Intermediate technical Japanese 9780299185541, 0299185540, 9780299185640, 0299185648

Offers selections from the popular writings of internationally famous Japanese snow and ice scientist NAKAYA Ukichiro. I

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Intermediate technical Japanese
 9780299185541, 0299185540, 9780299185640, 0299185648

Table of contents :
Contents......Page 8
Preface......Page 10
Explanatory Notes......Page 12
Lesson 0......Page 14
Lesson 1......Page 20
Lesson 2......Page 30
Lesson 3......Page 42
Lesson 4......Page 58
Lesson 5......Page 74
Lesson 6......Page 88
Lesson 7......Page 102
Lesson 8......Page 118
Lesson 9......Page 132
Lesson 10......Page 146
Lesson 11......Page 158
Lesson 12......Page 168
Lesson 13......Page 178
Lesson 14......Page 190
Lesson 15......Page 202
Lesson 16......Page 212
Lesson 17......Page 222
Lesson 18......Page 234
Lesson 19......Page 244
Lesson 20......Page 256
Lesson 21......Page 268
Lesson 22......Page 278
Lesson 23......Page 288
Lesson 24......Page 298
Lesson 25......Page 308
Lesson 26......Page 318
Lesson 27......Page 330
Lesson 28......Page 340
Lesson 29......Page 348
Lesson 30......Page 356
Lesson 31......Page 366
Lesson 32......Page 376
Lesson 33......Page 386
Lesson 34......Page 396
Lesson 35......Page 406
Lesson 36......Page 416
Lesson 37......Page 428
Lesson 38......Page 438
Lesson 39......Page 448
Lesson 40......Page 458
Index of Grammatical Patterns......Page 468
Kanji Index......Page 474

Citation preview

Also available in the Technical Japanese Series

Reflections on Science by N akaya Ukichiro

Solid-State Physics and Engineering

An Advanced Japanese Reader Translated and edited by Edward E. Daub and Shiro Asano

Technical Japanese Supplement Craig T. Van Degrift

'(Snow crystals are letters sent from the heavens. » -Nakaya Ukichiro

For anyone learning to comprehend scientific articles in Japanese, this reader offers selections from the writings of well-known Japanese scientist, Nakayo Ukichiro. At the time of his death in 1962, the American Meteorological Society Bulletin heralded him as " ... the world's outstanding scientific investigator of snow crystals." Nakaya was a popularizer of science and a brilliant essayist. Here are included excerpts from his classic book The Methods of Science (Kagaku no Hoohoo) and other literary essays discussing various cultural and social topics in relation to science. English translations accompany the Japanese texts, followed by a glossary. 2003 Paper ISBN 0-299-18104-9

Basic Technical Japanese Edward E. Daub, R. Byron Bird, and Nobuo Inoue Even with no previous training in Japanese language, readers of this book can learn to translate technical manuals, research publications, and reference works. Basic Technical Japanese provides step-by-step instruction, from an introduction to the Japanese writing system through a mastery of grammar and scientific vocabulary to practice in reading actual texts in Japanese. With extensive character charts and vocabulary lists, the book is entirely self-contained; no dictionaries or other reference works are needed. The authors are scientists and engineers with extensive experience in translating Japanese.

This book is a supplement to the textbook Basic Technical Japanese. It introduces 100 new kanji and more than 700 new words and phrases that appear frequently in documents dealing with solid-state physics. The text offers ten lessons, each presenting key vocabulary and ten new kanji that reappear in the exercises for that lesson and in subsequent lessons, reinforcing learning. The exercises emphasize vocabulary building, kanji recognition, definition matching, and translation skills. An introductory lesson reviews the katakana and hiragana writing systems. 1995 Paper ISBN 0-299-14734-7

Biotechnology Technical Japanese Supplement James L. Davis

This book is a supplement to the textbook Basic Technical Japanese. It introduces 100 new kanji and more than 1500 technical terms that appear frequently in documents dealing with biotechnology, in addition to reviewing vocabulary containing the 365 kanji presented in Basic Technical Japanese. 1995 Paper ISBN 0-299-14714-2

Polymer Science and Engineering Technical Japanese Supplement R. Byron Bird and Sigmund Floyd

This supplement to Basic Technical Japanese introduces an additional 100 kanji to build vocabulary for reading and translating Japanese literature related to polymer science and engineering. 1995 Paper ISBN 0-299-14694-4

1990 Cloth ISBN 0-299-12730-3

Kanji for Comprehending Technical Japanese Kanji-Flash/BTJ Craig T. Van Degrift This DOS software is an electronic flashcard companion to Basic Technical Japanese. It follows the text chapter by chapter, providing exercises to test the pronunciation and meaning of all 510 kanji and 4000 compound words introduced in the textbook. It also allows missed words to be saved for retesting. The program requires VGA or color EGA graphics. 1992 Software ISBN 0-299-97077-9

Edward E. Daub Here are presented twenty kanji, vocabulary that use those kanji, a kanji-card format for study and review, and technical Japanese essays with English translation. This volume also introduces significant scientific vocabulary. 1995 Paper ISBN 0-299-14704-5

Intermediate Technical Japanese Volume 1: Readings and Grammatical Patterns

Intermediate Technical Japanese Volume 1: Readings and Grammatical Patterns James L. Davis University of Wisconsin-Madison

The University of Wisconsin Press

The University of Wisconsin Press 1930 Monroe Street Madison, Wisconsin 53711 www.wisc.edulwisconsinpress/ Copyright © 2002 The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System All rights reserved

1

3

5

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2

Printed in the United States of America

Cataloging-in-Publication data is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 0-299-18554-0

Table of Contents-Volume 1 Preface Explanatory Notes Lesson 0: Review of Verbs and Verb Forms Lesson 1: Mathematics I (numbers and sets) Lesson 2: Mathematics IT (matrices, variables and functions) Lesson 3: Mathematics ill (solutions, statistics and models) Lesson 4: Computer Science I (fundamentals; part I) Lesson 5: Computer Science IT (fundamentals; part IT) Lesson 6: Computer Science ill (applications; part I) Lesson 7: Computer Science N (applications; part IT) Lesson 8: Mechanics I (pressure and vacuum) Lesson 9: Mechanics IT (motion and flow) Lesson 10: Thermodynamics I (fundamentals) Lesson 11: Thermodynamics IT (applications) Lesson 12: Light I (fundamentals) Lesson 13: Light IT (wave properties) Lesson 14: Light lIT (applications) Lesson 15: Sound I (fundamentals) Lesson 16: Sound IT (applications) Lesson 17: Magnetism I (fundamentals) Lesson 18: Magnetism IT (applications) Lesson 19: Electricity I (fundamentals) Lesson 20: Electricity IT (applications) Lesson 21: Electricity ill (semiconductors and superconductors) Lesson 22: Electronics I (transistors and diodes) Lesson 23: Electronics IT (other circuit elements and basic circuits) Lesson 24: Electronics ill (ICs) Lesson 25: Electronics IV (other circuits and devices) Lesson 26: Signals and Signal Processing I (fundamentals) Lesson 27: Signals and Signal Processing IT (applications) Lesson 28: Computer Hardware I general) Lesson 29: Computer Hardware IT (memory and recording) Lesson 30: Polymers I (fundamentals) Lesson 31: Polymers IT (MW, DP, viscosity and processing) Lesson 32: Polymers ill (properties and applications) Lesson 33: Materials I (ceramics; fundamentals)

-v-

vii ix 1 7 17 29 45 61 75 89 105 119 133 145 155 165 177 189 199 209 221 231 243 255 265 275 285 295 305 317 327 335 343 353 363 373

Lesson 34: Materials IT (ceramics; applications) Lesson 35: Materials ill (glass, carbon and diamond) Lesson 36: Materials IV (metals) Lesson 37: Materials V (material processing) Lesson 38: Materials VI (material properties) Lesson 39: Interdisciplinary Topics I (magnetic and electrical interactions) Lesson 40: Interdisciplinary Topics IT (electrochemical, biochemical and bioelectronic interactions) Index of Grammatical Patterns Kanji Index

-Vl-

383 393 403 415 425 435 445 455 461

Preface This two-volume set is designed to prepare scientists, engineers and translators to read Japanese technical documents. The reader is presumed to have already studied Japanese for at least one year. These volumes were prepared for use in a two-semester sequence of technical Japanese courses at the intermediate level, but they are also well suited for use as self-study materials. The primary objectives are to help the reader build a technical vocabulary in Japanese, to reinforce the reader's understanding of important grammatical constructions, to improve the reader's readingcomprehension ability, and to provide practice in translating technical passages from Japanese into English. Authentic materials have been incorporated, so that the reader will gain exposure to realistic examples that include frequently used grammatical patterns and essential vocabulary items. The disciplines covered in these volumes are mathematics, computer science, physics, mechanical engineering, electrical and computer engineering, and advanced materials. Volume 1 contains a review of verb forms and forty field-specific lessons, which have been grouped into fourteen units. Each of the forty lessons features fifteen KANn that are important in the field that is the focus of that lesson. In addition to ON and KUN readings and the various meanings for the KANn, each entry includes two important terms that contain the KANn in . question. Experience has shown that memorizing KANn in the context of specific terms (rather than attempting to memorize the KANn in isolation) increases the likelihood that the learner will remember both the KANn and the terms. All of the readings listed in the current Japanese government document, 'Mmm*~ ~-R{&i5~l/~ (1987) (ISBN 4-17-214500-0), are included for each of the six hundred KANn featured in this volume. A complete KANn index (with entries arranged in d6lt ~ '5 ;t.t5 order) may be found at the end of this volume. Each of the first nine field-specific lessons also introduces a number of grammatical patterns that the reader should master in order to understand Japanese technical documents. At least three example sentences accompany each grammatical pattern, so that the reader can understand the usage of the grammatical pattern in context. To ensure that the reader will gain the maximum amount of reinforcement in vocabulary building, each example sentence has been taken from an essay that is included in one of the lessons. A complete listing (in a combination of alphabetical order and d6lt ~ '5 ;t.t5 order) of the one hundred grammatical patterns appears after Lesson 40. The major portion of each lesson is devoted to reading selections on topics related to the theme of the lesson. The essays within a lesson have been arranged so that the reader may apply knowledge and vocabulary from earlier essays when reading subsequent essays. More fundamental topics are presented early in the lesson; applications and more specialized topics appear later. A list of the sources from which the reading selections were taken is included in the Explanatory Notes. Volume 1 contains seven hundred twenty-one technical essays of various lengths. Lesson 0 and the first nine field-specific lessons should be studied by all readers. The reader may then select topics of interest from the remaining thirty-one lessons to produce a customized course of study.

.

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Volume 2 contains a complete glossary for the example sentences and the essays that appear in Volume 1. Each individual vocabulary list is keyed by number to a specific grammatical pattern or essay. Each word that appears for the first time in an example sentence is listed in the glossary under the number of that grammatical pattern. Each word that appears for the first time in an essay is listed in the glossary under the number of that reading selection. Since all example sentences have been taken from essays, some items appear in the glossary twice. Japanese is a fascinating language, but it is a language that requires many hours of study in order for a native speaker of English (or any other Indo-European language) to read comfortably about topics in hislher field of interest. It is my hope that these volumes will ease the reader along the path to enhanced reading ability and a clearer understanding of Japanese texts. Numerous individuals have patiently answered questions and graciously reviewed drafts of these volumes. In particular, I wish to thank R. Byron Bird, Professor Emeritus at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Edward E. Daub, Professor Emeritus at the University of WisconsinMadison, David O. Mills, Associate Professor at the University of Pittsburgh, Michio Tsutsui, Associate Professor at the University of Washington, Junko Mori, Associate Professor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Dr. Ken Lunde of Adobe Systems and Mr. Mitsuo Fujita of Daicel Chemical Industries for their assistance. Any errors that remain are entirely my own. Financial support from the Department of Engineering Professional Development at the University of Wisconsin-Madison for the preparation and publication of these volumes is gratefully acknowledged. The reader who has questions or comments about anything that appears in either volume, or who wishes to be advised of any revisions, is encouraged to contact me at the email address that appears below. These volumes are dedicated to my wife, Zhen, and to our daughter, Ruth, without whose support I could not have completed this project.

[email protected] August 2002

James L. Davis Madison, Wisconsin

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Explanatory Notes 1. AllaN readings are written in KATAKANA; all KUN readings are written in mRAGANA.

2. When introducing new KANll at the start of a lesson, OKURIGANA are enclosed within parentheses. 3. When more than one verb can be created from a single KANll, an intransitive verb is identified as {vi} and a transitive verb is identified as {vt}.

4. In the presentation of new KANll multiple ON readings or multiple KUN readings for a single KANll are separated by semicolons. Multiple meanings associated with a single ON or KUN reading are separated by commas. Throughout both volumes multiple meanings associated with a single Japanese word or phrase are separated by commas.

5. The readings for KANll that appear in grammatical patterns are enclosed within brackets. 6. Grammatical patterns are numbered by lesson as follows: Lesson 0 0.1, 0.2, ... , 0.10 Lesson 1 1.1, 1.2, ... , 1.15 7. Reading selections are numbered by lesson as follows: Lesson 1 1-1, 1-2, ... 1-8 Lesson 2 2-1, 2-2, ... 2-9 8. In the glossary (Volume 2) each vocabulary list is identified by the number and name of the grammatical pattern or by the number and title of the reading selection to which the list corresponds. The vocabulary lists for example sentences that illustrate a single grammatical pattern are separated by blank lines. 9. When an item in a vocabulary list is used in one specific field, or when there exists a special restriction on usage of the term, the field or the restriction is enclosed within braces. Special notes to the reader also appear within braces. 10. The appearance of a hyphen before or after a specific KANll (or KANll compound) indicates that the KANll (or KANll compound) in question is used primarily as a suffix or a prefix, respectively.

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11. The source for each reading selection that appears in Volume 1 is identified by the abbreviation and page number(s) that follow the title of the essay. The abbreviation and complete information for each source follow:

Ie {~~

Ie~CFAm 31ti; ;f:f~; ISBN 4-00-080016-7; 1985 ~J1I!~CFA; j:!fJltg; ISBN 4-563-02093-1; 1994 1W¥Ilf-f.~CFA; ;f:f~; ISBN 4-00-080074-4; 1990 {~~CFA; JfOj({~~IRJA; ISBN 4-8079-0411-6; 1994

-e5"

-e5" ~ 'Y!J ACFJl4; jti!j; ISBN 4-621-03041-8; 1986

J1I!{~ ;t~

J1I!{~~CFAm 41ti; E~; ISBN 4-00-080015-9; 1987 ;t~.Tl,j~PJA; ~-:Lb ~-; 1991

~J1I!

1W¥Il

12. Information for the glossary was gathered from many sources, including the books listed above and the following: Kenkyusha's New Japanese-English Dictionary (Fourth Edition); Kenkyusha; ISBN 4-7674-2025-3; 1974 The Modem Reader's Japanese-English Character Dictionary (Second Revised Edition); Tuttle; ISBN 0-8048-0408-7; 1974

-1 )t?T-7'VAIti : f-f.~ti~ 3 5 :nm*CFA IPC; ISBN 4-87198-224-6; 1990

:L v!J

r- tJ=.!J Afflm.A;

; t - btl:; ISBN 4-274-03324-4; 1991 ~~ fflm. : {~~Iii (m~J 21ti) ; B*{~~~; ISBN 4-524-40821-5; 1986 ~~fflm. : fI;ffltI~1ii (m~JIti) ; B*m;fflt~~; ISBN 4-88898-030-6; 1985 ~~fflm. : .~I~1ii (m~J 21ti) ; .~~~; ISBN 4-339-00581-9; 1991 ~~ffl~. : ~J1I!~1ii (m~JMi) ; B*~J1I!~~; ISBN 4-563-02195-4; 1990 EJ lJJ*fflmf[)~CFA; EJ lJJ*ti~~; ISBN 4-915219-07-0; 1997 .~ 1'f¥llf[]~CFJl4;

; t - btl:; ISBN 4-274-03369-4; 1991 .~.Tfflm.A;

; t -bf.:i:; ISBN 4-274-03287-6; 1991 .~{~~mmCFA;

jt=!!f; ISBN 4-621-03546-0; 1991

-x-

(f[)~Iii)

Lesson 0: Review of Verbs and Verb Forms In this lesson we review the major verbs and verb forms that are frequently encountered in Japanese technical documents. Since this lesson is intended to serve as a review, the explanation provided for each verb or verb fonn is brief. The reader who would like more infonnation is encouraged to consult the following reference books:

Basic Technical Japanese E. E. Daub, R. B. Bird and N. Inoue The University of Wisconsin Press; 1990 ISBN 0-299-12730-3

Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar S. Makino and M. Tsutsui The Japan Times; 1986 ISBN 4-7890-0299-3

Dictionary of Intermediate Japanese Grammar S. Makino and M. Tsutsui The Japan Times; 1995 ISBN 4-7890-0775-8 Note 1: In principle, there are three ways to end a clause or a sentence in Japanese: with an ~) -adjective (for which the present/future affinnative fonn ends in ~), with a verb (for which the present/future affinnative fonn ends either with ~-denoted as "ru"- or with some other syllable that contains the vowel "u"-denoted as "xu"), or with the copula (which is usually expressed in technical Japanese as some variation of ~ ~ [in the affinnative] or (~i) teJ.~) [in the negativeD. In this book the tenn "predicate" will be used collectively to include all three options.

-r:

-r:

Note 2: All Japanese verbs can be thought to belong to either the "ru" category (also known as "-ru" verbs) or the "xu" category (also known as "-u" verbs). However, some verbs in each category are irregular in certain fonns. Thus, ~ ~ and IT can be considered "xu" verbs that are irregular in some fonns. Similarly, ~ and "9 ~ can be considered "ru" verbs that are irregular in some fonns. In the discussions of verb fonns in this book, only the specific fonns of these four verbs that are irregular will be mentioned. Thus, unless it is indicated otherwise, the reader may assume that all other fonns of these four verbs are conjugated as might be expected based on the category to which each verb belongs.


'? L or simply -r.:; the connective negative fonn of -r.: Gf!>.Q becomes -r.: (~j:) td.- L.


0) c L, J: "5 .

3. bttbtt7!l~T-5T ~ c.Q O)~i, -t-tti1) t?fiiJ t?i1)O)t1i¥i~t'.Q;: ci1~~tJ9-e~.Q;Q) t?, bttbh~ilt)~-t-tt~fPJ t;i1)0)*~0). (J ':-::>Ir)L*,JtJf~r~;: c-r~.Q

cm.)t: Gel::

"5. 0.10) desiderative form of a verb The desiderative affirmative form of a verb is created by adding t.= It) to the conjunctive affirmative form. This form is used to express the writer's (or speaker's) wish to carry out a certain action, and could be translated as "(J./we) wish to ..." or "(J/we) would like to ..." The desiderative affirmative form can be converted into many other forms. In such conversions the

-5-

desiderative is conjugated as an It ~-adjective. Thus, the desiderative negative form is made by replacing the final It ~ of the desiderative affirmative form with t.J.lt ~. This form indicates that the writer (or speaker) does not wish to carry out a certain action.


t* ~1l'" G -cAnT.:Q 1iito) 2 J ~;:7}~t Gn.:Q. 2. ~~~ ~~ t) t.:: It ~imffi:>tTt.I.b!> Sfl:>t~J:. Kl ~ ffllt ~ -CPtr~{t ~ n, Ptr~:>t 3. ~

G ~;:Ar~'-fl~*~;:.f:)lt~-C,

c t.J..:Q.

~1&a9~;:~J:7D ~7 A ~mtl'~ t)~;: 13~§m~flfm~

mJJ' G t.:: It ~ c It ~ '5 5i It ~~~tJf. ~.:Q.

-6-

Lesson 1: Mathematics I (numbers and sets) jj!J learning, scholarship ~-a(~~) to learn, to study

Ic~ fnBJ1I!~

~

mathematics logic

jj'Y combine; ::Jt) fit, suit ~('5) to fit, to suit {vi}; ~(bit ~) to join together {vt} .'@J ~.::z. t):It) j;I'@J ~t ~ It \

set, collection instance, case

IT /' limit, restriction iJ'l ~( ~ ) to limit, to restrict b.IT/'~.::z.t):It) :::Lt)IT/'~.::z.t):It)

.~lH~'@J ~~R.'@J

~:r hostage, pawn; ~'Y matter, substance -Iii{ 1!1' ~'Y

infinite set finite set

property, characteristic quality

:/ 'Y substance, truth Jj. fruit; Jj.(J)( ~) to bear fruit ~. ~Ic

~

:/'/7/ :/'/7-.t)

experiment, trial real number

* )

~ .::z. t)~ollection, gathering ~

~ to assemble, to meet {vi}; ~ -:J (~ ~ ) to collect, to gather {vt} !J t) ~ .::z. t) :Jt) empty set

.Bi

~.'@J

~ 3 r) disposition, nature;

:t(AE'Ii *-Ii

~ .::z. r) ~+ /

1!1'

group, collection

attribute, gender, nature

Y/,T1'1!1' 1-- !J1!1'

-7-

stability characteristic

~

Il

"*

'A; 'J simple, uncovered; element, principle ~kT

'J~

1 and

PltL. [-e-1

Ixl

~x O)*fg~tflclt)'5.

EI ~~ n tJ~fftE G-C a < nb C td. ~.

'J~]

9" Q

These verbs exemplify a situation in which two different verbs can be made using the same two kanji. As might be expected, the verb that carries the ON readings and 9" ~ is more formal in tone,

-9-

while the verb that is expressed with the KUN readings tends to be more colloquial. Both of these verbs can be applied to four general situations. The fIrst meaning is associated with organization; it can be translated variously as tc:t< c~-7Ji1~,6X;li'9."Qcv)? ;:c~~'*

'9."Q.

l:J:.."Q l:J:. -:::> -C

1.5)

l: J:. t)

depending upon ••• , due to ••• , by means of ••. depending upon ••• , due to ••• , by means of •.• depending upon ••• , due to ••• , by means of •••

(Note: The phrase ... ~: J:.Q modifies a noun that appears later in the sentence; the phrases ... ~: J:. -:::> -C and ... ~: J:. t) modify a verb that appears later in the sentence.)

1. rr~JO)fO A + B ~ij'ifij1!fi1~fPJ t;~O)~..g.~:t':~t A + B

2. ;:tl6 ~£~O)R~c G-C7Jttl."Q;: c~:J: t), E2

=(aile + bik) ~:J:. -:::> -C)E~~ tl.Q.

0)~}~0)~.i1~)E~."Q.

3. 4x 6tlt~m..g. C ~:~tG, C ~M:~c G~1c t ~~lI..~lcc'9 ."Q~It~, CO) t ~:J:. ."Qf!IJ~Ic~~ C v) '5 ;: ci1~'&J."Q. 1.6) .••

~:.t3 ~t ."Q

... J:.a vl-C

in •.. , for ••• , regarding ••. in ... , for .•• , regarding •.•

(Note: The phrase ... ~:.t3 ~t."Q modifies a noun; the phrase ... ~:.t3 v) -C modifies a verb. The expression ~:.t3 v) -C ~i in written Japanese is essentially equivalent in meaning to the double particle "'C'~i, but carries a more formal tone.)

2. m-@JA, B ~:.t3v)-C, A ~:~'9.Q)di'9~-C B ~:~G, B ~:~'9."Q)di'9~-C A~: ~'9."Q c~~:, A =B c'9."Q.

-10-

1.7)

J.Jt

[tJ!>.Q]

t-l.i

The expression ~.Q I,- \ ~i occurs between two nouns (or noun phrases) and indicates that the two nouns (or noun phrases) may be treated as alternatives. No emphasis or preference is placed on either alternative. This expression is almost always translated as "or."

1. a ;¢t.~ A 0)7C-r:~.Q;:: c~, a ;¢tA ~:-a-*tl.Q, ~.Q 1,-\~iA;¢t a ~-a-U ('~-a-"9.Q)

cl,-\'5.

3. t2~fnliJI~~i, ~~O)~ G~.Q)t!lf~:;!tim~:ml,-\ Gtl.QfnliJIa9tJ:~fnIi~if~"9.Q~ ~Cl!>.Q 1,-~~ifnliJI~O) 1 $r~-r:Cl!>.Q.

1.8) T~",( and T~"'(O) The word "9""-"'( can be used as a noun, meaning "all," "everything" or "the whole." Thus, when "9""-"'( is followed by 0) and then by a noun, the expression "9""-"'( 0) can be reliably thought to mean "all (00," "every" or ''the entire," as this expression modifies the noun that follows "9""-"'(0). However, the word "9 ""-"'C can also be used as an adverb, meaning "entirely," "wholly" or "completely." Thus, when the word "9 ""-"'C appears by itself, the reader is cautioned to ascertain from the context whether "9"""'C is intended to function as a noun or as an adverb.

1.

"9""-"'C 0) x

~:M G"'C$~

2.

aik

3.

"9 ""-"'C 0) px;)t;¢t 0 -r: ~.Q J:: '5 tJ:~T~J ~~fT~J c 1,-\ '5.

= 0 (i ~ k)

F(x) ;¢tPX;lL"9.Q.

-r: ~ .Q lE:1ifT ~J-r: , "9"""'C 0) aii ;¢t~ G I,- \ :t 0) ~ A tJ '7 -fT ~J c

I,- \

'5 .

1.9) t~t!. and t~t!. G The word t~ ti. can appear as part of the expression t~ ti. 0), which means "ordinary" or "hardly worthy of mention," or it can be used alone. In some easily recognizable situations t~ti. means "free" or "without charge," but in most instances t~ ti. is used as an adverb to convey meanings such as "only," "solely," "but," "however," "merely," or "simply." The word t~ti.G can mean "however" or "provided that," but in many instances a translation such as "here" or "in this case" is more appropriate. These instances tend to be situations in which the writer is providing supplementary information that is pertinent to the situation under consideration or is providing information that is contrary to the reader's expectation.

1. J!~: x E R ~:~t G"'C x + (-x) = 0 2.~~,

G"'C.t3

ctJ:.Q

-x E R ;¢tt::..ti. 1 -:::>#1£"9.Q.

;::O)mMO)~~ft~if~~~~~.O)~~~, ~.ft~O).G~~~~W~ tJ, ~ O)m.~:iRHfi G t::...

3. t::..ti. G Ex


"'C )t1ll"9.Q :t 0) c

-11-

Gt::.. c

~0)3Jl~fi« ~:tJ'"9.

is composed of ••• , consists of ••• 1.~Jj{.J:f{a} ~d:7Cat.:.til Jt,}\lStc:t,g.ft-c'it!>~, a;i!:bO)e~ {a, b} ~d:2JO)7Ca, b iJ~ IS tc:t,g.ft-c' it!>,g.

