Internationalizing Education: Local to Global Connections for the 21st Century [1 ed.] 9789004364622, 9789004364608

In Internationalizing Education: Local to Global Connections for the 21st Century, Cameron White offers a unique perspec

163 68 791KB

English Pages 195 Year 2018

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

Polecaj historie

Internationalizing Education: Local to Global Connections for the 21st Century [1 ed.]
 9789004364622, 9789004364608

Citation preview

Internationalizing Education

Internationalizing Education Local to Global Connections for the 21st Century By Cameron White

leiden | boston

All chapters in this book have undergone peer review. The Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available online at http://catalog.loc.gov LC record available at http://lccn.loc.gov/2018011071

Typeface for the Latin, Greek, and Cyrillic scripts: “Brill”. See and download: brill.com/brill-typeface. isbn 978-90-04-36461-5 (paperback) isbn 978-90-04-36460-8 (hardback) isbn 978-90-04-36462-2 (e-book) Copyright 2018 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands. Koninklijke Brill NV incorporates the imprints Brill, Brill Hes & De Graaf, Brill Nijhoff, Brill Rodopi, Brill Sense and Hotei Publishing. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Koninklijke Brill NV provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910, Danvers, MA 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change. This book is printed on acid-free paper and produced in a sustainable manner.

Contents Preface: A Rationale for Internationalizing Education ix Introduction: A Personal History xv 1 Challenging Traditional Research Assumptions Critical Qualitative Research in Social/Global Education 1 1 Introduction 1 2 Context 2 3 Aim/Objectives/Questions 4 4 Rationale/Purpose 4 5 21st Century Implications 6 2 Internationalizing Critical Qualitative Case Studies 9 1 Introduction 9 2 Methods 11 3 Three Internationalizing Projects 13 4 Global Classrooms 14 5 Internationalizing a Department 16 6 China as a Case Study 19 7 Conclusion 21 3 Global Education in the 21st Century A Critical Approach through a Social Education Lens 25 1 Introduction 25 2 Pillars of Social Education 27 3 Critical Approaches to “Urban” Education 28 4 Implications for the 21st Century 30 4 Internationalizing Social Studies and History Education A 21st Century Imperative 32 1 Introduction 32 2 Internationalizing 35 3 Linking Internationalizing and Social Justice 36 4 Rethinking 38 5 Conclusion 39

vi 5 Culturally Responsive Pedagogy Linking Present and Past 45 1 Introduction 45 2 Culture and Linking Present to Past 46 3 Themes 47 4 Responsibilities of a Culturally Responsive Teacher 48 5 Conclusion 49 6 Activities/Lessons 49 6 Local to Global Citizenship Education Rethinking Civic Engagement for the 21st Century 53 1 Introduction 53 2 Teaching and Learning 54 7 Global Classrooms Contextualizing the Community 58 1 Introduction 58 2 Contextualizing the Global through Popular Culture 59 3 Global Classrooms: An Integrated Model 60 4 GC Houston: A Case Study 61 5 Extensions 63 6 Conclusions 64 8 Global Commmunity and Social Education Food for Thought 67 1 Introduction 67 2 Community Education in a Global Context 67 3 My Story 68 4 Social Education in a Global Context 69 5 Linking 70 6 Food for Thought 71 9 Asia Pop Investigating Asia through Media and Popular Culture 72 1 Introduction 72 2 Asia as a Case Study 73 3 Asia through Media and Popular Culture 73 4 Asia and Texas 74 5 Sample Asian Pop Themes 75 6 Sample Strategies 75

contents

Contents

10 Internationalizing Teacher Education 78 1 Introduction 78 2 Theoretical Framework 79 3 Methodology 79 4 Data Sources 80 5 Results 81 6 Signifijicance 83 11 A US/Vietnam Case Study in Internationalizing 85 1 Introduction 85 2 Rationale 86 3 The Background 88 4 The Initial Journey 89 5 The Conference 91 6 The Plan 92 7 The Results 94 8 Conclusions 95 12 A China Narrative for Internationalizing Education 100 1 Introduction 100 2 Internationalizing Education through China 101 3 Other Endeavors 104 4 Authors’ Narratives 105 5 Conclusion 108 13 Internationalizing an Executive/Professional EdD A China Experience 110 1 Introduction 110 2 Theoretical Framework 111 3 Methodology 112 4 Data Sources 112 5 Results 113 6 Signifijicance 114 14 Transitioning from an EdD to a PhD A Critical Case Study through a Social/Global Education Lens 117 1 Transitioning 117 2 A Critical Case Study 118 3 Critical Qualitative Research 122

vii

viii 4 5 6 7 8

Contents

Social Education 123 Critical Qualitative Research 125 Methods and Procedures 126 Implications for 21st Century Social/Global Education 127 Conclusion 128

15 Building International Connections through Music 130 1 Introduction 130 2 A Case for Global Education 130 3 Global Popular Culture 131 4 Globalization through Music 132 5 Conclusion 133 6 Sample Activities 133 16 Local to Global Popular Culture Connections in Our Globalized World 138 1 Introduction 138 2 Globalization 138 3 Globalizing Pop 139 4 Global Citizenship 141 5 Sample Activities 141 17 Latin Americanizing the Curriculum 144 1 Introduction 144 2 Latin Americanizing 144 3 Study Abroad Experiences 145 Appendix 1: Global/International Education Syllabus 151 Appendix 2: Global/International Education 156 Appendix 3: Sample International Agreement 158 Appendix 4: United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights 166 Index 168

Preface: A Rationale for Internationalizing Education Growing up today is very different than even a decade ago. Today the world truly is a smaller place and we really are part of a global neighborhood. People are instantaneously connected to global events through media, technology, trade, and global issues such as conflict, climate, and socio-economics. Borders do not mean the same as they did just a few years ago. A “globalized” world necessitates international connections, thus challenging traditional conceptions of nationalism, exceptionalism, and hegemony. Teaching and learning must include education for a global perspective so that students might also become responsible “active” citizens of the world (Merryfield, 2010; White, 2015). A critical component of education in general, and social education specifically, is to promote an understanding of diversity at home and abroad: “integrating global realities within an existing school curriculum meets the needs of an ever-changing, ethnically diverse, increasingly interdependent, international community” (Gay, 2010). World citizenship requires a global/international education. Global/international education efforts must begin with an attempt to understand globalization. Globalization can be defined as “the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa” (McLaren, 2010). In turn, critical research in social education attempts to challenge the unbridled neoliberal hegemony associated with globalization. Giroux (2005) states that globalization: refers to the compression of the world and to the intensification of the consciousness of the world as a whole. This process is ongoing and all of us, young and old, Westerners and non-Westerners, are inescapably involved in it. The compression of the world is real. People witness it in their daily lives, in the foods they eat, in the TV programs they watch, in the cars they drive, in the dresses and costumes, in the people they choose to govern them, and so on. (pp. 37–38) Clearly, globalization is increasingly influential in most aspects of 21st century life. Therefore understanding it through global/international education is imperative. Schools must provide opportunities for children to “develop the appropriate cognitive skills to understand and explain the globalization

x

Preface: A Rationale for Internationalizing Education

process and to critically analyze its impact on their lives and the lives of people around them” (Giroux, 2006, p. 38). Above all students need to know how to impact the global system as world citizens and as advocates of a well-grounded position or point of view. This suggests that students must acquire both a new knowledge base and a skill set. Many of the subjects associated with social studies might offer an appropriate space for global education – but other disciplines are ripe for integration as well. At its core, global education is really about analyzing the links between cultures and people (White, 2015). It must be better integrated in all classrooms, and thus critically researched as well. Rethinking teaching and learning in these ways could provide the opportunity to deepen our understanding and appreciation of others in the world, something essential to our roles and responsibilities as global citizens. Given the global interconnectedness of the world today, the global context must be present. According to Merryfield (2010), students must develop a global perspective that will emphasize cross-cultural experiential learning and stress commonalities in cultures that transcend diversity. Increased globalization presents many challenges for societies and the institution of education has a responsibility for addressing these “globalized” issues. Education in general should play a strong role and is enhanced through internationalizing partnerships and projects. In addition, cultural competence, collaboration skills, and an appreciation of global connections can be facilitated through cross-cultural experiences in teacher education, thus translating to the classroom. Many schools, colleges and universities are recognizing the need for global competence and promoting understanding among cultures (Dan-xia, 2008). In addition, linking multicultural education and global issues is facilitated through meaningful international education projects (Wells, 2008). James suggests that internationalizing education develops a sense of interconnectedness, empathy, and tolerance, which are much needed in today’s world (2005). Education programs have much work to do to accomplish these ideas. A way to move forward is to share ideas and engage in collaborative internationalizing of the curriculum. Schools in the United States must provide opportunities for students to learn about the world: who people are, what they do, and how they live. Students must learn how to get along with all people – within the US and around the world – as responsible citizens of both. Education for civic competence, for responsible national and world citizenship, falls within the domain of social studies instruction and learning. We must rethink teaching and learning so as to enable these ideas. Integrating music, movies, art, and literature focusing on global issues or celebrating global culture offers a great opportunity; thus enabling many opportunities for critical qualitative research projects.

Preface: A Rationale for Internationalizing Education

xi

Fortunately, increased and improved research on global education/ internationalizing is being undertaken at many levels of education. In addition, numerous international education experiences focusing on study trips, consulting, teaching and research have contributed to this “new found” interest. Our critical qualitative approach suggests that educators at all levels must be engaged in collaborative research, teaching, and service (Herr & Anderson, 2005). Critical qualitative educational research highlights the need to cultivate knowledge, skills, and dispositions for global and civic awareness and responsibility (Loewen, 2007; Ochoa-Becker, 2006; Ross, 2006). Additionally, to be engaged, global citizens, students need exposure to multiple literacies and diverse perspectives (Durham & Kellner, 2005; Giroux, 2006; Silberman-Keller, 2008). We live in a world made up of many texts; it is essential that students and educators develop multiple literacies that will facilitate the reading of signs, symbols, and images (texts) of that world. We must develop the critical capacity for “new operational and cultural ‘knowledge’ in order to acquire a global perspective that provides access to new forms of work, civic and private practices in their everyday lives” (Lankshear & Knoble, 2003). Our educational approaches could be the place to enable the critical investigation of meaningful knowledge and issues, debates regarding globalization, and relevant problem-based global education that can provide the context for developing the skills engage in active transformation for social justice. “Reading the world” through context and relevant connections provides the opportunity to apply knowledge and develop skills in critical ways, as Kincheloe (2005) recommends. Responsible global citizenship requires knowledge of “others” in the world, whoever they might be. It also requires the skills to understand and act in the best interest of the majority of the people. The knowledge base should include an understanding of who the other people in the world are, what they do, and where they are. The skill set should include inquiry and critical literacy/thinking skills, leading to activism Increased globalization not only presents many challenges to the economy, society, politics and culture, but also has important implications for education, and the institution of education has the responsibility for addressing these issues. However, there is an increasing concern that educational systems throughout the world are not adequately preparing students for understanding of the world’s cultures, economies and political relationships (Asia Society, 2001). Educators and students should develop the habit of thinking of global ramifications: Is this in the common good? Will this protect the rights of all people (Merryfield & Wilson, 2010)?

xii

Preface: A Rationale for Internationalizing Education

To create a positive atmosphere, in which students are encouraged to participate in global discourse and engage in global issues in today’s multicultural society, educators need to, first of all, develop multiple perspectives and understand the experiences and points of view of people different from themselves. Meaningful international education projects can help educators achieve that (Wells, 2008). As James (2005) suggested, internationalizing education can develop a sense of interconnectedness, empathy and tolerance, which are much needed in today’s world. However, though there have been some initiatives of internationalizing teacher education exemplified by the institutions, such as Ohio State University and Stanford University (Roberts, 2007), the undertaking is yet to be given due credits, as it deserves nationwide. There are unlimited opportunities in teaching, scholarship, and service with respect to global/international education.

International Education Sources US, Department of Education International and Foreign Language Education (several programs) http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ope/iegps/index.html US AID Partners with universities – research and education http://www.usaid.gov/partnership-opportunities/universities International Education Research Foundation Small research grants http://ierf.org/index.php/institutions/research_grants/ Global Studies Foundation Several grants http://www.globalstudiesfoundation.org/ShowContents.cfm?CategoryID=10 Fulbright Several research/training grants http://eca.state.gov/fulbright NSF – Partnerships for International Research and Education http://www.nsf.gov/funding/pgm_summ.jsp?pims_id=12819

Preface: A Rationale for Internationalizing Education

xiii

RTI International http://www.rti.org/page.cfm/International_Education

International Education Organizations Institute of International Education http://www.iie.org/ NAFSA: Association of International Educators https://www.nafsa.org/Find_Resources/Internationalizing_Higher_ Education/ International Education and Research Center http://www.iercglobal.org/ Center for International Education http://www.sussex.ac.uk/education/research/cie/ Comparative and International Education Society http://www.cies.us/

Journals Journal of Research in International Education International Education Research International Education Studies Research in Comparative and International Education Journal of Studies in International Education

References Gaudelli, W. (2016). Global citizenship education. New York, NY: Routledge. Gay, G. (2010). Culturally responsive teaching. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

xiv

Preface: A Rationale for Internationalizing Education

Giroux, H. (2006). Public pedagogy and the politics of neoliberalism. Policy Futures in Education, 2(3–4), 494–503. Herr, K., & Anderson, G. L. (2005). The action research dissertation: A guide for students and faculty. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. James, K. (2005). International education: The concept, and its relationship to intercultural education. Journal of Research in International Education, 4, 313–332. Kincheloe, J. (2005). Getting beyond the facts. New York, NY: Peter Lang. McLaren, P. (2010). Life in schools. New York, NY: Allyn and Bacon. Merryfield, M. (2008). Scaffolding social studies for global awareness. Social Education, 72(7), 363–367. Merryfield, M. M., & Wilson, A. (2010). Social studies and the world. Silver Spring, MD: National Council for the Social Studies. Ochoa-Becker, A. (2006). Democratic education for social studies. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. Phillips, D., & Schweisfurth, M. (2014). Comparative and international education. New York, NY: Bloomsbury. Reimers, F., et al. (2016). Empowering global citizens. New York, NY: Creat Space Publishing. Roberts, A. (2007). Global dimensions of schooling: Implications for internationalizing teacher education. Teacher Education Quarterly, 34(1), 9–26. Ross, E. W. (2006). The social studies curriculum. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. Shieklds, R., & Race, R. (2013). Globalization and international education. New York, NY: Bloomsbury. Wells, R. (2008). The global and multicultural: Opportunities, challenges, and suggestions for teacher education. Multicultural Perspectives, 10(3), 142–149. White, C. (2015). Critical qualitative research for social education. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Press.

Introduction: A Personal History The great aim of education is not knowledge but action. Herbert Spencer

1

Introduction

My personal social studies history has been quite a journey. Yes, it really is about the journey and not the destination. It began for me many years ago; sure, school and all that, but perhaps more so with the presidential election of 1964 and church during my “formative” years. I fondly remember my third grade teacher, Mrs. Barnes, who allowed me to explore and question, even at the age of 9. But it was the experience of handing out LBJ literature that sticks with me to this day; that, and standing up in church and asking “why?” and “are you sure?” questions. I have loved history, politics, and current events since I can remember. I knew from an early age I wanted to do something in the “social sciences.” I generally had cool history teachers in high school and excellent history and political science professors in college. I was pushed toward law school but education won out – thank goodness. I think I have pretty much always been one to question the status quo, especially with respect to school and politics. Fortunately, it hasn’t gotten me into too much trouble. I did my share of protesting in high school and college – but I always kept it safe. I did the same as a teacher – never really one for rules that kept kids from being kids or from allowing anyone to ask questions. Again, as a teacher I seemed blessed by administrators who allowed me to do my own thing. I didn’t have management problems and my kids did well on tests, despite my always resisting teaching to those tests. I taught social studies for 15 years, proud that often students left my class smiling. I tried always to make it all about them. What in geography or American history connects with you I would ask at every opportunity. They told me, too. They wanted to do history and geography. They didn’t want to sit and have it “done to them.” So, that’s what we did. We debated, we questioned, we made movies, we marched the halls, and we learned the neighborhood. They taught me more than I could ever teach them! Life experience leads us to my Global/International Education journey. Learning to play the school game, vacations to state capitals and civil war battle

xvi

Introduction: A Personal History

sites, reading, volunteering, then trips abroad… all contributed to my Global/ International Education story. But perhaps as important formatively as any other was the 1972 presidential campaign. I was 16 and seven of my friends and I spent hours campaigning in Houston for George McGovern. When he lost I remember driving the endless freeways of Houston until the early hours of the morning screaming out the window that all was lost. I really think that pushed my cynicism to the edge. Is has been a constant struggle ever since – and the Global/ International Education journey has provided the balance. I often tip over the edge and shout out about injustice, fascism, or the like – but I do come back. The seeds were sown but it took the freedom of the academy to allow for further development. Beginning with traditional social studies education and bridging from there with collaborations with prospective teachers, graduate students, other professors, schools, teachers, and the community, allowed additional critical investigation. The social studies program area morphed into Global/International Education with courses focused on critical pedagogy, popular culture, and social issues. Projects took hold focusing on global education, international experiences, and rethinking American history. Students graduated carrying a torch for something called Global/ International Education – something that has no “true” definition, that is always evolving and always questioning, but nevertheless is comprised of some general themes. Given the ongoing debate and struggle with “defining” Global/International Education a graduate student provided a working definition to encourage dialog. The following was placed on our bulletin board outside the Global/ International Education lab and can now be founding program syllabi, on our brochures and web site: “While we resist ‘defining’ Global/International Education, we believe that Global/International Education emphasizes three areas of study: critical pedagogy, cultural/media studies, and social studies education. We also stress that education, interpreted broadly, has the potential to advance social justice.” Thus emerged Global/International Education, a lifelong journey for me – to question, to challenge, to do, and to create. And through the years, especially as a professor, the dominoes started to fall… at least regarding the possibilities… social justice, activism, cultural studies, popular culture, critical pedagogy, and yes, the foundation – social studies. Through a lifetime along the journey, many have come along for the ride. Connecting present and past, merging current issues with traditional curriculum, integrating alternative texts and perspectives, empowering and emancipating kids and educators, transforming schools and society – the transgressions of Global/International Education scream out.

Introduction: A Personal History

2

xvii

Rethinking Social Studies for Global/International Education

What really are the purposes of schooling and education in our society? What are the roles of other institutions in society within the context of teaching and learning? Are socialization, assimilation and passivity all we desire of our institutions? Are we so uncomfortable and wary of our “way of life” that we can’t even trust ourselves? What good is a society that won’t question itself? These and others are the questions that aren’t being asked. What of higher goals such as transforming and transgression? Is the nature of humanity such that comfort is the ultimate and given the current state of society, perhaps comfortably numb? Why does it seem that reaction is the method rather than proactive engagement? Why does it take extreme events to lull us awake as to possibilities? Loewen (2009) states that promoting socialization and allegiance to “American ideals” are the primary goals for social studies and schooling. So, what is wrong with thinking globally and acting locally? Is blind patriotism and jingoistic verbage keeping us form meeting basic human needs? What has happened to the concept of community? Are we held captive by our desire for complacency? Social studies should be about emancipation; it should be about controversy; it should be about dissonance; it should be about allowing for and asking the hard questions and ultimately having the courage to seek… An opportunity awaits: social studies can be a tool for engaging, and it should be a tool for challenging – ourselves, others and our world. Allowing for differing visions and enhancing a variety of stories encourages the transcendental – encourages progress beyond some market driven media defined conception of growth and justice. All education should be focused on efficacy and empowerment of both students and teachers (Freire, 2002). Social studies should be more than co-opting democracy in favor of capitalism, a market mentality, or the glories of globalization. We often tell the stories of the white males heroes of history and provide lip service to the other in the form of celebratory months. Many stories are missing. We need schooling and social studies that encourages participation, critical analysis, and action (Kincheloe, 2005).

3

Rationale

Demographics in the US are changing dramatically with the reality that we are more multicultural and diverse than ever before. A social studies and history

xviii

Introduction: A Personal History

education that is more culturally responsive is vital in that deeper investigation of multiple perspectives allow for a broader understanding of the human endeavor. History by its very nature is about perspective and interpretation – of the time and about the time – and should be about linking past and present. An ongoing issue in social studies teaching and learning is connecting with our students so as to ensure meaning and relevance in their lives. Unfortunately, there is some truth to the old statement that many students find social studies and history education boring (Mintz, 2011). Much of what is happening in the name of social studies remains as it has been for years – textbook based, teacher centered, stressing coverage rather than depth, and focused on low level “facts.” A rethinking of social studies and history education focusing on culturally responsive pedagogy and also linking present to past are important ways to provide context and connections for all students. Gay (2000) defines culturally responsive teaching as using cultural knowledge, prior experiences, and student interest and learning styles to make teaching and learning more learning and effective. According to Ladson-Billings (1994) culturally responsive teaching is a pedagogy that recognizes the importance of including students’ cultural references in all aspects of learning. Zinn (1980) and Loewen (1995) both suggest that social studies and history education should by their very nature focus on culturally responsive approaches. They go on to state that denying voice, perspective and culture in both content and pedagogy are antithetical to democratic ideals. According to Gay (2000), culturally responsive teaching is validating, comprehensive, multidimensional, empowering, transformative, and emancipatory for the students of so many cultures in our schools.

4

Global/International Education for Social Justice

Global/International Education need be about social justice for social efficacy, empowerment, and emancipation. What is the role of schools in promoting social justice? How do the current practices in education and the teaching and learning process impact social justice? The overt goal of our schools is to enhance knowledge, skills, and dispositions development for our children. Unfortunately these goals are more often than not centered around very basic components that decision-makers have perceived as “essential” for being productive citizens in this country. These goals therefore seem to be driven by the ultimate goal of preparing our youth for the world of work. Social studies traditionally has not been about questioning or inquiry. Corporate

Introduction: A Personal History

xix

America desires good obedient workers and our schools serve them up on a platter. Ultimately, we must prepare children for active participation as global citizens; and this means that we have a responsibility to teach for social justice and a more critical teaching and learning. This critical pedagogy is aware and unafraid of childhood desire, often connecting it to children’s efforts to understand the world and themselves. Childhood desire is a natural phenomenon that is unfortunately often driven and dictated by the dominant culture. The idea is to critically analyze these issues and also provide the critical efficacy children need so as to facilitate this natural desire and wonder for learning about and coping with their world. What then is meant by teaching for social justice? Social justice education moves beyond traditional essentialist practice by suggesting the inclusion of student and issues centered approaches to teaching and learning. Advocates for social justice education suggest that our schools are often demeaning and disempowering places where children are either bored into submission or where the transmission and socialization techniques destroy any hope for critical thinking and problem solving development. The opportunity for teaching social justice in schools is great but we must discard the traditional transmission model of social studies in favor of a transformational model.. Social studies must allow for investigating controversy and issues in history rather than memorizing bland facts. Strategies such as debates, simulations, role-playing, cooperative projects, and what if inquiry investigations facilitate a transformational model. Social studies should be a transformational process for both the individual and society (Hope, 1996). Many suggest that social justice be a major focus of social studies curriculum and instruction in our schools. The contention is that traditional social studies education may very well be the bad guy in this debate; for the history of social studies traditionally has been to perpetuate the status quo and often only allows one viewpoint regarding history. With the focus on essential knowledge and skills and the growing accountability movement, social studies education remains reactionary so as to placate critics. Debate within social studies rarely centers around social justice or issues-oriented curriculum. The debate has been on what content should be taught and how that content should be “covered.” American History for example is chronological moving from war to war and hero to hero with any context or connections to our kids’ lives sorely missing. A curriculum is needed that encourages participation, critical analysis, and action. Directly tied to teaching for social justice as stated previously is the concept of social efficacy. If one looks at the traditional goals of social studies,

xx

Introduction: A Personal History

one can interpret these goals are at least somewhat implying some form of social efficacy. The critique here is that both social studies and efficacy mean much more than we have traditionally applied them in the teaching and learning process. Unfortunately, or fortunately, depending on one’s point of view, the truly meaningful and lifelong connections in social efficacy have been provided outside of the classroom, especially outside of the social studies classroom. And this is the real issue. Social studies should be about allowing kids and teachers opportunities for choice, investigation, creativity, questioning, and debate. These are skills vital for a sense of self-efficacy and for promoting a progressive democracy. These ideas suggest the development of responsible citizenship for the propensity for thinking, valuing, and acting, rather than for the promotion of particular thoughts, actions, or values (Stanley, 1992). These citizens go along with the crowd, pleased as punch to be living in the greatest country in the world. It is time to really address power, domination, and issues with the lack of democracy in our schools (Berliner, 1995). Teaching for social justice suggests that story and controversy be returned to social studies. It suggests that life and learning is full of controversy and that we owe it to our kids to allow for investigating of social issues, past, present, and future. The premise is that a society not open and comfortable enough to allow for critique cannot progress and is a society in decline. Where is the democracy is this? School should be for cultivating the human spirit, nourishing the imagination, and promoting self-expression (Purpel & Shapiro, 1995). Social studies has traditionally occupied a unique place in the education system. This is an area where the goal is for our youth to become well-informed active participants in a democracy. Students who participate actively in their education are better able to make sense of their world and in turn are better able to engage in problem solving and decision-making, and to engage in peace making. Social studies should give students the opportunity to gain experience in debate, public speaking, research and decision-making by investigating controversy. Students who are given an opportunity engage in critical analysis of issues and voice their opinion gain confidence and with confidence they are more likely to continue to participate in society’s decisions after graduation. When citizenship education becomes purely socialization, many fundamental issues for facilitating democracy arise (Gutman, 1990). There are many questions that we all will most likely have to think about in our lifetime. What is your view on abortion? What do you think of the death penalty? How do we address violence in society? What is your political preference? What do these four questions have in common? They are also divisive issues that people are likely to be very opinionated about. These are

Introduction: A Personal History

xxi

difficult topics to talk about for many people. Discussion on controversial issues like these can lead to questioning the status quo. Many people decide to just not talk about these issues. Unfortunately many of these people include teachers, and our education system reinforces this practice. The history of the world includes many controversial issues, but unfortunately schooling has taken the controversy out of history and social studies. This must change. A major rationale for schooling is to prepare students for their future. Schools should therefore allow controversy into their classrooms because students will have to encounter controversy and social issues throughout their lives. Instead of resorting to complete withdrawal or violent rage, students would be encouraged to develop peace-making and conflict resolution strategies. But many students will not have exposure to controversy and social issues in their classes. Social studies without controversy cannot really be social studies. It is more like social studies light. This is a disservice to students, teachers, and society. A transformative social justice framework need be the focus of social studies. Only through such a framework can we hope to counter hegemony and other social issues exacerbated by capitalist and corporate dominance. It is high time to rethink social studies for social justice. A society not open and comfortable enough to allow for critique cannot progress and is a society in decline (Loewen, 2009). Critical teaching and learning for social justice sees the true purpose of education as the democratization of society, the highest good, not the protection of the interests of the establishment and unethical minority which dominates American political, economic, and social culture (Apple & Beane, 1995).

5

Culture and Linking Present to Past

Much of our social studies and history education focuses on a heroes and events covered in a chronological framework. We often go from one war to the next and one hero to the next in approaching the first or second half of American history in the grade level it is respectively taught. It is even exacerbated with all of world history being taught in a year. Educators must therefore pick and choose “important” topics or increasingly they are chosen for teachers in the guise of standards. The issue remains that these often only lead to breadth rather than depth and increasingly teaching to the test (given the emphasis now placed on test scores). If our goals remain the promotion of democracy, active citizenship and to develop rights and responsibilities as human beings contributing to society, then other methods warrant increased

xxii

Introduction: A Personal History

implementation. Shouldn’t a goal be civic engagement leading to equity and social justice? A culturally responsive curriculum and instruction that links present to past while always thinking about the future perhaps best addresses the achievement of these goals (Gay, 2010). Contextualizing pedagogy by connecting it locally and to our students lives and culture is a necessary first step. Media, popular culture and others texts/tools should be integrated to enhance such learning. It is one thing to develop a culturally responsive curriculum and instruction, but educators need also to develop those skills within themselves. Teachers must constantly be aware and act on equity and social justice issues dealing with race, ethnicity, gender, class, ability, and culture. Championing a diverse community is vital for both student and teacher efficacy. Banks and Banks (2015) and Nieto (2014) suggest the following: 1 2 3 4 5

Acknowledge students’ differences as well as their commonalities. Validate student cultural identity in all curriculum and instruction. Provide opportunities to engage in to global connections. Promote equity, respect, rights, and responsibilities among students. Develop an interrelationship between students, families, and the community. 6 Encourage student to become active participants in all aspects of their lives – socially and politically. 7 Focus on life skills such as critical thinking, problem solving, conflict resolution, collaboration, and negotiation.

6

Citizenship and Civic Engagement

UNESCO defines citizenship education as “educating all, from early childhood, to become clear-thinking and enlightened citizens who participate in decisions concerning society” (http://www.unesco.org). A particular controversy is that many nations see citizenship education as socialization into almost a blind patriotism toward their own country. Citizenship education can definitely be placed on a continuum, but if a society espouses democratic principles then citizenship education must challenge issues such as ethnocentrism, blind patriotism, and exceptionalism (Brown, 2011). Citizenship education in a democracy really should enhance individual and community responsibility, mutual respect, understanding of diversity and perspectives, critical thinking and active involvement in a society.

Introduction: A Personal History

xxiii

Our state and society in general are in crisis when it comes to citizenship education. Many will claim that that is the role of social studies, and that’s true, but social studies often remains about transmission of information, narrow conceptions of history and social studies, and is often ignored because of high stakes testing (Loewen, 2005). Often little effort is provided toward developing skills and dispositions regarding the social studies (and definitely citizenship education). Citizenship is often relegated to that lowest level of engagement, voting, and the US is even very low on that scale, when compared to other nations. Citizenship education must become a priority in the 21st century, and not one that perpetuates the status quo. Citizenship education must facilitate life skills and dispositions, along with knowledge necessary for addressing issues of this century, both locally and globally. According to the Citizenship Foundation (citizenshipfoundation.org), democracies need active, informed, and responsible citizen; citizens who are willing to take responsibility for themselves and their communities, and contribute to the political and social/ cultural process. Genuine involvement in public life is an ultimate goal, and that must be facilitated in schools, but also in society as a whole. An excellent synthesis that provides a brief history, status, and ideas for teaching of citizenship education in the US is “Citizenship Education in the United States” by Walter Parker (2014).

7

Civic Engagement – Local to Global Contexts

Parker (2014) suggests three primary questions that must be addressed regarding citizenship education today: Question 1 – Do we want a liberal or illiberal democracy? Question 2 – Who has legitimate educational authority? Question 3 – Should schools teach toleration and critical thinking? A society interested in democracy must address these questions according to Parker and he suggests that the pedagogical suggestions tied to addressing these questions stem from Dewey (1938/1997). While social studies and history remain dominated by traditional textbooks, lecture, and multiple choice tests, there is hope as new technologies, demographic changes, knowledge, skills, and dispositions needs for this century, and global crises necessitate a rethinking and redoing. An increasing struggle regarding citizenship is balancing one’s national citizenship and that of being a global citizen. Increasing global issues, the ease of global communication, cross-cultural exchanges, and global

xxiv

Introduction: A Personal History

interdependence have all contributed to a need for improved global citizenship education (Merryfield, 2014). Many of the same themes, ideas, and topics discussed earlier apply to global citizenship, only on an obviously broader scale (the Butterfly Effect has become much more appreciated the last half century). Additional ideas, again building on those mentioned earlier include issues of sustainability, multiculturalism, equity and social justice, recognizing perspectives, cross-cultural communication and exchanges, and global service. Citizenship education necessitates investigating and debating relevant issues and controversies, cooperative and collaborative engagement, active and interactive learning by getting out of the 4 walls of the classroom, and allowing for critique and questioning (Maitles, 2013).

1.7 Thus – Global/International Education The idea of social studies brings all kinds of thoughts and memories to our minds. A rethinking and redoing need be engaged regarding the social studies as past and present applications of social studies often do much more harm than good. Social studies often entails teacher centered, passive, regurgitation of information – decontextualized to the point of meaninglessness except to ensure non-thinking, traditional and passive endeavors. The world demands so much more – humanity requires so much more – the future is so much more. As a result, in order to problematize and criticalize the concept of social studies, a “new” concept for rethinking and redoing is posited – Global/ International Education. Global/International Education is a much broader concept challenging us to move beyond compartmentalization and answers. Global/International Education encompasses many things – critical pedagogy, social studies, media/cultural studies, social justice, etc. The idea, nevertheless, is to offer perspectives, rather than truths, questions, rather than answers, action, rather than passivity. Global/International Education is a dynamic idea/concept calling for a working description rather than a definition and often starts with emphasizing three areas of study: critical pedagogy, cultural/media studies, and social studies education; stressing that education, interpreted broadly, has the potential to advance social justice. Thus emerges Global/International Education, a lifelong journey – to question, to challenge, to do, and to create. Connecting present and past, merging current issues with traditional curriculum, integrating alternative texts and perspectives, empowering and emancipating kids and educators, and transforming schools and society – the transgressions of Global/International Education scream out. Dewey, Freire, Kincheloe, Zinn, Greene, Giroux, Apple, hooks, McLaren, Kozol, Loewen, Gay, Chomsky… and

Introduction: A Personal History

xxv

critical qualitative research is the method for investigation and exploration of this world. Global/International Education challenges at its very core, hopefully problematizing social studies and its world. Transformation and transcendence are the essence of Global/International Education – connecting all of humanity to the big picture of social justice. Global/International Education sees no walls, no “no’s” and promotes the idea of possibility for all human endeavor. And calls for critical qualitative research. There are several possibilities to explore in considering the direction of Global/International Education. Global/International Education encompasses social studies education, cultural studies, critical theory/critical pedagogy, social justice/ democracy education, and community connections such as partnerships and service learning.

8

Conclusion

We all have a personal history of social studies, learning it in schools, applying it in society. I suggest that a rethinking is necessary for the 21st century. Many, if not most educators would say that our students just don’t know about civics or engagement – there are reasons for that. Rather than blaming and calling out some conspiracy theory, we must be on the front lines in advocating for change. That is what civic engagement is all about – more than passive teaching, it’s about modeling, doing, acting in the world; especially given current questions about truth and alternative facts. What we do to ensure meaningful civic education and engagement is vital today; thus, the need to rethink just how we as educators teach this stuff. Again, we often do a pretty good job of preaching democracy, but modeling and allowing critical democracy through youth participatory politics should be our goal. Allowing for voice, critique, controversy, and debate are vital to enhancing sustained civic engagement; thus a Global/International Education framing. A society that claims to be a democracy, but one that doesn’t do all it can to ensure equity and social justice through civic education and engagement is a democracy in peril. The same can be said for ignoring the need for high-level in-depth investigation of history and social studies. There is much knowledge, and many skills and dispositions that are unique to social studies and history education. Allowing our kids to act as engaged citizens is one such skill. This can ultimately lead to critical consciousness and agency, and progress as a society.

xxvi

Introduction: A Personal History

References Apple, M., & Beane, J. (1995). Democratic schools. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and curriculum Development. Banks, J., & Banks, C. (2015). Multicultural education issues and perspectives (8th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Beiner, R. (Ed.). (1995). Theorizing citizenship. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Brown, A. (2011). Why schools need citizenship. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/education Dewey, J. (1938/1997). Experience and education. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. Duncan-Andrade, J. (2008). The art of critical pedagogy. New York, NY: Peter Lang. Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: Continuum Press. Freire, P. (2013). Education for critical consciousness. New York, NY: Bloomsbury. Gay, G. (2000). Culturally responsive teaching. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Giroux, H. (2012). Disposable youth. New York, NY: Routledge. Gutman, A. (1990). Democratic education in difficult times. Teachers College Record, 92, 7–20. Kozleski, E. (2011). Culturally responsive teaching matters! Retrieved from http://www.equityallianceatasu.org/sites/default/files/Website_files/ CulturallyResponsiveTeaching-Matters.pdf Kozol. J. (2006). The shame of the nation. Pittsburg, PA: Three Rivers Press. Ladson-Billings, G. (1994). The dreamkeepers. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishing Co. Loewen, J. (1995). Lies my teacher told me. New York, NY: Touchstone. Maitles, H. (2013). What type of citizenship education? UN Chronicle, 50(4), 17–20. Merryfield, M. (2014). Crossing culture and global interconnectedness. Leaders in Global/International Education, 111–122. Nieto, S. (2014). Why we teach now. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Parker, W. (2014). Citizenship education in the United States. In L. P. Nucci, D. Narvaez, & T. Krettenauer (Eds.), The Handbook of Moral and Character Education (pp. 347–367). New York, NY: Routledge. Purpel, D., & S. Shapiro. (1995). Beyond liberation and excellence. Westport, CT: Bergin and Garvey. Richards, H., Brown, A., & Forde, T. (2006). Addressing diversity on schools: Culturally responsive pedagogy. Retrieved from http://www.nccrest.org/Briefs/Diversity_ Brief.pdf UNESCO. (2015). Citizenship education. Retrieved from http://www.unesco.org West, C. (2001). Race matters. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.

Introduction: A Personal History

xxvii

Westheimer, J., & Kahne, J. (1998). Education for action: Preparing youth for participatory democracy. In W. Ayers, J. Ann Hunt, & T. Quinn (Eds.), Teaching for social justice (pp. 1–20). New York, NY: The New Press. Zinn, H. (1980). A people’s history of the United States. New York, NY: Harper Collins.

CHAPTER 1

Challenging Traditional Research Assumptions Critical Qualitative Research in Social/Global Education

Social/global education (a working description): Addressing economic, social, political, environmental and equity issues in education in a local to global context connected to ethnicity, race, class, gender, age, ability, orientation, and culture leading to critical consciousness and civic engagement.

∵ 1

Introduction

The idea of social/global studies brings all kinds of thoughts and memories to our minds. A rethinking and redoing need be engaged regarding the social/ global studies as past and present applications of social/global studies often do much more harm than good (Zinn, 2005; Loewen, 2007). Social/global studies often entails teacher centered, passive, regurgitation of information – decontextualized to the point of meaninglessness except to ensure nonthinking, traditional and passive endeavors. The world demands so much more – humanity requires so much more – the future is so much more. Research tied to the social/global studies also often perpetuates the status quo in that the human endeavor and progress, and the issues tied to societal problems are often ignored (Kincheloe, 2005). As a result, in order to problematize and criticalize the concept of social/ global studies, a “new” concept for rethinking and redoing is posited – social/global education. Social/global education is a much broader concept challenging us to move beyond compartmentalization and answers. Social/ global education encompasses many things – critical pedagogy, social/global studies, media/cultural studies, social justice, etc. The idea, nevertheless, is to offer perspectives, rather than truths, questions, rather than answers, action, rather than passivity. Social/global education moves us from a war mentality to a peace mentality, from a cynical mindset to one of opportunity. And critical qualitative research in social/global education challenges traditional teaching, learning, assessment, context and connections beyond the school. © koninklijke brill nv, leideN, 2018 | DOI 10.1163/9789004364622_001

2

chapter 1

While “defining” social/global education can elicit contradictory claims, social/global education starts with emphasizing three areas of study: critical pedagogy, cultural/media studies, and social/global studies education; stressing that education, interpreted broadly, has the potential to advance social justice. Thus emerges social/global education, a lifelong journey – to question, to challenge, to do, and to create. Connecting present and past, merging current issues with traditional curriculum, integrating alternative texts and perspectives, empowering and emancipating kids and educators, and transforming schools and society – the transgressions of social/global education scream out (Freire, 1970; Kincheloe, 2008; Zinn, 2005; Giroux, 2004; Apple, 1990; hooks, 1994; McLaren, 2003; Loewen, 2007; Gay, 2010), and critical qualitative research can be the method for investigation and exploration of this world. Social/global education challenges at its very core, hopefully problematizing social/global studies and its world. Transformation and transcendence are the essence of social/global education – connecting all of humanity to the big picture of social justice. Social/global education sees no walls, no “no’s” and promotes the idea of possibility for all human endeavor. And calls for critical qualitative research. There are several possibilities to explore in considering the direction of social/ global education. Social/global education encompasses social/global studies education, cultural studies, critical theory/critical pedagogy, social justice/ democracy education, and community connections such as partnerships and service learning. In this time of neoliberalism, standardization, essentialism, and accountability it is vital that social/global education offer critical inquiry in education and thus a critical qualitative research focus.

