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Inclusive Education in Schools and Early Childhood Settings [1st ed.]
 9789811525407, 9789811525414

Table of contents :
Front Matter ....Pages i-xiii
Introduction (Ilektra Spandagou, Cathy Little, David Evans, Michelle L. Bonati)....Pages 1-10
Front Matter ....Pages 11-11
Understanding Disability (Ilektra Spandagou)....Pages 13-22
Anti-discrimination Legislation and Disability in Education (Ilektra Spandagou)....Pages 23-34
Inclusive Education: Principles and Practice (Ilektra Spandagou)....Pages 35-44
Front Matter ....Pages 45-45
Designing for Access to the Curriculum (David Evans)....Pages 47-58
Inclusive Instructional Practices (David Evans)....Pages 59-70
Instructional Intensity (David Evans)....Pages 71-81
Front Matter ....Pages 83-83
Collaboration (Cathy Little)....Pages 85-92
Principles of Behaviour Support (Cathy Little)....Pages 93-101
Communication (Michelle L. Bonati)....Pages 103-114
Supporting Positive Peer Social Interactions and Healthy Relationships (Michelle L. Bonati)....Pages 115-125
Front Matter ....Pages 127-127
Early Intervention (Cathy Little)....Pages 129-137
Transitions in Education (Cathy Little)....Pages 139-146
Preparing for Post-Secondary Transition (Michelle L. Bonati)....Pages 147-157
Conclusion (Ilektra Spandagou, Cathy Little, David Evans, Michelle L. Bonati)....Pages 159-170
Back Matter ....Pages 171-177

Citation preview

Ilektra Spandagou Cathy Little David Evans Michelle L. Bonati

Inclusive Education in Schools and Early Childhood Settings

Inclusive Education in Schools and Early Childhood Settings

Ilektra Spandagou Cathy Little David Evans Michelle L. Bonati •





Inclusive Education in Schools and Early Childhood Settings

123

Ilektra Spandagou Sydney School of Education and Social Work The University of Sydney Camperdown, NSW, Australia

Cathy Little Sydney School of Education and Social Work The University of Sydney Camperdown, NSW, Australia

David Evans Sydney School of Education and Social Work The University of Sydney Camperdown, NSW, Australia

Michelle L. Bonati State University of New York at Plattsburgh Plattsburgh, NY, USA

ISBN 978-981-15-2540-7 ISBN 978-981-15-2541-4 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-2541-4

(eBook)

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. The registered company address is: 152 Beach Road, #21-01/04 Gateway East, Singapore 189721, Singapore

Preface

This book provides an overview of the current state of inclusive education. It outlines a framework for engaging with inclusive policy and practice. The building blocks of this framework are used across chapters to make connections and provide examples of educators’ practice, educational settings’ inclusive development, and consultation and collaboration between children and young people with disability, their families, schools and settings. A human-rights informed, strengths-based perspective to disability is contextualised within the Australian context through the use of real-life scenaria that cover early childhood, primary and secondary education. Transitions from early intervention to post-secondary education are considered as part of a child-centred approach to education engagement. The book has a strong Australian flavour, but it is of relevance to an international readership, as it provides a rich account of inclusive policy and practice across a complex educational landscape. The authors’ extensive knowledge of the education system and experience of international developments informs the discussion. The book is of relevance to preservice teachers, teachers, school executives, support staff and others who are interested in the implementation of inclusive education. Camperdown, NSW, Australia Camperdown, NSW, Australia Camperdown, NSW, Australia Plattsburgh, NY, USA

Ilektra Spandagou Cathy Little David Evans Michelle L. Bonati

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Contents

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Part I 2

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Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ilektra Spandagou, Cathy Little, David Evans, and Michelle L. Bonati The Organisation of the Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structure of the Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Five Scenaria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scenario 1: Happy Kids Preschool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scenario 2: Fig Tree Road Public School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scenario 3: Blackstone Primary School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scenario 4: Clearview School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scenario 5: Blackwater Creek Secondary School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principles, Policy and Practice

Understanding Disability . . . . Ilektra Spandagou Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Meaning of Diversity . . . . Different Ways of Approaching Ability and Disability . . . . . . . The Role of Attitudes . . . . . . . Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Anti-discrimination Legislation and Disability in Education . . . Ilektra Spandagou Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Human Rights and Disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anti-discrimination Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disability Australian Anti-discrimination Legislation in Education .

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Anti-discrimination Legislation in Practice A Note on Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Inclusive Education: Principles Ilektra Spandagou Inclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inclusive Education . . . . . . . . . . Evidence of Inclusive Education Inclusive Education in Practice . Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Planning for Curriculum Access and Instruction

Designing for Access to the Curriculum David Evans Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reflecting on Curriculum Demands . . . . . Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Universal Design for Learning . . . . . . . . . Cross-Curriculum Planning . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inclusive Instructional Practices David Evans Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inclusive Instructional Practices . . Applying Education Practices . . . Exclusionary Practices . . . . . . . . . Making Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Instructional Intensity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . David Evans Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assessment, Evaluation, and Instructional Intensity . School-Based Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Class or Group Level Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personalised Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Threats to Intensifying Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Contents

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Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part III 8

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Collaboration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cathy Little Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Collaboration Versus Consultation (What) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personal and Professional Collaborative Teams (Who) . . . . . . . . . The Formation of a School-Based “Team” (How/When) . . . . . . . . The Benefits and Challenges Associated with Collaboration (Why) Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principles of Behaviour Support . . . . . . Cathy Little Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What Is Behaviour? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Defining Challenging Behaviour . . . . . . . Functional Assessment Process . . . . . . . . School-Wide Positive Behaviour Support . Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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10 Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Michelle L. Bonati Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Communication and Language Development . Behaviour and Communication Skills . . . . . . . Communication Instructional Strategies . . . . . Augmentative and Alternative Communication Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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11 Supporting Positive Peer Social Interactions and Healthy Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Michelle L. Bonati Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Positive Peer Relationships, Academic Achievement, and Quality of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Three Approaches to Promoting Positive Peer Relationships . Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Part IV

Contents

Facilitating Educational Transitions

12 Early Intervention . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cathy Little Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What Is Early Intervention (EI)? . . . What Is Identification? . . . . . . . . . . Who Is Involved in EI? . . . . . . . . . . Context of EI in Australia . . . . . . . . Working with Families . . . . . . . . . . Individualised Family Service Plans . Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Transitions in Education . Cathy Little Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . Horizontal Transitions . . . . Vertical Transitions . . . . . . Planning for Transition . . . Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . .

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14 Preparing for Post-Secondary Transition . . . . . . . . . Michelle L. Bonati Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Person-Centred Planning and Quality of Life Outcomes Effective Transition Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current Trends in Transition Services and Supports . . . Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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15 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ilektra Spandagou, Cathy Little, David Evans, and Michelle L. Bonati Attitudes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Collaboration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principles and Practices of Inclusive Education and Special Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effective Teaching Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Behaviour Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

About the Authors

Dr. Ilektra Spandagou is an Associate Professor at the Sydney School of Education and Social Work, University of Sydney. Her research interests include inclusive education policy and practice, disability, classroom diversity, and curriculum differentiation. Ilektra has been involved in teacher education and teacher training in special education and inclusive education internationally having lectured in the areas of philosophy and theories of inclusive education, policy and legislation in Greece, Cyprus, Austria and Australia. Ilektra currently teaches in the pre-service special education mandatory units of study and the Master of Education (Special and Inclusive Education). She is involved in higher degree supervision and other research projects. Her publications include the book Inclusive Education: International Policy & Practice (co-authored with A. C. Armstrong and D. Armstrong and published by Sage). Cathy Little, Ph.D. is a Senior Lecturer at the University of Sydney, lecturing in the field of Special Education, in the Sydney School of Education and Social Work. Dr. Little’s particular areas of interest and research lie in the areas of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), High Support Needs and Positive Behaviour Support. Dr. Little currently lectures at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels, as well as supervising a number of research students. Dr. Little acts as a consultant to schools for the support of students with ASD and challenging behaviours and sits on the Board of Directors of Joseph Varga School, a school for students with ASD. Dr. Little is also the recipient of the 2018 Nancy Fairfax Churchill Fellowship awarded to support her research and investigate a best practice inclusive education model for students with autism. Dr. Little’s most recent book, Supporting Social Inclusion for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Insights from Research and Practice (2017) continues to inform educators’ research and practice in the area of social inclusion for children and students with identified needs. David Evans is Professor of Special and Inclusive Education in the Sydney School of Education and Social Work, University of Sydney. After graduating with his doctorate from the University of Oregon he held university teaching positions at xi

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About the Authors

Edith Cowan University, and Western Sydney University before taking up a position at the University of Sydney in 2002. David currently coordinates the mandatory special education unit of study at the undergraduate level. At the postgraduate level he teaches curriculum design and inclusive instructional practices. He has supervised more than 40 students in the Honours programme, and higher degree research programme. His research examines attitudes, practices and policy that supports all students to access and participate in education across multiple cultures and contexts. Much of this work is undertaken in collaboration with research degree students, and colleagues in Indonesia, Thailand, China and India. He is currently Primary Investigator on an Australian Research Council (ARC) Linkage grant examining literacy and numeracy for disengaged youth. Over the past two decades David has supported and worked with differing education sectors to promote quality education for students with disability. He is currently a community member of the Australia Curriculum, Assessment, and Reporting Authority disability advisory committee. He is a life member of the Australian Association of Special Education. Dr. Michelle L. Bonati is an Assistant Professor in Education at the State University of New York at Plattsburgh and an Honorary Associate in Special and Inclusive Education, Sydney School of Education and Social Work and in the Faculty of Health Sciences, Centre for Disability Research and Policy at the University of Sydney. She earned her Ph.D. in Special Education at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA. Her research interests include examining service-learning as a context for developing inclusive K-12 schools, universities, and communities. Within this teaching method, she examines the interactions of persons with and without disability, focusing on processes that facilitate and inhibit access to the general curriculum, reciprocal peer relationships, and valued roles of individuals with complex support needs. Dr. Bonati previously served as a K-12 special education teacher and as an early intervention provider in the United States. She recently co-edited, People with intellectual disability experiencing university life: Theoretical underpinnings, evidence and lived experience published by Brill | Sense.

List of Figures

Fig. 1.1 Fig. 4.1 Fig. 9.1

Fig. 10.1 Fig. 10.2

Fig. 11.1 Fig. 14.1

Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Social ecological system model. Adapted from: Gregson et al. (2001) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Graphic representation of the school-wide positive behaviour support framework. Adapted from: OSEP Technical Assistance Centre for Positive Behavioural Interventions & Supports (www.pbis.org) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example of a communicative function hypothesis statement created following a functional behaviour assessment . . . . . . . Collaborative assessment and planning process used by a learning and support team to support the communication needs of students who required more intensive, individualised interventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power card example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partial list of the Taxonomy of Transition Programming 2.0 (Kohler et al., 2016) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Chapter 1

Introduction Ilektra Spandagou, Cathy Little, David Evans, and Michelle L. Bonati

Keywords Inclusive education · Special education · Policy · Australia This book is a collective endeavour. Each of the four authors has had their own educational journey as a student, teacher, teacher educator, and researcher. These journeys intersect, as we have been working together a long time, and this book is based on our common teaching, and ongoing discussions about how educational systems, schools, educators, parents, children, and students can develop and sustain inclusive learning environments. We have been grappling with these ideas, and we are aware that the solutions are not easy, nor straightforward. We have shared these discussions with our students in teacher pre-service and postgraduate courses, educators in educational settings and colleagues, and we see this book as another avenue to continue engaging in these conversations. This book has a clear Australian focus as it is informed by policy and practice in Australia. Our outlook, however, is international based on our experiences and ongoing collaborations. The book is also of relevance to an international audience interested in the Australian context. Developments in Australia have similarities to those that are happening elsewhere. International policy such as the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) (United Nations, 2006) and international exchange of knowledge about practices that work in special education and inclusive education are discussed in this book. Special education and inclusive education can be defined in different ways, some of which allow them to coexist easily while others perceive tensions and potential incompatibility. We acknowledge this complexity, and we aim to address, critique, and discuss it through the chapters of the book. We hope that by the end of the book, you, the reader, will have engaged with our discussion and explored the possibilities that it offers.

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 I. Spandagou et al., Inclusive Education in Schools and Early Childhood Settings, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-2541-4_1

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The Organisation of the Book We have thought a lot about how to support you, the reader, in navigating the text by way of the organisation of the book. We use a framework that comprises the building blocks that we will explore across the different chapters and real-life like scenaria that allow illustration of how the building blocks of the framework come together. All chapters combine theory, policy, and practice within a research-based approach. The framework relates to the Australian professional standards for teachers (Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL, 2011)). Our framework (Fig. 1.1) utilises attitudes and collaboration as two central concepts that cut across the four key themes that structure the parts of book. We see these concepts as informing everything that we are going to discuss. Attitudinal barriers are central in understanding why deep-seated beliefs about disability are so enduring. Collaboration is essential in achieving common goals and inevitable when aiming for sustainable change. The framework includes four thematic aspects; the principles and practices of inclusive education and special education; behaviour support, effective teaching practices, and transitions. These thematic aspects bring together the purpose, structures, and processes of an educational setting. This framework allows us to be flexible in the delivery of extensive information. For example, we purposefully do not have chapters in specific teaching areas. We aim to provide strategies that are applicable across different levels of education and to emphasise the commonalities between early childhood, primary, and secondary education, while also extending our discussion of transition to post-school options. Our focus on transitions and seeing the educational journey of children and students as a continuous one is evident in the inclusion of a chapter on early intervention for students with disability. We see this framework as having application in any educational context. To illustrate this, we use real-life like scenaria that describe an educational setting, its educators, children, and students. Like any education setting, it brings together a unique community, a group of educators, families, children, and students. Each child and student brings their unique characteristics, previous learning experiences, and ways of

Effective teaching practices to respond to the diversity of the classroom Behaviour support (whole-school and classroom) Transitions

Fig. 1.1 Framework

Collaboration

Attitudes

Principles and practices of inclusive education and special education

The Organisation of the Book

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learning. All children and students come to school with the same needs to be accepted for who they are, become engaged in their learning, develop positive learners’ identities, and so on. While all children and students have common needs, educational settings tend to identify some children’s and students’ needs as requiring particular attention. Exploring the educational settings and how they respond and address these individual needs give us the opportunity to illustrate the key points in each chapter. Chapters cross-reference the scenaria and add to the information provided depending on the focus of the chapter. The next sections present the structure of the book as it is organised in the four parts that correspond to the thematic aspects of the framework and a summary of the five scenaria. The book can be read in different ways; from cover to cover, focusing on specific themes as structured in the book parts, or by following the scenaria through different chapters.

Structure of the Book Part 1 introduces key concepts in terms of the broader picture of developments in policy and legislation, and it also provides an initial opportunity to start exploring and challenging attitudes towards some of the issues discussed. Chapter 2 discusses the concept of diversity as part of the human condition. It looks at difference and similarity through a lens of diversity and the potential implications for discrimination, inclusion, and exclusion. Disability is used as an example. This discussion is developed further in Chap. 3, which engages with historical and current understandings of disability. Current understandings of disability see it as part of the human condition and contextual. Potentially, any person could experience disability at some stage of their life. How an individual experiences disability is dependent on the context in which they live. Anti-discrimination legislation aims to remove discrimination from the experience of disability. This chapter introduces anti-discrimination legislation, and in particular, the Disability Discrimination Act (Commonwealth of Australia, 1992) and the Disability Standards for Education 2005 (Commonwealth of Australia, 2005), in terms of its very practical implications for educational settings and educators’ practices. Chapter 4 discusses what inclusive education is, providing a definition that it requires ongoing engagement for educational systems, educational settings, and educators in responding to the question of how to provide equitable access to all children and students in all aspects of education. Part 2 focuses on the curriculum and how to plan, teach, and conduct assessments in order to provide access for students to a relevant, rigorous, and ageappropriate curriculum. This part provides a cohesive framework for educators to make informed decisions about planning, instruction, and assessment. Chapter 5 provides an overview of the nature and elements of the Australian Curriculum (The Australian Curriculum, Assessment, and Reporting Authority [ACARA], n.d.). The Australian Curriculum requires teachers to use its three dimensions (i.e. content,

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general capabilities, cross-curriculum priorities) flexibly to accommodate the diversity of student need. The chapter will also make similar connections to the flexibility afforded within the Early Years Learning Framework (Department of Education, Employment, and Workplace Relations [DEEWR], 2009) in accommodating for individual need. In highlighting the flexibility within these frameworks, the principles of universal design for learning (UDL) are addressed in conjunction with a discussion of differentiation. Chapter 6 looks at evidence-based instructional practices and how educators can make decisions about what practices “work”. The selection of evidence-based practices is seen in the context of providing for all students across all elements of the curriculum and linked to the Nationally Consistent Collection of Data (NCCD) (Australian Government, Department of Education and Training. n.d.). Chapter 7 focuses on instructional intensity and the role of educators in assessing their planning, instruction, and children’s and students’ learning based on valid and reliable assessment practices. Part 3 examines in detail several core aspects of educational settings and educators’ work that are instrumental in providing access to meaningful educational experiences for all children and students. This includes educators’ roles in working with others and in meeting behaviour, communication, and social needs of children, students, and young adults. Chapter 8 discusses collaboration, which is an essential aspect of educators’ work as they collaborate with colleagues, support personnel, therapists and other specialists, teaching assistants, parents, and their students. Chapter 9 discusses the principles of behaviour support at the classroom and school-wide levels. It moves from viewing behaviour as the problem of the individual to recognise that behaviour serves specific functions. Chapter 10 focuses on communication aims to provide an overview of typical and atypical language development and to examine the importance of communication. It builds on the previous chapter and discusses the relationship between communication and behaviour, and it provides strategies for embedding instruction of communication in classrooms including the implementation of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC). Chapter 11 looks at the importance of social interactions and relationships in educational settings. Relating with peers is a core aspect of belonging and feeling included. Part 4 focuses on transitions in the changing landscape of provision and supports for children and students with disability. There is an increased emphasis on early intervention (which covers the ages of 0–9), the roll-out of the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) (National Disability Insurance Agency, n.d.), and the imperative to improve academic outcomes and post-school options for young adults with disability. Early intervention is discussed in Chap. 12. The family-centred philosophy of early intervention is presented in this chapter within a multidisciplinary approach, based on consultation and collaboration. Chapter 13 focuses on transitions throughout the educational lifecycle. These include transition to school, between year levels, and from primary to secondary school. The significance of well-prepared and well-implemented transitions is recognised in the available research in terms of

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improved academic and social outcomes. Chapter 14 looks at the schools’ outcomes in terms of preparing students for life after school. This is increasingly an area of policy priority as the educational outcomes of students with disability are substantially lower than those of their peers.

The Five Scenaria We use five scenaria across the book to illustrate our discussion through practicebased examples. These scenaria are based on research that the first three authors of the book conducted as part of our teaching. In 2008, we introduced a series of scenaria into the mandatory initial teacher education special education and inclusive education units to facilitate a problem-based learning approach. These scenaria have been reviewed over the years and researched in terms of their impact on pre-services teachers’ attitudes (Spandagou, Evans, & Little, 2009). This is an ongoing research project with honours students revisiting different cohorts for their research projects over the years. Consistently, the findings have been positive in terms of pre-services teachers’ attitudes development through the units. In total, we have developed and continue to use 19 scenaria, but for this book, we present and utilise five of them. The five scenaria cover different levels of education, sectors, classes, teachers’ experience, and other characteristics. Each scenario highlights educators and their students whose individual experiences and needs are contextualised within a specific educational setting.

Scenario 1: Happy Kids Preschool Happy Kids is a purpose-built council run preschool located in the heart of a satellite town. The preschool caters for up to 30 children daily, aged between three and six years of age. Children are grouped according to age into three classrooms which each accommodates up to ten children. In addition to separate group times, the centre encourages integrated group play, which typically occurs outdoors for up to an hour each day. The preschool employs seven staff members in total (two per room), including one early childhood teacher, two diploma-trained staff, and three trainees, in addition to a non-teaching director. Approximately, 60% of the children attending the preschool come from a non-English speaking background (NESB) with a vast majority of these children speaking Arabic as their primary language at home. As a result, school readiness and literacy in all its forms are a large focus of the preschool’s programme. The preschool’s philosophy values all forms of partnerships between staff, families, and within the wider community, and aims to provide education and care that is both holistic in nature and developmentally appropriate. Teacher: Ms. Fatma Mahmoud is a 23-year-old diploma-trained early childhood educator. She is also the room leader of the Eating Echidnas room (4–5 year old

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room). Ms. Mahmoud has been working in early childhood for five years and has been at Happy Kids for the last two years. Ms. Mahmoud herself is originally from Iraq, having migrated to Australia in her early primary school years. Thus, she can relate to what many of the children from a NESB in her care are experiencing, and she is also able to communicate with many of them in their home language. Class: Most of the children in Ms. Mahmoud’s class attend the preschool five days a week. Within her class, of the ten in attendance on any given day, there are typically 6–7 girls and 3–5 boys. Of the 12 children enrolled in her class, five speak a language other than English at home, although four are bilingual and can confidently speak in both English and their home language. In the following chapters, further information about three children, Claire, Max, and Zeinab, will be discussed. Environment: Being a purpose-built council run centre means that Happy Kids is well resourced, offering staff the necessary resources, facilities, and flexibility to create programmes where children can truly thrive. The classrooms are spacious and the outdoor area offers a large permanently fixed play gym in addition to wide areas used for gross motor activities. Furthermore, the centre director is very supportive to her staff and is willing to invest money in new resources and facilities if she feels that staff can justify the purpose of such requests.

Scenario 2: Fig Tree Road Public School The Fig Tree Road Public School is a medium-size primary school. It is located in a metropolitan suburb an hour by public transport from the city centre. The school has a large NESB population and caters for students with English as a second language (ESL). The school has approximately 350 students with 12 permanent teaching staff and three casual teachers. Four of the permanent teachers are newly qualified teachers while two teachers are planning to retire in the following year. The school is proud of its multicultural ethos and the community involvement activities. The population composition of the area has changed over the years with new groups getting established in the area. The school is seen as instrumental in developing a sense of community. Teacher: Ms. Marion MacGregor is an experienced teacher with passion for her job. She strongly believes that students should have the opportunity to direct and develop their learning and her role is to provide a well-structured environment and support. Marion believes that clear rules and expectations and consistent behaviour management are necessary in order for the students in her class to effectively negotiate their learning. Ms. MacGregor enjoys working collaboratively with other teachers, and for her, it is a way to maintain her enthusiasm for the job. Class: 1M, a Year 1, Stage 1, is Ms. MacGregor’s class this year. There are 20 students in the class, 11 boys and nine girls. All but three students attended kindergarten in the school and Marion knows them. The majority of students, 17 students, come from NESB backgrounds, of which four students are relatively new

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to the country. Three of the students in the class that we will learn more about are Deng, Jack, and Thuy. Environment: Ms. MacGregor’s class is located on the ground floor. It is the second classroom in a row of four. The classroom is large and organised to support group work. Necessary material and resources for different topics are organised to be accessible to students when they need to use them. There is a small withdrawal room adjoined to the main room. There are three computers in the classroom.

Scenario 3: Blackstone Primary School Blackstone Primary School is a small school located in a rural township. The town of Blackstone was established many years ago to provide workers for the flourmill located on the edge of the township. The school has approximately 150 students and seven permanent teaching staff. This year the school has seen the appointment of three new staff members; two beginning teachers in their first year of teaching and a third who transferred into the school. The school principal, Mr. Harrison, has been principal at Blackstone for seven years. He grew up in this town before moving to the city for his university training and was keen to return when the opportunity arose. The school is a central focus for the townspeople, holding several performances and community activities each year. Despite being an old school, the buildings are well maintained and the grounds are expansive. A community project last year was the installation of a walking/cycle track around the school’s perimeter. Mr. Harrison hopes this year to involve all classes in regular walking programmes. Each room has air conditioning and heating as the weather can reach extremes at times. Teacher: As his first teaching position, Mr. Graham Rogers was appointed to Blackstone Primary School this year. Mr. Rogers grew up in the city and indicated in his teacher training that he was prepared to be appointed anywhere in order to secure a position. Mr. Rogers is a keen sportsman, playing representative rugby union for his university. He is excited about his appointment and looking forward to beginning work. As a beginning teacher, Mr. Rogers has been given a mentor at the school, Karen Jacobs, who is an experienced teacher with a passion for drama. As there is a limited number of staff at the school, Graham is expected to take on several roles over and above his classroom teaching. Mr. Rogers has been given the roles of sports coordinator, public speaking coordinator, and coordinator of the peer support programme. Class: 5/6 Red is Graham’s class this year. There are 29 students in the class, 15 boys and 14 girls. The class is comprised of a mix of Year 5 and Year 6 students of mixed abilities. Three students in the class for whom more information will become available are Callum, Hope, and Owen. Environment: 5/6 Red is located in a demountable building in the middle of the school site with a classroom on either side. The classroom is quite compact but has a covered veranda and small withdrawal room adjacent to the main room. Mr. Rogers

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intends to sit the students in rows with his desk at the front. There are four personal computers in the classroom for the students to use but at the moment, two of these are not working.

Scenario 4: Clearview School Clearview School is a large boys’ independent school. It has a primary school and secondary school campuses. The school is located in a metropolitan area. The secondary campus has approximately 1000 students. The school has a reputation for its academic standards and its sport and music programmes. The school has extensive grounds, sports’ facilities, and an auditorium. In recent years, a small number of students with disability have progressed from the primary to secondary school. Teacher: Ms. Sophie Kouka is a maths teacher at Clearview Secondary school. Ms. Kouka is an experienced teacher with 15 years of experience, ten of which have been at Clearview School. She enjoys teaching and she likes to work with junior classes. She promotes independent and group work in her class and she focuses on developing the problem-solving skills of her students. Her sister has a young daughter with a moderate intellectual disability. Class: There are 27 boys in this Year 7 class of mixed abilities. Several students have been identified as requiring adjustments to their learning programmes. Three students in the class are Chris, Craig, and Josh. Environment: Ms. Kouka’s classroom is on the first floor of the main building adjacent to the maths staffroom. The lift is located on the other side of the building. The room has an interactive whiteboard as well as ordinary whiteboards. Each month Sophie puts on the walls three mathematical puzzles of varied difficulty and students can have a go solving them. The best solutions are also put on the walls and students receive a certificate and small prize.

Scenario 5: Blackwater Creek Secondary School Blackwater Creek Secondary School is a public school located in a rural town. The school has approximately 700 students from Years 7 to 12. The school serves a farming community. In recent years, the town has tried to establish an alternative tourism sector to create new jobs. The community is close-knit and takes pride in their town’s history. School performances, sports events, and festivals are well supported by the community. The school is well equipped and maintained with extensive grounds. The school operates a buddy system and has a whole school behaviour management programme. Teacher: Mr. David Flanagan is a Health and Physical Education teacher. He has worked in the school for eight years and knows the students and the community well.

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He is passionate about sport and he is one of the sports organisers. Mr. Flanagan is a committed teacher and believes in getting to know his students and their families. Class: Mr. Flanagan has a group of 27 Year 10 students, 12 boys and 15 girls. This year Mr. Flanagan plans to explore issues of attitudes, behaviours, and consequences related to health issues and strategies to promote health and safe behaviours. He believes that all students will benefit but he is concerned in particular about three students. Mark, Mia, and Sarah are three students in the class that we will provide more information about them in the following chapters. Environment: Mr. Flanagan’s room is a very large room next to the dance room and the assembly hall. He has organised the room to allow for individual, small group, and whole group work. A sound field amplification system is installed in the room. This system is very useful for students with otitis media. The school is well resourced with very good sports facilities. Note on terminology Person first language is used in the book to refer to disability. Whereas there is an ongoing debate about the most appropriate way of referring to disability, person first language has been adopted by Australian policy as well as many organisations of persons with disability. Educators are used to refer to both early childhood personnel and school teachers. When the discussion is focused on primary and secondary education, then teachers are used. Educational settings are used to refer to both early childhood settings and schools. Again, when the discussion focuses on either early childhood settings or schools, the specific terms are used. Special education and inclusive education are used throughout the book to describe processes and practices that we perceive as complementary, although we recognise the tensions and debates in these fields.

References Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting. (n.d.). Australian curriculum. Retrieved from https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/. Australian Government, Department of Education and Training. (n.d). Nationally consistent collection of data on school students with disability (NCCD). Retrieved from https://www.nccd. edu.au/. Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL). (2011). Australian professional standards for teachers. Carlton, VIC: Education Services Australia. Commonwealth of Australia. (1992). Disability discrimination act 1992. Retrieved from http:// www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/dda1992264/. Commonwealth of Australia. (2005). Disability standards for education 2005. Plus guidance notes. Retrieved from https://docs.education.gov.au/node/16354. Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations. (2009). Belonging, being and becoming: The early years learning framework for Australia. Retrieved

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from https://docs.education.gov.au/documents/belonging-being-becoming-early-years-learningframework-australia. National Disability Insurance Agency. (n.d.). What is the NDIS? Retrieved from https://www.ndis. gov.au/understanding/what-ndis. Spandagou, I., Evans, D., & Little, C. (2009). Primary education preservice teachers’ attitudes and perceptions on preparedness to respond to classroom diversity. Paper Presented at the AARE2008 International Education Research Conference. 30 November-4 December 2008, Brisbane, Australia. United Nations. (2006). Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities and optional protocol. New York: Author.

Part I

Principles, Policy and Practice

Chapter 2

Understanding Disability

Principles and practices of inclusive education and special education Effective teaching practices to respond to the diversity of the classroom Behaviour support (whole-school and classroom)

Collaboration

Attitudes

Ilektra Spandagou

Transitions Linked scenaria: 2 (Deng) and 3 (Hope) Keywords Diversity · Disability · Attitudes Outcomes: After reading this chapter, you will be able to: • Describe diversity and how it is understood in schools. • Understand the different models of disability and their implications for practice. • Describe the role of attitudes in understandings of disability.

Introduction The chapter starts with an examination of what is diversity. It explores diversity as individual differences and similarities that take their significance within a specific social context. It looks at how individual characteristics have historically related to privilege or discrimination and how responding to diversity in education is a way to promote equality. The chapter then focuses on disability as an example of diversity and answers the questions: Is disability simply the opposite of ability? and What is the © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 I. Spandagou et al., Inclusive Education in Schools and Early Childhood Settings, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-2541-4_2

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relationship between ability and disability? Different models used to conceptualise disability are discussed and in particular, the medical model and the social model. The role of attitudes is discussed with examples of how they are shaped and how in turn reinforce understandings of disability.

The Meaning of Diversity Diversity is a core principle informing modern education systems recognising similarities and differences amongst individuals and groups. It denotes that human experience is about humans being unique, and at the same time, sharing their humanity (OECD, 2010). Diversity is a multi-faceted concept, and no taxonomy of it is ever complete. Age, ethnicity, race, gender, sexual orientation, dis/ability, class, income, language, religious status, beliefs, and geographical location are part of diversity but this list is by no means exhausting. Diversity is a neutral term, as it doesn’t evaluate the nature of these similarities and differences. While diversity per se is neutral, how it is experienced in a given context is informed by societal perceptions, expectations, and structures, which may valorise and privilege specific characteristics and identities, while ignoring or discriminating against others. It is within a specific context that we experience diversity–ours and of others. This influences how we are perceived by others, how we understand ourselves in forming our identity, and how we relate with others, our groups membership. Misconceptions around diversity are often based on limited understandings, where diversity becomes a synonym for differences from the majority or dominant culture and values, or in other words, from what is perceived as the norm or conventional. In this case, some people are seen as “diverse” and others as not (Artiles, 1998). A group of pre-service teachers discuss their recent school visits in preparation for their professional experience. One of them says, “I always attended diverse schools. The school, last week wasn’t diverse at all”. Another student says, “I had the opposite experience. Everybody was the same when I was at school. Never thought of diversity. Last week at my school visit, diversity was everywhere”. What do these pre-service teachers describe as diversity? What have you learned about the schools that they talk about? Can you describe them? Modern education systems acknowledge the importance of diversity in enriching societies but also the potential for disadvantaging particular groups. It is recognised that some of these groups have historically been disadvantaged based on deep-seated

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beliefs about their worth or potential. The processes that value and respond to different characteristics differently can result in disparity which is when “diverse characteristics are associated with different outcomes or differential treatment” (OECD, 2010). The direction of the Australian education system in the period 2008–2018 is informed by the goals outlined in the Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians (Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training, and Youth Affairs [MCEETYA], 2008). These goals replaced previous similar agreements agreed by Education Ministers from all States and Territories. The two goals of the Melbourne Declaration are Australian schooling promotes equity and excellence and all young Australians become successful learners, confident and creative individuals, and active and informed citizens. According to the first goal, Australian schools should “provide all students with access to high-quality schooling that is free from discrimination based on gender, language, sexual orientation, pregnancy, culture, ethnicity, religion, health or disability, socio-economic background, or geographical location” (p. 7). The Melbourne Declaration recognises that many students experience disadvantage and that significant improvement is required to achieve both equity and excellence. Ten years after the articulation of these goals, they are still very relevant. In 2019, the Melbourne Declaration was reviewed and replaced by the Alice Springs (Mparntwe) Education Declaration (Council of Australian Governments—Education Council, 2019) which follows the Melbourne’s Declaration framework of two goals. The National Assessment Programme–Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) takes place annually for students in Years 3, 5, 7, and 9. It was introduced in 2008, and it was designed in accordance with the Melbourne Declaration. Analysis of NAPLAN results demonstrates the equity consequences of disadvantage as the achievement spread more than doubles through students’ careers. In other words, while the middle 60% of students in Year 3 fall within a 2.5 year range for achievement, this increases to a 5.5 year range by Year 9 (Goss, Sonnemann, Chisholm, & Nelson, 2016). Concerns of achievement gaps are not limited to Australia, as equity and excellence are international educational considerations. Since 2000, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) conducts every three years the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) survey that examines 15-year old students’ performance in mathematical, reading, and scientific literacy. Australian PISA results in 2015 demonstrate the enduring equity issues experienced by students in Australian schools. For example, the average difference across participating countries of performance between advantaged and disadvantaged students based on socio-economic background was 88 score points. For Australia, this difference was 92 score points, which equates to around three years of schooling (ACER, 2017). In addition to academic performance, PISA explores the reported sense of belonging of participating students in terms of being accepted and valued within the school environment by their peers and others. Students whose families have been in Australia for more than one generation (i.e. both the students and their parents were born in Australia), girls, those from low socioeconomic background, indigenous, or not from metropolitan areas reported a lower sense of belonging than their peers. Overall, there has been a significant decline in Australian students’ sense of belonging between PISA 2003 and 2015 (ACER, 2018). NAPLAN and PISA report on a

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given number of attributes that categorise students (i.e. attributes of diversity) but not others. For example, one group that is not identified in the reporting is students with a disability, while there is an ongoing debate about the value of such assessment, being not represented in its results in less visibility in the educational debates that surround it.

Different Ways of Approaching Diversity in Education There are different ways of approaching and responding to diversity in education. Reygan, Walton, and Osman (2018) discuss two common approaches that are problematic in different ways: celebration and assimilation. We are all familiar with celebration where content that refers to groups that are defined as diverse or minority is limited to mainly special days, events, or spaces. For example, when it comes to students with disability, schools may organise special events on December 3, which is the International Day of People with Disability. While celebrating is part of how human societies identify and share what is important, celebrations that do not relate to the actual daily experience of the groups that are celebrated may create a feel-good experience for those participating but not change the experience of those “celebrated”. Assimilation “aims to negate difference and co-opt it into the norm, thereby eliding the salience of difference and perpetuating hegemonic norms” (Reygan et al., 2018, p. 2). In other words, individuals and groups are expected to “fit in” in order to be accepted, but in this process, their individual characteristics may be ignored or constructed as problems to be fixed. This is particularly salient when we are referring to disability, as we will discuss in the following section. Diversity is complex, and it requires us to consider what we aim to achieve through schooling. Deng, who is seven, arrived in the country with his parents and four siblings last year as part of the Australian’s Humanitarian programme. He is originally from South Sudan. His family left South Sudan and lived for four years in a refugees’ camp in Uganda. Deng and his family speak Dinka at home. His parents and older siblings speak also Arabic. Deng and his older siblings learned some English in the refugees’ camp. What does Deng bring to his school? There are simplistic ways of describing what Deng brings. His experiences, for example, could be seen as unfortunate, traumatic, and resulting in deficit due to his limited formal education. While trauma is an important consideration for his school, the refugee experience should not be reduced to it (Matthews, 2008). The richness and complexity of Deng’s experiences should not be seen through a deficit lens. Without minimising the hardship experienced by Deng, he also has accumulated experiences, skills, and knowledge that his teachers can use as foundation of his learning. This is compatible with a strength-based approach that recognises that all children and students have strengths, resources, and assets no matter their circumstances. How can the school recognise, value, and respond to his experiences? Why are some schools better at doing that than others? These are questions that help us shift the focus from Deng to the capacity of

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schools to respond to diversity. Looking back at the characteristics of Fig Tree Road Public School in Scenario 2, we could start thinking about what both the school and Deng bring to this process.

Ability and Disability Modern education systems perform complex, and at times competing, purposes aiming to promote societal cohesion and economic prosperity at present and in the future. In that sense, education systems are future-oriented—referring to a future that its demands and possibilities are presently unknown, but they are also anchored on their histories and the processes and practices of the past. How to best organise schools, what to teach, and how to teach are perennial questions. Beliefs about specific elements of diversity influence how these questions are approached. For example, in most educational systems, there is now an acceptance that girls and boys should follow the same curriculum, even when there is an option for them to be educated in single-sex schools. In the past, education and access to the curriculum for girls and boys differed with specific elements of the curriculum not be available to one or the other group. Evolution in understandings of possible social roles for girls and boys has informed this change. Turning to ability and disability, a number of assumptions have informed education decisions. A common assumption is that it is straightforward to distinguish between disability and ability. Historically, this assumption is built on knowledge about normative disabilities (Tomlinson, 2017), which tend to be low incidence disabilities like sensory and physical disability. Sensory and physical disabilities have a long history of recognition and more or less accepted criteria to categorise them. This sometimes results in the impression that we know what they involve; however, caution is needed even in this case as this assumption may be based on a simplification of the diversity of experience of disability to a “stereotypical” view. For example, we may expect a person who is blind to use a white cane, but not all people who are blind or have low vision do so. Also usually, people expect someone who is “blind” not to be able to see at all, but more than 90% of persons who are under the legally blind definition have some residual vision. These are examples of how, even for disabilities that are better understood, general knowledge tends to be limited and not necessarily accurate. This becomes more complex for the majority of children and students who are identified as requiring additional support in educational settings as their label of disability is “dependent on the value judgements of professionals and practitioners” (Tomlinson, 2017, p. 65). Conditions such as learning difficulties, autism spectrum disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have a shorter history, and they are still contested in terms of their assessment criteria and prevalence, while their causes are still unknown. As identification of such conditions happens with the use of specific assessments and criteria, changes in the criteria may mean that someone

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is not diagnosed as having a disability with a new assessment version when the same person was diagnosed in a previous assessment or vice versa. This relates to what Minow (1985) calls the dilemma of difference. In most educational systems, a diagnosis is required to provide specific supports to students. The process of identifying children and students as requiring support, however, may result in them being stigmatised and discriminated. Looking back at the supports that historically were put into place for students labelled as “different”, their educational and life outcomes tend to be impacted negatively. This then reinforces beliefs that these students are unable to perform as well as other groups of students, justifying their overrepresentation in such support systems (Artiles, 1998). Perceiving the problem as residing within the individual is called the personal or medical model of disability and has been the prevailing model of understanding disability. The question of “how can schools deal with children defined as “different” without stigmatizing them on that basis?” (Minow, 1985, p. 157) has been responded in different ways, and it resulted in the development of special education. Modern special education’s origins can be traced back to the education of deaf or blind children in the nineteenth century but soon it was preoccupied with a broader group of students who failed to make the expected progress in schools. Special education’s origins were based on the belief that with the right education children and students excluded from the limited provision at that time of regular schools will be able to progress and become independent by getting employment. Since then, special education as a multi-disciplinary field has provided the tools for the assessment of the students’ needs, specific aids, strategies and methods for their education, and a place in the development of special schools, special classrooms, and in-classroom support. Special education, like general education, has been influenced by different philosophical and sociopolitical theories. In the early twentieth century, Eugenics turned from a theory to a quasi-scientific doctrine that influenced education in general and special education in particular. Eugenics practices aimed to decrease the reproduction of people with traits that were considered undesirable and resulted in the exclusion, segregation, and sterilization of large numbers of people with disability. In this context, some forms of special education functioned to manage and contain groups of children and students rather than provide them with a quality education (Winzer, 2014). While education has moved away from such practices, the legacy of special education as “separate” remains. As we will discuss throughout this book, special education is not context specific. It can be used in any context to support children and students and their educators in receiving quality education. Even though the beliefs of Eugenics as pseudoscience were discredited, increased reliance on bell-curve understandings of intelligence during the twentieth century have reinforced beliefs about ability as innate and static. To give an example of the complexities around ability, we will use the case of intellectual disability. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and it is used widely for diagnosis. Its current fifth edition (DSM-5) was published in 2013 and included major changes in intellectual disability. The name was changed from mental retardation. This was done mainly for two reasons. The first reason was the negative connotations in the use of mental

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retardation and especially the colloquial use of the word “retard”. The second reason was that “retardation” gave the impression of something being always in deficit. The diagnostic criteria in the new edition emphasised both assessment of cognitive capacity (IQ) and adaptive functioning during the developmental period. Adaptive functioning refers to limitations in functioning in activities of daily life (e.g. communication, social participation, and independent living) across multiple environments. In addition, in DSM-5 adaptive functioning defines the severity of disability rather than the IQ score that was used in the previous edition, as it is this adaptive functioning that determines the levels of supports required in the specific setting. What does all this mean? The use of the term mental retardation, as it was the case with previous terms like feeblemindedness, mental subnormality, locates the “problem” within the individual, and the emphasis on a single number, an IQ score, and limits the experience of disability. Intellectual disability, on the other hand, requires you to consider the social context that the individual operates and how a given environment supports or not the participation of an individual. We all need supports and resources to participate in our environments. For example, we use trains that are driven by others, eat food that is prepared by others in restaurants and cafes, call the ICT support to help us fix our computers and doctors treat our ailments and illness. In turn, we support and provide resources for others. We all live interdependent lives, and it is this interdependence that allows us to become independent, i.e. able to make decisions about our lives and realise these decisions. For people with disability, often supports and resources are required that are specific to their impairment to enable them to reach this level of independent decision-making, which is also called self-determination (see Chap. 14). Education aims to foster independence. This is achieved through providing guidance, structure, and support in the form of the curriculum, educators, resources, technology, peers, and so on. What is the role of educators in this process? Are the principles of this process different for students with and without disability? Such an understanding of disability is not static. This is acknowledged in DSM-5 in terms of the role of early and ongoing intervention in improving adaptive functioning during childhood and adulthood to the extent that even a diagnosis of intellectual disability may cease to be appropriate. In this case, the role of assessment is to identify whether the improvement in adaptive skills is due to new skill acquisition resulting in removing the diagnosis, “or whether the improvement is contingent on the presence of supports and ongoing interventions (in which case the diagnosis of intellectual disability may still be appropriate)” (DSM-5, 2013, n.p.). What is acknowledged here is that by providing supports, the person with intellectual disability is able to perform to an improved level. An example of that is providing a support person in complex communication situations. In this instance, the support person is to assist the understanding of the person with disability, but equally important to mitigate potential

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lack of appropriate communication by the other participants in the communication exchange. This shift in seeing disability as socially constructed has been the result of a long process, and people with disability themselves have been central to this. The Disability Movement in many countries from the 1970s onwards promoted the rights of persons with disability, and most importantly, an understanding that disability is experienced in specific social environments, which historically have excluded and oppressed people with disability. This is called the social model of disability. This social understanding of disability is exemplified in the United Nations (2006) definition in the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability (CRPD), which promotes a human rights understanding of disability stating that “disability results from the interaction between persons with impairments and attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinders their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others” (n.p, emphasis added). In this definition, the importance of both environmental and attitudinal barriers is highlighted. While an environment that is inaccessible is something that we easily understand, often we underestimate the importance of attitudes and how they shape our expectations about what a person can or cannot do. For example, Hope attends a small school in a rural township. She is 12-year old, lives with her grandparents, is a keen dancer and a member of the school choir, and has a diagnosis of moderate intellectual disability. Her school is in the process of organising her transition to the local high school. This process of transition, as discussed in Chap. 13, isn’t simply about preparing Hope for high school. It is mainly about the high school to be ready for Hope by having the necessary adjustments and supports in place, and this may require the school and staff to reflect on their expectations and how these may be influenced by Hope’s diagnosis of moderate intellectual disability. This process will allow the school and staff to get to know Hope and how she learns, which is the first Australian Professional Standards for Teachers (Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership, [AITSL], 2011).