2. •-g- A iJ~~lSimO)7CiJ~ IS tJ.,g e ~ A ~~ISi.ft e ~\ ~\, A iJ~~lSimO)7C~~U e ~ A ~~ISi.ft e ~\ '5.

3. *f~:t.::ti 1 fTiJ~lStc:t,gfT~J (a l ... an) ~ K J:O) n '!xO)fTx..~ r-lY'*t,::~d:~x..~ }--lye ~\'5.

1.11) 'f.f. S.t The word tc:t IS ~:f is a shortened form of the provisional form of 0) -c' it!> ,g. When it follows a predicate, it simply means "if." When it follows a noun, it means "if it is" or "if they are."

2K~~~tJ.6~ fT~A~~~fT~-c'it!>,gk~O)~~~fT~~~I~KO)~~7C-c'it!>

,g;:::' e-c'it!>,g. 3. '*t.::~IfcO)'mFf~f*~f*J~Ifc, Ttc:tVt> tl < t2 tc:t IS ~:f!(tl) 5:!(t2) -c'it!>,g~Ifc~d:.¥Wij !tl:bD~1fc e J: ~:ftl,g.

1.12) ~ ['iJ\'f.f. IS] 9" and ~~ ['iJ\'f.f. G] 9"1,., t> The word iJ~tc:t IS is used with an affirmative predicate to mean "always" or "necessarily." The expression iJ~ tc:t IS 1,., ~ is used with a negative predicate to mean "not always" or "not necessarily. "

-r -r

1. R O)J:~:~ ~ ('*t'::~d:~~:~~) tc:ttfB7t.ft A ~:J:t 1,., '"t, i£,-r J:~i a = sup A ('*t'::~d: ~~i b =inf A) iJ~ff1£T ,g.

'~Ifc1Jfi~' e~d:iJ~~6tc:t~\)!(x) = 0 0);fH 1J~~, *mT,ge'!x0)2m~~tJ.,g.

3.

1JfiJ:t (i£,-rG ~

a

~1fc{jt![f.-c'*lJi'),g

1.13) 'iJ~J

The word iJ~ J is comparable in meaning to '* t.::, but it always occurs between two nouns (or noun phrases). iJ~J corresponds very closely to a logical "and" operator, and is often translated as "furthermore," "moreover" or "in addition." -12-

EI tJJftlI1~oy~JJtlJIlfnli~j:, ~~ATA~1& 1J1&'5 .

~~ C Iv C O):ti-ft .A1Jir~-:>11il:tl1J O)~W 7

3.

1.14) Ii. [.aJ::]

-1 -

r J\ ~ 7 ftlI1

rJ.

The word lk rJ. links two nouns or two symbols, either of which may be modified by an adjective or a modifying clause. Although lk r.J carries the meaning "and," its usage is quite limited. lk r.J cannot be used as a conjunction to link two clauses. 1. A c B

:J3 J:: r.J B c

A

td-. G ~t A

=B -r: ~ ~ .

2. (m, n) ~fi~J A O)~fT*t.:Jj:~~JO)fF~ m OOO)fi~7 ~ A O)fT~ 7 }- )v:J3 J:: rJ.~1~ 7 }-)v C v) '5 . 3. JC '5 9 ~ ~0'5

}- )v:J3J::rJ. n OOO)~J~7

C Xi O))j-:(fHj:, (1:J3et rJ.~~~1l7J{110)~jl1 ~~g£.J:f{ II

}-)v

~:J::"? -C~ * ~-r:

. no mattter what/which, any

1. f{~J {an} ~::J3V)L, It)ir~tJ>~IEO)f{ c ~n-:JL'b, ~~lJinH;9c0)9J'(LO)lJi an' am ~:~t G L Ian - am I < c iJ~ ~ IJ tL. -:> C ~ , {an} ~ £*f{~J * te. ~j: Cauchy f{~J C v) '5 .

2. 7C~ 1 -:> 'b--a*td-. v)~-ft ~~~-ft c

v) It),

~2~

0

(gtd-.V!> ,

v)n\td-.~~t~ a ~:~t G L

tb a fl.

A ctd-.~~-ft A)

-r:~g .

3. Gn\ G, 7:r.. ~ }- O)mfn:J3J:: rJ.fq~1*J0)~7 7,;'--1' .::LO)mfn -r:~j:~WJ.llfnliO)~Im-r:lt) n\td-.~ Re ~:-:> It)Ltb:t(~ C v)

'5 ~*n~1~ Gn LV)~ .

-13-

Reading Selections 1-1:

•• ~~~.~~R~*~~~,R~~~~~~Rtt.~~~. I)4j{IJJJ~~:~~~jl1 •.

i)x, yE R ~:MG-C, ~:hI3~fOx+y ~f$~~.WE R tl·tc..ti. 1 ~~* lJ, x + y = y + x (PJ~~j{IJ), (x + y) + z = x + (y + z) (*5~~j{IJ) ;¢~.6X; lJ lL ~. *tc..*f~IJ~. 0 ;¢~f¥1£G-C, H:~~.x ~:.MGL x + 0 =x ;6~~ lJ.lL~ (0 ~f¥1£). 1!~: x E R ~:.MGL x + (-x) = 0 ~t~~ -x E R ;¢ttc..tf. 1 ~f¥1I~~. ii)x, y E R ~:MG -C, ~:h 13 ~fJl xy ~f$~~. wE R ;¢~tc..ti. 1 ~~* t), xy =yx (iiJ~~j{IJ), (xy) z =x (y z) (*5tJ~j{IJ), (x + y) z = xz + y z (7t~2~j{Ij) ;¢~ ~ lJ .lL ~. * tc.. *f~IJ~. 1 ;¢~f¥1I G-C, 9"~-C~ x E R ~:~tGL Ix =x ;¢~~ lJ lL~ (1 ~f¥:f:E). ~ G ~:, x 0 (x E R) ~:MGL x·x- I =1 ~t~~ X-I E R ;¢~tc..ti.l ~f¥1I~~. £t..l:;¢\G, 0 ~:.J::~I*~~I*V\-C, 110,

*

*,

~, I*~ 4 j{1j~~;6~ITb:h~. IT) Jmrr;~:~~ ~tt •. i) x, y E R ~:~t G -C, x < y, x y, x> y ~I*J~ 1 ~ti.~t;¢~~, '"9.6X;lJlL~ (~Jmrr;tt). x

1950 ~ft~~ J. von Neumann

=

~:ct ~7l'~tt, ..'f-O)~~< o)I*ntfJ:~ttLt,,~O.

cn

1·5: ~IcO).~~~Ma9~~.I'{o~~I.*~~c~lif!~~cct~noi'fMa9~~~~ JlmTo. O a = e ;6~-::J ,b = d cT o. 1tl*IcO)JJ~~j:, a + fJ = (a + e) + i(b + d), a - fJ (a - e) + i(b - d), afJ = (ac - bd) + i(ad + be), alfJ = (ac + bd)/(CZ + tf) + i«be - ad)/(CZ + tf» (t~tc.G CZ + tf:F: 0) ~:ct? L~bb.Q. 1J[J1*c*1*~~".:)lt~ LPJ~1*j{Ij, ~ft~j{Ij, ~fta~J{Ij;Ot~ ~ ll.~, 0 = 0 + iO ~1Jn~0)~~, 1 = 1 + iO ~*

=

~O).&~CGL1lJ~~~~O. 1tl~IcO)~~~~~C~~T . lca~MGL, 1tl.lca+ill~M~~~n~ ~IcO)_1*c1tl.IcO)_1*c~-~ To. TfJ:b~.Ic~~O)~o~R~, 1tl.Ic~~O)~cO)~~~.~¥.~no. 4-~~i a C a + iO c ~~-m G, R ~i C O)$~mft ($ft~) cJ;.tctT. ~#J~~4-~~j: 0 + il ~¥~: i c.T. 1:O))E.~:ct ~ i 2 -1 ~~O. a= a + ib (a + ill) + (b + iO) (0 + i 1) ~ ~.Q G, a + ib ~j:.tct 0 ftc ~~ tct < L, C ~:.t3 ~t .Q ~1* c J;. L ct t" ~. a = a + ib ~:.t3t,,~L, a ~ aO)~$, b ~ aO).Jj!$clt~lt~, a=Rea, b=Ima ~.T . •Ic~ tJ:t,,~1tl*Ic~.wlcc t,,~t,,~, ~~~ Re a 0 -r:~oEffiIc a ~~.Jj!lcc t,,~ '5. 1tl*1c a a + ib ~:M GL, a - ib ~ a O)3:tt~1tl*1c c t" ~ 5 .



=

n\

=

*t::"

=

=

-15-

a€i (1c428-429)

1-7:

.~*~~m4~~~~5~~-~~~~~~~~~I~~~~~G~~~~~~, .:ttl~ (.:ttl G ~~~~) m-@i ~ t/~ v), .:t~~~I*J~m~ ~~t~~.:t~.-@i~JC*t,:,~J: ~*~ v) 5. a n~m-@i A ~JC~~~;:: ~~, a n~ A ~:I3*tl~, ~~ v)~J:A nt a ~I3U (§I3T~) ~v)v), ~c~aE A ~~T . .:t~:a~~ a~ A ~~T. JC~ 1 ~~I3*~v)

m-@i (TtJ:b~, v)n~tJ:~~t~a ~:~l,,~~ a~ A ~tJ:~m-@i A) ~~m-@i~v)v), tG~ f6 ~~T. il-@i A, B ~:.t3v)~, A ~:~T~JC~J:T~~ B ~:~l", B ~:~T~JC~J:T~ ~ A ~:~T~ ~~~:, A =B ~T~. m-@i A ~JCn~ a, b, c, ... ~~~ ~~, A = {a, b, c, ... } ~.v)~, il-@iA~J:JCa, b, c, ···n~GtJ:~~v)'5. f:Efiqx)~~~~~x ~~~nH;~~.-@i~ {xlqx)} ~~ v)~J: {x;qx)} ~~T . .giJ~~:f {a} ~J:JC a t.:.ti.l ~n~ GtJ:~m-@i~~ fJ, a:t: b ~~ ~ {a, b} ~'i 2 ~~JC a, b n~GtJ:~m-@i~~~. m-@i A ;¢t~lWm~JCn~GtJ:~~~

A 'd=:~lWil-@i~v~v~, A ;¢t~mm~JC'd=:I3U~~ A ~~m . • -@iA, B ~:.t3v)~, A ~JCntT~~ B ~:~T~~~, A ~J:B ~$~.-@i~~~~v) v~, *t.:.A ~'iB ~:I3*tl~, ~~v)~'iB ~'iA ~l3u~v)5. ;::~~~~c~AcB~.m v)~ . .:t~:a~~A ct B ~~T. tEit~.-@i A ~:~tl,,~ f6 cA ~~~. A c B .t3J::rtB

m-@i~ v)5

cC~6~AcC~~~.AcB.t3J::rtBcA~6~A=B~~~.AcB~A:t:B~ ~~,

A ~'iB ~.$~.-@i~~~~v)5. iC~~~(1c188-189)

1-8:

tG~~~~~, 1c~~~6~~~~~~~~.mv)6tl~~~~~m~~Ic~~tG~~ 'd=:.mv~~:fi1f~T~Ic~~~v)~J:~~~~ 1 $r~~~'?~, 1c~~~~(Ic~~~~~) *~~~~~~~~~~J::~tl~. ;::;::~:fi1f~~tl~ '~~~'~m~~, .t3~.t3~~ ~~~M~~~~~m~~~~~~~;::~~J::'?~, m~~Ic~~~~~~Gtl~~~ ~~. 'A *t.:.~'iB' 'A n~~ B' 'A tJ:G~iB' 'A ~tJ:V'~' ~v)5trt~~, .:ttl-ttl,

AvB, A/\B, A~B, -'A ~v)5~c~~~T. A v B ~trt~A, B ~~~fo*t.:.~'i"'Ul€, A /\B ~~~fft*t.:.JJ:-@i fj€, A~B ~l3it, -,A ~trt~A ~:a~~J::;S~. (A~B)/\(B~A) ~v)5trtJm~ A~B ~.~, 'A ~ B ~~'iIPJ~*t.:.~'iIPJfi«~~~' ~~U. 1c~~:.t3v)~~'i, A vB ~'iA .t3J::rtB ~:PtJ:< ~~-jjnt~:V:9~c:v~5 ;::~'d=:it'*9~. *t.:., 'T~~~ x ~:~t l" ~trt~ F(x) nt~:V:T ~' .t3J:: rt 'trt~ F(x) nt~:V:T ~ J:: 5 tJ: x ntfftET ~' ~ v~ 5 trt~~,

.:ttl-ttl,

"Ix F(x), :3x F(x) C:~6b9. VxF(x) ~v~5~~trtg'd=:1E:f11\trtg, 3xF(x) 'd=:fftEtrt~~v~v~, ~bit~ mm~trtg C: v) 5. .l]J.J::: ~ .m v) t.:. ~c ~ v, /\, ~, ~, -', V, :3

-16-

Lesson 2: Mathematics II (matrices, variables and functions) .:1%

,~

1

idea, thought, will ~r;K

meaning arbitrary

f£~0)

go

lJ / barrier, gateway -tt~ barrier, checking station

~f*

lJ/71 lJ/:J..ry

~~

ii

:¥ honor, in-law, loyalty, justice, significance ~~ 1:¥ ~~

*&

T1:¥

:¥ 3 ry row, line; It ~«

~

significance, meaning definition

;t: .::z.. ry class, grade, rank *l~ ~*l

.,.fT

relation function

series high grade/class :I ry journey, line

)to go; :J3 ;:: t~( '5) to conduct, to perform IT~1j

:¥ 3 ry v'Y

~~IT~

t~$ry:¥3ryV'Y

matrix square matrix

-if constellation, platform, seat, theater 9b( ~ ) to sit down

.:x:t

~~*

-ifl::3'771

~~$!IJ

-ifl::3ry~7

y;t: ceremony, formula, style, type ~it $ryy;t: ~fjit $ryT1y;t:

-17-

coordinate system coordinate axis

mode, method, form, system equation

'M' :; 3 9

nonnal, regular

"::J.tl always, nonnal, ordinary

im'M" ):E'M"td:

'Y9:/39 7-1:; 3 9td:

usually, generally, ordinarily regular, stationary, steady

9:/r9*97-1~;f­ J\ r 9*97-1~;f-

equation of motion wave equation

A 971::::t:/ 1::::t:/*97-1~;f-

numerical differentiation differential equation

1:: 3 9:;.::I..:/jJ 1::39*:/

standardization sample

7-1

degree, fonnula ~l C amount, degree, extent ~lJJ1if.iJ:t

1J1llJJ1if.iJ:t 1::: minute, tiny, vague ~~~7t ~7t1if.iJ:t

C

1:: 3 9

mark, signpost, target ~~{t

~*

1'1

:t part, percentage;

7:/ minute; :t:/ dividing, part, segment V(iJ).g) to understand {vi}; V(~t.g) to divide {vt} $7t.~

7tm

~

:t:t:/~.::I..9~9 of :/ }v-1

m~ct

classification

~:/

change, strange iJ)(.:Z.g) to change, to revise {vt}; iJ)(V.g) to change, to differ {vi} ut~~~ :; .: I. 9 '/ 7 ~:/ A 9 dependent variable ~lJJ ~:/ r r) fluctuation, variation

n *9

direction, side, way

iJ) t:::... direction, manner, person {honorific}, type ~~1if.iJ:t ~1i~

9'1J

~-1A9*97-1~;f-

739*97-1

algebraic equation rectangle

v'Y column, line, rank, procession ~fi~ ~fT~1J

~~7~39V'Y v-1 ~ 39 v'Y

-18-

inverse matrix zero matrix

Grammatical Patterns 2.1) ••• ~ cfJ~a, [1313] lt~

... 41ft ut~ltl] fJ~a, [~.s] lt~

... c ~fJ~a, [1313] lt~

it often happens that .•., often •.• it often happens that ••., often ••• it often happens that •.., often •••

2. -~~:, ~~~ra'J:~:~~*~~.;A.. '9 ~ C: ~, .:cO)~ra'r-H: 1 JO)¥lif~~~m}E'9

tltf,

~tl':ct -:> -c~~*n~-lt~:}E*0:l1€Jn-r~~).

3. ~$O)~wr'7t!f"C'~i . ...'fO)ifl.2,:¥-::H,)-C.

~tl-ttlO)~v)it,*"C'~~c vl '5 ~~

JfH')~;: cn~~lt).

respectively, individually respective, individual, each 1. ~ =A, 'A

=-A c-a~ (lE17) fiJll~~tl-ttl~tf,j\fT:1IJ.

3tftfi:1lJ*t,:Ji~~tf*fi~J.

1iM~fj~J cPf.s~.

~jJil'':'i, ~tl-tt1.~.Jt*t~li .*.Jtcct~~ c t>d!>~.

3. mt1Ta ~

0 L- ~ jt 9tl'!,

--Ctt~~~9~~UJ(})M~~ffl~D~~b~W~9~;:C~-r~o.

2.8) ••• i: ctl~l>~

it sometimes happens that _., sometimes •.• it sometimes happens that •••, sometimes ••• it sometimes happens that _, sometimes __

_.•'8- utl>t,\] t1~6;~ _.

ci!t1~~~

2. m~l;:J: -:> -C~j:,

E

(})~~fIb~tfii(})~lt(i.c ~~tt::. 'b(})~m Ir\~ i: c:6~~~.

2.9) DP rtt.th] "5 B [t,\] t,\. [t1\] ~~ C

L-alr\-r,

iI~tJ:AItR(})§II~

in other words, namely, that is (to say) in other words, namely, that is (to say)

1. 9aV"5, 2 (i.X'X, Y'Y ~c"5 6 'b,ra 0 ~ 0 c90~1t(i.R c~t~9. 2. 1i~Jt(})tr:ill:6~~. 1') ~i3Uc ~, 9t~b"5 .lt~j: n -r(l;~ c Ir\?

3. ;:(})Z:c~Ir\Ir\:6)jtoc, XI' X2,

•••

dftayR) C# 0 -r(l;~ c ~,

~j:, {&';:tliJttJfr>~M:~1!Rl';:.OjgL-t::.c~

l;:1~6tl~ -r(l;~? c!lt~~tt~tllJ{I1fm:(}){&~~1!mH}~BJ:6)6,

~*-r ~ ~ c !lt~9 ~

Z:(})1i~it(})

z: c l:tJ: ~.

-21-

~"/¥ bt:c

6tlt::.

2.10) noun 1 ~/.:t noun2

clause +

cT,g

(we) (we) (we) (we)

c T,g

let noun1 be noun2, denote nounl by noun2, take nounl as noun2 suppose (clause)

1. K ~:tH:iiO)!m~t~~J: (~F1iJ~)-1*C9~. 2.00~fO)~.~c~~c~~n~nx, YC9~C~, X~~~c9~~~x~fO) ~ft~~, y~~~cT~~~Y~fO)~~~~c~~.

3. G. Galilei nt~-1*O)~iIJ ~.fiJf~ G L, EI EB~""f9 ~ ~-1*nt~fL' t ~""fT ~ c 9n~t, :bnJm~ x"(t) nt-~--e ~ ~ ;: c ~~J! G t~.


~ t:::.~O)~{tf~j:IT~'JJ:t!A1 lOt K 0)1lJJ27C-r d!> ~ ;: c -r d!> D, c < ~: K nt1*~t~it~t, Vil:t 0 -rd!> ~ ;: c -r d!>~. (m, n) ~HT~JjA = (a ik) O)fTc~ljc~Ah.;t -C-r~~ (n, m) ~IT~IJ A'= (b ik ) (b ik = ak ) ~A O)$itiIT~IJclt~lt~, tA -r/I''9;:cnt~lt~. KntPJ.-rAB=C-rd!>h~t, tBtA= tc-rd!>~. tA =A, tA = -A ct~~ (IE1J) IT~Ij~~h-th~tfij\fT~J, 3tRIT~IJ*.tdj:ffi~t fij\fT~IJ, &~tfij\fT~J clf¥.¢~. IE1JIT~1j A = (a ik ) -r a ik = 0 (i < k) -r d!> ~ :t 0) ~ ~ ..:::.foJIT~J, a ik = 0 (i > k) -r d!> ~ :t 0) ~ J:=foJfT~J, flllj1!f-@J:bitL 1Ji~:=foJIT~J c lt~ 3.

~Il (~360-361)

2-3:

Euclid ~fiIi E2 J:~:, 1 J~ O-r~3t'9 ~ 2 ~~ X'X, Y'Y ~ cD, 1Ji{fto)*~ 1 ~~~ L.l3~t~t, E2 0)~3t~~*nt1~6h~. '9t~:b!>, 2 ~~X'X, Y'Y ~c!> 6 :tJ~ o~ Oc'9~~~~~Rc~~G-C, &0)1~p~6;:0)2~~~.l3~Gt:::.~~0)~~~ h-t'hx, Y c'9h~t, J~PE E2 ~j:, ~O)~~cJ::~th~~~o)~Ji(x, Y)E R2 ~:J::-:J

L 1-1 ~:*~h~. -~~:, tt~JiJ;.~,

d!>~~$I¥J~t~O)~-@J~:.l3lt~L, ~O)~7C~:~.l¥Jt~:tO)~~tJJt~itL*'9 ;:O)~-@J J:O)~~* c lt~lt~, ~7C~:~tJit'9 ~~.~~0)7C0)~~ c lt~ 3. J2

~:, ~.l¥Jt~tI~~I~m~I¥J~:d!> 6:b G-C~~'9< '9~t:::'~~:~~*~~A '9~;: cntd!> ~. ~rij!O)?'·1' Yl;/7 b. ~Bt~~*t~ c~j:, ~~*nt;: O)J:: 3 ~:mlt~ 6h~~fjiJ c lt~;t ~. ~t:::., ~~~~~, ~J:t~~~, @~~~$~c:t;:0)J::3~~~tI~O)Jitmc~ 6h~.

-~~, d!>~~OOJ:~~~*~.A'9~c~, ~O)~OO~~I~O)£.~w~m~'9 h~t, ~h~:J:: -:J L J*~*nt-.~:~~ ~~-@Jnt~v~. ~fiIi E2 J:0)~3tJ*~* --c'~j:, JJi{£ o--c'~3t'9 ~)§f~$dJ x'x, Y'Y nt£iIJl~W ctJ:~ ~ o)--c', ;:h 6 ~£~o) RJ3f. c G L~~;:c~J::D, &O)~~O))§f~ffi~~~. ~.l3, m~~J::-:JL~, &0)~~$dJ~ -tffJmO)~~~~c Gt~v~-r, li~t~~~RO) §!l£~~~tt:::. :to)~mv~~;: cntd!>~. ~t

~1Jmm, _$1Jmm, .~m~c~, ~ J:: 3 ~:~ < 6 ht:::.:t O)-r d!> ~.

