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AL-FARABI KAZAKH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION Educational-methodical manual Stereotypical publication
Almaty «Qazaq university» 2020 1
LBC 811.111(075) I 69 Republican educational methodological council of the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Subsection «Linguistics» al-Farabi Kazakh National University Editorial and Publishing Council The Joint National Languages Committee National Council on Languages and Education (JNCL-NCLIS, Washington, USA) National Council on languages and international education Academic Council of the Faculty of Philology and World languages Academic Council of the Faculty of Oriental Studies al-Farabi Kazakh National University
Reviewers: doctor of Philological Sciences G. Nadyrova doctor of Philological Sciences V. Suprun doctor of Philological Sciences Zh. Ibrayeva Compilers: G. Madiyeva, W. Rivers, J. Seitmetova, A. Kaibuldayeva
Intercultural communication: еducational-methodical manual / сomp.: G. Madiyeva, W. Rivers (USA), J. Seitmetova, A. Kaibuldayeva. – Ster. pub. – Almaty: Qazaq university, 2020. – 72 с. ISBN 978-601-04-2185-1 This teaching manual represents experience of compiling the manual on intercultural communication in Russian in accordance with the credit technology of learning for undergraduate, graduate, post-graduate students and anyone interested in intercultural communication issues. The manual presents the main topics, key issues, terms and concepts used to research the communication issues of different cultures bearers and questions to prepare for seminars and independent work as well. Studying of key issues on the discipline «Intercultural communication» allows to build the necessary competence on study of intercultural communication and conflict resolution issues. Publishing in authorial release.
LBC 811.111(075) © соmp.: Madiyeva G., Riverse W., Seitmetova J., Kaibuldayeva A., 2020 © Аl-Farabi KazNU, 2020
INTRODUCTION The problems of intercultural communication have always been and continue to occur since different tribes, nations and nationalities were formed, who began to engage in the economic, political and military contacts to communicate with each other owing to different reasons and circumstances. Contradictions and inconsistencies of different cultures appeared as a result of such interactions. The fact that representatives of different cultures are not quite similar to each other and the difference in their way of speaking, dressing and behaving was noted even in the ancient world. In this regard, the differences of languages, cultures, their interaction and mutual influence (Plato, M. Kashgari, Descartes, Leibniz, T. Hobbes, J. La Mettrie, F. Boas, W. Humboldt, E. Sapir and etc.) were studied at different times. However, systematic and consistent study of communication between cultures, i.e, intercultural communication, have been held recently. As it was noted by A. Vasilenko, «Political scientists called the twentieth century «The Universal Meeting» of peoples and cultures. The unprecedented rate of growth in different dimensions clashes civilizations and continents and leads to unexpected interactions of different human communities, which are often charged with opposite energy in mutual contact that sparks flash, threatening the universal fire» [Vasilenko 1988, 3]. Another important factor in development and expansion of the intercultural communication space is electronic communication: facsimile information transfer, the Internet with its various websites and platforms, e-mail. Modern information means changed the communication world quantitatively and qualitatively and accelerated communicative process between representatives of different cultures. Numerous researches give the opportunity to speak about universals, peculiar to many cultures, which are caused by a community of socio-psycho-biological organization of the person, his habitat, perception of the world around since there is a set of the universal signs and qualities natural for any person of any society. 3
However, it is necessary to mark out also distinctions as each nation (the tribe, social groups, confessional, etc.) has special artifacts, norms of etiquette, customs, and traditions distinguishing it from other cultures, which, according to experts, are acquired both on conscious and unconscious levels. They make the cultures existing on our planet unique and different from each other in particular. These differences, which are quite often natural barrier for understanding, need to be studied. In that regard it is necessary to teach principles which promote reconciliation of cultures, level barriers between their representatives and enable to resolve conflict situations. This fact led to the implementation of disciplines that aim at introduction of new areas in humanitarian scientific fields and the academic discipline «Intercultural communication» to the programs of undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate curriculum of higher educational institutions of Kazakhstan. Names of these disciplines can be different, but their content subordinated to the representation of the main and key subjects of intercultural communication and it differs depending on the level of vocational guidance of specialty: Introduction to Intercultural communication (Undergraduate program, specialty «Foreign language: two foreign languages»), Theory and practice of intercultural communication (Undergraduate program, specialty «Oriental studies»), Language and intercultural communication (Graduate program, specialty «Linguistics»), Language, thinking, national mentality (post-graduate program, specialty «Linguistics»), Intercultural communication and a foreign language teaching (post-graduate program, specialty «Foreign Philology»). The offered manual represents a short lecture course on intercultural communication for undergraduates, graduates and post-graduates studying in humanitarian fields of the higher educational institutions. Each lecture contains subject key issues for discussion, questions and tasks for seminars and independent work which help to form the competences to address the issues of intercultural communication and the list of basic terms and concepts, with definitions which are necessary for formation of students’ meta language of intercultural communication, are presented as well. 4
In addition, test tasks (with answer keys), which can be used after studying of the specific topics and taking lecture course are given. The manual contains syllabus on the discipline «Intercultural Communication» which covers the topics corresponding to the program of discipline. This course allows to describe the diversity of cultures, the study of which contributes to the expansion of worldview and it gives an opportunity to understand the native culture, to see its specific aspects of value systems and artifacts in comparison with others cultures. The discipline is designed to acquaint with meta language of intercultural communication which is important for the description and studying of issues arising in the course of communication between representatives of different cultures (ethnic, territorial, social, confessional, etc.). It also familiarizes with behavior models in different cultures, conditions and the principles that allow to level the conflict situations or to show how to behave in similar situations. Important addition to the manual is the Kazakh-Russian dictionary on intercultural communication (Almaty: Kazakh University, 2016 (published in Kazakh). Authors: Madiyeva G., Seytmetov Zh., Mambetova M., Madiyeva D.). The dictionary represents the experience of compiling the bilingual dictionary on intercultural communication in the Kazakh and Russian languages with their equivalent in English, compiled according to credit technology of learning for undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate students. The main terms and concepts used for a research, studying and the description of communication problems of various culture bearers are presented in the dictionary.
