Industrial Solvents Handbook [5 ed.]
 0815514131

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INDUSTRIAL SOLVENTS HANDBOOK Fifth Edition

Edited by

Ernest W. Flick

NOYES DATA CORPORATION Westwood, New Jersey, U.S.A.

Copyright 8 1998 by Ernest W.Rick No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the Publisher. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 98-5137 ISBN: 0-8155-1413-1 Printed in the United States Published in the United States of America by Noyes Data Carporation Fairview Avenue, Westwood, New Jersey 07675

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Industrial solvents handbook / edited by Ernest W. Rick. -- 5th ed. p. an. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8155-1413-1 1. Solvents--Handbook, manuals, etc 1. Rick, Ernest W. TP247.5.153 1998 661'.807--dc21

98-5137

CIP

NOTICE To the best of our knowledge the information in this publication is accurate; however, the Publisher does not assume any responsibility or liability for the accuracy or completeness of, or consequences arising from, such information. This book does not purport to contain detailed user instructions, and by its range and scope could not possibly do so. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use by the Author or Publisher. industrial solvents could be toxic, and therefore due caution should always be exercised in the use of these potentially hazardous materials. Final determination of the suitability of any information or product for use contemplated by any user, and the manner of that use, is the sole responsibility of the user. We strongly recommend that users seek and adhere to a manufacturer's or supplier's current instructions for handling each material they use. The reader is cautioned to consult the supplier in case of questions regarding current availability.

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Foreword Completely revised, and vastly expanded, this well-established and successful reference volume is designed principally for the chemical and other process industries, but will be found useful by anyone needing the latest pertinent data on industrial solvents. This Fifth Edition is uniquely helpful when it becomes necessary to select a new solvent on a competitive or comparative basis: when the customary solvent, employed hitherto, might no longer be available, or can no longer be used because of environmental reasons; or when prices have risen to such an extent that an existing process must be redesigned to make it economically feasible again. The over 1,200 tables in this book contain basic data on the physical properties of most solvents and on the solubilities of a variety of materials in these solvents. Even phase diagrams for multicomponent systems are included. Particularly valuable are the HPLC and UV data for various solvents provided in the last chapter. The contents of the tables were selected by the editor mainly from manufacturers' literature at no cost to, nor influence from, the manufacturers or distributors of these solvents. The source of each table is indicated by a reference number following the title. A complete set of references is found at the end of the book, as well as a trade name index. The vast amount of information contained in the book is evidenced at once in the large table of contents, which is organized by chemical groups and also serves as the index. An abbreviated summary of the contents is given below, indicating the number of tables in each category. Hydrocarbon Solvents ........................ 143 Halogenated Hydrocarbons .................... 64 Nitroparaffins .............................. 10 Organic Sulfur Compounds .................... 34 Mononhydric Alcohols ........................ 182 Polyhydric Alcohols .......................... 227 Phenols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Aldehydes ................................ 13 Ethers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Glycol Ethers .............................. 80 Ketones .................................. 50 Acids .................................... 21 Amines .................................. .193 Esters ................................... 84 HPLC and UV Data. ......................... 84 Advanced composition and production methods developed by Noyes Data Corporation are employed to bring this durably bound book to you in a minimum of time. Special techniques are used to close the gap between "manuscript" and "completed book." In order to keep the price of the book to a reasonable level, it has been partially reproduced by photo-offset directly from the original material and the cost saving passed on to the reader. Due to this method of publishing, certain portions of the book may be less legible than desired.

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Contents and Subject Index .................................................................................. HYDROCARBON SOLVENTS ........................................................................ Paraffins .................................................................................... 2.1 Methane ......................................................................... 2.2 Ethane ........................................................................... 2.3 Propane .......................................................................... 2.4 lsobutane ......................................................................... 2.5 n-Butane ......................................................................... 2.6 2.2-Dimethylpropane ................................................................ 2.7 lsopentane ........................................................................ 2.8 n-Pentane ........................................................................ 2.9 2. 2-Dimethylbutane ................................................................. 2.10 2.3-Dimethylbutane ................................................................. 2.11 2-Methylpentane ................................................................... 2.12 3-Methylpentane ................................................................... 2.13 n-Hexane ....................................................................... 2.14 2.4-Dimethylpentane ............................................................... 2.15 2.3-Dimethylpentane ............................................................... 2.16 3-Methylhexane .................................................................. 2.17 n-Heptane ....................................................................... 2.18 2.2. 4-Trimethylpentane ............................................................. 2.19 2.3. 4-Trimethylpentane ............................................................. 2.20 Mixed Trimethylpentanes ............................................................ 2.21 Mixed Dimethylhexanes ............................................................. 2.22 n-Oxtane ........................................................................ 2.23 2.2. 5-Trimethylhexane .............................................................. 2.24 n-Nonane ....................................................................... 2.25 n-Decane ....................................................................... 2.26 n-Undecane ..................................................................... 2.27 n-Dodecane ..................................................................... 2.28 n-Tridecane ...................................................................... 2.29 n-Tetradecane .................................................................... 2.30 n-Pentadecane ................................................................... 2.31 n-Hexadecane ................................................................... 2.32 n-Heptadecane ................................................................... 2.33 n-Octadecane .................................................................... 2.34 n-Nonadecane ................................................................... 2.35 n-Elcosane ...................................................................... Cycloparaffins ............................................................................... 2.36 Cyclopentane ..................................................................... 2.37 Methylcyclopentane ................................................................ 2.38 Cyclohexane ..................................................................... 2.39 1.1-Dimethylcyclopentane ........................................................... 2.40 1.2- and 1.3-Dimethylcyclopentane .................................................... 2.41 Methylcyclohexane ................................................................. 2.42 trans-I. &Dimethylcyclohexane ....................................................... 2.43 cis-1 4-Dimethylcyclohexane ......................................................... 2.44 Mixed 1.4-Dimethylcyclohexanes ...................................................... 2.45 trans-1 2-Dimethylcyclohexane ....................................................... 2.46 cis-I 2-Dimethylcyclohexane ......................................................... 2.47 Mixed 1.2-Dimethylcyclohexane ....................................................... 2.48 Ethylcyclohexane .................................................................. 2.49 lsopropylcyclohexane ............................................................... Olefins ..................................................................................... 2.50 Ethylene ........................................................................ INTRODUCTION

. ..

1 3 3 3 3 4 4 5

5 6 7 7 8 8 9 10 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 15 15 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 20 20 21 22 22 23 23 23 24 24 25 25 26 27 27

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Contents and Subject Index 2.51 2.52 2.53 2.54 2.55 2.56 2.57 2.58 2.59 2.60 2.61 2.62 2.63 2.64 2.65 2.66 2.67 2.68 2.69 2.70 2.71 2.72 2.73 2.74 2.75 2.76 2.77 2.78 2.79 2.80 2.81 2.82 2.83 2.84 2.85 2.86 2.87 2.88 2.89 2.90 2.91 2.92 2.93 2.94 2.95

....................................................................... ...................................................................... ........................................................................ ................................................................... ..................................................................... .................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................... ....................................................................... .................................................................... .................................................................. ................................................................. .............................................................. .......................................................... ................................................................ ............................................................. ........................................................... ................................................................ ................................................................ ....................................................................... ................................................................. ........................................................... .......................................................................

Propylene Isobutylene Butene-1 trans-Butene-2 cis-Butene-2 Mixed 2-Butenes 3-Methylbutene-1 2-Methylbutene-1 Methylbutene-2 Pentene-1 cis-Pentene-2 trans-Pentene-2 Mixed 2-Pentenes 3.3-Dimethylbuten e-1 Mixed 2.3-Dimethylbutenes 4-Methylpentene-1 cis-4-Methylpentene-2 trans-4-Methylpentene-2 Mixed 4-Methyl-2-Pentenes ......................................................... 2-Methylpentene-1 2-Methylpentene-2 Hexene-1 cis-Hexene-2 .................................................................... Mixed 2-Hexenes Mixed 2- and 3-Hexenes Heptene-1 cis-Heptene-2 .................................................................... Mixed 2-Heptenes ................................................................. Mixed 3-Heptenes 2.4.4-Trirnethylpentene-1 2.4.4-Trirnethylpenten e-2 ........................................................... Mixed Diisobutylenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Octene-1 cis-Octene-2 ..................................................................... Mixed 2-Octenes Mixed Octenes Nonene-1 Decene-1 Undecene-1 ..................................................................... Dodecene-1 ..................................................................... Tridecene-1 Tetradecene-1 Butadiene-13 Isoprene Piperylene

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...................................................................... .................................................................... .................................................................... ........................................................................ ....................................................................... Cycloolefins ................................................................................. 2.96 Cyclopentene ..................................................................... 2.97 Cyclohexene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.98 4-Vinylcyclohexene-1 .............................................................. 2.99 Mixed Methylcyclohexenes ........................................................... 2.100 Cyclooctadiene-1. 5 ................................................................ Aromatics .................................................................................. 2.101 Benzene ........................................................................ 2.102 Toluene ......................................................................... 2.103 Ethylbenzene ..................................................................... 2.104 p-Xylene ......................................................................... 2.105 rn-Xylene ....................................................................... 2.106 o-Xylene ........................................................................ 2.107 Curnene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.108 n-Propylbenzene .................................................................. 2.109 Pseudocurnene ................................................................... 2.110 n-Butylbenzene ................................................................... 2.111 lsobutylbenzene ................................................................... 2.112 Hydrocarbon Solvents .............................................................. sec-Butylbenvene 2.113 tert-Butylbenzene .................................................................

27 27 28 28 28 29 29

30 31 31 32 32 32 33 33 33

34 35 35 36 36 37 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 39 40 40 41 41 41 42 42 42 42 42 43 43 43 44 44 44 44 45 46 46 47 47 47 48 48 49 49 50 50 51 51 51 52 53

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Contents and Subject Index 2.114 1-Phenylbutene-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.115 sec-Amylbenzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.116 Mixed Amylbenzenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Terpenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 17 DIPENTENE No. 122 Terpene Solvent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 18 SOLVENOL 2 Terpene Solvent ....................................................... 2.1 19 SOLVENOL 226 Terpene Solvent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.120 HERCULES Steam-Distilled Wood Turpentine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.121 HERCULES alpha-Pinene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.122 Selected Properties of Some Common Terpene Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.123 Arizona Terpene Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ComparativeData . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Amoco PANASOLSolvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.124 2.125 Ashland Aliphatic and Aromatic Solvents ................................................ 2.126 Chemcentral Solvents (Aliphatic and Aromatic) ............................................ 2.127 Crowley Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.128 Dynaloy Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.129 Eastman Solvents and Diluents ....................................................... 2.130 Exxon Hydrocarbon Solvefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.131 Fina Aromatic Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.132 Hoechst Celanese Methyl Isobutyl Ketone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.133 KendalVAmalie. Wlco Special Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.134 Mobil Oil Aliphatic and Aromatic Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.135 Penreco Hydrocarbon Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.136 Phillips 66 Hibh P u r i i Hydrocarbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.137 Shell Chemical Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.138 Sunoco Chemicals Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.139 3M SCOTCH-GRIP Solvents No. 2 and No. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.140 Total Petroleum Special Solvent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.141 UCARSolvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.142 Unocal Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.143 VistaLPASolvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ChlorlnatedHydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 AllylChlorice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 n-Amyl Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Mixed Amyl Chlorides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Benzyl Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 n-Butyl Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 sec-Butyl Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Butyryl Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8 Caprylyl Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9 Carbon Tetrachloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.10 Chlorinated Butane Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 1 Chlorinated Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.12 Chlorinated Organic Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.13 CHLOROWAX Liquid Chlorinated Paraffins. Waxes and Alpha Olefins ......................... 3.14 Chlorobenzenes-Vapor Pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.16 Chloromethylene Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0- and p-Chlorotoluenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17 3.18 p-Chlorotoluene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HALSO99 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.19 3.20 HALSOAG 125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.21 o-Dichlorobenzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.22 p-Dichlorobenzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.23 Dichlorodiisopropyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.24 Dichloroethylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.25 Dichloroethyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.26 Dichlorohydrin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.27 Dichloromethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.28 Dichloropentanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.29 2.4-Dichlorotoluene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.30 Epichlorohydrin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.31 Ethyl Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xi 54

54 54 55 55 55 56 56 57 57 58 61 61 62 63 64 65 68 73 74 74 75 78 81 81 82 90 93 93 96 99 101 103 103 103 103 103 104 104 104 105 105 106 107 107 107 108 111 113 114 114 115 115 116 116 117 117 118 118 119 120 120 121 121

xii

Contents and Subject Index Ethylene Chlorohydrin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ethylene Dichloride ............................................................... 3.34 2-Ethylhexyl Chloride .............................................................. 3.35 Glycerol a-Monochlorohydrin 3.36 Hexachloroethane ................................................................ 3.37 n-Hexyl Chloride ................................................................. 3.38 Methylene Chloride 3.39 Isopropyl Chloride 3.40 Methyl Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.41 Monochlorohydrin ................................................................. 3.42 Pentachloroethane 3.43 Perchloroethylene 3.44 Propylene Chlorohydrin 3.45 Propylene Dichloride .............................................................. 3.46 1.1.2. 2-Tetrachloroethane .......................................................... 3.47 Tetrachloroethylene ............................................................... 3.48 Trichlorobenzenes ................................................................ 3.49 1.1. 1-Trichloroethane .............................................................. 3.50 1 1 2-Trichloroethane .............................................................. 3.51 Trichloroethylene ................................................................. 3.52 Density of Chlorinated Solvents ...................................................... 3.53 Vapor Pressure of Chlorinated Solvents 3.54 Trichloropropane 3.55 Triglycol Dichloride 3.56 Vinylchloride .................................................................... 3.57 Vinylidene Chloride ............................................................... ComparativeData 3.58 Alpha Cleaning Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.59 Ashland Chlorinated Solvents ........................................................ 3.60 Chemcentral Chlorinated Solvents .................................................... 3.61 Dow Chemical Chlorinated Solvents 3.62 Vertrel Cleaning Agents ............................................................ 3.63 Occidental Chemical (OXSOL Solvents) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.64 3M Hydrofluorether

123 123 124 124 125 126 126 127 127 130 130 130 132 132 133 134 136 136 142 142 145 145 146 146 147 147 149 149 150 150 151 160 169 195

Industrial Amines Ranked in Order of Decreasing Base Strength .............................. Comparing Amines for Safety ........................................................ NlPAR640 ...................................................................... COMSOL 101-X ................................................................. COMSOL280 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMSOL 820 ...................................................................

211 211 212 213 214 215 215 216 218 220 221

3.32

3.33

........................................................

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................................................................ ................................................................ ............................................................

..

................................................ ................................................................. ................................................................

........................................................................... ...................................................

............................................................... NITROPARAFFINS .............................................................................. 4.1 Angus Nitroparaffins ............................................................... 4.2 Angus NitroAlcohols .............................................................. 4.3 Angus Primary Amino Alcohols ....................................................... 4.4 Angus DMAP-80 ................................................................. 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10

..................................................................

ORGANIC SULFUR COMPOUNDS 5.1 Carbon Disulfide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Typical DMSO Properties ........................................................... 5.3 Vapor Pressure vs Temperature for DMSO .............................................. 5.4 Specific Gravity of DMSO as a Function of Temperature .................................... 5.5 DMSO Viscosity as a Function of Temperature ........................................... 5.6 Comparative Hygroscopicities of DMSO at Various Relative Humidities at 22°C 5.7 Initial Sorption Rates of DMSO at Various Relative Humidities at 22% ......................... 5.8 Freezing Temperatures for DMSO-Solvent Binary System .................................. 5.9 Freezing Point for DMSO-Water Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.10 Freezing Point Curves for DMSO-Water Solutions ....................................... 5.11 Heat of Mixing of DMSC-4-40 System at 22°C .......................................... 5.12 Specific Gravity of DMSO-Water Solutions ............................................. 5.13 Viscosity of DMSO-Water Solutions .................................................. 5.14 Results of Reflux of DMSO for 24 Hours with Various Compounds ............................ 5.15 Thermal Stabiliof DMSO .......................................................... 5.16 Refluxing of DMSO and Mixtures for Shorter Periods ...................................... 5.17 Effect of Heating DMSO with Concentrated Acids .........................................

222 222 223 224 224 224 225 225 225 226 226 226 227 227 227 228 228 228

...................

Contents and Subject Index 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 5.25 5.26 5.27 5.28 Sulfolane 5.29 5.30

5.31 5.32 5.33 5.34

................................................ ............................................... .............................. ................................................

Solubility of Organic Materials in DMSO Solubility of Resins and Polymers in DMSO ............................................. Solubility of Inorganic Materials in DMSO Solubility of Gases in DMSO at Atmospheric Pressure and 20% Solubility Parameters of Strong Solvents DMSO as a Solvent Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hansen Solubility Parameters of Polymer Envelopes ....................................... Polymer Solvency of DMSO/Tetralin Mixtures ............................................ Polymer Solvency of DMSO/MIKE Mixtures Solvent Viscosities ................................................................ Solvent Evaporation Times ..........................................................

..............................................

..................................................................................

.............................................................

Properties ofSulfolane Solubility of Sulfolane in Various Chemical Compounds .................................... Solubility of Various Chemical Compounds in Sulfolane .................................... Thermal Stability of Sulfolane ........................................................ Comparative Freezing Point Depression Specific Gravity ..................................................................

................................................

MONOHYDRIC ALCOHOLS ........................................................................ Methanol .................................................................................. 6.1 Physical Properties of Methanol ...................................................... 6.2 Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Methanol ............................................ 6.3 Freezing Points of Methanol-Water Solutions ............................................ 6.4 Density and Specific Gravity of Methanol-Water Solutions at 15'C ............................ Density and Specific Gravity of ethanol-Water Solutions at 30'C ............................. 6.5 Resultant Volume When Methanol and Water are Mixed .................................... 6.6 6.7 Solubility of Methanol in Gasoline from 15' to 30% ........................................ 6.8 Liquid Density of Methanol .......................................................... 6.9 Liquid Heat Capacity of Methanol ..................................................... 6.10 Vapor Heat Capacity of Methanol ..................................................... 6.11 Heat of Vaporization of Methanol ..................................................... 6.12 SurfaceTension of Methanol ........................................................ 6.13 Liquid Thermal Conductivity of Methanol ................................................ 6.14 Vapor Thermal Conductivity of Methanol ................................................ 6.15 Vapor Pressure of Methanol ......................................................... 6.16 Vapor Viscoslty of Methanol ......................................................... 6.17 Liquid Viscosity of Methanol ......................................................... 6.18 Azeotropes of Methanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EthylAlcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.19 Physical Properties of Anhydrous Ethyl Alcohol ........................................... 6.20 Physical Properties of 95% Ethanol .................................................... 6.21 Properties and Specifications of Ethyl Alcohol ............................................ 6.22 Conversion Tableweight and Volume Percent of Ethyl Alcohol in Ethyl Alcohol-Water Mixtures ...................................................................... Index of Refraction of Ethyl Alcohol-Water Mixtures at W'F ................................. 6.23 6.24 Heat of Solution of Ethyl Alcohol in Water 6.25 Resultant Volume When Ethyl Alcohol and Water are Mixed ................................. 6.26 Boiling Points of Ethyl Alcohol-Water Solutions ........................................... 6.27 Permanganate TimeTest ........................................................... 6.28 Freezing Points of Ethyl Alcohol-Water Mixture .......................................... 6.29 Viscosity of Ethyl Alcohol-Water Mixtures ............................................... 6.30 Flash Point of Aqueous Ethyl Alcohol Solutions 'C and 'F vs Vol % Ethanol ..................... 6.31 Specific Heat of Aqueous Solutions of Ethanol ........................................... 6.32 Surface Tension of Pure Ethanol at Various Temperatures .................................. 6.33 Latent Heat of Vaporization of Ethyl Alcohol ............................................. 6.34 Heat Capacity of Ethyl Alcohol at Various Temperatures .................................... 6.35 Volumetric Equivalents ............................................................. 6.36 Ethyl Alcohol-Water Mixtures ........................................................ 6.37 Specially Denatures Alcohols 6.38 Authorized Denaturants for SDA 388 .................................................. Denaturants Authorized for Completely Denatured Alcohol (CDA) and Specially 6.39 Denatured Alcohol (SDA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uses of Specially Denatured Alcohol .................................................. 6.40 6.41 Filmex Special Industrial Solvent Formulations ...........................................

...............................................

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xiii 229 230 232 233 233 233 234 234 235 235 235 236 236 236 236 236 237 237 238 238 238 239 239 240 241 242 242 243 243 244 244 245 245 246 246 247 247 248 249 249 249 249 250 250 251 251 251 252 252 253 254 254 254 255 255 256 256 262 277 278 279 281

xiv

Contents and Subject Index 6.42 6.43 6.44 6.45 6.46 6.47

........................................ 281 ..................................................... 281 ................................. 282 ........................... 283 ...................................... 284 .......................................................... 284 .......................................................... 285 ........................... 286 ................................... 287 ........................................................... 287 ............................................... 289 ........................................................... 289 ............................................................. 291 ........................................................................ 292 ................................................ 292 ...................................................... 293 ........................................................ 294 ....................................................... 294 ........................................................ 294 ......................................................... 294 ....................................................................... 295 ....................................... 295 ............................................ 295 296 . . . . . . . . . . . 297 .................... 297 .......................... 297 ...................................................... 298 .............................. 299 . ........................................................... 299 ....................... 299 .................... 299 .................................................................. 300 ............................................ 300 ............................................................................. 301 ................................................. 301 ................................... 302 ................................. 302 ................................. 303 ....................................................... 303 ............................................................................ 304 ................................................. 304 ....................................................... 304 ............................ 305 ........................................................................... 305 ................................................ 305 ...................................................... 305 ........................................................................... 306 ................................................ 306 306 ........................................................................ 307 ............................................. 307 ...................................................................... 307 ........................................... 307 ........................................................................... 308 ................................................ 308 ...................................................... 308 ......................................................................... 309 .............................................. 309 .................................................... 309 .................................................................... 310

Completely Denatured Alcohol (CDA) Formulations Proprietary Solvent Formulations Punctilious Specially Denatured Alcohol (SDA) Formulations Composition and Typical End Uses of Specially Denatured Alcohols Composition of Completely Denatured Alcohol (CDA) Composition of Synasol Proprietary Solvents. Anhydrol Special Industrial Solvents. and lnksolvlnk Solvents 6.48 Typical Physical Properties 6.49 Densities of Pure Ethanol-Water Mixtures at Various Temperatures Vapor Pressure of Pure Ethanol at Various Temperatures 6.50 Constant Boiling Mixtures 6.51 6.52 Proof Definitions and Conversion Factors 6.53 Proof Conversion Tables 6.54 Azeotropes of Ethanol n-PROPYLALCOHOL 6.55 Physical Properties of n-Propyl Alcohol 6.56 Azeotropes of n-Propyl Alcohol 6.57 n-Propanol-Water-Benzene 6.58 n-Propanol-Water-n-Butanol 6.59 n-Propanol-Water-Heptane 6.60 n-Propanol-Water-Hexane ISOPROPYLALCOHOL 6.61 Physical Properties of Anhydrous Isopropyl Alcohol Physical Properties of 91% Isopropyl Alcohol 6.62 6.63 Specific Gravity of Isopropyl Alcohol-Water Mixtures ...................................... Vapor-Liquid Compositions of Isopropyl Alcohol-Water Mixtures and Their Boiling Points 6.64 6.65 Refractive Index vs Composition of Isopropyl Alcohol-Water Mixtures at 25'C Isopropyl Alcohol-Water: Kinematic Viscosity vs Composition at 25°C 6.66 Azeotropes of Isopropyl Alcohol 6.67 6.68 The Effect of Isopropyl Alcohol on the Dilution Ratio of Solvents Viscosity of RS H Sec Nitrocellulose in Mixtures of Toluene. Isopropyl Alcohol and 6.69 Methyl Isobutyl Ketone 6.70 Methanol-Isopropyl Alcohol: Boiling Point vs Composition at 760 mm Hg 6.71 Methanol-Isopropyl Alcohol: tiquid-Vapor Equilibria at Atmospherii Pressure 6.72 Vapor Pressure of Isopropyl Alcohol (Anhydrous) and sec-Butyl Alcohol at Various Temperatures 6.73 Specific Gravities of Alcohols vs Temperature n-Butyl Alcohol Physical Properties of n-Butyl Alcohol 6.74 Vapor Pressure of Butyl Alcohol at Various Temperatures 6.75 6.76 Solubiliy of Water in Butyl Alcohol at Various Temperatures 6.77 Solubiliy of Butyl Alcohol in Water at Various Temperatures 6.78 Azeotropes of n-Butyl Alcohol IrobutylAlcohol 6.79 Physical Properties of Isobutyl Alcohol 6.80 Azeotropes of Isobutyl Alcohol 6.81 Relative Evaporation Rates of Various Butyl Alcohols and Acetates rec-ButylAlcohol 6.82 Physical Properties of =-Butyl Alcohol 6.83 Azeotropes of sec-Butyl Alcohol tert-ButylAlcohol 6.84 Physical Properties of tert-Butyl Alcohol 6.85 Azeotropes of tert-Butyl Alcohol ...................................................... PrlmaryAmylAlcohol 6.86 Physical Properties of Primary Amyl Alcohol Prlmaryn-AmylAlcohol 6.87 Physical Properties of Primary n-Amyl Alcohol SSC-AmylAlCOhOl 6.88 Physical Properties of sec-Amyl Alcohol 6.89 Azeotropes of sec-Amyl Alcohol rec-n-AmylAlcohol 6.90 Physical Properties of sec-n-Amyl Alcohol 6.91 Azeotropes of sec-n-Amyl Alcohol tert-Amyl Alcohol, Reflned

Contents and Subject Index

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Physical Properties of Refined tert-Amyl Alcoho 6.92 Azeotropes of tert-Amyl Alcohol ...................................................... 6.93 IroamylAlcohol ............................................................................. 6.94 Physical Properties of Isoamyl Alcohol

................................................. ....................................................... ......................................................................... .............................................. ........................................................................... ................................................ .......................................................................... .............................................. ......................................................................... .............................................. ............................................................................ ................................................. .................................................. .......................................................... .......................................................................... ............................................... ..................................................... .............................................................................. .................................................. ........................................................ ............................................................................ ................................................ ............................................................................ ................................................ ......................................................................... ............................................. ............................................................................. ................................................. ....................................................... ........................................................................... ................................................ ..................................................... ............................................................................. ................................................. .............................................................................. ................................................................... ....................................... .............................................................................. ................................................... ............................................................................ ................................................. ............................................................................ ................................................. ............................................................. .............................................. ................................................. ............................................. ........................................................................... ................................................................. .............................................................. ......................................................... ........................................................... ......................................................... .................................................... ............................................................ ............................................................ ............................................................................... .................................................... .........................................................

Azeotropes of Isoamyl Alcohol 6.95 ActhreAmylAlcohol Physical Properties of Active Amyl Alcohol 6.96 FuselOll. Rellned Physical Properties of Refined Fusel Oil 6.97 YethylamylAlcohol Physical Properties of Methylamyl Alcohols 6.98 2-EthylbutylAlcohol Physical Properties of 2-Ethylbutyl Alcohol 6.99 n-HexylAlcohol 6.100 Physical Properties of n-Hexyl Alcohol 6.101 Solubility of Water in n-Hexyl Alcohol 6.102 Azeotropes ofexyl Alcohol CyclohexylAlcohol Physical Properties of Cyclohexyl Alcohol 6.103 6.104 Azeotropes of Cyclohexyl Alcohol HeptylAlcohol Physical Properties of Heptyl Alcohol 6.105 6.106 Azeotropes of Heptyl Alcohol 2-HeptylAlcohol 6.107 Physical Properties of 2-Hem Alcohol 3-HeptylAlcohol 6.108 Physical Properties of 3-Heptyl Alcohol 2-EthylhexylAlcohol Physical Properties of 2-Ethylhexyl Alcohol 6.109 n-OctylAlcohol 6.1 10 Physical Properties of n-Octyl Alcohol Azeotropes ofn-Octyl Alcohol 6.111 SW-OctylAlCOhOl 6.1 12 Physical Propetties of sec-Odyl Alcohol Azeotropes of sec-Octyl Alcohol 6.113 lsooctyl Alcohol 6.1 I4 Physical Properties of lsooctyl Alcohol Nonyl Alcohol Physical Properties of Nonyl Alxoholx319 6.115 3b..TrimethylhexylAlcohol 6.1 16 Physical Properties of 3.5.5-Trimethylhexyl Alcohol DecylAlcohol Physical Properties of Decyl Alcohol 6.117 IrodecylAlcohol 6.1 18 Physical Properties of lsodecyl Alcohol TrldecylAlcohol Physical Properties of Tridecyl Alcohol 6.1 19 OtherAlcoholsandAlcoholBlends 6.120 ALFOL Alcohol Low Range Blends C,-C, ALFOL Alcohol Pure Homologs C,-C, 6.121 ALFOL Alcohol High Range Blends C,o-&, 6.122 ALFOLTypical properties ........................................................... 6.123 ComparatlveData 6.124 Ashland Alcohols Chemcentral Alcohols 6.125 6.126 CPSChemicalAlcohol99% Eastman Latent Solvents 6.127 6.128 Hoechst Celanese Alcohols Procter and Gamble Fatty Alcohols 6.129 6.130 Shell Chemical Alcohols Union Carbide Alcohols 6.131 AllylAlcohol 6.132 Physical Properties of Allyl Alcohol 6.133 Azeotropes ofAlkylAlcohol +

xv 310 310 311 311 311 312 312 312 312 313 313 313 313 314 314 314 314 315 315 315 316 316 316 316 316 317 317 317 317 317 317 318 318 318 318 319 319 319 320 320 320 320 321 321 321 321 322 322 322 323 324 325 325 325 326 327 329 330 331 332 333 333

333

mi

Contents and Subject Index Crotyl Alcohol .............................................................................. 334 Physical Properties of Crotyl Alcohol .................................................... 334 6.134 MethylbutynylAlcohol........................................................................ 334 Physical Properties of Methylbutynyl Alcohol ............................................. 334 6.135 M~hylpentynylAlcohol....................................................................... 335 335 Physical Properties of Methylpentynyl Alcohol 6.136 Higher UnraturatedAlcoholr .................................................................. 335 6.137 Unsaturated Aliphatic Alcohols ....................................................... 335 DIa~toneAlcohol........................................................................... 335 335 6.138 Physical Properties of Diacetone Alcohol ............................................... 2-Merc~ptoethylAlcohol...................................................................... 336 6.139 Physical Properties of 2-Mercaptoethyl Alcohol .......................................... 336 2-EthylsulfonylethylAlcohol ................................................................... 336 Physical Properties of 2-Ethylsulfonylethyl Alcohol 336 6.140 l,l, I-TrHluoroethylAlcohol .................................................................... 336 6.141 Trifluoroethanol Physical Properties 336 337 6.142 Polymer Solubilities in Trifluoroethanol ................................................. 6.143 Salt Solubility (wt %) in Trifluoroethanol at 25% .......................................... 337 337 6.144 Solubility of Gases in Trifluoroethanol at 27°C ............................................ 337 6.145 Vapor Pressure vs Temperature ...................................................... 338 6.146 Freezing Point: Trifluoroethanol-Water 6.147 Infrared Spectrum ................................................................ 338 338 1H,IH$H-Tetrafluoro- I-Propyl Alcohol .......................................................... 6.148 Physical Properties of lH.lH.3H-Tetrafluoro- I-Propyl Alcohol ............................... 338 lH,1H,5H-Octafluoro- I-Pentyl Alcohol ........................................................... 339 339 6.149 Physical Properties of 1H.lH.JH-Octafluoro- 1-Pentyl Alcohol BenzylAlcohol ............................................................................. 339 339 6.150 Physical Properties of Benzyl Alcohol .................................................. 6.151 VELSICOL Benzyl Alcohol .......................................................... 339 Furfuryl Alcohol ............................................................................ 340 6.152 Physical Properties of Furfuryl Alcohol ................................................. 340 341 6.153 Vapor Pressure of Furfuryl Alcohol .................................................... 341 6.154 Pounds per Gallon of Furfuryl Alcohol at Various Temperatures .............................. 6.155 Density of Furfuryl Alcohol-Water Solutions as a Function of Composition (at 25'C. 77OF) . . . . . . . . . . . 342 342 6.156 Vapor Pressure of Furfuryl Alcohol as a Function of Temperature ............................. 343 6.157 Solubility of tiquid Organic Compounds in Furfuryl Alcohol (at 25%. 77OF) ...................... 6.158 Solubility of Solid Organic Compounds in Furfuryl Alcohol (at 25 "C. 77'F) ...................... 343 6.159 Solubility of Thermoplastic Resins in Furfuryl Alcohol (at Room Temperature) .................... 344 6.160 Effect of Time at Elevated Temperature on Certain Characteristics of Furfuryl Alcohol (Under Neutral Conditions) ........................................................ 344 6.161 Stabiliation of Furfuryl Alcohol With an Amine (at 150'C in Glass) ............................ 345 6.162 Antoxidation of Furfuryl Alcohol ....................................................... 345 TetrahydrofurfurylAlcohol .................................................................... 346 6.163 Physical Properties of Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol .......................................... 346 6.164 Solubility of Various Substances in Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol ................................ 346 6.165 Vapor-tiquid Equilibria in the Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol-Water System ........................ 347 6.166 Specific Gravity and Pounds per Gallon of Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol at Various Temperatures . . . . . . . 347 6.167 Vapor Pressure of Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol ............................................ 347 6.168 Vapor-tiquid Equilibria Curve of the THFA-Water System at the Boiling Point 348 6.169 The System THFA-Water Composition Curve ............................................ 348 6.170 Specific Gravity and Pounds per Gallon ................................................ 349 6.171 Vapor Pressure (Boiling Point Method) ................................................. 349 6.172 HERCO and YARMOR Pine Oil ...................................................... 349 6.173 Hercules TERPINEOL ............................................................. 352 Other Data ................................................................................. 354 6.174 Solubility Data for Alcohols .......................................................... 354 6.1 75 Melting Points of Saturated Monohydric Alcohols ......................................... 355 355 6.176 Rate of Evaporation of Various Solvents at Room Temperature ............................... 6.177 Comparative Evaporation Rates of Alcohols ............................................. 355 6.178 Vapor Pressure of Alcohols at Various Temperatures 356 6.179 Freezing Points (Initial Crystallization) of Aqueous Solution of Alcohols ......................... 356 6.180 Specific Gravity of Aqueous Solution of Alcohols at 20'C ................................... 357 6.181 Viscosity of Ethyl Cellulose in Alcohol-Hydrocarbon Mixtures ................................ 357 358 6.1 82 Evaporation Data for Various Solvents .................................................

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Contents and Subject Index

xvii

POLYHYDRICALCOHOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 EthyleneGlycol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 359 7.1 Physical Properties and Specifications of Ethylene Glycol ................................... 363 7.2 Boiling Points of Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions ....................................... 7.3 Density of Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 7.4 Specific Gravity at 60°F of Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solution vs Composition .................... 361 361 7.5 Freezing Points of Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 7.6 Specific Heat of Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions ....................................... 362 Vapor-tiquid Composition Curves for Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions ....................... 7.7 363 7.8 Vapor Pressure of Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions ..................................... 7.9 Viscosity of Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 364 7.10 Relative Humectant Values of Aqueous Solutions of Ethylene Glycol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1 1 Water Vapor Dew Points Over Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions ............................ 364 7.12 Key Hygroscopictty Curve for Ethylene Glycol ............................................ 365 365 Moisture Absorption of Ethylene Glycol at Various Relative Humidities .......................... 7.13 365 7.14 Moisture Absorption of Ethylene Glycol at Various Absolute Humidities ......................... 7.15 Kinematic Viscosity of Anhydrous Ethylene Glycol and Trimethylene Glycol Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 Freezing Points of Anhydrous Ethylene Glycol and Trimethylene Glycol Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 7.16 366 7.17 Azeotropes of Ethylene Glycol ....................................................... PropyleneGlycol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 367 7.18 Physical Properties of Propylene Glycol ................................................ 368 7.19 Propylene Glycol Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 Boiling Points of Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions ...................................... 7.20 369 7.21 Conversion Chart for Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 7.22 Density of Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions (Percent by Weight) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effect of Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions on Dew Points at Various Contact Temperatures . . . . . . . 370 7.23 7.24 Freezing Points of Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370 7.25 Heat of Vaporization of Propylene Glycol at Various Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 371 Refractive Indices of Aqueous Propanediol Solutions at 20". 30".and 40°C ...................... 7.26 372 7.27 Relative Humectant Values of Propylene Glycol. N.F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.28 Specific Gravity of Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions at Various Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .372 373 7.29 Specific Heat of Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions ...................................... 7.30 Thermal Conductivity of Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions at Various Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 7.31 Total Pressure over Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions Versus Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 373 7.32 Vapor-Liquid Composition Curves for Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions ...................... 374 7.33 Vapor Pressures of Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions ................................... 374 7.34 Viscosities of Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374 7.35 Azeotropes of Propylene Glycol ...................................................... If-Propanedlol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375 375 7.36 Physical Properties of 1.3-Propanediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375 Freezing Points of Aqueous Solutions of 1.3-Propanediol ................................... 7.37 376 7.38 Specific Gravity of Aqueous Solutions of 1.3-Propanediol at 20' and 40% ...................... 376 1,2-Butanedlol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376 7.39 Physical Properties of 1.2-Butanediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 7.40 Specific Gravity of Aqueous 1.2-Butanediol Solutions at 20" and 40°C ......................... 377 7.41 Absolute Viscostty of Aqueous 1.2-Butanediol Solutions at 20' and 40°C ....................... 1,3-Butanediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 377 7.42 Physical Properties of lb-Butanediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 7.43 Freezing Point of Aqueous Solutions of 1.3-Butanediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 7.44 Refractive Index and Freezing Point of Aqueous Solutions of 1.3-Butanediol .................... 378 Specific Gravity of Aqueous 1.3-Butanediol Solutions at 20" and 40°C ......................... 7.45 378 7.46 Viscosity of Aqueous Solutions of 1.3-Butanediol ......................................... 378 7.47 Absolute Viscosity of Aqueous 1.3-Butanediol Solutions at 20" and 40% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 1,4-Butanediol .............................................................................. 379 7.48 Physical Properties of 1.4-Butanediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 Absolute Viscosity of Aqueous 1.4-Butanediol Solutions at 20' and 40% ....................... 7.49 379 7.50 Specific Gravity of Aqueous 1.4-Butanediol Solutions at 20" and 40°C ......................... Pf-Butanediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 380 7.51 Physical Properties of 2.3-Butanediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.52 Boiling Points of Aqueous levo-2. 3-Butanediol Solutions at Atmospheric Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 381 7.53 Boiling Points of Aqueous levo-2.3-Butanedio I-Ethanol Solutions ............................ 381 7.54 Boiling Points of Aqueous levo-2.3-Butanedio l-hiethanol Solutions ........................... 381 7.55 Freezing Points of Aqueous levo-2. 3-Butanediol Solutions .................................. 382 7.56 Freezing Points of Aqueous meso-dextro-2. 3-Butanediol Solutions ...........................

xviii

Contents and Subject Index

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Effect of meso.2. 3.Butanediol on the Freezing Point of Aqueous levo-2. 3.Butanediol Solutions 382 Freezing Points of Aqueous levo-2.3.Butanedio l.Ethanol Solutions ........................... 383 Freezing Points of Aqueous levo-2.3.Butanedio LEthylene Glycol Solutions 383 Freezing Points of Aqueous levo-2.3.Butanedio l.Methano1 Solutions 383 Freezing Points of Aqueous levo-2.3.Butanedio l.Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Kinematic Viscosity of Aqueous levo-2. 3.Butanediol Solutions. Expressed Logarithmically. as a Function of Concentration and Temperature ........................................... 384 Solutions in Relation to Concentration Kinematic Viscosity of Aqueous levo.2. 3.Butanediol 7.63 and Temperature ............................................................... 384 Kinematic Viscosity of 60% levo-2.3.Butanediol. Glycerol and Ethylene Glycol Solutions at Low 7.64 Temperatures 384 Solutions at 20°C. Expressed in Kinematic Viscosity of Aqueous levo-2.3.Butanedio l.Ethanol 7.65 Centistokes .................................................................... 384 Kinematic Viscosity of Aqueous levo-2.3.Butanedio l.Methanol Solutions at 20°C. Expressed in 7.66 Centistokes 385 l.Ethylene Glycol Solutions in 20'C Kinematic Viscosity of Aqueous levo.2.3.Butanedio 7.67 385 Expressed incentistokes ......................................................... 7.68 Kinematic Viscosity of Aqueous levo-2.3.Butanedio l.Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol Solutions at 20'C. Expressed in Centistokes 385 Absolute Viscosity of Aqueous Solutions of Ethylene Glycol. levo.2.3.Butanediol. meso-dextro7.69 2.3.Butanediol and Glycerol at 20°C ................................................. 385 Optical Rotatory Power of Aqueous levo.2. 3.Butanediol Solutions at 20°C ...................... 386 7.70 Effects of Concentration and Temperature on the Specific Rotatory Power of Aqueous levo-237.71 Butanediol Solutions 386 386 7.72 Refractive Indices of Aqueous levo.2. 3.Butanediol Solutions at Different Temperatures 386 7.73 Refractive Indices of Aqueous Solutions of meso- and levo.2. 3.Butanediol at 25'C Specific Gravity of Aqueous levo-2. 3.Butanediol Solutions at 20'. 30'. and 40% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 7.74 387 7.75 Specific Gravity of Aqueous meso.2. 3.Butanedol Solutions at 20'. 30'. and 4O'C 7.76 Surface Tension of Aqueous Solutions of levo-2. 3.Butanediol and Ethylene Glycol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 Butanediois . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388 388 Refractive Indices of Aqueous Butanediol Solutions at 20". 30'. and 40°C ....................... 7.77 388 Kinematic Viscosity of Aqueous Butanediol Solutions at 20" and 40°C. in Centistokes 7.78 2.Butene.1, 4.dioi 388 ............................................... 388 7.79 Physical Properties of 2.Butene-1. 4.diol 2.Butyne.1, Cdioi ........................................................................... 389 389 7.80 Physical Properties of 2.Butyne.l. 4.diol IC-Pentanedlol 389 7.81 Physical Properties of 1.5.Pentanediol 389 390 7.82 Absolute Viscosity of Aqueous 1.5.Pentanediol Solutions at 20" and 40°C 390 7.83 Specific Gravity of Aqueous 1.5-Pentanediol Solutions at 20" and 40°C 2,CPen.nediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 ................................................. 390 7.84 Physical Properties of 2.4.Pentanediol NeopentylGlycol ............................................................................ 390 7.85 Physical Properties of Neopentyl Glycol 390 Pentanediols 391 7.86 Kinematic Viscostly of Aqueous Pentanediol Solutions at 20" and 40%. in Centistokes 391 7.87 Refractive Indices of Aqueous Pentanediol Solutions at 20' and 4Q°C .......................... 391 IS-Hexanediol 392 392 7.88 Physical Properties of 1.6.Hexanediol 2,5.Hexanediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 7.89 Physical Properties of 1.5.Hexanediol ................................................. 392 HexyleneGiycol ............................................................................. 392 7.90 Physical Properties and Specifications of Hexylene Glycol 392 393 7.91 Freezing Points of Hexylene Glycol-Water Mixtures 393 7.92 Specific Gravity and Freezing Point of Hexylene Glycol-Water Mixtures Pinacol 394 394 7.93 Physical Properties of Pinacol 22-Diethyl-I f-Propanedloi 394 7.94 Physical Properties of 2.2.Diethyl.l. 3.Propanediol 394 2.Ethyl.1, 3.Hexanedlol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 7.95 Physical Properties of 2.Ethyl.l. 3.Hexanediol 394 2,5.Dimethyl.3.Hexyne.2,5 .diol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 5.diol .................................... 395 7.96 Physical Properties of 2.5.Dimethyl.3.Hexyne-2. 1,4.Cyclohexanedimethanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 7.57 7.58 7.59 7.60 7.61 7.62

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Contents and Subject Index

xiu

7.97 Properties of 1.4-Cyclohexanedimethanol .............................................. 395 p-XylyieneGlycol ........................................................................... 397 Physical Properties of p-Xylylene Glycol ................................................ 397 7.98 2-Ethyl-2-Butyl-1, 3-Propanedlol ............................................................... 397 397 7.99 Physical Properties of 2-Ethyl-2-Butyl-1. 3-Propanediol ................................... 3,6-Mmethyl4Octyne-3,6-dlol ................................................................ 397 7.1 00 Physical Properties of 3.6-Dimethyl4Octyne-3. 6-diol .................................... 397 Thiodiglycol ................................................................................ 398 7.1 01 Physical Properties of Thiodiglycol .................................................... 398 7.102 Vapor Pressure of Thiodiglycol at Various Temperatures .................................... 398 MiscellaneousGlycolr ........................................................................ 399 Hydrates of Aliphatic Glycols ........................................................ 399 7.1 03 7.104 Hydrates of Cyclic Glycols .......................................................... 400 7.105 Freezing Points of Aqueous Ethylene Glycol and Propylene Glycol Solutions ..................... 401 7.1 06 Freezing Points of Various Aqueous Glycol Solutions. "C ................................... 402 Freezing Points of Various Aqueous Alcohols. Glycols and Glycerol ........................... 402 7.107 402 7.1 08 Compatibility of Coupling Solvents with Carbon Tetrachloride and Water ........................ 403 7.1 09 Key Hygroscopicity Curve ........................................................... 7.1 10 Surface Tension of Glycol-Water Systems .............................................. 403 7.1 11 Vapor Pressure of Glycols .......................................................... 403 7.112 Viscosityof Glycols ............................................................... 404 404 7.113 Water Absorption by Glycols as a Function of Time ....................................... Water Absorption by Glycols as a Function of Relative Humidity .............................. 404 7.1 14 7.1 15 Refractive Index. Specific Gravity. and Boiling Point Measurements of Various Glycols . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404 7.1 16 Relative Solvent Properties of Glycols .................................................. 405 Effect of Various Glycols on Synthetic Rubber Samples-Results Reported as % Volume and 7.117 % Weight Increase .............................................................. 405 406 7.1 18 Solubility of Cellulose Deriiatiies in Glycols ............................................. 406 Compatibility of Film Cast from 80/20 Toluene/Alcohol ...................................... 7.1 19 406 7.1 20 Relative Humectant Values .......................................................... 407 7.121 Water Vapor Dew Points Over Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions ............................ Water Vapor Dew Points Over Aqueous Diethylene Glycol Solutions ........................... 407 7.122 7.123 Water Vapor Dew Points Over Aqueous Triethylene Glycol Solutions .......................... 407 7.124 Water Vapor Dew Points Over Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions 407 408 Water Vapor Dew Points Over Aqueous Dipropylene Glycol Solutions .......................... 7.125 408 7.126 Boiling Points of Glycols at 50 mm Hg ................................................. 408 7.127 Total Pressure Over Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions M Temperature ....................... Total Pressure Over Aqueous Diethylene Glycol Solutions M Temperature ...................... 408 7.128 409 Total Pressure Over Aqueous Triethylene Glycol Solutions vs Temperature ...................... 7.129 409 7.130 Total Pressure Over Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions vs Temperature ...................... 7.131 Total Pressure Over Aqueous Dipropylene Glycol Solutions vs Temperature ..................... 409 410 7.132 Vapor-Liquid Composition Curves for Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions ....................... 7.133 Vapor-tiquid Composition Curves for Aqueous Diethylene Glycol Solutions ..................... 410 Vapor-Liquid Composition Curves for Aqueous Triethylene Glycol Solutions ..................... 411 7.134 411 7.135 Vapor-Liquid Composition Curves for Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions ...................... 7.136 Vapor-tiquid Composition Curves for Aqueous Dipropylene Glycol Solutions .................... 412 412 7.137 Pour Points of Glycols ............................................................. 412 7.138 Viscosities of Anhydrous Glycols ..................................................... 7.139 Viscosities of Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions ......................................... 413 7.140 Viscosities of Aqueous Diethylene Glycol Solutions ........................................ 413 7.141 Viscosities of Aqueous Triethylene Glycol Solutions 414 7.142 Viscosities of Aqueous Tetraethylene Glycol Solutions ..................................... 414 414 7.143 Viscosities of Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions ........................................ 414 7.144 Viscosities of Aqueous Dipropylene Glycol Solutions ....................................... 415 7.145 Viscosities of Aqueous Tripropylene Glycol Solutions ...................................... 415 7.146 Freezing Points of Aqueous Glycol Solutions ............................................ 7.147 Specific Heat of Anhydrous Glycols ................................................... 415 7.148 Specific Heats of Aqueous Glycol Solutions (BtuAbPF) ..................................... 416 7.149 Densities of Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions (% by wt) 416 417 Densities of Aqueous Diethylene Glycol Solutions (% by wt) ................................. 7.1 50 7.151 Densities of Aqueous Triethylene Glycol Solutions (% by wt) ................................ 417 7.152 Densities of Aqueous Tetraethylene Glycol Solutions (% by wt) .............................. 418 7.153 Densities of Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions (% by wt) ................................. 418 419 Densities of Aqueous Dipropylene Glycol Solutions (% by wt) ................................ 7.154 419 7.155 Densities of Aqueous Tripropylene Glycol Solutions (% by wt) ...............................

