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Inscriptions: the decrees
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Inscriptions: The Decrees A. Geoffrey Woodhead

The Athenian Agora, Vol. 16, Inscriptions: The Decrees. (1997), pp. iii-v+vii-ix+xi-xiii+xv-xvii+1+3-37+39+41-163+165+167-353+355+357-463+465+467-487+489+491-503 Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=1558-8610%281997%2916%3Ciii%3AITD%3E2.0.CO%3B2-N The Athenian Agora is currently published by American School of Classical Studies at Athens.

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THE ATHENIAN AGORA RESULTS O F EXCAVATIONS C O N D U C T E D BY T H E AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL STUDIES A T ATHENS

VOLUME XVI

INSCRIPTIONS: THE DECREES BY A. GEOFFREY WOODHEAD

T H E AMERICAN SCHOOL O F CLASSICAL STUDIES A T ATHENS PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY I997

Library of Congreer Catnloging-in-PubliutionData Woodhead, A. G. (Arthur Geoffny) Inscriptions : the decrees / by A. Gee* Woodhead. cm. -(Athenian Agora ;v. 16) p. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8766 1-216-8 (alk,paper) 1. Agora (Athens), Greece. 2. Inscriptions, Greek-GreectAthens. 3. Athens (Greece)-Antiquities. I. Title. 11. Series. DF287.A23A5 vol. 16 97-898 9 3 8 ' . 5 4 ~ 21

CIP

American School of Classical Studies at Athens 1997 TYPOGRAPHY BY THE AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL STUDIES PUBLICATIONS OFFICE

&8

CHARLTON STREET, PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY

PLATES BY THE STINEHOUR PRESS, LUNENBURG, VERMONT PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA BY PRINCETON ACADEMIC PRESS, LAWRENCEVILLE, NEW JERSEY

To the memory of

BENJAMIN DEAN MERITT 1899- 1989 for more than forty years teacher, counsellor, colleague, companion, and friend this volume is dedicated in gratitude and affection

PREFACE As foreshadowed more than twenty years ago in the preface to Agora XV, the present work is concerned with the decrees of the Athenian body politic (and subdivisions of it) other than those dealing with councillors and their officers (the subject of Agora XV itself) and, it may be added, those listing and honoring the young men (epheboi) who had completed their higher education and military training. Its aim is to offer a republication, or in a few cases a fist publication, of all such decrees discovered in the Agora in the course of the first thirty-six years of the American School's work there, in other words during the Directorships of T. Leslie Shear (1931-1945) and Homer A. Thompson (1946-1967). Thus the latest inscriptional inventory number to be included is I 7029, although it has been possible and indeed essential to introduce later finds that have proved to belong to stelai discovered at an earlier date. To the republished texts are added commentaries intended to draw together such discussions and conclusions as were elicited by their first publication. The material spans more than six and a half centuries of Athenian history and has for convenience been divided into five sections. Of these, sections 2 and 3 are by far the most substantial. They cover, almost exactly, the 4th and 3rd centuries B.c., the period when the Athenian system of government was, theoretically at least, at its most democratic and when the machinery of administration was in its most, and best, developed form. That this does not coincide entirely with the pattern ofAgora X y or at all with the yet-to-be-presented ephebic texts, is itself of interest. Although 1967/68 forms a "cut-of' date for the volume, continuing work in the Agora has inevitably resulted in the discovery and publication of new material distinct from those additions to the old already mentioned. References to these, without texts, have been assembled at the end of each section to which they are relevant, in the belief that they will add to the usefulness of the collection. It must also be noted that, although firm groundwork for this volume was laid soon after it was commissioned, a variety of other obligations both personal and professional impeded its progress for a number of years, and the manuscript was not finally complete until the last months of 1991. This delay, though in many respects regrettable, brought in the event unexpected and compensating advantages, for in the course of it a number of scholarly works were published which dealt with, or derived argument from, the material under review. Without the possibility of referring to and discussing the matters they raised the volume would have been infinitely the poorer, and to that extent what has been described as its long period of gestation has been of inestimable benefit to the final product. But research and controversy do not cease and, in the words of the Preacher, of making many books there is no end. During the five years that have elapsed between the delivery of the typescript and the final publication of the volume further contributions to the issues with which it deals have been published, and these, had opportunity offered, would have been called into service where applicable. Thanks to the understanding and indulgence of a generous editor-in-chief it has been possible, here and there, to insert brief references to this most recent material, chiefly in citations of their treatment in SEG, and even to withdraw one complete item (no. 196). Nevertheless, there is much more. Where reliance in this work is placed on J. Kirchner's great Rosopographia Attica of 1901, readers will now wish to consult also volume I1 (Attica) of the British Academy's A Lexicon of Creek P~mnalframes (1994), edited by M. J. Osborne and S. G. Byrne. C. Habicht's A h :