2-4:

;:0)J::3~~~0)t:::.~, ~h-thO)m~~li'9

OO~ (~157-158)

/PJ G.,*~:mv~~;: cnt~v~ . ..:c0)~-g-~j:, -.J:tJJt c /PJ G:t O)-r d!> ~. Gn) G, :t -:J cJ.tv~.,*~:m V~L, c < ~:-.~tJJto);: c ~ l1iffi~~, (-.-rt~ v~) -~O)~tJJto);: c ~~1iffi~~ c v~ 3 ;: c :t d!> ~. ~$O)-~fnij~:.l3v~L,

~~~~~c~
~j}J9 ~ ~ t;: ~i +00 (~t;: ~i -00) ~:: ( )E) ~1f$(9 ~ c V) ':5 .

ikJtO)J&*~OO9~~:t>~tt.~it>~~. 1) *If{ ~an' ~bn iOt-ttt.:ett a, b ~:J&*9 ~ t~ G ~t, ~(an + bn) ~i a + b ~:J&*9 ~. 2) ~n iOt a ~::J&*9 ~ ~ G ~t, c ~)E1e c 9 ~ c ~ ~(can) ~i ca ~::J&*9 ~. 3)*lf{~GfllSiftRO)lJt~.~.~~k~-ttt~fllSiftRO)lJt~~AGL:t>, J&*ft~ ~{~G~v).

4) *If{ ~n iOtJ&*9tt~t, 51 ~~ < lJt~ v) < -::JiO\9-::J~~-e < < '":) L~~ Gtl~*lf{ :t>:t>CO)~~J&*9~. G~G~~~m-e«'":)kikJt~J&*GL:t>, aikJt~J&*9 ~ c~iISiGt~v) ({?iJ : 1-1 + 1-1 + ... ~i~j}J9~iOt, (1-1) + (1-1) + ... 0).

=

-28-

Lesson 3: Mathematics III (solutions, statistics and models)

M.

jJ l' explanation, understanding; ':I explanation, understanding C( to undo, to solve {vt}; C (~t .Q ) to come undone, to be solved {vi} Icflim~ A ry =J- jJ l' * ry numerical solution -.f :/ jJ l' decomposition, degradation

'~ l' .:: ~ ry substitution

-29-

~1 problem, subject, title

~e

subject, theme, task problem, issue

rR,e

~)- body, group

{~

JJi{rB:l

'/)-~~)­

-B.H~B:I

~~.:z.'7~)-

=J- cost, price, value

l> t:::.. v~ cost, price, value; tJ. cost, price, value

IUJttl-M SJl:t!3-M ~

1

'Y

71 (J)

'J 771

fixed, constant measurement

7=f- object, target, {adjectival suffix}

'* c object, target • • ~~

~'703'77=f-~

13~

1::77=f-

quantitative purpose, goal, target

r- '7 lineage, relationship 9" (./'( G ) to control, to govern *~~~ ~m-~

rl:l,

observed value average value

('* G) to be determined {vi}; ~ t:!.(l'/.) ~ ) to determine {vt} . -~ (J) iJttl~

*1f

7 =JA.1=f-)-=J-

jJ )- 'J

71 determining; Y 3 '7 determining ~ t:!.

~

(atomic) group (statistical) population

71r-'77=f-~

r-'771tJ7

systematic statistics

1:: )- problem, question, subject C: ( '5 ) to ask, to question ~~~~ ~am~

m

3

tJ71::/7=f-~ 1::/51jJ17~

academic problem solving

'7 business, expenses, function, use

:t !>(v~G) to employ, to use M!ffl ~ljffl

~3'7 I) 3 '7

-30-

use, usage,employment utilization, making use of

Grammatical Patterns 3.1) t~~, t~~ l:: and t~~(J) The word t~ ~ is actually a noun, meaning "sake" or "benefit," but both t~ ~ and t~ ~ ~: can be used to join two clauses or phrases. In this context k ~ indicates that the fIrst phrase provides a reason or a cause for the action that is expressed in the second phrase. In contrast, t~ ~ ~: usually indicates that the fIrst phrase is the purpose or goal for which the action in the second phrase is carried out. There are signifIcant exceptions. If the fIrst phrase ends with an v ~-adjective, a td-./O)-adjective, a verb in past tense or a negative predicate, or if the situation expressed by the fIrst phrase indicates a situation that is beyond the control of the writer, t~ ~~: indicates that the fIrst phrase provides a reason or a cause for the action that is expressed in the second phrase. The phrase t~ ~ 0) modifIes a noun and indicates that the noun or verb that precedes t:::. ~ 0) is the purpose or goal of the noun that t:::. ~ 0) modifIes.

2. ~ ~.:I. v-~ 3>' (aRL- Lmflc:t v~5) c~j:, a;.~:~j:~~t~O):tO)O):t~ii.~~ «.~t:::.~, m{~#J~k~j:-t::T)V~fflv)L~M~t:::.~j:m?JtlJ~fT5 ~ c-r:~~.

3.2) ••.

'::~v~"(

and ...

'::~v~"((J)

When the expression ~: "::J v) L is not followed by 0), this expression (along with the noun that appears before it) modifIes a predicate that appears later in the sentence. In contrast, the expression ~: "::J v ~ L 0) (along with the noun that appears before it) modifies the noun that appears immediately after ~: ~ v ~ L 0). Each expression carries the meaning "concerning ... ," "regarding ... " or "for ... " 1. ~t:::., ~m-~~:.s~t~:n~~~~~!lL-t:::.J&*O)*(j~c~~O)~{jffi~:~V~L~j:, $~O)Wf~n~ ~ ~. fillJ~~J:7C*It~~td-.fillJn~ C;~~? t:::.n~, ~: ~ v ~ L:t IPJ ffl~n~~ffl ~ n~.

2.

c:

3.3) .•. ct '? '::~Q,

... ct? l:: f.:t ?

Ci

IPJ GjjmJ:t-r:~c~~n~m~lEJ~td-.C

... ct '? ,::~? t~, ... ct '? ,::~? "(v~Q

and

"( ~ t:::.

This idiom indicates that the action (or state) described by the verb that precedes it occurs (or is achieved) gradually over some period of time. The use of J: "5 ~: td-. ~ or J: "5 ~: td-. ? t:::., rather than ~ c ~: td-. ~ or ~ c ~: td-. ? t:::., emphasizes the fact that the action is fInally completed (or the state is finally attained) after a signifIcant amount of time or a signifIcant amount of effort.

-31-

Translations vary depending upon the context, but the meaning generally takes the fonn "to come to be that ... ", "came to be that ... ," "to reach the point that ... ," or "reached the point that ..." The special fonns J:: '5 ~: tJ. "? -r ~ and J:: '5 ~: tJ. "? -r ~ tc.. emphasize that the current state has been achieved through a gradual process that began in the past and has continued down to the present. These fonns are often translated "it has come to be that ..." or "we have reached the point that ... "

v)

1.~~.lli~~~.~0~.~~~~, *~~~U*tt~~~.$ffi.m~h~J::'5 ~: tJ.

"? -r ~ tc...

2. ;:: OJ:: '5 tJ.J5fi.~~~;jIf!l9 ~ J:: '5 ~:tJ.~~,

{tt*0J:: '5 ~:~~Ifj!~:~~t ~ QC ffi'

iJJti ~t~ ~J:=1' -t7t~: tJ. ~. 3. ~H Ghtc..-r-?7 ~:£-:JV~-rf~~~tJ.&m~.~s~ v)~J:~IDE GJ:: '5 ~9 ~:m-@!, ~ ~M~~~~~ffi=1'm~~~~~h~J::'5~~"?~.

3.4) G;¢\G, G;¢:\G~;¢'f; and L-tc..~'f-:>-r All three are introductory words used at the beginning of a sentence. The words G;¢" G and ;¢" G tJ. tt~ G mean "however"; the word L- tc..;¢! "? -r means "therefore" or "consequently."

G

;::h G ~J:IUJtlJ-r-?7 O1& tJ 1& v) ~ ~J:@Uj'€mJf* L,fJ.v), tl' L- 0.EflO)~Jti~ .00tc..~0)~n~:~*~~tJ.~~~ S "? tc... 1. Gil" G,

2.G~G~ffiG, ;::;::~~m~~~~~~-~~G-r~"?~M~~h.~-r~~.~ tJ.~~ti~t~:~H"? -r~""J:: '5.

3. Gtc..iI!"? -C, NC ~~J:Jm-m7.{ - ~J\'Y 7f\3tllftP~~J:tJ.

v) Gh~.

0) c 9.Q. 3.~~~~fTm--r0)~77~~7, ~AO)~m, m~Im--rO)m~O)~~·~~, J:: JJ~~r;~*~~ • • ~~0)~~~c~.Qz:. cn~~lt~.

3.6) affirmative comparison using J:: JJ The basic pattern for an affirmative comparison between two nouns is "nounl ~J: (or n~) noun2 J:: JJ adjective [afftrmative]." Many variations are possible, including the insertion of the particle :t.> after J:: JJ , the replacement of "nounl" by "noun 1 0) 15," and the replacement of "noun2" by "noun2 0)15." For any of these options the translation would be "nounl is more ... than noun2" or "nounl is ...er than noun2." The same basic structure is employed when comparing two actions, but two clauses take the place of the two nouns: "clausel15~J: (or n~) clause2 J:: JJ adjective [afftrmative]." This pattern would convey the meaning "doing clausel is more ... than doing clause2" or "doing clausel is ...er than doing clause2." Portions of these patterns may be omitted at the discretion of the writer when the context makes the intended meaning apparent. 1. ;fH a O)iI~t~m i lli.fJ},{~~ Xi C9.Q C, Xi+l

=Xi - f(xi)/f'(x) ~J: Xi J:: JJ :t.>.O)m~:lli
Ic~~.lli9~z:.cO) 15n~m~t~z:. cn~tblt~.

3. VMCP ~J:M.m~AT k:@':f*O)jlrJj~~~ G, ::;t~ ~-T~ ~ij~AT kJ:: JJ l:fll: ~:fll:~ G Llt~.Q.

3.7)

~:fl [Gt-=n~] '5

in accordance with •.• , according to .•. l~fl [G t-=n~] ":> '"( in accordance with •.. , according to ••• l:fl [Gt-=n~] lt~ in accordance with ... , according to ... (Note: The phrase ... ~: ~ '5 modifies a noun; the phrases ... ~: ~ "? Land ... ,: ~ It ~ modify a verb.) 1. ~"?LijUJttl~Xl' X 2 , c n~--r ~ .Q.

•••

~J:1ilt~~:£tuL~:ftll-7t1IH:~'5il$~Ic--r~.Qcj!t~9z:.

2. NC --r~J:, ~ r;'IJ) G~mT-7~m~T-7~:T~:;;~ )J,I¥J~:g2ik~tlt.::Vg~~:~,,? L, mMO)m~$O)~~~.~H.~ • • I¥J~.~~tl~. -33-

3. *&~t?jt~JE$-r~d:, J±:fJ~d:~(7)JE~,:1Jtv~, C5,'Q rniffH:fi/J G (7):lbJ) G rl3~ti€a9':~JE~ tl,'Q.

fJ, ii) (7)1Jit~i!&:sR G -C t>~1tn~~ .Q. F(x) =x- f(x)/f(x) C 9.Q c, F'(x) =j(x}f'(x)/rt(X)]2, F'(a) =0 C'6;.Q. L., t::.nt"J '""( j'(a):;f; O. f'(d):;f; 0 fJ: G'i, F"(a):;f; 0 C', a (7)ili: < (7) x C' IF'(x)1 < 1 cfJ:.Q J: '5 fJ:ili:~~Xi ~iiJIH:~~.Q ~ cn~C'~.Q c, 2&(7)if~C'U*9.Q. c < ':j(Xo}f(Xo) :;f; 0, ho = f(Xo)/f(xJ, 1f"(x)1 ~ M, V'(xJI ~ 21hJ M ntpt fJ li-c~;f, Xo n\ Gjfj~t.: Newton ~ ~fW! Xi ~i9 /\('""(gra' I =[x) -lhJ, x) + IhJ] ,:~~tl, 1JfiJt~i I r'H:t.:t': 1 ~(7)m a ~ t> !>, xi~act.J..Q. L.,iJ\t>la-xi+ll~M~i-Xi_J/2lf(x)l(i=1,2,·")C'd!>.Q. ~t.:, ~iIT .~:~~t .QJ:L~~~~~. L., t.:U*(7)~J~ c~~(7)~{jHj':J It) '""('i, r!i$~(7)iJf~nt&> .Q. t.J.,s-IU:j'(x) (7) 'l.n\':f'(x) *C'ffllr)t.: Newton-Raphson it'i, U*(7)~~iJ~ 3& cfJ:.Q. 3-3: ~Ib C: fi,

~Ib ~472-473) -~':J6JJtlJI39 (ili:~t39t.J.~.g. t>-2i36,""()

, : . fJ ~ ~ tl:[;,1Jl~ ~ It) '5. ft~

':J6JJO)I39fJ:~Ib'i, 1I7t1JfiJt(7) J6JJtlJm(7)J!~ C: G'""(iJf~~ tl'""(It):[;'. m j(t) (7)J6JWJ ~ ~1b(7)JajWJ C It)It), JajWJ(7)i2~~~Ih~*t.:~iJaj~~c It) '5. *t::.j(t) (7)A::kMc./J\ f@c (7)~ (::k~(j(J&>.Q lr)~i 1 grl3'C'(7) ~~~C: It) '5. ~1b~~i:rc*tltlJta9t.J.~lbiJ\ G

c

~~ "J t.:nt , IPJ C:1JfiJtC'~2~~ tt.Q~~@]~t.J. ':~It)'""(t>1PJ C:fflmnt f9!ffl ~ tt.Q. I~~C'~~Ih~~~9.Q~C:~, M.t39fJ:~Ih~*~~jf~~tt.Q~cffi~~C'&> :[;,ffi, ~Ih~~~, fi~~(7)~affi.~~tl~ • • -::yti.~~JJ

~~t-::~, ~-©!\"m~t-::~'j:tT)V~}tn~-C~~~t-::~'j:~?j{Ij~fT':5 ~ c-r~~. ~O)~ c~;t, m~O) t>O)':':)lt~-C~~~ ~ 0)':, ~*O).m~~lt~lF.frl'l'ntn)n)":J t-:: tJ, ?j{1j;iE..'fn§ ~

~~.-r~":Jt-::tJ, ~t-::~~#R~O)~.~~*-r~":Jt-::tJ~~~EO)J1I[EI3~G, ~n nt/FPJ~ ~ t-:: ~'j:~.-r ~ ~ ~~ ':m It ~ G -C It ~ ~. m~Jb0)~~, *~G-C~0)4f:j0)t>0)~~~. t> i57:J/u, ~n~;t-JitO)7t~~:~~'"9, ~~~:~;t~nGO)rm~Gt-::~-r:/.2.:z. V-:/3); ~1T':5 O)nt~Jm-r~~. 1 ~'j:, tT)V~~-r~":J-C, fdJlJ9, 1m~~tJ:E-rO)*ti~~~t-::~'j:mifnj~~, ~~ lt~~;t{~$I~~:,t)~t~J\1' 0 ~ l-- ·77); l--tJ:Ent~~. ~!\"m*O)t>O)~~m-~~rrH:, !j\~0) t>0)-r~~ G, ~)tm-O) t> c ctJ:~J1I[~~~illE~t-::~'j:~lE~ ~ O)':-&!bn~. m 2 ~'j:, TTD l/ . ~.2.:z. V-~ 3 /~~ lt~~'j:~~S9mfJTr~cJ:~tn~f.m~O) t>0)-r

n

m

clPJ GM7t:IJfjJ:tnt~tO)n~ (ili{~S9':1PJ GM7t:1JfjJ:t':tJ:.Q~~~-2i~n.Q) J.JllO)m~~~ G, ~n':':) v~ -C~~~ fT":J -C, § S9 c~.Q ~ O)O)jti.':,:)v~-C~Jf~~.Q t> 0)-r~.Q. t-:: c jut, ~~S9~t1JO) ~~.

~n~'j:,

~~ ~0)0)jti.~3t~2~~r!JlJj~~~0)

~e~~nc~~~~~@1~-r.":Jt-::tJ, ~~~O)~e~~~*-r,t)~~~t-::tJ~.Q. 3 ~;t, T ~ :; ly )vm-~~ (Y _~: ~t~~ c ~2~) O)ilW~: {$ ":J -cr± § ~ ~ U:~ J:

m

r

':5 ~:tJ: ":J -C~ t-:: t> O)-r~ ~. :/ 2. .:z. V-~ 3 / c

lt~ ':5 m~;t, ~ti':~;t'± c G-C ~n~ ~ ~. -&~7TDl/·~.2.:z.V-~3/J:tJt>~G~*~~ • • ~t>0)~M~c~~~ cnt~lt~. E IutJ:rp,e-r t>, ~~S9f.~nttlE;z Gn, ~0)7 )v:i 'J ;(bnt~;t":J ~ tJ G ~ ~~n~, ~n~~J1I[~.Qt-::~0)m-~~m7Dl/7b~~~~.Q~c~J:tJ, ~~~~ • • J:-r~.2.:z.V-l--~.Q~c~-r~.Q. ~.~Mfi~-r0)l--77~~~, ~bO)~m,

. ~fi, {~~Ifj-rO)~f.mo)J\ 7/ A, ~J!t[. m:~~~!1: Gt-:: J: tJ Jb ¥llijJ®.m7 -{

-

~J\'Y ?fIjIJitJ

~7..~b.~~~.5. ~®~5~~A~b.®~*~mm~~~.~~~::>.m•• ~~ ~lt~~~h~. L-t::;6~,,? T. ffitJ1iQItt1Fj1f~j:~A ~ b.~~9®'::/D 'Y? . Y-1 t'J;f7 b.~ffl(,).

~A ~ b.®.'t~~tt~~~9 ~t::~,: Laplace~:Jt,:£-j'(,)t::iJi~T$~m

5 L-L". ~7..~b.®AtfjjJOO.~j:~iiOO~':J.:"?L"~c~~ht::. ffjtJ1iQI®±~§ 1 ,: ~ 7.. ~ b.®ti:~tt ~~IDE9.Q ~ ~'"C'~ t) • • 2 ,:~ t).Il (,) 7 -{ - ~ J\ 'Y? ~ ~1u'"C'M)v-7®.'t~*ftt~aI49.Q ~ c~~ t). fi~':. -1 :"-1')v7..A1J~A ~'Y 7' A1J':~t~ .Q~~.'t~*ftt ~a.14 9".Q ~ ~ ~~.Q. o!J4t¥J§lb$IJ.J11!~®~ L, v)~.® 1 ::>~j:. ¥M~7 -{ - ~J\'Y? • ~7.. ~ b.®ti:)Ett~~A J-.9".Q Nyquist ®*,HJIJ$~~.Q. ~®*,HJIJ$~j:. ~iiOO~~.mJi1t~PiJ!t ~~1Jlmi) '"C' Nyquist fJL.c L- L"fI< ~ c;6\&31it t). )E~.tt®.~• •~~~lt':M9".Q Routh-HUlwitz ®ti:)E*,HJIJ1! c ~j:m*t¥J':. ~.Q. o!J4t¥J$lJfqlJ11!G!fuj:m *t!tw.*.~ ':'i'£~.6tL-t::. c~~'"C' . • 2*t!tW.*.~, X~?J-.D=?7..~~~e~-~-®~~.~.~~ ,:~ L-V\m-j!$lJifIJ.Bc ~7.. ~ b.®~~'j:• • t¥J'"C'~ t). ~®~ c;6tilI~$lJiflJJ.lifiA,.O) ii~rmt,\t::. ilI~$IJ.J11!G!fUj:. im~ ~*,J.®ff*c t,\bh.Q"!t-1I'\*~ -{ 'Y? A®~II ~~. ~~I~7Dt7..®ffjtJ1iQI';!;6) t) '"C't~ .Qffltbl:.t3(')L". ~m-t¥J ~ x1i ~~1!~.'tm L-. MiOO (Plan) -.~ (Do) -.~ (Check) - tl!. (Act) (PDCA) 0) -ij"-1 ? )v~-g.J11!t¥J':*b9 ~ ~;6~!IZ'~'"C'~.Q. ~h£3®~Ib~j: J-. 'Y 7'x *-~ j.:,,- 1--;6\ '3~IIJ1!f':~.Q *'"C'~ttt¥J,:.rr~ htl~;!t~ '3tct.t,);6\ '3. ~®~ 5 tct. QC ~. b;6tOO~ ~j:. ~*-tt¥J~.1fJ11! (CWQC) *t::~j:rg-g.~~.1fJ11! (TQC) ~~Iu'"C'(,\.Q. ~ ~ ~ (,) 5 dbW Q c ~i. db~~-ij"-l:: A ® '.Il ~. ~ (,) 5 tm.t¥J.~'"C' ~ "? -C • ~

*

t> -::J db~ * t:: lj:"!;T-l:: A ~ft l1t(J{J ,: ~ t) m9 t:: ~ ®.:pf!i®-i* '"C' ~ "? '"( •

Rm.

-39-

~ v~ 0 v~ 0 O)~~ ~::7} ~t-r~~T .Q c ~ ~i, ~~* ~ .§bJt%tt c 1J5f;S~. ;::. 0) .§bJt*f'11 ~_~{~ G J:: '5 cT.Q c ~, .:en 13 ~i, ~.§b0)5iJ3t"\O~J3t0)J:: '5 tJ:~J.lt'f9 . (~~t'f9~::~ ~mOO~~0)~6, @"\OM~b~o)J::'5~AOOO)WOO~J::~-rW.~n.Q~O)*~~n. ;::.n60)%tt~i '~~O).§b.' cP¥~!n.Q. QO).~~lt¥ftcc~~::~{~G, .:cO)1:gl • M!ffln~:tt~ (m=1!f) ~::45t.Q~.*~~nJ:: '5 ~::tJ: ~, ;::.n~ ':tt~t'f9.§b.' clJ5f ;s~. I~n\ 13 O)IlilW~~~"\O~*~::J::.Q715~, M!fflq:to).§b.O)~{~, -f*~'I1"\O:t(~tt~ ~~.:c0)~~~.Q. ;::'0)J::'5~.§b.*~~4.T.QJ::'5~~.Qc, ~*O)J::'5~~~I m~::.t3~t.Q QcfflllJt~~t~~i/F+7}~::~~, ~~.§b0)1m~· ~~cv~'5Wjg)~~n\G Q ~-f*.T.QfflllJ~M~~~n~~G~ c:J < *1j~-~~mT~ 0) c~5t Gn.Qn~, Gn\ G;::.;::. ~~iJ:: ~ Jtit~H::, T-~ ~::~tG -riff$;cT)V~m~G, T-~ ~ft.J:.EIln\ 13 O)iff$_*cJ!tJ: G-r, _*n\ 6ft.J:.EIlO)*~ft.J:~~::":)v~-r*,JM9T~

""FT c

v~ '5 W~fTbn.QHt50)~fj!~mT~0)

cT.Q.

MllttJ:~ftc G-r, v~*~-cfl!~~n.Q~{lfO)""F~" ~~GfTbnt;:ll?J{tltJ:v~ G~ ~~J::~-r, vl ~ next; -::::> ( ~]

::J
~] ::JvlL 1:£ [t>~] ::J~

(Note: The phrase ... ~:£-:j < modifies a noun; the phrases ... ~:£-:jV~L and ... ~:£-:j~ modify a predicate.)

~~~d:;ffIWf$:~:.tHtQ~W~~~:£-:j.Q7J!, /\3. ~J;li§IW~c~fJ ~:M ~Gki§.~m~~~~~MC.Q~~~~~iJ!>.Q.

2.

3. @~~.~~d:, ~?JlIJc! ~t::..~~~:£-:j~, ~lIT~i:k:~J.!I!rnti~:£-:5

tJ:]

as •.. , accompanying ... , together with as .•. , accompanying ... , together with as ... , accompanying ... , together with

v)

1. ~ ~:J. v-~ 3 /~;tT ~ :;~ )vm-~f1 (J2rF.~:m-~f1c~C9) O)i1t~~:f*J '"(i±§ ~~aG~5~tJ:J'"(~~~0)~3;G.

2. ~f~mfJTO) §ffJ~;t, 4;t Gtlt;:rp'lm~:;tt9 G~ v)m-~$~jV/)t~9;: c, :B~a~ .m-~~#5~~0)~~~9G;:C~~G.

3. Jitffl7tmrO)1b~{~~:f*lt),

Jitffl ctfll~t '/

~ 7-:f-7~ ~.:v-r",'O)t'7 /7 ~ 'Y ~ ~.:v'Y~ffiWGQ.

based (up)on ... , on the basis of ...

1.~(J)mfiM*~~~~~~~~mft~~~~~9Q~~~~~~fl~*~rilJ~-c'~

Q. 2. 19741f:~::I '7 Jk'Aq:.-nt

*-G-Cr±§

/'ftrj~~(J)=¥~~~m~c~jJ*Rv)IDE~=¥~~~:t:> ~ ~:fnU~~7t1l;j7 ~ /,l;j~~~I1~ ~~~t.:..

3. +7tt'&1i:(J)~v)m~(J)~1*(J)7t~~~~J:7t7't~~tJ:~~T-?7 ~ ~ ~~: G -Cm-~9

Q =-- c nt-c'~ Q.

4.9) connective form + L,

*'?

A verb in the connective affirmative form followed by G ~ '5 indicates that a certain action is taken to completion or that an action is taken and the results of that action are irreversible. 1. ~tffl\fr ~IJ (J) ~;ff {ii rll~ ~ ~J:~d4 (J) ~ v)rll~ 1m -c' d!> Q nt, ~;ff {ii ~ !f-f'tijjfj! J:t ~ m v) -C * ~~ '5 ~9 ~ ~~{tf(J)~v)rll~Im~:tJ:':) -C G ~ '5.

2. =-- (J)!f-ftt1ffffly ~

V-Y.3 /' ~') 7 l-- r) x ~jJ*(J)~v)m-~m~tJ: ':) -C G ~ '5. ::L

7~1T'5

-49-

c,

~*(J)m-~~rl'l'~{tffl

G,

3. ~{Lfi:O)i2!mt.~d:, O~?7I) ~~/7°~)v~~~/7'"C'~d:, O~?7~c~/77~~ /~0)~~OO~E~~~T~~~~~~~TG~5.

4.10) G The use of the conjunction G at the end of one clause indicates that the infonnation expressed in this clause is supported or reinforced by the infonnation presented in the following clause. Depending upon the context, G may be translated simply as "and," "besides" or "in addition." 1. cl!> Gm¥l~-C~d:~~'"C'cl!> ~ t.: 7~~T7 T-V ~ :t/F~-wJtJ::t 0) ~:tJ:G ;: c :t cl!> G G, i2!~:.g.JJI!I¥J c ~d:,IittbtltJ:Vl~

5

tJ:7~~T7T-V~:t, ~~tJ::to)

c :ttJ: tJ 5 G.

Gtr~ G, iJjft~~d:, If!fft~:~ ~ T'"C'tJ: < § !d~H:~ ~ T~~ tlG/'{ ~ti c lt~ '5 ~,:t :t IlJ ff~'"C'cl!>G G, mt~I¥J~:~d:, iJjft~~d:~~O) rJI~fftJ '"C'~~tlG/'{~ticlt~'5~,:tn~5in)~

2.

t.:. 3. tJ lv7t~d:~U~~~~tTlt~Gra''"C':t~itGtlG G, tJ lv7tc:1lt7t~IP1m¥~:~~G!to/JJi :tcl!>GO)-C, ~.~O)~7t~:1lt7t~tJlv7t~~~m~G;:c~~b~T~.~ • .g.~cl!> G. 4.11) ""~ Use of the particle /'{ ~ following the present/future affinnative fonn of a verb (or simply ~ for ~ G ) conveys a sense that a certain action "should" be done, either because that action is proper or because it is desirable for some particular reason. With /'{ ~ the emphasis lies in doing what is necessary to achieve an intended result, rather than concern for what is likely to happen. (Note: The reader is urged to contrast the use of /'{ ~ with the use of ~d:9, as described in pattern 9.6.) • 1. BtJffl'"C'fW< /'{~rJ:J'Jm~:~tG, j}j1¥J~:~O)~frt~ ~ 7~::t-T7T-V~~~.g.~it GBtJffl7~::t-T7T-V~~:'/-1 T ~ ~

tfttflt ~

7

7~~T7T-V~C lt~

5.

r).:r. 7 c "} 7 ~ r).:r. 70)-1 /?7~ 7.:r. ~ A ~ )E~~ G 0)'"C', J\~ ~ r).:r. 7ti* c "} 7 ~ r).:r. 7tiUrO) v/'\:)v': cl!>bitT~.g.I¥J':ji:t 5'j] $I¥J tJ: v/'\:) v ~: ~~)E ~ tlG /'{ ~ '"C' C5 G . 2.

~ 7~~T7 T-V~'d:J\- ~

3.~m~.~JJI!O)m~~, 77T~7Y37~~tJ~TG~~.c~~.~~~M~ /'{~~~yO) • .g.~, ~O)m¥l< O)~-YJ~!)1 G n) G~~~ Gtlt.:~~lU!UfiO)~2

i%0)1

-::Jn~~2A ~ tlG.

-50-

3. tI~~:J::~J'?7- /~~IlU';tM~~if> ~jJ'l t;lsb~~C; ttt.:: It'~

'J -0) It\'"ftt7!1\~:MJif.\C; it ~ ~~IJO)~ISW~:if> ~.