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Contents and Subject Index

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.................................. 419 ............................................................. 420 ............................... 420 ................................... 420 .................................. 420 .................................. 421 ................................ 421 .................................. 421 ................................. 421 ................................ 422 ...................................... 422 .............................................. 423 ....................................................... 424 ................................................... 424 ............................................... 425 ........................................................ 425 ............................................. 426 . .................... 426 .............. 426 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 .............. 427 ....................... 428 ................................. 428 ........................................... 429 ................................................ 429 ............................................................ 430 ................................................................ 430 ........................................... 430 ..................................... 431 .................................................................. 431 .............................................................. 432 ................................................ 433 .......................................................... 433 .......................................................................... 434 ......................................... 434 ........................... 434 ................................... 434 .......................................................... 435 ............................................. 436 ............................................. 437 ...................................... 437 ................................. 438 ................................. 438 ........................... 438 ................... 439 ............................................. 439 .................................................. 440 ......................................... 441 ........................................................... 441 .......................................................... 441 ............................................. 441 ............................................ 442 ........................................................................... 443 .......................................................... 443 ......................................................... 443 ............................................................ 444 ............................................................................ 444 ................................................ 444 ............................................................................ 445 ................................................ 445 ...................................... 445 .................................................. 445 ........................................ 446 ..................................................... 446 ....................................... 446

7.1 56 Surface Tensions of Aqueous Solutions of Glycols at 7 p F 7.157 Flammability of Glycols Refractive Indices of Aqueous Glycol Solutions at 7 p F (25%) 7.158 7.159 Conversion Chart for Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions 7.160 Conversion Chart for Aqueous Diethylene Glycol Solutions Conversion Chart for Aqueous Triethylene Glycol Solutions 7.161 7.162 Conversion Chart for Aqueous Tetraethylene Glycol Solutions 7.163 Conversion Chart for Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions 7.164 Conversion Chart for Aqueous Dipropylene Glycol Solutions 7.1 65 Conversion Chart for Aqueous Tripropylene Glycol Solutions Freeze Points and Burst Points of Aqueous Solutions 7.166 7.167 Solubility of Various Compounds in Glycols 7.168 viscosity of Anhydrous Glycols 7.169 Specific Heat of Anhydrous Glycols 7.1 70 Technical Data: Ethylene Glycol Products 7.171 Ethylene Glycol Compatibility 7.172 Weight per Gallon at Various Temperatures 7.173 Weight Percent vs Volume Percent Aq Monoethylene Glycol Solutions. 20'C 7.174 Specific Gravity vs Composition @ Various Temperatures of Aqueous MEG Solutions 7.175 Specific Gravity vs Composition @ Various Temperatures of Aqueous DEG Solutions Specific Gravity vs Composition @ Various Temperatures of Aqueous TEG Solutions 7.176 7.177 Boiling Point @ 760 mm Hg vs Composition of Aqueous Glycol Solutions 7.178 Freezing Point vs Cornposition of Aqueous Glycol Solutions 7.179 Vapor Pressure vs Temperature of the Glycols 7.180 Viscosity vs Temperature of the Glycols 7.181 Fire Hazard Information 7.182 AcuteOralToxicity 7.183 Environmental Considerations. Biodegradation 7.1 84 Ethylene Glycols: Products. Grades and Specifications 7.185 Ashland Glycols 7.186 Chemcentral Polyols 7.187 Hoechst Celanese 1.3-Butylene Glycol 7.188 Occidental Ethylene Glycol Giycerol(Giyc8rine) 7.189 Physical Properties and Specifications of Glycerol Boiling Points and Specific Gravities of Aqueous Glycerol Solutions 7.190 7.191 Conversion Chart for Aqueous Glycerol Solutions (25%) 7.192 Density of Glycerol-Water 7.193 Freezing Points of Glycerol-Water Solutions 7.194 Freezing Points of Glycerol-Water Solutions 7.195 Viscosity of Aqueous Glycerol Solutions. Centipoises Hygroscopicity Curves for Glycerol and 1.3-Butylene Glycol 7.196 7.197 Hygroscopicity Curves for Glycerol and 2.3-Butyiene Glycol 7.198 Relative Humidities Over Aqueous Glycerol Solutions. 20' to 100'C Solubility of Sucrose and Dextrose in Aqueous Glycerol at 15'. 24'. and 35% 7.199 7.200 Solubility of Various Compounds in Glycerol 7.201 Specific Gravity and Percent Glycerol 7.202 Specific Gravities of Glycerol and Glycol Mixtures 7.203 Specific Heat of Glycerol 7.204 Vapor Pressure of Glycerol 7.205 Vapor Pressure of Glycerol-Water Solutions Viscosity of Glycerol Solutions in Centipoises 7.206 ComprrativeDatr 7.207 Emery CP/USP Glycerines 7.208 Procter & Gamble Glycerine 7.209 Witco Refined Glycerine 13.4-Butanetrioi 7.210 Physical Properties of 1.2.4-Butanetriol lP.6-Hexrnetrloi 7.21 1 Physical Properties of 1.2.6-Hexanetriol 7.212 Freezing Points of 1.2.6-Hexanetrio I-Water Mixtures 7.213 Vapor Pressure of 1.2.6-Hexanetriol 7.214 Solubility of 1.2. 6-Hexanetriol in Organic Solvents 7.21 5 Compatibility of 1.2. 6-Hexanetriol viscosities and Freezing Points of 1.2. 6-Hexanetriol 7.216

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Contents and Subject Index

lnri

.......................................................................... 447 ............................................... 447 .............................................................................. 447 447 ................................................................................... 448 ....................................................... 448 ..................................................... 448 .................... 449 ...................... 449 ......................... 450 ...................................... 450 ........................ 450 ............................................................................. 451 ............................................... 451 .............................................................. 452 ...................................................... 452 PHENOLS ..................................................................................... 454 454 8.1 Phenol ......................................................................... ALDEHYDES ................................................................................... 455 Furfural ................................................................................... 455 9.1 Properties of PureFurfural .......................................................... 455 9.2 Typical Properties and Specifiiations of Furfural .......................................... 456 9.3 Solubility of Various Substances in Furfural .............................................. 457 9.4 Solubility of Selected Thermoplastic Resins in Furfural ..................................... 457 458 9.5 Specific Gravity and Pounds per Gallon of Furfural ........................................ 458 9.6 CornpositiodDensity of Furfural-Water Solutions ......................................... 459 9.7 Vapor Pressure of Furfural .......................................................... 9.8 Solution Temperature of Furfural-Water System .......................................... 459 9.9 Temperature-Composition Diagram of Furfural-Water System ............................... 460 9.10 Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium In the Furfural-Water System .................................... 460 9.11 Vapor-Liquid Composition of Furfural-Water System ...................................... 461 OtherAldehydsr ............................................................................ 461 9.12 Vapor Pressures of Various Aldehydes ................................................. 461 9.13 Physical Properties of Various Aldehydes ............................................... 462 ETHERS ...................................................................................... 463 10.1 Dimethyl Ether ................................................................... 463 10.2 Chlorodimethyl Ether .............................................................. 464 10.3 Chloromethyl Ethyl Ether ........................................................... 465 465 10.4 Ethyl Ether ...................................................................... 466 10.5 Flammability of Ethyl Ether-Oxygen-Helium Mixture ....................................... 10.6 Dichloroethyl Ether ................................................................ 466 IsopropylEther ............................................................................. 467 10.7 Properties of Pure Isopropyl Ether .................................................... 467 10.8 Vapor Pressure of Isopropyl Ether .................................................... 467 10.9 Isopropyl Ether-Water Solubility ...................................................... 467 10.10 Mutual Solubility for the System: Isopropyl Ether-Isopropyl Alcohol-Water at 25'C. % wt . . . . . . . . . . . 468 10.11 Conjugate Solutions in the System: Isopropyl Ether-Isopropyl Alcohol-Water at 25'C. % wt . . . . . . . . . 469 10.12 Miscibility of Isopropyl Ether-Isopropyl Alcohol-Water at 25% ............................... 469 Azeotropic Information-Isopropyl Ether ................................................. 470 10.13 10.14 Vapor Pressure of Isopropyl Ether at Various Temperatures ................................. 471 10.15 Specific Gravity of sopropyl Ether vs Temperature ........................................ 471 Mutual Solubility and Specific Gravity of Isopropyl Ether. Water and Isopropyl Alcohol at 25'C . . . . . . . . 471 10.16 472 10.17 n-Butyl Ether .................................................................... 10.18 Diamyl Ether .................................................................... 473 10.19 n-Hexyl Ether ................................................................... 473 474 10.20 Solubility Data for Various Ethers ..................................................... 474 10.21 Comparative Evaporation Rates of Various Ethers ........................................ 475 10.22 Specific Gravities of Various Ethers ................................................... 476 10.23 Vapor Pressure of Various Ethers ..................................................... 10.24 Ethylene Oxide .................................................................. 478 10.25 Enthalpy and Entropy of Ethylene Oxide ................................................ 478 Trlmethyolpropane Physical Properties of Trimethylolpropane 7.217 Pentaerythritol 7.218 Physical Properties of Pentaerythritol .................................................. Sorbitol 7.219 Physical Properties ofSorbiito1 Boiling Point of Sorbitol Solutions 7.220 7.221 Hydrogenolysis of Sorbitol and Glycerol at a Hydrogen Pressure of 2.000 psi 7.222 Hydrogenolysis of Sorbitol at 215% and a Hydrogen Pressure of 2.000 psi Phase Diagram of Sorbitol Solubility in Hydroalcoholic Liquids at 35% 7.223 7.224 Solubility of Sorbitol in Hydroalcoholic Liquids at 25°C 7.225 . Viscosity Curve for Pure d-Sorbitol Solutions of Various Concentrations SugarAlcoholr 7.226 Physical Properties of the Sugar Alcohols Mircellan~urPolyhydrlcAlcoholr 7.227 Hydrates of Polyhydric Alcohols

xxii

Contents and Subject Index 10.26 10.27 10.28 10.29 10.30 10.31 10.32 10.33 10.34 10.35 10.36 10.37 10.38 10.39 10.40 10.41 10.42 10.43 10.44 10.45 10.46 10.47 10.48 10.49

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Propylene Oxide Freezing Points of Solutions of Ethylene Oxide and Propylene Oxide 1.2.Butylene Oxide CARDOUTENC-513 I. 4-Dioxane .................................................................... Trioxane VinylMethyl Ether VinylEthylEther Vinyl 2-Chloroethyl Ether Vinyl Butyl Ether Vinyllsobutyl Ether Vinyl 2-Ethylhexyl Ether ............................................................ Typical Properties of the vinyl Ethers Phenyl Methyl Ether Dibenzyl Ether Diphenyl "Oxide Miscellaneous Alkyl Aryl Ethers Furan .......................................................................... 2-Methylfuran ................................................................... Tetrahydrofuran .................................................................. 2.3-Dihydropyran Tetrahydropyran Tetrahydropyran-2-Methanol ........................................................ Terpinyl Methyl Ether ..............................................................

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GLYCOLETHERS ............................................................................... 11 1 ARCOSOLV Ethylene and Propylene Glycol Ethers ....................................... 11.2 Ashland Glycol Ethers 11.3 Chemcentral Glycol Ethers 11.4 DOWANOL Glycol Ethers and Acetates 11.5 Eastman Chemicals Glycol Ethers 11.6 Grant Chemical Glycol Diethers (GLYMES) 11.7 Occidental Ethylene Glycol Ethers and Glycol Ether Acetates 11.8 Olin Chemicals Poly-Sob Propylene Glycol Ethers ........................................ 11.9 Union Carbide Glycol Ethers Methylal 11.10 Physical Properties of Methylal ....................................................... EthyleneGlycols Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether 11.11 11.12 Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether ..................................................... 11 13 Ethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether ....................................................... 11 I 4 Ethylene Glycol Diethyl Ether ........................................................ 11.15 Ethylene Glycol Monopropyl Ether .................................................... 11 16 Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether 11.17 Water Solubiliy of Ethylene Glycol n-Butyl Ether Ethylene Glycol Monoisobutyl Ether 11.18 11.19 Ethylene Glycol Dibutyl Ether 11.20 Ethylene Glycol Monophenyl Ether .................................................... 11.21 Ethylene Glycol Monobenql Ether 11.22 Terpinyl Ethylene Glycol Ether 11.23 Ethylene Glycol Butylphenyl Ethers .................................................... 11.24 Ethylene Glycol Monohexyl Ether 11.25 Ethylene Glycol Ethyl Hexyl Ether 11.26 Diethylene Glycol 11.27 Diethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether 11.28 Diethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether .................................................... 11.29 Diethylene Glycol Monoethyl EthedEthylene Glycol ........................................ 11-30 Diethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether .................................................... 11.31 Diethylene Glycol Monopropyl Ether ................................................... 11.32 Diethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether 11.33 Diethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether (Special Grade) 11.34 Diethylene Glycol Monohexyl Ether 113 5 Diethylene Glycol Divinyl Ether 11.36 Diethylene Glycol Monoisobutyl Ether 11.37 Triethylene Glycol ................................................................

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479 479 480 480 481 481 482 482 482 482

483 483

483 484 485 485 486 486 486 487 493 493 494 494 496 496 498 499 500 503 504 506 512 513 514 514 514 514 515 515 516 516 516 517 517 518 519 520 520 521 521 521 522 523 523 523 524 524 524 525 525 525 526 526

Contents and Subject Index 11.38 Triethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.39 Triethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.40 Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.41 Triethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether/Highers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.42 Triethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether/Highers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.43 Tetraethylene Glycol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.44 Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PropyleneGlycols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.45 Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Propylene Glycol Monophenyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.46 11.47 Propylene Glycol Monopropyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.48 Propylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.49 Propylene Glycol tert-Butyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.50 Propylene Glycol Monobutoxyethyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.51 Propylene Glycol Isobutyl Ether and Higher Homologs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.52 Propylene Based Glycol Ether Blends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.53 Propylene Based Glycol Ether Blend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.54 Dipropylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.55 Dipropylene Glycol Monopropyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.56 Dipropylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.57 Dipropylene Glycol Tertiary Butyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.58 Tripropylene Glycol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.59 Tripropylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.60 Aromatic Based Glycol Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Triglycols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.61 Methoxytriglycol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.62 Ethoxytriglycol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.63 Butoxytriglycol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MiscellaneousGlycolData . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.64 ARCOSOLV Evaporation Characteristics. Resin Compatibility and Other Data .................... 11.65 DOWANOL Miscibility. Solubility. Evaporation Rates. Vapor Pressure. Density. Surface Tension and Other Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.66 GLYME Azeotropic Vapor Pressure and Solubility Data ..................................... 11.67 Union Carbide Glycol Ethers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PolyethyleneGlycols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.68 Ashland Polyethylene Glycols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.69 BASF Pluracol E Polyethylene Glycols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.70 CARBOWAX Polyethylene Glycols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.71 Dow Polyglycols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PolypropyleneGlycols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.72 Ashland Polypropylene Glycols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-73 Dow Polypropylene Glycols and Polyglycol Copolymers ..................................... Polyols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.74 Properties of PLURONIC and TETRONIC Block Copolymer Surfactants ........................ GlycerineEthers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.75 Glyceryl a-Monomethyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.76 Glyceryl a.y-Dimethyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.77 Glyceryl a-Mono-n-Butyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.78 Glyceryl a-Monoisoamyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.79 Glyceryl a.y-Diisoamyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.80 Miscellaneous Glycerine Ethers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

miii 527 527 528 528 528 529 529 530 530 530 531 531 532 532 532 533 533 533 534 534 534

535 536 536 536 536 537 537 537 537

548 574 576 581 581 581 582 599 611 611 612 622 622 623 623 623 623 623 624 624

KETONES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625 Acetone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625 625 12.1 Physical Properties of Acetone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2 625 Low Temperature Characteristics of Aqueous Solutions of Acetone ............................ 626 12.3 Solubility of Various Materials in Acetone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 626 12.4 Specific Gravity of Aqueous Solutions of Acetone at Different Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.5 Surface Tension of Aqueous Solutions of Acetone at 25°C .................................. 627 627 12.6 Viscosity of Aqueous Acetone Solutions at 25% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628 12.7 Refractive Index of Aqueous Solutions of Acetone at 25°C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.8 Liquid-Vapor Equilibria for Aqueous Solutions of Acetone at Different Pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628 629 12.9 Freezing Point of Aqueous Solutions of Acetone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MethylEthylKetone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629

xxiv

Contents and Subject Index 12.10 Physical Properties of Methyl Ethyl Ketone .............................................. 629 630 12.1 1 Methyl Ethyl Ketone and Water ...................................................... Methyln-propylKetone 630 Properties of Methyl n-Propyl Ketone .................................................. 630 12.12 Methyln-ButylKetone ....................................................................... 631 631 12.13 properties of Methyl n-Butyl Ketone ................................................... Solubility of Dry Half-Second R.S. Nitrocellulose in a System of Methyl Butyl Ketone-sec12.14 Butanol-Toluene ................................................................ 632 MethyllsobutylKetone ....................................................................... 632 632 12.15 Properties of Methyl Isobutyl Ketone ................................................... 633 Solubility of Miscellaneous Materials in Methyl Isobutyl Ketone at 20" to 25°C .................... 12.16 Methyln-AmylKetone 634 12.17 Properties of Methyl n-Amyl Ketone ................................................... 634 MethylIsoamylKetone 634 12.18 Properties of Methyl Isoamyl Ketone ................................................... 634 635 Properties of Methyl Isoamyl Ketone vs Other Solvents ..................................... 12.19 12.20 Butyrate-Acrylic Wood Lacquer-ubstituting Isoamyl Ketone for 2-Ethoxyethyl Acetate . . . . . . . . . . . 635 Methyl HexylKetone 636 12.21 Properties of Methyl Hexyl Ketone 636 MethylHeptyl Ketone ........................................................................ 636 636 12.22 Properties of Methyl Heptyl Ketone .................................................... EthylbutylKetone ........................................................................... 637 637 12.23 Properties of Ethylbutyl Ketone ....................................................... Ethyl Amyl Ketone ........................................................................... 637 637 12.24 Properties of Ethyl Amyl Ketone ...................................................... Dl-n-PropylKetone ......................................................................... 638 638 12.25 Properties of Di-n-Propyl Ketone DllsobutylKetone ........................................................................... 638 638 12.26 Properties of Diisobutyl Ketone Cyclohexanone 639 639 12.27 Properties of Cyclohexanone ........................................................ 640 12.28 Resin Solubility in Cyclohexanone MethylCyclohexanone ....................................................................... 641 641 12.29 Properties of Methyl Cyclohexanone ................................................... MethylAcetone ............................................................................. 641 DlacetoneAlcohol ........................................................................... 642 642 12.30 Physical Properties of Acetone-Free Diacetone Alcohol .................................... AcetonylAcetone ........................................................................... 642 643 12.31 Properties of Acetonyl Acetone MesltylOxlde ............................................................................... 643 12.32 Properties of Mesityl Oxide .......................................................... 643 lsophorone ................................................................................ 644 12.33 Properties oflsophorone ........................................................... 644 Fenchone .................................................................................. 644 12.34 Properties of Fenchone ............................................................ 644 Beta-Proplolactone 645 645 12.35 Physical Properties of Beta-Propiolactone Gamma-Butyrolactone ....................................................................... 645 645 12.36 Properties of Gamma-Butyrolactone ................................................... ComparatlveData 648 12.37 Ashland Ketones 648 12.38 Chemcentral Ketones and Miscellaneous Active Solvents ................................... 649 650 12.39 Eastman Chemical Ketones 650 12.40 Exxon Ketones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 651 12.41 Hoechst-Celanese Ketones 651 12.42 Shell Chemical Ketones 652 12.43 Union Carbide Ketones ............................................................ 657 12.44 Vapor Pressure of Various Ketones at Different Temperatures ............................... 658 12.45 Specific Gravities of etones ......................................................... 659 12.46 Solubility of Ketones in Water 659 12.47 Solubility of Water in Ketones ........................................................ 660 12.48 Relative Evaporation of Ketones-Fast to Intermediate Evaporating Liquids 660 12.49 Relative Evaporation of Ketones-lntermediate to Slow Evaporating Liquids ..................... 12.50 Viscosity vs Concentration of Chlorinated Rubber (Hercules PARLON S-20) in MEK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 661

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ACIDS

Contents and Subject Index

m

. . . . . . . . ................................................................................ 13.1 Acetic Acid ...................................................................... Viscosity of Acetic Acid and Acetic Anhydride Mixtures at 15' and 76.5"C ....................... 13.2 Butyric Acid ..................................................................... 13.3 Viscosity of Aqueous Butyric Acid Solution at 25'C ........................................ 13.4 ButyricAnhydride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................... 13.5

662 662 662 663 663

i

13.6 13.7 13.8 13.9 13.10 13.1 1 13.12 13.13 13.14 13.15 13.16 13.17 13.18 13.19 13.20 13.21

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Solubility of Water in Caproic Acid at Various Temperatures 2-Ethylbutyric Acid 2-Ethylhexoic Acid Solubility of Water in Ethylhexoic Acid. Ethylbutyraldehyde and Ethylpropylacrolein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lactic Acid Triftuoroacetic Acid Vapor Pressure of Organic Acids and Anhydrides at Various Temperatures ..................... Fatty Acid Composition of Various Fats and Oils Arizona Chemical ACTINOL Tall Oil Fatty Acids Eastman Chemicals Acids and Anhydrides Halocarbon Products BIOGRADE Triiuoroacetic Acid ...................................... EMERY Fatty and Dibasic Acids ...................................................... INDUSTRENE and HYSTRENE Fatty and Dibasic Acids .................................... NEO-FATFattyAcids ............................................................. Procter 81Gamble Fatty Acids ........................................................ Union Carbide Acids

.............................................................. AMINES ....................................................................................... AlkylAmines ............................................................................... 14.1 Monomethylamine ................................................................ 14.2 Dimethylamine ................................................................... 14.3 Trimethylamine ................................................................... 14.4 Freezing Points of Aqueous Methylamine Solutions ....................................... 14.5 Binary Azeotropes of Methylamines ................................................... 14.6 Solubility Data for Methylamines ...................................................... 14.7 Monoethylamine .................................................................. 14.8 Diethylamine .................................................................... 14.9 Triethylamine .................................................................... 14.10 n-Propylamine ................................................................... 14.11 Di-n-Propylamine ................................................................ Mutual Solubility of Di-n-Propylamine and Water at Various Temperatures ...................... 14.12 ....................... 14.13 Solubility Curve at 25" for the System Di-n-Propylamine-Water-Ethanol 14.14 Isopropylamine ................................................................... 14.15 Di-lsopropylamine ................................................................ 14.16 14.17 14.18 14.19 14.20 14.21 14.22 14.23 14.24 14.25 14.26 14.27 14.28 14.29 14.30 14.31 14.32 14.33 14.34 14.35 14.36 14.37 14.38 14.39

n-Butylamine .................................................................... n-Dibutylamine .................................................................. n-Tributylamine .................................................................. lsobutylamine .................................................................... Diisobutylamine .................................................................. sec-Butylamine Mono-n-Butyl Diamylamine ......................................................... n-Amylamine .................................................................... sec-Amylamine Diamylamine (Mixed Isomers) Triamylamine (Mixed Isomers) ....................................................... sec-Hexylamine 2-Ethylbutylamine n-Heptylarnine ................................................................... 2-Ethylhexylamine Di-2-Ethylhexylamine Cyclohexylamine ................................................................. Dicyclohexylamine AUQUAT Fatty Quaternary Ammonium Chloride .......................................... KEMAMINE Fatty Quaternary Ammonium Chlorides ....................................... High Molecular Weight Aliphatic Amines Solubilities of Pure Dodecyl- and Octadecyl-Trimethylammonium Chlorides in Grams per 100 grams ofsolvent ..................................................................... Solubilities of Organic Compounds in Aliphatic Amines at 25' f 5'C Vapor Pressure of Various Amines

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663 664 664 664

664 665 666

668 669 670 671 671 672 676 681

683 684 686 686 686

686 687 688

688 689 690 690 691 691 691 692 692 692 693 693 693 694 694

694 695 695

695 696 696 696 697 697 697 697 697 698 698

699 699 700 700 701 705

m i

Contents and Subject Index

14.40 Vapor Pressure of Sharples Amines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AlkyleneDlamlnes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.41 Ethylene Diamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boiling Point Composition Curves for Aqueous Ethylenediamine Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.42 14.43 Diethylenetriamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.44 Boiling Point Composition Curves for Aqueous Diethylenetriarnine Solutions ..................... 14.45 Tetraethylenepentamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.46 Propylenediamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.47 Solvent Properties of Alkylene Diamines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.48 Vapor Pressures of Alkylene Diamines and Other Amines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.49 Density of Ethylenediamine Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.50 Density of Higher Ethylene Amines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.51 Viscosity of Ethylenediamine Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.52 Viscosity of Higher Ethylene Amines ................................................... ComparativeData . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Akzo ARMEEN, DUOMEEN, TRIAMEEN, ETHOMEEN, Ethoxylated Diamines, Propoxylated Amines . . . 14.53 14.54 ANGUSAmines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.55 Ashland Amines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.56 Chemcentral Amines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.57 Dow Commercial Alkanolamines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.58 Humko Amines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.59 Procter & Gamble Tertiary Amines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.60 Occidental Ethanolamines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.61 Union Carbide Ethyleneamines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.62 Union Carbide Ethanolamines ....................................................... AlkanolAmines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.63 Monoethanolamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.64 Boiling Point Composition Curves for Aqueous Monoethanolamine Solutions ..................... 14.65 Viscosity of Monoethanolamine at Various Temperatures ................................... 14.66 Diethanolamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.67 Viscosity of Diethanolamine at Various Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.68 Triethanolamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.69 Viscosity of Triethanolamine at Various Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.70 Specific Heats of Aqueous Triethanolamine Solutions at 21% ................................ 14.71 Surface Tension of Aqueous Ethanolamine Solutions at 20°C ................................ 14.72 Viscosity of Aqueous Ethanolamine Solutions at 20°C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.73 lsopropanolamines Mixed ........................................................... 14.74 Triisopropanolamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.75 2-Amino-2-Methyl-1 -Propanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-Amino-2-Methyl-l ,2-Propanediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.76 14.77 2-Amino-2-Ethyl-1, 3-Propanediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.78 2-Amino-1-Butanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tris(Hydroxymethyl)Aminomethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.79 2-Aminoethylethanolamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.80 14.81 1-Diethylamino-2, 3-Propanediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.82 Aminohydroxy Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.83 2-Diethylamino-2-Methyl-1 -Propanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AikylalkanolAmines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.84 Properties of Various Alkylalkanol Amines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glycol EtherAmlnes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.85 Properties of Various Glycol Ether Amines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~IAmines ................................................................................ 14.86 Aniline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.87 Dimethylaniline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.88 Diethylaniline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.89 N-Mono-n-Butyl Aniline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.90 N,N-Di- n-Butyl Aniline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.91 n-Monoamyl Aniline (Mixed Isomers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.92 p-tert-Amyl Aniline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.93 Di-tert-Amyl Aniline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.94 N,N-Diamyl Aniline (Mixed Isomers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.95 Diethylbenzylamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.96 N-(n-Butyl)-+Naphthylamine ....................................................... imines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

705 706 706 706 706 707 707 707 708 708 709 709 710 710 711 711 718 718 719 719 735 736 737 747 753 760 760 760 760 761 761 761 762 762 762 762 763 763 763 764 764 764 764 764 764 765 765 766 766 768 768 769 769 769 769 770 770 770 770 771 771 771 771 772

Contents and Subject Index

mii

772 Ethylene Imine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.97 772 Propylene Imine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.98 773 Amides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 773 Formamide ..................................................................... 14.99 14.100 Dimethylformamide ................................................................ 773 774 14.101 Surface Tension and Density of DMF-Water Mixtures ...................................... 775 14.102 Semi-Quantitative Solubilities of Inorganic Materials in DMF at 25% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 776 14.103 Dimethylacetamide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 777 14.104 Viscosities of Resins in DMAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 778 14.105 I-Formylpiperdine ................................................................ Nitriles., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 780 780 14.106 n-Butyronitrile ................................................................... Heterocyclic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 780 780 14.107 Pyrrole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 781 14.108 2-Pyrrolidone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 781 14.109 Phase Diagram for 2-Pyrrolidone-Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................... 782 14.110 N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone 783 14.1 11 AcuteOralToxicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 783 14.1 12 Acute Dermal Toxicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 783 14.1 I 3 Injection Toxicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 783 14.1 14 Toxicity to Aqueous Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 784 14.1I 5 Infrared Absorption Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 784 14.1I 6 Specific Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 784 14.1I 7 Thermal Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 785 14.1 I 8 Vapor Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 785 14.1 19 Comparison of Vapor Pressures of M-Pyrol and Other Aprotic Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 785 14.120 SurfaceTension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 786 14.121 Freezing Point Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 786 14.122 Viscosity of Anhydrous M-Pyrol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 787 14.123 Viscosity of Aqueous M-Pyrol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.124 Vapor/Liquid Equilibrium Data for M-Pyrol-Water System at Atmospheric and 400 mg Pressures . . . . . 787 787 14.125 Vapor/Liquid Equilibrium of M-Pyrol-Water Systems ....................................... 788 14.126 Hydrolytic Stability of M-Pyrol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 789 14.127 Comparison of Hydrolysis of M-Pyrol and DMF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 789 14.128 Hydrolysis of M-Pyrol in Alkaline Salt Solutions .......................................... 789 14.129 Hygroscopicity Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 789 14.130 Hygroscopicity Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 790 14.131 Hygroscopicity Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 790 14.132 Effect of Temperature on Hygroscopicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 790 14.133 Correlation of M-Pyrol and Water Vapor Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 791 14.134 Vapodtiquid Equilibrium of M-Pyrol Containing 1% Water .................................. 791 14.135 Solubility of Acetylene in Various Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 792 14.136 Solubility of Sulfur Compounds and Carbon Dioxide in M-Pyrol Solvent ........................ 792 14.137 Solubility of Paraffin Hydrocarbons in M-Pyrol Solvent ..................................... 14.138 Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Distribution Coefficients for Sulfur Compounds and Carbon Dioxide in 793 M-Pyrol Solvent 14.139 Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Distribution Coefficients for Paraffin Hydrocarbons in M-Pyrol Solvent . . . . . . 793 14.140 Correlation of Equilibrium Distribution Coefficients for Ethane and Heavier Paraffin Hydrocarbons 794 in M-Pyrol Solvent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.141 Classification of Equilibria in M-Pyrol Showing Relationship Between Equilibrium Distribution 794 Coefficients (K)and Solute Vapor Pressures ........................................... 795 14.142 Solubilities of Carbon Monoxide and Olefins in Anhydrous M-Pyrol Solvent ...................... 795 14.143 Solubilities of Diolefins in Anhydrous M-Pyrol Solvent ...................................... 796 14.144 Solubilities of Acetylenes in Anhydrous M-Pyrol Solvent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.145 Vapor-tiquid Equilibrium Distribution Coefficients for Olefins and Carbon Monoxide in M-Pyrol 796 Solvent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.146 Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Distribution Coefficients for Diolefins in Anhydrous M-Pyrol Solvent . . . . . . . . 797 14.147 Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Distribution Coefficients for Acetylenes in Anhydrous M-Pyrol Solvent . . . . . . 797 14.148 Effect of Water (5 wt %) in M-Pyrol Solvent on Equilibrium Distribution Coefficients for Olefins . . . . . . . 798 14.149 Effect of Water (5 wt %) in M-Pyrol Solvent on Equilibrium Distribution Coefficients for Olefins . . . . . . . 798 799 14.150 Effect of Water (5 wt %) in M-Pyrol Solvent on Equilibrium Distribution Coefficient for Methylacetylene 14.151 Effect of Water (5 wt %) in M-Pyrol Solvent on Equilibrium Distribution Coefficient for Acetylene . . . . . . 799 14.152 Classification and Correlation of Equilibria of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons in Anhydrous M-Pyrol 800 Solvent 92-10 atm. 25'-150"C range) ............................................... 14.153 Effect of Water and Elevated Pressure on Solubility of Hydrogen Sulfide in M-Pyrol Solvent . . . . . . . . . 800

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Contents and Subject Index

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Effect of meso.2. 3.Butanediol on the Freezing Point of Aqueous levo-2. 3.Butanediol Solutions 382 Freezing Points of Aqueous levo-2.3.Butanedio l.Ethanol Solutions ........................... 383 Freezing Points of Aqueous levo-2.3.Butanedio LEthylene Glycol Solutions 383 Freezing Points of Aqueous levo-2.3.Butanedio l.Methano1 Solutions 383 Freezing Points of Aqueous levo-2.3.Butanedio l.Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Kinematic Viscosity of Aqueous levo-2. 3.Butanediol Solutions. Expressed Logarithmically. as a Function of Concentration and Temperature ........................................... 384 Solutions in Relation to Concentration Kinematic Viscosity of Aqueous levo.2. 3.Butanediol 7.63 and Temperature ............................................................... 384 Kinematic Viscosity of 60% levo-2.3.Butanediol. Glycerol and Ethylene Glycol Solutions at Low 7.64 Temperatures 384 Solutions at 20°C. Expressed in Kinematic Viscosity of Aqueous levo-2.3.Butanedio l.Ethanol 7.65 Centistokes .................................................................... 384 Kinematic Viscosity of Aqueous levo-2.3.Butanedio l.Methanol Solutions at 20°C. Expressed in 7.66 Centistokes 385 l.Ethylene Glycol Solutions in 20'C Kinematic Viscosity of Aqueous levo.2.3.Butanedio 7.67 385 Expressed incentistokes ......................................................... 7.68 Kinematic Viscosity of Aqueous levo-2.3.Butanedio l.Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol Solutions at 20'C. Expressed in Centistokes 385 Absolute Viscosity of Aqueous Solutions of Ethylene Glycol. levo.2.3.Butanediol. meso-dextro7.69 2.3.Butanediol and Glycerol at 20°C ................................................. 385 Optical Rotatory Power of Aqueous levo.2. 3.Butanediol Solutions at 20°C ...................... 386 7.70 Effects of Concentration and Temperature on the Specific Rotatory Power of Aqueous levo-237.71 Butanediol Solutions 386 386 7.72 Refractive Indices of Aqueous levo.2. 3.Butanediol Solutions at Different Temperatures 386 7.73 Refractive Indices of Aqueous Solutions of meso- and levo.2. 3.Butanediol at 25'C Specific Gravity of Aqueous levo-2. 3.Butanediol Solutions at 20'. 30'. and 40% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 7.74 387 7.75 Specific Gravity of Aqueous meso.2. 3.Butanedol Solutions at 20'. 30'. and 4O'C 7.76 Surface Tension of Aqueous Solutions of levo-2. 3.Butanediol and Ethylene Glycol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 Butanediois . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388 388 Refractive Indices of Aqueous Butanediol Solutions at 20". 30'. and 40°C ....................... 7.77 388 Kinematic Viscosity of Aqueous Butanediol Solutions at 20" and 40°C. in Centistokes 7.78 2.Butene.1, 4.dioi 388 ............................................... 388 7.79 Physical Properties of 2.Butene-1. 4.diol 2.Butyne.1, Cdioi ........................................................................... 389 389 7.80 Physical Properties of 2.Butyne.l. 4.diol IC-Pentanedlol 389 7.81 Physical Properties of 1.5.Pentanediol 389 390 7.82 Absolute Viscosity of Aqueous 1.5.Pentanediol Solutions at 20" and 40°C 390 7.83 Specific Gravity of Aqueous 1.5-Pentanediol Solutions at 20" and 40°C 2,CPen.nediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 ................................................. 390 7.84 Physical Properties of 2.4.Pentanediol NeopentylGlycol ............................................................................ 390 7.85 Physical Properties of Neopentyl Glycol 390 Pentanediols 391 7.86 Kinematic Viscostly of Aqueous Pentanediol Solutions at 20" and 40%. in Centistokes 391 7.87 Refractive Indices of Aqueous Pentanediol Solutions at 20' and 4Q°C .......................... 391 IS-Hexanediol 392 392 7.88 Physical Properties of 1.6.Hexanediol 2,5.Hexanediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 7.89 Physical Properties of 1.5.Hexanediol ................................................. 392 HexyleneGiycol ............................................................................. 392 7.90 Physical Properties and Specifications of Hexylene Glycol 392 393 7.91 Freezing Points of Hexylene Glycol-Water Mixtures 393 7.92 Specific Gravity and Freezing Point of Hexylene Glycol-Water Mixtures Pinacol 394 394 7.93 Physical Properties of Pinacol 22-Diethyl-I f-Propanedloi 394 7.94 Physical Properties of 2.2.Diethyl.l. 3.Propanediol 394 2.Ethyl.1, 3.Hexanedlol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 7.95 Physical Properties of 2.Ethyl.l. 3.Hexanediol 394 2,5.Dimethyl.3.Hexyne.2,5 .diol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 5.diol .................................... 395 7.96 Physical Properties of 2.5.Dimethyl.3.Hexyne-2. 1,4.Cyclohexanedimethanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 7.57 7.58 7.59 7.60 7.61 7.62

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Contents and Subject Index Ethylene Glycol Monoacetate ........................................................ 15.20 15.21 Ethylene Glycol Diacetate Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Acetate .............................................. 15.22 Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether Acetate ............................................... 15.23 15.24 Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether Acetate ............................................... Diethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether Acetate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.25 15.26 Diethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether Acetate .............................................. 15.27 Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Acetate ............................................. 15.28 Propylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether Acetate .............................................. 15.29 Dipropylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Acetate (DPMA) ..................................... 15.30 Propylene-Based Glycol Ether Acetate ................................................. Propionates ................................................................................ 15.31 Methyl Propionate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.32 Ethyl Propionate 15.33 N-Butyl Propionate ............................................................... Amyl Propionate 15.34 15.35 Ethyl 3-Ethoxypropionate Butyrater 15.36 Methyl Butyrate .................................................................. 15.37 Ethyl Butyrate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.38 n-Butyl Butyrate 15.39 Ethyl Hydroxy-lsobutyrate .......................................................... 15.40 Isobutyl lsobutyrate ............................................................... 2.2.4-Trimethylpentanediol-l .3-Monoisobutyrate ......................................... 15.41 ComparativeData 15.42 ARCOSOLV PM Acetate and ARCOSOLV PE Acetate 15.43 Ashland Ester Solvents ............................................................ 15.44 Chemcentral Esters 15.45 CPSChemical Esters 15.46 Eastman Glycol Ether Esters 15.47 Hoechst Celanese Esters ........................................................... 15.48 Mobil OilEsters 15.49 Union Carbide Esaters ............................................................. HiOherFattyAcldEsters 15.50 Emery Methyl Esters 15.51 Procter & Gamble Methyl Esters ...................................................... 15.52 Stepan Esters Adipater 15.53 Mixture of Dimethyl Adipate and Dimethyl Glutarate Mixture of Dimethyl Adipate. Dimethyl Glutarate and Dimethyl Succinate 15.54 15.55 Dialkyl Adipate 15.56 Dioctyl Adipate ................................................................... Oxalates 15.57 DietylOxalate 15.58 Dibutyl Oxalate 15.59 Diamyl Oxalate Lactates 15.60 Methyl Lactate ................................................................... 15.61 Ethyl Lactate .................................................................... 15.62 Butyl Lactate 15.63 Amyl Lactate 15.64 Physical Properties of ctates Carbonates 15.65 Diethyl Carbonate 15.66 JEFFSOLCarbonates ............................................................. PMhalater Alkyl Benzyl Phthalates ............................................................ 15.67 15.68 Butyl Benzyl Phthalate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.69 Dibutyl Phthalate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.70 Di-2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate (Dioctyl Phthalate) ............................................ Phosphates 15.71 1-Butylphenyl Diphenyl Phosphate 15.72 2-Ethylhexyl Diphenyl Phosphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lsodecyl Diphenyl Phosphate 15.73

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.................................................... ........................................................

mix 826 826 827 827 828 829 829 830 830 831 831 832 832 832 832

833 833 834 834 834 834 835 835 835 836 836 838 838 839 839 840 842

843 850 850 851 852 854 854 854 855 856 857 857 857 858 858 858 858 859 860 860 860 860 861 867 867 871 873 874 875 875 876 879

mx

Contents and Subject Index Emulsifiable Triaryl Phosphate ....................................................... 15.74 Proprietary Triaryl Phosphate Ester .................................................... 15.75 Tributoxyethyl Phosphate 15.76 Tributyl PHosphate 15.77 Triphenyl Phosphate .............................................................. 15.78 Phosphites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dialkyl Hydrogen Phosphites 15.79 Trialkyl Phosphites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.80 Tertiary Phosphites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.81 Organophosphfies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.82 Silicates ................................................................................ Ethyl Silicate .................................................................... 15.83 Plasticizers ................................................................................ Summary of Typical Properties of Plasticizers ............................................ 15.84

881 881 882 883 883 885 885 886 887 888 888 888 889 890

HPLCAND WDATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GC-FiDChromatograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.1 Methylane Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HPLC Gradient Chromatograms ................................................................ 16.2 Watervs Methanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3 Water vs Acetonitrile .............................................................. 16.4 Water vs 2-Propanol .............................................................. 16.5 Water vs Tetrahydrofuran . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.6 Water-01 % Trifluoroacetic Acid vs Acetonitrile-0.1 % Trifluoroacetic Acid ....................... 16.7 0.1 M Potassium Phosphate vs Acetonitrile .............................................. 16.8 0.1 M Potassium Phosphate vs Methanol ............................................... 0.05 M Potassium Phosphate vs Acetonitrile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.9 0.05 M Potassium Phosphate vs Methanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.10 16.11 0.01 M Potassium Phosphate vs 0.5 M Potassium Phosphate pH 6.8/6.4 ....................... 16.12 Hexane vsChloroform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.13 Hexanevs Chloroform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.14 Hexane vs Ethyl Acetate ........................................................... 16.15 Hexane vs2-Propanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.16 HexanevsEther (Anhydrous) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.17 2.2. 4-Trimethylpentane vs Chloroform ................................................. 16.18 2.2. 4-Trimethylpentane vs Methylene Chloride ........................................... 16.19 2.2. 4-Trimethylpentane vs Ethyl Acetate ............................................... 16.20 2.2. 4-Trimethylpentane vs 2-Propanol ................................................. 16.21 Methylene Chloride vs Methanol ...................................................... 16.22 Methylene Chloride vs 2-Propanol .................................................... 16.23 Methylene Chloride vs Ethyl Acetate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.24 Methylene Chloride vs Ether (Anhydrous) ............................................... UitravioletSpectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.25 Acetic Acid. Glacial., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.26 Acetone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.27 Acetonitrile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.28 Benzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.29 2-Butanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.30 n-Butyl Acetate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.31 n-Butyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.32 n-Butyl Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.33 tert-Butyl Methyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.34 Carbon Tetrachloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.35 Chlorobenzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.36 Chloroform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.37 Cyclohexane .................................................................... 16.38 Cyclopentane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.39 Decahydronaphthalene (Decalin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.40 o-Dichlorobenzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.41 Diethyl Carbonate ................................................................ 16.42 Dimethyl Acetamide ............................................................... 16.43 Dimethyl Formamide .............................................................. 16.44 Dimethyl Sulfoxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.45 1.4-Dioxane ....................................................................

891 891 891 892 892 893 894 894 895 896 897 897 898 899 900 900 901 901

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...

902 903

903 904 904 905 905 906 906 907 907 907 908 909 910 910 910 911 911 911 912 912 914 914 915 915 916 916 916 917 917

Contents and Subject Index 16.46 16.47 16.48 16.49 16.50 16.51 16.52 16.53 16.54 16.55 16.56 16.57 16.58 16.59 16.60 16.61 16.62 16.63 16.64 16.65 16.66 16.67 16.68 16.69 16.70 16.71 16.72 16.73 16.74 16.75 16.76 16.77 16.78 16.79 16.80 16.81 16.82 16.83 16.84

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Ether. Anhydrous 2-Ethoxyethanol EthylAcetate Ethylene Dichloride ............................................................... Ethyl Ether GLYME ........................................................................ n-Heptane ...................................................................... Hexadecane .................................................................... Hexane Isobutyl Alcohol iso-Octane (2.2.4-Trimethylpentane) .................................................. Isopropyl Alcohol Isopropyl Myristate Methanol 2-Methoxyethanol 2-Methoxyethyl Acetate Methylt-Butyl Ether Methylene Chloride ............................................................... Methyl EthylKetone ............................................................... Methyl Isoamyl Ketone Methyl Isobutyl Ketone Methyl n-Propyl Ketone N-Methylpyrrolidone Pentane ........................................................................ Petroleum Ether .................................................................. beta-Phenethylamine .............................................................. 2-Propanol ..................................................................... n-Propyl Alcohol Propylene Carbonate Pyridine Tetrahydrofuran Toluene ........................................................................ 1.2. 4-Trichlorobenzene Trichloroethylene 1.1. 2-Trichlorotrifluoroethane ........................................................ Triiuoroacetic Acid ................................................................ Trimethylpentane Water ......................................................................... ortho-Xylene

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mi 917 918 918 919 919 920 920 921 921 923 924 924 925 925 926 926 926 927 927 928 928 929 929 929 930 930 931 931 931 932 932 933 934 935 935 936 936 937 937

............................................

938

.................................................................................. TRADENAMEINDEX ............................................................................

