Interpreting the elementary school through parent meetings

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INTERPRETING THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL THROUGH PARENT MEETINGS

A Project Presented to The Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California

5jC 5|c «j( is|c Jijt 3$Cjjc

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education

by John Lindsey Miles August 1950

UMI Number: EP46475

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TAjj project report, w ritte n under the direction o f the candidate's adviser and ap p ro ved by him , has been presented to and'accepted by the F a c u lty o f the S chool of E d u catio n in p a r t ia l f u lf illm e n t of the requirements f o r the degree

of M a s t e r of

Science in E ducation.

A d v is e r

Dean

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART I ORGANIZATION OF PARENT MEETING PROGRAMS CHAPTER I.

II.

PAGE

INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM .........

. . . . .

I

Importance of the project ...................

1

Need for parent education

.................

2

Description of school and community . . . . .

b

Achievements of previous y e a r ...............

6

Procedures used in this p r o j e c t .............

8

Plan of chapter presentation

9

SIGNIFICANT PARENT-EDUCATION AGENCIES ......... Parent-teacher association

(

. . . . . . . .

Other agencies

. . . . . . . . .

12

. . . .

16

. . . . .

S u m m a r y .......... III.

18

STAFF PREPARATION FOR?PARENT MEETINGS ......... Principal’s responsibilities ,. „. Teacher "responsibilities

.,.t.

.................

Parent-teacher association responsibilities . IV.

12

ORGANIZATION AND TENTATIVE PLAN FOR MEETINGS.

.

19 19 23 26 29 *

Overview of meetings. -........................

29

Suggested meeting plans .............

. . . .

33

...................

33

.........................

3^

Third and succeeding meetings . . . . . . .

35

First meeting . . . . . Second meeting

CHAPTER

PAGE Further organization .....................

. ,

35

PART II CURRICULUM OF PARENT MEETING PROGRAMS I.

GENERAL CONTROL AND DISCIPLINE A philosophy of control. . . . . .

II.

.........

38

...........

38

Notes on daily control . . . . . . . . . . . .

*+1

Suggested classroom control at primary level .

bb

Conclu s i o n...........................

^-6

OUTLINE FOR R E A D I N G ............

b?

First grade l e v e l ............

by

Second and third grade levels Upper grades

. . . . . . . .

..........

55

Conclusion . . . . . . . . . III.

IV.

50

.

59

OUTLINE FOR LANGUAGE ARTS, WRITING, AND SPELLING

60

Kindergarten, first, and second grade levels .

60

Handwriting, grades one and two..........

62

Handwriting, grades three and four . . . . . .

63

Handwriting, upper grades................

6*+

Upper grade creative writing .................

65

Spelling, first and second grades

...........

68

Spelling, third through sixth grades .........

71

Conclusion

7b

..............................

ARITHMETIC AT ALL L E V E L S ....................... General o b j e c t i v e s ..........

75 75

iv

CHAPTER

V.

VI.

PAGE Immediate objectives andprocedures . . . . .

75

Conclusion

..........................

83

OUTLINE FOR SOCIAL S T U D I E S ....................

8*f

Kindergarten l e v e l ................

81*

First and second grade level

. . . . . . . .

86

Third grade l e v e l ............................

88

Fourth grade level

90

Fifth grade l e v e l .......................

92

Sixth grade level . ' . . . ...................

95

Conclusions . . . . .

. . . . .

99

...............

100

HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION General objectives

..........................

100

..

101

SUMMARY AND C O N C L USIONS ........................

108

Immediate objectives VII.

..........................

B I B L I O G R A P H Y ...........................................

113

PART I. THE ORGANIZATION OF PARENT MEETING PROGRAMS

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO PROBLEM The explanation and interpretation of the school to the parent offers one primary foundation for parent judgement of the worth of a school system, its curriculum, and its person­ nel.

Planning an organized pattern for a parent education

program in a small urban elementary school is, therefore, a problem of great importance. I.

IMPORTANCE OP THE PROJECT

The purpose of this project was to furnish a framework for a parent education program upon which the principal, the teachers, and the parents might base a year’s activities fur­ thering mutual understanding.

A parent education program at

the elementary level may encompass many facets of the total educational picture.

It would be impossible to cover these

subjects completely, and in all detail, in a project, a book, or even in a volume of books.

The study was designed, there­

fore, to give a general overview of the organization, the ad­ ministration, and the supervision of such a program, and to ♦

present a concrete plan of curriculum material to be inter­ preted to the parents of the school. Each chapter is designed with the ultimate outcome of closer parent-teacher cooperation in mind.

The organization

of the parent meeting program has been suggested by teachers and administrators dealing with the problems of parent-teacher relationships in the elementary field.

The alert administrator

and teacher will add many more suggestions of methods to better adjust the program to local community needs.

As the program

progresses through the school year, the solutions to questions and problems arising from interested parents will be considered in the evaluation stages of each meeting. The study is based on interviews with several interested elementary principals and teachers, where parent education programs have been successfully conducted.

By careful ques­

tioning, suggestions were received from them as to their methods of handling problems arising from their experience with pro­ grams . II.

NEED FOR PARENT EDUCATION

In all school situations studied, there was found to be a great need for parent education in interpreting the objectives and methods of the schools.

At the present time, there

has been noticable agitation on the part of certain citizen's committees formed ostensibly to bring about better education for the children in the public school system.

Charges of

"progressive education" have been hurled at school adminis­ trators whenever some minor indiscretion occurs in the class­ room.

.

It has been felt by the author, that there is a greater need for an understanding of the goals of our present forms of public school education, rather than the deletion of major areas of the present curriculum.

It has been suggested, that

these deletions be brought about "without the benefit of in­ vestigation or careful inquiry.

Through a program as suggest­

ed in this project, parents may present any improvements, if in their opinion the schools do not seem to satisfy the educa­ tional needs of their children and the community. One of the finest methods of improving public school and community relationships, both at present and for the future, is the parent education program. out to see the schools.

It would bring the parents

Without visiting schools, parents

would be somewhat unjustified in criticising aspects of the school program unfamiliar to them.

In many elementary school

situations, some of the most severe critics are those parents who have not taken the time to become acquainted with the school of their community.

Many critics have not even been

inside a school building since their own graduation from highschool. This project suggests definite and practical techniques whereby an elementary school may arrange such a program of school interpretation.

III.

DESCRIPTION OF SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY

Like so many of our California elementary schools, the school discussed in this project is located in an area whose growth was stimulated primarily by war plant production, and the attending population increase caused by the recent con­ flict.

The community is a section of one of the incorporated

communities surrounding metropolitan Los Angeles. The population of the community was estimated at 15,000 people in 19kO, and at the recent census of 1950, was found to approximate 93»000 inhabitants, a growth of nearly 500 per cent. The school is located in a large housing development comprising nearly one thousand individual residences.

The

homes have been purchased mostly through the aid of Federal Government financing as a great number of veterans and their families reside there.

Most of the families are still in the

process of buying their homes.

Approximately 85 per cent of

the homes have children of elementary-school age. There are no social institutions, i.e. churches, parks, recreation or community centers, other than the school itself, located within •the development.

An adult sponsored youth

organization is being planned, however.

Eighteen civic minded

parents have gone through incorporation proceedings and are going to construct a large recreation building on one corner

of the school property.

A fund raising program is in progress,

and money has been collected.

Building plans have been drawn,

approved, and are going to be presented to the Board of Educa­ tion very soon. Marketing and shopping facilities are available within walking distance, and the development is but ten minutes by bus or automobile from the downtown section of the local com­ munity. The school first opened in February of 191+9.

By June

of 1950, the enrollment was five hundred twenty-five pupils, with approximately seven hundred children expected in Septem­ ber of 1950. The average intelligence quotient runs relatively high, with only fifteen children ranging from eighty to ninety. There are no special training classes or development rooms. The school does not feel the need of a special speech correc­ tion teacher.

A regular playground period is conducted each

afternoon after school. The school plant is of the double bungalow type, each *

unit comprising two classrooms.

The buildings themselves are

of' California stucco, with semi-permanent foundations.

The

rooms feature bi-lateral lighting, forced air individual heat­ ing units, stainless steel sinks in each room, asphalt tile flooring, acoustic board ceilings, and are completely furnish­ ed with modern, functional tables and chairs.

Each room is

fortunate enough to have adequate storage space, with rollaway bins for tools, supplies, and materials.

The administra­

tive unit is very inadequate however, and general storage space throughout the school for necessary supplies is woefully lacking. The playground area is completely fenced, but only par­ tially equipped.

Many types of apparatus are to be installed

during the coming year..

The total school plan comprises one

normal city block in area. The patrons and parents of the school might beconsid­ ered to be of the middle class socio-economic status.

Few own

businesses of their own.

live

within the development.

Very few professional people

As all homes are new, most of the

families are encumbered by home purchase payments.

25 per­

cent of the people are of Jewish faith, with one or two Span­ ish and Japanese families represented there. The majority of the people are employed by the local aircraft industry, which is only from four to six miles dis­ tant. IV.

ACHIEVEMENTS OF PREVIOUS YEAR

The school had been in operation for the last five months of the 19*+8—*f9 school year, and for ten school months of the 19^9-50 school year.

This period was one of general school

organization, and time was not available for any concentrated

planning of a parent education program.

The regular Parent

Teacher Association program continued, however, and any inter­ pretation of the school system was supplemented by discussions led by educational and professional leaders in the school system.

^ In order to have a substantial background for beginning

a program of the parent-meeting type, it was felt by the school administration and staff that a sound foundation of profession­ al advice and leadership was needed.

Frank discussions pre­

sented by experts in the education field would establish rapport with the parents of the community by showing that the administrative heads of the school system were vitally inter­ ested in their children, their community, and their new school. Such discussion also brought respect to the school for the selection of the outstanding leaders who spoke to the parent groups. Several leaders were invited as guest speakers, to ex­ plain the curriculum, its objectives, and methods and proce­ dures of stimulating the mental, physical, and moral growth of children.

A member of the school business division came to

discuss the basic educational reasons for the types of con­ struction found in the schools, the reasons for the particular kinds of materials and supplies placed there, and to account for the financial obligations incurred in the construction of the new school.

The administrative head of the school health

program discussed the role that good health and good health habits play in aiding the child in better and faster learning. The superintendent in charge of curriculum construction for the entire elementary system discussed a general overview of child growth and development.

This meeting was followed by two

supervisors of curriculum who discussed in more detail, the lower and upper grade curriculum as it is experienced by child­ ren.

Finally, a specialist in mental hygiene from a local

university conducted two meetings, at one of which the film "Human Growth" was presented. These were all night meetings held throughout the school year.

Great interest in these meetings was evidenced by the

large attendance.

With this as a groundwork for our parent

meetings proposed for the coming year, the following chapters will discuss plans for twelve meetings tentatively scheduled. V.

PROCEDURES USED IN PROJECT

A great deal of the information secured for the project was the outgrowth of a teachers* workshop at the Strathern Street Elementary School, of the Los Angeles Elementary School District.

It was decided that an interpretation of six dif­

ferent curriculum areas be prepared, i.e., Discipline and Control, Reading, the Social Studies, Arithmetic, Language Arts, and a combination of Health and Physical Education. the future, study of the areas of Safety, Fire Prevention,

For

Science, Music, and Art would tie considered.

Much of the in­

formation .was suggested by other principals in whose schools successful parent education meetings have been conducted. After a great deal of discussion regarding several plans, interpretation through parent-meeting techniques was thought to be the most satisfactory method of presenting material. It was a functional method, practical, did not require a great deal of time for preparation on the part of busy principals and teachers, and solved the problem of explaining the work of the sehool to the parents most effectively. During the planning or workshop periods at Strathern School, teachers set up those standards for the curriculum thought to be the most comprehensive and vital for each parent to understand.

Each teacher is to have a mimeographed copy of

the outcomes as selected by the workshop group. An evaluation period is planned for the conclusion of each meeting by the school staff.

In this way it is hoped

that the program may be improved in succeeding years.

Comments

by the parents are especially to be invited, so as to further the goal of more complete cooperation between the home and the school. VI.

PLAN OF CHAPTER PRESENTATION

This project is presented in two parts.

Part One dis­

cusses the organization of the parent meeting program, while

10 Part Two deals with the material to be presented to the par­ ents.

Chapter II will discuss the important organizations

having as their impetus for existence the welding together of better relations between the home and the school. A program of staff preparation will be presented in the third chapter, which deals with the responsibilities of the principal, the teacher, and the Parent-Teacher Association, Following this, is a tentative plan for twelve meetings to be conducted during the year.

This will conclude the first

part of the project. The second part of the project emphasises the content to be presented during these meetings.

The chapters divide

the information into six groups, suggested by the use of two meeting periods to a topic, and are outlined as follows: Chapter I

A Philosophy ofDiscipline

and Control

Chapter II

Reading

Chapter III

Language Arts, (Creative writing and Spelling)

Chapter IV

Arithmetic

Chapter V

Social Studies

Chapter VI

Health and PhysicalEducation

Each chapter has been further subdivided into the var­ ious grade levels suggested for proper and efficient discussion Several curriculum areas have been left to be covered in future

meetings.

