Instructional-design Theories and Models_ A New Paradigm (Instructional Design Theories _ Models.PDF

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Instructional-design Theories and Models_ A New Paradigm (Instructional Design Theories _ Models.PDF

Table of contents :
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Title......Page 3
Copyright......Page 4
Contents......Page 6
Preface......Page 9
Subject Index......Page 0

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A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory

BUTUH LENGKAP HUB [email protected]


A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory

Edited by Charles M. Reigeluth Indiana University

Copyright © 1999 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microfilm, retrieval system, or any other means, without prior written permission of the publisher. First published by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers 10 Industrial Avenue Mahwah, NJ 07430 Reprinted 2009 by Routledge 711 Third Avenue New York, NY 10017 2 Park Square Milton Park Abingdon Oxon Oxl4 4RN Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Main entry under title: Instructional-design theories and models. Bibliography: p. Includes index. ISBN 978-0-8058-2859-7

I dedicate this book to my loving wife, Maitena, who has understandingly endured the countless days that this book has stolen from our relationship. I further dedicate this book to our three children, Jennifer, Mikel, and Kevin, with the hope that it will in some small way help to improve learning for them and their children. —C.M.R.


UNIT 1 ABOUT INSTRUCTIONAL-DESIGN THEORY: FOREWORD 1. What Is Instructional-Design Theory and How Is It Changing? Charles M. Reigeluth 2. Some Thoughts About Theories, Perfection, and Instruction Glenn E. Snelbecker UNIT 2 FOSTERING COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: FOREWORD 3. Cognitive Education and the Cognitive Domain Charles M. Reigeluth and Julie Moore 4. Multiple Approaches to Understanding© Howard E. Gardner 5. Teaching and Learning for Understanding David N. Perkins and Chris Unger 6. Open Learning Environments: Foundations, Methods, and Models Michael Hannafin, Susan Land and Kevin Oliver 7. Designing Instruction for Constructivist Learning Richard E. Mayer 8. Learning by Doing Roger C. Schank, Tamara R. Berman and Kimberli A. Macpherson 9. Toward the Development of Flexibly Adaptive Instructional Designs Daniel L. Schwartz, Xiaodong Lin, Sean Brophy and John D. Bransford 10. Designing Constructivist Learning Environments David Jonassen 11. Collaborative Problem Solving Laurie Miller Nelson

12. Learning Communities in Classrooms: A Reconceptualization of Educational Practice Katerine Bielaczyc and Allan Collins 13. A Design Theory for Classroom Instruction in Self-Regulated Learning? Lyn Corno and Judi Randi 14.


Systematically Using Powerful Learning Environments to Accelerate the Learning of Disadvantaged Students in Grades 4–8 Dr. Stanley Pogrow Landamatics Instructional Design Theory and Methodology for Teaching General Methods of Thinking Lev N. Landa

16. Integrated Thematic Instruction: From Brain Research to Application Susan Jafferies Kovalik and Jane Rasp McGeehan 17. Instructional Transaction Theory (ITT): Instructional Design Based on Knowledge Objects M. David Merrill 18. The Elaboration Theory: Guidance for Scope and Sequence Decisions Charles M. Reigeluth UNIT 3 FOSTERING PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPMENT 19. The Development of Physical Skills: Instruction in the Psychomotor Domain Alexander Romiszowski UNIT 4 FOSTERING AFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT 20.


Affective Education and the Affective Domain: Implications for Instructional-Design Theories and Models Barbara L. Martin and Charles M. Reigeluth Recapturing Education’s Full Mission: Educating for Social, Ethical, and Intellectual Development Catherine Lewis, Marilyn Watson and Eric Schaps

22. Self-Science: Emotional Intelligence for Children Karen Stone-McCown and Ann Hathaway McCormick 23. Structured Design for Attitudinal Instruction Thomas R. Kamradt and Elizabeth J. Kamradt 24. Character Education: The Cultivation of Virtue

Thomas Lickona 25. Adolescent Spiritual Development: Stages and Strategies Joseph Moore UNIT 5 REFLECTIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH 26. Formative Research: A Methodology for Creating and Improving Design Theories Charles M. Reigeluth and Theodore W. Frick 27.

Current Progress, Historical Perspective, and Some Tasks for the Future of Instructional Theory Glenn E. Snelbecker

Postscript Author Index Subject Index


How to help people learn better. That is what instructional theory is all about. It describes a variety of methods of instruction (different ways of facilitating human learning and development), and when to use —and not use—each of those methods. Volume I of Instructional-Design Theories and Models provided a “snapshot in time” of the status of instructional theory in the early 1980’s. But the nature of instructional theory has changed dramatically since then, partly in response to different needs in educational and training environments, partly in response to advances in knowledge about the human brain and learning theory, partly due to a change in educational philosophies and beliefs, and partly in response to advances in information technologies, which have made new methods of instruction both possible and necessary—necessary to take advantage of the new instructional capabilities offered by the technologies. These changes are so dramatic that many argue they constitute a new paradigm of instruction, which requires a new paradigm of instructional theory. In short, there is a need for a Volume II of Instructional-Design Theories and Models, to provide a concise summary of a broad sampling of the new methods of instruction currently under development, but also to help show the interrelationships among these diverse theories and to highlight current issues and trends in instructional design. To attain this broad sampling of methods and theories, and to make this book more useful for practitioners as well as graduate students interested in education and training, this volume contains twice as many chapters, but each half as long, as the ones in Volume I, and the descriptions are generally less technical than in Volume I. Because this volume contains a lot of theories to understand and compare, I have tried to make this task easier for the reader by preparing a rather unconventional kind of chapter foreword that summarizes the major elements of each instructional-design theory. Hopefully, these forewords will be as useful for reviewing and comparing theories after you have read them, as they will for previewing a theory to decide whether or not it interests you and developing a general schema that will make it easier to understand. Furthermore, the editor’s notes, which are also rather unconventional for an edited volume, will hopefully help you in this task of understanding and comparing the theories. Finally, Units 2 and 4 both have introductory chapters that are intended to help you analyze and understand the theories in those units. Unit 1 describes what instructional-design theory is like, the ways it is changing, and why. It also discusses current issues and trends in instructional-design theory. I strongly recommend reading the two chapters in this unit before reading any of the theory chapters. Unit 2 provides concise summaries of a broad sampling of new instructional-design theories (methods and when to use them), currently under development in the cognitive domain; Unit 3 provides the same for one highly integrative theory in the psychomotor domain, and Unit 4 provides the same for five theories in the affective domain. Finally, Unit 5 provides a general discussion of the various theories presented in Units 2 and 4, and a research methodology for further developing this emerging knowledge base about the new paradigm of instruction. I hope you will enjoy exploring these fascinating new approaches to fostering human learning and development. They have helped me greatly to think “outside the box” about ways to better meet the