960

APPENDM-COMPARATNE DATA FOR VARIOUS SOLVENTS REFERENCES

962

Introduction

A solution may be defined as a mixture of two or more substances which has uniform chemical and physical properties throughout. It may also be defined as a system whose component parts are two or more molecular species, there being no boundary surfaces between these parts larger than molecules. There are two components to every solutionthe solvent and the solute. As a matter of convenience, the part of a solution which i s in excess is designated as the solvent; the solute is the component which is in smaller proportion. Solvents, once used, may be recycled, reused, or discarded in an environmentally safe manner. The purpose of solvents i s to convert substances into a form suitable for a particular use. The importance of the role of solvents is brought out most clearly by the fact that many substances exhibit their greatest usefulness when in solution. Lacquer solvents, for example, are selected to produce homogeneous combinations and so selected as to impart the most desirable mechanical properties. The physical properties of a fabricated solution can be regulated a t will by the proper choice of solvents, thus adapting them to the most varied uses and methods of applications. Some of the more important uses for solvents are in the adhesives, coatings, electronics, ink, pesticide, pharmaceutical, photographic reproduction, and textile industries. Large quantities of solvents are also involved in dry cleaning, metal degreasing, oil refining and recovery, and as fuel additives. Solvents vary in their dissolving power, so that the line of demarcation between solvents, latent solvents and nonsolvents is difficult to define. Some of the factors which influence solvency are atmospheric conditions, purity and molecular association. Molecular aggregation is the explanation for increased, attenuated, or decreased solvent power or, more concisely, eccentric solvency. Any substance that will dissolve another i s called a solvent. Thus, we have a gaseous solution when a liquid or a solid is dissolved in a gas; a liquid solution when any one of these is dissolved in a liquid, and a solid solution when any one of them is dissolved in a solid. Mixing of solvents, diluents and thinners often results in change of solvent properties. Some chlorinated compounds become good solvents for cellulose esters when mixed with an alcohol. On the other hand, some active solvents for esters of cellulose lose some of their solvent power when mixed with hydrocarbons. Alcohols are added to lacquers to improve flow and to prevent blushing, although they vary considerably in these respects. Alcohols are not true or active solvents for nitrocellulose as are the active dissolvents like ethyl lactate or n-butyl acetate. The alcohol group, however, cannot be classed as nonsolvents like toluene or naphtha. When an alcohol is added to a true solvent, the solvent power of the latter is not reduced but, on the contrary, this active solvent activates the alcohol to such an extent that it too becomes a solvent. Therefore, alcohols are referred to as latent solvents, whose hidden solvent qualities are brought out by the addition of an active solvent. The presence of a latent solvent increases the tolerance of an active solvent for a nonsolvent. This group of latent solvents is also called extenders, because they increase the volume of a mixture without decreasing the solvent power. In general, simple esters and ketones activate alcohols so that they too become solvents and are capable of tolerating various proportions of diluents. This is due to the molecular aggregates formed. Two-type solvents containing both an alcohol and an active solvent group, such as an ester, ether or ketone, activate alcohol to a lesser degree. Unit volumes of a solvent will activate only a limited amount of alcohol, indicating that definite molecular aggregates are formed. A mixture of 50% n-butyl acetate and 50% n-butyl alcohol will not lose i t s solvent power until 85 to 95% of the volume is evaporated, contributing further evidence of the validity of the theory of molecular aggregates. Plasticizers, which are the high-boiling solvents, also activate alcohols. Liquids vary in their rate of evaporation. Naturally, in a mixture of liquids, some evaporate more rapidly than others. For example, if the solvent constituent of a lacquer evaporates more rapidly than the diluent, the limit of tolerance of the residual mixture is exceeded and gelling or precipitation occurs. As evaporation goes on, gigantic molecular reactions take place. Vast numbers of molecules change places as the new aggregates are formed. Some are 1

2

Industrial Solvents Handbook

replaced and some are repelled, causing immiscibility, precipitation, blushing, or one or more of the many lacquer faults. It follows that dilution ratios do not indicate tolerance during the change of solvent-nonsolvent balance which occurs during drying. In the theory of molecular aggregation, higher concentrations of cellulose derivatives contain fewer secondaryvalence bonds. Consequently, smaller amounts of diluent can be tolerated. This condition occurs during film drying. Hydroxyl-containing solvents show greater tolerance for toluene than do the simpler esters. In the case of naphtha the condition is reversed. There are, however, exceptions to this statement, among which are butyl lactate and Butyl CELLOSOLVE, which have very high naphtha tolerance. Simple esters will tolerate 50 to 100% more naphtha than will such materials as ethyl lactate, ethyl ether, ethylene glycol, diacetone alcohol, and so forth. Ethers of glycols generally have higher dilution ratios than do the butyl esters with respect to benzene, toluene, and xylene. Solutions of nitrocellulose tolerate larger quantities of nonsolvents than solutions of cellulose acetate. The "solventpower number'' i s influenced by both the nature of the diluent and the mixing of two or more solvents. Frequently, when two or more nonsolvents are mixed, they may exhibit the qualities of a good solvent. This i s especially true when one of the ingredients is an alcohol. The ether-alcohol solvent mixture for collodion is a familiar example. Another example of acquired solubility is the mixing of butyl acetate with amyl or ethyl alcohol for the less highly polymerized forms of glyceryl phthalate resins. Some of the chlorinated hydrocarbons will dissolve nitrocellulose when mixed with an alcohol. A mixture of benzene and alcohol will dissolve nitrocellulose containing up to 11% nitrogen. A toluene-ethyl alcohol solution of alkyd resin will dissolve nitrocellulose. In many cases the solvent property of esters for resins and nitrocellulose is increased by the addition of an alcohol. On the other hand, when active solvents for cellulose esters are mixed with aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons, the solvent power of these active solvents is decreased. These facts bring to light reasons why many of the old-type solvents have been valued for their impurities. For example, methyl acetone, made from the distillation of wood, had particularly valuable solvent properties. Actually, it i s a mixed solvent which consists of methanol, acetone, esters and higher ketones. This mixture has certain desirable properties not obtained by any of i t s component ingredients when used separately. For this reason the "synthetic methyl acetone" is made to simulate it. For this same reason commercial grades of butyl and amyl acetate contain 85% ester and the remaining portion i s the corresponding alcohol. Amyl acetate, containing i t s characteristic impurities when manufactured from fusel oil, is also valued for i t s solvent properties. The synthetic product is different because it lacks these impurities. It is made from the pentane fraction of gasoline by chlorination; the chloropentane is hydrolyzed to form amyl alcohol, and is finally esterified to the acetate. Because of today's concern with environmental pollution, chemical composition limitations of solvent formulations have been adopted by many state and local governmental agencies in the more highly industrialized areas of the country. These rules and regulations seriously affect the use of many solvents, and solvent blends must be reformulated to conform to the maximum allowable concentrations of the restricted solvents. It is necessary for the solvent user t o acquaint himself with the governmental regulations of solvent use in his particular locale.

Hydrocarbon Solvents

PARAFFINS Table 2.2: Ethane (4)

Table 2.1: Methane (4)

I I

FORMULA

PROPERTIES

FORMULA

CHI

RYM iH :;

~~~

I

PURE GRADE

PROPERTIES

I

Composition. mol per cent

I

I RE6Si:EH I

Composition. mol per cent Nitrogen Carbon Dioxide Methane Ethylene Ethane Propylene Propane

. . .

trace 99.97 0.01

0.02

Fmezim point. triple point. F Boiling point, F Specific gravity of liauid a t 60160 F n2W4 C Oensitv of liquid at 60 F. lblgal Vapor pressure et 70 F, p6a Specific gravity of mal gas at 60 F and 14.7 psia (Air = 1) Specific volume of real ga at 60 F and 14.7 psia, cu Wlb Density of real ga at 60 F and 14.7 psia, Ibdw f t Lquid volume, cu Wlb at -260 F and 13.8 p h Critical ternorretun. F Critical p m m . psia Flph point, mproximate. F Flammabilitylimits. volume K in air Lomr I Higher Heatinnvalue for mal nu at 60 F and 1 .30 in Ha. muratadblu'$ BTUl cu ft Heatingvalue for i d u l gm at GO F and 14.7 ph h. . BTUlcu ft, nm 0 hais bnir -. Saturated bldr I

I

60 F and 14.7 psia, BTUlcu h. Dry bldr Saturated bask

I 1 I

low

I I I

.

985

*Litemure valua

*Litemturn valua

3

cu3-cn3

1.0469'

13.0.

..__

17lW 1769.

I I

I

PURE GRADE

trace

0.05 99.35. 0.25 0.35

4

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.3: Propane (4)

I

FORMULA

I

PROPERTIES

RESEARCH GRADE

Compoution. mlpht p81 unt Ethane Propylene . 99.98 - .PrOP8M Imbume - -- __ 0.02- . - Norm81 Butan8 ___._. Butene2 Neopentane ___ Impentene ._____ ___ Normal Pentane

__

___

__

~

___

Purity by freezing point, mol pucent Freezing point, F Boiling point, F Specific gravity of liquid at 60/W F 10/1

-305.84' (triple poi" -43.73' 0.5077. 0.5005.

c

0.508 0.501 147.0

~

3 71 < O.OW5 60 F and 14.7 p i a (Air = 1) Specific volume of real gas at

0.510 145.9

271 C0.0005

1.5503. 8.4515' -156' _____~.

2.1' 9.5.

L "W

Higher Heatingvalue for ideal gm a t 60 F and 14.7 pi8, dry basis BTUlcu ft

t

2517'

*Literature

Table 2.4: lrobutane (4) FORMULA PROPERTIES Composition, might per u n t Ethana Propylene Proprru Imbutmu Normal B u t m Butm*Z Neopmtane Impentena NonalPentw Purity by f r w i n g point, mol print Fnuing point, F Boiling point, F Specific grrvity of liquid I W80 F

MN c

-

99.96 -255.28. a n an.

I

-

I I

0.583 0.557 119.1 4.68 45.8 72.2 111.5

0.5831. 0.5572.

__ __

. ., Sulfur content, mwt p a cent Specific p i t y of me1 c a t 80 F nd 14.7 p l (Air 1) Spncifc w l u n n of nlp a t 80 F and 14.7 p l , cu ft Ab F*lh point, tppmximat8, F Flammlility limits, wluma% in air Lam HiW Hnting value for idnl gnat 80 F and 14.7 &.dry be61 BTU/cu ft

99.5

iu.aa

0.563 0.557 119.8 4.68 45.4 72.2 111.5

< 0.m

0.m

208M15. 6.3355.

3253.

I I

I

-117

I

I -117 I

I

Hydrocarbon Solvents

5

Table 2.5: n-Butane (4)

I

FORMULA

I

PROPERTIES Composition. weight per a n t Ethane Propylene PlOp8W lrobutine Normal Butam

cna-Cnl-Cnl-cna

RESEARCH GRAOE

I

PURE GRADE

I

T E ~ ~ ~ ~ A L

~

__ __

I

0.05 99.95

I

NOOpmttn8 Iropsntane Normal Penurn

I

I

I

1

I

0.3 99.4

I

I I

I

0.1

1.0

I

97.6

I

0.2

I

0.3 0.2

I

0.2

__ U.6 ..

95.0 min

Table 2.6: 2,2-Dlmethylpropane (4) Neopentane

FORMULA

I

9

cn,+-cn, cn.

I

PROPERTIES

RESEARCH GRADE

PURE GRADE

TECHNICAL GRADE

(continued)

6

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.6: (continued)

I

PROPERTIES

100 F,pua 130 F, psia - Rdrwtwe index. 2010 Co!or, Saybolt (unless indicatedl Acidity, distillation reudue Nonvcjatile matter, gramdl00 ml Sulfur - content,we4&t per cent ._ C g. e r coy~:on_ _ - Doctor tm. _ _ - . . -Kinematic viscouty, cs at 32 F Specific gravity of real gas at 60 F and 14.7 pria (Air = 1) Specific volume of real gas at 60 F and 14.7 pua, cu Wlb [email protected] point, approximate, F Flammcbility limits. volume% in air .

.

-.

35.9 ___ -57.4

.

. ._ . .

+30

.

+30 - - neutral

.

..

- 36.7 57.1 - __ . -

-_

..

!.Was

-:

_ _ ImJral- _-

-1.-

2.622. 4.997'

. .

-85

1.4.

Low

._ .

8.3.

Higher

_

-

~

.

-85 - .-

-

Table 2.7: lsopentane (4) FORMULA RESEARCH GRADE

PROPERTIES

runE GRADE

TECHNICAL GRADE

0.1

0.2

0.1 99.4 0.4

0.1 97.1

Composition, %@t=mnt

Normal Butam ___________ cc8uto~2 2,2.-Oim*hylpropme Impentam Normal Pentane PmtenbZ Cyclopentane

60 F 8nd 14.7 psia. cu Wlb

*Literature d u n

___..

99.99 0.01

'

.-

-

+N

~. . .. 0.00115- - . - .- 0.005 - -~- . 0005 . - 1 - - - .. 1. _. - !!FE -_ - V!p" - 0.532. - - - - ._-.

__

~-

_

_..- .. . . - .

_- . -

-

.

.

-

I TEiiWil

PURE GRADE

__

-

. .

I

RESEARCH GRADE

...

-

2.8

Hydrocarbon Solvents Table 2.8: n-Pentane (4)

CH,-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH~

FORMULA RESEARCH GRADE

PROPERTIES

PURE GRADE

TECHNICAL GRADE

Comeositjon, weight per cent Norma!_Butane

->-L -.

___

~

_

.- - Z&D~mathylptopane

[email protected]_ - _ N o n r l h n u n e .. . Pentene-2 -Cydopentane

_

~

0.01

-

0.5 988

0.2 99.4 0.1 0.3

99s

.

_-I____

-

99.98 Puritv by freezig pint,mCpar EInt -201.50' Frnzim PO^ F96.93' Boili oint F - __ - - ____-0istiE:on r;mF____ Initial boilingp&nt-. __ 10KCondlnrsd - . .- .____ 5oK Condenrad- - . 90KCondenred _ ._-- - o m - __ 0.6312. Specific Vity of liquid at 60l60 F . 0.62624. , _______ -e1a!!Lc--

0.5

99.2

-

__ -_

[email protected]

__

_--

-

-

1RF,e~'1-

- .

130 F,p!

..Afmreindex.

2WO

-_ __

__-----

s-.-

9 7 -97-

___-

_____

-92.._--.

-E?!--

.

Color. Saybolt_Lunlessindicated) - _ Acldlty.distclation reudue Nonvolatile matter. pramt/lO&ml Sulfur con!en_t,ei&t per c g ! Copper c o ~ o ~ o n _ _ Doctor tM--- Kinematic viscosity, cs at 32 F Specific gravity of real gas at Fand 14.7 pria (Air = 1) - - - -60.Specific volume of real w at 60fInd 14 7 ptra, cu Wlb Flahpoint. approximate. F Flamm+ulitv limits, volume K in air -L-r Higher

_

-

-~ ~ . _ _ ,

8.56. ___ 15.57. 26.4. 13.5748-. . _ ___-

at 70 F ~ E._

~-

-

_--

[email protected] !- - Density pt_lipuiclat60% l b b l - .

-

0.2-

____

8.6 15.6 26.3 -

--

o s 1 0 633 0.626 _______._ 92.0 _ _ _92.7 _ _ _ . __-5.27 . 5.25

____ +30 neutral O.WO5 0.005 1 mgatm

___

____

+30

-

neutral 0.0005 0.005 1 m m

0.431.

26400. 4.9629.

-50

-57 1.4. 8.3' i

*Literature values.

Table 2.9: 2,2-Dimethyibutane (4) Neo hexa ne FORMULA

I

7%

CHa-y-CH2-CH3 CH-

I

PROPERTIES Composition, weight per u n l Impenunc Cyclopmutm 2.2-Oimrthylbutam 2,lOimoththylbutam 2Mnhylpmatm Mathylpmtm Purity by fmzirq point, mol per Unl Frwzingpoint, F Boiliq point, F Distillation r a w , F Initial boiling point Ow point

REXARCH CRAnF

I

PURE GRADE

0.2

9938 0.01 0.01

99.97 -147.77' 121.53'

99.5 0.2

ai

I

TECHNICAL GRADE

0.1 s6.4 95.0 min. 2.2 0.3

99.4 99.0min.

120.5 122.Z

-

7

8

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.9: (continued)

RESEARCH GRADE

PROPERTIES

PURE GRADE

*Litwmun dum

Table 2.10: 2,3-Dimethyibutane (4) Di isopropyl

FORMULA

I

?'a'?"'

cna-Cn-cn-cna

I

T E ~ ~ ~ ~ A L

Hydrocarbon Solvents

9

Table 2.11: 2-Methylpentane (4)

FH3 CH,-CH-CH2-CH2-CH,

FORMULA

PROPERTIES

PURE GRADE

RESEARCH GRADE

TECHNICAL GRADE

'Literature v d u n

Table 2.12: 3-Methylpentane (4)

FORMULA

?ROPERTIES

1

I

:"a CH,-CHa-CH-CH2-CH,

RESEARCH GRADE

I

WRE GRADE

I

T E ~ ~ ~ C ~ L

(continued)

IO

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.12: (continued)

I

PROPERTIES

0.6690.

Specific W i . t y of liquid at 6W60F .- - ._ [email protected]

API gravity at 60 F Cenr;iy ofTqGdat6o_F.b&$ _._ Vapor p m r e at 70 F, psi8 100 F. pua . i3a F. psia R d r a c ~ w j d e x2 ,W O Color, Saybolt Acid&, distdlaEthylpentme ~__ _ _ - Normel Heptane Dimethylcyclopentene 0.5 Methylcyclohaxsne - _ _ ____~ n L l imethylhexane 1:2E?Ah-.. . . 2.5-Dimethylhexane Other Dimethylhexanes 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane ______-.. 2.2.3-Trimethylpentane __ 2.3.4-Trimethylpentam 2.3.3.Trimthylpenta~

__

-_.o.s

~

~~

-1m

+x---

~ l o Saybolt ~.

.-

...... ...__.

,,.."..,.I I.." "I_ ~

Nonvolatile~ matter. _ gramJlW ~ ulfur . ~ -. . .content - ....weight . . percent .. Coppw corrosion - ~ o ~ oiart -r

~

~

.

_

t

-

. . . . .

-

.

~.IJW5

0.m5

.

.. . . .

__.- . -1

...

~

negative ~. 25 Estimated

~

~~

~-

.

~

Flammabiltv limits. volume % in air I

"-,

I

I

Higher

Table 2.17: n-Heptane (4)

-

~ ~ ~ t , a p p r o - x ~ m . a ~ a.-~~-.. F . -

- .- --

..""..I.

1

Table 2.18: 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane (4) isooctane

FORMULA

I

CHl--ICHIIB-CHa

FORMULA

RESEARCH GRADE

PROPERTIES

PURE GRADE

I

PROPERTIES

CH3

CH3

1

RESEARCH GRADE ~~

Comporition,rnipht perwnt2.3-0inuthylpinta~ 2-Mathylhuana Wnhylhrxana 5Ethylpintne Normal [email protected] D imethykyclopantaw Mathylcyclohaxma

tRCl

99.8

99.99 0.01

0.2 trace

1.2-Dimrthylhlxlm 2,CDitwthylhixam 2.!LOimnhylhuam Dthw Dimnhylhexanm 2 2 1Trim.thvlamuna

Puritv. bv. fnuim_Doim . mol %

99.92

Fmzing point, F Boiling point, F I Distillation ranan. - .F Initial boiling point I .,n PY"'. I Sprific gravity of liquid at 6O/W F 2Ol4 C API orwitv et 60 F

1

Composition.weight perwnt 2.3-Oimithylpantana~ 2-Methylhuane 3-Methylhaxana >Ethylpantma Normal Heptane 0 imathylcyclopantane Methylcyclohixane 2.2.Dimthylhexane 2.44 imathylhexana 2.5-0 imethylhexane Othir Dimethylhexanes 2.2,CTritwthylpantana 2.2.3.Trirnrthylpmtana 2.3.4-Trimthvloantane

99.7 99.0 rnin

."..." 209.17.

"0,

~

Atidiw, dinillation midue Nonvoletik m m r . pmnJlW ml Sulfur conmnt, wi&t pmant C o p p corrosion ~ Doaorta F l r h point, approxinuta. F Flmmabilty limits, v o l u K % in air 1-

nah.r *LiMatun valum.

0.6118 0.684

0.6882' 0.6837k

11.1

neutral

O.ooo5 0.005 1 1lgitiW

25 I

I

, I

..-

1 fl* 7n*

*Litantun valua

CH1

CH3-d-CH2-dH-CHa

PURE GRADE -...._ -

I

__-

-_ -~ .... -

trace

0.01

____

-.

0.2

~__________ 99.99

99.8

Hydrocarbon Solvents Table 2.19: 2,3,4-Trimethylpentane (4)

Table 2.20: Mixed Trimethylpentanes (4)

FORMULA RESEARCH GRAOE

PROPERTIES

PURE GRADE

TECHNICAL GRADE

Purity by f r u i t y point, mol W F r n z i q point, F Boiling point. F Distillation range. F Initial boiling point Dry point Specific p i t y of liquid m W60 f

_-.M I A I:

API gravity at 60 F Density of liquid at 60 F, Ibdgd Vapor p r a w n m 70 F, prie io0 F. PI^ 130 F. osia Rlfnctiw index. ZWO Color Savbolt

.-

Table 2.21: Mixed Dimethylhexanes (4)

FORMULA

PROPERTIES

I I

PROPERTIES C8niI

Dklillation r a m . F GRADE

13

TECHNICAL GRADE

14

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.22: n-Oxtane (4)

FORMULA

‘Literature values.

Table 2.23: 2,2,5-Trimethylhexane (4)

*Literatun values.

CH,-lCH2Is-CII,

Hydrocarbon Solvents Table 2.24: n-Nonane (4)

FORMULA

PROPERTIES

-

Composition.weight per cant

'Litersum values.

Table 2.25: n-Decane (4)

1 I

CH3-ICH21,-CH3

GRADE

I

PURE GRADE

I

T

E

~

~

~

~

L

15

16

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.26: n-Undecane (4)

I

FORMULA

PURE GRADE

RESEARCH GRADE

PROPERTIES Composition, wekht per cent Normal Nonane Normal Decane Normal Undecane Normal DOdKane _ _ _Normal Tridecane Isoparaffins

cnp-ICH219-CHa

-

___

TECHNICAL GRADE

-~ .. ._______.

_____

___.____I____

_ 99.8_

99.6

99.1

~

.... ~

0.2

Purity by freezing point, mol K Freezing point, F Boiling point. F Distillation range, F Initial boiling point Dry Point Specific gravity of liquid at 6W60 F--..atW4 C API gravity at 60F Density of l i q u i d 6 0 F, Ibdgal Vapor prarwre at 100 F, p s i Refractive index, 2WD Color, Saybolt ____ Acidity. distillation residde Nonvolatile matter. gramdl00 ml Flash point. approximate. F

0.4

99.64 -14.07' 384.60'

0.9

99-!.99.0&~!_

_____

______._ 96.7 95.0 min

. . . . . . . . . .

__

____

..

.

__

384

-~

........... 385 .

.

0.7443. 0.74024.

0.744

.......... 0.7U

0.740 ... _58.7 ____ 6.19

.......

___

~

1.41725. +30

.................

.--0.739

A

-

.

~

1.417 +30 neutral _-__

0.0005 149

7 6.19

neutral

Table 2.27: n-Dodecane (4)

PROPERTIES

CHa-ICH21 ,O-CHa

* L i m e n valuu

I

RESEARCH GRADE

I

PURE GRADE

........

_____.

0.0005 148

.-

'Literature values

FORMULA

_

1.419 +30

I

Nf;T:E:

_

17

Hydrocarbon Solvents Table 2.28: n-Trldecane (4)

I

FORMULA

CH3-ICH*1, ,-CH3

I RESiSiEH I

PROPERTIES

I

E ; : : :

__

ComPo% [email protected]!Lwe*r!m-. Normal Tridecane Normal TetradKlne Normal Pentadscane ~.______ Normal Hexadecane Normal Heptadecane lroparaffins

_.

.

~

99.9

99.8

~~. .- _-

~

TECHNICAL GRADE

-

____

~

______

__ ~~.

-

0.1

-

.-

99.2

0.2

~~~

0.8

Purity by freez%point. mol K . ~. -. 99.80 - .... 99.49 99.0 min . 96.81 95Omin-_ Freezing point, F 22.29' Boiling point,______._ F 455.78. Distillation range, F ___.. __ ~___ - Initial b o i ' i n e p o i n t - - ~.~~~__ ~ _ _ 10% _ _ Condensed _____~~___ 50% Condensed ~_ - 90% Condensed Orypoint 458 ~ . _ ~ ~~. ._ -. ____ Spwificqravity -~ of liquid at 60/60 F 0.7601'. . ~ ~0.760 .~ ~.. . 0.762 . at 2014 C 0.75622' 0.756 0.758 API gravity at 80 F . -~ 54.7 54.2 A P L ! W t Y a t G O F ~ _ _ ~ . _______ ___~ Densit of li uid a t 60 F, Ibdgal 633L 6.34_.---1.42560' -__ 1.426 1.427 . -Rafr2ive A x . 2 0 1 ~ 1 _ Color, _ _ Gardner _ _ ~ Acidity, distillation residue neutral neutral Sulfur content, weight percent 0.005 0.W5 Bromine number Kinematic viscositv. cs at 77 F Flash point. approximate, F ~

~

~

~~

~~~

~

~

452

~

~

~~

~~

_____.I

_ c _

~__-

~

~

~~

~

-1 :__-~

'Literature values

Table 2.29: n-Tetradecane (4)

I

FORMULA

Table 2.30: n-Pentadscane (4)

__.__-

___

1 I:S

Sulfur content, wight percent Bromine number Kinamatic viscosity. u a t 77 F Flesh point, approximate, F 'Literature values

99

__

Purity: freezing point, mol X Freezi point, F Boiling point, F Distillation range. F Initial boiling point 10% Condensed -. - 50% Condensed 90% Condensed 0 oint O f Iiqux6SpKz:gr3Vtty at 2014 C API grwity at 80 F API gravity at 60 F Oensity of liquid at 60 F, lbdgal Refrwtive index, 2WD Color, Gardner

Composition, might percent. ~-

I

I

0.4

--

-

1

S%%&

488.33.

--__ --___-

~______~_

~

492 0.769 0.765

.

r 0.7667.y r_____0.76276'__

____-

52.5 -

6.40 1.430

1.42892.

11 I

I I

I

I

250"

I

250"

Normal Tridecana Normal Totradecane Normal Pentadecane~--~ Normal Hexadecane Normal Heptadecane lsoparaffins

Purity by frluing point. mol K Fraezinp point. F Boiling point, F Distillation range. F Initial boiling point 10% Condensed 50% Condenrad 90% Condenad Dry point Specific gravity of liquid at 60/60 F at 2014 C API gcavity at 80 F API Qrwityat 60 F Density of liquid at 60 F, Ibdpll Refnctiw index, 2WD Color, Gardner _ _Acidity. _ _ ~ distillation residui Sulfur content. wight percant Bromine number Kinematic viscosity. u at 77 F Flash point, approximate. F *Litarature values

GRADE

- ..~ -

_99.7

0.3

__

95.0 min

.______

__

CH3-ICH21,3-CH3

I

PROPERTIES

PROPERTIES

Normal Tetradecane Normal-Pentadscane Normal Hexadecane Normal Heptadecane lsoparaffint

I

FORMULA

cu3-icn1i,1-cu,

96.80 95.0 min 48.14

___

__ -

502 512 514 516 0.7721. 0.76830. 51.77' 6.43' 1.4332 s Flash point, approximate. F

50.8

_

____

48.91 6.53 _____

-_

_

____

C

L

-

0 43

300

'Literature values

Table 2.34: n-Nonadecane (4)

Table 2.33: n-Octadecane (4)

FORMULA

PROPERTIES

I I

CH1-ICH1l

,.-CHa

FORMULA

TECHNICAL GRAOE

PROPERTIES

Normal Hexadscane

Normal Octadecane Normal Nonadecane Normal Eicorne lsoparaffins

Normal OcUdecane Normal Nonadecane Normal Eicorne lsoparaffinr

tAPl gravity at 60 F iscormcted from 1WF.

CH1-ICH21,,-CH3

I

Normal Hexadscane

Purity by freezing point, mol % Freezingpoint, F Oistillation range, F Initial boiling point 10%Condensed 50%Condensed 90% Condensed 95%Condensed API gravity at 100 F API grlvity at 60 F Density of liquid at 60 F, Ibdgal Color, Grdner Bromine number Flash point, approximate, F

I I

95.95 95.0 min 81.82 5 mm Hg

302 310 312 312 313 51.8 48.0t 6.56 1

0.48 330

I

Purity by froezing point. mol % Frwzinp point, F Oistillation range, F ___ Initial boilinp point 10%Condensed 50%Condensed 90% Condensed 95%Condenmd API gravity at 100 F API gravity at 60 F Density of liquid a t 60 F. Ibdgal Color, Gradner Bromine number Flash ooint. aooroximte. F tAPl gravity at 60 F is cormctd from 1 W .

TECHNICAL GRAOE

95.37 95.0 min 87.98 5 mm Hp

320 333 336 336 336 51.0 47.3t 6.59 ¶

0.53 335

-

-

___

Hydrocarbon Solvents Table 2.35: n-Eicosane (4) I

PROPERTIES

FORMULA

I

GRADE #ox

Oinillation __- _range, - _ F.- _ - - - -5 mm_HP - - Initial boiling point 340 10% Condensed -__-_--352- - - - - 50% Condensed 354 __-___ ___ 9C% Condensed __ 355 _ _95% _ Condensed _ _ ~ _ 356-___ API pravlty at 100 F -. 49 1 API gravity at 60 F @1f---Density of liquid at- 60 3 ____--F,-Ibdgal - --y -~ Color, Gradner - -. 1 Bromine number __ 0 74 __~_ Flash point, approximate, f . - 360 ~

PROPERTIES Compst&o!. weight percent Normal H e x ~ d e p ~ e . Normal Heptadecane Normal Octadecane __ Normal Nonadwane Normal Eicosenc lvrparaffins

~

__

tAPl gravity at 60 F is corrected from 1WF.

CYCLOPARAFFINS

Table 2.36: Cyclopentane (4)

FORMULA

I

PROPERTIES

Normal Psnunn

Initial baililw mint

'Litontun v d u a '*Major impwitinsarn 2,ZTJimathylbuune and 2,3-0in*thylbutar.

CHz-CH

I CHz-C)4

'2

CH2

19

20

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.37: Methylcyclopentane (4)

Table 2.38: Cyclohexane (4)

PROPERTIES

_

I

Composition. percant _ _ wight ______ ~ Normal Hexane Msthylcyclopentlnr 2,CDimethylpentam Cyclohexane lrohsptana 3 t - 0 imethylpentm Benzene & Toluene, ppm 1.1 -Dimrthylcyclopmtane 1.2 & 1.3~Dimethylcyclopsn~~~

Purity by f m i q point, mol 96 F m i q point, F

RESEARCH GRADE

I

w.5x

08.0% GRADE

GRADE

0.5 0.1 98.8 98.0 min 0.4 0.2 200 5Wmax

0.1 99.8 99.5 min 0.1

0.01 99.98 0.01

193 5Wmar

I

99.98 43.80.

I

I

98.8

(continued)

Hydrocarbon Solvents Table 2.38: (continued)

*Literature values

Table 2.39: 1 , l -Dimethylcyclopentane (4)

CH1-CH

I

FORMULA

Cli-CH,'

PROPERTIES Composition, weight percent Normal HexaE Methylcyclopentane

I

Specific gravity of liquid at 60160 F . .

90% GRADE

_

_

_

_

p

~

~

____p_

2.4-Dimethylpentane . Cyclohexane ~__ _______ . leheptanes --____3.3.0imethylpentane Benzene & Toluene. ppm . 92' 1.1-Dimethylcyclopentane 1.2 & 1.3-Dimethvlcvclo~entane

.____

~

~

~

~

_

p p

- ..____~___

~ Color, Saybolt Acidity. distillation _____ residue -. Nonvolatile matter. gramdl00 ml ~SulfureweiphtpeGeni-Aniline point, F _ Kauri Butanol value Copper corrosion _____. Ooctor test -- Kinematic viscosity. cs at 32 F Flash point. approximate. F p

0.754 0.749

at __ 2014 C

_

API gravity at 60 F Density 01 liquid at 60 F. Ibdgal pretufre psia ~ ~Vapor _ _ _ at_ 70 _F, _ 100 F. psis 130 F. psia Refractive index, ZWO

_.

00% GRADE

PROPERTIES 'C-tCH,Il

_____ __ _.___ --__.___

117 42.9

_

< 70

- ~ . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

Distillation range, F

~___~_______ 'Major impurities are: Cyclohexane. 3.3-Dimethylpentane and 2.Methvlhexane.

10% Condensed 50% Condensed

9mb Condensed

-.-190p---p 190 190

-

21

22

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.40: 1,2- and 1,3-Dirnethylcyciopentane (4)

I

FORMULA

I

PROPERTIES Composition, w g h t percent Normal Hexane Methylcyclopentane 2.4-Oimethylpentane Cyclohexane - ~. Isaheptanes ______-3.3-Oimefhylpentane Benzene & Toluene. pprn 1.1 Oimethylcyclopentane 1.2 & 1.3 Oirnethylcyclopentane

- ~ _ - _ _ _

Purity by freezing point. mol % Freezing point, F Boiling point, F _ _ Oistillation range, F Initial boiling point ___ 10% Condensed __ 50% Condensed 90% Condensed ___ Dry point

ERAOC -...._ -

,CH-CH,

-

I

90%

PROPERTIES

CH+CH, I H CH,-cH,

-

Specific gravity of liquid at 60160 F at 20/4 C API grrvity at 60 F Density of liquid at 60 F, Ibdgal Vapor prstwre at 70 F, psia 100 F, psia 130 F. psia Refractive index, 2010 Color, Saybolt Acidity. distillation residue Nonvolatile matter, gramdl00 ml Sulfur content, w i g h t percent Aniline point, F Kauri Butanol value Copper corrosion Doctor tnt Kinematic viscosity. cs at 32 F Flash point. approximate, F

90% GRADE

__ _-___ _ ___ - - ~

92t

---

__ ~

_ _ _ .. ~ ~ -~ __ ..___-----

197 197 197 197

____..~-

40.5

I

I

___

PROPERTIES

RESEARCH GRADE

PURE GRADE

TECHNICAL GRADE

Composition, weight percent 1.2.Dimethylcyclopentane

Normal Heptane Methylcyclohexane Ethylcyclopentane Toluene

~

Purity by freezing point. mol %

99.86 -195.87' 213.68'

99.3 99.0 min -196.20

0.7740' API gravity at 60 F Density of liquid a t 60 F, Ibdgal Vapor pressure at 70 F. psia 1 W F, psia Refractive index, 20/0 Color. Saybolt Acidity. distillation residue Nonvolatile matter, gramdl00 ml Sulfur content, weight percent Copper corrosion Doctor test Flash point, approximate. F

0.774 0.769 6.44

1.61. 1.42312* +30

1.6 ______

1.6 1.423 +30 neutral 0.0005 0.005 1 _______________________ negative

._

I 'Literature values.

0.774 0.769

1.423

-

I

22

+30 neutral O.OOU5 0.005 1 negative

I

-

120_ _ _ _ _ - ~ ~ _ _ .

tMijor impurity is 3-Methylhexane.

.

-

_-

Table 2.41: Methylcyclohexane (4)

FORMULA

--~

--___

-__-

-

-

______ 196

.~

0.748 0.744

~.

22

< 70

.-

23

Hydrocarbon Solvents Table 2.42: trans-l,4-Dlmethylcyclohexane

(4)

Table 2.43: cis-l,4-Dimethylcyclohexane (4)

FORMUL A I

I

PROPERTIES

-

Composition. weight percent

1.2 Oimethvlcvclopentane Normal Heptane

__

-

TECHNICAL GRADE

_-__

.. -

TECHNICAL GRAOE

PROPERTIES

-

_

--

_

_ _ _ Ethylcyclopentane

Toluene tram 1.4.Dimethylcyclohrxane cit-1 .4-Oimethylcvclohexane Other Dimethylcyclohexanes trans -1.2.Oimnhylcyclohexans imethylcyclohexane ciS-l.2-0 ortho-Xylene Unidentified Impurities

___ Toluene

__-

Other Dimethylcyclohexanes

___ _~

ci~-l,2-Dimethylcyclohexane orthoXylene Unidnntified lmourities

0.11 ~

99.89 ___-

Purity by freezing point. mol % ___Freezingpoint, F Boilhepoint. F -~ _ Distillation range, F Initial boiling point .~ -- _ _ _5WCondensed Dry point ~gravity of liquid at 6W60 F - _Specific - ._____at 2om-i-

97.4 95.0 min -125.38.

_

255 78.

-

--

-

255 256 0.7872 0.7025 48.2 6.56

~

-

0.7 1.4297 +30 netural

-

0.0005

____

Sulfur-conten!, wegh! percent Copper cotrotion . ooctor test Flash point. approximate. F

..

negative----40 (0 56)

M1

Table 2.44: Mixed 1,4-Dimethylcyclohexanes (4)

I

PROPERTIES

I

FORMULA

C816

I

PROPERTIES Composition. might percent _ 1.2.Dimethylcyclopencne

I

TECHNICAL GRAOE

_

Methylcyclohexane Ethylcyclopentnni TO~UWI trans-1,CD imethylcyclohaxme cis-1.CDimethylcyclohexane 0 t h Dimethylcyclohexanes tnnr-l.2-0imlthylcyelohexne cis-1,Z-Oimlthylcyclohex8ne onh*XyleM Unidentifrd lmpuritia

Freezing point, F Boiling point, F Distillation rage, F Initial _ boiling_ point _ _ ~ _ _.___ . 50% Condensed _ _ Dry _ _point~ _ _ _ Specific gravity of liquid at Mv60 F

API gravity at 60 F Densty of liquid et 60 F, lbrlpll Vapor __ _presure _ nt 70 F. pun

~

44'0 54.9 1.1

1 95.0 min __

I

Sulfur content, m g h t prcent

250 252

-

~ Refractm _ _index. _2WD _ _ -_--_ -Color. Snybolt - _Acidity, _ dinillation rea+!

Nonvolatile matts, gamu'lW ml ____ -

TECHalCAL GRADE

I

14257 neutral

0.0005

24

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.45: trans-l,2-Dimethylcyclohexane

(4)

FORMULA

RESEARCH GRADE

PROPERTIES

I

PURE GRADE

I

TECHNICAL GRADE

Compowtion, weight percent 1.2.Dimethylcyclopenta~ Normal Hoptin8 . Methylcyclohexane _ _ - - . . Ethylcyclopmtanr - _ TolueM t r m t 1,4-Dimrthylcyclohexane cis1.CDimethylcyclohexane __ Other Dimethylcyclohexanes trans. 1,2.0imMhylcyclohexane ci~l.2-Dimethylcyclohexane ortho-Xylene Unidentified Impurities ~

-

~

99.73 -126.75' 254.15'

99.3 99.0 min -.__

I

t

I

1

Doctor t n l Flash point. approximate, F

I _ -

'LitrrMurr v a l u n

Table 2.46: cls-l,2-Dimethylcyclohexane (4)

FORMULA

'yI

cn,-cH I cn3-cn,

cnI CH./

PROPERTIES

I

PURE GRADE

(continued)

Hydrocarbon Solvents

25

Table 2.46: (continued)

Dry point Specific gravity of liquid a t 60/60 F at 2014 C API gravity at 60 F Density of liquid at 60 F. Ibu'gal Vapor a t 70 ~ F, psia _ pressure _ _ 100 F, pria Refractiveindex, 201D Color, Saybolt Acidity, distillation residue Nonvolatile matter, gramu'lW ml Sulfur content, weight percent Copper corrosion Doctor test Flash point, approximate. F

_

I

RESEARCH GRAOE

PROPERTIES

PURE GRADE ~

0.801

0.8W'

0.796

0.79627'

-

45.2 6.67

~-

0.2

0.23' 0.54' 1.43596' __ __ +30

0.5-..--

~

_____~~

1.436 +30 . _neutral ~______ 0.0005 ____-

0.005

1 nenative 60 (0 56)

-

Table 2.47: Mixed 1,2-Dirnethylcyclohexane (4)

PROPERTIES

Distillation range, F Initial boiling point Dry point Specific gravity of liquid at 60160 F at 20/4 C API gravity at 60 F Density of liquid a t 60 F, Ibu'gal Vapor pressure at 70 F, psia 1W F, pria Refractive index, 2010 Color, Saybolt Acidity, distillation residue Nonvolatile matter, gramdl00 ml Sulfur content, weiQhtDenent Copper corrosion Doctor test Flash point, approximate. F

GRAOE

_ _ _ ~ - _ _ _

Composition, weight percent -

trace tranr-1.2-Dimethylcyclohexane ctr-1.2-Dimethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclohexane Ethylbenzene Xylenes Isopropylbenzene Isopropylcyclohexane .

Unidentified ~

~~~~~

Purity by freezing point, mol % Frsszing point, F Boiling p o c

I

PROPERTIES

FORMULA

trace

_

I I 260

PURE

__

GRAPE -

-

0.792 0.789 47.2 6.59

I

I

0.6 wp 1.432 +30 neutral 0.0005 0.005 1 negative 55(D 56)

'

*Literature values.

Table 2.48: Ethylcyclohexane (4)

I

PROPERTIES

RESWCH

I

PURE GRAOE

I

TECHNICAL GRAOE

~

_

~osfion-we~htprcent Methylcyclohexane tnwl.2.D _ [email protected] ~ cir-1.2-Dtmsthylcyclohexne

2.0

--

__

Ethylcyclohexane Ethylbenzene -- - Xylem __lsopropylbenzene lmpropylcyclohunr Unidmtifii

99.98

0.02

trace

99.5 0.4

96.9 0.8

01

0.3

(continued)

26

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.48: (continued)

I

PROPERTIES ~~

RESEARCH GRADE

I

PURE GRADE

I

TECHNICAL GRADE

~

99.19 99.0min 96.06 95.0 min Purity by freezing point, mol X 99.66 168.38' Fmzing poin&f 269.21. Boiling point. F -_ _ ~ Distillation range, F 266 Initial boiling point Dry point -- 269 0.793 0.793 Specific gravity of liquid at 6O/6OF ~- 0.7922' 0.788 0.788 at 20/4 C __ ___._ -- - 0.78792' 46.9 46.9 API gravity at 60 F _.__ 6.60 6.60-_Density of liquid at 60 F. lbdgal . . Vaporprercure at 70 F,psia 0._ 5.- .. 1 W F . E i L .0 . 4 8 ' 0.5 ___. _~ __ .- 1.433 1.43304' _..____ 1.433 __ -. __ ~____ -- Refractive index. 2010.. . +30 +30 +30 Color,Saybolt neutral . , ... ~ _ _ _ _ . neutral - Acidity, distillation residue. ._ 0.0005 0.0005 Nonvolatile matter. grnu'100 ml - .___ Sulfur content, -wj&hthlperEnt. .. . __ .. Copper c o n o s i ~ . - - ~- .. . ~Doctor t a l , -. , . 66 66 Fluh point. approximate. F 66

____

~

~

~

~

__

__

-

___

~

~

- __

_____

'Literature values

Table 2.49: Isopropylcyclohexane (4)

FORMULA

RESEARCH GRADE

PROPERTIES

-__Comqosfi~nLwe~hyerc_Eent -__- Methylcyclohexan?

-_

__

__

-

___

TECHNICAL GRADE

'

--

tran,~,2~imcthy~yclo~xan? cit-1.2 Dimethylcyclohexan~__ Ethylcyclohexane Ethvlbenzene Xylen!! __ _ _ lsopropylbenzene Isopropylcyclohexane __ Unidentified

PURE GRADE

~

____

Purity by freezing point. mol K _ _ Freezing point. F Boiling point. F . Distillationrange. F Initial boiling point ury point Specific gravity of liquid at 60/60 F at 20/4 C API gravity at 60 F Density of liquid at 60 F, Ibu'gsl Vapor pressure at 70 F. pw

0.8064. 06024.

_-

1WF.psia Relractive indax, 20/0 Color. Saybolt Acidity, distillation rcudue Nonvolatile matter. pramdl00 ml. Sulfur conten(,-mwht percent Copper corrosion

0.807 0.803

6.72 __

.

1.44087'

________ -

neutral 0.0005

neutral

0.0005

I I

I

_

Domrtm .____ Flash point apDroximite F 'literature values

0.807 0.803

96

I

I 96

I

96

Hydrocarbon Solvents OLEFINS

Table 2.51 : Propylene (4)

Table 2.50: Ethylene (4)

FORMULA

I

CHI

I

PROPERTIES

RESEARCH GRADE

-

CH2

I

CHI

FORMULA

98.8%

PROPERTIES

GRADE

T

GRADE

Composition. might percent Propane Propylene Ethylene Ethane Methana _ - Carbon&o_xidegpm Acetylene,epm (Iiguidl - Carbonyl, ppm @quid) - CarbonnMonox idegpm

001 99.99

Okwgem

1

CH-CH,

GRADE

0.5 99.5 99Dmin

I

~

-

-

_

_

Hydrogen. ppm Freezinai_nt, trifie poinLF _ _ __ Boilingppt, F Specific aravity otllquid a_t @/@F - -et 20/4 C AplpraviQ-at 60 F - - O g i w i ( y i d at 60 F, Ibrlgal Vaporpr-mre at 70 F. psia _ _ 100 F s i a _ _ 130 F,pua_ Sulfur content, pem &ecific gravity of real gas at 60 F and 14 7 PPI (Air = 1) Specific volume of real gat at 60 F and 14.7 pua,cu ftllb . Critical temperature, F Critical premie, psia Densify of real gas at 60 F and M J RFL~~&IL!L Flarhgozt. wproximate. F __ Iflits,vo!u-mm %in ai --Flamma&lr ----...L o m r Hiahel Heating value for ideal 01s at 60 F and 14 7 psia.BTUlcu ff, dry basis ~

-

-_-. --

_ _ I _

'Literature values

Table 2.52: Isobutylene (4)

FORMULA

PROPERTIES Composition. weight percsnt lsobutane Isobutylene Butene1 Butadienel.3 Normal Butane Butene2 AWtylMe (at Methylacetylene) ppm, wt. Wmr, ppm. wight Carbonyl (P Acetaldehyde) ppm, might Propadiens. ppm. weight

II

CH,-C

RESEARCH GRADE

0.06 99.81 0.09 0.04 tnci

74

-

PROPERTIES

CH1

I

PURE GRADE

0.1 99.3 99.0 min 0.4 0.2 true 177 nil

27

28

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.53: butene-1 (4)

FORMULA

PROPERTIES

I I

CHa-CH2-CH

RESEARCH GRADE

-

I

- Composition, might percent

0.2 99.8

lrobutylone BUtOnbl Buudienel.3 Normal Butans Butone2 Acotyleni ILI Methylacetylene) ppm, W . Water, ppm. might Carbonyl (LI Acnaldehyda) ppm, might Propdieno. ppm. might

0.1 0.3 99.4 99.0 min

8.

"Y

0.2 trace 15 25max

10 20max

4

I

20.73. 0.6013' 0.5951.

1 , W ' p '

Vapor p m r e at 70 F.. oria 100 F. pria osia_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 130 ~ _F. _ Sullur content, ppm Specific gravity of real gar at 60 F and 14.7pria (Air = 1) Specific volume of real gas at 60 F and 14.7 osia. cu ft/lb Flash point, approximate. ___ Flammability l i m - Lorn Highcr - --

trace

I

RESEARCH POLYMERIZATION GRADE GRADE

I -301.63.

Freezina Doint. F Boiling point, F Specific gravity of liquid at 6060 F at 2014 C API gravity at 60 F

POLYMERIZATION GRADE

lrobutane

I

PROPERTIES

CH1

0.601

,

I

I

103.9 C

M

-

3 . -

376

i 997 i i i 005F)

I

1

1 10max

__

i

i

1.6' I

9.3.

i

__ I

*Literature values.

Table 2.54: trans-Butene-2 (4)

H

FORMULA

CH,-C

-

C-CH9 I

H

Composition, mipht pment Buowl Normal Butlno trans-Butenb2 cieBuhnb2

0.03 0.07 99.80 0.10

99.6

97.7 95.0 min 1 .o

0.2

99.76 -157.99.

Purity by frnzing point, mol K Frnzing point, F Boiling point, F Specific gravity of liquid at 60160 F at20/4 C API gravity at 60 F Density of lipuid at 60 F. Ibdgal Vapor pnrwre at 70 F, p i a 105 F, psia 130 F, prb Flash point, approximate, F

trace 1.3

0.2

99.2 99.0 min

33.58. 0.6100. 0.6042.

______

0.610

1W.5 5.07 29.9

29.94'

.. __ 52.2 __ . 76.4 -100

0.609

100.8

-

5.07 _____ 30 52

___

.

76

-lw

Table 2.55: cis-Butene-2 (4)

FORMULA

PROPERTIES

I

H I

CH,-C

RESEARCH GRADE

-

H 1

C-CHI

GRADE

TECHNICAL GRADE

Compoaition, might prcmt Normal B u m cbButsm2

99.5

95.7 95.0 min

(continued)

Hydrocarbon Solvents

29

Table 2.55: (continued)

RESEARCH GRADE

PROPERTIES

-

Purity by freezing point, mol 96

TECHNICAL GRADE

PURE GRADE

99.92

99.4 99.0 min

-218.M. Freezingpoint, F 38.70. . Boiling point. FPP~__.~._. Specific gravity of liquid at 60160 F 0.6271. 0.627 at 2014 __ - 0.6213. APhravity at 60 F 94.2 _._ ._ _ .. Oenrity of liquid at 60 F, lbs/gal-. 5.22 Vapor Pr-re at 7_olsc ~. 27.29' ~- 27.3 105 F. pria .. . . 49.8 73.2 130 F. psi!-_.. .. . -. .. _. Flash point, approximate, F -100 ~

___

~

0.632

.c_____ ~~

-

92.4 5.26 27.8 50.8 74.8

~

~

~

.

-_______

~

~

-100

Table 2.56: Mixed 2-Butenes (4)

I

FORMULA

I

PROPERTIES

Freezingpoint, F Boiling point, F _. S p ~ i f i c ~ ~ i . ~ o ~ l a. ti 60160 q u i dF at 2014 C API.p i t y at 60 F Density of liquid at 60 F, Ibdgal M o r prspure at 70 F. p i a ._ 105 F. psia I30 F, pria . .~_____._ Flash point, approximate. F ~~

CH,-CH

-

CH-CH3

1

PURE GRADE

TECHNICAL GRADE

~

0.618 0.614 97.5 5.14 28.1 51.2 78.7 -100

0.619 0.615 97.1 5.15 28.0 51.0 76.5 -95

*Literature value%

Table 2.57: 3-Methylbutene-1 (4)

FORMULA

PROPERTIES

CH2

I

RESEARCH GRADE

I

-

7%

CH-CH-CH3

PURE GRADE

99.97

I TEOCIX:C!L 96.3 95.0 min

Pentanes-2

0.01

tme

0.5

Normal Pentane

(continued )

30

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.57: (continued)

.

