Homilies of Ælfric: A Supplementary Collection. Vol. 2 [2]

A Supplementary Collection, Being Twenty-One Full Homilies of His Middle and Later Career, for the Most Part Not Previou

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Homilies of Ælfric: A Supplementary Collection. Vol. 2 [2]

Table of contents :
Illustrations vii
THE HOMILIES FOR THE PROPER OF THE SEASON (cont.)
XIII. Dominica V Post Pentecosten. Luc. vi. 36-42 493
XIV. Dominica VI Post Pentecosten. Luc. v. 1-11 511
XV. Dominica VII Post Pentecosten. Matth, v. 20-24 528
XVI. Dominica X Post Pentecosten. Luc. xvi. 1-9 544
XVII. Dominica XII Post Octavas Pentecosten. Marc. vii. 31-37 563
THE HOMILIES FOR UNSPECIFIED OCCASIONS
XVIII. De Die Iudicii. Luc. xvii. 20 sqq.; Matth, xxiv. 15 sqq., and Marc. xiii. 14-27 584
XIX. De Doctrina Apostolica 613
XX. De Populo Israhel 638
XXI. De Falsis Diis 667
EXCERPTS AND ADDITIONS 725
GLOSSARY AND WORD-INDEX, INCLUDING PROPER NAMES 813

Citation preview

HOMILIES OF ÆLFRIC A Supplementary Collection

EARLY

EN GLISH

T E X T

No . 260

1968 P r i c e 84s.

SOCIETY

Trinity College, Cambridge, MS. B. 15. 34, p. 358. Homily xiv, 126 sqq., containing the reproach to traitors, with alterations by a scribe of the 12th or 13th century. Nearly constant half-line pointing by the original scribe.

Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, MS. 178, p. 156 (middle and upper left). Homily xxi, 443 sqq. In 1. 3 the unexplained weleru, glossed balles. This and other glosses are in the ‘tremulous’ Worcester hand. Among other Worcester marks of alteration note magon, 6, with an imperfect wynn over the g to indicate mawon.

HOMILIES OF ÆLFRIC A Sup p lem en ta ry C o llectio n B E IN G T W E N T Y -O N E F U L L H O M I L I E S HIS M I D D L E A N D

LATER

OF

CAREER

FOR THE M O ST PART NOT PREVIOUSLY EDITED

WITH

SOME

M AINLY

SHORTER

PASSAGES

SECOND

AND

ADDED

THIRD

PIECES

TO

THE

SERIES

E dited fro m a ll the known manuscripts W ith Introduction, N otes, L a tin Sources and a Glossary by

J O H N C. P O P E

VOLUME

II

P ublished fo r THE EARLY ENGLISH T E X T SOCIETY

by the

O X F O R D U N IV E R S IT Y PRESS LONDON

NEW Y O R K

1968

TORONTO

©

Early English Text Society, 1968

PRINTED AT

THE

IN

GREAT

UNIVERSITY B Y

PRINTER

VIVIAN TO

THE

BRITAIN

PRESS,

OXFORD

RIDLER UNIVERSITY

CONTENTS Illustrations THE H O M IL IE S

vii FOR

THE PROPER

OF T H E S E A S O N ( COtlt.)

x iii. Dominica V Post Pentecosten. Luc. vi. 36-42 Text, 497; Notes, 507

493

xiv. Dominica VI Post Pentecosten. Luc. v. 1-11

511

Text, 5 J5 ; Notes, 525 xv. xvi. x v ii.

Dominica VII Post Pentecosten. Matth, v. 20-24 Text, 531; Notes, 541

528

Dominica X Post Pentecosten. Luc. xvi. 1-9 Text, 547; Notes, 559

544

Dominica X II Post Octavas Pentecosten. Marc. vii. 31-37 Text, 567; Notes, 580

563

THE H O M I L I E S F OR U N S P E C I F I E D O C C A S I O N S

x v iii.

De Die Iudicii. Luc. xvii. 20 sqq.; Matth, xxiv. 15 sqq., and Marc. xiii. 14-27 Text, 590; Notes, 609

584

xix.

De Doctrina Apostolica Text, 622; Notes, 635

613

xx.

De Populo Israhel Text, 641; Notes, 660

638

xxi.

De Falsis Diis Text, 676; Notes, 713

667

EXCERPTS

AND

ADDITIONS

x x il. ‘Wyrdwriteras us secgað ða ðe awritan be cyningum’ Text, 728; Notes, 732 x x ill. Sanctorum Alexandri, Eventii, et Theodolit Pars Prima To precede C H II. xx Text, 737; Notes, 746 x xiv. xxv.

725

734

‘Se þe gelome swerað’. Addition to C H II. xxi Text, 752

749

For Ascension Eve. Three Additions to C H II. xxv Text, 755; Notes, 757

753

CONTENTS

VI

xxvi. x xvii. x x v iii.

Theodosius and Ambrose. Addition to C H II. xxxm Text, 762; Notes, 769

759

Visions of Departing Souls. Addition to C H II. xxxvi Text, 775; Notes, 780

770

‘Paulus scripsit ad Thesalonicenses’. Addition to C H II. XLIV

782

Text, 784; Notes, 785 xxix.

xxx.

Macarius and the Magicians; Saul and the Witch of Endor Addition to L S xvn, De Auguriis Text, 790; Notes, 797 From De Virginitate Text, 804; Notes, 808

GLOSSARY AND W O R D - I N D E X , I N C LU D I N G PROPER NAM ES

Prefatory Note Abbreviations Glossary

786 799

813

ILLUSTRATIONS V O L UM E II

Trinity College, Cambridge, MS. B. 15. 34, p. 358 and Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, MS. 178, p. 156 Bodleian MS. Hatton 115, f. 63

Frontispiece facing p. 728

XIII DOMINICA V POST PENTECOSTEN L uc. vi. 36-42

i T

he

next four homilies, x m -x v i, for the fifth, sixth, seventh, and

tenth Sundays after Pentecost, fill gaps in the list of Sundays accounted for by Æ lfric’s first two series. Since they occur in the same two manuscripts, U and the interpolated portion of H, it is convenient to treat them as a group; and since U and the inter­ polations of H are derived from late texts, we may suppose that the four homilies were issued toward the end of Æ lfric’s career, having in all probability been composed not much earlier.1 T h e period of Æ lfric’s abbacy, beginning in 1005, seems to be. indicated. T h e style of the homilies displays an easy mastery and a freedom in dealing with authorities that accords with a late date, though it can hardly be said to exclude the middle years. T w o homilies, x m and xiv, allude to contemporary evils, x m in too general a way to be of much help for the chronology, xiv more specifically. These allusions are reviewed separately before each of the homilies, and before x iv I have suggested that the attack on English traitors, though we cannot know its exact occasion, may belong to a period as late as 1009 or 1010. Am ong the other three homilies we may notice a common emphasis on G o d ’s mercy and loving-kindness and his demand for the gentler virtues in man. Additional corre­ spondences between x m and xv, on which I have commented in the introduction to xv, suggest that these two were composed almost as a complementary pair and at very nearly the same time. 1 T h e question is more fully discussed in the Introduction, p. 78, under the description of U ; for U is the more reliable of the two witnesses, and its arrange­ ment suggests that Ælfric first issued these homilies not as mere additions to the First and Second Series, but as parts of a Temporale that aimed at complete­ ness for the church year. But U is incomplete at the end. Originally we may sup­ pose that it included xvn (now in H only), for the thirteenth Sunday after Pentecost, and even Belfour in and iv (now in B only), for the twenty-second and twenty-third Sundays. These three homilies also are probably to be listed among Æ lfric’s latest compositions. C 2710.2

B

494

DO MI NI CA V POST P EN TE COS T EN

xiii

T h e two manuscripts, written close to the middle of the eleventh century, supply each other’s defects at many points, though at a few they agree in what appears to be error (e.g. xv. 30, 179). U is better preserved and had always a somewhat more accurate text, but it has several small omissions that can be restored from H. On one occasion (xiv. 132-9) an important passage has been deliberately omitted from H. In spelling H conforms a little more consistently than U to the prevailing forms in the Æ lfric manu­ scripts.1 ii B y no means the whole of homily xiii is accounted for by the passages quoted as sources. Especially in the lines that glance at the contemporary scene— vaguely in the admonitions to masters and judges (56-66, 93-96), a little more precisely in the references to taxes (69), vaguely again in the summarizing instructions to the ‘witan’ (183-8)— Æ lfric seems to be writing with considerable independence. In the background, certainly, of the admonitions to masters are St. Paul’s words in Ephes. vi. 5-9, and for 56-61 I have quoted a Lenten homily of Rabanus Maurus (Migne, P L cx. 25-27), derived also from St. Paul and applied to the text from

L u ke that Æ lfric is expounding. In Rabanus there is a comparable sense that current evils are under attack, and the general idea is the same, but the verbal expression is not close enough to Æ lfric’s to assure us of Rabanus’s influence. After the broad and partly contemporary comment on the opening verse of the gospel the other verses are treated more suc­ cinctly, and here traditional interpretations are easily recognized. Æ lfric’s chief guide appears to have been the corresponding sec­ tion of Bede’s commentary on Luke.

Bede’s main ideas are

evident in many passages, and at 120-2 Æ lfric is almost certainly dependent on him, for I have not found the relevant sentences (the last two in the passage quoted) in other commentators. A t several other places I think Bede’s language or sequence of ideas is closer to Æ lfric than anything else I can find. But there are two 1 U evidently attempts to follow the spelling of its exemplar and usually gives the normal spellings, but among the rare instances of deviation from Ælfric and normal L W S are, in x iii , 53 ænde, 69 geldum, 86 unsyncopated sægeð, 114 ageldan; in xiv, 82 gewændony 201 gelændon\ in xvi, 170 forgeldony 223 unsyn­ copated telesty 228 neddra?iy 265 awændað. On U ’s probable connexion with Canterbury see the description in the Introduction, pp. 79-80.

X III

DO MI NI CA V POST PE N TE C OS T EN

495

homilies developed out of Bede’s commentary that Æ lfric prob­ ably consulted also. One is Haym o’s homily cxv for the fifth Sunday after Pentecost. Haymo so frequently echoes or merely expands Bede that it is hard to tell which one to cite, but the passage quoted at 14 1-5 appears only in Haymo and is clearly responsible for Æ lfric’s comment. T h e other homily, assigned to the same Sunday, is attributed to Hericus, a monk of Auxerre in the latter part of the ninth century. It is included in M igne’s edition of the homiliary of Paulus Diaconus ( P L xcv. 1363-9), a collection of which some form was pretty certainly used by Æ lfric.1 T h e homily is a painstaking development of Bede’s ideas, making them more explicit and simpler in expression but adding almost nothing. Here and there, as at 1 13 -16 and at 175 -7, it has seemed to me that Æ lfric’s sequence of thought was under Hericus’s direct influence, but of this it is hard to be certain. There is also an earlier homily assigned to this Sunday in M igne’s edition of Paulus ( P L xcv, Horn, clxii), though it deals with the parallel, much shorter text in M a tth , vii. 1-5 . T h is homily, now attributed to Cæsarius of Arles (Sermo cxlviii , ed. Morin), is strongly influenced by Augustine’s exposition of these verses in the tract, D e Sermone Dom ini in M onte ( P L xxxiv. 1296 sqq.). N ow Bede had incorporated verbatim in his com­ mentary on Luc. vi. 36-42 all that was relevant in Augustine’s exposition of M a tth, vii. 1-5 . Consequently there is a strong resem­ blance between Cæsarius and Bede at the points where L uke corresponds to M atthew . But at least one sentence in Cæsarius, which I have quoted at 88-97,

may

have contributed to Æ lfric’s

insistence on the responsibilities of judges, and a bit of it seems to have been directly translated at 186. I am the more inclined to think these small resemblances significant in that a passage in xv may well have been suggested to Æ lfric by the same sermon. Whether or not Æ lfric made use of Cæsarius, he was mindful of the relevance of M a tth, vii. 1-5 , for there is strong evidence that he consulted Jerome’s commentary on those verses and borrowed from it an apt comparison that none of the other commentators mentions: the comparison with M a tth, xxiii. 24, in which the 1 See Introduction, p. 156. Bede’s commentary was in the original collection (11. 37), but assigned to the first Sunday after Pentecost. After the third Sunday the system of counting changed in the original collection so that there is nothing to correspond exactly with the homilies for the fourth and fifth Sundays after Pentecost in the Migne edition.

496

DOMINI CA V POST PE NT EC OS TE N

X III

scribes and Pharisees are accused of straining out a gnat (as the Latin versions have it) and swallowing a camel. Æ lfric gives the Latin at line 163 in a form that shows where he found it, for Jerome quotes the word liquantes from the O ld Latin instead of the

excolantes of his own version, and writes et camelum where both versions have camelum autem.1 T w ice Ælfric makes extended use of Biblical passages that are not mentioned in the commentaries on the gospel-text in L uke or the related text in M atthew . A t line 73 he introduces the first verse of the hundredth Psalm in the Vulgate, Misericordiam et iudicium

cantabo tibi, Domine, and his interpretation of it corresponds to Augustine’s in his Enarratio on that psalm. I f he turned to Augustine directly he found him developing the theme of mercy with reference to the very verses in L uke and M atthew on which Æ lfric builds lines 40-45, and perhaps furnishing a suggestion for line 46. Secondly, Ælfric adds, as a highly effective exemplum for the close of his sermon, the story of Jesus and the woman taken in adultery ir o m jo h n viii. 1 - 1 1 . His only elucidation of the text, the explanation of the motives of the scribes and Pharisees at 208-11, was probably common property, for it occurs in several writers including Jerome {P L xxx. 581) and Augustine {P L xxxv. 1648 sq.). Bede’s phrasing in his Lenten homily on the text (I. 25 in Hurst’s edition) seems as close as any. His words reappear in A lcuin’s commentary on John {P L c. 853 sq.) and in Haymo {P L cx vm . 282). N ot only these Biblical additions but brief allusions to the Bible and quotations from it add richness to the homily. Am ong shorter passages the vigorous translation of M a tth, xxiii. 24, already men­ tioned, at 164 and the adaptation of I I Peter ii. 20, 22, at 230-4 may seem particularly striking. 1 P L xxvi. 46 sq. For the older reading, see Bibliorum Sacrorum Latinæ Versiones Antiquæ, ed. P. Sabatier, 1743.

D O M /A /7 C .4 V P O S T P E N T E C O S T E N Estote ergo misericordes, et reliqua Lucas se godspellere, pe wæs læce on life, and he manega gehælde fram mislicum coðum mid his læcecræfte, ac he gelacnode swiðor maneg'r'a manna sawla mid his lare on worulde, he awrat be ðam Hælende þæt he her on life

5

on sumere tide þus sæde on his godspelle *to his halgum apostolum, and swa þurh hy to us:

*p. 338

Estote ergo misericordes, et reliqua: Beoð mildheorte eornostlice, eall swa eower Fæder is; ne deme ge nateshwon, and ge ne beoð gedemede.

10

N e fordeme ge, and ge ne beoð fordemede; T e xt based on U (Trinity B. 15. 34), pp. 337-50. Collated with H (Cotton Vitellius C. v), ff. i32v~4v. In the list of variants round brackets enclose portions of the text as witnessed by U (including the modern punctuation) for which there is approximately the right space, but no longer any reading in the damaged H. For Homilies x iii - xvi , where the manuscripts are the same, the following variants are excluded: H regularly has byðygyf, hiymannymennyþissypuss where U has biðygify hyy many men, pisypus. But H usually has man for the indefinite pronoun, ‘one’. U ’s hy and hym were often written hi and him at first. In H, the pointing is normally by half-lines; in U , intermittently so. Sup.: V P O S T P E N T E C O S T E N ] IV a P O S T O C T A V A S P E N T E C O S TEN H . 6 sumere] sume H . S ources . 9-33 [Luc. vi. 36] Estote ergo misericordes sicut et Pater vester misericors est. [37] Nolite iudicare, et non iudicabimini: nolite condemnare, et non con­ demnabimini. Dimittite, et dimittemini. [38] Date, et dabitur vobis: mensuram bonam, et confertam, et coagitatam, et supereffluentem dabunt in sinum vestrum. Eadem quippe mensura, qua mensi fueritis, remetietur vobis. [39] Dicebat autem illis et similitudinem: Numquid potest caecus caecum ducere ? nonne ambo in foveam cadunt ? [40] Non est discipulus super magistrum: perfectus autem omnis erit, si sit sicut magister eius. [41] Quid autem vides festucam in oculo fratris tui, trabem autem, quae in oculo tuo est, non consideras ? [42] Aut quomodo potes dicere fratri tuo: Frater sine eiiciam festucam de oculo tu o : ipse in oculo tuo trabem non videns ? Hypocrita eiice primum traben de oculo tuo: et tunc perspicies ut educas festucam de oculo fratris tui.

498

DOMINICA V POST PE NT EC OS TE N

XXII

forgifað oðrum mannum, and eow bið forgifen. Dælað and doð gód, and eow bið gód forgifen. H y forgifað eft into eowrum bosme swiðe gód gemet þam j?e ge nu dælað,

15

and gecrammod gemet, and swiðe ge[h]rysed, and oferflowende, eow to edleane. On ðam gemete þe ge ametað eow bið eft ameten. He sæde eac soðlice hym þis bigspell þ u s: Hu mæg la se blinda lædan þone blindan,

20

and hu ne feallað hy begen on sumne blindne seað ? Ne bið na se leorningcniht furðor þonne his lareow; ælc þæra bið fulfremed þe bið swa swa his lareow. *H u miht þu la geseon pæt mot to gewissan on ðines broðor eagan, and þone beam ne gesihst

*p. 339 25

þe is soðlice on ðinum eag[an], and hu miht þu secgan to þinum breðer þus: geðafa, min broðor, þæt ic þæt mot at[eo] of ðinum eagan nú, and þu nelt geseon þe sylf þone beam þe bið on ðinum eagan?

30

A c ateoh, þu hiwere, ærest þone beam ut of ðinum eagan, and þu locast þonne þæt J?u of ðines broþor eagan þæt mot ut ateo. Her syndon syllice word samlæredum mannum; nu wylle we eow geopenian þæt andgit þærto,

35

and eow swutelicor sæcgan heora getacnunge. Se Hælend us bebe'a'd on þisum halgan godspelle, ‘ Beoð mildheorte eornostlice, eal swa eower Fæder is.’ Her ge magon gehyran þæs Hælendes gódnysse, þonne he cwæð swa be us, þæt we swylcne Fæder

40

12 forgyfen H . 14 forgyfað H. bosmum H. 16 gerysed U ; gehrised H. 19 him H . 23 full- H. 25 eagan] sic both M S S . 26 eagum U ; agenum eage H. 28 broðer H. ateon U ; ateo H . 29 (of) H. eage H . 30 (ðin)ura H. eage H. 32 eage H . (and pu loc)ast H. J?ænne H t followed by point. 33 eage H. 34 (syndon sylli)ce H. 35 wille H. eow] om. H. (pæt andgit pæ)rto H. 36 secgan H , followed by point. 37 (Se hælend us bebea)d H. 38 (eornostlice, eal swa eower fæ)der H . 39 ge] we H. pæs]/ . JJJ, H. godnesse H. 39-53 [Similar to Haymo and Hericus in emphasis on God's mercy but freely developed.] 4°~45 [Luc. vi. 35] Et eritis filii Altissimi, quia ipse benignus est super ingratos et malos. [Matth, v. 44, 45] Diligite inimicos vestros, benefacite his qui oderunt vos, . . . ut sitis filii Patris vestri qui in cælis est: qui solem suum oriri

X III

DO MI NI CA V POST PE NT EC OS TE N

us habban moton, þone heofenlican *G od,

499 #p. 340

gif we mildheorte beoð, for ðan pe he is mildheort, swa þæt he laet scinan his sunnan gelice ofer pa gódan men and ofer ða yfelan,

and forgifð renscuras rihtwisum and unrihtwisum, and eorð[lice] wæstmas eallum to fodan, pam pe hine lufiað and pam þe hine hatigað.

45

Se hatað his Scyppend, se ðe forsihð his hæse,

and nele mid weorcum his word gefyllan, ac swaðeah hine afet se heofonlica Fæder,



pæ t he on sumne sæl gecyrre to Gode, oððe he beo r'i'htlice pam reðan deofle on his ænde betæht, gif he ær ne gecyrð. H e het us beon mildheorte oðrum mannum symble, mid ealre gódnysse, swa swa G od sylf is ;

55

ac se ne bið na mildheort þe [oðre] men geswen'c'ð,

and hefige byrðene him on bæc behypð, unforwandodlice, mid wælreownysse æfre, and pa læssan berypð swiðe unrihtlice, and wyle swaþeah habban him *sylfum softnysse, and nyle geðencan hu he geswencð pa earman.

*p. 341

61

N e sceolde he næfre softnysse brucan, 41 heofon- H. 42 J?am H. 45 forgyfð H. 46 eorðlice] sie H ; eorð U. 47 hatiað H . 48 forsyhð H. 49 hys H . 53 ende H . 56 oðre] sic H ; eowre U. 57 behypð] behefð H . 58 wælhreownisse H. 60 wile H. 61 nele H. facit super bonos et malos, et pluit super iustos et iniustos. [These texts are echoed or quoted in Haymo and Hericus.] 46 [Psal, cxxxv. 25] Qui dat escam omni cami. [Act. xiv. j 6] . . . benefaciens de cælo, dans pluvias et tempora fructifera, implens cibo et laetitia corda nostra. [Aug.y En. in Psal. cy after quoting Matth, v. 44, 45] Quando vides iustos et iniustos eumdem solem intueri, . . . eadem pluvia saginari, iisdem fructibus terrae repleri. . . . 47-49 [Ex. xx. 5, 6] . . . qui oderunt me, . . . qui diligunt me, et custodiunt praecepta mea. [loan. xiv. 24] Qui non diligit me, sermones meos non servat. 50-53 [Cf. infra, 76-81.] 56-61 [Cf. Rabanus on same theme] Nonnulli, peccata sua oblivioni tradentes, . . . ita circa servos suos et subditos sibi potestatem dominationis exercent, ut in his diebus non dubitent flagellis eos caedere, poenis afficere, compedibus praepedire. . . . Quam absurdum est quod Christianus dominus Christiano in his diebus servo non parcat, minime respiciens quod si servus est conditione, gratia tamen frater est. . . . Et ideo, fratres, quicunque ex vobis aliis praesunt, per charitatem illis imperent. [Quotes Ephes. vi. 5-9.] 62-71 [Apparently a free development of the preceding the?ne.]

Soo

DOMINICA V POST PE NT E CO ST E N

X III

se ðe ne mæg geþafian his underþeoddum mannum

pæt hy [ljisse habban on heora lifes geswincum, þonne he eaðe mihte him liðian foroft,

65

þæt he him sylf hæfde sume lisse his sawle. G od lufað þa liðnysse, þæt man lissige oðrum on hefegum geswincum þe men habbað on gewunan, on mislicum geldum and on manegum gesetnyssum, and he ða m[an]nhatan swiðe micclum onscunað,

70

and pa mildheortan to his mildse becumað. Be Godes mildheortnysse cwæð se witega þ u s:

Misericordiam et iudicium cantabo tibi, Domine: Ic singe pe, Drihten, soðe mildheortnysse, and swiðe rihtne dóm þe ðu gedemest mannum; for ðan pe he gemildsað mannum *her on life,

75 *p. 342

þæt hy gecyrran moton fram heora synnum to him, and he ðam dom gedemeð þe hine dollice forseoð, on ðam toweardan life, pe lyt his nu gymað, for ðan pe nu is se tima on ðam pe he mildsað,

80

and þonne bið se ende, pæt he eallum deme. Swiðe mildheort he is þam pe hihtað on hine, ac swiðest þam welwillendum, and þam rihtgeðancedum,

pe nellað 'un'rihtlice oðre geswencan, butan for rihtwisre steore and rihtum gesetnyssum.

85

64 lisse] sic Hy blisse U . 66 after hæfde] on J?am toweardan life eft H. lisse] corrected from blisse U. 68 hefium H. 69 mistlicum gíldum H. 70 mann-] sic H ; mán- U. 75 gedemst H. 76 pam H . gemiltsað H. 78 gedemð H . dwollice H . 79 lit H . 80 J?am H. (nu) H . miltsað H . 81 dem(e) H . 83 swiþost H . wel(willendum) H. -þancodum H. 85 (butan for) rihtre H.

6 7-7 í [C/. Luc. xi. 46] Et vobis legisperitis væ; quia oneratis homines oneribus quæ portare non possunt, et ipsi uno digito vestro non tangitis sarcinas. [Rom. XV. J] Debemus autem nos firmiores imbecillitates infirmorum sustinere, et non nobis placere. [Gal. vi. 2] Alter alterius onera portate, et sic adimplebitis legem Christi. [Matth, v. 7] Beati misericordes, quoniam ipsi misericordiam consequentur. 73_75 Psal. c. r, as given.] 76-81 [Aug. yEn. in Psal. c\ Si temporibus distinguamus hæc duo, miseri­ cordiam et iudicium, . . . forte invenimus modo tempus esse misericordiae, futurum autem tempus iudicii. . . . Est ergo misericordiae tempus, quando patientia Dei ad paenitentiam adducit peccantes. . . . [A t end] Sed qui non se correxerint in isto tempore misericordiae, interficientur. 82-85 [Apparently independent.]

X III

D OM IN ICA V POST PENTECOSTEN

50 1

þæt godspell sægeð gyt forð þus be endebyrdnysse: ‘ N e deme ge nateshwón, and ge ne beoð gedemede.’ N e forbead he mid ealle ælcne dom þam witan, þam þe deman sceal, ac ða dyrstignysse, þæt man ofaxxie ærest symble þæt riht.

90

Sume þing synd nu digle, þe G od sylf demeþ eft, and sume þing synd opene, be ðam man deman sceal, and man ne sceal *m id gewille bewerian þone scyldigan, *p. 343 ne eft mid nanum wó þone unscyldigan fordon, ne for nanum sceatte þæt soðe awægan, ne for nanum ege þæt unriht drifan,

95

ac mid mildheortnysse þa men gerihtlæcan, swa swa heræfter sægð on ðisum godspelle: ‘ N e fordeme ge nænne, and ge ne beoð fordemede.’ Iacob se rihtwisa awrat on his pistole,

100

þam men bið dom geset butan mildheortnysse eft, se ðe nu oðrum demeð butan mildheortnysse. ‘ Forgifað oðrum mannum, and eow bið forgifen.’ 86 þæt] cap. H y not U . segð (gyt forð þus) H . 87 (beoð gedemede) H. 88 Ne] cap. H , noí Í7. 88-89 (witan . . . sceal) H . 90 ofac(si)ge H. 90-91 (ærest. . . þing) H. 91-92 (demeþ . . . ðam) H. 92 man]/. I 3 3 vyH. 93 gewille] wille H. 96 unriht ahwær drifan H . 97 -nesse H. 98 segð H. 101 pam] cap. H y not U. gesett H . 102 demð H. 103 Forgyfað H. forgyfen H.

88-97 [Bede, In Lucam; from Augustine, De Sermone Domini in Monte, Matth. vii. i y 2] Hoc loco nihil aliud nobis præcipi existimo, nisi ut ea facta quæ dubium est quo animo fiant, in meliorem partem interpretemur. Quod enim scriptum est, E x fructibus eorum cognoscetis eos {Matth, vii. 2o)t de manifestis dictum est, quae non possunt bono animo fieri, . . . de quibus nobis iudicare permittitur. . . . Sunt ergo quaedam facta media, quæ ignoramus quo animo fiant . . . de quibus temerarium est iudicare, maxime ut condemnemus. Horum autem veniet tempus ut iudicentur, cum Dominus illuminabit abscondita tenebrarum, et manifestabit cogitationes cordis (/ Cor. iv. 5). [Similarly Haymo and Hericus. Haymo adds] Manifesta et aperta mala . . . a fidelibus non solum reprehendenda sunt, sed et corrigenda ab illo qui locum regiminis tenet, atque iudicanda. [Similarly CæsariusySermo C X L V I I I ] De istis ergo rebus, quæ sunt Deo notae, et nobis incognitae, periculose nostros proximos iudicamus. . . . D e illis vero, quae aperta sunt et publica mala, iudicare et redarguere, cum caritate tamen et amore [cf. 186], et possumus et debemus. 93-96 [Not in immediate sources.] 100-2 [lac. ii. 13] Iudicium enim sine misericordia illi qui non fecit miseri­ cordiam. [Quoted by Rabanus in passage from which excerpts are cited for lines 56-61.]

502

D O M IN IC A V POST PE N T E C O S T E N

X III

G od hat us forgifan ure teonan mannum, þæt he us forgife ure synna þurh þæt.

105

‘ Dælað and doð gód, and eow bið gód forgifen.’ Se ðe dæleð for Gode, G od geeacnað his þing, and him eft be hundfealdum his ælmessan forgylt. ‘H y forgyfað eft into eowrum bosme

swiðe god gemet, #J?am þe 'ge' nu dælað, and gecrammod gemet, and swiðe gehrisod, and oferflowende, eow to edleane.’

*p. 344 m

He mænde þa þearfan, þe man nu deð gód,

pæt hy sceolon 'ageldan' us eft þæt gemet; ac God sylf agylt for hyg swiðe glædlice us

115

eall þæt we him nu doð for his naman to góde,

swa J>æt ure gemet bið swiðe wel getreden, and on ælce healfe oferflewð þonne. ‘ On ðam gemete þe ge ametað [eow] bið eft ameten.’ þis mæg beon gecweden be eallum urum dædum,

120

ge worda ge weorca, þæt God witodlice ælcum men gylt eft be his agenum dædum. ‘ He sæde eac soþlice hym þis bigspell þus: Hu mæg la se blinda lædan þone blindan, and hu ne feallað hy begen on sumne blindne seaðP’ 104 hat] het H. 108 forgilt H. 114 agildan H. 122 forgylt H.

125

105 ure] om, H, 107 dælð H. ge-] om, H , 1 10 swið H. i n gehrised H. 113 deð nu H. 115 hi H. 116 heom H. 119 eow] sic H ; þonne U . 123 heom H.

í04~5 [Bede] Dimittere nos iniuras . . . iubet, u t . . . nobis peccata dimittantur. [Haymo quotes Matth. vi. 1 4 inexactly] Si dimiseritis hominibus peccata eorum, et Pater vester dimittet vobis peccata vestra. 107-8 [Bedey in same sentence as above] Dare beneficia iubet ut . . . vita detur æterna. [Haymo] Ad dandam eleemosynam pertinet. . . . Mensura enim bona a bonorum omnium remuneratore dabitur, quando pro minimis maiora rependet. [But see note.] 113-16 [Bede] Non enim pauperes ipsi, sed Christus mercedem his qui eleemosynam fecere redditurus est. [Hericiis's expansion suggests Ælfric's phrasing] Qui sunt isti qui dabunt mensuram bonam, nisi pauperes quibus beneficia dede­ rimus? . . . Non enim pauperes ipsi mercedem reddent his qui eleemosynam illis largiuntur, sed Christus, pro cuius dilectione hoc faciunt. 120-2 [Bede] Et apostolus ad eleemosynam Corinthios hortans, inter alia dicit: Hoc autem dicoy Qui parce seminaty parce et metet. Et qui seminat in benedictionibus, de benedictionibus et metet (II Cor. ix. 6). Potest autem et de omnibus quæ mente, manu, lingua gerimus, accipi. Quia tu reddes singulis, inquit, secun­ dum opera eorum (Psal. Ixi. 13).

X III

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503

Bispell getacnað on bocum gelome oðer þing on wordum and oðer on getacnungum. N u 'ne' mæg nan lareow, butan he ða lare hæbbe, *þa læwedan men gerihtlæcan to Godes rihtwisnysse, ne se leahterfulla man ne mæg leahtras forbeodan,

*p. 345 130

ne ðam dysigan styran, buton he styre ærest his agenum unðeawum fram eallum gedwyldum, and góde bysne sylle symble þam læwedum. ‘ N e bið na se leorningcniht furðor þonne his lareow; ælc pæra bið fulfremed þe bið swa swa his lareaw.’

135

Crist sylf 'is se lareaw', and he sealde us bysne, f>æt we sceolan mildsian, swa swa he mildsað u s ; and we ne magon beon butan ehtnysse hér, þe ma þe he sylf wæs, ac we sceolan forberan fela for his naman, swa swa he gebysnode us.

140

M ænig leorningcild leornode foroft þæt he mare cuðe on micclum andgyte þonne his agen lareow, þe hine lærde æt fruman, and forðig is se Hælend her gecweden lareow, þæt we beon fulfremede, *g if we him folgiað. ‘ Hu miht þu la geseon þæt mot to gewissan

*p. 346 146

on þines broðor eagan, and ðone beam ne gesihst 126 Bigspell dwildum H . ælc H. full(mildsian) H. 140 swa (swa . J?on)ne H . 145-6 (gif . . .

H.

128 hæbbe pa lare H. 13 1 æror H . 132 ge133 (and) H symle H 134 (fur)þor H. 135 ac H. (his lar)eow H . 136 lareow H. 137 sceolon H. miltsað H. 139 (pe ma pe he sylf wæ)s H. sceolon H. . . u)s H . 141 M enig H. læring- H. 142-3 (cuðe . . . i43~4 fru(man . . . gecwede)n H . 145 full- H. geseon) H . 147 broðor] /. 134, H. eage H. gesihð H.

126-7 [Not in Ælfric’s immediate sources.] 128-33 [Haymo\ Sunt enim nonnulli qui, antequam discipuli fiant, magistri fieri appetunt: et quibus non est sanctitas in moribus, nec maturitas in aetate, neque doctrina in sermonibus suffragatur, inverecunde locum regiminis appe­ tunt. [Bede] Caecum a caeco duci, id est peccantem a peccatore castigari non posse praemonuit. [Ælfric develops these suggestions independently.] 136-40 [Bede] Si magister, qui utique quasi Deus potuit, non suas ultum ire iniurias, sed ipsos maluit insecutores patiendo reddere mitiores, eandem necesse est discipuli, qui puri homines sunt, regulam perfectionis sequantur. [Haymo repeats this in other ivordsyand adds] Pro modulo nostrae capacitatis humilitatem et mansuetudinem illius imitari debemus. I4 * I~5 [Haymo] Solet namque in humanis disciplinis contingere, ut discipulus per acumen mentis antecellat magistrum. Magister ergo in hoc loco ille intelligitur, qui alibi ait: Vos vocatis mey Magister et Domine, et bene dicitis {loan, xiii. J j).

504

DOMINICA V POST PE NT EC OS TE N

X III

þe is soðlice on ðinum eagan, and hu miht þu secgan to ðinum breðer þus: geðafa, min broðor, pæt ic pæt mot ateo

150

of ðinum eagan nú, and þu nelt geseon þe sylf þone beam pe bið on ðinum eagan?’ N e mæg se langa beam began on pinum eagan, ac se beam getacnað pa teonfullan hatunge, þæt þu hatige þone man mid hetelum mode,

155

and þæt mot getacnað þæs mannes yrsunge; þonne ne miht þu na þæt mot ut ateon of ðæs mannes eagan, buton þu ærest awurpe

pa hatunge þe fram, þe is heafodleahter, and ðu syððan swa miht þæs mannes yrre gestyran,

160

and gif ðu hine hatast, ne miht þu him sty ran. Be ðam ylcan andgyte he cwæð on oðre stowe,

Liquantes culicem et glutientes camelum: * H y ahlyttriað pone stút of heora liðe mid seohhann, and hy ealne forswelgað pone olfend gehalne.

*p. 347 165

J>æt is, pæt hy tælað mid teonfullum mode and mid modignysse, pe is gylta mæst, pa lytlan gyltas, swylce hy 'h'luttrion pone stút, and nellað pa micclan synna on hym sylfum gebetan, ac wyllað mid hospe huxlice tælan

170

oðra manna misdæda, ponne hy maran sylfe habbað. 148 ys H. (ðinum agenum) eage H ? {suggested by spacing and by line 26). 150 ge)?(afa, min) H . 151 eage H . 152 s(ylf) H. agenum ege (sic) H . 153 cage H. 154 hatun(ge) H. 156 J?(æs) H. 158 eage H . erest H . aweorpe H. 160 styran H . 162 andgite H. 164 ahluttriað H. U has faint Latin gloss in margin, perhaps liquantes for ahlyttriað. liðe] followed by full stop U. seohhan H . 165 oluend H . 167 -nesse H. mæ(st) H. 168 lyttlan H. swilce H. 169 heom H . 170 willað H. huxl(ice) H. 171 silfe H. 154-61 [Bede] Hæc cum fratre agis, si (verbi gratia) quod ira ille peccavit, tu odio reprehendis. Quantum autem inter festucam et trabem, quasi tantum inter iram distat atque odium. Odium est enim ira inveterata. . . . Fieri autem potest, ut si irascaris homini, velis eum corrigi. Si autem oderis hominem, non potes eum velle corrigere. . . . Primo abs te expelle odium, et deinceps poteris iam eum quem diligis emendare. [Similarly Haymo and Hericus. Ælfric's *heafod­ leahter* in 159 may have been suggested by Haymo] Quantum inter festucam et trabem, tantum inter peccatum maius et minus distat. 162-71 [Jeromey In Matth. vii. 5-5] De his loquitur, qui cum ipsi mortali crimine teneantur obnoxii, minora peccata fratribus non concedunt: culicem liquantes, et camelum glutientes (Matth, xxiii. 24, inexactly recalling Old Latin; Jerome's own Vulgate has, excolantes culicem, camelum autem glutientes).

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DO MI NI CA V POST P ENTECOS TEN

505

‘A c ateoh, þu hýwere, ærest þone beam ut of þinum eagan, and ðu locast þonne þæt þu of ðines broðor eagan þæt mot út ateo.’ Híwere bið se mann þe hogað ymbe þæt

175

þæt he oðerne gerihtlæce ær hine sylfne, swylce he leahtras onscunige, and bið him sylf leahterfull; ac Crist us gewissode, þe ne wandode nan þing, hét us ærest adón ure dyrnan unðeawas and þa yfelan hatunge fram ure heortan aweg,

180

and mid hluttrum mode syððan gerihtlæcan þa eaðelican *gyltas on oðrum mannum swa.

*p. 348

þ a men sceolon styran þe to styrene agon, þæt syndon pa witan, þe ðone wisdom habbað and fram Gode þone anweald þæt hy oðrum styron,

185

swaþeah mid liðnysse and mid lufe symble, and hy heora agene unþeawas ne forgytan, þæt G od sy gehered on his halgum þegenum. W e willað eow secgan sume bysne be ðysum, hu se Hælend sylf her on life dyde:

190

He becom to ðam munte þe men hatað Oliuéti wið ða burh Hierusalem, on Iudea lande; 172 (a)teoh H . hywere] glossed Hipocnt(a) U; hiwere H. 173 agenum eage H . 174 eage H . 175 embe H. 177 onscunie H. 182 giltas H. 183 styrenne H. 184 synd H. 186 mi(d) H. simble H, 187 (for)giton. H . 188 si H . geherodi/. 189 will(að eow) H. J?isum H . 190 he(r on life) H . dide H . 191-2 (oliueti . . . burh) H .

i 75“ 7 [Bede] Et est vere multum cavendum et molestum hypocritarum, id est simulatorum, genus, qui cum omnium vitiorum accusationes odio et livore suscipiant, etiam consultores videri se volunt. [Hericus] Et hypocrita vocatur non solum qui aliud corde gerit et aliud opere agit, verum et ille qui, cum sit malus, quærit reprehendere bonos. 178-82 [Apparently Ælfric’s own recapitulation.] 183-8 [Cf. 88-97, and quotations there given from Haymo and Cæsarius, esp. Cæsarius for 186: cum caritate tamen et amore.] 191-207 [loan. viii. J] Iesus autem perrexit in montem Oliveti. [2] Et diluculo iterum venit in templum, et omnis populus venit ad eum, et sedens docebat eos. [3] Adducunt autem scribae et Pharisaei mulierem in adulterio deprehensam, et statuerunt eam in medio, [4] et dixerunt e i: Magister, haec mulier modo deprehensa est in adulterio. [5] In lege autem Moyses mandavit nobis huiusmodi lapidare. T u ergo quid dicis ? [6] Hoc autem dicebant tentantes eum, ut possent accusare eum.

5o6

D O M IN ICA V POST P E N T E C O S T E N

pa eode he on ærnemergen into ðam temple, and eall pæt folc sona in ðrang him to, and he ða sittende him sylf hy lærde georne, swa swa his gewuna wæs; and hit pa gelamp swa pæt pa Sunderhalgan and pa sylfan boceras

xiii

195

gebrohton án wif swa into ðam temple, and heo wæs befangen on fúlum forligre,

and leton hy standan on his gesihðe, *and cwædon, þ u leof lareow, J>is wif wæs nu gelæht on openum forligre,

*p. 349 201

and on Moyses läge he bebead witodlice pæt man mid stanum oftorfode swa forscyldegodne wifm an; hwæt sægest þu us nú be swylcere dæde ?

205

þis hy sædon to him pæt hy his fandodon, past hy mihton wyrcan sume wrohte be him, gif he þurh his liþnysse heora lag[e] tobræce, gif he ðam forlegenan wife lif 'pa' getaecan wolde, oððe he wurde wælreow on heora gewitnysse,

210

gif he oftorfian hete past wif pa mid stanum. He ða beah adún, and awrat mid his fingre swa on ðære eorðan, and hy acsodon pa gyt. 193 ær(nemergen . . . ðam) i f . 194 inn aþrang if. 194-5 (him . . . sittende) if . 196 (swa swa . . . pa ) H . 197-8 sund(erhalgan . . . temple) i f . 199 and heo] fir s t w ords v is ib le /. I 34 v, H. 199-200 for(ligre . . . leton) H. 201 leofa la(reow) H . 202 forligere H. 203 on] om. i/. lagu H . he behead] (: : : :)ad if, p ro b a bly he om. 204 forscylde(go)dne i f . 205 segst if. 206 (s)ædon if. hys fandedon i f . 207 wircan if. 208 läge] sic i f ; laga £/; see n ote . 209 tæcan i f . 210 wælhreow i f . -nesse i f . 212 beah þa i f . 213 axodon i f . 208 -11 [Bede, Horn. I. 25, ed. Hurst, lines 46-50] U t si et ipse hanc lapidandam decerneret, deriderent eum quasi misericordiae quam semper docebat oblitum; si lapidare vetaret, striderent in eum dentibus suis, et quasi fautorem scelerum, legisque contrarium velut merito damnarent. 212-27 [loan. viii. 6] Iesus autem inclinans se deorsum, digito scribebat in terra. [7] Cum ergo perseverarent interrogantes eum, erexit se, et dixit eis: Qui sine peccato est vestrum, primus in illam lapidem mittat. [£] Et iterum se inclinans, scribebat in terra. [9] Audientes autem unus post unum exibant, incipientes a senioribus; et remansit solus Iesus, et mulier in medio stans. [10] Erigens autem se Iesus, dixit ei: Mulier, ubi sunt qui te accusabant? nemo te condemnavit ? [j j ] Quæ dixit: Nemo, Domine. Dixit autem Iesus: Nec ego te condemnabo: vade, et iam amplius noli peccare.

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S07

þa sæt se Hælend upp and sæde hym þus t o : Swa hwylc eower swa næfð nane synne on him, awyrpe se ærest ænne stán on hy;

215

and he sylf pa eft on pære eorðan awrat. Hwæt pa, ða heafodmen, pa hy þis gehyrdon, eodon hym ealle ut *endemes hire fram, and pæt w íf stód ána ætforan þam Hælende.

*P. 350 220

H e sæt pa eft up and sæde to ðam wife, Hwær syndon nu, la wíf, [þa] þe ðe wregdon swa swiðe; ne fordernde heora nán pe to deaðe for ðam?

þæt w if him andwyrde, mid afyrhtum mode, Na, leofa Drihten, ne fordernde heora nán me.

225

Se Hælend hire cwæð to, N e ic ðe ne fordeme; gang þu nu aweg, and þu heonan forð ne synga. O n ða wisan he forgeaf þone gylt þam wife,

pæt heo syððan sceolde wið swylc þing hy gehealdan, for ðan pe ælc man bið, pe geandet his synna, and pæt ylce eft deð his Drihtne on teonan, pam hunde gehe, þe geet his spiweðan, and ðam swine gelic, pe hit besylað eft æfter his þweale, and bið his ende wyrse þonne his angin wære. Gewissige us se Hælend to his willan æfre,

230

235

pam is wuldor and lóf a to weorulde, A M E N . 214 him H . 220 (and) H .

215 hwile H. 221 upp H.

218 heafod(men) H. 219 heom H. 222 pa] sic H\ om. U . 225 me heora nan H . 226 Ne] cap. H, not U. 227 gang (p)e H. awegg H . heonon H . singa H . 228 (þ)one H . 229 sceolde syþþan H. swile H . geheal(da)n H . 230 þam H. geandett H. 231 (yl)ce H . 232 geett H. (s)piwe]?an H . 233 besilað H. 234 (and b)yð H. anginn H. 235 (hæ)lend H . 236 worulde H. 230-4 [II Petr. 20, 22] Si enim refugientes coinquinationes mundi in cognitionem Domini nostri et salvatoris Iesu Christi, his rursus implicati superantur, facta sunt eis posteriora deteriora prioribus {Matth, xii. 45: et fiunt novissima hominis illius peiora prioribus). . . . Contigit enim eis illud veri proverbii: Canis reversus ad suum vomitum; et, Sus lota in volutabro luti.

NOTES 13. doð god. N e a rly always in Æ lfric this expression has the concrete sense, ‘give (material) goods’, though the wider m odern sense o f doing go o d m ay not be w h o lly excluded. 2 1. In his earlier translation o f the parallel verse, M atth, xv. i4 ,Æ lfr ic has the dative, on sumum blindum seaðe { C H II. 320/15), bu t plays on blind

508

DOMINICA V POST P ENT ECOS TEN

X III

in the same way. Blind in the sense ‘ dark’ occurs also in Æ lfr ic ’s life o f S t. A gatha, L S v m . 92, on anum blindum cwearterne. 26. eagan. T h is is the regular form o f the dative singular in U , w h ich here has the plural eagum b y mistake. In H , after the orthodox eagan at 25, we regularly encounter ds. eage(26, 29, 30, 32, 33, 147, 148, 151, 153, 158, 173, 174) and once ege (152), as if the word were a strong neuter. 54 -6 6 . T h is passage deals m uch more explicitly and feelingly w ith the treatm ent o f servants b y their masters than the corresponding passage in C H II. x xi, p. 326, where Æ lfric m erely reports St. P a u l’s advice. 57. behypðy ‘heaps u p ’ . H itherto this m eaning has been assigned to the one recorded instance o f behypian in a gloss, whereas the equally solitary instance o f behypan in the O E Bede translates circumseptus (behyped) and is defined b y Bos worth T o lle r as ‘to heap’ or ‘ cover over, surround, en­ com pass’ . T h e variation o f m eaning is readily explained b y the range o f application o f the prefix and the difference betw een the tw o constructions. In the Bede, if we turn the passive into the active voice, a m an is the direct object o f the verb. H ere the encum brance is the object. (See B T behypan, B T S behipian, H a ll-M e r itt behypany behypian.) 70. mannhatan. I adopt the spelling o f H in order to avoid the pre­ sum ably false etym ology suggested b y U ’s mánhatan. W h en the w ord recurs at x x v (a). 19, spelled am biguously manhatay a gloss interprets it correctly, as I suppose, b y hodiosus hominum. H a ll-M e r itt records, under mannhatay one occurrence only as monhatæy in Belfour iv, p. 38/32. T h e Belfour sermon, w h ich survives only in M S . B, is b y Æ lfric, on a text norm ally assigned to the tw en ty-th ird Su n d ay after Pentecost. 6 7-6 9 . þæ t man lissige oðrum on hefegum geswincum þ e men habbað on gewunan on mislicum geldum and on manegum gesetnyssum: ‘ that one show kindness to others in h eavy afflictions to w h ich m en are accustom ed in various taxes and m any ordinances.’ Several words require com m ent. T h e word lissigey a weak verb o f the second class based on liss (liþs) 9 ‘kindness, m ercy, favour’, though not recorded in B T or H a ll-M e r itt, presents no difficulty o f form or m eaning. T h e w ord geswincum is used for both actual labour and general hardship or affliction. T h e latter sense appears preferable here in view o f w hat follows, though doubtless a poor m an m igh t often be required to pay in labour w hat he could not pay in goods or m oney. T h e word geldum (H gildum) refers to taxes or enforced p a y ­ m ents o f any kind. In the course o f E th elred ’s reign, from 991 on, taxes levied for paym ents to the D anes becam e increasingly heavy, b u t Æ lfr ic ’s generalization probably includes taxes o f other sorts b y w h ich the ordinary m an was oppressed. W u lfstan ’s com plaint in the Sermo ad Anglosy ‘ us un gylda swype gedrehtan’ (Bethurum , p. 269/58; W h itelock, line 59), perhaps reflects a still more critical stage o f the same evil. M iss W h itelock in her notes on lines 59 and 31, and M iss B ethurum , p. 361, refer to the D an egeld as the principal grievance.

DO MI NI CA V POST P EN TE COS TE N

X III

509

9 1 -1 0 2 . T h e re is a paragraph o f Biblical quotations for the instruction o f ju d ges in Letania M aiore , C H II. x x i, pp. 320, 322. It includes the passage from James ii. 13, b u t altogether lacks the econom y and co m ­ prehensive sweep o f the present passage. 96. þ æ t unriht drifan. Since the reference is to a ju d ge , I take drifan in the sense ‘prom ote’ or ‘ further’ rather than ‘practise’ or ‘ carry o n ’, w h ich are the nearest approxim ations in B T S and H a ll-M e r itt. In deed one o f the exam ples in B T S m igh t be interpreted as ‘further’ . It occurs at A ssm an n 11. 8, 9, where Æ lfric is qualifyin g his adverse ju d ge m e n t against a priest: ‘me is lað to tælenne agenne G o d es freond, g y f he G o d es riht d rifð .’ 107 sq. G od geeacnað his þingy and him eft be hundfealdum his ælmessart forgylt, T h e s e statem ents, w h ich do not correspond to an ything in the sources Æ lfric is using for m ost o f his exegesis, are Biblical in origin and repeat w h at Æ lfric had said w hen he dealt w ith alm sgiving in his h om ily for the first Su n day in L en t, C H II. v ii : D æ l o f ðam ðe ðe G o d forgeaf, and pin god beoð gem enigfylde (T h o rp e 1 0 2 / 2 1 ) . . . . Sw a hwaet swa w e be anfealdan G o d es pearfum for his lufan syllað, he h it us fo rgylt be h undfealdum on ðam toweardan life (106/

1- 3)T h e first o f these statem ents m igh t have been suggested b y I I C o r. ix. 10; T h o r p e ’s punctuation m istakenly makes it part o f a quotation from Prov, xxi. 13. T h e second is probably an extension o f M a tth . xix. 29. A good deal o f Æ lfr ic ’s doctrine on alms in the earlier h om ily corresponds to w hat is said in the pseud o -A ugu stin ian Sermo c c c x , D e Eleemosynisy P L x x x ix . 2340-2 (w hich is not am ong those now attributed to Cæsarius). W ith the first statem ent above, cf. col. 2341, ‘ D a , quid dubitas? quia si dederis, ego plura d ab o ’ . 141. T h e leorningcild o f U is probably correct. T h e w ord itself, though rare, occurs also at C H II. 164/10, and the elem ent hom ing- or leornungis used b y Æ lfric w ith mann and especially w ith cniht in the same sense. T h e elem ent læring- o f H , on the other hand, is recorded o n ly tw ice in B T (once w ith manny from the B enedictine Rule, and once w ith mædeny from Apollonius) and appears to be n o n -Æ lfrician. T h e play on leorningcild and leornode is o f a sort not uncom m on in Æ lfric. 164. H y ahlyttriað þone stut o f heora liðe mid seohhann. Æ lfr ic ’s e x ­ pansion o f the idea in the L a tin (w hich differs from that in the A u th o rized Version) has a striking particularity. N o d oubt stuty liðy and seohha w ere everyday words, b u t th ey are rare in literature. Indeed stut and seohha appear elsewhere in O ld

E n glish only in glosses. A n d

the unusual

ahlyttriað is used in an unrecorded sense. 193. on ærnemergen. T h e same phrase recurs at xxi. 225, 396, 41 1 , and x x iii. 88, 93. T h e com pound ærnemergen was perhaps originally accusative o f ær morgen (mergen) and m ay still have been looked upon in this ligh t b y C 2710.2

C

510

DOMINICA V POST PENTECOSTEN

X III

Æ lfric him self. In his D e Temporibus A n n i, n i. 25 (ed. H enel), in a list o f the seven divisions o f night, we read, ‘ Seofoða is D ilu cu lu m , pæ t is se ærm ergen, betw u x ðam dægrede and sunnan u p ga n g e.’ H enePs basic m anuscript is T h o r p e ’s for the Catholic Homilies, our K , and its reading is supported b y one o th e r ; b u t the rem aining three (adm ittedly later than K ) replace ær w ith ærne, and this, according to the evidence in B T S , s.v. ærney is the usual treatm ent o f the word in the eleventh century, ærne bein g an indeclinable m em ber o f the com pound. I f Æ lfric, as is possible,, looked u p on ærne as accusative singular m asculine o f the adjective a?r, then he m ust have tho u gh t that on was govern in g the accusative in on ærne mergeny and he m ay have so interpreted the construction in on mergeny on dægy and on nihty whereas historically mergen and dæg are th o u gh t to be endingless locatives and nihty perhaps, a survival o f a m u ­ tated dative (see G lossary under these three words). F rom the same h is­ torical point o f view , on ærnemergen should be an endingless locative and ærne therefore indeclinable. In the O E D under arne-morwe and the M E D under erne-morwe the developm ent o f the com pound in O E recognized.

is not

197. pa sylfan boceras. A sid e from the alliteration I am not sure w h y Æ lfric used sylfan here. I f w e take the usual m eaning o f the w ord in this position, ‘v e ry ’, w e m ay w onder w h y the presence o f the scribes should be more remarkable than that o f the Pharisees. Perhaps w e m ay un der­ stand it in a weakened sense, approxim ately as Th e scribes also’ . 201. p u leof lareow. T h e s e words seem to be extram etric, though their alliteration is picked up in 202. W ere th ey added as an afterthought b y Æ lfric or another w h o realized that the L a tin Magister had not been translated ? W e m ay w onder a little at the leof com ing from the scribes and Pharisees, b u t p robably the expression should be regarded as perfunctory. T h e strong leof o f U is supported b y v. 7 1 , 226; v i. 10, 2 1 ; and x iv . 19 ; b u t the weak form, as in H , is attested in this v ery hom ily in the vocative leofa Drihten at 225. E v id en tly Æ lfric used both forms, govern in g his choice perhaps b y considerations o f rhythm and emphasis. 208. lagey H , laga U . T h e context, the singular legi o f the L atin , and Æ lfr ic ’s normal usage all tend to confirm the singular läge o f H . M oreover, the laga o f U is probably not Æ lfr ic ’s form for the plural. See note on xx. 34.

XIV1 DOMINICA VI POST PENTECOSTEN Luc. v. i - i i

E a r l y in his career Æ lfric had commented on some features of

L u k e’s story of the fishing, to which he now gives full attention. T h e homily for Wednesday in Easter Week, C H II. x v i i , deals primarily with John xxi. 1 -1 4 , which tells of the other fishing after the resurrection. Æ lfric’s main authority, as Förster pointed out

{Anglia X V I. 6), was Homily xxiv of Gregory the Great’s series in Evangelia. In the midst of the exposition Ælfric follows Gregory in drawing a comparison between John’s account of the fishing after the resurrection and L u ke’s of the fishing before the passion. In a few sentences of one paragraph (Thorpe 290/5 sqq.) Æ lfric brings out certain differences between the two accounts that we find him repeating here in very similar language: (t) After the resurrection Christ told the disciples to throw out the net on the right hand side, because the right stands for the good, the left for the evil, and the fish caught on the right betokened the future congregation of the elect in heaven. Before his passion Christ did not specify which side, because the fish caught on that occasion betokened the present congregation, made up of good and bad members. (2) In the earlier fishing so many fish were caught that the net burst, signifying that so many men are converted to the faith in the present congregation that some, being perverse, break out again. In the later fishing many and large fish were caught, but the net did not burst, for no man will break out of the future con­ gregation when he has come to G o d ’s kingdom. In the main, however, since Gregory touches only incidentally on the text in L u k e , Æ lfric relies on two detailed and closely similar interpretations of it by other writers. One is the relevant section of Bede’s commentary on Luke\ the other a homily by Haymo— no. cxvii, assigned to the same Sunday as Æ lfric’s. For the most part Haymo merely expands and simplifies Bede, only 1 On the group x m -x v i, see x m , introduction, pp. 493-4.

D O M I N I C A VI P O S T P E N T E C O S T E N

512

XIV

occasionally introducing a different idea. Hence it is hard to tell which of the two Æ lfric is following; but verbal correspondences indicate that he studied both, and chose Bede as his guide a little more often than Haymo. N ow Bede and Haymo made use of Gregory’s homily on the other fishing, and Haymo incorporates most of what Gregory had said about the difference between the two, but with many vari­ ations in expression. When Æ lfric comes to this passage in Haymo (at line 147 of his own exposition) he starts to paraphrase it, but after a sentence or two reverts to Gregory, or to his own earlier rendering of Gregory— for although I have quoted Gregory’s Latin as a source I cannot be sure that Æ lfric turned to it afresh. One of Gregory’s own authorities was evidently Augustine in

Serm o

c c x l v iii,

which deals, like Gregory’s homily, with J ohn xxi.

1 -1 4 , and anticipates a good many of Gregory’s points about the two fishings. In two short passages of Æ lfric’s homily (85-90 and 1276-131) certain details seem to have been suggested b y Augustine rather than any of the other commentators. Hence I believe that Æ lfric had consulted him also, though evidently the others better served his purpose most of the time. One other source, decidedly tangential, has turned up. A t line 171 Æ lfric mentions, as Augustine and Gregory had done, that the left hand signifies the wicked. But at once he reassures his con­ gregation with the reminder that, according to Scripture and learned expositors, the righteous man has no left hand, but both his hands serve him for right. T h e Biblical example at the basis of this doctrine is evidently the ambidextrous A od of Judges iii. 15; and the most likely expositor, so far as I can discover, isRabanus Maurus in his commentary on the passage. Æ lfric had told the story of Aod in his homily on Judges , and he may have consulted Rabanus at the same time. T w o wholly original passages deserve special notice. In certain features of the traditional exposition Æ lfric found sharp reminders of current evils. His measured reproof of English impiety in general and of English traitors in particular constitutes what is probably his severest and most sweeping indictment of his countrymen. T h e first passage, 98-107, comes as a sudden revulsion of feeling after the account of the triumphant establishment of the Christian faith among the nations. Æ lfric finds the English congregation oblivious of

its

great

inheritance,

slack,

insubordinate,

frivolously

XIV

D O M I N I C A VI P O S T P E N T E C O S T E N

513

newfangled, and for a sentence or two he issues such warnings as we expect from a Gildas or a Wulfstan. T h e second passage, 132-9, applies to a smaller part of the population but is more violent in expression. It denounces the Englishmen who submit to the Danes, putting themselves in the devil’s power and betraying their own countrymen to death. What seems worst of all is that in bowing to the heathen they have been false to their own Lord. T h e passage was omitted from M S . H, doubtless because it had become so conspicuously out of date, but, as I have pointed out in the notes, it cannot properly be separated from the passage that follows on those who renounced the faith to save their lives in the time of the martyrs. I am not sure how much we have a right to deduce from these striking passages about the date of the homily. In his Sermo ad Anglos Wulfstan complains of widespread betrayals of lords, ‘ and eac her syn on earde on mistlice wisan hlafordswican manege’, but when he gives specific examples by way of climax, one is the murder of Edward the Martyr in 978, the other the expulsion of King Ethelred in 1013.1 Æ lfric’s accusation may in a similar way have embraced instances of defection to the Danes over a considerable period of years. T h e Chronicle first mentions disloyal conduct on the part of the Ealdorman Æ lfric in 992, and Professor Whitelock has called attention to an Essex conspiracy, as early as 994, to accept Swein as king.2 T h e English reverses of the following years may have been accompanied by many more instances of betrayal than the highly selective account in the Chronicle mentions. Still it may be urged that, as Wulfstan did not speak his mind fully until the situation had become extreme, so Æ lfric would hardly have made even this brief but sweeping charge until desertion had begun to seem alarmingly frequent. Unfortunately we do not know how many years Æ lfric lived after 1005 when he became abbot of Eynsham. It would seem, however, that at least five or six years should be allowed for the completion of the letters and sermons that are to be assigned to the period of his abbacy. If we take 1005 and 1010 as reasonable limits for the composition of the homily, we may be inclined to favour the middle or end of this period. A t the close of 1006, when the Danes ravaged the country near Eynsham, there may have been local instances of disloyalty. In 1009, after 1 Ed. Whitelock, lines 73 sqq.; Bethurum, Homilies of Wulfstan, p. 257/65 sqq. 2 See her note on hlafordswican, 73.

5H

D O M I N I C A VI P O S T P E N T E C O S T E N

XXV

an intermission of two years, the Danish attack was renewed with a formidable army and Wulfnoth of Sussex led a large part of the fleet astray. A nd in the Chronicle for 1010 we read: ‘Æ t nextan næs nan heafodman þæt fyrde gaderian wolde, ac ælc fleah swa he mæst mihte; ne furðon nan scir nolde oþre gelæstan æt nextan.’1 By that time the collapse of Ethelred’s government was imminent and English demoralization was pretty surely widespread enough to account for both passages. 1 T h e passage is in M S S . C, D , and E ; the spellings are from C, as in The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, ed. B. Thorpe (Rolls Series, London, 1861), I. 264, col. i. Plummer prints from E (Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel, Oxford, I, 1892, pp. 140--1).

D O M IN ICA

VI POST P E N T E C O S T E N

*C u m turbe inruerent ad /esum, et re/iqua

*p. 351

O n ðære tide iu hit getimode swa, þa ða se Hælend wæs her on life mid mannum, þæt he stod mid ðam folce swa wið ænne fixnoð, T e x t based on U (Trinity B. 15. 34), pp. 350—63. Collated with H (Cotton Vitellius C. v), ff. I34 v- 6v. In the list of variants round brackets enclose portions of the text as witnessed by U (including the modern punctuation) for which there is approximately the right space but no longer any reading in the damaged H. For Homilies x m -x v i, where the manuscripts are the same, the following variants are excluded: H regularly has byðygyf, hi, mannymenu, þissypuss where U has biðygify hyy man, menyþisyþus. But H usually has man for the indefinite pronoun, ‘one*. For this homily only, H ’s regular scyp for scip is excluded after its first appearance in line 11. U ’s hy and hym were often written hi and him at first. In H, the pointing is normally by half-lines; in U, intermittently so. Sup.: V I P O S T P E N T E C O S T E N ] V P O S T O C T ^4 V A S P E N T E C O S T E N H, inruerent] irruerent H 2 mannum] What is not now legible in H is confirmed to this point by Wanley, Catalogus, p. 210. N o variants in first two lines. 3-4 (ænne fixnoð, pæt wæ)s H.*2 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 S ources . 1-40 [Luc, v y j ] Factum est autem, cum turbae irruerent in eum, ut audirent verbum Dei, et ipse stabat secus stagnum Genesareth. [2] Et vidit duas naves stantes secus stagnum: piscatores autem descenderant, et lavabant retia. [3] Ascendens autem in unam navim, quae erat Simonis, rogavit eum a terra reducere pusillum. Et sedens docebat de navicula turbas. [4] U t cessavit autem loqui, dixit ad Simonem: Duc in altum, et laxate retia vestra in capturam. [5] Et respondens Simon, dixit illi: Praeceptor, per totam noctem laborantes, nihil cepimus: in verbo autem tuo laxabo rete. [6] E t cum hoc fecissent, concluserunt piscium multitudinem copiosam, rumpebatur autem rete eorum. [7] Et annuerunt sociis, qui erant in alia navi ut venirent, et adiuvarent eos. E t venerunt, et impleverunt ambas naviculas, ita ut pene mergerentur. [8] Quod cum videret Simon Petrus, procidit ad genua Iesu, dicens: Exi a me, quia homo peccator sum, Domine. [9] Stupor enim circumdederat eum, et omnes, qui cum illo erant, in captura piscium, quam ceperant: [10] Similiter autem Iacobum, et Ioannem, filios Zebedæi, qui erant socii Simonis. Et ait ad Simonem Iesus: Noli timere: ex hoc iam homines eris capiens. [xr] Et subductis ad terram navibus, relictis omnibus secuti sunt eum.

516

D O M I N I C A VI P O S T P E N T E C O S T E N

XIV

pæt wæs an brad mere Genesareð gehaten, and he geseah twa scipu standan wið ðone mere,

5

and pæt folc efste eall swiðe wið his weard, and woldon set him gehyran his halgan lare, and ða fisceras mid ðam pe ficsodon on ðam mere eodon of ðam wætere and swyledon heora net. Petrus wæs pa fiscere, pe is apostol mi;

*10 4

pa stód his scip pærwið, on ðam astah se Hælend, and het hine ascufan pæt scip hwon fram lande, and sæt pa on ðam scipe gehende pam lande, and he lærde pæt folc pe on ðam lande stód, swa swa his gewuna wæs past he wissode mancynne.

15

pa æfter pasre lare, he het alætan út pone #halgan Petrum his scip on ðære dypan,

*p. 352

and het hy aweorpan heora net on fixnoðe. Him andwyrde Petrus, Eala leof lareow, ealle niht we swuncon, on idel wacigende,

20

and we naht ne gefengon; ac ic for ðinum worde past net nu awurpe; and hy hit wurpon pá út.

pa sloh pæt net swa full sona paera fisca pæt hit hwæthwega bærst; ac hy bicnodon sona heora geferan on ðam oðrum scipe,

25

past hy hraðe comon hym to fultumigenne. H y comon pa sona, and pa scipu buta mid fixum afyldon, past hy fornean d'u'fan.

pa ða Petrus geseah swylcne fixnoð mid him, pa feoll he sona to ðæs Hælendes cneowum,

30

and cwæð mid ege eadmodlice him to, Gewit fram me, D rihten; ic eom synful man. He wæs swiðe afyrht, and his geferan ealle, 4 genesareth H. 5 ge(seah twa scipu sta)ndan H . 6 -7 (wið his weard, and woldon æt) H. 8 and] And H. (fisceras mid ðam pe ficso­ don) H. 9 (and swyledon heora net) H . 10 Petrus . . . fiscere] probably (Petrus wæs fiscere) pa H. 11 pa]/. JJ5, H . scyp (and regularly hereafter) H. 12 hin(e) a(scufan) H, 13 (lande) H. i$(pæ t) H. wissode] wisode (cf. 80) H. mann- H. 17 po(ne) H. 18 awyrpan H. heo(ra) H. nett H. 20 nih(t) H. waciende H. 23 fixa H . 24 hwæthwega] æt hwega H ; U has for neh (partly erased) over line. baerst] 'to'bærst U (late correction); bærst H. 26 hym] heom H . fultumienne H. 27 butu H. 28 fornean] altered to forneahð U ; dufon H. 29 swylcne fixnoð] altered to swylche fixunge U ; swilcne fixnoð H. him] heom H. 32 synfull H. 33 afirht H.

and Iacob, and Iohannes, Zebedees suna, wæron eac afyrhte for ðam fiscnoðe swiðe.

pa cwæð se Hælend pus to pam *halgan Petre:

35 *p. 353

N e ondræd pu ðe nan ðing for ðissere dæde. þ u fehst men heonan forð, swa swa pu fixas fenge. H y tugon pa to lande heora scipa gehladene, and hy ealle ping forleton, and folgodon swa Criste.

40

Se fiscnoð pe we embe sprecað wæs swiðe fæger and myrige on Iudea lande, Galileiscre scire, and swiðe mycel mere, manegra mila lang, preo mile on bræde, mid ferscum wætere.

pæt wæter flewð eall of ðære miclan éá

45

pe men hatað Iordanén into ðam mere, pær is myrige fiscnoð, and men hit heton sæ, for ðære micelnysse pæs micclan flodes. W ið ðone mere stod se Hælend mid ðam folce pa, and pæt folc genealæhte, his lare to gehyrenne, for ðan pe ealle peoda nu yrnað him to,

50

purh soðne geleafan, his lare secende.

þa twa scipu getacniað, pe he geseah pær standan, *pa men pe gelyfdon on Iudea lande on þone halgan Hælend, and pæt hæðene folc

*p. 354 55

pe of eallum [landum] gelyfdon on hine. 34 Iohanne(s) H . 35 afirhte H . ðam fiscnoSe] altered to pere fiscunge U ; þam íixnoðe H . 38 heonon H. 39 scipu H. 40 folgodan H . 41 fixnoð H . w(æs) H . 42 scyre H. 43 and om. H. micel H . 44 mile] mila H . 45 micclan H. 46 iordané (iordanem ?) inn to H. 47 pær] Ðær H . fixnoð H . 48 pæ(re) H . 49 mi(d) H. 50 genealæhte] pa genealeahte H. gehirenne H. 51 yrnað] yrnað a H. 52 hi(s) H. 53 sta(ndan) H . 55 hæl(end, and pæt) H. 56 landuw] sic H ; þeodum U. 41-48 [Bede, In Lucam] Stagnum Gennesareth idem dicunt esse, quod mare Galileae, vel mare Tiberiadis: sed mare Galileae ab adiacente provincia dictum. . . . Neque enim in stagni morem sternitur aqua, sed frequentibus auris spiranti­ bus agitatur, haustu dulcis, et ad potandum habilis. Sed Hebraeae linguae con­ suetudine omnis aquarum congregatio, sive dulcis, sive salsa, mare nuncupatur. Qui lacus interfluente Iordane centum quadraginta stadiis in longitudinem, et quadraginta extenditur in latitudinem. 5 1-52 [Bede] Turbarum conventus ad eum, gentium in fide concurrentium typus est, de quibus Esaias: Et fluent, inquit, ad eum omnes gentes (Is. ii. 2). 53“ 5^ [Haymo, Horn. C X V I I ] Duae naves, duos ordines significant credituros, unum ex Iudaeis, alterum ex gentibus. [Bede] Duae naves secus stagnum positae, circumcisionem et praeputium figurant.

518

D O M I N I C A VI P O S T P E N T E C O S T E N

XIV

O f ægðrum folce G od wát his gecorenan, and of ægðrum mennisce he manega gebringð of ðam deopum yðum þissere worlde to staþolfæstnysse þæs toweardan lifes;

60

for ðan þe pæt flod getacnað þe hy on fixodon þas andweardan woruld j?e we on wuniað, and se strand getacnað þa staðolfæstnysse þæs toweardan lifes, to ðam us gehet Crist,

gif we his lare folgiað on ures lifes þeawum.

65

þ a fisceras þe eodon up of ðam ficsnoðe and heora net swyledon, þæt syndon þa lareowas þe us læran sceolon, þæt we gelyfon on God, and us fram nytennysse mid heora nette ateon to ðam halgan Hælende, þe us habban wyle to þære stoðolfæstnysse þære stæþþian worulde.

