Integration of Religion and Psychiatry

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Integration of Religion and Psychiatry

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INTEGRATION RELIGION

OF

AND PSYCHIATRY

THE MACMILLAN

COMPANY

NEW YORK • CHICAGO DALLAS ATLANTA SAN FRANCISCO LONDON•MANILA THE MACMILLAN COMPANY OF CANADA , LIMITED TORONTO

INTEGRATION OF RELIGION AND PSYCHIATRY

W

. EARL BIDDLE ,

THE MACMILLAN

M

.D .,

F

.A . P .A .

COMPANY , NEW YORK , 1955

Copyright

,

1955, by

THE MACMILLAN

COMPANY

All

rights reserved - no part of this book may be repro in any form without permission in writing from the publisher , except by a reviewer who wishes to quote duced

brief

passsages

inclusion

in connection

in magazine

FIRST PRINTING ,

PRINTED

IN

or 19

with

newspaper

a review

written for

.

55 .

THE UNITED

STATES

OF AMERICA

BL

53

B45 DEDICATED

TO

MY OWN GOOD MOTHER

---

PREFACE

be

of

.

,

counterpart However the refinement

people

religion and

The

.

as his

of

both the spiritual and the medical needs regarded American Indian medicine man may care

the his

of -

.

the

Threading our way back through the history of man we find in primitive times that medicine and religion were administered by one and same individual The ancient priest physician took modern

advance

of

and the clergyman

alike have demonstrated the study and experience both fields Par necessary divide scientific knowledge in

specialized

.

the doctor

for

to

-

.

upon

necessity

to

for

it

of

ment medical knowledge have rendered not only impractical impossible pursue very person but one far the aims both professions The ever increasing demands that have come bear

we found into numerous specialties not the least among them being psy chiatry that branch medicine devoted disorders the per

of

to

,

of

to

, it

ticularly have

.

sonality

Though religion and psychiatry have become separate

tinct professions both deal with

dis

and

is

It

.

.

in

as

to

by as a

.

of

,

relations here that paths clergyman psychiatrist converge the both and must Both attaining personal hap help others are motivated desire piness Neurotic well normal problems involving anxiety and human

.

gious experiences

necessary

the personality

is

and

its

to

help

to

of

maximum

both relationship between understand the

,

of

clergyman and psychiatrist the serious disturbances

provide

for support

a

order

it

them

to

In

who look

.

both professions

those

to

of

.

to

of

guilt are brought the attention both clergyman and psychia psychotic trist The more severe disturbances are also the concern for

profound

reli

vii

viii

PREFACE

At some time in life everyone contends with the immensity of the physical and spiritual forces of the cosmos . Peace of mind is attained only when the individual finds a satisfactory place for of

,

old

of

disintegrate

,

the plan

in

die

the universe and adapts himself to it. The material world is subject to inevitable changes which man can modify , but cannot completely control . In accordance with the inexorable laws of nature , people grow and physically himself

.

is

,

,

spirit

a

believe

in

not profess

of

self perpetuation personal belong The need

some means

-

who

conceive

to

death

of

Even those

ual life after

.

preme Being

do

a

a

of by

of

.

Annihilation the self however inconceivable Survival after death and mastery the spirit over the physical body are assured religious convictions which provide satis fying philosophy positive relationship life and with the Su

to

a

a

of

.

In

for

.

is

in

.

or

through their work their children permanently the great cosmos universal pro the search cosmic security some people undergo found emotional struggle The concept wrathful God Who

.

establishing this relationship

By

nature man the Supreme never easy

,

.

The process

of

is

of

.

is

it

,

a

is

There basic psychotic disorders though not very obvious impelled unity with ever toward the attainment

Being

of

a

all

of

.

Many

.

serious spiritual crisis have become great those who have failed have become psychotic religious element underlying neurotic and

have surmounted

is

who

mystics

or

it ,

of

of

a

to

of

,

be

approached the lack cannot material necessities the tenu very difficult personal relations with others makes ous support feeling achieve satisfaction and security Some those

individual does not encounter such serious diffi long sanity culties that his threatened the quest un mentally healthy obstructed the individual and happy When frustrations impede progress toward the Supreme Being then some type

mental disorder becomes evident expected that scientific explanations

is

as

human

be

,

met by opposition not to

.

everyone concerned about religion professional group unsympathetic one

but

is

Conflicts arise when

of

.

the clergy

by

only

,

purely materialistic terms will

by in

havior

be

be

of

to

is

It

,

.

is

.

So

average

is

but the

PREFACE ix

his

tist

the orientation of the other . The scientist 's approach to his prob lems is radically different from that of the clergyman . The scien

, .

are

,

,

in

to

to

subject tangible and thereby controllable tries make measuring Scientific psychology has succeeded some degree predicting and controlling human behavior but there many

intangible and science alone cannot compre entirety hend human nature Sigmund Freud the founder the psychoanalytic school

.

its

a

responsible

to

,

psychiatry

is

,

of

in

,

remain

great extent

for the materialism

profound upon

,

.

a

modern medical psychology His theories have exerted influence not only upon scientific thought but also

the

up

he

his

.

of

.

to

the intelligent layman Freud used his discoveries organized religion Others have taken attack the dogma the weapons forged and have carried the attacks far beyond

of

thinking

of of

facets which

psycho

irreligious

as

be

's

is

,

Freud materialistic philosophy untenable but logical discoveries cannot summarily dismissed

his

.

expectations

While his theories conflict with religious concepts the scientific observations which he has made have been inesti

of

.

,

and pernicious

. to

a

to

in

of

understanding the dynamics human behavior Every conflict provokes challenge sift out the truth and

mable value

by

experienced

's

in

do

be

.

,

the

To

. it

of

is

is

is

to

of

find the source error When the truth Freud discoveries brought light they will found that not conflict with religious principles contrary Freud discovered that man nature religious and that the concept the Supreme Being understanding

of

of

.

in

in

's

Freud

childhood great error lay his lack

spiritu

"

to

to

a

as

be



,

of

.

in

imagination

be op is

convinced that

it

am

own studies

I

.

realism

my

imagination was considered

of

of

From

to

.

ceiver Anything known

posed

to By

, of

it of

.

man He could not handle the limitless potentialities imagination because the soul particularly the faculty him something unreal upon represented his attacks illusions imagination came regarded the faculty Great De aspects

PREFACE

X

faculty which is deserving of the greatest respect . It is a function of the total personality which operates in mental activity When the imaginative function order and under the control the

correlate my psychological

,

with

theories

of

to

order

.

of

be

If

.

. of

by ,

torted threats abnormality occurs In

normal the imagination becomes dis reality which cannot handled intelligently

individual

the

is

intellect

in

is

all

a

those ”

depth

the

a

,

a

of

as

its

am

as

be

.

I

to

,



of

system

a

to

it

psy Freud construct new chology which would explain normal and abnormal behavior and rightful place restore imagination function the total personality Although not psychoanalyst and my theories was necessary

,

be

to

of

a

.

of

a

of

in

psychoanalytic regarded cannot Freudian sense they represent psychoanalytic modification other schools thought The framework psychology had new erected

colleagues

to

all

to

my

assisted

.

never have materialized find

their

interwoven text and may thereby my sincere appreciation and gratitude

contributions assured

.

throughout

me will

of

have

be

who

those

the

of

to

tributed agement and help this monograph would

All

in

. give specific credit

who have throughout the years con my theories Without their encour the maturation and associates

.

is a

to

and psychiatry

practical impossibility

to

religion

integrate

It

with my own Christian beliefs

work into conformity

of

's

Freud

'

of

.

upon the foundations which were already laid The psychological theories and the philosophical conclusions herein presented repre attempting bring sent the culmination sixteen years effort

of

Philadelphia

State

Philadelphia

Pennsylvania

an

on

are

my own made representing offi

,

April

17

,

1954

Hospital

.E .B .

W

.

cial opinion

to

not construed hospital authorities

and

as

be

and conclusions

statements are

,

However the responsibility

CONTENTS

PREFACE 1

. COMMON GROUND Agreement. Evolution

Basic drances

stitutions 2

of

Psychiatry .

Hin

(Scientific ) . Hindrances ( Popular ) . Early In

. “ Nothing

New

. . ."

. THE STUDY OF MAN The Search

for

Truth

. Limitations of Psychology .

The Human Mind . The Unconscious 3

OF CHILDHOOD EXPERI .

. INFLUENCE

ENCES

Looking Backward . The Child 's World . Knowledge of God . The “ Oedipal ” Phantasy . Taboo . Personal Omnipotence. Conscience . Importance 4

.

of

Play

DYNAMICS OF BEHAVIOR Imagination

. Emotion .

Intellect

. Will .

Integration

of

Mental Functions 5

. MOTIVATION

OF BEHAVIOR

The Fundamental Drive . The Fallacy . What Is Good ? Intermediary Goals stincts

6.

SYMBOLS TION God

Seen

AND through

THEIR

of

Human

In

and Ultimate

INTERPRETA .

Symbols. Meaning of Symbols .

xii CONTENTS Symbols tion 7

of

and Prejudice . Interpretation

in Superstition

of Symbols

.

in Everyday Life . Classifica Improvement of Symbolic Objects

Symbolism

Symbols

. WORK AND

.

PLAY

The Psychological Need

to Work . Vocational Choice . . Leaders and Followers . Idleness and Overwork . Era of Greatest Satisfaction . Importance

Ideals

of

Service

of Recreation 8

.

RELATIONS

INTERPERSONAL

Relations with Others . Sexual Adjustment . Mascu linity . Femininity . Sexual Relations. Threats to Normal Masculinity . Threats to Normal Femininity . Neurotic Solutions in Sexual Relations. Normal Solu in Interpersonal Relations

tions . Hostility 9.

RELIGION Religion

:

AND Personal

ETHICS

113

Social . Ethics . Has

and

Chris

tianity Failed ? Religious Fanaticism 10

. AREAS OF DISAGREEMENT

123

Ritual and Dogma . Emotional Extremes . Confession . v

11 .

Personal Maladjustments

. Miracles

AUTHORITY

133

The Individual and Authority . The Need for Coer cion . The Utopian 12 .

Society

. The

Social Ideal

VIRTUE AND MENTAL HEALTH Return

to Fundamentals

.

Faith

.

Hope.

141 Charity

RELIGION AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION

153

Breakdown . Dreams of “ One World . ” “ Hope Springs Eternal .” The Role of the Individual The

Threatened

BIBLIOGRAPHY TABLE OF CUMULATIVE INDEX

163

VALUES

166

167

INTEGRATION

OF

RELIGION AND PSYCHIATRY

CHAPTER

1

COMMON GROUND

BASIC AGREEMENT

of

In

.

individual goes through the experi boisterously asserting originality

,

an

,

like

pains

centuries to reach reaching the process

years

its



ence superiority

science

growing

fifty

and

a slow

a rapid

over the

past

,

a

maturity

of

the

within

humble origins through

from

growth

,

erratic maturity

has passed

period of



Psychiatry

,

gave

-

William

of

of

thought was

Director General

series

of

Brock Chisholm

his

1945 when

World Health Organization

this trend

to

.

in

reached

climax

,

supplant religion

would

A

all

In

.

to

.

,

and independence The hostile attitude which some psy psychiatrists had toward religion has been most painful chiatry good faith some psychiatrists believed that science

the

Alanson

to

a

he

,

religion

his

the function

.

of

in

to

,

of

*

( 4 .)

White Memorial Lectures Chisholm attacked not only re ligion but also the basic codes morality proposed and arrogate cultural revolution which psychiatry was itself

of

.

the Bibliography

, .p

refer

163

be

he

parentheses

to

Numbers within

of

his

,

God but

*

of

To

's

them

.

Freud back and review some we must Freud believed that had disproved the reality appreciation religious values may surprising

reintegrate

original

ideas

go

.

of

is

Sigmund Freud and psychoanalytic psychiatry the focal point divergence between modern science and religion

of

Illu

an

of

.

The Future

religion

by

:

say

In

AND PSYCHIATRY

have misunderstood

has this

to

(9 )

sion

he

to some who

OF RELIGION

him

INTEGRATION

2

, , I

( of or

may

's , .

.

therefore

ethical

that

.

's

Freud

of

Bereft

disciples developed

of

.

not

of

his theories How the very thing which do

do

to

his

of

of

appreciation

dogma

assurance

the acceptance

theories Freud said that psychoanalysis would used

to

.*

expressed

his

lost

In

.

by

,

not

other men

,

ever

them

he

to

values would

be

he

differentiate religion but

he

,

opposing

,

an

irreligious atheist Freud but with religious dogma

He

failed

and

consider himself enriched

These words were not penned basic quarrel was not with religion attacked

indeed

,

ignorant

,

them

highly

are particularly

they

them

by

has assimilated

life

are

who knows nothing

us

)

and important things

is

.

who

He

of in

interesting valued

certain

As

.

of

consists external

:

shall take my stand this one dogmas assertions about facts and condi tions internal reality which tell one something that one has not oneself discovered and which claim that one should give they give information them credence about what the most

Having rejected various formulas

religion

a

.”

of

as

,

in

,

,

after

of

is

a

is

is

a

it

of

ť

.

a

.

.

93

Robson

The Hogarth

. D .

W

, .p

,

,

an

,

of

:

,

., . .p ,

.

*

Ibid

by

of

of

these words their the spurious theories

43 ;

The intellect was dethroned

Freud Sigmund The Future Illusion translated Scott Liveright Publishing Company New York 1949 Press Ltd London †

about but

.”

for

it

neglected

followers

by

.

master

Freud

yet other hopes

's

of

starting point Some

.

,

be

in

in

,

kind

soft one Ultimately

right

repeated rebuffs succeeds This one the few optimistic about the future which one may man signifies not but itself little And one can make

it

endlessly

points

intellect hearing has gained the

a

until

it

.

rest

of

.

not

does

The voice

.

is

so

in

this weakness

be

comparison with human instincts and weak doing something peculiar But nevertheless there

lect

it

as



:

We

"

in

.

,

ethics some brand psychoanalysis which negated moral principles Freud had confidence the primacy the intellect He may insist said much we like that the human intel

given primacy

The emotions were

3

and man

. ,

.

errant disciples

by

his

COMMON GROUND

The intellect

.

ethics

be

as

on

on

of

all

part

:

by

the

,

self respect

-

, ,

says

pro the mental health individual good will unselfishness and companion

to

Religion can contribute security

The report

in

,

psychotherapists

peo

between

an

the

of

and

a

in

collaboration

.

the clergy

Men

was released

statement

the history

of

religion out the vital role stressing the importance

and

viding

1951

opposed

record

Congress

International

of

Mexico

gone

,

,

ples

the Fourth

From

in

,

pointing

a

,

tal Health

meeting

.

supporting

it

,

some organizations have officially in

To is

religion

of of

of

principles

Freud said insistent upon gaining hearing avoid any misunderstanding that science might

man to

by

guidance

and

as

, ,

reason

a

in

a

as

helpless creature driven was regarded instinct Current psychoanalytic thought are toward trends restoration

of

of

to

,

In

.

and

a

God

with

it

provides philosophy real meaning group life conclusion the believes that true religion and true psychology are mutually enriching and have nothing fear from

ship

other

the Group

statement

ing the close relationship

between psychiatry the important role which religion can play

his

its

of

be

.

)

it

(

a

in

27 in

it

,

)

(

such social

entirety

no

,

Journal

the American

of

,

and emotional adjust

in

is

available

but has been considered importance that Menninger included book Psychiatry Troubled World

for the confirm

and religion

to

35

statement

.

This Psychiatry

in

ment

1947

in

,

psychiatrists

issued

in

Psychiatry

,

of

Advancement

a

organization

national

A

of

.*

each

's

Freud

its

first among these men He believes that religion

,

stands

early disciples

of

an

probably

.

( 21 )

.

he

was one

of

Carl Jung

value as

,

of

is

There basic agreement among scientists upon the mean ing religion but many have expressed appreciation

.

A

. P .

A

of

., N .W .,

.

)

in

,



. of P. : A " .

A

15

,

by

(

. 1,

. . of 1 , ,

.,

D . C

,

a

of

at

*

American Psychiatric Association Mental Health and Religion Psychiatry Work edited the medical director with the assist Tech the the chairmen board editors composed ance nical Committees The Association 1785 Massachusetts Ave Wash ington Vol No March 1952

4

INTEGRATION

is

an

OF RELIGION

emotional adjustment . He taught that emotionally satisfying religion is essential

integral factor

intellectually

an

sity , finds

in

and

Allport ( 2 ) , of Harvard Univer

. Gordon

therapy

to effective

AND PSYCHIATRY

no conflict between science

and religion and comes

to

the astonishing conclusion that religion is superior to psycho therapy in dealing with emotional problems . O . Hobart Mowrer

(28 ) , of the University of Illinois , claims that the acceptance of the great moral teachings is essential to cure neuroses . The positive value of religion is also stated by Fritz Kunkel ( 24 ) . Some psychologists , notably Erich Fromm ( 14 ) and Julian ( 19 ),

Huxley

do not acknowledge the reality of the supernat ural, but they appreciate the need for some form of organized religion . They have proposed the theoretical construction of a

new

upon which

humanism

an

ethical

might

system

be based

.

OF PSYCHIATRY

EVOLUTION

the past the principles of psychiatry were intimately as sociated with religion , and the care of the mentally was usually administered under religious auspices Little was done

of

of

physi of

there have been brilliant men who have made remark discoveries

their own eras However the world

,

able medical

.

.

knowl

attracted toward the treatment mental Hippocrates called the Father

the time

From

”,

Medicine

general medical present century few and until the “

cians were especially disorders

the limited range

,

experience

of

and

because

in

edge

,

medically

of

.

ill

In

tedious process punctuated Strangely enough debate

of

.

a

acrimonious opposition and opposition came from the the clergy Misunderstandings

from

of

.

its

cleared

,

and psychiatry has now place among the medical specialties cured Though concerned primarily with emotional problems

have

se

.

as

well

through the years

in

up

medical profession

as

.

bitter

,

,

a

of

by as

of ,

to

accept their ideas and the prospect was not ready wide spread acceptance and application their ideas died with them psychiatry The development medical specialty has been

COMMON GROUND

5

dividuals , psychiatrists have always been aware of the influence of environmental factors in precipitating mental disorders . The hygiene confined

mental institutions

the environment

.

Through

century of pa

the interest

of

the

the

into

realm

was state

Through cooperative international relations other professions meritorious contributions have industry the fields education social work Psychiatry

has concerned

it

,

,

in

,

and

,

made religion public health

been

,

,

efforts with

.

into

even

.

extended

of preventive medicine. Psychiatry of the family , culture the

as a branch

,

was expanded and

to

the present

in

and professional groups , the mental hygiene movement

lay

law

tients both

movement was begun of improving

the original purpose

of

with

,

mental

which

,

to

.

far

be of

to

distant

other

profes

.

a

to

has come close The professions have made have like psychiatry The phenomenal prog

utmost value biochemistry and physics has furthered psychiatric ad vancement Psychosurgery has opened new and promising vista

.

.

a

psychiatry profession

.

a

of

of

sober appraisal the present status rapprochement need for within the

However indicates

to

of

usefulness

salesmanship

allied

of

been

ress

, . a

wise

seem



,

sions and the period contributions

the of "

made the realization aims Psychiatry has demonstrated

its

its

of

.

-

,

,

,

care

,

child

,

juvenile delinquency old age domestic relations racial and religious prejudice alcoholism and mental deficiency The ever widening horizon the profession has with

self

is

the

have not been

psychiatric

achievements assorted

and

other professions are need for mutual advantage Just the knowl possible

as

to

organic pathology has made

.

consolidation

edge

in

The relations with

further

of

of

.

thought

Much

The manifold

it

.

correlated

today

of

various schools

even

of

of

the

terminology

and

empirical

. .

nomenclature

treatment

is

in

of

.

is

.

of

is

There still disagreement between biological and psychological schools The dynamic theories motivation are not universally accepted Even among the psychoanalysts there controversy interpretation over basic theory and means There confusion

treat abnormal

INTEGRATION

6

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

.

of

the

organic processes specifically , so also a more enlightened analytic approach to normal dynamics of behavior and psychopathology promises specificity in treatment the functional dis orders many

people

as

by

Though mental illness has been regarded questionable outlook for recovery

,

a

. of

-

.

be

as

,

to

of

be

a

mental illnesses have much justly proud the psychiatric

,

disease cancer and tuberculosis higher recovery rate We can

.

heart

advances made

the century

in

such

and

with

,

illnesses

such

health

epilepsy

.

,

physical

restored

improved prognosis When compared

,

due

also have

melancholia organic diseases

as

illnesses

syphilis

to

involutional an

Mental

can

to

be

all

with

those

which we live

ill

is

( 2 )

;

(3

;

in

ill

of

to

humane

custodial care was

hospitals for scientific treatment culmination modern dynamic psychia in

the era

which has reached try

which

the

of

and

its

;

tempted

divided

which mental

due demoniacal possession mentally the madhouses and jails

in

asylums ( 4 )

the era

exorcism

customarily

at )

to (1 ) be

:

segregation

of

era

of

ness was thought

of

of

psychiatry era

The historic evolution into four periods The

in

SCIENTIFIC

(

HINDRANCES

).

.

in

60

per cent about persons with functional disorders entering the hospital for the first time can expect cured Eighty five per cent

of

having

do

we

find

ill

.

illustrations

not true Looking back over psychiatric enlightenment which is

This

of

confinement

and

.

exorcism

history

era

.

this classification one would gain the impression that nothing was done for the mentally until the present but From

difficult

for

ready picture the ignorance and supersti

too

and hopelessly realize

to

are

steeped

in

. as

We

to

ill

the

research

us ,

is

.

ties

indolent

It

,

tion

past

previous ages in

scientists

of

the mentally

in

to

.

to

justice

of

modern medicine Because our more ad disparage the care accorded vanced knowledge we are inclined

would

content with

that mental

absurdi might

illness

COMMON GROUND before

our

and

observant ,

though erring

and baffled

as

forget

intelligent

we

,

that

,

curious

Our

today

of

of

,

.

A

of

us

,

will

in

of of

the development material resources has impressed more with the ignorance those who lived the past than with their attainments sympathetic study the knowledge regression ebb and flow the evolution and medical in

own rapid progress

We

.

day

.

rationally

treated

in the centuries preceding us men have been

are

have been

7

an

control

by

to

Is

.

was under ecclesiastic

the

up the

world but

of

.

a

.

Of

.

classic at

as a

.

of

history

wrote

Fordham

)

:

,

He

a

in

of

is

former professor says Medicine

,

School

to

-

Sienna recognized

40

University

the University

Eye which

Walsh

J.

James

the at

Diseases

this book

of

of

of

,

to

is

.

of

,

retina

levator

is

,

anatomy

,

of

the eye eight coats which the conjunctiva and ending with the quite complete The eye said have eight muscles the the upper eyelid and the sphincter muscle the eye being

His account the external he describes beginning with

of

book

of

on

he taught medicine

.

physician little known fact that one pope was XXI 1276 Previous this

Spain became Pope John

(

Peter

of . It

approval

is a

in

to

of

of

the scientific advancement made that time was under the patronage the popes Some the greatest names history medical flourished with ecclesiastic

,

Western

logi

there any true that prior

in

education

all

Reformation

the theologians

conflict

is

for this aura

reason

It

of

stifling domination

from

?

by

as

to

on

recently written medical history por attempting valiantly wrest science

Almost every book trays the physicians

cal

.

,

to

.



that

are

us

we are but seeking the goals the building with stones hewn cients scientific truth We them and are but adding our own history theirs convince

among them The other muscles are picturesquely described guiding ribbons for the eye reins that important pathological condition scarcely There the eye which does not receive some consideration this little book and surprise reading constant source find with their limited knowledge and lack instruments what good diagnosticians the ophthalmologists the thirteenth century were Cataract described

.

is

it

,

,

it

,

is

.

,

of

in

of

to in

an

of

.

,

is

of

a

is

,

as

counted

to

is

,



.

quite modern substance curious the frequent recommendation is

.

A

in

them

use

of

modern

of

of

be



of

is

therapeutics

,

of

anticipation

, ,

tions the lids rational measures some

of

the

the

very the eye mentioned and declared There no doubt that this was glaucoma Condi particularly were differentiated and treated by

.

of in

its

.

causes Hardening serious effects

eye name water that descends into made between cataract from internal and external is

is

a

under

distinction

of

,

for instance and

AND PSYCHIATRY

OF RELIGION

INTEGRATION

8

its

of

and

,

not between science and theology but be who are unable understand one another

.

to

in

is

individuals

All men

within professions the

as

each realm

has

been

One hundred years ago

that between Semmelweis professor obstetrics Vienna realized that the high death rate patients department was caused

at .

stetrical cases

For

this

life

they

He

that

insisted

not attend

could

observation

in

by

,

his

saving

-

while

students and doctors

students were doing pathology

ob

fections transmitted

.

by

in

of

,

of

at

.

as

bitter

professional colleagues

as

tion

.

of

.

of

.

is

subjected have intellectual blind spots Every new idea prejudice the ordeal and conservatism Ecclesiastics well scientists have been guilty these human failings Persecu

by

as to

medicine

between

his time

The conflict tween

is

there was the greatest sympathy

ecclesiasticism

.*

opposition

.

of

.

in

,

a

is

to

is a

of

,

extracts the livers various fishes for external and internal that reminder the present employment cod liver oil The book acknowledged be classic medicine The fact that author should have become Pope later the best proof that instead

Semmelweis lost

of

A

.

of

.

(

of

University 1908

Press

,

Fordham

Copyright

.)

.

Science

and 230

an

as

the subject before the British hypnosis instrument

.

8

207

-

.pp

The Popes and

1911 printing

a

of

on

of

.

James

paper

Rejection

,

York

J. :

, ,

*

Walsh

New

by

read

Medical Association

of

rediscovery

the opportunity

Mesmer was de the French Academy Medicine be hypnosis the use Braid was refused

Medical Improvement

a

charlatan

to

of

cause

Society

his as a

the Boston

nounced

for

in

.

in

.

opposition was raised his position the university storm country years this several earlier when Dr Oliver Wendell paper presented before Holmes made the same observation

GROUND

of

he

by

,

.

it

to

.

psychoanalysis

was viciously

Freud

of

.

them

of

and

his

see before

the development

9

which worked accept even what The same scientific incredulity im

the scientists were not willing

they could peded

sponsors

to

,

However

of

by

to the extravagant claims explanations theory their ridiculous the

science was due

its

COMMON

,

.

Prohibitorum

listing

in

not proscribed his works

has

Index Librorum

them

the

.

,

philosophy

by

,

to

,

in

.

castigated began medical men when teach theories dynamic psychology His books were banned from some universi ties and were publicly burned Nazi Germany However the objecting though Roman Catholic Church his materialistic

.

. of , , ”

critical

the

no



of

the Middle

our own

such beliefs

in

of

cannot

too

we

be

.

we encounter

.”

and witches things are

scientific

faults

of

of

hexing

people who believe such emotionally than the people

farther advanced Ages and before When time

spells

", "

casting



still belief intelligent

,

is

There Though

in

,



"

do

a

In

intelligent people our modern scientific age large group Intelligent people not accept the germ theory disease still consult with spiritualists phrenologists and astrologers

the

(

treatment

mental

depends

disorders

not

on

ages

POPULAR of

In

all

HINDRANCES

)

.

ancients

.

is

it

a

are

to

.

sufficient genuinely

and who can emo Many people task

.

of

.

.

with mental

patients

knows

how

difficult

they

can

be

to

ence

of

to

this difficult mental patients The interest the general public tinctured with morbid curiosity Anyone who has had experi

are afraid is

get

who

,

a

in

making interested career tionally adjust themselves

problem

doctors psychiatry

and

of

,

nurses

a

has always been

attendants

,

number

of

.

other personnel

It

.

is

.

it

to

be

it

can

is

,

on

science alone but the people who apply the science No mat acquired ter how much scientific knowledge useless unless applied the patients who need The psychiatrist cannot work alone The task too great He must rely upon

INTEGRATION

10

OF RELIGION

for at times . Confinement

care

,

with

,

group

a

in

of dis

unit

a

overactive patients for eight hours a day is enough to tax anyone s patience (even the patients ) . Even on quiet units unlimited patience and eternal vigilance are nec listen

over

again

especially

hallowed breed men and women who equanimity the same complaints over and to

with

,

,

,

answer apparently senseless queries give reassurance unreal fears and withstand the unreasonable hostilities

against

they are eagerly trying help The average the home with several small children finds herself ex be

It

to is

.

or

job

,

the sphere

and

their patients the mental are apt

in

all

ages

helpful

and

,

within

it

future

In

.

of

,

profession

find

sympathetic

others brutal cruel and despotic

,

the

much

one can

difficult difficulty The same existed

to

,

kind

been

We

cause

.

to

have

can

properly

them

.

oneself

to

some people

patients

in

the work

care for ordinary

recruit workers our cause the past and will continue exist

day in

upon

dedication

a

rather

of

not look

as

.

more trying than children

.

to

the day Mental

.

the end

an To

hausted

a

at

in

whom

to

those

mother

of

of

'

of

is

It

can

.

essary

an

the

'

of

turbed

noisy

AND PSYCHIATRY

to

is

.

to

for ,

are

to

of

.

of

.

fluence Those who are afraid respond with brutality The type care accorded the mental patient has been dependent upon the type person who willing provide the care Though mental offer his services patients now generally much better cared we encounter to

,

and

in

to

"

.

all

in

our

institutions

,

there are only

.

or

,

,

States

,

,

6

.

to

deal with psychiatric problems These 500 psy treating hospitalized along patients are the 700 000

knowledge chiatrists

the Middle

ages including

about 500 psychiatrists doctor does not have the time the patience the

the United

The average

out

done

6

both

practice not confined

has been

.

, .

In

own

is a

patients

it

out

Ages Unfortunately

of

of

devil



in

.

in

.

in

up in

,

in

tals

of

hospi jails being brought their mistreatment handcuffs and trussed clothesline They are still sporadically imprisoned attics and cellars They are occasion ally mistreated even modern mental hospitals Beating the instances

GROUND

COMMON

11

the great numbers of those who do not require hospitali zation . The ratios of psychiatric nurses and attendants and

ancillary

are

with

personnel

a

is

.

,

to

as

.

proportionately small Though we are personnel other countries fare worse crying need for sufficient Besides adequate personnel there

handicapped

through

a

.

is

to

in

,

the

to

,

.

buildings are

it

.

active treatment is

and

not long before

.

They have to

.

encounter are not new presumptuous cannot be

as

We

we

so

ages

.

all

Without

rise

needed again

The problems which in

bound

,

is

the patient population

hospital to

is

not

a

of

willing

Medical and nursing care adds the basic maintenance but without medical and nursing care the

institution

existed

are

still the most serious complaint

public institutions mental

supplied

institutions

the legislators Though there has been building new mental hospitals and adding

recent upsurge old ones overcrowding

new

is

public

given whatever material necessities the people

provide

costs

be

.

,

,

.

will

patient

of

be

The

Those cared for

in

will

economics

can afford

.

what

to

with

he

question

a

marily

of

-

of

by

.

of

physical facilities The humane custodial care mental patients begins providing them with the basic physical requirements pri every human being food clothing and housing This

assume

we alone have attacked them with humanitarian motives Years before others provided care and protected the mentally

gious auspices

exploitation

a

and

to

ridicule

from

of ,

ill

us

.

that

great

extent under

reli

twenty

Suleimanie

.

14

in

to

as

'

Mohammedans

.

by

pride

Journal

of

Turkish Asylum

408

Christian



to

a

be

shock

conducted

a

Visit

Vol xxi

.pp to

was

,

, .:

,

H

,

Davidson John London 1875

Science

" A

institution

.

this

on

.

patients

It

.

that

1560 had 150 em The patients were taken part shrines saints days

*

at

erected

for

-

care

annual pilgrimages and visited may their treatment

learn *

asylum

,

of on

ployees

to

.

standards

An

in

.

is a

There record one institution where the facil comparison with modern ities were extravagant and luxurious

Mental

INTEGRATION

12

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

EARLY INSTITUTIONS the

of

care

institutions

era

persons who were inspired with

the

were

altruism

These

.

ill . by

established

Throughout the Christian

worked not for material but for the wel suffering humanity Basil 329 380 established monastery Caesarea where mental patients were given hu

religious people

,

)

-

. .

(

by

of

. , be

the

at

today

and the Hospice

.

know

one

the

Monte of

we

The Rule given

of it

543

),

A

a

as

480

-

)

persons

Great

of

to

.

The hospice association

that time the Bethlehem Bedlam

Royal Hospi

was established

.

as

known

later

war

Direct

was not achieved until the

however

,

.

,

in

London

This was

city hospital with psychiatric wards facility which we are still trying today establish generally religious auspices Other mental institutions were founded under

,

as a

designed

!

in

at

,

the

Alexian Brothers religious order which the mentally This organi

is

in

the

ill .

the care

by

time

Charity

Marseilles

is a

same

century

of

interested

in

.

especially

the

The Sisters

of

and

,

sixteenth

Germany

fifteenth

the

at

Geneva

in

in

to

a

originally

At

century

thirteenth tal

institutions

,

with medical

the

hospital

the modern

,

was the forerunner

.

of

Monte Cassino was heavily bombed during

,

in

ill .

of

,

of )

962

in

(A

shelter wanderers and engaged wayfarers m any the rehabilitation the whom were men though tally Some these institutions are still existence Bernard

gave

Bethlehem

monastery

.D .

(A

825

)

. .

Canis

religious means similar monastery was

ill at

-

ill .

occupational therapy

Mont

A D

of

.D of .

Benedict

(

,

proponents

St .

by

as

care

The Hospice

St .

343 420

that mentally the physically Another

Cassino was begun early

.D .

Jerome

(A

.

St

.

doing good for others

Jerome required

St .

same

by

founded

to

. St .

by

gratification

which was taught

-

,

personal isolation and self mortification Anthony provide Basil sought

St .

by

of

.

,

cism

to

selves

A D

. St .

At at

that time many those who dedicated them religious the life were influenced the rigid asceti

mane care

of

gain

of

fare a

of

Christians were not negligent

The early mentally

COMMON GROUND

13

took over the management of the Charenton Asylum in founding France shortly after the order and continues operate mental hospitals other localities today off

.

in

to

of

the

zation

at

monk named the same

,

at

within 1425

in

Saragossa

at

.

.

this stimulus others were opened

a

by

.

Joffre With century Asylums were established

1409

in

Valencia

at

lished there was founded

in

ill

,

in

,

of

struck the chains the mental patients Salpetriere century commended eighteenth Bicerte and the Spain the care given the mentally The first asylum estab

who

Pinel

Seville in

.

at

,

in

by

a

,

of

the army religious order the

the care

of

themselves

1566

in

,

established

also

who dedicated

,

who

to a

.

was founded accompanied

the men

success century Here

carried

.

fourteenth

mild mental patients are employed and cared

the

com

under periodic psychiatric supervision This colony was young originally religious shrine dedicated Dymphna a

,

St .

by

a

to

.

munity

on

has been

the

in

since

for

,

in

Gheel

the mentally

Belgium

ill

care

,

Colony fully

of

*

ill .

tally

Alvarez

This monk

Cortez

Hippolites

City

Mexico

,

Bernardino

,

monk

in

Hippolito Asylum

,

in

.

in

ill

of

,

in

at

Valladolid 1436 and Toledo before 1500 The care Spain apparently had not deteriorated the mentally the 300 years between Joffre and Pinel The first mental hospital North America the San 1435

girl who was murdered

be

to

to

of

.

,

.

to

.

ill

her psychotic father Mentally people going improved Many re the shrine were markedly mained there and the colony grew This colony has proven great interest modern psychiatrists who have considered

,

in

,

a

,

at

.

1942

.

.,

194 Sept

. 99 ,

,

of

of

”,



:

,

History Moreno Samuel Ramirez the First Psychopathic Institu Psychiatry Vol the American Continent American Journal

,

.

p

tion

on

*

by

.

of

of

.

developing similar colonies elsewhere The Society Friends has always been interested the prob England was lems mental patients The Retreat York physician but his founded William Tuke Tuke was not

OF RELIGION

name is enshrined

the

illustrious psychiatrists , Pinel and

those

of

influence

the modern mental

these men

inception

of

They stressed the moral treatment providing the patients with activities and “

hospital had

with

.

its

Esquirol. Under

AND PSYCHIATRY



INTEGRATION

14

lem

to

order

indifferent

that

illustrate

to

of

is

given This brief historical résumé religious people were not ignorant

or in

.

,

mental disorders forbidding physical abuse

prob

the

to

.

of

mental illness Throughout the Christian era efforts have provide humane care for those who suffered men been made

"

,

NOTHING NEW

a

.

in

unnoticed

has been

the busy world

.

work which

promi

are always many

has been

by

countless

themselves

there

. . ."

are

for

not reach the historical headlines Besides indelibly recorded history there others who have done excellent and outstanding

whose work

those

but

do

unsung heroes who

Fame



Hall

the

of

Some individuals have earned "

.

illness

in

tal

nent niche

of

one generation are often for entirely new ideas the next and later rediscovered diligently How often we labor over something we think original only find that someone else had the same idea years

.

as

is

discovery

of of

dynamic psychiatry has developed because the unconscious However the concept

Modern

of

before

to

us ! "

"

do

,

by

The discoveries and advances

gotten

,

,

in

uncon

.

Going

soul described Freud

idea

Plato the

irrational

was somewhat similar

concepts

of by

other Freudian

's

the

of

( 41 )

a

farther

also many

to

still

Aristotle

but

,

back

.

by

by ,

unconscious

,

the

is

.

's

Freud the unconscious was described Leibnitz many years before psychologist who lived Freud Vives the sixteenth century Zilboorg credited with the formulation not only

and

ancestry

in

today has treatment we nothing new under the sun

its

form

of

Every

use

.

scious

the

is

.”

in

is

Its

.



.

is

Hydrotherapy There probably the most ancient treatment because water has always been universally available use recorded the earliest As past

COMMON GROUND

15

replace

would

idea





his

.

febrifuge

as a

of

leagues for suggesting the use water bloodletting expected He that new

to

his

syrian and Egyptian documents . The value of hydrotherapy was lost sight of in some periods and rediscovered in others . Sydenham in his treatise on fevers apologized to medical col render his

repu unpopular with the medical profession and destroy tation The therapeutic value music mentioned the Bible King playing where the devils are driven out Saul David

,

,

fears

and

anxieties

. of

his

,

things

treat

patient

is



rebirth

.