2

Context

Social/global education is interested in empowering the disempowered, so that education and schooling should be about addressing societal issues tied to race, ethnicity, gender, age, and orientation. When we have a society that continues to struggle with mass incarceration, gun violence, lack of voting rights, 19th century immigration policy, entitlements to the military, corporations, and the rich, perpetual war, and non-stop imperialism, then societal transformation can be the only goal. In other words, a particular critique made by social educators is that humanity and efficacy have been divorced from education. Critical qualitative research informs social/global education through a lens that ensures the investigation of issues in education tied to power and privilege, ultimately leading to advocacy and activism. The concept of critical

Challenging Traditional Research Assumptions

3

is increasingly challenged in this age of neoliberal reform; nevertheless, critical implies questioning, investigating and challenging in terms of equity and social justice, leading to critical consciousness (Freire, 1970). A social/global education take on critical qualitative research thus suggests multiple truths and perspectives and focuses on questions rather than answers. Social/global education researchers make the process and investigation their own and adapt questions, procedures, methods, and strategies throughout the experience, thus engaging in self- study. This reflects an ever-changing criticality in the bricolage of the research (Steinberg, 2011). This is intended to challenge traditional assumptions in research including quantifying the human endeavor, myths of objectivity and generalizability, neoliberal and corporatization of education, and deficit approaches to equity and social justice. As Kincheloe, McLaren, and Steinberg (2012) state, a form of social or cultural criticism is the basis of such research. They go on to suggest seven assumptions in critical qualitative research in social/global education: 1 2 3 4 5 6

Social and historically constructed power issues affect all human endeavor; Ideology and value judgments; Knowledge, skills, and dispositions from a local to global perspective; Capitalism affects the construction of individual and group process/products; Objectivity is a myth and that language and culture necessitate subjectivity; Privilege and oppression are rampant and critical consciousness is a primary focus; 7 Traditional and mainstream practice contribute to reproduction of issues tied to equity and social justice. Critical qualitative research in social/global education intentionally challenges assumptions linked to quantitative methodology. Loughran (2005) states the important guidelines for critical approaches in qualitative studies that demonstrate these challenges: 1 Critical qualitative research is aimed and problems and issues encountered by the researcher, participants, and society in general in investigating their equity and social justice in teaching and learning. 2 Critical qualitative research challenges traditional quantitative research, teaching and learning by encouraging a variety of interactions, including a focus on critical theory as a foundation. 3 Critical qualitative research employs a variety of qualitative methods to enhance triangulation, but also allowing for the evolution of the study (questions, themes, issues).

4

chapter 1

4 Critical qualitative research facilitates a broader understanding of research particularly tied to the human endeavor. Nevertheless, the argument herein is that all education is or should be social/global education. We are all social “human” beings struggling to develop knowledge, skills, and dispositions through lifelong education, both in and out of “school” in order to make the best of life, hopefully for ourselves and others. Any research therefore, must also include the story, questioning, and challenges to power and privilege through critical qualitative research.

3

Aim/Objectives/Questions

How does critical qualitative research impact and inform social/global education? How does the inclusion of critical qualitative research impact the researcher, participants, and society in a social/global education context? The objective is to determine the impact of critical qualitative research in social/global education research and to challenge traditional assumptions in education research.

4

Rationale/Purpose

A key in social/global education critical research is that the researcher address issues of equity and social justice within the framing of the researcher themselves, the participants, and ultimately society as a whole; thus able to challenge traditional research assumptions by adapting questions and methods as the research progresses. A primary goal is to explore phenomena critically with the hope of ultimate transformation for social justice, using questions, problems and issues as a foundation. Much of the literature regarding critical qualitative research in education questions basic assumptions regarding a non-problematic transition from teacher to teacher educator, issues of bias, generalizability, and addressing issues of power and privilege (Berry, 2007). One begins with structure in the sense of general research questions and intended methodology and participants/phenomena, but with the understanding that all is open-ended, flexible, and dependent on the ongoing process, synthesis and analysis of reading, experiences and findings. Discovering themes/topics through coding is vital at all stages of the process.

Challenging Traditional Research Assumptions

5

According to Kincheloe (2005), such research seeks historical contextualization, multiple, theoretical groundings, and a diversity of knowledge by integrating a variety of methodologies. Social/global education requires a personal connection in one’s research, therefore an initial self-study/narrative is vital for research context. The self-study provides the personal story that leads to the initial rationale and questions for the research. This story might then transition to a more formal framing describing the rationale questions and issues. Methods employed throughout include journaling, self-analysis, collaborative self -study with other dissertation cohort members, and individual and focus group interviewing. The key is the researcher (doctoral student) studying their own role within the practice (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000). Again, all is within the context of understanding that subjectivity is a human characteristic; and that the research isn’t intended to tell the whole story, but the story as it is at the time, with additional questions, ideas, and issues emerging throughout the experience. Any research project requires a review of literature and relevant research. The focus in critical qualitative research in social/global education is to determine the seminal themes relevant to the research. All of this is made relevant through connections to the self, participants and societal contexts. Again, methodology must be “written” through focusing on the rationale, questions, and adapted methods appropriate for the critical investigation. It is vital here to develop one’s own social/global education research persona (self-study), for adapting the methodology to meet the developing needs of the project. Documenting this process is part of the reporting of the methodology, as is the philosophical review of critical research in social/global education. Critical qualitative research of recent and current dissertations research projects will be coded for themes and issues tied the process and to particular critical themes in social/global education. Additionally, individual and group interviews will be coded regarding the research questions of the study. A particular highlight emanating from qualitative research is a richness of story in detailing human experiences, and also the critical components of equity, social justice, power, and privilege. The effort at triangulation contributes to the richness of story in that a variety of qualitative methods are adapted to meet the needs of the research (researcher, participants, and society) – questions, story, engagement, and focus. Writing through one’s perspective is also vital in critical qualitative research so as to challenge the assumption that one needs to make grand claims or generalize. A particular goal is to personalize the research by making the process and procedures one’s own by continually adapting questions and procedures as more is investigated

6

chapter 1

and discovered. Finally the understanding is that the research is a story in time, hopefully moving humanity forward, but also leading to further questions and next steps for research/investigation. Additionally interview themes will be documented regarding personal impact of critical qualitative research and its impact on the research process. Analysis of findings will include proposed directions for teaching critical qualitative research and the process for integrating critical qualitative research into social/global education scholarship. Finally, articulating critical qualitative research design in social/global education focusing again on equity and social justice will be addressed/analyzed.

5

21st Century Implications

There are five broad pillars or themes that comprise social/global education. These include Social Reconstruction/Social Justice, Critical Theory/Critical Pedagogy, Media/Cultural Studies, Social/global studies/History Education, and Culturally Responsive/Multiple Perspectives. Each of these have contributed to a transformation from traditional social/global studies education approaches to teaching and learning, curriculum and instruction to one that is first critical in the sense that deconstruction and multiple truths are championed with the hope for emancipatory education practice – social/global education. This is turn will also hopefully lead to challenges to the current neoliberal, privatized and globalized “vision”/direction of much within education. The idea is that the public sphere remains the place where the true potential for human transformations can take place (Giroux, 2004). Social/global education stems from a social reconstructionist/social justice philosophical foundation. The idea suggests that democracy and capitalism are antithetical and that unbridled capitalism has usurped democratic practice (Apple, 1990). Equity and social justice need be the ultimate goal of any education endeavor focusing on race, ethnicity, gender, orientation, age, and ability when addressing any social issue; and thus should be prevalent in any critical qualitative research. Rethinking, reconceptualizing, and restructuring schooling, education, curriculum and instruction is stressed if we are truly interested in equity and meeting basic human needs (McLaren, 2003). An issue and problem based approach to research is also warranted. Critical qualitative research and social/global education are therefore vital for the world of the 21st century. The onslaught of neoliberalism, corporatization, standardization, testing, and the continuing attack on public schools and

Challenging Traditional Research Assumptions

7

educators necessitate critical approaches to teaching and learning along with critical qualitative research in social/global education. Ongoing issues with equity and social justice tied to race, ethnicity, class, orientation, age, and ability linking to schooling, education, teaching and learning must be addressed. The struggle between unbridled capitalism and democracy warrant these investigations in the 21st century, hopefully leading to advocacy and activism. Empowering and emancipating educators and students requires a redesigning of schooling to demonstrate a truly democratic way of life, to be consistent with the ideals of equity and social justice, to be informed by research that is “educative” (Zeichner, 2009). According to Goodman, Ullrich, and Nana (2012), a “triple consciousness’ based on Freire’s critical consciousness is much needed for equity and social justice in a teaching and learning context. We must model critical multicultural, social justice education (culturally responsive pedagogy), work to transform perspectives of all education, society and its stakeholders, and engage in critical emancipatory research leading to advocacy and activism. We must continually challenge the corporatized, unequal, and essentialist framing of education. Education is both a political and ethical endeavor hoping to facilitate critically active students anxious to engage in the world. Linking the process to the community and the world provides the context we all need to understand and advocate for equity and social justice. A critical qualitative research in social/global education that investigates these hard issues locally and globally can only lead to empowering educators and students as change agents.

References Apple, M. (1990). Ideology and curriculum. New York, NY: Routledge. Berry, A. (2007). Reconceptualizing teacher educator knowledge as tensions: Exploring the tension between valuing and reconstructing experience. Studying Teacher Education, 3(2), 117–134. Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: Herder and Herder. Gay, G. (2010). Culturally responsive teaching. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Giroux, H. (2004). Public pedagogy and the politics of neoliberalism. Policy Futures in Education, 2(3–4), 494–503. Goodman, G., Ullrich, W., & Nana, P. (2012). Action research for critical classroom and community change. In S. Steinberg & G. Cannella (Eds.), Critical qualitative research reader. New York, NY: Peter Lang.

8

chapter 1

hooks, b. (1994). Teaching to transgress. New York, NY: Routledge. Kincheloe, J. (2005). On to the next level: Continuing the conceptualization of the bricolage. Qualitative Inquiry, 11(3), 323–350. Kincheloe, J., McLaren, P., & Steinberg, S. (2012). Critical pedagogy and qualitative research. In S. Steinberg & G. Cannella (Eds.), Critical qualitative research reader (pp. 14–32). New York, NY: Peter Lang. Kincheloe, J. L. (2008). Critical pedagogy. New York, NY: Peter Lang. Loewen, J. (2007). Lies my teacher told me. New York, NY: Touchstone. Loughran, J. (2005). Researching teaching about teaching: Self-study about teacher education practices. Studying Teacher Education, 1(1), 5–16. McLaren, P. (2003). Life in schools. New York, NY: Pearson. Steinberg, S. (2011). Critical cultural studies research. In K. Tobin & J. Kincheloe (Eds.), Doing educational research. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers. Zeichner, K. (2009). Teacher education and the struggle for social justice. New York, NY: Routledge. Zinn, H. (2005). A people’s history of the United States. New York, NY: Harper Classics.

CHAPTER 2

Internationalizing Critical Qualitative Case Studies It’s coexistence or no existence. Bertrand Russell

∵ 1

Introduction

Growing up today is very different than even a decade ago. Today the world truly is a smaller place and we really are part of a global neighborhood. People are instantaneously connected to international events through media, technology, trade, and global issues such as conflict, climate, and socioeconomics. Borders do not mean the same as they did just a few years ago. A “globalized” world necessitates international connections, thus challenging traditional conceptions of nationalism, exceptionalism, and hegemony. This chapter investigates internationalizing of education through critical case studies, narrative, and self-study and suggests that we need to contextualize the issues and investigation of global connections better. The chapter also suggests there are threats to the public sphere and to emancipatory local to global connections thus requiring critical approaches to such investigations/research. The methods employed offer a variety of perspectives allowing for critical analysis and ultimately transformative ideas. Using such examples provides stories, applications, ideas, and challenges that can hopefully open up the possibilities for additional perspectives to be offered. Teaching and learning must include education for a global perspective so that students might also become responsible “active” citizens of the world (Tucker & Evans, 1996; Diaz, Massialas, & Xanthopoulos, 1999; Chapin, 2003). A critical component of education in general, and social education specifically, is to promote an understanding of diversity at home and abroad: “integrating global realities within an existing school curriculum meets the needs of an ever-changing, ethnically diverse, increasingly interdependent, international community” (Tucker & Evans, 1996). World citizenship requires a global/ international education. © koninklijke brill nv, leideN, 2018 | DOI 10.1163/9789004364622_002

10

chapter 2

Global/international education efforts must begin with an attempt to understand globalization. Globalization can be defined as “the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa” (McLaren, 2001). In turn, critical research in social education attempts to challenge the unbridled neoliberal hegemony associated with globalization. Diaz, Massialas, and Xanthopoulos (1999, pp. 37–38) state that globalization: refers to the compression of the world and to the intensification of the consciousness of the world as a whole. This process is ongoing and all of us, young and old, Westerners and non-Westerners, are inescapably involved in it. The compression of the world is real. People witness it in their daily lives, in the foods they eat, in the TV programs they watch, in the cars they drive, in the dresses and costumes, in the people they choose to govern them, and so on. Clearly, globalization is increasingly influential in most aspects of 21st century life. Therefore understanding it through global/international education is imperative. Schools must provide opportunities for children to “develop the appropriate cognitive skills to understand and explain the globalization process and to critically analyze its impact on their lives and the lives of people around them” (Diaz, Massialas, & Xanthopoulos, 1999, p. 38). Above all students need to know how to impact the global system as world citizens and as advocates of a well-grounded position or point of view. This suggests that students must acquire both a new knowledge base and a skill set. Many of the subjects associated with social studies might offer an appropriate space for global education – but other disciplines are ripe for integration as well. At its core, global education is really about analyzing the links between cultures and people (Chapin, 2003); it must be better integrated in all classrooms, and thus critically researched as well. Rethinking teaching and learning in these ways could provide the opportunity to deepen our understanding and appreciation of others in the world, something essential to our roles and responsibilities as global citizens. Given the global interconnectedness of the world today, the global context must be present. According to Merryfield (2001), students must develop a global perspective that will emphasize cross-cultural experiential learning and stress commonalities in cultures that transcend diversity. Increased globalization presents many challenges for societies and the institution of education has a responsibility for addressing these “globalized” issues. Education in general should play a strong role and is enhanced

Internationalizing Critical Qualitative Case Studies

11

through internationalizing partnerships and projects. In addition, cultural competence, collaboration skills, and an appreciation of global connections can be facilitated through cross-cultural experiences in teacher education, thus translating to the classroom. Many schools, colleges and universities are recognizing the need for global competence and promoting understanding among cultures (Dan-xia, 2008). In addition, linking multicultural education and global issues is facilitated through meaningful international education projects (Wells, 2008). James suggests that internationalizing education develops a sense of interconnectedness, empathy, and tolerance, which are much needed in today’s world (2005). Education programs have much work to do to accomplish these ideas. A way to move forward is to share ideas and engage in collaborative internationalizing of the curriculum. Schools in the United States must provide opportunities for students to learn about the world: who people are, what they do, and how they live. Students must learn how to get along with all people – within the US and around the world – as responsible citizens of both. Education for civic competence, for responsible national and world citizenship, falls within the domain of social studies instruction and learning. We must rethink teaching and learning so as to enable these ideas. Integrating music, movies, art, and literature focusing on global issues or celebrating global culture offers a great opportunity.; thus enabling many opportunities for critical qualitative research projects. Fortunately, increased and improved research on internationalizing is being undertaken at many levels of education. In addition, numerous international education experiences focusing on study trips, consulting, teaching and research have contributed to this “new found” interest. Our critical qualitative approach suggests that educators at all levels must be engaged in collaborative research, teaching, and service (Herr & Anderson, 2005). Critical qualitative educational research highlights the need to cultivate knowledge, skills, and dispositions for global and civic awareness and responsibility (Loewen, 2007; Ochoa-Becker, 2006; Ross, 2006). Additionally, to be engaged, global citizens, students need exposure to multiple literacies and diverse perspectives (Durham & Kellner, 2005; Giroux, 2006; Silberman-Keller, 2008).

2

Methods

Critical qualitative research intends to investigate complex “real-life” educational and societal issues in great depth (Steinberg & Cannealla, 2012). Steinberg (2012) also suggests that such methods highlight humanistic

12

chapter 2

approaches and challenge empiricism and positivism, for example. Critical education research is framed in in a social reconstruction tradition, continually investigating for social justice. The intention is to ensure research that is critically and explicitly grounded in personal and collective experiences – investigating the human condition in an educational context. In order to understand better the complexities of education in a culturally responsive context and to engage a local to global framing, a variety of relevant critical qualitative methods are integrated and adapted as need to address questions and issues. In order to record the “experiences, ideas, fears, mistakes, confusions, breakthroughs and problems that arise” narratives are integrated in such research (Connelly & Clandinin, 1990). These approaches approach is intended to provide a structure, by which we can begin to understand the educational process, linked individual and societal issues, the local to global tensions and, the ways in which theory and practice impact. Critical qualitative research borrows from many other qualitative research methodologies; however, what distinguishes it from other methodologies is its orientation on the social justice and societal transformation (LaBoskey, 2004; Loughran, 2005; Samaras & Freese, 2006). Johnston suggests that it is reflective inquiry in the Deweyian sense and should be situated in the “struggles, politics, complexities, and tensions of the context and are not subject to the questions, critique, and validation of others” (Johnston, 2006, p. 62). LaBoskey (2004) suggests four basic features for such research: the first is an aim towards improvement; the second is interaction with colleagues; the third is the use of multiple qualitative methods; and the fourth is to make the work available to the professional community. Criticalists in social education would add that activism and transformation by the ultimate goal. Critical qualitative research in social education calls for an inward and outward look at theory and practice, and should specifically focus on change. Johnston (2006) finds that a focus on taking action and studying the consequences for education is the hallmark of this research. When implemented, triangulation within critical research leads to a richness and celebration of the human endeavor. Herr and Anderson (2005), when writing about qualitative research, share some of Johnston’s ideas. They find that research questions come out of educational theory and practice; they are born from the needs and problems of the context. In making the case for this approach to research Herr and Anderson (2005) write: It is an account of how researchers/educators went about learning his or her craft and what was learned in the process. Such insider accounts generate important knowledge and questions to be shared, just as other

Internationalizing Critical Qualitative Case Studies

13

similar methods do. In fact, they begin to build a knowledge base that can inform the research community about the actions and beliefs tied to equity and social justice – a knowledge base that is otherwise difficult to address,/investigate/discover. The integration of critical qualitative methods for these research projects is not intended to overly complicate the research. It is intended to provide a structure, by which we can begin to understand ourselves as educators, the integration of an international focus and the ways in which theory and practice impact others. The critical lens is vital in that research questions and methodology are fluid and adapting as research progresses.

3

Three Internationalizing Projects

Three internationalizing projects that implement critical qualitative research strategies in a social education context are shared. These projects include Global Classrooms, Internationalizing Curriculum and Instruction, and Internationalizing through China. These projects demonstrate an ongoing internationalizing education project in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Houston. Global Classrooms is a project focusing on integrating Model UN and local to global contexts through a knowledge, skills, and dispositions framework at local secondary schools. The project is intended to address needs in high needs schools for contextualized social education through the investigation of local/global issues and developing life skills. As a 12 year critical qualitative longitudinal study, many stories emerge reading student and teacher struggles in schools today. The second project discussed investigates a curriculum and instruction department’s internationalizing efforts. The project documents issues and ideas among faculty and stakeholders in dealing with often contradictory impositions from leadership at the college and university level in again linking local to global efforts in education. The project addresses empowerment issues and struggles with bureaucratic business models in addressing global/ international issues. The final project included focuses specifically on China as a case study for internationalizing education efforts. Study abroad and partnership programs linking a college of education with Chinese counterparts are documented. Specific components again address issues with internationalizing, providing local and global contexts, and dealing with the “critical” in such projects.

14

chapter 2

While additional examples/case studies are available, these represent a varied approach to internationalizing and to critical qualitative research in social education. They demonstrate the ongoing issues and struggles for qualitative researchers in increasingly neoliberal higher education institutions. And to go further with critical approaches in social education only exacerbates the problem confronting research in education – that to challenge and question in the hope of transformation for equity and social justice is often belittled, dismissed, or even denied as contributing to scholarship.

4

Global Classrooms

The uniqueness of Global Classrooms (GC) when compared to traditional Model UN is the integrated issues and problem-based curriculum, skills development and support provided throughout an entire school year. Model UN, on the other hand, is most often a one-time simulation of the United Nations. Additionally while Model UN is often available only to more privileged schools and communities, Global Classrooms is designed for schools and students who don’t always have access to great resources. Global Classrooms is a program initiated by the United Nations Association some 12 years ago to facilitate the integration of Model United Nations and Global Classrooms skills based curriculum into schools that had not experienced traditional Model UN. The idea is to support each portion of the program in more socio-economically deprived schools, generally in urban areas. Primary goals of Global Classrooms include developing global/international knowledge based on global issues and countries, developing a variety of life skills leading to active global citizenship, and developing dispositions focusing on awareness and appreciation of multiple perspectives. Global Classrooms has a constructivist-oriented curriculum based on several themes. The themes include peacekeeping, human rights, sustainable development, and globalization. Within each curriculum framework there are lessons that focus on developing a United Nations knowledge base and a general awareness of global issues. In addition, each lesson focuses on skills development including research, writing, collaboration, debate, and general public speaking. Dispositions encouraged through the curriculum include tolerance, awareness, collaborative demeanor, openness, and appreciation of difference. A variety of thematic simulations are included to prepare students for the role-playing experience of Model UN (MUN). In addition, the curriculum is generic enough to encourage contextual adaptation to localize issues and even include less controversial simulations such as debating which type of candy

Internationalizing Critical Qualitative Case Studies

15

is best, or the best fast food restaurants. Resources, lessons, and links are also included to support teaching and learning. The program was initially supported through large grants that paid for the curriculum, professional development, the MUN conference, and support staff. Local United Nations Associations (UNA) generally served as the liaison between the UNA-USA in New York, local schools, and a Global Classrooms consultant. At present, most local Global Classrooms programs receive minimal funding from UNA-USA, although curriculum is still free. Staff members are paid minimally, if at all, and there is a charge to participate in the conference now. The charge covers the venue, lunches, some staff per diem, and basic conference support. Regardless of the sharp drop in funding support, the program is sustainable and has grown to several US and international cities. Houston is one of the original cities supported by the UNA-USA and has been in existence since Fall 2001. Initially mandated that GC Houston only be available to Houston ISD, it expanded into Aldine ISD first and is now in several local districts and charter schools. Generally, over 3,000 students engage in some form of Global Classrooms during the school year, with 500 students participating in the culminating Global Classrooms; Model United Nations Conference held at the University of Houston each spring. Houston was initially quite unique in that it was one of the first programs to have both a middle school and high school Global Classrooms project as local schools recognized a need to integrate the program in 6th grade world cultures classes which focused on the 20th century, as well as various high school subjects. Houston schools also integrated the curriculum in a variety of ways – within the specific social studies class itself, in clubs, and in stand alone elective courses. Even within each of these, individual teachers were able to adapt the curriculum in a variety of ways – as a current events/issues-based integration, as a way to develop life skills in clubs such as debate or speech, or as semester or year long Global Classrooms course integrating various components of the curriculum. GC Houston holds several professional development sessions each year, focusing on introduction to Global Classrooms and Model UN, curriculum integration, conducting Model UN simulations, and conference preparation. Fall is typically used for curriculum integration, mock simulations and knowledge and skills development for the students. Spring is dedicated to conference preparation. Schools are assigned countries and topics depending on requests and numbers of students attending the conference. During the culminating conference 6 committees are usually represented at both the middle school and high school levels including Security Council and other committees of high interest such as UNICEF.

16

chapter 2

Students are assigned countries, research their countries, assigned committees, research their committees, then they are assigned topics, research the topics, articulate what their country’s position is, then develop a position paper to assist with debate during the conference. Students engage in mock simulation to prepare for the conference, usually focusing on localized issues. Ultimately students are asked to role play UN ambassadors from their assigned countries. GC Houston has adapted the curriculum in a number of ways, but localized themes include energy, transportation, pollution, development, space issues, trade, education, and socio-economic issues – focusing on contextualized issues in Houston. Despite the general success of Global Classrooms Houston, the program is challenged in local schools and districts and in Texas for addressing controversial issues, allowing for multiple perspectives, and not fitting into the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills. Much of this is addressed by inviting critics to visit classrooms, observe student activities, and attend the culminating Model UN conference. Stakeholders generally agree that Global Classrooms provides a contextualized global education missing from the current traditional curriculum. The largest ongoing issue is time, as teachers are increasingly subjected to scripted curriculum, benchmark testing, and formalized standardized testing, and narrow perceptions regarding achievement and accountability.

5

Internationalizing a Department

The university and city we are in are excellent examples the most internationally diverse in the country, and both also have strong international links. Our department has allowed our past international links dwindle, primarily due to impositions from college leadership (differing agendas). Student s and faculty increasingly found that global and international connections into education served as the “missing link” many needed to see the bigger picture of teaching and service to humanity. Many faculty and students knew that something was missing in their education; they just could not identify what it was. That missing link was a commitment to something greater than oneself in education. Critical qualitative research empowers educators to investigate issues tied to social education, thus enabling better global connections, possible sparks that enhance humanity individual and collective responsibility. Research confirms the value of collaboration in all levels of education (Kincheloe, 2005; McLaren, 2006; Spring, 2003). The intention was to document the stries and process of internationalizing efforts in the department. Throughout the project, we documented the conversations among the faculty involved. Research

Internationalizing Critical Qualitative Case Studies

17

assistants attended meetings to document conversations both hand-written and audio recording. We used documentation from these collaborative meetings to assess the impact of such partnerships on the research integration. Faculty members maintained reflective journals to record the challenges and successes encountered when incorporating the research projects. We believe the journals and conversations provided intimate insights into our growth as educators and the implementation of research projects. We will produce a summative brief that outlines challenges and successes that emerged throughout the semester. Faculty members and their students completed pre- and post-course surveys. These surveys assessed participants’ understanding culture, global connections, diversity, and change tied to allowing for multiple perspectives. In order to take advantage of the diverse backgrounds of our students we emphasize the rich qualitative data that emerges from the surveys. We will produce an analytical brief that summarizes results of the surveys. Additional data was obtained from student work products collected through their coursework, including journals, comparative papers, and reviews of literature. Before engaging in international projects, faculty and students developed research questions to aid them in determining types of data to collect. These initial research questions along with the collected data, conclusion and recommendations for future action were collected in the form of end of course projects. Data collected on the challenges and success of the research projects will be summarized in the paper. A preliminary look at the transcripts of the task force meetings and the journals shows several interesting issues. The first was agreeing to specific directions regarding internationalization, particularly given all else that is imposed in teaching and learning. One educator lamented that increased standardization, and focus on benchmarks and testing allows little time for global connections in any curriculum. Faculty and students initially struggled with linking urban education issues with international or comparative education. All participants initially focused on their own narrow content and pedagogical agenda. Task force meetings and model courses that integrated an international focus provided support and encouragement for educators to allow for increased internationalization. A second ongoing issue was the varied ways in which we conceptualize research and which pieces of research practice are the most important. None of the undergraduate courses in the study are research-based courses. One teacher educator struggled with “how far afield we should go from the goal of our courses, which does not include methodology.” Additionally, the students do not have experience with research methodology. Our team felt a great deal of pressure to teach methodology and create meaningful research projects but

18

chapter 2

in an abbreviated, student friendly format. What constituted that abbreviated format was a focus of a great deal of discussion. In our initial discussions of the student created action research projects we failed to consider the implications for students who had negative experiences. A teacher educator noted, “those students who observed or taught with teachers which the students felt were poor examples had a great deal of difficulty completing the research and formulating an alternative in which the students had a high level of confidence.” Students are eager to get into the field and were disappointed by experiences which they view as nonlearning experiences. These “bad experiences” lead to discussions among team members over how much we can and should control the environments in which students’ research. For those students with positive experiences the action research project allowed them to take a systematic look at teaching practices. Many students considered the impacts of classroom management practices on the ability of teachers to engage students. Whether it was the lack of posting classroom rules, the cancelation of recess or breakfast service in the classroom to allow for extended instructional time, the student recognized that in order for students to be engaged in learn their basic needs must be met. In other instances, students critiqued questioning strategies and lesson plan formats for their ability to engage students and provide more in depth learning. In the ongoing discussion of what education will need to prepare educators and students for life in the 21st century, improved internationalization represents a framework for guiding that learning. Understanding the implications of these types of frameworks for educators at all levels is an important area of research. Additionally, in the continuing effort to build link global issues with current curriculum standards, action research should be situated as an integral practice of teaching. Action research modes of learning can benefit teachers at all levels as they pursue a reflective empowering examination of their practice. Through collaborative effort and a thoughtful dissection of one approach to integrating action research our paper advances the community and global aspect of education that are necessary for educators and students to become successful citizens of the world, and to pass those ideals along to their own students. Increased globalization necessitates a more broad exploration of education. Internationalizing education through exchanges, research projects, courses, field experiences, and university partnerships can only enhance teacher education and facilitate global understanding and appreciation of multiple perspectives beyond education. International partnerships among interested

Internationalizing Critical Qualitative Case Studies

19

parties including universities, schools and government agencies can only enhance future possibilities.

6

China as a Case Study

Social education at the university has had an international focus at least since 1995, with various projects in Indonesia, Japan, and New Zealand for example. This changed somewhat in 2007, when the social education program initiated global and international education courses and linked to the China abroad program for a month-long trip to China. The goals of the China experience included internationalizing the social education program area more extensively and eventually the department, facilitating possible future collaborations in China, and applying the experience towards our teaching and scholarship, again focusing on issues of social justice in a local to global context. The length of the experience helped facilitate better understanding of Chinese education and culture, and possible future endeavors lining our university with China. Specific themes and issues emerged allowing for further critical investigation. After the on-site study in China and critical inquiry and reflection, White, Marsh, Mulholland, and Thomas (2008), all social studies educators, began to question the traditional approaches to cultural studies by raising the question “how should culture be taught and subsequently learned” (p. 27). The everyday occurrences, some of which, though may be beyond their comfort zone, had the potential to revolutionize their beliefs and ways of being. Based upon the self-examination of their own biases and misunderstandings of culture, they called for a new mode of teaching and learning cultural studies that deconstruct “the historical layers of structural bias and self-serving functionality” (p. 31). Three years later, in the summer of 2010, another cohort of educators embarked on the trip to China. They were students and faculty from the new executive EdD (Executive Education Doctorate) program of our college of education. The new EdD program was launched in 2009, which encompasses a two-year (51 hours) cohort program where students investigate urban school issues in a lab of practice leading to their dissertation. In response to the growing impact of global challenges on educational leaders, the program offered an international trip to allow students an opportunity to obtain a firsthand experience of diverse educational systems and cultures. China was chosen for the first international focus due to the current college projects in China and the current globalization focus on China. The final synthesis project after the

20

chapter 2

trip helped them establish a holistic and profound understanding of their new learning and experience, and in the culminating presentation attended by all the students and EdD program faculty, they presented and shared how this cross-cultural experience impacted not only their philosophies and practices as educational leaders, but also their doctoral research and personal life. We made individual and group interviews with the EdD students, and examined documents, field notes, interview transcripts, student journals, online discussion postings and other course projects including review of literature and comparative paper. They were also invited to complete preand post-course surveys tied to the China experience. These surveys assessed participants’ understandings of culture, global connections, diversity and changes in these perceptions. In order to take advantage of the diverse backgrounds of our students, we emphasized the rich qualitative data that emerge from the surveys. All in all, China’s experience has affected the students personally and professionally, which was echoed repeatedly in the conversations and interviews with them, their journals, online discussions, papers and final presentation. Personally, they have become willing or more willing to critically look at the stereotypes previously hidden in their minds, or preconceived notions prevalent in the media; they have learned to recognize and appreciate differences, abandon the search for one correct answer, and become more open and receptive to different perspectives; they have learned to seek out and evaluate information from diverse sources and approach new information with an open mind. Professionally, the two-week immersion into cross-cultural context has not only helped the students learn the society, culture and education of China, but also provided them with an opportunity to reflect upon social, cultural and educational issues in America. Most of them have gained a deeper awareness that they could impact the world and national issues beyond immediate surroundings through their work with school administration. With a refined understanding of international education and global issues, many of them have expressed their desires to share their new learning and experience with their staff, teachers, students and community at large. During the stay in China, we, as the director and research assistant of “Internationalizing Education Task Force” of the department, bore another mission: establishing partnerships with Chinese universities and negotiating potential collaboration possibilities. Drawing upon the existing proposal of “Joint Master’s of Education Degree” of Department of Curriculum and Instruction directed to Vietnamese universities, we worked out a proposal targeted at Chinese universities. It consists of 12 graduate courses, including

Internationalizing Critical Qualitative Case Studies

21

three college core courses, six courses in a specific program area (five program areas available for students to choose from) and three electives. It is a oneplus-one program by offering half of the courses in China and the other half in the University of Houston in the US. We believe that this joint degree program, built upon the major strengths in each institution, will be mutually beneficial: As a result of the project, the prospective educators from China will develop a better understanding of American education, culture and society, and the American peers and faculty can broader their eyes through the new learning and teaching experiences, and see things through a broader perspective coming from their Chinese counterparts. As a result, 2 cohorts of Chinese educators have now participated in the 1 + 1 MEd program. In the ongoing discussion of what educators will need to be prepared for life in the 21st century, improved internationalization represents a framework for guiding that learning. We have already seen the improved knowledge, skills, and disposition a globally interdependent world requires among our participants by engaging in kinds of international undertakings, which have the potential to be a profoundly life-changing experience. We will be seeking to collaborate with more overseas educators, share our experience of internationalizing education, understand each other’s contexts and concerns, and support each other’s initiatives for the common goal of preparing globally minded educators. We believe that as our tie to China’s educational colleagues gets closer and closer, the endeavors of internationalizing education will obtain more momentums than ever before. Meanwhile, we are aware that much work needs to be done on the part of educators, if internationalization is going to become reality, and that work cannot be accomplished by individuals in isolation. It is hoped that this article can serve as an impetus to not only further our individual efforts, but also call for more commitment to the undertaking of internationalizing education.

7

Conclusion

We live in a world made up of many texts; it is essential that they develop multiple literacies that will facilitate the reading of signs, symbols, and images (texts) of that world. We must develop the critical capacity for “new operational and cultural ‘knowledge’ in order to acquire a global perspective that provides access to new forms of work, civic and private practices in their everyday lives” (Lankshear & Knoble, 2003, p. 11). Our educational approaches could be the place to enable the critical investigation of meaningful knowledge and

22

chapter 2

issues, debates regarding globalization, and relevant problem-based global education that can provide the context for developing the skills engage in active transformation for social justice. “Reading the world” through context and relevant connections provides the opportunity to apply knowledge and develop skills in critical ways, as Kincheloe (2005) recommends. Responsible global citizenship requires knowledge of “others” in the world, whoever they might be. It also requires the skills to understand and act in the best interest of the majority of the people. The knowledge base should include an understanding of who the other people in the world are, what they do, and where they are. The skill set should include inquiry and critical literacy/ thinking skills, leading to activism. Increased globalization not only presents many challenges to the economy, society, politics and culture, but also has important implications for education, and the institution of education has the responsibility for addressing these issues. However, there is an increasing concern that educational systems throughout the world are not adequately preparing students for understanding of the world’s cultures, economies and political relationships (Asia Society, 2001). Educators and students should develop the habit of thinking of global ramifications: Is this in the common good? Will this protect the rights of all people (Merryfield & Wilson, 2005)? To create a positive atmosphere, in which students are encouraged to participate in global discourse and engage in global issues in today’s multicultural society, educators need to, first of all, develop multiple perspectives and understand the experiences and points of view of people different from themselves. Meaningful international education projects can help educators achieve that (Wells, 2008). As James (2005) suggested, internationalizing education can develop a sense of interconnectedness, empathy and tolerance, which are much needed in today’s world. However, though there have been some initiatives of internationalizing teacher education exemplified by the institutions, such as Ohio State University and Stanford University (Roberts, 2007), the undertaking is yet to be given due credits, as it deserves nationwide. “Humans are storytelling organisms who, individually and socially, lead storied lives. The study of narrative and other qualitative approaches, therefore, is the study of the ways humans experience the world” (Connelly & Clandinin, 1990, p. 2). The fundamental idea of critical inquiry in social education is that education is life and experience as well. Therefore, education and critical qualitative educational research are the construction and reconstruction of personal and social stories of teachers, as well as other strategies in which

Internationalizing Critical Qualitative Case Studies

23

learners and researchers engage within an equity and social justice framing, for the betterment of society. Accordingly, the responsibility of critical researchers of education is to investigate the hard questions, to critically analyze issues and to suggest alternatives, and to render their experiences in meaningful ways so as to challenge issues of power and privilege.

References Asia Society. (2001). Asia in the schools: Preparing young Americans for today’s interconnected world: A report of the national commission on Asia in the schools. New York, NY: Asia Society, Education Division. Chapin, J. (2003). A practical guide to secondary social studies. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Connelly, F. M., & Clandinin, D. J. (1990). Stories of experience and narrative inquiry. Educational Researcher, 19(5), 2–14. Dan-xia, C. (2008). A social distance study of American participants in a China study program. US-China Education Review, 5(9), 17–22. Diaz, C., Massialas, B., & Xanthopoulos, J. (1999). Global perspectives for educators. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Herr, K., & Anderson, G. L. (2005). The action research dissertation: A guide for students and faculty. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. James, K. (2005). International education. Journal of Research in International Education, 4, 313–332. Johnston, M. (2006). The lamp and the mirror: Action research and self studies in the social studies. In K. C. Barton (Ed.), Research methods in social studies education: Contemporary issues and perspectives (pp. 57–83). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing. Kincheloe, J. (2005). Getting beyond the facts. New York, NY: Peter Lang. LaBoskey, V. K. (2004). The methodology of self-study and its theorrectical underpinnings. In J. J. Loughran, M. L. Hamilton, V. L. LaBoskey, & T. Rusell (Eds.), International handbook of self-study of teaching and teacher education practices (pp. 817–870). Dordrecht: Kluwer. Loewen, J. (2007). Lies my teacher told me. New York, NY: Touchstone. Loughran, J. (2005). Researching teaching about teaching: Self-study of teacher education practices. Studying Teacher Education, 1(1), 5–16. McLaren, P. (2006). Life in schools. New York, NY: Allyn and Bacon. Merryfield, M. M. (2008). Scaffolding social studies for global awareness. Social Education, 72(7), 363–367.