.a.

vlll

PREFACE

die Geschichte der Stadt in hellenistischer xiit (1995) replaces W. S. Ferguson's Hellenistic A h of 1911 and will be the future focus of reference concerning that subject. In Athenian Demomacy in Eansition (also 1995) S. V Tracy applies to the period 340-290 B.C. the techniques that earlier proved so valuable (and are here fully utilized) for the years between 229 and 86 B.C. Those who have occasion to study nos. 64-1 73 among the texts of the present volume, no small proportion of the whole, will need to take this work into account for possible additions and corrections to what is written here. Finally it may be added that a fourth edition (1990) of the Agora Guide has replaced the third edition cited in these pages; and it is reported that a revised and enlarged edition of J. K. Davies' Athenian Ropertied Families, to which frequent reference is made here, is currently in production. All this conveys a general lesson which the users of this work should bear constantly in mind. In a sense, any Corpus Imcn$tionum or similar collection of material is an interim statement, as it were a still photograph extracted from a process of discovery, discussion, and reevaluation constantly in motion. Thus this volume should be understood as a representation of the status rerum, in these particular matters, at the end of 1991, as that status presented itself to the author; for, on many a detail, others might well have seen the same material in another light and interpreted it differently. The dissertations on the archonships to which many of the texts are assigned, interspersed at the appropriate chronological points, should be regarded similarly They attempt on each occasion an historical review, of independent interest as a facet of that same process of discovery, discussion, and reevaluation, in order to show how opinion took shape concerning the date of the archon's year of office, the calendric character of that year, and how, by 1991, these had come to be determined as they are stated here. However, in this area too, and in particular for certain parts of the 3rd and 2nd centuries B.c., conclusions remain open to revised interpretation and fresh evidence, and continuing controversy is to be expected.' The introductory data that describe the physical characteristics of the inscribed stelai have used the conventional "shorthand" in identifiring the type of marble employed to which M. B. Walbank has drawn helpful attention. In his work on proxeny decrees of the 5th century he discussed in detail what is conventionally intended by the terms "Pentelic" and "Hymettian", and the reader may be referred to his account of them.2 It is indeed true, as N. Herz and W K. Pritchett long ago pointed out,3 that the distinctions may be purely subjective; but the scientific rigor they prescribed, difficult to achieve at the outset and even more difficult to practice in the field, is likely to prove in the event no more than marginally helpful, and that only in occasional cases. For present purposes the conventions may suffice. The commentaries that follow the texts fall for the most part into two sections. The first deals with the textual problems, if any, presented by the legibility of the inscription; matters of more general historical, social, or procedural interest then follow. At this point it may also be appropriate to repeat the paragraph that concludes the preface to Agora XV, for the practice adopted by B. D. Meritt and J. S. Trail1 there has been exactly followed here. "Inscriptions in the Epigraphical Museum are recorded with their inventory numbers, designated with the letters E.M. Inscriptions found in the American Excavations of the Athenian Agora are also recorded with their inventory numbers, designated by the letter I. Places of discovery are noted with reference to the standard grid of the Agora excavations, reprinted here [before Plate 11." In an ideal world, with expense no object and the resources of intending subscribers limitless, every inscription in the volume would be accompanied by a photograph. A compromise with CE J. N. Morgan, AJA 100, 1996, p. 395. M. B. Walbank, Athenian If0xenk.s o f t l u F f l Century B.C., 1978, pp. 52-55.

