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w ô e .)

PURDUE UNIVERSITY

THIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT THE TH E SIS PR EPA R ED U N D E R MY SU P E R V ISIO N

BY

Ervin Trowbridge Bullard

ENTITLED

Horticultural and Chemical Evaluations of Hybrid Tomatoes and Improved Mettiods for Production of Hybrid Tomato Seed*

COMPLIES WITH THE UNIVERSITY REGULATIO NS O N GRADUATION T H E SE S

AND IS APPROVED BY ME A S FU LFILLIN G THIS PART O F THE REQUIREM ENTS

FO R THE D EG R EE OF

Doctor of Philosophy

P r o f e s s o r ijt C h a r g e o f T h e s i s

H e a p o f S ch ool o r D epa r tm en t

January 18 ^_______ 1 9 50

TO THE LIBRARIAN: THIS T H E SIS IS NOT TO B E REGARDED A S CONFIDENTIAL.

PROPESSOB m

GRAB. SOHOOIi FORM 9—3 -4 8 — IM

OHABOB

HORTICÜI/TÜHAL ADîD CHEMICAL EVAUTATIONS OF HYBRID TOMATOES AND IMPROVED METHODS FOR PRODUCTION OF HYBRID TOMATO SEED A T h e s is S u b m itte d t o t h e F a c u l t y of P u rd u e U n i v e r s i t y by E r v i n T ro w b rid g e B u l l a r d I n P e œ tia l F u lf illm e n t of th e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r t h e D e g re e of D o c to r o f P h ilo s o p h y F e b r u a r y , 1950

ProQuest Number: 27712217

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is d e p e n d e n t upon the quality of the copy subm itted. In the unlikely e v e n t that the a u thor did not send a c o m p le te m anuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if m aterial had to be rem oved, a n o te will ind ica te the deletion.

uest ProQuest 27712217 Published by ProQuest LLO (2019). C opyright of the Dissertation is held by the Author. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States C o d e M icroform Edition © ProQuest LLO. ProQuest LLO. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.Q. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8 1 0 6 - 1346

ACKNOmiEDGmENTS

The w r i t e r w is h e s t o t h o s e who h a v e th is

stu d y .

S te v e n so n , D r.

in

som e w ay h e l p e d

He i s

e sp e c ia lly

P ro f. E.

C . I,. P o r t e r ,

C. S t a i r ,

D r.

J.

fo r t h e i r m a te ria l h e lp , c is m s .

The w r i t e r

e x p ress h is

is

a p p re c ia tio n

h im i n

in d e b te d to

c a rry in g D r. E .

to

a ll

out C.

P ro f. N. K. E l l i s ,

D . H a rtm a n a n d D r . A . P .

E o rz

v a lu a b le

c riti­

su g g e stio n s

in d e b te d a ls o

to P ro f.

and F.

C. G a y lo rd

a n d T he A g r i c u l t u r a l A lu m n i S e e d Im p ro v e m e n t A s s o c i a t i o n fo r

th e ir

He i s in g

su g g e stio n s,

g ra te fu l fo r

d a ta

M a g a rt•

th e

in te re s t

and

a ssista n c e

in

fin a n c ia l

a ssista n c e .

re c o rd in g and

a n a ly z ­

c o n t r i b u t e d by M iss F r a n c e s S h o a f a n d M r. G. L .

TABLE OF CONTïOT’S Page ABSTRACT GENERAL INTRODUCTION PART I .

................................................................................

HORTICULTURAL AND CHE^ÆICAL EVALUATIONS

In tro d u c tio n

...........

............... ..................................................................

M a t e r i a l s a n d M e th o d s

..........................

Y ie ld T r ia ls

Y ie ld T r i a l s

..................

11 13

.......................................................................

.......................

q u a lity E v a lu a tio n s PART I I .

10

....................................................................................

(Q u a lity E v a l u a t i o n s

7 10

....................................

E x p e rim e n ta l R e s u lts

4 4

R e v ie w o f L i t e r a t u r e

Seed P r o d u c tio n

1

IS 18

..................................................................

24

HYBRID SEED PRODUCTION.....................................................

46

In tro d u c tio n

............................................................................................

R e v ie w o f L i t e r a t u r e S te rility

F a c to rs

.......................................................................

47

.......................................

47

N a t u r a l C r o s s i n g i n T o m a to e s

........................................... 49 ........................

51

....................................................................

53

I m p r o v e d M e t h o d s o f H and P o l l i n a t i o n M a t e r i a l and M e th o d s

C o n tro lle d I n s e c t P o l li n a tio n A r t i f i c i a l Hand P o l l i n a t i o n S to rin g P o lle n

46

.......................... ..........................................

53 56

.................................................................................. 6 ?

N a tu ra l C ro s s -P o llin a tio n

................................................... 71

Page E x p e rim e n ta l R e s u lts In se ct P o llin a tio n

........................................................................ 7 4 .....................................................................

A r t i f i c i a l H and P o l l i n a t i o n

74

.............................................. 7 4

P o lle n S to ra g e S tu d ie s

..........................

78

N a tu ra l C ro s s -P o llin a tio n

..........................

82

B a c k c ro ss P ro g ram

...............

SUMMARY OF RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

84 ...............................

8$

APPENDIX A . TABLES

..................................................................................... 8 7

APPENDIX B . FIGURES

..................................................................................... 89

BIBLIOGRAPHY

....................................................................................................

90

ABSTRACT P erfo rm an ce t e s t s

w ere c o n d u c te d i n 1948 and 1949 t o

co m pare h y b r i d t o m a to e s w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s , c a s e s w ere o u t s t a n d i n g ta k e n on y i e l d , te n t,

fru it

so lu b le

shape,

fla v o r of f r u i ts

c u rre n t v a rie tie s* so lid s,

a c id ity ,

c o lo r of f r u i t s ,

v in e

and num ber o f l o c u l i .

w h i c h i n m any R e c o rd s w ere

v ita m in ”0 ” c o n ­ ty p e ,

P r itc h a r d X R u tg e rs,

B u r p e e H y b r i d a n d T o m a to No* 7 h y b r i d w e r e t h e c a n n e r y o r home g a r d e n s i n I n d i a n a . an d t h e P a r i b o H y b r id w ere t h e

c ra c k in g ,

b e st fo r th e

E a rlia n a X V a lia n t

b e s t e a r ly m ark et h y b rid s .

E x p e r i m e n t s w e r e c o n d u c t e d i n 1 9 4 7 , 1 9 4 8 a n d 19 4 9 in an a tte m p t to

f i n d m ore s a t i s f a c t o r y m e th o d s o f h y b r i d

seed p ro d u c tio n *

I t w as f o u n d t h a t h o n e y b e e s , b lo w f l i e s

and house f l i e s w i l l n o t p o l l i n a t e tro lle d

c o n d itio n s

in c h e e se c lo th

to m a to f l o w e r s u n d e r c o n ­ cages*

P o l l e n was d u s t ­

ed on to m a to f l o w e r s a n d s p r a y e d on i n a 15 p e r c e n t s u c r o s e s o l u t i o n , b u t t h e s e m e th o d s d i d n o t p ro v e e c o n o m ic a l. E x p e rim e n ts w ere c o n d u c te d w i t h s t o r e d p o l l e n , b u t t h e s to r e d p o lle n d id n o t p ro v e to have any a d v a n ta g e p o l l e n t h a t was n o t s t o r e d . m ak in g h y b r i d to m a to p o sitio n a l-ste rile

over

The m o st e c o n o m ic a l m eth o d o f

seed a r t i f i c a l l y

w as b y p o l l i n a t i n g

f lo w e r s by h a n d , a s t h e y

do n o t r e q u i r e

e m a sc u la tio n . E x p e rim e n ts w ere c o n d u c te d on n a t u r a l u sin g m a le - s te r ile

and m a l e - f e r t i l e

o u tc ro ssin g

p la n ts.

o f s e e d p e r a c r e w ere o b t a i n e d b y t h i s

m e th o d ,

S ix pounds th u s t h i s

m e th o d , w o u l d h e e c o n o m i c a l s i n c e

th e

v a lu e of th e

seed is

v ery h ig h . A b a c k c r o s s p ro g ra m i s u n d erw ay t o m a le - and p o s i t i o n a l - s t e r i l e

fa c to rs

have p ro v e d to be good c o m b in e rs.

in c o rp o ra te

in to

v a rie tie s

th e th a t

HORTICULTURAL AND CHEMICAL EVALUATIONS OF HYBRID TOhlATOSS AND IMPROVED METHODS FOR PRODUCTION OF HYBRID TOMATO SEED GENERAL INTRODUCTION H y b rid c o rn h a s b e e n i n th e l a t e

tw e n tie s and, a t

p rod uced i n th e

c o m m e rc ia l p r o d u c t i o n s i n c e

p re se n t,

c o rn -b e lt s ta te s

H y b rid -c o rn seed i s

easy to

v irtu a lly

a ll

th e

i s grow n fro m h y b r i d

to

c o n tro l p o llin a tio n .

v e g e ta b le s,

on t h e

seed,

p ro d u ce b e c a u s e th e m ale an d

fe m a le o rg a n s a r e l o c a t e d on d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f th e n a m e ly t h e t a s s e l a n d t h e

com

e a r, and i t

is

p la n t,

a sim p le p r o c e s s

The c o m m e rc ia l u s e o f h y b r i d

o th e r hand, has been r e la tiv e ly

ed p r im a r ily b e ca u se o f th e

lim it­

h ig h c o s t of p ro d u c in g s e e d .

I n v e g e t a b l e s h a v in g t h e m ale and f e m a le o rg a n s l o c a t e d i n t h e sa m e f l o w e r , p rev en t s e lf in g

it

is

n e c e ssa ry to

so t h a t t h e

d e sire d

e m a sc u la te to

c ro s s can be m ade.

C e r t a i n v e g e t a b l e s w o u ld n o t b e d e s i r a b l e fo rm , a b le

in h y b rid

even th o u g h th e s e e d c o u ld be p ro d u ce d a t a r e a s o n ­ c o s t , b e c a u s e t h e y w o u ld h a v e n o p a r t i c u l a r a d v a n t a g e

over th e

sta n d a rd v a r i e ti e s .

It

h as been d e m o n stra te d ,

h o w e v e r, by s e v e r a l w o rk e rs t h a t h y b r i d to m a to e s a r e d e s i r ­ a b le

fro m s e v e r a l s t a n d p o i n t s an d t h e

h ig h c o s t o f p ro d u c ­

in g

seed re m a in s a s th e m a jo r o b s ta c le

to

th e ir g en eral

use. One o f t h e m a i n f e a t u r e s o f h y b r i d t o m a t o e s i s th e y p ro d u ce a l a r g e r y i e l d o f e a r ly

fru it

th a t

th a n s ta n d a rd

v a r i e t i e s , m ak in g i t p ro d u ce f o r th e

p o s s ib le

f o r a gro w er t o

h a v e m ore

e a r l y m a r k e t a t a t i m e w hen t h e

o f t e n upw ards o f f o u r tim e s a s g r e a t a s t h a t i n t h e s e a s o n , when th e

b u lk o f th e

p ric e

is

p a id l a t e r

cro p is b e in g m a rk e t­

ed. The p r a c t i c a l i t y upon th e

o f u s in g h y b r id to m a to e s d ep en d s

v a lu e o f th e

d u c in g th e

seed.

cro p r e l a t i v e t o

th e

co st of p ro ­

S eedsm en i n g e n e r a l h a v e show n i n t e r e s t

in h y b rid to m a to e s o n ly r e c e n t l y , a lth o u g h w id e sp re a d i n t e r ­ e s t h a s d e v e l o p e d am ong g r o w e r s .

R e su lts

from t e s t s

on

c o s t o f p o l l i n a t i o n and p erfo rm an ce o f h y b rid s have e n c o u r­ a g ed c o m m e rc ia l p r o d u c t i o n o f h y b r id to m a to

seed f o r g ree n ­

h o u se a n d e a r l y - m a r k e t c r o p s w h ere a h i g h e r n e t r e t u r n ju stifie s

p a y i n g m ore f o r t h e

seed.

T h e re w as o n ly one se e d h o u s e

in th e U n ite d S ta te s

s e l l i n g h y b r id to m a to s e e d s i n 1945 w h ile w ere s i x .

in

1949, th e re

H y b rid s e e d s w ere b e in g s o l d a t # 3 2 5 .0 0 p e r

pound i n 1947, w h ile

su c h s e e d c o u ld be p u r c h a s e d i n

f o r #145*00 p e r pound.

