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India Migration Report 2011: Migration, Identity and Conflict
 9780415664998

Table of contents :
Cover
Migration, Identity and Conflict: India Migration Report 2011
Copyright
Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
Preface
Acknowledgements
1 Facets of Indian Mobility: An Update
2 Internal Migration in India: Are the Underclass More Mobile?
3 Rural-to-Urban Migration in India: A District-level Analysis
4 Short-duration Migration in India
5 Magnitude of Migration from the Northeastern Region of India
6 Politics of Conflict and Migration
7 Can the Licensing–Inspection Mechanism Deliver Justice to Interstate Migrant Workmen?
8 In Search of Livelihoods: Migration and Mobility from Karnataka to Goa
9 Reasons for Rural–Urban Migration: Recent Evidences from Bangalore
10 Job Recruitment Networks and Migration to Cities in India
11 Caste, Ethnicity and Migration: Linking Recruitment and Labour Process
12 Migration and Female Employment in India: Macro Evidence from NSSO Data
13 Multiple Identities and Migratory Dynamics of Nurses
14 Closely Woven: Domestic Work and Internal Migration of Women in India
15 On Examining Migration–Poverty Nexus in Urban India
16 Outside and Inside the Nation: Migrant Narratives and the Making of a Productive Citizen in Kerala
17 Impact of Emigration and Remittances on Goan Economy
18 Emigration and Remittances in Kerala in the Context of Surge in Oil Prices
19 High-skilled Migration from India: An Analysis of Its Economic Implications
Notes on Contributors
Index

Citation preview

Migration, Identity and Conflict

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Migration, Identity and Conflict

Migration, Identity and Conflict India Migration Report 2011

Editor S. Irudaya Rajan

LONDON NEW YORK NEW DELHI

First published 2011 in India by Routledge 912 Tolstoy House, 15–17 Tolstoy Marg, Connaught Place, New Delhi 110 001

Simultaneously published in the UK by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN

Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

Transferred to Digital Printing 2011

© 2011 S. Irudaya Rajan

Typeset by Star Compugraphics Private Limited D–156, Second Floor Sector 7, Noida 201 301

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from the publishers.

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record of this book is available from the British Library

ISBN: 978-0-415-66499-8

Dedicated to the memory of my friend and colleague, Professor P. N. Mari Bhat, one of the finest demographers in India

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Migration, Identity and Conflict

Contents List of Tables List of Figures Preface Acknowledgements 1. Facets of Indian Mobility: An Update S. Irudaya Rajan and U. S. Mishra 2. Internal Migration in India: Are the Underclass More Mobile? R. B. Bhagat 3. Rural-to-Urban Migration in India: A Districtlevel Analysis Arup Mitra and Mayumi Murayama 4. Short-duration Migration in India Vijay Korra 5. Magnitude of Migration from the Northeastern Region of India Rikil Chyrmang 6. Politics of Conflict and Migration S. Irudaya Rajan, Vijay Korra and Rikil Chyrmang

ix xv xvii xix 1

7

25 52

72 95

7. Can the Licensing-Inspection Mechanism Deliver Justice to Interstate Migrant Workmen? N. R. Madhava Menon

102

8. In Search of Livelihoods: Migration and Mobility from Karnataka to Goa Ajay Bailey

108

9. Reasons for Rural–Urban Migration: Recent Evidences from Bangalore Kala Seetharam Sridhar and A. Venugopala Reddy

125

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10. Job Recruitment Networks and Migration to Cities in India Vegard Iversen, Kunal Sen, Arjan Verschoor and Amaresh Dubey

144

11. Caste, Ethnicity and Migration: Linking Recruitment and Labour Process Mythri Prasad-Aleyamma

173

12. Migration and Female Employment in India: Macro-evidence from NSSO Data G. Remya Prabha

183

13. Multiple Identities and Migratory Dynamics of Nurses Sreelekha Nair

203

14. Closely Woven: Domestic Work and Internal Migration of Women in India Neetha N.

219

15. On Examining Migration–Poverty Nexus in Urban India William Joe, Priyajit Samaiyar and U. S. Mishra 16. Outside and Inside the Nation: Migrant Narratives and the Making of a Productive Citizen in Kerala V. J. Varghese