These include Art, Music, Science, Safety, and

Fire Prevention.

They are not included in the suggested out­

line. It is assumed that the curriculum suggested and present ed will serve as a guide only, for the stimulation of thought requires a consideration of the needs and problems relative to the local situation.

CHAPTER II

SIGNIFICANT PARENT-EDUCATION AGENCIES A definite need for aiding parents to work cooperatively with teachers has been shown by the formation of several na­ tional organizations.

Many of these organizations have as a

primary aim the improvement of parent relations through parent education and interpretation of the schools.

This chapter

deals with the discriptions of these agencies. I.

PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATION

An organization first known as a ’Mother’s Congress' was begun in Washington, D. C . , in 1897.

After a great in­

crease in membership and a broadening of the scope of its pro­ gram, the name of the original organization was changed to the National Congress of Parents and Teachers.

This name was

adopted in 192**, and gives an indication of the purposes for which the work was undertaken. By 19^0, the membership had increased to over two hun­ dred thousand members.

The membership now approximates three

million people. The importance of integration in the school program be­ tween the home and the school led to the formation of this association.

A great need for understanding between these two

great social and educational forces was apparent.

13 The primary objective of the organization as given in its creed is "to interest all people in all children, and to link in common purpose the home, the school, and all other educative forces in the life of the child, to work for his highest good."^The democratic ideal of public education implies that citizens have the responsibility not only to finance the pub­ lic schools, but to participate in determining their education­ al goals and objectives.

In order to determine such goals,

citizens must have considerable understanding and knowledge of school procedure.

The Parent-Teacher Association through

its parent education program stimulates the growth of this understanding. The function of the Parent-Teacher Association has been termed unique from functions of other organizations in at least five different ways:

(1) In the distribution of its

membership, It is as democratic as the public schools— it re­ cognizes no class, property, political tenet nor creed.

(2) In

geography of membership, it extends from densely populated metropolitan sections to the most remote rural communities-from one end of the land to the other.

(3) It is the only

organization, so far as is known, in which teachers have joint

^National Congress of Parents and Teachers, The Parent Teacher Organization. Its Origins and Development (Chicago: National Congress of Parents and Teachers, 19^4-), pp. SS-S1*.

1*+ partnership with parents, shown specifically by the name of the organization.

(*+) It is the only such organization of

both parents and teachers in which the main object of service iS the child, this forming a kind of inclusive triangle. (5) It is the only large national organization of lay men and women which throughout the country regularly holds its meetings 2 in the schools. The goals of the Parent Teachers Association organiza­ tion further stipulate that it is the desire to have "every child in America know that he belongs to America; that he is a citizen sharing the duties as well as the rights of democracy."3 It seems appropriate to list and explain a few of the many areas of Parent-Teacher Association interest and study. Naturally one of their chief purposes is the improvement of home and school relations.

It is quite apparent that mutual

interpretation of the school and the home is badly needed. The Parent Teacher Association also exercises great leadership in curriculum evaluation and study.

They are constantly shar­

ing with the professional school authorities in the develop­ ment of the ciourses of study that the children of the community are going to follow. Service to the exceptional child and to the handicapped

2 Ibid.. p. 8*f. 3Ibid.. p. 23.

15 child is another area of Parent Teacher investigation.

They

maintain a national standing committee for this phase of their activity. We are all aware of the Parent Teacher’s lobby in Con­ gress and in our state and local legislative bodies.

These

lobbies are constantly striving toward more protection for children and youth, and have placed great emphasis on bringing about enactment of child labor legislation. Few people are unaware of the fine program of health advocated by the Parent Teacher Association.

In almost all

states, regular medical and dental examinations are being given children, and in a few states mass tuberculosis examin­ ations have been conducted under the auspices of the Parent Teacher Association.

The Summer Health Round-Up of Children,

and the immunization of children against communicable diseases, have long been active interests of the Parent-Teacher Associa­ tion. Studies of housing and proper sanitation, and the im­ provement or recommendation for plans to change poor city and county health systems, are always in the process of Parent Teacher investigation. Service and recreational programs, the improvement of living conditions, and the pressing of improved economic status for all people, concern the PTA.

16 Finally, parent education, the compilation and the dis­ tribution of information furthering physical, mental, and spiritual development of children is planned by PTA organiza­ tions.

As Edgar Dale suggested,

Parenthood nowadays is approaching the status of a profession; for which professional training is needed. Moreover, it has become apparent that this training needs to, be integrated with current national and world issues. Such an'integrated program is attempted through the PTA. The Parent Teacher Association concerns itself also with citizen education, with the family, and between the fam­ ily and the school to make every child really experience dem­ ocratic living.

It is hoped that by this ground work, the

child may have had a guide to democratic living upon reaching his majority. These relate but a few of the areas in which the Parent Teacher Association has programs of continuous development, where the chief concern has been parent education. II.

OTHER AGENCIES

The Child Study Association of America has been active in the field of parent education for fifty-eight years.

A

group of mothers went to Felix Adler, founder of the Ethical ^Ibid., p. 17.

17 Culture Society, seeking advice about bringing up their child- ‘ ren.

Prom this small beginning, the organization grew to the

Child Study Association of America.'*

It publishes pamphlets,

bibliographies, and lectures relating to the improvement of parent, child, and home relationships.

The journal "Child £ Study" is the monthly publication of the organization. Government agencies such as the United States Office of Education publish information directly concerned with par­ ent education.

The Department of Agriculture, and the Depart­

ment of the Interior also have continuous investigations into the possibilities of parent education. The National Society for the Study of Education was originally organized as the Herbart Society.

The object of

the society, as stated in its constitution, was "to contem­ plate a serious, continuous, and intensive study of educa­ tional problems.

It stands for no creed or propaganda.

aim, and spirit and method it seeks to be scientific."'

In Par­

ent education has been the subject of several studies considered ^Ernest Osborne, "Modern Parents Go To School", Survey April, 1950, pp. 190-193. ^Sidonie M. Gruenberg, "Program of the Child Study Asso­ ciation of America," Parent Education. The First Yearbook, (Washington, D.C.; National Congress of Parents and Teachers, 1930), pp. 1-35. ?First Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part I, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1902), P. 73.

18 by this learned organization The National Council of Parent Education has given sup­ port for those states and localities desiring programs of parent education.

More than sixty organizations have a mem­

bership in the council,

g

"Parent Education*' is the publication

of the council,■ III.

SUMMARY

This chapter has shown the leading agencies which have been organized to bring about better cooperation between home and school.

The work of the National Congress of Parents and

Teachers has been outlined rather completely as it was felt that the work of this organization is outstanding in this field.

Their attempts to bring about a clear understanding

of American ideals, democratic living, and the full realiza­ tion of the worth of the individual in the American way of life, have brought about examples of fine leadership worthy of continued study and investigation.

8

Ellen C. Lombard, "Parent Education Opportunities," Bulletin No. 3, (Washington, D.C.: United States Office of Education, 1935), p. 1-35.

CHAPTER III

STAFF PREPARATION FOR PARENT MEETINGS This chapter is developed in three parts.

Each part

deals with the main objective, that of planning for the ma­ terial to be presented to the parents, the scheduling of avail­ able time periods, and providing facilities most satisfactor­ ily.

The responsibilities of the principal and the teachers

as members of the school staff, are presented in conjunction •with the Parent Teacher Association responsibilities. I.

PRINCIPAL'S RESPONSIBILITIES

One of the beginning responsibilities of the principal is to present the overall plan to the administrative super­ iors of the school system.

This seldom offers any problem

regarding acceptance of the program, as any normal means by which the school program may be brought before the public, is usually greeted approvingly.

The presentation and acceptance

by those of higher authority usually gives the staff the psychological effect of approval and backing.

If the program

is successful, all will gain professional recognition. The second item of importance, basic to the responsibil­ ities of the principal, deals with setting up the scheduling program so as to best use the existing facilities offered in the local school plant.

Provision for custodial service, the

'20 opening and closing of the school property, the necessary move­ ments of furniture, the erection of certain audio-visual aids, and the provision for normal property protection, are all the responsibility of the principal. The preparation of the master plan of room presentation is to he considered, as all rooms would not truly represent the curriculum area under discussion.

The preparation of the

meeting dates and the time of each meeting would he a serious consideration by the principal.

The recommendations of the

faculty might here he considered. The administrative policy of the school and the system should be available for use as reference.

For example, this

should request that parents make appointments to discuss their child’s problems with the teacher or principal.

These appoint­

ments should be made outside of school hours if possible.

It

should be a period when no interruption would be necessary, as might be found in school time.

Any administrative policies

regarding discipline, the stand on corporal punishment, school rules, and board of education regulations, should clearly be the concern of the principal. A great many publications should be placed at the dis­ posal of the Parent Teacher Association librarian, so that she might check out particular titles to interested parents.

Such

publications should be presented at the evening meetings. Copies of local courses of study, source books of materials

21 for instruction, and other district publications would be of great value in a further interpretation of the program.

Sug­

gested reading might be compiled for those parents wishing to further investigate certain areas on their own. A frank discussion of the philosophy of education attempt ed to be carried on by the school, should be prepared by the principal for reference.

As the administrative and supervisory

head of the school, the principal should have a complete know­ ledge of the needs of the average child in the community. Certain methods and procedures of instruction used in the classroom should be investigated by the principal and the staff for a determination of their effectiveness and education­ al worth.

An explanation by the principal should be available

at all times concerning those methods and procedures used. This would include a review of the current literature and ed­ ucational thought on procedure, classroom techniques, and general methods, prepared by the principal for the teachers. Finally, the principal should be able to give definite examples of how the needs of children are approached and met through the present curriculum of the school.

This might be

shown most easily by a bulletin board presentation of topics to be discussed throughout the parent meeting program.

Glass

discussion would be stimulated by this presentation. As a further responsibility, the principal should initi­ ate an evaluation program.

This would make it possible for the

22 parents to criticise the curriculum or teaching methods, and suggest improvement in the criticised areas.

These justified

criticisms should be prepared and directed to the proper admin­ istrative authorities for action.

A report to the parents

should be made immediately concerning this action. This evaluation plan might take the form of a check­ list sent to parents for them to recommend areas in which un­ derstanding of curriculum or child growth is still needed. Further advice might come from teachers, suggesting areas of the program not sufficiently covered during the meetings.

Also

areas of the overall planning, corrections of time allowance, and the need of more varied materials, might be discussed. There might be many other miscellaneous and detailed responsibilities of the principal.

The delegation of respon­

sibility might be one of the most difficult items to consider. Should the staff decide to make use of a parent questionnaire to find what parents expect of schools, the preparation of the plans for giving this parent survey and the securing of copies would be the responsibility of the principal. The delegation of responsibility for the preparation of certain visual aids materials, charts, collections of pupil papers, presentation of representative texts in current use, and the ability to explain a segment of a total reading program, should reading be the topic of discussion, might also fall on

23 the shoulders of the principal.

The preparation of certain

school rules regarding discipline, conduct, and punishment should be the concern of the principal, although the entire .staff should be concerned with their preparation and enforce­ ment. In conclusion, the principal should prepare an explan­ ation of the released time program of the school, the after school playground program, and any other group activities carried on at the school.

These might include the Cub Scouts,

the Brownies, the Blue Birds, or the ’ Girl Reserve programs. II.

'TEACHER RESPONSIBILITIES ■y

As suggested in the case of the principal's responsibil ities, the responsibilities of the teacher are also many and quite varied.

It would naturally be expected that the teacher

should haye a very complete knowledge of each child in his or her class.

This would include an understanding of ability as

recorded in the standard achievement tests, personal observa­ tion concerning emotional stability, and the child's ability to work with children in a group situation, and other personal habits or special characteristics noted by the teacher.

The

teacher should be responsible for a knowledge of the academic and physical growth characteristics of each child in the class room as compared with their expectancy age.

The child's indi­

vidual social maturity, and a consideration of his mental or

2k physical development should be one of the chief concerns of. the teacher. Finally, the teacher should be able to discuss the child with the parents objectively.

This should be without

the use of high sounding educational terminology.

At this

point, it would be wise for the teacher to become acquainted with certain interview techniques whereby essential information concerning the child, and aiding the school in understanding the child, might be drawn from the visiting parent. The second responsibility of the teacher is to estab­ lish a satisfactory parent education room environment.

It is

supposed that the room environment as set up for the children might very well be most satisfactory.

However, for the parent

education meetings, certain overview explanatory aids might be used to give parents a clearer picture of the total program found at any particular grade level. It is not supposed that the lecture or question and answer methods of presentation will satisfy the needs of the parent groups completely.

In order to vary the interpreta­

tions, probably the attention and interest will be held closer by the use of colorfully constructed charts and diagramatic expl ana t i ons, The suggestion of change in room environment, aside from that normally found when the children are in the room, brings up the problem of extra time needed for such qn environmental

2?.

change.

It is not recommended that any major changes be made,

however.

Certain diagrams and charts carefully explaining

the objectives, the procedures, the facts and skills to be learned, in the total program for that grade level, might be very advantageous.