T h is r e d u c tio n i n

1949

p r i c e m ay

i n d i c a t e t h a t m o re e f f i c i e n t m e t h o d s o f p o l l i n a t i o n

are

b e in g u t i l i z e d . The o b j e c t i v e The f i r s t tiv ity

o f th e

e n s u in g s tu d y w as t w o - f o l d .

p h a s e was c o n c e rn e d w i t h t e s t i n g

and q u a lity

p ro d u c­

o f F q and F 2 p o p u l a t i o n s fro m d e s i r ­

a b le to m a to c r o s s e s ; w a s m ade t o

th e

in th e

s e c o n d p h a s e an

a tte m p t

d e v e l o p m o re e c o n o m i c a l m e t h o d s o f p r o d u c -

i n g h y b r i d t o m a t o s e e d f r o m c r o s s e s t h a t h a v e sh o w n a h i g h d eg ree o f h e te r o s i s .

PART I .

HORTICULTURAL AND CHmaOAL EVALUATIONS INTRODUCTION

Y ie ld a n d q u a l i t y fo rm th e

b a s is f o r th e

o f to m a to v a r i e t i e s and h y b r i d s , ju d g e d on s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r s , o f w h i c h a r e pH , s o l u b l e c ra c k in g ,

to le ra n c e

in to m a to e s i s

p ro b a b ly th e m ost im p o rta n t

so lid s,

to w i l t ,

q u a lity

e v a lu a tio n

v ita m in C, f o l i a r c o v e ra g e ,

fla v o r,

c o lo r and num ber o f

lo c u li* T h e pH o f a v a r i e t y because of i t s

effect

o r h y b rid o f to m a to e s i s

on t h e

g ro w th o f C l o s t r i d i u m b o tu lin u m

and C lo s trid iu m p a ste u ria n u m in th e o rg an ism s p ro d u ce t o x i c and th e m o r t a l i t y r a t e th e se

a rily

T hese c o n d itio n s

o f p e o p l e who c o n su m e f o o d i n w h i c h is

fa irly

h ig h .

T hese

u s u a l l y f o u n d a t pH 5 o r a b o v e , b u t n o t o r d i n ­

b e lo w 4 * 5 , a n d a s a c o n s e q u e n c e i t

th a t p ressu re 4 .5 .

canned p r o d u c t.

su b s ta n c e s u n d er fa v o ra b le

o rg a n ism s have m u l t i p l i e d

b a c te ria a re

im p o rta n t

p ro c e s s in g be r e s o r te d

M ost o f t h e to m a to

n o t have f a c i l i t i e s

t o w h e n t h e pH e x c e e d s

c a n n in g f a c t o r i e s

fo r p ressu re

v a ts w ith h e a t c o il s .

i s reco m m en d ed

It

is

pH o f h y b r i d s a n d v a r i e t i e s

in In d ia n a

p ro c e ss in g , b u t u se

th e re fo re

do open

e s s e n tia l th a t th e

grow n f o r c a n n i n g i n I n d i a n a

be known, so t h a t m e a s u re s f o r

p ro p e r p r o c e s s in g can be

ta k e n i f n e c e s s a ry . S o lu b le s o lid s a re

im p o rta n t to

to m a to e s w ith h ig h s o lu b le

th e

can n ery b ecau se

s o lid s p ro duce a

j u ic e h a v in g

g r e a t e r c o n s i s t e n c y , w h ic h i s th e

p r e f e r r e d by co n su m ers*

p ro c e s s in g of p u lp , l e s s b o ilin g

to e s o f h ig h s o lu b le

so lid s

are u sed .

c o m p a riso n o f t h e

so lu b le s o lid s

e n ts i s

v a lu a b le

th e re fo re

V ita m in C ( a s c o r b i c n u tritio n . p are d to

to

th e

a c id )

fru it,

r e q u i r e d w hen to m a ­ I n f o r m a tio n on th e

of h y b rid s and t h e i r p a r­

is

tra d e . i m p o r t a n t i n h u m an

T o m a to e s c o n t a i n l i t t l e

c itru s

is

In

a sc o rb ic

a c i d a s com ­

b u t a s u b s t a n t i a l am ount o f a s c o r b ic

a c i d i s o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h th e m b e c a u s e t h e y a r e co n su m ed i n c o n sid e ra b le

q u a n tity .

The c a n n e r s a r e

in te re s te d

v ita m in C c o n te n t as a p o in t o f a d v e r tis in g b ecau se

in h ig h to m a to e s

t h a t c o n t a i n 20 m i l l i g r a m s o r m o r e o f a s c o r b i c a c i d p e r 1 0 0 g r a m s may b e l a b e l l e d w i t h t h e A m e r i c a n M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n ’ s s e a l of a p p ro v a l. F o lia r co v erag e, to le ra n c e and c o lo r a re

o f © s p e c ia l i n t e r e s t to

H eavy c o v e r a g e u s u a l l y r e s u l t s p r o t e c t s th e w ilt is

fru it

im p o rta n t to th e

th e

and good f l a v o r

can n ers in In d ia n a .

in a h ig h e r t o t a l y ie ld and

fro m s u n b u r n in g .

R e sista n c e to

i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e m an y g r o w e r s i n

in fe s te d s o i l .

to th e

to w i l t,

co n su m er.

F la v o r,

C o lo r i s

a ls o

s ta n d p o in t o f th e f in is h e d

as e n trie s

In d ia n a have w i l t -

a d i f f i c u l t f a c t o r to m easu re,

canner because

T o m a to c r a c k i n g i s

fu sa riu m

it

is

i s an a id in s e l l i n g

an im p o rta n t f a c t o r fro m p ro d u c t.

im p o rta n t b ecau se c ra c k s se rv e

f o r fu n g i and b a c t e r i a ,

i n t h e m o ld a n d b a c t e r i a l

re s u ltin g

c o u n ts i n th e

in

an in c r e a s e

fin is h e d p ro d u c ts.

G e n e ro u s ly -lo c u la te d f r u i t s

are

p referred

by p r o ­

c e s s o r s who p a c k j u i c e b e c a u s e t h e y b e l i e v e t h a t m o r e ju ic e

is

o b ta in e d fro m f r u i t s

F r u it shape i s b ecause th e o ff-sh ap e

fru it

p a c k e d w h o le ,

to m a to e s a re

d i f f i c u l t to

ro u n d to m a to h a s a sh ap e

and p e r f e c t l y use.

A p e rfe c tly

to m a to e s w o u ld h av e lo w e r i n d e x e s . u su a lly

c o n s id e re d th e m ost

f o r a fan cy p ack .

F ru it

siz e

is

im p o r ta n t fro m th e

sta n d p o in t of e a rly

m ark e t p ro d u c tio n and f o r th e fa n c y pack in th e E a rly m ark et f r u i t s

th a t are

put up in

s h o u ld w e ig h a b o u t f o u r o r f i v e fo u r f r u its ounce f r u i t s can n ery . packs.

round or

in d e x o f 100 p e r c e n t w h ile

A s h a p e i n d e x o f 75 p e r c e n t i s d e sira b le

c o n t a i n m an y l o c u l i #

im p o rta n t f o r p a c k in g fa n c y to m a to e s

is

t h e m o re f l a t t e n e d

th a t

can n ery .

c e llo p h a n e packs

ounces, because th re e

a r e u s u a l l y u s e d t o m ake u p one p o u n d . are u s u a lly d e s ira b le

L arg er f r u i t s

are

or

S ix -

f o r a fa n c y pack a t th e

d e s ire d f o r o th e r ty p e s

of

R e v ie w o f L i t e r a t u r e The v a l u e

of

h y b r id p la n ts h a s b e en d e m o n s tra te d

in s e v e ra l v e g e ta b le

cro p s.

E a s t (1 6 )

re p o rte d h y b rid v ig o r i n c o rn . i n su m m e r s q u a s h ; H a y e s ( 2 5 ) h y b rid v ig o r in v ig o r in

cu cu m b ers.

o n io n s.

u tiliz a tio n

C u rtis

(9 )

and H u tc h in s Jones

K a k ez ak i (3 3 )

of h e te ro sis

and S h u ll (5 8 )

(3 2 )

has

(ex cep t w in te r squash)

p ro d u c tiv e

d e s c rib e d h y b rid p ra c tic a l

H u tc h in s

is

th e v e g e ta b le s

(3 0 ) H y b rid

d e s c rib e d above

b e in g s o l d c o m m e rc ia lly .

H y b rid v i g o r i n to m a to e s i s

n o t a n e w ly o b s e r v e d

H e d ric k an d B o o th ( 2 6 ) ,

n o te d t h a t f i r s t

o b serv ed

use o f h y b rid s in w in te r sq u a sh .

s e e d o f w a te rm e lo n an d a l l

phenom enon.

(2 9 )

The u se o f h y b r id

m u sk m elo n s w as s u g g e s t e d b y M u n g e r ( 4 6 ) . has re p o rte d th e

show ed h e t e r o s i s

d e m o n s tra te d th e

in e g g p la n t.

have

as e a rly as 1907,

g e n e r a t i o n h y b r i d s w e r e m o re v i g o r o u s a n d

th a n t h e i r p a r e n ts and s u g g e s te d t h a t th e y had

m a rk e ta b le v a lu e .

W e llin g to n

(6 2 )

d e m o n s tra te d h y b rid v ig o r

i n t h e t o m a t o a t t h e New Y o r k E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n i n 1 9 0 8 . G ro th (2 1 ) fo u n d h y b r id v i g o r i n to m a to e s a t E x p e rim e n t S t a t i o n

in 1912.

t h e New J e r s e y

G a y lo r d a n d W atso n (1 9 )

ob­

s e r v e d h e t e r o s i s i n to m a to e s in 1916 a t P u rd u e U n i v e r s i t y , and H ayes an d J o n e s a t th e

(2 4 )

C o n n e c tic u t E x p e rim e n t S t a t i o n .

(3 8 ) show ed an i n c r e a s e o v e r th e m ean o f t h e th e

o b serv ed h e te r o s is th e

d eg ree

o f Bfo y i e l d

p a re n ts.

of h e te ro s is

same y e a r

L a rso n and C u rren c e

in th e E2 g e n e ra tio n

T a b l e 1 s h o w s a sum m ary o f

as r e p o rte d by th e

a fo re -m e n tio n e d

8

in v e s tig a to rs* T a b le 1 .

A v e r a g e I n c r e a s e i n T o t a l Y i e l d o f F]_ T o m a to H y b rid s a s R e p o rte d i n th e L i t e r a t u r e *

In v e s tig a to rs

B arro n s

I n c r e a s e o f T o t a l Y i e l d o f F]_ O v e r t h e M ean o f t h e P a r e n t s * P ercen t

(2)

20

D riv e r (11)

95

G a y lo rd (1 9 )

60

H a d fie ld

40

and C a ld e r (2 2 )

H ayes an d J o n e s

(24)

L a rso n and C u rren ce W e llin g to n

15 (3 8 )

19

(6 2 )

1908

15

W e llin g to n ( 6 3 )

191I

64

1912

97

1913

19

The a v e r a g e

fru it

siz e

o f S im s C om et a s r e p o r t e d b y

G a y l o r d a n d W a t s o n ( 1 9 ) w a s 2*9 o u n c e s , w as 7 * 5 o u n c e s *

T h e y f o u n d t h a t t h e Fq h y b r i d

th is

c r o s s a v e r a g e d 3*03 o u n c e s ,

siz e

o f th e

P o w ers (5 2 )

sm a lle r f r u i te d a ls o

siz e

te n d in g to

o f G lo b e

fru it

o b serv ed t h i s

effect

fro m

a p p ro a c h th e

p a re n t r a t h e r th a n th e

J o h a n n i s f e u e r a n d Red C u r r a n t * fru it

and t h a t

la rg e r*

i n a c r o s s b e tw e e n

He r e p o r t e d t h e

average

o f R e d C u r r a n t a s 1 * 1 8 1 *06 g r a m s , a n d t h e

av erag e f r u i t

siz e

o f Jo h a n n isfe u e r as

51*11 1*8 g ra m s.

9

The F 2. h y b rid from a c r o s s betw een t h e s e two p a r e n ts had an av e ra g e f r u i t s i z e o f 7 . i t .2 gram s. a l s o n o te d t h a t th e

W e llin g to n (6 3 )

h y b rid s p roduced s m a lle r f r u i t s th a n

th e mean o f th e two p a r e n t s . C u rrence and L a rso n (7 ) found t h a t th e b e t t e r y ie l d in g v a r i e t i e s te n d e d to have good g e n e ra l com bining a b i l i t y an d , when u se d as p a r e n t s , produced th e b e t t e r y i e l d i n g h y b r i d s . Pow ers (5 2 ) r e p o r te d t h a t th o s e in b re d l i n e s w ith s u p e r io r com bining a b i l i t y w ere a l s o s u p e r io r when compared w ith o t h e r in b re d l i n e s . W e llin g to n (63) found t h a t the f r u i t o f h y b r id s m a tu r­ ed more r a p i d l y th a n t h a t o f p a r e n t a l v a r i e t i e s .