236

257

17. Impact of Emigration and Remittances on Goan Economy 275 S. Irudaya Rajan and K. C. Zachariah 18. Emigration and Remittances in Kerala in the Context of Surge in Oil Prices K. C. Zachariah and S. Irudaya Rajan

297

19. High-skilled Migration from India: An Analysis of its Economic Implications Sunil Mani

309

Notes on Contributors Index

331 333

List of Tables 2.1

2.2

2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8

Percentage of Internal and International Migrants based on Place of Last Residence, India, 1971–2001 (in million) Percentage Distribution of Internal Migrants by Sex and Duration of Residence at the Place of Enumeration, 1981–2001 Size and Growth Rates of Migrants by Type of Movement, India, 1971–2001 Size and Growth Rates of Migrants by Streams of Migration, India, 1971-2001 Sex-Ratio of Migrants by Migration Types, 1981–2001 (Males per 1000 females) Sex-ratio by Rural and Urban Streams, 1971–2001 (Males per 1000 Females) Reasons for Migration in India, 2001 Correlation Matrix Showing Relationship between Migration, Poverty and Development Variables at State Level (N = 32), around 2001

3.1 Decomposition of Urban Growth, 1961–2001 3.2a Gross Decadal Rural-to-Urban Migrants as a Per Cent of Total Urban Population in 2001 3.2b Gross Decadal Intra- and Interstate Rural-to-Urban Male and Female Migrants as a Per Cent of Total Urban Male and Female Population in 2001 3.3 District Level Variations — Coefficient of Variation (%) 3.4 Intra-state Rural-to-Urban Male Migration Rate at the District Level — Migrants over 10 years (1991– 2001) as a Percentage of Total Urban Population in the District in 2001 3.5 Intra-state Rural-to-Urban Female Migration Rate at the District Level — Migrants over 10 years (1991– 2001) as a Percentage of Total Urban Population in the District in 2001

11

11 12 13 16 16 17

18 28 29

30 33

34

35

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3.6

Interstate Rural-to-Urban Male Migration Rate at the District Level — Migrants over 10 years (1991– 2001) as a Percentage of Total Urban Population in the District in 2001 3.7 Interstate Rural-to-Urban Female Migration Rate at the District Level — Migrants over 10 years (1991– 2001) as a Percentage of Total Urban Population in the District in 2001 3.8 Rapid Migration Rates across States 3.9 Influence of Factors at the Place of Destination on Male Migration 3.10 Influence of Factors at the Place of Destination on Female Migration 3.11 Effect of Gender Ratio among Migrants on the Overall Gender Ratio at the Place of Destination (Dep Var. F-M Ratio at the Place of Destination) 4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

5.1 5.2 5.3

Percentage Distribution of Less than 1 Year and More than 1 Year Migrants Duration of Stay at Destination according to Reasons for Migration for India Percentage Distribution of Migrants Streams between Less than 1 year and More than 1 year Duration of Residence According to their Reasons for Migration Percentage Distribution of Less than 1 Year and More than 1 Year Duration of Residence of Migrants According to Destinations under Different Reasons for India Percentage Distribution of Migrants according to Prime Working Age and Education Status among Less than 1 Year and More than 1 Year Duration of Migrants for India Percentage Distribution of Migrants with Less than 1 Year Duration of Residence by Economic Activity, Age and Sex for India Demographic Profile of Northeastern States of India Share of Migration in Overall Growth Rate of Population (Duration 0–9 year), 1991–2001 Percentage Distribution of Out-migration, 2001