-51-

.Qi1~, 7 )v:t I) :A,'b ~;:~ ~ TM~~' Gn) C:~i:k:~ Ght.::~~NOO0~~0 1 ~~;:it!>.Q. it!>.Qm¥~10~ ~ -I) ~~ mM0i1JfF~i, fflU~.0~~q ~~'/ ~n~J!TV~.Q~9§0~2~a 0l%[Jj--@rVit(q, a)

~;:~~T7i:1E:~::i:k:~~, ~0~9§0~2~~~2-ij-a'~;:~X, ~'/ ~~ 1 ~9§~~(~ t.::~i~) ~::ilJn) L, ~~~ q' ~;:~X.Q ~ v~ 5~0~'.Q. AhiQ1~G~~1 a l a2 ···an 'C'iV.>.Q C ~, 7".::L - 'J /~itl~iQ1l1J~M=l?J6.Q C ~O)T-7"0)~9 § O)pq~~J: ···BBa l a2 ·"anBB···, A.. 'Y ~ O)fftlll~J: a l 0) ~9 §, ffjlJ~$0):tX1flHJ:fnM:tX:m c J:~~iV.> .Q~~0):tX:m'C' iV.>.Q. t.=ti. G B ~J:, ~ B c J: ~tn.Q Atn: ~J:I3~nt~ V~~~ O)~G~'C' iV.>.Q. f¥ 11: G t.= c ~O)T-7"O) ~9 § O)pq~ (h::tijffijjj[tij~:~~H~:m ~B 0) $7:HJ:~m9.Q) iQ1, l:j}t Gnt.=J...h a l a2 ···an ~::M9.Q7".::L - 'J /~~ltl~O)lHh'C' iV.>.Q. m-.~~~ O)l!!rnu~:.t3v)'"(~J:, 7".::L -I) /:7"~~~-:hN:{~ G t,=~Fi:k:~'t17".::L - 'J /:7"tI ~ c J: ~~m-~tI~:t ~m '9 .Q.


.Q.

1&1!f~

c

] 1: [~.:1.]

-a

principal, main, chief principally, mainly, chiefly principally, mainly, chiefly

~~

c L,''"(

1. rl=l'~Jl1rtt~7-~T!7T.:v- vJ'\Jv--r~t.tI~~4;;t~~1r,

tJ J;j:7 .b. tt~ ~fljffl9 ~.

±c G-C~-1!7 tJ7

2. ~3 7~c7tJ~AO)~fTO)fljrJ~, ~3 7~, 7tJ~An~frJffl9~±~2ti~filO)iff!l!, Am~~filO)Wf!l!, *~~9-!7.~O)m~-aEffi*~V-T~~J;j~AT.b.0)±~tI ff~--r d; ~.

3. ~f*~d:**~~O).~--rd;~n~, ~~--r~d:±~:: 2 Jj~f*n~mv) 6n~0)~::~tG~f* .::cTJv--r~d: 2 :rJH::~N 6 9-~~:: n :rj~f*~ ffl v)~ C ;: 0nt!4tJ.~.

5.2) -13 [-1 'Y~?] and f&13 [~$?] These terms are generally used to indicate some kind of contrast. When both -15 and ft!!15 appear in the same sentence or in adjacent sentences they are commonly translated "one" and "the other" or "on the one hand" and "on the other hand," respectively. When one term appears without the other at the beginning of a sentence it simply means "however." If -15 appears without ft!!15 somewhere in a sentence other than at the beginning, it usually means "one way," "one side," "one (of them)" or "only," depending upon the context. When -15 appears in the role of a conjunction between two clauses of a single sentence, it normally means "although." 1.

-15,

DOD

7tJ

ttEffl ~ n -C v)~ .

~ :JJv (TCP/IP) --r~d:,

v) n\O) vJ'\Jv~ :t-:>~Jl7 ~ vA1**n~

2.ft!!15, T-~*~o)l~~~~O)M•• ~~O)~*~$~~n~*~-c--r~~~~ mv) 2 ~*~rj--r~~G~c ~O)*~ ~::f§~9~ C:~ ~~~::~Gv). -:> O)~m1*~fj€M!k~itt.:. c ~ ~::, ~::~ G v);: ct::'~t~~*9~.

3.2

m-7tJtrHd:-15O)~~ t.:.~.n~ft!!15O)J!&1& G t.:.~.

5.3) 9-form of a verb The 9 -form of an ru-verb or an xu-verb is created by replacing the final tJ. v) of the present negative form with 9. Irregular verbs are treated as follows: d; ~ ~ d; G9; ~ ~ 9; 9 ~ ~ it9. This form is used as a literary equivalent to the negative conjunctive form, and often carries the meaning "without .. jng."


t,.)] ~ t, )"9t1. f: t., -r tJ {')"9tt7J\ t,)"9tto) ... 'IJ\ {,)"9tt~, t,)"9tto) ... ~ L

("\"9ttO)fi-g.:t. f&Jl!7

~

either way, in any case {quite formal} either way, in any case {quite formal} either way, in any case {moderately formal} either way, in any case {not very formal} one or the other, either all, both

VA7J) ~~7

~ VAA,.~~9 ~t,:~~:7J)1J.

fJ jf:jllt~/\- ~

~I7c:~.m~7t-~I7ffi~~~.

2. ~mll7J~ 1nu .l2.l-j:J:1J.~ C:. t,)"9tto) 7 ?T -1' J:/ 3 /tJ+~1J.j:~21i.~m:~;:. C: i1~~. [2]~JI v::I- ~ c 'b1t~'5. :t~ V-7-( /if~7-T b;6tAt:H:n~fR~t.::~i 2 *~2. ~~c(J)rJl,-e At:H::1J9" ~.~(J)T-?' ~It~ '5. a2ti.-1* (~I) .:I. - b) J:~O)4tJJI(J(jtd.

-67-

~m~.~ffi~D~~~~~. ~D~~tilfi~~ti.~fi~~~-~~3n . •~~ v~- ~ ~ 1 ~o ~? ,:~t~ G. i$m~n~if>G*~ m L ~:t~G ~~~J:, ±~2ti~llI~~J: t:~ C9 G/\- ~ r).I. 7jftJj~:~t-=~mn~if>G~~~if>G. i$m~n~ mu ~l:~:t~G C, It)'9nO) 7 7T-1 7+:; 3 '1'~+7tt~±~2tiit~t~G:::' cn~~~'9, It)b~GA '7 ~ ~:/7"m~n~~~9G ~~C~G. i$m~~~~~~OO~§~M~~m.~if>G. i$m~o7"'7~:/7"~~~ O)fi.~tiW~~, 2~~~7t~9G:::'C~~~G. I~~, OO~0):;3'1'0)~~.~ tt~~!t:G -C, ~JF,fJ¢,(~7 7T -1 '1':; 3 '1'~:~lt)-C~J:.:cn-tnn~.mi~.~ G-Clt)G~­ :;.ftO).~.~±~ti~~.M9G:::,c~M~G~$~if>~, R.~~~tiW~$C G-C7-~/7"t~~$~if>G. ~51~~, OO~0):;3'1'0).mi~.~tt~~~~'9, i$l1U3UJ:~-:;7 ;;t-)V ~ O)MiJJtn~if> ~ ~ i$< t~ Gt~lt)J: 5 ~:~~ ~:~~9 G~$~if> G. •fi*0):;3'1'~J:~-C~-:;7;;t-)v~~~~G~-:;llI.~0)~.~~G~~ ~~, ±~ti~0)~~-:;~llI.~0) • • c~~5G. R.~~~tiW~$cG-C, 7"

O-I'\)v LRU $, 7"o-I'\)v FINUFO $n~if>G . .mi~.~ii~~~Gt;:~$, ~ltG t~lt)~$O)lt)'9n~m.o)~AT.b. ~ffllt) Gn-cs ~, ~AT .b.0)9l1~fjg:h, .£t\~tto) iIii~v)'9nO)~$n~9~, m, J\1~, ~~ ~t~c~*fftc Gt;:fftlll~, 0 n)Gtza~Gil~Gt;:~~.~:J: ~-C.9. ct*,

?7n~l3"~n -Cv)G.

[2] m-~~*~ ~ 7-7 ~:Sv)-C~J:, m~9J'(~~f~m=¥O)ff1:E9G~~~v)5. t;: OSI.~::cT)V~~J:7~1) 'r-~ 3 ://lo)X:/T-1 T-1 (.{~9 O)fftlll~J:~v~ :/T-~ 3:/7 ~ VA ~m~9G. :::'O)~V~:/T-~ 3:/7 ~ VA~J:, *~ ~ 7-7 7 ~ VA, ~'7 :/A~- ~tv7?7-, t~~3 :/tv7?7-SJ:V:~V~:/T-~3 :/tv7 ?7-n) Gt~G. *~ ~ 7-7 7 ~ VAO)~f*f?iJC G-C~J:, CCITI n~m~G-C v)G~fI~~~ilf~m-@j (t;: c ';:{J£, i1J15 E.164 ISDN ilf~lIT@i, i1J15 X.121 T-?7~

c,;:{J£,

.:c:::.

ilf~m-@i) n~if>G . ~~J:}Jffii*ilf~n~9J'(-C~- v~)v~:~ ~, 7 '7 ~ ~ 7 ~ VA{Gv~~J:7~:9~-7D-

G~ffiJL, n.~~~*~O).~~~JL~,

(ffftm&>

&>~tl~~~m&>~tl

m~nt~v ~m-@J ~'t>'5~G. mfflv~A:9-:a:-BMGL~ffl9Gm-g-'t>&>G. D'M, nJlJ~~~v~A :9- ~:iWn\tlt-:: 7-:9 ~J:, 7!¥JlJ/J\~J¢,(~-wffl O)f~~~iW~:~J LiWiJm~:~~~n~1T;t G d::

'5 f:tckJ LV~G z:

cn~~v~.

5-13:

as

C~~29G.

~t~fI!\- ~'7I.7 cfIjJtl~O)rl'l'~:ffttG, fIJJtI~~:~~~":'Mtck

-72-

fI~:a:- 'b Jfli{~~tJ:~~fI:a:-t~#t9 Q clPJlI'if~:, ~~-@JO)~ 3 --;J, 70tAA..0)/\- r 1) I. 7J(?Jj0)~J~-C :a:-*,J~ G, .:cO)~~jJfljffl:a:- ~d:iQ)Q '} 7 r. 1) I. 7 :a:-It) '5. ~ 3 --;J c 7 otAO)~fiO)~~, ~3--;J, 70tAffi~ffl9Q~2• • ~O)W~, AW~ • • O)W ~, *~r.ry-~.~O)m#tffi~~fI~~~Q.

~5e~~:J!Q c, :;t/'\.l/-T-1 /~~~ATAO)~~;~Jd:1950 &FRfl~~~Q. liM 704 ~:~>f G -Clm~~ tlt.: Fortran :1 / /\1' 5'-O)W~~:J: "? -C~~flO)fljffl~iQ~*.~H: m~G~M., ~.flO)~*~~~fflffi~.~~O, ~~flO).W~.MO):;t/'\.l/-~ -~~~~Gtl~~c~~"?~. 1~9&F~J-A7~U~/M~~tt~Im~~tl~ Fortran II ::C=~-~d:, ~ 3 --;J C ~ 3 7~ O)ra'O):;t/'\.l/-~-O)1l- A :a:-:lf!ilJ\~H~: c c~, ~~fI~ AT AO).WO) ElItJ1r::a:- 13m G t.:, ~$B1m ~:fljffl ~ tlt.:~1}]0):;t/'\.l/-T -1 / ij~ATA~~Q. *~, ~.O)~mAW~.~~M9QAW~~J:O~~~flO)~ffl ~*ffi~~9~0):a:-.~~~~~, .~~.fI:a:-~.G-C, ~~.flO)AW~~ • • O) m~T-7.Tht:a:-fljffl9 Q J: '5 tJ:~ AT A.,6X;iQ~ c Gtl-Clt)t.: . • ~~.flO)~~1U~d:, ~m.~iQ) GA~ Gt.:~~:a:-m~T-7.Tht~:W~9 Q ~ c, -BJ:LFm~T-7 J::O)~ ~.flO)W~M.:a:-~m.~~:W~9~ ~ c~~~. ~tlGO)~ATA~:-BIt)-C, AW ~.ThtO)1& 0 1& 1t)~d:AWn*,J~7°0 ~~5' A c G -Cl#l~~ tlt.: 10CS iQ!fT,,? -Clt)t.:. 1960 &F1~~: ~d: It) Q c, 9l1~~~n 0) [fijJ::a:- 13 m G -C, f!, 11 70 ~~ 5' ~ / ~~ O)tt*iQ~l#l~ ~ tlt.:. f!,1I70 ij5' ~ /~~:a:-~~9 Q ~:~d:, 7-:t-T~ -r'V -~~:~d:, AWn-r'V *)v, -r'V *)viQ) G O)~~Jj.:a:--a~t.:~fjO)~tl~Jj.O)~~~, ~c.i~aIO)~~~, @f~7 ~ tA 1lJ~~tJ: 2 *~c • • • -1 A ~.:c0)ft!!) tJ: ciQ~~,.~:tJ:Q. 1964 iF liM *-t~d:~ AT A 360 :a:-~* G, 1966 iF~:~d: OS/360 0)~1}]0)Jl1jiQ~{9!fflllJ~ ctJ: "? t.:. OS/360 ~d:, ~ AT A 360 7 7 ~ I) -~1*:a:-~ }'\-9 ~ ~ c :a:-it~ Gt.:-g 9l1~fflO):;t/'\.l/-T-1/ij~ATA~, :;t/'\.l/-T-1/ij~ATAo).~o)~.~, fI ~~0)1**1r::a:-fT"? t.: . .:cO)m~O)*~ ~, 1m~:1 A r. O)§*~ ~d:'} 7 r. 1) I. 71TI:flc It) '5 i§~:a:-1:Jj., ,}7 r.1)I.7I~:a:-j!1:~i±Q~~ctJ:"?t.:. OS/360 ~d:, .:cO)flO) liM *-to)~J:{ft:;t/'\.l/-T -1 / ~~ ~ A T A MVS O)JJJ!~~ ~ Q. OS/360 c ~~U£IPJIl'ifWH:, ~~-r.:L-t~'YIf4*~~~d:Il'if7t~J9l1~~ATA (TSS) O)litfJ.'C .1#l~:a:-i1!~, CTSS O)~~~ATA~:JIt)~, 1965 &F~:~.~.:L-T-1I) T-1 clt)'5J~l~O)'bc~;:: MULTICS .~:a:-~* Gt.:. ttf,N~~:~d:, tij ~ /T-~ 3 /, ~-~ /ij~:J:Qfli{~ ~c.:1JJtO)ZiA, ~JI~T-1l/~ r.1)-m~:a:-'b"?t.:771' )V~ATAtJ:CiQ~~~~~ Q. liM fliQ~fli{m~c.:1JJt:a:-f*ffl G t.:O) ~d:, ~ A T A 370 iQ1~1}]~, 1972 &F~:tJ: "?-C iQ)G~~Q. OS/360-BJ:LFMULTICS ~ATA~:J:"?-C, :;t/'\.l/-T-1 /ij~ATA

er

O)~*~~tt*ffi.~~tl~. ~ffl~.~~II'if7t1U9l1~~ATAO)~&ffi~*"?~0)~,

1970 &F1~~:~d:1t)"? -CiQ) G~~Q. ~~1*0)~fJi1r:ttf,N0)~~tJ:i1!:$:~:J:

0, 1970 iFf\:0)~~t9~'~:tJ:Q C, r.h,ti~~O) G ~:~ l' ~ 0 7°ot ~~-O)tfj~ Cr.h~~1r: ~:J: 0, ~.~~nO)7t~1r:iQ1~.~:i1!frG~~t.:. 1980 iF1~~:~d:It)~ c/\-,}j--)v

A -/\-~ =::1 /1::.:L -~-iQ1tfj:ijl G, :1/1::.:L-~-,

~

~G~~-@JA~fflO)~~ftry-~AT-~3/ffi~&G~.

:;t/'\.~­

T -1 / ij ~ A T A c G -C ~d:, /\ - '} j- )v:1 / c: .:L - ~ - ffl ~: ~d: CP/M, MS-DOS tJ: c iQ1 ffllt) Gtl, A -}\-~ =:1 /C:.:L -~-, r;;-~ AT-~ 3 /ffl ~:~d:'} 7 r. 1) I. 7ttf,N ~O)t.:~O).~c

G-C9 ;t~ V~T.{ /ij~AT bO)m~tJ:MOO~;:tJ:-:> LVl~. 7 7-1 )V~i!t~ ~t~tJ: -fmm-JJMO) 7 7 -1 )v ~ AT b ~ 7 7 -1 )vjl~ ~ If ~ tt LV l ~ crm~ 13 EB ~;:tt fF~~~MOO, *~ l-- '7~~ ~;:tl*1t~ttLvl~MJJMIL'~;:*t;:ns-:> t;:70i!Ara'lM~M 00, ~~oij-1/MOO~~~~~k*~l--'7~~;t~V~T.{/ij~ATb~, ~~~

ef~n\ C; ~m {to)mM~;: ~ ~. ~*~~~~, .~-:>km-JJMO).~-:>k;t~V~T.{/ij~ATb~~~0)~5~~ *$~tl*1t~ ~ n\ ~ Vl 5 ;: ~ nS*~ ~ef~al1m~ ~ ~. ;:0)~5~,

;t~V~T.{/ij~ATbo)~~~,

ti~O)it!~O)HI~ ~ Vl 5 ~

tJ,

;t~V~T.{/ij~ATbl3.O)

~O) ~ ~ ~~o)J\- ~ t).:x:. 7ti~ ~J\~ ~ t).:x:. 70)fiffif3.

~;:*~tJ:~.~~~tt;:HI~~ Vl 5

;: ~n~~~~.

J\~ ~t).:x:. 7n~~t)3bljffjfiffi~~-:>t;:

l~O~ft*~*~~, m-JJOO~~.~~G, ~O)ttOO~+7t~ft~~it~~~~;t~ V~T.( /~·~AT bO)~t>m~tJ:al1m~~-:> t;:. ~tt£J.~, J\~ ~ t).:x:. 7fiffif3.0){lt"""F ~;:f* 5 m-JJoo~O)7tIMt ~ ttl 5 iT G vli1rfttn~~1: Gt;:~;fJ!~~d:, Vln\~;:~Jjm~~;:{5I!ttlJJ1 =FO) ~ Vl m-JJM~;fJ! ~m~~ ~ n\nS, .*O)ti~ale ~ tJ: -:> LV l ~.

5-14: ~*5fl1J11!~tiI (CPU) pg~;:tiln\tt~ lfljimO)~m¥~ati~tiI~ Vl 5. *f)E0) § a9~ t> ~W mV~A~~~, ~~O)5fl1J11!~{5I!m~tt~mmV~A~~~~7t~c;tt~. WfflV~A ~~~Gl~, .~0)7~vAm)E~fi57oij~b~t)/~~, .~~§M~~.~ V~A~~, ±~ati0)7 ~i!A~;:{5I!m~~±~ati7 ~ VAV~A~~ (MAR), ±~ati T~~ V~A~~ (MDR), 7 ~ vAm-JJ~;:{5I!ffl~.Q-1 /T~ ~ A V~A~~, ~~A V~.A~~, ?j{JJ~;:{5I!ffl~~7=f-.:Lb v-~~, v~A~~7y-1 lv, 1¥Ib/J\lfc,¢,(v~

.A~~, ~7l--V~A~~, A~~~MOO~t>~.A~~~V~A~~~~~~~. ~*, V~.A~~~d: 71) ~ 77 0 ~ 7*t;:~d:lfljim;l. -t: I) -7~ 7n) C;f1Ij.6X;~tt, ~O) CPU ~ O)~lfljimO)~ati~Tht~ GlMfj~~~. *t;:, ±~ati~O).~~T~~O)E~~fivl~~ ~~kab, ~O) t:~ l--!Hd:±~ati~ThtO)jlH~*t;:~d:~O)ffi*~~ ~;: ~n~$>Vl.


+ J:: v) (you) may ••• provisional affIrmative + J:: tt) all (you) need to do is ... present affirmative + 11 [*'.7] n~J:: tt) it's desirable to ••• past affirmative + 11 [*'.7] n~J:: tt) (you) should •.. (Note: The adjective J:: lt~ may be replaced by the adjective It)lt).) 1. !Jt~fJ:~m7t;{fjOO~ F( • ) ~ ~-:>!L~~i F1(v,) ~M~9tHiJ:: t,.).

2. rr:l'~O)~f4:;Q~~i"~ c ~l=~i, rr:l,aO)~lmH: ~;Q\~.

6.6) interrogative word + (particle +) t> The combination of an interrogative word and the particle ~ (sometimes with another particle inserted before the ~) makes the expression comprehensive. If the predicate that follows this combination is affirmative, the expression is completely inclusive. However, if the predicate -78-

that follows this combination is negative, the expression is completely exclusive. For example, t'=.t1:t with an affirmative predicate means that "everyone" does (or is) whatever the predicate describes. However, t'=.t1:t with a negative predicate means that "no one" does (or is) whatever the (affirmative) predicate describes. (Note: The reader is urged to contrast the use of an interrogative word + :t with the use of an interrogative word + 7J\ as described in pattern 4.3.)

1. ~PJT~mHi~~li Gt;:.1i$.. ~1I Ga l,)1i$..:c.t1t'=~t-r:rnBJ.lI!fl. ~J.lI!fD. ~

JE(7) 3 flm(7)~I!~~lJl-r:~Q.

6.7) ••• ~JHct3] G-C The phrase ~)M G -C usually means "through" in the physical sense of traveling through a place or passing through a three-dimensional object. Occasionally, ~im G -C carries the meaning of "through" in the figurative sense of an intermediary by whose agency or assistance an action is carried out. (Note: There is considerable overlap between the use of ... ~)M G-C and the use of ... ~im (~9) t: -C. as described in pattern 9.5.)

1. ::t:1~.:r. ~ "(7)I*J$~lJl~~~iW¥IHj:fJJm~':~j:J!x '"9. If::(7)? ~t~~j:~ Gi6\ t:~ m~~.t1~$~~)MG-C t) -€l-? -Clr)

Q. 3. ~,,*~fEti'9 Q C ~. ~~(7)~~im G -C~.:r.*)v:f-i6~lliA t) '9 Q ~ ctd. ~W~U1f~fftic l,) '3.

-79-

,'Q. 7 )v:Jlj A'b c 70 ij~b~~~~GitlPK-c'i!bh,'Q~, 70ij~b~, ~,'Q70ij~b~.-c'.~h~, t.::t:!.iS ~:m-JJtI-c'~fi-c'~,'Q :t 0)~itIPK9,'Q ;:. ctJt~It)O)~:!t~, 7 )v::J 1) A'b O)~~ '5

-c,

~J:,

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;:tlGO)*rO)~f}[*t,:J'iD"9J7.~t,

~ m It) LiJt* ~ tl,

*

It)~ It)~t~:lJJ:tO)m~(J93;G It)~'i.~(J9~~m~

iltl)t t::. ~J:m~ ~ tlG.

.~gmJ:t~J: D"9 J7./f - ~ ~ J:~i3~J±*r

~ • • L~~O), /f-~~~.L~~O), ~~Eo).~~~~~~¥~775AJ:~ 'J V !f57 ~ -ti~~:J:: tJtJt~gm./f-~~OO:.~~Lt::. ~O)t~EtJ~3;G. J±.~J:t ~J:*~t~EO)J±.*r~mG ~O)~, ±c GLpg1t&mOOO)pgJ±iltl)t~:mlt) GtlG. 1!;~ M~~, ~~~~~tt~O)a~~, ~.~mCGL.r~~rO) • • ·a.~~~~~ ~~~m~G.~M~3;G. -~~, =~ff~M~.~(J9W~~~~G~O)~ff~R~ ~, *t::.~J:ff~~ffl~C ~ It)lt), )j~iltl~O)t::.~O).~~3;G It)~J:~~ff~~ztJ~llJfjg t~~O)~J±~~z~c ~lt)'5.

8-10: J±~~iltlG:lRWO)~ltdJ: 1643 ~~:fT:btlt::.~~~ ~ 'J 7-.:r. 'J O).~~.~3;G. i1B .~.~j\jj(!) '"C'R~(!1t'"(, [*(!O)1ltfft] '"C'~~

~M~m~.~~M'"C'~9, O)c!>6~'"C'~~6tl.Q. ~~, ±tJ:1lt~*'"C'0)J±fJO)1lt~~~9. tJ:~, .~CO)~J±(~MJ±fJ)~~9~ ~ (t'::C~~t ata)~, *~ffcO)~J± er-~J±) ~~9~2~ (t'::C~~t atg ) tctc~i, v\ v~t:ltO)fjBrH:M9 .QtJtffl~2~'"C'Cf!>-:J ,"(, 1lt~~2~'"C'~itct v\. (1) OO~1ltlli:* (SI) : fJO) SI 1ltfft'::'::L - ~ / (N) c itiffiO) SI 1ltfft~tJ j. - ~)v (m2) c7J'l 6 (a) tJ):t'"C'tiJJ.1r'"( I3tl.Q SI 1ltlli:~i'::'::L - ~ /~~tJ j. - ~)v (N/m2 ) '"C', ;:tl ':~ifi!IT~O)45~/'\AtJ)V (Pa) ;¢Hf~ I3tl '"(v\.Q. SI '"C'~i, /'\AtJ )v~Pr.\fJO)1ltlli:': ~

M!'3.

~)v (cm2) ctJ\ 2 6 (a) tJ):t'"C'tiJJ.1r'"( I3tl.Q ~-1 /~~tJt /7 j. - ~)v (dyne/cm ) tJ~Cf!>.Q. (3) mfJ1lt~* : fJO)1ltfftm:lt::f- 07*7.b. (kgf ~t.::~i kgw), m:lt7*7.b. (gf ~t.::~i gw) tct c C, itiffiO)1ltfft m2, cm2 tJ: c cO);f!ji-@Jv1t':J::.Qm:li::f-O 7*7 .b.~~tJ j. - ~

(2)

cas 1ltfft* : fJO)1ltlli:~ -1 /

}v (kgf/m2)

(dyne)

C itiffiO)1ltUr~tJt /7 j. -

(~~~2~0)JJ.~~9), kgf/cm2, gf/m2, gf/cm2 tctctJ~Cf!>.Q. SI 1ltUrcO)~

1*~i 1 kgf/m2 = 9.80665

Pa tctc'"C'Cf!>.Q. -V- ~ . ~/ ~#H:~im:lt~/ ~~~tJ-1 /7 psi) tJ~ Cf!> .Q . (4) /'\- )vc~O)*lt9CO)1ltfft : 105 Pa ~ /'\-)v (bar ~t.::~i b) c v\ v\, ~0)*lt9C,: mbar (~t.:: ~i mb), ~bar (~t.:: ~i ~b) tct c tJ~ Cf!> .Q . (5) ~ff c~O)*lt9CO)1ltf1l : 101325 Pa ~5[J± (atm) C v\ '3, :mfTO);: O)~.~i, (a) tJ ):t'"C'~~t.:: Pa ':1(1*1( 101325 ~f~Htt.::M':tct-:J '"(v\.QtJ~, ~.seI¥J':~i (b) tJ):t'"C'2iA (! tlt.:: ~ 0) cfiR(! tl.Q. (6) *~JH±j. - ~ )vc~O)*lt9CO)1lt~ : (101325/0.76) Pa ~*~JH±j. - ~)v (m Hg), C v\ v\, ~O)*lt9C,:*.ttt /7 j. - ~)v (cm Hg), *.tt~ ') j. - ~)v (mm Hg) tJ~Cf!>-:J ,"(, :m~'"C'~9~'"(~~~1*~~.~~M'"C'~.(!tl.Qffi, 450)~9C~D, ~.se1¥J

(lbf/in2

~ t.:: ~i

~~OOtJ):t'"C'~A(!tl~~O)'"C'Cf!>.Q. ~~L*.O)~J3t, mfJ~JmJ3t, *_ttO)_(! 0)~tl-ttlO)~~~0)~V:tJ~:/'\7 .IT -{ tJ~Cf!> -:J t.::. ~t.::, ~)v (Torr ~t.::~i torr) ~i, ~ B '"C' ~i mm Hg 0) BIJ~ C: fiR (! tl.Q J:: '5 ~: td: -:J t.:: tJt , 1 Torr = (1/760) atm C: V\ '5 ~. ~ Cf!> -:J t.:: t.i" 6, atm O)~.~: J:: -:J '"( ~i Torr ::t mm Hg C O)fiR~ ~ Cf!> Dti.Q. Torr (~t.:: ~i torr) 0) *lt9C ,: ~i mTorr, ~Torr tct C tJ~ Cf!> .Q .

