ## 023* $* 4@ @\Z3, 2434: John has read this book. Has John read this book? *43E23 not K+2 $*3*$% \@" $#*F2+ 3 $22+ ## 33 $ 4# $#*F2# ##  $\2+A ##F2+A B4A, 2434: I do not speak French.   #4H -B42E"0$!3. They have not seen the film yet. 23 Z  [email protected]3 [** B3F. '4% @223 K+2 $*3* 0 $!0"+ 33 0 !$22+ @223, 2434: Take the book, please. 0F3* >*, \"S$*. Ann told me an interesting story. 2% 4$$!0 2 /*F / F ( //> ). 4@23 Z $# 023* $* 4@ 4@%+ $. K$*%*F$* #"* $@*F 0 @223%3 33 $*%*F  2 4@\23%, 2434: We shall play tennis tomorrow. + K"@ 3#4*F  *223$   . In the morning we shall go to the park.  + [email protected]  4!. ‚ % / @ % &? (Interrogative Sentences) 3K 4$4$*4222+3 *33 4$  2#3S$! %0+! %%H*$% KZ3 3 $E3F2+ 4$+. ‰+'  % / (General Questions) KZ33 4$3 20+H*$% 4$+, EF !*4+A – "3*F * $K$@23! @*4\@23 33 *43E23 +$!022S  4$ +$3. ¹*3 4$+ *4K"H* "*[email protected]*F2# 33 *43E*F2# ** (2434, yes 33 n ). KZ3 4$+, !! 43, 2 $@4\* 4$3*F2# $. 23 4302$%*$% $ +]HZS$% ! !2E" 4@\23% 32*2E3S: Are you a nurse? – Yes, I am. Have you seen the film? – No, I haven't.    @  % / (“Tail” Questions) $KS 402[email protected]$*FH KZ3A 4$ %%H*$% 4mail protected]3*F2+ 4$+ (“Tail” Questions), !*4+ $$*%* 30 @"A $*S. '4% – $**F2 4@\23  "*[email protected]*F2S 33 *43E*F2S B4, *4% – !4*!3S KZ3S 4$, $$*%Z3S 30 128

@\Z#-$*323% 3 $#*F2#, 33 @F2# ##, 33 ## to be, to have  03$3$*3 * $!0"# 4S $*3. $3 4% $*F "*[email protected]*F2% (!#@ \[email protected]*$% ** yes), * *4% – *43E*F2%; $3 4% $*F *43E*F2% (!#@ \[email protected]*$% ** n ), * *4% 2 $@4\3* *43E23%. '4% $*F 4mail protected]3*F2# 4$ 4302$3*$% $ 23\HZS$% 32*2E3S, *4% $*F – $ +]HZS$%. '@K2+ 4$+ $**$*"H*  4"$$! %0+! 4$ $ @2+3 $3: «‹  > ?», «‹ %  ?», «}  ?». mail protected]3*F2+ 4$+ $F "*4K3*F2+  40#42S 43: She is here, isn't she? 2 [email protected]$F,   > ? She isn't here, is she?  [email protected]$F 2*, %  ? You will come, won't you? + [email protected]]F,  %  ? Jim doesn't play tennis, does he? You don't have to go there now, do you? Bob spoke English very well, didn't he? Your brother can repair radio sets, can't he? You have such a book, haven't you?  4mail protected]3*F2+ 4$+ K+2 @H*$% **+ $ !4*!33 "*[email protected]*F2+3 33 *43E*F2+3 B403: Today is Monday, isn't it? – Yes, it is. You don't like coffee, do you? – No, I don't. Q% @  % / (Special Questions) E3F2+3 4$3 20+H*$% *!3 4$+, EFH !*4+A %%*$% 2 4$* @*4\@23 33 *43E23 +$3, +$!022S  4$,  "23 !!S-3K @23*F2S 32B4E33: What's your name? – My name is Pete. Where are you going? – To the park. E3F2+S 4$ $*3*$% ! !!"-3K @2" 2" 4@\23%. 2 K%0*F2 232*$% $ 4$3*F2# $, !*4 "!0+*, ! !!" 322 2" 4@\23% *2$3*$% 4$. E3F2+S 4$ 4302$3*$% $ 23\HZS$% 32*2E3S. ![email protected]"*$% 023*F 4$3*F2+ $, !*4+ "*4K%H*$%  $E3F2+A 4$A: who [hu:] – > ? whom [hu:m] – >  ? > *? whose [hu:z] – =? what [w±t] –  ? > > =? which [wIt] – >  =? when where why

[wen] – >  ? [w½¬] – >* ? ? [waI] – %  *?

how [hau] – > >? how many ['hau 'menI] – /> @> ? how much ['hau 'mµtº] – /> @> ? 129

 @   % / (Alternative Questions) F*42*32+ (+K42+) 4$+ $$*%* 30 @"A $*S, $@3222+A $H0 or. ¹*3 4$+  B4 $@H* $ KZ33, 2 4@"$*43H* +K4 \@" @"% 0\2$*%3 3 *4K"H* *!3A \ **, !! 3 $E3F2+ 4$+. '4% $*F *!3A 4$ 4302$3*$% $ +]HZS$% 32*2E3S, *4% – $ 23\HZS$%: Is this Ann or Kate? – Kate. Do you like tea or coffee? – Tea. Is this your book or mine? – It's yours. Will you go to the theatre or to the cinema? – To the theatre. Q &   %  c 32B323*3 (The Complex Object with the Infinitive)  2#3S$! %0+! $"Z$*"H* *! 20++ $32*!$3$!3 !!$+, *. . $*23% @"A 33 2$!F!3A $, 4@$*%HZ3 $KS @32 $32*!$3$! E (@32 2 4@\23%). 3K 4$4$*4222+ $32*!$3$!3 !!$ %%*$% $\2 @223 c 32B323*3 (the Complex Object with the Infinitive). \@+S $32*!$3$!3S !!$ $$*3* 30 322S $*3 ($"Z$*3*F2# 33 $*323%) 3 ##F2S $*3 (32B323*3, #4"[email protected]% 33 43$*3%) 3 \* K+*F 4042"*  E [email protected]*2 4@\23, #@ 322% $*F !!$ K"@* @\Z3,  ##F2% — $!0"+. \2 @223 \* $$*%*F 30 4%# @223% 3 32B323*3: I want you to visit me in the evening.  A",     /  2% 4. Pete wants me to write the letter. '*% A*,   ?  %/ [* 3$F. '$ ## see, hear, watch, make, feel, let  $\2 @2233 32B323*3 "*4K%*$% K0 $*3E+ to: I saw him come into the house.  heard me open the door.

 [email protected],    ;  @. 2 $+],  ? > @4F.

\2 @223 \* *!\ $$*%*F 30 4%# @223% 3 43$*3%: I heard her singing an English song.  watched them playing in the garden.

 $+],    % 2#3S$!"H $2H. 2 2K[email protected] 0 *,       $@".

023E \@" 233 0!H*$%  $@"HZ. \2 @223 $ 32B323*3 K02* @2!4*2 @S$*3: I heard her say these words. We saw her run into the house.

 $+],   />  [*3 $. + [email protected]3,   +&  @.

\2 @223 $ 43$*3 2$*%Z# 423 @4!3* 4E$$ 4*!23% @S$*3%: I saw her crossing the street. I watched the children playing with a ball.

 [email protected],    %`  "3E".  2K[email protected] 0 *,       %.

\2 @223 2 3* *2# $**$*3%  4"$$! %0+! 3 4@3*$% 2 4"$$!3S %0+! @23*F2+ [email protected]*2+ 4@\23 $ $H03  ,   ($3  $\2 @223 A@3* 32B323*3) 3   ($3  $\2 @223 A@3* 43$*3 2$*%Z# 423). 130

+     =/>    &S$*3*F2+S 0#  4% 4 Indefinite (24@22%) Continuous (4@\22%) Perfect ($4]22%) Perfect Continuous ($4]22% 4@\22%)

Present (2$*%Z) I work. I write. I am working. I am writing. I have worked. I have written. I have been working. I have been writing.

Past (4]@]) I worked. I wrote. I was working. I was writing. I had worked. I had written. I had been working. I had been writing.

Future (K"@"Z) I shall work. I shall write. I shall be working. I shall be writing. I shall have worked. I shall have written. I shall have been working. I shall have been writing.

Irregular Verb Table Q%/ > %  @`    ””

Infinitive

Past Simple (Indefinite) abode [¬¾b¬ud] arose [¬¾r¬uz]

Past Participle (Participle II) abode [¬¾b¬ud] arisen [¬¾r•zn] awaked [¬¾we•kt] been [bi:n]

1 2

abide [¬¾ba¿d] arise [¬¾ra•z]

3 4

awake [¬¾we•k] be [bi:]

5

bear [b½¬]

awoke [¬¾w¬uk] * was [w±z], were [w¬:] bore [b±:]

6 7 8

beat [bi:t] become [b•'kµm] befall [b•¾f±:l]

beat [bi:t] became [b•'ke•m] befell [b•¾fel]

born [b±:n] borne [b±:n] beaten ['bi:tn] become [b•'kµm] befallen [b•¾f±:l(¬)n]

9 10 11

beget [b•¾²et] begin [b•'²¿n] begird [b•'²¬:d]

begot [b•¾²±t] began [b• '²æn] begirt [b•'²¬:t]*

begotten [b•¾²±tn] begun [b•'²µn] begirt [b•'²¬:t]*

12

behold [b•¾h¬uld]

beheld [b•¾hld]

beheld [b•¾hld]

13

bend [bend]

bent [bent]*

bent [bent]*

14 15 16 17

bereave [b•'ri:v] beseech [b•'si:t] beset [b•'set] bestride [b•'stra•d]

bereft [b•'reft]* besought [b•'s±:t] beset [b•'set] bestrode [b•'str¬ud]

bereft [[b•'reft]]* besought [b•'s±:t] beset [b•'set] bestridden [b•'str•dn]

131

Meaning \3*F 023!*F; %%*F$% 4$2"*F$%; K"@3*F K+*F; 2A@3*F$% 2$*3; *4*F K3*F, "@4%*F $*23*F$% 43$A@3*F; $"*F$% +0+*F;4\@*F 232*F A*+*F; !4"\*F 0*3*F; 4$$*43*F. *! *43! $#3K*F (-$%); 43*F 3]*F; *23*F 4$3*F; "%*F $\@*F; K$*"*F [email protected]*F 4A; $*%*F, 4$$*3 2#3

18

betake [b•'te•k]

betook [b•'tuk]

betaken [b•'te•kn]

19 20

bid [b•d] bind [ba•nd]

bid, bade [be•d] bound [baund]

bid, bidden ['b•dn] bound [baund]

21 22

bite [ba•t] bleed [bli:d]

bit [b•t] bled [bled]

bitten ['b•tn] bled [bled]

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

blew blu:] broke [br¬uk] bred [bred] brought [br±:t] built [b•lt] burnt [b¬:nt] * burst [b¬:st] bought [b±:t] could [kud]

blown [bl¬un] broken ['br¬ukn] bred [bred] brought [br±:t] built [b•lt] burnt [b¬:nt] * burst [b¬:st] bought [b±:t] Ȅ

32

blow [bl¬u] break [bre•k] breed [bri:d] bring [br•¸] build [b•ld] burn [b¬:n] burst [b¬:st] buy [ba•] can [kæn], [k¬n], [kn] cast [k³:st]

cast [k³:st]

cast [k³:st]

33

catch [kætº]

caught [k±:t]

caught [k±:t]

34

chide [tºa•d]

chid [tº•d]

35 36

choose [tu:z] cleave [kli:v]

37

cling [kl•¸]

chose [t¬uz] cleft [kleft] clove ['kl¬uv] clung [klµ¸]

chidden ['tº•dn] chid [tº•d] chosen ['t¬uzn] cleft [kleft] cloven ['kl¬uvn] $lung [klµ¸]

38 39

clothe [kl¬uð] come [kµm]

clad [klæd]* came [ke•m]

$lad [klæd]* come [kµm]

40

cost [k±st]

cost [k±st]

cost [k±st]

41 42 43

creep [kri:p] cut [kµt] dare [ddž¬]

crept [krept] cut [kµt] durst [d¬:st]*

$rept [krept] cut [kµt] dared [ddž¬d]

44

deal [di:l]

dealt [delt]

dealt [delt]

45

dig [d•²]

dug [dµ²] *

dug [dµ²] *

46 47

dip [d•p] do [du:]

dipt [d•pt]* did [d•d]

dipt [d•pt]* done [dµn] 132

K4Z*F$%; 43K#*F (! "-3K) 4@#*F E2" 0 $%0+*F, 43$3*F, !2*F !"$*F (-$%) !4*3*F; $3*F$%; 4$+*F$% @"*F; 4$E**F *F 40@3*F; +0+*F 432$3*F $*43*F #4*F; $\3#*F 40403*F$% !"*F F; "*F [email protected]*F; *K4$+*F; *3*F S*F; 0$**F; "$*F; 0K*F 4"#*F; K423*F; ]"*F +K34*F 4$!+*F$% E%*F$%; 433*F; @4\*F$% K!*F; K4%\*F 43A@3*F; 430\*F $*3*F; 4@%*F E2" 0*3; !4$*F$% (*-), (-) 40*F $3*F$%; $*F; 43$!*F 4mail protected]*F; *4#*F; KA@3*F$%; 3*F @ !*F; 4+*F; 30!*F !*F; 2+4%*F @*F; $[email protected]*F; +2%*F

48

draw [ d r ±:]

drew [dru:]

drawn [dr±:n]

49

dream [dri:m]

dreamt [dremt] *

dreamt [dremt] *

50

drink [dr•¸k]

drank [dræ¸k]

drunk(en) ['drµ¸k(n)]

51

drive [dra•v]

drove [dr¬uv ]

driven ['dr•vn]

52

dwell [dwel]

dwelt [dwelt]*

dwelt [dwelt]*

53 54

eat [i:t] engrave [•n'²re•v]

eaten ['i:tn] engraven [•n'²re•vn]*

55

fall [f±:l]

ate [et] engraved [•n'²re•vd] Á fell [fel]

fallen ['f±:ln]

56

feed [fi:d]

fed [fed]

fed [fed]

57

feel [fi:l]

felt [felt ]

felt [felt]

58

fight [fa•t]

fought [f±:t]

fought [f±:t]

59

find [fa•nd]

found [faund]

found [faund]

60

flee [fli:]

fled [fled]

fled [fled]

61

fling [fl•¸]

flung [flµ¸]

flung [flµ¸]

62

fly [fla•]

flew [flu:]

flown [fl¬un]

63

forbear [f±:'b½¬]

forbore [f±:'b±:]

forborne [f±:'b±:n]

64

forbid [f¬'b•d]

forbidden [f¬'b•dn]

65

forecast [f±:'k³:st]

forbade [f¬'be•d] forbad [f¬'bæd] forecast [f±:'k³:st]

66

forego [f±:'²¬u]

67

foresee [f±:'si:]

43$*F; 4*3*F; !34*F; 4@$*%*F; 30K4\*F **F; +]%*F; [email protected]*F $2 3*F; F%2$**F; 3$3*F A*F; $*3; 0*3; 43@3*F  @S$*3 \3*F; 2A@3*F$%; 0@4\3*F$% (@4K2)

forewent [f±:'went] foresaw [f±:'s±:]

forecasted [f±:'k³:st•d] foregone [f±:'²±n] foreseen [f±:'si:n]

133

$*F;!"]*F; $@*F #434*F; +40*F; 0**F @*F; $23\*F$%; $"$!*F$% 3**F (-$%); !43*F; K$3*F; @*F "$**F; (4-) Z"+*F; $3**F; #*F @4*F$%; K4*F$%; 0Z3Z*F 2A@3*F; $*4*F; K24"\3*F "K#*F; 3$0*F; 30K#*F K4$*F (-$%); [email protected]*F (-$%); 432"*F$% **F; 4**F; 40*F$% [email protected]4\3*F$%; [email protected]4\3*F$% 04Z*F; 2 0%*F; 4%*$**F 4@[email protected]*F; 4@$!0+*F; 4#2034*F 4@]$**F; *!0+*F$% * 4@[email protected]*F; 4@$A3Z*F; 02*F 042

68

fortell [f±:'tel] forget [f¬'²et]

foretold [f±:'t¬uld] forgot [ f¬'²±t]

69

foretold [f±:'t¬uld] forgotten [ f¬'²±tn]

70 71

forgive [f¬'²•v] forsake [f¬'se•k]

forgave [f¬'²e•v] forsook [f¬'suk]

forgiven [f¬'²•vn] forsaken [f¬'se•k(¬)n]

72

forswear [f±:'swdž¬]

forswore [f±:'sw ±:]

forsworn [f±:'sw±:n]

73

freeze [fri:z]

froze [fr¬uz]

frozen ['fr¬uzn]

74

get [²et]

got [²±t]

got [²±t] gotten ['²±tn]

75

gild [²•ld]

gilt [²•lt]*

gilt [²•lt]*

76

gird [²¬:d]

girt [²¬:t]*

girt [²¬:t]*

77 78

give [²•v] go [²¬u]

gave [²e•v] went [went]

given ['²•vn] gone [²±n]

79

grave [²re•v]

graved ['²re•vd]

graven ['²re•v(¬)n]*

80

grind [²ra•nd]

ground [²raund]

ground [²raund]