36

36 37 43 45

46

61

62

64

66

68 76 79 81

List of Tables É

5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 8.1

8.2 8.3 8.4 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 10.1 10.2 10.3

10.4 10.5

Duration of Total Out-migration from Northeast by PLR Reasons for Migration by Place of Last Residence, 1991–2001 Reasons for Total Out-migration from the Northeastern Region (in Percentage) Decadal Growth Rate of Out-migration, Education and Employment Percentage of Age, Literacy, Education and Conjugal Situation among the Migrant and Mobile Populations Percentage of Self-reported Reasons for Migration and Mobility Percentage of People in Goa Who Helped You When You Came Here Percentage of Occupations of Migrant and Mobile Men in Goa Comparison of Year of Migration — Skilled and Unskilled Migrants Duration of Stay (in Months) — Skilled and Unskilled Migrants Reasons for Migration — Skilled and Unskilled Migrants Reasons for Migration from Rural Areas into Bangalore Reasons for Choice of Bangalore — Skilled and Unskilled Migrants Income Differentials Across Current and Previous Jobs — Skilled and Unskilled Migrants Worker Types, Labour Pools and Labour Productivity Returns to Education Odds Ratios of the Likelihood of Being from the Same Source Region Impacts of Migrant Pair Attributes and Migrant Stock on Dependent Variable: Benchmark and Augmented Specifications Migrant Pair Attributes — Robustness Stock Network and Social Identity Effects

xi

82 84 85 87

113 114 115 116 131 131 133 134 135 136 151 159

161 163 165

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12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8

Migration, Identity and Conflict

Percentage of Rural and Urban Distribution of Migrants Percentage of Reasons for Migration by Sex and Place of Residence Percentage of Reasons for Female Migration Percentage of Activity Status of Female Migrants in India Percentage of Work Status of Migrant Women in India Percentage of Female Migrant Workers by Industry Results of Logistic Regression Model Results of Logistic Regression Model

Poverty Status (BPL Headcount Ratio) of Migrants at Destination by Indian States, Urban Areas 15.2 Poverty (BPL Headcount Ratio) among Interstate Migrants at Destination According to Residence, Literacy and Caste Characteristics 15.3 Poverty (BPL Headcount Ratio) among Intra-state Migrants at Destination 15.4 RDI Values for Inter and Intra-state Migrants to Urban Areas by Origin, Literacy and Caste Characteristics 15.5a Comparison of Probability of Being in Different MPCE Quintiles for Interstate Migrants from Uttar Pradesh at Different Destination States and for Nonmigrants in Uttar Pradesh 15.5b Comparison of Probability of Being in Different MPCE Quintiles for Interstate Migrants at Different Destination States from Bihar and for Non-migrants in Bihar 15.6 Characteristic Hazard Coefficients for Achievement of APL Status by Migrants 15.7 Relative Risk Factors of Migrants by Education Categories (Interstate and Intra-state) by Sex, Sector of Origin and Caste 15.8a Proportion of Interstate Migrants Remaining under Poverty Line — Baseline Group and Female Interstate Migrants by Education Categories

187 188 190 191 192 193 195 198

15.1

239

241 242

244

247

249 251

253

254

List of Tables É

15.8b Proportion of Intra-state Migrants Remaining under Poverty Line — Baseline Group and Female Intra-state Migrants by Education Categories Sample HHs by Districts and Rural/ Urban Status 17.2 Emigrants and Return Migrants Profile for Goa and Kerala 17.3 Migration Estimates for Goa, by Districts and Taluks (2008) 17.4 Goa — Migration Estimates by Old and New Conquest Taluks (2008) 17.5 Goa — Emigrants by Region of Emigration (2008) 17.6 Destination of Goa Emigrants by Year of Emigration 17.7 Goa — Per Cent of HHs with an International Migrant by Religion (2008) 17.8 Goa — TR and HR (in million) by Religion, 2008 17.9 Goa — HR and TR (in million) by Districts and Taluks, 2008 17.10 Goa — HR (in million) by Religion, 2008 17.11 Goa — End Use of Remittances, 2008 17.12 Macroeconomic Impacts of Remittances on Goa Economy, 2008

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17.1

18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.7 18.8 18.9

Number of Emigrants, Return Emigrants and Non-Resident Keralites from Kerala, 1998–2008 Trends in EMI from Kerala, 1982–2008 Kerala — Emigrants by Country of Residence, 1998–2008 Kerala — Emigrants and Emigrants Per 100 HHs by Religion, 2008 Top 10 Remittance-receiving Countries Versus Kerala State in 2008 Remittances to India, 1970–2008 Estimated Remittances to Kerala, 1991–2008 Macroeconomic Impact of Remittances on Kerala Economy, 1998–2008 Kerala — Total Remittances and Remittances per HH by Religion, 2003–2008