þa fisceras swyledon heora *net on ðam wætere,

7° *p. 355

for ðan J?e ða lareowas hwilon us læran sceolon, and on sumne sæl heora sylfes gyman. ‘Petrus wæs ða fiscere, þe is apostol n u ; J>a stod his scip þærwið. On ðam astah se Hælend,

75

and het hine ascufan þæt scip hwón fram lande, 57 Of] cap. Hy not U. ægð(rum folce) H. 58 (manega gebringð) H . 59 worlde] worulde H. 60 staþ(olfæstnysse þæs) H. 61-62 geta(cnað þe hy on fixodon þas) H. 62 (wuni)að H. 63 (and se strand getacnað þa sta)þolfæstnysse H. 64 towea(rdan) last word visible f . 133, H. 65 (þe)awum first word visible f . JJ5V, H. 66 upp (of ðam) fixnoðe H . 67 nett swiledon H . paet] om. H . 68 (læra)n H . 69 (nette) H . 70 wile H . 71 sta(J?ol)fæstnysse H . stæððigan H . 72 swiledon H . (net)t H . 73 'oþer' hwilon U (M E corrector9 73-78). 74 (and o)n H . heora sylfes] sic both M S S originally; U altered to heom sylfen. 75 (n)u H . 76 J?ærwið] altered to þærbi U. 77 ascufan] asceo(f)an H. hwon fram lande] altered to a lutel fram pan lande U . 57 [Haymo] Ex utroque populo . . . novit . . . Dominus qui sunt eius. Nam videre, eligere est. [A mere variation of Bede.] 58-65 [Bede] Eorumque cor a fluctibus sæculi huius, ad futuræ vitæ tranquilli­ tatem quasi ad soliditatem litoris . . . provehit. [Earlier] Quia ergo stagnum sive mare præsens saeculum designat, Dominus secus mare stat postquam . . . stabilitatem perpetuae quietis adiit. 66-71 [Bede] Piscatores sunt ecclesiae doctores, qui nos rete fidei compre­ hensos, et de profundo ad lumen elatos, quasi pisces litori, sic terrae viventium advehunt. 72-74 [Bede] Haec retia modo laxantur in capturam, modo lota plicantur, quia non omne tempus est habile doctrinae, sed nunc exerenda lingua doctori, nunc suimet cura gerenda.

XIV

D O M I N I C A VI P O S T P E N T E C O S T E N

519

and sæt ða on ðam scipe gehende pam lande, and he lærde pæt folc pe on ðam lande stód, swa swa his gewuna wæs pæt he wissode mancynne.’

80

Petrus scip getacnode, pe ðær stód gehende, pæt Iudeisce folc pe gewændon to Criste and on hine gelyfdon, peah pe hy sume noldon, on ðam wæs pæt anginn ealre gelaðunge.

þæ t 08er scip getacnode eall pæt hæðene folc

85

of eallum mancynne pe mid geleafan oncnawað pone leofan Hælend, and pæt is seo gelaðung [pe is gecweden Ecclesia.]

þæ t Iudeisce folc wæs gehaten Sinagoga, pæt is gegaderung on Engliscere spræce. O f Petrus scipe he lærde pæt folc on ðam #lande,

90

*p. 356

and us becom seo lar of Iudea lande, purh pa halgan apostolas, pe ða hæðenan lærdon, and men to geleafan of ælcum lande gebigdon, and cyrican arærdon to Godes gesetnyssum

95

on his halgum peowdome, swa swa hit man healt gyt on ðam godum folcum, pe Godes willan cepað; ac we healdað wace, her on Engla peode, Godes gesetnyssa, pe he gesette to steore, and pam eallum to lare pe hine lufiað.

100

78 gehende] altered to neh U. 79 (and) H . 80 wis(s)ode (the second s clearly attested by spacing in spite of 15) H. mann- H. 81 Petres H . 82 iudei(s)ce H . gewendon H . 86 mann- H. 87 þæne H . 88 pe is gecweden ecclesia H ; om. U ; see note. 89 synagoga H . 90 ys H. 91 petres H. 94 of] on H. 95 cyrcan H. 96 halgan H. gyt] U wrongly puts a full stop after this word and capitalizes the next. H has only the half-line point. 100 (l)are H. 81-84 [Bede] Navis Simonis est ecclesia primitiva, de qua Paulus ait: Qui enim operatus est Petro in apostolatum circumcisionis, operatus est et mihi inter gentes (Gal. ii. 8). 85-90 [Already intimated by Bede and Haymo; cf. supray 53-56; but the com­ plication introduced by the distinction between Ecclesia and Synagoga apparently stems from Augustine, Sermo C C X L V I I I ] Duo autem illa navigia, duos populos significabant, Iudæorum et Gentium, Synagogae et Ecclesiae, circum­ cisionis et praeputii. 9 1-9 7 [Perhaps suggested by Bede] D e qua [nave Simonis] docebat turbas, quia de auctoritate ecclesiae docet usque hodie gentes. [But mainly an independent de­ duction from 82, anticipating 112-14.] 98-107 [Nothing in Bede or Haymo at this point to suggest the contemporary application; but cf. infra 127 sqq., 152-7.]

520

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XIV

W e wyrcað us sylfe eall-níwe gesetnyssa o f ðam þe G od sylf tæhte, ongean his gesetnyssum, and ealra pæra witena pe wæron beforan us, ongean hy ealle we gað mid ure anwilnysse; ac se weg sceal beon swiðe earfoðe us, þæt we hy fortredon mid teonfullum þeawum,

105

and G od sylfne forseon, swa swa we to swiðe doð. ‘ þ 'a ' æfter þære lare, he hét alætan út þone halgan Petrum his scip #on ðære dypan, and hét hy awurpan heora net on fiscnoðe.’

*p. 357 no

W ið pæt land he lærde, [and] hy leton uttor syððan, for ðan þe he sylf lærde on Iudea lande, and his lar becom syððan to gehwylcum landum, swa swa hit fullcuð is, on Cristendome wide. ‘ Him andwyrde Petrus, eala leof lareow, ealle niht we swuncon, on idel wacigende,

115

and we naht ne gefengon; ac ic for ðinum worde

pæt net nu awurpe; and hy hit awurpon pa út.’ Se sealmwyrhta cwæð, þus singende be Gode:

N isi Dominus edificouerit domum , in uonum laborant qui aedi­ ficant eam: 120 101 wyrceað H. 102 gesetnyssum] gesetnyssa H . 103 wæ(r)on H . 104 Ongean H . hy] heora over line U. 105 (sc)eal H . us] 'to' us U . 106 þea(wum) H . 107 forseon] forse'g'on U ; na forseon H . 108 (lare, he) H . 109 halgum (/) H . on ðaere dypan] on pone deope mere over line U . 1 10 (and het hy aw)yrpan H . nett H . fixnoðe H. 111 and H ; pæt U. over hy] id est apostoli U. m - 1 2 (uttor syððan, for) H. 1 12 sylf] 'hira' sylf U. 113 be(com syððan to gehw)ilcum H . 1 14-15 cristen(dome wide. Him andw)yrde H . 11 6 -17 swun(con, on idel wacigende, and we naht) H . 118 (net nu awurpe; and hy hit awurpon pa ut) H. 119-20 (singende be gode: Nisi Dominus edificauerit domum, in) H. 120 ædificant] /. x jó , H. 1 1 1-14 [Bede] Quod primo rogavit Simonem navem a terra reducere pusillum, significat. . . prius in proximis regionibus gentibus praedicandum, ut quod dicit item Petro, Duc in altum, et laxate retia vestra in capturamyad remotiores gentes quibus postea praedicatum est, pertineat. [Haymo substantially the same; Ælfric substitutes the Saviour for the apostles at the beginning.] 119-25 [Bede] Nisi Dominus aedificaverit domum, in vanum laborant qui aedificant eam (PsaL cxxvi. i y Roman version). Nisi Dominus cor illustraverit auditorum, doctor in nocte laborat. [Haymo, restating Bede] Nisi Dominus illuminet mentem auditoris interius, in vacuum laborat sermo doctoris exterius, Scriptura dicente (PsaL cxxvi. J, as above, except that Migne gives only the first clause and does not reveal whether Haymo had laborant or the Gallican labora­ verunt).

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XIV

521

Buton Drihten [s]ylf þæt hus getimbrige, on idel hy swincað, pa ðe hit wyrcað. Butan G od sylf onlihte þara manna heortan J>e his lare gehyrað mid his halgan gife, on idel swincð se lareow mid his lare wiðútan. ‘ þ a sloh pæ t net swa ful sona *þæra fixa

125 *p. 358

þæt hit hwæthwega bærst.’ A nd nu bið eac swa. Swa fela manna gebugað mid ðam gecorenum to Cristes geleafan on his Gelaðunge, þæt hy sume yfele eft ut abrecað,

130

and hy on gedwyldum adreogað heora Iff, swa swa pa Engliscan men doð þe to ðam Deniscum gebugað, and mearciað hy deofle to his mannrædene, and his weorc wyrcað, hym sylfum to forwyrde, and heora agene leode be(læwað) to deaðe. Hwæt, bið æfre wyrse ænig þing on worlde

135

þonne swylc dæd is ongean his agene Drihten, and hine sylfne besence on ðam ecum suslum, ælfremed fram Gode, and fram eallum his halgum ? Swa dydon eac hwilon sume pa Cristenan

140

on anginne Cristendomes: pa ða man acwealde 12 1 sylf] sic H ; him sylf U. 12 1-2 ge(timbrige, on idel hy swincað) H . 123 Buton H. 123-4 þæra mann(a heortan þe) H. 124 gife] grace over line U . 125 (l)ar(eow mid) H . 126 nett H. full H. þæra fixa]'of' þæra fixa's' (/) U. 127 (hit hwæt)hwega H . swa.] punct. follows H ; no punct. U . 128 (ðam) gecorenan H . 130 y(fele) H . 131 gedwildum H . 132-9 om. H . 132 doð] crossed out, dudend over line U. gebugað] altered to gebugan U. 133 mearciað hy deofle to his] altered to mear'chedand heom to deofles' U. 134 wyrcað] altered to 'werðhten' U . forwyrde] altered to 'pine7 U . 135 be(læwað)] altered after erasure to beswiken U. 137 agene] sic U yfor agenne. 140 Swa] Here H resumes. dydo(n eac) H. 141 ac(weal)de H . 127^-31 [Bedef quoting Gregory, Horn. X X I V in Evang.] Præ multitudine piscium rete rumpebatur, quia nunc ad confessionem fidei etiam cum electis reprobi tanti intrant, qui ipsam quoque Ecclesiam hæresibus scindant. [Augus­ tine, Sermo C C X L V I I I ] Ibi premebantur navigia præ multitudine. Sic fit m odo: multi christiani qui male vivunt, Ecclesiam premunt. Parum est quia premunt: et retia disrumpunt. Nam si non essent retia scissa, schismata non essent commissa. 140-6 [Haymo, adapting to this passage Bede's illustrations] Ipsi Ecclesiam variis hæresibus scindere conati sunt, qui in ea per fidem capti tenebantur; qualis fuit ludas proditor, et Simon M agus; et quales erant illi, de quibus Ioannes apostolus ait: Exierunt ex nobis, sed non erant ex nobis (I loan. ii. 19). [See note on 132-9-]

522

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XIV

þa halgan martiras huxlice mid witum, for Cristes geleafan, þa cyddon wel fela heora ungetrywðæ, and wiðsocon Criste, *and hine forleton, j?æt hy libban moston, ac heora líf wæs syððan wyrse þonne deað.

*p. 359 146

T uw a het se Hælend her on ðissum life mid nette fixian, and hy fengon sona heora net full fixa, for micelre getacnunge: æne ær his þrowunge, be ðam þe we nu secgað,

15°

and oðre siðe eft, æfter his æriste. N u bærst heora net on ðisum fixnoðe, for ðære getacnunge þe we ær sædon, and þes fixnoð getacnað þa halgan Gelaðunge,

pæt is eall Cristen folc þe on G od nu gelyfað, on ðam syndon ægðer ge yfele ge góde,

155

and hy sume misfarað, swa swa we sædon ær. Æ t ðam oðrum cyrre, æfter his þrowunge, he het awurpan þæt net on ða swiðran healfe, and hy manega fixas [and] swiðe micele gefengon,

160

and heora net ne bærst for ðære getacnunge, for ðan þe se fixnoð æfter his æriste getacnode soðlice pa gesæligan Cristenan, 142 martyras H . 143 p(s) H. kyddon H. 144 ungetrywðe H . 145 pæt] wiþ pæt H . lybban H . 146 wirse H. 147 Tuw(a) H. J?isura H . 149 heo(ra) nett H . 152 net(t) H . 155 gely(fað) H . 157 misfaran H . 158 his om. H. 159 awyrpan H. nett H. 160 and] sic H ; om. U. 161 nett H. 162 fix(noð) H. 147-71 [HaymOy revising Gregory, Horn. X X I V in Evang.] Bis in sancto Evangelio legimus, quod ad iussionem Domini laxata retia copiosam multi­ tudinem piscium ceperunt, nunc ante passionem, et secundo post resurrectionem (loan. xxi. 1-14 ). [Gregory, from whom Hay mo gradually diverges] Sed priusquam Redemptor noster pateretur et resurgeret, mitti quidem rete ad piscandum iubet, sed utrum in dexteram, an in sinistram mitti debuisset, non iubet; post resurrec­ tionem vero discipulis apparens, mitti rete in dexteram iubet. In illa piscatione tanti capti sunt, ut retia rumperentur; in ista autem et multi capti sunt, et retia rupta non sunt. Quis vero nesciat bonos dextera, et malos sinistra figurari ? Illa ergo piscatio, in qua specialiter in quam partem mitti rete debeat non iubetur, praesentem Ecclesiam designat, quae bonos simul ac malos colligit. . . . Haec autem piscatio post Domini resurrectionem facta, in solam dexteram missa est, quia ad videndum claritatis eius gloriam sola electorum Ecclesia pertingit, quae de sinistro opere nihil habebit. In illa piscatione præ multitudine piscium rete rumpitur [etc., ut supra, 127&-131]. In ista vero piscatione et multi pisces et magni capiuntur, et rete non rumpitur, quia sancta electorum Ecclesia, in con­ tinua auctoris sui pace requiescens, nullis iam dissensionibus dilaniatur.

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*þe to Godes rice J?urh Godes sylfes fultum eadige becumað to ðam ecan life,

*p. 360 165

þanan heora nan ne mæg syððan út aberstan; and seo swiðre hand getacnode þa gecorenan halgan, and for ðam hy awurpon þæt net on ða swiðran hand. J>is godspell ne sægð ná pe we nu secgað eow on hwæðre healfe he hete hy awurpan þæt net;

170

ac seo wynstre hand swaþeah getacnað pa yfelan. N e wen þu na forðig þæt þin wynstre yfel beo, for ðan pe Godes lár and lareowas us secgað þæt se rihtwisa man næfð nænne wynstran, ac buta his handa him beoð for swiðran.

175

J>is godspell us sægð her þæt ‘hy sona gebicnodon heora geferan on ðam oðran scipe, þæt hy hraðe comon hym to fultumigenne.’

þæ t oðer scíp getacnað, swa swa we ær sædon, þæt hæðene folc on fyrlenum landum

pe on Crist gelyfað on Cristendome wide, for ðan *pe se Hælend ne afunde nateshwón

180 *p. 361

on Iudea lande swa fela gelyfedra manna 'swa swa' he habban wolde to ðam heofonlican life.

þa geceas he us of eallum leodscipum,

185

165 lif(e) H . 166 þanon H. 168 nett H. 169 secgð H . 170 hwæðer(e) H . nett H . 171 wynstre] luft over line U ; winstre H . 172 forJ?i H. wynstre] lufð hand over line U ; winstre H . 173 for (ðan) H . 174 næ(nne wyn)stran H ; nane luft hand over line U . 175 over swiðran] id est riðht hand1 U. 176 (us sægð) H. 177 oðre H . 177-8 scy(pe, þæt hy hra)þe H. 178 hym] heom H . 179 g(etacnað, swa swa) H . 180 firlenum H . 181 (pe on crist gelyfað) H. 182 hæ(lend ne afunde nateshwon) H . nateshwon] nawiðt over line U. 183-4 gelyfe(dra manna swa swa he habban wolde) H. 184 heo(fonlic)an H . life] last word visible/. 13 6 , H . 185 J>a] no cap. £7. U U(tic. Ui. J5] Aod . . . qui utraque manu pro dextera utebatur. [RabanuSy Com. in Lib. Iudic.] Ecce qualis est iste qui suscitatur ad salvandum Israel! Nihil habet in se sinistrum, sed utramque manum dextram habet; hoc est enim quod dicitur ambidexter. . . . Quod . . . praesumere puto, quod secundum spirita­ lem intelligentiam, et sancti omnes ambidextri dicantur, et e contrario diabolus et principes eius, si dici potest, ambisinistri dicantur. 179-87 [Bede] Alia navis (ut praediximus) est ecclesia de gentibus, quae et ipsa non sufficiente una navicula piscibus impletur electis, quia novit Dominus qui sunt eius (II Tim. ii. ig ) t et apud ipsum certus est suorum numerus electorum; dumque tot in Iudaea credituros non invenit, quot ad fidem vitamque prae­ destinatos novit aeternam, quasi aliae navis receptacula piscibus quaerens suis, corda quoque gentium fidei gratia replet.

524

D O M I N I C A VI P O S T P E N T E C O S T E N

XIV

and he swa gefylð þæt fülle getel

pe he habban wyle to his ecan wuldre. ‘ H y comon pa sona, and pa scipu butu mid fixum afyldon, past hy fornean dufon.’ þa scipu he gefylð forð oð Domes-dæg,

190

and þeah þe hy frecednysse and fela costnunga þolion on þissere worulde, hy ne wurðað swaþeah nateshwon besencte, for ðan þe Crist sylf mæg his halgan gehealdan, and heora gehelpan æfre.

‘ þa pa Petrus geseah swylcne fixnoð mid hym,

195

pa feol he sona to J?æs Hælendes cneowum, and cwæð mid ege eadmodlice him to, Gewit fram me, Drihten; ic eom synfull man.’ Nolde se Hælend for his bene swaþeah hym fram gewitan, ac wunode mid hym,

200

oððæt hy to lande gelændon mid ealle, #for ðan þe ða lareowas þe Godes folc lærað,

*p. 362

bisceopas and mæssepreostas, ne moton forlaetan

pa halgan Godes wican pe G od hym betæhte for nanre costnunge, for ðan þe Crist hy ahret,

205

gif hy for his lufan ne forlætað his heorde. ‘ He wæs swiðe afyrht, and his geferan ealle, and Iacob, and Iohannes, Zebedees suna, wæron eac afyrhte for þam fixnoðe swiðe.’ Iacob and Iohannes wæron gebroðra,

210

and heora fæder wæs gehaten Zebedeus, 187 þe] first word visible f . 13 6 vyH . wile H. 188 (Hy comon pa sona) H . buta H. 189 afildon H. 189-90 (dufon. þa) H . 190 scypa H . gefilð H. 191 frecednes(se and fela) H þolian H . 193 (nate)shwon H ; nawiðt over line U . mæg] followed by point U ; preceded by point H . 194 (and he)ora H . heom over heora U . 195 swilcne H . hym] heora H . 196 (pa) feoll H . 198 (Ge)wit H. synnfull H. 199 (b)ene H . 200 hym fram] him swa fram H (perhaps rightly). second hym] heora H. 201 gelendon H. 204 hym] heom H . 205 ahrett H . 206 lufon H. 208 suna] sunas H. 190-4 [Bede] Harum impletio navium usque in finem sæculi crescit. [Haymo] Periclitantur autem naves, sed non merguntur, quia sæpe persecutionibus haereticorum Ecclesia concussa est, saepe falsorum fratrum iniqua operatione commota, sed mergi non potuit, quia Christum in fundamento habuit. 199-206 [Bede] Quod tamen quia non fecit Dominus (non enim recessit ab eis, sed eos subductis navibus ad litus perduxit) significat in bonis et spiritalibus viris non esse oportere hanc voluntatem, ut peccatis turbarum commoti, quo quasi securius tranquilliusque vivant, munus ecclesiasticum deserant.

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525

and heora modor wæs Cristes moddrige, swa swa béc secgað be heora gebyrdum. ‘ þa cwæð se Hælend pus to ðam halgan Petre: N e ondræd pu ðe nan ping for ðissere dæde.

215

þ u fehst men heonan forð, swa swa pu fixas fenge.’ Se Hælend gefrefrode swiðe fægere Petrum, for ðan pe he wel wyle eallum welwillendum, and sæde pæt he sceolde syððan men gefon; nu dyde 'he' eac swa be his Drihtnes wordum, pæt he manega *menn mid his lare gefeng,

220 *p. 363

and mid wundorlicum tacnum pe he geworhte on life, swa swa he ær gefeng fixas mid his nettum; and we gyt habbað his halgan lare mid us on Cristenum bocum, us sylfum to beterunge.

225

‘H y tugon pa to lande heora scipa ge'h'ladene, and hy ealle ping forleton, and folgodon swa Criste.’ Crist geceas fisceras him sylfum to folgerum, ungelærede men, and hy forleton ealle ping, his lare folgiende, and him her on life,

230

and hy syððan wurdon swa swiðe gelærede pæt eall se Cristendom on Cristes gelaðunge wearð purh hy ah'ræ'red mid pæs Hælendes fultum e; pam is wuldor and wurðmynt a to worolde, A M E N . 212 moder i f . 218 wile i f . 220 drihtenes H . 228 (íisce)ras H . hi ar)æred H I

modrige i f . 215 Ne] cap. i f , not U . 216 heonon i f . 219 syððan] followed by point U ; preceded by point H. 223 (m)id H . 225 (b)ocum i f . 226 ge(hla)dene H. 229 (ealle þ)ing if . 231 (swa swiðe) i f . 233 (þurh 234 wyrð(mynt a to worold)e if.

212 [Ælfric habitually asserts this relationship. Cf. Horn. f. 5 and note.] 217-25 [Haymo] Imo in pavente Simone omnes pænitentes confortare vide­ tur, ne de magnitudine peccatorum desperent. [Bede] Exponit enim ei Dominus, quid haec captura piscium significet. Quod videlicet ipse sicut nunc per retia pisces, sic aliquando per verba sit capturus homines. Totusque facti huius ordo, quid in ecclesia cuius ipse typum tenet quotidie geratur, ostendat. 228-34 [Ælfricys independent conclusion.]

N OTES 3, 18, 29. fixn oð. T h e three m eanings o f the w ord as it occurs at these points (and elsewhere) in the hom ily were distinguished b y N apier in his ‘ Con tribution s to O ld E n glish L ex ico g ra p h y ’, w ith appropriate quotations from the text o f U . See Glossary. C 2710.2

D

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XIV

23, 126. sloh. T h is use o f the verb sléan, though unrecorded, seems to be very clearly related to the m eaning illustrated in B T , definition B I I I , ‘ to move rapidly, rushy dash, break, take a certain direction’ . In the present context sloh ough t to m ean ‘ becam e’ , w ith the added im plication o f great suddenness to reinforce the adverb sona. T h e re is a close parallel to this m eaning in the cognate Icelandic verb, sldy w h ich has an im personal use, as defined b y C lea sb y -V igfu sse n , s.v., I l l , ‘it strikes or breaks out to a thing, i.e. the thing happens’ . 44. þreo mile (mila H ). B ed e’s forty stadia w ould com e to five m iles rather than three, and f i f w ould alliterate w ith ferscum, whereas n o w w e have only the weak alliteration o f mile and mid. O r did Æ lfric m atch the vague manegra o f 43 w ith an equally vague fe a ? 56. landum. T h is reading, from H , supports the alliteration and b y repeating the elem ent o f sameness in the phrase Iudea lande throws the em phasis on the contrast betw een Iudea and eallum. U ’s peodum is p ro b ­ ably ju st a careless rem iniscence o f peoda in 51. 88. pe is gecweden Ecclesia. I have decided to include this clause from H , since the logic o f the passage and A u g u stin e’s L a tin point to its authenticity. Æ lfric needs both Ecclesia and Sinagoga to balance gelaðung and gegaderung respectively, and the restrictive clause helps to distinguish seo gelaðungy 87, from gelaðungey 84. T h e clause alliterates and is pro bably ju st long enough to m ake an adm issible line, though I am tem pted to add on Leden at the end o f it. 9 8 -10 7 . ac we healdað zvace, etc. W ulfstan is more specific, Sermo ad Anglos, ed. W hitelock, lines 37 s q q .; B eth uru m ’s Wulfstanyp. 268/37 sqq. 13 2 -9 . swa swa pa Engliscan men do 3y etc. T h a t this passage was an original part o f the sermon, not one o f Æ lfr ic ’s additions, is evident not on ly from the inadequacy o f the preceding lines to support the com ­ parison m ade in 140-6, b u t from Æ lfr ic ’s deviation from H aym o in these last-m entioned lines. H aym o puts emphasis on Judas and Sim on M a g u s ; Æ lfric, on the host o f tim orous nobodies w ho forsook the faith to save their lives w hen the m artyrs were bein g persecuted. T h u s he accents the them e o f cowardice in both parts o f the com parison and his final com ­ m ent, ‘ ac heora lif wæs syððan wyrse þonne d eað ’ , m ay ju stly rem ind us o f W ig la f’s remarks to the cowards in Beozvulf. A t lines 136 sq. the horror at betraying one’s own Drihten, though clearly the w ord refers to Christ, draws strength from the im plicit com parison w ith ordinary betrayals, o f w h ich indeed these offenders are concurrently gu ilty. E v id en tly the passage is om itted from H because someone considered it no longer ap­ propriate. M a n y years elapsed before the text o f U aroused sufficient uneasiness to cause a corrector to alter the tenses. 148

sq. hy fengon . . . heora net fu llfix a . I am uncertain how to explain

this idiom , where it is clear that fu ll is a com plem entary adjective, not the second m em ber o f a com pound net-full. Perhaps fengon here unites the

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D O M I N I C A VI P O S T P E N T E C O S T E N

527

ideas o f grasping a net and catching a draught o f fish. In any case w e can hardly state the idea w ith out a circu m locu tio n : ‘ they caught a full draught o f fish in their n e t.’ 200. hym fram gewitan, ac wunode mid hym. U ’s revised spelling o f the pronouns, w ith y from original i, indicates that the reviser took both to be plural, whereas H treats the first as singular (him) and the second as plural (heom). Æ lfr ic h im self seems to have spelled singular and plural alike, as him, and there is probably no w ay to tell w hat he intended h ere; b u t B ede has the plural in the loosely corresponding passage. 233. ahræred. T h a t is, aræred, ‘ raised u p ’ , ‘ established’ . Perhaps the hy w h ich is not needed for the alliteration, was nevertheless inserted b y a scribe in an earlier m anuscript, thus leading to ahred, past participle o f ahreddan, ‘to set free, rescue’ , the first reading o f U . Since - æred survives in H , its reading was certainly not ahred. It m ay have been either ahræred or, more likely, the usual aræred.

XV1 DOMINICA VII POST PENTECOSTEN M a tth, v. 20-24

T

h e r e

is a natural affinity of theme between the gospel-text of

xiii, with its insistence on mercy, and that of xv, with its warnings against anger and vituperation. Æ lfric has not only made much of mercy in both homilies but has developed other thematic corre­ spondences. These secondary correspondences, though partially suggested, were not worked out in the Latin authors he consulted and their presence in Æ lfric calls attention to a good deal of thoughtful planning on his part and suggests that he composed the two homilies at about the same time. Before entering into parti­ culars about these correspondences, however, I must give some account of the main authorities behind the exegetical parts of xv. In contrast to

x iii

,

where Æ lfric seems to have consulted half a

dozen commentaries and exegetical homilies, I have found clear evidence in xv for his use of only two. T h e reason is not far to seek: these were apparently the only full treatments of the text that were available to him. One was the relevant portion of Augustine’s tract,

D e Sermone Dom ini in M onte , which had been excerpted to re­ present the seventh Sunday after Pentecost in the collection of Paulus Diaconus. T h e other was the homily for that Sunday by Haymo, no. cxvm . Neither Gregory nor Bede had composed a homily on this text, and Smaragdus merely repeats Augustine with a few bits from Jerome’s commentary on M atthew . In fact Jerome’s rather sparse commentary and the seldom helpful pseudo-Bede(here containing only snippets from Jerome and Augustine) are the only other treatments of the text I can find among authors available to Ælfric. Since Ælfric consulted Jerome’s commentary for other homilies, including

x iii

,

he very probably consulted it for xv also;

but if so he found nothing he cared to use. Indeed at one point (164 sqq.) he accepts from Augustine an interpretation that Haymo 1 On the group x iii - xvi , see xm , introduction, pp. 493-4.

XV

D O M I N I C A VI I P O S T P E N T E C O S T E N

529

and pseudo-Bede, following Jerome, expressly reject. And at another (203 sqq.), where Augustine and Jerome are in basic agree­ ment in contrast to Haymo, Æ lfric follows the details of Augus­ tine’s explanation, probably finding Jerome’s less helpful. A t the crucial spots I have just mentioned it is Augustine rather than Haymo by whom Æ lfric is guided; but usually he follows Haymo rather than Augustine, or more closely than Augustine. T h is is understandable enough, for Haymo has developed a com­ prehensive and well organized homily on the five verses of the gospel-text for the day, whereas Augustine is commenting on these verses only as a part of the whole Sermon on the M ount.W hen Haymo is interpreting the greater part of the text he is saying the same thing as Augustine, sometimes more clearly and succinctly, the chief exceptions being the two passages I have mentioned, in one of which he follows Jerome, in the other his own fancy. But at the beginning he comments on the difference between the old law and the new, and on the shortcomings of the scribes and Pharisees, in a broadly introductory exposition of the first verse of the text, drawing certain details from later passages of the Sermon on the Mount, others from more distant parts of the gospel. T h is portion of Haymo, which has no parallel in Augustine, was of great service to Æ lfric and underlies a good deal of the even broader introduction that Ælfric composed. T h e two subordinate themes that Ælfric develops, in comple­ mentary fashion, in both x m and xv are, first, the theme of the scribes and Pharisees, and secondly, that of legitimate judgement and reproof by persons in authority. T h e scribes and Pharisees are mentioned in the gospel-text of xv and their significance is care­ fully explained by H aym o; but the only hint of their relevance to the text of x m among Æ lfric’s authorities is Jerome’s quotation of the verse about the gnat and the camel. Their hypocrisy, how­ ever, is obviously relevant, and Æ lfric makes them a significant part of x m by not only calling vivid attention to the verse cited b y Jerome but by adding at the conclusion of the homily the story of their discomfiture with respect to the woman taken in adultery. T h e problem of legitimate judgement belongs very obviously to the treatment of the text of x m , where Jesus seems to forbid judge­ ment altogether. Augustine touches on the problem, Bede repeats his words, Cæsarius and Haymo develop the theme with particular vigour, though none, I think, devotes quite as much space to the

530

D O M I N I C A VII P O S T P E N T E C O S T E N

xv

matter as Æ lfric himself. Moreover, Cæsarius especially links with the problem of judgement that of rebuke and correction on the part of persons in authority, and in support of his argument that Christ did not mean to forbid any such exercise of authority when it is properly directed, he quotes St. Paul’s injunction, Argue, obsecra,

increpa, in omni patientia et doctrina, from I I Tim. iv. 2. N ow Æ lfric mentions correction and guidance in x m , 183 sqq., as the duty of the ‘witan’, to whom he has previously assigned the duty of judging (88 sqq.), and it may have been Cæsarius who put it into his head to do this, because Æ lfric appears to be translating Cæsarius directly in line 186. But if he was struck by the quotation from St. Paul, he decided that it would be much more useful in xv, where at any rate we find it at line 170, near the beginning of a long and important passage on the duties of teachers and counsellors—

lareowas and witan, apparently representing the ecclesiastical and civil authorities respectively. T h e excuse for the passage is fur­ nished by Augustine, who points out that St. Paul can hardly be supposed to have acted contrary to Christ’s doctrine when he called the Galatians fools; but Æ lfric has developed the idea in­ dependently in such a way as to make it an extension of the prin­ ciple enunciated in xm . There the emphasis is on the operation of public justice; here, on correction and guidance by means of stern reproof. A s in xm , Æ lfric’s independent expansions of his themes are full of Biblical reminiscences. So far as I know, his quotations from the Psalms at 181 and 223 are of his own choosing. T h e first adds to the discussion of the responsibility of the religious teacher; the second provides a closing reminder of the theme of mercy.

DOM INICA

VII POST P E N T E C O S T E N

Am en, dico uobis, nisi abundauerit, et re/iqua Matheus se godspellere, þe wæs mid Criste on life, and his lare gehyrde, on his hirede wuniende, *he awrat be Criste þæt he gecwæð hwilon þus

*p. 364

to his halgum apostolum, and þurh hy eac to us: Soð ic eow secge, þæt ge sylfe ne becumað

5

into heofonan rice, butan eower rihtwisnys beo eallunga mare ætforan minum Fæder þonne þæra bocera is and ðæra Sunderhalgena. G e gehyrdon þa bebodu þe G od bebead gefyrn þam ealdan Israhele under Moyses läge,

10

and hym þus sæde: N e ofsleh þu mannan; T e x t based on U (Trinity B. 15. 34), pp. 363-76. Collated with H (Cotton Vitellius C. v), ff. i36v~9. In the list of variants round brackets enclose portions of the text as witnessed by U (including the modern punctuation) for which there is approximately the right space but no longer any reading in the damaged H. For homilies x m -x v i, where the manuscripts are the same, the following variants are excluded: H regularly has byð, gyf, hiymann, menn, þissypuss where U has biðygify hyy many menypis, pus. But H usually has man for the indefinite pronoun, ‘one’. U ’s hy and hym were often written hi and him at first.’ In H, the pointing is normally by half-lines; in U , intermittently so. Sup.: Dominica .VI. post O C T A V A S pentec osten. (Amen dico uobis) quia nisi abundauerit. E T R E L IQ V A H . Amen (amen), the second erased U. i (Matheus se godspe)llere H. Wanley (Catalogus, p. 210) confirms readings of H to end of line i y but wrongly inserts his before life 2 la(re gehyrde, on his hirede wu)nigende H . 3-4 (pæt he gecwæð hwilon J?us to his halgum) H. 4 to us] /. 1 3 7 , H . 5-6 becum(að into heofonan rice) H. 6 -nyss H. 7 ætfor(an minum fæ)der H. 9 (gehyrdon) H. bebodai/. io(moy)ses H. i i him H . Ne] no cap. in M S S . *2 4 13 S ources . 5-24 [Matth, v. 20] Dico enim vobis, quia nisi abundaverit iustitia vestra plus quam scribarum et Pharisæorum, non intrabitis in regnum caelorum. [21] Audistis quia dictum est antiquis: Non occides: qui autem occiderit, reus erit iudicio. [22] Ego autem dico vobis: quia omnis, qui irascitur fratri suo, reus erit iudicio. Qui autem dixerit fratri suo, raca, reus erit concilio. Qui autem dixerit, fatue, reus erit gehennae ignis. [23] Si ergo offers munus tuum ad altare, et ibi recordatus fueris quia frater tuus habet aliquid adversum te : [24] relinque ibi munus tuum ante altare, et vade prius reconciliari fratri tuo: et tunc veniens offeres munus tuum.

532

D O M I N I C A VII P O S T P E N T E C O S T E N

xv

and se ðe man ofslihð, se bið domes scyldig. Ic secge eow to soðan þæt se bið domes scyldig, se ðe nu yrsað wið his agen[n]e broðor. Se ðe him hosp gecwyð, se bið þeahtes scyldig,

15

and se ðe [hine hæt] stuntne, se bið wites scyldig on þam witnigendlican fyre þære toweardan worulde, buton he ðone gylt gebete on his life. G if ðu geoffrast Gode ænige lác æt his weofode, and þu þonne geþencst þæt þin broðor hæfð

sum *þing ongean þe, gesete þine lac

20

*p. 365

ætforan þam weofode, and fær ðe ærest hraðe to þinum a'g'num breðer, and hine geglada; and þonne þu eft cymst, geoffra þine lác. þis godspel is nu gesæd sceortlice eow þ u s;

25

and we secgað eow þæt sume men wendon

pæt seo ealde æ on Moyses timan wære miccle stiðre mannum to gehealdenne þonne Cristes boboda, þe he gecwæð him sylf on ðære niwan läge æfter his tocyme,

30

under Godes gife, on ðæs godspelles timan, swa swa we healdan sceolon gif we hyrað G o d e ; ac hy magon gehyran her on ðisum godspelle þæt Cristes beboda, þe he bebead mannum, syndon miccle maran þonne Moyses lagu;

35

and we sceolon liðian and ure lif awendan to ðæs Hælendes bebodum, gif we habban wyllað þa micclan myrhðe mid him, swa swa he us behet. W e ne magon #libban on ðisum life nateshwon, þæt we ne agylton wið God and wið men

*p. 366 40

on worde and on weorce; ac we sceolon symble 12 (of)slihð if. 15 gecwið H. ally hwæt; cf. infra, 24 (eft) if. 30 tokyme i f . 37 wyllað] willan if. if. symle if.

13 (scyl)dig if. 14 agenne] sic i f ; agene U. 16 hine hæt H ; wat hine U (wat on erasure, perhaps origin­ 150). scy(ldig) H. 22 faer] far H . 23 agenum i f . 25 godspell i f . 28 gehealdenne] healdenne i f . 31 gyfe if. 35 micclan. i f . 36 A n d (^ rii) i f . 38 mycclan if . 40 agilton i f . 41 word(e)

26-35 [HaymOj Horn. C X V I I I ] Qui putant praecepta Veteris Testamenti districtiora esse quam Novi, discant ex praesenti lectione suam ignorantiam confiteri, audiantque ipsum Salvatorem discipulis dicentem: Amen dico vobis, nisi abundaverit, etc,

XV

D O M I N I C A VII P O S T P E N T E C O S T E N

533

to Gode gecyrran and his mildsunge biddan; for ðon þe he is gearu, gif we hine biddað mid inneweardre heortan, þæt he us mildsige; and him is miccle leofre ures lifes rihtinfg]

45

þonne ænig oðer sceat, gif we geswicað yfeles. Æ lce dæg we syngiað, and ælce dæg we sceolon urne Hælend gladian mid sumre gódnysse, se ðe æfre [wile] us mannum milds(i)an; and he nyle naht eaðe þæs synfullan deað,

50

ac he sw yðor wyle þæt he gecyrre and lyb be; and se ðe bote underfehð, and he beo syððan hræðe þæs of life, he sceal to reste gewiss, for þon þe he gecyrde fram his synnum to Gode. Se Hælend us sæde, swa swa ge gehyrdon ær,

55

‘ Soð ic eow secge, pæt ge sylfe ne becumað into heofonan rice, buton eower rihtwisnys beo eallunga mare ætfo#ran minum Fæder

*p. 367

þonne þæra bocera is and ðæra Sunderhalgena.’ þ a boceras syndon and þa Sundorhalgan

60

pa ealdan witan, þe wæron gefyrn, under Moyses Jage, swa micclum gelærede þæt hy ða ealdan æ on heora wisan cuðon; ac hy ne heoldon swaþeah þa halgan Godes æ swa wel swa hy sceoldon. þa cidde hym se Hælend

65

swiðe oftrædlice, for ðan þe hy ne heoldon

pa halgan beboda swa swa G od sylf hym bebead; 42 miltsun(ge) H . 43 ðon] J?an H. 44 innewerdr(e) H. miltsige H . 45 rightinge U ; rih(: : : : : ) H. 46 sceatt H . 47 (syngiað) H . 48 sumere g(odnysse) H . 49 wile] sic H ; om. U. miltsian H ; the i erased in U, perhaps to make two wordsymilds an. 50 nele H. (pæs synful)lan H . 51 swi]?or wile H . 52 A(nd se ðe bote) H. 53 hraðe H. (he sceal to reste) H. 54 pon] þan H. 54~55 s(ynnum to gode. Se hælend) H. 55 gehirdon H. 56 S(oð ic eow secge, pæt ge sylfe ne be)cumað H . 57-58 (buton eower rihtwisnys beo eallunga mare ætforan minum fæder) H . 59 ]?onne] first word visible /. i 3 7 v, H. 59-60 sun(derhalgena. J>a) H . 60 sundor-] synder- H . 61 wi(tan pe wæ)ron H. 63 (pæt hy ða) H . 64 (hal)gan H . 65 pa] no cap. U ; Da H. him H. 66 (swi)J?e H, -hrædlice H . 67 (s)wa swa H. hym om. H. bebead] bead H. 50-51 [Ez. xxxiii. 11] Vivo ego, dicit Dominus Deus, nolo mortem impii, sed ut convertatur impius a via sua, et vivat. 60-69 [These freely developed introductory remarks rest on such passages in the gospels as the following: 63-67, Matth, xxiii. 2-3, xv. 3-20, Marc. vii. 6 -2 3 ; 68-69, Luc. xi. 39, Matth. xxiii. 28.]

534

D O M I N I C A VII P O S T P E N T E C O S T E N

xv

ac hy woldon hym sylfe þæt hy halige wæron, and wæron swaþeah misworohte wiðinnan. J>a sæde se Hælend, þe geseah heora heortan,



swiðe egeslice word, hym þus cidende:

Uos iustificatis uos coram hominibus; D eus , autem , nouit corda uestra: G e tellað eow rihtwise on manna gesihþum, ac G od soðlice cann swaðeah eowere heortan; ge synd swa swa byrgenu þe beoð wiðutan agrafene mid ofergeweorcum, swiðe *wel amette,

75 *p. 368

and syndon afyllede mid forrotodnysse; and ge swaþeah lufiað hlisan and herunge. H ym wæs beboden, on heora gehealdsumnyssum

80

on Moyses läge, þæt hy moston lufian heora agene frynd, and hatian heora fy n d ; ac us bead se Hælend, her on ðysum life, þæt we lufian sceolon symble, butan hiwunge, ure agene freond, and ælcne Cristene man,

85

and eac for Godes lufan lufian ure fynd,

pæt ure rihtwisnys beo mare þonne heora, we ðe habban sceolon þæt heofonlice lif, gif we gehyrsume beoð Godes hæsum mid weorcum. Hym wæs beboden þæt hy ne hæmdon unrihtlice

90

68 hym] hi H. 69 misworhte H. 71 hym] heom H. 72 (Uos) H. Second uos originally in both M S S ; erased in U , then restored in margin. 74 rihwise H. 75 swaðeah om. H. 76 Ge sind H . birgena H . 80 Hym] Heom H. gehealtsumnesse H. 82 agenne frind H . find H. 83 pisum H . 84 symle H. 85 frind H. 86 lufon H. find H. 87 -ness H. 90 Heom H. *7 9 72-75 [Luc. xvi. J5] Vos estis, qui iustificatis vos, etc. 76-78 [Matth, xxHi. 27] Similes estis sepulcris dealbatis, quæ aforis parent hominibus speciosa, intus vero plena sunt ossibus mortuorum, et omni spurcitia. 79 [Matth, xxiii. 6, 7] Amant autem primos recubitus in coenis, et primas cathedras in synagogis, et salutationes in foro, et vocari ab hominibus rabbi. 80-89 [Hayrno] Iustitia scribarum et Pharisæorum erat, diligere amicum et odio habere inimicum: iustitia autem eorum, qui intraturi sunt in regnum caelorum, maior esse debet, ut non solum amicum in Deum, sed etiam inimicum diligant propter Deum, dicente Domino: Diligite inimicos vestrosy benefacite his qui oderunt vosy . . . ut sitis filii Patris vestri qui in cælis est {Matth, v. 44—45). 90-98 [Hayrno] Iustitia scribarum et Pharisaeorum erat, non moechari cum uxore proximi sui; iustitia eorum qui regnum caelorum intrare desiderant maior esse debet, ut non solum adulterium non perpetrent in corpore, sed etiam nec delectent in corde, propter illud quod Dominus ait: Qui viderit mulieremyetc. {Matth, v. 28).

XV

535

wiö oþra manna wif; ac us sæde Crist þus: O m n is q u i u id e r it m ulierem a d concupiscendum eam ia m m ech a tu s est eam in corde suo.

J>æt is on Englisc, Æ lc man þe sceawað wífman mid luste,

95

þæt he hy habban wolde, þæt him witodlice bið J>æt forliger *gefremod on his agenre heortan þurh þone unlust, þæt he hire gewilnode. W e secgað swaðeah pæt si eaðre to betenne

pa yfelan [geþohtas þonne þa yfelan dæda,

#p. 369 100

g y f man þone yfelan] willan [a]went to beteran. H y teoðodon heora wyrta, and wolice forleton

pa maran beboda þe Moyses bebead on þære halgan Godes æ hym to gehealdenne. N u sceole we healdan swa pa læssan beboda,

105

pæt we ða maran eac mid weorcum gefyllan. H y tæhton mid wordum, swa swa hit awriten is, Godes lare mannum, and forleton pa weorc; ac se biþ maere lareow, swa swa se Haelend saede, se pe him sylf gedeð, and he syððan swa tæcð,

no

and onginneð pa bysne on him sylfum aerest. 93 earn] underdotted for deletion in U. 95 Ælc] cap. H, not U. man] þæra H. wifmann H. 97 forligr H. 98 (þæt) he H. 100 first yfelan] yfe(lan) H . 100-1 geJ?ohtas . . . pone yfelan] sic H ; om. U. 101 awent] pe awent U ; (awent) H . 102 teoðedon H. wirta H. 103 (maran) H . 104 hym] heom H. (to gehealden)ne H . 105 Nu] no cap. in M S S . sceolon H . 106 (ða maran eac) H. gefyllon H. 107 (swa swa hit awriten) H . 108 lare] läge H {rightly?). 109 (se bij? mære lareow, swa) H . n o gedeð] wel (gedeð) H. n o - 1 1 (gedeð, and he syððan swa tæcð, and onginne)ð H. 1 1 1 - 1 2 (ærest. Hym wæs behaten, gif hy heoldon) H. 99-101 [Not in Haymo.] 102-6 [Haymo] Iustitia scribarum et Pharisæorum esse cernebatur, quod decimabant mentam et anethum et cyminum et omne olus horti, maiora autem legis praetermittebant {Matth, xxiii. 23). Iustitia eorum qui regnum Dei intraturi sunt magis abundare debet, ut sic minima praecepta Dei custodiant, quatenus maiora non praetermittant {ibid.). 107-8 [Matth, xxiii. 2-3] Super cathedram Moysi sederunt scribae et Pharisaei. Omnia ergo quaecumque dixerint vobis, servate, et facite: secundum opera vero eorum nolite facere: dicunt enim, et non faciunt. 109-11 [Matth, v. 19] Qui . . . fecerit et docuerit [mandata legis], hic magnus vocabitur in regno caelorum. [Haymo, building on Matth, xxiii. 4 :] Iustitia eorum qui regnum caelorum intrare volunt maior esse debet, ut mandatum Dei primi custodiant, nec praetermittant quae alios custodienda docent vel docuerunt.

536

D O M I N I C A VI I P O S T P E N T E C O S T E N

xv

Hym wæs behaten, gif hy heoldon Godes æ, eorðlice wæstmas, and Crist witodlice behet ]?æt ece lif j?am þe his word healdað, J?æt þe mannes eage ne mihte geseon, ne eare gehyran, *ne heorte asmeagan, þa micclan mærðe þe se mildheorta Crist

115 #p. 370

J?am eallum behet þe hine lufiað; and þærtoeacan he forgifð us ure neode. N u mote we habban maran rihtwisnysse,

120

nu us synd behatene þa heofonlican speda, þæt we moton sona siþian to Criste on urum forðsiþe, gif we ær mid wærscipe ure synna gebetað sylfwilles on life. ‘ G e gehyrdon þa bebodu þe G od bebead gefyrn

125

þam ealdan Israhele under Moyses läge, and hym þus sæde: N e ofslih ðu mannan; and se ðe m[a]n ofslihð, se bið domes scyldig. Ic secge eow to soþan þæt se bið domes scyldig, se ðe nu yrsað wið his agenne broðor.’ O n ðam dome man toscæt hwilc his scyld wære,

130

and oft he bið unscyldig on ðam dome getæht, se ðe ær wæs geteald þæt he scyldig wære; and man mæg gegladian mid gódum *willan

*p. 371

1 13 -mas] /. 13 8 , H. H 4“ i5 li(f þam Pe his word healdað, paet) i f . 1 16 ea(re) ge(hyran, ne heorte a)smeagan i f . 117 mærða if . 117 -18 cri(st pam eallum) i f . 119 forgyfð i f . 119-20 ne(ode. Nu) i f . 120 -nesse i f . 121 behaten(e pa) i f . 122 sona sipian] siþian sona i f . 123 (forð)si]?e if . 124 (on life) i f . 125 beboda i f . 126 isr(a)hele i f . 127 hym] him if . Ne] no cap. in M S S . ofsleh i f . 128 mann i f ; men U. 130 irsað if . broker if . 131 d(ome) i f . hwilc] hwæt if. 134 and] And H. 1 12-19 [Haymo] [Veteris Testamenti] temporali iustitia temporale præmium exspectabatur, dicente Domino: Observa et audi praecepta Domini Dei tui9 ut bene sit tibi et longo vivas temporey et ingressus possideas terram lacte et meile manantem (Deut. vi. 5, with substitutions from v. 16 and vi. 1 7 , j £ ). Perfectio Novi Testamenti vitam pollicetur aeternam, quam nec oculus vidit, nec auris audivit, nec in cor hominis ascenditf quæ praeparavit Deus diligentibus se (i Cor. ii. 9). 120-4 [Haymo] Quibus ergo maius praemium promittitur, maior debet esse iustitia. 131-3 [HaymOy restating Augustine, De Sermone Domini in Monte] In iudicio . . . causa discutitur, et is qui reus esse putabatur, nonnunquam innocens in­ venitur. 134-42 [Ælfric develops this distinction independently of Haymo or Augustine, though Augustine concedes that it is more serious to kill than to insult, and Haymo

XV

537 þa færlican yrsunge, and forfón mid wisdome,

135

eað þonne he gebete gif he bið ofslagen. T o ægþer þæra þinga, pæt is yrre and mansliht, gæð se rihta dóm; ac hit bið swaþeah leohtre on bote on ðam lybbendan men, þeah þe he yrsige, and hit eft gehæle,

140

swa swa J?is godspell on æfteweardan sægð, þæt we magon gegladian þone þe we ær abulgon. ‘ Se þe his breþer hosp gecwyð, se bið þeahtes scyldig.’ Her syndon nu twa J?ing, pæt yrre and se hosp, and þær gæð geþeaht to þam twam þingum,

145

pæt man mid geþeahte secge him his wite, hwæt he sylf þrowige for ðam twam þingum ; ac swaþeah hwilon swa scyldig man ætwint, be ðam þe se trahtnere us sægð on Leden. ‘A n d se ðe hine hæt stuntne, se bið wites scyldig on ðam witnigendlican fyre þære to wear dan worulde.’ H 'e'r syndon nu þreo *þing, and forþig mare wite:

150 *p. 372

þæt yrre and se hosp, and eac teonræden; and þas J?ing sceolon, swa swa us sægð seo bóc, on ðam toweardan wite beon afeormode,

155

buton se man hy sylfwilles gebete. M icele maran gyltas man mæg gebetan her on þisum life, and þone Hælend gegladian, 137 (J?æ)ra H . 139 libbendan H. 140 e(ft) H. 141 segð H. 142 J?one] ponne H . ær om. H . 143 gecwið H. 145 (gæð) H. 149 segð H . 15 1 witniendlican fire H. 152 )?r(eo) H. forJ?i H . x54 segð H. 156 silf- H . 157 mara(n) giltas H. 158 geg(la)dian H. eventually points to the remedium reconciliationis which the Lord himself sets forth in verses 23-24.') 144-9, I 52~5 [Haymo, restating Augustine) Notandum autem in hoc loco, quia gradatim de minimis ad maiora ascenditur, quoniam pro qualitate peccati vin­ dictam comminatur. In primo enim loco unum solummodo posuit, id est iram; secundo, duo, id est iram, et vocem iræ commotionem significant[em]; in tertio, tria, iram, vocem, et contumeliam. Sicut ergo maius peccatum est dicere fatue, quam solummodo irasci, vel dicere racha: sic gravius est reum esse gehennae ignis, quam reum iudicio, vel concilio. In iudicio enim causa discutitur, etc. {ut supra, 13 1-3 ); in concilio si quis reus convictus est, qua poena puniatur ab aliis tractatur, et adhuc evadere solet; in gehenna autem ignis, nulla est liberatio.. . . Gehennae nomen . . . inferni poena designatur. 156 [Haymo) Sed ne asperam videretur Salvator protulisse sententiam, cum dixerit reum esse gehennae ignis eum qui dixerit fratri suo fatue, statim reme­ dium reconciliationis subiunxit.

53»

D O M I N I C A VII P O S T P E N T E C O S T E N

xv

þæt he ne þurfe prowian on ðam toweardan life. G od cwæð purh his witegan þæt he wolde mildsian

160

ælcum men þe gecyrð fram his synnum to him, þam þe mid geomerunge gewyrcð dædbote, and his synna [ne beoð syppan] on gemynde. Lareowas sceolon læran and sty ran, and witan sceolon þreagan pa ðwyran and pa stuntan,

165

ægþer ge mid wordum ge mid weorcum hwilon, swa swa Crist sylf dyde, pe cidde pam Iudeiscum for heora gedwyldum and dyrstigan anginne. Paulus se Apostol on his pistole cwæð pu s:

Argue, obsecr\a\, *increpa, in omni patientia et doctrina: Prea ðu and bide, cid mid geðylde,

*p. 373 171

on ealre lare to lifes bebodum. G if hwa nu purh steore sum styrne word gecwyð to his underpeoddum for heora stuntnysse,

ne bið na þæt gelic þam unþeawfæstan men, p t for his receleaste misræceð oðerne,

17s

for nanre steore, ac for stuntnesse. 160 (cwæð þurh) H y cw partly visible. miltsian H . 161 (fram his) H . 162 gewircð H . 162-3 dæd(bote and his synna) H . 163 ne beoð syppan] sic H ; syððan ne beoð U (inferior allit.) 164-5 l(æran and styran, and wi)tan H. 165 pwiran H. 165-6 stunta(n, ægper ge mid wordum) H. 167 c(rist sylf dyde, pe cidde pam iudeiscum) H . 168 gedwildum H. 168-170 (dyrstigan . . . obsec)ra H. 170 (obsec)ra H(first letters visible f . I3 8 v); obsecro U. 171 (þrea ðu and bide) H . cid] 7 cid H. 173 (G if hwa nu) H. gecwiþ H. 174 underpeod(dum f)or H. stuntnesse H. 175 na þæt] pæt na H. -fæstum (men) H. 176 misræcð H. 177 (ac) H. -nysse H. 160 [Act. x. 43] Huic omnes prophetae testimonium perhibent, remissionem peccatorum accipere per nomen eius omnes qui credunt in eum. 161-3 [Is. xliii. 25] Ego sum, ego sum ipse qui deleo iniquitates tuas propter me, et peccatorum tuorum non recordabor, [xliv. 22] Delevi ut nubem iniquitates tuas, et quasi nebulam peccata tua; revertere ad me, quoniam redemi te. [Ier. xxxi. 34] Propitiabor iniquitati eorum, et peccati eorum non memorabor amplius. 164- 7 7 [Augustine makes a similar reservation, reading sine causa after irascitur in Matt. v. 22 and treating it as implicit in the parallel clauses that follow] Hoc est unde defenditur, quod Apostolus Galatos vocat stultos {Galat. Hi. iy 3)y quos etiam fratres nominat: non enim id facit sine causa. [Haymo, following Jeromey explicitly rejects sine causa and does not meet the problem raised by Augustine and Ælfric.] 170-2 [II Tim. iv. 2. Quoted by Cæsarius, Sermo C X L V I I I ycommenting on Matth, vii. 1 - 2 : Propter apertam . . . iniquitatem dictum est: Argue, etc. Cf. supray xiii. 88-97 and 183-8.]

XV

D O M I N I C A VII P O S T P E N T E C O S T E N

539

W e sceolon us gebletsian and abiddan æt Gode þat he us gehealde, and urne muð J?urh-[hlyn]ne, swa swa se witega bæd, þysum wordum cweðende:

180

Pone, Dom ine , custodiam ori meo, et hostium circumstantie labiis meis: Sete þu, leof Drihten, minum muðe hyrdrædene, [and] duru minum welerum, þinre wearde abútan. Duru he abæd, pæt he fordyttan mihte pa idelan spræca, and undon his muð

185

to wisdomes spræcum, and to wurðianne God, swa 'swa' man belycð and geopenað *pa duru. V ton nu gehyran þæs Hælendes læcedom,

*p. 374

hu we magon gehælan her on ðisum life ure yfelan word wið ðone þe 'we ge'gremodon.

190

‘ G if ðu geoffrast Gode ænige lác æt his weofode, and þu þonne geðencst þæt þin broðor hæfð sum ðing ongean þe, gesete þine lac ætforan þam weofode, and far pe ærest raðe to þinum agenum breðer, and hine geglada;

195

and þonne þu eft cymst, geoffra þine lác.’ Se Hælend cwæð eft on sumere oðre stowe, þonne ge sylfe standað on eowrum gebedum, forgifað þonne on eowrum heortum eallum oðrum mannum þe wið eow agyltað

200

þæt se Heofonlica Fæder eowre synna forgife; and butan ge forgifon, ne forgifð he na eow. 178 gebletsian] bletsian H. abiddan] biddan H. 179 (us g)ehealde H. J?urh-hlynne] purhine U, J?urh hine H (see note). 180 J?isum H. cweðende] sic H ; (ge)cweðende U. 181 hostium] ostium H. circumstantiae H . 183 and] sic H ; om. U . (mi)num H. 184 abæd] bæd H. fordittan (mihte) H . 186 wurðienne H . 187 belicð H . 190 gegremedon H . 193 gesete] gesete þærrihtes H . 194 hraðe H 196 geoffra] geoffra Jx>nne H . 199 forgyfað H. 200 agyltað] agilton H (rightly?). 201 forgyfe H . 202 And buton H . forgifon] heom forgifon H . forgyfð H . 178-87 [Not in Haymo or Augustine.] 181-3 [Psal. cxl. 3.] 188-90 [Haymo, in sentence quoted above, 156, introduces the next verse of the text as remedium reconciliationis.] 197-202 [Marc. xi. 25, 26] Et cum stabitis ad orandum, dimittite si quid habetis adversus aliquem, ut et Pater vester qui in caelis est, dimittat vobis peccata vestra. Quod si vos non dimiseritis, nec Pater vester, qui in caelis est, dimittet vobis peccata vestra. [For Haymo's divergent use of this passage see note on 197-213.]

540

D O M I N I C A VII P O S T P E N T E C O S T E N

xv

þonne hæfð ure broðor sum þing ongean us, gif we him deredon oððe gedydon unðanc; þonne sceole we don be ures Drihtnes lare,

205

gegladian urne broðor mid góódum ingehýde, *þone Cristenan 'man', butan ælcere hiwunge,

#p. 37s

pæt G od sylf underfó glædlice ure lác, se ðe nele underfón nan þing ær æt ús, ær we habban sibbe on soðfæstum mode.

210

G if us ænig man derað oððe gedeð unþanc, þæt we sceolon forgifan, swa swa se Hælend sæde, þæt us ure synna syððan beo[n] forgifene. Vre lac syndon þe we offriað Gode ure halgan gebedu, and þæt we gehelpon

215

þam earmum mid urum ælmessum, and ælc þing þe we doð urum Drihtne to lofe; þa beoð ealle Godes lác, and we mid gódum willan þa sceolon geoffrian, þæt hy andfenge beon, and Gode licwyrðe, þe lufiað æfre sibbe,

220

and he mid smyltnysse symble demð eallum. 203 Ðænne H. 204 gedidon H. 205 drihtenes H . 206 godum inngehide H. 209 (n)ele H . 210 habbon H. (mo)de H . 212 sceo(lon for)gyfan H . 213 beon] beoð U ; no reading in H . (for)gyfene H . 215 (gebedu, and pæt we g)ehelpon H. 216 ælmyssan H . 217 and] And H. (ælc þing pe we doð) H . 218 (and we mid godum willan) H . 219 andfencge H . 220 (and gode licwyrðe, pe lufiað æfre s)ibbe H. 221 symle H . 221-2 (demð eallum. Be ðam sang se sealmwyrhta) H . 203-13 [Augustine, De Sermone Domini in Monte, Lib. /, cap. x. 27] Si in men­ tem venerit quod aliquid habeat adversum nos frater, id est, si nos eum in aliquo laesimus; tunc enim ipse habet adversum nos: nam nos adversus illum habemus, si ille nos laesit: ubi non opus est pergere ad reconciliationem; non enim veniam postulabis ab eo qui tibi fecit iniuriam, sed tantum dimittes, sicut tibi dimitti a Domino cupis, quod ipse commiseris. [Ælfric passes over Augustine's insistence that one is to go to one's brother in spirit rather than in bodyybut takes the warning against hypocrisy from the following sentence] Ita enim etiam si praesens sit, poteris eum non simulato animo lenire, atque in gratiam revocare veniam postulando, si hoc prius coram Deo feceris. [For Ælfric's 203 sq. Haymo says exactly the opposite] Tunc . . . frater noster adversum nos habet aliquid, quando nos laedit. 214-21 [Haymo, modifying Augustine] Nec putandum est quod ei tantummodo munera offerimus, cum manibus oblationem ante altare deportamus; sed quando orationi insistimus,. . . cum eleemosynas tribuimus, hospitem suscipimus, nudum cooperimus, et caetera his similia pietatis opera implemus, tunc munera Deo offerimus. Cavendum ergo summopere est, ne malum discordiae contra aliquem in corde teneamus, et propter hoc nostra munera in conspectu Dei accepta non sint, quomodo Deo placabilem hostiam . . . offerre non possumus quamdiu proximis implacabiles sumus.

D O M I N I C A VII P O S T P E N T E C O S T E N

XV

541

Be ðam sang se sealmwyrhta, þus secgende him t o : A diutor meus, tibi sallam , et cetera. þæ t is on Engliscre spræce, þ u eart min gefylsta; þe sylfum ic singe; J>u eart min onfónd,

225

min agen soð God, and min mildheortnys. *H e het hine mildheortnys, for ðan þe he milde is, and he on manega wisan þam mannum gehylpð

#p. 376

J?e mid anrædnysse to him æfre 'h'opiað. þam is wuldor and wurðmynt a to worulde, A M E N .

230

223 Adiutor] /. JJ9, H . psallam H . 224 (on engliscre spræce, J?u eart min ge)fylsta H . 226 so(ð god, and) H . -nyss H . 227 -nyss H. (he milde is) H . 229 anrednesse H . (to him) H. 230 wyrðmynt H .*5 0 222223-

30 [Not in Haymo or Augustine.] 6 [Psal. Iviii. 18] Adiutor meus, tibi psallam, quia Deus susceptor meus

es; Deus meus, misericordia mea. NOTES 30. läge. T h e w ord stands in both m anuscripts, b u t æ> w hich is to be expected after 27, w ould provide alliteration now lacking unless w e count the weak on. Because o f the them e both æ and lagu are frequently used in this hom ily, b u t lagu m ay have been introduced here once too often. 35. lagu. C orrect here, and probably plural. See note on xx. 34. 50 sq. T h e quotation from Ezekiel appears as ordinary prose in C H II. 602 (D e Penitentia)9 and this is repeated in L S x n . 152. 52. and he beo syððan hræðe þæs o f life, almost ‘even if he die very soon afterw ards’ . T h e conditional idea is indicated b y the subjunctive, b u t w e are at least v ery close to the familiar M id d le En glish use o f and as ‘i f ’ or ‘even i f ’ . A t 140 below and som ewhat sim ilarly approaches ‘i f ’, but the sequence can perhaps better be regarded as elliptical, for in strict logic the and presupposes g if rather than peak pe in the preceding clause. See Glossary, and. 68. woldon, ‘w ould have it’, ‘m aintained’ . See Glossary, willan. 7 1 - 7 8 . T h e s e tw o quotations about the scribes and Pharisees, one from L u k ey the other from M atthew , occur in the same order in Æ lfric ’s early h om ily for the ninth Su n day after Pentecost, C H II. xxx, p. 404. T h e y are not included in H a y m o ’s com m ent on verse 20. 94. p æ t is on Englisc. P ossibly a scribal addition, and in any case extra­ m etric. 97 sq. Æ lfr ic ’s effort to spell out the im plications o f the L atin has pro­ duced a cum bersom e sentence w ith weak alliteration, bu t its structure, w ith C 2710.2

E

542

D O M I N I C A VI I P O S T P E N T E C O S T E N

xv

respect to w h ich both m anuscripts agree, can be understood if w e take the tw o clauses, þæ t he hy habban wolde and þæ t he hire gewilnode, as parenthetical elaborations o f mid luste and þnrh þone unlust respectively. For som ewhat similar use o f þæt> see iv. 290 and v i. 340. 100 sq. T h e reading o f H is clearly right. U ’s error is probably a sim ple case o f eye-skip, w ith an unsuccessful effort to restore the sense b y addition o f þe before awent. 133. se ðe ær wæs geteald þæ t he scyldig wære. E v id en tly a m ixed con­ struction, in w hich the clause is substituted for the usual a d je c tiv e : ‘w ho earlier was considered g u ilty / 136 sqq. T h is passage is confusing, b u t I suppose that in 136 the first he refers to the angry man, the second to the object o f his anger, and that the phrase on 3am lybbendan men is short for ‘in the case o f the livin g m an’ ; that is, the penance for anger is lighter if the object o f one’s anger is still living. 140. and. See note on 52 above. 155. on 3am toweardan wite beon afeormode. T h e w ords afeormode here and witnigendlicany 151 (repeated from 17) suggest the purgatorial fire, w h ich Æ lfric probably intended. See the references to purgatory in x i. 187 sqq., and esp. 226, where afeormode is com bined w ith ðæt witniendlice fy r. A lso, C H II. 592/8-10. A u gu stin e’s com m ent ( P L x x x iv . 1241) seems to open the door to Æ lfr ic ’s inference when, after granting that killing a m an seems m uch worse than insulting him , he says: ‘ Q uisquis autem dixerit quod graviore supplicio in maiore iustitia punitur hom icidium , si gehennae igne punitur convicium , cogit intellegi esse differentias geh en ­ narum .’ H ere in 155 should w e not read fy r e for wite, thus su p plyin g alliteration and m aking the statem ent more specific ? 17 1 sq. In the Letter to Wulfgeaty A ssm an 1. 307 sq., the same text is m ore literally tran slated : þ rea and bide, cid eac m id w ordum , on eallum geðyld e, and on ealre lare. 179. þurh\hlyri\ne: þurh h in e H y þurliiney U . T h e re is a vague plausi­ b ility in the reading o f H and if it is right w e need o n ly suppose that the scribe o f U failed to repeat the letter h . B u t Æ lfric does not often w rite so negligen tly as this, and I think it probable that a verb o f some w eight, parallel to gehealdey has been lost. W ith some trepidation I have altered the text to þurh-hlynne. T h e re is no record o f the verb hlynnan w ith this prefix, bu t þurh is used freely to m ake com pounds, especially b y writers w ho are familiar w ith L a tin verbs w ith the prefix per-. T h e sim ple verb hlynnan is used to m ean sound or resound in various senses. In the Regius Psalter (ed. F . Roeder, H alle, 1904) it occurs in a translation o f P s . xvii. 14: ‘intonuit de celo D o m in u s’, hlynde o f heofone (Dryhten). I f Æ lfric indeed used the w ord here w ith the prefix þurhy his sentence m eans that w e should pray to the L o r d that he w ill guard us (from uttering calumnies)

XV

D O M I N I C A VII P O S T P E N T E C O S T E N

543

and him self sound out or thunder through our m ouths (when it is our d uty to adm inister correction). Æ lfric goes on to quote the psalmist, w ho em phasizes rather the idea o f p u ttin g an armed guard about the m outh, as if to prevent the passage o f anything unseem ly; bu t it w ill be noticed that Æ lfric, in his com m ent on the verse, puts equal emphasis on opening the m outh for the passage o f wisdom . T h e etym ologically correct spelling hlynne has been chosen rather than some interm ediate spelling such as hlinne or hline, for there is no telling b y w hat route the unsatisfactory þurh hine was reached. 183. þinre wear de abutan. I think this phrase can best be taken as a kind o f dative absolute, ‘w ith th y protection round abou t’ . A d m itted ly the L a tin suggests rather that þinre wearde is a genitive depending on duru; b u t if so, w hat is one to do w ith abutan ? 184. fordyttan. T h is rather unusual w ord is used in Æ lfr ic ’s translation o f Genesis viii. 2, to translate clausi, where, after the flood, the waters are shut off. 1 9 7 - 2 1 3. H a y m o ’s interpretation o f M a tth . v. 23, 24 seems to have resulted from the conviction that M a rc . xi. 25 sq. (quoted b y Æ lfric 1 9 8 202) m ust be ju st another w ay o f saying the same thing. H ence he wrenches the m eaning o f habet aliquid adversum te in spite o f the fact that both A u gu stin e and Jerome (in his com m entary on Matthew, P L x x v i. 37) had taken it as one w ould expect, to m ean that the brother has been the injured party. A u gustin e also, however, as the source-quotation shows, had M arc. xi. 25 sq. in m ind, and treated it as com plem entary rather than the same. Æ lfr ic ’s careful presentation o f the passage in M a rk before he begins his interpretation o f Matthew m ay be m om entarily confusing, b u t it is soon clear that he has rejected H aym o in favour o f A u gustin e and is bent on show ing that the two texts apply to alternative situations. 213. beon. T h e beoð o f U is probably a mere slip. T h o u g h H has no reading, the subjunctive is surely required. C f. 201.

XVI1 DOMINICA X POST PENTECOSTEN Luc. xvi. 1-9

A n influential interpretation of the parable of the unjust steward

was set forth by Augustine in two closely related writings. One was chapter xxxiv of the Quæstiones in evangelium secundum Lucam

{P L xxxv. 1348-9), which was quoted in its entirety by Bede in his commentary on L uke and reappears, sometimes a little modified, in Haymo’s Homily cxxi for the tenth Sunday after Pentecost. T h e other was the more expansive Sermo exui, dealing particularly with the last verse {Luc. xvi. 9), the injunction to make friends by means of the mammon of iniquity. Th is sermon is not quoted by Bede and reappears only partially in Haymo. Augustine was con­ cerned in both these writings to extract the obviously intended lesson about the practical advantages of almsgiving, and at the same time to reject the fraudulence of the steward. T h e com­ mentators who followed him, including Ælfric, have these same two purposes in view and work them out with varying degrees of elaboration and emphasis. Ælfric reveals clearly his acquaintance with the passage in the Quæstiones, which, however, he need not have known except as a part of Bede’s exposition. Whether he knew Sermo exu i beyond the little he would have absorbed from Haymo is a question. T h e main reason for thinking that he had read it is a cluster of resem­ blances at lines 157-82, including the use of the same quotation at 159-62. Elsewhere it corresponds less closely to Æ lfric than Bede or Haymo does. In the main, then, Ælfric relies on Bede’s commentary and Haym o’s homily, both of which are more elaborate than Augustine and have non-Augustinian passages of which Æ lfric avails himself. As in Homily xv, he takes full advantage of the introductory matter supplied by Haymo. When he takes up the verses of the gospel On the group x m -x v i, see xm , introduction, pp. 493-4.

DOMINI CA X POST PENTECOS TEN

XVI

545

one by one he makes as much use of Bede (and of Augustine as quoted by Bede) as of Haymo. What is most interesting, however, is Æ lfric’s independent de­ velopment of the Augustinian attack on the steward’s fraudulence. He finds an excellent means of distinguishing between the good and bad aspects of worldly wisdom by introducing the famous injunction of M a tth, x. 16: ‘ Be ye wise as serpents and harmless as doves.’ None of the other expositors makes use of this text, though it is Augustine who has expounded it for Æ lfric in another place: in Sermo

l x iv

,

which explores the two symbols elaborately with

particular reference to martyrs. Under Augustine’s guidance the wisdom of the serpent becomes as saintly as the innocence of the dove, and the lesson of expediency so disconcertingly conveyed by the unjust steward is balanced by a vision of selfless love and purity. B y means of this passage, which complements the intro­ ductory praise (inspired by Haymo) of G o d ’s loving care of man, Æ lfric does fuller justice than his predecessors to the two aspects of Augustine’s interpretation of the parable. One other influential interpretation of the parable should be set beside Augustine’s, though I am not sure that Æ lfric made direct use of it. T h is is contained in Jerome’s Epistula cxxi, A d Algasiam

Liber Quæstionum Undecim, cap. 6 ( C S E L 56, pp. 21-27). It is mainly an attempt to relate the parable, with its theme of thanks­ giving, to the orderly progression of Jesus’s teaching in this section of Luke, and to show how it applies to the scribes and Pharisees cn the one hand and the disciples on the other. Bede reflects Jerome’s interpretation in his introductory remarks and at one or two points elsewhere. Haymo makes much heavier use of it, going so far as to include the alternative interpretation reported non­ committally by Jerome at the end, according to which the unjust steward typifies St. Paul. Am ong the ways by which Jerome’s interpretation could have reached Æ lfric must be mentioned the homiliary of Paulus Diaconus as originally constituted. In this the sixth chapter of Jerome’s letter was assigned as a homily to the fifth Sunday after the nativity of Peter and Paul, whereas in the M igne edition { P L xcv), which has a different system of counting for the summer months, its place has been taken by an anonymous homily for the tenth Sunday after Pentecost. T h is homily has some similarity to Æ lfric’s at a few points, but it was probably composed nearly a hundred years after his time, for it reappears

546

DOMINI CA X POST P E NT E CO S T E N

in a later volume of the patrology {P L

c lx

.

xvi

1121-8 ), where it is

attributed to Odo, bishop of Cambrai, who died in 1113. T h e specific attribution is doubtful, but it is probably safe to assume that the homily was written about 1100, and did not find a place in Paul’s homiliary before the twelfth century. T h u s Æ lfric’s copy (or copies) of the homiliary may well have retained Jerome’s piece.1 I have quoted a bit of it for lines 269-92, where it may have supplemented Bede and Haymo (as it certainly lies behind their comments), but at most it cannot have contributed more than a few minor elaborations of the basic ideas. T h e truly pervasive influence in this homily is Augustine’s. 1 According to the list of the original homiliary given by Leclercq and again by Smetana, Jerome’s piece is numbered n. 62. On the homiliary and its im­ portance for Ælfric see the Introduction, p. 156. Ælfric had certainly read another chapter of Jerome’s letter. See xxvm .