.

treatment Emo Both professions and

to

.

a

,

,

to

aim

relieve frustrations

the

treat

armament

in

.

in

the therapist has the entire therapeutic

too has been beneficial method by religion tions are treated and psychiatry

,

or

,

ment The personal interest the most powerful weapon

Seda

purges

talking

effectively used

of

,

of

in

have always been

This was

Hippocrates

Psychotherapy

.

,

days

a

.

successful method

the treatments used emetics and bloodletting

Religion

were prescribed

years ago the Aschner method

was being hailed

out and reassurance

temples

by

, .

emetics

interpreta

dream

in

,

and

and

the Aesculapian

the

.

twenty

of

ment

Not

used

purges

as a

,

,

stimulants

,

by in

the early monasteries hypnosis suggestion

Treatments tion were prominently ancients

and

in

.

treatments

tives

's

by

in

is

industrial therapy have their pre Christian eras and were probably the most widely

in

origins used

Occupational

harp

the

-

of

of

.

of

him

help men

of

if

.

of

the individual can the Supreme Being the Supreme Being

if

Fears and anxieties

.

Despite

ap

fundamen true religion

.

be

parent conflict and misunderstanding there can incompatibility between true psychiatry and tal

between no

and

is

ligion

much more common ground psychiatry than ordinarily conceded there

re

.

trusted implicitly

Actually

is

is

no

frustration the Will fade into nothingness can

conform

to

There to

.

and absolutes train his will

be

.

is

.

in

to

peace live The psychiatrist deals with the attainment intermediary goals The clergyman concerned with ultimates

16

INTEGRATION

Both deal with

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

the same object , the psyche

or

soul . Both are

of

.

old problems

.

An

in

in

the study

his

of the nature of man , the purpose , outstanding destiny of his existence the fulfilment of apparent reason for the conflict lies the wide difference the approach that each the professions takes toward these age concerned with

CHAPTER

2

THE STUDY OF MAN

THE SEARCH

FOR TRUTH

Religious dogma is

presented

as

being

the ultimate truth

,

the

not the truth

In

.

In

on a

or

.

.

is

a

plan scheme based experience The theory

evidence accumulated but Theories are the tools by which

,

is

be

can

verified

favorable

From

the

we

the truth

.

shape

when

.

is

validated theory

provides

scientific truth the hypothesis

search

hypothesis

by

an

is

principles which

The

for

.

reversed

begins with assumption theory developed which

or

is

this process

sciences

.

is

all

be

brought into harmony standard to which else must religion sought first the ultimate truth the natural

in

,

to

.

a

be

to

.

in

in

When

many theories

as

.

law

psychology there are probably

as

In

a

,

is

,

reconstruct another from revised assumptions eventually reached the theory ceases scientific truth theory and becomes instead and

oc or

.

conflicts with known facts When this discard the theory whole

becomes necessary

to

,

upon farfetched assumptions The only when meets with contradic

it

based

plausibility

to

,

itself

part

a

be

.

its

it

tions within

it

theory loses

or

be

farfetched Still though may

assumptions which appear drawn from theory plausible some degree even is

generalizations

with

curs

to

by

,

Psychoanalysis and general are some extent psychiatry many people with suspicion because they deal looked upon

there are 17

INTEGRATION

18

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

persons, because everyone is to some extent a student of human nature . As we are gregarious social beings, we cannot get along to relate ourselves to others advantageously . be accepted and loved by one's family and friends is The problem of making oneself likable is a very serious

without learning The need

to

universal . one , especially selves and

.

childhood and adolescence

in

our wares we

need

our

Besides selling

learn how

to

to

mold

others

to

respect our likes and dislikes, and to induce them to conform to expect Through experience what we of them within reason . everyone learns some applied psychology . Many people are in clined to consider themselves as psychologists of merit after a brief course of study , or even without formal training . Then , knowing psychology , they believe that they know human na ture .

for scientific truth we must be wary about plac

searching

In

ing

much credence in our own theories that we cease to be curious , or in becoming so overawed by the theories of others so

that

light of our own common

the

sense becomes dimmed .

LIMITATIONS OF PSYCHOLOGY Psychology

as a

science

the nature and operation of behavior . In the study of man , with

deals

in the production understanding human nature , we must draw information , not only from psychology , but also from other sciences and from

of the mind

all

in

single discipline of

can

itself

in

No

of

.

philosophy

comprehend

the

be

to

to



an

is

would obsti Inc .

and

,

.

be

be

It



"

a

or

” *

which men might measured accomplished but man this could for

very helpful

.

of

by of

norm if

a



as a

serve

.

the nature man Science cannot learn about man independently philosophy Attempts have been made con personality struct model human nature basic

vastness

;

, ,

,

;

.

of

.

24

,

.pp

,

,

,

of

.

:

,

,

, , , p . 24 . :

,

+

,

*

Company Fromm Erich Man Himself Rinehart New York 1947 Linton Ralph DuBois Cora Kardiner Abram with the collaboration Society and West James The Psychological Frontiers Columbia Uni versity Press New York 1945 xvi

OF MAN

THE STUDY

He conforms

to

The study

the spiritual

or

of

.

it

fit

completely refuses to quate without the inclusion

up

pattern

a

to

point , but

a

man

inade

is

creature .

of

nate

19

which can

aspect

an

To

in

of

a

as

,

as

of

.

be

circumscribed delineated know man requires understanding the ethical standards and ultimate goals which knowledge motivate behavior well the potentially

not

its

.

its

,

.

It

as

or

exactness

.

has limitations cannot be developed with the chemistry mathematics some psychologists

science

of ,

a

as

a

to

of

of

operation the mind and the mechanics psy expect through Those who understand human nature chology alone have chosen defective instrument Psychology finite structure

Experience shows that human behavior tends follow patterns and not laws However psychology may be regarded

mind

and

func

a

,

scientific method satis possible and behavior behavior

of

,

prediction

the

the

is

of

investigated

its

the broader sense because

by

be

tions may factory degree

of by

science

be in

a

as

.

,

.

to

hope

.

.

of

prehend

so

is

of

is

.

studied

A

in

the only natural science which the thing being and the thing doing the studying are the same com pletely objective attitude impossible therefore The vastness great that any individual observer can com the subject is

chology

a

of

as

in

are

modified

.

the application scientific principles apparently There some insurmountable difficulties which Psy psychology terfere with the development science can

cannot

fully

appreciated

or

experience

be

any

another

.

responses

understood spite

of by

to

in

,

.

in

it

but limited aspects The experiences one individ duplicated ual are never with exactness another and individual

of

system

which

all

conforms

The

intelli

things logical within his logical must develop his materialistic

a

.

of

,

psychological

.

cultural ideology be

and

to

personal philosophy

gent reasoning individual must make range experience The materialist

to

fied

by

of

,

In

the fact that some psychologists consider their science divorced from philosophy the trends research and the conclusions individual psychologists are influenced and modi

philos

INTEGRATION

20

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

ophy . The scholastic , to preserve his philosophical beliefs , must reinterpret in his own orientation the facts proven by the ma terialist. Obstacles of this type stimulate scientific advancement

national or provincial goal then science becomes prostituted

.

a

,

being repeated

must conform

the dictates

a

of in

is

Aryans

to



truth

It

to

in

called

.”

a

fit

to

supermen

where scientific



Russia

of

pure race

to

philosophy truth but the confirmation Germany psychology Nazi when was scientific fiction that the Germans belonged

of

not the discovery

This was witnessed molded

conform

to

Its

aim

are forced

"

is

when scientists ideologies , the

. However ,

honest differences of opinion

from

of .

arise

of

when they

of

lack

*

relegated

disuse

. E . L .

to G

experiences with

Boringf

of .

. E .

primary

intelli

Thorndikeg

by

mental faculties with special functions built from material supplied individ

the mass

knowledge

accumulates

,

.

As

limbo

of

A

.

to

science

ual contributors

a

the existence

perform

to

denied

is

will

,

emotions and

,

gence

Watson psychology

, J of . B .

.

is

and feelings

of

,

sensations

psychology

limited

images

,

. B . E

Titchenert

limi

arbitrary

tations imposed individuals For example beyond the realm ruled that introspection

.

of

by

and

the develop agree

of

obstacle

the

,

serious but less formidable

,

Another

psychology has been ment the science among psychologists ment and the artificial

to

.

the Communist Party

the

, ,

on

,

,

Behaviorist

. J. B .

a

Standpoint

and

.

,

,

*

, .J B .:

Psychology from Watson Lippincott Company Philadelphia 1919

pharmaceutical of

,

physical the

,

,

,

cultural biological medical

so

,

as

.

,

.

is

subdivided for more detailed investigation Chemistry for example was originally divided into organic and inorganic Today there are numerous subdivisions such industrial agri science

.

of

A

:

,

.



,

of

.

,

.:

L

"

. .:

G

, ,

.

:

59

,

$

,

,

#

,

*

,

Psychology Titchener Edward Bradford Textbook The Mac millan Company New York 1909 Psy Boring Edwin Mind and Mechanism American Journal chology 190 1946 Thorndike Edward Educational Psychology Lemcke and Buechner New York 1903

richly

so

have developed

would not

In

of

.

basic principles had

subdivi

these

.

is

agreement

the

there

,

,

sions however

subdivided in turn

is

on

and each of these

all

THE STUDY OF MAN 21

Chemistry

chemists

separated

of

thought concerning into antagonistic schools principles processes refusing recognize the basic and the one rejecting potassium process element another the distillation Unfortunately there has been and basic agreement

, in

.

so

on

no

,

,

to

themselves

.

psychology do

the study

upon

of

Arbitrary limitations imposed

the human

but

by

of ,

or

not limit restrict the thing being studied seriously impair our knowledge censoring parts

mind

they

the field

of

.

is

of

or

be

All

experi

the

weighed

empirically

of

proven

literally

of

mentally

be

can

.

those things which

to

confined

.

of

of

of

a

is

to

investigate Experimental psychol which we are permitted ogy part study but the the mind The theories ex perimental psychology cannot extend beyond the practical vali dation the laboratory The study the human mind not

regarding

elements

of

of

,

in

philosophy

an

basic

, dis

an

understanding

the broader although disdainful philosophy formulating his psychological hypotheses in

,

.

use

in

terminology

and principles but also ciplines The psychologist must

is

.

in

is

psychological

of

standing

in

of

.

in

or

.

the functions mind cannot measured all possible operations difficulty agreement between the Another great source various schools semantics This true not only under

is a

is

concerned

in in

in

behavior

not directly be

is

but

of

a

,

beauty

standards

and goodness

.

must admitted that considering abstract absolutes it

,

absolutes

capable

of

of .

,

of

is

the consideration the human mind Concepts truth

of

of

the matter determination terpersonal relations Psychology

in

of

.

be

of

of

a

of

,

to

.

.

is

philo philosophical Logic theories His very curiosity sophical discipline and the psychologist who does not adhere logic will not laws sure his conclusions Ethics likewise philosophy which becomes psychology division concern

and

fall within the

realm

INTEGRATION

22

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

of

the metaphysical . The psychologist may call his philosophical and metaphysical excursions by another name, but he cannot avoid

them

.

MIND

THE HUMAN

Attempts

to

brain

. .”



reducing

it

existence

to

by

denied

of of the

of

The of

.

of

many

in

practical and realistic standpoint master all learning

conceivable that any one individual could

is

from

it

,

the human mind

is a

hension

.

define reaches

all

human mind have been unsatisfactory The potential beyond the actual compre the mind are apparently knowledge product the mind itself Though a

have

its

Philosophers have debated the nature of the mind or soul. Sci entists have attempted to circumscribe it for study . Some

.

itself

.

of

stimulate

imagination

the

found Then the process curiosity about the immensity

solution

The astronomer

.

until

which

's

repeats

questions

new

and excite curiosity

is

edge brings

a

up of

divisions and subdivisions science have arisen because potential learning All new knowl the vastness the field

to

impels

him

.

study

of

a

The human mind constantly never satisfied The quest goes

of

.

on

.

learning

it

,

is

it

.

unknown with acquires knowledge but

is

all

So

,

it

in

to

to

of

devise more powerful telescopes heavenly with which the bodies Each improvement telescope the enables him see familiar stars and planets more myriad clearly but also brings into view marvels previously the universe

of

.

on

,

.

The potential reaches the mind are infinite Besides the learning process other mental functions are po tentially infinite Much experimental work has been done the

.

interminably

,

of

fraction the

but

the magnitude

al

of

a

,

be

can stimulate

Despite

and the experimental

of

.

tional

potential

recorded

a

in

emotional responses physiology terations

can

of

.

of

.

,

of

drugs and bodily the emotions and the effect changes upon the feelings These observations clearly indicate the unity and interdependence mind and body but the men tal element remains intangible Only small part the myriad

physiology

the emo

accumulated

THE STUDY OF MAN

23

In of

.

when the feeling the personality

of

involves the totality

of

without the concurrence

example

love

physical as

,

For

an

one

from

is of

a

as

an

.

its

in

be

emotions are not isolated experienced

of

it

.

nor can they

other the physical organism

,

understanding

totality the mind the process study separate entity emotion

abstraction we may the functioning organism

experienced

psychology

By an

upon speculative

functioning

,

the

of

of

dependent

for

physiological material and the ever -widening research we are still

,

it

if

of

as

.

,

so

a

in

,

is

,

,

, .

It

and mental enmeshed host other emotions such fear hope desire sympathy pride and forth However we may validly consider the emotion love abstractly were

and from the other emotions associ many opinions regarding nature From experience and observation we know that the lover hopelessly the person

.

There

the immensity

expressing

he

of

inadequate

in

is

it .

ated with

its

from

are

separated

the feeling

has

for

is

Potential infinity

a

's

in

. di

either

of

or

of

a

or

hundred thousand people without the quantity the quality the emotion power imagination also conceivable the

thousand

,

restricted

,

,

limited

and

kept

its

of

This potentially infinite mind reality because the plane

is

.

of

will

and strength

of

a

,

hundred minishing

.

is

.

in

of

his beloved Even the less intense feeling love for one fel potentially limitless One may love low man the emotion

There

mental

,

operation

be

the mind may

In

parts but pur considered abstractly and

.

though they were separate units

,

.

a

be

parts

of

of

treated

study

as

ism

poses

the

coordi organ functioning the

speed with moment mind cannot divided into separate

nated unit the

of

the

total personality the various functions act together

of

are

extremely complex

dynamic

for

the

a

.

integrated

as

but magnificently

In

of

.

be

unison

activity without physical concurrence The intricacies mental phenomena

no

,

,

to

function

can

body must

.

and

in

,

In

.

on

intimate union with the physical body complicated order receive stimuli perform intrapsychic operations and carry out motor responses the mind

24 INTEGRATION

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

UNCONSCIOUS two levels: conscious and uncon

on

its

The human mind operates

the

of the self and mental activity

of

unconscious

.

is

not conscious

is

which

.

the

scious. Consciousness is the state of awareness relationship with environment All There

no

THE

be

can

serious

not

of

.

understanding

is

un

of

material between

of

a

is

constant flow

the mind

themselves operation the in

of

necessary

There

the conscious and the

subdivide the unconscious level provocative controversy and

be

to

and remembering

of

they

and there

to

are

.

them

the

Efforts have proven

to

,

conscious levels

forgetting

demarcation between

of ,

of

line

sharp

is

of

is a

the simple process

no

of

by

it

of

doubt about the existence the unconscious level the mind personal experience because fact which demonstrated

.

the mind

of

,

,

by

but

.

and

deliberate

experience regulate

In

with

required

we

speed

of

. as

the

of

the

as

.

That which

and

dealing

much the indications first required conscious effort

it

a

,

.

to

and demands attention

.

a

to

automobile driver becomes may hesitate operate car again

solved

accident

security

an

threats

. If

an

prior he

in

of

til

these are

an

unconscious that conscious level mind object which one has deal with new material When handle automatically becomes threat arouses

to

learned

memories

be

,

a

by

brakes sight and feel so

in

to

is

free

automatically

apply

the

the speedometer

of

all

shift unconsciously stored

, ,

,

to

to

gears and

is In

attention

material however deliberate attentiveness learning drive car for example we must attentive the operations involved With

new

which

automat

his automatic acts

.

his

,

,

much

arouse

if

not

any

of

be

.

do

they

The objects

are dealt with

of

to

one has learned handle satisfactorily ically The individual may aware

is

environment

.

in

persons and things

with

his

.

by

.

an

to

economy psychic ac The unconscious serves effect tivity Desired goals can be reached without constant conscious effort One must work out his destiny actual physical contact

un

involved

He may

start

to

turning

car without

on

himself attempting

find

his

THE STUDY OF MAN 25

of

his

.

to

to

,

or

forgetting push the ignition the clutch before shifting gears He must then consciously relearn drive the car because driv the painful emotional associations connected with relegated

unconscious sooner personality growth

impeded

is

.

,

.

to

painful

unpleasant

can

and anxieties

not always

due

by

The individual who beset fears not function efficiently However forgetting

memories

by

so

in

the

pleasant ones that progress dealing with real objects will not than

is

experiences

be in to by

Painful

are

.

ing

is

It

at

new

to

material not concerned with the forget matter When we cannot forget things we wish

because

an

unconscious problem

associated

Ideally one keeps seeking solution necessary for the handling what

aroused

,

to

consciousness

of

is

forces out

all

new

it

. of

In

upon

.

new

direct itself efficiently performing any other task material the mind deliberately

unable

learning

in

mind would

the

toward acquiring concentrating

or

,

sciously

be

. If

in

or

.

emotional associations determined also the practical need retaining something usefulness the con scious level all things learned were constantly retained con

which

scious level

at a

recovers

,

an

,

of

experiences

the all

experienced emotions acts ever performed are

,

all all

,

the mind

and

and exact detail

.

minute

all

of

.

is

reasons

,

and

recorded there

its

indelibly

,

judgments

of

,

ideas

perceptions

sensory

in

.

individual All

vast storehouse

a

The unconscious

is

it

can

by

,

to

is

of

.

is

conscious level only current activity here develop and now being performed and learns efficient un helpful produce conscious which associations relevant forgotten material when needed the

memories

from

The con this great

re

not

mere activity which a

is

the mind

veritable beehive

of

level a

is

twenty

It

operates

.

-

a

day four hours The unconscious has been regarded being divided into compartments con as

customarily

experiences

.

of

However the unconscious pository

of

, .

storehouse

INTEGRATION

26

OF RELIGION

AND

PSYCHIATRY

can be handled , and material which can concept not be handled . This tends to give to the unconscious an element of rigidity . Actually the unconscious is a laminated

taining material which

structure in which

experiences

There

of material between the various

is a free

flow

are buried

varying

at

depths .

levels ,

sim

ilar to the flow of material between the conscious and uncon scious levels . Everyone normally has experiences in which mate rial that at one time had to be rigorously repressed becomes less disturbing

and

be handled ,

can

even

without psychiatric treat

fears of objects and situations , aversions to foods , and the like are normally worked out in everyday experience without insight into the symbolic meanings . From day to day things are remembered and forgotten . We may re

ment . Unreasonable certain

not remember yester deeper in the levels of the un conscious . Things strongly repressed today may not need to be

member something today which day . The same process operates so

rigidly

repressed

tomorrow

work their way up

.

we could

The repressed memories gradually

the higher levels until

to

they

reach

con

sciousness or near consciousness . Materials which previously could not be handled are thereby dealt with satisfactorily . There may

automatic

habitual

and impulsive acts

on

,

state

,

the waking

,

In

.

his

be no conscious awareness of the process. The person is usually feelings toward the ob aware only of the improvement of ject

in to

be

In

pleasant

reality

con

are han

faced consciously the same type are be

can

by

.

handled

cannot

the day which

dreams Recurrent dreams gaining assurance that the symbolic objects Dreaming the natural means which emotional

.

is

means

of

a

are dealt with

Anxieties which

of

.

the dream in

dled

in

.

be or

.

acts

a

Dreams are often associated with event events with satisfactorily brought were not handled satisfactoriler expressed clusion Hostilities Hostilities which cannot

of

in

.

sleep are motivated and carried out the unconscious level producing dreams and somnambulistic the unconscious operates

The normal person handles his psychiatric without insight

27

.



OF MAN "

solved

this way

by

in

conflicts problems

.

are

THE STUDY

a

is an

of

of

.

regarded

as

is

hibernating beast some nothing which when awakened does but harm The Freudian concept the unconscious overemphasizes the repression The unconscious

(8 )

of

to

.

with our theories

.

chapters

of

of

the child dynamics and motivation

to

the mind we shall first examine and attempt correlate them in

the

experiences

of of

In

.

good and bad studying the operation

In

.

of

of

is

not discover

create and possibilities reality the the un knowledge preposterous extremes both

beyond

even

conscious there

did

,

of

if

impulsive murderous assault frustrated Freud the equally preposterous unconscious propensity reconstruct

id

's of

.

,

a

of

of

concept tisocial drives and impulses Freud the that lawless savage element the personality which de every desire under threat mands immediate gratification

the next several

CHAPTER

3

INFLUENCE OF CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES

BACKWARD

not

opposition

in

psychiatry

in

with religion

upon the premise

that

a

psychological

.

Psychoanalytic

theory which theory

emotional tensions stem origin

scious desires and drives which have their

is

from in

There is needed

all

LOOKING

early

is

based

uncon child

a

is

.

It

.

to

of

of

.

to

support hood At first glance this theory appears doctrine psychic determinism which negates freedom will For this psychoanalysis reason some moralists have been opposed

in

experienced

earlier experiences

in

feeling which

determined

is

emotion

by

The

situation

of

given

is

.

support

or

,

is

all

true that some psychoanalysts believe that behavior un alterably predetermined but this belief does not have scientific any

similar

.

This fact has been

re

"

"

but some scientists have con truly scientific depth

nonexistent

A

does

paralyzed

.

psychology

be

will

to

sidered the

,

by

is

ing that the will temporarily recognized theologians the

so

.

be

of

. .

situations because the associations which are aroused But the depends upon action taken the will the individual Emotion always influences the will Intense emotion may overwhelm



.

a

is

it

;

of

not conflict with the theological position will rather boon analytic psychologist The material with which the deals the

garding the freedom

29

INTEGRATION

30

OF RELIGION

PSYCHIATRY

AND

consciously

forgotten incidents of childhood — is so distant and intangible that the possibility of developing a valid science from

dle anything which

power

fu

are

.

exerted this childhood material almost universally recognized that the exerted upon the child mold the entire

It

be

denied

of

influences which

by

.

has existence

The tremendous

in

,

them

rear

the to

forcing

the

is

.

,

The child

however

adapt

.

of

of

the

,

as

.

in

by of

to

of

of

's

to

.

, a

process

of

,

ieties

portance

discoveries

the adult Little attention was apparently trivial fears anx the child Freud pointed out the im singular events being productive childhood the society

the seriousness and aspirations to

given

grows the tree

Freud

was largely

children

themselves

bent

Prior

so

.

. of

of

ing

the man

is

the twig

the ages father

is

the individual This common observation reflected proverbs quotations the and which have come down through

As

ture

,

the

exists somewhere in

cannot

incredible . However , the material unconscious and science can validly han

seems almost

is

this material

in

of

(6 ).

neuroses and psychoses His discoveries have been met ridicule some quarters because the triviality with which

a

, he

two different

they

are related the initial experience child

,

,

and

The personality

the cumulative influences

ev

an

infant

.

different

of

of

is

the result

as

is

,

the individual

was is

he

.

is

,

and the emotion with the later experiences

is

is

different

of

be

an It

.

is

the

.

his

to

widely

The adult the same person adolescent though his personality

of

by

he

it

to

in

seem

through symbolism associated

situation which

to

experiences

,

remotely

tries

con

phobia

unreasonable and silly anxiety until beset

overcome handle the original frightening hidden unconscious Though

has learned

a

in

The one who suffers from

painfully aware that his abnormal fear

but when

the inevitable

is

but

it

,

ridiculous

.

of

by 's

an

is

It

three

cause and effect

he

is

the age sequences

.

at

of of

to

be

to

by

may ap childhood fears are generally regarded the adult pear ridiculous using claim that adult fear elevator might being put due his being punished dark closet

INFLUENCE OF CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES ery experience he has had . Experiences

continue

influence behavior

to

of the developmental

adult life because

in

31

years

they

are

a

part of

the totality of experiences stored in the unconscious . vestigial remnants are of utmost importance , and though

These

in childhood they are not childish . average The adult does not remember much of his life prior to age five or possible How then recover forgotten

a

is

,

it

,

is

It

a

to

.”

's

he

,

can

but

to

,

.

is

.

the

fears

and laughingly dismissed their long they are unremembered be

,

as

experience

traumatic exert

associated

unhealthy

with

influence upon

.

to

,

and

be

to

bad

we avoid

probing

. of

of

scientist

is

,

drives toward good and evil but

the

of

sin

of

.

be

considered

is

to

are due

to

the conflict between the good and the propensity toward what seems evil The theological explanation emotional con original Analytic psy flict based upon the doctrine chology accepts the principle psychic racial inheritance

sire for what

is

Emotional tensions

what seems

our own intrinsic good the unconscious fearful experiences

de

keep

strata

uncertain

.

difficult

securely repressed

so

we are

When

of of

a

as

.

is

the adult mind

horrible truth When childhood

an

continue

the

When

the adult Normally we avoid our unconscious because we really are involves very painful proc

undesirable it



of

is

ridiculous

digging through the hard

of

ess

or

gone

emotionally

knowing ourselves

ness

them

back

due

remembered

.

harm

will

they

the life

can

an do

to

of

them

of

,

cause

is be

the child they represent and anxieties power

with

to

are

mother

own peculiar childhood beliefs

So

.

them

break

such incidents

associated

not un

.

They

to

in

at

his

about

time

that stepping upon his

,

of

or

emotion which

adult reminisces laugh

least for

the pavement could really the difficulty recall

of

ease

his early childhood which had example

,

a

to

a

The type

not belief some errant

a

some specific event

profound effect upon his life usual for child believe for crack

to

,

it

Even without psychiatric help

recall some peculiar

to

years

adult

in

prior

the

at

,

attitude

or for

difficult

of

experiences

?

.

is

six

originating

curious about

32 INTEGRATION

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

by which these drives operate in the individual . origin To their and operation it is necessary to seek them in their making - in the mind of the child . the mechanisms study

'S

THE CHILD

WORLD

joy which

experi

the small child

throughout his everyday life The

.

ences

to

is

.

it

the

of able

and

small

child

dies

thou

a

anxiety

child and provides security and appreciate But difficult

he

the extremes

is

insofar

as

affection

he

the material needs

of

for

ity

It is very difficult for the adult to comprehend the world of the child . Childhood is usually regarded as a period of life which is normally happy and carefree . The adult takes the responsibil

.

to

his

min im

Adults are such things

real world

actually

a

no

.

him

he

to

his



there are

the child

relates

is

to

seem

they

the child

powers are

when real

so

always

the position imagination

be

appreciate

the

.

giants

of

To

world

lying

's

which

the child when witches and giants because

of

as

punished

Sometimes

imaginary

say

exploits

confusing

and

"

.

be

He may

imized aginary

his fears

for

reproached

,

for

is

,

child but the adult says they are imaginary

.

.

him

are

.

of

in

Equally often sand deaths his imagination reaches the pinnacle bliss The child talks little about these experiences be They very real cause the adult does not believe the

to

he

.

-

to

.

,

a

in

a

.

a

be

an

,

to

to

By

.

few

or

be

.

he

pen

.

or

him

be

of

be

.

up

to

a

he

unexplained routine they imposed conform sheer physical force his clothing would be changed

adult would have upon

at

be

in

a

,

to

.

of

to

of

own

the

his

the child adult must able picture himself relatively similar completely situation that child Here the adult would giants about twenty five feet tall the mercy These giants would language unknown speak the adult and make demands could They could handle the adult with ease picking him not understand and swinging him high above their heads When the adult tried investigate things about him many his actions would miscon put strued He might get his hands slapped stockade called might things with which given play crib Here could occupy himself but they would chosen by the giants The use

OF CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES he

his

INFLUENCE

33

to

eat , or

to

he he

by

.

or

of .

of

did

he

of

it .

of

his be

.

to on

a

in

to

in

be

he

it

If

.

to

.

regardless of wishes When was hungry would have wait until the giants deigned feed him because could not reach prepare the food himself chance find something the giants might forcibly take out his mouth Then they might feed him something did not like want All these things would done the best interests the adult but he could not know He gigantic proportions where each step would have live house the stairs was more than two feet high He would not be tall enough in

.

.

of

entirely

dependent upon the giants for his continued could assure himself that the giants were good giants anxiety give him He could depend upon them

he

. If

existence

the support he

to

. .

would have

no he

In a

as

to

be

.

look out the windows The doors would almost thirty feet high and the door knob possibly five feet above head The furniture the house would fitted the requirements the giants situation such this the adult would be physically helpless and

.

,

as

the giant

if

by

his

he

if

,

if

as

he

do

is

,

,

if

fly

big

could kill the

forth

his

.

,

so

giant and

he

would were the giant were his own size

consider what

were able

to

he

He would

to

to

a

In

in

.

he

try needed Without this assurance would have defend himself against them predicament such the adult would handle the imagination situation the same way that the child does that

do

him

's .

;

in

the same person

frustrates the

mind

of or

the

.

all -

,

do

.

to

or as

he

he

In

,

is

father and the

illusory

,

*

,

parents represent phantastic

or

.

in

is

The same true the the child and the mother Besides being real peo

.

.

father

relationship the

child

But according anything bad

father gratifies the

when becomes totally bad The child does not regard the gratifying the

as

,

the child frustrating

no

a

,

the parent

child

do

can

of

a

good When regarded good

bad person

displeases

ple

of

the logic

and

.

gratify every wish annihilate good person cannot the child

to

power to

all -

to

or

,

as

parents and other The small child under age three views powerful gigantic people They adults can infinite good parents infinite harm him the child mind the have the

per

imaginary

.

a

of

to

or

,

.

is

as

as

be

.

.

or

,

so

,

is

is

the

by

of

usage

conceived

,

*

gen word phantasy not the same that which always regarded being the term fantasy Fantasy grotesque distorted unrealistic Phantasy may distorted but not necessarily Our usage conforms the original definition derived from thing phantasia the look appearance the Greek

Our

erally

INTEGRATION

34

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

a

. ,

a

,

his

sons. The small child , then , has , in addition to real parents phantastic father and mother who are preposterously good and phantastic father and mother who are preposterously bad No as

as

,

phantastic

parents become depending upon bad whether they displeasing the child The pre

or

the

,

or of

with the qualities ternately extremely good vested

al in

a

.

as

,

to

to

as

good real person could ever hope be the phantastic good parents are imagined be nor could real person be bad the phantastic bad parents The real parents when

all

is

.

of

.

his

a

in

of

at

to

the moment pleasing posterous phantasies the child are constant state flux gigantic real mother pleases and satisfies the child she When are

as

the is

in

of he

experiences only

.

the small

to

,

annoyance

Every pleasant experience

is a

annihilation

him

is

does not dislike Every discomfort

ex

not simply like that being When someone but hates with mur

does

his

fiber

.

threat

a

child

him

he

him

derous intensity

becomes preposterously bad

under age three

with every

loves

of .

, .

but

displeases

which

preposterously

.*

the child

tremes When someone pleases person

regarded

he

is

's

in

Emotionally

he

.

,

as

.

he

good When frustrating imagination

the child

does something

or

all -

of

in

a

similar manner When good the father child thinks

treated

is

.

an

.

or

of

endowed with the preposterous good qualities the imaginary good mother When she deprives frustrates him she becomes annihilating bad mother his imagination The real father

pre or

to



.

, in

is

to

of





is

in

to

of

.

.

,

of

in

to

of

.

of

a

is

an

is

in

an

in

.

ity

to

.

of

in

as

.

is

in

of

,

to

"

*

omnipotent power The child ascribes either the phantastic good The be ascendant bad father depending upon which one happens the belief which illustrated these phantasies unconscious persistence the State against which the the omnipotence the Communists have per helpless individual He feels forced by the phantastic bad father obtain what might be bad order form acts which are regarded some Communism The modern error considered eventual good ways comparable conflict with Christian which flourished Manicheism from the third century until before the Reformation The Manicheians Light and Father equally powerful Father Darkness who believed Christian belief omnipo continuous combat According were engaged more than one The existence attribute God alone tence omnipotent person logical impossibility

INFLUENCE OF CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES view of Heaven . Only with satisfying experience are these extremes modified .

in

35

reality - testing

The phantastic bad parents are a serious threat to the inner security of the child . In his mind he feels that they desire to an nihilate him . The child cannot physically handle the parents. He when they appear to threaten by him . is worked out a natural process whereby , the child makes inanimate objects which he can handle , repre sent symbols of the parents . A matchstick may become an im cannot defend himself against

them

can

,

,

tear

and

imagine

that

is

child

he

the

and

broken into bits and represent the phantastic

chewed

paper may

By

A

.

,

piece

it

who

father

mother

bad

can

away

bad

bad

thrown

of

aginary

be

The problem

.

to

.

to

imagination

.

in

to

in

.

harm

he

the child must

so

.

the real

He may

harm the destructive phantasies only find that something good happens When this imagination repair the phantastic damage

has clothed parent does in

he

parent

good parents with the intention simply assure himself that

do

.

not really causing

is

, .

a

his

good and also change inanimate objects from bad improve the phantastic parents which the objects rep The imaginary threats are thereby relieved The child

resent never attacks the phantastic harming them He may

he of

to

of

rid





child thereby

can

a

he

mother

of

this process im parents agination really gets the child the bad because destroys parent real object which symbolizes him The destroying the threatening

which

,

.

the normal

the source

the child and unconsciously throughout

life

of

is

It

.”

childish

is

be used

as “

in

imagination are

with

disparaged

.

bols

not

cope

can

the inanimate objects the child This the preposterous phantasies

handling

,

operation

of

process

is

learns that

to

he

experience

in

By

.

has done

sym

Piaget

of

When

.

leaf

is

.

material objects

a

of

a

's

)

33

-

all

(

ing 30

great deal experimental work concern done conception objects the child real He confirms the psy choanalytic observation that the child animates and personifies has

blown

the

child

does not

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

think of the wind moving it . To the child the leaf

who walks, runs,

son

or

flies

.

The child lives in

little per

world where

a

even

*

'

as s "

.

he

so

cannot

's

world

real

very

trivial changes which may

that

escape

of of .

is

is

viewed through the veil

dis

All the

im

notices

of

,

everything

that

he

.

Still the child

,

.

agination

vivid

in

are

at

of

his real

phantastic parents Everything

is

objects

father

imaginary real and what representative the same time

what

between

is

clearly

is

of

,

as

symbols and receptive objects The imagination the child tinguish

.

interpreted more correctly mother symbols

be

then

,



,

lic

symbols

can

or

.

to

or

represent big men and little men big women and sym little women All objects when reduced their primary phal meaning represent figures bolic father mother Freud

,

objects

is a

all

INTEGRATION

36

the notice

be

,

be

this point the question may proven scientifically clusions can

whether our con whether they are sim

raised

or

At

.

the adult

ply gratuitous assumptions

of

parent symbols may

, be

of

,

.

to

his

,

to

by

.

can

be

be

.

as

They are offered tenable theories validated through experience like any other psy chological theory Perhaps the best source verification will going found the child himself watching his play and en couraging him express phantasies The manipulation

which

,

in

be to

to

of

in

re .

to

.

origin

169

.

W

.

W

.

F

and

of in

rather than first broader than that Play Dreams and Imitation Hodgson Norton

p . : . M 73 in ) - . 71 . , is

(

,

70

-

68

C

1951

6

in

of

fundamental symbol See Paiget Jean Gattegno and

, . .

,

by

.

Childhood translated Company New York

of or

primary we mean basic

, ,

in

mental disor interpreting

viewpoint theories the Christian the concept the phantastic father with developed further Chapter

consciousness Our definition Paiget and the psychoanalysts &

method

.pp

is

.

By

*

The correlation ligious doctrines

of

Their Freudian psychoanalytic

ders

of .

treatment proven has also useful

a

basis for application

a

practical

as

.

of

in

,

in

of

seen operating the casual thoughtless people acts normal dreams and the neuroses and psy choses Our theories give some semblance reasonableness They have proven that which otherwise seems bizarre

INFLUENCE OF CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES 37

KNOWLEDGE OF GOD Freud

everyone has

( 12 ) discovered that in childhood

a

con

Omnipotent Father Who rewards good acts and pun ishes evil. Freud rightly correlated this concept with the idea of God , though it is a rather vague notion . However , Freud not an

illusory

and

the existence

to a

God

of

He postulated ,

prototype

God

considered

person

.

as

an

or

"

"

be

According

correctly

.

discovery

primal father imaginary

of

develop

a

his

did

cept of

.

by is

to

an

of

be .

it

childish

belief

.

not

a

.

cannot

it

childhood experience

facts which

other

be

originates from

Many

God

At

Though this knowledge

learn that fire burns

is

age children

to

or

in

either early

of

.”

existence

known prior the age concept Omnipotent the the

God

childhood does not ipso facto render the idea imaginary childish Freud assumed

Father

are

of

The

reason

the existence

as

of

additional proof

of

did

of his

a

in

by

to

of

proven natural theology the existence God Supreme Being known the universal belief reason important discovery supplied Freud not recognize that

childish notions knowing something

considered

.

in

,

childhood Furthermore imagination does not necessarily preclude existence reality accomplished the contrary before reality learned

also

Whereas

the

Freud

experience not existence

of

God but

Hell

,

be

can

its

and

of

existence

Heaven

,

the

and

.*

of

Devil

imagination

found that the child knows through

of

We have only

visualized

.

the goal must

in

be

,

To

.

in

through

the

claims that the of

,

a

at

I

an

a

.

it

to

.

I

to a

I

In

.

to

of

in

I

*

trying was the process correlate the concept the analogous religious concept had significant bad mother with dream the dream was mountain climbing and the scenery first was very narrow ravine with very beautiful sheer drop and had came by bracing myself against the opposite wall The only pass through

While

phantastic

,

. as

.

on

in

I I

,

to

I

,

. of

,

a

to

a

I

(

.38 )

to

.

I

. I

I

of

so

a

ledge foothold was narrow The distance below me was interminable and fall The dream terrified became dizzy and started on looking down immediately interpreted the dream indicating the me that awoke phantasy which overcome On going back had fear the bad mother sleep the continuity the symbols was the same but this time was told deep pit Again the dream hovering over became dizzy but page Footnote continued

INTEGRATION

38

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

primal father " is God , we claim that the phantastic or illusory good father is symbolic of God. The bad father symbolizes the Devil . Heaven is represented in the mind of the child as the good phantastic mother ,

a place

where

to

.

