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INTERPRETING THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL THROUGH PARENT MEETINGS
A Project Presented to The Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California
5jC 5|c «j( is|c Jijt 3$Cjjc
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education
by John Lindsey Miles August 1950
UMI Number: EP46475
All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.
UMI EP46475 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106-1346
TAjj project report, w ritte n under the direction o f the candidate's adviser and ap p ro ved by him , has been presented to and'accepted by the F a c u lty o f the S chool of E d u catio n in p a r t ia l f u lf illm e n t of the requirements f o r the degree
of M a s t e r of
Science in E ducation.
A d v is e r
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I ORGANIZATION OF PARENT MEETING PROGRAMS CHAPTER I.
INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM .........
. . . . .
Importance of the project ...................
Need for parent education
Description of school and community . . . . .
Achievements of previous y e a r ...............
Procedures used in this p r o j e c t .............
Plan of chapter presentation
SIGNIFICANT PARENT-EDUCATION AGENCIES ......... Parent-teacher association
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . .
. . . . .
S u m m a r y .......... III.
STAFF PREPARATION FOR?PARENT MEETINGS ......... Principal’s responsibilities ,. „. Teacher "responsibilities
Parent-teacher association responsibilities . IV.
ORGANIZATION AND TENTATIVE PLAN FOR MEETINGS.
19 19 23 26 29 *
Overview of meetings. -........................
Suggested meeting plans .............
. . . .
Third and succeeding meetings . . . . . . .
First meeting . . . . . Second meeting
PAGE Further organization .....................
PART II CURRICULUM OF PARENT MEETING PROGRAMS I.
GENERAL CONTROL AND DISCIPLINE A philosophy of control. . . . . .
Notes on daily control . . . . . . . . . . . .
Suggested classroom control at primary level .
Conclu s i o n...........................
OUTLINE FOR R E A D I N G ............
First grade l e v e l ............
Second and third grade levels Upper grades
. . . . . . . .
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . III.
OUTLINE FOR LANGUAGE ARTS, WRITING, AND SPELLING
Kindergarten, first, and second grade levels .
Handwriting, grades one and two..........
Handwriting, grades three and four . . . . . .
Handwriting, upper grades................
Upper grade creative writing .................
Spelling, first and second grades
Spelling, third through sixth grades .........
ARITHMETIC AT ALL L E V E L S ....................... General o b j e c t i v e s ..........
PAGE Immediate objectives andprocedures . . . . .
OUTLINE FOR SOCIAL S T U D I E S ....................
Kindergarten l e v e l ................
First and second grade level
. . . . . . . .
Third grade l e v e l ............................
Fourth grade level
Fifth grade l e v e l .......................
Sixth grade level . ' . . . ...................
Conclusions . . . . .
. . . . .
HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION General objectives
SUMMARY AND C O N C L USIONS ........................
Immediate objectives VII.
B I B L I O G R A P H Y ...........................................
PART I. THE ORGANIZATION OF PARENT MEETING PROGRAMS
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO PROBLEM The explanation and interpretation of the school to the parent offers one primary foundation for parent judgement of the worth of a school system, its curriculum, and its person nel.
Planning an organized pattern for a parent education
program in a small urban elementary school is, therefore, a problem of great importance. I.
IMPORTANCE OP THE PROJECT
The purpose of this project was to furnish a framework for a parent education program upon which the principal, the teachers, and the parents might base a year’s activities fur thering mutual understanding.
A parent education program at
the elementary level may encompass many facets of the total educational picture.
It would be impossible to cover these
subjects completely, and in all detail, in a project, a book, or even in a volume of books.
The study was designed, there
fore, to give a general overview of the organization, the ad ministration, and the supervision of such a program, and to ♦
present a concrete plan of curriculum material to be inter preted to the parents of the school. Each chapter is designed with the ultimate outcome of closer parent-teacher cooperation in mind.
of the parent meeting program has been suggested by teachers and administrators dealing with the problems of parent-teacher relationships in the elementary field.
The alert administrator
and teacher will add many more suggestions of methods to better adjust the program to local community needs.
As the program
progresses through the school year, the solutions to questions and problems arising from interested parents will be considered in the evaluation stages of each meeting. The study is based on interviews with several interested elementary principals and teachers, where parent education programs have been successfully conducted.
By careful ques
tioning, suggestions were received from them as to their methods of handling problems arising from their experience with pro grams . II.
NEED FOR PARENT EDUCATION
In all school situations studied, there was found to be a great need for parent education in interpreting the objectives and methods of the schools.
At the present time, there
has been noticable agitation on the part of certain citizen's committees formed ostensibly to bring about better education for the children in the public school system.
"progressive education" have been hurled at school adminis trators whenever some minor indiscretion occurs in the class room.
It has been felt by the author, that there is a greater need for an understanding of the goals of our present forms of public school education, rather than the deletion of major areas of the present curriculum.
It has been suggested, that
these deletions be brought about "without the benefit of in vestigation or careful inquiry.
Through a program as suggest
ed in this project, parents may present any improvements, if in their opinion the schools do not seem to satisfy the educa tional needs of their children and the community. One of the finest methods of improving public school and community relationships, both at present and for the future, is the parent education program. out to see the schools.
It would bring the parents
Without visiting schools, parents
would be somewhat unjustified in criticising aspects of the school program unfamiliar to them.
In many elementary school
situations, some of the most severe critics are those parents who have not taken the time to become acquainted with the school of their community.
Many critics have not even been
inside a school building since their own graduation from highschool. This project suggests definite and practical techniques whereby an elementary school may arrange such a program of school interpretation.
DESCRIPTION OF SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY
Like so many of our California elementary schools, the school discussed in this project is located in an area whose growth was stimulated primarily by war plant production, and the attending population increase caused by the recent con flict.
The community is a section of one of the incorporated
communities surrounding metropolitan Los Angeles. The population of the community was estimated at 15,000 people in 19kO, and at the recent census of 1950, was found to approximate 93»000 inhabitants, a growth of nearly 500 per cent. The school is located in a large housing development comprising nearly one thousand individual residences.
homes have been purchased mostly through the aid of Federal Government financing as a great number of veterans and their families reside there.
Most of the families are still in the
process of buying their homes.
Approximately 85 per cent of
the homes have children of elementary-school age. There are no social institutions, i.e. churches, parks, recreation or community centers, other than the school itself, located within •the development.
An adult sponsored youth
organization is being planned, however.
Eighteen civic minded
parents have gone through incorporation proceedings and are going to construct a large recreation building on one corner
of the school property.
A fund raising program is in progress,
and money has been collected.
Building plans have been drawn,
approved, and are going to be presented to the Board of Educa tion very soon. Marketing and shopping facilities are available within walking distance, and the development is but ten minutes by bus or automobile from the downtown section of the local com munity. The school first opened in February of 191+9.
of 1950, the enrollment was five hundred twenty-five pupils, with approximately seven hundred children expected in Septem ber of 1950. The average intelligence quotient runs relatively high, with only fifteen children ranging from eighty to ninety. There are no special training classes or development rooms. The school does not feel the need of a special speech correc tion teacher.
A regular playground period is conducted each
afternoon after school. The school plant is of the double bungalow type, each *
unit comprising two classrooms.
The buildings themselves are
of' California stucco, with semi-permanent foundations.
rooms feature bi-lateral lighting, forced air individual heat ing units, stainless steel sinks in each room, asphalt tile flooring, acoustic board ceilings, and are completely furnish ed with modern, functional tables and chairs.
Each room is
fortunate enough to have adequate storage space, with rollaway bins for tools, supplies, and materials.
tive unit is very inadequate however, and general storage space throughout the school for necessary supplies is woefully lacking. The playground area is completely fenced, but only par tially equipped.
Many types of apparatus are to be installed
during the coming year..
The total school plan comprises one
normal city block in area. The patrons and parents of the school might beconsid ered to be of the middle class socio-economic status.
businesses of their own.
within the development.
Very few professional people
As all homes are new, most of the
families are encumbered by home purchase payments.
cent of the people are of Jewish faith, with one or two Span ish and Japanese families represented there. The majority of the people are employed by the local aircraft industry, which is only from four to six miles dis tant. IV.
ACHIEVEMENTS OF PREVIOUS YEAR
The school had been in operation for the last five months of the 19*+8—*f9 school year, and for ten school months of the 19^9-50 school year.
This period was one of general school
organization, and time was not available for any concentrated
planning of a parent education program.
The regular Parent
Teacher Association program continued, however, and any inter pretation of the school system was supplemented by discussions led by educational and professional leaders in the school system.
^ In order to have a substantial background for beginning
a program of the parent-meeting type, it was felt by the school administration and staff that a sound foundation of profession al advice and leadership was needed.
Frank discussions pre
sented by experts in the education field would establish rapport with the parents of the community by showing that the administrative heads of the school system were vitally inter ested in their children, their community, and their new school. Such discussion also brought respect to the school for the selection of the outstanding leaders who spoke to the parent groups. Several leaders were invited as guest speakers, to ex plain the curriculum, its objectives, and methods and proce dures of stimulating the mental, physical, and moral growth of children.
A member of the school business division came to
discuss the basic educational reasons for the types of con struction found in the schools, the reasons for the particular kinds of materials and supplies placed there, and to account for the financial obligations incurred in the construction of the new school.
The administrative head of the school health
program discussed the role that good health and good health habits play in aiding the child in better and faster learning. The superintendent in charge of curriculum construction for the entire elementary system discussed a general overview of child growth and development.
This meeting was followed by two
supervisors of curriculum who discussed in more detail, the lower and upper grade curriculum as it is experienced by child ren.
Finally, a specialist in mental hygiene from a local
university conducted two meetings, at one of which the film "Human Growth" was presented. These were all night meetings held throughout the school year.
Great interest in these meetings was evidenced by the
With this as a groundwork for our parent
meetings proposed for the coming year, the following chapters will discuss plans for twelve meetings tentatively scheduled. V.
PROCEDURES USED IN PROJECT
A great deal of the information secured for the project was the outgrowth of a teachers* workshop at the Strathern Street Elementary School, of the Los Angeles Elementary School District.
It was decided that an interpretation of six dif
ferent curriculum areas be prepared, i.e., Discipline and Control, Reading, the Social Studies, Arithmetic, Language Arts, and a combination of Health and Physical Education. the future, study of the areas of Safety, Fire Prevention,
Science, Music, and Art would tie considered.
Much of the in
formation .was suggested by other principals in whose schools successful parent education meetings have been conducted. After a great deal of discussion regarding several plans, interpretation through parent-meeting techniques was thought to be the most satisfactory method of presenting material. It was a functional method, practical, did not require a great deal of time for preparation on the part of busy principals and teachers, and solved the problem of explaining the work of the sehool to the parents most effectively. During the planning or workshop periods at Strathern School, teachers set up those standards for the curriculum thought to be the most comprehensive and vital for each parent to understand.
Each teacher is to have a mimeographed copy of
the outcomes as selected by the workshop group. An evaluation period is planned for the conclusion of each meeting by the school staff.
In this way it is hoped
that the program may be improved in succeeding years.
by the parents are especially to be invited, so as to further the goal of more complete cooperation between the home and the school. VI.
PLAN OF CHAPTER PRESENTATION
This project is presented in two parts.
Part One dis
cusses the organization of the parent meeting program, while
10 Part Two deals with the material to be presented to the par ents.
Chapter II will discuss the important organizations
having as their impetus for existence the welding together of better relations between the home and the school. A program of staff preparation will be presented in the third chapter, which deals with the responsibilities of the principal, the teacher, and the Parent-Teacher Association, Following this, is a tentative plan for twelve meetings to be conducted during the year.
This will conclude the first
part of the project. The second part of the project emphasises the content to be presented during these meetings.