24

chapter 2

Merryfield, M. M., & Wilson, A. (2005). Social studies and the world. Silver Spring, MD: The National Council for the Social Studies. Ochoa-Becker, A. (2006). Democratic education for social studies. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. Roberts, A. (2007). Global dimensions of schooling: Implications for internationalizing teacher education. Teacher Education Quarterly, 34(1), 9–26. Ross, E. W. (2006). The social studies curriculum. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. Samaras, A. P., & Freese, A. R. (2006). Self-study of teaching practices. New York, NY: Pete Lang Publishing, Inc. Spring, J. (2003). American education. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Steinberg, S., & Cannella, G. (Eds.). (2012). Critical qualitative research reader. New York, NY: Peter Lang. Tucker, J., & Evans, A. (1996). The challenge of a global age. In B. Massialas & R. Allen (Eds.), Crucial issues in teaching social studies K-12 (pp. 181–218). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing. Wells, R. (2008). The global and multicultural: Opportunities, challenges, and suggestions for teacher education. Multicultural Perspectives, 10(3), 142–149. White, C., Marsh, S., Mulholland, A., & Thomas, D. (2008). Rethinking the learning of “culture”: A Chinese inquiry. US-China Education Review, 5(5), 27–31.

CHAPTER 3

Global Education in the 21st Century A Critical Approach through a Social Education Lens

Education is properly a process of learning to ‘read’ the world, and therefore, education and activism are one and the same thing. Paulo Freire, 1970

… “Urban” Education (a working description) – Addressing economic, social/ cultural, political, and environmental issues in education (often in an urban setting) through a culturally responsive lens and in a local to global context focusing on diversity, equity and social justice leading to critical consciousness and civic engagement.

… Social Justice Education (a working description) – Addressing economic, social, political, environmental and equity issues in education in a local to global context connected to ethnicity, race, class, gender, age, ability, orientation, and culture leading to critical consciousness and civic engagement.

∵ 1

Introduction

Critical approaches inform social education through a lens that ensures the investigation of issues in education tied to power and privilege, ultimately leading to advocacy and activism. The concept of critical is increasingly challenged in this age of neoliberal reform; nevertheless, critical implies questioning, investigating and challenging in terms of equity and social justice, leading to critical consciousness and “reading the world” (Freire, 1970). While we resist defining social education, as hopefully these ideas/concepts are

© koninklijke brill nv, leideN, 2018 | DOI 10.1163/9789004364622_003

26

chapter 3

fluid, the idea stems from a continual analysis and synthesis of critical theory/ critical pedagogy, media and cultural studies, social reconstruction/social justice, and social studies education framed by culturally responsive pedagogy. A social education take on “urban” education thus suggests multiple truths and perspectives and focuses on questions rather than answers, again within an equity and social justice framework. While many have written on critical approaches in education and some have attempted to integrate critical pedagogy and social studies, few have explored the specific idea of “urban” education, social education and critical approaches. A major issue is that social education claims that there are no set procedures, scripted approaches, or narrow definitions as to the possibilities of critical learning engagement. Social educators and their students endeavor to make the process and investigation within teaching and learning their own and adapt questions, procedures, applications, and strategies throughout the experience. This reflects an ever-changing criticality in the bricolage of the research (Steinberg, 2011). A “schism” of sorts is still perpetuated by the either/or debate regarding the efficacy of information as knowledge. The claim here is that humanity cannot and should not be continually subjected to quantification, or a simple right/ wrong framework– that it reduces human endeavor to meaningless claims in the guise of objectivity. A particular argument made in social education is that education and US society in general is so dominated by a positivist, quantitative framing that often impedes educational progress. Therefore, we adamantly argue that in doing social education one must focus on critical approaches, leading to debate, dialogue, investigation, and questioning that is project and problem-based. Social education is interested in empowering the disempowered, so that education and schooling should be about addressing societal issues tied to race, ethnicity, gender, age, and orientation. When we have a society that continues to struggle with mass incarceration, gun violence, lack of voting rights, 19th century immigration policy, entitlements to the military, corporations, and the rich, perpetual war, and non-stop imperialism, then societal transformation can be the only goal. In other words, a particular critique made by social educators is that humanity and efficacy have been divorced from education. These assumptions should be addressed within a local to global context. Nevertheless, the argument herein is that all education is or should be social education. We are all social “human” beings struggling to develop knowledge, skills, and dispositions through lifelong education, both in and out of “school” in order to make the best of life, hopefully for ourselves and others. Critically active citizens is a particular goal.

Global Education in the 21st Century

2

27

Pillars of Social Education

There are five broad pillars or themes that comprise social education. These include Social Reconstruction/Social Justice, Critical Theory/Critical Pedagogy, Media/Cultural Studies, Social Studies/History Education, and Culturally Responsive/Multiple Perspectives. Each of these have contributed to a transformation from traditional social studies education approaches to teaching and learning, curriculum and instruction to one that is first critical in the sense that deconstruction and multiple truths are championed with the hope for emancipatory education practice. This is turn will also hopefully lead to challenges to the current neoliberal, privatized and globalized “vision”/direction of much within education. The idea is that the public sphere remains the place where the true potential for human transformations can take place (Giroux, 2004). Social Education stems from a social reconstructionist/social justice philosophical foundation. The idea suggests that democracy and capitalism are antithetical and that unbridled capitalism has usurped democratic practice (Apple, 1990). Equity and social justice need be the ultimate goal of any education endeavor focusing on race, ethnicity, gender, orientation, age, and ability when addressing any social issue; and thus should be prevalent in any critical qualitative research. Rethinking, reconceptualizing, and restructuring schooling, education, curriculum and instruction is stressed if we are truly interested in equity and meeting basic human needs (McLaren, 2003). An issue and problem based approach to research is also warranted. Critical theory/critical pedagogy take the social justice/social reconstructionist pillar and apply it as praxis in education. Specific education practices that do not deal with issues of power and privilege are subject to challenge. Investigating the human story champions subjectivity as it allows for multiple perspectives, deeper inquiry, and critical endeavor. The assumption is that most human endeavor, especially in education is political, and that we must accept this and understand these issues and deal with the biases and issues inherent in the political nature of things. Education must always be aware and engage in the struggle for social justice in addressing issues of race, ethnicity, gender, age, orientation, perspective, and basic rights and responsibilities in this age of neoliberal reform (Kincheloe, 2008). Media and cultural studies assumes that art and culture are central to humanity and that each struggles with the assumed public/private binary. Increased commodification and assimilation of media and culture through globalized impositions warrant critical investigation in education, as media and culture greatly influence human interactions. Media is a powerful entity in the education process and also in impacting individual and group identity – thus

28

chapter 3

the need for critical media “literacy.” Linking cultural studies is vital in that culture is the result of human interaction and progress with issues of acculturation and assimilation constantly affecting society. Social education claims media and culture are primary texts for critical qualitative research (White & Walker, 2008). Social studies/history education is the content tradition whereby social education stems. Knowledge, skills, and dispositions gained from one’s social studies and history education experience should facilitate rights and responsibilities of local/global citizenship. Social education suggest that traditionally social studies and history education have served the status quo in that a grand narrative has often been imparted leading to ethnocentrism, exceptionalism, imperialism, and a challenge to the public good (Zinn, 2005; Loewen, 2007). A critical investigation of social studies history education thus brings to light issues of equity, power, privilege, hegemony and social justice. Culturally responsive/multiple perspectives are linked to critical pedagogy and social justice issue in that curriculum and instruction has often been limited to white privilege, power and lack of choice. Social education insists that education focus on being responsive to culture (in the broad conception of the term) and allow multiple perspectives so as to awaken an appreciation and action tied to diversity (Gay, 2010). A critical multiculturalism requires a rethinking of curriculum instruction and ultimately a transformation of schooling (hooks, 1994). Any practice or institution that threatens these should be subject to deep critique and investigation.

3

Critical Approaches to “Urban” Education

“Urban” education is fraught with impositions, deficit approaches, and even racist mindsets in dealing with teaching and learning tied particularly to ethnicity, race, gender, ability, and choice. And with the neoliberal reform movement equity and social justice is discarded as the priority is not about human endeavor. Achievement and accountability since Sputnik really, have become the education mantra for any and almost all “reform.” Challenging the public framing of education has also been the constant approach from the right since A Nation at Risk at least, with these “reformers” using quantitative data as their fodder. Issues of generalizability, objectivity, reliability, validity, essentialism, accountability, achievement and the like are often applied in a business model. Such approaches deny the richness in education of detailing human experiences. Again, within a social education framework, critical implies consistent exploration and investigation of social issues through a social justice

Global Education in the 21st Century

29

lens. The idea is that most human endeavor is socially constructed and that both individual and collaborative experiences are needed for us to develop into socially conscious beings focusing on advocacy and activism. Citizenship necessitates awareness first, but most important, critical action allowing for multiple perspectives, questions rather than answers, and ongoing flexibility regarding the mediation of knowledge, skills, and dispositions. Hickey (2012) suggests several epistemological commandments for critical approaches to “urban” education. 1 Demonstrate incredulity toward claims of grand truths or meta-narratives. 2 Resist contexts that marginalize people in any situation. 3 Commit to betterment, assistance, hope, and emancipation in all human experiences. 4 Challenge any practice that marginalizes based on race, ethnicity, gender, orientation, class, age, ability, or belief. 5 Question unbridled capitalism and neoliberalism. 6 Champion multiple perspectives, diversity, and human experiences. 7 Promote advocacy and activism for basic human rights and democracy for all. 8 Continue a lifelong work for societal transformation toward equity and social justice. A primary goal is to investigate the world critically with the hope of ultimate transformation for social justice. A process that integrates awareness, advocacy, activism/action, and assessment is a model for educators and their students to address societal issues. This process for learning and engagement is ongoing in that once through the process one (or the group) should begin again with new questions or issues. Everything can and should be adapted depending on what is investigated and discovered along the way. According to Kincheloe (2005), such strategies seek historical contextualization, multiple perspectives, individual and collaborative approaches and a diversity of knowledge, skills, and dispositions. Social education requires a personal connection in all teaching and learning, allowing for continuing dialogue, questioning, discussion, and even controversy. A primary focus within any educational context, but especially within “urban” education are the ultimate goals of addressing social justice and equity. The inherent “bias” within teaching and learning is acknowledged, championed, and applied as a device to encourage critical engagement. Knowing that much in society and the institution of education serves the status quo and those in power, in addition to perpetuating the commodification of humanity, issues of activism, change, and sustaining critique emerge. Critical approaches in

30

chapter 3

our schools provide the needed foundation for students to become active participants in their world.

4

Implications for the 21st Century

Critical approaches in education, social education, and addressing issues in “urban” education are vital for the world of the 21st century. The onslaught of neoliberalism, corporatization, standardization, testing, and the continuing attack on public schools and educators necessitate critical approaches to teaching and learning along with critical qualitative research in social education. Ongoing issues with equity and social justice tied to race, ethnicity, class, orientation, age, and ability linking to schooling, education, teaching and learning must be addressed. The struggle between unbridled capitalism and democracy warrant these investigations in the 21st century, hopefully leading to advocacy and activism. Empowering and emancipating educators and students requires a redesigning of schooling to demonstrate a truly democratic way of life, to be consistent with the ideals of equity and social justice, to be informed by research that is “educative” (Zeichner, 2009). According to Goodman, Ullrich, and Nana (2012), a “triple consciousness’ based on Freire’s critical consciousness is much needed for equity and social justice in a teaching and learning context. We must model critical multicultural, social justice education (culturally responsive pedagogy), work to transform perspectives of all education, society and its stakeholders, and engage in critical emancipatory research leading to advocacy and activism. We must continually challenge the corporatized, unequal, and essentialist framing of education. Education is both a political and ethical endeavor hoping to facilitate critically active students anxious to engage in the world. Linking the process to the community and the world provides the context we all need to understand and advocate for equity and social justice. A critical qualitative research in social education that investigates these hard issues locally and globally can only lead to empowering educators and students as change agents. Theoretical underpinnings originate from Dewey (1997), Freire (1970), Kincheloe (2012), Giroux (2014), and Gay (2010) among many others. While each uniquely adds to the critical pedagogical approaches to education praxis, taken together, they contribute a strong theoretical foundation that stresses continued investigation and questioning. Each also suggests that current education practice serves the interests of those in power and merely contributes to issues in urban education and equity and social justice. It is

Global Education in the 21st Century

31

therefore vital that educators and students conduct ongoing investigations by addressing curriculum, instruction, assessment, and the “big picture” of education through questions such as the following: – What issues emerge in making sense of “urban” education? – How do equity and social justice “fit” into this struggle? – What are the implications given the current neoliberal directions of education? – How does awareness, advocacy, action/activism and assessment play into efficacy and participation as citizens of the world? – How can we better empower students and educators in “reading the world”?

References Apple, M. (1990). Ideology and curriculum. New York, NY: Routledge. Dewey, J. (1997). Experience and education. New York, NY: Free Press. Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: Herder and Herder. Gay, G. (2010). Culturally responsive teaching. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Giroux, H. (2004). Public pedagogy and the politics of neoliberalism. Policy Futures in Education, 2(3–4), 494–503. Goodman, G., Ullrich, W., & Nana, P. (2012). Action research for critical classroom and community change. In S. Steinberg & G. Cannella (Eds.), Critical qualitative research reader. New York, NY: Peter Lang. Hickey, A. (2012). The critical aesthetic. In S. Steinberg & G. Cannella (Eds.), Critical qualitative research reader. New York, NY: Peter Lang. hooks, b. (1994). Teaching to transgress. New York, NY: Routledge. Kincheloe, J., McLaren, P., & S. Steinberg (2012). Critical pedagogy and qualitative research. In S. Steinberg & G. Cannella (Eds.), Critical qualitative research reader (pp. 14–32). New York, NY: Peter Lang. Kincheloe, J. L. (2008). Critical pedagogy. New York, NY: Peter Lang. Loewen, J. (2007). Lies my teacher told me. New York, NY: Touchstone. McLaren, P. (2003). Life in schools. New York, NY: Pearson. Steinberg, S. (2011). Critical cultural studies research. In K. Tobin & J. Kincheloe (Eds.), Doing educational research. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers. White, C., & Walker, T. (2008). Tooning in: Essays on popular culture and education. New York, NY: Rowan and Littlefield. Zeichner, K. (2009). Teacher education and the struggle for social justice. New York, NY: Routledge. Zinn, H. (2005). A people’s history of the United States. New York, NY: Harper Classics.

CHAPTER 4

Internationalizing Social Studies and History Education A 21st Century Imperative

International education cannot be seen as an add-on… The skills and knowledge acquired in international education are the same skills we all need to succeed in the world today. Martha Kanter, 2010

∵ 1

Introduction

What really are the purposes of schooling and education in our society? What are the roles of other institutions in society within the context of teaching and learning? Are socialization, assimilation and passivity all we desire of our institutions? Are we so uncomfortable and wary of our “way of life” that we can’t even trust ourselves? What good is a society that won’t question itself? These and others are the questions that need to be asked, particularly within social studies and history education. What of higher goals such as transforming and transgression? Is the nature of humanity such that comfort is the ultimate, and given the current state of society, perhaps comfortably numb? Why does it seem that reaction is the method rather than proactive engagement? Why does it take extreme events to lull us awake as to possibilities? We tell the stories of the white males heroes of history and provide lip service to the other in the form of celebratory months. Many stories are missing. We often deaden social studies and history to the point of meaningless pabulum. Many no longer care about who did what to whom and when… and no wonder, as we are constantly reminded that there is one “right” answer – and this to a question no one really wants to ask anyway. We often place everything into neat little categories so as to make sense of a difficult world. And these categories only serve to hinder. Perhaps the most accepted approach regarding social studies and history education is transmitting essential knowledge, skills, and dispositions so as to ensure the status quo. © koninklijke brill nv, leiden, 2018 | doi 10.1163/9789004364622_004

Internationalizing Social Studies and History Education

33

We equate more information with knowledge and learning and place this information in subject disciplines. But do we go through life moving from subject to subject in these easily compartmentalized categories; or do we integrate more holistically? We need schooling and social studies and history education that encourages participation, critical analysis, and action (Kincheloe, 2005). Social studies and history education need a rethinking as today the world truly is a smaller place and we really are part of a global neighborhood. People are instantaneously connected to global events through media, technology, trade, and global issues such as conflict, climate, and socio-economics. Borders do not mean the same as they did just a few years ago. A “globalized” world necessitates international connections, thus challenging traditional conceptions of nationalism, exceptionalism, and hegemony. This article investigates internationalizing of social studies and history education and suggests that we need to contextualize the issues and investigation of global connections better through its teaching and learning. The article also suggests there are threats to the public sphere and to emancipatory local to global connections requiring critical approaches to social, political, economic and education issues. Thus, providing international context and connections in social studies and history education are imperative in the world of the 21st century. Social studies and history teaching and learning must include education for a global perspective so that students might also become responsible “active” citizens of the world (Tucker & Evans, 1996; Diaz, Massialas, & Xanthopoulos, 1999; Chapin, 2003). A critical component of education in general, and social studies and history education specifically, is to promote an understanding of diversity and the “story” of humanity at home and abroad: “integrating global realities within an existing school curriculum meets the needs of an ever-changing, ethnically diverse, increasingly interdependent, international community” (Tucker & Evans, 1996). World citizenship requires a global/ international social studies and history education. Global/international education efforts for the 21st century must begin with an attempt to understand globalization. Globalization can be defined as “the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa” (McLaren, 2001). In turn, critical research in social studies and history education attempts to challenge globalization as unbridled neoliberal hegemony (capitalism’s shock doctrine). Diaz, Massialas, and Xanthopoulos (1999) state that globalization: refers to the compression of the world and to the intensification of the consciousness of the world as a whole. This process is ongoing and all

34

chapter 4 of us, young and old, Westerners and non-Westerners, are inescapably involved in it. The compression of the world is real. People witness it in their daily lives, in the foods they eat, in the TV programs they watch, in the cars they drive, in the dresses and costumes, in the people they choose to govern them, and so on. (pp. 37–38)

Clearly, globalization is increasingly influential in many aspects of 21st century life. Therefore understanding it through the internationalizing of social studies and history education is vital. Schools must provide opportunities for children to “develop the appropriate cognitive skills to understand and explain the globalization process and to critically analyze its impact on their lives and the lives of people around them” (Diaz, Massialas, & Xanthopoulos, 1999, p. 38). Above all students need to know how to impact the global system as world citizens and as advocates of a well-grounded position or point of view. This suggests that students must acquire both a new knowledge base and a skill set. Social studies and history education offer an appropriate space for global education (and for the development of this knowledge and skills) – but other disciplines are ripe for integration as well. At its core, global education is really about analyzing the links between cultures and people (Chapin, 2003); it must be better integrated in all classrooms, and thus critically researched as well. Internationalizing social studies and history education teaching and learning in these ways could provide the opportunity to deepen our understanding and appreciation of others in the world, something essential to our roles and responsibilities as global citizens. Given the global interconnectedness of the world today, the global context must be present. According to Merryfield (2001), students must develop a global perspective that will emphasize cross-cultural experiential learning and stress commonalities in cultures that transcend diversity. Contextualizing American history through a global perspective allows it to become more alive, for example. Cultural competence, collaboration skills, and an appreciation of global connections can be facilitated through cross-cultural experiences both locally and globally. Many schools, colleges and universities are recognizing the need for global competence and promoting understanding among cultures (Dan-xia, 2008). In addition, linking multicultural education and global issues is facilitated through meaningful international education projects (Wells, 2008). James suggests that internationalizing education develops a sense of interconnectedness, empathy, and tolerance, which are much needed in today’s world (2005). A way to move forward is to share ideas and engage in collaborative internationalizing of the curriculum by integrating thematic

Internationalizing Social Studies and History Education

35

approaches, present to past connections, a cross-cultural approach, and issues/ problem based strategies in social studies and history education.

2

Internationalizing

Schools should provide the knowledge, skills, and disposition students needs to be able to successfully act in the world. Education for civic competence, for responsible national and world citizenship, falls within the domain of social studies and history instruction and learning. We must rethink teaching and learning so as to enable these ideas and integrating music, movies, art, and literature focusing on global issues or celebrating global culture offers a great opportunity; thus enabling many opportunities for critical qualitative research projects. Fortunately, increased and improved research on global education/ internationalizing is being undertaken at many levels of education. In addition, numerous international education experiences focusing on local to global connections, study trips, technology access, etc. have contributed to this “new found” interest. Our critical qualitative approach suggests that educators at all levels must be engaged in collaborative research, teaching, and service (Herr & Anderson, 2005). Critical qualitative educational research highlights the need to cultivate knowledge, skills, and dispositions for global and civic awareness and responsibility (Loewen, 2007; Ochoa-Becker, 2006; Ross, 2006). Additionally, to be engaged, global citizens, students need exposure to multiple literacies and diverse perspectives (Durham & Kellner, 2005; Giroux, 2006; Silberman-Keller, 2008). We live in a world made up of many texts; it is essential that students and educators develop multiple literacies that will facilitate the reading of signs, symbols, and images (texts) of that world. We must develop the critical capacity for “new operational and cultural ‘knowledge’ in order to acquire a global perspective that provides access to new forms of work, civic and private practices in their everyday lives” (Lankshear & Knoble, 2003). Our educational approaches could be the place to enable the critical investigation of meaningful knowledge and issues, debates regarding globalization, and relevant problem-based global education (within a context of social studies and history education) that can provide the context for developing the skills engage in active transformation for social justice. “Reading the world and acting with the world” through context and relevant connections provides the opportunity to apply knowledge and develop skills in critical ways, as

36

chapter 4

Kincheloe (2005) recommends. Responsible global citizenship requires knowledge of “others” in the world, whoever they might be. It also requires the skills to understand and act in the best interest of the majority of the people. The knowledge base should include an understanding of who the other people in the world are, what they do, and where they are. The skill set should include inquiry and critical literacy/thinking skills, leading to activism, knowledge, skills, and dispositions natural within social studies and history education. Increased globalization and internationalizing not only present many challenges to the economy, society, politics and culture, but also has important implications for education, and the institution of education has the responsibility for addressing these issues. However, there is an increasing concern that educational systems throughout the world are not adequately preparing students for understanding of the world’s cultures, economies and political relationships (Asia Society, 2001). Educators and students should develop the habit of thinking of global ramifications: Is this in the common good? Will this protect the rights of all people (Merryfield & Wilson, 2005)? To create a positive atmosphere, in which students are encouraged to participate in global discourse and engage in global issues in today’s multicultural society, educators need to, first of all, develop multiple perspectives and understand the experiences and points of view of people different from themselves. Meaningful international education projects can help educators achieve that (Wells, 2008). As James (2005) suggested, internationalizing education can develop a sense of interconnectedness, empathy and tolerance, which are much needed in today’s world. Fry (2009) suggests that positive features of globalization has ushered in a new era of cross cultural possibilities – especially with regard to education; and that there is a move from nationalism to internationalism that will compel us to develop collaborative education projects. Altbach (2009) reiterates this need and encourages project development with social studies and history education – humane interactions (often in the form of education collaboratives). Friedman has been suggesting these agreements for some years now as stated in The World is Flat (2007) and Hot, Flat and Crowded (2008).

3

Linking Internationalizing and Social Justice

Social studies need be about social justice for social efficacy, empowerment, and emancipation. What is the role of schools in promoting social justice? How do the current practices in education and the teaching and learning process

Internationalizing Social Studies and History Education

37

impact social justice? The overt goal of our schools is to enhance knowledge, skills, and dispositions development for our children. Unfortunately these goals are more often than not centered around very basic components that decision-makers have perceived as “essential” for being productive citizens in this country. These goals therefore seem to be driven by the ultimate goal of preparing our youth for the world of work. Social studies traditionally has not been about questioning or inquiry. Corporate America desires good obedient workers and our schools serve them up on a platter. Ultimately, we must prepare children for active participation as global citizens; and this means that we have a responsibility to teach for social justice and a more critical teaching and learning. This critical pedagogy is aware and unafraid of childhood desire, often connecting it to children’s efforts to understand the world and themselves. Childhood desire is a natural phenomenon that is unfortunately often driven and dictated by the dominant culture. The idea is to critically analyze these issues and also provide the critical efficacy children need so as to facilitate this natural desire and wonder for learning about and coping with their world. What then is meant by teaching for social justice? Social justice education moves beyond traditional essentialist practice by suggesting the inclusion of student and issues centered approaches to teaching and learning. Advocates for social justice education suggest that our schools are often demeaning and disempowering places where children are either bored into submission or where the transmission and socialization techniques destroy any hope for critical thinking and problem solving development. The opportunity for teaching social justice in schools is great but we must discard the traditional transmission model of social studies in favor of a transformational model. Social studies must allow for investigating controversy and issues in history rather than memorizing bland facts. Strategies such as debates, simulations, role-playing, cooperative projects, and what if inquiry investigations facilitate a transformational model. Social studies should be a transformational process for both the individual and society (Hope, 1996). Many suggest that social justice be a major focus of social studies curriculum and instruction in our schools. The contention is that traditional social studies education may very well be the bad guy in this debate; for the history of social studies traditionally has been to perpetuate the status quo and often only allows one viewpoint regarding history. With the focus on essential knowledge and skills and the growing accountability movement, social studies education remains reactionary so as to placate critics. Debate within social studies rarely centers around social justice or issues-oriented curriculum. The debate has been on what content should be taught and how that content should be

38

chapter 4

“covered.” American History for example is chronological moving from war to war and hero to hero with any context or connections to our kids’ lives sorely missing. A curriculum is needed that encourages participation, critical analysis, and action. Directly tied to teaching for social justice as stated previously is the concept of social efficacy. If one looks at the traditional goals of social studies, one can interpret these goals are at least somewhat implying some form of social efficacy. The critique here is that both social studies and efficacy mean much more than we have traditionally applied them in the teaching and learning process. Unfortunately, or fortunately, depending on one’s point of view, the truly meaningful and lifelong connections in social efficacy have been provided outside of the classroom, especially outside of the social studies classroom and this is the real issue. Social studies should be about allowing kids and teachers opportunities for choice, investigation, creativity, questioning, and debate. These are skills vital for a sense of self-efficacy and for promoting a progressive democracy. These ideas suggest the development of responsible citizenship for the propensity for thinking, valuing, and acting, rather than for the promotion of particular thoughts, actions, or values (Stanley, 1992).

4

Rethinking

Internationalizing social studies and history education is vital for the world of the 21st century. The onslaught of neoliberalism, corporatization, standardization, testing, and the continuing attack on public education and educators in the guise of educational reform necessitates a local to global context in social studies and history education. Ongoing issues with equity and social justice tied to race, ethnicity, class, orientation, age, and ability linking to schooling, education, teaching and learning must be addressed. The struggle between unbridled capitalism and democracy warrant these investigations in the 21st century, hopefully leading to advocacy and activism and a transformation of social studies and history education. Empowering and emancipating educators and students requires a redesigning of teaching and learning to demonstrate a truly democratic way of life, to be consistent with the ideals of equity and social justice, to be informed by research that is “educative” (Zeichner, 2009). According to Goodman, Ullrich, and Nana (2012), a “triple consciousness’ based on Freire’s critical consciousness is much needed for equity and social justice in a teaching and learning context. We must model critical multicultural, social justice education (culturally responsive pedagogy), work to transform perspectives of

Internationalizing Social Studies and History Education

39

all education, society and its stakeholders, and engage in critical emancipatory research leading to advocacy and activism. Hopefully, an internationalized social studies and history education can facilitate this. We must continually challenge the corporatized, unequal, and essentialist framing of education. Education is both a political and ethical endeavor hoping to facilitate critically active teachers and students anxious to engage in the world. Linking the process to the community and the world provides the context we all need to understand and advocate for equity and social justice. A critical social studies and history education that investigates these hard issues locally and globally and facilitates international partnerships can only lead to empowering educators and students as change agents. Fortunately, increased and improved research on internationalizing is being undertaken at many levels of education. These approaches highlight the need to cultivate knowledge, skills, and dispositions for global and civic awareness and responsibility (Loewen, 2007; Ochoa-Becker, 2006; Ross, 2006). Additionally, to be engaged, global citizens, students need exposure to multiple literacies and diverse perspectives (Durham & Kellner, 2005; Giroux, 2006; Silberman-Keller, 2008). Each of these should be ultimate goals within an internationalized social studies and history education.

5

Conclusion

Current education “reform” approaches, often including globalization, are true threats to a contextualized and internationalized social studies and history education. Rewriting history to deny controversies, ignoring present to past connections in social studies, disallowing multiple perspectives, ignoring local to global connections, and applying neoliberal agenda to social studies and history curriculum and instruction are all issues to challenge. Ideas of exceptionalism, hegemony, empire, nationalism, and blind patriotism, often found in traditional social studies and history education are ripe for critical investigation (Freire, 1990; Gay, 2010). “Humans are storytelling organisms who, individually and socially, lead storied lives. The study of the human narrative or story approaches, therefore, is the study of the ways humans experience the world” (Connelly & Clandinin, 1990). The fundamental idea of critical inquiry in social studies and history education is that education is life and experience as well. Therefore, education are the construction and reconstruction of the human story or endeavor, hopefully within an equity and social justice framing, for the betterment of society. Accordingly, the responsibility of critical social studies and history

40

chapter 4

education in an international context is to investigate the hard questions, to critically analyze issues and to suggest alternatives, and to render their experiences in meaningful ways so as to challenge issues of power and privilege. Social studies and history education need not be the archaic and disempowering endeavors that they presently are. Our children and the future of the globe deserve more. Progressives have too often allowed the powers that be to establish and maintain the status quo. Activist educators should be proactive by encouraging critical and empowering approaches in schools with social studies education taking the lead. A “powerful” social studies education that focuses on the suggested approaches by reestablishing the controversy, story, problem solving, and relevance of social studies for social efficacy is vital. These classrooms can become empowering and meaningful through the model suggested. Social studies can be made a transformative process for individuals and society. The development and transformation of social efficacy for our kids really demands this. A major rationale for schooling is to prepare students for their future. Schools should therefore allow controversy into their classrooms because students will have to encounter controversy and social issues throughout their lives. Instead of resorting to complete withdrawal or violent rage, students would be encouraged to develop peace-making and conflict resolution strategies. But many students will not have exposure to controversy and social issues in their classes. Social studies without controversy cannot really be social studies. It is more like social studies light. This is a disservice to students, teachers, and society. A transformative social justice framework need be the focus of social studies. Only through such a framework can we hope to counter hegemony and other social issues exacerbated by capitalist and corporate dominance. It is high time to rethink social studies for social justice. A society not open and comfortable enough to allow for critique cannot progress and is a society in decline (Loewen, 2009). Critical teaching and learning for social justice sees the true purpose of education as the democratization of society, the highest good, not the protection of the interests of the establishment and unethical minority which dominates American political, economic, and social culture (Apple & Beane, 1995). Many critical educators such as Zinn, Takaki, Loewen, Giroux, Merryfield and others have called for a critical and global approach to social studies and history education. This internationalizing can only enhance a cross-cultural and human approach to teaching and learning by allowing models, ideas, and perspectives from “elsewhere”. Such approaches can only facilitate a holistic/ global investigation of issues such as conflict, change, human rights and needs, societal and global issues, and hopefully even democracy and human progress.

Internationalizing Social Studies and History Education

41

Internationalizing Links Links to Readings Comparative Education Review http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublication?journalCode=compeducrevi International Education http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_education Comparative Education http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparative_education What is Global Education? http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/nscentre/GE/GE-Guidelines/GEgs-chap1.pdf Global Education as Good Pedagogy http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/758 Importance of Global Education http://geography.about.com/od/teachgeography/a/Teaching-Global-EducationIn-The-Classroom.htm Global Education Perspectives http://www.educ.ualberta.ca/css/Css_38_3/ARburnouf_global_awareness_ perspectives.htm Global Education http://www.globaleducation.edu.au/ Global Education Magazine http://www.globaleducationmagazine.com/ Global Education First http://www.globaleducationfirst.org/ Center for Global Education http://globaled.us/ Global Partnership for Education http://www.globalpartnership.org/

42

chapter 4

Globalisation http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/03050060500150906 Educational Transfer http://www.wwwords.co.uk/pdf/freetoview.asp?j=rcie&vol=1&issue=1&year= 2006&article=2_Beech_RCIE_1_1_web Reflections on Theory… http://www.jstor.org/stable/full/10.1086/589978 Comparative Education http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/03054980903216341 Organizations Comparative and International Education Society http://www.cies.us/ World Council for Comparative Education Societies http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Council_for_Comparative_Education_ Societies http://www.wcces.com/ Institute of International Education http://www.iie.org/en NAFSA: Association of International Educators http://www.nafsa.org/ ACEI list of international organizations http://acei.org/general-links-resources/international-organizations-education

References Altbach, P. (2009). Knowledge and education as international commodities. In B. V. Hop (Ed.), The opportunities and challenges: International cooperation for higher education (pp. 619–630). Ho Chi Minh City: HCMC University of Pedagogy. Asia Society. (2001). Asia in the schools: Preparing young Americans for today’s interconnected world: A report of the national commission on Asia in the schools. New York, NY: Asia Society, Education Division.

Internationalizing Social Studies and History Education

43

Chapin, J. (2003). A practical guide to secondary social studies. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Connelly, F. M., & Clandinin, D. J. (1990). Stories of experience and narrative inquiry. Educational Researcher, 19(5), 2–14. Dan-xia, C. (2008). A social distance study of American participants in a China study program. US-China Education Review, 5(9), 17–22. Delgado, R., & Norman, P. (2008). Globalization in the face of standardization. Teacher Education and Practice, 21, 461–463. Diaz, C., Massialas, B., & Xanthopoulos, J. (1999). Global perspectives for educators. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Durham, M., & Kellner, D. (2005). Media and cultural studies. Malden, MA: Wiley, Blackwell. Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: Herder and Herder. Friedman, T. (2007). The world is flat. New York, NY: Picador. Friedman, T. (2008). Hot, flat, and crowded. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fry, G. (2009). The future of comparative education. In B. V. Hop (Ed.), The opportunities and challenges: International cooperation for higher education (pp. 574–607). Ho Chi Minh City: HCMC University of Pedagogy. Gay, G. (2010). Culturally responsive teaching. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Giroux, H. (2006). America on the edge. New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan. Goodman, G., Ullrich, W., & Nana, P. (2012). Action research for critical classroom and community change. In S. Steinberg & G. Cannella (Eds.), Critical qualitative research reader. New York, NY: Peter Lang. Herr, K., & Anderson, G. L. (2005). The action research dissertation: A guide for students and faculty. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Hickey, A. (2012). The critical aesthetic. In S. Steinberg & G. Cannella (Eds.), Critical qualitative research reader. New York, NY: Peter Lang. James, K. (2005). International education. Journal of Research in International Education, 4, 313–332. Kincheloe, J. (2005). Getting beyond the facts. New York, NY: Peter Lang. Loewen, J. (2007). Lies my teacher told me. New York, NY: Touchstone. McLaren, P. (2006). Life in schools. New York, NY: Allyn and Bacon. Merryfield, M. (2008). Scaffolding social studies for global awareness. Social Education, 72(7), 363–367. Merryfield, M. M., & Wilson, A. (2005). Social studies and the world. Silver Spring, MD: National Council for the Social Studies. Ochoa-Becker, A. (2006). Democratic education for social studies. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. Ross, E. W. (2006). The social studies curriculum. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

44

chapter 4

Silberman-Keller, D., Bekerman, Z., Giroux, H. A., & Burbules, N. (Eds.). (2008). Mirror images: Popular culture and education. New York, NY: Peter Lang. Tucker, J., & Evans, A. (1996). The challenge of a global age. In B. Massialas & R. Allen (Eds.), Crucial issues in teaching social studies K-12 (pp. 181–218). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing. Wells, R. (2008). The global and multicultural: Opportunities, challenges, and suggestions for teacher education. Multicultural Perspectives, 10(3), 142–149. Zeichner, K. (2009). Teacher education and the struggle for social justice. New York, NY: Routledge. Zinn, H. (2005). A people’s history of the United States. New York, NY: Harper Classics.

CHAPTER 5

Culturally Responsive Pedagogy Linking Present and Past What could more profoundly vindicate the idea of America than plain and humble people – the unsung, the downtrodden, the dreamers not of high station, not born to wealth or privilege, not of one religious tradition but many – coming together to shape their country’s course? B. Obama, 50th Anniversary of the Selma March, 2015

∵ 1 – – – –

Introduction What is culture? Why is culture important in teaching and learning? How often do we think of student culture when teaching? How might we link present and past through culturally responsive pedagogy?

Demographics in the US are changing dramatically with the reality that we are more multicultural and diverse than ever before. A social studies and history education that is more culturally responsive is vital in that deeper investigation of multiple perspectives allow for a broader understanding of the human endeavor. History by its very nature is about perspective and interpretation – of the time and about the time – and should be about linking past and present. An ongoing issue in social studies teaching and learning is connecting with our students so as to ensure meaning and relevance in their lives. Unfortunately, there is some truth to the old statement that many students find social studies and history education boring (Mintz, 2011). Much of what is happening in the name of social studies remains as it has been for years – textbook based, teacher centered, stressing coverage rather than depth, and focused on low level “facts.” A rethinking of social studies and history education focusing on culturally responsive pedagogy and also linking present to past are important ways to provide context and connections for all students. Gay (2000) defines culturally © koninklijke brill nv, leideN, 2018 | DOI 10.1163/9789004364622_005

46

chapter 5

responsive teaching as using cultural knowledge, prior experiences, and student interest and learning styles to make teaching and learning more learning and effective. According to Ladson-Billings (1994) culturally responsive teaching is a pedagogy that recognizes the importance of including students’ cultural references in all aspects of learning. Obama’s recent Selma speech (2015) is a good example of linking present to past through culturally responsive texts. The speech is full of references linking present and past and also connecting to youth of today and rights and responsibilities as citizens for the future. We are the people Emerson wrote of, ‘who for truth and honor’s sake stand fast and suffer long;’ who are ‘never tired, so long as we can see far enough.’ That’s what America is. Not stock photos or airbrushed history or feeble attempts to define some of us as more American as others. We respect the past, but we don’t pine for it. We don’t fear the future; we grab for it. America is not some fragile thing; we are large, in the words of Whitman, containing multitudes. We are boisterous and diverse and full of energy, perpetually young in spirit… And that’s what the young people here today and listening all across the country must take away from this day. You are America. Unconstrained by habits and convention. Unencumbered by what is, and ready to seize what ought to be. For everywhere in this country, there are first steps to be taken, and new ground to cover, and bridges to be crossed. And it is you, the young and fearless at heart, the most diverse and educated generation in our history, who the nation is waiting to follow. Zinn (1980) and Loewen (1995) both suggest that social studies and history education should by their very nature focus on culturally responsive approaches. They go on to state that denying voice, perspective and culture in both content and pedagogy are antithetical to democratic ideals. According to Gay (2000), culturally responsive teaching is validating, comprehensive, multidimensional, empowering, transformative, and emancipatory for the students of so many cultures in our schools.

2

Culture and Linking Present to Past

Much of our social studies and history education focuses on a heroes and events covered in a chronological framework. We often go from one war to the next

Culturally Responsive Pedagogy Linking Present and Past

47

and one hero to the next in approaching the first or second half of American history in the grade level it is respectively taught. It is even exacerbated with all of world history being taught in a year. Educators must therefore pick and choose “important” topics or increasingly they are chosen for teachers in the guise of standards. The issue remains that these often only lead to breadth rather than depth and increasingly teaching to the test (given the emphasis now placed on test scores). If our goals remain the promotion of democracy, active citizenship and to develop rights and responsibilities as human beings contributing to society, then other methods warrant increased implementation. A culturally responsive curriculum and instruction that links present to past while always thinking about the future perhaps best addresses the achievement of these goals. Contextualizing pedagogy by connecting it locally and to our students lives and culture is a necessary first step. Media, popular culture and others texts/tools should be integrated to enhance such learning. What with the internet and a variety of technology devices being integrated into classrooms, there really is no excuse for not keeping up with current issues in a local to global context. A myriad of websites also exist for investigating themes in social studies and history. It’s the skills that social studies champions that should be integrated allowing students to critically analyze information and then create and apply using applications such as web 2.0 tools. In addition, students learn much through media and popular culture and we should also allow for the integration of this student culture in teaching and learning (Giroux, 2006). Examples that have great possibilities include children’s and young adult literature (both of the present and past and about the present and past). Music, games, art, tv and film, sites such as YouTube and other websites directed to K – 12 students also offer opportunities. Educators need to educate themselves, rather than dismiss or censor student culture.