8-12: JJj{T~O)~JL':&V:~O)#~~~fj~!&~L, ~f*~t.::~i5[f*O)-~(fJWfj~Atl.QifiM

JEWH. JJj{T~O)M~~J::D.~~~~O)~a~~.tJ:D, .*(fJW~O)~-@J~~~~ O)1JOff'l' 7 'Y ~MfitJtJ:: < M!ffl(!tl.Q. ~t.::tJA(fJW~,:-t3v\'"(~i*~M~fffJWHO) 1SR:W-i'J) 6 7' VA ~ VA ~ =r / 'l' ') - r- ~ (Ml~fJM~JjH: J:: -:J '"(**~ Cf!> ~j'"(51~ D ':%i < Lt.::=r /!7 1) - r-) O)fffJ~HtJtf5t!ffl(!tl.Q;: C:i'Jttblt\. )]fT~~~~i~iIift, ~J±~-c' M!ffl(!tl.Q~~'"C'tJ: fJ ~J '"(t,)Q. Gt~n~J ,"(, ~ O).t '5 ~~l*O)~imn~~~~ttt~tEEIiJt ~i*~ G. @JEK~~/7~i7-T~@JE~ /7~~~~n, @JE~tt~, ~O)W~M~~~~~~~2&O)K~~~M~~frL-C fl!iI)E~ffljW~mjIJ9 G. GO)@JEffB~ fl!iI)E~fflj~w~:rm~nt~~rl'f'O)~fft~{~~:~ ~-C~~O)aA, ~W~fi5. ~A~@JE~/~ m.t/~~@JE~/7'"C'~, K~~ :.n~N'9~ A CA 7 1) /~ ~n~fl!iI)E~fflj~:1& ~ J~tGn-Clt)G. =t-::-~@JE ~ /7'"C'~i.1\{10)jgffljiO~J It)tdwjIJ 1:: A /n~fl!iI~~ffljpqw~mjIJ L -C1J~~ftffl ~fi

JEW,

:.n

r.

M@JE~/7'"C'*.~~~~~~~~.~9G~, ~/7pq'"C'.WL-C*c~G. JEW.fi~~'"C'~/7pq~*~~.A9G~~0)#MO)~R~.~-C~.Q.

t> C~iIffi.~i1f~~~t~l3t'::~.Q =- ~n~~~htf, ~ =- '::~"( 6h~~.t> .iIffi.~i1f~~~C~~fI~~.r{"(ft.~~A.Q=-~~~~.Q~9~&>.Q.

2.

0 ,::tJ: t),

3. t.::~A'i, ~~~~~~~tt.~lIJ~~~ffi-~~~ftFOYf~rr-5J:: fJ~iJ±~-JE~ ~ftF~fi5~~~.Q~~W.fJ.~9~~.Q.

-122-

Reading Selections iItiO);!llj ~J.l142-143)

9-1:

EI ~w.~;::Slt)-r,

~~0)~Ib~X~9 .Q-~(!.Qlj. ~im=.:I. -

••

t- :/O)iD!IbO)(!.Qlj~ft

~~ tl.Q. ~~a9J;:~i1i~O)iD!tb:6H;tftiiO)(!.QIJ~~~Lt:: Galileo O)fiJf~~;:Ml* ~, , I. Newton :6~ 11 C 1JDilIjt0)001* ~ 3 ":J O)(!.QIJ O)m ,;: * c dYt" , -t-O)£lI:6~ifnL ~ tlt::.

~O)., .~*~.~~E~ ~m~tl.Qcc~~, R~~J.lO)m~~~~.Q~~(!, 1E~~mlt, 7!f7:/:/ .:I.O)iD!lb~~lt, /\3.)J; t-:/ . "V::I t::O)fAiifl~~~lttJ:c~~ fJ)nt::. - ~, A. Einstein (= J:: "? L, =.:r.. - t- :/ 11 ~J:: fJ JK It).alm 0)~1b~;: -~ J;:iIffl ~tl.QmM~a911~~O) • • ~fibtl~. =.:r.. - t- :/O)iD!tbO)(!J{U (l)m-(!JlIJ (tftiiO)(!JlIJ) : fitli:*t::~i-3tJ:~~iD!lb~fi

'5 ~~'i z:.tlJ;:11:6~fFm LtJ:lt)\W fJ, ~O)tR~~~*"c-9.Q C It) '5 pq~~ ~ ":J ~O)-e, ~ ~O)z:.O)J::'5~tt.~~ttcJ::~ffi, ~-(!~O) • • ~nL~, z:.0)J::'5~ • • ~.~ ~it.Q}~H~*~tJ:b~tlii*~~rFttl9Jjj{J.I~'l' L Llt).QJi~U;:~.Q. btlbtl~i~-(! JlIH;:J:: "? -rillb~~G~~ ~ ~tltt* ~ *T~~~.Q z:. c:6~~.~.Q. (2) ~=(!.QIJ (=.:r..t-:/O)iltb~m~:I":JO).~~ML-r, tftttO)*~~.9~.0)~~7-.mffi~ .{Y:~i kg ~jj;.Q. tfttt*~~.*';:c.Q c ~, '~:6)O)~~:6~.,~J;:.&.J£~11~(l(JfFm~i• • c~O).Ji~U;:~t::t~1J[]il~ a O)M~M tl.Q. z:. O).r{.? t- )J;:Il F 0) z:. c ~11 C It)lt), 1 kg O).,~';: 1 mlgl O)1JDilIjt~~ t:: ~it .Q11~!t!{Y:';:c "? -r 1 N (=.:r.. - t-:/) c It)'?. ~.Q~i*O)r';:jj;.Q • • m O).i~U;:. < 11 F tJ~~ tj:6) t::bb~"? Llt)tl~t, -t-O)ft:~O)illb~i nu F I;:J;:.Q1JDifIjt a tfrldr ~~*.Q. 'Z:..0).r{.? t-}vO)OO1*lt~=.:r..- t-:/O)illb1imltclt)'? (3)~-~j{U(f1:.m

*.Q. m ~~O).,~O) (tltt) • • c It)lt),

=

=

&f1:fflo)~~:2":J0)~~OO~~, .:rO).$'C'~II.flWlIffi&.flWII~~.~~. ~ t~1fO)9=IC'~;tAD ~,*~lJ!Jfmi1t~':bt~ ~ &mtc:~~. flW-nSftij -r: Re ~*~ < GT~)J t~:ijj.g-,:, -~,: Re O)~~Ii\W-~JlAJ:.C'~;t i1rtttnS:;ptc)Ec:a~. Re ~~ G':*~< GT~)~t~t!L.':iI.9~. ~O)~W-l/~ J )~~RMiliO)fttt~.M*)E~~~J::~TMfi'C'~~. 9ab~)E~all.m~qOO~ ':~Jh9~1l'J\~~O)M~m.Q-g-b-ttT, .:rnn~mROO~I¥J':~1JD9~n),c'5n),':J::J T*)Ett~fJjJE9~. ~h~lImt*)E~~ C: v) '5 . .sp:fTmt':'JV~TO)lImt*)E~~~;t:;t 7 . \//~-7 I.j~ ~O)1JW~O)JlW-~, ~ff~rp,~,:IJ{Jl~~tt~. ~ X 'Y ~O).h, =::9;:JC:SJ:: rJ.fIJ1f~0)~7 ~'1 .:LO).h, flWIIO)iJiftl (ili{J;.{Jfrrmt) t~c':'J~)T::t

c:.tt

7 .

\//~-7 I.)~ ~1J~~O)mtJTn~rrbtl,

m-~n~rrbn L~\~.