81

grow [²r¬u]

grew [²ru:]

grown [²r¬un]

82

hang [hæ¸]

hung [hµ¸] *

hung [hµ¸] *

83

have [hæv]

had [hæd]

had [hæd]

84 85

hear [h•¬] heave [hi:v]

heard [h¬:d] hove [h¬uv]*

heard [h¬:d] hove [h¬uv]*

86

hew [hju:]

hewed [hju:d]

hewn [hju:n]*

87

hide [ha•d]

hid [h•d]

88

hit [h•t]

hit [h•t]

hid [h•d] hidden ['h•dn] hit [h•t]

89

hold [h¬uld]

held [held]

held [held] holden ['h¬uld¬n] 134

4@$!0+*F; 4@[email protected]*F 0K+*F; (-) 0K+*F 4Z*F $*%*F; [email protected]*F; *!0+*F$% *!0+*F$%; *4!*F$%; 24"]*F !%*", 43$%#" 040*F; 0$*+*F; 04\3*F "3*F; 43K4$*3; @$**F; @K34*F$% (-) 0*3*F; "!4]*F @%$+*F$%; !4"\*F; K!34*F (*-) @*F; 4@*F [email protected]*3; A*F; @3#*F$%; "A@3*F; "0\*F +40*F; #434*F *F; 4+*F; 4$*34*F ( 4]!); *F; 40F*F 4$*3; @*F$%; $*23*F$% ]*F; 3$*F; 03$*F 3*F; K@*F; !H*F; $@4\*F ("-) $+]*F; "02*F @23*F 3 "$!*F $ $3S; 4Z*F; $23*F 404"K*F; 4"K3*F; +*`$+*F 4%**F (-$%); $!4+*F (-$%) "@43*F (-$%); @*F; @$*3#*F A423*F; Z*F; ($-) @4\*F

90

hurt [h¬:t]

hurt [h¬:t]

hurt [h¬:t]

91

inlay ['•n'le•]

inlaid ['•n'le•d]

inlaid ['•n'le•d]

92

interweave [(Á)•nt¬(:) 'wi:v]

interwove [(Á)•nt¬(:)'w¬uv]

interwoven [(Á)•nt¬(:)'w¬uv(¬)n]

93

keep [ki:p]

kept [kept]

kept [kept]

94

kneel [ni:l]

knelt [nelt]*

knelt [nelt] *

95 96 97 98

knit [n•t] know [n¬u] lade [le•d] lay [le•]

knit [n•t]* knew [nju:] laded ['le•d•d] laid [le•d]

knit [n•t]* known [n¬un] laden ['le•dn]* laid [le•d]

99

lead [li:d]

led [led]

led [led]

100

lean [li:n]

leant [lent]*

leant [lent]*

101 102 103

leap [li:p] learn [l¬:n] leave [li:v]

leapt [lept]* learnt [l¬:nt] * left [left]

leapt [lept]* learnt [l¬:nt] * left [left]

104

lend [lend]

lent [lent]

lent [lent]

105 106 107 108

let [let] lie [la•] light [la•t] lose [lu:z]

let [let] lay [le•] lit [l•t]* lost [l±st]

let [let] lain [le•n] lit [l•t]* lost [l±st]

109 110 111 112 113 114

116

mislay [m•s'le•]

made [me•d] might [ma•t] meant [ment] met [met] melted ['melt•d] methought [m•'´±:t] misgave [m•s'²e•v] mislaid [m•s'le•d]

made [me•d] – meant [ment] met [met] molten ['m¬ultn]* –

115

make [me•k] may [me•] mean [mi:n] meet [mi:t] melt [melt] methinks [m•'´•¸ks] misgive [m•s'g•v]

misgiven [m•s'²•vn] mislaid [m•s'le•d]

135

4332%*F KF; 4@3*F; 423*F +!@+*F 03!"; 32!4"$*34*F $**F; 4**F; **F; !4+*F *!2+ "04; $*%*F; 4]3*F @4\*F; A423*F; $@4\*F 4!2%*F !2; $*%*F 2 !2%A %0*F; $%0+*F 02*F 2#4"\*F; #4"03*F !$*F; \3*F; (-) $*3*F $*3; 4"!@3*F; "!0+*F 2!2%*F$%; 43$2%*F (-$%) 4+#*F; $!!*F "3*F (-$%); "02*F [email protected]*F; "A@3*F; $*%*F; 0K+*F @\3*F; @*F 0S+ 0%*F \*F 0\F; (-) $*3*F (-) *4%*F (-$%); 0K"@3*F$% @*F; 0$*%*F (0-) \2 023*F; 02*F $*4*F (-$%) 3*F (-$%) 2 !\*$% (  !.) 2"]*F 2@43; $23 \3*F 2 2 * $*; 0*4%*F (-$%); 0\3*F

117

mislead [m•s'li:d]

misled [m•s'led]

misled [m•s'led]

118

misread ['m•s'ri:d]

misread ['m•s'red]

misread ['m•s'red]

119

misshape ['m•s'ºe•p]

misshaped ['m•s'ºe•pt]

misshapen ['m•s'ºe•p(¬)n]*

120

misspeak [m•s'spi:k] misspell ['m•s'spel]

misspoke [m•s'sp¬uk] misspelt ['m•s'spelt]*

misspoken [m•s'sp¬ukn] misspelt ['m•s'spelt]*

122

misspend ['m•s'spend]

misspent ['m•s'spent]

misspent ['m•s'spent]

123

mistake [m•s'te•k]

mistook [m•s'tuk]

mistaken [m•s'te•k(¬)n]

124

misunderstand ['m•sµnd¬'stænd] miswrite ['m•s'ra•t]

misunderstood ['m•sµnd¬'stud] miswrote ['m•s'r¬ut]

misunderstood ['m•sµnd¬'stud] miswritten ['m•s'r•tn]

126

mow [m¬u]

mowed [m¬ud]

mown ['m¬un]*

127 128

must [mµst] –

– ought [±:t]

129

outbid [aut'b•d]

130

outdo [aut'du:]

outbid [aut'b•d] outbade [aut'be•d] outdid [aut'd•d]

outbid [aut'b•d] outbidden [aut'b•dn] outdone [aut'dµn]

131

outgo [(')aut'²¬u]

outgone [(')aut'²±n]

132 133

'outgrow [(')aut'²r¬u] outride [aut'ra•d]

outwent [(')aut'went] outgrew [(')aut'²ru:] outrode ['aut'r¬ud]

134 135

outrun [aut'rµn] outshine [aut'ºa•n]

121

125

– –

outgrown [(')aut'²r¬un] outridden [aut'r•dn]

@3*F  0K"\@23 (4-) 3**F 243F2; 243F2 3$*!+*F (43*22 3 *. @.) @B434*F; [email protected]*F 243F2"H, "4@3"H B4" #43*F 33 4302$3*F 243F2 oZ3K*F$%; @*F 4B#4B3$!3 ]3K!3 240"2, 04% *4*3*F, *42\343*F (@2F#3 3 *. @.) ]3K*F$%; 0K"\@*F$%, 243F2 2%*F 223*F; 23*F 243F2 3$*F 243F2; [email protected]*F 3$!" !$3*F; \*F; $!]3*F @\2 $@"*; $@ K+ 4K3*F (E2"); 40S*3 4$A@3*F; K3*F; 30Z4%*F$% 4$A@3*F; 4\*F +4$*3 (30 *F%); 44$**F 4#2*F, 4@3*F; [email protected]4\*F (]*4)

outran [aut'ræn] outshone [aut'º¬un]

outrun [aut'rµn] outshone [aut'º¬un]

136

K#2*F; 4@3*F 0*3*F; 40S*3; $*3*F %4

overbone [(')¬uv¬'b±:n]

148

override [Á¬uv¬'ra•d] overrun [Á¬uv¬'rµn] oversee ['¬uv¬'si:]

149

overset ['¬uv¬'set]

overbore [(')¬uv¬'b ±:] overcast [(')¬uv¬'k³:st] overcame [Á¬uv¬'ke•m] overdid [Á¬uv¬'d•d] overdrove ['¬uv¬ 'dr¬uv] overate ['¬uv¬r'et] overhung ['¬uv¬'hµ¸] overheard [Á¬uv¬'h¬:d] overladed [¬uv¬'le•d•d] overlaid [Á¬uv¬'le•d] overrode [Á¬uv¬'r¬ud] overran [Á¬uv¬'ræn] oversaw ['¬uv¬'s ±:] overset ['¬uv¬'set]

150

overshoot ['¬uv¬'ºu:t] oversleep ['¬uv¬'sli:p] overspread [Á¬uv¬' spred] overtake [Á¬uv¬'te•k] overthrow [Á¬uv¬'´r¬u]

overshot ['¬uv¬'º±t] overslept ['¬uv¬'slept] overspread [Á¬uv¬ 'spred] ocertook [Á¬uv¬'tuk] overthrew [Á¬uv¬'´ru:]

overshot ['¬uv¬'º±t] overslept ['¬uv¬'slept] overspread [Á¬uv¬' spred] overtaken [Á¬uv¬'te•kn] overthrown [Á¬uv¬'´r¬un]

155

partake [p³:'te•k]

partook [p³:'tuk]

partaken [p³:'te•k¬)n]

156 157

pay [pe•] pen [pen]

paid [pe•d] pent [pent] *

paid [pe•d] pent [pent] *

158

put [put]

put [put]

put [put]

159

read [ri:d]

read [red]

read [red]

136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147

151 152 153 154

overbear [(')¬uv¬'bdž¬] overcast [(')¬uv¬'k³:st] overcome [Á¬uv¬'kµm] overdo [Á¬uv¬'du:] overdrive ['¬uv¬' dra•v] overeat ['¬uv¬r'i:t] overhang ['¬uv¬'hæ¸] overhear [Á¬uv¬'h•¬] overlade [¬uv¬'le•d] overlay [Á¬uv¬'le¿]

overcast [(')¬uv¬'k³:st] overcome [Á¬uv¬'kµm] verdone [(Á)¬uv¬'dµn] overdriven ['¬uv¬ 'dr•vn] overeaten ['¬uv¬r'i:tn] ovberhung ['¬uv¬'hµ¸] overheard [Á¬uv¬'h ¬:d] overladen [¬uv¬'le•dn]* overlaid [Á¬uv¬'le•d] overridden [Á¬uv¬'r•dn] overrun [Á¬uv¬'rµn] overseen ['¬uv¬'si:n] overset ['¬uv¬'set]

137

$33*F; K4*F; K\@*F 0*2%*F; !4+*F (4!) 4@*F; K\@*F 4"$[email protected]$**F; “4K4Z3*F” 4"*3*F$%; 302"43*F K@*F$% $]3*F$%; 23$*F 2@ -3K @$"]*F; "$+]*F 2%22 4#4"\*F; 4$"4 2#4"\*F !4+*F (!4$!S); 4!4+*F *4#*F; 0[email protected]*F; 2@4*F; 20\*F 4A@3*F 4@+; *F 40 !4S 43$*43*F 0; 2@034*F 4[email protected]+*F; 23$4#2"*F 4**F 3; $*4%*F "] !- 4$*F !4+*F; 4$4$*42%*F (-$%) 0$*3#2"*F (4$A); @#2%*F; @*F 4[email protected]+*F; "23*\*F; 23$44#*F "$**F; $*F; *@*F -3K *3*F; 3*F 034*F; 0#2*F ( #4@") $!* !$*F; \3*F; $*3*F 3**F

160

rebuild [(')r•'b•ld]

rebuilt [(')r•'b•lt]*

rebuilt [(')r•'b•lt]*

161

rend [rend]

rent [rent]

rent [rent]

162

repay [ri:'pe•]

repaid [ri:'pe•d]

repaid [ri:'pe•d]

163

rid [r•d]

rid [r•d]

rid [r•d]

164 165

ride [ra•d] ring [r•¸]

rode [r¬ud] rang [ræ¸]

ridden ['r•dn] rung [rµ¸]

166

rise [ra•z]

rose [r¬uz]

risen ['r•zn]*

167

rive [ra•v]

rived [ra•vd]

riven ['r•(¬)n]

168 169 170

run [rµn] saw [s±:] say [se•]

ran [ræn] sawed [s±:d] said [sed]

run [rµn] sawn [s±:n] * said [sed]

171

see [si:]

saw [s±:]

seen [si:n]

172 173

seek [si:k] seethe [si:ð]

sought [s±:t] seethed [si:ðd]

174 175

sell [sel] send [send]

sold [s¬uld] sent [sent]

sought [s±:t] sodden ['s±dn]* sod [s±d] sold [s¬uld] sent [sent]

176

set [set]

set [set]

set [set]

177

sew [s¬u]

sewed [s¬ud]

sewn [s¬un]*

178

shake [ºe•k]

shook [ºuk]

shaken ['ºe•k(¬)n]

179

shall [ºæl], [º¬l], [ºl]

should [ºud]

_

180

shape [ºe•p]

shaped [ºe•pt]

shapen ['ºe•p(¬)n]

181 182 183

shave [ºe•v] shear [º•¬] shed [ºed]

shaved [ºe•vd] shore [º±:]* shed [ºed]

shaven ['ºe•vn]* shorn [º±:n]* shed [ºed]

2F $4"\*F; 4$*43*F 4*F; 4mail protected]*F; *@34*F; 4$Z%*F ("-) *3*F *432; 04Z*F $K\@*F$%; 30K%*F$% A*F; [email protected]*F; [email protected]*3 (-) 023*F; 02*F $**F; @23*F$%; $!4$*F !*F; 4$!+*F (-$%); 4"K3*F K\*F 33*F; 4$33*F $!0*F; #43*F; @!34*F [email protected]*F; 2K[email protected]*F; 0*F 3$!*F; @K3*F$% !3*F; K"43*F 43*F; 4@*F; *4#*F $+*F; *4%*F $*3*F; \3*F; Z*F; "$*23*F ]3*F; $]3*F; 0]3*F *4%$*3 (-$F); @4\*F; 2*F; !K*F; 4$$K3*F #*F2+S ## K"@"Z# 423 $[email protected]*F, @*F B4"; B434*F K43*F$%; $*43F $*43F; !$3*F $K4$+*F (@\@", !\")

184 185

shew II [¬u] shine [ºa•n]

shewed [¬ud] shone [º¬un]

shewn [¬un] shone [º¬un] 138

!0+*F $3%*F; $*3*F

shod [º±d] shot [º±t] shown [º¬un] shred [ºred]* shrunk [ºrµ¸k]

shrive [ºra•v] shut [ºµt] sing [s•¸] sink [s•¸k] sit [sIt]

shod [º±d] shot [º±t] showed [º¬ud] shred [ºred] shrank [ºræ¸k] shrunk [ºrµ¸k] shrove [ºr¬uv] shut [ºµt] sang [sæ¸] sank [sæ¸k] sat [sæt]

shriven ['ºr•vn] shut [ºµt] sung [sµ¸] sunk [sµ¸k] sat [sæt]

K"*F; @!+*F $*4%*F !0+*F 30F*F; 40*F $!4Z*F; $\3*F$%; $@3*F$% 3$@*F (-$%) 0A2"*F; 0!4+*F *F (-$%); 3**F 24$ *2"*F; "$*3*F$% [email protected]*F; 0$@*F

196

slay [sle•]

slew [slu:]

slain [sleIn]

"K3*F; "4*3*F

197 198

sleep [sli:p] slide [slaId]

slept [slept] slid [slId]

slept [slept] slid, slidden ['slIdn]

$*F; *F $!F03*F

199

sling [slI¸]

slung [slµ¸]

slung [slµ¸]

@]3*F; K4$*F

200

slink [slI¸k]

slunk [slµ¸k]

slunk [slµ¸k]

!4$*F

%$201

slit [slIt]

slit [slIt]

slit [slIt]

4040*F (@F)

202 203

smell [smel] smite [smaIt]

smelt [smelt] smote [sm¬ut]

smelt [smelt] smitten ['smItn]

A2"*F; K2%*F "@4%*F; 4\*F

204

sow [s¬u]

sowed [s¬ud]

sown [s¬un]

205

speak [spi:k]

spoke [sp¬uk]

spoken ['sp¬ukn]

206 207

speed [spi:d] spell [spel]

sped [sped]* spelt [spelt]

sped [sped]* spelt [spelt]

208 209

spend [spend] spill [spIl]

spent [spent] spilt [spIlt]*

spent [spent] spilt [spI•lt]*

210

spin [spIn]

spun [spµn]

211

spit [spIt]

spun [spµn] span [spæn] spit, spat [spæt]

212

split [splIt]

split [splIt]

split [splIt]

213 214

spread [spred] spring [sprI¸]

spread [spred] sprang [spræ¸]

spread [spred] sprung [sprµ¸]

$%*F, 0$3*F; 4$4$*42%*F #43*F; 40#43*F "$!4%*F; *F$% 4302$3*F, 3**F ( K"!) *4*3*F; 4@3*F 43*F (-$%); 4$$+*F (-$%) (0-) 4**F (-$%); !4"*3*F *F (-$%); 4$3*F; K4+0#*F ($H2S) 4$!+*F (-$%); 4$Z%*F (-$%) 4$4$*42%*F (-$%) 4+#*F; $!!3*F;

215 216

stand [stænd] stay [steI]

stood [stud] staid [steId]

stood [stud] staid [steId]

217 218

steal [sti:l] stick [stIk]

stole [st¬ul] stuck [stµk]

stolen ['st¬ul(¬)n] stuck [stµk]