3

Themes

A thematic approach to social studies and history education has been advocated for some time. The Bradley Commission (1988) and the National Council for the Social Studies (1996) provide excellent suggestions for a thematic approach – which would lend itself more favorably to a linking of present to past through culturally responsive pedagogy:

48

chapter 5

Bradley Commission on History in Schools,Vital Themes and Narratives 1 2 3 4 5 6

Civilization, cultural diffusion, and innovation Human interaction with the environment Values, beliefs, political ideas, and institutions Conflict and cooperation Comparative history of major developments Patterns of social and political interaction

NCSS – Ten Themes of Social Studies 1 Culture 2 Time, Continuity, and Change 3 People, Places, and Environments 4 Individual Development and Identity 5 Individuals, Groups, and Institutions 6 Power, Authority, and Governance 7 Production, Distribution, and Consumption 8 Science, Technology, and Society 9 Global Connections 10 Civic Ideals and Practices The above are excellent themes in which to begin, but students should be allowed to make them their own. Perhaps allowing students to focus on their daily lives may be a start – issues of social justice and equity for example. Bullying, drugs, gender issues, peer issues, jobs, family, youth/adult relationships, school, race/ethnicity, class… all are possible themes of interest to students. Integrating such themes would provide a significant transformation for social studies and history education. A balance needs to be found between the more traditional approaches and the more student centered approaches if we are truly interested in context and connections for our students. In the most culturally diverse society in history, we owe it to our kids to think and do differently – and a culturally responsive pedagogy is a place to begin.

4

Responsibilities of a Culturally Responsive Teacher

It is one thing to develop a culturally responsive curriculum and instruction, but educators need also to develop those skills within themselves. Teachers

Culturally Responsive Pedagogy Linking Present and Past

49

must constantly be aware and act on equity and social justice issues dealing with race, ethnicity, gender, class, ability, and culture. Championing a diverse community is vital for both student and teacher efficacy. Banks and Banks, (2004) and Nieto (2006) suggest the following: 1 2 3 4 5

Acknowledge students differences as well as their commonalities. Validate student cultural identity in all curriculum and instruction. Provide opportunities to engage in to global connections. Promote equity, respect, rights, and responsibilities among students. Develop an interrelationship between students, families, and the community. 6 Encourage student to become active participants in all aspects of their lives – socially and politically. 7 Focus on life skills such as critical thinking, problem solving, conflict resolution, collaboration, and negotiation.

5

Conclusion

Much work awaits culturally responsive educators as we attempt to meet the need of our students and society at large for the 21st century. Regardless, hope abounds as our society is much more rich given its diversity and cultural uniqueness. While many may struggle with the concept of American, it should not be defined as the denial of cultural identity or of individual identity. Our students deserve teaching and learning that speak to them as human beings – liking present and past. Social studies and history education should be the model for culturally responsive pedagogy for this century. For only by celebrating culture as we to grow as a society.

6

Activities/Lessons

1 Curricular connections – Students will link each theme studying in social studies/history units to current theme or issue. How are they related? How does one inform the other? What are the future implications? What are the what if scenarios? What could have been done to have different outcomes? What’s next? 2 Local investigations – students document and investigate the local surroundings (school, neighborhood, larger community) based on themes negotiated. Smart phones, cameras, technology devices can be used.

50

chapter 5

Students are asked to make local to global and present to past connections regarding themes. 3 Oral histories – students interview local adults – school, neighborhood, and community. Students determine interview protocol. Students are asked to make local to global and present to past connections regarding themes. (see story corps and other oral history projects) 4 Social issues – Students develop and conduct surveys regarding local issues, investigate and interview regarding themes and issues negotiated. Students determine plan of action for addressing issues. 5 Present to past – Students create projects (history fair, web 2.0, art) focusing on linking present and past themes in history – tied to themes of unit studying. 6 Multicultural perspectives – Students investigate multiple perspectives on issues and evens that link the present and past – cultural, gender, age, race, ethnicity, political, etc. perspectives. 7 Community engagement – Students individually and in groups develop plans for engaging with the local community (long term and sustainable involvement). Students investigate local issues and organizations. 8 Global classrooms – Students role-play ambassadors from various countries to debate present/past issues. (see Model UN examples). 9 Skits, role playing, simulations – Students investigate an event or scenario from an assigned perspective – present, past or future links. Skills such as problem solving, conflict resolution, debate, planning, and written/oral communication are facilitated. 10 Citizenship/activism – Students choose an issue linking present and past to become involved in – students are to engage in sustained involvement – community service. 11 The Future – Students use theme that link present and past to determine themes to investigate for future implications – environmental, political, social, and economic issues/themes.

Websites NCCRESt – Culturally Responsive Pedagogy and Practice http://www.nccrest.org/professional/culturally_responsive_pedagogy-and.html Equity Alliance http://www.equityallianceatasu.org

Culturally Responsive Pedagogy Linking Present and Past

51

ASCD – A Framework for Culturally Responsive Teaching http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/sept95/vol53/ num01/A-Framework-for-Culturally-Responsive-Teaching.aspx Edutopia – Culturally Responsive Teaching – Videos http://www.edutopia.org/blogs/tag/culturally-responsive-teaching Introduction to Culturally Relevant Pedagogy https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nGTVjJuRaZ8&list= PLoEXRnwo4449YoUF-6UpNTibcrNRRg-1A&index=4 Cultural Competence https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N9IeB4SvQIA&list= PLoEXRnwo4449YoUF-6UpNTibcrNRRg-1A Culturally Responsive Texts

http://libguides.luc.edu/c.php?g=49784&p=320661 http://www.tolerance.org/publication/project-appendix-d Dr. Jeffrey Duncan-Andrade https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i7ftSDiILbI Urban Schools. org http://www.urbanschools.org/publications.htm Teaching Tolerance http://www.tolerance.org Zinn Education Project https://zinnedproject.org

References Bradley Commission on History in Schools. (1988). Building a history curriculum: Guidelines for teaching history in schools. Washington, DC: National Council for History Education. Duncan-Andrade, J. (2008). The art of critical pedagogy. New York, NY: Peter Lang. Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: Continuum Press.

52

chapter 5

Freire, P. (2013). Education for critical consciousness. New York, NY: Bloomsbury. Gay, G. (2000). Culturally responsive teaching. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Giroux, H. (2012). Disposable youth. New York, NY: Routledge. Kozleski, E. (2011). Culturally responsive teaching matters! Retrieved from http://www.equityallianceatasu.org/sites/default/files/Website_files/ CulturallyResponsiveTeaching-Matters.pdf Kozol, J. (2006). The shame of the nation: Therestorationof apartheid schooling in North America. Pittsburg, PA: Three Rivers Press. Ladson-Billings, G. (1994). The dreamkeepers. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishing, Co. Lee, C. (2007). Culture, literacy, and learning. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Loewen, J. (1995). Lies my teacher told me. New York, NY: Touchstone. National Council for the Social Studies. (1996). National standards for history, basic edition. Los Angeles, CA: Author. Obama, B. (2015). Selma speech. Retrieved from http://time.com/3736357/barackobama-selma-speech-transcript/ Richards, H., Brown, A., & Forde, T. (2006). Addressing diversity on schools: Culturally responsive pedagogy. Retrieved from http://www.nccrest.org/Briefs/Diversity_Brief.pdf Takaki, R. (1993). A different mirror. New York, NY: Little, Brown, and Company. West, C. (2001). Race matters. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Zinn, H. (1980). A people’s history of the United States. New York, NY: Harper Collins.

CHAPTER 6

Local to Global Citizenship Education Rethinking Civic Engagement for the 21st Century

1

Introduction

UNESCO defines citizenship education as “educating all, from early childhood, to become clear-thinking and enlightened citizens who participate in decisions concerning society” (http://www.unesco.org). A particular controversy is that many nations see citizenship education as socialization into almost a blind patriotism toward their own country. Citizenship education can definitely be placed on a continuum, but if a society espouses democratic principles then citizenship education must challenge issues such as ethnocentrism, blind patriotism, and exceptionalism. Citizenship education is a democracy really should enhance individual and community responsibility, mutual respect, understanding of diversity and perspectives, critical thinking and active involvement in a society. Our state and society in general are in crisis when it comes to citizenship education. Many will claim that that is the role of social studies, and that’s true, but social studies often remains about transmission of information, narrow conceptions of history and social studies, and is often ignored because of high stakes testing (Loewen, 2005). Very little effort is provided toward developing skills and dispositions regarding the social studies (and definitely citizenship education). Citizenship is often relegated to that lowest level of engagement, voting, and we are even very low on that scale, when compared to other nations. Citizenship education must become a priority in the 21st century, and not one that perpetuates the status quo. Citizenship education must facilitate life skills and dispositions, along with knowledge necessary for addressing issues of this century, both locally and globally. According to the Citizenship Foundation, democracies need active, informed, and responsible citizen; citizens who are willing to take responsibility for themselves and their communities, and contribute to the political and social/cultural process (citizenfoundation.org). Genuine involvement in public life is an ultimate goal, and that must be facilitated in schools, but also in society as a whole.

© koninklijke brill nv, leideN, 2018 | DOI 10.1163/9789004364622_006

54 2

chapter 6 Teaching and Learning

In many instances we have ignored meaningful citizenship education over the last few decades, at least. Who can deny that STEM, high stakes testing, traditional teaching, and even the imposition of narrow curriculum has impacted social studies and citizenship education? These are just a few of the reasons that the US has one of the lowest voter turn-outs than most democracies in the world, that US citizens seem ignorant when compared to others regarding history and social studies knowledge, that volunteerism is the US is ay an all time low, and that we have an out of control school to prison pipeline. A rethinking and reorienting is greatly needed in balancing curriculum and instruction in our schools, particularly if we are truly interested in preparing students for 21st century life. This entails mandating critical citizenship education beyond the narrow confines of minimum standards. Doing citizenship is really the approach we should take by promoting service programs and projects, internships, partnerships with community organizations and government entities, as well as problem and project based investigations in our classrooms. Citizenship education necessitates investigating and debating relevant issues and controversies, cooperative and collaborative engagement, active and interactive learning by getting out of the 4 walls of the classroom, and allowing for critique and questioning (Maitles, 2013). A thematic approach to citizenship education negotiated by all stakeholders enhances the possibilities of context and connections for sustainability in teaching and learning. Themes might include the following: Democracy and authoritarianism Equality, diversity, and social justice Individual and community Rights and responsibilities

Cooperation and conflict Freedom and order Power and authority Local and global

Examples of topics that fit within themes might include the following; Globalization Human rights War and peace Hunger Service Social Issues Environmental Issues

Climate change Education Protest Infrastructure Economic Issues Cultural Issues Political Issues

Local to Global Citizenship Education

55

Sample organizations that offer curriculum and student-centered citizenship education activities include Facing History and Ourselves, Teaching Tolerance, Zinn Education Project, Rethinking Schools, United Nations Organization, UNESCO, and Law Related Education.

Websites UNESCO http://www.unesco.org/education/tlsf/mods/theme_b/interact/mod07task03/ appendix.htm Citizenship Foundation http://www.citizenshipfoundation.org.uk/main/page.php?286 Democratic Life http://www.democraticlife.org.uk/citizenship-education/ UN Chronicle http://unchronicle.un.org/article/what-type-citizenship-education-what-typecitizen/ Principles of Citizenship Education http://python.espe-bretagne.fr/istepec/article.php3?id_article=84 Facing History https://www.facinghistory.org/ Citizen Schools http://www.citizenschools.org/

Resources Why Schools Need Citizenship Education http://www.theguardian.com/education/mortarboard/2011/apr/14/why-schoolsneed-citizenship Global Citizenship Education http://www.globaleducationmagazine.com/global-citizenship-education/

56

chapter 6

Citizenship Education in Europe http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/thematic_reports/139EN.pdf Citizenship Education and Diversity http://www.sirius-migrationeducation.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/ CitizenshipEducationReport-tot_SIRIUS_131203.pdf Service Learning http://www.socialstudies.org/system/files/publications/se/6504/650408.html Global Citizenship Education/Asia Society http://asiasociety.org/blog/asia/what-global-citizenship-education 50 State Comparison – Citizenship Education http://www.ecs.org/citizenship-education-policies/ Citizenship Education in the US https://education.uw.edu/sites/default/files/u284/Citizenship%20Education%20 in%20the%20USA.Parker.pdf Reflection, Action, and Variation within Global Citizenship Education http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/global_learning/2015/11/reflection_action_and_ variation_within_global_citizenship_education.html Civics and Citizenship Education – Australia http://www.civicsandcitizenship.edu.au/cce/

Videos Global Citizenship Education https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kVr8SH0t8EI https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XVSgbU6WVSk https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tPdtGrnj7sU

References Brown, A. (2011). Why schools need citizenship. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/education

Local to Global Citizenship Education

57

Delander, B., & Millard, M. (2014). Preparing students for civic life. National Center for Learning and Civic Engagement. Delhaxhe, A. (2012). Citizenship education in Europe. Education, Audiovisual and Cultural Executive Agency. Maitles, H. (2013). What type of citizenship education: What type of citizen. UN Chronicle, 50(4), 17–20. Parker, W. (2014). Citizenship education in the United States. In L. P. Nucci, D. Narvaez, & T. Krettenauer (Eds.), The handbook of moral and character education (pp. 347–367). New York, NY: Routledge.

CHAPTER 7

Global Classrooms Contextualizing the Community

Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world; indeed, it’s the only thing that ever has. Margaret Mead, American Cultural Anthropologist

∵ 1

Introduction

Why global education? Why international education? Why cross-cultural communication and understanding? The 21st century necessitates the idea of a global community what with globalization, media, technology, trade, and global issues. This chapter analyzes the concept of global education and suggests that we need to integrate global education into our classrooms. The chapter also suggests that a variety of popular culture texts and more studentcentered approaches should be the focus. In addition Global Classrooms is described as an alternative approach to meaningfully allowing students to analyze and engage in global education through research, problem solving, debate, and role playing. A critical component of education in general, and social studies specifically, is to promote an understanding of diversity at home and abroad: “integrating global realities within an existing school curriculum meets the needs of an ever-changing, ethnically diverse, increasingly interdependent, international community” (Tucker & Evans 1996, p. 189). Teaching and learning must include education for a global perspective so that students might also become responsible “active” citizens of the world (Tucker & Evans 1996; Diaz, Massialas, & Xanthopoulos, 1999; Chapin, 2003). Active global citizenship requires a global education. Global education efforts must begin with an attempt to understand globalization. Globalization as a concept has been coopted to mean capitalism on a global scale, but should be reclaimed as “ increased interaction between individuals, groups and organization internationally” (McLaren 1995, p. 180). Diaz, Massialas, and Xanthopoulos (1999, pp. 37–38) state that globalization © koninklijke brill nv, leiden, 2018 | doi 10.1163/9789004364622_007

Global Classrooms

59

refers to the idea of the world growing smaller and to the intensification of the awareness and activism in the world as a whole. Understanding globalization or international education through global education is vital today. According to Diaz, Massialas, and Xanthopoulos (1999), students need to know how to impact the global system as world citizens and as advocates global awareness and activism. At its core, global education is about connecting cultures and people contextually (Chapin, 2003); it must be better integrated in all classrooms through problem and project based approaches. Global interconnectedness allows for the rethinking of education in these ways could provide the opportunity to deepen our understanding and appreciation of others in the world, again vital for global citizenship. Students must develop a global perspective that will emphasize cross-cultural experiential learning and stress commonalities in cultures that transcend diversity (Merryfield, 2008). Cultural competence, collaboration skills, and an appreciation of global connections can be facilitated through cross-cultural experiences in teacher education, thus translating to the classroom. Global and international education can challenge globalization which has come to mean marketing, trade, and the spread of capitalism. The skills associated with global education enhances awareness and understanding of the world. Many schools, colleges and universities are recognizing the need for global competence and promoting understanding among cultures (Dan-xia, 2008). In addition, linking multicultural education and global issues is facilitated through meaningful international education projects (Wells, 2008). James suggests that internationalizing education develops a sense of interconnectedness, empathy, and tolerance, which are much needed in today’s world (2005).

2

Contextualizing the Global through Popular Culture

Our students need alternative texts to enable teaching and learning to come more alive – popular culture texts are just such tools. Today, popular culture is more specifically associated with commercial culture: movies, television, music, advertising, toys, photography, games, the Internet, and so on. Popular culture is also one of this country’s most lucrative exports. Many critique American popular culture as a form of cultural imperialism tied to unbridled capitalism. While this issue should definitely be included in any integration of popular culture, cultural sharing goes many ways. The export of popular culture is not a new phenomenon. Elements of popular culture have always spread beyond nationalist borders. Today, satellite

60

chapter 7

television, multinational media corporations, and the Internet provide unprecedented opportunities for the spread of popular culture. Students in the United States have access to media that allows them to experience cultures from around the world. Conversely, many of these culture “industries” began with US exports, so the world’s access to American popular culture is also burgeoning. Given the global cross-cultural nature of contemporary popular culture, it is sometimes difficult to determine origin. This globalization of popular culture has resulted in what Kellner (1995) refers to as a new global popular. The existence of the global popular means that we might easily find a common frame of reference or topic when asking US students to consider “others” in the world. Integrating themes and issues connected to Global Classrooms or Model United Nations by using popular culture can only enhance student interest and connections. Two themes that have great possibility while integrating popular culture include investigating global issues and differing cultures by looking deeply at media representations of such issues (news, technology, film, music, art). Inquiry into how various issues are represented in media, advertising, and other forms of popular culture can enhance deeper understandings and connections for our students. An interdisciplinary approach in schools focusing on problem and projects based exploration of contextual ideas and issues are vital for today’s learners. Education for civic competence, for responsible national and world citizenship, falls within the domain of social studies instruction and learning. We must rethink teaching and learning so as to enable these ideas. Integrating music, movies, art, and literature focusing on global issues or celebrating global culture offers a great opportunity.

3

Global Classrooms: An Integrated Model

The uniqueness of Global Classrooms (GC) when compared to traditional Model UN is the integrated issues and problem-based curriculum, skills development and support provided throughout an entire school year. Model UN, on the other hand, is most often a one-time simulation of the United Nations. Additionally while Model UN is often available only to more privileged schools and communities, Global Classrooms is designed for schools and students who don’t always have access to great resources. Global Classrooms is a program initiated by the United Nations Association some 12 years ago to facilitate the integration of Model United Nations and Global Classrooms skills based curriculum into schools that had not

Global Classrooms

61

experienced traditional Model UN. The idea is to support each portion of the program in more socio-economically deprived schools, generally in urban areas. Primary goals of Global Classrooms include developing global/international knowledge based on global issues and countries, developing a variety of life skills leading to active global citizenship, and developing dispositions focusing on awareness and appreciation of multiple perspectives. Global Classrooms has a constructivist-oriented curriculum based on several themes. The themes include peacekeeping, human rights, sustainable development, and globalization. Within each curriculum framework there are lessons that focus on developing a United Nations knowledge base and a general awareness of global issues. In addition, each lesson focuses on skills development including research, writing, collaboration, debate, and general public speaking. Dispositions encouraged through the curriculum include tolerance, awareness, collaborative demeanor, openness, and appreciation of difference. A variety of thematic simulations are included to prepare students for the role-playing experience of Model UN (MUN). In addition, the curriculum is generic enough to encourage contextual adaptation to localize issues and even include less controversial simulations such as debating which type of candy is best, or the best fast food restaurants. Resources, lessons, and links are also included to support teaching and learning. The program was initially supported through large grants that paid for the curriculum, professional development, the MUN conference, and support staff. Local United Nations Associations (UNA) generally served as the liaison between the UNA-USA in New York, local schools, and a Global Classrooms consultant. At present, most local Global Classrooms programs receive minimal funding from UNA-USA, although curriculum is still free. Staff members are paid minimally, if at all, and there is a charge to participate in the conference now. The charge covers the venue, lunches, some staff per diem, and basic conference support. Regardless of the sharp drop in funding support, the program is sustainable and has grown to several US and international cities.

4

GC Houston: A Case Study

Global Classrooms Houston is one of the original cities supported by the UNA-USA and has been in existence since Fall 2001. Initially mandated that GC Houston only be available to Houston ISD, it expanded into Aldine ISD first and is now in several local districts and charter schools. Generally, over 3,000 students engage in some form of Global Classrooms during the school

62

chapter 7

year, with 500 students participating in the culminating Global Classrooms; Model United Nations Conference held at the University of Houston each spring. Houston was initially quite unique in that it was one of the first programs to have both a middle school and high school Global Classrooms project as local schools recognized a need to integrate the program in 6th grade world cultures classes which focused on the 20th century, as well as various high school subjects. Houston schools also integrated the curriculum in a variety of ways – within the specific social studies class itself, in clubs, and in stand alone elective courses. Even within each of these, individual teachers were able to adapt the curriculum in a variety of ways – as a current events/issues-based integration, as a way to develop life skills in clubs such as debate or speech, or as semester or year long Global Classrooms course integrating various components of the curriculum. GC Houston holds several professional development sessions each year, focusing on introduction to Global Classrooms and Model UN, curriculum integration, conducting Model UN simulations, and conference preparation. Fall is typically used for curriculum integration, mock simulations and knowledge and skills development for the students. Spring is dedicated to conference preparation. Schools are assigned countries and topics depending on requests and numbers of students attending the conference. During the culminating conference 6 committees are usually represented at both the middle school and high school levels including Security Council and other committees of high interest such as UNICEF. Students are assigned countries, research their countries, assigned committees, research their committees, then they are assigned topics, research the topics, articulate what their country’s position is, then develop a position paper to assist with debate during the conference. Students engage in mock simulation to prepare for the conference, usually focusing on localized issues. Ultimately students are asked to role play UN ambassadors from their assigned countries. GC Houston has adapted the curriculum in a number of ways, but localized themes include energy, transportation, pollution, development, space issues, trade, education, and socio-economic issues – focusing on contextualized issues in Houston. Despite the general success of Global Classrooms Houston, the program is challenged in local schools and districts and in Texas for addressing controversial issues, allowing for multiple perspectives, and not fitting into the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills. Much of this is addressed by inviting critics to visit classrooms, observe student activities, and attend the culminating Model UN conference. Stakeholders generally agree that Global

Global Classrooms

63

Classrooms provides a contextualized global education missing from the current traditional curriculum. The largest ongoing issue is time, as teachers are increasingly subjected to scripted curriculum, benchmark testing, and formalized standardized testing, and narrow perceptions regarding achievement and accountability.

5

Extensions

Numerous resources are available that enable improved global education in addition to Global Classrooms and Model United Nations. For example, in addition to the GC Curriculum, the UNA-USA recommends the integration of Educating for Global Competence published by the Asia Society (http://www.ccsso.org/ Resources/Publications/Educating_for_Global_Competence.html). What is especially appropriate is that like Global Classrooms, there are four global competencies promoted, taught, and implemented including investigating the world, recognizing perspectives, communicating ideas, and taking action. According to the publication Contemporary societies are marked by new global trends-economic, cultural, technological, and environmental shifts that are part of a rapid and uneven wave of globalization. The growing global interdependence that characterizes our time calls for a generation of individuals who can engage in effective global problem solving and participate simultaneously in local, national, and global civic life. Put simply, preparing our students to participate fully in today’s and tomorrow’s world demands that we nurture their global competence. Global competence is the capacity and disposition to understand and act on issues of global significance. (Asia Society, 2011) Facing the Future (http://www.facingthefuture.org/) is another of many examples that provide lessons and links as extensions for developing global education. Free downloadable curriculum focus on themes such as climate change, water, science, and civics, and consumerism. Again, the conceptual framework centers around critical thinking, global perspectives, and informed actions, as stated on the web site. Another example comes from Global-Ed.org (www.global-ed.org/ curriculum-guide.doc) and resonates well with the previous examples and with Global Classrooms. This program encourages a thematic approach focusing on development, environment, human rights, and

64

chapter 7

peace – all through an education framework. Goals of the program include developing respect, to value and to celebrate other cultures, learning about developing countries and their issues in a positive way, becoming socially and environmentally responsible, gaining a positive outlook on their role in making the world a more peaceful and just place, and clarifying the connections to real life.

6

Conclusions

Students today live in a world made up of many texts; it is essential that they develop multiple literacies that will allow them to read the signs, symbols, and images (texts) of that world. Schools must provide students with “new operational and cultural ‘knowledge’ in order to acquire new languages that provide access to new forms of work, civic and private practices in their everyday lives” (Lankshear & Knoble, 2003, p. 11). Our classes could be the perfect place to turn students on to these meaningful knowledge and issues, debates regarding globalization, and relevant problem-based global education can provide the context for developing the literacy skills necessary to interpret those issues. Reading global issues through context (simulations and role play that focus on life skills) offers students the opportunities to apply knowledge and develop skills in a relevant ways, as Kincheloe (2005) recommends. Students learn where people live, their environments, and culture. Much the same can be said in learning about other societies through global issues. Responsible global citizenship requires knowledge of “others” in the world, whoever they might be. It also requires the skills to understand and act in the best interest of the majority of the people. The knowledge base should include an understanding of who the other people in the world are, what they do, and where they are. The skill set should include inquiry and critical literacy/ thinking skills. Curriculum and instruction must avoid the traditional coverage approach and provide students opportunities to apply their knowledge in a meaningful context. Global Classrooms is a global frame that addresses these issues and can be used effectively in any classroom.

Websites United Nations Association http://www.unausa.org/Page.aspx?pid=220

Global Classrooms

65

Global Classrooms http://www.unausa.org/globalclassrooms Model UN http://www.unausa.org/modelun UN Cyberschoolbus www.un.org/cyberschoolbus/ United Nations http://www.un.org/en/ Center for Global Education http://globaled.us/ Global Education Resources http://www.nea.org/home/37409.htm http://resources.primarysource.org/globaleducation http://www.nais.org/sustainable/index.cfm?ItemNumber=146778 Teaching Globalization http://www.globalenvision.org/teachers http://essays.ssrc.org/sept11/essays/teaching_resource/tr_globalization.htm http://www.adifferentworld-unmondedifferent.org/ Educating for Global Competence – the Asia Society http://www.ccsso.org/ Resources/Publications/Educating_for_Global_Competence.html Facing the Future http://www.facingthefuture.org/ Global-Ed.org http://www.global-ed.org/curriculum-guide.doc

References Chapin, J. (2003). A practical guide to secondary social studies. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

66

chapter 7

Dan-xia, C. (2008). A social distance study of American participants in a China study program. US-China Education Review, 5(9), 17–22. Diaz, C., Massialas, B., & Xanthopoulos, J. (1999). Global perspectives for educators. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. James, K. (2005). International education: The concept, and its relationship to intercultural education. Journal of Research in International Education, 4, 313–332. Kellner, D. (1995). Media culture: Cultural studies, identity and politics between the modern and the postmodern. London: Routledge. Kincheloe, J. (2005). Getting beyond the facts. New York, NY: Peter Lang. Lankshear, C., & Knobel, M. (2003). New literacies: Changing knowledge and classroom learning. Buckingham: Open University Press. McLaren, P. (1995). Critical pedagogy and predatory culture: Oppositional politics in a postmodern era. New York, NY: Routledge. Merryfield, M. (2001). Moving the center of global education: From imperial world views that divide the world to double consciousness, contrapuntal pedagogy, hybridity, and cross-cultural competence. In W. Stanley (Ed.), Critical issues in social studies research for the 21st century (pp. 179–207). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing. Merryfield, M. (2008). Scaffolding social studies for global awareness. Social Education, 72(7), 363–367. Tucker, J., & Evans, A. (1996). The challenge of a global age. In B. Massialas & R. Allen (Eds.), Crucial issues in teaching social studies K-12 (pp. 181–218). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing. Wells, R. (2008). The global and multicultural: Opportunities, challenges, and suggestions for teacher education. Multicultural Perspectives, 10(3), 142–149.

CHAPTER 8

Global Commmunity and Social Education Food for Thought

1

Introduction

I knew something was missing every time I looked out on my students to share with them the excitement and importance of social studies and learning in general. They looked back, mostly through glazed over eyes, as their previous experiences left much to be desired. I preached over and over through the years that social studies was about doing, questioning, and engaging, but little did they experience. It’s all about activism and active citizenship… yeah, right! Why is getting kids out of the classrooms and connecting to their community considered radical? Why is challenging the traditional school day controversial? Why is it threatening to question and challenge the status quo in our schools? Why is difference considered wrong? We are so out of balance with blind acceptance of the neoliberal privatization of the public arena that it may very well be too late. We have bought into the achievement gap, failure of schools, standardization, and testing craze with little challenge. Privatization is our answer to societal ills and the education industry rules our learning. Capitalism does not equal democracy!

2

Community Education in a Global Context

The concept of community education brings many ideas and issues to mind. Related themes include place-based, field-based, environmental, service learning, and outdoor education. Each has its own more narrow focus with community education perhaps an umbrella term than encompasses them all. Nevertheless, the suggestion here is that instead of community education serving as an extension or add-on to traditional approaches, it should be the focus of all education. What is often missing in teaching and learning are contexts and connections than make education meaningful – locally to globally. Community education engages participants in problem and issues based approaches to the local community, broadening to the global sphere, thereby facilitating © koninklijke brill nv, leideN, 2018 | DOI 10.1163/9789004364622_008

68

chapter 8

that local to global link. Instead of compartmentalized subjects, integrated approaches use what students and the community know or understand to develop further questions, solutions, or even problems. Community education offers efficacy in that it provides opportunities for collaboration in addressing local issues and problems. It enables the community to become the classroom, thus ensuring a more long-term connection to active rather than passive endeavors as citizens. Our schools should become community centers open much of the day and offering safe places for community endeavors beyond the traditional school day for our students. They should partner with various community organizations to provide support and resources citizenship engagement. Museums, community centers, service organizations, non-governmental organizations and the like offer additional specializations that can only enhance community development.

3

My Story

Community education, particularly in a global context, is quite a journey. Yes, it really is about the journey and not the destination. It began for me many years ago; sure, school and all that, but perhaps more so with the presidential election of 1964 and church during my “formative” years. I fondly remember my third grade teacher, Mrs. Barnes, who allowed me to explore and question, even at the age of 9. But it was the experience of handing out LBJ literature that sticks with me to this day. That, and standing up in church and asking why and are you sure questions of the preacher. I have loved history, politics, and current events since I can remember. I knew from an early age I wanted to do something in the “social sciences.” I generally had cool history teachers in high school and excellent history and political science professors in college. I was pushed toward law school but education won out – thank goodness. I think I have pretty much always been one to question the status quo, especially with respect to school and politics. Fortunately, it hasn’t gotten me into too much trouble. I did my share of protesting in high school and college – but I always kept it safe. I did the same as a teacher – never really one for rules that kept kids from being kids or from allowing anyone to ask questions. Again, as a teacher I seemed blessed by administrators who allowed me to do my own thing. I didn’t have management problems and my kids did well on tests, despite my always resisting teaching to those tests.

Global Commmunity and Social Education

69

I taught social studies for 15 years, proud that often students left my class smiling. I tried always to make it all about them. What in geography or American history connects with you I would ask at every opportunity. They told me, too. They wanted to do history and geography. They didn’t want to sit and have it “done to them.” So, that’s what we did. We debated, we questioned, we made movies, we marched the halls, and we learned the neighborhood. They taught me more than I could ever teach them! Life experience leads us in our community education journey. Learning to play the school game, vacations to state capitals and civil war battle sites, reading, volunteering, then trips abroad, all contributed to my story. But perhaps as important formatively as any other was the 1972 presidential campaign. I was 16 and seven of my friends and I spent hours campaigning in Houston for George McGovern. When he lost I remember driving the endless freeways of Houston until the early hours of the morning screaming out the window that all was lost. I really think that pushed my cynicism to the edge. Is has been a constant struggle ever since – and the journey has provided the balance. I often tip over the edge and shout out about injustice, fascism, or the like – but I do come back.

4

Social Education in a Global Context

The seeds were sown, but it took the freedom of the academy to allow for further development. Beginning with traditional social studies education and bridging from there with collaborations with prospective teachers, graduate students, other professors, schools, teachers, and the community, allowed additional critical investigation. The social studies program area morphed into social education with courses focused on critical pedagogy, popular culture, and social issues, all linking to the community. Projects took hold focusing on global education, international experiences, and rethinking American history. Students graduated carrying a torch for something called social education – something that has no “true” definition, that is always evolving and always questioning, but nevertheless is comprised of some general themes and always, always focusing on community contexts. Given the ongoing debate and struggle with “defining” social education a graduate student provided a working definition to encourage dialog. The following was placed on our bulletin board outside the social education lab and can now be founding program syllabi, on our brochures and web site: “While we resist ‘defining’ social education, we believe that social education

70

chapter 8

emphasizes three areas of study: critical pedagogy, cultural/media studies, and social studies education. We also stress that education, interpreted broadly, has the potential to advance social justice.” One’s experience in learning, in dealing with the world and then becoming an educator often facilitates a connection to issues and ideas tied to equity and social justice. This journey is a lifelong struggle, that can bridge gaps, assist in collaboration, and model relationships and partnerships necessary for success. Through a lifetime along the journey, many have come along for the ride. Connecting present and past, merging current issues with traditional curriculum, integrating alternative texts and perspectives, empowering and emancipating kids and educators, transforming schools and society – the transgressions of social education scream out. Dewey, Freire, Kincheloe, Zinn, Greene, Giroux, Apple, hooks, McLaren, Kozol, Loewen, Said, Chomsky and many others have provided the impetus.

5

Linking

Linking community and social education in a global context seems obvious and really has been attempted for some time, what with traditional service learning projects in our schools. These are really great starts if we are to ever focus on meaningful civic and community engagement, but generally are rife with issues. Typically authenticity, commitment, and intrinsic motivation are often lacking with the integration of service learning projects in schools. As an educator I truthfully have waffled my entire career as to the best way to ensure success with community engagement – choice or requirement. My experience with both has left much to be desired until I recognized that it must be a longer term commitment by all involved. We have know for a some time that one shot deals with service may be a good start, but that is just what happens time and again – a new start. Community engagement or education cannot be a one shot deal for a few hours, it must be equal to all else that is going on, in fact it really should be inexorably linked to all that is going on in teaching and learning. Our students deserve the present to future links rather than the focus almost exhaustively on the past. And providing that local connection – perhaps starting through requirement and evolving to choice only builds possibilities.

Global Commmunity and Social Education

6

71

Food for Thought

I have found that a thematic approach to community engagement offers a more focused experience. Numerous themes are possible that can be centered around social issues, but localizing the issues provides that context students so desperately need. Broad themes such as education, environment, transportation, government, and social needs are good places to start. My suggestion is to start with a theme that everyone can relate to, but is also a social issue. Food is a topic or theme we all take for granted but is also one that is a huge local to global issue. There are excellent local connections for food including grocery stores, food banks, soup kitchens, co-ops, farmer’s markets, and restaurants. Each of these and more can be investigated in depth over a semester or year to really get a feel for the community tied to food. There are also numerous resources that can provide foundations for the issues tied to food including websites, books, and films. Perhaps the best way to get started is to develop or integrate a unit on food issues (this can really be tied to practically any social studies or science class). This is especially appropriate if one is interested in current issues and collaborative problem-based learning. Grocery ads, articles tied to homelessness, personal or broad-based economic issues, and even daily habits linked to eating can all be connected to food and current events.

Websites Promise of Place http://www.promiseofplace.org/what_is_pbe Center for Place-based education http://www.antiochne.edu/anei/cpbe/ Place-based Education http://wiki.bssd.org/index.php/Place_Based_Education Place-based Education http://placebased.typepad.com/ Orion Society http://www.orionmagazine.org/index.php/mag/5863/

CHAPTER 9

Asia Pop Investigating Asia through Media and Popular Culture

We’d incorporated Asia into our bones – its colors and laughter, its smells, its rhythms, its tolerance and patience, its compassion… Jane Wilson-Howarth, A Glimpse of Eternal Snows

… When given the chance to see Asia off the beaten track, definitely take it. Larry Herzberg, China Survival Guide

∵ 1

Introduction

How do we go about teaching about Asia? How can we provide context and connections for our students when learning about Asia? How can we ensure that stereotypes are not perpetuated through our curriculum and instruction? How can we ensure some depth of knowledge? Teaching and learning about Asia can be a monumental task. Unfortunately, much of the history of such teaching has been relegated to a coverage and teacher centered approach, for lack of time, if for no other reason. Still, curriculum tied to Asia often focuses on a travelogue approach, with separate sections in world geography or world history texts. These often have just basic information with little context to the rest of the world or larger themes such as conflict, change, or the like. What with the current status of social studies and history education in our society, standardization of curriculum and assessment and neoliberal education “reform” advocacy for rethinking how to address Asia in teaching and learning is often a false hope. This isn’t to say that many teachers aren’t doing great jobs given all these impositions. Student-centered approaches to any teaching and learning allows for addressing these issues. Establishing collaborative groups, learning centers, issues/problem based curriculum, and individual and group projects can enhance efficacy and © koninklijke brill nv, leiden, 2018 | doi 10.1163/9789004364622_009

Asia Pop

73

depth of understanding in any teaching situation. And since Asia is such a massive undertaking, approaching Asia regionally, through individual nations, comparatively, or through themes is surely the way to go. Media and popular culture are also texts that should be integrated in such approaches.

2

Asia as a Case Study

Approaching Asia regionally or through individual countries as case studies is perhaps the most meaningful way to go. If we are truly interested in students having some in-depth knowledge on Asia establishing collaborative groups and perhaps project-based instructional strategies for investigating regions or countries seems most relevant as well. Peer teaching, integrating technology, gallery walks, and incorporating local resources can only enhance the learning. An additional approach should focus on local to global contexts for investigating Asia through issues or program based approaches. Texas has great links to Asia through its demographics, trade, consulates, museums, etc. so as to allow for a variety of different themes or topics to be addressed. Again, connecting these themes or topics to group investigations of regions or individual countries provides the necessary framework for 21st century local to global understanding. We must critically address current ignorance and/or stereotypes regarding Asia. Thus, delving into countries such as Japan, China, India, Korea, Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Philippines at the least and then linking to neighboring countries can provide a start. Perhaps an even better method might be to approach cultural/human geography thematically and issues based by having students represent regions of the world throughout the year. Model United Nations, model world crises conferences, IB curriculum, or AP Human Geo provide lessons and units supporting this strategy.

3

Asia through Media and Popular Culture

What do our students think about when Asia is mentioned? Without an indepth approach, stereotypes or popular culture are often the first things that come to their minds. Since media and popular culture are such strong influences in our students’ lives, it behooves us to critically integrate them into our teaching and learning. Asian popular culture has long influenced the world. Anime, graphic novels, literature, video games, Hello Kitty, films, and other forms of popular culture

74

chapter 9

have also had a strong influence on American popular culture, technology production/innovation in general. We can all think back, despite the generation, or the impact of Japanese horror/monster films, for example. And where would the world be today without video games? Popular culture can be used to enhance social, political, cultural, economic and historical contexts (Fitzsimmons & Lent, 2013). Therefore, the issue is to allow students to use popular culture and media as texts to investigate most anything in social studies and history education, but in this context, Asia. A key is to promote critical analysis with media and popular culture both of the time and about the time, if applying in historical investigation. Once again, educators often do a pretty good job of integrating “their” popular culture as texts. But that is often where it stops, we are often most uncomfortable with our students’ popular culture. That is why we are often quick to dismiss, demean, or censor what I call “kidculture” – it’s mostly because “kidculture” isn’t our culture and we are generally ignorant of it.