Gn)' G,

~~~O)iBlHI'C'!t )n),t~ ~ Re

~mttt~:'Jv)TIi\W-1/1

J

)~~lt~cO)

~ X 'Y "O)mttt:SJ::rJ.p:J1f~O)iF7 ~1.:L0).tlC'~;t. ~*)E C: v) '5 *5*ns~ G Tv) ~.

tt

':'J v) T

9-6: M-1J~1JD;tt~c:~,:~tt~tt.~~Tmt~. -~,:.~~;t*6i1~~'J0)'C', *611c:" 11O)jilijjj~~.Q{i;tt~.~c: t,,) '5.,*'C'~~. *6~11.;tj@j71-T-!fmJto)~ 'J -7~. -:i.b. ~~O)!l*,df!~c.,:Jl. Gh~. ~ma9~~tt~C'~;t~~ C: D9Jj.n~, ~ma9~*611.l* 'C'~;t~~ C: D9Jj.iflln~.:rtlttl-fiHjO)OOf*':~~. Gn'l G~ff\i)!fm.O)'~ C:luc.~~ TI;t, iJ!iitta9C'6!> ~ ~ns G*6tta9':..5,,~ ~ It), *6tt~'C'6!> ~ ~nsGiJ!iitta9t:~~ ~ '5. M.O)i1.~*6~tt, ~.O)i1.~iJ!ii~ttC:J::Iu'C'gm~~~C:~6!>~ffi, ~~~~n G ~f.5iJ!iii1C:~~9~. t!i~i1O)OO4T ~Jj.~C'~;tqrp'ft{ffi1nHJltt~O)nS%.'C'6!>~. ~~~q~~Mft{fftt~~c:'5~. M.O)Jj.O):ijj-g-~• •*6~11, jiIij.O)Jj.n~.-g-~ #.Mt!i~i1C:J::~tt~. qOOft{fftt~~.~tt, ~tt~.~cO)Jj..~Jl.Gtt~. ~ ttG~iJ!iitt~.ffi!fm~~$O)t!itt.m~J::JT~tt~~O)C:~~~h~.

9-7: iJif¢O)~IIJ':t.H·)T, 9fJ ~1J dt.~1.J) Gt~t,,).~~~=.:l. - ~ /ftJhc:J::V::, ~O)J::

C:9fJ imll (~.im~O)~.fiX;5t}7~sJtM '5 ~~Jh~~~ft~~~¥=.:l. - ~ /ii~c: s J::~~. jiIij.n 1t0iJT ~=.:l. - "/.jIj':1t~T~~I¥Jl& ~t&t,,)n~?I)Iuc. '5 C'6!>~. 90 ~~C:9~ifllO)1t~Jl.~~0)t!itt*C:J::~tt, mtjlj~~~J::JT~~~~ . •71-T-~ I3t1'~~~, ~A.I'\./~ 3 /'C',;t~im~o)J:: '5t~mttIJ~~~. iJifllJ~~':J::J T~R mffi.m~tt~~?I)~~G~c:~;tGtt~~~~~De-O)~-g-, ~~~iJ!iii1~~'5~ 1* ~~i1iJiff*) O)}~JE~iJifC'tt, Jtn),~tO)t!ii1*~;t~rp'~~:~{t9~. ~O)J:: '5~. -g-~, 1F=.:l. - ~ :/iJifJh':I3?1) Gtt~n~, Jtn),~tO)t!ii1*nsqrlm:J:: J T~{t G~lt'~~ O)~~~#=.:l.-~/.tlJC:~~~'5ffi.im'C'6!>~. #=.:l.-~/iJiftIJ~.mtt~~

-125-

• • (~JlI!2068)

9-8:

2 -:J O)~f*iO~~f!k L- t::. * *f§~t~1I1 :a:MlfIJ J:: '5 c '9 ~ c ~, C6 ~ t" ~ ~if§M~tb:a: L- L c ~, ~f!kOO--r~tb:a:m11: L-et '5 c'9 ~ 1JiO~ooO)~.1JrRJ~:fIJ ito)~~iO\ jjjO)m7t~~iMtIt~JO)~1!i, C6~ v~~iIlffi.~~7lm~~: ~~f* L-, *~ < fii:a:~x~O)--r, ~JllElccJ!~ ~ c~i--r~t~v~. L-iO':a L- ~~~ O)~{tJ:iO~-lEt~ ~ ~t, Jl.O)*/J\~~f!kOOfJfO)*tj\, C6~ t,,~~if§~tJmllO)*~~ ~:~f*~ < -1E--rC6~. ~~

:a:y.::c)-' }- )-'0)1*j{1jC6~ t,,~~i7-0 )-'0)1*j{1j cet~~~ c

~C6~.

"_O)±t~JJj{~ c

L- L

~O) 3 -:JiOt~~jGn~. (1) J!iO':a~tO)~f!koofJfO)pg$0){iiL¢'(iO':a--r7tTrfl'0)~f!ki01~~ ~

• •'9~.

f§M~tbO)~~~~~k • • O).~cB~~~~. ~~tbk~?L-1JO) ~f*iO~f§=FO)ooO)[!!]8:a:J:r'9 ~~, 1J~a9.:r.*)v~-O)-$iO~~c L- L~t>~~. (3) -1JO)jjj0)8$i01f§=FO)jjj~fjj ~~ GLV~ < ft •. • • i01±~ ct~~J: '5 t~m-GiO':a t~oo c '5 L-O)*.O)~~, p, ~i 2 !fo/.J-f*O) '5!>, ~t> ~iO':av~1JO)!fo/.J-f*O).~O)~~:a: E, iO':at::.~:a: H c'9~ C, EIH O)J;t~:JlI0)-r, *~f*~~d:)j1lt!fo/JJ1I!JE~~ G-c~~j 6 n -Cv~t~ v~. *KtO)~JtrHd:Hl!sel¥J~:~d: 1699 ~~: G. Amonton n~~J! G, 1781 ~~: c. Coulomb n~ 1m~ -C~v~t.:.O)-r, 7.::c /' /'O)~JtIj~~ v~~d:7.::c /' 7 - tJ /'O)~JtIj ~ J:. tfn~ ;:~:t>~~. f1€Moo~~6~-r, *KtO)~~~f1€Moo~O)~~~~~~~~~I¥J • • • O)%d~J:.~.~, *KtO)~~~J1I!.I¥J~~~m~-r'M¥t~{?iJ -r~~. 1J~*~:-f*:ff1Jn~fFffl G-Cv~~.~, ;: O)*~:..'i(-O)-f*:ff1J~91-O)1Jn~ t-=~t O)tt$~ Gt.:. ~9tl~t, ~d:..'i(-O)rf;!'O)1J~*O)~I1J.:r.*}v~- T ~{ftfil.:r.*)v~- V O)fOO)m:1J[}:fi~:~ G v~. :t> G91-1Jn~flJJn)t~~tn~t~ • .:r.*}v~- ~{ftfil.:r.*}v;f-O)f[}

w

w

=

~d:-JE~t~~. 9t~b~ T + v= E -JE. ;:n~~~O).:r.*}v~--f*:ffJtIJ ~ v~ '5. * ~t~ c O)~~~)j G-c:tJ~I¥J.:r.*}v~-O)-.n~!fo/Jffi:O)I*J • .:r.*}v~-~:t~~:I;I~, :tJ ~1¥J.:r.*)v~- ~ pg • .:r.*}v~-O)f[J ~:~t G-c .:r.*)v~--f*:ffJtlJn~d 0 tL~, ~t:p O)~ 1t~:~OOf*-r~~. ;:tHd:~1J~~-~JtIj~J:.~tn-cv~~ . • m.O).~, 1 JO)MBB 00 -r1!El~nt.:.ffi:ff{ V ~:~tG, VpgO)m.*1l~O)~.~Jij~tl:m.-rtJc~~.:r.*}v~­ O)m:1J[}~~ 11E ~ G, O)£{[m~imG-C Vpg~:i1rtA 9~#1' /,T~ /,!7. /'\.7 r-}vO). ~ p ~9n~t, 11E P n~d 0 tL~, ~~d: 0 .:r.*}v~-~d:~t.:.~:~ Gt.:. 0, ~t:p-r~~~

s

=

Gt.:. 0 9

~

s

;: ~ ~d:t~ v~.

.:r.*}v~-~:~d:~~n) ~:1t~I¥J.:r.*}v;f-~ ~d: G&),

*}v~-, ~.:r.*}v~-t~ c~ ~ ~"~t~%O) :t>O)n!~~n\' ~~ x.~ ~ , J.:r.*}v~-O)~f[JO)m:1J[}:Ii 11E

-ff~7't0).:r.

V~9n~: G-c :t>~~!fo/JJ1I!* ~d:,

..'i(-O)rf;!, ~:91-n) 6 *

~:i1rt

A Gt.:..:r.*}v~-O):fi P ~:~ G J~.:r.*)v~- ~ 7J~l¥Jx*)v~-~: J:.~ L~~-!7- c:/'~,~I1JG, ;:n~:@UaGt.:.~.~~~b9;: ~~:J:. ~ Lm~~J

=

-c


~. u r fj:*.jfll~J::.l!tl-Clt)~. ~OOn) G ~ G':mtl~~, :h~iv)b~~ M~jf.~ trJ ltlj I:: {;t It )

Ulu .. = A log (u~/v) + B -c'4~ t;tl~. ~;: -c' Ali 2.4-2.5 ®~.®~., B ~i~oo®m~ t;n\t~c ~~j: 5.5, filv)c 8.5 ®~.®~~-c'3!>~ .

,

.

9-16:

J:OOf* G,

~iIDn~m

~~ ~~2206-2207)

tt~~~~ ~v\ V1 J )/.t;(~®) mttl®1f~~PJi1rf®!:jJ'::J!t;tl~J::. '5~i1rf-f*®/F mltljt~imtlz. v) '5. imtl®~~~i-~':, imtlq):ijJ}~~~9 ~~~7C~-c'~~ V1 J )/.t ;(~ Re ®~c ~ :t J::~ft9~. Re n~1t~t¥]/J\~ ,,)~-g.~::~j:imtllimJ{ljt¥]t~Jlim"C'3!>~ ffi,&®~~-C*~fJ.~~MG-Cti&im~~~. jji1rf~t;&mt~®iI.ti,&®3!>~ ~~f~ ~w. V1 J )/.t ;(~) ,:.t3")-C~~~:tf~~-g. c, fjw.~.l2AJ:® Re ®~®3!>~i! fHJ t;:. J -C,,) < ::> ;1,)\®!:jJ rlJ'fiJtm~*I -C*i~n\ ,:tf ~:ijJ}-g. c n' ~ ~. fIJif® E:fJ ®Jji1rf

':b

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Reading Selections 12-1:

7f. ~~1692-1693)

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12-9:

J't.ih~ (~J:!667-668)

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'5 ~::~'1i0mT0X*)v=¥~ntq~~::'d:~tl-ttl0mT Gtl, ~tl~:JitG-CA~7 ~ tJ ~~~~ aa, fJa~~~0M • • mT0j11b.~fi~~.m.

0t~1ffFm0'IiW~:~tJitGt.:.~lli0=¥tJtntfflv)

O)fI~~~~t>.~":::>-C ( GiJ\ '9) to scatter (about) {vt};!> ( GiJ\ G) to be disordered {vi};

!> ( G'9) to disperse, to scatter {vt}; !> (G) to be dispersed, to be scattered {vi} lfk~L -!t /' '7 /' scattering Jtlfk J /'-!t /' distribution, dispersion

~

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v:\ (G ) to shoot lmM

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irradiation, lighting, exposure radioactivity

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interference fringe interference spectroscope

Q burning, scorching

~ (;O~'9) to burn, to scorch {vt}; ~(;O~tlG) to yearn for; ~(~jG) to burn, to scorch {vi} focal point ~I~ ~3Q7/ focal plane ~:lflIti ~3QA.-1:)'/

dt> it( G ) to be in a hurry;

t'Y bending, breaking, folding, yielding :B( G ) to bend, to break, to fold, to yield {vt}; :B(tlG) to be folded, to break, to give in {vi}

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diffraction refraction

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random error efficiency

center, core, heart during, in the midst of

r- Q penetrating, permeating '9(;0'9") to leave a gap, to make transparent {vt}; '9 ( to be transparent, to have a gap {vi}; '9 (~t G ) to be transparent {vi}

(;0' tJ ) light, lamp; dt> '/J' (G ~ ~) bright, cheerful, clear; dt> ~ ( G'/J\) bright, clear, distinct

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(~J.m1160-1161)

if.:a:-m It ~ -C*q:t (J) §

~ * '1:(J)lie.~:7J(ti]:a:-~.Q ~~(J)m~m(J)~?J{IJ~. if.?J{IJ.It~.$~~Itt>~*tt.Q~, • • '1:~if.:a:-*1Jl~ lli'9:7JJt(J)t>(J):a:-~'9~ C7,)~~.Q. (1) -B--7'71 t- v~-~J:m(ti]tt(J)~lt~~ni.z~ .~:a:-mt,.~, .$tJ:c~:(ti]~t-C-B--7'71 t-(J)ct 3 ~:mif.I'\)VA:a:-miMG, &:M.(J) ~~Ifi'fOO~Gm.:a:-, *~~.~.~li*~~.Qz~.H(J)(ti]~~G:7J&:a:-~.Qt>(J)'1: ~.Q. illlier1lm'1:~J: 200 kHz, 500 m ~J::(J)llmr1lm ~:~J: 24-75 kHz (J)mii.7,)~m lt~ G tt~. z~.H:a:-@&~~-C, ~-¥-(J)ct3~, ~'7~/WJ::~=~~~71''9~~C t> ~~7,)~, *q:tiiim7,)~~ 1500 mls c~v~t~~, illfielftm~: G7,)\M!~tJ: t,.\. (2) A::f-V / =/ifv~-~~tt:a:-m~G~t>(J)'1:, .~m~E~'9~~c~ct?T • •~~ (J) • • ~.~t>(J)'1:~~. ~~~~7-V~-~• • ~~~~c~G(J)&:Mii(J)~ltJ

Gm(J)3ltJim. ~~ ~ t> (J) '1: ~ ~. ~tt G(J)V~-~J:lt~9tt t>j!~jilijflfft~:a:- t>? -C S tJ, 7 ~ T -( 7V-j-- c ct ~ttt.Q7,)~, ~tt~:M G-C~.ltfj~ti~t:a:- t> J t>(J) :a:-/'\ ~ ~~V ~- C ct r.J., ii7JI{(J)fjBIj~:7J(ti]~~

1fc~{t7,)\

~(J)~:mlt\ Gtt~.

-208-

Lesson 17: Magnetism I (fundamentals)

~

-1

difference, strangeness ;: C (t~.Q ) to be unusual, to differ, to vary {vi}; ;: ~ ~t~ *f~J¢,(

~

-1 :J 3 ry t~ r- (7 -1:;r /

c (t: T .Q ) to differ from {vt} abnormal singular point, singularity

-1 drifting, shifting '5 -:>(T) to divert, to pour into, to transfer {vt}; '5 -:> ( .Q ) to move, to shift {vi} ;f§$i~ '} ry:;r /-1 phase transition ~~IJJ 'Y -1 ~ ry heat transfer

*'

~

:t- 3

*HI

"!t-1 fine, slender, thin

(7 end, pole; :J (7 extremely, quite, very ~ b( .Q) to be in a dilemna, to reach an extreme, to terminate {vi}; ~ b(~.Q) to carry to extremes, to investigate thoroughly {vt} ~~H :t- 3 (77/ limit ~* :t- 3 (7 -5"-1 maximum (value)

;: '*

'*

(iJ~ 1.-)) detailed, fine(ly divided);

tl..:c( 1.- )) fine, slender, thin;

~l..:c(.Q) to become thin, to taper off

*'HM tf*'Ht~

T

~ child, fruit, master; A

"!t -1 :t- / ~ 3 ry"!t-1 t~

bacteria detail, in detail, detailed

child

;: child, small

73--=f tft-=f

iii

'J J. ry ~

molecule particle

:J magnetism, porcelain m~T-7

mm7Jt

~

"f/~

~ -V (7

:J:t-T-7 T/://\

jewel, pebble, rock, stone;

1.-) G pebble, rock, stone

mE E71tI

magnetic tape electromagnetic wave

t:t- jewel, pebble, rock, stone

:/ ~ -v (7

t:t-.::r.

-209-

magnet petroleum, oil

....§ "'fJj

~

3 r;; grounds, place

~1 place, scene, seat, site, situation I~

:Jr;;~3r;;

m~

~~1

factory, plant, mill magnetic field

,X '.) r;; pair, set, {counter for pairs} ~,k.

pair ~~T

~jj

'.)r;;q:.3!7Y '.)r;;*r;;

dipole both parties, both sides

'.) !7 bundle, sheaf t::.. ~1 bunch, bundle, sheaf

mJR_

line of magnetic induction arrangement,promise

~JR



7/' changing, turning ;:: 0 (;O~9) to knock down, to roll {vt}; ;:: 0 (;O~ .Q ) to roll over, to tumble {vi}; ;:: 0 (~j .Q ) to roll over, to tumble {vi}; ;:: 0 (~~) to fall down, to tumble {vi} ~$i r;; /'7 /' operation, driving @}$ij:\ tJ -17 /' yq:. rotary (type), rotating (type)

Ih r r;; laboring, working ~::tt::..

G( L" ~'"9 Q ~ 0) ~~QiJ~, ~'lUJ!B9tJ::v:jjJ""C', .t t] ~*B9fJ:O)~j:~Jl~ • .6X:'9 Q.T~1JRT~O)m~.:r: -~/'''''"C'~Q. m~~j:, ~5I:!B9~:~j:, iJH3~ Gtl L".t3 t], *C7GIW 51it*C0);: 0 ~:~j:, 0) 'X ij*A O)PlJO))li < ""C't4Etmc! tlt~E~-:>Q '9C-~O)1J1tiJ ~1tiJ < ;: ciJ~~ Gtl L"v\t~. * t~, 111it*Cc 0 ~:~j:q:too""C'~j:mttiJ~-M!vtl L"v\t~ c v\vtl L"v\Q. 1269~, 77 /' A

")v:J

tr
O)mliiJ~fftE'9Q;: C,

~aatJk~:~ L- L"v\Q.

*t~JUjO)IHj:51~~v\IIlJ*l0)

161it*C~:tJ:-::> L",

w. Gilbert ~j:m~~:-:>v\L"~

*'BtJ:.fi1f~~fTv\, ~O)*6*~*c~'"( rmEJ De Magnete ~~~L-t~ (l600~). ;:0) *~j: 6 $iJ\ G.6X:-::> L".t3 t], ~O){t~~iJ~5iv\mii~ ~ -:>;: C, j1!!ItiJ~*~tJ:mE""C'~Q ;: c, :R~mE c:l1!!Itc O)rJ;f'~:1'ib < 11tJ: c~:-:> v\'"(~ L- < ~~'"(v\Q. Gilbert ~j:, c! G ~:fkiJ~mE~:.t -::> '"(m{t'9 Q ;: c~, m{t L-t~fk~$~'9 Q cmii~~ '5 ;: ctJ: cm~ fJ:~J!~ L- '"(v\Q. ~1t¥~:.t3v\ '"(~j:, 1M GiJ\~:m~O).fi1f~~j:.~O).fi1f~.t t] illv --ev\t~ iJ~, ~iJ~'"(.7m0)~J!tJ: c~:.t -::> '"(.~O).fi1f~~j:~jaH:ilJj., M. Ampere, M. Faraday G ~:J: -::> '"(flim CmjjJO)~~iJ~mlMc! tl, -:> v\~: ~j: I. C. Maxwell O).m~J1I!fnli~:.t-::> L".~Cm~~j:~~/F~7}O) ~O) ctJ:-::> t~. -1J~:.t3v\'"(, ~JlO)mii~:-:> v\'"(O).fi1f~ iJ~~Jj., ~JlO)tJ:iJ\~:~j:, ~$mjjJO)tJ:iJ\--efkO)J: '5 ~:5i < m{t'9 Q5im·tt-f*, mjjJO) 1J1tiJ~:~ < m{t'9 Q'M"mii-f*, mjjJ C.&:~t1JItiJ~:~ < m{t'9 Q.&:m·tt-f*iJ~ff:(£'9 Q ;: c ~~c!tl, ;:tlG~~Jl~TO)~-:>m~.:r:-~/'''C~$mjjJcO)~li~m~.t-::>'"(m Q c~;t Gtlt~. ~1it*C~:tJ: -::> ,"(, 1JRT.j!iJ~~ GiJ\~:tJ: -::> ,"(, JJj{TO)m~.:r:- ~ /' " ~JJj{T~--eO).TO)M~~J:-::>'"(~'"9QC~;tGtl~~, ~tl~~--e~~~--e~'"9, ~ ~j:.TEI:!ftiJ~*~tJ:m~.:r:- ~ /' ,,~~-::> '"(v\'"(, ~tliJ~1JRTO)m~.:r:- ~ /' "O)m~ tJ:.6X:~--e~Q;: ciJ~~c! tlt~. *t~, .T~:!t~'"(~j:QiJ\~:/j\ c! v\iJ~, JJj{T~~m~.:r: - j. /' ,,~~ -::> '"(v\Q. 1JRT~O)m~.:r:- j. /' "~j:, • .6X:~T""C'~Q~TCq:tiiTO)m ~.:r:- ~ /' ".t3J:V:~~--eO)~TO)M~~:J: -::> '"(~'"9Q. L-t~iJ~-::> ,"(, ~:(£--e~j:, m~ ~C-::>L"J:t]£*B9fJ:~O)~, ;:tlGO)~TO)~-:>m~.:r:-~/'''''"C'~Q. -~~, • ~T~j:~$ EI EiIJ3to) Dc -:> c L- '"( A 1::: /' (EI~) ~ ~ -::> '"(.t3 t], A 1::: /'iJ~ 0 --etJ: v\jjJ~ ~:~j:, m~::c- ~ /'" ~~-::> '"(v\Q . • ~O)jjJ~~:~j:, lEit 2 *lO).~iJ~~ t], 1E.~ cft.~~~tl~tl*.~fftE'9Q;:C~--e~Q~, ;:tl*--eO)C~0m~~, 'M"~2 -:>O)liiJ~3tff L- L"v\ ,"(, m~!ltli~j:~j! c! tl '"(v \ tJ: v\. L-iJ\ L-tJ:iJ~ GJ1I!fnliB9~:~j:, m~ *IiO)fftEiJ~.:y-gc! tl '"(.t3 t], m~!ltIi~~ttl'9 Q~~iJ~1it~~OO""C'fTvtl '"(v\Q.

17-2:

1!'Ii (~J1I!842-843)

~$~G~;tGtl~m~~J:-::>,"(, ~Jl~~O)~~~~;t, ~G~~mjjJ~-:> , .1tT~ ~ -:>/j\ c! v\mE--e~ -::> ,"(, m~~-:> < t] ttl'9. ~iJ\

-211-

C;Z'Jt:m:fjn~1JDx C;h~ c, *tllf-O)illbc..'f(l)m~-t:- j.:/ "(l)jjrPJn~~{t~~~t, ..'f(l)*«i:~!' *fj[T(l)"J < ~m:fjn1~ft9~. ~nn~mtt(l)£*l¥J~m.~~~. L,n) L" lm.~, mttc ft) 5 c ~t~1& IJ J:~f~(l)~J:, 1 m(l)tllT~~J:~ < -C, ..'fn&3n~~~m. J -C~~-Cft)~gml¥J~Wn1, m:fj(l)fFm ~~~t-cm{t9 ~~~~~~ . ..'f(l)'±~JJj{~ ~m 5 (l) ~J:§ml¥J!ftW ~.J£ L, -C ft) ~JJj{ T~ c .f-(l) 5 !> (l)tiff~ ~ ~. .T(l)m~-t: - j. :/ "~J:JJj{ f-~(l)..'fn':Jt~ -C ~J: ~ n) ,:*~ ,

=-

..'fnEJ ~(l)"J < ~mJi'b*~ft)n) C; ~~~. l*T,

L, -Cft)~ 1 m(l)~f-':7±El9 ~ c, ..'fn~J: ..'fn,:W 5 ~~m~-t:- j.:/ "n~fftt9~. ~ (l)

~~ ft)~J:1'::;t :/(l)tJ:n)~~~iljIJ~

~/j\~M t;t::.tmtc~ X C;n~n) c;,

~in)~:I?!I~(l)A t: /m~-t:- j.:/ "~'bJ -Clt)~. ~n~J:~T(l)§fi':W5~i1rH:ct~ c~ X~ ~ cn1~~~. ~ (l)~T':~t9 ~m:ij)J(l)~jJ:!ilH:~J: 2 "J(l)m.;Q1~~. (1) Cf~J:m:ij)J':ct ~ 11 ~~~t, fJL~illb(l)J:: 5 9n1~b~. m:fjn~~ * fJ sm< ~1t)1W fJ, ~(l) ~jJ*~~J:~itO)~'i~~~, ..'f(l)jjrPJ;Q~m:ij)J(l)jjrtiJ(l)*b fJ ':@Jfi9~. =-(l)M1ml¥J~ @Jfi~J::J-C.~~~t;~~mt~, ~~C;1mxC;h~m:fj~~rPJ~(l)m:fj~"J(l).T~Ae:/m~~-j.:/"~~rPJ~~nlJ, *~, ~t;*~~, B~, .~~rPJ ~~~Jt::. 1 m(l)~~~~$.Tn~6~~ c, ~~m~-t:- j.:/" ~nmL,~J-CL,* 5. ~ 5 G-C. 1{f-~1'::;t:/(l)tJ:n)~. M~~-::>< J-Cft)~.T~J:~f*CG-C. ~*~ mi1':~1j. G~ft). ~ C; ':, ..'fnC;n~{t~*«i-g.~ G-C, 7tf-~*liA~"J < ~ c, fiM.1Q (l).T(l)m~~- j.:/" 'bfT~J1i G3!> 5. *5~, §ma9~W(l)m{t':~1j.9~m~-t:- j. :/ "~'b -::>.T~J:U L, -3~91-l¥JtJ::fj-g.~3!>~. ..'f(l)'±~ 'b(l)~J:w.""f(l) (a)-(c) (l)ct '5 ,: ~~. (a) 1Jj{f-, 1'::;t :/O)~1l!q(l)~7t~~(l).T, ~l:fk~JC*(l) 3d CTC*±mJC* (l)4fmT. ~(l)ct'5~.f-~'b!>, ~f*cG-Cm~-t:-j.:/"~'b-::>l*f-, 1'::;t:/~ mttl*T, mi11'::;t:/cv):>. (b)~~, -g.~(l)&li.T. (c) ~~~if~.(l)Cf-~'b -::>Jt~ G~ffiJT, *~~(l)~W~~~f*C:G-C(n(l).*~~ffi~~91-$~C;1m xt::.m:fjc~(ti]~(l)m{tn~~ t;~. ~h~.&:mttc l,r):>. m~n~3!>* fJ §< ~ft)1W IJ, ..'fO)m{to)§~ ~J:m:ij)J(l)~~ ':Jt~J9~. Jt~J~~, 9fJ:b!> , m{t*~J:it~, Bi&ijj f*(l):fj-g.(l) 'in) Ji/j\ ~ It)~ ~ c ~. -jj, J:~¥~ft::. (a)-(c) (l)J::> tJ::fj-g.l:'i, (1), (2) jffijjj(l)m.tJ~fJJ~, ~ft;:c L, -Cfi~fftJ!~~9~. im~(l)~ll, m~~~.f-(l)m ~.:c- j.:/" cm:licO)tIJl[f1::m &3 ~o).I*)v;f-J: IJ 'b/J\~ ft)n) C;, ~mT(l)m~~- j.:/ "fJ:~x 9rPJ~~~X -Cft)~n~, ~~c G-Cm~(l)jjrPJ(l)J£ JttJ1 0 ~fJ:ft)~IW(l)~~ c~. ~n~~mtt, 3!>~ ft)'J:/\7mttc ft) 5. I't~n~.~-C

{Jflt):fj-g., m~(l)~~-csmlt)Ji-g.~~ft)-C, ~mi1f*(l)m{t(l)§~'im~(l)§~':Jt~J 9~ . ..'f(l)f&Ht*~itMtllc c 'b ':~{t9 ~ ~ cn~~ft). ~ra'a9':f.tilI Gt::. 2 ii(l)CTO) ra":~i, ..'fhC;(l)A t:: :/m~.:c- j.:/" ~~fi, * t::. 'i&:3Jlfil: GJ: '5 c9~§ft)11n~ {jj ~~'@ri1~$V)i1~. -:b(0)~ E8~3!>~c~:t>3!>~ . • 1J~.O)-~cGL~m~n~. -.~m~E8~~GL~ *5~;tt4~O)~{t~itd.v)i1~. lt~, ~1Jfe~1lM&, ~~tIfmO)71ffi.J3t1*~, a1f;*-Jv1*~, ~tt$td.EO)/f'if1!~~~{t~#:>. ~~1J~J::~im~cw;:w-~.c GL]J;< if~~nLV)

.Q.

17·15: m~i1~m'!1:~t:&t£T ~ )v~ ({~1J0)-=E::- ~:/ ~). Jm.1f;O)~~~ti, ±t:.~~O)p:J f&~~f-J.O)iiil*J, 3!>.Q v)tif51 ~ t:~f-J.~@J~~-tt ~:> cT.Q ~ )v~ ~7J{U~T.Q. 5tm'!1:f-$:O)lJt*5 ~t:+7t5tlt\m~~1J[]}t, mft M cm~ H t1~t~Ji:lJZfTt:td. J tc.~-ftO)m. ~ )v~ 0)* ~ ~ T ~i~~m.gt15'!1:x*)v;f- ~ E a , OIiI*JO)~~O)*5~ffB~rfij cmftO)td.TftJ ~ lp G L, -(oE/olp) ~4;t 6n~. ~ ~m~, Gtc.i1~J Lm{tO)~rfij~~;ttd.i1~ 6 T ~7J{U~Tn~i. *5~m~a~'!1:JE~i1~*~ 6n.Q. ~;fSf.O)~~i1~ffB~t~~td.v)~'@r~:~i. &:m~O)~jJ~~~.T.Q~\~t1~3!>.Q. *tc., m~i1~+7t5t< td.v)~'@rO)m~ ~)v~O)m fJTti-~t:*i~rH:td..Q. m~ ~)v~~7J{U~T.Q~Ui~m~ ~)v~~cv):>. ~O),*~ti, ~f-J.~~'!1:*~~at:J.Q G, ~)v~O)*~~ ~*O)bCni1\G7J{IJJET.Q :t>0)~3!>.Q. Jm.1f;ti~~td.~tt~bCn~~te G, *t:~rPJ~O) ~)v~ ~1JD;t LEllh~t:J ~'@rv)~

t:

c

c.Q~AO)~Uii1~mv)

=.

6n.Q. -218-

17-16:

°

~~m~1f!H;:~~~i~Hi1*~;: tJ\ G Gt.=v)~;:m1JD9 ~m~~fFffl G, m~~+7t*~ < G~~G~h~M~~~~m~~~~~~~+7t*~,-1 '"? /''}~ 7

filled band satisfaction

:r. depending, relying; :r. r)

depending, relying J:: G cause, intent, reason, significance §EI3~tJJ

:;:r.r)~/,~r)

f1I! EI3

I) :r. r)

:3 r) container, form, looks C~~.

T

~$)tJ.

:3 r) -1 tJ.

/,q:.:3 r)

I) 3

-232-

free oscillation reason

r)

capacitance easy, simple

Reading Selections ~~(~~1379-1380)

19·1:

~J{O):t-:> '"t"lt)G.~~tJ:11:J{~.~~~O)*H7CCtJ:-:> '"t"lt)G :to)~.~C It) '5. ~ f*, ~~;:*!l-=fl¢~:t -:> '"t"lt)G.~o) ~ C ~.1'itf C It) '5. 4- B ~~i, EJ~w.~;:~G ~iclvc

~~'"t"0).~~.~, ~-=f0):t~~.1'itfc.-=f0):t~ft.1'itf~~~~G~c~~6h'"t" It)G. tIJ .1'itf0) ~ ~.i1rf C It) It), ~im, .i1rfO)i1rfhO)rto~ ~i, ~.1'itfO)tIJ 1Jrto ~ ~~CG. ~ t::.. RinWJ 600 iF ~ ~, =¥ 'J ~7 (J)=rg~1!f


t::.O)~j:, 16 fftRi(J) W. Gilbert .l2Ui~, ~~j:m~~~~,*~. ~~;: ~ It) '"t"if~ L- , =¥ 'J ~ 7 m 0) lJRfiI TJAE1('rpov ~;: ~ tJ: Iv ~ , ~ '"t" electric C It) '5 m ~ m v)t::.. 1730 iFR~;:~j:, '*~.~~;:~ft 2 fjl¢~ff1:E~.:Q ~ c~, .~I¢~~f*JfI ~~b G ~ cl¢~~ 6ht::.I¢~, .~~;:~ v)'"t"(J)~IUj:*t.=~·tt~~~-:> '"t", 1785 iF~;::7 - 0;"-

m

(J)~~~~~~h'"t", m~'"t"~.~~.~~~~~L-~. ~(J)~~~6, AI~~.~ ~~~~ .:Q~~c L- '"t"(J).7I!!1¢~1m~~ tt, .i1rf~;:~ v)'"t"O)if~I¢~~i3H;:im~ L-t::.. ~ L'"t", ~~(J)J::'5~.~(J).tt~J::'"t"~~~G:t(J)~~~, ~A.m~~~jG~L-~(J)~~.:Q. ~~~~ .~.~j:~il¢\O)~~.c IPJ t; < il*"l~tJ:fi«~ c G :t (J) c~ ~ 6h '"t"v).:QI¢~, 19 fftRiri -¥~;:tJ:-:> '"t"~~:t&.(J)if~l¢\ 6ft(J).~~ :t~~~.I¢~~~~ h, .~(J)~ L- v).f*I¢~ ~~ ~;:I!ij 61¢\~;:tJ:-:> t::.. ~~.O).f*~ift(J).~~ :t~.-=f~~G ~ cl¢~~v)t'=~ h (J. J. Thomson, 1897 iF), 4-fftRi*)]mH;:~i, Jjj{-=f~i.-=fc~O).~~:t ~~J{~.~~ h '"t"v).:Q c~ ~ 6h.:Q J:: '5 ~;:tJ: -:> t::.. E. Rutherford ~j:, a *!l-=f~m v)'"t", ~ (J)~O).~ ~:t ~~J{I¢~Jjj{-=f~~~ ~, Jjj{-=f~j:Jjj{-=f~ c~(J)*b ~ O).-=f~~~'"t"v).:Q ~ c ~/F Lt::.. J. J. Thomson ~j:.-=f, ~ 6 ~;:~~.(J)lt.1'itf~7JtIJ~ L- '"t", ~h 6*!l-=f0):t ~.1'itf~;: ~j:~'J\.{ftl¢~~G ~ c ~1Fa/F L-, R. A. Millikan ~j:, rmrJjO).~~;:J:: -:> '"t".~.O):~ilJ\. {ft, 9tJ:b~.~~klt~1Jttl~L-t::.. ~ '5 L-'"(, .T~j:.~~.~;:~L-v)ftm:(itj~lb~~

c,

7J t::.O)~i, 1930 iFJ2)..I~O) ~ c ~~ G.

~ O)J:: '5

,;: L-

'"(.~O).f*~, mTc~TO)m1'itf~~.:Q~c~.I!ij~tt~. EJ~~~~.:(itj~lb~~ ,"(~G.~~.:t~.:Q~, ~CIvC9~'"( O).~;gt.~j:.TC~T';:~E§ L- '"t"v).:Q. ;gt1:E~~j:, ~T~'j: L-~J\ ~ 0;"- c J:: ~itt.:Q ~*!lT~j:7 :;4--7 C~9.:Q ~j:Iv~;!.1'itfO);mT~.PX;~ tt'"(v).:Q c~x 6tt'"(:t3 ~, .~ ~iiO) 1/3 t::. ~j: 2/3 0) ~j:1v ~;!.:(itjO)~IDEI¢~D c ~ O)~Jm ~;:tJ: -:> '"( v) G. ~ 0) J:: '5 ,;:.

*

-233-

~0)*tt:a:~;;K9-QWf~c~mf~:, ~.O).~ll9tt.~:'Jv~Lo)Wf~:t.>, ~1Itte~:A-:> L • • ~~h, ~C~~I~O~~~~~~~~.~0)~~~~m~9-Q~C~~G~ ~:t~-:>te.. ~B, ~~~~J:.:r.v7 r-D'::7A~:~1lJ.x0)~*c~-:>Lv~-Q .

• iii (~J1f!1374-1375)

19-2:

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20-22:

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20-23:

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20-26: f.ljJliJ?lflJl1~O)-fj'"(', itlJl1~~O)~.~lJt~JliJ~C~'P':~IJ\.no C, .flm~':.t J '"(~~9 oij'l.. -8!.fflJ3lltltlJt GHz l:&1v '"(' It \ 0 ~ C IJ\ f>, ~ (J).Ji!(J) t>0) ~x -1 'J Ollt:hD~c :t1t\5. ~rr• • ~ra'H:~.-f*:tJ*tano, It• •* ~ ~04m{;t;:~.~ . • fi~ra'ra'~ D [em] ':J3lltlt![MHz], tiff V [V] (J).It~.jJt9 0 c ~, 4M{;t;:':IliJ& ~ tl 0 ¥.fiL{;t;:3 ~ t.:: ~ 0).:tJ p 'j:itlJl1~-f* c iiiIi O)ra' (J)~~ d = 0 (J)~~ ~J:t'"(' 4 xf> tlo. P=(5/9)f~(tan o)(V/Dfx 10-12 (W-cm-3] ifljJ3~.IHj:=.1f~Jfn\t~l3mb~~Hl:J::O :t(J)lJt.:t~It§ffi~J.l(J):t(J)~'"('cv.,o. §.fflJliJ.It~. *~~., ~~(J) ••• ~AO)lJI1a

m:

t.I.C,j: 5-30 MHz. 77 AT,/ 'J Y- }--~ttt(J)~~lJI1~!Mj:It+ MHz.

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GHz '"('6;0. ~(J)t3-ttllJtp~

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~ tJ x.*Jv::¥-::¥~ 'Y 7'0t~/Q)~&.*0Ti'ifiij09O)i?t~~. (b) SnSe2, GeSe2, GeS 2 t~c. ~~f14~0)71 7 A~~{i.$:. (7) V-V ~2i{i.$: : BixSb1_x t~c. V1/i.o)As, Sb, Bi ~d:~~~'"C'~~i?t, ~nGO)ft~ ~mGn~mpx~~'"C'~~;f-v'Y7"~.{i.$:~~~. (8) V-VI ~~{i.$: : As 2Se3 , Bi2S 3 , As 2Te3 , Sb2Te3 t~ c. 717 A~~t-:~d:*l~t~~~f14 ~ 0) {Jf1ML~ ~.{i.$:. (9) u~Hi~.{i.$: : NiO, MnO, Fe20 3 , V20 3 , CdCr2S4, CdCr2Se4, EuS, EuSe, GdTe, DySe t~ c. ~~~~ ~ t-: ~d:~±fiJC* ~r3"U1~ft!fo/J'"C'jj[1~T ~ I) t) A ~ t-: ~d:=

:1J~*0)~~. (10) ~u~Hi~.{i.$: : Hg1_xMnxSe, Hg1_xMnxTe :t3J::L$ Hg1_xFexTe, Sn1_xMnxTe t~c.

IT-VI f~ft!fo/J~t-::~d: IV-VI f~ft!fo/JO)~~1:;t /0)~$i?t~~~~1:;t /~:i!l~b":J t-: t> 0)'"C', mii1:;t/O)pxft~ciffi'tm~J::":J-cm~~~~~.~W~~~. (11)~~~~jJJv:J7T1 ~~.{i.$:: TaSe2, TaS 2, VSe 2, NbSe 2 t~c. A:1J~tdd:lE :1J~*0)*l~~~~f14~~t>-:J~.{i.$:'"C', .Mmm.~J::~f§$i~~~~. (12) ~m~~~.{i.$: : lE:1J~*O)~m~ CuFeS 2 cIPJG~~f14~~t>-:J~2i{i.$:'"C', (a) I-IIT-VI2 ~.{i.$: CuGaS 2, AgAlTe2, AgInSe2 t~ C C (b) IT-IV-V2 ~.{i.$: ZnSiP2, CdGeAs2 t~ C 0) 2lffi?t~

IV 1/i.0) JC~.{i.$:'"C' ~ ~. (13) 1f~Ij~mTJ~~~.{i.$: : (a) IT-ITI2-D-VI4 ~.{i.$: ZnAl2S4, CdGa2Se4 t~ C, :t3J::L$ (b) I2-IT-D-VIT4 ~.{i.$: Cu2HgI4, Ag2HgI4 t~ c, I;\Tnt> (12) ~:llil;\lE:1J~*O)-JC~ .{i.$:'"C', ~mT gD ~:{jffimT~ 0 O)l§{T 1 00 ~ An~ c.lJLf$] IV 1/i.O)f~-@J!fo/J'"C'~iI"J~c IPJ Gt1i)~~:t~~. (14) AI~.{i.$: : GaAs C AlAs 0) 100 A fjmO)~~ftT~.I.l::::$7 :t=-~~'"C'~1L~:m~

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7

21-5:


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-260-

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21-10:

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IJs~~~~ A,

d!>.Q t,..)~i~~~~ :t3J::lt::I 1:::- V:/AO)-&~ ~ J:: t') IJ\~ t,)m~ ~_~t,..) -5 . • •~'i, miliH:.lJZfil:IJ\~tt.:ia4l'i,~clvc-.':.J1i':~~ G. *-t.: d.Q. m.~ _ilii':iiA I:W1JD Gt.: • .g., ~-lIm~~l*.~t>, .~IJS ~~""fO)d!>.Q.}J"dc ~""fl:~.Q C:,.*~.IJS1C~l:~ t), m.a:p0)1K'~.~.~O)E3t>=~«IE3':~ . bJ ""C~=lIm~~-f*c: 1PJ.0)l)....~ *- t,) ~7l'T. dc O).]i~.l:J:: J ""CJilS ~~IJSd!> .QIJS, Ph ~lOOnm, AI ~It=f nm O)fi!lJt~d!>.Q . • •IJSlIiml:J::J -C1K'~li~.':E 3T.Q~~.im~ Ji, ia~I.*Jlt:¥-0)~4IJS/J\~t,)t.:bb, Y)VA l::-O){&:jU:flb -9. m.ljffO)illIJI.*)v:¥-c:m~li • • I.*)lt:¥-O)~ t') .g.t,)~~~.Q. ~ 'i, Ie oc (l-TITJ312 ,:ttJ-C~f~T~;:C:lJt~.(J~H:t>, :¥:/'X~)lt!f· 7:/?'rJJ1lalJ\ISt>7l' ~tl-Ct,..~.Q. t.:t':G~~lIll ~ jfifj~, ~ 1S~~*O)t.:bb 3/2 r!ltllJ\ IS Ji-9n.Q • .g. t>d!>.Q. fqfBj~._O)fqfBjflbC:.lJZfil:iaJ.l~t=P1JD Gt.:C:~, fqfBj~J{< S*itrO)IUR lJH:M G, ~imifHlimJJtO)~4;?S*~ ia*:aTO)JiijM~J£f~T .Qm~lJt~ IStl.Q. m~~~O)E3fi, ::I 1:::- V :/AO)-&~IJS*~t,)t.:bb':Ig>IS~IJS1>~ai&-e Tld(T~) ':JtfJiJT.Q::I :/~?~ :/A~G~nS~Gtl.Q. 19>'3~;?~tJ:t,)41.g.O), T~ c~I:'i, T= Tc ~,;;til1fjl&.O) (T _ ~)-l C:~ia.O)~-n~~bbG~~~~1S«~, :¥:/X~v~·~ :/?'rJJ.lifiO)EJ Eb.r.*Jv:¥-n\ 1Sm-~~ tl.QIJS, T-~ ~'i~n;/~7 ;(-~-O)J:: t') iii ~~~Jtk t) ~tl~'ttl~itJ: '3tJ:~).

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Q. ~.Sffi.i* (~J1I!2136-2137)

21-11:

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-264-

Lesson 22: Electronics I (transistors and diodes)

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"t 'Y adjoining, encountering, touching

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m

order, sequence procedure, process, protocol

harming, hurting, interfering ~ b( G ) to harm, to hurt, to interfere

-:::>( () to cement, to join, to piece together, to splice ~M "t~~3~ m~ 39"t'Y :~

pollutant gases disorder, obstacle, obstruction

~3 9

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boundary layer limit, limitation, bound

damage, harm, injury, interference

mcPl _

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contact welding

transfer function development, progress

?' /- brevity, defect, fault Jj. t:n)(v)) brief, short

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weak point short circuit, shunt

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X diagram, drawing, figure, illustration, plan; ~ ~J:~)(.Q)

calibration (positive) hole

plan

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t1 details, energy, ghost, purity, skill, spirit, vitality ~~ ~~~~

t1~ t1~~~n1

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~

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generalization general law

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pn ti~fi~i1tf.

tti~. ilJ~~.~J::V::7't1t:~ttt~c®tI~~t>-:)T~)~ .. ~. ® pn ti-g-~m.7).-g-bit~ 2: c ,:~ ~ ~3~tlft®~~{(J) pn ft-g-~1r~-g-bit':.mG T~~Gt.= pnp *t.='i npn .m~'iJ\1' if-:;- 1--:; /~A~-®£*.m~~cf!> t). ~®tf4j~H:J:: J T~tIR. m rjIM. A l' 'Y T 13 ~ V::7t~~~t~ C ®£*~tlfti1~~lJl ~ tl~. (3) pnpn ff€il : 3 -::>® pn ft-g-~mt1t.= pnpn .m~~i"!t"1' "7 " 0 /,:~t.=~ifrf . ~ff* ft~~~"!t"1'0~~-®£*m~~cf!>~. (4) nn t~.g-, pp tt€.g- : ~IJJ*TC GT®t!ft~~U:t®~~it~ ~)i1~. n * t.: 'i p PI. -"..®m:~m®:t- bfttif.R®ml3X~:Jk < m t,) Gtl~. ~t~b~:t- bftft€1!k~ml3X~« ~ n (p)PI.®~mH:m:~m:t~ n+ (p+) ~.~~I3XG, .."f®~mH:~~~tif.R~-tt~. ~ ®.m~~:~ t), ti~T7Wt,)~ra'it:1tiff;{.®~J.j;· ~~{ ~t.:~{ltJimt~;t- bftft 1!k (~~{~. ~tIIJ® p g ~~~~, ng~~~~. ~~®pg~~-"m~~-::>~~. ~~~+.ff~~~T:t ~- "~.i1~.tlt~lt)Jj}-g-t;t.iJif~~U~cluciJiftl~. ;t7!fj(~~cf!>~ . • ffi1~cf!>~~

vbrC:1v-7:t-J\-~ff) w.J:':~~ c:.i1tf~~:t/~~c:~~. ~- "':• • ~~< iJif~,~c7·v-?:;t-J\-.ff~i/J\~ < t~~. -.Il:;t/~~,:~~ c~- I-- 1:IiftitJillJ:I1' ft~, mff~i2!~~~~c~~O.i1tf~~~~cffi~~~. G~ffiJT~i1tf~.~~­ "~iJif~~A~&ffi®~.~~fJ.iJif®;t/~OO~~.GT.iJifm~®*~~~., * t.:~imn~iEfti1~ilJft~cf!>~. ~~~':~i pnp ""7 /:;~~- (fJ) c npn ""7 /:;~ ~- (TJ ~*fi-g- Gt.: :t®c~~ Gtl~. ~- "~iJif'i T2 ~mljlM~tlT T J ®«-A tD:i1rt c t,t. t), ~ G,: .."f tli1~im+M ~ tl T T2 ®« - ~ .i1tf c t~ J T , iEf$ili1~~ 0 i1:iii1~~fD ~~c~fJ~1''/T/!/ffi~~. "!t"1'0~~-®ft~~. ~~~.ff. •jj~Cff~T :I3~V::~- /:t /~ra":~ -:) TiR:*~ . •ilI~~i 2500 V ~ 4000 A ':itiA~"!t"11) A~­ :t~~~tl, 7tm~~~JT~-"®~.ffiilJ~~:t®:tcf!>~.

23-4: 2 -::>®~tfti:J l." t.:Ctira":~it{~ l-\~iirC

~,

::f--v J'~-Y?7- C v) '5. .:. O)m~rl'l'~:mJ± v ~1Jux~ c, :J /T/-tr-~:~J: Q= CV 0) mfnj , W= (1/2) CV2 O)Mtmx*Jv=¥-n'~x GnLV)~. C~J::J /T/-tr-O)~fi~

mfnj~.x~.~~~L, .~~77~~~~~~. :J/T/-tr-~~m~n~~m -f*~:~J:v)-0 v)-0 tJ:filin'~ ~. ..'fn.:fno):J /T /-tr-O)ct LFtt~J:~m ~ n LV)~~m -f*O);fjJt~:ct-::>Li** ~, ..'fO)%i1~J:~m~nLV)~~m-f*O)%i1~:t~~. :J / T / -tr-O)~fi~, m~~2~0).fl • •-f*O)Wft, ~O).m-f*O)~m*ecM~m~O)~

~jJ!m~ s ~:!tf?iJ L, .m-f*O))!ji~ d ~:l2!tf?iJ9 ~.

C= eSld :J/T/-tr-~~0-~~~m~0).m, .m-f*O)~~.m~E~M~9~.Rs~0~~, m~O).m, ~~~m-f*O)~~.m, L~0-~~, m~O)~/¥~?7/~, C ~J:Mtm~fi~*9. xmtmJ± v~1Jux~c, 1.= (X)jdt=jwey, 9tJ:b~mJ±ct ~ :tfftf§ 90° jfglvt-=mmtn'mtn~ ~J:'9~~~n', ~~~:~J:J:~20).m7t0)~~n)~:, xmtmWO) ~{t~:.m-f*O)7t~n'~fJt~~tJ:v),:, c ~:ct ~, mmt~J: d t-=~t~n, l = (jmC+ G)Y c tJ: ~ Gy2 O)m~x*Jv;:f-n'l~.~n~ . ..'f':' ~ tan 8= tan (codG) ~.mtjEk*t.:JJ:~

n'

miE~cctLF,

:J /T/-tr-0).5ta~*9§~0)V.CJc LLV)~. ;:O)X*Jv;:f-fjl