186 187 188 189 190

shoe [ºu:] shoot [ºu:t] show [º¬u] shred [ºred] shrink [ºr•¸k]

191 192 193 194 195

spit, spitten ['spItn]

K4$*F$%; 4"\323*F

139

$*%*F $**F$%; $*23*F$%, \3*F ( #$*323E) 4*F; ("-)!4$*F *+!*F; 43!43*F; 43!3*F (-$%)

219

sting [stI¸]

stung [stµ¸]

stung [stµ¸]

\3*F; *40*F

220

stink [stI¸k]

stank[stæ¸k] stunk [stµ¸k]

stunk [stµ¸k]

221

strew [stru:]

strewed [stru:d]

strewed [stru:d] strewn [stru:n]

222

stride [straId]

strode [str¬ud]

stridden ['strIdn]

223

strike [straIk]

struck [strµk]

struck [strµk]

[email protected]*F 243%*2+S 0A; 2%*F; $[email protected]*F 40K4$+*F; 40K4+0#3*F; 4$$*3*F; $+*F ]#*F (KF]33 ]#3) "@4%*F (-$%); K3*F

224

string [strI¸]

strung [strµ¸]

strung [strµ¸]

225

strive [straIv]

strove [str¬uv]

striven ['strIvn]

226

strow [str¬u] (220 strew [stru:])

strowed [str¬ud]

strown [str¬un]

227

swear [swdž¬]

swore [sw±:]

sworn [sw±:n]

228

sweep [swi:p]

swept [swept]

swept [swept]

229

swell [swel]

swelled [sweld]

swollen ['sw±ln]

230 231

swim [swI m] swing [swI¸]

swam [swæm] swung [swµ¸]

swum [swµm] swung [swµ¸]

232 233

take [te•k] teach [ti:t—]

took [tuk] taught [t±:t]

taken ['te•kn] taught [t±:t]

234

tear [tdž¬]

tore [t±:]

torn [t±:n]

235

tell [tel]

told [t¬uld]

told [t¬uld]

236

think [´I¸k]

thought [´±:t]

thought [´±:t]

237

thrive [´raIv]

throve [´r¬uv]

thriven ['´rIvn]

238

throw [´r¬u]

threw [´ru:]

thrown [´r¬un]

239

thrust [´rµst]

thrust [´rµst]

thrust [´rµst]

140

0%0+*F; 43%0+*F; ]2"4*F; 2*%#3*F ($*4"2") $*4*F$%; 43#*F "$33%; $*43*F$%; K4*F$% (4*3) 40K4$+*F; 40K4+0#3*F; 4$$*3*F; $+*F !%$*F$%, 43$%#*F; (K-) 4"#*F (-$%) $*3; @**F; $**F; "23*\*F 4mail protected]"*F (-$%); "A*F; 0+]*F$% *F !*F (-$%); !K*F (-$%); 4**F (-$%); 40A3*F; 3$2%*F @\0"H "0+!"  $*3 $"32# K4*F; 0%*F; 432%*F y3*F; K"*F; 4@*F 4*F; 404+*F; 423*F; E4*F 4$$!0+*F; #43*F; $!0*F @"*F; +$3*F; #*F; 4@#*F 4E**F; 4"$*F; K"S2, +]2 4$*3 K4$*F; [email protected]*F *!2"*F; "@43*F; $"2"*F; !*F; 2%0+*F

tread [tred]

trod [tr±d]

trod, trodden ['tr±dn]

unbend ['µn'bend]

unbent ['µn'bent]

unbent ['µn'bent]

242

unbind ['µn'baInd]

unbound ['µn'baund]

unbound ['µn'baund]

243

underbid ['µnd¬'bId]

underbid ['µnd¬'bId]

underbidden ['µnd¬'bIdn]

244

underdo ['µnd¬'du:]

underdid ['µnd¬'dId]

underdone ['µnd¬'dµn]

245

undergo [Áµnd¬'²¬u]

underwent [Áµnd¬'went]

undergone [Áµnd¬n'²±n]

246

underlay II [Áµnd¬'leI]

underlaid [Áµnd¬'leId]

underlaid [Áµnd¬'leId]

247

undersell ['µnd¬'sel] understand [Áµnd¬'stænd] undertake [Áµnd¬'teIk]

undersold ['µnd¬'s¬uld] understood [Áµnd¬'stud] undertook [Áµnd¬'tuk]

undersold ['µnd¬'s¬uld] understood [Áµnd¬'stud] undertaken [Áµnd¬'teIk(¬)n]

250

undo [(')µn'du:]

undid [(')µn'dId]

undone [(')µn'dµn]

251

ungird [(')µn'²¬:d] unlade [(')µn'leId]

ungirt [(')µn'²¬:t]* unladed [(')µn'leIdId]

ungirt [(')µn'²¬:t]* unladed [(')µn'leIdId]

240

241

248 249

252

unladen [(')µn'leIdn]

253 unsay ['µn'seI]

unsaid ['µn'sed]

unsaid ['µn'sed] 141

]#*F; $*"*F; [email protected]*3; **F; 34*F; 2$*"*F; 43*$2%*F; 4**+*F p0#2"*F (-$%); +4%%*F(-$%); 40#3K*F$%; $K%*F 24%\23; $**F 4$*+, 43*3+ 40%0+*F; 4$"$!*F; $K\@*F; $23*F %0!" ($ 42+) cK3*F; $23\*F E2"; 202*F K 230!"H E2" 2@@+*F; 2@\43*F 3$+*+*F; 42$3*F; @4#*F$%; 4*4*F @!@+*F; @34*F 4@*F @] @4"#3A 23*F; $K4\*F 4@4323*F; K4*F 2 $K% 4@`22+ K%0*F$*, B"2!E33; #42*34*F; 4"*F$% "23*\*F [email protected]22; *!4+*F; 40%0+*F; 4$$*`#3*F; 40K34*F (]32") $2%*F %$ +#4"\*F; 40#4"\*F; $K\@*F K4*F $3 $ 20@; *4!*F$% * $3A $

254

unstring [(')µn'strI¸]

unstrung [(')µn'strµ¸]

unstrung [(')µn'strµ¸]

255

unwind ['µn'waInd]

unwound ['µn'waund]

unwound ['µn'waund]

256 257

upbear [µp'bdž¬] uphold [µp'h¬uld]

upbore [µp'b±:] upheld [µp'held]

258

uprise [µp'raIz]

uprose [µp'r¬uz]

upborn(e) [µp'b±:n] upheld [µp'held] upholden [µp'h¬uldn] uprisen [µp'rIzn]

259

upset [µp'set]

upset [µp'set]

upset [µp'set]

wake [weIk]

woke [w¬uk] woked [w¬ukt]

woken ['w¬ukn] woke [w¬uk]

261

waylay [weI'leI]

waylaid [weI'leId]

waylaid [weI'leId]

262

wear [wdž¬]

wore [w±:]

worn [w±:n]

263

weave [wi:v]

wove [w¬uv]

woven ['w¬uv(¬)n]

weep [wi:p]

wept [wept]

wept [wept]

win [wIn]

won [wµn]

won [wµn]

260

264

265 266

wind [waInd]

wound [waund]

wound [waund]

267

withdraw [wIð'dr±:]

withdrew [wIð'dru:]

withdrawn [wIð'dr±:n]

268

withhold [wIð'h¬uld]

withheld [wIð'held]

withheld [wIð'held] withholden [wIð'h¬uld(¬)n] 142

4$]*+*F (24+); $2%*F, $K3*F $*4"2+, **3" 40`4*+*F (-$%); 4$!4"3*F (-$%); 403*F (-$%) ( $H\*) @@4\3*F 0Z3Z*F; Z4%*F; @@4\3*F $$**F, +$*"*F 4*3 4$$*43*F (-$%); #4*F (-$%); 24"]*F (4%@!) 4$+*F$%; 4K"\@*F; 0K"\@*F (\23); K@4$**F; 23*F$%; 4$2"*F$%; $02*F @$*4#*F; "$*43*F 0$@"; 4A*3*F  "*3 2$3*F; K+*F @*+; +#%@*F; 3*F [email protected]; "*%*F *!*F; $@32%*F (-$%); $**F (-$%); $3*F$%; $*3; ($32%*F, $*3) !*F; [email protected]*F; !3*F; 0**F (!2) +3#4*F; K@3*F 303*F$%; 3*F (-$%); 2*+*F (-$%); 4**F; 0@3*F ($+) 0%*F 20@; *0*F; *@`4#3*F; 4*34*F$%; *A@3*F; 30!*F "@4\3*F; *!0+*F; [email protected]4\3*F$%; 2$KZ*F; "*3*F; $!4+*F

269

withstand [wIð'stænd]

withstood [wIð'stud]

withstood [wIð'stud]

270

work [w¬:k]

wrought [r±:t] worked [w¬:kt]

wrought [r±:t] worked [w¬:kt]

wring [rI¸]

wrung [rµ¸]

wrung [rµ¸]

write [raIt]

wrote [r¬ut]

written ['rItn]

271

272

4*33*F$%; 4*3$*%*F; $4*3%*F$%; [email protected]4\3*F 4K**F; @S$**F; 0+*F @S$*3; K+*F  @3\233; 0$"\3*F; *4K**F !4! $\*F; \*F !- 4"!"; \*F (K"F); *40*F; “+\3*F”; +#*F; 3$*4#*F 3$*F

* `[email protected]! 02* 0\2$*F 3$F023% “43F2+x” B4 4]@]# 423 3 43$*3% II ## (- ed).  Additional materials Prepositions by (~ a series - ; ~ 2 o’clock; works ~ M. Auezov; by means of ) for (For it is so …. This is for you.) to (I’m going to the university. to come to the table; read the text from the beginning to the end;) on (put on your coat; put the book on the table; to come on time; on Monday; on (on the 7th of May; on week-days) from (I came home from the University. Take the book from the table.) till (wait for me till 12 o;clock;) until (wait for me until I come back;) in (in the house. I shall be back in an hour. in the pocket; to come in time. in March; in 2011) into (Come into the room. Put the pen into your bag.) along (along the street; along with the rest of the articles;) at (at 7 o’clock; at the bus stop; at work; at the exams; at the table. Are you at home now?) by (I shall come by 2 o’clock. He is Marat by the name. She was killed by him.) before (before the lesson, the table; before I come; before you begin it, you must …;) beyond (It is beyond the theme. It is beyond my understanding.) after (I came to the finish after him. After the lesson. He came after me.) out of (to go out of the building;) under (under the table; the problem under consideration (study, investigation);) over (The lamp is over the table. Milk spilt over the pan. over years; with (with the help of; to be killed with a heavy stone; to write with a pen; onto (The cat fell just onto the table.) near (near the window. There is a garden near the house.)

control operations input devices

Noun chains computer system output devices 143

a storage device high-speed store

backing store construction kit car speedometer process control processing programs adding machines storage unit a reference number a data item the human operator method analysis high level languages information output information explosion flight plans airline pilots the other computer professionals complex production programs accounting and calculating machines

access store gas pressure cash register any storage location critical path the systems analyst research workers doctors case histories of patients information-producing equipment

Equivalents of the modal verbs to be to = must; were to go; is to read; am to do; will be to do it; to have to; has to face; will have to take the exam; to have got = must; has got to go to Kaskelen; to be able to = can (could); am able to read; was able to sing; will be able to speak; to be allowed to, to be permitted to = may (might); am allowed to go home; was permitted to rewrite; shall be allowed to see the film Conversion to form – a form to speed – a speed to excess – an excess to process – a process to slow – slow to measure – a measure to address – an address to issue – an issue to design – a design to plan – a plan to try – a try

to change – a change to need – a need to sense – a sense to display – a display to control – a control to face – a face to correct – correct to cause – a cause to load – a load to base – a base to attempt – an attempt to measure – a measure

Synonyms store – memory – storage digit – figure – numeral purpose – target – goal – aim to cause – to make to obtain – to get – to receive at once – immediately – instantly none – nothing, nobody to decide – to solve to have – to possess – to owe vast – enormous – very great sequence – set – series ready – easy files or pockets to give – to yield – to produce – to provide to use – to exploit – to apply – to employ

different – various – distinct distinct – separate – individual continuously – constantly – steadily fast – quick – rapid to develop – to work out – to devise insignificant – negligible – trifling to design – to plan – to devise to obtain – to get – to receive day-to-day – every day – daily to perform – to do – to make – to fulfill large – big every – each up-to-date – modern – present – contemporary the finished product – the output – the end product 144

Antonyms big – small large – little thin – thick long – short difficult – easy – ready bad – good high – low far – near dark – light heavy – light tall – short bright – dim white – black near – far to switch off – to switch on important – insignificant – negligible – trifling The words of the same origin (root) (derivatives) difficult – difficulty to differ – different – difference – differentiate – differentiation to vary – variance – variant – variation – variable – varied – variety – various – variability mean – meaning – meaningful – meaningless to form – a form – formal – formally – formation – formative – formless – formulation – formativeness – format – formatter – formatted – formatting – formatable – former

Phrases a large number for example by watching analog computers rather than without limit and so on in the same way care of in particular a great range of put to use such as for instructions say $100 326 475, … for instance to establish the problem more and more this way – in this way the computer itself over lengths of time a large filing cabinet both digital and analog computers without any discrimination

as long as at any time hybrid computers in terms of central processor in general to make sure that an exacting one taken a number of ready-made taxation for payroll at once to be written out that is day by day none of these to be designed to in fact to start things off to be solved to make correct decisions they are designed to in no circumstances either commercial or scientific not only associated operations which are required

145

Confusion words check – cheque future – feature later – latter – letter form – former – from then – than these – those to adapt – to adopt different – difficult some time – sometime – sometimes

father – (far) farther – further the former – the latter for – from preposition – proposition read [i:] – read [e] – ready [e];

Programming word combinations internal circuitry computer languages hardware the systems analyst a computer is a device this powerful tool falls on

items of data numeric code exacting rules computer code high-level languages a raw material policy decisions this “raw data” is fed to 'pocket' or storage location problem oriented languages dispersed to peripheral units to turn a raw material into information Prefixes unprocessed non-stop mode forward implicit; preposition underestimated independent illegal; supernatural ultra-violet international unilateral monolingual bilingual monosyllabic coworker autobiography

pre-determined unknown backward indirect postposition overestimated irregular subconscious antifascist postwar misbelieve multilateral multilingual subway polysyllabic re-count vice-president

Suffixes addressee booklet chemistry childhood Chinese dramatist friendship freedom happiness heroism machinery organization Russian successive illogicality property endless destination special specific Danish development act – actor – actress process – processes – processed – processing – processor; programme – programmes – programmer – programming – programmed

Possessive case of nouns computer’s operations the student’s textbook

programmer’s handbook the Namazbayev’s book 146

a man’s woman – men’s women the windows of the flat = the flat’s windows the door of the room = the room’s door Nouns borrowed from the Latin or Greek languages axis – axes datum – data crisis – crises genius – genii radius – radii ellipsis – ellipses thesis – theses phenomenon – phenomena

antenna – antennae analysis – analyses criterion – criteria formula – formulae erratum – errata diagnosis – diagnoses stimulus – stimuli

Conjunctions if – $3; 3 until – @ *A 4, ! 2 provided (that), providing – 43 "$33, *; $3 though, although – A*% (K+); 2$*4% 2 after – $ *#, !! before – 4\@, ; @ *#, !!; 4@ *, !!; 42F],  for – *! !!; @% as – $!F!"; *! !!;  4 *#, !!;  * 4% !!; !!;  !$* unless – $3 2 lest – @% *#, *K+ 2 and – 3;  but – 2;  or – 33; 32 either … or… – 33 … , 33; 3K …, 3K… neither … nor – 23 …, 23 both … and – 3 … , 3…; !! … , *! 3… whereas – *#@ !!;  while – *#@ !!; ;  * 4% !!; !;  4% when – !#@;  4% as soon as – !! *F! as/so long as – !; @ *A 4, ! since – *! !!; $!F!" because – *" *; *! !! so (that) – [*"; (*!, *K+) in order that/to – $ *, *K+; @% *#, *K+ if even – @\ $3 only if – $3 K+; *F!, $3 in case (that) –  $"; 2 $"S ($3) than –  Infinitive as an attribute operations to be performed – 4E33, !*4+ K"@"* +22+ (!*4+ 2"\2 +23*F) programs to be worked out – 4#4+, !*4+ @\2+ K+*F 404K*2+ (!*4+ 2"\2 404K**F) the problem to be solved – 0@, !*4% K"@* 4]2 (!*4% @\2 K+*F 4]2) the raw material to be required to obtain this – 2K4K*22+S *43, !*4+S *4K"*$% 147

@% *#, *K+ "3*F [* (!*4+S 2"\2, *K+ "3*F [*) a program to be stored in the computer to perform the tasks – 4#4, !*4% @\2 A423*F$%  !FH*4, *K+ +23*F [*3 0@23% (!*4% K"@* A423*F$%  !FH*4 @% +223% [*3A 0@23S) Substitute words a very significant one This solution differs from that of yours. I know the language but my father did not when he was young. These data are very important for theory, and less so for practice. (We have two srudents, Khabiyev and Nazarov. The former is a brilliant boy, the latter is a lazy one.) I read such books, but he won’t. This point of view is that of a mathematician rather than a physicist. The most extensive investigation was that of Lehman(1). They obtained results similar to ours. Difficult sentences (constructions, expressions) 1. The nearer the language used by the programmer to the code used by the machine, the lower the 'level' of the language. 2. He must be skilled not only in analysing a problem (in an analisation of a problem) and devising a solution (in the designing of a solution), but in communicating his solution to the client or management. 3. He must be skilled not only in analysing a problem and devising a solution, but in communicating his solution to the client or management specifying the requirements, to the users of the information, to those involved in collecting raw data and distributing information and to the other computer professionals involved in the development of the computer side of the system. 4. associated groups 5. detailed descriptions of specifications of individual jobs 6. the overall system 7. Each such job will require a program to be stored in the computer to perform the tasks. 8. keeping this explosion under control 9. Computers, with their ability to process great quantities of facts at vast speeds, are the only means… 10. order out of apparent chaos 11. Computers can give the management the information they need to make correct decisions.