The chapters divide
the information into six groups, suggested by the use of two meeting periods to a topic, and are outlined as follows: Chapter I
A Philosophy ofDiscipline
Language Arts, (Creative writing and Spelling)
Health and PhysicalEducation
Each chapter has been further subdivided into the var ious grade levels suggested for proper and efficient discussion Several curriculum areas have been left to be covered in future
These include Art, Music, Science, Safety, and
They are not included in the suggested out
line. It is assumed that the curriculum suggested and present ed will serve as a guide only, for the stimulation of thought requires a consideration of the needs and problems relative to the local situation.
SIGNIFICANT PARENT-EDUCATION AGENCIES A definite need for aiding parents to work cooperatively with teachers has been shown by the formation of several na tional organizations.
Many of these organizations have as a
primary aim the improvement of parent relations through parent education and interpretation of the schools.
deals with the discriptions of these agencies. I.
An organization first known as a ’Mother’s Congress' was begun in Washington, D. C . , in 1897.
After a great in
crease in membership and a broadening of the scope of its pro gram, the name of the original organization was changed to the National Congress of Parents and Teachers.
This name was
adopted in 192**, and gives an indication of the purposes for which the work was undertaken. By 19^0, the membership had increased to over two hun dred thousand members.
The membership now approximates three
million people. The importance of integration in the school program be tween the home and the school led to the formation of this association.
A great need for understanding between these two
great social and educational forces was apparent.
13 The primary objective of the organization as given in its creed is "to interest all people in all children, and to link in common purpose the home, the school, and all other educative forces in the life of the child, to work for his highest good."^The democratic ideal of public education implies that citizens have the responsibility not only to finance the pub lic schools, but to participate in determining their education al goals and objectives.
In order to determine such goals,
citizens must have considerable understanding and knowledge of school procedure.
The Parent-Teacher Association through
its parent education program stimulates the growth of this understanding. The function of the Parent-Teacher Association has been termed unique from functions of other organizations in at least five different ways:
(1) In the distribution of its
membership, It is as democratic as the public schools— it re cognizes no class, property, political tenet nor creed.
geography of membership, it extends from densely populated metropolitan sections to the most remote rural communities-from one end of the land to the other.
(3) It is the only
organization, so far as is known, in which teachers have joint
^National Congress of Parents and Teachers, The Parent Teacher Organization. Its Origins and Development (Chicago: National Congress of Parents and Teachers, 19^4-), pp. SS-S1*.
1*+ partnership with parents, shown specifically by the name of the organization.
(*+) It is the only such organization of
both parents and teachers in which the main object of service iS the child, this forming a kind of inclusive triangle. (5) It is the only large national organization of lay men and women which throughout the country regularly holds its meetings 2 in the schools. The goals of the Parent Teachers Association organiza tion further stipulate that it is the desire to have "every child in America know that he belongs to America; that he is a citizen sharing the duties as well as the rights of democracy."3 It seems appropriate to list and explain a few of the many areas of Parent-Teacher Association interest and study. Naturally one of their chief purposes is the improvement of home and school relations.
It is quite apparent that mutual
interpretation of the school and the home is badly needed. The Parent Teacher Association also exercises great leadership in curriculum evaluation and study.
They are constantly shar
ing with the professional school authorities in the develop ment of the ciourses of study that the children of the community are going to follow. Service to the exceptional child and to the handicapped
2 Ibid.. p. 8*f. 3Ibid.. p. 23.
15 child is another area of Parent Teacher investigation.
maintain a national standing committee for this phase of their activity. We are all aware of the Parent Teacher’s lobby in Con gress and in our state and local legislative bodies.
lobbies are constantly striving toward more protection for children and youth, and have placed great emphasis on bringing about enactment of child labor legislation. Few people are unaware of the fine program of health advocated by the Parent Teacher Association.
In almost all
states, regular medical and dental examinations are being given children, and in a few states mass tuberculosis examin ations have been conducted under the auspices of the Parent Teacher Association.
The Summer Health Round-Up of Children,
and the immunization of children against communicable diseases, have long been active interests of the Parent-Teacher Associa tion. Studies of housing and proper sanitation, and the im provement or recommendation for plans to change poor city and county health systems, are always in the process of Parent Teacher investigation. Service and recreational programs, the improvement of living conditions, and the pressing of improved economic status for all people, concern the PTA.
16 Finally, parent education, the compilation and the dis tribution of information furthering physical, mental, and spiritual development of children is planned by PTA organiza tions.
As Edgar Dale suggested,
Parenthood nowadays is approaching the status of a profession; for which professional training is needed. Moreover, it has become apparent that this training needs to, be integrated with current national and world issues. Such an'integrated program is attempted through the PTA. The Parent Teacher Association concerns itself also with citizen education, with the family, and between the fam ily and the school to make every child really experience dem ocratic living.
It is hoped that by this ground work, the
child may have had a guide to democratic living upon reaching his majority. These relate but a few of the areas in which the Parent Teacher Association has programs of continuous development, where the chief concern has been parent education. II.
The Child Study Association of America has been active in the field of parent education for fifty-eight years.
group of mothers went to Felix Adler, founder of the Ethical ^Ibid., p. 17.
17 Culture Society, seeking advice about bringing up their child- ‘ ren.
Prom this small beginning, the organization grew to the
Child Study Association of America.'*
It publishes pamphlets,
bibliographies, and lectures relating to the improvement of parent, child, and home relationships.
The journal "Child £ Study" is the monthly publication of the organization. Government agencies such as the United States Office of Education publish information directly concerned with par ent education.
The Department of Agriculture, and the Depart
ment of the Interior also have continuous investigations into the possibilities of parent education. The National Society for the Study of Education was originally organized as the Herbart Society.
The object of
the society, as stated in its constitution, was "to contem plate a serious, continuous, and intensive study of educa tional problems.
It stands for no creed or propaganda.
aim, and spirit and method it seeks to be scientific."'
ent education has been the subject of several studies considered ^Ernest Osborne, "Modern Parents Go To School", Survey April, 1950, pp. 190-193. ^Sidonie M. Gruenberg, "Program of the Child Study Asso ciation of America," Parent Education. The First Yearbook, (Washington, D.C.; National Congress of Parents and Teachers, 1930), pp. 1-35. ?First Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part I, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1902), P. 73.
18 by this learned organization The National Council of Parent Education has given sup port for those states and localities desiring programs of parent education.
More than sixty organizations have a mem
bership in the council,
"Parent Education*' is the publication
of the council,■ III.
This chapter has shown the leading agencies which have been organized to bring about better cooperation between home and school.
The work of the National Congress of Parents and
Teachers has been outlined rather completely as it was felt that the work of this organization is outstanding in this field.
Their attempts to bring about a clear understanding
of American ideals, democratic living, and the full realiza tion of the worth of the individual in the American way of life, have brought about examples of fine leadership worthy of continued study and investigation.
Ellen C. Lombard, "Parent Education Opportunities," Bulletin No. 3, (Washington, D.C.: United States Office of Education, 1935), p. 1-35.
STAFF PREPARATION FOR PARENT MEETINGS This chapter is developed in three parts.
deals with the main objective, that of planning for the ma terial to be presented to the parents, the scheduling of avail able time periods, and providing facilities most satisfactor ily.
The responsibilities of the principal and the teachers
as members of the school staff, are presented in conjunction •with the Parent Teacher Association responsibilities. I.
One of the beginning responsibilities of the principal is to present the overall plan to the administrative super iors of the school system.
This seldom offers any problem
regarding acceptance of the program, as any normal means by which the school program may be brought before the public, is usually greeted approvingly.
The presentation and acceptance
by those of higher authority usually gives the staff the psychological effect of approval and backing.
If the program
is successful, all will gain professional recognition. The second item of importance, basic to the responsibil ities of the principal, deals with setting up the scheduling program so as to best use the existing facilities offered in the local school plant.
Provision for custodial service, the
'20 opening and closing of the school property, the necessary move ments of furniture, the erection of certain audio-visual aids, and the provision for normal property protection, are all the responsibility of the principal. The preparation of the master plan of room presentation is to he considered, as all rooms would not truly represent the curriculum area under discussion.
The preparation of the
meeting dates and the time of each meeting would he a serious consideration by the principal.
The recommendations of the
faculty might here he considered. The administrative policy of the school and the system should be available for use as reference.
For example, this
should request that parents make appointments to discuss their child’s problems with the teacher or principal.
ments should be made outside of school hours if possible.
should be a period when no interruption would be necessary, as might be found in school time.
Any administrative policies
regarding discipline, the stand on corporal punishment, school rules, and board of education regulations, should clearly be the concern of the principal. A great many publications should be placed at the dis posal of the Parent Teacher Association librarian, so that she might check out particular titles to interested parents.
publications should be presented at the evening meetings. Copies of local courses of study, source books of materials
21 for instruction, and other district publications would be of great value in a further interpretation of the program.
gested reading might be compiled for those parents wishing to further investigate certain areas on their own. A frank discussion of the philosophy of education attempt ed to be carried on by the school, should be prepared by the principal for reference.
As the administrative and supervisory
head of the school, the principal should have a complete know ledge of the needs of the average child in the community. Certain methods and procedures of instruction used in the classroom should be investigated by the principal and the staff for a determination of their effectiveness and education al worth.
An explanation by the principal should be available
at all times concerning those methods and procedures used. This would include a review of the current literature and ed ucational thought on procedure, classroom techniques, and general methods, prepared by the principal for the teachers. Finally, the principal should be able to give definite examples of how the needs of children are approached and met through the present curriculum of the school.
This might be
shown most easily by a bulletin board presentation of topics to be discussed throughout the parent meeting program.
discussion would be stimulated by this presentation. As a further responsibility, the principal should initi ate an evaluation program.
This would make it possible for the
22 parents to criticise the curriculum or teaching methods, and suggest improvement in the criticised areas.
criticisms should be prepared and directed to the proper admin istrative authorities for action.
A report to the parents
should be made immediately concerning this action. This evaluation plan might take the form of a check list sent to parents for them to recommend areas in which un derstanding of curriculum or child growth is still needed. Further advice might come from teachers, suggesting areas of the program not sufficiently covered during the meetings.
areas of the overall planning, corrections of time allowance, and the need of more varied materials, might be discussed. There might be many other miscellaneous and detailed responsibilities of the principal.
The delegation of respon
sibility might be one of the most difficult items to consider. Should the staff decide to make use of a parent questionnaire to find what parents expect of schools, the preparation of the plans for giving this parent survey and the securing of copies would be the responsibility of the principal. The delegation of responsibility for the preparation of certain visual aids materials, charts, collections of pupil papers, presentation of representative texts in current use, and the ability to explain a segment of a total reading program, should reading be the topic of discussion, might also fall on
23 the shoulders of the principal.
The preparation of certain
school rules regarding discipline, conduct, and punishment should be the concern of the principal, although the entire .staff should be concerned with their preparation and enforce ment. In conclusion, the principal should prepare an explan ation of the released time program of the school, the after school playground program, and any other group activities carried on at the school.
These might include the Cub Scouts,
the Brownies, the Blue Birds, or the ’ Girl Reserve programs. II.
'TEACHER RESPONSIBILITIES ■y
As suggested in the case of the principal's responsibil ities, the responsibilities of the teacher are also many and quite varied.
It would naturally be expected that the teacher
should haye a very complete knowledge of each child in his or her class.
This would include an understanding of ability as
recorded in the standard achievement tests, personal observa tion concerning emotional stability, and the child's ability to work with children in a group situation, and other personal habits or special characteristics noted by the teacher.
teacher should be responsible for a knowledge of the academic and physical growth characteristics of each child in the class room as compared with their expectancy age.
The child's indi
vidual social maturity, and a consideration of his mental or
2k physical development should be one of the chief concerns of. the teacher. Finally, the teacher should be able to discuss the child with the parents objectively.