Of course these would not be used with the

children. It would be expected that the normal room arrangement and the environment would change from one meeting date to the next.

In this way child progress could be noted by the parents

on the development of the various units of work, subject matter areas, and activity levels. A third major responsibility of the teacher might be the preparation of a sound philosophy of discipline and con­ trol.

Often parents expect that teachers, because of their

background, experience, and training, to be a fountain of in­ formation regarding methods and procedures of child control. The teacher is cautioned, however, to have several basic control principles thoroughly in mind, relating to her disciplinary methods.

Usually any type of problem would fall

into one or two of these various types of control principles, and the proper measures would be taken.

The need for continued

study and understanding of new disciplinary measures would be emphasized to the parents.

It should not be expected that the

teacher be completely prepared in absolutely all phases of child control, but more, that a good foundation be available.

26 In a succeeding part

of this project, control measures found

to he adequate, will

be suggested.

In summary, a broad knowledge of child growth and de­ velopment, backed by experience, with special relation to the individual children .in the classroom, would be of the utmost aid to the teacher.

On the part of the classroom teacher, it

might be said, that this knowledge is a necessary prerequisite for beginning a series of parent education meetings. III.

PARENT TEACHER ASSOCIATION RESPONSIBILITIES

The Parent Teacher Association's responsibilities also require definite attention.

As suggested previously, the

Parent Teacher Association, being composed of the lay parents primarily, with a small percentage of teachers, would aid in stabilizing and carrying forward the program. The Parent Study Group program of the National Congress of Parents and Teachers is welcoming opportunities to strengthen the relationship of the home and the school.

In many school

situations, parent-study groups are being established to study the curriculum.

The studies are then presented or interpreted

to the entire local Parent Teacher Association.

This project,

however, suggests the parent meeting, as the method whereby the teachers interpret the schools, in all possible areas, to the parents.

27 A primary responsibility of the Parent Teacher Associa­ tion is to stimulate interest in the program to the extent of having a good representation at all meetings.

In addition to

the regular letter sent home with the child announcing the next Parent-Teacher Association meeting, the personal use of the telephone, post cards, and the placing of small placards advertising the program, might stimulate interest and atten­ dance.

The best means, however, would be word of mouth, and

having a good stimulating set of meetings planned that parents would readily discuss in their everyday social life. It is suggested, that during the question and answer sections of each of the meetings, questions to be asked by parents be framed in writing, and then discussed at the appro­ priate time during the year.

A responsibility of the Parent

Teacher Association would be the planning of a clearing house system, whereby no question would be left unanswered.

In this

way, no significant question would be overlooked during the year or during a meeting, because of time limitations or be­ cause of parental shyness. As has been previously suggested, the Parent Teacher Association librarian should be available to check out books, pamphlets, and literature related to information discussed in the various meetings. The reception of any guest speakers or special visitors should be a Parent Teacher Association responsibility.

Opening

28 and closing the meeting might be handled by the President of the PTA or one of the Vice-presidents.

The preparation and

serving of refreshments could be delegated to responsible members. Finally, especially during the proposed day classes of demonstration, care could be provided for young children.

Par­

ents could then concentrate their thoughts, undisturbed, in gaining the understanding of the class observations.

Such

care should also be provided by mothers from the PTA. In summary, the Parent Teacher Association's organiza­ tion and leadership, inspired by the principal and the teachers, might easily carry the program along to its successful con­ clusion.

CHAPTER I?

ORGANIZATION AND TENTATIVE PLAN FOR MEETINGS This chapter deals primarily with the organizational pattern of the day demonstration meetings, and the night dis­ cussion meetings.

It includes certain explanatory remarks for

the smooth operation of the proposed meetings.

Part Two of

this project is correlated with each meeting described in this chapter. I.

OVERVIEW OF MEETINGS

Twelve meetings are tentatively planned for the school year:

six night discussion meetings and six day demonstration

meetings.

Each night meeting is to be divided into two parts.

During the first part, parents will meet briefly in a general meeting.

Then they will go to individual classrooms to meet

in small groups for the second part of the session.

During the

first part, when everyone is together, subjects of concern to all parents of children at all levels will be discussed.

The

small group meetings would be planned at grade levels, and would be held in the classrooms with regular classroom teachers in charge.

This would provide those parents who seek under­

standing of their child*s curriculum at a certain level, an opportunity to meet with the teacher of that level.

The teacher

would interpret the scheduled area of the curriculum to them at that time.

30 The night meetings would be conducted in the absence of children.

Booms throughout the school would be open demon­

strating their particular contributions to the total program in the curriculum area under discussion.

For example, should

the discussion topic be reading, rooms would be open in which reading materials might be on display.

A teacher would be in

attendance to explain the use of the materials and to answer questions. During the evening, the parents who have children in that particular room would meet to hear a panel discussion or short explanation of the subject. available. centered.

A question period would be

The discussion would be teacher led, but child No individual child would be discussed.

Only frank

discussion based on the curriculum, views of learning based on the training and experience of the teacher, meeting problems and needs of children found in the class or the questions of the parents would be used as suggested topics.

Discussion of

individual cases and individual problems would necessarily come later, either at a special appointment time, or at a report conference time.

It is suggested that registration sheets be

made available in each room, so that parents may sign for ap­ pointments with each teacher at other times.

These would be

other than at school time. In addition to the evening discussion-type meeting, class demonstrations are planned for the following day, during

31 school time.

Part of the evening discussion might well be

stimulated by the coming observation of the classroom procedures and methods to be demonstrated. It is hoped that fathers and mothers would find it possible to attend both types of meetings.

A post-demonstra­

tion question and answer period will follow the day demonstra­ tion meetings. The demonstration meetings will be the primary respon­ sibility of the Parent Teacher Association.

Sections of parents

interested in attending the day demonstration meetings will be asked to reserve places in the observation group for various times during the morning.

These sections will be formed in

groups of fifteen people, which will move through the several rooms during the two morning hours before lunch.

By moving

continuously, stopping for twenty minutes in assigned rooms at various levels, a total elementary school program will be ob­ served.

Should reading be the subject for the meeting, each

teacher will conduct a normal reading program during the morn­ ing period.

Then, 'the groups will be assigned to certain rooms

to see an entire reading lesson, at a definite grade level. This would last for forty minutes.

It is supposed that each

parent will be able to go to his child's room, and see a dem­ onstration.

In this way, parents will have a clearer idea of

the work at. a,certain grade .level, in addition to getting the over all picture from the earlier visitations.

This visitation time was thought to be the most satis­ factory just before lunch time.

In this way, about fifteen

minutes of discussion and questions could follow the demonstra­ tions.

This would come just after the children had been excused

for lunch.

Of course, each teacher would have to make some

provision for changes in the yard duty schedule so as to be able to get lunch. Such a visitation program during the day would also necessitate the use of Parent Teacher Association guides.

These

people would assist the groups in their movement from room to room.

A definite time schedule would have to be followed.

A

maximum of four groups could be successfully accomodated on any one day. Before the groups start on their visits through the var­ ious rooms, a short conference is to be held by the principal. Essential things to look for in the rooms, the need for obser­ vation rather than personal parent conversation or discussion while in the rooms, and the observation of the various methods by which the skillful teacher reaches the objectives of the lessons, might be briefly discussed.

The schedule for time of

arrival and departure would be handed to each guide, and the tour would hegin.

The observation demonstrations would be com­

pleted at the end of the teacher-parent post discussion period.

33 II.

SUGGESTED MEETING PLANS

First Meeting.

It has been found very successful in

other school situations to meet the parents early in the sem­ ester in an informal friendly situation.

When problems follow,

the friendly foundation and atmosphere that has been started, often helps parents, teachers, and pupils find an easier solu­ tion to the correction of any problems. With this goal in mind, the first Parent-education meeting in September i^ould be a general meeting followed by an informal meeting in each classroom.

At this time the main ob­

jectives in behavior and academic work could be presented to the parents.

Any questions or suggestions by the parents could

be discussed with them. It is suggested that a schedule as follows be considered for the first meeting. 7 o'clock

Parents of primary children meet

7:30 o'clock— Parents of upper grade children meet 8 o'clock-

Primary parents refreshments

8:30 o'clock— Upper grade parents refreshments At this time school regulations, room expectations, and general plans, would be discussed.

Any announcements of special

events to come within the semester, Parent Teacher Association Programs, youth meetings, sales or fund raising campaigns, or any major goals of the school for the entire year would be presented.

3*+ Second Meeting. .The second meeting would be on a speci­ fic curriculum subject.. Five specific meetings are tentatively planned.

Since reading might include everyone, this would

probably be a good starting point. A committee of teachers would plan an explanation of a total reading program.

This explanation might be on a panel

discussion basis, with a selected teacher as chairman.

An

overview of all grade levels would be presented in an informal discussion.

A large chart might be constructed and placed in

the front of the room.

This chart would present the overall

objectives of a reading program.

Books, papers, and other

objects might be presented in the room so that parents might see an orderly progression of reading.

In addition, each in­

dividual on the panel might substantiate his statements by presenting charts, student papers, and results (if possible). In these ways it is hoped parents would get a much clearer idea about what needs teachers are attempting to meet with children through the curriculum. After a short discussion period, questions and sugges­ tions would be received from the parents.

Perhaps the exhibits

on the surrounding walls might stimulate objective discussion. The meeting would end with a good summary statement either by the panel chairman, or the teacher in the individual room. Refreshments would be served by the Parent Teacher Association.

35 Third and Succeeding meetings-

The third, fourth, fifth,

and sixth meetings would be handled in a similar way.

The sub­

jects covered in the meeting would be clearly stated.

The room

environment would be set up by the teacher considering the ob­ jectives of the curriculum area to be discussed.

Again a group

of teachers would organize the material to be presented.

This

would be presented in individual classrooms, with a frank period of parent and teacher discussion following each period.

At the-

close of each meeting, the chairman might make a positive state­ ment relating to the subject at hand, and food would be served by the Parent Teacher Association. These last four meetings would deal with the Language Arts, (including Writing and Spelling), Arithmetic, the Social Studies, (including Civics and Practical Arts), and a combina­ tion of Health and Physical Education.

Other important sub­

jects in the curriculum would have to be discussed on the same basis in future years.

During the last meeting, a brief sketch

for the curriculum pattern, rather than an intensive study might be arranged.

Plans for the coming year might also be

discussed at this time. III. FURTHER ORGANIZATION The membership of the parent education meetings should be composed of any interested individuals who wish to attend. It is suggested, however, that a definite registration be

36 conducted for those parents wishing to take part in the day observation lessons be considered.

In this way each interest­

ed parent might have an equal opportunity to offer his time, and have a chance to see a demonstration.

No parent would

feel as though he had been left out when someone else was chosen to attend. It would be necessary to arrange for certain supplies. These supplies would include paper and pencils for parent note taking.

All the necessary materials, needed dinnerware, and

utensils for refreshments would have to be provided by the school if they were available.

The supplies needed by the

publicity chairman, as usual, would be provided by the school dr from PTA funds. The publicity chairman of the Parent Teacher Association would organize her committee in such a way that every parent in the school would be notified of each meeting.

This should,

be done at an early date, promptly, and personally, if possible. The use of the telephone by members of her committee should not be neglected. As the superintendent of schools has not been presented to the community as yet, it would be altogether fitting to con­ duct a reception for him, in addition to carrying on the reg­ ular parent education program.

At this time it might be sug­

gested that the superintendent discuss the philosophy of

education 'Which is basic to his thinking as educational leader of the school system. Finally, as a consideration of the effectiveness of the tentative organization, an evaluation questionnaire could be presented.

The questionnaire could be the outgrowth of the

meetings of parents and teachers and aid in improving the pro­ gram. In conclusion, it might be well to request of each par­ ent attending the parent education meetings, a short written statement of his educational beliefs.

This should be suggested

before the meetings begin, and then again at the conclusion of the total program.

A rough evaluation of the effectiveness of

the technique might be planned at the staff evaluation meetings.

'PART II.

THE CURRICULUM OF PARENT MEETING PROGRAMS

CHAPTER I

GENERAL CONTROL AND DISCIPLINE In considering the needs of the children and community, the workshop session of teachers selected the phases of con­ trol and discipline as being one of the most important aspects of improvement in our school life.

Prom personal experiences

in the community, this has been the springboard of many prob­ lems,

An outline based upon our philosophy in light of our

community problems is presented in this chapter giving a basis for our support, and satisfying our need for definite state­ ments . I. A,

A PHILOSOPHY OF CONTROL

We consider a desirable goal of conduct for children 1,

The ability to "reason through" on problems and to determine the right course of action

2,

The ability to exercise self-discipline in following the right course of action

3,

The ability to behave properly on own initiative at level of own ability

B.

Levels which lead to self-control 1,

Fear of consequences— burn by stove, etc,

2,

Adult rule

3,

Seeking of approval from own group or shrinking from disapproval

39 Exercise of self-control for the good of the group C.

Our attitudes toward control problems 1.

Development of child's self-control and initiative one of our prime responsibilities

2.

We should try to correct conditions before control problems arise.

3.