148

Part IV Contracted forms a – adjective – 43#*F2 – $+2 $5 adv – adverb – 243 – ª$*" prep – preposition – 4@# – @"5! int – interjection – \@*3 – @¯S n – noun – $"Z$*3*F2 – 0* $5 pron – pronoun – $*323 – $5@5! sg – singular – @32$*22 3$ – \!] pl – plural – 2\$*22 3$ – !‚] v – verb – ## – *5$*5!

149

Vocabulary  about prep accept v

[¬'baut] [¬k'sept]

o; K; 4 4323*F

access n according (to) prep

['ækses] [¬'k±:d¸]

account n, v accurately adv achieve v

[¬'kaunt] ['ækjurÂtlÂ] [¬'tºi:v]

@$*" $#$2 ("3K, !"-3K) o*`*; (@*F ~) *2 @$*3#*F

acute a add v address n,v

[¬'kju:t] [æd] [¬'dres]

add up v advantage n

['æd Ãp] [¬d'vÄ:ntÂÅ]

$*4+S ("#) $!@+*F @4$; K4Z*F$% ! 43K%*F 43"Z$*

affect v

[¬'fekt]

3%*F (2)

again adv agree v airline n alone a, n all (the other) a, pron already adv

[¬'²en] [¬'²ri:] ['½¬laÂn] [¬'l¬un] [±:l (ði:'Ãð¬)] [±:l'redÂ]

c2; %*F $#]*F$% 3323% o*@F2+S; @32 $ ($*F2+); $` "\

also adv

['±:ls¬u]

*\; *!\; Z`

although conj always adv amount n

[±:l'ð¬u] ['±:lw¬z] [¬'maunt]

A*%; 2$*4% 2 $#@ !3$*

analyst n and conj another a, pron

['æn¬lÂst] [ænd], [¬nd] [¬'nÃð¬]

23*3! 3 @4"#S; Z` @32

any a, pron

['enÂ]

HKS; *-3K

150

*"4+, \‚[email protected] 1K+@", €$+2+$1 !5$" \; ‚**52 \4 (K54 2¬4$#, K54"#) $¬S!$, KS2+$*+ $, *ª$525!; $ K4" @¬, @¬[email protected]¬ 1$*1 \*", *K+$1 \*" cªS54 (K€4+]) 1$", $ *ª$" !2 \S; 5$2 K4"; K54"# 14 $‚S" 1$" 4*+1]++1, K$+@++1 (-¯,-#,-1,-!,-,-) ¬$4 *"; +1+2 *3#50" *¯+, \¬2, !52]5 4* !5$" ¬" \+ \¯+0; \! K4+¯+, K¬45 ¬@1]2, [email protected]2 K€4+2 $2+2 1*4, $[email protected]S1, *¯+ K54 \¯+22; 14S ¬[email protected]S+, ¬41]2 $2+, ‚]4, ‚]; \+ $2 23*3! \¬2 *¯+ K545; K$1, K$1 K54" ¬4K54, !0-!#2; [email protected], K54 2¬4$

anything pron application n appropriate a

['en´¸] [æplÂ'keÂƬn] [¬'pr¬uprÂÂt]

apparent a architect n art n as conj

[¬'pær¬nt] ['³:kÂtekt] ['³:t] [æz], [¬z]

*-3K 43\23 @A@%Z3S;  $**$*"HZ3S [email protected]+S 4A3*!*4 3$!"$$* $!F!"; *! !!

ask v associate v

['³:sk] [æ's¬uÆÂeÂt]

$4]3*F $%0+*F

astonishingly adv

[¬'st±nÂƸlÂ]

attempt n attention n available a

[¬'tempt] [¬'tenº¬n] [¬'veÂl¬bl]

"@33*F2; 30"3*F2 +*! 2323 3HZ3S$% ( 2333)

K54 2¬4$, [email protected] 1$+], ª$* 1S+; S+1, ªS$*52 2+1, S1+2; 2+¯+ $¬"*]5 ‚24, ]K45! [email protected]+1*2, - @5!*2; $[email protected]+1*2; $KK5, ‚S*!25 $€4", $€4 K5" KS2+$*+4", 14+-1*+2$ *­+414+1, *] ¬4!*; *+2+$ 204; +1+$ K4+, K4 K"+

‚ base n

[beÂs]

K0 (@22+A)

basic a

['beÂsÂk]

$22S

basically adv because (of) conj

['beÂsÂk¬lÂ] [bÂ'k±:z (¬v)]

become v between prep big (ger) a

[bÂ'kÃm] [bÂ' twi:n] ['b²(¬)]

 $22 *! !!; *" *; (30-0) $*23*F$% \@" (@"%) KF]S; (KF])

bill n

[bÂl]

blunt (pencil) a booking n

[blÃnt] ['buk¸]

both pron box n

[b¬u´] [b±ks]

buy v byte n

[baÂ] [baÂt]

4$*; +3$23; $" *"S K423423; 0!0 K; K3; K K!; ; !2; 4! !"*F KS* (@323E 32B4E33) 151

K0; @4!*4 K0$+; 2#50, *54! ­ K$*+; 2#50#5, *ª!5 2#[email protected] ‚S*!25; $KK5; $[email protected]+1*2; $+¯2 K K"; \4"; \4$" 4mail protected];‚04 ª!2, K35! (ª!254!) $, $*", $*5;1[email protected]+ @¯+; ‚*S*52 *$+4+$ K4", " (K3*) !"5 @ K!; ‚45$; *40; ]­K4; \3!* $*+ " KS* (32B4E3+1 K545!)

Q cabinet n

['kæbÂnÂt]

calculation n

[Ákælkju:'leº¬n]

can v

[kæn], [k¬n]

F; "*F; \* K+*F; 0\2

car n carefully adv

[k³:] ['k½¬fulÂ]

carry out v cash (register) n

['kær aut] [kæº ('red¶Âst¬)]

catalogue n

['kæt¬l±²]

cause n, v

[k±:z]

*]32 23*F2; $*4\2 +2%*F 232+ @2F#3; (!$$+S 4*) !*#; !*#3034*F 4332; +0+*F

causing a

['k±:z¸]

+0+HZ3S

certain a

['s¬:t(¬)n]

change v

['tºeÂnd¶]

4@`22+S; !2!4*2+S (30) 2%*F

chaos n, a

['ke¬s]

A$; A*3$!3S

character n

['kærÂkt¬]

cheap(er) a check n

['tºi:p(¬)] [tºek]

$3; 02!; K"!; 4302! @]`+S (@]) $*2!; 44!; !2*4F

cheque n circuit n

[tºek] ['s¬:kÂt]

circuitry n

['s¬:kÂtrÂ]

circumstance n clear-cut

['s¬:k¬mst¬ns] [' kl¬ 'kÃt]

!4"$; $3$*. K!; ]!B +3$23; 4$`*

*€41+, $+4*+; \ªS5! K!; ]!B $*", $*5, $* ]+¯4"; $ 1@2 !", 5$*S "; 1K5**5 K"; ª!52 K"; ª!52, 13$+2+ K4 *!‚5! 04 $+, +1+$2; KS \ª0# $+4", [email protected]" 1@ K4 1]; (!$$ 4*+) *505@; K#55 *¬4*52 *505 \$" $K, @¬; $K K" $K K+ \*"]+; ]1+4+ "]+ K#55, ¬S#55; 21*+ ‚0#4*"; "+$*+4"; S+4K$*" K++1; $*2-!$*2, +4-*+4 KS2, $3; *­K, ¬45; K#5 402, (402+41) [email protected]$ 4+2; K1+", 1@¯", 04**"; *!$4"

(#0322+S) ! 3*4E3%; 4A@; 323% $%03; $A $A+; E3; $A*3!

! (@ª!2 #5) ]+4 S2"; KS2+$ *50K#5; $A, !$* !$*4,$€K4; *50K!*4, 1*44; *50K

K$*%*F$* `*! (A4]) [email protected]22+S

\¯@S 2+1 (@¬, *ª0") [email protected]¯2

152

clerical n

['klerÂk¬l]

client n

['kla¬nt]

code n collected a

[k¬ud] [k¬'lektÂd]

collectively adv

[k¬'lektÂvlÂ]

combin v

[k¬m'baÂn]

combining n

[k¬m'baÂn¸]

communicate v

[k¬'mju:nÂkeÂt]

complete a, v completed a complex a comprehensible a concept n

[k¬m'pli:t] [k¬m'pli:tÂd] ['k±mpleks] [Ák±mprÂ'hens¬bl] ['k±nsept]

concerned with

[k¬n's¬:nd wÂð]

consequence n consider v

['k±nsÂkw¬ns] [k¬n'sÂd¬]

consist (of) v

[k¬n'sÂst (¬v)]

constantly adv

['k±nst¬ntlÂ]

construction n

[k¬ns'trÃkº(¬)n]

consult v

[k¬n'sÃlt]

contain v

[k¬n'teÂn]

containing a content n

[k¬n'teÂn¸] ['k±ntent]

continually adv

[k¬n'ti:nju¬lÂ]

!2E%4$!% (!2*4$!%) 4K* !32*; F0*F !@; 4#4 $K422+S; 2!22+S  KZ;  E; $* (0%*+) !K3234*F; K@32%*F; $**F !K323423; $*23 $%0+*F$%; 03@S$**F; 4@*F @22+ 2+S; 04]*F 2+S; 04]`22+S $\2+S ($$*2S) 2%*2+S; 2+S 2%*3; !2EE3%; 432E3 3HZ3S *2]23 ! "-3K (-) $@$*3 4$$*43*F; $3**F; #*F $$*%*F (30) $*%22; $#@; $* !2$*4"!E3%; $*4"!*"4 !2$"F*34*F (-$%) $@4\*F; @3*F$% K0 $**! $@4\Z3S $@4\23; 32B4E3%; $"*F; $22 $@4\23; K`; `!$*F 244+2; $*%22 153

!­$ \€+$+ *$+4+$ K4"]5; mail protected]2"]+ !@; 4#4 \32+2¯2, **¯2 K54#, K54#$5 4$*+4"; K545!*54" a4$; c¬S!$*5!; K54$*5! KS2+$*+4"; \¯2"; K54$5 ¬4!* *"; @4!*[email protected] \5K4" *ª#; %1*", K5*54" *ª#, %1*¯2; K5*!2 !ª[email protected]5 (1€4@+) *ª$525!*5; *+1,*ª# *ª$525!; 2#50#5 5!54; *ª!5 *ªS52 K54 2¬4$# 1*+$+ K4 2¬*3\; 2¬*3\[email protected] S"; $*", $2"; \4@"; ]" ([email protected]2, [email protected]2,-*2, -*2, 22, -22) 1€4+", *€4" \35; ª25; ¬41]2 1€4+; 1€4++ 1€4++$ !­$", 1+@$"; 2+1*" K"; €$*"; *"4 K‚52" €$*"]+, *€*+2"]+ ¬25, ­+0+; 32B4E3%, ¬5*, 14*; ¬2, ¬25$; 2#50#5 ¬2; !‚, ‚]4 1S*-1S*; ª25, ¬[email protected]S+

continuously adv

[k¬n'ti: nju¬slÂ]

244+2; $*%22

control v

[k¬n'tr¬ul]

convert v

[k¬n'v¬:t]

converting it into

[k¬n'v¬:t¸ Ât Ânt¬]

conversion n

[k¬n'v¬:º(¬)n]

correct a, v

[k¬'rekt]

(of) course n

[(¬v) k±:s]

"4%*F; 4#"34*F 4K40+*F; K4Z*F 4K4023 # (`)  () 4K4023; K4Z23 43F2+S; 3$4%*F !"4$; A@; (!22)

cover v

['kÃv¬]

crucial a

['kru:º¬l]

daily a

['deÂlÂ]

D \@22+S; $"*2+S

data n

['deÂt¬]

@22+; 32B4E3%

decide v

[dÂ'saÂd]

4]*F; 4]3*F

%$decline v

[dÂ'klaÂn]

*!2%*F (-$%)

demand v depend (on) v

[dÂ'm³:nd] [dÂ'pend (±n)]

*4K*F; 04]3*F 03$*F (*)

describing n

[dÂ'skraÂb¸]

3$+23; 3$23

design v

[dÂ'zaÂn]

desk n destination n

[desk] [ÁdestÂ'ne º(¬)n]

detect v

[dÂ'tekt]

!2$*4"34*F; @*F 4!* 4*; $* !2E. $* 20223%; @4$*; "*F K24"\3*F; +%%*F; 4@%*F

!4+*F; A*+*F 4]HZ3S; !43*3$!3S

154

1S*-1S*; ª055$$50, *€41*+; ª2-5, 1]2 @, ¬41]2 K$14"; 4**"; *¬4*5*" *ª4[email protected]"; S2@+4", ‚0#4*" 2+ K54 2¬4$# *ª4[email protected]" (‚0#4*") ‚0#4", ‚0#45$; S2", Smail protected]+4" @€4+$, ]+2; *ª0*", \‚[email protected]"; @€4+$*" !"4$; K¯+*; *¬4*5; \, *¬$5; *ª4; (¬432, ¬K**) \S++ !*"; \K"; 1*", 1$+4" ]]"]5, 13+2; $+23

!ª2 $S+2¯+; !ª[email protected]5!*5 @4!*4; K45#[email protected]4; ¬5**4; \­+1, B!*54 €S¯4"; S1+2, K#55 ]]5 1K+@" *‚[email protected]"; 1K+@"; 0H * *"; $€4*" ( -22,-22,[email protected]2,-*2,*2) *¬"@5 K"; KS2+$*+ K" $"4** S*", $3**" 1€4$*+4"; \K \$" 4*; \0" ª$*5 *¯mail protected]¯2 4+2; @4$*; "]+ *K"; mail protected]"; 2+1*"

determine v developing n, v

[dÂ't¬:mÂn] [dÂ'vel¬p¸]

4@%*F 403*3; 404K*!; 403*F; 404K*+*F

device n dictionary n digital a different a

[dÂ'vaÂs] ['dÂkº(¬)nrÂ] ['dÂd¶Ât¬l] ['dÂf(¬)r¬nt]

"$*4S$*; 43K4 $4F (!23#) E3B4S 4032+S; @4"#S; *32+S

difficult a directed (to) a

['dÂfÂk(¬)lt] [dÂ'rektÂd (t¬)]

*4"@2+S 2422+S (2)

direct v discrimination n

[dÂ'rekt] [dÂsÁkrÂm 'neº(¬)n]

disperse v

[dÂs'p¬:s]

24%*F @3$!4332E3%; 4033; 4$0223; "$2+S 4A@ 4$$3*F; 40K4$+*F

display v

[dÂs'pleÂ]

distinct (from) a

['dÂst¸kt (fr¬m)]

+@3*F 2 @3$S; !0+*F *32+S (*)

divide v

[dÂ'vaÂd]

@3*F (2 $*3)

(a) do-it-yourself n

[(¬) 'du: Ât jo:'self]

drain n

[dreÂn]

drawing n

['dr±:¸]

$$*%*F2 +223; (2K4 “@S $”) "*!; 2430@3*F2+S 4$A@ 43$23; 423; 3H$*4E3% ; #4B. 30K4\23

2+1*" @", ‚4![email protected]"; ‚­@"; 04**, *@;\*5@54"; @+*"; \* 04**" 1€4+¯+; 1€4, $ $‚[email protected]! (!5*) E3B4+1 ¬4 *ª45; K$1, ‚0#]; ‚* \1$+, 0* 13+2, "+4 (-¯,-#,-1,-!,-,-) 2€$1¯2 2€$1"; @¬@" !$5*"]55!; 4!]5!;S+4]+-+1; K5", S+4+ *2"; ]4**+ ‚*" *4"; *4*+ \5K4"; ]]+ *$*", \H @3$S# ]+¯4"; K5@54"; !‚4$*" (–22,-22;[email protected]2,[email protected]2;*2, *2) 2+1, K#55 (K‚5!!) K‚"; K‚525 ]+¯" ‚0 K*52] [email protected]"; “Ç05­ 5$* ]+¯4” \3+2*+¯+ \S+", !"; ‚25$50, K$1 !*!2 ]+¯+$ $"4*; c+0"; 3H$*4E3%; #4B3!+1 !$!52

E ach pron either (… or …)

[i:tº] ['aÂ(i:)ð¬ (±:)]

!\@+S 3K… 3K…; 33 … 33… 155

¬4!5, ¬41S$+$+ @, @; !"@5­ K54"5; ¬S*$

empty a enable v

['emptÂ] [Â 'neÂbl]

endless a

['endlÂs]