4

Asia and Texas

A powerful place to start any lesson is through localizing the topic or theme. Ask almost any age student to think about Texas and Asia (and even more specifically countries within Asia) and an educator will get many responses such as kinds of food, specific names of movies, video games, etc. Another powerful tool many of us have used is to look at labels of clothing or other items to determine where the items are produced. As we all know, Asia is very prominent. A next step might be to invite local Asian community members to speak as a panel on Texas and Asia, and their localized experiences as Asian Americans. Additional resources can be found at Texas Asia Society http://asiasociety.org/ texas or local museums. An Asian or specific culture fair is another idea as an introduction (but watch perpetuating stereotypes – one generally can’t find egg rolls or fortune cookies in China, for example). Most Texas cities have many examples of Asian influence. Houston for example, has numerous Asian cultural societies, one of only three Asian Society sites in the US, Asian art in several museums and galleries, two Chinatowns and one Vietnamese town, many great Asian themes restaurants, numerous Asian themed festivals each year, and consulates of virtually all Asian countries. Other cities have similar Asian influences and each serves ahs great resources for teaching and learning. In moving toward a more formal investigation of Asia or Asian countries specifically, short initial readings, video clips, or popular culture examples

Asia Pop

75

are also great ways to focus student attention on any theme. Showing trailers from films such as Spirited Away, Godzilla, Ring, Akira, and Seven Samurai (depending on students’ ages) and asking questions about Japanese/Asia culture, stereotypes, images is another very powerful methods of investigation and introductions to Japanese culture, for example. In addition, allowing students to bring in their own examples of Asian popular culture (video games, music, movies, literature, etc.) can be quite enlightening.

5

Sample Asian Pop Themes

The themes listed below are sample popular culture/media themes with which to address Asian regions or specific Asian countries. They can be established as centers or can be assigned to specific groups. A simple Google search for Japanese movies for example, yielded numerous relevant links that student might explore. A teacher might also integrate a strategy such as ESPN Factors (Economic, Social/Cultural, Political, Environmental) as the umbrella theme for exploring each pop theme – how art affects each factor, for example. – – – – – – – –

6

Art Film/Movies Literature Music Technology/Video Games Culture/Food Trends/Toys Current Events

Sample Strategies

Likewise to that stated above, a simple Google search for instructional strategies and the samples listed below yield numerous relevant links for specific steps, idea, lessons. A key for enhancing our students’ knowledge, skills, and dispositions is to allow for more student-centered approaches such as the samples listed. Good teaching is not limited to these, but each has proven quite meaningful in the social studies and history classroom. – Learning Centers – Cooperative groups

76 – – – – – –

chapter 9 Gallery Walks Peer Teaching Technology Project-based Problem/Issues based Local – Global Resources

Websites National Consortium for Teaching about Asia http://nctasia.org/ Asia Society http://asiasociety.org/education/lesson-plans Texas Asia Society http://asiasociety.org/texas Asia for Educators http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/ Asia Network http://www.asianetwork.org/resources/resources-for-teaching/ Asia Lesson Plans http://www.continents.mrdonn.org/asia.html Asian Studies http://www.asian-studies.org/Publications/EAA/About Asian Resources http://www.unc.edu/world/asia.shtml Wikipedia – Asia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asia Asian Consulates http://www.asianreporter.com/consulates.htm

Asia Pop

77

Pop Websites 10 Most popular Asian Films http://www.mynewmovies.net/the-top-10-asian-movies/ Greatest Asian Films https://grunes.wordpress.com/category/100-greatest-asian-films/ Cinema of Asia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinema_of_Asia Graphic Novels from Asia http://www.amazon.com/s?ie=UTF8&page=1&rh=n%3A4366%2Ck%3Aasian Asian Toys, Games, Electronics, Music, Movies, etc. http://www.play-asia.com/toys Music of Asia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_of_Asia Children’s’ Book about Asia http://delightfulchildrensbooks.com/2011/04/27/asia/ Popular Asia Books http://www.goodreads.com/shelf/show/asian Asian Current Events http://wn.com/asia_headlines/news http://www.cnn.com/ASIA/

References Fitzsimmons, L., & Lent, J. (2013). Popular culture in Asia. Retrieved from http://www.popmatters.com/review/176439-popular-culture-in-asia/ Rodrigues, U., & Smaill, B. (2008). Youth, media and culture in the Asia Pacific region. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

CHAPTER 10

Internationalizing Teacher Education 1

Introduction

There are many issues and possibilities regarding internationalizing teacher education. Specific examples of successful international teacher education projects and international education resources will be shared. Our case study of successes and struggles in a large public university with internationalizing education will also be shared. Initial research tied to this case study includes surveys, individual and group interviews, participant journals, and document analysis. Various processes and products in internationalizing education will also be investigated. The skills acquired by linking teacher education in a local to global framework enables a broader perspective in the possibilities of teaching and learning. Cross-cultural awareness and experiences help to break barriers, thus enables a better understanding of others, and an allowance of differing perspectives. Many colleges and universities are recognizing the need for global competence and promoting understanding among cultures (Dan-xia, 2008). In addition, linking multicultural education and global issues is facilitated through meaningful international education projects (Wells, 2008). James suggests that internationalizing education develops a sense of interconnectedness, empathy, and tolerance, which are much needed in today’s world (2005). Education programs have much work to do to accomplish these ideas. A way to move forward is to share the successes and struggles of a teacher education program trying to do just this. Specific examples include recent projects in Vietnam, China, and Latin America. The Vietnam project includes university partnerships for a masters degree in Curriculum and Instruction for Vietnamese educators and subsequent study abroad and exchange projects. The China project includes comparative education study abroad projects initially and potential university partnerships for graduate degrees in education and other grant projects. The Latin America project is new with internationalizing linked history and education courses to be taught abroad. Extensions of these projects included online partnerships, professional development seminars, international education research projects and other international education grant proposals.

© koninklijke brill nv, leiden, 2018 | doi 10.1163/9789004364622_010

Internationalizing Teacher Education

2

79

Theoretical Framework

This project is the result of increased international possibilities and interest in our college of education. In addition, numerous international education experiences focusing on study trips, consulting, teaching and research have contributed to this “new found” interest. Our inquiry-based approach suggests that educators at all levels must be engaged in collaborative scholarship and action research (Herr & Anderson, 2005). Educational research highlights the need to cultivate knowledge, skills, and dispositions for global and civic awareness and responsibility (Loewen, 2007; Ochoa-Becker, 2006; Ross, 2006). Additionally, to be engaged, global citizens, students need exposure to multiple literacies and diverse perspectives (Durham & Kellner, 2005; Giroux, 2006; Silberman-Keller, 2008). We find that the CCRS cultivates knowledge and dispositions for engaged citizenship and 21st century skill development and feel that it is an appropriate foundation for the student research projects.

3

Methodology

Faculty decided initially that a task force be established to coordinate international education projects and scholarship. Our initial meetings focused on brainstorming, developing a literature base, and format for investigating potential projects. We were concerned about ensuring a research focus with all international endeavors linked to application in education courses and subsequently schools and the community. This self-reflectivity and resulting examination of our philosophies, knowledge base, and international mindedness suggested a self-study research project. Self-study research borrows from many other qualitative research methodologies; however, what distinguishes it from other methodologies is its orientation on the self (LaBoskey, 2004; Loughran, 2005; Samaras & Freese, 2006). Johnston (2006) suggests that it is reflective inquiry in the Deweyian sense. She cautions that as it can become self indulgent if not situated in the “struggles, politics, complexities, and tensions of the context and are not subject to the questions, critique, and validation of others” (Johnston, 2006, p. 62). LaBoskey (2004) suggests four basic features for self-study research: the first is an aim towards improvement; the second is interaction with colleagues; the third is the use of multiple qualitative methods; and the fourth is to make the work available to the professional community.

80

chapter 10

The task force noted that even though self-study calls for an inward and outward look at practice, the LaBoskey (2004) framework does not specifically focus on change. As we felt that self-study did not spotlight the intentional cycle of practice improvement, action, evaluation and reflection (Herr & Anderson, 2005; Tripp, 1990). Johnston (2006) finds that a focus on taking action and studying the consequences for student learning is the hallmark of action research. When practiced in tandem, action research and self-study can be viable and complementary modes of research (Johnston, 2006; Samaras & Freese, 2006). Elliott (1991) and Herr and Anderson (2005), when writing about action research, share some of Johnston’s ideas. They see action research as falling within the framework of Schön’s reflective practice. Elliot (1991) finds that research questions come out of educational practice; they are born from the needs and problems of the context. It is clear for the authors that action research and self-study have much in common and are complimentary research methodologies. In making the case for a reflective form of action research Herr and Anderson (2005) write: It is an account of how one practitioner went about learning his or her craft and what was learned in the process. Such insider accounts generate important knowledge to be shared among practitioners, just as case studies reported by academic researchers do. In fact, they begin to build a knowledge base that can inform the research community about the actions and beliefs of practitioners—a knowledge base that is otherwise unavailable. (p. 34) The blending of the two methodologies for this research project is not intended to overly complicate the research. It is intended to provide a structure, by which we can begin to understand ourselves as educators, the integration of an international focus and the ways in which our practices impact others.

4

Data Sources

Research confirms the value of collaboration in all levels of education (Kincheloe, 2005; McLaren, 2006; Spring, 2003). Throughout the first year of the project, we documented the conversations among the faculty involved. Research assistants attended meetings to document conversations

Internationalizing Teacher Education

81

both hand-written and audio recording. We used documentation from these collaborative meetings to assess the impact of such partnerships on the research integration. Faculty members maintained reflective journals to record the challenges and successes encountered when incorporating the research projects. We believe the journals and conversations provided intimate insights into our growth as educators and the implementation of research projects. We will produce a summative brief that outlines challenges and successes that emerged throughout the semester. Faculty members and their students completed pre- and post-course surveys. These surveys assessed participants’ understanding culture, global connections, diversity, and change tied to allowing for multiple perspectives. In order to take advantage of the diverse backgrounds of our students we emphasize the rich qualitative data that emerges from the surveys. We will produce an analytical brief that summarizes results of the surveys. Additional data was obtained from student work products collected through their coursework, including journals, comparative papers, and reviews of literature. Before engaging in international projects, faculty and students developed research questions to aid them in determining types of data to collect. These initial research questions along with the collected data, conclusion and recommendations for future action were collected in the form of end of course projects. Data collected on the challenges and success of the research projects will be summarized in the paper.

5

Results

Through internationalization process we discovered that action research relating to the integration of global and international connections into education served as the “missing link” many needed to see the bigger picture of teaching and service to humanity. Many faculty and students knew that something was missing in their education; they just could not identify what it was. That missing link was a commitment to something greater than oneself in education. Action research empowers teachers to let their students see the global connection, the spark that we are all united and responsible for each other. A preliminary look at the transcripts of the task force meetings and the journals shows several interesting issues. The first was agreeing to specific directions regarding internationalization, particularly given all else that is

82

chapter 10

imposed in teaching and learning. One educator lamented that increased standardization, and focus on benchmarks and testing allows little time for global connections in any curriculum. Faculty and students initially struggled with linking urban education issues with international or comparative education. All participants initially focused on their own narrow content and pedagogical agenda. Task force meetings and model courses that integrated an international focus provided support and encouragement for educators to allow for increased internationalization. A second ongoing issue was the varied ways in which we conceptualize research and which pieces of research practice are the most important. None of the undergraduate courses in the study are research based courses. One teacher educator struggled with “how far afield we should go from the goal of our courses, which does not include methodology.”Additionally, the students do not have experience with research methodology. Our team felt a great deal of pressure to teach methodology and create meaningful research projects but in an abbreviated, student friendly format. What constituted that abbreviated format was a focus of a great deal of discussion. In our initial discussions of the student created action research projects we failed to consider the implications for students who had negative experiences. A teacher educator noted, “those students who observed or taught with teachers which the students felt were poor examples had a great deal of difficulty completing the research and formulating an alternative in which the students had a high level of confidence.” Students are eager to get into the field and were disappointed by experiences which they view as nonlearning experiences. These “bad experiences” lead to discussions among team members over how much we can and should control the environments in which students’ research. For those students with positive experiences the action research project allowed them to take a systematic look at teaching practices. Many students considered the impacts of classroom management practices on the ability of teachers to engage students. Whether it was the lack of posting classroom rules, the cancelation of recess or breakfast service in the classroom to allow for extended instructional time, the student recognized that in order for students to be engaged in learn their basic needs must be met. In other instances, students critiqued questioning strategies and lesson plan formats for their ability to engage students and provide more in depth learning. Session participants will be provided with a more detailed analysis of the themes found within the teacher and student data.

Internationalizing Teacher Education

6

83

Significance

Increased globalization necessitates a more broad exploration of teacher education. Internationalizing teacher education through exchanges, research projects, courses, field experiences, and university partnerships can only enhance teacher education and facilitate global understanding and appreciation of multiple perspective beyond teacher education. In the ongoing discussion of what education will need to prepare educators and students for life in the 21st century, improved internationalization represents a framework for guiding that learning. Understanding the implications of these types of frameworks for educators at all levels is an important area of research. Additionally, in the continuing effort to build link global issues with current curriculum standards, action research should be situated as an integral practice of teaching. Action research modes of learning can benefit teachers at all levels as they pursue a reflective empowering examination of their practice. Through collaborative effort and a thoughtful dissection of one approach to integrating action research our paper advances the community and global aspect of education that are necessary for educators and students to become successful citizens of the world, and to pass those ideals along to their own students.

References Dan-xia, C. (2008). A social distance study of American participants in a China study program. US-China Education Review, 5(9), 17–22. Durham, M., & Kellner, D. (2005). Media and cultural studies. Malden, MA: Wiley, Blackwell. Elliott, J. (1991). Action research for educational change. Philadephia, PA: Open University Press. Freire, P. (2003). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: The Continuum International Publishing Group. Giroux, H. (2006). America on the edge. New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan. Herr, K., & Anderson, G. L. (2005). The action research dissertation: A guide for students and faculty. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. James, K. (2005). International education: The concept, and its relationship to intercultural education. Journal of Research in International Education, 4, 313–332. Johnston, M. (2006). The lamp and the mirror: Action research and self studies in the social studies. In K. C. Barton (Ed.), Research methods in social studies education:

84

chapter 10

Contemporary issues and perspectives (pp. 57–83). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing. Kincheloe, J. (2005). Getting beyond the facts. New York, NY: Peter Lang. LaBoskey, V. K. (2004). The methodology of self-study and its theorrectical underpinnings. In J. J. Loughran, M. L. Hamilton, V. L. LaBoskey, & T. Rusell (Eds.), International handbook of self-study of teaching and teacher education practices (pp. 817–870). Dordrecht: Kluwer. Loewen, J. (2007). Lies my teacher told me. New York, NY: Touchstone. Loughran, J. (2005). Researching teaching about teaching: Self-study of teacher education practices. Studying Teacher Education, 1(1), 5–16. McLaren, P. (2006). Life in schools. New York, NY: Allyn and Bacon. Ochoa-Becker, A. (2006). Democratic education for social studies. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. Ross, E. W. (2006). The social studies curriculum. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. Samaras, A. P., & Freese, A. R. (2006). Self-study of teaching practices. New York, NY: Pete Lang Publishing, Inc. Silberman-Keller, D., Bekerman, Z., Giroux, H. A., & Burbules, N. (Eds.). (2008). Mirror images. New York, NY: Peter Lang. Spring, J. (2003). American education. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Texas Education Agency and Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. (2009). Texas college and career readiness standards. Austin, TX: The State of Texas. Tripp, D. H. (1990). Socially critical action research. Theory into Practice, XXIX(3), 158–166. Wells, R. (2008). The global and multicultural: Opportunities, challenges, and suggestions for teacher education. Multicultural Perspectives, 10(3), 142–149.

CHAPTER 11

A US/Vietnam Case Study in Internationalizing 1

Introduction

It has been a year since my second visit to Vietnam (with another coming up soon). My initial visit was an investigation as to the possibility of an education partnership when four education professors went to Vietnam on an invitation from several Vietnamese universities regarding possible collaborations in teacher education. I was asked to go because of my international education and cultural studies interests. The experience was exciting and transformative in many ways. Having grown up during the Vietnam War and experiencing the aftermath as many of us did, I had definite ideas and illusions regarding Vietnam. Most were developed with the aid of media and popular culture – Vietnam is a closed society, Communist and anti-American. This really couldn’t be further from the truth. It took a trip to Vietnam to open my heart and mind. I have since spent about 17 days days in Vietnam, traveling to Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, and seeing great sites including Halong Bay and the Mekong River Delta. Many things stuck with me, the glorious food, the welcoming people, the throngs of motorbikes everywhere, the wonderful purchasing opportunities, the countryside. I spend most of each day in meetings with education and university officials – most days at least three different meetings. My real epiphany resulted in this experience – as my stereotypes regarding a closed and restrictive Vietnam were dispelled time and again. Vietnam is anxious to participate in the globalized world. According to Minh (2009), Vietnam is ripe for international collaborations as needs exist to better all levels of education and economic development. He goes on to say that Vietnam suffers from a variety of issues in sustaining international collaboration including funding, meeting global standards, competition, and development in technology and industry. Hong (2009) supports this assertion and adds that international projects are essential but should be balanced, included ongoing negotiation, and be comprehensive – and that teacher education is one area that can facilitate sustainability. Fry (2009) suggests that globalization has ushered in a new era of cross cultural possibilities – especially with regard to education. There is a move from nationalism to internationalism that will compel us to develop collaborative education projects. Altbach (2009) reiterates this need and encourages project © koninklijke brill nv, leideN, 2018 | DOI 10.1163/9789004364622_011

86

chapter 11

development among Vietnamese and other universities for what he calls soft power – humane interactions (often in the form of education collaboratives). Friedman has been suggesting these agreements for some years now as stated in The World is Flat (2007) and Hot, Flat and Crowded (2008).

2

Rationale

Internationalizing teacher education is vital for the world of the 21st century. The onslaught of neoliberalism, corporatization, standardization, testing, and the continuing attack on public education and educators in the guise of educational reform necessitates a local to global context in teacher education. Ongoing issues with equity and social justice tied to race, ethnicity, class, orientation, age, and ability linking to schooling, education, teaching and learning must be addressed. The struggle between unbridled capitalism and democracy warrant these investigations in the 21st century, hopefully leading to advocacy and activism and a transformation of teacher education. Empowering and emancipating educators and students requires a redesigning of teacher education to demonstrate a truly democratic way of life, to be consistent with the ideals of equity and social justice, to be informed by research that is “educative” (Zeichner, 2009). According to Goodman, Ullrich, and Nana (2012), a “triple consciousness’ based on Freire’s critical consciousness is much needed for equity and social justice in a teaching and learning context. We must model critical multicultural, social justice teacher education (culturally responsive pedagogy), work to transform perspectives of all education, society and its stakeholders, and engage in critical emancipatory research leading to advocacy and activism. We must continually challenge the corporatized, unequal, and essentialist framing of education. Education is both a political and ethical endeavor hoping to facilitate critically active teachers and students anxious to engage in the world. Linking the process to the community and the world provides the context we all need to understand and advocate for equity and social justice. A critical teacher education that investigates these hard issues locally and globally and facilitates international partnerships can only lead to empowering educators and students as change agents. Growing up today is very different than even a decade ago. Today the world truly is a smaller place and we really are part of a global neighborhood. People are instantaneously connected to international events through media, technology, trade, and global issues such as conflict, climate, and socioeconomics. Borders do not mean the same as they did just a few years ago.

A US/Vietnam Case Study in Internationalizing

87

A “globalized” world necessitates international connections, thus challenging traditional conceptions of nationalism, exceptionalism, and hegemony. This article investigates internationalizing of teacher education and suggests that we need to contextualize the issues and investigation of global connections better. The article also suggests there are threats to the public sphere and to emancipatory local to global connections thus requiring critical approaches to social, political, economic and education issues. Teaching and learning must include education for a global perspective so that students might also become responsible “active” citizens of the world (Tucker & Evans, 1996; Diaz, Massialas, & Xanthopoulos, 1999; Chapin, 2003). A critical component of education in general, and social education specifically, is to promote an understanding of diversity at home and abroad: “integrating global realities within an existing school curriculum meets the needs of an ever-changing, ethnically diverse, increasingly interdependent, international community” (Tucker & Evans, 1996). World citizenship requires a global/ international education. Global/international education efforts must begin with an attempt to understand globalization. Globalization can be defined as “the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa” (McLaren, 2001). In turn, critical research in social education attempts to challenge the unbridled neoliberal hegemony associated with globalization. Diaz, Massialas, and Xanthopoulos (1999) state that globalization: refers to the compression of the world and to the intensification of the consciousness of the world as a whole. This process is ongoing and all of us, young and old, Westerners and non-Westerners, are inescapably involved in it. The compression of the world is real. People witness it in their daily lives, in the foods they eat, in the TV programs they watch, in the cars they drive, in the dresses and costumes, in the people they choose to govern them, and so on. (pp. 37–38) Clearly, globalization is increasingly influential in most aspects of 21st century life. Therefore understanding it through global/international education is imperative. Teacher education must provide opportunities for prospective educators to “develop the appropriate skills to understand and enagage in the globalization process and to critically analyze its impact on their lives and the lives of people around them” (Diaz, Massialas, & Xanthopoulos, 1999, p. 38). Above all teachers need to know how to impact the global system as world citizens and as advocates of a well-grounded position or point of view. This

88

chapter 11

suggests that teachers must acquire both a new knowledge base and a skill set that link to global/international issues. At its core, global education is really about analyzing the links between cultures and people (Chapin, 2003); it must be better integrated in all classrooms, and thus critically researched as well. Rethinking teaching and learning in these ways could provide the opportunity to deepen our understanding and appreciation of others in the world, something essential to our roles and responsibilities as global citizens. Given the global interconnectedness of the world today, the global context must be present. According to Merryfield (2001), teachers and students must develop a global perspective that will emphasize cross-cultural experiential learning and stress commonalities in cultures that transcend diversity. A variety of global/international efforts such as study abroad, international partnerships, Fulbright-like experiences, exchanges, international travel, research, and service all can open up numerous possibilities for individual and groups interested. These efforts take much research, planning, sharing, negotiation, and face-to-face discussion, in addition to specific global experiences. Fortunately numerous organizations exist to facilitate such practice – from International offices at universities, to embassies and consulates, to corporations, individual students, and previous model in the literature. Regardless, passionate and rive needs to occur in schools, universities, NGOs and governments to continue these endeavors. Issues of funding, support, cultural differences, agenda, and the issues of teaching, research, and service must all be taken into account. Fortunately, increased and improved research on internationalizing is being undertaken at many levels of education. These approaches highlight the need to cultivate knowledge, skills, and dispositions for global and civic awareness and responsibility (Loewen, 2007; Ochoa-Becker, 2006; Ross, 2006). Additionally, to be engaged, global citizens, students need exposure to multiple literacies and diverse perspectives (Durham & Kellner, 2005; Giroux, 2006; Silberman-Keller, 2008).

3

The Background

International education used to be a strong suit in our college of education. We have had international teacher education projects with Indonesia and Malaysia as a college and individual faculty have also experienced a variety of international projects in recent years. Unfortunately, differing agendas, the corporatization of the university, a challenge to the original mission of the

A US/Vietnam Case Study in Internationalizing

89

college and university, a strange conception of scholarship, teaching, and service and a narrow focus regarding the idea of teacher education have all contributed to a move away from international connections. Fortunately, despite the seeming contradictions in all of this, international opportunities make themselves readily available and the university seems poised again to stress international projects. A grant proposal initiated by IT faculty served as the impetus for this endeavor. Ultimately, the department chair, international education office on campus as well as a Vietnamese faculty member from as system campus supported the project; and we began preparing. We also met with the dean who stated that he supported the project as long as we could connect the project to our research. I have found that direct connections in international projects can only help to facilitate possibilities – without the direct assistance and Vietnamese connections form our Vietnamese colleague the project would never have gotten off the ground. A Vietnamese graduate student also assisted with translations and much more both here and abroad. We met a few times prior to the trip to plan for the meetings. The general focus was to develop teacher education partnerships offering a 1 + 1 masters program through the university. Prospective students would take half of their masters program at Vietnamese universities and half of their program in residence in the US at our university. The courses offered in Vietnam would be developed by our faculty but taught by Vietnamese faculty. A masters degree in curriculum and instruction focusing on a variety of specializations would be the end result. This would also open up a variety of other possibilities including short term training projects, online support, and a variety of grant and research opportunities in international education.

4

The Initial Journey

I am reminded by our Vietnamese assistants that protocol is very important in Vietnam, especially regarding initial meetings proposing collaborative projects. An exchange of business cards and introductions come first. Each group shared the reason for the meeting, then needs and interests. Following the initial information gathering, questions were addressed by both sides. The conversations started very formally but each meeting became informal as it progressed. Often stories related to conversation topics, children, teaching, or teacher education would be shared. Notes were taken for future debriefing and planning. Following each meeting gifts were shared and pictures taken.

90

chapter 11

While we went with no assurances, we left Vietnam with each meeting proving to be valuable and offering possibilities for future projects. Our primary reason for visiting Hanoi was to make contact with the Vietnam National University (VNU) branch there. Themes emerging from the Hanoi visit indicated a need for masters programs that offered general curriculum and instruction, 2nd language learning/ESL, and teaching English. Questions dealt with syllabi and listing of specific courses for the masters, how courses would be offered, and tuition and other cost issues. A key focus emerging form this meeting is the desire for U.S experiences with internships, school placements, and other links to the local community. Our debriefing resulted in planning to develop a proposal or memo of understanding to offer a program for the Hanoi branch of VNU. The program would be patterned after the initial 1 + 1 proposal discussed earlier, with more creative course offerings including online, hybrid, and linked courses. We had meetings at six different universities in Ho Chi Minh City, culminating in our participation in the International Cooperation for Higher Education in Vietnam Conference. Again, each of these meetings focused on discussing possible teacher education collaborative projects. Meetings were held with officials at Open University, UEF, VNU International, Hua Sen, HUFLIT, and VNU Social Science and Humanities. Of all the universities visited, perhaps Open University has the greatest need as they are only able to service a small percentage of students interested in education. The original proposal morphed somewhat at Open University with their need for undergraduate and graduate teacher education. Possible projects resulting from our conversations include introductory education courses, methods courses, and placements in schools for undergraduates. TESOL is the primary graduate interest at Open University with a 1 + 1 project the ideal. Other possibilities include developing intensive professional development sessions on themes in curriculum and instruction for university faculty and for in-service teachers in Vietnam. They are also interested in talking more about short term student and faculty exchanges. UEF is interested in a number of teacher education projects with content focused on TESOL/second language learning, English teaching, social sciences, and global/international education. This conversation focused on the process for getting such projects approved by the government – that it can take a minimum of 1–2 years for a new masters degree to go through the process. A pilot program was suggested that offers 1–2 intensive courses on educational foundations, English methods or IT. The idea is for our university faculty to develop the pilot courses and actually travel to Vietnam to offer them as intensive courses with the idea that this would develop into a fully fledged

A US/Vietnam Case Study in Internationalizing

91

teacher education masters degree whereby Vietnamese students would transfer to the US after completing ¼ to ½ of the program in Vietnam. VNU International is in the process of subsuming VNU School of Education and is also interested in developing a collaborative masters of education degree. Initially the plans might call for faculty development projects to train Vietnamese education faculty in expectations tied to graduate degrees in the US. Capacity building in English and teaching English are also needed. Short term projects include courses in IT and pedagogy with longer term agreements focusing on the 1 + 1 or traditional masters of education programs. The initial plan also calls for a cohort of approximately 20 students who will begin the masters program. Hua Sen University is a private school also interested in a number of projects. This conversation also focused on educating us as to the Vietnamese educational system, particularly at the higher education level. Entrance exams are required and colleges offer 3 year Bachelor degrees and universities offer more traditional 4 year Bachelor degrees. This university was perhaps the most interested in IT and seemed much more aware of the possibilities regarding IT and teacher education. Content of interest include language and culture, general curriculum and instruction, global/international education, and science and technology. They are interested in ongoing teacher education consultation in IT, program development, transitioning to a masters degree, and general curriculum and instruction. Intensive summer programs might be a start with a 1 + 1 program developed a bit later. HUFLIT is a small private university interested in undergraduate teacher education particularly in the areas of general curriculum and instruction, history education, global/international education, IT, and English. A particular area of interest is to offer masters and doctoral degrees for faculty – perhaps by developing a cohort agreement with multiple Vietnamese institutions. Once again, the masters students would spend the first year in Vietnam completing courses developed in the US, then either transfer to the US the entire second year or take online classes one semester the second year and come to the US their last semester. A variety of workshops, short term seminars and faculty exchanges were are proposed.

5

The Conference

We were offered a great opportunity to submit proposals and present at the International Cooperation for Higher Education Conference in Vietnam in conjunction with our initial mission. The one day conference consisted of a

92

chapter 11

variety of presentations on themes such as globalization, internationalization, cooperation, cross border/cross cultural issues, case studies, and issues in collaboration – all focusing on higher education in Vietnam. Papers were presented with translation through ear phones as needed with questions posed at the end of each short presentation. While teacher education was not the primary focus, it came up time and again as a central issue in addressing globalization and international education issues. Presenters stated time and again that international cooperation in higher education can help address global issues such as gaps between developing and developed nations, brain drain in developing nations, soft vs. hard aid, unbridled capitalism at the expense of democratic movements, and access to basic needs. Obviously, concerns were raised regarding maintaining self identity and development as a nation given international interests coming from the US, China, India, Australia, and others. “Americanization” was raised as a particular issue given the influence of our economy and political system in the world. Even international organizations such as the World Trade Organization were questioned as arms of American influence. Despite the critique regarding “Americanization” and internationalization/ globalization, the realization seemed to be that if Vietnam wants to continue to play and develop on the world stage then opening up to competition, commercialism, and consumerism in a balanced way may be necessary. Higher education and teacher education in Vietnam need input from abroad and sustainable development is seen as one major goal from these global collaborations. It is interesting to note that given increased corporatization of higher education in the US through business model integration and implementation of business terminology, that Vietnam seems to be adapting to the language and model as well. This seems quite strange given the centralization of the political and economic system. Regardless, much like China, there seems to be a “liberalization” (at least regarding the market) in business and education. It is nevertheless encouraging that Vietnamese scholars are serving as critics of the impact of globalization on Vietnam, especially in reference to education. .

6

The Plan

The hope is that this opportunity is the restarting of a long tradition of international teacher education projects much like previous experience with

A US/Vietnam Case Study in Internationalizing

93

Indonesia and Malaysia. As a result of the energy and excitement of these initial plans and proposals, we are also discussing ideas and proposals for a Center for International Teacher Education and Technology. In addition, further interest has been expressed by a Asia Education Collaborative that will expand such projects into countries such as China and Taiwan. The project outlines our generic masters in Curriculum and Instruction degree with five choices in specializations. The 1 + 1 plan calls for 6 courses offered in Vietnam and 6 courses to be offered at the University of Houston. All courses are developed by university faculty with training and support provided to Vietnamese faculty teaching the first 6 courses. The program, which is built upon major strengths in each institution, is designed to prepare teachers and other educators to meet the special demands of individuals working in educational, health, cultural, information technology, and other human service settings. The joint Master’s Degree consists of twelve graduate courses, including three College of Education core courses, six courses in a specific program area, and three electives. The proposed Master’s Degree is distinctive since half of the program (6 courses) will be offered in Vietnam and half of the program (6 courses) will be offered in the United States on the campus of the University of Houston. Students may choose to apply for admission to the university during the spring of the first year, and if accepted, will come to the US to complete the second year of coursework in the College of Education. Upon completion of the coursework, a comprehensive exam, and a digital portfolio, students will earn a Master’s of Education Degree with an emphasis in one of the five program areas in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction. Students in this program complete the first half of the program (six courses) at the Vietnam University. For the second year of study, students may select one course of study from five programs in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction: (1) Teaching English as a Second Language, (2) Social/Cultural Education, (3) Educational Leadership, (4) Instructional Technology, and (5) Literacy Education. The program will be reviewed every 3 years. This review will include analysis of number of applications, quality of applicants, number of students enrolled, number of graduates, learning outcomes, and placement of graduates. The first phase of the degree includes six courses offered on site in Vietnam, during Year 1 of the program. Three courses are offered in the fall semester of the first year, and three courses will be offered in the spring semester of the first year. All of these courses include an emphasis on reading, writing and presenting in English. Student admissions criteria are the same as any student

94

chapter 11

applying for the masters program including a minimum GPA requirement, GRE, bachelors degree, and English proficiency. For each course taught in Vietnam, faculty members should be proficient in English and have a doctorate in English or a related field for the reading intensive courses and technology proficiency for the technical courses. UH is responsible for ensuring that all faculty teaching in the Program meet the academic standards established by the accrediting agency, the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools as well as the National Council for the Accreditation of Colleges of Education (NCATE). Professional education faculty teaching in this program have earned doctorates or exceptional expertise, have contemporary professional experiences in school settings at the levels that they supervise, and are meaningfully engaged in related scholarship. Three of the courses taught in the Vietnam Phase are technical and the other three emphasize reading, writing and presentation (RWP). During the first semester, students will take two technical courses and one RWP course to ease them in the RWP environment. During the second semester, students will take one technical course and two RWP courses. Courses will be designed by university faculty and taught by qualified faculty members in Vietnam and include the following: Principles of Human Learning; Instructional Evaluation; Curriculum Development; Instructional Design; Design of Online Educational Resources I; and Global Education: Issues in Cross-Cultural Understandings. The last six courses will follow the same schedule as the first year, with three courses offered in the fall semester of the second year and three more courses offered the spring semester of the second year. Students in the joint program are enrolled in courses on the campus with other graduate students in the College of Education. They also have all of the benefits and privileges of regular full-time graduate students.

7

The Results

Initial steps involved finalizing all the necessary forms and materials and meeting at least one more time with the university Vietnam liaison and international education staff to hammer out specifics. The Vietnam liaison traveled to Vietnam and met with prospective partners to discuss the proposal with the intention to return with either signed agreements of adaptations to the proposal to negotiate. There were tentative plans for some faculty to return to Vietnam in the next few months to continue discussions, market the plan,

A US/Vietnam Case Study in Internationalizing

95

and offer short-term professional development workshops to interested parties. The goal was to start the project one year from the signing of the agreements. As a result of the excitement brewing regarding the Vietnam project an International Education Task Force has been established in the department to coordinate this project and investigate other possibilities. Initially the task force will assist in coordinating current international projects. These projects include Global Classrooms: Model United Nations, China study abroad, China 1 + 1 program, and Latin Americanizing the curriculum through course development and study abroad. Teacher education programs must internationalize as our society and students are already there. Global perspectives are needed to ensure that teachers provide the context and connections to societal and global issues as they arise, rather than ignoring or dismissing them. Delgado and Norman (2008) suggest that such approaches will only assist prospective teachers achieve voice and act as collaborative agents of change for the world. The initial trip proved quit fruitful with a partnership developing with Ho Chi Minh City University of Education to offer the 1 + 1 MEd program. We are now in our second cohort of 8 students (16 total thus far), which many more “in the pipeline.” The second Vietnam experience was to assess the program, continue planning and tweaking, and provide professional development for Vietnamese counterparts. An annual visit is in the contract with future possibilities including student and faculty exchanges, other program development, Vietnamese visiting professors, study abroad projects, and various research projects. The third visit is forthcoming and will entail similar activities with additional meeting at other universities.

8

Conclusions

We live in a world made up of many texts; it is essential that students and educators develop multiple literacies that will facilitate the reading of signs, symbols, and images (texts) of that world. We must develop the critical capacity for “new operational and cultural ‘knowledge’ in order to acquire a global perspective that provides access to new forms of work, civic and private practices in their everyday lives” (Lankshear & Knoble, 2003). Our educational approaches could be the place to enable the critical investigation of meaningful knowledge and issues, debates regarding globalization, and relevant problem-based global education that can provide the context for developing the skills engage in active transformation for social justice. “Reading the world” through context and relevant connections provides the opportunity

96

chapter 11

to apply knowledge and develop skills in critical ways, as Kincheloe (2005) recommends. Responsible global citizenship requires knowledge of “others” in the world, whoever they might be. It also requires the skills to understand and act in the best interest of the majority of the people. The knowledge base should include an understanding of who the other people in the world are, what they do, and where they are. The skill set should include inquiry and critical literacy/thinking skills, leading to activism. Increased globalization not only presents many challenges to the economy, society, politics and culture, but also has important implications for education, and the institution of education has the responsibility for addressing these issues. However, there is an increasing concern that educational systems throughout the world are not adequately preparing students for understanding of the world’s cultures, economies and political relationships (Asia Society, 2001). Educators and students should develop the habit of thinking of global ramifications: Is this in the common good? Will this protect the rights of all people (Merryfield & Wilson, 2005)? To create a positive atmosphere, in which students are encouraged to participate in global discourse and engage in global issues in today’s multicultural society, educators need to, first of all, develop multiple perspectives and understand the experiences and points of view of people different from themselves. Meaningful international education projects can help educators achieve that (Wells, 2008). As James (2005) suggested, internationalizing education can develop a sense of interconnectedness, empathy and tolerance, which are much needed in today’s world. However, though there have been some initiatives of internationalizing teacher education exemplified by the institutions, such as Ohio State University and Stanford University (Roberts, 2007), the undertaking is yet to be given due credits, as it deserves nationwide.

References Apple, M. (1990). Ideology and curriculum. New York, NY: Routledge. Altbach, P. (2009). Knowledge and education as international commodities. In B. V. Hop (Ed.), The opportunities and challenges: International cooperation for higher education (pp. 619–630). Ho Chi Minh City: HCMC University of Pedagogy. Asia Society. (2001). Asia in the schools: Preparing young Americans for today’s interconnected world: A report of the national commission on Asia in the schools. New York, NY: Asia Society, Education Division. Chapin, J. (2003). A practical guide to secondary social studies. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

A US/Vietnam Case Study in Internationalizing

97

Connelly, F. M., & Clandinin, D. J. (1990). Stories of experience and narrative inquiry. Educational Researcher, 19(5), 2–14. Dan-xia, C. (2008). A social distance study of American participants in a China study program. US-China Education Review, 5(9), 17–22. Delgado, R., & Norman, P. (2008). Globalization in the face of standardization. Teacher Education and Practice, 21, 461–463. Diaz, C., Massialas, B., & Xanthopoulos, J. (1999). Global perspectives for educators. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Durham, M., & Kellner, D. (2005). Media and cultural studies. Malden, MA: Wiley, Blackwell. Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: Herder and Herder. Friedman, T. (2007). The world is flat. New York, NY: Picador. Friedman, T. (2008). Hot, flat, and crowded. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fry, G. (2009). The future of comparative education. In B. V. Hop (Ed.), The opportunities and challenges: International cooperation for higher education (pp. 574–607). Ho Chi Minh City: HCMC University of Pedagogy. Gay, G. (2010). Culturally responsive teaching. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Giroux, H. (2004). Public pedagogy and the politics of neoliberalism. Policy Futures in Education, 2(3–4), 494–503. Giroux, H. (2006). America on the edge. New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan. Goodman, G., Ullrich, W., & Nana, P. (2012). Action research for critical classroom and community change. In S. Steinberg & G. Cannella (Eds.), Critical qualitative research reader. New York, NY: Peter Lang. Herr, K., & Anderson, G. L. (2005). The action research dissertation: A guide for students and faculty. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Hickey, A. (2012). The critical aesthetic. In S. Steinberg & G. Cannella (Eds.), Critical qualitative research reader. New York, NY: Peter Lang. Hong, N. (2009). International collaboration programs. In B. V. Hop (Ed.), The opportunities and challenges: International cooperation for higher education (pp. 405–422). Ho Chi Minh City: HCMC University of Pedagogy. hooks, b. (1994). Teaching to transgress. New York, NY: Routledge. James, K. (2005). International education: The concept, and its relationship to intercultural education. Journal of Research in International Education, 4, 313–332. Johnston, M. (2006). The lamp and the mirror: Action research and self studies in the social studies. In K. C. Barton (Ed.), Research methods in social studies education: Contemporary issues and perspectives (pp. 57–83). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing. Kincheloe, J. (2005). Getting beyond the facts. New York, NY: Peter Lang. Kincheloe, J. (2005). On to the next level: Continuing the conceptualization of the bricolage. Qualitative Inquiry, 11, 323–350.