LECTURES SEMINARS INDEPENDENT WORK Topic 1 Intercultural communication: origin, formation, development Issues for discussion: 1.1. Intercultural communication: scientific area and academic discipline 1.2. The term «Intercultural communication»: basic approaches to the definition
The key issues of the topic 1: Causes, conditions of origin and development of intercultural communication as a science and academic discipline. The Foreign Service Act and establishment of the Foreign Service Institute (1946, USA). The activity of an American anthropologist, linguist Edward Twitchell Hall, Jr., the founder of the science of proxemics and intercultural communication. Development of the main provisions and ideas of intercultural communication (E. Hall). E. Hall’s concept of dialectical unity of culture and communication, cultural conditioning of individuals’ communicative behaviour and different cultural communities. The book «Culture as Communication» (E. Hall and D. Trager (1954)). E. Hall's work «The Silent Language» (1959). The development of intercultural communication and works of American anthropologists Florence R. Kluckhohn and Fred L. Strodtbeck (1961) and ethnolinguists John Gumpertz and Dell Hymes (1972; 1982) on language and culture interaction. Current activities of the Foreign Service Institute (USA). Intercultural communication as an academic discipline (USA, Europe, Russia, Kazakhstan). The definition of the term «intercultural communication» by various scholars: 6
«the ideal goal a man should aspire in their desire is to adapt to the world around them in the best and efficient way (E.T. Hall and G. Trager); «a combination of diverse forms of relations and communication between individuals and groups belonging to different cultures» (Grushevitskaya T.G., Popkov V.D., Sadokhin A.P.); «communication of people who come from different cultures» (Frick T.B.); «communication between people of different nationalities (ethnic groups)» (Denisova I. V. Eremenko, and A.P.); «adequate mutual understanding of two participants of a communicative act belonging to different national cultures» (Vereshchagin E.M., Kostomarov V.G.); adequate understanding of two participants of a communicative act belonging to different national cultures (V.S. Stepin); Intercultural communication generates «the new universal society of culture», a special sociality, or rather a form of free communication between people in the force field of the dialogue between cultures (Bibler V.S.); «communication between people who have different cultural perception of symbolic systems» (Samovar L.A., Porter R.E.). Thus, from these definitions it follows that the concept «intercultural communication» includes the following components: interaction or communication, the participants of a communicative act – at least two people, different cultures, representatives of different cultures, representatives of different nations, symbolic systems, social communication. The problem is that what occurs during communication of different culture representatives, which language and cultural norms are typical for a particular people and in connection with the mismatch of cultures, what barriers leading to communication failures occur between communicants, belonging to different cultures and how to overcome them to achieve the desired result. Key terms and concepts: Adaptation – adaptation to new conditions of existence. 7
Barriers of communication – interference, preventing contacts and cooperation between communication partners, communicative failure. Communication failure is not achieving communicative purpose of an initiator, more broadly, pragmatic aspirations, as well as the lack of communication, understanding and agreement between the parties of the communication. Communication – communication, information transfer from person to person – specific form of human interaction. Globalization – the process of world economic, political and cultural integration and unification, the spread of any phenomena, products and standards beyond the individual countries and continents. The globalization of the economy. Internationalization of higher education – the formation of a rational system of education acceptable to many countries. Information – the information sent by people to each other orally or by other means. Intercultural communication is a humanitarian discipline that studies interaction between representatives of different nations and cultures. Language norm – a set of language means and rules of their use, adopted in a given society and in a given epoch. Tolerance – be tolerant to other people’s way of living, behavior, strange customs, feelings, beliefs, opinions and ideas. Questions to the topic 1: 1. Explain the necessity and importance of science «Theory of intercultural communication». Who introduced the term «intercultural communication»? When was it introduced? 2. Identify the causes of the origin and development of the theory of intercultural communication as a science in different countries. What are the object and subject of intercultural communication theory as a science and an academic discipline? 3. What tasks were set to the theory of intercultural communication at the beginning of its development? Prove that the modern theory of intercultural communication has different goals and objectives. 4. What role do ethnography, folklore and history play in the study of intercultural communication? 5. Prove that intercultural communication is interdisciplinary discipline. 8
Tasks for independent work on the topic 1: 1. Using Internet resources, prepare a brief report on the contributions of E. Hall, D. Trager, F.C. Kluckhohnand F. L. Strodtbeck, John. Gumpertz and D. Hymes, D. Matsumoto to the theory of intercultural communication. 2. Study the activities of Foreign Service Institute (USA) and determine its main study areas (http: // careers.state.gov/work/foreign-service/officer). 3. Prepare a report about the most interesting situations of intercultural communication, which represents communication failures and their overcoming, you witnessed or took part in.