D O M IN IC A

X

POST

PENTECOSTEN

Homo quidam erat dims, qui habebat uillicum, et reliqua Se Hælend sæde þus to his halgum apostolum, her on þisum life libbende mid mannum, *for ðon þe he oft gespræc wið hy on bigspellum:

*p . 399

Sum welig man wæs iú, se hæfde tungerefan; þa wea'r'ð se gerefa forsæd wið his hlaford,

5

þæt he his gód sceolde swiðe him fram aspendan; T e x t based on U (Trinity B. 15. 34), pp. 398-414. Collated with H (Cotton Vitellius C. v), ff. 142v~5. In the list of variants round brackets enclose portions of the text as witnessed by U (including the modem punctuation) for which there is approximately the right space but no longer any reading in the damaged H. For homilies x m -x v i, where the manuscripts are the same, the following variants are excluded: H regularly has byð, gyf, hi, mann, menn, piss, puss where U has bið, gif, hyy many menypisypus. But H usually has man for the indefinite pronoun ‘one’. U ’s hy and hym were often written hi and him at first. A substitute scribe has written f. 145 (beginning at line 256) in H, but without noticeable change in spelling. In H, the pointing is normally by half-lines; in U , intermittently so. Capitaliza­ tion of sentences has been regularized. It more nearly accords with H than with U . Sup.: D O M I N I C A IX . P O S T O C T A V A S P E N T E C O S T E N H . cum H

uili-

.

i (S)e H . Wanley, Catalogus, p. 2 10 , confirms as far as line 2, life. 3 for þan pe H . (o)n H . 5 D a H. 6 aspendan] aspenan H . S ources , i , 4-38 [Luc. xvi. j ] Dicebat autem et ad discipulos suos: Homo qui­ dam erat dives, qui habebat villicum: et hic diffamatus est apud illum quasi dissipasset bona ipsius. [2] Et vocavit illum, et ait illi: Quid hoc audio de te ? redde rationem villicationis tuae: iam enim non poteris villicare. [3] Ait autem villicus intra se: Quid faciam quia dominus meus aufert a me villicationem ? fodere non valeo, mendicare erubesco. [4] Scio quid faciam, ut, cum amotus fuero a villicatione, recipiant me in domos suas. [5] Convocatis itaque singulis debitoribus domini sui, dicebat primo: Quan­ tum debes domino meo? [6] A t ille dixit: Centum cados olei. Dixitque illi: Accipe cautionem tuam: et sede cito, scribe quinquaginta. [7] Deinde alii dixit: T u vero quantum debes? Qui ait: Centum coros tritici. A it illi: Accipe litteras tuas, et scribe octaginta. [5] Et laudavit dominus villicum iniquitatis, quia prudenter fecisset: quia filii huius saeculi prudentiores filiis lucis in generatione sua sunt. [9] Et ego vobis dico: facite vobis amicos de mammona iniquitatis: ut, cum defeceritis, recipiant vos in æterna tabernacula.

548

DOMINICA X POST P E NTECOS TEN

XVI

and se hlaford sona gelangode hine, and befran hine pa, Hwæt gehyre ic be ðe ? Betæc þine wícan; ne miht þu beon leng on minum folgoþe. And se gerefa pa cwæð

10

on his agenum mode, Hwæt mæg ic la nu don ? nu ic beo bescired, and ic sylf ne mæg mid minum fotum delfan, ne ic ne mæg for sceame ahwær bedician. And he eft þa cwæð, Ic wylle nu betwyx þisum tilian me freonda

15

on þam pe aht sceolon minum hlaforde nu,

pæt hy me underfón into heora husum, þonne ic betæht hæbbe þas wican me fram. He gelaðode þa sona his underþeod'd'an him tó, pa pe aht sceoldon his hlaforde on feo,

20

and cwæð to heora anum, Hwæt ahst þu to gyldenne ? #He cwæð þæt he sceolde syllan his hlaforde hundteontig óman mid ele ametene.

*p. 400

pa het se gerefa him awritan fiftig. He cwæð pa to oðrum, Hwæt scealt þu þinum hlaforde? He cwæð pæt he sceolde him hundteontig mit't'an hwætes.

25

And se gerefa het him on gewrite settan þæt he hundeahtatig him agifan sceolde. Hwæt pa heora hlaford herode eft syððan

þone gerefan on his unrihtwisnysse,



for ðan pe he snotorlice wið hine sylfne gedyde;

for ðan pe woroldmen, þyssere worlde beam, syndon micel[e] snoteran on heora cynrene þonne þæs leohtes beam, þæt synd pa geleaffullan.

pa sæde se Hælend eft syððan him þus to:

35

W yrcað eow freonda of ðam unrihtan welan, þæt hy underfón eow on eowrum forðsiþe to him on ðam ecum eardungstowum eft. 12 bescyred H. 14 bedecian H, 17 (i)nnto H . 20 (his) H . 21 gylden(ne) H . 23 (mid) H, ametene] afyllede H. 25 (þa to o)ðrum H, 26 (him hundteon)tig H. 27 And] An (/) H. 27-28 (settan þæt he hund)eahtatig H . 29 hla(ford herode eft syð))?an H. 31 (ðan pe he snotorlice wið hine s)ylfne H. 32 woruldmenn H. 32-33 (pyssere worlde beam, syndon micele) H . 33 micelre U (cf. 216). snoterran H. cy(n)r(ene) H . 34 }?onne]/. 143, H. 35 s(e hæ)le(n)d H. hiow H . 36 Wyrceað H . unriht(an) welum H . 37 eow] eow eft H . 38 hiom H ; both M S S . have point after this word. eft] om. H y ivhich has ðær ge æfre ma wunien over line in hand resembling main scribe's.

Se welega man pe hæfde *þone túngerefan

*p. 401

is se ælmihtiga God, pe ah ealle þing,

40

and he betæhte mannum his micclan welan her on þisum andwerdan life, pæt he geuðe us andgites and gesceades, swa swa f»am englum, toforan oþrum gesceaftum, and þærtoeacan us forgifð ure neode on life,

45

þurh his micclan cyste; for ðan pe he mancynn lufað,

pa Öe hine oncnawað and him cyððe to habbað þurh soðne geleafan and singalre lufe. W e synd his gerefan, þe his welan habbað, and we yfele aspendað his æhta him fram,

50

þonne we ure andgit to yfele awendað, and ure mennisce gescead to mánfullum leahtrum; and we nyllað mid gesceade us sylfum gewissian, ne wyrcan his willan þe wyle us habban; and him nane æhta ne synd swa inmede

55

swa him synd to agenne ure sawle clæne. Be J>am sang se sealmwyrhta, þus secgende u s :

Homo, cum in honore esset, non intellexit, *et cetera: Se mann witodlice, pa ða he on wurðmynte wæs, he hit ne understod; ac þam stuntum nytenum

*p. 402 60

he wearð wiðmeten, and wæs hym pa gelic. Æ lc þara manna pe his andgit awent to yfelum weorcum fram rihtwisnysse, and nele understandan his agenne wurðmynt, 42 andweardan H. 45 forgyfð H. neoda H. 50 aspendað] aspenað H. 53n ellaði/. gewisian H. 55 innmede H. 56 sawla H . 57 -wyrchta H . H. 61 heom H . 62 J?æra H. 63 -nesse H.

46 manncynn H. 54 w yrceani 7. 59 wyrðmynte 64 wyrðmynt H .

39-49 \Haytno, Horn. C X X I ] Spiritualiter, homo iste Deus omnipotens est__ Qui bene dives esse dicitur, quia apud illum sunt omnes thesauri sapientiee et scientiae absconditi (Coi. ii. 3). . . . Illius villici nos sumus quos ad imaginem et similitudinem suam creavit, quibus etiam sensum et intellectum praebuit. . . . Et revera magnas suas divitias Deus omnipotens nobis commisit, quando ratio­ nalem sensum et intellectum communem cum angelis prae ceteris creaturis tribuit. 50-56 [Haymo] Male autem divitias Domini nostri dispensamus, quando sensum discretionis, quem ad usum boni accepimus, in usum convertimus vitiorum. 57-61 [Psal. xlviii. 13] Et homo, cum in honore esset, non intellexit: com­ paratus est iumentis insipientibus, et similis factus est illis. 62-83 [Free elaboration of the preceding themes.]

550

pæt

D O MI N I CA X POST P E NT E C O S TE N h e is sylf geworht to Godes anlicnysse,

XVI

65

and mid gewitleaste unwurðað hine sylfne fram þam micclan wurðmynte, pæt he on meoxe liege on J?am fúlum leahtrum, fúlre þonne nyten, he aspent yfele his hlafordes æhta, þonne he his agen gescead on synnum eall aspent,

70

and hine wácne gedej? and unwurðne symble. þas synd'an þa' leahtras þe misliciað G o d e : eawbryce and forliger, and ælces cynnes reaflac, morðdæda and manslihtas and ealle manaðas, wiccecræft and wiglung and pa wógan domas, stala and leasunga and pa micclan druncennyssa,

untíma-æt and oferfyll #and þæt man wyree unlybban,

75

*p. 403

and þæt man nylle freolsian mid nanum wurðmynte þone halgan Sunnandæg, þam Hælende to lofe,

p e on ðam Sunnandæge him sylf aras of deaðe—

80

and he manega wundra geworhte on ðam dæge— ne his halgena mæssedagas, p t man healdan sceolde, and gán to cyrcan, Godes lof to gehyrenne. V ton nu geedlæcan, pæt is, eft eow nu secgan, þisses godspelles anginn, swa swa we aér sædon,

85

þæt ge magon þe eað þæt andgit understandan: ‘ Sum welig man wæs iú, se hæfde tungerefan;

pa wearð se gerefa forsæd wið his hlaford, þæt he his gód sceolde swiðe him fram aspendan; and se hlaford sona gelangode hine,

90

and befran hine pa, Hwæt gehyre ic be ðe ? Betæc þine wícan; ne miht þu beon leng on minum folgoðe.’ 67 wyrÖmynte H. meoxe] meoxe galnesse H . 68 on] 7 on H . 69, 70 aspen ð H. 71 symle H. 72 synd H. 73 eawbrice H. forligr H. 78 nele H . wyrðmynte H. 81 þ(am) H . 84 pæt is] 7 H. (secgan) H. 85 ^ises H . 86 J?(e eað pæt) H . 87 Sum] Se hælend cwæð, Sum H. ma(n wæs iu, se hæf)de H . 88 pa] Ða H. 88-89 (wið his hlaford, pæt) H. 89—90 a(s)p(endan; and se hlaford sona gela)ngode H (ngode first letters visible/. 1 4 3V). 92 (wica)n H. 6 7

67, 68 [C/. I I Petr. ii. 22] Contigit enim eis illud veri proverbii: Canis reversus ad suum vomitum; et Sus lota in volutabro luti. 72-83 [Somewhat similar lists are at I Cor. vi. 9 -1 0 ; Gal. v. 19 -2 1.]

XVI

D O M I N I CA X POST PEN TEC OS TEN

551

O n twa wisan us gelangað and him to clypað se Hælend, oððe on andweardum #life ærest to dædbote, *p. 404 oððe on ðam oðrum life eft to þam dome.

96

N u sceole we beðencan us sylfe her on life,

pæt we to yfele ne beon eft on ðam dome. ‘A nd se gerefa pa cwæð on his agenum mode, Hwæt mæg ic la nu dón, nu ic beo bescired,

100

and ic sylf ne mæg mid minum fotum delfan, ne ic ne mæg for sceame ahwær bedician ?’ W e ne magon delfan, ne we ne moton wyrcan nane góde wæstmas ænigre drohtnunge æfter þisum life, gif we ærðan noldon;

105

ne pær ne bið nán earnung, ac bið edlean gewiss ealra ure dæda, be ðam þe we dydon ær; ne we ne magon bedecian for bysmore þær, gif we æmtige beoð ælces gódes þonne— swa swa þa stuntan mædenu, þe mid heom sylfon næfdon

110

on heora leohtfatum nan leoht þam brydguman, Hælende Criste, swa swa he him sylf sæde, *and woldon pa biddan oððe gebicgan hym leoht;

*p. 405

ac hy wurdon belocene wiðutan fram Criste, for ðon þe hy næfdon him nane lihtinge ætforan.

115

Be ðam ylcan gecwæð eft Godes wisdom : For þæs wintres cyle nolde se asolcena erian; 94 ge(langað and h)im H . clypað] clypiað (!) H . 95 andweardan H. 98 yfel(e) H . 100 bescyred H . 102 bedekian H . 103 wircean H. 107 ura H . dydon] gedidon H . 108 bismore H. n o s y lfu m H . 1 13 heom H . 115 for pan pe H . 116 gecwæð] he cwæð H.

94-98 [Haymo] Dupliciter nos vocat Deus, in praesenti ad pænitentiam, et in futuro ad iudicium. Vocamur ergo ad reddendum rationem villicationis nostrae, cum de praesenti vita ad eius iudicium ducimur. . . . Et posthaec non poterimus villicare. . . . Imitetur villicum, qui in futuro sibi prudenter prae­ vidit. 103-20 [Bede, In Lucam] Ablata quippe villicatione fodere non valemus, quia finita hac vita, in qua tantum licet operari, nequaquam ultra bonae conversationis fructum, ligone devotae compunctionis licet inquirere. Mendicare, confusionis est. Illo scilicet pessimo genere mendicandi, quo virgines illae fatuae mendicasse referuntur, quae ingruente tempore nuptiarum oleo virtutum deficiente, sapienti­ bus dixerunt: Date nobis de oleo vestro, quia lampades nostrzz exstinguuntur (Matth, xxv. 8). Et de quo Salomon ait: Propter frigus piger arare noluit; mendicabit ergo æstateyet non dabitur ei (Prov. xx. 4).

552

DOMI NI CA X POST P E N T EC O S T E N

XVI

he bedecað eft on sumera, and him ne bið na getiðad.

þæt is, þæt he on life lytel swanc for Criste, and he ða ecan myrhþe ne mæg þonne abiddan.

120

‘ He eft pa syððan gecwæð on his agenum geðance, Ic wylle nu betwyx þisum tilian me freonda on ðam [þ]e aht sceolan mínum hlaforde nu,

pæt hy me underfón into heora husum, þonne ic betæht hæbbe þas wican me fram.

125

He gelaðode þa sona his underþeoddan him to,

pa ðe aht sceoldon his hlaforde on feo, and cwæð to heora anum, Hwæt ahst þu to gyldenne ? He cwæð þæt he sceolde syllan his hlaforde hundteontig óman mid ele ametene.

pa het se gerefa *him awritan fiftig.’ Ele wyxt on tre'o'wum, eall swa win deð;

130 *p. 406

ac pa elebeamas beoð maran on wæstme, and pa berian grytran, and hy man gaderað and wringð, and man et J?one ele, swa swa we etað buteran,

135

on manegum estmettum, and he is mett[a] fyrmest. M an deð hine to leohte eac on ðam lande on fægerum leohtfatum, for ðan þe he fæt is, and wynsumlice byrnð binnan Godes cyrcan; he is swiðe deorweorðe, and hine man deð to fulluhte,

140

and to Godes þen'u'n'g'um, þonne he gehalgod bið. ‘ He cwæð pa to oðrum, Hwæt scealt þu þinum hlaforde? He cwæð pæt he sceolde him hundteontig mittan hwætes; and se gerefa het him on gewrite settan

pæt he hundeahtatig him agifan sceolde.’

145

He lissode þam mannum þæt he mihte hopian to heora freondrædene, pæt hy underfengon 1 18 getiðod H. 122 betweox H . 123 pe] sic H ; paste (!) U. sceolon H. 127 sceoldon] sceolon H . 128 gildenne H. 130 ametene] afyllede H . 132 swa] swa swa H. 134 gryttran H. 135 et] ytt H . 136 (and) H. metta] sic H ; mette U. 138 (f)ægerum H. fætt H . 139 bin(na)n H . 140 deorwyr]?e H . 141 (to god)es H. 142 (scealt pu þinum) H . 143 mittan] mittena H. i43“ 4 (bwætes; and se geref)a H . 145-6 (him agifan sceolde. He liss)ode H. 147 (freondrædene, pæt hy under)fengon H. (Space for four or five more letters even if H had -rædenne and spelled out pæt.) 132-41 [Not in Bede or 11aymo.] 146-58 [Bede, quoting Augustine, Quæst. in ev. Luc., cap. 34] In villico hoc

hine eft syððan into heora husum ; ac ðas *dæde we sceolon swiðor understandan on gastlicum andgite, and us tilian freonda, ge on Godes þenum ge on Godes þearfum,

*p. 407 150

mid urum weldædum, pæt we wunian moton on ðam ecum eardungstowum æfter urum forðsiþe mid ðam Godes mannum pe we ure gód doð nu. N e sceole we na mid fácne us freond gewyrcan,

155

ac þis is soð by sen hu we sceolon dón of rihtum gestreonum, swa swa we rædað on bocum: dælan nu ælmyssan, and don beforan us, þæt we habban hy eft be hundfealdum us sylfum,

pær pær nán þeof ne mæg ne ne mot hy forstelan,

160

ne nán moððe ne mæg ne nán óm hym derian, ac hy andsunde pær us beoð gehealdenne. Æ lc man sceal don her be his agenre mæðe; se pe mare hæbbe, do be his mæðe; se ðe læsse hæbbe, dó of his lytlan,

165

148 innto H . husum]/. 144, H . 154 nu] nu for godes naman 'on ðys scortan timan' H (the words over line probably in same hand as those at line 38). 155 sceolon H. freond] frind altered to frynd H . gewyrcean H. 159 habbon H . 161 heom H . 162 ansunde H. gehealdene H . 165 litlan H.

quem dominus eiciebat de villicatu, et laudavit eum quod in futurum sibi prospexerit, non omnia debemus ad imitandum sumere. Non enim aut domino nostro facienda est in aliquo fraus, ut de ipsa fraude eleemosynas faciamus, aut eos a quibus recipi volumus in tabernacula aeterna tamquam debitores Dei et Domini nostri fas est intellegi; cum iusti et sancti significentur hoc loco, qui eos introducant in tabernacula aeterna qui necessitatibus suis terrena bona com­ municaverint. 155-8 [.Haymo, modifying Augustine, loc. cit.] Ista per similitudinem dicuntur, ut intellegamus quia si laudari potuit is qui fraudem fecit, eo quod in futurum sibi prudenter praeviderit, multo magis nos laudabiliores erimus, si de propriis substantiis largas eleemosynas fecerimus: et dum in praesenti vivimus, in futurum nobis prospexerimus. 157 [Augustine, Sermo C X I I I ] D e iustis laboribus facite eleemosynas: ex eo quod recte habetis date. [Similarly in later passages Haymo.] 159-62 [Matth, vi. 20] Thesaurizate autem vobis thesauros in caelo: ubi neque aerugo, neque tinea demolitur, et ubi fures non effodiunt, nec furantur. [Cf. Augustine, ibid.] Illae sunt verae divitiae, quae cum habuerimus, perdere non possumus. . . . Audi Dominum tuum: Thesaurizate, etc. [inexactly quoted]. 163-72 [This elaboration not in Bede or Haymo, though Haymo later refers to the passage from Luke given below.]

554

DOMINICA X POST PENTECOS TEN

þæt nán man ne beo butan *ælmyssan.

XVI

*p. 408

Be ðam cwæð se Hælend on oþrum godspelle, Gelaða to þínum gódum þearfan and wannhale, blinde and healte, and þu bist eadig; for ðan pe hy nabbað hwæt hy þe forgeldon;

170

pe 'bið' forgolden witodlice on ðara rihtwisra æriste. pæt is on Domes-dæge, þonne we of deaðe arisað. Zachéus se ríca wæs unrihtwis æt fruman, ac syððan he underfeng þone fyrmestan cuman, þone Hælend sylfne. þa sæde Zachéus,

175

Drihten leof, ic wylle dælan mine æhta, þone healfan dæl þearfum, and þærtoeacan ic wylle be feowerfealdum forgyldan swa hwæt swa ic reafode. A nd se Hælend þa sæde sona him to andsware, N u todæg is geworden hæl þisum hirede;

180

for J?an þe Zachéus swa wæs gerihtwisod þurh þæs Hælendes tocyme, pe com to his huse. Cristes apostolas, swa 'swa' us [cyþ]að béc, forleton heora æhta ealle #for Criste, and him swa folgodon swa hwider swa he ferde;

*p. 409 185

and hy hæfdon mid him þa heofonlican speda. Sum earm wudewe wearp ænne feorðling 166 man] mann huru H. 169 byst H. 170 forgyldon H. 171 þæra H. 178 forgylda(n) H . 179 andsw(a)re H. 183 cyþað] sic H ; secgað U. 187 wydewe H . fe(orð)ling H. *9 167-72 [Luc. xiv. 13 ] Sed cum facis convivium, voca pauperes, debiles, clau­ dos, et caecos: [14] et beatus eris, quia non habent retribuere tibi: retribuetur enim tibi in resurrectione iustorum. 173-82 [Augustine, Sermo C X III] Sed iam s i . . . de malo est quod habetis, iam nolite malum addere, et facite vobis amicos de mammona iniquitatis. Numquid Zacchaeus de bono habebat ? . . . Maior erat publicanorum. . . . Multos presserat, multis abstulerat, multa congesserat. Intravit domum eius Christus, et venit salus super domum eius: sic enim ait ipse Dominus, Hodie salus domui huic facta est. [Augustine now tells the rest of the story with quotations. Bede and Haymo mention Zacchæus as an example of liberality but say nothing of his earlier un­ righteousness.] 175-80 [Luc. xix. 8] Stans autem Zachæus, dixit ad Dominum: Ecce, dimidium bonorum meorum, Domine, do pauperibus; et si quid aliquem de­ fraudavi, reddo quadruplum. [9] Ait Iesus ad eum: Quia hodie salus domui huic facta est. 183-203 [Freely elaborated.] 183-6 [Cf. Matth. xix. 27-29.] 187-93 [Marc. xii. 42] Cum venisset autem vidua una pauper, misit duo minuta, quod est quadrans.

XVI

DOMINI CA X POST PENTECOSTEN

555

betwux oðrum mannum þe wurpon heora ælmyssan to ðam halgan weofode binnan Hierusalem, and se Hælend sæde sona be hyre

190

þæt heo mare brohte þonne ænig oðer man, for pan pe heo brohte ealne hire bigleofan mid cystigum mode, and Crist hy pa herode. Se Hælend cwæð eac, G if hwa sylð drincan anum purstigum men huru ceald wæter,

195

pæt he hæfð his mede pære lytlan weldæde; and se góóda willa, pe wel wyle symble, is Gode andfenge, swylce he offrige him lác. þ us we sceolon geearnian pa upplican wunu'n'ge mid pyllicum dædum, urum Drihtne to lofe,

200

mid nanum andsætum facne, ne mid ænigum swicdome, þæt we gastlice gefyllon pas godspellican word, be ðam pe ge gehyrdon #her on pissere rædinge.

*p. 410

‘Hwæt pa heora hlaford herode eft syððan pone gerefan on his unrihtwisnysse,

205

for ðan pe he snotorlice wið hine sylfne gedyde.’ V re drihten herað mid beteran herunge his getreowan wienere, pe his willan gefremode on ðam gastlicum tilungum, and him pus to cwið:

Euge serue bone et fidelis, et reliqua:

210

188 betwyx H . ælmessan H. 189 hierusalera altered to ierusalem H. 192 hyre H. 193 herede H. 194 S(e) H . 195 h(uru) H . 197 (and se gooda) H . symle H . 198 (he offrige him lac) H. 200 (mid þyllicum dædum) H, drihtene H . 201 and(sætum facne, ne mid ænigum) H 202-3 (J?as godspellican word, be ðam pe ge) H . 203 gehyrdon] /. I44vy H. 204 herede H. 205 -nesse H . 206 snoterlice H . 209 to cwið] cwið to H,4 3 [43] Et convocans discipulos suos, ait illis: Arnen dico vobis, quoniam vidua hæc pauper plus omnibus misit, qui miserunt in gazophylacium. \_44\ Omnes enim ex eo, quod abundabat illis, miserunt; haec vero de penuria sua omnia quae habuit misit totum victum suum. 194-6 [Matth, x. 42] Et quicumque potum dederit uni ex minimis istis calicem aquae frigidae tantum in nomine discipuli: amen dico vobis, non perdet mercedem suam. [Quoted by Bede, following Augustine.] 207-9 [Bedef quoting Augustine'] Si laudari potuit ille a domino cui fraudem faciebat, quanto amplius placeant Domino Deo, qui secundum eius praeceptum illa opera faciunt. 210-14 [Matth, xxv. 2 1 , 23] Ait illi dominus eius: Euge serve bone, et fidelis, quia super pauca fuisti fidelis, super multa te constituam., intra in gaudium domini tui.

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Eala þu góda J?eowa, and me wel getrywe, þu wære getrywe on lytlum þingum m e ; nu ic þe gesette ofer manegum þingum ; gang nu on blisse on þines hlafordes gódum. ‘ þa worldmen soðlice, þissere worlde beam,

215

syndon micele snoteran on heora cynryne þonne þæs leohtes beam, pæt synd pa geleaffullan.’

p a worldmen cunnon pa worldcundan snoternysse, and pa yfelan hocas þe se Hælend onscunað, be ðam is awriten þisum wordum on bocum :

Sapientia enim huius mundi * stultitia est apud Deum :

220 *p. 411

þissere worlde wisdom is stuntnyss ætforan Gode, þ u telest to wisdome pæt þu þin gewill hæbbe, and þu mæge oferdrifan oþerne man mid w ó ; ac Crist wile habban unsceððinysse on ús,

225

and pa bilehwitnysse, swa swa he us bebead:

Estote prudentes sicut serpentes, et simplices sicut columbe: Beoð swa snotere swa swa neddran syndon, and swa bylehwite swa swa culfran beoð. Seo næddre is eallra nytena snoterost,

230

and se deofol þurh hy beswac pa frumsceapenan men; nu sceole we beon snotere wið ðæs deofles swicdomas, swa swa se Hælend sæde, and besceawian gleawlice þæs deofles lotwrencas, þæt he us ne forlære. Seo næddre awurpð ælce geare hire ealdan haman,

235

2 1 1 getreowe H. 212 ge(t)riwe H. 214 (ga)ng H. 215 woruldmenn H. worulde H. 216 mycele H. cynnrene H. 218 woruldmenn H. woruldcundan H. 222 worulde H. 223 telst H. gewill] will H. 224 mage H . 225 wyle H . -nesse H. 226 bilewitnesse H . 227 columbæ H. 228 næddran H . 229 bilewite H. 230 ealra H . 232 sceolon H. 235 awyrpð H . 218-26 [Haymo] Filii sæculi prudentiores filiis lucis in generatione sua sunt, quia cum illi sint callidi, astuti et ingeniosi, deceptores, duplices animo, isti e con­ trario simplices, humiles, puri, benigni, nescientes malum pro malo reddere. . . . Qui recte in generatione sua prudentes dicuntur, quia tales non in generatione Dei, sed in sua computantur, quia prudentia huius sæculi stultitia est apud Deum (J Cor. iii. 19: Sapientia enim huius mundi, etc.). 227 [Matth, x. 1 6 , as given.] 230-57 [Neither the preceding text nor this exposition of it is in Bede or Haymo. Ælfric follows in part the exposition cited below.] 235~9 [Augustine, Sermo L X I V on Matth, x. 16] Serpens enim cum fuerit senectute praegravatus, et senserit pondus vetustatis, coarctat se per cavernam, et deponit tunicam veterem, ut novus exultet. Imitare illum, Christiane. . . .

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and bið þonne befangen mid eall-níwum feile; uton wé swa dón, awurpan ure synna, and pa yfelan þeawas, and leornian þa gódan, *þæ t we mid Godes gife beon ymbscrydde wiðinnan. Seo næddre wyle eac bewerian hire heafod,

*p. 412 240

and hy ealle bewindan on em[b]hwyrfte þæs heafdes,

pæt man hum þæs heafdes hentan ne mæge. Swa we sceolon eac dón, gif we snotere beoð, ne lætan us nan þing swa leof swa urne Hælend, þe is ure heafod; and we for his lufan

245

urne lichaman sceolon syllan to deaðe, g if hit swa micel neod bið, ær we hine wiðsacon and ure sawle forleoson, þe is selost æhta. Culfre is swiðe bylewit, and eall butan geallan, and lufað annysse betwyx hyre geferum,

250

and swiðe unhearmgeorn and unhetol oðrum. Healdan we þas þeawas, pæt we unhearmgeorne beon, and butan byternysse betwux gebroðrum symble, pæt we mannum ne derian mid unrihtum dædum, ac habban us annysse on ealre rihtwisnysse,

255

239 gyfe H. 240 hyre H . 241 emn- U ; ym b- H. 244 (ne) læton H. 245 (for) H. 247 hyt H . mycel (neod) H. 249 (Culfre is) H. bilewite H ; byle(h)wit(e) U . 250-1 (hyre geferum, and) H. 251 oðrum] aðru/w H . 252 Healdon H . (þeawas pæt we unhea)rmgeorne H . 253 biternysse betwyx H. 253-4 gebroð(rum symble, pæt we mannum) H . 254 derion H. 255-6 habbon (us annysse on ealre rihtwisnysse, and læ)ton H. Paulus apostolus tibi dicit: Exuite vos veterem hominem cum actibus suis, et induite novum (Co/. iii. 9, 10 ; Ephes. iv. 22, 24). 240-8 [Augustine] Imitare illum et in hoc: serva caput tuum. Quid est, serva caput tuum? Tene apud te Christum. Si forte aliquis vestrum advertit aliquando, cum voluerit colubrum occidere, quomodo pro capite suo totum corpus obiicit ictibus ferientis. Illud in se feriri non vult, ubi se novit vitam habere. Et Christus vita nostra est. . . . Audi et Apostolum: Caput viri Christus est (I Cor. xi. j) . Qui ergo Christum servat in se, caput suum servat pro se. [Ælfric's application in 246-8 is not verbally dependent on Augustine, but the latter treats the text with reference to martyrs.] 249-57 [Augustine] Amo in columba quod fel non habet. . . . Iam vero quid opus est commendare multis verbis simplicitatem columbarum? . . . Attende columbas in societate gaudere: ubique simul volant, simul pascuntur, nolunt esse solae, communione gaudent, charitatem servant, gemitibus amoris mur­ murant; osculis filios generant. Nam quando columbae, quod plerumque adver­ timus, inter se rixantur de cellulis suis, quodam modo pacata contentio est. . . . Columba amat et quando rixatur; lupus odit et quando blanditur. G 2710.2

F

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and lætan gehwæne habban þæt þe his is mid rihte; þonne hæbbe we *pa bylewitnysse þe se Hælend sylf tæhte. *p. 413

(pa sæde se Hælend 'eft' syððan hym þus to: Wyrcað eow freonda of ðam unrihtan welan, þæt hy underfón eow on eowrum forðsiðe

260

to him on ðam ecum eardungstowum eft.’

pa unrihtan welan syndon witodlice þæt weoruldlice feoh, on ðam pa unrihtwisan menn [besettað heora hiht, and on þam hopiað; ac pa rihtwisan menn] awændað heora feoh

265

to heora lifes neodum, and lybbað be ðam feo, and habbað heora hyht to þam heofonlicum spedum, to þam ecum þingum on eornost swaðeah. Se pt ælmyssan dæleð of ðam eorðlicum feo, and of [þam] sceortum welum þissere worulde, 270 Godes þeowum and his þearfum, G od sylf him forgylt eft, swa þæt he wunu'n'ge hæfð on heofonan rice mid þam þe he dælde and gedyde his gód. Ealswa pa lareowas pt lærað Godes folc, and manega gebetað mid heora gebysnungum,

275

magon witan gewis þæt hy wunian moton on þære ecan #myrhðe mid ðam ælmihtigan Gode,

*p. 414

256(m)id,/. 1 45, H, where another scribe takes over from the first for two folios. 257 bilewitnesse H. 258 heom H. 260 eow] eow eft H. 261 eft] om. H ; cf. 37-38 supra. 263 woruldlice H. pa] om. H. menn] om. H . 264—5 besettað . . . menn] sic H ; om. U. 265 awendað H. 267 hiht H . heofonlican H. 269 dælð H. eorðlicum] heofonlican (!) H. 270 pam\ sic H ; om. U. 272 heofenan H. 274 Eall swa H . 275 gebysenungum H. 276 gewiss H. 262-8 [Bede, quoting Augustine, Quæst. in ev. Luc.) Mammonam iniquitatis ob hoc appellat istam pecuniam quam possidemus ad tempus, quia mammona divitiae interpretantur. Nec sunt istæ divitiae nisi iniquis, qui in eis constituunt spem atque copiam beatitudinis suæ. A iustis vero cum haec possidentur, est quidem ista pecunia, sed non sunt illis divitiae, nisi caelestes et spiritales, quibus indigentiam suam spiritaliter supplentes, exclusa egestate miseriae, beatitudinis copia ditabuntur. 269-78 [Bede) Si autem hi qui praebent eleemosynam de iniquo mammona faciunt sibi amicos a quibus in aeterna tabernacula recipiantur, quanto magis hi qui spiritales largiuntur epulas, qui dant conservis cibaria in tempore suo, certissima debent spe summae retributionis erigi ? [Cf. Jerome, Epist. C X X I . 6] Si ergo iniquitas bene dispensata vertitur in iustitiam, quanto magis sermo divinus, in quo nulla est iniquitas, qui et apostolis creditus est, si bene fuerit dispensatus, dispensatores suos levabit in caelum!

D O MI N I CA X POST PENTECOSTEN

XVI

559

for þan þe hy getreowlice tilodon heora hlaforde. Se Hælend sylf sæde on sumere oðre stowe, Se ðe on lytlum þinge bið his hlaforde getrywe,

280

se bið him getrywe on ðam maran þingum; and se ðe ungetrywe bið on þam læssan þinge, se bið ungetrywe on ðam maran þinge. Lytel þing is geteald þises lifes ryne wið ða ecan worulde, þe ne wurð na geendod.

285

þ a woruldcundan þing syndon witodlice læssan þonne þa gastlican, þe is Godes sylfes lár, j?æt is se halga wisdom, þe us simble tiht up to urum Scyppende, þe us gesceop to mannum. Se ðe on woruldþingum wurð ungetrywe,

290

ne wurð he on þam gastlicum Gode 'getrywe', þæt he ða heofonlican pund holdlice dæle. Getrywsige us se Hælend þurh þone Halgan Gast, þæt we his willan gewyrcan m oton;

þam sy á wuldor on écnysse, amen.

295

278 getrywlice tiledon H . 280 byd (sic) H . 281 marum H. 285 wyrð H. 287 pa] om. H. 288 halga] om. H . symble tyhð H . 290 wyrð H. 291 wurð] wyrcð (!) H. 294 gewyrcean H . 295 si H. wuldor] wuldor and wyrðmynt H. 279-92 [Luc. xvi. 10 : i.e. the verse following Æ Iftic's pericope] Qui fidelis est in minimo, et in maiori fidelis est; et qui in modico iniquus est, et in maiori iniquus est. [Haymo] Audiat ergo hoc dives, audiat Christianus, discat tribuere minima, ut possit accipere magna. Quia qui in minimo fidelis est, ut Dominus ait, et in magno fidelis erit. Discat dare transitoria, ut mereatur accipere ætema. [Bede] Ipso iudice attestante, qui fidelis est in minimoy id est, in pecunia cum paupere participanda, et in maiore fidelis esty illo videlicet actu, quo specialiter adhaerere Creatori, et unus cum eo spiritus effici desiderat. [Jerome, directly after the pas­ sage quoted above] Quam ob rem sequitur: qui fidelis est in minimo, hoc est in carnalibus, et in multis fidelis erityid est in spiritalibus. Qui autem in parvo iniquus esty ut non det fratribus ad utendum, quod a Deo pro omnibus est creatum, iste et in spiritali pecunia [cf. 292] dividenda iniquus erit. . . . ‘Sin autem/ inquit, ‘carnales divitias, quae labuntur, non bene dispensetis, veras aeternasque divitias doctrinae Dei [cf. 287] quis credet vobis V

N O TES 6,

89. B y using sceolde Æ lfric em phasizes the fact that in this parable

Jesus does not say w hether the charges against the steward are true or false. See G lossary, sceolan, b. 23,

130. Oman. T h is w ord was cited b y N apier, C O E L y from M S . U .

H e recognized its derivation from L a t. ama (hama) ‘a w ater-bucket’, and

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its relation to m od. G erm an O hm , D u tc h aam, w h ich came to be applied to a liquid measure for w ine o f about forty gallons. See O E D , aam> and G lossary, öme. 44 sq. and þærtoeacan us forg ifð ure neode on life. C f. xv. 119. T h e re , as here, Æ lfric adds this benefit to the list given in his source. 55. inmede. C ite d b y N ap ier from M S . U , as above. E v id en tly a co m ­ pound o f in and a m utated derivative o f mod. For other occurrences see G lossary. 7 3 -8 3 . T h is is perhaps Æ lfr ic ’s m ost elaborate alliterative list o f offences. T h e re are earlier prose lists, taken directly from St. Paul {G al. v. 19 -2 1 and I C o r. vi. 9 sq.), in D e Auguriis, L *S x v n . 2 4 -2 7 and 34-44, and an alliterative list, also based on St. Paul bu t less strictly, in Letania M aiorey C H II. xx i, pp. 330, 332. T h is ends w ith a full com m ent on eating at im proper times, though the com pound untima-æt is recorded o nly here (see Glossary). Still another list, containing in the m iddle four half-lines w ith alliterating pairs o f nouns, occurs at the end o f Æ lfr ic ’s addition to C H I. x v n for the second S u n d ay after Easter, w h ich is to be published b y D r. C le m o e s ; and an alliterative list o f offenders is in our xi. 375 sqq. W u lfstan m ade frequent use o f such lists and was apparently never tired o f contriving w ays to vary their form and expression. See B eth uru m ’s Wulfstan 9 v n . 128 sq q .; v in e . 158 sq q .; xa. 11 s q q .; xc. 79 sq q .; x m . 92 sqq. Æ lfr ic ’s sim ple reminder about keeping Sun days and m ass-days and goin g to church m ay be contrasted w ith the crude violence o f the ‘ S u n d ay letter’ , versions o f w h ich are in N a p ie r’s Wulfstan , nos. XLiii-XLV and l v i i . (See Jost, W ulfstans tudieny pp. 221 sqq.) In x ix . 11 9 -3 0 Æ lfric deals w ith the related question, how often the laity m ay and should partake o f the eucharist. 1 17 sq. Æ lfric translates this proverb in exactly the same words in his Letter to Wulfgeaty A ssm ann 1. 229 sq. (p. 9). T h is was noted b y N a p ier in his transcription o f the hom ily from M S . U . C f. note on xv. 17 1 sq. 163-98. W ith this w hole passage on alm sgiving compare C H I. 580 sqq. (part o f the hom ily for St. A n d rew on M a tth , iv. 18 -22 ), where Æ lfr ic treats fu lly all the exam ples given h e r e : first the apostles, then Zacchæ us, the poor w idow , and the hypothetical giver o f a cup o f cold water. O n ly tw o o f these exam ples were in Æ lfr ic ’s im m ediate sources for the present hom ily, and these sources do not bring out, as does his ow n earlier hom ily, that each m an is to give according to his means (163). T h is principle and the four exam ples are from G rego ry, Horn, in Evang. v, P L L x x v i. 1093 sq. T h e two exam ples in lines 18 7-9 8 (the w id o w and the giver o f water) occur also at C H II. 106/8 sqq. (w hich reappears as part o f N apier l v , a com pilation, p. 287/12 sqq.). 174.

he underfeng pone fyrmestan cuman. T h is characterization o f Jesus

as the forem ost stranger, w h ich is not in Æ lfr ic ’s im m ediate sources, has interesting connexions. It depends for part o f its effect on one o f the acts

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o f m ercy enum erated in the speech at the L a st Ju dgem en t: in Æ lfr ic ’s translation, ‘ E ac ic wæs cum a, and ge me un derfengon’ {M atth, xxv . 35, as at xi. 414). T h e excitem ent naturally attending the idea o f entertaining G o d in the guise o f a stranger is likely to em erge w henever, in the gospels, Jesus visits anyone. Æ lfric had earlier paraphrased from A u gu stin e {Sermo c m , as recognized b y Förster, Anglia X V I . 34) a passage on the entertainm ent o f Jesus b y M a r y and M artha, in w h ich the idea o f receiv­ in g G o d as a stranger is already p u t into relation w ith M atthew xxv. T h e passage occurs in the hom ily on the A ssu m ption o f the V irgin, C H II. 438: N u ðencað sum e m en pæ t ða w if wæron gesælige pæ t hi sw ilcne cum an underfengon. So ð pæt is, gesælige hi wæron, ac swapeah ne ðurfe w e ceorian . . .; forðan ðe he cw æ ð, ‘ Sw a h w æ t swa ge doð on m inum nam an anum ðam læstum , pæt ge doð m e sy lfu m .’ N o w this very passage is adapted to Zacchæ us in Brotanek 1, Æ lfr ic ’s extra h om ily for the dedication o f a church, w h ich ought b y its largely n on rhythm ical style to have been com posed very soon after the Catholic Homilies. T h e passage begins (Brotanek, p. 13): N u cw ið sum m an on his gepance, pæ t pes Zacheus gesælig wære purh sw ylcne cum an, pæ t he m oste pam Æ lm ih tigan m id his m ettum penian. Soð pæ t is, gesælig he w æ s; ac swapeah ne purfe w e forpi ceorian. . . . T h e resem blance o f the tw o passages as a whole is so great that it was one o f Brotanek’s strongest argum ents on behalf o f Æ lfr ic ’s authorship o f the dedication hom ily, especially since the m ain source o f the latter (B ed e’s com m entary on Luke xix. 1 -1 0 ) contains only an oblique hint o f the idea. A n oth er facet o f this idea, nam ely the reception o f G o d as a spiritual gu est in the heart, is set forth in John xiv. 23, on w h ich Æ lfric had com ­ m ented at some length in Letania M aiore { C H II. 316). H e cam e back to it in our x. 38 sqq., where the opening words again echo the passage on M a r y and M arth a: ‘ G esæ lig bið se m ann pe swilce cum an u n d erfeh ð .’ 176 -8 0 . W ith these lines com pare the follow ing passages from Æ lfr ic ’s earlier treatm ents o f the story o f Z a c c h æ u s: {a) D rih ten, efne ic todæle healfne dæl m inra goda ðearfum, and swa h w æ t swa ic m id facne berypte, pæt ic w ylle be feow erfealdum fo rgyldan. D rih ten him to cw æ ð, N u to -d æ g is ðisum hirede hæl gefrem m ed. [ C H I. 582.] {b) Ic wille nu, m in D rihten, w æ dlum and pearfum dælan healfe m ine æhta, ealles pæs pe ic hæbbe, and g if ic hw æne bereafode unrihtlice oð ðis, ic w ylle pæt be feowerfealdum m id freondrædene forgildan. þ a cw æ p se H æ lend sona to Zachee p u s : N u to -d æ g is gefrem m ed pisum hirede hæl.

[Brotanek, p. 5.]

T h e first o f these passages is n o n -rh y th m ica l; the second, unlike the greater part o f the hom ily in w hich it occurs, is rhythm ical. C u rio u sly,

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the alliterative pattern o f the last line, in Brotanek and here, is less regular than in the early, non-rhythm ical version; bu t Æ lfric achieves m uch greater rhythm ic force b y puttin g the alliterating nouns in the second h alf o f the line, m ost o f all b y the full periodic suspension o f the Brotanek version. 219. hocas. T h is m etaphorical use is not clearly recognized in the dic­ tionaries until a m uch later period. See Glossary. 235. haman. T h is som ewhat specialized use o f hama for the slough o f a snake was cited b y N apier, C O E L , from M S . U . 251. unhearmgeorn and unhetol. T h e se words also were cited b y N apier from M S . U , as above. 273. mid þam þ ey ‘w ith those to w h o m ’ . C f. 154. 279. on sumere oðre stowe. T h is m ay seem an odd w ay o f referring to the verse that im m ediately follows the pericope Æ lfric is expounding. W as he led b y H aym o ’s w ay o f introducing it into m om entary forgetfulness o f where it occurs ? H e could hardly have forgotten for long if he had con­ sulted either Jerome or Bede, as I am quite sure he did. Probably, then, he only felt that a more specific reference was needless, or m igh t even be distracting.

XVII DOMINICA XII POST OCTAVAS PENTECOSTEN M arc. vii. 3 1-3 7

T

h i s

composite homily celebrates four of Christ’s miracles.

More than half of it is devoted to an exposition of the miracle described in the pericope for the day, but this is followed by accounts of three other miracles, two of them supplied with a few sentences of exposition, the third restricted to the gospel narrative. T h e two miracles in the middle are presented in a text that was once an independent composition of Æ lfric’s and a look at its earlier history may be enlightening. In Thorpe’s M S . ( U L C G g. 3. 28, our K), which alone has preserved Æ lfric’s Second Series as a separate entity, the homily for the third Sunday after Pentecost is followed by a short piece entitled A lia N arratio de Evangelii T extu , evidently intended to be read on the same occasion, though Thorpe gave it a separate num­ ber (II. xxvii). It also follows the third Sunday in M S S . C, D , E, and F. T h is piece contains a fairly close translation of two gospel passages {M atth, viii. 23-27 and M arc. v. 1-15 , 18-20) describing Christ’s stilling of the tempest on the Sea of Galilee and his sub­ sequent healing of the man possessed by a legion of devils, each passage being followed by a very brief comment on its significance. Æ lfric introduces these accounts with the following explana­ tion: Mine gebroðru, we wyllað eow gereccan sume Cristes wundra, to getrymmincge eoweres geleafan. We sind gecnæwe pæt we hit forgymeleasodon on ðam dæge þe mann þæt godspel rædde, ac hit mæg eow nu fremian swa micclum swa hit ða mihte. N ow the only reasons I can discover why these miracles are treated as a pendant to the third Sunday are, first, that the main homily for that day (on the feast to which the invited guests would not come, L uc. xiv. 16-24) *s rather short, and secondly, that near

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the end of it miracles are mentioned as one of the ways by which G od invites us to his feast (Thorpe II. 376/29 sq.). Hence Æ lfric might well have considered finding another resting-place for the

A lia Narratio, though not, I think, the one chosen in M S . M , where it is assigned to the fourth Sunday after Epiphany, the day on which its first gospel-text, M a tth, viii. 23-27, was to be read. Doubtless that is the day to which Æ lfric refers in the prefatory remarks quoted above; but the A lia Narratio is too short for a full homily and too even-handed in its treatment of the successive miracles to be appropriate for the day. It is probable, then, that Æ lfric left the A lia Narratio alone until he incorporated it in the present homily. In doing so he very properly omitted the apologetic second sentence quoted above (as M had done also), for here, instead of being a somewhat arbitrarily attached pendant, it is part of an intelligible design. T h e pericope for the thirteenth Sunday is itself an account of a miracle, and Æ lfric gives it a full enough exposition to meet the requirements of the day. But now, by adding the A lia Narratio, he gives pre­ eminence to the general theme of Christ’s miracles above the particular themes appropriate to the one miracle of the day. T h at he does this with full awareness is indicated by the introductory passage on the miracles (8-17), which was hardly needed as a pro­ logue to the first miracle alone, and by the extra, fourth miracle

{Luc. iv. 3 1-37) he has added at the very end. Th is final passage, incidentally, is so clearly Æ lfric’s and so closely linked with the

A lia N arratio that there can be little doubt of his responsibility for the entire compilation.1 Our only surviving witness, unfortunately, for the later portions of the homily is H, into which it was inserted by the interpolator; and H is not only damaged by fire but not wholly reliable as an authority for Æ lfric’s compositions. There is reason, however, to believe that U , which supports H for homilies x m -x v i, once sup­ ported it for xvii also. U is still intact from Easter to the tenth Sunday after Pentecost, but it breaks off abruptly in the midst of the homily for the eleventh Sunday { C H I. xxvm ). Within these limits it gives at least one homily for every Sunday, including the 1 We may deduce further that when Ælfric thus disposed of the Alia Narratio he had no intention of composing a homily for the fourth Sunday after Epiphany — at least not a homily on M atth. viii. 23-27. No /Elfrician homily for this day has in fact been found.

XVII

D O M I N I C A XI I P O S T O C T A V A S P E N T E C O S T E N 565

homily for the third Sunday after Pentecost to which the A lia

N arratio was formerly appended. But the A lia Narratio is not there. T h e chances are that in U ’s exemplar, and in U itself when it was complete, the A lia Narratio had become a part of the homily for the thirteenth Sunday after Pentecost. There is little to be gained by fixing a date for the homily, since it does not allude to contemporary matters. Presumably it belongs with homilies x m -x v i as a partial fulfilment of Æ lfric’s effort, during the latter part of his career, to round out his series of homi­ lies for the Sundays after Pentecost.1 Æ lfric’s sources for the exposition of his main text, M arc. vii. 3 1-3 7 , are of course to be distinguished from his sources for the brief passages of exposition in the A lia Narratio. For the main text he relies chiefly on Bede’s Homily 11. 6 (ed. Hurst). Bede himself had apparently assigned this homily to Holy Saturday, but in the homiliary of Paulus Diaconus it was assigned first to mid-August

( I Post Laurentii) and later to the thirteenth Sunday after Pentecost, as likewise in the collection of Smaragdus.2 T h e only readily avail­ able rival to Bede’s homily was Haymo’s Homily cxxiv, for the same Sunday on the same text. Th is Æ lfric certainly used, but less frequently than might be expected from his practice in some other homilies. I have found reason to quote Haymo only parenthetically, as it were, for the passages beginning at 106, 113, and 187. A t one point (78-81) Æ lfric apparently consulted Bede’s com­ mentary on M a rk for geographical information about Decapolis. T h e substance of Bede’s statement comes, indeed, from Jerome’s

Liber de S itu et Nominibus Locorum Hebræorum, and is repeated in Haym o’s homily, but the phrase ad orientem appears only in Bede’s commentary, and Æ lfric’s on eastdæle (78) seems to depend on it. I f Æ lfric did in fact turn to Bede’s commentary he found, and apparently rejected, the curious contention about the scene of the action to which I have alluded under Sources at line 78. It is uncertain which of several authorities Ælfric turned to for his interpretation of M a tth, viii. 23-27 in the A lia Narratio section. Four authorities were readily available to him: Jerome’s commen­ tary on M atthew , which nevertheless cannot have contributed more than one detail (iredran , 213), and most probably contributed even this indirectly; a homily for the fourth Sunday after Epiphany 1 See xiii, introduction, pp. 493-4. 2 On the homiliary of Paulus see the Introduction, pp. 156-7.

566 D O M I N I C A XII P O S T O C T A V A S P E N T E C O S T E N

xvii

ascribed to Origen1 in the homiliary of Paulus Diaconus (original version and M igne’s as well); a homily for the same Sunday by Haymo (no. xx); and Bede’s commentary on the parallel text,

M arc. iv. 35-40. Origen’s homily supplies all the details that are essential to Æ lfric’s interpretation, but it resembles Bede’s com­ mentary in a few points and Haymo’s homily, for which it was enthusiastically quarried, in many. For the sequence of thought and the expression I have found Bede and Haymo alternately a little closer to Æ lfric than Origen is, but I am not sure that a certain overplus of enthusiasm in Æ lfric for the display of divine power was not generated by the eloquence of Origen. It is inherently probable that Æ lfric had read this sermon. For M arc. v. 1-15 , 18-20 Æ lfric depended mainly on Bede’s commentary. A brief bit of information about the size of a legion

(eorod) at 249 sqq. is probably recollected, as M ax Förster surmised, from a passage in Smaragdus that had been consulted for another homily. (See Sources, 249.)

T he final miracle (Luc. iv. 31-37), being treated simply as a narrative, has only the Bible for authority. It may seem strange that Æ lfric should insert an old composition, mainly in ordinary prose, into the midst of a homily written in his fully matured rhythmical style; but comparable juxtapositions are in fact very common: witness L S xn and x vii; our xix and xxx; and the rhythmic additions, numbered x x v i-x x v m , to homilies in ordinary prose. It should be observed, however, that the A lia Narratio is partly rhythmical at several points where I have main­ tained the prose way of printing it, and so regularly rhythmical at the end that I have arranged it in metrical lines. 1 Falsely attributed to Bede by Marténe and printed as his by Giles, but now included in Origenes Werke, ed. E. Benz and K . Klostermann (Leipzig, 1941), X II. 256-62.

DOM INICA

X II PO S T O C T A V A S P E N T E C O S T E N

Ð æ s Hælendes eard wæs on Iudea lande, Galileiscre scire, pa þa he her on life wæs, on þære byrig Nazareth; ac he wæs geboren on pære byrig Bethleem, swa swa bee secgað. D a ferde he geond eall þære foresædan scire,

5

to eallum samnungum, symle lærende pæt folc, 7 bodigende godspell 7 Godes rice mannum, 7 ealle gehælde pe untrume wæron, 7 he ælce adle 7 ælce untrumnysse adræfde of eallum þam mannum þe him mihton to cuma(n).

10

His hlisa pa asprang to Sirian lande, ofer eall pæt rice, past is swiþ(e) rum land; 7 him man gebrohte pa to fela bedridan menn, 7 (þa) monaðseocan, 7 pa sylfan wodan, 7 on manegum adlum misli(ce ge)swencte;

15

7 se soþa Hælend gehælde hi ealle, 7 him þa folc gehwanon. N u segð us se godspellere pe þi(ss godspell ge)sette

pe nu gebirað to þissere mæssan, M a r c (v s

se þe) wæs martyr for Criste,

20

T e xt based on H (Cotton Vitellius C. v), ff. 172-5. For lines 1-202, 277-314 this copy is unique. Lines 203-76 have been interpolated from the Catholic Homilies and are collated with the six manuscripts ffeted at line 203. T h e nu­ merous lacunae in H which have resulted From the fire of 1731 are indicated by round brackets. When what is missing seems reasonably certain the necessary letters are supplied within the brackets. Otherwise the approximate number of letters is indicated by colons, and conjectural readings, if any, are put at the bottom of the page. i M S . has first three words in capitals. sic M S . (vs gehaten, se þe) ?* 5 4 2

17 (fyligde micel)?

20 M arc ..]

S ources . 5 -1 7 [Matth, iv. 23] Et circuibat Iesus totam Galilaeam, docens in synagogis eorum, et praedicans evangelium regni, et sanans omnem languorem et omnem infirmitatem in populo. [24] Et abiit opinio eius in totam Syriam, et obtulerunt ei omnes male ha­ bentes, variis languoribus et tormentis comprehensos, et qui daemonia habebant, et lunaticos, et paralyticos, et curavit eos. [25] Et secutae sunt eum turbae multæ de Galilaea, et Decapoli, et de Ierosolymis, et de Iudæa, et de trans Iordanem.

568 D O M I N I C A XI I P O S T O C T A V A S P E N T E C O S T E N

pæt ure Hælend be(:

xvii

sæ,

farende fram gemærum : : : : : : : : : :)*eiscan, on þam sælande swa o(: : : : : : : : : : : : :te)ne tyn (burhsci)ra. D a gebrohte man him to, tomiddes þam folce,

#f. i72v 25

ænne dumne mann, 7 se wæs eac swilce deaf, 7 bædon þone Hælend pæt he hine hrepode mid :)um; 7 se Hælend sona gelædde þone mannan ut of þære (meniu). He dyde pa his fingras innto his earan, 7 mid his halwendan spatle hys tungan hrepode,

30

7 beseah to heofenum, 7 sæde mid geomerunge to þam duman menn J?is an dyrne word,

Effeta: pæt is on Englisc, to geopenigenne; pæt his earan wurdon 7 his muð geopenode.

35

Hwæt þa, sona wurdon his earan geopenode, 7 his tungan bend wearð unbunden eac, 7 he rihtlice spræc mid his agenum gereorde. Ð a bebead se Hælend þam þe hine brohton

pæt hi hit ne sædon nanum menn nateshwon;

40

ac hi þæs J?e swiþor hit sædon mid wundrunge, 7 cyddon his mærþa mannum, þuss seegende: Wei he gedyde ealle þing þurh his wundorlican m ihte: he gedyde pæt pa deafan mihton wel gehyran, 7 he gedyde pam dumban past hi mihton sprecan.

45

Diss godspell is nu gesæd þuss sceortlice on Englisc; 21-24 See note. 24 swa o(n bocura synd gehate)ne.? Cf. line 80. 28 mid (his halwendum fingr)ura.? (Cf. line 121.) 29 (meniu) partially visible; cf. line 1 14. 42 M S has half-line point after maerþa instead of grammatical point after mannum.*3 7 6 5 4 2 21-45 [Marc. vii. 31] Et iterum exiens de finibus Tyri, venit per Sidonem ad Mare Galilææ inter medios fines Decapoleos. [32] Et adducunt ei surdum, et mutum, et deprecabantur eum, ut imponat illi manum. [33] Et apprehendens eum de turba seorsum, misit digitos suos in auriculas eius: et expuens, tetigit linguam eius: [34] et suspiciens in caelum, ingemuit, et ait illi: Ephphetha, quod est adaperire. [35] Et statim apertae sunt aures eius, et solutum est vinculum linguae eius, et loquebatur recte. [36] Et preaecepit illis ne cui dicerent. Quanto autem eis praecipiebat, tanto magis plus praedicabant: [37] et eo amplius admirabantur, dicentes: Bene omnia fecit: et surdos fecit audire, et mutos loqui.

XVII

D O M I N I C A XI I P O S T O C T A V A S P E N T E C O S T E N 569

nu wylle we geedlæcan eft pa ylcan word þæs halgan godspelles, 7 eow geopenian

pæt gastlice andgit be endebyrdnesse þære haligan lare, mid hyre getacnungum.

50

Tirus 7 Sidon syndon twa burga,

be þam spræc se Hælend on sumere stowe hwilon, pa pa he cidde swiþe pam burgum þe he on geworhte his wundra 7 tacna, (past) hi noldon gelyfan for his liflicum tacnum,

55

ne hi sylfe gerihtlæcan for his soþum wundrum. H e cw æ ð to þære byrig pe hatte Corozaim, 7 to anre oðre byrig, Bethsaida gehaten, W a J?e, Corozaim; wa þe, Bethsaida: g y f swylce wundra wurdon gefremode

60

on T yro 7 Sidone swa swa syndon on eow gefremode, gefyrn hi gedydon mycele dædbote on hæran 7 on axon. N u secge ic to soþan pæt sumera þinga by]? læsse wite on Domes-dæg T yro 7 Sidone

65

þonne eow sylfum beo, j?e gesawon mi(ne) wundra. Se Hælend genealæhte to pam sælande to þam worigendum (yþ)um, ðe hæfdon getacnunge J?[ære] unstæððignesse ]?æs stuntan men(nisce)s

pe butan geleafan leofedon oð pæt,

70

of þam he wolde habban ( : : : : : :)e to his gyfe, to pære miltsunge his micclan cystignesse, for (pan pe : : : : : : : : : :), swa swa pæt godspell us segð, 69 J?aere] J?a M S .

71 (gehwaen)e?*2 1

53-65 [Matth, xi. 20] T u n c coepit exprobare civitatibus, in quibus factæ sunt plurimae virtutes eius, quia non egissent paenitentiam. [21] Vae tibi Corozain, vae tibi Bethsaida: quia, si in Tyro et Sidone factae essent virtutes quae factae sunt in vobis, olim in cilicio et cinere paenitentiam egissent. [22] Verumtamen dico vobis: Tyro et Sidoni remissius erit in die iudicii, quam vobis. 6 7-72 [Bede, Horn. II. 6] Veniente in came Domino, exceptis paucis de Iudaea fidelibus, totus pene mundus ab agnitione et confessione veritatis surdus erraret et mutus. Sed ubi abundavit peccatum, superabundavit gratia (Rom. v. 20). Venit namque Dominus ad mare Galilææ, ubi noverat aegrotare quem sanaret. Venit suae gratia pietatis ad tumentia, turbida, et instabilia gentium corda, in quibus noverat esse qui ad suam gratiam pertinerent. ]Ælfric develops the idea independently.] 73-750 [Bede] Et bene inter medios fines Decapoleos ad mare Galilaeae, ubi aegrotum sanaret, venisse perhibetur, quia relicto ob perfidiam populo qui

570 D O M I N I C A XII P O S T O C T A V A S P E N T E C O S T E N

xvii

)>æt he gegaderode þa Go(des beam þe wæron tostencte, to his staðolfæstnesse

75

pæt hi lif hæfdon on him, se þe ure lif is 7 eae þæra ge)haten pa on eastdæle, begeondan þære bocum, pæt is T y n Burhscira, to #(þam) com se Hælend, sw(a swa se)gð þiss (godspell),

80 *f. 173

7 he þær ge(hælde) þurh his halgan hrepung(e J>)one deafan 7 þone dumban, 7 ge(dyde) hine halne, swa swa he ælcne dyde J?e him to genealæhte. Ð(es deafa) mann getacnode 7 þes dumba witodlice

85

eall Adames cynn, þe ad(ea)fode swiþe þurh þære næddran word, þe wæron us deadl(ice) on þære forgægednysse ongean Godes bebod,

pæt mancynn n(olde) mid geleafan gehiran pa halgan Godes word to his wissunge (þonne).

90

Mancynn adumbode eac fram his Drihtenes herungum syþþan (he) æne gespræc his agen bepæcend, 7 wið hine motode mid mycelre dyrstignysse, for þan þe hit is yfel, 7 mid attre gemenged,

pæt se mann motige wið þone manfullan deofol,

95

swa swa git doð foroft dryme(n) 7 wiccan on heora scincræfte, to beswicenne swa

pa ungesælige [«V] me(n) pe to him secað. 74 Go(des beam on anum)? 78 An eard wæs ge)haten? 79 (ea Iordanen : : : :)? 80 (Decapolis on)? 81 ]?am, godspell partially visible. 89 n(olde) seems likelier than n(e mihte). 90 (J?onne) or (þa)? Right-hand margin uneven. decalogi mandata acceperat, exteras venit ad gentes, ut sicut Ioannes ait, Filios Dei qui erant dispersi, congregaret in unum {loan, xi. 52). 78-81 [Bede, In Marc. vii. JJr] Decapolis est (ut ipso nomine probatur) regio decem urbium trans Iordanen ad orientem. [Haymof Horn. C X X I V , repeats this in substance but omits ad orientem, according to the text in Migne. Ælfric seems to ignore or avoid the ensuing contention in Bede's commentary that the action takes place in Galilee across the water from Decapolis. Bede's homily has only the allegorical interpretation in the preceding quotation, but it implies that the action is in Decapolis.] 85-90 [Bedet Horn. II. 6] Surdus ille et mutus . . . genus designat humanum, in his qui ab errore diabolicæ deceptionis divina merentur gratia liberari. Obsurduit namque homo ab audiendo vitae verbo, postquam mortifera serpentis verba contra Deum tumidus audivit. 91-93 [Bede] Mutus a laude Conditoris effectus est, ex quo cum seductore colloquium habere praesumpsit.

XVII

D O M IN ICA

XII

POST

OCTAVAS

PENTECOSTEN

571

N e mihte na se deafa ne se dumba abiddan þone halgan Hælend his agene hæle;

100

ac his magas bædon, þe hine gebrohton to Criste,

past he hine gehælde þurh his halgan m ihte; 7 he mildelice pam mannum getyþode, for þan pe he eall-god is, 7 æfre wel wille eallum rihtgeþancodum þe on hine truwiað. Swa we sceolon eac dón, gif sum ure freonda

105

ne mæg þurh hine sylfne secan set his Drihte«(e) his sawle læcedom mid soðre andetnysse; we sceolon him fulstan 7 him fore gebiddan, 7 mid Godes lare gelome hine tyhtan,

no

pæt he hi(s) sawle hæle gesece æt his Drihtene, paet he gehyran mage 7 herian his Scyppend. Ð iss halige godspell segð past ‘se Hælend sona gelædde þone mann ut of þære meniu,’ for pan pe he hine alædde of þæs folces gehlide, paet he hine awende fram his ærran gewunan

115

to hi(s) halgum bebodum mid gehyrsumnesse, past he on godum þeawum Gode gelicode, 7 to Godes wegum awende hine sylfne. ‘ He dyde pa his fingras innto his earan.’

120

99“ 102 [Bede] Quia ipse surdus Salvatorem agnoscere, mutus rogare nequibat, adducunt eum amici, et pro eius salute Domino supplicant. 106-12 [Bedef partially] Sic nimirum, sic in spiritali necesse est curatione geratur, ut si quis humana industria ad auditum confessionemque veritatis con­ verti non potest, divinae pietatis offeratur aspectibus, atque ad sanandum eum supemæ manus flagitetur auxilium. [Perhaps also Haymo] Tales ut auditum et loquelam spiritalem recipere possint, a magistris et doctoribus Ecclesiae Domino adducuntur. i 13-19 [Ælfric simplifies suggestions from Bede and Haymo: Bede] Prima namque salutis spes est, quemlibet assuetos vitiorum tumultus turbasque de­ serere, et sic ad suscipienda sanitatis munera humiliter caput inclinare. . . . A t qui miserante et adiuvante Domino turbidam priscae conversationis vitam mutavit, qui inspirationem divinae gratiae corde concepit, qui verbo doctrinae caelestis confessionem verae didicit fidei, restat ut confestim optata sanitatis gaudia consequatur. [Haymo] Sed prius ipsum a turba separat, et postea sanat, ut intelligat genus humanum se aliter sanitatem animae non posse recipere, nisi prius pristinos errores relinquens, a turba immundorum spirituum, et tumultu vitiorum sese redderet alienum. 120-9 [Bede] Digitos quippe surdo in auriculas ut audiat mittit, cum per dona gratiae spiritalis diu non credentes ad auditum sui verbi convertit. . . . Per digitos namque Domini Spiritus Sancti dona significari et ipse docet dicens, S i ego in digito Dei eiicio daemonia (Luc. xi. 20): quod alius evangelista manifestius ponit, S i ego in spiritu Dei eiicio daemonia (Matth, xii. 28). [Bedefs quotations seem to

Ðæs Hælendes fingras, J?e halwende syndo(n), getacniað soðlice pa seofonfealdan gyfa þæs Halgan Gastes, þe ure heortan onlihtað; 7 þurh pa ylcan gyfe he onlihte his mod,

pæt he mih(te) gehyran pa halwendan lare, 7 andgit swa habban þurh þone Ha(l)gan G a st;

125

7 se Hælend adræfde, þurh þone ylcan Gast,

pa egesl(ican) deofla of þam gedrehton mannum, 7 he him gewitt forgeaf him (syl)fum to wyrðmynte. ‘ M id his halwendan spatle he hrep(ode his) tungan,’

130

paet he sprecan mihte, 7 mannum eac cyþan him mid menniscum gesceade,

pæt ælc mann sceol(de,

onliht,

his geleafan andettan oþrum me(: ‘(He be#sea)h to heofonum, 7 sæde mid geom(erunge *f. i73v to) þam dum(ba)n menn þis (an dyrne word): 136

E ffeta : pæt (is) on Englisc, (to) geopenigenn(e).’ T o heofonum (he) beseah mid swiþlicere geomerunge, for þan þe he gesceop him sylf to heofonlicum þingum, 7 him hearde ofhreow

140

pæt we swa ( : : : : : : : : ) þ>a befeollon þanon (on) pa eorðlican þing ealles to utlice. (He ge)swutelode eac mid his sylfes geomerunge

pæt we sceolon gewilnian (þære h)eofonlican wununge, to pære pe we wæron geworhte æt fruman, (mid) modes geomerunge 7 mid manegum tearum,

14s

for þan p t swa mycel þing (m)ot beon geearnod mid mycelre gewilnunge 7 þæs modes godnesse. 132 (Godes mærða on)? (First two letters either go or to.) 133 sceol(de, pa God his mod)? 134 me(nn ( The concluding word may have been an adverb ending in -lice.) l 35~7 Cf. lines 32-34. 139 (us æt fruman)? 141 (feorran)? (Last letter either r or n; cf. Bede's longe.)

have prompted Ælfric's elaboration in 127-9, though the ground has been prepared for it in the introductory paragraph, line 14.] 131-4 [Bede] Expuens, linguam muti, ut loqui valeat, tangit, cum per mini­ sterium praedicationis rationem fidei, quam confiteri debeat, praestat. 138-42 [Bede] Suspiciens in caelum ingemuit, quia nos quos ad caelestia possidenda creavit, longe in terrestria deiectos esse doluit. 143-8 [Bede] Suspiciens in cælum ingemuit, ut nobis qui a caelestibus gaudiis per terrena oblectamenta discessimus, ad haec per gemitus et suspiria insinuaret esse redeundum.

XVII

D O M I N I C A XI I P O S T O C T A V A S P E N T E C O S T E N 573

He cw æ ð pa effeta, pæt ys to geopenigenne, for þære deafnysse þe him derode oð pæt;

150

ac his halwende hrepung his earan undyde. Be þære ylcan dæde doð git Godes þenas þonne hi cild fulliað, pæt hi settað heora fingras innan þæs cildes earan. mid heora spatle, 7 on þæs cildes nosu, secgende effeta.

155

Ð æ t spatl getacnað, swa swa þes traht segð, þone upplican wisdom þe hit gewilnian sceal, 7 þære nosa stenc getacnað þone stenc be þam pe se apostol Paulus þuss awrat: Christ/ bonus odor sumus Deo in omni loco:

160

W e syndon us sylfe soðlice Cristes bræð, Gode sylfum god bræð on ælcere stowe. Be þam ilcan gecw æ ð se eadiga lo b : Swa lange swa [s]eo oreðung is on us wunigende, 7 Godes Gast on urum nosum, ne sceolon we sprecan

165

unrihtwisnysse on urum welerum, ne leasunga smeagan mid ure tungan ahwar. ‘ Hwæt, þa sona wurdon his earan geopenode, 7 his tungan bend wearð unbunden eac, 7 he rihtlice spræc mid his agenum gereorde.’