This should be without
the use of high sounding educational terminology.
point, it would be wise for the teacher to become acquainted with certain interview techniques whereby essential information concerning the child, and aiding the school in understanding the child, might be drawn from the visiting parent. The second responsibility of the teacher is to estab lish a satisfactory parent education room environment.
supposed that the room environment as set up for the children might very well be most satisfactory.
However, for the parent
education meetings, certain overview explanatory aids might be used to give parents a clearer picture of the total program found at any particular grade level. It is not supposed that the lecture or question and answer methods of presentation will satisfy the needs of the parent groups completely.
In order to vary the interpreta
tions, probably the attention and interest will be held closer by the use of colorfully constructed charts and diagramatic expl ana t i ons, The suggestion of change in room environment, aside from that normally found when the children are in the room, brings up the problem of extra time needed for such qn environmental
It is not recommended that any major changes be made,
Certain diagrams and charts carefully explaining
the objectives, the procedures, the facts and skills to be learned, in the total program for that grade level, might be very advantageous.
Of course these would not be used with the
children. It would be expected that the normal room arrangement and the environment would change from one meeting date to the next.
In this way child progress could be noted by the parents
on the development of the various units of work, subject matter areas, and activity levels. A third major responsibility of the teacher might be the preparation of a sound philosophy of discipline and con trol.
Often parents expect that teachers, because of their
background, experience, and training, to be a fountain of in formation regarding methods and procedures of child control. The teacher is cautioned, however, to have several basic control principles thoroughly in mind, relating to her disciplinary methods.
Usually any type of problem would fall
into one or two of these various types of control principles, and the proper measures would be taken.
The need for continued
study and understanding of new disciplinary measures would be emphasized to the parents.
It should not be expected that the
teacher be completely prepared in absolutely all phases of child control, but more, that a good foundation be available.
26 In a succeeding part
of this project, control measures found
to he adequate, will
In summary, a broad knowledge of child growth and de velopment, backed by experience, with special relation to the individual children .in the classroom, would be of the utmost aid to the teacher.
On the part of the classroom teacher, it
might be said, that this knowledge is a necessary prerequisite for beginning a series of parent education meetings. III.
PARENT TEACHER ASSOCIATION RESPONSIBILITIES
The Parent Teacher Association's responsibilities also require definite attention.
As suggested previously, the
Parent Teacher Association, being composed of the lay parents primarily, with a small percentage of teachers, would aid in stabilizing and carrying forward the program. The Parent Study Group program of the National Congress of Parents and Teachers is welcoming opportunities to strengthen the relationship of the home and the school.
In many school
situations, parent-study groups are being established to study the curriculum.
The studies are then presented or interpreted
to the entire local Parent Teacher Association.
however, suggests the parent meeting, as the method whereby the teachers interpret the schools, in all possible areas, to the parents.
27 A primary responsibility of the Parent Teacher Associa tion is to stimulate interest in the program to the extent of having a good representation at all meetings.
In addition to
the regular letter sent home with the child announcing the next Parent-Teacher Association meeting, the personal use of the telephone, post cards, and the placing of small placards advertising the program, might stimulate interest and atten dance.
The best means, however, would be word of mouth, and
having a good stimulating set of meetings planned that parents would readily discuss in their everyday social life. It is suggested, that during the question and answer sections of each of the meetings, questions to be asked by parents be framed in writing, and then discussed at the appro priate time during the year.
A responsibility of the Parent
Teacher Association would be the planning of a clearing house system, whereby no question would be left unanswered.
way, no significant question would be overlooked during the year or during a meeting, because of time limitations or be cause of parental shyness. As has been previously suggested, the Parent Teacher Association librarian should be available to check out books, pamphlets, and literature related to information discussed in the various meetings. The reception of any guest speakers or special visitors should be a Parent Teacher Association responsibility.
28 and closing the meeting might be handled by the President of the PTA or one of the Vice-presidents.
The preparation and
serving of refreshments could be delegated to responsible members. Finally, especially during the proposed day classes of demonstration, care could be provided for young children.
ents could then concentrate their thoughts, undisturbed, in gaining the understanding of the class observations.
care should also be provided by mothers from the PTA. In summary, the Parent Teacher Association's organiza tion and leadership, inspired by the principal and the teachers, might easily carry the program along to its successful con clusion.
ORGANIZATION AND TENTATIVE PLAN FOR MEETINGS This chapter deals primarily with the organizational pattern of the day demonstration meetings, and the night dis cussion meetings.
It includes certain explanatory remarks for
the smooth operation of the proposed meetings.
Part Two of
this project is correlated with each meeting described in this chapter. I.
OVERVIEW OF MEETINGS
Twelve meetings are tentatively planned for the school year:
six night discussion meetings and six day demonstration
Each night meeting is to be divided into two parts.
During the first part, parents will meet briefly in a general meeting.
Then they will go to individual classrooms to meet
in small groups for the second part of the session.
first part, when everyone is together, subjects of concern to all parents of children at all levels will be discussed.
small group meetings would be planned at grade levels, and would be held in the classrooms with regular classroom teachers in charge.
This would provide those parents who seek under
standing of their child*s curriculum at a certain level, an opportunity to meet with the teacher of that level.
would interpret the scheduled area of the curriculum to them at that time.
30 The night meetings would be conducted in the absence of children.
Booms throughout the school would be open demon
strating their particular contributions to the total program in the curriculum area under discussion.
For example, should
the discussion topic be reading, rooms would be open in which reading materials might be on display.
A teacher would be in
attendance to explain the use of the materials and to answer questions. During the evening, the parents who have children in that particular room would meet to hear a panel discussion or short explanation of the subject. available. centered.
A question period would be
The discussion would be teacher led, but child No individual child would be discussed.
discussion based on the curriculum, views of learning based on the training and experience of the teacher, meeting problems and needs of children found in the class or the questions of the parents would be used as suggested topics.
individual cases and individual problems would necessarily come later, either at a special appointment time, or at a report conference time.
It is suggested that registration sheets be
made available in each room, so that parents may sign for ap pointments with each teacher at other times.
These would be
other than at school time. In addition to the evening discussion-type meeting, class demonstrations are planned for the following day, during
31 school time.
Part of the evening discussion might well be
stimulated by the coming observation of the classroom procedures and methods to be demonstrated. It is hoped that fathers and mothers would find it possible to attend both types of meetings.
tion question and answer period will follow the day demonstra tion meetings. The demonstration meetings will be the primary respon sibility of the Parent Teacher Association.
Sections of parents
interested in attending the day demonstration meetings will be asked to reserve places in the observation group for various times during the morning.
These sections will be formed in
groups of fifteen people, which will move through the several rooms during the two morning hours before lunch.
continuously, stopping for twenty minutes in assigned rooms at various levels, a total elementary school program will be ob served.
Should reading be the subject for the meeting, each
teacher will conduct a normal reading program during the morn ing period.
Then, 'the groups will be assigned to certain rooms
to see an entire reading lesson, at a definite grade level. This would last for forty minutes.
It is supposed that each
parent will be able to go to his child's room, and see a dem onstration.
In this way, parents will have a clearer idea of
the work at. a,certain grade .level, in addition to getting the over all picture from the earlier visitations.
This visitation time was thought to be the most satis factory just before lunch time.
In this way, about fifteen
minutes of discussion and questions could follow the demonstra tions.
This would come just after the children had been excused
Of course, each teacher would have to make some
provision for changes in the yard duty schedule so as to be able to get lunch. Such a visitation program during the day would also necessitate the use of Parent Teacher Association guides.
people would assist the groups in their movement from room to room.
A definite time schedule would have to be followed.
maximum of four groups could be successfully accomodated on any one day. Before the groups start on their visits through the var ious rooms, a short conference is to be held by the principal. Essential things to look for in the rooms, the need for obser vation rather than personal parent conversation or discussion while in the rooms, and the observation of the various methods by which the skillful teacher reaches the objectives of the lessons, might be briefly discussed.
The schedule for time of
arrival and departure would be handed to each guide, and the tour would hegin.
The observation demonstrations would be com
pleted at the end of the teacher-parent post discussion period.
SUGGESTED MEETING PLANS
It has been found very successful in
other school situations to meet the parents early in the sem ester in an informal friendly situation.
When problems follow,
the friendly foundation and atmosphere that has been started, often helps parents, teachers, and pupils find an easier solu tion to the correction of any problems. With this goal in mind, the first Parent-education meeting in September i^ould be a general meeting followed by an informal meeting in each classroom.
At this time the main ob
jectives in behavior and academic work could be presented to the parents.
Any questions or suggestions by the parents could
be discussed with them. It is suggested that a schedule as follows be considered for the first meeting. 7 o'clock
Parents of primary children meet
7:30 o'clock— Parents of upper grade children meet 8 o'clock-
Primary parents refreshments
8:30 o'clock— Upper grade parents refreshments At this time school regulations, room expectations, and general plans, would be discussed.
Any announcements of special
events to come within the semester, Parent Teacher Association Programs, youth meetings, sales or fund raising campaigns, or any major goals of the school for the entire year would be presented.
3*+ Second Meeting. .The second meeting would be on a speci fic curriculum subject.. Five specific meetings are tentatively planned.
Since reading might include everyone, this would
probably be a good starting point. A committee of teachers would plan an explanation of a total reading program.
This explanation might be on a panel
discussion basis, with a selected teacher as chairman.
overview of all grade levels would be presented in an informal discussion.
A large chart might be constructed and placed in
the front of the room.
This chart would present the overall
objectives of a reading program.
Books, papers, and other
objects might be presented in the room so that parents might see an orderly progression of reading.
In addition, each in
dividual on the panel might substantiate his statements by presenting charts, student papers, and results (if possible). In these ways it is hoped parents would get a much clearer idea about what needs teachers are attempting to meet with children through the curriculum. After a short discussion period, questions and sugges tions would be received from the parents.
Perhaps the exhibits
on the surrounding walls might stimulate objective discussion. The meeting would end with a good summary statement either by the panel chairman, or the teacher in the individual room. Refreshments would be served by the Parent Teacher Association.
35 Third and Succeeding meetings-
The third, fourth, fifth,
and sixth meetings would be handled in a similar way.
jects covered in the meeting would be clearly stated.
environment would be set up by the teacher considering the ob jectives of the curriculum area to be discussed.
Again a group
of teachers would organize the material to be presented.
would be presented in individual classrooms, with a frank period of parent and teacher discussion following each period.
close of each meeting, the chairman might make a positive state ment relating to the subject at hand, and food would be served by the Parent Teacher Association. These last four meetings would deal with the Language Arts, (including Writing and Spelling), Arithmetic, the Social Studies, (including Civics and Practical Arts), and a combina tion of Health and Physical Education.
Other important sub
jects in the curriculum would have to be discussed on the same basis in future years.
During the last meeting, a brief sketch
for the curriculum pattern, rather than an intensive study might be arranged.
Plans for the coming year might also be
discussed at this time. III. FURTHER ORGANIZATION The membership of the parent education meetings should be composed of any interested individuals who wish to attend. It is suggested, however, that a definite registration be
36 conducted for those parents wishing to take part in the day observation lessons be considered.
In this way each interest
ed parent might have an equal opportunity to offer his time, and have a chance to see a demonstration.
No parent would
feel as though he had been left out when someone else was chosen to attend. It would be necessary to arrange for certain supplies. These supplies would include paper and pencils for parent note taking.
All the necessary materials, needed dinnerware, and
utensils for refreshments would have to be provided by the school if they were available.