98

chapter 11

Kincheloe, J. L. (2008). Critical pedagogy. New York, NY: Peter Lang. Kincheloe, J., McLaren, P., & Steinberg, S. (2012). Critical pedagogy and qualitative research. In S. Steinberg & G. Cannella (Eds.), Critical qualitative research reader (pp. 14–32). New York, NY: Peter Lang. LaBoskey, V. K. (2004). The methodology of self-study and its theorrectical underpinnings. In J. J. Loughran, M. L. Hamilton, V. L. LaBoskey, & T. Rusell (Eds.), International handbook of self-study of teaching and teacher education practices (pp. 817–870). Dordrecht: Kluwer. Loewen, J. (2007). Lies my teacher told me. New York, NY: Touchstone. Loughran, J. (2005). Researching teaching about teaching: Self-study of teacher education practices. Studying Teacher Education, 1(1), 5–16. McLaren, P. (2006). Life in schools. New York, NY: Allyn and Bacon. Merryfield, M. (2008). Scaffolding social studies for global awareness. Social Education, 72(7), 363–367. Merryfield, M. M., & Wilson, A. (2005). Social studies and the world. Silver Spring, MD: National Council for the Social Studies. Minh, L. (2009) . International collaborations in university education. In B. V. Hop (Ed.), The opportunities and challenges: International cooperation for higher education (pp. 181–190). Ho Chi Minh City: HCMC University of Pedagogy. Ochoa-Becker, A. (2006). Democratic education for social studies. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. Roberts, A. (2007). Global dimensions of schooling: Implications for internationalizing teacher education. Teacher Education Quarterly, 34(1), 9–26. Ross, E. W. (2006). The social studies curriculum. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. Samaras, A. P., & Freese, A. R. (2006). Self-study of teaching practices. New York, NY: Pete Lang Publishing, Inc. Silberman–Keller, D., Bekerman, Z., Giroux, H. A., & Burbules, N. (Eds.). (2008). Mirror images. New York, NY: Peter Lang. Spring, J. (2003). American education. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Steinberg, S. (2011). Critical cultural studies research. In K. Tobin & J. Kincheloe (Eds.), Doing educational research. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers. Steinberg, S., & Cannella, G. (Eds.). (2012). Critical qualitative research reader. New York, NY: Peter Lang. Tucker, J., & Evans, A. (1996). The challenge of a global age. In B. Massialas & R. Allen (Eds.), Crucial issues in teaching social studies K-12 (pp. 181–218). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing. Wells, R. (2008). The global and multicultural: Opportunities, challenges, and suggestions for teacher education. Multicultural Perspectives, 10(3), 142–149. White, C., Marsh, S., Mulholland, A., & Thomas, D. (2008). Rethinking the learning of “culture”: A Chinese inquiry. US-China Education Review, 5(5), 27–31.

A US/Vietnam Case Study in Internationalizing

99

White, C., & Walker, T. (2008). Tooning in: Essays on popular culture and education. New York, NY: Rowan and Littlefield. Zeichner, K. (2009). Teacher education and the struggle for social justice. New York, NY: Routledge. Zinn, H. (2005). A people’s history of the United States. New York, NY: Harper Classics.

CHAPTER 12

A China Narrative for Internationalizing Education 1

Introduction

Increased globalization not only presents many challenges to the economy, society, politics, and culture, but also has important implications for education, and the institution of education has the responsibility for addressing these “globalized” issues. However, there is an increasing concern that educational systems throughout the world are not adequately preparing students for understanding of the world’s cultures, economies, and political relationships (Asia Society, 2001). Educators and students should develop the habit of thinking of global ramifications: Is this in the common good? Will this protect the rights of all people (Merryfield & Wilson, 2005)? To create a positive atmosphere in which students are encouraged to participate in global discourse, and engage in global issues in today’s multicultural society, educators, need to, first of all, develop multiple perspectives and understand the experiences and points of view of people different from themselves. Meaningful international education projects can help educators achieve that (Wells, 2008). As James (2005) suggested, internationalizing education can develop a sense of interconnectedness, empathy, and tolerance, which are much needed in today’s world. However, though there have been some initiatives of internationalizing teacher education exemplified by the institutions such as Ohio State University and Stanford University (Roberts, 2007), the undertaking is yet to be given due credits as it deserves nationwide. This chapter will focus on the strides our Department of Curriculum and Instruction at University of Houston has taken in internationalizing education. “Humans are storytelling organisms who, individually and socially, lead storied lives. The study of narrative, therefore, is the study of the ways humans experience the world” (Connelly & Clandinin, 1990, p. 2). The fundamental idea of narrative inquiry into education is that education is life and experience as well. Therefore, education and educational research are the construction and reconstruction of personal and social stories of teachers, learners and researchers themselves. Accordingly, the responsibility of narrative researchers of education is to tell their stories, or render their experiences in meaningful ways. Adopting the narrative as a method of inquiry, this article shares storied experiences of Department of Curriculum and Instruction, University of © koninklijke brill nv, leiden, 2018 | doi 10.1163/9789004364622_012

A China Narrative for Internationalizing Education

101

Houston, as well as the two authors in internationalizing education through China experiences.

2

Internationalizing Education through China

The original effort can be traced back to 1995 when the Asian American Studies Center was founded in University of Houston with the dedication to strengthening bonds with Asian/Asian American communities as well as facilitating the studies of Asian Americans. The center offers courses on multicultural issues in education, Chinese culture, economy, and society at both undergraduate and graduate level, and opens up the windows of interacting with Asian countries, especially China. Additionally, it coordinates the “China Study Abroad Program” which provides students with a trip of two to four weeks to China to learn about Chinese culture and society in a variety of forms. Students are eligible for 3–6 credit hours for this study. While the Asian American Studies Center continued its China focus the Department of Curriculum and Instruction went other directions, mostly in Asia and then after a few years only individual faculty engaged in international projects. Many of these projects did focus on Asia, but none on China. This changed in 2007 when the social education program initiated global and international education courses and linked to the China abroad program for a month-long trip to China. The goals of the China experience included internationalizing the social education program area and eventually the department, facilitating possible future collaborations in China, and applying the experience toward our teaching and scholarship. The month-long China experience involved traditional tourist activities, visits to universities and schools, and the integration of Chinese culture and comparative education through two courses. The majority of the experience took place in Beijing, Xi’an, and Shanghai. Participants were able to interact with students and professors at a University in Beijing during much of the experience. The length of the experience helped facilitate better understanding of Chinese education and culture and possible future endeavors lining our university with China. Specific themes and issues emerged allowing for further critical investigation. After the on-site study in China and critical inquiry and reflection, White, Marsh, Mulholland, and Thomas (2008), all social studies educators, began to question the traditional approaches to cultural studies by raising the question “how should culture be taught and subsequently learned” (p. 27). The everyday occurrences, some of which, though, may be beyond their comfort

102

chapter 12

zone, had the potential to revolutionize their beliefs and ways of being. Based upon the self-examination of their own biases and misunderstandings of culture, they called for a new mode of teaching and learning cultural studies that deconstruct “the historical layers of structural bias and self-serving functionality” (p. 31). Three years later, in the summer of 2010, another cohort of educators embarked on the trip to China. They are students and faculty from the new executive EdD program of our college of education. The new EdD (Executive Education Doctorate) program was launched in 2009 which encompasses a two year (51 hour) cohort program where students investigate urban school issues in a lab of practice leading to their dissertation. Most of the students in this program are educational leaders in K-12 or aspiring to take leadership positions in future, and among them a considerable number are principles or assistant principles. This program was designed to provide intensive but tailored learning experience that qualified applicants may complete in as little as two years given their tight work schedules. On the one hand, these students bring their expertise from working in schools to the classroom; on the other hand, they will apply what they have learned from this program to their schools and communities. In response to the growing impact of global challenges on educational leaders, the program offers an international trip to allow students an opportunity to obtain a first-hand experience of diverse educational systems and cultures. China was chosen for the first international focus due to the current college projects in China and to the current globalization focus on China. During the 15-day trip in China, the program students and faculty traveled to three major cities of China—Beijing, Shanghai, and Xi’an, visited four universities and one middle school, attended a series of lectures on China’s educational system, teacher education and professional development, and exchanged with faculty and students there. Besides, an “Issues in Urban and Comparative Education” course is required linking local to global education ideas and issues, and giving instruction and guidance to students before, during, and after the trip. The course took on new dimensions through the integrated use of technology. Communication was facilitated through a course website on Moodle, a university sponsored electronic data system. At the outset of the course, the instructor communicated and posted all the related themes, assignments, journal articles, and YouTube videos on Moodle. Students reflected and replied to each other’s postings extensively on regular basis prior to the China experience and for the week following the China experience. The assigned readings and introductory online discussion served as a theoretical and intellectual preparation for the China experience. During the stay in China, students kept a daily reflective

A China Narrative for Internationalizing Education

103

journal focusing on the social, cultural, and educational issues of China and US. Plus, an informal debriefing session was held at the end of the day, allowing them an opportunity to revisit the themes that emerged in the pre-departure preparation, and capture the things that might otherwise have gone unnoticed. The final synthesis project after the trip helped them establish a holistic and profound understanding of their new learning and experience, and in the culminating presentation attended by all the students and EdD program faculty, they presented and shared how this cross-cultural experience impacted not only their philosophies and practices as educational leaders, but also their doctoral research and personal life. 2.1 Analysis We made individual and group interviews with the EdD students, and examined documents, field notes, interview transcripts, student journals, online discussion postings, and other course projects including review of literature and comparative paper. They were also invited to complete preand post-course surveys tied to the China experience. These surveys assessed participants’ understandings of culture, global connections, diversity, and changes in these perceptions. In order to take advantage of the diverse backgrounds of our students, we emphasize the rich qualitative data that emerge from the surveys. All in all, China’s experience has affected the students personally and professionally, which is echoed repeatedly in the conversations and interviews with them, their journals, online discussions, papers, and final presentation. Personally, they have become willing or more willing to critically look at the stereotypes previously hidden in their minds, or preconceived notions prevalent in the media; they have learned to recognize and appreciate differences, abandon the search for one correct answer, and become more open to and receptive to different perspectives; they have learned to seek out and evaluate information from diverse sources and approach new information with an open mind. Professionally, the two-week immersion into cross-cultural context has not only helped the students learn the society, culture, and education of China, but also provided them with an opportunity to reflect upon social, cultural, and educational issues in America. Most of them have gained a deeper awareness that they can impact the world and national issues beyond immediate surroundings through their work with school administration. With a refined understanding of international education and global issues, many of them have expressed their desire to share their new learning and experience with their staff, teachers, students, and community at large.

104

chapter 12

Though the course and China experience have proved rewarding in internationalizing educational leadership, we are well aware that there’s a long way to go towards more positive and visible progress. For some of these in-service school administrators, the former assumptions and stereotypes are too deeply embedded to uproot overnight. Simply opening one or two courses or having a brief stay in another country doesn’t necessarily lead to the internationalization of educational leadership, neither is it an all-heal recipe for global ignorance, misconceptions, and prejudices. It is but one possibility to prepare school administrators to become more globally competent educational leaders. What is more vital is that internationalizing educational leadership should be embedded throughout the program as a fundamental guideline rather than seen as peripheral, and it should be integrated naturally with all the subject matter across the disciplines, instead of being presented only as a single course. Our next-step plan includes (a) working more on the student survey to produce an analytical brief that summarizes the results, (b) following up with future research concerning how these educational leaders are to apply their new knowledge and experience to their schools, and how effective this crosscultural experience will be in bringing about impact on their school climate and curriculum, (c) continuing to report on the success as well as challenges in internationalizing the EdD program, (d) disseminating the experience throughout the whole program, and (e) constantly being prepared for the curriculum innovation to keep pace with the latest global demand on education.

3

Other Endeavors

During the stay in China, we, as the director and research assistant of “Internationalizing Education Task Force” of the department bore another mission: establishing partnerships with Chinese universities and negotiating potential collaboration possibilities. Drawing upon the existing proposal of “Joint Master’s of Education Degree” of Department of Curriculum and Instruction directed to Vietnamese universities, we worked out a proposal targeted at Chinese universities. It consists of 12 graduate courses, including three college core courses, six courses in a specific program area (five program areas available for students to choose from), and three electives. It is a oneplus-one program by offering half of the courses in China and the other half in the University of Houston in the United States. We believe that this joint degree program, built upon the major strengths in each institution, will be mutually beneficial: As a result of the project the prospective educators from

A China Narrative for Internationalizing Education

105

China will develop a better understanding of American education, culture, and society, and the American peers and faculty can broader their eyes through the new learning and teaching experiences, and see things through a broader perspective coming from their Chinese counterparts. Our meetings with Chinese universities turned out very successful: Common interests were found not only in the prospects of the proposed degree program, but also in wider collaboration in terms of student and faculty exchanges. The next steps include follow-up letters to the three interested universities in China outlining our understanding of their needs based on our initial conversations. We will then await responses and plan for more detailed proposals, memos of understanding and future travel to China to complete the agreements. Other related projects include applying for Fulbright Project in the hope of opening a door for more educators in the local communities to experience a different educational system, culture, language, and society firsthand.

4

Authors’ Narratives

4.1 Liping’s Narrative As a student from China, as my days of living and studying in the US go on, I become increasingly aware of the lack of understanding between people in America and China. In America, though there is some talk about China in history books, the academia, or the media accessible to the public, it is not sufficient for people to develop a relatively objective and comprehensive understanding about China. Regrettably, this ancient Oriental nation still remains foreign even mysterious to a lot of American people, though it has been embracing the outside world for decades since the reform and openingup policy in the late 1970s. Likewise, Chinese people lack in understanding about America. Take me as an example, as a former English teacher, I perceived myself better prepared for the life and study in the US than average Chinese people, but challenges were still falling upon from various aspects, communication, social and cultural norms, mode of thinking, way of acting, etc., all I hadn’t expected before. I have deeply realized: Though China has witnessed an unprecedented enthusiasm toward learning English nationwide and the growing popularity of celebrating western festivals like Valentine’s Day and Christmas among its young generation, people’s genuine understanding about America still falls short. The fever of Mc Donald’s, KFC, and Pizza Hut in China doesn’t make Chinese people any closer to American people and their life in real sense.

106

chapter 12

As a doctoral student of education in an American university who was born, grew up in China, received education primarily in China, taught in a university in China for three years previously, I felt a strong sense of mission that I need to, and should be able to do something to help shorten the gap of ignorance and misunderstanding between the two peoples. It was this sense of mission that impelled me to ponder over and seek what role my former learning, teaching and living experience in China can play in helping me fulfill this mission. Opportunities finally came when the course “Issues in Urban and Comparative Education” was opened with China experience as an integral part, and when “Internationalizing Education Task Force” was initiated with China as one of the focuses. As a Chinese student, it was incumbent on me to assist to my best ability. For the course and China experience, I generally served as a Chinese education expert introducing about China’s history, society and culture apart from education, and answering students’ specific questions and confusion. For “Internationalizing Education Task Force”, I helped formulate the proposal, seek potential partnership, and facilitate the meetings. Currently, I’m coordinating the follow-up work to get it moved along the plan step by step. I was glad that by virtue of my own knowledge, learning and teaching experience, and network as a former educator from China, I could function as a bridge, promoting the understanding and interaction between educators in both America and China, and doing my little bit in helping educators of the both countries become more globally competent. An individual’s influence is limited. Much remains to be done toward enhanced understanding and collaboration between the two countries, not only in educational field, but also in the variety of other domains, and this cannot be achieved by one or two individuals within a short time. It’s heartening to note that numerous people of vision in China and America have been striving for the common goal at each other’s position in each other’s area. As a former as well as a prospective educator in the cross-cultural sphere between the US and China, I’m looking forward to putting forth more efforts and embracing more promising collaboration prospects between educators of the two countries. 4.2 Cameron’s Narrative As an educator for over 30 years focusing on global and international education, my teaching and travel helped prepare for the China experiences. Numerous international education experiences in Asia including grants, consulting, research projects, and teaching all enabled me to grow as an international educator. When the opportunity arose to reinvigorate the international education focus in our Department of Curriculum and Instruction I jumped at the chance.

A China Narrative for Internationalizing Education

107

Previous experiences laid the foundational groundwork, thus global and international courses were developed, other courses were internationalized, better partnerships were developed with the Asian American Studies Program; and finally the initial experience to China was undertaken. This experience fostered further internationalizing education planning. While projects were undertaken in countries such as Vietnam and Qatar, China remained a focus. Fortunately negotiations with our new Executive EdD in Educational Leadership Program led to the development of a course entitled “Issues in Urban and Comparative Education”. This course is intended to link urban education issues in the US with international education issues culminating in an experience in China. Summer 2010 found approximately 40 EdD students traveling to China as part of their EdD course requirements. I have struggled since becoming an educator many years ago to better integrate a global and cross-cultural focus not only in teaching and learning, but also for general societal focus. As a social studies teacher I continue to question blind patriotism and nationalism that often leads to an attitude of exceptionalism, distrust, and an us vs. them mentality. No matter what social studies content I teach, or what social studies teacher education content I address, a primary theme is always to integrate a global, cross-cultural, or international approach. Methods have included using current events, an issues-based approach, comparing themes and ideas across boundaries, and debates where multiple cross-cultural approaches are assumed. Allowing for case studies, small group investigations, student centered approaches, and higher level activities such as problem-based learning have helped internationalize the curriculum. In addition, various education-related experiences abroad have enhanced the possibilities. Technology (particularly the internet) has truly made the world closer and is applied as a most valuable resource. Regardless, truly experiencing the world through travel is the best way to internationalize one’s mind. I have been very lucky to travel to a number of places around the world with two trips to China among the most recent. The first trip was enlightening in a number of ways and enabled other possibilities to emerge including a second trip with large numbers of graduate students and meetings with various Chinese universities for potential collaborative education projects. Fortunately, the future looks great with another experience to China with a different doctoral cohort, as well as a looming memo of understanding with Chinese universities for a 1 + 1 masters program in education.

108 5

chapter 12 Conclusion

From the establishment of Asian American Studies Center and its China Study Abroad Program, the China experience in 2007, the EdD China experience in the summer of 2010, the proposed Joint Master’s of Education Degree with Chinese universities, the variety of other collaborative possibilities, other grant/project proposals, and as the authors narrate their experiences, the paper has presented the progress our Department of Curriculum and Instruction has made in internationalizing education, particularly regarding China. In the ongoing discussion of what educators will need to be prepared for life in the 21st century, improved internationalization represents a framework for guiding that learning. We have already seen the improved knowledge, skills, and disposition a globally interdependent world requires among our participants by engaging in kinds of international undertakings, and these undertakings have the potential to be a profoundly life-changing experience. We will be seeking to collaborate with more overseas educators, share our experience of internationalizing education, understand each other’s contexts and concerns, and support each other’s initiatives for the common goal of preparing globally minded educators. We believe that as our tie to China’s educational colleagues gets closer and closer, the endeavors of internationalizing education will obtain more momentum than ever before. Meanwhile, we are aware that much work needs to be done on the part of educators if internationalization is going to become reality, and that work cannot be accomplished by individuals in isolation. It is hoped that this article can serve as an impetus to not only further our individual efforts but also call for more commitment to the undertaking of internationalizing education.

References Asia Society. (2001). Asia in the schools: Preparing young Americans for today’s interconnected world: A report of the national commission on Asia in the schools. New York, NY: Asia Society, Education Division. Connelly, F. M., & Clandinin, D. J. (1990). Stories of experience and narrative inquiry. Educational Researcher, 19(5), 2–14. James, K. (2005). International education: The concept, and its relationship to intercultural education. Journal of Research in International Education, 4, 313–332. Merryfield, M. M., & Wilson, A. (2005). Social studies and the world. Silver Spring, MD: National Council for the Social Studies.

A China Narrative for Internationalizing Education

109

Roberts, A. (2007). Global dimensions of schooling: Implications for internationalizing teacher education. Teacher Education Quarterly, 34(1), 9–26. Wells, R. (2008). The global and multicultural: Opportunities, challenges, and suggestions for teacher education. Multicultural Perspectives, 10(3), 142–149. White, C., Marsh, S., Mulholland, A., & Thomas, D. (2008). Rethinking the learning of “culture”: A Chinese inquiry. US-China Education Review, 5(5), 27–31.

Chapter 13

Internationalizing an Executive/Professional EdD A China Experience

1

Introduction

In the era of globalization, educators and their students are confronted with the challenge of engaging in actions and discourse on issues facing the world. As recognized by many researchers, globalization not only impacts economy, society, politics, and culture, but also has important implications for education, including school administration, organization, curriculum innovation, etc (Epstein, 2002). Educators and students should develop the habit of thinking of global ramifications: Is this in the common good? Will this protect the rights of all people (Merryfield & Wilson, 2005)? If schools are to create a positive atmosphere in which students are encouraged to participate in global discourse, and engage in global issues and today’s multicultural society, first of all, school administrators need to develop multiple perspectives and understand the experiences and points of view of people different from themselves. However, it is important to note that though there have been some initiatives of internationalizing teacher education exemplified by the institutions such as Florida International University, Ohio State University, and Stanford University (Roberts, 2007), teacher educators have barely begun to tap the potential for the professional development of school administrators as globally competent educators. Nationwide rates of participation in study abroad programs are low for education majors (Hayward, 2000). For in-service administrators, few are exposed to international content or experience either in former university-required courses or in professional development tracks of education. Therefore, innovative modifications at the level of educational leadership must occur, and school leaders are key agents for implementing and effecting the modifications. This is an important reason why the new EdD program was launched in 2009. The program encompasses a 2 year 51 hour cohort program where students investigate urban school issues in a lab of practice leading to their dissertation. Additionally, an “Issues in Urban and Comparative Education” course is required linking local to global education ideas and issues. A China experience was chosen for the first international focus due to current college projects in China and to the current globalization focus on China. © koninklijke brill nv, leiden, 2018 | doi 10.1163/9789004364622_013

Internationalizing an Executive/Professional EdD

111

Though there is little consensus on how to internationalize teacher education, we hope that through China’s experience, we can (a) better assume the responsibility of facilitating integration of international issues, practices, and concerns in school administrators, (b) help them form a better understanding of international education, and the issues in American education, (c) foster among these school administrators an appreciation of how culture affects perception, as well as an understanding of how and why people across the world perceive events or issues differently, and (d) help them combat stereotypes, challenge media’s exotic images, and overcome prejudice in an attempt to bring about cultural understanding.

2

Theoretical Framework

Global and international education should included investigation tied to grounded theory whereby critical qualitative research is embedded in the experiences. Additionally, critical theory and critical pedagogy focusing on equity and social justice need be a framing theory as they apply to a broad based view of cultural studies. In addition, cultural competence, collaboration skills, and an appreciation of global connections can be facilitated through cross-cultural experiences in leadership, thus translating to the school and classroom. Many colleges and universities are recognizing the need for global competence and promoting understanding among cultures (Dan-xia, 2008). In addition, linking multicultural education and global issues is facilitated through meaningful international education projects (Wells, 2008). James suggests that internationalizing education develops a sense of interconnectedness, empathy, and tolerance, which are much needed in today’s world (2005). Educational leadership programs have much work to do to accomplish these ideas. This project is the result of increased international possibilities and interest in our college of education. Our inquiry-based approach suggests that educators at all levels must be engaged in collaborative scholarship and action research (Herr & Anderson, 2005). Educational research highlights the need to cultivate knowledge, skills, and dispositions for global and civic awareness and responsibility (Loewen, 2007; Ochoa-Becker, 2006; Ross, 2006). Additionally, to be engaged, global citizens, students need exposure to multiple literacies and diverse perspectives (Durham & Kellner, 2005; Giroux, 2006; Silberman-Keller, 2008). We find that the internationalizing education cultivates knowledge and dispositions for engaged citizenship and 21st century skill development and feel that it is an appropriate foundation for the student research projects.

112 3

chapter 13 Methodology

In the ongoing discussion of what education will need to prepare educational leaders and students for life in the 21st century, improved internationalization represents a framework for guiding that learning. Understanding the implications of these types of frameworks for educators at all levels is an important area of research. Additionally, in the continuing effort to link global issues with current curriculum standards, action research should be situated as an integral practice in educational leadership. Action research modes of learning can benefit educators at all levels as they pursue a reflective empowering examination of their practice. Through collaborative effort and a thoughtful dissection of one approach to integrating action research our paper advances the community and global aspect of education that are necessary for educators and students to become successful citizens of the world, and to pass those ideals along to their own students. The assigned readings and online discussion before the China experience served as theoretical and intellectual preparation. The debriefing sessions at the end of the day, as well as the reflective journals on their daily interactions and experiences during the China trip allowed them an opportunity to revisit the themes emerged in the pre-departure preparation, and capture the things that might otherwise have gone unnoticed. The final project after the trip helped them establish a holistic and profound understanding of their new learning and experience. Following Carspecken’s five recommended stages for conducting critical qualitative research (1996), we made a series of hermeneutic analysis, including constructing meaning fields, making horizon analysis, making validity claims, distinguishing backgrounding from foregrounding, making power analysis and role analysis, and developing coding scheme. We make every attempt to minimize researchers’ personal predispositions, including member checking and peer debriefing.

4

Data Sources

Research confirms the value of collaboration in all levels of education (Kincheloe, 2005; McLaren, 2006; Spring, 2003). Throughout the first year of the project, we documented the conversations among the faculty involved. Research assistants attended meetings to document conversations both handwritten and audio recording. We used documentation from these collaborative meetings to assess the impact of such partnerships on the research integration.

Internationalizing an Executive/Professional EdD

113

Initial research tied for this project includes surveys, individual and group interviews, participant journals, and document analysis. Various processes and products in internationalizing teacher education will also be investigated. Subsequent student journals reflect the linking of urban and comparative issues. We believe the journals and conversations provided intimate insights into our growth as educators and the implementation of internationalization. EdD students were also asked to complete pre- and post-course surveys tied to the China experience. These surveys assessed participants’ understanding culture, global connections, diversity, and change tied to allowing for multiple perspectives. In order to take advantage of the diverse backgrounds of our students we emphasize the rich qualitative data that emerges from the surveys. We will produce an analytical brief that summarizes results of the surveys. Additional data was obtained from student work products collected through their coursework, including journals, comparative papers, and reviews of literature. Before engaging in international projects, faculty and EdD students developed research questions to aid them in determining types of data to collect. These initial research questions along with the collected data, conclusion and recommendations for future action were collected in the form of end of course projects. Data collected on the challenges and success of the research projects will be summarized in the paper.

5

Results

In the online discussion prior to the trip to China, many of the EdD students revealed some narrow-minded and one-sided perceptions about China’s education, culture, and society. The first-hand experience in China has made them begin to question and challenge the existing perspectives and norms, and unexamined assumptions seriously. Moreover, they have found more commonalities than disparities between the two educational systems which to a degree conflicted with their expectations. All in all, China’s experience has affected them personally and professionally, which is echoed repeatedly in the conversations and interviews with them, their journals, and online discussion. Personally, they have become willing or more willing to critically look at the stereotypes previously hidden in their minds, or preconceived notions prevalent in the media; they have learned to recognize and appreciate differences, abandon the search for one correct answer, and become more open to and receptive to different perspectives; they have learned to seek out and evaluate information from diverse sources and approach new information with an open mind.

114

chapter 13

Professionally, the two-week immersion into cross-cultural context has not only helped them learn the society, culture, and education of China, but also provided them with an opportunity to reflect upon social, cultural, and educational issues in America. With the deconstruction of the notion that American values are the best in the world, they have been better equipped with a multicultural and global perspective which is indispensable for them to become global educational leaders. Most of them have gained a deeper awareness that they can impact the world and national issues beyond immediate surroundings through their work with school administration. With a refined understanding of international education and global issues, lots of them have expressed their desire to share their new learning and experience with their staff, teachers, and students, and impact them with their own reflections. However, for some of the in-service school administrators, the former assumptions and stereotypes are too deeply embedded to uproot overnight. We need to be aware that having a short-term overseas cross-cultural experience is not an all-heal recipe for global ignorance, misconceptions, and prejudices. It is but one possibility for providing school administrators with opportunities to become more globally literate to produce the next-generation students facing global challenges. Furthermore, simply having a brief stay in another country doesn’t necessarily lead to the internationalization of educational leadership; students should be given guided instruction and reflection before, during, and after such endeavors. More importantly, the essentiality of internationalizing leadership should be elevated to the common agreement throughout any educational leadership program, and naturally integrated with all the subject matters across the disciplines, instead of being presented as a single optional course. Concerning how these educational leaders are going to apply their new knowledge and experience to their schools, and how effective China’s experience will be in bringing about impact on their school climate and curriculum, we will follow up with future research.

6

Significance

As an internationally known metropolis for its diversity, the university and city environment is embracing the influx of students from all kinds of ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Many children experience marginalization because the “meanings the child brings to the school situation are ignored or when school meanings dominate and limit a child’s meanings and sense of possibilities”

Internationalizing an Executive/Professional EdD

115

(Hutchinson, 1999, p. 37). There is an increasing concern that our education system is not adequately preparing K-12 students for foundation of the world’s cultures, economies, and political relationships (Asia Society, 2001). A growing call echoes for leadership programs to equip not only classroom teachers but also school administrators with the knowledge of the world and globalmindedness. However, due to the various difficulties stemming from lack of information, experience, and resources for planning and implementing, the influence of internationalizing teacher education remains limited. In response to the impact of global challenge on the ways in which teacher education equips educational leaders, this proposal, based on a clear articulation of the essential utility of internationalizing teacher education, makes a rewarding attempt towards this undertaking via an overseas study experience at the level of school administrators. As expected, it has stimulated change in their thinking and attitudes regarding global issues and cultural diversity. Moreover, it’s very promising that most of them will influence their staff, teachers, and students with their personal experience, reflection, or behaviors after getting back to their work at schools. Increasingly relevant literature addresses the importance and necessity of educating leader about global interdependence and differing perspectives so as to empower them to work effectively with an increasingly racially, linguistically, culturally, and ethnically diverse student population (Amstrong, 2008; Mwebi & Brigham, 2009). However, few EdD programs have committed to preparing school administrators with the same passion and innovation. This chapter points to the importance of internationalizing an executive EdD program to incorporate global dimensions and cultural diversity among in-service school administrators.

References Armstrong, N. F. (2008). Teacher education in a global society: Facilitating global literacy for preservice candidates through international field experiences. Teacher Education and Practice, 21(4), 490–506. Asia Society. (2001). Asia in the schools: Preparing young Americans for today’s interconnected world: A report of the national commission on Asia in the schools. New York, NY: Asia Society, Education Division. Carspecken, P. (1996). Critical ethnography in educational research. New York, NY: Routledge. Dan-xia, C. (2008). A social distance study of American participants in a China study program. US-China Education Review, 5(9), 17–22.

116

chapter 13

Durham, M., & Kellner, D. (2005). Media and cultural studies. Malden, MA: Wiley, Blackwell. Epstein, E. (Ed.). (2003). Globalization of education (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Thomson Gale, Macmillan. Giroux, H. (2006). America on the edge. New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan. Gutek, G. L. (2006). American education in a global society: International and comparative perspectives (2nd ed.). Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press. Hayward, F. (2000). Internationalization of higher education: Preliminary status report 2000: Final Draft. Washington, DC: American Council on Education. Herr, K., & Anderson, G. L. (2005). The action research dissertation: A guide for students and faculty. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Hutchison, J. (1999). Students on the margins: Education, stories, dignity. Albany, New York, NY: State University of New York Press. James, K. (2005). International education: The concept, and its relationship to intercultural education. Journal of Research in International Education, 4, 313–332. Kincheloe, J. (2005). Getting beyond the facts. New York, NY: Peter Lang. Loewen, J. (2007). Lies my teacher told me. New York, NY: Touchstone. McLaren, P. (2006). Life in schools. New York, NY: Allyn and Bacon. Merryfield, M. M., & Wilson, A. (2005). Social studies and the world. Silver Spring, MD: National Council for the Social Studies. Mwebi, B. M., & Brigham, S. M. (2009). Preparing North American preservice teachers for global perspectives: An international teaching practicum experience in Africa. The Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 55(3), 414–427. Ochoa-Becker, A. (2006). Democratic education for social studies. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. Roberts, A. (2007). Global dimensions of schooling: Implications for internationalizing teacher education. Teacher Education Quarterly, 34(1), 9–26. Ross, E. W. (2006). The social studies curriculum. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. Silberman-Keller, D., Bekerman, Z., Giroux, H. A., & Burbules, N. (Eds.). (2008). Mirror images. New York, NY: Peter Lang. Spring, J. (2003). American education. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Wells, R. (2008). The global and multicultural: Opportunities, challenges, and suggestions for teacher education. Multicultural Perspectives, 10(3), 142–149.

CHAPTER 14

Transitioning from an EdD to a PhD A Critical Case Study through a Social/Global Education Lens

Civic engagement and critical consciousness need be the primary guiding principles in all we do in education. Kincheloe, 2008

∵ 1

Transitioning

The University of Houston Department of Curriculum and Instruction was recently awarded a PhD in Curriculum and Instruction. The past 2+ years have seen a revision of an original proposal for the PhD, much department, college, and university negotiation, and a site visit and assessment from the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. Upon notification of the acceptance a PhD faculty committee started working to transition from a PhD-like EdD (which has been the doctoral focus for years) to the new PhD. The new PhD emphasizes equity and social justice, all within a Curriculum and Instruction framework, in a local to global context. New core courses, research courses, and assessment procedures/expectations have also been adopted for the new doctoral program. Faculty decided to engage in a transition process allowing present EdD students to apply for the new program that started Spring 2015. In addition a non-transition student cohort began in the Fall 2015. The proposed paper will document the transition through a narrative inquiry and case study framework. Data include documents from PhD faculty meetings, student meetings, and sub-committee meetings, PhD faculty interviews, and open-ended surveys and interviews of transition students. This critical qualitative study will offer themes, issues, and suggested strategies for higher education program development.

© koninklijke brill nv, leideN, 2018 | DOI 10.1163/9789004364622_014

118 2

chapter 14 A Critical Case Study

The awarding of the PhD focusing on equity and social justice in a local to global context (within the purview of curriculum and instruction) warrants an assessment through a critical lens – thus the integration of critical qualitative methods in investigating the transition. Also due to the ongoing political and bureaucratic issues regarding the transition and frankly the direction of higher education in general (Giroux, 2014) theoretical underpinnings come from critical pedagogy and other social justice education approaches. Issues in urban education, equity, and social justice are at least claimed to be unique features of the new degree. The theoretical underpinnings originate from Dewey (1997), Freire (1970), Kincheloe (2012), Giroux (2014), and Gay (2010) among others. While each uniquely adds to the critical pedagogical approaches to education praxis, taken together, they contribute a strong theoretical foundation that stresses continued investigation and questioning. Each also suggests that current education practice serves the interests of those in power and merely contributes to issues in urban education and equity and social justice. The critical qualitative research framework stems from Clandinin and Connelley (2004) and from Steinberg and Kincheloe (2012). These research methods call for personal narratives in the form of stories emerging from participants including students and faculty. They also call for critical analysis due to ongoing issues in urban education and thus challenging increased neoliberal corporatization of education. As a result, a variety of personal narratives (journals, interviews, quotes from meetings), various documents (meeting notes, transition documents), and open-ended surveys from transition students have been analyzed for the purposes of this research. Research questions include the following: – What issues emerge in transitioning between an EdD and a PhD? – How do faculty and students perceive the transition? – What programmatic implications emerge? 2.1 Past The Department of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Houston has had a 66 hr. EdD for many years (that was much like a PhD). As the university advanced toward Tier 1 through the years, many faculty suggested developing a proposal for a PhD. Unfortunately, leadership in the college was of little support, and in fact often acted in resistance – primarily due

Transitioning from an EdD to a PhD

119

to philosophical and ideological reasons. In addition, the department has a designated Institute of Research in Education which has been co-opted by other departments and receives little support from college or even departmental leadership (even though this could be a wonderful tool facilitating teaching scholarship and service with an urban context). Ultimately, the timeline from initial discussion to coordinating board acceptance was 15+ years. Procedures for the PhD process included establishing a PhD committee that conducted research and interviews regarding PhD’s in CUIN, engaged in the proposal development and process, engaged in the rewriting on the proposal and engaged in the acceptance process. The original proposal was more of a tradition PhD and was dismissed by college leadership. Once the university received initial Tier 1 ranking leadership suggested that the proposal be revised (probably due to the fact that number of PhD’s granted count toward rankings and Tier 1 status). A small group of senior faculty developed the current PhD in urban education focusing on equity and social justice within the curriculum and instruction framework. Finally, once accepted, the department established a transition committee to focus on specific program and course development, the transition process, and actual implementation. Hours were spent in negotiation regarding specific courses, core expectations, and other components of the degree such as qualifying exams and the application process for students. The committee decided to allow present EdD students to apply to transition and developed a rubric for the process. Specific differences between the EdD and the PhD include a refocused core with courses in global education and social justice in addition to curriculum, adult learning, CUIN seminar, internship, independent study, and technology. Five research courses are required and additional specialization courses. Students are also still required to complete a candidacy paper defense, but the qualifying exams are 3 questions and are take home. Students are still required to successfully complete and defend a proposal and a final dissertation. The college of education is undergoing a schism of sorts in trying to meet the expectations of Tier 1 status and also addressing the original mission of the university. Currently, current college leadership has taken a narrow perspective of Tier 1 in defining scholarship primarily as receiving high IDC grants with teaching, service, and some other forms of scholarship becoming secondary. There are also debates regarding community connections and full vs. part time students. Additional issues include dismissing senior faculty from leadership and placing clinical faculty in leadership roles, continuing to focus on NSF and NIH grants for high IDC at the expense of other possibilities, focusing on STEM exclusively and dismissing debate, questioning, or controversy for individual agendas.