(

sexuality

infantile

medical psychology considered the sexual strivings

He

which Freud

thought originated

the mind

overcast in

experiences

erotic drive

by

worked mainly development were

with adults

about childhood

.

ideas

an

his

of

the importance greatest contribution

) , of . 11

be

to

,

child

and

adult

PHANTASY

Freud erroneously

the

Hell

and

.

,

's

probably Freud

However

reality

each

direct every achieving and the

to

discovery

The

Devil

of

"

OEDIPAL

unconsciously

of

THE

"

of

act toward overcoming goal God and Heaven

experience

childhood

from

driven

the

is

compulsively

,

this knowledge

with

in

Armed

individual

, of

.

no

of

phantasies

their bodies

Children

as

imagine themselves

children knows

small

the attributes

little spirits

fairies

pure spirits

.

give

can

or

that they

, of

Anyone familiar with the

of

.

the child

,

is

sup

needs are bountifully

and where there are worries The bad phantastic mother place symbolic the fearful torment and annihilation Hell

plied

is

all

"

elves who

of

I

.

I

I

to

. . ”



.

by

( 1 )

the unconscious does and

Freud

's

volition

( 3 )

of the unconscious level

,

to

is

of

the mind some degree directed concept the dream censor not valid

by

2 )

be (

of

can

,

in

:

.

is

The bottomless bad mother This dream demonstrates three important facts help solving conscious problems the activity “

,

I

.

a

I

at

I

to

side

pit ”

I

it

of

.

of

.

to

on

a

the world At first was puzzled but was calmly gazing into the bottomless pit my problem solution last had found realized that symbolized represents Hell which the phantastic

saw blue sky the opposite then occurred me that

Upon awakening

pit

I

I

- it

. .

it

I

pit

,

of ,

pit

myself that must overcome my fear because was not the was afraid symbolized With this self assurance but the thing could look into the without becoming dizzy Almost immediately the depth the increased and again became dizzy and fearful Again reassured myself and was able look down without becoming dizzy The same thing occurred number times Eventually was looking through the earth and

can

INFLUENCE OF CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES invisible

,

make themselves

through

pass

ob

physical

any

infinite speed

around the world and other planets the same whimsical power they can enter people heads discover their thoughts and perhaps change imagination the spirits them the children enter the bodies

,

and the parents bodies fuse with the bodies achieving this spiritual com The child method

mean

did not acknowledge regarded

the

child

idea

's

the

he

of

'

he

.

Freud As mistakenly incest

.

to

bodies

to

's

of of

of

.

the children munion was confusing spirituality existence fusion

of

of

In

parents

,

of

the .

's

,

.

to

By

and travel with

,

struction

39

mother desires and

's

permits the boy

personality

normal

of

the girl

and

good

and the

have the good

and permissive phantasies are essential development and good mental health

possessive

These

the good mother

.

to

.

father

possess

,

and girl

to

the boy

to

.

of

.

a

,

being fused with both parents sharing and the union with others Both the boy and the girl phantasize the intermingling their spirits with both parents The good phantastic father desires and permits both

desires together

spiritual intimacy

all

is

it

to

.

as

sex

is

I

In

my own experience have found that the child wish for intimate closeness not limited the parent the opposite Freud claims On closer analysis found that the child

The child needs this intimate spiritual union with good parents and incessantly strives achieve

the

of

he

.

it

to

intensely

If

.

the

him

to

of

.

the father

The

,

actual threat

he

if

to

an

real mother

is

the

in

incorporate the father phantasy because might cause real damage her up

unable

the danger that were incorporated

attack

be byof

the real threat

of

his

of . to If he

because

of

girl will

be

mother

to

be

is

to

of

is

If

deprived parental love and respect the child cannot enjoy his phantasies intimate closeness the parents the actually boy real father hostile the will afraid and indulge phantasies will unable closeness

the

,

of

to

or

to

to

of

be

to

be

of

to

be

boy will good phantasies possession unable build potential damage her because himself and the girl will afraid close her take the good father from

retaliation

the mother who

is

by

threat

AND PSYCHIATRY

reality

.

in

hostile

of

of

her because

OF RELIGION

the

40 INTEGRATION

,

,



.

of

of

of

of

as

only



psychoanalysts consider the Oedipal phanta rivalry hostility they provoke feelings sies insofar parent and wishes for the annihilation the the same sex

The Freudian

up

to

's

,

do

to or

To

.

of

of

is

The Freudian solution the conflict made dependent upon give the willingness the child the desire for the posses sion the parent However we not agree with Freud con the

his own annihila

abnormal and not normal

by

under threat

sex

of

spiritual possession of

for

claimed

is

will

wishes

as

then

be

,

tion

he of

is

to

give forced parent the the opposite

and

the

to

his

up

is

If

.

of

,

of

,

be

.

attain

to

normal mental health recover from develop his phan individual must able tasies the good permissive parental figures first the good imaginary incorporation mother who will allow the the good father the child unable combat the threatening parent clusions

mental illness

.

Freud

no

by

is



( 23 )

we

.

by



of

The Freudian theory the Oedipal complex means universally accepted psychoanalysts Even among the Freudians

accepted

of

by

theories are not generally

psychoanalysts

.

,





in

of

as

in

of

.

find some variations Melanie Klein concurs with Freud the universality the Oedipal strivings but she places the origin beginning the conflict the first year life Her

to

of

these theories

they relate



.

Oedipal complex



the

gives particular attention

as

by

.

He

to

in

( 29 ) to

in

the horrible

A

.

in

.

States because

, of

the phantasies she ascribes little children However my own observations support her con comprehensive study clusions this regard the variations psychoanalytic theories has been prepared Patrick Mullahy United

as



of



an

however

a

,

causes

of

,

.

complex Adler did

the spiritual union and recognize the universality

of

the phantasies

,

enjoyment

of

.

as

)

, ( 1

to

accept the Oedipal phantasy was not able parental overindul universal but only unnatural result gence We agree that parental overindulgence interferes with the

Adler

what

INFLUENCE OF CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES 41 female .

These

strivings are the indications of the natural drive toward the

spirit

both male

ual union with the good father .

.

Jung maintained that and

of

influence the individual

He

ceremonies

childhood

satisfied

throughout

recognized

symbolic

is

of

tastic good father

a

understood that the desire not relinquished child

also

these wishes

.

rites

,

,

bolism

strivings are not

of

but continues

to

,

hood

He

the parents

are

for the incorporation

“ Oedipal”

that the

intimacy

of

wish

physical

in

( 20 ) recognized

for

Jung

and

life religious sym

that

.

in

by

striving "

" masculine

is

he called

phan

the

the mature concept

.

God

)

by

(

do

16

)

,

18

(

.

is

natural result goal this some interesting theories

re

the attainment

of

of

the

complex

.

the

of

and

the neurotic that the influence enjoyment the spiritual inter

15

the frustration

of

,

personal relationship

They

abnormal stimulation

of

produced only

the normal

prevents

as

phantasies

.

parents

Harry

Fromm Reichmann being universal

-

Frieda

We believe

neurotic parents

Horney

Karen

by



,

be



Oedipal

to

are considered

notably

and

)

(

Stack Sullivan not accept the

39

,

Other psychoanalysts



he

)

Oedipal

,

.

is

,

disappear

by

, .

can

sym to

,

in

.

Only

hostile real people the good father Competition symbolically helps society

represented

incorporated

in

relations with other people annihilating the phantastic hostile parents

by

-

improving

bolically

be

reality testing or

by

tasies

his to

.



by

of



.





He however putting competitiveness cart before the horse Social does not produce Oedipal strivings Social relationships are motivated the improve father and mother phan the need the individual complex

will

the

is



(

Erich Fromm has evolved garding the Oedipal complex wherein claims that when permissive the individual the society toward tolerant and more

infers

we

need

society

be





good parents may in

Fromm

,

,

.

realized However

do

the spiritual union with the phantastic as

for

,

,

or

.

to

overcome the phantastic bad parents When they are changed good brought under control annihilated the Oedipal wish

today

INTEGRATION

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

more and more good men and women

will be helpful to others in working We need a better realization of

mothers who

and

out the permissive phantasies . our responsibilities as symbolic others . The role which

play

,

Rex

to

He

blood

.

's

father

circumstances

Oedipus

the beginning

the Sopho portrayed

help his subjects who wanted He was not his incestuous relationship When took the throne Thebes after solving the riddle the Sphinx ac

.

to

king

.

consort

,

Jocasta

as

the Queen

was his mother

his

he

of

of

.

of

his home

from

in

At

fled

shed

to

a

as

good

a

is

thinking ! In

Freudian

was predicted by the oracle .

to

tragedy

.

clean

by

Oedipus

espouse his mother Oedipus was actually victim

as

parent

did

maligned

has been

Sophoclean

avoid the tragedy which

quired

symbolic

is

the original

King

a

he

Poor Oedipus

aware

our associations with

in

everyone plays as

pages 79 - 80 and 109- 11 .

on

not want

parents

of of or

discussed

symbolic good

as

he

fathers

serve

to

his

42

he became

When

not knowing

that

that his real

aware

she

relation

untenable

and

.

,

,



is

or

neurosis

phantasies reality the Oedipal psychosis the inevitable result “

proximates

is

.

.

,

he

as

to

the queen was the same the childhood phantastic spir relationship distraught itual became and went into exile His predicament was intolerable When the real situation ap ship

TABOO ,

set

by

the

individual

grow

emo

's

the parent

. If

or

of

to

stimulated erotically

injudicious

caresses

safe

the

or

A

cannot

parental love and feels has the security parent parent substitute close the

by

child

is

tionally unless when physically

child

.

is

produced

he

,

to

substitute threatens phantasies then anxiety

of

parent must exist parent relationship the with the parent make the real situation approximate the the

or

If

phantasy

sexual relationship be sister does not originate up

or

but natural prohibition incorporative possession

The

.

in

.

himself only

the physical brother and

is a

society

,

in

,

Taboo against incest tween parent and child

INFLUENCE OF CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES 43

by

.

disown

be

He cannot

im phan

is

but knows his

in

,

try

.

)

,

like social legislation

initiated from within the parent must remain

.

is

Taboo

intimacy with

to

the

of

keep

desired

union

.

spiritual

placed

in

by .

is

spiritual level Taboo natural limitation upon sexual activity the individual himself order physical reality from obstructing the attainment a

upon

the taboo his

of

not have the power The child insists that

.

as

,

parental prohibitions

the

that

.

know

12

(

a

we

do

.

he

tasies

parent because

or to

spiritually free and close the picture good cannot the real parent safe Freud believed that taboo restrictions were forcibly impressed upon primitive people from without experience From

of

intimacy

phantasy

The child must then

to

reality

real parent physically

do

to

offending considers tempting the child

child wishes symbolically

in

possible

is

bad because

what the

child

the parent

.

as

When this occurs the

the

,

to

sex

bathing or sleeping in the same bed with an older child of the phantasy then reality becomes threateningly close

opposite

to

.

and Eve the human

race

stigmatized

be

's

is

.

of

Genesis

disobedience

Re of

the

desire for

.

the Book

an

that because

of

by

.

recorded

de

Freud

contradictory

Man

by

teaches

of

doctrine

findings appear

brought into harmony in

can

is

they

power

the discoveries to

psychoanalytic

personal omnipotence ligious

threatened

be

,

not

is

his

is

position which holds that

all

.

of

The theological rived from God theology

molding the

in

importance

and

Though

to

or

,

.

as

mere childish pointed out their tremendous personality every individual

them

ev

.

however tends look upon the disparage with tolerant good humor scientifically notions Freud viewed them

,

The average adult

to

ery parent

to

well

who know children creative destructive powers small children are well known

omnipotent phantasies

Adam

omnipotence

The preposterous

of

and

personal

all

known

imaginary

is

existence by

The

of

PERSONAL OMNIPOTENCE

inherited

44 INTEGRATION

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

propensity to disobedience . If we borrow from embryology the theory of recapitulation and apply it to the psychic " embryo ,"

we would

find somewhere in the life of each individ ual a in which he arrogates to himself the attributes of God . When Freud drew attention to the fact that men im expect

to

simply childhood teaching throughout

,

early

confirmed what the theologians have been

.

the ages The child

he

omnipotent

in

to

agine themselves

be

all

period

as In

.

in

.

them

.

the world looking something

He

can

an

have magic

his

.

His words

in

to

not fear that the

need

his

.

of

if

believe

by

omnipo

of

of

feeling

this

disorders The entire life impact the which the real world

of

shaped

Threats

mental

.

individual

all

every

is

are the cause

of

.

cannot cope

tence

a

in

him

.

which

he

child renders

One

tremendous impor

phanta himself omnipotent brutal assault upon the phantasies the gigantic helpless and insecure real world

continue are not disputed

to

will

are

A

in

child

with

phantasies

his psychic development

tance sies

omnipotent

to

's

The child

of

.

.

,

,

, he

.

to

"

"

the -

by



.

mama can make mother appear from People nowhere create her are forced behave various ways words the child uses though does not need know what the words mean His tears saliva and bodily excre ment are given phantastic destructive and creative power



calling

the

im

simply closing his eyes

opening

he at

create

By or

by

create

by

Then

by

annihilate the world

can

re -

by

he

agination nihilate power

his own body omnipotence

uses the functions inherent which he exercises his imaginary

can he

means

to

.

desire

essential

to

the

,

cannot eliminated Strangely enough omnipotence for which caused man lose Paradise phantasies

is

be

,

to

.

makes upon the imaginary world the child The adult helps distinguish between reality and phantasy but the the child

an

to

.

be

.

to

is

change

do

an

he

childhood

if

early

the Creator could of

of

ius

in

Only the gen regain Heaven what appears intrin sically evil desire into good essential omnipotence The phantasies not continuously sustain

him

INFLUENCE

OF CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES

45

which

finds

him

in

when the situation

helpless

completely

is

and

he

all

the child . They are intermingled with overwhelming fears of an nihilation . The child becomes assured of the “ reality ” of his om power nipotence when reality conforms to his wishes . He loses

The small child constantly fuc feeling omnipotent tuates between and feeling annihilated There many are times when afraid his omnipotent destruc the world



blows

he

of

up

"

, if

he

,

too

,

For instance

will have

stand

the the

,

of

is

,

as

's

of of

,

omnipotence relinquished not because The child reality psychoanalysts threat the claim but because

of

to

place

.

no

.

tiveness

he is

.

.

to

frustrating

is

himself

Through his omnipotent power the child nor mally makes the idealized parents omnipotent and then able omnipotence reality transfer his them not safe the reality

, ,

is

and

paranoidal person

grandiose

By

a

is

If

.

his

imaginary power

relinquish

up

grow

be

able

will

to

not

the individual

to

will

child

be

to

to

,

.

safety

,

of as

.

As

Heaven

.

God

in

of

a

to

the child

in

by

learns more about the existence and the religious God through the use reason and

of

nature struction

symbol

he

to

are

maturity

. of

grows

by

is

It

is

phantastic parents



"

his

.

of

.

with delusions about his own personal power the imaginary omnipotence transfer the child does not create God through imagination that the concept Freud assumed personal experience The God made known the child

an

internalized

voice

.

is

good objects

or

reasons that reparation

destructive

the of

,

judgments regarding

,

acts

It

's

one

formulates

to

made when behavior

is

badness

of

.

intellect

.

a

of

the adult The influence the adult how tremendous effect upon the development

of

or .

The

partially

It

.

.

,

does have

conscience goodness be

the

This observation but true Conscience intellectual operation does not originate from the au

thoritative voice ever

be

considered conscience

( 7 )

of

the adult

is

Freud

to

CONSCIENCE

must when

OF RELIGION

objects which

intellectual processes

.

an



to

of

eye

him

imaginary real exactly the same

,

or

whether repaired

be

.

justice which demands He applies this rule

tooth Every object

by

others

sense

,

well

tooth

.”

a

a

rigid

eye and as

as an

self

neglected and not made considered together constitute

conscience

The child has

a

.

These

the function

for

be handled

can

for

good

of

bad

AND PSYCHIATRY are

INTEGRATION

46

's

. . .

is

he

of

he his

of

by

is

he

so

If

he

do

an

he

.

by

has been

means

to

damaged must ability which the damage was done The child reparation opinion necessary make the influences himself object good good When can really make feels that feelings anxiety and guilt cannot disturbed

which

in

is

he

the parental opinion self condemnatory and over to

-

,

be

conforms

then

can

,

.

of





the

of to

combat and defeat the hostile real parents become antisocial criminal apparently with

.

,

or

to he

. If

be

apt

will out conscience On a

,

,

to

bad

.

a

he

he

retaliate

He will

the phantastic good parents the hostile real parents will

against

conscience which

scrupulous

of

a

do

is

If

of

to

inside

introversion



real

,

The

, or

.

to

dangerous

He will

restricted by society

attain

dirty

tend retreat become increasingly to

down

The

.

,

something bad

.

antisocial until he

and

difficult

or

deep

shyness

is

there

the real objects

will

, .

life

him

is

about

of



rotten

into

the phantastic good parents

will feel that a



child

of



ity

the symbolic parents represented

be

by

to

he

be

.

,

he

.

or

the child not punished restricted when does real damage becomes afraid his destructive omnipotence When the child does real damage which he cannot repair repair the imaginary damage done will not able conscience

he

good

anything allowed development the to

is

,

the other hand the child who will have equal difficulty

pleases

in

he

reality

is

unable

develop that

a

In

.

himself

is

If

he

assuring

in

the adult

.

of

in

learning

or

of

helping hindering the child objects handle his real influences the development nagging domineering really conscience The strict adult hostile hostile environment the child will have difficulty

The attitude

OF CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES

the phantastic

a

like

them

and

parents

ac

early

These

the conscience

the

.

in

can

in

has about himself

of

good

secure environ

of

reality

the phantastic good

influences are reflected

In

.

the

and attitudes

of

cordance with those environmental adult

feel that

can

pattern the opinions

phantasies

,

He

assured

.

.

good parents

can

of

ment the child

his

finds controlling

in

be

less difficulty

reality



parents

47

lenient , understanding , and sym reassuring , and encounters much

The child who has sensibly pathetic

he he is “

INFLUENCE

IMPORTANCE OF PLAY .

the

play

.

Australia

important

function

in

.

is

that

the same

in

,

has

She found

essentially

an

in

of

playing and

of

of

Brisbane

,

and

symbols the child use these widely separated cities

's

Through

real difficulties rather than avoids them study has made the play children

,

)

17

,

in

(

Ruth Griffiths England London

reality

from

a

overcomes

escape

an

his

child

not

is

Child play

by

's

.

In his

to

.

as

well

is

as

emotional development disturbing phantasies The child never able handle imagination his contacts with real people alone the child intellectual

is

or

,

up

a

.

be

of

His desire

by

in

.

his

of

are

's

.

a

.

but

,

cannot handle

them

without

long

testing

experience

re

curiosity

in

satisfy

his

to

.

in

order

.

,

adult things he

world

of

which

the inanimate objects which

things and the child does not use those things the child belong the adult The child makes excursions into the to

use

's ' s

-

grown

dealing with

adults The child makes definite distinction between people things and children things The adult does

up

by

his phantasies used

ality

put down again

immediate attention the adult varies accordance phantasies the state Neither can the child handle

the

with

not

wants

to

to

he

not long before

for

for

of

a

is .

it

to

,

the adult fluctuates between being good and bad and unable provide security prolonged sense continuous pe picked riod The small child wants be and fussed over but

Pro

INTEGRATION

48

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

longed security is felt only in dealing with those articles which he considers to belong to children . The small child first occupies himself solely with inanimate objects which he animates and personifies . Later he plays with age , as

who approximate his own

other children

he

can feel safe

of

in

he

acts the role the imaginary children

as

When

as a

he

of him

.

take care

of

wishes his parents

to

he

he

.

the good the bad parent When good parent takes tender care

his

or

.

In

him

with them . He can handle and dominate them even though he may be regarding them at the moment as either helpful or harm play the child can identify himself with ful to either

acts

hos

out

constructive but dealing with the phantasies

be to

phantasies

is

.

of

of

their

they

whether in

the child needs help

,

destructive

or

to

deprive the children

It

up ,

of

,

,

In

try

.

or

of

he

tile parent assures himself that the aggressive attacks the parent annihilating real are not actually destructive growing the difficult process the child needs the under standing support and assurance the adult not right

working to

is

it

's



.”

of

to

imaginary

rid

,



is

is

.

In

sufficient have just thinking the child distinguish between what and what really true The adult must understand that the child phantastic attacks are not made against real persons but against them

is

do

's

to

re

.

as

,

to

their play activities overcoming the hostile in

children

the process

of

in

to

them

by

reality testing

act until

to

.

can

assure

himself

that

he

out the forbidden

he

of

as

.

Forbidden acts are repeated the intensity child with the same and regularity the neurotic com pulsive behavior carry the adult The child will continue

-

phantasies

.

as

necessary

by

is

worthless The repetitive naughtiness

of

garded

however the adult to

may

be

damage

of

should not allow the child good The child real objects which are regarded really destroy only those objects which are allowed

,

feelings

.

to

no

.

people get These attacks are necessary the phantastic bad parents with the assurance that damage done real people While being tolerant the child hostile

can

INFLUENCE

CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES

OF

49

,

. his in

to to

be

to as

or

as

he

phanta

.

of

.

of be

.

to

,

the

en .

in

his imagination

to

real parent

do

he

threatening

of

use

by

.

,

.

must this will tend good person For example the

,

his

include the fault

actually

but concept

he

transform

in

an

can

if

illusory good parent

a

into

an

He

.

nation

of

make

is

a

or

.

to

of

in

all

to

power

one another

the child overcome difficult truly remarkable The child has the things rational and logical imagi the

experiences

is

,

vironmental

he

be

.

the

If

However the natural ability

completely

bad parents who Appeasement represents

evil the real parents are hostile the child difficulty making good child will have them

find fault with

by

He will

.

and

him

be

not criticize

.

is

do

others who

,

real father critical and faultfinding child will think good men should the same He will feel unloved

all

the

the

objects which may child deliberately

is

To

.

to

,

by

be

appeased

cannot overcome must compromise with the forces

to

should

the child

. cautious frighten

harmful but not afraid frightened When the child phantasies overcome bad The phantastic unforgivable

if

the parents

times when

interpreted

will have trouble with

to

be

taught be

is be

The child should

that

indulge to

's

If

it

,

something intrinsically bad symbolically represents sies

good

There are times when

also

is

the dirt he

but there are

,

clean

the

revolting

out his problem

work

dirty

.

be be

to

be allowed

not permitted

dirty

when the children get themselves the child must

regards

disgusting

disconcerting

sometimes

gradually

to

.

if

It

satisfaction

.

own

but the child will not able be

his phantasies

is

,

else

he

to

someone

children may

of

The play activities

them

will

phantasies the child not attack objects which

,

will

interprets

the adult

objects

symbolically

they

because

he

and

toys does

be

changed

good

he

child

phantasies

to is

as

represent bad

so

who repeatedly breaks

If

his

.

as

to

by

.

is

the

either handle or destroy the object involved , and thereby handle object the phantasy with which invested The adult can help the child problem interpreting work out his the ob ject something good rather than bad For example the child

tend

AND PSYCHIATRY of

.

of

the faulty behavior his imagination His ac

into conflict with The natural tendency parent symbol good imagination bad real parent in

make

the ba

character disorders

be

.

all

sis

of

or

.

him

a

good eventually may bring

society

to

the faulty behavior

as

of

ceptance

in

he

to pattern own behavior after that the parent whom has made good

is

RELIGION

OF

his

50 INTEGRATION

,

is

.

-

be

's

If

improved satisfactorily the phantasies cannot the child reality testing must prolonged until some real security found through symbolic relationships with other real people who represent imaginary good parental figures Conscious phantasy

of

and the individual becomes less reached

the unconscious

.

are almost entirely relegated

to

.

When maturity

is

accepted

phantasies

As

, .

can

his

reality

scious

of

,

ing

be

of

,

,

daily thinking even be will then occupy the greater portion yond the age relationships childhood real become satisfy

con

the phantasies

CHAPTER

4

DYNAMICS OF BEHAVIOR

IMAGINATION in

very

ob

operates

or

which

,

reality seems unattainable when postponed However imagination

,

in

must

be

to

function

.

of

when desire

realization desire operates constantly

not appear

be

is

It

.

sporadically

does

a

regarded

as

imagination

generally

the manifestation

vious

.

of

of

of

its

The imagination , which plays such a prominent role in the con importance scious activity of the child , does not lose the dy ordinary namics the behavior the adult Under conditions

Its

in

is

.

of all

in

in

the the complicated processes involved psychic phenomena action and counteraction continuous operation not recognized because adult behavior the imagi

.

comprehend

,

,

mentally

ill

as “



probably serves

The euphemism

disparagement

who are unable symptoms the However those

emotional disturbances imagination and the

of

preventing

.

secondary

, to

in

purpose

of of by

a

emotional reaction

is

ders are euphemistically referred though they are primarily distortions

of

to

.

of

by

.

on

functions mainly the unconscious level imagination has been studiously avoided The function most psychologists and psychiatrists Functional mental disor

nation

persons

apparent reality

the

the hallucinations

and

delusions

51 en of

of

.

,

by

all

,

psychotic persons and the pains paralyses and anxieties the neurotic patients are based upon imagination The effects everyone distorted imagination are constantly dealt with

INTEGRATION

52

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

in handling problems of human relations . In spite of this extensive experience with the abnormal effects of imagination , imagination has been given but little scientific function

at

of

the

gaged

.

tention

of

of

,

reality

tomor

of

of

creative

even

that which

small

in

,

Invention industry

in

change anything

the

desired

.

in

be

.

of

become the reality the accomplishment

more commonplace and mundane aspects mu pictured must first the imagination Though

and

is

To

is

great

.

well

as

as

things

to

In

application

,

,

the practical

today The dreams required But imagination

.

.

row

business

of

imagination

culture

social sciences

in

,

in

progress through

promote

aspect

the aesthetic

medicine

restricted

education creative provide enjoyment

,

in

.

as a

creative faculty the field encouraged and developed

nature art

and discovery

the imagination has been largely



poetry

,

of

to

role imagination

is

its

Scientific interest

most psychiatrists

psychologists

and

look

askance it

is

16

according

- of

is

( 34 )

instincts

( 22 ).

phasized

by

.

of

.

in

of

upon imagination they are apparently aware plays the role recovery Theodor Reik never apologetic about phan phantasy tasies The necessity deliberate stimulation em

)

of

of

a

The free

association

of

).

38

(

Sharpe

Ella

to

,

.

as

of

of

(

Melanie Klein Frieda Fromm Reichmann points out the constant interplay the phantasies both doc patient Phantasy tor and functions means control

.

Its

other

.

types

unconscious level

is

treatment so

awareness

that their

. of

.

understood

remains

at

is

of

level

psychoanalytic

In

a

intellect times inhibited imagination operates first

an

therapy the symbolism

be

symbolic meanings may

to

.

unconscious level The bring these associations

aim

associations

of

the function

the

of

.

,

formulation

on

,

the

just

while others are considered devoid everyone imagination operation may But has

the

to on In

blocked

imaginative

of

.

imagination

as

regarded

as

be of are

in

.

is

in

technique which psychoanalysis requires free play used imagination people the Some associate freely while others have difficulty producing associations Popularly some individuals

psycho

DYNAMICS Generally the knowledge been people

reality

tend

53

of the function of imagination

has

mainly

derived

wherein

OF BEHAVIOR

to

pathological

from observation of states relationships are grossly distorted . Hence , some imagination with distrust and consider it as view

turbulent, inordinate element which must be restricted and dis ciplined by such means as the creative arts. Efforts to handle dis

a

tortions of imagination have been directed against the faculty self , as if imagination could be replaced by realism .

it

opinion that imagination is the antithesis of reality cultural conflicts with religious dogma. The modern rationalistic philosophies originated in the eighteenth century . At that time social , political , and economic injustices were rampant . The reality situation of the great masses of people was untenable . Their predica The fallacious

can be traced to

ment seemed unalterable in view of the rulers ' presumption of the Divine Right of Kings , and religious doctrines concerning respect for authority , and expectation of justice , not here , but in another world to come. In order to improve the reality situation it appeared necessary to be more “ realistic ” by changing the imaginative dreams of the world beyond . Attacks were , therefore , directed against some religious beliefs

will of

law

which were considered to be based upon imagination . The philosophy of rationalism was popularized by Jean Jacques Rousseau . In The Social Contract he envisioned a society without leaders . He reasoned

by

is

.

by

.”

Reason Though

of

to

the “

.



of



's

of

a

.

To

conflicted

.

all

the people was the source and criterion of This with the religious argument that authority derived from great extent the French Revolution was precipitated God the general acceptance philosophy Rousseau The corrupt leaders were overthrown and Reason was substituted for religion The Temple Cathedral Notre Dame was changed become that the

of

's

by

.

.

-

,

its

is

many justified revolution against oppressive authority examples from the Bible the philosophical revolution continued religion attacks upon Rationalistic and materialistic mechanistic Origin philosophies invaded the scientific world Darwin Species

of

the

of

the

of

.

.

of

of

the

questioning the veracity further doubt upon religious beliefs Scriptural account Creation and the reality exist ence the human soul The economic and industrial revolution Marx and Engels advanced materialistic philosophy still further Freud cast

proved that religion had outlived

useful

its

claimed that psychoanalysis

54 INTEGRATION

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

ness . Freud thought that the childhood phantasies of personal his

being engulfed

from

the rationalism

the

He

,

However he kept

it

as

.

both religion and imagination the soul mankind for science

.

saved

era

a

,

,

sense

in

to

disparage

Freud

of

as neurotic

discoveries

of

well

as

omnipo magic were forerunners of adult religious concepts important disorders . Unfortunately he utilized

, and

by

tence , animism

insisted that

.

Freud

He continued

the attacks upon

pernicious

,

of

a

imagination

,

,

.

,

in

all

to

he

,

as

mind and brain were separate entities though functioning unit psychic phenomena attempted explain but terms the prevalent materialistic and mechanistic reality Brill who introduced Freudian psychoanalysis into this country was more materialistic than branded

and

fairy

perennially

. to

be us . be

it

up

.

's

,

in

.

of

,

be

,

its

by

,

by

de

all

as

,

of he ,

.

is

of to

a

In

little book

rash

a

.

as

Brock Chisholm decries the Santa Claus Man Against Myth Dunham attempts exposing what find solution social ills calls modern myths The book interest particularly because title which was apparently inspired Kruif Men Against Death Death can inevitably catches postponed science advances but with Myths likewise may influenced and altered but they cannot super eliminated From the beginning human existence belief tales myth

by

.

,

of

.

re

.

,

as

define imagination the cognitive faculty which m anipulates records and represents images which have

,

,

something

overcome

We may ceives

was regarded

as

no

.

of

personal need Imagination

or

as a

avoided

be

to

It

to

to

or

.

in

its

in

be

to or

accepted

no

.

in

as

.

of

in

,

be

,

natural powers has motivated guided and directed human behavior expected the concerted attacks upon religion As would leaders the scientific world made men wonder and doubt about the reality the supernatural The supernatural and metaphysical came regarded existent only the imagination No intelligent person longer things which were simply imaginary could believe was generally considered practical aspire realistic the transcendent goals which religion offered The deliberate cultivation the imagina longer widely practiced good and evil was tion extremes

,

, ex

or

,

of or

prior

from

an

of

sensory memory

of

gination produces associations

a

an

to

In

.

of

.

is

are

ages

, .

the senses the intellect Sensory im sight smell touch taste received through the organs physical hearing image purely sensory and The the mechan imprint object upon organism ical the from the external perception object the ima environment order form been experienced through

DYNAMICS OF BEHAVIOR

55

it

is

,

,

percept

.

concepts which are presented concepts may These derived from acceptance from the experience of

or .

the intellect experience

of

be

in

re

manipulates and

acts upon

also

by

it

to

The imagination learned

an

to

the sensory

.

with image recalls associations is

it

produces

.

the visual ceives the sensory them

orange

other associations includ sensations The imagination re

touch with

all

the sensation

associate ing

felt with image stimulates the imagination

tactile

When all

the

of

it

,

seeing

So

out

the organism

.

ously experienced

as

of

by

of

all

periences with similar images . When an object such as an orange is seen , the visual image is grasped by the imagination which re produces the attributes the orange has been previ

,

as

.

the

defined

,

or

the

of

If

not clearly known idea will distorted

is

concept

the intellectual objective reality

,

in

to

as

.

,

.

is

others The concept dealt with the same way the sensory image Prior associations are aroused manipulated reproduced and presented back the intellect the sensory perceptions are by

is

,

he

a

by

a

is

of

.

,

a

of

be

in

.

are

or

the imag thinking ination Such distortions common the the dog child When the child learns that the noise made bark and later learns that the covering tree bark as truth

a

to

.

's

.

of

of

the

a

of

adult For word the intellec

.

encountered also

the

of

he

name the day the imagination

in

.

associates

This influence

of

.

clear The imagination will then make present possible meanings from the structure from context The representation the meaning

of

imaginary

associations

but the intellect may accept

true

may

be

the

.

,

grossly distorted

from

as

the word derived

.

the

or

and

it

of

the word

make associations from the sepa child may believe that the sun

not know the meaning

will not

tual concept associations

concepts

is

's

we

day

be

, if

example

do

upon intellectual

A

the sun

.

on

the sun

the words Sunday because



should shine

to

the child

of

of

.

a

a

by

the tendency rate syllables

with

to

that the meanings are the same His associations prior picture this have been with the bark the dog He tries tree making concepts dog noise like The child are also distorted sumes

INTEGRATION

56

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

Imagination may be further defined with reference to the level of awareness , reality relationships , time reference , spatial rela tionships , quality , and purpose .

.

Imagination may be either conscious or unconscious . Conscious imagination operates in deliberate plan ning , wondering , wishing , daydreaming , and psychotic states . LEVEL

OF AWARENESS

we may

not be aware of the operation of imagination it must function before any behavior is possible . The goal must be pictured in imagination before the individual can begin to move Though

the simple automatic acts. To sharpen a one must first have a picture of the desired object , the pen Ideas cannot

of

conceived

.

Normally

with

the intellect

images previously

presented

imagination

operates

the unconscious level

.

a

picture

can

the same ease

a

.

or

ing

Mars with

it

The imagination

REALITY RELATIONSHIPS elephant man from

as

mainly

at

by

out drawing upon the memory imagination the intellect

to

.

in

by

point

a

cil

with

even

be

toward the goal

pencil

fly

might

Otto Fenichel

.

thinking which

the one being phantasy

defines

as

and imagination

by

,

the other possible

,

distinguish between phantasy

impossible

.

of

is

a

.

is

.

to

or

picture how the living room would look with the furniture rear Imagination not concerned with realistic possibility probability That function intellect Many writers attempt ranged

, . 50 . p

,

,

by

imagina

.

impossible

,

are

not

fol

Norton

.

.

Neurosis

W

recognizes that W

an

of

is

the intellect normally

Fenichel Otto The Psychoanalytic Theory Inc New York 1945

and Company

is

achievement daydreams

.

because

in

,

action

ordinary

operation which

the intellect

of

by

intellectual

distorted that reality

phantasies

,

*

the overpowering as

of is

which

Unrealistic lowed

Phantasy thinking

., :

tion

result

so

a

is

.

imagination

,

by

.

,

.*

to

of

,

,

is

not followed action and describes two types creative and daydreaming This conforms the opinion most psychiatrists and psychologists However possible and impossible phantasies are produced the same personality function the

DYNAMICS

OF BEHAVIOR

57

either reminiscent or

go

.

or

Imagination may

TIME REFERENCE anticipatory

be

.

his

they cannot be realized . However , in neurotic , psychopathic , and psychotic states , the individual often attempts to act out the phantasies reality relationships in

re .

in



which



.





good old days membrances Building ination dream castles

likewise falls within

can

relived

imag

in

of

Within

be

of

.

It

time forward can either backward personal experience the the individual there are the

as

to

to

by

the

of

world

It

,

good cigar

world where peace reigned

or

in

vary A

a

of

is

,

is

imagined

.

live

all

to

like

a

One might picture the enjoyment be

to

be it

,

on

.

of

Pleasurable experiences may

would

limited

,

. .

. .

it

ing degrees

not

spatial relationships the imagination

In

the stars potentially also infinite

what

sim

the the planets and the stars and

be

even beyond

limited

may extend any The imagination can

the other side

the street

the moon

in

,

the other side

can extend

QUALITY

time

to

.

. or

.

but

happening

to

on

as

as

picture what might

be

in

ple personal contacts everyday affairs other area far beyond personal experience

world

reference

.

is

In

it

of

conceive the fiftieth century and beyond potentially infinite the imagination SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS Imagination may

easily

far

as

or

of

.

go

, It .

in

time

at

experience which may become possible some the future Imagination can also extend far beyond per may sonal experience backward into history the beginning attempting time can extend into the future

of

personal

realm

,

enemy old by

.

an

In

.

or

be

,

. or

or

another world what Hell might like Imagination may PURPOSE constructive destructive object imagination addition subtraction from the from

a

by or

.

,

of

under attack

missing an

like

being late be

would

be

what

to

conceive the possibility be

,

train

or

nation

it

can

a

of

.

,

,

in

be

be

where desires might satisfied can also imagination On the other hand unpleasant experienced imaginations may cover possibilities The imagi wide range

place like Heaven

OF RELIGION AND PSYCHIATRY

58 INTEGRATION

farmhouse can be pictured as it might appear when renovated . One might picture how a tree would look when pruned properly . Destructive imagination could picture how a city might look after being bombed , or what the experience would be like if some one died or lost a member of the body . Imagination the series

in

the faculty which is first called into operation intrapsychic events which determine behavior . It

is

of

of

a

well

as

sensory memory tions from representations obtained from

as

.

gin

provides the other faculties with the material upon which they be their work The imagination produces series associa from the imaginary concepts With these in

to at

of

is

the

in

the

minutes

fu in

few

,

next

be

or

.

some more distant time Imagination may

the object

or

,

in

all ,

it

the next moment

the handling

of

ture

in

happen

,

presented

a

with the object

tures what might whether

this

condensation the totality pic imagination Besides this the

of

form

.

of

experiences

the

in

will

intellect and the

when not handled

All

of

,

.

or

when the object proved harmful

or

with difficulty

the

,

dled satisfactorily

or .

in

It

at

by

of

the

.

intellectual memories the imagination presents the picture manner which the object represented the percept was handled vari reproduces experiences when ous times the past was han

the

in

it

, ,

In

.

is

must unconscious but conscious operate before any reality achievement possible even simplest acts routine and repetitious acts which have become

be

an

of .