"$*S; $K@2+S 40K!34*F; @*F 0\2$*F K$!22+S

engaged (in) a

[Ân '²eÂd¶d]

02%*+S -3K

enormous a

[Â 'n±:m¬s]

#42+S; "\$2+S

equivalent n, (a)

[Â'kwÂv¬l(¬)nt]

[!32* (-2+S)

essential a establish v

[Â'senº(¬)l] [Âs'tæblº]

exacting (~rules) a

[² 'zækt¸ (ru:lz)]

\2+S; $"Z$*22+S "4\@*F; "$*23*F *4K*F2+S; ($*4#3 43)

exactly adv examine v

[²'zæktlÂ] [²'zæmÂn]

*2; 42 4$$*43*F; 3$$@*F; 30"*F; 44%*F

example n excess v even a

[²'zæmpl] [Â'kses] ['i:v(¬)n]

434 4+]*F 42+S; `*2+S

event n

[Â'vent]

every pron

['evrÂ]

$K+*3; 3$A@; 40"F** !\@+S; $%!3S

everyday a exist v (= to be, to dwell, to live) expense n

['evrÂdaÂ] [²'zÂst] [Âks'pens]

\@22+S $"Z$**F; \3*F; K+*F 4$A@+; (0-) *4*+

expensive a explain v

[Âks'pensÂv] [Âks 'pleÂn]

@4#S; 0*4*2+S K%$2%*F

explosion n

[Âks'pl¬u¶(¬)n]

04+; K"42+S 4$*

extracted (from) a

[Âks'træktÂd (fr¬m)]

30`22+S (30); "22+S (30)

extracting n extremely adv

[Âks'trækt¸] [Âks'tri:mlÂ]

3023 40+S2; !4S2; 2F

156

K$, 1"+$; 4!52 K$*"; ª!52]55! K4" ]!$50, K5*S*52, %1*S*+2 K54 2¬4$2 1+ K$ $ ‚* ª!2, ­#0[email protected]S; *+; ª4S5 *­, [email protected]S; [!32* (-*5) ­[email protected]+; 2#50#5 42*", 42$"; 1€4", 1H (1*­ 4\2i) * *"]i; *¯0 @¬, *"4; ¬432 14 ]+¯", $+2 KS1"; $+2"; 04**"; ªS42", 1+ K5"; *!$4" +$; ª#5 $+4", ‚$54" *#5$; [email protected]S, *­, €1$$; \€*+ 13¯; \¯@S; 2¬*3\; 14+*[email protected]+ ¬4K54, ¬4; ¬4!5, !5 !‚452#2 !ª[email protected]5!*5 K", K4 K"; ‚54 $ª4" ]+¯+$; ]+¯+2, \€$" 1+K*; ]+¯[email protected]+ *ª[email protected]", €¯[email protected]+4" \4++$, K€0+"; 1mail protected] ‚$"5 ([email protected]2,[email protected]2,-*2,-*2, -22,-22) $+¯+ ]+¯4+¯2; +2¯2 ]+¯4"; mail protected] K" ‚*, $; 1**+; *+, *5*5

F face n

[feÂs]

(in) fact

[(Ân) 'fækt]

fall (on) v

[f±:l (±n)]

á@*F; (2@á*F)

familiar a

[f¬'mÂlj¬]

fast a

[f³:st]

02!+S; K+2+S; 30$*2+S K+$*4+S

feat n

[fi:t]

@3#; 3$!"$$*; !$*F

feed (into) (to) v

[fi:d (Ânt¬) (t¬)]

!43*F; 3**F; $2K\*F; (@*F )

(a) few adv

[(¬) fju:]

; (2$!F!)

field n

[fi:ld]

figure (out) n, (v)

['f¬(r aut)]

; K$*F; 02; #4" 404%@ E3B4; 3$; !0*F; 43$"2!; (+3$%*F)

file n fill (up) n, v

[faÂl] [fÂl (Ãp)]

finally adv

['faÂn¬lÂ]

first num

[f¬:st]

fix n, v

[fÂks]

flight n

[flaÂt]

3E; E3B4K*; 3E% $*42; $!% 4A2$*F (B!*3$!3; @S$*3*F2;2 $ @)

BS 0223; 03!; 02%*F  !2E !2E;  0!H23; !2*F2 4+S; -4+A 3$423; 0!4%*F; 2$*43*F; 2\3*F `*; 3`*; 34S$ 157

K*, ª$*5; E3B4K*; $+4*1+ *ª4; \0+1, *#5$ K* ][email protected]+1; ][email protected], 4mail protected]; ]+2 ¬[email protected] 1€"; (]K"+ \$") \1+2, *2+$; @¯@++; K#55 \+@, ]]­, *0 45!, K*+4+1; ‚24, ]K45!; *55! *1 \#50"; *1*mail protected]+4", \mail protected]+1*", 1*$+0 *" (K4", ¬4", + K4") 0, 0¯2; (K540, K542]) ‚45$; S1; "-1; 404%@ *K+ E3B4; $2; !‚4$*!5]; $"4*; ($*", $* ]+¯4") BS; !4**! **+4", 1$"; **+4¯+]; *"; $­[email protected]; mail protected], ­ $­[email protected]; 1+4¯+, $­¯+ K5452]5; K5452][email protected]2, @+2 *ª0", K*"; K!5*"; K#5"; \‚[email protected]", 4**"; \¯ $" €]"; ¬" €]"; ¬" 4S$5

(by) following a

[(bai)'f±l¬u¸]

$@"HZ3S; ($@"HZ3; $@"HZ3; +2%%)

forecast n, v

['f±:k³st]

4#20 (-34*F); 4@$!0+*F

foresee v

[f±'si:]

form n, v

[f±:m]

4@[email protected]*F; 02*F 042 2!*; K2!; 4@$*23; B434*F; K40+*F

from prep

[fr¬m]

*; 30; $

future a

['fju:tº¬]

K"@"Z -3S (-, -%, -3)

!S52#5, !$5 (mail protected], $­[email protected], $@2 !S52; [email protected]" ![email protected], ‚* *14") K\;K\@"; K\", !ª25 K€4+2 S*" @+2  KS1", K€4+2 K5" 2!*, $"2; K2!; €$+2", €$+2+$; *2+$*+4", !‚4$*"; 1€4$*+4", *54!"; 1+*$*+4", 1€4", \$" -*2,-*2; [email protected]2,@2;-22, -22 !]!, !4

G gadgetry n garment n

['²æd¶ÂtrÂ] ['²³:m¬nt]

general a

['d¶en¬r(¬)l]

generate v

['d¶en¬reÂt]

getting n, v

['²et¸]

give v great a group n, v

[²Âv] [²reÂt] [²ru:p]

43$$K23; $$K 1€4-$S2; ¬@5$ @\@; !4; @%23 !35; ª$*52#5 1K*, \¯4¯+ K*, \+¯+ KZ3S; K+2+S; \+; 2#50#5; *+, *2+S; $KZ3S +1, *€*$, *ª#; \+¯ [email protected]S, \+ #2434*F; $[email protected]*F; \$ ]+¯4", \$", @K40+*F; %4", *"@+4"; 1€4$*+4\@*F; 430@3*F 4"; ‚[email protected]", 5$* ]+¯4" "-23 (-*F) ]+¯4", \$"; "; ‚[email protected]" (*-) @*F K4"; *$+4"; 1S*4" 3!3S; KF]S €+, 04;ª!2, 545 #4"; #4"34*F *; **", K545#" H

happen v hardware n

['hæp(¬)n] ['h³:dw½¬]

heart n

[h³:t]

$"*F$%; 43$A@3*F K4"@23; 4*"4 $[email protected]; $"*F; $2; $22S !22*; %@4 158

K+ 1"; $¬*5 *ª$" 1€4-$S2, \mail protected]+1 \ª4!; ­+0+; ¬2 , ¬25; 2#50, *54!; 2#50#5 1€4@$ K‚5!; %@4, ‚0!

high a

[haÂ]

+$!3S; $*4]3S; $3F2+S; $ KÈF]3 @4$; @4#ÈS

€0+2,ª!2, K35!; ¯; +1*+, 1**+, !ª]*5; \¯4¯+, 2#50#5; 1+K*, K¯+ ‚05@5, ‚05­@5, ‚052; ‚05, ‚052; ‚05, ‚052-‚05 K$+ "; 3 K"; €$*";‚*!50"

himself pron

[hÂm'self]

hold v

['hould]

hooves n, pl (hoof sg) horse n how (much)(many)

*; \+1+ 12]? 2]?

however adv, conj

[hu:vz] ([hu:f]) [h±:s] [hau (mÃtº) ('menÂ)] [hau 'ev¬]

$K%; $KS; $K; $; $"; $3; $ Z*F; $A*3*F; 0@*F; @4\*F; 4@3*F !+* (!+*) ]@F; !2F $!F! (?)

hundred n

['hÃndrÂd]

@2!; * 2 2; !! (!!S) K+ 23 $*; $*2%

1S K$ @; 14$*2, @#22 \ª0

*€%1*4 (*€%1)

I identif y v (-ied a)

[a 'dentÂfa (d)]

[email protected]2*3B3E34*F; 4$02 -*F, (-22+S)

if conj illogical a

[Âf] [Â'l±d¶Âk¬l]

immediate a

[Â'mÂdj¬t]

important a

[Âm'p±:t¬nt]

$3; 3 2#32+S; 2$@*F2+S 2@22+S; 2$4@$*22+S \2+S; 023+S

indeed adv

[Ân'di:d]

individual a

[ÂndÂ'vÂdju¬l]

industrial a

[Ân'dÃstr¬l]

information n

[Ânf¬'meº(¬)n]

informative a

[Ân'f±:m¬tÂv]

initial a input n internal a insignificant a

[Â'nº¬l] ['Ânput] [Ân't¬:n(¬)l] [ÁÂns²'nÂf k(¬)nt]

@S$*3*F2;  $ @ *@F2+S; [email protected][email protected]"F2+S 4+]22+S; [email protected]"$*43F2+S 32B4E3% 32B4*32+S; $@4\*F2+S 2F2+S; 3$A@2+S @ (-2% 32B4E3%) 2"*4223S 2023*F2+S; 2\2+S 159

€1$$*+¯+2, [email protected]S5#52 *K"; €1$*"; 2+1*"; *2+*+2 #4 13$+2$+0, 2#50$50; *3%21$+0, S2++ *0, \+@; *5!S, *"4 ­[email protected]+; !‚­5 "@44+1 ]+][email protected], 4mail protected], ¬432 K‚!, S+4+;\!, @4, @4K$ ‚24!¬$5*5; [email protected]"$*43%+ \­+1, ¬5*, 14* 14**+1; ­[email protected]+ K$1+; K$*1+; K5452]5 2#50"; (2#50" ¬5*5) 5]!5 $! ¯+$+0; ]¯+2, 0 ¯2; ­+0$+0, ¬2$50

instance n

['Ânst¬ns]

434; !3%; [!0%4 K@32`22+S; 32*#43422+S; $*422+S $@23%; 32B4E3%; 32*!* @23; 2@423; K%23  +"$!

integrated a

[Ânt¬'²reÂtÂd]

intelligence n

[Ân'telÂd¶(¬)ns]

introduction n

[ÁÂntr¬'dÃkº(¬)n]

inventing n

[Ân'vent¸]

30K4*23 (4E$$)

invoice n

['ÂnvoÂs]

4$`*; $`*; $*; 2!@2%; "`*

involve (in) v

[Ân'v±lv (Ân)]

!*F; 0*4#3*F; !H*F  $K%

isolation n

[aÂs¬'leº(¬)n]

issue n,v

['ºu:] Br E ['Âsju:]Am E

item n

['aÂt¬m]

itself pron

[Ât'self]

30%E3%; 40%0!; !30E3% (23$42$*3) +"$!; [email protected]; 4$ (*4"@2+S); [email protected]*F; +"$!*F [2*; 4@*; @323E; [2*42% #4"; 03E3% $; $; $

ª#5, +$; !‚]54; @2 K545!*545#2, !545$*545#2, 1€4@$; \¯$*+4+¯2 ¬5**4; 14*; S, 1+, 4$* \­+1 !54#50"; !545$; 2#50"; [email protected]"; *4*"; ]+¯4" *"4+ \43%" \­+1 ]"; S ]+¯4" $, $*";$]*; ]+¯[email protected]4 $K5; *54! 1¯0; $! " !545$*54", 1*+2$*+4"; \2 ‚*", *35 !*"; 1$", \ª4#50" ­]", S+4"; ]]", *K"; ]!*"; (\4[email protected]+1*+) 1]" K$+ ]+¯4"; ]+¯4"; K4"; (13+2) $€41; *4*" [2*, 0*, K€S+; K545!; [2**4 *K+; 4+2 ‚05; ‚05­, ‚05

J job n

[d¶±b]

0@23

just as just adv

[d¶Ãst æ(¬)z] [d¶Ãst]

!! 40 *! !! 40; 322; 4$*

journey n

['d¶¬:nÂ]

jotting (down) n

['d¶±t¸ (daun)]

"*Z$*3; [email protected]!; 4A@ !4*!% K#% 03$F

\€+$, 5$; 4+2; *$+4; 1+0* * $S @€4+$, @¬, 21; \S, ­S $4, \; ‚**52 \4 1+$1]$+; 1+$1] \0+ "

K kit n

[kÂt]

!!*; 2K4; !2$*4"!*4

knit n, v

[nÂt]

%023; $@3223; %0*F; $!4%*F (-$%); $@32%*F (-$%) 160

\321*, *+, \3+2*+1; *4", *45; !2$*4"!*4, 1€4++@"]+ *1+; 1$++$, 1$+", K545#"; *1"; 1$", K545!*54"

knitting n

['nÂt¸]

know(n) v

[n¬u(n)]

%023; *43!*\; %02+ Z3 02*F; (30$*2+S)

*1y; *1+, *1+¯2 0**4 K5", *2" (K#55, *1*+)

L language n

['l渲wÂd¶]

%0+! (2#., !0A., 4"$.)

large a last (over) v (the) latter a

[l³:d¶] [l³:st ('¬uv¬)] [(ð¬) 'læt¬]

KF]S @3*F$%; 4@\*F$% $@23S (*4S 30 @"A 43$22+A)

lawyer n

['l±:¬]

H43$*; @!*; 0!2@

length n

[le¸´]

library n liken (to) v

['laÂbr¬rÂ] ['laÂk¬n (t¬)]

@32; 4@\3*F2$*F K3K3*! $423*F; 2A@3*F $A@$* ($)

limit v (-ed) (to)

['lÂmÂt (-Âd) (t¬)]

#423 -3*F (-22+S) -3K

line n

[ laÂn]

323% ($%03); ]32; $*4!; $43%

list n

[lÂst]

$3$!; 42F; *K3E; @$*F

little a

['lÂtl]

2F!3S; 2KF]S

load n, v

[l¬ud]

locality n

[l¬u'kælÂtÂ]

0#4"0!; 2#4"0!; 0#4"\*F $* 2A\@23%; !F2$*F 4@23 $*; 4$\23; %S!; @4$ %S!3; 3!44S2 $*3 3$! (  !) $K

(pockets or storage) [('p±kÂts ±: location n 'st±:rÂd¶) l¬u'keº(¬)n] looking up n loosely adv

['luk¸ Ãp] ['lu:slÂ]

161

(¯+]+2, 101, 4+$) *5 ª!2, 545 $0+", €04"; €$@+ $­¯+, !S52#5, 1+4¯+ (*ª#[email protected] ]+1mail protected]mail protected]+­ !52]5$5) H43$* (0­ 1+0*!45), !­$ K4"]5,0­ \‚2522 1+ €[email protected]+1; €01*+!, €01 "1+*;1]+1*+1; ![email protected] !5*A2 (@2, [email protected]2;-22, -22) c+$*+4"; €1$$*+1 *K" ]! 1H (-¯2, -#2) $+0+1, *50K!; ]!; 4*, 1*4; \ (!5*, #0* *"4+) *505; *50K; !$*; ¬5*\32¯+2+­ *5055 !5]!2*S, 1+$1, ]¯+2; 0, 0 ¯2 \ª!*, \ª!*"; *3"; 4*", $1 $"; \#" *€4¯2 \45; \4, \4#55!*5! [email protected]+ 2+1*"; *€4¯2 4+2; €%]+1; €%]+1 @4$5; +1]"@2 \5 [email protected]25$ ($‚[email protected]!*) 2]4, ¬$50

M machine n

[m¬'ºi:n]

machinery n

[m¬'ºi:n(¬)rÂ]

make (up) v

[ meÂk (Ãp)]

management n

['mænÂd¶m¬nt]

manager n

['mænÂd¶¬]

manufacturer n

[Ámænju'fæktº¬r¬]

mean (-s n) a, v

[mi:n(z)]

meaningless a measurable a

['mi:n¸lÂs] ['me¶(¬)r¬bl]

measure n, v

['me¶¬]

4; E2!; !43*43S; $]*K; 304%*F

measurement n

['me¶¬ment]

membership n

['memb¬ºÂp]

modify v

['m±dÂfaÂ]

money n more (than) a

['mÃnÂ] [m±:] (ðæn)

30423; 04; 404+ 2$*; 432@\2$*F; 3$ 2 302%*F; @3B3E34*F; !44!*34*F @2F#3 K; KF] (); Z`

mostly adv

['m¬ustlÂ]

multiply v

['mƚltÂplaÂ]