276 277 278 282 282 283 285 291 291 292 294 294 298 300 301 302 302 303 304 305 305

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19.1 19.2

19.3

19.4 19.5 19.6

Migration, Identity and Conflict

Percentage of Migration Rate of High-skilled Personnel from India, 1990–2000 Plans of Foreign Recipients of S&E Doctorates to Stay in the United States, by Field and Place of Origin, 1994–2005 Unaccounted Engineering and Technology Graduates within India’s Total Stock of Such Graduates, 1991–2002 Private Transfers to India, 1989–1990 to 2008–2009 (in millions of US $) Share of Private Transfers in Net National Disposable Income, 1999–2000 to 2008–2009 Relationship between Remittances and Exchange Rate

312

316

321 323 324 325

List of Figures 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

Percentage of Migrants Households in Different MPCE Decile Classes Percent of Migrants in Different Categories of Persons during 38th Round to 64th Reound Percentage of Migrants in Different MPCE Decile Classes Amount of Remittances (Rs.00) Sent during the Last 365 Days by Different Categories of Out-Migrants

3 3 4 5

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

Interstate Net-migration in India, 1991–2001 Migration Rates by MPCE, Rural India, 1999–2000 Migration Rates by MPCE, Urban India, 1999–2000 Migration Rate by Social Categories, 1999–2000

15 20 20 21

3.1

Rural-to-Urban Gross Decadal Migration in India, 1991–2001

31

4.1

4.2

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 8.1

Estimated Duration Progression Ratios of Shortduration Migrants based on Census 2001’s Place of Last Residence Criteria for India Estimated Proportion of Duration Progression Ratios of Short-duration Migrants based on Place of Last Residence for Major Indian States Trends of Out-migration from the Northeastern Region, 1981–2001 Age Distribution of Male and Female Migrants Age Distribution of Rural Male and Female Migrants Age Distribution of Urban Male and Female Migrants State-wise Decadal Growth Rate of Migrants for Education — 1981–1991 State-wise Decadal Growth Rate of Migrants for Education — 1991–2001 State-wise Decadal Growth Rate of Migrants for Employment — 1981–1991 State-wise Decadal Growth Rate of Migrants for Employment — 1991–2001 Percentage of Monthly Income Distribution among Migrant and Mobile Men

58

59 78 82 83 83 88 88 89 90 118

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8.2 10.1 10.2 10.3 15.1 15.2 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4

17.5 17.6 18.1 18.2

18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.7 18.8 19.1 19.2

Migration, Identity and Conflict

Percentage of Household Assets of Migrants Switch Points for Network Versus Market-based Recruitment ( p = 0.5) Distribution of Migrant Pairs by Cities Distribution of Migrant Pairs by Industries Survivorship Curve for Baseline Group and Female Interstate Migrants by Education Categories Survivorship Curve for Baseline Group and Female Intra-state Migrants by Education Categories Goa — Emigrants Per 100 HHs and Percentage of Christians Goa — Emigrants and Return Emigrants Per 100 HHs Logical Correlation between Per Cent Christians and Emigrants Per HHs (Taluk-level Analysis) Emigrants and Return Emigrants from Goa — Percentage with Secondary or Higher Level of Education Goa — TR by Religion (2008) Goa — Average Cash Remittances by HHs and Religion Number of Emigrants, Return Emigrants and Non-resident Keralites, 1998–2008 Kerala — Emigrants, Return Emigrants and Non-resident Keralites Per 100 Households, 1998–2008 Kerala — Trends in Emigration, 1982–2008 Kerala — Number of Emigrants by Districts, 2008 Number of Kerala Emigrants in the Gulf Countries, 1998–2008 Kerala — Percentage of Households that Received Remittances with EMI Kerala — Percentage of Household that Received Remittances by Religion Kerala — Total Remittances by District

119 152 158 158 255 255 280 281 286

287 291 293 298

299 300 300 301 306 306 307

Trends in Amount Spent on Education-related Travel, 1999–2000 to 2007–2008 314 Outturn of Engineering and Technology Graduates in India, 1991–2002 320