,

an

at

both the phantasies and the acts are kept un object successfully conscious level When has been handled

automatic

at

,

of

, or

in

.

, it

are

a

period over time will dealt with unconsciously With objects which unusual that they stimulate conscious aware anticipated pleasure pain the imagination operates ness

an

.

it

,

,

.

of

or

of

,

.

a

conscious level Deliberate realistic logical thinking modifies and rechannels phantasy but does not eliminate Likewise act the will may interrupt alter phantasy but cannot ob imagination literate the operation

DYNAMICS

OF BEHAVIOR

59

EMOTION perceptual

The

images reproduced

by

imagination

arouse

emotion . The character of the emotion depends upon previous experiences in the handling of the object . If the object appears to be good , it will be loved and desired . The possibility of acquisi tion

object arouses

of the desired

feelings of hope and courage

in

it. When the desired object can be acquired there is a feeling of joy and contentment ; if not , there will be sadness . If the object appears bad or hurtful , it will arouse emotions of aversion , fear , anger , and hate . When the bad object cannot be overcome the emotion of hopelessness or despair is felt . Emotions are never experienced in pure states . They are al

seeking

ways mixed

.

This is because the associations recalled by imagina

tion include experiences when the object was considered good , and other experiences when the same object was considered bad . object becomes predominantly good through reality - testing , the experiences with the object when it was considered bad are

As

an

together with the related emotions . The consciously felt emotion is , therefore , mixed with the opposite emotion which is felt unconsciously . Through education and experience in work

repressed

the imagination

an

of

,

a

.

or

a

of

in

The

all

ex

,

of

or

of

the imagination more less taken

relatively satisfaction which intensely desired object arouses is

a

feeling for granted stimulate mild but the acquisition

cigar

is

depend upon character object the Good objects which

.

by

will

good

are not passions but The degree emotion are

emotions emotion

degrees

the more intense feel emotional feelings are re

as

,

Extremes

All

the

.

as

to

aroused

varying

in

an

person

passions ferred feelings are expressions perienced

the enjoyment just emotion

.

love for

is

of

coffee

experienced

of

ing

of

good cup

the emo

and

.

also

contentment

a

feeling

emotions

of

The

are

tions become constructive

is improved

of

,

.

the object

of

ing with

60 INTEGRATION

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

If

extreme emotion . the imaginary representation of a threaten ing object can be handled satisfactorily , then the emotion will be mild . When there is a threat of attack by a hostile object which cannot be handled , or the threat of the loss object , then the emotion will be severe .

of an

intensely

Emotions are conscious or unconscious . Where

of

,

.

an

on

,

In

.

of

habitual automatic and impulsive acts the likewise kept unconscious level

the child

is

emotion

is

of

the welfare hatred

unapproach

an

the associated emotions are unconscious . The parent who consciously is extremely solicitous of repressing child his unconscious feelings his

able conflict overprotective

exists ,

desired

INTELLECT The imaginary perceptual associations

,

of

idea

.

by

a

are

ob also

Intellectual memory previously experienced

operation

or

.

mental

Ideas

an

cognition

is

By

of

. an

as

objects and sensory perception

reproduce and recognize Judgments are formulated

to

the ability

.

or

called

or

,

,

,

made known the intellect simple apprehensions concepts to

is

ject

as

conceive ideas which are beyond the sphere right wrong possibility relation

such

able

to to

The intellect

perceptions

sensory

from

regard

is

taken

.

action

abstractions

be

the mode

make

and the emotions aroused

the intellect for consideration to

ing

to

are presented

them

of

by

comparing

.

is

to

,

rational animal widely consid

executive ex

the



is a

it is

the emotions Reason

of .

of

subservient

to

be

ered

to

mind Man disrepute but reason has fallen into such that the human

is

. .

the highest faculty

to

of

a

is

a

is

of

to

disagreement Reasoning ideas determine their agreement judgments related the comparison series one another from which conclusion deduced The ability reason

is

the

executive

cannot

function

ef

. If

not reliable

,

formation

is

by

is



who

.

controls the operation the personality The dependent upon ecutive officer information which made available the various department heads the available in officer

DYNAMICS

OF BEHAVIOR . 61

. Logical thinking is possible only when phantasy order and under the guidance of the intellect .

ficiently

lev state

.

as

the waking

prior

carried out without

which

is a

,

to

the act

is

made

these instances

the unconscious level

.

on

perform

be

are drawn just

Automatic and habitual acts cannot conclusion

life

conscious and unconscious in

on both

dreams conclusions

In

.

els

The intellect operates

in

in

the

act

conclusion the judgment

at a

After the intellect arrives

is

WILL pre

.

will

will

the

,

.

, in

mechan mental

emotion

all .

.

made better

The

will

also deal improved

,

imagination

is

When

.

the associated

will power the intellect must emotion

.

then

and

is

imagination

the unconscious level improved without correcting them strengthened concentrating simply by

be

with

of

all

.

all

no

cannot improve

To

.

cannot

be on

be is

carried out

One function

will

are

operate together We behavior unless they operating because much aware that they are their

and

Will power upon

emotion no

,

imagination

be

-

the mind



,

cannot activity

does not

FUNCTIONS

tellect and will serve separate purposes but they ically interlocked with one another There can activity

operates

on In

the

action

In

.

.

reflex

the perform

conscious level

a

on

.

,

operates

OF MENTAL

The four functions

better we perform

know

ourselves and others

will

the unconscious

INTEGRATION

we

impulsive acts

and

at of all .

the level

acts the

habitual

,

automatic function

harmful

to

are

deliberate

Though

of

ance

of

acts which

undesired

In

intellectually

is

of

an

.

is

as

,

by

.

is

in

to

or

to

to

sented will which decides withhold action accordance with what gives the greater satisfaction The will imagination and emotion influenced the intellect Be cause these influences the will may carry out act which

has much

OF RELIGION AND PSYCHIATRY

62 INTEGRATION

less trouble in moving toward goals which appear to be good in the imagination . If the imagination and the associated emotions are frightening or formidable , then it is most difficult for the will to

the same time improving the goal is pictured favorably by

im

the

then

will

is

wasted

at

can accept

it

,

imagination

by

attempts

effort

the

act against them . Much strengthen the will without agination . When the desired

to

without much conscious

accomplishments are also facilitated im imagination which invests the desired goal approached with the idea that difficult then

. If it

or

,

be

handled

grasping

then the

intel

Things which

to

of

.

much trouble

in

have

be

will not

so

possible into something which might lect

,

the intellect first changes the im something forbidding im

from

it

to

of

undertake the subject

is

it

is

difficult aginary picture

. If

will

be

a

of

the

Intellectual provement project

the

by

.

effort

the subject

Then

be

,

be

.

improved

can is

is

.

to

difficult learn are difficult because the associated emotions which are frightening When the imagination with improved the emotions will which the subject invested seem

approached

more

easily

and

goal

all

pleasurable and the

by.

of

The intellect

will

cooperates

.

directs the self toward the desired

desirable and attainable

.

in

emotion

,

and the associated

is

self

,

the

to

trained move The imagination pictures the goal

when the men harmony toward one goal

achieved as

tal functions

the personality

are of

Integration

is

.

confidently

CHAPTER

5

MOTIVATION OF BEHAVIOR

THE FUNDAMENTAL The motivating and to change

If

force behind all behavior

, avoid ,

things

those

DRIVE is a

compulsive innate

overcome , or annihilate that which

regarded

as

is bad . be changed , they but persist in forcing

bad

cannot

. If they cannot be avoided , themselves upon the individual, they are attacked and destroyed . If they cannot be attacked , conflict occurs . The direction of are avoided

this sired

fundamental drive and the identity of the real objects de or avoided are subject to change because of intrapsychic

environmental influences , but the force itself is immutable . When a real object is improved or made good , then the phan tasy which the object symbolizes is improved . If a real object and

viewed

as

good

,

is damaged

then

the symbolic attacks,

object

repre

it

however , as

are

be

seem

done

be

real damage has been to

that objects which

is

an

to

that

a

be

..

as

as

ob

-

In

.

an

in

,

give assurance or

in

to

to

, of or

or

bad

good objects

an

also

no

is

normally

,

. Destructive are not good but upon objects which regarded made upon only upon objects regarded good bad The same object may bad reality may testing repeated Lact and bad turn act may num attempt object good ber times find out whether sents

damaged

bad are actually

.

destroyed

63

OF RELIGION AND PSYCHIATRY

64 INTEGRATION

theory of homeostasis * or rel W . B . Cannon 's physiological atively constant equilibrium has been widely translated as a psy chological explanation of behavior . Fenichel ( 5 ) regards it as bas

'

similar to Freud s nirvana principle and Fechner ciple of constancy . However , difficulties are encountered ically

of

of the theory because

application

psychological

's

prin

in

the

the fact that

the individual normally builds up tensions and needs to attack those things regarded as bad . So long as the individual is able to move in the direction toward the acquisition of that which he considers good , and to improve or attack that which he considers bad , he

.

the state of psychological homeostasis by nature is never permanently satisfied with

is satisfied

Then

,

in

in

is

re

,

.

he

,

conflict considers good and unhappy

what is

,

considers bad

he do

cannot

OF HUMAN INSTINCTS nothing

.

comparable

man

Biological

to

apparently

the lower animals

by

is

of

so

be

to

THE FALLACY

remains upset and

in

he

overcome what

There

,

is

of

equilibrium

or

,

repressed

man does not

instincts

is

,

to

is

. be

.

sults

If

must

impelled

If

.

individual

upset and the

attack and overcome the frustrating ob frustrating object the overcome equilibrium frustrating great that the the force appears victory cannot attack with hope then the desire

dividual ject When restored

equilibrium

the mind

in

environment

or

.

,

.

his

exists . But man himself or environment He constantly seeks improvement though his search entails adventurous risks and competition with others When frustrations occur whether they originate the

the

needs and defenses are

1936

he

.

2nd

ed

Fear and Rage

,

Hunger

,

in

,

,

.

,

-

, . B .:

W

to

.

A

.

an

of

-

Pain

York

.

is

of

Bodily Changes Cannon Appleton Century Crofts Inc New *

and

.

action

in

reflex

is

care

to

of

biochemistry alterations food taken ease the periodic reflex contractions the gastrointestinal tract Eating not done with the compul urge may person sion instinctive choose eat what taken

Normally

MOTIVATION

reflex level

.

a

addition

.

are

-

of

is a

.

of

is

a

of

intimate gregarious drive

to

on

. are

reflex but reality testing

startle

means which prob interpersonal relations worked out The testing interpersonal relations also method

the physical aspects lems

partially

is

drive

The human

by in

The reproductive

instincts

painful stimuli

and reaction against

it

pattern

65

for prolonged periods. The lower

eating

animal cannot choose to disregard

,

without

or to do

its

,

pleases

OF BEHAVIOR

,

.

what

good

considered

is

order

do

attack

in

defense

to

or

a

to

of

,

,

-

,

,

security The individual seeks assurance and self improvement through his social contacts and applies his knowledge influence and experience the improvement others Through the gre garious tendency the individual also forms group alliance for

and

,

value

in

to

provides

and

and

of

wel

.

devoid

unhappiness

only

That

,

's

one

undesirable

,

is

.

It

of

unsound

and promoting

happiness good

individualistic

valuable beneficial

,

desirable

,

good

providing

in

hurtful

extremely

bad become

the opposite

,

.

Bad

is

advantageous fare

of

and

regarded

is

good

,

is

which

in

,

but

of

ideas

good and bad are universally the same objects the these qualities the application of

The concepts people

all

GOOD

as

IS

WHAT

?

.

to

overcome bad

and

harmful

penny and

a

some and one group

. If

even

by by

as

valueless

a

is

.

another man

's

's

meat

is

paper which another person

One man



worthless

of

small piece

.

as

,

to

for

stamp collector might willingly pay several a

A

thousand dollars

.

paper bill does

might discard

of

a

choice between dollar probably would choose the penny His sense values distorted according adult standards but the copper coin sym bolically satisfies his emotional need more realistically than the

bill

he

small child were

good

considered excellent or

consider

given

be

A

may

it

others

regarded

his

while

.

by

Identical real objects will bad others book may

be

.

chaos

INTEGRATION

66

poison

.”

OF RELIGION

This relativity

led Freud and

bad

AND PSYCHIATRY

of

the application

in

what is good and of denying

into the error

other Nominalists

of absolutes .

the existence

of

The cultural mores

the primitive

con

tribes would not be

doned in our own society , though they are regarded as good and beneficial by the primitive people . We need not go outside our own society to find customs which are divergent and even dia opposed to one another . A large sector of our society places great stress upon obtaining college degrees . At the other extreme there is a religious agricultural group which believes

metrically

compulsory

that even

the

In

elementary

of morals

realm

and

is wrong

education

ethics

, good and

.

bad are viewed

individually as relative matters of opinion depending upon ex perience . One individual may perform acts which would make a

be

,

or

by

,

ing

scrupulous person panic -stricken . Secretly taking possession of something which belongs to another may be considered as steal borrowing simply using what might otherwise un or

of

racketeer might percentage gives a

of

modern he

A

if

as a

.

to

robbing the rich supply the poor regard himself public benefactor charity The businessman his income

in

.

he

,

the

.

be

the owner The act might considered either good depending upon bad ethical judgment the individual performing the act Robin Hood did what considered good used

of

morally

ruthless

in

politician might

be

he

in

,

A

.

things

in

to

.

to

might perform dishonest which he considers good practice essential survival private doing business but life would not think the same acts

pol

playing

be

an

it

to

.

all

,

is

as

of

.

of

, a

of

to

he

might conform though outside the political realm entirely different set religious person reveres standards The good God the fountainhead The atheist thinks the idea personal God replace bad and seeks with what he itics

."

of

is

of

his

of

,

in "

as

,

,

or

in

is

he

is

a

to

humanity believes better concept such the good Though the individual very definite opinions about good what thinks bad social groups men the same culture agree only broad general principles and there still

MOTIVATION

OF BEHAVIOR

less agreement between the various cultures . The reason

of the

him

.

reality

each experiences

good

.

nor bad

with good

of

them

or

-

.

to

se

the individual invests

as

so

only

in

each

,

of

a

in

which are known and knowable alone objects per Real are indifferent neither become

that

the same environment are sub

approximately similar general impacts myriad individual the group goes through

They

for this

and teaching

-

of

own

individuals

to

jected

in

groups

experiences

reality testing

of

Though

sphere in

dividual has

of his

confusion lies in the uniqueness

67

,

per

.

re

death

.

of

,

,

of

as a

it

horrible instrument

is

in

.

is

,

a

of

the act

.

,

instance

in

considered the abstract also indifferent taking the life human being itself neither good nor bad The reality situation the circum

For

of

Behavior

while the other afraid

a

consider

,

volvers would

possess

only

as

to

would desire se

which

previous experiences with similar objects The firearms might see beautiful weapon it to

by it

to

.

he

one accustomed

,

,

him

in

are engendered

as a

depending upon the type phantasies they arouse people observing Two the same real object revolver might react diametrically opposed with emotions which bad qualities

be

,

is

.

permissible

Killing

in

,

socially

as a

is

In

.

self defense

is

Killing

-

.

bad act

in

or

a

be

all

,

,

of

the motive time for reflection and determination the individual performing the act must considered before killing judgment can rendered our culture deliberate voluntary manslaughter which regarded either murder stances

is

it

is

which the goal

of

is

or or

.

The means

annihilation

that

attained

good

of

of

.

.

bad

as

considered

regarded must also The personal opinion

by

the improvement

toward

be

which

or

,

good

is

as

is a

is a

,

good act and the one who wreaks the greatest de upon good when struction the enemy hero Behavior individually regarded directed toward goals which are socially warfare

in

is

.

of of

is

of

.

a

by

modified

.

is

good and each individual what complex myriad experiences which volve both phantasy and reality Most these experiences are generally conceded accidental The effect obvious trauma bad

68 INTEGRATION

OF RELIGION

It is not difficult to

understand

sonality development

caused

AND PSYCHIATRY

injurious impact upon per

the

prolonged

by

chronic

or

illness

,

, or being born to rejecting parents . Besides the obvious traumata there are literally millions of other ex periences which to the mature mind seem trivial and innocuous ,

physical deformity

influence upon the personality in the impressionable , sensitive period of early childhood . Many things experiences of these are with inanimate and occurrences which cannot be controlled . Regardless of how intelligently and have

profound

a

the parent handles the situation , the

using

himself

relative magic

destructive



that he

has been

child

heavy

a

a

child will think

the whom

blown down by

is

of be

upon

and the tree actually

"

a

wind ,

If

tree ,

traumatic warping of the personality of the child . If a of personal omnipotence thinks of blowing

.

down

phase

the

in

the

child

a

it

impact may cause

his

understandingly

did

but which

a

,

,

to

objects

child

representative

in

the

confirmed

in

will

anxieties

considers

be of

trivial accidents

and

, of

his

child

fears

as

The small

.

.

the child

's

,

judiciously fact

destructiveness

the adult handles the

all

When

he

or

,

continue his imaginary

be

of

be

.

is

he

that

or

ill ,

leaves the household dies the child will sure responsible The child may react with fear him express self because his imagined power and afraid may any hostility thereafter pleased with himself and

becomes

an

is

a

he

-

.

,

people Hence enjoyable treat ice cream cone not only symbolic good parent whom but also can incorporate within

,

for

's

in

is

he

,

child

crying and minimizes the also minimizing the

mind

the

the cone

the child concludes

If

.

or

child for his unreasonable then

behavior over the that

his

of

should punish loss

the

the phantastic good parent and assuming that the de incorporation hopeless needless the real parent

,

sired

the cone

is

value

of of

the real parent reproves the child

value

imagination

.

symbolically

represents

in

.

a

the good parent

it

be

to

also

If

him

to

it

When the child accidentally drops his cone seems catastrophe He loses not only the real delicacy but

.

himself

real parent

incorporation

of

of

frustrations

69

good

phantastic

nature becoming

similar

,

series

a

.

of

disapproves of the desired parent After

OF BEHAVIOR the

MOTIVATION

of

,

is

and

it

with

.

.

a

erratic depends upon the clarity ultimate goals Behavior does not and can exactness

compulsion

the same relentless

toward

but

definite

by

the earliest our present situation

"

as

little

he

the Kingdom

children

who

to

in

does

relation

of

)

15

:

10

(

who become

does what

child



he

.

to

the Bible Mark

ul

experi

as a

was

its

nature and

appreciate why

of

those

to

.

for

acknowledge

them

he

himself

understands himself is

Heaven

relating

and

his parents According

about human reviewing

as

of

one can know

until

he

No

childhood

dispelled

or

goal may

timate ences

be

of

.

and specific goals Some our uncertainty

the cosmos

,

not function with the mathematical operates

is

in

orderly

of

intermediary

.

of

Whether behavior

a

planets

the

or

can

or

.

of

any

harmony toward definite nature move predict with marvelous accuracy where year will hundred years hence

the forces

The scientists

be

All goals

AND ULTIMATE GOALS of

of

INTERMEDIARY

,

,

by

a

to

as

more complex the child grows the individual would be likely develop philosophy that the incorporation the phantastic good parent though desired unattainable himself

can

upon the authority

God

others

.

accepted

of

.

of

.

Fatherhood God The actual experience people reality which most have had with the God has been through imagination Revealed truths and historical evidence are the

Intelligent reasoning

veri

is

.

found everywhere the environment The realness the material objects strength reality spiritual ens faith the the Good Father represented

of

the Father

.

the unconscious

working out

The destruction

of

The continuous process in

.

done

of

of

.

in

is

by

the objects

tionship

of

representatives

in

Symbolic

are

is

in

to

of

.

's

of

continuously impelled existence Man spiritual toward the realization closeness the Good Father Who known and experienced childhood fies the reality

rela material

the

70 INTEGRATION

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

things regarded as bad symbolically annihilates the phantastic bad parents . The improvement of material objects makes the phan tastic parents good . Throughout life the phantastic good parents become attainable them

goals

are

realized

when the intermediary

, i.e .,

which symbolize

assumed actually

made parents

goals which

real . Because

these

are attainable , it can

goal

represent

intermediary be logically

that the ultimate of intimate association with omnipotent good parents can also be realized . God in

His Heaven

is this

ultimate goal .

CHAPTER

6

SYMBOLS AND THEIR INTERPRETATION

GOD

THROUGH SYMBOLS

SEEN

chapter we concluded that the union with God Supreme the Good ) is the ultimate goal of human activ all

In the previous

.ity

( as

be

the

The phantastic

by

.

of

concept

.

be

be

by

?

the

explanation

imagination

which

the

to

stimulated According natural spiritual reality possible only is

.

of

a

some reason which the ma

There must

method bridged Our an

such

of

the spiritual father provides

natural product search for the reality God theology the achievement is

parent

existence

psychological

is

terial and phantastic

His

can

explanation

of

learn

to

men

able

a

for

of of

it

to

. If

is

It

here that our theories approach the psychological gate theology we would assume that God were not known through theological revelation possible how then would

way

is

(

is

to

is

it

in

a

is

),

of

*

by

.

of

through the medium supported material things This thesis Saint Thomas Aquinas who says that since difficult spiritual thing which understand the nature created the difficulty comprehending soul there more uncreated Sub

88 ,

.

1,

,

,

,

,

, of

by

. .

art

3

.

,

*

,

Summa Theologica Saint Thomas Aquinas first complete American edition literally translated Fathers the English Dominican Province quest with synoptical charts Benziger Brothers New York 1947 Part

71

72 INTEGRATION

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

(God ) . Saint Thomas quotes the Bible ( Rom . 1: 20 ) as his source of proof that God can be understood through material

stance

objects .

we consider the symbolic , reality God the of the material object Though

father as representative of

is not to be confused with the reality of God the Spiritual Being . Spirituality is something beyond the material object and is separate and distinct from it.

The spiritual element Pantheism

through

sees

ism

God

. All

them

, however ,

something real, not imaginary . the natural material objects rather than

in

other

is

forms of

, materialism , pagan

naturalism

as

of

in

the

thing

)

, (

appearance

.

ob

see

to

learned

look

but the individual stops there He has spiritual reality through the material the

the father

are

.

not ject

the phantasy

of

suggests

or

which

the

aware

of

say

.

to

If

a

,

and idolatry likewise identify material object the spirit explain these forms ual object we may use our theories imagination been belief we would that the individual has

of

as

all

.

in

God flows

Could

Divine into

all

which the energy

father

?

of

phantastic

the

created

some way

of

by

God with

manifested

.

is

creatures Divine conservation the continuous preserve existence created things which needed

.

All

created

their nature they proclaim

should then

able

by some means

the to

manifested be

.

We

by

?

operations

constructed that

the Creator

be

Divine

all

so

these

to

is

of

the act

see a

of

are

can How things

is

be

it

support

glory

to

be

things would expected through the concept not

concurrence operations

of

operation

and

be

integration

,

,

sociation

.

to

of

Besides the omnipresence God there several other the ological doctrines which pose the necessity for something com parable parents The intimate the theoretical phantastic

of

is

.

manifest

.

is

which God

,

in

,

by

through the natural symbols

or

to

, of

,

in

,

a

.

in

in

of

or

imprint reflection God created things There poetic more than reference the statement that we see God the heavens the raindrops even the face the hu man derelict We cannot course see God directly but only

be regarded

as

symbolism

at

and

deals with the relationship

73

highest

God We par refer

man

.

it

,

since

of

This may properly level

its

SYMBOLS AND THEIR INTERPRETATION

must delve deeply

.

to

.

,

common

in

the conscious and superficial usage everyday experiences to

look

.

of

symbolism

not obvious

into the unconscious

We might now

tions

conscious level One verify these associa

on a

This

is

realized

.

with God

is

,

of

to

have previously stated that the primary symbols symbolic objects the union ents and through the improvement

which

a

or

object

,

sign

representa to

express

,

a

defined

one thing

an

as

by to be

symbol may of

A

MEANING OF SYMBOLS

.

old

given

of of

,

meanings

new

to

,

The literal meaning convey every phase are

.

not sufficient

multiply

ideas

them

to

,

is

,

As

.

represent

to

words

words however

thought

,

.

of

require new the

it

is

allied

.

association

another

by

by

or

either common characteristics Symbols are the tools which the imagination manipulates phantasies Words symbols are ideas New ideas new thoughts new inventions tion

or or "



ex

by

,

In

.

a

,

in

.

a

A

or

.

,

words For example the word bright originally meant giving bright idea bright mind also gives radiating light off light symbolic figurative off but different sense than the original connotation language thoughts are everyday vividly and interestingly concrete images rather general terms Literature and poetry made metaphor symbolism more forceful and beautiful the The various parts the human body are richly symbolic The are

.

of

the

.

by

abstract

of or .

of

than

or

by

pressed more

. .

's

a

person

inferring cowardice

.

,

guts

to

a

of

a

,

no

Vulgar expressions refer or

pearls

a

a

or is

.

's

tears

.

and

having guts meaning courage

,

as

Teeth

are

a

is

.

A

be

is

of

pierc whiplash the window the soul The tongue ing sword person may gold hardhearted have heart crowning glory virility sign Hair woman and man eye

.

There are also other very expressive vulgarities associated with bodily excrements Human qualities and characteristics are ascribed symbolically

74 INTEGRATION

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

things which are animated as in childhood . The wind whispers or roars. The waves of the sea sob . The country flows with milk and honey . We speak of the the bosom and to

,

of its

.

the road

Michigan

of

The state

the foot

of

,

the cave

the shoulder

dam

.

a

is

of

the mouth

the mountain the breast the Italy given heel and toe

,

the earth

,

the bowels

of

, of

,

lap

inanimate

has

person sees

The jealous be

An angry

.

. .

Colors are also symbolic person green with envy

red

.

thumb

as

in a

in

is

.

of

a

with

,

symbolic represen

same reverence and

the

An

treated

is a

statue

the sword the power Money

.

,

,

.

is

a

.

as a

of

person and

or

picture

A

symbolizes security

a

or

or

,

,

,

of

.

to

or

is

be

it

,

.

to

of

clothing represents the person article may represent person belongs trinket the whom and the same affection that bestowed upon the person may trans gifts ferred his her belongings Old letters writings it

respect

,

of

.

or

cowardice the scepter the crown represent authority and

,

badge



the

,

queen

and

all

of

retreat

The king gavel

is

he is

. .

is

dicative

tation

.

is

is

yellow Sins may The coward The disillusioned person has dark brown taste his symbolic purity black despair mouth White When Showing the white feather person depressed blue scarlet

by

try

symbols Mother coun

.

Illusory persons are also represented symbolized the flag Honor

by

it .

or .

other productions are treasured because the association with thing produced symbolically represents the one who them The the person who produced was associated with

,

in

of

as

Father

or

place

,

object

,

of

representations the part The keys

stand for the whole

an

.

,

symbolic

father appears

and the like

.

In

,

Time the Fatherland person may

is

home The illusory

.

and

Church the fertility good mother symbolized

to

,

by

the house

Mother

and the protective

,

representations

good mother earth

of

.

of

.

a

is

religious

to

to

.

is

the flag means honor country Disrespect the means dishonor though the flag ac piece tually cloth The illusory mother also found

the city are repre

SYMBOLS AND THEIR

INTERPRETATION

75

to

of

all

sentative of the entire city . When the politician throws his hat winning into the ring he intends to devote his interests

.

.

of

.

,

.

for

all

.

to

his campaign The lover gives his heart the loved one When we pray for our daily bread we mean our necessities Respect gray hairs means respect for the aged We indicate the part but we mean the whole

AND PREJUDICE

SUPERSTITION

IN

SYMBOLS

are

,

to

by

in

of

Superstitions are based upon symbolic associations which origi perpetuated nate the phantastic magic childhood and adult reinforcement and transmission from one generation

or

us ,

in

or

.

of

.

is

of

prejudices likewise The origin the symbolic sub thing prejudices stitution one for another Our are founded upon our association objects which have with individuals another

to

be

a

If

a

of

a

by or

,

a

If

us .

or

a

at car .

.

of

a

of

or

injured person we befriended benefited particular make we may not like that dislike drives car type car Our dislike for the person may transferred projected upon the we have been accorded disservice gasoline station we may not thereafter certain attendant

harmed

if

,

,

or

.

,

a

an

a

in

.

he

gasoline sells On the other hand we are by courteously treated traffic policeman distant city we may have amiable feeling toward that entire city Prejudices like the brand

and dislikes

hidden

from

buried

in

likes

us ,

prejudicial

is

.

of

,

,

either favorable unfavorable are unreasonable but they are upon founded factual incidents Usually the actual cause our the

un

.

conscious

we must associations

person

of

has

no a

a

all

for example that Consciously state

,

Suppose

prejudices

the symbolic he

prejudice against

our

,

them

.

surrounding

of

an

understand the reasons attempt honest appraisal

of

for

OF SYMBOLS

To

INTERPRETATION

he

he

he

In

.

in

to

his

, .

a

certain knows particular reason for feelings but believes would never reviewing his associations might like live that state

INTEGRATION

76

OF

RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

of flat country and long straight highways , but these associations bring back only pleasant memories of times spent in the state in his earlier years. He might recall great fields of first

bogs. These , too

pleasant

other

to

to

he

it a

of

he

.

to

felt that there was

to

.

to

,

,

forgotten

the partner

praise

's

the state had the unconscious The only thing that remained conscious was the feeling dislike for the state The symbol individual had unconsciously the state the defrauding partner

.

of .

a

as

up

of

.

set

of

also been buried deeply

in

there had been

of

; .

's

of

ward

his

,

the Union

and how

fine state originally felt mistrust and hostility the defrauding partner was transferred the city and the partner birth The fact that the partner was born in

other state

his home town

The resentment state

this city

should

and has passed through

other recollections comes consciousness He recalls this business partner always bragged about the beauties

and advantages no

A

.

!

there

as

how

But why

business

as

flood now

of

was born

most

eventually uncovers the partner who defrauded him the rediscovery this hidden memory

his prejudice

.

of

sources

him

the cities

has never lived there Diligent probing

times

,

associations come begins until review

, .

He

At

him

several

of

bother

of

toward one ?

,

but nothing rankles

consciousness his feeling

but

number

A

.

recollections

of

tomatoes or cantaloupes or cranberry

are

think

the above

of

-

An

.

be

the conclusions reached

in

tion

of

of

-

of

in

Only through actual experience self observa the process and self analysis can the validity the interpretation symbols appreciated abrupt interpreta the meaning

tion

example would

have

.

ridiculous

himself

understand their the interpretation

.

of to

to

in

must trace back through his associations significance permit acceptance order

real

or

.

,

of

.

phantasied

wall rationalizations based upon grievances against the state The individual a

have built

up of

on

as

The individual would have been im mediately placed the defensive protecting himself against the violence his hidden feelings toward the partner He would been branded

SYMBOLS AND THEIR INTERPRETATION

SYMBOLISM Freud

's

IN EVERYDAY

Psychopathology

77

LIFE

of Everyday

( 10 )

Life

is a

master

describes the tenuous and devious operations of the human mind . However , pathology indicates abnormality . At forget familiar names make mistakes reading times all

we

in

are

these mental

,

and regularly considered normal rather than pathological

they

so

.

in

be

guilty

are

that

is

,

.

contrary abnormal the everyone appear persistently

tricacies must

and as

periodically

To

.

,

of

and writing make slips the tongue thoughtless acts The Freudian inference

of

in

,

us

all

of

piece which

of

by

in

to

light The mechanisms which Freud brought the Psycho pathology Everyday Life constitute the normal method

we work

out our psychological

of

which

problems and attain

the

.

of

of

of

in

of

as

So

.

of

In

the good father the nor ordinarily person mal does not reach the long level awareness we are making satisfactory progress movement toward the incorporation the good father we the incorporation the symbolic meaning

realization

the unconscious object and become aware

We then

. is

It

so .

do as

unreasonable

emotions which

the re

take special notice

of

.

of

tained

in

of

is

is

It

not conscious

us

objects about symbols even the use necessary neither nor desirable that we should only when progress toward the good father blocked that we become conscious our symbolic objects which are normally are

we re

in

at

A

.

at

on

of

of

the roof may arouse similar feelings When we unconsciously good father and mother phantasies assure ourselves the

,

one time pay

When we

then

the rain

attention

a

of

.

parents

to

of

the bad

security

no

We may

feeling

at

disquieting

phantasies

.

be

threatened

gives

a

roof

us

the

by

on

of

.

can rain

are

.

which

in

is

the same but the difference the state our the clock symbolizes The patter rain

,

The clock phantasies

is

a

,

.

at

.

it

to

Normally we note differences our feelings toward ticking clock may the same object different times one soothing time have effect and another time sound ominous

late

will drip

AND PSYCHIATRY

time the same leak may prove intoler

.

become conscious .

by

performance

the

completing

to

If

to

we

.

our symbols

try

task

good

or

of

.

of or

healthy

ones

pleasure that

analyze

the

attempt this

the conscious mind with things which should Only necessary for the pathological state is

indulge

deep probing

the

uncon

his

of

to

the average individual

in

.

be unconscious

it

simple burden

in

we

of

unconscious meanings

all

not desirable

is

.

necessary

It

us

by

of

,

a

and the bad phantasies are changed annoyance We are aware only our feelings Normally symbolic objects accorded the this book

. or

,

act

The disturbing feelings are dissipated of some reparative or reassuring reading

The unconscious mean

is

arouses

a

it

does not normally

all

ing of the symbolization

to

another

able because of the phantasies

is

ping faucet . At

OF RELIGION

as

INTEGRATION

78

an

unreason by

disturbance

in

of

is

by

he

a

is

painfully aware produced

is

he

.

of

,

directed toward knives and them The phobia

able fear

. .

of

a

of

be

by

to

in

symbols scious order understand the meaning behind pathological may exemplified phobia The state knives abnormally The attention the individual with this phobia

.

be

by

.

is

life The individual believes threatened the phantastic bad father symbolized the knife which cannot handled When the unconscious phantasies are recognized and im phantasy

In

reducing symbols

:

divided into Father symbols

Mother symbols Combined father mother symbols

-

3

to no

the

primary groups we find that they

five categories

. 2. 1.

be

OF SYMBOLS can

CLASSIFICATION

the work

had

the psychotic Sechehaye

.

well

symbols

individual

formerly

( 37 )

shown very

objects

use

and

.

The

the

in

level attention

in

is

state

,

unconscious

to

.

ward the knives

the knife symbol drops

M

the

longer retains the feeling

of

into

treatment

he

psychiatric

as

through

back again

of or

proved

SYMBOLS

. 5. 4

THEIR INTERPRETATION

AND

79

Symbols representing the interior of the body representing bodily contents

Symbols

.

and

Differences

the interpre

in

of

body

of

the

Symbols

the interior bodily contents are also practically universal opinion about the universality symbols arise

.

mother

of

represent

of

the

Viewed objectively these primary groups are universal in their meaning . Even with the vicissitudes of subjective interpretation some objects invariably represent the father while others always

,

the

all

are

of

be

.

to

of

.

It

the

of

be

-

of

combined father mother because the individual may aware the representation one parent only and over proven that objects look other will eventually representations potentially reducible the symbolic father tation

Symbols all

by

Father

through

, .

as

's

,

themselves

of ,

a

where

of is

a

be

,

a

their concept working process

with the

of

In

to

like

problems

reflection

conform

.

should

emotional

him

in

see

father

him

father substitutes baby can father symbol The boy however his parent

even

.

to

to

mold

appreciated

,

as

of

a

boy

understand parents The

attempt

what the

are readily

be

little man

and

,

.

more difficult

.”

"

is

or

,

so

teachers and surrogates How

or

on

in

be

or

the

Father symbols are represented male persons whether they younger dealing with them person older than persons positions authority kings Male male employers

the authoritative father permit approach then

,

,

be

is

is

to

too forbidding and hostile the conflict solved first through inanimate objects which rep resent the father then with younger male persons who can figure

God

of

The Christian belief that the Infant Jesus

also

verifies om

can

.

.

in

The individual gains assurance this man gradually approach the older father figure is

that

safety

he

ner

so

handled with

,

of

a

ap

.

be

a

is

physically weak and harmless child who this concept nipotent like the father Though God the Father may proached only with awe and feeling reserve we may permit

that

assure ourselves

symbols are

Father

He

thereby

and

cannot hurt

to God . yet and believe close

God

found

also

representation

the

A

.

, .

symbol

father

as

is

,

,

,

,

as

or

.

.

,

and feet

,

,

,

of

extend such the nose fingers arms are similarly treated Hairs hairy things animals and snakes are customarily father symbols Whether the father phantasied good bad depends upon the feeling toward the Parts

legs

the body which

as

necktie also appears

a

,

,

,

in

a

, ,

a

or

a

cord

,

.

as

,

of

string

or

"

"

phallic

the

symbol represents the whole The anything sharp male person Male symbols are seen elon pencil stick knife gun post and the like piece gated

.

part for the whole

of

Omnipotent

Infant

the

in

He

close to

.

that

feel

to

is

We

can

ourselves

PSYCHIATRY

AND

us ,

80 INTEGRATION OF RELIGION

.

object

all

as

female persons are mother symbols

,

All

.

Mother Symbols

just

male persons

receptive

objects such

as

apparent

all

.

be

.

symbolize the phantastic father The little girl and infant are persons who can handled safely when older female figures are forbidding too for personal closeness Mother symbols are also

, a

or

of

,

,

a

A

is

.

by

the breast represented

,

by

or

symbolized

in

as

.

.

or

,

,

cave

,

house is

,

in

box drawer closet body tunnel corridor water similarly representative Animals which are definitely stream recognized female fall the same category The mother also room

rounded objects from the terrestrial globe Some objects

,

,

a

as

.

,

.

a

on

.

,

on

A

or

or

to

apple the small grape may symbolize either the father the mother shoe coat depending upon surrounding bottle the circumstances them shoe the foot and hat the head are father symbols Off

a

a

in

Pieces

cloth

,

father symbol

is

alone and inactive caught receptive

of

.

becomes

a

hand

it

glove

or a

.

resent the mother The ball visualized usually mother symbol When thrown

. or as

.

,

a

or

the foot the shoe becomes potentially either father symbol The upturned receptive hat likewise may rep

mother

such

SYMBOLS

insignificant have apparently the background . The box has

father

its

pushed

doorknobs

,

and

the

drawer

and pulled out the cup has

a

doors

have

,

the

has

handle

father connotations are subtle making unnoticed the one the inter so

closet

in

has threads are usually

they

necktie

a

These

by

that

father

.

the cloth

become

in

and

be

room

they

symbols

connotations hidden handles and can

like

symbols , but

are mother

,

Many mother

,

or handkerchief

81

,

,

when rolled or hanging symbols .