]32; A230; "$*4S$* ]32+; K4"@23; *A23! @*F; @*F 2*\; ($$*%*F; !2*F) "423; @323$*43423; 4#230E3% 2@\4; 4#230*4; "4%HZ% 4#4; @3$*4; @$3$* "423%; "$*4S$* "423% 430@3*F; 30#*3*F 0S; $4@23S; 023*F; 3*F 0223; ($4@$*) K$$+$22+S 3043+S

23K; 23KF]; $ KF] "2\*F; 40- 2\3*F

162

]32; A230; 4*; 1€4+¯+ ]324; ]322+­ K‚]!*45; *A23! \$", 5$*"; 2*\ \$"; (**+4", 4**", \‚[email protected]") K$14", K$14, ¬!5]55!; €S+ ­#4"]5; K$]+; €S+@$*+4"]+; K$14"]+K¯@4; @3$*4; K¯+2+­1+ \ªS K$14"+; K$14" 1€4+¯+$+ ‚[email protected]"]5; \$ ]+¯4"]+ S45$50, ]"+; 4*], ¬$50; K54 ¬25$5 K"; (; 1€4) ¬2$50; ¯+2$+0 ‚]245!; ‚]"# !*52 ‚]; K¯; !43*43S, K#5; !‚, $]*K; ‚]" ‚]", ‚]; !‚5 ª] K+ *€4"; 1€4[email protected] K"]++1; ª]4 $2+ ‚0#4*"; 2+1*"; *ª0*" 1] (-¯ 14¯mail protected], #‚45) !‚K54!, ª!254!; *¯+, 1$+] ­ @+2, !‚K52$; K¬4522 @, ‚* 4**+4"; !‚KS*"

N need v, n

[ni:d]

new a next a none pron nothing pron

[nju:] [nekst] [nÃn] ['nƚ´Â¸]

2"\@*F$%; 3*F 2KA@3$*F; 2"\@; *4K2$*F 2+S $@"HZ3S 23*; 23!* 23*

nowadays adv

['nau¬deÂz]

$S$;  2]3 @23

number n

['nÃmb¬]

numeric a

[nju: 'merÂk]

3$; E3B4; 24; !3$* 3$S; E3B4S

!4! K", €1*\ K"; 1\**55!, !4!*55!; 1\**5!, 1\*$52" \­ !$5; $@2 !S52 ]*­; ]2¬4$;]!5 ]*­; *ª!! *€4S*+2 0* 1054; 1054#5 !ª[email protected]45[email protected] $2; 2‚54; ‚]; ‚]4 $2 $mail protected]+1; E3B4+1

O obey v obeyed a

[¬'beÂ] [¬'beÂd]

obeying a

[¬'be¸]

obtain v

[¬b'teÂn]

obvious (-ly) a, adv (at) once adv

['±bv¬s(-lÂ)] [(¬t) wÃns]

open v, a operate (on) v

['¬up(¬)n] ['±p¬reÂt (±n)]

operator n

['±p¬reÂt¬]

or conj order n (v)

[±:] ['±:d¬]

other pron

['Ãð¬]

@32%*F$%; @32`22+S

K¯+2", *+­@", S*1mail protected]+ 5$*"; 1 $*[email protected]¯+$+ $"]2+S; *5 ¯+]; +2%HZ3S [email protected]S*+2 "*F; @K3*F$% "; (S*12+2) \*" [email protected]+S; ([email protected]) $54¬; 2+¯+, 2+1 @2\@+; K54 !ª25, K54 ![email protected]; ($40" \) ([email protected]2) *!4+*F; *!4+*+S ]"; ]+1, ]+¯2 @*F 4E3H 4E3% \$"; (434*F -$%); $*4*#3%+1 ¬4!* 4K**F (2); \$"; (-¯,-#, -1, +2%*F; @S$**F !) ­K! *"; \ª4#50", [email protected]"; ¬4!* *" 4*4 4*4 (‚[email protected]$*5! ¬4!**[email protected] \ª4#50"]5 @) 33; 3K % K$; 2$ 43!0 (-+*F); K€S4+1,K€S4+1 K4"; 0!0 (-+*F) *$+4+$, *$+4+$ K4" @4"#S; 32S K$1, K‚!; 1$+], K$1]

163

output n

['utput]

+@ (32B4E33); +A@ 4@"!E33

outside a

['ut 'saÂd]

2]23S; $*4223S

overall a

['¬uv¬r±:l]

overdraft n

['¬uv¬dr:³ft]

own a, v

[¬un]

KZ3S; 2+S; $"42+S; $KHZ3S;  KZ;  E 4+]23 $# !4@3*  K2! ($S) $K$*22+S; 4@2S; 3*F; @*F

(14**mail protected]+) ]+¯4";‚2525­ ]+¯4++@+¯+ $+4* \¯+, K* \¯+; $+4*1+; ]*!5 4*1; *+1; \+ ¯mail protected]; Kª*[email protected]S, *€*$ 2$325­ K2!* $+ !*"5 (‚0, ‚0525!5) \!2]5!;‚052 2]5!*5; *"¯2 (*"+$); K", K4 K"; 3 K"; K¯[email protected]+4"

P part n, v

[p³:t]

$*F; @%; 4mail protected]; B4#2*; *@%*F; 4mail protected]%*F

particular n, a

[p¬'tÂkjul¬]

patient n, a

['peº(¬)nt]

pattern n

['pæt¬n]

payment n

['peÂm¬nt]

payroll n penknife n people n perform v

['peÂr¬ul] ['pennaÂf] ['pi:pl] [p¬'f±:m]

performing p

[p¬'f±:m¸]

peripheral n, a

[pe'rÂf(¬)r¬l]

$*2$*F; @4K2$*F; @*F; $*2+S; $K+S E32*; KF2S; *43+S K40E; ]K2; @F; $3$**303422% $*4"!*"4; $*423; *4B4*; "04; !@% !K32E3%; $A; @3#4; 43$"2!; K40; 30K4\23 "*; +*; *`\ *`\2% @$*F 4322+S 2\ [email protected]; 24@ +2%*F; 3$2%*F; 430@3*F +2%%;  4% +223% 2]2 (43B43S2) "$*4S$*; 2]23S; 43B43S2+S 164

K‚5!, K‚5, *4"; ª$; B4#2*, ª[email protected]; K‚5 "; K‚5 *$*" \!5!; 4!]5!; *+1*+1; K‚]!; \!;4!], S4+1] E32*; @"]5; ][email protected]@+, *‚05@5 ª#5; !$!52; \ªS5! 1€4++;‚42!, !K32E3% !@+; $€K; !$*; @3#4; $"4*; !$!52, ![email protected]"; KS2 *‚, 1+; ‚*, ‚**52 14\+ *‚ *5055 K¬!5 +]1 A+1 5$*", [email protected]"; *14";‚25 ]+¯4" [email protected] *+4¯2 ![email protected] $+4*1+ (]¯S) 1€4+¯+; $+4*1+; ]¯S

(by) performing

[(baÂ) p¬'f±:m¸]

perhaps adv

($4@$*; $ ZFH +223%); +2%% [p¬'hæps, præps] 0\2

picture n

['pÂktº¬]

!4*32; 43$"2!; 30K4\23; ]K2; K40E

piece n pilot v, a

[pi:s] ['paÂl¬t]

place n, v

[pleÂs]

place (in) v

[pleÂs (Ân)]

play ( part) n, v

[pleÂ] (¬ p³:t)

plug n, v (into files or pockets)

[plò (Ânt¬) faÂlz ±: 'p±kÂts]

politician n potential n, a

[Áp¬l 'tº(¬)n] [p¬'tenº(¬)l]

power n

['pau¬]

precedent a

[pr 'si:d(¬)nt]

!"$!; $*F; @% $*3; "4%*F; 4K2+S; [!$432*F2+S; 42F2+S; +*2+S $*; \23; 404%@; Z*F; 40Z*F; $*3*F ( *-3K, !"@-3K) 3#4; +2%*F; @S$**F; $430@3*F; 43#4+*F ($E243S, F$"); (3#4*F 4F) 40`; 3!; ]*$F; ]*!4; ($*%*F  #2[email protected]) 3*3! *2E3; *2E3F2+S; 0\2+S Z2$*F; [24#3%; $*2F; !0*F $*23; 430@3*F2$*F; +3$3*F2% Z2$*F; $$K2$*F 4@]$*"HZ3S

precedent n

['presÂd(¬)nt]

4E@2*

precise a

[prÂ'saÂs]

*2+S; 4@`22+S

pre-determined a

[prÂdÂ't¬:mÂnd]

price n procedure n

[praÂs] [pr¬'si:d¶¬]

prodigious a

[pr¬'dÂd¶¬s]

4@43*F2+S; 4@4@`22+S E2 4E@"4; 4E$$; *@3! #42+S; 24%*2+S; "@33*F2+S; 30"3*F2+S 165

[email protected]" 41++; [email protected]";5$*" ![email protected] ª[email protected]#52], ª!52, +1*3 !‚4525$, $"4*; KS2"; !$!52; ]K2; 13 ª#5 K‚5!, K‚]!; ª[email protected] \ª4#50"; K$14"; ­#4"; KS1*+2, $+2*+2,*!$45*52; K$*1+ 4+2; \¯@S; *, !$$; 42$*+4", 1H; \S¯$*+4" ( K54 2¬4$#, K54 \4#) 42$*+4", 42+1*+4" S+2; [email protected]", ‚*"; ¬4!* *"; 5$ 1+"; (F$2+, $E2mail protected], 4F S2"@+) $! *ª$54" *+¯+2; ] ([!*4); 1$", \¯"; (€%¯ 1[email protected]+4") $%*$*]+ ], ª[email protected]!; ¬"**5, 1€@54**5; ª!52, 13$+2+ K4 !ª], 1"*; [24#3%; @¬4\; @¬4\ !‚4$*!5]5; ‚25@55!; $*"5] !ª]; 1K5**55! ‚*!2, K¯2; @+­¯+ 13¯, ‚*![email protected] 4+2 ¯2 @¬, 2+1; S1+2, K#55 ¯]1+, K$*1+; @+2  K\S*+2 K¯, 1€2 4¬$5, *¬4*5; 4E$$; K4+$; ¬@5$* ª!2; *], ¯\; *­+414+1

produce v produced a program(m) n program(m)er n

[pr¬'dju:s] [pr¬'dju:st] ['pr¬u²ræm] ['pr¬u²ræm¬]

proof n, a

[pru:f]

provide v

[pr¬'vaÂd]

provided (that), providing conj purchase v

[pr¬'vaÂdÂd]

purl n, v put (to) v

[p¬:l] [put (t¬)]

purpose n

['p¬:p¬s]

['p¬:tº¬s]

430@3*F 430@3+S 4#4; 4o#43$*

]+¯4", ‚[email protected]" ‚[email protected]*52 4#4, K¯@4; 4#43$*, K¯@4]+ @!0*F$*; 44- @¬; *!$4"; $+21; !; 4K; K$23 14¯"@+ 1*$+0 0Z3*+; 0Z3Z`22+S; *"; 14¯¯2; 2423E+S ‚*!50KS*52 K$3*F; \mail protected]+1*", 4@$*%*F; ª[email protected]! \$"; $2K\*F; @mail protected] 1H; 4@[email protected]*F; 1*$+0 *"; K4@"$*43*F \"; @+2  $!4" 43 "$33 (*); ]4*2, #[email protected] $3 *F! !"*F; 43K4**F; $*+ "; *S+ 0!"*F $*+ + 1H \"423; \"4*F $+@+4; $+@+4" \3*F; $*3*F; 1H; $", \*1+0"; $*3*F *-3K K54 2¬4$25 (-¯,-#,- , -!,-a,-) 42$*+4" EF 1$* Q

quantity n quantities n quickly adv quite adv

[' kw±ntÂtÂ] [' kw±ntÂti:z] ['kwÂklÂ] [kwaÂt]

!3$*; 332; 332+; !3$* K+$*4 2; @F2; $4]22; $$; $E; 2F

‚]4, !‚; ]; ‚]44, !‚@4 \+@ ¬[email protected]2; *+1, \+; @¬"54; ¬\*"54; ª@; *5*5, Kª*[email protected]S; *€*$; ‚*,*+, $

R range n, v

[reÂnd¶]

raw a

[r±:]

@302, K$*F, 32*4; 404 +K4!3; ]34* 4$4@23%; *40!; K$*F 0223S; 0!H*F$%  4@A $+4S; 2K4K*22+S; 2$4@$*22+S 166

"1+; S1; 4+1; *­@ !‚5; !­@5!*5 ª$*54"; ![email protected]; ¬[email protected]4 S¯+ ]3!5; ‚­@#2; *5!S, *"4

react v

[rÂ'ækt]

reach v

[ri:tº]

read (into) v ready a

[ri:d] (Ânt¬) ['redÂ]

reason n refer (to) v

['ri:zn] [rÂ'f¬:] (t¬)

register n, v

['red¶Âst¬]

4#3$*4; 4#3$*434*F; 2!3*F; $"34*F

related (to) a

[rÂ'leÂtÂd (t¬)]

$%022+S ($); *2$%Z3S$% (!); 03$3+S (*)

(by the) relation n

[(ba ð¬) rÂ'leº(¬)n]

o*2]23e; ( *2]23H !)

relatively adv repertoire n

['rel¬tÂvlÂ] ['rep¬tw³:]

repetitive a

[rÂ'petÂtÂv]

represent v

[ÁreprÂ'zent]

(for this) requirement requiring n, a

[f±: ðÂs rÂ'kwa¬m¬nt] [rÂ'kwa¬r¸]

responsible (for) a

[rÂ'sp±ns¬bl (f±:)]

returned (to) a

[rÂ't¬:nd (t¬)]

n

4#34*F; *0+*F$% @$*3#*F; @A@3*F; 4$*34*F$% @3*F @22+  #*+S; @#*22+S; `#!3S 4332 $$+*F$% (2); K4Z*F$% (!); *2$3*F$% (!); $4%*F$% ( `-3K)

¬$4 *", ]¯++$"; K54$5 ¬4!* *" 1 $0"; 1 \¯"; \*", $0+", $*5" @4!*[email protected] 2#50" @%4, @S+2; @mail protected]¯2; \­5, ­S $K (-¯, -#,- 1, -!) $5*", $5* \5K4"; (- ¯, -#, -1, -!, -2,2) S2"; ª[email protected]"; (-¯, -# , -1, -!, -2, 2) 1*+$", 1*+$+ K"; (K54 2¬4$25) [email protected]", [email protected] ]+¯" *505,\"42; \0", *54!"; \321*"; \+ $2+2 ]+¯4" (-2, -$2, -2) KS2+$*+ K"; ( ¯-, -#, -1, -!) 1*+$*+ K"; (-*2, -*2, [email protected]2, [email protected]2, -22, -22) K¯+2+]*+, *¬"@5

KS2+$; 14+ – 1*+2$; K€ \‚[email protected], K€ *"4mail protected] *2$3*F2 K54] 2K4; $!"2$*F; \3+2; \321, 44*"4 \3+2*+1; 44*"4 *422+S; 1S*2*+2; *4%+S +$+1*¯2 4@$*%*F; !‚4$*"; !‚0 @+2 30K4\*F $*"; KS2" *4K23 1\**55! (KS+2]); ($#$2 [*" ~) ]4*, * *4K23; *4K"HZ3S *; [email protected]**5 4\; * *"]5 **$*22+S (0) (K54 2¬4$ ª]52) \"*+, [email protected]**5 04Z`22+S (!, ) (-¯, -#,-1,-!, -2, 2) 1S*4++2¯2 167

room n

[rum]

routine n

[ru(:)'ti:n]

rule n

[ru:l]

!2*; Z23; 4$*42$*; $* 4#4; @4#4 43; 0!2; $]*K; 32S!