The Role of Attitudes How do we learn about disability? Disability is part of the human experience, and it is quite prevalent. It can be permanent or temporary and caused by accident, trauma, disease, and genetics. Over four million or 1 in 5 people have some form of disability in Australia, and the likelihood of living with disability increases with age. While one in eight people under 65 report a disability, this increases to one in two people over 65 (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2016). It is not possible to generalise the disability experience, as it is multi-layered and diverse. However, much of what is learned about disability is through generalisations and stereotypical second-hand representations. Earlier, we mentioned the use of the white cane. By seeing blind people in ads, television programmes, or films using a cane, it increases public awareness about the cane as an identification symbol and the potential of its use. At the same time, if using a cane is the default way of

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introducing a blind character in films, then it turns into a stereotypical representation. Analysis of portrayals of disability in movies and television programmes has demonstrated that they tend to reinforce fears and erroneous beliefs towards people with disability (Connor, 2017). As many people without a disability have no or limited interactions with people with disability, such portrayals provide both information but also emotive reactions that inform attitudes towards disability. When people with disability are stereotypically presented as a burden or victim, vengeful, or achieving feats despite their disability, these representations inform attitudes. Attitudes refer to our predisposition towards a person, object, situation, and so on. Attitudes combine feelings, cognition, and behaviour, and all three influence each other. Let’s return to Hope. Hope has a bright and sunny disposition, but her diagnosis of moderate intellectual disability often makes her an easy target for bullying from the older boys in the school. They often joke about the difficulties she experiences in completing some of the class—work and call her a “retard”. This upsets Hope, and she will run from the room crying and stay in the female toilets for the remainder of the session. Her teacher last year was concerned with Hope’s apparent unwillingness to interact with her peers outside of the classroom, preferring to walk by herself or sit in the library. What is the intervention required in this case? Is it an intervention of making Hope more resilient and work on her social skills? Or is it an intervention to work on the attitudes of her peers? Or is it about assessing whether the existing supports are sufficient for Hope to complete her work? The concept of ableism refers to the perception that people with disability are inferior, and amongst other forms, it can be expressed as hatred or disgust (Connor, 2017). Language, as we will discuss in the next chapter, Chap. 3, is a very powerful conduit for expressing attitudes about disability. What can the school do to combat ableism and bullying? How can it educate students about it? How can it do that by using positive examples of disability? What examples of disability experiences that do not reproduce stereotypical representations can be used?

Conclusion In this chapter, we introduced the key concepts of diversity, ability, and disability and discussed how these concepts get their meaning in specific contexts. Thus, disability was presented as an evolving concept. Education then is powerful not only in providing access to learning opportunities for children and students but in changing understandings about what these opportunities can be. In this way, the role of schools and educators is essential in removing environmental and attitudinal barriers.

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References American Psychiatric Association (APA). (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Artiles, A. J. (1998). The dilemma of difference: Enriching the disproportionality discourse with theory and context. The Journal of Special Education, 32(1), 32–36. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 002246699803200105. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). (2016). 4430.0—Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers 2015. Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER). (2017). PISA 2015: Reporting Australia’s results. Available at https://research.acer.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1023& context=ozpisa. Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER). (2018). PISA Australia in focus number 1: Sense of belonging at school. Available at: https://research.acer.edu.au/ozpisa/30/. Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL). (2011). Australian professional standards for teachers. Carlton, VIC: Education Services Australia. Connor, D. J. (2017). Questioning “normal”. Actively undoing dis/ability stereotypes through teaching a critical analysis of films. In J. D. Stoddard, A. S. Marcus, & D. Hicks (Eds.), Teaching difficult history through film (pp. 199–218). New York: Routledge. Council of Australian Governments—Education Council. (2019). Alice Springs (Mparntwe) education declaration. Available at https://uploadstorage.blob.core.windows.net/public-assets/ education-au/melbdec/ED19-0230%20-%20SCH%20-%20Alice%20Springs%20(Mparntwe)% 20Education%20Declaration_ACC.pdf. Goss, P., Sonnemann, J., Chisholm, C., & Nelson, L. (2016). Widening gaps: What NAPLAN tells us about student progress. Grattan Institute. Retrieved from https://grattan.edu.au/wp-content/ uploads/2016/03/937-Widening-gaps.pdf. Matthews, J. (2008). Schooling and settlement: Refugee education in Australia. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 18(1), 31–45. https://doi.org/10.1080/09620210802195947. Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (MCEETYA). (2008). Melbourne declaration on educational goals for young Australians. Carlton South VIC: Author. Minow, M. (1985). Learning to live with the dilemma of difference: Bilingual and special education. Law and Contemporary Problems, 48(2), 157–211. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2010). Educating teachers for diversity: Meeting the challenge. Paris: Author. Reygan, F., Walton E., &, Osman, R. (2018). Assimilation and celebration? Discourses of difference and the application of Critical Diversity Literacy in education. In R. Osman & E. Walton (Eds.), Teacher education for diversity: Conversations from the global south (pp. 1–21). London: Taylor and Francis. Tomlinson, S. (2017). A sociology of special and inclusive education: Exploring the manufacture of inability. London: Routledge. United Nations (UN). (2006). Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities. UN: Author. Winzer, M. (2014). Confronting difference: A brief history of special education. In L. Florian (Ed.), The SAGE handbook of special education (Vol. 2, pp. 23–37). London: SAGE Publications Ltd. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446282236.n4.

Additional Readings Graham, L. J., & Tancredi, H. (2019). In search of a middle ground: The dangers and affordances of diagnosis in relation to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Developmental Language Disorder. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 24(3), 287–300. DOI:10.1080/13632752.2019. 1609248. Watkins, M., Lean, G., & Noble, G. (2016). Multicultural education: The state of play from an Australian perspective. Race Ethnicity and Education, 19(1), 46–66. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 13613324.2015.1013929.

Chapter 3

Anti-discrimination Legislation and Disability in Education

Principles and practices of inclusive education and special education Effective teaching practices to respond to the diversity of the classroom Behaviour support (whole-school and classroom)

Collaboration

Attitudes

Ilektra Spandagou

Transitions Linked scenaria: 3 (Owen) and 5 (Sarah) Keywords Human rights · Disability · Discrimination · Adjustments Outcomes: After reading this chapter, you will be able to: • Understand human rights in the area of disability. • Understand the role of anti-discrimination legislation in the area of disability. • Discuss the use of adjustments in relation to Australian anti-discrimination legislation in education.

Introduction The chapter starts with an exploration of how human rights emerged and the role of anti-discrimination legislation in protecting these rights. The area of disability is then explored by answering the questions: Who is covered by disability antidiscrimination legislation? and What rights does anti-discrimination legislation provide to people with disability? This discussion looks first at international and then © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 I. Spandagou et al., Inclusive Education in Schools and Early Childhood Settings, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-2541-4_3

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at Australian legislation. Australian disability anti-discrimination legislation is discussed in terms of its key elements and what steps educational settings and educators should take to ensure that children and students with disability are not discriminated against due to their disability. The chapter concludes with a reflection on the potential and limits of such legislation.

Human Rights and Disability In Chap. 2 the idea that disability is an evolving concept (United Nations, 2006) was introduced. We can extend this and say that the concept of our humanity has been evolving throughout history. Looking at different societies, the relationships of their members have been governed by systems of beliefs that provided justifications for the freedoms and rights of particular members, which in turn translated in complex systems of administration of every aspect of life. For example, different societies explained differently through systems of entitlements, freedoms and rights; who can (and cannot) own land and other assets, what occupations and roles are open to different members of the society, who can have access to knowledge and learning, what relationships and under what conditions are permitted, and so on. At different points in history, ideas and beliefs developed about a common humanity shared by all humans, which was formalised in a discourse of human rights as modern societies, which are organised in nation-states, emerged. These philosophies promoted human rights as standards for measuring inequality and fairness. Our current understanding of human rights cannot be separated from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) (United Nations, 1948). The UDHR is the first internationally agreed statement of human rights. As a declaration, the UDHR doesn’t create legal obligations. A number of international treaties have followed, which are binding for the states that have adopted them through a process of ratification. Some treaties focus on the rights of specific groups such as the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) (UN, 1989), which outlines the civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights of children. It is not always easy to identify the influence of an international convention on the everyday practice of an educational setting. Commonly, there is a long, subtle process of changes in legislation, policy and practice. Sometimes, we may be aware of this process, but more often, we are not. Belonging, Being, and Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia (EYLFA) (Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, 2009) is the first Australian early years learning framework. In its introduction, it is stated that: Early childhood educators guided by the Framework will reinforce in their daily practice the principles laid out in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (the Convention). The Convention states that all children have the right to an education that lays a foundation for the rest of their lives, maximises their ability, and respects their family, cultural and other identities and languages. The Convention also recognises children’s right to play and be active participants in all matters affecting their lives (p. 5).

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This is an example of how a human rights discourse frames our understanding of what constitutes being a child and the rights involved, and how this is articulated in the policy that impacts on educators’ practice and the experiences of children. As educators, we operate within a rights framework. People with disability are one specific group that struggled to be acknowledged in the international human rights law. This was due to perceptions of disability during most of the twentieth century that focused on disability as a personal problem, with segregation in institutions being very common, making disability invisible. Perceptions of disability as an unfortunate event, what is called a personal tragedy model, distinguished disability from other characteristics like race and gender and resulted in the United Nations policy on disability to be of a non-binding nature (Spandagou, 2018). This changed with the United Nations’ Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), which was negotiated with unprecedented participation by civic society with 12 organisations of people with disability being part of the working group that developed the draft text. It was adopted on December 13, 2006, and at the time of publication, 181 countries, including Australia, have ratified it. Ratification of the convention means that a country agrees to be legally bound by the terms of the Convention and national laws need to be consistent with the expectations of the Convention to promote compliance.

Anti-discrimination Legislation Human rights are centred on equality, the fundamental concept that all human beings are born free and equal. Discrimination is the denial of rights because of an individual’s attributes such as gender, race, or disability and, therefore, it is the opposite of equality. There are two types of discrimination, direct and indirect. Direct discrimination is treating one person or a group of people less favourably than others because of one of their attributes in the same or similar circumstances. An example of that is to deny access to a building or public transport to a person who is blind and has a guide dog. Another example is to refuse a student’s enrolment to a school because of their disability. Indirect discrimination sometimes is less obvious. It happens when there is an expectation that applies equally to everyone, but it disadvantages a person or group of people because of one of their attributes. Example of that is to expect someone with mobility restrictions to negotiate a set of steps at the entrance of a building, or to expect a student whose disability impacts on their ability to concentrate for long periods of times, to complete a two-hour exam without breaks. Compile a list of five–six examples of what you consider discrimination related to disability. They don’t need to be about education. Consider in addition to education, for example, access to housing, transport, services, and goods.

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Look at your examples and reflect on whether they constitute direct or indirect discrimination. Returning to equality, there are different ways of understanding it. Formal equality refers to treating everyone the same. This type of equality recognises direct discrimination but not indirect discrimination. Substantive equality on the other hand recognises the need for adjustments or affirmative action to compensate for disadvantage. This is the purpose of anti-discrimination legislation that aims to eliminate discrimination, referring to both direct and indirect discriminations and the role of reasonable adjustments in this process. More recent understandings of equality move beyond this to identifying a positive obligation to take actions to change the structures that underpin disadvantage. In education, this means that an educational system should not refuse access due to disability—direct discrimination—and should provide the necessary changes to allow for equal participation—indirect discrimination—but also it should intentionally change its structures to become more equitable. There are two dimensions in equity in education. Fairness ensures that personal circumstances should not be an obstacle to academic achievement and inclusion ensures a basic minimum standard of education for all participants (Field, Kuczera, & Pont, 2007). The CRPD represents all three concepts of equality (Degener, 2016).

Disability Australian Anti-discrimination Legislation in Education Why is important to understand discrimination? In Australia, anti-discrimination legislation is the framework that informs the participation of children and students with disability in education. The key legislation is the Disability Discrimination Act 1992 (DDA) (Commonwealth, 1992) that aims to eliminate disability discrimination in a number of areas, including employment, education, services, and housing. The Disability Standards for Education 2005 (DSE) (Commonwealth, 2005) is a subordinate legislation under the DDA that clarifies the rights of persons with disability and the obligations of education providers. The DDA applies to all levels of education: childcare, preschools, schools, post-secondary education, and higher education. The DSE applies to all the above but not childcare providers. This means that a provider that offers both childcare and preschool programmes is operating solely under DDA for the former and under both DDA and DSE for the latter. In addition to federal legislation, all states and territories have anti-discrimination laws that cover education. Education providers must comply with both federal and state/territory laws. Overall, there is overlap between Commonwealth and state/territory laws, but in some instances, there are some variations in the expression of the protection offered. In this book, we focus on federal legislation, but it is a worthwhile exercise to compare it to your state or territory relevant legislation.

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The language of such legislation does not translate intuitively to educational language. This may make educators reluctant to engage with the legislation, understand it, and be confident that their practice complies with it. The extent that this is essential is recognised in the Australian professional standards for teachers (Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL), 2011). One of the focus areas of Standard 1 Know students and how they learn, is “1.6 Strategies to support full participation of students with disability”. In order to be able to achieve this, graduate teachers should “demonstrate broad knowledge and understanding of legislative requirements and teaching strategies that support participation and learning of students with disability” (p. 9). What are then the key elements of the relevant legislation? The main principle that underpins the DSE is that the education of students with disability should be on the same basis as the education of other students. This means that students with disability have access to the same opportunities and choices as their peers. It does not mean that all students should have the same experience of these opportunities and choices, as students with disability may require reasonable adjustments, but that they should have equitable opportunities. To give an example, in the past, it was common for a student with disability to be excluded from aspects of the curriculum by not participating in specific subjects. For example, students with a physical disability were often excluded from fully participating in physical education. Instead, they were provided with alternatives like extra instruction in another subject, acting in an assisting role like being a timekeeper, or simply observing the lesson. It is easy to understand that such alternatives do not provide an on the same basis as opportunity. What is then practice that will constitute on the same basis as other students? This is where another key element of the legislation comes into play, reasonable adjustments. An adjustment is any action taken to ensure that a student with disability participates on the same basis as their peers. An adjustment is reasonable when in addition to allowing for on the same basis as their peers participation, it takes into account the student’s learning needs, and balances the interests of all parties involved, including the student with disability, other students and staff members. In making decisions on reasonable adjustments, consultation, another key element of the DSE, is essential. Consultation should involve engaging with the child or student with disability and their family to identify barriers to their learning, establish reasonable adjustments and review them. Consultation is an ongoing process, and adjustments need to be regularly reviewed. The DSE prescribe the nature of such consultation, requiring that consultation should explore (a) whether the adjustment is reasonable, (b) the extent that the adjustment will achieve its purpose, and (c) “whether there is any other reasonable adjustment that would be less disruptive and intrusive and no less beneficial for the student” (p. 15). Sarah, a sixteen-year-old Aboriginal girl attends Blackwater Creek Secondary School and has hearing loss due to Otitis media (glue ear). Otitis media is a condition that occurs after repeated ear infections leaving a glue-like secretion in the ear. It often affects hearing, which in turn may have an impact on language development.

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Otitis media rates are much higher for Aboriginal children than non-Aboriginal children, and Sarah’s family, community and school are familiar with the condition and its implications. Sarah is wearing a hearing aid but at times, she doesn’t use it and complains about it. Sarah is a keen drums player, and she finds her hearing aid a nuisance particularly when practising. She has preferences in terms of receiving written instructions and specific ways that work better for her to access information. When she listens and doesn’t understand what it is said, she tends to “switch off” and daydream. Sarah is very reluctant to ask clarification questions in the classroom. Without regular consultation with Sarah and her family, the school may make assumptions about what are the most appropriate adjustments for her or about the extent that the existing adjustments are still working as intended. Without consulting with Sarah, it is not possible to know whether not using her hearing aid throughout the day is part of being self-conscious about it, discomfort due to amplification of loud noises in specific environments, cultural reasons, a combination of the above or something entirely different. As it will be discussed in Chaps. 8 and 12, consultation needs to be culturally sensitive. For example, in Aboriginal languages, there is no word for disability, and disability is understood within a different framework of human diversity, which as Avery (2018) explains, it means “‘Do you have a disability?’ is a question that is culturally insensible for Indigenous peoples” (p. 5). The DSE includes the following five categories of standards: • • • • •

standards for enrolment standards for participation standards for curriculum development, accreditation, and delivery standards for student support services standards for harassment and victimisation.

The first four standards comprise all aspects of educational experiences that are developed, delivered, and administrated by education providers. In addition to the adjustments for individual children and students discussed above, the DSE requires education providers to take measures that increase access and participation in general. For example, enrolment information should be available in accessible formats for prospective applicants. The final standard, harassment and victimisation, is slightly different from the other four, as it focuses on relationships amongst participants. Harassment refers to actions that have the effect of humiliating, offending, intimidating or distressing a person with disability and relate to their disability. Victimisation refers to detrimental actions towards a person with disability because the person of disability has made or has proposed to make a complaint in relation to treatment received due to their disability. Education providers should take steps to ensure that they offer environments that are free from harassment and victimisation by having clear statements in relevant policies, providing professional development, and reminders of expectations and rights, and having appropriate mechanisms to respond to any instances of harassment or victimisation. To understand the distinctive importance of the standard for harassment and victimisation, for the other four standards there is the option for an education provider to claim the exception of unjustifiable hardship, in case that

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compliance with the standards results in an excessive burden. The burden to provide proof that a reasonable adjustment will cause unjustifiable hardship falls on the education provider and it is established on a case-by-case basis. Nevertheless, the exception of unjustifiable hardship does not constitute an exception for the standard of harassment and victimisation. We presented an overview of DSE and its key elements. You may have noticed that there is a very central concept that we haven’t discussed that of disability. What is your understanding of disability? Can you give a definition? Can you develop a list of what conditions or impairments are included in your understanding of disability? What are the inclusion and exclusion criteria that you used to compile your list? According to the DDA and DSE, disability refers to: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

total or partial loss of the person’s bodily or mental functions; or total or partial loss of a part of the body; or the presence in the body of organisms causing disease or illness; or the presence in the body of organisms capable of causing disease or illness; or the malfunction, malformation, or disfigurement of a part of the person’s body; or (f) a disorder or malfunction that results in the person learning differently from a person without the disorder or malfunction; or (g) a disorder, illness, or disease that affects a person’s thought processes, perception of reality, emotions, or judgment or that results in disturbed behaviour (Commonwealth, 1992, n.p.). The DDA covers temporary and permanent disability as well as disability that a person have had in the past or may have in the future or are assumed to have. This is a definition that is dissimilar to how we usually talk about disability in education, where we tend to name an impairment or a condition or to refer to broad area of impact like, learning, behaviour, and so on. The advantage of the DDA definition is that it allows for the list of conditions or categories of disability to change and evolve and it is broad. The underlying common element is that there is significant functioning limitation. Owen is a student at Blackstone Primary School. He has asthma and the school has developed an emergency management plan. Lately, Owen’s parents have been communicating with the school their concerns about Owen being the target of several bullying incidents. Owen was teased about his weight, he is obese, and he was chased by several younger students. Owen’s parents want the school to take decisive action to put a stop to these incidents. Is Owen protected by the Disability Discrimination Act? Asthma is considered a condition that is protected under the DDA disability definition, as it may result in loss of functioning. Asthma and allergies are two conditions for which substantial awareness has developed in recent years in schools.

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This is due to the increase in the prevalence of these conditions but also due to compliance with the DDA. What about obesity? This is an example of how the DDA disability definition evolves. Until recently, obesity per se was not protected under the DDA but related health conditions, e.g., diabetes, were. However, the current information on the Australian Human Rights Commission website states that: Obesity can be covered by the definition of disability in the Disability Discrimination Act. The law defines a ‘loss of functioning of a person’s body or part of the body’ as a disability. Therefore, a person whose weight impairs his or her functioning would be covered (n.d., par. 1).

What is the significance of this? All this may appear as a very technical discussion and to some extent that is the nature of interpretation of any law. Under what conditions are or should obesity being considered a disability is an ongoing discussion in society, but while this discussion is ongoing, Owen’s needs should to be addressed in the school. This gives us the opportunity to focus on the core intention of antidiscrimination disability. The DDA doesn’t give people with disability extra rights; it makes it unlawful to discriminate against a person with disability. What Owen and his family want is for Owen to be able to participate in school safe in the knowledge that the school personnel have the skills to address his needs in case of an emergency and free from harassment and bullying. This is what education should offer to all children and students.

Anti-discrimination Legislation in Practice Disability anti-discrimination legislation has a long history in Australia, and since its implementation, it has changed the educational experiences of children and students with disability. However, its implementation has not been straightforward and there is the recognition that a lot still needs to be done. While the introduction of DSE in 2005 provided further guidance about the expectation of the law, its adoption and translation into practice by educational systems, sectors, and schools have been ongoing. There is an in-built process of reviewing the DSE. There have been two reviews in 2012 (DEEWR, 2012) and 2015 (Urbis, 2015), and there is evidence of increased awareness over the years. There is still strong evidence that the key elements of the legislation that have been discussed in this chapter allow for flexibility of interpretation on a case-by-case basis. The other side of this is that this broadness of interpretation can lead to confusion and lack of consistency. As the most recent review of the DSE states: The extent to which the objectives of the Standards are achieved is dependent on a range of factors including the construction and clarity of the Standards themselves. However, where the Standards provide a static point of reference, the extent to which supporting policies and programs are developed, funded and effectively implemented is what drives outcome achievement. (Urbis, 2015, p. ii)

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Some of these supportive policies and policies shape considerably how educational settings and educators operate. We have mentioned in this chapter, for example, the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers (Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL), 2011), and the EYLF (Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, 2009). Similarly, the Australian Curriculum is informed by the DDA and DSE (see Chap. 5). There is another initiative that has an increased impact in the implementation of the legislation and school practice, the Nationally Consistent Collection of Data (NCCD). NCCD is an annual data collection that (a) counts the number of students in schools across Australia who receives an adjustment, (b) the level of adjustment that they receive, and (c) the broad category of disability. NCCD was piloted and progressively implemented from 2013. From 2018, information provided by the NCCD will be used to calculate the disability loading provided in the Australian Government funding; the loading is varied according to the level of adjustment. We discussed above the disability definition in DDA and DSE. Under NCCD, this definition collapses into four categories; physical, cognitive, sensory, and social/emotional. In this categorisation, Sarah has a sensory disability and Owen has a physical disability. There are four levels of adjustment: • • • •

Support provided within quality differentiated teaching practice Supplementary adjustment Substantial adjustment Extensive adjustment.

The first level, support provided within quality differentiated teaching practice, recognises that all students require teaching that is responsive to their characteristics and needs, and for some students with disability, this level of provision is sufficient. This applies to Owen’s asthma management. This category doesn’t get a funding disability loading, which applies to the next three levels of adjustments. Moving from supplementary, to substantial and extensive adjustments, there is evidence of increased impact of the disability in terms of functioning in specific areas and increase necessity for the adjustments to be in place, with extensive adjustments being required all the time. It is important to distinguish in terms of adjustments that are ongoing and those that have a specific purpose and timeframe. For example, an adjustment may be temporary, e.g. to facilitate transition, with the expectation that at some point, it will cease to be used as it won’t serve a purpose. For example, Sarah has a preference for receiving written instructions and this is a support that Sarah and her teachers see as ongoing. It is also a practice that assists other students in the class when instructions, for example, are displayed for all students. Sarah is also very reluctant to ask clarification questions in class as sometimes she cannot follow the answers because of the noise. Sarah would like support with that, for example, in the form of short one-to-one catch-ups with teachers at the end of lessons, but ideally, she would like to participate more actively in class.

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Read again the information provided about Sarah. What adjustments can you identify? Are any other adjustments that she may require? Are all of them covered by “support provided within quality differentiated teaching practice” or do they belong to one of the other levels? What kind of supports is required for Sarah’s teachers and school for them to be able to implement these adjustments? As part of the NCCD, the school needs to collect evidence under four categories: • assessed individual needs of the student • adjustments being provided to the student to address the disability—this includes support provided within quality differentiated practice • ongoing monitoring and review of the adjustments • consultation, and collaboration with the student and/or parents and carers or associates (NCCD, n.d., par. 7). We can see how these NCCD expectations relate to the key elements of the DSE, as in the need for consultation and ongoing review of adjustments. Looking back at how we discussed Sarah’s and Owen’s educational experiences in this chapter, it is evident that anti-discrimination legislation brings together the student, family, teachers, and schools in identifying what constitutes reasonable adjustments. The perspective of the person with disability is central in this consultation process.

A Note on Language Legislation and policy in Australia use person first language. Throughout the book, we are also using person first language. Person first language puts the person before the disability. Person first language was a response to disability terms being used with labelling and negative connotations. We recognise that there isn’t only one appropriate way to disability language. For many, within a social model of disability understanding, the use of disabled person or disabled people instead of person with disability or people with disability is crucial in highlighting the oppression that disabled people have historically experienced in society. For others, the use of identity first language is essential in presenting themselves and others without separating the person from their disability. In that sense, one is autistic rather than a person with autism. Within the framework discussed in this chapter, it is important that we use language that is not discriminatory. It is important, therefore, to call out derogatory use of disability language or deficit-orientated language. At the same time, it is essential to consult with people with disability about their preferred use of language and respect their preferences. It is finally important to be open to understand different perspectives and to learn from them.

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Conclusion This chapter provided an overview of a human rights approach to disability in education at the international and national level. The Disability Discrimination Act 1992 and Disability Standards in Education 2005 were discussed in detail, in planning and developing services, planning for individual students with the use of reasonable adjustments, and responding to circumstances of discrimination, harassment or victimisation. The implementation of the standards is dependent on educational settings and educators having an understanding of their responsibilities in realising an equitable education.

References Australian Human Rights Commission. (n.d.). Obesity. Retrieved from: https://www.humanrights. gov.au/quick-guide/12069. Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL). (2011). Australian professional standards for teachers. Carlton, VIC: Education Services Australia. Avery, S. (2018). Culture is inclusion: A narrative of Aboriginal Torres Strait Islander people with disability. Sydney: First Peoples Disability Network (Australia). Commonwealth of Australia. (1992). Disability discrimination act 1992. Retrieved from http:// www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/dda1992264/. Commonwealth of Australia. (2005). Disability standards for education 2005. Plus guidance notes. Retrieved from https://docs.education.gov.au/node/16354. Degener, T. (2016). Disability in a human rights context. Laws, 5(35), 1–24. https://doi.org/10. 3390/laws5030035. Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations. (2009). Belonging, being and becoming: The early years learning framework for Australia. Retrieved from https://docs.education.gov.au/documents/belonging-being-becoming-early-years-learningframework-australia. Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR). (2012). Report on the review of the Disability Standards for Education (2005). Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia. Field, S., Kuczera, M., & Pont, B. (2007). No more failures: Ten steps to equity in education. Paris: OECD. Nationally Consistent Collection of Data on School Students with Disability (NCCD). (n.p.). Do you have evidence to support the student’s inclusion in the data collection? Retrieved from http:// www.schooldisabilitydatapl.edu.au/data-collection-steps/do-you-have-evidence. Spandagou, I. (2018). A long journey: Disability and inclusive education in international law. In K. Trimmer, R. Dixon, & Y. S. Findlay (Eds.), The Palgrave handbook of education law for schools (pp. 413–428). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. United Nations. (1948). The universal declaration of human rights. New York: Author. United Nations. (1989). Convention on the rights of the child. New York: Author. United Nations. (2006). Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities and optional protocol. New York: Author. Urbis. (2015). 2015 review of the disability standards for education 2005. Final report. Retrieved from https://www.education.gov.au/disability-standards-education.

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Additional Readings Commonwealth of Australia FaHCSIA. (2009). SHUT OUT: The experience of people with disabilities and their families in Australia-National Disability Strategy Consultation Report. Canberra: Author. de Bruin, K. (2019). The impact of inclusive education reforms on students with disability: An international comparison. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 23(7–8), 811–826. Dunn, D., & Andrews, E. (2015). Person first and identity-first language developing psychologists’ cultural competence using disability language. American Psychologist, 70(3), 255–264. https:// doi.org/10.1037/a0038636.

Chapter 4

Inclusive Education: Principles and Practice Ilektra Spandagou

Effective teaching practices to respond to the diversity of the classroom Behaviour support (whole-school and classroom)

Collaboration

Attitudes

Principles and practices of inclusive education and special education

Transitions Linked scenaria: 1 (Claire) and 3 (Mr Graham Rogers and Callum) Keywords Inclusive education · Special education · Policy · Practice Outcomes: After reading this chapter, you will be able to: • Understand the complexities in defining inclusive education. • Explore the relation between inclusive education and special education. • Develop an understanding of the vision and reality of inclusive education. The chapter starts with an exploration of the concept of inclusion. It discusses why inclusive education is a complex issue and the implications of these complexities in policy and practice. It also outlines key principles and practices of inclusive education that educational settings and educators can utilise in examining and developing their policies and practices. © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 I. Spandagou et al., Inclusive Education in Schools and Early Childhood Settings, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-2541-4_4

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Inclusion It is often said that inclusive education is difficult to define and is a complex term. It is also said that inclusive education means different things to different people. While these propositions are helpful in understanding the complexity of inclusive education, they are also limiting. If inclusive education is complex and not easy to define, how can schools and teachers know how to realise it? Part of this difficulty is that inclusion, the underlying concept of inclusive education, is a broad term with applicability to different contexts. Inclusion is one of these terms that we all know what it means but it can be elusive to define. Pause reading at this point, and write in approximately 140 characters or less a “tweet” describing inclusion. If that helps start with “Inclusion is…” We can think about inclusion in family, peer groups, education, work, recreational settings, and so on. While these contexts are diverse, there are some key common elements that define them; each of them is social as it involves a number of individuals, has some shared expectations and goals, and is connected with and dependent upon other contexts. This complexity can be captured in a social ecological system model (see Fig. 4.1) that represents the interplay between different factors that impact on understandings and experiences of inclusion. Educational settings are located in the middle level, the institutional. Their processes and practices are directly influenced by the top level of policy, which includes legislation, as well as by social norms, expectations, and attitudes that are located at the community level. At the other end of the model, for each individual, let’s say a child, student or an educator, their own characteristics and their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours will form their experiences in relation to their immediate interpersonal environment that includes family, friends, colleagues, and so on. Let’s take now a look at your definition of inclusion. It probably addresses one or two elements of this framework; it may focus on the personal experience of inclusion, or it may focus on the policy or processes that facilitate inclusion. It is not possible to capture the complexity of inclusion in 140 characters. Let’s look more closely to the scenaria that we are using in this book. They are structured with a social ecological perspective in mind locating individuals, educators, and children and students, within the context of their school or setting and their communities, with a recognition of the broader policy framework. Claire, for example, is one of the children in Ms. Fatma Mahmoud’s room. She has many friends in the room and gets very involved in sociodramatic and pretend play. She has been in the centre for more than a year, but she stills gets emotionally distressed at drop off in the morning. Lately, sleep time and Ms. Mahmoud’s lunch time have become more difficult for Claire as she does not like to be left on her own and always wants to be able to see Ms. Mahmoud from where she is playing. Ms. Mahmoud has observed this behaviour and believes that Claire may be experiencing

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Fig. 4.1 Social ecological system model. Adapted from: Gregson et al. (2001)

separation anxiety, which is the feeling of excessive anxiety when separated from home or people to whom someone has a strong emotional attachment. Ms. Mahmoud has made observations and notes of this behaviour, and she is about to discuss it with the centre’s director. She has been thinking about what changes she can make in the environment, routines, and activities of the centre to support Claire and how these plans need to be discussed within the centre, but also with Claire’s family (see Chap. 12). Ms. Mahmoud has a vision about what inclusion is and it aligns with that of the Belonging, Being, and Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia (EYLFA) (Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, 2009): Inclusion: involves taking into account all children’s social, cultural and linguistic diversity (including learning styles, abilities, disabilities, gender, family circumstances and geographic location) in curriculum decision-making processes. The intent is to ensure that all children’s experiences are recognised and valued. The intent is also to ensure that all children have equitable access to resources and participation, and opportunities to demonstrate their learning and to value difference. (p. 48)

Such a definition has a child-centred approach and relates to all children. Inclusion is about all children, not some children and it should be a driving principle of all educational settings as we discussed in Chap. 2 in terms of the Alice Springs (Mparntwe) Education Declaration (Council of Australian Governments—Education Council, 2019). If that is the case, then where is the difficulty with defining inclusion?

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Inclusive Education Inclusive education is more specific in focus than inclusion as a principle of education; it is an education subfield that is interested in making educational systems inclusive for children and students. As any sub-field or area in education, there is diversity of perspectives of what does this involve and how it can be achieved. Part of this relates to the origins of inclusive education (Armstrong, Armstrong, & Spandagou, 2010) and the dilemma of difference introduced in Chap. 2. For example, in some definitions, inclusive education is presented as a different way of doing special education. Special education and inclusive education, however, are quite distinct subfields of education with overlapping elements. Special education is a multi-disciplinary field of education that aims to provide specialised programmes and individualised educational support to students with disability. Numerous teaching practices presented in this book have been developed within the field of special education. Special education is not context specific, but a lot of its history has been linked with segregated and withdrawal practices. This has been a concern of the field, as it is illustrated by one of the most seminal papers in the field of special education by Lloyd Dunn, published in 1968 and referring to the USA context, which argued that the large majority of students attending special classes for “mentally retarded” students, as it was the term at that time, are from “low-status backgrounds” (p. 6) and labelling and allocation in such classes resulted in lower academic outcomes. This disproportionate representation of some groups in special education wasn’t due to an impairment but to a management function within the education system. Dunn proposed the restructuring of special education away from segregated provision for a large proportion of the population it was serving. While a lot has been changed in special education since then, many of these concerns remain as special education is still used to manage children and students that educators find difficult to teach, often by means of segregated provision. Having a sense of how far back these concerns go is important to understand where we are now. Where inclusive education differs is that it focuses more on the general education system and how it is organised. What inclusive education argues is that no matter how much “special” or “individualised” support we offer to individual students, inclusion won’t become a reality for all students unless we reform how we do education. While the view that education needs reform is widely accepted, how this can be done is contested. Let’s pause here, and go back to Chap. 3. If you think about what was discussed and the content of the Disability Discrimination Act 1992 (DDA) (Commonwealth of Australia, 1992) and Disability Standards for Education 2005 (DSE) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2005), you may notice that “inclusion” or “inclusive education” weren’t mentioned. This is because there is no reference to them in the legislation. The DDA and DSE are not inclusive education legislation. They apply to any setting and what they are concerned with is the right of a person with disability not to be discriminated against. This means that any child or student with a disability should have the right to enrol to the school of their choice and receive reasonable adjustments that will allow them to participate on the same basis as any other student.

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Consider this scenario: two students with very similar disabilities that impact on how they access the physical environment enrol to two different schools. One school has ramps, lifts, large corridors and doorways, adjustable and movable furniture, and accessible bathroom facilities. The other school has ramps in one building only, no lift, overcrowded small rooms, and one partially accessible bathroom facility. While the two students are quite similar in terms of their “needs”, the environments that are going to operate are different and, therefore, the reasonable adjustments required would be substantial different. This takes us back to the CRPD’s definition of disability introduced in Chap. 2, that disability is the interaction between the person with the impairment and environmental and attitudinal barriers (UN, 2006). Is it possible to adapt this example for different types of possible barriers? Potential areas that you could consider are a) organisation of schools in terms of class structure and class sizes, b) access to learning, c) access to information, d) access to social environments, and e) access to digital environments. Select an impairment that impacts on one of these areas and consider how two different environments may impact on participation. The conundrum we have is that inclusive education is about general education but it is very closely identified with specific groups of children and students, and particularly those with disability. The CRPD is a thematic convention that relates only to people with disability. It asserts their right to an inclusive education in Article 24 stating, “with a view to realizing this right without discrimination and on the basis of equal opportunity, States Parties shall ensure an inclusive education system at all levels and lifelong learning (p. 16)”. Countries that have ratified the convention need to report how they progress with its implementation on a regular basis. The relevant committee became concerned that a lot of what is presented as inclusive education is actually not. For this reason, the United Nations Committee on the Rights with Disabilities produced General Comment No 4-Article 24 the right to inclusive education in 2016 with the purpose of clarifying the meaning of inclusive education. The definition in General Comment No 4 states: inclusion involves a process of systemic reform embodying changes and modifications in content, teaching methods, approaches, structures and strategies in education to overcome barriers with a vision serving to provide all students of the relevant age range with an equitable and participatory learning experience and environment that best corresponds to their requirements and preferences. (UN, 2016, p. 4)

This definition is broad and refers to all students—not only students with disability—requiring a systemic reform. According to General Comment 4, inclusive education has the following features: (a) whole systems approach, (b) whole educational environment, (c) whole person approach, (d) supported teachers, (e) respect for and value of diversity, (f) learning-friendly environment, (g) recognition of partnerships, and (h) monitoring. In the following chapters, we will discuss specific strategies and practices to support children’s and students’ inclusion into educational settings. We

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perceive these not solely as isolated interventions related to individuals but as part of the development of educational communities that are adept in supporting all their participants.

Evidence of Inclusive Education In terms of the evidence of inclusive education, there are two aspects to consider. One is whether inclusive education is actually realised in educational systems and whether it actually works. There are some systems that have legislation that mandates the implementation of inclusive education. For example, Italy closed down all state special schools in 1971 and since then students with disability are educated in regular classes. Portugal introduced legislation in 2008 in accordance with Article 24 of the CRPD giving the right to all children to be educated in their local school. Since then, most special schools were transformed into Resource Centres for Inclusion (CRI) with the aim to provide specialised support to inclusion. Reviewing practice over ten years, it becomes apparent that the law didn’t support sufficiently a reform of the system. A new law passed a law in 2018 according to which all students should be educated in regular classes with their peers with support being organised using the principles of universal design for learning and a multi-level approach to access within a flexible curriculum (Alves, 2019) (see Chaps. 5 and 9). Other countries have different degrees of “inclusivity”, but no education system yet has reformed to the extent described by General Comment 4. On the other hand, there is evidence in many countries of increased segregation. This is actually the case in Australia, where national data indicate that there was a 35% increase in special schools attendance between 2003 and 2015 (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2017). Despite the common perception that “more” students with disability are in regular classrooms and many of them have positive, inclusive experiences, the reality is that there is an increase in both identification of students with a disability and attendance in segregated settings. There is also evidence of practices of “gatekeeping” being happening despite the mandates of the DDA and DSE. In a study of 745 families, students and advocates over 70% participants reported experiencing one or more examples of gatekeeping or restrictive practices (Poed, Cologon, & Jackson, 2017). Gatekeeping can take different forms. It refers, for example, to refusal or discouragement to enrol a child or student to a setting or school, or offering “part-time” enrolment in a school. It can also involve practices of encouraging or promoting transferring to a different setting or school that is presented as “more appropriate for the student”. Restrictive practices are those that restrict the full participation of the student, including spending extended periods outside the classroom or separately, e.g. working with a teaching assistant, exclusion from school activities. Restrictive practices refer also on the management of behaviour, and in particular, the use of physical restraint or segregation to control behaviour.

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Turning now to evidence of whether inclusive education works, with the caveat that the studies reported in this section were conducted in education systems of various degrees of inclusivity, there is emerging evidence that inclusive education has positive outcomes for students with and without a disability. A review (Hehir et al., 2016) of 280 studies from 25 countries identified 89 relevant studies and using a systematic review methodology, found that overall there were increased benefits for students that are educated in inclusive settings and that these benefits extended beyond academics. In addition, either neutral or positive benefits were found for students without a disability. A meta-analysis (Szumski, Smogorzewska, & Marwowski, 2017) that examined the impact of the presence of students labelled as having special educational needs in the classroom on students without special educational needs analysed 47 studies with a total sample of almost 4,800,000 students. It was found that there was a positive effect in having students with disability in classes, albeit with a weak statistical significance. This study looked at common assumptions about the effect of inclusion and they found that there was no difference in effect size when comparing classrooms with students with a label of severe special educational needs or emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD) to classroom without these students. Further, there was no negative effect in lower and upper secondary levels of education. Such concerns are very common when considering the impact of inclusion and often expressed by educators, but the research evidence doesn’t support them.

Inclusive Education in Practice Educators struggle with the dilemmas of inclusion every day. Mr. Graham Rogers was appointed to Blackstone Primary School this year. It is his first position and the school has been supportive, providing a mentor, Karen Jacobs, as part of his induction. Some of Mr. Rogers’ students, Hope and Owen, experience bullying. It seems that this has been going for a while and Mr. Rogers is questioning whether such behaviours are somehow acceptable in the school culture. He wants to discuss this with Karen but he worries that he may say something wrong and that he doesn’t have the full story. He has met with Owen’s parents who are upset about the recurrent incidents and feel left-down by the school Mr. Rogers feels confused and powerless. This is a great school and staff cares but he wants all his students to feel accepted and safe. He doesn’t know what to do. Do you think that there is agreement about the inclusive ethos of the school from the perspectives of Owen, his parents, and Mr. Rogers? What do you think about Mr. Rogers’ situation? What would you advise him to do? What should be his first goal and what should be the first action towards that goal?

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Facing change is difficult. Sometimes, the everyday demands and familiarity with a situation obscure what is in front of us. Someone new to the context can see with more clarity what is going on. As we all have been embedded in our educational systems as students and educators, our vision of what is possible is limited from our experience. One of the features of inclusive educational systems according to General Comment 4 presented above is supported teachers. It is described as: all teachers and other staff receive education and training giving them the core values and competencies to accommodate inclusive learning environments, which include teachers with disabilities. The inclusive culture provides an accessible and supportive environment which encourages working through collaboration, interaction and problem-solving. (United Nations Committee on the Rights with Disabilities, 2016, p. 5)

Mr. Rogers’ initial education training provided him with a strong set of values that inform his teaching philosophy. However, now in his first teaching post, he has supports, but he doesn’t feel fully supported in working with others. A number of chapters that follow will discuss collaboration and its significance for creating inclusive environments. It is fair to say that there is more agreement on how educational systems and educational settings should be organised to become inclusive than what is inclusive pedagogy and practice. This is also a concern for educators that would like to have a clear sense of how to do inclusion. Florian and Black-Hawkins (2011) describe this as classroom practice that meets the “standard of extending what is generally available to everybody, as opposed to providing for all by differentiating for some” (p. 813). This “shift in thinking from ‘most and some’ to everybody” (Florian, 2015, p. 16) is a difficult idea to grasp. Callum, who is also in Mr. Rogers’ classroom, is struggling with reading and is approximately two years behind his peers and he knows it. He dislikes coming to school and has a low self-esteem although he is a terrific sportsperson and excels in most sports as well as being popular amongst his peers. Chapter 5 discusses strategies that provide support for Callum within a universal design for learning framework. Universal design for learning and differentiation are approaches that see the planning and delivery of curriculum in anticipation and response to the diversity of students in the classroom. This diversity is a given and part of the richness of the education context. While there are differences between universal design for learning, differentiation and other models that take a strengthbased approach, what is important to note is that inclusive practice is not a distinct set of practices, but rather “it is in the ways that teachers respond to individual differences, the pedagogical choices they make and how they utilize specialist knowledge” (Florian, 2014, p. 226).

Conclusion Going back to the social ecological model of disability that opened this chapter, the vision of inclusive education could be seem as very distant, at the policy level, where children students and their families and educators feel that they have little input. Alternatively, it could be seen as what happens at the pivotal level of educational

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settings, where children, students and their families and educators make things happen every day. It is at that level that Mr. Rogers will start the conversation with his colleagues to understand what is happening in the setting and what can change. He will seek the views of Hope and Owen and of their peers. He will start planning and make a change in working with his colleagues. But neither of these levels is sufficient on its own for sustained change. Policy matters as much as practice for reform to happen.

References Armstrong, A. C., Armstrong, D., & Spandagou, I. (2010). Inclusive education: International policy & practice. London, UK: Sage. ISBN 978-1-84787-941-7. Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations. (2009). Belonging, being and becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved from https://www.acecqa.gov.au/sites/default/files/201802/belonging_being_and_becoming_the_early_years_learning_framework_for_australia.pdf. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2017). Disability in Australia: Changes over time in inclusion and participation in education. Cat. no. DIS 69. Canberra: AIHW. Available at: https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/34f09557-0acf-4adf-837d-eada7b74d466/Education20905.pdf.aspx. Commonwealth of Australia. (1992). Disability discrimination act 1992. Retrieved from http:// www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/dda1992264/. Commonwealth of Australia. (2005). Disability standards for education 2005. Plus guidance notes. Retrieved from https://docs.education.gov.au/node/16354. Council of Australian Governments—Education Council. (2019). Alice Springs (Mparntwe) education declaration. Available at https://uploadstorage.blob.core.windows.net/public-assets/ education-au/melbdec/ED19-0230%20-%20SCH%20-%20Alice%20Springs%20(Mparntwe)% 20Education%20Declaration_ACC.pdf. Dunn, L. M. (1968). Special Education for the Mildly Retarded—Is much of it Justifiable? Exceptional Children, 35(1), 5–22. https://doi.org/10.1177/001440296803500101. Florian, L. (2014). Inclusive pedagogy: An alternative approach to difference and inclusion. In F. Kiuppis & R. S. Hausstätter (Eds.) Inclusive education twenty years after Salamanca (pp. 219– 229). New York: Peter Lang. Florian, L. (2015). Conceptualising inclusive pedagogy: The inclusive pedagogical approach in action. Inclusive Pedagogy Across the Curriculum, 7, 11–24. Florian, L., & Black-Hawkins, K. (2011). Exploring inclusive pedagogy. British Educational Research Journal, 37(5), 813–828. Gregson, J., Foerster, S. B., Orr, R., Jones, L., Benedict, J., Clarke, B. … Zotz, K. (2001). System, environmental, and policy changes: Using the social-ecological model as a framework for evaluating nutrition education and social marketing programs with low-income audiences. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 33, S4–S15. Hehir, T., Gridal, T., Freeman, B., Lamoreau, R., Borquaye, Y., & Burke, S. (2016). A summary of the evidence on inclusive education. Alana Institute. Available from https://alana.org.br/wpcontent/uploads/2016/12/A_Summary_of_the_evidence_on_inclusive_education.pdf. Poed, S., Cologon, K., & Jackson, R. (2017). Gatekeeping and restrictive practices with students with disability: Results of an Australian survey. Paper delivered at the Inclusive Education Summit (Adelaide, October 2017). Available from: http://allmeansall.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2017/ 10/TIES-4.0-20172.pdf.

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Szumski, G., Smogorzewska, J., & Marwowski, M. (2017). Academic achievement of students without special educational needs in inclusive classrooms: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 21, 35–54. United Nations. (2006). Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities and optional protocol. New York: Author. United Nations Committee on the Rights with Disabilities. (2016). General comment No 4— Article 24 the right to inclusive education. Available from: https://www.right-to-education.org/ sites/right-to-education.org/files/resource-attachments/CRPD_General_Comment_4_Inclusive_ Education_2016_En.pdf.

Additional Readings Alves, I. (2019). International inspiration and national aspirations: Inclusive education in Portugal. International Journal of Inclusive Education 23(7–8), 862–875. D’Alesio, S., Grima-Farrell, C., & Cologon, K. (2018). Inclusive education in Italy and in Australia: Embracing radical epistemological stances to develop inclusive policies and practices. In M. Best, T. Corocran, & R. Slee (Eds.), Who’s in? Who’s out? What to do about inclusive education (pp. 15–32). Leiden, The Netherland: Brill. European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education. (2018). Evidence of the link between inclusive education and social inclusion: A review of the literature. In S. Symeonidou (Ed.) Odense, Denmark: Author.

Part II

Planning for Curriculum Access and Instruction

Chapter 5

Designing for Access to the Curriculum

Principles and practices of inclusive education and special education Effective teaching practices to respond to the diversity of the classroom Behaviour support (whole-school and classroom)

Collaboration

Attitudes

David Evans

Transitions Linked scenaria: 2 (Thuy), 3 (Callum) and 5 (Mark)

Keywords Universal design for learning · Curriculum · Planning Outcomes: After reading this chapter, you will be able to: • Describe the principles of universal design for learning in relation to the planning of inclusive learning environments. • Demonstrate an understanding and application of the principles of differentiation to promote inclusive education. • Promote literacy and numeracy skills to provide access to the curriculum. • Demonstrate use of strategies for maximising access to the curriculum for all students.

Introduction Educational sectors across states, territories, and jurisdictions provide a framework that outlines the learning intentions for students. Within Australia, the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) sets this framework through © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 I. Spandagou et al., Inclusive Education in Schools and Early Childhood Settings, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-2541-4_5

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the learning areas, general capabilities, and cross-curriculum priorities. Australian states and territories interpret this framework directly, or through alternate yet aligned syllabus materials (e.g. New South Wales). For the purpose of this chapter, these frameworks and syllabi will be referred to as curriculum. Curriculum frameworks and materials traditionally have been prescriptive on what students achieve. In some countries, curriculum frameworks are highly prescriptive. The failure to demonstrate learning in a specific manner in a specific year results in students being retained; in other contexts, schools use commercially designed educational programmes based on a local curriculum framework that teachers learn to implement. Within the Australian context, the class teacher has considerable influence over the design and implementation of classroom programmes. They interpret the curriculum framework established by ACARA. This framework comprises three components, which can be utilised with differing foci or emphasis. While Australia has a more flexible approach to what students will achieve in schools, and how they show their learning, there are still barriers posed that prevent or restrict all students from participating in the curriculum on the same basis as their peers. In some cases, teachers and/or schools have rigid ideas about how students will demonstrate learning (e.g. must be a written product). While our Year 12 exams often require students to handwrite their responses, it should not be the reason to design a classroom curriculum with these barriers in place on an everyday basis that prevent students from demonstrating their learning. In the Australian context, debate still occurs around how students whose needs challenge existing educational practices will access and participate in the classroom curriculum. In the review of the 2014 of the Australian Curriculum, it was reported by the reviewers that “… the Australian Curriculum is manifestly deficient in its inclusiveness and accommodation of the learning needs of students with disability” (Australian Government, 2014, p. 5). While a traditional approach to curriculum design was proposed (e.g. separate curriculum for students with disability), the Australian Curriculum through the diversity section poses that teachers begin planning from the curriculum at the student’s level of age. In New South Wales, this is reflected in teachers commencing planning at the stage of the student’s enrolment. Central to both of these approaches is that a student’s age and stage of enrolment is the basis for commencing all planning from the curriculum.

Reflecting on Curriculum Demands All students have the right to access and participate in the same curriculum. Teachers and educators have the professional obligation to design education programmes so students with disability can participate on the same basis as their peers without disability. In the words of the Disability Standards for Education (2005), education providers should:

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… take reasonable steps to ensure that the course or program is designed in such a way that the student is, or any student with a disability is, able to participate in the learning experiences (including the assessment and certification requirements) of the course or program, and any relevant supplementary course or program, on the same basis as a student without a disability, and without experiencing discrimination. (emphasis added; Commonwealth of Australia, 2005, p. 17)

We make decisions about planning for learning every day, and these decisions should be based on the curriculum or learning framework or syllabus for the education provider (e.g. Australian Curriculum), and the needs of each student. How educators interpret these documents can facilitate access and participation for all students (as it can also pose barriers). One commonly used pedagogical approach is differentiation or differentiated instruction. Differentiation is a key component of the Australian Professional Teaching Standards (i.e. Standard 1.5: Differentiate teaching to meet the specific learning needs of students across the full range of abilities), and through its reference within the Nationally Consistent Collection of Data decisions (i.e. quality differentiated teaching practice).

Differentiation If we talk with teachers about how they provide an education programme for every student, they will more often than not talk about how they differentiate the learning opportunities within the classroom. Features of differentiated instruction may involve use of small groups (sometime run with the assistance of support teachers or teaching assistants), reducing the number and/or complexity of items required to complete within a mathematics worksheet, or providing students with opportunities to complete further research for a science project. The manner in which differentiated instruction is conceived by teachers varies and differs considerably—such is the nature of diversity amongst learners. In examining the concept of differentiation, it is referred to in differing ways. Carol Tomlinson is recognised as a leading proponent of differentiation, yet she uses terms such as differentiated classrooms and tasks (Tomlinson & Moon, 2013), and differentiated instruction (Tomlinson, 2001). In education sectors, there is reference to differentiated curriculum and assessments (NESA, 2019). What this varying use of the term differentiation indicates, is that differentiation is multi-faceted involving differing features and aspects of the instructional environment. A similar finding is located within the research literature. Bondie, Dhanke, and Zusho (2019) conducted a systematic review of the literature on differentiated instruction. They report that from the 28 studies conducted between 2001 and 2015 in the USA and included in their review, there was difficulty in obtaining a common framework to describe and define differentiated instruction. The most commonly used framework was that posed by Tomlinson (2013), where the teacher makes “the class work for each student who is obliged to spend time there” (p. 4). Through the

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teacher altering the content, process, product, and learning environment for every child, differentiated instruction can be achieved. Differentiation should be part of every teacher’s professional tool kit; it should be part of core attributes within all learning environments. So what is it? Bondie et al. (2019) provide the following definition: … differentiation [is] the outcome of a continuous decision-making process where teachers look and listen for academic instruction that will strengthen or impede effective and efficient learning, and then adjust instruction to increase Clarity, Access, Rigor, and Relevance (CARR) for all students within a learning community. (p. 356)

This definition states clearly that differentiation includes all children and students within a learning community or classroom. It places the responsibility of decisionmaking with the teacher, who will make changes to instruction, curriculum, assessment, and classroom materials based on how children and students are progressing with their learning. While some of the planning to differentiate must be done prior to the classes or learning activities, differentiation will occur in the dynamic mix of the learning environment. This requires teachers to have strong pedagogical knowledge (see Chap. 6) and be in a place to make timely decisions about all students (Chap. 7). In Ms. Kouka’s Year 7 mathematics class of 27 boys at Clearview Secondary School there is considerable variability. While Ms. Kouka plans from the outcomes and content for students in Year 7, she is always thinking during classes about how to cater for every student, making decisions based on what students do, don’t do, or what they say, and what they do not say, when engaging in class learning. John has specific physical needs for which adjustments have been provided; Ms. Kouka has identified that he has a specific strength in mathematics. She has found that in engaging with John during classes that she has to differentiate the level of feedback she provides him (e.g. rich information that challenges him to consider other ways of solving a problem). There are other students in the class for whom she needs to carefully monitor and vary the level of scaffolding and feedback during the class to ensure learning is successful and productive. Reflect on a learning experience that you have recently observed, or a learning experience you have facilitated. Reflect on the decisions that were made within this time; how were they made (assessments of the context)? How frequently? Who was making them? What about the materials used—the same for every learner, self-choice, varied based on learner background?

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Universal Design for Learning Bondie et al. (2019) highlighted that studies examining the impact of differentiated instruction in US classroom involved the use of commercially designed programmes. These are programmes that have been adopted by schools and designed for teachers to use in classrooms. As such, they pose barriers by the rigidity built into the programme, are dependent on the professional background of the teacher to differentiate in a way that supports students and assume that all students will be successful in the same programme. In Australian educational settings, educators are responsible for designing their educational programmes from the syllabus or Early Years Learning Framework. This provides educators the chance to design educational programmes that recognise the strengths of all children or students in their classes; educators use their professional knowledge about their children and students to design a programme for all students. A challenge for educators is how to design programmes from the beginning that are inclusive of all children and students. An approach to this challenge for educators is addressed through the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL), a set of principles, guidelines and checkpoints “… that guides the shift from designing learning environments and lessons with potential barriers to designing barrier-free, instructionally rich learning environments and lessons that provide access to all students” (Nelson, 2014, p. 2). It also shifts the focus to designing learning experiences for all, and not most (Florian, 2014; refer to Chap. 4). The three principles of UDL address multiple means of engagement, multiple means of representation, and multiple means of action and expression (Meyer, Rose, & Gordon, 2014). The UDL framework assumes all students are competent learners; the failure to learn and progress is due to planning and instruction not being rich enough to permit students participation on the same basis as their peers. In another way, students are “disabled” as a result of the learning environment or curriculum, and it is our responsibility as educators to work collaboratively to build learning environments or contexts that permit participation by all students (Wehmeyer, 2014). In using the UDL principles when planning from a curriculum framework, knowing all students’ interests, knowledge, and motivations is a key starting point (Standard 1, AITSL, 2011). A traditional and often used approach is to commence planning by pitching to the “average”, which manages to disable or disengage many if not all students in our classrooms. Using the principles of UDL, you consider the knowledge, interests, and motivations of all students; consider how materials will be presented to students; and also reflect on the differing ways students might demonstrate their learning. Understanding how students learn, their linguistic and cultural backgrounds, and understanding the development of young persons is a key starting point. In working with the UDL principle of multiple means of engagement, Standard 1 is taken further. It’s about knowing the interests and motivations of your students; it’s about knowing those features of learning and the schooling day that may turn students away from,

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or turn them towards, participating in a learning opportunity. If a student is very reluctant to engage in reading text for whatever reason (e.g. limited decoding skills, low motivation with the topic) addressing multiple forms of representation of the text content may be a way around this dilemma (e.g. providing a digitised copy of the text, reading in pairs). Callum’s teacher, Mr. Graham Rogers, in planning for “all” will need to consider how to provide reading materials in differing formats, how materials chosen can engage Callum and his peers, while also thinking about how all students can represent their learning (e.g. does it have to be a written product? Could students work in groups to produce materials?). In planning for all, Mr. Rogers will also provide dignified learning experiences and participation for Hope. Another feature of the planning process is around “Knowing the Content and How to Teach it” (Standard 2). The three UDL principles can be used to enhance this Standard. A central principle is that of multiple means of representation. Guideline 3 (Provide Options for Comprehension) highlights a number of checkpoints that relate directly to designing classroom curriculum. Knowledge of the curriculum content, critical features, and big ideas can assist support teachers design a curriculum that can be accessible to all students. Some of these features are discussed further. The amount of content mastered from the curriculum will vary amongst students within a classroom; the amount of content you choose to include in a classroom programme is often a barrier to students. For some students, the amount of content outlined in the syllabus and included in the classroom curriculum may not be sufficient, while for others the amount of content may be expansive, and the time allocated for learning opportunities insufficient. Hope, for example, could be learning key vocabulary in science like all other students; Callum has a strength in this area, so Mr. Rogers has personalised his learning goals to include more technical and advanced vocabulary (see Chap. 6 and discussion of tiers of vocabulary). In moderating the amount of content that students are covering, greater emphasis can be given to developing a deeper understanding and its use. Within the Australian Curriculum framework, there is the capacity for teachers to enrich learning through giving greater emphasis to twenty-first Century Skills (e.g. literacy, numeracy, personal and social capabilities, information and communication technology capabilities). These skills can also be integrated across curriculum areas and linked to personal planning goals. For Thuy, who has a vision impairment, for example, the development of communication skills is a personalised focus of her education programme. The use of early communication skills is part of the literacy general capabilities and could be part of her personal learning goals. Further, teachers could utilise the general capabilities (e.g. literacy and numeracy) to assist develop acquisition of English as a second or possibly third language. These skills can be developed across all areas of her schooling, and at home. Alongside making decisions about the amount of content that is to be covered, the way in which this content is sequenced and organised is a key consideration for teachers. Within a social constructivist learning theory, the teacher provides students opportunities to acquire and understand skills, knowledge, and values. Teachers plan to provide opportunities for students to build on existing learning, and practise and generalise skills and knowledge. In a number of cases students will build this learning

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in an independent, efficient manner, leading to a depth of understanding (Kirschner, Sweller, & Clarke, 2006); for some students the structure and design of this learning may need to be carefully considered and instructed. Sequencing the learning of differing skills and knowledge in a specific way may assist students learn a more complex task (e.g. schema-based approach to mathematics word problems, Powell & Fuchs, 2018); segmenting a complex task into smaller steps can provide additional support that facilitates student learning. Organising “big ideas” within the curriculum (Coyne, Kame’enui, & Carnine, 2011) is another way of reducing the demands brought on by heavy content loads. It helps alleviate the barriers that we may put in place through requiring students remember lots of content. Through education programmes that support students to “see” the links between ideas and concepts, their memory is supported, allowing them to move onto higher order and more complex learning. For example, focusing on the big ideas of decoding fluency, vocabulary knowledge, strategic processing, and text features can assist students in enhancing their reading comprehension (Coyne, Faggella-Luby, Chard, Zipoli, & Ruby, 2011). A number of students face the barrier of not having the opportunity to have deliberate and purposeful practice in skills and knowledge they are taught. As a result, they partially learn a skill, and forget it, or they do not have the chance to acquire it at all. Education textbooks, for example, are published under the assumption that all students will acquire a skill from the same number of examples. As we know, this does not happen, and like many things we learn in our environments (e.g. words to a new song), having the chance to practise is critical to long term use and benefits. Lehtinen, Hannula-Sormunene, McMullen, and Gruber (2017) highlight the benefits and nature of “deliberate practice … practice that intentionally aims at improving one’s skills and competencies” (p. 625). While historically this may be considered ‘drill and practice’, this contemporary definition is about using practice to develop proficiency with depth of understanding. It is about stretching students to the next level of attainment, tapping into students’ motivations and interests, and supporting students to self-regulate their learning. Well planned practice provides constructive, informative, and timely feedback. In designing classroom curriculum for all students, the personal needs of students will need to be considered. In some cases, these needs will be addressed within the typical planning within the school (e.g. social behaviour through a positive behaviour support system—see Chap. 9). Some students may have personal needs that are set out through individual planning meetings (e.g. communication needs, personal care needs, social skills). In these instances, it is necessary for the needs of all children and students are considered when planning as pitching to the average will isolate or exclude these students very quickly (Nelson, 2014). If a Year 5 student is working towards developing communication skills, then the way in which a student will demonstrate their learning may need careful consideration. If a child or student is developing social skills of turn-taking, then planning to use unstructured group work may pose barriers to them in regard to active and purposeful participation. These planning elements can be found within the principle of action and expression within the UDL framework (e.g. Guideline 5: provide options for expression and communication).

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The manner in which learning content and resources represent knowledge and skills often enhances learning, as well as pose barriers for students. A common barrier, for example, is the language we use in classrooms. If we do not examine the current language and vocabulary knowledge the children and students bring to the learning environment, then we can exclude students through using language they are not familiar, or because they use differing terminology to explain the same ideas. In the younger years, we make assumptions that learners come to an education context with specific vocabulary and language. When students do not adhere to requirements that demand the use of this assumed knowledge, the student is seen to be “not ready” for school or education. In later years, we expect students to access and use texts to research topics within differing content areas. If we plan to provide all students with multiple means of access to text (e.g. written, digitised, and braille), we create an opportunity for students to undertake the research and not be excluded because the skills the student brings to the task is not matched by the demands of the text and set task (e.g., fluent decoding skills). Callum, for example, is still learning to become a fluent decoder of text. Evidence collected by the class teacher, Mr. Rogers, and the learning support teacher indicates Callum is about two years behind his peers in this area. A universal strategy to address the barrier of text for Callum is to plan learning experiences that include multiple forms of representation of key text and content materials. It gives Callum and his peers a number of choices about how they can access text to undertake research tasks. An adjustment for Callum, in this instance is not the alternate text representation, but the ongoing intensive reading support with the learning support teacher. Curriculum or syllabus statements in the Australian context are written to support teachers provide access to the curriculum for all students. If we interpret these statements with rigidity, or in some cases through historical traditions, we pose barriers to participation by all students (e.g. every student having to do the same end of term, written test). Curriculum frameworks contain content descriptor or outcomes constructed in a manner that are open for professional interpretation by educators. When a student is asked to “Present a point of view about particular literary texts …” (ACARA; 2017, ACELT 1609), teachers can plan to offer a number of ways in which student can “present” their point of view (e.g. verbally, writing, pictorially). A syllabus outcome in a NESA syllabus states: “Sequences and explains the significant patterns of continuity and change in the development of the modern world and Australia”. (NESA, 2017, HT5-2). To sequence and explain provide multiple options for teacher to design learning experiences that consider the strengths of students yet provide various opportunities for students to develop new skills. Examine a recent lesson you taught in your classroom or on professional experience. Review it with in regard to the UDL framework. Highlight possible barriers that were in place and prevented all students from participating in this lesson. What might you have done to remove these barriers?

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The previous strategies for enhancing the planning of classroom programmes acknowledge that what a student brings to the learning environment is a key starting point (Standard 1.3; view illustration). If we can strengthen these principles from the beginning of planning, the need to design very specific programmes or approaches is reduced. By considering all students and planning for multiple means of representation of materials, we do not have to add this on after the initial planning. An adjustment in this instance may be the provision of reading materials in braille for a student with a significant vision impairment. At Fig Tree Road Public School, considering the needs of Thuy from the very outset ensures that learning experiences are designed to provide access to materials and experiences on the same basis as her peers. In some instances, Thuy may require very specific design features that allow for her participation in the curriculum on the same basis as her peers, a decision made in consultation with Thuy, her parents, and experts in the field. These specific adjustments would be made in line with the Disability Discrimination Act 1992. An adjustment in this instance is “a measure or action (or a group of measures or actions) taken by an education provider that has the effect of assisting a student with a disability … to participate in the course or program” (Commonwealth of Australia, 2005, p. 210). It is a key to acknowledge that an adjustment within the context of the Disability Discrimination Act is not a curriculum design feature that would be utilised typically within the classroom. Segmenting a complex task into component parts should not be considered an adjustment, as it is something that is used in designing all classroom programmes. Planning to use a graphic organiser to support students structuring their thoughts in writing a report of a science experience could be offered to all students. In contrast, a student who requires specialist support to participate in lesson (e.g. to actively participate in a lesson despite a medical condition) could be considered an adjustment. Mark’s teacher, Mr. Flanagan, for example, may seek out specialist support to assist Mark participate in physical education lessons despite his medical condition (i.e. epilepsy).

Cross-Curriculum Planning Planning within a curriculum area allows a teacher to focus on relevant content, skills, and knowledge. It allows for the explicit and systematic instruction in key skills and knowledge (e.g. elements of reading, skills in mathematics). If content areas remain as silos, and do not consider the wider curriculum demands, potential learning opportunities are lost (Evans, 2017). It is crucial that classroom planning offers opportunity for students to use skills and knowledge (e.g. numeracy and literacy skills, critical and creative thinking). This cross-curriculum planning allows for

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potential barriers to be removed. For example, providing Callum practice in reading key words for reading across all curriculum areas provides substantial practice opportunities that are not possible from within a daily reading lesson. Examine this same lesson that you used before and identify the assumptions you made in regard to the literacy and numeracy skills students needed to have to participate. What were these skills? Which literacy and numeracy skills might you have been able to promote greater knowledge and depth of understanding? While seeking out opportunities for practising specific literacy and numeracy skills, it may be beneficial to take a stocktake of the skills and knowledge that you are demanding that students use across curriculum areas. In a visual arts lesson, for example, what mathematical skills may you be expecting students to use (e.g. proportions, ratios). How do these mathematical skills align with what is being taught in mathematics? Is there a chance for other mathematics and English skills to be practised and elaborated on during a visual arts lesson? In planning learning experiences within his class, Mr. Flanagan can help students enhance learning literacy skills. Mr. Flanagan has consulted with the English department and gained a better understanding of the literacy needs of the students within his class. He has established that he can support students with specific literacy skills; he has also established that he can promote elements within critical and creative thinking. He will need to consider a range of skills and knowledge to address the needs of all students.

Conclusion Often the demands we place on children and students exclude them from participating in lessons. Planning to remove these barriers (e.g. use multiple means of action and expression; pre-teach skills) can dramatically enhance the chances of all children and students accessing and participating in learning. The universal design for learning framework provides a basis for educators to reduce potential barriers and enrich learning for all. The implementation of this programme can be enhanced through practices of differentiated instruction, differentiating learning experiences for children, and students on an ongoing basis during learning experiences.

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References ACARA. (2017). English F-10. https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/f-10-curriculum/english/. Australian Government. (2014). Review of the Australian Curriculum: Final report. Retrieved from https://docs.education.gov.au/system/files/doc/other/review_of_the_national_curriculum_ final_report.pdf. Bondie, R., Dahnke, C., & Zusho, A. (2019). How does changing “one-size-fits-all” to differentiated instruction affect teaching? Review of Research in Education, 43, 336–362. https://doi.org/10. 3102/0091732X18821130. Commonwealth of Australia. (2005). Disability standards for education. Canberra: Author. Coyne, M., Faggella-Luby, M., Chard, D., Zipoli, R., & Ruby, M. (2011). Effective strategies for teaching reading comprehension. In M. Coyne, E. Kame’enui, E., & D. Carnine (Eds.), Effective teaching strategies that accommodate diverse learners (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall. Coyne, M., Kame’enui, E., & Carnine, D. (Eds.). (2011). Effective teaching strategies that accommodate diverse learners (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall. Evans, D. (2017). Examining the literacy within numeracy to provide access to the curriculum for all. In M. Milton (Ed.), Inclusive principles and practices in literacy education (pp. 35–52). The Netherlands: Emerald. Kirschner, P., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. (2006). Why minimal guidance instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivists, discovery, problem-based, experimental, and inquirybased teaching. Educational Psychologist, 41, 75–86. Lehtinen, E., Hannula-Sormunene, M., McMullen, J., & Gruber, H. (2017). Cultivating mathematical skills: From drill-and-practice to deliberate practice. ZDM Mathematics Education, 49, 625–636. Meyer, A., Rose, D., & Gordon, D. (2014). Universal design for learning: Theory and practice. Wakefield, MA: CAST Professional. Nelson, A. (2014). Design and deliver: Planning and teaching using universal design for learning. Baltimore, MD: Paul H Brookes. NESA. (2019). Differentiated programming. Retrieved from http://www.educationstandards. nsw.edu.au/wps/portal/nesa/k-10/understanding-the-curriculum/programming/differentiatedprogramming. NSW Education Standards Authority. (2017). History K-10. https://syllabus.nesa.nsw.edu.au/hsie/ history-k10/outcomes/outcomes-detail/outcomes-content/117/. Powell, S., & Fuchs, L. (2018). Effective word-problem instruction: Using schemas to facilitate mathematic reasoning Teaching Exceptional Children. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 0040059918777250 Tomlinson, C. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed ability classrooms (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Tomlinson, C., & Moon, T. (2013). Assessment and student success in a differentiated classroom. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Wehmeyer, M. (2014). Disability in the 21st century: Seeking a future of equity and full participation. In M. Agran, F. Brown, C. Hughes, C. Quirk, & D. Ryndak (Eds.), Equity and full participation for individuals with severe disabilities: A vision for the future (pp. 3–23). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

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Additional Readings Coyne, P., Evans, M., & Karger, J. (2017). Use of UDL literacy environment by middle school students with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 55, 4–14. Ok, M., Roa, K., Bryant, B., & McDougall, D. (2017). Universal design for learning in pre-K to grade 12 classrooms: A systematic review of research. Exceptionality, 25, 116–138.

Web Resources Australian Curriculum: Diversity https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/resources/studentdiversity/. CAST http://www.cast.org. National Center for Universal Design for Learning http://www.udlcenter.org.

Chapter 6

Inclusive Instructional Practices

Principles and practices of inclusive education and special education Effective teaching practices to respond to the diversity of the classroom Behaviour support (whole-school and classroom)

Collaboration

Attitudes

David Evans

Transitions Linked scenaria: 1 (Max, Zeinab), 2 (Ms Marion McGregor), 3 (Craig) and 5 (Sarah)

Keywords Instruction · Adjustments · Assessment and evaluation Outcomes: After reading this chapter, you will be able to: • Illustrate through use of the literature, and own practice, examples of evidencebased practices. • Discuss the role of assessment and evaluation in deciding on effect of instruction on student learning. • Critically examine instructional adjustments in meeting the diverse needs of students.

Introduction In planning an education programme, the design and organisation of the content or curriculum is important. Careful consideration must also be given to how it will be implemented to assist all children and students to achieve the goals of the programme. Curriculum and instruction are interrelated, with one informing the other: © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 I. Spandagou et al., Inclusive Education in Schools and Early Childhood Settings, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-2541-4_6

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6 Inclusive Instructional Practices … most experts appear to agree with the following three premises: (a) curriculum and instruction are related but different; (b) curriculum and instruction are interlocked and interdependent; and (c) curriculum and instruction may be studied and analysed as separate, but they cannot function in isolation. (Lederman & Nies, 2001, p. 3)

This chapter will examine features of instruction that maximise the opportunities for all children and students to participate in learning to achieve curriculum and personal goals. The focus will be on those instructional practices that have been identified in the literature as “evidence-based”. The outline of differing practices (e.g. explicit and systematic instruction, graphic organisers, peer-assisted instruction, strategy instruction) will examine the versatility in which they can be used through focused discussion of the scenario. This discussion will also include how applying the principles of universal design for learning can assist meet a range of children and student needs and how educators can differentiate instruction to accommodate the diverse learning needs of all children and students. The concluding discussion will be about the effectiveness of instruction through the link to assessment and evaluation and how this informs how inclusive practices have been.

Inclusive Instructional Practices The educator is the most influential person in terms of children and students learning. Teachers who have a significant impact on their students’ learning have a deep understanding of their students’ interests, motivations, and the skills and knowledge they have acquired. These teachers are passionate yet considerate of their students (Hattie, 2012; Shaddock, 2012). The literature informs us about the elements of teacher instruction that have a positive impact on student learning, often referring to these practices as “evidence-based practices”. An evidence-based practice is defined “as an instructional strategy, intervention, or teaching programme demonstrating consistent positive results when tested by scientifically based research methods” (Gukert, Mastropieri, & Scruggs, 2016, p. 63). These practices have been shown to improve student outcomes across numerous studies, from differing backgrounds, and in differing locations and contexts. Much of this research has been undertaken outside of Australia, and as such research support for these practices within the Australian context is limited. The impact of these evidence-based practices on student learning is highly reliant on how they are implemented. The research that supports these practices has ensured a high degree of fidelity in their application, while achieving this fidelity within the natural educational context can be difficult to uphold. Teacher knowledge about the use of evidence-based practices in the classroom is vital to students achieving positive learning outcomes (Klingner, Boardman, & McMaster, 2013). In the hustle and bustle of the classroom, teachers may modify practices to an extent that they no longer represent the original practice. This failure to acknowledge the fidelity of implementation can impact student learning. Alternatively, teachers need to be aware that every student brings a diverse learning profile

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to an educational context; teachers need to have the professional knowledge about these practices and apply this “wisdom” to refine practices to meet the needs of the student (Gukert et al., 2016). Teachers need to know their students (Standard 1, AITSL, 2011) and use their professional wisdom in applying these evidence-based practices based on student learning, and environmental constraints and riches. At Fig Tree Road Public School, Ms. Marion McGregor is an experienced teacher. She has developed a substantial professional knowledge, especially in regard to working with students with English as an additional language. Marion is aware of the importance of language in her class, as students can be excluded from lessons when language used is unfamiliar. Hence, vocabulary instruction is a key practice within her class for all students. It allows her to focus on core words for the class (i.e., a universal strategy), as well as specific words for students with differing language strengths. Poorly implemented evidence-based practices, or practices implemented without strong understanding of students, can lead to practices excluding students from learning. In this sense, an evidence-based practice is only as good as it is implemented—at any point in time. Consider instructional practices you used, or observed, on your most recent professional experience. What is the evidence from your studies and professional reading that supports this practice? What information, evidence, or data was collected that allowed reflection on its effectiveness? Was it effective in supporting learning for all students? What evidence did you encounter that showed the practice may have excluded a student from learning?

Applying Education Practices Hattie (2013) has been influential within the Australian education context in highlighting instructional practices that have a strong, positive impact on student learning. This list of practices requires an understanding of the student, the curriculum content, and the practice. Just “using” one of the instructional strategies that Hattie highlights from his meta-analyses of research outcomes does not mean students will learn. The educator is key to the instructional impact. The following practices are ones that have been highlighted in the wider research as being impactful on student learning. They are but some of the practices that can be found within the work of Hattie and others (e.g. Marzano, 2018). A specific emphasis of these practices is that they have been shown to impact learning for students from diverse learning backgrounds, and students who can struggle within mainstream school contexts that pose potential barriers to learning.

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• “Listening” to children and students through ongoing formal and informal assessment. • In considering these practices, consider how we as educators play a central role in: Careful design and in ensuring children and students can access and participate in learning experiences. • Empowering children and students through developing success and independence • Considering the barriers that we as educators may pose in the design and delivery process. Systematic and explicit instruction. This practice is often associated with traditional “chalk and talk” teaching, teacher dominated teaching, or passive learning by students. The central role of the teacher is very important, and to this extent this portrayal of explicit and systematic instruction is appropriate. Systematic refers to the “attention paid to the detail of the teaching process” (Hempenstall, 2016, p. 11). The teacher understands the lesson content (i.e., formal and informal, academic, social) and how it is organised; they understand the knowledge student brings to the learning context; and they understand the learning history of their students. In being systematic, the teacher has the professional wisdom to make decisions; this could be in regard to a student response or action, type of feedback to provide, or the need to review and revise or move onto the next step in learning. This process is characterised as highly interactive, with the teacher and student/s exchanging ideas; these are exchanges that are undertaken at the individual student level. As such, the traditional view outlined above is in error. Explicit instruction “involves the teacher directly instructing the students in the content or skills to be learned, employing clear and unambiguous language” (Hempenstall, 2016, p. 31). Explicit instruction, sometimes aligned with direct teaching (Rosenshine & Stevens, 1986), involves explicit review of prerequisite knowledge, model of skill or content, guided practice, feedback, and systematic practice, and ongoing revision. The intensity and focus of this instructional process can be varied based on the needs of students. The use of systematic and explicit instruction is conditional on frequent teacher engagement with students. If teachers are to guide and scaffold student learning, they need to have engaged with the students to collect data on where their learning is at. In using this information (i.e., assessment data), they are providing feedback to students (another powerful instructional practice). If students are to maintain learning, they need to have the opportunity to practice or use their learning. When practice is scheduled as part of another part of the school day (i.e., cross-curriculum planning), this provides strong opportunities for learning to be maintained and/or generalised (Hughes & Lee, 2019). All of this requires the teacher’s orchestration, but it must involve active student participation. Peer-assisted learning. Peer assisted learning (PAL) has been used in many forms over the years. PAL is “a generic term for a group of strategies that involve the active

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and interactive mediation of learning through other learners who are not professional teachers” (Topping & Ehly, 2001, p. 113). PAL is the responsibility of the teacher, yet enacted by peers, and should benefit all involved. Over the years, peer tutoring is one of the most common forms of peer-assisted learning found in schools. Peer tutoring can involve same aged peers, cross-aged peers, or volunteers from within a school community. Peer tutoring is generally reported in the literature as an evidence-based practice (e.g. Alegre, Moliner, Maroto, & Lorenzo-Valentin, 2019) across differing academic areas (e.g. reading, mathematics). While peer tutoring is often seen as a skilled tutor working with a less skilled tutee, this does not have to be the case. Importantly, both members of the dyad should benefit from the experience. The tutee benefits from practising or engaging in a skill; the tutor in engaging in tutoring a peer strengthens their own learning. Peer-mediated instruction (PMI) involves peers modelling and providing instruction to develop a range of academic and social behaviours. The specific use of peers to deliver instruction in academic and social behaviours allows the natural context of the educational environment to be utilised to promote learning. The use of peers as instructors provides greater opportunities to strengthen social behaviours, for example, that cannot be achieved by a single teacher. MacFarland and Fisher (2019) illustrated that using PMI with another well supported instructional approach, videobased group instruction, could further enhance acquisition and maintenance of social behaviour for students with an autism diagnosis. At Happy Kids Preschool, peer-mediated LEGO interventions (Hu, Zheng, & Lee, 2018; Little & Evans, 2019) are used to promote social communication behaviours with Max within play-based contexts. This approach seeks to build Max’s social communication and language that had been delayed due to a hearing loss (Chap. 10). Max, who recently received a cochlear implant, engages in these opportunities with his peers, despite the ongoing issues with the electrostatic discharge that he sometimes experiences. The use of PMI can increase the intensity of interventions through use of multiple peers across a range of contexts (Watkins et al., 2015). Vocabulary instruction. Knowledge of vocabulary can be one of the most empowering skills within the classroom for children and students; it can also be one of the greatest barriers (see UDL Guideline 2.2: Clarify vocabulary and symbols). If you do not understand the meaning of words that are being used in an English class, like Sarah in Year 10, it prevents students from participating and engaging in learning activities. Promoting vocabulary for all students is one of the strongest instructional strategies for promoting literacy amongst adolescent learners (Kamil et al., 2008) and can be directly impacted by the planning and instructional approaches of the class teacher. Planning considerations within a learning environment can start with recognising the vocabulary that will be required by children and students to participate in learning. Beck, McKeown, and Kucan (2013) propose that teachers consider the vocabulary demands within instructional context within three tiers: Tier 1 Everyday words, ones that we might expect students to have acquired within everyday contexts (e.g. classroom conversations, home, community).

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Tier 2 High-frequency words that are used across differing curriculum domains. They are key to participating in classroom conversations and need to be understood across differing domains. Tier 3 Domain or subject specific words. Used in classroom conversations but also with texts. All children and students require access to vocabulary if they are to participate in learning. Providing multiple opportunities to engage with vocabulary with differing levels of support to learn and revise. Some key vocabulary will need to be explicitly taught; independent reading of texts helps build vocabulary knowledge; while ensuring content area materials provide access to word definitions (e.g. in context, glossaries, hyperlinks) on multiple occasions. Mr. David Flanagan, the English teacher at Blackwater Creek Secondary School, is acutely aware of the power of vocabulary. In his English and drama classes, he analyses the demands of the vocabulary and makes sure there are multiple supports for students (e.g. glossaries, electronic vocabulary networks apps [e.g. Visuwords]). Sarah comes to his classes with a limited vocabulary due to the impact of her hearing loss. While Mr. Flanagan uses these universal strategies to support Sarah, he also uses peer mediate support or buddy system, and an electronic pen that helps Sarah decode words and provide meaning at the point of decoding. Feedback. The work of John Hattie has highlighted the importance of feedback in learning across all contexts. Feedback is “conceptualized as information provided by an agent (e.g. teacher, peer, book, parent, self, experience) regarding aspects of one’s performance or understanding” (Hattie & Timperley, 2007, p. 81). This conceptualisation of feedback links in with the universal design for learning framework at differing levels. First, feedback can be provided in multiple representations (e.g. verbal, written, non-verbal, symbolic). Second, feedback can be provided by multiple persons or agents. Third, feedback can be provided directly and explicitly by the teacher or can be sought or developed by the students themselves (see Guideline 8.4: Provide mastery-orientated feedback.). In viewing feedback as part of the instructional process, it becomes a dynamic part of your teaching. Feedback requires you, the educator, to have a clear understanding of the learning goal (key feature of UDL framework). In an inclusive education environment this should be at the student level, with every student working towards goals that may be broadly similar, but different at the micro-level. The type, frequency, and focus of feedback will therefore be child or student specific. The staff at Happy Kids Preschool may support Zeinab work towards her learning goals when she is engaged in her passion—creative arts. They could provide information to her about the goal she is working towards (feed-up); they could provide her with information on how she is progressing towards her goal (feed-back); or staff could provide information on what she might do next (feed-forward). In achieving this level of feedback, educators are supporting Zeinab to move from where she is at, to new and desired levels of learning. Feedback is embedded with the instructional and learning process, and how it is used can have a powerful effect on individual child and student learning (Hattie & Timperley, 2007).

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Graphic organisers and visual supports. Observing, “seeing” and organising relationships between facts, concepts, and rules to develop understanding of content and knowledge can pose difficulties for many students. It is an important part of learning in any content area of context. Teachers often use systematic and explicit instruction to support students to make these links. Graphic organisers are one instructional approach that has been shown to support student learning, assisting them to locate links, relationships and networks between facts and concepts. Graphic organisers “are spatial arrangements of visual and verbal prompts that normally embed schemas associated with specific learning skills such as making comparisons, identifying sequences, categorizing elements and defining concepts” (Ponce, Mayer, Lopez, & Loyola, 2018, p. 974). While students may not locate or develop these relationships themselves, being let into the secret about these links provides students with opportunities to participate in classroom learning opportunities. Jitendra and colleagues (Jitendra, Harwell, Im, Karl, & Slater, 2018; Jitendra, Lein, Im, & Alghamdi, 2018) provide evidence of the power in using visual schema to support students in mathematics problem-solving. Like graphic organisers, they assist students in identifying relationships between parts of mathematics word problems. A key finding within these studies is that these strategies, applied with differing levels of scaffolding and explicit instruction and personal support, provide access to participating and learning for all students. At Clearview Secondary School, the learning support team met to plan and support Craig to achieve greater levels of academic outcome. Using his interest in rugby league, it is suggested that visual supports are used to promote links with technical language within rugby (e.g. matching visual representations with written words to support vocabulary development). Another idea the learning support team brainstormed was to consider using visual schemas to support Craig complete mathematics problems. The use of the schema was to be explicitly taught, with fading of support applied once Craig became confident in solving problems. The problem could use authentic examples from rugby, while using peer assistance to provide systematic feedback on how he is progressing with problems. Technology. Technology has promised much in relation to enhancing student learning, as seen in its use across the UDL framework (see Hall, Cohen, Vue, & Ganley, 2015, for strong use of technology within an education programme designing using the UDL framework.). It has opened up many opportunities for students to communicate, with the advent of differing augmentative devices that provide the unique opportunities for students to participate in learning with their peers (Chap. 10). The development of cochlear implants is another example of how advances in technology have provided persons with hearing impairments one way to participate with their hearing peers. The development of technology itself does not guarantee that students learning will be enhanced. The attitude of the educator towards the use of technology is important. Some teachers see it is “unfair” or giving students with disability an advantage if they have access to technology to support participation in learning or to complete a task. This idea that being able to complete a task “by oneself” without the aid of technology has been termed “naked independence” (Edyburn, 2006, p. 26).

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If you see technology as a tool that provides students the opportunity to participate in learning, then it can be of great benefit for all students (e.g. can all students have access to a spell checker; correct spelling still requires the learner to have knowledge of spelling). The manner in which technology is selected and/or used to enhance learning is key to the benefits that it can offer. The SETT framework (Zabala, 2019) was developed to support educators in the selection of assistive technology. The emphasis is on learning support teams collaborating to develop an understanding of students (e.g. involve the student in this collaboration), the environment they will be located, and what the children and students are required to do and learn so they can participate on the same basis as their peers. Selection and use of technology is based on the foundational understanding of the learning demands. Consider the instructional practices of graphic organisers and visuals, peermediated learning, and explicit and systematic instruction. Describe and discuss which UDL guidelines and checkpoints would employ and support the use of these strategies; give examples of how you would use them when planning using the UDL framework. Consider the three strategies again, but this time discuss how you might differentiate the use of these strategies. Does your differentiation of the strategy break the core features (and hence fidelity) of the strategy? Why? Why not?

Exclusionary Practices The role of instructional practices that maximises learning for children and students within education contexts have been widely promoted in the literature (e.g. Cook & Cook, 2016; Hattie, 2013). These practices are not a magic formula for supporting children and student learning; learning comes about through understanding the children and students in your classroom and having a clear idea of what children and students are to achieve. This learning will come from formal curriculum frameworks, informal experiences within the learning context, and from the personalised goals that are established with and for learners. Planning to implement effective instructional practices requires careful thought of the learner, their needs and the expertise you bring to the learning context. Implementing a practice because it is “evidence-based” without considering the learning environment can disable or exclude learners. The use of feedback in one context or with one child may result in enhanced or ongoing learning; the same form or type of feedback may well result in another student not seeking to participate in learning. Using language with one learner may exclude them from learning, while for another

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learner it draws them in and motivates their participation. Ongoing assessment, evaluation and reflection of the learning outcomes and context are important parts of all education contexts to ensure education practices have the impact envisaged.

Making Adjustments The Disability Discrimination Act 1992 (Commonwealth of Australia, 1992) through the Disability Standards for Education 2005 (Commonwealth of Australia, 2005) upholds the right of students with disability to participate in education programmes on the same basis as their peers without disability (see Chap. 1). Facilitating this participation is represented in the National Consistent Collection of Data (NCCD) (Australian Government, Department of Education and Training, n.d)., where teachers are required to make a professional judgement about the level of adjustment a student with a disability may require for them to participate on the same basis as their peers. The first level of the NCCD is quality differentiated teaching practice. Teachers will differentiate instruction to meet the individual needs of all students, at some point, within a learning activity. But not all students may have a disability; quality differentiated teaching practice is part of robust universal practice that aims to include all students. Differential is a foundational element of the Australian Professional Standards for Teaching (Standard 1.5; AITSL, 2011). Using evidence-based practices as part of making adjustments raises questions about how you maintain the fidelity of the practice (i.e., upholding the key features of the practice; Cook & Cook, 2016), while also meeting the unique needs of the student. The identification and use of an adjustment, following consultation with the student and their parents/carers, can be observed in classrooms and assessed and evaluated through the professional expertise of the teacher. This adjustment could be used occasionally (e.g. the use of technology to support vocabulary development), or more intensively (e.g. use of peer supports during classes). The key to using evidence-based practices is that teachers understand core features or principles of the evidence-based practice, and the learning goals students are working towards. In using peer-assisted learning strategies, for example, making sure that the peer is well supported in how to use the strategy, and when, is key. The Disability Standards for Education 2005 outlines the obligations that education providers have in place reasonable adjustments for students with a disability to participate in education programmes on the same basis as their peers.

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Identify and describe an instructional adjustment that you have observed being made within a classroom. Locate literature that underpins the evidence for this instructional adjustment. Outline the procedural fidelity for implementing this adjustment: to what extent was the adjustment implemented with fidelity? What is your evidence? What is the evidence for reflecting on the effectiveness of this adjustment in supporting the student? In what way did the educator use their professional wisdom to alter the implementation of the practice to meet the needs of the student/s? While extolling the benefits of evidence-based practices and their impact on student learning, teachers will often use instructional practice within their classrooms that may not fit the evidence-based practices criteria. Yet teachers are strong in their beliefs that these practices “work”, they support student learning. These practices are born out teacher’s professional wisdom. These practices are often seen as “experientially-based” practices (Chorzempa, Smith, & Sileo, 2019, p. 82), or promising practices. Promising practices are defined as “A programme or intervention which meets a set of criteria, which describes what works to improve the lives of individuals and which is sustainable or replicable in a specific context.” (Sammon, Jagmag, Martinez, & Wahyudi, 2017, p. 2). In these cases, teachers are encouraged to assess and evaluate the practice, share findings with colleagues, and work to establish an evidence-base for them. This process is also important when reporting as part of the Nationally Consistent Collection of Data. See the additional reading Torres, Farley, and Cook (2014) for an outline of how to develop this evidence-base.

Conclusion Any instructional strategy used in the classroom must be assessed and evaluated in regard to the learning goals set for students. If the learning goals are stated in an inclusive manner, this process should be relatively easy to undertake. Educators, however, are often challenged by the idea that children and students will demonstrate their learning in differing ways and at differing levels of mastery or complexity. This diversity in levels of achievement should be welcomed—the key issue is the learning that the child or student has been able to achieve. In looking at this learning, can you say that an evidence-based practice or instructional practice used has been able to contribute to the child’s or student’s learning? If not, is it a case that the evidencebased practice was not implemented with fidelity, or could it be that in this instance the evidence-based practice was not the best choice to support the learner’s learning.

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References Alegre, F., Moliner, L., Maroto, A., & Lorenzo-Valentin, G. (2019). Peer tutoring in mathematics in primary education: A systematic review. Educational Review, 71(6), 767–791. Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL). (2011). Australian professional standards for teachers. Carlton South, VIC: Education Council. Australian Government, Department of Education and Training. (n.d). Nationally consistent collection of data on school students with disability (NCCD). Retrieved from https://www.nccd. edu.au/. Commonwealth of Australia. (1992). Disability discrimination act 1992. Retrieved from http:// www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/dda1992264/. Commonwealth of Australia. (2005). Disability standards for education 2005. Plus Guidance Notes. Retrieved from https://docs.education.gov.au/node/16354. Edyburn, D. (2006). Assistive technology and mild disability. Special Education Technology Practice, 8(4), 18–28. Gukert, G., Mastropieri, M., & Scruggs, T. (2016). Personalising research: Special educators’ awareness of evidence-based practice. Exceptionality, 24, 63–78. Hall, T., Cohen, N., Vue, G., & Ganley, P. (2015). Addressing learning disabilities with UDL and technology: Strategic Reader. Journal of Learning Disability Quarterly, 38, 72–83. Hattie, J. (2012). What makes great teaching. Paper presented at the London Festival of Education, London, England. Hattie, J. (2013). Visible learning for teachers: Maximising impact on learning. Melbourne: Corwin. Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77, 81–112. Hempenstall, K. (2016). Read about it: Scientific evidence for effective teaching of reading. Sydney: Centre for Independent Studies. Hu, X., Zheng, Q., & Lee, G. (2018). Using peer-mediated LEGO play intervention to improve social interactions for Chinese children with autism in an inclusive setting. Journal of Autism and Development Disorders, 48, 2444–2457. Hughes, C., & Lee, J. (2019). Effective approaches for scheduling and formatting practice: Distributed, cumulative, and interleaved practice. Teaching Exceptional Children, 51, 411–423. Jitendra, A., Harwell, M., Im, S., Karl, S., & Slater, S. (2018). Using regression discontinuity to estimate the effects of a tier-1 research-based mathematics program in seventh grade. Exceptional Children, 85, 46–65. Jitendra, A., Lein, A., Im, S., Alghamdi, A., Hefte, S., & Mouanoutoua, J. (2018b). Mathematical interventions for secondary students with learning disabilities and mathematics difficulties: A meta-analysis. Exceptional Children, 84, 177–196. Kamil, M. L., Borman, G. D., Dole, J., Kral, C. C., Salinger, T., & Torgesen, J. (2008). Improving adolescent literacy: Effective classroom and intervention practices: A practice guide (NCEE #2008-4027). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from https://ies. ed.gov/ncee/wwc/Docs/PracticeGuide/adlit_pg_082608.pdf. Klingner, J., Boardman, A., & McMaster, K. (2013). What does it take to scale-up and sustain evidence-based practices? Exceptional Children, 79, 195–211. Lederman, N., & Nies, M. (2001). Editorial—curriculum and instruction: Whose life is this anyway? School Science and Mathematics, 101, 54–55. Little, C., & Evans, D. (2019). Using peer-mediated LEGO play to promote social communication in young students with autism. Peer refereed paper for International Association of Special Education Conference, Tanzania. MacFarland, M., & Fisher, M. (2019). Peer-mediated social skills generalization for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. Exceptionality. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 09362835.2019.1579722. Marzano, R. (2018). The new art and science of teaching. Bloomington, IN: ASCD/Solution Tree.

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Ponce, H., Mayer, R., Lopez, M., & Loyola, M. (2018). Adding interactive graphic organizers to a whole-class slideshow lesson. Instructional Science, 46, 973–988. Rosenshine, B., & Stevens, R. (1986). Teaching functions. In M. Witrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed., pp. 376–391). New York, NY: Macmillan. Sammon, E., Jagmag, M., Martinez, M., & Wahyudi, R. (2017). How do you know what’s good for me? An overview of promising practices in adolescent programming in Indonesia by UNICEF (and other partners). Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321420149_How_ do_you_know_what’s_good_for_me_An_Overview_of_Promising_Practices_in_Adolescent_ Programming_in_Indonesia_by_UNICEF_and_other_partners_Final_Report. Shaddock, A. (2012). Responding to diversity: Personal and professional sustainability. Paper presented at the Successful Learning Conference, Epping, Australia. Topping, K., & Ehly, S. (2001). Peer assisted learning: A framework for consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 12, 113–132. Watkins, L., O’Reilly, M., Kuhn, M., Gevarter, C., Lancioni, G., Sigafoos, J., et al. (2015). A review of peer-mediated social interaction interventions for students with autism in inclusive settings. Journal of Developmental Disorders, 45, 1070–1083. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/ s10803-014-2264-x. Zabala, J. (2019). SETT framework. Retrieved from https://assistedtechnology.weebly.com/settframework.html.

Additional Readings Chorzempa, B., Smith, M., & Sileo, J. (2019). Practice-based evidence: A model for heling educators make evidence-based decisions. Teacher Education and Special Education, 42, 82–92. Cook, B., & Cook, L. (2016). Leveraging evidence-based practice through partnerships based on practice-based evidence. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 14, 143–157. Torres, C., Farley, C., & Cook, B. (2014). A special educator’s guide to successfully implementing evidence-based practices. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 47(2), 85–93. https://doi.org/10. 1177/0040059914553209.

Chapter 7

Instructional Intensity

Principles and practices of inclusive education and special education Effective teaching practices to respond to the diversity of the classroom Behaviour support (whole-school and classroom)

Collaboration

Attitudes

David Evans

Transitions Linked scenaria: 1 (Max), 2 (Thuy) and 3 (Sarah)

Keywords Levels of support · Instructional intensity · Personalised support

Outcomes: After reading this chapter, you will be able to: • Record and interpret student’s data to make timely decisions about curriculum design and effect of instruction. • Collaborate and problem-solve to plan strategies that intensifies instruction to meet the needs of children and students. • Critically examine decision-making about the suitability of provisions to support children and students educational and personalised needs.

Introduction The right of all children and adolescents to an education has been outlined in Chap. 1 and supported internationally through the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (United Nations, 2006). Within Australia, the Disability Discrimination Act 1992 (Commonwealth of Australia, 1992) and the associated © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 I. Spandagou et al., Inclusive Education in Schools and Early Childhood Settings, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-2541-4_7

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Disability Standards for Education 2005 (Commonwealth of Australia, 2005) uphold the right of children and students to an education. Specifically, the Standards state that children and students have the right to participate in education programmes and learning activities on the same basis as their non-disabled peers. A key aspect of this legislation is that participation is more than being part of or located in a learning environment—it states that learning should be a key result of considering adjustments, support, curriculum, and programme design. Specifically, the standards state: “… students with disabilities [have] the right to participate in educational courses or programs that are designed to develop their skills, knowledge and understanding, including relevant supplementary programs, on the same basis as students without disabilities.” (p. 23). Learning is defined by Kirshner, Sweller, and Clarke (2006) as “a change in longterm memory” (p. 75). Within educational programmes, learning involves development of increasingly complex ideas embedded with the learning outcomes from the Belonging, Being & Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia (Australian Government Department of Education and Training, 2009), skills, knowledge, and understanding within the learning areas from the Australian Curriculum (ACARA, 2018). The following discussion is based on the belief that ‘all students can learn’. In considering this learning, it is important to celebrate the differing ways that children and students demonstrate this learning. In recognition of the diversity of ways that children and students represent their learning, our assessment of learning needs to be equally as sophisticated. It is this assessment that tells us the depth and extent of students’ learning. When our data indicate that learners are not achieving planned goals, or their progress in learning is not in line with our professional judgement, we need to make changes to our planning (Chap. 5) and differentiate our instruction (Chaps. 5 and 6) and sometimes draw on supports from the educational context. At Blackwater Creek Secondary School, Mr. David Flanagan is concerned about the challenges that written text poses for Sarah in Personal Development, Health and Physical Education (PDHPE). Mr. Flanagan knows from ongoing curriculum-based measures of class work that Sarah has difficulty understanding key vocabulary and reporting findings of her research. He has tried a number of strategies at the whole class level to support her learning with limited success (e.g. systematic teaching of key vocabulary, cooperative learning). He is now thinking about how he can draw on further school resources to support his teaching and enhance Sarah’s learning.

Assessment, Evaluation, and Instructional Intensity Every time we go into a classroom, or learning environment, we are collecting information about what is happening around us. This collection of information is part of assessment. What we decide to do with these data is our professional responsibility; much of it will be quickly processed, discarded, and/or integrated into decisions for maximising learning with little to no conscious thought.

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Other times, we are assessing children and students with a very clear goal in mind. That goal will often be one we or our learners have set for the lesson or learning activity, and the data or information we collect will allow us to make decisions. These decisions will be in regard to providing feedback to children and students, changing our instruction to further support learning or maybe to move children and students onto the next stage of the learning activity. These decisions are made on the basis of criteria or goals we have set; these decisions and judgements are part of evaluation. Educators are always making decisions about the learning that is occurring within education contexts. It is part of their professional persona. In catering for the needs of all children and students, these processes need to be focused, formative, and differentiated across the learners within their responsibility. It requires educators to know each learner; when children and students are not achieving goals or not progressing as expected, there is a need to reflect on our teaching and educational provisions. When children and students are not reaching milestones or educational goals, educational provisions need to be responsive, and in some instances, the intensity of provisions needs to be examined. Instructional intensity relates to supporting learners with ongoing and chronic difficulties in learning within existing provisions. Provision of this support is implemented when educators and educational providers identify through ongoing assessment and evaluation that a learner is not achieving learning goals (i.e. academic, social, behavioural). The nature of this intensity can vary at the setting or school, class, and individual level. This process is a key element of the Nationally Consistent Collection of Data process (Australian Government, 2018).

School-Based Support Many education sectors today support educators to cater for all children and students through tiered systems of support. In the literature, this is referred to as multi-tiered system of support (MTSS) that incorporates mechanisms such as response to intervention (RtI) and positive behaviour interventions and supports (PBIS; sometimes referred to a Positive Behaviour for Learning within the Australian context). Within this system of support, a key feature is the use of progress monitoring systems. These data are used to check student learning and progress and the impact and quality of instruction and processes. Key to a tiered system of support is that the whole group or class programme (i.e. tier 1) is strong and inclusive of all children and students. Tier 1 programmes are often characterised by how they uphold the principles of universal design for learning. These programmes are flexible in how they present learning materials, in how children and students demonstrate their learning, and the way they promote learning through building on student interests and motivations. Further, these programmes ensure that learners are supported with the mastery of long-term skills, knowledge, and values that promote lifelong learning (e.g. key literacy and numeracy skills, independent learning skills).

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Surrounding these whole of group programmes are processes that monitor the learning and progress of children and students. They monitor learners in regard to progress to key milestones or learning outcomes. In early years learning, young children are often monitored in regard to how they achieve motor, language, communication, and cognitive milestones (Greenwood et al., 2018). When children enter school, they could be monitored in regard to achieving literacy skills (e.g. phonemic awareness, letter-sound knowledge; Crone et al., 2018). Monitoring learning of children and students can be achieved in a number of ways with differing purposes. All Australian schools utilise the results from the National Assessment Programme: Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN). Traditionally, schools have utilised commercial tests (e.g. Progressive Achievement Tests, ACER, 2019; South Australian Spelling Test, Westwood, 2005; York Assessment of Reading Comprehension (Australian ed.), GL Assessments, 2012). These standardised, normreference assessments provide information on how students are performing in comparison with their peers. They can be administered on an infrequent basis and provide general diagnostic information. These assessments have limited fine-grained links to individual classroom programmes and limited sensitivity to individual gains over short period of time. As a result, their results do not provide teachers, educators, and families with timely information on the quality of their instruction. In response to these normative measures of achievement, researchers have developed measures that are more closely linked to the class or centre curriculum and can be attuned to the cultural and community context. These measures allow teachers to monitor the progress of each learner within the curriculum on general outcomes, as well as provide a gauge of how effective classroom instruction has been. These measures are known as curriculum-based measures (CBM; see Progress Monitoring resource). Reflect on your professional experience opportunities. To what extent did centres and schools collect ongoing data and information on the learning of their students? Describe these processes, the type of data collection, and the how they are used to support the learning of all children and students.

Class or Group Level Support While school-based support is important to meeting the needs of all learners, it is the teacher who is responsible for planning learning activities, implementing these plans, differentiating instruction, assessing, and evaluating learning. In learning contexts that can often have 25–35 individuals, managing the learning demands for all can be a difficult scenario for teachers. As learning environments become more diverse, these

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challenges become more acute. Yet they are also a time to celebrate the differing strengths, interests, and motivations of each individual learner. Twenty-seven students, with a range of learning needs, attend Ms. Sophie Kouka’s Year 7 mathematics class. Within this class, students demonstrate a wide range of strengths and areas of need. Ms. Kouka uses a range of strategies to differentiate instruction for all students in her class (e.g. scaffolding level of explicit instruction, providing differing levels of feedback). A number of students have been identified as requiring an adjustment, so they can access learning on the same basis as their peers. Working with Chris and his family to manage his diabetes, they propose that one of Chris’ best mates Nick will support him to enhance his skills of self-regulating and self-managing his diabetes. Ms. Kouka in consultation with Chris’ mother, task analysed the steps involved in measuring of Chris’ blood levels and self-regulating the use of the insulin. They devised a strategy that supported Chris to self-regulate his blood sugar levels at set times, away from his peers. They collaborated with Chris’ doctor to ensure this strategy was accurate and correctly sequenced. While Ms. Kouka initially needed to provide explicit instruction to Nick and supervise him closely in supporting Chris, she was able to fade this support. While Ms. Kouka collected data on how the pair monitored Chris’ blood sugar levels on a daily basis initially, she was again able to fade her involvement by getting the boys to collect these data. Over a six-week period, Ms. Kouka reduced the intensity of support needed for Chris to become independent in monitoring his blood levels while meeting a personalised goal for Chris. Ms. Kouka worked with Chris and his family to ensure this strategy was effective, and fidelity of implementation maintained. The example of Chris highlights the use of differing levels of intensity to support learning. In this case, the frequency and duration of support from Ms. Kouka and other persons were initially intensive. Using data collected on a daily basis, Ms. Kouka was able to fade the intensity of the support; in this case, as the boys showed high level of fidelity towards monitoring Chris’ sugar levels. While oversight of Chris was not eliminated, the success of this intervention was based on a number of evidencebased practices used with professional wisdom and integrity on Ms. Kouka’s part. Throughout, data were collected to ensure Chris was learning the skills accurately and proficiently. Moderating the intensity of instruction within academic areas can be seen in a similar manner. A key component of instruction that is inclusive is that we plan instruction that addresses the needs of all children and students. Using the principles of universal design for learning, for example, we consider the interests and motivations of students, the multiple ways of representing content and learning, and the multiple ways that students can represent their learning. As we come to know and understand each learner, the specificity of instruction can be tailored even further through differentiated instruction. Instruction can be intensified based on the needs of the learner and the decisions made in regard to learning goals.

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Ms. Fatma Mahmoud at Happy Kids Preschool knows that Zeinab has a talent with creative arts. Using creative arts as part of learning activities within the preschool, she can guide Zeinab and her peers in sharing ideas, initiating requests, and making comment about their art. Using this learning activity, Ms. Mahmoud collects data on the quality and quantity of exchanges between learners and makes instructional decisions about how to promote and enhance Zeinab’s language. She can also liaise with her co-workers about the outcomes of these activities so that they may pick on Zeinab’s interests and passions for the day. Differing evidence-based instructional strategies can also be used differentially to intensify instruction within learning environments based on data collected about learner’s progress towards goals. Use of feedback could be distributed more frequently to a learner who is just acquiring a skill (i.e. differentiated instruction), guiding them to complete the skill correctly across differing examples, contexts, and subject areas. A teacher could use technology within the classroom to provide a student the opportunity to practice differing skills that need to be learned to a level of proficiency. Finally, a teacher could provide guidance for students to regulate their own learning through differing assessment and evaluation strategies that will allow them to provide self-feedback on their own learning. Throughout these instructional opportunities, the teacher is continuously assessing and evaluating student learning. These assessments can be quite informal (e.g. anecdotal notations, self-report) as well as formalised short duration probes, observations, or assessments. A common practice involves assessing student learning against programme skills and content using curriculum-based assessments. Curriculumbased assessments are short duration measures, assessing the specific skills and knowledge being promoted within a learning context/s. This assessment is finegrained, looking at the levels of prompts required by a learner to complete a task, or the number of steps completed independently, or the number of corrections that a learner makes in working out a response, or the contexts in which the skill is being used. Again, this type of assessment can be formalised in a way that suits the learner, the task being addressed in a learning activity, while also being reliable and valid in its purpose. These fine-grained assessments can be used to modify, differentiate, or renew instruction. If a learner is found to be struggling with acquiring a skill or strategy or is having difficultly applying a problem-solving strategy they have demonstrated in another context, then the teacher, learning support officer, or peer tutor can prompt or review the strategy. In other circumstances, the instructor can consider alternate ways in which the goal can be achieved. In terms of instructional intensity, this decision-making is dependent on the instructor knowing the student, being clear on what they are wanting the learner or learners to achieve, and being forever alert on the opportunities for the learner to use and demonstrate their learning and strengths (Evans, 2017). Ms. Fatma Mahmoud, for example, is using creative arts to promote social initiation skills for Zeinab. It will be important for Ms. Mahmoud to promote the use of these skills across other parts of the programme. Initially, this will need to be explicitly planned for, implemented and monitored; as progress monitoring data provide insight into the development of these social skills, the intensity of

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implementation can be altered (e.g. reduce the focus as Zeinab is using skills in other contexts or intensifying instruction to assist, develop, and generalise the skills). In this latter case, Ms. Mahmoud may need to intensify instruction to a level that is more personalised and formal. Consider classroom assessment you have observed in classes and learning centre. How did the implementation of these assessments vary across the instructional group? Outline to what extent the assessments provide evidence for the teacher about student learning. Problem-solve with a peer about how these assessments could be altered to include all students.

Personalised Support Within whole class planning, learners will demonstrate differing levels of achievement. Teachers will use their in-depth understanding of all learners to plan learning experiences that utilise inclusive practices and monitor learning from an individualised perspective. In the Australian context, this approach is underpinned by the principles of personalised learning (Australian Government, 2015). These principles comprise • Quality teaching and learning • Consultation • Collaborative practice and planning. Thuy is newly enroled at Fig Tree Road Public School. Due to her unique needs related to her vision and English learning, the school in collaboration with Thuy’s parents has established a personalised learning plan. This plan sets out specific goals that Thuy will achieve as a result of her education programme that is also supported through additional resources. The school’s learning support team will monitor progress towards her goals, adjusting the use of resources, and the itinerant support teacher and teaching assistant utilised to support Thuy and her teacher (Chap. 8). Thuy’s unique needs in terms of her vision impairment should not cover-up or hide the many strengths she demonstrates within the classroom and interests that she brings from beyond the formal learning context. This is an important part of developing a personalised learning plan and key attribute of the principle of engagement within the UDL framework. Another feature of the process undertaken in Fig Tree Road Public School is that the learning support team consulted with Thuy’s parents, hopefully Thuy herself, and the expertise of the itinerant vision teacher. Finally, the learning support team supports the class teacher in monitoring Thuy’s progress towards specific learning goals set out in the personalised learning plan.

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This level of planning, consultation, implementation, and monitoring is part of the key steps within personalised learning process (Australian Government, 2015). It also allows the school to identify Thuy within the Australian Government’s Nationally Consistent Collection of Data (NCCD) process (Australian Government, 2018). The NCCD allows schooling sectors and schools to intensify educational programmes through the adjustments that they implement for students with a disability as defined by the Disability Discrimination Act (Commonwealth of Australia, 1992). This process requires schools to demonstrate over at least a ten-week period the implementation of an adjustment and its impact. The strategy to support Thuy, implemented over the last ten weeks, would meet this requirement and allows for greater intensity in the implementation of the instruction for Thuy in areas of need. Working with a peer, brainstorm examples of how educators intensify instructional programmes. What is the evidence-base for these examples? What evidence is collected to evaluate the impact on children and student learning? How often? Work together to consider other ways that you may be able to achieve a similar outcome—within the core education programme.

Threats to Intensifying Instruction Attempts to intensify instruction have implications for whole of school efforts and the professional knowledge and wisdom of the class teacher. The use of a tiered support system within the school (e.g. Multi-Tiers Systems of Support) requires a school or centre to have a “unified vision” that the needs of all learners can be met (Hoppey & McLeskey, 2014, p. 20). Schools, centres, their educators, and communities need to be problem-solving organisations that are open to differing ideas while also being informed and critical consumers of these ideas. This requires a monitoring system that provides data on progress in learning and the professional willingness to change approaches on the basis that learners are not progressing in the direction and/or the level we are expecting. Threats to intensifying instruction come from differing sources. Teacher professional knowledge is key to the implementation of all education programmes. As students’ needs change and students in classroom change, teacher professional knowledge will always be challenged. Keeping abreast of professional literature is key to all teachers; in some cases, teachers will need specific professional support to acquire specific professional knowledge (e.g. understanding of hearing impairment). This professional knowledge is not needed by all teachers, and at the point of need, support allows for teachers to ground this knowledge in the context of their class or centre.

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Fuchs and Fuchs (2015) highlighted how teachers utilise small group work and duration of instruction students receive, as being key to optimising intensity of instruction. While small group work has been common place in differing learning contexts, its use if not designed carefully can pose barriers to optimal student learning. Threats that need to be considered include the makeup of the group (e.g. students with similar skill levels); size of the group (e.g. groups of 3–4 can achieve the same as one-on-one instruction); who is instructing the group (e.g. teacher, peers, teaching assistant, volunteer); and flexibility of the group (e.g. setting clear goals so students can graduate to another group). Finally, learning within small groups needs to be monitored, and timely decisions made to ensure all students are benefiting. The intensity of instruction can be impacted by how often and how long sessions are conducted. In the case of supporting learning of complex skills like reading, sessions should be scheduled regularly and for sustained periods of time. On the other hand, if you are wanting students to use and practice skills, ensuring they are incorporated into other learning opportunities can assist in learners firming the skill in long-term memory while also using naturally occurring contexts to prompt and strengthen learning (Morano, 2019).

Conclusion Intensifying instruction can be achieved in any learning environment—formal or informal. In intensifying instruction, there needs to be a clear goal to achieve with a well-structured plan to achieving this goal. Like any educational undertaking, these efforts need to be assessed and evaluated. With intensifying instruction, assessment and evaluation should be undertaken on a regular basis with timely decisions made about the impact on student learning. It is through this problem-solving approach that educators, administrators, children and students, and their families can benefit.

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References ACER. (2019). Progressive achievement tests. Melbourne: Australian Council for Educational Research. Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA). (2018). Australian curriculum. Retrieved from https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au. Australian Government Department of Education and Training. (2009). Belonging, being & becoming: The early years learning framework for Australia. Retrieved from https://docs.education.gov. au/documents/belonging-being-becoming-early-years-learning-framework-australia. Australian Government. (2015). Planning for personalised learning and support: A national resource. Retrieved from https://docs.education.gov.au/system/files/doc/other/ planningforpersonalisedlearningandsupportnationalresource.pdf. Australian Government. (2018). Nationally consistent collection of data. Retrieved from http:// www.schooldisabilitydatapl.edu.au. Commonwealth of Australia. (1992). Disability discrimination act. Retrieved from https://www. legislation.gov.au/Details/C2018C00125. Commonwealth of Australia. (2005). Disability standards for education. Retrieved from https:// www.legislation.gov.au/Details/F2005L00767. Crone, D., Stoolmiller, M., Baker, S., Fien, H., Turtura, J., Strand Cary, M., et al. (2018). Addressing the practice-to-research gap: A rigorous evaluation of local education agency-based interventions for struggling readers in sixth grade. Assessment for Effective Intervention. https://doi.org/10. 1177/1534508418756730. Evans, D. (2017). Examining the literacy within numeracy to provide access to the curriculum for all. In M. Milton (Ed.), Inclusive principles and practices in literacy education (pp. 35–52). Netherlands: Emerald. Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. (2015). Rethinking service delivery for students with significant learning problems: Developing and implementing intensive instruction. Remedial and Special Education, 36, 105–111. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741932514558337. GL Assessments. (2012). York assessment of reading comprehension (Australian ed.). Brentford, UK: Author. Greenwood, C., Walker, D., Buzhardt, J., Irvnin, D., Schnitz, A., & Jia, F. (2018). Update on the EMI for infants and toddlers. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 38, 105–117. https:// doi.org/10.1177/0271121418777290. Hoppey, D., & McLeskey, J. (2014). What are qualities of effective inclusive schools? In J. McLeskey, N. Waldron, F. Spooner, & B. Algozzine (Eds.), Handbook of effective inclusive schools: Research and practice (pp. 17–29). New York: Routledge. Kirshner, P. A., Sweller, J., & Clarke, R. E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologists, 41, 75–86. Morano, S. (2019). Retrieval practice for retention and transfer. Teaching Exceptional Children, 51, 436–444. United Nations. (2006). Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/convention-on-the-rights-of-persons-withdisabilities.html. Westwood, P. (2005). Spelling: Approaches to teaching and assessment (2nd ed.). Melbourne: Australian Council for Educational Research.

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Additional Readings Bresina, B., Baker, K., Donegan, R., & Whaley, V. (2018). Practice guide: Applying response to intervention for secondary students who struggle with reading comprehension. Washington, DC: US Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs. Retrieved from http://nclii.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Applying-RTI-for-Secondary-Students-WhoStruggle-With-Reading-Comprehension.pdf. Powell, S., & Stecker, P. (2014). Using data-based individualization to intensify mathematics intervention for students with disabilities. Teaching Exceptional Children, 46(4), 31–37. https://doi. org/10.1177/0040059914523735. Toste, J., Williams, K., & Capin, P. (2016). Reading big words: Instructional practices to promote multisyllabic word reading fluency. Intervention in School and Clinic, 52, 270–278. https://doi. org/10.1177/10533451216676797.

Resource Progress Monitoring: https://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/gpm/#content.

Part III

Promoting Positive Interactions and Relationships

Chapter 8

Collaboration

Principles and practices of inclusive education and special education Effective teaching practices to respond to the diversity of the classroom Behaviour support (whole-school and classroom)

Collaboration

Attitudes

Cathy Little

Transitions Linked scenaria: 2 (Thuy), 3 (Owen) and 5 (Mark) Keywords Collaboration · Teamwork · Consultation · Transdisciplinary · Multidisciplinary · Collaborative teams

Outcomes: After reading this chapter, students will be able to: • Define collaboration and consultation. • Recognise and describe their membership in both personal and professional collaborative teams. • Explain the models of team development. • Document the benefits and challenges associated with collaboration.

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 I. Spandagou et al., Inclusive Education in Schools and Early Childhood Settings, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-2541-4_8

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Introduction The African proverb, “It takes a village to raise a child” is the quintessential descriptor of collaboration. The proverb, in its most literal sense, describes how a community of people from diverse backgrounds, each with a unique set of skills, interacts together to create an environment in which a child can grow and develop. The village works together as a support for the child, united for the journey of life that lies ahead. Teaching is a shared endeavour. Teachers and educators do not work in isolation. Thus, when we talk about collaboration, one must consider the following questions. What is collaboration? Why do we collaborate and whom do we collaborate with? How and when do we collaborate? The following chapter will respond to each of these questions, using examples from educational settings to illustrate the collaborative process.

Collaboration Versus Consultation (What) Collaboration is a central pillar of the educational experience. It is a concept commonly used in education, often referred to in conjunction with words like partnership and teamwork. But what exactly is meant by the term collaboration. More specifically, what does collaboration look like for teachers in classrooms today? Collaboration can be defined in a number of ways. The Cambridge Dictionary defines collaboration as “the situation of two or more people working together to create or achieve the same thing” (Cambridge Dictionary). Yet, this simple definition only hints at the complexity involved in collaboration and the subtleties that lie beneath the concept. Friend and Cook (2013) describe collaboration as a process based upon a number of factors. Collaboration, they argue, is an equal relationship in which mutual trust and open communication exist; it is a joint approach to identifying common goals; it involves sharing resources to identify and select strategies to achieve the goal; and it is premised on the sharing of responsibility in the implementation and evaluation of the programme or strategy. Consultation, on the other hand, they define as an action or process of formally consulting or discussing with an expert, in order to seek advice. Dettmer, Thurston, Knackendoffel, and Dyck (2012) describe consultation as, “Advisement, counsel, conference, or formal deliberation to provide direct services to students, or work with educators to serve students’ needs” (p. 8). When combined, these two actions form a process termed collaborative consultation. Think of a collaborative/consultative activity you have recently been involved in. What made it collaborative/consultative? What was the purpose of the collaboration/consultation? Was it successful or unsuccessful? Why or why not?

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The collaborative process plays a fundamental role in the support of students. In order for children and students with a range of needs to access and participate in a relevant and meaningful educational experience, collaborative consultation must take place. This requires educators to collaborate with a range of people, including the student, their family, other staff, and associated professionals such as medical personnel or therapists. For example, in Scenario 5, we meet Mark, a 16-year-old student who lives with epilepsy. As a result of recent seizures, Mark has withdrawn from secondary school participation and is finding it difficult to concentrate in class. His teacher, Mr. David Flanagan, is concerned about Mark and believes that Mark was embarrassed of having seizures in front of his peers and his withdrawal is a way of trying to prevent it from happening again. Mr. Flanagan has worked at the school for eight years and knows the students and the community well. He is a committed teacher who believes in getting to know his students and their families. As such, Mr. Flanagan already shows a number of elements of collaborative practice. Yet in order to strengthen Mark’s engagement in class, his inclusion in activities with his peers and in learning, and to support Mark’s chronic health needs, Mr. Flanagan needs to utilise the skills of a number of other professionals through collaborative consultations with members of his school and wider community.

Personal and Professional Collaborative Teams (Who) We have noted that collaboration is often referred to in conjunction with teamwork. Teamwork involves a group of people, with a shared focus, working together towards a common goal. Each of us, at any one time, is a member of a number of teams. These teams may be personal, such as a walking group or a weekend cycle group, or professional, such as a study group or workplace committee. We form teams because we are attracted to sharing our interest with like-minded others, both in work and leisure. But simply having a shared interest or vision does not equate to a collaborative team. Teamwork is an intricate balance of technical, personal, and collaborative skills. Successful teams illustrate particular characteristics. Participation is voluntary, in that members are part of the team because they want to be, not because they have to be. Effective teams value the unique skills and contributions of individual members, with participants having a clear understanding of their role in, and expected contribution to, the collaborative endeavour. Make a list of teams that you currently belong to? Examples may be a sporting team, a reading group, an art class, a professional organisation, or network. Which of these teams are part of your personal life and which are part of your professional life? What is your role within each team? Think about your

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relationships with other members in these teams. Does the relationship change between personal and professional teams? Why?

The Formation of a School-Based “Team” (How/When) The collaboration between a range of participants within educational communities is critical to the development and facilitation of inclusive opportunities for students with identified needs (Little, 2017). Research documents three models for team formation and development; multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary, and transdisciplinary teams (Friend & Cook, 2013). Each model subscribes to a different philosophy of team interaction and service delivery, and each values the roles of team participants in diverse ways. In any given scenario, each model presents with a range of advantages and disadvantages. A multidisciplinary team is one where professionals from various disciplines work in isolation from one another as they evaluate students and provide services. Team members recognise the importance of contributions from several disciplines; however, assessment, planning, and service delivery are undertaken only within each discipline. This separation by role does not foster collaboration as the child is supported through several discrete viewpoints with no sharing of information taking place. Without collaboration, teams can often provide conflicting recommendations for the child, and parents are left to coordinate a myriad of individualised, often un-cohesive services. An interdisciplinary team provides a formal structure allowing interaction and communication amongst team members. The team meets regularly for case conferences and consultations, with each professional performing their own assessment and sharing their results. Decisions are then made as a group. Planning is collaborative, yet the implementation can be isolated. Team members implement parts of the plan only for which their disciplines are responsible. A significant disadvantage of the interdisciplinary team is the lack of strong, effective leadership as a result of the varying orientations of team members. This can result in disjointed outcomes for students and little engagement with families who may not be considered team members. The third model of teamwork is the transdisciplinary team, a team in which members across a range of disciplines commit to teach, learn, and work across disciplinary boundaries to plan and provide integrated services (Garland, McGonigel, Frank, & Buck, 1989). All members help plan and monitor service delivery, learning from, and teaching each other. Working with a designated team coordinator, families determine their own roles and decide their level of involvement. The transdisciplinary team is often referred to as an integrated therapy model as services within and across education, teachers, and therapists work together with families and children and students

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to provide a holistic approach to planning, assessment, and service delivery, where responsibility and accountability are shared amongst all team members. What models do you think would be most commonly used in school settings? Think of an example for each of the three models and write down why that particular model would be most appropriate for the situation. In schools and early childhood settings, there exists a designated team responsible for programmes that support student learning and behaviour. In schools, this team is known as the learning and support team (LST). In early childhood services, this team is often called the early learning and support team (ELST). Different education sectors may refer to this group using different terms, but essentially their role remains the same. The collaborative team is a group of professionals and parents or carers whose role is to assist teachers to plan class programmes to meet the specific learning needs of all children and students, including those who experience difficulties in learning (DeVore, Miolo, & Hader, 2011). The collaborative team coordinates the development, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of learning support plans. The collaborative role of such teams ensures the on-going review and assessment of student needs. Members on school collaborative teams will assist classroom teachers in determining and adjusting levels of support based on the current needs of students, in accordance with the requirements of the Nationally Consistent Collection of Data (NCCD) (see Chap. 5). An example of how a school’s collaborative team operates can be seen in Scenario 2. In this scenario, we meet Thuy, a seven-year-old girl who is blind. Thuy speaks Vietnamese at home where she lives with her parents and her grandmother. Thuy is a confident student who can navigate her way around her classroom and familiar parts of the school with ease. Thuy’s vision support needs require the involvement of a range of personnel, both school-based and medical, to facilitate her active participation in learning. In school, she accesses weekly support from a vision support specialist and in-class assistance from a teaching assistant or paraprofessional. The in-class assistance is overseen by Ms. Marion MacGregor, the class teacher, who works collaboratively with the teaching assistant in the implementation of strategies that facilitate Thuy’s learning (Radford, Bosanquet, Webster, & Blatchford, 2015). Together with Thuy and her family, the school’s collaborative team have outlined a number of specific goals for her that incorporate academic, social, communication, mobility, and independent living skills. In order for these goals to be realised, Thuy’s collaborative team will include but not limited to: Thuy, her family, her class teacher, vision support specialist, ICT teacher, translator for Thuy’s family, school counsellor, Thuy’s doctor, and/or paediatrician. As assessments and plans are made, various members of the collaborative team may come and go as required. Not all members may attend all meetings but will be called upon as needed.

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The Benefits and Challenges Associated with Collaboration (Why) Now, we know what collaboration is, the ways we come together to collaborate and who may be involved in the collaborative process, we need to explore the “why” of collaboration. Why do we collaborate? Collaboration may be used in schools and services for a number of reasons. Firstly, collaborative may serve as a preventative strategy, to prevent learning problems and behaviour problems from occurring. We saw in Scenario 2 that Thuy had a familycentred early intervention programme developed soon after her diagnosis of blindness shortly after birth. As time moved closer to her beginning school, part of this plan included targeted collaboration between a range of service professionals from varying disciplines (e.g. early intervention, class teacher, vision support specialist). This early collaborative planning ensured a smooth transition to school for Thuy and supported her inclusion in the educational environment. Secondly, collaborations can occur to support in the remediation of learning problems and behaviour problems as they arise. Collaborative teams ensure early identification of “at risk” students allowing remediation to begin quickly. An illustration of the remedial collaborative process can be seen in Scenario 3. Here, we meet Owen, an 11-year-old student with severe asthma. In the previous year, Owen had an asthma attack which forced the school to develop an emergency management plan in case of future incidents. The nature of Owen’s chronic health condition and the subsequent development of the plan required investment and expertise by a range of personnel and required support at a whole school level. When do teachers and professionals find time to collaborate? Educators are notoriously time-poor. Thus, participants will want to know why they should be involved in a collaborative team. There are a number of documented benefits associated with collaboration. Teachers working collaboratively can improve existing programmes, improve their practice, enhance communication between families, students, administrators, and other teachers and professionals, eliminate feelings of isolation, and enhance team accountability for all students. (Hamilton-Jones & Vail, 2013; Pugach & Johnson, 2002; Thousand, Villa, & Nevin, 2006; Williamson & McLeskey, 2011). Yet, there exist a number of barriers to the collaborative process. Barriers may be practical, conceptual, or ideological (Montgomery & Mirenda, 2014). Practical barriers to collaboration can include a lack of clarity about roles; a perceived lack of time or opportunity to meet; and poor communication skills. Examples of conceptual barriers may include conflict between team members in the approaches to decision-making; the hierarchical relationships in schools, with some participants feeling intimidated by more senior members of school staff; cultural differences in the approach to collaborative process. For example, do you know who makes the decisions in the family and have you approached the right person? What is the appropriate address for family members when they come to the school for a meeting? Do you need a translator or advocate to support the family? Overcoming barriers is critical to the success of the collaborative process.

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The Disability Standards for Education (2005) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2005) mandate consultation between staff and the student/family before any adjustments to the student’s learning are made (Chap. 3). Yet, oftentimes parents are perceived as barriers to the collaborative process. Teachers often report the challenges of getting parents to attend planning meetings, often assuming parents lack of interest with involvement in their child’s education and school activities (Staples & Diliberto, 2010). However, it is important to consider that for many parents, the primary reason they had been invited to the school or centre previously was because their child had done something wrong. Parents might therefore feel uneasy about attending another meeting to discuss their child, fearful that once again they will be on the receiving end of bad news. Thus, it is important for the school to build a rapport with parents and families. Perhaps consider how you could establish a trusting relationship with families. One suggestion could be to contact parents throughout the day to simply tell them their child is having a great day! From your experience, what are some of the factors that may impact effective collaboration with families?

Conclusion Educators must take the time to communicate with families on a regular basis, sharing in the positive behaviours and successes of their child, however small. “Studies have demonstrated consistently that school, principal, and teacher practices are more important than parent characteristics (e.g. poverty level, minority status, education level) in getting families involved at school and in influencing levels of family– school contact” (Fantuzzo, Perry, & Childs, 2006, p. 144). It is critical that schools and services building trusting relationships with families, actively demonstrating the valuable contribution that parents and carers make to their child’s growth and development. Remember, it takes a village!

References Collaboration. (n.d.). In Cambridge Dictionary Online. Retrieved from https://dictionary. cambridge.org/dictionary/english/collaboration. Commonwealth of Australia. (2005). In Disability standards for education 2005. Plus Guidance Notes. Retrieved from https://docs.education.gov.au/node/16354. Dettmer, P., Thurston, L. P., Knackendoffel, A., & Dyck, N. (2012). Collaboration, consultation and teamwork for students with special needs. Boston, MA: Pearson. DeVore, S., Miolo, G., & Hader, J. (2011). Individualizing inclusion for preschool children using collaborative consultation. Young Exceptional Children, 14(4), 31–43.

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Fantuzzo, J., Perry, M., & Childs, S. (2006). Parent satisfaction with educational experiences scale: A multivariate examination of parent satisfaction with early childhood education programs. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 21, 142–152. Friend, M., & Cook, L. (2013). Interactions: Collaboration skills for school professionals (7th ed.). Boston: Pearson. Garland, C. G., McGonigel, J. J., Frank, A., & Buck, D. (1989). The transdisciplinary model of service delivery. Lightfoot, VA: Child Development Resources. Hamilton-Jones, B., & Vail, C. O. (2013). Preparing special educators for collaboration in the classroom: Pre-service teachers’ beliefs and perspectives. International Journal of Special Education, 28(1), 56–68. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1013700.pdf. Little, C. (2017). The role of school communities in facilitating social inclusion. In Cathy Little (Ed.), Supporting social inclusion for students with autism spectrum disorders: Insights from research and practice (pp. 117–130). Abingdon: Routledge. Montgomery, A., & Mirenda, P. (2014). Teachers’ self-efficacy, sentiments, attitudes, and concerns about the inclusion of students with developmental disabilities. Exceptionality Education International, 24(1), 18–32. Pugach, M., & Johnson, L. (2002). Collaboration as classroom and schoolwide problem solving. Collaborative practitioners: Collaborative schools (2nd ed., pp. 116–152). Love: Denver, CO. Radford, J., Bosanquet, P., Webster, R., & Blatchford, P. (2015). Scaffolding learning for independence: Clarifying teacher and teaching assistant roles for children with special educational needs. Learning and Instruction, 36, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2014.10.005. Staples, K. E., & Diliberto, J. A. (2010). Guidelines for successful parent involvement: Working with parents of students with disabilities. Teaching Exceptional Children, 42(6), 58–63. Thousand, J. S., Villa, R. A., & Nevin, A. I. (2006). The many faces of collaborative planning and teaching. Theory into Practice, 45(3), 239–248.

Additional Readings Australian Government, Department of Education and Training. (n.d). Nationally consistent collection of data on school students with disability (NCCD). Retrieved from https://www.nccd. edu.au/. Edwards, C. C., & Da Fonte, A. (2012). The 5-point plan: Fostering successful partnerships with families of students with disabilities. Teaching Exceptional Children, 44(3), 6–13. Snell, M. E., & Janney, R. (2005). Teachers’ guides to inclusive practices: Collaborative teaming. Baltimore, MA: Paul. H. Brookes Publishing Co. Williamson, P., & McLeskey, J. (2011). An investigation into the nature of inclusion problemsolving teams. The Teacher Educator, 46(4), 316–334. https://doi.org/10.1080/08878730.2011. 604399.

Chapter 9

Principles of Behaviour Support

Principles and practices of inclusive education and special education Effective teaching practices to respond to the diversity of the classroom Behaviour support (whole-school and classroom)

Collaboration

Attitudes

Cathy Little

Transitions Linked scenaria: 2 (Jack) and 4 (Craig)

Keywords Behaviour · Support · School-wide · Positive behaviour support · Functional assessment · Classroom behaviour support

Outcomes: After reading this chapter, you will be able to: • Define behaviour and what constitutes “challenging”. • Describe the functions of behaviour and identify the steps in completing a functional assessment. • Document the processes involved in school-wide systems of support.

Introduction Student behaviour has been identified as a major concern of teachers today. Many teachers claim to feeling unprepared for the challenges posed by the adverse demands of student behaviour and express concern at the loss of instructional time, potential negative impact on other students, and perceived lack of authority and expertise that result from time spent dealing with students’ challenging behaviour. Teachers © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 I. Spandagou et al., Inclusive Education in Schools and Early Childhood Settings, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-2541-4_9

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cite dealing with student problem behaviour as a key reason for leaving the profession (Butler & Monda-Amaya, 2016). Pre-service teachers also claim to feeling particularly ill-prepared for responding to the unforeseen challenges posed by students in classrooms across the country. This chapter will respond to the concerns raised through a discussion of what is behaviour, why some behaviours are perceived as challenging, and it will provide examples of school-wide, proactive strategies for teachers that can be utilised to identify and respond to perceived behavioural challenges. One may ask, why the focus on behaviour? Firstly, as teachers, not only do we have a legal and moral obligation to support student learning, we also have a professional responsibility to provide a safe and supportive learning environment for all students. In order to show compliance with the Australian Professional Standard for Teachers (AITSL, 2011), No. 4, Create and maintain supportive and safe learning environments, teachers are required to demonstrate management of challenging behaviour, within the confines of classroom activities, while maintaining student safety and supporting student participation. For many teachers, even those with years of experience, this can be a seemingly daunting and oftentimes insurmountable task. Many teachers claim to not have the skills or the knowledge to respond appropriately or effectively to the behaviours of their students. As such, students become labelled as “difficult to teach” or “problem students”, are perceived as less interested in learning, and are held accountable to lower expectations. A second motivation for the focus on behaviour has been the recent attention given to behaviour management in schools and the subsequent need to better equip preservice teachers in their support of student behaviour. The 2017 NSW Ombudsman’s Inquiry into Behaviour Management in Schools (NSW Ombudsman) and the Report of the Expert Panel on Students with Complex Needs and Challenging Behaviour (Shaddock, Packer, & Roy, 2015) have both drawn national attention to the need to review policy and practice for staff in the area of behaviour support in educational settings. Make a list of strategies you currently use when responding to students behaviour. Be sure to include responses to expected behaviours as well as those that are unexpected and more challenging to deal with. Are these strategies effective? How do you know?

What Is Behaviour? Behaviour is defined as “The way in which one acts or conducts oneself, especially towards others” (Oxford Dictionary online). Behaviour can be classified into types. Externalising behaviour is behaviour we can see and appears to be directed outward

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towards others and/or the environment. Externalising behaviour is often described as self-injurious, violent, destructive, or disruptive. Internalising behaviour is negative behaviour that is directed inward. Examples may include anxiety, social withdrawal, depression, non-engagement, and eating disorders. Many students will present with a mixture of both externalising and internalising behaviours.

Defining Challenging Behaviour What then makes a behaviour challenging for teachers? Within the Expert Panel Report, challenging behaviour is defined as: Any pervasive behaviour, or set of behaviours, regardless of cause (or even without any apparent or identified cause) which disrupts the capacity of the person, or other persons, to learn within the school environment, and which requires targeted or personalised interventions. (Shaddock et al., 2015, p. 11)

Defining what constitutes “challenging” behaviour, however, is difficult for a number of reasons. Firstly, we have no common frame of reference for what behaviours are considered challenging. Based on our life experiences, both as a student in the classroom, as a pre-service teacher on professional experience, and our experiences outside of education, we bring to our teaching practice a persona, tempered by the realities and encounters we have experienced. The influence of our experiences serves to provide a diverse range of opinions on what constitutes a behaviour problem. What some teachers call disruptive, others may term harmful. Meaningful dialogue in the area of behaviour requires assurance of a common understanding. Second, the terms used to describe behaviour can mean different things to different people, again as a result of the experience and life history we bring to the learning environment. For example, in Scenario 2, Jack is a Year 1 student described as displaying disruptive and distractive behaviours. His teacher, Ms. Marion MacGregor, has discussed her concerns with the school’s learning and support team (see Chap. 8). Different members of the team may not know Jack and will want to know what these disruptive and distractive behaviours look like. Does he wander around the classroom, out of his seat roaming around, until directed back to his place by the teacher, or does he stay in his chair, rocking it back and forth, banging the legs on the floor and calling out until the teacher comes over to him? Both these behaviours could be deemed disruptive and distractive based on an individual’s experience and predetermined understanding of these terms. In order for the School’s support team to have a shared understanding of Jack’s behaviour, it must be clearly described, what it looks like and under what conditions it appears, with as much detail as possible. Once a common frame of reference for his behaviour is clarified by the team, the process of responding to it can begin.

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Despite the difficulties posed by a lack of a shared vocabulary, teachers agree that challenging behaviour can be defined as any behaviour or action that (a) interferes with the student’s learning or the learning of others, (b) hinders positive social interactions and relationships, (c) is harmful to the student themselves, other students, or members of the school community including family members, and (d) can be located on a continuum from mild to severe depending on our experience, knowledge, and life history. Difficulties that arise from a student’s behaviour can affect their ability to interact with others in the school community and can negatively impact the development and maintenance of friendships (Little, 2017). Given that school is a social endeavour, understanding and supporting a student’s social behaviour are of paramount importance. Circumstances and events may explain a student’s behaviour, but ultimately, all behaviour serves a purpose or function. It is a form of communication. It tells you something. The difficulty for many is ascertaining what the communicative intent of the behaviour actually is. For example, a student may not use verbal communication, and their way of communicating they are thirsty may be to scream or bang their hand on the table. Unless this student is taught a communication mode, such as a gesture for a drink or using a visual symbol, the intent of this communication may be missed. How then do we determine what a student is communicating through their behaviour? Think about the last time you were in a classroom. Identify an instance of a student’s behaviour you found challenging. Did you know what the student was trying to tell you based on their behaviour? How did you know? How easy was it to tell?

Functional Assessment Process Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA) is a systematic process for developing an understanding of the interaction between a target behaviour and the environment (Gresham, 2003; O’Neill & Stephenson, 2010). The assumptions of FBA are that human behaviour has a purpose, is contextually related in specific ways, and that understanding this relationship can practically inform teaching and intervention plans. As a problem-solving strategy, it involves basic problem descriptions, information gathering, and analysis that lead to planning, monitoring, and evaluation (Sugai, Lewis-Palmer, & Hagan-Burke, 2000). With its origins firmly rooted in the field of applied behaviour analysis, FBA is used to support children and adults, with and without disability, across different settings. FBA, unlike its more clinical counterpart, functional analysis, can be undertaken in educational environments and can serve as support for a range of outcomes. FBA not only provides an opportunity to

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improve education practice but also develops the social, communication, academic, and vocational outcomes of all students who exhibit problem behaviour, including those with disabilities. Dunlap and Kern (2018) report that interventions based on functional assessments are generally associated with noted improvements in student behaviour. The process of undertaking an FBA is systematic and undertaken by a team of invested personnel, including the student whenever possible. The following steps are a useful guide to conducting an FBA: 1. Define the challenging behaviour—be as explicit and objective as possible and describe the behaviour of concern exactly as it presents. 2. Collect data on the behaviour—use a range of data collection tools (for example, formal assessments, interviews, questionnaires, Antecedent-BehaviourConsequence (ABC) records (the antecedent is what occurs immediately prior to the behaviour, the behaviour is the description of the observed action of concern, and the consequence is what immediately follows the behaviour) and involve members of the team in the process. Ensure you record the frequency and intensity of the problem behaviour and screen the environment for possible triggers. 3. Develop a “hypothesis” about the reason for the behaviour—this is a best guess as to the possible function of the behaviour based on the data you have collected. 4. Develop an intervention to help change the behaviour—this may be in the form of an individualised plan, but it must focus on the teaching of alternative skills the student will need to be able to perform in order to demonstrate the replacement behaviour. The objective of the teaching will be to make the problem behaviour inefficient and ineffective while at the same time promoting the alterative behaviour to be efficient and effective. Thus, the student will need to be taught how and when to use the skill and how to generalise it to new environments. Explicit teaching is essential for effective behavioural support. 5. Evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention—as a team, you will decide on a timeframe for monitoring and evaluation. The motivating premise of FBA is that it uncovers the underlying motivation of student’s behaviour. Behaviour serves a number of purposes: to gain attention; to escape or avoid a person, place, subject, peer; to get a tangible or sensory consequence, to self-regulate, to fill a need (survival, belonging, power/self-worth, freedom, or fun) (Bambara, Janney, & Snell, 2015; Frey & Wilhite, 2005). For example, a student who is refusing to follow a teacher’s instruction may be perceived by the teacher as non-compliant, when in fact they may simply be attempting to assert some sense of control in their environment. A range of data is needed to best ascertain which function may be the possible intent of a student’s behaviour.

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What do you think may be a possible function of Jack’s out of seat behaviour? Why do you think this may be the function?

School-Wide Positive Behaviour Support In our current management of school environments, school-wide discipline systems can be unclear and/or inconsistently implemented. Traditional “discipline” methods frequently do not change behaviour amongst our most difficult students. The students with the most challenging behaviours need more comprehensive systems of support, and students are often not provided with opportunities to learn school-based social skills and to receive feedback on their use. Further, the NSW Ombudsman’s Report (2017) reported that current school-based behaviour support practices tend not to be aligned with recommended evidence-based practices. A solution to these challenges lies in the implementation of a unified, school-wide multi-tiered framework of positive behavioural support that is based on research-validated practices. There is growing evidence that behaviour support is best provided through a multitiered system of support, a framework that utilises a continuum of interventions of increasing intensity (Dew, Jones, Horvat, Cumming, Dillon Savage, & Dowse, 2017). One example of such a framework is positive behaviour support (PBS) (Lewis & Sugai, 1999) (see Fig. 9.1). The PBS framework provides a seamless continuum of behavioural and academic support for all students through a three-tiered model. Tier 1 is labelled universal or primary prevention, which engages all members of the school community. For approximately 80% of students, this level of support is enough to ensure progress both academically and behaviourally. Tier 2 is labelled secondary prevention and targets students identified “at-risk” in their academic and/or behavioural progress. Students identified as “at-risk” receive the universal, schoolwide supports as well as specialised small group support. In any school community, approximately 15% of students would identify in Tier 2. Tier 3, tertiary prevention, is defined as a targeted, individualised support for students identified as “high-risk” in terms of their behaviour. The figure approximated for students identified as requiring Tier 3 support is around 5%. Students within this Tier also receive the universal supports, small group secondary supports and oftentimes, at this level, students will have a documented behaviour support plan, individualised to their specific needs. It must be noted however that students may not sit in discrete tiers but can move throughout the levels given a range of differing factors. Movement could be the result of the subject matter, the time of the day, even the teacher of the class. For

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Fig. 9.1 Graphic representation of the school-wide positive behaviour support framework. Adapted from: OSEP Technical Assistance Centre for Positive Behavioural Interventions & Supports (www. pbis.org)

example, in Scenario 4, the teacher, Ms. Sophie Kouka, has observed one of the students in her Year 7 Maths class, Craig, struggling to keep up with the content. Craig’s behaviour of making jokes and laughing at incorrect answers of other students could be seen as a way of deflecting the attention of the other students away from the difficulty he is experiencing. We can assume Craig is receiving quality instruction (i.e. universal intervention, Tier 1), but it appears this is not enough, and he requires a more specialised level of intervention support. This may be Tier 2 or Tier 3 depending on his level of difficulty with Maths (Chaps. 6 and 10). But later in the school day, the class has a physical education practical lesson, and Craig is an avid and quite talented footballer. In this lesson, Craig may sit within Tier 1 for both academic and behavioural support as he is confident with both the content and the behavioural expectations governing the practical lesson. This fluctuation across the tiers of behavioural support is often more apparent in secondary schools, where students encounter different teachers, different environments, and different subject matter multiple times throughout the school day, which sits in contrast to the more consistent staffing and environments of primary classrooms.

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Positive behaviour support is a collaborative, school-wide enterprise. Expectations for student behaviour are defined by a school-based team with input from all staff, students, and families. Positive behaviours are publicly acknowledged, and problem behaviours have clear consequences. Appropriate student behaviour is taught, and feedback is given to both staff and students. It is a proactive framework that invests in the consistent teaching of all students about behaviour. The NSW Ombudsman Inquiry (2017) reported many good practice examples of positive behaviour support in government and non-government schools in New South Wales, including proactive work to identify students at risk and the provision of personalised support. However, the inquiry also found gaps between what is required to deliver positive behaviour support and the practice within schools. The impact of this gap between theory and practice on the students involved can be significant and remains an avenue for further investigation.

Conclusion To conclude, the responsibility for student behaviour is not the sole remit of the classroom teacher; rather, behaviour support is a shared endeavour. Teachers who believe they do not possess the necessary skill set for supporting challenging behaviour can draw from the evidence that “Academics and behavior are inextricably linked, and as such, management of behavior should be considered not as an addition to the teacher’s repertoire of skills but as an integral foundational component of effective instruction” (Cooper & Scott, 2017, p. 102). The use of assessment strategies such as FBA, within a tiered response framework of PBS, serves to provide all members of the school community with a sense of safety, autonomy, and support (StricklandCohen, Kennedy, Berg, Bateman, & Horner, 2016). Student behaviour support must be viewed through the lens of shared, school-wide accountability. The input of all stakeholders including teachers, students, parents, and family members is critical to the provision of quality, accessible education for all.

References Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL). (2011). Australian professional standards for teachers. Carlton, VIC: Education Services Australia. Bambara, L. M., Janney, R., & Snell, M. E. (2015). Behavior support (3rd ed.). Baltimore, MA: Brookes Publishing. Behaviour. (n.d.). Oxford dictionary online. Retrieved from https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/ definition/behaviour. Butler, A., & Monda-Amaya, L. (2016). Preservice teachers’ perceptions of challenging behaviour. Teacher Education and Special Education, 39(4), 276–292. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 0888406416654212.

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Cooper, J. T., & Scott, T. M. (2017). The keys to managing instruction and behaviour: Considering high probability practices. Teacher Education and Special Education, 40(2), 102–113. https:// doi.org/10.1177/0888406417700825. Dew, A., Jones, A., Horvat, K., Cumming, T., Dillon Savage, I., & Dowse, L. (2017). Understanding behaviour support practice: Young children (0–8 years) with developmental delay and disability. Sydney: UNSW. Dunlap, G., & Kern, L. (2018). Perspectives on functional behavioral assessment. Behavioral Disorders, 43(2), 316–321. https://doi.org/10.1177/0198742917746633. Frey, L. M., & Wilhite, K. (2005). Our five basic needs: Application for understanding the function of behaviour. Intervention in School and Clinic, 40(3), 156–160. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 10534512050400030401. Gresham, F. M. (2003). Establishing the technical adequacy of functional behavioural assessment: Conceptual and measurement challenges. Behavioural Disorders, 28, 282–298. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/019874290302800305. Lewis, T., & Sugai, G. (1999). Effective behaviour support: A systems approach to proactive schoolwide management. Focus on Exceptional Children, 31(6), 1–24. Little, C. (2017). Social inclusion and students with an autism spectrum disorder? In Cathy Little (Ed.), Supporting social inclusion for students with autism spectrum disorders: Insights from research and practice (pp. 9–20). Abingdon: Routledge. Ombudsman, N. S. W. (2017). NSW Ombudsman Inquiry into behaviour management in schools. Sydney: Author. O’Neill, S., & Stephenson, J. (2010). The use of functional behavioural assessment for students with challenging behaviours: Current patterns and experience of Australian practitioners. Australian Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology., 10, 65–82. Shaddock, A., Packer, R., & Roy, A. (2015). The [ACT Legislative Assembly] report of the expert panel on students with complex needs and challenging behaviour. ACT: Canberra. Strickland-Cohen, M. K., Kennedy, P. C., Berg, T. A., Bateman, L. J., & Horner, R. H. (2016). Building school district capacity to conduct functional behavioral assessment. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 24(4), 235–246. https://doi.org/10.1177/1063426615623769. Sugai, G., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Hagan-Burke, S. (2000). Overview of the functional behavioral assessment process. Exceptionality, 8(3), 149–160.

Additional Readings Board of Studies, Teaching and Educational Standards NSW. (2014). Classroom management and students with special education needs. Sydney, Australia: Author. Crone, D., Hawken, L., & Horner, R. (2015). Building positive behavior support systems in schools: Functional behavioral assessment (2nd ed.). NY: Guildford. Queensland Government. (2018). Guided functional behaviour assessment tool. Retrieved from https://ahrc.eq.edu.au/services/fba-tool. Victoria Department of Education. (2018). Functional behavioural assessment. Retrieved from https://www.education.vic.gov.au/school/teachers/behaviour/student-behaviour/Pages/functional-assessment.aspx.

Chapter 10

Communication

Principles and practices of inclusive education and special education Effective teaching practices to respond to the diversity of the classroom Behaviour support (whole-school and classroom)

Collaboration

Attitudes

Michelle L. Bonati

Transitions Linked scenaria: 1 (Max) and 4 (Craig, John)

Keywords Communication · Language · Behaviour · Hearing loss · Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC)

Outcomes: After reading this chapter, you will be able to: • Understand the relationship between behaviour and communication skills, • Describe instructional strategies that will support the development of communication skills, • Describe strategies to support participation in the curriculum for students who use Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC).

Introduction This chapter focuses on addressing the communication needs of students with disability in educational settings. The development of effective communication skills impacts all areas of achievement, including academics, functional skills, and development of social relationships. Within a multi-tiered systems approach, educators © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 I. Spandagou et al., Inclusive Education in Schools and Early Childhood Settings, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-2541-4_10

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can implement universal supports for the communication and language development of all students. Teachers are members of collaborative teams, which may include special educators, other professionals, such as speech-language pathologists and occupational therapists, parents, and the student. These teams can support the assessment of students’ communication strengths, needs, and preferences. Data should also be collected to determine the functional purpose of students’ behaviours to develop supports and a plan to teach alternative communication skills that are socially appropriate. Examples in this chapter explore a range of strategies teachers can implement to promote the development of communication skills. Particular focus is given for embedding instruction of communication skills within natural educational settings and classroom routines. In the final section of the chapter, specific attention is provided to strategies for addressing the needs of students who use Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC).

Communication and Language Development The ability to effectively communicate is essential to both success in school and a child’s quality of life (Markham, van Laar, Gibbard, & Dean, 2009). Communication is the process between a sender and receiver with a shared intent and means to exchange information, ideas, needs, and feelings (Amaritei, 2013). Communication occurs both expressively by sending messages and receptively by receiving and interpreting messages. Languages, such as English or Auslan (i.e. Australian Sign Language), are systematic, rule-governed means of communicating. Children acquire the first language within a five-stage process of language development from birth to about age five (Tribushinina & Gillis, 2017): • Pre-intentional: newborn infants quickly begin to discern the phonemes or speech sounds of their native language but do not produce intentional communication or comprehend the meaning spoken language. • Babbling: infants begin to produce repeated speech sounds, typically consonant paired with a vowel sound from their native language; children begin to respond to their name and other one-word utterances. • One-word: around their first birthday children produce their first spoken word and can respond to increasingly complex comments. • Two-word: children begin forming sentences using two-word combinations and can comprehend more complex comments and questions. • Multiple word: children can combine words in novel ways to form sentences that serve a variety of communicative purposes or functions; children over-generalise morphological rules (e.g. creating plurals and verb tenses) and syntax rules (e.g. subject and object agreement). Children’s vocabulary will continue to increase over their lifetime. As described in the stages above, children’s receptive abilities precede their expressive language development. Children who are deaf and learn a sign language

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from birth acquire language through an analogous process (Morgan, 2014). Although speech and signed languages are modes of expressing language, there are other means of expressively communicating, such as facial expressions, gestures, and pictorial symbols. The development of effective communication skills impacts all areas of achievement, including academics, functional skills, and development of social relationships. Communication skills and language development are often impacted for students with a disability, in particular for students who have a hearing loss. For example, Max is four years old, and he has experienced speech and language development delays. He was diagnosed with a profound sensorineural hearing loss in both ears. Sensorineural hearing loss is one of three main types of hearing loss (ASHA, 2015). A sensorineural hearing loss involves impairment within the inner ear including the nerves that send messages to the brain to translate sounds; this type of hearing loss is typically permanent. A conductive hearing loss involves the function of the middle ear or physical blockage of the outer ear. Otitis media is one condition that can cause a fluctuating conductive hearing loss. The third main type of hearing loss is a mixed hearing loss, which is a combination of a sensorineural and conductive hearing loss. In addition to these three main types, hearing loss varies by the degree of impairment (i.e. the decibel level or loudness at which a person can hear sounds) and the configuration of impairment, which involves the pattern of frequencies or pitch of sounds that a person can hear. Hearing loss can involve both ears in a bilateral hearing loss or only one ear with a unilateral hearing loss and be stable, fluctuating, or progressive, which would mean the hearing loss becomes worse over time. Max recently underwent surgery to receive a set of cochlear implants. Unlike hearing aids that amplify sound, cochlear implants directly stimulate the auditory nerve to allow the brain to interpret sounds. Typical development of spoken language begins before birth, as children begin to make sense of sounds. For Max and other children who have profound hearing loss, there is a delay in language development that may not be resolved even with cochlear implants provided early in life. Children with cochlear implants have been found to often develop expressive spoken language similar to a child with a mild hearing loss and perform better academically than a child with profound hearing loss without cochlear implants but not up to the same as a child without hearing loss (Punch & Hyde, 2010). Max, like many other children with cochlear implants, may struggle socially. This is often related to their receptive spoken language difficulties, and students like Max may benefit from additional supports, including development of sign language (Kushalnagar et al., 2011). Educators can create learning environments that support communication development and increase access to the curriculum for all students (Dockrell, Bakopoulou, Law, Spencer, & Lindsay, 2015; Mroz, 2014). Universal approaches to creating communication supportive learning environments include providing students with regular, structured opportunities to interact with adults and peers. Educators who responsively engage students by expanding and recasting student communication can support communication development. For example, Max might say, “Play me?” to a peer and his teacher could recast his communication by saying, “Will you play

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with me?” Other effective strategies include providing a print and symbol-rich learning environment, delivering explicit instruction of word meanings, engaging students in shared story reading, and providing opportunities for small group work (Dockrell et al., 2015).

Behaviour and Communication Skills Some students will require more intensive individualised interventions to address their communication and behaviour needs. A student may engage in a variety of challenging behaviours that serve a communicative function for the child. The lower the communication skills of a student, the more likely the student is going to engage in more severe challenging behaviour (Sigafoos, O’Reilly, & Lancioni, 2009). Educators can use the same functional behaviour assessment approach discussed in Chap. 9 to assess and address challenging behaviour. The function of behaviour is the purpose for why a student is doing what he or she is doing. If the student is able to get what he or she wants or avoid what he or she does not want by communicating through challenging behaviour, then there is an increased chance the student will engage in the behaviour in the future. The child may not have developed a socially acceptable form of communication to meet their needs. Teachers can support children by explicitly teaching a student to use a socially acceptable form of communication that meets the same need or function as the challenging behaviour. Figure 10.1 provides an illustration of how a functional behaviour assessment can be used to create a communicative function hypothesis statement for the challenging behaviour exhibited by Craig as

Antecedent When: The teacher, Sophie Kouka, verbally directs all students to form small groups for a discussion activity.

Behaviour Student Does: Craig, a high school student, says innappropriate, insulting comments about other students.

Consequence This happens: The teacher directs Craig to go work by himself for the activity. Therefore, the function of the behaviour is to get/avoid: Craig avoids group tasks and interactions.

Fig. 10.1 Example of a communicative function hypothesis statement created following a functional behaviour assessment

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discussed in Chap. 9. The hypothesis statement can help guide educators in making decisions regarding possible supports needed and alternative communication skills that the student could be taught. What is the relationship between Craig’s behaviour and his communication needs? What communication skill has Craig possibly not acquired or not be able to use consistently? Educators, as part of a collaborative learning and support team, can follow a process for gathering information about the student to support the development of supports and instructional interventions. See Fig. 10.2 for an overview of the collaborative assessment and planning process. This person-centred process is relevant for students, such as Craig, whose behaviour masks communication deficits and other students who may not engage in externalising behaviour, but whose communication skills may be lower than students their age. Within a person-centred collaborative assessment and planning process, the support team members begin the process by gathering information to understand the strengths, interests, preferences, and needs of the student. The student and their family should be the first source for gathering information. Families can share information about previous communication

Gathering information about strengths and needs from parents / student

Assess any other associated needs (motor / sensory)

Gather information about form, function, and content of communication

Use assessment findings to select goals / objectives

Assess student performance

Gather information about environments /activities

Select interventions to address goals and supports needed

Determine contexts in which intervention will occur

Plan for progress monitoring

Fig. 10.2 Collaborative assessment and planning process used by a learning and support team to support the communication needs of students who required more intensive, individualised interventions

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interventions and medical history related to sensory or motor needs. As discussed previously in Chap. 8, the support team is comprised of members relevant to the individual needs of a student (e.g. educators, parents, speech-language pathologists, the student, etc.). The team should determine which members will be responsible for specific information gathering tasks and how that information will be shared with the rest of the team for further discussion. Other professionals may also assess specific strengths and needs related to communication, such as a speech-language pathologist, who may conduct formal assessments of language development or speech articulation. An audiologist may assess hearing function. An occupational therapist may assess gross or fine motor skills that may impact communication, such as the ability to type, write, or select symbols on a touch screen. Communication impairments are a common characteristic of a variety of disabilities, such as autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, and specific language impairments. The manner in which the form and function of communication is impacted will vary by individual. Communication can take many forms, including spoken language, facial expressions, pointing, laughing, eye gaze, and challenging behaviour, such as hitting and grabbing objects. Communication also has many functions, including requesting, greeting, questioning, commenting, gaining attention, rejecting, and several others (Choi, O’Reilly, Sigafoos, & Lancioni, 2010; Sigafoos et al., 2009). It is important to observe the student to determine what forms and functions the student successfully uses to communicate and those that the student does not currently demonstrate. By first highlighting the communication forms and functions the student has mastered, the learning and support team are using a strength-based approach, which seeks to proactively support the student’s further development by building on those skills. Informal interviews with parents and the student also provide opportunities to further understand a student’s strengths, preferences for types of supports and instruction, priority needs, and interests. The next step of the collaborative assessment and planning process involves gathering information about the environments in which the student is expected to demonstrate communication skills and then assessing the student’s performance within those activities. This process is called an ecological approach because before determining how a student performs specific communication skills, we need to consider the environments, activities, and routines in which those skills are needed. Task analysis is one method for analysing activities and routines within specific environments by breaking down the activity into observable steps (Meadan, Ostrosky, Triplett, Michna, & Fettig, 2011). It is easier to complete a task analysis by first observing a student who can independently complete the activity. For each step, consider what communication skill (expressive or receptive) the student needs to be able to perform. A team member then observes the student performing within the specific activity and records whether the student independently performed the step and whether the student required additional support for specific steps or did not perform at all. An analysis of the student’s performance highlights areas of strength and areas of need for the student. The team can use this information to determine if the student would benefit from specific types of support, such as visual supports to aid in receptive

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communication, or if specific communication skills should be explicitly taught. The following is an example of a task analysis for a routine that involves the communication skills of initiating a conversation and conversation turn-taking about weekend activities. The steps of a task analysis for this routine might include 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Walk up to a peer. Say, “Hello”. Ask peer, “What did you do this weekend?” Look at peer while they respond. Say, “That sounds like fun”. Say “I ____________ this weekend”. Look at peer while they respond. Say, “Okay, see you later”. Look at peer while they respond. Walk away.

After assessing a student’s ability to independently complete each step of the task analysis, a teacher could then create an instructional plan to teach the steps the student was not able to demonstrate independently.

Communication Instructional Strategies One strategy for explicitly teaching communication skills to replace challenging behaviour is called functional communication training (FCT) (Davis, Fredrick, Alberto, & Gama, 2012; Durand & Mosko, 2015). The steps involved include • Identify the communicative function of the challenging behaviour. • Select an appropriate communicative alternative. • Teach the student to use the communicative alternative in the natural setting in which they are needed. • Teaching can include systematically providing the students prompts, such as a verbal, visual, or gestural prompt to provide the correct communicative response.

What are some typical routines that occur within the classroom or school environment? What are the steps involved for the student to participate in a routine? Which steps involve expressive or receptive communication skills? Are there also routines that would commonly occur within a child’s home and school? These routines could be considered high priority targets for intervention because they may have the most meaningful impact across a child’s entire day from before, during, and after school. Interventions involving these routines involve a high degree of collaboration between school and home.

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In our example, Ms. Sophie Kouka would teach Craig to say to her, “I would like to work by myself”. Ms. Kouka would prompt Craig to respond this way by immediately providing him with a prompt before he engages in the challenging behaviour. As soon as Ms. Kouka directs the students to select a group to work in, she could hand Craig a card with a visual reminder to ask to work alone if he would prefer to do so. Teaching Craig to ask to work independently meets the same communicative function of avoiding group tasks as his previous challenging behaviour of insulting his peers. After Craig has successfully learned to ask to work independently, what communication skills might Ms. Kouka teach Craig so that he can successfully participate in group work? Think about what communication skills are involved in group work. For an intervention to be successful, the replacement communicative behaviour taught should be just as easy or easier for the student than the challenging behaviour and serve the same function. Some students have not developed the necessary skills to perform appropriate behaviours. They may require being taught a specific skill and need reinforcement for demonstrating that behaviour. If an inappropriate behaviour worked before, why should the student change? The student may require something to motivate its use, and an extrinsic reinforcer may be necessary. Positive reinforcement is any statement, action, or object provided to the student following the desired behaviour that increases the likelihood that the behaviour will occur again in the future (Sweigart, Collins, Evanovich, & Cook, 2016). If the student responds well to praise, educators may create a plan ensuring the student receives specific praise following the student demonstrating the desired replacement behaviour and then fading the praise to more typical levels once the student consistently performs the behaviour. Sugai and Horner (2002) suggest aiming for a ratio of at least four to five positive interactions for every reprimand or correction. In many classrooms, especially with high amounts of disruptive behaviour, there is a negative ratio. For praise to be effective, it should be provided immediately after the behaviour and be specific (Musti-Rao & Haydon, 2011). For example, the teacher, Ms. Kouka, could say to Craig, “I like how you asked to work independently” instead of simply saying, “Good job, Craig”. Capitalising on student’s interests and preferences provides another means to motivate and engage students to develop their communication skills. For example, when teaching a student to use a new communicative form, such as raising their hand to gain attention, educators can use the student’s interests as part of a positive reinforcement plan to increase the likelihood that the student will increase their use of this skill. If a student loves to play computer games, the student might have a goal of

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raising their hand instead of calling out five times during a class session. In addition to specific praise following instances of hand raising, the student has the opportunity to earn five extra minutes of computer game time at the end of class. In some classes, specific praise alone may be sufficient to serve as positive reinforcement, but some students may initially require an additional external reinforcement to acquire and consistently perform the desired communication skill.

Augmentative and Alternative Communication Another student in Ms. Kouka’s class, John, uses Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) to communicate his needs, wants, and ideas. AAC is used by people who some of the time or all of the time cannot rely on their speech to communicate (ASHA, 2018) and has been found to support speech development for the majority of children who use AAC (Millar, Light, & Schlosser, 2006; Schlosser & Wendt, 2008). AAC can range from low-tech, using writing, a sign language, or picture symbols, to high-tech involving speech output devices that allow a person using AAC to either select symbols or type text on the device’s screen that then produces an output in speech. Teachers would work in collaboration with a special education teacher and a speech-language pathologist to consider how to best support John’s communication needs in the classroom. Ms. Kouka, the secondary school maths teacher, is planning a new maths unit and would like to embed some group learning activities within the unit. What strategies might she consider that would support John’s participation in the unit, as a student who uses Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC)? For a student who is developing their communication skills using AAC, teachers should consider how to ensure the student has access to the vocabulary needed to participate in age-appropriate curriculum and to consider how to ensure the student has opportunities to develop competence in communication (Chung & Douglas, 2014). Ms. Kouka can collaborate with the special education teacher and the speechlanguage pathologist to ensure that John has the vocabulary he needs related to maths available on his AAC device. John uses a high-tech AAC device that produces speech after John selects symbols on a touch screen. He may need to have symbols added for specific academic vocabulary. Ms. Kouka can also enlist John’s peers, with his consent, to support John to locate the needed symbols on his device for maths vocabulary during lessons. Teachers can also play an important role in supporting the developing of positive peer relationships by engaging students in instructional

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formats, such as cooperative learning and service-learning and by facilitating peer interactions. Teachers can help initiate interaction by identifying common interests and by helping peers understand how a student uses AAC to communicate. For some students with disability, developing communication skills may be of greater curricular focus within the context of the learning area content. This does not mean that students with complex communication needs should not participate in the general curriculum. On the contrary, teachers should ensure that students have the opportunity to develop communication skills during general education learning activities. Within the Australian Curriculum, the general capabilities dimension includes the element of personal and social capabilities, which directly relate to developing communication and social skills. Research suggests that students who use AAC need at least 200 opportunities per day to interact to become competent communicators (Baker, Carrillo, & Stanton, 2011). Teachers can consider how to embed opportunities for students to communicate for a variety of functions, including greeting, requesting, commenting, and asking and answering questions. In our example scenario, Ms. Kouka can prepare her lessons by carefully considering how she will support John’s ongoing communication throughout the lesson.

Conclusion Being able to communicate represents a set of skills that will support a student’s ability to participate in their education, achieve academic success, develop social relationships with peers, and strongly relates to post-school employment success. Students who engage in challenging behaviour may not have developed the communication skills needed to have their needs met in school in a socially acceptable manner. Explicit instruction of communication skills paired with positive reinforcement, such as praise and other external reinforcers, can help assist students in developing needed communication skills. Teachers may be involved in assessment to determine a student’s current level of communication skills to help design strategies that will build on a student’s strengths in communication and incorporate their interests and preferences for support. Teachers who understand that supporting a student’s communication skills development is a critical element of the Australian Curriculum can thoughtfully plan for the communication needs of all of their students throughout the school year.

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References Amaritei, N. (2013). Communication. International Journal of Communication Research, 3, 279– 281. American Speech Language Hearing Association (ASHA). (2015). Type, degree, and configuration of hearing loss. In Audiology Information Series. Retrieved from https://www.asha.org/ uploadedFiles/AIS-Hearing-Loss-Types-Degree-Configuration.pdf. American Speech Language Hearing Association (ASHA). (2018). Augmentative and alternative communication. Retrieved from https://www.asha.org/Practice-Portal/Professional-Issues/ Augmentative-and-Alternative-Communication/. Baker, K., Carrillo, D., & Stanton, F. (2011). 200 a day the easy way: Putting it into practice. SIG 12 Perspectives on Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 20, 125–133. https://doi.org/ 10.1044/aac20.4.125. Choi, H., O’Reilly, M., Sigafoos, J., & Lancioni, G. (2010). Teaching requesting and rejecting sequences to four children with developmental disabilities using augmentative and alternative communication. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31, 560–567. Chung, Y.-C., & Douglas, K. H. (2014). Communicative competence inventory for students who use augmentative and alternative communication: A team approach. Teaching Exceptional Children, 47(1), 56–69. Davis, D. H., Fredrick, L. D., Alberto, P. A., & Gama, R. (2012). Functional communication training without extinction using concurrent schedules of differing magnitudes of reinforcement in classrooms. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14, 162–172. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 1098300711429597. Dockrell, J. E., Bakopoulou, I., Law, J., Spencer, S., & Lindsay, G. (2015). Capturing communication supporting classrooms: The development of a tool and feasibility study. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 31(3), 271–286. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265659015572165. Durand, M. V., & Mosko, L. (2015). Functional communication training: Thirty years of treating challenging behavior. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 35, 116–126. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/0271121415569509. Kushalnagar, P., Topolski, T., Schick, B., Edwards, T., Skalicky, A., & Patrick, D. (2011). Mode of communication, perceived level of understanding, and perceived quality of life in youth who are deaf or hard of hearing. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 16, 512–523. https://doi. org/10.1093/deafed/enr015. Markham, C., van Laar, D., Gibbard, D., & Dean, T. (2009). Children with speech, language and communication needs: Their perceptions of their quality of life. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 44, 748–768. https://doi.org/10.1080/13682820802359892. Meadan, H., Ostrosky, M., Triplett, B., Michna, A., & Fettig, A. (2011). Using visual supports with young children with autism spectrum disorder. Teaching Exceptional Children, 43(6), 28–35. Millar, D., Light, J., & Schlosser, R. (2006). The impact of augmentative and alternative communication intervention on speech production of individuals with developmental disabilities: A research review. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 49, 248–264. https://doi. org/10.1044/1092-4388(2006/021). Morgan, G. (2014). On language acquisition in speech and sign: Development drives combinatorial structure in both modalities. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014. 01217. Mroz, M. A. (2014). ‘Off the radar:’ The framing of speech, language and communication in the description of children with special educational needs in literacy. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 2, 88–103. http://doi.org/10.11114/jets.v2i3.382. Musti-Rao, S., & Haydon, T. (2011). Strategies to increase behavior-specific teacher praise in an inclusive environment. Intervention in School and Clinic, 47(2), 91–97. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 1053451211414187.

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Punch, R., & Hyde, M. (2010). Children with cochlear implants in Australia: Educational settings, supports, and outcomes. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 15, 405–421. https://doi. org/10.1093/deafed/enq019. Schlosser, R. W., & Wendt, O. (2008). Effects of augmentative and alternative communication intervention on speech production in children with autism: A systematic review. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 17, 212–230. Sigafoos, J., O’Reilly, M. F., & Lancioni, G. E. (2009). Functional communication training and choice-making interventions for the treatment of problem behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. In P. Mirenda & T. Iacono (Eds.), Autism spectrum disorders and AAC (pp. 333–353). Baltimore, MD: Brookes. Sugai, G., & Horner, R. (2002). The evolution of discipline practices: School-wide positive behavior. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 24(1/2), 23–50. Sweigart, C. A., Collins, L. W., Evanovich, L. L., & Cook, S. C. (2016). An evaluation of the evidence base for performance feedback to improve teacher praise using CEC’s quality indicators. Education and Treatment of Children, 39, 419–444. Tribushinina, E., & Gillis, S. (2017). Advances and lacunas in usage-based studies of first language acquisition. In J. Evers-Vermeul & E. Tribushinina (Eds.), Usage-based approaches to language acquisition and language teaching (pp. 13–46). Boston: De Gruyter Mouton.

Additional Readings Ruppar, A. L. (2013). Authentic literacy and communication in inclusive settings for students with significant disabilities. Teaching Exceptional Children, 46(2), 44–50. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 004005991304600205. The Deaf Society. (2015). Sign language 1: Insights into Auslan. Retrieved from https://deafsociety. org.au/documents/SignLanguage1Handouts.pdf. Wood, C. L., Kisinger, K. W., Brosh, C. R., Fisher, L. B., & Muharib, R. (2018). Stopping behavior before it starts: Antecedent interventions for challenging behavior. Teaching Exceptional Children, 50(6), 356–363. https://doi.org/10.1177/0040059918775052.

Chapter 11

Supporting Positive Peer Social Interactions and Healthy Relationships Michelle L. Bonati

Keywords Social interactions · Social skills · Peer relationships · Quality of life

Outcomes: After reading this chapter, you will be able to: • Understand the connection amongst positive peer relationships, academic achievement, and quality of life for children and young adults with disability. • Describe three general approaches to support the development of positive peer relationships (support-focused, peer-focused, and student-focused practices). • Describe specific strategies to support positive peer relationships from each of the three approaches.

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Introduction This chapter addresses the social interaction and relationship needs of students with disability in early childhood and school settings. The need for social interaction is universal. Opportunities to interact socially with peers and to develop positive relationships can greatly impact the outcomes for students with disability in terms of their academic achievement, well-being, and community access. These needs and the importance of involving families and students in determining priorities in this area are explored. This is followed by a description of three approaches to addressing the social interaction and relationship needs of students with disability that focus on educators providing specific social interaction support, facilitating supports via peers, and teaching students specific social skills. Examples in this chapter help to illustrate the three main approaches to supporting peer interactions within educational settings. Particular focus is given to addressing the needs of students who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC).

Positive Peer Relationships, Academic Achievement, and Quality of Life The development of positive peer relationships has immediate and lifelong impacts for children with disability (Therrien & Light, 2018). Social relationships are a key factor in experiencing a high quality of life, meaning a person’s objective and subjective experience of their well-being (Brown, Cobigo, & Taylor, 2015). Children and adults with disability have a right to social inclusion as expressed in the United Nations (2006) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability (CRPD). Having a sense of belonging, meaning feeling supported and accepted by peers, is also related to higher academic achievement (Van Ryzin, Gravely, & Roseth, 2009). Educators can feel unprepared to support both academic achievement and positive peer interactions for students with disability (Watson & Gable, 2013). However, as described in Chap. 10, general capabilities is an important dimension of the Australian Curriculum, and it includes the element of personal and social capabilities, which is comprised of four key elements: self-awareness, social awareness, social management, and self-management (ACARA, 2017). Key learning areas are tagged on the ACARA website to highlight links to personal and social capability across the Australian K-12 curriculum. This emphasis on social and emotional learning begins in early childhood education as found in the Early Years Learning Framework for Australia (EYLFA) (Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, 2009), the curriculum guide for Australian early childhood educators. Educators who embed instructional opportunities to practise skills from personal and social capabilities or who plan their curriculum from the EYLFA are also supporting elements of the Alice Springs (Mparntwe) Education Declaration (Council of Australian Governments—Education Council, 2019) Alice Springs

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declaration for students to “relate well to others and form and maintain healthy relationships” (Council of Australian Governments—Education Council, 2019, p. 6). Using a collaborative approach that involves parents, general educators, and special educators to plan and implement supports has been found to increase both academic engagement and social interactions with peers of children with disability (Mortier, Hunt, Desimpel, & Van Hove, 2009). Australian educators from schools with high academic achievement in New South Wales attributed their students’ success in part to their focus on developing caring and positive relationships between staff and students and amongst students (Paterson, Graham, & Stevens, 2014). One of the first steps educators can take to understand how to support students’ needs is to involve parents or caregivers in a strength-based, family-centred planning approach (Woods, Wilcox, Friedman, & Murch, 2011). This approach involves the educator developing rapport and a trusting relationship with families by ensuring that they are included as equal members in sharing knowledge of their child and in decision-making. Educators can also set a positive tone for discussions by focusing on the strengths and competencies the child already possesses and how those strengths, along with the priorities of the family, can provide the foundation for supporting the child’s needs (Mossman Steiner, 2011). A strength-based, family-centred approach can be illustrated in the case of Ms. Fatma Mahmoud, an early childhood educator who is concerned about one of her new students. Zeinab and her family are recent arrivals to Australia, and she is learning to speak English. Zeinab is withdrawn and prefers to play alone. Ms. Mahmoud is concerned about her student, so she arranges to meet Zeinab’s parents. Knowing the importance of culturally responsive practices, prior to the meeting, Ms. Mahmoud asked the family to invite anyone who they would like to join the discussion about Zeinab’s social development. Using a strength-based approach, Ms. Mahmoud begins the discussion by sharing her observations of Zeinab’s strengths as a learner and her social development. Then she invites her parents and the other family members who joined the meeting to share their thoughts about Zeinab’s strengths. Ms. Mahmoud takes notes and then provides a summary of Zeinab’s key strengths, such as her willingness to help others, her talents in drawing and painting, her strong storytelling skills in her first language, and her polite manners. She also asks everyone to share what are some of Zeinab’s interests and preferences. When the meeting began, Zeinab’s parents’ faces were drawn with concern, as they feared what their daughter’s preschool teacher might say. After this round of sharing, everyone appears more relaxed. Ms. Mahmoud explains that she would like to work together to create a plan to help Zeinab build on her strengths and interests to develop positive relationships with her peers. She continues the meeting by asking everyone to share what they see as the priority needs for Zeinab to be able to make friends. What are some examples of the culturally responsive and strength-based approaches that Ms. Mahmoud used to support Zeinab’s social development?

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Three Approaches to Promoting Positive Peer Relationships There are several practices that teachers can implement to support students with disability to increase positive interactions with peers. These practices can be grouped into three types that include support-focused, peer-focused, and student-focused practices (Carter, Sisco, Chung, & Stanton-Chapman, 2010). Support-focused practices are those in which teachers and other school staff create educational environments and opportunities that will encourage peer interactions. Peer-focused practices involve recruiting volunteer peers to facilitate support and increase interactions with students with disability who are socially isolated. Student-focused practices are aimed at teaching students needed social skills that will support their competence in interacting with peers. Examples of specific practices within each of these three main approaches are described in the following sections. Support-focused practices. The first approach to supporting the development of positive peer relationships involves support-focused practices. Chapter 9 described the framework for positive behaviour support (PBS), in which there are three tiers of support that can be provided to students. The bottom tier focused on universal prevention and can also include instructional and environmental support strategies to develop positive peer relationships by increasing the opportunities for all students to learn and practice appropriate peer interactions. In our discussion of Zeinab, the teachers and family formed a collaborative team to develop a plan to implement supports and strategies. Research suggests the use of unified plans of support that involve regular collaborative team meetings along with implementation of supports where there is a distribution of accountability and willingness of team members to be flexible and open to change (Hunt, Soto, Maier, & Doering, 2003). One support-focused practice that has been found to increase peer interactions is ensuring the educational placement of students with disability is within the regular classroom of their neighbourhood school (Carter et al., 2010). If students are in educational settings that are segregated from peers without disability for part or all of the day, their opportunities to interact with peers will be decreased. However, simply sharing physical space is often not enough for students with disability to engage in the same frequency and quality of social interactions as peers without disability. Adults within the educational environment can facilitate peer interactions through several different practices, including small group instructional practices, adult prompting and modelling of appropriate interactions, and through extra-curricular activities. Small group instructional practices lend themselves to facilitating peer interactions because they are more interactive than whole group instructional formats. Teaching social skills is a typical part of the small group instructional approach, and adults can facilitate peer interactions by modelling appropriate social skills and by helping students recognise their similar interests (Carter et al., 2010). Two teaching methods that can involve small group instruction include cooperative learning and service-learning. Cooperative learning involves students engaged in an interdependent learning activity, where students are assigned roles to achieve a group goal

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with individual accountability (Jenkins, Antil, Wayne, & Vadasy, 2003). Servicelearning is a teaching method that connects learning to the curriculum through service to the community (Bonati & Dymond, 2019). Service-learning is promoted as a means to support inclusive education because it provides teachers with a flexible means to engage students in hands-on, experiential learning where students can understand how the content of a lesson applies to real-world skills, with the added benefit of promoting the development of prosocial skills, such as helping others in the community. Engaging in extra-curricular activities, such as sport and clubs, presents an oftenoverlooked opportunity for students with disability to develop positive peer relationships (Pence & Dymond, 2015). Article 30 of the CRPD expresses the right of persons with disability to participate in community leisure activities, with Section 5d of the Article stating that countries are obligated “To ensure that children with disabilities have equal access with other children to participation in play, recreation and leisure and sporting activities, including those activities in the school system” (United Nations, 2006, Article 31). Further, there is a legal obligation; the Disability Standards for Education states, “any activities that are not conducted in classrooms, and associated extra-curricular activities or activities that are part of the broader educational programme, are designed to include the student” (Commonwealth AttorneyGeneral’s Department, 2005, p. 20). When students with disability engage in a shared and enjoyable activity, they have natural opportunities to carry these interactions forward during the school day and to deepen their relationship with peers by building friendships based on common interests (Pence & Dymond, 2015). Unfortunately, gatekeeping practices remain an issue, as noted in a recent Senate Standing Committee on Education and Employment (2016) inquiry, which included family member testimonials of exclusionary practices, such as children with disability being “excluded from things like excursions and camps. So they are not really part of the whole school community” (p. 41). Did you participate in any organised extra-curricular activities when you were in school? What do you perceive were the social benefits of engaging in these activities? How might you address any barriers to students with disability participating in extra-curricular activities? Peer-focused practices. The second approach to supporting the development of positive peer relationships involves peer-focused practices. Through the discussion of support-focused practices, it can be understood that it is not the main responsibility of students with disability to overcome barriers to peer interactions and positive relationships. Educators can engage in many practices that will benefit the social and emotional development of all students. Educators can also engage peers in practices that create awareness and facilitate increased positive peer interactions with students who have a disability (Carter et al., 2010). Article 24 of the CRPD (UN, 2006, Article 24) is focused on Education and highlights the use of peer support and mentoring as

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a means to facilitate the development of social skills. Two evidence-based practices that educators can use that fall within this realm are peer support strategies and peer social networking strategies (Kamps et al., 2015). Peer support strategies involve recruiting peers to provide supports to a student with disability within specific academic or social contexts (Carter et al., 2016). One or two peers are asked to volunteer. They are provided information about how to best support the student with a disability and also provided with ongoing feedback from the teacher. Peer support arrangements may reduce reliance on individually assigned support from teaching assistants or paraprofessionals. Although frequently requested as a means of support for students with disability in general education classrooms, one-on-one adult support can interfere with social and academic engagement of students with disability. Whereas, peer support can provide additional opportunities for students to interact with peers who are age-appropriate models for social interaction. Secondary school creates further challenges for students with disability to develop positive peer relationships. As friendships become increasingly important, the curriculum becomes more challenging, instruction tends to rely more heavily on lecture formats, and students rotate through multiple teachers everyday (Carter et al., 2015), In Chap. 10, we discussed John, a secondary school student with cerebral palsy developing his academic vocabulary through use of a speech-generating device, which is a form of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). John’s math teacher, Ms. Sophie Kouka, asked John if he would be interested in her creating a peer support arrangement. John thought it would be useful and suggested two male students to help him. Ms. Kouka approached the two boys individually to see if they might like to support John’s use of his speech-generating device to answer questions during class. Both boys were interested, and after an orientation session, they felt comfortable assisting John to use his AAC device during maths class. A few weeks after creating the peer support arrangement, Ms. Kouka noticed that the two boys were chatting with John before class about their weekend plans and afterschool activities, which she saw as another positive outcome of implementing the peer support strategy. Peer social networking strategies are aimed at providing socially isolated students with more frequent opportunities to interact with a variety of peers across the school day (Kamps et al., 2015). Similar to peer support arrangement, peer networking strategies involve providing peers with an orientation and continued guidance to engage in planned social interactions with students who have a disability, such as during breaks between classes or at the school canteen. After seeing the success of the peer support arrangement with John, Ms. Kouka discussed with her head teacher and the special education teacher the possibility of implementing a peer social networking strategy, so that John would have more frequent opportunities to interact with peers. Not all Australian schools have a special education teacher on staff. In these contexts, a learning and support teacher or a head teacher might be responsible for ensuring the needs of students with disability are met. John’s mobility challenges make it necessary for him to head directly to his next class when the bell rings because it takes him longer to travel between classrooms. While other students linger in the hallways chatting before rushing to class, John has been travelling alone or at times with a one-on-one teaching assistant. Several

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peers could be recruited and scheduled across the school day to walk with John to his next class and to interact socially. The head teacher mentioned that there were other students who she thought could also benefit from having a larger peer social network, so they decided to bring up the idea at their next faculty meeting. Ms. Kouka also shared the importance of involving John and his family in any planning discussions, with the same being true for any other students who might be supported by this peer-focused practice. The principal of Blackwater Creek Secondary School has noticed that some students with disability are being socially excluded at school, and she is considering implementing a peer social networking strategy to address the issue. Who might be involved in this process and what steps might the principal take to get started? Student-focused practices. The third approach to supporting the development of positive peer relationships involves student-focused practices. From our discussion of support-focused approaches and peer-focused approaches, it has been established that all students need and can benefit from the development of social and emotional domain. Challenges related to the development of social skills are a characteristic of various disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disabilities, and emotional and behavioural disorders. Social skills involve expressive and receptive communication that enables positive interpersonal interactions and relationships with others (Little, Swangler, & Akin-Little, 2017). There are a wide variety of social skills that children learn from their families and at school. Some examples of social skills include expressive communication behaviours that involve politeness and empathetic responses, such as saying please, thank you, excuse me, greeting others, saying goodbye, apologising, and expressing concern or comfort to someone sad or injured. Some social skills involve expressive and receptive communication skills, such as starting a conversation and turn-taking, as discussed in the task analysis example from Chap. 10. Social behaviours can involve receptive communication and self-control, such as respecting others’ property, accepting constructive criticism, and following rules in the classroom or during a game. Some social skills involve non-verbal behaviours, such as standing with an appropriate amount of space from others, and only touching others in culturally and socially acceptable ways, such as shaking hands or tapping someone on the shoulder to get their attention. Explicit instruction of social skills paired with research-based strategies can enhance students’ ability to engage in healthy, positive relationships with their peers. Functional Communication Training, which was discussed in Chap. 10, is an example of a student-focused practice that can be implemented to support an individual student who has difficulty with a particular social skill that involves expressive communication, such as asking for help. Social narrative strategies is another category of student-focused practices aimed at supporting social skills development through

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use of a story that engages the student to gain greater self-awareness regarding a particular behaviour and to make expectations for appropriate behaviour explicit. One example of a social narrative strategy is the use of power cards (Spencer, Simpson, Day, & Buster, 2008). This strategy involves creating a small card with text that the child can read with an illustration or photograph that relates to the student’s special interest, such as a movie star or a cartoon character. The text describes a situation in which the child’s special interest is facing a challenge that the child is experiencing. The card also includes the steps for a solution to the challenge, with a rationale for using the plan, and a positive outcome. The purpose of the power card is to provide a discreet way to prompt the student to use a social skill right before it is needed and to motivate the student by incorporating the student’s special interest (Spencer et al., 2008). Hope is a girl in Year 5 who loves horses and is a talented artist. She has an intellectual disability and has experienced bullying at school. She is withdrawn and does not initiate interactions with peers. Hope’s primary school teacher, Mr. Graham Rogers, has sought out advice from his mentor and colleague, Ms. Jacobs, in how to address these issues. Mr. Rogers has also been given the task of coordinating the school’s peer support programme. He has started making progress addressing the bullying at school by involving students in a campaign to end bullying. He has also requested volunteer students for a peer support arrangement during class, but he would like to see Hope be able to initiate conversations with students during lunch. He notices that she tends to linger near a group of girls who like to make friendship bracelets during the lunch break. After doing some research online and consulting with Hope and her mother, Mr. Rogers decides to try a power card strategy. He thinks a power card that includes her favourite topic, horses, will motivate Hope to try to talk with peers. Mr. Rogers knows all of his students well, including their interests, which means he can easily find photographs or drawings of horses online to create a personalised power card for Hope. Ms. Jacobs suggests talking with the group of girls before lunch to ensure that they will accept Hope’s request to join them. See Fig. 11.1 for an example of a power card for Hope. If one of your students had difficulty following the rules of games when he or she plays with peers, how might you support the student with a power card? Imagine your student’s favourite actor, cartoon character, or musician who would motivate them to follow the rules. Think about what text would be included on the card.

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Talking to Friends Hollyy, the horse, sees a group of girls having fun making friendship braccelets at lun nch. She wo ould like to join them. The girls do not know she wants to join the group unless she asks. Holly decides she will: 1.. Walk up, smile, and say, “Hello.” 2.. Ask, “Can I join you? ?” 3.. Sit with the group. 4.. Say some ething nice about their brac celets. Holly has fun n talking with friends att lunch.

Fig. 11.1 Power card example

Conclusion The need to foster a sense of well-being and to support the social development for all children is increasingly recognised with implications for educators’ practice. Advocating for inclusive education, providing supports to students with disability, and using instructional practices that encourage students with and without disability to interact are all positive ways educators can promote the development of positive peer interactions and relationships. Educators can also engage peers in the process to facilitate support for students and to serve as same-age social role models. For some students, instruction on specific social skills may be needed to provide those students with a greater opportunity to relate to peers socially. When educators take responsibility for this critical dimension of the curriculum in both early childhood settings and in K-12 schools, they are supporting all children, including those with disabilities to have positive and healthy relationships that are associated with academic achievement during school and a happier and healthier future life.

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References Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA). (2017). Personal and social capability. Retrieved from https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/f-10-curriculum/ general-capabilities/personal-and-social-capability/. Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations. (2009). Belonging, being and becoming: The early years learning framework for Australia. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved from https://www.acecqa.gov.au/sites/default/files/201802/belonging_being_and_becoming_the_early_years_learning_framework_for_australia.pdf. Bonati, M. L., & Dymond, S. K. (2019). Service-learning and students with severe disabilities: Examining links to the curriculum and student participation. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 57, 42–55. https://doi.org/10.1352/1934-9556-57.1.42. Brown, R. I., Cobigo, V., & Taylor, W. D. (2015). Quality of life and social inclusion across the lifespan: Challenges and recommendations. International Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 61(2), 93–100. https://doi.org/10.1179/2047386914Z.00000000092. Carter, E. W., Asmus, J., Moss, C. K., Biggs, E. E., Bolt, D. M., Born, T. L., et al. (2016). Randomized evaluation of peer support arrangements to support the inclusion of high school students with severe disabilities. Exceptional Children, 82, 209–233. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 0014402915598780. Carter, E. W., Moss, C. K., Asmus, J., Fesperman, E., Cooney, M., Brock, M. E., et al. (2015). Promoting inclusion, social connections, and learning through peer support arrangements. Teaching Exceptional Children, 48(1), 9–18. https://doi.org/10.1177/0040059915594784. Carter, E. W., Sisco, L. G., Chung, Y.-C., & Stanton-Chapman, T. L. (2010). Peer interactions of students with intellectual disabilities and/or autism: A map of the intervention literature. Research & Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 3–4, 63–79. Commonwealth Attorney-General’s Department. (2005). Disability standards for education 2005 (plus guidance note). Canberra: Author. Hunt, P., Soto, G., Maier, J., & Doering, K. (2003). Collaborative teaming to support students at risk and students with severe disabilities in general education classrooms. Exceptional Children, 69, 315–322. Jenkins, J. R., Antil, L. R., Wayne, S. K., & Vadasy, P. F. (2003). How cooperative learning works for special education and remedial students. Exceptional Children, 69(3), 279–292. Kamps, D., Thiemann-Bourque, K., Heitzman-Powell, L., Schwartz, I., Rosenberg, N., Mason, R., et al. (2015). A comprehensive peer network intervention to improve social communication of children with autism spectrum disorders: A randomized trial in kindergarten and first grade. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 1809–1824. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803014-2340-2. Little, S. G., Swangler, J., & Akin-Little, A. (2017). Defining social skills. In J. L. Matson (Ed.), Handbook of social behavior and skills in children (pp. 9–17). New York City: Springer International. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-64592-6. Mortier, K., Hunt, P., Desimpel, L., & Van Hove, G. (2009). With parents at the table: Creating supports for children with disabilities in general education classrooms. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 24(4), 337–354. https://doi.org/10.1080/08856250903223021. Mossman Steiner, A. (2011). A strength-based approach to parent education for children with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 13, 178–190. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 1098300710384134. Paterson, D., Graham, L., & Stevens, R. (2014). Inclusion and equity in Australian secondary schools. Journal of International Special Needs Education, 17(2), 79–87. https://doi.org/10.9782/ 2159-4341-17.2.79. Pence, A. R., & Dymond, S. K. (2015). Extracurricular school clubs: A time for fun and learning. Teaching Exceptional Children, 47(5), 281–288. https://doi.org/10.1177/0040059915580029. Senate Standing Committee on Education and Employment. (2016). Access to real learning: the impact of policy, funding and culture on students with disabilities. Canberra: Author.

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Spencer, V., Simpson, C. G., Day, M., & Buster, E. (2008). Using the power card strategy to teach social skills to a child with autism. Teaching Exceptional Children Plus, 5(1), 1–10. Therrien, M. C. S., & Light, J. C. (2018). Promoting peer interaction for preschool children with complex communication needs and autism spectrum disorder. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 27, 207–221. https://doi.org/10.1044/2017_AJSLP-17-0104. United Nations (UN). (2006). Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities. New York: Author. Van Ryzin, M. J., Gravely, A. A., & Roseth, C. J. (2009). Autonomy, belongingness, and engagement in school as contributors to adolescent psychological well-being. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-007-9257-4. Watson, S. M. R., & Gable, R. (2013). Cognitive development of adolescents at risk or with learning and/or emotional problems: Implications for teachers. Intervention in School and Clinic, 49(2), 108–112. https://doi.org/10.1177/1053451213493171. Woods, J. J., Wilcox, M. J., Friedman, M., & Murch, T. (2011). Collaborative consultation in natural family-centered supports and services. Language, Speech, and Hearing Sciences in Schools, 42, 379–392. https://doi.org/10.1044/0161-1461(2011/10-0016).

Additional Readings Bambara, L. M., Thomas, A., Chovanes, J., & Cole, C. L. (2018). Peer-mediated intervention: Enhancing the social conversational skills of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Teaching Exceptional Children, OnlineFirst. http://doi.org/10.1177/0040059918775057. Council of Australian Governments—Education Council. (2019). Alice Springs (Mparntwe) education declaration. Available at https://uploadstorage.blob.core.windows.net/public-assets/ education-au/melbdec/ED19-0230%20-%20SCH%20-%20Alice%20Springs%20(Mparntwe)% 20Education%20Declaration_ACC.pdf. Little, C. (Ed.). (2017). Supporting social inclusion for students with autism spectrum disorder: Insights from research and practice. Great Britain, UK: Routledge. Smith, R. M. (2009). Front and center: Contradicting isolation by supporting leadership and service by students with disabilities. Teaching Exceptional Children Plus, 5(5), 1–14.

Part IV

Facilitating Educational Transitions

Chapter 12

Early Intervention Cathy Little

Attitudes

education and special education Effective teaching practices to respond to the diversity of the classroom Behaviour support (whole-school and classroom)

Collaboration

Principles and practices of inclusive

Transitions Linked scenario: 1 (Zeinab and Claire)

Keywords Early intervention · Therapy · Interdisciplinary · Teamwork · Planning · Collaboration · Diversity · Family support plans · Partnerships Outcomes: By the end of this chapter, you will be able to: • Recognise individual difference, diversity, and patterns of development in young children. • Discuss a range of models for early intervention service delivery. • Engage in partnerships with families and other professional agency providers. • Report on the steps involved in the development of an Individualised Family Service Plan (IFSP).

Introduction This chapter addresses a range of issues surrounding early intervention (EI) for children with diverse learning needs. The early childhood context for young children with disability in Australia has changed substantially over the past decade. The development of the Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) (DEEWR, 2009) and © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 I. Spandagou et al., Inclusive Education in Schools and Early Childhood Settings, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-2541-4_12

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the National Quality Framework (ACECQA, 2012) has provided a strong foundation for delivering interdisciplinary programmes for children with a range of needs. The EYLF was developed to “assist educators [in] providing young children with opportunities to maximise their potential and develop a foundation for future success in learning” (2009, p. 5). Recent implementation of a national disability insurance scheme allows families of young children to engage with early intervention services to meet the needs of their child with disability.

What Is Early Intervention (EI)? Children who require specialised programmes prior to formal school entry can access early intervention services which focus on “offsetting the potentially negative impact of medical, biological, and environmental conditions associated with increased developmental risk for children” (Pretti-Frontczak & Bricker, 2004, p. 2). The outcomes of an early intervention programme aim at maximising children’s core activities, thus enhancing their growing independence and participation in everyday life situations. Early intervention supports the relational or emotional or affective contexts of development and facilitation. Quality early intervention is a right for any and every child who is at risk for or presents with a disability or developmental delay (Jackiewicz, Saggers, & Frances, 2011). Family-centred, culturally sensitive and developmentally appropriate practices are at the core of early intervention (Vakil, Welton, O’Connor, & Kline, 2009). What happens in the early years of life then affects all later development and achievements. As they grow, children are often “measured” against an established set of criteria termed developmental milestones or developmental stages. Such milestones are defined as a somewhat prescriptive set of skills, which implies that a child is growing, changing, and acquiring the broad range of skills characteristic of the majority of children of similar age within the same culture. For example, skills such as taking a first step or waving goodbye are called developmental milestones, as their appearance occurs in a fairly predictable sequence for most children. Atypical development is thus characterised by marked delays or characteristics that do not adhere to this predictable sequence. Such non-adherence to developmental milestones can often be the first indicator or identifier of a child’s engagement with EI.

What Is Identification? Identification of difference or delay is different from diagnosis. It is never the role of educators to undertake diagnosis. Given their training and experience, educators can play an integral role in the identification of difference in a young child’s development. Identification involves recognition that there is a concern about the child’s current level of development. Identification can be made by a wide range of people working

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with families and young children. It is not a diagnosis, rather an indicator that further investigation is needed, and can be a precursor to referring on to specialised services, including EI. Think about a time you were involved in identifying a child/children with additional needs? What made this situation one of identification? How does identification differ from diagnosis?

Who Is Involved in EI? EI delivery is undertaken by a range of professionals, including but not limited to: speech-language pathologists, educators, audiologists, physiotherapists, and occupational therapists (OT). EI programmes also often draw on the expertise of specialist medical personnel, psychologists and paediatricians. As young children’s needs are often complex, a multi- and transitional team approach is employed, with a team working together and individually with the child and family to maximise the child’s development. Professionals may also work in group sessions with a group of children, to provide a holistic programme for each child. By working together, the professionals are able to take a more integrated approach to specialised sessions. For example, the physiotherapist incorporates shared goals such as listening and communication into physiotherapy sessions and the occupational therapist works with the audiologist and other professionals to manage auditory and tactile defensive behaviours. In this manner, expertise from a specific session can be carried across into other settings. Yet, it is critical to remember that a key premise of EI is that parents are the primary caregivers and teachers of their children. A fundamental concept of EI ensures that parents and family members are proactive, informed, and engaged participants in the support of their child from the outset. We can use the example of Zeinab in Scenario 1 to illustrate a model of family-centred practice as a support for Zeinab and her family. We met Zeinab and her family earlier in Chap. 11 (Supporting Positive Peer Social Interactions and Healthy Relationships). Zeinab is an only child and a recent arrival to the country from Kuwait. After only one week at the preschool, her enjoyment and talent in drawing and painting have been observed by Ms. Fatma Mahmoud, her teacher. Yet, Zeinab and her parents have little to no English, and Zeinab is withdrawn and prefers to play alone. In order to settle Zeinab and offer some support to her family, Ms. Mahmoud is able to communicate with them in Arabic, but realises that this is only a short-term solution. In subscribing to the Centre’s philosophy of cultivating and valuing partnerships between families, staff, and the community, Ms. Mahmoud and the other staff engage the support of other Arabic families at the Centre and from the local community to organise a welcome function for Zeinab and

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her family. This event can initiate the process of social support involved in settling into a new community. The Centre staff could also engage a range of professionals to assist in Zeinab’s inclusion into preschool life. This could include a speech-language pathologist to assist with language learning, and a child psychologist to provide ideas of how to utilise Zeinab’s interest in drawing and painting in supporting her transition to a new country.

Context of EI in Australia The earlier a child is identified with a disability and/or delay, the more likely they are to benefit from targeted early intervention (Early Childhood Intervention Australia [ECIA], 2016, p. 4). Australia has no laws that mandate early intervention provision. Yet, despite this lack of legislative support, Australian Government initiatives have provided a strong underpinning for developing and implementing inclusive, quality early childhood education opportunities for all students, that is, including children with disability (ECIA, 2016). These initiatives include the development of the Early Years Learning Framework (DEEWR, 2009), and the National Quality Framework (ACECQA, 2012). In July 2013, the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) (National Disability Insurance Agency, n.d.), a reform of international significance, was launched by the federal government in specific sites around Australia with full implementation expected across the country by 2019–2020. The intent of the NDIS was to provide more effective and equitable funding and services for persons with disability from birth to age 65. Delivered under the auspice of the National Disability Insurance Agency (NDIA), the NDIS allows for the choice of service: what, how, where and when, directly from providers. Each participant in the NDIS has a plan, which outlines the supports that will be funded or provided to them by providers, registered and approved by the NDIA. Previous support packages, took the form of discrete, one-time monetary supports specific to accessing early intervention, such as Better Start for Children with Disability and the Helping Children with Autism package. These packages are now transitioning across to the NDIS. Although the transition to a “birth-to-death” funding package has alleviated a number of concerns for families and carers with respect to their child’s care and access to support services across the lifespan, transition to the NDIS has not been without its difficulties. Ranasinghe, Jayaseelan, White, and Russo (2017) posit a number of reasons given for the difficulties faced by families when registering for the NDIS. These include parents’ lack of awareness of available supports, complexity of application forms, restricted computer access and skills and the information provided by the diagnosing and treating health professionals. Many of the EI programmes are working together to supporting parents in preparing for the NDIS, with many parents well prepared and great advocates of their children.

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Working with Families What is a family? A family encompasses a wide variety of social, cultural, economic, and symbolic meanings. These meanings shift across socio-economic class, ethnicity, gender, race, age, and sexuality, with definitions varying greatly according to legal, cultural, and religious influences. It is important to remember that a family system includes all individual family members, and this may include members not related by blood or connected by genealogy but are very much considered family. Each member of the family system has their own personal capabilities and skills which can be helpful in the development of supports for their child. Think about your family. How would you describe them? On a piece of paper, using any type of representation, illustrate your family constellation. What is it that makes your family unique? How does your family differ from those of your friends or colleagues? Parents are the primary caregivers and teachers of their children. In EI programmes, it is critical to ensure that parents and family members are proactive, informed, and engaged participants in their child’s therapy from the outset (Popp & You, 2016). It is critical for EI staff to begin establishing social connections and relationships at the commencement of the therapeutic process to facilitate family and community inclusion and to foster the development of ongoing collaborative partnerships between service providers and families. However, it is important to remember to start where the family is at. Families may require time. Most parents have been shocked or traumatised by the diagnosis and early experiences and may find it hard to focus. Professionals therefore need to be patient and listen to their story and assist them be ready for the journey ahead. Some simple ways to foster supportive collaborations with families include: (1) Find out who makes decisions, who to invite to meetings, who to invite to participate in programme activities. (2) Find out how to address parents and other adult family members. If you are not sure, do not guess! Simply ask family members how they like to be addressed and how to pronounce their names. (3) If needed, work with an interpreter familiar with both the language and the culture of the family. This can be a family friend or a member of the family’s community. (4) Finally, listen to the family. Make the time and effort to hear and connect with what the family has to say. By doing so, professionals will develop a greater understanding of individual family’s concerns and priorities for their child, and lays the foundations for a productive, respectful collaborative partnership.

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The establishment of positive engagement with children and families is essential in creating an inclusive environment and curriculum. Of paramount importance is the ascertaining of the family’s concerns, goals, and expectations for their child. It is critical that services ensure families know the programme goals and expectations and are central in the determination of priorities for their child. Building relationships through communication and collaboration allows for transparency in the planning process and provides families with support in making decisions and setting goals. The recording of goals and expectations for the child and their family is made using an Individualised Family Service Plan (IFSP).

Individualised Family Service Plans An Individualised Family Service Plan (IFSP) documents and guides the early intervention process for children and their families. Gatmaitan and Brown (2016) note that “the IFSP document should contain outcomes that promote child participation within natural routines, and strategies that support family capacity in enhancing child development” (p. 14). Building a family’s self-efficacy through confidence in mastery and control over their child’s care has been suggested as a contributing factor in positive long-term outcomes for both the child and their family (Guralnick, 2001; Popp & You, 2016). The IFSP contains information about the services required by the child and their family to both facilitate development of the child and support the family in this process. The IFSP is developed by a team of stakeholders, central of which are the child and their family. It is a document that revolves around the family and is different to a personalised learning plan in that it includes targeted outcomes for both the individual child and for the family as a whole. Personalised plans, discussed in earlier chapters (see Chaps. 5–7 and 9), are targeted towards individual students and document individual goals for learning and behaviour. It is worthwhile noting that the IFSP as a document is important, but the process of collaboration and engagement with families in its development and subsequent implementation is far more so (Cologon & Cocksedge, 2014). The steps to developing an IFSP begin with the collecting of information and determining priorities for the child and their family (Shelden & Rush, 2013). Some important questions could include: What activities does your child enjoy? What things are they good at? What are your hopes for your child? What concerns do you have for your child/for yourself? What supports do you need? Do you know where to access these? Questions such as these will afford a starting point for the setting of goals. The process of creating SMART goals was introduced in Chap. 9 (Principles of Behaviour Support) and discussed further in Chap. 10 (Communication). It is important to set both short-term and long-term goals, for both the child and for the family, written in a manner that is easily understood by the family. The plan then records the strategies that will be utilised to achieve the set goals, noting any supports or resources needed to support implementation of the strategies. An action item of

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who will do what/who is responsible for what/ and by when is also a useful addition to any IFSP. Finally, an IFSP needs to note a review date, when the team will reconvene and assess progress. The involvement of and engagement with families is a critical element of the planning process. How will you create a sense of partnership with families, so they can see that their voices are heard, their input valued and their ideas actioned? What strategies can you use to both promote and maintain this positive, dynamic relationship? We can explore the development of an IFSP by returning to Scenario 1 and addressing the needs of Claire and her family. Claire is 4 years and 2 months old and presents with separation anxiety. Her teacher, Ms. Mahmoud, is concerned that Claire continues to have difficulties settling into the routine of the Centre on a daily basis, despite having been attending the preschool for more than a year. Claire becomes emotionally distressed each morning when she is dropped off at preschool; she does not like change in the routine and can become upset when left on her own. Her distress is exacerbated when she cannot see Ms. Mahmoud, even when she is playing. It is clear that intervention is required to support Claire and her participation in the preschool programme. Ms. Mahmoud is of the belief that Claire is experiencing separation anxiety and has asked the Preschool Director to organise a meeting with Claire’s parents to discuss their concerns and develop a plan of support for Claire. Ms. Mahmoud acknowledges her limited understanding of anxiety disorders and is hoping that Claire’s family will agree to the involvement of a local child psychologist as part of Claire’s intervention team. The focus on maximising Claire’s developmental and learning outcomes within the context of her family and the multidisciplinary team (see Chap. 8—Collaboration) will see other participants involved in supporting Claire. These could include: her siblings, other family members (e.g. grandparents), Claire’s educator from the previous year, and Claire’s friends. Together, this team will work with Claire and her family in developing an intervention of support, documented in an Individualised Family Service Plan (IFSP).

Conclusion Chapter 2 introduced the concept of diversity as part of the human condition and illustrated how differences and similarities of different kinds are constructed as diversity and the subsequent implications for discrimination, inclusion and exclusion. Inclusion is premised on true acceptance of and respect for a child. As educators, we

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acknowledge the individuality of every child in our expectations and through our practice. We facilitate the making of decisions and choices that are respected and embraced enthusiastically by all members of the educational team. We accept that for some children, additional support and specialised teaching may be required. Inclusive practice serves to involve each child in the group with dignity and high expectation. These are the underpinning principles of quality, family-centred early intervention.

References Cologon, K., & Cocksedge, D. (2014). The A–Z of IFSPs, IEPs and SSPs!: Positive planning for inclusion. In K. Cologon (Ed.), Inclusive education in the early years: Right from the start (pp. 210–241). South Melbourne, VIC: Oxford University Press. Gatmaitan, M., & Brown, T. (2016). Quality in individualized family service plans: Guidelines for practitioners, program, and families. Young Exceptional Children, 19(2), 14–32. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/1096250614566540. Guralnick, M. J. (2001). A developmental systems model for early intervention. Infants and Young Children, 14(2), 1–18. Jackiewicz, S., Saggers, S., & Frances, K. (2011). Equity of access: Requirements of Indigenous families and communities to ensure equitable access to government-approved childcare settings in Australia. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 36(3), 100–108. National Disability Insurance Agency. (n.d.). What is the NDIS? Retrieved from https://www.ndis. gov.au/understanding/what-ndis. Popp, T. K., & You, H. K. (2016). Family involvement in early intervention service planning: Links to parental satisfaction and self-efficacy. Journal of Early Childhood Research, 14(3), 333–346. https://doi.org/10.1177/1476718X14552945. Pretti-Frontczak, K., & Bricker, D. (2004). An activity-based approach to early intervention (3rd ed.). Baltimore, MA: Brookes Publishing Company. Ranasinghe, T., Jayaseelan, D., White, D., & Russo, R. (2017). Parents’ experiences in registering with and accessing funding under the national disability insurance scheme for early intervention services for children with developmental disabilities. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 23, 26–32. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpc.13312. Shelden, M. M., & Rush, D. D. (2013). IFSP outcome statements made simple. Young Exceptional Children, 17(4), 15–27. Vakil, S., Welton, E., O’Connor, B., & Kline, L. S. (2009). Inclusion means everyone! The role of early childhood educator when including young children with autism in the classroom. Early Childhood Education Journal, 36, 321–326.

Additional Readings Australian Children’s Education and Care Quality Authority (ACECQA). (2012). National quality framework. [online] Available at: http://www.acecqa.gov.au/national-quality-framework. Accessed August 17, 2018. Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR). (2009). The early years learning framework for Australia, belonging, being, becoming. Retrieved from Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR): https://www.education.gov.au/ early-years-learning-framework-0.

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Early Childhood Intervention Australia (ECIA). (2016). National guidelines: Best practice in early childhood intervention. Sydney, Australia: Author.

Chapter 13

Transitions in Education

Principles and practices of inclusive education and special education Effective teaching practices to respond to the diversity of the classroom Behaviour support (whole-school and classroom)

Collaboration

Attitudes

Cathy Little

Transitions Linked scenaria: 1 (Max) 3 (Hope) Keywords Transition · Planning · Secondary school · Early childhood · Kindergarten · Primary school · Collaboration Outcomes: By the end of this chapter, you will be able to: • Distinguish between transition across environments (vertical) and transition within environments (horizontal). • Demonstrate awareness of the planning for support of students through key transition points. • Describe a range of collaborations when engaging in transition. • Explain the planning that supports optimal transition in education.

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 I. Spandagou et al., Inclusive Education in Schools and Early Childhood Settings, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-2541-4_13

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Introduction This chapter addresses the issues surrounding transition for students with identified needs throughout and across their educational life. Transition, whenever it occurs, marks a significant change in the ways a child participates in the family and community. Different environments hold different roles and expectations for children and young people; thus, they are times filled with change and uncertainty for many involved in the process. Rous and Hallam (2011, p. 4) argue that transition can be described as representing two types of change in services or programmes: vertical and horizontal. Vertical transitions represent changes over time (primary to secondary school), whereas horizontal transitions represent changes within a fixed period of time (e.g. an activity, a day or week). Therefore, “transition” can represent a broad range of changes across programmes during a day or over time and/or within programmes as children move from activity to activity or students move from classroom to classroom.

Horizontal Transitions Children with disability and who are at risk are likely to be served by a diverse number of agencies and programmes at any given time (educational, health, social services) requiring multiple transitions across a day, a week, or a month. For example, in Scenario 1, we meet Max, a young preschooler, who has been diagnosed as having profound sensorineural hearing loss in both ears. Max and his family have spent a lot of time in waiting rooms, seeing medical specialists and therapists who are supporting Max with his hearing loss. Most recently, Max received a set of cochlear implants, which have opened up a whole new world for him. But, it is not uncommon for Max and his family to visit the hospital, his paediatrician, speech-language pathologist, and occupational therapist in the same week, fitting appointments around Max’s days at preschool. Such a week is not uncommon for families living with a child with disability. This example of Max illustrates multiple movements between programmes and services within the same day or week. However, horizontal transition points also occur between classrooms within the same school or setting and between activities in such settings. It is important for educators to acknowledge that for many children and students, the need for structure and predictability in their surrounding environment is paramount. For many students, not knowing what is expected, where to be, when to be there, what is coming next, and so forth can result in the presentation of disruptive and challenging behaviours, sensory processing overload, and anxiety. Transition between places and activities occurs as a part of every student’s daily routine. Most children easily adapt to the change of activities or place, seamlessly moving between activities; yet for others, the move between contexts causes anxiety and stress, often expressed through behavioural outbursts. Such outbursts are often

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misinterpreted as the child misbehaving, when in fact they are communicating that they do not understand what is required of them. Anxiety and confusion for students diagnosed with autism, for example, may be expressed through an increase in repetitive behaviours or obsessions. Students may begin rocking, or pacing around the room, or engaging in other self-stimulatory behaviours in an attempt to self-regulate their anxiety. Research suggests the use of visual cues to be a highly effective strategy in promoting a smooth transition for children and students (Thelen & Klifman, 2011). Visual cues allow students to see what you mean, complementing the instruction they have heard you say. Visual timetables allow students to see the sequence of upcoming events and remove the uncertainty as to what is coming next. Knowing what is coming allows students to prepare themselves for the upcoming change. As students progress through the education system, the horizontal transitions experienced can become more complex. When entering high school, students are expected to utilise an array of organisation skills to manage timetables, homework, and assignments. Students with disability often have difficulty with the development of these organisation skills. This is important to address early as “difficulties with planning and organising can have a significant effect on a child’s ability to reach their full academic potential” (Murin, Hellriegel, Mandy, & Ebooks Corporation, 2016, p. 61). Secondary school settings can be highly demanding environments, more so than primary schools, as students are not in one room for the whole day. Students move from one classroom to another, often multiple times throughout the day, moving from one lesson to another, from one subject to another, from one teacher to another. Knowing where to be, for what subject area, and what materials are required for that lesson can cause an increase in stress for many students. A simple visual strategy for support is to provide them with a colour coded timetable. Each subject is allocated a colour, and this colour is used on the timetable to indicate when this class occurs. For example, English lessons may be coloured red, maths lessons blue, and so forth. Exercise books and textbooks can be covered in coloured paper to match the colour on the timetable, English books in red and maths textbook in blue. Other subject required materials can also be labelled using the respective colour. This simple yet effective strategy helps with organisation allowing the student to arrive at the correct class, on time, with all prerequisite materials.

Vertical Transitions Traditionally, transitions in the educational context are defined as important milestones within the lifetime of an individual that signify a change either socially, academically, or physically. Key transition points are the initial move to childcare or preschool from home, followed by the transition to kindergarten, from primary to secondary school, culminating in the transition to post-school employment or study. These transitions between environments are termed vertical transitions. Transition

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into a new setting is a time of change for children and for families, as they experience a specific set of demands and adjust to meet those demands. A transition from one environment to another may involve some or all of the following: changes to the physical environment, different people, and different ways of doing things, changes to the peer group, different materials, and activities, changes in expectations and rules, and differences in how support is provided (Autism Association of Western Australia, 2008, p. 6). Think of a transition between environments that you remember clearly. Who was involved in the process? How prepared were you for the changes that it involved? Make a list of the ways this process could have been made easier for you. Although much of the current research focuses on transition to formal schooling, many young children actually experience a multitude of transitions before they enter school (Rous & Hallam, 2011). These include the transition points of hospital to home and the entry into childcare environments. For many children, the transition into childcare marks the first separation from family members. This can be an emotional time for young children and for their families. For children, they are dealing with placement in a new and unfamiliar environment with carers who, at least initially, are strangers. For parents, the transition of their child into care is filled with a range of emotions, “handing over” their child for some or part of the week to another person. In what can be quite emotional times, good communication, reassurance, understanding, empathy, and support all become part of the educator’s repertoire. Starting primary school is the first transition into a more formal, structured educational environment for children. Thus, the expectations for young children and their families are significant. A child becomes a student. There are new rules to learn, new people to meet, and new places to see. For many children and their families, this poses a range of challenges and adjustments. The special learning needs of young children with disability or difficulties in learning or behaviour are best supported through a coordinated process to guide their transition to school. In some circumstances, the length and nature of this planning time may need to be significantly increased depending on the educational and other support needs of the student. The Early Learning Support Team (ELST) (see Chap. 8) is an example of a collaborative team that works together in the support of children with disability or learning/behaviour difficulty and their families. For young children transitioning into school, the ELST serves to coordinate this process. We can use Max in Scenario 1 as an example. Currently, Max is 4 years and 8 months old and has sensorineural hearing loss in both ears. He has been fitted with bilateral cochlear implants and is transitioning to school next year. Since receiving his implants, Max has developed spoken language and is confident in an environment where this is the primary mode of communication. Max’s ELST met at the end of last year to discuss where Max would be going to school and to begin planning

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his transition. The participants in Max’s ELST include: his parents, Ms. Mahmoud (EC Educator), Max’s paediatrician, his therapists, his doctor from the cochlear implant centre, Max’s support worker funded through the Disability and Inclusion programme. A new addition to Max’s team is Ms. Sue Johnstone, the kindergarten teacher from the school Max will be attending the following year. Together, this team meets and discusses considerations and supports involved in Max’s transition to school. Given his hearing loss, the receiving school is keen to plan for any adjustments that may be needed in supporting Max. Max’s receiving teacher, Ms. Johnstone, has already undertaken professional learning in supporting students with hearing impairments and has enroled in a Key Word Sign course so she can augment her oral language with sign to assist Max in the classroom. Max’s parents are confident that he will transition and adapt to his new setting with ease. As a major milestone in the life of any child, the transition from primary school to secondary school is inevitably wrought with anxiety, stress, nerves, and emotion for all students undertaking this process. Transitions from primary school to secondary school can include a change in physical environment, social groups, academic expectations, and class structures. Students are also encouraged to become more socially and academically independent, despite social and academic demands becoming more complex (Mandy et al. 2016). As such, this transition may be an overwhelming and difficult process for many students as it disrupts the safety of preferred routines and structures. The ability to adapt to the transition from primary school to high school has been shown to have significant influence on student’s academic success, social relationships, and long-term mental health (Hanewald, 2013; Tso & Strnadová, 2017). A study by Hughes, Banks, and Terras (2013) found that children with special education needs are at increased risk of poorer social and academic outcomes following their transition to high school when compared to their same aged peers. In Scenario 3, we met Hope. Hope is a 12-year-old girl who is transitioning to secondary school in the following year with the help of school staff and her grandparents. Hope is living with a moderate intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. At a meeting of the learning support team (LST) last year, when Hope started Year 5, the discussion of her transition to secondary school began. Hope and her grandparents were supported in their decision for Hope to attend the local high school. The LST then began planning for Hope’s transition. This plan included a range of supports, for example, ongoing collaborations between the primary and secondary school, professional development of staff at the secondary site to increase their knowledge and understanding of autism and intellectual disability, preparing Hope and her family for the upcoming move (visits to the new school, social stories including pictures of key people and places, and so forth). It is important to recognise that this transition team adhere to the underpinning principles of collaboration, as discussed in Chap. 8.

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What are the critical elements and pieces of information that need to be included on a transition plan? Who is responsible for this planning? Using the scenario of Hope, what key pieces of information need to be on her transition plan? Who are the people involved in her transition? What role/s do each of these people play? The transition from school to employment, further study community living and adult roles for students with disability or learning/behaviour needs is an ongoing process that begins almost as soon as the student enters secondary school. Postschool transition is a planned process which focuses on the student’s future needs. This long-term, planned transition aims to support the student in developing skills that will assist them in participating in all aspects of community life and become as independent as possible. Post-school options for students include further study, work, either independent or supported, and volunteering. While at secondary school, students can access a variety of workplace learning activities while they are still at school to help develop experience and provide a realistic understanding of the world of work. But, planning is the key to a successful transition to life after school. The very nature of transition implies movement “out” of one setting and “in” to another. For families of children with disability or learning/behavioural difficulties, the transition process requires additional thought, time, planning, and support to make the process as smooth and positive as possible. Supporting parent’s feelings of value and being welcomed in the school environment are central to creat effective partnerships and build trusting relationships. Students also play a significant role in their own transition. They must be afforded opportunities for authentic participation in the decision-making process. What are some ways you can engage students authentically in their own transition? How will you identify the individual needs and requirements of each student? Make a list of the ways you could engage with parents in supporting their child’s transition.

Planning for Transition It is important when planning for transition, at any stage, that all parties involved in the process work together. AAWA (2005, p. 20) suggest the following steps when planning for transitions. 1. Provide information to the receiving school or centre. 2. Undertake preparation for transition.

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3. Consider and anticipate in planning any difficulties that may arise. 4. Provide visual supports to the child/student to assist them to understand what is happening. 5. Familiarise the child/student with the new environment. 6. Provide information to other parents and children, where appropriate. Currently, there are no specific Commonwealth laws that require transition planning procedures for individuals with disability. However, Australia is a signatory to various international treaties that “make Australian educational jurisdictions obliged to provide effective transition supports” (Tso & Strnadová, 2017, p. 391) (see Chap. 1). Individual state governments have created various frameworks and support documents to support transition for students with disability, such as Who is Going to Teach My Child (NSW Department of Education, 2008), Transition Statements (Queensland Curriculum and Assessment Authority) and Transition: A Positive Start to School: A guide for families, early childhood services, outside school hours care services and schools (Victorian Government, 2009). However, the extent to which schools apply these documents varies considerably. While variation between procedures may be necessary to support the individual needs of children with disability, it is essential that all children are provided with the same opportunities for 18 support regardless of the variations in the processes of local systems. The National Disability Insurance Agency (NDIA) (National Disability Insurance Agency, n.d.) offers the School Leaver Employment Supports (SLES) programme to young people leaving school and transitioning to work. The SLES is an individualised approach to employment supports which can be included in NDIS plans alongside other “reasonable and necessary supports”, assisting participants for up to two years as they transition to employment.

Conclusion Affirmative transition experiences are vital to create positive learning environments. Feeling comfortable within the classroom is essential for all students, but particularly for children and students who may not cope well with changes to routine and the oftentimes unpredictable nature of learning environments and workplaces. Research reports that children who experience smooth transitions show increased motivation, higher achievement, and enhanced social relationships (Harper, 2016).

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References Autism Association of Western Australia. (2008). Supporting successful transitions in people with Autism. Subiaco, WA: Author. Hanewald, R. (2013). Transition between primary and secondary school: Why it is important and how it can be supported. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 38(1), 62–74. https://doi.org/ 10.14221/ajte.2013v38n1.7. Harper, L. J. (2016). Supporting young children’s transitions to school: Recommendations for families. Early Childhood Education Journal, 44, 653–659. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-0150752-z. Hughes, L. A., Banks, P., & Terras, M. M. (2013). Secondary school transition for children with special educational needs: A literature review. Support for Learning, 28(1), 24–34. https://doi. org/10.1111/1467-9604.12012. Mandy, W., Murin, M., Baykaner, O., Staunton, S., Hellriegel, J., Anderson, S., et al. (2016). The transition from primary to secondary school in mainstream education for children with autism spectrum disorder. Autism, 20(1), 5–13. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361314562616. Murin, M., Hellriegel, J., Mandy, W., & Corporation, Ebooks. (2016). Autism spectrum disorder and the transition into secondary school: A handbook for implementing strategies in the mainstream school setting. London, UK: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. National Disability Insurance Agency. (n.d.). What is the NDIS? Retrieved from https://www.ndis. gov.au/understanding/what-ndis. New South Wales Department of Education and Training. (2008). Who is going to teach my child? A guide for parents of children with special learning needs. Sydney: Author. Queensland Assessment and Reporting Authority (QCAA). Supporting children’s transition to school. Located at https://www.qcaa.qld.edu.au/kindergarten/qklg/supporting-transition-school. Rous, B. S., & Hallam, R. A. (2011). Transition services for young children with: Research and future directions. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, published online. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/0271121411428087. Thelen, P., & Klifman, T. (2011). Using daily transition strategies to support all children. YC Young Children, 66(4), 92–98. Tso, M., & Strnadová, I. (2017). Students with autism transitioning from primary to secondary schools: Parents’ perspectives and experiences. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 21(4), 389–403. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2016.1197324. Victorian Government. (2009). Transition: A Positive Start to School: A guide for families, early childhood services, outside school hours care services and schools.

Additional Readings Dockett, S., & Perry, B. (2015). Transition to school: Times of opportunity, expectation, aspiration, and entitlement. In J. M. Iorio & W. Parnell (Eds.) Rethinking readiness in early childhood education. Critical cultural studies of childhood. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. Early Childhood Intervention Australia. (2015). New South Wales Transition to School Resource. Downloaded from https://www.ecia.org.au/Transition-to-School. McCourt, B. (2017). The role of student engagement in the transition from primary to secondary school. Centre for Education Statistics & Evaluation. Retrieved from https://www.cese.nsw.gov. au//images/stories/PDF/transition-primary_secondary_AA.pdf. Str´nadova, I., & Cumming, T. M. (2016). Lifespan transitions and disability: A holistic perspective. Milton Park, UK: Routledge.

Chapter 14

Preparing for Post-Secondary Transition

Principles and practices of inclusive education and special education Effective teaching practices to respond to the diversity of the classroom Behaviour support (whole-school and classroom)

Collaboration

Attitudes

Michelle L. Bonati

Transitions Linked scenaria: 4 (Chris), and 5 (Mia, Sarah, and Mr Flanagan)

Keywords Transition · Person-centred planning · Post-secondary school · Quality of life · Taxonomy of transition programming · Interagency collaboration Outcomes: By the end of this chapter, you will be able to: • Understand the relationship between person-centred planning and student quality of life outcomes. • Describe the components of effective post-secondary transition programming that is culturally responsive. • Describe the current trends in service and support delivery for students who are preparing for post-secondary school transition.

Introduction This chapter begins by describing the relationship between person-centred planning and quality of life outcomes for students with disability, with a focus on the goals of transition planning. Secondary education should help prepare students with disability to meet their goals for post-secondary school life. Quality of life outcomes are © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 I. Spandagou et al., Inclusive Education in Schools and Early Childhood Settings, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-2541-4_14

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lower for individuals with disability in Australia than for people without disability, which highlights the need for improved secondary to post-high school transition practices. Examples in this chapter illustrate the process for implementing person-centred planning and the methods for implementing effective transition programming at the secondary school level using the Taxonomy of Transition Programming 2.0 Framework (Kohler, Gothberg, Fowler, & Coyle, 2016). These include student-focused planning, a secondary education programme structure that has adequate resources and opportunities for learning in the community, implementation of evidence-based practices for student development, opportunities for family involvement, and effective interagency collaboration. The examples describe considerations for how to ensure a person-centred approach that respects the values and culture of students and their families. The chapter concludes with the current trends in transition services and support delivery. Particular focus is given to the impact of the National Disability Insurance Scheme on transition service options.

Person-Centred Planning and Quality of Life Outcomes Poor post-school outcomes are major concerns for students with disability, which critically impacts the quality of life of these students (Children with Disability Australia [CDA], 2015). A person’s quality of life is determined by factors related to personal well-being (Chap. 2), which includes access to tertiary education, social inclusion in the community, and employment opportunities (Schalock, Verdugo, Gomez, & Reinders, 2016). The most recent Australian Bureau of Statistics (2016) survey found that Australians with disabilities objectively experience worse outcomes across major quality of life indicators than people without disabilities, including lower achievement for secondary and tertiary education and reduced participation in employment. The survey found only 41% of workforce-aged Australians with a disability have completed Year 12 of secondary school compared to 68% of those without a disability; only 17% of people with disability have completed a Bachelors degree compared to 30% of people without disability. The status of quality of life outcomes related to education and employment for individuals with disability in Australia highlights the need for improved transition practices. Student-centred planning is an approach that focuses on ensuring the student with the disability is at the centre of decision-making regarding their life. General procedures include use of non-jargon, everyday language, that values the person’s strengths and seeks to determine the supports and resources needed that will facilitate a person with a disability to meet their individualised goals. Person-centred planning also involves the people who are most significant in the life of the person with disability. The concept and practice of person-centred planning were developed in the 1980s (O’Brien & O’Brien, 2000) and were grounded in the principle of normalisation, which focuses on ensuring people with disability have equitable opportunities to experience life in a culturally normative manner as experienced by persons without disability (Wolfensberger, Nirje, Olshansky, Perske, & Roos, 1972). If we consider

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that students without disability in secondary school begin to plan for their future career aspirations, it becomes apparent that targeted person-centred planning that empowers students with disability to achieve their goals is essential, and educators have a significant role to play. The relationship between person-centred planning and quality of life outcomes can be illustrated in the case of Chris, a Year 7 student at Clearview Secondary School, who has diabetes that is not properly self-managed. Chris has many friends, but he is self-conscious about his condition. If Chris is not supported to develop his ability to manage his health condition and advocate for his needs, the impact on his wellbeing could be significant. Students with chronic health conditions, such as diabetes, asthma, HIV, and cancer can experience negative health complications while transitioning from child to adult health services and while they are increasingly responsible for self-management of their conditions (NASN, 2015). A person-centred approach to transition planning for Chris would ensure that his voice leads conversations, his family is involved, and collaboration occurs between the school and outside agencies, such as healthcare providers as part of the process. How might involving Chris in person-centred planning impact his current quality of life and his life after secondary school? What might teachers do to address Chris’ concerns about his peers finding out about his health condition?

Effective Transition Programming The Alice Springs (Mparntwe) Education Declaration proclaims that all students will be “continue to improve through formal and informal learning in further education, and training or employment, and acquire the skills to make informed decisions throughout their lives” (Council of Australian Governments—Education Council, 2019, p. 7). A recent review of evidence-based transition practices found that inclusive education in mainstream high school classes increases the likelihood of engagement in tertiary education (Cobb et al., 2013). Unfortunately, segregated education for Australian students with disability is increasing, and lack of access to the general curriculum continues to be a barrier to tertiary education (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2017). Educators seeking to improve post-secondary school outcomes for students with disability should implement evidence-based approaches to transition planning. A framework that has been widely adopted in the research literature is the Taxonomy of Transition Programming (Kohler, 1996). Person-centred (i.e. student-focused) planning is a main component of the Taxonomy of Transition Programming first described by Kohler (1996) and has recently been revised with version 2.0 (Kohler et al., 2016), as the evidence-base has increased

150 Student-focused planning •self-directed indvidualised education programmes •goal setting

14 Preparing for Post-Secondary Transition Student development

Interagency collaboration

Family engagement

•selfdetermination •self-advocacy •academic skills •social skills •work skills and experiences

•clear roles and responsbilities •supports provided to address needs and meet goals

•empowerment through culturally responsive practices

Programme structure •qualified teaching staff and sufficent resources •opportunities for communitybased instruction •social inclusion •high expectations

Fig. 14.1 Partial list of the Taxonomy of Transition Programming 2.0 (Kohler et al., 2016)

for specific transition practices. The taxonomy is comprised of five interrelated components: (a) student-focused planning, (b) student development, (c) interagency collaboration, (d) family engagement, and (e) programme structure. See Fig. 14.1 for a partial list of the practices attributed to each of the main components of the taxonomy. A person-centred approach to transition planning can be illustrated in the case of Mr. David Flanagan, a physical education and health teacher at Blackwater Creek Secondary School. Mr. Flanagan understands the importance of supporting students with disability in the development of their self-determination and self-advocacy skills and ensuring that his approach is culturally responsive to individual students and their families. Students who are self-determined are empowered to make decisions and choices for their lives (Wehmeyer, 2015). Explicit instruction for these skills aligns with the student development component of the transition programming taxonomy. One of Mr. Flanagan’s students, Sarah, who is a sixteen-year-old Aboriginal young woman, has a hearing loss. She struggles with verbal directions, particularly when she forgets to wear her hearing aid. Mr. Flanagan is supporting Sarah in taking a leading role in her next meeting in which her personalised learning adjustments and goals are discussed (which is commonly called Individualised Education Plan (IEP) in the literature and in the practice of many schools), so that she can better advocate for her needs in the future as an adult. Student-led personalised learning or IEP meetings can provide a means for students to become aware of their individual strengths, preferences, interests, and areas of need so that they will invest in collaboratively setting transition goals and understand what supports they need (Cavendish, Connor, & Rediker, 2017). A teacher guide for facilitating students to develop the self-advocacy skills and knowledge needed to lead to their IEP, Whose Future Is It, is available online at no cost (Zarrow Center for Learning Enrichment, 2014). Students who are actively engaged in developing their IEP goals for transition are more likely to take ownership for achieving them. Students can be taught self-management strategies to monitor and evaluate their progress towards meeting their IEP goals (Cavendish et al., 2017). Mr. Flanagan also wants to ensure that members of Sarah’s family and others with kinship ties from the Aboriginal community are engaged in the transition planning process, with an awareness of how cultural expectations related to post-school

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plans, communication, customs for sharing histories, and values should guide the process. Mr. Flanagan’s approach to transition planning addresses the family engagement component of effective transition programming and strives to be culturally responsive. Some specific strategies to promote family engagement include inviting the parents and supporters to attend the IEP meeting at a time and location that meets their needs and preferences, providing information in an appropriate language, acknowledging families’ contributions and role in developing and evaluating transition plans, and providing parents with opportunities to develop knowledge related to adult services (Cavendish et al., 2017). How might Sarah’s cultural background impact the process for person-centred planning? Mr. Flanagan is also concerned about another student, Mia, who he thinks may be experiencing internalising behaviours, which are typically defined as covert behaviours that are over-controlled and self-directed and often are related to anxiety and depression (Christie & Yell, 2013). Many students with internalising behaviours, like Mia, tend to be overlooked by teachers because their behaviours are not disruptive in the classroom, but these students can be at risk for suicide and for dropping out of school. Mr. Flanagan considers how he can incorporate awareness of mental health into his health curriculum and how he might connect Mia with mental health professionals in a manner that will not cause her to withdraw further. Mental health conditions, such as anxiety and depression, impact one in seven primary and secondary age students in any given year in Australia (Lawrence et al., 2015). To better address the needs of students, the National Education Initiative was launched in 2018, an integrated approach to supporting positive mental health for school-age children across Australia. Mr. Flanagan plans to implement the beyondblue secondary school programme, which is part of the nationwide initiative and offers a comprehensive research-based curriculum to support students in building resilience (beyondblue, 2018a). Mr. Flanagan also recently learned about how adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) could negatively impact health and wellbeing in childhood and later in adult life. Adverse childhood experiences include specific types of abuse, neglect, and other traumatic experiences that children could experience before the age of 18 (Sciaraffa, Zeanah, & Zeanah, 2018). When a student has behavioural or learning difficulties, teachers should be aware of the possibility that trauma could play a role. A positive relationship between a teacher and a student who has experienced trauma can serve as a protective factor for the student’s mental health. Mr. Flanagan suspects that Mia may be engaging in self-harming behaviours, which include actions to cause physical pain or injury to oneself (beyondblue, 2018b). A recent report on the mental health of children and adolescents in Australia (Lawrence et al., 2015) found that 10% of secondary school-age students engage in self-harm. One in 13 secondary age students considers attempting suicide, and one in 40 attempts suicide. Not all students who self-harm are suicidal, but it is a strong

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indicator that a student is in need of support for their mental health. By noticing the warning signs of suicide, teachers can help get students the support they need before it is too late. The warning signs for suicide include: • • • • • • • • • •

ideation of death substance abuse sense of purposelessness anxiety feelings of being trapped hopelessness withdrawal from friends, family, or activities previously enjoyed anger reckless behaviour, and dramatic mood changes (Wachter & Bouck, 2008).

Mr. Flanagan demonstrates the taxonomy component of interagency collaboration in his approach to meet Mia’s needs. Based on his concerns and to ensure Mia’s safety, Mr. Flanagan connects Mia and her family with counselling providers and collaborates with other school staff members to consider whether wrap around transition services focused on mental health might be appropriate to support Mia’s transition to post-school. Wrap around services are considered best practice for supporting youth with mental health conditions and involve a team-based process to provide individualised supports and services (Laporte, Haber, & Malloy, 2016). Educators can serve as facilitators of collaboration between the student, his or her family, the school, and the outside agency, as to more effectively provide services and to develop a seamless transition between child and adult services as the student finishes secondary school. Aligning with the programme structure component of the transition programming taxonomy, Mr. Flanagan’s school community enacts inclusion as a guiding value (Chap. 4). Teachers use flexible approaches to meet the individual needs of all students. Mr. Flanagan’s principal ensures all teachers have the professional development opportunities required to address the diversity of student needs at the school. Students with disability need to be able to participate in the general education curriculum to prepare for tertiary education and career opportunities. Teaching practices reflect an understanding that one-size-fits-all approaches to instruction are not going to meet the diverse needs of learners. Together, the five components of the Taxonomy of Transition Programming version 2.0 can serve as a guide for selecting the specific transition related evidencebased practices needed to meet the individualised needs of students with disability. The taxonomy components are interrelated, and by strengthening the connections between components, student post-school outcomes may improve to an even greater extent (Cobb et al., 2013). For example, if teachers in mainstream schools incorporate educational approaches that provide natural opportunities to promote learning in the community, such as through work experiences and service-learning, all students will benefit, including students with disability (O’Brien, Bonati, Gadow, & Slee, 2019). These types of approaches enable teachers to address the programme structure component by implementing an evidence-based practice of community-based

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instruction while maintaining an inclusive approach to education and addressing the student development component of the taxonomy.

Current Trends in Transition Services and Supports Although the evidence is clear that person-centred transition planning supports positive post-school outcomes, the current Australian legislation does not mandate transition planning for students with disability during secondary school. Poor preparation and lack of transition services directly link to the low employment and tertiary outcomes of young adults with disability (CDA, 2015). However, the voices of marginalised people with disability have prompted some reforms. The landmark Australian Shut Out Report, with dramatic real-life stories, illustrated the enduring social exclusion of people with disability (FaHCSIA, 2009). The subsequent Disability Care and Support report (Commonwealth Productivity Commission, 2011) laid the groundwork for Australia to develop a national approach to person-centred support and services for people with disability from birth to retirement age through the passage of NDIS Act (2013). The development of the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) represents a large shift in how funding for disability services and support has traditionally been available. Before the NDIS, disability service providers received block funding from the Australian government and then offered services to people with disability. This system was found to be widely underfunded and inefficient and provided people with disability little choice regarding the provider or type of services they could receive. By shifting to an individualised funding model through the NDIS, an intended outcome is to provide people with disability more choice and control over the services they receive to support their full inclusion in society (CDA, 2015). One of the aims of the NDIS is to improve transition from secondary school for students with disability by shifting to a person-centred approach to supports and services. The NDIS introduced the School Leaver Employment Support (SLES) with the goal of providing eligible Year 12 school leavers with a supported pathway from school into open employment by offering work experience, job training, and travel training (NDIA, 2017). Students who have had work experiences during secondary school tend to have better employment outcomes after secondary school than those who did not have work experiences (Cobb et al., 2013). How might teachers facilitate interagency collaboration involving the NDIA and transition age students with disability? All students who are interested should have the opportunity to participate in tertiary education to meet personal goals and to support opportunities for employment. Although protections mandated through anti-discrimination legislation apply from

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early childhood education through tertiary education, students with disability have significantly lower participation rates in tertiary education than students without disability (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2016). In the most recent Disability Standards for Education review (Urbis, 2015), lack of transition planning in secondary schools was identified as a barrier to tertiary education for students with disability. Seamless transition to tertiary education requires a collaborative effort between high schools, outside agencies, and tertiary educational institutions. The Commonwealth’s National Disability Coordination Officer Programme is a resource that educators can use to facilitate connections between the school, students with disability, and tertiary education providers, with information online and regional centres throughout Australia (Urbis, 2015). Other factors exist that have hindered students with disability from participating in tertiary education. In particular, students with intellectual disability have been directed towards a separate curriculum that does not academically prepare them for university course, nor does it allow students to earn an Australian Tertiary Admission Rank (ATAR), that would enable direct admission to university (NSW Education Standards Authority, 2019). Initiatives at two Australian universities aim to provide young adults with intellectual disability with an opportunity to experience university life, uni 2 beyond at the University of Sydney and the Up the Hill Project at Flinders University. Students with intellectual disability who participate in tertiary education have greater employment opportunities following their experiences (O’Brien et al., 2019). Educators at secondary schools can help ensure that all students who are interested in furthering their formal education understand their options for alternative pathways to university. These options include online foundation diploma courses, recognition of prior learning, and transferring to university after completing a Vocational Education and Training (VET) qualification at a Technical and Further Education (TAFE) institution (Online Study Australia, 2018). The roll-out of the NDIS has seen a fair share of problems with a lack of adequate qualified service providers, elimination of funding for disability advocacy groups, and lengthy time frames for performing eligibility assessments (Commonwealth Ombudsman, 2018). The NDIS also does not provide for direct funding for tertiary education or employment services. The gaps for meeting the needs of students with disability transitioning to life after secondary school are currently being identified, and the impact of NDIS on post-secondary transition is yet to be determined. Nonetheless, educators play a vital role in supporting students and their families to create a vision for their future, setting transition-related goals, and determining ways to help them achieve their dreams for their adult lives.

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Conclusion As illustrated throughout this chapter, planning for post-secondary transition is a collaborative endeavour that can best be approached through the Kohler Taxonomy of Transition 2.0 (Kohler et al., 2016). This taxonomy addresses the need for personcentred planning that involves all stakeholders and engages students in development activities aimed at achieving personalised post-school goals and positive quality of life outcomes. The NDIS and its individualised funding model present new opportunities and challenges for greater collaboration among students, families, educators, and other professionals from within schools and from outside agencies. As educators, we must take an active role in staying informed of NDIS policy and procedures so that we may serve as a resource for students and families.

References Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2016). 4430.0—Disability, ageing and carers, Australia: Summary of findings, 2015. Retrieved from http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/[email protected]/mf/4430.0. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2017). Disability in Australia: Changes over time in inclusion and participation in education (Cat. No. DIS 69). Canberra: AIHW. Retrieved from https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/34f09557-0acf-4adf-837d-eada7b74d466/ Education-20905.pdf.aspx. beyondblue. (2018a). Secondary school program. Beyond Blue Ltd. Retrieved from https://www. beyondblue.org.au/healthy-places/secondary-schools-and-tertiary/secondary-schools-program. beyondblue. (2018b). Self-harm and self-injury. Beyond Blue Ltd. BL/1302 03/18. Retrieved from http://resources.beyondblue.org.au/prism/file?token=BL/1302. Cavendish, W., Connor, D. J., & Rediker, E. (2017). Engaging students and parents in transitionfocused individualized education programs. Intervention in School and Clinic, 52(4), 228–235. https://doi.org/10.1177/1053451216659469. Children with Disability Australia. (2015). Post school transition: The experiences of students with disability. Retrieved from https://www.cyda.org.au/search/details/85/post-school-transition-theexperiences-of-students-with-disability. Christie, C. A., & Yell, M. L. (2013). Introduction to emotional and behavioural disorders. In M. L. Yell, N. B. Meadows, E. Drasgow, & J. G. Shriner (Eds.), Evidence-based practices for educating students with emotional and behavioral disorders (2nd ed., pp. 3–22). Boston, MA: Pearson. Cobb, R. B., Lipscomb, S., Wolgemuth, J., Schulte, T., Veliquette, A., Alwell, M. … Weinberg, A. (2013). Improving post-high school outcomes for ransition-age students with disabilities: An evidence review executive summary (NCEE 2013-4012). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Commonwealth Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (FaHCSIA). (2009). SHUT OUT: The experience of people with disabilities and their Families in Australia. National disability strategy consultation report. Canberra: National People with Disabilities and Carer Council. Commonwealth Ombudsman. (2018). Administration of reviews under the national disability insurance scheme act 2013: Report on the national disability insurance agency’s handling of reviews. Retrieved from http://www.ombudsman.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0029/83981/ NDIS-NDIA-Final-report-on-administration-of-reviews-under-the-Act.pdf. Commonwealth Productivity Commission. (2011). Disability care and support: Report no. 54. Canberra: Author.

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Council of Australian Governments—Education Council. (2019). Alice Springs (Mparntwe) education declaration. Available at https://uploadstorage.blob.core.windows.net/public-assets/ education-au/melbdec/ED19-0230%20-%20SCH%20-%20Alice%20Springs%20(Mparntwe)% 20Education%20Declaration_ACC.pdf. Kohler, P. D. (1996). Taxonomy for transition programming: Linking research and practice. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Transition Research Institute. Kohler, P. D., Gothberg, J. E., Fowler, C., & Coyle, J. (2016). Taxonomy for transition programming 2.0: A model for planning, organizing, and evaluating transition education, services, and programs. Western Michigan University. Retrieved from https://www.transitionta.org/sites/default/ files/Tax_Trans_Prog_0.pdf. Laporte, T. M., Haber, M. G., & Malloy, J. M. (2016). Wraparound team composition, youth selfdetermination, and youth satisfaction in transition services. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 43(4), 611–629. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11414-014-9434-7. Lawrence, D., Johnson, S., Hafekost, J., Boterhoven De Haan, K., Sawyer, M. … Zubrick, S. R. (2015). The mental health of children and adolescents. Report on the second Australian child and adolescent survey of mental health and wellbeing. Canberra: Department of Health. National Association of School Nurses (NASN). (2015). Transition planning for students with chronic health conditions. NASN School Nurse, 30(2), 125–127. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 1942602X14560339. National Disability Insurance Agency (NDIA). (2017). School leaver employment support: General overview. Retrieved from https://www.ndis.gov.au/media/324/download. NDIS Act (National Disability Insurance Scheme Act). (2013). No. 20. Canberra: Office of Parliamentary Counsel. NSW Education Standards Authority. (2019). Special education needs—Years 11–12: Credentials. Retrieved from https://educationstandards.nsw.edu.au/wps/portal/nesa/11-12/Diversity-inlearning/stage-6-special-education/life-skills/credentials. O’Brien, P., Bonati, M. L., Gadow, F., & Slee, R. (Eds.). (2019). People with intellectual disability experience university life: Theoretical underpinnings, evidence and lived experience. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill | Sense. O’Brien, C. L., & O’Brien, J. (2000). The origins of person-centered planning: A community of practice perspective. In S. Holburn & P. Vietze (Eds.), Person-centered planning: Research, practice, and future directions. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. Online Study Australia. (2018). Alternative pathways to university. Retrieved from https:// onlinestudyaustralia.com/pathways-into-university/. Schalock, R. L., Verdugo, M. A., Gomez, L. E., & Reinders, H. S. (2016). Moving us toward a theory of individual quality of life. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 121, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1352/1944-7558-121.1.1. Sciaraffa, M. A., Zeanah, P. D., & Zeanah, C. H. (2018). Understanding and promoting resilience in the context of adverse childhood experiences. Early Childhood Education Journal, 46(3), 343–353. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-017-0869-3. Urbis. (2015). 2015 review of the disability standards for education 2005. Final report. Retrieved from https://www.education.gov.au/disability-standards-education. Wachter, C. A., & Bouck, E. C. (2008). Suicide and students with high-incidence disabilities: What special educators need to know. Teaching Exceptional Children, 41(1), 66–72. Wehmeyer, M. L. (2015). Framing the future: Self-determination. Remedial and Special Education, 36(1), 20–23. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741932514551281. Wolfensberger, W. P., Nirje, B., Olshansky, S., Perske, R., & Roos, P. (1972) The principle of normalization in human services. Toronto, ON: National Institute on Mental Retardation. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.unmc.edu/wolf_books/1. Zarrow Center for Learning Enrichment. (2014). Whose future is it? (2nd ed.). The University of Oklahoma. Retrieved from http://www.ou.edu/education/centers-and-partnerships/zarrow/ transition-education-materials/whos-future-is-it-anyway.

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Additional Readings Papay, C. K., & Bambara, L. M. (2014). Best practices in transition to adult life for youth with intellectual disabilities. Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals, 37, 136–148. Povenmire-Kirk, T. C., Bethune, L. K., Alverson, C. Y., & Kahn, L. G. (2015). A journey, not a destination: Developing cultural competence in secondary transition. Teaching Exceptional Children, 47(6), 319–328. https://doi.org/10.1177/0040059915587679. Shogren, K. A., Wehmeyer, M. L., Burke, K. M., & Palmer, S. B. (2017). The self-determination learning model of instruction: Teacher’s guide. Lawrence, KS: Kansas University Center on Developmental Disabilities. Retrieved from https://beach.ku.edu/sites/default/files/SDLMITeachers-Guide_4-2017.pdf.

Chapter 15

Conclusion

Principles and practices of inclusive education and special education Effective teaching practices to respond to the diversity of the classroom Behaviour support (whole-school and classroom)

Collaboration

Attitudes

Ilektra Spandagou, Cathy Little, David Evans, and Michelle L. Bonati

Transitions

Keywords Inclusive education · Special education · Attitudes · Collaboration · Teaching practices · Behaviour support · Transition planning We proposed different ways to read this book at the opening chapter. We used a common framework as a compass to this journey but we left it open-ended. We write this closing chapter with some trepidation, as we do not know what you, the reader, brought to the journey, how it unfolded for you, and what you gathered during it. We hope that you brought a passion for education and its potential to change lives, a belief in the learning of all children and students, and your own ability to contribute positively to this learning. We hope that engaging with this book added to your toolkit as an educator. Perhaps it clarified your ideas, gave you a better understanding of the policy and practice context, and some strategies for your own practice. We are aware that we did not cover everything. In fact, we are aware that covering everything is not possible, so this was never our aim. In the last few pages, we are going to return to the framework we introduced and sum up some key points. The framework includes four thematic aspects: (a) the principles and practices of inclusive education and special education; (b) behaviour support; (c) effective teaching practices; and (d) transitions. But, we will begin with the two central concepts that we introduced: attitudes and collaboration.

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 I. Spandagou et al., Inclusive Education in Schools and Early Childhood Settings, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-2541-4_15

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Attitudes We have demonstrated how important attitudes are throughout the book. We would like to focus on educators’ attitudes. There is a lot of research on educators’ attitudes towards the education of students with disability and especially in regular schools. There is a lot of discussion in the media about teachers’ concerns about having students with disability in their classrooms and the extent that they feel prepared. Reading the research on teachers’ attitudes can be disheartening. For over 70 years, there is little evidence of change. Teachers tend to be in favour of inclusion in principle, but they raise concerns about whether it is a feasible project. This is a recurrent finding. Scruggs and Mastropieri (1996) conducted a meta-synthesis of 20 research studies covering the period 1958–1995. They found that there was no relation between attitudes and the year of publication, i.e. there was almost no change in attitudes over that period. This seems to be still the case. Their explanation was that teachers responded to students with disability “in the context of procedural classroom concerns (which have improved little if any in recent decades), rather than in the context of social prejudice and attitudes towards social integration (which appear to have improved somewhat in recent decades)” (p. 71). What this means is that while there are more positive attitudes towards people with disability in general, there has been little change in how we educate students and children in our classrooms and educational settings. Instead of the education reform that has being anticipated since UNESCO’s The Salamanca statement and framework for action on special needs education in 1994 that introduced inclusive education in international policy, there are increased pressures in educational systems that compete with their equality and inclusive dimensions. Teachers experience these pressures and add on their concerns about their preparedness to address the needs of all students and especially those that are considered more challenging. What we have argued in this book is not that these concerns are not valid, but rather that children and students are not the “problem”. It is not the disability that causes these issues but rather the environmental and attitudinal barriers experienced by children and students, their families, and their educators. In fact, we have argued that children and students with disability may challenge us to innovate and improve educational practices that will benefit all students. What we know is that what we usually call “potential” in education is not something that resides within the child, but rather it is the interaction of the child with the opportunities provided in the environment. We also know that potential is not a predefined ceiling to be reached. Returning to the example of intellectual disability discussed in Chap. 2, in a number of countries, students with Down syndrome attend post-secondary education including higher education. It is not that far in the past that the possibility of a university graduate with Down syndrome was unthinkable for many educators, but now, it is a reality. In that way, things have changed and there has been progress. We know what works and how to make it work, and perhaps the most essential ingredient is collaboration.

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Collaboration Collaboration is a process that is essential for educating and supporting the needs of students with disability that involves at least two persons engaged in achieving a common goal through shared responsibility and equal partnership (Friend & Cook, 2013). A related concept of consultation is mandated within the Disability Standards for Education (Commonwealth, 2005), as the obligation of education providers to engage with the child or student with disability and their family to identify barriers to their learning and provide reasonable adjustments. As discussed in Chap. 3, schools must provide evidence of their collaboration and consultation with children with disability and their families as an annual requirement for the Nationally Consistent Collection of Data process (NCCD, n.d.), which in part determines allocations for supporting students with disability. Educators can strive to use culturally responsive, person and family-centred, and strength-based approaches to form trusting and productive collaborative relationships with families (Woods, Wilcox, Friedman, & Murch, 2011). Throughout the text, we have provided examples of collaboration and consultation in action. The primary benefits of collaboration include preventing and remediating academic, behaviour, communication, and social challenges. Educators collaborate with a wide variety of stakeholders for several purposes. In addition to the student and family as central team members, other possible collaborative team members may include: • other educators • related service professionals, such as speech-language pathologists, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, and behaviour specialists • medical professionals, such as physicians, medical specialists, and nurses • paraprofessionals (i.e. teaching assistants) • students with disability and their peers. With the aim of preventing and remediating challenges, educators may collaborate with some or all of these stakeholders to: • design curricula aligned with the principles of Universal Design for Learning to meet the needs of the widest possible range of learners and eliminate barriers to the learning environment • conduct assessment of student learning needs to: – – – –

determine eligibility for services identify barriers to learning design academic, social, communication, or positive behaviour interventions identify supports or reasonable adjustments that are needed.

• implement instruction or interventions as part of a multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary, or transdisciplinary team, or instruction through a co-teaching model

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• monitor student progress to: – determine instruction or intervention effectiveness – adjust instructional intensity. • teach students with disability and their peers collaboration skills that encourage peer interaction, positive school climate, and increased academic achievement • support student transitions throughout their education and in preparation for postschool life. Examples of supportive collaborative relationships include those demonstrated by Ms. Fatma Mahmoud, an early childhood educator, whose interactions with Zeinab and her family (see Chaps. 11 and 12) illustrated family-centred, strength-based approaches and collaboration with other early childhood educators (see Chap. 7). In Chaps. 10 and 11, we met Ms. Sophie Kouka, a secondary maths teacher, who demonstrated how educators can form collaborative teams to assess and determine interventions and supports needed for two of her students, Craig, who was exhibiting challenging behaviour, and John, an Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) device user to develop communication and peer supports. Ms. Kouka also demonstrated collaboration when adjusting instructional intensity, interagency collaboration, and support for Chris’ transition, as a student with diabetes discussed in Chaps. 7, 11, and 14. These exemplars, along with several others throughout the text, highlight the critical importance of educators’ ability to collaborate. Effective collaboration requires skilled communication, self-awareness, empathy, and a solution-focused mindset. All of these skills can be developed over time with practice and a commitment to work with others for the best possible outcomes for children and students with disability.

Principles and Practices of Inclusive Education and Special Education We have presented examples of what can be called a principled approach to education (Ainscow et al., 2006). Such an approach requires us to clearly express the principles that inform all our decisions. Are, for instance, equity, inclusion, and participation key values of education? If yes, how can these be achieved? Such an approach requires us to engage with principled practice and to involve the whole of the school community. In the literature, there has been emphasis on the role of school principals in this process as they can support or hinder the articulation and realisation of such principles (Graham & Spandagou, 2011). Examples of this principled practice include the approach by the principal of Blackwater Creek Secondary School in Chap. 11, and how educators identify support needs to realise their vision (Chaps. 4 and 14). While there is evidence that directors and principals can make a difference, overemphasising this may result in focusing on the charisma of the individual rather than the process of building a community with common principles and well-defined practices.

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It is principles that guide practice. There are practices that clearly promote a deficit approach to children and students, but many practices have the potential to promote a strength-based, participatory approach, as discussed in Chap. 6, if they are used appropriately. Whether they are appropriate in a specific setting is to be determined by whether they promote the agreed principles. This applies to both inclusive education and special education. For Thuy, for example, special education facilitates her mobility and orientation and access to braille as discussed in Chaps. 5, 7, and 8. A special education teacher, mobility and orientation specialist, and other support personnel are involved in her education. Thuy’s teachers learn from and are supported by these specialists, as it is the case with Ms. Marion MacGregor in Chap. 8. These services can be offered in an inclusive way in the classroom and the school, or in ways that separate Thuy from her peers. Sometimes practices are used in ways that are customary, convenient, or easier to fit with compliance expectations. These ways may not promote principled practice. Having the opportunity to check practice against agreed principles is essential. This takes us back to collaboration.

Effective Teaching Practices The conceptualisation of effective teaching practices is a part of education debates and issues. There is a debate regarding what is an evidence-based practice, practice-based evidence, promoting practices, or positive pedagogies. You examine the literature on early reading, and there are as many ideas as to what constitutes a quality early reading programme, as there are points of view. In all of these robust and important debates, the child and student must be at the centre. How the child and student responds to the education programme and/or practice must the key criteria to establishing “effective”. The idea that every child and student will learn and respond to one instructional practice, or approach to organising content, knowledge, skills, and values, is difficult to justify from the research. If you examine research on an evidence-based instructional practice (e.g. peer tutoring), you will find that it has differing levels of effectiveness with differing groups of children and students, in differing subject areas, with differing educators, in differing schools, states and provinces, and countries. It is why the transfer from well-funded research projects into everyday school environments is difficult. It is important that every educator makes judgment on the teaching practices they use within the classroom to establish their effectiveness. Continuing to utilise practices that are not resulting in child and student learning would by definition be a barrier to children and students accessing a quality education. It is a barrier. Even if most students are learning, Florian (2014) challenges us to develop inclusive pedagogies that reach all students. For many of us, reaching all is the difficult part. Some of the most vulnerable students within this context are students with disability. In a recent address, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Michelle Bachelet, challenged state parties with the following statement: “Children with disabilities

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must have a say in all matters that affect the course of their lives…They must be empowered to reach their full potential and enjoy their full human rights—and this requires us to change both attitudes and environmental factors”. (Bachelet, 2019; emphasis added). As educators, we do not have to have every possible effective practice for every child and student up our sleeve. Burnout would be very high. Working within a collaborative education environment is the key to support each other to achieve the very best in teaching practices in our classrooms. In outlining the key elements of quality inclusive schooling environments, Hoppey and McLeskey (2014) talk about “school cultural and organizational qualities”, and “school instructional qualities” (p. 20). One cannot exist without the other. Being part of a collaborative problemsolving team that makes data-based decisions about teacher practice is a key way to maximise the chances that all students will be recipients of high-quality instruction. In building our professional wisdom in how to use evidence-based practices, or in building our own evidence-base, we become stronger teachers for all students. This strength then builds a stronger “unifying vision” within the school and maximises the “efficient and flexible use of resources” (p. 20). In building these strong instructional practices, we are also reducing the chances that students will engage in challenging behaviours. This action can be strengthened further through proactive classroom management or support strategies as a part of curriculum design and instructional practices (Nagro, Fraser, & Hooks, 2019). For example, visual supports that are mentioned within Chaps. 11 and 13 are the one representation that can be built into instructional sequences to build lesson structure and predictability. Florian (2014) and the universal design for learning framework mention providing students choice about what they will work towards, and how they wish to respond. In any of these scenaria, student participation and learning should be the focus. Are these practices leading to students participating in learning on the same basis as their peers? Are students reaching their personalised goals for the lesson or week? These questions come back to some of the foundational work undertaken in the earlier chapters and the human right of students with disability to access and participate in a quality education programme. As we build our capacity as teachers to be inclusive of all students, we work towards achieving the goals of inclusion. TASH (as cited in Jorgenson, 2018) states: [… all students] are presumed competent, are welcomed as valued members of all general education classes and extra-curricular activities in their local schools, fully participate and learn alongside their same age peers in general education instruction based on the general education curriculum, and experience reciprocal social relationships. (p. 1)

To achieve this lofty goal for all students, a range of quality classroom planning and instructional practices are needed. Ms. McGregor in catering for the unique needs of Thuy is working with her strengths in mobility in the classroom; she is collaborating with the itinerant vision teacher and the school learning support teacher. But, Ms. McGregor also knows that she needs to plan and deliver a classroom programme that

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is inclusive of Thuy; as she builds these skills, she most likely finds that all students are benefiting. Mr. Flanagan, an experienced teacher of Personal Development, Health and Physical Education (PDHPE), is working to build his understanding of a number of students with unique and diverse needs in his Year 10 class. He determined, for example as discussed in Chap. 5, to support Mark to participate in physical education. To do this, he will need to build his relationship with Mark and talk with Mark about possible goals he may have for physical education. Mr. Flanagan will also be collaborating with the school counsellor and the school learning support team to build his professional knowledge of the medical conditions that Mark is experiencing, and how his instructional practices can support Mark’s academic and social learning. In each of the scenaria used within the book, the educators in each setting, have an obligation to design education programmes that allow children and students with disability to participate on the same basis as their peers. Building this expertise is a core professional responsibility of the educator, in conjunction with their education colleagues, the student and their family, and community resources. Effective teaching practices need to be personalised at the child and student level and always be judged in regard to their participation and learning.

Behaviour Support At various stages throughout this book, we have discussed behaviour of 9children and students and highlighted the range of impact that perceived challenging or inappropriate behaviours can have on all participants across the educational environment. In Chap. , we provided a rationale for the focus on behaviour, claiming many educators felt unprepared in supporting the diverse behaviours they encounter in their settings and classrooms. Further, we highlighted the professional responsibility of teachers to create and maintain a safe and supportive learning environment as compliance with the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers (Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL), 2011). This chapter defined behaviour as the way in which one acts, towards both self and others. We noted that the terms used for the various displays of behaviour included externalising, behaviour directed outward towards others, and internalising, behaviours directed inward towards self. We acknowledged that some children and students display a combination of both internalising and externalising behaviours. We introduced the premise of behaviour as a form of communication, and the difficulty educators often experience in determining the communicative intent of a child’s or student’s behaviour. Behaviour can take many forms, academic behaviours, social behaviours, or communication behaviours. In their support of students and children, educators need to be able to plan for the individual behaviour needs of their students. Functional assessment was introduced as one process an educator could undertake to assist them in determining the unique purpose or communicative intent of a child’s or student’s

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behaviour. The systematic implementation of functional assessment was illustrated through five steps. It was highlighted that a range of purposeful data needed to be collected by educators, in order to ascertain the underlying motivation of a child’s or student’s behaviour. In support of the collaborative framework underpinning this book, we highlighted the need for educators in early childhood settings and school communities to support children’s and student’s behaviour within a service-wide/school-wide response framework, such as positive behaviour support. Using a tiered response model, behaviour is supported through increasingly targeted levels of support; universal primary prevention, specialised secondary prevention, and personalised tertiary prevention supports. The behavioural support needs of most children and students will be met through this whole-school planning. For example, Jack displayed a range of disruptive and distractive behaviours in class. Using the supports of the school’s collaborative team as discussed in Chap. 9, his teacher Ms. MacGregor was able to put in place a more specialised programme of behaviour support for Jack, but one that was still firmly embedded within a school-wide system of support. Other children and students, however, will require more personalised planning in the support of their behaviour. Claire, for example, who was experiencing separation anxiety when attending her early childhood service, needed a more individualised support as presented in Chap. 12 to respond to her specific needs. A foundational principle of behaviour support is that all behaviour is learned. Thus, if we expect a child or student to display a specific behaviour, then we have to teach them that behaviour. A range of strategies was introduced across several chapters to support the explicit teaching of behaviours. Chapter 11 introduced power cards (Spencer, Simpson, Day, & Buster, 2008) as a means of teaching a child or student an appropriate social behaviour. This social narrative strategy used a story to engage the student in gaining greater self-awareness regarding a particular behaviour and made expectations for the appropriate behaviour explicit. The use of peers as mediators of behaviour was discussed in Chap. 6. Peermediated instruction (PMI) is an evidence-based practice used to improve the collaborative social communicative behaviours of students (Watkins et al., 2015) through peers’ modelling and providing instruction. Using peers as teachers highlighted the importance of instruction in the teaching of appropriate behaviours, not in a formal lesson, but within a play-based context. Max received instruction in social communication behaviours from his peers within the natural context of the education environment. A recent study by Little and Evans (2019) showed the use of the PMI intervention facilitated social interactions between students with autism spectrum disorder and their same aged peers and showcased the efficacy of PMI as a sustainable, inclusive educational practice.

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Transitions In Chap. 13, we described two categories of transitions that children with disability and other specific learning needs experience throughout their education: vertical transitions and horizontal transitions (Rous & Hallam, 2011). Through the text, we discussed examples of how vertical transitions, which involve changes children experience over time, such as moving from early intervention services into primary school (e.g. Max and Zeinab), from year level to year level, primary to secondary school (e.g. Hope), and the transition to post-school life after secondary school (e.g. Sarah, Mia, and Chris) in Chap. 14. Within these examples, we described collaborative family-centred and person-centred approaches to address needs within the educational environment. For Max, a preschooler with a sensorineural hearing loss, transdisciplinary collaborative approaches enabled the multiple programmes involved in his early intervention services, including outside agencies, to craft a cohesive personalised plan for support and interventions to be implemented throughout the day. By using a transdisciplinary approach (Garland, McGonigel, Frank, & Buck, 1989), every member of Max’s collaborative support team planned together to provide complementary services and shared responsibility to ensure his goals were achieved. The introduction of the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS, 2013) is aimed at ensuring person-centred approaches but has also added another layer of complexity for educational settings to engage in effective interagency collaboration. As described in Chaps. 2 and 13, as Hope transitioned from primary school to secondary school, educators and school administrators from both schools needed to effectively communicate to ensure that the educational environment at her secondary school was prepared to meet Hope’s needs. As part of effective transition planning, Hope’s new secondary school teachers attended a professional development workshop on inclusive practices to support students with autism spectrum disorder. Hope’s primary school teacher also shared with her new teachers the social narrative strategies (Spencer et al., 2008) developed to support Hope in understanding the expectations of her new school environment. We emphasised how educators can support family involvement in the transition process throughout the education of their child, including using culturally responsive strategies (Cavendish, Connor, & Rediker, 2017) in the examples of Zeinab, Max, and Sarah. For these students, at various transition points in their educational journey, their educators demonstrated the importance of ensuring accessible communication and the ability to participate in transition planning through culturally responsive practices. Some of these practices included use of interpreters, ensuring family members were able to include persons important to the child’s family as part of the planning process, and in the case of Max, teachers learning signs would support the communication and transition of a child with a hearing loss and ensure access to the deaf cultural community. As noted in Chap. 14, Australia does not mandate transition planning within its legislation; however, Australia’s obligation to provide transition services can be found within the international declarations it has affirmed (Tso & Strnadová, 2017).

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Ensuring students are self-determined, prepared to advocate for their needs as adults, prepared academically, and aware of their post-school options is critical for improving the quality of life of students with disability. An overall goal of education as described in the The Alice Springs (Mparntwe) Education Declaration (Council of Australian Governments—Education Council, 2019) is to develop all children and students’ capacities to be lifelong learners. The Kohler Taxonomy of Transition 2.0 (Kohler, Gothberg, Fowler, & Coyle, 2016) described in Chap. 14 provided the framework for designing person-centred post-secondary school transition planning that incorporates evidence-based practices aligned with positive post-school outcomes. For example, Mr. David Flanagan recognised Sarah’s need to develop the self-advocacy skills that would empower her to have ownership of her transition plan and goals. Mr. Flanagan also knew when to facilitate interagency collaboration (Kohler et al., 2016) to ensure the safety of his student, Mia, who was engaging in self-harming behaviours through wrap around services (Laporte, Haber, & Malloy, 2016). As discussed in Chaps. 7 and 14, Ms. Kouka recognised the importance of helping her student, Chris, prepare to self-manage his diabetic condition as he transitions to adulthood and provided him with explicit instruction to monitor his blood sugar levels. In each of these scenaria, educators identified long-term goals for students through a person-centred approach, using evidence-based practices to support their students in achieving their post-school goals. Transition is not only about preparing for changes over time, it also occurs throughout each day, as students experience changes from one activity to another, working with different peers and teachers, and different locations within educational settings. We also presented examples of strategies educators could implement to support these horizontal transitions (Rous & Hallam, 2011). These included providing visual supports to help guide students in understanding expectations and in acquiring new skills, such as visual timetables, also known as visual activity schedules, (Knight, Sartini, & Spriggs, 2015) discussed in Chap. 13. We also discussed in Chap. 11 the use of the power cards (Spencer et al., 2008) with Hope to support her social engagement with peers during the less structured transition to lunchtime. There is a clear relationship between students increasing their ability to self-regulate through an understanding of the expectations of a particular environment and a reduction in challenging behaviour (Knight et al., 2015). Supporting students’ ability to successfully transition throughout the day is one key to providing an inclusive learning environment.

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Conclusion This book used five scenaria to locate our discussion within a social-ecological system model informed by the current policy framework. In this chapter, we revisited the framework, which comprises essential components for realising principled practice for inclusive education. The chapter referred to examples and connections across chapters not to come to firm conclusions but to outline possibilities for practice. Each of the scenaria is open-ended as children and students, their families, educators, and educational settings grow and develop their practice.

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Index

A Ability, 14, 17, 18, 21, 24, 25, 96, 104, 108, 109, 112, 121, 141, 143, 149, 159, 162, 167, 168 Ableism, 21 Aboriginal, 27, 28, 150 Abuse, 151, 152 Academic skills, 150 Access, 3, 4, 15, 17, 21, 24–28, 37, 39, 40, 47–51, 54, 55, 62, 64–66, 75, 87, 89, 105, 111, 116, 119, 130, 132, 134, 144, 148, 149, 163, 164, 167 Accountability, 89, 90, 100, 118, 119 Achievement, 15, 26, 30, 68, 74, 77, 103, 105, 115–117, 123, 130, 145, 148, 162 Adjustment, 8, 20, 23, 26–28, 31, 32, 50, 54, 55, 59, 67, 72, 75, 78, 91, 142, 143, 150 Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), 151 Alice Springs (Mparntwe) Education Declaration, The, 15, 37, 116, 149, 168 Amount of content, 52 Antecedent-Behaviour-Consequence (ABC) records, 97 Anti-discrimination legislation, 3, 23, 25, 26, 30, 32, 153 Anxiety, 95, 135, 140, 143, 151, 152 Applied behaviour analysis, 96 Article 24, 39, 40, 119 Assessment, 3, 4, 16–19, 49, 50, 59, 60, 62, 67, 72–74, 76, 77, 79, 88, 89, 93, 97, 100, 104, 106, 108, 112, 154, 161, 165 Assimilation, 16 Associated professionals, 87

Asthma, 29, 31, 90, 149 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 17 Attitudes, 2, 3, 5, 9, 13, 14, 20, 21, 36, 65, 159, 160, 164 Attitudinal barriers, 2, 20, 21, 39, 160 Atypical development, 130 Audiologist, 108, 131 Augment, 143 Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC), 4, 103, 104, 111, 116, 120, 162 Auslan, 104 Australian Curriculum, 3, 31, 48, 49, 52, 72, 112, 116 Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA), 3, 47 Australian Professional Standard for Teachers, 94 Australian Tertiary Admission Rank (ATAR), 154 Autism spectrum disorders, 17, 108, 121, 167 Autistic, 32

B Barrier, 20, 27, 39, 48, 49, 51–54, 56, 62, 63, 79, 90, 119, 149, 154, 161, 163 Barriers to the collaborative process, 90, 91 Behaviour, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 21, 29, 36, 40, 41, 53, 63, 73, 89–91, 93–100, 103, 104, 106, 107, 110, 121, 122, 131, 134, 141, 142, 144, 151, 152, 159, 161, 165, 166 Behaviour support plan, 98 Beliefs, 2, 14, 15, 17, 18, 21, 24, 68, 72, 135, 159

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172 Bell-curve, 18 Belonging, 4, 15, 24, 37, 72, 97, 116 Beyondblue, 151 Big ideas, 52, 53 Bi-lateral cochlear implants, 142 Blind, 17, 18, 20, 25, 89 Bullying, 21, 29, 30, 41, 122

C Cancer, 149 Case conference, 88 Challenging behaviour, 93–98, 100, 106, 108–110, 112, 140, 162, 164, 168 Checkpoints, 51, 52, 66 Childcare, 26, 141, 142 Child-centred approach, 37 Classroom behaviour support, 4, 53, 94, 98, 100 Cochlear implants, 63, 65, 105, 140, 143 Collaboration, 1, 2, 4, 32, 42, 66, 77, 85–88, 90, 109, 111, 133, 134, 139, 143, 149, 152, 153, 155, 159–163 Collaborative assessment, 107, 108 Collaborative consultation, 86, 87 Collaborative process, 86, 87, 90 Collaborative teams, 85, 87, 89, 90, 104, 118, 142, 161, 162, 166 Common goals, 2, 86, 87, 161 Commonwealth’s National Disability Coordination Officer Programme, 154 Communication, 4, 19, 52, 53, 63, 74, 86, 88–90, 96, 97, 103–112, 121, 131, 134, 142, 151, 161, 165–167 Communication mode, 96 Community, 2, 5–8, 28, 36, 40, 50, 63, 74, 78, 86–88, 96, 98, 100, 119, 131, 133, 140, 144, 148, 150, 152, 162, 165–167 Conceptual barriers, 90 Consultation, 4, 27, 28, 32, 55, 67, 75, 77, 78, 85, 86, 88, 91, 161 Content is sequenced and organised, 52 Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability (CRPD), 1, 20, 25, 26, 39, 40, 116, 119 Cooperative learning, 72, 112, 118 Critical and creative thinking, 55, 56 Cross-curriculum, 55 Cross-curriculum planning, 55 Culturally responsive, 117, 147, 150, 151, 161, 167 Culture, 14, 15, 41, 42, 133, 148

Index Curriculum, 3, 4, 17, 19, 27, 28, 37, 40, 42, 47–56, 59–62, 64, 72, 74, 103, 105, 111, 112, 116, 119, 120, 123, 134, 149, 151, 152, 154, 164 Curriculum area, 52, 55, 56 Curriculum-based assessments, 76 Curriculum-based measures, 72, 74 Curriculum demands, 48, 55 Curriculum design, 48, 55, 71, 164 Curriculum framework, 48, 51, 54, 66

D Data, 40, 61, 62, 71–76, 78, 97, 104, 166 Data collection, 31, 74, 97 Decoding skills, 52 Deficit, 16, 17, 19, 32, 107 Deliberate practice, 53 Depression, 95, 151 Determining priorities, 116, 134 Developmentally appropriate practices, 130 Developmental milestones, 130 Development of the child, 134 Diabetes, 30, 75, 149, 162 Diagnosis, 18–21, 63, 90, 130, 131, 133 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), 18, 19 Differentiated instruction, 49–51, 56, 75, 76 Differentiated practice, 32 Differentiation, 4, 42, 47, 49, 50, 66 Dilemma of difference, 18, 38 Direct discrimination, 25, 26 Disability, 2–5, 8, 9, 13–21, 23–33, 37–42, 48, 49, 55, 65, 67, 71, 72, 78, 91, 96, 105, 112, 115–121, 123, 129, 130, 132, 140, 141, 143–145, 148–150, 152–154, 160–165, 167, 168 Disability and inclusion programme, 143 Disability care and support report, 153 Disability Discrimination Act 1992, 26, 38, 55, 67, 71 Disability Movement, 20 Disability Standards for Education 2005, 3, 26, 38, 67, 72 Disadvantage, 14, 15, 25, 26, 88 Discrimination, 3, 13, 15, 25, 26, 29, 33, 39, 49, 55, 78, 135 Disparity, 15 Diversity, 3, 4, 13, 14, 16, 17, 21, 28, 37–39, 42, 48, 49, 68, 72, 129, 135, 152 Diversity section, 48

Index E Early childhood, 2, 5, 9, 24, 89, 116, 117, 123, 129, 132, 145, 154, 162, 166 Early intervention, 2, 4, 90, 129, 130, 132, 134, 136, 167 Early Learning Support Team (ELST), 89, 142 Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF), 4, 24, 31, 51, 129, 132 Ecological approach, 108 Education provider, 26, 28, 29, 48, 49, 67, 154, 161 Emergency management plan, 29, 90 Emotional and behavioural disorders, 121 Employment, 4, 15, 18, 24, 26, 37, 112, 119, 141, 144, 145, 148, 149, 153, 154 Engagement, 3, 51, 62, 77, 87, 88, 117, 120, 130, 134, 135, 149–151, 168 English, 6, 16, 52, 56, 61, 63, 64, 77, 117, 131, 141 English as a second language (ESL), 6 Enrolment, 25, 28, 40, 48 Equitable education, 33 Equity, 15, 26, 162 Eugenics, 18 Evaluation, 59, 60, 67, 73, 76, 79, 86, 89, 96, 97 Evaluation of programme or strategy, 86 Evidence-based practice, 4, 59–61, 63, 67, 68, 75, 98, 120, 148, 152, 163, 164, 166, 168 Excellence, 15 Exclusion, 3, 18, 29, 40, 135, 153 Exclusionary practices, 66, 119 Expectations, 6, 14, 20, 25, 28, 30–32, 36, 94, 99, 100, 122, 134, 136, 140, 142, 143, 163, 166–168 Explicit and systematic instruction, 55, 60, 62, 66 Explicit instruction, 62, 65, 75, 106, 112, 121, 150, 168 Externalising behaviour, 94, 107, 165 Extracurricular activities, 119

F Family, 2, 5, 9, 15, 16, 24, 27, 28, 30, 32, 36, 37, 40, 42, 74, 75, 79, 87–91, 96, 100, 107, 116–119, 121, 129–135, 140, 142–145, 148–152, 154, 155, 160–162, 165, 167, 169 Family-centred early intervention, 136 Family-centred planning, 117

173 Family support plans, 134 Family system, 133 Feed-back, 50, 53, 62, 64–66, 73, 75, 76, 98, 100, 120 Feed-forward, 64 Feed-up, 64 Fidelity, 60, 66–68 Fidelity of implementation, 60, 75 Formal assessments, 97, 108 Formal equality, 26 Formal school entry, 130 Formative, 73 Frequency and intensity of the problem behaviour, 97 Friendships, 96, 119, 120, 122 Functional assessment, 93, 96, 97, 165, 166 Functional Communication Training (FCT), 109 Functions of behaviour, 93 Funding, 31, 132, 153–155

G Gatekeeping, 40, 119 General capabilities, 4, 48, 52, 112, 116 General comment No 4, 39 Generalise, 20, 52, 77, 97 Graphic organiser, 55, 60, 65, 66 Guidelines, 51–53, 66

H Harassment, 28–30, 33 Health and physical education, 8, 72, 165 Hearing aids, 28, 105, 150 Hearing loss, 27, 63, 64, 105, 142, 143, 150, 167 Heavy content loads, 53 HIV, 149 Horizontal transitions, 140, 141, 167, 168 Human rights, 20, 23–25, 33, 163, 164 Hypothesis statement, 106

I Identification, 17, 20, 40, 67, 90, 130, 131 Identity first language, 32 Impairment, 19, 20, 29, 38, 39, 52, 55, 65, 77, 78, 105, 108, 143 Inaccessible, 20 Inclusion, 2, 3, 26, 29, 35–42, 87, 90, 132, 133, 135, 152, 153, 160, 162, 164 Inclusive environment, 42, 134 Inclusive opportunities, 88

174 Inclusive pedagogy, 42 Inclusive policy, 35 Independence, 19, 62, 130 Independent living skills, 89 Indigenous, 15, 28 Indirect discrimination, 25, 26 Individualised Education Plan (IEP), 150, 151 Individualised Family Service Plan (IFSP), 129, 134, 135 Individualised plan, 97 Inequality, 24 Information and communication technology capabilities, 52 Instruction, 3, 4, 27, 28, 31, 49–51, 59–61, 63, 67, 71–79, 97, 99, 100, 104, 108, 118, 120, 123, 141, 152, 153, 161, 164, 166 Instructional impact, 61 Instructional intensity, 4, 72, 73, 76, 162 Instructional practices, 4, 60–62, 66, 68, 118, 123, 163–165 Integrated services, 88 Integrated therapy model, 88 Intellectual disability, 18–21, 108, 122, 143, 154, 160 Intensity of instruction, 75, 79 Interagency collaboration, 148, 150, 152, 153, 162, 167, 168 Interdependence, 19 Interdisciplinary, 88, 130, 161 Internalising behaviour, 95, 151 Intervention, 4, 19, 21, 40, 60, 63, 68, 75, 95–99, 106–110, 130, 132, 135, 161, 162, 166, 167 Intervention team, 135 Interviews, 97, 108 Itinerant support teacher, 77

Index Learning, 2, 4–6, 8, 16, 17, 21, 24, 27, 29, 37, 39, 48–56, 59–68, 72–79, 87–91, 94, 96, 105, 107, 108, 111, 112, 116, 117, 120, 129, 130, 132, 135, 142– 144, 148, 151, 152, 154, 159, 161, 163–165, 167 Learning environments, 1, 42, 50, 51, 54, 55, 63, 66, 72, 76, 79, 94, 95, 105, 106, 145, 161, 165, 168 Learning goal, 52, 64, 68, 73, 75, 77 Learning outcomes, 67 Learning support plans, 54, 89 Learning Support Team (LST), 65, 77, 89, 143, 165 Legislation, 3, 23, 24, 26, 27, 30–32, 36, 38, 40, 72, 153, 167 Levels of support, 19, 64, 89, 166 Literacy, 5, 15, 47, 52, 55, 56, 63, 73, 74 Low vision, 17

K Key transition points, 139, 141 Key Word Sign, 143 Kindergarten, 6, 141, 143

M Mastery, 68, 73, 134 Mathematical, 8, 15, 56 Medical model, 14, 18 Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians, 15 Mental health, 143, 151, 152 Mental retardation, 18, 19 Mentor, 7, 41, 122 Mobility, 25, 89, 120, 163, 164 Moderate intellectual disability, 8, 20 Monitoring learning, 74 Motivation, 51, 53, 60, 73, 75, 94, 97, 145, 166 Multicultural, 6 Multidisciplinary, 4, 88, 161 Multidisciplinary team, 88, 135 Multiple means of action and expression, 51, 56 Multiple means of engagement, 51 Multiple means of representation, 51, 52, 55 Multi-tiered system of support, 73, 98 Multi-tiered systems approach, 103 Mutual trust, 86

L Language, 5, 6, 14, 15, 21, 24, 27, 28, 32, 52, 54, 61–63, 65, 66, 74, 76, 104, 105, 108, 111, 117, 131–133, 142, 143, 148, 151, 161 Language development, 4, 27, 104, 105, 108 Leadership, 20, 27, 88, 165

N Naked independence, 65 National Assessment Programme Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN), 15, 74 National Consistent Collection of Data (NCCD), 31, 32, 67, 89, 161

Index National Disability Insurance Agency (NDIA), 4, 132, 145 National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS), 4, 130, 153 Nationally Consistent Collection of Data (NCCD), 4, 31, 49, 68, 73, 78, 161 National Quality Framework, 130, 132 Neglect, 151 Non-English Speaking Background (NESB), 5, 6 Normative, 17, 74, 148 NSW Ombudsman’s Report, 98 Numeracy, 47, 52, 55, 56, 73 O Obesity, 30 Occupational Therapist (OT), 104, 108, 131, 140, 161 On the same basis as, 27, 38, 48, 51, 55, 66, 67, 72, 75, 164, 165 Organisation, 2, 9, 25, 39, 59, 87, 141 Organisation skills, 141 Otitis media, 9, 27, 28, 105 Overrepresentation, 18 P Paediatrician, 89, 131, 140, 143 Paraprofessional, 89, 120, 161 Participation, 19, 20, 25–28, 37, 39, 40, 49, 51–55, 65, 67, 72, 87, 89, 103, 111, 119, 130, 134, 135, 144, 148, 154, 162, 165 Partnerships, 5, 39, 86, 131, 133, 135, 144, 161 Patterns of development, 129 Peer assisted learning, 62, 63, 67 Peer-focused practices, 118, 119, 121 Peer Mediated Instruction (PMI), 63, 166 Peer relationships, 111, 115, 116, 118–121 Peer social networking strategies, 120, 121 Peer support, 7, 67, 119, 120, 122, 162 Peer tutoring, 63, 76, 163 Performance, 7, 8, 15, 64, 108 Personal and social capabilities, 52, 112, 116 Personalised, 52, 66, 71, 75, 77, 95, 122, 155, 165, 166 Personalised learning, 77, 134, 150 Personalised plans, 134, 166, 167 Personalised support, 77, 100 Personal needs, 53 Personal tragedy model, 25 Person-centred planning, 147–149, 151, 155

175 Person-centred process, 107 Person first language, 9, 32 Physical disability, 17, 27, 31 Physical education, 27, 55, 99, 150, 165 Physiotherapist, 131 Planning, 3, 4, 6, 33, 42, 43, 47–53, 55, 56, 59, 62, 63, 66, 72, 74, 77, 78, 88–91, 96, 107, 108, 111, 121, 134, 135, 139, 141–144, 155, 164, 166, 167 Policy, 1–3, 5, 9, 24, 25, 32, 35, 36, 42, 43, 94, 155, 159, 160, 169 Positive Behavior Support (PBS), 98–100, 118 Positive social interactions, 96 Post school options, 144, 168 Post secondary school, 147, 149, 168 Power cards, 122, 123, 166, 168 Practical barriers, 90 Practice, 1–5, 9, 13, 17, 18, 24, 25, 27, 30– 32, 35, 36, 38–40, 42, 43, 48, 49, 53, 56, 60–62, 66–68, 76, 77, 79, 87, 90, 91, 94, 95, 97, 98, 100, 116–118, 123, 131, 136, 148–150, 152, 159, 162–164, 166, 167, 169 Preschool, 5, 6, 26, 63, 76, 117, 131, 132, 135, 141 Preventative strategy, 90 Prevention, 98, 118, 166 Primary caregivers, 131, 133 Primary school, 6–8, 29, 41, 122, 141–143, 167 Principle of normalisation, 148 Proactive framework, 100 Proactive strategies, 94 Problem-solving, 8, 42, 65, 79, 164 Problem-solving organisations, 78 Problem-solving strategy, 76, 96 Professional agency providers, 129 Professional development, 28, 143, 152, 167 Professional interpretation, 54 Professional knowledge, 51, 61, 78, 165 Professionals, 17, 87–90, 104, 108, 131– 133, 151, 155, 161 Professional wisdom, 61, 62, 68, 75, 164 Profound sensorineural hearing loss, 105, 140 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), 15 Promising practices, 68 Psychologist, 131, 132, 135 Q Quality education, 18, 163, 164

176 Quality of life, 104, 115, 116, 147–149, 155, 168 Questionnaires, 97

R Reasonable adjustments, 26, 27, 29, 32, 33, 38, 39, 67, 161 Reinforcement, 110–112 Remediation, 90 Replacement behaviour, 97, 110 Response to Intervention (RtI), 73 Restrictive practices, 40 Rights (linked to human rights also), 1, 20, 23–26, 28, 30, 39, 71, 164

S School

Leaver Employment Support (SLES), 145, 153 School participation, 87 School-wide, 4, 93, 94, 98–100, 166 School-wide discipline systems, 98 School-wide multi-tiered framework of positive behavioural support, 98 Secondary prevention, 98, 166 Secondary school, 4, 8, 27, 50, 64, 65, 72, 87, 99, 111, 120, 121, 140, 141, 143, 144, 148–154, 162, 167 Segmenting, 53, 55 Segregation, 18, 25, 40 Self-advocacy, 150, 168 Self-determination, 19, 150 Self-harming behaviours, 151, 168 Self-management, 116, 149, 150 Self-regulate, 53, 97, 141, 168 Self-stimulatory behaviours, 141 Sensory disability, 31 Sensory processing, 140 Separation anxiety, 37, 135, 166 Sequence, 54, 65, 130, 141, 164 Sequencing, 53 Service delivery, 88, 89, 129 Service-learning, 112, 118, 119, 152 SETT framework, 66 Shut Out Report, 153 SMART goals, 134 Social and emotional learning, 116 Social connections, 133 Social ecological system model, 36, 37, 169 Social inclusion, 116, 148 Socially constructed, 20 Social model, 14, 20, 32

Index Social narrative strategies, 121, 122, 166, 167 Social relationships, 103, 105, 112, 116, 143, 145, 164 Social skills, 21, 53, 76, 98, 112, 116, 118, 120–123 Social support, 132 Socioeconomic background, 15 Specialised programmes, 38, 130, 166 Specific language impairments, 108 Speech-language pathologist, 104, 111, 140 Stereotypical representation, 21 Strengths-based, 108, 117, 161 Student-focused practices, 115, 118, 121 Student outcomes, 60 Student participation, 62, 94, 164 Student safety, 94 Substantive equality, 26 Suicide, 151, 152 Support, 2, 4, 6, 7, 17–20, 27, 28, 31, 32, 37–42, 49, 51–56, 60, 61, 64–68, 71– 78, 86, 87, 89, 90, 93–100, 103– 108, 111, 112, 115–123, 130–136, 139, 141–145, 148, 150–153, 159, 161–168 Support-focused practices, 118, 119 Support needs, 89, 142, 162, 166 Support packages, 132 Support the family, 90, 134 Syllabus, 48, 49, 51, 52, 54 Systematic instruction, 55, 60, 62, 66 Systematic teaching, 72

T Task, 49, 53–55, 65, 75, 76, 94, 108, 110, 122 Task analysis, 108, 109, 121 Taxonomy of transition programming, 149 Taxonomy of Transition Programming 2.0 Framework, 148, 150, 152 Teaching assistant, 4, 40, 49, 77, 79, 89, 120, 161 Team approach, 131 Team coordinator, 88 Teamwork, 86–88 Technical and Further Education (TAFE), 154 Technology, 19, 65–67, 76 Tertiary education, 148, 149, 152–154 Tertiary prevention, 98, 166 Therapeutic process, 133 Therapists, 4, 87, 88, 140, 143

Index Therapy, 133 Tiered systems of support, 73 Transdisciplinary, 88, 161, 167 Transition, 2, 4, 20, 31, 90, 132, 139–145, 148, 150, 152–155, 159, 162, 167, 168 Transition planning, 145, 147, 149–151, 153, 154, 167, 168 Trauma, 16, 20, 151 Triggers, 97 21st Century Skills, 52 U Uni 2 beyond, 154 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), 24 Universal Design for Learning (UDL), 4, 40, 42, 47, 51, 56, 60, 64, 73, 75, 161, 164 Universal, or primary prevention, 98, 166 Universal prevention, 118 Unjustifiable hardship, 28, 29

177 Up the Hill Project, 154

V Vertical transitions, 140, 141, 167 Victimisation, 28, 29, 33 Video-based group instruction, 63 Visual arts, 56 Visual schema, 65 Visual supports, 65, 108, 145, 164, 168 Vocabulary, 52, 61, 63–65, 72, 96, 104, 111, 120 Vocabulary knowledge, 53, 54, 64 Vocational Education and Training (VET), 154

W Wisdom, 61, 78 Working with families, 131, 133 Wrap around services, 152, 168