The supplies needed by the
publicity chairman, as usual, would be provided by the school dr from PTA funds. The publicity chairman of the Parent Teacher Association would organize her committee in such a way that every parent in the school would be notified of each meeting.
be done at an early date, promptly, and personally, if possible. The use of the telephone by members of her committee should not be neglected. As the superintendent of schools has not been presented to the community as yet, it would be altogether fitting to con duct a reception for him, in addition to carrying on the reg ular parent education program.
At this time it might be sug
gested that the superintendent discuss the philosophy of
education 'Which is basic to his thinking as educational leader of the school system. Finally, as a consideration of the effectiveness of the tentative organization, an evaluation questionnaire could be presented.
The questionnaire could be the outgrowth of the
meetings of parents and teachers and aid in improving the pro gram. In conclusion, it might be well to request of each par ent attending the parent education meetings, a short written statement of his educational beliefs.
This should be suggested
before the meetings begin, and then again at the conclusion of the total program.
A rough evaluation of the effectiveness of
the technique might be planned at the staff evaluation meetings.
THE CURRICULUM OF PARENT MEETING PROGRAMS
GENERAL CONTROL AND DISCIPLINE In considering the needs of the children and community, the workshop session of teachers selected the phases of con trol and discipline as being one of the most important aspects of improvement in our school life.
Prom personal experiences
in the community, this has been the springboard of many prob lems,
An outline based upon our philosophy in light of our
community problems is presented in this chapter giving a basis for our support, and satisfying our need for definite state ments . I. A,
A PHILOSOPHY OF CONTROL
We consider a desirable goal of conduct for children 1,
The ability to "reason through" on problems and to determine the right course of action
The ability to exercise self-discipline in following the right course of action
The ability to behave properly on own initiative at level of own ability
Levels which lead to self-control 1,
Fear of consequences— burn by stove, etc,
Seeking of approval from own group or shrinking from disapproval
39 Exercise of self-control for the good of the group C.
Our attitudes toward control problems 1.
Development of child's self-control and initiative one of our prime responsibilities
We should try to correct conditions before control problems arise.
We should seek the cause of control problems rather than treating the symptoms. When making an evaluation of a control problem, the teacher should consider what effect the individual or individuals have had upon the group, not what has been done to the teacher
Where the child is capable of understanding, the teacher should emphasize that the offender must compensate for a wrong done, rather than being punished.
makes a mistake, let him help others avoid the mistake;' In this way he may learn importance of not making mistakes. D.
Common behavior problems which we must face. who are 1.
Inclined to steal
Inclined to cheat
Inclined to he obscene
Probable reasons for mis-behaving 1.
Inability to adjust to other children
Inability to adjust to academic work
Real or imagined mental inferiority
Inability to find enough to do
Short interest span
Insecurity of not understanding what is wanted
Unsatisfactory home environment— home should build up responsibility for leisure time
Suggested list of best methods of meeting child’s behavior problems 1.
Understand each child and his problems
Keep a friendly, helpful attitude toward each child
Being willing to listen to troubles— at the appropriate time
Lead child toward constructive solution
Guide "outcasts” into group functions by a.
Steering them toward successful classroom contri butions
Steering them into successful playground partici pation
Guiding the group toward an understanding of the group's responsibility for the happiness of the individual
Arrange the classroom in an attractive and restful motif
Strive for emotional tranquillity by a.
Adherence to "positive" suggestions
Control and use of voice
Plan lessons which are interesting to children
Plan lessons which are within mental grasp of children
Plan lessons which call for a reasonable amount of physical activity
Conduct parent conferences— early in the semester II.
NOTES ON DAILY CONTROL
Each teacher attempts to build these things each week
Explanations of rules a.
Why we play away from the buildings (safety, thinking of our friends)
Why we play out of rest rooms (develop respect for public property and to save the custodians extra work)
Why we don't throw sand and rocks (Safety) (1)
Yard teacher can help to keep too many children from playing in the sand box at the same time, by starting a simple game
Wet sand .often helps
Evaluation of weeks activities a.
Acknowledge those who played in designated area
Acknowledge those who helped friends by abiding by standards
Teacher work out week’s games for noon and recess time.
Suggested posted sheet in room.
children, according to physical maturation if necessary) d.
Teacher supervises play on playground equipment during Physical Education period
Daily control procedure 1.
Teacher should take children out and bring them into room from recess periods, before school, and at the conclusion of the noon recess period,
when the bell rings, and when they line up. 2.
Teachers supervise lavatory and fountain, if children are small.
Assign leaders, so that there will be no
trouble for the leader. 3.
Keep rooms locked.
Yard teacher will check those who do not a.
Obey freeze bell
Play incorrectly on the equipment
Remain on sidewalks
Refrain from the use of paper towels as a wet head cooler (limited supply) (Note:
On primary yard duty, one teacher is near
equipment and the other circulates to the third grade area) G.
Contacts through the Parent Teacher Association 1.
Parents should expect small children home directly after school.
Many children often stay until the
playground opens, a dangerous practice.
vision. ) D.
Playground after school hours 1.
The same standards should be upheld after school hours since this is a school playground.
This will avoid
confusion as to when certain activities can or cannot be carried on
SUGGESTED CLASSROOM CONTROL AT PRIMARY LEVEL
Room arranged so as to avoid negative situations
Room standards made by group planning.
This way the child
ren see a reason for them and the standards are purposeful to the children. C.
Types of control 1.
Self control is the ultimate goal,
Approval— teacher and the group
*f. Coercion— to compel to action a.
"Bill, see how nicely John is sitting?"
In praising one child, it tends to make others conform. D.
Types of punishment 1.
gives the child a chance to think about
his behavior and to try to gain self control.
not be used too frequently for the child will try to gain attention through a negative rather than a pos itive situation 2.
Deprivation of privileges: for controlled behavior.
privileges are a reward To deprive a child of them
may help him to understand the need for control. 3.
removal of a child from a negative situation
by saying, "You’ll be more comfortable sitting here,"
or, "You seem to be tired. help you feel better."
Perhaps a little
This draws attention away from
the undesirable behavior rather than calling attention to it. Suggested principles to remember 1.
Be fair and just; have no favorites,
Always control yourself.
Avoid threats, but be sure to carry out those you
forced to make. *+. Avoid nagging; demand immediate obedience. 5.
Speak to individuals quietly; avoid interrupting the class.
Secure absolute order and attention before speaking to the class.
Motivate the work properly.
8 . Anticipate possible disorder and prevent it. 9.
Be sure the child knows w h y he is being punished.
Keep a calm low voice, but a firm one.
Always use a positive approach.
Keep group interest by asking question first, then name the child who is to answer.
Say things only once.
In conclusion, we are attempting to reach goals of self discipline by considering the emotional adjustments needed to be made by the children in our environment.
We have set stan
dards for group behavior as yell as individual behavior.
plan to meet problems of control by better understanding the problems of self-discipline and demands of the society into which our children have been thrust.
OUTLINE FOR READING It Is hoped that the teaching of reading in our school ■will so inspire children with a love for reading that they will be discriminating in their selection of reading material, thoroughly prepared in the skills to do good, successful, sat isfying reading,- and have the beginning development of a great appreciation for the best in literature. In this chapter, a program was planned whereby teachers In the primary grades would understand how the foundation skills are used to advantage in the upper grades.
senting upper grade reading material to parents, a knowledge of the foundation skills would aid in a more complete under standing goals of the total reading program by upper grade teachers.
It must be emphasized that this is only a rough .
outline, and not to be construed as complete in all the- details. I. A.
FIRST GRADE LEVEL
To develop interest in reading
To appreciate a need for reading
To enjoy, use, and care for books
To develop good oral expression
To develop ability to interpret pictures
To increase vocabulary
To learn word sounds
Skills developed in First Grade 1.
To open a book
To turn pages
To read from top to bottom
To read from left to right
To read from front to back of the book
Procedures used 1.
Reading by the teacher to the children a.
Names of pictures
When the teacher reads to the children,
the children follow the pictures.
In this manner,
the child learns, before actually reading, to do everything involved in reading except to know the actual words in the sentence.) 2.
Building reading readiness a.
Children are encouraged to express themselves orally; enriching, extending, and clarifying concepts.
Suitable discussions are
Planning x?ork or play experiences
Trips, nature walks, nature study experiences
Writing of simple group stories, actual experiences, and reading the stories (1)
Make duplicate experience charts; divide into sentences, phrases, and words.
Reassemble chart correctly.
When charts are mastered, pre-primers are introduced.
Charts are in continued use
Reading readiness age 78 months, mental age
Children must be well grounded in vocabulary before beginning pre-primers
Advantages of experience method (1)
Children introduced to reading through real life situations and natural interests
More words introduced with satisfying results
Less need for repetition as method supplanted by intensity of experience
Goals achieved by the end of the First Grade or in the early Second Grade
Pupils learn to engage in continuous, meaningful reading of simple material.
Pupils acquire interest in independent reading. II.
SECOND AND THIRD GRADE LEVELS
Causes of Reading Difficulty 1.
Defective bodily organisms
Unusual organic characteristics
Deficient psychological processes
Inadequate reading techniques
Insufficient background of experiences
Reading deficiencies may be due to ineffectual type of teaching 1.
Effective types of teaching employ self-directive materials generously so that time can be spared for *
supervision of individuals. 2.
Use materials easy enough to permit natural fullfledged reading.
Methods that arouse interest
Correlation of reading with other interests
Check up on the basic skills at reasonable intervals.
51 e. C.
Provide an abundance of easy reading*
Criteria for types of material 1.
Material should be highly interesting to the pupil*
Material should be of proper difficulty.
Various types should be represented.
Time allowances should be generous,
Successes should be emphasized.
Practice should be so distributed as to avoid fatigue and boredom.
A variety of exercises and activities should be pro vided.
Devices that constantly urge the pupil to discover the outstanding points of reading passages available.
Skills and Achievements during the Second and Third Years1 1.
Using reading as a tool for learning in school life activities
Improvement in comprehension of reading text
Increased fluency in silent reading
Growth in word-recognition skills
Growth in understanding of word meanings
Increased competence In oral reading for social
Gertrude Hildreth, "Reading Programs in Grades II and 11111> Forty-eighth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Part II Tchleago: The University of Chicago Press, 19^9), PP. 93-9^.
52 situations 7..
Improvement in study skills involving reading for gaining information, reading for detail, solving prob lems, collecting,'remembering and reporting information, and using reference sources
Growth in independence in the use of books and other materials
Gain in knowledge about reading sources, knowing the types of books there are, finding out what a book contains, choosing books for different purposes, using library facilities.
Growth in acquaintance with good literature; interest in reading good books for recreation
Teacher’s responsibilities 1.
Determine the abilities and achievement of pupils at the beginning of the year as a basis for grouping and instruction.
Maintain a balanced program of activities in which reading plays an important role.
Provide daily for the functional use of oral and silent reading,
Unify reading with language activities and curriculum units so far as this is possible in terms of the class program,
Manage the learning situation in the classroom.
Select suitable materials and construct study mater ials as needed.
Systematic training of all pupils in the skills listed above with provisions for individual needs
Help pupils become increasingly self-dependent in the use of reading materials.
Provide for individualization of instruction so that every pupil can make continuous progress in spite of difference in rate of growth.
Develop in the pupils favorable attitudes toward reading and interest in improvement.
Use reliable and efficient methods of checking up systematically on pupil progress and maintain compre hensive developmental records to accompany the pupils as they move into the intermediate grades.
Mark the two things most important in this paragraph.
Mark the sentence that tells what the paragraph is about.
Suggest yes-no sentences.
Fill in the blanks.
Use questions that can be exactly answered by the printed sentences.
Use questions that cannot be precisely answered in the passage.
Use questions that suggest finding the ending.
Draw a line under the right ending in each sentence.
Use action exercises— written on blackboard, a.
Go to the board, Write your name, Take a book, Give John a book.