We should seek the cause of control problems rather than treating the symptoms. When making an evaluation of a control problem, the teacher should consider what effect the individual or individuals have had upon the group, not what has been done to the teacher

5.

Where the child is capable of understanding, the teacher should emphasize that the offender must compensate for a wrong done, rather than being punished.

If child

makes a mistake, let him help others avoid the mistake;' In this way he may learn importance of not making mistakes. D.

Common behavior problems which we must face. who are 1.

Withdrawing

2.

Unsocial

3.

Unhappy

*+.

Distressed

5.

Resentful

Children

*+0 6.

Defiant

7.

Fearful

8,

Bullies

9,

Easily discouraged

10.

Critical

11.

Inclined to steal

12. "Untruthful

E.

13.

Inclined to cheat

1*+.

Inclined to he obscene

15.

Destructive,

Probable reasons for mis-behaving 1.

Inability to adjust to other children

2.

Inability to adjust to academic work

3.

Physical fatigue

*+.

Real or imagined mental inferiority

5.

Inability to find enough to do

6.

Short interest span

7.

Insecurity of not understanding what is wanted

8.

Unsatisfactory home environment— home should build up responsibility for leisure time

9. F.

Physical size

Suggested list of best methods of meeting child’s behavior problems 1.

Understand each child and his problems

2.

Keep a friendly, helpful attitude toward each child

3.

Being willing to listen to troubles— at the appropriate time

*f.

Lead child toward constructive solution

5.

Guide "outcasts” into group functions by a.

Steering them toward successful classroom contri­ butions

b.

Steering them into successful playground partici­ pation

c.

Guiding the group toward an understanding of the group's responsibility for the happiness of the individual

6.

Arrange the classroom in an attractive and restful motif

7.

Strive for emotional tranquillity by a.

Adherence to "positive" suggestions

b,

Control and use of voice

8.

Plan lessons which are interesting to children

9.

Plan lessons which are within mental grasp of children

10.

Plan lessons which call for a reasonable amount of physical activity

11.

Conduct parent conferences— early in the semester II.

NOTES ON DAILY CONTROL

Each teacher attempts to build these things each week

k2

1.

Explanations of rules a.

Why we play away from the buildings (safety, thinking of our friends)

b.

Why we play out of rest rooms (develop respect for public property and to save the custodians extra work)

c.

Why we don't throw sand and rocks (Safety) (1)

Yard teacher can help to keep too many children from playing in the sand box at the same time, by starting a simple game

(2) 2,

Wet sand .often helps

Evaluation of weeks activities a.

Acknowledge those who played in designated area

b.

Acknowledge those who helped friends by abiding by standards

c.

Teacher work out week’s games for noon and recess time.

Suggested posted sheet in room.

(Group ■

children, according to physical maturation if necessary) d.

Teacher supervises play on playground equipment during Physical Education period

B.

Daily control procedure 1.

Teacher should take children out and bring them into room from recess periods, before school, and at the conclusion of the noon recess period,

.Be-with them

when the bell rings, and when they line up. 2.

Teachers supervise lavatory and fountain, if children are small.

Assign leaders, so that there will be no

trouble for the leader. 3.

Keep rooms locked.

Yard teacher will check those who do not a.

Obey freeze bell

b.

Play incorrectly on the equipment

c.

Remain on sidewalks

d.

Refrain from the use of paper towels as a wet head cooler (limited supply) (Note:

On primary yard duty, one teacher is near

equipment and the other circulates to the third grade area) G.

Contacts through the Parent Teacher Association 1.

Parents should expect small children home directly after school.

Many children often stay until the

playground opens, a dangerous practice.

(No super­

vision. ) D.

Playground after school hours 1.

The same standards should be upheld after school hours since this is a school playground.

This will avoid

confusion as to when certain activities can or cannot be carried on

Mf III.

SUGGESTED CLASSROOM CONTROL AT PRIMARY LEVEL

A.

Room arranged so as to avoid negative situations

B.

Room standards made by group planning.

This way the child­

ren see a reason for them and the standards are purposeful to the children. C.

Types of control 1.

Self control is the ultimate goal,

2.

Approval— teacher and the group

3.

Praise

*f. Coercion— to compel to action a.

Example:

"Bill, see how nicely John is sitting?"

In praising one child, it tends to make others conform. D.

Types of punishment 1.

Isolation:

gives the child a chance to think about

his behavior and to try to gain self control.

Should

not be used too frequently for the child will try to gain attention through a negative rather than a pos­ itive situation 2.

Deprivation of privileges: for controlled behavior.

privileges are a reward To deprive a child of them

may help him to understand the need for control. 3.

Removal:

removal of a child from a negative situation

by saying, "You’ll be more comfortable sitting here,"

or, "You seem to be tired. help you feel better."

Perhaps a little

rest will

This draws attention away from

the undesirable behavior rather than calling attention to it. Suggested principles to remember 1.

Be fair and just; have no favorites,

2.

Always control yourself.

3.

Avoid threats, but be sure to carry out those you

are

forced to make. *+. Avoid nagging; demand immediate obedience. 5.

Speak to individuals quietly; avoid interrupting the class.

6.

Secure absolute order and attention before speaking to the class.

7.

Motivate the work properly.

8 . Anticipate possible disorder and prevent it. 9.

Be sure the child knows w h y he is being punished.

10.

Be consistent.

11.

Keep a calm low voice, but a firm one.

12.

Always use a positive approach.

13.

Keep group interest by asking question first, then name the child who is to answer.

1*+.

Say things only once.

IV.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, we are attempting to reach goals of self discipline by considering the emotional adjustments needed to be made by the children in our environment.

We have set stan­

dards for group behavior as yell as individual behavior.

We

plan to meet problems of control by better understanding the problems of self-discipline and demands of the society into which our children have been thrust.

CHAPTER II

OUTLINE FOR READING It Is hoped that the teaching of reading in our school ■will so inspire children with a love for reading that they will be discriminating in their selection of reading material, thoroughly prepared in the skills to do good, successful, sat­ isfying reading,- and have the beginning development of a great appreciation for the best in literature. In this chapter, a program was planned whereby teachers In the primary grades would understand how the foundation skills are used to advantage in the upper grades.

When pre­

senting upper grade reading material to parents, a knowledge of the foundation skills would aid in a more complete under­ standing goals of the total reading program by upper grade teachers.

It must be emphasized that this is only a rough .

outline, and not to be construed as complete in all the- details. I. A.

FIRST GRADE LEVEL

Objectives 1.

To develop interest in reading

2.

To appreciate a need for reading

3.

To enjoy, use, and care for books

*f.

To develop good oral expression

5.

To develop ability to interpret pictures

hS

B.

C.

6,

To increase vocabulary

7.

To learn word sounds

Skills developed in First Grade 1.

To open a book

2.

To turn pages

3.

To read from top to bottom

k.

To read from left to right

5,

To read from front to back of the book

Procedures used 1.



Reading by the teacher to the children a.

Charts

b.

Names of pictures

c.

Stories (Note:

^

When the teacher reads to the children,

the children follow the pictures.

In this manner,

the child learns, before actually reading, to do everything involved in reading except to know the actual words in the sentence.) 2.

Building reading readiness a.

Children are encouraged to express themselves orally; enriching, extending, and clarifying concepts.

Suitable discussions are

(1)

Planning x?ork or play experiences

(2)

Trips, nature walks, nature study experiences

(3)

Pictures

b.

(if)

Charts

(5)

Labels

Writing of simple group stories, actual experiences, and reading the stories (1)

Make duplicate experience charts; divide into sentences, phrases, and words.

(2) c.

Reassemble chart correctly.

Pre-primers (1)

When charts are mastered, pre-primers are introduced.

Charts are in continued use

however, (2)

Reading readiness age 78 months, mental age

(3)

Children must be well grounded in vocabulary before beginning pre-primers

d.

Advantages of experience method (1)

Natural appeal

(2)

High motivation

(3)

Children introduced to reading through real life situations and natural interests

(if)

More words introduced with satisfying results

(5)

Less need for repetition as method supplanted by intensity of experience

Goals achieved by the end of the First Grade or in the early Second Grade

50 a.

Pupils learn to engage in continuous, meaningful reading of simple material.

b.

Pupils acquire interest in independent reading. II.

A.

B.

SECOND AND THIRD GRADE LEVELS

Causes of Reading Difficulty 1.

Defective bodily organisms

2.

Unusual organic characteristics

3.

Deficient psychological processes

*+.

Constitutional immaturity

5.

Educational immaturity

6.

Inadequate reading techniques

7.

Insufficient background of experiences

Reading deficiencies may be due to ineffectual type of teaching 1.

Effective types of teaching employ self-directive materials generously so that time can be spared for *

supervision of individuals. 2.

Use materials easy enough to permit natural fullfledged reading.

3.

Criteria a.

Interesting content

b.

Methods that arouse interest

c.

Correlation of reading with other interests

d.

Check up on the basic skills at reasonable intervals.

51 e. C.

Provide an abundance of easy reading*

Criteria for types of material 1.

Material should be highly interesting to the pupil*

2.

Material should be of proper difficulty.

3.

Various types should be represented.

b.

Time allowances should be generous,

5.

Successes should be emphasized.

6.

Practice should be so distributed as to avoid fatigue and boredom.

7.

A variety of exercises and activities should be pro­ vided.

8.

Devices that constantly urge the pupil to discover the outstanding points of reading passages available.

D.

Skills and Achievements during the Second and Third Years1 1.

Using reading as a tool for learning in school life activities

2.

Improvement in comprehension of reading text

3.

Increased fluency in silent reading

b.

Growth in word-recognition skills

5.

Growth in understanding of word meanings

6.

Increased competence In oral reading for social

Gertrude Hildreth, "Reading Programs in Grades II and 11111> Forty-eighth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Part II Tchleago: The University of Chicago Press, 19^9), PP. 93-9^.

52 situations 7..

Improvement in study skills involving reading for gaining information, reading for detail, solving prob­ lems, collecting,'remembering and reporting information, and using reference sources

8,

Growth in independence in the use of books and other materials

9.

Gain in knowledge about reading sources, knowing the types of books there are, finding out what a book contains, choosing books for different purposes, using library facilities.

10.

Growth in acquaintance with good literature; interest in reading good books for recreation

E.

Teacher’s responsibilities 1.

Determine the abilities and achievement of pupils at the beginning of the year as a basis for grouping and instruction.

2.

Maintain a balanced program of activities in which reading plays an important role.

3.

Provide daily for the functional use of oral and silent reading,

*f.

Unify reading with language activities and curriculum units so far as this is possible in terms of the class program,

5.

Manage the learning situation in the classroom.

53 6.

Select suitable materials and construct study mater­ ials as needed.

7.

Systematic training of all pupils in the skills listed above with provisions for individual needs

8.

Help pupils become increasingly self-dependent in the use of reading materials.

9.

Provide for individualization of instruction so that every pupil can make continuous progress in spite of difference in rate of growth.

10.

Develop in the pupils favorable attitudes toward reading and interest in improvement.

11.

Use reliable and efficient methods of checking up systematically on pupil progress and maintain compre­ hensive developmental records to accompany the pupils as they move into the intermediate grades.

F.

Devices 1.

Mark the two things most important in this paragraph.

2.

Mark the sentence that tells what the paragraph is about.

3.

Suggest yes-no sentences.

V.

Fill in the blanks.

5.

Use questions that can be exactly answered by the printed sentences.

6.

Use questions that cannot be precisely answered in the passage.

5i+..

7.

Use questions that suggest finding the ending.

8.

Draw a line under the right ending in each sentence.

9.

Use action exercises— written on blackboard, a.

Go to the board, Write your name, Take a book, Give John a book.

10.

Picture checking exercises

11.

Completion exercises

12.

Multiple choice exercises

13.

Incomplete sentences accompanied by several possible end ings

l*t.

Making thought units, using most important sentences

15.

Retell parts of stories with the aid of pictures on the bulletin board.

16.

Provide for plenty of discussion of stories in the readers.

Ask questions to draw out the children's

ideas and encourage the pupils to ask questions in turn. 17.

Hold discussion for planning for activities and as a basis for making reading charts and leaflets.

18.

Have pupils give class reports of their reading.

19.

Discuss topics that arise in school life.

20.

Choose topics of conversation from the child's school and home life.

55 21.

Relate the conversation vocabulary to the reading vocabulary.

Be sure that the children see, say, and

hear the same words. 22.

Through discussion, prepare children for reading terms >

such as "cloudy” , or new word forms, e.g. "thought". 23.

Have the group compose a story co-operatively.

2*+.

Call attention to sentences in reading and to correct grammatical forms so that the pupils will learn how to phrase their own sentences better.

G.

Methods of recognizing words 1.

Striking characters

2.

Dependence on general configuration, (ball, bell; hall, etc.,)

3.

Spelling method (slow process)

*+.

Phonetic analysis (not to be used to excess— be very moderate)

5.

Visual analysis of words (several word parts)

6.

Dependence on context (encourage using this method)

7.

Have an abundance of selections using new words re­ peatedly. III.

A.

UPPER GRADES

Emphasis: Improvement of Reading < (Note: In order to improve our reading, we need to be aware of many factors.