He b a se d

h i s c o n c lu s io n on a com parison o f th e mean speed o f r ip e n in g o f th e

w ith t h a t o f th e p a r e n t s .

Powers (52) i n d i c a t e d

t h a t h y b rid s would have a d e f i n i t e p la c e i n s h o r t- s e a s o n l o c a l i t i e s due to g r e a t e r e a r ly y i e l d .

He m en tio n ed t h a t

i t sh o u ld be p o s s ib le to o b ta in la r g e f r u i t s e a r ly i n th e se a so n i f th e r i g h t p a r e n ts were c r o s s e d .

L a rso n (37)

found a h ig h ly s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t f o r e a r l i n e s s betw een th e means o f th e p a r e n ts and th e F i h y b r id . A cco rd in g t o C u rrence and L arso n ( 7 ) , i t i s n e c e s s a ry t o d ev elo p h y b r id s a d a p te d to p a r t i c u l a r e n v iro n m e n ta l c o n d itio n s .

R u tg e rs was found to be a p o o r p a r e n t f o r a h y ­

b r i d a t S t . P a u l, M in n e so ta , b u t made a v e ry good p a r e n t a t K in g s to n , Rhode I s l a n d .

E a r li a n a was a poor p a r e n t f o r a

h y b rid a t K in g s to n , b u t v ery good a t S t . P a u l.

10

M a t e r i a l s a n d M e th o d s Seed P ro d u c tio n . produced i n duced in is

th e

th e

fie ld

The

h y b rid

i n 1 9 4 7 -4 8 and t h e

g reen h o u se

in

p rev en t s e lf in g .

s e le c te d in

th e h a lf-b lo o m s ta g e , re fle x e d .

ceps and p u llin g g e n tly . to

a n th e r d e h is c e n c e .

i t was n e c e s s a r y t o fo rcep s.

a t a tim e w hen t h e p e t a l s

base of th e

tw o p e t a l s w i t h

fo r­

I n case th e

re m o v e t h e

tw o p e t a l s w e r e p u l l e d

a n th e r tu b e

p rio r o ff,

s e p a r a te ly w ith th e

T h i s u s u a l l y h a p p e n e d w h en t h e b u d s t h a t w e r e c h o s e n

c u la tio n d ir e c tly .

P o llin a tio n

The p a r e n ta g e

w ere r e c o r d e d on a t a g t h a t w as a t t a c h e d to S o u rces of seed o f th e 5,

and 6 .

iT h e P o s i t i o n a l S t e r i l e p lo t of th e

a n th e r tu b e

f o r c e p s and to u c h e d t o th e

s tig m a o f th e fe m a le p a r e n t .

4,

f o llo w e d em as­

The p o l l e n was s c r a p e d fr o m t h e

o f t h e m ale p a r e n t w ith th e

T a b le s 3,

and a n th e r tu b e

T h is p r o c e s s was p e rfo rm e d j u s t

w ere to o y o u n g f o r e m a s c u l a t i o n .

th e

e m a sc u la te

F lo w e rs f o r p o l l i n a t i o n w ere

T he c o m b in ed c o r o l l a

w ere rem oved by g r a s p i n g th e

The to m a to

m a k in g i t n e c e s s a r y to

in o rd er to

w as

h y b r id s w ere p ro ­

th e w i n t e r o f 1 9 4 8-49*

n o rm a lly s e l f - f e r t i l i z e d ,

w ere s l i g h t l y

seed f o r t e s ti n g

th e

p a re n ta l sto c k s a re

The P o s i t i o n a l S t e r i l e ^

tip

of

and d a t e flo w e r. show n i n used in a l l

o c c u rre d as a chance m u ta tio n in a

John B aer v a r ie ty

a t P e n n sy lv a n ia S ta te

C o lle g e

a n d w a s p o i n t e d o u t t o D r . R u s s e l l L a r s o n b y D r . W .F . R o e v e r d u rin g th e

1945 f i e l d

day p ro g ram .

in d ic a te d as P o s itio n a l S te r ile , th e p u rp o se o f t h i s

th e s is .

T h is m u ta n t w i l l be

in ste a d

o f John B aer f o r

11

th e t e s t s w as o b t a i n e d fro m D r. R u s s e l l L a r s o n o f P e n n s y lv a n ia S ta te

C o lle g e .

The f l o w e r s o f t h e P o s i t i o n a l S t e r i l e

duce good p o lle n in

s u f f i c i e n t q u a n tity to

se lf-

fe rtiliz a tio n ,

b u t th e

sim p ly f a i l

open w ith th e r e s u l t t h a t u n d er n a tu r a l

d itio n s tio n .

to

in th e

fie ld ,

p o lle n

e ffect

th e re

( F i g u r e 1 show s t h e

p o sitio n a l

ste rile

Y ie ld T r i a l s . L a fa y e tte ,

In d ia n a ,

sa c s a t th e ends of th e

i s no c h a n c e f o r

one i n 1948 and th r e e

In 1949,

in 1949.

and l a t e

a p erfo rm an ce t e s t

s o i l i n 1949*

A f e r t i l i z e r and sp ray

1949, fiv e

and h y b r id s .

p ro g ra m was u s e d e a c h

each in a l l

th e

P i c k i n g s w e r e m ad e

25 a n d S e p t e m b e r 2 , 1 7 .

t h e r e w ere s i x r e p l i c a t e d

in th e l a t e

e a rly v a r ie tie s

p l o t s c o n s i s t e d o f 12 p l a n t s w h ic h w ere

3 0 , A u g u s t 5 , 9> 1 8 ,

p la n ts

of

c o n d u c te d on w i l t - i n f e s t e d

ra n d o m iz e d and r e p l i c a t e d f o u r t im e s . on J u ly

th ird

a s e p a r a t e p e rfo rm a n c e t e s t w as c o n ­

T h e r e was a l s o

th e

The

m a tu rin g

The y i e l d s f o r t h e f i r s t

d u c te d on e a r l y an d l a t e m a tu r in g v a r i e t i e s

In 1948,

s e lf-p o llin a ­

F o u r p e rfo rm a n c e t e s t s w ere c o n d u c te d a t

s e a s o n w ere a n a l y z e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r t h e

y ear.

con­

flo w e rs .)

h y b r id s and v a r i e t i e s .

and h y b r i d s .

a n th e rs

d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n n o rm a l and

p e rfo rm a n c e t e s t i n 1948 in c lu d e d e a r l y

th e

p ro ­

In

and ra n d o m iz e d p l o t s o f

p erfo rm an ce t e s t s .

The to m a to e s

m a tu r in g p e rfo rm a n c e t e s t w ere p ic k e d A u g u st 5 ,

1 7 , 30 an d S e p te m b e r 1 5 ,

29.

The to m a to e s i n t h e

e a rly

m a tu r in g p e rfo rm a n c e t e s t w ere p ic k e d ^ u ly 1 3 , 2 3 , A u g u st 1 , 10,

22 a n d S e p t e m b e r 2 4 .

The to m a to e s fro m t h e

p erfo rm an ce

12

h ;

F ig u re 1 .

L e ft,

/

w J

n o rm al to m a to f lo w e r ;

p o s i t i o n a l - s t e r i l e m u ta n t, of m a tu rity .

rig h t, a t th e

f l o w e r from sam e s t a g e

13

t e s t on w i l t - i n f e s t e d S e p te m b e r 9 , 2 8 .

s o i l w e r e p i c k e d A u g u s t 8 , 19 a n d

The p l a n t s f o r a l l

f o u r f e e t a p a r t i n row s f i v e th e

th e t e s t s

fe e t a p a rt.

w ere s p a c e d

The f r u i t s

e a r l y m a t u r i n g t e s t s w ere g r a d e d a s m a r k e ta b l e

and th e f r u i t

from

o r c u lls

fro m th e l a t e m a tu r in g t e s t s w ere g ra d e d i n t o

U. S . No. 1 , Ü. S . N o. 2 and c u l l s . q u a lity E v a lu a tio n s. co v erag e,

c ra c k in g , w i l t ,

i n 1948, w h ile i n 1949,

R e c o rd s w ere ta k e n on f o l i a r fla v o r,

th e se

c o lo r and num ber o f l o c u l i

sam e f a c t o r s w e r e s t u d i e d

a d d itio n to in fo rm a tio n re g a rd in g s o lu b le a sc o rb ic

so lid s,

in

pH a n d

a c id .

T hree r i p e

to m a to e s w ere t a k e n a t ran d o m fro m e a c h p l o t

i n o r d e r t o m easu re th e

so lu b le s o lid s .

T he c o r e a n d s k i n

w ere rem oved a n d t h e

f r u i t w as p la c e d i n

a V /arin g b l e n d e r ,

w h ic h w as a l l o w e d t o

r u n f o r one m i n u t e .

A sa m p le o f th e

p u l p w a s v i e w e d t h r o u g h a t o m a t o h a n d r e f r a c to m e t e r a t r o o m t e m p e r a t u r e .( 6 8 ^ . ) a n d t h e ed.

a n g le o f r e f r a c t i o n was r e c o r d ­

R e a d in g s w ere ta k e n on s i x r e p l i c a t e d

v a rie ty

sa m p le s o f eac h

o r h y b rid .

T h e pH w a s d e t e r m i n e d b y t a k i n g a s a m p le o f t h r e e to m a to e s a t random fro m e a c h p l o t . rem o v ed an d t h e

f r u i t w as p la c e d

m ix e d f o r one m i n u t e . ly

fo r each p lo t.

T hree

The

rip e

c o re a n d s k i n w ere

i n a W arin g b l e n d e r and

s u c h s a m p le s w ere r u n s e p a r a t e ­

T he pH o f t h e

s a m p le s w as d e te r m in e d on a

L e e d s a n d N o r t h r u p U n i v e r s a l pH I n d i c a t o r .

The r e a d i n g s

w ere a v e ra g e d a n d r e c o r d e d f o r s i x r e p l i c a t i o n s

f o r each

14

v a rie ty

or h y b rid .

A ll th e

v a rie tie s

t e s t w ere t e s t e d

an d h y b r i d s t h a t w ere i n th e

f o r t h e i r v ita m in C c o n te n t.

y ie ld

The m eth o d

u s e d w a s o n e s u g g e s t e d b y D r . J . P . M c C o llu m o f t h e U n i v e r s ­ ity

of I l l i n o i s .

as fo llo w s:

The in d o p h e n o l s o l u t i o n w as s t a n d a r d i z e d

F i f t y m il l ig r a m s o f in d o p h e n o l dye ( 2 . 6 - d i -

c h l o r o p h e n o l i n d o p h e n o l so d iu m ) w ere a d d e d t o tille d

5 0 .0 m l. o f d i s ­

w a t e r c o n t a i n i n g 4 2 . 0 m g. o f so d iu m b i c a r b o n a t e .

T h is m ix tu r e was s h a k e n v i g o r o u s l y u n t i l t h e so lv e d . th e

dye h a d d i s ­

I t w as th e n d i l u t e d by a d d in g d i s t i l l e d

v o lu m e r e a c h e d 2 0 0 . 0 m l .

N o. 588 f i l t e r

paper in to

T h is was f i l t e r e d

w a te r u n t i l th ro u g h

an am ber g l a s s - s t o p p e r e d b o t t l e .

T he i n d o p h e n o l s o l u t i o n w a s s t a n d a r d i z e d b y t a k i n g 0 . 1 gm. o f U .S .P . A s c o r b ic A c id R e f e r e n c e S t a n d a r d and t r a n s f e r r i n g to

a 1 0 0 .0 m l. g l a s s - s t o p p e r e d v o lu m e tr ic f l a s k

w ith 1 0 0 .0 m l. o f a 0 .2 p e r c e n t e x t r a c t i n g e x tra c tin g a c id

s o l u t i o n w a s m ade b y d i s s o l v i n g

(H2 C2O4 . 2 H2O) i n o n e l i t e r

a p p ro x im a te d a 0 .5

u t e d t o m ake a 0 . 2 p e r c e n t e x t r a c t i n g a liq u o t o f th e

a sc o rb ic

a c id

5 0 .0 m l. E rle n m e y e r f l a s k e x tra c tin g u n til

s o lu tio n

a d is tin c t

A b la n k t i t r a t i o n

The

7 . 0 gm . o f o x a l i c w a te r,

and t h i s

T h is s o l u t i o n was d i l ­ so lu tio n .