Topic 2 Intercultural communication: areas of study Issues for discussion: 2.1. The concept of culture. Culture and society. Conceptual approaches to the definition of culture. 2.2. Components of culture. Functions of culture. 2.3. Cultural picture of the world.
Key issues of the topic 2: The concept of culture. Culture and society, and their interaction. «Culture» is a basic concept in intercultural communication. Consideration of culture in anthropological/ethnological sense. Culture is the object of the Humanities. Cultural anthropology (USA), social anthropology (UK), Ethnology (Germany), Ethnography, cultural studies (Russia). Classification of definitions of culture by A. Creber and C. Kluckhohn. Components of culture: norms (etiquette, manners), cultural values (rituals, customs, traditions), means of transmission of cultural elements (symbols, language). Signs of social norms. The basic functions of culture. The function of socialization and inculturation. The cognitive function (gnoseological, cognitive). Function of accumulation and storage of information. Regulatory (normative) function. The function of transmission of the social experience. An iconic function. Integrative function of culture. Disintegrative function of culture. Axiological function. Educational function. The levels of «mental programs» of culture according to Hofstede. Cultural universals. The object and subject of study of cultural anthropology. Ethnic and local culture. Cultural worldview – the result of 9
processing the spiritual and temporal information about the environment by a human mind. Key terms and concepts: Behavior – interaction process of living beings with the environment. The behavior is connected with external (motional) and internal (mental) activity. Culture – results of a human society activity of all life spheres and all factors of (the ideas, beliefs, customs, traditions, models of human behavior, communication and self-expression) the way of life of the nation, a class, group of people during a certain period of time. Communicative behavior – a set of norms and traditions of communication of nation. Custom – historically established social norm, which determines the behavior of people in a particular area of life. Ethnicity (ethnic community) is historically formed community of people with a common language, culture, identity and psychological makeup on a certain territory. Characteristics of the ethnic group include folk art, traditions, customs, norms of behavior. Intercultural communication is a special form of communication between representatives of different cultures aimed at achieving understanding. Tradition – the elements of cultural heritage, transmitted from generation to generation and continuing for a long time. There are certain social norms such as norms of behavior, values, ideas, customs, rites, etc. Questions to the topic 2: 1. Prove the complexity and multidimensionality of the concept of culture. Determine the elements of the culture of any nation. Give examples. 2. Identify the reasons of existence of a large number of definitions of the concept of culture. Make your own definition of culture. 3. Consider the culture from a scientific point of view. What is the concept of culture in everyday life? 4. What is meant by the concepts «ethnic and local culture»? Do the concepts «culture, ethnic culture and local culture» interrelate? Justify your answer. 5. What functions does the culture fulfill in human life? Give the scheme of culture functions and give their brief description. 6. Reveal the concepts of worldview, the cultural worldview, linguistic worldview and correlation. Justify your answer by examples. 10
7. Prove the significance / insignificance of culture in intercultural communication. Justify your answer by examples. Tasks for independent work on the topic 2: 1. Analyze the classification of A. Kroeber and C. Kluckhohn. What is it? 2. Analyze the article of Albert C. Cafagna «A formal analysis of definitions of culture» and mark keywords and phrases that define the culture (A.C. Cafagna. A formal analysis of definitions of culture // GE Dole, RL Carneiro (eds.). Essays in the Science of Culture. In Honor Leslie A. White. NY