As in the lower grades, we need to

group our children according to their similarities.) 1.

Methods of grouping a.

Cumulative cards, reading comprehension score from achievement tests of previous year, or most recent year

b.

Informal reading tests 5 reading a simple paragraph and answering two fact questions, and one thought question

c.

Oral reading at sight (not highly recommended)

Skills we are trying to develop 1.

Developing comprehension a.

Following directions and finding information (a definite need to follow printed directions). Children need lots of aid in this area.

b.

Finding answers to personal and social problems

c.

Reading a story for various purposes— outcome, humor, or dramatization

d. 2.

3.

Understanding words

Reading to remember a.

Remembering important ideas

b.

Remembering significant details

Associating ideas and materials a.

Many methods of developing this skill (1)

Finding prodf

(2)

Finding and reading passages to verify

57 (3)

Finding information relevant to particular problems

If.

C.

Organizing ideas and materials a.

Arranging events in sequence

b.

Making outlines (difficult)

c.

Summarizing

Sample directed reading lesson 1.

Development of readiness for the day’s story

2.

Orient children to the story

3.

Introductory reading —

*+.

Specific vocabulary development.

guided silent reading (At least three

■words in the story)': 5.

Re-reading either silent or oral, but for a definite purpose

6,

D,

Follow up a.

Assignment— extending skills and abilities

b.

Reading for enjoyment

c.

Appraisal of the assignment

Suggested questioning and response for improving reading 1.

Reading for a purpose-:-improving speed a.

What is the same about reading and wearing clothes? (Mention everyday things to read, school books, newspapers, magazines, and compare with everyday clothes.)

b.

You have game books, stories to read for fun or

for parties; and you have "dress up clothes" for going out c. The main thing is

that both in reading and in

dressing the way you do, is dependent on the PURPOSE. d.

How fast shall I read:

The question should be

changed to "How fast shall I read what?"

The

answer depends on the ♦w h a t 1. Rules to regulate speed a.

Read rapidly when

you read for entertainment.

Pay attention to the story itself, and not to the details. b.

Read as fast as you can.

Read rapidly when information.

you skim to locate specific

Do not read every name in the tele­

phone directory, or even every page in the encyclo­ pedia.

Skim rapidly over everything until you

locate the material you want. c.

Read rapidly when you are reading a newspaper. Newspaper reading does not require as careful attention as a textbook or scientific article. Adjust your speed to the difficulty or importance of the article.

d.

Read rapidly when reading familiar material.

When

reviewing, you can grasp ideas more quickly than on the first reading.

Read as fast as possible

when reviewing. e.

Read slowly when reading technical material to glean details.

Here every word counts.

Take notes,

and read carefully and slowly. f.

Read slowly when reading difficult material with complex sentences and unfamiliar ideas or terms. Do not go on to the next paragraph until you are sure that you understand the first.

Use the dic­

tionary to look up unfamiliar words. g.

Adjust your rate of reading to the purpose for which the reading is being done. IV.

CONCLUSION

By implementing such a program as suggested in this chapter,

it

is hoped thatpower will be gained by children in

reading,

so

that it couldbecome one of the most enjoyable

pleasures of life.

Of course, so many approaches to the

problem of improving reading are possible, that this represents only a minimum outline of what may be done.

CHAPTER III

OUTLINE FOR LANGUAGE ARTS, WRITING, AND SPELLING In order to stimulate growth in simple, correct, and colorful language expression, it is necessary that we provide children with opportunities to hear, learn, and use correct expression as spoken and written.

In this chapter, emphasis

has been placed on the skills needed to insure language growth suitable to the needs of children at every age level. I. A.

KINDERGARTEN, FIRST AND SECOND GRADE LEVELS

Oral Language— growth and development 1.

2.

Objectives a.

Basis for reading readiness

b.

Basis for clear thinking

c.

Basis for meaningful expression

Procedures used a.

Planning, discussing, evaluation work

b.

Teaching correct terminology

c.

Working with paints, clay, blocks, etc., and evaluating

3.

Skills Developed a.

Better self expression

b.

Richer, wider vocabulary

c.

Clear enunciation

61

d.

Clear and correct pronunciation

e.

Correct use of simple English sentences

f.

Oral expression; conversation, discussion, story telling, making reports, reading aloud, dramatiz­ ing, improvement of pronunciation, enunciation, and oral expression

g.

Written expression:

writing notes and letters,

making news reports, reporting on reading, out­ lining h.

Study Skills:

reading for information, using the

table of contents, learning library skills, learn­ ing to listen with full comprehension to language or reading, appreciating and enjoying literature i.

Other skills:

vocabulary meanings, word building,

spelling, handwriting; the recognition and inter­ pretation of typographical devices, punctuation marks, quotation marks, headings, and titles B.

Written language 1.

2.

Objectives a.

Fulfill need to write

b.

Awaken desire for creative writing

c.

Increase ability to express ideas

Procedures used a.

Class dictates story

b.

File boxes used

62 c. 3.

Letters written

Skills developed a.

Becoming aware of letter form

b.

Becoming aware of letter proportion

c.

Becoming aware of spacing

d.

Learning to spell and file II.

(Note: A.

B.

HANDWRITING, GRADES ONE AND TWO

Handwriting is not taught or evaluated in Kindergarten.)

Objectives 1.

To develop large muscle movement

2.

To learn manuscript letter forms

3.

To learn general writing movements

*+.

With background built, to introduce abstract symbols

Procedures used 1.

Demonstrate and constantly check on good position at blackboard and at seat.

2.

Use of large crayola and large folded paper

3.

Demonstrate actual letter forms ofmanuscript

*f. Large lead pencil introduced in B2 5. C.

Introduce numbers in B2

Skills developed 1.

Ability to write given and surname

2 . Ability to write simple and well formed

letters

3.

Ability to use large, open, simple, well formed letters

b.

Ability to keep letters on a line

5.

Ability to observe height in words

6.

Ability to write simple words used-in spelling

7.

The writing of two or three word sentences using spelling words

8.

Labels, pictures, and objects. III.

HANDWRITING, GRADES THREE AND FOUR

Objectives 1.

Change from manuscript to cursive brought about in when background of child is ready.

2.

Introduce and improve cursive writing.

3.

Construct letter forms slightly smaller.

b.

Form letters correctly.

5".

Maintain uniform height of capitals and small letters.

6.

Keep letters and words on a line,

7.

Observe a similar space between words, and a similar space between letters.

8.

Stimulate best writing skills in children.

9.

Introduce a high standard of accomplishment.

10.

Consider remedial measures for mirror writing, left handed, physically handicapped (visual), motor coordina tion.

6**

B.

Procedures Used 1.

Allow for standards suggesting the correct adjustment of posture.

2.

Suggest correct paper and pencil position.

3.

Observe a uniform slant, even height, normal space between letters and words.

b.

Drill on certain letters. Make corrections when used in normal context

C.

Skills Developed 1.

An interest in writing well

2.

Forming letters more nearly perfect

3.

Demonstrating writing skill in all written work Use of primary pencil, blackboard, chalk, and eraser IV.

A.

B.

HANDWRITING IN THE UPPER GRADES

Objectives 1.

Confidence gained in pencil cursive writing

2.

Introduction of ink, beginning in the fourth grade

3.

Acquiring of reasonable speed and ease of writing

Procedure 1.

Further reduce the size of the letter forms.

2.

Change from primary pencil to regulation pencil in last half of Fourth Grade or when child seems ready in Fifth Grade,

6?

3. C.

Acquire skill in the use of pen and ink

Skills developed 1.

Improvement of letter forms

2.

Make more nearly correct space between word and letters

3.

Create a uniform height

if.

Improve rhythm and speed of writing under all condi­ tions V.

A.

The Goal:

B.

Procedures 1.

UPPER GRADE CREATIVE WRITING

Understanding of ideas

Talk over subject at hand— Social Studies, Science, etc.

2.

Allow children to explain and clarify meanings if possible.

3.

Lead children to withhold ideas if they are not sign­ ificant.

C.

if.

List words on board as children use them.

5.

If new words are needed supply them in the context.

Skills Developed 1.

Discovery of relatidn between personal experiences and people beyond personal contact

2.

Recognition of the difference between significant and insignificant contributions

3.

Grasp and follow ideas by listening

66

D.

b,

Use of words having concrete meaning

5,

Use correct pronunciation of words

6#

Form visual image of words written and spelled correctly

Critical Thinking 1.

Procedure a.

Reason with children to determine whether facts support the conclusion.

2.

Skills developed a.

Cause-to-effect ideas in subject matter discussions and writing

b.

Occasional effect-to-cause technique in story writing

c.

Logical reasoning resulting in logical presenta­ tion of ideas, both written and spoken

d.

More critical proof reading of own writing for logical flow of ideas

E.

Organization of ideas 1.

Procedure a.

Build outlines with children

b.

Use cause-effect reasoning by questioning the relation of each idea to those preceding and following

2.

Skills developed a.

Understanding of the reason for outlining

b.

Understanding the methods of outlining

67 c.

Further development of logical thinking, of expres­ sing complete ideas orally by following outline, and of writing complete sentences and paragraphs following an outline

F.

Extension of Ideas 1.

Procedure a.

Discuss words needed to convey feeling and concept over and above those needed for concrete meaning

b. 2.

Extend use of dictionary

Skills developed a.

Develop consciousness of words and meanings (with advanced children develop idea of relation between sounds and meanings)

b. G.

Develop "dictionary habit" with advanced children

Efficient Writing 1.

Procedure a.

Drill on slant, spacing, uniformity and letter formation.

Amount and type of drill depends on

needs. 2.

Skills developed a.

Develop a style of writing which is clearly legible, rapidly performed, and pleasing in appearance. (Note:

Written and oral skills receive special

attention during’language periods, but it is to be emphasized that the preceding language goals

68

are not to be accepted as part of an isolated sub­ ject.

Inasmuch as ideas are usually manipulated

through work-symbols, the basis of language— understanding, critical thinking, the organization of ideas, and the extension of ideas— is also the basis of every school subject.

Our master goals

cannot be achieved in a single lesson or in a single day. VI. (Notes

SPELLING, FIRST AND SECOND GRADES

No spelling taught in Kindergarten nor is any check

made on a pupil’s ability to spell at that level.) A.

Objectives First and Second Grade 1.

To spell and -write given name for identification of papers (Bl)

2.

To spell

and write given name and surname (Al)

3.

To write

and spell a minimum of twenty-five words,

selected from a child's work experience and reading vocabulary *+.

To use words in preparation for simple two word stories

5.

To write

two or three word sentences about pupil's

interests in home, school, or community 6.

To teach meaning, use, and spelling of words assigned to grade one or two

69 B.

Procedures 1.

Use crayolas and folded, paper

2.

Begin two and three word stories attempted

3.

Add needed words relating to and concerning interests given

C.

b.

Revieitf of basic words taught in B1 and A1

5.

Learn to spell through writing

Presenting Spelling Through Writing 1.

Advantages a.

Allows children ready to write opportunity without preliminary instruction in mechanics, penmanship, and spelling drills.

2.

b.

Informal and functional approach

c.

Satisfies child’s urge to say something in writing

d.

Soon learns words without refering to word box

Criteria of writing readiness a.

Child able to express himself in sentences

b.

Child able to dictate simple stories

c.

A desire to write expressed by child

d.

Adequate physical, mental, and emotional develop­ ment

3.

Individual writing procedure a.

Child writes own story on large paper

b.

Asks for word needed in story— raises hand as teacher comes to him

c.

Teacher writes word on word card

d.

Child,, using two fingers, traces ii/ord until he thinks he can write it,

e.

Child covers work; attempts to write it on extra paper or on the blackboard,

f.

Files in word box, if word correct,

Small group writing procedure a.

Children dictate story, "We made a Silo."

b.

Teacher writes all but "silo".

c.

One child asked to write word; teacher shows

how

to write on blackboard, at one side. d.

Child traces word on board with two fingers

e.

Teacher erases and child writes word into sentence

f.

Procedure repeated until whole group learned process

Reminders to teachers a.

Initial tracing and writing of words must be closely supervised

b.

Children allowed to use any words,., even those thought too difficult or unsuitable by the teacher

c.

Spelling and writing should be kept at functional level for child

d.

Allow children to write of own interests rather than teacher suggested interests

e.

Encourage child mastery by repetition of tracing

71 f.

Emphasize saying and writing of words, rather than the individual letters and their sounds

g.

Allow each child to go at his own pace

h. Be calm, encouraging, enthusiastic VII. A,

SPELLING, THIRD THROUGH SIXTH GRADES

Objectives 1.

Interest children in need for learning to spell

2.

Adjust spelling to childs needs, interests, and abilities

3.

Allow for presentation of many words for child vocab­ ulary improvement

*+.

Teach relation of sounds to spelling of words

5.

Improve knowledge of alphabet

6.

Teach correction of own spelling difficulties.

7.

Understand plurals and how formed

8.

Ability to write understandable letters, notes, and t

compositions B.

Procedures for daily work 1.

Friday a.

Progress record of previous w e e k ’s spelling placed in spelling book by each child

b.