Picture checking exercises
Multiple choice exercises
Incomplete sentences accompanied by several possible end ings
Making thought units, using most important sentences
Retell parts of stories with the aid of pictures on the bulletin board.
Provide for plenty of discussion of stories in the readers.
Ask questions to draw out the children's
ideas and encourage the pupils to ask questions in turn. 17.
Hold discussion for planning for activities and as a basis for making reading charts and leaflets.
Have pupils give class reports of their reading.
Discuss topics that arise in school life.
Choose topics of conversation from the child's school and home life.
Relate the conversation vocabulary to the reading vocabulary.
Be sure that the children see, say, and
hear the same words. 22.
Through discussion, prepare children for reading terms >
such as "cloudy” , or new word forms, e.g. "thought". 23.
Have the group compose a story co-operatively.
Call attention to sentences in reading and to correct grammatical forms so that the pupils will learn how to phrase their own sentences better.
Methods of recognizing words 1.
Dependence on general configuration, (ball, bell; hall, etc.,)
Spelling method (slow process)
Phonetic analysis (not to be used to excess— be very moderate)
Visual analysis of words (several word parts)
Dependence on context (encourage using this method)
Have an abundance of selections using new words re peatedly. III.
Emphasis: Improvement of Reading < (Note: In order to improve our reading, we need to be aware of many factors.
As in the lower grades, we need to
group our children according to their similarities.) 1.
Methods of grouping a.
Cumulative cards, reading comprehension score from achievement tests of previous year, or most recent year
Informal reading tests 5 reading a simple paragraph and answering two fact questions, and one thought question
Oral reading at sight (not highly recommended)
Skills we are trying to develop 1.
Developing comprehension a.
Following directions and finding information (a definite need to follow printed directions). Children need lots of aid in this area.
Finding answers to personal and social problems
Reading a story for various purposes— outcome, humor, or dramatization
Reading to remember a.
Remembering important ideas
Remembering significant details
Associating ideas and materials a.
Many methods of developing this skill (1)
Finding and reading passages to verify
Finding information relevant to particular problems
Organizing ideas and materials a.
Arranging events in sequence
Making outlines (difficult)
Sample directed reading lesson 1.
Development of readiness for the day’s story
Orient children to the story
Introductory reading —
Specific vocabulary development.
guided silent reading (At least three
■words in the story)': 5.
Re-reading either silent or oral, but for a definite purpose
Follow up a.
Assignment— extending skills and abilities
Reading for enjoyment
Appraisal of the assignment
Suggested questioning and response for improving reading 1.
Reading for a purpose-:-improving speed a.
What is the same about reading and wearing clothes? (Mention everyday things to read, school books, newspapers, magazines, and compare with everyday clothes.)
You have game books, stories to read for fun or
for parties; and you have "dress up clothes" for going out c. The main thing is
that both in reading and in
dressing the way you do, is dependent on the PURPOSE. d.
How fast shall I read:
The question should be
changed to "How fast shall I read what?"
answer depends on the ♦w h a t 1. Rules to regulate speed a.
Read rapidly when
you read for entertainment.
Pay attention to the story itself, and not to the details. b.
Read as fast as you can.
Read rapidly when information.
you skim to locate specific
Do not read every name in the tele
phone directory, or even every page in the encyclo pedia.
Skim rapidly over everything until you
locate the material you want. c.
Read rapidly when you are reading a newspaper. Newspaper reading does not require as careful attention as a textbook or scientific article. Adjust your speed to the difficulty or importance of the article.
Read rapidly when reading familiar material.
reviewing, you can grasp ideas more quickly than on the first reading.
Read as fast as possible
when reviewing. e.
Read slowly when reading technical material to glean details.
Here every word counts.
and read carefully and slowly. f.
Read slowly when reading difficult material with complex sentences and unfamiliar ideas or terms. Do not go on to the next paragraph until you are sure that you understand the first.
Use the dic
tionary to look up unfamiliar words. g.
Adjust your rate of reading to the purpose for which the reading is being done. IV.
By implementing such a program as suggested in this chapter,
is hoped thatpower will be gained by children in
that it couldbecome one of the most enjoyable
pleasures of life.
Of course, so many approaches to the
problem of improving reading are possible, that this represents only a minimum outline of what may be done.
OUTLINE FOR LANGUAGE ARTS, WRITING, AND SPELLING In order to stimulate growth in simple, correct, and colorful language expression, it is necessary that we provide children with opportunities to hear, learn, and use correct expression as spoken and written.
In this chapter, emphasis
has been placed on the skills needed to insure language growth suitable to the needs of children at every age level. I. A.
KINDERGARTEN, FIRST AND SECOND GRADE LEVELS
Oral Language— growth and development 1.
Basis for reading readiness
Basis for clear thinking
Basis for meaningful expression
Procedures used a.
Planning, discussing, evaluation work
Teaching correct terminology
Working with paints, clay, blocks, etc., and evaluating
Skills Developed a.
Better self expression
Richer, wider vocabulary
Clear and correct pronunciation
Correct use of simple English sentences
Oral expression; conversation, discussion, story telling, making reports, reading aloud, dramatiz ing, improvement of pronunciation, enunciation, and oral expression
writing notes and letters,
making news reports, reporting on reading, out lining h.
reading for information, using the
table of contents, learning library skills, learn ing to listen with full comprehension to language or reading, appreciating and enjoying literature i.
vocabulary meanings, word building,
spelling, handwriting; the recognition and inter pretation of typographical devices, punctuation marks, quotation marks, headings, and titles B.
Written language 1.
Fulfill need to write
Awaken desire for creative writing
Increase ability to express ideas
Procedures used a.
Class dictates story
File boxes used
62 c. 3.
Skills developed a.
Becoming aware of letter form
Becoming aware of letter proportion
Becoming aware of spacing
Learning to spell and file II.
HANDWRITING, GRADES ONE AND TWO
Handwriting is not taught or evaluated in Kindergarten.)
To develop large muscle movement
To learn manuscript letter forms
To learn general writing movements
With background built, to introduce abstract symbols
Procedures used 1.
Demonstrate and constantly check on good position at blackboard and at seat.
Use of large crayola and large folded paper
Demonstrate actual letter forms ofmanuscript
*f. Large lead pencil introduced in B2 5. C.
Introduce numbers in B2
Skills developed 1.
Ability to write given and surname
2 . Ability to write simple and well formed
Ability to use large, open, simple, well formed letters
Ability to keep letters on a line
Ability to observe height in words
Ability to write simple words used-in spelling
The writing of two or three word sentences using spelling words
Labels, pictures, and objects. III.
HANDWRITING, GRADES THREE AND FOUR
Change from manuscript to cursive brought about in when background of child is ready.
Introduce and improve cursive writing.
Construct letter forms slightly smaller.
Form letters correctly.
Maintain uniform height of capitals and small letters.
Keep letters and words on a line,
Observe a similar space between words, and a similar space between letters.
Stimulate best writing skills in children.
Introduce a high standard of accomplishment.
Consider remedial measures for mirror writing, left handed, physically handicapped (visual), motor coordina tion.
Procedures Used 1.
Allow for standards suggesting the correct adjustment of posture.
Suggest correct paper and pencil position.
Observe a uniform slant, even height, normal space between letters and words.
Drill on certain letters. Make corrections when used in normal context
Skills Developed 1.
An interest in writing well
Forming letters more nearly perfect
Demonstrating writing skill in all written work Use of primary pencil, blackboard, chalk, and eraser IV.
HANDWRITING IN THE UPPER GRADES
Confidence gained in pencil cursive writing
Introduction of ink, beginning in the fourth grade
Acquiring of reasonable speed and ease of writing
Further reduce the size of the letter forms.
Change from primary pencil to regulation pencil in last half of Fourth Grade or when child seems ready in Fifth Grade,
Acquire skill in the use of pen and ink
Skills developed 1.
Improvement of letter forms
Make more nearly correct space between word and letters
Create a uniform height
Improve rhythm and speed of writing under all condi tions V.
UPPER GRADE CREATIVE WRITING
Understanding of ideas
Talk over subject at hand— Social Studies, Science, etc.
Allow children to explain and clarify meanings if possible.
Lead children to withhold ideas if they are not sign ificant.
List words on board as children use them.
If new words are needed supply them in the context.
Skills Developed 1.
Discovery of relatidn between personal experiences and people beyond personal contact
Recognition of the difference between significant and insignificant contributions
Grasp and follow ideas by listening
Use of words having concrete meaning
Use correct pronunciation of words
Form visual image of words written and spelled correctly
Critical Thinking 1.
Reason with children to determine whether facts support the conclusion.
Skills developed a.
Cause-to-effect ideas in subject matter discussions and writing
Occasional effect-to-cause technique in story writing
Logical reasoning resulting in logical presenta tion of ideas, both written and spoken
More critical proof reading of own writing for logical flow of ideas
Organization of ideas 1.
Build outlines with children
Use cause-effect reasoning by questioning the relation of each idea to those preceding and following
Skills developed a.
Understanding of the reason for outlining
Understanding the methods of outlining
Further development of logical thinking, of expres sing complete ideas orally by following outline, and of writing complete sentences and paragraphs following an outline
Extension of Ideas 1.
Discuss words needed to convey feeling and concept over and above those needed for concrete meaning
Extend use of dictionary
Skills developed a.
Develop consciousness of words and meanings (with advanced children develop idea of relation between sounds and meanings)
Develop "dictionary habit" with advanced children
Efficient Writing 1.
Drill on slant, spacing, uniformity and letter formation.
Amount and type of drill depends on
Skills developed a.
Develop a style of writing which is clearly legible, rapidly performed, and pleasing in appearance. (Note:
Written and oral skills receive special
attention during’language periods, but it is to be emphasized that the preceding language goals
are not to be accepted as part of an isolated sub ject.
Inasmuch as ideas are usually manipulated
through work-symbols, the basis of language— understanding, critical thinking, the organization of ideas, and the extension of ideas— is also the basis of every school subject.
Our master goals
cannot be achieved in a single lesson or in a single day. VI. (Notes
SPELLING, FIRST AND SECOND GRADES
No spelling taught in Kindergarten nor is any check
made on a pupil’s ability to spell at that level.) A.
Objectives First and Second Grade 1.
To spell and -write given name for identification of papers (Bl)
and write given name and surname (Al)
and spell a minimum of twenty-five words,
selected from a child's work experience and reading vocabulary *+.
To use words in preparation for simple two word stories
two or three word sentences about pupil's
interests in home, school, or community 6.
To teach meaning, use, and spelling of words assigned to grade one or two
Use crayolas and folded, paper
Begin two and three word stories attempted
Add needed words relating to and concerning interests given
Revieitf of basic words taught in B1 and A1
Learn to spell through writing
Presenting Spelling Through Writing 1.
Allows children ready to write opportunity without preliminary instruction in mechanics, penmanship, and spelling drills.
Informal and functional approach
Satisfies child’s urge to say something in writing
Soon learns words without refering to word box
Criteria of writing readiness a.
Child able to express himself in sentences
Child able to dictate simple stories
A desire to write expressed by child
Adequate physical, mental, and emotional develop ment
Individual writing procedure a.
Child writes own story on large paper
Asks for word needed in story— raises hand as teacher comes to him
Teacher writes word on word card
Child,, using two fingers, traces ii/ord until he thinks he can write it,
Child covers work; attempts to write it on extra paper or on the blackboard,
Files in word box, if word correct,
Small group writing procedure a.
Children dictate story, "We made a Silo."
Teacher writes all but "silo".
One child asked to write word; teacher shows
to write on blackboard, at one side. d.
Child traces word on board with two fingers
Teacher erases and child writes word into sentence
Procedure repeated until whole group learned process
Reminders to teachers a.