120

chapter 14

2.2 Present As of fall 2017 there have been 28 transition students and 3 new cohorts of approximately 10 students each. New leadership in the department has developed a very structured protocol for all students regarding course sequence, general expectations, and procedures. Initially, in spring on 2015 transition students were to take the issues in urban education course and then also to take the equity and social justice course in the summer, in addition to other courses that fit schedules. The PhD committee continues to meet to plan and negotiate various components for the program. As a result of various departmental and college issues, quantitative research faculty has yet to be hired, thus causing issues for all students. In addition, courses that were verbally accepted by the committee as acceptable for counting toward the new PhD have come into question from the new leadership. Additionally, as stated previously, senior faculty have been dismissed from leadership and decision-making regarding departmental and graduate program procedures and expectations. A major issue is that leadership has “demanded” a definition of urban education, which students and faculty within the urban education context suggest a “working description” to allow for culturally responsive current issues tied to urban education Other issues that have arisen include shared governance, the ignoring of the departmental graduate students committee (which is constitutionally supposed to oversee such issues), and continued “leadership” from non-tenure track faculty or faculty who are not qualified to serve in director positions. In addition, new rules or policy are applied daily, with students often being left out and only notified after the fact. A recent example is the qualifying exams for transition students whereby little preparation or expectations were provided and leadership was unwilling to negotiate alternatives to assessment or procedures. Perhaps the biggest issue is the lack of understanding or even foundations of urban education or equality and social justice issues by new leadership for the program. Much of this is do to the compartmentalization, personal agendas, and increased neoliberal corporate ideology in the college and department. The college has ongoing issues regarding culture and collegiality what with departments in competition for resources, college leadership having little to no school-based “education” experience, and again the drive toward neoliberal corporatization (NCTQ, NIET, Gates Foundation, partnerships with privately run charters, etc.). While many of the transition students are inhibited with the changing impositions, they generally feel that there is little is anything they can do. They just want to finish. Many express confusion regarding procedures

Transitioning from an EdD to a PhD

121

and expectations going forward. Another issue that has arisen is the lack of foundation knowledge regarding urban and social justice issues in education, suggesting a better infusion of such issues throughout the courses of the program. Students do recognize the importance of these issues, especially in light of the degree and career options. Any new cohort is another story. While small and perhaps getting smaller, they have generally been vocal in their program critique, which may enable some minor adaptations. Initially these students only take the issues in education class, the seminar in curriculum and instruction course and perhaps one specialization course. These students also lack the foundation in global and social justice issues in education at the initial stages, but hopefully develop with coursework, experiences, and scholarship. 2.3 Future As with any new program in higher education, program development includes negotiation, planning, and adapting. While the hope is that the new will facilitate a recruitment of students from a variety of schools and geographic areas (including internationally), initial numbers are very small outside of the Houston area. Again the program is new, has had little marking, and recruitment is an ongoing process, so this should change. A major issue is that the college and university will only guarantee three years of funding for students, while the program really is a minimum of four. This is inconsistent with other like programs around the country and also even in comparison with other colleges and programs in the same university. The PhD committee is still running the show, which may also cause issues in the future. Regardless, most faculty are intent on developing a high quality program and desire a collaborative experience going forward. If this is to happen, new leadership must be more open and democratic in practice. Essentials for the future remain continued program development with new or adapted courses, more student-centered approaches to program management, better college and university support, and frankly new leadership. A PhD focusing on equity and social justice in local to global context (in a curriculum and instruction framework) is much needed for the 21st century. Addressing issues regarding race, ethnicity, gender, poverty, power, and neoliberal reform should be fundamental to a doctoral program in education. Having the diversity of Houston and the University of Houston, as well as the great opportunities the city and university provide, offers unique possibilities for students, faculty, and the community. Despite the issues addressed, critical hope exists for a excellent future – helping kids, educators and the community should be the ultimate goal.

122 3

chapter 14 Critical Qualitative Research

The critical in qualitative research stems from a continual analysis and synthesis of critical theory/ critical pedagogy, media and cultural studies, social reconstruction/social justice, and social studies education framed by culturally responsive pedagogy. Critical qualitative research thus suggests investigation of societal issues linked to education, allowing for multiple perspectives and focuses on questions rather than answers. Critical qualitative research informs education through a lens that ensures the investigation of issues in education tied to issues of equity and social justice – leading toward critical consciousness (Freire, 1970). Few have explored linking social/global education and critical qualitative research. Much research and writing exists on qualitative methods and some have attempted to integrate critical pedagogy and qualitative research, but within the context of social education, a variety of approaches are undertaken, humanity is championed, and bias is accepted – there is no generalizability. This reflects an ever changing criticality in the bricolage of the research (Steinberg, 2011). The debate regarding the efficacy of quantitative/qualitative or even mixed methods approaches to educational research remains rampant. The claim here is that humanity cannot and should not be continually subjected to quantification – that it reduces human endeavor to meaningless claims in the guise of objectivity, as it is about the story. Therefore, the claim is that in doing social/global education one must focus on critical qualitative research almost exclusively. Social/global education is interested in advocacy and activism, so that education and schooling should be about addressing societal issues tied to race, ethnicity, gender, age, and orientation. When we have a society that continues to struggle with mass incarceration, gun violence, lack of voting rights, 19th century immigration policy, entitlements to the military, corporations, and the rich, perpetual war, and non-stop imperialism, then societal transformation can be the only goal. In other words, a particular critique made by social educators is that humanity and efficacy have been divorced from education. As Kincheloe, McLaren, and Steinberg (2012) state, a form of social or cultural criticism is the basis of such research. They go on to suggest six assumptions in critical qualitative research in social/global education: 1 Social and historically constructed power issues affect all human endeavor; 2 Ideology and value judgments knowledge, skills, and dispositions;

Transitioning from an EdD to a PhD

123

3 Capitalism affects the construction of individual and group process/ products; 4 Objectivity is a myth and that language and culture necessitate subjectivity; 5 Privilege and oppression are rampant and critical consciousness is a primary focus; 6 Traditional and mainstream practice contribute to reproduction of issues tied to equity and social justice. These assumptions are address at least globally within this chapter. Nevertheless, the argument herein is that all education is or should be social/ global education. We are all social “human” beings struggling to develop knowledge, skills, and dispositions through lifelong education, both in and out of “school” in order to make the best of life, hopefully for ourselves and others.

4

Social Education

Five theoretical approaches provide the foundation for social education. These include Social Reconstruction/Social Justice, Critical Theory/ Critical Pedagogy, Media/Cultural Studies, Social Studies/History Education, and Culturally Responsive/Multiple Perspectives. Each of these have contributed to a transformation from traditional social studies education approaches to teaching and learning, curriculum and instruction to one that is first critical in the sense that deconstruction and multiple truths are championed with the hope for emancipatory education practice. This is turn will also hopefully lead to challenges unbridled capitalism ethnocentrism, and blind patriotism. The idea is that the public space remains the place where the true potential for human transformations can take place (Giroux, 2004). Social/global education stems from a social reconstructionist/social justice philosophical foundation. The idea suggests that democracy and capitalism are antithetical and that unbridled capitalism has usurped democratic practice (Apple, 1990). Equity and social justice need be the ultimate goal of any education endeavor focusing on race, ethnicity, gender, orientation, age, and ability when addressing any social issue; and thus should be prevalent in any critical qualitative research. Rethinking, reconceptualizing, and restructuring schooling, education, curriculum and instruction is stressed if we are truly interested in equity and meeting basic human needs (McLaren, 2003). An issue and problem based approach to research is also warranted.

124

chapter 14

Critical theory/critical pedagogy take the social justice/social reconstructionist pillar and apply it as praxis in education. Specific education practices that do not deal with issues of power and privilege are subject to challenge. Investigating the human story champions subjectivity as it allows for multiple perspectives, deeper inquiry, and critical endeavor. The assumption is that most human endeavor, especially in education is political, and that we must accept this and understand these issues and deal with the biases and issues inherent in the political nature of things. Education must always be aware and engage in the struggle for social justice in addressing issues of race, ethnicity, gender, age, orientation, perspective, and basic rights and responsibilities in this age of neoliberal reform (Kincheloe, 2008). Media and cultural studies assumes that art and culture are central to humanity and that each struggles with the assumed public/private binary. Increased commodification and assimilation of media and culture through globalized impositions warrant critical investigation in education, as media and culture greatly influence human interactions. Media is a powerful entity in the education process and also in impacting individual and group identity – thus the need for critical media “literacy.” Linking cultural studies is vital in that culture is the result of human interaction and progress with issues of acculturation and assimilation constantly affecting society. Social/global education claims media and culture are primary texts for critical qualitative research (White & Walker, 2008). Social studies/history education is the content tradition whereby social/ global education stems. Knowledge, skills, and dispositions gained from one’s social studies and history education experience should facilitate rights and responsibilities of local – global citizenship. Social/global education suggest that traditionally social studies and history education have served the status quo in that a grand narrative has often been imparted leading to ethnocentrism, exceptionalism, imperialism, and a challenge to the public good (Zinn, 2005; Loewen, 2007). A critical investigation of social studies history education thus brings to light issues of equity, power, privilege, hegemony and social justice. Culturally responsive/multiple perspectives are linked to critical pedagogy and social justice issue in that curriculum and instruction has often been limited to white privilege, power and lack of choice. Social/global education insists that education focus on being responsive to culture (in the broad conception of the term) and allow multiple perspectives so as to awaken an appreciation and action tied to diversity (Gay, 2010). A critical multiculturalism requires a rethinking of curriculum instruction and ultimately a transformation of schooling (hooks, 1994). Any practice or institution that threatens these should be subject to deep critique and investigation.

Transitioning from an EdD to a PhD

5

125

Critical Qualitative Research

Traditional qualitative research seems to have always been subject to the dominance of quantitative approaches, particularly with the emphasis placed on the scientific method, objectivity, and statistics for comparison. And with the neoliberal reform movement quantification of all human education endeavor has almost taken on a life of its own. Achievement and accountability since Sputnik really, have become the education mantra for any and almost all “reform.” Challenging the public framing of education has also been the constant approach from the right since A Nation at Risk at least, with these “reformers” using quantitative data as their fodder. Unfortunately, many qualitative researchers adopt quantitative terminology, approaches, and even mindsets as a result of suffering from illegitimacy claims. Issues of generalizability, objectivity, reliability, validity are often applied to qualitative research, thus challenging the efficacy of said researches. Increasingly in our corporatized colleges and universities, one finds challenges to qualitative methods as “real” research – this often coming from administrators who haven’t engaged in research for years, or who are caught up in the increased business mindset of higher education. Qualitative research often takes much longer and involves a more in-depth investigation than other research methods. A particular highlight emanating from qualitative research is a richness of story detailing human experiences. The effort at triangulation contributes to the richness of story in that a variety of qualitative methods are adapted to meet the needs of the research – questions, story, engagement, and focus. Writing through one’s perspective is also vital in qualitative research so as to challenge the assumption that one needs to make grand claims or generalize. A particular goal is to personalize the research by making the process and procedures one’s own by continually adapting questions and procedures as more is investigated and discovered. Finally the understanding is that the research is a story in time, hopefully moving humanity forward, but also leading to further questions and next steps for research or investigation. Putting the “critical” in qualitative research intends to challenge even traditional approaches to research, including qualitative. Within a social/ global education framework, critical implies consistent exploration and investigation of social issues through a social justice lens. The idea is that most human endeavor is socially constructed and that both individual and collaborative experiences are needed for us to develop into socially conscious beings focusing on advocacy and activism. Citizenship necessitates awareness

126

chapter 14

first, but most important, critical action allowing for multiple perspectives, questions rather than answers, and ongoing flexibility regarding the mediation of knowledge, skills, and dispositions. Hickey (2012) suggests several epistemological commandments for critical qualitative research: 1 Demonstrate incredulity toward claims of grand truths or meta-narratives. 2 Resist contexts that marginalize people in any situation. 3 Commit to betterment, assistance, hope, and emancipation in all human experiences. 4 Challenge any practice that marginalizes based on race, ethnicity, gender, orientation, class, age, ability, or belief. 5 Question unbridled capitalism and neoliberalism. 6 Champion multiple perspectives, diversity, and human experiences. 7 Promote advocacy and activism for basic human rights and democracy for all. 8 Continue a lifelong work for societal transformation toward equity and social justice.

6

Methods and Procedures

Most methods integrated into traditional qualitative research are adapted for critical qualitative research in social/global education. Ethnography, case study, discourse analysis, narrative inquiry, action research, historiography, self-study, participant observation, individual and focus group interviews, are document analysis are many of the methods that can be implemented and adopted for critical approaches in research. A key in social/ global education critical research is that the researcher make the process and procedure their own, able to adapt questions and methods as the research progresses. A primary goal is to explore phenomena critically with the hope of ultimate transformation for social justice. One begins with structure in the sense of general research questions and intended methodology and participants/ phenomena, but with the understanding that all is open-ended, flexible, and dependent on the ongoing process, synthesis and analysis of reading, experiences and findings. In other words, everything can and should be adapted depending on what is investigated and discovered along the way. Discovering themes/topics through coding is vital at all stages of the process. According to Kincheloe (2005), such research seeks historical contextualization, multiple,

Transitioning from an EdD to a PhD

127

theoretical groundings, and a diversity of knowledge by integrating a variety of methodologies. While this suggested starts is traditional, all is dependent on the direction, development, and revelations as the research progresses. Social/global education requires a personal connection in one’s research, therefore an initial narrative is vital for research context. The narrative provides the personal story that leads to the initial rationale and questions for the research. This story might transition to a more formal framing describing the rationale questions and issues. Any research project requires a review of literature and relevant research. The focus in critical qualitative research in social/global education is to determine the seminal themes relevant to the research. One assumes that social/global education/social justice will be prevalent initially, then other themes related will be addressed, but tied specifically to the rationale, questions, and issues initially raised. Again, methodology must be “written” through focusing on the rationale, questions, and adapted methods appropriate for the critical investigation. It is vital here to develop one’s own social/global education research persona, for adapting the methodology to meet the developing needs of the project. Documenting this process if part of the reporting of the methodology, as is the philosophical review of critical research in social/global education. A primary theme that is addressed in analysis and implications is social justice/equity. The inherent “bias” within is that critical research in social/ global education assumes a struggle in the critique, analysis, and representation of the research findings. Knowing that much in society and the institution of education serves the status quo and those in power, in addition to perpetuating the commodification of humanity, issues of activism, change, and sustaining critique emerge.

7

Implications for 21st Century Social/Global Education

Critical qualitative research and social/global education are vital for the world of the 21st century. The onslaught of neoliberalism, corporatization, standardization, testing, and the continuing attack on public schools and educators necessitate critical approaches to teaching and learning along with critical qualitative research in social/global education. Ongoing issues with equity and social justice tied to race, ethnicity, class, orientation, age, and ability linking to schooling, education, teaching and learning must be addressed. The struggle between unbridled capitalism and democracy warrant

128

chapter 14

these investigations in the 21st century, hopefully leading to advocacy and activism. Empowering and emancipating educators and students requires a redesigning of schooling to demonstrate a truly democratic way of life, to be consistent with the ideals of equity and social justice, to be informed by research that is “educative” (Zeichner, 2009). According to Goodman, Ullrich, and Nana (2012), a “triple consciousness” based on Freire’s critical consciousness is much needed for equity and social justice in a teaching and learning context. We must model critical multicultural, social justice education (culturally responsive pedagogy), work to transform perspectives of all education, society and its stakeholders, and engage in critical emancipatory research leading to advocacy and activism. We must continually challenge the corporatized, unequal, and essentialist framing of education. Education is both a political and ethical endeavor hoping to facilitate critically active students anxious to engage in the world. Linking the process to the community and the world provides the context we all need to understand and advocate for equity and social justice. A critical qualitative research in social/global education that investigates these hard issues locally and globally can only lead to empowering educators and students as change agents.

8

Conclusion

Investigating programmatic changes and development through a critical lens provides a needed analysis regarding goals and purpose of such an endeavor. Initiating a case study approach through social/global education also enables the framing to determine if a PhD that claims a focus on global education, equity and social justice does just that. Any new program is fraught with issues and requires ongoing assessment and adaptation. Regardless, a corporatized/ neoliberal agenda so prevalent within a college of education calls into question any true commitment to issues of equity and social justice. A PhD in focusing on global education, equity and social justice within a curriculum and instruction framework has great potential in higher education for the 21st century. Such a program in a city such as Houston and a university such as the University of Houston can offer much regarding knowledge, skills, and dispositions for prospective students. The teaching, scholarship, and service opportunities are truly limited only by lack of effort. As with any new program, implementation and sustainability are issues that must be addressed. Despite these issues and others stemming from a variety of sources as mentioned previously, there is great hope for future success.

Transitioning from an EdD to a PhD

129

References Apple, M. (1990). Ideology and curriculum. New York, NY: Routledge. Clandinin, J., & Connelley, M. (2004). Narrative inquiry. New York, NY: Jossey-Bass. Dewey, J. (1997). Experience and education. New York, NY: Free Press. Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: Herder and Herder. Gay, G. (2010). Culturally responsive teaching. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Giroux, H. (2004). Public pedagogy and the politics of neoliberalism. Policy Futures in Education, 2(3–4), 494–503. Goodman, G., Ullrich, W., & Nana, P. (2012). Action research for critical classroom and community change. In S. Steinberg & G. Cannella (Eds.), Critical qualitative research reader. New York, NY: Peter Lang. Hickey, A. (2012). The critical aesthetic. In S. Steinberg & G. Cannella (Eds.), Critical qualitative research reader. New York, NY: Peter Lang. hooks, b. (1994). Teaching to transgress. New York, NY: Routledge. Kincheloe, J. (2005). On to the next level… Qualitative Inquiry, 11, 323–350. Kincheloe, J., McLaren, P., & Steinberg, S. (2012). Critical pedagogy and qualitative research. In S. Steinberg & G. Cannella (Eds.), Critical qualitative research reader (pp. 14–32). New York, NY: Peter Lang. Kincheloe, J. L. (2008). Critical pedagogy. New York, NY: Peter lang. Loewen, J. (2007). Lies my teacher told me. New York, NY: Touchstone. McLaren, P. (2003). Life in schools. New York, NY: Pearson. Steinberg, S. (2011). Critical cultural studies research. In K. Tobin & J. Kincheloe (Eds.), Doing educational research. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers. White, C., & Walker, T. (2008). Tooning in: Essays on popular culture and education. New York, NY: Rowan and Littlefield. Zeichner, K. (2009). Teacher education and the struggle for social justice. New York, NY: Routledge. Zinn, H. (2005). A people’s history of the United States. New York, NY: Harper Classics.

Chapter 15

Building International Connections through Music 1

Introduction

Growing up today is very different than even a decade ago. We are ever closer in a number of ways and really live in a global neighborhood; today the world is a smaller place. We are instantaneously connected to international events through media and technology. Borders do not mean the same as they did just a few years ago. Ethnocentrism, hopefully, is fading, as our “globalized” world necessitates international connections beyond the basics. Constructivist/student-centered approaches that are problem and project based are need to allow for context and connection among our students. Alternative texts should also be employed in such experiences – (popular culture, literature, art). In any learning situation, the idea of active engagement as a citizen should be a goal - thus schools might need a rethinking in order reprioritize the possibilities of teaching and learning with human endeavors as guiding principles.

2

A Case for Global Education

Social studies must include education for a global perspective so that students might also become competent “active” citizens of the world (Tucker & Evans, 1996; Diaz, Massialas, & Xanthopoulos, 1999; Chapin, 2003). A critical component of education in general, and social studies specifically, is to promote an understanding of diversity at home and abroad—“integrating global realities within an existing social studies curriculum meets the needs of an ever-changing, ethnically diverse, increasingly interdependent, international community” (Tucker & Evans, 1996, p. 189). World citizenship requires a global education. Global education efforts must begin with an attempt to understand globalization. Globalization can be defined as “the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa” (McLaren, 1995, p. 180). Diaz, Massialas, and Xanthopoulos (1999) state that globalization: © koninklijke brill nv, leiden, 2018 | doi 10.1163/9789004364622_015

Building International Connections through Music

131

refers to the compression of the world and to the intensification of the consciousness of the world as a whole. This process is ongoing and all of us, young and old, Westerners and non-Westerners, are inescapably involved in it. The compression of the world is real. People witness it in their daily lives, in the foods they eat, in the TV programs they watch, in the cars they drive, in the dresses and costumes, in the people they choose to govern them, and so on. (pp. 37–38) Clearly, globalization is increasingly influential in all aspects of life. Therefore understanding it through global education is imperative. Schools must provide opportunities for children to “develop the appropriate cognitive skills to understand and explain the globalization process and to critically analyze its impact on their lives and the lives of people around them” (Diaz, Massialas, & Xanthopoulos, 1999, p. 38). Above all, according to Diaz, Massialas, and Xanthopoulos (1999), students need to know how to impact the global system as world citizens and as advocates of a well-grounded position or point of view. This suggests that students must acquire both a new knowledge base and a skill set. Many of the subjects associated with social studies might offer an appropriate space for global education. Given that at its core, global education is really about cultures and people of other lands (Chapin, 2003), and must be better integrated in social studies classrooms. Rethinking social studies in these ways could provide the opportunity to grow our understanding and appreciation of others in the world, something essential to our roles and responsibilities as global citizens. Given the global interconnectedness of the world today, the global context must be present. According to Merryfield (2001), students must develop a global perspective that will emphasize cross-cultural experiential learning and stress commonalities in cultures that transcend diversity. One culture that already seems to transcend world barriers is popular culture.

3

Global Popular Culture

Common culture or mass culture is usually defined as “popular culture.” Today, popular culture is more specifically associated with commercial culture: movies, television, music, advertising, toys, photography, games, the Internet, and so on. Popular culture is also one of the United States’ most lucrative exports. Many critique American popular culture as a form of cultural imperialism tied to unbridled capitalism. While this issue should definitely be included in any integration of popular culture, cultural sharing goes many ways.

132

chapter 15

The export of popular culture is not a new phenomenon. Elements of popular culture have always spread beyond nationalist borders. Today, satellite television, multinational media corporations, and the Internet provide unprecedented opportunities for the spread of popular culture. US students have access to media that allows them to experience cultures from around the world. Conversely, many of these culture ‘industries’ are US exports so the world’s access to American popular culture is also burgeoning. Given the global cross-cultural nature of contemporary popular culture, it is sometimes difficult to determine origin. This globalization of popular culture has resulted in what Kellner (1995) refers to as a new global popular. The existence of the global popular means that we might easily find a common frame of reference or topic when asking US students to consider “others” in the world. One such topic or frame is investigating global issues through music. Two themes that have great possibility while integrating music include investigating global issues and differing cultures. Access to world music has exploded, for example.

4

Globalization through Music

Students today live in a world made up of many texts and it is essential that they develop multiple literacies that will allow them to read the signs, symbols, and images (texts), of that world. Schools must provide students with “new operational and cultural ‘knowledges’ in order to acquire new languages that provide access to new forms of work, civic and private practices in their everyday lives” (Lankshear & Knoble, 2003, p. 11). Social studies classes seem to be the perfect place to turn students on to these meaningful knowledges/ issues and popular culture can provide the context for developing the literacy skills necessary to interpret those issues. Students must begin to think critically about popular culture texts. The word text is generally anything that can take on meaning – events, places, images, sounds, gestures, and so forth. The literacy (decoding and comprehension) skills required to make sense of these texts are complicated by the fact that these texts can take on different meanings depending on the situation, context, usage, culture, or historical period (Gee, 2003). Students must critically examine assumptions, attitudes, and values underlying the production, mediation, and consumption (especially students’ own consumption) of such texts and how they position students to assume particular social, gendered, and racial reading positions as they invite them to explore a constructed world in particular ways.

Building International Connections through Music

133

Reading global issues through music offers students the opportunities to apply knowledge and develop skills in a meaningful context, as Kincheloe (2001) recommends. Students learn where people live, their environments, and so on. Much the same can be said in learning about other cultures through world music. Music is a common text throughout the world.

5

Conclusion

Responsible global citizenship requires knowledge of the “others” in the world – whoever they might be. It also requires the skills to understand and act in the best interest of the majority of the people. The knowledge base should include an understanding of who the other people in the world are, what they do, and where they are. The skill set should include inquiry and critical literacy/thinking skills. Social studies instruction must avoid the flax mentality and provide students opportunities to apply their knowledge in a meaningful context. Popular culture is a global frame that contains various texts that can be used effectively in a classroom. One of those texts is music. The global appetite for music makes it a good choice for investigating people, places, and issues in the world.

6

Sample Activities

6.1 Culture and World Music – Brainstorm popular culture examples from around the world. x Examples include Animae, video games, foreign films, international food, fashion. – Have students share their experiences with global popular culture. x What have you learned about the cultures that produce the popular culture? x Discuss “stereotypes.” Have these examples perpetuate stereotypes or helped dispel generalizations? – Share examples of world music. x Compare and contrast with student music choices. – Allow students to investigate world music sites (see list). – Have samples of world music available (see web site list). – Have students in groups complete a digital story or PPT on culture, another nation, or a global issues by integrating. Share.

134

chapter 15

6.2 Music and Social Issues Introduction: – Pass out lyrics to any song that deals with social issues such as Waiting on the World to Change by John Mayer or Where is the Love by The Blackeyed Peas – Play the song, play other examples of songs that deal with social issues. – Ask the following: – What is the song about? – What issues and ideas are presented? – Why does the song begin and end when it does? – Place students in groups of approximately 4. – Tell students that they are going to write their own lyrics on an agreed upon social issue – Have students individually brainstorm current social issues. – Have group members share. – Create a group stanza. – Pass out transparency and have groups write new stanza. – Each group will share/sing new stanza. – Following the sharing have groups discuss rationale for events/issues included. Groups: – Individuals in groups brainstorm themes, social issues and music examples for integration. – Brainstorm application ideas. Share. Modeling: – Have examples of music for groups to investigate. – Examples include songs from Public Enemy, Kanye West, Nas, System of a Down, Bob Dylan, Pete Seeger, Ani Defranco,Woody Guthrie, etc. – Discuss the examples and choose specific examples of music for classroom integration. Examples: – Have lyrics and music for songs such as Changes by 2Pac, Roll with It by Ani Defranco, Shimmy by System of a Down, Imagine by John Lennon – Groups should brainstorm integration ideas.

Building International Connections through Music

135

6.3 Music and 20th Century Introduction: – Play 2–3 of your favorite songs (history, social themes). Inform students of the meanings, connections, and why you like the songs. – Have students so the following: x Write names of 3 favorite songs. x Describe what the songs mean. x Why do you like the songs? x Bring in examples/lyrics. Groups: – Share examples. Have group members write or draw a response to the examples. – What are the similarities and differences between songs? – Discuss in groups: x What are the elements of a good song, artist? x What kind of music do you like? x What are current issues regarding music in society? x What are your thoughts about these issues? Extensions: – Do the same with various themed collections such as: x Jukebox Hits of the 50’s, 60’s, 70’s, 80’s, and 90’s x Long Walk to Freedom x Say It Loud – Use various themes/issues in the music to teach or make connections to history/social issues.

Web Sites Anti War Songs http://onegoodmove.org/1gm/1gmarchive/2003/03/antiwar_songs_1.html Themed Songs http://www.lacarte.org/songs/index.html Popular Songs in American History http://www.contemplator.com/america/

136

chapter 15

100 years of Music Posters http://www.music-posters-history.com/ This Day in Music History http://datadragon.com/day/ Top 20 Music History http://www.top20musichistory.com/ Education Planet – History and Music http://www.educationplanet.com/search/search?keywords=history+and+ music&startval2=0 Global Music Project http://globalmusicproject.org/ Global Rhythm http://www.globalrhythm.net/ Global Music Archive http://www.globalmusicarchive.org/ World Music http://worldmusic.about.com/ Putumayo World Music http://www.putumayo.com/ Rootsworld http://www.rootsworld.com/rw/ World Music Institute http://www.heartheworld.org/ World Music: NPR http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=10004 World Music: National Geographic http://worldmusic.nationalgeographic.com/worldmusic/view/page.basic/ home

References Barber, B. (2001). Jihad vs. McWorld: Terrorism’s challenge to democracy. New York, NY: Ballentine Books. Chapin, J. (2003). A practical guide to secondary social studies. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Diaz, C., Massialas, B., & Xanthopoulos, J. (1999). Global perspectives for educators. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Gee, J. (2003). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy. New York, NY: Palgrave.

Building International Connections through Music

137

Kellner, D. (1995). Media culture: Cultural studies, identity and politics between the modern and the postmodern. London: Routledge. Kincheloe, J. (2001). Getting beyond the facts: Teaching social studies/social sciences in the twenty-first century. New York, NY: Peter Lang. Lankshear, C., & Knobel, M. (2003). New literacies: Changing knowledge and classroom learning. Buckingham: Open University Press. McLaren, P. (1995). Critical pedagogy and predatory culture: Oppositional politics in a postmodern era. New York, NY: Routledge. Merryfield, M. (2001). Moving the center of global education: From imperial world views that divide the world to double consciousness, contrapuntal pedagogy, hybridity, and cross-cultural competence. In W. Stanley (Ed.), Critical issues in social studies research for the 21st century (pp. 179–207). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing. Tucker, J., & Evans, A. (1996). The challenge of a global age. In B. Massialas & R. Allen (Eds.), Crucial issues in teaching social studies K-12 (pp. 181–218). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.

Chapter 16

Local to Global Popular Culture Connections in Our Globalized World

1

Introduction

I have been involved in Model United Nations for years. There are many reasons I am a strong proponent of Model UN – global connections, life skill development, student-centered activities, content knowledge, and even as a challenge to the often ethnocentric nature of the social studies curriculum. There are issues of course – the need for critical analysis and reforming of the UN, the competitive nature of the Model UN Conference, and a sometimes privileged make-up of some of the participating schools. The Global Classrooms of Model UN focus I now help coordinate area goes even further in attempting to provide an in-depth local to global connection in education. It also focuses on students from less privileged backgrounds, challenges the competitive aspects of traditional Model UN, and attempts to connect students to the world and its issues through texts such as popular culture and primary sources. Perhaps the principal difference is that Global Classrooms offers an in-depth curriculum beyond that of participating in a Model UN conference. While Global Classrooms has served as the initial avenue for better connecting students and social studies with the world, many of the ideas can be adapted to any social studies focus. What initiatives such as Global Classrooms offer is that context and connection often missing from traditional compartmentalized social studies curriculum. The local connection to the world and U. S history in context to world history are often ignored for the sake of memorizing the essentials (dates and dead people). Fortunately, many historians such as Zinn (2005), Foner (1999), Bender (2006), and Reichard (2008) challenge this have stressed the need to engage in critical historical investigation through a global lens.

2

Globalization

I am pretty sure that we are not engaging our students deeply enough in the critical investigation of globalization within our social studies classrooms. The world seems to accept the idea that globalization is defined as the growing interconnectedness of the world. I suggest that not only is this too narrow an © koninklijke brill nv, leiden, 2018 | doi 10.1163/9789004364622_016

Local to Global

139

approach, but like much else in schools, it is only a very simplistic definition of a quite complex concept. We owe it to our students and future generations to really go further and to deeply embed a critical investigation of globalization. It offers an opportunity to provide the local to global focus – so needed for our students. Globalization means many things to many people. I would suggest that globalization is tied much more to most of the critical issues facing humanity than we are likely to admit. Unbridled rampant capitalism or corporatization in the guise of globalization is quickly usurping nationhood and unique cultures. Many around the world offer Americanization as the culprit, but it is much more than that. It just so happens that at present many of the most powerful corporations call the US home. That matters little anymore what with offices around the world, outsourcing, and tax havens in other countries. We all also know that Japanese car companies for example, are now leading the world in auto production and innovation. Many are writing on globalization, but Thomas Friedman has become the godfather of globalization. Not quite a capitalist apologist, Friedman, nevertheless basically suggests that there is not much we can do about the movement except embrace it and celebrate its potential for facilitating progress (2007). I would suggest that at present, much harm comes from just such an attitude. It allows for dismissing the most heinous aspects including the growing gaps between rich and poor, capitalism usurping democracy as a governing ideology, and the growing influence of corporations over our daily lives. Where in society do we see the debate, especially given the global economic situation? One would think that a variety of social institutions would welcome the debate. Rather, governments embrace globalization with little controversy. Media would be a likely choice as well, but increased conglomeratization of media dispels any deep critique there. Schools may be our last choice! So let’s get to work.

3

Globalizing Pop

If there is any tool that can facilitate a local to global focus in social studies it is popular culture. Not only is popular culture a text that students (really all of us) relate to, it is ripe for critical analysis tied to global issues and globalization. Virtually all popular culture texts including music, movies, television, print, and technology have examples focusing on global issues or have components themselves that deal with global issues or globalization (Crothers, 2007; Silberman-Keller et al., 2008). The success of Avatar is an example of the global influence of popular culture and also an example of popular culture that deals specifically with global issues. The film is one of the most expensive films ever made yet many

140

chapter 16

people, even in “developing” countries, have seen the film. It is also already one of the top grossing films in history. Issues of marketing, funding, and influence of American popular culture can be investigated. On the other hand, the film possesses themes dealing with the environment, corporatization, civil rights, and even can be viewed as a metaphor critical of “American” involvement. All of these issues can be explored in a local to global frame. The oil disaster in the Gulf of Mexico is another example of local to global issues. News coverage and popular culture connections can be investigated in light of global issues. Such as disaster can also easily be connected to the need for local and global awareness and for service to others. Various perspectives regarding environmental issues, offshore drilling, and alternative energy can be debated by looking at print media, online coverage, and television news. The use new technologies such as social networking sites and other web sites in dealing with this issues can also be integrated or discussed. The hotly debated topic of climate change also can be integrated through a local to global framework. There are a variety of films, television shows, print sources, music references, and technology links dealing with climate change. Searching for movies on climate change yielded many examples from An Inconvenient Truth, to Day after Tomorrow (http://www.alternate-energysources.com/green-movies.html). Searches for websites on climate change results in literally thousands of links. Many musical artists such as Michael Jackson, Sting, Green Day, Madonna, Melissa Ethridge, Rise Against, and Jack Johnson have recorded songs dealing with climate change (http://www.last.fm/ group/350+Songs+About+Global+Warming/forum/104456/_/442095). Many local to global issues have specific current connections, but perhaps one of major interest is immigration. Recent films such as Babel, The Visitor, A Day without a Mexican, and You Tube video on recent immigration protests are just examples of immigration themed media. Immigration debates, documentaries, songs, photo montages and immediate news snippets on immigration are all found on YouTube. In addition, many general immigration information websites are also out there; several of which have been used in classrooms during these recent controversies. Some of the best for teaching and learning are Library of Congress, Immigration for Kids, Becoming American, and The New Americans. Additional themes that can be adapted to a local to global framework using popular culture include trade, energy, global aid, travel, volunteerism (service), historical events, and conflict, to name just a few. A quick Google search of global issues results in numerous links that can be investigated. Likewise, a YouTube search of similar themes results in a variety of video examples with numerous perspectives that can be downloaded using programs such as Mediaconverter or Snagit – for use in the classroom.

Local to Global

4

141

Global Citizenship

A key question through all of this is “why should we do this?” For way too long our social studies curriculum has focused on transmitting basic information with few connections. We maintain very similar strategies and texts as 100 years ago. We continue debating liberal and conservative ideology regarding curriculum standards. Our students and their future are more important than personal agendas. “Local to global” is an interesting approach to address in an educational context. Our communities and businesses have been dealing with it for some time. As we continually attempt to improve our teaching and learning adapting social studies curriculum and instruction to a more local to global approach not only helps to connect with our students; it better prepares them as citizens of the 21st century. We are global citizens too!

5

Sample Activities

5.1 Globalization Simulation (Secondary Level) Scenario: You will role play various constituencies regarding the global economic crisis. You are to examine various issues/approaches regarding the global economic crisis, develop a position statement and present your position statement with possible solutions/ideas. Roles: 1 Government Representatives of Developing Nations 2 Government Representatives of Developed Nations 3 Citizens/Consumers of Developing Nations 4 Citizens/Consumers of Developed Nations 5 Multinational Corporations 6 United Nations Representatives Procedures: 1 You are charged to brainstorm important problems/issues regarding the global economic crisis. 2 Prioritize issues/approaches and decide on 2–3 to work on. 3 Develop position/proposal statements on global economic crisis. 4 Present your position/proposal statements for discussion. 5 Debate proposals & vote on most appropriate solutions for the problem.

142

chapter 16

5.2 Interdependence Unit (Elementary Level) Day 1 1 Display a map or a globe. 2 Ask: What does it mean to be connected to other people? How are we connected to other people and countries of the world? 3 Have students conduct a survey of cars or labels on clothes. – Determine where items originate. – Provide other examples. – Show locations on world map. 4 Ask: Why are these countries producers and others not? Introduce the term interdependence and ask how we are dependent on others. 5 Read It Takes a Village by Cowen-Fletcher. 6 Ask: What does the last line mean? How is this interdependence? 7 Extension: Have students conduct a survey of technology, food at home to share. 8 Conclude by asking students to state what they learned. Day 2 1 Ask: How is the world wonderful? How are we alike and different? 2 Read the book What a Wonderful World, play the song by Louis Armstrong. 3 Have groups create murals showing how the world is wonderful to them. Display. 4 Read the book People, by Peter Spier. 5 Have students create Venn Diagrams comparing similarities and differences in groups. 6 Conclude by asking students what they learned. Day 3 1 Ask: Does the world have any problems? What are some examples? 2 Read Butter Battle Book by Dr. Seuss. 3 Have students create individual conclusions to the story. Choices might be drawing, writing a story or poem, creating a puppet show or skit, etc. 4 Have students share conclusions in groups. Have each group decide on the most appropriate conclusion to share with the rest of class. 5 Ask students to provide a rationale for their decisions. 6 Read Oh, the Thinks You Can Think by Dr. Seuss and discuss meaning. 7 Conclude by asking students what they learned. Day 4 1 Review problems discussed in class the day before.

Local to Global

143

2 Read the books Just A Dream by Chris Van Alsburg and The Lorax by Dr. Seuss.Have students create solutions art responses. 3 Introduce the computer simulation “Environment” by Tom Snyder. (other programs that could be used include Simearth, Race to Save the Planet) 4 Engage in the simulation with students role playing and making decisions regarding environmental issues. 5 Debrief: Discuss other environmental issues and possible solutions. 6 Have students write on one environmental issue giving possible solutions. 7 Conclude by asking students what they learned. Day 5–10 1 Inform students that they will be conducting a Planetary Problem Solving Convention. Students will role play experts on various issues using the jigsaw approach. 2 Have student groups pick a problem to research and present possible solutions. Students should be in groups of 2 or 3. Integrate inquiry procedures. Have access to library, internet, databases, and atlases. 3 Share information and problems in jigsaw groups. 4 Have student groups create posters, videos, skits, panel discussions to provide background to convention. 5 Conduct convention and vote on solutions. Teacher will need to establish rules and procedures. 6 Debrief and conclude by asking students what they learned.

References Bender, T. (2006). A nation among nations… New York, NY: Hill & Wang. Crothers, L. (2007). Globalization and American popular culture. New York, NY: Rowman & Littlefield. Foner, E. (1999). The story of American freedom. New York, NY: W.W. Norton. Friedman, T. (2007). The world is flat. New York, NY: Picador. Reichard, G., & Dixon, T. (2008). America on the world stage. Champagne, IL: University of Illinois Press. Silberman-Keller, D., Bekerman, Z., Grioux, H., & Burbules, N. (2008). Mirror images: Popular culture and education. New York, NY: Peter Lang. Zinn, H. (2005). A people’s history of the United States. New York, NY: Harper.

Chapter 17

Latin Americanizing the Curriculum 1

Introduction

– What would the US be without the influence of Latin American culture? – What are the great influences from Latin America? – How can we improve the Latin Americanizing of teaching and learning? Fortunately, the US generally celebrates its “Latin Americanness” for the most part. And while we appreciate the influences from Latin America, we often perpetuate stereotypes or belittle the culture and issues in other ways. We all love our TexMex, Tejano music, and other Hispanic influences, but when it comes to language, Mexican American or Latino/a Studies, or immigration issues, things get controversial. And while the U. S will ssomeday have a majority Hispanic population, there are growing issues of gentrification, resegregation, poverty, and other social justice issues in our society. Because of these ongoing issues, I adapted social studies into social education some year ago in attempt to rethink what we might do in teaching and learning when it comes to culture and history. I was tired of narrow conceptions of history; I was tired of only the winner’s version; I was tired of only exceptionalism; and I was tired of many of the lies we perpetuated. Social education may seem only a semantic diatribe to some – but to others it means celebrating diversity, allowing for questions and controversy, and addressing issues of equity and social justice in social studies and history education. As part of this evolution, a few years ago I started a program called “Latin Americanizing the Curriculum.” A goal was to localize social studies and history through a present to past approach by exploring current culture and issues through course development, study abroad, and integration into preservice and in-service teacher education. Granted that this only an “ivory tower” endeavor at this point, but educators at all levels have been involved.