Teacher presents new words for at a time.

Used in a story.

new lesson, one

c.

Class writes word on folded paper

d.

Meaning discussed, strange construction, small words found within the large spelling word.

Use

word in a sentence, e.

Word underlined hy syllables, vowels marked, silent letters marked,

f.

Class checks word with copy on the board

g.

Extra words presented to good spellers, while words rewritten three times on folded paper by rest of class

h.

(1)

Look at the word.

(2)

Write the word.

(3)

Check the word with copy on the blackboard.

Pretest given on words discussed for the day

Monday a.

Teacher presents second half of words

b.

Follows Friday routine

c.

Pretest given of all words, new words, review words, and extra words

Tuesday a.

Children write words in short sentences as teacher dictates words.

b.

Children check for accuracy

c.

Kinesthetic techniques attempted with poor

spellers

73 d.

Free choice for those having perfect papers on previous w e e k ’s words, and perfect papers on dictated words

Wednesday a.

Children work by themselves.

Complete riddles,

study extra words, test themselves b.

Each word presented to the class in a short sen­ tence

5.

C.

Thursday a.

Words dictated in simple sentences slowly

b.

Word games, spelling bee

Suggestions for improvement in spelling 1.

Stimulate interest and need to learn to spell accurately

2.

Combat lack of interest by a.

Allowing good papers to go home

b.

Presenting good work on school or room bulletin board

c.

Keeping an individual progress graph

d.

Never compare one child with another.

e.

Adjust number of words to child's ability.

f.

Give exercises in forming plurals, building words that rhyme, marking vowels, and silent letters.

g.

Gradually increase number of words* child masters each week.

7b h.

Words are always selected considering child’s reading level

i.

Give plenty of opportunity for use of words learned, and _to be learned VIII.

CONCLUSION

This chapter has presented a brief outline of the objectives, procedures, and skills developed in various levels of the oral and written language program.

Certain aspects of

creative writing have been emphasized in the upper grades. The spelling program was given as a beginning for discussion, only with definite procedures recommended, and further inves­ tigation suggested.

CHAPTER IV

ARITHMETIC AT ALL LEVELS ♦

It is quite evident, as the more modern school has evolved, that the teaching of arithmetic fails to follow the sequence or natural orderliness of which it was known in the traditional school.

Out main concern seems to be toward

placing an emphasis on the usefulness of arithmetic in life situations. pared.

With that in mind, the following outline was pre­

Proper credit should be given the Los Angeles Board

of Education's Course of Study for Elementary Schools, as much of the information in this chapter was taken from that publication. I. A.

OVERALL OBJECTIVES

To develop successfully, the meaning of arithmetic concepts for each child

B.

To

C.

To

develop arithmetic skills needed make number meanings significant and necessary to the

life of the child D.

To

stimulate in child thinking, the finding of approximate

results to test their reasoning and validity of answers II. A.

IMMEDIATE OBJECTIVES AND PROCEDURES

Kindergarten objectives

76 1.

Give a background of number experiences, i.e., age, number of people in family, house number, etc.

2.

Count room objects and divide with others by counting and taking turns

3. B.

Increase meaningful practical concepts

Methods of meeting objectives for Kindergarten 1.

Learn birthdate, telephone number, etc*

2.

Count at least ten articles

3.

Use counters, beads, acorns, etc.

*+.

Using and counting for understanding, simple money terms

C.

5.

Dividing the day intoperiods

of time

6.

Dividing and sharing with others

7.

Provision for the counting of many kinds of articles

Objectives for Grade One 1.

To develop meanings for words expressing quantity .and value

2.

a.

Smaller, larger

b.

Shorter, longer

c.

Less, more

To make generous use of words expressing number mean­ ings a.

Almost enough

b.

Near recess time

c.

Large chickens

77 3.

Develop ability

to listen and think

*f.

Develop ability

to respond alone aswell asin a group

experience D.

E.

Procedures used in Grade One 1.

Counting children in the room for daily attendance

2.

Counting orders for milk

3.

Counting books for reading group

*+,

Counting play equipment, balls, jump ropes, etc.

5".

Taking turns with swings or slides, or jump ropes

6.

Counting Parent Teacher memberships

7.

Dividing fruit, cookies, or candy with others

8.

Folding paper into halves, or fourths

Objectives for Grade Two 1.

To continue to develop meanings of words expressing quantity, time, and value

2.

To continue generous use of words, expressing number meaning, as they present a need in work and play periods

3.

To count money as two or more pennies, nickels, or ' quarters

*f.

To count articles up to one hundred

5.

To further the meaning of division, such as one half a piece of paper, etc.

6.

To read numbers such as house numbers, speedometers, traffic zone mileage

7.

To write number symbols to one hundred

8.

To introduce weights and store or

9.

To learn

10,

To begin

measures,as used in

playing

measuring areas for games to tell time simple addition using objectsto illustrate

adding; first one object to others, then two objects, then three, etc. 11,

To add simple Combinations to make *+,6,8,10, and 12.

Procedures Whereby Needs of Grade Two Are Met 1.

Opportunities are given for children to handle money and make ehange, as in the cafeteria

2.

A yardstick is used to measure paper,

cloth, or play

areas 3.

Pin£, quart, and half■pint bottles are used

*+. Egg cartons help learn counting, and the term dozen. 5.

Learning to tell time by making clocks

6.

Allowing for many opportunities whereby children may express themselves using a number language

Grade Three Objectives 1.

Provide a rich background of number meanings

2.

Develop meaning of words expressing quantity, distance, and value

3.

Continue in use of money for counting, making change, transactions and manipulation.

*+.

Continue reading and writing numbers and telling time.

79

H.

5.

Provide simple experiences of weights and measures

6.

Provide problems in simple addition

7.

Continue number stories

Procedures used in Grade Three 1.

Count by 2's, 5's and l O ’s to 100

2.

Learn 100 addition and 100 subtraction facts

3.

Learn two or three figure addition and subtraction, and combinations of each

b.

Teach proving and checking of numbers, and carrying in addition

5.

Solve many examples requiring reading, thinking, and the ability to add and subtract

6.

Make provision for number reading experiences and means of identifying larger and smaller numbers

7.

Continue introduction of language and symbols, i.e., add, subtract, plus (sign), equals, $ (dollar sign), ^ (cents sign), difference, and remainder.

8.

Add and subtract zero to and from other numbers.

9.

Read numbers to ten thousand, and dates and addresses

10.

Make possible the teaching of money numbers, to be added and subtracted, to and from other numbers.

11.

Know and solve problems using tables of weights and measures

12.

Teach Roman Numerals through XII

13.

Read a thermometer

I1*., Learn one, tens, and hundreds place Objectives of Grade Four 1.

Cover and.review objectives of grade three

2.

Learn to estimate probable results to problems

3.

Learn to think, and to solve more difficult story problems

*4-.

Make good use of the fundamental processes as presented to this grade level

5.

Stimulate pupil to work to his capacity

Areas of instruction covered in grade four 1.

Add and subtract longer columns of larger figures

2.

Continue to teach the reading and writing of larger numbers

3.

Roman numerals through thirty, then by tens to hundred and thousand

b,

To teach subtraction a.

Changing column subtraction

b.

Subtraction of one figure number from a two figure number

c.

Use of money values

d.

Use of zeros in subtraction

e.

Use of large number subtraction

5.

To

develop multiplication through nine

6.

To

develop the process of division

81

7.

To teach both short and long division methods of one figure division

8.

To check and prove division by multiplication

9.

To teach the process of finding 1/2, 1/3, I/1*? and 1/5 of a number

10.

To continue reading thermometers, time tables, calen­ dars, weather reports, etc.

11. K.

To find averages

Objectives and Procedures of Grade Five 1.

Complete review and understanding of the four funda­ mental processes of addition, subtraction, multipli­ cation, and Single divisor division

2.

To continue all work of previous grades previously outline

3.

To continue reading and writing larger numbers

*f.

To continue to check and prove all problems solved

5.

To continue the use of all language and symbols of numbers learned

6.

To take advantage of all opportunities in daily work \

to express and use number meanings and skills 7.

To write and read numbers of increasing unit values

8.

To teach multiplication of two figure multipliers and two figure money values

9. 10.

To teach the two step problem To learn the addition and subtraction of common fractions

11.

To teach the addition and subtraction of mixed num­ bers

12.

To develop and use long division with a two figure divisor

13.

To be able to master and solve many problems which stimulate thinking, reasoning, and the testing of ability to use the processes thus far taught

Objectives and Procedures of Grade Six 1.

To continue all work previously outlined for other ■ grades

2.

To be able to read and write numbers through the billions

3.

To know the hundred facts of addition, subtraction, and multiplication, and the ninety facts of division

k-. To know the multiplication tables through 12 5.

To know Roman Numeral notation through 1000

6.

To use the process of long division by three numbers

7.

To be completely familiar with the table of weights and measures, and how to interpret it,

8.

To be able to find the areas of rectangles, and the perimeters of objects

9. 10.

To make and read graphs To learn the multiplication and division of common fractions

11.

To understand the treatment of proper and improper fractions

12.

To understand the four fundamental processes in mixed numbers

13.

To introduce the use of decimal fractions in every day life

l*f.

To use the table of measure in daily work III.

CONCLUSION

The modern approach to arithmetic suggests two phases, namely, the mathematical phase and the social phase.

This

outline has attempted to give practical suggestions for teach­ ing the number system.

It has suggested means by which un­

derstanding of quantitative procedures may grow which are found in life situations.

Many activities have been suggested,

which will serve as the beginning outline for programs at the various grade levels.

Teachers will no doubt find many

other recommendations possible to add considering the needs of their children and their classroom situation.

CHAPTER V

OUTLINE FOR SOCIAL STUDIES After such a group of meetings previously described ■which will be presented before this meeting on the Social Studies, it would be impossible for a parent not to see the ; great possibilities of integration available jects.

It is the purpose of this

with all sub­

outline togive thebasis

of understanding needed to make a social studies program meaningful and objective.

Certain objectives of information

the formation of units of experience, etc., have necessarily been left out due to space and time limitations.

However,

the basic underlying program necessary for parent understand ing is presented here. I. A.

KINDERGARTEN LEVEL

Objectives of a suggested Home and School Unit 1.

Teach children to think

2.

Plan for learning to work

and play within

a group

situation 3.

Teach children to care for themselves (Social and emotional maturity)

B.

Procedures used 1.

Block Play

2.

Construction

3.

Concrete experiences

b..

Stories

5.

Dramatic play

Skills Needed 1.

Ability to follow directions

2.

Ability to get along in a group

3.

Ability to take care of oneself

Skills Developed 1.

Block play a.

Encourages working together

b.

Sharing blocks and necessary materials

c.

Taking turns

d.

Working steadily

e.

Completing job started

f.

Clean-up work approached in the correct frame of mind

2,

Construction a.

One of several activity centers

b.

Two children share one saw horse

c.

Tools are shared

d.

Allows for the development of large muscles and the development of coordination

e.

Each child responsible for his own actions

f.

Definite pattern followed for maximum enjoyment of work accomplished

86

2.

g.

Gives free rein to the imagination

h.

Children enjoy the things they have made

Concrete experiences a.

Many experiences furnished (1)

Many pictures to evaluate and clarify concepts

(2) b.

Many stories to read to them

Make references many times to the hoine and the school

3.

Dramatic play a.

Allow children to play what they know, at this level (1)

Keeping store

(2) .Playing house (3)

Taking trips by boat, airplane, auto, or train

II. (Note:

FIRST AND SECOND.GRADE LEVEL

The unit activity for the first grade is suggested

as the home, school* and neighboring community.

The Second

Grade considers the study of the community, with emphasis upon one center of activity such as the farm.) A.

Objectives 1.

To familiarize the children with the community help­ ers and to enable them to become accustomed to group living

87 2.

To acquire information that will satisfy their inter­ ests

3.

To help them understand their immediate environment and their relationship to it.

B.

C.

Procedures used 1.

Block play

2.

Construction

3.

Art experiences, clay modeling, painting

b.

Field trips, nature walks, excursions

5.

Musical experiences

6.

Looking at books; having books read

7.

Studying pictures

8.

Illustrating through Dramatic Play

Skills needed at this level 1.

Skills in the use of materials

2.

An ability to enter into the activities which involve more sustained interests

3.

A desire for more realistic results

b,

An ability to express a need for more details

5.

An improving ability to use materials to express ideas

6.

Needs to be able to recognize and solve problems in concrete situations

7.

Improves in development of manual skills

8.

Learns to assume responsibility

88

9.

Develops evaluation of his own work as well as the

..

work of the group D.

Skills developed at this level 1.

Better ways of living and working together

2.

Problem solving

3.

Developing effective citizenship

1+.

Developing qualities of character such as

5.

a.

Unselfishness

b.

Thoughtfulness

c.

Responsibility

d.

Cooperation

The children make adjustments from their home and play group to larger social groups III.

(Note:

THIRD GRADS LEVEL

The unit of activity for the B3 level is Safety and

Transportation, the bakery, the postoffice, and the harbor. The A3 level considers early Los Angeles, the Indians, the Spanish, and the Mexicans.) A.