N. Herz and W. K. Pritchett, AJA 57, 1953, pp. 7 1-83.

PREFACE

ix

practicality is, however, unavoidable; in reaching it the assumption has perforce been made that readers seeking illustrations will have access to the volumes of Hesperia in which they are chiefly to be found, usually in connection with the editioprinceps of the stone under discussion. O n that basis it has been possible to limit the illustrative material at the end of the book to certain categories. The first priority obviously enough, has been given to the illustration of inscriptions hitherto unpublished, and the next to inscriptions published elsewhere than in Hesperiu. In the early years of Hesperiu the photographs, though admirable for their time, lacked the quality of those of more recent decades; moreover, some texts were illustrated not by photographs but by line drawings. These where possible have been photographed anew, and they make up a third category. Other inclusions serve to illustrate lettering styles of a particular character or period as well as a few texts of special artistic or historical interest which, one may justly feel, demand a place here despite their availability elsewhere. It remains to express the author's gratitude to those who have done so much over the years to assist him in his labors. Of their number two claim preeminence. It was at the request of, and by the encouragement of, Homer A. Thompson and Benjamin D. Meritt that this work was first set in hand, and to them the debt throughout a now-lengthy epigraphical career remains the greatest and the most deeply felt. The dedication of this volume to the memory of the latter, who died in 1989, is appropriate and right, but even so a sense of understatement remains. As the work began to take shape, the advice and timely correction of those who saw drafts of all or part of it proved invaluable. Where Malcolm E McGregor (who also died in 1989), Alan S. Henry, John S. Traill, and Michael B. Walbank are concerned the thanks they deserve can hardly be measured by this brief expression of it. In particular, the many citations of Alan Henry and Michael Walbank in matters of detail will convey their own grateful message. John Camp, the present Director of the Agora excavations, and his staff have been constantly helpful: and no-one who has written for an Agora publication can fail to appreciate what is meant when gratitude is expressed to Marian H. McAllister, the editor-in-chief, for so much care, patience, tolerance, and editorial wisdom. To work with the A.S.C.S. editorial office is always a pleasure and at times an education. O n the technical and production side, all who have been concerned with the putting into print of this exceptionally difficult material have well earned the thanks and congratulations that must assuredly find a rightful place in this record. Finally, two special debts extending over the whole period of the work remain to be gratefully acknowledged. Lucy Shoe Meritt's constant encouragement has meant a great deal to the author, and his thanks for it demand inclusion as his task ends; and lastly, and most notably, his wife's patient support through so many years when that end seemed so remote has been vital to the whole endeavor. That this volume will meet general welcome and approval is a hope but not an expectation. Reviewers, if any there be, will emphasize inadequacies and occasions for disagreement, that being their function; and readers consulting its material for their particular purposes will often be more liable to be irritated by what they do not find than appreciative ofwhat they do. liintum docet experientia. Nevertheless, taken as a personal summation of the past history of the inscriptions with which it deals and as a point of departure for their future use as discovery and debate proceed, it will offer a useful and, possibly, even a lasting contribution. If it so proves, it will have served its purpose.

A.GEOFFRM WOODHEAD S~ON-ON-THE-FOREST North Yorkshire England November 1996

CONTENTS

SECTION 1 . TOTHE FALLOF ATHENS IN 404 B.C. ........................................... 1

SECTION 4. ATHENS AND

THE

ROMAN REPUBLIC: FROM CONCORD TO CONQ~EST. 200-86 B.C. 355

1 . PUBLICATIONS A. If~~m)tiones Graecae. Editio Minm ................................................491 B . Supphmtum Epigraphicurn Graecum .............................................. 491 495 C .Hesperia and Supplements ..................................................... D. Other Publications ........................................................... 498 2. INVENTORIES A. Epigraphical Museum Numbers ............................................... 499 B. Agora Inventory Numbers .................................................... 499

xii

CONTENTS

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ABBREVIATIONS BOOKS These titles, which are cited frequently in thetext, appear there in abbreviated form. Abf&dLhlin = Abhandlungm ah-D e u t s c h Akadrmie dtr W ~ ~ s e nzu s Berlin c~~ Agora = Ihc Athmian Agora: Rwults of Excaznations Conducted by the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Princeton I11 = R. E. Wycherley, Literary and E&aphical Tatimonia, 1957 XIV = H. A. Thompson and R. E. Wycherley, The Agora ofAthens, 1972 XV = Benjamin D. Meritt and John S. Traill, Insm)tions: l 2 e Athenian CounciUors, 1974 XVII = Donald W. Bradeen, Ins4tions: The F w a r y Monuments, 1974 XM = G. X Lalonde, M. K. Langdon, and M. B. Walbank, Ins4Eion.s: Horoi. Poletai Recora3. Leases of fib& L a d , 1991 Agora Gut&' = H. A. Thompson, The Athenian Agora: A Gut& to tJu Excavation and Muscum, Athens 1976 Alessandri, S., Arutali &Ua Scuola Normah di fia, ser. 3, 12, 1982 Ancient MaGGdoniun Studiw in Honor ofCharIcs R &on, H. Dell, ed., Thessaloniki 1981 M W = Aufsfg undNudergang dez r%nischen Welt, H. Temporini, ed., Berlin 1972A.P.B. = Excavations of the Athenian Agora Picture Books A72 = B. D. Meritt, H. T. Wade-Gery, and M. E McGregor, The Athenian Tdute Lists I-w Cambridge, Mass. 1939-1953 Behrend, D., Attische P i u h a c m (Vestigk 12), Munich 1970 & -e dtv Altcfftmrr, 11, Dic Vtrtr&e dcrgnkhhche-riimischcn We&uon 700 bis 338 v. Chr., Munich Bengtson, H., Dic S 1962 Busolt-Swoboda = G. Busolt, Cricchhche Staatskunde, 2nd ed., revised by H. Swoboda, Munich 1926 C4H = Cambni&eAncient History, Cambridge Camp,J. M., Ihc Athenian Agora, London 1986 CIG = Corpu' Ins4tionum Graecam, A. Boeckh, ed., Berlin 1828-1877 Davies, J. K., Athenian Roperhkd FFamilics,600-300 B.C., Oxford 197 1 Deubner, L., Attkche &&, Berlin 1932 Develin, R., Athenian Ofukh, 684-321 B.C., Cambridge/NewYork 1989 Dinsmoor, W. B., The Archons o f A h in the Hellenistic Age, Cambridge, Mass. 1931 . Ihc Athenian Archon Lirt in he L.&& $Recent Discoveries, New York 1939 Dow, S., Prytantiz ( H e s - , Supplement I), Athens 1937 Ferguson, W. S., Ihc Athenian SGcrekank, New York 1898 .Athenian Tdal Cycles in he HeUmistic Age, Cambridge, Mass. 1932 . Hellenistic Athens: An Historical Essay, London 1911 Geagan, D. J., 77u Athmian ConsCiftrCionaftn.Sulh (Hespnia, Supplement XII), Princeton 1967 Habicht, C., Sttidim cur Cwchichtc A h in heUmisEicher {Eit (Hypomnrmota 73), Gottingen 1982 . UnWlucqen zur pol&chtn Cwchichtc Athens im 3.Jahr-t v. Chr. ([email protected] 30),Munich 1979 Hansen, M. H., 77te Athenian Ecclenh, Copenhagen 1983 . Ihc A k i a n Ecclenh IZ, Copenhagen 1989 Henry, A. S., Honours and Ridtges in Athmicln D G m , HHildesheirn/New York 1983 . Ihc h @ t s $Athentian h e e s (Mnemoyte,Supplement 49), Leiden 1977 ID = I n s 4 h n s & Dilos, E Durrbach, F? Roussel, and M. Launey, edd., Paris 1926IG = Im+hnes Gradcad, Berlin I = Ins+hnes Atticae Euclidis anno vehcshres, A. Kirchhoff, ed., 1873 I* = Ins4tiones Atticue Euclidis oantniores, editio minor, E Hiller von Gaertringen, ed., 1924 = [email protected] Atticat Ewlidis anno anlniores, editio tnfth, D. M. Lewis,. ed.,. 1981 I1 = Ins&tioncs AUicae &tis qw est inter Eulidis annwn et Augusti tempora, U. Koehler, ed., indices by J. Kirchner, 1877-1895