2

Latin Americanizing

The project began when three University of Houston professors, one from History, one from English and one from Education developed and internal program to Latin American the Curriculum at UH. English, History, and © koninklijke brill nv, leiden, 2018 | doi 10.1163/9789004364622_017

Latin Americanizing the Curriculum

145

Education courses were developed with such themes professional development was offered to local related cultural experiences. Along with integrating Hispanic themes in social education courses, a summer project was developed entitled “Latin Americanizing the Curriculum.” The project included the development of a course in global/international education focusing on Latin America and a study abroad experience. The education course was cross-listed with a history courses focusing on a theme in Latin American History. The project has thus far included experiences in Costa Rica, Cuba, Peru and this year in the “motherland” of Spain. Themes for the entire project include local to global contexts, present to past connections, and issues/problem based investigations. The goal is for educators to experience Latin American culture and then to integrate student-centered curriculum and instruction tied to Latin American/Hispanic culture. With all of this in mind, participants are encouraged to develop reflections/personal narratives linked to the experience and include pictures, video, cultural items in curriculum development. Student centered group project-based activities are expected in allowing students to draw connections to local and global themes and issues. The school year then includes follow-up experiences where all are invited that included speakers, films, local events, and general discussions/talks in an attempt to broaden the Latin Americanizing theme. While I understand that study abroad is not possible in most situations, the idea again is to develop an understanding that experiential “doing” of history and social studies facilitates cross-cultural understanding. Allowing students to explore their local environment/community only serves to improve community/citizenship skills. All areas of Texas are greatly influenced by Hispanic culture and thus should be celebrated – art, music, festivals, museums, restaurants, stores, community centers, service learning, schools, churches, neighborhoods, neighbors. Likewise, economic, social, political, and environmental issues should be explored as well.

3

Study Abroad Experiences

The study abroad experiences were each unique and again specifically tied to the Latin Americanizing the Curriculum project. While true cultural immersion cannot occur on 2-week trips, the idea was to experience a broad swath of the culture. Exploring economic, social, political, and environmental issues, as well as playing tourists by visiting unique sites was on the agenda. Modeling the possibilities of developing a learning community both inside and outside

146

chapter 17

the classroom was of particular interest, but also ensuring the integration of these experiences in one’s teaching. 3.1 Costa Rica Primary themes for Costa Rica included natural history, development, and education. This was the first of the project related study abroad experiences thus the focus on learning outside of the classroom and developing a community of learners. Costa Rica added a natural setting that included volcanoes, cloud forests, beach hiking, bird watching, and experiencing a variety of agricultural co-ops. A particular focus with the project is to investigate culture within the context of developing nation status with regarding education, culture, and history within the country as compared to the US. Themes that emerged include the environmental focus, lack of an army, dominance of agriculture and tourism, and cultural issues in the 21st century. Most of the educators left Costa Rica with a desire to stress active learning, community development and engagement, and the importance of culture in both individual and group contexts. 3.2 Cuba We all felt very fortunate to be able to visit Cuba, as the country had only recently been made more open to education tours from the US. Many left for Cuba with stereotypes gained from the media and our educational experiences. Cuba remains for most in the group, one of the most amazing experiences of our lives. Primary themes included again, comparing Cuba and the US, addressing stereotypes, and engaging in cultural experiences. We found an amazing people proud of culture, difference, and a love of English and questions about the US. Unique issues for discussion included the lack of American cultural items, pop culture, or advertising. Comparisons emerged regarding health care, education, and of course US/Cuban relations, including historical issues such as the embargo. 3.3 Peru Peru is so much more than Machu Picchu, Incas and llamas, that seem to dominate our knowledge of the South American country. The wonderful thing is that these cultural examples serve as powerful springboards for a dynamic country offering incredible connections to past and present. The powerful links between past and present, so strong in Peru, enable more natural linkages in comparing or investigating culture. Once again, geography, history, and developing nation status were themes that emerged time and again. Indigenous populations are a strong way to

Latin Americanizing the Curriculum

147

connect the cultures of Latin America with the US, and Peru is an excellent case study. Peru came alive through its vibrant colors found everywhere, on the clothing, in the cities, traveling through the mountains, and on the paths around Machu Picchu. 3.4 Spain An ongoing conversation since the project began focusing on a present to past approach to investigating. One can’t study culture without exploring current culture in light of the past. And the Spanish connection to much of the western hemisphere is just so prevalent that returning to the “mother country seemed appropriate at some point. Spain represents so much influence on Latin America and Texas than culturally, we would be so lacking without it. An exploration of Latin America must be ongoing, and Spain as the “mother country” is quite daunting, just given its history. Much of the history is obviously bigger than life, but experience again, enable growth and understanding. 3.5 The Future Unfortunately, we often generalize all of Latin American culture in teaching and learning so as to exacerbate stereotypes (Gonzalez, 2011; Takaki, 1993). Perhaps a thematic case study approach described within this article is one way to at least introduce culture. Every opportunity must be made to allow students various ways to explore. Fortunately, Hispanic culture is local culture, an localizing the investigation of culture is a strong strategy for ensuring more meaningful connections. Again, much could be done in allowing students to investigate their neighborhoods or larger local community. Mapping cultural influences, especially Hispanic culture in the context of this article, can tell us lots about our past, present, and future.

Popular Culture/Alternative Texts Latin Times – Rankings of Latin American pop culture, etc. http://www.latintimes.com/rankings General Video on Latin American History through Animation http://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=cartoon+history+of+latin+america& qpvt=cartoon+history+of+latin+america&FORM=VDRE

148

chapter 17

Latin America on You Tube http://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=latin+america+on+youtube&qpvt= Latin+America+on+You+tube&FORM=VDRE Top 25 Latin American Films http://www.latintimes.com/top-25-latin-american-movies-all-time-photos133232#slide/2 30 Essential Latin American Films http://www.tasteofcinema.com/2014/30-essential-latin-american-films-youneed-to-watch/ 10 Best Latin American Books http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/10629252/The-10-best-Latin-Americanbooks-of-all-time.html Top 20 Latin American Books http://www.latintimes.com/top-20-latin-american-books-read-you-die-photos133218 Top 35 Latin American Albums http://www.latintimes.com/top-35-latin-american-alternative-albums-alltime-listen-best-songs-photos-133264

Links http://www.clacs.illinois.edu/outreach/k14Educators.aspx http://latinamerica.isp.msu.edu/resources/teaching.htm http://www.loc.gov/teachers/additionalresources/relatedresources/area/ latamer.html http://www.unc.edu/world/latin_am_resources.shtml http://vanderbilt.edu/clas/curriculum-resources/ http://www.brighthubeducation.com/middle-school-social-studies-lessons/ 127689-teaching-latin-america/

Latin Americanizing the Curriculum

149

http://www.historians.org/publications-and-directories/perspectives-onhistory/april-2008/teaching-latin-america-a-comparative-approach

Teaching Culture National Association for Multicultural Education http://nameorg.org/ Rethinking Schools http://www.rethinkingschools.org/index.shtml Teaching History http://teachinghistory.org/ Teaching Tolerance http://www.tolerance.org/ Zinn Education Project http://zinnedproject.org/

References Fernández-Armesto, F. (2014). Our America: A Hispanic history of the United States. New York, NY: W. W. Norton. Gonzalez, J. (2011). Harvest of empire. New York, NY: Penguin. Loewen, J. W. (2007). Lies my teacher told me: Everything your high school history textbook got wrong. New York, NY: The New Press. Loewen, J. W. (2010). Teaching what really happened: How to avoid the tyranny of textbooks. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Stavans, I., & Alcaraz, L. (2012). Latino, USA: A cartoon history. New York, NY: Basic Books. Takaki, R. (1993). A different mirror: A history of multicultural America. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company. Williamson, E. (2010). The penguin history of Latin America. New York, NY: Penguin. Zinn, H. (2000). A people’s history of the U.S. New York, NY: Haper-Row.

APPENDIX 1

Global/International Education Syllabus Instructor Office Hours: Office: Mailbox: ADA Statement When possible, and in accordance with 504/ADA guidelines, we will attempt to provide reasonable academic accommodations to students who request and require them. Please call the Center for Students with DisABILITIES at ext. 3-5400 for more assistance. Students are expected to abide by the university’s academic honesty policy in all matters concerning this course. (http://www.uh.edu/dos/hdbk/acad/ achonpol.html). Required Texts Online as assigned (links and readings provided online) Choice readings for class projects Website for Course Blackboard will be used for the class which is cross listed as CUIN 4397/6397/8397 Global/International Education. You can find that through accessuh.uh.edu Social Education Program Statement Social Education is comprised of history/social studies education, cultural/ international studies, and critical pedagogy – all through a social justice lens. The Social Education program area’s goals and objectives focus on “powerful” teaching and learning of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are meaningful, integrated, challenging, value-based, and active; this, in turn, supports the UH College of Education conceptual framework of Collaboration for Learning and Leading. Each Social Education course integrates curriculum, © koninklijke brill nv, leideN, 2018 | DOI 10.1163/9789004364622_18

152

appendix 1

instruction, assessment, issues and themes that model and support critical constructivist approaches that facilitate collaboration for learning and leading.

1

Course Description and Gaols

This course is offered as an opportunity to enhance the relevance of Social Education by focusing on global and international education. The idea is that the participants will engage in a critical constructivist endeavor through the investigation of regions, countries, or themes in global/international education. The members of the class will therefore construct meaning as a community of learners as the course progresses. The first week serves as introduction to global/international education focusing on the required text for the class and other links/readings as assigned.

2

Course Requirements

2.1 Daily Activities Students will engage in a variety of online activities in order to critically analyze “global/international education” based on readings, experiences, and discussions. The primary focus of the course will be students’ individual research interest tied to global/international and connections. 2.2 Global/International Education Choice Theme Presentation Students will develop a project focused on global/international connections with a chosen individual research interest. Students will choose a region, country or broader global/international education theme to investigate. Students will then develop and post an online presentation providing readings, links, questions, etc. on the topic investigated. Students will facilitate online discussion on the day assigned. 2.3 Localizing Global/International Education Project Students will investigate opportunities for localizing global/international education in Houston. Students will investigate online and in person a minimum of 3 organizations, events, experiences that localized global/ international education. Organizations include consulates, cultural organization, cultural sites, festivals, etc. Students will then develop a synthesis of the investigation including a summary, critical analysis, and application (3–5 pages).

153

Global/International Education Syllabus

2.4 Global/International Education Synthesis Paper Students will develop a paper that synthesizes the global/international education investigation and links to individual research interests. The paper could be a literature review including 3–5 themes discovered with a summary, context/connections, and analysis (5+ pages). Assessments All projects must be completed to the satisfaction of the class and instructor for students to receive an A. Sample General Rubric creativity and effort planning, procedures, and organization challenging beyond knowledge and comprehension application (student-centered) professionalism and unique project components

Online Participation Choice Theme Presentation Localizing Project Synthesis Paper

360 – 400 320 – 359 280 – 319 240 – 279 239 and below

20 20 20 20 20 100 100 pts 100 pts 100 pts 100 pts 400 pts

A B C D F

Participation Participation is absolutely vital in a class such as this. It is your professional responsibility to participate meaningfully in the course. Your final grade will be greatly affected by your participation.

3

Resources

Readings What is Global Education? http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/nscentre/GE/GE-Guidelines/GEgs-chap1.pdf

154

appendix 1

Global Education as Good Pedagogy http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/758 Global Education Perspectives http://www.educ.ualberta.ca/css/Css_38_3/ARburnouf_global_awareness_ perspectives.htm Diversity, Identity, and Citizenship Education in a Global Age (will need UH library log in) http://edr.sagepub.com.ezproxy.lib.uh.edu/content/37/3/129.full Equitable, Inclusive and Free Education http://campaignforeducation.org/docs/post2015/GCE_POST2015_FINAL_ GOAL_EN.pdf Civil Society and the Right to Education http://www.campaignforeducation.org/docs/csef/CLADE%20Lessons%20 Learned%20-%20Casos%20EPDF%20Final_INGLES_baixa.pdf General Introductory Links http://www.globaleducation.edu.au/ http://www.globaleducationfirst.org/ http://globaled.us/ Links Harvard Dialogues on Global Education http://www.gse.harvard.edu/blog/think-tank-global-ed/ Organizations and Reports Scroll to see National and International Organization and Reports http://globalwa.org/strengthen/resources/education-and-global-engagement/ Global Campaign for Education http://www.campaignforeducation.org/en/ Teach UNICEF http://teachunicef.org/ Education Beyond Borders http://www.educationbeyondborders.org/

Global/International Education Syllabus

NEA – Global Education Resources http://www.nea.org/home/37409.htm World Savvy http://worldsavvy.org/ Model UN – UNA-USA http://unausa.org/global-classrooms-model-un/for-educators/resources UNESCO https://en.unesco.org/ UNICEF http://www.unicef.org/ Global Education Magazine http://www.globaleducationmagazine.com/ Global Education First http://www.globaleducationfirst.org/ Global Partnership for Education http://www.globalpartnership.org/

155

APPENDIX 2

Global/International Education Introductory Themes and Survey Global/Comparative/International Education Culturally Responsive Pedagogy/Cultural Studies Diversity and Inclusion Equity and Social Justice Local to Global Contexts Civic Engagement/Rights and Responsibilities Teaching, Scholarship, Service Planning/Organization Awareness, Advocacy, Activism, Assessment Partnerships Focus Projects

International Education Survey How important is international education to you?

What does international education mean to you?

How does international education articulate with current educational practice?

What are specific ideas and issues regarding international education? What kind of projects are of interest/need?

How can scholarship/research, teaching, and service be integrated into international education projects?

© koninklijke brill nv, leiden, 2018 | doi 10.1163/9789004364622_19

Global/International Education

157

How might international education address equity and social justice issues, local to global contexts, and education “reform”?

Other?

APPENDIX 3

Sample International Agreement GRADUATE CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT CONSULTING AGREEMENT Between HO CHI MINH CITY UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION Vietnam And UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON Houston, Texas, USA PART I PREAMBLE Ho Chi Minh City University of Education (HCMCUE) is one of the two key Universities of Pedagogy in Vietnam. It was awarded by the President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in 1986 a third class Labour Decoration, in 1996 a first class Labour Decoration and in 2007 a third class Independent Decoration. The mission of HCMCUE is to supply teachers with Bachelor’s degrees for a variety of schools such as senior high schools, elementary schools and kindergartens; to train teachers, administrators and researchers in education with bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral degrees; to provide continuing and inservice training for teachers of different backgrounds in the education system; and to study theoretical and experimental issues and apply educational and fundamental sciences in educational, social and economic activities for the development of Vietnam. The University of Houston (UH) is a member of the University of Houston System, a public university system in the State of Texas. UH is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS), and the College of Education (UH-COE) is accredited by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, the premier accreditation body for colleges of education across the United States. Founded in 1927, UH is a doctorate-granting tier one research institution located in the vibrant international city of Houston, Texas, the fourth largest city in the United States and home to a diverse, multicultural population. UH is the one of the most ethnically diverse research institutions in the United States. UH-COE works to shape and staff educational systems that are responsive to our rapidly changing society. UH-COE prepares teachers, counselors, psychologists, © koninklijke brill nv, leiden, 2018 | doi 10.1163/9789004364622_20

Sample International Agreement

159

school and higher education administrators and professionals for a variety of educational settings, including work in social agencies, medical facilities, businesses, and government posts. UH-COE offers students both a broad range of innovative programs and the opportunity to learn about recent developments in educational practice and thought. The university’s urban setting also offers students the opportunity to work with learners in a variety of settings. UH-COE is home to the Department of Curriculum and Instruction and the Department of Educational Psychology as well as several centers and institutes. A pacesetter in online education, UH has received numerous awards for producing educational television programs, conducting video conferences, and developing content rich Web sites. In 2007, UH-COE won the prestigious “Distinguished Program in Teacher Education” from the Association of Teacher Educators. Both HCMCUE and UH-COE are committed to providing educational opportunities for students, which lead to a purposeful, gratifying and useful life. Both institutions recognize the value of institutional linkages and international interactions to bring mutual benefits to the quality of their human resources and their countries. In addition, both institutions also recognize that their collaborative efforts will be of mutual benefit and can contribute to a model of international linkage, and technical and scholarly assistance. Because the purposes, goals and missions of HCMCUE and UH-COE are compatible, the institutions and their students will derive significant benefits through activities of cooperation and the sharing of information and expertise. In sharing this commitment and philosophy, and in accordance with a mutual desire to develop cooperative educational programs, HCMCUE and UHCOE are now prepared to enter into this Graduate Curriculum Development Consulting Agreement (this “Agreement”). PART II GRADUATE CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT CONSULTING AGREEMENT WHEREAS: HCMCUE expresses its interest in seeking consulting support from UHCOE to modernize and internationalize its curriculum by establishing a 1+1 Master’s Degree Program with the intent that the credits earned from HCMCUE 1+1 program will be equivalent to those earned at UH-COE; and It is hereby agreed that UH-COE encourages and supports this endeavour, and enters into this Agreement with HCMCUE as specified in the following objectives, each party’s descriptions of roles, and other terms and conditions:

160

appendix 3

OBJECTIVES: – To develop consulting relationships between HCMCUE and UH-COE in which HCMCUE will implement UH-COE’s plan of studies with the intent that the first six courses of the pgoram offered at HCMCUE (“Stage 1”) are equivalent in content and rigor to those offered at UH-COE. – To provide consultation from UH to HCMCUE in training its faculty to take on higher challenges of a 1+1 program. – To build positive relationships, mutual understanding, and goodwill between HCMCUE and UH-COE as well as the respective peoples, cities and countries. UH-COE’S ROLE UH-COE acknowledges that its role is to act in association with HCMCUE for the purposes described above. To fulfil its role, UH-COE will: – Provide to HCMCUE course descriptions and course syllabi for a common set of six courses for the degree program. The mutually agreed upon programs are listed below. Additional programs may be added as resources permit at the interest of HCMCUE. – Master’s of Education Degree in Curriculum and Instruction, emphasis in: ○ Teaching English as a Second Language ○ Social/ Cultural Education ○ Educational Leadership ○ Instructional Technology ○ Literacy Education – Inform HCMCUE on a timely basis of curricular changes and facilitate any program modifications required as a result. – Provide a UH Certificate of Completion for Stage I of the joint Master’s Degree Program to students completing all six courses at HCMCUE with a minimum grade point average equivalent to 3.0 and no course grade lower than a B-. There will be a UH-COE administrative fee for this certificate to be paid for by HCMCUE, currently at a cost of $50. – Admit HCMCUE students who have earned a UH Certificate of Completion and who have met all admission standards in effect at the time of their application to the Master’s Degree Program in Curriculum and Instruction. – Notify students who have been admitted to the Master’s Degree Program in Curriculum and Instruction before May 1st for fall semester and before

Sample International Agreement

161

November 1st for spring semester. Upon receiving the acceptance from the student within 30 days of the notification, UH will process the application of the I-20 form. Upon approval from the US Immigration Office, UH will mail the I-20 form to the student in a timely manner, contingent upon the student’s successful completion of the six courses at HCMCUE. Students are required to register at UH-COE before the opening of the semester and attend the new students’ orientation at UH-COE. – Approve three hours of transfer graduate credit in the Master’s Degree Program in Curriculum and Instruction for each course completed with a final grade of B- or higher in Stage 1 of the joint 1+1 Master’s Degree Program at HCMCUE, up to a maximum of six courses and a maximum of 18 hours of transfer graduate credit. – Conduct the second year of study for the Master’s Degree Program in the five identified academic areas. – Provide regular and appropriate information to HCMCUE regarding the performance of HCMCUE’s graduates.

HCMCUE’S ROLE HCMCUE acknowledges that its role is to act in association with UH-COE for the above purposes and that its primary role is to offer courses for the first year of study that are equivalent to those offered by UH-COE. In order to assure that the courses are equivalent to courses offered at UH-COE, HCMCUE will: – Ensure that all students enrolled in this program have earned a fouryear bachelor’s degree from an institution approved by the Vietnamese government. – Structure the six courses associated with this Agreement such that the content and expectations for student performance are equivalent to the content and expectations for student performance in similar courses at UHCOE. – Require all students to take English as a Second Language or TOEFLpreparation courses, such that they are able to take the Educational Testing Service (ETS) issued TOEFL exam or the official IELTS exam and achieve an acceptable score (550 on paper-based TOEFL, 79 on iBT; or 6.0 on IELTS). – Promote an English-speaking environment in which English is the language of instruction and English is used in the classroom by all students when communicating with professors and with peers.

162

appendix 3

– Prepare students for the Graduate Record Exam (GRE) exam before they take the exam as part of their application to the Master’s Degree Program in Curriculum and Instruction at UH-COE. – Ensure that all instructors teaching in the program at HCMCUE are appropriately qualified and sufficiently up to date in their disciplines of teaching. Each instructor must possess at least a doctoral degree in their discipline of teaching. All of the course hours must be taught by faculty members holding the terminal—usually the earned doctorate—in the discipline, or the equivalent of the terminal degree. – Maintain appropriate academic records in English for each student to facilitate and clarify eligibility when students apply for admission to the Master’s Degree Program at UH-COE. – Allow UH-COE access to all academic records, students, classes, instructors and staff members in the program in an annual academic-equivalency assessment detailed in the Other Terms and Conditions section of this Agreement. The focus of the assessment is to determine whether the quality of instruction at HCMCUE is equivalent to that at UH-COE. The first annual assessment begins two years after the program is implemented, and HCMCUE must correct all deficiencies reported by the assessor (an academically qualified person) within twelve months after receiving a notice of deficiencies from UH-COE.

ACADEMIC AFFILIATION This Agreement is designed for UH-COE to consult and assist HCMCUE in adopting English language based curricula only and does not imply any formal affiliation with UH-COE or accreditation of HCMCUE by SACS: Commission on Colleges. Both UH-COE and HCMCUE agree that: – UH-COE is accredited by SACS to award Master’s Degrees in numerous disciplines. HCMCUE is not accredited by SACS, and the accreditation of UHCOE does not extend to or include HCMCUE or its students. HCMCUE must include a disclaimer that HCMCUE is not accredited by SACS in all publications in which the name “UH-COE” and its SACS accreditation status appear. Although UH-COE accepts in transfer equivalent courses taught by HCMCUE, other colleges and universities may not accept these courses in transfer. – All faculty members and other employees of HCMCUE are employed by HCMCUE and not by UH-COE. UH-COE has no financial, contractual, or any other obligation to any employee of HCMCUE.

Sample International Agreement

163

– HCMCUE assumes full responsibility for the academic success of students enrolled in the program. – This Agreement does not restrict HCMCUE students from attending other institutions. HCMCUE students who want to attend UH-COE must have earned a UH Certificate of Completion and must meet all UH-COE applicable admission requirements in effect at the time the students apply. – UH-COE’s entering into this Agreement does not necessarily imply approval or endorsement by UH-COE of academic programs offered by HCMCUE.

OTHER TERMS AND CONDITIONS Academic-Equivalency Assessment Beginning two years after the program is implemented, UH-COE will conduct an annual academic-equivalency assessment. This assessment is used to determine whether the quality of instruction at HCMCUE is equivalent to that at UH-COE. This assessment will include considerations of quality of instruction, course content, assessment methods, and student performance. HCMCUE must correct all deficiencies reported by the assessor (an academically qualified person) within twelve months after receiving a notice of deficiencies from UH-COE. Costs of This Program All costs incurred as a result of this Agreement after Year 1 will be borne by HCMCUE. Such costs typically include international travel by UH-COE faculty members to conduct the annual academic-equivalency assessment, program administration costs, office supplies, communication expenses, postage and shipping of relevant materials, photocopying, facsimile and other costs directly used for support of this Agreement. Year 1 Program Costs and Conditions In order to promote the beginning of this initiative, both parties agree to share the administrative cost equally for the first year of the program. UH-COE and HCMCUE will provide $2,500 each at the beginning of Year 1. This money would provide travel funds for at least two professors from UHCOE to visit the University of Education in Ho Chi Minh City for one week to promote the program and meet with the professors who will be teaching the courses in Vietnam. In addition, while these faculty members are in Vietnam, they could also deliver workshops for faculty and students. Preferably, this first visit should be conducted before the program begins in Vietnam.

164

appendix 3

Subsequent Years Program Costs and Conditions In following years, HCMCUE will pay the total cost of $5,000 USD annually for the cost of conducting the assessment and other support. UH-COE faculty will continue to conduct the annual academic-equivalency assessment as a part of the annual visit as well as continue to deliver workshops as needed. References to This Academic Partnership in Publications This Agreement authorizes HCMCUE to reference this academic partnership and to display official logos in publications and marketing efforts, provided that UH-COE provides its prior written consent for use of its logos. Program Coordinators Two program coordinators, one from HCMCUE and one from UH-COE, are appointed to manage and run the program, and they are: Term of This Agreement The term of this Agreement will begin upon full execution by the parties’ authorized representatives and end on January 1, 2021, unless terminated earlier pursuant to the term of this Agreement or extended by mutual written agreement of the parties. Termination A party will be in default of this Agreement if such party fails to comply with a material obligation in this Agreement and such failure continues for thirty (30) days after receiving written notice from the non-defaulting party. In the event of default, the non-defaulting party, upon written notice to the defaulting party, may terminate this Agreement as of the date specified in the notice. Should either party find it necessary to terminate this Agreement without cause, the other party shall be informed in writing a minimum of six months in advance. If this Agreement is terminated by either party, then any student who has been admitted to the UH-COE program prior to the notice of termination may have the opportunity to complete the program in accordance with the terms of this Agreement. Miscellaneous UH-COE’s obligations in this Agreement and those in any future definitive agreements between the parties related to the program are conditioned upon approval of all such agreements and related programs by the following, as applicable: (i) UH’s Board of Regents; (ii) the Southern Association of Colleges

165

Sample International Agreement

and Schools; and (iii) any other approvals required by the laws of the State of Texas and the United States. This Agreement constitutes the entire agreement between the parties with respect to the subject matter hereof, and supersedes all prior contracts, agreements, representations and understandings made by the parties relating to such subject matter. Nothing in this Agreement will be construed or deemed to constitute a partnership, joint venture, employee or agency relationship between UH-COE and HCMCUE. Notwithstanding anything in this Agreement, a party shall at no time underwrite or guarantee or be in any way directly or indirectly responsible or deemed to be responsible for all or any of the debts, liabilities or obligations incurred by the other party. Modification to the terms of this Agreement may be implemented by written amendment signed by the authorized representatives of both institutions. This Agreement has been prepared in both English and Vietnamese, two certified copies per language. Each party will have two copies, one in each language, and they have equivalent value. Notwithstanding the foregoing, in the event of any inconsistency between the English and Vietnamese versions, the English version will prevail. Signed on behalf of ________________________________

Signed on behalf of ____________________________________

APPENDIX 4

United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights Simplified Version 1 We Are All Born Free & Equal. We are all born free. We all have our own thoughts and ideas. We should all be treated in the same way. 2 Don’t Discriminate. These rights belong to everybody, whatever our differences. 3 The Right to Life. We all have the right to life, and to live in freedom and safety. 4 No Slavery. Nobody has any right to make us a slave. We cannot make anyone our slave. 5 No Torture. Nobody has any right to hurt us or to torture us. 6 You Have Rights No Matter Where You Go. I am a person just like you! 7 We’re All Equal Before the Law. The law is the same for everyone. It must treat us all fairly. 8 Your Human Rights Are Protected by Law. We can all ask for the law to help us when we are not treated fairly. 9 No Unfair Detainment. Nobody has the right to put us in prison without good reason and keep us there, or to send us away from our country. 10 The Right to Trial. If we are put on trial this should be in public. The people who try us should not let anyone tell them what to do. 11 We’re Always Innocent Till Proven Guilty. Nobody should be blamed for doing something until it is proven. When people say we did a bad thing we have the right to show it is not true. 12 The Right to Privacy. Nobody should try to harm our good name. Nobody has the right to come into our home, open our letters, or bother us or our family without a good reason. 13 Freedom to Move. We all have the right to go where we want in our own country and to travel as we wish. 14 The Right to Seek a Safe Place to Live. If we are frightened of being badly treated in our own country, we all have the right to run away to another country to be safe. 15 Right to a Nationality. We all have the right to belong to a country.

© koninklijke brill nv, leiden, 2018 | doi 10.1163/9789004364622_21

UNITED NATIONS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS

167

16 Marriage and Family. Every grown-up has the right to marry and have a family if they want to. Men and women have the same rights when they are married, and when they are separated. 17 The Right to Your Own Things. Everyone has the right to own things or share them. Nobody should take our things from us without a good reason. 18 Freedom of Thought. We all have the right to believe in what we want to believe, to have a religion, or to change it if we want. 19 Freedom of Expression. We all have the right to make up our own minds, to think what we like, to say what we think, and to share our ideas with other people. 20 The Right to Public Assembly. We all have the right to meet our friends and to work together in peace to defend our rights. Nobody can make us join a group if we don’t want to. 21 The Right to Democracy. We all have the right to take part in the government of our country. Every grown-up should be allowed to choose their own leaders. 22 Social Security. We all have the right to affordable housing, medicine, education, and childcare, enough money to live on and medical help if we are ill or old. 23 Workers’ Rights. Every grown-up has the right to do a job, to a fair wage for their work, and to join a trade union. 24 The Right to Play. We all have the right to rest from work and to relax. 25 Food and Shelter for All. We all have the right to a good life. Mothers and children, people who are old, unemployed or disabled, and all people have the right to be cared for. 26 The Right to Education. Education is a right. Primary school should be free. We should learn about the United Nations and how to get on with others. Our parents can choose what we learn. 27 Copyright. Copyright is a special law that protects one’s own artistic creations and writings; others cannot make copies without permission. We all have the right to our own way of life and to enjoy the good things that art, science and learning bring. 28 A Fair and Free World. There must be proper order so we can all enjoy rights and freedoms in our own country and all over the world. 29 Responsibility. We have a duty to other people, and we should protect their rights and freedoms. 30 No One Can Take Away Your Human Rights.

Reference http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/

Index 21st century xxiii, xxv, 6, 7, 10, 18, 21, 30, 33, 34, 38, 49, 53, 54, 58, 73, 79, 83, 86, 87, 108, 111, 112, 121, 127, 128, 141, 146 Action research 18, 79−83, 111, 112, 126 Activism xi, xvi, 2, 7, 12, 22, 25, 29–31, 36, 38, 39, 50, 59, 67, 70, 86, 96, 122, 125−128 Americanization 92, 139 Asia 63, 72−77, 93, 101, 106 Bricolage 3, 26, 122 Capitalism xvii, 3, 6, 7, 27, 29, 30, 33, 38, 58, 59, 67, 86, 92, 123, 126, 127, 131, 139 Case study 13, 19−21, 61−63, 73, 78, 85−96, 117−121, 126, 128, 147 Center for International Education xiii China 13, 19−21, 73, 74, 78, 92, 93, 95, 100−108, 110−114 Citizenship education xx, xxii–xxiv, 53−56, 154 Civic engagement xxii, xxiii, xxv, 1, 25, 53, 117 Classroom management 18, 82 Collaboration x, xvi, xxii, 11, 14, 16, 19, 20, 34, 49, 59, 61, 68, 69, 80, 85, 92, 101, 104−106, 111, 112, 151, 152 Community xvi, xvii, xxii, xxv, 2, 7, 9, 12, 13, 18, 20, 30, 33, 39, 49, 50, 53, 54, 58, 67−71, 74, 79, 80, 83, 86, 87, 90, 103, 112, 119, 121, 128, 130, 145−147, 152 Comparative education 17, 42, 78, 82, 101, 102, 106, 107, 110 Conflict resolution xxi, xxii, 40, 49, 50 Constructivism 14, 22, 61, 152 Consumerism 63, 92 Corporatization 3, 6, 30, 38, 86, 88, 92, 118, 120, 127, 139, 140 Critical pedagogy xvi, xix, xxiv, xxv, 1, 2, 6, 26−28, 37, 69, 70, 118, 122−124, 151 Critical qualitative research x, xxv, 1−7, 11−14, 16, 27, 28, 30, 35, 112, 118, 122−128 Cultural diversity 10, 28, 34, 59, 88, 115, 131 Cultural studies xvi, xxiv, xxv, 1, 2, 6, 19, 26−28, 70, 85, 101, 122−124

Culturally responsive pedagogy xviii, 7, 26, 30, 38, 45−50, 86, 122, 128 Culture x, xi, xvi, xviii, xix, xxi, xxii, 1, 3, 10, 11, 15, 17, 19−22, 25, 27, 28, 34−36, 40, 45−49, 58−60, 62, 64, 69, 70, 73−75, 78, 81, 85, 88, 91, 96, 100−103, 105, 106, 110, 111, 113−115, 120, 123, 124, 131−133, 138−140, 144−149 Current issues xvi, xxiv, 2, 47, 70, 71, 120, 135 Curriculum x, xvi, xix, xxii, 2, 6, 9, 11, 13−18, 20, 27, 28, 31, 33, 34, 37−39, 47−49, 54, 55, 58, 60−64, 70, 72, 73, 78, 82, 83, 87, 89–91, 93−95, 100, 101, 104, 106−108, 110, 112, 114, 117−119, 121, 123, 124, 128, 130, 138, 141, 144−149, 151, 158−162 Duncan-Andrade, J. 51 EdD 19, 20, 102−104, 107, 108, 110−115, 117−128 Educational leadership 51, 93, 104, 107, 110−112, 114, 160 Epistemology 29, 126 Equity xxii, xxiv, xxv, 1, 3−7, 13, 14, 23, 25−31, 38, 39, 48, 49, 86, 117−124, 126−128, 144 Ethnocentrism xxii, 28, 53, 123, 124, 130 Europe 56 Exceptionalism xxii, 9, 28, 33, 39, 53, 87, 107, 124, 144 Freire, P. xxiv, 7, 25, 30, 38, 70, 86, 118, 128 Fulbright xii, 105 Gay, G. xviii, xxiv, 30, 45, 46, 118 Giroux, H. x, xxiv, 30, 40, 70, 118 Global citizenship xi, xxiv, 14, 22, 28, 36, 53−56, 58, 59, 61, 64, 96, 124, 133, 141 Global classrooms 13−16, 50, 58−65, 95, 138 Global Studies Foundation xii History education xviii, xxi, xxv, 6, 27, 28, 32−40, 45−49, 72, 74, 91, 123, 124, 144 Houston xvi, 13, 15, 16, 21, 61−63, 69, 74, 93, 100, 101, 104, 117, 118, 121, 128, 144, 152, 158

index Ideology 3, 120, 122, 139, 141 Imperialism 2, 26, 28, 59, 122, 124, 131 Institute of International Education xiii, 42 Instruction x, xix, xxii, 6, 11, 13, 18, 20, 27, 28, 31, 35, 37, 39, 47−49, 54, 60, 64, 72, 78, 89−91, 93, 94, 100−102, 104, 106, 108, 114, 117−119, 121, 123, 124, 128, 130, 133, 141, 145, 152, 159, 160−163 Interdependence xxiv, 63, 115, 142 International education x–xiii, xvi–xviii, xxiv, xxv, 9−11, 19, 20, 22, 32−36, 41, 42, 58, 59, 78, 79, 85, 87−96, 100, 101, 103, 106, 107, 111, 114, 145, 151−157 Internationalizing x–xiii, 9−23, 32−42, 59, 78−83, 85−96, 100−108, 110−115 Kincheloe, J. xi, xxiv, 3, 5, 22, 29, 30, 36, 64, 70, 96, 117, 118, 122, 126, 133 Latin America 78, 144−149 Lessons and activities 49 Literature review 153 Loewen, J. xvii, xviii, xxiv, 40, 46, 70 Master’s degree 93, 159−162 McLaren, P. xxiv, 3, 70, 122 Media xvi, xvii, xxii, xxiv, 1, 2, 6, 9, 20, 26−28, 33, 47, 58, 60, 70, 73−75, 85, 86, 103, 105, 111, 113, 122−124, 130, 132, 139, 140, 146 Merryfield, M. x, 10, 34, 40, 88, 131 Model United Nations 14, 15, 60, 62, 63, 73, 95, 138 Multicultural education x, 11, 34, 59, 78, 111, 149 Music x, 11, 35, 47, 59, 60, 75, 77, 130−136, 139, 140, 144, 145 NAFSA xiii, 42 Narrative inquiry 100, 117, 126 Objectivity 3, 26, 28, 122, 123, 125 Oppression 3, 123 Parker, W. xxiii PhD 117−128 Place-based education 67, 71 Political and social issues xvi, xx, xxi, 6, 25, 27, 28, 33, 40, 50, 54, 69, 71, 87, 124, 125, 134, 135, 145

169 Popular culture xvi, xxii, 47, 58−60, 69, 70, 72−75, 85, 131−133, 138−140, 147 Practitioner 80 Qualitative research x, xxv, 1−7, 11−14, 16, 27, 28, 30, 35, 79, 112, 118, 122−128 Reflective practice 80 Rethinking Schools 55, 149 Schools x, xv, xvi, xviii–xxi, xxiii–xxv, 1, 2, 4, 6, 9−11, 13−16, 19, 20, 26, 30, 33−37, 40, 46, 48−51, 53−55, 58−62, 64, 67−70, 79, 87, 88, 90, 91, 94, 101−104, 110, 111, 114, 115, 120, 121, 123, 127, 130−132, 138, 139, 145, 149, 158, 159, 165, 167 Self-study 3, 5, 9, 79, 80, 84, 126 Service learning xxv, 2, 56, 67, 70, 145 Simulations xix, 14–16, 37, 50, 60−62, 64, 141, 143 Social education 1, 2, 9, 10, 12−14, 16, 19, 22, 25−30, 67−71, 87, 101, 122, 123, 127, 144, 145, 151, 152 Social justice xi, xvi, xviii–xxii, xxiv, xxv, 1−7, 12−14, 19, 22, 23, 25−31, 36−40, 48, 49, 54, 70, 86, 95, 117−128, 144, 151, 156, 157 Social studies x, xv–xxi, xxiii–xxv, 10, 11, 15, 19, 26−28, 32−40, 45−49, 53, 54, 58, 60, 62, 67, 69−72, 74, 75, 101, 107, 122−124, 130−133, 138, 139, 141, 144, 145, 151 Steinberg, S. 3, 11, 118, 122 Study abroad 13, 78, 88, 95, 101, 108, 110, 144−147 Teaching Tolerance 51, 55, 149 Teacher education x, xii, 11, 18, 22, 59, 78−83, 85−93, 95, 96, 100, 102, 107, 110, 111, 113, 115, 144, 158, 159 Technology xxiii, 9, 33, 35, 47–49, 58, 60, 73−76, 85, 86, 91, 93, 94, 102, 107, 119, 130, 139, 140, 142, 160 Texas 16, 62, 73−76, 117, 145, 147, 158, 165 Thematic Instruction 14, 35, 47, 54, 61, 63, 71, 147 UNESCO xxii, 53, 55, 155 UNICEF 15, 62, 154, 155 United Nations 14, 15, 55, 60−65, 73, 95, 138, 141, 166, 167

170 United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights 166 Urban education 17, 25, 26, 28−31, 82, 107, 118−120 US x, xii, xvii, xxiii, 11, 15, 21, 26, 45, 54, 56, 60, 61, 63, 74, 85, 89, 91–93, 103–107, 130–132, 139, 144, 146, 158, 161, 165 US AID xii

index Vietnam 73, 78, 85−96, 107, 158, 163 Wells, R. x, xii, 11, 22, 34, 36, 59, 78, 96, 100, 111 White, C. 19, 101 World music 132, 133, 136 Zinn Education Project 51, 55, 149 Zinn, H. xviii, xxiv, 40, 46, 70, 138