9 9 4 99Omin

Purity by freegng point, mol % Fretzinppoint. F Eojlgpnt, F Distillation ranE, F_ Initialboiling point Dry point Specificpravity of lipid-at60160 F-:. at 2014 C APl g & t y a t 6 0 F -. - -. Density of liquid at 60 F, Ibdqal Vapor pressure at 70 F, p a F, pria 130 F,psia Refractive index. 20/0 Color, Saybolt Acidity, @stil+_n residue Nonvolatile matter, gramdlW ml . Flash point. approximate. F

-2l1.29. 68 11.

-

- -

0.63% 0 6272'

15,25* 26.41'

~

0633 0.628

-

-1.3643' +30

I 1

-

~~~

__

-

.

EO

~

. ~

1

13.364

1

-70

.

-

5.27 15 0

1364 +30

-70

*Literature values

Table 2.58: 2-Methylbutene-1 (4)

I

FORMULA

~~

Composition, weight percent ____ 3-Methylbutene.1 trace 2 Methylbutene-1 99.99 99 8 2 Methylbutene-2 __ trace Pentene-1 ______ -_ --4sl 01 trace Pentensr-2_ _ _ _ _ -~- _.___ . lsopentane -._ __ .- - Normal Pentane 01

03 9 7 3 95Omin 01 19 0.2

~

__

Purity by freezing point, Freezing PO% F 8 o l ~ ~ ~ w ! ! l ! __-__ L Distillations, F Initial boilinppoint -

~~

__

C

Y

E

!

99 05

_- -215 -61' __ _____ .- ___ 8809'__ ___

.--9 9 5 99Omin - ._ - __ __ .. ~~

----

___~

-

___

~

!

02

~~

._-

~

_ _

87 88 0 656 0 650 842 5 46 10 3

Specific gravity of liquid at 60/60 F 0 6557. -. 0.656 . at20/4&--0.6504:-- _ 0 650 __. API gravity at 60 F 842 _ _ --546 , Density o f liquid at 60 F, lbrlgal Vapor pressure at 70 F, pria - 10 _ 21' _ _ 103 100 F. pria 18.40. 18 8 18 8 130 F. pria 32 0 32 0 - - -____ Refractive index, 20/0 13778' 1378 1 370 --- -- - -. - - __ . Color, Saybolt . -+34 - _ _ .- +30 +M _ Acidity. distillation residue-utral __ neutral - - .- - - n eNonvolatile matter,gramdl0(l ml . O.DW5 0 0005 Flash point. approximate. F -55 -55 ~

~

__

___

___

-

~

~

'Literature valuer

~~

-

.

Hydrocarbon Solvents Table 2.59: Methylbutene-2 (4) _~

I

FORMULA

3 CHl-C=CH-CHl

RESEARCH GRADE

PROPERTIES Compo$o_n,weight percent 3Methylbutene 1 2-Methylbutenel

.

2MeWuteoe-l Pentenell-

Pentenes2

__lsopentane

-

- -

TECHNICAL GRADE

COMMERCIAL GRADE

.

_

- - __

-.

10 3 87 8

0.2

0.2

trace 99 99 trace 0.01

I

~

PURE GRADE

97.4 95 0 rnin 0.1 2.3

99.5

0.3

08 1.1

-,

Normal Pentane

Purity by f!SzinppoinJ,m>l% Freel1111I S S M I N & I I A I S I I I I I I I S

.. - . sToD.~n.D.so~~~~~E.~.. HllRRl I 1 S l l I V C N l

il

1b7I'

ii

i w-

...

~

0.7720

fir xs1.11~

,I fiH? I1 I I V

VMCI'NAI'IIIHA

I

In e ,

!7 9

I 11

HEXSOLV

I

VM h P N A P H T I I A

U460 S O L V E N l V M h P N A P l l l t l A 66

MINERALSPIRITSO8 VI40 SOLVENT 66 -

__

-

__ -

705

14

I47

n

0 21

33

166

108

n 11

11

140

ll

I,'

:::I:

14

1411

5>

I 1

I7

-

-

.-I -----

13 -~ 0.7

1411

1 4

_4 _0

(1 n __

108 __ I44

n nn

-

0.7 ._

in

-I------

spec

AROMATIC HYDROCARBON SOLVENTS

I

6 Ill

I 11

-

HI1

1.o

M l N F R A l S F A l 011

-_-_ --_BTODDA~D~OLVENL -

I

I >

..... .

105

-

R II

1 il

I46 1 V

IA( O I I F R 1111 llf N 1

__

760 mm ng

1.1'

Ilt I d N l

wmn SUIVI

-

I1 11'1

lit I ' l A N I

I A , , < > I l t 14

lndsa c 20%

uo1rac

Gravilv Per

"C

DTN7FNL

mi

TO1 V I N F

7A'iil t

11970

14670

1472 14897

14882 ' 4962 I5020

8n 806 110111

176 171 730232

63

64

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.127: Crowley Solvents (60)

METHYL NAPHTHALENE NO. 5

Specific Gravity 60'/60"F

Specifications

TYDica1

0.975/1.010

0.988

Distillation Range:

' F

"c

' F

I B P , Min. FBP, Max.

4 00 600

204 315

440 550

227 288

200

93

215

102

Flash Point, PMCC, Min. (Non-Combustible) Aromatic Content, Min. Mixed Aniline Point, ASTM, Max.

61

Color, ASTM, Max.

95%

98%

16.1

11.8

1.0

-2

Pale Straw

Color, Visual 15

Pour Point

.9279/.9465

Distillation Range OF. IBP 5% 10% 50% 70% 90% 95% EP

375 449 465 523 564 634 666 689

-10

SAF-T-SOL ZOO

AROMATIC SOLVENT 58

Specific Gravity @ 60'F.

22-

Specific Gravity @ 60/60"F

0.987

Distillation Range (ASTM D-850) 5% 50% 90%

430°F 555'F 590'F

Aniline Point, Mixed ASTM

15'C

color

Yellow

ssu

40 secs

Viscosity @ 1 0 0 ' ~

Flash Point OF.

240

Pour Point

-60'F

Yromatic Content

74%

Flash Point, COC

250'F

Color

2.0

Aromatics

98%

SSU Viscosity @ 1 0 0 ~ ~ .

46.3

Pour Point 'F.

-25

Hydrocarbon Solvents

65

Table 2.128: Dynaloy Solvents (37) DESCRIPTION Dynasolve 210 was developed to fill a widespread need for a solvent that would dissolve RTV silicones and silicone conformal coatings effectively at room temperature. Dynasolve 210 dissolves silicones quickly and effectively, but it contains methylene chloride, and may attack other polymers or coatings, such as epoxies and urethanes. Dynasolve 220.225, and 230, while not quite as fast as Dynasolve 210, contain no chlorinated solvents and are more selective. In most cases, Dynasolve 230 is fastest, followed by Dynasolve 225, and then Dynasolve 220. Dynasolve 210, 220, 225 and 230, when not contaminated by water, will not attack metai or metal components, with the exception of aluminum. However,aluminum may be etched after extended immersion in these Dynaadves. Contaminationof these Dynasdves with water will result in the formation of acids that can attack most metals and other substrates. Test data showsthat mu-metalwas untouched after a 24 hour immersion in Dynasolve 210. Dynasolve 220; 225, and 230 will not attack acrylic or polycarbonate. TYPICAL PROPERTIES Color Specific Gravity Boiling Point Flash Point PH

DYNASOLVE 210 Amber 1.272 104 F None 2.14

DYNASOLVE 220 Amber 0.828 31 1-348 F 110 F 1.70

DY NASOLVE 225 Amber 0.806 235-290 'F 52'F 1.60

DYNASOLVE

230 Amber 0.707 202-222 'F 16°F 1.30

DYNASOLVE CU-5 SAFETY CLEANING SOLVENT FOR URETHANES DESCRIPTION

Dynasolve CU-5 i s a u n i q u e s o l v e n t t h a t was developed f o r use i n c l e a n i n g urethane r e s i d u e s and c r y s t a l l i z e d i s o c y a n a t e s f r o m v a r i o u s t y p e s o f p o l y u r e t h a n e p r o c e s s i n g equipment. T Y P I C A L PROPERTIES

Color: Specific Gravity: B o i l i n g Point: Flash Point: pH :

C 1 ear 1.060 202oc 191OF CC 4 - 6

DYNASOLVE CU-6

SAFETY CLEANING SOLVENT FOR URETHANES

DESCRIPTION Dynasolve CU-6 i s a unique s o l v e n t t h a t was developed as a n o n - g e l l i n g , h i g h e r f l a s h p o i n t v e r s i o n o f Dynasolve CU-5. TYPICAL PROPERTIES Color : Specific Gravity: Boi 1i n g P o i n t : Flash Point: pH :

Clear 1.055 202oc 210OF CC 4 - 6

(continued)

66

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.128: (continued)

DYNASOLVE XD 16-4 SAFETY SOLVENT FOR REWOVAL OF SILICONE OILS AND UNCURED SILICONE POLYMERS DESCRIPTION

Dynasolve XD 16-4 i s an experimemtal solvent t h a t was developed f o r removal o f s i l i c o n e o i l s and uncured s i l i c o n e polymers from molds, molded p a r t s , and processing equipment. TYPICAL PROPERTIES Color: Specific Gravity: Boi 1i n g Point : Flash P o i n t : pH:

L i g h t Amber 1.032 >3000F 2620 F N/A

DYNASOLVE XD 22-1 SAFETY SOLVENT FOR CLEANING AND DEGREASING DESCRIPTION

Dynasolve XD 22-1 i s an experimental solvent t h a t was developed f o r use i n cleaning and degreasing a p p l i c a t i o n s . Dynasolve XD 22-1 i s a non-chlorinated, non-flanmable', non-carcinogenic, non-ozone d e p l e t i n g s o l vent TYPICAL PROPERTIES Color: Specific Gravity: Boi 1i n g Point : Flash P o i n t : pH :

C1 ear 0.780 360° F 143OF CC N/A

DYNASOLVE XD 27-2 SAFETY SOLVENT FOR CIRCUIT

BOARD CLEANING

AND DEFLUXING

DESCRIPTION

Dynasolve XD 27-2 i s an experimental solvent t h a t was developed f o r cleaning and d e f l u x i n g o f p r i n t e d c i r c u i t boards. Dynasolve XD 27-2 i s a non-chlorinated, non-flammable', non-carcinogenic, non-ozone d e p l e t i n g solvent designed as a replacement f o r CFCs. TYPICAL PROPERTIES Color: Specific Gravity: B o i 1i n g P o i n t : Flash Point : pH :

Transparent Yellow 1.000 3630 F 191OF CC 8 - 9

..

% c: cy

i

a a 3

w

a bl

3 Q

c z w >

4

5:

0

uu1

Q

e

C 'C

L

I

m 7

v)

x

w

a

L

ea U

w

I

n

w

>

>

W

53

s

n

).

Hydrocarbon Solvents

67

68

2

h

Industrial Solvents Handbook

-I

" o 9 N

v N

Hydrocarbon Solvents

69

70

Industrial Solvents Handbook

t

ai

j

. ....

. .. -

r" 01

c

Hydrocarbon Solvents

71

72

..

Q)

cv

Industrial Solvents Handbook

I

I

~

I

74

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.131 : Flna Aromatic Solvents (6)

Typical Properties Solvent Name

Flash

IXslillation De&

,

Common Apvlications

FAS 70

180

20

150 645

Warnicr climate oil well appliullwm Wood trcaling prerrvalivr

FA5 104

115

30

m-495

Down hole oil well applicahons Washoil Reaction solvent in chemical pr: j ! i

L

0

m

'

u) 3

+ v G

-IO m

+ +

0 N

0-U + o

LL

0

0 - -

. ..

.

.. ... ..

.

.. ... ...

.

.:Pas

.. zL .A y ... * z z

Z

Z Z P P Z

.. ... .: . ..

?q

.. . ..

.

. .

S S~ .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .

.

.. . ..

~

a

-0 al

C

Y

.-C 0

..

0

v

F

al

2 m

n

c

w

Halogenated Hydrocarbons

157

158

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 3.61 : (continued) Blending Solvdnts to Eliminate Flash Points F W Poiits ("F) -Tag Closed Tater Volume 96 Chlorinated Solvent Family

Flammable Constituent Data Source

0

10

20

30 40

50

- - - - - _ .

Alcohol

Ester

Ethanol

60

n-Butanol

106 94

NF

Butyl Acetate

84

81

76 NF

Ethyl Acetate

25

32

34

39 41 NF

21

23

21

22 NF

Octane

59

49

NF

MethylIsobutylKetone

64

64

64

Hydrocarbon Heptane Ketone

54

48 NF

62 NF

Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature for Methylene Chloride

9 q B

Temperature, OF

3

E

Temperature, O C

C

$

v

4'

Vapor Pressure vs. Temperature for Methylene Chloride Temperature, O F

,m

1

700

500 M 300 200

3: E E

100

70

!E so 30

8 l-

2o 10

E ;

9 3 2 I

-70 -60

-so

4 0 -30

-20

-10

o + I O +2(1

Temperature, OC

+30 +40

3

so

.

-I

-60

-so

-40

-30

-20

-10

0

+ I O i 2 ( 1 +'r)

Temperature, O C

$40

is0

Halogenated Hydrocarbons Table 3.61: (continued)

Viscosity Curves for Common Secondary Refrigerants

3

I

I I I 1

X = Freezing Point

I

I

Temperature, O C Glycerol Ethanol Calcium Chloride Methanol Sodium Chloride Trichlorofluoromethane Methylene Chloride

= 64.8% Wt. (Aqueous Solution) = 56.8% Wt. (Aqueous Solution) = 29.0% Wt. (Aqueous Solution) = 38.4% Wt. (Aqueous Solution) = 2 1.O% Wt. (Aqueous Solution) = 100% Wt. = 100% Wt.

IS9

160

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 3.62: Vertrel Cleaning Agents (7 7) Vertrel KCD-9547 Cleaning Agent Introduction Vertrel KCD-9547 is a proprietary azeotrope-like blend of Vertrel XF hydrofluorocarbonwith trans-l,2-dichloroethylene and cyclopentane. It is ideally suited for use in vapor degreasing equipment to remove light oils, fingerprints, and particulate contaminants. Vertrel KCD-9547 is specially formulated to provide a high degree of compatibility with plastics, elastomers, and other nonferrous metals, such as in aerospace parts. Vertrel KCD9547 is nonflammable, has "zero" ozone depletion potential, and has low global warming potential. It can replace CFC-113,l ,I ,1-trichloroethane (1,I ,I -TCA), hydrochlorofluorocarbons(HCFC), and perfluorocarbons (PFC) in many applications. Physical Properties

Density and Vapor Pressure Change with Temperature

Vertrel' KCDUnits

9547

CFC-113

"C O F

37.2 99.0

47.6 117.6

Liquid Density

g/cc Ib/gal

1.29 10.8

1.56 13.1

Vapor Pressure

rnrnHg psi

414 8.0

334 6.5

Surface Tension

dyn/crn

15.3

17.3

"C OF

C-50

lo0

-

5 >loo

50

Table 5.20: Solubility of Inorganic Materials in DMSO (36) Solubility, Grams/lWcc DMSO 25Y 90-1W'C Aluminum sulfate (18HzO) Aluminum chloride Ammonium borate (3H10) Ammonium carbonate(Hz0) Ammonium chloride Ammonium chromate Ammonium dichromate' Ammonium nitrate Ammonium thiocyanate Barium nitrate Beryllium nitrate(4HzO) Bismuth trichloride Boric acid Bromine Cadmium chloride Cadmium iodide Calcium chloride Calcium dichromate(3HzO)' Calcium nitrate(4HzO) Ceric ammonium nitrate Cobaltous chloride (6HzO)

Insol. Reacts 10 1 Insol. 1 50 80 30 1 10 1 45' Reacts 20b 30 Insol. 50 30 1 30

Cupric acetate(H4) Cupric bromideb

Insol. 1

Cupric chloride(2H20) Cupric sulfate(5H3 Cuprous iodide Ferric ammonium sulfate (12H20)

Insol.

cn

..

m

2

Monohydric Alcohols n-BUTYL ALCOHOL n-Butanol, Butanol-1,

CH3CH2CH2CH20H

Butyric Alcohol

Table 6.74: Physical Properties of n-Butyl Alcohol (37)

PHYSICAL P R O P E R T I E S O F n-BUTYL ALCOHOL Acidity a s a c e t i c acid

0.005% by w t . m a x .

Aldehydes

None

Boiling point a t 760 m m

117.7'C

Chlorides

None

Coefficient of c u b i c a l expansion p e r 'C p e r 'F

0.00093 0.00052

Coloi, Pt-Co

10 m a x .

Critical pressure

48.4 atm

Critical temperature

287'C

D i e l e c t r i c constant a t 25'C

16. I

Distillation range (including 117.7.C)

1.5.C m a x .

E l e c t r i c a l conductivity a t 25.C

9 . 1 2 x 10'' ohms

Explosive l i m i t s in a i r , Lower Upper

1.45% by vol. 1 1 . 2 5 % by vol.

Fire hazard

Moderate

F l a s h point, T a g open cup

115'F

F r e e z i n g point

-89.0.C

H e a t of combustion

8626 cal/g

Heat of fusion

29.9 cal/g

Heat of vaporization a t boiling point

141.3 cal/g

reciprocal

Ignition t e m p e r a t u r e

367'C

Iron

None

MAC

100 ppm i n a i r

Melting point

-09.8.C

Molecular weight

74.12 c a l c u l a t e d

Non-volatile m a t t e r

0 . 0 0 5 g/100 m l , m a x .

Odor

C h a r a c t e r i s t i c , nonresidual

R e f r a c t i v e index a t ZO'C, nD

I . 3992

Relative evaporation r a t e n-butyl a c e t a t e = I

0.45

I

Solubility in w a t e r a t ZO'C

7.8% by wt

Solubility of w a t e r in n-Butanol at ZO'C

2 0 . 1% by wt

Specific g r a v i t y a t ZO/ZO*C

0.8109

Specific heat of liquid a t 2O'C

0.563 cal/g

S u l f u r i c acid t e s t ( P t - C o )

25 m a x .

S u r f a c e tension a t 20'C

2 4 . 6 dynes/cm

Suspended m a t t e r

Substantially f r e e

Toxic ity

Moderately toxic by inhalation, ingestion and skin absorption

Vapor p r e s s u r e a t 20'C 40% 6O'C 75'C 100.8'C

4 . 3 9 mm Hg 18.6 mm Hg 5 9 . 2 m m Hg 1 3 1 . 3 m m Hg 4017.0 mm Hg

V i s c o s i t y a t LO'C

2.948 c e n t i p o i s e s

W a t e r content

0 . 1 0 % by w t , m a x .

Weight p e r gallon a t ZO'C

6 . 7 5 6 Ibs

301

302

..

w

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Monohydric Alcohols

303

Table 6.77: Solubility of Butyl Alcohol in Water at Various Temperatures (79)

Table 6.78: Azeotropes of n-Butyl Alcohol (37) n-BUTYL ALCOHOL FORMS BINARY AZEOTROPES WITH: B . P . of Azeotrope 'C

70

u

B .P.of Azeotrope 'C

87

Acetal

101.0

60

Methyl isovalerate

68.5

1 -Bromo-3 -methylbutane

110.7

70

4 -Methyl - 2 -pentanone

114.4

32.8

Butyl acetate

117.6

50

Octane

110.2

12

Butyl e t h e r

117.3

48

Paraldehyde

115.8

76.4

Butyl f o r m a t e

105.8

I2

u-Pinene

117.4

92.2

Butyl vinyl e t h e r

93.3

29

Pyridine

118.7

Camphene

117.8

21

Styrene

116.5

Chlorobenzene

115.3

Tetrachloroethylene

110.0

Toluene

105.6

o-Xylene p -Xylene

116.8

2 44 88

1 -Chloro-3 -methylbutane

97.0

68 73

90

Cyclohexane

79.8

25

95

Cyclohexene

82.0

32

17.5

Dibutyl e t h e r

117.6 108.5

57

1, 3-Dimethylcyclohexane

72

2, 5-Dimethylhexane

101.9

48

Ethyl borate

113.0

36 37

Ethyl butyrate

115.7

Ethyl carbonate

116.5

83

Ethyl isobutyrate

109.2

82

Heptane

93.3

37.3

Water

97

Hexane

67.0

35.3

Butyl acetate

18.2

2-Hexanone

116.5

2G

3 -Hexanone

117.2

41.8

Water

22

I -1odo- 3 -methylbutane

117.3

31

Loamy1 formate

115.9

29.3

Water

50

Iaobutyl acetate

114.5

27.7

Butyl e t h e r

115.7

n-BUTYL ALCOHOL FORMS TERNARY AZEOTROPES WITH:

k

7.9

B.P. of Azeotrope *C

Butyl chloroacetate

5L

Isobutyl e t h e r

113.5

21.3

Water

46

Isopropyl isobutyrate

115.5

68.7

Butyl formate

55

Isopropyl sulfide

112.0

86

Methylc yclohexane

95.3

Methylc yclopentane

71.8

92

116.3

3. I 85.0

89.1

93. I

91.0

83.6

Water Carbon tetrachloride

64.7

304

Industrial Solvents Handbook

ISOBUTYL ALCOHOL Isobutanol, 2-Methyl Propanol -1,

Isopropyl Carbinol

Table 6.79: Physical Properties of Isobutyl Alcohol (31)

(CH 3 )2CHCH2 O H

Table 6.80: Azeotropes of Isobutyl Alcohol (31)

Alkalinity

0 . 0 0 3 % by w t . max.

Boiling point at 760 m m

107.9.C

Coefficient of cubical '-uxpansion a t 10 to 30'C

0.95

90.7

Benzene

Color, APHA

10 max.

36.4

1 -Bromo-3 -methylbutane

Critical p r e s s u r e

48 a t m

60

Butyl formate

103.0

Critical t e m p e r a t u r e

265'C

37

Chlorobenzene

107.1

Distillation range (including 107.9.C)

78

1-Chloro-3 -methylbutane

Z'C max.

94.5

88

1 , 3-Cyclohexadiene

Electrical conductivity at 25'C

8 x lo-' mho per c m .

79.4

86

Evaporation r a t e (n-Butyl Acetate = 1 . 0 )

Cyclohexane

78.1

0.8

85.8

Cyclohexene

44

1.3-Dlmethylcyclohexane

102.2 105.5

Explosive limits in lower limit

10-3

air,

ISOBUTYL ALCOHOL FORMS BINARY AZEOTROPES WITH:

70

B . P . of Azeotrope 'C 79.9 103.4

80.5

1.68 % by volume

48

Ethyl isobutyrate

F i r e hazard

Mode rate

87

Ethyl propionate

98.9

F l a s h point, Tag open cup

103'F

91

Fluorobenzene

84.0

Heat of combustion

6382 cal/g

73

Heptane

90.8

97.5

Hexane

45

Isobutyl acetate

107.4

79.4

Isobutyl formate

97.8

93.8

Isobutyl vinyl e t h e r

27

Imopropyl sulfide

105.8 101.3

Heat of vaporization at boiling point

138 cal/g/mole

Ignition t e m p e r a t u r e

440'C

Melting point

-108'C

Molecular weight

74. I 2 calculated

Non -volatile m a t t e r

0.001 g/lOo m l , m a .

Refractive index at ZO'C, nD

1.3959

Solubility in water a t 25'C

8 . 8 m l per 100 m l

68.3

82.7

75

Methyl butyrate

68

M ethylc y c lohe xane

95

Mcthylcyclopentane

71.0

10

Methyl iaovalerate

107.5

92.6

Solubility of w a t e r in isobutyl alcohol at 25'C

20.0 m l per 100 m l

Specific gravity a t 20/2o*c

0.8034

4 -Methyl-2 -pentanone

107.9

Specific heat a t 15'C

0.716 cal/g/'C

81

L -Pentanone

101.8

Surface tension at 20.C

2 2 . 8 dynes/cm

80

3-Pentanone

101.7

Toxicity

Highly toxic by inhalation o r ingemtion

68

Pinacolone

105.5

83

Propyl acetate

101 .o

Vapor density ( A i r = 1 . 0 )

2.55

90

Propyl e t h e r

Vapor premaure at 2O.C

8.8 mm

55

Toluene

Vimcoaity at 20.C

6.68 centipoises

73

2.2.4-Trimethylpentane

Water content

0.2% by w i , max.

Weight p e r gallon a t 2O.C

6.68 lbm

9

89.5 101.2

92.0

ISOBUTYL ALCOHOL FORMS TERNARY AZEOTROPES WITH:

30.4

Water

46.5

Isobutyl acetate

33.6

Water

13.3

Isobutyl chloroacetate

17.3

Water

76

Isobutyl formate

86.8

90.2

80.2

Monohydric Alcohols

305

Table 6.81: Relative Evaporation Rates of Various Butyl Alcohols and Acetates (47)

:w -

. 0

< I>

Y

f

/h

-f

10-

1

io

0

1

1

a

io

1

0

1

io

IVAPORAIION

1

1

m

io RATE

1

io

1

r6

1 loo

1

1

r;orio

IN YlNUItS

sec-BUTYL ALCOHOL CH3CHOHCH2CHj

sec-Butanol, Butanol-2, Methyl Ethyl Carbinol

Table 6.83: Azeotropes of sec-Butyl Alcohol (37)

Table 6.82: Physical Properties of secButyl Alcohol (31) Acidity a a acetic acid Boiling point at 760 m m Coefficient of cubical expanaion at 20'C

0.003% by w t . max. 99.5-c

Color, Pt-Co (Hazen) Critical p r e a i u r e Critical temperature Diatilhtion range Fire h i z a r d

IO max.

Flaah Point, Tag open cup Tag cloaed cup Freezing point Heat of vaporization at I atm. Molecular weight Non-volatile m a t t e r Purity Refractive index at ZO'C n o Relative evaporation r a t e , n-Butyl acetate = 100 Solubility in water at 2O.C Solubility of water in, at LO'C Specific gravity at 20/20'c Specific heat at 8.5.C Surface tenaion at 20.C Tdcity Vapor preaaure at 2O.C Viacoaity at 20'C Water, preaence of

Weight per gallon at ZO'C

0 * 00101 'C

46.9 atm 265.19.C 98.0-101 .O*C Dangeroua when expoaed t o heat or name

8O'F 75.F -114.7.C 134.4 g cal/g 74.12 0 . 0 0 2 ml. m u . 99.0% min. 1.39719

#ec -BUTYL ALCOHOL FORMS BINARY AZEOTROPES WITH:

% 61 93 84.6 13.7 32 71 79 46 53 68 62 92 60

41 59

I20

88.5

22.5% by w t

77

60.0% by wt 0.8079 0.596 23.0 dynea/cm Moderate 12.1 m m 3.78 cpa. Miacible without t u r bidity with 19 vol of n-heptane at 20'C 6.73 l b

42

.

16 48 78 45

B.P. of Azeotrope 'C tert-Amyl ethyl ether tert-Amyl methyl ether Benzene mc-Butyl acetate Butyl formate 1-Chloro-3 -methylbutane Cyclohexene 2,s -Dimethylhexane Ethyl propionate Ethyl aulfide Heptane Heune Iiobutyl formate Methyl butyrate Methylc ycloheune Methylc yclopentane Methyl iaobutyrate 3 -Pentanone Pinacolone Propyl acetate Propyl ether Toluene

94.5 86.0 78.6 99.6 98.0 91.5 78.1 93.0 95.7 89.0 89.0 67.2

91.7 97.7 89.9 69.7 92.0 98.0 99.1 96.5 81.0 95.3

306

Industrial Solvents Handbook

tert-BUTYL ALCOHOL tert-Butanol,

2-Methyl Propanol-2

Table 6.84: Physical Propertleo of tertButyl Alcohol (37)

Table 6.85: Azeotropes of tertButyl Alcohol (37)

Acidity a s acetic acid

0.003% by w t . max.

Boiling point at 760 m m

82.36.C

Coefficient of cubical expansion a t 26'C

0.30132.C

63.4

Benzene

74.0

Color, Pt-Co ( H a z e n ) max.

10 m a x .

94

Carbon disulfide

45.7

Compressibility at 2O.C. between 100-500 megabara

79.6 x IO-( megadynea/cm

Critical p r e s s u r e

46 atm

Critical temperature

234.9.c

Dielectric conatant a t 19'C (audio)

I I . 4 cgs unita

Distillation range

81.5-83.0.C

Carbon tetrachloride

29.5

I -Chloro-3 -methylbutane

81.2

61.5

1 , 3 -Cyclohexadiene

73.4

63

Cyclohexane

71.3

60

Cyclohexene

73.2

93

Cyclopentane

48.2

65

Dibromodichloromethane

79.0

94

1 , I -Dichloroethane

57.1

60'F (approx. ) 48'F (approx. )

33

Diisobutyl alcohol

81.5

87

2.3-Dimethylbutane

55.3

25.57.C

10

lI3-Dimethy1cycIohexane

82.2

23

2.5-Dimethylhexane

81.5

75

Ethyl acetate

76.0

38

Ethyl n i t r a t e

78.0

30

Ethyl aulfide

79.8

69

Fluorobenzene

76.0

Heptane

78.0

Hexane

63.7

Isobutyl chloride

65.5

1.65 x 10" Dangerous when exposed t o heat o r flame

Heat of fuaion at 25.5.C Heat of aolution at I 5 * C , of the aolid alcohol in water

6290 cal/g 6302 cal/g 6426 cal/g 2 1 . 8 8 cal/g

Heat of vaporization a t 1 atm.

3.23 k g c a l 130.6 g cal/g

Melting point

25.57.C

Molecular weight

74.12

Molecular volume, 20/VM

94.3 c c

38 78 83 34 74

Non -volatile m a t t e r

0.002 g / l o o m l . max.

70

Purity

99.0% by w t . min.

Refractive index a t 20*C, nD

1.3841

Solubility a t 20.C.

Complete Complete

in water water in Specific heat a t 26'C

B.P. of Azeotrope 'C

76

F i r e hazard

Heat of combustion Liquid at constant volume constant p r e s s u r e Vapor at constant p r e s a u r e

70

41

Dipole moment

F l a s h point, Tag open cup Tag closed cup F r i e z i n g point

t e r t -BUTY L ALCOHOL FORMS BINARY AZEOTROPES WITH:

0.726 g cal/g

Specific gravity at 2 6 / 4 * ~

0.7793

Surface tension at LO'C 34.5.c 80'C

LO. 7 dynes

Toxic it y

Mode r a t e

Vapor p r e a a u r e at 3O.C

57.3 m m

19.45 dynes 14.6 dynes

Viscosity at 30'C

3.316 cpa.

Water

Miacible without turbidity with 19 vol. of n-heptane at 20.C

Weight p e r gallon a t 26'C

6.50 l b

Methylc yclohexane

78.8

Methylc yclopentane

66.6

Methylc yclopentene

69.5

Monohydric Alcohols PRIMARY AMYL ALCOHOL Primary amyl alcohol, a mixture of isomers all of which are primary alcohols, i s composed of approximately 60% pentanol-1 (CH3CH2CH2CH2CH20H); 35% 2-methyl butanol-1 (CH3CH2CH (CH3)CH20H); and 5% 3-methyl butanol -1 (CH3CH (CH3)CH2CH20H).

Table 6.86: Physical Properties of Primary Amyl Alcohol (79) Acidity as acetic acid

0.01% by w t . max.

Boiling point at 760 m m 50 m m 10 m m

133.1.C 68'C 39'C

Carbonyl, a s C, aldehyde

0.20% by wt, max.

Coefficient of expansion at 20.C

0.00092 p e r 'C

Color, R - C o

15, max.

Distillation a t 760 mm Ibp DP F i r e hazard

127.5.C 139.0.C.

max.

Mode rate

F l a s h point (open cup)

118.F

F r e e z i n g point

Sets t o glass below -9O'C

Heat of vaporization at 133.C

242 Btu/lb

P u r i t y , as p r i m a r y amyl alcohols

98.0% by

Refractive index a t 2O.C.

1.4084

nD

wt,

Solubility in water at 20.C

1.7% by wt

Solubility of water in, a t 20.C

9.2% by w t

Specific gravity at 20/20*c

0.81 34

min.

PRIMARY n-AMYL ALCOHOL Table 6.87: Physical Properties of Primary n-Amyl Alcohol (37) Acidity ( m g KOH/g)

0.06 m u .

Boiling point

137.8.C

Clarity

No turbidity or s u s pended m a t t e r

Coefficient of expansion p e r 'C

0.00092

Distillation. initial final

Not below 134.8-C Not above 140.0'C

F i r e point

140.F

F i r e hazard

Moderate

F l a s h point (open cup)

135'F

Heat of vaporization

120.6 cal/g ( c a l culated )

Melting point

-78.5.C

Molecular weight

88.15 (calculated)

Non-volatile m a t t e r a t IOO'C

5.

Refractive index at ZO'C

1.4099

Specific gravity a t 20/2o*c

0.82

o mg/100

rnl, m u .

Specific heat

0.712 cal/g

Toxicity

Highly toxic by inhalation and ingestion

Viscosity at ZS'C 60'C

3.31 cantipoises I . 33 centipoise.

Weight per gallon

6.82 lbs

307

308

0

rr: 4

5 m

G. c)

0

J

m U

u

i f u

..

00

U

W

-

m

0

U Y I.

V

D

V *

U

a V

2

U V

0

a

U

v

a * D

.-P

m m m m m o . . . . . . ?m3 nI-wm.39 -.ucImm

rUr-.uuum

2 x b 5 5 w

C

Industrial Solvents Handbook

3

2

r

0

I 0

al QD r

F

t

*

6

I.

* U m

EJ

0

2

U

U

-

X

i V V

0 0

-

7

M

\ V?

d

0 4

0

0 0

e

x

0

0

m

e u

C

I! M U

v)

v)

00m

9

r-

2-u 2 m c c

P

Monohydric Alcohols sec-n-AMYL ALCOHOL Table 6.90: Physical Properties of sec-n-Amyl Alcohol (31)

Acidity as acetic acid

0.06% max.

Boiling point

115.6.C

Coefficient of expansion p e r 'C Distillation, 95%

0.00149

F i r e hazard

Between 113.6

-

117.6.C

Mode rate 100.F

Flash point Freezing point

Less than r75.C

Heat of vaporization

96.8 cal/g (calculated)

Non -volatile at 1OO.C Refractive index a t 20.C

a . o 0 3 , ~ / 1 0 0c c max.

Specific gravity a t 2O'C

0.82

Toxicity

Highly toxic by inhalation and ingestion

Viscosity at 25.C 60'C Weight per gallon a t ZO'C

4.12 centipoires 1.09 centipoiser.

1.4098

6.81 lbs

Table 6.91: Azeotropes of sec-n-Amyl Alcohol (31)

s e c -n-AMYL ALCOHOL FORMS BINARY AZEOTROPES WITH:

%

B.P. of Azeotrope 'C

97

Cyclohexane

80.0

80

Heptane Methylcyclohexane

96.0 97.4

77

65

4-Methyl-2 -pentanone

115.0

65

Toluene

106.0

309

310

Industrial Solvents Handbook

tert-AMYL ALCOHOL, REFINED (CH3)2COHCH2CH3

2-Methyl Butanol -2, Dimethylethyl Carbinol, Amylene Hydrate, tert-Pentanol

Table 6.92: Physlcal Propertles of Refined tert-Amyl Alcohol (37) Acidity as acetic acid Boiling point Clarity

0.15% max. 101.8.C N o turbidity o r nu. pended m a t t e r

Coefficient of expansion p e r 'C Distillation. 95% between

-

0.001 33 (calculated) 98.8 103.8.C

-

F i r e hazard

Dangerous when exposed to heat or flame

F l a s h point, Open cup Freezing point

70.F

Heat of vaporization Molecular weight Neutralization value, mg KOH/g

93.4 cal/g 88.15 (calculated) 0.06 max.

Non-volatile m a t t e r

0.003 g/lOO c c . m i x .

Odor Refractive index a t 2O.C

Camphor -like

Specific gravity at 20/20*c Specific lieat

0.81

Toxicity Viscosity a t ZS'C at 63'C Water content

Moderate

None

Water tolerance, water p e r 100 c c alcohol Weight p e r gallon

6.75 lbs

-11.9-c

I .4052

- 0.82

0.753 cal/g 3.70 centipoiies 0.99 centipoises

18.0 min.

Table 6.93: Azeotropes of tert-Amyl Alcohol (37) tart-AMYL ALCOHOL FORMS BINARY AZEOTROPES WITH:

z

B . P . of Aaeotrope 'C

85 85

Bcnsene

80.0

1.3-Cycloheudiene

79.1

84

Cyclohexane Cyclohexens

80.8

83 32 50

73.5

1.3 -Dimethylcyclohe xane 2,5-Dimethylhexane

18.5 101.1 97.0 92.2

96

Heptane Heune

60

Methylcyclohe-

95 25

Methylcyclopentane &tMO

101.1

80

Propyl ether

44

Toluene

88.8 100.5

68.3 92.0 71.5

Monohydric Alcohols

31 1

ISOAMYL ALCOHOL 3-Methyl - 1 -Butanol, Primary Isoamyl Alcohol, Isobutyl Carbinol

Table 6.94: Physical Properties of Isoamyl Alcohol (31) Acidity a s acetic acid

0.01% max.

Boiling point a t 760 m m

131.4.C

Coefficient of expansion per *C per O F

0.00090 0.00050

Color, APHA

No. 1 0 m a x .

Critical t e m p e r a t u r e

307'C

Distillation range, below 128.C above 132.C

None None

Dryneaa

A 5 m l . sample is c l e a r l y miscible with a t l e a s t 19 p a r t s of 60 Be'gaaoline a t 60.F

Esters F i r e hazard

(CHS)~CHCH~CH~OH

Table 6.95: Azeotropes of Isoamyl Alcohol (37)

ISOAMYL ALCOHOL FORMS BINARY AZEOTROPES WITH:

%

Not m o r e than 0.060% a s amyl acetate Mode rate

B . P . of Azeotrope 'C

15

Bromobenzene

131.7

82.5

Butyl acetate

125.9

35

Butyl e t h e r

129.8

76

Camphene

130.9

66

Chlorobenzene

124.4

Cumene

131.6

73

1.3-Dimethylcyclohexane

116.6

85

2 . 5 -Dimethylhexane

107.6

42

Ethyl iaovalerate

130.5

93

Heptane

6

97.7

2.6

Isoamyl acetate

129.1

F l a s h point, Open cup

125'F

74.5

Isoamyl formate

123.6

Heat of combustion

794.5 g r a m caloriea per gram

88

Iaoamyl vinyl e t h e r

112.1

78

Isobutyl e t h e r

119.8

Latent heat of vaporization

105.4 g r a m calorie. per gram

28

Iaobutyl propionate

131.2

MAC

100 ppm in a i r

76

Meaityl oxide

129.2

Melting point

- I 17. Z'C

87

Methylcyclohexane

88.15

65

Octane

120.0

Molecular weight

98.2

Non-volatile m a t t e r

0.003% ma;.

78

Paraldehyde

123.5

Odor

Alcoholic , non r e s idual

26

a-Pinene

137.7

47

Propyl iaobutyrate

130.2

21

Propyl aulfide

130.5

-

Refractive index at ZO'C

1.4014

Solubility in water at 14.C

2.0% by

Specific gravity a t Z O / L O * C

0.810

- 0.813

95

2.2.4-Trimethylpentane

Specific heat a t LO'C

0.544 g r a m c a l o r i e s p e r g r a m p e r 'C

48

0-,

wt

m - , o r p-Xylene

Surface. tension a t 2O'C

2 3 . 8 dynes p e r c m

Toxic it y

Highly toxic by ingeation and inhalation

Vapor p r e s s u r e a t 20'C

2.8 m m Hg

44.8

Water

V i a c w i t y ( a b s o l u t e ) a t 23.8.C

3.86 centipoisea

24.0

Isoamyl acetate

Weight p e r gallon at ZO'C

6.76 lbs approx.

46.2

Water

99.0 125-126

ISOAMYL ALCOHOL FORMS TERNARY AZEOTROPES WITH:

%

6.5

B . P . of Azeotrope *C

Iaoamyl chloroacetate

32.4

Water

48

Isoamyl formate

93.6

95.4

89.8

312

Industrial Solvents Handbook

ACTIVE AMYL ALCOHOL Table 6.96: Physical Properties of Active Amyl Alcohol (37) Acidity ( m g KOH p e r g ) Boiling point Coefficient of expansion p e r 'C Dimtillation: 95% 30% F l a s h point, Open cup Freezing point Heat of vaporization Refractive index at ZO'C Re sidue Specific gravity a t Z0/4'C Viscomity a t 20.C 60'C Weight p e r gallon at ZO'C

0.06 max. 128'C 0.00078 Between 1 2 5 131.C min. Above 130.C max.

-

120.F Lems than -7O'C

100.0 cal/g (calculated) I .4097

0.003 g/100 cc 0.816 5.09 centipoiies 1.44 centipoiscs 6.80 lbm

FUSEL OIL, REFINED Refined fusel oil is a volatile, poisonous, oily mixture consisting largely of amyl alcohols.

Table 6.97: Physical Properties of Refined Fusel 011 (37) Acidity as acetic acid Coefficient of expansion i e r I*C

1'F Color. APHA Distillation range (ASTM) below I 1 O'C below 120.C below 130 'C above 135'C Drynesm

0.01% max.

0.00051-0.0006 0.00092- 0.001 1 No. 10 max. None Not m o r e than 1 5 % Not lems than 60% None A 5 m l . sample is clearly miscible with at l e a s t 19 p a r t s of 60' B6 gas oline at 6O'F

-

Evaporation rate at 95'F

%

Minutes 3.5 17.0 36.5 75 64.75 90 90.25 95 103.5 Moderate 5 25 50

F i r e hasard F l a s h point, Open cup Clomed cup specific gravity at ZO/ZO*C Toxicity Water molubility at ZI'C, 100 c c solvent dissolves Weight per gallon d ZO'C

123.F. approx. 106'F. approx. 0.810- 0.81 5

Highly toxic by ingestion and inhalation 9.9 c c w a t e r 6.76 6.77 lb.

-

Monohydric Alcohols

313

METHYLAMYL ALCOHOL Me thy1 lsobuty I Corb in01, 4-Me th yl pentan01-2,

MlBC

(CH-J)~CHCH~CHOHCH~

Methylamyl alcohol i s a secondary alcohol.

Table 6.98: Physical Propertles of Methylamyl Alcohol (37)

Acidity a s acetic acid

0.005% by wt. m i x .

Heat of vaporization a t I a t m .

98.6 g cal/g

MAC

2 5 ppm in a i r

Azeotrope with water: boiling point, 760 m m . * C methyl amyl alcohol, %w

94.3 55.6

Boiling point a t 760 m m

131.63

Coefficient of cubical expanaion at 2 o * c / * c

0.00103

Color, P t - C o s c a l e

10 max.

Refractive index a t ZO'C, nD

1.4081

Critical p r e s s u r e , a t m .

42.4

Solubility in water at 20.C

1.7

Critical temperature

312.C

Diatillation range, 760 m m

130.0

F i r e hazard

-

131.8.C

Molecular weight

102.17

Non-volatile m a t t e r

0.005 g/100 m l m i x .

Odor

Mild and nonreaidual

Purity, minimum

97.5% by wz

- 1.4113

- 1.87ebywt - 6.2% by wt

Solubility of water in, a t ZO'C

5.8

Specific gravity at 20/20*c

0.8079

Moderate

Specific heat at 20.C

0 . 5 2 g cal/g-'C

Flaah point, T a g open cup Tag closed cup

131.F 106.F

Surface teniion at 2O.C

22.8 dynes/cm

Suspended m a t t e r

F r e e z i n g point

Substantially f r e e

-90.C. seta t o a glass below

-

133.0.C

- 0.8080

2-ETHYLBUTYL ALCOHOL Table 6.99: Physical Propertles of 2-Ethylbutyl Alcohol (37) Acidity a s acetic acid

0.02% max.

Solubility in water at LO'C

0.43% by wt

Boiling Boilinn below below below above

147.0.C

Solubility of water in, a t LO'C

4.6% by wt

None Not m o r e than 5% Not leas than 95% None

Specific gravity at 20/20'C

0.8328

Specific heat at 25.C

0.586 cal/g

Surface tenaion a t 28'C

28.05 dynea/cm

point a t 760 m m ranne a t 760 m m 140'C 145.C 155.C

160'C

Coefficient of expansion p e r 'C Dryness at ZO'C

F l a s h point (ASTM open c u p )

0.000892 to 2O.C 0.000921 t o 55'C Miacible with 19 vol. of 60. Be' gasoline 58.C (137.F)

Heat of vaporization, 1 atm.

196 Btu/lb

Molecular weight

102.17

N m -volatile m a t t e r

0.005% max.

Refractive index at ZO'C

1.4229

Vapor p r e s s u r e aL 20.C

1.2 mm

Viscosity a t LO'C

5.63 cps.

Weight p e r gallon at LO'C

6.93 Ibs

314

Industrial Solvents Handbook

n-HEXYL ALCOHOL n-Hexanol, Hexanol-1,

Amyl Carbinol

Table 6.100: Physical Properties of n-Hexyl Alcohol (37) Acidity a s acetic acid

0.01% by wt

Refractive index a t 20.C. nD

1.4181

Boiling point a t 760 m m 50 m m 10 m m

157.1.C 89'C 60'C

Solubility in water at 2O'C

0.58% by wt

Solubility of water i n , at ZO'C

Boiling range at 760 m m

153 t o 160'C

Specific gravity at 20/20*c

7.2% by wt 0.8203 0.8208

Specific heat a t 16.9.C at 13.C

0.544 Cal/gm/'C 0.500 Cal/gm/*C

Color (F't -Co Scale )

15 max.

F i r e hazard

Moderate

F l a s h point (Open cup)

165'F

F r e e z i n g point

-44.6.C

Heat of vaporization at 1 a t m .

213 Btu/lb

Hydroxyl number

530 min.

Iodine number

1 . 2 min.

Mole c ula r weight

102.17

Odor

Mild

Table 6.101: Solubility of Water In n-Hexyl Alcohol (37)

-

Surface tension at 3n.C

23.6 dynes/cm

Suspended m a t t e r

Substantially f r e e

Vapor p r e s s u r e a t 20'C

0.43 m m

Viscosity ( a b s o l u t e ) a t 20.C

5.4 cps

Water content

Miscible without turbidity with 19 vol. of 60' API gaaoline a t 20'C

Weight p e r gallon a t 20.C

6.83 lbs

Table 6.102: Azeotropes of Hexyl Alcohol (37) HEXYL ALCOHOL FORMS BINARY AZEOTROPES WITH: B . P . of Azeotrope ' C

% 63.5

Anisole

151.0

27

Benzyl methyl e t h e r

156.7

52

Camphene

150.8

56

o -Chlorotoluene

153.5

46

p -Chlorotoluene

154.0

65

Cumeme

149.5

53

2,7-Dimethyloctane

152.5

11

Isoamyl e t h e r

157.0

40

Iaoamyl propionate

156.7

60

Isobutyl butyrate

155.0

45

Me8itylene

153.5

19

Phenetole

157.7

60

,?-Pinene

150.8

55

Propylbenrene

152.5

32

P a e udoc m e ne

156.3

77

Styrene

144.0

a5

m -Xylene

138.3

82

o-Xylene

143.6

87

p-Xylene

137.0

Monohydric Alcohols

315

CYCLOHEXYL ALCOHOL Table 6.103: Physical Properties of Cyclohexyl Alcohol (3 1) Boiling point a t 7bO m m

1 6 l . l ' C (322'F)

Boiling range a t 7 b 0 m m , 5.95%

1 56 - 1 6 3.C

Color, A P H A

10 m a y .

C r y s t a l l i z a t i o n point

-1O'C m i n .

Dielectric constant a t 25'C

15.0

E v a p o r a t i o n r a t e a t 45'C (toluene = 100)

8 approx.

F i r e hazard

Moderate

F l a s h point ( C l o s e d c u p ) (Open c u p )

145'F 154.F

F r e e z i n g point

1 8-25.15.C

Heat of c o m b u s t i o n , liquld

8893 c a l / g

Heat of fusion

4.9 c a t / g

Heat of vaporization

108 c a l / g

Ketone a s cyclohexanone

0.5% rnax.

Phenol

0.05% rnax.

R e f r a c t i v e index a t ZO'C

1.4656

Solubility in w a t e r a t 20%

3.6% by wt.

Solubility of w a t e r in a t L O T

20% by wt.

Specific g r a v i t y a t 20/4'C

0.9493

Specific heat a t 15-18'C

0.417 c a l / g m

S u r f a c e tension a t 16.2.C

34.23 dynes/cm

Toxicity

M o d e r a t e by ingestion and inhalation

Vapor density ( a i r = 1.00)

3.45

Vapor p r e s s u r e a t 20 'C 70 80 100 120 140 150 161.1

0.8 mm 15 27 78 187 398 554 760

Viscosity a t 25 'C 39.1.C 65.9'C 90 'C

49.8 20.3 5.8 2.45

Water

0.5% m a x .

Weight p e r gallon a t 20.C (68.F)

7.91 Ibs.

Table 6.104: Azeotropes of Cyclohexyl Alcohol (31) CYCLOHEXY L ALCOHOL FORMS BINARY AZEOTROPES WITH

%

B. P. of A z e o t r o p e 'C

70

Anisole

152.5

38

Benzyl m e t h y l e t h e r

159.0

59

Camphene

151.9

85

Chloroacetal

155.6

62

o-Chlorotoluene

155.5

p-Chlorotoluene

156.5

8

Cineole

160.55

72

Cumene

150.0

28

Cymene

159.5

25

Indene

160.0

22

Isoamyl ether

158.8

37

I s o a m y l propionate

157.7

80

Isobutyl b u t y r a t e

156.0

35

0-P h e l l a n d r e n e

158.0

60

Propylbenzene

153.8

83

Propyl isovalerate

155.1

40

Pseudocumene

158.0

35

@-Terpene

158.3

22

Thymene

95

rn Xylene

159.8 138.9

86

o-Xylene

143.0

45

-

centipoises cps. cps. cps.

316

Industrial Solvents Handbook

HEPTYL ALCOHOL Heptanol-1, Alcohol C-7

C7H 15 0 H

Table 6.105: Physical Properties of Heptyl Alcohol (31) Boiling point a t 765 mm

175'C

Freezing point

-34.6.C

Refractive index a t LOT, n

1.4233

D

Specific gravity at 25/4*C

0.824

Table 6.106: Azeotropes of Heptyl Alcohol (37) HEPTYL ALCOHOL FORMS BINARY AZEOTROPES WITH:

"h

B.P. of Azeotrope 'C

80

Benzyl methyl e t h e r

167.0

90

Camphene

159.3

53

Cymene

172.5

50

Dipentene

171.7

63

lsoamyl e t h e r

170.4

92

Isobutyl isovalerate

171.0

48

p -Methylaniaole

173.0

72

Phenetole

169.0

60

a-Terpinene

169.7

2-HEPTYL ALCOHOL Heptanol-2, Methylamyl Carbinol 2-Heptyl alcohol i s

CH3(CH2)4CHOHCHQ a

secondary alcohol.

Table 6.107: Physical Properties of 2-Heptyl Alcohol (37)

Acidity as acetic acid

0.03% by wt., max. 160.4.C

Boiling point a t 760 rnrn Boiling range a t 760 rnm, below below below above Color (Pt-Co r c a l e )

155% 158% 162'C 165%

None Not m o r e than 5% Not l e a s than 95% None 15, max.

Dryneas a t ZO'C

Miacible with 19 vola. 60' B6 gaaoline

F i r e hazard

Mode r a t e

Flaah point (Open cup)

160.F

Solubility i n water a t ZO'C

0.35% by wt.

Solubility of water in a t 20%

5.80% by wt.

Specific gravity a t Z ~ / Z O * ~

0.8187

Vapor p r e s a u r e a t 2O.C

1.0 rnrn

Weight p e r gallon a t 2O'C

6.81 lbr.

Monohydric Alcohols

31 7

3-HEPTYL ALCOHOL Heptanol-3

CH3CH2CH (OH )C4Hs

Table 6.108: Physical Properties of 3-Heptyl Alcohol (31) Acidity a s acetic acid

0.02% by \ut.

Boiling point a t 760 m m

156.2.C

Boiling range

153- 1S8'C

Color, APHA (Pt-Co s c a l e )

5

F i r e hazard

Mode rate

F l a s h point

140.F

Freezing point

-70.C s e t s to g l a s s below

Specific gravity at zO/ZO*C

0.8224

Vapor p r e s s u r e at 20.C

0.58 m m

Weight per gallon at 20.C

6.84 lbs.

2-ETHYLHEXYL ALCOHOL 2-Ethylhexano1, Octyl Alcohol

Table 6.109: Physical Properties of 2-Ethylhexyl Alcohol (37) Acidity a s acetic acid

O.Ol%, max.

Heat of vaporization, 1 atm.

Aldehydes

None

Molecular weight

Boiling point a t 760 m m

184.8.C

Refractive index a t 20.C.

Boiling range, below 18O'C above 192'C

None None

Solubility in water at 20.C

0.10% by wt

Solubility of water in, a t 20.C Specific gravity a t 20/20.c

0.8339

Coefficient of expansion per ' C Color, APHA

0.000875 t o 20.C 0.000902 t o 55.C 5 max.

167 Btu/lb 130.22

nD

1.4316 2.6% by wt

Specific heat a t 25.C Surface tension at 22'C

0.564 cal/gm/'C 0.2% max.

30.0 dynes/cm

Constant -boiling m i x t u r e , solvent 20% water 80%

b.p. 99.1.C

Unsaturates.

Vapor p r e s s u r e at ZO'C

0.05 m m

F i r e hazard

Slight

Viscosity at 2O.C

9 . 8 cps.

F l a s h point, Open cup

185.F

Weight p e r gallon at 2O'C

6.94 lbs

F r e e z i n g point

-70.C s e t s t o glass below

a8

ethyl hexanol

n-OCTYL ALCOHOL n-Octanol, Octanol-1

Table 6.110: Physlcal Properties of n-Octyl Alcohol (31) Acid number Boiling point a t 760 m m

0.2 max. 195'C (383.F)

Boiling range a t 760 m m

194

Color, dichromate

0.002 m i x .

E s t e r number F i r e hazard F l a s h point (Open cup)

Molecular weight

130.22

Refractive index a t 20'C, "D

1.42920

Solubility in water a t 25'C

0.059 g p e r 100 g water

1 . 3 max. Slight

Specific gravity a t 20/4'C

0.827

Viicosity at 2O.C

8.925 centipoise

195'F

Water

0.25% max.

-

197'C

Freezing point

-15.C (5.F)

Heat of combustion

9690 cal/g

Hydroxyl number

415

Iodine number

1.3 max.

- 440

318

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 6.111: Azeotropes of n-Octyl Alcohol (37)

OCTYL ALCOHOL FORMS BINARY AZEOTROPES WITH:

%

B . P . of Azeotrope 'C

80

N, N-Dimethyl-o-toluidine

184.8

88

Indene

182.4

85

Iaoamyl isovalerate

70

Iaobornyl methyl e t h e r

192.6 191.9

80

Iaobutyl carbonate

189.5

92

d -Limonene

177.5

20

Phorone

193.5

90

7-Terpinene

182.5

93

Thyme ne

179.6

sec-OCTYL ALCOHOL Table 6.112: Physical Properties of sec-Octyl Alcohol (37) 85% G r a d e

95% G r a d e

Boiling range f i r r t 5% 90% Denaity, I b i p e r gallon

6.8

6.8

F i r e hazard

Mode r a t e

Slight

174

173 178

- 181.5'C

-- 178'C 18L.S.C

F l a a h point

164'F

185'F

Hydroxyl n u m b e r

376

408

- 388

Melting point

-

414

-38'C

Methyl hexyl ketone content Mole,cular weight Refractive index a t ZO'C Specific gravity a t 2O'C Water content

- 15% I .4244 - 1,4252 0.814 - 0.820 1.0 - 1.2% 10

L e r i than 5%

130.23

130.23 1,4258

- 1.4262

0.818 a t 25.C

0.3

- 0.5%

Table 6.1 13: Azeotropes of sec-Octyl Alcohol (37)

s e c -0CTYL ALCOHOL FORMS BINARY AZEOTROPES WITH:

%

B . P . of Azeotrope 'C

I4

Amyl e t h e r

179.8

50

Butylbenzene

178.2

89 73.5

Butyl irovaleratc

177.4

Cineole

175.9

Cymene

174.0

56 40

Indene

176.0

28 83

Iaoamyl butyrate

180.3

h o a m y l ether

172.7

55 73

d -Limonene

174.5

a-Terpinene

171.8

43

T e rpinolene

179.0

48

Thymene

176.0

Monohydric Alcohols

319

ISOOCTYL ALCOHOL Table 6.1 14: Physical Properties of lsooctyl Alcohol (37)

Acidity a8 acetic acid Carbonyl number Cozfficient of expansion p e r 'C Color (Hazen, P t - C o ) F i r e hasard F l a a h point ( T a g open c u p ) P o u r point Purity

0.001% by wt

0.000814 5 Slight 18O'F -95'F

Refractive index at 2O.C. nD

99.5% by wt 1.4308

Solubility in w a t e r at 25.C a t 50'C

0.06 g/lOOg 0.08 g/lOOg

Solubility of w a t e r in, at 5'C ZO'C 40.C

3.4 g/IOOg 3.8 g/lOOg 4 . 1 g/lOOg

Specific gravity a t zo/2o*c 60/60*F Specific heat, 50 150.C

0.832 0.834

-

Surface tension at 20'C Vapor pressure. *C 'F 50 122 75 167 100 212 125 257 150 302 175 347 180 356 'F Viacosity. 'C 37.8 100

0.10 m g KOH/g

20.0

68

-9.4 -17.8 -31.7

15

o

-25

Water Weight p e r gallon at 60'F

0.79 cal/g/'C

NONYL ALCOHOL Table 6.115: Physical Properties of Nonyl Alcohol (37)

Aldehyde content

0.30% by

Boiling point a t 760 mm

173.3.C

Color, Saybolt Distillation (ASTM), initial

30 193'C 196'C 198'C 201.C Z06'C

5%

50% 95% max.

wt

~

F i r e hazard

Moderate

Flaah point (Open cup) F r e e z i n g point

80.C (176.F)

Heat of vaporization ( L v ) , 100.F 300'F 400 *F Mixed aniline point

-65'C 22,000 Btu/lb mole 19,000 Btu/lb mole 17,400 Btu/lb mole -15'C

Neutralization number Refractive index at LO'C, nD

0.02 m g KOH/g

Solubility in water a t 20.C

0 . 0 6 % by wt

Solubility of w a t e r in, a t 20.C Specific gravity at Z O / ~ O * ~ Vapor p r e s s u r e at 20.C

0.99% by

Viscoaity at 0.C at 20'C

56.0 cpa. 14.3 c p s .

Weight p e r gallon a t ZO'C

6.75 lba

1.4390

0.8121 0.3 m m

wt

29.5 dynca/cm mm 1.95 8.4 30 94 250 600 700 Centistoke8 6.4 12.7 51.3 84.4 224.2 0.02% by wt 6.95 lba, approx.

320

Industrial Solvents Handbook

3,5,5-TRIMETHYLHEXYL ALCOHOL Table 6.1 16: Physical Properties of 3,5,5-Trimethylhexyl Alcohol (37) Boiling point at 10 m m 760 m m

83.C ( 1 8 1 . F ) 194'C ( 3 8 I ' F )

Boiling range at 760 m m , firmt drop 90% dry Color ( APHA)

190'C 194 f 1'C 195.5.C

Flaah point (Open cup)

ZOO'F

Freezing point

Below -7O'C

2 5 max.

Molecular weight

144.25

P u r i t y (by hydroxyl n u m b e r )

97.5% min.

Refractive index at 25'C, nD

1.4300

specific gravity at tSj4.C

0.8236

Viacority at 25'C

11.06 centipoise.

Water content

0 . 1 5 % max.

Weight p e r gallon at 25'C

6.86 l b r

DECYL ALCOHOL Table 6.117: Physical Properties of Decyl Alcohol (37) Oxo Process Acidity

Fatty acid Process

0.0015% by wt.

Acid number

Solubility in water at 20'C Solubility of water in at 20%

0.20%. max.

Boiling point at 760 mm

217.3.C

231'C (448.F)

Boiling range a t 7 6 0 m m

21 9-22 1.5%

90% between 229-233.C

Coefficient of expansion a t 55.C

0.00086

Color. Hazen P t - C o

5

Specific gravity at

2.3% by wt.

~ o / ~ o * c0.837-0.840

Sulfur

Substantially f r e e

Vapor p r e s s u r e . 0.003 m u . , Dichromate

Lese than 0.1%

F i r e hazard F l a a h point (Open cup)

Slight

Slight

225.F

22 0 9 ~

Freezing point

Sets to a g l a a s

6 . P C (44.F)

Heat of combumtion

9963 cal/a

Hydroxyl number

345-365

Iodine number

0.5 max. 158.28 -95'F 99.7%-99.9% by wt.

158J8

P o u r point Purity Refractive index at 20%. nD

1.1388-1.4390

1.43682

*F mrn

"C 75 100 I25 150 175

1.3 max.

below -6o'C

0.829 at 20/4)'C

4 ppm. max.

Suspended m a t t e r

Ester. a s decyl f o r m a t e E a t e r number

Fatty Acid Process

Less than 0 . 0 1 2 by wt.

0.2 max.

Aldehydes. am decanal

Molecular weight

Oxo Process

200

167 212

2.1

257

28.2 82 225

302 347 392

'C

'F

99 20 9.4 -17.8 -31.7 -40.0 -53.9

210

Viacoslty,

-

68 I5 0 -25 -40 -65

8.4

500 Centiatokes 1.76 21 115 209 701 1649 8826

Water content

0.03-0.07%bywt.

Weight per gallon a t ZOC ' 60'F

7.03 Iba. 6.96 Iba. approx.

13.83 centipoimes

0.25%

Monohydric Alcohols

321

ISODECYL ALCOHOL Table 6.1 18: Physical Properties of lsodecyl Alcohol (37) 0.002% by wt., max.

Aridity a s a c e t i c acid Aldehydes, a s dccanal

0 . 0 5 % by wt.. max.

Boiling point at 7 6 0 mm

zzo.1.c

Boiling range a t 760 m m . Ibp DP Coefficient of expansion a t 55'C

Z25'C, max.

Z15'C, min. O.OC083

Color, ( P t - C o s c a l e )

10, m a x .

F i r e hazard F l a s h point (Open c u p )

Slight

F r e e z i n g point

S e t s to a glass below -6O.C

22O.F

Molecular weight

158.29

Odor

C h a r a c t e t i s t i c , non-petroleurn

P u r i t y , a s decanol R e f r a c t i v e index a t ZO'C.

98.5% by wt., min. n

D