Objectives 1.

To stimulate interest and an appreciation of the his­ torical and present city of Los Angeles

2,

To give the child an understanding of the kind of food, clothing, and shelter which is necessary to maintain life.

3.

To give the child an idea of how food, clothing, and shelter came to be, and how to get them To introduce multitext reading

5.

To develop the concept of looking for information in many places

6. B.

To broaden geographical vocabulary

Procedures used 1.

Stories, pictures, construction, clay, and painting

2.

Trips to places of interest

3.

Audip-visual aids

*f.

Having many books available. teacher reads.

C.

D.

Children find the page,

Material found discussed

5.

Building of information charts

6.

Pictures, stories, films— all with evaluation

Skills needed 1.

Ability

to take care of oneself

2.

Ability

to listen

3.

Ability

to follow directions

Skills developed 1.

Ability

to listen and think

2.

Ability

to share information

3.

Ability

to apply information to creative tasks

*f. Ability

to solve problems democratically

5.

to follow directions

Ability

90 6.

Ability to find information in books and pictures, and to tell about the information in story form

7.

Further use of the alphabet in Table of Contents and index

8.

Thinking processes stimulated by hunting for material to answer class questions

9.

Proper use of new geographical vocabulary 17.

(Note:

FOURTH GRADE LEVEL

The B*+ studies the industries of California, while

the A*f considers the History of California.) A.

Objectives 1.

To stimulate interest and appreciation in our state; California, past and present

2.

To know locations in California, in relation to the United States, and all parts of the world

B.

3.

To understand and iree maps and a globe

lf.

To increase geographical vocabulary

5.

To locate physical features

6.

To study effects of weather on our life

7.

To know and appreciate major industries

Procedures used 1.

Arranged environment i

2.

Children's questions recorded on charts

91 3.

Read from many books for information

5+.

Obtain information from films, charts, film strips

5.

Use other methods of gaining information, such as construction, dramatic play, painting clay, trips.

6.

Use wall maps, world globe, outline maps (individual), projected maps painted by the children

7.

Conduct class discussions, drawing conclusions from the discussions, write stories about the information learned

C.

Skills needed 1.

Knoxtfledge of order of alphabet

2.

Ability to listen, take turns speaking, follow

direc­

tions 3.

Ability to think and evaluate what others say Ability to read on fourth grade level

5.

Working knowledge of the use of the capital letter and the period

D.

Skills developed 1.

Independent use of Index and Table of Contents

2.

Ability to take brief notations:

question number,

author title, and page where found 3.

Increases ability to evaluate material found Ability to use the information in various ways, stories, pictures, construction, notebooks, and other projects

5.

Ability to read maps with understanding of approx­ imately the distances and elevations

6.

Ability to disagree courteously

7.

Critical thinking

8.

Ability to clearly express thoughts on paper

9.

Ability to make good use of time when working in committee groups V.

FIFTH GRADE LEVEL

Objectives 1.

To stimulate interest in and an appreciation of the geographical and historical background of our country, and its possessions

2.

To continue interest in the study of our community, city, and state

3.

To read an interpret maps and a world globe

b.

To make use of a geographical vocabulary

5.

To know and locate certain physical features of

the

United States, auch as mountains, lakes, deserts, etc. 6.

To know and understand the effect of physical features and natural resources on the people of the country

7.

To learn and appreciate the people of the United States, as nationalities represented, races represent­ ed, languages spoken, and something concerning their problems of daily living.

93 8.

To know and appreciate the service and contribution to people of the United States of the world of communication

9.

To appreciate the need for possessions and their importance in relation to the United States

10.

To know and understand the rich culture and pioneer­ ing spirit given as a heritage to our country

B,

Procedures Used 1.

Reading stories, looking at pictures, constructing, molding clay, and painting

2.

Stimulate interest and satisfy curiosity concerning important characters in American history.

3.

From many sources, determing answers to questions about climate, soil, population, industry, people, products, water supply, etc.

*f. Construct maps showing sources of raw material, growth in population, land contour, rainfall, agri­ cultural products, etc. 5.

Drill on locations of individual states, capitals of important cities, major waterways, railways, waterways, and airways

6.

Study of possessions; Alaska, Hawaiian Islands, and other islands

7.

Obtain information from films, charts, film strips

9k 4

8.

Use -wall maps, -world globe, outline maps, (individual) projected maps by children

9.

Conduct class discussions, write stories, and bring facts to worthwhile conclusion concerning units of work attempted

10.

Read and know the story and significance of such days as Labor Day, Admission Day, Armistice Day, Thanks­ giving, etc.

11.

To know and write correctly The American*s Creed, and The Pledge to The Flag.

12.

To learn and recite, The Gettysburg Address, and The Preamble to the Constitution

13.

Read and know the story of our first Americans, the Indians, and their contribution to our way of life.

I1*.

Read and know the stories of the early explorers, considering the Spanish, French, Dutch, and English influence on our continent

15.

Follow the story of the colorful Colonial days in New England, the industry of the Pilgrims, life in the Northern and Southern Colonies, the struggles for freedom, and the establishment of our govern­ ment

16,

Read- and know the story of the westward the growth of the geographical scene in

expansion, the historical

events, and to understand current history

95 C.

Skills Needed 1.

Knowledge of alphabet, and how to use it

2.

Ability to listen, take turns when speaking, evaluate information of others, and follow directions

3.

Ability to read at Fifth Grade level

*f.

Working knowledge of the capital letter, commas, question marks, the period, and the exclamation point.

D.

Skills Developed 1.

Independent use of table of contents, index, and en­ cyclopedia

2.

Ability to take more lengthy notes, and more complete bibliography of sources of material

3.

Increased ability to evaluate material and sources

*+,

Ability

to

disagree courteously

5.

Ability

to

read maps with more understanding

6.

Use of materials in various ways; such as, stories, pictures, construction, notebooks, and other projects

7.

Ability

to

express thoughts critically on paper

8.

Ability

to

work efficiently and effectively incom­

mittee' groups VI. A.

SIXTH GRADE LEVEL

Objectives 1.

To continue to read about and know the significance of important days in our history.

2.

To know and understand the history and geography of our neighbors in the western hemisphere including Canada, Mexico, Central and South America

*+.

To demonstrate and express an interest in past and present history which relates to our city, state, nation, and world

5.

To understand and appreciate the qualities in Amer­ ican life that have made possible the privileges we enjoy today

6.

To understand the growing responsibility of citizen­ ship in our state, our nation, and the world

7.

To understand and appreciate the qualities needed for fine leadership and respect for leadership

8.

To understand and appreciate the imagination, vision, courage and industry required to produce and make possible the conveniences which we enjoy today

9.

To understand how historical events in one country affect events in another

10.

To understand that each country has struggled for freedom

11.

To appreciate, know and use correct and dignified flag etiquette

12.

To continue a growing interest in present day events

13.

To be willing to work and sacrifice for this country

97 B.

Procedures 1.

Read and interpret a map and world globe

2.

To understand world geography by locating places referred to in reading, study, and discussion

3.

Use of geographical vocabulary

b,

Presentation of units of work on areas of geographical importance, covering physical feature, location, importance of climate, political arrangement, indus­ try, exports and imports, natural resources, occupa­ tions of people, problems of daily living, methods of communication and communication

5.

Drill on location of geographical places studied

6.

Drill on geographical language

7.

Study of food, clothing, and shelter in areas con­ sidered

8.

Read from many books for information

9.

Obtain information from charts, films and film strips, pictures, and study prints

10.

Use other methods of gaining information, such as construction, dramatic play, painting, trips, etc.

11.

Prepare class discussions, draw conclusions, write stories, make collections of information from maga­ zines, newspapers, etc.

12.

Prepare maps of products, industries, rainfall, im­ ports, ©sports, etc., done by children

98 C.

Skills Needed 1.

Ability to listen, follow directions, and work effectively in committee work

2.

Ability to share information, to solve problems dem­ ocratically, to find information in books and pic­ tures, and to tell about it in oral reports or story form

3.

Follow up of previously suggested needed skills at other grade levels

D,

Skills Developed 1.

To make further use of the alphabet, the index, and the Table of Contents

2.

To use the encyclopedia, the dictionary, and other reference materials

3.

Ability to seek answers to information related to unit under consideration

*+.

To make complete use of geographical vocabulary

5.

To arrange questions suggested by children on charts, followed by answers as recorded from information sought by children

6.

Use other methods of gaining information, such as visitations of parents having knowledge of units or places discussed, personal guided tours by class, construction, painting, clay molding and firing, and dramatic play.

7.

Conduct programs drawing conclusions of work attempted by presentation of stories, dramatizations, songs, poems, and reading originated by class VII.

CONCLUSIONS

In this chapter, an attempt has been made to present the outline of a tentative plan for presenting social life through history, geography, and citizenship, at all grade levels.

It is considered important to know of the growth of

our present American culture, in light of the past.

Oppor­

tunities have been presented whereby an overview of how our world historical background was expanded by the discoverers and explorers of the Old World. background has been presented.

A moving and vivid historical Further the services of the

many great men and women who have labored to make this a great civilization have been studied.

Research and experi­

ments have been carried on, explaining progress in science, invention* and industry.

The opportunity for presentation

of the historical significance of the effect of the historical events of one country, and their effects upon others has been suggested.

Finally, suggestions have been made whereby an

interpretation of the American way of life can be understood in light of our climate, our geographical features, our heterogeneous population, our political location in the world, and our world and national responsibilities.

CHAPTER VI

HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION Physical fitness is an imperative necessity In a nation whose complex social structure demands so much of the human organism.

One phase of the total program in our schools is

body building, while the maintenance of the body machine is the other. Equally important is the social and emotional develop­ ment within the child, so that he may live in peace with himself and society.

Much of our physical education today

considers the functions of the nervous system, and the ways in which the Health and Physical Education program can best meet the needs of the child. I. A.

GENERAL OBJECTIVES

The establishment and sustained use of desirable health habits

B.

The teaching of various games and procedures so as to stimulate and develop pupils and their

C.

1.

Organic power

2.

Body and sensory coordination

3.

Mental and physical alertness

b.

Desirable social qualities

Provide for the opportunity to improve ?rhythm-ic "sEIl-1 s

101

II.

A.'

IMMEDIATE OBJECTIVES

Objectives of Primary grades, 1 and 2 1.

Development of certain skills

2.

Development of group consciousness.

3.

Improvement of cooperative attitude A lead toward self-direction

5.

B.

Exercise sense of responsibility

6.

Improving health and physical coordination

7.

Develop nervous system capable of more stress

8.

Allowance for release from the strain by relaxation

Skills taught in Primary grades, 1 and 2 (Note: learned.

Skills need to be taught, they are not just They should be taught when children

ested attitudes in playing ball forexample.

show inter­ Lack of

skill causes fear, frustrations, and tensions.) 1.

2.

Ball skills— development of eye hand coordination a.

Undertoss throw, B1

b.

Vertical toss throw, B1

c.

Side toss throw, A1

d.

Two arm shoulder throw, B2

e.

Kicking ball from the ground, A2

f.

Batting the ball with the hand, A2

Hunting games— large muscle development a.

Chasing

b.

Stretching

3.

c.

Tagging

d#

Dodging

e.

Fleeing

Advantages of rhythm and dance a.

Cultivates the arts*— habits and ideals

b.

Trains in self control, poise, and posture

c.

Allows for development of feeling of mastery

d.

Teaches simple movement, rhythm and action

e„

Allows for skip, walk, run, and gallop or slide to the music

f.

Offers opportunity to create simple dance forms

g.

Allows for interpretation of singing games and folk dances

Procedures used in Primary grades 1.

Divide into two or three smaller groups a.

Allows for more opportunity of leadership and followership

b.

Gives each child more of a chance to play

c.

Two groups play different or same game, other people play on apparatus

2.

Suggested weekly program a.

Three days guided play

b.

One day of rhythms

c.

One day of play on the apparatus

while

Lesson introduction a.

In room where children are

calm

b.

Arrange for supplies and equipment

c.

Arrange for signal to show

stop,

change of groups,

and start d.

Provide for opportunity to satisfy bodily needs

e.

Short explanation of rules

Standards for use of equipment a.

Horizontal Ladder (1)

Each person waits until other gets clear of the ladder on the other side

b.

c.

(2)

All people go in the same direction

(3 )

No climbing— only for hanging on and walking

Low bar (1)

Only one leg over

(2)

Use both hands

Jungle Gym (1)

Keep moving up and slide down when reaching the top

d.

Slide (1)

Always go down in a sitting position

(2)

Land on feet at bottom

(3 )

Wait at the bottom ofthe

of slide steps until another

person gets clear down on the slide

10lf e.

Swings .(1)

Swing xtfith back to fence

(2 )

Always sit and hold with both hands

(3 )

One turn is 25 swings.

Persons should wait

outside yellow safety line (*f) D.

Always swing in one direction

Objectives in Grades; Three through Six (Note:

The Health and Physidal Education program should

be based on activities which appeal to a child at his grade level, and are suitable for his growth and achieve­ ment .) 1.