A 2 .0 m l.

s o l u t i o n was t r a n s f e r r e d t o

a

c o n ta in in g 5 .0 m l. o f 0 .2 p e r c e n t

and t i t r a t e d w ith

ro se -p in k

and w a sh in g

s o lu tio n .

of d i s t i l l e d

per cen t so lu tio n .

it

th e

in d o p h e n o l s o l u t io n

c o lo r p e r s i s t e d f o r 3 0 .0 s e c o n d s .

w as p r e p a r e d b y t i t r a t i n g

p er cent e x tra c tin g s o lu tio n

7 .0 m l. of 0 .2

p l u s a v o lu m e o f d i s t i l l e d w a t e r

15

equal to ra tin g

t h e v o lu m e o f t h e i n d o p h e n o l s o l u t i o n u s e d i n

th e

a sc o rb ic a c id

a liq u o t.

T he c o n c e n t r a t i o n

in d o p h e n o l s o l u t i o n w as e x p r e s s e d i n in m illig ra m s o f a s c o rb ic a c id . i z e d e v e ry tim e i t

fro m th e o p p o s ite

e q u iv a le n t

The in d o p h e n o l w as s t a n d a r d ­

w a s p r e p a r e d b y t a k i n g tw o e q u a l

sid e s of

c h o se n a t ran d o m fro m e a c h p l o t . p l a c e d i n a W arin g b l e n d e r . 1 .0 m l. o f e x t r a c t i n g tw o m i n u t e s .

of th e

w as m a d e , w h ic h was a b o u t e v e r y o t h e r d a y .

M a te ria l fo r t i t r a t i o n se c to rs

term s o f i t s

tit­

each of th re e

to m a to e s

T h ese w ere w e ig h e d a n d

T h ese s e c t o r s w ere b le n d e d w ith

s o l u t i o n p e r e a c h gram o f to m a to f o r

The m i x t u r e w a s a l l o w e d t o

se ttle

f o r one

m in u te an d a s a m p le w as draw n fro m t h e b o t to m o f t h e c o n t a i n e r w ith a p i p e t t e . f i l t e r p ap er.

T h is was f i l t e r e d

t h r o u g h W h a tm a n ’ s # 1 2

A 2 .0 m l. a l i q u o t o f th e f i l t e r e d

p la c e d i n a 5 0 .0 m l. E rle n m e y e r f l a s k c e n t e x t r a c t i n g s o l u t i o n w ere a d d e d . s ta n d a rd in d o p h e n o l s o lu tio n s ed f o r a t l e a s t

an d 5 .0 m l. o f 0 .2 p e r I t w as t i t r a t e d

A b la n k t i t r a t i o n

in d o p h e n o l s o l u t i o n u se d i n th e c o n te n t o f th e

a sc o rb ic a c id

was p r e ­

6 .0 m l. o f 0 .2 p e r c e n t e x t r a c t i n g

t i o n p l u s a v o lu m e o f d i s t i l l e d w a t e r e q u a l t o

a c id

w ith th e

u n t il a ro se -p in k c o lo r p e r s i s t ­

3 0 .0 s e c o n d s .

p a re d by t i t r a t i n g

s o l u t i o n was

th e

above t i t r a t i o n .

a s s a y s o l u t i o n was d e te r m in e d

e q u iv a le n t o f th e

so lu ­

sta n d a rd The a s c o r b i c fro m t h e

s ta n d a r d in d o p h e n o l s o l u t i o n .

The r e a d i n g s w e re r e c o r d e d a n d a n a l y z e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y . Some v i t a m i n C i s l o s t i n

p ro c e ss in g but t h i s u s u a lly

does n o t ex ceed 2 0 .0 p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l am ount i f ed m e th o d s o f p r o c e s s in g a re u s e d .

im p ro v ­

I t w as n o t f e a s i b l e

to

16

pack th e th e

to in a to e s i n

o r d e r to ru n a n a s c o r b ic a c i d a s s a y on

p ro c e s s e d p ro d u c t due to

The a s s a y s on t h e fig u re s

l a c k o f e q u ip m e n t a n d f a c i l i t i e s

raw s t o c k , h o w e v e r,

on h y b r i d s

and t h e i r

sh o u ld g iv e

c o m p a ra tiv e

p a re n ts.

R e c o rd s w ere t a k e n on f r u i t sh a p e b a s e d on th e p o la r to

l a t e r a l d ia m e te r,

in o rd e r to

ra tio

of

g e t in f o r m a tio n on

f r u i t u n ifo rm ity w ith in a v a r ie ty o r h y b rid .

F iv e to m a to e s

w ere t a k e n a t ran d o m fro m e a c h p l a n t a n d p l a c e d i n

a sm a ll

wooden t r o u g h t h a t c o n ta in e d a r u l e r g r a d u a te d i n in c h e s and te n th s

of in c h e s.

p la c in g th e fiv e th e ir sid e s

to m a to e s ste m -e n d up i n

in c o n ta c t.

p la c in g fiv e th e

T he l a t e r a l d i a m e t e r w a s o b t a i n e d b y

The p o l a r d i a m e t e r w as o b t a i n e d b y

to m a to e s on t h e i r s i d e s

s te m en d o f one f r u i t w as i n

end o f th e a d ja c e n t f r u i t . by th e

la te ra l

shape in d e x i n

in th e

t r o u g h so t h a t

c o n ta c t w i t h th e b lo sso m

T he p o l a r d i a m e t e r was d i v i d e d

d ia m e te r and m u l t i p l i e d by 100 to per c e n t.

A v a rie ty

la c k in g s u f f ic ie n t u n ifo rm ity i f

it

te n p e r c e n t th a t o f th e av erag e u a tio n in th e

case

f i e d w h ile

th e

of a v a rie ty

o b ta in a

o r h y b r i d was r e j e c t e d

as

c o n ta in e d in d iv id u a l

p l a n t s t h a t p ro d u ced f r u i t h a v in g a r a t i o

in

th e tro u g h w ith

f o r th e

th a t

e x c e e d e d by

lo t.

Such a s i t ­

show s t h a t i t w as n o t p u r i ­

case o f a h y b rid i t

in d ic a te s

a p o ssib le

se e d m ix tu re o r a c c id e n ta l s e l f . R e c o rd s w ere ta k e n a l s o on f r u i t ib ility ,

c ra c k in g ,

lo c u li.

F iv e

c o lo r,

fla v o r,

siz e ,

d ise a se

su sc e p t­

v in e ty p e and num ber o f

f r u i t s w ere m e a su re d s e p a r a t e l y

from eac h

17

p l a n t i n o r d e r to

d e te rm in e th e

D ise a se s u s c e p t i b i l i t y v a tio n ,

on th e

e x h ib ite d

b a sis of s e v e rity

o v e r t h e w h o le p l o t .

of th e f r u it*

and ty p e

of

d ise a se as

R e c o rd s w ere t a k e n

and th e

d e g ree

crack ed f r u i t s

c r a c k i n g w as b a s e d on t h e

have to be d is c a r d e d i n The c o l o r o f t h e

each p lo t. o r sw e e t.

The f r u i t s

T he d e g r e e

fru its

t h a t w o u ld

The f l a v o r w as d e te r m in e d

fru its

t a k e n a t random fro m

w ere c l a s s e d a s b e in g a c i d , m ild ,

The v in e t y p e w as r e c o r d e d a s d e t e r m i n a t e

or

The a v e r a g e num ber o f l o c u l i p e r f r u i t was

d e t e r m i n e d by e x a m i n i n g f i v e se c tio n .

per

rem ove t h e a f f e c t e d a r e a .

re d -rip e sta g e .

t e s t o f t e n m a tu re

in d e te rm in a te .

F iv e

f r u i t was ju d g e d by a g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n

in d a y lig h t a t th e by a t a s t e

p la n ts

w as n o t e d .

p o r tio n o f th e

o r d e r to

on t h e

of c ra c k in g .

w e re t a k e n a t random fro m e a c h o f f i v e

p l o t a n d t h e n u iâ b e r o f of

siz e

w as r e c o r d e d fro m a g e n e r a l o b s e r ­

num ber o f c ra c k e d f r u i t s fru its

av erag e

fru its

fro m e a c h p l a n t

in c ro ss

18

E x p e rim e n ta l R e s u lts Y ie ld T r i a l s . In d ia n a

are

M any o f t h e

g ro w in g S to k e s d a le ,

not e sp e c ia lly

e a rly .

In

and h y b r i d s w ere e a r l y , first

th ird

of th e

e a r ly m ark et t r i a l are

p re se n te d in

e a r ly m ark e t grow ers in a good m a rk e t to m a to , h u t

o r d e r to f i n d o u t w h ic h v a r i e t i e s

y i e l d r e c o r d s w ere a n a ly z e d on th e

p ic k in g se a so n in 194B, and a s e p a r a te w as r u n i n 1 9 4 9 .

T ab le 2 .

The r e s u l t s

T h e E a r l i a n a X V a l i a n t F j. h y b r i d ,

show n i n F i g u r e 2 , w as th e h i g h e s t y i e l d e r . th ird

of th e p ic k in g

t h a n t h e m ean o f i t s as S to k e sd a le .

season,

it

p a r e n ts and n e a r ly t h r e e

The p r i c e

o f th e

b u t th e r e t u r n s

sp ite

of th e h ig h c o s t of

s e e d f o r o n e a c r e w o u ld b e a b o u t fro m th e

in c re a se d e a rly y ie ld

s h o u l d o f f s e t t h i s m any t i m e s , b e c a u s e t h e th e

f i r s t p a rt of th e

The r e s u l t s tie s

show n i n T a b l e

d rop ped a f t e r A ugust 5, to

p ric e

o f to m a to e s

seaso n i s u s u a lly h ig h .

o b ta in e d i n 1949 on t h e

and h y b r id s a re

The y i e l d

w o u ld be p r o f i t a b l e f o r e a r l y m a r k e t

grow ers to u se a d a p te d h y b rid s i n

in

t i m e s a s m uch

The F o rd h o o k H y b rid and B u rp e an a E a r l y

reco rd s in d ic a te th a t i t

$ 1 7 .0 0 ,

D u rin g t h e f i r s t

p r o d u c e d 4 ^ p e r c e n t m o re

H y b rid a l s o w ere v e r y good e a r l y y i e l d e r s .

seed.

i n 194Ô

1949;

3*

The p r i c e

th e re fo re ,

d e te rm in e t h e e a r l y h a r v e s t o f th e

e a r ly m ark et v a r i e ­

t h a t d a t e w as u s e d

v a rie tie s

and h y b r id s .

E a r l i a n a X V a l i a n t and th e F a r i b o H y b rid w ere t h e of th e h y b rid s i n in g v a rie ty

e a rly y ie ld .

B o u n ty w as th e

a n d m ay h a v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s

o f to m a to e s

h ig h e st

h ig h e st y ie ld ­

as a p a re n t f o r an

19

T a b le

2

E a r ly and T o ta l Y ie ld R e c o rd s an d A v erag e S iz e o f F r u i t o f V a r i e t i e s a n d H y b r i d s o f T o m a t o e s G row n f o r th e E a r ly M arket in 1 9 4 8 .

V a r ie ty o r H y b rid

S iz e o f F ru it

S ou rce

O unces

Y ie ld 1 s t 3 r d o f S e a s o n W hole S e a s o n M a rk e ta b le T o ta l M a rk e ta b le T o ta l* T ons/ T ons/ T ons/ T ons/ A cre A cre A cre A cre

C o rn e ll U n iv e rs ity

5 .9

5 .2

7 .2

9 .2

1 2 .9

C o rn e ll Seed Go.

7 .1

3 .6

4 .0

1 4 .9

1 6 .8

C o rn e ll U n iv e rs ity

5 .1

6 .5

7 .2

1 5 .1

1 7 .6

B u rp ee Seed Go.

5 .1

5 .5

6 .0

1 5 .7

1 8 .6

B urpeana E a r l y H y b rid

B urpee S eed Co.

5 .9

5 .3

6 .1

1 3 .3

1 5 .9

S to k e sd a le

F e r r y M orse S e e d Co.

5 .9

2 .4

2 .7

1 5 .7

1 7 .1

F e r r y M orse S e e d C o.