Initial tracing and writing of words must be closely supervised
Children allowed to use any words,., even those thought too difficult or unsuitable by the teacher
Spelling and writing should be kept at functional level for child
Allow children to write of own interests rather than teacher suggested interests
Encourage child mastery by repetition of tracing
Emphasize saying and writing of words, rather than the individual letters and their sounds
Allow each child to go at his own pace
h. Be calm, encouraging, enthusiastic VII. A,
SPELLING, THIRD THROUGH SIXTH GRADES
Interest children in need for learning to spell
Adjust spelling to childs needs, interests, and abilities
Allow for presentation of many words for child vocab ulary improvement
Teach relation of sounds to spelling of words
Improve knowledge of alphabet
Teach correction of own spelling difficulties.
Understand plurals and how formed
Ability to write understandable letters, notes, and t
Procedures for daily work 1.
Progress record of previous w e e k ’s spelling placed in spelling book by each child
Teacher presents new words for at a time.
Used in a story.
new lesson, one
Class writes word on folded paper
Meaning discussed, strange construction, small words found within the large spelling word.
word in a sentence, e.
Word underlined hy syllables, vowels marked, silent letters marked,
Class checks word with copy on the board
Extra words presented to good spellers, while words rewritten three times on folded paper by rest of class
Look at the word.
Write the word.
Check the word with copy on the blackboard.
Pretest given on words discussed for the day
Teacher presents second half of words
Follows Friday routine
Pretest given of all words, new words, review words, and extra words
Children write words in short sentences as teacher dictates words.
Children check for accuracy
Kinesthetic techniques attempted with poor
Free choice for those having perfect papers on previous w e e k ’s words, and perfect papers on dictated words
Children work by themselves.
study extra words, test themselves b.
Each word presented to the class in a short sen tence
Words dictated in simple sentences slowly
Word games, spelling bee
Suggestions for improvement in spelling 1.
Stimulate interest and need to learn to spell accurately
Combat lack of interest by a.
Allowing good papers to go home
Presenting good work on school or room bulletin board
Keeping an individual progress graph
Never compare one child with another.
Adjust number of words to child's ability.
Give exercises in forming plurals, building words that rhyme, marking vowels, and silent letters.
Gradually increase number of words* child masters each week.
Words are always selected considering child’s reading level
Give plenty of opportunity for use of words learned, and _to be learned VIII.
This chapter has presented a brief outline of the objectives, procedures, and skills developed in various levels of the oral and written language program.
Certain aspects of
creative writing have been emphasized in the upper grades. The spelling program was given as a beginning for discussion, only with definite procedures recommended, and further inves tigation suggested.
ARITHMETIC AT ALL LEVELS ♦
It is quite evident, as the more modern school has evolved, that the teaching of arithmetic fails to follow the sequence or natural orderliness of which it was known in the traditional school.
Out main concern seems to be toward
placing an emphasis on the usefulness of arithmetic in life situations. pared.
With that in mind, the following outline was pre
Proper credit should be given the Los Angeles Board
of Education's Course of Study for Elementary Schools, as much of the information in this chapter was taken from that publication. I. A.
To develop successfully, the meaning of arithmetic concepts for each child
develop arithmetic skills needed make number meanings significant and necessary to the
life of the child D.
stimulate in child thinking, the finding of approximate
results to test their reasoning and validity of answers II. A.
IMMEDIATE OBJECTIVES AND PROCEDURES
Give a background of number experiences, i.e., age, number of people in family, house number, etc.
Count room objects and divide with others by counting and taking turns
Increase meaningful practical concepts
Methods of meeting objectives for Kindergarten 1.
Learn birthdate, telephone number, etc*
Count at least ten articles
Use counters, beads, acorns, etc.
Using and counting for understanding, simple money terms
Dividing the day intoperiods
Dividing and sharing with others
Provision for the counting of many kinds of articles
Objectives for Grade One 1.
To develop meanings for words expressing quantity .and value
To make generous use of words expressing number mean ings a.
Near recess time
to listen and think
to respond alone aswell asin a group
Procedures used in Grade One 1.
Counting children in the room for daily attendance
Counting orders for milk
Counting books for reading group
Counting play equipment, balls, jump ropes, etc.
Taking turns with swings or slides, or jump ropes
Counting Parent Teacher memberships
Dividing fruit, cookies, or candy with others
Folding paper into halves, or fourths
Objectives for Grade Two 1.
To continue to develop meanings of words expressing quantity, time, and value
To continue generous use of words, expressing number meaning, as they present a need in work and play periods
To count money as two or more pennies, nickels, or ' quarters
To count articles up to one hundred
To further the meaning of division, such as one half a piece of paper, etc.
To read numbers such as house numbers, speedometers, traffic zone mileage
To write number symbols to one hundred
To introduce weights and store or
measures,as used in
measuring areas for games to tell time simple addition using objectsto illustrate
adding; first one object to others, then two objects, then three, etc. 11,
To add simple Combinations to make *+,6,8,10, and 12.
Procedures Whereby Needs of Grade Two Are Met 1.
Opportunities are given for children to handle money and make ehange, as in the cafeteria
A yardstick is used to measure paper,
cloth, or play
Pin£, quart, and half■pint bottles are used
*+. Egg cartons help learn counting, and the term dozen. 5.
Learning to tell time by making clocks
Allowing for many opportunities whereby children may express themselves using a number language
Grade Three Objectives 1.
Provide a rich background of number meanings
Develop meaning of words expressing quantity, distance, and value
Continue in use of money for counting, making change, transactions and manipulation.
Continue reading and writing numbers and telling time.
Provide simple experiences of weights and measures
Provide problems in simple addition
Continue number stories
Procedures used in Grade Three 1.
Count by 2's, 5's and l O ’s to 100
Learn 100 addition and 100 subtraction facts
Learn two or three figure addition and subtraction, and combinations of each
Teach proving and checking of numbers, and carrying in addition
Solve many examples requiring reading, thinking, and the ability to add and subtract
Make provision for number reading experiences and means of identifying larger and smaller numbers
Continue introduction of language and symbols, i.e., add, subtract, plus (sign), equals, $ (dollar sign), ^ (cents sign), difference, and remainder.
Add and subtract zero to and from other numbers.
Read numbers to ten thousand, and dates and addresses
Make possible the teaching of money numbers, to be added and subtracted, to and from other numbers.
Know and solve problems using tables of weights and measures
Teach Roman Numerals through XII
Read a thermometer
I1*., Learn one, tens, and hundreds place Objectives of Grade Four 1.
Cover and.review objectives of grade three
Learn to estimate probable results to problems
Learn to think, and to solve more difficult story problems
Make good use of the fundamental processes as presented to this grade level
Stimulate pupil to work to his capacity
Areas of instruction covered in grade four 1.
Add and subtract longer columns of larger figures
Continue to teach the reading and writing of larger numbers
Roman numerals through thirty, then by tens to hundred and thousand
To teach subtraction a.
Changing column subtraction
Subtraction of one figure number from a two figure number
Use of money values
Use of zeros in subtraction
Use of large number subtraction
develop multiplication through nine
develop the process of division
To teach both short and long division methods of one figure division
To check and prove division by multiplication
To teach the process of finding 1/2, 1/3, I/1*? and 1/5 of a number
To continue reading thermometers, time tables, calen dars, weather reports, etc.
To find averages
Objectives and Procedures of Grade Five 1.
Complete review and understanding of the four funda mental processes of addition, subtraction, multipli cation, and Single divisor division
To continue all work of previous grades previously outline
To continue reading and writing larger numbers
To continue to check and prove all problems solved
To continue the use of all language and symbols of numbers learned
To take advantage of all opportunities in daily work \
to express and use number meanings and skills 7.
To write and read numbers of increasing unit values
To teach multiplication of two figure multipliers and two figure money values
To teach the two step problem To learn the addition and subtraction of common fractions
To teach the addition and subtraction of mixed num bers
To develop and use long division with a two figure divisor
To be able to master and solve many problems which stimulate thinking, reasoning, and the testing of ability to use the processes thus far taught
Objectives and Procedures of Grade Six 1.
To continue all work previously outlined for other ■ grades
To be able to read and write numbers through the billions
To know the hundred facts of addition, subtraction, and multiplication, and the ninety facts of division
k-. To know the multiplication tables through 12 5.
To know Roman Numeral notation through 1000
To use the process of long division by three numbers
To be completely familiar with the table of weights and measures, and how to interpret it,
To be able to find the areas of rectangles, and the perimeters of objects
To make and read graphs To learn the multiplication and division of common fractions
To understand the treatment of proper and improper fractions
To understand the four fundamental processes in mixed numbers
To introduce the use of decimal fractions in every day life
To use the table of measure in daily work III.
The modern approach to arithmetic suggests two phases, namely, the mathematical phase and the social phase.
outline has attempted to give practical suggestions for teach ing the number system.
It has suggested means by which un
derstanding of quantitative procedures may grow which are found in life situations.
Many activities have been suggested,
which will serve as the beginning outline for programs at the various grade levels.
Teachers will no doubt find many
other recommendations possible to add considering the needs of their children and their classroom situation.
OUTLINE FOR SOCIAL STUDIES After such a group of meetings previously described ■which will be presented before this meeting on the Social Studies, it would be impossible for a parent not to see the ; great possibilities of integration available jects.
It is the purpose of this
with all sub
outline togive thebasis
of understanding needed to make a social studies program meaningful and objective.
Certain objectives of information
the formation of units of experience, etc., have necessarily been left out due to space and time limitations.
the basic underlying program necessary for parent understand ing is presented here. I. A.
Objectives of a suggested Home and School Unit 1.
Teach children to think
Plan for learning to work
and play within
Teach children to care for themselves (Social and emotional maturity)
Procedures used 1.
Skills Needed 1.
Ability to follow directions
Ability to get along in a group
Ability to take care of oneself
Skills Developed 1.
Block play a.
Encourages working together
Sharing blocks and necessary materials
Completing job started
Clean-up work approached in the correct frame of mind
One of several activity centers
Two children share one saw horse
Tools are shared
Allows for the development of large muscles and the development of coordination
Each child responsible for his own actions
Definite pattern followed for maximum enjoyment of work accomplished
Gives free rein to the imagination
Children enjoy the things they have made
Concrete experiences a.
Many experiences furnished (1)
Many pictures to evaluate and clarify concepts
Many stories to read to them
Make references many times to the hoine and the school
Dramatic play a.
Allow children to play what they know, at this level (1)
(2) .Playing house (3)
Taking trips by boat, airplane, auto, or train
FIRST AND SECOND.GRADE LEVEL
The unit activity for the first grade is suggested
as the home, school* and neighboring community.
Grade considers the study of the community, with emphasis upon one center of activity such as the farm.) A.
To familiarize the children with the community help ers and to enable them to become accustomed to group living
To acquire information that will satisfy their inter ests
To help them understand their immediate environment and their relationship to it.
Procedures used 1.
Art experiences, clay modeling, painting
Field trips, nature walks, excursions
Looking at books; having books read
Illustrating through Dramatic Play
Skills needed at this level 1.
Skills in the use of materials
An ability to enter into the activities which involve more sustained interests
A desire for more realistic results
An ability to express a need for more details
An improving ability to use materials to express ideas
Needs to be able to recognize and solve problems in concrete situations
Improves in development of manual skills
Learns to assume responsibility
Develops evaluation of his own work as well as the
work of the group D.
Skills developed at this level 1.
Better ways of living and working together
Developing effective citizenship
Developing qualities of character such as
The children make adjustments from their home and play group to larger social groups III.
THIRD GRADS LEVEL
The unit of activity for the B3 level is Safety and
Transportation, the bakery, the postoffice, and the harbor. The A3 level considers early Los Angeles, the Indians, the Spanish, and the Mexicans.) A.