170

W e sprecað rihtlice on rihtum geleafan, 164 seo] peo M S . 149-51 [Bede] Quod autem ait Effeta, id est, adaperire, propter aures dicit sanandas, quas surditas diutina clauserat, sed ad audiendum iam tactus patefecit ipsius. 152-67 [Bede] Unde credo mos increbuerit Ecclesiae, ut sacerdotes illius his, quos percipiendis baptismi sacramentis praeparant, prius inter caetera consecra­ tionis exordia de saliva oris sui nares tangant et aures, dicentes Effeta: per sali­ vam quidem oris sui, gustum quo initiandi sunt supernae sapientiae designantes: per tactum vero narium, ut abiectis delectationibus noxiis, solum Christi semper amplectantur odorem, de quo dicit Apostolus: Christi hortus odor sumus Deo in omni loco (II Cor. ii. 1 4 , J5), et ut meminerint se iuxta exemplum beati lob, donec superest halitus in eis, et spiritus Dei in naribus eorum, non loqui iniquitatem labiis, nec lingua mendacium meditari debere (adaptation of lob xxvii. 3-4). 1 7 1-9 [Bede] Qui ergo recte loqui baptismatis nostri tempore didicimus, corde credendo ad iustitiam, ore autem confessionem faciendo ad salutem, curandum summopere est, ne post baptisma ad iniusta et noxia verba declinemus. . . . Non solum a malis aures linguamque satis est castigare loquelis, si non etiam iuxta Psalmistam inclinemus aurem nostram in verba oris Dei (Psal. Ixxvii. j ), si non os nostrum loquatur sapientiam, et meditatio cordis nostri prudentiam (Psal. xlviii. 4). Sed et cunctos simul interioris exteriorisque hominis nostri sensus, quia cuncti in baptismo abluti sunt, oportet mundos ac bonis operibus C 2710.2

G

574 DOMINICA XII POST OCTAVAS PE NT ECO ST EN

xvii

pæt we rihtlice gelyfon on þone lyfigendan God, 7 we hine andettan, us sylfiuw to hæle. N u sceole we hogian pæt we hine ne gremion æfter urum fulluhte ealles to swipe,

175

þurh unrihtwise word 7 pa yfelan dæda; ac we sceolon swipor hine symle gladian on mode 7 on mupe, 7 eac mid pam (dæd)um,

pæt ure andetness us idel ne beo. ‘Ð a bebead se Hælend pam pe hine brohton

180

past hi hit ne sædon nanum menn nateshwon; ac hi pæs (p)e swipor hit sædon mid wundrunge, 7 cyddan his mærða mannum, (pu)ss cweðende: Wei he gedyde ealle ping purh his wundorlican mih(te: h)e gedyde past pa deafan mihton wel gehyran,

185

7 he gedyde p[am] dum(ban past hi) mihton sprecan.’ Se Hælend, pe mihte swylce wundra gefrem(man, mihte) eac don past hi digle wæron; ac he bebead pam mannum for pan pe he sealde him sylf us swa bysne

190

pe w)e for Gode gedop pæne idelan gylp æfre for#b(ugon Se idela gylp

#f. 174

h(: : : : : : : : : : : :

178 dæd-] The lower half of each letter is visible, 186 pam] pæt pa M S , but cf. line 45. hi] The top of the i is visible, 189 (past hi hit nanum ne saedon)? 191 (pæt we on pam godura daedura pe w)e.? 194-5 (huru is an) h(eafodleahter, Gode swiðe and)saete.? (The eafo of heafod- almost intact though out of position,) servemus insuper omatos semper. [Ælfric's treatment of the sentiment retains only a few of Bede's details,'] 187-202 [Bede] Quare, fratres carissimi, hæc acta credamus? Numquid aestimandum est, quod unigenitus Dei Filius signum faciens, et abscondi hoc voluerit, et contra voluntatem illius sit patefactum in turbas, nec potuerit silentio signum tegere si vellet, quod potuit facere cum voluit ? An forte nobis exemplum dare voluit, ut virtutum opera facientes, vitium iactantiæ per omnia gloriamque vitemus humanam, ne bona nostra actio, per inanem vulgi favorem supernae retributionis munere privetur? [Haymo: cf, esp, 198-202] Bonis exemplum ostendit, ut etiam in bono opere inanem gloriam et iactantiam cave­ amus, iuxta quod alibi ipse praecipit, ut intremus in cubiculum, et clauso ostio oremus Patrem nostrum. Et Pater noster, qui videt in abscondito, reddet nobis (Matth, vi, 6), [At 200 Ælfric includes a reminder of Matth, vi, 4] Sit eleemosyna tua in abscondito, f Bede continues with a subtler discussion of the problem in which he refers to texts in Matth, v and vi, but does not mention directly those which appear in Haymo and Ælfric.]

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D O M I N I C A XI I P O S T O C T A V A S P E N T E C O S T E N 575

: : : : : : : : : : : : : :)sæte, 7 we (eac) sceolon þone yfelan unþeaw us fram ascy(r)ian,

195

g yf we habban wyllað þa heofonlican (m)ede, for þan þe [se] Hælend swiþe oft forbead on (his halgum) godspellum þysne heafodleahter, 7 het us on digelnysse don ure ælmyssan, 7 ure gebedu binnan urum locum,

200

past G od sylf hit us forgilde, þe gesihð úre digelnysse. W e wyllað eow gereccan sume Cristes wundra, to getrymminge eowres geleafan. Vre Drihten stah on scyp, 7 him fyligdon his leorningcnihtas. Efne p z færlice aras mycel styrung 7 hreohness 205 on þære sæ, swa pæt pæt scyp wearð mid yþum oferþeht. Se wind witodlice heom stod ongean mid ormætum blæde. And se Hælend wearð on slæpe on þam steor-setle. Ð a genealæhton his leorning­ cnihtas 7 hine awrehton, þuss cweðende: Drihtew, gehelp ure; we losiað! He andwyrde, Eala ge lytles geleafan, to hwi synd ge afyrhte? 210 He aras pz, 7 þywde þone wind 7 p z sæ, 7 het hi stille beon. Hwæt p z sona wearð geworden mycel smyltnyss on þære sae, swa past pz 198 se] not in M S . 199 his halgum partially visible. 203-76 From Catholic Homilies, ‘Alia Narratio de Evangelii Textu', incompletely printed by Thorpe, II. 378-80. Here collated with Thorpe's M S , K (U L C Gg. 3. 28), f . 2o g T~v, and with five others: C ( C C C C 3°3)> PP• 2 5 5 -6 : D (Bodley 342), ff. 7 lW~73\ E (C C C C 198), ff. 266~7v: F (C C C C 162), pp. 4 6 8 -72; and M ( U L C Ii. 4. 6),ff. i 8 y~ 2 iy. Variants in spelling and E 's Latin glosses are omitted. 203 before We] Title as above D E F K ; Ewangelium C ; space without title M\ followed by M ine gebroðru, -a, C D E F K M . eow . . . wundra] sume cristes rinda (sic) eow gereccan E. 204 after geleafan] We sind gecnæwe pæt we hit forgymeleasodon on ðam dæge pe mann pæt godspel rædde, ac hit mæg eow nu fremian swa micclum swa hit ða mihte. C D E K . stah] astah C D E F K M . 207 witodlice] not in C D E F K M . 208-14 Da . . . gehyrsumiað] om. Thorpe, present in all M S S . 209 awehton E M . *2 7 6 5 4

203-14 [Matth, viii. 23] Et ascendente eo in naviculam, secuti sunt eum discipuli eius. [24] Et ecce motus magnus factus est in mari, ita ut navicula operiretur fluctibus; ipse vero dormiebat [in puppe, Marc. iv. 38]. [25] Et accesserunt ad eum discipuli eius, et suscitaverunt eum, dicentes: Domine, salva nos, perimus. [26] Et dicit eis Iesus: Quid timidi estis, modicae fidei ? Tunc surgens, impera­ vit ventis et mari [Et exsurgens comminatus est vento, et dixit mari: Tace, obmutesce. Mare. iv. 39], et facta est tranquillitas magna. [27] Porro homines mirati sunt, dicentes: Qualis est hic, quia venti et mare obediunt ei? [With Ælfric's reðran, 213, cf. Jerome, In Matth.] Non discipuli, sed nautae, et caeteri qui in navi erant, mirabantur. [Quoted by Bede, In Marc. iv. 40; Haymo, Horn. X X . Same idea in Origen, P L X C V . 1199.]

576 D O M I N I C A XII P O S T O C T A V A S P E N T E C O S T E N

xvn

reðran, micclum wundriende, cwædon: Hwæt la, hwylc is þes,

pæt ægðer ge windas ge sæ him gehyrsumiað ? Se Hælend geswutelode mid þam slæpe þa soþan menniscnysse, 215 7 mid þam wundre his godcundan mægenþrymnysse. He slep swa swa soð mann, 7 he þa yþiendan sæ mid anre hæse gestilde swa swa ælmihtig Scyppend, þe ær g(e)sette þære sæ gemæru, pæt heo nateshwón ne mot middaneard oferga(n). Hi pa oferreowon þone brym 7 gelendon on þam lande pe is 220 213 wundriende] wundredon 7 E. 214 pæt] pe F . 215 pa] his KM. 216 7 . . . mægenj?rymnysse] om. E. 217 yðiende C D E F . *2 1 9 7 6 5 4 3 215-19 \Bedef In Marc. iv. 35] In hac navigatione Dominus utramque unius eiusdemque suæ personae naturam dignatur ostendere dum ipse qui ut homo dormit in navi furorem maris verbo compescit ut Deus. [Haymo, Horn. X X ] Ipse enim erat in navi, qui in principio terminum constituit maris, dicens: Hucusque veniesy et non procedes amplius, et hic confringes tumentes fluctus tuos (lob xxxviii). [Origen has same ideas. For 218-19 cf. Psal. ciii. 9] Terminum posuisti quem [aquae] non transgredientur; neque convertentur operire terram. 220-48 [Mare. v. r] Et venerunt trans fretum maris in regionem Gerasenorum. [2] Et exeunti ei de navi, statim occurrit de monumentis homo in spiritu immundo, [3] qui domicilium habebat in monumentis, et neque catenis iam quisquam poterat eum ligare, [4] quoniam saepe compedibus et catenis vinctus, dirupisset catenas, et com­ pedes comminuisset, et nemo poterat eum domare. [5] Et semper die ac nocte in monumentis et in montibus erat, clamans, et con­ cidens se lapidibus, [ita ut nemo posset transire per viam illam, Matth, viii. 28]. [6] Videns autem Iesum a longe, cucurrit et adoravit eum; [7] et clamans voce magna dixit: Quid mihi et tibi, Iesu Fili Dei Altissim i? adiuro te per Deum, ne me torqueas. [£] Dicebat enim illi: Exi spiritus immunde ab homine. [9] Et interrogabat eum: Quod tibi nomen est? Et dicit ei: Legio mihi nomen est, quia multi sumus. [70] Et deprecabatur eum multum, ne se expelleret extra regionem. [j/ ] Erat autem ibi circa montem grex porcorum magnus, pascens. [12] Et deprecabantur eum spiritus, dicentes: Mitte nos in porcos ut in eos introeamus. [jtj] Et concessit eis statim Iesus. Et exeuntes spiritus immundi introierunt in porcos; et magno impetu grex praecipitatus est in mare ad duo millia, et suffocati sunt in mari. [14] Qui autem pascebant eos, fugerunt, et nuntiaverunt in civitatem . . . [1 6] qualiter factum esset ei qui daemonium habuerat, et de porcis. [14] Et egressi sunt videre quid esset factum: [^5] et veniunt ad Iesum, et vident illum qui a daemonio vexabatur, sedentem, vestitum, et sanae mentis. . . . [i£] Cumque ascenderet navim, coepit illum deprecari qui a daemonio vexatus fuerat, ut esset cum illo. [ 1 9] Et non admisit eum, sed ait illi: Vade in domum tuam ad tuos et annuntia illis quanta tibi Dominus fecerit, et misertus sit tui.

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D O M I N I C A XI I P O S T O C T A V A S P E N T E C O S T E N 577

gehat(en) Gerasenorum. Efne pa pa hi upp eodon, arn p x r an wod mann togeanes þam Hælende, se hæfde wununge on hæpenum byrgenum, 7 hi(ne) ne mihte nan mann mid racenteagum gehealdan, ne mid fótcopsu(m) gehæftan, for pan pe he eapelice tobræc pa isenan racenteaga, 7 pa fotcopsas eall tocwysde. He wunode on 225 dunum dæges 7 nihtes, 7 on byrgenum, hrymewde, 7 beatende hine sylfne mid stanum, 7 nan mann ne mihte pæs weges faran. He arn

pa to pam Hælende, pa pa he hine g(e)seah, 7 feoll to his fotum, mid mycelre stemne clypiende, Eala p(u) Hælend, pæs Hehstan Godes Sunu, ic halsige pe past pu me ne tintr(egie). Se Hælend 230 him cw æ ð to, Ð u unclæna gast, gewit of pam menn. A(nd he) hine

pa befran hwæt his nama wære. Ð a andwyrde se uncl(æna gast) purh pæs wodan muð, 7 cwæð, M in nama is eorod, for p(an pe we her ma)nega synd. A nd bæd hine pa micclum past he hine of 234 p*(am earde ne adræfde. Ð a stod pær onemm ða dune micel heord #Last ktter swyna,)#7 pa deofla bædon past hi mosto(n into ðam swynum. f I74 [þ a geðafode se Hælend pæt ðam deoflum. And hi gewiton of ðam *f. 1 7 ^ men into ðam swynum.] þa swyn ða e)alle endemes scuton into line 2pære s(æ, sume twa)

pusend(:), 7 pær adruncon purh pone

(deofel)lican scy(f)e. Ð a swanas fiugon afyrhte to pære byrig, 7 240 cyddon (be pa)m swynum, 7 be pam witseocan menn. Ð a comon pa ceastergewaran sona to pam Hælende, 7 gesáwon pone wodan mann wel gescrydne, 7 gewittiges modes, se pe ær awedde. Ð a gewende Crist to scype, 7 se gewitseoca hine bæd past he moste mid him. Drih(t) In Mare. v. 1 1 - 1 2 ] In quorum tamen interitu figuraliter homines immundi, vocis et rationis expertes, iudicantur, qui in monte superbiae pascentes, lutulentis oblectantur in actibus. Talibus enim per cultus idolorum possunt daemonia dominari. Nam nisi quis porci more vixerit, non in eum diabolus accipiet potestatem, aut ad probandum tantum, non autem et ad per­ dendum accipiet. 262-6 [Cf. I I Petr. ii. 21-22 ] Melius enim erat illis non cognoscere viam iustitiæ, quam post agnitionem retrorsum converti ab eo. . . . Contigit enim eis illud veri proverbii: . . . Sus lota in volutabro luti.

265

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D O M I N I C A X I I P O S T O C T A V A S P E N T E C O S T E N 579

Se pe oft gegremað G od þurh leahtras, 7 æfre geedlæcð his yfelan dæda,

270

he byþ swyne gelic, 7 forscyldegod wið God. U ton we herian urne Drihten symle on his micclum wundrum, 7 us miltsunge biddan, 7 yfel forlætan, 7 eft ne geedlæcan,

pæ t we moton ætwindan þam wælhreowan deoflum

275

7 Gode geþeon þurh gode gehealtsumnesse. W e wyllað eow gyt secgan sum wundor be Criste, (7) þas geendunge eallswa geglengan, a[n]fealdum andgite, swa swa (Luc)as hit awrat on þære Cristes bec, þuss cweðende be him:

280

Se (Hæle)nd ferde iv [sic] to Capharnon-byrig on Galileiscum earde, þær (þær his eð)el wæs, and he hi pær lærde on heora restendagum, and hi ealle his) wundorlican lare, for pan pe his spræc wæs on swiðli(c : : : : : : : : : :

285

: : : þ)ær wæs pa an wod mann on pære gesamnunge mid pam afylled, 7 se awyrgeda gast þas word pa clypode *swiðe ge(:

Crist, hwæt is u(s) gemæ(n)e?

* f. 175 290

þ u (co)me to fordo(n)ne 7 to amyrr(enne us)! 269 þurh leahtras] J?urh leahtrum C D K . 274 ne] om. M . 275 wælhreowan] -u m F K M . 276 Jrnrh gode] þurh godre C D E F K M . after gehealtsumnesse] þam sy wuldor and wurðmynt á to worulde. Amen. C D E F K M (Amen om. M ). End of extract from Catholic Homilies. 279 andfealdum M S. 284 (wundredon his).? (his partially visible; see note on wundredon). 285-6 swiðli(cere mihte. And p)ær? (Spacing favours -ere and unabbreviated And.) 287 (fulan gaste deoflice) ? 281-305 [Luc. iv. 3 1 ] Et descendit in Capharnaum civitatem Galilææ, ibique docebat illos sabbatis. [32] Et stupebant in doctrina eius, quia in potestate erat sermo ipsius. [33] Et in synagoga erat homo habens daemonium immundum, et exclamavit voce magna, dicens: [34] Sine, quid nobis et tibi, Iesu Nazarene? venisti perdere nos? scio te quis sis, Sanctus Dei. [35] Et increpavit illum Iesus, dicens: Obmutesce, et exi ab eo. Et cum proiecisset illum daemonium in medium, exiit ab illo, nihilque illum nocuit. [36] Et factus est pavor in omnibus, et colloquebantur ad invicem, dicentes: Quod est hoc verbum, quia in potestate et virtute imperat immundis spiritibus, et exeunt? [37] Et divulgabatur fama de illo in omnem locum regionis.

58o D O M I N I C A XI I P O S T O C T A V A S P E N T E C O S T E N

xvii

Eala (ic) wat ge(are) pæt pu eart God(es) Halg(a). Se Hæ(le)nd pa s(ona) preade pone deofol, puss him secgende: Swi(ga) pu hrað(e),

7 gewi(t aw)eg of pisum wodan menn; 7 he swa sona pone sceoccan adræ(fde) of pam earm(an) menn, heom eallum tomiddes,

295

7 se deofol ne miht(e) naht derian pam menn. Ð a wearð mycel óga on eallum pam mannum, 7 hi swipe (spræ)con, secgende heom betwynan,

3°°

Hwæt is la piss word, puss wundorlic on him,

pæt he on anwealde 7 on mihte bebytt pam unclænum gast(um) past hi ut gewitað ? Ð a wearð gewidmærsod wide his hlisa on æ(lcere) stowe ealles pæs eardes. Swylce wundra worhte se [wel]willenda H(ae)lend

305

her on pisum life, to geleafan t(r)ymminge,

pæt pa mihton sec(gan) p t gesawon his wundra, 7 we magon witan pe pa word gehyrað, swa swa his godspelleras be him sylfum awriton,

310

past he is Godes Suna pe gesceop ealle ping, 7 ús pa alysde mid his agenum life of deofles a(n)wealde; pæs we him á secgað wuldor 7 wyrðmynt mid wordum 7 daedum. A M E N . 293 After deofol an extra space, probably a letter erased. 294 Swiga] no cap. M S . 295 Bracketed letters partially visible. 301 wundorlic at end of line, followed by traces which are not certainly those of another letter. Adverb seems less likely than adjective. 306 wel-] not in M S . See note.

N O TES Title. A s w ill be seen from x i i i - x v i , M S . H , w h ich is here the only authority, num bers the Sundays after the octave instead o f after Pentecost itself. A cco rd in g to the system in U , this is the thirteenth S un d ay after Pentecost. 5 - 1 7 . C f. x ia. 10 2-2 7 and note. A n earlier version o f the same passage in Matthew is in L S x v i. 13 4 -4 1. U n fortun ately it does not include the beginning o f verse 25, represented here b y the im perfectly preserved line 17. 2 1 -2 4 . A troublesom e passage. O n e m igh t expect the first line to include the adjective Galileisc and the next two to include both T y r e and Sidon, since they are not only in the L atin bu t are expressly nam ed in

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D O M I N I C A XI I P O S T O C T A V A S P E N T E C O S T E N 581

Æ lfr ic ’s exposition at line 51. T h e -eiscan o f line 23 is not proper to S id o n ; it suggests rather Galileiscan or Iudeiscan. B u t some sense can be achieved b y reading Sidoneiscan and attributing the e to an inaccuracy in the form ation o f the adjective or, more probably, to a scribal deviation en­ couraged b y leaving - iscan for the top o f a new page. A gain , line 24, if I have guessed its content correctly b y com parison w ith 80 and b y the presence o f a nom inative plural ending -e on the past participle, ought to be pre­ ceded b y the L a tin form Decapolis, for w h ich there is no room in the m anuscript. I f this nam e is supplied, and if the blank spaces in the first three lines are stretched sligh tly beyon d w hat I have estimated, w e can read as fo llo w s: pæ t ure H æ lend be(com to pære Galileiscan) sæ, farende fram gem ærum (pæs T y risca n folces geond pæ t Sidon)eiscan, on J?am sælande [Decapolis], swa o(n bocum synd gehate)ne tyn (burhsci)ra. T h is squares w ith the L a tin and w ith w hat Æ lfric says later (51, 67, 7 8 80), b u t I do not think Æ lfric w ould have approved o f m y treatm ent o f T y r e and Sidon, and if D ecapolis is indeed m issing, w e m ay have lost a w hole line. Æ lfric generally uses swa swa as a subordinating conjunction rather than swa. I have pu t tyn (burhsci)ra here in lower case, in contrast to 80, w here w e u n d ou btedly have a place-nam e. 73. D id the m issing words express the idea that C h rist died or that he cam e into the w orld? Bede has partially quoted the passage in w hich Caiaphas is said to have prophesied quod Iesus moriturus erat pro gente; et non tantum pro gente, sed ut filios D e i , qui erant dispersi, congregaret in unum (.loa n . xi. 51 sq.). B u t Æ lfric m ay rather have been guided b y B e d e’s repeated use o f the verb venire. 92. agen bepæcend. Probably w e should read agenne, accusative sin gu ­ lar m asculine. C f. 99 sq., note. 94. mid attre gemenged. In D e Auguriis , L S x v n . 127, Æ lfric says o f the devil, eall hit bid ættrig þæ t him o f cymð. 96. W ith this attack on drymen and wiccan compare not only the original D e Auguriis bu t the addition to it, our x x ix . 9 8 98.

þe to him secað, ‘w ho resort to them (for help)’ . T h is idiom has not

been recognized in B T and is dated too late b y the O E D , seek 13, w hich begins the list o f illustrations w ith a quotation from a T r in ity College h om ily o f about 1200. A ctu a lly one o f the quotations in B T , I. 2, ‘to try to get (the source from w h ich a thing is sought marked b y io)’, lacks an accusative object and m ay be the earliest surviving instance o f the idiom. It is in Andreas, 907 s q q .: þ æ r is help gearu, m ilts æt m ærum , manna gehw ylcum , sigorsped geseald, J?am pe seceð to him.

58z D O M I N I C A XI I P O S T O C T A V A S P E N T E C O S T E N

xvii

N eith er G . P. K rap p nor the latest editor o f the poem , K . R . Brooks (O xford, 1961), has anything to say about seceð here. V e r y likely th ey agree w ith B T that it is an elliptical variant o f the transitive use. B u t the ellipsis is vague, since the reference m ust be to all three o f the previous nouns, helpy miltSy and sigorsped. I prefer to think that w e are dealing w ith the intransitive idiom , ‘ to anyone w ho resorts to h im \ It seems probable indeed that the intransitive secan toy in w h ich to m ay govern either the place where or the person from w h om some unnam ed benefit is sought, has developed from the corresponding transitive idiom in w h ich the bene­ fit sought is clearly specified. B T has another quotation, this tim e from Æ lfric, under II. 2, ‘ to seek a place, to visit, resort to\ where instead o f the usual accusative w e find the adverb ðider: H i syððan gewunelice 3ider sohtoriy ‘they afterwards resorted thither*, C H I. 504/6, where w hat is actually sought is the help o f G o d and St. M ich ael. Surely this also should be considered an exam ple o f intransitive secan to. 99 sq. abiddan pone . . . H æ lend his agene hæle. T h e double accusative here is probably incorrect. O th er exam ples o f abiddan in these hom ilies have the accusative or a clause for the thing asked for and æt w ith the dative for the person from w hom it is to be obtained. (So, w ith acc. object, I. 2 3 1; v iii. 7 3 ; x x ii. 90; and w ith clause, v m . 126; xv. 178; x x v n . 19).

B u t the unprefixed biddan sometimes takes the accusative o f the person addressed and the genitive o f the th in g (v. 14; v i. 54), or the genitive o f the thing w ithout m ention o f the person addressed (see the G lossary); and B T S cites an exam ple o f æt Gode abiddan w ith genitive o f the thing, from C H I. 170/29 sq. I suspect w e should read agenre hæle as a genitive. F o r another probable error in the inflection o f ageny see the note on 92. 142. utlice. T h is adverb has not been recorded in the dictionaries o f O ld English, though the adjective utlic ‘external, foreign* appears in B T w ith tw o citations from the O ld En glish Bede (ed. M iller, E E T S , O .S . 95, pp. 308/30 and 360/16), and H a ll-M e ritt adds a passage from the Rule o f Chrodegang (ed. N apier, E E T S , O .S . 150, p. 61/21), where the m eaning is ‘remote* {an utlicre stowe). Æ lfric*s rueful ealles to utlice can be taken as ‘all too remotely*, adding further em phasis to the conjectured szca feorran ‘so far away* in line 141. B ut it can also be taken as ‘all too completely*, w ith emphasis on the completeness o f our preoccupation w ith the earthly things into w h ich we have fallen. T h e O E D has outlyy adv., in the sense ‘out and out, utterly, completely*, the first quotation dated 1290 from the South English Legendary, and it m ay w ell be that this sense was already available to Æ lfric. I f so, it was very likely the dom inant sense in his m in d ; bu t both senses m ay have been present, for both are relevant, and in this passage they support each other. 172 sq. gelyfony andettan. D o these subjunctives represent only a con­ ventional doubt after a verb o f saying, or does Æ lfric m ean to em phasize the possibility that these are idle words, in anticipation o f line 179 ? 176. purh unrihtwise word andþa yfelan dæda. Is the shift from indefinite to definite m erely a variation or a clim actic device? In the corrupted

XVII

D O M I N I C A XI I P O S T O C T A V A S P E N T E C O S T E N

583

passage at 11. 196 sq. there m ay have been com parable variation, b u t it looks as if dæda had preceded word. 187. gefrem(mari). T h is form and gefremian are both represented in Æ lfric m anuscripts. See the G lossary, fremian and gefremian. 20 3-76. T h e gospel-passages partially om itted b y T h o rp e from his edition o f the hom ilies were printed in full b y A . S. N apier, Archiv fü r das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Literatureny C I and C I I (1898-9), from several m anuscripts other than T h o r p e ’s. T h e tw o passages here {M atth, viii. 2 3 -2 7 and M arc. v. 1 - 1 5 , 18 -20 are in C I I . 36 sq., taken from M S . B odley 342 (D ), ff. 7 i v, 72. M y report o f D ’s readings, from photostats, corresponds w ith N a p ie r’s, except that I have not recorded variations o f spelling. 262-66. W ith this adaptation o f I I Petr. ii. 21 sq. compare x m . 2 3 0 4, and the glancing allusion in x v i. 67 sq. 284. T h e conjectured wundredon ‘wondered at’ w ould norm ally govern the genitive, and his zvundorlican lare can be so construed. T h e play on words is o f a sort not unusual in Æ lfric. For zvundrian w ith the genitive, see line 248 in the present hom ily and the Glossary. 306. [weljwillenda. T h e em endation seems necessary, especially in view o f the other occurrences o f se welwillenda Hælendy w ith various inflec­ tional endings, at v n . 156; xi. 144; x v m . 157.

XVIII SERMO DE DIE IUDICII (i)

Luc.

XVÜ. 20,

2 1 , 24, 26-31, 34-37

(2) M a tth , xxiv. 15-25, 29-31, with substitutions from M arc. xiii. 14-27

T hi s and the three following homilies belong to the quando volueris category, not being assigned to specific occasions in any of the manuscripts. They have no direct connexion with one another and no attempt has been made to put them in chrono­ logical order. Indeed the present homily may be the latest of them and xxi is pretty certainly the earliest, though the prose part of xix may antedate it. I have put xvm first because it is mainly exegetical, like all the preceding homilies except xi and xia. Ælfric here takes up a long familiar theme, that of the Last Days. T h e title, D e D ie Iudicii, is proper enough but may be some­ what misleading, in that there is no full description of the fateful day such as Ælfric has provided in xi. T h e passage from L uke on which the first half is based describes the unpredictable sudden­ ness of the day and its instantaneous, irrevocable consequences, but there is no judgement scene, such as M atthew xxv provides, to give focus to the action. And the M atthezv-M ark passage in the second half concentrates on the terrible persecution that is to pre­ cede the Judgement, leaving the arrival of the day itself until the very end of the account. T h e main emphasis in the first half falls on the three estates of the Christian world, each with its mixed company of good and bad, soon to be sundered for ever. Th at of the second half falls on Antichrist’s reign of terror and the extra­ ordinary fortitude demanded of those who hope to be saved. T h is part takes us back to Aelfric’s preface to the First Series of the

Catholic Homilies , and to his brief references to Antichrist in the homily for martyrs ( C H II. 540, 542). It reminds us also of one of Wulfstan’s basic themes, and has in fact served as a source for his

XVIII

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most elaborate treatment of the Last Days, the homily Secundum

M arcum .1 Such indications as we have from the manuscripts point to a fairly late date for D e D ie Iudicii. It was once, probably, at the very end of Q, following the homily for a confessor, Assmann iv, which was written no earlier than 1006 for Æ thelwold II of Winchester; and the two manuscripts that actually contain it, P and R, had access to the texts of late compositions, including the homily just mentioned.2 W e cannot be sure, however, that D e D ie Iudicii did not owe its position in Q to its unassigned, quando volueris charac­ ter rather than to its having been composed after the other homilies in that volume. Because it had no proper day it could not well have been included in M (which, though it exhibits a number of homilies composed in the middle years, is restricted to one part of the Temporale), nor in U

(which admits several later homilies but is

similarly restricted), nor even among the interpolated homilies of H (where the interpolator, though he drew on late texts, was governed in his selection by the complex annual cycle of the First Series). T h u s the evidence is not very clear. T h e most we can say with any assurance, perhaps, is that the homily should have been composed after 1000. It is hardly safe to suppose that the passage of the millennium brought about a change in Æ lfric’s attitude toward the imminence of the Judgement. Wulfstan’s Secundum M arcum cannot be pre­ cisely dated either, but it was certainly composed later than 1000, for in it Wulfstan says: ‘ þusend geara and eac ma is nu agan syððan Crist wæs mid mannum’ (Bethurum v. 44 sq.).

For

Wulfstan the years that elapsed beyond the prophesied millennium, even as late as 1014, the date of the Sermo ad Anglos, did not greatly lessen the conviction that the time of Antichrist was close at hand. Æ lfric does not commit himself in D e D ie Iudicii, but it was pretty certainly after 1000 when he reissued the admonitory section of his preface to the First Series in the archetype of M S . Q , and there he repeats what he had said earlier: ‘M enn behofiað godre lare swiðost on þisum timan pe is geendung þyssere worulde, and beoð fela frecednyssa on mancynne ærðan pe se ende becume.’ For both men the end of the world is imminent, though the moment 1 Bethurum v. See the notes on 227, 330, and 347 sqq. 2 Only the Kansas leaf now survives of the copy of Assmann iv once in P. See the description of P in the Introduction pp. 53-54 and 58.

586

S ERMO DE DI E I U D I C I I

XVIII

of its arrival is unpredictable and the prophecies have not all been fulfilled. But Ælfric, in the course of his many homilies, before and after the millennium, dwells less on the days of Antichrist than on the general doom itself, and less on the sensational aspects of the doom than on godre lore. I have not been able to discover any earlier sermon on precisely the verses that Æ lfric has translated from Luc. xvii,1 or from M a tth. xxiv and M arc, xiii, let alone any sermon on the two texts together. Sources he certainly had, probably more than I have come upon, but the selection and combination of the gospel passages and the careful limitation of his exposition to the topic of the Last Days and the Judgement must be regarded as his own until some model turns up. W e may notice both the careful exclusion from Luc. xvii. 20-37 of verses that do not advance the prediction (including the notable close of verse 21, Ecce enim regnum D ei intra vos est), and the use of M arc. xiii. 14-27 as a guide to what shall be chosen from

M a tth, xxiv, which would otherwise have repeated some of Luc. xvii. A nd we may notice also the careful adaptation (line 227) of the first sentence of Luc. xvii. 20 as a means of introducing the passage from M a tth, xxiv. Æ lfric thus brings out the parallel and the contrast between the answer given to the Pharisees and the answer given to the disciples.2 For the interpretation of the passage from L uke Æ lfric probably relied chiefly on Bede’s commentary; but he found Bede only vaguely helpful for his comparatively simple purposes except at one point, the passage on the two men in one bed, the two women at the mill, the two men in the field {Luc. xvii. 34, 35). Here Bede is heavily indebted to Augustine’s Quaestiones in Evangelium

secundum Lucam, cap. xliv {P L xxxv. 1357), which takes up these verses by themselves. Augustine’s interpretation contains every­ thing essential to Æ lfric’s and may have been familiar to him in its original form ;3 but since Bede incorporates all that is needed and 1 A sermon on the whole of Luc. xvii. 20-37, for Friday in the twelfth week after Pentecost, is in the Rabanus Maurus collection (P L cx. 423 sqq.), but it is simply a section of Bede’s commentary on Luke. 2 T h e amen at 216 suggests that the first part might once have stood alone, though it may have been induced simply by the doxology, here appropriate enough. Certainly all that follows is carefully related to what has gone before. 3 It appears as a homily for the fifth Sunday before Christmas in the original homiliary of Paulus Diaconus and for the third Sunday in Advent in the Migne version, P L xcv, horn. vi. It was originally attributed correctly to Augustine;

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587

adds an elaboration about the figure of the mill that Æ lfric probably took into account, it has seemed unnecessary to quote Augustine also. T h e same may be said of Æ lfric’s treatment of verse 37, for which Bede has been quoted. Bede is here indebted to Augustine’s Quaestiones in Evangelicum secundum Matthaeum { P L xxxv. 1331). Here, however, Æ lfric takes only the kernel of the interpretation, giving no heed to details in either expositor. For the passage from M atthew and M a rk the problem of sources is more complicated. T h e two commentaries most readily available to Ælfric, Jerome’s on M atthew and Bede’s on M a r k y contain a good many interpretations that do not pertain to the Last Days. Y et Æ lfric seems to have consulted Bede’s at least and probably Jerome’s as well, gleaning what he could for his pur­ poses.1 A t line 281 Jerome supplies a reminder of St. Paul’s description of Antichrist in I I

Thessalonians ii— a description

already familiar to Æ lfric as to everyone who has investigated the subject of Antichrist, but perhaps welcome because of the hint it gave for the development of his comment. Bede, repeating some of Jerome’s comment, leaves out all mention of St. Paul’s descrip­ tion. Here, and here alone, there is reason to think that Jerome was directly consulted, though his influence is more importantly mani­ fested a little later, in the passage beginning at 328. Here Æ lfric is clearly following Jerome’s interpretation, but he may have taken it at second hand, for Bede quotes Jerome verbatim. I am not sure that Bede had anything to do with the comment at 369, for the three years and a half that Bede and Æ lfric (but not Jerome) assign to Antichrist’s reign was a figure already established in Æ lfric’s mind. A t one other point, however, I think Bede may have been more influential than would appear from m y quotations. Th is is the passage (347 sqq.) where Æ lfric compares the days of the mar­ tyrs with those of Antichrist, pointing out that the martyrs could at least work miracles, whereas the elect in the time of Antichrist will be obliged to see the miracles wrought by their tormentors. N ow Bede has this idea at the appropriate place— that is, as a but M igne refers it to Maximus, amongst whose works it is indeed printed (iSermo 2, P L l v ii . 533 sqq.), though its interpretation is wholly different from that of Maximus’s Horn. 2 on the same text (PL l v ii . 225 sqq.). 1 I do not cite the pseudo-Bede commentary on Matthew (P L xcn), though it could have supplied what Ælfric needed at 281, 328, and 369, because it is a mere abridgement of Jerome with a few sentences added from Bede, and there is no very good evidence that Ælfric ever consulted it.

588

SERMO DE DI E I U D I C I I

xvilt

comment on M arc. xiii. 19 {M atth, xxiv. 21), just where Æ lfric introduces it. Furthermore, this is the one place in Bede’s commen­ tary where he gives full attention to Antichrist. Hence I feel sure that Æ lfric’s own comment was stimulated in the first place by Bede. But the original idea was Gregory’s, in a comment on Job xl. 12

{Moralia, xxxii. 24), where he refers to M atth, xxiv. 24 and de­ velops the comparison I have mentioned with great force. N ow Gregory’s comment seems to me a good deal closer to Æ lfric than Bede’s, except at the very end, where Bede may have contributed something too. I believe, therefore, that Bede’s comment reminded Æ lfric of the passage in Gregory— evidently a passage he already knew— and that Gregory’s presentation, being simpler and clearer than Bede’s, became his principal guide. Except for this distinctive passage from Gregory (or Gregory and Bede combined), what Ælfric says about Antichrist is hard to document. T h e chances are that most of the details, including the the three and a half years of Antichrist’s sway, are supplied from memory. Some details correspond to what Ælfric had said in his Preface; a few, relating to Antichrist’s ministers, are new. I have attributed them at 303 and partially at 388 to the influence of Adso’s D e Ortu et Tempore A ntichristi , a letter written about 954 to the Frankish Queen Gerberga.

T h e best edition is by

Ernst Sackur in Sibyllinische Texte und Forschungen, Halle, 1898, pp. 104-13.1 One other source must be mentioned, though it served only for Æ lfric’s comment on M atth, xxiv. 19 at lines 320-5. Th is was a sermon by Cæsarius of Arles, no.

c l iv

in M orin’s edition. T h e

passage quoted as Æ lfric’s source (Morin, II. 630) is apparently original with Cæsarius, though much else is taken verbatim from Augustine’s Enarratio in Ps. xxxix. 28. What will be evident, however, to anyone who observes the intervals between source-quotations at the foot of the page, is that the greater part of this homily is a free and relatively simple 1 Among the writings dealing with Antichrist that Ælfric seems certainly to have been familiar with are, besides Adso’s letter, the concluding chapters of Gregory’s Moralia, and Jerome’s commentary on I I Thess. ii in Epist. cxxi. n , ad Algasiam. Th e latter is positively referred to in our xxvm . Whether Ælfric had consulted Haymo on I I Thess. ii in his commentary on St. Paul’s Epistles is a question. Adso repeats a good deal that is in Haymo and has added details. Some of the elaborations in Æ lfric’s Preface are not in any of these writings. On the subject of Antichrist in general see Bethurum, Homilies of Wulfstart, pp. 278 sqq.

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SERMO DE DI E I U D I C I I

589

exposition of the gospels, taken solely as predictions of what is to happen at the end of the world. Ordinarily Æ lfric’s gaze is focused on the future, but once, after he has stated the ideal for those who cultivate G o d ’s acre, he bursts forth in an eloquent complaint (169-88) against the priests of his own time.

n 2710*2

H

S E R M O DE D I E I U D I C I I Interrogatus autem /esus a Pharisaeis quando uenit regnum D ei, et re/ijua Seo halige Cristes bóc pe ymbe Cristes wundra sprycð segð pæt ða Sunderhalgan on sumne sæl ahsodan urne Hælend Crist ymbe hys tocyme, and ymbe Godes rice on þam mycclan dæge pe we Domes-dæg hatað; and he hym andwyrde þuss:

5

Ne cymð na Godes rice be nanre cepinge, ne menn ne cweþað ná, efne he cymð nu; for þam pe he cymð færlice, swa swa færlic liget,

pe scýt fram eastdæle scinende oð westdæl. An[d] swa swa gefyrn gelámp on Noeys flode,

10

Text based on R (C C C C 178), pp. 101-14. Collated with P (Hatton 115), ff. 23~30v. Once apparently also in Q (C C C C 188), but now only the rubric, followed by an erasure of two and a half lines, survives on the last remaining page, 460. Excluded variants: (1) Where R has manny matin- , menny þussy P has man, man-y menyþus. (2) For R*s i in biðy hwideryþideryþisserey P has y. (3) For R ’s y in hy, hym, hyneyhysyhytyP has i. (4) Where R has -an in the preterite plural and in the present plural of preterite present verbs, P almost always has -on. (The slightly less consistent variants in the present subjunctive are recorded.) (5) Where P has felaygood-, ymbe, P has fealaygod-y embe. Sup.: phariseis P. hælend drihten P. 10 And] 7 P ; An R .

1 halie P. sprecð P. 3 acxodon P. haelend] 7 na] naut P. cimð P. 8 pam] pan P. noes P.

Glosses in R and P, Latin: 2 sunderhalgan: farisei P . on sumne sæl: aliqwflndo P . 3 ahsodan: iwterrogabawt R . 7 efne: ecce R . 8 liget: fulgur R P . 10 gefyrn: dudum P . M E : 2 sæl: time P. S ources. 2-9 [Luc. xvii. 20] Interrogatus autem a Pharisaeis: Quando venit reg­ num Dei? respondens eis, dixit: Non venit regnum Dei cum observatione: [21] neque dicent: Ecce hic, aut ecce illic. . . . [24] Nam, sicut fulgur coruscans de sub caelo in ea, quae sub caelo sunt, fulget: ita erit Filius hominis in die sua. [Matth, xxiv. 27] Sicut enim fulgur exit ab oriente, et paret usque in occidentem. io-i5 5, 9, 10). Potest autem simpliciter aut de Antichristo accipi, aut de imagine Caesaris. . . . Abominatio quoque, secundum veterem Scripturam, idolum nuncupatur. [Bedey In Mare, xiii. 14 , repeats first sentence and last two, omitting references to Daniel and Thess.]

and hi þærto gebædon; ac ure Drihten adwaescte þone hæðenscype mid hys halgan tocyme, and þone Cristendóm arærde þurh hyne sylfne ærest,

285

and þurh hys leorningcnihtas, and þurh hys lareowas *syððan.

*p. no

N u ne wyrcð nan mann nu on þysum timan, gif he geleafan hæfð, hæþengyld openlice; ac se arleasa Antecrist on [ende] þissere worulde wyrcð fela wundra þurh hys feondlican mihte,

290

and þurh Godes geþafunge, and segð þæt he G od si; and þurh hys mycclan wundra menn bugað to hym and on hine gelyfað, hym sylfum to forwyrde; ac pa gecorenan halgan hym wiðcweðað æfre, þeah ðæ þa gedwolan hys gedwyldum gelyfan.

295

Hwæt bið mare deofolgyld þonne se deofollica Antecrist hym Godes wurðmynt geahnige, and hyne G od talige, and men hym to gebiddan þurh hys leasan tácna, and þone Hælend forseon, þe is eall soðfæstnyss ? O n þære halgan stowe stent þonne pæt deofolgyld,

300

swa swa se apostol awrát on sumum hys pistole:

I to, ut in templo D e i sedeat, ostendens se tamquam sit Deus: Swa þæt he sitt on Godes temple, and segð þæt he God sy. Him farað mid æfre ungesewenlice deoflu, 286 second hys] om. P. 289 ende] sic P ; om. R. 291 sy P. lan P. 295 ðæ] ðe P . gedwolan] dwolan P. gelyfon P . hym] him men P. gebiddon P. 299 -nys P . 303 sit P.

292mice298 men 304 deofla P.

Glosses, Latin: 283 adwæscte: destruxit R. 287 wyrcð: operatur R. 289 arleasa: impius R. 290 wyrcð: operatur R. 291 geþafunge: permissione R. 292 bugað: ccmuertuwt R. 293 forwyrde: damnattowe R. 295 gedwolan: heretici R. gedwyldum: heresim, errorem R. 297 geahnige: apropriat R, appropriat P, possideat RP. talige: prediceí R, iudiceí P , dicat R P. 298 gebiddan: adorent R. 299 forseon: eontempnent R, spurciant P (as if from spurcio rather than spurco, but perhaps a mis­ writing of spernant). M E : 291, 303 sy: beo P. 295 gedwolan: vnbileued P (? erased).

302 [II Thess. ii. 4, as given.] 303-5 [Cf. Adso, De Ortu et Tempore Antichristi, ed. Sackur, pp. 10 7-8] Et maligni spiritus erunt duces eius et socii semper et comites indivisi [v.l. invisi]. . . . Deinde per universum orbem nuntios mittet et praedicatores suos. Praedicatio autem eius et potestas tenebit a mari usque ad mare. . . . Faciet quoque signa multa, miracula magna et inaudita.

þurh ða he wyrcð wundra wide geond þas eorðan,

305

and ofer eallum manncynne becymð seo ehtnyss. ‘ þ a ðe on Iudea lande þonne libbende beoð,

pa fleoð to muntum and to micclum dunum ; and se ðe on his huse bið on þam healicum hrofe, ne ästige he þonne of þam sticolan hrófe,

31®

past he hys yddisce ahredde J?e on ðam [huse] bið. A nd se ðe on æcere beo ymbe hys tilunge, ne cyrre he underbæc to genimene hys reaf.’— W e moton eow secgan swa swa ge magon understandan, hwilum anfealdlice be eowrum andgite,

3r5

hwilum eow geopenian pa inran digolnysse, for pam p t ge eaðe ne magon hyt eall understandan. ‘Wa þam eacniendum on þam yfelum dagum, and pam fedendum *on þære frecednysse.’ Hwæt agyltað þa wif, þe be Godes hæse tymað

*p. m 320

and heora cild fedað on þære frecednysse ?’ A c f>is is gecweden be þam leasum Cristenum, p t beoð mid leahtrum afyllede, swa swa gefearhsugu, and mid unwrencum pa unwaran fordoð, and heora yfel geea[c]niað swylce mid fo[str]e.

325

307 lybbende P. 310 sticelan P. 311 huse] sic P ; om. R. 313 genimenne P. 315 hwilum altered from hwilcum R ; hwilon P. andgyte P. 316 hwilon P. digel- P. 317 ðam] ðan P. 322 Ac] no cap. R P. 325 geeacniað] geeamiað R ; getacniað P. fostre] sic P ; forste P . Glossesf Latin: 305 ða: illos R , ea P. wyrcð: operatur R. geond: per R . 306 seo ehtnyss: ipsa (?) persecutio R . 307 Pa: illi R . 310 ne ästige he: non ascendet P . 311 yddisce: familiam R P. 313 underbæc: retro P . reaf: vestem P. 315 hwilum: aliquando P . andgite: sensu P . 316 geopenian: aperire P . inran: interiora P . digolnysse: secreta P . 318 W a : ve P. eacniendum: prengnantibus RP. 319 fedendum: nutrien­ tibus RP. frecednysse: periculum P , tribulatione P. 320 agyltað: delinquunt P. hæse: precepto P . 321 frecednysse: periculo P, tribula­ tione P. 323 leahtrum: crimine P. gefearhsugu: prengnans porcus P , prengnans sus P. 324 unwaran: incautos RP. 325 swylce: quasi P . forste: gelu (repeated in margin!) P ; fostre: nutritione P. 320-5 [Cæsarius, Sermo C L I V . 3 on Matth, xxiv. 19] Quid enim mali fecit mulier, quae de proprio marito concepit ? Quare illi in die iudicii male erit, quae hoc fecit quod Deus iussit? Non ergo de mulieribus quae iuste concipiunt et pariunt hoc credendum est, sed de illis quos supra diximus, qui iniuste con­ cupiscendo rem alienam impraegnati esse videntur. [In the preceding section of the sermon Cæsarius quotes from Augustine an imaginary instance of someone who covets his neighbour's property and is tempted to take unfair advantage of him. Hence perhaps Ælfric's 'unwrencum'.]

S ERMO DE DI E I U D I C I I

XVIII

605

‘ Biddað eornostlice þæt hyt ne beo on wintra, oððe on restendæge, þonne ge æmtige beoð.’ N e mænde he þone winter J?e gewunelice cymð on þæs geares ymbryne, ac swa swa he on oðre stowe cwæð,

Q uia abundabit iniquitas , refrigescet caritas multorum. þ æ t is, on Engliscum gereorde, þæt on þam yfelan timan

330

arist seo unrihtwisnyss, and swiðe gemenigfylt, and seo soðe lufu swiðe acolað, na ealra manna, ac swiðe manegra, þæt hy nateshwón ne lufiað þone lifigendan God, ne hyra nyhstan, ne furðan hy sylfe;

335

for ðon se ðe G od ne lufað, ne lufað he hyne sylfne. Se restendæg is, swa swa we rædað on bócum, halig freolsdæg on Iudea folce, swa swa we healdað þone halgan Sunnandæg

340

fram woroldlicum weorcum; and we sceolan wilnian æfre, and æt Gode biddan, þæt we ne beon æmtige fram góódum weorcum, and on Godes lufan acolode, þonne us se endenyhsta dæg onsigende bið. ‘ þonne beoð witodlice swylce gedrefednyssa

345

swylce næfre ær [næron, ne eft] ne gewurðað.’ M icel ehtnys wæs on anginne Cristendomes, 329 ymbrene P. 330 abundabið P. refriescet P. 332 -nys P . 332, 333, 334 swyðe P . 335 lyfigendan P. 336 heora nextan P . 337 for ðam P. 341 woruld- P . 342 and] erased P. biddan] om. P . 343 lufe P. 344 -nexta P. 346 næron ne eft] sic P ; om. R. 347 M ycel P. ehtnyss P. Glosses, Latin: 326 eornostlice: igiti/r R. 327 restendæge: sabato RP. æmtige: vacui R. 331 gereorde: lingua R. 332 gemenigfylt: multi­ plicat R . 333 acolað: refrigescit R. 335 nateshwon: nulatenws R. 336 furðan: eciam R . 337 for ðon: quia R. 338 restendæg: sabatwi (for -um) R. 344 onsigende: imminens RP. 345 witodlice: certe R. swylce: talia R. gedrefednyssa: persecutio, perturbatio, tribulationes R ; tribulatio P. 346 gewurðað: erunt R. 347 ehtnys: persecutio R. wæs: fuit R. 328-44 [JeromeyIn M atth. xxiv. 20; BedeyIn Marc. xiii. 18] Si autem de con­ summatione mundi intellegitur, hoc praecipit ut non refrigescat fides nostra, et in Christum charitas, neque ut otiosi in opere Dei torpeamus virtutum Sabbato. 330 [Matth, xxiv. 1 2 , Vulg. 'Et quoniam' for 'Quia'.] 347-65 [Gregoryy Moralia, xxxii. 24] Sed considerandum valde est, cum Behemoth iste caudam suam sicut cedrum sublevat (Ioh xl. i2 ) y in quo tunc atrocior quam nunc se exerit surgat. Quae enim poenarum genera novimus, quae non iam vires martyrum exercuisse gaudemus? Alios namque improviso ictu immersus iugulo gladius stravit, alios. . . . Cum igitur Behemoth iste caudam C 2710.2

I

6o6

SERMO DE DI E I U D I C I I

XVIII

and eac lange syððan for Cristes geleafan, ær ðam pe man mihte þysne middaneard gebigan fram þam hæþenscype pe hy on afedde wæron

350

to þam soðan geleafan þæs lyfigendan Godes. M an acwealde pa Cristenan mid mislicum cwylmingum, and mid menigfealdum tintregum hi ge*martyrode;

*p. 112

ac hym geuðe se Hælend þæt hy mihton pa wyrcan

pa ilcan wundra þe he sylf geworhte.

355

N ú ne bið hit na swa on Antecristes timan; he tintregað pa halgan, and eac tácna wyrcð, and pa halgan ne magon on þam timan gewyrcan ænige tácna, ac hi yfele beoð forþam gedrefede, þonne se deofol wyrcð

360

menigfealde wundra, and hi sylfe ne magon nane mihte gefremman on manna gesihðe. þonne wet se deofol, and gewitnað þa halgan mid swylcum [tintregum] swa we secgan ne magon, and mid deof'l'es mihte macað fela wundra. ‘ Butan G od gescyrtte pa sorhfullan dagas,

365

eall manncynn forwurde witodlice ætgædere; 349 gebygan P. 350 -scipe P. 353 gemartirode P. 355 ylcan P. 359-60 beoð forþam] forðam beoð P. 362 mihta P. gesyhðe P . 364 tintregum] sic P ; wundrura, ve\ tintregum over line (early correction) R. 366 Buton P. gescyrte P. 367 mancyn P. Glosses, Latin: 349 gebigan: convertere R . 352 cwylmingum: cruciatibus R. 353 tintregum: tormewtis R . 354 geuðe: cowcessit P, cowsescet (sic, for concessit?) P. pa: tunc R . 357 tintregað: tormewtat R . 358 gewyrcan: operare R . 360 gedrefede: twrbati R P. 362 mihte: vzrtutem R . gefremman: facere R . 363 wet: furit R P. gewitnað: punit R P, lanit R. 366 gescyrtte: abreuiasseí R. sorhfullan: dolores R. 367 forwurde: periret R. witodlice: certe R. ætgædere: pariter R. M E : 357 tintregað: pineð P (? erased). suam in fine mundi nequius dilatat, quid est quod in his tormentis tunc atrocius crescat, nisi hoc quod in Evangelio Veritas per semetipsam dicit: Surgent Pseudochristi et pseudoprophetae, etc. (Matth, xxiv. 24)? Nunc enim fideles nostri mira faciunt, cum perversa patiuntur; tunc autem Behemoth huius satellites, etiam cum perversa inferunt, mira facturi sunt. Pensemus ergo quæ erit humanae mentis illa tentatio, quando pius martyr et corpus tormentis subiicit, et tamen ante eius oculos tortor miracula facit. Cuius tunc virtus non ab ipso cogitationum fundo quatiatur, quando is qui flagris cruciat signis coruscat? [Bede, In Mare. xiii. i g , developing the latter part of Gregory*s comment, concludes] Quis ergo ad fidem convertitur incredulus, cuius iam credentis non pavet et concutitur fides, quando persecutor pietatis fit etiam operator virtutis, idemque ipse qui tormentis sævit [cf. 363] ut Christus negetur provocat miraculis ut Antichristo credatur ?

XVIII

SERMO DE DIE I U D I C I I

607

ac for his gecorenum halgum he gescyrte pa dagas.’ Ðreo gear he ricsað and syx monðas on mancynne, on eallre modignysse, eall mid deofle afylled,

370

and on eallum unþeawum and egeslicum fylðum hys lif bið gelogod on þam lytlan fyrste; and ælcne mannan he tiht to hys fulum þeawum, and on ælce wisan he wile mancynn fordón. A c for Godes gecorenum G od 'ge'hradað hys timan.

375

‘ G if hwa þonne eow segð þæt Crist sylf beo þonne wunigende on weorolde mid mannum, ne gelyfe ge þæs, for þam ðe lease Cristas on pam timan arisað, and fela tacna wyrcað, menn to beswicanne mid heora scincræftum,

380

and eac pa gecorenan menn, gif hit gewurðan mæg; warniað eow eornostlice; ic hit hæbbe eow gesæd.’ Ure Hælend Crist ne cymð na to mancynne openlice aeteowed on þissere weorolde ær þam micclan dæge þonne he mancynne dem ð;

385

ac pa leasan Cristas and pa leasan witegan þonne cumað on Antecristes timan; hi syndon hys lima and hys leasan geferan, and geond þas woruld farað mid feondlicum cræfte, and to fela beswicað mid #heora scincræfte; 369 rixað P. six P . 370 ealre P. ealle corrected to eall R . P. 377 wunigende on weorolde] on worulde wunigende P. om. P. þam] þan P. 380 geswicenne P. 384 worulde P. pe ponne P.

389 *p. 113 374 wyle 378 ge] 387 þonne]

Glossesy Latin: 368 gescyrte: abreuiabit R. 369 ricsað: rmxnet (? for rengnat) R. 372 gelogod: dispositum R. 373 tiht: [h]ortatur P. 375 gehradað: pr^occupat, preuenit, festinat R ; accelerat P. 378 pæs: hoc R . lease: seudo P. lease cristas: pseudo profethe R . 380 scincraeftum: magicis artibus R . 382 wamiað: cauete R P . 383 ne cymð: non venit R. 384 aeteowed: ostensus R . M E : 380 scincræftum: wicchecreft P (? erased). 384 aeteowed: ischawed P (? erased).

369 [Cf. Bede, In Marc. xiii. 20] Haec tribulatio . . . tribus annis ac dimidio, quantum de prophetia Danielis (Don. xii. 11 ) et apocalypsi sancti Ioannis (Apoc. xiii. 5) conici potest, ecclesiam per orbem impugnatura esse creditur. [Cf. also AdsOy op. cit.p. log] Haec autem tam terribilis et timenda tribulatio tribus annis manebit in toto mundo et dimidio. [This standard calculation of the time is already in Ælfric's Preface. C H I. 4.] 388 [Cf. quotations from Adso at 303 and Gregory, ‘ satellites', at 347; for lima see note.]

6o8

S ERMO DE DI E I U D I C I I

XVIII

ac j?a beoð gehealdene þe þurhwuniað oð ende on Cristes geleafan, swa swa he sylf gecwæð. He gewarnode pay swa swa þis gewrit us segð, hys halgan apostolas, and eac us þurh hi,

pæt we georne healdan hys geleafan æfre,

395

and ure líf syllan ær we hyne wiðsacon; and hyt soðlice gewyrð swa swa he sylf sæde, swa swa we nu ræddon on þissere rædinge. ‘ Sona æfter þære gedrefednysse adeorcað seo sunne, and mid ealle aþeostrað, and eac se mona,

400

and steorran feallað færlice of heofonum, and heofonan mihta beoð þonne astyrode.’ Sona æfter þære ehtnysse bið Antecrist ofslagen þurh Cristes mihte on hys tocyme, and engla werodu beoð astyrede, 4°5 and mid þam Hælende cumað of þam heofonlican þrymme swutollice æteowde, swa swa us segð þis godspell. ‘ Menn geseoð þonne mannes Sunu cumende on þam healicum wolcnum mid micclum wuldre.’ Crist sylf is mannes Sunu, swa swa he sæde foroft;

410

he is anes mannes sunu swa swa nan oðer man nis; he cymð þonne on þam wolcnum mid micclum wuldre to J?am micclan dome, swa swa hit awriten is. ‘ He asent þonne soðlice hys englas, and hi gegaderiað Godes gecorenan menn

4*5

393 He] cap. P, not R . 395 healdon P . 396 syllon P. wiðsacan (sic) P . 401 heofonan P. 406 and transposed to follow hælende P. 407 swutellice P. 413 micclum P. 415 gegaderiað] gegaderiað þonne P. Glosses, Latin: 391 gehealdene: salui R. oð: usque P . 393 gewamode: pranuniuíí R P. pa: tunc R . 394 hi: eos P P . 395 geome: bene P . 397 gewyrð: erit P . 399 gedrefednysse: perturbatione, tribulatione P . 401 feallað: cadunt P . 402 mihta: vzrtutes P . beoð . . . astyrode: mouentur P . 403 ehtnysse: persecutzone P . 405 werodu: chorus P . astyrede: moti P . 407 æteowde: ostensi P . 409 wolcnum: nube P . 415 hi: illi P. M E : 405 werodu: ferede P (? erased). 407 æteowde: ischawed P (? erased). 409 wuldre: glore P (? erased). 391 sq. [Matth, xxiv. 13 ] Qui autem perseveraverit usque in finem, hic salvus erit. 403 sq. [II Thess. ii. 8] Et tunc revelabitur ille iniquus, quem Dominus Iesus interficiet spiritu oris sui, et destruet illustratione adventus sui eum. [Adso, op. cit. p. i i 3, quotes this verse and adds that Antichrist will he killed either by Christ himself or by the archangel Michael, per virtutem . . . Christi.]

XVIII

S ERMO DE DI E I U D I C I I

609

fram þam feower windum þissere worulde, and of þære eorðan up oð þa heofonan.’ Ð a englas þonne bláwað heora byman hlúde, and eall manncyn arist þe æfre cucu wæs of heora byrgenum, and þa englas gebringaþ

420

þa gecorenan menn to Criste sylfum, þæt hi mid him ricsian on heofonan rice on lichaman and on sawle, gesæliglice æfre. Crist cwæð on oðre stowe be þam árleasum þuss:

Exibunt angeli et separabunt malos de medio iustorum, et mittent eos in caminum ignis, ibi erit fletus et stridor dentium. J>æt [is] on Englisc, Englas farað *þonne and asyndriað þa yfelan and þa synnfullan menn fram þam rihtwisum, þe ricsiað mid Gode,

425

#p. 114 430

and awurpað hi ealle innto ðam widgillan fyre þære bradan helle, on þære hy byrnað æfre,

pær bið wóp and warning, and tóða gristbitung; and hi nahwar ne wuniað butan on þam witum æfre. Soðlice þa halgan siðiað mid Criste

435

to heofonan rice mid hys halgum englum, ge weras ge wifmenn, swa swa hi on worulde lyfodon, and siððan wuniað gesælige mid him on unasecgendlicre blisse á butan ende, Amen. 417 and] erased P. heofenan P . 419 mancinn P . 422 rixian P. 428 is] sic P ; om. R . þonne] om. P. 429 syn- P. 430 rixiað P. 431 into P. widgyllan P. 434 buton P. 437 wifmenn] winmen P. 438 siððan] hi syððan P. 439 -licere P. Glosses, Latin: 419 cucu: uiuus R. 429 asyndriað: separabwwt R . 431 awurpað: mittest R. widgillan: (. . .)t0 ve^spatioso R {the first gloss cut off by binder). 433 gristbitung: stridor R. 434 witum: penis R. 435 siðiað: (. . .)unt R (cut off by binder). M E : 419 cucu: quike P {? erased, usually cwike). 434 witum: pine P {? erased). 437 weras: gloss erased P.*8

425-7 [Matth, xiii. 49, 50, as given.] N O TES 88. N ih t is her gecweden fo r ðære nytennysse. T h is statem ent seems to reflect a long-established association. Com pare the hom ily on Virgins, where Æ lfric is com m enting on M atth, xxv. 6, M edia autem nocte clamor factus est ( C H II. 568/4-6): ‘H w æ t getacnað seo m idniht buton seo deope nyten n ys? for ðan ðe seo geendung þyssere worulde cym ð þonne m en læst w en að/

6io 1 17.

S ERMO DE DI E I U D I C I I

X VIII

and mislicum dædum. T h e and appears (as an am persand) in both

m anuscripts, bu t this gives us a m ixed construction, the norm al accusative geþohtas after ymbeythen the datives dædum and geswincum. B y substituting on for and w e can im prove both the gram m ar and the sense. N o t that Æ lfr ic ’s elaboration o f the figure is altogether clear even so, b u t at least ‘ th o u g h ts’ are p u t into a different category from ‘ deeds’ and ‘labours’ . 144. and. O n ce again, perhaps, w e should read on. A t C H II. 450/2, Æ lfr ic says that Job, after the d e vil’s persecution, was fulfremedre on geþincðumy ‘m ore perfect in honours,’ and this looks like the same idiom . 152. tilung R , eordteolung P. T h e hitherto unrecorded com pound in P translates agricultura more explicitly than the sim ple tilung in R , b u t tilung m ore obvio u sly satisfies the alliterative and rh yth m ic pattern, and it gains further support b y its repetition in 155, 168, 190, 242, and 312. K arl Jost, in ‘ U n ech te Æ lfrictex te’ , Anglia L I . 185, pointed out that Æ lfric nor­ m ally uses yrþling or tilia for a cultivator o f the soil, not the com paratively rare eordtilia. 169-8 8. T h is com plaint against the bishops and priests o f the tim e is strongly rem iniscent o f the Letter fo r Wulfsige y w here Æ lfric had already m ade use o f the quotation from Isaiah, Canes muti non possunt latrare (175), both allusively in his L a tin preface to W u lfsige and then directly in the b o d y o f the letter (Fehr, Hirtenbriefeypp. 1 and 15). T h e re, how ever, his basic concern is the laxity o f the secular p riesth o o d : their refusal to rem ain celibate and their ignorance quite as m uch as their failure to adm onish the laity; and the burden o f the preface is to urge Bishop W u lfsige to scold the priests. Here, ignorance and lax behaviour are less clearly in view than torpor and sheer cowardice in the face o f unbridled w ron g in the com m unity at large. Æ lfric says we ealle suwiað and we ne durrany though he h im self was not altogether silent even w hen it cam e to adm onishing his Christian king, as m ay be seen in ix and x x i i . 227. Interrogatus Iesus a discipulis de consummatione seculiy dixit eis. T h is introduction to M a tth , xxiv. 15 was presum ably com posed in order to bring out the parallel to Luc. xvii. 20 sqq., where its counterpart is actually in the gospel. H ence the com poser ought to have been either Æ lfric h im self or some earlier author I have failed to discover w ho treated the tw o texts together. W h en w e find W u lfstan using the same introduction to the sermon entitled Secundum Marcum (B ethurum v), w e m ay be sure he took it from Æ lfric. A n d in fact there are other clear echoes o f the second h alf o f D e D ie Iudicii in Secundum M arcum yas I have pointed out below in the notes on 330 and especially 347 sqq. 241, 3 1 1. yddiscey ‘ household goods, possessions’ , regarded b y H o lt­ hausen and H a ll-M e r itt as a derivative o f ead. See the G lo ssary for the form . T h e gloss fam iliam in both m anuscripts is m isleading. 247. þonne ge æmtige beoð. T h is is Æ lfr ic ’s gloss on the text, derived from the com m entary on w h ich he elaborates at 328-44.

X V III

291.

S E R MO DE DI E I U D I C I I

6i i

Godes geþafunge. T h is m ay be inferred from M a tth , x x iv . 22 and

M a rc. xiii. 20; it is ex p licit in I I Thess. ii. 1 1 , w here S t. Paul thinks that G o d w ill perm it m en to believe in a lie in order that th e y m ay be ju d g e d for not h avin g believed in the truth. Æ lfric does not give reasons here, b u t in his Preface, C H I. 4, he had explained G o d ’s perm ission as in d u ced partly b y the increasing sinfulness o f m ankind and p artly for the purifica­ tion o f the elect. L ater, in an additional passage that appears at the co n ­ clusion o f the A n tich rist section o f the Preface (p. 6/18) in m anuscripts Q , R , and T (Junius 12 1), he sum m arized S t. P a u l’s statem ents in I I Thess. ii. 9 - 1 1, as interpreted b y Jerome, E p ist. c x x i. 1 1 — that is, w ith specific reference to the un believin g Jews. W u lfstan restates Æ lfr ic ’s first explanation in B eth uru m v . 7 7 sq q . 297. hyne G o d tätige, ‘ claim to be G o d ’ . T h e em phasis is on A n tic h rist’s pretensions rather than on self-deception , w h ich w o u ld be suggested b y the usual definition o f tatian as ‘ account, consider’ . H e appropriates G o d ’s honours and, according to line 291, says that he is G o d . T h e basis for all this is I I Thess. ii. 4, quoted b y Æ lfric at 302. H en ce in the earlier Preface, C H I. 4, w e find it said that A n tich rist cwyð þæ t he sylf G o d beo, and W u lfstan has a similar statem ent, B ethurum v. 76. A n approach to the m eaning o f tatian here recom m ended is suggested b y K la e b er’s discussion o f soð ic tätige at Beow ulf 532 (.Modern Philology, I I I . 261). T h is expres­ sion, he says, ‘ does not m ean “ I say (tell) the tru th ” , as nearly ev e ry b o d y has translated it, b u t prim arily “ I consider it true (a fact)” . . . and then (p utting theory into practice) “ I stand up for that opinion o f m ine . . or “ I claim it to be a fact.” (E arle: “ righ tly I claim ” ).’ T h e reflexive use here makes it desirable to distinguish a little m ore sharply betw een co n ­ sidering and claim ing, b u t K lae b er’s conclud in g definition holds v ery w ell. 330. Æ lfr ic ’s quotation o f M a tth , x x iv. 12 m ay have prom pted W u lf­ stan to quote it in Secundum Marcum, Bethurum v. 26. 340. Is som ething m issing before this line ? T h e com parison betw een the Jewish and the Christian days o f rest seems incom pletely expressed, and the æmtige fram o f 342 sq. has no adequate antecedent in the m ere fra m o f 341. W e m igh t supply, swa þæ t on þære ealdan æ hi heoldon hine æmtigne. 3 4 7 -6 5 . T h is passage, w ith G re go ry behind it, is evid en tly the basis for the contrast betw een the days o f the m artyrs and those o f A n tich rist in W u lfsta n ’s Secundum Marcum, B ethurum v. 5 3 -6 6 . W u lfstan has also m ade use o f Æ lfr ic ’s Preface, C H I. 4, w h ich is echoed in subsequent lines (Bethurum , p. 291, notes on 68 sqq.). Perhaps W u lfstan ’s use o f scincræft, 7 1 , owes som ething to Æ lfr ic ’s use o f it at 257, 380, and 390. 363. wet. T h e m ad fury o f A n tich rist co nveyed b y this w ord m ay have been suggested b y B ed e’s sævit or b y some other L a tin passage that has escaped m y attention, b u t no such expression occurs in the text o f A d so as edited b y Sackur. It does occur in the anonym ous (and decided ly free) translation o f A dso , N apier x l i i (pp. 198/5; 200/1, 8) w h ich seem s to echo

6l 2

SERMO DE DI E I U D I C I I

XVIII

Æ lf r ic ’s preface at the beginning bu t is otherwise not close to him . Æ lfric h im self does not refer to A n tich rist’s madness in the Preface, nor in the brief references to him in C H II. 540, 542, and our x x v m . W ulfstan, on the other hand, is full o f the idea. H e refers to A n tich rist’s wodscinn (B ethurum ib. 34) and to the tim e w hen he wedeð (B ethurum II. 52; i n . 13, 44)— thus far in pieces that do not stem from Æ lfric. T h e n , in the very passage o f Secundum Marcum in w hich he is developing his own version o f the present passage in Æ lfric, W ulfstan says that G o d w ill let þone deofol Antecrist rabbian and wedan (Bethurum v. 66). O n the w hole the chances are that the idea o f A n tich rist’s madness came naturally to all these writers (though here and there w ith an additional prom pting from another, perhaps) because o f the widespread notion in the gospels and elsewhere that m adm en are possessed b y the devil. See, for exam ple, h om ily iv. 388. lima. T h e lim bs o f Antichrist, like those o f Satan, are the more or less inevitable counterpart o f the lim bs o f C h rist in Ephes. iv. 16 and else­ where. H ence it is probably unnecessary to inquire where Æ lfric encoun­ tered the figure. It is not in A d so, bu t it can be found in G rego ry (M oralia xxix. 15) and in H a y m o ’s com m entary on I I Thess. ii ( P L c x v n . 780), from w h ich a good m any o f the details in A d s o ’s letter are borrowed. In both G re g o ry and H aym o the membra o f A n tich rist are introduced as precursors (Cain, Judas, Sim on M agu s, N ero, etc.) rather than as his associates in the last days, but once the figure is established its application to the latter becom es obvious.

XIX DE DOCTRINA APOSTOLICA T

he

title of this homily calls attention to the heavy emphasis given

in the middle to St. Paul’s teaching concerning chastity and mar­ riage.

Lines 71 to 106 contain fairly close translations from

I Corinthians vii in an irregular order. There is Pauline doctrine at the beginning also, where Æ lfric likens the sterner precepts of the faith to the strong meat required by adults and urges the putting away in due course of childish things. Indeed the counsels of per­ fection for the celibate and the married are only the leading topic in a sermon that urges men to set higher standards of conduct for themselves in other ways also. Both clergy and laity are included, but the laity especially are in view, and after they have been in­ structed with respect to marriage they are urged to avail themselves of the none too frequent opportunities granted them for partaking of the eucharist. T h is passage brings the prose part of the homily and the direct admonitions to an end. A rhythmic, largely narrative section, nearly as long as the other, is added, in which two exempla from Bede are used to forestall a not unfamiliar response to the earlier precepts. T h e y enforce the doctrine that no matter how great a sinner a man is he must not despair; for those who despair are surely lost. Evidently, therefore, although the homily is unassigned in both the manuscripts where it occurs in full, it is especially suitable for Lent or Rogationtide. W e may associate it particularly with the Ash-W ednesday homily in the Lives o f Saints (xn), which em­ bodies a good deal of the D e Penitentia ( C H II. 602 sqq.); with the beginning of D e Auguriis ( L S xvii), assigned in some manuscripts to Rogationtide, and with Letania M aiore ( C H II. xxi). T h e

exempla from Bede may remind us also of the various visions that Æ lfric recounts as exemplary warnings for Rogationtide imme­ diately after the piece just mentioned ( C H II.

x x ii- x x iv

).

In M S .