5 .5

3 .8

4 .2

1 0 .7

1 2 .5

L. S . D. 5^

1 .6

.9

1 .0

1 .6

2 .9

L . S . D . Vfo

2 .2

1 .2

1 .3

2 .2

3 .4

E a rlia n a V a lia n t E a rlia n a x V a lia n t F ord h o o k H y b rid

John B a e r

* T o ta l y ie ld

in c lu d e s c u lls

in a ll

ta b le s

in th is th e s is .

20

% h

F ig u re

2.

%

An F i h y b r i d p l a n t f r o m a c r o s s o f E a r l i a n a X V a l i a n t sh o w in g th e

la rg e

t h e f i r s t tw o c l u s t e r s . of th e

fru its

is

due t o

num ber o f f r u i t s

on

The a p p a r e n t s p o t t i n g sp ray re s id u e .

T ab le 3

E a r l y and T o t a l Y i e l d , A v e ra g e S i z e o f F r u i t , and P e r C e n t a n d D e g ree o f C r a c k i n g o f V a r i e t i e s and H y b r i d s o f T o m a to e s T e s t e d f o r th e E a r l y M arket i n 1949. Y ie ld

V a r ie ty o r H y b rid

R a d ia l C ra ck in g F r u i t s C ra c k e d O r ig in a l T ransform ed P e r Cent

E a rlia n a V a lia n t E a rlia n a x V a lia n t P ritc h a rd P ritc h a rd x F i r e s teel F a r ib o H y b rid E a r lia n a x R u tg ers Fi E a r lia n a x R u tg ers F 9 John B a er P o s itio n a l S te rile x E a rlia n a P o s itio n a l S te rile x V a lia n t B ou n ty P o s itio n a l S te r ile x B o u n ty B r e a k O’ Day B re a k 0*Day x B o u n ty F 9 F i r e s t e e l x T ab le T a lk H y b r i d Tomato 6 x R H y b r id Tomato N 6 B u r p e e ’ s B ig Boy h y b r i d M ic h ig a n 1502 x R u t g e r s F 5 F a r t h e s t N o rth x S to k e s d a le -^ S to k e sd a le L . S . D. % L . S . D. H

ïie g re e of C rack in g O rig in a l t e r dent

F r u i t s C ra c k e d O rig in a l V er d e n t

S iz e o f , F ru it O unces

% o l e Season H a r v e s t T h ro u g h A ug. 5 , 1949 M a rk e ta b le : T o ta l M a rk e ta b le : T o ta l T ons/ T o n s /A e re T o n a / T o n s /A c re A cre Acre. 1 0 .4 4 .1 1 .8 4 .1 1 5 .3 2 .1 9 .1 1 .5 1 5 .2 " T .o 3 .0 4 .f 1 4 .1 1 .0 l.3 ._ 9 .9 1 2 .4 l.i 3 . 5 :. 1 .9 1 5 .1 3 .0 4 .6 1 5 .0 1 .9 . 3 .0 _ ^ .7 2 .8 7 .3 1 .5 ■ 1 4 .1 1 2 .1 2 .i_ 1 .6 7 .4

1 4 .2 4 6 .8 8 .6 2 3 .7 2 0 .0 1 3 .3 1 3 .3 1 5 .3 2 3 .3

3 .4 5 .9 2 .7 4 .6 4 .3 3 .4 3 .1 3 .4 4 .8

9 8 .3 So.O 9 6 .7 4 2 .5 6 8 .3 7 3 .3 9 5 .0 8 4 .2 8 5 .0

5 .8

2 .0

9 5 .8

1 0 .0

4 .6

1 .6

9 .2 1 6 .7

2 .4 3 .4

5 6 .7 7 7 .5

1 2 .7 8 .5

5 .8 6 .8

1 .5 2 .3

2 3 .3 5Ô.0 1 5 .3 1 9 .5 1 1 .2 3 3 .3 4 5 .5 3 1 .5 1 8 .3 1&.5

• 4 .7 6 .4 ■ 3 .3 — 7 . T ........ 2 .3 4 .1 6 .3 3 .5 2 .9 2 .6

8 7 .8 6 0 .0 5 8 .3 8 6 .7 5 8 .8 1 8 .3 7 F .7 5 4 .2 5 6 .7 2 4 .1 Î1 .9

.

5 .8 1 3 .3 6 .9 1 3 .3 5 .7 ; " 1 2 .3 5 .6 ; 6 .3 6 .2 ' 1 6 .7 ■ 1 3 .3 5V6 ^ T Û F.0------577 ^ I 4 .3 4:.9 1 7 .5

6 .2 1 1 .7 r.y " ' 577" —s is --. --------9 .3 8 .8 -7 3 C 5 .5 1 5 .7 ---------- 7.-2' ■- ■ 6 : 0 ------7 .7 ------I T T — _ ■ 9 .6 ■—

7 .2 ■ ■■ T T 7----------------- n s ” ■

5 .6 5 .8 .9 177

1 .6 1 . 3. _ . 1 .5 1 .1 1 .3 1 .3 . 1 .0 2 .3 1 .1 1 .8 .9

. _

.

2 .i_

6 .6

2 .^ 3 .9

g .7 _ _ 5 .5

1 1 .9 1 5 .0 9 .2

.

■H 3 .7 ... 3 . 5 .... .... 7ji4-------2 .1 8 .4 9 .5 2 .7 — 1I . 4 1 .7 1 0 .1 1 .9 ^ 5 .4 J .J T 1 .3 _ . 2 .8 6 .8 “ 1 .1

7 ,9 1 .5 2 .2

1 5 .7 12 # 8 1 2 .9 1 3 .8 1 6 .0 — 1 4 .5 9 .4

1 2 .3 - ■n - 2 2 .3 3 .0

■.

22

e a r l y h y b rid *

A few o f th e grow ers i n In d ia n a s e l l th e e a r l y

f r u i t s on th e m ark e t and send th e f r u i t s t h a t r i p e n l a t e r to th e cannery*

T h e r e f o r e , th e m a rk e ta b le y i e l d o f th e

w hole sea so n i s im p o rta n t as w e ll a s th e e a r l y y ie ld *

E a rl­

ia n a X V a lia n t had a m a rk e ta b le y i e l d o f n in e to n s p e r a c r e and th e F a rib o H ybrid h ad a m a rk e ta b le y ie ld o f n in e and oneh a l f to n s p e r a c r e , w hich would make them d e s i r a b l e from th e s ta n d p o in t o f t o t a l y i e l d a s w e ll a s e a r l y y i e l d . T a b le 4 c o n ta in s th e y i e l d d a ta o b ta in e d from th e v a r i e t i e s and h y b rid s t e s t e d i n 1948 f o r th e cannery*

A ll

h y b rid s e x c e p t S to k e s d a le X R u tg e rs and P o s i t i o n a l S t e r i l e X In d ia n a B a ltim o re y ie ld e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more th a n th e means o f t h e i r p a re n ts .

John B aer was u se d a s th e p a r e n t i n th e

p la c e o f th e P o s i t i o n a l S t e r i l e f o r co m p arativ e p u rp o s e s , b ecau se John B aer was th e v a r i e t y from w hich th e p o s i t i o n a l s t e r i l e m u ta n t was o b ta in e d ; th e l a t t e r does n o t s e t f r u i t n a t u r a l l y i n th e f i e l d .

R u tg e rs X I n d ia n a B a ltim o re ,

P r i t c h a r d X R u tg e rs and P o s i t i o n a l S t e r i l e X R u tg e rs y ie ld e d more th a n t h e i r h ig h e s t y i e l d in g p a r e n t i n ea ch c a s e .

The

P r i t c h a r d X R u tg e rs h y b rid y ie ld e d 31 p e r c e n t more th a n R u tg e r s , w hich i s t h e v a r i e t y used by many o f th e c a n n e rs i n I n d ia n a a t th e p r e s e n t tim e .

The p r e s e n t c o s t o f t h e

F l s e e d , how ever, p r o h i b i t s c a n n e rs from grow ing any o f th e s e h y b rid s b ecau se of th e lo w er n e t r e t u r n from to m a to e s grown f o r canning* The h y b rid s t h a t lo o k e d p ro m isin g i n 1948 w ere p la c e d

23

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28

re s u lts

on f o l i a r

c la ss ific a tio n s a c c o rd in g to

co v erag e, w ilt

and f l a v o r .

f o r a n y one f a c t o r w a s l o w a n d s h o u l d v a r y

th e P o isso n d i s t r i b u t i o n .

t h e m ean i n a P o i s s o n d i s t r i b u t i o n fo re,

The v a r i a n c e

th e re ­

c an n o t be a n a ly z e d c o r r e c tly u n le s s th e y a re

tra n s­

some f u n c t i o n t h a t

A n a ly sis o f v a ria n c e ,

is

and th e

e q u a ls

num bers,

form ed t o

in d e p e n d e n t o f th e m ean.

c o n s e q u e n t ly , was a p p l i e d t o

t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , /zT + 0 . 5 , T a b le

The n u m b er o f

7 in d ic a te s th e

x b e in g th e

B a rtle tt’s

o b se rv e d n um ber.

av erag e of th e tra n s fo rm e d and ob­

serv ed d a ta . The f o l i a r

co v erag e

o f P r itc h a r d X R u tg e rs

a n d S t o k e s d a l e X R u t g e r s F% a n d F g h y b r i d s heavy as t h a t

i n 1943 was a s

o f R u tg e rs and I n d ia n a B a lt i m o r e , w h ic h a r e

th e m a jo r v a r i e t i e s tim e .

and Fg

g ro w n b y t h e

c a n n e rs a t th e p r e s e n t

T h e c o v e r a g e on t h e P r i t c h a r d X R u t g e r s a n d t h e P o s i ­

tio n a l S te rile

X P r i t c h a r d h y b r i d s i n 1949 w as a s h e a v y

a s t h a t o f R u t g e r s a s sh o w n i n T a b l e

8.

T a b le

9 in d ic a te s

t h a t R u t g e r s X S o u t h l a n d F q a n d R u t g e r s X WS19A F i h a d a s good f o l i a r

coverage a s R u tg e rs .

A ll th e r a tin g s

on f l a v o r ,

w ere b a se d on a t a s t e

te s t,

r e c o r d e d b y on e p e r s o n ,

and th e

a s b e in g sw e e t, m ild o r a c i d .

f r u i t w as c l a s s i f i e d

E n v iro n m e n ta l

a n d t h e f a c t o r o f f a t i g u e m ay h a v e b i a s e d a b ly .

th e

c o n d itio n s te st

c o n sid e r­

A l l o f t h e to m a to e s w ere t a s t e d a t ra n d o m , a n d w e re

in th e r e d - r ip e

sta g e .

T h e P r i t c h a r d X R u t g e r s F]_ a n d F g

a n d S t o k e s d a l e X R u t g e r s F% a n d F g f r u i t s w e r e r a t h e r

sw eet

29

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31

a s r e c o r d e d i n T a b le % R u tg e rs

7 in 1948.

The f l a v o r o f P r i t c h a r d

a n d P o s i t i o n a l S t e r i l e X P r i t c h a r d F% h y b r i d s

was a s good a s th e R u t g e r s v a r i e t y T a b le 8 .

T a b le 9 i n d i c a t e s

i n 1 9 4 9 a s sh o w n i n

t h a t th e

f la v o r o f S o u th la n d

w as a c i d a n d th e F x h y b r i d o f R u tg e r s X S o u th la n d w as m ild » Q u a n t i t a t i v e m e a su re m e n ts o f c o l o r h av e b e e n u s e d v e r y sa tis fa c to rily ,

b u t th e y

are

r a t h e r tim e -c o n su m in g .

The

c o l o r o f t h e t o m a t o , t h e r e f o r e w as g r a d e d by o n e p e r s o n on o b s e r v a t i o n an d c l a s s i f i e d r e d , m e d iu m r e d o r p i n k .

as to

w h e th e r i t

was d e e p

No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e

o c c u r r e d b e tw e e n an y o f th e

v a rie tie s

o r h y b rid s in

of c o lo r 1948

o r 1949. The h y b r i d . P o s i t i o n a l S t e r i l e X I n d i a n a B a l t i m o r e w as th e m ost s u s c e p tib le

to w ilt in 1948.

h y b rid a re b o th s u s c e p tib l e

so i t w o u ld be e x p e c te d t h a t t h e

F% a l s o w o u l d b e s u s c e p t i b l e . ib le

The p a r e n t s o f t h i s

In

g e n e ra l,

w hen a s u s c e p t ­

p a r e n t was c r o s s e d w i t h a t o l e r e n t p a r e n t ,

th e Fx

h y b r i d w a s t o l e r a n t a s sh o w n b y t h e c r o s s b e t w e e n R u t g e r s and I n d ia n a B a ltim o re i n T a b le ?• g e n e ra tio n of t h i s

A few p l a n t s i n t h e F g

c r o s s w e re , h ow ever, s u s c e p t i b l e

b u t t h i s w o u ld b e e x p e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e

to w ilt,

s e g re g a tio n

t h a t w o u ld o c c u r . A y i e l d t e s t w as c o n d u c te d on w i l t i n f e s t e d s o i l i n 1949 t o g e t w i l t r e a c t i o n s o f t h e h y b r i d s .