xvi

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ABBREVIATIONS

112 = Inscriptiones Atticac Euclidis anno postcriorw, 11-111, edirio minor, J. Kirchner, ed., 1913-1940 VII = Inscriptiones Megaridis et Boeotiac, W. Dittenberger, ed., 1892 XI = Inscriptiones Deli, E Diirrbach el al., edd., 1912-1 927 XI1 = Ins""iptions innclam maris Rcgan'p'actcr Dclum, E Hiller von Gaertringen et al., edd., 1895-1915 IIA =J. Kirchner, Imagines Inscriptionurn Atticam, 2nd ed., Berlin 1948 Inscriptiones Creticclc, M. Guarducci, ed., 4 vols., Rome 1935-1950 Jacoby, FGzHist = E Jacoby, Dic Fragmtnte dcrgricchischm Histonh, Berlin/Leiden 1923-1958 Judeich, W., Topographic von Athen, 2nd ed., Munich 1931 Lambrechts, A., Zkst en udzkht van &~~epfOxenic&crefrn tot 323 v. C., Brussels 1958 LSJ = Grcek-Enghh Ldxicon, H. G. Liddell, R. Scott, and H. S. Jones, edd., Oxford 1968 McDonald, W. A., lh PoliEical Meeting-Phs ofthc Greeks, Baltimore 1943 Meiggs, R., 77uAthenian Empire, Oxford 1972 Meiggs-Lewis = R. Meiggs and D. M. Lewis,A SelectiOn ofGreek Historical Ins""iptions to thc End of thc [email protected] Century B.C., Oxford 1969 ~eisterhans-Schwyzer3= K. Meisterhans, G r d ah attirchm [email protected], 3rd ed., revised by E. Schwyzer, Berlin 1900 Meritt, B. D., 77u Athenian gar, Berkeley 1961 Mikalson, J. D., 77u Sacred and Civil Calmdar ofthc Athenian gar, Princeton 1975 Moretti, L., Iscrizwni storiche ~UmisCicheI, Florence 1967 OCD2 = Oxford Classical Dictionary, 2nd ed., N. G. L. Hammond and H. H. Scullard, edd., Oxford 1970 OGIS = Orienb Graeci insmiphnes stkche, W. Dittenberger, ed., Leipzig 1903-1905 Osborne, M. J., Naturalization in A h I, Brussels 1981, 11, Brussels 1982, III/I\1: Brussels 1983 PA =J. Kirchner, Aosopogra~hiuAttica, Berlin 1901-1 903 PeEirka, J., 77u Formlafor thc Grant 4Ettkh.k in Attic InscripCns, Prague 1966 Phoros = @6po