An increased knowledge of playground games,

2.

Beginnings of simple first aid practices

3.

Complexity-and number of playground games will increase

*+.

The development of a spirit and practice of teamwork and group cooperation

5.

Development of versatility by playing all games and positions

6.

Development of importance of controlled emotions, and positive thinking to avoid anger, fear, hate, jealousy, or worry

7. E.

Beginnings of simple track events (grade VI)

Procedures used in Grades Three through Six 1.

Inventory of characteristics of Third Grade Child.

a.

Less individualistic than the first and second grade child

b.

Is developing ability to cooperate

c.

Tends toward group play rather than individualism

d.

Attention span still rather short

e.

Low degree of perseverance

f.

Imitative and curious

Inventory of Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Graders a.

Leadership and sportsmanship qualities more pronounced

b.

Ability to hold attention longer at specific activ ities

c.

Stimulated by games of many rules

d.

May be interested in developing skills away from a game situation

Skills Developed for ppper Grades a.

Review of skipping, hopping, running, eye-hand coordination, and b'Ody coordination

b.

Further improvement of throwing, catching, balance change of weight, follow-through

c.

Ability to change direction quickly

d.

Ability to handle balls of different size effect­ ively

e.

Development of skill in handling bats, rings, and the use of the handball wall, etc*

f.

Development of ability to cooperate with larger groups in team games

g.

Development of ability to think quickly and with good judgement

h.

Ability to understand and to apply more complex rules to the game situation

i.

Introduction of more complex rhythmic patterns requiring more coordination

k.

Suggested Weekly Program for the Third Grade a.

Three ’ d ays— guided supervised games

b.

One day— folk dances, singing games, or fundamen­ tal rhythms

c. 5.

One day— choice day, equipment play or stunts

Suggested Weekly Program for the Fourth through Sixth Grades a.

One day-redeveloping skills needed for major games

b.

One day— (related game) using same skills

c.

One day— Rhythms and folk dancing

d.

Two days— Major games (1)

Teacher works with half of class improving skills.

Activity reversed on following day.

In summary, it must be emphasized how important it is to provide many opportunities for children to play many games A sufficient number and variety must be presented to carry

107 through a well balanced program.

In addition, habits of good

health and posture development are stressed constantly through­ out the daily school program wherever the opportunity and need is present;

CHAPTER VII

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS This project has attempted to outline a program of parent meetings at a small urban elementary school.

As many

segments of the total program might easily be left out, it is hoped that this project offers a framework by which admin­ i s t r a t o r and teachers may attempt such a program in a similar school situation.

Each chapter had as an ultimate goal the

closer cooperation of the home and the school.

Child needs

and community needs are to be constantly considered as the program continues throughout the coming year.

Requests for

information of parents through their questions will best reveal to us their ideas and needs concerning the elementary school curriculum and the local school program.

Through the

leadership of the Parent Teacher Association, it is hoped that a practical channel of understanding may exist. During the last year, a great need for interpretation of our school system, its goqls, procedures, and outcomes has been made known.

On a city wide basis, citizen’s committees

have been formed to investigate our entire school programs and recommend changes to the Board of Education.

Such inves­

tigation has not taken the form df visitation or concerted action as yet.

The citizen's committees have only publicized

the views of certain parents disappointed with the products

of public education.

These views are usually found to be

those of people unfamiliar with schools, and those without the benefit of a valid interpretation of the school program. Furthermore, only those cases of failure and maladjustment have been brought before the public.

It must be remembered,

however, that the great majority of the graduates in our school system have become normally adjusted members of society Throughout this project, a definite organization pat­ tern and practical technique for launching and carrying out a school interpretation program has been suggested.

The back­

ground of our segment of the total metropolitan population has been analyized.

The enormous growth has been described,

the heterogeneous nature of the population has been considered and the practical ways of putting this program of parent meetings into effect has been explained.

The achievements of

the previous year toward the consideration of parent education have been explained.

In summary, it was found that a good

foundation of professional advicd had been started.

Great

interest and community respect had been shown for the school and the school personnel at these meetings as evidenced by the large attendance. The methods by which material could be collected and the interpretations of various curriculum areas was explained exhaustively.

The parent-meeting was decided as the means

by which such an interpretation might be effectively and efficiently carried on.

110

An evaluation meeting of the school staff is planned for some time immediately following each parent meeting.

In

this manner, problems may be considered between meetings, and solutions put into effect Immediately. The second part of the project offers recommendations for the content of the meetings,

A night discussion meeting

is to precede each day demonstration meeting of the various subjects.

The curriculum suggested and presented in this

project would serve as a guide only, with individual teachers supplementing the material with their own ideas and exper­ iences , Chapter II emphasises significant agencies which have had as their impetus for organizing, the bringing together of the home and school.

The National Congress of Parents

and Teachers and its many functions are discussed.

Other

agencies such as the Child Study Association of America, The National Society for the Study of Education, The National Council of Parent Education, and the United States Department of Education have all given support to states and localities desiring programs of parent education. Chapter III deals with the responsibilities of the principal, the teachers, and the Parent Teacher Association in the preparation and presentation of the outlined program. The consideration of the existing facilities, the administra­ tion of materials and time, the collection of data for

Ill curriculum presentation, and the evaluation of the individual programs are investigated in this chapter. The organization and tentative plan for the meetings are considered in Chapter IV.

An overview of the night dis­

cussion meeting plan, and the day demonstration meeting is presented.

Certain suggestions for the smooth operation of

both plans are recommended.

Problems arising from the program

are considered and solutions are recommended.

The procedures

are explained and methods of carrying out the curriculum in­ terpretation are suggested.

Meeting plans are outlined for

each of the night meetings. The second part of the project considers the types of material to be presented at the parent meeting programs. Recommendations here are primarily the outcomes of the teacher workshop conducted at the school during the past school year. The areas of discussion were felt to be those most vitally in need of explanation and interpretation.

Following the

course of study as outlined for the teachers by the Los Angeles Board of Education, the durriculum areas have been developed at grade levels, with consideration for objectives,, methods, procedures used, skills needed, epid predicted outcomes. Again, all"areas have been considered in light of needs of the community.

The various chapters are presented as practical

information satisfying the need for definite statements of objectives, procedures, materials, and outcomes.

To measure the value of this plan will not be an easy task.

If the parents, making a genuine effort to understand,

and the staff is prepared to give a worthwhile interpretation to the areas planned for discussion, a good basis for under­ standing and community tranquility will exist throughout the home, school, and community.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A.

BOOKS

Adams, Fay, Edueating America’s Children. Ronald Press Company7~19^S7 *+90 PP.

New York:

The

Adams, Fay, Lillian Gray, and Dora Rose, Teaching Children . to Read. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 19*+9. ‘ ^ 25^ pp7 Adams, Fay, The Initiation of an Activity Program into a Public School. Contributions to Education, No" j?98. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 193*+. 80 pp. Baruch, Dorothy W . , Parents and Children Go to School. York: Sebtt Foresman and Company, 1939. 50*+ pp.

New

Baruch, Dorothy W . , Parents Can Be People. New York: Appleton-Century Company, 19*+*+. 252 pp. Bruner, Herbert B., What Our Schools Are Teaching. New York: Teacher’s College,nColumbia University, 191+1. 22? pp. California State Curriculum Commission, The Social Studies Program for the Public Schools of California. Vol. XVII, No. *+. Sacramento: State Department of Education, August, 19*+8. k-2 pp. Fine, Benjamin, Educational Publicity. Brothers, 19*+3. 310 pp.

New York:

Harper &

Grinnell, IF. Erie, Interpreting the Public Schools. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1937. 3*+9 PP. Good, Carter, editor, Dictionary of Education. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 19^57 *+95 PP.

New York

New York:

Hand, H. C . , What Beople Think About Their Schools: Values and Methods of Public Opinion Polling As Applied to School Systems. Yonkers, New York: World Book Company, 19*+B. 219. pp. Horn, Ernest, Methods of Instruction in Social Studies. York: Scribner's Sons, 1937. !?23 PP.

New

Ilk Kelley, Truman lee, Interpretation of Educational Measures. Yonkers, New York: World Book Company, 1927. 3^S pp. Lamoreaux, Lillian, Learning to Read Through Experience. New York: D. Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 19^3. 20*f pp. Lane, Robert Hill, Teacher in the Modern Elementary School. Boston; Houghton Mifflin,, Company, 19^-1. 397 PP. Lane, Robert Hill, The Progressive Elementary School. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1938. 197 PP.

Boston:

Lee, J. Murray, and Lee, Dorris May, The Child and His Cur­ riculum. New York: D. Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., T9*5o : 652 pp. Los Angeles City School District, Course of S-hudy for Elemen­ tary Schools. Los Angeles: Published by the Los Angeles Board of Education, 19^-2. 299 PP. National Association for Parent Education, Conference Report. 1932. NationalCCongress of Parents and Teachers, Forty Years of Service. Washington, D.C.: National Congress of Parents and Teadhers, 1937. 15 PP. National Congress of Parents and Teachers, The Parent Teacher Organization. Its Origins and Development. Chicago: National Congress of Parents and Teachers, 1 9 ^ . 19# PP. National Society for the Study of Education, First Yearbook. Part I,. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1902. 76 pp. Prall, Charles E. and Cushman C. Leslie, Teacher Education in Service. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education, 19*+*+. 3o8 pp. Preston, George H . , The Substance of Mental Health. York: Farrar and Rinehart, 19^+3. 15-7 PP. '

New

*

Scarsdale, New York, Fox Meadow School, Willingly.to School. New York: The Round Table Press, 1931*. 108 pp. Strickland, Ruth G . , How to Build a Unit of Work. Washington, D.C.: United States Office of Education, 19*+6. k? pp.

115 Waddell, Charles W . , Seeds, Corrinne A., and White, Natalie, Ma.ior Units in the Social Studies. New York: The John Day Company, 1932. 390 pp. Wesley, Edgar Bruce, Teaching Social Studies in Elementary Schools. Boston: D.C. Heath and Company, 19V 6. 635 P P . Wrightstone, J. Wayne, Appraisal of Newer Elementary School Practices. New York: Teachers' College, Columbia University, 1938. 221 pp. B.

PUBLICATIONS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES

Arlitt, Ada Hart, "Parent Education", National Congress of Parents and Teachers. Proceedings of the Forty-fourth Annual Conventions. Washington, D. C . : National Congress of Parents and Teachers, 1 9 ^ . Arlitt, Ada Hart, "Parent Education in the National Congress of Parents and Teachers," Parent Education: The Second Yearbook. Washington, D.C.: National Congress of Parents and Teachers, 1931. 222 pp. Fertsch, L. M . , editor, "Enriching the Curriculum for the Elementary School Child." Eighteenth Yearbook. National Education Association. Washington, D.C.: The Association, 1939. 704- pp. Gruenberg, Sidonie M . , "Program of the Child Study Association of America," Parent Education: the First Yearbook. Wash­ ington, D.C.: National Congress of Parents and Teachers, 1930. Hildreth, Gertrude, "Reading Forty-eighth Yearbook of Study of Education. Part of Chicago Press, 19*+9.

Programs in Grades II and III" the National Society for the II. Chicago:1 The University 3*+3 PP.

Hartley, William H , , editor, "Audio-Visual Materials and Methods in the Social Studies," Eighteenth Yearbook of the National Council for the Social Studies. Washington, D.C,: National Education Association, 19^+7. 21*+. pp. J Lombard, Ellen C., "Parent Education Programs in City School Systems," United States Office of Education Bulletin No. 2, 1937. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1939. 35 PP.

116

Lombard, Ellen C . , "Parent Education Opportunities," Bulletin No. 3, Washington, D.C.: United States Office of Educa­ tion, 1 9 3 5 . 35 pp. Michaelis, John U . , editor, "The Principal and Curriculum Building," Twentieth Yearbook. California Elementary Principal1s Association. Sacramento: The Association, 19^. 171 PP. National Education Association, "Community Living and the Elementary School," Twenty-fourth Yearbook. National Education Association. Washington, D.C.: National Educational Association, 19*+5. 265 PP. National Education Association of the United States and the American Association of School Administrators, Education for All American Youth. Washington, D.C,: Educational Policies Committee, 19*+^+. *+10 pp. National Education Association, "Organizing the Elementary School for Living and Learning," 19^7 Yearbook. Assoc­ iation for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Wash­ ington, D. C . : National EdueationaAssociation, 19*+7.

209 PP. Whipple, Guy M . , editor, "The Activity Movement," Thritvthird Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Bloomington, Illinois: Public School Pub­ lishing Company, 193^. 320 pp. C.

PERIODICAL ARTICLES

Osborne, Ernest, "Modern Parents Go To School," Survey. April,

1950.

8 6 :1+, 1 9 0 -1 9 3 .

Kawin. Ethel. "Teachers and Parents. United." Survey. April.

1950.

8l-.h, 19>t. D.

UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS

Pfister, Elta S., "Parent Workshops as a Factor in Communityschool Relationships." Unpublished Doctor’s Dissertation, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 19^9. 2b2 leaves.

UNIVERSITY o f SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA LZBRAR*