T a b le 9 in d ic a te s

t h a t R u tg e rs X S o u th la n d , P o s itio n a l S t e r i l e

X S o u th la n d

a n d R u t g e r s X l'B 1 9 A w e r e r e s i s t a n t

R u tg e rs X

to w i l t .

32

S o u t h l a n d a n d S o u t h l a n d X 1MB1 9 A w e r e t h e b e s t y i e l d i n g of th e h y b rid s t h a t

show ed r e s i s t a n c e t o w i l t .

s h o w e d som e s u s c e p t i b i l i t y

to w i l t.

S o u th la n d w as t h e

y i e l d i n g v a r i e t y , w h ic h w as p r o b a b l y due t o to w i l t .

T h e s t r a i n WS19A i s

a v e ry good y i e l d e r b eca u se In

o rd e r to

its

it

is

is

not

ra th e r la te .

a c c e p te d by th e

can n ers i t

v a r i e ty R u tg e rs in to le r a n c e

heavy c o v e ra g e , f la v o r and c o lo r .

best

re sista n c e

t o l e r a n t to w i l t b u t i t

have a v a r i e t y

m u st be a s good a s th e

R u tg e rs

to w i l t ,

P r itc h a r d X R u tg e rs

a n d F2> azid S t o k e s d a l e X R u t g e r s F i a n d F g h y b r i d s m e e t th e s e re q u ire m e n ts as w e ll as o u ty ie ld in g R u tg e rs a s i n ­ d ic a te d i n T a b le 4 .

T hese h y b rid s th e r e f o r e

be h ig h ly a c c e p ta b le t o

th e

can n ers i f

th e

w o u ld p r o b a b l y

p ric e

o f seed

w e re m ore e c o n o m ic a l « The v a r i e t i e s u s e d a s p a r e n t s i n m a k in g t h e h y b r i d s w ere n o t r e s i s t a n t c ra c k in g of th e c a lly , th e re v a rie tie s

to

c ra c k in g .

d if f e r e n t v a r ie tie s and h y b rid s .

i s no d i f f e r e n c e

o r h y b rid s.

T he

in ra d ia l

c o e ffic ie n t

f o r t y - e i g h t p er c e n t f o r th e and s ix ty -n in e

T a b le 10 p r e s e n t s

d a ta

on

S ta tis ti­

c r a c k i n g b e tw e e n t h e of v a r ia b ility

w as

p e rc e n ta g e o f r a d ia l c ra c k s

p e r c e n t f o r th e

d eg re e

of r a d ia l

T h is i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e

cra ck s.

v a ria tio n

in

r a d ia l c ra c k in g . T h e r e was a d i f f e r e n c e som e o f t h e

in

c o n c e n tric

h y b rid s and v a r i e t i e s

in 1948.

c r a c k in g b e tw e e n The b e s t y i e l d ­

in g h y b r id s , P r i t c h a r d X R u tg e rs F i and F g , and S to k e s d a le

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one o u n c e o f h y b r i d s e e d on s h a d e d p l a n t s , on t h o s e n o t s h a d e d .

T h e mai n r e a s o n g i v e n t o e x p l a i n t h i s

d i f f e r e n c e was t h a t t h e th e w ind.

and 3 .4 h o u rs

sh a d e d p l a n t s w ere p r o t e c t e d fro m

B arrons and Lucas (1)

in creased f r u i t

p e r c e n t w hen p l a n t s w e r e g r o w n u n d e r " a s t e r " Dunne (1 2 ) increase It

the

sprayed p o lle n

c lo th .

i n w a te r on g r a p e f l o w e r s t o

t o t a l number o f pounds o f g r a p e s p ro d u c e d .

was n e c e s s a r y t o

s p r a y t h e p o l l e n g r a i n s on t h e

in g bunches im m ediately a f t e r p la c in g th e p o lle n a s some p o l l e n b u r s t s v e r y q u i c k l y the y ie ld

in w ater.

flo w er­

in w a te r,

He i n c r e a s e d

30 p e r c e n t b y t h i s m e t h o d .

A ccording to g erm in ates b e st i s poor,

s e t eig h t

S m ith and C ochran ( 5 9 ) ,

at 859^.

On v e r y h o t ,

tom ato p o l l e n

dry d ay s, th e

a c c o rd in g to B a rro n s and Lucas ( 1 ) .

set

They found t h a t

t h e y c o u l d s t o r e p o l l e n f o r two d a y s b y p l a c i n g f l o w e r s a co ld ,

hum id p l a c e .

T a b le 17 p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s

ed b y t h e d i f f e r e n t a u t h o r s on p o l l e n h o rtic u ltu ra l

crops.

sto rag e

in

o b tain ­

of v a rio u s

A c c o r d i n g t o L i n c o l n and B ro o k s (4 4 )>

t o m a t o p o l l e n c a n b e s t o r e d a t 1 0 - 12*^0. f o r t h r e e m o n t h s when p l a c e d i n

an open g l a s s

in g calcium c h lo r id e .

v ial,

in a d e sic c a to r c o n tain ­

52a

T ab le 1?

L o n g ev ity i n S to ra g e o f P o lle n o f V ario u s H o r t i c u l t u r a l Crops a s R e p o rte d i n th e L i t e r a t u r e *

K ind o f P o l l e n

L o n g ev ity

C o n d itio n of S to rag e

In v estig a to r

A pple

81 days

A i r Dry

A pple

40 days

In tin

A m ary llis

5 m onths

65^ R .H .

- lOOQ.

P f e i f f e r 1936

C inchona

1 year

35fo H.H* - 1 0 ^ 0 .

P f e i f f e r 1944

Corn

80 h o u r s

70fo R . H . - IQOC.

K now lton 1922

C otton

4 days

I n w a x e d p a p e r 40

H a rris o n 1934

C rap efru it

6 weeks

A nthers in v i a l 10^0.

K e l le r m a n 1915

L iliu m a u ratu m

11 m o n th s

Reduced p r e s s u r e

5*^0*

P f e i f f e r 1938

L iliu m lo n g if lo r u m

11 m o n th s

Reduced p r e s s u r e

5®C*

P f e i f f e r 1938

Oak

1 year

30^ R .H . - 2 ^ 0 .

Jo h n so n 1943

Orange

6 weeks

A n t h e r s i n v a cum t u b e

K e lle r m a n 1915

Pine

1 year

65^ R .H .

- 2^0.

Jo h n s o n 1943

Spruce

1 year

6 5 ^ R .H . - 2 ^ 0 .

Jo h n so n 1943

S u g a r Ca ne

11 d ay s

on a rr o w s i n m o is t bamboo c r a t e s

V enkatram an 1922

Sweet P e a

97 h o u rs

A i r Dry

C r a n d a l l 1912

Tom ato

3 m onths

Over s a l t s

C r a n d a l l 1912 P a tte rso n

boxes

a t lO ^C .

1929

L in c o ln 1947

53

M a t e r i a l s and M ethods C o n tro lled In se c t P o llin a tio n . flie s

Honey b e e s , h o u s e

and blow f l i e s w ere t e s t e d f o r t h e i r a b i l i t y

p o llin a te

tom atoes.

F ifty

to

seeds o f In d ia n a B altim o re

P o s i t i o n a l S t e r i l e w ere p l a n t e d A p r i l 1 5 , 1947 i n th e house.

On J u n e 2 ,

field .

The b l o c k s w ere s p a c e d s i x f e e t a p a r t

fo r cages.

F igu re

3#

I.B . I.B .

room

and two

p la n ts arran g ed as in d ic a te d in F ig u re 3.

B lo c k Ï I I -Honey B ees

B lo c k V - Blow F l i e s

I.B . I.B .

I.B . I.B .

- House F l i e s P. S. P .S .

to allo w

D iagram o f c o n t r o l l e d i n s e c t p o l l i n a t i o n experim ent i n 1947.

B lo c k I - House F l i e s / 3' / I.B . I.B .* I.B . P .S . I.B . 6* B lock I I

green­

t h e - p l a n t s w ere s e t i n s i x b lo c k s i n th e

Each b lo c k c o n ta in e d f o u r f e r t i l e

p o sitio n a l-sterile

and

I.B . I.B .

I.B . I.B .

P .S . P .S .

I.B . I.B .

B l o c k IV - Blow F l i e s

B lock V I-H oney B ees

I.B . I.B .

I.B . I.B .

* In d ia n a B altim o re A sep arate

P .S . P .S .

P .S . P .S .

I.B . I.B .

P .S . P .S .

** P o s i t i o n a l S t e r i l e

c h e e s e c lo th c a g e , tw elv e f e e t lo n g ,

nine

f e e t w ide and f i v e

f e e t h i g h , was e r e c t e d o v e r e a c h b l o c k

a s shown i n F i g u r e

4*

Two d i f f e r e n t c a g e s w e r e a v a i l a b l e

f o r each sp e c ie s o f in s e c t,

and th e

i n s e c t s w ere a s s i g n e d

t o them a t random . The h o u se and blow f l i e s w ere r e a r e d o n a r t i f i c i a l

I.B . I.B .

54

F ig u re 4.

Cage u s e d f o r to m ato es•

c o n tro lle d in s e c t p o llin a tio n of

55

m edia.

T he medium f o r h o u s e f l i e s

w a s m ade f r o m o n e y e a s t

cake d is s o lv e d i n w a te r and added to

a m alt syrup t h a t

con­

t a i n e d 1 .5 m l. o f m a l t i n 600 m l. o f w a t e r .

T h is was t h e n

m ixed w i t h

0 .3 3 l b .

lb .

m eal.

m edium s h o u l d be w e t b u t n o t s o g g y .

The

o f a l f a l f a m eal and 0 .6 6

w ere u s e d a s a m edium f o r t h e B rings

(18).

The

trapp ed in sucrose

a s d e s c r i b e d by

t o a d e p t h o f two i n c h e s

T h e w a t e r was a l l o w e d t o

th e n poured o f f . cage.

Dog b i s c u i t s

K i b b l e d do g b i s c u i t s were p l a c e d i n a o n e -

q u a r t mason j a r w ater.

blow f l i e s

and covered w ith

s t a n d f o r tw o m i n u t e s and

T h i s m edium w as p l a c e d i n t h e

b reeding

h o u se and blow f l i e s f o r s t a r t i n g

c o l o n i e s were

a cone-shaped c a g e .

co n tain in g

and w a t e r was u s e d t o

A p e tri a ttra c t

d ish

the house f l i e s ,

d e c o m p o s in g m e a t was u s e d f o r t h e b l o w f l i e s . fle w upw ard from t h e b a i t , above.

o f bran

A fter about f i f ty

th e y w ere t r a n s f e r r e d

re le a s e d i n to the la rg e was s u p p l i e d t o

cage c o n ta in in g the

s e v e ra l hundred f l i e s

rep ro d u ctio n ,

cage over th e

the la rg e

m ain tain a h ig h f ly

A fter

c a g e due t o

cone

were t r a p p e d i n t h i s f a s h i o n ,

to th e b reed in g

m edia p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d . were e v i d e n t i n t h e

When t h e f l i e s

th e y w ere t r a p p e d i n th e flie s

and

t h e y were

tom ato p l a n t s .

M ed iu m

cages c o n tin u o u sly in o rd e r to

p o p u latio n .

The h o n e y b e e s w e re r e a r e d i n s m a l l h i v e s c o n t a i n i n g four fram es.

T h ey w ere b o r r o w e d f r o m Mr. G o u l d e n , a f r u i t

g ro w e r i n W est L a f a y e t t e , b e e s when r e c e i v e d .

and c o n ta in e d

H iv es w ere p u t i n t o

several

hundred

ap p ro p riate

cages

56

and t h e b e e s w ere r e l e a s e d . F ive

c r o s s - p o l l i n a t i o n s w e r e m ade by h a n d o n e a c h p o s i ­

tio n a l-ste rile

p la n t u sin g p o lle n from th e

p lan ts,

any o f t h e

before

i n s e c t s were p l a c e d i n t h e c a g e s .

T h i s w a s d o n e t o m ak e s u r e t h a t fru it

se t under th e

it

A r t i f i c i a l Hand P o l l i n a t i o n .

1947-48 i n o r d e r to

was p o s s i b l e

c o n d itio n s of th e

was c o n d u c t e d i n t h e

A p relim in ary

greenhouse in the f a l l

M ethod one was c o n s i d e r e d t h e com m ercial se e d co m p a n ie s.

ially

th e

co n sists

R u tg e rs, w ith th e

p aren t by ru b b in g the

i s u s e d by

of em ascu latin g th e

P ritch ard ,

a s shown i n F i g u r e from th e

M e th o d two w as e s s e n t ­

except th a t th e P o s itio n a l did

P o l l e n was t a k e n f r o m t h e m a le forceps,

p o llen

to th e

a n d was a p p l i e d t o

the

The t h i r d m e th o d c o n s i s t ­

on a m i c r o s c o p e

v i b r a t o r made f r o m a d o o r b e l l was a p p l i e d d i r e c t l y

it

fem ale p a r e n t , and t h e r e f o r e

em ascu latio n .

c o ll e c t in g the

w ere u se d i n t h i s

c o n tro l sin ce

stigm a of th e P o s i t i o n a l S t e r i l e . ed o f

and w i n t e r of

as in d ic a te d in F ig u re 6,

same a s n u m b e r o n e ,

n o t req u ire

experim ent

of f o u r d i f f e r e n t m ethods.

R u tg ers, w ith fo rc e p s .

S t e r i l e was u s e d a s t h e

p aren t,

It

fem ale p a r e n t ,

5, and a p p ly in g p o lle n , m ale p a r e n t ,

o b tain

t e s t m ethods o f h a n d - p o l l i n a t i n g to m a to e s .

The e x p e r i m e n t c o n s i s t e d

flo w ers of th e

to

experim ent.

R u tg e rs , P r i t c h a r d and P o s i t i o n a l S t e r i l e te st.

In d ian a B altim o re

s lid e w ith a

( F i g u r e s 7 and 6 ) .

The p o l l e n

fem ale p o s i t i o n a l - s t e r i l e

p i s t i l i n t h e p o l l e n on t h e

The f o u r t h m ethod c o n s i s t e d o f

co llectin g

slid e .

the p o lle n

on

57

1

F ig u re

5*

E m a s c u la tin g to m ato f lo w e r by rem oving a n t h e r s and c o r o l l a w i t h f o r c e p s b e f o r e p o l l e n d e h i s c e s .

58

t

t

%

f h

" I F i g u r e 6*

P o l l i n a t i n g tom ato

f o l l o w i n g e m a s c u l a t i o n by

to u ch in g fo rc e p s b e a rin g the p o lle n to t i p the

St i g m a •

of

59

F ig u re ?•

V ib ra to r used to flo w ers.

It

remove p o l l e n f r o m to m a to

co n sists

o f a d o o r b e l l m ounted

o n a wood b l o c k w i t h a p i e c e o f r u b b e r t u b ­ i n g on t h e hammer.

60

F ig u re 8.

C o l l e c t i n g p o l l e n on a g l a s s o f th e

e le ctric

slid e

w ith th e a id

v i b r a t o r shown i n F i g u r e 7 .

61

a g l a s s s l i d e w ith a v i b r a t o r and a p p ly in g i t t o th e stig m a o f a p o s i t i o n a l - s t e r i l e flo w e r w ith a c a m e l's h a i r b ru s h , as shown i n F ig u re 9 . Each c r o s s in g p l o t c o n s is te d of th r e e fem ale p l a n t s . Each m ethod had f o u r r e p l i c a t i o n s t h a t w ere random ized. The p l a n t s w ere a l l t i e d by a cord to an o v erh ead w i r e .

The

tim e r e q u ir e d t o c o l l e c t th e p o lle n and make th e p o l l i n a t i o n s was re c o rd e d f o r each m ethod.

The number o f p o l l i n a t i o n s

t h a t s e t f r u i t was re c o rd e d a t th e tim e th e to m ato es w ere h a r v e s te d .

The se e d s from each f r u i t were h a r v e s te d s e p a r ­

a t e l y i n o r d e r t o c a l c u l a t e th e av e rag e number o f se ê d s p e r f r u i t f o r each m ethod. The r e s u l t s o b ta in e d from th e p r e lim in a r y ex p erim en t i n th e g reen h o u se were s a t i s f a c t o r y enough to w a rra n t r e p e a tin g th e ex p erim en t i n th e f i e l d i n th e summer o f 1948

e

T hree new m ethods were t r i e d i n a d d i ti o n t o th o s e

t e s t e d p r e v io u s ly . On A p r i l 12, 1948, see d s of P o s i t i o n a l S t e r i l e , P r i t ­ ch a rd and R u tg e rs were p l a n t e d .

Each fem ale p l o t c o n s i s t ­

ed o f tw elv e p l a n t s r e p l i c a t e d and random ized f o u r t i m e s . Only t e n o f th e tw e lv e p l a n t s were u sed f o r p o l l i n a t i n g , b ecau se th e end p l a n t s were c o n s id e re d to be g u ard p l a n t s . A n fem ale p l a n t s were t i e d to co rd s from an o v erh ead w ire s u p p o rte d by le a d p i p e s . M ethods one th ro u g h f o u r were th e same a s d e s c r ib e d f o r t h e g reen h o u se t e s t .

Method f i v e c o n s is te d o f c o l l e c t -

62

F ig u re 9*

T ouching p o l l e n to the stig m a o f a p o s i t i o n a l s t e r i l e p la n t u s in g a c a m e l's h a i r brush*

63

in g p o lle n w ith th e a id of a v ib r a to r . shaken d i r e c t l y w ith an ap p le

in to

a sm all g la s s

T h e p o l l e n was

c o n t a i n e r w h ic h was u s e d

p o l l e n s p r a y gun a s shown i n F i g u r e 1 0 .

An

e q u a l am ount o f T y co p o d iu m p o l l e n was u s e d a s a d i l u e n t * T w e n ty - f iv e f lo w e r s w ere u s e d to

e x tra c t p o lle n fo r p o llin ­

a tin g te n flo w ers in

T he p o l l e n w as d u s t e d on

each p lo t.

th e fem ale p o s i t i o n a l - s t e r i l e

flo w ers.

M ethod s i x c o n s i s t e d o f c o l l e c t i n g p o l l e n cent sucrose s o lu tio n . p rev io u s

T h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n was u s e d b e c a u s e

t e s t s h a d shown t h a t

g e rm in a tin g p o l l e n on a g a r . i t was n e c e s s a r y t o p l a c e s t i g m a on t h e m edium i n

i t was s a t i s f a c t o r y

for

Y^hen g r o w n o n a g a r , h o w e v e r ,

a sm a ll amount o f m a c e ra te d

o rd e r to

get g erm in atio n .

p o l l e n was s h a k e n w i t h a v i b r a t o r d i r e c t l y a c le o f a sm all a to m iz e r t h a t 15 p e r c e n t s u c r o s e

i n a 15 p e r

so lu tio n

in to

The

the r e c e p t ­

c o n t a i n e d a s m a l l amount o f (F igure 1 1 ).

T w e n t y - f i v e m ale

f l o w e r s were u s e d f o r c o l l e c t i n g p o l l e n t o p o l l i n a t e te n fem ale p l a n t s , p o lle n in th e

w h ich w ere p o s i t i o n a l - s t e r i l e .

a t o m i z e r was s q u i r t e d on t h e

the

The

stig m a of the

fem ale f l o w e r . M ethod s e v e n c o n s i s t e d o f v i b r a t o r and p la c in g i t

in

c o lle c tin g p o lle n w ith a

a sm all P u ff D u ste r

(F igure 1 2 ).

T w e n ty - f iv e m ale f l o w e r s w ere u s e d f o r c o l l e c t i n g p o l l e n to p o llin a te

a ll

th e f l o w e r s w hich were

day on t e n f e m a le p o s i t i o n a l - s t e r i l e

av ailab le

i n a n y o ne

p lan ts

one p l o t .

in

The p o l l e n was d i l u t e d w i t h one p a r t L y co p o d iu m p o l l e n

64

S f! N

F igu re 10.

D u s t i n g t o m a t o p o l l e n on s t i g m a w i t h an a p p l e p o lle n d u s te r.

65

S

F ig u re H *

S p ra y in g tom ato p o l l e n i n s o l u t i o n on s tig m a *

a 15 p e r c e n t

sugar

66

F ig u re 12.

P o llin atin g

to m a to usin^, & P u f f H u s t e r Lhat

blow s p o l l e n on th e s tig m a .

67

b e f o r e " b e in g d u s t e d o n t h e

stigm as o f the

R u tg e rs p l a n t s w ere p l a n t e d a t

the

fem ale p l a n t s .

end o f e ac h fem a le

row and p o l l e n was c o l l e c t e d fro m th em f o r a l l m e th o d s . A re c o rd of the

tim e re q u ir e d to c o l l e c t

t h e p o l l e n a n d make

f o r e a c h p l o t was m ad e.

A fter p o llin a tin g ,

the p o l l i n a t i o n s

tw o s e p a l s were rem o v e d f r o m e a c h p o l l i n a t e d f l o w e r i n o r d e r to

be a b l e

to

id en tify

th e c ro sse d f r u i t s

a t m atu rity .

The

num ber o f s e t s w ere c o u n t e d an d r e c o r d e d and s e e d s w ere saved s e p a r a te ly from e ac h . S to rin g P o lle n .

O b serv a tio n s on the 1948 p o l l i n a t i o n

experim ent in d ic a te d h o t w eather.

th at

T h is le d t o

the p o l l e n

th e id ea o f c o lle c tin g

i n g p e r i o d s f o r optim um s h e d d i n g A p relim in ary

did n o t sh e d w e ll

(7 0 -8 5 ^ F « ), and

e x p e r im e n t was c o n d u c te d i n

d eterm in e w h e th er o r n o t p o l l e n

the

during

p o llen

dur­

sto rin g

it.

greenhouse to

c o u ld be s to r e d and,

if

so,

f o r how l o n g . The p o l l e n was h a n d l e d i n tw o d i f f e r e n t w a y s . first,

i t was p la c e d i n g e l a t i n

second,

it

was l e f t

p laced in

sto rag e.

500?. a t

a rela tiv e

c a p s u l e s No. 0 0 ,

and i n th e

i n th e f l o w e r s , w hich w ere p ic k e d and These m a t e r i a l s w ere s t o r e d a t h u m i d i t y o f 10± 2 p e r c e n t .

c a t i o n s o f e ach t r e a t m e n t w ere u s e d . was c o l l e c t e d d a i l y

from F e b ru ary

and

Two r e p l i ­

The p o l l e n f o r s t o r a g e

8 , 1949 t o M arch 2,

P o llin a tio n s w ith sto re d p o lle n began February l6 tin u e d u n t i l June

In th e

1949»

and con­

24.

P ritch a rd , P o sitio n a l S te rile

and R u t g e r s were u s e d

in

68

a field

experim ent w ith s to re d p o lle n

co n sisted of te n

in 1949.

Each p l o t

p l a n t s i n f o u r random ized r e p l i c a t e s .

The f e m a le a n d m a le p a r e n t s w e re s e t i n a l t e r n a t e t h a t p o l l e n c o l l e c t i o n w ould n o t r e q u i r e

r o w s so

to o much t i m e .

A l l t h e fe m a le row s were t r e l l i s e d hy c o r d s t i e d t o o v e rh e a d w ires. S i x p o l l i n a t i o n m eth o d s w ere u s e d i n M ethod one c o n s i s t e d o f e m a s c u la t in g th e fem ale p a r e n t s ceps. th at

flow ers of th e

and a p p ly in g p o l l e n fro m t h e m ale w i t h f o r ­

M e th o d two was e s s e n t i a l l y t h e th e P o s i ti o n a l S t e r i l e

M ethod t h r e e

th is te s t.

same a s o n e ,

was u s e d a s t h e f e m a l e p a r e n t .

c o n s is te d o f hand p o l l i n a t i n g

flo w ers w ith fo rce p s,

u sin g p o llen

sto red

p o sitio n a l-sterile in flow ers f o r

a p p r o x i m a t e l y one day a t a t e m p e r a t u r e o f 3 3 ^ » tiv e

h um id ity o f 1 0 Î 2 p e r c e n t.

was c o l l e c t e d i n g e l a t i n show n i n F i g u r e 13* a sin g le

flo w er.

p o llen ,

the

I n m ethod f o u r ,

cap su les using th e

Each cap su le

and a r e l a ­ p o lle n

v ib rato r as

c o n ta in e d th e p o lle n

from

T h e s e w e r e s t o r e d u n d e r t h e sa m e c o n d i ­

tio n s as d escrib ed lish ed

except

i n m ethod t h r e e .

P o l l i n a t i o n was acco m p ­

f o l l o w i n g day by p l a c i n g a c a p s u l e ,

over a p o s itio n a l-s te rile

flo w er as

c o n ta in in g

sho w n i n F i g u r e

14. M ethod f i v e m icro sco p e it

d irec tly

c o n siste d of

s lid e w ith the to th e

rubbing th e p i s t i l

c o l l e c t i n g the

aid o f a v i b r a t o r ,

fem ale p o s i t i o n a l - s t e r i l e i n t h e p o l l e n on t h e

p o l l e n on a and a p p ly i n g p a r e n t by

slid e.

M ethod

69

F îgttre 13.

C o lle c tin g tom ato p o lle n in a g e l a t i n c a p s u le by p la c in g th e c a p s u le i n th e end o f th e ru b b e r tu b in g o f t h e v i b r a t o r .

70

F i g u r e 14»

P lacin g

a g e la tin

o v er a tom ato

cap su le c o n ta in in g p o lle n

flow er.

71

s i x was t h e

sa m e a s f o u r e x c e p t t h a t t h e p o l l e n w a s n o t

s t o r e d , b u t used im m ed iately . Two s e p a l s w e r e r e m o v e d f r o m e a c h f l o w e r i m m e d i a t e l y a fte r p o llin a tio n

so t h a t

the h a n d - p o llin a te d

tom atoes

c o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h e d fro m t h e s e l f s a t m a t u r i t y . tim e r e q u i r e d t o

c o l l e c t t h e p o l l e n a n d make p o l l i n a t i o n s

e a c h t r e a t m e n t was r e c o r d e d a lo n g w i t h n a t i o n s and t h e number o f s e t s . w ere k e p t s e p a r a t e N atu ral

T he for

th e number of p o l l i ­

The s e e d s f r o m e a c h t o m a t o

and c o u n te d .

C ro ss-P o llin a tio n .

D r. R ick (5 6 ) a t C a l i f o r n i a

f o u n d tha±L a c o n s i d e r a b l e a m o u n t o f n a t u r a l c r o s s - p o l l i ­ n a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e when m a l e - s t e r i l e p l a n t s a r e i n v o l v e d . A p r e lim in a r y ex p erim en t h av in g a t h r e e - f o l d c o n d u c t e d i n 1 9 4 8 , a t W est L a f a y e t t e p l a n t known a s P r i t c h a r d S t e r i l e ^ . up f i r s t ,

fe rtile

The e x p e r i m e n t was s e t

l i n e w h ic h was s e g r e g a t i n g

p lan ts;

and t h i r d , ste rility

second, to

d eterm ine

a s a m eans o f p e r p e t u a t i n g gene i s

field

Ju n e 10 i n t h r e e b l o c k s ,

hundred p l a n t s .

p o lle n ,

M assach u setts.

for s te r ile

is

and

t h e mode o f i n h e r i t a n c e ; th e l in e

sin ce

the

c o n d itio n .

p l a n t s w ere s e t

in

each c o n s is tin g of one-

The p l a n t s w ere s p a c e d f o u r f e e t

^ The P r i t c h a r d S t e r i l e v iab le

c ro ssin g in th e

c a r r i e d i n a h e te ro zy g o u s

Three hund red P r i t c h a r d - s t e r i l e the

u sin g a ty p e o f s t e r i l e

to f i n d th e p e r c e n t o f n a t u r a l

m ale-ste rile

p u r p o s e was

a m utant t h a t

apart in

does n o t produce

f o u n d by D r . O s c a r P e a r s o n a t F e e d i n g H i l l s ,

72

row s f i v e the

fee t ap art.

The c u l t u r a l

sa m e a s t h o s e u s e d f o r

and s p r a y program s w ere

th e 1948 f i e l d

tom ato y i e l d t e s t .

V/hen tw o f l o w e r c l u s t e r s w e r e e v i d e n t , p l a n t s w ere r e c o r d e d an d m a rk e d .

L ater in

the

ste rile

the se a so n ,

to m a to e s assum ed t o have r e s u l t e d from n a t u r a l c r o s s i n g , w ere h a r v e s t e d

from th e

ste rile

p lan ts.

The s e e d s f r o m

each to m ato w ere sa v e d and co u n ted s e p a r a t e l y i n o r d e r t o d e te r m i n e t h e a v e r a g e number o f s e e d s r e s u l t i n g fro m su ch crosses. The r e s u l t s work n e e d e d t o n a tu ra l

o f t h e 1948 e x p e r i m e n t i n d i c a t e d t h a t more

be done on n a t u r a l c r o s s i n g .

c r o s s - p o l l i n a t i o n t e s t was c o n d u c t e d i n t h e

in 1949.

P o sitio n a l S te rile ,

P ritch ard S te rile

w e re t r a n s p l a n t e d A p r i l 26 and s e t i n t h e T hree d i f f e r e n t rep licated p lan ts,

fo u r tim es.

fiv e

f i e l d May 2 ? .

fac ilita te

The p l a n t s w ere t h r e e th e o b je c t

of th e

feet

c lo se

cro ssin g .

D e sig n num ber one c o n s i s t e d o f t h r e e

rows o f p o s i t i o n a l -

p l a n t s a l t e r n a t e d w i t h two ro w s o f R u t g e r s p l a n t s .

T h e r e w e r e two g u a r d r o w s o n t h e d e s ig n tw o, p lan ts,

and R u t g e r s

Each p l o t c o n s i s t e d o f t w e n ty - f i v e

p l a n t s each way.

sp acin g b ein g to

field

p l a n t i n g d e s i g n s w ere u s e d a n d e a c h was

a p a r t i n row s f o u r f e e t a p a r t ,

ste rile

T herefore, a

o u tsid e

of each p l o t .

In

t h e r e were t h r e e row s o f P r i t c h a r d - s t e r i l e

w hich w ere s e g r e g a t i n g i n t o

ste rile

and f e r t i l e

p l a n t s a l t e r n a t e d w i t h tw o r o w s o f R u t g e r s p l a n t s .

A fter

the f i r s t

p lan ts

flo w e r c l u s t e r s a p p e a re d , and th e

ste rile

73

could be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the

fe rtile

p l a n t s were r e p l a c e d w i t h s t e r i l e

p lan ts,

p lan ts.

the

fe rtile

A l a r g e number

o f P r i t c h a r d - s t e r i l e p l a n t s w ere p l a n t e d n e a rb y f o r t h e pose o f f i l l i n g

in

the p l o t s .

In desig n th re e ,

t h e w hole b l o c k o f t w e n t y - f i v e

was p l a n t e d w i t h P r i t c h a r d S t e r i l e . c lu ste r fru it

or fe rtile

(fru it

se t),

rem oved and r e p l a c e d w ith p l a n t s

the

fe rtile

of R u tg e rs .

s u p p l y o f R u t g e r s p l a n t s was grown n e a r b y the

sa me a g e a s t h o s e r e m o v e d .

a ll

th e s t e r i l e

sep arately . p lo t.

p lan ts

and t h e

p lan ts

V'fhen t h e y h a d o n e f l o w e r

a p ie c e , and could be re c o g n iz e d as s t e r i l e

set)

pur­

(no

o n e s w ere An e x t r a

and t h e s e w ere

T om atoes w ere h a r v e s t e d f r o m se e d s from e a c h f r u i t

The s e e d s w e re c o u n t e d a n d r e c o r d e d f o r

saved each

74

E xperim ental R e su lts Insect P o llin a tio n .

A g lance

th e r e s u l t s o b ta in e d from th e w ere v e r y d i s a p p o i n t i n g . T ab le 18

a t T a b l e 18 w i l l

c o n tro lled

in sect p o llin a tio n s

In d ica tio n s are

t h a t house f l i e s ,

R e s u l t s o n t h e U s e o f H o u s e F l i e s , B low F l i e s , a n d Honey B e es f o r C o n t r o l l e d P o l l i n a t i o n o f T o m a to e s . ; N o . Hand No. Hand: P o l l i P o l l i - : n atio n s n atio n s : Set

B lo c k No.

Insect

1 2 3 4 5 6

House F l i e s House F l i e s Honey B e es Blow F l i e s B lo w F l i e s Honey B ees

blow f l i e s

5 5 5 5 5 5

: : : : : :

N o. o f F r u i t s S e t on S te r ile P la n ts in A b s e n c e o f Hand P o llin a tio n . 0 0 0 0 0 0

4 3 4 4 3 5

and honey b e es w i l l n o t p o l l i n a t e to m ato es u n d er

c o n tro lle d c o n d itio n s.

The f a c t t h a t m edium w as i n t h e

c a g e s c o n t i n u o u s l y m ay a c c o u n t p a r t i a l l y not

sh ow t h a t

p o llin a tin g th e to m ato es.

p e a te d due t o

T his

S o l i t a r y b e e s a n d bum ble

bees have been re p o rte d to p o llin a te

to m ato es b u t th e s e

i n s e c t s w ere n o t t r i e d b e ca u se th e y a re

on a com m ercial

If

in sects

in sects

e x p e r im e n t was n o t r e ­

th e n eg ativ e r e s u l t s .

a rtific ia lly .

f o r th e

d i f f i c u l t to

did prove s a t i s f a c t o r y ,

rear

t h e i r use

s c a l e w ould p r o b a b ly be p r o h i b i t e d by th e

added c o st o f m a in ta in in g cages

and i n s e c t p o p u l a t i o n s .

A r t i f i c i a l Hand P o l l i n a t i o n . m ent on a r t i f i c i a l h a n d - p o l l i n a t i o n

The p r e l i m i n a r y e x p e r i ­ in th e greenhouse

in

75

1948 was m ore p r o m i s i n g t h a n t h e m ent;

th ese

re su lts

are

co n tro lled

presen ted

in T able 19.

n o t e d t h a t 4 ,0 0 0 s e e d s c an be o b t a i n e d i n m ethod t h r e e ,

i n w hich th e p o l le n i s

t o r and a p p lie d w ith a g la s s s lid e The p e r c e n t a g e o f t h a n when t h e It

2 . 3 8 h o u r s by

or a cam el’ s h a i r b ru s h . was l o w e r , h o w e v e r ,

c o n v e n t i o n a l h a n d - p o l l i n a t i o n m eth o d was u s e d .

c a n be r e d u c e d 46 p e r c e n t by u s i n g a p o s i t i o n a l -

p aren t.

T h is s a v in g r e s u l t e d from th e p lan ts

do n o t r e q u i r e

The r e s u l t s w ere s o p r o m is in g t h a t w ere added and th e su m m er o f 1 9 4 8 . shown i n T a b l e

The r e s u l t s 20.

t h r e e new m e t h o d s

o b tain ed in

ste rile

had been c o lle c te d w ith a v ib r a to r .

A low p e r c e n t s e t

of seeds per f r u i t

the f i e l d

cause the

la tte r

the

t e s t are

p la n ts w ith fo rc e p s,

A v e r y good s e t was p lan ts

in the

and a low a v e r a g e num ber

were o b t a i n e d fro m m eth o d s f i v e , s i x

T h i s m ay h a v e b e e n d u e p a r t l y t o t h e

a s m a ll am ount of

in

on w h ic h p o l l e n

a ls o by h a n d - p o l l i n a t in g f e r t i l e

u s u a l m anner.

field

The h i g h e s t num ber o f s e e d s p e r f r u i t

and by p o l l i n a t i n g w i t h a g l a s s s l i d e

obtained

fact th at

e m ascu latio n .

e x p e r i m e n t was r u n i n t h e

was o b t a i n e d by h a n d - p o l l i n a t i n g

tube

w i l l be

c o lle c te d w ith a v ib ra ­

successful p o llin a tio n s

p o sitio n a l-sterile

seven.

It

ex p eri­

was f o u n d t h a t t h e t i m e n e e d e d f o r c o n v e n t i o n a l

p o llin a tin g ste rile

in sect

p o llen a c tu a lly

on t h e P o s i t i o n a l S t e r i l e .

f a c t t h a t only

c o n tacted th e

does n o t alw ays p ro tr u d e

stigm a b e­

beyond th e

These m ethods a r e

sim ple b u t th e y a re n o t econom ical.

and

E nv iro n m en tal

a n th e r very

co n d i-

76

nd ©

S ■p

rH A Ü 02 ©

I

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■H

1+3 M CO