1.4408

Solubility i n w a t e r a t ZO'C

L e s s than 0.01% by wt.

Solubility of w a t e r in a t 2O'C

2.4% by wt.

Specific gravity a t 20/20

0.8423

S u l f u r i c acid t e s t ( P t - C o s c a l e )

50, m a x .

Suspended m a t t e r

Substantially Cree

Vapor p r e s s u r e a t 2O'C

Less than 0.01 rnrn

Viscosity a t 20.C

18.9 c p s .

W a t e r content

0 10% by wt.. rnax.

Weight per gallon a t 2O'C

7.01 l b s .

TRIDECYL ALCOHOL Table 6.119: Physical Properties of Tridecyl Alcohol (37) Acidity a a acetic a c i d

0.002% by wt

Carbonyl n u m b e r

0.7 m g KOH/g

C o l o r , Hazen, Pt-Co

5

'C

'F

99 20 9.4 -17.8

210 68 15 0 -25 40 -65

Viscosity,

~

Distillation: initial d r y point

252'C 269'C

Fire hazard

Slight

F l a s h point ( T a g open c u p )

i8O.F

Hydroxyl n u m b e r

278 mg KoH/g

Odor

Characteristic, non-petrolcum

P o u r point

-95'F

Purity R e f r a c t i v e index at ZO'C. nD

99.6% by w t 1.4475

Specific g r a v i t y at 20.C

0.8454

Sulfur Vapor p r e s s u r e ,

'C

'F

90 100 125 150 175 200 225 250

194 212 257 311 347 401 437 491

2 PPrn mm 1.3 2.2 7.6 24 64 155 340 685

-31.7

-40.0 -53.9

-

Centipoiee8 2.61 47.5 382.2 808.3 3,692 11.081

95,433

Water

0.10% by wt.

Weigh4 p e r gallon a t 60'F

7.0 lbs.

322

Industrial Solvents Handbook

OTHER ALCOHOLS AND ALCOHOL BLENDS Table 6.120: ALFOL Alcohol Low Range Blends C6-C,, ~

.

~~

Typical I'roperties Iblal alcclh(l1,WI. '6 Molccular weigh1 distrihution (Io()% alcohol hiisis) c4 C6

~

.-

cx

~

~

100°F

Coefficient of thermal expansion Ib/gal/" F

____

. .. ... . .

610 A l W

610 ADIS X I 0

X__ I 0 lEli

YY.X

99.x

99.6

W.6

4 .X

4.8 54.4 40.1 0.7

9.0 42.1 47.8 0.5

45.1 53.2 0.5

X9.l 0.3

0.5

-

-

-

trace

-

135

I38 0 0.02 0.05 407 30 0.002

145 0 0.02 0.02 387 30 0.003

153 0

010 ~

-

43.2

~

CIO c12 C14 Average alcohol MW Calor, APHA Water, WI. %I Iodine number Hydroxyl number Carbonyl. a% ppin C=O Aciditv. as acetic acid. '6 Acid Heat Color, APHA Specific gravity at O F/" F F l s h point, (PM) O F Melting range. F Boiling range, I: Saponificationnumber Viscosity, cSt 70" F

(40)

~

S1.3

0.7 liiice I40 0 0.03

30 0.002

0 0.03 0.05 415 30 0.002

IO

-

10

0.824 77/77 I75

0.830 60/60 I75

0.829 60160 I67

0.05 40 I

1-5

1-5

0.19 II 6.4

350-460 0.27 II 6.6

35W60 0.19 II 7.1

0.00334

0.00334

0.00334

1-5 S51-459

_____XI0 A I 9Y.X 99.7

0.6

0.1 0.0 10.5 ~. 40.4 .

40.5

141 0

.

0.03 0.02 397

0.02 0.02 367

BO

BO

0.003

0.003

-

-

-

0.831 60/60 I88 3-7 401459 0.4 13.4

0.831

0.831

W60

W(fl

7.4

0.0()3!5

203 200 3-7 3-1 400-460 400-160

-

-

16.3 x.7

1.2

0.00334

0.003 17

13.5

I -

Table 6.121 : ALFOL Alcohol Pure Homologs C,-C,, __

-.___

'Qpical Properties btal alcohol, Wt.% Molecular weight distribution (100% alcohol basis) C6 C8 CIO c12 c14 C16

C18 c20 Average Molecular Weight Color, APHA Water. Wt.% Iodine number Hydroxyl number Carbonyl, as ppm C=O Acidity, as acetic acid, % Specific gravity, at F P F Flash uoinc. (PM) 'F Melting range. 'F

Boiling range, 'F saponificationnumber Viscosity, cSt 70" F 100" F Coeffcient of thermal expansion Ib/gaVF

(40) -~

10 99.8

6

8

99.4

99.9

99.4 0.6 trace trace

trace 99.9 0. I

-

-

-

-

I02 0 0.04 0.05 545 28

I30

0.001

0.8232

60/60 I30 49 3 13-3 I6 4.04

-

0 0.03 0.03 430 12 0.001 0.8293

3.5

60/60 180 1-3 381-385 4.04 10.5 6

0.00376

0.00351

5.5

0.5 99.3 0.2

158 0 0.02 0.05 351

I 0.001 0.8335 a6 i0 235 43-45 448453

4 . 0 4 14.5

9 0.00334

(continued)

Monohydric Alcohols Table 6.121: (continued) __-______ Typical Properties __ Total alcohol, WI % Molecular weight dimbution (100% alcohol haw) C6 C8 CIO c12 C14 Cl6 CI8 c20 Average Molecular Weight Color, APHA Water, WI.% Iodine number Hydroxyl number Carbonyl, as ppm C=O Acidily, as acetic acid, % Specific gravity, a( FI0 F Flah point, (PM) O F Melting range, 'F Boiling range, 'F Saponification number Vimsity, cS1 70" F IOO" F Coefficient of thermal exDansin lb/rdW

__

-

~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

~

lGNF 99.8

12 99.8

14 998

99 8

-

-

-

-

01 99 6 0.3

trace 04

-

-

-

0.3

trace 0.3 98.7 0.7

trace 0.3 98.7 0.7

-

-

16

323

18 99 6

IRNV

99 6

-

-

0. I 0.3 98.4 0.9 27 1

187

214

242

242

0. I 0.3 98.4 0.9 27 I

5

5

5

5

5

5

0.01 0.05 299 8 0.005 0.83

0.02 0.03 258 29 0.003 0.815 12w120 290 98-1 02 567-573 0.07

0.02 0.18 227

0.02 0.18 227

64

64 0.01 1

0.02 0.33 207 24 I 0.008 0.81 I

-

0.01 I 0.813 125/125 300 118-121 626-631 0.06

-

113-122 626-63I 0.06

0.02 0.33 207 24 I 0.008 0.81 1 140/140 355 132-136 662-670 0.1

-

-

-

15

I20F/18

12OF/I8

160F/I3.5

16OF/I 3.5

0.003 17

0.003 17

0.00317

0.00309

0.00309

99.4

-

-

60/60 265 13-76 490-498 0.04 80F/ I9 12.3 0.00325

Table 6.122: ALFOL Alcohol High Range Blends C,-C,

0.813 125/125

300

140/140

355 131-140 662-670 0.1

(40)

Tv~lrvlPronetlies

lOlZIi.4

lO14CDC

1214

1214CC

1216

1216 CO

Toial Almhol, WI. 4

99.8

99

99.5

99

99

99.7

0.I 0.6 56.5

(race

0.8 68.2

0.3 64.3

0. I 0.4 67.2

42.2 0.6

30.3 0.7

24 11.4

H~rnlalugDistribution. WI. Lx

a

0.6

CIO c12

x7.5 6.X

31 36.6

C14 C16

S

31.2

0.I

C18

urn

25.3 6.8 0.2

c20 c22 C24 C26 C28 C30 Avg. Molecular Wight

Color.APHA Water. Wt. 'A Iodine nunibei Hydroxyl number carbonvl. DITTI C.0

-

164

186

I98

I95

203

198

0 0.02

0 0.05 0.07 302 123

0 0.08 0.05 284 45

0 0.06 0.05 287 21

5

5 0.04 0.08 284 47

0.04 343 31

0.0s 0. I 216 40

Spedfi Gravity "FIO F Flash Point (PM) F Melting Range, F Boiling Rangc. 'F

0.834 7272 137 354 425-525

0.836 7272 250 4145 454-545

0.838 72/72 265 7&75 518-575

0.838 7272 265 70-75 518-575

0.84 72/72 265 63-70 514-592

0.84 12/72 265 63-70

Wseosiiy, CSI

10.4 100

12.5 100

14.3 100

14.3 100

14.5 100

14.5 100

0.03321 0.I clearcolorI s r liquid

0.003 0.1

0.003 16 0. I dearcolorI s r liquid

0.00316 0.18 clear&. lcss liquid

0.00316 0.5

0.00316 0.18 dcarmlorless liquid

Temperature, F

Coeficimt of Thermal Expansion,Ib/gsVF Saponification number Appearance

dear&lsr liuid

c!armlor-

lm liquid

529-590

(continued)

324

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 6.122: (continued) Typical Pmpcrtin Told1 A h b l .

Wt.$I

1218DCM

1412

1416GC

1418DDU

1418GM

1618

1618CC

1618GC

20+

99.6

99.7

99.8

99.Y

99.8

99.6

99.6

9R.5

88.5

bre

Homolog Dislribution.WI.9c

-

a

lrscc

bre

CIO

c12

0.5 38.3

0.5 37.7

0. I 6.3

C14 C16 C18

30 19.8 10.8

60.6 I .2

63.4 29.8 0.4

c20 c22

0.6

-

@ace

-

0.1

0.6

tme

trace

39.5 38.7 19.6

66.4 25.6 7

I .3 61

35.7

0.6 31.9 66. I

0.6 66.2 31.4

ISM20

0.4

2

1.4

1.6bcN)

C24 C26 C28 C30 Ave. Molecular Weirlit

214

205

222

Color.APHA Water. Wt. Q Iodine number Hydmxyl number Carhyl. ppm C=O

5 0.06 0.1 I 262 48

5 0.06 0. I 274 48

Specific Gravity OF/' F

0.84 72/72 275 68-73 S25-W

0.839 72/72 270 72-75

0.819

0.835

110/110

525-585

0.822 lWl00 305 95-99 582-638

2% 97-102 598459

15.0

14.4 100

11.5

100

100

14.6 I IO

0.00313 0.18 dear &I-

0.00314 24 wt. % at 24 'C)

Slightly soluble:

Nylon 11 (0.2 wt. %)

* a duPonl "SOIuble" nylon

Table 6.143: Salt Solubillty (wt. %) In Trlfluoroethanol at 25°C (25) Salts Inorganic salts are slightly soluble trifluoroethanol containing 0.2% water. The same salts are bout 2 to 3 times more soluble in the alcohol containing 5% water. This combination of alcohol and water is convenient for conductometric titrations and organic ionic reactions. SOLUBILITY (WT.%) IN TRIFLUOROETHANOL AT 25°C Water Content

LiCl

NaCl

NaF

KI

KBr

CaCI,

0.2%

2.3

0.03

0.007

5.0%

4.2

0.08

0.02

0.9 2.1

0.3 0.6

0.04 0.12

Table 6.144: Solubility of Gases in Trifluoroethanol at 27°C (25) Gases The simple gases have solubilities in trifluoroethanol which are similar to their solubilities in water. SOLUBILITY OF GASES IN TRIFLUOROETHANOL AT 27OC (ml o f qasiml of Iiqiiid)

-

Table 6.145: Vapor Pressure vs. Temperature (25)

Industrial Solvents Handbook

338

Table 6.146: Freezing Point: Trlfluoroethanol-Water (25)

Mol % TrMluoroithanol

Table 6.147: infrared Spectrum (25) CU-' 0

a000

2'

a00

b 00

.IO

20

30 40

so a0

m I O

m 12 0 11".,.

)I.

WAVLLEMGltI LYICROIISI

PI...",.

1H,l HJH-TETRAFLUORO-1 -PROPYL ALCOHOL Table 6.148: Physical Properties of 1H,1H,3H-Tetrafluoro-l -Propyl Alcohol (37) Acid number Boiling point at 760 rnrn Denaity at LO'C Dietillation range at 760 rnrn

0.82 I09 - IlO'C 1.4853 g/ml 90% between 99.5' and 108..5'C

Fluorine content Formula weight

57.5% 132.06

Hydroxyl number

398

Melting point

-15.C

Moisture content

0.40%

Purity

> 95% 1.3197 27.6 dynes/cm

Refractive index at LO'C, nD Surface tension at ZO'C

Monohydric Alcohols

339

1Hll H15H-OCTAFLUORO-1-PENTYL ALCOHOL Table 6.149: Physical Propertles of 1H,l H15H-Octafluoro-1 -Pentyl Alcohol (37) Acid number Boiling point at 760 m m

0.70 140

Density a t ZO'C Distillation range. ASTM. at 760 mm Fluorine content

1,6641 g/ml 90% between 133.0' and 14l.O.C

-

141'C

65.5% 232.08

Formula weight Hydroxyl number Moisture content

224

Purity

> 95%

Refractive index at LO'C, nD Surface tension at LO'C

24.5 dynes/cm

0.08%

1.3190

BENZYL ALCOHOL Table 6.150: Physical Propertles of Benzyl Alcohol (37) Acidity a# benzoic .acid Aldehyde as benzaldehyde Boiling point Chlorine as benzyl chloride Dielectric conatant Distillation range, lbp 5% 90 % 95% Electrical conductivity at ZS'C

F i r e hazard Flash point (Open cup) Freezing point Heat of combuation

Latent heat of evaporation a t 204.25'C

11 1.5 8 gm ral/gm

20 5.3%

Mulecular weight Refractive index a t 2O.C.

108.13 1.5334-1.5397

0.15% m a .

Solubility in water

0.15% mu. 0.50%

mu.

n

D

1 part in 30 parts of water

1.66 195.C min. ZOCC 207.C LlO*C mu. 18 x lo-' recip. chmr.

Slight 213.F

1.044-1.058

Specific gravity at 25/25*c Specific heat at 15-2O.C

0.5402 cal/gm

Surface tension (c. g. a. unit.)

39.71 Slight

Toxicity Vapor presaure a t 30% Viacoaity at 20.C Weight per gallon at L O T

0.100 mm 0.05582 cp..

9.78 lbs.

-15.3.C 893 kg cal/mole

Table 6.151: VELSICOL Benzyl Alcohol (59) Benzyl Alcohol, Reagent Grade Benzyl Alcohol is a clear, colorless liquid with a mild, pleasant aromatic odor. It is a primary alcohol with reactive methylene and nuclear hydrogen. The reagent grade is a high purity material with analytical utility.

SPECIFICATIONS Assay, (G.C.), % minimum Solubility, in 25 ml water at 25T, g Benzaldehyde content (U.V. determination), 7% maximum Halogen (Beilstein Test) TYPICAL PROPERTIES Boiling Point, 5 mm Hg, ,'F/ 500 130(54) 7.67(.92)

Outstanding Characteristics Clear, pale color; piney odor; high solvent activity; excellent wetting, penetrating, and dispersing properties; high bactericidal activity when properly formulated; uniform.

(continued)

352

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 6.173: Hercules TERPINEOL (28)

TERPINEOL^^ 101

Natural Tertiary Terpene Alcohol TERPINEOLTM 101 is a natural, high-purity grade of the tertiary terpene alcohol alpha-terpineol. Derived by fractional distillation of oils extracted from pinewood, it is a water-white, oily liquid at normal temperatures with an odor suggestive of lilacs. Its chemical nature, pleasant floral odor, and surface-active properties account for its usefulness to the essential41 industry and to manufacturers of disinfectants, household and industrial soaps, detergents, cleaners, and other chemical specialties. General Sales Specifications H e r c v l n T n Mohalrucsr.d.blo

m rqu9YIy

Specific gravity at 15.6/15.6'C,min Tertiary alcohols, min, % Moisture, max, % Color, Hazen (APHA), max Appearance

0.935 94 0.6 70 EFFM'"

(a) Essesenlially Free of Foreign Mallei

Typical Properties Specific gravity at 15.6/15.6"C Tertiary alcohols, % Moisture, % Distillation range, "C(7)

0.9410 96 0.2 219 (426) 220 (428) 20 90 (194) 99% by might 26WC 2530'C WO'C WOOC

26o.oO'c

(petuky Marten# dacd

M Acidity (u hydrorblorlc Pad) wa(u N n l h t

?hen01 combill

UO'F (11S'Cj 0001% by weight

0001% by weight 002% by might 002% by mmt

486

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 10.42: Miscellaneous Alkyl Aryl Ethers (2) These ethers are generally high-boiling, water insoluble liquids of pleasant odor, miscible w i t h a variety of organic solvents and commercial oils, fats, waxes and resins. Physical Properlies Formul.

2gyc

G;Kty

mim ~~. 0.993

yyp

~~

Methyl Phenyl Ether (Anisole) n-Butyl Phenyl Ether Aniyl Phenyl Ether p-tert-Amylphenyl Methyl Ether p-tert-Amylphenyl-n-Amyl Ether Amyl Benzyl Ether Amyl Tolyl Ether Amyl beta Naphthyl Ether Amyl Xylyl Ether

CHiOCJI,

15&160

120

202-212 180 C,H,OCJL 214-229 185 C,H,!OCJI, C I H ~ ~ C B ~ O C H Z235-243 210

0.929 0.924 0.942

164.1

C L H ~ ~ C ~ H I O C L285-295 I I ~ ~ 260

0.9%

234.2

CIH~IOCH~CJII CJL,OC;H,CHz CIH!tOCnH~ CsHzIOCtHz(CHds

224-239 175 %Is264 I95

320-350 310 2 S 2 6 3 205

0.912 0.916 1.01 0.907

Table 10.43: Furan (77)

HS-5H HC C H 'd Furan i s a cyclic dienic ether stabilized by benzene-like resonance. Because of its conjugated unsaturation and heteroc y c l i c atom, furan w i l l undergo many types o f reactions. I t is, therefore, o f interest as a chemical intermediate for pharmaceuticals, insecticides and fine chemicals. The heterocyclic oxygen atom i n a ring w i t h conjugated unsaturation gives furan a combination of ether, aromatic and olefinic characteristics. This polyfunctionality permits i t to undergo a variety of reactions. Compared to benzene, the furan ring has greater reactivity, and i s more susceptible to cleavage, thus resembling the vinyl ethers. Like the vinyl ethers, the furan ring i s cleaved by aqueous acids. This reaction i s accompanied by resin i f ica tion . PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Physical State Liquid Color Color l e s s Odor Characteristic ethereal S p e c i f i c G r a v i t y a t 20°/40C. 0.937 Freezing P o i n t -85 .6loC. (- 122. 10°F .) Vapor D e n s i t y 0.170 lb./cu. f t . B o i l i n g P o i n t (760 mm.) 31.3OC. (88.45'F .) F l a s h P o i n t (Tag. c l o s e d cup) -32'F. R e f r a c t i v e Index n20/D 1.4214 Molecular Weight 68.07 Flammability o r Explosive L i m i t s 2.3-14.3 v o l . % i n a i r Heat o f V a p o r i z a t i o n a t 31.2OC. 95.5 cal./gram Heat of Combustion a t constant v o l . 500.1 k g ca 1. / g r am-mo l e 2 14OC. C r i t i c a l Temperature Heat o f Formation a t 25OC. -14.9 kcal./mole S o l u b i l i t y in: Water (wt. % a t 25OC.) 1 Most o r g a n i c s o l v e n t s o o

.-

Table 10.44: 2-Methylfuran (2)

Sylvan

2-Methylfuran i s a c y c l i c diene possessing ether-like properties. It i s highly reactive w i t h many inorganic and organic compounds yielding a variety o f new derivatives which await exploration for the development of commercial applications.

(continued)

Ethers

487

Table 10.44: (continued) Appearance Odor Molecular weight 1)oilirrg point nt 760 m m Prccxing point Specific gravity, 204C./4'C. Iiidex of rcfruction, N20/D Flash point Vapor prcasurc at 15'C. (59°F) 20'C. (88'Y)

25'C. (77'F) 3O'C. ( W F ) Solubility in wnkr nt 25'C

Colorleas, tnolilc liquid 1Slhcr-like 82.098 6 2 4 ' C (144-47°F) 4 ° C (- 126.1'F) 0.816 1.434

-3O'C (-22°F) 110.5 mm 130 mm 174 mm 216 mm Less thnn 0.3 gm/IW gm

Table 10.45: Tetrahydrofuran ( 1 1)(49) Product information

Tetrahydrofuran (THF, tetramethylene oxide, diethylene oxide, 1,4-epoxybutane, tetrahydrofurane, oxolane) is an industrial solvent widely recognized for its unique combination of useful properties. DuPont THF is better than 99.9% pure with a small (0.025-0.040 wt % ) amount of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 4-methyl-2,6-di-tertbutyl phenol) added as an antioxidant. Tetrahydrofuran is a cycloaliphatic ether and is not "photochemically reactive" as defined in Section k of Los Angeles County's Rule 66 (equivalent to Rule 442 of the Southern California Air Pollution Control District). THF has an ethereal odor. Physical Properties of Tetrahydrofuraq

Molecular Weight Boiling Point (760 mmHg). "C ("F) Freezing Point, "C ("F) Vapor Pressure, 20°C (68% mm Hg (kPa) Density, Liquid, 20°C (68"F), g/mL (mg/m3) Ib/gal Vapor (air = 1) Evaporation Rate In-butyl acetate = 1)

72.108 66 (151) -108.5 (-163) 143(19.1) 0.888 7.41 2.49

8.0

Viscosity, 20°C (68"F), CP(MPas)

0.48

Surface Tension in Air, 25°C (77"F), dynlcrn (mN/m) Refractive Index, n f

26.4

Heat of Vaporization (at bp), cal/g Btu/lb kJ/kg Heat of Combustion (-Aha at 25°C (77OF) liq kcal/mol Btu/lb kJ/g Specific Heat, Liquid, 20°C (68°F). cal/g.C (Btu/lb,F) kJ/kg.K 50°C (122°F). cal/g.C (Btd1b.F) kJ/kg.K Vapor, 66°C (151°F), cal/gX (Btu/lb.F) kJ/kg.K

1.4073 95 171 398 598.4 14938 34.72

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, 10-20°C. av/"C 50-68"F. avPF Flash Point (TCC),"C

(OF)

Autoignition Temperature, "C ( O F ) Flammability Limits i'n Air, 25°C (77°F). lower upper Critical Temperature, "C ("F) Critical Pressure, atm (MPa) Dielectric Constant, E, 20°C (68°F) 30°C (86°F) Conductivity, 25°C (77°F). p mhoslcm p S/m Dipole Moment, p, 25-50°C (77-122OF1, Debye Units Solubility Parameter, 6 Hydrogen-Bonding Index, y Miscibility: water, esters, ketones, alcohols, diethyl ether; aliphatic, aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons

0.001 26 0.00070 -14.4 (6) 321 (610) 2 11.8 268 (514) 51.2 (5.19) 7.54 7.25 0.01 5 1.5 1.6 9.1 5.3

Infinite

0.469 1.97 0.496 2.090 0.37 1.55

(continued)

488

m

0

s

8

H

0 0 v

H

H

8 51

Industrial Solvents Handbook

C

e

J

r

g

2

::

0

5:

P

8

r c

e c c"

r

0

t J In

t

B

n

Temperature, "F

s:

0 N

s!

0

z

.t

N

rn

0 N

h

Ethers

489

Table 10.45: (continued) Flash Points o f Tetrahydrofuran-Water Solutions (by Setaflash Closed Tester)

Combustible

Flammable

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 io 0 Rei.: Culver, L. J.. "Modern Paint and C0atings:Vol. 71 (1981). No. 10. pp. 145-149. (C. A. 96(10) 70460F)

%THF

Tetrahydrofuran-Soluble Plastics. Resins, a n d Elastomers Acrylic Resins Methyl methacrylate polymers Ethyl, butyl, and other methacn/late polymers Acrylic polymers and copolymers Alkyd and Amino Resins Alkyd resins Urea formaldehyde resins (uncured) Phenol formaldehyde resins (uncured) Cellulosics Cellulose acetate Cellulose acetate butyrate Cellulose acetate stearate Ethyl cellulose Nitrocellulose Miscellaneous Resins Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrenecopolymers Styrene-acrylonitrile copolymers Chlorinated polyethylene Polycarbonates Polysulfones Epoxy (uncured) Silicones (uncured) Polyesters (low molecular weight) Polyamides (low molecular weight) Polystyrene Styrene-butadiene copolymers (some)

Elastomers Sutadiene-acrylonitrile copolymers (some) Chlorinated rubbers Chlorosulfonated polyethylenes Polysulfides Polyurethanes (uncured) Rubber (natural, unvulcanized) Chloroprene elastomers Vinyl Resins Polyvinyl acetate Polyvinyl butyrate Polyvinyl butyrals Polyvinyl chloride Vinyl chloride copolymers Vinylidene chloride copolymers Vinyl acetate/ethylene (some) Natural Resins Congo ester Coumarone-indene Raw dammar Ester gum Manila copal Pentaerythritol ester gum Rosin Shellac (many)

(continued)

490

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 10.45: (continued) Vapor-Liquid Equilibria of Tetrahydrofuran

+ Water (760 mmHg)

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 0

0.2

0.4

0.8

0.6

1.o

Mole Fraction THF in Liquid

Chemical Structure (49)

Typical Properties (49) m

Tetrahydrofuran (mol. wt.

-

72.1)

C.A. No. 109999. Other common names are: Diethylene Oxide 1.4-Ep~xybutane Oxacyclopentane Oxolane The G 4 F product assays better Illan 99.8% and is stabilized with 0.025% of the antixidant BHT (4-melhyl-2,6di-left-butylphend).

Water Content (wt%)___

OMlKU __-. _-_0 015 max 0 025-0 04 005max 66"Cw,,,(151 'F) ______________ -lOsS"C(-163 F) _____ ______--_ -

--

-.

Peroxides (as THF-hydroperoxide,wt%) Statnlizer (wt%) Other Immirities

Fling Pant Freezing Pant

-

Qqud Densty (20°C) Vapor Oenslty (ar 1) Specific Grawty (20/4"C) vlscoslty (20°C) -____ Surtacc Tensm (25°C) Relractive Index (nom) cceffilent of Cutxal Expansion (lo-20°C) Flash Pant (Tag closed cup) Fbmhlity Lirmts (%mi in air 25°C) Ignition Temperature Specihc Heat (cal/g/"C) for Lquid

Specrlc Heat (cal/g/ "C) for Vapw Latent Heat 01 Vaponzatim (cal/g, 66°C) Cntical Temperature Critcal Pressure Heat 01 Cwnbustion (kgcal/mde) Heat d Formation (kgcal/mde) b p d e1(25-S"CL

_. __

-

-

-___

_.

_.

ORB8g/cc(741 Iblgal) 256calc 0886-0889 0 53 cps 26 4 dynes/cm 1 4073 Oo0129Av/°C(Ooo070Av/"F) -14 4°C (6°F) 2 (lower). 11 8 (upper) 321"C (610°F) 0 469 cak at 20°C. 0 496 calc at 50°C 0 37 calc at 66°C 98 1 Calc 2 6 8 T (514°F) 51 2 atm 597 CalC -527 calc 17Debye 758 15x10' 80 9 1 calc 53

Cdnducttwty (mhos/cm, 25°C) Evgmalion Rateln-butyl acetate 1) Wutnlity Parameter Hydrogen-Bonding Index MiscihtiW with water, alcohols, diethyl ether. esters, ketones.'allphatic, aromatic. and chlorinated hydrocarbons inlinite There &la ue

ol cwrenl p r o d u c ~ LNJI UE nd nec88mW spscl(lCall0n.

(continued)

Ethers Table 10.45: (contlnued) High Solvont Capacity for Roalna Many THF applications are based on its solvent capacity lor resins. including high-molecular-weightvinyls For example THF IS the solvent-of-choice for PVC pipe welding and bonding of other molded items Vinyl lopcoating formulations, e g lor automobile roofs and upholstery Magnetic tape binder systems Thermoplastic polyurethane coatings Printing inks for plastics Polyurethane adhesives for shoes Polyester laminating adhesives Polymer reactor cleaning

.

.. ...

PVC, CPVC, polyvinyhdene,and vinyl chloride copolymers dissolve readily in THF at room temperature Solutions wdh high solids content and workable viscosities can be prepared Many other resins, elastomers, and uncured polyurethanesand epoxies are soluble The list includes

Extradon W e n t THF is an excellent extraction solvent for many natural products, including alkaloids. fats, waxes, rubbers, and resins The following natural resins are soluble in THF Congo ester coumarone-indene ester gum dammar manila copal pentaerythritol ester gum rosin shellac A 66" boiling point allows refluxing in normal water-cooled systems without loss of THF, it also simplifies separation and recovery of the desired product Mixtures of THF and water are especially effective solvents for alkaloids, such as caffeine

Typical Range of Reain 8duMlltka In THF va MEK

Resin Type

Wt% Realn for 2500 cpa, 25.C THF MEK

Polyvinyl Chloride' Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloridez Poly (Vinyl Chloride/VinylAcetateY Polyurethane' PolyvinylideneChloride5

13-20 16 27-40 17 44

__ - '"Exon" 654 (Firestone) "Geon" 121, 101, 103EP (Goodrich) PVC-71 Dispersion (Diamond Shamrock) WC Pearls 2200. 2250 (Escambia) "Marvinol" 10 (Uniroyal) "Vinylite" QYNV (Union Carbide) "Vygen" 1 10, 120 (General Tire)

c >

iU! Q) u < ~ :9 5 :E u

541

-0 Q) :J c: '.:; c: O .£

I I I

a>

»'>

cn:r:r z~:r >-»> 0)0)0)

::>::>::>

0:0:0:

0:0:0: 000

uuu

'"'"'"

:0:0:0

a> a> "0"0"0

000 000 I~~~

Q)I

Glycol Ethers

--I 00; c:C: ","'

~N , Q) r--c NNE Q)", =~ Q)(.) Q)Q) aJaJ

.2.2.2 -0;-0;-0; ~~~ OIOIC1 01

===1 ~~~I

l

I X;. >!D

~a: Qj

=
.>.

I~ >. u


cn ',9!; 0. 0. ~ (/) c '0 nI a:

ccc

:0Q) ~ c ; c o E.. ., ~ ... ... Q) :0 IG ..-

542

W

0

I

N 0

I 0

I 0

0 P

Industrial Solvents Handbook

r 8

0

U 0

-

m

h

Q-

f ln

? W ln

E a

c

E

Glycol Ethers

543

0 v)

u

m L

m

U

E .c

e

544

tu

.-t

Industrial Solvents Handbook

1

m

cnm

IN

- I N N W

mim

i

cy

L

Q

.-Io .-+ 2

3

2 0

X

a w

n

c

Q

z

0 Q

B

> J

za U

Glycol Ethers 545

546

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 11.64: (continued)

.Blfth Defects

Thymic Atrophy I

PNB

PTB

pph

LOAE

NOAE

1,000

N1.F

I ,OO(

1,000

1,000

N1.V

%,OOO

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

1,000

NLF

1,000

1,000

NI,F

370

740

?,000

N1.F

3,000

-

145

225

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

3,000

NLF

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

LOAEL NOAE

LOAEL NOAEL

145

22s

N/D

N/I)

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/I>

N/1>

N/D

N/D

mr:

3,00c

NLF

3,000

NLF

3,000

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

560

2,800

2800

-

14.5

560

560

NLF

2,000

NLF

2,000

NLF

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/I>

N/D

N/D

N/D

2,000

NLF

2,000

NLF

2,000

NLF

300

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

-1,800

NLF

-1,800

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

1,176

NLF

1,176

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

-

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

1,524

NLF

755

NLF

600

NLF

600

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

Inhalation (ppm)

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

700

NLF

700

Dermal (mg/kg/d) Oral (mg/kg/d)

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

1,140

NLF

1,140

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

1,000

NLF

1,000

Inhalation @pin)

990

NLF

990

NLF

709

NLF

709

Dermal (ing/kg/d) Oral (ing/kg/d)

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

iV/D

-

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

Inhalacion (ppm)

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

Drrinal (nig/kg/d) Oral (mg//kg/d)

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

1,000

NLF

1,000

N/D

N/D

N/D

-

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

300

NLF

300

NLF

300

NLF

300

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

-5,000

NLF

-5,000

hVI>

N/D

N/I)

N/D

1,000

NLF

1,000

Iiih:il;ition

DPM

NOAEL

(ppin)

Derinal (nig/kg/d) Oral ( i i i & / d )

-

(continued )

Glycol Ethers

I

DPNP

DPNB

D~TB

TPM

TPE

TPNB

EM

EE

Dennal (mg/kg/d)

N/I)

N/D

N/D

N/I>

Oral (nig/kg/iI)

N/I)

N/D

N/I)

N/D

N/I) N/I)

Inllalation (ppin)

N/I>

N/D

N/I>

N/D

N/I) N/I)

N/D

N/I)

N/I)

N/I)

910

NLF

910

NI,I‘

i,ooo

NLF

1,000

NIJ

N/D

N/I)

N/II

N/l>

N/I)

010

NLF

N/I) N/I)

Dennal (ing/kg/d)

910

NLF

910

NLI;

oK1i (mg/:/kg//d)

N/I>

N/D

N/D

N/I)

1,000

Ni,r;

Inhalation (ppin)

N/1)

N/I>

N/D

N/I>

N/I>

N/1>

N/D

N/1>

N/I)

N/lI

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/II

N/Il

N/D

N/D

N/l)

N/I)

I)ernlal (nig/kg/:/d)

N/I)

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

Oral (tllg//kg/

N/D

N/1)

N/I)

SA)

Inhalati~in(I,pin)

11‘1

I19

NISI:

11(J

N1.F

I20

NLF

120

NFI,

Dernul (mg/kg//d)

N/II

N/D

N/D

10,000*

N1.F

-10,000’

NLF

-10,000‘

N1.F

Oral (nig/kg/d)

N/1>

NLF N/D N/I)

N/D

N/l>

5/11

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/I>

N/I)

Inhalation (ppm)

N/D

N/D

N/I)

S/l)

N/D

WI)

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/I)

N/D

Oral (mg/kg/d)

N/D

N/D

N/D

S/I>

S/I)

N/D N/D

N/I) N/D

N/I)

Dermal (mg/kp/d)

N/I) N/D

N/D

N/D

N/I)

S/II

Inhalation (ppm)

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/Il

WD

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/II

N/Il

N/D

N/D

1,000

NIJ

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

1,000

N U

1,000

NLF

10

50 250

30 NVF

100

30

100

650

30 N/D

100

NNF

N/D

N/D

A’/D

250

NNF

31

io

100

10

50

“F

10

50

100

400

100

370

S/I)

N/D

NNF

-250

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

1 .OOO

150

300

N/D 93

N/D

NhTF

I85

N/I)

N/I)

i0i

N121:

25

77

4oi

NI,F

N/D N/D

N/D

Oral (nig/kg/d)

N/D

Inhalation ( p p i ) Deniial (mg/kg/d)

NNF

50 250

Oral (mg/kg/:/ti)

31

Inhalation (ppm)

50

10

h’/D

N/D

Dermal(mg;kg/d)

100

Dennal (mg/kg/d)

NNF

175 -250

O r d (ing/kg/d)

Nh’F

200

200

NLF

25

CO

Ilernlal(mg/kg/d)

1,176

NLF

1,176

SLI;

360

NLF

150

180

i60

NI,F

Oral (iii$kg/J)

1,180

NLF

30

100

885

NLF

80

90

88C

SLI;

Inhalation (ppni)

EB

N/D N/I)

N/II

NID = No Data NNF = No NOAEL Found (Lowest dose tested caused the effect) NLF = No LOAEL Found (Highest dose tested did not cause the effect)

547

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Glycol Ethers Table 11.65: (continued)

3

7

37

21

15

3

>loo

>loo

>loo

>loo

>io0

>loo

>loo

>loo

3

1

loo

>loo

>loa

Diethanolamine oleate

>loo,

>loo

>loo

>loo

I >loo

>1M)

Triethanolamine laurate

>1W

22

18

68

90

58

67

80

>loo

>io0

>loo

>1w

>1w

I >loo I >loo

Triethanolamine oleate

>loo

>loo

>1w

Triethanolamine stearate

15

6

5

21

13

5

.loo

37

15

>loo

>loo

>1w

>loo

>loo

Monoisopropanolamine oleate

>loo

>loo

>io0

>1w

>loo

>loo

>loo

>loo

Monoisopropanolamine stearate

1 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 4 1 < 1 1 < 1

Triethanolaminetall oil

I >loo I >loo I >io0 I >loo I >loo I

Mixed lsopropanolamine tall oil

>1w

>loo

>loo

>loo

>loo

Potassium oleate

>1w

>loo

>loo

-

>loo

loo

>1w >loo >1w >loo >loo 1

1

-

Resin Solubility+ COMPOUND

I

PM

1

DPM

I

TPM

I

PMA

I DPMA I

I

PPh

I

EB

DB

I

OM

I

EPh

Acrylic Acryloidl 6-66

D E R 657

CellUlOtlc CAP-482-0.5 CAB-381-2

Vinyl UCAR VYHH

* Tiademark 01

.. .* .. .. .. .. . . . . 0

0

0

0

.

.

The Dow Chemical Company

' Acryloid Iradomarh 01 Rohm 6 Haas Company llsdemark 01 E I OuPonl de Nemours & Comprnv Cyme1 Trademark 01 American Cyanamid Company Dermodur Trademark 01 Farbenlabriken gayer AG 5 Chempol Trademark 01 Freeman Chemical Corporalion 6 UCAR Tiademark 01 Union Carbide Corporation Soluble buI no1 rccommended lor use 2 flvxlte

0

.

0

0

0

.

.

.

*

Olssoldd gel particles Parllally so1uble many u n dlssol~ed011 particles insoluble

(continued)

549

550

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 11.65: (continued)

PM

1

DPM

I

TPM

I

EB

Composition of Titrant, Volume % DB DM sec-butanol

I

I

I

I

isobutanol

[

ml to couple1

n-butanol

32.8

100

I

I

I

I 7 5 1

I

2

11

I

5

41 .O

50

50 25

75

42.1

100

I

1

1 5 0 1

1

1

I 2 5 1

1

2

I I I

5

1

I I I

42.5

I

I

I

I

I

1

I

7

1

I 0

11

I

5

0

I

75

50

1

I

75

11 11 11

58.3

60.9 61.8

95.8

I

I

I

I

I

I

100

11

104.6 230.0

100 1

48.8

82 1

25

100

I

34.2

Milliliters 01 product required to titrale IO ml 01 mineral spirits and 10 ml 01 water Io a clear homogeneous solution at 25°C

Evaporation Rates of DOWANOL Products OOWANOL PM DPM TPM PMA

(BuAc = 1.00)'

OOWANOL

(BuAc = 1.00)

0.71

EC-300

0 21

0.02

E6

0 08

260 >260 >260 >260

52a

pt

Flash points measured by the closed cup method. ASTM D-56

59a 60a 61a

582

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 11.70: CARBOWAX Polyethylene Glycols (19)

Typical Physical Properties of CARBOWAX Polyethylene Glycols and Methoxypolye iylene Glyc 01s g/cc 80%

Welting or Freezing Range, “C

iolubility in Water a t 20°C. % bywt

Viscosity a t 210°F. cSt

Average Number of Repeating Oxyethylene Units

~~

iEl -15 I l l h -1 to h

43 58 73 15 1 10 8 15 3

400 -

380 t o 420

I 1255

I0931

1.0763 1.0766 1.0769

540 Blend (a) 600 900

468 to 534 570 to 630 855 to 945

ih) 11258 (hl

10930 10931 10926

1.0765 1.0767 1.0763

38 to 41 20 to 2 3 32 tu 36

950 to 1050 1305 t~ I595 3015 t u 3685

lh)

1.0927

1.0765 1.0761 1.0769

37 to 40

1000 1450 3350 4000 4600 _ _8000

3600

ill1

j

ill1

I

I.0‘119 1.0926

I .(I769 I .I1764

44oi

xo

17 2 26 5 90 8

Id)

1-10 4 IS3 9 S2I 7

17 i O ( 1 18)

1.03‘)2 (cl

lS.655

135 t o 365 525 IO 575 715 IC1 785

1.0173 I .05 15

I800 IO 22OI1

I.0707

4175

I0742

to

4140 t(> 5060 7000 io ‘)OOIl

Cornpciiind 20M

350 550 750 2000 5000

I

111

1.11595

5625

Surface Tension at 25°C. dvnes/cm

Product

I 06x9

Liquid

lefractive Index,

Specific Heat at 25°C.

Heat of Fusion,

I

(conti nued)

..

0

0

m

0

N 0

0

Glycol Ethers

N

0

583

584

0

r

Industrial Solvents Handbook

0

N v)

0

r

0

::

w a

wI

Glycol Ethers 585

H w N

w 0

..

0

rc F F

586 Industrial Solvents Handbook

vi 0

..

0

rc r r

PD J 0

al J

m

aO 0 o w

r

0

c

J

Glycol Ethers

8 0

5:

H 5: N

s 5:

587

588

$

8

F:

7

0

0

-

a 0

w

Industrial Solvents Handbook


450

1460

io60

881

200

0470

PPG-24 Glycereth-24

9082-00-2

1122

4900

- 18'

20000

lcbo

445

60

455

1455

1028

856

200

0430

PPG-66 Glycereth-12

CAS # 53637-25-5

EP530 2000

- 32'

1450

321

168

25

>420

1452

1017

846

192

-

Poloxamer181

CASU

9003-13-8

1910

Polyglycol copdm

CASU

51258-15-2 CASU

a Designates properties not applicable lor solids b At 50' * Pour Point ' Cosmetrc Tortetry and Fragrance Association

Solubility of Additional Liquids in Polypropylene Glycols Appmxlmrta Solublllty, Volumo VO

Diethanolamine' Diethylene Glycol' EthyleneGlycol'

P425 ____-___ _ _ _ _ _P1200

Glycerine'

loo > 100 43 20

_'I

Not Iwnpleieiy miuble

___

Ins

= IrlmluMe

--___

rnm

12-18 1-7

12-18 1 --7 12--18 > 24 > 24 1 -7

80

0" 70 40 50

201' Ins

HLBa Value 25' C

- ..

1-7

-_

Glycol Ethers

623

GLYCERINE ETHERS Table 11.75: Glyceryl a-Monomethyl Ether (2) &-Monomethyl Ether of Glycerine

CH30CH2CHOHCH20H

Glyceryl %-monomethyl ether i s a colorless liquid, soluble i n benzene, ethyl alcohol, glycerol and water but insoluble i n gasoline and carbon tetrachloride. I t i s a solvent for rosin, and when mixed with butyl acetate i s compatible with nitrocellulose. I t may be used as a selective solvent and i n the manufacture o f alkyd resins.

90% between 21 5-220°C

Boiling range a t 745 mm Refractive index, n

2 5"

D

1.442

Specific gravity a t 25/25"C Weight per gal

1.1 147 9.29 Ib

Table 11.76: Glyceryl a,y-Dimethyl Ether (2) 0,y-Dimethyl

H3COC H2CHOHCH20CH3

Ether of Glycerine

Glycerine &,y-dimethyl ether i s a water-white liquid soluble i n benzene, gasoline, carbon tetrachloride, ethyl alcohol, water and glycerine, but insoluble i n linseed o i l and other fixed oils. I t i s a solvent for rosin, cellulose acetate and when mixed with butyl acetate i s compatible with nitrocellulose. I t has use as a solvent and plasticizer. Iloiliny r m g c :it i 3 6 n m .

90% between 164-liO"C

Spceilic gravity at 25/25'C Weight per @iI

1

.xu

8 36 11)s

Table 11.77: Glyceryl a-Mono-n-Butyl Ether (2) 9-Mono-n-Butyl

C4H90C H2C H O H C H 2 0H

Ether of Glycerine

a-Mono-n-butyl ether of glycerine i s a colorless liquid, soluble in benzene, gasoline, ethyl alcohol and carbon tetmchloride, but only slightly soluble i n water and glycerol. I t i s a solvent for rosin and ester gum and may be used i n the preparation o f varnishes made with these substances. I3oiling range e t 18 mrn. Refractive index, n

250 D

Specific gravity at 25/25'C Weight per gal

90% between 133-137'C 1.434

0.945 7 87 Ibs

Table 11.78: Glyceryl a-Monoisoamyl Ether (2) C5H,, OCH2CHOHCH20H

a-Monoisoamyl Ether of Glyceryl

a-Monoisoamyl ether o f glyceryl i s a colorless liquid which generally contains small amounts of other amyl isomers. I t i s soluble i n benzene, ethyl alcohol, halogenated hydrocarbons, carbon tetrachloride, gasoline, linseed oil, and other fixed oils and, i n certain amounts, soluble i n glycerol and water. I t i s a solvent for rosin and, when mixed with butyl acetate, i s compatible w i t h nitrocellulose. I t may be used as a solvent i n the preparation o f alkyd resins and in the synthesis of ester derivatives. Boiling range at 745 nun Refractive index, N

E D

Specific gravity at 25L2S.C Weight per gal

90% between 252-28o"C

.a

1

OS7

8.22 Ibs

624

Industrial Solvents Handbook Table 11.79: Glyceryl a,y-Diisoamyl Ether (2) a,Y-Diisoamyl

C5H1 ,0CH2CHOHCH20C5H,

Ether o f Glycerine

Glyceryl a,y-diisoamyl ether i s a water-white liquid which may contain small quantities o f other amyl isomers. I t i s soluble in ethyl alcohol, benzene, gasoline, carbon tetrachloride and linseed oil, but insoluble in water and glycerol. It i s a solvent for ester gum and rosin and has use as a solvent and plasticizer. Boiling range a t 10 mm

9% betwean

147-153'C

D

Refractive index, n 2.5.

1.m

Specific gravity at 2.5/25% Weight par gal

7.62 Ib

0.903

Table 11.80: Miscellaneous Glycerine Ethers (2) Glycerine ethers range widely from low-boiling liquids to high-boiling =lids. The solubility varies equally from complete water miscibility to complete water insolubility. The following l i s t s these glyceryl ethers with their density and boiling points.

Glyceryl- Ether u-Isoamyl n,

7-di-koamyl

-d

b.p. (or m.p.)

0.987:; 0.908:;

137-8. 251-In 147-53s

m

u-Benzyl

1.196::

lUst

a-n-Butyl

0.946;:

l23-7-

1.063

231% 190 103-58

Cresyl u-Ethyl u ,7-di-Ethyl

tri-Ethyl Epiethylin Glycidol u-Methyl @-Methyl U ,7-di-Methyl tri-Methyl Epimethylin mono--Naphthyl mono-@-Naphthyl u-Phenyl

0.92Ch 0.886': 0.941:

1.1143,' 1.1147:: 1.003;:

181n 128-9 41 I 1loll 221n 69.5-70.5tt 164-70,-

0.937*: l.oCa,

laen, 113-4no m.p. 91-2 m.p. 109.10 185-7,s 15044

m.p. 534 287-8 m.p. 80-1 m.p. 58 m.p. 76 m.p. 83 1156.4

U ,7-di-Phenyl

u-o-CI-Phenyl U-p-CI-Phenyl mon0-2,4-di-Nitrophenyl Epiphenylin

1.03s:

u-Propyl

1.W4'

U ,7-di-Isopropyl

0.915~

:

118-22,a 112-3

U , 7-di-n-Propyl

215-7

mono-p-To1yl

m.p. 734

"C.

Ketones

ACETONE CH 3 -CO -CH 3

Dimethyl Ketone, Methylacetyl, Propanone-2

Acetone is a colorless, limpid, mobile, h y g r o s c o p i c , flammable l i q u i d h a v i n g a mint-like o d o r .

Table 12.1: Physical Properties of Acetone (47) Typical Properties Molecular Weight Color ( P t C o Scale). max Weight!Vol. IOOC, Iblgal (U. S.) kgllitre lblgal (Imperial) Solubility, 20°C. wt ?? In water Water in Evaporation Rate (n-butyl acetate = 1) Dilution Ratio, toluene VM & P na.>htha Refractive index, 20°C Vapor Pressure, 20°C. mm Hg Specific Gravity 2Oo/2O0C

Table 12.2:

Boiling Range. 760 mm. "C Initial Boiling Point. min Dry Point, max Freezing Point. OF ("C) Flash Point. Tap. Closed Cup, OF ("C) Tag Open Cup, "F ("C) Fire Point. O F ("C) Flammable Limits in Air, o/c by volume Lower Upper Autoignition Temperature (ASTM D-2 1553, OF ("C) NFPA Classification 30 DOT Classification DOT Lahels Required

58.08 5 6.59 0.79 7.91

Complete Complete 7.7 4.6 0.55 1.3589 180 0.792

Low Temperature Characteristics of Aqueous Solutions of Acetone

625

(79)

55.1 57.1 -138 (-95) -4 (-20) -2(-19) -2 (-19) 2.6 12.8 1000 (538)

IB Flammable Liquid Flammable Liquid

626

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 12.3: Solubllity of Various Materials in Acetone (44) S0i.r

RILITY

UI

Superfine nrenge shellac Superfine shellac T \ shellac, \ o I T \ shellnr, \ o 2 4 C gnrnet Refus Inc

_-.- -

SHEI.I.UT IN ICETONE

------

-

1

---

-

\I*TPER

I'ER('K:IITAl.E OI' AC'KToSE I\nOl,l'Bl.K

98 8 02 8 05 6 0s 8 81 '3 G3 0

I

- --

ISIN IN^

IS \ a H i O L s

PER C E , ~I,V)L~QLI ACITOII

TYPE

I

K.iui1, pide l u u r i , brou n h.iuri, I,ush llosin Ilurguiidy pitch St oc I, holm t .ti \lilstlC Ruriilnrjc .\fnd.lg~lSCLlCOlJal, f U S d

i

1 '

Chiiianood oil Coconut oil (rehned and bleached) Corn oil ( r a a ) Cottonseed oil (rehiied and bleached) Cot tonseed oil (hydrogriiated, Crisco) Cot tonseed oil ( h j drogenated) Cottoosecd oil (stearin) Cottonseed 011 (summer) Cottonseed oil (\\inter) Fish oil (herring, titu) Fish oil (h~drogeiiated) Fmh o i l (menhaden. m u ) Grease, broun Grease. garbage Grease, n hite Ihnseed oil, ran

hl' M'

97 0

M-niiscible in all proportions. M'-miscible in coneentratcd solutions with separation on dilution. SOLUBILITY OF WSTM GU\IS I N

\CETOYE

PI.

SOLUBILITY OF

~

AsPHaLTs

AND

BITUMENS I N ACETONE

5.8 58.4 62.4 70.4 62.4

F a t t y acid pitch, medium grade Gilsonite selex Grahamite Mexican petroleum asphalt, steam-distilled. medium grade Mexican petroleum asphalt, steam distilled, soft grade Petroleum *asphalt. steam distilled, Californin, rnediuin grade Residual oil froin Gulf Coast Rcsidual oil from steani distillrtion of mid-continental

hl

M hi .\I

l.3 8 998 06 4 '99 6

m

rn

51

y~8 YJ 7

0i J

4 hf .\I-rniscihle 111 all proportions rn-pnrt soluble a t 25°C is miscible in all proportions.

Trinidad pitch, relined

1MI 095

030

E> 0.85 W

u

Y-

E

on 0.75

0.70 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

ACETONE, per clnt by night

70

80

54.3 25.0 1.6 44.2 64.3

81 .0 G1 0

97.2 5.9 42.0

Table 12.4: Specific Gravity of Aqueous Solutions of Acetone at Different Temperatures (79)

5

IOL"UI1LI A 7 BOILIN0 P O l h I 01 K I T O N E

YlXllllLtTI

I

i

czvr

Arabic gum Indian gum Senegal gum Tragacanth, Allepa Tragacanth, Persian Tragacanth. Turkey

--

TIP*

Congo Manila, soft Elemi Yncca Sandarac Sierra Leone Borneo pontianac Batavia dammar Red, accrodites

8 90 :I8 i o 20 i o SOlUl,lC Soluble Solut,le !I 50 Sulul,lr RI 80

.

SOLUBII.ITY O F COPALI ~ E S I N SI N ACETONE

-.

90

100

Ketones Table 12.5: Surface Tension of Aqueous Solutions of Acetone at 25°C (79)

80

70 60 Y) (v

bc

50

r

0

=- 40 E!

E 30

v)

W

u

,4 20 a a

cn

10 r r l r l t r l r r l l l l l l l l l

1 1 1 l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I ' I i I I I l l 1I i l I

l~Ai-t-iI

0 0

10

20

30

I i I ' I i l I ' I

40

50 60 ACETONE, per cent by weight

70

80

I l l

90

100

Table 12.6: Viscosity of Aqueous Acetone Solutions at 25°C (79)

1.50

125 u 0

v) (v

c

m

v)-

1.oo

W

E

0

c

2

0.75

W

u

g v)

0.50

0

u II

>

0.25

0.o 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

ACETONE, per cent by weight

70

80

90

100

627

628

Industrial Solvents Handbook Table 12.7: Refractive Index of Aqueous Solutions of Acetone at 25°C (19)

..".

1.36

1.35

1.34

1.33

1.32

10

0

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

ACETONE, per cent by weight

Table 12.8: Liquid-Vapor Equilibria for Aqueous Solutions of Acetone at Different Pressures

100

98

96

94

92

90 80

82

84

86

88

90

92

94

ACETONE, mol per cent in liquid phase

96

98

100

Ketones Table 12.9: Freezing Point of Aqueous Solutions of Acetone (79) 100

E 80 D

i

0 -100

-90

-80

-70

-50

-60

-30

4 0

-20

0

-10

TEMPERATURE, "C

METHYL ETHYL KETONE CH 3-CO-C2H 5

MEK, Butanone-2, Ethyl Methyl Ketone Methyl ethyl ketone is a colorless, stable, mobile,

flammable liquid with an odor like acetone

Table 12.10: Physical Properties of Methyl Ethyl Ketone (2)

Azcolropic Mizlurer % by 11.

Methyl ethyl ketone

37.5 73 84.7 29 40

40 12 60 20 70 52 55 75 45

%by It.

B.P. ( '0

62.5 27 15.3 71 60 60 82 40

78.4 77.5 45.9 73.8 73.0 72.0 77.0 74.8 77.6 77.5 79.3 79.5 55.5 70

Benzene Lcrt-Butyl alcohol Carbon disulfide Carbon tetrachloride 1,3-Cyclohexadiene Cyclohexane Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Ethyl sulfide bopropyl alcohol Methyl propionate Propyl formate Propyl mercaptan Thiophene

80 30 48 45 25 55

Ternary Miztures B.P. ('0

(1) Methyl ethyl ketone (2)

Upper layer of (2) Lower layer of (2)

22.2 17.8 19.0 3.5

Water

3.0 8.9 0.4 96.4

CCL, C,HI

74.8 73.8 80.0 0.1

Typical Propertier and Specifiatim Boiling point a t 760 mm 79.0'C 0.00076 per "F Coefficient of expamion Electrical Conductivity 1.0 x 10-' ohms a t 25% Explosive limits 1.97%-10.2% Flaah point (Tag Cloaed Cup) 257 Freesing point -88.40c Heat of combustion 582 Cal./mole Latent heat of Vaporization a t P'C 108.0 cal./g Refractive Index, N P / D 1.3788 Solubility of water in solvent at P*C 10% by wt. Specific gravity a t P / P 0 C 0.805-0.837 Specific heat 0.55 cal./g Surface tension 0°C 28.9 dynes/sq cm P 24.0 40 22.3 76 18.4 Viscosity a t 15'C 0.00123 poise Weight per gallon a t P'C 6.72 Ibs. Acidity (M acetic) 0.0025 by wt. (mu.) Distillation range (ASTM) m0a.5~c 3 mg. per 100 ml. ( m u . ) Non-volatile matter Purity W O

05.7 88.9

629

630

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 12.11: Methyl Ethyl Ketone and Water (74)

METHYL n-PROPYL KETONE

CH~*CO*CH~*C~HS

Pentanone-2

Commercial methyl n-propyl ketone, produced synthetically by dehydrogenation of the corresponding alcohol, consists of a mixture of methyl n-propyl and diethyl ketones i n the approximate ratio of 3 to 1, and contains at least 97% of these ketones, the balance being secondary amyl alcohol. It i s a colorless liquid, soluble i n alcohol and ether but only very slightly soluble i n water.

Table 12.12: Properties of Methyl n-Propyl Ketone (41)

Typical Propertie8

Molecular Weight (C,HloO) Branched-Cham Ketones, wl % (max) Color (Pt-Co Scale), max Evaporation Rate (n-butyl acetate = 1) Weight/Vol at 20°C Ib/gal ( U S ) kglL Ib/gal (Imperial) Solubility at 20°C. wt % I n water Water in Dilution Ratio. toluene VM 8 P naphtha Refractive Index at 20°C Vapor Pressure at 20°C. m m Hg

86 13 10 15 23

6 72 0 81 8 06 31 42 39 10 1 3904

27 8

0 807 Specific Gravity at 20°/20'C Boiling Range at 760 rnm " C 101 Initial Boiling Point m i n 105 Dry Point. max -122 (-86) Freezing Point. 'F ( " C ) Flash Point. Tag Closed Cup, 'F ("C) 46 (8) 50 (10) Tag Open Cup, OF ('C) 50 (10) Fire Point O F ("C) Flammable Limits i n Air. 46 by volume 1 56 Lower, at 94OF (34°C) 8.7 Upper, at 1 4 4 O F (62°C) 840 (449) Autoignition Temperature (ASTM D 2155) OF ('C) IB NFPA Classification 30 DOT Classification Flammable Liquid Flammable Liquid DOT Labels Required

(continued)

Ketones

631

Table 12.12: (continued) Cornpariron of Solvent Power MPK vs Other Solvents

I

I

lsopropyl Acetatea

Solution Viscositv at 25°C. eP ImPa

'

25

I

. si

I

31.0

6.6

22.8

MEK

14

18.8

3.6

MPK~

16

20.8

4.5

31.5

MIE~K~

23

27.0

5.8

59.2

"an Eastman product bproduct of Du f o n t Company 'product of Uruon Carbide Corporation

METHYL n-BUTYL KETONE Hexanone-2

CH3 * C O eC4Hg

Methyl n-butyl ketone i s a colorless liquid, freely soluble i n alcohol and ether but very slightly soluble i n water.

Table 12.13: Properties of Methyl n-Butyl Ketone (41) Molecular Weight (C,H, ? O ) Melting Point, "C Boiling Point, "C, 760 mm Evaporation Rate (n-butyl acetate = I ) Weight/Vol, at 20°C Ib/gal. (U.S.) kg/liter Ib/gal. (Imperial) Solubility, 20"C, wt % In water Water in Dilution Ratio, toluene VM & P naphtha Color (Pt-Co Scale), ppm Acidity, as acetic acid, wt %

Water, w t % Branched-Chain Ketones, max, wt % Refractive Index, 20°C Flash Point (Tag Closed Cup), "F ("C) (Tag Open Cup), "F ("C) Fire Point, " F ("C) Flammable Limits in Air, % b y volume Lower Upper Autoignition Temperature (ASTM D-2 1 55), "F ("C) NFPA Classification 30:

100.16 -56.9 127 1 .o

6.75 0.8 1 8.10 1.4 2.1 4.0 1.1 5 0.0 1

ICC Labels Required Bureau of Explosives Classification

0.05 5 1.3969 77 (25) 83 (28)

86

1.3 8.0 795 (424) Flammable Liquid, Class IC None Nonhazardous Liquid

Several of the solvent characteristics of Methyl n-Butyl Ketone are listed in the following table. Similar values for other solvents are incluhed for comparison. Solution Viscosity. 25'C. cp

Eastman Solvent

Methyl n.Butyl Ketone

Blush Res., % R.H. @ 80'~ ( 2 7 0 ~ )

Evap.

Rate

I

10

I

I

1.4

I

~

'product of Hercules, Inc. 'prwluct of Firestone Plasrics Cb.

RS. 'h-Sec

~~~

8

m

0

7

Exonb

(30)

Elwire'

Cellulose Nitratea 10 wt x -~

470

2010

Zowtx

2Owt9L

2a

24

65

49

38

83

Cproducrof E, I. du Pont de Nemourr Co., Inc.

632

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 12.14: Solubility of Dry Half-Second R.S. Nitrocellulose in a System of Methyl Butyl Ketone-secButanol-Toluene (2)

METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE Hexone, 4-Methylpentanone-2,

2-Methyl-4-Pentanone

CH3 * CO * C4H9

Although first prepared i n 1849, methyl isobutyl ketone was not made synthetically and on a large scale until the last decades. It i s a stable, colorless liquid classified as a medium boiler. It i s miscible with most organic solvents and with mineral and vegetable oils. When compared with butyl acetate its rate of evaporation i s somewhat faster so that i t can either replace esters or be combined with them. Its rate of evaporation i s somewhat faster than that o f butyl acetate. It i s used i n the vinyl type resins for coatings where i t helps to prevent gelling and lowers viscosity, i n nitrocellulose lacquer manufacture, i n extraction processes and i n chemical synthesis. It moy be used i n dewaxing oils.

Table 12.15: Properties of Methyl Isobutyl Ketone (47) Typical Properties Molecular Weight (C6H110) Color (Pt-Co Scale) max Weight/Vol at 20'C Ib/gal (U S ) kg/L Ib/gal (Imperial) Solubility at 2O'C wt % In water Water in Evaporation Rate (n-butyl acetate = 1) Dilution Ratio toluene VM a P naphtha Refractive Index at 20°C Vapor Pressure at 20°C mm Hg Specific Gravity at 20'/20°C Boiling Range at 760 mm " C Initial Boiling Point min Dry Point max Freezing Point. OF ( " C ) Flash Point Tag Closed Cup OF ("C) Tag Open Cup "F ("C) Fire Point OF ("C) Flammable Limits i n Air % by volume Lower at 200°F (93°C) Upper at 200'F (93°C) Autoignition Temperature (ASTM D-2155) OF ("C) NFPA Classification 30 DOT Classification DOT Labels Required

100 16 10

6 67 0 80 8 00

20 10 16 35 10 13958 15 0 802

114 117 -1 19 (-84) 60 (16) 68 (20) 70 (21) 122 7 96 840 (449)

IB Flammable Liquid Flammable Liquid

(continued1

Ketones Table 12.15: (continued)

Solution Viscosity at 25°C. CP (rnPa.9

FPC 470 Resin" 20 W t / %

Elvacrte 2010 Resfin' 20 Wt/%

30

24

80

49

38

64 83

83

46

33

77

Evap Rate

Blush Res 40 R H @ 8O'F (27°C)

RS '?-Set Cellulose Nitrate'

Methyl Isobutyl Ketone

16

78

lsobulyl Acetate

14

n-Butyl Acetate

10

Eastman Solvent

10 wt

L;

'Product of Hercules Incorporated 'Product of firestone Plastrcs Company Product of Du Pont Company

Table 12.16: Solubility of Miscellaneous Materials in Methyl Isobutyl Ketone at 20" to 25°C (2)

Acid Oleic (Technical Red Oil)

Gums Elemi Kauri (Pale Bold) Mastic Pontianak

Oils Castor, Refined Raw Cottonseed, Raw China Wood Coconut, Crude Fish, Processed Linseed, Purc Raw Mineral, 70f80 viscosity Pine Soybean, 2-3 viscosity

Resins, Natural Dammar (dewaxed) Batavia Singapore Light Rosin Sandarac

.--

Tmde N m r

-

'PYP

Modified drying type phthalic alkyd Ainterlac 80-X.. . . . . . Rosin modified maleic alkyd Amberol 801 Modified maleic Arochem 519 . . . .. Aroclor 1260 . . . . Chlorinated diphenyl Non-heat-hardening 100% para-phenylphenol resin askelite UR-254 ., Phenolic modified drying type alkyd No. 1 Solid I3eckosol Beckosol 1313. . . . . Drying type alkyd Beetle 2274.. . . . . Unmodified urea-formaldehyde Modified rosin ester Cellolyn 102 . . , , , . Rosin ester Ester gum. ...... Ethyl methacrylate . . . . . Acrylic ester Non-drying type alkyd Glyptal 2477 Melmac 245-8 . , . . , , Unmodified melamine-formaldehyde Neville R-21 (soft) . Unmodified coumaroneindene Naphthene polymers Nevillite 1 . . . . Nitrocellulose.. . . . . . . . . Cellulose rater Parlon X (ZO c p . ) . . . . . . Chlorinated rubber Phenac €48.. . . . . . . Modified phenolic Santolite K... . . . . . . . Alkyl-arybulfonamide-formaldehyde Saran F-120 . . . . . . . . . . . . Vinylidenechloride-acrylonitrilecopolymem Staybelite . , . . , . , . , . , . . , Hydrogenated rosin ester Teglac 2-152. . . . . . . . . . . . Roain modified maleic alkyd Vinylite AYAF. . . . . . . . . Polyvinyl acetate Vinylite VMCH.. , . , . . , . . Maleic modified vinyl chloride-vinyl acetats COpOlYmer8 Vinvlite VYHH. . . . . . . . . . . Vinyl chloride-vinyl acetats copolymera

633

634

Industrial Solvents Handbook

METHYL n-AMYL KETONE CH3(CH2)4-C0*CH3

Heptonone -2

This ketone is o colorless, stable liquid, miscible with most lacquer solvents ond only very slightly soluble i n water. It i s used as a high-boiling solvent for nitrocellulose and i s particularly applicable i n vinyl resin finishes, where its slow rate o f evaporotion prevents quick drying, improves the flow and gives blush resistance; also used with some effect i n insecticidal preparations.

Table 12.17: Properties of Methyl n-Amyl Ketone (47) Typical Properties

114.19 20

Molecular Welplit (C, H,,O) BrancliedChain Ketones wt % max Color ( P I C OScale), max Evaporation Rate (n-butb I acetate = 1) W e i g h t i ~ o at ~ . zoOc lbinal (L S 1 kg!L Ib/gal (Imperial) blubilit) at ?O°C, wt :: In water Water in Dilution Ratio, toluene VM & P naphtha Refracti*e Index at ZO'C Vapor Pressure at ?O°C. mm Hg

IO 0.4 6.80 0.81 8 16 0.46 1.31 3.9 1.? I.4085 2.14

Specific Cram[\ at 2O0/2O0C Boiling Range at 760 rnrn OC Initial Boiling Pomr min Dr! Pomt max Freezing Point "F e C ) Flash Point, Tap Closed Cup "F ("0 Tap Opeii Cup "F ("C) Fire Point 'F C C ) Flammable Limits in Air,% by volume Louer, at I SOOF (66'C) Upper,at 2SO'F (12I'C) Autoignition Temperature (ASTM D 215S), 'F ('C) NFPA Classification 30 DOT C l a d i c a t i o n DOT Labels Required

0817 149 153.5 -27 (-33) I O ? (39) 114 (46) 115 (46)

I I1 19

740 (393) I1 Combustible Liquid None

COMPARISON OF PROPERTIES OF HIGH-BOILING SOLVENTS

'product of Hercules Incorporated

Eastman pmducr

'prcducr of Union Carbide Curpmrron

METHYL ISOAMYL KETONE CH3-CO-CsH 1 1

MlAK

M l A K i s a retarder solvent, having an evaporation rate o f 0.5, but i t olso possesses exceptional solvent power for most film-formers. In lacquers, the low evaporation rate of MlAK promotes good flow ond leveling properties; whereas the high solvency provides low viscosities or permits a higher nonvolatile content.

Table 12.18: Properties of Methyl Isoamyl Ketone (47) Typical Properties Molecular Weight (C, H,.,O) Color ( p t C o Scale), max WeightNol, 20°C. Ib/gal (U. S.) kdlitre Iblgal (Imperial) Solubility. 2OoC, wt R I n water Water in Evaporation Rate (n-butyl a e t a t e = I ) Dilution Ratio. toluene VM & P naphtha Refractive Index. 20°C Vapor Pressure. 20°C, mm Hg Specific Gravity, 20"/20"C

114.19 10 6.76 0.8 1 8.14

0.5 1.2 0.5 4.1 I .2 1.4069 4.5 0.81 4

Boding Range, 760 mm, "C Initial Boiling Point, min Dry Point. max Freezing Point. "F e C ) Flash Point. Tag Closed Cup, "F ("C) Tag Open Cup, "F ("C) Fue Point, OF e C ) Flammable Limts in Air, R by volume Lower, at Z W F ( W c ) Upper, at ZOOOF (93°C) Autoignition Temperature (ASTM D-ZISS), O F ("C) NFPA Classification 30 DOT Classification DOT Labels Required

141 148 -101 (-74)

9 6 (36) 106(41) 107 (42) 1 .os

8.2 795 (425) IC Flammable Liquid Flammable L q u d

(continued)

Ketones

635

Table 12.18: (continued)

I

1 1

Solvent

Methyl Amyl Acetate

1

92 89 92 e4

0.5 0.5 0.4 0.2

Methyl Isoamyl Ketone Isobutyl lsobutyrate Ektarolvea EE Acetate

I

%R.H.@ RS k-Sec 80"~ ( 2 7 " ~ ) Cellulose Nitratel 10 W/%

FPC 470 Resinb

20Wt/%

128 42 128 113

I

Elvacire 2010 ResinC 2OWt/%

lnsol

lnsol

34

68

lnsol

Ins01 284

lnsol

I

,

'product of Hercules Incorporated 'product of Firestone Pksrics C0rnpzn.v Cproducr of Du Ponr Company

Table 12.19: Propertles of Methyl Isoamyl Ketone vs Other Solvents (47) Flash

Bodma

Tag Point. Open Cup, *F.

160 RanKO. mm..

Blush

Specdoc

Rate

ootutoon Ratm (Tolucnel

Methyl isobutyl ketone

1.6

3.6

08018

14

2.7

0.8728

73 90

114-117

Isobutyl acetate n-Butyl acetate

1.0

2.7

0.8109

100

116-118

Amyl acetate

0.6

2.4

0.862

93

100-150

MlAK

0.50

4.1

0.813

110

141-148

Methyl amyl acetate

0.5

1.7

0.8595

110

143-150

2-Ethoxyethanol 4-Methoxy-4-methylpentanone-2

0.3

4.9

0.931 1

130

132-136

0.3

3.1

0.904

141

147-163

Ethyl amyl ketone 2-Ethoxyethyl acetate 4-Methoxy-4-methylpentanol-2

0.2

22

94

0.822

135

156-162

0.2

2.5

91

0.9748

150

145-165

0.2

4.7

93

0.890

140

164-169

Cyclohexanone

0.2

5.8

92

0.945

129

153-160

2-Butoxyet hanol

0.06

3.33

96

0.9019

165

166-173

lsophorone

0.03

6.2

97

0.9229

205

205-220

Evaporation Solvent

Cravsty.

% R.H. a t

20IZO~C.

,

'C.

114-118

Table 12.20: Butyrate-Acrylic Wood Lacquer-Substltutlng Isoamyl Ketone for 2-Ethoxyethyl Acetate (4 7)

InKredlentr

Half-Second Butyrate

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Part A

Part e

wt.

wt. K

K

8.5

8.5

Acryloid 8-66 resin (40%)'

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3

21.3

Santicizer 160 plasticizer'

. . . . . . . . . . . .

3.0

3.0

. . . . . . . . . .

0.01

0.01

Dow-Corning 510 (1000 cs.) fluid' Eastman lnhibttor DOBP'

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Isobutyl acetate Isobutyl alcohol

.

.

0.09

0.09

26.3

36.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13.6

13.6

13.6

3.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.8

6.8

Methyl ethyl ketone

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

MlAK

.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Toluene

6.aA

-

7.45

7.51

I

6.8

2-Ethoxyethyl acetate

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Solids.%

VISCOSlty, cp. Wt./gal., Ib. Flow out

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

*Product of Rohm and Haas Company *Product of Monsanto Chernocal Company

*Product of Vow Corning Corporatoon ~2-Uydroxy-4-dodecylorybenzophenone

7.50

636

Industrial Solvents Handbook

METHYL HEXYL KETONE CH3(CH2)5CO *CH3

O c tanone-2

A colorless liquid with a characteristic odor, methyl hexyl ketone i s used as a solvent for vinyl compounds and dyes, and has been found particularly suitable i n dispersing dyes i n l i g h t petroleum oils for newsprint inks.

Table 12.21: Properties of Methyl Hexyl Ketone (2) Purity

95%, min.

Specific gravity at 20°C.

0.81 -0.83

Weight per gallon at 20°C.

6-8 Ibs

.

METHYL HEPTYL KETONE MHK 5-Methyl-2-Octanane M e t h y l heptyl ketone, a high-boiling, high-temperature baked coatings.

active solvent, imparts desirable drying characteristics i n rnony

Table 12.22: Properties of Methyl Heptyl Ketone (47) Molecular Weight (C, HI,0),calcd Melting Point. "C Boiling Range, "C, 760 mni Evaporation Rate (n-butyl acetate = I Weight/Vol. a t ?O°C Ib/gal (U.S.) kg/liter Ib/gal (Imperial) Solubility, 20°C. wt '2 In water Water in Dilution Ratio, toluene VM & P naphtha Refractive Index, 20°C

I MAK

142.24

-9 )'

183-195 0.08 6.87 0.83 8.59

0.5 0.95 3.0 1 .o

MHK

lsophorone

-

ICC Labels Required Bureau of Explosives Classification

1.422

! I EKTASOLVE@€BSolvent' I

Color (Pt-Co Scale), ppm Acidity, as acetic acid, wt 7r Water, wt % Flash Point (Tag Closed Cup), " F ("C) (Tag Open Cup), "F ("C) Fire Point, "F ("C) Flammable Limits in Air, % by volume Lower (at 180°F) Upper (at 3 13'F) Autoignition Temperature (ASTM D-2155), "F ("C) NFPA Classification 30:

0.4 0.1

1 1

3.9

I

1.2

3.4

I

2.1

0.08

3.0

0.03

6.2

I I

93 96

1 I

-F$ :; I

1.0

0.815 0.902

1 I

5-25 0.018 0.01-0.05 140 (60) I60 (71) I68 (76)

0.9 5.9 680 (360) Combustible Liquid, Class IIlA None Nonhazardous Liquid

6.80

I

7.51

I

0.827

6.87

0.922

7.68

Ketones

637

ETHYLBUTYLKETONE Heptanone -3 Ethylbutyl ketone is a stable, high-boiling solvent of special value in lacquers and synthetic resin coatings. Its evaporation rate i n relation to those of comparable solvents i s indicated i n the following tabulation: Solvent

Hours -

Methyl isobutyl ketone Butyl acetate Ethylbutyl ketone Amyl acetate Methylamyl acetate Methylamyl ketone "Ce IIosolve " acetate Diisobutyl ketone

4.5 8 14 16

17 20 38 44

The unusual combination of good solvent power with medium evaporation rate makes ethylbutyl ketone generally useful for coating solutions having adequate flow without unduly long drying time. It bakes out of films somewhat faster than other comparable ketones.

Table 12.23: Properties of Ethylbutyl Ketone (2) Boiling point Freezing point Coefficient of expansion at 20°C. Flash point Solubility i n water at 20°C. Solubility of water in at 20°C. Refractive index a t 20°C. Specific gravity at 2O/2Ooc.

147.8"C.

-36.7"C. 0.00107 125°F. 0.43% by wt. 0.78% by wt. 1.4085 0.8197

ETHYL AMYL KETONE EAK, 5-Methyl-3-Heptanone Ethyl amyl ketone, a high boiling ketone, is a colorless, stable liquid with a mild pleasant odor It is compatible with alcohols, ethers, other ketones and organic liquids. and in addition, exhiblts low water miscibility Ethyl amyl ketone's high solvency for cellulose esters, vinyl polymers

and copolymers, synthetic and natural protective coating resins, coupled with its slow evaporation rate, high blush resistance and good diluent tolerance makes i t a valued surface coating raw material

Table 12.24: Properties of Ethyl Amyl Ketone (14) Apparent specific gravity 20120'C 25125'C Color PI-Co Max Dis!illation range 'C

0 8250 824 0 816-0 820 25 156-162

Acidity (as acetx accd) % w Max Water % w Max Alcohol (as ethyl amyl carbinol) % w M a x

0 01 0 15 0 50

638

Industrial Solvents Handbook

DI-n-PROPYL KETONE Heptanone-4,

Butyrone, Amyl Ketone

(CH3CH2CH2)2CO

Di-n-propyl ketone i s a colorless, stable liquid having o pleasant odor. It i s miscible with many orgonic solvents, and dissolves a wide variety o f materials, some o f which are crude rubber, nitrocellulose, row and blown oils, many natural and synthetic resins l i k e dewaxed dammar, manila, rosin, ester gum, and waxes.

Table 12.25: Properties of Di-n-Propyl Ketone (2) Boiling point Coefficient of expansion

143.7"C. 0.001073 (per "C.) to 20°C. 0.001115 (per "C.) to 55°C. 0.8 3.1 49°C. -32.1 "C 1051 cal ./mol 75.8 cat ./g. 0.53% by w t , 1.27% by w t . 0.8162 1.4068 0.553 cal./g. 25.2 dynes/sq cm. 5.2 mm. Hg 0.0074 poise 6.79 Ibs.

Dilution ratio ("Kemsolene ") (Toluene) Flash point (ASTM Open Cup) Freezing point Heat o f combustion Latent heat o f voporization Solubility in water at 20°C. Solubility of water i n solvent at 20°C Specific gravity at 20/20°C. Refractive index o t 20°C. Specific heat at 25°C. Surface tension at 25°C. Vapor pressure a t 20°C. Viscosity a t 20°C. Weight per gallon at 20°C.

.

.

DIISOBUTYL KETONE Valerone

(C4H9)2CO

A water-white, stable liquid, miscible with most organic liquids, diisobutyl ketone has good solvency for cellulose acetate, nitrocellulose, vinyl resins, waxes, gums, natural and synthetic resins, and crude rubber. It i s used principally as a high-boiler i n nitrocellulose lacquers and vinyl resin coatings, where i t s slow evaporation rate i s advantageous.

Table 12.26: Properties of Diisobutyl Ketone (47) Typical Propertig

MoleculPr Weight (C,HI,O) Color (Ptco Scale), m Evaporation Rate (n.buty1 acelate = 1) WeIght/Vol. 20°C. Ib/gal (U. S.) kg/liter lb/gal (Imperial) Solubility, 20°C. wt W In water Water m Dilution Ratio. toluene VM & P Mphthr Refractive Index, 20'C Vapor Pressure. 2OoC, mm Hg Specific Gravity. W/2O0C

142.23

20 0.2 6.76 0.81 8.1 1 0.05

0.75 1 .5

0.8 1.4230 1.7 0.8070.814

Boding Range, 760 mm, 'C initla1 BoJmg Pomt, nun Dry Point, mu Freezlng Point. "F CC) Flash Point, Tag Closed Cup, "F CC) Tag Open Cup. 'F CC) Fue Pomt,"F CC) Flammable Lirmts m Au, 'k by wlume Lower, at 2OO"F (93OC) Upper, at 2OO'F (93OC) Autorgnitlon Temperature (ASTM D-2155).'F CC) NFPA Classificatlon 30 DOT Clasufrcation DOT Labels Required

163 173 4 3 (-42) 120 (49) 131 ( 5 5 ) 137 (58) 0.81 7.1 745 (396)

II Combustible Liquid None

(continued)

Ketones

639

Table 12.26: (continued)

I

I

E"ep

Solvent Rate

I

"."^.

..--,

$R.H Q WF (27'C)

I

I

Solution Vtrositv. 25°C. CP

RS

%-%C

cellulose Nitrate, 10 Wtl%

FPC 470 Resin'. X)Wt%

Ehcire

2010 Resinb. 2OW%

Methvl 1oamvI Ketone

0.5

89

50

34

68

Methyl Amyl Acetate

0.5

92

128

lnwl

lnsol

lmbutyl Isobutvrate

0.4

92

128

lnsol

lnwl

Diiobutvl Ketone

0.2

95

160

75

lnwl

J

CYCLOHEXANONE

"Sextone",

"Anon", Pimelin Ketone, Keto Hexamethylene

Cyclohexanone i s a colorless to pale yellow, stable liquid with an odor suggestive of peppermint. It is made by the dehydrogenotion of cyclohexanol. It i s miscible i n a l l proportions with most solvents, especially the common lacquer solvents and diluents, hydrogenated and chlorinated hydrocarbons, phenols, pyridine, and turpentine. It i s a good solvent for cellulose ethers, esters, basic dyes, latex, fats, blown oils, waxes, crude rubber, and such gums and resins as ester gum, alkyds, vinyls, coumarone, 100% and modified phenol resins, cyclohexanone resins and many natural resins. It forms constant-boiling mixtures with camphor, tetrachloroethane, and trichloropropane. It has a very high dilution ratio os compared with the coal-tar hydrocarbons, a fact which accounts for its excellence as o solvent, especially i n the lacquer industry. Its low rate of evaporation and strong solvent powers impart blush resistance, good flow and working qualities to lacquers and give films that are clear, smooth and glossy and show good adhesion. It is also used i n spraying and brushing lacquers and as a medium boiler. It i s particularly effective for blending nitrocellulose with spirit-soluble and hydrocarbon-soluble resins and oils. Its solvency for basic dyes makes i t applicable i n wood stains. Other uses are i n the a i r d r y i n g and stoving type of synthetic resins, i n plastics and molding powders, i n paint and varnish removers, i n spot and stain removers, i n metaldegreasing preparations, i n polishes, printing inks, as a leveling agent i n dyeing, i n delustering cellulose acetate, insecticides and pharmaceuticals.

Table 12.27: Properties of Cyclohexanone (2)

Boiling point Color Dielectric constant at 25OC. Evaporation rate, approximate (toluene= 100) Flash point (open cup) Freezing point Solubility i n water at 2OOC. Specific gravity at 2OOC. Specific heat 15' to 18°C. Refractive index Viscosity (SUV at 1OOOF.) Weight per gallon a t 20°C. Acidity Distillation range Purity Residue Water content

155.6"C. Waterwhite to pale yellow

18.2 20 130OF. -45OC. 8.7%

0.944-0.950 0.433 cal ,/g. 1.443 1.451 33 7.9 Ib.

-

Neutral 95% within

-

98 1OOYo

0.02% 0.2% max.

151°-1570C.

640

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 12.28: Resin Solubility in Cyclohexanone (79)

Resin

Acrylic ”Acryloid” 8-82 ”Elvocite” 2010 Cel lulos i c s Cellulose Acetote AB-141-95 (14% ocet.yl) Cellulose Acetate Butyrate €AB-171-2 (17% butyryl) Ce Ilu lose Acetate Butyrote EAB-381-20 (37% butyryl) Ethyl Cellulose (N-22, 24 sec.) Half Second Butyrate AB-H “Hercose” “C” Type A Nitrocellulose fRS 1’2 sec.)

Rohm 8 Hoos DuPont

2 7

32 54

Eostmon

9200

28

6.5

Eostmon

892

34

9.5

Eostmon Hercules Eostmon Hercules Hercules

5060 1408 242 806 218

>50 \50 > 50 38

>50

14 23 17 8.5 10.5

96 19

M > 50

24 14 5

> 50 > 50

7 14 5

21

65

Styrene

Polystyrene Sh4A 4000A Vinyl BAKELITE Vinyl Resin AYAF BAKELITE Vinyl Resin VYHH BAKELITE Vinyl Resin XYHL “Soron” F-120 (1000 cps ) EPOXY BAKELITE Epoxy Resin EKR 2002 Urethane ”Estone” 5701F1 “Estone” 5707Fl Rosin-Ester “Amberol” 801 L T “Cellolyn“ 104 Melamine-Formoldehyde “Cvmel” 300 Alkyd “Beckosol” li 7 “Beckosol” $31 Rubber “Porlon” S-20 (18 cps.) ”Pliolite” 5-5 Phenolic BAKELITE Phenolic Resin BKR 2620 Phenoxy BAKELITE Phenoxy Resin PKHH (1)

IC

-Sincloir

ucc ucc ucc Dow

74 68 (3) 484

UCC

21

> 50

95

282 388

14

45 2

Rohm 8 Hoos Hercules

14 20

> 50 >50

19 50

>50

Reichhold Reichhold

28 25

>M

>50

47 >50

Hercules Goodyeor

46 56

>50

UCC

23

16

5.5

-

-

Goodrich Goodrich

ucc

g r o m r r e s i n , 90 grams cyclohexanone

(2) 10 grams o f 10% r e s i n (3) Partially soluble

solution, tatrated w i t h dilusnt (en m l )

Insoluble

-

6

>H)

-

22 30

Ketones

641

METHYLCYCLOHEXANONE Methyl "Anon",

"Sextone"

B

Meta

Para

Methyl cyclohexanone i s a woter-white to pale yellow liquid with an acetone-like odor. I t i s a mixture of two isomeric cyclic ketones made by the dehydrogenation of methyl cyclohexanol It closely resembles cyclohexanone i n its physical properties, miscibility, tolerance for non-solvents and solvent action. It differs from cyclohexanone i n its somewhat slower evaporation rate and lower dilution ratios with aromatic hydrocarbons. Methyl cyclohexanone i s especially suitable for phenolic and alkyd resins, crude rubber, nitrocellulose, ester gum and kauri. It i s also an excellent agent for blending pyroxylin with resins, oils and rubber i n lacquers. It i s used i n crystalizing lacquers, where i t s low evaporation rate retards evaporation sufficiently to permit crystal growth. It i s also used i n slow-setting varnish removers and i n rubber cements.

.

Table 12.29: Properties of Methyl Cyclohexanone (2) Boiling paint Evaporation rate (approximate) (toluene= Flash paint Freezing point Refractive index at 25°C. Solubility in water at 20°C. Specific gravity at 25/4"C. Viscosity (SUV a t 100°F.) Weight per gallon Distillation range Purity Residue Water content

-

100)

169.0" 170.5"C. 20 53°C. -70°C. 1.442 1.446 2 -3% 0.91 0- 0.914 33 7.6 Ibs. 165.0" 172°C. 95% distills within 3.0" 98 100%

-

-

-

None

0.2%, max.

METHYL ACETONE Methyl Ketone Methyl acetone i s a clear, colorless, flammable, volatile liquid, obtained from the product of the destructive distillation of wood. Although i t varies i n composition i t i s generally composed of acetone 35 to 60%, methanol 20 to 40%, and m t h y l acetate 20 to 30%.

642

Industrial Solvents Handbook

DIACETONE ALCOHOL Diacetone 4-H ydrox y -4-Me thy1pentanone-2 "Pyranton A " Diacetonyl Alcohol

OH

0

II

I I

CK-C-CH~-C-CHI CIq

Diacetane alcohol i s a flammable liquid that i s colorless when pure, becoming yellow on aging; i t has a mint-like odor. Made by the condensation o f acetone, the commercial product contains up to 15% of acetone. For this reason the technical product i s superior i n its solvent power to the acetone-free grade. It i s miscible with most organic liquids, os well as with water. It i s a good solvent for cellulose acetate, nitrocellulose, cellulose acetobutyrate, cellulose ocetopropionate, hydrocarbons, oi Is, fats, resins, gums and dyes. It has only limited solvency for dammar gum, polyvinyl acetate and the petroleum resins. A high-bailing solvent, diacetone alcohol also exhibits the desirable properties of reducing the viscosities of organic solutions o f high solids content, and of minimizing temperature effects an viscosities. In most respects i t i s quite similar to acetone with the exception o f a very much slower rate o f evaporation It i s used i n cellulose ester lacquers, particularly o f the brushing type, where i t produces brilliant gloss and hard film and where its lack of odor i s desirable. It i s used i n lacquer thinners, dopes, wood stains, wood preservatives and printing pastes; i n coating compositions for paper and textiles; i n making artificial silk and leather; i n imitation gold leaf; i n celluloid cements; as a preservative for animal tissue; i n metalcleaning compounds; i n the manufacture o f photographic film; and i n hydraulic brake fluids, where i t i s usually mixed with an equal volume of castor oil Diacetone alcohol i s available i n two grades: technical, containing up to 15% acetone, and acetone-free.

Table 12.30: Physical Properties of Acetone-Free Diacetone Alcohol (2) Boiling point at 760 mm. Coefficient of expansion (Cubical) Co Ior Flash point (open cup) Heat o f combustion Melting point Specific gravity at 2O/2OoC. Refractive index a t 20°C. Viscosity (Soybolt) 11 3 seconds at 674 seconds at 1,980 seconds at Weight per gallon at 20°C. Acidity (as acetic) Distillation range a t 760 mm. Below 135°C. Below 158°C. Above 170°C. Nonvolatile matter

167.9"C.

0.000533 per

OF.

Water-white to light straw

144°F. 8,601 cal ./g

.

-47°C. 0.937 0.946 1.4235

-

-1 2°C. -30°C. -48°C.

7.83 Ibs. 0.05% None N o t more than 5% None 0.005% by wt. (max.)

ACETONYL ACETONE Hexanedione-2,5

(CH3 *CO'CH2)2

Acetonyl acetone, a diketone, i s a water-white liquid with an agreeable odor. It i s completely soluble in water, almost entirely soluble i n such substances as toluene, kauri gum and rosin, and only partly soluble i n raw linseed oil, shellac, dewaxed dammar and ester gum. It has been suggested as an intermediate i n the manufacture of rubber accelerators, dyes, inhibitors, insecticides, and pharmaceuticals and for the preparatic of derivatives of thiophene, furan and pyrrole. It may also be employed i n tanning hides and skins.

Ketones Table 12.31: Properties of Acetonyl Acetone (2) Boiling point Dilution ratio (xylene) Flash point Specific gravity at 2O/2OoC. Solubility in water at 20°C. Vapor pressure at 20°C. Weight per gallon at 20°C. Acidity (as acetic) Boiling range at 760 mm. Purity Water

191.4"C. 1.8 158°F. 0.971 0 0.9760 Complete 0.5 mm. Hg 8.10 Ibs. 0.020% by wt., mox. 185" to 195°C. 98.0% by wt., min. Miscible with 19 vol. 60" BL gasoline at 20°C.

-

MESITYL OXIDE 4-Methyl -3-Pentenone-2 Isopropylidone Acetone Methyl lsobutenyl Ketone

(CH3)2C=CH .CO* CH3

Mesityl oxide i s an unsaturated, medium-boiling ketone made by the dehydration of diacetone alcohol. It i s a colorless to strawyellow, oily liquid with a peppermint-like odor. It w i l l darken and form a solid residue on exposure and aging. It is miscible with most organic liquids and i t i s a good solvent for such substances as nitrocellulose, ethylcellulose, low-viscosity cellulose acetate, polyvinyl chloride, vinyl resins, hydrocarbons, raw linseed oil, kauri gum, rosin, ester gum and synthetic rubber. It w i l l only partly dissolve shellac and dewaxed dammar. Mesityl oxide i s used in lacquers and thinners where i t s presence in the solution lowers the viscosity and gives i t both a high tolerance for hydrocarbons and resistance to humidity. Its excellent solvent power for gums and resins i s especially applicable i n vinyl-type resins, where i t produces f i l m that are tough, glossy and hove good flow; i t s presence permits use of larger proportions of aromatic hydrocarbon diluents.

Table 12.32: Properties of Mesityl Oxide (2) Boiling point at 760 mm. Coefficient of expansion Color Dielectric constant at 20°C. Flash point (Tag closed cup) Heat of combustion Heat of vaporization Melting point Solubility in water at 25°C. Solubility of water in solvent at 20°C. Specific gravity at 20/20°C. Specific heat (21 121"C .) Refractive index at 20°C. Vapor pressure at 20°C. 30°C. 40°C. Viscosity at 25°C. Weight per gallon at 2OOC. Acidity (as acetic) Distillation range (ASTM)

-

Purity Water

129.5"C. 0.000599 per O F . Strawyellow 15.4 83°F. 846.7 Cat. per mol 85.9 cal ./g. -59°C. 3.4% by vol 3.4% by wt. 0.853 0.856 0.521 cal./g. 1.4456 8.0 mm. Hg 14.3 mm. Hg 24.5 mm. Hg 8.79 millipoises 7.12 Ibs. 0.050/, max. Below 120°C. None Above 135°C. None More than 95% distills over below 131°C. 95% by wt., min. Miscible without turbidity with 19 vols. of 60" B6 gasoline at 20°C. (approx. 0.20% by wt.)

.

-

643

644

Industrial Solvents Handbook

ISOPHORONE

lsophorone i s a stable, colorless, volatile liquid with a mild odor. It i s only slightly soluble in water, but miscible with m o s t lacquer solvents. It i s an excellent solvent for many types of cellulose esters, cellulose ethers, oils, fats, gums and resins, both natural and synthetic. It i s the most powerful solvent for nitrocellulose and "Vinylite" resins. lsophorone has one of the highest aromatic hydrocarbon dilution ratios for nitrocellulose-5.7 for toluene and 5.1 for xylene. It w i l l dissolve 30% of "Vinylite" resin without gelling. At ordinary temperatures solutions can be made of 1/2 second RS nitrocellulose containing 45% solids. lsophorone i s used i n the manufacture of coatings, inks, stencil pastes and as a thinner in synthetic resin finishes.

Table 12.33: Propertles of lsophorone (2) Boiling point at 760 mm.

2152°C.

Dilution ratios Toluene Xylene "Tro I uo i I " Mineral spirik Flash point (open cup) Freezing point Solubility in water at 20°C. Solubility of water in solvent at 20°C. Specific gravity at 20/20°C. Vapor pressure at x) "C Weight per gallon at 20°C. Acidity (as acetic) Distillation range at 760 mm. Color

5.7 5.1 1 .O 0.7 205OF. -8.1"C. 1.2% by w t . 3.8% by w t .

-

0.9200 0.9250

.

0.25 mm. Hg 7.68 Ibs. 0.02% by wt., max. 205" -220'C. Not darker than 0.05 g. K2Cr2Q7 per I. of water 98.0% by wt., min. Miscible with 19 vol. 600 B; g a d ine at 20°C.

Purity

Water content

FENCHONE Fenchone i s a liquid ketone closely resembling camphor.

fH3

Table 12.34: Properties of Fenchone (2) Boiling point

Dilution ratio: with coal-tar naphtha with hi-flash naphtha Kauri-butanol Optical activity Refractive index at 20°C. Specific gravity at 15.5"C. Aniline point (-)

191 .O°C, 1.3 final conc. 8.0 1.2 final conc. 8.2 A l l proportions in 5wo sol, with mineral spirits 131 + 7.4 1.4625 0.9457 54°C.

Distillation Range (Calculated from 50:50 Min. Spirits)

5% 10% 2w o 40% 60% 8OVo 90% 95%

193.OOC. 193.4OC. 193.8"C. 194.2 "C 194.5"C 195.4"C. 196.0"C. 197.5"C.

. .

Ketones

645

BETA-PROPIOLACTONE BPL

'

difunctionality

\

HOCH2 -C H2 -C= ,O

y---CH2-CH2-C=O

\

\

OH

Y

Hydracrylic Acid Derivatives

Beta-Propionic Acid Derivatives

Table 12.35: Physlcal Properties of Beta-Proplolactone (42)

Physical state Liquid Color Colorless Odor Pungent, acrylic 51 Boiling point at 10 mm Hg, deg C 100 mm Hg 100.0 400 mm Hg 139.7 760 mm Hg 162.3 Melting point, deg C -33.4 Refractive index n g 1.4131 Specific gravity, 20/20 C 1.1490 9.56 Pounds per gallon at 20 C 165 Flash point, Tag open cup, deg F Solubility: BPL is miscible at room temperature with most organic solvents such as ether, alcohol (reacts), benzene, acetone, and acetic acid. Solubility in water at 25 C is 37 per cent by volume, with moderately fast hydrolysis to hydroxypropionic (hydracrylic) acid.

GAMMA-BUTYROLACTONE

J-[

B LO

=o 0

Gamma-butyrolactane i s a powerful solvent and undergoes many reactions that make i t o f considerable interest i n synthesis. I t i s a colorless hygroscopic liquid over a wide temperature range. It i s soluble i n acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, ethyl ether, methanal, manochlorobenzene and water in a l l proportions.

Table 12.36: Properties of Gamma-Butyrolactone (49) Appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .clear liquid Color (APHA). . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Purity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99.5% min. Moisture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .O. 1% max. Free acid. as hydroxybutyric . . .O.I% max. Molecular wetght . . . . . . . . . . . .86 Boiling point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2W0C Freezing point . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-44OC Viscosity (25%). . . . . . . . . . . . .1.7 cp

Specify gravity ( d 3 . . . . . . Flash point. tag closed cup Fire point . . . . . . . . . . . . . pH (10% aqueous solution) . Refractive index (n3. . . . . . Heat of vaporization. ClausiusClapeyron (calc) . . . . . . . . . . Heat of sdution . . . . .

1124 93°C (200°F) 99OC (210°F) 45 1435 133 cal/g 598 calimol

Heat of combustion Specific heat (25OC) (60°C) Dekxtrtc cmstani (20%) Critical pressure

492 kcal/md 0 40 callgl°C 0 45 caUgl°C 39 500 psl (35 kglcm') Critical temperature 436% Solublity soluble in acetone. benzene. carbon tetrachloride, ethyl ether. methand. chlorobenzene. and water in all proportions (cont I nued )

646

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 12.36: (Continued) Vapor Pressure of Butyrolactone 200

150

100

50

10

1

5

50

10

100

500 760

1500

Vapor Pressure (mm Hg)

Concontration

Time (hours)

(% 1

1

1 ROOm

BLO

Dilute Tomporrtun HCI

6S°C

2

-

5

90 10 ________ 80 20

028

_ _217 __

50

0.92

6.48

99

1

98 95

50

I

1

3 T:r$rature

65OC

I

I

5

T:rgrrturo

6SqC

I

24 T:gratun

- I

-

0.34

0.32

I

0.24

0.97

-

0.73

I

0.49

2.35

-

1.23

I

0.59

4.43

102

815

915 5___ 52 __162 - - __ - - --

1598

12.10

2.57

Concentration (%)t BLO

Ha0

80

20

50

50

I I I I

65OC

-

0.56

0.97

1.21

0.68

I 1.18 I 2 53 I

1.94

3.1 1

0.99

4.87

I

3.14

5.95

-

0.54

0.42

4 07

17 92

.-

1095__ 1841

Time (hours)

I

8

24

48

-

0.33

1.7

1.7

11.1

17.4

(continued)

Ketones Table 12.36: (continued) Table 111. Bunsen Coefficients of Butyrolactone (cc gas/cc solvent converted to STP) --

____

Gam

25°C

45°C

Hydrogen Carbon Monoxide Carbon Dioxide Methyl Acetylene Acetylene Vinyl Acetylene

0.12 0.09

0

0

0.044

0

Compound

3.6 37.8 11.8 145.1 1 2 7 0 ~ 1

2.7

12.5 8 33.1

75°C

1.1 10.8 1.45 23.1 1730~1

Table IV. Solubilities of Compounds in Butyrolactone

96 (lolublo

Acrylonitrile, (high) spec. vis. 8.5’.................................... Acrylonitrile, (low) spec. vis. 3.18’ .................................... Acrylonitrile, (low) spec. vis. 2.45’.................................... Acrylonitrile, (low) spec. vis. 2.1 1‘ .................................... .“Amberot“ Resin 820 (Rohm & Haas) ................................. “Aroclor” (60% CI), chlorinated biphenyl (Monsanto) .................... Cellulose Acetate ................................................. Cellulose Acetate Butyrate ......................................... Cellulose Acetate Propionate ....................................... Cellulose Nitrate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . “Clorafin” (70% CI), chlorinated paraffin (Hercules Powder) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

DDT

............................................................ “Epon” 1007,epoxy resin (Shell Chemical) ............................

“Epon” 1009, epoxy resin (Shell Chemical) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ester Gum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ethyl Cellulose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . “Formvar,” polyvinyl formal resin (Monsanto) .......................... “Geon” Polyblend, polyvinyl chloride (Goodrich) ...................... : “Geon“ 102, polyvinyl chloride (Goodrich) ............................ “Geon” 202, polyvinyl chloride (Goodrich) ............................ HETAnhydride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Methyl Methacrylate Polymer ....................................... Methyl Vinyl Ether Polymer ......................................... “Neolyn” 23 Resin (Hercules Powder) ................................ “Parton,” chlorinated rubber (Hercules Powder) ........................ Polyvinyl Butyral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pyromellitic Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . “Saran“ F-120, vinylidene chloride (Dow Chemical) .................... Shellac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polystyrene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vinyl Acetate Polymer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-Vinyl-2-Pyrrolidone Polymer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-Vinylcarbazole, Monomer and Polymer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . “Vinylite” VYNW, vinyl chloride resin (Union Carbide) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . “Vinylite,” XYSG, vinyl resin (Union Carbide) .......................... 1 gram polymer dissolved in 100 ml BLO. b

Heated for 1 hour at 100°C. and then cooled to room temperature.

c

Solubility after 1 hour at 100°C.

BUTYROLACTONE refers to gamma butyrolactone

>IOb >16b 20b 20b 50 50 5‘ 10

10 25 50 50 25 25 50‘ 25‘ >5

>loc > 5‘ >lo‘ 60‘ 25 50 50

>25 25‘ 20 >I 0 25 >25 >25 >25 >25

> 5‘ 10‘

647

648

Industrial Solvents Handbook

I I

,

Ketones 649

P N v1

5

2 8

n

ir

t

3

0

,P

5 4 C

t

5

B

c

650

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 12.39: Eastman Chemical Ketones (47)

Acidity, as Acetic Acid Max Wt 46

Boiling Range OC

Freezing Point OC

Flash Point TCC "C (OF)

Assay Min Wt

Max

Specific Gravity @ 2Oo12O0C

5

0.792

0.004

55-57

-95

-20 (-4)

99.5

6.74

15

0.810

0.02

101-105

-86

8 (46)

90.0

1.6

6.67

10

0 802

0.01

114-117

-84

16 (60)

99.0

0.5

6.76

10

0.813

0.02

141-148

-74

36 (96)

98.0

0.4

6.80

10

0.818

0.02

147-154

-33

39 (102)

98.0

0.2 Diisobutyl Ketone (DIBK) (CH&CHCHaCOCHzCH(CH&

6.76

20

0.81I

0.02

163-176

-42

49 (120)

-

EASTMAW C-11 Ketone

7.02

75

0.84

0.10

175-250

-8

84 (184)

-

Evaporation Rate n-BuOAc=l

Lbl Gal @ 20%

Color Pt-Co

Acetone CH3COCH3

5.7

6.59

Methyl n-Propyl Ketone (MPK)~ CHjCOCjHi

2.3

Methyl Isobutyl Ketone (MIBK)~ CH3COCHzCH(CH& Methyl Isoamyl Ketone

w

(MIAK)' CHjCOCzH&H(CH&

Methyl n-Amyl Ketone ( M A K ~ ~ CH3COC5Hir

0.02

(seta-flash) aUrethane grade bKosher certified

Table 12.40: Exxon Ketones (8)

Methyl Ethyl Ketone Distillation Range, "C Specific Gravity, 20"/20"C Viscosity I@ 25"C, cp Vapor Pressure I@ 20°C mmHg Density @ 20"C, Ib/gal Flash Point, TCC "C* Acidity, wt % MAX* Evaporation Rate, n-BuAc=l 00 Purity, wt % (MIN) Hildebrand Solubility Parameter Surface Tension @ 20°C dynes/cm Water Content, wt % (MAX) Water Solubility @ 25"c, wt % In water Water in Inhalation TLVCAS Registry Number *Tag Closed Cup, ASTM D 56 *As acetic acid

Methyl Isobutyl Ketone 114-1 17

79-81 0.81 0.4 80 6.71 21 0.003 572 )99.5 9.3 25 0.1

0.6 15 6.68 62 0.01 165 )99.0 8.6 24 0.1

26.3 11.8 200 78-93-3

1.7 1.9 50 108-1 0-1

0.80

**Threshold Limit Value is a registered trademark of the ACGIH

Ketones

651

Table 12.41 : Hoechrt-Celanese Ketones (42)

Physical Properties Autoignition Temperature, OC

515.5

Heat of Combustion, kg-caVg d e

Boiling Point at 760 mm Hg, OC

79.6

Heat of Fusion, caVg mole

1.78

Boiling Point at 760 mm Hg, O F

175.3

Heat of Vaporization, btullb at 20%

212.4

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion per OC at 20%

Molecular Weight

72.11

1.126~103

Critcal Pressure, atmospheres

41.O

Critical Temperature, OC

252.5

Dielectric Constant, 20%

15.45

Specific Giavily, 2CV20OC

0.8062

Evaporation Rate (BuAc = 1)

5.7

Specific Heat of Liquid, at 20°C, caVg

,525

flammable Limits (lower limit, ~01%) (upper limit, v d %)

Surface Tension at 20%. dynedcm

24.6

2.0 11.0

Vapor Density (air = 1)

2.5

Vapor Pressure, at 2OOC, mm Hg

77.5

Rash Point, Tag Open Cup, O F Tag Closed Cup, O F

30 20

Freezing Point, O C

-86.7

582.3

Refractive Index, nf' -

1.3787

Solubili at 20% at wt % in water

26.8 12.5

water in

Vscosity at 25OC. centipoise

0.40

Weight, pounds per gallon at 20%

6.71

Table 12.42: Shell Chemical Ketones (14)

Typlcal properties of the compounds

Molecular welght Speclflc gravlty (apparent) 60/60' F 20/20oc 25/25' C Weight per U.8 gallon (in alr)

60OF

200 c 25' C Bolllng polnt @ 760 mm 'C OF

Bolllng polnt change OC/mrn @ 760 mm Vapor prerrure @ 20°C, mm Freezlng polnt @ 760 mm. OC Refmcllve Index n

20

D Heat of vaporlzatlon cal/g @ 760 mm Heat of furlon at meltlng point

cai/g Speclllc heat (Ilquld) callg 'C @ 25' C Fkrh point, tag open cup, O F approx.

tag closed cup, O F approx. Flammable tlmltr In alr % of compound, upper

lower Solubility, % wt. in water, @ 2OoC water in, @ 2OoC Azeotrope with water, %w compound Boil pt. @ 760 mm, OC Viacorlty, cps @ 20'C @ 25'C @ 30'C Surface tenrlon dynelcm 20' C

Acetone

Methyl ethyl ketone

Methyl lrobutyl ketone

Dlacetonr alcohol

58.080

72.108

100.162

116.162

0.7967 0.7925 0.7879

0.8105 0.8065 0.8023

0.8055 0.8022 0.7986

0.9441 0.9409 0.9374

6.636 6.595 6.549

6.750 6.711 6.668

6.709 6.676 6.638

7.863 7.830 7.792

56.13 133.03

79.64 175.26

116.2 241.16

169.2 336.6

0.0385

185.95 -94.897

0.04 70.21 -86.69

0.046 14.96 -83.5

0.075 0.81 -44.

1.35900

1.37880

1.3957

1.4234

122.09

105.95

82.50

90.0

23.53

24.86

0.51

15. -15.

0.51 20. 23.

0.53 79.

0.62 135. 126.

11.ov 3.0~

11.5~ 1.81v

7.5v 1.4v

complete complete

27.1 12.5

2.04 2.41

complete complete

none

88.73 73.41

75.7 87.93

12.7 98.8

0.3075

0.41 0.365

0.583 0.55

2.9

22.32

24.6

23.64

28.9

60.

652

Industrial Solvents Handbook

C

a

3

C

c 0

C

f: h

-c

2 f 0

. 0 .

:

i

n

t:

?

N

2

0

n n v 1

t. C

IC

d

!

I

I

2

r

.

!

!

t

a

8 Q) E

C

CI

I

s

Y

654

r

;

r

6

Y

*!

rll,

0

I

v)

0

Q4

U

8

0

a

e ?

.d b

0

Q4

3

0)

a

m

c

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

e

m

m

-

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

e

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

I

m

m

6

m

m

Y

5

k

-r" 2 -8

Y

5

W

m

W

8


w

Y IK

a

I 0

Y

w

> a

l-

I

c

z

W

0

a

5 W

a

~

L

0

w

2

a m o n w

Ketones

661

Table 12.50: Viscosity vs Concentratlon of Chlorinated Rubber (Hercules PARLON S-20) in MEK (8)

Percent Solldo

Table 13.1: Acetic Acid (2) Vinegar A c i d M e thone car box y Iic A c i d Ethanoic A c i d

CH3COOH

Acetic acid i s a colorless liquid with a pungent odor; i t i s made synthetically from acetylene or by the oxidation of alcohol. I t i s soluble i n water, alcohols, ethyl ether, and other organic solvents. It i s used as a precipitant for albumen, casein, and rubber latex. It i s also employed i n the manufacture of leather, cordage, linoleum, acetate solvents, acetyl derivatives, dyes, matches, printing inks, and polishes, and as an assistant i n dyeing processes.

Sptciflcnliona (Qlacial A c e l i c ) Standard

+ Laundry

Speclnl

Ace toldehydr .4citlity, as ncctir ncitl Color Formic ucid FreezinK point Son -volatile matter Water rontent Weight per yailoli ab

moc

0.&5% (minx.) W.S% (min.) Water-white 0.2% (mu*.) 15.6'C (min.)

U.S.1'. XI1

%b.5ci ( i n i i l . ! W u t e t -\v ti iI I'

IK.Roc(iniii.1 0.0265','{ (nius 0.59;, ( I I U I K . ) H.74 IIM

0.5%. (mux.) 8.74 iiw.

I

Table 13.2: Viscosity of Acetic Acid and Acetic Anhydride Mixtures at 15" and 765°C (79)

PEP CENT ACETIC ANHYDRIDE B Y WEIGHT

662

Acids

663

Table 13.3: Butyric Acid (2) Ethylacetic Acid Butanoic Acid Propyl formic Acid

CH3CH2CH2COOH

Butyric acid i s a water-white liquid having o choracteristically pronounced and highly disagreeable odor. I t i s soluble i n most organic solvents and completely soluble i n water. The importance of butyric acid i s found i n its butyrate, made with alcohols; these compounds are used as flavors because of their pleasant fruity odors. Other uses are i n the manufacture of flavor esters, plastics, drugs, i n leather tonning and for deliming hides.

Typicol Properfirs and Spcrificalionr 163.5.C 0.001026~c 0.001061 Water-rhite 3WC 0.302 I.* x 10-6 rtcip. ohm o.oo039 x 10-4 recip. ohm 17O'F 5906 0.1. (15116 20.1 cal. (1511g 1.59 cal./g -5.7.c

Boiling point a t 760 mm Caefficient of eipanaion at 20% at 55 Color Critical temperature Critical density Diasociation constant a t 25'C Electrical conductivity a t 25'C FImh point (ASTM open cup) Heat of comblution Heat of fusion Heat of vaporization Melting point

Solubility in wat.er at 2o'C Solubilitg of nater in solvent at 20'C Specific gravity at 2O/20'C Specific heat Refractive index a t 19.C Surface tenaion a t 2O'C Vapor preasure at 2O'C Viacolity at 25'C Weight per gallon at 20'C Chloridea Diatillatioa range at 760 mm Purity

Complete Complete 0.9595 0.514 (20-1oO"c) 1.3980 26.8 dynea/aq cm 0.84 mm Hg 0.01529 poiae 7.965 Iba. None leO-le-5~C W.W0by wt.,min.

Table 13.4: Viscoslty of Aqueous Butyric Acid Solution at 25°C (79)

34 32 30

2

20

3 26 4 24 22

g 7.0

g

IO

I6 14 12 10

0

E R CENT BUTYRIC ACID BY WEIGHT

Table 13.5: Butyric Anhydrlde (2)

Butyric anhydride i s a water-white liquid which hydrolyzes to butyric acid in the presence of water. Like butyric acid, i t i s used i n making butyrates, flavors, drugs and tanning agents.

Bailing point a t 760 mm. Color Flash paint Melting point Specific gravity at 20/20°C. Vapor pressure ot 2OOC.

199.5"C. Water-white

190OF. -75OC. 0.965-0.970 0.37 mm. Hg

Weight per gallon at 2OOC. Distillation range at 760 mm. Below 190°C. Above 2 0 0 O C . Below 195OC. Purity

8.1 lbs. None None N o t more than 10% 85% by wt., min.

664

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 13.6: Solubility of Water in Caproic Acld at Various Temperatures (79) IO

S

?!

P

re

zB

7

G3

6

I-

cz g

s 4

3

0

IO

20 30 TEMPtRATURE T.

40

50

Table 13.7: 2-Ethylbutyric Acld (2) Diethyl Acetic Acid 2-Ethylbutanoic Acid 2-Ethylbutyric ocid i s a water-white liquid, similar to butyric acid in most of i t s properties, except that i t s odor i s less strong and i t i s not as soluble in water. I t s halogenated derivatives are finding use in the manufacture of drugs. I t s esters with higher glycols are outstanding vinyl resin plasticizers. Boiling point at 760 mm.

1Y4"C.

Flash pointin water at 20°C. Solubility Solubility of water i n solvent at 20°C. Specific gravity at 20/20°C.

210°F. by wt. 0.22% 3.3% by wt. 0.9225

Vapor pressure at 20°C. Weight per gallon at 20'C. Distillation range at 760 mm. Purity

0.14 mm. Hg 7.68 Ibs. 185"-2OO0C. 90% by wt.:, min.

Table 13.8: 2-Ethylhexoic Acld (2) Octoic Acid 2-Ethylhexanoic Acid

CH3(CH2),CH(C2H5)C0OH

This acid possesses a mild odor and a high boiling point. It i s important for i t s metallic esters, the properties of which suggest usefulness as varnish driers. These metallic s a l t s are stable, mild-odored, light-colored compounds, and are soluble i n hydrocarbons. The glycol esters of this acid are excellent vinyl resin plasticizers. Boiling point at 760 mm. Flash point Solubility in water at 20°C. Solubility of water in solvent at 2OOC. Specific gravity at 20/20°C.

226.9"C. 260 O F . 0.25% by wt. 1 .% by wt.

0.9077

Vapor pressure at 2OoC. Weight per gallon at 2OoC. Distillation range at 760 mm. Purity

0.03 mm. Hg 7-55 Ibs. 220°-2300c. (90% distills within this range 95% by wt. min.

Table 13.9: Solubility of Water in Ethylhexolc Acld, Ethylbutyraldehydeand Ethylpropylacroiein (79)

TEMPERATURE Y.

Acids Table 13.10: Lactic Acid (2)

u -Hydroxypropionic Acid

CH3CHOH*COOH

Lactic acid, which i s among the oldest known organic acids, i s obtained from sour

milk by the reduction of hexose sugars or by the interaction of acetaldehyde and carbon monoxide. I t i s miscible with water and many organic reagents. Since i t has an asymmetrical carbon atom, lactic acid exists in two optical isomeric forms. Peckham states that "the nomenclature used to designate the isomeric forms was, until recently, very confusing. The form of the acid commonly known as sarcolactic, the form occurring i n blood, has (+) rotation but the I configuration. I t i s therefore correctly designated as I(+) lactic acid and its mirror image as d(-) lactic acid. The salts of the I(+) form are levorotatory and the salts of the d(-) form are dextrorotatory. &cause of the low optical rotatory power of the free acids, rotation of the pure acid or its simple salts i s not a suitable criterion for establishing the optical form of the acids, or the percentage composition i n case of a mixture". Commercial lactic acid has been determined to be a mixture of a-hydroxypropionic acid, lactyllactic acid, and water. When dilute lactic acid i s concentrated, two molecules of lactic acid unite to form loctyllactic acid and water. The lactyllactic acid splits off from the water.

~H,CHOH.COOH e CH,'CHOH~COOCH~CH,~'COOH + HI0

It

CH~C&)OCOCH(CH,)OCO

Polylactyllactic acids may also be formed by loss of water between the carboxyl and the alcohol groups, thus:

The conditions which affect the production of a lactic acid solution from lactyllactic acid are temperature, concentration and age of solution.

A graph showing the Composition of Aqueous Lactic Acid Systems at Equilibrium and at Progress States of Dehydration.

665

666

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 13.11: Trifiuoroacetic Acid (25)

114.03 72.5"C 105.5"C ( I ) -15.36"C (1,2) 1.4844 g/mI 12.4 Ib/gal 28.8 mm (3) 107 mm 7949 cal/mol (3) 125.5 Btu/lb 0.81 3 cp (4) 42.1 e (5) 0.026 105/cmohm (4) 13.44 dynedcm (6)

CF3COzH Mol. Wt. Boiling Point Water Azeotrope (20.6% water) Freezing Point Density a t 25°C Vapor Pressure O'C 25°C Heat of Vaporization Viscosity a t 25°C Dielectric Constant at 25°C Conductivity a t 25°C Surface Tension at 26°C

( I ) Swarts, F., Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg. Classe sci., 8, 343 (1922). (2) Cady, H.H. and Cady, G.E., J. Am. Chem. SOC., 76,915 (1954). (3) Taylor, M.D. and Templeman, M.B., J. Am. Chem. SOC., 78,2950 (1956). (4) Fialkov, Y.Y. and Zhikarev, V.S., Zh. Obshch. Khim., 33,3466,3471,3790 (1963). (5) Simons, J.H. and Lorentzen, K.E., J. Am. Chem. SOC.,72, 1426 (1950). (6) Jasper, J.J. and Wedlick, H.L., J. Chem. Eng. Data, 9, 446 (1964).

E E P

1E 20 30 40 50 60 70 TEMPERATURE 'C VAPOR PRESSURE OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID -10

0

10

MOL%

80

CFmH

FREEZING POINTS WATER-TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID SYSl'EM

(continued)

3

6 Q) E 0

Y

C

-

..

0

r

v

T:

2

Q)

s n

-

r

0

E

0

3

8 m

r(

8

0

0 (

E: 0

*2 0z 0

0 0

2

8

f

!2

N

8 0 0

8 N

Qm 0 0 0 P

8 P P O o D 8 s a o

0 0

33NVJl.l WSNVU lN3383d

Acids 667

3

I

-z!

C

.-wC

-8

668

Indusnial Solvents Handbook

Table 13.11: (contlnued) SOLUBILITY OF INORGANIC ACIDS

INSOLUBLE

MISCIBLE

Over 10 g

1-10 g

0.1-1 g

Leu than 0.1 g

CSCl &POI KiSO4 NH,NOs

AgF,CrO,FeCl,KCI KCrOr,KF, KI KMn04,KNO~Na0,NaCr04,NaI NaF, NaNOS Na3PO,,NaSO,

B a a z , Be C12 Cr C13 Crz (SO& MgFz NiFz

AgCI, AICI:l BaSO, C a S , FeF3 KaOr NaCI04,PbFz

SOLUBILITY OF METAL TRIFLUOROACWAm IN TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID AT 30°C

Metal Salt

AI

Ba

Ca

Cut*

Hg'*

K

Mg

Na

Ni

Fe'3*

g SaIt/lOO g acid

0.01

42

6.3

20

50

50

0.57

13

16

1.2

CO,

HBr

HCI

Ha

3.5

6.6

4.1

GlU

Clz

Trifluoroacetic Acid Water

9.3 2.1

CO 0.0 0.02

-

0.8

580

-

TEMPERATURE

423

"C.

N2

O2

SO,

8.6

0.1

0.2

23

2.5

0.02

0.03

36

0

c

P

2

'30-U3111

3lllVA NOllV314NWVS

3nlVA 3Nl001

310N3AlOdVS03VY131

31Y330NDll

310N3AlOdVS0300

310N3AlOdVS0313

310N330313

3IYV31SO313

31NV311

31W31SAXOU0AHIO

31310N131Y

31N31ONll

31310Nll

31310

1131011WlVd

3111WlVd

310NV330VlN3d

313101SlUAW

31181YAW

Acids

669

670

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 13.14: Arizona Chemical ACTINOL Tail Oil Fatty Acids (5) SAPONIFICATION VALUE

IODINE VALUE (WIJS)

MOISTURE .h

Asn

197

131

< 0.1

200

A

20

> 200

A

20

> 200

A

20

> 200

VlSCOSlTV

7

FA-3

I

34

0

OTHERS nv DIFFERENCE. %

SATURATED

LINOLEIC NON-CONJUGATED

95.2

7

< 0 01

FATTY ACIDS TOTAL I o

> 200 .

> 200

Acicis

671

Table 13.15: Eastman Chemicals Acids and Anhydrides (41) Cdor

Boiling

Specific Gravity @ 20.1200C

Point OC

Freezing Point OC

TOC

Form

Pt-co Max

Flash Point

Fire Point O C (OF)

A-Y Mln Wt

Glacial Acetic Acida3D*C.a (Ethanoic Acid) CHICOOH

Liquid

-

1.05

118

17

43 (109)

64 (148)

99

Acetic Anhydrided (Acetyl Oxide) (CHiCO)zO

Liquid

-

1.08

140

-73

56 (132)

58 (137)

99

Butyric Acid (Ethyl Acetic Acid) CjH7COOH

Liquid

15

0.96

164

-8

71 (160)

75 (167)

99

Butyric Anhydride (CiW0)zO

Liquid

-

0.97

195

-73

84 (183)

87 (189)

98

Crotonic Acid (2-Butenoic Acid) CHiCH:CHCOOH

Solid

15 (APHA)

0.96 (8O0/4OC)

185

70

94 (202) COC

97 (207)

99

2-Ethylhexoic Acid (2-EthylhexanoicAcid) CAHSCHIC~HSCOOH

Liquid

25

0.91

223

-118

118 (245) COC

127(260)

99

Isobutyric Acid (2-MethyipropanoicAcid) (CHi)zCHCOOH

Liquid

10

0.95

155

-47

62 (143)

67 (152)

99

Isobutyric Anhydride Cdl403

Liquid

-

0.95

182

-54

72 (161)

74 (166)

98

Propionic Acidasb9' CzH&OOH

Liquid

10

0.99

141

-22

54 (130)

58 (137)

99

-45

66 (151)

66 (151)

98

OC

(OF)

w

. I

Propionic Anhydride (CzHsCO)?O

Liquid

-

1.01

167

aAvailable in food grade bKosher cenilied 'Available in feed grade dAvailable in reagenr grade

Table 13.16: Halocarbon Products BIOGRADE Trltiuoroacetlc Acid (25)

SPECIFICATIONS: Assay by titration Trifluoroacetic Anhydride water

99.9% Min. nil 0.05% Max.

Trace Impurities (Maximums) Chloride Fluoride Sulfate Iron (Fe) Residue after evaporation

0.001% 0.001% 0.001% 0.0001% 0.0002%

Color (Platinum-Cobalt Scale) 5 Max. Ultraviolet Absorbance Maxima (0.1% in distilled water vs. distilled water in 1 cm cell path) at 230 nm 0.15% at 254.nm 0.01%

672

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 13.17: EMERY Fatty and Dibasic Acids (63)

Sprdflc%on8

Acid Value EmpoP 1010 Dimer Acid (polymer grade) Empol 1014 Dimer Acid Empol 1016 Dimer Acid Empol 1018 Dimer Acid Empol 1022 Dimer Acii Empol 1024 Dimer Acid Empol 1040 Trimer Acid Empol 1041 Trimer Acid Empol 1052 Polybasic Acid

Color 1963 Gardner, ma.

Compantlw Typical Comporitlon1 Short-Path High Pressure Methyl Ester Liquid Distillation Chromatography Di Poly Mono Di

Mono

Poly

194-200

1

0

97

3

4

94

2

194-198 190-198 190-198 189-197 190-198 175-192 161-181 . 250-2852

5 6 8

95

8

1 1 Tr 3 Tr

4 19 17 22 25 93

11 dark

-

-

4 6 6 9 8 2 3 33

91 76 79 77 77 18 35

5 18 15 14 15 80 62

343

633

a

80 03 75 75 7 10

-

-

90

-

Food Grade1 Fatty Acids

I

b

ma.

nm., min.

Value

53.9-54.7

3.5-5.0

88/99

205.210

2.5

0.5

50

1

40

54.5-55.5

0.5

93/99

205211

1.5

0.5

50

1

47

59.0-60.5

0.5

88199

203-206

3

0.5

26.5

1

69

Tr

65-68

1.0

84/98

1s201

1

Tr

7.5

2.5

88

1

Emenol6313 NF Low-liter Oleic Acids

6 ma.

88-93

75/98

201-204

3

Tr

5

1

Tr

3

6321 NF Low-tiler While Oleic3 Emersol6333 NF LL Oleic A~id3~0

6 max.

87-92

85/99

201-204

3

Tr

5

1

Tr

3

6

8-10

86-91

85/99

200-204

3

Tr

6.5

1

1.5

3

5.5

EmersoP 6320 DP Stearic Acid

6332 NF TP Stearic Acids-' Emersol6349 Stearic Acid Emersol6351 Stearic Acids

6

6

7

5

6

1

75

6

1

73.5

5.5

0.5

(continued)

673

Acids Table 13.17: (contlnued)

Coconut Fatty Acids

1

8-8

Color 96 Trans. Gardner W550 1963, nm., min. max.

Tvrrul rn)Oritkn'

Titer, OC

Iodine Value

23-27

5-16

3w80

Y

258268

4

5

48

20

10

2

10

1

22-26

5-10

65/96

22

2M-276

7

6

48

19

9

2

8

1

23-25

5,0 max.

1

269-273

7

6

49

19

9

7

3

E M W ~ H ~ W I V U ~ ~251 Coconut Acids

1.Omu.

1

270-276

7

6

51

18

10

7

1

1

252-258

1

0

1

1

253-259

1

3

5

E m e v 621 Coconut Fatty Acid Emery 622 Coconut Fatty Acid Emery 625 Partially Hydrogenated Coconut Fatty Acid

Fm

E ~ 627 w Low IV, HdPPd. U l n Coconut Acid

1-32 1.0

Emery 629 Stripped, Coconut Fatty Acid

27-30

Fm

6-10

o6/9(1

88/98

Acid Value

5

5

2

2 23

55

1

1

1

12

'Typical compositions determined by GLC analysis. AOCS Ce 1-62. These compositions are not manufacturing specifications. ZTypkaI property. 3Emety 7026 Kosher Grade available.

lwstearic Acids Specllcrtlons Color

46 Trans. Titer, max. 10 10

EmersolQ 871 lsostearic Acid Emersol 875 lsostearic Acid

4401550, nm., min. 30185 85/98

Iodine Value 12 max. 3 max.

OC,

Acid Value 175 min. 187-197

Oleic Acids Typical Compm Unsaturated Aclds

Saturated Acids Color

46 Trans. OC

Iodine Value

4401550 nm.. min.

Acid Value

7-12

87-95

2/30

197-204

T

ma''

88-95

199-204

Tr

3

Tr

3

Titer, EmersoP 210 Oleic Acid Emersol213 NF Low-titer Oleic hjd2,3

r

3

5

1

1

4

Tr

5

1

Tr

3

Tr

4

1

Tr

T

r

6 6

3

7

1

7

3

7

7

8

3

1 8

1

8

1

8

1

~~

Emersol233 LL

oleic Acid'

6max.

86-90

78/99

200-204

Tr

3

Tr

4

1

Tr

3

Tr

3

Tr

4

1

Tr

3

7 11

7

3 74

4

TI

1Typical compositions determined by GLC anaiysis, AOCS Ce 1-62, These compositions are not manufacturing specifications lConesponding food grade products available T o r external use only, USP XXl/NYF XVI. 4LL (bw-linokk content) oleic: polyunsaturates 5% max.

(continued1

674

Industrial Solvents Handbook Table 13.17: (continued)

Short-Chain Acids* S

~

O

n

I

S

Typlcrl CanporlUon*

Titer, OC

Iodine Value max.

Color % Trans. w 5 5 0 nm.. min.

Acid Value

35

14-16

0.2

88/99

385-390

Tr

99

1

1-6

0.3

88/99

356-366

3

56

40

1

28-31

0.5

88/99

322-326

1

97

2

Emery 650 Lauric Acid

33-35

0.4

85/97

268-272

Emery 651 Lauric Acid

41-43

0.2

w98

276-282

Tr

Emery 652 Lauric Acid

43 min.

0.2

90/98

277-281

Tr

Emery 655 Myristic Acid

52.0-53.5

0.5

90/99

243-246

Emery@657 Caprylic Acid Emery 658 Caprylic-Capric Acid Emery 659 Capric Acid

.YN 9%

s% gQ 85 “ 2 O

N

71

28

1

96

3

0.3

99

0.7

1

97

1

2

Stearic and Palmitic Acids S~llkrHOnS Unrrturated Saturated Acldr

AcldS

Color % Trans.

Titer, OC

EmersoP 110 Stearic Acid 52.8-53.5 53.7-54.7 Emersol 120 Stearic Acid2 Emersol 132 NF Lily@Stearic A ~ i d 2 ~ 354.5-55.5 ~~ Fmnrsnl 143 Palmitic Acid 58-61 63.9-65.0 Emersol 150 Stearic Acids 66.5-69.0 Emenol 152 NF Stearic Acids Emersol 153 NF Stearic Acids 67-69 52 min. Emery 400 Stearic Acid Emery 404 Stearic Acid 53.5-54.5 Emery 405 Stearic Acid’ 57 min. Emery 410 Stearic Acid 56.1-60.0 Emery 420 Stearic Acid 57.2-63.0 55.8-60.0 Emery 422 Stearic Acid

Iodine Value

E12 57 0.5 max. 1 max. 1 max. 1 max. 1 max. 9.5max.

6-9 6 max. 7 max. 1 max. 1 max.

4401550 nm.. min.