INTERPRETATION

THEIR

lid

as a sheet , curtain

AND

.

pretation

Father Mother Symbols by

-

Combined

ob

, ,

its

,

its

.

by

or

or

-

is

symbolized The combined father mother phantasy jects which are receptive pointed boxlike and have long things integrated with them Such symbols are represented steeple the ship with the church with masts and rigging

.

,

on

so

,

its

,

A

.

are

,

,

,

.

,

,

and engine with smokestack the table the bed legs and the chair with their and The airplane automo symbolize the combined bile truck and moving van also similarly regarded parents Crabs spiders and octopuses the train

,

or

.

as

,

,

,

-

a

is

tree also combined father mother symbol the leaves rep resenting the mother and the trunk limbs and branches sym bolizing the father The patient may interpret the tree

The evergreen tree with needles instead leaves has more father symbols yet the fact that one may enter between the branches and climb the tree gives clothing may likewise repre mother connotation Articles

.

feminine

be

.

a

of

it

;

of

either masculine

female

.

either male

or

recognized

as

in

a

is

in

,

.

off

or

on

,

sent the father and the mother together and viewed different light when the body The human body has both father and mother symbols but the person the body

82 INTEGRATION

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

Symbols Representing the Interior The interior of the body furnaces ,

boilers ,

and

the parental body

symbolized by machinery

forth . The condition

so

is

is

of the Body

of vital

matter

a

,

engines

,

of the interior of

concern

.

phantasy

in

as a

clock

Clocks

.”



of

is

the inference

and

.

,

The clock ticks

body operates

a

of

.

to

for

Childish curiosity is born of the desire to know whether or not the symbolic interior of the body is a safe place his spirit wondering speak person enter We what makes tick that the interior

and watches are common

the

sym



or



,

coal

as

,

,

crumbs

of

of

ammunition

strength

.”

ego

"



or



what the psychoanalysts call

OF SYMBOLIC OBJECTS

IMPROVEMENT

the real objects about

us

improving

as

be

which provide

By

The symbols

.

in

us

working out our unconscious problems bodily contents may supplies regarded

to

at

.

,

.

,

on

so

a

,

,

a

in

, ,

dirt

falling rain and smoke and the like symbolize dangerous flatus Though some these symbols are obnoxious first glance they are essential from

spigot

mud

odors water stream explosions gases Wars

,

contents are represented certain foods paint

snow

, ,

,

Contents

,

Bodily money

Bodily

,

Symbols Representing

belly

by

old lady

.”

's .

as

the



an



he 's.

if

as



to

his furnace

,

of

representing the interior the parental body particularly angry person the mother The blows off steam blows his top engine The steelworker consciously refers were bols

and making

them

good

improve our unconscious phantasies which the objects rep spiritually we must learn grow resent order handle enjoy symbolic objects accept use and our Those who the his

periods

of

of

.

.

are regressing

to

that they

of

as

Freud well theories will spiritual isolationism Personal con sexual assault Enjoyment material as

of

.

them

of

threats to

to

tacts are them things indicates

develop

a

philosophy

tend

to

materialistic necessity

,

to

to

In

,

.

we

SYMBOLS AND THEIR INTERPRETATION

.

childhood eats

.

defiant or aggressive

The Freudian

is either

for ice

or apples means

A yen

cream

regression

83

when he an “ oral ”

to

.

Consider the emotional conflict of the Freudian when a spaghetti dinner is placed before him ! If clouds and the hills mother symbols dare we not enjoy their beauty Need we feel ashamed be children to

Heaven

?

children

of

?

or

Mother Earth

of

,

are

the

phase

we are

Though

adults

we

in

of

we but permit

,

of

softness

's

neighbor

the grass

without

garden

flowers

,

pick

of

or

the his

enjoy

wanting

,

, of

in

We may

him

or

feet

pane

a

the window

.

our

being envious

of

beneath

on

raindrops

to

red

as

, of

.

in

Too often we ignore the potential pleasures such simple the aroma coffee cooking the morning the beauty shining apple the splendor the sunset the glistening

looked things the of a

our

the lesser aspects granted over

for

daily

to

to

pause

or

phantasies

can facilitated appreciate the pleasures living which are customarily taken

selves

of

be

proving our

if .

of

us

.

in

to

have use the same symbolic objects we used childhood They are the means which are provided for the continuous unconscious search for the Reality God The process im

and

we may

possess her woman without desiring potential goodness goodness Phantasies our own the our parental figures and their beneficent interpersonal union

of

,

share

their own beautiful things

and

apprecia to

attitude

of

are

,

an

of

,

a

to

by ,

possess

the development things willingness

.

others

simple

to

tion

of

strengthened

.

to

beautiful

of

a

admire

permit

.

CHAPTER

7

WORK AND PLAY

PSYCHOLOGICAL NEED

THE

TO

WORK

To a large extent we are forced to improve our symbolic ob jects because of the need to work , which requires the expendi ture of effort to overcome those things regarded as bad and to

also

we may

times

unhappy

of

but the Biblical dictum expression

that

wish

a

an

,

sweat

is

and Eve

we

did

for which

, is

gained

he

the

are

be

individual

job

the

satisfaction

and in

work when

from

pleasure is

Normally

,

.

.

as

punishment

so

by

, is

because

if

work we would we could not work the most important means which our phantasies are improved Enforced idleness could well regarded to

not have

Adam

bread Though

do

.

that man must earn psychological need

be at in

sin

of the

his

man because

of

construct those things regarded as good . From the religious standpoint , work is considered to be punishment imposed upon

of

minor duties about

en

the

Beginning

the

home

an in

and social adjustment

of

,

by

of

promoting his sense security part the functioning family

8 5

vital and necessary

of

important factors

him

in

,

time making

a

as

,

at

a

In

in

personal growth and the elementary training looking over happy childhood the adult social development recognizes the chores which may have been distasteful the

.

integral part

are fundamental

.

surance mental stability childhood the performance

is

work responsibilities

of

Appropriate

for

.

suited

OF RELIGION

86 INTEGRATION

PSYCHIATRY

AND

it

,

in

a

as

his

stature

himself ex person

.

his

of

to

or

a

cherishes means personality adding his dependently parents child

pressing

developing

of

as

which the

,

its

unit . As interests expand beyond the family circle , satisfaction is found in doing things for neighbors . The boy or girl earns , money not for own sake but because will buy something

he

as

.

is

he

.

to

So

he

an

employee works are the symbolic The objects with which improve his phantasies long can make satisfied The greater the value the worker

means uses his objects good

a

period

.

go

wrong

.

seem

time the worker is

plowshares





or



swords

the

.

by ”

to

to

"

motive

and

it if

.

profit

,

. of

income

the

but However

necessary

importance

, ,

is

of

deprived

primary

by of

industrialist deprived worker

is

the

as

be

should not

regarded

,

objects Making money

overcome bad

is

to

is

to

and





,

,

of

fight the imaginary bad swords father seen the enemy the plowshares create the imagi nary good mother and father symbolized the earth and crops primarily designed Work create and produce good objects

work the

in

goal

figurative

"

.”

of



The construction primary

will

and everything

to

his objects

When bad phantasies persist over will be accident prone

of

handling

,

in

the

.

,

,

be

can place upon his objects the better will his phantasies Poor materials defective tools and shoddy workmanship interfere with good production and the associated good phantasies When bad phantasies become threatening worker will have trouble

the

they excessive taxation then symbolizes and the money

to

,

to

the

.

-

self ideal

his

By

advance toward

a

to

.

,

strength lose personality which thereby lose efficiency Normally people work not accumu late enough money make further work unnecessary but

,

,

,

a

to

, ;

as

of

The social group begins the family unit development growth the and the individual progress satisfaction

of

and

as

feeling

. of

.

a

of

of

the faithful performance work individual gains feeling security through social support respect and pro belonging tection The sense deep the social group gives

WORK AND PLAY 87 include the community and eventually that large collective group of others with whom the individual has direct or indirect contact . Society itself becomes more secure because of the stability and industry of individual members Compe expands

to

ex

a

is

in

a

is

there balance between competition stimulate to

needs enough enough cooperation

in

is

,

,

it

it

.

society

-

adjusted

person

and

the feeling

satisfy

be

the social group

to

,

centive longing

well

extremes

stimulus produces hopeless

and cooperation are not mutually

to

Every

Normally

found and

.

.

them

the

.

In

clusive

carried

to

,

but

Competition

.

frustrations

the community

if

improvement

.

, of

,

is a

groups

other

in

in

every social unit the office the factory

normal characteristic the normal family the school

tition

It .

its

to

of

it

specific vocation

of

VOCATIONAL CHOICE 's

of

must serve

as a

It

better than others

.

well

or

as

.

all

at

be

to

is

he

if

by

as

do

of he

can

be

to

is

because

.

A

one unconscious needs permitted and drives One must be able and follow his chosen happy The type vocation work must something useful and necessary which regarded the worker chosen

means

in

a

his

It

.

in

an in

of

by

a

to

an

,

domineering

par

rebel because

.

his

of

,

a

totalitarian state The individual who follow the occupation choice will eventually or

is to

whether forced

he

have

frustrating

industrialist

not free to

is

,

ent

an

occupation

.

in

to

in

of

-

self expression and repay adequate returns satisfaction performance service the attainment ideal must support the person also supply sufficient remuneration specific chosen station life Forcing individual follow

must satisfy his unconscious needs and

.

drives

his of

,

,

on



obtained through avocations

.

be

must



,

of

.

society

his is

and monotonous

in

so

jobs often found our industrial provide ized cannot the satisfaction which craved person When the worker cannot put part himself part ality his own trade mark his work then satisfaction

Routine

INTEGRATION

88

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

.

to

The employer

make

to

efforts failure

of

.

the working man

to

restricted

.

nity

a

in

of

a

him

is not an unfeeling automaton , and soulless cog machine are destined recognized But ideals labor must be

Man

all

IDEALS OF SERVICE dig

The

service are not the leader

and

Servus

,

, en of

which

stifle

not permit bad

for

work

he

the amount

a

He of

.

a

substitute

is

.

symbolic

father concerned only with

is

and

the

destiny

his

father when

is

he

The employer

the individual

do

,

of

,

his

work out

witness

,

to

of

to

the him

Servorum

When the masters be

come unwilling serve those under them we growth autocracy monopoly and bureaucracy initiative and incentive



,



,

.



God

the servants

)

of

.” of

servant

(“



of

The Pope signs himself

obedient servant

Dei

,

,

,

.

by

by

In

.

to

looking back over the beginnings must also deign serve our country we are impressed the ideals service Founding Washington tertained the Fathers Jefferson great men that they were signed themselves Franklin Your

who

is In

.

of



would

he

job

with

.

revolt could his employer from

another

more representative

an

find himself

If

to

would have

have

the attitude

the symbolic

of

of

endow

of

in

The worker had with

look elsewhere for real persons whom the imaginary qualities the good father

The helpful father phantasy

.

could

of

he

.

ployer

the labor unions was the inevitable result the symbolic good father the person the em to

the loss

of

.

good father The growth

change

of

employer

he

good

,

to

bad

the employee would

assert himself and

be

,

the bad father

not

of to

.



,

by

a

of

of of

employees without regard their welfare the employee such man the real father who reality the employer confirms the the phantastic bad father As everyone must combat and overcome gets out

the mind symbolized

to

.

in

was transferred the labor leader the worker placed his confidence The labor leader who becomes more concerned with his own power than the welfare whom

WORK AND PLAY

use

em

worker revolted The unjudicious frustrating the strike and other wasteful labor practices the worker

are

to

Prince

He thereby of

!”

of

, .

Lucifer serve

to

the earliest account refusing be

Lucifer

,

This of

.

Devils

.

Prince

The mental attitude

,

became Satan mental illness

will not is

I

,

to

God

refusal behavior Referring

of

the story “

,

who announced

An attitude

neurotic

in

.

read

of

we of

,

Angels

as

Bible

's

the

overwork

evidence

one to

again

forced

duties

is

perform

of as

.

of

the

the same error as the unscrupulous

to

of the worker falls into ployer against whom

89

is

.

.

of

all

It

.

to

to

for

be

,

of

misery service produced the change from bliss would anyone else necessary not condemn the action The very attitude disservice itself produces mental misery This in

is

,

do it

by



to

be

or

over feel that we will otherwise them We must perform the act

punished

.

.

do

all

in

on

.

equal

cannot hope

the employer without along with the job that they have equal

go

of

achieve the privileges and prestige also taking the responsibilities which above him All men are created equal to

men

The worker

an

place

failure

on

all

to

underdog

economic basis are doomed



FOLLOWERS “

of

Efforts

the

LEADERS AND

to

be

we

annihilated

the

.

or

parents

the attack

ourselves from

by

phantastic whelmed

as

protecting

we are merely



.

is

,

.

human

of

spirit

in

relations Whenever something done the constructing and improv service we are symbolically ing the phantastic father and mother and strengthening good phantasies When something done because we have true

say

to

to

is be

It

.

or

,

human rights and dignity but not have equal intelligence ability would ridiculous that the notoriously equal defective Juke family Einstein and thereby entitled

.

mental collapse

or

in

invite physical

a

;

or

to

leadership

is

an

To

responsibility

or

position

of

.

.

to

the same honor and remuneration Some men are leaders most put incompetent unequipped man are followers

INTEGRATION

90

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

the

has

IDLENESS AND OVER WORK to

.

of

,

of

supplied machines Modern inventive genius take drudgery out work and has provided more time for potential Electricity has reduced the amount physical effort idleness

offers

physical

do

to

.

by

sitting

The

elim

We can

while our achieve our destiny we do

machine

.

done for

idly

To

satisfaction a

is

work

emotional

by

gain

us

not

by

to

.

of

need

to

the individual work cannot inated Whenever we deprive ourselves the need susceptible labor we render ourselves more neuroses

fundamental

emo

to

has added

that

.

but

be

,

tasks

advantages

it

very

the

it

everyday

of

by

in

of

the performance tional problems

.

by

a

nervous breakdown

.”

.

.

hospitals

physical and

the treatment

of

work

re

The only

of

the treatment

to

cannot hope

hobbies therapy shops

to

,

,

in

or

of

We

did their

the rehabilitation disabled veterans Occupational therapy however was known The spiritual mental advancement and enrich

World War

II .

disease was rediscovered

the ancients

.

utilized

The usefulness

of

.

disorders

except

occupational in

where the crafts

are

is

found

in

satisfactions

these

counterpart mental

when men

our museums today

the time

the marvelous handi

.”

"

to

of

crafts which today adorn gain

work was

from

the Middle Ages and the Renaissance please God work This was the age

at

SATISFACTION

satisfaction

in

greatest

in

The era

,

of

ERA OF GREATEST

of

have

of

will

as

then

a “

,

works

he

of

he

to

he

.

If

.

in

an

attempt The individual incessantly drives himself through improve phantasies work his neurosis fails his the improvement the symbolic objects with which

neurosis

by to

of

is a

.

in

,

if

he



"

a

search

to

of

for other types work working too developed No one ever nervous breakdown along with the work hard had sufficient physical and men ordinary times symptom tal rest Voluntary overwork

must then

WORK AND PLAY 91 ment which can be attained through ordinary everyday work was recognized by the religious workers in the old monasteries .

St.

Basil discouraged

Anthony ,

and

the excessive

encouraged the performance

St .

taught by

asceticism

of work

as

being of

greater value than self - imposed penances and privations . He es tablished hospitals and orphanages near the monasteries , so that the monks could put these principles into practice . St. Benedict Nursia

,

born about 480 , taught that work was not the duty it is necessary for the well-being of men

God



.

est

to

him

clear

Work



,

tenets was

everything depended

if

as of

Laborare

for spiritual ad

sent

and

a

. of ;

on

on as if

a

vice Benedict gave billhook away briars and make garden One everything depended you pray

prayer him

Goth went

to as

, . ” St .

the troubled him

When

orare

important

his

just

considered work

as

He

all

slaves , but that

.

of of

The monks took care

of

.

to

all

to

to

of

,

of

.

to

.”

the sick and the aged and gave travelers All who came the monastery were under the supervision the Abbot and were expected type apply themselves occupation some Like the Bene

shelter

,

,

,

.

a

of

as

to

a

,

dictines the Cistercians also considered idleness source evil To copying manuscripts lan farming study and applied themselves spiritual development The hospices and gardening means to

modern

to

in

A

toward work would

attitudes

restoring peace and order

our present

day

-

and revaluation

great deal

a

survey

help

.

in

.

their families The monks rehabilitated these encouraging interest occupations current of

people

by

tolerated

by

or

.

of

to

or

hospitals were established furnish hospitality travelers and wayfarers Many the wanderers were mentally disturbed people who left their homes because they were not understood

.

world

relieved

from

which

the

responsibilities

destiny

.

one

's

achieving

individual

Recrea tem

and thereby

is

in

work

process

in

essential

revivifying

as

as

OF RECREATION

his

porarily

a

tion

is

Play

is

IMPORTANCE

better

92 INTEGRATION prepared

to lead

OF RELIGION

full and

a

AND PSYCHIATRY

happy life . It

voluntary pursuit

is a

of

are

,

to

the

gaining

Overemphasis upon

diversion

.

secondary

play recreation impairs the usefulness healthy dis the individual the attainment in

impedes

and

of

benefits derived from

,

of

is

which

.

-by

are

pleasurable pastimes with the primary purpose of obtaining en joyment and relaxation . Concomitant benefits , such as exercise , sociability , good will , acquisition of skills , and financial gain products These secondary desirable the main purpose

With

is

so

to

.

a

,

of

.

be

to

to

,

to

paid content giving pleasure in

, .

and were

dance Com

.

na

a

make

us

cash

tend

to

pay

and television

in

-

the old fashioned barn dance are

of

of

of

.

his

use is

us

the spirit the people our own The Old Their fiddlers played because transmit

to

,

sport movies

in

are

to

of

to

the majority

but ,

mercialized

,

signs

col

prevent nervous

that they had

satisfaction

others Sporadic revivals

hopeful

new

for example

us

the feeling

con great

leisure The average leisure time profitably Rec dissipa energies but rather

reflected

have fun their fiddling

.

to

with

proud

of of

,

for

is

.

It

old

a

is

of

difficult

Old World folk dances World people danced they were

business

,

up

business

American has not learned rarely creation tion

imperative

of

-

.

relaxation

The speed

reation

a

to

,

that rest and lapse

philosophy

mature

time devoted recreation too often time wasted unless the struggle becomes

as

sidered

evolve

upon economic survival and keen

emphasis

competition

failed

to

.

play

we have

nation

a

As

.

tractions

is

a

it

the stadiums

of

colossal ruins

The

Greece silently teach

of of

people

.

ber

of

,

.

in

of

spectators rather than participants tion recreation Passive give enjoyment and relaxation but amusements unfortu large num nate that these are the only forms recreation for

Rome

and

His

tourist

found

in

route

pleasure

is

The vacationing American

.

.

,

or

at

everything

else

en

see

to

ing for someone

by

,

.

a

valuable lesson Often vacations and holidays are used not for recreation but making extra money for getting work done home work wants

the

fact

WORK AND PLAY 93

is

of

.

's

the

with personal security

him

he wants his money worth Another reason for our distorted

ideas

recreation

the

is

and

their potential

,

provide

pleasures

dependent upon

of

money

American

.

he

of

,

themselves but because

The average to

of

accumulation

not for the

,

provide value

.

they may

monetary

acquired

or

are admired in

of

Objects

art

the

that he can report to those back home that he has seen many things and places , but he does not achieve the deep satisfaction contemplation which is available in the things sees

"

all

,

.

He would

but

.

is

it

of

,

,

should

discover the spirit

a

set

roller skate also

skate

to

likes

might

he

to

that social improve sociability

the social

to

.

If

,

sociability

fashionable

to

,

because

for his

of

pleasure

that set likes

he

an

true recreation

individual

golf for the sake

own

but

conform

individual desires helps

does not give

golf and

outlets

,

of

,

it

but

recreational

in

's

regardless

set

play

to

not because they like

Making one

of

,

clubs

"

at

it

,

.

of

abnormal respect for the opinion others We find men playing golf not because they particularly enjoy but because play the men the office We find women attending card

winning

if

to

,

do

"



.

of

it

its

.

-

,

.

a

to

or

following

a



concerned

This

with what we may we can put

rather than

in

ourselves

for

of ,

being selfishly

recreation

rather than with what cards for the winnings

pay social debt meet the right peo is

into

to

is

,

of

an

or

concerts

not recreation when

joy

like playing

sinister motive

impression

the

it

of

false standard

plays and

takes time and healthy self enjoyment

.

injects

get out

create

,

operas a



ple

however

of

Attending

is

aim

to

primary

the satisfaction being entertained

in

to

effort Entertaining

learning

but has never had the time following the habits others

learning process

other

acquire

,

every

process

individual

blindly

does not mean

It

.

Like

to

what one has always wanted

an

it

.

Recreation

is

,

public opinion for

do of

he

.

real recreation could show his initiative and express himself freely and inde pendently even though meant skating alone regardless

94 INTEGRATION

Well -chosen

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

follow

recreational outlets help the adult in the

ing ways :

One can enter freely into his chosen recreation , giving him enjoyment He may not feel the same self wholeheartedly to spirit approaching his work This feeling freedom free

.

of

.

freely

of

his phantasies give

by

overwhelming

of

not too without fear

self

he

assures him

can

of

reconstructing

that the task forbidding and that

dom

is

.

in

of

its

1

counterattack

him

hostile

. his

a

.

choose

be

phantasies

he

his

is

free agent

to

he

he

.

his

,

is

he

he

voluntarily parents because repair the imaginary damage has parental phantastic figures combat the bad

.

do

At

give and take

.”

to

he



,

Rec

must Unconsciously

a

.

free

good

himself to

to

because

his

them

that

not

good imaginary parents wish him truly democratic Recreation permits

3

as

and

phantastic devote

,

chooses

or

he

to his

pleases

done

wants

to

assures himself

.

cause

but improving

to

He

play

work

he

His employer orders

at

him

reation therefore assures the individual that

necessity is

done

is

;

work

he

voluntary

is

.

2

Recreation

of

.

phantastic parental figures

on

, off

of

is

so

him

he

thinks

, if

definite terms what

of

he

his

him

.

can

know

in

.

him

he

.



"

ting

At be

feel that almost always the pleasant and agreeable regardless play his antagonistic feelings can express and work his adversary and trounce antagonism He choose let work the individual may giving end He must

.

real

harm

by

does

the

to

,

not overwhelmed

the

.

he he

assuring himself that symbolic parent when loses and symbolic parent when wins

no

relationship

the parental interpersonal

he is

permissive phantasies

he of

building

is

he

In

.

as a

on

, upan

a

as

.

of

being good sportsmanship wishes He also learns the qualities good loser places good winner well his phantasy equal level with the imaginary parents He himself also

.

.

4

The advantages derived from recreational activities are more equitable than from work The more active the part

WORK AND PLAY

95

played , the greater the benefits . Satisfaction is in proportion to voluntary proper the contribution of effort with motives . The same may not be true at work . The individual is able to make equitable atonement for devotes of himself

phantastic

damage

,

the more he

and

the repair , the greater satisfaction

to

at

he

tains. stimulating because losing

It

and mentally

winning and the danger

.

the

exhilaration

of

is physically

Recreation

of

.

5

it affords

to

can

or

.

opponent

he

is

in

in

,

no

he

can

the

frighten

annihilated

unrestrained

who sym

of

.

at

frustrations

,

,

relieves

difficult

less

and

makes

The child who can

them

, .

tensions

reality

for

to

children

in

in

,

.

work and play

must

establish

a

however

,

,

The adult

of

up

.

is

cannot work out his problems and his emotional stunted Normally the formative years child waking play phantasies take the greater portion

not play growth

,

indulge

annihilating

He

play show how they use express and solve their emotional problems Their

eases

-

adaptation

.

being

.

to

their games

tween

possibly

parent

make believe

life

and reassure himself that

real damage

,

of

thought

Observation and study

hood

attack

or of

has caused

,

by

the

at a

bolizes

make

the thought his opponent

himself with wiped out glee

the

is

able not damaged

to

is

when

or

he

.



of

is

In

of

.

is







of

requires exertion and effort before the satisfaction simply working having fun phantasy the individual attained through the battle the wits childhood his plans attack and annihilate the symbolic parents Pleasure achieved

proper balance

be

CHAPTER

8

INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS

OTHERS

inanimate objects

imagination produces

un

In dealing with

By

WITH

the

RELATIONS

as

he

positive

by

be

.

both the object and the phantastic person

A

-

in

by

are

, .

improving the conscious phantasies which look like persons symbolic object the phantasies improved and one feels reality testing that sured the experience can handle

relation

in . or

,

,

.

achieved

good interpersonal

relations

a

developing

is

The process

,

of

spiritual reality

contact with

is

then

Through

of

, .

spirit

addition there the relationship with complex potentially infinite mind soul interpersonal relationship the medium the

but

,

exceedingly

is

symbols

,

animate

the

in a

is

is

or

.

's

to

only learning developed with people can handle one symbolic material things satisfactorily The interpersonal relationship partly physical material and partly spiritual symbolic material object like the The physical body

ship

.

re it

.

-

re

's

.

a

making the material objects good cleaning out closet good phantasies are Then imagination one established

or is

-

,

or

such

sorting postage stamps

in

wood

,

chopping

,

grass

Self confidence inanimate objects

.

become unpleasant

working with impersonal By

cutting

phantasies

,

as

stored

by

arise and

is

is

of

.

,

continuous one throughout life However the actual working through never continuous for any prolonged period time Everyone normally makes temporary retreats when difficulties

97

INTEGRATION

possible

AND PSYCHIATRY

deal with people instead of things . repeated efforts at reality -testing one improves other persons and strengthens the spiritual inter

go forth

to

Through

of

concept

OF RELIGION again

to

his

98

in

is

men were

of

in

found

God

.

The union interpersonal relations interpersonal relations are idea

.

of

with God

of all

to

the ultimate goal

an

qualities potentially

the good

infinity one would have

is

.

If

men magnified

all of



to

"

.

of

personal bond Since man made the image and likeness through God one learns know God these experiences with

to

.

,

person

,

to

the

cultural mores

the leaders

of

by

up

and

as

of

a

ethical standards set

(7 )

.

of

member the group Freud helpless victim social oppres

trating restraints arbitrarily preserve their power group

frus

the social

He infers that the individual can personal satisfaction only circumventing with

restrictive

.

as

compete

well

as

It

.

its

nature frustrating can and should gregarious drive forces the individual The to

.

stimulating

by

is

,

be

forced

supportive

to

individual

as

the

is

true that

but social forces Competition not others

are

It

is

.



find social restrictions

by

momentary



.

to

The

of

is

individual and

regarded

"

of



( 39 ) of

Stack

develop

as a

as

an

.

tie

.

He

closeness

are the most satisfactory aspect the interpersonal

the individual

considered sion

intimate

Sullivan the spiritual extremely limiting Freudianism

not

Orthodox

both

communion

be

of

he

does

Harry



,

theories

but

spiritual

the

to

express





, ”

.

of

to

The psychoanalytic explanations unsatisfactory mainly because they tend limit the operation introjec potentially concepts the limitless mind The tion identification and oceanic feeling are inadequate

.

,

be

in

be

to

its

,

of

lems

,

so

himself with others that he can work out the prob interpersonal relations improving himself and others and developing his personality fullest spiritual capacity Aggressions and hostilities may experienced isolation but sociate

of

,

.

or

be

to

they cannot dissipated without actively relating oneself people and things whether these illusory Similarly real feelings tenderness and love are useless without objects upon

INTERPERSONAL

RELATIONS

99

by his

na

which the emotions can be bestowed . The individual

ture seeks to ally himself with others with whom he finds under standing , sympathy , and moral support so that he can establish confidence in directing himself toward the goals he considers de sirable . The social force is the cumulative influence of the ions , attitudes , and prejudices of other individuals whom

opin

one

feels he must or . Every individual to a greater or degree less exerts his own influence upon others and thereby has

should respect

modifying effect upon society . No one knows another person as he or she really is. Knowledge of people is obscured by our own illusions about them . The lusory or phantastic element is present in every interpersonal a

il

relationship . These illusions may be constructive or destructive , helpful or harmful, expansive or minimizing . Every person has

many is

to his total personality . The doctor , for example , his patients in one light . Another relationship exists

facets

seen

by

between

him

and his wife

;

another between

and his children

him

.

Still other views of this same individual are present in relation ships with medical and business associates , social companions , and so forth . Personal appraisals of the doctor by a patient and by a business associate may be radically different . Even his wife 's eval uation

of

children

.

quainted

sonality .

may be contrary to the appraisal of him by his In our relationships with other people we are ac with but a few of the many facets in the total per him

We

are prone

to

build up phantasies

based

upon the

facet which is disclosed to us. Furthermore , the things we find in the personality of another are those things we need to complement our own , and to help us solve our own per particular

sonality

We

problems .

of

influence

one ever can be aware of the extent of his influence

for

the profound

we have

upon the lives of others. To those we love we give tremendous power over ourselves , and those close to us attribute similar phantastic power to us . This power may be used constructively or destructively .

No

rarely think

INTEGRATION

100

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

good and evil, not only in his direct everyday personal relation ships, but also indirectly upon persons unknown to him , and upon posterity . Interpersonal relations constitute a " chain reac tion .” Even casual interpersonal contacts can be of tremendous B

influences

so

on

.

The

potentially

of

infinite influence many other people un in

a

A

has

,

,

are

.

in

. A .

to

,

affects the lives and destinies discouraging frustrating unkindly known Mr Likewise potential acts are unlimited their harm Even strangers are im

it

that

Mr

.

B to

initial kindly

of

Mr.

trivial kindly act of Mr. A toward Mr. act kindly toward Mr. C , and so forth and A

act

influence .

us a

on

by

a

.

of

an

.

or

pass

of

we may

a

to

us

Walking just because they people city kindly impresses street man woman who with amiability Passing assurance sinister character likewise gives assurance security when we are not really hurt the portant

of

.

potential threat the person offers

two

, if

of

,

, *

of

pleasant smile has the

!

or

all

of

hinder the phan people whether real

the father because parental symbols are The good

.

illusory

by

,

a

to by

like

to

tastic incorporation

or

simple thing

improve the world interpersonal relationships either help

and

parental

bad

,

,

.

page

166

,

,

Cumulative Values

,

See Table

of

*

,

in

symbols are found relatives other than the real parents bors teachers employers business associates legendary

neigh

or

potential power

All

will

world

.

the whole

a

the first person

very

two more then the thirty two times the influence have been extended over the population

repeated

-

time this process

is

passes that influence

A

two

cents the third

his services

would make over five interpersonal relations one per kindly act and each two other people

,

.*

these

the thirtieth day

on

,

.

only

influences

of

son

four

offering he

However Similarly million dollars cheaply

be

apparently

be better work for one

can

to

,

cents the second day

would

in

and

on

so

,

day

on

,

cent the first day

.

in

of

apparently The cumulative value trivial acts money understood terms One who offered

fic

INTERPERSONAL

a

large

entities

. The good father group

that when

real and

one fails

support

.

.

to

or

is

that property

cultural

as in

the church

offer the needed

SEXUAL ADJUSTMENT Sex

well

as

spread over personifications

and mother illusions phantastic people and

others may continue

,

and

101

,

figures

of

public

the home, the school ,

so

,

characters as

are

tional such

RELATIONS

characteristic which indicates the dis Good sexual adjust

.

tinction between the male and the female

of .

to

intimate personal maturity the achievement

to

but not essential psychoanalysts are prone

of

-

testing

of

to

overlook the natural drive and limit their concept sexual adjustment per practical experience coitus However a

in

can

,

a

normal

from

,

sexual intercourse and yet person On the other hand attain sexual

.

not

are

a

very

clear

Masculinity

.

constitutes maleness and femaleness

ex

."

*

We

woman



,

,



in

concepts

and

to

but

be

,

qualities

able

constructive

as

,

attributes

outgoing

constructive receptivity

masculine

"

have

"

to

a ”

inine

and the female

vigorous

,

man

by

pect

,

activity

express himself



feel and

)

(

26

.

without ever experiencing intercourse Margaret Mead states the normal male must "

to

As

maturity

is

be

.

in

satisfaction may achieve erotic pleasure from far

to

toward maturation son

.

by

reality

is

,

closeness

Freudian

when

that end

to

means

a

is

masculinity

to

the male can accept and adjust his and the female her femininity Sexual intercourse only

achieved

is

ment

fem

what

endowed with

, ,

,

,

.

be sex

the one

does

not exclude

at

,

, of

, in

of

,

these qualities

to

tribution

of

,

is

qualities

as

courage daring and strength aggressiveness femininity thought gentleness while terms tenderness sympathy protectiveness considerateness and However the such

them

.

.

,

aggressive and daring the opposite sex Women may though more subtly than the men Strength and courage are

from

William

Morrow

and

Company

,

.

.

:

, .p

,

,

*

Mead Margaret Male and Female New York 1949 371

OF RELIGION

the female . On the other hand , a still be tender , gentle , sympathetic ,

likewise admirable qualities man can be " manly ” and

whether she confines her business man may A

manages

.

duties

domestic

though

.

.

of

of

in

.

is

of





or



are



washes dishes and makes beds There male female occupations Certain positions pro vide more opportunities for reconstruction and repair female symbols Housework symbolic reparation rich means no

masculine

.

her femininity

retain

he

activities

in

or

to

woman

A

be

can

considerate , and protective

AND PSYCHIATRY

a

INTEGRATION

102

be

will

is

in

it

.

phantastic the damaged mother figure As women have more difficulty than men establishing good mother phantasies

like

,

,

.

on

,

for so

.

,

.

to

and the

rely upon

,

that most women

in

,

expected

knitting

,

to

housework sew work out their emotional problems Men who have great difficulty with hostile mother phantasies will engage similar activities Male hotel managers chefs bakers beauticians and are improving their mother symbols ing

.

,

to

be is

or

,

, .

mere propaganda

.

,

Any

womanhood has distorted personal neurotic problems a

attributes engendered

The inference that dependent artless

.

of

such

femininity

is

ascribes

the male to

one who concept

guileless

by

and subservient

,

incapable

childlike to

,

soft weak

is

the female

complement

as a

Each needs the other

,

.

sex

,

.

is

.

to to

dangers

no

of

equality fraught with neu the sexes equal The male cannot hope the female and the female cannot become equal the male Sexual differ superior ences are normal and natural There inferior Propaganda

rotic

MASCULINITY by gaining

The masculine man achieves his maturity ance his own aggressive power through

and cooper

be

to

symbolic

mother

figure

like

phan

the

-

a

of

grow and allow

however

,

achieve self confidence

phantasies

and able

,

,

,

competitive

him

who will

to

dependent upon him

is

he

.

ative association with others

penetrating To

a

work out his destiny

help

He must

.

the phantastic good father

by

with

be

of

to

identification

assur

incorporation

INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS tastic

father . The mature

ogous

to

103

-

ill

the masculine man times during dependent upon childhood

in

really was

.

be at

to

,

not want

to

does

other mother symbol

as

a

.

a

in

to

The adult male who mother child relation

Occasionally

he

or

,

him

early dependency wishes

but the mature man

his wife

for

reached maturity

not

may regress ness

dependent child

care

as

has

were

woman

.

ship

a

expects

if

as

and not

he

his

adult masculine phantasies are anal the childhood phantasies in which the child pictured himself as being great and strong like the father , with the father 's permission , and possessing the great good mother as equal

FEMININITY

of a

.

is

,

,

as

, of

.

his

as in

did

of

female enjoys the unconscious phantasies in accepting him the good father the mother within herself making him great and strong and participating physical greatness The woman makes the man This

The mature corporation

the new

the

the father

Actually

,

is

prerequisite

to

.

by

a

phantasies

good

phantasies

.

father

are

the good mother

cause

is

by

it

of

is

,

.

of

.

microscopic

the

.

half

re

father contributes much cell The mother supplies mainder The psychological growth the child and later the adult likewise influenced more the mother and symbolic representatives the mother than the father This be less than

the mother

from

a

and half

of

as

.

a

as

psychological fact We customarily think well having received half born child his body from

In

the male does

.

others

as

of

The feminine woman does not aggressively activities

penetrate into the her interpersonal rela

attitude

that

.

the

of

presumed

approve

or

or

.

to

,

of

of

When she does not the activities the male she does not contradict mands but resorts the wiles woman She agree

make

of

Her

of

activity

.

constructive aggressive expectation success

is

to

in

.

in

of

tions she demonstrates and offers the advantages her construc receptivity Through tive her inherent creative abilities she spires and encourages the male engage his vigorous and

de

tentatively

104 INTEGRATION

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

the aims of the aggressive activity of the male , but re good and acceptable to her , then them to make them

accepts

constructs subtly

relates them

back

to him

as

if

they were his

own

Ev

.

ideas

woman can verify this from her own experience . The militant woman also has tremendous power over the male , but her power lies in the stimulation of the phantasies of the bad ery

clever

she symbolizes

mother whom

.

SEXUAL RELATIONS Physical

sexual

sonal

relations . In

which

occurs

of

the

that he

,

.

of

reality

mother and

the phantastic

,

She

,

,

a

,

.

The normal move creative healing

unconsciously

reassured

of

.

action

intercourse having as

phantasized

To

is

in

as

.

by

the good

the male

is

and reconstructive

is

of

as

active her body

is

as

damage

receptive but not physically pas the woman psychoanalysts some think the contrary the normal

Anatomically

with bounty

sexual

the mother and that she the action her body He

heals and reconstructs him sured that the preposterous threats hostile mother are not accomplished

ment

improve

able to

of

by

as

is

father improved

as

he phantasizes

the good

in

consciously

his

of

and palpation , and then

inspection

sive

intercourse , the male as body of the partner , first by by physical entrance . Un

normal sexual

intactness

is

terms

of the

by

in

sures himself

woman

symbolism

the distorted

in

.

also

our theory

partner

explain

order to

of interper

intimate

abnormal and unsatisfying sexual relations, it is to formulate a theory of unconscious activity which be extended into the field of normality . Interpreting

necessary

might

intercourse is the most

identifies herself her own goodness and

is

in

the sexual act

the creative and

has inherent

in

unconscious phantasies powers which she potentially

establish

constructive

physically passive

of

unable

to

The frigid woman who

is

him

.