P, where nothing is assigned to a specific occasion, we nevertheless find D e Doctrina Apostolica in the midst of the Rogationtide pieces named above. It stands between D e Auguriis and Letania M aiore ,

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which is followed in turn, as in C H II, b y the visions. In M S . C , on the other hand, it stands with other homilies on general topics from the Lives o f Saints, including the appendix. D e Duodecim

Abusivis comes just before, D e Falsis D iis and the Interrogationes just after, with D e Memoria Sanctorum (L S xvi) and the A shWednesday homily ( L S xn) not far away. Its place in P is the more appropriate, but perhaps, as Dr. Clemoes has suggested,1 C can give us a hint as to the company in which Æ lfric first issued it. Series I and II were amply supplied with homilies for Lent and Rogationtide; the Lives set, on the other hand, could have ab­ sorbed another piece of this type, with or without specific assign­ ment. D e Doctrina Apostolica did not belong to the original set of the Lives, if we can trust Skeat’s M S . (our W) for this negative evidence; but perhaps Æ lfric added it, either internally or more probably to the appendix, in some later issue. A s a whole, the homily would naturally be dated after the Lives, but the fact that the first part is in ordinary prose and the second (131-254) in rhythmic prose suggests very strongly that the two parts were not composed at the same time. So far as we can tell, Æ lfric did not write extended pieces, whether discursive or nar­ rative, in ordinary prose after the transitional period marked by certain pieces in the Lives o f Saints. I am inclined, therefore, to associate the first 130 lines with the beginning of D e Auguriis, where certain other teachings of St. Paul’s are summarized in ordi­ nary prose, and to suppose that both these passages are leftovers from the period of the Catholic Homilies. Dr. Clemoes has suggested that they were first issued as parts of letters before being converted into homilies.2 It may be so, but I am unable to point to anything distinctively epistolary about them, and both passages seem to me appropriate for a congregation. Besides the two manuscripts that contain the complete homily there are two others that have excerpts from it in association with other Ælfrician matter. T h e excerpts are reasonably good witnesses for the portions of the text they include, but whether Æ lfric was responsible for the compilations may be doubted. T h e longer excerpt occurs in M S . N (Faustina A. ix), in a homily that should 1 Chronology, p. 226. 2 Chronology, pp. 221, 225. T h e argument that the list of the capital sins in De Doctrina Apostolica is later thanjthat in iv seems to me insecure. See the notes on 127-9 below and on iv. 249-51.

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have been assigned to the third Sunday after Easter but begins imperfectly because of a missing leaf. W hat is left contains (ff. i 6 o-

2 v) a combination of the latter part of Æ lfric’s D e Septiform i

Sp iritu , beginning ‘utanbið gesewen’ (Napier v iii, p. 58/1), and the first of the two exempla from Bede in D e Doctrina Apostolica, with a conclusion adapted from that which follows the second exem­

plum . Dr. Clemoes has suggested that this combination was made b y Æ lfric himself as a stop-gap for his Temporale until he produced Assmann vi, a normal homily on the pericope for the third Sunday after Easter, which appears only in M S . U .1 Against this suggestion, however, there are a number of objections. (1) There is no appa­ rent reason why the sevenfold gifts should be treated on this occasion, and the combination of the little treatise with the ex­

emplum produces a very odd homily. (2) T h e exemplum has a care­ fully designed position in D e Doctrina Apostolica , prefaced as it is b y lines 13 1-5 on the danger of falling into despair, and followed b y another exemplum to the same effect and a conclusion in which the theme of despair is reasserted. T h e compilation in N lifts the

exemplum out of this context, treating it as an illustration of pre­ sumption, then tacks on enough of the original conclusion to intro­ duce the theme of despair, now a mere afterthought. (3) T h e rearrangement of the conclusion involves an expansion of the last line that lacks all pretence of rhythmic order. (4) T h e fact that this compilation does not occur in the closely related but selective O may be accidental, but its absence from the more distantly related M is likely to be significant. Certainly the unsupported testimony of N cannot be taken seriously where Æ lfric’s authorship is in question. A t several points N is filled out by sermons that are not Æ lfric’s at all. (5) Dr. Clem oes’s chief reason for holding Æ lfric responsible is his belief that the compilation is referred to at ix. 144 and xi. 69; but as I have said in the note on IX. 144, these references are probably to C H I. xxn. (6) Apart from N, there is no evidence that Æ lfric had composed D e Septiform i Spiritu before the early years of the eleventh century, when he began to write pieces for Wulfstan. A comp ilation containing it is likely to have been put together too late for inclusion in the Ælfrician Temporale represented jointly by M - N - O . On this ground also, then, the compilation is likely to have entered N or an ancestor of N by interpolation. 1 Chronology, pp. 228 sqq., esp. p. 232.

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I do not feel quite so certain that the other compilation in which

D e Doctrina Apostolica figures cannot be charged to Æ lfric. It is the unique D e Virginitate of V ( C C C C 419), consisting of a portion of the Letter to Sigefyrth on chastity (Assmann 11) in the expanded homiletic form of M S . H, followed by lines 34-43, 53-60 of D e D octrina , followed in turn by the two passages printed in this edition as no. xxx, the first of which is unique. It is just possible that Æ lfric was responsible for putting these pieces together, though I prefer to think not. O n this matter see the introduction to xxx. For textual purposes V is too short to be of much u se; N is occa­ sionally useful for the first exemplum. Neither reveals any clear relationship to the other two manuscripts. In the main we must take our choice between P, which is remarkably conservative in spell­ ing for the second half of the eleventh century and plainly the heir of a good tradition, and the considerably later C , full of twelfthcentury levellings and not without pure blunders. But P has its lapses too, and some of these C can correct. There is little that needs to be said about the sources.

In the

first part of the homily the Bible supplies a good deal, and I have rarely gone beyond it. A t 102-4 a sermon on chastity by Cæsarius of Arles (ed. Morin, Sermo

x l iii,

CCSL

c iii.

189 sqq.), and at

106-8 D e Bono Coniugali by Augustine are quoted for passages that seem directly or indirectly responsible for what Æ lfric has added to St. Paul’s teachings, and at 62-65 there is clear reference to a story in the Vitas Patrum . N o doubt further sources could be found for some of the more or less proverbial sentences near the beginning. T h e second part, after the introductory lines (13 1-5) is a fairly close paraphrase of two stories from the fifth book of Bede’s Ecclesiastical History. After the preceding paragraphs had been sent to the press there appeared a separate edition of the homily by W. Braekman.1 In many respects this is an admirable performance. It partly supple­ ments what I have done, and m y study of it has enabled me to remedy some faults in my own edition which might otherwise have escaped attention in the proofs. Nevertheless, there are some weaknesses to which I must call attention lest there be doubt at points where the two editions disagree. 1 ‘Æ lfric’s Old English Homily “ De Doctrina Apostolica” : An Edition’, in Studia Germanica Gandensiat V (1963), 141-73.

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D r. Braekman has provided an elaborate introduction followed b y a text in which the readings of the three principal manuscripts are presented in great detail (the fourth, m y V , being treated separately in the introduction) and the numerous Worcester correc­ tions and glosses of the basic manuscript, m y P, are fully reported. B y including all variants, even variant accents, and the Worcester corrections, he goes beyond the limits of this edition. O n the other hand, he does not include a glossary, and does not annotate parti­ cular expressions. His introduction partly duplicates m y work, especially in the account of Æ lfric’s sources, where he has cor­ rectly identified nearly all those that are presented below and has printed some in full. Valuable supplements are his discussion (pp. 152-3) of the reception of the eucharist by the laity, on which Æ lfric touches in lines 119-30, and the comparisons (pp. 159-62) between Æ lfric and the anonymous translator of the O ld English Bede (who should not, of course, have been called Alfred) in their renderings of the exempla. There are two weak spots in the introduction, of which the more important is his analysis of the relationship of the manuscripts. T h is is based on an uncritical treatment of identical readings. Thu s, to show that N (his C) is more closely related to C (his B) than to P (his A), he gives five examples of agreement between N and C against P ; but these are all instances in which N and C may well have inherited the correct reading. In fact the first and fourth examples are illusions due to his own misreading of P, which agrees with the others. In m y judgement there is little likelihood of a close relationship between N and C. T h e genuine instances of agreement against P are all very plausible readings, and I have admitted them to m y text because they seem to me superior, though sometimes very slightly so. There is not enough evidence either way to justify a firm decision about the relationship, and I have preferred to leave the question open. Dr. Braekman then sug­ gests much more tentatively that V is more closely related to C than to P. Once again the instances of agreement that he cites may well be instances of correct readings. It would not be surprising, how­ ever, in view of the south-eastern associations of C and the relevant part of V (as described in m y Introduction, pp. 82-83), if there were a fairly close textual link between them. A n instance of agree­ ment that Dr. Braekman does not mention, the reading with eac in line 40, may be an instance of scribal alteration, for although it

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actually makes the sense of the passage clearer, P ’s reading, which lacks the word, is closer to the Latin that Æ lfric is translating. B y retaining P ’s reading in my text I have given some support to the notion that C and V are closely related, but one uncertain instance will hardly justify a conclusion. A slighter weakness is to be found in Dr. Braekman’s comments on the style of the homily. Although he prints the whole text as prose, he points out correctly that the last part, containing the

exempla , is in Æ lfric’s alliterative (or rhythmical) style, and illus­ trates this briefly by a metrical arrangement. But he wrongly attributes the same style to the beginning of the homily (lines 1-20 in his edition, 1-19 in mine). These opening lines do of course contain some alliteration and some neatly balanced phrases, but they belong to the intermediate style that appears frequently in Æ lfric’s earliest prose, as I have explained in my Introduction, pp. 109-12. Instead of adding to the textual apparatus the variant readings of the two little extracts in V, Dr. Braekman prints these extracts in full in his introduction, pp. 143-4. These are correct except for hære in the first extract, line 3 (where V has the correct þæré) and

beheat in the second extract, line 1 (where V has behat corrected to behet by a point under the a and a superscript e ). T h e passage in V that precedes these extracts, which Dr. Braekman quotes on p. 143, is indeed an echo, as he says, of D e Doctrina Apostolica, 66-70 (his 70-74), and it has not previously been printed from this parti­ cular manuscript, but it corresponds to Æ lfric’s Letter to Sigefyrth , Assmann 11, 183-8. T h e reading peniende (not peniendne), instead of peozoigende as in several manuscripts, supports Joscelin’s transcript of the lost text of Cotton Vespasian D . xiv. Dr. Braekman’s discussion of the date and nature of the homily (pp. 145-7) follows the lead of Dr. Clemoes, and accordingly makes much of the order in which the deadly sins are listed (pp. 154-5). Here he may of course be right, but I am not convinced, as I have already said in the earlier part of this introduction. I turn now to Dr. Braekman’s text and apparatus. T h e latter, as I have said, is admirably detailed and includes matter of interest that is beyond the scope of my edition. Both text and apparatus, however, contain some flaws that may be misleading unless they are pointed out. In the following comment the line numbers of my text are given first; then, in parenthesis, those of Dr. Braekman’s text.

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His text is based, like mine, on P (Hatton 115), to which he adheres even when the reading of another manuscript is superior, though he does allow himself to correct one obvious blunder

(klare for mid hlafe in the first paragraph). His readings of P, how­ ever, are not quite accurate. He omits two words: soðe in 136 (141) and word in 156 (156), supposing that they are present in the other two manuscripts only. In 246 (224), having overlooked the h of hangode , which has been added above the line in P in a contem­ porary hand, he prints the remainder as two words, an gode. More trifling errors are gerihtwisad for gerihtwisod at 96 (101), where in­ deed the form of the o is not very clear, and wylle for wyle at 103 ( I0 9 )-

His division of words differs from mine on several occasions, sometimes perhaps justifiably, but it seems definitely wrong to print the following compounds as two words: 113 (118) bearn-

eacnigendum , 138 (142) forð-m ann , 158 (158) a-eode , 228 (210) sylf-willes, 230 (212) to-dal. I have already mentioned his an gode for ' h'angode , 246 (224). T h e very next word, forscyldegod , is printed forscylde god, a mistake for which the scribe was partly responsible, since he divided the word in that way at the end of a line. Conversely, it is hardly proper to print læwedum hade, 115 (120) as one word. More serious, perhaps, is a procedural fault. Dr. Braekman has observed that P has been marked for correction of its spelling at a great many places, nearly always by simply putting substitute letters over the line, but sometimes by using in addition a point directly below the letter to be changed, and sometimes, to indicate deletion rather than substitution, by using a point only, without super­ scription. He has properly recognized that most of these editorial marks were inserted by much later correctors at Worcester, and most of them, accordingly, he reports in a separate section of his apparatus at the foot of the page. But whenever he observes that a corrector has ‘expunged’ a letter (in the medieval Latin sense, by a subscript point) he treats the correction as if it were authoritative and prints the corrected reading in his text. Th u s he prints eldre

io ry ld re at 5 (5), seal for sceal at 24 (26), though it is really the sceal in the next line that has an expunged c, lystan for hlystan at 25 (27), moder for meder at 60 (64), forkeorfan for forceorfan at 61 (65), swylke for the second swylce in 77 (82), gesikelon for gesicelon, properly gesicelod, at 148(150), swelte for swulte (probably indicating

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a weak preterite instead of the traditional strong one) at 151 (153),

sþræke for spræce at 156 (156), irenum for isenurn at 191 (182). H e also prints wurðon for wurdon at 64 (69) and cwaeðon for cwædon at 186 (178), where the original d has been changed to ð directly by addition of a stroke of the type used for ð by the Worcester scribe with the tremulous hand. Since all these editorial marks appear to express a corrector’s usage rather than Æ lfric’s and to widen the gap between P and its exemplar, it is surely improper to incorporate them in the text. Nearly all of them, moreover, indicate the same pronunciations as those that have superscript letters without subscript points. T h e y are typical of the Worcester corrections of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries and have been classified b y S. J. Crawford in

A nglia L I I (1928), 1-25 , on the basis of P itself and other manu­ scripts in the Bodleian library. In m y Introduction, p. 187, I have referred to Crawford’s study and explained why I have not reported any corrections of this sort in the Worcester manuscripts. Since the corrections are not all in the same hand nor entirely con­ sistent phonologically, a study more complete than Crawford’s and more elaborate in its analysis would be welcome; but it is not pertinent to an edition of Æ lfric. T o report the corrections is of course allowable, but Dr. Braekman’s special treatment of those distinguished by expunction leads to serious confusion. A n exception may be noted. T h e Worcester scribe with the tremulous hand makes, at one point, a different sort of correction. In line 4 he adds the word m id in the margin. T h is is not a modern­ ization but an effort, obviously successful, to recover the authentic reading. Whether it was guided by consultation of another copy or, as is probable, by simple apprehension of the demands of the context, it must certainly be reported. I will not attempt a complete list of errata, most of which are very minor, in Dr. Braekman’s apparatus. T h e majority of the variants are correctly reported. It is difficult, however, to deal with C ( C C C C 303), because the scribe often corrects himself in the middle of a word, writing the wrong letter and then immediately, without erasure, writing the correct letter on top of it. T h is leads to odd appearances, like the unamasisumode* reported by Dr. Braekman as C ’s reading at 64 (68-69). I have decided not to report a variant here, because it is evident that the scribe of C wrote unamas, then, noticing that he had left out the n, wrote an n on top of the

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high s so that the combination looks like si. What he intended, in spite of appearances, was simply unamansumode. A t one or two points C ’s reading, though unambiguous, has been misread by Dr. Braekman, who has trouble with the high

í

and the ligature st.

T h u s he misreads C ’s unwislic , 128 (134), and umvislice, 163 (162), as unwillic , unwillice, and reports that C ’s astealde , 49 (53) and gast, 196 (185), which are correctly written with the normal ligature of high s and t, have undergone correction to st from si and h respect­ ively. A t 202 (190) he misreads C ’s correct N e as H e , not noticing the consistent though at first glance confusing forms of C ’s capitals. Another slip of the eye occurs at 246 (224), where he reports that the e in C ’s gode has been corrected from g. Here he has mistaken a curved mark of abbreviation in the line below for the tail of a g. C had gode originally. One of the stronger features of Dr. Braekman’s edition is his decipherment of the glosses. Here he has made remarkably few mistakes if one considers that the Latin glosses are shakily written and much abbreviated and most of the vernacular glosses have been partially erased. Am ong the few mistakes are euacuam for

euacuaui at 18 (20), acursed for what I think is akursed , 22 (24), and peos for p eof , 246 (224). T w o or three other slight misreadings at points where I had originally given up have suggested what I think are the right readings: neode rather than m de at 117 (122), vorbism rather than vos bisne at 136 (141), pen rather than pæ t at 249 (226). I had originally passed over, as too faint, bilimede at 45 (49), holie and amerseden at 63 (67), anon at 63 (68), where he gives con­ servatively only a . . n, riule at 112 (118), and riht hand at 234 (215); and I had misread flures at 113 (119) and glore at 249 (226). Here and there my renewed attention to the glosses has led me to make additional conjectures where neither of us had been able to discern a plausible reading.

C 2710.2

K

DE

DOCTRIN A

APOSTOLICA

On manega wisan lærð Godes lar pa Cristenan. On þære lare is ægðer ge liðnys ge stiðnyss, for pan ðe ealle men ne magon anes modes beon. Ærest man fet pæt cild mid meolce, and syððan mid hlafe. G if ðu hit fetst ærest 'mid' hla[f]e, hit ne leofað sona. Eft, þonne hit yldre byð, hit behofað þæs hlafes, and stiðran metes. 5 Swa is eac on Godes lare liðnyss and stiðnys, pæt se ðe gyt ne mæg pa mæstan beboda healdan, þæt [he] huru leornige on ðam liðran bebodum hu he on sumne sæl hine sylfne gewylde to maran stiðnysse mid his modes gecnyrdnysse. A n eorðlic cyning hæfð meniges cynnes menn, sume geþungenran, sume ungeþungenran. Swa 10 T ext based on P (Hatton 115), ff. 35v~40v. Collated with C (C C C C 303), pp. 301-6; V (C C C C 419), pp. 352-4 (two excerpts, lines 34-43, 53-60, written consecutively); and N (Cotton Faustina A . ix), ff. i 6 o v- 2 v (containing the first of the two exempla from Bede and a modified conclusion: lines 136-207, 242-5,

250-4)* Excluded variants: (1) For P ’s short y in byð, hyre, hwylc, gehwylc, swylc, þysesy þysum, wyle, wylleyylca, and its long y in swydey the other manuscripts, especially C, often have iy none being entirely consistent. (2) T h e prevailing -nyss(e) of P is occasionally - niss(e) in C, more often -ness{e) in all three of the other manuscripts, and the uninflected form often has single s. (3) Variations of mannyman; mennymen; butonybutan occur inconsistently in all the manuscripts. (4) C usually has dan for dam in both singular and plural. Capitalization of sentences has been regularized. T h e Latin glosses of P are mostly the work of the famous Worcester scribe with the trembling hand. Th e Middle English words, whether meant for glosses or corrections, are sometimes in a bolder hand of perhaps almost the same period (1225?), but the character of the script and even the reading are often hard to determine because most of these words have been partially erased. A few are almost entirely obliterated. 3 æræst C. siððan C. 4 mid] sic C ; added in tremulous handymarginyP. second hlafe] sic C ; hiare P. 5 behofeð C. hlafæs C. 7 maestan] maran C (rightly ?). he] sic C ; om. P. 9 eordlic C. menges C. Glosses in P y Latin: 9 gecnyrdnysse: studio. 10 gepungenran: boni. Glosses in P y Middle English (including respellings of older zvords): 1 manega: monie. 4 first hlafe: bread {? erased). 9 cyning: king {erased). S ources. 3-9 [C/. I Cor. in. 2] Lac vobis potum dedi, non escam; . . . adhuc enim carnales estis. [Heb. v. 12] Facti estis quibus lacte opus sit, non solido cibo, [j j ] Omnis enim qui lactis est particeps, expers est sermonis iustitiæ; parvulus enim est. [14] Perfectorum autem est solidus cibus; eorum qui pro consuetudine exercitatos habent sensus ad discretionem boni ac mali.

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gedafenað eac Gode pæt he gode men hæbbe and gepungene penas to his ðenungum, and him nateshwon ne licað paet hi ealle pa liðnysse lufian, ac he wyle pæt hi sume ða softnysse forhogion, and heardnysse niman to healicum gepincðum. Paulus, peoda lareow, cwæð, swylce be him sylfum— ac he mænde mid pam eac oðre 15 menn— , Ð a ða ic wæs lytel and iung, ic spræc swa swa iungling, ic cuðe swa swa lytlingc, ic pohte swa swa lytlingc. Eft, pa pa ic to werlicere ylde becom, ic awearp and aidlode *pa idelnyssa pe ic *f. 36 on cildlicre ylde beeode. Eft cwæð sum witega, Puer centum

annorum maledictus erif. Hundteontig-wintre cild byð awyrged. 20 Ð æ t is on andgite, Se mann ðe hæfð ylde on gearum, and hæfð cildes peawas on dysige, pæt se byð awyrged. Æ lc treow blewð ær pan pe hit wæstmas bere, and aelc corn bið aerest gærs. Swa eac ælc godes cinnes mann sceal hine sylfne to godnysse awendan, and wisdom lufian, and forlætan idelnysse. He sceal hlystan wisdomes 25 set wisum mannum, for pan swa he oftor Godes lare gehyrð, swa he gehendor byð pam wisdome. Ne sceal nan mann forhogian paet he gehyre Godes lare, for pan ðe hit byð swyðe pleolic pam men paet he his Scyppendes beboda gehyran nelle, swylce he Godes hæse forseo. Waeteres gecynd is hnesce, and stanes gecynd is 30 heard, ac swapeah paet waeter foroft dropmælum pyrlað pone heardan stan. Swa eac Godes word purhgæð paes mannes heortan, and ahnexað to Godes bebodum, gif he gelome pa lare gehyrð. G od cwaeð aet fruman to mancynne, on middaneardes anginne, i i geðafnað C. 12 ðegenas G. 13 forhogian G. 14 nimon C. 17 first swa swa] swa G. lytling . . . litling C. 18 wærlicre C. idelnesse C. 19-22 E f t . . . awyrged] transposed in C to follow idelnysse, 25. 20 awyrgað C. 22 Ale G. blowð G. 23 ærest gærs] tr. G. 24 cywnes C. awændan C. 27 byð] beoð C . 29 sceppendes G. 30 Wætere G. hnesse C. 34 God] Here begins the excerpt in V> p. 352, line 17. middar- C.

Glosses in P, L atin: 11 gedafenað: decet. 14 gepincðum: bono. sapiebam. 18 aidlode: euacuaui. 21 andgite: iwtellectu. floret. 28 pleolic: periculosum. M E : 18 aidlode: illeg. gloss. 22 awyrged: akursed (? erased). dor: ner {? erased).

17 cuðe: 22 blewð: 27 gehen­

16 -19 U Cor. xiii. JJ] Cum essem parvulus, loquebar ut parvulus, sapiebam ut parvulus, cogitabam ut parvulus; quando autem factus sum vir, evacuavi quæ erant parvuli. 19-20 [.Elliptical version of Is. Ixv. 20] Puer centum annorum morietur, et peccator centum annorum maledictus erit.

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Weaxað and beoð gemenigfylde, and gefyllað þas eorðan. Eft on 35 þære niwan gecyðnysse, þæt is on godspel-bodunge, cwæð Crist to ðam Iudeiscum, Ic secge eow to soðan, [þæt] swa hwa swa his w if forlæt, buton heo dyrne-ceorl hæbbe, and gif he oðer w if nimð, þonne byð he *forliger, and se ðe þæt forlæte[ne] w if *f. 36» genimð byð forliger. Ð a cwædon Cristes leorningcnihtas him to, 40 G if ðam w[e]re is þus mid wife, selre him byð þæt he ne wifige. Ð a cwæð Crist, N e underfoð ealle men þis word, ac þam þe hit forgifen byð. Sume eunuchi synd þe beoð swa acennede, and sume eunuchi synd þe synd fram mannum swa gemacode, and sume eunuchi synd ðe hi sylfe forhabbað fram hæmede for heofonan 45 rices myrhðe. Healde ðis se þe hit healdan mæge. G if Crist hete ealle men healdan mægðhád, þonne wurde mancyn raðe geendod. N u is Criste leofre þæt se man be his [agenre] gecorennysse pa clænnysse geceose þe he sylf astealde, þonne he ealle menn bebunde mid pam anum bebode. And seo clæne lác, þæt is 50 mægðhád, sceal beon Gode mid [glæd]nysse geoffrod, na mid neadunge ænigre hæse. Wite gehwa, se ðe pa clænnysse Gode æne behæt, þæt he hit eft ne awæge. Fæder and moder moton heora beam to swa hwylcum 35 Wexað C V . gemænigfylde C. 36 gecyðnesse V. cwæd C. pæt] pæt C V ; om. P. 39-40 ponne . . . genimð] om. C. 39 forlætene] sic V; forlæte P. 40 genimð] nimð V. byð] bið eac CV. forligr C. leomig- V. 41 were] sic C V ; wære P . wifie C. 42 hit] om. C. 43~52 Sume eunuchi . . . haese] om. V. 43 Sume] ume, space for capital blank C. 44 pe synd] om. C. 46 maege] wile marked for deletionyfollowed by mage C. 47 þonne] þonum C. hraðe C. 48 agenre] sic C ; om. P. 50 bebunde] gebunde C. 51 glædnesse C ; clænnysse P. 53 Wite] Vresumes after omission, claennesse C V . behaet] behated C ; behat, corrected over line to behet V. eft] om. V. 54 awege C. modor C. motan V.

37 sæcge V .

Glosses in P, Latin: 39 forlaete: dimissam. 43 acennede: nati. 54 awaege: mutet. M E : 39 forliger: eaubriche (? erased). 41 waere: illeg. gloss. 43 eunuchi: igeldede. synd: beoð. 44 fram: of. 45 ðe hi sylfe forhabbað fram hæmede: bilimede (over haemede; erased; cf. 62). 52 haese: heste (? erased). 35 [Gen. i. 28] Crescite et multiplicamini, et replete terram. 37-46 [Matth, xix. 9] Dico autem vobis, quia quicumque dimiserit uxorem suam, nisi ob fornicationem, et aliam duxerit, moechatur: et qui dimissam duxerit, moechatur. [/0] Dicunt ei discipuli eius: Si ita est causa hominis cum uxore, non expedit nubere. [1 1] Qui dixit illis: Non omnes capiunt verbum istud, sed quibus datum est. [12] Sunt enim eunuchi, qui de matris utero sic nati sunt; et sunt eunuchi, qui facti sunt ab hominibus; et sunt eunuchi, qui seipsos castraverunt propter regnum caelorum. Qui potest capere, capiat.

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62s

cræfte gedon swa him leofost byð, and G od bead þæt ealle beam 55 beon gehyrsume fæder and meder. G if hi þonne heora beam Gode betæcað, to his clænum ðeowdome, and pæt beam byð him ungehyrsum, þonne getimað him swa swa hit awriten is: Nem o inobediens parentibus saluus erit : N e byð nan man gehealden þe byð ungehyrsum fæder and meder.

60

N e mot nan man his lima *ne his gesceapu forceorfan. We rædað *f. 37 on pære béc, Uita Patrum, þæt twegen munecas gehældon hi sylfe; ac ealle ða halgan lareowas hi amansumodon sona, and hi mid mycel[r]e earfoðnysse eft begeaton þæt hi unamansumode wurdon, for pan ðe béc hit forbeodað.

65

G o d behet þurh þone witegan Isaiam þam mannum þe on mægðhade wuniað, and pa clænnysse gecuron pe him gecweme is, þæt he wolde him forgifan þa selestan wununge on his huse, þæt is on heofonan rice, and þone selran naman him gesettan, toforan sunum and dohtrum, se pe ne byð næfre adilegod. Se apostol 70 Paulus, ealra þeoda lareow, awrat on his pistole ðus: Ic secge wydewum, and þam ðe butan hæmede wuniað, þæt him is swyðe gód pæt hi swa þurhwunian, swa swa ic sylf. Eft cwæð se ylca 55 hym V . byð] beoð C ; bið V. bead] bebead C V . 56 gehersume C. moder C V . hy V. 57 betæceð C. hym V. ungehersum C. 59 parentibus] parentibus suis V. 60 meder corrected to moder over line P ; modor C ; moder V. End of excerpt in V. 61 forceorffan C. 62 uita corrected to uitas over line P ; uitas C. (See note.) twege C. silfe C. 64 mycelre] sic C ; mycele P. 66 )?one] his C. 68 se(o)loston, -on altered to -an C . 69 heofonü altered to heofonä C. 70 adylegod C. 73 -wunion C. Glosses in P, Latin: 63 hi: eos (twice, second time wrongly). ilium. 70 byð . . . adilegod: p m m b it. M E : 62 gehældon: bilimeden. 63 halgan: holie (erased). modon : amerseden (erased). sona: anon (? erased).

69 J?one: amansu­

58-59 [Apparently not Biblical; but cf. Ex. xx. 1 2 ; Deut. xxvii. 16; Eph. vi. 1 -2 , etc.'] 62-65 [V itæ Patrum, V. xv. 88yM igne,PL L X X I I I . 968sq. Æ lfricsummarizes freely. In the Latin the two monks are excommunicated successively by three archbishops and the pope before they are brought to repentance by the bishop of Cyprus.] 66-70 [Is. Ivi. 4, 5] Quia haec dicit Dominus eunuchis: Qui custodierint sabbata mea, et elegerint quae ego volui, et tenuerint foedus meum, dabo eis in domo mea et in muris meis locum, et nomen melius a filiis et filiabus: nomen sempiternum dabo eis, quod non peribit. 7 i “ 73 U Cor. vii. 8] Dico autem non nuptis, et viduis: Bonum est illis si sic permaneant, sicut et ego. 73-89 [/ Cor. vii. 28] Si autem acceperis uxorem, non peccasti; et si nupserit virgo, non peccavit. . . .

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xix

apostol, G if ðu w if nimst, þu ne syngast; and gif mæden ceorlað, heo ne syngað. Ic secge swaþeah þæt þes tima is swiðe sceort.

5

Beon forði pa ðe w if habbað swylce hi nan nabbon; and pa ðe blissiað swylce hi na ne blission; and þa ðe bicgað swylce hi hit nagon; and pa ðe brucað þyses middaneardes, beon hi swylce hi his ne brucon. Dises middaneardes hiw gewit. Se man þe butan wife wunað hogað hu he Gode gecweme; and se J?e mid wife 80 wunað hogað embe woruldþing, and hu he his wife gecweme. And clæne mæden cepð Godes willan, þæt heo halig sy ægðer ge on lichaman ge on sawle; and seo ðe ceorlode smeað embe woruldþing, and hu heo hyre were licige. #Ð æ t w if byð under *f. 37» hyre weres iuce pa hwile þe he leofað; and gif heo hyre wer oferbit, 85 þonne byð heo frig, swa heo on wydewan hade wunige, swa heo ceorlige, gif heo iung byð and ungehealtsum; ac heo byð gesælig gif heo on wudewan hade wunað, be minum ræde. Ic wene pæt ic hæbbe Godes Gast on me. Se ylca ðeoda lareow, Paulus, cwæð: G od byð þam men þæt 90 74 nymst C. hi C æðer C. 86 first heo] hio C. 88 gef corr. to gif C.

80 hogað] hogeð C. 82 clene meden C. 83 ceorlode] ceorlað C. 84 licige] gelicige C. wudewan C. 87 ungehaltsum C. ac] and C.

Glosses in P, Latin: 74 wif nimst: nubseris. bicgað: emunt. 79 hiw: figura. gewit: preterit. M E : 85 iuce: ioke.

77 blissiað: Gaudent, 86 first swa: siue.

[29] Hoc itaque dico, fratres: Tempus breve est; reliquium est, ut et qui habent uxores, tamquam non habentes sint; [30] . . . et qui gaudent, tamquam non gaudentes; et qui emunt, tamquam non possidentes; [ j j ] et qui utuntur hoc mundo, tamquam non utantur, praeterit enim figura huius mundi. [32] . . . Qui sine uxore est, sollicitus est quæ Domini sunt, quomodo placeat Deo. [33] Qui autem cum uxore est, sollicitus est quae sunt mundi, quomodo placeat uxori. . . . [34] Et mulier innupta, et virgo cogitat quae Domini sunt, ut sit sancta cor­ pore et spiritu; quae autem nupta est, cogitat quae sunt mundi, quomodo placeat viro. . . . [39] Mulier alligata est legi quanto tempore vir eius vivit; quod si dormierit vir eius, liberata est. Cui vult nubat, tantum in Domino. [40] Beatior autem erit si sic permanserit, secundum meum consilium; puto autem quod et ego Spiritum Dei habeam. 90-94 [I Cor. vii. J] Bonum est homini mulierem non tangere; [2] propter fornicationem autem unusquisque suam uxorem habeat, et unaquaeque suum virum habeat. . . . [5] Nolite fraudare invicem, nisi forte ex consensu ad tempus, ut vacetis orationi. . . .

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627

he w if ne hreppe; swaþeah, J?e læs þe hi on forliger befeallon, wifige se ðe wille, and ceorlige seo ðe wille; and heora naðor oðerne ne bepæce; cepan hi huru þæt hi magon on gewissum timan hi clænlice to Gode gebiddan. G if hwylc gelyfed man hæfð ungeleafful wif, and heo wylle wunian mid him, ne forlæte he hi; 95 þæt ungeleaffulle w if byð gerihtwisod þurh þone geleaífullan wer. A n d gif hwylc geleaíful w if hæfð ungeleaffulne wer, and he wylle wunian mid hyre, ne forlæte heo hine; se ungeleaffulla wer byð gerihtwisod þurh þæt [ge]leaffulle wíf. Ic bebeode— swaðeah na ic ac G od sylf bebyt— þæt wer and w if hi ne totwæman. G if hi 100 þonne þæt doð, wunian hi butan hæmede, oððe hi eft hi gegaderian. — Eac hit wære rihtlic, æfter boca tæcinge, þæt se cniht ungewemmed wære oððæt he wifode, swa swa he wyle þæt his mæden ungewemmed him to cume. Se ylca apostol cwæð, Æ lc man hæfð synderlice gife fram Gode, 105 sum swa, sum elles. [Swa] mycel is se sinscipe, þæt þeah hwa hæbbe 91 py læs ðe C. forligr C. 92 hiore C. 93 cepon C. 94 gelyf­ ed] geleafful C. 95 ungeleafful] ungelifed C. wunian mid him] mid him wunian C. 96 geleaffullan] geleaffulle C. 97 ungeleaffull'n'e C. 98 wunian mid hyre] mid hire wunian C. 99 geleaffulle] sic C ; leaffulle P. 100 totwaemon C. 101 wunian altered to wunion C. hemede C. oððe] oððæt C (but cf. Latin). 102, 104 ungewæmmed C. 106 Swa] sic C ; sum erased P. Glosses in P 9 Latin: 94 gelyfed: fidelis. 100 totwæman: diuidawt. 101 butan: sine. 105 synderlice: propriam. 106 sinscipe: comugium. M E : 106 sinscipe: wicchekreft (in marg., erased; see note).*1 94-101 \I Cor. vii. 12] Si quis frater uxorem habet infidelem, et hæc consentit habitare cum illo, non dimittat illam. [13] Et si qua mulier fidelis habet virum infidelem, et hic consentit habitare cum illa, non dimittat virum: [14] sanctificatus est enim vir infidelis per mulierem fidelem, et sanctificata est mulier infidelis per virum fidelem. [10] Iis autem qui matrimonio iuncti sunt, praecipio non ego, sed Dominus, uxorem a viro non discedere; [11] quod si discesserit, manere innuptam, aut viro suo reconciliari. Et vir uxorem non dimittat. 102-4 [CæsariuSy Sermo X L I I I f C C S L C III. 190] Velim tamen scire, si illi qui uxores non habent, et, priusquam coniugiis copulentur, adulteria com­ mittere nec metuunt nec erubescunt, utrum velint sponsas suas, antequam ad nuptias veniant, ab aliquibus adulteriis violari. . . . Quare unusquisque sponsae suae non servat fidem, quam sibi ab ipsa servari desiderat ? 10 5- 6 [I Cor. vii. 7] Unusquisque proprium donum habet ex Deo, alius quidem sic, alius vero sic. 106- 8 [.Augustine, De Bono Coniugalit cap. viiyP L X L . 378] Tantum valet illud sociale vinculum coniugum, ut cum causa procreandi colligetur, nec ipsa causa

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untymende wif, and heo ne mage beam *habban, þæt se wer ne #f. 38 mot swaþeah hi forlætan, and oðer tymende geniman, for þan ðe G od Æ lmihtig mæg eaðe gedon, gif his willa swa byð, þæt J>æt untymende wif by ð tymende, swaswa hedyde Abrahameswife, and n o Isaaces, and gehwylce oðre. Nis swaþeah hæmed geset for nanum þinge buton for bearnes gestreone, and æfter þam boclican regole, ne sceolde nan man bearneacnigendum wife genealæcan, ne monoðseocum, ne þam ðe for ylde untymende byð. Se ðe þis healdan mæg, he byð fulfremed on læwedum hade, swa swa we be mane- 115 gum mannum rædað. Se ðe hine sylfne to þyssere forhæfednysse gewyldan ne mæg, he ah þearfe þæt he mid ælmyssan and mid sumere dædbote hine sylfne geclænsie. Is eac to witenne þæt Cristene men sceoldon gán to husle oftor þonne hi doð, swa swa man deð þær ðær man þone Cristendom wel 120 hylt. Eawfæste men magon gan to husle be Godes leafe Sunnandagum on Lenctenfæstene, and on ðam þrim Swigdagum, and on Easterdæge, and on þam þunresdæge on þære Gangwucan, on ðam dæge þe Crist to heofonum lichamlice astah, and on Pente­ costen, and on ðam feower Sunnandagum þe beoð æfter þam 125 feower Ymbrenfæstenum. Ð us mæg don se ðe rihtlice leofað, gif he ne b y ð underþeod þam eahta heafodleahtrum: þæt is, modignyss and gifernyss, unrihthæmed and gitsung, un[wis]lic weamodnyss *and þyssere worulde unrotnys, asolcennyss and idelgylp. Se þe #f. 38» swa oft gán nelle to husle, gange huru þriwa on geare. 107 and ] past C {rightly?) hi C. hæbben C. 108 forlæton C. n o swa swa] swa C. wife] w if C {rightly?). i n heemed {probably an imperfect correction of he- to hae-) C. 116 rædað] on bocum rædað C {rightly?). ðisre C. 117 peaffe C. ælmessan C. n 8 s ilfn e C . geclænsige C. 120 ponne] ponum C. 121 Eawfeste C. 122 lænctenC. 123 Easter-] æstær- C. on pam Punresdaege] on pone punresdæg C. 127 heofod-C . 128 unwislic] sic C ; unrihtlicP. 129 ðisre C. 130 nele C. geara C. Glosses in P, Latin: 113 bearneacnigendum: prewgnantem. 123 gang­ wucan: rogationum. 127 eahta heafodleahtrum: vii. {sic) mortalia pecata. 128 gifernyss: Gula. unrihthæmed: luxuria. weamod­ nyss: ira. 129 asolcennyss: accidia, pigncia. 130 priwa: ter. M E : 112 regole: riule {erased). 113 bearneacnigendum: mid childe if erased). 113 -14 monoðseocum: flures. 117 pearfe: neode {?erased). 130 priwa: prie.

procreandi solvatur. Possit enim homo dimittere sterilem uxorem, et ducere de qua filios habeat: et tamen non licet.

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629

G if man seocne mann huslað, he sceal his synna geandettan, and he ne sceal na ortruwian, ne on orwennysse befeallan, ac hihtan on þone Hælend, and hopian to his miltsunge, for ðan se þe ortruwað be Godes arfæstnysse, and hihtleas geendað, se losað on ecnysse.

135

Be ðam we magon secgan sume soðe bysne, swa swa Beda awrat, ðysum wordum secgende: He cwæð þæt sum forðmann wære on Myrcena lande, 132 na om. C . f. i 6ov9 last line.

135 se] he C. 136 Be ðam] Here begins excerpt in N , bisne C. 137 Beda] se halga beda C. 138 myrcna C.

Glosses in P , Latin: 132 ortruwian: desperare, diffidere. 133 hihtan: confidere. 135 hihtleas: non confidens. 138 forðmann: prediues. M E : 136 bysne: vorbisne (? erased). 138 forð-: hei-. 138-207 [Bede, Eccl. Hist., Lib. V. cap. xiii\ Fuit quidam in provincia M erciorum cuius visiones ac verba, non autem et conversatio, plurimis, sed non sibimet ipsi, profuit. Fuit autem temporibus Coenredi . . . vir in laico habitu atque officio militari positus; sed quantum pro industria exteriori regi placens, tantum pro interna suimet neglegentia displicens. Ammonebat ergo illum sedulo, ut confiteretur, et emendaret, ac relinqueret scelera sua, priusquam subito mortis superventu tempus omne pænitendi et emendandi perderet. Verum ille, fre­ quenter licet admonitus, spernebat verba salutis, seseque tempore sequente pænitentiam acturum esse promittebat. Hæc inter tactus infirmitate, decidit in lectum, atque acri coepit dolore torqueri. A d quem ingressus rex, diligebat enim eum multum, hortabatur, ut vel tunc, antequam moreretur, pænitentiam ageret commissorum. A t ille respondit, non se tunc velle confiteri peccata sua, sed cum ab infirmitate resurgeret; ne exprobarent sibi sodales, quod timore mortis faceret ea, quae sospes facere noluerat; fortiter quidem, ut sibi videbatur, locutus, sed miserabiliter, ut post patuit, daemonica fraude seductus. Cumque morbo ingravescente, denuo ad eum visitandum ac docendum rex intraret, clamabat statim miserabili voce: 'Quid vis modo? quid huc venisti? non enim mihi aliquid utilitatis aut salutis potes ultra conferre.' A t ille: 'Noli,' inquit, 'ita loqui, vide ut sanum sapias.' 'Non,' inquit, 'insanio, sed pessimam mihi scientiam certus prae oculis habeo. . . . Paulo ante . . . intraverunt domum hanc duo pulcherrimi iuvenes; . . . protulitque unus libellum perpulchrum, sed vehementer modicum, ac mihi ad legendum dedit; in quo omnia, quae umquam bona feceram, intuens scripta repperi, et haec erant nimium pauca et modica. Receperunt codicem, neque aliquid mihi dicebant. Tu m subito supervenit exercitus malignorum et horridum vultu spirituum domumque hanc et exterius obsedit, et intus maxima ex parte residens implevit. Tunc ille, qui . . . primatu sedis maior esse videbatur eorum, proferens codicem horrendae visionis, et magnitudinis enormis, et ponderis pene inportabilis, iussit uni ex satellitibus suis mihi ad legendum deferre. Quem cum legissem, inveni omnia scelera, non solum quae opere vel verbo, sed etiam quae tenuissima cogitatione peccavi, mani­ festissime in eo tetricis esse descripta litteris. Dicebatque ad illos, qui mihi adsederant, viros albatos et praeclaros: "Q uid hic sedetis, scientes certissime, quia noster est iste?" Responderunt: "Verum dicitis: accipite et in cumulum damnationis vestrae ducite." Quo dicto statim disparuerunt; surgentesque duo

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swyðe leof þam cyninge þe Kenred wæs gehaten. Se þegen wæs gymeleas on his þeawum and dædum,

140

and dyslice leofode, and fordyde hine sylfne. Ð a manode hine se cyning þæt he his mandæda geswice, and his synna geandette mid soðre behreowsunge, þylæste he færlice forðferde mid his synnum. Se cyning hine lufode, and gelome [hine] swa tihte,

145

ac he forseah his láre, and let him eaðe embe þæt, cwæð [þæt] he wolde on fyrste fon to dædbote. He wearð ða gesicelo[d] sarlice æt nextan, and se cyning Kenred com to him licgendum, and bæd þæt he sceolde his synna geandettan mid soðre behreowsunge huru ær he swulte.

150

He cwæð þæt he nolde cyðan þa his synna, ac syððan he gewyrpte he wolde hi geandettan, þy læs ðe hine man tælde, swylce he for yrhðe hi geandette þa on his untrumnysse, þa ða hé ansund nolde. #Him þuhte þæt he spræce þegenlice word,

155 *f. 39

ac he wæs beswicen þurh þone swicolan deofol, swa swa hit him aeode earmlice syððan. His wise wæs ða wyrsigende, and him weox seo untrumnys, 139 cenred C N . 143 geandgedte (sic) C. 144 þylæste] py læs pe N f pe læs pe C. færlice forðferde] tr. C. 145 second hine] sic C N ; om. P. 147 pæt] sic C N ; om. P. 148 gesicelod] sic C ; gesicclod N ; gesicelon P. 149 cenred C N . 150 geanddettan C. 151 soðre] soðe C. behreosiinge C. 152 pa] om. C. 153 hi] hy N . 154 py] pe C. hi] hy N . geanðette C. 156 Hym N . 158 hyt N . 159 wyrsiende N . Glosses in P, Latin: 141 fordyde: perdidit. 146 eaðe: facile. 148 gesicelon: infirmus. 152 cyðan: dicere. 153 gewyrpte: conualuit. 154 yrhðe: pusillanimitate. 155 ansund: sospes. M E : 140 þegen: J?ein (erased). 146 forseah: forhowede (? divided, forho wede, and erased). nequissimi spiritus, habentes in manibus vomeres, percusserunt me, unus in capite et alius in pede: qui videlicet modo cum magno tormento inrepunt in interiora corporis mei, moxque ut ad se invicem perveniunt, moriar, et paratis ad rapiendum me dæmonibus in inferni claustra pertrahar.’ Sic loquebatur miser desperans, et non multo post defunctus, pænitentiam, quam ad breve tempus cum fructu veniae facere supersedit, in aeternum sine fructu poenis subditus facit. De quo constat, quia . . . non pro se ista, cui non profuere, sed pro aliis viderit. . . . Quod autem codices diversos per bonos sive malos spiritus sibi vidit offerri, ob id superna dispensatione factum est, ut meminerimus facta et cogitationes nostras non in ventum diffluere, sed ad examen summi Iudicis cuncta servari. . . . Hanc historiam . . . simpliciter ob salutem legentium sive audientium narrandum esse putavi.

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and se cyning eode eft in to ðam seocan.

160

H e clypode ða earmlice, and cwæð to pam cyninge, Hwæt woldest þu nu set me ? N e miht þu me nanum góde. Ð a cwæð se cyning him to, N e clypa þu swa unwislice; wite þin gewit. He andwyrde and cwæð, N e eom ic na gewitleas, ac min gewit is yfel.

165

M e comon lytle aer to twegen Godes englas, and brohton me ane boc, seo wæs beorhte scinende, ac heo wæs swyðe gehwæde, and heton me raed[a]n. Ic ða sceawode pa boc and þæron geseah pa feawa godan dæda pe ic [dyde seldon,]

170

pa wæron swyðe feawa; and hi færlice genamon eft pa bóc set me, and me nan J>ing ne saedon. Efne þa faerlice comon pa cwealmbæran deoflu, swyðe anþraec werod, and eall ðis hus afyldon, and manega wiðutan on aelce healfe saeton.

175

Hwæt ða se fyrmesta forðteah ane bóc mycele and ormaete, swylce mannes byrðen. He het pa raecan me to rædenne þa bóc, and ic þæron geseah mid sweartum stafum awritene ealle mine synna þe ic sið and aér gefremode,

180

and mine yfelan geþohtas on þære atelican bee, swyðe swutelice, swa swa ic sylf oneneow. D a ewaedon pa deoflu to þam Drihtnes englum ðe ða lytlan boc me brohton, Hwaes abide ge her? G e sylfe *witon þæt þeos sawul is ure. D a englas pa ewaedon to þam atelicum deoflum,

*f. 39v 186

Soð ge secgað; nimað his sawle to ðam ecum witum on [ejowrum forwyrde. 162 woldost C . 163 clypa] clypode C. 166 lytle aer] nu lytle aer C . ænglas C. 168 raedan] sic C N ; raedon P. 170 feawan N . dyde seldon] sic C N ; seldon dyde P. 171 hy N . 173 deofla C N . 174 anpraec] anðraeclic C ; angrislic N . eal N . hus] ós C. i76formesta C. 177 micele N . byrðæn C. 179 þæron] ðær C. 181 atelice C . 1 83 deofla C N . 184 abide ge] anbidige N . 185 sawl N . 188 eowrum] sic C N ; heowrum P.

Glosses in P, Latin: 168 gehwaede: parua. 174 anþræc: orribiltr. 178 raecan: porrigere. 184 Hwaes abide ge her: quid expectas hi'e. 185 G e: vos. 187 ge: vos. 188 on forwyrde: in interitu. M E : 173 Efne: lo. 179 stafum: lettres.

632

DE D O C T R I N A A P O S T O L I C A

XIX

A nd J?a englas sona of minre syhðe gewiton. D a arison sona of þam sweartan flocce

190

twegen egeslice deoflu mid isenum tolum, swylce twa scearu, and slogon me hetelice, an on pæt heafod and oðer on þone fot, and gað nu J?a dyntas þæs deofollican sieges

to minum innoðe mid ormætum sarum,

195

and þonne hi togædere cumað, min gast sceal gewitan of þam earman lichaman mid þam atelicum deoflum to hellicum clysingum, on ðam hatan fyre. Ð us clypode se earming mid orwennysse, and he hraðe þæs gewát to ðam ecum witum

200

butan dædbote, mid ðam deoflum genyðerod. N e fremode his gesyhð him sylfum nan þing, ac for oðrum mannum him wearð æteowed þæt, þæt þa beon gerihtlæhte þe ðas rædinge gehyrað, for ðan ðe ure dæda beoð ealle awritene,

205

swa yfele, swa gode, on ecum gemynde, and us [eft beoð] æteowde on ðam endenextan dæge. U s sæde eac Beda be sumum gelæredum smyðe, 189 syhðe] gesihðe C N (rightly?). 190 arisan C. 191 deofla C N . isenum] egeslicum N . 192 scaru C. 193 þæt heafod, pone fot] tr. N . 194 deoflican C N (rightly ?). 196 hy N . 197 earmam C. 201 dædbode C. geniðerod C. 202 gesihðe C. 203 æteowod C . 207 eft beoð] sic C N ; beoð eft P. 208-41 om. N . 208 Beda] se halga beda C. gelaredan C. smiðe C. Glosses in P yLatin: 189 gewiton: euanuen/nt. 193 an: unus, first o n : in. 194 sieges: ictus. 198 clysingum: claustro. 199 orwennysse: despera­ tione. 201 genyðerod: daranatwí. 208 smyðe: Fabro, final o like u (in margin, perhaps pointing to subject of exemplum). M E : 192 scearu: scherren. 200 witum: pine (erased). 207 æteowde: ischawede (? erased). 208-41 [Bedef ibid., cap. xiv] Novi autem ipse fratrem . . . positum in mona­ sterio nobili, sed ipsum ignobiliter viventem. Corripiebatur quidem sedulo a fratribus ac maioribus loci. . . . Et quamvis eos audire noluisset, tolerabatur tamen ab eis longanimiter; . . . erat enim fabrili arte singularis. Serviebat autem multum ebrietati, et ceteris vitae remissioris inlecebris; magisque in officina sua die noctuque residere, quam ad . . . orandum in ecclesia . . . consuerat. . . . Per­ cussus . . . languore, atque ad extrema perductus, vocavit fratres, et . . . coepit narrare, quia videret inferos apertos, et Satanan demersum in profundis tartari, Caiphanque cum ceteris, qui occiderunt Dominum, iuxta eum flammis ultri­ cibus contraditum: ‘in quorum vicinia,' inquit, ‘heu misero mihi locum de­ spicio æternæ perditionis esse praeparatum.' Audientes hæc fratres coeperunt

XIX

DE D O C T R I N A A P O S T O L I C A

633

se wæs mynsterman, and gemearcod Gode. Se lufode druncennysse, and dyslice leofode,

210

and læg on his smiððan, and forlet his tidsangas, and pa gebroðra ne mihton gebetag his unþeawas. H e wearð ða æt nextan geuntrumod to deaðe, and geseah helle gata him sylfum geopenode, and eac þone *deofol on þam deopum witum, and pa arleasan Iudeiscan, þe urne Drihten ofslogon, ealle fordemede on þam ecan fyre;

*f. 40 216

and geseah him sylf eac, hwær his setl wæs gegearcod on ðam hellican fyre, and wanode him sylfum, and sæde þam gebroðrum hwæt him geswutelod wæs.

220

Ð a bædon pa gebroðra þæt he gebuge to Gode mid soðre behreowsunge, ær þan ðe he sáwlode. He andwyrde mid orwennysse, Hu mæg ic nu gecyrran, þonne ic sylf geseah min setl on helle ? A nd he gewat pa swa mid pam wordum of life,

225

butan huslunge, and hi ne dorston him fore gebiddan. Him getimode pa [swa], swa swa us secgað béc: pæt se ðe sylfwilles nele his cyrican gesecan, pæt he sceal unþances into helle gan. 2 1 1 tidsangas] tit sances C. 212 unðæawas C. 214 gesah C. 216 iudeiscum C. 217 fordernde C. 218 silf C. settel C. 223 andwyrde] andwyrde and cwaeð C. gecyrran] cyrran C. 227 first swa] sic C ; om. P . 228 sylfwilles nele] tr. C . circan C. gesecean C. Glosses in P, Latin: 223 orwennysse: desperatzowe. M E : 215 deopum witum: (. . ) pine (? erased). 218 setl: stol (? erased). 219 wanode: Gronode. (erased).

216 arleasan: illeg. gloss. 228 cyrican: chirchen

diligenter exhortari, ut vel tunc positus adhuc in corpore, pænitentiam faceret. Respondebat ille desperans: ‘Non est mihi modo tempus vitam mutandi, cum ipse viderim iudicium meum iam esse completum.* Talia dicens, sine viatico salutis obiit, . . . neque aliquis pro eo vel missas facere, vel psalmos cantare, vel saltim orare praesumebat. [From preceding para­ graph] Unde accidit illi, quod solent dicere quidam, quia, qui non vult ecclesiae ianuam sponte humiliatus ingredi, necesse habet in ianuam inferni non sponte damnatus introduci. [Return to original order] O quam grandi distantia divisit Deus inter lucem et tenebras I Beatus protomartyr Stephanus passurus mortem pro veritate, vidit caelos apertos, vidit gloriam Dei et Iesum stantem a dextris D ei; et ubi erat futurus ipse post mortem, ibi oculos mentis ante mortem . . . misit. A t contra, faber iste tenebrosae mentis et actionis, imminente morte, vidit aperta tartara, vidit damnationem diaboli et sequacium eius; vidit etiam suum infelix inter tales carcerem, quo miserabilius ipse desperata salute periret.

634

DE D O C T R I N A A P O S T O L I C A

XIX

Eala, hu mycel todal is on Godes domum!

230

Se eadiga Stephanus, pa ða he ehtnysse þolode, and to deaðe wæs gebroht for Drihtnes geleafan, ða geseah he swutelice þone soðfæstan Hælend æt his Fæder swyðran, þurh ða scinendan heofonan, þyder pe he to sceolde for his soðan geleafan.

235

And J>es earma smið openlice geseah

pa hellican wita and pa hetelan deofla, þyder þe he, ungesælig, him sylf toweard wæs, æfre to wunigenne on witum mid him for his yfelnysse and orwennysse,

240

for þan ðe he nolde furðon on his ende gecyrran. U s secgað béc foroft þæt manega gebugon on ende, on heora forðsiðe, to Gode mid fæstum geleafan, *and mid soðre behreowsunge, and heora synna geandettan, *{. 40V

and God him pa gemiltsode for his micclan godnysse.

245

Se sceaða pe 'h'angode forscyldegod on rode mid andetnysse 'bæd Cristes arfæstnysse', and Crist him sona behet paet he cuman moste ðæs ylcan dæges mid him to ðam ecan wuldre. Æ lc þæra pe geortruwað and geendað butan hihte,

250

se losað openlice on ðam ecan forwyrde; 230 micel C. 233 pone] ponne corr. to pone C. soðfestan C. 234 scinenendan C. 235 pider C. scolde C. 238 ðider C. towærd C . 241 furðon] wurðon C. his] om. C. 242-54 N selects from and rearranges these lines in the order 250-3, 242-5, 254, with changes as noted. 242 Us . . . manega] Swa us secgað bee pæt manega foroft N . 243 Gode] J?am soðan hælende N . fæstum] anrædum N . 244 geandetton C N . 245 gemiltsode] mildsode N . micclum (!) C. 246-9 om. N . 246 angode C. 247 bæt C. 249 ecean C. wuldre] wurdre C. 251 eacean corr. to ecean C.

Glosses in P , Latin: 230 todal: differentia. 236 ]?es: iste. 242 gebu­ gon: comierterunt. 246 sceaða: fur. forscyldegod: reus. 250 geortruwað: desperat. hihte: cozzfidentia. 251 forwyrde: dawmatzowe. M E : 231 ehtnysse: (martir)dom (? erased). 234 swyðran: riht hand (? erased). 246 sceaða: )?eof (erased). 249 ðam: pen (? erased). wuldre: glore (erased).

246-9 [Luc. xxiii. 40-43, esp. 4 2-4 3] Et dicebat ad Iesum: Domine, me­ mento mei, cum veneris in regnum tuum. Et dixit illi Iesus: Amen dico tibi, hodie mecum eris in paradiso.

XIX

DE D O C T R I N A A P O S T O L I C A

635

and se þe hopað to Criste becymð to miltsunge huru on Domes-dæg, for þæs Hælendes godnysse. Se us gelæde to ðam ecan life. A M E N . 252 becumð C. mildsunge N . 253 -dæge C. 254 N adapts this line to an expanded conclusion: Se éca drihtew us ahVedde fram eallum frecednyssuw*, and to ðam écan life gelæde. Se pe leofað and rixað mid fæder and halgum gaste, a butan énde wé cwepap. A m en .

NOTES 20. hundteontig-wintre. C ited b y N apier, C O E L , from this passage in P. T h e re are m any similar adjectives ending in - wintre w ith other numerals, aw-, twi-y þri-y feozver-, etc. Betw een one and tw en ty the only numerals not represented in H a ll-M e r itt are six, eleven, thirteen, and nineteen. 38. dyrne-ceorl. T h is com pound has not been recorded in the diction­ aries, b u t in the context w e cannot well take the two words separately. A s an adverb, dyrne w ould impose a foolish lim itation; as a separate adjective it ough t to be inflected, dyrnne, and w ould not adequately restrict the m eaning o f ceorl. T h e re are several recorded com pounds beginning w ith dyrne that refer to fornication and a d u lte ry : dyrneforlegernesy dyrnegeligre, etc. 45. hi sylfe forhabbað fram hæmede. T h is seems to be a deliberate substitution for the V u lgate, seipsos castraverunty w h ich the W est Saxon gospels translate directly as ‘h ig sylfe belistnodon’ . T h e gloss bilimede ignores or rejects Æ lfr ic ’s distinction, reverting to the V ulgate. A t line 61 below castration is expressly forbidden. 62. Uita Patrum . T h e singular vita was used regularly b y Æ lfric for the title o f this work, in harm ony w ith the explanation given b y G rego ry o f T o u r s w ith reference to his use o f the title for his own similar work on the G a u lish -F ra n k ish saints: ‘ U n d e m anifestum est, m elius dici vitam patrum quam vitasy quia, cum sit diversitas m eritorum virtutum que, una tam en omnes vita corporis alit in m u n d o .’ ( Gregorii Eps. Turonensis Liber V itæ Patrum y M on u m en ta Germ aniae H istorica, Scriptores R erum M ero vin gicaru m I. 662. Q u o ted b y C . W . Jones, Saints' Lives and Chronicles, p. 214, note 21.) Editors have sometimes undertaken to correct the m anuscripts: e.g. C H II. 272, where T h o rp e em ends to Uitae; A ssm ann in . 229, where Assm ann accepts an earlier em endation from abl. uita to ap. Vitas. 10 2-4 . C f. Assm ann 11. 1 4 7 -5 2 : H it wære sw ype rihtlic æfter rihtum life,

pæt se cniht heolde hine sylfne clæne, o ðpæ t he w ifode, swa swa he w yle habban clæne m æden, ponne hi cum að togæderes.

636

DE D O C T R I N A A P O S T O L I C A

xrx

A n d æfter G o d es gesetnysse eall swa scyld ig b y ð geteald se forlegena cniht swa pæt forlegene m æden. T h e se six lines are only in the expanded version o f A ssm ann 11 that ap­ pears in M S . H and, as an excerpt, in the D e Virginitate o f M S . V , for w hich see the introduction to xxx. A ll six correspond in sentim ent to the sermon b y Cæsarius o f w hich a small part is quoted as a source for 10 2-4. In the Institutes of Polity (ed. Jost, p. 130) w e find a directive in W u lfstan’s manner that is probably derived from Æ lf r ic : Ð æ t bið rihtlic lif, pæt cniht purhw unige on hys cnihthade oððæ t he on rihtre m ædenæwe gewifige, and habbe þa siððan and nænige oðre, pa. hwile seo libbe. Jost has noted the resemblance to Assm ann 11, and this (perhaps b y w ay o f D e Virginitate) is probably the source, for the preceding sentence in Polity echoes Assm ann 11. 13 2 -4 . 106. T h e gloss wicchekreft, partially erased bu t still legible in the m argin o f P, seems to have been intended, though w rongly, for sinscipe. Perhaps the glossator hastily confused sin w ith sein and thought o f scincræft9 w h ich he had glossed wicchecreft at x v m . 257 and (less clearly) 380. O th er letters seem to have been erased in the m argins at this point, b u t I cannot make out what they were. 119 -3 0 . D r. Braekman (edition, pp. 15 2 -3 ) points out that this is Æ lfr ic ’s m ost explicit recom m endation on the frequency w ith w h ich the h oly sacrament should be received b y the laity. H e cites earlier recom ­ mendations, beginning w ith B ede’s letter to E gbert o f Y ork. 12 7 -9 . T h e order o f the sins in this list corresponds to p seu d o -A lcu in , Liber de Virtutibus et Vitiis, cap. xxvii sqq. (P L ci. 632 sqq.), except that unrotnys (tristitia) and asolcennyss (accidia) have changed places. In this respect the order here is the same as in C H II. 218 and L S x v i. 267 sqq., whereas in iv. 251 and the second O ld English letter for W u lfstan (Fehr, B rie f I I I, sec. 147 sqq.) the order is the same as p se u d o -A lcu in ’s. B u t pride comes first instead o f last only in the present list and the letter. O n an attem pt to use the position o f pride in Æ lfr ic ’s lists to determ ine the order o f com position o f iv and x ix see the note on iv. 2 4 9 -5 1. 128. unwislic C , unrihtlic P. M y choice o f unwislic9 in some such sense as ‘ irrational’, depends partly on Æ lfr ic ’s com m ent on weamodnyss in the second O ld English letter for W ulfstan (Fehr, B rie f I I I . 162): ‘ pæ t se m ann ne m æge his m od gewildan, ac butan aelcum w isdom e w aclice (v.l. wodlice) irsað.’ A similar com m ent occurs in C H II. 220/12 sqq., b u t w ithout use o f the word wisdom. P ’s unrihtlic m igh t be used to distinguish law ful from unlawful yrsung9 bu t surely weamodnyss is always unrihtlic9 and so are all the other sins; whereas unwislic9 though redundant, helps to em phasize the difference betw een ungoverned rage and legitim ate anger. Probably unriht has been carelessly repeated b y a scribe from unrihthæmed.

XIX

DE D O C T R I N A A P O S T O L I C A

637

13&. forðmann, ‘m an o f rank*. N apier, C O E L y cited the word from this passage in M S . P. It is Æ lfr ic ’s substitute for B ed e’s vir in laico habitu atque officio militari positus. 174. anþræc P. See the G lossary for this form and the evidence o f Æ lfr ic ’s use o f the w ord. T h e other m anuscripts seem to have reached out for som ething more familiar. 192. scearu. Æ lfric was probably translating vomeres as in Plum m er’s text o f Bede, or possibly cultra as in some m anuscripts. Both the M oore and the L en in grad M S S . (the two earliest) suffer from a scribal om is­ sion at this point. T h e M oore M S . has vomeres in another hand in the lower m a rg in ; the L en in grad has the final - es on the side, the rest having been cu t off b y a binder. See P lu m m er’s footnote and the facsimile o f the L en in grad B ede (ed. O . A rngart, Copenhagen, 1952), f. 1366. 194. dyntas. T h e context here seems to dem and that the word mean ‘im pressions’ rather than ‘ blow s’ . See G lossary. 209. gemearcod Gode. D oes Æ lfric m ean that he was tonsured? See G lossary. 227. swa9 swa swa. T h is reading o f C supplies alliteration between half­ lines and im proves the se n se: ‘T h e n it so befell him as books tell us (it m ust befall): that . . .’ .

C 2710.2

L

XX DE POPULO ISRAHEL Exod. xxxii, Num . xi, xiii, xiv, xvi, xxi

T his homily, taking up the story of the Israelites in the wilderness at nearly the point where Ælfric had left it in his homily on the Egyptian captivity, the passage of the Red Sea, and the ten com­ mandments ( C H II. xii, the first half), concentrates on seven occasions when the people murmured or actively rebelled against G od and Moses and incurred G o d ’s wrath. Though it has survived in only two manuscripts, one of which is imperfect, it deserves a place of distinction among Æ lfric’s numerous treatments of O ld Testament materials. It is designed as a homily, not a simple translation, since it not only selects passages in accordance with a theme but introduces comments, at certain points extensive. Thus it belongs in the same company as the two homilies (the one already mentioned on Exod. i-x x and the Secunda Sententia on Joshua) assigned to M id-lent Sunday in C H II (188 and 212 respectively). N ot so full of Biblical narrative but very similar in its leading themes and at one point overlapping in matter is D e

Oratione M oysi, L S xiii. A ll four of these have to do with aspects and episodes of the journey from Egypt to the promised land, and all but D e Populo Israhel are assigned to M id-lent. T h e y form a group distinct from the homilies that deal with the Creation and from those that deal with other parts of the Old Testament, even the overtly homiletic Job and Judges , and certainly the more ex­ clusively narrative K ings, Esther, Judith {with homiletic conclusion), and Maccabees. And they are likewise to be distinguished from Æ lfric’s translations of parts of the Pentateuch,1 including the latter half of Numbers , which overlaps D e Populo Israhel, giving less freely composed versions of chapters xiii, xiv, xvi, and xxi, besides much else that is not in the homily. 1 I limit the list provisionally, with Clemoes, Chronology, 218, to Genesis i-iii, vi-ix, xii-xxiv. 22 (the version in our M S. L ); Numbers xiii-xxxi; Joshua (except i. 1-10 and xii). All these translations are selective, omitting chiefly non­ narrative material.

DE P O P U L O I S RA HE L

XX

639

D e Populo Israhel was apparently composed too late to be in­ cluded in the Lives o f Saints as originally issued. In M S . P it is followed directly by Judges, D e Duodecim Abusivis, the Interroga­

tiones, and the sermon excerpted from K ings, the last three being members of the Lives set and its appendix as represented by M S . W . Possibly both D e Populo Israhel and Judges were appended to the Lives in a later issue; but in any event the association of these two is intelligible enough. In the other manuscript, X d (Cotton Otho C. i, vol. 2), D e Populo Israhel follows upon the unpublished

D e Creatore et Creatura and D e S e x Æ tatibus M undi, which may have been consecutive parts of a letter somewhat like that to Sigeweard on the O ld and N ew Testaments. T h e association here is again intelligible but on the whole less close, and only these three consecutive pieces, imperfect at beginning and end, survive in X d as witnesses to some otherwise lost volume. Æ lfric’s references to earlier writings here in xx. 335 and in

x ii

.

224 show that D e Populo Israhel is later than the first half of the M id-lent homily, C H II. and earlier than

x ii

,

x ii

,

as indeed we do not need to be told,

a matter less obvious. If we assume further,

as already suggested above, that it is later than the Lives o f Saints, we shall narrow the range considerably and date it fairly close to the turn of the century, for the Lives set was probably issued in the late nineties and

x ii

is a part of the ordered Temporale in M

and was probably issued before 1005 when Æ lfric became abbot.1 T h u s D e Populo Israhel would have been produced near the end of the period, beginning with the Catholic Homilies and continuing beyond the completion of the Lives, when Æ lfric was most active in translating and commenting on portions of the O ld Testament. So far as I have been able to discover, D e Populo Israhel had no model among Latin homilies and very little of the comment that Æ lfric supplies has any direct precedent, or depends on any inter­ pretation not furnished at one place or another in the Bible itself. It is somewhat surprising to find that virtually nothing of value has been contributed by Bede’s or Rabanus’s commentary on the Pentateuch (the latter an omnium gatherum), or by Augustine’s or Isidore’s Quæstiones, which include comments on some of the passages Æ lfric treats. Isidore is possibly an exception for the 1 On the chronological problem see the Introduction, pp. 146-8, and the discussions relating to M S . M , pp. 9-10 and 39 sqq.; also Clemoes, Chronology, pp. 243 sq.

64 o

DE P O P U L O I S R A HE L

XX

passage at 128-39, but if so he is only elaborating an interpretation of manna given by Jesus himself. A t one later point, the inter­ pretation of the episode of the fiery serpents and the exaltation of the serpent of brass (333-52), Æ lfric was indeed dependent on both Bede and Augustine, as the note explains, by way of his own previous digest of their interpretation; but once again it is a speech by Jesus that supplies the basic idea. T h e magical property attri­ buted to the manna in lines 16-21 and again in 124-5 depends on an interpretation in the book of Wisdom, not on the partial echoes of it in the commentators. And the basic interpretation of the whole is stated by St. Paul in I Corinthians x, a chapter to which Æ lfric refers directly in his conclusion (390 sqq.). As often when he makes use of Old Testament material, Æ lfric allows some of the stories to speak for themselves; but in the middle and at the end there are extended comments, and these seem to spring mainly from his own thorough acquaintance with the Bible and his own reflections on it. A t the beginning and at a few other points his own earlier writing is partially recalled. For all these matters the notes should be consulted.

DE POPULO ISRAHEL. QUANDO UOLUERIS W e habbað nu gesæd, swa we sceortlicost mihton, on þam ærran cwyde, hu se ælmihtiga G od his agen folc ahredde fram Faraoes þeowte, and hu hi siðodon of er ða Readan Sæ, and hu he hi afedde feowertig geara

5

mid heofonlicum mete, and þær nan man næs on eallum þam fyrste furðon geuntrumod, ne heora reaf næs tobrocen binnon J?am fyrste. N u wylle we git secgan sum ðing be ðam folce. Syx hund þusend manna, swa swa Moyses awrat, wæron on þære fyrde, wigendra manna,

io

buton þam ceorlfolce, and cildum and wifum, and G od hi ealle afedde swyðe eaðelice, swa þæt him ælce dæg com edniwe mete to mid þam upplicum deawe æt heora geteldum,

15

swa hwær swa hi wicodon, and se wæs on swæcce T e xt based on P (Hatton 1 15), ff. i o i v-8. Collated with X d (Cotton Otho C. i, vol. 2), ff. i54 v, i5 3 r_v, i5 5 r“v, which is incomplete (lines 1-268 only) and con­ siderably damaged by fire. Nearly every line has lost at least a few letters, and the losses at tops and bottoms of pages are more severe. T h e limits of these pages have been noted among the variants, but the lacunae are noted only where a reading in P seems doubtful. In general it appears that the two manuscripts differed only in minor details. Several sentence-capitals, lacking in both manu­ scripts, have been supplied. Sup.: Line for title left blank X d: at top of f . J55 D E P O P U L O IS R A H E L Q U A N D ____ i scortlicost X d. 3 aredde X d. pharao'e's: later hand adds ]?es ifeles kinges X d. 4 sæ] later hand adds mid druge fotum X d. 9 secgean X d. folke X d. 12 cildum and wifum] wifum and cildum X d. 13 swiþe X d. 14 dæge X d. Glosses in P and X d, Latin: 2 aerran cw yde: primo testamento P. 3 þeowte: seruitute P . 4 siðodon: perrexerunt P. 7 furðon: eciam P ; glosses in X d above furþon and geuntrumod obscure. 8 binnon: infra (/or intra) P . i i wigendra manna: preliancium P, bellaton/m X d. 12 buton: preter P, excepto X d. 14 edniwe: renouatum P. 16 wicodon: manserant P. swæcce: Gustu P X d. S ources . 2-40 [Summary of Exod. xii-xx, mainly as in C H II. 194-8. See notes.] 16-21 [Sap. xvi. 20, 21] Pro quibus angelorum esca nutrivisti populum tuum; et paratum panem de cælo praestitisti illis sine labore, omne delectamentum in

DE P O P U L O I S R A HE L

xx

ælces cynnes werednysse þæs þe þam menn gelyste. Ð æ t is swutellice to secgenne pæt se mete awende, on þæs mannes muðe þe þone mete æt, to þæs metes swæcce ðe him sylfum gelicode,

20

swa hú swa he wolde habban to gereorde. A nd of heardum stane him arn wæteres stream him eallum genoh, and eac heora orue, for pan ðe se ælmihtiga God, þeah ðe he eaðe mihte, nolde him win sendan on þam westene þa, ne furðan ealu, flowende of ðam stane. God sylf *com ða sume dæg him to

25 #f. 102

on anum mycclum munte þe menn hatað Sinai, swa þæt eall þæt folc mihte geseon swyðe mycel fýr ofer ealne þone munt mid egeslicum lige,

30

for þan ðe G od sylf com mid ðam fyre ðyder, and mid bymena dreame, and mid micclum þunore. He gesette þa æ eallum þam folce, pæt synd rihte lagu, hu men lybban sceoldon, and ænne G od wurðian æfre mid geleafan,

35

for þan ðe nan god nys þe ænige godcundnysse hæbbe buton se ána þe ealle þing 'ge'sceop. He worhte feala wundra on ðam westene pa, ac þæt folc wæs wiðerræde witodlice to oft, and to swyðe gegremedon þone soðan God.

40

Moyses wunode on pam munte mid Gode 17 men X d. 21 gereorde] reorde X d. 23 orfe X d. 24 eaða X d. 25 sendean corr. to sendan X d. 27 dæge X d. 28 men X d. hateð X d. 29 swiðe X d. 32 mycclum X d. 34 (sy)nt X d. lagu] /. 153, X d, which follows I5 4 v because of misbinding. sceoldan X d. 36 nys] nyss X d (as if godnyss). 38 fela X d. 39 ac] eac x d. Glosses, Latin: 17 (we)rednysse: glossed illegibly X d. 20 swæcce: Gustu P y sapore (last letter doubtful) X d. 25 win: vinum P. 26 ne furðan: nec eciam P X d. ealu: servisiam (for cervisiam) P. 30 lige: flamma P. 36 god: deus P. 39 wiðerræde: contrarius P. M E : 22 arn: orn P. 25 westene: gloss erased P (westelond ?). 34 lagu: la'we' P. se habentem, et omnis saporis suavitatem. Substantia enim tua dulcedinem tuam quam in filios habes ostendebat, et deserviens uniuscuiusque voluntati, ad quod quisque volebat convertebatur. 41-42 [Exod. xxiv. 18] Ingressusque Moyses medium nebulae, ascendit in montem; et fuit ibi quadraginta diebus, et quadraginta noctibus.

XX

DE P O P U L O I S RA HEL

^43

feowertig daga on án, and þæt folc þa hwile worhton him god of golde agotenne, and him lac offrodon, and swyðe þæs fægnodon on heora gebeorscype, and begunnon to plegenne

45

ætforan þam gode pe hi of golde geworhton. Ð a cwæð G od to Moyse on þam munte Sinai, Astih adune hraðe of ðysum steapum munte; þis folc hæfð gesyngod, and hi sylfe worhton him agotenne god of golde nu iu,

50

and him lac oífriað, and to him gebiddað. Moyses þa astah of þam sticolan munte, and com to ðam folce ætforan þam gode, and cwæð to him eallum mid [anjrædum mode, G if her æni man sy of eallum þysum folce

55

pe on G od gelyfe, gange se to me. Hwæt þa sona eode eall seo mægð him to of Leuies cynne, and he cwæð him pa to, G að nu hraðe ealle unforhte mid wæpnum þurh ealle þas fyrde fram ende oð oðrum, 43 agotene X d. 44 fagenodon X d. X d. 54 anrædum] sic X d\ rædum P. si X d. 59 hræðe X d. 60 oð] to X d.

45 -scipe X d. 55 ænig X d.

60 48 J?issum mann X d.

Glossesf Latin: 43 go d : d^os or deus (for deum) P. 48 hraðe] cito P • 50 nu iu: eciam nunc P. 54 rædum: crudeli (understanding reðum ?) P. 57 m æ gð: generatio P. 42-46 [Exod. xxxii. 1 -6 ] Videns autem populus quod moram faceret descen­ dendi de monte Moyses, congregatus adversus Aaron, dixit: Surge, fac nobis deos, qui nos praecedant. . . . Dixitque ad eos Aaron: Tollite inaures aureas de uxorum, filiorumque et filiarum vestrarum auribus. . . . Quas cum ille accepisset, formavit opere fusorio, et fecit ex eis vitulum conflatilem. . . . Surgentesque mane, obtulerunt holocausta, et hostias pacificas; et sedit populus manducare, et bibere, et surrexerunt ludere. 47-51 [Und. 7 -8 ] Locutus est autem Dominus ad Moysen, dicens: Vade, descende; peccavit populus tuus, . . . feceruntque sibi vitulum conflatilem, et adoraverunt; atque immolantes ei hostias, dixerunt: Isti sunt dii tui, Israel, qui te eduxerunt de terra Æ gypti. 52-56 [Ibid. i5 j 19 , 26] Et reversus est Moyses de monte. . . . Cumque appropinquasset ad castra, vidit vitulum, et choros. . . . Et stans in porta castrorum, ait: Si quis est Domini, iungatur mihi. 57-62 [Ibid. 26, 27] Congregatique sunt ad eum omnes filii Levi, quibus ait: Hæc dicit Dominus Deus Israel: Ponat vir gladium super femur suum. Ite, et redite de porta usque ad portam per medium castrorum, et occidat unusquisque fratrem, et amicum, et proximum suum.

644

xx

DE P O P U L O I S RA HE L

and ofsleað *ealle tomiddes þam folce

#f. io2v

þa ðe ge gemetað for þyssere mandæde. Ð a eode seo mægð be Moyses hæse þurh ealne þone here æfre ofsleande, and hi ofslogon on þam dæge þreo and twentig þusenda,

65

and Moyses tobræc and tobrytte þone god eall to duste þa, and þæt gedwyld alede. Eft æfter þysum hi begunnon ceorian mid mycelre murcnunge ongean G od Ælmihtigne, for heora geswince f>e hi swuncon on þære fare;

70

ac Gode ne licode na heora geleafleast, ne heora ceorung, ac äsende him to fýr of heofonum, and forbærnde sona sumne dæl þæs werodes for heora wodnysse. Ð a clypodon hi ealle endemes to Moysen, and Moyses gebæd þone ælmihtigan G od

75

for ðam dyrstigan folce, and þæt fyr wearð adwæsced. Ðas race we secgað eow nu to rihtinge, J>æt nan mann ne sceole ceorian ongean G od mid dyrstigum anginne, ne his Drihten gremian,

80

se þe æfre wyle wel þam ðe hit geearniað, and he ða gefrefrað þe his fultumes biddað. Hi ongunnon eft ceorian and swyðe murcnian, 62 pyssere] þisse X d. mandæda X d. 71 na] om. X d. 72 äsende] sende X d. 74 weoredes X d. 76 ælmihtigne X d. 77 adwædsced alt. to adwæssced X d. 78 eow nu] nu eow X d. 80 dyrstigum alt. to ðyrstigum (!) X d. 81 se þe] þe X d. Glosses, Latin: 62 pa: eos P. mandæde: iniquitate P. 63 mægð: tribui P. 66 tobrytte: contriuit P. 69 murcnunge: murmure P. 74 werodes: populi P. 75 endemes: pariter P. 77 dyrstigan: audaci, temere P. 78 race: narrationem P. rihtinge: correctionem P. 80 mid dyrstigum anginne: initio presumtuoso P. 82 ð a: illos P. M E : 83 ceorian: gru : : : (erased: gruche?) P. 63-65 [Ibid. 28] Feceruntque filii Levi iuxta sermonem Moysi, cecideruntque in die illa quasi viginti tria millia hominum. 66-67 [Ibid. 20] Arripiensque vitulum quem fecerant, combussit, et contrivit usque ad pulverem. 68-77 [Num. xi. i-2 \ Interea ortum est murmur populi, quasi dolentium pro labore, contra Dominum. Quod cum audisset Dominus, iratus est; et accensus in eos ignis Domini devoravit extremam castrorum partem. Cumque clamasset populus ad Moysen, oravit Moyses ad Dominum, et absorptus est ignis. 83-88 [Num. xi. 4-6] Vulgus quippe promiscuum, quod ascenderat cum eis, flagravit desiderio, sedens et flens, iunctis sibi pariter filiis Israel, et ait: Quis

XX

DE P O P U L O I S RA HE L

645

æfter flæscmettum swyðe oflyste, and sædon him betwynan, Hwa sylð us flæscmete ?

85

Witodlice we wæron wel on Egipta lande on fisce and on fugele, and on feala estmettum; nu we naht ne geseoð buton þysne ænne mete. Ð a wearð Moyses micclum astyred, ac G od him cwæð tó pæt him cuman sceolde, eallum pam folce, na to anum dæge,

90

ac to anum monðe, flæscmættas genoge, oððæt him wlatode þære gewilnunge. G od sende him ða *sona, mid swyðlicum winde,

*f. 103

micel fleogende fugelcyn feorran ofer sæ;

95

pa flugon endemes into f?ære fyrde, swa pæt ælc man gefeng on eallum pam folce swa micel swa he wolde and he gewyldan m ihte; and æton swa swyðe of þære sande ealle. N e ateorode him se mete ðe hi swa micclum gewilnodon, ac pæt flæsc cleofode pa gyt on heora toðum,

100

and pa ða hi fülle wæron, pa feollon hi deade, feala þæs folces, for pan [J?e] hi fandodon Godes. Hw i woldon hi gremian G od swa unðearfes, 84 swiðe X d. 85 us] us nú X d. 94 sen(de), last letters visiblef . 153, X d. X d. fugellcynn X d. 97 mann X d.

87 fela X d. 89 mycclum X d. 95 (m)icel, first letters visible f . I 5 3 v, 98 mycell X d. 99 ætan X d.

swa] pa X d. swiðe X d. ioo ateorodo X d. 103 pe] sic X d; om. P . fandodan X d.

io i

clifode X d.

Glosses, Latin: 87 estmettum: deliciis P. 89 astyred: motws (?) P. 94 swyðlicum: vehementi, valido P. 96 pa: qui P . endemes: pariter P. 100 ateorode: defecit P. 102 first pa: tunc P . 104 unðearfes: sine necessitate P. M E : 96 endemes: gloss erased (isome ?) P .

100 ateorode: wonede (erased) P.

dabit nobis ad vescendum carnes ? Recordamur piscium quos comedebamus in Æ gypto gratis; in mentem nobis veniunt cucumeres, et pepones, porrique et cepe, et allia. Anima nostra arida est, nihil aliud respiciunt oculi nostri nisi man. 89 [Ibid. 10] Moysi intoleranda res visa est. 90-93 [Ibid. 16, 18-20] Et dixit Dominus ad Movsen: . . . U t det vobis Dom i­ nus carnes, et comedatis, non uno die . . . sed usque ad mensem dierum, donec exeat per nares vestras, et vertatur in nauseam. 94-103 [Ibid. 3 1-3 4 ] Ventus autem egrediens a Domino, arreptas trans mare coturnices detulit, et dimisit in castra. . . . Surgens ergo populus toto die illo, et nocte, ac die altero, congregavit coturnicum, qui parum, decem coros. . . . Adhuc carnes erant in dentibus eorum, nec defecerat huiuscemodi cibus, et ecce furor Domini concitatus in populum, percussit eum plaga magna nimis. Voca­ tusque est ille locus: Sepulcra concupiscentiae. 104-27 [Largely from first part of Exod. See note.]

646

DE P O P U L O I S R A HE L

pæt hi mid ceorunge forsawon þone mete

xx 105

þe him ælce dæg edniwe becom, and woldon habban wyrta and pa gewunelican mettas J>e hi ær hæfdon æt ham on Egipta [lande],

pa ða hi worhton Pharaoes weallas, and his burga getimbrodon on bysmorlicum þeowte,

no

and man ælcne beswang mid gescyndnysse ða, buton he pæt weallweorc wel ða gefyrþrode. And heora hyse-cild eac man het acwellan of þam twelf mægðum, pa ða hi to mannum comon. N u alysde hi God of ðam laðum þeowte, and heora fynd acwealde, and Pharaó þone cyning,

115

pt hi swa geswencte, on þære sæ middan, þæt þær nan man ne becom cucu ða to lande buton Israhela folc, ðe ferdon of ðam lande gangende mid fotum, þurh Godes mihte ealle,

120

ofer ða Readan Sæ, swa swa we rædað on bocum. N u wæron hi oflyste þurh heora unlustas flæsclicra metta, unmægðlice swaþeah, for pam ðe se heofonlica mete hæfde ælcne swæc ælcere werodnysse *þe ænig mete hæfð, and wæs eac wurðlicor þonne ða wyrta wæron

* f. io3v 126

þe hi æt ham sudon on heora croccum mid flæsce. Se heofonlica mete hæfde pa getacnunge 106 dæge X d. 107 (w)oldan X d. haban X d. 108 (ham on egipta) lánde X d\ lande om. P. n o burhga X d. i n mann X d. gescynd­ nysse] scyndnysse X d. n 2 wel ða] (ða) well (?) X d. 113 hyse-j om. X d. mann X d. acwellann X d. n 8 ða to lande] to pam lande X d. 123 unmægðlice] unmæðe(lice) X ‘\? 124 mete] P has mark of abbrev. or accent over first e, probably a slip of the pen. 125 wered- X d. i2Óweorðlicor X d. 127 sudon] ge(sudon) X d. 128 pa] om. X d {rightly?). Glosses, Latin: 105 ceorunge: murmure P. 106 edniwe: renouatum P. 107 wyrta: herbas P. pa: illos P. 109 weallas: menia X d. n o p e o w te : seruitute P. 112 buton: nisi P. gefyrprode: promoueret P. 113 heora hyse-cild: eorum mascidos P. 114 m ægðum : tribu P. 115 h i: eos P. peowte: seruitute P. 118 cucu: u í u m í P. 119 buton: preter P. 123 unmægðlice: immoderate P. 124 swæc: Gustum P ; saporem X d. 126 wurðlicor: dingnior P ; dulcius (?) X d. wyrta: herbe P. M E : 1 1 8 cucu: cwic P. 128-39 [Ps. Ixxvii. 24-25] Panem caeli dedit eis. Panem angelorum mandu­ cavit homo. [loan. vi. 32] Amen, amen dico vobis, non Moyses dedit vobis panem de cælo, sed Pater meus dat vobis panem de cælo verum. [33] Panis enim Dei est

XX

DE P O P U L O I S R A H E L

647

ures Hælendes Cristes, pe com of heofonum to us,

pe is engla bigleofa and ealra manna lif

130

þe on hine gelyfað, and hine nu lufiað. J>one acwealdon syððan pæt ylce Iudeisce cynn, and noldon hine habban heora sawlum to bigleofan; ac we gelyfað on hine, and lif habbað þurh hine, and he is us inmeddre þonne ða 'est'mettas,

135

for pan ðe we æfre habbað ealle þing þurh hine, ge on ðyssere worulde ge on ðære toweardan, and us nanre werednysse ne byð wana mid him, gif we hine ænne habbað on urum geleafan. Se ælmihtiga G od æfter þysum gespræc to M oyse þam heretogan, and het hine sendan

140

of ðæs folces meniu menn to ðam lande, þær þær hi to sceoldon, and sceawian pæt land, for þan ðe G od wolde his agen word gefyllan, and þæt folc gelædan to ðam behatenan lande,

145

swa swa he gefyrn behet þam heahfædere Abrahame. Moyses pa genamode of ðam twelf mægðum twelf heafodmenn, and het faran to þam lande, and sceawian pa wæstmas on wuda and on felda, 1 29 heofenan (?) X d. 132 acwealdan X d. X d. 14 1 moysen X d. hertogan X d.

ylce] om. X^.

140 þyssum

Glosses, Latin: 132 J?one: illum P. 135 inmeddre: sapidius (written twice) P. ponne: quam P. 143 sceawian: videre P . 146 gefym : olim P. 147 genamode : assumsit P. mægðum : tnbu P. 149 sceawian: videre P. M E : 135 inmeddre: uel imundre (O E gemyndre) X d. qui de cælo descendit, et dat vitam mundo. . . . [35] Ego sum panis vitæ; qui venit ad me, non esuriet; et qui credit in me, non sitiet umquam. [Isidore, Quæst. in Exod., P L L X X X I I L 2g 8] Manna utique, quod est Christus, qui tamquam panis vivus de caelo descendit, . . . non iam murmuranti populo, et tentanti Synagogae, sed credenti et in illo spem ponenti datur Ecclesiae. . . . Hic est panis caeli, et verus cibus angelorum. 140-3 [Num. xiii. 2, 5] Locutus est Dominus ad Moysen, dicens: Mitte viros qui considerent terram Chanaan, quam daturus sum filiis Israel, singulos de singulis tribubus, ex principibus. 147-52 [Ibid. 4, 18 -2 1] Fecit Moyses quod Dominus imperaverat, de deserto Pharan mittens principes viros, quorum ista sunt nomina. [In 5 -1 7 the twelve, with their tribes, are na?ned.] Misit ergo eos Moyses ad considerandam terram Chanaan, et dixit ad eos: . . . considerate terram, qualis sit, . . . humus, pinguis an sterilis, nemorosa an absque arboribus. . . . Et afferte nobis de fructibus terræ.

DE P O P U L O I S R A H E L

xx

and het h[i] eac bringan him to sceawienne

150

648

of þæs landes wæstmum, þæt hi witan mihton hwæðer þæt land wære wæstmbære and god. Hi ferdon pa sona to ðam foresædan lande, and sceawedon þone eard, and eac swylce brohton sume winbogas mid berion afyllode and oðre ofætan #him eallum to sceawienne,

15s *f. 104

and cwaedon to Moyse and to ealre þære meniu, Ð æ t land we sceawedon p t ðu us to sendest;

pær is swyðe god eard, ac he is earfoðe us to begytenne þurh urne fultum swaðeah;

160

pær synd mycele burga and mærlice geweallode, and þær we gesawon eac swylce entas, Enaches cynnes þæs ealdan entes; we synd wið hi geðuhte swylce oðre gærstapan. D a wurdon hi ealle wundorlice astyrode

165

mid mycelre ceorunge, and sædon him betwynan, Uton eft gecyrran to Egipta lande, þæt we on ðam lande ne began ofslagene, ne ure w if and d id ne wurðon gehergode. 150 hi eac] heac P ; no reading X d. (sceawi)genne X d. 152 wære] end /. I 53v> X d\ skip to 1 5 5 . (wæst)mbære,/. 755, X d. 153 foresædon X d. 155 afyllede X d. 156 sceawigenne X d. 158 land] om. X d. 160 begitenneA^. 161 mycclæ X d. burhga-X^. gewealleda X d. 163 entes] entas alt. to entes X d. 165 astyrede X d. 166 my celere X d. betweonan X d. 167 egypta X d. GlossesyLatin: 151 h i: illi P. 152 wæstmbære: fructuosus P . 156 oðre ofætan: alium fructum P. 163 enaches cynnes: de genere enoc P. pæs ealdan] illi vete[r]is (/) P. 169 ne wurðon: non sint P. gehergode: vastati P. 153-64 [Ibid. 22y 24y 2Ó-2Qy 32 y 34] C umque ascendissent, exploraverunt terram. . . . Absciderunt palmitem cum uva sua, quem portaverunt in vecte duo viri. De malis quoque granatis et de ficis loci illius tulerunt. . . . Reversique exploratores terrae . . . venerunt ad Moysen et Aaron; . . . locutique eis et omni multitudini, ostenderunt fructus terrae, et narraverunt, dicentes: Venimus in terram, ad quam misisti nos, quae re vera fluit lacte et meile, ut ex his fructibus cognosci potest; sed cultores fortissimos habet, et urbes grandes atque muratas. . . . Nequaquam ad hunc populum valemus ascendere, quia fortior nobis est. . . . Ibi vidimus monstra quaedam filiorum Enac de genere giganteo, quibus comparati, quasi locustae videbamur. 165-9 [Num.y xiv. i~4\ Igitur vociferans omnis turba flevit nocte illa; et mur­ murati sunt contra Moysen et Aaron cuncti filii Israel, dicentes: . . . non inducat nos Dominus in terram istam, ne cadamus gladio, et uxores ac liberi nostri ducantur captivi! . . . Constituamus nobis ducem, et revertamur in Ægyptum.

XX

DE P O P U L O I S RA HEL Iosue, swaþeah, and se snotera Chaleph,

170

þe þær äsende wæron mid þam foresædum ærendracan to sceawigenne þæt land, sædon ða him eallum, Se eard þe we sceawedon is swyðe ænlic and god, and G od sylf us gelæt and to ðam earde gebringð. N e beo ge na wiðerræde ongean Godes ræde;

175

eaðelice we magon pæt mancynn ofercuman; ne beo ge na afyrhte, for þan ðe G od is mid us. D a wurdon hi ealle wundorlice him grame, and woldon hine oftorfian wodlice mid stanum; ac Godes wuldor ætywde, þæt hi ealle gesawon, and G od sylf gespræc sona to M oysen:

180

H u lange wyle pys folc me to tale habban, and humeta nellað hi me gyt gelyfan

on eallum þam wundrum J?e ic worhte ætforan him ? Æ lc þæra manna þe is of ealre þyssere menigu nu þritigwintre, þe ðus ceorod[e]

185

soðlice ongean me, ne sceal he becuman to ðam æðelan *earde þe eow behaten wæs,

#f. io4v

buton Iosue ana and his gefera Chaleph. 171 foresædon X d. -racum X d. 173 sceawodon X d. swiðe X d. 174 gebringeð X d. 176 manncynn X d. ofercumann X d. 177 God] (god) sylf X d. 179 wo'd'lice X d. 180 ateowde X d. 182 pis X d. habban] þus habban X d {rightly ?). 183 hig X d. 185 )?ara X d. eallre X d. 186 ðus ceorode] sic X d\ ðu sceorodest (/) P. Glosses, Latin: 171 ærendracan: nuncii P. 173 ænlic: solitarium P, amenum X d. 174 gelæt: ducet P. 175 ge: vos P. wiðerræde: discordantes, dis­ sentientes P. 177 ge: vos P 178 him: ei P. 179 wodlice: exose {erased) P. 182 tale: schandalum P. 183 humeta: qualiter P. 188 æðelan (earde): patna P. 170-7 [Ibid. 6-9] A t vero Iosue . . . et Caleb, . . . qui et ipsi lustraverant terram, . . . ad omnem multitudinem filiorum Israel locuti sunt: Terra, quam circuivimus, valde bona est. Si propitius fuerit Dominus, inducet nos in eam. . . . Nolite rebelles esse contra Dominum; neque timeatis populum terrae huius, quia sicut panem, ita eos possumus devorare. . . . Dominus nobiscum est, nolite metuere. 178-81 [Ibid. i o y j j ] Cumque clamaret omnis multitudo, et lapidibus eos vellet opprimere, apparuit gloria Domini super tectum foederis cunctis filiis Israel. Et dixit Dominus ad M oysen: 182-93 [Ibid, i i 9 29-32] Usquequo detrahet mihi populus iste ? Quousque non credent mihi, in omnibus signis quæ feci coram eis ? . . . Omnes qui numerati estis a viginti annis et supra, et murmurastis contra me, non intrabitis terram, super quam levavi manum meam ut habitare vos facerem, praeter Caleb, filium Iephone, et Iosue, filium Nun. Parvulos autem vestros . . . introducam, ut videant terram quae vobis displicuit. Vestra cadavera iacebunt in solitudine.

6so

DE P O P U L O I S RA HE L

Eowre cildra sceolon, ðe nu synd unwittige,

xx 190

habban þone eard þe eow swa mislicað, and eowre lie sceolon began bæftan him on ðysum westene for eower unrihtwisnysse. Æfter þysum wordum wearð Godes yrre egeslice geswutelod on ðam ærendracan

195

þe pæt land sceawedon, and hit syððan tældon, and ealles þæs folces mód swa mistihton ongean God, swa þæt hi ealle feollon on þæs folces gesyhðe, mid Godes yrre ofslagene, buton se snotera Chaleph, and se æðela Iosue, hi ane twegen leofodon,

200

for pan ðe G od cwæð be him pæt hi becuman sceoldon to þam foresædon lande for heora geleafan. Ð æ t folc þa þæs on merigen macodon hi gearwe, astigon ða endemys up to anre dúne, sædon þæt hi woldon siðian to þam earde;

205

ac Moyses him forbead micclum þus cweðende: N e fare ge, ic eow bidde, swa fuse to þam lande, for pan ðe G od nis nu nateshwon mid eow, þylæste ge feallon ætforan eowrum feondum. Hi swaþeah ablende mid gebeote ferdon

210

butan Godes dihte mid dyslicum anginne; 192 sceolan X d. 193 ðissum X d. eowre X d. 195 -racum X d. 197, 198 folkes X d, 201 becuman] cuman (be- erased) X d. 203 mergen Xd 209 -læste] læs þe X d. f(eal)lan X d. 211 bu(tan), last letters visible f . J55, X d. mid, first word visible f . i 5 5 v, X d. Glosses, Latin: 196 tældon: schandalizabawt P. 199 buton: nisi P . 205 siðian: ire P. 207, 209 ge: vos P. 210 mid gebeote: cum comminatzowe P, minandu (sic) X d. 211 butan: sine P. M E : 194 yrre: (gro)me (? erased) P. 204 endemys: alle some (erased) P. 208 nateshwon: nout (? erased) P. 194-200 [Ibid. Igitur omnes viri, quos miserat Moyses ad contem­ plandam terram, et qui reversi murmurare fecerant contra eum omnem multi­ tudinem, detrahentes terrae quod esset mala, mortui sunt, atque percussi in conspectu Domini: Iosue autem . . . et Caleb . . . vixerunt ex omnibus qui perrexerant ad considerandam terram. 203-9 [Ibid. 40-42] Et ecce mane primo surgentes ascenderunt verticem montis, atque dixerunt: Parati sumus ascendere ad locum de quo Dominus locutus est; quia peccavimus. Quibus Moyses: Cur, inquit, transgredimini verbum Domini, quod vobis non cedet in prosperum? Nolite ascendere, non enim est Dominus vobiscum, ne corruatis coram inimicis vestris. 210-13 [Ibid. 44y 45] At illi contenebrati ascenderunt in verticem montis. .. . Descenditque Amalecites et Chananæus, qui habitabat in monte; et percutiens eos atque concidens [gladio, 43], persecutus est eos usque Horma.

XX

DE P O P U L O I S RAHEL

651

ac him com togeanes þæt Chananeisce folc, and hi swyðe ofslogon mid swurdes ecge, and on fleame gebrohton þ[a] fyrdlafe, þæt hi mihton geseon þæt hi swuncon on ydel,

215

swá swá ælc þæra manna deð þe ongean his Drihten winð. Æ fter þysum arison eft ongean Moysen þridde healf *hund manna mid mycelre ceorunge, þære heafodmenn wæron þus gehatene: Chore and Dathan, Abiron and Hón.

*f. 105 220

H i axodon ða mid gráman þa Godes þegnas, M oysen and Ááron, Hwi wylle ge swa mycclum eow sylfe ahebban ofer ðysum folce ? A nd þrafodon hi swyðe hwi hi sceoldon habban anweald ofer hi. Ð a cwæð Moyses him to,

225

Nim að nu tomerigen eower ælc his storcyllan,

þæ t ge steran magon ealle ætforan Gode, and G od þonne geswutelað hwæne he gecyst to his þenungum. Ð a þæs on merigen wolde Moyses gestillan and mid wisdome alecgan heora wodnysse;

230

214 pa] pære P ; no reading X d; see note. 215 idel X d. 216 Probably transposed, (winð ongean his) drihten X d. 217 )?issum X d. 218 myclere X d. 219 pæré] sic both M S S ., for pæra. 220 Abiron] and abiron X d. 221 gramann X d. pa] pæs X d. 223 þissum X d. 224 And þrafodon hi swyðe] no reading X d but lacuna followed by mid mycclum céaste, evidently added to or replacing swyðe. second hi] hig X d. 226 -mergen X d. 229 gestillan] hi gestillan X d. 230 wodnysse] no reading X d. Glosses, Latin: 215 on ydel: in vano P. 216 winð: preliatwr P. 219 þære: equorum P. heafodmenn: capitales P. 221 pa: illos P. 222 g e : vos P. 223 ahebban: extollere P. 224 In margin beside prafodon: argumentum P. first hi: illos P . 225 hi: eos P. 226 storcyllan: ti/rribnlnm (thuribulum) P. 227 g e : vos P. 228 hwæne: quem P . 229 gestillan: mitigare P. 217-20 [Num. xvi. i, 2] Ecce autem Core, . . . et Dathan atque Abiron, . . . Hon quoque . . . surrexerunt contra Moysen, aliique filiorum Israel ducenti quinquaginta viri proceres synagogae. 221-5 a [Ibid. 3] Cumque stetissent adversum Moysen et Aaron, dixerunt: Sufficiat vobis, quia omnis multitudo sanctorum est, et in ipsis est Dominus. Cur elevamini super populum Domini? 2256-8 [Ibid. 4-7] Quod cum audisset Moyses, . . . locutus . . . ad Core et ad omnem multitudinem, Mane, inquit, notum faciet Dominus qui ad se pertineant. . . . Tollat unusquisque thuribula sua, tu Core, et omne concilium tuum; et hausto cras igne, ponite desuper thymiama coram Domino; et quem­ cumque elegerit, ipse erit sanctus. 229-30 [The motive attributed to Moses is not explicit in the Bible.]

652

DE P O P U L O I S RA HE L

xx

sende pa to Dathan and to his ge[fer]um, pæt hi comon him to, and cuðlice to spræcon; ac hi forsawon endemes his hæse, and mid maran wodnysse hine micclum tyrigdon, and þone ælmihtigan G od gremedon to swyðe,

23s

þe hine gesette him to heretogan. Se Chore pa genam, p t we ær foresædon, and ealle his gegadan, Gode to forsewennysse, aelc his recelsfæt ætforan Godes getelde, and ontendon þone stor, swa swa man steran sceal,

240

swylce hi mihton hi sylfe gewyrcan Gode to sacerdon, bu[t]on he sylf hi gecure, swa swa Ááron wæs, se arwurða bisceop, þone pe God sylf geceas, and gesette him to bisceope on pa ealdan wisan æfter Moyses æ.

245

M id pam p t [hi] ðus dydon mid dyrstigon anginne, pa ætiwde þær sona gesewenlice Godes wuldor, and [God] cwæð to Moysén, Gað him fram hraðe. *A nd seo eorðe tobærst under heora fotum,

*(. 10sv

231 geferum] sic X '1; gerefum P. 233 endemæs X d. 234 wodnysse] sic both M S S . 235 swiðe X d. 240 mann X d. sceall X d. 241 hig {twice) X d. gewyrcean X d. 242 buton] sic X d; bunton P. 244 bysceope X d. 246 hi] sic X d; om. P. dyrstigum X d. 247 æteowde X d. 248 God] conj.; om. both M S S . raðe X d. 249 tobærst] bærst X d. Glosses, Latin: 233 endemes: omnes P. 234 tyrigdon: exasperabant P. 238 gegadan: socii P. 239 recelsfæt: turribiúum P. getelde: tabernact/lnm P. 242 gode: deo P. bunton (i.e. buton): nisi P. 246 dyrsti­ gon : temere, audaci P. 249 tobærst: crepuit P. M E : 247 ætiwde: (s)cheiwe(d)e (? erased) P . wuldor: glore (? erased) P . 231-4 [Ibid. J2-J5] Misit ergo Moyses ut vocaret Dathan et Abiron. . . . Qui responderunt: non venimus. Numquid parum est tibi quod eduxisti nos de terra, quæ lacte et meile manabat, ut occideres in deserto, nisi et dominatus fueris nostri? Revera induxisti nos in terram, quae fluit rivis lactis et mellis, et dedisti nobis possessiones agrorum et vinearum; an et oculos nostros vis eruere ? Non venimus. Iratusque Moyses valde, ait ad Dominum: Ne respicias sacrificia eorum. 237-40 [Ibid. 1 6 - 1 8 ] Dixitque ad Core: T u , et omnis congregatio tua, state seorsum coram Domino. . . . Tollite singuli thuribula vestra, et ponite super ea incensum, offerentes Domino ducenta quinquaginta thuribula; Aaron quoque teneat thuribulum suum. 246-8 [Ibid. 1 8 -2 1 ] Quod cum fecissent, . . . apparuit cunctis gloria Domini. Locutusque Dominus ad Moysen et Aaron, ait: Separamini de medio congrega­ tionis huius. 249-54 [Ibid. 31-3 4 ] Dirupta est terra sub pedibus eorum, et aperiens os suum, devoravit illos cum tabernaculis suis et universa substantia eorum. [27, Dathan

DE P O P U L O I S RA HE L

XX

and forswealh Dathan for his dyrstignysse, and þone Abiron, mid eallum heora hiwum,

250

mid wifum and mid cildum, pær þær hi wicodon; and hi swa cuce ferdon fordone to helle, and aelc man fleag aweg, for heora hreame afyrht. Ð æ r com eac swylce fyr færlice fram Gode,

255

and forbærnde þone Chore þær þær he bær þone stör, and þridde healf hund manna mid him forburnon, mid heora recelsf a'tum, for heora dyrstignysse,

pæt hi ongean Godes willan worhton hi to sacerdum, and þone forsawon pe he him geset hæfde. O n þam æftran dæge pe ðis gedon wæs,

260

ongan eall þæt folc flitan wið Moysen, and wið þone Ááron pe we ær embe spræcon, mid mycelre ceorunge, sædon [þæt] hi hæfdon Godes folc ofslagen, and gremedon hi swyðe, and mid micclum gehlyde macodon pa ceaste,

265

oððæt hi begen flugon binnan Godes getelde; and pær æteowde sona gesewenlice Godes wuldor, and fyr com fram Gode, and forbærnde þæs folces 250 dyrsti- X d. 254 fleah X d. 255 fyr] (fyr) fyr P. 26ogesett X d. 264 þæt] sic X d; and P. 266 mycclum X d. macedon X d. 268 æt-] Here X^ breaks off vnth end of f . 1 5 5V. Glosses, Latin: 251 þone: illum P. hiwum: familia P. 252 wicodon: mansen/wt P. 253 fordone: damnati P. 258 recelsfatum: twnribulis P. 260 þone: illum P. 262 ongan: incepit P. 264 and {mistake for pæt) : si (unsuccessful effort to account for it) P. 266 gehlyde: tumultu P. 267 binnan: infra {for intra) P. M E : 251 hiwum : hinen P. 268 æteowde: sch(ei)wede {? erased) P.

et Abiron . . . stabant in introitu papilionum suorum, cum uxoribus et liberis, omnique frequentia.] Descenderuntque vivi in infernum operti humo, et peri­ erunt de medio multitudinis. A t vero omnis Israel, qui stabat per gyrum, fugit ad clamorem pereuntium, dicens: N e forte et nos terra deglutiat. 255-8 [Ibid. 35] Sed et ignis egressus a Domino interfecit ducentos quinqua­ ginta viros qui offerebant incensum. 261-8 [Ibid. 4 1 -4 3 ] Murmuravit autem omnis multitudo filiorum Israel sequenti die contra Moysen et Aaron, dicens: Vos interfecistis populum Domini. Cumque oriretur seditio, et tumultus incresceret, Moyses et Aaron fugerunt ad tabernaculum foederis. Quod, postquam ingressi sunt, operuit nubes, et apparuit gloria Domini. 269-73 [Ibid. 44 ~ 49 y but Ælfric abridges and rearranges] Dixitque Dominus ad M oysen: Recedite de medio huius multitudinis, etiam nunc delebo eos. Cumque iacerent in terra, dixit Moyses ad Aaron: Tolle thuribulum, et hausto C 2710.2

M

6S4

DE P O P U L O I S RA HEL

feowertyne pusenda mid færlicum bryne,

xx 270

oððæt Ááron eode ut of ðam getelde mid his storcyllan, and stod him tomiddes, gebæd ða for hi, and se grama geswác. On ðysum mæg gehyran se ðe hæfð ænig andgyt pæt hit byð swyðe hearmlic pam ðe huxlice tælð

27s

bisceopas and sacerdas, pe syndon Godes bydelas, and to lareowum gesette to lærenne Godes folc, ponne se lareow *him segð Godes gesetnyssa and his beboda, him sylfum to pearfe, and he ponne forsyhð, and to forsewennysse hæfð

*f. 106 280

ge pone Godes bydel ge pa Godes beboda, be pam cwæð se Hælend to his discipulum: Q u i uos a u d it me a u d it, et q u i uos sp ern it me spernit.

Ð æ t is [on] urum gereorde, Se pe eow gehyrð, he gehyrð me purh ða gehyrsumnysse,

285

and se pe eow forsihð, he forsyhð me. Hi forsawon Moysen and þone mæron bisceop, Ááron his broðor, mid bysmorlicum hospe, ac G od sylf gewræc heora forsewennysse, for pan ðe hi God tældon pa ða hi tældon hi.

290

Swa deð ælc pæra manna pe his ealdor forsyhð, pe byð Godes speligend on gastlicere lare, on pam ealdorscype pe him God geuðe; gif he hine forsyhð, his sawul sceal prowian pæt ylce wite, buton he hit ær gebete,

295

pe hi ða prowodon on heora lichaman. 284 on] not in M S . Glosses in P yLatin: 274 andgyt: intellectunz. 275 huxlice tæ lð: dedecore scandalizat. 278 gesetnyssa: institutzonezn. 280 ]?onne: tunc. 288 hospe: obprobrio. 289 gewræc: vindicauzi. 290 tældon: scandali­ zabant. 292 speligend: vicarizzs, vices (see note). 293 geuðe: concessit. 296 ða: tzznc. M E : 271 getelde: pauilun. igne de altari, mitte incensum desuper, pergens cito ad populum ut roges pro eis; iam enim egressa est ira a Domino, et plaga desaevit. Quod cum fecisset Aaron, et cucurrisset ad mediam multitudinem, quam iam vastabat incendium, obtulit thymiama, et stans inter mortuos ac viventes, pro populo deprecatus est, et plaga cessavit. Fuerunt autem qui percussi sunt, quatuordecim millia hominum, et septingenti. 283-6 [Luc. x. i 6 y as given.]

XX

DE P O P U L O I S RA HEL

655

Hi wæron flæsclice menn, and underfencgon heora wite on ðyssere worulde, æfter Moyses æ ; we syndon gastlice menn under Godes gife nu, and ure sawul sceal, gif we forseoð God, þæt wite underfon on þære toweardan worulde,

300

buton we swa gesælige beon þæt we hit sylfe gebeton ær ure geendunge wið ðone ælmihtigan God. E ft on oðrum timan pæt Israhela folc,

pa ða hi fer don mid þam foresædan Moyse,

305

and becomon to ðam lande þe is gecweden Edom, pa begunnon hi to cidenne mid micelre ceorunge ongean þone ælmihtigan G od for heora geswince, and ongean #Moysen, and mid graman cwædon, Hw i læddest J?u la us of Egipta lande,

*f. io6v 310

pæt we her swulton on ðysum westene ? W e nabbað þone hlaf þe us lyste etan, and us nu wlatað wið þysne leohtan mete. D a for þære ceorunge sende him G od tó byrnende næddran, swa swa us bee secgað,

315

and pa fyrenan næddran þæs folces feala to deaðe geætrodon mid egeslicum geslite. Hi comon pa to Moyse, and cwædon him þus to: W e habbað gesyngod þæt we swa spræcon ongean þone ælmihtigan G od and ongean þe, leof;

320

gebide nu for us, pæt G od afyrsige þas næddran fram us. And Moyses pa sona gebæd for þam folce, swá swá hi hine bædon. Ð a spræc se ælmihtiga G od to þam arwurðan Moysen, Glosses in P, Latin: 303 wið: contra. 313 wið: contra. leohtan: leuis. 316 fyrenan: ignei. 317 geslite: morsu. 321 afyrsige: auferat. M E : 3 1 1 swulton: deide {? erased). 314 ceorunge: grucuwge {? erased).

304-13 [Num. xxi. 4, 5] Profecti sunt autem . . . ut circumirent terram Edom. Et tædere coepit populum itineris ac laboris, locutusque contra Deum et M oy­ sen, ait: Cur eduxisti nos de Æ gypto, ut moreremur in solitudine ? Deest panis, non sunt aquæ; anima nostra iam nauseat super cibo isto levissimo. 314-23 [Ibid. 6, 7] Quamobrem misit Dominus in populum ignitos serpentes, ad quorum plagas et mortes plurimorum, venerunt ad Moysen, atque dixerunt: Peccavimus, quia locuti sumus contra Dominum et te ; ora ut tollat a nobis ser­ pentes. Oravitque Moyses pro populo. 324-32 [Ibid. 8, 9] Et locutus est Dominus ad eum: Fac serpentem aeneum, et pone eum pro signo; qui percussus aspexerit eum, vivet. Fecit ergo Moyses

Hat nu gewyrcan ane ærene næddran,

325

and gesete þa upp, swylce to tacne, and se þe beo tosliten, beseo to þære næddran þe of ðam are bið gemacod, and he leofað gesund. Hwæt pa Moyses het macian þa næddran, and gesettan to tacne, swa swa G od sylf hine het,

330

and pa toslitenan menn besawon to þære næddran, and wurdon swa gehælede fram þæra wyrma geslite. Se Hælend sylf sæde on sumum his godspelle hwæt J?eos dæd getacnode on ðam diglan andgyte, and we hit gesetton on Englisc on sumum oðrum spelle. W e wyllað swaðeah secgan sceortlice her nu

335

þæt seo ærene næddre, þ>e butan attre wæs, hæfde getacnunge ures Hælendes deaðes, þe butan ælcere synne sylf þrowode for ús, 'and mid his unscyldigum deaðe us fram deaðe ahredde, 340 fram þam ecan deaðe pt us' #þurh Adam becom *f. 107 of ðære næddran lare þe hine forlærde. Ð a terendan næddran, þe totæron þæt folc, syndon ure synna, pe us tosliton w yllað; ac we sceolon behealdan ðæs Hælendes þrowunge mid soðum geleafan, and we beoð sona hale.

345

Ðæ t folc on ðam westene wæs þa gehæled þurh ða ærenan næddran fram þam andweardan deaðe; ac se Hælend sæde þæt þa sceolon habban

pæt éce líf mid him þe on hine gelyfað.

350

Seo gehiwode anlicnys gehælde ða hwilwendlice, and pæt soðe þing nu sylð us þæt ece lif. 340-1 and . . . us] inserted by regidar scribe at bottom of page. Glosses in P, Latin: 325 ærene: eneam. 326 pa: illam. 327 beseo: respiciat. 328 gesund: sospes. 332 gehælede: salui. geslite: morsu. 337> 339 butan: sine. 343 terendan: mordentes. 344 tosliton: mordere. 347 gehæled: salut/5. 349 pa: illi. 351 gehiwode: simulata, ficta, anlicnys: imago. gehælde: sanauit. ða: tunc. hwilwendlice: temporaliter (repeated faintly in margin). M E : 331 toslitenan: ibitene. serpentem æneum, et posuit eum pro signo; quem cum percussi aspicerent, sanabantur. 333 S9Q* [loan. iii. 1 4 , 15] Et sicut Moyses exaltavit serpentem in deserto, ita exaltari oportet Filium hominis; ut omnis, qui credit in ipsum, non pereat, sed habeat vitam aeternam. [For Ælfricys elaboration, 333-52, see notes.]

XX

DE P O P U L O I S RA HE L

657

G o d afandode pa þæs folces anrædnysse on ðam langsumum færelde feowertig geara; he wolde pæt hi wæron mid weorcum gehyrsume

355

his halwendum bebodum, him to ecere hæle. D a wurdon hi wiðerræde wolice foroft, and þone ælmihtigan G od swa egeslice gegremedon þæt eall seo yld wearð on pam westene ofslagen, buton twam mannum anum, Iosue and Chaleph.

360

Hi wæron gehyrsume Godes hæsum æfre, and hi forþi hæfdon þone behatenan eard, and pæt pæt micele mare is, Godes mildse þærtoeacan. Feowertig wintra hi wæron on pam westene farende, and Moyses geendode eac on pam færelde, pa pa he on ylde wæs hundtwelftig geara; and his broðor Ááron eac pær geendode,

365

and Moyses gesette þone foresædan Iosue

pam folce to heretogan, swa swa him bebead God. Seo geoguð þe wæs on þam *westene afedd

*f. io7v

wæs þa geweaxen, and to wige ful sträng,

371

and Iosue hi lædde to ðam behatenan lande; and hi gefyldon swa, þeah ðe heora fæderas noldon, Glosses in P , Latin: 353 anrædnysse: constandam. 357 wiðerræde: dissendentes. wolice: tortuose. 365 geendode: obiit. 368 gesette: posuit. 371 wige: prclio. 373 gefyldon: impleucrnnt.

354 færelde: Gressu. 359 yld: etas. 370 geoguð: iuuenti/j.

353“ 75 [This concluding summary of the narrative is very freely composed, but now and then recalls specific passages.] 353-6 [Cf. Deut. viii. 2] Et recordaberis cuncti itineris, per quod adduxit te Dominus Deus tuus quadraginta annis per desertum, ut affligeret te, atque tentaret, et nota fierent quæ in tuo animo versabantur, utrum custodires man­ data illius, an non. 359-60 [Num. xxvi. 65-65] Hic est numerus filiorum Israel, qui descripti sunt a Moyse et Eleazaro sacerdote, in campestribus Moab . . .; inter quos nullus fuit eorum qui ante numerati sunt a Moyse et Aaron in deserto Sinai; praedixerat enim Dominus {Num. xiv. 2g, 50), quod omnes morerentur in soli­ tudine. Nullusque remansit ex eis, nisi Caleb, filius Iephone, et Iosue, filius Nun. 365-6 [Deut, xxxiv. 5, 7] Mortuusque est ibi Moyses . . . in terra Moab. . . . Moyses centum et viginti annorum erat quando mortuus est. 367 [Num. xx. 29] Illo [Aaron] mortuo in montis [Hor] supercilio, [Moyses] descendit cum Eleazaro. 368-9 [Num. xxvii. 22, 23] Fecit Moyses ut praeceperat Dominus. Cumque tulisset Iosue, statuit eum coram Eleazaro sacerdote et omni frequentia populi; et impositis capiti eius manibus, cuncta replicavit quæ mandaverat Dominus.

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xx

Godes willan mid weorcum, and gewunnon þone eard mid wundorlicum sige, swa swa hit awriten is. Ðam folce wæs behaten þurh þone heofonlican God þæt hi sceoldon habban soðlice renscuras and eorðlice wæstmas on wuda and on felda, ofaet[an] and ele, and éac swylce win, and heora fynd oferwinnan, gif hi wurðodon hine,

375

380

and mid ealre heortan hine æfre lufodon.

A c Crist sylf behet us on his halgan godspelle þæt we sceolon habban, þær p æ r he sylf wunað, p æ t ece lif mid him and mid eallum his halgum, gif we hine wurðiað on ðysum andweardan life, and mid soðum geleafan hine lufiað æfre. He het us swyðost cepan þæs soþan lifes æfre, and cwæð þæt we sceoldon symle eac habban ure eorðlican neode þærtoeacan soðlice. Paulus se apostol, ealra þeoda lareow, manode þone leodscipe þe he to geleafan gebigde, and ealle Cristene menn, and cwæð þæt we sceoldon geornlice us warnian wið ða yfelan ceorunge, p æ t we swa ne gegremion God Ælmihtigne nu mid urum yfelum þeawum, swa swa þæt ealde folc dyde on þam westene J>a, wiðerrædlice to swyðe. 374 )?one] written a second time and crossed oat in M S . See note. Glosses in P, Latin: 375 sige: trzumpho. 380 oferwinnan: vincere. wurðodon: adorarent. 393 warnian: cauere. 396 pa: tunc.

38s

390

395

379 ofætum M S .

379 ofætum: fructum. 391 gebigde: conuerút.

376-81 [Cf. Deut. xi. I3y 1 4 , 23] Si ergo obedieritis mandatis meis, quæ ego hodie praecipio vobis, ut diligatis Dominum Deum vestrum, et serviatis ei in toto corde vestro, et in tota anima vestra, dabit pluviam terrae vestrae tempora­ neam et serotinam, ut colligatis frumentum, et vinum, et oleum. . . . Disperdet Dominus omnes gentes istas ante faciem vestram, et possidebitis eas, quæ maiores et fortiores vobis sunt. 382-6 [Among many partly relevant texts, cf. loan. vi. 40 and xiv. 2; Matth, xix. 28, 29. 387-9 [Matth, vi. 33] Quaerite ergo primum regnum Dei, et iustitiam eius, et haec omnia adiicientur vobis. 392-8 [I Cor. x. JO, j j ] Neque murmuraveritis, sicut quidam eorum mur­ muraverunt, et perierunt ab exterminatore. Haec autem omnia in figura con­ tingebant illis; scripta sunt autem ad correptionem nostram, in quos fines saeculorum devenerunt.

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659

Hit stent on bocum awriten for ure beterunge, and to mycelre bysne us endenextum mannum, þæt we geearnian sceolon æfre pæt betere, and pa [e]can myrhðe mid Gode Ælmihtigum. N u syndon manega *menn pe secgað þæt hi nellað Godes lare gehyran, þelæste hi sceolon

400 #f. 108

habban maran wit[a] gif hi witon pa lare, and gif hi nellað don swá swá Drihten bebyt, hi sylfe gerihtlæcan þurh þa soðan lare.

405

N u cweðe we þærtogeanes, þæt gif se cyning asent gewrit to sumon his þegena, and he hit forsyhð swa swyðe þæt he hit nele gehyran, ne his aseon,

pæt se cyning ne byð na swyðe bliðe him, þonne he geaxað hu he hine forseah.

410

Seo halige lár nis na on eallum leodscypum swa swyðe swa on sumon, ac us secgað béc

pæt hi mihton tocnawan þone ælmihtigan G od þurh pa gesceafta pe he gesceop on worulde, pæt he is ana to wurðigenne þe geworhte ealle þing. Se man pe hæfð lare on his leodscype genoge,

415

and mæg ða gehyran butan micclum geswince, and nele hi gehyran, ne Gode gehyrsumian, næfð he nane beladunge wið ðone leofan Drihten. Se pe lare næfð, ne lare ne gehyrð,

420

se mihte habban sume beladunge; ac Paulus se apostol cwæð on his pistole J?us: Q u i sine lege p ec ca b u n t, sine lege p er ib u n t.

Ð æ t is, on Engliscere spræce, 400 ecan] eacan M S . aseon] sic M S . See note.

403 wita] wite M S . See note.

Glosses in P y Latin: 403 wite: penam. witon: sciunt. videre (perhaps for seon only as the a is marked for separation). 413 tocnawan: discernere, eonnoscere. 417 ða: ea (sic). 419 beladunge; excusationem. wið: contra.

408 ne his

408 aseon: 409 him: ei. butan: sine.

4 12 -15 [Rom. i. 1 8 -2 1 ] Revelatur enim ira Dei de cælo, super omnem im­ pietatem et iniustitiam hominum eorum qui veritatem Dei in iniustitia detinent. . . . Invisibilia enim ipsius, a creatura mundi, per ea quæ facta sunt, intellecta, conspiciuntur; sempiterna quoque eius virtus, et divinitas: ita ut sint inexcusa­ biles, quia, cum cognovissent Deum, non sicut Deum glorificaverunt, aut gratias egerunt. 423-6 [Rom. ii. 12] Quicumque enim sine lege peccaverunt, & c.

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Da J?e buton Godes æ synna gewyrcað, þa eac butan Godes æ on ende forwurðað. Gerihtlæce ús se leofa Drihten Crist, and us gewenie to his willan æfre, þam is wuldor and lof a to worulde, A M E N .

xx

425

Gloss in P yLatin: 426 forwurðað: peribunt.

N O TES 1-8 . T h is paragraph alludes in line 2 to the first part o f Dominica in M edia Quadragesimae, C H II. x n , and sums up several o f the features o f the story as told there (T h orpe, pp. 194, 196). T h e preservation o f the people’s health and clothing (here m entioned at 6 -8 , in T h o rp e at p. 19 6 /12-14 ) is spoken o f in Deut. viii. 4; xxix. 5, 6; N eh. ix. 21. 10 -1 2 . C f. C H II. 194/14, six hund þusenda wigendra manna, buton wifum and cildum. T h e exact figure, according to Numbers i. 46 and ii. 32, was 603,550, the count being lim ited to the fighting m en over tw en ty. Æ lfric is guided m ainly b y the generalization m ade earlier, E x o d . xii. 37, 3 8 : ‘ Profecti sunt filii Israel de Ramesse in Socoth, sexcenta fere m illia peditum virorum absque parvulis. Sed et vulgus prom iscuum innum era­ bile ascendit cum eis.’ Æ lfric had not m entioned the vulgus promiscuum earlier, but now he applies to this bo d y the rare com pound ceorlfolc (see Glossary). 1 3 -2 1 . T h is passage on the manna is more elaborate than that in C H II. 194/32 sqq. A d d ed is the descriptive detail o f line 15, mid þam upplicum deawe æt heora geteldum {Exod. xvi. 13 and Num . xi. 9), and also the interpretation derived from the Liber Sapientiae as quoted under Sources. T h is is m uch closer to what Æ lfric says than the inexact reflections o f it in B ede’s com m entary on the Pentateuch (on Num . xi, P L x c i. 363) or a pseudo-A ugustinian sermon excerpted from O rigen {P L x x xix. 17 9 3 -5 5 see Origenes Werkey V I , ed. Baehrens, D ie griech. christ. Schriftsteller, L eip zig, 1920, p. 216/3 sq q .: ‘ N u n c ergo festinem us caeleste m anna sus­ cipere, istud enim manna, prout vult quisque, talem saporem reddit in ore eius.’). T h e passage in Bede is quoted below in the note on 104-39. 22-26. T h e miracle o f the water flowing from the rock {Exod. xvii. 1 -7 ) is described in C H II. 196/2-6, but nothing is said there about w ine or ale. T h is com m ent is suggested b y Deut. xxix. 6: ‘ Panem non comedistis, vinum et ciseram non bibistis, ut sciretis quia ego sum D om in us D eu s vester.’ 2 7 -3 7 . T h is passage, sum m arizing Exod. xix, xx, sets the stage for the first main episode o f the hom ily, the worship o f the golden calf. T h e same material is treated at greater length in C H II. 196, 198, where the ten com m andm ents are enumerated.

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66i

34. lagu. B oth m anuscripts have this spelling for the nom inative plural, and there is probably another instance at xv. 35, where tw o different m anuscripts are the witnesses. A n accusative plural lagu has already been observed in the D version o f the Chronicle for 1052 (fü lle lagu beheton), and Plu m m er’s G lossary ( Two Saxon Chronicles> I) treats it as an old neuter plural: that is, as a representative o f the O N neuter plural, prehistorically *laguy historically lggy w ith the collective sense ‘law ’, from w h ich the O E w ord was borrowed. T h is solitary instance is still cited in H a ll-M e r itt. T h e O E word is regularly treated b y Æ lfric and others as a strong fem inine like gifu in the singular, and except in rare instances (per­ haps only the three cited above) its plural is the analogically correct laga. T h a t Æ lfric should have used a plural reflecting the O N form is, however, understandable, since he was one o f the first E n glish authors to adopt the w ord in w riting. T h e O E D y lawy sb .1, holds that the w ritten use o f the w ord is to be dated from about 1000, a date that falls in the m iddle o f Æ lfr ic ’s literary career. A little earlier than 1000 is Æ lfr ic ’s introduction o f lagu into his Gram m ar as a definition o f L atin ius (Zupitza, p. 59/15: w hether lagu here is singular or plural is u n certain : the laga o f two m anu­ scripts suggests the p lu ral); bu t m ost instances o f it in his w ork seem to belong to the hom ilies and letters written after the Lives o f Saints. (See the G lossary for instances in this edition.) A n instance o f the eventually normal plural laga occurs at x m . 208 in M S . U , bu t M S . H has the singu­ lar lagey w h ich better conform s to the context. H ence th e laga o f U is probably a scribal substitution and not a witness for Æ lfr ic ’s form in the plural. O n grounds o f date alone, Æ lfric is more likely to have used a h alfScandinavian plural than the author o f the D version o f the Chron icle for 1052; b u t this author was probably w riting in the strongly S can d i­ navian north. (For early instances o f the word, see B T , B T S , D o d d ’s G lossary to N a p ie r’s Wulfstany and L ieberm ann’s G lossary, Gesetze der Angelsachseny II.) 38-40. N o doubt Æ lfr ic ’s generalization applies to the entire sojourn in the wilderness, bu t the miracles described in Exod. x v -x v ii are perhaps chiefly in view . 4 1 -6 7 . T h e first main episode o f the hom ily, presented w ithout com ­ m ent. N o te the postponem ent o f M o ses’ destruction o f the idol until the end. 50. nu iu. T h e gloss eciam nunc in P, suggesting ‘even n o w ’, perhaps comes a little closer to the emotional force here than ‘ already’, the defini­ tion in B T S , under geó. 61.

and ofsleað ealle tomiddes þam folce. Has an alliterating word dropped

out ? A n anticipatory þa after ealley correlative w ith þa ðe in the next line, w ould perhaps be enough, for Æ lfric is not averse to these m inor links. 66. tobræc and tobrytte. Æ lfric perhaps found the two verbs in the L atin , combussit et contrivit, hard to reconcile w ith each o th e r; and in any case he was selecting only a few details from the Biblical account. T h e

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translation in the O ld English Heptateuch, Craw ford, p. 278 (probably not Æ lfr ic ’s), gives both v e r b s : forbærnde and forbrytte. 68-82. T h e second episode, w ith five lines o f obvious com m ent. 68. E ft æfter þysum hi begunnon ceorian. A lliteration could readily be achieved b y p u ttin g eft before or after ceorian. 74, 230, 234. wodnysse. E sp ecially at 74 there m ay be some tem ptation to read wohnysse9 ‘perversity’ ; b u t P has wodnysse in all three places, and X d agrees at the tw o places, 74 and 234, where it has a reading. Besides, Æ lfr ic ’s use o f wisdom in 230 confirms wodnysse there. E v id en tly he means to em phasize the sheer insanity o f rebellion against G o d , w hether it takes the form o f m urm uring or o f challenging the authority o f his chosen representative. 79. H ere alliteration could be achieved b y substituting Æ lfr ic ’s other verb, murcniany for ceorian. 8 3 -10 3 . T h e third episode, to be follow ed b y a long com m ent, 10 4-39 . 83. T h e rhym ed endings o f ceorian and murcnian m ay be accepted as a substitute for alliteration. 103. hi fandodon Godes. So P s . lxxvii. 18 : E t tentaverunt Deum in cordibus suisy ut peterent escas animabus suis. C f. Exod. xvii. 2, w here the people dem and water and M oses asks, Cur tentatis Dominum? A lso N um . xiv. 22: E t tentaverunt me iam per decern vices; D eu t. vi. 16 : N on tentabis Dominum Deum tuumy sicut tentasti in loco tentationis \ P s . xciv. 9 ; cv. 1 4 ; and especially, perhaps, I C o r. x. 9 : Neque tentemus Christum, sicut quidam eorum tentaverunty et a serpentibus perierunt. 104-39. T h is is the first long com m ent, built m ainly on the story in Exodusy bu t com pleted at the end (128 -3 9 ) b y an interpretation given b y Jesus him self. T h e reminder o f hard times during the period o f servitude in E g y p t (10 9 -14 ) depends on E x o d . i. 1 1 -2 2 and repeats w ith some am pli­ fication w hat was said in the earlier hom ily, C H II. 190/34-192/2. T h e n follow seven lines, again resum ptive, on the drow ning o f the E gyptian s and the Israelites’ passage o f the R ed Sea. N o w Æ lfric returns to the original cause o f com plaint and uses the m agically adaptable taste o f manna, w h ich he had introduced in accordance w ith the Liber Sapientiae at 16 -2 1 above, to pu t the trouble-m akers com pletely in the w rong. In this he is more extrem e than Bede, w ho had thought there m ust be some reason for com plaining against the manna, and decided that it could assume the taste o f every kind o f food except flesh: ‘ Sed tam en historialiter sciendum est cur filii Israel carnem desideraverunt, habentes m a n n a : quod ita solvitur, quia manna omnis cibi sim ilitudinem habuit, præter carnis. S ic et sancta Scriptura om nem satietatem quae proficit habet, praeter voluntatem peccatricem .’ {In Pentateuchum: N u m . xi, P L x c i. 363). A n d finally Æ lfric reveals (128 -3 9 ) that the manna thus scorned typifies C h rist him self, according to his own declaration in John vi. T h is had been

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663

m entioned in the earlier hom ily ( C i i II. 202) bu t is here elaborated as the clim ax o f the whole passage. I am not at all sure that Isidore’s com m ent on the manna, though closer to Æ lfr ic ’s than any other I have seen, was responsible for the contrast betw een the unbelieving Jews and the preacher’s faithful congregation, for it is almost inevitable and Æ lfric has worked it out beyond anything in Isidore, w ith full attention to the con­ trast betw een m anna and the estmettas o f the w orld. 1 14. þa da hi to mannum comon, ‘w hen they were born’ . A particularly clear instance o f the idiom . C f. note on I. 43. 14 0 -2 16 . T h e fourth episode, subdivided at 203, presented w ith only incidental com m ent. H ere begins the partial correspondence w ith Æ lfr ic ’s translation o f Numbers xiii sqq. in the O ld English Heptateuch. 156. ofætan. See note on 379 below. 164. zve synd zvið hi geduhte szvylce oðre gærstapan. T h e r e are tw o interesting idioms h e r e : (1) T h e passive expression, beon geþuhty ‘ to seem ’ , is w ell attested. W ith the active, impersonal þyncany accom panied b y a dative o f person, the seem ing is said to occur in the m ind o f one or more specified observers. W ith the passive form the seem ing is attributed to w hatever is nam ed as the subject, regardless o f w ho does the observing. H ere the seem ing is contingent on the comparison introduced b y zvið hi. (2) T h e word odrey ‘ other’, has the force o f such m odern substitutes as ‘ so m an y’ , ‘veritable’ . T h e purpose o f such expressions is to insist upon a likeness between obviously, even grotesquely dissimilar m em bers o f a comparison. Translate, ‘w e seem, in comparison w ith them , like so m any grasshoppers’ . T h e same idiom in the singular is a little less unfam iliar: cf. C H II. 194, 21 sq., þ æ t zvæter stod him on tzva healfa szvilce oder stanzveall, ‘ the water stood on both sides o f them like another (a veritable) stone w all’ . A t the corresponding place in the translation o f Numbers Æ lfric has, dam zve ne synd de gelieran de ly tie gærstapan (Craw ford, p. 317). 186. þritigzvintre. I do not understand w h y this is not tzventigzvintrey bu t the alliteration w ith þe and dus seems to confirm it. A t the corresponding place in Æ lfr ic ’s translation o f Numbers the clause specifying the age is altogether om itted. 214. þ[a] fyrdlafey M S . þære. Since gebringan regularly takes the accu­ sative the em endation seems necessary. Perhaps the scribe started to treat fy rd as a separate word, þære fyrde lafey ‘ the remnant (acc.) o f the arm y (gen.)’ ; bu t Æ lfric h im self is unlikely to have chosen this alternative, w hich produces an awkward likeness in the three endings. H e uses fy rd la f as a com pound at L S x x v . 377, and the similar herelaf in the same com ­ position at line 592. In his translation o f Numbers Æ lfric follows the L atin more closely and does not refer to a fyrdlaf. 2 17 -6 0 . T h e fifth episode, again w ithout com m ent except at 2 4 1 -5 and 258-60.

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664 240.

xx

stör. T h e vow el o f this word is usually considered long and is so

marked in the Glossary, although Professor C am p bell in his O ld English Grammar, § 524 n., suggests that it m ay as w ell be short and so prints it. H e is influenced, perhaps, b y certain im plications in M a x Forster’s article, Englische Studien, L X X (1935), 4 9 -54 , to w h ich he refers for the derivation from V ulgar L atin störax b y w ay o f O ld Irish stör. B u t Förster him self treats the O ld English word as störf and this seems proper in v iew o f the derivative weak verb stir an. I f the vow el had been short, the u m lauting suffix *-jan w ould have given sterian. 2 4 1 -5 . T h e term bisceop is applied to the priests o f the old law in the Letter fo r Wulfsige (Fehr, B rief L 18), and Aaron is called the first bishop at xxi. 218. A pplication to pagan as well as Jewish priests is as old as the O ld English Bede and Orosius. See B T and B T S . 2 6 1-7 3 . T h e sixth episode, a sequel to the preceding b u t the subject o f an extended com m ent in its own right, 274-303. 274-303. T h is application to the Christian priesthood is so m uch o f a piece w ith Æ lfr ic ’s ideas as expressed elsewhere, especially in the Letter fo r Wulfsige, that it is easy to believe he developed the passage in d e­ pendently. I do not know o f a source. 292. speligend, glossed vicarius and vices in P. Is the form vices a mere blunder, or some odd vernacular form ? I f it is an early exam ple o f viceysb. 7, in the O E D f how is the final s to be explained ? 304-32. T h e seventh and last episode, to be follow ed b y a com m ent, 333-5 2. T h e narrative corresponds at several points to Æ lfr ic ’s translation o f NumberSy bu t is m uch freer and thus achieves greater ease in carrying out the rhythm ic pattern. 333-5 2. T h is interpretation, based on John iii. 14, 15, was first set forth b y Æ lfric at the end o f Dominica V Quadragesimæt C H II. 238, 240, the sermon to w h ich he refers in the phrase, on sumum oðrum spelley335. T h e re he had begun w ith the quotation from John and told the story in Numbers as a part o f his interpretation. T h e interpretation as a w hole, as M a x Förster has partially indicated ( Anglia X V I . 14 sq.), is very skilfully pu t together from two sources. O n e is A u gu stin e’s com m entary on Johny T ractate x n . 1 1 ; the other is B ed e’s H o m ily 11. 18, on John iii. 1 - 1 6 . (Förster quotes from this as it is incorporated in the pseudo-B ede com ­ m entary on John, w hich in this section is really A lc u in ’s.) Æ lfr ic ’s sum m ary o f the interpretation here is drawn, I think, rather from his own hom ily than from these sources, although in the course o f shortening he has left out m ost o f the sharp little sentences o f antithesis and paradox from A ugustine and thus tipped the balance on B ed e’s side. A selection and rearrangement of the sentences in the earlier hom ily w ill show how close is the relationship to lines 3 3 7 -5 2 here: H w æ t wæs seo up-ahafene næddre buton Cristes deað on rode ? Seo ærene næddre hæfde næddran gelicnysse, ac heo wæs buton ælcum a ttre; swa eac Crist hæfde ure gelicnysse, ac he næfde nane synne on his

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leom um , ac ðurh his up-ahafennysse on ðære rode he gehælde ure synna. . . . W e behealdað Cristes deað, pæt us se deað ne derige, pe o f Öære næ ddran asprang, seo ðe A d a m forspeon. [Earlier] H w æ t getacnodon J?a terendan næ ddran buton synna on urum deadlicum flæsce ? [Later] U to n behealdan [later ym id geleafan] pone ahangenan Crist, pæt w e beon fram ðam æ ttrigum synnum gehælede. . . . H i wæron gehælede fram deaðe to hw ilw endlicum life, and her is gecw eden pæt we sceolon habban pæ t ece lif. . . . Seo gehiw ode anlicnys getiðode pam toslitenum m annum hw ilw endlic l i f ; pæ t soðe ðing, pe ðurh ða ærenan næddran getacnod wæs, pæ t is Cristes deað, getiðað us pæ t ece lif. Æ lfric returned to the them e o f the serpents for the third time, w ith allusion to his tw o earlier treatments o f it, in our hom ily x i i . 227-3 8 . T h e r e he is expounding the w hole pericope for the octave o f Pentecost, John iii. 1 - 1 5 , and comes to Jesus’s reference to the brazen serpent at the v ery end. F o r the exposition o f the sermon as a whole he depends m ainly on B e d e’s H o m ily 11. 18, the same that he had used for the serpents the first tim e in Dominica V Quadragesimae, and at one point there is a trace o f A u g u stin e ’s tw elfth tractate; b u t the exposition o f verses 14 and 15 is there confined to six lines o f review o f the story in Numbers and six lines o f interpretation. I have quoted Bede for this at the foot o f the page because Æ lfric had certainly been rereading Bede and was ultim ately in debted to h im ; b u t his sum m ary m igh t ju st as w ell have been made from the present hom ily or sim ply from m em ory o f everything he had read and w ritten on the subject. 3 5 3 -7 5 . Æ lfric brings the story o f the forty years in the wilderness to an end w ith the death o f M oses and a glance ahead at Joshua’s entry into the prom ised land, a them e he had already treated in the second part o f his M id -le n t hom ily, Secunda Sententia de H oc Ipso, C H II. 212 sqq. 376-8 9 . C o m m en t on the them e o f the prom ised land: the difference betw een G o d ’s prom ises to the Israelites and C h rist’s promises to us. 379. ofæt[an]y M S . ofætum. Since an accusative is called for, the dative form in the m anuscript is clearly wrong. T h e question is w hether it should be taken as an error for the accusative plural ofætuy from the strong neuter ofetyofæty‘ fru it’, or for the accusative singular (less probably plural) o f the inadequately attested ofæteywk. fern., m eaning, perhaps, ‘edible produce, fo o d ’ , and so also, in a more general w ay than the other word, ‘ fruit’ . T h is w o rd appears w ith a question mark in B T S and H a ll-M e r itt, since its existence has been conjectured from the appearance, at line 194 o f Æ lfr ic ’s Hexameron as edited b y Craw ford, o f the phrase to ofætany apparently ‘for fo o d ’ . C raw fo rd ’s three oldest m anuscripts (w hich are Q , R, and P in the present edition) concur in this reading, whereas two later ones (our O and S) have ofetum as if from ofet. In the passage a dative singular m eaning ‘fo o d ’ makes better sense than a dative plural m eaning ‘fruits’, for it is said that G o d created m any kinds o f trees w ith their fruits (zvæstmum)y m annum to ofætan and to oðrum neodum .

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It is reasonable, therefore, to infer a weak fem inine ofæte, possibly, as T o lle r suggests, m eaning literally ‘w hat one eats of \ Indeed it m ay be that popular etym ology was responsible for the invention o f the w ord. T h e strong neuter ofet is com m on G erm anic and its true etym olo gy is u n ­ know n ; bu t the frequent spelling ofæt suggests that there was a tend ency to regard the second syllable as a derivative o f etan ‘ to eat'. Æ lfric seems, at any rate, to have used both ofety ofæt (as B T S attests) and ofæte. F o r the present hom ily has a clear exam ple o f ofætan as an accusative (either singular or plural) at line 156. T h e phrase oðre ofætan, if singular, co n ­ firms the fem inine gender, bu t it m ay w ell be plural, m eaning som ething like ‘other things to eat’ rather than, in a strict sense, ‘other fruits'. B u t there is no need to exclude altogether the sense ‘ fruit', and the glossator is w ithin his rights w hen he gives fructum. Here at line 379, where some distinction from ele and ivin is desirable, it m ay be perm issible to take ofætan as a singular im plying ‘solid food'. A t any rate, in view o f line 156, ofætan seems a little more probable than ofætu ‘ fruits'. 403. maran wit\a\. Since wite ‘punishm ent’ is consistently neuter in O ld En glish and in lines 295 and 301 o f this very hom ily, the reading o f the m anuscript here, maran witey can hardly be accepted. T h e choice is b e ­ tween the accusative singular, mare wite, and the accusative plural, maran wita (cf. xix. 237). O n the whole it seems better to choose the plural, since the em endation required is less radical. Indeed the scribe m ay have considered the final -£ o f wite an acceptable plural form, though in these m anuscripts generally the dissyllabic neuters end in -a, less frequently -w, and in this particular word a difference from the singular is desirable. 408. ne his aseon. A later scribe was eviden tly enough troubled b y this reading to mark aseon for separation into a and seony b u t this w ill hardly im prove matters. A partitive genitive his depending on either aseon or seon does not seem probable, and I cannot find any precedent for it. M ore likely a w ord has been left out. I tentatively suggest that w e read, ne his aht aseon, ‘nor look upon any o f it’ .

XXI DE FALSIS DIIS B Y a combination of accidents and deliberate choices, this homily has become as familiar by title and by a small part of its text as, perhaps, anything in Ælfric, and yet it has not until now been edited in its entirety. O f the seven manuscripts that contain some portion of the text only one, R, approaches completeness, and only two others, C and L , could lead one to a fair estimate of the original length and range of the homily. But C and L are of the twelfth century, unreliable witnesses for Æ lfric’s forms, and R, though earlier and only slightly at variance with the formal standards of Æ lfric’s day, is not as a whole one of the foremost Ælfric manu­ scripts and has not often caught the attention of editors. T h e chief authority, certainly, seemed to be W, the one manuscript that had preserved Æ lfric’s preface to the Lives o f Saints and had approxi­ mated (though with several interpolations by other writers) the original order and content of the series. According to its table of contents, D e Falsis D ü s was the second of three general homilies that had followed the saints’ lives and brought the volume to a close, but enough leaves have been lost at the end to deprive us of the third piece altogether and of almost three quarters of the second, D e Falsis D iis. Hence the careful edition of the text of W made by C. R. Unger in 1846 gave no adequate notion of the con­ tent of the original homily. Still less did Kem ble’s selection from W in his Salomon and Saturn or Miillenhoff’s edition of the page of modified excerpts in X k. All three of these partial editions focused attention on Æ lfric’s treatment of the Græco-Roman gods and his incidental attack on their Danish counterparts. It is easy to understand the interest aroused by these passages, tantalizingly brief and imperfectly informative though they are. Nearly the same emphasis was produced by two other edited texts. One of these, the version contained in S, edited by Kluge in his Lesebuch , has lost approximately the same number of lines as W at a slightly different spot (151-644) through some mechanical defect in an ancestral copy.

W hat

remains

deals

in

generous

proportion

though

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incompletely with the classical and Scandinavian gods. T h e other text is the adaptation of Æ lfric’s homily by Wulfstan. Th is adapta­ tion, preserved in T (Hatton 1 13), has been edited in Napier’s

Wulfstan and again in Bethurum’s Homilies o f Wulfstan. It is built on a very small part of Æ lfric’s text (lines 72 -16 1 only) and deals almost exclusively with the topic already mentioned. Except to the few who have explored the manuscripts it has not been evident that the long account of Daniel’s exposure of false gods in the days of Darius and of Cyrus, as printed in Warner’s

Early English Homilies from the twelfth-century M S . G , is an extract from D e Falsis D iis.1 Now, however, the whole extent of this massive homily is on view and it is evident how small a place in it has been given to Saturn and his progeny. Æ lfric has indeed captured attention by his defamation of these gods, but the real force of his attack is carried by the stories from the Old Testament, which include the overthrow of Dagon by the ark of the covenant, the discomfiture of the priests of Bel by Daniel, his destruction of the dragon, and his two escapes from the lions by the miracles of the living God. T h e ancient record is continued into the period of grace by the exposure of the fraudulent idol Serapis in Alexandria under Theodosius and the defeat of Apollo administered by Gregory the Thaumaturgist. With Apollo, who had not been men­ tioned earlier, we return nevertheless to the group of pagan gods first enumerated. T h e claim of their worshippers that they were in being long before Christ and ought therefore to be preferred is now quickly set aside: the Son of God, though he assumed flesh in the sixth age, is co-eternal with the Father; Saturn and the other gods were once mere men, who were not even born until after the Flood. Æ lfric’s contemptuous dismissal of Danish paganism may be variously interpreted. Undoubtedly the paganism of the fresh armies of pillagers during the ’nineties constituted not only a funda­ mental source of antagonism but a threat, and made comparisons with the Philistines and the Babylonians especially apt. T h e homily would hardly have come into being without the sense that the 1 E E T S 1917. T h e first episode, corresponding to 300-51 below, had been edited from the same manuscript by Max Förster in his Altenglisches Lesebuch für Anfänger, Heidelberg, 1913; fifth ed., rev., 1949. In G the excerpt is added to Æ lfric’s Dom. X I I Post Pent.t C H II. xxxm , which contains other matter from Daniel; but the addition was not, I think, authorized by Ælfric, for it is not really appropriate. For an authorized addition see xxvi.

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age-old struggle between the true G od and the pretenders was being renewed. A certain partisan zeal, as well as discretion, may be detected in the fact that when the days of the week are introduced, though Sunnandæg and Monandæg are mentioned and must have caught attention, the attack is directed entirely against the ancient heathen and the Danes. T h e identity of Óðon and Woden, þór and Jmnor, Fricg and Frig (let alone Saturn), though it could hardly be missed, is left without comment. It does not appear, however, that Æ lfric was greatly worried about the outcome, or aware of any serious defection amongst the English. His references to the Danish gods— to J>ór as the counterpart of Jove at 124-5, to Óðon as the counterpart of Mercury at 140, to Fricg as the counterpart of Venus at 177, and to the Danish error in making þór the son of Óðon in 14 1-9 — are dispassionately expressed and reveal neither intimate knowledge of the forms of worship nor much fear of their being adopted. Even his reference to high moun­ tains as the scene of sacrifices to Mercury, though it probably shows some knowledge of the worship of M ercury’s counterpart, Odin, is verbally close to a generalizing passage in his principal Latin source.1 He seems to keep the Danish error at an academic distance while he entrenches the Christian stronghold against an attack that has not yet reached dangerous proportions. What he has written is much more a reassuring celebration of G o d ’s triumph over a series of foolish pretenders than a frontal assault on con­ temporary evils. There is evidence, however, that Æ lfric’s casual references to the Danes carried weight with at least one Scandinavian preacher. In a group of homiletic pieces that have survived in the O ld Icelandic codex called the Hauksbók there is one that has long since been recognized as related to Æ lfric’s.2 T h e only question has been whether it is taken directly from Æ lfric’s homily or from an ante­ cedent common source.3 So long as comparisons were limited to 1 See line 138 and note. 2 Hauksbók, udgiven [by E. and F. Jónsson] . . . af det kongelige nordiske Oldskrift-Selskab (Copenhagen, 1892-6), I. 156-64. Also in Nokkur Blöd úr Hauksbók . . . gefin út a fjó n i Þorkelssyni (Reykjavik, 1865), pp. 13-23. 3 C. P. Caspari pointed out the similarity and concluded that the O N homily was derived from Ælfric: see Martin von Bracaras Schrift De Correctione Rusticoruniy p. cxxii. M ax Förster, commenting on the manuscripts of De Falsis Diis and its source, held that both homilies were derived from an undiscovered Latin source intermediate between the known one, De Correctione Rusticorum, and Ælfric. See Arch, für das Studium der neueren Sprachen, C X X II. 261-2. C 2710.2

N

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the early part of the Norse homily there was perhaps some room for doubt. Now that the whole homily can be put beside Æ lfric’s there can hardly be further question. T h e Norse writer is very free, but he follows Æ lfric’s order exactly aside from certain understand­ able omissions, and he moves through the same sequence of Biblical examples to the conclusion of the Daniel story. It is hardly credible that anyone before Æ lfric put the materials together in this fashion, because the Latin writers had no need to repeat large sections of Biblical narrative, and there is no evidence for a vernacular homily on this subject before Ælfric. One odd detail seems to associate the Norse homily with the version in M S . R, namely the blunder by which the name Venus is regarded as a masculine form and replaced by Vena.1 R makes this mistake at lines 150 and 177. T h e Hauksbók introduces it at the first mention of the goddess, line 115 in Æ lfric,2 where it also has Iuna for Iuno. It repeats Vena at the passage corresponding to line 150 and has Venu, apparently, at the passage corresponding to 177.3 There are no other signs of kinship with R, however, and two persons of little Latin might have arrived at the same error. A t one point the

Hauksbók recognizes the force of Æ lfric’s reference to the Danes by adding to Æ lfric’s mention of Jove in his list of the days of the week a clause in the first person plural: ‘whom we call Oðenn’.4 In considering the sources of Æ lfric’s homily it is convenient to distinguish the early part (1-209), in which most of the themes are developed, and the rest (210-676), in which most of the space is taken up with a series of exemplary stories. T h e sources of these stories are fairly easily established and will be mentioned first. We start with one from I Sam uel and this is followed by several from D aniel , all these following the Vulgate fairly closely. T h e overthrow of the idol Serapis in Alexandria offers a slight complica­ tion, in that Ælfric has conflated material from two accounts, one in the Historia Ecclesiastica of Rufinus, the other in the Historia

Tripartita attributed to Cassiodorus. T h e story of Gregory the 1 Wilhelm Levison, in England and the Continent in the Eighth Century, App. X, pp. 302-14, presents part of a text containing a garbled version of some of the sentences from De Correctione Rusticorum on the classical deities, in which Venus is regarded as a man. 2 T h e scribe of R wavered between the two forms at 115. 3 Hauksbóky I. 158/17, 18; 159/1, 14. 4 Ibid., 159/13: ‘J?ann er ver kollum Oðenn.’ Ælfric had made the identifica­ tion at 140, but here, at 175, he does not repeat it.

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Thaumaturgist, bishop of Neocaesarea, and his victory over Apollo comes straight from another passage in Rufinus, the same that Æ lfric turned to later for two exempla in Homily vm . It is clear that Æ lfric is dependent on the version given by Rufinus and not on the Latin V ita attributed to Gregory of N yssa,12 because in Rufinus and Æ lfric the first episode, in which the Thaumaturgist seeks shelter in a temple of Apollo, takes place during a snowstorm while he is crossing the Alps, whereas in the Vita, somewhat more plausibly for a bishop of Neocaesarea, it takes place during a rain­ storm on the outskirts of a city in Asia Minor. T h e sources of the discursive part of the homily (chiefly 1-209) are not so easily determined and can be only partially set forth here. One source, however, has long been recognized as paramount: namely, certain paragraphs in a sermon entitled D e Correctione

Rusticorum by Martinus Bracarensis or Martin, bishop of Braga (in Galicia), who died in

579.2 T h e

sermon was first elaborately

edited by C. P. Caspari,3 who pointed out in some detail its relation to the attack on the classical gods in D e Falsis D iis. T h e influence of D e Correctione Rusticorum, as shown by the quotations from it under Sources, is intermittently discernible in lines 28-196, and especially strong in 72-180, where the supposed beginnings of idolatry are set forth and the classical gods are singled out for attack. What is not so clear is that M artin’s sermon sets the pattern for the entire homily by putting the attack on false gods in the perspective of man’s relation to the true G od from Adam to the present. T h is historical perspective was congenial to Æ lfric, as we know from several of his writings, including D e Initio Creaturae, in which, incidentally, he first describes the beginning of idolatry after the flood. T h e long series of historically ordered exempla in 210-648 are not dependent on M artin’s sermon; but the basic similarity of design is brought out when we notice that lines 494510, the transitional passage in which, after the last of the stories about Daniel, Æ lfric ushers in the sixth age with the coming of Christ and the apostolic beginnings of the Christian campaign 1 Bibliotheca Casinensisy III (1877), Florilegium Casinenset 168-79. 2 See Claude W. Barlow, ed., Martini Episcopi Bracarensis Opera Omnia (New Haven, Yale Univ. Press, 1950), p. 6. Barlow seems to be mistaken in believing (pp. 7, 175) that Pirmin’s Scarapsus was an intermediary between M artin’s sermon and Æ lfric’s. 3 Martin von Bracaras Schrift De Correctione Rusticorum, Christiania, 1883. M y references are to this edition, which is especially pertinent to De Falsis Diis

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against idolatry, is paralleled in its general purport, though not in its language, by one of the later paragraphs (the thirteenth in Caspari’s edition) of D e Correctione Rusticorum. Nevertheless, there is much in the opening part of D e Falsis D iis for which Martin of Braga was not responsible. T w o passages in particular have been elaborated from only the barest suggestion in Martin. One passage, on Adam ’s life before and after the fall (33—7 i), seems by its easy movement, its pathos, and its lyrical touches to be written very freely, perhaps by distant recollection of more than one unidentified source, but certainly at a great remove from Martin. T h e other passage, 181-209, falls into two parts. T h e opening lines (181-9), on the assignment of the seven planets to the gods, were suggested, I think, by Æ lfric’s recollections of B ede; but the rest, making a vigorous attack on images, has a good deal in it that I can account for in only the most general way. Image-worship in itself is of course mentioned by Martin, and what is said about the devils depends in part, I think, on the passage I have quoted from Isidore; but much else seems, as I have ex­ plained in the notes, reminiscent of Isaiah and the book of Wisdom without being close enough to warrant quotation of particular passages as direct sources. Again, even in the section closest to Martin there are many de­ tails that Ælfric has added and some modifications he has intro­ duced, presumably from what he has read or learned elsewhere. In addition to what is suggested on these matters in the notes, it is well to remember that Ælfric had already composed an outline of the subject in D e Initio Creaturæ. Some of the ideas there ex­ pressed persist, as may be seen from the following sentences ( C H I. 22/27 sqq.): Ða siððan [after Babel] wearð mancynn þurh deofol beswicen, and gebiged fram Godes geleafan, swa þæt hi worhton him anlicnyssa, sume of golde, sume of seolfre, sume eac of stanum, sume of treowe, and sceopon him naman; þæra manna naman þe wæron entas and yfeldæde. Eft ðonne hi deade wæron þonne cwædon þa cucan þæt hi wæron godas, and wurðodon hi, and him lac offrodon; and comon þa deoflu to heora anlicnyssum, and þæron wunodon, and to mannum spræcon swilce hi godas wæron. I am not sure of Æ lfric’s source for this brief passage. He may already have known Martin and have used his ideas with vir­ tually the same modifying influences that appear in D e Falsis

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D iis — a Biblical way of speaking about image-making, and espe­ cially the direct connexion of devils with idols that we find in the passage quoted from Isidore for lines 197 sqq. T h e whole of Isidore’s long essay on the gods of the gentiles

{Etymologiarum lib. v m , cap. xi) may, in fact, have been vaguely influential. Its possible relevance was first suggested by Professor Bethurum in her notes on Wulfstan’s revision of Æ lfric.1 Besides the moderating influence discussed in the note on 99 sqq. and the suggestion in the passage quoted for 197 sqq., Æ lfric may have owed to the essay a good deal of general information about the gods with which to confirm, or qualify, what he found in Martin. I f so it is not surprising that it does not appear directly; for M artin’s purpose was similar to his own, whereas Isidore’s was not. Although eight manuscripts, including the Wulfstan revision, figure in this edition, only three of them (R, C , and L) contain anything approaching the whole extent of the text, and there is little decisive evidence of relationship among them. One piece of evidence alone outweighs all the rest and establishes a basic division into two groups. T h e passage in lines 14 1-9 occurs completely only in R and S, not at all in C, L , W, and X k. T h e first six lines of it occur also, with very slight changes, in Wulfstan’s revision in T . These lines are a parenthetical answer, in a style thoroughly characteristic of Ælfric, to an objection that might be brought from the Danish quarter to what has previously been said about the parentage of Jove. It is conceivable that, if Æ lfric had included the parenthesis in his first version, certain scribes would have omitted it as an unnecessary interruption; but such editing in these homilies is rare. It is much more probable that the passage is one of Æ lfric’s afterthoughts, inserted into the first version of the homily at a later time and thus constituting a second version. Such an explanation is strongly supported by the fact that, in general, L and W, less reliably C , represent early texts of the Lives o f Saints , R and S late texts of Æ lfric’s work as a whole. It is also supported by the presence of the greater part of the passage (characteristically with­ out Æ lfric’s fussy reference to authorities) in Wulfstan’s revision, which would hardly have been written before the days of Æ lfric’s 1 Homilies of Wulfstan, 335. Miss Bethurum cites the essay as it reappears, verbatim, in Rabanus Maurus, De Universo lib. xv, cap. vi {PL cxi. 426-36), where indeed Ælfric might have come upon it; but he would probably have known it as Isidore’s. Miss Bethurum’s notes should also be consulted for much general information on the topic that I have not attempted to repeat here.

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abbacy and would have been drawn from a late, not an early, state of Æ lfric’s text.1 T h e distinction between RS (for whose derivation from a com­ mon ancestor at some remove from Æ lfric there is evidence in other homilies) and C L W is thus of primary significance. T h e excerpts in X k are probably taken from a manuscript containing an early state of the text also, though their failure to include lines 14 1-9 might be otherwise explained. For the relationship of G there is no evidence, since it does not contain the relevant part of the homily; but what we know of it in general suggests that it should be classed with C L W . I can find no other evidence of revision in the homily. C ’s omis­ sion of a long passage at 515-64 is probably a deliberate editorial cut, but cannot have been authorized, for it falsifies the historical sequence. For the same reason the passage cannot be a later addi­ tion. Some small verbal variations occur here and there, but the manuscript grouping with respect to them is inconsistent and they are all just as likely to be due to scribal modifications as to revision by the author. Am ong the small indications of manuscript groups the following may be mentioned. T h e group RS (partly, no doubt, because so large a part of the text is omitted in S) is very slightly indicated except at 141-9. T h e two manuscripts share a small error, the omission of an essential ne, at 72. (Here Wulfstan’s revision has ne like the other manuscripts, but he would surely have inserted it if it had been missing in his copy of Æ lfric’s homily.) Other points of agreement (RS and L against C W at 19, RS and C against L W X k at 1 17) cannot be regarded as significant because, since either reading is acceptable, we cannot tell which is original. W e cannot even be sure that one of the two groups is closely related, for deliberate scribal choices may have coincided in such a way as to interfere with the lines of inheritance. More interesting are three instances of agreement between R and Wulfstan’s revision (T) against the other manuscripts: 95 an C L W and S ; ana R T . h i

afligde C L W X k and S ; aflymde R T .

154 halige C L W ; healice R T . (S lacks this passage.) 1 This conclusion was first put forward by Dr. Clemoes in his review of Bethurum’s Homilies oj Wulfstan, M L R , L I V (i959)> 81-82.

DE F A L S I S D I I S

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675

I am at a loss to explain this phenomenon, because there is every reason to believe that Wulfstan’s copy of Æ lfric’s homily came straight from the author, whereas R and S shared an ancestor that had deliberately introduced unauthorized additions. If the three variants above belonged to a second edition sent out by Ælfric, why do they not appear in S as well as R? Their heritage from Æ lfric should have been identical apart from what was lost in the two lines after they had separated. It looks as if the three variants had been Wulfstan’s substitutions, and R had somehow inherited them by some later borrowing. If Wulfstan had entered his changes in his copy of Ælfric, this copy might have been consulted by some scribe in the line of R after its separation from the line of S. A t several points where R, C , and L are the only witnesses, R and C L disagree as we should expect, but I cannot tell for sure which is correct. Hence there is no proof that C and L are related to one another more closely than to other descendants of the first version of the homily. T h e chief instances are these: 225 eodan R ; eodon (eoden C ) to f>am temple C L . 226 liegende R ; liegan C L . 243 þa R ; heora C L (accepted in the text hut not certain). 455 second he R ; om. C L . 497 fylðe R ; fulnesse C L . It is therefore somewhat disconcerting to find R and C united in the erroneous reading pone at 512, where L has the ambiguously abbreviated pon for what should be ponne ; but here the temptation to err is so great that it is easy to believe that R and C have pro­ duced the wrong reading independently. A t 49, 324, 463, 481 there are still other groupings where either reading can be accepted. I think we must reckon here with minor bits of editorializing indulged in by some of the scribes. It would certainly be rash to establish minor groups on the strength of any of these instances.

DE FALSIS DIIS O fratres dilectissimi, diuina s[c]riptura cultum unius ueri D e i T ext based on R (C C C C 178), pp. 142-63 (lines 1-313, 318-676). Collated with W (Cotton Julius E. vii), ff. 238~4ov (1-140, 150-91); C (C C C C 303), pp. 306-17 (1-140, 150-296, 299-301, 304-514, 565-676); L (U L C Ii. i. 33), ff. i7 5 v-8 4 v (1-140, 150-508, 510-44); S (Hatton 116), pp. 365-73 (1-150, 645-76); G (Cotton Vespasian D. xiv), ff. 44v-4 8 v (excerpt on Daniel, lines 300-496); and X k (Paris, Bibi. Nat. Lat. 7585), f. 238v (a paragraph of excerpts, 104-17, 122—4^, 126-7, 134-50, 140a, 150-2: facsimile in Dubois, JElfric, facing p. 84). For the select variants from T (Hatton 113), containing Wulfstan’s revision of lines 72-16 1, see apparatus at line 72. Printed editions of W, S, G , and X k are cited as follows when they differ from their respective manuscripts: U n (Unger, the text of W, Annaler for nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie, Copenhagen, 1846, pp. 67-81); Ke (Kemble, the text of W from line 99 on, Solomon and Saturnypp. 120 sqq.); K 1(Kluge, the text of S, omitting all Latin, Angelsächsisches Lesebuchf 3. Aufl., Halle, 1902, pp. 8 7 90: cited here from 4. Aufl., 1915, pp. 86-89; Wa (Warner, the text of G , Early English HomilieSy pp. 38-41); and M f (Müllenhoff, the text of X k, Zeitschrift fü r deutsches Altertumy X II [1865], 407-9). Secondary editions based on the printed texts cited above are disregarded. On Forster’s edition of 300-51 from G see above, p. 668, n. 1. Excluded variants: 1. Interchange of short i and y in blissygify himy hiney hirey hisy hwideryhwilcymicel, siðða?iy sixyswilc, þideryþisneypisum. R and L tend to use hym for the plural. 2. Interchange of long i and y in gityhiysiyszciðe. 3. Interchange of i (rare) and e (frequent in S, occasional in C) with the commoner y in the suffix -nyss. 4. Substitution of pan for the demonstrative adjective pam or pæmy very frequent in C and G . 5. Interchange of pan (the commonest) with pon and pam in for pan pey be pan pe. 6. Substitution of single for double consonants at the end of eallyfully mannf menny-nyss, etc. 7. Variations of micl-ymiccl-, micelin inflected forms of micel. 8. Interchange of -an and -on in butanf seofan, and the plural endings of verbs, present and past. Verbs in R have -an with exceptional frequency. (Substitution of -on for -an in the infinitive is recorded.) 9. Interchange of the pret. plural -odon with -edon (fairly common), -aJon (infrequent), - oden (rare); and of sing. -ode, the usual form, with -ade. 10. Interchange of good (usual in R) and god (usual elsewhere) for ‘good’, with or without accent. 11. Interchange of pary hwar (frequent in R) and pæry hwær (usual elsewhere). 12. Substitution of pey peo for sey seoy which occurs nearly always in L and nowhere else. 13. A curious blunder peculiar to C, ponum for ponne at lines 27, 385, 652 and elsewhere, apparently by misinterpretation of the abbreviation ponn. Once also pone at 396. 14. Most of the levelled endings in G , since they are on display in Warner’s edition. 15. G ’s frequent heo for hi. 16. T h e spelling cyng (frequent in L and G) for cyning is reported only when R has an odd form. 17. Variations of proper names: Danihel (regular in R) appears occasionally else­ where, but Daniel is more frequent; Darig- and Dari- vary in the name Darius; Bel is replaced by Bæl frequently in L and occasionally, as at 355, in C. Seven or eight sentence-capitals have been supplied without notice. Title: F A L S I S. 1-5 om. Kl. scriptura] sic C L S W ; sriptura R.

1 O] F (anticipating fratres) C.

XXI

DE F A L S I S D I I S

677

nos docuit, his uerhis dicendo: Unus est Dominus, una fides, unum baptisma, unus Deus et Pater omnium, qui est super omnes, et per omnia, et in omnibus nobis. E x quo omnia, per quem omnia, in quo omnia; ipsi gloria in secula.

5

Eala ge gebroðra ða leofostan, þæt godcunde gewrit us tæhte J?one biggeng anes soðes Godes, þisum wordum cweþende: An Drihten is, and án geleafa, and án fulluht; án God and Fæder ealra þinga, se ðe is ofer ealle þing, and þurh ealle þing, and on us eallum. O f þam synd ealle þing, and þurh þone synd ealle þing, 10 and on þam synd ealle þing; sy him wuldor á to worulde, amen. Se æl#mihtiga Fæder gestrynde ænne Sunu of him sylfum, #p-143 butan wifes gemánan, and þurh þone Sunu he geworhte ealle gesceafta, gesewenlice and ungesewenlice. Se Sunu is eall swa eald swa se Fæder, for þæm þe se Fæder wæs æfre butan anginne, 15 and se Sunu wæs æfre butan anginne of him acen[n]ed, eall swa mihtig swa se Fæder. Se Halga Gast nis na acenned, ac he is þæs Fæder and þæs Suna willa and lufu, of him bam gelice, and þurh þone Gast syndon ealle gesceafta geliffæste þe se Fæder gesceop þurh his Sunu, se ðe is his wisdom. J?eos halige þrynnyss is án ælmihtig 2o G od aefre unbegunnen and ungeendod. Hi synd þry on naman, Fæder, and Sunu, and [Halig] Gast; and hy ne synd na þry Godas, ac hy þry syndon án ælmihtig G od untodæledlic, for þam þe hym þrym is án gecynd, and án ræd, and án weorc on eallum þingum. 3 baptima C. unus] unus est Un. 4 in quo omnia] om. L . 5 saecula W. after secula] amen L . 6 preceded by rubric, S E R M O A N G L I C E S . Eale L. leofestan SW . godcundæ C. 7 bigeng L S ; bigæncg C. soðas C. 8 first an] om. W. third an] cap. R C . Fæder] an fæder C. 9 þur|c'h C. 1 0 -1 1 pineg (thrice) W. 10 J?urh pone] on pam S. 11 on pam] purh pone S. eile L. 14 gescafte L . -segen- (twice) S. 15 pæm] pan C L S W . 16 and se sunu. .. anginne] om. S. acenned] sic C L S W ; acened R. 18 sunu L. heom C. 19 gast] halgan gast CW . gesceafta] gesceafte LW . geliffeste C. 20 ðrymnyss L . 21 preo S. namum L. 22 halig C L S W \ se halga R. godas] godes C. 22-23 preo (twice) S. 23 ac] and C. syndon] synd C. heom C. Glosses in R and S> Latin: 6 g e : vos R . ða leofostan: dilectissimi R. 7 big­ geng anes soðes godes: cultum vnius veri dei R S. pisum : his R S . wordum ewepende: u^rbis dicendo S. 8 drihten: d^ws R. geleafa: fides S. 9 on : in S. 10 O f pam : ex quo R. O f: ex S. purh pone (on pam S ) : per quern S (!). 11 a : semper R. 12 gestrynde: Genuit R S. 13 butan: absque R. 16, 17 acenned: Genitus R S . 19 pone: ilium R S . gelifFæste: uiuificata R. S ources . 2-4 [Ephes. iv. 5, 6 : Unus . . . nobis, as given.] 4-5 [Rom. xi. 36, as quoted by Augustine, De Vera Religione, P L X X X I V . 172. See note.]

678

DE F A L S I S DI IS

XXI

And selre us is soðlice to gelyfanne

25

on þa[s] halgan þrynnysse, and hi geandettan, þonne us sy to smeagenne to swiðe embe þæt. Ðeos þrynnyss gesceop þa scinændan englas, and Adam and Éuan eft syððan to mannum,

and sealde hym anweald ofer eorðlice gesceafta;

30

and hi mihtan wunian [symle] butan deaðe, gif hi þæt an Godes bebod næfre ne tobræcan. D a wunode Adam swa orsorh on blisse,

and him [n]an gesceaft sceð[ð]an ne mihte, þa hwile þe he geheold þæt heofonlice bebod.

3s

Him [ne derode nan fýr,] þeah þe [he] mid fotum on stópe, ne nan wæter ne mihte þone mann[an] adrencan, þeah þe he on yðum urne færlice. N e nán wildeor ne mihte, ne nan wurmcynn ne dorste [derian þam menn] mid hys muðes slite.



Ne hungor ne þurst, ne hefigtyme cyle,

ne nán *swiðlic hæte, ne seocnyss ne mihton

*p. 144

25 gelyfenne L S W ; gelefenne C. 26 pas] sic C L S W , pa R. prymnysse L. geandyttan S. 27 ymbe W. 28 ðrymnyss L. scinendan CLSW . 29 efan S. 30 heom C. 31 wunigean L. symle C W ; symble S ; om. R ; æfre L. 32 an] om. S. nefre *5. 34 nan] sic C L S W ; nan ping ne nan R. sceððan C ; scæððan W; sceððian R ; scea)?an S ; sceaðigean L. 35 geheold] heold C. heonfolice K l (mispr.). 36 ne derode nan fyr C L S W ; nan fýr ne derode R . he] sic C L S W ; om. R. 37 mannan] sic S W ; mann R L ; man C. adræncan C L . 39 wyrmCLSW . 40 derian J?am menn] the order of C L S W ; pam menn derian R. derigean L. 41 hunger C L S W . -tima W; -time C. 42 hæto W. -nys W; -ness C ; -nessa Glosses in R and S , Latin: 26 geandettan: confiteri R. 27 J?onne: quam R S. embe pæt: circa hoc S. 32 bebod: preceptura R S . 33 orsorh: se securus (sic) R. 34 sceððian: nocere vel ledere R. sceaþan: furare (/) S. 37 þone: illum S. 38 yþum: vndis S. 40 muðes slite: morsu R S. 41 hefigtyme: graue R S. cyle: fngus R . 42 swiðlic: uehemens R S. M E : 27 smeagenne: penchene R . 28-71 [Greatly elaborated from Martin of Braga9s De Correctione Rusti­ corum, § 4] Post istam vero ruinam angelicam placuit Deo de limo terræ hominem plasmare, quem posuit in paradiso; et dixit ei, ut, si praeceptum Domini servasset, in loco illo caelesti sine morte succederet. . . .; si autem praeterisset Dei praeceptum, morte moreretur. . . . Diabolus . . ., invidia ductus, suasit homini, ut mandata Dei transcenderet. Pro qua offensa iactatus est homo de paradiso in exilio mundi istius, ubi multos labores et dolores pateretur.

XXI

DE F A L S I S D I I S

679

Adam geswencan on pam earde,

pa hwile þe he þæt lytle bebod mid geleafan geheold. Eft, þa þa he agylt hæfde, and Godes bebod tobræc,

45

pa forleas he þa gesælþa, and on geswincum leofode, swa þæt hine [biton lys] bealdlice and flean, þone þe ær ne dorste se draca furþon hreppan. He moste pa warnian wið wæter and wið fýr, and behealdan wærlice pæt he hearde ne feolle, and mid agenum geswince him ætes tilian;

50

and pa gecyndelican good þe him God on gesceop, he moste pa healdan, gif he hi habban wolde, mid mycelre gymene, swa swa gyt doð þa góódan, þe mid geswince healdað hi sylfe wið leahtras. Eac swylce seo sunne, and soðlice se móna

55

wurdon benæmde heora wynsuman beorhtnysse æfter Adames gylte, na be agenum gewyrhtum. Be seofonfealdan wæs seo sunne pa beorhtre ærþam se mann agylte, and se mona hæfde

60

þære sunnan beorhtnysse, swa swa heo scinð nu ús. Hi sceolan eft swaþeah æfter Domes-dæge habban be fullan heora beorhtnysse, be þam pe hy gesceapene wæran; and se mona ne ealdað æfter pam dæge, 43 geswæncan C L ; gesvincan Un (wrongly). 45 agylt] sic C L S W ; agylt(e) R. 46 geswicum C. 47 biton lys C L S W ; lys biton R. 48 forþon L S . reppan S ; hrepan L. 49 warnian] hine warnian S ; hine warnigean L. 50 he] om. Un (wrongly). 51 agenum] his agenum L. geswynce C. ætas W. 52 -lice L. 53 healden W. 53-54 gif he hi habban wolde after gymene S. 54 mycelre] mycele W. 56 soðlice] om. L. 57 benæmede C L S W . winsuman C. 59 -fealdum C L S W . 60 ærðan C L S . 61 J?ere S. scynð W. 62-63 Un wrongly prints habban be fullan after beorhtnysse. 63 beoht- W. -nessa S.

Glosses in R and S , Latin: 43 geswencan: fatigari R. 44 bebod: preceptum R. geheold: seruauit R. 45 pa pa: tunc(f) S. bebod: im­ perium R. 47 bealdlice: audacter R S. 48 J?one: illum R pone pe: quem S. furJ?on (forJ?on): eciam (etiam) R S. hreppan: tangere R S. 49 warnian: cauere R S . 50 behealdan: videre R S. wærlice: caute R. 5 1 agenum : propna S. ætes: cibos R. 52 good: bona R S. 53 healdan: custodire R. 54 gymene: cura R S . doð (?): obseruant R. goodan: boni R. 55 healdað: custodiunt R. leahtras: crz'mina R. 56 Eac swylce: similiter S. 57 benæmde: ablati R ; subtracti S. wynsuman: iocundo R. 58 gewyrhtum: meritis S. 59 pa: tunc S. 63 be fullan: plene S 64 ne: Non S. ealdað: decrescit R S. M E : 57 wurdon: weren R. 64 ealdað: woneð R •

68o

DE F A L S I S D I I S

XXI

ac bið ansund scinende, swa swa seo [sunne] deð nú.

65

M enn magon eac geearnian mid micelre earfoðnysse þæt hi wunian mid Gode on wynsumnysse æfre æfter Domes-dæge, a butan deaðe,

pa pe nu gehyrsumiað his hæsum mid weorce; and pa þe God forseoð beoð besencte on helle



on þam ecum witum and endeleasum cwylmingum. N u [ne] ræde we on bocum þæt man arærde hæþengyld on eallum þam fyrste ær Noes #flode,

*p. 145

oðþæt pa entas worhtan þone [wundorlican] stýpel æfter Noés flóde, and hym swa feala gereorda

75

God par forgeaf swa pæra wyrhtena wæs. Ð a pa hi toferdon to fyrlenum landum, and mancynn pa weox, pa wurdon hi bepæhte þurh þone ealdan deofol þe Adam ær beswác, swa þæt hi worhton wolice him godas,

80

and þone Scyppend forsawon p t hy gesceop to mannum. Hi namon pa [to] wisdome þæt hi wurþodon him for godas 65 sunne C L S W \ om. R . 66 geearnigean L. earðfoðnesse C. 67 (wunian) wunian R. 69 weorce] weorcunz S. 71 on] to L . ecum witum and] om. S. 72 Here begins Wulfstart's revision of Æ Ifric in T (.Hatton j j j ), ff. 5iclude only the few that may have a bearing on the Ælfrician archetype. ne] sic C L W (T ); orn. R S. rædde W. -gild CW . 74 oððet C. wundorlican C L S W (T ); om. R. 75 fela C L W {T ) \ fæla S. gereorda] gereord L S W (em. to gereorda K l .). 78 )?a weox] weox ða L. 79 deofoll S. 80 wohlice S ; om. L. 81 sceppend C ; scippend L. forsægon S ; forsawon alt. to forsæwon R. 82 J?a] misprinted þá (i.e. pæ) Un. to] sic C L S W (T ) ; om.t ham to inserted over line by trembling hand R. Glosses in R and S t Latin: 65 ansund: integer R S . 67 wynsumnysse: iocunditate R. 68 a: semper R. 69 pa: illi S. 70 pa (pe): illi R ; qui S. forseoð: spmiuwt R. besencte: submersi R. 71 cwylmingum: cn/ciatu R. 72 hæj?engyld: idolum R S. 74 oðpæt: vsqwe R ; don ec S. entas: Gigantes R S . 75 gereord(a): lingua R S . 77 pa pa: quando S. toferdon: dinerterunt R ; dispersi fyrlenum: longinquis R S . 80 wolice: iwiuste R ; inique S. 81 forsawon: despeexerw/zt R. 82 wurJ?odon: adorabant R ; adorarent S. M E : 71 witum: pine R. 78 wurdon: weren R. 72-81 [Partially suggested by De Correctione Rusticorum, § 6] Post diluvium iterum recuperatum est genus humanum per tres filios Noe, reservatos cum uxoribus suis. Et cum coepisset multitudo subcrescens mundum implere, obliviscentes iterum homines Creatorem mundi, Deum, coeperunt, dimisso Creatore, colere creaturas. 82-98 [Ibid.] Alii adorabant solem, alii lunam vel stellas, alii ignem, alii aquam

XXI

DE F A L S I S D I I S

68i

pa sunnan and pone monan, for heora scinendan beorhtnysse, and him lac offrodan, and forletan heora Scyppend. Sume menn eac sædon be pam scínendum steorrum

85

pæt hi godas wæron, and wurpodan hy [georne]. Sume hi gelyfdon on fýr for his færlicum bryne, sume eac on wæter, and wurðodan hi [for godas]; sume on pa eorpan, for pon pe heo ealle ping afet. A c hi mihton tocnawan, gif hi cuðan pæt gescéad,

90

pæt se is ána G od pe hi ealle gesceop, us mannum to bryce, for his micclan gódnysse. þas gesceafta doð swa swa hym gedihte heora Scyppend, and ne magon naht don butan Drihtnes willan, for pan pe nan scyppend nis butan se á[n] soða God,

95

and we hine wurðiað mid gewissum geleafan, cwepende mid muðe and mid modes incundnysse pæt se is ana G od pe ealle ping ges[c]eop. G it pa, pa hæpenan noldan beon gehealdene on swa feawum godum, ac fengon to wurðianne

100

mislice éntas and men him to godum, 83 -nyssæ L. 84 ofrodon L. forlætan S. 85 scynendum W; scinendan C. steorran C S . 86 godes C. georne] sic C L S W (T ); for godas R. 87 gelefdon C . færlican C. 88 for godas] sic L S W ; for godes C ; georne R ; second half of line om. (T). 89 sume] cap. R \ suma C. 90 tocnawon L. 92 brice C L S W (T ). 93 hyra W. sceppend C. 95 pon S . buto C. an] sic C L S W ; ana R(T). 96 geleafon S. 97 cwæþende W; cweðenne C. 98 se] he L. þincg W. gesceop] sic C L S W ; geseop R ; gescop (T ). 99 Ke(mble) begins here, printing from W. J?a, pa] pa Un (wrongly), (T ). 100 wurðigenne C L S W \ wurðienne (T).

Glosses in R and S , Latin: 86, 88 wurþodan, wurðodan: adorabant R . 89 afet: pascit jR. 90 gescead: rat/onem S. 92 bryce: usui R ; vsum S. 95 scyppend: creator R. 96 wurðiað: adoramns R, gewissum: certa R S . 97 m odes: mantis S. (mid) incundnysse: intencione R ; zntime S . 99 pa pa: quando (!) S. gehealdene: pacati R S ; contenti R ; obseruati (/) S. 100 fengon: inceperant R. wurðianne: adorare R. 101 mislice: diuersos, varios R. entas: Gigantes S. men: homines S. godum: diis R.

profundam vel fontes aquarum, credentes haec omnia non a Deo esse facta ad usum hominum, sed ipsa, ex se orta, deos esse. [Ælfric adds the earth in line 89 and greatly modifies the expression of the idea in 90-98.] 101-3 [In De Corr. Rust. § 7 the devil and his subordinates deceive men into worshipping them by assuming the names of criminals: imponentes sibi vocabula sceleratorum hominum, qui in omnibus criminibus et sceleribus suam egerant vitam, ut alius Iovem, etc.]

68z

DE F A L S I S DIIS

XXI

þa þe mihtige wæron on woruldlicum geþincðum, and egefulle on life, þeah pe hy [leofodon] fúllice. A n man wæs eardiende on þam ílande Creta, Saturnus geháten, swiðlic and wælhreow,

105

swa þæt he abát hys suna, þa þa hí geborene wæron, *and unfæderlice macode heora flæsc him to mete. He læfde swaþeah ænne to l[i]fe,

*p. 146

þeah þe he abite his gebroðra on ær; se wæs Iouis geháten, hetol and þrymlic.

no

He [afligde] his fæder of þam foresædan iglande, and wolde hine acwellan, gif he him come tó. Se Iouis wæs swa swiðe gál, þæt he on hys swustor gewifode; seo wæs geháten luno, swiðe healic gyden. 102 pa þe] pa J?a L. worold- L. ge)?ingðum L S . 103 leofodon] sic C S W ; lifodon L ; gelyfdon R. 104 Here begins the passage excerpted in X ky f . 238v. eardigende L S W \ eardigenne C ; eardgynde X k. iglande C L W (T )\ eglande S ; iglonde X k. cretæ X k. 105 wælreow S. 106 suna] sunus C L ; sunan S. J?a pa] sona swa X k. geborena L. 107 mæte W. 108 swaþeah ænne] anne swaþeah X k. enne C. to] him to S . life] sic C L S W X k( T ); lafe R . 109 om. X k. gebroðra] broðre L ; broðra ( T). 11 o J>rymlic] grimlic and eac þrymlic X k; )?wyrlic S ; for half-line, se wæs hetol feond (T). See note. h i afligde] sic C L S W X k\ aflymde R (T). pam foresædan iglande] Cretan X k. eglande S. 112 acwelle L. come to] to come X k. 113 Se] om. swa swiðe gal] ormæte gal ésne swa X k. swiðe] om. W. hys] his agenre X k(T). swuster C L X k\ swyster (T). gewifede W; tallice gewifode 1 14 seo] se W (em. to seo UnKe). gehaten Iuno] Iuno gehaten X k.

x k.

Glosses in R and S y Latin: 102 pa þe: illos quos (/) R ; illos qui S. geþingðum: bono, elat/one S. 103 egefulle: terribiles R S. gelyfdon: viuebawt R. leofodon: vixerunt S. 104 eglande: iwsula S. 105 swiðlic: uehemews RS. wælhreow (wælreow S ): atrox R ; valde crwdelis S. 106 abat: eomedii R. suna: filios R. hi: illi S. 107 unfæderlice: orphanos (/) R. n o hetol: odiosus, prauus R\ exosus )?rymlic (?): prauus (uncertainly placed in margin) R. Jrwyrlic: prauus S. i n aflymde (afligde): fugauit R S. 113 gal: libidinosus R S ; lasciuus S. 114 gyden: dea R S. M E : 102 geþincðum: gode R.

105-12 [ This introductory account of Saturn and Jove has no counterpart in De Corr. Rust., in zvhich § 7 describes Jove first as below, and Saturn later, betiveen Mercury and Venus] Alius quoque dæmon Saturni sibi nomen adscriptit, qui, in omni crudelitate vivens, etiam nascentes suos filios devorabat. I I 3~I7 [De Corr. Rust. § 7] U t alius Iovem se esse diceret, qui fuerat magus et in tantis adulteriis incestus, ut sororem suam haberet uxorem, quae dicta est Iuno, Minervam vero et Venerem, filias suas, corruperit, neptes quoque et omnem parentelam suam turpiter incestaverit.

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DE F A L S I S DI I S

Heora (ge)dohtra wæron Minerua and Uénus. J>a forlæg se fæder fu(l)lice buta,

ns

and manega his magan ma[n]lice gewemde. þas mánfullan menn wæron þa mæroston godas þe þa hæþenan wurðodan, and worhton him to godum; ac se sunu wæs swaþeah swiðor gewurðod

120

þonne se fæder wære on heora fulan bigeng[e]. þes Iouis is arwurðust ealra þæra goda J>e þa hæþenan hæfdon on heora gedwylde; and he hatte þór betwux sumum þeodum, þone þa Deniscan leoda lufiað swiðost. His sunu hatte Mars, se macede æfre saca,

125

and wrohte and wáwan he wolde æfre styria[n]. þisne wurðodan þa hæðenan for healicne god, and swa oft swa hi fyrdadon, oððe to gefeohte woldan, þonne offrodon hi heora lac on ær þisum god[e].

130

115 gedohtra] sic 5 IF; ge- erased R ; dohtra C L X k; twa dohtra ( T). wæron] wæron gehaten S. Minerua] K e em. to Diana. See note. Uenus] uena altered to uenus {or conversely) R. 116 -17 om• (T.) 116 fullice] sic C L W X k; first 1erased R ; fulice S (fullice em. K l). butu Ke. 117 magon S. manlice L W ; manlice and drædlice X k; manfullice R C S . gewæmde C X k (M f gevæde, overlooking abbrev.); forwemde Ke. 118-21 om. X k. 118 maerostan C L W (T ); merestan S. 119 heþenan S. heom C. 120 swidor C. 121 on . . . bigenge] om. (T ) fule C. biggencge W; bigæncge C ; biggænge S ; bigenge L\ bigengum R. 122 is] wæs X k. ærwurðost C ; arwurþost L W (T ); awurðost S (ar- K l); se arweorðesta X k. eallra S. 122-3 ealra . . . hæfdon] god X k. 123 gedwilde S. 124-5 betwux . . . swiðost] om. X k. 125 J?ane K e {wrongly), leoda] om. S .; leode Ke. 126 suna X k. macode C L S W { T ); makode X k. saca ]sace and wrace X k; gewinn {T) (but cf. T at 127). 127 wrohte] worhte S . and wawan] om. X k\ and saca and wraca (T ). he wolde aefre styrian] astyrode X k\ he styrede gelome (T ). styrian] sic C S W ; styrigan L ; styrian gefeoht R. 128-32 om. X k 129 hi] he K e (wrongly). 130 offrode L. gode] sic C L S W ; gedwolgode (T ); godum R. Glosses in R and S yLatin: 116 buta: ambas S . 117 magan: parentes R S. manfullice: neqw/ter R ; inique S. gewemde: violau/i, macwlauzi, suadebat (i.e. gewémde) R ; ccmtaminauzi, inficiebat S. 118 manfullan: iniqui R. 121 bigengum, biggaenge: cultu R S . 122 J?es: iste R S. arwurðust venera­ bilior R S . 123 gedwylde: errore R S. 124 hatte: vocatur S. þeodum: Gente R S . 125 J?one: illum S. 126 saca: contentiones S. 127 wrohte (worhte): iurgia R S ; scandala R. wawan: ve (as if for wa or walawa) R. styrian gefeoht: mouere prelium R. 128 healicne god: summo deo S. 129 fyrdedon: itinerauen/nt S. (oððe) to gefeohte wol­ dan: vel preliabant R ; pungnauernnt S. 130 on aer: ante R. M E : 129 fyrdadon: wolden faren, and in margin ferdeden R. 126-7 [De Corr. Rust. § 7] Alius autem daemon Martem se nominavit, qui fuit litigiorum et discordiae commissor.

684

DE F A L S I S D I I S

xxt

Hi gelyfdon þæt he mihte micclum him [fjultumian on þam gefeohte, for þam þe he gefeoht lufode. Sum man wæs gehaten Mercurius on life, se wæs swiðe facenfull and swicol on dædum, and lufode eac stala and leasbregdnyssa. þone macodan J?a hæþenan him to mæran gode,

135

and æt wega gelætum him lac offrodan, and to heagum *beorgum him brohtan onsæg[ed]nysse. Ð es god wæs [a]rwyrðe betwyx eallum hæþenum, and he is Óðon geháten oðrum naman on Denise. N u secgað þa Deniscan on heora gedwylde

*p. 147 140

þæt se Iouis wære, þe hi þór hátað, Mercuries sunu, þe hi Oðon hatað; ac hi nabbað na riht, for þam þe we rædað on bocum, ge on hæþenum ge on Cristenum, þæt se hetola Iouis

14s

to soðan wære Saturnes sunu, 131 gelifdon C. fultumian] sic C L S W (T )\ gefultumian R. 133 Sum . . . life] Mercurius hatte heora an god X k. mærcurius C. 134 fakenX k. 135 eac] om. x k. 135-9 and leasbregdnyssa . . . hæþenum] om. X k. 135 -bregdnyssa] -bred- CSW \ -bræd- L ; -nysse C L W ; -nesse S. 137 wega gelætum] wegelætum C ; wega gelætan L. geoffrodon L. 138 beorhgum L. onsæged-] sic W (onsægd- K e)yL \ onsægd- S ; onseged- C ; onsæg- R ; ( T) substitutes oft mistlice loflac. 139 arwurða W (arwurðe em. Uri) ; arwurðe C L S ( T ) ; ærwyrðe R. betwux C L S W (T ). hædenum L. 140 and he] þes X k. is] om. S. oðen X k. oðrum . . . denisc] om. X k. naman] followed by gehat, markedfor deletion C ; mannum L. dænisc C. 141 -9 om. C L W X k; complete only in R S ; first six lines in T, for which all variants are given. 141 pa deniscan] sume pa denisce men T. gedwilde S. 142 hy T. 143 hatað] namiað T. 144 ðan T. 145 hetula T. 146 wære] is T. Glosses in R and S , Latin: 132 gefeoht: preliura R. 134 facenfull: dolosus, fraudulentas R S. 135 leasbregdnyssa: lasciuiam ve\ petulantiam R ; the same uninflected S. 136 þo n e: illu/rc R S. 137 wega gelætum: exitas viarum R. 138 beorgum: montibws R S y collibws S. onsæg(d)nysse: sacrificium R S y victimam R. 139 Des: iste R S. ærwyrðe (arwurðe): uenerabilis R S. 140 gehaten: vocatar S. oðrum: alio 141 ge­ dwylde: errore R. 142 hi: illi R. 145 first ge: eciam R S . hetola: exosus R. 146 to soðan: vere R.

x33~7 \De Corr. Rust. § 7] Alius deinde dæmon Mercurium se appellare voluit, qui fuit omnis furti et fraudis dolosus inventor; cui homines cupidi quasi deo lucri, in quadriviis transeuntes, iactatis lapidibus acervos petrarum pro sacrificio reddunt. 138 [Earlier in same paragraph, but not with reference to Mercury, there is mention of sacrificia in excelsis montibus. See note.]

XXI

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68s

and J?a béc ne magon beon awægede pe þa ealdan hæðenan be him awriton þuss; and eac on martira þrowungum we gemetað swa awriten. Sum w if hatte Uen[us], seo wæs Ioues dohter,

150

swa fracod on galnysse þæt hire fæder hi hæfde, and eac hire broðor, and oðre gehwylce, on myltestrena wísan; ac hi wurðiað þa hæþenan for [halige] gydenan, swa swa heora godes dohter. Manega oþre god[a]s wæron mislice afundene,

155

and eac swilce gydenan, on swiðlicum wurðmynte geond ealne middaneard, manncynne to forwyrde; ac þas synd þa fyrmestan, þeah ðe hi fú(l)lice leofodan. Se syrwienda deofol, þe swicað embe mancyn, 147-9 om. T. 147 awægde S. 148 heþænan S. 150 Sum . . . dohter] Seo uenus þe wæs Iouis dohtor wæs X k. Sum] Sum man S , followed directly by mid godre gebysnunge, line 6456, probably because of lost leaves in an ancestral M S . uenus C L W X k(T); uena on leden, past is on denisc fricga R (1cf. 177). seo] ðe L. iouis C. dohtor C W X k(T)\ doKf L. 15 1 fraced L ; wracod C. 152 broðor] End of excerpts in X kywhich adds: N u mæg her manna gehwilc gehyran hwet þas swæmas wæron þe hæþene weorþodon and ure yldran him to gebædon: gode lof pæt we þas ne kunnan and pæt heora gemýnd is adilegod. 153 myltustrena L. 154 halige] sic C L W ; healice R (T). See note, dohtor C I V ; doht L. 155 Monega Ke. godas] sic C L W ( T ) ; godes R. afundenæ C. 156 -licum] -lice C. wurðmunte L. 157 -eard] -geard Ke. 158 formestan C. fullice C L W ; first 1 erased and accent added R ; fúlice (T ). 159 syrwigenda CL W . Glosses in R and S, Latin: 147 awægede: mutati R ; commoti R S. 148 þ e : qui (for quos) S. 149 þrowungum: passione S. Hereafter until 645b S has nothing; all glosses 150-6450 from R. 150 on leden (added in R): latino. 150 marg. vena, frica. (Both M S S . have names of gods and other topics in margin; ordinarily of no interest and not reported.) 151 fracod: fragilis. 153 myltes­ trena: meretnci. 154, 156 gydenan: dee. 156 swilce: tales, swiðlicum: vehementi. 157 forwyrde: damnatzowe. 159 syrwienda: insidiator. swicað: decipú, fraudatnr. I 5°“ 3 \ Þ e Corr. Rust. § 7] Alius etiam daemon Venerem se esse confinxit, quæ fuit mulier meretrix. Non solum cum innumerabilibus adulteris, sed etiam cum patre suo, love, et cum fratre suo, Marte, meretricata est. 155-8 [Not directly stated in De Corr. Rust.] 159-65 [In the Latin it has been stated at the beginning that the devil and his subordinate demons have taken the names of wicked men and women in order to mislead mankind. JElfric has omitted thisy but recalls it partially in producing his own version of the opening of § 8] Ecce tales fuerunt illo tempore isti perditi homines, quos ignorantes rustici per adinventiones suas pessimas honorabant, quorum vocabula ideo sibi daemones adposuerunt, ut ipsos quasi deos colerent et sacrificia illis offerrent et ipsorum facta imitarentur, quorum nomina invoca­ bant. C 2710.2

O

686

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FALSIS

DIIS

XXI

gebrohte þa hæþenan on þæt healice gedwyld, 160 þæt hi swa fúle menn him fundon to godum, J?e J?a leahtras lufodan, þe liciað þam deofle, þæt eac heora biggengan heora bysmor lufodan, and ælfremede wurdan fram J?am ælmihtigan Gode, se ðe leahtras onscunað, and lufað þa clænnysse. 165 Hi gesettan eac þa þære sunnan and þam monan, and þam oðrum godum, ælcum his dæg: ærest þære sunnan þone Sunnandæg, and syððan þam monan þone Monandæg; and þone þriddan dæg #hi þeowdan Marte, *p. 148 heora feoht[e]-gode, him to fultume. 171 þone feorþan dæg hi sealdan, him to frofre, þam foresædan Mercurie, heora mæran gode. þone fiftan dæg hi freolsodan mærlice, Ioue to wyrðmynte, þam mærestan gode. 175 Done sixtan dæg hi gesetton þære sceamleasan gydenan Uen[us] gehaten, and Fric[g] on Denise, þone seofoðan dæg hi sealdan Saturne þam ealdan, þæra goda fæder, him sylfum to frofre, endenexð swaþeah, þeah he yldost wære. 180 161 fundon to godum] to godum gecuran ( T ). End of Wulf'staris revision of ÆlfricyHis brief conclusion is independent. 163 bigenegan C ; biggenegan Ke. bismær C. 164 ælfre'mæ'de L . wurdor (/) C 165 leahtres C. 166 þæra W (þære em. Un\ ðære K e)t L. þam] þa W , K e (þam em. Un). 168 þonæ G. sunandæg C. 170 ðridan L. þeodon L. 171 feohte] sic C L W (feohtegode as one word Un); feohta R. See note. 172 feorðan] feorðe C. 173 mercuriæ W (Mercurie Ke); mærcurie C ; mercurige L. 175 wurð- CW . -mente C. mærostan W. 176 syxtan K e . scamW (sceam- K e)t C. 177 uenus C L W ; uena R. fricg C L ; frycg W; friege R. 178 seofanðan L. 180 endenext L. þeah] þeah þe W. yldest W . Glosses in R f Latin: 160 healice: pradpuo, suwmo. gedwyld: errore. 163 biggengan: cultores. 164 ælfremede: alieni. onscunað: abominatt/r. 166 Marginal heading: De iwstitutzowe dierum. 167 godum: deos. 170 þeowdan: seruienmt. 171 feohta gode: prdiatore. 174 freolsodan: celebrabant. 176 sceam­ leasan: impudica (sic). gydenan: dee. 180 endenexð: vltimwí. M E : 164 wurdan: weren.

1 62 leahtras: cnmina. 165 leahtras: cnmina.

166-80 [Partly from De Corr. Rust. § £] Homines infideles . . . Deum habent iratum et non ex toto corde in fide Christi credunt, sed sunt dubii in tantum ut nomina ipsa daemoniorum in singulos dies nominent, et appellent diem Martis et Mercurii et Iovis et Veneris et Saturni, qui nullum diem fecerunt, sed fuerunt homines pessimi et scelerati in gente Graecorum.

XXI

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DIIS

687

Hi woldan [g]it wurðian arwurðlicor þa godas, and forgeafon him steorran, swilce hi ahton heora geweald: þa syfan tunglan, sunnan and monan, and þa oðre fíf, þe farað æfre ongean þone róder to eastdæle werd,

185

ac hi gebigð seo heofon underbæc æfre.

A c þa steorran swaþeah scinon on heofonum on frymþe middaneardes, ær þa mánfullan godas wurdon acennede, oððe gecorene to godum. Hi worhtan eac anlicnyssa þam arwurþum godum, 190 sume of smætum golde, and þa asmeadan mid cræfte, sume of hwitum seolfre, sume eac of stanum, sume of mislicum antimbre, be þam þe heora mihta wæron; and him hús arærdon, p æ t hi heton tempel, and þarinne gelogodan heora leofan godas

195

mid leade gebundene, and [gebædon hi] þarto. J>a gesawon pa deoflu, þe hi beswicon on ær, 181 git] sic C W ; gyt L ; þagit R . 183 seofon C W ; seofan L. 184 þe] J?a W. 185 rodor L W ; roðer C. wærd C ; weard L. 186 seo] sic R C L W ; se em. Un. See note. undær- C. 189 wurdon acennede] acennede wurdon C. 190 onlicnissa C. arwurðan C. 191 smætum] last word f . 240v in W, cet. desunt (Ke supplies golde to complete the phrase). 193 sume] sume eac C. 194 tempi C L . 195 godas] godes C. 196 gebædon hi] sic C L ; hi gebædon R. 197 deofla L. Glosses in R yLatin: 181 git: adhuc. 182 swilce: qwasi. 183 syfan tunglan: vii. planete (marg.) 185 roder: firmamentum. 187 scinon: lucebawt. 188 manfullan: iwiqui. 189 acennede: nati. gecorene: electi. 190 anlicnyssa: simulacra. arwurþum: pio (sic). 191 þa: illa. 193 antimbre: materia; in marg.y metallo, matera (szc). be þam þe: pro ut, 194 heton: vocabant. 195 gelogodan: posuerant, composuerunt. 196 leade: plumbo. 197 þa: tunc. M E : 186 gebigð: tumð, drauh (?). 189 wurdon: weren. 181-6 [Cf. Bedey De Temporum Ratione, V III] Verum gentiles cum observa­ tionem a populo Israhel hebdomadis ediscerent, mox hanc in laudem suorum deflexere deorum, . . . eisdem utique monstris suos dies, quibus et errantia sidera consecrantes. [Bedey De Natura Rerumy X I I ] Inter caelum terramque septem sidera pendent. .. quae vocantur errantia, contrarium mundo agentia cursum, id est, laevum, illo semper in dextram praecipiti. [See note.] 190-6 [De Corr. Rust. § 8] Suaserunt etiam illis daemones, ut templa illis facerent et imagines vel statuas sceleratorum hominum ibi ponerent et aras illis constituerent. 197-201 [Isidore, Etym. V I I I ycap. xi] Simulacrorum usus exortus est, cum ex desiderio mortuorum constituerentur imagines vel effigies, tanquam in caelum receptis: pro quibus se in terris daemones colendos supposuerunt, et sibi sacri­ ficari a deceptis et perditis persuaserunt.

688

DE

FALSIS

xxi

DIIS

þa fægran anlicnyssfa], and flugon þarto, and þurh þa anlicnyssa spræcon to þam earmum mannum, and hi swa forlæddon mid heora leasungum,

200

and to hellicum suslum heora sawla gebrohtan. Smiðas hi worhtan sm[e]alice mid cræfte,

and oft gesealdon *þa sylfrenan godas,

*p. 149

sumne to maran wurðe, be þam þe he gemacod wæs, sumne eac waclicor, be þam þe his wurð wæs.

205

A nd swa lange swa he slóh þone samworhtan god, and mid his græfseaxe holode hetelice þa eagan, ne stód him nan ege for þære anlicnysse; ac þonne heo geworht wæs, he wurðode hi for god. W e rædað on þære béc þe is Liber Regum geháten

210

þæt þa hæðenan Philistei fuhton gelome wið þæt Israhela folc, þe ana þa gelyfde on þone ælmihtigan God, on Abrahames wisan. þa on sumne sæl gelamp hit for heora synnum, swaþeah, þæt þa hæþenan fuhton on þam folce sige,

215

and arcam Dom ini gelæhtan— þæt is Drihtnes serin, on þam serine [wæs] gehealden se heofonlica mete, and Áárones gyrd, þæs æreston bisceopes, and Moyses tabulan, J?e on þam munte wæron 198 fægeran C L . -nyssa] sic C L ; -nysse R. 200 hi swa] swa hi L . leasungara (or -aw ?) C. 201 suslum] pine L. sawle L. 202 Smiðos C. smealice] sic C L ; smalice R. 207 -sexe C L. hetelice pa eagan] his eagan hetelice C. 208 for] of C. 210 rædeð C. bee] boc L. 212 þe] þa C. gelefdon C 213 abrames L. 214 synnan C. 215 hæþenan] om. L. fuhton] gefuhton C {rightly?). sigæ C. 216 gelahton C. 217 on] O n L. wæs] sic C L ; om. R. gehealdon C. heofenlice L. 218 ærestan CL. bisceopas C. Glosses in R , Latin: 200 forlæddon: decepen/zzt. 201 suslum: supplicio. 202 smalice: subtiliter. 204 wurðe: precio, 205 waclicor: vilius. wurð: precium. 209 wurðode: adorabat, 212 pe: que. 214 on sumne sæl: aliqwa vice. 215 sige: victoriam. 217 gehealden: seruatwr, hut in marg.y custodiebant. 218 gyrd: virga. M E : 200 forlæddon: bicherden. 206 samworhtan: halfmak[ede], ending cut off by hinder. 214-16 [I Reg. {I Sam.) iv. i o yj j ] Pugnaverunt ergo Philisthiim, et cæsus est Israel, . . . et ceciderunt de Israel triginta millia peditum. Et arca Dei capta est. 217-20 [Heb. ix. 4] . . . et arcam testamenti circumtectam ex omni parte auro, in qua urna aurea habens manna {Ex. xvi. 33) et virga Aaron quæ fronduerat {Num. xvii. io ) f et tabulae testamenti {II Par. vi. 1 1 ; Deut. x. 2; Ex. xxv. 1 6 , xl. 18).

XXI

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DIIS

mid Godes fingre awritene, his folce to láre.

689 220

þ a ferodon pa hæþenan þæt foresaede serin mid þam heofonlican haligdome ham to heora temple, and settan hit pa arwurðlice up to heora gode, se god hatte Dagón, þam hæþenum swyðe dyre. Eft pa on ærnemergen, pa pa hy inn eodan, pa fundon hi heora god on þære flore liegende

225

ætforan þam Godes serine, swylce he friðes bæde. Hi hofan eft pa Dagón to þam Drihtnes serine, þær þær he ær stód, and stopan him þanon. Coman pa eft on mergen, and cunnodan hu hit wære; pa wæs Dagones heafod æt þære dura forcorfen,

230

and his twa handbreda ahéawene æt þam þerrscwalde, and Dagón læg heafodleas ætforan pam [halgan] serine, for pam #þe hit ne gedafenode þære deofollican anlicnysse #p. 150 pæt heo wið þæt halige serin swa healice stode. 235

þa sende G od sona mid graman to þære leode 220 fringre L. folce] folc C. 222 heofen- C. 223 þa] om. L. godæ C. 224 se] and pe L. heðenura C. dyre] leof C. 225 -morgæn C ; -morgen L . eodan] eodon (eoden C) to pam temple C L . 226 flore] flora C. liegende] liegan C L . 228 eft] om. L . eft pa] ða eft C. 230 morgen C. 2 3 iw æ s]þ æ sC . 232 aheawene] aheawen C L . þrexwolde C L . 233 hal­ gan] sic C L ; om. R. 234 gedafnode L ; geðafnode C. deoflican C L {rightly ?). 235 halige] halig C. 236 sænde C. Glosses in R , Latin: 222 haligdome: sanctuario. 223 arwurðlice: honorifice. 224 dyre: carus. 228 pa: tunc. 229 stopan: ibawt. 230 cunnodan: probauerunt. 232 handbreda: palme. þerrscwalde: limite. 234 gedafenode: decuit. 235 wið: iuxta. 236 leode: Gente. M E : 221 ferodon: berren, beren. 227 friðes: treoucas. 221-33 [I Reg. v. J-5] Philisthiim autem tulerunt arcam Dei, et asportaverunt eam . . . in Azotum . . . et intulerunt eam in templum Dagon, et statuerunt eam iuxta Dagon. Cumque surrexissent diluculo Azotii altera die, ecce Dagon iacebat pronus in terra ante arcam Domini; et tulerunt Dagon, et restituerunt eum in locum suum. Rursumque mane die altera consurgentes, invenerunt Dagon iacentem super faciem suam in terra coram arca Dom ini; caput autem Dagon, et duae palmae manuum eius abscissae erant super limen; porro Dagon solus truncus remanserat in loco suo. . . . 236-48 [Ibid. 6-9, 12] Aggravata est autem manus Domini super Azotios, et demolitus est eos. . . . Et ebullierunt villae et agri in medio regionis illius, et nati sunt mures, et facta est confusio mortis magnae in civitate. Videntes autem viri Azotii huiuscemodi plagam, dixerunt: Non maneat arca Dei Israel apud nos. . . . Et mittentes congregaverunt omnes satrapas Philisthinorum ad se, et dixe­ runt: Quid faciemus de arca Dei Israel? Responderuntque Gethaei: Circum­ ducatur arca Dei Israel. [Their five cities {line 243) are enumerated at vii. i j . ]

690

DE

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XXI

færlicne manncwealm, and pa Philisteos acwealde, for þam þe hi hæfdon pæt halige scrín pær on heora hæþenscipe, swylce hy hit habban woldon. Him comon eac mýs tó, manega geond þæt land,

240

and heora æceras aweston, and þone eard fordydon. Ð a gecwædon þa landleodan pæt hi lædan woldan

pæt Godes serin him fram, geond [heora] fif burga, fram scire to scire, þæt se cwealm geswice. Hi ferodan pa pæt scrín geond pa íif burga,

245

and swa hwar swa hit becóm, swa [com] se cwealm sóna and mid færlicum deaðe pa Philistheos acwealde, and hi earmlice hrymdon for þam reþan deaþe. Hi axodan pa heora witan hwæt him wislicost þuhte, hu him to donne wære embe pæt halige scrín,

250

hwæðer hi hit hám asendon, oððe hi hit hæfdon þar leng. Ð a andwyrdon pa witan þam axiendan þuss: G if ge pæt halige scrín hám sendan wyllað, ne sende ge hit na æmtig, ac arwurðlice mid lacum. Foð nu togædere of eower fif burgum,

255

and wyrcað Gode to lace fif gyldene hringas 237 pa] om. L. 239 heore C. heðen- C. 240 Heom C. eac mys to] to eac mys C . 242 gecweVdon C. -leodan] -leoda C L . 243 heora] sic C L ; pa R. 246 com] sic C L ; om. R. faerlicum] pam færlicum L. philisteos C L . 249 witan] wysan witan L. 250 donna L. 251 asendon] sendon C L . læng C. 252 am/werdon L . axiendum C ; axigendum L. 253 sændan C ; sendon L. 255 togadere L. eower] eowrum C L . 256 gildene L.

Glosses in R , Latin: 239 þær: ibi. 240 mys: mures. geond: per. 241 aweston: exterminabawt. fordydon: damnabant. 242 landleodan: incoli. 243 geond: per. 244 geswice: cessaret. 245 geond: per. 248 reþan: cmdeli. 249 witan: sapientes. 252 witan: sapientes. 253» 254 ge: vos. 254 aemtig: vacuus. arwurðlice: honorifice.

Et circumduxerunt arcam Dei Israel. Illis autem circumducentibus eam, fiebat manus Domini per singulas civitates interfectionis magnae nimis. . . . Fiebat . . . pavor mortis in singulis urbibus, . . . et ascendebat ululatus uniuscuiusque civitatis in caelum. 249-58 [/ Reg. vi. 2-5] Et vocaverunt Philisthiim sacerdotes et divinos, dicentes: Quid faciemus de arca Domini? Indicate nobis quomodo remittamus eam in locum suum. Qui dixerunt: Si remittitis arcam Dei Israel, nolite dimittere eam vacuam, sed quod debetis reddite ei pro peccato. . . . Iuxta numerum provinciarum Philisthinorum quinque anos aureos facietis, et quinque mures aureos, quia plaga una fuit omnibus vobis, et satrapis vestris. . . .

XXI

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691

and fif gyldene mys, pæt se grama geswice, for pam pe eow eallum wæs an wite gemæne. W yrcað eac ænne wæn wurðlice to þam serine, and ane níwe cæpsan eowrum lacum to fætelse,

260

and nimað twá geonge cý, þe under iuce ne cómon, þæt hi pæt halige serin ham ferian magon mid þam gyldenum lacum pe ge Gode geoffriað, and healdað pa cealfas æt hám getígede; þonne mage ge tocnawan, gyf pa cy willað gán forð on *þone weg fram heora cealfum,

265 #p. 151

þæt hit Godes yrre wæs þe éow swa geswencte. G if hi þonne gan nellað mid þæs Godes scríne heonon, þonne mage ge tocnawan pæt se cwealm næs forþi, þurh Godes yrre, ac gelamp elles.

270

Hwæt, pa Philistei pa fengon to pam ræde, and geworhton fif hringas of heora fif burhgum, and fif gyldene mys, and macodan þone wæn mid ealre þære fare, and geforþodan þæt serin.

þa eodan pa iungan cý, geiucode to þam wæne, 258 eallon C. altered to iuce R. 265 maga L. 269 magon C. 274 þæra C.

275

260 niwæ C. 261 iunge C L . iuce] sic C L ; guce 262 ferigan L. 264 getigede] sic C L ; i altered to e R. 267 geswæncte C. 268 heonen C ; henon L. 271 fiengon (/) C. z'-jz burgum C L . 273 güldene C. 275 geongan C.

Glosses in R , Latin: 257 mys: mures. 258 wite: pena. 259 wæn: currum. 260 cæpsan: hespetecam. fætelse: vase. 261 cy: vaccas, iuce: iugo. 263, 265 ge: vos. 265 cy: vacce. 267 wæs: fuit, ge­ swencte: fatigau/i. 268 heonon: inde. 269 ge: vos. 270 elles: alia de causa. 273 wæn: currum. 275 wæne: curru. M E : 259 wæn: wein. 273 wæn: wein. 275 geiucode: i3eokede, Í3okede. 259-70 [Ibid. 7-9] Et facite plaustrum novum unum; et duas vaccas fetas, quibus non est impositum iugum, iungite in plaustro, et recludite vitulos earum domi. Tolletisque arcam Domini, et ponetis in plaustro, et vasa aurea, quæ exsolvistis ei pro delicto, ponetis in capsellam ad latus eius, et dimittite eam ut vadat. Et aspicietis: et siquidem per viam finium suorum ascenderit contra Bethsames, ipse fecit nobis hoc malum grande; sin autem minime, sciemus quia nequaquam manus eius tetigit nos, sed casu accidit. 271-8 1 [Ibid. 10 -12 ] Fecerunt ergo illi hoc modo; et tollentes duas vaccas, quae lactabant vitulos, iunxerunt ad plaustrum, vitulosque earum concluserunt domi, et posuerunt arcam Dei super plaustrum, et capsellam, quae habebat mures aureos et similitudines anorum. Ibant autem in directum vaccae per viam quae ducit Bethsames, et itinere uno gradiebantur, pergentes et mugientes, et non declinabant neque ad dexteram neque ad sinistram; sed et satrapae Philisthiim sequebantur usque ad terminos Bethsames.

692

DE

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XXI

to Israhela lande, hlowende swiðe æfter heora cealfum, and ne gecyrdon swapeah of pan rihtan wege, swilce hi gewittige wæron. And pa Philistei folgodan pam wæne to Israhela lande, and forleton hit par; 280 and se manncwealm geswác pa, and pæra músa gedrecednyss. Israhel eac pa beah anmodlice to Gode, and God hi pa geheold wið ða hæpenan leoda, and him sige forgeaf, pæt hi slogon heora fynd, and on sibbe wunodan on Samuheles dæge.