K‚, ¬*4; !­5$*5!; 4+2 K¯@4;¬@**#5 5$; *¬$5; K¯+2+­1+ K¯@4 4\; \K; $]*K, @­#S; $+0¯+]

S (the) same pron

[(ð¬) seÂm]

save v

[seÂv]

scheduling n

['ºedjul¸] Br E ['skedjul¸] Am E

scientific a scope n, v

[sa¬n'tÂfÂk] [sk¬up]

seem v select v

[si:m] [sÂ'lekt]

sense n, v

[sens]

sensible a

['sens¬bl]

sequence n, v

['si:kw¬ns]

[email protected]!+S; (** \) $+S $-) A423*F; ($-) [!23*F; $$*3 $$*23 4$3$23%, #4B3!; 23423; @3$*430E3%; ![email protected]42 23423 2"2+S K$*F, $B4 @S$*3%; K$*F [email protected]$*3; !2*!$*; $]*K; 40A; K$*F 43223%; E2!; *!; E23*F; @*F **!" !0*F$% *K34*F; +K34*F; [email protected]%*F $+$; 0223; "$*; Z"Z23; $43 23*F; 4@%*F; $3*+*F 40"2+S; 4$$"@3*F2+S; Z"*3+S; 0*2+S $@*F2$*F; "4; %2+S $3$! 0223S; 2*"4F2+S 4%@ 3$; "$*23*F $@*F2$*F; "4%@3*F; $4*34*F 168

[email protected]S; @¬ ‚05 $1*"; ª2@"; 1€*14" !$* \$"; #4B3!; \$4"; A**"; !ª2*ª0K \$4"+ ¯++3 S ‚45$5; ‚45$; S1; !‚4"# ª!52]55#5 K4; ¬2¬*52; @­#S, 1€]; ‚45$ ", *4K" ]#5; 1@2+*+2 $$+; K¯"; K#5 $¯", K#5 1H !‚452", *2+" *­@ "; $S "; 4!]" ¯+2;­+0; $05, $0"; *ªS$5!, *ªS$52"; *ª$52", 1K+@"; 2+1*", S+4"; $*" 1+@+, $*5; "5; !‚42!*5, S1+2 \ªS5!, \ªS, 4*; ¯+2mail protected]+­ !" *5055; $mail protected]mail protected]+­ 2*"4@+1 1*4+; \ªS5!*5 1+*$*+4"; 545!*"

(a) series n

[(¬) 's¬ri:z]

$@*F2$*F; 4%@; $43% 2\$*; $3$*; 2K4; $!"2$*F; 4%@; $43%; !!*; "$*23*F; 43$3*F 43$*"*F ! 4K* 2$!F! 40!3S; `*!3S; $*4+S; $3 #

set n, v

[set]

to set to work several pron sharp a

[t¬ 'set t¬ 'w¬:k] ['sevr (¬)l] [º³:p]

sharpen v

['º³:p¬n]

shopping n

['º±p¸]

short a

[º±:t]

significant a

[s²'nÂfÂk¬nt]

similar a

['sÂmÂl¬]

simple a

['sÂmpl]

$*4]3S; 02Z3S; 023*F2+S; \2+S; $"Z$*22+S @K2+S; $A@2+S; $A\3S 4$*S; [2*42+S

simplified a

['sÂmplÂfaÂd]

"4Z`22+S

simulate v

['sÂmjuleÂt]

@34*F; 33*34*F

single a

['s¸²l]

since prep

[sÂns]

@32$*22+S; @32+S; @3232+S *! !!; $!F!" (   $; $ *A 4, !!)

skilled a

['skÂld]

slavishly adv

['slævºlÂ]

slide (~ rule) n,v

[slaÂd] (ru:l)

+$3*F 40!$*F; 0$*43*F; *3*F (!4mail protected]]) $"Z$*23 !"!; A\@23  #032 !4*!3S; "$22+S

!3B3E3422+S; +*2+S; "+S; 3$!"$2+S 2$$*%*F2; 4K$!3 !42 $mail protected]; !@4; $!F\23; [email protected]3#*F; $!F03*F; (#43B3$!% 32S!) 169

\ªS5!; *50K!; $43% !‚*#2, "2; \ªS; \3+2*+1, *45; 1*4, 4*; \321*, $43%; 1H, 42*"; 32", 3@2" \€+$1 !545$" K542], K540 2+1, S1+2; ‚*!54, ª]!54; KS2, # $3 2+1*+¯+2 !‚*4", !ª]S*"; (1mail protected]]*+) ‚*!54" $"@ \$"; @ª!2# K4" 1+$1, !5]!2*S; 13+¯2 ª!2; ­[email protected]+, !‚ ¬[email protected]; *ªK#S5, ¬[email protected] €1$$, $[email protected]S, $3%1*+; S+1*+ 14S+, \­5, \S \­5@*5#2, +1]@¯2 ª#5", ‚­@"; $+*"4*"; [email protected]­# €1$*" \¯+0, \¯+0 ¯2; K54*€*$ [email protected]2, [email protected]2, -*2, -*2, 22, -22 \¯"4+ ( $@2 K45; K€4+2) ]K45 2; *¬\543K5; 0*, ]K4 @4K$$50 *¬"@5 , K¯+2+]*+; !‚2#5]*5; 1€@+ $mail protected]; !@4; 10¯", ‚*", \+\"; $+4¯2" (#43B@5! $+0¯+])

slow (~ down) a,v

[sl¬u (daun)]

@22+S; (0@%*F)

so adv so far software n

[s¬u] [s¬u 'f³:] ['s±ftw½¬]

solve v

[s±lv]

solution n

[s¬'lu:º(¬)n]

some pron

[sÃm]

something pron

['sÃm´Â¸]

3 *!; *!3 K40 @ 2$*%Z# 423 4#42 K$23; 4#42+ $4@$* 4]*F (0@3, 4K+) 4]23; 43\23; 0!222 4]23 2!*4+S; 2$!F!; !; 43K303*F2 *-*; !-*; *-23K"@F; 2*

sophisticat v sophisticatd a special a

[s¬'fÂstÂkeÂt] [s¬'fÂstÂkeÂtÂd] ['speº(¬)l]

"$\2%*F; $\2+S; "$\2`22+S $K22+S; $K+S; $*2+S; $E3F2+S

specification n

[ÁspesÂfÂ'keº(¬)n]

specify v

['spesÂfaÂ]

$E3B3!E3%; 4@23; 3$23; @*30E3%; *A23$!3 *4K23%; *A23$! 0@23 0@*F; "*2%*F; *2 4@%*F

speed n, v, a

[spi:d]

spend v

[spend]

spent v

[spent]

spree n

[spri:]

stage n

[steÂd¶]

(to) start working

[(t¬) st³:t 'w¬:k¸]

$!4$*F; K+$*4@S$*3; "$!4%*F; $!4$*2S 4@3*F (4%); *4*3*F (@2F#3, 4%) 4`;  -, 3$- (*4*3) $F; 40$*F; !"*`\; S!; What a spree! – ! $! [*; $*@3%; $*"2F; B0; ]#; !$!@; 404%@; %S! 2*F 4K**F; 43$*"3*F ! 4K*

170

K%", 1+4+2; \¬S; K¬$­@*" $S, $+S; $‚S*5 $+ "1+*1 @S52 K¯@4+1 \$1*; K¯@4+1 ¬@5$*4 ($*[email protected], ¬$[email protected]) ]]" ]]5; 1$+], %1*¯2 ]]5 K540, K54]; K542]; ]2 K54 2¬4$, [email protected]­; !SK54 (2¬4$); [email protected]; ¬@K54, 2K54 [email protected]*"; !ª[email protected]5; !ª[email protected][email protected]#2 4!]; K‚!, ‚0#]; \!; 42"+, 42S+ 4!]5!; 2+1*", 2+1*; $3**; *A23!+1 *; *A23!+1 *$+4 *$+4 K4"; @¬@", 2+1*"; ‚0#]55!*452 2+1*" ]]­@+1, \+@@+1; *[email protected]*"; *0, ]]­ ("1+*) ‚*!50"; (1]2+) ]+¯+2 1+" ‚*[email protected]; \€$@+, ]+¯[email protected]@+ !‚­5, ]*; ¯+4+1; ]**+1; !‚­5 !‚*45­!55!; /S !‚­5@5! !0­; $*+; @" $*+$+; @+; @¬4\; €%]+1 \€+$*+ K$*"; \€+$1 !545$"

step n, v

[step]

still adv

[stÂl]

stitch v,n stone n storage n,v

[stÂtº] [st¬un] ['st±:rÂd¶]

store n,v

[st±:]

stored a

[st±:d]

(backing) store n

[('bæk¸) 'st±:]

street atlas n stupid a subtract v

[stri:t ('ætl¬s)] [ 'stju:pÂd] [s¬b'trækt]

successive a such as sum n, v

[s(¬)k'sesÂv] ['sÃtº ¬z] [sÃm]

to make sure that

[t¬ 'meÂk 'ºu¬ ðæt]

switching off n

['swÂtºÂ¸ of]

]#; $*"2F; [*; $*@3%; +2%*F ]# $` Z`; @ $3A 4; ! Z` ]3*F; ] !2F 03223; %*F; @3$!% %*F; "$*4S$* %*3; 032*F; A423*F 032HZ "$*4S$*; %*F; 0$; $!@; @3*F  %*F; 032*F; A423*F; 03$+*F; 2!3*F; Z*F $x42`22+S; 03$22+S (@23*F2+S) 2!3*F; $#*F2 032HZ "$*4S$*; $#*F2% %*F; 2]2%% %*F !4* #4@ #"+S; *"S +3**F; *23*F $@*F2+S *!S !! $"; 3*#; $!@+*F; $"34*F (*K+) "K@3*F$% ("@$*43*F$%, *) ... *!H23; +!H23

1@; \ª4", $*+; !0­; @+ \$" $+ !0# @S52; ¬5 *5#"; *5#5$ *$ \@*"; \@; @3$!55! \@; \@ 1€4+¯+$+; $1*"; $1*" 42+ \@*S*+2 1€4+¯+; \@; 14, \321; ]++1; 1S; \@1 2#50"; $1*"; \0+", \321*" $1*¯2; \0++ +2¯2 (1$+]) \321*"]+; !‚!]5 \@*S*+2 1€4+¯+; !‚!]5 \@; $+4*1+ \@ 1 !4*$+ 1+1; 1+$+0 ]#4", !5*"; ", ]+¯4+ *$*" !S52#5, !$5 [email protected]S; $[email protected]S \+ $2+; ¬2; 1$"; \+ $2+2 \321*" $25@5 K"; !ª@5!$50, 2+1; !‚05 \*!2, $2#2 \+4*", ª05 *$*"; $‚[email protected]", ‚]54"

T take v

[teÂk]

K4*F; 4323*F; *4K*F (423, *423%)

171

"; 1K+@"; ("1+**+, @¬**5) * *"

take care (of)

['teÂk 'k½¬ (r ¬v)]

0K*3*F$% (); "A\3*F (0 !-3K)

(-+2, -52, -1, -!, -¯, -#) 114+1 \$"; K54"@5 !ª*", K¯+1¯"

take (place) v

['teÂk ('pleÂs)]

"; (K", 4+2 ")

task n, v

[t³:sk]

taxation n tedious a

[tæk 'seº(¬)n] [' ti:dj¬s]

K4*F; (43$A@3*F; 3*F $*) 4K*; [email protected][email protected]"F2 0@23; 0@; 4#42+S @"F; $*3*F 0@" 2#K\23 $!"2+S; "*3*F2+S; 302"43*F2+S

tell v

[tel]

4$$!0+*F; #43*F; $!0*F; +$!0+*F; 43!0+*F

term n

[t¬:m]

*432; $4!; 43@; $$*4; 2, $# ( )

than conj

[ðæn], [ð¬n]



then adv

[ðen]

theory n there adv

['´Â¬rÂ] [ð½¬]

thing n thus adv

[´Â¸] [ðÃs]

*#@;  * 4%; 0*; *; ! *" \; !4 *#;  *! $" *43% *; *"@; (&  !    there is) [*"; *"; $@*F2; $@$*3 ZF; 4@* *!3 K40; 3 *!

time n

[taÂm]

4%; 43@; *S

together adv tool n

[t¬'²eð¬] [tu:l]

$* 32$*4"2*43S; 32$*4"2*F2 $4@$*; 32$*4"2*; *@; 4*

therefore conj, adv ['ð½¬f±:]

172

\€+$; \! *$+4; $; [email protected]*; 1$*; 4#4+1 @"F; [email protected]* 1H $+1 $"]++1 \+1*+4*+2, 1+0+1$+0, 045!*54*52; ]4]**+2; 1\+4**+2 ¬­#5", S*"; $‚S"; AK4"; 5!54 S*"; K€S+4", K€S4+1 K4" *"; *432; 405, 0#5; $$*4; ª] ( .) -2, - ], - 2 14¯mail protected] $ "1+**, $ ![email protected]; $22 !S52, $22 $­, $[email protected]+1*2 *43% $[email protected], $ \[email protected] $[email protected]+1*2; $S K¯2 $­; @!; $ $K*5 0*, 2¬4$ $+S, $+S]; $[email protected]+1*2 "1+*; 0#5, @¬"54, 405 K54# $; $*+ 1€4; ¬@5$; 4*

(grand) total a

[('²r³:nd) 't¬ut¬l]

($#);  KZ

transcribe (to) v

[træns'kraÂb (t¬)]

try (on) v

[tra (±n)]

3$*F  *42$!43E33; *42$!43K34*F; 43$+*F (4$*3  *-*,  @4"#"H B4") $*4*F$%; +**F$%; (43-, -) 43*F

turn to v

['t¬:n t¬]

K4*3*F$% ! "-3K 33 ! !"-3K

(computers) themselves pron

[(k¬m'pju:t¬z) ðem'selvz]

$3 (!FH*4+)

\S, K4+¯+2 1*3*+2 *42$!43E3%[email protected] \0"; *42$!43E3%"; (K$1 *ª4#) !‚]545 \0" *+4+$", *+4+$"; $+2 !‚4"; KS1"; !35 !‚4", ‚] !‚4", ‚]" K54 2¬4$# ¬@ K54"# +1+$ K5@54", 204 "@4" ‚[email protected]45 (!F*44)

U ! $\23H; ! 2$$*FH @"F; K!; [2*; 02; !22*; "$*4S$*; @323E 30423%  *33 * (#-3K, !o#o-3K)

unfortunate a

[Ãn'f±:tº(¬)nÂt]

unit n

['ju:nÂt]

unlike adv

[Ãn'laÂk]

up-to-date a (to) use v

['Ãp t¬ 'deÂt] [(t¬) 'ju:z]

use n

['ju:s]

$422+S; 2S]3S 3$F0*F; F0*F$% 3$F023; F0

used (to)

[ ju:s t¬]

K+; 42F] ... ,

(to get) used (to)

[(t¬ ²et) ju:st (t¬)]

useful a

['jusful]

usually adv

['ju:¶u¬lÂ]

43+!2"*F (! "-3K, !"-3K) 02+S; 43#@2+S; (43#@3*F$%; #@3*F$% predicative) K+2

value n

['vælju:]

valve n

['vælv]

various a vary v vast n,a

['v½¬r¬s] ['v½¬rÂ] [v³:st]

!#@-*

V E22$*F; \2$*F; [!32*; 0223; 332; E2; $*3$*F; 023$*F !2; [!*422%  4032+S 2%*F$%; 302%*F$% 4$*4; K]342+S; K0K4\2+S; #42+S; K0#4232+S; 2#3$22+S 173

‚!525]! 4S @"F; K!; [2*; 1€4"+]; ‚] K545#5 (K54 2¬4$@2, K54"@2) ‚0#]5#5, 4!]5#5 \­, $+ !ª2#5 1@2", mail protected]2" 1@2", mail protected]2"; mail protected] K+ *€[email protected]+; K€4+2, K54 ![email protected]45 ([email protected]#, K54"#) @¯@+2" mail protected]+; \4@+; mail protected]¯ $", 5$! \4"; ¬@**, @¯@++ 1€[email protected]++1; K¯++1; ¯+2; [!32*; ‚]4 !‚, ]; K¯; 1€2, ­[email protected]++1 111], K€4mail protected]; [!*4[email protected]+1  ¬4-*ª45; \2-\1*+ ‚0#4", ‚0#4*" !­@5!; 04, ‚* ª!2; $$50, $2$+0

vehicle n

['vi:Âkl]

$4@$* 4@3\23%; (**F2+S) 4*; $4- 4$4$*4223%, +4\23%; 4@23! ($*, 0"!)

\+\+ 1€4; €]" 4*+; *4*", ‚45$**" 1€4+; (\4+1*+, @+K+$*+) ‚*!50#5]

versatility n

[Áv¬:s¬'tÂlÂtÂ]

2#$*422$*F; 3023$*F

very adv voltage n

['ver Â] ['v¬ultÂd¶]

2F 24%\23 *!

!‚ \1*++1; 1€K+++1, S2+++1 ­; ‚* [!*4 *¯+2+­ !ª]5

W wall n watch v (by watching)

[w±:l] [w±tº] ([ba 'w±tºÂ¸])

way n

[weÂ]

whatever pron

[w±t'ev¬]

when conj whether conj

[wen] ['weð¬]

which conj, pron

[wÂtº]

(as) well adv

[(¬z) wel]

wonder v

['wÃnd¬]

word n work (on) v

[w¬:d] [w¬:k]

work (out) v

['w¬:k (aut)]

written a

['rÂtn]

$*2 $*4*F; 2K[email protected]*F; $@3*F; $4@$* 2K[email protected]23%; 2K[email protected]%

1K+4¯ 14"; K1+", KS1";1@¯", 04** *+4"; K1+"[email protected] K" "*F; $$K; $4@$*; \; ¬@5$, *¬$5; *@; K40 @S$*3%; ; KS2 ¬4!*5; #3$*4F K$*+ K¯+*, *4 !!S-K+ 23; HKS; 1mail protected]S K$+2; $` *; * K+ 23; 1S @, 1mail protected]S 23!!S K$ @; K4+¯+, Kª!5; ]1mail protected]S, ]K54 !#@ 1]2 3 K, - K, - , - ,, -  !*4+S; !!S; * 1S$+, 1S, 1mail protected]S, 1S A4]; (*!\; *\  \1$+ (@¬ $+S,  @, [email protected], [email protected]) 3 ! &  ) 32*4$*F$%; 1+0+¯", !‚­5 1H; A**F 02*F; AKmail protected]4 K"; "@3%*F$% *­¯", ¯\*2" $ $‚0 4K**F (2, 2@) ( -¯,-#, 1,-!, [email protected]2, [email protected]2, -*2, -*2) \€+$ 5$*"; ­K! *", [email protected]" K5@54"; ]]"; +4\*F$%; 4]*F; 4K**F; (404K*+*F); \€+$ 5$*", (‚­@"); mail protected]2" [!$"*34*F 23$22+S \0+¯2 Y

yet adv

[jet]

Z` ( ! 3. ! .); "\ ( ! . ! .)