,

.

her sexual partner He being great and strong im proves her and she being creative and constructive improves

her

INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS

105

own body . Frigidity which are

is due to masochistic or sadistic phantasies frightening that they cannot be handled .

so

THREATS

NORMAL MASCULINITY

TO

by

his

she

the

Normal maleness is threatened or thwarted by association with the emotionally binding and frustrating neurotic female figures . The aggressive “ masculine ” woman is desperately competing with

is



.

of

and

down



,

male

-

symbolically makes herself equal cutting type gold digger The deceptively submissive superficially seductively woman who feminine also attacks the him

.

of

him

a

to

be

.

jealous person

but wants

normal male com unconscious phanta

a

than

has

be

,

rather





.

The intensely

masculine

her

to

a

to

She cannot allow man symbolic good mother panion

is

of



of

of



-

or

of

male because her hostility fear the symbolic bad father abnormally dependent be The clinging vine type woman cause the fear her overwhelming hostile mother phantasies

.

isolate

people

to

and must

to

else

try

anyone

,

lations

in

.

re

by

of

or

of

conspiring against him Every the hostile friendship relationship real between other people arouses the unconscious childhood fear isolation and rejection the par ents The jealous person cannot tolerate good interpersonal sies

parents together

keep

cannot

all

attained

either

.

or

a

in

to

for the male relate himself any female He cannot achieve masculinity rotic problems are solved

.

phantasies

phantasies make impossible positive constructive way

to

Such

the male has

it

mother

.

the hostile father

or

unsolved unconscious conflicts over the childhood

.

against

him

league

of

maleness

be

if

Normal

imagined

in

are unconsciously

be to

as

.

to

or

so

them under control that they cannot cause phantastic damage annihilation himself The jealous person attacks male they symbolically represent the parents who and female figures

until his own neu

AND PSYCHIATRY

OF RELIGION

INTEGRATION

106

THREATS TO NORMAL FEMININITY if the woman becomes entangled with a hostile or sadistic sexual part ner . The sadistic , destructive , hurtful father symbol cannot be of normal femininity

The development

obstructed

is

without phantastic self -damage. The normal , woman will therefore , become neurotic if she injudiciously mar ries a sadistic partner , because childhood phantasies of attacks by incorporated

re

in

will

satisfaction and her constructive

thwarted

always rationalized

neu

,

female

dis

the

in

also marries

assure herself that

period

time

or

,

. .

"

di be

Over

of

to

try

annihilation

himself that

result

a

not mean

marries

or ,

of

.

or

The neurotic

to

in

fears

illicit relationship

assure

the sexual partners may solve the neurosis and may outgrow the other When this occurs separation

,

.

result

of

is

often contemplated Extramarital affairs are contracted sexual maladjustment However extramarital sex

vorce as a

said

will

to “

of

the sexual act

one

solution

phantasies

will not

closeness

.

into

mother attempt

to

he

enters

an

or

unconsciously

an

the destructive father

has illicit sexual relations the intimate interpersonal aster

hope

being

unconsummated hostile phantasies either part spiritual interpersonal closeness The neurotic male

.

of

ner prohibit fearful

contracted

result

if

spiritually

too often

as

,

,

are

in

love

the inevitable

of of a

Marriages

SEXUAL

of

SOLUTIONS

IN

NEUROTIC

RELATIONS

as a

will

sexual

because

.

to

be

ceptivity

attain

will she

a

to

be

unable

of unsolved normal woman

hus

neurotic

A

phantasies

be

his

father will be reactivated .

band who is impotent because likely produce neurosis

a

the imaginary hostile

,

law

.

rotic problems

.

by

,

to

increase rather than solve neu Such relationships are forbidden the illusory father and mother figures symbolized by and society When

ual indulgence always tends

INTERPERSONAL

RELATIONS

107

al

his

is

by

he

the

the male has illicit sexual relations he is unconsciously attacking phantastic hostile father who imagines or thwarting ready possesses the mother who symbolized sexual part

phantastic bad mother be The female partner becomes really only cause she has done what the male wanted her Being symbolic bad mother she becomes destructive phantasy by

,

and the male reacts increasingly hostile

becoming

in

do

these unconscious

his relations

his

to

imagination

phantasies

in to

him

in

to

.

a

to

.

a

ner

.

illicit sexual partner

is

When the female has illicit sexual relations she attacked first forbidding phantastic her hostile mother from whom she has stolen the good father The symbolic father represented the

by

,

by

.

is

also attacked the imaginary bad mother and involving phantasies and made bad Unconscious partner change emphasize the sexual further the bad father figure because he doing reality what was desired only

,

in

be

his own phantasies

,

and the sexual the worsening

of

goes

comes hostile because

partner actually

on

time

of

.

phantasy

As

is

in

to

.

is

damaged

a

sexual partner

,

to

,

as

.

il

to

Il

up

fig

.

.

the hostile phantastic parental symptoms are common sequel

appease

neurotic

the

atone

a

Obvious licit affairs

ures

her

to

to

guilt and

,

of

ing

damaging

the onset but

more and more necessary for the increasing feel

becomes

them

is

,

develop

defend oneself against

,

phantasies

hostile

it

in

which she attacks male because licit sexual relations may give pleasure

at he

the

,

by

.

in

reality The woman must the doubts and fears are confirmed unconsciously building phantasies therefore defend herself

to

sexual

satisfaction with masculinity

his

as

find

assure himself

by

cannot

his

man

able

of

must

be

he

the married

wife

to

, If

NORMAL SOLUTIONS

by

of

,

his

.

to

or

illusory good mother fig sociations with other symbolic real figures ures He can find other female who will help him build aggressive constructive masculine opinions himself

up

.

by

108 INTEGRATION

OF RELIGION AND PSYCHIATRY

their appreciation , confidence , understanding , and help , perhaps flattery and indulgence , but not by sexual intercourse . The

by

female figures symbolizing the good mother may be his own daughter , a sister or other relative , his secretary or a working as sociate , or it may be an illusory figure represented by church ,

home, school , normal woman

and

so

.

on

Likewise

,

the female , where the receptivity frustrated by

in

finds her constructive unsatisfying sexual relations with her husband , she will of neces sity have to look elsewhere for good interpersonal relations which will help her to acquire the good father in phantasy . Again this

.

of

in

.

to

overcome the frustra the Supreme Good

known The

ex

they

do

not

. .

will

be

some way they

they are expressed

By

to

whom

If

will most prob

are unreasonable they

those

hostility has

to

is .

of

expressed

by

corrected

all

of

by

.

to

he is

to

be

able

taken

clear the path

hostility

in

not

of

the

is

as

Good

some clergymen

make progress the direction toward happy When interference occurs hos

and suitable action

feelings

of

are

able

,

is

'

ably

felt

One must

one

be s

If

.

tion

.

between clergymen and psy dealing with hostility Some psychia feelings teach suppression

,

for

So

one

the Supreme tility

the

, re

.

RELATIONS

trists think the clergymen hostility while the psychiatrists are blamed encouraging hostility release long

,

,

a

,

a

in

the manner

in

chiatrists

INTERPERSONAL

some misunderstanding

is

There

IN

HOSTILITY

of

or by

,

or

,

ligious

.

the

the doctor the storekeeper son brother and the illusory father symbols obtainable through social political interests community affairs

,

clergyman

like

,

male

be

not be by sexual intercourse , but by associations with figures who represent good father These might

must

A

.

not growing spirit correct our to

helps

.

of

opinion

us

hostility

is

an

of

a

contrary

of

.

one who cannot express ually The expression

is

of

an

of

.

its

beneficial aspects this we not belligerence simple expression mean extreme attitude opinion difference indication mild hostility The pression

INTERPERSONAL

RELATIONS

109

own faults as well as those of others . We thereby change things and people from bad to good , or stand corrected in that what we had thought was bad was in reality good . One cannot reasonably

be hostile toward things or people he regards as good . Hostility toward God , for example , indicates confusion in thinking and feeling. Since God is Goodness itself , hostility toward Him is un reasonable . Hostilities toward other persons are likewise unrea sonable at times . Some distinction must be made between the person

and the act. One may

person

and not so

able hostility

toward

felt it

is

feel hostile toward

of

is because

an

himself . When

the person

in the state

confusion

of

act

a

unreason

of the

.

phantasies

the " give and take ” of interpersonal relations , the phantasies are normally improved . Those who cannot establish good father phantasies are able to picture in imagination only in

as

"

,



"

an

-

, an

in

he

to

by

reality testing has The adult who phantasies correct these has intense feeling aggressive omnipotent which reacts

.

way

all of



omniscient Of necessity



to

inferiority

de

and phantastically his

all -

powerful

was

.

to

able

been

that

the parents

structive

of

.

at

imagined

not and

absent Emotional development these people omnipotent stage the wherein the individual he

arrested child

tasies

The prerequisite good mother phan



are

also

is

.

hostile damaging father

a

the

Through

to



to “

.

,

.

or

in

of

of

us

periodic attacks upon par are guilty ental symbols the person others Normally the attacks are prove not serious continuous However they are needed phantastic parents that we can annihilate the bad and reas

that

our

and the unreasonable

,

the phantastic parents

not

phantasies

,

on

are always

to

relating himself

We in

,

however

Everyone

attacks made are directed against

real people

.

.

toward

flux

,

state

personal problems

them

Other people work out their problems

remember of

a

must

his

annihilated

the parents

us .

work out

other people

,

to

needs

annihilating

.

and that we will not really

really

by

are not

by

we

be

sure ourselves that

The real

INTEGRATION

110 person

represents

OF RELIGION symbolic

a

dled . For example ,

if a man

AND PSYCHIATRY

parental figure which can be han discovers that he has performed an

unconscious act which symbolically annihilates his wife , this does not mean he does not really love her . He is simply using her as a

mother symbol which

mother of

bad

followed

he

phantasy

almost

can safely

handle to annihilate the damage is the phantastic preposterous recon equally

. Normally

by above example , if the immediately

. In the man would continue to probe his unconscious he would find that he soon would make repair wife good again his imagination by equally phantastic the death

a

.

to

of

do

in

,

probably

would

of

and his reality relationship something special please her Dreaming

work

he

in

his

struction

loved

,

in

of

is

.

It

an

of

one does not indicate unconscious wish for the death that accomplishment person phantasy the the act and the represents the phantastic parent persons permit each other within reasonable their mutual antagonisms man and wife constantly probable must remind themselves the reaction expressions antago the marital partner minor criticism

,

reasonable

of

a

,

aggressive

of

is

failure

.

be

will

confronted destructively critical when

a

setting

by a

then the marriage

.

worked out Each must partner cannot tolerate the with the subsequent satisfac

or

. of If

up ,

the psychiatric

the marital

antagonism





of

making

,

In

The marital partner the phantastic attacks

be

a

of

the other periodic expressions sure

tion

upon

difficult

,

as

person

real whom symbolic parental figures may

against

be

true marriage

.

needed

there

no

then

nism

is

,

to

or

of

.

to

Happily married limits work out

If

.

person

even

un

assaultive

the psychiatrist recognizes that the antagonisms and expressions hostility though directed against himself are ac

to

.

our

,

,

the same Often we become discour cutting remarks snubs incivilities and un us , .

Others

frustrated

by do

.

handled

aged

or

be

antagonisms upon others who symbolize parental figures who

can

represents

We project

It

,

he

,

the phantastic parental figure everyday contacts with people

our

.

aimed

the same

in

is

tually

at

of

,

patient

INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS

111

by our acquaintances and . We are often upset by the necessity of our dealing arrogant , aggressive individual who has forced his way

reasonable demands made upon associates

with the

us

position of authority over us . If we could but remember that the “ very important person ” is simply using us to work out his own emotional problems and to improve his own distorted

into

a

personality , we would not be so upset by his or her unreason able demands . The “ very important person ” sees in us a symbolic father or mother symbol which come. Realizing this , we may

be handled , attacked

can

, or over

then take credit to ourselves for helping these “ very important persons” to solve their own emo tional problems . The truly great person is approachable , under

The Christian precepts

for our enemies experiences

pray

.

,

good

are validated

the worth

in

dignity

and

the

in

and the value and need we represent

or

ourselves

appreciation

of

in

herent

retain

of

We must

an

to

us ,

those who hate and scientifically by these psychiatric

do

attempt to make

to

his attitude toward us . The “ very great person . He is dependent upon

.

him

us

not

to

in a

person ” is

to so

standing , and permissive

important

of

,

a

,

in

us , In

.

the potential dangers

of

alert

to

be

in

of

by

of

other people regardless our station life the appreciation expression assuming permissive others authority over attitude toward those however we must also

lives

allowing

maladjusted

per

achieve positions which provide them with dangerous powers The psychotic neurotic statesman for example who position power can forces himself into destructive and annihilating friends well enemies Bluemel

,

,

be

,

*

. C . S .

his

as

of

as

his

to

a

of

.

or

to

sons

,

to

a

to

,

in

to

to

us ,

.

in

places many contemporary leaders state this category being dangers may While alert real which threaten we long develop faith people and must also try assume range hopeful attitude that eventually they will be able

Politics and

Insanity

The World

Press

Denver

,

War

.

, C . . S .:

,

*

Bluemel Colorado 1948

For our own

,

.

out their personality problems satisfactorily

,

work

112 INTEGRATION

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

of mind it is necessary for us to assume our interpersonal relations , and not expect

peace in

a

tolerant attitude everyone else to

conform to our own ideals of perfection . In looking back over history we can find many instances where persons with obvious imperfections of personality were able to inspire others . Samuel drug addict , Edgar Allan

a

Poe was

an

,

alcoholic

all

Charles and Mary Lamb were both psychotic ; yet

of

Coleridge was

these

,

is

.

composer

Clifford

Beers

a

was improving

in

,

but the

,

the mentally

unsurpassed

The one who did the most

,

the care

of

.

Beethoven very maladjusted man

ill

music

is

of

,

.

us

to

to

produce literature which were able instructive and pleasing today Michelangelo had his personality problems and Van Gogh was psychotic but they produced artistic treasures The

had several

had

psy

re

of

of

to

.

of

maladjusted chotic attacks We can find many other examples persons who have made definite contributions the betterment

,

be of

to

a

to

help

develop

know are good within them

,

of

,

in

and

,

neighbor

.

those things which

,

,

,

are .

few

employer

,

,

wife

enthralled with his music we should able imperfections the personality husband

or

condone

a

to

thoven while we

we

,

If

in

mankind the fields art literature science business ligion and politics we are able overlook the faults Bee

and magnify

CHAPTER

9

RELIGION

AND ETHICS

AND SOCIAL

the

,

stated

mind

man

.

,

As

inherent

to

try

,

the Father

which binds

previously

of

.

to

each individual the concept God

of

, religare , is the

the Supreme Being

tie

the Latin

from

is

Religion , derived

in

RELIGION : PERSONAL

no

is

*

an do

it

is -

of

God

."

,

,

to

finds

.

as

.

allies

enemies

With God All

everywhere

everywhere

,

trustworthy

.

find

can

the enemy

most ed

When God not recognized powerful enemy The man who fights

faith

all -

is in

no

becomes

of

God

have an

He

ally

exists

to

that wish



"

not

claims that

God but they fear Him open question but illustrates the con the minds the called atheists who

not believe

so

do

This observation fusion

Theodor Reik

"

their childhood

.

people

in

ucated

.

istence

in

Though men may convince themselves that there God they cannot succeed because they have experienced His real ex

people and

.

the dictates

can

the world then

see

with

and

acknowledged in

is

.

Freud

International Univer

.

.

an

in

all ,

, .p

,

Theodor From Thirty Years with New York 1949 122

,

Reik

sities Press

Being

conformity

then people and things entirely different light Man

of

to

,

the Father

regarded

,

*

God

the Supreme

regulate their lives

:

are of

men try

in

When the authority

of

of

a

be

.

things are seen through misanthropic eyes The world becomes hostile place which must attacked and destroyed with war weapons imagination surpass like which almost the power

113

INTEGRATION

114

OF RELIGION

what good there is in man that he belongs in it and is the great cosmos . Religion is often

world about

and the

constructively

a

,

him

and feel

functioning

part

of

be identical with religions , but two aspects : personal and social. Per

considered

be regarded

should

it

AND PSYCHIATRY

in

to

intimate relationship between the indi partly vidual and his God. It is natural and partly accepted on the authority of someone else . In one aspect personal religion is

is

religion

sonal

the

of clergymen and churches . If we could conceive individual as living his entire life alone on an island , and having no religious instruction , he would still have natural re ligion because the bond between the individual and his Creator independent

of

an

cannot be severed . Religions are the social institutions which are designed to help men achieve the realization of the personal God and establish a

prayer , sacraments , with Him . Through rituals , contact is achieved with the spiritual appear more realistic The order . Spiritual things made practical usefulness culturally established religion depends positive

relationship

religious

.

to

God and the Real

at

reality

their closeness

be

certain

to of

of

sure

of

could

the

a

be

make men

to

its

men

upon

Heaven

of If

ability

.

of

are

and

times

is

not the need

to

that some people

a

of .

and damnation

,

-

fire

wrathful God

is

.

may

The

at

.

God

be

Christian

God hell

religiousness be

negative type

,

Preaching the wrath

It of

.

gion

of by

be

in

of

a

in

great improvement Presence God there would the everyone toward people and things titude the world This aspiration can realized the positive development reli

a

of

is

.

Fear

but when one gradually changed into

wisdom

understanding

and

,

,

provident

in

,

of

protective

,

good

imagination

,

to

be

of

good

is

to

,

changed

said the beginning concept wise the God

,

a

that

of

to

the Lord begins

be

father who must is

bad

be

.

,

be

,

it

threatened with destruction but would seem that more positive and constructive attitude would more generally effec tive The avenging attacking annihilating critical father the

loving

RELIGION

AND ETHICS

115

,

a

.

ideas

of

Such

of

a

dictator

God

.

to

.

, or

a

to

feeling one attain closeness Him figures are considered inimical when the idea unforgiving person Man distant hostile by

is

that

for

great

,

of

of

authoritative

God

or

,

impossible

a

,

-

All

it

make

policeman

a

super spy

a

sits

Father. There are still prevalent many of the childish ideas of upon God as a bearded man who throne above the clouds

can

of

improving the concept kind improves only the Good Father intimately associate himself with with whom the individual

.

safety

, ,

is

of

the authority the personal philosophy has

of

is of

else

indi

the

accepted

by

which

religion

tenet

someone

on

a

religious

be

much

of

.

When

to

.

There

clergyman

into

neglected

the personal bias

with

simply

the cultural religion

guidance

Too often

Him

accordance

in

vidual

,

integrated

not

is

is

it

,

teacher accepted intellectually

God

on

the parent

or in

given

and directions

to

guide people

to

serves

the concept

.

improving

Besides

he

is

to

,

If

.

ex

.

,

influ

will

help

others

.

in

helpful

its

by

is

, his

measured

to

life and

,

to

go

own philos

religion

be

the problems

util

He

through

church but philosohy which to

adjust

who

develop

of

the numbers training people

exterior con

the church

as

authority

sectarian

a

people

a

of

The effectiveness to

.

life

as

it in

,

he in to

a

be

he

to

and

him

believes but actually does not can accept the religious doctrine

of

by

be

it

them

of

,

ence

in

not

to

ophy

those

he

perience

misleading

,

he

will

say

unsatisfying

be

will

to

his

will

religion

formity

own his religious group his

until the individual incorporates incorporate does not will misfit achieved

his

a

.

of

.

can

a

is

,

be

per but there also can verified provide this help sonal experience The religious teachers experience The integration religious philosophy not

faith

great deal which

right

and

men

and

,

to

of

i

S

,

is

It

, .

of

men concerned with the investigation what wro wrong just and unjust the obligations common common

is

philosophy which deals with the free acts all

the branch

of

Ethics

is

ETHICS

INTEGRATION

OF RELIGION

forth . The purpose

of in

ethics

provide

is to

psychology

into

is concerned with does considerations extend beyond the scope of religious philosophy realm

.

of

the

Ethical

generally recognized that through reason man knows that

is

transcendent man the human an crystallized into much more This knowledge may not feeling people The awareness but exists be

.

.

ex

it

.

,

asocial instincts

but still society

has ruled human

;

of

can

.

culture

.

great services for human the

has performed

it

religion

It

:

as

follows

has contributed much toward restraining years not enough For many thousands

in in

of

,

it

, . in If

to

far

so

or

,

.*

do go

off ;

in

an

see

see ?

to

of

be

it

or

in

he

;

66

Robson

. . 65 D - .

by

,

,

,

an

,

.

.,

ppW

.

,

a

to

:

,

Freud Sigmund The Future Illusion translated Scott Liveright Publishing Company New York 1949 Hogarth Press Ltd London *

either

make the world better place which things tangible deals with material Sometimes

of

.

to

do

to

their power alter this civilization else that they will have nothing whatever with restraining their instincts

The scientist aims

He

are

a

in

with civilization

live

in

,

as of

it

everything their hostility

to

in

, do it

.

of

,

no

to

of

it

it

to

has had time show what achieve had succeeded making happy the greater part consoling them mankind making them into supporters reconciling them life and civili striving zation then one would dream alter existing condi appallingly tions But instead this what we We that tions large number men dissatisfied with civilization and unhappy yoke that must and feel shaken that these men either

.

n

ap

is

,

to

a

as

,

Clearly

inter

in

.

as a

to

Though

Freud scientist opposed cultural religion because parently failed enforce ethical principles His complaint pressed

an

,

to

is

society

as

in

it

or

variously

,

is

are

prelation

values

the impact

to

from

everyone

spiritual

man himself dictate from God referring thing the same the differences conflicting philosophies due

,

emanation

demands adherence being derived from

as

force which interpreted

,

a

than

of

.

imal

to

there are forces and values

,

It

.

ul

behavior , but it

timate goal . Psychology

not moralize

guiding principles

his search for happiness toward his

all

so

which will direct man

AND PSYCHIATRY

of

116

The

the intangibles

117

The materialists

,

realm

AND ETHICS

.

the

in

loses perspective

of

RELIGION

of

a

the the

no

.

in

.

,

,

to

re trying who are practical people are devise new system trybu religion and ethics However system ethical can surpass the hicalsy expressed altruistic aims the Beatitudes and and two Great Commandments Christian doctrine for two thousand years has

HAS CHRISTIANITY FAILED

.

?

life ?

of

a

as

way

to

of

,

of

provided rules regulating the deliberate free actions men How accept Christianity explain can we the failure Christian man

in

a

.

is

a

is

religious conviction any ethical system meaning Without less Religious faith habitual trust the Supreme Being

.

to

will

the

the Supreme

be

that

of

requires

also

Being

it

,

of

.

,

or

of

a

to

desire conform His will Faith requires the intellec acknowledgment authority tual without personal proof ex perience but religious faith demands more than this Religious Authority faith requires the intellectual acceptance but

and

integrated

of

a

If

to

.

,

in

world

you

and

By



,

the

in

.

say

to

faith

have

intellectually

,

convinced we

, !

of



to

all

seeing

for

own God intellectually

to

is

try morals and ethics too man curious readily acknowledge Christians the author

,

of

realm

are

.

In

.

experiments

The religious leaders

,

easy

but emotional integration with the

.

not

so

Will

is

vine

,

of

ity his

the

wemay

be

.

.

We

Everyone

until we undergo the experience doubting Thomases

are not persuaded ourselves

We

nature man must test things things operate satisfactorily before we

see us

do

for

can

himself We must accept them Though

his wishes

do .

a

only few would conform would not immediately rise will what you want

to

.

It

.

an of

announcement would received with subject general interest would become the conversation People would believe They would have intellectual faith but

,

over the world

be

his

all

he

a

he

.

of

reputable scientist announced with the will the believer practical method heating homes with that had discovered atomic energy and wanted have his discovery put into use

Di

the theologians

INTEGRATION

118

OF RELIGION

and ethicists, through long

AND PSYCHIATRY

'

experience with man s ageless prob of rules of conduct whereby pitfalls

lems, have evolved a system may be avoided . But man must undergo many unfortunate and tragic experiences through trial and error before his per even

.

led

an

experiment for himself

to

man sin

pensity

to

of

try

spective becomes broad enough to embrace true Christian ethics . Ethical principles serve as short cuts to personal peace and hap piness . Man 's curiosity impels him to other routes This pro erroneous

only

his

,

pre

It

impractical

of

to

,

appears

.

Superficially

be

.

correct and trustworthy Christianity

experience proves

when

to

accepted

it

.

be

is

Authority

takes

.

to

to

doctrine that was necessary achieve grace and therefore was fundamentally pleasing God Man learns through mis

person

admonitions

Such

to

,

difficult

be to

upon the

are

attacks

.

against

to

's

,

pleasure scribes penance rather than the deliberate seeking pray love and for one enemies abstain from retaliation

neces

other men have their the phantastic father to

must look who symbolically

the individual

his

.

ethics has

,

As all

,

the self

real persons vested with authority

of

.

is

of

Christian

men who like problems

emotional

.

of

to

outside

of

as

exists

the rules

,

personal

of

own

to

The promulgation sity been entrusted

for

to

is a

.

It

.

to

all

.

of

accept and follow The practice Christian ethics appears contrary very difficult re human desires Christianity Authority The ligion yoke demands submission the yoke becomes light only strengthened faith

culture

represent

,

incorruptible

though

the personal

re

Looking beyond

as of

of

.

as

religion

is

the office

.

his

the person clergy provides the

consecration

of

,

as

well

the individual that

his

to

sacredness

officials may become corrupt

of

its

surance

as

,

the holiness

the clergyman

or

in

in

lief

do

.

of

prop the father Those who have assumed the responsibility agandizing religious concepts must work out their own problems interpersonal relations just which arise other people Be

.

,

clergyman faults the individual can thereby keep his ligion undefiled Some clergymen have not been illustrious sons

RELIGION

ETHICS 119

AND

of the church . Some have been so engrossed in spirituality that they have been unable to be sympathetic with the practical prob lems

of

.

their fellow men

Another factor which has weakened the effectiveness of Chris tianity has been the impact of science . Christian man has been overawed and confused by the man of science . The frontiers of ethics have been crossed by the doctor, the lawyer , the psychol ogist , the teacher , the sociologist entists

,

,

seeking

themselves

,

the anthropologist . These sci floundering for the truth ,

sometimes

have tried to make life easier and more meaningful. Some have thought that to do so they must prove the nonexistence of God

. Conflict between authorities always produces . However , there can be no conflict between truth ful science and truthful religion . If conflict occurs , one is in er ror . The case of Galileo has been used so often to prove that re spirituality

and

uncertainty

antagonistic that it is threadbare . Any religion scientist who attacks must anticipate that those con cerned with religious truths will use whatever means they have within their power to defend their doctrines . Galileo 's thesis , The ligion

and

science

are

still inviolate

by in

The Bible

is

the Bible

.

satirical references

to

its

Great Systems of the Universe , was offensive to the churchmen , not because of the scientific truths it contained , but because of spite

is

,

a

to

of

a

it

.

at

,

,

last that we have found the answer

go

We

or

,

an

easier

fullest extent certain

life

a

as

.

light which promises see flicker immediately pounce upon we and exploit

its

's

to

problems

it

life

.

's

swer

it .

of

religion Galileo attack Paradoxically advanced those religious oppose who The scientist who has conflict with dogma attacks religion As soon plausible an we hit upon

.

have

caused

faith

not

failed

faltering

had

the time

of

today

in

stands

as

has

with

.

what

.

lose

Christianity

the Christian

,

religion

and

he

faith

to

science

It

it

all

to

.

about wildly seeking assurance that we are right Religion can afford wait patiently until the facts are sifted from theories because can absorb truths Unfortunately conflicts between

120 INTEGRATION Christ ,

of

tower

a

The Christian

OF RELIGION

,

strength

has failed

AND PSYCHIATRY

a source of solace , a reason for life . recognize or to use the resources it

to

. Even the churchman who is learned in the scriptures , , liturgy , and dogma may not be able to achieve the history church spiritual, emotional satisfaction and surety of the simple faith of has to offer

.

a

a

ma

The

strong realistic

of

the

up

to

letter

religious person

of

in

faith

loving parent

.

a

the child has

in

God

Living all

.

spiritual goals

not itself indicative practical Christian needs first as

in

,

ture

from

is

the

far

of

law

be

may

his

his

the poor ignorant woman who gains solace from reading her Bi ble . A parishioner who attends church regularly , receives sacra ments , and contributes faithfully to the support of church

by

real situations which are threat

by

confronted try

When anyone

is

RELIGIOUS FANATICISM

will

,

he

or

as

he

are

,

. If

.

be

his

to

to

he

,

to

him

grasping vig will handle worries orously whatever seems support may unduly con offer He money b ecoming acquisitive miserly cerned over and activities such work social affairs the means chooses for support ening

become prodigiously

fa

in

he

he

to

own Divine revelations

fa

is

following because emotional problems similar

gain

with

he

prophet

presented

proof

to

find other people

.

Every

able

as

will

people

attract

a

.

Peculiar and bizarre religious cults

are

his

to

will

be

natical

religion

.

fault

of

it

.

its

in

. If

promoting overactive and zealous upon religion may these affairs falls back become promotion natical When unstable people become fanatical over religion no

justify

,

to

is

,

be

personally

from a

.

his

in

,

an

.

him

not actual fraud the religion may but solving the prophet own personal conflicts

of If

justification

and the benefits accruing

to

,

scious motives his religion

it



of



of

.

even the most bizarre religious tenets Upon inquiring into the authenticity necessary the revelations consider the life and background the prophet his conscious and uncon

New man -made religions are founded old

to

ease

mental

following the

a

God

hear

di to

.

chosen

can

.

but

hos

Many pa by God

common

voice

's

are



relatively

religions Many believe they

new

burdens im

working

in

experience

tients sincerely believe that they have been recting

the

.

has had

pital knows that revelations preach

121

ones



by the Anyone who

posed

AND ETHICS

in

RELIGION

,

to



to

of

child

.

he

that

be

child

.

a

thought

as

to

he

which

childhood

in

was

him

as

he



as a

a

to

so

regress

so

.

is

,

,

prominent that delusions and illusions become reality distort and even obliterate The individual beset terrible feeling isolation The relationship between mental vividly

portrayed

be

can

disorder and unsatisfying religious experience

is

.

of

a

by

annihilation

as

threatened

Hallucinations they

current problem

intolerable

,

is

has become by

is

overwhelmed

The real situation lieves

conscious reactivation

phantasies

he

,

hood but

handle

The psychotic person does not by

.

seems insoluble

considered

order

in

phantasy

be

may

psychosis

childhood

by

to





,

.

God

A

be

of

.

,

in

commands they have been adjudged mentally unsound The psychotic person reverting the phase childhood omnipotence may even believe himself them

to

is

,

.

-

establish

To

others

.

is

gain

seems almost

some

confidence

in

is

the desire

re

of

dangerous

its

,

-

-

.

.

the guidance

God

power True religion lends power but personal self control and self direction under the Supreme Being

by

personal power

demonstrated

father

the world

he is

of

of

born

control over others and

of

is

's

one

of

The distortions semblance

religion

are

wrathful punishing God who

of

a

.

,

all

invariably

with religion

good

.

person

delusions have lost the reality the phantastic people them seem evil and annihilation imminent The psychotic person who believes

to

in

of

the divinity Christ The religious fanatic and the psychotic

believe

to

.

T

Boisen

(3 ).

His conclusions correlated with my own theories but his theology acceptable not those who Anton

CHAPTER

10

AREAS OF DISAGREEMENT

RITUAL

DOGMA

AND

Ritualistic practices and reliance upon dogmatism are frowned upon by some psychiatrists ; yet these are important elements in all religions . The ritual is the manner in which divine services

conducted , and it may be simple or elaborate , formal or informal , depending upon the organization of the particular church . Dogma is necessary to religion because it is the fun damental beliefs which govern the religious body Somemay pro no

of

.

set

are

of

no

on

.

is

.

order

the ultimate goal As with but others are promulgated

.

,

,

dogma some laws are fundamental through apparent temporary necessity

the emergency has

's

in

at

,

to

.

's

,

ory

When

the law becomes obsolete All Christians least the accept Christ love God and one new Commandment

,

passed

.

behavior

in

patterns

of

.

it

,

.

its

of

of

a

.

in

a

reach

.

be

to

it

as a

accept

cannot

disputed

The one who cannot Christian Membership Christian church requires acceptance fundamental beliefs Laws and rules behavior stem from dogma but are often con fused with These laws are guideposts which provide standard not

does

fact which

be

and accepted

.

in

,

all

as

is

an

in

be

in

,

to

to

dogma but dogma fess believe such cases the absence unity becomes the dogma which they adhere There can organization unless there agreement the fundamen unchangeable tal principles which are regarded For exam taught ple Christians profess belief Christ This belief

123

all

a

This was

of

.

the Malleus Maleficarum

.

other law purpose we

as

set

may cite

AND PSYCHIATRY

the summation for temporary which served

law

of

an

As

is regarded

This

example

a

.

neighbor

OF RELIGION

a

INTEGRATION

124

rules

gov

by

.

in

of

erning the handling witches and incubi the Middle Ages that time people were influenced mass hysteria and saw

At

,

,

in

cultural

of

of

consider this Ritual dogma and rules behavior are religion and not themselves conflict

.

ridiculous

principles

.

with psychiatric

people would do

essential

most

,



"

to

rules

witches

to be

ble with

today

set

Though there are some who still have trou

.

witches everywhere

EMOTIONAL EXTREMES in

culture

.

our

satisfaction

to

,

.

emo

amounts

in

,

extreme emo

which

abnormal

religious

intellec

his

this

and

.

,

people gain

meeting

Ev

one which

charged

.





of

may

However many similar ways

the revival regarded

as

hysteria

,

mass

of

as

is

tional atmosphere

ways

in

a

standpoint From mental hygiene regarded unhealthy The highly a

.

level

tionalism

will

attracted satisfying and compatible with

will be emotionally tual

with many and varied

to

emotion demands expression choosing religion

ery individual

The and

, .

interwoven

be

closely

religion

religious experiences

emotionalism

be

all

emotions

oppose

also

in

are

Some psychiatrists

can

in

be to

be

has

it

a

approach

,

attract men toward God and when appeal may necessary

positive

no to

blamed for unduly arousing fear and

.

Clergymen are sometimes

guilt The clergyman aims

is

sin

, . .

of

,

to

-

.

,

very still fear However hell fire and damnation sermons terrifying and emotionally traumatic especially children and punishment for sensitive persons The doctrine found

or

of

all

A

.

to

an

he

in

guilt most religions Everyone normally experiences feelings wrongdoing impelling repair for and has need real imaginary damage has done wholesome religion does not to

it .

to

to

of

an

,

expiate initiate guilt but the contrary helps The clergy understanding help their people handle need how

men

AREAS OF DIS AGREEMENT

125

the

guilt arising from both real and imaginary offenses . The psychi atrist deals largely with guilt arising from imaginary crimes . Many psychotic persons suffer the “ tortures of the damned .” They accuse themselves of most preposterous wrongs and put

, .

in

in

Indeed the psy the symptoms

of

.

sin

to

earth

an

This psychiatric experience poses interest theologians the plan the Creator does punishes the creature constructed that

of

he

In

imagined

offenses

?

so

:

the

real

or

for

himself

is

question

God punish

his or for

ing

.

psychotic patients

hell

on

witness

to

is

chiatrișt

a

in

Stahl taught that mental disorders were due

in

killed

or

mutilated the most gruesome manner the eighteenth century and Heinroth the nineteenth

,

phyxiated

,

real

to

very

. as

through the most horrifying punishments which seem They imagine that they are being burned them

themselves

of

..

CONFESSION

is

it

mirac to

be

cured

sensible

be

is

,

it

.

like physical disorders Appendicitis might prayer but more natural and

ulously

by

eases

.

a

,

a

is

practical means handling The religious confessional guilt and solving superficial emotional problems but not substitute for psychiatric treatment Mental disorders are dis rely

of

to

be

.

needed

discourage their parishioners from seeking help All depressed persons are potentially

to

known psychiatric

been

By

have

.

by

if

to

.

upon the surgeon Psychiatrists would negligent their duty clergymen attempting they did not object handle deep religion alone Some clergymen seated emotional problems

,

.

be

a

a

for

.

might neglecting treatment clergyman suicidal indi rectly responsible tragedy which might avoided Besides helping individuals with serious problems psychiatric

.

referrals might prevent scandals within the churches Persons who

.

, or

a

in

,

to

of

having

in

difficulty conforming with religious precepts may helped long often be before the church feels the necessity resorting banning unchurching excommunication Peo ple who have been reared wholesome religious atmosphere are

INTEGRATION

126

OF RELIGION

have an intense need

AND PSYCHIATRY their religion through emotional problems interfere

be associated with

to

out life . This need is not lost when with the ability to conform . The individual feelings . Psychiatric

might exclude

their parishioners to The following

mixed

the act which his church . Sometimes clergymen allow too long without psychiatric help .

from

him

by

is beset

treatment might forestall go

material is illustrative of

case

extremes

,

but

it

demonstrates this point .

vividly

young single woman was referred to me because she was afraid she was “ losing her mind .” She had difficulty in concentrating on her work as stenographer , was unable to think , and frequently found her self in a state where she was very much distracted from reality , starting forgetting what she was to do something and almost immediately A

about

do . She cried

to

without apparent

of appetite . The

from insomnia and loss

,

provocation

cause

and suffered

of her trouble

was found

she was having over an affair with a married capacity . man who was working in the same office in a supervisory Being a devout Catholic , trained in a religious school , she had an earnest desire to break the hopeless affair which had been going due to a conflict

on

off

to be

.

,

to

go

.

he

,

or

to

.

a

for over year She went confession every week two and each time promised that she would not see the man again But whenever pleaded with her out with him she always weakened After each

,

of

of

,

.

to

,

she

so

to

,

finding

a

,

saw

in

unconscious hostilities which fore helpless

do

in

.

no

but she was unable because could not handle and she was there solution her problem

break the attachment

to

desire

to

he

a

to

relapse she confessed her offense and resolved avoid recurrence approached her she was unable but every time resist his ad my mind about the sincerity question vances There was her

a

im

to

as

.”

.

"

a

he or

,

or

.”

a

"

to

.

her

?

continued

occurring in

vantages

to

the man What were the possible The only satisfaction she achieved was belittling him He had tried feeling that she was degrading lady killer press the girls the office that was She thought she would take him down peg When confronted with the question degrading herself she accepted whether she was degrading him

not have

meeting

ad

.

to

or

?

It

,

?

to

she

it

What

.

on

I

.