Preface

First of all, let me thank the readers of the India Migration Report 2010 (IMR) for their overwhelming response to this annual series brought out by the Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs Research Unit on International Migration at the Centre for Development Studies, Kerala (www.cds.edu) and published in collaboration with Routledge. The IMR 2010 focused on the governance issues in the international labour migration and suggested policy measures for orderly and safe migration such as the revamping of recruitment practices, need for a national migration policy, importance of predeparture training, improvement of the database on international migration, revisiting the Emigration Act 1983 and providing equal opportunities for women. As I indicated in the Preface of the first IMR 2010, the IMR 2011 examines migration, migrant identity and conflict in the context of internal migration. The second IMR is organized into 19 chapters to assess the various facets of internal migration and its economic, social and political consequences. The introductory chapter provides an update of internal migration in India based on the just released report on migration based on the 64th round of the National Sample Survey carried out during July 2007–June 2008. This is important because we have new information on the internal migration after the publication of the India’s 2001 Census. We have two chapters in the IMR 2011 using the earlier NSS 55th Round on migration conducted during 1999–2000 — one deals with migration and poverty nexus and other deals with migration and female employment, one of my favorite topics on internal migration. The first set of four chapters of the IMR 2011 deals with internal migration with focus on state-level and district-level analysis on trends and patterns of migration, short-duration migration and the magnitude of migration in the North East region and all of them extensively used the India’s 2001 Census. The second set of two chapters discusses the broad politicization of internal migrant issues by some political parties in India to corner votes to gain short-term political power. It also looks at the inability of the existing law such as the Interstate Migrant Workmen Act, 1979, to protect vulnerable migrants and the need for revisiting the Act to grant them protection as guaranteed by the Constitution of India.

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The third set of four chapters report some case studies based on the recent field work done on internal migration including the recruitment process and the problems faced by migrants in the states of destination — mobility from Karnataka to Goa, contribution of migrants to the recent growth of Bangalore city, recruitment network to major cities in India and the role of caste and ethnicity in the context of both recruitment and labour process. The fourth set of three chapters examines the macro aspect of migration and female employment in India, followed by two case studies — one on migratory dynamics among nurses and the other on women and domestic work — an unexplored area of research on migration. The fifth set of two chapters deals with the migration–poverty nexus in India and excellent migrant narratives from Kerala. The last set of three chapters reports the ongoing research on international migration carried out at the Centre for Development Studies. The first two chapters report findings from both the Goa Migration Survey 2008 and the Kerala Migration Survey 2008 sponsored by the Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs, Government of India; Department of Non-resident Indian Affairs, Government of Goa; and the Department of Non-resident Keralite Affairs, Government of Kerala. The last chapters in the IMR 2011 documents the emerging trends of skilled migration and their economic implications for India. As I sign off, I would like to inform the readers that the IMR 2012 will be on the broad theme of global economic crisis, migration, resilience of remittances and development. In addition, I may add few articles from some of our ongoing projects on transnational migration, impact of migration on children left behind, Punjab Migration Survey 2010 and Kerala Migration Survey 2010. As of now, I am planning to focus on social costs of migration in the IMR 2013 and Indian Diasporas Abroad in the IMR 2014. I welcome comments and suggestions from readers for future annual themes and also article contributions for the future IMR. Finally, my dream project of launching an international and multidisciplinary journal, Migration and Development is taking final shape and I hope to see the journal in print in 2011. I look forward to your continued support and suggestions. S. Irudaya Rajan