60/94 88/99 93/99 93/99 93/99 80/97 80/97 1/40 1/50 40/86 40/86

85/98 93/99

Acid Value

205-210 205-210 205-210 215-223 197-202 196-199 196-199 197-212 197-209 195-205 195209 200.207 203-209

I

35

I

39

I

5 75

~~~

25

n5 1

50

50

2 2.5

90 95

7

5

9 5

Tr

1

Tr

3

I

3 4 3

0.5 0.5 Tr

25 29 41

2 1.5 1

63 65 55

2.5

4

Tr

Tr

‘Typical composirions determined by GLC analysis, AOCS Ce 162. These compositions are not manufacturing specifications Orresponding food grade products available: SFor external use on&, USP XXUNF XVI. 4hwdered grade also available. W96 mhimum stearic m t e n t . 6Tentative specifkation.

[continued)

-

Acids

675

42

5

Table 13.17: (continued)

Slow and Modified Fatty Acids

OC EmerV.531Tallow Fatty Acid Emery 401 Fatty Acid Emery 876 Fatly Acii Emery 677 Fatty Acid Emery 878 Fatty Acid

I

36-44

Value 45-70

nm.. min. 19/81

44-53

34-44

80/95

35-45

2-6 2 max.

34-45

-

47M 7M5

IN.

Value 20&208 199-208 235-289 240-270 295-315

2.5

27

0.5

1

17

4

1

80% Monobasic acids, 2096 dibasic acids

I

SllowlCoconut Fatty Acid Blends

rrrcAcid Value 212-218 214216 216-222

EmerY. 515 Fatty Acid Emery 516 Fatty Acid Emery 517 Fatty Acid

Iodine Value

Titer, OC 3540 38-45 374.5

44-54 35-42 42 max

Emend.315 Linokk kid

Emery.610 Sova Fattv Acid Fitty Acld

Color % Trans. W550 nm., mn 72196

7w94 78194

Typlerl CompoJUon1

I

&tunlrd Arldc

5 max.

145-180

72/98

3

195-202

1525

125138

80/90

3

185205

15.23

138-145

72/98

3

197-203

0.5

I

Tr

0.5

Tr

3.5 16 11

Tr

0.5

Tr

Unulunlrd Acids

Tr

Tr

19.5

85.5

10.5

4

1

25.5

48

5

4

1 2 7 5 0

7

676

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 13.18: INDUSTRENE and HYSTRENE Fatty and Dibasic Acids (26)

SPECIflCATIONS

PRODUCT

lndustrene

365.

ACID DESCRIPTION [CTFA ADOPTED NAME) CAS NUMBER

Capryllc/Capric [Mlxture Caprylic/ Capric Acld) 67762-36-1

TITER C '

IODINE VALUE

6 Max

1 Max

ACID VALUE

355-369

% UNSAP MAX

1

TYPICAL CARBON CHAIN COMPOSITION XTRANS 440/550 nm,MlN

COLOR WVIBOND

MAX

SATURATED UNSATURATED OTHERS C8 ClO C l Z C14 C18 el81 C18:l

I

70/92 5.OY-0.5R 60 38

2

Available only In bulk splcal molsture levels are below 0.3%.

SPEClFlCATlONS

PRODUCT

Industrene

325

TYPICAL CARBON CHA

OMPOSITION

SATURATED C8 C10 C12 C14 C18 C i l

INSATURATED

TITER 'C

IODINE VALUE

ACID VALUE

% UNSAP MAX

Distilled Coconut (CoconutAcld) 61700-47-4

22-27

5-10

265-277

0.5

65/90 8.OY-0.8R 7

50 19 9

1

Hydrogenated Coconut [Hydrogenated Coconut Acld) 67701-05-7

23-26

3 Max 266-274

0.3

85/96 2.OY-0.2R 7

51 18 9

2

4

ACID DESCRIPTION (CTFA ADOPTED NAME) CAS NUMBER

lndustrene

223

XTRANS 44O/SSO nm.MlN

COLOR LOVIBOND

MAX

lndustrene, 328

,

Strlpped Coconut (CoconutAcld) 61700-47-4

27-30

5-10

252-260

0.5

ao/96 3 . 0 ~ 0 . 3 ~

55 24 12

Hystrene

Hydrogenated Stripped Coconut (Hydrogenated Coconut Acld) 143-07-7

26-33

1 Max

250-260

0.5

85/96 2.OY-0.2R I

55 23 12

5012

cia1

-

'HERS

95% Lauric [Lauric Acld) 143-07-7

41-44 0.5 Max 275-281 0.25

85/96 2.OY-0.2R

96 3

Hys trene 9912

99% Laurlc (Lauric Acld) 143- 07-7

43-45 0.2 Max 276-281

0.25

92/98 1.OY-0.1R

99

Hystrene

90% Mydstlc [Myrlstlc Acld) 044- 63 8

50-54 0.5 Max 238-245 0.3

85/96 2.OY-0.2R

2

92 4

2

95% Myrlstlc (MyrlstlcAcld) 044-63-0

52-54 0.5 Max 24 1-247

SP/9H

I

97 I

1

Hystrene

9512

9014 I lystrerie

9514

1

-

'bplrnl ~iiolslurelevels are below 0.3%.

0.3

1.OY-O.1R

(continued)

Acids

677

Table 13.18: (contlnued)

SPECIFICATIONS

PROWCl

Hystrene 9016

ACID DESCRIPTION (CTFA ADOPTED NAME) CAS NUMBER

90% Palmltlc (PalmltlcAcid)

TYPICAL CARBON 0

X

I COMPOSlTl

-

W P MAX

XTRANS 44O/SW nm.MIN

0.2

92/98

1.OY-O.lR Lovlbond

1

92

6

207-210

0.5

88/96

1.5Y-0.2R Lovibond

3

46

42

4.5-56.5 0.5Ma 206-210

0.2

92/98

1.OY-O.1R Lovlbond

2

51

45

2

55-57

0.2

88/96

1.5Y-0.2R Lavlbond

1

52

46

1

1

88/96

1.5Y-0.2R Lovlbond

2

44

52

2

I.OY-O.lR

2

43

52

3

TmR 'C

59-62

IODINE VALUE

ACID VALW

0 . 5 M ~ 214-219

COLOR MAX

SATURATED C14 C16 Cl8

E

-NSATURAED Ci0:I

1

57-10-3

lndustrene 5016

Double Pressed Grade (Stearic Add)

53-56

4-7

5

4

57-11-4

Hystrene 5016 NF-EXT

Triple Pressed Grade (Stark Add) 57-1 1-4

Hystrene 5016 NF-EXT-VEG

Trlple Pressed Grade (St-rlc Acid)

0.7Ma 205-210

57-11-4

lndustrene 4516

45% Palmltlc (PalmltlcAdd)

54-57

2Ma

204-209

57-11-4

Hystrene 4516

45% Palmltlc (PalmltlcAcld)

55-58

0.8Ma 203-209 0.25 92/98

Lovlbond

57-11-4

lndustrene R

Stearic Acld

52-64

10Ma

193-213

3

12 Gardner

57-63

3Mm

198-207

1

40186

3 Gardner

3

28

65

4

58-62

1M a

200-207

0.5

70192

5.OY-0.5R Lovlbond

3

28

65

4

0.5M a 200-206

0.3

92/98

I.OY-0.1R Lovlbond

2

28

66

4

195-201

0.5

70192

5.OY-0.5R lavibond

6

91

3

66.5-69 0.8Ma 195-200

0.3

92/98

1.OY-0.1R Lovlbond

4

94

2

66.5-69 0.8Ma

0.3

92/98

1.OY-0.IR Lavlbond

5 9 4

I

57-11-4

lndustrene B

Stearlc Acld 57-11-4

lndustrene 7018

70% Stearlc (Stearlc Acld) 57-11-4

Hystrene 7018

70% Stearlc (Stearlc Acld)

58-62

57-11-4

lndustrene 9018

90% Stearlc (Stearlc Acld)

65-68.5

2Ma

57-11-4

Hystrene 9718 NF-EXT

92% Stearic (Stearic Acld) 67-11-4

Hystrene 9718 NF-Em-VEG

92% Steadc (Stearlc Acld)

195-200

67-11-4

'I)rplcsl molsture levels are M o w 0.396.

(continued)

678

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 13.18: (continued)

SPECIFICATIONS

PRODUCT

Hysrrene 3022

TYPICAL CARBON CHAIN COMPOSlnON

X UNSAP MAX

%TRANS 440/550 m, MlN

193-20 1

1.5

50/90

60-63

178- 185

1.5

w90

68-71

169-177

1.5

50/90

27

63-67

170-180

1.5

50/90

23

72

5

67-72

165- 175

1.5

50/90

6

90

4

74-79

162- 169

2.0

ACID DESCRIPTION (CTFA ADOPTED NAME) CAS NUMBER

TITER C .

30% Arachidic

51-55

IODINE VALUE

ACID VALUE

COLOR BARDNER MAX

-

'HERS -

:14

ClE

SATURATED C l 8 C20 CZOaC22

6

30

30

30

4

14

26

55

5

C22

and Behenic (Hydrogenated Menhaden Acid) 112-85-6

Hystrene 5522

55% Arachidic

and Behenic (Hydrogenated Menhaden Acid) 112-85-6

Hystrene

60% Arachidic

6022

and Behenic (BehenicAcid)

10

60

3

112-85-6

Hystrene

70% Arachidic

7022

and Behenic (Behenic Acid) 112-85-6

Hystrene

90% Arachidic

9022

and Behenic (Behenic Acid) 112-85-6

Hys trene 9222

92% Behenic (Behenic Acid)

2

3

93

2

112-85-6

-

Typical moisture levels are below 0.3%.

SPECIFICATIONS

PRODUCT

Hystrene 2290

ACID DESCRIPTION (CTFA ADOPTED NAME) CAS NUMBER

90% Erucic 112-86-7

TYPICAL CARBON CHAIN COMPOSITION

TITER 'C

IODINE VALUE

ACID VALUE

X UNSAP MAX

27-37

65-90

160-185

2.0

COLOR GARONER MAX

5

. Cia

1

SATURATED h UNSATURATED C20 C22 C24

3

90

4

OTHERS

2

(continued)

Acidr

679

Table 13.18: (continued)

I

SPECIFICATIONS

PRODUCT

Hystrene I835

ACID DESCRIPTION (CTFA ADOPTED NAME) CAS NUMBER

Soap Blend (MtxtureTallow/ CoconuL Acld) 07701- 06 -7

TITER 'C

IODINE VALUE

ACID VALUE

X UNSAP MAX

40M;lx 36-42 214-222

45-65 201 -206

Industretie 143

Tallow lype 01790-37-2

Xb43

Industrene 145

Tallow Q p e 01700-37-2

44-41) 36-44 198-207

1

TYPICAL CARBON CHAIN COMPOSITION XTRANS 440/550 nm, MlN

MAX

78/94 4.OY-0.4R 10 Lovibond

1.5 1.0

COLOR

5 Gardner 80/93

6

18

3

33

3

5,

3 .24 17

5

43

5

3

:J

39

I

3

3

22

26 25

Typlral iiiolslure levels nre below 0 3?4$ -

-

TYPIC

SPECIFICATIONS

PRODUCT

ACID DESCRIPTION (CTFA ADOPTED NAME) CAS NUMBER

TITER *C

IODINE VALUE

ACID VALUE

X UNSAP MAX

COLOR

MAX

:ARBON CHAIN COMPOSITION

SATURATED I 4 C16 C18

Industrene 105

High-Titer Oleic (Oleic Acid) 112-80-1

14 Max

85-95

195-204

1.5

6 Gardner

6

70

Industrene 106

Oleic (Oleic Acld) 112-80-1

6 Max

95 Max

198-204

1

3 Gardner

6

72

lndustrene 205

Oleic (Oleic Acid) 112-80-1

14 Max

85-95

195-204

1.5

5.OY-0.5R Lovibond

5

72

lndustrene 206

Low-Titer Oleic (Oleic Acld) 112-80-1

6 Max

95 Max

199-204

1

7.OY-1.2R Lovibond

6

72

lndustrene 210

Canola 67701-08-0

13 Max 100- 125 190-210

10Y-1.5R Lovibond

63

Spica1 rnolsture levels are below 0.3%. 1

(continued)

680

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 13.18: (continued)

SPECIFICATIDNS

PRODUCT

lndustrene 120

%TRANS 440/550 m,MlN

COLOR QARDNER MAX

e

TITER .C

IODINE VALUE

ACID VALUE

% UNSAP MAX

14-18

185-200

197-202

1

5

7

4

20

16

52

I

30-38

90-112

198-206

2

4

18

10

31

32

5

4

25Mtuc

135-150

195-201

2

75/85

2

4

5

24

57

8

2

26Mm

127-138

195-203

2

70185

3

11

4

24

53

6

2

ACID DESCRIPTION (CTfA ADOPTED NAME) CAS NUMBER

Linseed (LinolenicAcld)

-

UNSATURATED

SATURATED

08424-45-3

lndustrene

OlelcLlnolelc

130

07701-00-8

Industrene 225

(Llnolelc Acld)

soya 67701-08-0

lndustrene 226

soya (LlnolelcAcld)

I I

07701-08-0

-

VpleaI molsture levels are below 0.396.

TYPIC& CARBON CHAIN COMPOSIT

SPECIFICATIONS

'RODUCT

ACID DESCRIPTION (CTFA ADOPTED NAME) CAS NUMBER KOSHER

Hystrene 45% Palmitic 4516 NF-FC (palmitic Add)

UNSAP

MAX

%TRANS W/SW nm,MIN

0.25

206-210

55-57

58-62

%

TITER 'C

55-59

UNSATURATED u)tl cmz C W 3

E

-

COLOR

IANRATED A ClE ClE

92/98

1.OY-O.1R Lovibond

, 4 4 5 4

0.2

92/98

1.OY-O.1R bvibond

1

51 45

2

0 . 5 M ~ 205-210

0.2

92/98

1.OY-O.1R Lovibond

1

52 46

1

0 . 5 M ~ 200-205

0.3

92/98

1.OY-O.1A Lovibond

2

28 66

4

IDDINE VALUE

ACID VALUE

0.6Mm 203-209

MAX

1

57-11-4

Hystrene 5016 NF-FG

Trlple Pressed Stearic (Stearlc Acld)

1.5-56.5 0.5Mm

57-1 1-4

Hystrene 5016 NF-FGVEG

Triple Pressed Stearic (StearicAcid) 57-11-4

Hystrene 7018 FG

70% Stearic (Hydrogenated Tallow Add) 57-11-4

lndustrene 87 18 FG

87% Stearic (Stearic Acld)

66-68

1M a

195-200

0.5

92/98

1.OY-O.IR Lovibond

9

89

2

56.5-69

0.5Mm

195-200

0.3

92/98

1.OY-0.1F Lovibond

4

94

2

2 6 M ~ 127-138

195-203

2

70185

3 Gardner

11

4

57-11-4

Hystrene 9718 NF-FC

92% Stearic (StearicAcld)

lndustrene 226 FG

Dlstllled Soya (Soya Acld)

57-11-4

07701-08-0 Malerials available In Kosher grade. Typlcal moisture levels are Ixlw 0.396.

24

53

6

2

(D

8 U

tt

Acids

681

682 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Acids

683

Table 13.20: Proctor 81 Gamble Fatty Adds (39)

FattyAcids

Acid V k e

Physical Properties

I

R+37.44

21.25

12 mm

2mposition (GC) raximate

50% by wt. in water; ethyl alcohol; benzene; mineral spirits

Amine component . .. . . . . . . . . . . .78% by wt Neutral equivalent as a base . .. . . . 120-126 Color, APHA.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 100 (max) Flash point, Tag closed cup.. . . . . . . . . 120°F Freezing point.. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . below -20°C Specific gravity at 25/25"C.. . . . . .0.98-0.99 Viscosity at 25°C. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 7.5 cp pH ............................... 10.5-11.5 Weight per U.S. gallon.. . . .. . . . . . . . . .8.2Ib

.

Amine CS-1246" . . . .. . . . . . . . .97.5% minimum . . . ..Colorless topale yellow mobile liquid Boiling point.. . .. . ... ..... . . . . . . . . . . .73-75'C at 10 torr Neutral equivalent (calc) . . . . . ........143 Density at 2 6 C . .. . ....... . ... . . ....1.072g/mI pH of 0.1M soln. (20'C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.2 Principal component

Soluble at >50% by wt. in water; ethyl alcohol; benzene; mineral spirits

ZOLDINEEZT-55

-

Typical Physical Properties of CS-1246 Specific gravity, 30/20"C . .1.085 Boiling point, "C at 15 mmHg , . 71 Freezing point, "C.. ... . . .. o Surface tension, dynedcm at 25°C . . .36.5 pH . .&9 Soluble In water, ethanol, benzene, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and acetone Flash point, Tag closed cup, OF.. ... . . 175

... .... . .. .. . ._.... .. . . ... . . ...... .. ........ .. ... .. .. . .. .. .. ... ..... .

.

Principal component . . . . .. . . .. . . . .55% solution in water Specifications Appearance .. ... . ....... . . . . . . . . . . . .Colorless topale yellow mobile liquid Melting point .. . . . . . .. .. . ... .. . , .. . . .54.5"C (active component, Purity, % by wt. . .. .. . . . .. . . . . .. .97.5 min. Neutral equivalent . . .. ... . . . . . . .. . . . ,273-278 Total Oxazolidines, % by wt. . ..99.5 min. .Density at 25'C . ... . . .... . . . . . . . . . .1.125~/ml Color, APHA.. , . . , , . , . .... ..,.. .lo0 max. pH of 0.1M soh (20°C) . ..... . . . .. .. .9.4 Water, 96 by wt. , . . . . . . .. . . . .. .0.5 m a . Active ingredient soluble at >50% by wt. in water; ethyl alcohol; at 25 gl100 ml in benzene 31 25%; at 1.2 g/lOO ml in mineral spirits' at 75°C.

. ..

. .. .. .

when anhydrous

Table 14.55: Ashland Amines (69)

Product

%?

AMP-95

0.942

Arnlne % by wt Bawd on Total Alkallnlly

Freezing

Color p1-CoScale Max 28

Flash Polnl "F Open Cup 172

*C

&Itvl Amine

0.742-0.747

76.0-81.O

97.0

- 49

0.86450.8655

Appcox. 134.5

98

15 20

30

Cvdahmyiornine

72

-18

DibutylAmlne Dlethanolomlne

(25"/25C) 0.760 1.090-1.094

155-163 Approx187

98 98.5

15 15

124 280

- 62 28.0

Lb. erGal.0 at& 7.85 (25%) 6.20 7.19 (25%) 6.32 9.14

(50mml 54.0-59.5 195215

98.5 89.093.0

15

m

CM

Kerosene

aboul 005

about 0 01

about 0.02

about 0.03

3.4

0.2

4

08

Methanol

CM

CM

CM

CM

CM

670

>m

CM

'1 1,l-Trichloroethane

about 0 6'

about

about 1.Q

about 2.5'

CM'

aboul 15'

about280'

CM'

'Methylene Chloride

CM'

IM'

CM'

CM*

CM'

about 180'

>500'

CM'

O W

I

CM CM

mtinued)

Amines

721

Table 14.57: (continued)

Mineral Oil . . . .

DI-

Monoethanolamlne

ethanolamine

about 0.06

Trlethanolamlne85

TrlethanolamlneW

MonoDllsoproIsopropanol- panolamlne amine

Trllsopropanolamine

about 0.02

about 0.03

about 0.03 0.2

0.05

Mineral Spirits . . . about 0.08 about 0.01

about 0.03

about 0.04

0.4

0.2

5

Naphtha VMP. . . . about 0.07

about 0.03

about 0.06

0.4

0.3

6

.

about 0.01

Isopropanolamlne Mlxture

about 0.4

.Y

'Perchloroethylene.. . . . . . about 0.1'

about 0.02'

about 0.1'

about 0.17'

about 0.7'

about 0.9'

about 160'

Pine Oil.. . . . . . . . CM

CM

CM

CM

CM

110

90

CM

Toluene.. . . . . . . . about 0.7

about 0.1

about 0.6

about 1.7

CM

12

340

CM

Water. . . . . . . . . . . CM

CM

CM

CM

CM

1200

>500

CM*

Refractive Indices,n,, of Aquews Ethanolamine Solutions at 7pF (2%) 1.50 1.48 1.46

3 n z w

DIETHANOLAMINE

1.44 1.42

2f 1.40 IT

B

LT

1.3 1.36 1.34 1.32

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

CONCENTRATION OF AMINE, WEIGHT %

Refractive Indices, n,, of Aqueous IsopropanolamLne Solutions at 7Pr: (25°C) 1.48

1.46

3 1.44 n z

1.42

I

&

2 1.40 lL

W

fr 1.38

1.36 1 34

0

10

20

30

40

CONCENTRATION

50

60

70

OF AMINE, WEIGHT

80 Yo

90

100

(continued)

Industrial Solvents Handbook

722

Table 14.57: (continued)

Freezing Curves of Aqueous Ethanolamine Solutions Diethanolamine 120

100

9- 80 60 40

a I I

-40

Ill=..

-40

0 -20

I

-40

I

.m

.d

-40

I

60I 0 10 20 30 4G 50 60 70 801 90 100 CONCENTRATION OF AMINE, WEIGHT Yo I

I

L.F.GJ

LF.G:

I

LL

1

-40

I

I

I

I

III

-40

I l l

-40

I I I III I I I I I I I. 1

-40

Freezing Curves of Aqueous Isopropanolamine Solutions Monoisopropanolamlne

Dilsopropanolamine

40

30

g3

10

+ao

pt

g

-10

I

w -20 I-

-30 -40

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

CONCENTRATION OF AMINE, WEIGHT %

80

90100 CONCENTWTION OF AMiNE. WEIGHT YO

I

&.G.-w' LF.G.- 85'

(continued)

Amines

723

Table 14.57: (continued)

Freezing Curves of Aqueous Isopropanolamine Solutions (conk.) Triisopropanolamine

Isopropanolamine Mixture 40

120 40

100

$ 8 0

U

20

G 60 ( I 3 I-

40

5a

20

a

0

20

10

10

0

O

-10

-20

-20

-30

I-

9

W

-20

-30

60

-40

-30

1

I

I 1 7

I

I

I

.

I-

I 4

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 CONCENTRATION OF AMINE. WEIGHT Yo 0

I

2

W

-10

-40

CONCENTRATION OF AMINE, WEIGHT %

0 w’ a 3 :

.20 .10

5 O I-

30

30

90 100

L.F.G.‘

pH Values of Aqueous Ethanolamines Diethanolamine

Monoethanolamine

12.8 12.4 12.0 s11.6 11.2 10.8

10.4 0

5

10

20

15

25

30

11.8 11.6 11.4 11.2 11.0 I,lO.S 10.6 10.4 10.2 10.0 9.8 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

CONCENTRATIONOF AMINE, WEIGHT %

CONCENTRATIONOF AMINE, WEIGHT %

Triethanolamine

11.4 11.0 10.6 I

a

10.2 9.8 9.4 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

CONCENTRATION OF AMINE, WEIGHT %

(continued)

724

.-M .Y M

8

v)

Industrial Solvents Handbook

..

rY

Amines

725

c

Industrial Solvents Handbook n

1

E 6H

UJW

r

8 3

8 '3tlflSS3tld lV101

8

0 cu

Amines

727

a

a: W a

3s

z8

728

Industrial Solvents Handbook

R

Amines

729

9 8

8 8 8

Ln

.. rf

730

Industrial Solvents Handbook

W'

d

54;

W

a

wp

..

e,

v)

cc 0

jE

0

a

Y

-2 v) 0

0

LI

0

m

Amines

731

732

8 aJ a

S

U

(3

.-

s

v

w

Y

8

Industrial Solvents Handbook

L?

0

v1

c1

-s

1 ,

c1

W

0 In

-

5:

5

g a s 8

Amines

8

733

734

1

Industrial Solvents Handbook

S

2

0

----T--

i

'

II

Amines

735

736

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 14.59: Proctor 81 Gamble Tertiary Amines (39)

Chemical Pmperties

AT4295

AT-1495

AT-1695

% Total Amine

AT^

AT421416

97.3 min (98.4)

97.3 min (98.4)

% Non-Terminal Amine

6.0 NIX (5.21

6.0 max (5.0)

6.0 max (5.6)

6.0 max (5.1)

(5.0 1

YONon-Amme Material

2.0 max (1.5)

2.0 mm (1.5)

2.0 max (1.7)

2.0 max (1.5)

2.0 max (1.5)

Amine Value

254-264 (2631

226-234 (232)

203-211 (2081

246-254 (2521

236-244 (243)

0.20 mm

0.20 max

0.20 max

(0.11

0.2 mox (0.11

0.2 max

Color-APHA

35 max (151

25 max (19)

35 mox (291

35 max (171

35 mox (19)

Appearance

Clear to slight haze

slight haze

Clear to

Qear to slight haze

Clear to slight hoze

Qear to

Equivalent Weight

(213)

(242)

(2701

(2231

(231 1

% Moisture

(0.11

(0.11

6.0 max

(0.11

Physical Properties

C10 d, lower c12

1.0 M

1.0 max

X

(0.0) 95.0 min

3.0 max (1.0)

(1.3)

95.0 min (9Z5)

5.0 m u (2.2)

31 Ot -1.5 (3O.d

49.0 t/-1.5 (48.9)

2.0 max (0.3)

2.0 max (1.4)

95.0 min (97.4)

1.0 max (0.81

9.5 +/-IS (911

C18 & Higher CAS No.

pi-1.5

(0.0)

(9821

C14

C16

slight haze

01 max (0.0)

1.0 max (0.31 112-18-5

112-75-4

112-69-6

41.5+/-1.5 (41.4)

112-18-5 112-75-4

112-18-5 112-754 112-69-6

Amines

737

Table 14.60: Occidental Ethanolamines (27) Ethanolamines Products, Grades and Specifications

MEA 99

DEA 99

99.0 min. 0.5 max. 15 6 1.O-62.0 0.3

1.0 max. 98.5 min. 1.0 max. 15 104-106 0.15

Miscellaneous Grades

PEA 60

PEA 85

Monoethanolamine. wt. YO Diethanolamine, wt. YO 'fi-iethanolamine. wt. YO Ethylene glycol, wt. YO Heavy ends & others, wt. YO Color (APHA) 'Lc Water, wt. O h max.

5 max. 40 max.

2 max. 15 max. 85 min. 2 max. 4 max. 1000 1.5

Specifications

Monoethanolamine. wt. YO Diethanolamine. wl. Yo Tiiethanolamine, wt. YO Color (APHA). max. Apparent equivalent wl. Water, wt. O h max.

Low Freeze Grades

Ethanolamines have relatively high freezing points, and in win~ e respecially , in northern climates. they can become too viscous to pump. For customers in

Low Freeze Grades

Monoethanolamine, wt. YO Diethanolamine, wt. Yo Triethanolamine, wt. YO Color (APHA), max. Water, wt. O h max. Freezing point, (T)

60 min. 5 max. 4ma. 1000 2

,

TEA85

TEA97HC

0.5 max. 15.0 max. 85.0 min. 50 140-145 0.2

0.5 max. 3.0 max. 97.0 min. 250 145-150 0.2

,

these areas whose applications are not sensitive to water, OxyChem offers each ethanolamine in a "Low Freeze" grade. Low freeze grade ethanolamines are produced by the addition of 15

percent by weight of deionized water. They afe blended in the delivery vessels prior to each shipment, and therefore, are not stored as finished products.

7

MEA 99 LFG DEA 99 LFG TEA85LFG TEA97LFG 84.0 min. 0.5 max. 25 15.5 -12

0.9 m a . 83.5 min. 0.9 max. 25 15.5 1

0.5 max. 13.0 max. 72.0 min. 50 15.5 -5.5

0.5 max. 2.7 max.

83.0 min. 250 15.5 -5.5

(continued)

738

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 14.60: (continued) Compatibility Acceptable Metals

AcceptableNon-Metals

Carbon steel (to 8OOF) Copper (to 80°F) Hastelloy B 8 Hastelloy C 8 lnconelO Monel8 Nickel Nickel resist 304 Stainless steel 316 Stainless steel 20 Cb 3 Stainless steel Tantalum Titanium

Butadiene-acrylonitrile (NBH. Uuna-NO) (MEA only) Carbon-graphite. resin impregnated Chlorinaled polyether (TEAonly) Epoxy compounds Ethylene propylene diene (EPDM) Ethylene-terefluoroethylene(ETFE. TefzelO) Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) Fluoroelastomers (FKM. Viton A@. Fluorel@) Modifled phenylene oxide (NoryI8) Natural rubber Polybutadiene (Isoprene) Polyamides (Nylon@12. Nylon@66) Polychloroprene (Neoprene@) Polyester terephthalate (PET) Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) Perfluoroelastomers (FPM. K a l r 4 . Chemraz@. Kel-F@) Polypropylene (except TEAJ Polysulfone (except T W Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF. K y n d ) (TEA only) Vinyl ester

Technical Data

I

Physical Properties

DEA HN(CH,CH,OH)z

61.08

105.14

149.19

Acidity/alkalinity, (pH)

11.5-12.2

10-12

10-12

Boiling point 63 760 mm Hg, (OC/"F)

170/330

Molecular weight, (g/mol)

I

TEA

MEA H N CH CH 0H

Chemical formula

N(CH,CH,OH),

268/514 (decomp.) 335/635 (decomp.)

i

44.1

Critical pressure, (Atmos.)

32.3

24.2 ~~

Critical temperature, ("C) Coefficient of cubical expansion, ( / T I applicable range, ("C)

341.3

442.1

514.3

0.00078

Q.00065

0.00055

20-30

30-40

20-30

8.487

9.104 (@3O0C/2O0C)

9.354

1.008

1.093

1.120

Dielectric constant - liquid

37.7

22.81

29.36

Equivalent weight, (g/mol)

6 1-63

104-108

140-149

Density @ 20°C. (Ibs/gal) @ 25°C. (g/ml)

Explosive limits in air, vol. Yo - lower

- upper

~

-1

5.5 17.0

Evaporation rate @ 25 "C n-butyl acetate - (=1.00) n-butyl acetate - (155 seconds)

65%

S S S S S S

< 0.002Y0or > 80% S S S S S S S

S = soluble at 10%

S

808

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 14.170: Surfactant Properties of Surfadone LP Products (49) Solvent

SURFADONE' LP-100

SURFADONE' LP-300

Maximum concentration in H20 (YO) Minimum static surface tension (dynes/cm) Draves wetting time (sec.) Dynamic surface tension (dynes/cm)") HLB

0.124

0.002

28 4

26 300

29 6

N/A 3

(1) at a surface age of one second

Table 14.171: Low Concentrations of Surfadone LP Products Lower Surface Tension of Water (49) c

80

,

60 50 -

0

70

SURFADONE. LP-io0

\ \

A SURFADONE. ~P-300

40-

30 20

Table 14.172: Draves Wetting Time for Surfadone LP Products with SDS (seconds) (49) with

SURFADONE' LP-100 SURFADONE' LP-300 SDS

0.196 Solution

0.008% SDS

with 0.018% SDS

3.5 >300 17

2.4 5.4

5

P i n e oil

P

D i m ethylamine

109

Resin

>5

E s t e r gum

5'

Shellac

>5 (5

Ethanol

X

Sulfur

2 -Ethylbutan01

P

Trimethylamine

Ethylene glycol

X

Turpentine

Ethyl e t h e r

1 .

P o l y v i n y l acetate

>5

Glycol e t h e r

z

Polyvinyl butyral

>5

Polyvinyl c h l o r i d e

5'

Table 14.192: N-Ethyl Morphollne (2)

34 X

Table 14.193: N-Phenyl Morpholine (2)

This cyclic tertiary amine is a water-white liquid miscible with water. It may be used as a solvent far oils, dyes and resins, and as an intermediate in the synthesis of rubber acceleraton, emulsifying agents, drugs, and dyes.

. . . . . . . . . . . . 138°C. Specific Gmvity a t 2O/2O0C. . . . 0.916 Boiling Point

Boiling Point a t 760 mm. Melting Point

. . . . . . 268OC.

. . . . . . . . . . . . 57OC.

815

Esters

FORMATES Table 15.1: Methyl Formate (2) HC OOC H3 Methyl formate i s o colorless flammable liquid with a pleasant ethereol odor. I t w i l l dissolve cellulose ethers and esters but w i l l dissolve them more readily when mixed with other solvent esters or the less volatile hologenated hydrocarbons.

Acidity Boiling point Color Distillation range Electrical conductivity a t W C Flssh point Melting point Odor initial Odor reaidual Purity Refractive index a t 20°C Solubility in water at 20'C Solubility of water in solvent a t 25°C Specific gravity a t 20/WC Vapor pressure

0°C

Neutral to mrlhyl orange (methyl formate hydrolyzes in presence of water) 31.8' C Water-white Below 31.5'C h'one Above 35.O'C None 3.6 X 10-8 reciprocal ohma -32°C

-99.8'C Pleasant, ethereal Non-residual 95% to 100% eater, by w t 1 3431

30% by vol 24% by vol 0.950 t o 0.98)

i95.0 m m 309.4 m m 400.0 m m 476.4 m m 600.0 mm 707.9 m m

10°C 16°C 20°C 25.8'C

3J'C

of Mercury of Mercury of Mercury of Mercury of Mercury of M e r c u j

Table 15.2: Ethyl Formate (2) HCOOC2H5

Fonnosol

Ethyl formate i s a water-white, highly volatile and unstable liquid with a pleasant odor resembling peach kernels. It i s portly soluble i n water and miscible with benzene. I t i s a powerful solvent for cellulose nitrate and acetate, yielding solutions of unusual low viscosity which have a tendency to c h i l l . It i s an important fumigant and larvicide for the treatment o f tobacco, cereals, dried fruit and similar products. I t i s used as a chemical intermediate i n the manufacture o f such medicinals as sulfadiazine, thiamin (Vitamin B l ) , and perfumes and synthetic flavors.

816

(continued)

Esters

817

Table 15.2: (continued) Acidity

Neutral to methyl orange (it hydrolyres in the premnce of water)

Boiling point

54.3'C

Color

Water-white

Distillation range Electrical conductivity at 25'C Flnah point Freezing point Purity Refractive index at 2O'C Specific gravity at 20/ppaC Solubility in water at 20°C Solubility of water in solvent at m-c Vapor pressure at 20.6'C at 30.20c Weight per gal at W F

51"JS'C

IRM than 1.45 X 1 0 1 recip o h m

- 19oc

-80.5"C 95% to 1% 1.3604 0.900 to 0.930 10% by vol 17o/c by vol

200 nun of Hg

300 mm of Hg 7.61 Iba

Table 15.3: Butyl Formate (2) HCOOCH2CH2CH2CHg Butyl formate i s a colorless liquid, miscible with alcohols, ethers, oils, hydrocarbons and so forth. I t w i l l dissolve cellulose nitrate, some types of cellulose acetate, and many cellulose ethers. Butyl formate w i l l also dissolve many natural and synthetic resins such as copals, dammar, elemi, mastic, shellac, cumar resins, ester gum and alkyds i n the presence of ethyl alcohol. I t i s used as an intermediate and i n perfumes. Acidity Ester content Boi Iing range Specific gmvity

0.02% max. 85% min. 96"-110°C.

0.885-0.9108

Table 15.4: Amyl Formate (2) HCOOC5H, Commercial amyl formate i s an anhydrous, colorless liquid composed of a mixture of isomeric amyl formates with the isoamyl formate in predominance. This mixture i s miscible with oils, hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones and so forth. I t i s a solvent For cellulose esters, "Cumar", copal, gum esters, etc. I t i s able, when mixed with an alcohol, to dissolve shellac and alkyd resin. I t i s a less odoriferous and more energetic solvent than amyl acetate. I t also has both a lower boiling point and a greater speed of evaporation. n-Butyl acetate and amyl formate have similar volatility and have substantially the same solvent power which permit free interchange of these only as far as these properties allow. Acidity Boiling point Boi Iing range Flash paint Specific gravity

0.05% max. 130.4"C. 11Oo-13O0C. 80°F. 0.880-0.885

818

Industrial Solvents Handbook

ACETATES Table 15.5: Methyl Acetate (2) CH3COOCH3 Methyl acetate i s a water-white flammable, readily hydrolyzable liquid, with a fragrant odor. This low-boiling solvent was first prepared i n 1835 by reacting acetic acid and methanol. I t i s miscible with most organic solvents and w i l l completely dissolve cellulose nitrate and acetate, ethyl cellulose, resins such as ester gum, rosin, "Cumar", elemi, phenolics, and oils such as corn, linseed, castor, neatsfoot, chinawood and cottonseed. I t w i l l only partially dissolve shellac, manila, dammar, pontianac, Beckacites and alkyds. I n many respects, methyl acetate resembles acetone as a solvent, particularly as to its boiling point, solvent power and miscibility, but its tendency to hydrolyze to methanol and acetic acid, i n the presence of water, limits its wider use in the industries. Methyl acetate i s usually admixed with higher boiling solvents. It i s used i n lacquers, paints, varnishes, enamels, perfumes, dyes, dopes, plastics, and synthetic finishes as well as a substitute for acetone. Acidity (M acetic) Boiling point Dirtillation range Coefficient of expansion (per 'C) a t 20°C Color Critical temperature Critical pressure Dielectric constant a t 20°C Dilution ratiw Toluene Petroleum naphtha Electrical conductivity at W C FlMh point (A.S.T.M. Open Cup)

0.005%, mnx 58.9-c

55-5E-c 0.001390 Water-white 233.7'C 40-3 atm 7.3 f 0.2 2.9 0.9 3.4 X 10-6 mho -15°C

Freezing point Heat of combustion Heat of vaporization Non-volatile matter Refractive index nt 20'C Solubility in water a t 20°C Solubility of water in solvent a t W C Specitic gravity a t 20/WC Surface tension a t 20°C Vapor pressure a t 20°C Viscwity a t 20°C Weight per gal a t 20°C

-BB.lQC 6371 callg 104.4 cal/g 0.005 gram per 100 cc, max 1.3593 24% by wt 8% by wt 0.9353 24.0 dynes/cm 173 mm Hg 0.00381 poi7.783 Itn

Table 15.6: Ethyl Acetate (2)

Acetic Ether

CH3COOC2H5

Ethyl acetate i s a water-white, flammable liquid with a pleasant, fruity odor. The 85 to 88 per cent grade of ethyl acetate suitably denatured i s generally used for commercial purposes but 95 and 99 percent grades are also available. I t i s miscible with most organic solvents such as alcohols, ketones, esters, aromatic, aliphatic and halogenated hydrocarbons. I t dissalves such materials as nitrocellulose, camphor, oils, fats, waxes, gums and natural and synthetic resins. I t w i l l tolerate fairly large amounts of lacquer diluents and like methyl acetate i t not only has a wide range of solubilities but i t possesses the unique property of dissolving nitrocellulose, cellulose acetate and cellulose ethers yielding solutions of low viscosity. Its solvent power for cellulose derivatives i s much improved, however, by adding a small quantity of alcohol. (85 to 88%) 00170 Iiy nt, mnx Acidity (as ncrtir nrid) Blusli rrsistnnrr a t W F (10% 4 RFC. I1 S. iiitroccllulosr solution) Clrar 450/,Rclative humidity I3luish 50% Cocliicicnt of cubical r\pnnaiun (ordinary trmpernturcs) O.Mo73 per ' F 0.00132 pcr "C Color Water-a hitc Critical tcmpcrnturc 250.1"C 37 8 atmosphercs Critical pirssure Dilution rntio Toluol 3.5 Petroleum naphtha 1.1 Distillation range Below 70°C Nonc Below 72°C Not morc than 10% Above 8O'C None Miscible without turbidity with 20 volumes Dryness 60" Bd gasoline a t 20'C Electrical conductivity a t 25°C Less than 1 X IO-' reciprocal ohms Evap. rate a t OS'F (in min.) 5% t

%% % 75%

eo% 95%

1)

3f 6t 94 1lt

Flash point Freezing point Non-volatile matter Refractive index a t 20°C Solubility in water a t 25°C Solubilityof aster in solvent a t 25°C Specific gravity a t 20/20"C Viscosity a t 20°C Weight per gal a t 68'F

Acidity (as acetic) Blush resistance a t W F (10% sec. R.S. nitrocelluloae solution)

+

Coefficient of expansion per 1'F per 1'C Color Dilution ratio Toluol Petroleum hy1O( 160°C) 55-60 1O( 100OC)

>1O( 130°C) 33 37

Substance Coumarone-indene Dibutyl sebacate Dioctyl sebacate Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate Epichlorohydrin-bisphenol Ester gum Gum shellac HgCI, Lignin Naphthalene Ni(NO,), .6H,O Nitrocellulose Nylon, Type 8 molding powder Polyacrylonitrile Polyoxyethylene glycols Rosin, dibasic acid modified Sulfur dioxide Triethyleneglycol di-2-ethyl hexoate Tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate Urea Vinylidene chlorideacrylonitrile ZnCI,

>1O( 1W0C) "

07

"h

B:P OJ

-

Eluotroplc Vdum, ( E " ) (on Slllca): Polarlty Index (P

-

"0

2 00

VIKomlty (CP. 25 C):

04

Denslty (g/ml):

157

Bolllng Polnt ( C):

-

48

Percant Water Soluble In Solvent:

NIA

RmfractIva Indax (25°C):

02-

-TRr~ROi408UTANE METHYL OLtATE 296.50 308.76 TRI-CL-ALLTIC ANHYDRIOC 01-N-HUTYL SEBACATE 314.47 oieurrL * ~ ~ A C A T E 3!4,47. TETRAETHIL LEAO 323.45 338.56 N-BUTYL ULEATE e u m STCARATE 340.60 345.67 1122-TET dWOMOETMANt l.l~lr2-TtTRA~ROHOEThANE 345.71) B I S I 2 - E T n S X Y ET)5EdACATE '341.46 TR1lZ-TOLYL)PUOSPHATE 36d.36 O I ( 2 - E T n t X ) AOIPATE 370.>8 815(2-ETntX)PHTHALATE 390.57 DIETMYLHLXYL AZELATE 412.66 , ~ 1 5 ( 2 - E T r t l L H E l ) S E d ~ A C A l E +426-.66

20.0

1.3510

264.R2

266.79 ?67.33 267.83 278.35

Refract. Index

Density

-

20.0

70.0 20.0 70.0

0.0

0.8870

25,O

2.2571

?5.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 0.0 20.0 20.0 0.0 25.0 20.0 20.0 25.0 11.0 25.0 75.0

?.C220

0.8586 GsY9Y9 2.1750 2.1700 2.1724 2.1938 0.8702 1.6908 0.93b6 0.9324. 1.6590 0.tl657 0.8540

2.Y529 2.8748(-9953 1.1830 0.9220 t.9843 0.9150 (1.9120,

25.0

0.0 25.0 25.0 25.0

Melting Point

0.0 -70.0 -80.0 -39.5 -70.0

-1.1

1.6081

-15.7 2.5 -112.0 0.7

I .60d3

-7.0

1.6500

1.4724

-*>.7 1.4890 1.5012 3.0 -18.5 1.4351 1.5854 -19-0 1.6088 16.0 0.0 1.6147 1.5939 0.0 1.5976 8.1 4.2 1.7026 1.4369 -37.0 1.4369 -37.0 1.4359 5.0 1.4315 -17.0 1.3670 -110.5 0.0 -3a.O I. 6345 0.0 1.5258 0.0 -7Y.O 1.4226 -35.5 1.5933 -27.5 1.5120 1.7380 6.1 1.4926 -3>.0 1.5790 0.0 1.5670 0.0 16.9 1.5862 1.6730 2.8 13.4 I .4582 3.0 1.661R 1.660~ -Y.O I .4525 1Y.O 16.6 1.4592 11.0 1.5652 1.5608 -18.0 -1.9 1.5602 1.5680 -1Y.O 1Y.9 1.4502 0.0 0.0 1.4397 1.0 1.4415 -11.0 -136.8 1.5915 1.4680

-19.0

I .4422

26.3 0.0 0.0 -10.0

1.6323 1.0277 1.4440

20.0

1.5575 1.4474 1.4859

25.0

1.4460

25.0

1.4510

Note: Missing data i s indicated by

11.0 -07.8

-50.0 -78.0 -48.0

Boiling Point

760. 0.

143.0 242.5 ZRO.0

0.

222.2

0.

0. 6. 11. 760. 0. 0. 0. 0. 16. 9.

0. 0. 0. 760. 0. 0. 14. 4.

773. 760. 0. 0. 0. 10. 0.

0. 0. 0. 0. 760. 760. 769. 0. 0. 0. 754. 2. 80.

0. 760. 760. 21. 0. 760. 0. 0. 19. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 20. 5. 0. 5. 5.

0, O., or 0.0.

233.5

120.0 151.0

301.5 1R1.C 221.0 220.0

255.5 787.0 791.5 147.0 395.0 140.0

174.0 149.6 302.0 183.P 145.0 306.0

282.P 47.3 z03.1)

163.5 111.0 289.0 188.5 110.0

1R2.0 340.0 2C0.5

1Y0.5 222.2 17Y.5 360.0

257.0 752.0 1w.n

172.0 223.5 215.0 206.0 11>.5

717.0 169.0 345.0 345.0 YI.0

227.5 222.5 ?43.5 103.5 0.0

264.0 214.0 231.G 237.0 256.0

Dielec. Constant

List

G.0

85 1 852

0.0 0.0 0.0

0.0 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0 4.39 0.0 0.0 P.0

0.0 5.19 2.34 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.96 0.0 0.0 5.32 6.44

0.0 J.0 0.0 0.0 2.4h

6.0 0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

0.0 3.21 0.0 4.54

4.54 0.0 4.00

3.11 7.00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.30 0.0 4.03

NO.

857 e54

855 856 857 858 859 860 861

862 863 8 64

865 866 867 868

869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 077 878 879 a80 881

882 883 884 8U5

88b 8R7 RHR 849 890 801

892 893 894 895 896 897 89R BY9 900 y01

902 903 904 y05

906 907 908 909 910 911

AppendixXomparative Data for Various Solvents

949

Comparison of Solvent Properties (7 7)

Poorly Hydrogen-Bonded

benzene Boiling Point, "C

80

"F

176

Freezing Point, "C "F

-r

5.4 41

Density, g/mL Img/m3) Ib/gal

088 7 34

Vapor Density (air = 1) ---

carbon tetrachloride

n-hexane

77 171

154

68

-23 -9

-96 -141

chloroform

perchloroethylene

FreonS TF

Freona MF

trichloroethylene

methyl formate

methylene chloride

61 142

121 250

48 117.6

24 74.8

87 189

31.8 89.2

39 102

6 4

-24

-83

-1 I

-35 -31

-111

-168

-73 -99

-100

-148

1 49

1 62

1 58

I 49

I3 26

0 66 5 51

12 43

1355

I3 I6

1242

28

53

2 97

41

58

-

-

4.54

6 30

12 80

13 07

6 20

1 59

146 12 22

-96 -142

-.

0 97 8 I3

133 1 1 07

21

2.93

~

Rate of Evaporation (Butyl acetate = I )

-

Viscosity, 20°C IWF), CPlmPa s) Surface Tension in Air, 20°C 168°F). dyn/cm lmN/rn) Specific Heat, Liquid, 20°C (68 Fl. caVg C (Btu/lb F) kJ/kg K

______

Heat of Vaporization Ibp) cal/g Btu/lb kJ/kg Solubility Parameter, 6

0 65

0 99

28 9

0 21 o a8

175

-

- -

0 29 18 4

26 8

0 42

10 00 11 60 280 - - ~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

-

0 57

0 23

2 26

0 96

___ -

94

46

80

59

170 395

84

145 337

106

195

92

86

73

0 70

32 3

19 0

0 21 0 87

-

0 22 0 93

___

93

-

22 ~

Flash Point, TCC, "C

-1 1

"F

12

Flammable Limits, vol% Lower Upper

14 8

_2 2 - ~ 22- - -

93

NF

NF

-22 -7 12 69

22 22 - _ - __ NF

NF

041 (30°C) 058 18 7

0 35

32 0 (25°C)

0 21 0 87

35 09 63 12 146 8

43 52 78 31 182 I

72

78

0 23 096

57

NF

28 2

0 516

0 28

2 16

117 -4)

1124 202 3 4700

103

240 93

25 NF

25 NF

25

-

NF

__ NF

25 0

044

--

78 141 327

97

97

27

27

_ ? . A

_ l _ l _ -

Hydrogen Bonding Index, y

27 50

_ 1 _ 1 1 .

50 90 209

247

-36

NF

NF

NF

19 -2

M

5 23

NF

100

50

~

Threshold Limit Value," ppm

IO

5 skin

50

IO

25

L

0 88

27 2

0 54

9 87

-

1000

1000

50

ceil.

0

(continued)

950

Industrial Solvents Handbook

Moderately Hydrogen-Bonded

(continued 1

951

Appendir-Comparative Data for Various Solvents Strongly Hydrogen-Bonded cyclohexanone Boiling Point, "C "F

F'

ethyl ether

124 255

34 94

-20

-85

-4

-121

-123 -189

DMAC

315

153 307

166.1 331

-31.2 -24

4 1 -78

157

Freezing Point, "C

EGME

DMF

Density, g/mL lmg/m3) Ib/gal

0.94 7.88

0.90 7.50

0.945 7.88

0.96 8.04

0.71 5.92

Vapor Density (air = I )

3.4

2.51

3.0

2.62

Rate of Evaporation (Butyl acetate = 1)

0.23

0.17

Viscosity, 20°C (68°F). CP1mPa.s)

2.2

0.80

Surface Tension in Air. 20°C 168°F). dynlcm lrnN/m) Specific Heat, Liquid, 2 0 C I68'F). cal/g C (Btuilb F) kJ/kg K

_

_

__

-

Heat of Vaporization (bp) callg Btu/lb kJ/kq

34.5 0 49 2 05 _ _ _ ~

109 138 197 (29°C) 248 458 576

-

isopropyl alcohol

n-butyl alcohol

65 148

75.0 167

82 180

244

210 410

-98 -144

-1 28.0 -198.4

-89 -128

-89.8 -130

3 36

formamide

118

6.63

0.78 6.55

0.81 6.76

2.55

1.11

1.59

2.07

2.55

-

0.47

33.00

6.10

1.7

2.30

0.45