~~~~~~~mL~O)~.~.~.~~~. nOOo):J/T/-tr-~m~*~~~~~ ~.L~c~O)ft~~fi~~O)ct'5~~~.

1/c= L(l/~)

(m~J~.)

i

C= L(~) i

:J /T/-tr-O)m~~J:[iij~, -m~~, mmt~lll1:n'±~~~n', :l&mJ'\)v~@I~tJ:E~~J:m fnjO)~mVic L -c:tmv) Gn-Cv)~. :J /T/-tr-~:~J:~m §~~:ct ~ v)-0 v)-0tJ:fili n1~~n', -~~:~m~n-Cv)~:tO)~J:, *ff:J/T/-tr-, 7~~T'Y~· 7~ Jlt,b:J /T/-tr-, ?~n:J/T/-tr-, m~:J/T/-tr-, mm:J/T/-tr-, ~~:J/T /-tr- tJ: c~ ~ ~. 23-5:

4 '//'\-9- (!fo/JJlllO)

i2!~~~0):llt'*~, im~, :J / j\-?7-n1xmt . mmt~~~~:llt,*9 ~O)~:~tL-c, mmtmn ~xt1rtmn ~:~~9 ~:1J;rt~~ v)~J:~fiI~ v) '5. ftgJjJ}j;rt c EJ JjJ}j;rtn1~ ~, xmt -m~~: mVin1 ~ ~ Wft ~J: ftgJjJ}j;rt, ~ / /\ -?7 - EJ -f*n'Emtt!fi~ ~ :t J :t 0) ~ EJ JjJ}j;rt c tt-j'

~t~. ~ //\-?7-~J:~*~~:~J:~~ 'YT/!f*T~:ct ~~~~n-C:t3 ~, r ~ /:;~ ?7-~-tr~ I) ~?7-n1~bn-Cv)~. ~~{;$:tt~O)jfgtp:~:ct-::>-c*m~m-tr~ I) ~?7n'ImJE~n-c£~5tmr~-tr~ I) ~?7-:1J;rtn1~m{t~n-Cv)~. ftgJjJ}jJt~ /J\-?7-~J:, -tr~U~?7-O)M.~~acLL~Sa~ //\-?7-ltJfF~1T'5. EJJjJ}j;rt~ //\-?7-~~J:Xmt-mH: ~itfnj~~~~~~O)~, -tr~U~?7-O)Emt~flb~~~~Emt:J/T/-tr-~~-::> -cv)~. ~ //\-?7-~J:~WmmVi~fiI, !EmJ±!E)aJ.mVi~~, ~.~~~~fiI, m t1rt~mtJ:c~ G~~:1Jjij~c ~ AnGn-Cv)~.

-279-

.mtl§].

23-6:

(~JJI!I079)

~.C~~~.C~~.~~~~~~m.~~~ ~~@~~m.@~~, C.~­ ~~~~~.~m.~~~m~~. ~.OOA~~~?~.m, ~mm.@~~~ ~~m~h, *~m.~~~~~*.m., ~.m.@~~~~~m~h~. m.~~ G~.~~D~~ ~~§bh~. *.~~.~~~, .~~=m~§C~h~~~ =m~~ v~~j:~m ;6~§bh~ *T~::-!T1 'J A7'-~mV~~ ~ ~~l:H~C ff~~~~~~. fflCffm.@~~~ffC~m~~~. ~n6~&mm.@~~l:H~~ 'J '/7)v~~I3"Iv~v~~~~, 'J '/7)v~~~~i:t~t;:~, -~~::LC~tit@~~mv~ ~. l:H~Cff~-~~.~~~~~~~~~, ~D-X~~~~-7'-*~~~~~~ ~~~ ~-7'-~#tm~~.

=m,

•• ••

••

. ••

23-7: =~W~T~~~~~~1~-~~~~=~T*T~, ~~~~~~•• ~.n ~~ ~ 15.

Jlte, ;:: (7)l:(7)~f(@J~n)ttt.==~::1 1 Jt.-en) ~,tJ:~. -

fJ ;:: (7)ti}~(7)~~Jt~;t, ~JL\n~lifHt l, -cv~tJ:~ttt,;f, ~;ftlt: ~JL\n\mft9 ~ c ijf ~-:J~t6tl-C, -~@J~(7)iiif,t~-IJJ~(t

'5':-:J< 6tt-Cltl~. l,t.=n\-::>-C, -~::11 Jt.-':iiiiit.~~-:J1J:-:J ~lli~c G--rM!'5 ~ C;?~--r~~. ~ G ~:x1 ~ ~tJ:c~mJj.-@J:bit, ¥~O)7fT~iUjll GtJ:;?~ GOOi~~t~~ ~ c:t> --r~~. 7 A~j!:1J~O) CCD ~d::fpj. ;f!ftTO)im~ :t>~lli--r~ ~t~~, 1J[JJm~~M!J t~*;f!ftT~M--r :t>M!:btl --rv)~.

Or-v*Jv/vv-

-284-

Lesson 24: Electronics III (lCs) •

tJ 7 tanned leather n)V fur, hide, husk, leather, pelt, shell, skin 1fi~ tJ7J.-1 ~1fi

~/tJ7

revolution change, reform

~

:f: basis, foundation, radical {chemistry}, {counter for heavy machines} ~ C basis, foundation, origin; ~ C (:1 (U) to accumulate, to load, to pile up, to ship, to stack {vt}; "::::> ( ~ Q) to accumulate, to amount to, to be piled up {vi} -f*fi ?' l' t q:. volume

mifi

j.

/ t q:.

area

ti /\ /

board, plate, sheet; }\ / board, plate, sheet v) t::.. board, plate, sheet ~t&

1Jlt&

It& /\ /

i1 _

q:./\/ ~1' /\/

substrate flat plate

board, edition (of a book), impression (of a book), printing (block or plate) i!ltir=!JjIJ 7J ,/}, /1' /"!:T'Y typeset and printed ~lti :7:/\ / illustration, figure

7 r) closing, sealing; * r) fief !tl1:1i~ ~M

7r)~*r)*r) ~'/7r)

sealing method seal

.::c copy, imitation; ~ copy, imitation

*mm,' mfl

~1'q:.~ .::c~

-286-

large scale simulation; imitation

Reading Selections 24-1: tiT@Jrm~~~'9.Q ~lVJ\~ti*O)~~. fj~jlJ~T;O~~*O).Tif;O) G¥Zi.f*--ef1:: 6 tt t~ ~ 7 :/~A:$7-~:ft-::> t~;:: c. *t~!I!.§b c G""(f1:: 6tr(lt~t~:J1 lV. :J :/7:/~-. gtJLt~ c;O~~ti*~~~.f*ti*O)if!~~:J:: -::> ""(fiiJlfiJ~: f1:: 6 tt.Q J:: ? ~:t~ -::> t~;:: ct;;. c~: J:: tJ /J\~-(~~iiitl~-(~;O~~~--e~.Q J:: ? ~:t;;. -::> t~. 1950 ~ft;O) 6 ~fjO)x 1 !J 0 x v !J~o=!JA~~H~tt""(~~~. M~.~@Jrm~~O)ft.~t;;.OO--e~.Q.

24-2: ¥.f*.~@Jrmti*O)if!~~: -ff? *m.~.~@Jrm (LSI) O)~'JUIIH~. «tfiffim-(~O)if!J.I. J1;~rmt~~!If"'O) LSI O)~rj)lH:J:: -::> ""( ~t~ G ~ tt.Qti*1j'i~ c~O)?1t&5tJJ*~ lt~? M ~x1!JO:J:/e~-:$7-0)~m~J::tJ. tI~tlBO)~.tI.O)tiT~. ~~~~~if! ~tt. ~~mO~~~. NC If1::tI~. ;;t7 -1 A;;t- ~ ~-~ 3 /tlBt;;.cO)~~;O~~ .~~*G~. ;::O)M*. I~O)~~~~~.~m--e. 77!J~0-;;t-~~-~3:/ (FA). ;;t7 -1 A;;t- ~ ~-~ 3:/ (OA) ~:J::.Q EJIIJ-(~. ~1J-(~;O~if!Jj.. ~*~j:*-A;;t - ~ ~-~ 3:/ (HA) 1j'i1fil;O~¥rJ*'9.Q c lt~btt.Q. X1!J ox V!J ~ O=!J A*1fil~j:. I~ . •~m--eO)~~~W~~~B~~R*G. A~.~f1::~~Gm.G""(~~t;;..~ ~~fflllJ~:rtiJ~t.QiiJ~·I1:~~t~6 Gt~.&OO. :r!J / A ~ vA~VDT~~t~cO)fb'lm. ~ 6 ~: ~j:Jmm B~O)R-(~~: -ff? ~t~ t~tI:~rp'~ ~ P¥ Iv --e It ~.Q.

24-3:

fUllBl13 (!fmJ]!892-894)

~7:/~A:$7-~~.f*v-~-. ~1;;t-~. ~3t7V:/.~t;;.CO)tiT7J~1 7t7J~1 A SJ::ltHftJLB. :J :/7:/~-t~CO)§tIlJ$.§b~. ~tt-tttOO.8rH:f1::!WG ""(f§li.~~:J:: tJ @J1m~.PX'9.Q O)--e~j:t~ 7J~1 A ~§tjlJ$.§b~~f*c G""(~IW--e

A.

.Q n~. *IHm~ MOS (CMOS) 1IDi3~: J:: tJ. MOS '/ - r- O)ffl~&.~g~rj;f' O)ft fnf =f- ~ ~ ~ A (i{f¥'ti ~rnt

I, /

~C!it.Qcc~~. ~~~O)m.tIi:tJ~.m--ri!.Qfi~~~C!.Q. L- t~ n~ -::> L ~ r- O)~A.

~'9 .Q

I, /

~:~i1 ::t/~TjbJ;.ti~n~$>< mtt~ ~n. 1,~-/tNiOOH:~i 2-3 pm *--r~i*~l¥Jt~:IJ~ n~M!mc!nt~n~. 1 Jlm t~tt~ L-~i~n£.rF--r~i • .:rt:-~mllIDn~.±c L-LM!mc!nLtt~ .Q. *t~x A!7 J::~:tiBOOi~nt~J'~-/O)fi~~:~:;t*~I¥J, :IJ~n~M!m~tlL.t3 tJ. 71< m7 /70) (436 nm) n~M!m ~ n Li!t~n~, ~lli--r~:;t5.t1W~~rRlJ:: ~it.Qt~a()~: (365 nm) ~ KrF .r.=f-~x- v-~- (249 nm) n~M!m~nLtt~.Q. c! ~ ~:J}1W~~~ < T.Qka()~.~l~wAO)x.~M!mT.Q;:c~~~c!nL.t3tJ, X.~CL-L~~ "-,~-'/'Y r-A..O)tI.:r.JmMO)ftf!, 77:Ax X ~/!7 0 r- 0 /~MO)fIJmt~c

i.

g.

n~~J;. r;nLtt~.Q.

.tJI.

~~-f*£t&J::~:fi~~ nt~J,~- /~:~-::> L, ~~-f*£t&~.r. 'Y 7 /!/T.Q 0) ,:~:;t, J,~- /-t~n~ 2-3 Jlm w."'F--r~:;t{~~l¥Jt~71mJt~J:: tJ ~,OCJittt1::t /.r. 'Y 7 /!/~x1 !7 0 .DJhjfg 0) 77 :Ax .r. 'Y 7 / !/ n~M!m c! n L tt ~ .Q . *mm.fJllID~O).~~IID~O)mm~*~L, ~~.~, ~~.~, lID ~.~clStf}jH~'9.Q~,~n~'&> tJ, n)-:JIID~.~~,&> ~n) ~a().~~nLtt~.Q'/- r-~A

-288-


ti*i~(.,):>. ;:tH:tt, ~~~~'"C'O){t


DcJO)mW~~~."Q~I!H;t 7/~-jJ'/~~'/T/!fffi.1Ja9aG~ v~A~~r~~~.h, MM~mffift m~~."Q;:c)'"C'&>fJ, ;:O)m~~tt~.1J~:r...'/T~~~~~9."Q&~tt1:;t/:r...'/ T. v~A"~~tJt~~O)~'/:f-acffi~A~tt~. I) 'J ?"7 7.( -O)m=O)~Mc;tllro-tt!n~/J\~ t,)C~, .ntic:rlro~m~. fJJgLi! ~J Gt.:. fJ Jg L.nti~ffl t,), -1t':~~iiO) (" 7 /:; A yr-'"C'c;tf{Tii) rlro~-~ ~f:! C: L T • .8:9tltf.ftffi~tp:WI fJ c (.,):>~'*. '"( It ~ ,"(, m~'"(, .ffo(J)**.tlG • • ~~am~.-r:.~Gkk~-r: ~j:tJ: G. -:; 3 t7'J ::.-t1€-@J~:.ff V;¢~;¢\;¢\G c, ~~Jt dfJ/dt= 2nV/4>o ~:tl: -::> '"({ftm~;¢~~rJf'~~:~{t~ G. ;:: (J)t~~t1€-@J~:~j:, 3t.m• • ;¢~.tlG. ;::tl'd:- -:; 3 t7 'J ::'-3t.5tjJ.*t~~j: AC -:; 3 t7 'J ::.-_.c lt~? ~m.ff(J):t c-r:~j:, m • • (J) ~£;¢\~:, $*IiT(J) 1-- ::,-*)v~JJ.~:J::G • •~~&• • (J)~4:tll!>G(J)-r:, t1€-@J~:.tlG • • ~j:~f* c G '"(

j

=josin fJ + {&(V) + gl (V)cos fJ} V + c(dVldt)

ctJ:G. &(V) ~j:$*IiT 1-- ::'-*)v:J::'-Y 7 ~ ::.-~, gl(V)eCOS fJ ~j:m • • C$*IiT• • (J)~ .Jj{, c ~J:~-@J(J).~~1t (lt~-gtl:t!l!{ft~-@JUiifJl~t~ t) (J)) -r:ct.>G. ;::tl6(J)},\7;)..~-~t1€-@J~J::t).tJ:G(J)-r:, • • ·.ff*f1i:t.tJ:-::>'"«G. -:;3t7'J::'-3t._. (J)~t1€~tJ:~IDE c G ,"(, ~• • ffJ\~ 7 ~ V 'd:-;¢\~tt~t1€-@J;¢\ G, JaJ?Jtlcf= V/4>o = 483.6 V [MHzI,uV] (-:; 3 t7'J ::'-JaJ?JtIc) -r: 100 pW ~J3t(J)mm?Jt;¢~I:BG -:; 3 t7 'J::'-~ ~;¢~Il?j{tl~ tl '"(lt~ G. ~~:,

ji.$;¢\ G.m?Jt 'd:-JffiM GtJ:;¢~ G• • . mff*fii 'd:-?j{tllE~ G clE.ff~ T '/ 7.~;¢~J! G tlG. ~3

24-14:

-e 7 ".J /:tl'€i (!fw.JJ])!958-959)

2:J(J)m&~f*~.T(J)~t)ct)'d:-DG'"(~G lt~~j:~tlJ2rF(J) < LFtl'd:-:J < -::> t~ :t(J). *f~: -:11) '/ -:;$ 'd:- fiU$~ ~:~ < G t~ :t (J) 'd:- variable thickness bridge, a:.. t~, -:1 1) '/ -:;$~: 'M&~~~~'d:-mtd.t~:t(J) 'd:-JlI~5tjJ. -:1 1) '/ -:; c lt~? }~f1€M~~-@J~j:, ~~::.- 1--:J ::.~ 7 1-- c :tJ::~J:tl, m&~-:1o '/ 7 ~:m&~(J)it'd:-t~'"(t~ :t(J)-r:ct.> t), 1-- ::'-*)v t1€'@j c~~70-:11),/-:;(J)!:POO~tJ:Mtt'd:-:t:J. -:;3t7'J::.-t1€-@J~, ~~M~~.~*T

tJ: c~(J)Jitm;¢~~~ Gtl '"(~ t), -:; 3 t7 'J ::'-*TC:tJ:: ~J:tl '"(lt~G. a:..t~, ;¢~ to- 15 F J2CF~:tJ:G J::? tJ:fY&1>tJ: -:; 3 t 7 'J ::.-t1€-@J(J){lI;iliH:~~t G~.lt~~J:, itT 1-- /*}v~JJ.~§.m~ltT:J 1::- v/~(J)~~~~IDE;¢niJfj~tJ:*c G'"(, 15,uIU~ (J) G (J) i&! fi 'd:- 11k ? !fw.JJ])! ~ (J) £~7t Jnf;¢\ 6 :t r± § ~ tl L It ~ G .

_ill

-293-

.~~. §.m~ ItT~C

-294-

Lesson 25: Electronics IV (other circuits and devices)

;I

tJ / pipe, tube, wind instrument -rffii~~~9 G :to)nttblt). ~tJJ r- )v7 0) jE 1:1i ita: ct -::> -r WI i1rfffl 0) IlJtJJ ::I -1 )v~ C ~i1rfffl 0) IlJtJJ~Jt~, .i1rf}] m-~, mi1rf~, • • ~~7t~~tlG . • •~~ct~mi1rf~~, ~tl~tl• •M~ct~mi1rfH~ct-::>-r~ i1rf.i1rf~WIi1rf~ • • G-r~GWIi1rf0).~~fi5. *.i1rf~.~9G~~, 7ti1rf~cct~ tlGfltffLfliO)Jj\ ~ It).i1rf7tIl5Z~~.i1rfm- c~~H:tj€~ G-r, .i1rfM~i1rftlG.i1rfO)~l-@j ~~~G. ~tlGO).i1rfm-~~~~m*HO)~ffl~ct-::>-r.fEm-~ • • '"C'~G. Mi1rfm~-~O).i1rfm-'"C'~G~, .i1rfffii~.~9Gct~:t.i1rf0)~.~MW9G~C~~§~ ~:t~-::> -rlt)G. 7J{Il~.i1rfntWItj€.i1rfm-~i1rftlG :to)O)ft!H:, .i1rfnt~O)~;U~O)~b ~~: ~ t.::Iu~~~-f;JJltlTit'9~:9 J.;., @I~':13-;tG~.:tJj\ ~ It) ~

c~~.'"C'~G. ~tlc~t;ct5~.i1rf.~~.~~'"C'~~ -r ct It)~~ c~ffl ~ tlG. -;.9(::I -1 )v, =;.9(::I -1 )vO)~~~~tl~ tl nl' nz C G, ~tl~:;J:t)i~:JmGm*O)~*ffii~ ¢m' mtJ]{mfEc-;.9(::I-1 )vO)~~. fEO)~~f!!1~El' EI' C G, =;.9(::I-1 )vO)~~mfEO)~~:1Jffii~ Ez' }aj?JJt~~f C9G. -;.9(::I -1 )v c=;.9(::I -1 )V~:~~9 GmfE~J:~tl~tl;.9(}:\;'"C'13-;t GtlG. EI' = EI = (2)I/Z7l' n/¢m = 4.44 nJ¢m }]t1~~:~J:~''9 c

E z =4.44 nJ¢m

-;.9(::I-1 )vc=;.9(::I-1 )vO)~~.EEO)lt,

9t~b,!),

.EElt~j:,

jItij::I-1 )vO)~~lta~:

~GQ~, *.tl~m~~~.~mv)Gtlk. s:tMlf~~~(J).-T¥ J\~ A c G--C 1950 iFf-t*.-c'J.b: < film ~ tlt::iI~, JC(J)t3t r-:7 ~~A~-, Ie, LSI tJ: ~ (J)~~~*-T~:tii~3t Gtl, ~~-c'~J:M.tJ:mJa!~1J.~:~J:~~ c~ ~M!m ~ tl--cv)tJ:V). '" 1=tfB; 4H£'!!B~di/=p.,-/:Jr'" (J)~/=-H& 1, H -a- EEI~-tr ~M::.l;!;S. -;#~~~(J)~~ (2) ~'Ii=i I§'. : ",,1I9J(.lt!1·Ii=i\-IJ)('~ JC:Ii=i1};lt, V-;.7 - , IRJ/t:JHlXIJO,,,,:;t;cW!!, mtUlL~UlL f.'1J.laS iJlltlT~~*H~I1~tJ: ~ ':m v) Gtl--C v) Q. m~ ~J:Ic+ W - .13 kW ~:&~~iI~!j\m ~ (J) ~

r-

a+ GHz *. -c' (J) •• Jaj tJJt (J)~iJN,

t::.v) ~:~~~*-T~:~~3t Gtl--Cv)Q. (3) • • JajtJJtw : GHz -.+ GHz ~:'¥Q.f.'1JJajtJJt-c'tJJfF~ Qm-Tw-c'~~J.t < M!m ~

(J)~J: G

tl--C v'! Q ~(J)~J:~:7~ A r- O~, ifgf-rtJJtW, 7if* r- 0 :/-c'GtsQ. ~:7~ A r- 0 ~~J:. ~JajtJJt.ff':~ '? --C ~ Gt::~-T(J)J*~~Wi'iJ:a:-, ~ I) 7 r- ~rJ!' :a:-ii~~ itQ ;:: c ~:~ '?--C m~~Wi'iJ~~3t, ;::tl:a:-m~~~:a:-iiG--c.~:a:-nlJm~ . • ifg~C&M~~GtsIJ, M ~~J:± c G--cm~Mm, t3t~~J:~iJNm c G--C m v'! GtlQ. ~~~m.-Tw:.~.~~~~(J)~~:7~~W-c'iI!>Q.