To stimulate interest and an appreciation of the his torical and present city of Los Angeles
To give the child an understanding of the kind of food, clothing, and shelter which is necessary to maintain life.
To give the child an idea of how food, clothing, and shelter came to be, and how to get them To introduce multitext reading
To develop the concept of looking for information in many places
To broaden geographical vocabulary
Procedures used 1.
Stories, pictures, construction, clay, and painting
Trips to places of interest
Having many books available. teacher reads.
Children find the page,
Material found discussed
Building of information charts
Pictures, stories, films— all with evaluation
Skills needed 1.
to take care of oneself
to follow directions
Skills developed 1.
to listen and think
to share information
to apply information to creative tasks
to solve problems democratically
to follow directions
Ability to find information in books and pictures, and to tell about the information in story form
Further use of the alphabet in Table of Contents and index
Thinking processes stimulated by hunting for material to answer class questions
Proper use of new geographical vocabulary 17.
FOURTH GRADE LEVEL
The B*+ studies the industries of California, while
the A*f considers the History of California.) A.
To stimulate interest and appreciation in our state; California, past and present
To know locations in California, in relation to the United States, and all parts of the world
To understand and iree maps and a globe
To increase geographical vocabulary
To locate physical features
To study effects of weather on our life
To know and appreciate major industries
Procedures used 1.
Arranged environment i
Children's questions recorded on charts
Read from many books for information
Obtain information from films, charts, film strips
Use other methods of gaining information, such as construction, dramatic play, painting clay, trips.
Use wall maps, world globe, outline maps (individual), projected maps painted by the children
Conduct class discussions, drawing conclusions from the discussions, write stories about the information learned
Skills needed 1.
Knoxtfledge of order of alphabet
Ability to listen, take turns speaking, follow
Ability to think and evaluate what others say Ability to read on fourth grade level
Working knowledge of the use of the capital letter and the period
Skills developed 1.
Independent use of Index and Table of Contents
Ability to take brief notations:
author title, and page where found 3.
Increases ability to evaluate material found Ability to use the information in various ways, stories, pictures, construction, notebooks, and other projects
Ability to read maps with understanding of approx imately the distances and elevations
Ability to disagree courteously
Ability to clearly express thoughts on paper
Ability to make good use of time when working in committee groups V.
FIFTH GRADE LEVEL
To stimulate interest in and an appreciation of the geographical and historical background of our country, and its possessions
To continue interest in the study of our community, city, and state
To read an interpret maps and a world globe
To make use of a geographical vocabulary
To know and locate certain physical features of
United States, auch as mountains, lakes, deserts, etc. 6.
To know and understand the effect of physical features and natural resources on the people of the country
To learn and appreciate the people of the United States, as nationalities represented, races represent ed, languages spoken, and something concerning their problems of daily living.
To know and appreciate the service and contribution to people of the United States of the world of communication
To appreciate the need for possessions and their importance in relation to the United States
To know and understand the rich culture and pioneer ing spirit given as a heritage to our country
Procedures Used 1.
Reading stories, looking at pictures, constructing, molding clay, and painting
Stimulate interest and satisfy curiosity concerning important characters in American history.
From many sources, determing answers to questions about climate, soil, population, industry, people, products, water supply, etc.
*f. Construct maps showing sources of raw material, growth in population, land contour, rainfall, agri cultural products, etc. 5.
Drill on locations of individual states, capitals of important cities, major waterways, railways, waterways, and airways
Study of possessions; Alaska, Hawaiian Islands, and other islands
Obtain information from films, charts, film strips
Use -wall maps, -world globe, outline maps, (individual) projected maps by children
Conduct class discussions, write stories, and bring facts to worthwhile conclusion concerning units of work attempted
Read and know the story and significance of such days as Labor Day, Admission Day, Armistice Day, Thanks giving, etc.
To know and write correctly The American*s Creed, and The Pledge to The Flag.
To learn and recite, The Gettysburg Address, and The Preamble to the Constitution
Read and know the story of our first Americans, the Indians, and their contribution to our way of life.
Read and know the stories of the early explorers, considering the Spanish, French, Dutch, and English influence on our continent
Follow the story of the colorful Colonial days in New England, the industry of the Pilgrims, life in the Northern and Southern Colonies, the struggles for freedom, and the establishment of our govern ment
Read- and know the story of the westward the growth of the geographical scene in
expansion, the historical
events, and to understand current history
Skills Needed 1.
Knowledge of alphabet, and how to use it
Ability to listen, take turns when speaking, evaluate information of others, and follow directions
Ability to read at Fifth Grade level
Working knowledge of the capital letter, commas, question marks, the period, and the exclamation point.
Skills Developed 1.
Independent use of table of contents, index, and en cyclopedia
Ability to take more lengthy notes, and more complete bibliography of sources of material
Increased ability to evaluate material and sources
read maps with more understanding
Use of materials in various ways; such as, stories, pictures, construction, notebooks, and other projects
express thoughts critically on paper
work efficiently and effectively incom
mittee' groups VI. A.
SIXTH GRADE LEVEL
To continue to read about and know the significance of important days in our history.
To know and understand the history and geography of our neighbors in the western hemisphere including Canada, Mexico, Central and South America
To demonstrate and express an interest in past and present history which relates to our city, state, nation, and world
To understand and appreciate the qualities in Amer ican life that have made possible the privileges we enjoy today
To understand the growing responsibility of citizen ship in our state, our nation, and the world
To understand and appreciate the qualities needed for fine leadership and respect for leadership
To understand and appreciate the imagination, vision, courage and industry required to produce and make possible the conveniences which we enjoy today
To understand how historical events in one country affect events in another
To understand that each country has struggled for freedom
To appreciate, know and use correct and dignified flag etiquette
To continue a growing interest in present day events
To be willing to work and sacrifice for this country
Read and interpret a map and world globe
To understand world geography by locating places referred to in reading, study, and discussion
Use of geographical vocabulary
Presentation of units of work on areas of geographical importance, covering physical feature, location, importance of climate, political arrangement, indus try, exports and imports, natural resources, occupa tions of people, problems of daily living, methods of communication and communication
Drill on location of geographical places studied
Drill on geographical language
Study of food, clothing, and shelter in areas con sidered
Read from many books for information
Obtain information from charts, films and film strips, pictures, and study prints
Use other methods of gaining information, such as construction, dramatic play, painting, trips, etc.
Prepare class discussions, draw conclusions, write stories, make collections of information from maga zines, newspapers, etc.
Prepare maps of products, industries, rainfall, im ports, ©sports, etc., done by children
Skills Needed 1.
Ability to listen, follow directions, and work effectively in committee work
Ability to share information, to solve problems dem ocratically, to find information in books and pic tures, and to tell about it in oral reports or story form
Follow up of previously suggested needed skills at other grade levels
Skills Developed 1.
To make further use of the alphabet, the index, and the Table of Contents
To use the encyclopedia, the dictionary, and other reference materials
Ability to seek answers to information related to unit under consideration
To make complete use of geographical vocabulary
To arrange questions suggested by children on charts, followed by answers as recorded from information sought by children
Use other methods of gaining information, such as visitations of parents having knowledge of units or places discussed, personal guided tours by class, construction, painting, clay molding and firing, and dramatic play.
Conduct programs drawing conclusions of work attempted by presentation of stories, dramatizations, songs, poems, and reading originated by class VII.
In this chapter, an attempt has been made to present the outline of a tentative plan for presenting social life through history, geography, and citizenship, at all grade levels.
It is considered important to know of the growth of
our present American culture, in light of the past.
tunities have been presented whereby an overview of how our world historical background was expanded by the discoverers and explorers of the Old World. background has been presented.
A moving and vivid historical Further the services of the
many great men and women who have labored to make this a great civilization have been studied.
Research and experi
ments have been carried on, explaining progress in science, invention* and industry.
The opportunity for presentation
of the historical significance of the effect of the historical events of one country, and their effects upon others has been suggested.
Finally, suggestions have been made whereby an
interpretation of the American way of life can be understood in light of our climate, our geographical features, our heterogeneous population, our political location in the world, and our world and national responsibilities.
HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION Physical fitness is an imperative necessity In a nation whose complex social structure demands so much of the human organism.
One phase of the total program in our schools is
body building, while the maintenance of the body machine is the other. Equally important is the social and emotional develop ment within the child, so that he may live in peace with himself and society.
Much of our physical education today
considers the functions of the nervous system, and the ways in which the Health and Physical Education program can best meet the needs of the child. I. A.
The establishment and sustained use of desirable health habits
The teaching of various games and procedures so as to stimulate and develop pupils and their
Body and sensory coordination
Mental and physical alertness
Desirable social qualities
Provide for the opportunity to improve ?rhythm-ic "sEIl-1 s
Objectives of Primary grades, 1 and 2 1.
Development of certain skills
Development of group consciousness.
Improvement of cooperative attitude A lead toward self-direction
Exercise sense of responsibility
Improving health and physical coordination
Develop nervous system capable of more stress
Allowance for release from the strain by relaxation
Skills taught in Primary grades, 1 and 2 (Note: learned.
Skills need to be taught, they are not just They should be taught when children
ested attitudes in playing ball forexample.
show inter Lack of
skill causes fear, frustrations, and tensions.) 1.
Ball skills— development of eye hand coordination a.
Undertoss throw, B1
Vertical toss throw, B1
Side toss throw, A1
Two arm shoulder throw, B2
Kicking ball from the ground, A2
Batting the ball with the hand, A2
Hunting games— large muscle development a.
Advantages of rhythm and dance a.
Cultivates the arts*— habits and ideals
Trains in self control, poise, and posture
Allows for development of feeling of mastery
Teaches simple movement, rhythm and action
Allows for skip, walk, run, and gallop or slide to the music
Offers opportunity to create simple dance forms
Allows for interpretation of singing games and folk dances
Procedures used in Primary grades 1.
Divide into two or three smaller groups a.
Allows for more opportunity of leadership and followership
Gives each child more of a chance to play
Two groups play different or same game, other people play on apparatus
Suggested weekly program a.
Three days guided play
One day of rhythms
One day of play on the apparatus
Lesson introduction a.
In room where children are
Arrange for supplies and equipment
Arrange for signal to show
change of groups,
and start d.
Provide for opportunity to satisfy bodily needs
Short explanation of rules
Standards for use of equipment a.
Horizontal Ladder (1)
Each person waits until other gets clear of the ladder on the other side
All people go in the same direction
No climbing— only for hanging on and walking
Low bar (1)
Only one leg over
Use both hands
Jungle Gym (1)
Keep moving up and slide down when reaching the top
Always go down in a sitting position
Land on feet at bottom
Wait at the bottom ofthe
of slide steps until another
person gets clear down on the slide
Swing xtfith back to fence
Always sit and hold with both hands
One turn is 25 swings.
Persons should wait
outside yellow safety line (*f) D.
Always swing in one direction
Objectives in Grades; Three through Six (Note:
The Health and Physidal Education program should
be based on activities which appeal to a child at his grade level, and are suitable for his growth and achieve ment .) 1.
An increased knowledge of playground games,
Beginnings of simple first aid practices
Complexity-and number of playground games will increase
The development of a spirit and practice of teamwork and group cooperation
Development of versatility by playing all games and positions
Development of importance of controlled emotions, and positive thinking to avoid anger, fear, hate, jealousy, or worry
Beginnings of simple track events (grade VI)
Procedures used in Grades Three through Six 1.
Inventory of characteristics of Third Grade Child.
Less individualistic than the first and second grade child
Is developing ability to cooperate
Tends toward group play rather than individualism
Attention span still rather short
Low degree of perseverance
Imitative and curious
Inventory of Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Graders a.
Leadership and sportsmanship qualities more pronounced
Ability to hold attention longer at specific activ ities
Stimulated by games of many rules
May be interested in developing skills away from a game situation
Skills Developed for ppper Grades a.