I

simply asked why she carried the affair advantage did seem offer her Did she experience sexual pleasure which could not relinquish No the relationship was repugnant must have provided some satisfaction her she would

her three times

AREAS OF DISAGREEMENT

127

the latter . When she understood why she was carrying on the affair for so long, and what she was considering to be an advantage to herself , she was able to terminate the affair . It was not necessary to delve deeper . The symptoms disappeared when she achieved a superficial

of the motivation of the relationship . She should have for psychiatric treatment earlier . In this case treatment was deferred until she was on the verge of an acute schizophrenic breakdown . The same results , however , obtained in three psychiatric interviews might have been attained by the priest if he , after the first confession , had asked in a kindly , fatherly way the reason for her understanding

been

referred

of the offense .

repetition

or

.

up

in

be

leave her husband and She earnestly wanted

to to

sin ”,

in

"

.

a

in

.”

.

to to



They begged her was illegitimate the church She was dilemma

to

"

”,

's

to

his

Another illustration of unwise handling of a patient is found in the case of a young married woman who was admitted to the mental hospital after an attempt to kill her child . She had been reared in the Catholic religion but married a Protestant man before a justice of the peace , which estranged her from her church . She loved her husband and child but could not return to her religion while married to a man who would not accept the conditions required by the pastor over and above those of the church . The husband would not interfere with her religion practice of religion , but he could not agree to change brought allow the children the Catholic faith The young family pastor constantly woman and her berated her for her marriage outside the church told her she was living and her child return return

.

"

"

to

an

.

to

up

by

,

her church and make amends for her error but she could not dis own her husband which were the terms demanded the parish priest who evidently wished break the marriage Her predicament preyed upon her mind until she became psychotic and made attempt kill the child who she thought was damned anyway Mixed marriages often cause complications which are most unfor

.

.

.

to

a

him

or

to

be

his

in

In

.

demanding that the hus tunate this case the parish priest erred religion band change that the wife leave The woman could expected not abandon her family She realized that she had made rectify mistake which she wanted The matter was eventually an

of

to

solved when the problem was brought the attention another priest who understood the psychiatric implications and could find amicable .

solution

128 INTEGRATION

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

MALADJUSTMENTS

PERSONAL

The personal maladjustment of a psychotherapist may inter fere with progress in treatment , but not inevitably . Some psy

ity ,



-

,

of

use

chiatrists are very successful with their respective techniques in dealing with patients , though they might be quite maladjusted themselves. The the phrase the well adjusted personal

.

,

The

.

in

much help apt virtuous

as

The man who considers himself

from

to

oth

in

the individual to

from

be

which isolate being

him

viewpoints

counseling his parishioners

he

.

ers

righteousness

prevent

men

patients

the

'

,

ideas

fellow

grasp

is

False his

and

the clergyman

same applies

of

patiently

listen

of to

can

.

a

in

.

'

as

as

is

-

so

universally

it

"

applied and variously interpreted meaningless that has become The truly well adjusted person Diogenes rare honest man The most helpful therapists genuine personal interest are those who have their patients

has been

a

as

.

as



in

see

be



did

to

of

regards being without virtue Few tolerant those whom clergymen would know how penitent woman defend adultery Christ the woman taken because they would

be is

.

is

.

for

too

to

as

or

in

,

to

unable see goodness where others badness There everyone and people cannot some goodness and badness classified either good bad Often psychiatric help needed a

It

he

. .

find the good within

strengthen

and expand

him

to

team

,

to

.

a

to

is

in

he

is

the psychiatric

of

task

of

the

he

bring out the goodness When person becomes bad jail When placed becomes too obnoxious for the jail committed mental institution then becomes society

.

it

to

.

it

to

.

in

do

it

,

make him aware and When people get into trouble they not need have someone tell wrong They know They need someone who them they are

to

.

as

some clergymen are inclined assuming some clergymen in

Heaven

The attitude

of

eye

.

look Earth

on

With

an

in

as

.

to

to

in

dissipate their own doubts about can show confidence them their ability handle themselves properly The understanding clergyman can serve capacity this well the psychiatrist

over that

AREAS OF DISAGREEMENT expect

to

this life is not conducive deprivation of pleasures

unlimited hedonistic delights The deliberate suffering end itself cannot considered

of of

in

an

be

.

seeking

as

extreme seeking

is

all

to

happiness or enjoy pleasures in peace of mind . A stoical self unreasonable the opposite as

supposed

are not

as

we

129

,

,

.

to

to

a

.

in

helps

-

of

temporary self deprivations however The practice gaining spiritual dominance over the physical body legitimate complaint against materialistic The clergy have psychiatrists who attempt accept that convert the patients

normal

Those concerned with the preservation morals negligent they not object the indifferent permissive attitude some psychiatrists toward immorality

. .* or

to

did

to

is

of of

society

prepos

, . R . B .

Lindsay this University Brown directs atten

by

.

,

moralist

.

a

to

to

and society

to

recommend

to

expected

or

with himself

.

to

peace

the patient

the code under which

is

does

to

He

,

upon his patients

adhere

to

attempt

,

not

.

does

conform

but those who have taken

moral code The inflict his own ethical code however try direct behavior

are expected

To

a

is

.

psychiatrist

not

his

be

by

.

to

is

a

of

words The doctor the Hippocratic oath

an in

cognizant

danger

producing

the responsibilities which scientists have toward ethics hampered concerned lest scientific progress the wrath frightened public The psychiatrists may well profit

tion

He

at

of

)

,

25

(

terously destructive weapons professor physics

are

is

,

Science amoral but the amoral scientist The physical scientists who are capable

a

of

if

be

.

of

philosophy

would

live

condone

as

other type

a

as

is

a

.

differentiated

from

of

not

be

sex should

any

of

of .

in

point

a

is

immoral act unethical from medical well from religious standpoint Most disagreement the over morals professional view found the area sexual activity From

on “

's

's

48 .

.

is



,

of

-

)

.



to

be

is

it

be of

”,

of

of

of

of

in

.pp ,

, .

,

of

(

*

is

to

Psychoanalysis and This error not confined secularists See Nuttin Personality Sheed and Ward New York 1953 section The Thera peutic Value Immoral Ways Conduct 146 Father Nuttin book has the imprimatur the Rector the University Louvain The therapy value this type stated dubious but the implication may that certain instances recommended

.

go

is

the behavior which

.

becomes excessive The psychiatrist

.

understand

regarded

reasons which underlie

immoral

.

patient

anxiety

sexual indulgence

suggest

the

help

is

he

the

to

tries

things when

few

a

steal

Neither would

as

out and

a

suggest

would

PSYCHIATRY

AND

morals concerned No sensible psychiatrist patient being treated for kleptomania that

to

as

OF RELIGION

as

behavior

far

INTEGRATION

130

well authenticated

a

acceleration

.

divine intervention

The miraculous

.

interference

Miracles are rare

,

some are

ord

nature

on

,

of

but

at

by

with the laws

,

the interruption

to

due

or be

to

of

is

.

the

individual opinion about what constitutes the mi generally miracle considered wonderful

A

differences raculous happening

the professions

contention between

in

Another source

is

of

MIRACLES

cures

rec to ,

of

cancer

tuber

by

such

,

organic disorders

chronic

in

are wrought

as

.

be

of

,

at

the Bureau des Constatations Médicales Lourdes France approval which have the the authorities there appear beyond true reasonable doubt The majority these cures

there can hardly

,

witnessed

.

unknown natural causes At this shrine each carefully scrutinized medical authorities be

.

fore and after the miracle

to

is

,

of

to

attributed

recorded case

protoplasm

new

by

be

regeneration

as

.

of

an

,

,

culosis indolent sores and tumors which were examined physicians under rigid conditions and given unfavorable prognosis The instantaneous absorption diseased tissues and

The records are open

any interested

an

148

.

ed .

.

,

Man the Unknown rev

see *

occurrence religious

Harper

Brothers

,

the

for the confirmation

of

when

does not

of

he

is

beyond question

that

&

especially

,

,

,

reason

a

Alexis

, .pp

1939

,

York

none exist

- :

is

See also Carrel

New

,

*

used

49 .

miracles where miracles

the miracle extremely careful however as

One must

be

the authenticity

cumstances

of

.

are

as

medical investigators added assurance that natural phe supernatural nomena not mistaken for the Under these cir

AREAS OF DISAGREEMENT

. Nature appear

itself

is

most wonderful . Many happenings which are not actual miracles . They

be supernatural

to

We

planation . Flying through the curing certain tances rapidly

to

air ,

may be beyond our immediate comprehension . learned enough about the natural laws to offer talking

not

have

rational

a

ex

at

faith

may

131

great dis eliminating

friends

and safely being century ago from unknown might have been considered miraculous then Today these things

.

a

,

,

,

,

diseases

operative procedures

pain

of

of

nature

the mechanism

are

man

two microscopic

formed from

,

This cell grows divides

cells

and subdivides

ac

,

satisfy

of

and

for

a

to

to

evil are

themselves

The natural phenomena

;

.

or

it

attribute var euphemistic name our curiosity The re

The miracle occurs only when the supernatural by

yet they

are

the natural sequence

of

superseded

We

nature beyond our complete understanding

.

is

of

developments

not miracles

we

for good

man

why de

.

us

cannot understand abilities are

we

wonderful about

It

.”

"

things

.

in

velopment proceeds the exact order ious tropisms seems that by giving markable

the reasons

mechanism

.

delicate

,

cannot understand

this

in

man of

.

is

born The mind the precise operation

a

of

.

is

,

.

a

pattern

a

specific time the limb buds marvelous organs appear form the various and develop with astounding precision When this wonderful production completed child to

cording

one

Consider

,

which fuse into

is

Each individual

.

.

himself

Magnificent manifestations about

At

.

found

us .

commonplace everywhere

are

seemingly

miraculous

these

is

to

is

conditions

disorders

.

treatment

mind over matter

",

almost incredible influence produce

of

for neurotic and psychotic

results

in

may

causes

the proper



an

is

interferes with

of

recognize natural

.

as

,

.

as a

,

.

of

to

of

of

of

miracles the occurrence the possibility The question psychiatry not the proper concern science This belongs religion Psychiatry however the field interested that phenomena natural are not classified miracles The failure

functional

There which

disor

132 INTEGRATION

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

some organic disorders which

result from chronic functional disturbances . When these difficulties are corrected by recourse to religion they cannot be classified as miracles . Faith healing works through the power of suggestion , and has ders

and

been

practiced since ancient times . Self -deluded charlatans

in

mys

tify by their multiple trappings and rituals , but the secret of their

of

the clients . It seems that the more grue some and odious the prescription , the more potent effect dung rattle Remarkable results have been attributed cow graveyard under snake skull moss mummies dug from the faith

is in

.

,

a

,

.

other revolting medicaments

no

well

as

,

full moon

as

a

oil ,

to

its

success

The treat

The church

also

readily

discounts the

,

the acts

associated

or

derided and rebuked because gullible individuals who happen

itself should fraudulent with religion

.

concluded that religion of

sometimes

be

have

of

science

to

be of

.

,

to

of

on

.

of

of

cults which prey upon the confused emotional con many persons This concurrence judgment ditions such strengths matters should serve combine the and resources Unfortunately church and science however individual men of

quackery

miracles

.

representations

of

in

.

in

,

to

ments themselves have intrinsic value but results are due the profound emotional reaction the client joins denouncing the mis readily The church with science

CHAPTER

11

AUTHORITY

THE

INDIVIDUAL AND AUTHORITY

The concept of authority is another area of disagreement which is so important that it deserves special treatment . Authority lies

the innermost core of the

at

and the theologians

.

Both scientist

conflict between the scientists and theologian are desirous of

the happiness of man . Both are aware of the havoc wrought by parents ruin the lives of their abuse of authority . Domineering children . Domineering husbands and wives sow seeds of discon tent. Domineering employers frustrate the workmen . Domineer states constrict the lives of their citizens . Because of the abuses authority positive value has been questioned function authority has been attacked and weakened The source has

many

questions have arisen good and what bad

Who

the

has

say

right

and

.

debated

,

been

can

.

of

.

its

of

Its

ing

impose

restrictions upon anyone else with this great debate the very founda

In

leaders

of ,

but

officials the individually but only

in

their as

elects

the elected

it

to

is

to

.

the leaders are invested delegated office After authority expect dividuals cannot exercise

order established

with the authority

when elected

by

.

democratic

society

its

.

lawful authority

A

is

in

of

at

?

's

out that person consent society are stake dependent upon any society Peace

tions

,

one have the right

to

?

?

is

is

to

determine what Who with finality what ought and what ought not be done Does any

133

everyone were

own authority

be

If

his

group .

a

AND PSYCHIATRY

OF RELIGION

INTEGRATION

134

chaos would

.

inevitable

.

as

the ballot box

leaders

desires

.

he

his

to

elected

laws

at

has recourse

to

to

he

dissatisfied

The

the next

these institutions we encounter

conditions which not exist and by their nature they cannot become truly demo

,

,

of

.

's

in

.

his is

,

authority

of is

of

one wishes society derived from the will but the individual not own authority Accord

The exercise the people

of

unchangeable regardless

is

to

as

it

be

his parents

.

he

is

If

the child dissatisfied with the edicts cannot elect new ones Religion too cannot democratically voted because deals with absolutes and objectively they relate ultimates the Supreme Being Who

.

cratic institutions

of

,

elsewhere

in

,

do

.

of

.

to

There are some who would like extend the princi democracy into the home and the church However

election ples

of

his

.

use

he

.

his

and

him

ideal

derived from the will jurisdiction over those

is

in

of

government

The individual has some wishes He may express promote the passage influence

govern

is

of

the leaders

form

government

the people

who If

the democratic

of

We regard authority

(9 )

to

had

.

its to

law and the means his discovery with existing

discovered something

him

the

enforce religious

entirely be

law

,

concepts but thought

He

disclosed

new

.

correlate

psychology

of

the natural moral failed

to

of

individual

he

.

He

to

source ment

study

of

's

Freud

as

is

ex

.

-

-

,

is

Freud the voice the parental authority inter becoming the super ego which makes men social and moral beings By strengthening the individual super ego the cul tural community becomes more secure because the need for govern themselves ternal coercion diminished men learn ing

nalized

of

.

by

his

of

by

in

to

-

of -

is

an

of

complaint was against the use coercion author acknowledged the need authoritative force which

of

he

,

ity

Though

to

that the natural moral would sufficient government ensure self and the ultimate realization the broth interpersonal rela erhood man achieve the same goals religious dogma tions which are desired the proponents assumed

AUTHORITY

indicated that replaced

to

religion were

if

he

force but would have

not want religious dogma be

be

this controlling repudiated

did

He

the individual .

to

,

to be

external

135

by

to

.

,

but he

could

of

him

no

force was abhorrent authority without the power

of

of

to

.

The element

not conceive

a

of

,

gion

he

in

it

another cul Though Freud tural agency which serves similar capacity recognized this could offer reliable substitute for reli enforcement

a

construct

of

Other psychoanalysts have attempted cept authority without the power

to

.

law

con

new

.

is

to

.

to

of

he

in

of

.

of

) is of

13

(

coercion Erich Fromm the chief ethicist current psychoanalytic thought He questions the right authority those demand obedience authority which presents The concept limited the type an

.

or

,

,

no

of

his

.

, of

of

is

by .

of

authority exercised by the scientist The scientist becomes authority when his work accepted others His authoritative power depends upon the opinion his colleagues and the gen eral public Regardless the truth usefulness even indispen the scientist has means within him imposing self the benefits his science upon others legislature He must convince that his discoveries are beneficial discoveries

.

of

forcibly

a

of

sability

the legislature

concerning

public health were first proposed

re be

All laws

by

.

to

society

.

by

1947

by

the .

no

is

.

,

to



,

the ones

ad in

to

is

demand obedience inherent The arrogant imperious person abuses and Company

.,

Rinehart

,

.

Man for Himself

Inc

,

.

antidemocratic not referring

of

,





is

obvious that Fromm but the personality

The power authority

authoritarian

to

is

It

*

as “

.

of of

it .

terms

authority

. :

,

Erich

, , .

Fromm

p

*

the concept York

an

on

by

to

ministering

10



totalitarian

the concept

such

.”

of

power referred

equal basis Laws are enforced only persuasion All authority which demands obedience is

Everyone

and

is

's

In

.

its

,

by

to

the medical scientists Laws could not the doctors but only the legislature which authority from the people ceives proposed ethical system hierarchy Fromm there

enforced

New

is

,

abused when Those entrusted with authority have carrying out the law Individual freedom

The authorities are

individuals

,

.

hypocrisy

and

.

When we

man

and the fact authority

of

the nature

,

is

the most difficult trait for of

to

to is

due

those who hold positions

see

found

authority

in

This

us .

that faults can

be .

submission

develop

to

man

all

of

of

of

Habitual

minorities

and

enforcement law promotes insecurity authority emasculation

,

law

by

rights

the

of

to

protect

. .

.

is

of

the responsibility not possible without protection

Lack

.

no

authority

the other extreme

not enforced

just laws are

expected

of

of

At

law

.

in

of

These abuses are moral

atrocities perpetrated the totalitar authority extreme example the abuse authority which have support perversion

an

are

a

leaders

AND PSYCHIATRY

The sadistic

.

ian

his

authority

OF RELIGION

by

INTEGRATION

136

is

as

it

,

us .

it

a

of

as

to

is

no

.

of

to

ity to

to

or

their judgment

to

question these faults becomes easy right contrary their direct However regard himself human nature for anyone total author entirely independent others Even the materialists who authority superior claim there themselves members

over

.

as

his

,

he

.

or

an

is

he

as

authority

History

everyone who deludes

au

absolute

.

as

well

individuals

the inevitable downfall himself into thinking that

illustrates

others thority

other

of

amply

of

upon the judgment

,

,

to

to

mankind must look someone else for proof The materialist may turn psychoanalysis psychology but science relies

of of

the

an

that

author

becomes

nec

threatens

the

discharge the physical force

to use

to

seeing

it

,

The teacher the

.

then

type

or

of

one

to

. If

in

to

be

persuasion

of

coercive methods

power The employer has Those who have the authority

.

.

over others meets situa

use coercion

has the responsibility conformity the wishes

obtained through

resort

pupil with failure employee

authority to

is

it

in

necessary

authority

is

cannot

essary

position

The one done properly

to

ity

a

.

other job

which

a

Everyone

tions

COERCION

FOR in

THE NEED

AUTHORITY

137

.

to

are

to to

do

to

do

, if

be

.

.

to

is

not

fol

search

to

may

.

diligent

even

be

though

it



perfect





no

be

can

,

a

voice

discovered

that author

assurance

promotes personal security

of

.

are

he

by

of

a

conscious

of

states

in

)

(

30

is

be

be

to

.

M

this

sure that the parents will insist that vividly illustrated coerced the Sechehaye her treatment schizo

Psychotic

.

of

be

be

of girl

the phantasy

small

clue

The feeling

coercive when necessary

.

be

experience

still

with difficulty after unconsciously wants

and corrected

The child needs good This need

phrenic

only

to

,

his

in

ity

will

found

the individual

crimes

from

.

leaves

.

However

his

.

to

to

is so .

do

to

crime The criminal always sometimes

Deviations

there

.

lowed

good

conscience People may consciously think get away with things which are contrary

of

to “

the fundamental drive

conscience when the voluntarily Psychologically

dictates

often con prevent

Life would much easier what they are expected

the natural moral law



conflicts

phys

impose



up

law

stir

that they want

the

nature

avoid evil

to

and

forced

human

in

Basic

in

be

and not

persuaded

do

be

or

situations which the patients others

people could

power

mental patients require physical force

care



by

to

fronted

must rely upon

who

Those

for

the

ical restraints harm

law

The officer

. of

.

in

to

the

cannot escape situations in which this power must be applied . parent must resort physical force times restrain ing the small child The infant has very little physical freedom

Many

reactivations

.

.

M

of

,

of

can

,

in

.

in

,

are

.

childhood The childhood fears and anxie normally ties which unconscious adult life force them selves into consciousness the psychoses We learn about childhood phantasies through the study the psychoses and about psychoses through understanding the mind the child life

in

.

but

instead

of

,

bathe

insisting

In

.

be

that the patient clean she suggested that the patient wanted clean another instance she did not force the patient

to to

be

time she wanted her patient

to

by

in

Sechehaye describes several instances retrospect which she unwittingly failed her patient not being coercive At one

INTEGRATION

138

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

purifying “ white snow ." * When the therapist forcibly place the " white snow ” in the patient 's mouth eat symbolic

not

pa

up

the

did

who will insist that to

in

,

as

THE UTOPIAN

insistent

In

forcibly

been

.

the therapist

had

all be

crises they

relapses

people need someone authority good they unconsciously want

.

prolonged

be

"

.”

be

tient lost hope because she was sure the therapist was giving Upon recovery the hope that the patient could purified patient verified the opinion that she would not have had the

SOCIETY

children

In

no

,

,

.

a

Well

but

parents usually

adjusted

there

exceptions

are

well

have

The

child

is

adjusted

child

.

the

such

no sickness accidents mistake Those who conceive the possibil earth not understand the psychic develop

- do

on

even

have

.

in

one would perfection absolute

no

reality

to

as

A

, of

.

realization

.

a

of

not

Heaven

of

ity

,

ignorance

ment

achieve

there could be no death

society

,

a

in

the imagination assume the potential

it

To

.

of

a

all

Many have wished for society where men rule themselves justly and comply with the Golden Rule voluntarily without the society such need external compulsion this exists only

,



he

will

cannot

does

not

whether child

repeat

is

,

must be expiated

a

.

guilt

.

crimes

All he

imaginary

when the occasion calls for

punished

, it,

real

,

from

not

or

of

.

talk about them The adult cannot understand the difficult position the child

he

intense that help when

If

so

,

are

of

the child



anxiety but often the fear

relieve

be

and guilt experienced

to

the adult helps by

surance

by

,

of

.

of

by

influenced countless accidental environmental factors operat ing beyond the control the parents When accidental catas trophes occur concurrent with the use omnipotence reas

his

he

.

90

translated 83 ,

,

Girl

1951

.

York

,

New

by

.

Schizophrenic

pp

Stratton

,

and

a

Autobiography

Grune

,

Grace Rubin Rabson

of

. A . .:

M

Sechehaye

- ,

*

of

do

his

. If

,

offenses becoming more and more flagrant unconsciously beg parents ging for punishment not restrict him will eventually require the restraining force society The same un

AUTHORITY criminal . Only

conscious process operates in the adult

139

in

one

of this type would destroy Utopia .

dividual

THE SOCIAL IDEAL .

as

such attributes justice The

.

and

,

,

,

,

infinite providence

in

the child perfection

knowledge

as

regarded

is

father power

by

,

his

The earliest experiences of the individual with authority are relationships with his parents both father and mother The

in

in

.

authority

balanced

is

,

,

to

to

's

semblance

This

desire

of

any

.

,

,

as

is

of

,

personal

wishes

a

have

even

rise

when they learn help themselves

.

to

he

them

may

to

The good father

that they

everything for them helps them but

be

be is

him

.

to

and

so

, ,

has had

,

themselves

-

be

self reliant

do he

.

subservient

to

of

to

In

to

him

He does not for

do

to

to

.

.

or

trains children greater advantages than things

attain

one

father which Freud de reality the man who considered constantly depend not want his children

his

him

subservience

One must relinquish

The type

Freud

slavishly

is a

ent upon

order

.

,

rarity cribes good father does

in

like the father according

peace

limited the paternal forbidding hostile threaten

demanding

and

overcome to

be

father cannot

above

which combines the character

authority

presented

punishing

be

,

,

restrictive

is

The father

.

element

ing

however

.

of

istics both parents The Freudian concept

the person

to

are

.

of

by

a

of

satisfying Patriarchal and matriarchal societies ality peoples some cultures The ideal society governed

,

,

,

,

of

It

.

of

. is

infinitely bountiful receptive protective creative and mother reparative All these attributes are included the concept authority paternal combines both and maternal elements

of

of

.

of

a

obtained

.

those exercising authority Social peace proper when there restoration balance

elements

is

will

be

maternal

by

to

of

of

Some the current social difficulties with the concept au thority are due philosophy antagonism the Freudian sub ordinates toward the paternal element and disregard for the

CHAPTER

12

VIRTUE AND

MENTAL HEALTH

RETURN

FUNDAMENTALS are

TO

in

Change

modify

them

of

is

a

difficult

human

adhere

nature

established

to

and beliefs

normal trend to

laws

find

to

inclines

to

those who

that

it

.

everyday life

It

,

to

.

of

mands

to

of

The basic tenets of Christianity sound principles mental hygiene They provide reliable guidance learning live with oneself and with others and adapting the vicissitudes and de

suit their own opinions

and

prin

of

of

by

.

of

,

is

.

to

essential but fundamental ciples are unalterable The many and varied interpretations Christianity which have been offered the tenets the differ desires

progress

evident

.

distortion Christian principles nowhere prevalent the attitude toward the basic vir is

of

This as in

else

so

.

misconstrued

so

in

in

ent churches have created confusion the mind the Christian Through the years these basic principles have been applied many different ways that their original significance has become

,

at

vir

associated with prudery

.

is

Its

large

.

of



is

,

14

1

puerile

the world

one who retreats from social conflict evidence weakness and goodness the inferior mentality Yet the ostensible pur as

of

virtue

regarded

or

of

Holiness goal

is

paragon

a

The

"

a

. -

to

present day standards meaning tue has become fault

.

According

of

.

tues

AND PSYCHIATRY

OF RELIGION

142 INTEGRATION

. of

,

of

of

everyday

as

as

well

these virtues

will

life

.

in

importance

the virtues

healthy

become mentally original meaning the

their practical

demonstrate

and review

with present uprightness and

,

to

go

is

it

Through

.

to

manliness practice

mean

back

them

and charity men review

A

.

,

faith religious

used

character

of

.

, of

hope

compare the

Virtue

standards

advantageous

beliefs and laws and

fundamental strength

time

to

time

From

of

aim

pose of religious education is to help men to be good and holy mental hygiene whole . This is also the — to make them

FAITH .

a

.

criticism

.

constructive

Actually

the doctors constantly im

are

.

of of

self critical

physicians

circles the

by

proving themselves

sacrosanct group as

group

-

no

is

themselves

professional

professional

Within

as

regard

so a

physicians there

to

a

of

a

to

doctor criticize the professional Medical ethics forbids patient This rule has been misunder colleague work by many people have gained the impression that the who stood

The purpose

the

as

it by

.

faith

faith

alone neither does the

;

by

science

.

calculating

,

is

live

dis

combat

it .

medicine

to

the will

to

has

no of

loss

he

,

faith the grave Lack brink heartening the doctor because to

an

is

,

. .

of

medi

is

.

by

has great faith

one who has little

the

alone The patient his doctor gets well much quicker than the Indomitable faith has saved many from the cold

of

who

That

medicine patient gets well

patient improve

than

in

No

, .

is

.

was

by

than

more important

The ancient priest but they cured their patients more the same today Human nature

cine which physicians achieved results then

in

of

times even

prescribed

is

at -p

is

element which

faith

to

to

,

In

.

is

of

the not ensure the integrity noncriticism ethical rule preserve the faith profession but the patient his doc intangible atient relationship there the doctor tor

of

,

.

in

is

to

,

faith

it .

gone life goes with simple every which we rely upon faith even The extent speak faith rarely day matters enters our minds When we

When

VIRTUE AND MENTAL HEALTH

think in terms of religious concepts , but without faith

we usually we

not live . Wemust have faith

could

We must

it.

ple in

143

trust

our world and the peo

in

milkman

the

deliver the milk

to

,

the cook to prepare the meals , the bus driver , the railroad en gineer , the airplane pilot to get us safely to our destination , and so forth . Our trust is placed not only in people , but in ma

and other material things . Without faith everything would

chines have

be tested and proven over and over again

to

. As

St. Augus

tine says, the whole practical life of man is founded on faith . The compulsive doubter is never sure of the veracity of his own experiences . A complete skeptic would lead a very precarious

He would be

.

existence

unable to walk across the floor without

of the way because he could not be that the floor would support Then would compelled performance way back because repeat anything He would have could never sure investi he

he .

to

.

he

on

.

He has

faith

he

he

to

weight

.

it

he

,

of

of

no

. If

when

will

get sits

water

light

upon

it . .

collapse

he

blown

get

of he

will

fuse

will

be

is

the chair broken Though knows that

a

. If

the basement

he

turned off

he it

he

his

will the desired result but cannot any goes the end result his acts until experience testing against reality them

opens the faucet

If

when

hold

is

the

the water

will

produce

in

through

the faucet believes that absolutely sure When get light When expects

of

of

certain

is

be

that his action

believes

the safety

Even

doubted

be

he

,

chair

he

on

the electric light switch a

in

he

sits

to

.

contamination

Ordinarily when someone turns the water will flow but cannot snaps

the

on

.

possible

breathed would have

be

his food for he

all

the

air of

of

gate

of

he

be

to

the

.

certain

be

each step

him

testing

no

carefully

is

of

are

.

is

,

of

he

can usually certain the reliability physical knowledge his environment his built upon faith which evolved from experience The practical use material

in

's

,

as

to

.

be

objects demonstrates that they reliable much more often than not As experience proves that real objects can trusted perform one believes they should then one faith them

INTEGRATION

144

OF RELIGION

the real objects fail, faith

. When

is strengthened

AND PSYCHIATRY

by investigation into the

be restored

can

of the failure , correction

cause

or re

of the faulty object , and further reality -testing . personal proof However , element not inherent the concept reliability faith Faith the belief the authority or

in

by

a

of

.

If

no

.

.

in

.

if

:

of

of

it

is

as

as

,

of

is

.

as

or

.

be

its

,

C

B

physically

B

=

and

is

A

If

law

.

physical

=

to

,

Hence

each other

im

law

of

.

F

32

heated

by

is

degrees above the performance mir anticipate miracles we can rely it

not ordinarily of

do

As

we

man toward what regarded bad Meta

,

.

to

.

The suspension

a

.

Ice C

=

A

.

.

solidly

the

absolutely we can things equal For example the

always melts when Physical laws are suspended only

acles

based

is is

a is

absolutely impossible

metaphysical

possible

certitude

concerned with absolutes and ultimates metaphysically contradictory certain

truth

sure truths same thing are always equal then

what

from

certitude

nature such the certitude depends upon

tendency

of

of

opposite

Physical

ex

personal

with certainty and

law

of .

.

good and away

Moral

through

three levels

are

,

, as

the

attraction compulsive

physical certitude

When

is

is

as to

is

There

.

To

,

or

mass

law

which we

.

it

clearly

moral and metaphysical upon the reliance upon the laws

regarded

over again

things

in

be .

is

.

to

well

perceive

faith

something

know

understand

physical

moral

proven

the reasonableness faith Faith logically assume that faith things personally proven not unreasonable the

through

can know

gravity

matter

doubts about

We may

which cannot authority reliable

We

of be

can

,

to

validate the truth

demonstrates

becomes factual

perience

longer

fact

is

believe

personal experience

of

simply

fact recur

it

of

validity the The personal ability

experienced

an

It

.

becomes

then

the

it

is

of

something without proof someone something personally proven After faith

in

is

of

is

or

.

of

the

pair

,

to

of

as

the laws

.

operates with nature The moral physical laws but our greatest sources the same immutability uncertainty and consequent threats faith are encountered upon

VIRTUE AND MENTAL HEALTH

toward good ,

relationships . Men are always motivated

all

in human

145

. set

the is

,

a

is

of

only through

.

is

The spiritual

real

achieved

.

look

to

The

,

man

will but

he

if

,

and

in

of

men

we tree but

he

of .

cannot make

a

a

of

by

restore the faith place

nature

has the benefit

can

to

the trustworthiness

and beautiful

is

of

the woods where absorb the majesty may falter climbing the hills and the mountains let

or he

,

in

.

his

is

,

law

helps

splendor Man

the trees He spirit

developed

either

When doubts arise about the trust supported reliance upon other ma

is

of

.

men faith Experience

the natural magnificent the solace

with

the self ideal

who may

.

the material

and

be -

in

God

oneself

in

.

person

in

through

of to

. in

the achievement Faith

.

the realization

men and material objects

worthiness terial things

its

ideal

lost

is

to

achieve

trust some other religious faith

.

or

the media

or

is

impossible

thereby limited

of A

is

men

out implicit illusory

world

within

new

is

instruction and frustrations impede personality growth

,

fellow

of

as

So

.

one

It

long

,

goals

's 's

one

see

progress

realized

,

of

restrictive

only

goal

goes

made toward the realiza godlike ideals men become more Prosaic ideals due place

its

up

in

tion

a

When

.

individual himself

operation which

on a

is

education

,

process

an

of

of

by

.

on

do

specific good Through experience men not agree things once considered good are replaced something better good through The nature ultimate learned continuous

but

.

so

are

The

great

He

spirit

cannot can

.

of

men

but

his

,

.

to

,

it

them

destructive power

the constellations will permit he

touch

the

if

reach out

world

ex has

offer

lacks

faith

his

environment

,

who

who cannot is

,

of

.

in

feel that the great master plan the universe isolated and constricted within himself The predicament the he

belongs

of

The person

in

much

to to

pand

of

the reach

physically

.

beyond

of

by

.

a

a

do

if

encompass

of

can

sight and sound

it

them will but The rippling brook great ocean can make him feel cleaner and stronger deep down inside Though the earth be swept desolation war man still has the stars which

but

OF RELIGION

psychotic state .

a

anything or anyone. Everything seems unreal

He

cannot trust

to

He

cannot

.

skeptic is essentially

complete

AND PSYCHIATRY

him

INTEGRATION

146

is

.

a

.

by

sandpa

may require several The experience with can handle something

to

.

he he it

in

begin

task

days but the end has improved spool proves the the patient that

,

by

,

simple

This

he

.

a

spool

He may

things

handle

in

is

he

tient learns that pering discarded

.

in

and then

can In

's

in

a

from

.

ration

is

as

as

accomplished mental disease the resto things the patient faith his environment first people the occupational therapy classes the pa

of

Recovery

,

of

in

faith

in

have

or

his reason his own senses This the pic schizophrenia ture seen the catatonic stupor withdrawal complete humanly possible from the real world even

a

,

to

.

to

it

it

may advance gluing better than was Then the spools together make posts eventually constructing dec

and make

to

is

.

;

of

.

he

.

of

in

he

threatened

in

by is

sustenance

within

them him

for

by

it

has

to

is

con

psychi

people stems from

possible

returns

be

not grow

assure himself

he

fail

,

or

the child

have one

to

.

's

faith

No

compelled

are

would

child

A

.

We

.

he

.

.

himself makes

.

others

can

they

with others

incorporate the faith

others When

do

what

can in

he

in to

.

himself

The faith

The child

When

do

or

by

his parents

the parents

himself

their associations interdependent

one another

cally without children his faith

tremendous power

the

without parents Parents would not

grow

this anchor

From

.

in

.

to

ceived

trust

can

others

all

in

rely upon

nature

feels

to

appreciate

not

the role they play independent We are

of

he

spread

to

do

in

people

to

he

,

finds one person whom

his faith People

is

he

to

be

be

.

he

orative wall shelf During this process also gaining assur ance that some people can trusted At first everyone seems begins him hostile but notice bits kindness then

relate

doubts because

the parents

for

for restoration

in

;

A

.

-

deliberately

oneself

is

else

ing self confidence reliable confidante problems specific when arise but faith

is

Everyone depends upon someone

of

.

reassurance

totter

sought

constantly

VIRTUE AND MENTAL HEALTH

or

we begin

up

.

to

.

is

our

doubts

abused

is

in

.

to

true with material things

also

even

we become

faith

stir

ourselves When the trust we place them wonder about our ability trust anyone This

,

strengthen

tends

upon

in

.

,

we

As

is

else

his

,

others

to

.

faith

trust others in

Unreliability

selves

someone

in

engenders

reliability

to

of

,

the newspaper boy sure our ability

time faith

,

a

in

Whether

.

him

every

does work well we can rely public official employer employee

a man

in

restored and strengthened certified . When

147

ob

Reliable material

a

is

it

a

,

to

be

, .

A

be

in

A

.

's

in

jects support one faith the object and the workmen who produced the object very frustrating defective car can leaking faucet which persists leaking after repaired cigarette lighter pen which always seems fountain run dry

in

, be

the

of

.

it

the

.

is

in



to

a

a

flicked

,

zipper that constantly half dozen times gets stuck these are minor things but they are destructive faith Faith lost not only the object but also the workman object storekeeper behind the and who sold The neurotic patient often describes the failure some ma which must

.”

the patient

or

The tenuous supported when the

failed

also

.

material objects

not

burning

.

could

dinner

be

the

people

yard falling in

faith

, ,

the back

of

in

,

"

as

being terial object last straw This might the roof leaking the cellar flooding the washing machine failing the tree

.

From his own experience the psychiatrist can verify the reli gious position concerning the need men have for faith Good

in

,

of

establish

faith

is of

effort

an to

A

.

duced positive and deliberate

would demonstrate honesty personal relations and the things pro the durability

,

men

in

done

trustworthiness and integrity reliability workmanship and

strength

of ,

This could

if

.

ened

be

hygiene requires that faith be supported and

mental

utmost

is

of

in

.

in

era

in

.

is

in

our time We live which faith God being deliberately and cunningly destroyed The dia and man lectic materialism the Communists the philosophical force

necessity

for

148 INTEGRATION

AND PSYCHIATRY

our predicament

.

But Communism would not peace had men been honest and

nism

due the fact that men could not rely their The symbols the father were bad and bad destroyed attacked and Communism has un elements

hu

but puppets iso

are in

of

.

and destructive

one another

Their

.

of

all

,

of

to

on

of

Commu

destroys morale Character assassination through ma destroys confidence keeps men Big Lie Their Their brutalizing atrocities have degraded men below threat



of



crime

Communists the killing

the

scientific menticide

of

greatest

and their

The greatest

,

the animal

is

the level

.

confused

of

gossip

.

.

system

licious

.

spy

from

the demoralizing

the Communist State men one another and lacking faith

.

lated

the power

In

all

leashed

be

.

fellow men things must man nature

world

of

The tremendous growth

has been

threat

to

trustworthy

.

have become

a

responsible

OF RELIGION

Conscience

eased

bad

,

regarded

as

what

is

enslave themselves

.

to

forced

do

men consistently

When

is

.

the mind

they

are

when they can

are acting under coercion They re authority gains main slaves until benevolent the physical power good appeal coerce them The Communism

will not

of

.

do

to

be

to

a

.

that they

assure themselves

until men can learn through experience depend upon one another for mutual support This can ac

.

of

by

religious renaissance Science alone peaceful world without religious

a

nightmare

.

a

faith has become

new

dream

's

Freud

.

only

helpless

is

complished

a

.

be

to

checked

HOPE in

.