Acknowledgements

During this research endeavour, I received lot of support, comments and suggestions from various quarters, both in India and abroad. However, I would like to acknowledge the constant support received from the Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs (MOIA), Government of India, in particular, Dr Didar Singh, Secretary, MOIA, and the former Secretaries of MOIA, Mr S. Krishna Kumar and Mr K. Mohandas, Mr G. Gurucharan, former Joint Secretary and current CEO of the Indian Council of Overseas Employment, Dr Ranbir Singh, former Director, Emigration Policy, MOIA. At Center for Development Studies (CDS), I always found encouragement, support and guidance from all the faculty members, administrative and library staff, in particular Professor K. N. Nair, Director, CDS; Dr Bimal Jalan, Chairman, CDS; Professor N. R. Madhava Menon, former Chairman, CDS; Mr Soman Nair, Registrar; and Dr T. K. Subramani, Librarian and Mr Anil Kumar, Assistant Librarian. I thank all of them. I also thank all the contributors who have generously managed to send in papers for the second India Migration Report despite their busy work schedule. I take this opportunity to thank my wife, Hema and my three children, Rahul, Rohit and Catherine, for their emotional support, patience and understanding. My appreciation also goes to the editorial and sales team of Routledge India for all their hard work and dedication that helped to bring out the India Migration Report 2011 on time. S. Irudaya Rajan

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1 Facets of Indian Mobility: An Update S. Irudaya Rajan and U. S. Mishra

Since

independence, both census and national sample surveys collect data on the movement of individuals to examine the volume and structure of such mobility as it has macro-implications on urbanization, urban growth and employment, economic growth for medium and million-plus cities. Moreover, migration has resulted in the building up of adequate infrastructural facilities for the growing urban population. The Indian Census collects data on migration based on two concepts: place of birth and place of last residence. If the current place of enumeration is different from the place of birth, he/she is called a migrant by the Indian Census. Similarly, if the current place of residence (place of enumeration) is different from the place of last residence, he/she is also considered a migrant. Several researchers work on internal migration using the data provided by the Indian censuses. In the India Migration Report 2011, there are about eight chapters on the different facets of Indian migration based on Indian census data. Another source of data to study migration is the National Sample Survey (NSS). This data is collected by the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) which is part of the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation of the Indian government. However, very few researchers use the NSS data to assess migration trends in India. We have just three chapters in the book based on early NSS rounds. The sole objective of this chapter is to provide an update of internal migration in India based on the just released report on migration which used data from the NSS 64th Round of July 2007– June 2008 (National Sample Survey Organization, 2010). NSS has its own history of migration data collected through its various rounds. According to the available information, NSSO initiated collection of migration data since the 9th round (May–August 1955), followed by the 11th round (August 1956–January 1957),

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the 12th round (March–August 1957), the 13th round (September 1957–May 1958), the 18th round (February 1963–January 1964), the 28th round (October 1973–June 1974), the 38th round (January 1983–December 1983), the 43rd round (July 1987–June 1988), the 49th round (January–June 1993), the 55th round (July 1999–June 2000) and the latest 64th round (July 2007–June 2008). The survey covered the entire country except: (i) the Leh (Ladakh) and Kargil districts of Jammu and Kashmir, (ii) interior villages of Nagaland, and (iii) villages in Andaman and Nicobar Islands which remain inaccessible throughout the year. The total sample size of households for India is 125,578 — 79,091 in rural areas and 46,487 in urban areas — consisting of 572,354 persons — 374,294 in rural areas and 197,960 in urban areas. The 64th round collected information on household migration, migrants, short-term migrants and out-migrants. We shall discuss each item with its definition and the reported results. Migrant Household (MH) is defined as a household which moved to the place of enumeration during the 365 days preceding the date of survey. According to this definition, MH is reported to be 33 and 13 per thousand households in the urban and rural areas respectively. When we observe this phenomenon across Monthly Per Capita Expenditure (MPCE), there seems to be systematic positive association between MPCE and MH in both rural and urban areas (Figure 1.1). It is observed that MH is more among the Scheduled Tribes (ST) compared to SC (Scheduled Castes), Other Backwards Castes (OBC) and others. Among such movements of the households, intra-state movement accounts for an overwhelming 75 per cent, followed by the interstate movements. As regards the reasons for MH, studies (student migration) reported the highest percentage (24), followed by search for employment (19), search for better employment (17), and taking up employment or better employment (12). Migrants are defined as those for whom the last Usual Place of Residence (UPR) is different from the present place of enumeration. Similarly, return migrants are those who had reported that the present place of enumeration was the UPR any time in the past. By this definition, 29 per cent of Indians are categorized as migrants with a distinct residential and gender divide. This proportion is also consistent over the last 25 years (Figure 1.2). However, this gender

Facets of Indian Mobility: An Update Figure 1.1: