Identidades E Interculturalidad En Etnografias Reflexivas

Citation preview

D E N T I D A D E NTERCULTURALIDAD

IDENTIDADES E INTERCULTURALIDAD EN ETNOGRAFÍAS REFLEXIVAS

Editores Lucas Díaz Ledesma Orlando Gabriel Morales Director Carlos Giordano Coordinadores Editoriales

Paula Porta, Bianca Racioppe y Lucas Díaz Ledesma

IDENTIDADES E INTERCULTURALIDAD EN ETNOGRAFÍAS REFLEXIVAS

IDENTIDADES E INTERCULTURALIDAD EN ETNOGRAFÍAS REFLEXIVAS

Editores Lucas Díaz Ledesma y Orlando Gabriel Morales

Director

Carlos Giordano Coordinadores editoriales

Paula Porta, Bianca Racioppe y Lucas Díaz Ledesma

,GHQWLGDGHVHLQWHUFXOWXUDOLGDGHQHWQRJUDItDVUHÀH[LYDV/XFDV*DEULHO'tD] /HGHVPD>HWDO@GLULJLGRSRU&DUORV-*LRUGDQRHGLFLyQOLWHUDULDDFDUJR GH2UODQGR*DEULHO0RUDOHV\/XFDV*DEULHO'tD]/HGHVPDDHG/D3ODWD 8QLYHUVLGDG1DFLRQDOGH/D3ODWD (%RRN ,6%1 ,QWHUFXOWXUDOLGDG(WQRJUDItD,'tD]/HGHVPD/XFDV*DEULHO,, *LRUGDQR&DUORV-GLU,,,0RUDOHV2UODQGR*DEULHOHGOLW,9'tD] /HGHVPD/XFDV*DEULHOHGOLW &''

'LVHxRGHWDSDHLQWHULRU-RUJHOLQD$UULHQ /RVDUWtFXORVLQFOXtGRVHQHVWDFRPSLODFLyQIXHURQVRPHWLGRVDUHIHUDWR &RQYRFDWRULDLQLFLDODFDUJRGH3DXOD3RUWD\9HUyQLFD9LGDUWH$VRUH\

'HUHFKRV5HVHUYDGRV )DFXOWDGGH3HULRGLVPR\&RPXQLFDFLyQ6RFLDO 8QLYHUVLGDG1DFLRQDOGH/D3ODWD 3ULPHUDHGLFLyQQRYLHPEUH ,6%1 +HFKRHOGHSyVLWRTXHHVWDEOHFHOD/H\ 6HSHUPLWHHOXVRFRQ¿QHVDFDGpPLFRV\SHGDJyJLFRVFLWDQGRODIXHQWH \DORVDXWRUHV 6XLQIUDFFLyQHVWiSHQDGDSRUODV/H\HV\

ÍNDICE !"#$%&'((!)" ,GHQWLGDGHVH,QWHUFXOWXUDOLGDGHQ(WQRJUDItDV5HÀH[LYDV FRQ$IULFDQRV\DIURGHVFHQGLHQWHV8Q&RQYHUVDWRULRFRPR ,QVWDQFLDGH3URGXFFLyQGH&RQRFLPLHQWR 3RU!"#$%&'()$*"+,#(-'"$#,.(/(012$.(34$5(0,&,.6$(7777777777



(*+,#'-%.!. 5HÀH[LRQHVVREUHGHOSURFHVRGHLQYHVWLJDFLyQ HQXQDFRPXQLGDGDIURGHVFHQGLHQWHGH$UJHQWLQD DWUDYpVGHODVGLIHUHQFLDVJHQHUDFLRQDOHV 3RU-$"4$(8,2+#+$(-$"9+%'  (*+,#'-%.!! &RPXQLFDFLyQHLQWHUFXOWXUDOLGDGHQHOWUDEDMRHWQRJUi¿FR ,GHQWL¿FDFLRQHVHLQWHUFDPELRVHQXQWUDEDMR GHFDPSRFRQPLJUDQWHVDIULFDQRVUHFLHQWHVHQ$UJHQWLQD 3RU!"#$%&'()$*"+,#(-'"$#,.(777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777  (*+,#'-%.!!! ([SORUDQGRUHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVGHORVPLJUDQWHVDIULFDQRV UHFLHQWHVHQ$UJHQWLQDPHGLDQWHODSURGXFFLyQSURSLD !"#$%&%'()$*)+ 3RU-$"4$(015(:.;+"'  (*+,#'-%.!/ 5HÀH[LRQHVPHWRGROyJLFDVSDUDHOHVWXGLR GHODGLVFULPLQDFLyQUDFLDO\VXYLQFXODFLyQDODQXHYD PLJUDFLyQDIULFDQDVXEVDKDULDQDHQ%XHQRV$LUHV 3RU)+.,#,("+,#(-1,.,.(777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777  (*+,#'-%./! 5HVHxD$SXQWHVVREUHHO[email protected]"+2$(2'&+2+$&$7(:#(&,[email protected]'( ;,%&+,%9,A7DEODGD&DUORV6PLWK5REHUWR\+RXWDUW )UDQoRLV/D+DEDQD(GLWRULDOGH&LHQFLDV6RFLDOHV  3RU>#,B$%&"$()$*"+,#(777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777 (*+,#'-%./!! 5HVHxD$FHUFDGH0'.(#46+9,.(&,(#$(21#91"$$OHMDQGUR *ULPVRQ%XHQRV$LUHV6LJOR9HLQWLXQR(GLWRUHV  3RU8="+.9+$%(C'5'(777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777 0%1$2.-%0.*'#%$20(77777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777 

INTRODUCCIÓN

Identidades e Interculturalidad en Etnografías Reflexivas con Africanos y Afrodescendientes. Un Conversatorio como Instancia de Producción de Conocimiento Por Orlando Gabriel Morales y Lucas Díaz Ledesma

El conversatorio: punto de partida &RPRSDUWHGHOSURJUDPDGHDFWLYLGDGHVGHODxRGHOD/tQHD GH,QYHVWLJDFLyQ,GHQWLGDGHV\6XMHWRVGHO,QVWLWXWRGH,QYHVWLJD FLRQHVHQ&RPXQLFDFLyQ ,,&RP)3\&681/3 HQHOPHVGHMXOLR GHVDUUROODPRVHODD(8'%E,".$9'"+'(D&,%9+&$&,.(/(F1B,9'.7(D%9,"21#G WXUDOLGDGHQHOWUDEDMRHWQRJUi¿FRFRQDIULFDQRV\DIURGHVFHQGLHQG 9,.7((VHHVSDFLRGHLQWHUFDPELRDFDGpPLFRVHSODQWHyFRPRLQVWDQFLD GHHQFXHQWURSDUDFRPSDUWLU\GHEDWLUH[SHULHQFLDVGHLQYHVWLJDFLyQ FRQFROHJDVGHGLVWLQWRVFDPSRVGHVDEHUHVGHODV&LHQFLDV6RFLDOHV TXHDFWXDOPHQWHGHVDUUROODQSHVTXLVDVHQODVTXHWLHQHQFRPRLQWHU ORFXWRUHVDDIULFDQRV\DIURGHVFHQGLHQWHVHQ$UJHQWLQD

1 Específicamente, las investigaciones desarrolladas por quienes asistieron a este convesatorio se localizan en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, el Gran Buenos Aires y la región de La Plata -capital de la provincia de Buenos Aires-. Sin embargo, podemos presuponer que las características de las experiencias que se pusieron en diálogo en

6

(QHOPDUFRGHO,,&RPXQFRQYHUVDWRULRVHGH¿QHFRPRXQ HVSDFLRGRQGHVHSRWHQFLDHOOLEUHLQWHUFDPELRGHSHUVSHFWLYDV LGHDV DUJXPHQWRV RSLQLRQHV 3ODQWHRV TXH SXHGHQ VHU FRP SDUWLGRV GLYHUJHQWHV FRQÀLFWLYRV SURYRFDGRUHV \R QRYHGR VRV\TXHVHH[SRQHQFRQOD¿QDOLGDGGHGHOLEHUDU(VGHFLUVLQ HOFRPSURPLVRGHDOFDQ]DUXQFRQVHQVRVLQRGHHQULTXHFHUORV SURFHVRV GH SURGXFFLyQ GH FRQRFLPLHQWR HQ E~VTXHGD GH XQD SUiFWLFDWUDQVYHUVD 8QDH[SHULHQFLDSUHYLDGHVDUUROODGDHQDxRHQTXHFR PHQ]DPRVDWUDEDMDUHQHVWDOtQHDGHLQYHVWLJDFLyQKDEtDDUUR MDGR UHVXOWDGRV HVWLPXODQWHV SDUD ORV SDUWLFLSDQWHV UHVSHFWR D HVWDPRGDOLGDGFRPRLQVWDQFLDGHGLiORJRUHÀH[LyQJHQHUDFLyQ GHLGHDV\VRFLDOL]DFLyQGHH[SHULHQFLDVGHLQYHVWLJDFLyQ$VLPLV PRHQWDQWRODVSUHJXQWDVFHQWUDOHVSURSXHVWDVFRPRGLVSDUD GRUHVGHODFRQYHUVDFLyQUHPLWtDQDODVPRGDOLGDGHVGHDERUGDMH \ HO DOFDQFH GDGR D OD FXHVWLyQ GH ODV LGHQWLGDGHV VRFLDOHV# ",# ODVLQYHVWLJDFLRQHVODVH[SRVLFLRQHVLQGLYLGXDOHV\HOGHEDWHFR OHFWLYRSXVLHURQHQHYLGHQFLDODSURGXFWLYLGDGGHOFRQYHUVDWRULR SDUDIDYRUHFHUHQFDGDFDVRXQDHODERUDFLyQDQDOtWLFDFRPSOHMD GHORVSUREOHPDVDVRFLDGRVDWDOFXHVWLyQ

aquella instancia de intercambio y se retoman ahora en este libro atañen también a investigaciones realizadas en otros contextos de la sociedad nacional en Argentina. 2 Nos referimos al “Primer Conversatorio Identidad/es y Sujeto/s. Perspectivas teóricometodológicas”, un encuentro en el que participaron tesistas de grado y graduados recientes de distintas carreras de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata, quienes estaban realizando o habían elaborado tesis o tesinas en las que abordaban la cuestión de las identidades sociales. 3 Las preguntas que se plantearon como disparadores fueron: 1) ¿Cuál es su problema de investigación y cómo se articula con el estudio de la/s identidad/es y sujeto/s?; 2) ¿Desde qué perspectiva teórico-metodológica aborda la cuestión de la/s identidad/es y sujeto/s?; 3) ¿Qué avances o resultados de su investigación considera significativos respecto a esta línea de análisis?.

7

3RUORDQWHULRUHQRSRUWXQLGDGGHUHDOL]DUHO,,&RQYHUVDWRULR FRQYRFDPRVDWHVLVWDVGHJUDGR\SRVJUDGRTXHGHVDUUROODQLQ YHVWLJDFLRQHVGRQGHGLDORJDQFRQDIULFDQRV\DIURGHVFHQGLHQWHV LQYLWiQGRORVDHQYLDUDPRGRGHFRPXQLFDFLyQXQEUHYHUHODWR GRQGH GHVFULELHUDQ XQD VLWXDFLyQ GH FRPXQLFDFLyQ YLYLGD GX UDQWHVXWUDEDMRGHFDPSRRXQSUREOHPDSODQWHDGRHQODHWDSD GH FRQVWUXFFLyQ GHO REMHWR GH HVWXGLR GRQGH FRQVLGHUDUDQ TXH LQWHUYHQtDQGLPHQVLRQHVDVRFLDGDVDODVLGHQWLGDGHVVRFLDOHVJH QHUDQGRWHQVLRQHVPDOHQWHQGLGRVQHJRFLDFLRQHVHQFXHQWURVR GHVHQFXHQWURVFRQORVLQWHUORFXWRUHVHQHOFDPSR (QHVWHFDVRODVSUHJXQWDVGLVSXHVWDVDIXQFLRQDUFRPRGLV SDUDGRUHVSDUDODHODERUDFLyQGHODFRPXQLFDFLyQVROLFLWDGDIXH URQODVVLJXLHQWHV  ¢&XiOHVVXSUREOHPDGHLQYHVWLJDFLyQ"   ¢&yPR VH YLQFXOD OD VLWXDFLyQ GH FRPXQLFDFLyQ QDUUDGD FRQVXSUREOHPDGHLQYHVWLJDFLyQ"  ¢4XpDVSHFWRVRGLPHQVLRQHVDVRFLDGDVDODVLGHQWLGDGHV FRQVLGHUDTXHLQWHUYLHQHQGHPDQHUDVLJQL¿FDWLYDHQVXVLQ WHUDFFLRQHVHQHOFDPSR"  ¢4XpDSRUWDDVXDQiOLVLVHOKHFKRGHSUREOHPDWL]DUODGL PHQVLyQLQWHUFXOWXUDOLQYROXFUDGDHQHOWUDEDMRHWQRJUi¿FR"  ¢4XpLQFLGHQFLDWXYRRSXGRKDEHUWHQLGRODVLWXDFLyQGH FRPXQLFDFLyQQDUUDGDHQVXSURFHVRGHLQYHVWLJDFLyQ" 1XHVWUR SURSyVLWR HQ WDQWR &RRUGLQDGRUHV GH OD /tQHD GH ,QYHVWLJDFLyQ,GHQWLGDGHV\6XMHWRVHUDUHXQLUDLQYHVWLJDGR UHVHQIRUPDFLyQGHGLVWLQWDVGLVFLSOLQDVGHODV&LHQFLDV6RFLD OHVSURSRQLHQGRODHODERUDFLyQ\VRFLDOL]DFLyQGHXQDUHÀH[LyQ PHWRGROyJLFD UHVSHFWR D OD UHODFLyQ HQWUH LGHQWLGDGHV VRFLDOHV LQWHUFXOWXUDOLGDG\SURGXFFLyQGHFRQRFLPLHQWRHQWUDEDMRVHW QRJUi¿FRV SDUD SHQVDU D SDUWLU GH DOOt FyPR DSRUWiEDPRV DO

8

GHEDWH\DODSURGXFFLyQGHFRQRFLPLHQWRHQHOFDPSRGHODFR PXQLFDFLyQVRFLDO(QWDQWRTXHHOREMHWLYRJHQHUDOGHHVWHFRQ YHUVDWRULRIXHSUREOHPDWL]DUODSUHVHQFLDSURGXFWLYLGDG\GHUL YDFLRQHVGHODVLGHQWLGDGHVVRFLDOHVHQSDUWLFXODUSHUWHQHQFLD pWQLFDGHFODVH\JpQHUR\GHODLQWHUFXOWXUDOLGDGHQVLWXDFLRQHV GHFRPXQLFDFLyQHQHOWUDEDMRHWQRJUi¿FRFRQDIULFDQRV\DIUR GHVFHQGLHQWHV

Problematizar la cuestión de las identidades 1RSRUREYLRHVWiGHPiVGHFLUTXHFRPSDUWLPRVODSHUVSHFWL YDVHJ~QODFXDOODQRFLyQGHLGHQWLGDGFRQWLQ~DVLHQGRXQDKH UUDPLHQWDLPSUHVFLQGLEOHSDUDHODQiOLVLVGHORVRFLDO\HVUHVXO WDGRGHXQDFRQVWUXFFLyQWHyULFD\SROtWLFDTXHDGHPiVVLHPSUH HVKLVWyULFD &DJJLDQR&KLULJXLQL  $VLPLVPRFRQVLGHUDPRVTXHODVLGHQWLGDGHVVHFRQVWUX\HQGH PDQHUDQHJDWLYDDSDUWLUGHODSHUWHQHQFLDDXQJUXSR 1RVRWURV  HQ GLIHUHQFLDFLyQRSRVLFLyQFRPSHWHQFLD FRQ XQRV GLYHUVRV 2WURV (VWRLPSOLFDODGH¿QLFLyQGHORTXHHVSURSLR\ORTXHHV DMHQRVLHQGRTXHODVUHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVVRFLDOHVGHODVLGHQWLGDGHV FROHFWLYDVHQWpUPLQRVGH1RVRWURV(OORVWLHQGHQDLQYLVLELOL]DU ODVGLIHUHQFLDV\GHVLJXDOGDGHVHQORVFROHFWLYRVVRFLDOHV 'HVGHXQDSHUVSHFWLYDUHODFLRQDO\VLWXDFLRQDOUHWRPDQGRD *LPpQH]  DTXHOORTXHHVSURSLRRDMHQRVHUtD H%(2'%B1%9'(&,(",;,"9'"+'.(21#91"$#,.(+%9,"+'"+5$&'.(I",;",G .,%9$2+'%,.A( E$#'",.A( .46*'#'.JK( $( 9"$EL.( &,( #'.( 21$#,.( #'.( $29'",.(.'2+$#,.(I+%&+E+&1$#,.('(2'#,29+E'.K(&,6$"2$%(.+6*MG #+2$6,%9,(.1.(@"'%9,"$.(/(.,(&+.9+%N1,%(&,(#'.(&,6O.($29'",.( ,%( 1%$( .+91$2+M%( &,9,"6+%$&$A( ,%( 2'%9,P9'.( =+.9M"+2$6,%9,( HVSHFt¿FRV\VRFLDOPHQWHHVWUXFWXUDGRV *LPpQH] 

9

3HURSHVHDODSUHWHQGLGDFRKHVLyQ\ODVXSXHVWDLGHQWLGDGHQ HOVHQWLGRGHVHULGpQWLFRODVGLIHUHQFLDVHQWUHSHUVRQDV\JUXSRV VHPXOWLSOLFDQVHDHQHOJpQHURFODVHHWQLDHGDGLGHRORJtDSR OtWLFDHQWUHRWURVGLDFUtWLFRV$ODYH]TXH³HVWRVDQWDJRQLVPRV VHQLHJDQDDSDUHFHUSUROLMDPHQWHDOLQHDGRVVLPSOHPHQWHQRVRQ UHGXFWLEOHVXQRVDRWURVHOORVVHUHQXQFLDQDFRDOLFLRQDUDOUHGH GRUGHXQVyORHMHGHGLIHUHQFLDFLyQ´ +DOO3iUU  'HPDQHUDWDOTXHHQHVWHSXQWRVHSODQWHDODSUHJXQWDVR EUHODLQWHUYHQFLyQGHSDUiPHWURVHVWUXFWXUDQWHVSUHGRPLQDQ WHVSDUDODFRQ¿JXUDFLyQGHODVLGHQWLGDGHVVLHVTXHVRQSRVL EOHVGHPDQHUDLQGHSHQGLHQWHDODVVLWXDFLRQHVHVSHFt¿FDV(Q WDO VHQWLGR SRGUtD SHQVDUVH TXH ORV SULQFLSLRV JHQHUDGRUHV GH LGHQWLGDGHVQRVRQLOLPLWDGRVQLHTXLYDOHQWHVHQLPSRUWDQFLD 3RUVXSDUWH0RUHQR  VHxDODTXH³VyORODHWQLFL GDGHOJpQHUR\ORVSURFHVRVGHWUDEDMREDMRUHODFLRQHVGHSUR GXFFLyQHVSHFt¿FDVVRQSULQFLSLRVHVWUXFWXUDQWHVGHLGHQWLGDG LUUHGXFWLEOHVDXQTXHIXQFLRQDQHQFDGDVRFLHGDG\pSRFDKLV WyULFDHVWUHFKDPHQWHLQWHUUHODFLRQDGRV´ 7DOHQIRTXHVHGLVWDQFLDSRUXQDSDUWHGHODVSHUVSHFWLYDV UHGXFFLRQLVWDVTXHH[SOLFDQODVGLIHUHQFLDVGHVLJXDOGDGHVHQUH ODFLyQ D XQ ~QLFR \ IXQGDPHQWDO HMH GH LQWHJUDFLyQGLVWLQFLyQ SRUHMHPSORODFODVHVRFLDO3RURWUDGHDTXHOORVTXHDUJXPHQ WDQTXHODLGHQWLGDGHVQRVRQPiVTXHXQDUHIHUHQFLDFLyQVLWXD FLRQDOVXEMHWLYD\HItPHUDDItQDODVUHODFLRQHVVRFLDOHVRDXQD QHFHVLGDGGHH[SOLFDUDOJXQDVFXHVWLRQHV 3HURVHDTXHVHSUHVWHRQRDFXHUGRDWDOPRGHORH[SOLFDWLYR SXHGHDWHQGHUVHDXQDVSHFWRFRP~QDODGH¿QLFLyQTXHYHQLPRV H[SRQLHQGRHVWRHVODQHFHVLGDGDQDOtWLFDGHFRQVLGHUDUHOSUR EOHPDGHODVLGHQWLGDGHVHQVXFR\XQWXUDKLVWyULFDHVSHFt¿FD (QHIHFWRORVDQDOLVWDVVRFLDOHVWLHQHQHOGHVDItRGHH[SOLFDU ORVSURFHVRV\PHFDQLVPRVVRFLDOHVGHUHL¿FDFLyQDSDUWLUGHORV FXDOHV ODV LGHQWLGDGHV SXHGHQ HQ FLHUWRV PRPHQWRV KLVWyULFRV

10

FULVWDOL]DUVHFRPRXQDUHDOLGDGHIHFWLYD\QHFHVDULD %UXEDNHU\ &RRSHU  0iVWRGDYtDHOLQWHUURJDQWHSRUODVLGHQWLGDGHVVRFLDOHV³GHEH YROYHUVREUHVt\UHÀH[LRQDUVREUHVXVFRQGLFLRQHVKLVWyULFDV «  3DUD HOOR VHUi PHQHVWHU GHWHUPLQDU ODV FRQGLFLRQHV VLQJXODUHV VREUHODVFXDOHVHVDSUHJXQWDKDHQFRQWUDGR\HQFXHQWUDXQOX JDU´ &DJJLDQR $OUHVSHFWRORSURSLRKL]R+DOO  3iUU DOSUHVHQWDUVXLQWHUURJDQWH³¢4XpPRPHQWRHVpVWHSDUD SODQWHDUXQDSUHJXQWDVREUHODFXOWXUDSRSXODUQHJUD"´ 'H KHFKR UHWRPiQGROR SRGHPRV GHFLU ¢4Xp PRPHQWR HV pVWHSDUDSUHJXQWDUVHSRUODVLGHQWLGDGHV\ODLQWHUFXOWXUDOLGDG HQODVVLWXDFLRQHVGHFRPXQLFDFLyQHQHWQRJUDItDVFRQDIULFDQRV \DIURGHVFHQGLHQWHV" 8QD UHVSXHVWD HQ WDO VHQWLGR UHPLWH D ³FRQVWUXLU XQD KLVWR ULDSROtWLFDGHOSUHVHQWH´ *URVVEHUJ GHXQDPDQHUD FRQWH[WXDOLVWDHVSHFL¿FDQGRODFR\XQWXUDKLVWyULFDHQTXHDIUL FDQRV\DIURGHVFHQGLHQWHVHQWDQWRFROHFWLYRVVRFLDOHVDGTXLHUHQ YLVLELOLGDG VRFLDO \ SROtWLFD \ VRQ LQWHUSHODGRV FRPR UHIHUHQWH HPStULFRHQLQYHVWLJDFLRQHVFLHQWt¿FDVHQHOiPELWRORFDO 7DPELpQHQIXQFLyQGHH[SOLFLWDUVXSXHVWRVKD\TXHKDFHU UHIHUHQFLDDODLQFOLQDFLyQSRUODVLQYHVWLJDFLRQHVFRQWUDEDMRHW QRJUi¿FR \ ORV LQYHVWLJDGRUHV HQ VLWXDFLyQ GH HWQRJUDItD FRPR LQWHUORFXWRUHVSRVLEOHVSDUDXQDLQVWDQFLDUHÀH[LYDHQHOPDUFR GHO,,&RQYHVDWRULRGHO,,&RP

4 Cabe reconocer que semejante construcción excede las posibilidades e intenciones de las siguientes líneas en tanto aquí nos interesa aludir al contexto en que se enmarca la actual visibilidad social y política de africanos y afrodescendientes en Argentina para que el lector pueda entrever la complejidad de esta coyuntura y las conexiones de procesos de carácter global y/o local.

11

Africanos y afrodescendientes: visibilidad social y política %XHQDSDUWHGHODOLWHUDWXUDDFDGpPLFDGHODV~OWLPDVGpFD GDV TXH WRPD SRU REMHWR GH HVWXGLR FXHVWLRQHV UHIHULGDV D ORV DIULFDQRV\DIURGHVFHQGLHQWHVHQ$UJHQWLQDFRLQFLGHHQVHxDODU ODH[LVWHQFLDGHXQSURFHVRKHJHPyQLFRHKLVWyULFRGHLQYLVLELOL ]DFLyQGHHVDSREODFLyQ(QHVWDOtQHDGLYHUVDVLQYHVWLJDFLRQHV GDQFXHQWDGHORVPHFDQLVPRVDWUDYpVGHORVTXHVHLQVWLWX\yOD LGHDGHTXH³HQ$UJHQWLQDQRKD\QHJURV´( 6HWUDWDHQWpUPLQRVGH('RPtQJXH]  GHXQSURFH +%#Q",2'%.9"14&'(;'"(&+E,".'.(6,2$%+.6'.(R1,(';,"$6($9"$EL.( GHLQLFLDWLYDVLQVWLWXFLRQDLVHR¿FLDLVGHWH[WRVHVFRODUHVHFLHQG Wt¿FRVHTXHVHUHSURGX]HPQDLQWHUDomRVRFLDOFRWLGLDQD´ $VLPLVPRFRPRORUHJLVWUD/ySH]  HQODOLWHUDWXUDUH FLHQWHVHSURGXFHXQDGHFRQVWUXFFLyQTXHLQWHUSUHWDHVDQHJD FLyQGHODH[LVWHQFLDFRPRHOUHVXOWDGRGHRSHUDFLRQHVKHJHPy QLFDV/DVPLVPDVTXHKDQDSXQWDODGRODFRQVWUXFFLyQKLVWyULFD GHOSHU¿OpWQLFRGHODQDFLyQFRPR³EODQFR\HXURSHR´ )ULJHULR 5HLG$QGUHZV  3HURGHVGHODGpFDGDGHHVHPDUFRKHJHPyQLFRHVWDUtD DWUDYHVDQGRXQ³UHVTXHEUDMDPLHQWR´ )ULJHULR)ULJHULR\ /DPERUJKLQL/DPERUJKLQL\)ULJHULR SURGXFWRGH ODIRUPDFLyQ\DFFLRQHVGHXQPRYLPLHQWRVRFLDOGHPLOLWDQWHV QHJURVFRQP~OWLSOHVDUWLFXODFLRQHV\GHULYDFLRQHVHQHOiPELWR QDFLRQDOHLQWHUQDFLRQDO 3UHFLVDPHQWH GHVGH ORV DxRV QRYHQWD GLVWLQWRV RUJDQLVPRV GHO iPELWR LQWHUQDFLRQDO 2UJDQL]DFLyQ GH 1DFLRQHV 8QLGDV %DQFR 0XQGLDO %DQFR ,QWHUDPHULFDQR GH 'HVDUUROOR HQWUH RWURV LQWHUSHODQDORV(VWDGRVHQIXQFLyQGHSURPRYHUODD¿U PDFLyQGHFROHFWLYRVVRFLDOHVTXHKDVWDHOPRPHQWRVHHQFRQ WUDEDQSROtWLFD\VRFLDOPHQWHH[FOXLGRV3RUVXSDUWHORVHVWDGRV

12

QDFLRQDOHVGH$PpULFD/DWLQDHQJHQHUDOYLHQHQDSHODQGRDOD PXOWLFXOWXUDOLGDGFRPRXQDFXHVWLyQFRQSHVRHVSHFt¿FRHQVXV SURJUDPDVJXEHUQDPHQWDOHVGiQGROH XQHVSDFLR HQ ODOHJLVOD FLyQ\ODVSROtWLFDVVRFLDOHV$OUHVSHFWR*ULPVRQVRVWLHQHTXH ODDFWXDOKLSHUYLVLELOL]DFLyQGHODVGLIHUHQFLDVGHEHVLWXDUVH³HQ HOPDUFRJOREDOGHORVGHEDWHV\SROtWLFDVPXOWLFXOWXUDOHV\ORV pQIDVLV HQ OD FXHVWLyQ GHO µUHFRQRFLPLHQWR¶´    0LHQ WUDVTXH6HJDWR  REVHUYDHQHVWHFRQWH[WRGHSOXUDOLVPR JOREDOXQDUHFRQ¿JXUDFLyQGHODVIRUPDVGHFRQVWUXLUDOWHULGDG HQEDVHDQXHYRVFiQRQHVHQORVTXHSULPDODOyJLFDGHOPHUFDGR SURSLDGHORVSDtVHVKHJHPyQLFRV &RQWRGRODVRUJDQL]DFLRQHVGHDIURGHVFHQGLHQWHVHQSDUWL FXODUKDQLQLFLDGRXQSURFHVRVRFLDO\SROtWLFRTXHVHKDWUDGXFL GRHQXQDPD\RUYLVLELOLGDGIUHQWHDORVRUJDQLVPRVLQWHUQDFLR QDOHVORVHVWDGRV\ODVVRFLHGDGHVQDFLRQDOHV 'HPDQHUDTXHVHJ~Q$QWyQ\'HO3RSROR  HQODDF WXDOLGDGORVHVFHQDULRVVRFLRSROtWLFRVODWLQRDPHULFDQRVHYLGHQ FLDQ XQ FUHFLHQWH UHFRQRFLPLHQWR GH OD GLYHUVLGDG FXOWXUDO SRU ORV(VWDGRV\HQHVHPDUFROD³FRQVWLWXFLyQGHORVPRYLPLHQWRV DIURGHVFHQGLHQWHV H LQGtJHQDV FRPR DFWLYRV DFWRUHV VRFLDOHV \ SROtWLFRVORJUDQGRSRVLFLRQDUVXVGHPDQGDVHQODVDJHQGDVQD FLRQDOHVHLQWHUQDFLRQDOHV´ $QWyQ\'HO3RSROR  3DUDHOFDVRDUJHQWLQR*DUFtD  UHJLVWUDDFWXDOPHQ WH ³XQ FLHUWR LQWHUpV HVWDWDO SRU FXHVWLRQHV HVSHFt¿FDPHQWH UH -)./%,)!)+#.%,##'([email protected]"'VLWXDFLyQTXHFRQWUDVWDGH¿QLWLYDPHQWH FRQODLQGLIHUHQFLDGHOSDVDGR´ (QHIHFWR)ULJHULR\/DPERUJKLQL  GH¿QHQHVWH FRQWH[WRFRPRXQDHVWUXFWXUDGHRSRUWXQLGDGHVSROtWLFDVDQL YHO ORFDO H LQWHUQDFLRQDO \ GLIHUHQFLiQGRVH GH ODV YLVLRQHV TXH HQIDWL]DQHQODVOLPLWDFLRQHVGHOPXOWLFXOWXUDOLVPRGHVWDFDQOD DJHQFLD GH ORV PLOLWDQWHV QHJURV HQ $UJHQWLQD \ HO DSURYHFKD PLHQWRGHODVRSRUWXQLGDGHVSDUDSRUHMHPSORFUHDUFDQDOHVGH

13

LQWHUORFXFLyQFRQHO(VWDGRRUHFLELUHODSR\RGHDOJXQRVRUJD QLVPRVPXOWLODWHUDOHVGH¿QDQFLDPLHQWR 0iVD~QKD\TXLHQHVSODQWHDQTXHVHJ~QHOPRGRHQTXHHO PRYLPLHQWRGHDIURGHVFHQGLHQWHVVHGH¿QD\HOWLSRGHUHLYLQ GLFDFLRQHVTXHVHSULRULFHQpVWHSRGUtDHQFRQWUDUHQXQQXHYR FRQWLQJHQWHGHPLJUDQWHVDIULFDQRVUHFLHQWHPHQWHDUULEDGRDOD $UJHQWLQDXQSRWHQFLDODFRPSDxDQWHHQODOXFKDSRUFDXVDVFR PXQHV *DUFtD  'HKHFKROD OOHJDGD GH XQ JUXSR GH PLJUDQWHV GH GLVWLQWRV SDtVHVGHÈIULFD 6HQHJDO1LJHULD7RJR*DPELD&RVWDGH0DU ¿O&DPHU~QHQWUHRWURV GHVGHPHGLDGRVGHODGpFDGDGHOQR YHQWDIXHDGTXLULHQGRWUDVFHQGHQFLDS~EOLFDDSDUWLUGHODHYR OXFLyQFXDQWLWDWLYDTXHLPSULPLyDODSREODFLyQGHH[WUDQMHURV DIULFDQRVHQHOSDtVTXHVHJ~QUHJLVWURVGHO,QVWLWXWR1DFLRQDO GH(VWDGtVWLFDV\&HQVRVHQWUH\FUHFLyHQFDVLHO SRUFLHQWR$GHPiVHQSDUDOHORDVXFUHFLPLHQWRSREODFLRQDO ORVDIULFDQRVHQHOSDtVREWXYLHURQYLVLELOLGDGVRFLDO\PHGLiWLFD DWUDYpVGHVXSUHVHQFLDHQHOHVSDFLRS~EOLFR\SRUVXFRQVWUXF FLyQFRPRREMHWRGHQRWLFLDHQPHGLRVGHFRPXQLFDFLyQ 7RGDYtDPiVHQORV~OWLPRVGLH]DxRVHQHOiPELWRDFDGpPL FR VH YLHQHQ PXOWLSOLFDQGR ODV LQYHVWLJDFLRQHV TXH WRPDQ SRU REMHWRGHHVWXGLRDHVWDSREODFLyQGHPLJUDQWHVUHFLHQWHVRTXH LQFRUSRUDQDHVWXGLRV\DLQLFLDGRVVREUHRWURVFRQWLQJHQWHVGH DIULFDQRVRVREUHDIURGHVFHQGLHQWHVXQDSUHJXQWDSRUODVQXHYDV SUHVHQFLDV\VXVDUWLFXODFLRQHVFRQHOUHVWRGHOFDPSRDIURORFDO

5 Cullenward (2009) explica esta nueva corriente de migrantes africanos hacia Argentina aludiendo a una conexión con los cambios restrictivos asumidos en la legislación aplicable en materia migratoria por la Unión Europea. Para más detalles sobre estas dinámicas migratorias y una caracterización de la migración reciente de africanos en Argentina léase Morales (2010; 2011a; 2011b) y Chevalier-Beaumel y Morales (2012).

14

3RUWDOPRWLYRKDEUtDTXHFRQVLGHUDULQFOXVRODLQFLGHQFLDGHO SURSLRWUDEDMRDFDGpPLFRHQWRUQRDODSUREOHPiWLFDDIURHQOD FR\XQWXUDGHYLVLELOLGDGVRFLDO\SROtWLFDVHxDODGD 3ODQWHDQGR XQD FDXVDOLGDG LQYHUVD D OD DQWHULRU SHUR TXH DSRUWDDXQDPLUDGDPiVFRPSOHMDGHODVUHODFLRQHVHQWUHFDP SRFLHQWt¿FR\SURFHVRVVRFLDOHV&XQLQ  FRQVLGHUDTXH ³ODDSDULFLyQ±RODQRDSDULFLyQGHXQWHPDGHSHQGHWDQWRGH VX SHUWLQHQFLD HQ HO FDPSR FLHQWt¿FR ORFDO R JOREDO FRPR GHO UHFRQRFLPLHQWRGHVXOHJLWLPLGDGIXHUDGHOPDUFRDFDGpPLFR´ 3RUQXHVWUDSDUWHHQWHQGHPRVTXHORVSURSLRVLQYHVWLJDGR UHVYLQFXODGRVDOFDPSRGHHVWXGLRVDIURDUJHQWLQRVVRQDFWRUHV VLWXDGRVHQHMHUFLFLRGHSRGHU\FRSDUWtFLSHVHQGLYHUVRViPEL WRVGHDFWXDFLyQLQFOX\HQGRVLWXDFLRQHVGHLQYHVWLJDFLyQGRQ GH VH UHODFLRQDQ FRQ PLJUDQWHV DIULFDQRV DIURGHVFHQGLHQWHV \ DJHQWHVHVWDWDOHVDSDUWLUGHWHPDV\SUREOHPDVTXHORVFRQYRFDQ FRQLQWHUHVHVGLIHUHQWHV (QHVWHPDUFRODSURSXHVWDTXHHODERUDPRVDSHOyDUHXQLU DLQYHVWLJDGRUHV FX\D H[SHULHQFLD GH LQYHVWLJDFLyQ SRU ORV DF WRUHVLQYROXFUDGRVHQWDQWRLQWHUORFXWRUHVSRUODVFDUDFWHUtVWL FDV JHQHUDOHV GH ORV HQIRTXHV GLVFLSOLQDUHV GHVDUUROODGRV SRU ODVOtQHDVGHDQiOLVLVVRVWHQLGDVHQVXVSHVTXLVDVSXGLHUDGDU FXHQWDGHODSUHVHQFLDGHODGLPHQVLyQGHODVLGHQWLGDGHVVRFLD OHVFRPRXQIDFWRUUHOHYDQWH\RSUREOHPiWLFRHQHOSURFHVRGH LQYHVWLJDFLyQ

6 Cabe aclarar que previo a la convocatoria de los participantes del II Conversatorio Identidades y Sujetos. Interculturalidad en el trabajo etnográfico con africanos y afrodescendientes teníamos conocimiento de su tema de investigación y se realizó una lectura de algunos de sus trabajos publicados. Por otra parte, hay que decir que para esta compilación se seleccionaron los trabajos que evidenciaron un desarrollo avanzado del proceso de investigación y de reflexión metodológica.

15

(QRWUDVSDODEUDVQRVLQWHUHVDEDSRQHUHQGLiORJRDLQYHVWL JDGRUHVGHOFDPSRGHHVWXGLRVDIURDUJHQWLQRVSDUDUHÀH[LRQDU VREUH ODV PRGDOLGDGHV GH PDQLIHVWDFLyQ \ SRWHQFLDO LQFLGHQFLD HQVXVSHVTXLVDVGHODV\DPHQFLRQDGDVUHODFLRQHVKLVWyULFDVGH GHVLJXDOGDG VRFLDO DVt FRPR GH OD DOXGLGD FR\XQWXUD GH ³UHV TXHEUDMDPLHQWR´TXHHVWUXFWXUDQGHUHODFLyQHQWUH³QHJURV´\ ³EODQFRV´HQQXHVWURHQWRUQRVRFLDO

Las etnografías y la reflexividad /OHJDGRV D HVWH SXQWR KD\ TXH GHFLU TXH SDUWLPRV GHO SUH VXSXHVWRGHTXHODSRVLELOLGDGGHUHYLVDUHOSURFHVRGHUHODFLyQ VRFLDOHQWUHHOLQYHVWLJDGRU\VXVLQWHUORFXWRUHVHQHOFDPSRHQ WpUPLQRVGHFRQVWUXFWLYRV\FUtWLFRVVHYLQFXODGHPDQHUDSDUWL FXODUDXQTXHQRH[FOX\HQWHFRQODHWQRJUDItDHQVXRULHQWDFLyQ UHÀH[LYD (QHIHFWRHQWHQGHPRVTXHHOWUDEDMRGHFDPSRSURSLRGHOD HWQRJUDItDVHSUHVHQWDFRPRXQDLQVWDQFLDGHGLiORJRHQWUHGRV RPiVUHÀH[LYLGDGHVODGHOLQYHVWLJDGRU\GHVXVLQWHUORFXWRU HV6LHQGRTXHORVDFWRUHVVRFLDOHVHQLQWHUDFFLyQWLHQHQFDSD FLGDG GH OOHYDU D FDER VX FRPSRUWDPLHQWR VHJ~Q H[SHFWDWLYDV PRWLYRV\SURSyVLWRVFRPRVXMHWRVDFWLYRV FRQDJHQFLD  6HWUDWDGHXQSURFHVRGHLQWHUDFFLyQGLIHUHQFLDFLyQ\UHFL SURFLGDGHQWUHGLVWLQWDVUHÀH[LYLGDGHVGRQGHLQWHUYLHQHQXQRV

7 Hacemos referencia a la orientación teórico-metodológica que a partir de la década de 1970 expresa un replanteo epistemológico respecto a la experiencia de campo en etnografía, introduciendo la reflexividad como “una dimensión crítica que hoy aparece como un principio fundamental del análisis transcultural” (Augé y Colleyn, 2006: 93).

16

VLVWHPDVGHVHQWLGRFRP~QHLQVHUFLRQHVVRFLDOHVGLYHUVDV(Q HVWHVHQWLGRODGLYHUVLGDGGHVDItDHOSURSLRVLVWHPDGHFODVL¿FD FLyQVLJQL¿FDFLyQ\FRPSUHQVLyQGHOLQYHVWLJDGRUSURGXFLHQGR VXSHUSOHMLGDG\H[WUDxDPLHQWR $VtODDFWLYLGDGHWQRJUi¿FDHQHOFDPSRDSDUHFHFRPRFUHD GRUDGHXQDFRQ¿JXUDFLyQUHODFLRQDOPX\SDUWLFXODUHQODTXH FLHUWRVPHFDQLVPRVSURIXQGRVGHOKDELWXVFXOWXUDOHPHUJHQDOD FRQFLHQFLDGHXQRV\RWURVSHUGLHQGRVXFDUiFWHUGHHYLGHQFLD /RVRQF]\  (QHVWHPDUFRODVVLWXDFLRQHVGHFRPXQLFDFLyQSURSLDVGHO WUDEDMRHWQRJUi¿FRLQYROXFUDQODSXHVWDHQUHODFLyQGHGLIHUHQ WHV \R GHVLJXDOHV LGHQWL¿FDFLRQHV LQVHUFLRQHV HQ OD HVWUXFWX UD VRFLDO EDJDMHV FXOWXUDOHV $VLPLVPR LPSOLFDQ LQVWDQFLDV GH PHGLDFLyQ GRQGH LQWHUYLHQHQ HO VHQWLGR FRP~Q GH FDGD DFWRU LQFOXLGRHOLQYHVWLJDGRUTXHHVXQVXMHWRPiV\XQVLVWHPDWHy ULFRPHWRGROyJLFRGHOLQYHVWLJDGRUHQHOPDUFRGHXQDVREUHGH WHUPLQDFLyQGHODVLWXDFLyQSRUHOFRQWH[WRVRFLDOHKLVWyULFRTXH HVWDEOHFHSRVLELOLGDGHV\OtPLWHVYLQFXODUHV (QSDUWLFXODUHQHOPDUFRGHODHWQRJUDItDFUtWLFDUHÀH[LYDVH SODQWHDODQHFHVDULDH[SOLFLWDFLyQGHOEDJDMHWHyULFR\GHVHQWL GRFRP~QGHOLQYHVWLJDGRU$VtFRPRODFRQWUDVWDFLyQFUtWLFD\ FRQWLQXDHQWUHHOPDUFRWHyULFRHOVHQWLGRFRP~Q\ODUHDOLGDG VRFLDO *XEHU  'HHVWDPDQHUDVHLQFRUSRUDDOLQYHVWLJDGRUDOFDPSRGHDQi OLVLV\VHSRQHHQFRQVLGHUDFLyQVXPXQGRDFDGpPLFRFXOWXUDO\ VRFLDOHQXQSURFHVRGH³REMHWLYDFLyQGHODUHODFLyQVXEMHWLYDGHO LQYHVWLJDGRUFRQVXREMHWR´ *KDVDULDQ 

8 En trabajos anteriores de Katzer y Morales (2009) y Morales (2011c) se desarrolla un modelo de análisis situacional de las interacciones comunicativas en el trabajo etnográfico.

17

(QHVWHPDUFR\DHQODGpFDGDGH5RVDOGR  SODQ WHDODQHFHVDULDSUREOHPDWL]DFLyQGHODUHODFLyQHQWUHFXOWXUD\ SRGHU HQ HO DQiOLVLV VRFLDO (Q WDO VHQWLGR VRVWLHQH TXH HQ ODV HWQRJUDItDVFOiVLFDVVH UH SURGXFHQPDUFRVGHYLVLELOLGDGHLQ YLVLELOLGDGFXOWXUDOHLQWURGXFHODVQRFLRQHVGH³VXMHWRXELFDGR´ \ ³FRQRFLPLHQWR FRUUHODWLYR´ SDUD UHIRUPXODU ODV FRQFHSFLRQHV REMHWLYLVWDVHQODSURGXFFLyQGHFRQRFLPLHQWR 3UHFLVDPHQWHHVWRVSODQWHRVFUtWLFRVHPHUJLHURQHQSDUDOHOR DODFRQFHSFLyQGHODVLGHQWLGDGHVVRFLDOHVFRPRFRQ¿JXUDFLRQHV GLQiPLFDV\SURGXFWRGHSURFHVRVUHODFLRQDOHV $KRUDELHQDORV¿QHVGHQXHVWURWUDEDMRHQODOtQHDGHLQ YHVWLJDFLyQ TXH FRRUGLQDPRV RSRUWXQDPHQWH HQWHQGLPRV TXH XQDLQVWDQFLDUHÀH[LYDGH FDUiFWHUFROHFWLYR SRGtD DSRUWDUDOD SUREOHPDWL]DFLyQ\UHÀH[LYLGDGSURSLDGHFDGDSUiFWLFDHWQRJUi ¿FDGHORVLQYHVWLJDGRUHVFRQYRFDGRV3XHVSHUPLWLUtDSRQHUHQ FRP~Q \ GHEDWLU VREUH OD SUHVHQFLD H LQFLGHQFLD HQ HO SURFHVR GH LQYHVWLJDFLyQ \ VXV UHVXOWDGRV GH FRQÀLFWRV QHJRFLDFLRQHV PHGLDFLRQHVTXHWLHQHQOXJDUHQODUHODFLyQVRFLDOTXHHPSUHQGH HOLQYHVWLJDGRUFRQVXVLQWHUORFXWRUHVHQWDQWRVXMHWRVXELFDGRV (QSDUWLFXODUHQXQFRQWH[WRGHSRWHQFLDOUHFRQ¿JXUDFLyQGHORV UHJtPHQHVKLVWyULFRVGHYLVLELOLGDGGHODVDOWHULGDGHVDIURFRQOR TXHHVWRSXHGHLPSOLFDUSDUDODVUHODFLRQHVHQWUHHOLQYHVWLJDGRU \VXVLQWHUORFXWRUHVDIULFDQRV\RDIURGHVFHQGLHQWHV

Algunas líneas para seguir pensando (Q OD LQVWDQFLD GHO FRQYHUVDWRULR ORV SRQHQWHV SXVLHURQ HQ GHEDWHSUREOHPDVWDOHVFRPRHOSDSHOGHODVFRQFHSFLRQHV\GLIH UHQFLDVGHJpQHURHQODVLQWHUDFFLRQHVORSURSLRGHODVGLIHUHQ FLDVJHQHUDFLRQDOHVHQWUHHOLQYHVWLJDGRU\VXVLQWHUORFXWRUHVODV GHULYDVHQODUHODFLyQVRFLDOHVWDEOHFLGDDSDUWLUGHODVLGHQWL¿FD 18

FLRQHVGHFODVHTXHLQFLGHQHQODFRQFHSFLyQTXHORVLQWHUORFX WRUHVWLHQHQGHOLQYHVWLJDGRUHQWUHRWUDVFXHVWLRQHVSURSLDVGH ODVLWXDFLyQHWQRJUi¿FD $Vt D SDUWLU GHO GHEDWH H LQWHUFDPELR SURPRYLGR HQ ODV LQVWDQFLDV GLDOyJLFDV VH H[SUHVy OD QHFHVLGDG GH LQGDJDFLyQ D IXWXUR H LQFRUSRUDFLyQ GH FDWHJRUtDV TXH SUREOHPDWLFHQ ODV UHODFLRQHV GH ORV JpQHURV ODV UHSUHVHQWDFLRQHV UHVSHFWR GH OD VH[XDOLGDG\ODFLUFXODFLyQGLQiPLFD\UHODFLRQDOGHOSRGHUHQ ORVFXHUSRVIHPHQLQRV\PDVFXOLQRVHQJUXSRVDIULFDQRVRDIUR GHVFHQGLHQWHV (QORFRQFUHWRVXUJLyHOLQWHUpVGHSUREOHPDWL]DUORVOXJDUHV TXH RFXSDQ ODV PXMHUHV HQ ODV WUDPDV UHODFLRQDOHV SURSLDV GH ORV DIULFDQRV \ DIURGHVFHQGLHQWHV DO LQWHULRU GH VXV DFXHUGRV VLJQL¿FDFLRQHV \ SURFHVRV LQWHUDFWLYRV HQ OD ELVDJUD GH OR S~ EOLFR \ OR SULYDGR HVFHQDULRV GLFRWyPLFRV \ ELQDUL]DQWHV TXH VHFRQ¿JXUDURQGHHVHPRGRFRPRKHUHQFLDGHODFRVPRYLVLyQ GH OD &RORQLDO 0RGHUQLGDG \ ORV (VWDGRV 1DFLRQDOHV 6HJDWR  GRQGHIXHURQLQRFXODGDVODVPDWULFHVSDWULDUFDOHVGHJp QHURTXHUHRUJDQL]DURQODVH[XDOLGDGHQ$PpULFD/DWLQD 4XLHQHV SDUWLFLSDURQ GHO FRQYHUVDWRULR PRVWUDURQ LQWHUpV HQSURIXQGL]DUORVDOFDQFHVOtPLWHV\SRVLELOLGDGHVGHODFRQV WUXFFLyQGHLGHQWL¿FDFLRQHVUHVSHFWRGHORVJpQHURVDOPRPHQ WRGHODHMHFXFLyQGHXQWUDEDMRGHFDPSRUHÀH[LYR\GHFRUWHHW QRJUi¿FR(VGHFLUQRUHSUHVHQWDORPLVPRSDUDODVGLQiPLFDV YLQFXODUHV\GHHQFXHQWURTXHORVLQWHUORFXWRUHVLGHQWL¿TXHQDO LQYHVWLJDGRUFRPRIHPHQLQRRPDVFXOLQR\HQWDOFDVRFRPR FXHUSRV IHPHQLQRV R PDVFXOLQRV SXHVWR TXH HOOR SHUPLWLUi FLHUWDVOLFHQFLDVDOPRPHQWRGHODLQWHUDFFLyQ /DV LQYHVWLJDGRUDV D¿UPDEDQ TXH DOJXQDV WHPiWLFDV VXV LQWHUORFXWRUHVSUHIHUtDQQRFRQWDUODVSRUTXH³HUDQSURSLDVGH KRPEUHV´HVHQFLDOL]DQGRODSHUWLQHQFLDGHODGLVFXVLyQ,QFOX VRHOORVVHGLMRVXHOHQUHODFLRQDUVHFRQODLQWHUSHODGRUDIHPH

19

QLQDFRQXQPDQGDWRKHJHPyQLFR\KHWHURQRUPDWLYRUHVSHFWR GHORTXHVHHVSHUDGHXQVXMHWRPDVFXOLQRODVHGXFFLyQFRUWHMR GHODPXMHU 3RU VX SDUWH ORV LQYHVWLJDGRUHV YDURQHV WDPELpQ QDUUDURQ TXHORVPRGRVGHYLYLUORVJpQHURVDEULHURQFLHUWDVSRVLELOLGDGHV DOPRPHQWRGHLQWHUDFWXDUFRQLQIRUPDQWHVPXMHUHVMXVWDPHQ WHSRUVXFRQGLFLyQGHJpQHUR1RGHEHPRVROYLGDUDTXtTXHHO \RTXHHQXQFLDVLHPSUHHVOHtGRHQODVWUDPDVFXOWXUDOHVFRPR PDVFXOLQRORTXHOHLQYLVWHXQFDUiFWHURQWROyJLFR\OHJLWLPDGRU GHODYHUGDG3RUORWDQWRVLHOFXHUSR VRSRUWHGHWRGDPDWHULD OLGDGVLJQL¿FDQWH TXHHQXQFLDHVPDVFXOLQR\ODVSRVLELOLGDGHV TXHKDELOLWD\ODVGLQiPLFDVTXHVHSRQHQHQMXHJRVRQIDYRUH FLGDV VL VH FRPSDUD FRQ XQ FXHUSR IHPHQLQR R IHPLQL]DGR OD SUHJXQWDSRUHOSRGHUFULVWDOL]DGRHQODVUHODFLRQHVJHQpULFDVQR SXHGHVHULQHOXGLEOH HQ ODV VLWXDFLRQHV GH FRPXQLFDFLyQ GH OD HWQRJUDItD\HQODVFRQGLFLRQHVUHÀH[LYDVGHQXHVWUDVHSLVWHPHV ODWLQRDPHULFDQDV &RPR FRRUGLQDGRUHV GH OD OtQHD ,GHQWLGDGHV \ 6XMHWRV DVXPLPRV HO FRPSURPLVR GH FRPSUHQGHU TXH HO GHVDItR TXH VH QRV SUHVHQWD DO SDUWLU GHVGH XQD SHUVSHFWLYD FUtWLFD WUDQV YHUVDOHQUHODFLyQDWHPiWLFDVSHUVSHFWLYDVREMHWRVPHWRGR ORJtD\SRVLFLRQDPLHQWRVSROtWLFRHSLVWHPROyJLFRVLPSOLFDQR JXHWL¿FDUORVWHPDVHVGHFLUQRUHGXFLUORVDFRPSDUWLPHQWRV HVWDQFRVQRGLDOyJLFRV\GLVFLSOLQDUL]DQWHVSDUDSURGXFLUGHV GHDOOtFRQRFLPLHQWRVLQFUXFHVFRPRORVHxDODQORVPRGRVGH KDFHU GH ODV GLVFLSOLQDV WUDGLFLRQDOHV SXHV D SDUWLU GH DOOt HV

9 Rita Segato se refiere al fundamentalismo disciplinar o culturalismo de las disciplinas que no es más que la estrategia para perpetuar el control sobre los campos de saber y los modos de producir conocimiento. Cerrar el debate y los cruces tiene como objetivos crear corrales de poder sobre recursos por los jerarcas de las disciplinas (Segato, 2003).

20

XQD IRUPD GH FRORQL]DU HO VDEHU GHVGH ORV FHQWURV GHO PXQ GR TXH DGPLQLVWUDQ ORV UHFXUVRV GHO SRGHU GHO FRQRFLPLHQWR 1XHVWUDSURSXHVWDUHVLGHHQDSHODUDODWUDQVYHUVDOLGDGDORV FUXFHV\DODYLJLODQFLDGHQXHVWUDVFRQGLFLRQHVGHSURGXFFLyQ GHODVSUHJXQWDVTXHQRVKDFHPRVHQGLiORJRFRQORVSURFHVRV GH FRQIRUPDFLyQ GHO FDPSR GH VDEHU GH OD &RPXQLFDFLyQ HQ $PpULFD/DWLQD 3RUHOORHQWHQGHPRVTXHSDUDFRPSUHQGHUHOSRUTXpGHODV FRQGLFLRQHVGHGHVLJXDOGDGRSUHVLyQ\FRQIRUPDFLRQHVLGHQWL WDULDVGHODVPXMHUHVRGHORVPLJUDQWHV UHIHUHQWHVVHQVLEOHVGH ODVLQYHVWLJDFLRQHVDTXtSUHVHQWHV QROOHJDUtDPRVDEXHQSXHU WRVLQRFRQWHPSODPRVODVP~OWLSOHVDULVWDVGHODSUREOHPiWLFD FRPRODGLVSXWDGHUHFXUVRVHQODHVIHUDS~EOLFDHOSDWULDUFDGR FRPR PRGDOLGDG SULPLJHQLD GH XQD SHGDJRJtD GH OD RSUHVLyQ OD GLVWULEXFLyQ HFRQyPLFD OD UDFLDOL]DFLyQ GHO (VWDGR OD DGXO WRFUDFLDFRPRPRGHOROHJLWLPDGRUGHSDUWLFLSDFLyQS~EOLFDHWF  HQSRVGHXQDSHUVSHFWLYDKROtVWLFD\WUDQVYHUVDO

Orientando al lector (Q SDUWLFXODU SDUD OD SURGXFFLyQ GH HVWD REUD ORV LQYHVWL JDGRUHV YLQFXODGRVDGLVWLQWRVFDPSRVGHVDEHUWDOHVFRPROD &RPXQLFDFLyQ6RFLDO$QWURSRORJtD6RFLRORJtD\&LHQFLDV3ROt WLFDV KDQUHFXSHUDGR\DPSOLDGRODVFRPXQLFDFLRQHVSUHVHQWD !)+#)-#DD(8'%E,".$9'"+'(D&,%9+&$&,.(/(F1B,9'.7(D%9,"21#91"$#+&$&( HQHOWUDEDMRHWQRJUi¿FRFRQDIULFDQRV\DIURGHVFHQGLHQWHV 'H PRGR TXH HQ ORV GLVWLQWRV FDStWXORV GH HVWH PDWHULDO VH UHFXSHUDQDOJXQDVLGHDVGHEDWLGDVHQHOFRQYHUVDWRULR\WDPELpQ VHWUDWDQRWURVWHPDV\SUREOHPDVUHODWLYRVDODVLQYHVWLJDFLRQHV TXH GHVDUUROODQ HVWRV DXWRUHV HQ LQWHUORFXFLyQ FRQ DIULFDQRV \ DIURGHVFHQGLHQWHVHQ\GH$UJHQWLQD 21

0DUtD &HFLOLD 0DUWLQR SUHVHQWD DOJXQDV UHÀH[LRQHV D SDU WLU GH SHQVDU HQ ODV GL¿FXOWDGHV TXH VH SUHVHQWDURQ GXUDQWH HO WUDQVFXUVRGHVXWUDEDMRGHFDPSRFRQGLIHUHQWHVJHQHUDFLRQHV GHLQPLJUDQWHVFDERYHUGLDQRV\VXVGHVFHQGLHQWHVDOOHJDGRVD OD6RFLHGDGFDERYHUGHDQDGH'RFN6XG 2UODQGR*DEULHO0RUDOHVHODERUDUHÀH[LRQHVVREUHDVSHFWRV HSLVWHPROyJLFRV\WHyULFRPHWRGROyJLFRVFRQHOSURSyVLWRGHYL VLELOL]DU\GHVQDWXUDOL]DUODFRPSOHMLGDGGHORVFRQWH[WRVGHLQ WHUDFFLyQHQHOWUDEDMRHWQRJUi¿FRFRQPLJUDQWHVDIULFDQRVGHOD UHJLyQVXEVDKDULDQDHQ$UJHQWLQD 0DUtD /X] (VSLUR GHVFULEH \ SUREOHPDWL]D OD XWLOL]DFLyQ GH XQD PHWRGRORJtD YLVXDO SDUD LQGDJDU UHSUHVHQWDFLRQHV GH DIUL FDQRVVHQHJDOHVHVHQODFLXGDGGH/D3ODWDDWHQGLHQGRDSUREOH PDVFRPXQLFDFLRQDOHVSURSLRVGHVXWUDEDMRGHFDPSR *LVHOH.OHLGHUPDFKHUH[SRQHDFHUFDGHORVGHVDItRVTXHSUH VXSRQHXQDLQYHVWLJDFLyQRULHQWDGDDDQDOL]DUSUiFWLFDVGLVFUL PLQDWRULDV\UDFLVWDV7DPELpQVREUHODVGL¿FXOWDGHVUHJLVWUDGDV HQODHQWUDGDDOFDPSR\VXVYLYHQFLDVHQHOPLVPR &DUORV$ULHO0XHVHVHQHOPDUFRGHXQDDSUR[LPDFLyQHWQR JUi¿FDDODVRUJDQL]DFLRQHVGHDIURGHVFHQGLHQWHV HQOD&LXGDG GH %XHQRV $LUHV VH SURSRQH YLVLELOL]DU \ FRQWURYHUWLU ORV SUH VXSXHVWRV TXH FRQGLFLRQDQ OD PLUDGD GHO LQYHVWLJDGRU SDUD OR TXHDSHODDUHÀH[LRQDUDFHUFDGHVXH[SHULHQFLDIRUPDWLYD\GH LQYHVWLJDFLyQSUHYLDHQ&RORPELD $GHPiVHOHERRNFRQWLHQHGRVUHVHxDVGHOLEURVTXHKHPRV GHFLGLGR LQFRUSRUDU SRU HO YDORU GH ODV REUDV UHYLVDGDV SDUD HO HVWXGLRGHODVLGHQWLGDGHVVRFLDOHV\ODFRQWH[WXDOL]DFLyQGHODV SUREOHPiWLFDV GHO FDPSR DIUR 5HVHxDV TXH KD\ TXH HQWHQGHU PiVSRUVXDSRUWHDWUD]DUXQDHVWUXFWXUDPiVDPSOLDGHUHODFLR QHVTXHSRUHOFDUiFWHUQRYHGRVRGHODVSXEOLFDFLRQHVUHIHULGDV

22

Bibliografía *"#)" -RKQ \ 'HO 3RSROR )DELDQD   ³9LVLELOLGDG HVWD GtVWLFDGHODSREODFLyQ$IURGHVFHQGLHQWHGH$PpULFD/DWLQD DVSHFWRV FRQFHSWXDOHV \ PHWRGROyJLFRV´ 3UR\HFWR &(3$/ &RPLVLyQ(XURSHD6DQWLDJRGH&KLOH *'340DUF\&ROOH\Q-HDQ3DXO  S1L(,.(#$($%9"';'#'N4$ >@3DLGyV%XHQRV$LUHV 1$'1*52$ 5RJHUV \ &RRSHU )UHGHULFN   ³0iV DOOi GH ³LGHQWLGDG´´ (Q /RwF :DFTXDQW 'LU  T,;,%.$"( #'.( :.9$G &'.(H%+&'.7(C$"$(1%$(.'2+'#'N4$(&,#(=+;,";'&,"$QWKURSRV %DUFHORQD3S (*33!*"%6HUJLR  0'(R1,(%'(,%9"$(,%(,#(2"+.'#73URPHWHR %XHQRV$LUHV (62/*-!2$712*'82- (OOHQ \ 0RUDOHV 2UODQGR *DEULHO   ³$SUR[LPDFLyQHWQRJUi¿FDDODQXHYDPLJUDFLyQDIULFDQDHQ $UJHQWLQD&LUFXODFLyQ\VDEHUHVHQHOFDVRGHORVVHQHJDOH VHVDUULEDGRVHQODV~OWLPDVGRVGpFDGDV´>.9"'#$*+'7(U1,E$( V;'2$1ž3S ('--2"9*$& /DXUD   ³/D LQPLJUDFLyQ DIULFDQD D (VSDxD \$UJHQWLQDHQODpSRFDGHODJOREDOL]DFLyQ´7HVLVGHKRQRU 'HSDUWDPHQWRGH(VWXGLRV+LVSiQLFRV0DFDOHVWHU&ROODJH ('"!"(OLVDEHWK (G   W,P9'.(,%(&+O.;'"$7(H%$($%9'#'G N4$(.'*",([email protected]"'&,.2,%&+,%9,.(,%(#$.(>6L"+2$.,QVWLWXWR1DFLR QDOGH$QWURSRORJtDH+LVWRULD&HQWURGH(VWXGLRV0H[LFDQRV \&HQWURDPHULFDQRV,QVWLWXWR)UDQFpVGH(VWXGLRV$QGLQRV ,QVWLWXWGH5HFKHUFKHSRXUOH'pYHORSSHPHQW0p[LFR') &%8,"3'2:;0DUtD(XJHQLD  !([email protected]"'Y(,%9",('.(+6+N"$%9,.( HP%XHQRV$LUHVUHÀH[}HVVREUHDVGLIHUHQWDV'LVHUWDFLyQ GH0DHVWUtDHQ$QWURSRORJtD6RFLDO3URJUDPDGH3RV*UDGR HQ$QWURSRORJtD6RFLDO8QLYHUVLGDG)HGHUDOGH6DQWD&DWDUL 23

QD)HEUHURGH)ORULDQySROLV%UDVLO (6!$!3'!"! 0DUtD &ULVWLQD   ,GHQWLGDGHV VRFLDOPHQWH FRQVWUXLGDV´(Q0DUtD&ULVWLQD&KLULJXLQL &RPS >;,"91G "$($(#$(>%9"';'#'N4$3UR\HFWR(GLWRULDO%V$V3S 6L"+G 2$(0$9+%$[(=,",%2+$A(;",.,%2+$(/(E+.+'%,.(&,#('9"'7&HQWURGH (VWXGLRV$YDQ]DGRV&yUGRED&/$&62%XHQRV$LUHV @ (Q (OLVDEHWK &XQLQ (G    W,P9'.( ,%(&+O.;'"$7(H%$($%9'#'N4$(.'*",([email protected]"'&,.2,%&+,%9,.(,%(#$.( >6L"+2$.7 ,QVWLWXWR 1DFLRQDO GH $QWURSRORJtD H +LVWRULD &HQWURGH(VWXGLRV0H[LFDQRV\&HQWURDPHULFDQRV,QVWLWXWR )UDQFpVGH(VWXGLRV$QGLQRV,QVWLWXWGH5HFKHUFKHSRXUOH 'pYHORSSHPHQW0p[LFR 5*#:2$/HWLFLD\0RUDOHV2UODQGR*DEULHO  ³6LWXDFLR QHV GH FRPXQLFDFLyQ HQ HO WUDEDMR HWQRJUi¿FR 5HÀH[LRQHV HQEDVHDH[SHULHQFLDVGHFDPSR´2¿FLRV7HUUHVWUHV1ž(( 3S -*81%$36!"! (YD \ )ULJHULR $OHMDQGUR   ³4XHEUDQGR OD LQYLVLELOLGDG8QDHYDOXDFLyQGHORVDYDQFHV\ODVOLPLWDFLR QHVGHODFWLYLVPRQHJURHQ$UJHQWLQD´:#(!9"'(3,",2='1ž( 3S

25

-)+2:/DXUD&HFLOLD  Q\]$/($#N1%$(;,".'%$(,%(,.9,(]'G JDU TXH VHD $IURGHVFHQGLHQWH"´ 1HJURFLDoRHV H GLVSXWDV SROtWLFDVHPWRUQR GDVFODVVL¿FDoRHVpWQLFDVQD$UJHQWLQD 'LVHUWDFLyQGH0DHVWUtDHQ$QWURSRORJtD6RFLDO8QLYHUVLGDG )HGHUDOGH5LR*UDQGHGR6RXO3RUWR$OHJUH%UDVLO -%0%"(:= $QQH0DULH   ³'HO HQLJPD UHFtSURFR DO VDEHU FRPSDUWLGR\DOVLOHQFLR)LJXUDVGHODUHODFLyQHWQRJUi¿FD´ 3S(Q&KULVWLDQ*KDVDULDQHWDO  3,(#$(,9%'G JUDItDDODDQWURSRORJtDUHÀH[LYD>@(GLFLRQHVGHO6RO %XHQRV$LUHV 8%$*-202UODQGR*DEULHO  ³1XHYDVGLQiPLFDVPLJUDWR ULDV JOREDOHV \ UHSUHVHQWDFLRQHV ORFDOHV VREUH ORV QHJURV HQ $UJHQWLQD(OFDVRGHODVSHUFHSFLRQHVGHDJHQWHVGHOD3ROL FtD ERQDHUHQVH VREUH UHFLHQWHV PLJUDQWHV DIULFDQRV´ F'2+,G &$&(/(3+.21".'(1ž3S 8%$*-20 2UODQGR *DEULHO D  ³³$YHQWXUHURV´ H ³LQWHUQD FLRQDOHV´ GRV ¿JXUDV UHSUHVHQWDFLRQDOHV GH OD PLJUDFLyQ DIULFDQDHQ$UJHQWLQD´(Q/XGPLOD$GDG\&ODXGLD9LOODIDxH &RRUGV >29$.(&,(#$.(DDD(^'"%$&$.(&,(>%9"';'#'N4$(F'2+$#( GHO&HQWUR5HGH¿QLFLRQHV\FRQWLQXLGDGHVGHEDWHVGHVGHOD $%9"';'#'N4$3S8QLYHUVLGDG1DFLRQDOGHO&HQWUR GHOD3URYLQFLDGH%XHQRV$LUHV7DQGLO%XHQRV$LUHV 8%$*-202UODQGR*DEULHO E ³1XHYDFRUULHQWHGHPLJUDQ WHVDIULFDQRVHQDUJHQWLQD\UHFRQ¿JXUDFLRQHVGHODLQYLVLEL OLGDGGHODQHJULWXGHQHOFRQWH[WRDFWXDO(Q)ORUHQFLD*X] PiQ\/HD*HOHU &RRUG >29$.(&,(#$.(F,N1%&$.(^'"%$&$.( &,(:.91&+'.(>@"'#$9+%'$6,"+2$%'.(&,#():>0>3S ,QVWLWXWR5DYLJQDQL8%$%XHQRV$LUHV 8%$*-202UODQGR*DEULHO F ³ 'HV HQFXHQWURVPHGLDFLR QHVQHJRFLDFLRQHVUHVLVWHQFLDVUHÀH[LRQHVVREUHODSURGXF FLyQGHFRQRFLPLHQWR\ODH[SHULHQFLDGHODLQWHUFXOWXUDOLGDGD SDUWLUGHXQDVLWXDFLyQHWQRJUi¿FD´U,_.#,99,"1ž3S

26

8%$2"%;,VLGRUR  ³,GHQWLGDGHV\ULWXDOHV´(Q-RDQ3UDW HWDO (GV >%9"';'#'N4$(&,(#'.(;1,*#'.(&,(:.;$`$7DXUXV 0DGULG $2!&.*"&$29V*HRUJH  0'.(>@"'$"N,%9+%'.(&,(Z1,%'.(>+G ",.(GLFLRQHV/D)ORU%XHQRV$LUHV $%0*-&%5HQDWR  81#91"$(/(E,"&$&7(0$(",2'%.9"122+M%( &,#( $%O#+.+.( .'2+$# >@ 7UDGXFFLyQ GH -RUJH *yPH] 5 (GLFLRQHV$E\D( #$( E1,#9$( &,( #$( >%9"';'#'N4$(C'.6'&,"%$7%XHQRV$LUHV/HJDVD >*820 '   3'`$( -$"4$A( ]+.9'"+$( &,( E+&$A( 6,6'"+$( ,( +&,%9+&$&(;'#49+2$$UJHQWLQD0DQDQWLDO -%+20  (WQLD(VWDGRHUHODo}HVGHSRGHUQD*XLQp%LVG .$17(3RUWXJDO(GLo}HV 8*