's

.

be

of

be

can

his

.

It

is

of

psy therapy used the most common type supports both faith and hope The doc treatment patient that even the most tor must continuously assure complicated problems satisfactorily solved The patient working hope must sustained through the difficult process Reassurance

chiatric

.

a

.

to

is

to

his problems through feasible conclusion But reassurance psychiatry Looking for reassurance the house not restricted

VIRTUE AND MENTAL HEALTH wife

her tales of woe

relates

149

the storekeeper , the insurance

to

man , to almost anyone who will lend a sympathetic ear . How many men rely on the moral support of the neighborhood drug gist or bartender ! Those who deal with the public may not be specifically trained in psychology , but through experience they gain a working knowledge of practical psychology . They are ap

are

troubled types

problems

Giving advice might

Little a

cruel they

realize how

!

do

they

a

for

be

the distress of

.

to

offering their own ready answer

relatives and by glibly

person

see

add

. Well -meaning

can

friends often

not criticize

do

of

and

all

proachable

it

to

by

the adviser indicates his abrupt attitude understanding sympathy the client deprived

.

the client

faith

evaluate

because

supplies

him

,

he has

him

the

The wise counselor aspects

of

,

information

consideration

needed

his prob

his

must assure the client that helps

one can understand

given

in

not

all

is

emotional factor

is

or

no

.

of

is

that there hope He feels that

to

no

. If

tional element

.

a

to

,

.

in

very nefarious practice Often the person trouble the solution intelligently but emotional factors make difficult for him reach decision He requires time handle the emo

.

.

action

,

.

his acts Whatever the course

be

seeking

responsibility of

is

to

he

merely

of

do

to

who insists upon being told what can place the burden

someone upon whom for the consequences

of

person

his

,

it

is

he

if

to

and talk out but allows him draw own conclusions The sincere person who seeks help will make the right decisions weigh problem carefully trusted and permitted The

lem

The

of

all

.

as

to

as

there will difficulties encountered well satisfactions presumptuous adviser lays himself open blame for

the

the

of to

is

.

a

be

.

difficulties which arise from the decisions which are made approached with All personal problems must tolerant optimism Tolerance the willingness endure and bear do

of

.

to

be

To

.

or

.

the

called upon

to

of

difficulties and troubles others We are not things tolerate which not touch upon our experiences own lives tolerant does not mean con done everything and detest nothing The distorted meaning

burden

INTEGRATION

150

tolerance

has

effort to be

a

OF RELIGION

PSYCHIATRY

AND

forced us to become appeasers . friend to everyone we have sacrificed

We cannot

cannot tolerate crime.

our fruitless

In

our

ideals .

We

tolerate anything which threat

or destroy us. We must tolerate only those things which

ens to harm

.

minority group

differ diffi

to

he

Persons who are

of

.

of

,

then must tolerated position difficult because acts

others cannot

.

society

it of

,

!

return

crime but how often community life Intolerance

be

them

to

on

snubs

Those who suffer

child

!

the illegitimate no

to

is

cruel the world

mental illness have committed

,

his

is

,

of

,

!

to

is

an

of

be

stigmatized and must accorded tolerance The fam embezzler may know nothing the criminal act yet brought how often the family stigmatized when the criminal birthright yet how justice No one has any control over ily

justly

be

religion

be

forced into

a

Differences

,

of

to

ences are based upon emotional factors which are extremely might wish change even though cult for anyone

.

Religious

so

a

or

his

in

bear with him and misunderstanding

do

oppression

he is

therefore

cannot be avoided nationality

race

.

subject

has no control over

,

to ,

We must

person

A

if

or changed .

those

is

due

to

tolerance

its

.

will

be is

the meaning

. of his

The distortion

of

regardless

change

of

cannot

a

by

he off

things which cannot very unfair because controlled shuts hope presumptuously damning person for something

con

we must

he

.

so

cannot

.

in

things which

he

only

,

tolerant

do

correct errors others Though erring person we cannot tolerate his patient and hope that will eventually

our influence

We can

Through our own instruc what we can individually within

an

.

error

of

,

we may

be

the sphere

do to

and example

tion

able

to

will

be of

his hope that

be

he

.

.

of

patience We can patient with the fusion with the concept criminal without tolerating his crime We can hope that will eventually overcome his criminal tendencies We must support

reaction

based

upon

fear

Intolerance

an

is

be

changed

,

unreasonable

those

.

Intolerance

of

.

find the truth

properly

VIRTUE AND MENTAL HEALTH ,

directed

world

is

important

an

. For

society

and

element

of

improvement

the

in

, when the

instance

151 the

lumber barons

old

to

,

did

were denuding the forests and causing the soil erosion and floods, the citizens not tolerantly bear with them but took steps

.

correct the damage

CHARITY it

Originally

meant

met of

has undergone

charity

,

.

of

meanings

a

Like many other basic concepts amorphosis

Christian love

,

in

poverty With poverty charity need for charity Offers personal dignity People want affront

.

of

.

eradicated

no

be

,

there seems

an to

States has theoretically

United gone

.

to

to

to

.

's

and one

to

fellow men Then the meaning was changed giving help themselves indicate helpfulness those unable poor society alms and Christmas baskets the Modern the

God

,

of

.

to

in

emotionally

a

but the love be loved

.

to

,

given

love and

isolated

of

.

which Everyone needs

.

he

Otherwise

the giver

to

not the material thing

inspired

is

is

charity which

is

.

in

Bible calls the greatest virtues has become modern society People forgotten important fault have that the most element

in

of

.

is

of

as

as

are considered their social security benefits and unemployment compensation which they regard due them time need but any implica charity tion met with hostility and resistance That which the

to

's

love was

de

a

.

of

for

,

of

relationship

de

theories became

marital partner

love

of

reviving the concept

the Christian

of



its

in

men and women homosexuality Love

.

love anyone but

, .

a

as

.

marital

Social stability can restored pristine significance

ity

men

People accepting Freud by

Even

sensuality

the

.

to

Love

indicative

child and child for parent was nothing but

be

afraid

to

graded

incest

in

sire for

a

parent

perversion

was regarded

.

of

for women

of of to

indication for

an

is

by

's

to

Freud theories have added the confusion modern man reducing love nothing but desire for sexual intercourse All love outside the marital relationship according Freud

char

God

and

152

INTEGRATION

OF RELIGION AND PSYCHIATRY

man . Through Christian to others to help them

charity to

man

gives something

help themselves

. Alms

and

of

himself

contribu

tions are but tokens of love . Man becomes most godlike through his ability to love . Though man gives himself to others he does not lose or give up any part of himself . Instead , he creates something out of nothing , multiplying himself in others .

CHAPTER

13

RELIGION AND

SOCIAL INTEGRATION

THREATENED BREAKDOWN

THE

In the preface of A Study of History Arnold Toynbee * reminds us that it was during the bombings of London that he produced the parts of his study which relate to the breakdown and disin tegration of civilization . There were times when it seemed to him that his work of many years was but wasted effort , with personal

overwhelm

by

of

.

a

in

not

only

but also the very foundations

of

of

our

the

than

It

are

to

might

antireligious materialism generation

become living

segments

stronger

crucial age that the barbarous disintegrating power

.

,

us ,

to

too

the dogs

barbar be

alarmed

of

going

civilization survive and malignant opposing forces We appears

ever threatened

every generation

is

,

is

the Vandals were besieging

",



seems

manage

and

be

world

another to

cause the

when

430

Though civilization

one type

or

ians

.

of of

city

in A D

Hippo

to

. .

before his death

his

catastrophe impending at any moment. Faith in himself and hope in the future were fortified by comparing his situation with that of St . Augustine , who finished writing De Civitate Dei shortly

the progress

our civiliza

Oxford

University

Press

,

History

.

of

Study

viii

1

.

Vol

ix

Arnold

-

,

1939

. iv , J . pp : . A

Toynbee

London

, ,

*

.

tion

53

INTEGRATION

154

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

an

is

.

traditionally

Emotional development

All

religion

for .

training belong

.

intellectual satisfaction to

an

and not

to

can

Many men look to science to restore peace . But science deals with knowledge which can be used for evil purposes as well as good . It appeal only the intellect Peace emotional and

tra

have

spiritual strength and relied upon their clergymen personal peace Every town and village has church Few towns great stretch psychiatrist Only the imagination have picture

.

of

scientif

of

in

health

Science cannot take over the

func

up

to

because

of

up

people could not replaced

ma

more opportunities public health ed by

has

.

in

of

,

the social sciences likewise been hampered Psychiatric motivated through ignorance advances spirit spite widespread felt this resistance the

of

,

psychiatry last

resort

.

a

.

only

as

the benefits

use

it

to

have also intellectual acceptance ple still are inclined

of In

.

and

of of

,

ucation

resistance

or a .

,

.

work

,

grasp

of

The great masses the fact that though many men would chines scientific discoveries were opening for employment Progress the fields be

put out

industrialization began men was thought that many people

by

the machines

have always been met with

advances

the era

of

.

When

not have the vision eventual advantages

,

Technological

initial resistance

it

grasp

to

proposed change constitutes

people who understanding of

to

.

themselves

an

to

foresight

and discontent

offer become generally recognized

Every

.

Progress demands change threat the large mass

anxiety

be of

has

stir

do

before the benefits

tends to

science it

, .

of

religion

Paradoxically

would

confine the mental hygiene and to

continue

education

in

work

to

of

restoring patients

psychiatrist

the

.

greater portion

let

and

,

mal symptoms

feared

.

's

.

psychiatry has the clergyman learn what the science dealing with normal people and recognizing abnor to his

offer

in

to

Rather

in

every village and hamlet

the people The very idea would unreasonable encroachment upon the clergyman realm let

an

be

ically directing the emotions

tion

a

by

psychiatrist

of in

we

a

can

.

a

.

its

ditionally

peoples

many

peo

Psychiatric

RELIGION

SOCIAL INTEGRATION

AND

155

school clinics are still resisted . Some teachers take the attitude that the psychiatrists are trying to tell them how they should run their schools. Some parents protest against their children being deficiency

.

of

because

Orthogenic

of

the implication are

or mental

not

of

by psychiatrists

examined

the world

insanity

accepted

with pupils their value the who need them our own communities we have been trying combat igno prejudice and resistance rance the advancement science Today the problems community magnified world to

have

we

requires that

a

.

themselves

and

"

"

ONE WORLD be

Of this

forced into

been

understand great problems be

the little ones

handle

,

DREAMS OF

to

fore we have learned

close

our neigh

understand

We have

our own small communities

position which

.

of

learned

a

we

before

on

are

the peoples

Science has placed

.

bors

in

proximity

to

scale

.

wide

in

to

of

the

,

,

In

to

.

regardless

of

,

grace

classes

,

,

fellow

men

Every man

of

become impatient with

at

. In

.

an

change one education When men the educational process

.

must mutual

the dreams seeking the

to

people

process

Wars But

another try

dream

of

those

of

a

tainment this other through

after two World from

,

differ

of

one person

's

by

.

is

of of

peace and harmony One World where there The popularized One World was Wendell Willkie

find permanent peace

of

their

.

of

improvement dreams concept

all

, :

,

,

people however we may sure even the atheistic constantly striving blindly Communists are however toward the

,

.

or

of

to

interest

.

own

.

Changes

that

if

anyone unless they are what not acceptable want for himself The individual will resist

would

to

are

their

he

that the proposals are designed

in

.

,

of

,

,

to

the slowness resort force one type another The political directing social cultural and leaders are their energies toward the realization those things which they believe will promote the general welfare However the masses may not agree they are inclined

person

cannot

INTEGRATION

156

OF RELIGION

AND PSYCHIATRY

accept the proposed change as good for himself or his society . Forced compliance with change is always obnoxious and oppres sive even though the change may be initiated with humanitarian forced to comply , the individual does so slavishly to resist . But he will not always be weak . temporarily acquiesce to forces which are frustrating

motives . When

.

but oppressive always overthrown

may take centuries bring about their downfall improve the way World changes designed

.

to

,

,

cultural though even

it

political institutions

Beneficent

social

,

is

nature

accepted

eventually

are

and

and contrary

his

personality growth

authority

,

his

He may to

is powerless

he

to

because

in

by

It

.

material progress

.

of

or

by

a

government experience

of

it .

to

A

a

.

uncomfortable

Nothing but con

fusion can democratic form upon people who are not equipped personality handle

a

or

more cultured

.

wear shoes

, be or

an

they are forced result from forcing

feet will

bare

if

and unhappy

to

who are accustomed

Those

to

,

icebox itself make anyone more contented

,

bathtub

gained

an

a

in

cannot

be

it

soap

,

of

,

will

is

forced upon backward piece but hate and enmity power electric washer dam

. If

one may reach country nothing

all

of

,

.

-

,

by

to

of

peo life ples are now being engineered physical force political pres sure and high powered salesmanship Material progress itself provides merely the means cannot assure happiness which

The idealized goal society will integrated

unable

to

all

.

to

.

,

surmount

individual

differences

,

Being

campaign

the

of

conform

think act and feel alike These idealists the customary resistance Individuals refuse

.

with

is



have met

.

of

eventually

,

will

to

men

to

aspire

a

people



be

a

materialistic One World assumes that when everyone conforms what other good for them the social scientists think Those who realization this goal apparently believe that

them

of

We

are

no

.

It

a

distinguish between

.

to

considered prejudicial

is

a

of

.

.

use

to

idealistic social scientists have resorted tolera negation tion But their the word tolerance means differences The different races thereby lose their integrity

RELIGION

AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION

157

in

be

to a

to

be

liv

.

is

A

in

,

,

,

.

be

to

.

to

no

its

of

of

.

be

in

of

degree

.

be

to

eventually synthesized are expected such that descriptive adjectives will outmoded Actually people are the source the differences stimulation and chal life lenge Without them there would zest life negation effect differences has had The present trend

a

and religions

an

to

a

to

a

To

.

as

is

,

or

his

.

B

an

where apartment the same apartment We are not supposed refer individual religion association with call man Catholic Protes fostering prejudice Nations regarded tant Jew races in

apartment house

can

as

.

France Neither country for his individual which might persons They are position the same from

as

superiority

dicate

ing

Frenchman happens

any feeling

express

in

.

A

England

is

.

An

all

longer permitted to feel proud of national origins . We are Englishman Americans but man who happens from

se

as

those

In

of .

,

a

devoid

as

the same position

spiritual

who

erected

Babel

all

.

of

we find ourselves

the first Tower

paradise

materialistic in

make the world

,

ity to

to

.

,

,

,

curity

,

.

by

our vocabulary We are confused words such welfare reactionary liberal democracy These words and many others mean different things trying different people upon

peoples which holds only common factor found any promise unity religion forth Material advances without the guidance wholesome religious philosophy can be dis

.

is

spiritual life

is of

The Christian looks forward

to a

.

astrous

a

of

of

in

The

satisfac

. it

,

's

in

,

of

of

.

tion beyond physical existence His One World Heaven Christianity teaches the necessity doing good and overcoming evil the world and making good use one talents but

contented

at

a

.

is

people could

be

to

of

a

,

all

.

a

perfect world does not promise That the world could possibly happy place questionable Individuals may be made happy but happy world one must assume that conceive

be

the same time and kept that

versal agreement

on

to

.

of

way When we consider the divergent concepts things which happiness mean individuals we become convinced that uni what constitutes happiness

for

the world

OF RELIGION

if

be a

attainment think that the world everyone the world would accept

I

.

is

in

impossible , much less happy place would

AND PSYCHIATRY

its

INTEGRATION

158

my

to

bringing happiness

I

let

.

I

,

,

it

,

any one individual

,

in

helpless

to

am

,

.

So

be

if .

own philosophical orientation The man next door thinks happy that the world would would adjust his phi losophy does the man down the street the professor the clergyman the scientist the rabble rouser But know that alone

my work

a

to

for

it

needs

ther

from

for treatment

him

.

to

need

comes

thinks profit

the

by

of

be

apy the patient must first understand fore the doctor can much help

his

order

He thinks he

of .

the family

.

difficult

some member patient treat to

also

a

is

treatment because

In

is

.

protest does not any reason for his commitment wrong nothing there with him The patient who

be

see

.

is

to

to

be

.

a

.

In

to

I

I

,

as

the world unless wants me psychiatrist have often wished that could make people happy The psychiatrist cannot help anyone who does not want brought helped The patient who mental hospital under that person

be

as

.

is

attain

hap

personal

Man has the power

.

show the way

they need

which

one

's

the self upon the realization

of is

.

,

an

It

but one can force another individual attainment some

fellows

his

in

.

created

is

thing which

something

people

to

to

be

but

can

inflict misery upon happy Happiness

them

wants his

,

and peace

is

the

be

to to

piness

can offer

clergyman he

Though

no

that cultural religion

to

.

of

.

in

is

The clergyman confronted same difficulties the psychiatrist religious regard this No one can forced minded The greatest problem the clergy convince people

clarify The psychiatrist helps the patient interme The clergyman concerned not only with interme diate goals but also with ultimates

.

to

goals

life What mean

I

What

?

of

purpose

Friends

do

?

Power

?

.

?

is

the fundamental

fame Money ?

ask

Is

?

What

it .

seeking

want

I

do

we are

is

the final end secure our own happiness we searching questions about the goals ourselves some

The ultimate must first

To

.

, .

is

diate goals

RELIGION by

SOCIAL INTEGRATION

AND

159

successful life ? For centuries similar questions have been from the pulpits . Millions of words have been written .

a

asked

Tons of paper

have

been

.

wasted

question

The

'

still before

is

us. The answer depends upon one s personal philosophy with a materialistic philosophical orientation have many

.

Those diverse

offer mankind . The materialists cannot promise any semblance of social integration because of the diversity of their goals . Those who believe in the spiritual life are unanimous in goals

to

naming the enjoyment of a life after death as the ultimate goal . There is diversity in the concepts of the nature of the future life , but the element

is

present.

HOPE SPRINGS ETERNAL " . .

or

be

his

see

goals clearly

normal man , like neurotic man , Everyone develops own phi to

of

warped dependa life which may either wholesome peo upon experience relationship testing reality in

ing

needs to losophy

chaos

his

of

To bring order out

in

"

of integration

be

.

in

ple and things encountered his environment Confusion reigns philosophical psychological precepts cannot and

when

prejudice

and

do

so

hate

can

.

where external controls

The

are

un

,

Rousseau Greed

.

the philosophy

be

suggestive

of

to

place restraints upon himself

theoretical society

of

a

of

,

for

power

able

,

necessary

is

concept

is

that

and stable

he

a

is

.

a

in

of

can

.

a

brought into harmony We have presented psychological sys explain design tem which the constructive and purpose conformity with life sane and stable philosophy We not Utopian society where every individual envision secure

lust

indi prob his

from

eradicated

of

is a

.

solved

.

lems cannot

be

as

.

,

.

,

viduals but not from society As one individual solves lems another develops new ones Life continuous process solving problems they arise Mental conflict occurs when prob

In

to

.

is

of

of

in

so

widespread The hypocrisy modern society due the generalized uncertainty spiritual goodness the reality

INTEGRATION

160

OF RELIGION AND PSYCHIATRY

phantasies are so realistic that they ob stead , the frightening scure reality . The individual is unable to visualize himself as

being

strong enough

to

overcome the phantastic . He condones immorality

bad

parents

,

because he is so he must appease them not strong enough to control it . A good social structure cannot be supported , whether tottering or not at the moment , unless a majority of individuals in that society can establish good phan

.

,

in

can

he

look

is

fulfill this desire

for

leadership

the

func

the church

,

We must

to

the

science

restoring

.

in

not

dynamic and inspiring accomplishment

its

,

hope

.

to

supply

then

and

assured

phantasy

.

of

religion

desires

in

tion

he

ity

what

To

be

toward the realization

The individual must

of the possibility of progress ultimate goal God and Heaven accomplish that real

be assured

of

ing

tasies so that they may

THE ROLE OF THE

INDIVIDUAL a

as

to



of

of

.

the

pro

of

,

investigate

Supreme Being

structure beliefs way life which a

but

the various churches

a

as

be

not

one

will

.

his

individual reach ultimate goal We have been look training outward our sights upon world problems Now we

of

.

through

It

.

one has the power may direct influence

of

in

the present positions

improve the whole world worth noting that the in

No

to

to

's

is

everyone responsibility This special importance those be

of

it

,

crisis but authority

is

.

must look inward

in

.

,

ing

the

help

by

mulgated

evaluated

as

review

Religion must

as a “

himself committee his personal relationship with

,

and

appointing

-

tion

re

by

.

,

in

of

is

Social integration not possible without first restoring the moving integrity society the individual unit toward his ultimate goal Each individual can best further social integra

God gave man dominion over the birds and but not over his fellow men Eventually the power seeking individual comes realize that exercises do minion over anyone else Authority over others carries with Genesis

no

it

.

he

.

fish

to

and

-

animals

, ,

Book

RELIGION

AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION

161

The only person over whom any one exercises any real and permanent power is himself . By im proving himself , however , he influence others toward good

for their welfare

.

can

responsibility

improve the world

.

and indirectly

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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1917 .

. Allport, Gordon

The Individual and His Religion . The Mac York , 1950 . 3. Boisen , Anton T .: The Exploration of the Inner World . Harper & Brothers , New York , reissue 1952 . ( Copyright 1937 .) 4 . Chisholm , G . Brock : “ The Re - establishment of Peacetime So ciety , ” Psychiatry : Journal of the Biology and Pathology of Inter personal Relations, Vol. 9, No. 1, February , 1946 . Theory of Neurosis . W . W . 5 . Fenichel , Otto : The Psychoanalytic Company Norton New York 1945 Freud Sigmund Collected Papers Vol translated Alix and Hogarth Press Ltd and Psycho James Strachey Institute W

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,

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by

Inc

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New

,

1927

. . D ) .

by

(

; , .

;

.

,

of

,

Copyright

W

Robson Liveright Publishing Corpora translated

by

.

. A .

A

.

,

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,

by

,

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, ,

of

to

,

of

.

. , III ,

,

.,

,

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W

.

Id .

London

: A

Psychoanalysis

Everyday Life translated Psychopathology The Macmillan Company New York 1948 Three Contributions the Theory Sex translated Brill Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing Company York and Washington 1920

.

.

A —

,

, .



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10

Illusion

.,

Scott Hogarth Press Ltd tion New York 1949

II .

Toronto

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Ltd

an

Co .

&

and

,

-

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9

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H

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Ltd

The Future

New

Toronto

translated Joan Riviere Hogarth Psychoanalysis the Institute London 1950

The Ego and the

Clarke Irwin

Brill

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and Company

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,

1933

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8

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Press

Company

.)

(C

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W

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7

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by —

,

;

London Clarke Irwin and opyright 1925 New Introductory Lectures Sprott Norton

1949

York

,

,

. :

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.

6

analysis

Inc .

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.

.

,

Yale University Press New

,

,

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., . . , :

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W

.

,

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Dill

York

,

,

New

by

, .

.

's

.

,

London 1937 Maturity Charles Scribner

Sons

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by

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,

of

Search

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of

.,

Psychoanalysis

of

of

, , , R , , . . B. : : . , : In “

Kunkel Fritz New York 1943 Lindsay

.

,

to

:

.,

,

ed

:



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.

,

.

.

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23 24

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,



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of

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,

1948

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a

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York

,

New

,

Macmillan Company

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.:

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,

.

Physical Science The Survival Scientific Monthly Vol LXXIV No March 1952 Mead Margaret Male and Female William Morrow and Com pany New York 1949 Menninger William Psychiatry Troubled World The

,

.

25

W

.

,

by

a

,

Soul translated

Brace and Company

W

of

in

Search

Harcourt

Psychoanalysis Klein Melanie Contributions edited Ernest Hogarth Psychoanalysis Jones Press Ltd and Institute Lon don 1952 Oxford University Press Toronto The Psychoanalysis Children translated Alix Stra chey 2nd Leonard and Virginia Woolf Hogarth Press Ltd and the Institute

26

, ,

&

&

.

, "

of

.

Brace and Company

1933

27

New

.

to

Baynes

.

.

F

Modern Man

and Cary

_

in

”,

of

.

,

. of

,

. , ,

.

,

.,

in

, of

. L .

, ;

,

of

.

Baynes Harcourt

1928

:



F

and Cary

York

21 .

,

H , . , . 14 G , . . G . :. 2 ,

of

the



:

,

,

:

A

:

, ;

,

.

17

.

18

.

19

.

by

W

Gage Ltd University Chicago Press Chicago 1950 Study Early Childhood Griffiths Ruth the Imagination Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd London 1949 Horney Karen The Neurotic Personality Our Time Norton and Company Inc New York 1937 Huxley Julian Knowledge Morality and Destiny Psychiatry Pathology Interpersonal Biology Journal and Relations May 1951 Vol No Jung Carl Analytical Psychology translated Contributions Toronto

20

Intensive Psychotherapy

of

:

,

.

-

16

Fromm Reichmann Frieda Principles University Press London Cambridge

Co .

,

1949

.

York

.

by

,

Its

Vol New

-

and Religion



. V , :

Family

~

Brill . New Repub

The Oedipus Complex and the Oedipus Myth The Function and Destiny The Science Culture Series edited Dr Ruth Nanda Anshen Harper Brothers

:

.

,

-

.

1950

-

14

Psychoanalysis

Haven

15

A. A.

Rinehart and Company Inc

1947

.

York

New

York 1927 Man for Himself

Erich

:

, .,

.

13

,

Inc Fromm

, translated by

and Taboo

.,

Totem

,



.

12.

lic

164 BIBLIOGRAPHY



. 4 ,

,

.

,

.

, ,

1948

Co

.

, ,

;

by

.,

Co

by

.

.,

&

&

by

,

,

.

York

, -

trans

New

-

.

,

104

.

Girl

and Stratton

,

a

of

Schizophrenic

,

.

-

Grune

,

of

,

Its

at

"

M

,

by

Autobiography

Grace Rubin Rabson

.,

,

.

,

,

.,

W

.

, :

.)

.

.

W

.

W

.

1941

.

,

York

.

, D . . C .,

,

(

.

in

,

of

,

J , .:

,

,

41 .

New

,

;

,

.

,

of

:

.

.

by

ofof

.,

, ,

.,

, ,

Collected

with

a

:

,

by

Ella Freeman Brierley

Marjorie

on

Psychoanalysis edited Papers edited Preface Ernest Jonesysis Jones Hogarth Ernest Psychoanalysis Press Ltd and the Institute London Clarke Psycho Irwin and Company Ledtute Ltd Toronto 1950 Harry Stack Conceptions Sullivan Hacompany Modern Psychiatry William Sullivan Washington Alanson White Psychiatric Foundation 1947 University Walsh James The Popes and Science Fordham Copyright 1908 Press New York 1911 printing Henry His Zilboorg Gregory collaboration with George tory Medical Psychology Norton and Company Inc Sharpe

. 3939 . 40 .

International Universities Press Inc

1951

.

York

,

New 38

Symbolic Realization

-

.

37

.

1951

. , A .: .

,

lated

1947

,

by

.

,

, 2

,

, of



.

.

,

.

W

1951

Listening

,

:

Theodor

3

.

,

., ,

,

in

.

W

.

Childhood translated Norton and Company

with the Third Ear Farrar Straus and Company New York 1948 Resolution Adopted Without Dissenting Vote the Group for Minneapolis Minnesota Meet Psychiatry Advancement ing July Psychiatry 1947 American Journal Vol No Reik

September Sechehaye

36

an

,

, the

of

he

and

.

. M .

.

F

,

. , ,

, ,

,

.

Yor

New

. Dre,

,

, Play

:



.

York

New

,

,

,

of

's

;

.,

:



. .

, ,

,

.

, of

's .

;

.,



31 . 32

33

C

.

34

Inc .

:

:

, by by

.

30 .

Patrick

Humanities Press New York Play Dreams and Imitation Gattegno and Hodgson

Inc

35

Para

No

Oedipus Myth and Complex with Introduc Hermitage Press Erick Fromm New York 1948 Physical Causality trans Piaget Jean Conception The Child Marjorie Gabain Kegan Paul Trench lated Trubner Ltd London Harcourt Brace and Company New York 1930 Conception The Child the World translated Kegan Paul Trench Trubner Joan and Andrew Tomlinson Ltd London Harcourt Brace and Company New York 1929 The Language and Thought Child translated Marjorie Gabain Routledge and Keegan Paul Ltd London 1951 tion

-

165

:

of



October

Mullahy

29

Learning Theory and the Neurotic Hobart Orthopsychiatry Vol XVIII Journal

American

,

dox

.

.

,

28

Mowrer

O

BIBLIOGRAPHY

OF CUMULATIVE VALUES

TABLE

AMOUNT

DAY

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63

98 ,

26

15 ,

2

, , 17 ,

,

,

,

53

of

7

, 37

of ,

,

bad father knowledge Diseases the Eye Kings Divine Right Dogma 123 religious Dreams Drive fundamental gregarious

of

,

54

de

Kruif Devil

82

50

-

,

106

48

-

,

,

100

82

22 ,

,

,

91 14

9 64 ,

. B . , ,

W

patients

54

29

,

34

24

137

,

18

91

”,

on

,

117 , 1

87 ( fn .) 72

,

,

125

51

20

54 8

Cannon

Care

of ,

147

55

Competition Concept Concurrence

, , , , 45 , 87 72

65

",

of ,

,

,

, , , , , , , 60 , 91

Communism

,

143 ,

39

of ,

,

,

, , C . St S , , ., ., of , 91 12 ,

121

, ,

Braid

Brill

Cistercians

Coercion 136 Cognition

Conservation Cooperation Cumulative values Curiosity

163

, , E A . . G T ., .,

Boisen

3

Darwin De Civitate Dei 153

Bluemel 111 Bodily content symbols Boring

,

Confession

34

,

,

67 12

, St . , ,

"

Basil

Behavior dynamics Benedict Benedictines Bibliography

Child faith 146 Childhood experiences myths Chisholm Brock religion Christianity 141

Consciousness

personality

Basic

100

151

Conscience

34

,

father mother

144,

,



4

concept

reaction

,

.,

130

126

as

G

Chain

Charity

Alvarez , B., 13 Ambivalence , explanation of, 59 American Journal of Psychiatry Anthony , St., 12, 91 Aquinas , St . Thomas, 71 Aristotle , 14 Associations , 29, 31, 75 mechanics of , 55 in psychoanalysis, 52 Augustine , St., 153 Authority 133 Bad

,

,

Certitude

40

Advice , 149 Alexian Brothers , 12

Allport ,

Alexis

Case material

on

Adler ,

Carrel

(

Absolute perfection , 138 Absolutes , 15, 21 , 66

fn

INDEX

INDEX Fromm - Reichmann , Frieda “ Oedipal ” complex , 41 on phantasy , 52

54

Dymphna , St., 13 Dynamics , 51

Emotion , ambivalent, 59

God ,

in experience , 113 as goodness , 109 knowledge of, 37, 98 reality of , 1, 83, 98

,

,

3

,

,

, W

8

.,

64

, 18

19

, ,

41

,

108

Human behavior Human nature Huxley Julian Hydrotherapy Hypnosis Hypothesis ,

14 4

, , 17 15

135

, 41

37

of , 37

,

4

13

,

129

,

,

98

13

,

of ,

,

,

37

,

43

,

98

Hostility

42

of , 14

70

goal

Heinroth 125 Hell knowledge Hippocrates Hippocratic oath Hippolites Holmes Oliver Homeostasis

of

,

47

,

,

,

,

,

66

knowledge

ultimate

Hope 148 Horney Karen

,

, 4 ”

authority complex

on

, ,

,

98

,

79

,

,

64

,

,

,

,

2

, 1, 2 , ,

,

Advancement

124

Heaven

45

,

,

,

30 , on

of

God

unconscious Friends Society Frigidity 104

,

18

79

,

,

25 of ,

,

,

,

on on on on on on on on on on on

Guilt

64

56

,

. s'

Group for chiatry

,

119

, ,

( fn ).

,

-

Griffiths Ruth

intellect interpersonal relations omnipotence religion 116 social relations

on on “

145

Great Systems of the Universe Gregarious drive

Fenichel Force use 136 155 Forgetting Freud Sigmund absolutes authority 134 139

religion

,

specific

Father Father mother symbols principle Fechner Feelings See Emotion Femininity 103

Fromm Erich Oedipal

71

father , 34 mother , 34

120 120 symbols

taboo

,

symbols

and

Good , concept of , 65

, , 8,

of

, , ,

,

142 144

child 146 healing 132 intellectual 117 religious 117

conscience

of religion , 141 an Illusion , 2, 116

Galileo , 119 Gheel , 13 Goals, 69, 158 intermediary , 69 ultimate, 69

Ethics , 21, 66, 115 medical , 142

childhood concept

of

Future

source of , 59 source of conflict , 31 study of , 23 , 124 Emotionalism Engels , 53 Esquirol , 14

Fanaticism Fantasy

on

Fundamentals

association , 29

Faith

,

Functions of mind , 61 Fundamental drive , 63

strength , " 82

,

“ Ego

,

,

Dunham

as

168

Psy

INDEX Id , 27

Maladjustments personal Malleus Maleficarum 124 Man Against Myth Manicheism

,

,

3

,

,

4

40

,

15

,

Nirvana

principle

,

Naturalism

64

phan

,

52

therapy

72

,

40

63

80

,

66

, ”

,

14

Moral treatment Morals Mother symbols Motivation Mowrer Hobart Mullahy Patrick



18

",

144

,

67

,

31

,

53

",

of

Overwork

, sin

Original

,

38

90

15

86

72

,

34

,

,

,

35

personal Omnipotent Father Omnipresence One World 155 Origin Species

37

of , ,

43 44

, ,

( 42 fn .)





need



22

135

,

as

,

Objects material symbols Occupational therapy Oedipal phantasy Oedipus Rex Omnipotence

6

,

5

,

61

134

90

,

,

33

21

child

Lucifer

89

of

,

, , R . 14 B .,

,

17

, , ,

,

,

,

,

enforcement moral 123 137 natural 144 physical 144 religious 123 scientific Learning process Leibnitz Lindsay 129 Logic Law

of ,

,

unions

88

Labor

nature

human

,

,

Kunkel Fritz

54

,

of

Model Moral law

4

, ,

phantasy



on “

,

,

.,

,

148of , 9

of ,

,

functions Miracles 130

Music

40

,

complex

Oedipal

Melanie

tasy on



Oedipal

, “ 52

,

on

phantasy

C 54

,

, 8

,

,

22

Mind

, , O , .

,

,

Judgments

Klein

, ,

,

54

Men Against Death Menninger William Mental hygiene movement Mental illness recovery from treatment Menticide Mesmer

,

150

12

on 60

St .

,

,

105

Jung Carl

60

,

,

sensory

13

Joffre

159

101

intellectual

,

Memory

, 62

, ,

Jerome

147

Mead Margaret

social, 160 Intellect , 2, 59 Interdependence , 146 Interior of body symbols, 82 International Congress on Mental Health , 3 Interpersonal relations , 97- 112 Intolerance , Jealousy

34

,

( fn .)

, ,

,

Materialism



personality

102

53

Marx

Masculinity

72 ,

of , 54, 56

universality of, 58 Index Librorum Prohibitorum , 9 Industrial therapy , 15 Infantile sexuality , 38 Instincts , fallacy of, 64 Integration , of mind , 61

of

128

,

,

Idleness , 90 Image , 54 Imagination , definition neglect of, 51 and reality , 53

169

INDEX

150

Religions , 114 Religious dogma, 2, 17, 53 Ritual , 123

Perception , 54 Person , 30, 81 Personality , 30 development of, 68

154

,

58

,

13

75

,

,

,

,

35

17 42

, , E E . . B L ., . ,

44

,

of

Thorndike Titchener

20 20

44

on

52

phantasy

Taboo Theory recapitulation

, ,

of ,

,

113

91

, ,

,

,

,

Recapitulation theory Recreation Reik Theodor faith on

63 ,

,

48

46 ,

41 ,

,

60 148

,

,

-

Reassurance

109

78

Symbol classification definition interpretation 71

71 41

,

( fn ).



,

. ., 98 S

,

,

,

15

-

134

73

98

Life

77

of

ego

Superstition Sydenham

origin

Reality testing Reasoning

114

, 97 ,

,

il

,

of

,

H

,

on “

52

3

Super

18 29

,

12

52

,

,

,

,

16

-

1

,

3

of ,

,

29

,

1

,

in

Suleimanie

interpersonal Sullivan lations Oedipal complex Summa Theologica

,

, of ,

14

7

37

”,

,

in a

associations

and ethics and interpersonal relations theory Psychology Psychopathology Everyday

53

,

of

of

,

75

,



22

,

47

John XXI Prejudice Primal father Psychiatry development Psychiatry Troubled World Psychic determinism Psychoanalysis Pope

137

, . 76 , , 1 M

,

,

,

14

,

, ,

8

-

,

ir

,

35

,

,

, ,

,

91 14 13 ,

child

101

Sexual adjustment ior relations 104 Sharpe Ella Charity Sisters Social Contract Society Friends Soul irrational Spiritual reality Stahl 125 Study History 153

78

Jean

Pinel Plato Play

of

,

Piaget

53, 159

12

78 , 15

34

Sex

Phobia Physical requirements

,

, 21 , 19 ,

159

,

materialistic need for

and religion

Sechehaye Self analysis Semmelweis Sensory memory Service

20

thinking Philosophy Phantasy

,

Jacques

Jean

Science ,

56 56

of ,

, 33 , 38 ,

,

Phantasy

7 parents

( .)fn

Phantastic symbolism

62

,

of Spain

,

Rousseau

Rule of St. Jerome ,

88

of,

integration

113

117 and science , 1- 15

133, 154 Percept , 55

Peter

,

,

,

Peace

, 3,

definition

and faith

,

Patience

,

Religion

17

, 72 59

, ,

on

Pantheism Passions

,

170

re

INDEX Tolerance , 149, 154 Toynbee , Arnold , 153 Treatment , 9, 14 Truth

,

17, 144

Tuke , William , 13

Vives , 14 Vocation , 87

Walsh ,

James

Watson , Will , 61

J. B .,

J., 7 . 20

Ultimate goal , 69 Unconscious , 14 , 24 Utopian society , 138

Work ,

Virtue , 141

Zilboorg , G ., 14

freedom

of,

integration

85 -95

29

of, 117

171