174

(K+$+0 $‚S@) ¬5, *¯+ @; ($€4"+ $‚S@) ¬@1]2

References 1. 2#-4"$$!3S $4F **3$!3A *432 !$mail protected] '.. 3 @4. 2- 3$422 3 @222 [email protected]23. $!: , 1994 #. **3$!3S 2$*3*"* 3. .. *! $$3S$!S !@33 "!. 2. F]S 2#-4"$$!3S $4F  @"A *A / '@ KZ3 4"!@$* @!*4 B3#3$!3A 2"!, 4B$$4 .. °F432 [email protected]23 2- $*4*32. – .:  , 1977 #. 3. F]S 2#-4"$$!3S $4F  @"A *A "!@3*3 *4$!# !!*3 &.. *%4 3 (.. "0F32 / $*3*3: .. 432, .. 4!$!3S, .. @334 3 @4. – .:  , 1991. 4. Oxford Dictionary of Computing for Learners of English Edited by Sandra Pyne and Allene Tuck Phonetics Editor Mickeal Ashby Oxford University Press, 1996 ISBN 0 19 4314413 5. Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language Portland House New York, 1989. 6. 2#-4"$$!3S $4F / $*3*3: .. 4!32, .. +#@$!%, . . F32 [email protected]23 11-, 3$422 3 @222. – $!:  , 1980. 7. "$$!-2#3S$!3S $4F 2"2-*A23$!3S !$3!3 /$$*3*F .. "02E $!$!% \@"24@2% É! '4@3! $! 1992 #. 8. 422+S 2#-4"$$!3S $4F  +3$3*F2S *A23! 688 $*p. / $$*3*F . 4. – $!: -, 1998. 9. "$$!-2#3S$!3S A33!-3*A23$!3S $4F .. [A[ 3- [email protected]23. $!: "!-S3, 1993. 10. Aaron Staley, Computer Engineering Major http://computingcareers.acm.org/?page_id=1, http://www.linkedin.com/pub/aaron-staley/4/253/ba4

11. Jeff Offutt, Professor of Software Engineering, Mailstop 4A5, Volgenau School of Info Tech & Engineering George Mason University https://www.google.kz/search?q=2.+Jeff+Offutt%2C+Professor+of+Software+Engineering %2C+Mailstop+ 4A5%2C+Volgenau+School+of+Info+Tech+%26+Engineering+George+Mason+University&oq=2.+Jeff+O ffutt%2C+Professor+of+Software+Engineering%2C+Mailstop+4A5%2C+Volgenau+School+of+Info+Tech +%26+Engineering+George+Mason+University&aqs=chrome.0.57.3140j0&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8

12. "$$!-!0A$!3S $4F @. !#3%: S*KS"+ ., [email protected]A2 . 3 @4. – *+: [email protected] “4+$”, 2007.

CONTENTS Part I Lesson I. The Purpose of a Computer ............................................................................................. 3 Lesson II The Raw Material ........................................................................................................... 5 Lesson III The Product ................................................................................................................... 7 Lesson IV The Device; Distinguishing Features ........................................................................... 9 Lesson V Instructions ..................................................................................................................... 11 Lesson VI Hardware ...................................................................................................................... 13 Lesson VII The Power and Speed of a Computer .......................................................................... 16 Lesson VIII Types of Computers .................................................................................................... 18 Lesson IX Analog Computers ......................................................................................................... 20 Lesson X Prossessing – Programs ................................................................................................. 22 Lesson XI Computer's Processor ................................................................................................... 24 Lesson XII Software ...................................................................................................................... 26 Lesson XIII Languages .................................................................................................................. 28 Lesson XIV People ........................................................................................................................ 29 Lesson XV The Future ................................................................................................................... 32 Part II Supplementary Reading ................................................................................................................. 33 Part III     --      .............................. 97 Grammar references ........................................................................................................................ 101 Additional Materials ...................................................................................................................... 143 Part IV Vocabulary ..................................................................................................................................... 150

           Апекова    н Луговская        INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTING

    

        !   " "   -""  # $""   : %. &  , '.          %. (    !  " . )     6846 #     16.06.2014. $ 70100 1/16. #  % &. ()  14,4 .. * " 100 +.   «?@     i»  %       . -$ . 050040, . B, . -$ , 71. E. (    &

  «?@     i».

ɉɊȾɗɁ ɆɉɄȿɄ ɄɃɀȼɎɁɇɘɍɎȾȼ «ԒȼɃȼԒ ɏɉɄȾɁɌɍɄɎɁɎȳ» Ɏɯɩɟɜɮɜɬɪɞ ȼ. ɀɤɰɰɡɬɡɩɲɤɜɧɸɩɷɡ ɯɬɜɞɩɡɩɤɻ ɭ ɫɡɬɡɨɡɩɩɷɨɤ ɦɪɹɰɰɤɲɤɡɩɮɜɨɤ: ɯɳɡɝɩɪɡ ɫɪɭɪɝɤɡ. – 2014. – 100 ɭ. ISBN 978-601-04-0330-7 Ⱦ ɫɪɭɪɝɤɤ ɫɪɭɮɬɪɡɩɷ ɞ ɻɞɩɪɨ ɞɤɠɡ ɪɝɵɤɡ ɬɡɴɡɩɤɻ ɧɤɩɡɥɩɷɱ ɪɝɷɦɩɪɞɡɩɩɷɱ ɠɤɰɰɡɬɡɩɲɤɜɧɸɩɷɱ ɯɬɜɞɩɡɩɤɥ n-ɟɪ ɫɪɬɻɠɦɜ ɤ ɧɤɩɡɥɩɷɱ ɭɤɭɮɡɨ ɪɝɷɦɩɪɞɡɩɩɷɱ ɠɤɰɰɡɬɡɩɲɤɜɧɸɩɷɱ ɯɬɜɞɩɡɩɤɥ ɫɡɬɞɪɟɪ ɫɪɬɻɠɦɜ ɭ ɫɡɬɡɨɡɩɩɷɨɤ ɦɪɹɰɰɤɲɤɡɩɮɜɨɤ. ɀɧɻ ɮɜɦɤɱ ɯɬɜɞɩɡɩɤɥ ɬɡɴɡɩɷ ɣɜɠɜɳɤ Ɇɪɴɤ. ɀɪɦɜɣɜɩɷ ɮɡɪɬɡɨɷ ɋɡɜɩɪ ɪ ɭɯɵɡɭɮɞɪɞɜɩɤɤ ɩɡɫɬɡɬɷɞɩɷɱ ɬɡɴɡɩɤɥ ɩɡɦɪɮɪɬɷɱ ɭɤɭɮɡɨ ɩɡɧɤɩɡɥɩɷɱ ɠɤɰɰɡɬɡɩɲɤɜɧɸɩɷɱ ɯɬɜɞɩɡɩɤɥ ɫɡɬɞɪɟɪ ɤ ɩɡɧɤɩɡɥɩɷɱ ɠɤɰɰɡɬɡɩɲɤɜɧɸɩɷɱ ɯɬɜɞɩɡɩɤɥ ɞɮɪɬɪɟɪ ɫɪɬɻɠɦɪɞ. Ɇɩɤɟɜ ɫɬɡɠɩɜɣɩɜɳɡɩɜ ɠɧɻ ɭɮɯɠɡɩɮɪɞ, ɨɜɟɤɭɮɬɜɩɮɪɞ ɤ ɠɪɦɮɪɬɜɩɮɪɞ Ph.D ɭɫɡɲɤɜɧɸɩɪɭɮɤ «Ɉɜɮɡɨɜɮɤɦɜ», ɜ ɮɜɦɢɡ ɠɧɻ ɭɫɡɲɤɜɧɤɭɮɪɞ ɞ ɬɜɣɧɤɳɩɷɱ ɪɝɧɜɭɮɻɱ ɡɭɮɡɭɮɞɪɣɩɜɩɤɻ ɤ ɮɡɱɩɤɦɤ. Ɏɡɨɤɬɝɪɧɜɮ ɍ.Ɂ. Ɉɡɮɪɠ ɬɡɠɯɦɲɤɤ ɤɭɭɧɡɠɪɞɜɩɤɻ ɦɬɜɡɞɷɱ ɣɜɠɜɳ ɠɧɻ ɠɤɰɰɡɬɡɩɲɤɜɧɸɩɷɱ ɯɬɜɞɩɡɩɤɥ: ɯɳɡɝɩɪ-ɨɡɮɪɠɤɳɡɭɦɪɡ ɫɪɭɪɝɤɡ. – ȼɧɨɜɮɷ: Ԓɜɣɜԓ ɯɩɤɞɡɬɭɤɮɡɮʁ, 2013. – 51 ɭ. ISBN 978-601-04-0235-5 Ⱦ ɯɳɡɝɩɪ-ɨɡɮɪɠɤɳɡɭɦɪɨ ɫɪɭɪɝɤɤ ɤɣɧɪɢɡɩɜ ɨɡɮɪɠɤɦɜ ɤɭɭɧɡɠɪɞɜɩɤɻ ɦɬɜɡɞɷɱ ɣɜɠɜɳ ɠɧɻ ɠɤɰɰɡɬɡɩɲɤɜɧɸɩɷɱ ɯɬɜɞɩɡɩɤɥ ɭ ɫɪɭɮɪɻɩɩɷɨɤ ɦɪɹɰɰɤɲɤɡɩɮɜɨɤ ɬɜɣɧɤɳɩɷɱ ɮɤɫɪɞ. Ɉɡɮɪɠɤɦɜ ɪɭɩɪɞɜɩɜ ɩɜ ɤɩɮɡɟɬɜɧɸɩɷɡ ɫɬɡɪɝɬɜɣɪɞɜɩɤɻ ɇɜɫɧɜɭɜ-ɐɯɬɸɡ ɤ ɩɜ ɩɡɦɧɜɭɭɤɳɡɭɦɤɡ ɬɡɴɡɩɤɻ ɞɷɬɪɢɠɡɩɩɷɱ ɭɤɭɮɡɨ ɧɤɩɡɥɩɷɱ ɜɧɟɡɝɬɜɤɳɡɭɦɤɱ ɯɬɜɞɩɡɩɤɥ. ɍ ɡɡ ɫɪɨɪɵɸɺ ɨɪɢɩɪ ɬɡɴɜɮɸ ɣɜɠɜɳɤ ɞ ɧɺɝɪɥ ɬɜɣɯɨɩɪɥ ɫɪɭɮɜɩɪɞɦɡ, ɩɪ ɪɭɩɪɞɩɜɻ ɲɡɧɸ ɬɜɝɪɮɷ – ɬɡɴɡɩɤɡ ɣɜɠɜɳɤ, ɦɪɟɠɜ ɩɜɬɯɴɜɡɮɭɻ ɪɠɩɪɣɩɜɳɩɜɻ ɬɜɣɬɡɴɤɨɪɭɮɸ. Ɍɜɭɭɨɪɮɬɡɩɷ ɫɬɤɨɡɬɷ ɣɜɠɜɳ, ɬɡɜɧɤɣɤɬɯɺɵɤɡ ɪɭɩɪɞɩɷɡ ɨɪɨɡɩɮɷ ɨɡɮɪɠɜ. ɋɬɡɠɩɜɣɩɜɳɡɩɪ ɠɧɻ ɝɜɦɜɧɜɞɬɪɞ ɤ ɨɜɟɤɭɮɬɪɞ, ɭɫɡɲɤɜɧɤɣɤɬɯɺɵɤɱɭɻ ɫɪ ɠɤɰɰɡɬɡɩɲɤɜɧɸɩɷɨ ɯɬɜɞɩɡɩɤɻɨ ɤ ɨɜɮɡɨɜɮɤɳɡɭɦɪɥ ɰɤɣɤɦɡ. Ɋɩɪ ɨɪɢɡɮ ɝɷɮɸ ɤɭɫɪɧɸɣɪɞɜɩɪ ɠɧɻ ɳɮɡɩɤɻ ɭɫɡɲɦɯɬɭɪɞ ɫɪ ɩɡɦɪɬɬɡɦɮɩɷɨ ɣɜɠɜɳɜɨ. Ɇɪɨɜɬɪɞ ȼ.ȼ. Ɏɡɬɨɪɠɤɩɜɨɤɦɜ ɤ ɭɮɜɮɤɭɮɤɳɡɭɦɜɻ ɰɤɣɤɦɜ: Ɍɯɦɪɞɪɠɭɮɞɪ ɦ ɬɡɴɡɩɤɺ ɣɜɠɜɳ. ɓ. 1: ɯɳɡɝɩɪɡ ɫɪɭɪɝɤɡ. – 2-ɡ ɤɣɠ., ɤɭɫɬɜɞɧ. ɤ ɠɪɫɪɧɩ. – 2013. – 110 ɭ. ISBN 978-601-247-536-4

ɏɳɡɝɩɪɡ ɫɪɭɪɝɤɡ ɫɪɠɟɪɮɪɞɧɡɩɪ ɫɪ ɝɜɣɪɞɪɥ ɠɤɭɲɤɫɧɤɩɡ «Ɏɡɬɨɪɠɤɩɜɨɤɦɜ ɤ ɭɮɜɮɤɭɮɤɳɡɭɦɜɻ ɰɤɣɤɦɜ» ɤ ɭɪɪɮɞɡɮɭɮɞɯɡɮ ɮɬɡɝɪɞɜɩɤɻɨ ɟɪɭɯɠɜɬɭɮɞɡɩɩɪɟɪ ɪɝɵɡɪɝɻɣɜɮɡɧɸɩɪɟɪ ɭɮɜɩɠɜɬɮɜ ɪɝɬɜɣɪɞɜɩɤɻ Ɍɡɭɫɯɝɧɤɦɤ Ɇɜɣɜɱɭɮɜɩ ɫɪ ɭɫɡɲɤɜɧɸɩɪɭɮɻɨ «050604 – ɰɤɣɤɦɜ», «050605 – ɻɠɡɬɩɜɻ ɰɤɣɤɦɜ». ɂɜɯɮɤɦɝɜɡɞɜ ȼ.ȼ. ɤ ɠɬ. Learn to read newspapers: ɨɡɮɪɠɤɳɡɭɦɜɻ ɬɜɣɬɜɝɪɮɦɜ ɠɧɻ ɭɮɯɠɡɩɮɪɞ ɰɤɣɤɦɪ-ɮɡɱɩɤɳɡɭɦɪɟɪ ɰɜɦɯɧɸɮɡɮɜ ɫɪ ɭɫɡɲɤɜɧɸɩɪɭɮɤ «ɛɠɡɬɩɜɻ ɰɤɣɤɦɜ» - 2013. – 122 ɭ. ISBN 978–601–04–0011–5 ɋɪɭɪɝɤɡ «Learn to read newspapers» ɭɪɭɮɪɤɮ ɤɣ 8 ɯɬɪɦɪɞ, ɞɦɧɺɳɜɺɵɤɱ ɧɡɦɭɤɦɯ ɯɬɪɦɜ, ɞɞɪɠɩɷɡ ɤ ɮɬɡɩɤɬɪɞɪɳɩɷɡ ɯɫɬɜɢɩɡɩɤɻ, ɮɡɦɭɮɷ. Ɋɱɞɜɮɷɞɜɡɮ ɫɡɬɡɞɪɠ ɟɜɣɡɮɩɷɱ ɮɡɦɭɮɪɞ, ɫɯɝɧɤɲɤɭɮɤɳɡɭɦɤɱ ɮɡɦɭɮɪɞ, ɞɷɭɮɯɫɧɡɩɤɥ ɤ ɣɜɻɞɧɡɩɤɥ (media texts) ɭ ɬɜɭɫɬɪɭɮɬɜɩɡɩɩɪɥ ɮɡɨɜɮɤɦɪɥ: ɫɪɧɤɮɤɳɡɭɦɤɡ ɭɤɭɮɡɨɷ, ɞɤɣɤɮɷ, ɞɭɮɬɡɳɤ, ɫɡɬɡɟɪɞɪɬɷ, ɠɪɟɪɞɪɬɷ (political-andsocial texts), ɱɜɬɜɦɮɡɬɤɣɯɺɵɤɡɭɻ ɪɫɬɡɠɡɧɡɩɩɪɥ ɤɠɡɪɧɪɟɤɳɡɭɦɪɥ, ɫɬɪɫɜɟɜɩɠɤɭɮɭɦɪɥ ɤ ɤɩɰɪɬɨɜɲɤɪɩɩɪɥ ɩɜɫɬɜɞɧɡɩɩɪɭɮɸɺ. Ɇʁɮɜɫɮɜɬɠɷ ɭɜɮɷɫ ɜɧɯ ԗɴʁɩ «Ԓɜɣɜԓ ɯɩɤɞɡɬɭɤɮɡɮʁ» ɝɜɭɫɜɭɷɩɷԕ ɭɜɮɯ ɝԟɧʁɨʁɩɡ ɱɜɝɜɬɧɜɭɯ cɜɥɮ: ɦɡɬɡɦ. Ƚɜɥɧɜɩɷɭ ɮɡɧ: 8 (727) 377-34-11, 328-56-51. E-mail: [email protected], www.read.kz, www.magkaznu.com