Review of skipping, hopping, running, eye-hand coordination, and b'Ody coordination
Further improvement of throwing, catching, balance change of weight, follow-through
Ability to change direction quickly
Ability to handle balls of different size effect ively
Development of skill in handling bats, rings, and the use of the handball wall, etc*
Development of ability to cooperate with larger groups in team games
Development of ability to think quickly and with good judgement
Ability to understand and to apply more complex rules to the game situation
Introduction of more complex rhythmic patterns requiring more coordination
Suggested Weekly Program for the Third Grade a.
Three ’ d ays— guided supervised games
One day— folk dances, singing games, or fundamen tal rhythms
One day— choice day, equipment play or stunts
Suggested Weekly Program for the Fourth through Sixth Grades a.
One day-redeveloping skills needed for major games
One day— (related game) using same skills
One day— Rhythms and folk dancing
Two days— Major games (1)
Teacher works with half of class improving skills.
Activity reversed on following day.
In summary, it must be emphasized how important it is to provide many opportunities for children to play many games A sufficient number and variety must be presented to carry
107 through a well balanced program.
In addition, habits of good
health and posture development are stressed constantly through out the daily school program wherever the opportunity and need is present;
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS This project has attempted to outline a program of parent meetings at a small urban elementary school.
segments of the total program might easily be left out, it is hoped that this project offers a framework by which admin i s t r a t o r and teachers may attempt such a program in a similar school situation.
Each chapter had as an ultimate goal the
closer cooperation of the home and the school.
and community needs are to be constantly considered as the program continues throughout the coming year.
information of parents through their questions will best reveal to us their ideas and needs concerning the elementary school curriculum and the local school program.
leadership of the Parent Teacher Association, it is hoped that a practical channel of understanding may exist. During the last year, a great need for interpretation of our school system, its goqls, procedures, and outcomes has been made known.
On a city wide basis, citizen’s committees
have been formed to investigate our entire school programs and recommend changes to the Board of Education.
tigation has not taken the form df visitation or concerted action as yet.
The citizen's committees have only publicized
the views of certain parents disappointed with the products
of public education.
These views are usually found to be
those of people unfamiliar with schools, and those without the benefit of a valid interpretation of the school program. Furthermore, only those cases of failure and maladjustment have been brought before the public.
It must be remembered,
however, that the great majority of the graduates in our school system have become normally adjusted members of society Throughout this project, a definite organization pat tern and practical technique for launching and carrying out a school interpretation program has been suggested.
ground of our segment of the total metropolitan population has been analyized.
The enormous growth has been described,
the heterogeneous nature of the population has been considered and the practical ways of putting this program of parent meetings into effect has been explained.
The achievements of
the previous year toward the consideration of parent education have been explained.
In summary, it was found that a good
foundation of professional advicd had been started.
interest and community respect had been shown for the school and the school personnel at these meetings as evidenced by the large attendance. The methods by which material could be collected and the interpretations of various curriculum areas was explained exhaustively.
The parent-meeting was decided as the means
by which such an interpretation might be effectively and efficiently carried on.
An evaluation meeting of the school staff is planned for some time immediately following each parent meeting.
this manner, problems may be considered between meetings, and solutions put into effect Immediately. The second part of the project offers recommendations for the content of the meetings,
A night discussion meeting
is to precede each day demonstration meeting of the various subjects.
The curriculum suggested and presented in this
project would serve as a guide only, with individual teachers supplementing the material with their own ideas and exper iences , Chapter II emphasises significant agencies which have had as their impetus for organizing, the bringing together of the home and school.
The National Congress of Parents
and Teachers and its many functions are discussed.
agencies such as the Child Study Association of America, The National Society for the Study of Education, The National Council of Parent Education, and the United States Department of Education have all given support to states and localities desiring programs of parent education. Chapter III deals with the responsibilities of the principal, the teachers, and the Parent Teacher Association in the preparation and presentation of the outlined program. The consideration of the existing facilities, the administra tion of materials and time, the collection of data for
Ill curriculum presentation, and the evaluation of the individual programs are investigated in this chapter. The organization and tentative plan for the meetings are considered in Chapter IV.
An overview of the night dis
cussion meeting plan, and the day demonstration meeting is presented.
Certain suggestions for the smooth operation of
both plans are recommended.
Problems arising from the program
are considered and solutions are recommended.
are explained and methods of carrying out the curriculum in terpretation are suggested.
Meeting plans are outlined for
each of the night meetings. The second part of the project considers the types of material to be presented at the parent meeting programs. Recommendations here are primarily the outcomes of the teacher workshop conducted at the school during the past school year. The areas of discussion were felt to be those most vitally in need of explanation and interpretation.
course of study as outlined for the teachers by the Los Angeles Board of Education, the durriculum areas have been developed at grade levels, with consideration for objectives,, methods, procedures used, skills needed, epid predicted outcomes. Again, all"areas have been considered in light of needs of the community.
The various chapters are presented as practical
information satisfying the need for definite statements of objectives, procedures, materials, and outcomes.
To measure the value of this plan will not be an easy task.
If the parents, making a genuine effort to understand,
and the staff is prepared to give a worthwhile interpretation to the areas planned for discussion, a good basis for under standing and community tranquility will exist throughout the home, school, and community.
Adams, Fay, Edueating America’s Children. Ronald Press Company7~19^S7 *+90 PP.
Adams, Fay, Lillian Gray, and Dora Rose, Teaching Children . to Read. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 19*+9. ‘ ^ 25^ pp7 Adams, Fay, The Initiation of an Activity Program into a Public School. Contributions to Education, No" j?98. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 193*+. 80 pp. Baruch, Dorothy W . , Parents and Children Go to School. York: Sebtt Foresman and Company, 1939. 50*+ pp.
Baruch, Dorothy W . , Parents Can Be People. New York: Appleton-Century Company, 19*+*+. 252 pp. Bruner, Herbert B., What Our Schools Are Teaching. New York: Teacher’s College,nColumbia University, 191+1. 22? pp. California State Curriculum Commission, The Social Studies Program for the Public Schools of California. Vol. XVII, No. *+. Sacramento: State Department of Education, August, 19*+8. k-2 pp. Fine, Benjamin, Educational Publicity. Brothers, 19*+3. 310 pp.
Grinnell, IF. Erie, Interpreting the Public Schools. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1937. 3*+9 PP. Good, Carter, editor, Dictionary of Education. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 19^57 *+95 PP.
Hand, H. C . , What Beople Think About Their Schools: Values and Methods of Public Opinion Polling As Applied to School Systems. Yonkers, New York: World Book Company, 19*+B. 219. pp. Horn, Ernest, Methods of Instruction in Social Studies. York: Scribner's Sons, 1937. !?23 PP.
Ilk Kelley, Truman lee, Interpretation of Educational Measures. Yonkers, New York: World Book Company, 1927. 3^S pp. Lamoreaux, Lillian, Learning to Read Through Experience. New York: D. Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 19^3. 20*f pp. Lane, Robert Hill, Teacher in the Modern Elementary School. Boston; Houghton Mifflin,, Company, 19^-1. 397 PP. Lane, Robert Hill, The Progressive Elementary School. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1938. 197 PP.
Lee, J. Murray, and Lee, Dorris May, The Child and His Cur riculum. New York: D. Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., T9*5o : 652 pp. Los Angeles City School District, Course of S-hudy for Elemen tary Schools. Los Angeles: Published by the Los Angeles Board of Education, 19^-2. 299 PP. National Association for Parent Education, Conference Report. 1932. NationalCCongress of Parents and Teachers, Forty Years of Service. Washington, D.C.: National Congress of Parents and Teadhers, 1937. 15 PP. National Congress of Parents and Teachers, The Parent Teacher Organization. Its Origins and Development. Chicago: National Congress of Parents and Teachers, 1 9 ^ . 19# PP. National Society for the Study of Education, First Yearbook. Part I,. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1902. 76 pp. Prall, Charles E. and Cushman C. Leslie, Teacher Education in Service. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education, 19*+*+. 3o8 pp. Preston, George H . , The Substance of Mental Health. York: Farrar and Rinehart, 19^+3. 15-7 PP. '
Scarsdale, New York, Fox Meadow School, Willingly.to School. New York: The Round Table Press, 1931*. 108 pp. Strickland, Ruth G . , How to Build a Unit of Work. Washington, D.C.: United States Office of Education, 19*+6. k? pp.
115 Waddell, Charles W . , Seeds, Corrinne A., and White, Natalie, Ma.ior Units in the Social Studies. New York: The John Day Company, 1932. 390 pp. Wesley, Edgar Bruce, Teaching Social Studies in Elementary Schools. Boston: D.C. Heath and Company, 19V 6. 635 P P . Wrightstone, J. Wayne, Appraisal of Newer Elementary School Practices. New York: Teachers' College, Columbia University, 1938. 221 pp. B.
PUBLICATIONS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES
Arlitt, Ada Hart, "Parent Education", National Congress of Parents and Teachers. Proceedings of the Forty-fourth Annual Conventions. Washington, D. C . : National Congress of Parents and Teachers, 1 9 ^ . Arlitt, Ada Hart, "Parent Education in the National Congress of Parents and Teachers," Parent Education: The Second Yearbook. Washington, D.C.: National Congress of Parents and Teachers, 1931. 222 pp. Fertsch, L. M . , editor, "Enriching the Curriculum for the Elementary School Child." Eighteenth Yearbook. National Education Association. Washington, D.C.: The Association, 1939. 704- pp. Gruenberg, Sidonie M . , "Program of the Child Study Association of America," Parent Education: the First Yearbook. Wash ington, D.C.: National Congress of Parents and Teachers, 1930. Hildreth, Gertrude, "Reading Forty-eighth Yearbook of Study of Education. Part of Chicago Press, 19*+9.
Programs in Grades II and III" the National Society for the II. Chicago:1 The University 3*+3 PP.
Hartley, William H , , editor, "Audio-Visual Materials and Methods in the Social Studies," Eighteenth Yearbook of the National Council for the Social Studies. Washington, D.C,: National Education Association, 19^+7. 21*+. pp. J Lombard, Ellen C., "Parent Education Programs in City School Systems," United States Office of Education Bulletin No. 2, 1937. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1939. 35 PP.
Lombard, Ellen C . , "Parent Education Opportunities," Bulletin No. 3, Washington, D.C.: United States Office of Educa tion, 1 9 3 5 . 35 pp. Michaelis, John U . , editor, "The Principal and Curriculum Building," Twentieth Yearbook. California Elementary Principal1s Association. Sacramento: The Association, 19^. 171 PP. National Education Association, "Community Living and the Elementary School," Twenty-fourth Yearbook. National Education Association. Washington, D.C.: National Educational Association, 19*+5. 265 PP. National Education Association of the United States and the American Association of School Administrators, Education for All American Youth. Washington, D.C,: Educational Policies Committee, 19*+^+. *+10 pp. National Education Association, "Organizing the Elementary School for Living and Learning," 19^7 Yearbook. Assoc iation for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Wash ington, D. C . : National EdueationaAssociation, 19*+7.
209 PP. Whipple, Guy M . , editor, "The Activity Movement," Thritvthird Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Bloomington, Illinois: Public School Pub lishing Company, 193^. 320 pp. C.
Osborne, Ernest, "Modern Parents Go To School," Survey. April,
8 6 :1+, 1 9 0 -1 9 3 .
Kawin. Ethel. "Teachers and Parents. United." Survey. April.
8l-.h, 19>t. D.
Pfister, Elta S., "Parent Workshops as a Factor in Communityschool Relationships." Unpublished Doctor’s Dissertation, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 19^9. 2b2 leaves.
UNIVERSITY o f SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA LZBRAR*