~:7~~W~, m.~~

:a:-m-T ~- A C1JB't,m(J)fFm ~:~ IJ 7't.~:~~ G, ~~~ Qm-Tw-c'iI!>Q. JC(J)'~iI)~ .1b..W, ••~~~.w, *~1b..W, .7't~~w~~(J)~~m~-Tw~iI!>Q. ~~ t;!;(.W(J)M.% c G--c, ti:7 A f& (J) filii 00 ~: J ~tt~~~.tirJ!' (J)1b.. :a:-fllm Gt:: 7':7 7,'7 ¥-i A 7°v-il~GtsQ. ~)7't~~~W:7't~W, 7't.-TmffiW~, 7't.(J)~J:E~7't~~(J).~M~~(J)~~ ':M!m~ Q. M~~J:~~u!u1*(J)~7't*-T,:tii~;t GtlTv'IQiI~, f~~~d:7t~m:mUJ:E~~ ~.tJ:7tfJT~~:~tJ:sM!m ~ 7't.-Tm{trW~J:, 7't~w':.-T(J)m{tr{'Fm:a:- ~ kitk~(J)-c'GtsQ w~7't~.:a:-.~~~~~~~Qm-Tw-c', 7'tm~ • • ~ • •W~7t~GtlQ. mJa!~@.ii~~, ~.fm~~~-c'iI!>Q. ~.mmw~= ~.-T(J)m{trfFm ,:~ '? --C7't~.:a:-~ IJ ~Q v'l7't~.,:~~~

.••

tl--CV)Q.

••wc7t

Q.-TW-c'iI!>Q.

-300-

(6)X.1f: j!jiftT.~4tIfll:~"cLx.~~1:~it~tn"C'. X.e4tJlte(J) tHlifFffl ~~Jffl 1.." 1:~4m1t(J)~$~~~4m1t(J).~~J1~9 ~(J)':mt,,) t;tl~. I~ m. t>J::rJ5.t*ml:jdJJj~tl~. 25-9: -~(J)~~ L,t~~iliipqO)!I~.ii~. ~ilii':~i1i~1irRH:-~(J) t: 'Y 7"C'mt.;rL~~ ~L,~~O). *~~~(J)J::5~.ii~ii9~~~. ~~~.~tl~~~~(~(J)~~~ ~ 'j l/ J ~ ~ ~ ~ )ve t,,) 5). 'j l/ J ~ ~n~~I~IH:IHttut. ~(J);t.$(J)iUI'j: pq $(J)mJl~j:'IIH:~fj"C'-~"C'~~. rJ-j$(J)mJi(J)*~~ H~j:. ~~ )v,::if,t"9.if,t~ I, 1tflli::&~t~ t) (J).~It~ n e9tl~t. H= nlT:lfA C;tl~. +5.t:&!t) 'j l/ J ~ ~(J)~IL' MiIT(J)mJi~. iIT~(J(.H:: ~ O)fi':~ L,!t).

o.

25-10:

~-~ -

(~J!2120)

mJit:p(J).if,tnS~~t ~ 1J ~~Jffl I.., -r.~.I.*)v:¥- 'tfillfit~ E.(J)tltJt.I.*)v:¥-'::~ tt"9~~fI"C', .1b.e~t,,)5. m:ii~e~if,t~n~~t). t,,)9tl~PJi2!B9.~tI~"C'~

~. ;t.$~C;.1J~~~9~e~-~-e~t). fillfi~1J~~1:9~. *~.;t.$~C; ~~tI-r:.tJtB9Ib1J~lfxfillE~it~e~.tle~t), .1J~~~9~. i1iii~-~­ ~j:mJi ~lf X ~m. NS ~ ~ -:J~JET. iltlT ~ ~ )v e miiTn\ t; ~? -r t,,)~ ffiIfiT . • i1iiTl:1I1J ~~~9~t~t.>(J):17 ~n\ C; • .6t~ tlt~fillfi."C'~~. SE(J)illIJlj:ffiIE mJi "C'-:J < ~ ~ e iJS-r: ~ . ffiIEmJi(J) ffiIfi1irfij e ~ ~ )vO) ffiIfi1irfij e Ij:-Ji9 ~.

25-11: ~i1ii.i1ii~J::?-rfFIIJ9~~-~-~, IbfF~~~C;3.~*m"C'~~.~~~~~ fJ\ t;*~.(J) ~(J)*-r:.~~J:: rJ~Jlm~ffl-r: ~ ~. (1)1f!tH~~~-~-: ±cL,-r*tlffl"C', 3/4kW w."F(J)~(J)nS~t,,\. (2)=tH~ ~~-~- : IJ'W.fJ\t;*W.(J)~(J)*-r:.~~< ftbtl . •~ftrj1f!. ~iI. {lfiJIif&-r:

e

~~. (3)1f!tHmi1t=r~-~-: i1i.m~j:~i1ijffijm~-~-"C', Jjtm~-~-Ct,\t>tl -r!t\~. (4)=m.il=r~-~-: ilfE(J)ftjtJiQJ~:17 ~(J)31b"C'Mi1f!'::@J.lftjlJ.nS"C'~ ~. rnlPJ~illb.:~tH(J)~(J)ffi~~, Ahm~ffiiE*~~ft®~~~~~~a?~~~®J;.mtM.+ffi~~g-~~"3~L-~~ ®~cmmtMcf.,)"3. 1t;h~:JJ~HiAmn~.~flf-r 1/ t:: ~ 3

/1I.*~mljJM~ac®~"3 aJb*~itl+M16~fi, j{lj~JliJ • •

®m~.ffi~~L-ffi~~~~. -~~m~~~~~~·*~tMmffi-~~,~fflg-~. ~~{>.+wac®m~~+~fl~~CatJ, ~~aitlti.~~~~c, ~~.~~. m~~*~§~ti~J:Vf.§j.~.~~ffi~~M9~m~1l~~9>L-TL-*"3. -t-;:~~ tJ j{ljf.,)f.§j~It§~l:~tg- ~itl+Mll~ J:~j~t.:~~:, j:tUIM§Ji§~tH1J@~ (::J 1/'7 ?T-@) ~;t~~71/-"@)~~-1/¥'7?T/A~~AL-T, mtM.ffi~9>L-M~~f.§j~~~ ilIt,.)f.§j~~~tHh3.c~~~it ~;: c ~:~ J Tlli1J3.~~fI L-, .~+M~Jk~j~;: cn~fTbh~. ;:h~f.lj~~fI*t.:~i t:-;t. /~ c t,.~"3. ;tt.:flff.§j~~:t>~t ~m+Mll«t ~~~"3~~, mtM@~®~~.m~.~~D~a~~~~'tJ~@~~Ah, flf~ ~ ~:t> ~t ~ ft ~.t1i: ~ r.1i < g- ~. ;: h ~flf~~fI c t,.)"3 .

25-13:

7TD ~Di.@~~:fflf.,) ~h~mm~. -~~:~~A1J~ctJ:J Tlt)T, 1~*"':*~ v~mrIrMll (60-150 dB) c~f.,)A1J-1 /t:-5T'/A (105_10 12 Q) ~~~, flfA1JI,-17A tif,f®m:if,fm~~~~~. -t-())~"3 am4rM~~ffl t,.~T@~~tf4.6X:g- ~ c, mtli6®An -1 /t:-¥/An~+7tr.1i< TA1J.if,fn~~m~~~~~c/J"\~ mtMlln~+7t~~t h~im4rMi6®~~A1JYiiii+®.EBi 0 v cJ;.ag-;: cn~~~, A1Jffi~tl± Vj ~:J:: ~ Ahtif,f v~ fig-J'(T!IffliiHftfL R f ~if,fh~®-c', lli1J.I±~i " Vout

= -"L(RJR)v; ;=1

catJ,

&A1Jtl±~~ii.tfL~cA1J.tfL~®~-c'm~~J~~m®.ffffilli1J~

-302-

.Gh~. ~.~~~ -c~~ ®~ 5 • • (7t~®~G • •) ~~j:im1T

v).

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26-4: lE~?Jt®.~ffi~~ft~~~.~H. ~~® • • ~)aj?Jt.~~.~~~1LGh~J:5

G t:.~M~~, f.¥J~~~~, {}[f§~~~iO)~tGn~ ~® ~tblt'l. rtf ~db®f.¥J~~fBlHI~j: 10 kHz Q. tlftft, :1 /T:r!T-, :11' )vt~c(J)~mtJ~T(J)~--r.,6X;~tlt.:~mtJ7 -{ )v?7~:~t G Lfi~mtJ~T (:ftlI\lM~T) ~J3"U 7 -{ )v?T - ~fi~mtJ 7 -{ )v?7 - c It ~ 5. * t.:tlfJjt~ mtJ~fljffl Gt.:j. 71'::71 )v7 -{ )v?7-, t:7 ~ 'Y 7 7 -{ )v?T- :tcl!>Q . • ~~~~T -( :J ?T )V~l]!9 Q;: c ~:J:: t) 7 -{ )v?7-fFffl ~~~9 Q :t(J)~T -{ :J?7 )v7 -{ )v?7- c lt~ 5. 26-16: f~~~l]!~:fflltH3tlQ 7 -( )v?7-(J) 5 't, f~~~~(J)* * 7:J-o 7~§~~:J:: '? L7-( )v?T I) /7~9 Q :t(J)~ lt~ 5. l' /-5' 7?7 / A c;:f--v J'\~?7 / A ~~,6X;~TC9 Q LC 7-{ )v?7-, :ftl~i~ctlftft~:J:: Q 7 7 T -{ 7+7 -{ )v?7-, 7J t)iO'{~t~~*{l::~:{~5~ ~, ?Ji~OyjlJ6~~, ~lt~~ • • ,6X;7t~:t '":J~~(J)11klt~~:

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IJ, l]!~~~:PJfi~t~~jl1:t~ t3 c Iut~~jI1:L :t~~--r~.Q c lt~ 5 ~Ik~:t '? Llt~Q. f§ ~~E.GL~t3~l]!9Qk~~~~~clPJ!F.f~l]!~--r~9• • ti.~~~.--rcl!>.Qc lt~ 5 j:zJ~ :tcl!>Q. iWiJ*7- 1) X~~~ffllt~L~ • • fiJi~--r?Ji~9 Q:t(J) C, A:h.%~ -~(J)lJ:1irl'l'rl'l'~--r*'H7t G, A:h.(J)*~~ ~:!t{9iJ9 .Q/,\)VA (J)*~1j c GL, ~n t3 (J) 7 -{ )v?7 -(J)1' / /'\)VAJS~ c (J)t.:t.:~;: ~m-$--r, lli:h.%~;:j(~QlJ:1irl'l'fiJi~--r(J)~ l]! c iOf. cI!> .Q . 26-18: IJ:1irl'l'~~:~{~9 -Qffi~.%~7+:7 r) /~OO~~:.J~(J)qmm.%c

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-326-

Lesson 28: Computer Hardware I

*

(general) ;t r) middle J:fl*9l1J11!~~

J:fl*mli A

:IX'

:r :L r);t r) ~ 3 'J 'J r):r :r :L r) ;t r) T /';f- 3 7

..I. understanding; jJ -1 assembly, association, club, meeting, party

C6 ( '5 ) to interview, to meet ~¥IHt*l~ ~*l

JtIJ

*

:J 3 r) r) jJ ~ -V jJ -1 jJ -1 ~ -V

;f- an age, date, period, season, session, term, time Jaj WHW ~ :L r) ;f- jJ -1

*EM ~

8

central processing unit (CPU) central electrode

~3;f-

information society company, corporation

periodic solution initial stage, early period

book, chronicles, history

ffiBe

v;f-~

ffiBel¥J~~

v;f-~T;f-J\ 'Y T

/'

:J'Y day, sun; =:r day, Japan, sun day; '0 date, day, sun B~~m =:r:J3r)t-1jJ'Y

history historical development

-i)'),



B*

~ -V

association, company, Shinto shrine

~ G 0 Shinto shrine

§*l 3t*ll¥Jtch ~JJ

=*/'

daily life Japan

:J~-v

~ /' ~ -V T;f- tch

the company itself company-wide

~ 3 beginning, first '5 \,t) first (time), beginning; -~(&JG) to begin to ... ; ~'i G(&J) beginning, origin; ~'i G(&J-C) (for) the first time, not until; ~'iJ beginning, first, new

f)]M~rl=l'1m

~ 3 ;f-:r-t /':$T~-1

f)]~

~3

r- r)

-327-

initial value problem beginning

*I: ~

~3

ry disguising, dressing, pretending; 'J ry disguising, dressing, pretending

J::. J(-:B( '5) to disguise, to dress, to pretend ~2ti~fI :f-:t !J 'J ry 7A 11 ~fI ::.:L ry I) 3 !J 'J ry 7-

storage, memory input device

t /' mainly, solely

:t> ":J ~i( G) mainly, solely w:r'JtIf W:ffl-

51 !J

t/'.:c/'~/'-v

t/'3ry-

specialized field/discipline dedicated, special-purpose

T/'51!J fJ/,/..ryT/'51!J

electronic calculator scientific calculator

desk, table

.-&i OO~.-&i

7- placing, putting, setting :B( * IJ ~ IJ n~ tJ:

28-3: m.$:~ili~~,'Q*"C'~.*~~~~m~"C'~~~flM~.$:~~.fI~c:t~'"(, A~~ fT '5Il9JtIj~.~1mWJ G'"(v)t::.. 1962 iF':mTl¥J~:~.~fT'5 mT~ljI~~.fln~itii£ {t ~ tlt::.. ~ ~~: 1964 iF ,: ~J: r- :; /:/ A 7' -{t ~ tlt::. m.$:n~ ~ -V -7*1n) ~ §eft ~ tl, ~tln~~1:EO)m.$:O)JJjHr~ctJ:~ t::.. ~ O)mljl~J:$£J~lcn~ 5000 M, m~ n~ 25 kg "C'&>~

t::.. ~O)t~, @l~*TC G'"( IC ~mv),'Qc:t '5 ~:tJ: IJ, /J\~Ht, 1:!imJJ{tn~~lvti. ~ 1J=if~J::fIfj ~ C ~:@l~~~t::. ,:~~ G'"(v)t::.. @l~O)~J!~:PtJ: ~btlt::.. ~ ~~:/J\~Ht~tl~~,'Qt::.?iJ~: B*O)m.$:;(-jJ-n~7;( I) jJO)-1 /7)v*1c~IPJ"C'oo§eGt::.O)n~iit3'f.mO)x-17 07 ot'Y-lj"- i4004 "C'&>,'Q. x-17 070t'Y-lj"-0)i*m"C'm.$:flfiI50)~1JD . ~lEn~W~ ~~IJ, ~lcmljl~7'oif:;Am.$:~e.ttnO)m.$:~~~~~*.~*tl,'Qc:t'5~~ ~ t::.. LSI .~~ 0) - 11 0) rtiJ J:3: f~ v) , ~I\IH:fIfil5, ~~fifil5 tJ: e ~ VIi Jt t::. mljl t> tlH5l G '"(v),'Q. *JJMO)t][O)m.$:~J:~7J'~ C G '"(J!{~~~ m v)'"(v)t::.n~, §e7t7'''-1:;t- ~ ~7J'~ ~*-I,"(~1:E"C'~J:¥BiSL~7J'~n~-&!m ~ tl '"(v),'Q. m~t> itiimm~n) ~, ~mW!, ~ ~ ~:m *n~fgjfj!"C'mw!3'e~n~~m O)j(~mW!~c~{l:: G '"(v),'Q.

28-4: ~.flO)?Ji.9l1J11!$~ 1 OO*t::'~J:IcOOO) LSI "C'.~Gt::.x-17 07'ot'Y-lj"-~:~21l ~ti~}ajm~ti c 0)-1 /7'-7 ::r. - A @l~tJ: e ~{11JD G~- ~ ~:m~ G t::.~.fI~ v) '5. ~ G '"(x-1::I

/ C v) '5. 1971 iF~:-1 /7 )v*1n~, B*O)m.$:;( -jJ-O)§ei±~:Jit,\C;'"(

iit3'f..mO)x-170::I/t:.:r..-7'-~OO§eG'"(~*, 7'oif:;A~c:t~'"(~*~*~m ~~:Jiim"C'~,'Q7fLmO)mT$£c G'"(m~n~iJt*G, LSI tt*O)~~,:c:t~ '"(1IUil¥J~: §eM G '"(~t::.. x -170::I / t:.:r.. -7'-O)Jit,\m)tJf~J:~JI!Si~:bt::.,'Q. /'\- '.)j- )v::I / t:.:r..-7'-~~=::I/t:.:r..-7'-, I*fiM~I~o)Im~~m~ti, :;t7~A:;t-r­ ~-~ 3 /fi~, EI~*~*m~£~o)*Jlc7).J6c7).tJ:C, ~ ~~,'Q)tJf':Jiim~tl,"(Vl,'Q.

28-5: CPU c~~2~,'Q. T~:/7' )vm-.fiO).~~*O)'5!>, *,J~~tiC?Ji.~ti~#ti:t '"(t:p*9l1J!!~tiCV)'5. *,j~~ti~j:, ~Ji.~ti,

~2.~ti, AtHJJ~tic*,J~ffi~~~

IJ c IJ G, 7' 07":; A "C'7J' ~ tlt::.9l1J!! ~fT '5 t::.?iJ ~: tfrrfJf!ltl~, ~2ttf!ltl~, A tH JJ *,j~tJ: e~fT'5. tfrrfJ*,J~~j:, tfrrfJO)l&lJtHG, i¥tMt, :;trz:;/~77tA, ~Ji.~fTcv)'5 -.O)~tl~~~~,'Q. AiliJJ~~~, t:p*9l1J!!~ticAtHJJ~~~ticO)~"C'~J6c7). fift~-&!~'"(D~G, AtHJJ~*~~~~,'Q. ~.~ti~, ~., ._, ~., • • ~, MID, OR~eO)~J1I!~.~c:t~~7r-~.~e~~fT~,'Q@l~cv:/A7'-"C'.~~

-330-

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tl,

:JM~~~~.Q.

/'\A (iW~576)

28-6:

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28-7: iOOW~~O)jJ-'J )v~~~.~0)~~~:mv~.Qfft1il.A1J~filO)--::J. /J\~tJ:~~~,

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-334-

Lesson 29: Computer Hardware II (memory and recording)

~

~ shaking, waving, wielding .$,,'Q ( '5 ) to shake, to wave, to wield t$~'I1~c1l ~J\ 'Yt-1 ~;t7 ~t$ J\'Y~

volatile memory exhibition, display

7 -1 diameter, method, path fil[~

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Itf

T3'Y7-1 J\ :/7-1 *'7:J '7

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;A

~

dismissal, leave of absence, leisure void, vacant space minute/microscopic pore/gap

~3

to concentrate (on), to devote oneself (to), to include {vt}

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interrupt

book, handwriting, letter, note 'IJ"( to compose, to draw, to paint, to write

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#1£ -f*# RM

m&

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m*

m. 1& IT

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power failure/interruption tennination reaction

t- !7 reading; ~!7 reading J::(U) to divine, to read, to understand iR~ ~.~~*~.O

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dehydration elimination

7-1-'" stopping

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0

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!7 record ~c~ !t:~

record, document, recording registration

-336-

Reading Selections 29-1:

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70-1~iJ!~~~~~~.

-372-

Lesson 33: Materials I (ceramics; fundamentals)

~

~Jil

E

jJ course (of study), department (in a university or a hospital), family {biology} ;M;{s/'f-/-~ "!f1 'J 39 jJ tJ!J materials science 13 ~f-/-~ ~~ /' jJ tJ !J natural science jJ error, excess £I!> ~ (!> ) error, fault; £I!> ~ (J) to err, to make a mistake {vi}; T (~ .Q ) to elapse, to exceed, to go past {vi}; T( ~T) to go through, to overdo, to pass (time) {vt} ii&~J (J) jJ ~ 3 9 (J) excess

*

*

i&Jm

~

jJ!J

process

core, kernel, nucleus, seed .m.~~

mtr.

rtf7a PI

jJT1 jJ!J~~~39~1 'T/,~jJ!J

nuclear magnetic resonance atomic nucleus

jJ /' caving in, falling (into), sinking, sliding (into)

s!> ~ ~ ( .Q ) to lapse (into), to slide (into) {vi}; S C: G ~ ~ (tt.Q ) to ensnare, to tempt {vt} mrj{~ =:1 9 ~';r 'Y jJ /' lattice defect .~j{~ =:1 9 '/9 ';r 'Y jJ /' structural defect

~

';r 'Y gap, lack n\(~t.Q) to be broken (off), to be chipped, to be missing, to be vacant {vi}; 1.J\( to break, to fail in, to lack, to neglect, to omit {vt} j{/~ ';r 'Y T /' weakness, fault, shortcoming :iFPJ j{ (J) 7 jJ ';r 'Y (J) indispensable

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33-7:

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-391-

-392-

Lesson 35: Materials III (glass, carbon and diamond)

fd x / td.

[!::!]

*

lead (metal) tJ lead (metal) ~fil ~fIrm7m

:t 'Q dented, hollow, sunken [!!I 8 [!!Iv/A'

_

perpendicular lead storage battery

:t'Qr-'Y

unevenness, roughness concave lens

:t'Qv/A'

:¥ 3 'Q achievement, business, conduct, industry, occupation, service, studies, trade b

~" act, art, deed, performance, trick, work

{t$I~ ~.

JA

X/737 td.* tJ 777/7

tJ jJ 7 ::I 'Q =¥ 3 'Q =¥ 3 'Q t:t

chemical industry accomplishment, achievement

::I 'Q broad, reaching, spreading D 6 (It)) broad, extensive, spacious; D 6 (if· ~ ) to extend, to spread out {vi}; D 6 (~j ~ ) to enlarge, to stretch, to widen {vt}; D 6 (* ~ ) to become popular, to pervade, to spread {vi}; D 6 (t/) ~ ) to disseminate, to enlarge, to popularize {vt} J.t*~ ::I 'Q ?' l' l' :t broad bandwidth ~iJ.t ~~H;!D.0 extensively, widely, broadly


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(J)77 Ax1::~$~77 'AxiJjctt~'5. 77 'AxiJj~J:77 'Ax~~1::~itQ=¥m~~1:: 1'\}YA77'AxiJj, ~~1f;77A'xiJj, ~1it77'AxiJj, i«im

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1&.@lltil~ 1000 @I~J:~:tJ:~ c**iI~I±H: < < tJ: tJ lJ ':J y.y-~lN.ft~ ~'~iI~~~. ~~~5~~~~~~~~£2ahk~.~• • c~~~2~hk.~• • c~6tJ: tJ, ~jL\• • O)~~$Mili~:~~t 6ht;:1til\ 6, i9iim71 A/'\Jv7~ffllt\-C, §ialt¥r...'pq~: tI.r...'~:71A~PJtMG, /~JVA*.i1rt1&tI~:J:: tJ ~5 ~~~1::Pl· :1JllimT~. ~mjj(tij ~:i1rth~ ~m~Y- ".i1rtc, ~jL\tI.~i1rth~.i1rtil~::> < ~]aJjj(tijmJj}cO)lH1LfFffl ~, ~5~~~.mi1rt~mim~~~~. ~~~lJ':Jy.y-~c.tJ:tJ, .~O)71A~~ ffl~~~. ~5 ~~O)IUi, ~;;U£~$t~.t;: Gt;:71A.~~*~. /~JVA1&.O)~*1f1t¥ OO~~., .i1rty-"~~.~6~D*~~bIt¥OO~tli1rt~.*~tJ:~J::5~~~6h

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-424-

Lesson 38: Materials VI (material properties)

.tI

7J l' breaking ;:: bct) to break, to destroy, to tear up {vt}; ;:: b(tt,'Q) to be broken, to be demolished, to fall into ruin {vi} if!tiit. ~'Y X/' J\7J l' dielectric breakdown it. J\7J l' failure, collapse, fracture

=.

=F tortoise, turtle iJ~ ~ tortoise, turtle

..

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dB

_

=Fv'Y l:::3?}./,=FV'Y

=F 3 !J composition, fault, melody, music, tune ('lJf. ,'Q ) to be crooked, to bend, to curve, to decline {vi}; (~j ,'Q ) to bend, to bow, to distort, to pawn {vt} =F 3 !J t /' curve ~w..Hb. ~ ?::t/'=F 3 !Jt/' isotherm

**

Hb.

';I =F attacking, conquering, defeating

? (J) to attack, to conquer, to defeat •• ~ 3 ? ';I =F ~.. -* 'Y ~ 3 ? ';I =F

_

crack swface crack

impact, shock, impulse thermal shock

'r /' effect, testing *IMjllj

'r-1'r/''J!J

~M~

:;'Y'r/'~'Y

empirical law laboratory

"!T-1 crushing, pulverizing, smashing ti.( to crush, to pulverize, to smash {vt}; ti. (~t ,'Q ) to be crushed, to crumble, to go to pieces {vi} grinder, crusher, mill ~Wj!ttl 7;""-"!T-1;fgrinding/crushing action ~Wj!tfFm 7;""-"!T1'"!T3?

< 0)'"C'~~. ~.~O)~T~~J~~~~~~X*~~-U ~~.:rra'l!. r'"C'.5.tl,t~ -dUrdr'"C'4X ';.f1~. ~ ~ '"C'JI{.:rra'0)5In~f 0~~~~:fIJm~~~:I:fU:ilIv)jj~--rK~T~:: ciO~:Ai~~* GV).

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