285

Hér we magon tocnáwan be pam hæðenum godum, hwilce mihte hi hæfdon ongean pone ælmihtigan God. Hi ne synd na godas, ac synd gramlice deofla, sawla bepæcendras and synna ordfruman, pe heora biggengan gebringað into pam bradan fýre

290

hellicre cwylminge, panon hi ne cumað næfre. U s is eac fulcuð be pam prim cnihtum on Chaldea rice, pe se cyning awearp into byrnendum ófne, for pam pe hi ne bugon to his godum fram pam ælmihtigan Gode, pe ealle ping gescéop. 295 God hi eac ahredde wið ðone gramlican cyning, swa pæt heora fex furpon on pam fyre næs forswæled, ac eodan him singende on pam swegendan lige, hergende heora Drihten, and ungederode purhwunodan. 278 pan] pam L. 281 gedrecced- L. 283 leode C. 284 him] hým (!) L . 285 samueles L. 286 tocnawon L. 288 godes C. deofle C. 290 bigængas C ; bigengas L. 292 prym L. 293 cyning] cyning nabugodonosor L. 294 bugon] gebugon L. 297 heora fex furpon] furðon heora feox C. feax L. 297-8 on þam fyre næs . . . on þam] næs on J?am, cet. om. (homœoteleuton) C. 299 herigende L. Glosses in R t Latin: 278 gewittige: sensati. 281 musa gedrecednyss: murium tnbulaUo. 282 beah: conuertit. anmodlice: vnanimiter. 283 geheold: custodiebat. leoda: Gente. 284 sige: victoriam. 285 sibbe: pace. 289 bepæcendras: deceptores. 290 biggengan: cultores. 291 cwylminge: supplicio. 294 ofne: clibano, camino, bugon: conuerterunt. 297 fur)?on: eciam. 299 ungederode: illesi. M E : 284 fyn d: feond. 282-5 [/ Reg. vii. 4, 1 3 y 14] Abstulerunt ergo filii Israel Baalim et Astaroth, et servierunt Domino soli. . . . Et humiliati sunt Philisthiim; . . . facta est itaque manus Domini super Philisthæos, cunctis diebus Samuelis. . . . Liberavitque Israel de manu Philisthinorum, eratque pax inter Israel et Amorrhæum. 292-9 [A free epitome of Dan. m, including the Prayer of Azarias and the Song of the Three Children, Vulgate verses 24-90.]

XXI

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DIIS

* 0 n þam ilcan lande wæs pa se witega Danihel, Godes heahþegen, haliges lifes mann.

#p. 152 301

pa on Daries dagum gedemdon his witan þæt binnan þrittigum dagum ne bæde nan mann nane bene æt Gode, butan æt þam cyninge, and woldan swa besyrwan þone unscyldigan Danihel, for J?on þe he wæs swyðe dyre Darige þam cinge.

305

D a dyde se witega swa swa his gewuna wæs, eode into his upflore, and feoll þær on cneowum, and gebæd hyne to Gode, gebigedum [limum], oðþæt þa hæþenan coman, þe his cepton georne.

310

Hi wregdon pa Danihel to Darige þam cinge, 300 Here begins excerpt in G, ff. 44v~48v> Wa(rner) pp. 38/4-41/22. þam ilcan lande] þære ilcan burh Babilonie þe we embe specað G. ylcan C L . þa] on daries dagen G. wytege G. daniel C G L (a very frequent spelling in C G L ; not noted hereafter). 301 hehðeign G. 30z þa] þa eft L. on Daries dagum] om. G. his] J?a G. wyten G. 302-3 gedemdon . . . dagum] om. C. 303 þrittigum dagum] þrittig dagen G. nan mann] om. L. 305 besyrwian C. 306 dúre L ; dere G. cyninge C L ; cynge G. 308 -flora L. fei C. þær] þære G. 309 gebegedum C ; 'on7 gebegden G. limum] sic C L ; lymen G ; cneowum 'vel limum' {original scribe) R. 310 his cepton] sic R C G L ; hiscewton Wa. 311 wreigdon G. cyninge C L ; cynge G. Glosses in R y Latin: 302 witan: sapientes. 306 dyre: cams. 308 upflore: solio. 310 oðþæ t: donec. cepton: id est exputabant. M E : 305 unscyldigan: ungulti.

305 besyrwan: insidiare. 309 gebigedum: flexis. 3 11 wregdon: accusabant.

302-6 [Dan. v. 3 1 y vi. 4 -7 ] Et Darius Medus successit in regnum. . . . Porro rex cogitabat constituere [Danielem] super omne regnum; unde principes et satrapae quaerebant occasionem ut invenirent Danieli ex latere regis; nullamque causam et suspicionem reperire potuerunt, eo quod fidelis esset__ T u n c ... locuti sunt [regi]: Dari rex, . . . consilium inierunt omnes principes . . . ut decretum imperatorium exeat. . .: U t omnis qui petierit aliquam petitionem a quocumque deo et homine, usque ad triginta dies, nisi a te, rex, mittatur in lacum leonum. 307-10 [Ibid. i o y j j ] Quod cum Daniel comperisset, id est, constitutam legem, ingressus est domum suam; et . . . in coenaculo suo . . . flectebat genua sua, et adorabat, confitebaturque coram Deo suo, sicut et ante facere consue­ verat. Viri ergo illi curiosius inquirentes, invenerunt Danielem orantem et obsecrantem Deum suum. 3 11-2 2 [Ibid. 1 2 - 1 8 ] Et accedentes locuti sunt regi super edicto: Rex, numquid non constituisti ut omnis homo qui rogaret quemquam de diis et homini­ bus . . . nisi te, rex, mitteretur in lacum leonum ? . . . Daniel . . . non curavit de lege tua et de edicto quod constituisti, sed tribus temporibus per diem orat obsecratione sua. Quod verbum cum audisset rex, satis contristatus est; et pro Daniele posuit cor ut liberaret eum, et usque ad occasum solis laborabat ut erueret illum. Viri autem illi . . . dixerunt ei: Scito, rex, . . . quia . . . omne

694

DE

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XXI

sædon þæt he forsáwe heora ealra gesetnysse, and woldon hine besceofan into þæra leona seaþe. [Ða swanc se cyning swiðe oð æfen, wolde ðone witegan bewerian wið hi. A c ða ða he ne mihte na leng, ða let he hine niman

315

and wurpan þam leonum þe lagon on þam seaðe.]

þ a cwæð Darius se cyning to Danihele þam witegan, Ð in God þe þu wurðast wile þe ahreddan. A nd he þa geinseglade wiðutan þone seað,

320

and wearð swa sárig þæt he slapon ne mihte on ealræ þære nihte, ne he ætes ne gymde. Darius þa se cining on dægred arás, eode to þam seaðe, and sarlice clypode,

Danihel, þu Godes mann, mihte la þin God

325

wið ða leon J?e gehealdan ? And he andwyrde sona,

þu leofa cining, leofa þu on écnysse; min G od me äsende to sona his engel, and he þæra leona muð beleac mid his bendum, 312 forsawe] forsege G. eaTre L ; eallre G. -nyssaL. 313 besceo­ fan] bescufen G. 3 14 -17 om. R ; text from C, emendedfrom L . 314 cyng G L. oð æfen] sic G L ; ofhæfen C. See note. 315 bewerigan L. hi] heom G. 316 læng G. 317 leonum] sic L ; leonan C. þe] þa L. on] inne G. second þam] sic L ; ðan C G . 319 wyle GL. 320 -seglode C L , -segelode G. 321 slæpan C ; slapan L ; slæpen G. 322 ealre C G L . ðæræ C. gemde G. 323 cyning C ; cyng G L. dæigred G. 324 eode] and eode G L. 325 mihte] om. L. 326 andwyrde] andwerde L ; andswarede þa G. 327 cyning C L ; cyng G. second leofa] lifa L. 328 asænde C ; sænde G. 329 ðære C G L . leone C G . Glosses in R , Latin: 312 forsawe: contemsit. gesetnysse: statuta, institu­ tionem. 313 seape: lacu; in margin, lacum. 320 geinseglade: singnauit. seað: lacum. 322 gymde: gustauit. 323 daegred: aurora. 324 seaðe: lacum. 325 mihte: potuit. 326 gehealdan: saluare. 327 second leofa: viue. decretum quod constituerit rex, non liceat immutari. Tu n c rex praecepit, et adduxerunt Danielem, et miserunt eum in lacum leonum. Dixitque rex Danieli: Deus tuus, quem colis semper, ipse liberabit te. Allatusque est lapis unus, et positus est super os laci, quem obsignavit rex annulo suo. . . . Et abiit rex in domum suam, et dormivit incoenatus; cibique non sunt allati coram eo, insuper et somnus recessit ab eo. 323-32 [Dan. vi. ig -2 2 ] Tunc rex primo diluculo consurgens, festinus ad lacum leonum perrexit; appropinquansque lacui, Danielem voce lacrymabili inclamavit, et affatus est eum: Daniel, serve Dei viventis, Deus tuus, . . . putasne valuit te liberare a leonibus? Et Daniel regi respondens, ait: Rex, in aeternum vive! Deus meus misit angelum suum, et conclusit ora leonum, et non nocuerunt mihi, quia coram eo iustitia inventa est in m e; sed et coram te, rex, delictum non feci.

XXI

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[þæt] heora nan ne mihte minum limum derian,

330

for þan þe on me is afunden ætforan Gode rihtwisnyss, and ic wið ðe, cyning, ne worhte nanne gylt. Se cyning pa sóna swiðe þæs fægnode, and het up atéon ardlice Danihel, and pa in [a]wurpan þe hine wregdon ær.

335

H i wurdan pa gebrohte mid bearnum and wifum, and into þam seaðe sona aworpene, and pa leon hi gelæhton, and heora lima totæron, ær þam þe hi furðan moston feallan adúne. D a sende se cyning sona ænne pistol

340

geond *ealle his leoda, and hi luflice grette,

#p. 153

þisum wordum awritene: Ic wille þæt min folc on eallum minum rice anmodlice buge to Daniheles Gode, and hine ondrædon. He is se lifigenda God, and éce on weorulde,

34s

and his rice ne bið towórpen on ecnysse. 330 pæt] sic C G L ; 7 R. minum limum] mine leome G. 331 ætforan gode rihtwisnyss] rihtwisnyss ætforan gode L. ætforen C G . -nysse G. 332 nænne C G L . 335 awurpan] sic C L ; awurpen G ; wurpan R. wrægdon C ; wreigdon G. 336 Hi] and hi C. 338 lima] lymen G. 339 Entire line replaced by: mid grimme toðen ær heo on grund feollan G. furðon C ; forðon L. 341 leode C G . 342 awritenne C. 343 eallum] altered from ealle R ; ealle G. minum] mine L ; minre G. 344 ondrædon] ondræde L {grammatically correct). 345 is] his C. lyfigenda C. worulde CL. 346 on ecnysse] næfre G. Glosses in R, Latin: 333 fægnode: exultami. 334 ardlice: mox. 335 pa: illos. 336 bearnum: filiis. 337 seaðe: lacum. 338 gelæhton: appr^henden/nt. 339 furðan: eciam. feallan: cadere. adune: deorsum. 343 buge: conuertat. 344 ondrædon: metuant. 346 toworpen: de­ structum. M E : 336 wurdan: weren. 346 toworpen: destrut (or meant for destruc­ tum, as in marg.?). 333-9 [Ibid. 23, 24] Tu n c vehementer rex gavisus est super eo et Danielem præcepit educi de lacu. . . . Iubente rege, adducti sunt viri illi, qui accusaverant Danielem, et in lacum leonum missi sunt, ipsi, et filii, et uxores eorum; et non pervenerunt usque ad pavimentum laci, donec arriperent eos leones, et omnia ossa eorum comminuerunt. 340-9 [Ibid. 25-27] Tu nc Darius rex scripsit universis populis . . .: Pax vobis multiplicetur! A me constitutum est decretum ut in universo imperio et regno meo, tremiscant et paveant Deum Danielis; ipse est enim Deus vivens, et aeternus in saecula; et regnum eius non dissipabitur, et potestas eius usque in aeternum. Ipse liberator, atque salvator, faciens signa, et mirabilia in caelo et in terra, qui liberavit Danielem de lacu leonum.

696

DE

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XXI

He is soð Alysend, and tacna Wyrcend on heofonum and on eorðan, se ðe heold Danihel wið þa reþan déór, þæt hi him derian ne mihton. Danihel leofode pa swiðe leof þam cyninge,

35°

oðþæt Cyrus cyning to þam cynedóme feng, and Danihel wearð pa þæs cyninges gedrinca, and he hine arwurðode ofer ealle his þegnas. p a wæs on Babilone, þære micclan byrig, þæra hæþenra god, se wæs geháten Bél, 355 and hine man dæghwamlice fedde mid feowertigum sceapum, and him man win sealde, six sestras to þam dæge, and twelf sestras melues to his metsunge. Se cyning hine wurðode, and cóm ælce dæge hine to gebiddanne to Bél þam gode ;

360

and Danihel se snotra forseah pone Bel, and gebæd hyne aefre to þam ælmihtigan Gode. D a axode se cyning on anum dæge Danihel, Hwi nelt þu þe gebiddan to Béle þam gode ? p a andwerde Danihel anrædlice þam cyninge,

365

347 alesend G. wyrcenda L ; wyrecende G. 348 heold] geheold G. 349 ræðan C. 350 leofode . . . leof þam cyninge] lufode . . . þonc cyng L . 353 arwurððode C. his þegnas] þegnas his C. 354 þæra C. 355 þære CG. 356 feowertig G. after sceapum] and mid feower hryðerum L . 358 melues] melwæs C ; meluwes L ; melewes G. 359 dæge] dæg C L (rightly ?). 360 to] to 'to' (false correction in margin) G. gebiddenne C L . bei R C L ; bele G ; cf. 364. 361 snotera G; snotere G L. forseh G. 363 point after dæge G ; see note. 365 andwyrde C ; andswarode G. Glosses in R } Latin: 347 tacna wyrcend: siwgna faciens. 348 heold: saluami. 349 reþan: cn/delis. 351 oðþæt: donee. 352 gedrinca: pincerna (repeated in margin). 353 arwurðode: honorauit. 355 þæra: eorum. 358 melues: farine. 361 snotra: pradens. forseah: despicit (for despexit?). 362 gebæd: adorauii. 365 anrædlice: constanter. 350-1 [Dan. vi. 28] Porro Daniel perseveravit usque ad regnum Darii, regnum­ que Cyri Persæ. 352-3 [Dan. xiv. J] Erat autem Daniel conviva regis, et honoratus super omnes amicos eius. 354-62 [Ibid. 2, 3] Erat quoque idolum apud Babylonios nomine Bel; et im­ pendebantur in eo per dies singulos similæ artabæ duodecim, et oves quadraginta, vinique amphoræ sex. Rex quoque colebat eum, et ibat per singulos dies adorare eum. Porro Daniel adorabat Deum suum. 363-9 [Ibid. 3, 4] Dixitque ei rex: Quare non adoras Bei? Qui respondens ait ei: Quia non colo idola manufacta, sed viventem Deum, qui creavit caelum et terram, et habet potestatem omnis carnis.

XXI

DE FALSIS DIIS

697

Ic nelle wurðian þa geworhtan godas, ac ic gelyfe on þone lyfigendan God, se þe heofonas and eorþan and ealle þing gesceop, and hæfð þone anwald ealles flæsces. Ð a andwyrde se cyning eft þam witegan,

370

N e þinc[ð] þe, la, Danihel, þæt þes deorwyrða Bél sy lifiende g[o]d, nu he lyfað be mettum, and dæghwamlice drincð þæt we him dóð to láce? Ð a [cwæð] Danihel, N e dwela þu, cyning; þes god is æren wiðútan agóten, and læmen wiðinnan, and ne lyfað be mettum,

375

ne he næfre ne [æ]t oð ðisne and*wyrdan dæg.

*p. 154

J?a geswearc se cyning sona on mode, and hét þa biggengan þe Béle þeowdan cuman to his spræce, and cwæð him þuss tó:

380

Buton ge me secgan þæt pæt soð is be pisum, hwa pas mettas picge pe we maciað Béle, ealle ge sceolan sweltan, gif ic gesund beo. 366 wurðigean L. 367 geleue C ; gelefe G. 368 þing] gesceaften G. 369 anweald C L . 370 andwyrde] andswerede G. 371 Ne] Hwu G. þincð] sie G L\ þinc R C . -wurða C L ; -wurðe G. 372 sy] ne sy G. lyfigende C ; lifigenda L ; leofigende G. god] sic C G L , gód R . nu he lyfað] N e lyfeð he G. leofað C ; lifað L . metum L ; mete G. 373 dæghwom- L . laca G . 374 cwæð] sic C G L \ andwyrde R . þu] þu la G. 375 wiðutan] and wiðutan C . 376 lamen {altered from læmen?) C. leofað C ; lifað L. metum C L \ mete G. 377 æt] sic C G L ; yt R . -werdan C ; -weardan L. 379 biggengan] bigencgas C L \ biggengas G. þeowdon C L ; þeowwedon G. 381 þæt þæt] pæt G. ðyssum L ; þyssen G. 382 metas L. machigeð G. 383 swyltan L. Glosses in R> Latin: 369 flæsces: carnis. 372, 376 lyfað: viuzí. mettum: cibis. 374 ne dwela: ne erres. 375 þes: iste. æren: æeneus (sie). 376 læmen: laminews. 377 yt: comedit. oð: donec. andwyrdan: presenti. 378 geswearc: suspirauzí (/). 379 biggengan: cultores, þeowdan: ministrabant. 381, 383 ge: vos. 382 þicge: sumit. 383 ge­ sund: incolumis, sospes. 370-7 [Ibid, 5, 6] Et dixit rex ad eum: Non videtur tibi esse Bei vivens deus? A n non vides quanta comedat et bibat quotidie? Et ait Daniel arridens: Ne erres, rex; iste enim intrinsecus luteus est, et forinsecus aereus, neque comedit aliquando. 378-880 [Ibid. 7, 8] Et iratus rex vocavit sacerdotes eius, et ait eis: Nisi dixeritis mihi quis est qui comedat impensas has, moriemini. Si autem osten­ deritis quoniam Bei comedat haec, morietur Daniel, quia blasphemavit in Bei. E t dixit Daniel regi: Fiat iuxta verbum tuum.

698

DE

FALSIS

DIIS

XXI

G if ge þonne æteowiað þæt he ytt þas mettas,

þonne sceal Daniel sweltan deaðe,

385

se þe tælde Bél and to bysmore hæfde. Ð a cwæð Danihel to þam cyninge þ u s: Stande þin word, cyning. And hi stopon to þam temple.

þ æ r wæron hundseofantig þara sacerda ealra, þe þeowdon Bele on his biggengum simie.

390

p a cwædon hi ealle anmodlice to þam cinge, W e gað nu ealle út ætforan þe, cyning, and sete þu sylf pa sanda him beforan, and beluc þa duru, gyf J?u us ne gelyfst, and geinsegla pa locu mid þinum agenum hringe,

395

and þonne þu on ærnemergen in gæst and sceawast, gif þás lac ne beoð bebrocene þurh Bél, beo hit ure lifleast; and gif Bel hi geytt, swelte þonne Danihel, p t swa hyne hyrwde. Hi eodan pa ealle út ætforan þam cyninge,

400

and he sylf gelogode pa lác ætforan B él; and Danihel het syftan on þæs cyninges gesihthe 384 ytt] ett G. metas L. 385 swyltan L. 386 bismore C ; bisemære G. 388 cyning] followed by incomplete e R. 389 þæra C L . 390 bigencgum L ; bigencge C ; bigengen G. 391 cyninge C L ; cynge G. 393 Þu] þe G. sande GL. 394 gelefst G. 395 locu] dure G. age­ num] om. G. hrincge C ; ringe G. 396 þone C. -morgen C L ; -morgan G. sceawast] gesceawast L. 397 þas] þa G. bebrocene] gebrucene G. 398 lifleast] lifleaste G. geyt C. 399 swylte L. hyrwde] hyrewede G. 400 ealla C. 401 béle L. 402 gesihðe C G L . Glosses in R y Latin: 384 ge: vos æteowiað: ostendatis. mettas: cibos. 386tælde: vituperauit. 389 þara: eorum (over ealra by mistake). 390 big­ gengum: cultus. 392 We gað: imws. 395 locu: claustra. 399 hyrwde: blasfemauit, vituperauzi; with marginal hirwde: irritauzi. 401 gelogode: posuit. M E : 402 syftan: siften. 3886-99 [Dan. xiv. Q -i 1] Erant autem sacerdotes Bel septuaginta. . . . Et venit rex cum Daniele in templum Bel. Et dixerunt sacerdotes Bel: Ecce nos egredimur foras; et tu, rex, pone escas, et vinum misce; et claude ostium, et signa annulo tuo; et cum ingressus fueris mane, nisi inveneris omnia comesta a Bei, morte moriemur, vel Daniel qui mentitus est adversum nos. . . . 400-10 [Ibid. JJ, 14] Factum est igitur postquam egressi sunt illi, rex posuit cibos ante Bei; praecepit Daniel pueris suis, et attulerunt cinerem, et cribravit per totum templum coram rege; et ingressi clauserunt ostium et signantes annulo regis abierunt. Sacerdotes autem egressi sunt nocte iuxta consuetudinem suam, [12 . . . quia fecerant sub mensa absconditum introitum,] et uxores et filii eorum, et comederunt omnia, et biberunt.

XXI

DE

FALSIS

DIIS

699

axon geond pa flore, þæt he eft mihte tocnáwan hwá on pa flor stópe þe onfenge þæs metes; and se cyning pa [gejinseglode ardlice pa dúru.

405

Hwæt, pa sacerdas pa, mid cildum and wifum, eodan into ðam temple under þære eorðan, ealle on þære nihte, and æton þone mete, swa swa heora gewuna wæs, and pæt win eal druncon, and Bél heora god ne abát þær[a] lác[a]. *E ft pa on ærnemergen eode se cyning

410 #p. 155

mid Danihele to þam temple, and pa duru sceawode;

pa stód heo swa geinseglod swa swa hi hi on æfen forleton. Hi geopenodan pa duru and in besáwon. þ a clypode se cyning, and cwæð to þære anlicnysse,

415

Mære eart þu, Bél, and mid þe nis nan facn. D a hloh Danihel, and gel[et]te þone cyning,

pæ t he in ne eode, and axode hine þuss: Hwæt þincð þe, la cyning ? hwæþer þú mage tocnáwan hwæs fotlæsta J?u geseo on þissere flore astapene ?

420

þ a beheold se cyning, and cwæð to Danihele, 403 axan C L ; axen G. þa flore] þa flor C ; da flor L ; þone flor G. 403-4 pæt . . . stope] added by original scribe of C, who first skipped þ æ t . . . flor and wrote stowe for stope. 404 psi] pone C G . 405 ge-] sic C G L ; om. R. 406 cildum and wifum] wifen and cilden G. cildrum L. 407 under þære eorðan] om. L . under] urder C. 409 druncen L ; druncan G. 410 Bel] be C. þæra laca] þære lac R ; þære lace C L ; pære lacan G. See note. 411 þa] om. G. -morgen L ; -moregan G. after cyning] to L . 413 hi hi] hi hig C. 414 besawon] besegan G. 416 þu] þu la G. facn] facne G. 417 gelette] sic C G L ; gelæhte R. 419 þincð] þinc L. mage] muge G. tocnawan] gecnawen G. 420 hwæs] hwæ't' G. þissere] ð ysre L ; þyssen G. flora C. astapene] gestapone G. Glosses in R t Latin: 403 axon: cineres. 404 pe onfenge: qui acceperunt. 405 ardlice: mox. 410 ne abat: non comedit. 412 sceawode: vidit. 413 geinseglod: singnata. hi hi: illi eam. on æfen: vespere. 414 in besawon: introspexerunt. 415 anlicnysse: simulacro. 416 facn: dolus, fraus. 417 hloh: risit. 420 fotlæsta: vestigium.

411-20 [Ibid. 1 5 - 1 8 ] Surrexit autem rex primo diluculo, et Daniel cum eo. Et ait rex: Salvane sunt signacula, Daniel ? Qui respondit: Salva, rex. Statimque cum aperuisset ostium, intuitus rex mensam, exclamavit voce magna: Magnus es, Bel, et non apud te dolus quisquam. Et risit Daniel, et tenuit regem ne in­ grederetur intro, et dixit: Ecce pavimentum; animadverte cuius vestigia sint hæc. 421-31 [Ibid. 1 9 - 2 1 ] Et dixit rex: Video vestigia virorum, et mulierum et infantium. Et iratus est rex. Tu n c apprehendit sacerdotes, . . . et ostenderunt ei abscondita ostiola per quæ ingrediebantur, et consumebant quæ erant super

700

DE

FALSIS

DIIS

XXI

Ic geseo on þisum axum ealdra manna stapas, wifa and cilda. And he wear]? ða yrre. He het pa gelæccan pa leasan sacerdos, and hi pa unþances æteowdon him pa duru

425

under þære flore, par hi inn eodan, and þone mete þigdon pe wæs gemynt þam gode. D a het se cynin[g] sóna ofslean hi ealle, and betæhte þone god to Daniheles dome.

þ a tobræc Danihel Bél þone g[o]d,

430

and towearp his tempel unwurðlice eall.

þ a wæs on þære byrig gewunod an draca, and pa Babiloniscan bæron him mete, and hine for god wurðodan, þeah þe he wyrm wære. Ð a cwæð se cyning sume dæg to Danihele þuss: Ne miht þu nu cweþan þæt þes ne sy cucu god;

435

gebide þe to him, þeah þe þu to Bele noldest.

þ a andwyrde Danihel [ðus eaðelice þam cyninge]: Ic gebidde me æfre to þam ælmihtigon Gode, se þe is lyfigende G od; and gif þu me leafe sylst,

440

ic ofslea þisne dracan buton swurde and stafe. 422 axum] axe L. 423 cildra C L ; cildre G. wearþ] gewearð G. yrre] urre L ; eorre G. 424 sacerdas C L ; sacerdes G. 426 þære] ðæra L ; þan G. flore] flora C L . þar] þær C ; þære G. 427 þigdon] þycgden G. goden G. 428 cyning] sic C L ; cynin jR ; cyng G. 430 god] sic G L ; gód R C . 431 tempi C. 433 babyloniscan C. bæron him mete] him mete bæron G. 434 þeah þe] þeh G. wurm C L ; wyrem G. 435 dæg] dæige G. 436 cweðen C. cucu] cwice G. 437 þeah þe] þeh G. 438 andwyrde] andwerde L ; andswarode G. ðus eaðelice þam cyninge L, C (þan), G (þuss eðelice þan cynge); þam cininge þus eaðelice R. 439 ælmihtigan C L ; ælmihtigen G. 440 leafe] geleafe G. Glosses in R f Latin: 422 ealdra: senion/ra. 424 leasan: falsos. 425 æteowdon: ostendebawt. 427 þigdon: sumserwnt. 429 þone: illum. 431 towearp: destruxit. 432 draca: Draco (margin as heading). 434 wurðodan: adorabant. 436 cucu god: uiuus deus. 437 gebide þe to him: adora eum. 439 gebidde: adoro. M E : 427 þigdon: eten. mensam. Occidit ergo illos rex, et tradidit Bel in potestatem Danielis, qui sub­ vertit eum et templum eius. 432-41 [Dan. xiv. 22-25] Et erat draco magnus in loco illo, et colebant eum Babylonii. Et dixit rex Danieli: Ecce nunc non potes dicere quia iste non sit Deus vivens; adora ergo eum. Dixitque Daniel: Dominum Deum meum adoro, quia ipse est Deus vivens; iste autem non est Deus vivens. T u autem, rex, da mihi potestatem, et interficiam draconem absque gladio et fuste.

xxt

DE F A L S I S D I I S

701

Ð a cwæð Cyrus se cyning þæt he cunnian moste gif he butan wæpnum *mihte þone wurm acwellan. Danihel pa worhte þam dracan þas lác: he nam pic and rysel, and punode togædere,

#p. 156

44s

and mid byrstum gemengde, and berode to welerum, and seað hi swiðe, and sealde þam dracan. Ð a tobærst he sóna swa he abát þæs metes, and Danihel cwæð pa to þæs dracan biggengum, N u ge magon geseon hwæne ge swa wurðodan.

450

p a wurdon geæbyligde pa Babiloniscan þearle, and cómon to pam cyninge, and cwædon mid graman, J?es ælþeodega Danihel hæfð þinne anwald genumen; he is cyning geworden; he acwealde þone dracan, and urne Bél he towéarp, and his biggengan he ofsloh; betæce hine nú us, elles we þe ofsleað.

455

D a ne mihte se cyning wiðcweðan him eallum, ac betæhte þone witegan þam witle[a]sum folce, 442 cunnian moste] moste cunnian L. 443 wyrm G . 445 pich G. rysl C L ; hrysel G. togadere L. 446 byrston L ; byrsten G. gemængde G. berede C G . welruzn L ; weleren G. 449 cwæd C. bigencgum C ; bigewgum L ; boggengan G. 450 magon] mugen G. hwæne] hwan G. 451 wurðen G. geæbyligde] gebolgene G. 452 cwæðen C G . 453 ælðeodiga C L ; ælðeodige G. danihiel L . andweald C ; anweald GL. 455 bigencgas C ; bigengas L ; biggenges G. second he] om. C L . 456 betæce] Betæh G. 457 wiðcweðen C. heom C G . 458 witleasum] sic C L ; witlease G ; witlesum R.

Glosses in R yLatin: 442 cunnian: probare. 445 rysel: adipem vel pingue­ dinem. 449 biggengum: cultoribwi. 450 ge: vos {twice). hwæne: quem. 451 geæbyligde: indingnati. J?earle: valde. 453 þes: iste, ælþeodega: alienigena. 455 towearp: destruxit. biggengan: cultores. 456 betæce: tradite. elles: sin autem. 458 witlesum: furioso, insensato. M E : 446 byrstum: burstles. welerum: balles.

442-50 [Ibid. 25, 26] Et ait rex: Do tibi. Tulit ergo Daniel picem, et adipem, et pilos; et coxit pariter, fecitque massas, et dedit in os draconis; et diruptus est draco. Et dixit: Ecce quem colebatis. 451-63 [Ibid. 2 7 -3 j ] Quod cum audissent Babylonii, indignati sunt vehemen­ ter; et congregati adversum regem, dixerunt: Iudæus factus est rex; Bei destruxit, draconem interfecit, et sacerdotes occidit. Et dixerunt, cum venissent ad regem: Trade nobis Danielem, alioquin interficiemus te et domum tuam. Vidit ergo rex quod irruerent in eum vehementer, et necessitate compulsus, tradidit eis Danielem. Qui miserunt eum in lacum leonum; et erat ibi diebus sex. Porro in lacu erant leones septem, et dabantur eis duo corpora quotidie, et duæ oves; et tunc non data sunt eis, ut devorarent Danielem. C 2710.2

p

702

DE F A L S I S D I I S

XXI

and hi hine wurpan in to þam wilderon,

par wæron syfon leon, and he par six dagas wunode.

460

Æ lce dæge man sealde ærþan þam leonum twa scéap to bigleofan and twegen leapas oð ðæt; ac him næs pa nan geseald, pæt hi tosliton Danihel.

þ a wæs on Iudea lande an geleafful witega, Abbacuc gehaten, se hæfde rifteras

465

abedene to his corne, and bær him heora mete. Him corn pa fleogende tó færlice Godes engel, and hét beran þone mete to Babilonian hr ape, and syllan Danihele, þe sæt on pam pytte. Ð a cwæð se Abbacúc to pam engle puss:

47°

La, léof, ic ne geseah pa burh pe pu segst ne ic nát pone seað, ne embe secgan ne gehyrde.

þ a gelæhte se engel Abbacúc be pam feaxe, and bær hine swiftlice to pære foresædan byrig and to pær[a] leona seaðe, swiðe swiftum flyhte. Ð a clypode Abbacúc to pam oprum witegan,

475

459 wurpon C ; worpon L ; wurepan G. wildeorum C L ; wildeoran G. 460 syfan C ; seofan L ; seofon G. syx L. six dagas wunode] wunede six dages G. 461 dæge] dæg C L ; dæig G. 462 twa . . . oð ðæt] twa hry]?era and twa seap L. sceap] scæp C ; seep G. 463 heom G. naes] wæs L. nan] om. C G . nan . . . danihel] oftogen ælces fodan syx dagas, pæt hi þone godes mann abitan sceoldan L. 465 Abacuc C ; abachuc G (not noted hereafter). rifteras] riperes G. 466 heom G. 467 fleohgende L ; fligende G. 470 se] om. L. 471 geseh G. þe þu segst] næfre L. segst] 'emb' sæigst G. 474 swyft- C. 475 þæra] sic L ; þære R C G . swiðe] om. L. swyftum C. flihte C G L .

Glosses in R> Latin: 462 bigleofan: victui. 463 tosliton: deuorarewt. 464 an: unus. 465 rifteras: messores. 468 hraþe: cito. 469 pytte: lacu. 472 seað: lacum. embe: circa. 473 gelæhte: apprehendit. 475 seaðe: lacu?«.

464-72 [Dan. xiv. 32-3 4] Erat autem Habacuc propheta in Iudaea; et ipse coxerat pulmentum, et intriverat panes in alveolo, et ibat in campum ut ferret messori­ bus. Dixitque angelus Domini ad Habacuc: Fer prandium quod habes in Baby­ lonem Danieli, qui est in lacu leonum. Et dixit Habacuc: Domine, Babylonem non vidi, et lacum nescio. 473-83 [Ibid. 35-38] Et apprehendit eum angelus Domini in vertice eius, et portavit eum capillo capitis sui, posuitque eum in Babylone, supra lacum, in impetu spiritus sui. Et clamavit Habacuc, dicens: Daniel, serve Dei, tolle pran­ dium quod misit tibi Deus. Et ait Daniel: Recordatus es mei, Deus, et non dereliquisti diligentes te. Surgensque Daniel comedit. Porro angelus Domini restituit Habacuc confestim in loco suo.

XXI

DE F A L S I S DI I S

703

D u Godes mann Danihel, nim þisne mete þe to

pe *þe G od sende. And he sona andwyrde,

*p. 157

Eala þu min G[o]d, þu wære min gemyndig, and þu ne forlætst þa þe lufiað þe.

480

A nd he [æ]t sona of þære Godes sande, and se engel ardlice eft Abbacúc ferode to his lande ongean ofer swiðe langne weg. E ft pa on þone seofoðan dæg eode se cyning sarig to þam seaðe, and beseah into.

485

J>a efne saet Danihel ansund betwux J?am deorum. þa clypode se cyning, and cwæð þuss to Gode: Eala þu Drihten G od J?e Danihel on belyfð, mycel eart þu and mihtig. And he het his menn sona upp ateon Danihel of þæra deora seaðe.

490

He het þa in [ajwurpan þe hine ær forwregdon, and hi wurdon abitene on anre beorhthwile ætforan þam cyninge fram þam frecum deorum. Feala we mihton secgan be swilcum leasum godum, hu bysmorfulle hi wæron and heora biggengon tihton

495

to eallum fracodnyssum, and to endeleasum morðdædum; and se wæs þam godum dyrost pe dyde mæste fylðe. 478 sænde G. andwyrde] andswarode G. 479 god sic C G L ; gód R . 480 forlæst L. 481 æt] sic L, e(a)t (?) R ; æt þa C G . 482 ængel C G . hardlice C. 485 beseh G. 487 clypod L. þuss to Gode] to gode þuss G. 488 belefð G. 490 þæra] ðære C G . deora] leona L. 491 awurpan] sic C L \ awurepen G ; wurpan R . þe] þa þe G {rightly?). 492 beorhthwile] bearhtmhwíle L. 493 fran C. 494 Fela C L ; Feale G. 495 hu] and hwu G. bismer- C ; bisemær- G. bigengas C L ; biggengas G. 496 fracod-] fraced- L ; frac- C. morðdædum] morðdæden G. End of excerpt in G, lohich adds an independent close: mancyn dwylden, oððæt se hælend crist to þyssen life becom {cf. 498). 497 mæste] mæst L . fylðe] fulnesse C L . Glosses in R t Latin: 477 nim: tolle. þe to: tibi. 480 þa: eos. 481 et: comedit. 482 ardlice: mox. ferode: ferebat. 485, 490 seaðe: lacum. 486 efne: ecce. ansund: incolumis. 491 þe {instead of pa): eos. 492 beorhthwile: momento. 493 frecum: auidos {sic). 495 big­ gengon: cultores, tihton: ortabant, suadebant. 496 fracodnyssum: fragi­ litate, pericnlo. morðdædum: morticino. M E : 492 wurdon: weren. 484-93 [Ibid. J9-4J] Venit ergo rex die septimo ut lugeret Danielem; et venit ad lacum, et introspexit, et ecce Daniel sedens in medio leonum. Et exclamavit voce magna rex, dicens: Magnus es, Domine Deus Danielis. Et extraxit eum de lacu leonum. Porro illos qui perditionis eius causa fuerant, intromisit in lacum; et devorati sunt in momento coram eo.

704

DE F A L S I S DIIS

XXI

Hwæt pa ure Hælend Crist com to þisse weorulde

on þære sixtan ylde, and he soðfæstnysse tæhte, and mid manegum wundrum manna heortan onlihte, and geswutolade mid tacnum pstt he soð G od is,

5°°

þonne he of deaðe arás þurh his drihtenlican mihte, and to heofonum astáh ætforan hundtwelftigum mannum, wera and wifa, þe his gewitan wæron on eallum f»am wundrum pt he ætforan him geworhte.

505

G e habbað oft gehyred be þæs Hælendes wundrum, and be his halgan lare, and hu hold he is mancynne, J>am pt leahtras forseoð and lufiað heora Scyppend; for pan pt him [synd] swiðe laðe pa leahterfullan biggengan, for þan pt his gecynd *is þæt he clænnysse lufige.

#p. 158

Is eac nu for langsum to secganne hu his geleaffullan apostolas towurpon þon[n]e hæþengyld æfter þ[æs HJælendes upstige, and pa fracodan godas afligdon mid mihte of heora anlicnyssum par men on locodan. Ð a apostoli hi tobræcon, and heora biggengas towurpan; and pa gódan cyningas þe to Gode gebugon

515

heton mid ealle þa anlicnyssa tocwysan; and man worhte of þam godum góde cytelas and hweras, 498 ðissere C ; ðysre L. worulde C ; worolde L . 500 manna] man­ num (/) C. 501 geswutelode C L . 505 heom C. geworhte] worhte C L (rightly ?). 508 scypend L. 509 Entire line om. L . synd] synd altered to send C ; om. R , beoð inserted over line in the trembling hand, biggengas C. 510 den- C. 5 1 1 for] om. C L (rightly?). secgenne C ; secgænne L. -füllen C. 512 þonne] þone R C ; þon L ; see note. -gild C. ðæs hælendes C L ; þælendes R. 515-64 Entire passage om. C. 515 D a apostoli] þaposíoli L. bigengas L. 517 -nysse L.

Glosses in R , Latin: 501 tacnum: singnis. 504 gewitan: testes. 506 G e: vos. 508 pe leahtras forseoð: qui cnmina oontem^nuwt. 509 leahter­ fullan: cnminosos (s/c). biggengan: cultores. 510 gecynd: natwra. 5 1 1 for langsum: diutwrnum. 512 towurpon: destruxerwwt. hæþengyld: idolorum cultores. 513 fracodan: fragiles, afligdon: fugabant. 514 anlic­ nyssum: simulacris. 515 biggengas: cultores (but see note). towurpan: destruxerunt. 516 gebugon: conuerterunt. 517 tocwysan: conterere. M E : 518 cytelas: cheteles. hweras: hweres.

516-20 [C/. Hist. Eccl. Trip. ix. 27] Praeceperat imperator [Theodosius] ut studio Theophili in Alexandria paganorum templa destruerentur. . . . Idola siquidem deorum conflabantur ad faciendas ollas et Alexandrinae ecclesiae diversas utilitates.

XXI

DE F A L S I S DI I S

and mislice andluman of þam gemyltum [a]nlicnyssum, and notodan þæs áres, þe ær ynnytt wæs.

70S 520

O n Egypta lande on Alexandria-byrig, þe wæs heafodburh þa Egyptiscre þeode, wæs se fyrmesta god [þ]e pæt folc wurþode Seraphis gehaten, swiþe namcuð þa. Him wæs fram ealdum dagum aræred micel tempel mid wundorlicum cræfte, wurðlice gefadod,

525

and þæs anlicnyss wæs ænlice geworht of ælcum antimbre þe of eorþan cymð— of ælcum treowcynne, and of ælcum wecge, mid golde beworht and mid hwitum seolfre.

530

Seo anlicnyss wæs swiðe heah on lenge, manegra fæðma, of micclum antimbre geworht, and heo wæs swa brád betwux þam bigelsum gefæstnod

þæt heo mid twam handum þa twegen weallas geræhte, and [þæt] hús wæs swaþeah swiðe heah and wíd.

535

Heo wæs swiðe egeslic on to beseonne, 519 andluman] andlaman L. anlicnyssum L ; godum and anlicnyssum R. 520 notodan] notudon L. 522 heafodburh þa] þa heafodburh L (rightly?). 523 þe] sic L\ paste R. 524 serapis L. 524-5 þa. Him] • þa him R ; ða • him L. 525 arær/red (because of new line) L. tempi L. 526 gefadud L. 527 þæs anlicnyss] godes anlicnysse (/) L. 529 wecge] wecgum L. 531 længe L. 532 antimbre] timbre L . 533 betwyx L . 535 þæt] sic L ; om. R. Glosses in R , Latin: 519 mislice: varias. andluman: utensilia. godum (added in R): diis. 520 ares (marg. aeres): eris. 524 þa: tunc. 525 araered: erectum. 526 wurðlice: honorifice. gefadod: dispositum. 527 þæ s: eius. ænlice: singularity iocunde, amene, delectabiliter. 528 an­ timbre: metallo, materia. 529 wecge: lammina. 532 antimbre: matera (sic). 536 egeslic: terribilis. M E : 522 þeode: folke. 521-35 [RufinuSy Hist. Eccl. X I. 23] Serapis apud Alexandriam templum auditum quidem omnibus puto, plerisque vero etiam notum. . . . Ædes erat pretiosis edita columnis et marmoris saxo extrinsecus ample magnificeque con­ structa. In hac simulacrum Serapis ita erat vastum, ut dextera unum parietem, alterum laeva perstringeret, quod monstrum ex omnibus generibus metallorum lignorumque compositum ferebatur. . . . [Gold and silver are explicitly mentioned in the description of the inner walls of the temple, and the arched construction assumed in line 533 is attributed to the whole group of buildings of which the temple is the centre: cuncta . . . opere forniceo constructa.] 536-41 [Partly fro?n Rufinus, ibid.] Persuasio . . . quaedam ab ipsis gentilibus fuerat dispersa, quod, si humana manus simulacrum illud contigisset, terra dehiscens ilico solveretur in chaos caelumque repente rueret in praeceps. [Partly from Hist. Eccl. Trip. IX . 28] . . . simulacrum, quod magnitudine sua terrebat

706

DE F A L S I S DI I S

XXX

for hire micelnysse on menigfealdum cræfte, and pa Egy[p]tiscan leoda gelyfdon on þone god, and his biggengon sædon, gif him hwa abulge,

þæt seo heofon sona sceolde afe[a]llan,

540

and seo eorðe nyþan mid ealle toberstan. Eft pa pa se tima com on Theodosiges dagum

þæs æþelan caseres, þe ealle hét *tobrecan pa leasan godas mid micclum geleafan,

*p. 159

þa wearð eac tobrytt se arwyrða Seraphis. Hine mann sloh pa swiðe mid scearpre æxe,

545

ac he hit ne gefredde, for þam þe he wæs treowen, ne he nan word ne cwæð, for þam þe he cucu næs, ne seo heofon ne feoll, ne seo eorðe ne tobærst; ac man cearf ardlice him of pæt heafod. >ar wearð pa micel gamen þæt feala músa scutan

550

of pære anlicnysse, þa hire o[f] wæs þæt heafod, floccmælum yrnende geond þa widgillan flór, þæt men mihton tocnawan pæt þar wæs músa wunung,

and nan godcundnyss, [ne] godes geleafa.

555

537 cræfte] cræftum L . 538 egiptiscan L ; egyrptiscan R. 539 bigengan L. sædun L. him hwa] hwa him L. 540 afeallan] sic L ; afellan R . 542 theodosies L. 544 þa] last word onf. 184°, L ; cet. desunt (a quire gone). From 544 leasan to 564 incl., R is the sole authority. 552 of] ofe (of in margin, trembling hand) R. 555 ne] supplied by conj.; om. R. Glosses in R f Latin: 538 leoda: gentes. þone: illo. cultores. him: ei. hwa: quis. abulge: offenderet. cadere. 541 nyþan: deorsum. 543 æþelan: nobilis. fractum. arwyrða: venerabilis. 550 ardlice: mox. gamen: ludus. musa: mures. 553 widgillan: latam.

539 biggengon: 540 afellan: 545 tobrytt: con551 þa: tunc,

inspicientes. Ferebatur etiam sermo fallax, quia, si quis iuxta eum accederet, mox terra commoveretur et pestis cunctos invaderet. 542-5 [Ælfric's own transition, but cf. Hist. Eccl. Trip. IX . 27] Praeceperat imperator [Theodosius] ut studio Theophili in Alexandria paganorum templa destruerentur. Theophilus . . . templum . . . Serapis . . . subvertit. 546-50 [Partly from Hist. Eccl. Trip. IX . 28] Iussit [Theophilus] alicui habenti securem, ut Serapem forti percussione concideret. . . . Porro Serapis neque doluit, nempe ligneus, neque vocem emisit sicut exanimis. Cum vero eius abstulissent caput. . . . [Partly from Rufinus, loc. cit.] Unus ex militibus . . . correptam bipennem . . . maxillae veteratoris inlidit. Clamor adtollitur utro­ rumque populorum, neque tamen aut caelum ruit aut terra descendit. Inde iterum atque iterum repetens . . . [he cuts off the head and the pieces are burnt]. 551-5 [Hist. Eccl. Trip.y loc. cit.] Cum vero eius abstulissent caput, greges soricum exinde cucurrerunt; erat enim habitatio soricum Ægyptiorum deus.

XXI

DE F A L S I S DI I S

707

M an toheow pa sticmælum þone sceoccenan god, and mid langum rapum his lima toferode; his heafod hi drogon mid hospe geond pa burh, and his lima forbærndon, and þone búc æt nextan, to micelre wæfersyne tomiddes þam folce;

560

and pa Cristenan tobræcon, swa swa se casere hét, ealle pa ánlicnyssa þæra ærenra goda on Alexandria and on eallum burgum, and past ealde gedwyld wearð pa adwæsced. M an funde éác syððan under þam fulum weofodum cnapena heafda, þe man acwealde þær

565

þam godum to offrunge, and oðre fracodnyssa, swa þæt heora biggengan pa bysmorlican fylþa sceawian ne mihton, ofsceamode forþearle J>æt hi swa lange folgodon swa fulum hlafordum,

570

and gebugon pa to Gode, to his clænum biggengum. G it we willað secgan be sumum leasum gode, 565 Man funde] Here C resumes. weofodon C. 566 acwealde] acwealda C. 567 fracednysse C . 568 hyra C. biggengas C. bismor- G. 571 first to] om. C . biggencge C (rightly ?). $yz Get C. leasa C.

Glosses in R> Latin: 556 þ a : tunc sticmaelura: paulatb«. sceoccenan go d : liwgneum deum demoniorww. 557 toferode: digerebant. 558 hospe: obprobro (sic), 559 aet nextan: vltimo. 560 wæfersyne: spectacnlwm. 562 anlicnyssa: simulacra, ærenra: aeneum (sic), goda: deorum. 564 ge­ dwyld: heresis. adwæsced: destructa. 567 pam godum to offrunge: illis diis sacrificio. fracodnyssa: pericula. 568 biggengan: cultores. 569 sceawian: videre. forþearle: valde. 571 gebugon: conuerterunt. pa: tunc. biggengum: cultui. 572 leasum: falso.

556-60 [.Partly ibid.] Tu n c eum partibus incidentes igne concremaverunt, caput autem per totam traxerunt urbem. [Partly Rufinus, loc. cit.] Post hoc revulsum cervicibus et depresso modio trahitur caput, tum pedes aliaque membra caesa securibus et rapta funibus distrahuntur, ac per singula loca membratim in conspectu cultricis Alexandriae senex veternosus exuritur. Ad ultimum truncus qui superfuerat in amphitheatro concrematur. 561-4 [.Ælfric sums up a number of implications in both sources, neither of which provides a clear model for this.] 565-71 [Rufinus, X I. 24] Horret animus dicere . . . quae funera, quae scelera in illis, quae dicebant adyta, tegebantur, quot ibi infantum capita desecta inauratis labris inventa sunt, quot miserorum cruciabiles mortes depictae, quae cum proderentur in lucem ac sub auras prolata ferrentur, licet confusione ipsa gen­ tiles et pudore diffugerent, tamen si qui adesse potuit, mirabatur tot saeculis se illis tam nefariis et tam pudendis fraudibus inretitum. Unde et plurimi ex his . . . fidem Christi et cultum verae religionis amplexi sunt.

708

DE F A L S I S DI I S

XXI

þe æfter Cristes menniscnysse þurh Cristes geleafan eaðelice wearð of his anlicnysse adræfed. Gregorius wæs geháten [sum] *swiðe halig biscop,

se worhte miccle wundra and mihta þurh G[o]d.

*p. 160

576

Se rád on wintres dæge embe sume neode

ofer þa micclan muntas þe man Mundiú hæt, and ne mihte for snáwe nahwider gecyrran þær he wícstowe hæfde; ac þar wæs gehende

án hæþen tempel, gehalgod þam gode pe wæs geháten Apollo, and he þyder gecyrde and wunode on þam temple, for þæs wintres cyle. þ æ r stod seo anlicnyss þæs ærenan godes bin[n]an þam temple, and his biggenga axode æt þære anlicnysse [o]ftrædlice gehwæt, and se deofol sylf andwyrde of þære anlicnysse, and sæde þam sacerde þe hine synderlice wurðode menigfealde gedwimor, and he hi þam mannum sæde þe hwæs befrunon æt þære feondlican anlicnysse;

580

585

590

and se sacerd lyfode be þam lácum symble

þe þa hæðenan brohton to þam healican gedwylde. 575 sum] sic C ; erasure (susum?) R. bisceop C. 576 god C ; gód R. 579 ne] ne ne C. 581 tempi C. 585 binnan] sic C ; binan R. 586 þære] ðæra C. oftrædlice] sic C ; and 'heo' sæde þam sacerde oftrædlice R (a macode se sacerd his fare on mergen ofer langne weg to pam geleaffullan biscope,

610

and his fét gesohte, his sið bemænende, pæt his bigleofa moste mid ealle him losian, for pam pe he afligde færlice mid his tocyme 595 anwyrdan C. -nisse C. 596 sacerde] mannan ne þa sacerde C. 597 offrude C. 598 -nyss] -nesse C. geanwyrdan C. biggencgan C. 599 wearð] weard C. geangsumod C. 600 þas word on slaepe] on slæpe þas word C (rightly ?). 609 his fare on mergen] on morgen his fara C (right order?). 610 bisceope C. Glosses in R y Latin: 593 afliged: fugatus. 594 wicode: mansit. 597 þa: tunc. 598 biggengan: colenti. 602 intinga: causa. 604 adræfed: eiectws. 606 tæcst: doces. hraþe: cito. 607 nateshwon: nullatem/s. 609 fare: iter. 612 bigleofa: victus. losian: perire. 613 afligde: fugauú. M E : 6 1 1 sið: mesauentwre. 593-8 Igitur post digressum Gregorii offerre consulta et responsa poscere sacerdos accessit ex more, nihil inde responsi veniebat. Repetit victimas, silen­ tium permanet. Iterum atque iterum litat, surdis ingerit fabulam. 599-608 Cumque stupore novi silentii æstuaret sacerdos, noctu ei adsistens daemonium dicit in somnis: ‘Quid me illic invocas, quo iam venire non possum V Percontanti causam adventu se Gregorii dicebat expulsum. Quid nunc remedii daretur, cum perquireret, ait non aliter sibi licere ingredi locum illum, nisi Gregorius permisisset. 609-14 Quibus auditis sacerdos occupat viam. . . . Pervenit ad Gregorium adortusque [v.l. adoratusque] eum rem pandit ex ordine, . . . querelam depulsi numinis ponit, ademptam facultatem sui quæstus deplorat. . . .

710

DE F A L S I S DI I S

XXI

pone god pe he wurðode of his gewunelican stowe. D a awrat Gregorius pis gewrit to pam gode:

615

Ic grete pe, Apollo, and ic pe leafe sylle eft to farenne into pinre stowe, and pa ping to donne pe pu ær dydest. Se sacerd genam pa [sona] pæt gewrit, and ham swiðe efste, and wið ða anlicnysse

620

léde pæt gewrít; pa gewearð se deofol sona oninnan pa anlicnysse, and eft to him spræc, swa swa he ær dyde, pæs pe he hine axode.

þa begann se sacerd swiðe to smeagenne, and cwæð on his mode, N ú pes min god pus fæ rð:

625

Gregorius hine afligde, and he fleah sona awég, and eft cuman ne mihte into his anlicnysse, butan Gregorius him lyfde. L a hú ne is [forðy] Gregorius betera ponne pes min god sy? He beléac pa his tempel, mid geleafan onbryrd,

630

and ferde eft ongean mid pam ilcan gewrite to pam arwurðan biscope, and him ealle asæde be his godes geancyme, and be his modes smeaunge, and feoll to his fotum, fulluhtes biddende, and pæt he hine betæhte pam heofonlican Gode,

635

616 seile C. 619 sona] sic C ; om. R. 621 legde C. sona] om. C (rightly ?). 622 þa anlicnysse] þære anlicnesse C. 625 cwæt C. 628 lifde C. forðy] forði C ; om. R. 629 Gregorius] om. C. 632 bisceope C. ealle] eal C. asæde] sæde C. Glosses in R, Latin: 620 efste: properautí. wið: iuxta. 623 þæs: ea. 625 þes: iste. 626 afligde: fugauti. 628 lyfde: consessit(/or concessit). 630 onbryrd: contritus (/). 632 asæde: narrauzí. 633 geancyme: reditu, modes: mentis. M E : 624 smeagenne: þenchen. 633 smeaunge: þouhte. 615-23 A t ille nihil moratus scribit epistulam in hæc verba: ‘Gregorius Apollini. Permitto tibi redire ad locum tuum et agere quae consuesti.’ Hanc epistulam sacerdos accipit et ad fanum defert, positaque ea iuxta simulacrum adfuit daemon ac dedit responsa poscenti. 624-9 Tu m ille in semet ipsum conversus ait: ‘Si Gregorius iussit et deus iste discessit nec potuit redire nisi iussus et rursum iubente Gregorio restitutus est, quomodo non multo melior isto Gregorius, cuius hic obtemperat iussis?’ 630-6 Clausis igitur ianuis fani descendit ad Gregorium epistulam secum, quam acceperat, referens omnemque apud eum rei gestæ ordinem pandens, simulque ad pedes eius prosternens rogat, ut illi se deo offerat, cuius virtute diis gentium Gregorius imperabat.

XXI

DE F A L S I S DI I S

711

þurh þæs mihte þe he afligde þæra hæþenra godas. He bæd pa swa lange mid geleafan þone bisceop þæt he hine cristnode; and he clænlice lyfode syððan of þam dæge on swiðlicre forhæfdnysse, and ealle woruldþing forlét, and wunode mid þam bisceope. 640 He wearð pa gefullod, #and swa fullfremedlice J>eah

*p. 162

on halgum mægnum, mid micclum geleafan, and on Godes láre, þæt he æfter Gregorie to biscope wearð gehalgod, and geheold wislice þone biscophád mid godre [gejbysnunge,

645

Gode to gecwemednysse, swa swa us [cyðað] béc; and ures Drihtnes geleafa adwæscte þæt hæþengild, for þan þe se Cristendóm cóm gehwær and pær. O ft sædon pa hæþenan pæt ure Hælend [Crist] cóme æfter heora godum, and hi yldran wæron,

650

and cwædon pæt pa yldran godas arwurðran wæron and swiðor to wurðianne þonne se ðe sið cóme. A c pa dysgan nyston þæt ure Drihten wæs æfre 636 þe] om. C (rightly?) godes altered to godas R ; godes C. 637 þone] ðane C. 638 þæt] oð ðæt C. leofode C. 644 bisceope C . 645 bis­ ceop- C. mid] here S resumes, having skippedfrom the beginning of line 150 with no sign of omission; the sentence thus produced is nonsense. gebysnunge] sic S ; gebisnunge C ; bysnunge R. 646 cyðað] sic C S ; secgað R (no allit.) 647 and] and 'mid' (added in trembling hand) R . -gyld S. 648 gehwer S. per S ♦ 649 crist C S ; om. R. 651 cwæðon C ; cwedon S. 652 wurðigenne C S . sið] siððan S. come] sic all three M S S . originally; 'i' come R. 653 dysegan S.

Glosses in R and S , Latin: 636 þæ s: illius R. 639 swiðlicre forhæfdnysse: uehementi cowtinencia R. 641 fullfremedlice þeah: perfectus proficiebat R. 642 m ægnum : virtutibus R. 644 geheold: custodiufí R . 647 adwæscte: destruxit R. hæþengild: idolura R . 648 gehwær: vbiqwe R S. 650 æfter heora godum: post eorwm deos S. hi yldran: illi seniores R S. wæron: fuen/nt S. Margin opp. 650 in R : Iudei dixen/wt quod dii eorum venerunt post deum nostrum. 651 yldran godas: seniores dii S. arwurðran: honorabiliores R ; uenerabiliores S. 652 swiþor: magis S. to wurðianne: adorandf R ; adorare S. þonne se þe: quam illi qui (!) S. sið: post R. 653 dysgan: stulti R.

637-440 Cumque enixius et pertinacius persisteret, catechumenus ab eo factus est. Et cum se vitae castissimae et abstinentissimae derelictis omnibus non solum erroribus daemonum, sed et saeculi actibus mancipasset, etiam baptisma con­ secutus est, et in tantum vitæ merito ac fidei virtute profecit, ut ipse beato Gregorio in episcopatu successor extiterit. 6446-8 [Not in Rufinus.]

712

DE F A L S I S DI I S

XXI

mid his heofonlican Fæder on fullfremedre mihte, æfre ælmihtig God of þam ælmihtigan Fæder,

655

and cóm syððan to mannum, pa pa he sylf wolde, on soðre menniscnysse, mancynn to alysenne. A nd pa godas pe pa hæþenan heoldon mid gedwylde,

pa gescop úre Hælend mid his heofonlican Fæder— ac he ne gesceop hi na to godum, ac to oðrum gesceaftum— for þam þe nan gesceaft nis pe se án God ne gesceope,

661

þeah þe hi sume wurdan awende to deoflum, and sume man wurðode wolice for godas. Nis nan oðer god, ne nan oðer scyppend, buton seo halige J>rynnyss, pe is prymwealdend God,

665

se ðe ána gewylt ealra gesceafta, and ælcum men forgylt eft be his weorcum on pissere weorolde geendunge, and eac hwilon aer. Ure Hælend cwæð swapeah be his halgum pegnum,

Ego dixi , dii estis, et filii Excelsi omnes:

670

Ic cwæð pæt ge synd godas, and ealle suna pæs Hehstan. Swa micelne wurðmynt forgeaf se mildheorta *Drihten his halgum pegnum, pæt he hét hi godas;

#p. 163

ac nan mann næfð swapeah nane mihte purh hine sylfne, buton of pam ánum Gode pe ealle þing gesceóp,

675

pam sy wuldor and lof a to worulde. A M E N . 654 heofen- S . 658 godes C. gedwilde S. 659 gesceop C S . 660 godum] gode, s added over line by trembling hand, S. 661 gesceaft] om. S . 662 awænde C. 663 wohlice S. godes C. 664 sceppend C. 668 þissere] ðisre C ; þyssere S. worulde C S . ær] her S. 670 Latin om. Kl. 671 synd] sin C. godes C. suna] suna/i S. þæs] þas C. hextan C. 672 mycelne S. 673 þegenum S. 675 ðincg C .

Glosses in R and S yLatin: 654 fullfremedre: prefects. (for perfecta) R. 658 go­ das: dii S. heoldon: obs^ruabarct S. gedwylde: errore R. 659 þa: eos R ; illos S. 660 godeV : deos S. 662 awende: conuersi R. 663wurðode: adorabant R. wolice: in[i]uste R ; iniuste S. 665 buton: nisi S. 668 hwilon: aliqnando R S. her (for ær): hic S. 669 þegnum: semis R. 671 ge: vos R S. sunan: filii S. hehstan: excelsi R. 673 þegnum: seruis R. M E : 662 wurdan: weren R.

670 [Ps. Ixxxi. 6, as given.]

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N O T E S 1 - 5 . T h i s L a t i n b e g i n n in g is u n u s u a l f o r Æ l f r i c ; b u t a f t e r t h e f ir s t s e n ­ t e n c e i t is e n t i r e l y f r o m S t . P a u l, a n d w e m u s t r e m e m b e r t h a t Æ l f r i c ’s e x p o s it io n s o f g o s p e l - t e x t s w e r e t o b e p r e c e d e d e a c h t im e b y t h e r e a d i n g o f t h e e n t ir e t e x t in L a t i n . ( S e e C H I . 1 5 2 / 2 - 3 ; 1 6 6 / 2 - 3 ; e t c .) S o m e w h a t s u r p r is i n g ly , t h e v e r s e f r o m Romans in lin e s 4 - 5 is q u o t e d in a f o r m u s e d b y A u g u s t i n e in D e Vera Religione, a s n o t e d u n d e r S o u r c e s , a n d a ls o in D e Doctrina Christianay v { P L x x x i v . 2 1 ) . S i n c e Æ l f r i c n o r m a l ly q u o t e s t h e V u l g a t e ( w h i c h h e r e r e a d s , f o r t h e fir s t p a r t , E x ipso, et per ipsoy et in ipso sunt omnia)y I c a n n o t h e lp s u s p e c t i n g t h a t h e lif t e d t h e e n t ir e b e g i n ­ n i n g f r o m s o m e L a t i n s e r m o n o f th e A u g u s t i n ia n e r a ; b u t I h a v e n o t b e e n a b le to fin d s u c h a o n e . 3 1 . U n g e r s u g g e s t e d sittan f o r wunian to a llite r a t e w i t h symle; b u t th is u s e o f sittan is h a r d l y Æ l f r i c i a n ; a n d t h o u g h beony a llit e r a t in g w i t h butany w o u ld b e m o r e p la u s ib le , th e m a n u s c r ip t s o f f e r n o e n c o u r a g e m e n t to e m e n d a t io n . E v e n symle, a b o u t w h i c h t h e y d is a g r e e , is s u p p o r t e d b y r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s o f b o t h t e x t u a l b r a n c h e s , C - W a n d S . D i d Æ l f r i c f e e l t h a t t h e t h r e e e n d in g s in -aw ( tw o o f w h i c h m i g h t h a v e b e e n s p e lle d - on) w e r e a n a c c e p t a b le s u b s t it u t e fo r a llite r a t io n ? A l l w e c a n b e s u r e o f is t h a t h is r h y t h m ic lin e s as r e p o r t e d a llite r a t e .

b y th e m a n u s c r ip t s d o n o t in v a r i a b ly

3 3 - 5 5 . T h e t h e m e o f p r e la p s a r ia n b lis s a n d t h e ills t h a t f o l lo w e d is s o m e w h a t m o r e e la b o r a t e ly t r e a t e d in t h e Hexamerony 4 1 3 - 4 8 , 4 5 4 - 7 8 . C o m p a r e e s p e c i a ll y lin e s 4 7 s q . h e r e w i t h H e x . 4 6 0 - 4 : a n d h in e b it o n ly s a n d ly f t e n e g n æ t t a s a n d e a c s w y l c e fle a n a n d o ð r e g e h w y lc e w y r m a s , a n d h im w æ r o n d e r e g e n d lic e d r a c a n a n d n æ d d r a n a n d ð a r e ð a n d e o r m ih t o n d e r ia n h is c in n e , ð e h in e e a lle æ r a r w u r ð o d o n s w y ð e . 9 9 - 1 0 3 . H e r e Æ l f r i c m o d if ie s M a r t in o f B r a g a ’ s a c c o u n t , as i f b y r e c o l ­ le c t i o n o f o n e o r m o r e o t h e r a u t h o r it ie s . N o t o n l y d o e s h e d e f e r u n t i l la t e r a ll m e n t io n o f t h e p a r t p l a y e d b y d e v ils , b u t h is d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e m e n w h o c a m e to b e w o r s h i p p e d as g o d s is le s s c o m p le t e l y u n f a v o u r a b le , a t le a s t in th is o p e n in g g e n e r a liz a t io n . O n e o f s e v e r a l p la c e s w h e r e h e m i g h t h a v e fo u n d p r e c e d e n t f o r h is d e s c r i p t i o n is t h e b e g i n n in g o f I s i d o r e ’ s l o n g a c c o u n t o f th e g o d s o f t h e g e n t ile s , Etymologiarum lib. v m , cap. x i { P L l x x x i i . 3 i 4 s q q . ) : ‘ Q u o s p a g a n i d e o s a s s e r u n t, h o m in e s o lim f u is s e p r o d u n t u r , e t p r o u n i u s c u i u s q u e v it a v e l m e r it is c o li a p u d s u o s p o s t m o r t e m c o e p e r u n t . . . . F u e r u n t . . . q u id a m v i r i fo r te s a u t u r b iu m c o n ­ d i t o r e s .’ I s id o r e t h e n b la m e s t h e d e v ils f o r c a u s i n g t h e s e m e n to b e w o r ­ s h i p p e d as g o d s in s te a d o f m e r e ly h o n o u r e d . E v e n m o r e d ig n i t y is a s s ig n e d to t h e m e n in L a c t a n t i u s , w h o c a lls t h e m reges maximi et potentissimi {Divin. Inst. 1. 8 ; C S E L X I X . 30 ). Æ l f r i c ’s m e n t io n o f g ia n t s , mislice entasy o w e s n o t h i n g t o M a r t i n a n d p r o b a b l y lit t le to I s i d o r e ’ s viri fortes. T h e id e a w a s a lr e a d y in h is h e a d ( a lo n g w i t h M a r t i n a n d I s id o r e , p e r h a p s )

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w h e n h e w r o te D e Initio Creaturae, w h e r e th e m e n fo r w h o m id o ls w e r e n a m e d a re d e s c r ib e d as entas and yfel-dæde ( C H I. 2 2 / 3 1). I n th e p r e s e n t s e r m o n a t lin e 7 4 h e h a s m e n t io n e d th e entas w h o b u i lt th e w o n d r o u s s t e e p le . V e r y lik e ly th e g ia n ts a s s o c ia te d w i t h B a b e l (a n d th e r e f o r e w i t h B a b y lo n a n d B e l, w h o m I s id o r e e q u a te s w it h S a t u r n ) h a d s o m e t h in g to d o w i t h Æ l f r i c ’s n o t io n . H e m a y a ls o h a v e h a d in m in d H e r c u le s ( r e fe r r e d to as þam ormætan ente a t L S x x x v . 1 1 3 ) a n d th e T i t a n s . 1 0 8 - 1 2 . N e it h e r M a r t in n o r I s id o r e (in th e p a s s a g e c it e d a b o v e ) m e n ­ t io n s J o v e ’s r e la t io n s h ip to S a t u r n , h is e s c a p e fr o m b e in g e a te n , o r h is e x ­ p u ls io n o f S a t u r n f r o m C r e t e , t h o u g h I s id o r e h a s a lo n g a c c o u n t o f S a t u r n h i m s e l f a n d s a y s th e p a g a n s r e g a r d e d h im as origo deorum et totius posteritatis. T h e s t o r y as Æ l f r i c te lls i t c o u ld h a v e b e e n d e r iv e d fr o m O v i d o r L a c t a n t iu s , b u t its fe a tu r e s a re to o c o m m o n ly k n o w n to b e t r a c e d . S e r v iu s , c o m m e n t in g o n Æ neid v i i i . 3 1 9 s q . (Primus ab aetherio venit Saturnus Olympo, arma Iovis fugiens et regnis exui ademptis), s a y s : ‘ H o c d ic it s e c u n d u m p o e t ic u m m o r e m ; n a m S a t u r n u s r e x f u i t C r e t æ , q u e m I u p p i t e r filiu s b e llo p e p u l i t .’ I n L S v . 1 7 2 s q q . Æ l f r i c s h o w s a s im ila r a w a r e n e s s o f th e s t o r y w h e r e h is s o u r c e , th e A cta S . Sebastiani ( A S S ., J a n . I I . 6 3 5 , § 4 1 ) , d e a ls w i t h it s o m e w h a t a llu s iv e ly . n o . þrymlic. I h a v e r e fr a in e d fr o m a d o p t in g th e t e m p t in g þzvyrlic o f M S . S . I n s p ite o f its o b v io u s a p p lic a b ilit y to J o v e as p o r t r a y e d h e r e a n d its fa m ilia r it y as a w o r d in Æ l f r i c ’s w r it in g s , I t h in k it m u s t b e c la s s ifie d as a n u n a u th o r iz e d e m e n d a tio n , a lm o s t c e r t a in ly in c o r r e c t . T h e e v id e n c e o f th e m a n u s c r ip t s is f la tly a g a in s t its b e in g a d ir e c t in h e r it a n c e fr o m Æ l f r i c ’s o r ig in a l, fo r R a n d S s ta n d t o g e t h e r as th e in h e r it o r s o f a r e v is e d t e x t b y w a y o f a c o m m o n a n c e s to r a t s o m e r e m o v e fr o m Æ l f r i c . I f þwyrlic h a d b e e n in h e r it e d b y S f r o m Æ l f r i c , it w o u ld h a v e b e e n in a n a n c e s t o r o f R a ls o , a n d R ’ s a g r e e m e n t w i t h C , L , a n d W in th e r e a d in g þrymlic w o u ld h a v e t o b e a tt r ib u t e d to c o n t a m in a t io n o r s h e e r c o in c id e n c e . A n d in s p ite o f t h e a p p a r e n t s u p e r io r it y o f þzvyrlic to þrymlic in th e c o n ­ t e x t , I t h in k th e r e a re s ig n s t h a t Æ l f r i c h a d þrymlic in m in d . F ir s t , as a lr e a d y r e m a r k e d , h e h a s c o n c e d e d in lin e 10 2 t h a t th e m e n w h o c a m e to b e w o r s h ip p e d as g o d s w e r e mihtige on zvoruldlicum geþincðum and egefulle. S e c o n d ly , h e h a s d e s c r ib e d S a t u r n , in lin e 10 5 , as szviðlic and zvælhreow. W h e n h e n o w , a t n o , d e s c r ib e s J o v e a s hetol and þrymlic, I t h in k h e is r e v e r s in g th e o r d e r , c h o o s in g hetol as a p a r a lle l to zjoælhreozjo a n d þrymlic as a p a r a lle l to swiðlic. B o t h szviðlic a n d þrymlic, w h i c h w e m a y ta k e , p e r h a p s , as ‘ m i g h t y ’ o r ‘ m a je s t ic ’ in a m o r a lly n e u t r a l w a y r a th e r th a n as ‘ g lo r io u s ’ , s e r v e as p a r tia l e x p la n a tio n s fo r th e h o n o u r a c c o r d e d to th e s e m e n b y th e w o r ld , a n d c a r r y o u t a lso th e id e a o f th e a w e t h e y i n ­ s p ir e d . N e v e r t h e le s s it s h o u ld b e sa id th a t th e o n ly r e c o r d e d in s ta n c e o f t h e a d je c t iv e þrymlic in Æ l f r i c ’s w o r k is ta k e n b y B T S f r o m K e m b l e ’s e d itio n o f th is v e r y p a s s a g e as it s ta n d s in M S . W . T h e a d v e r b þrymlice is c it e d fr o m Æ l f r i c o n c e o n ly , a n d th e r e its f u ll m e a n in g is c a lle d o n to c o n v e y a d m ir a tio n fo r th e g lo r io u s r e ig n o f K i n g J o s ia h ( L S x v m . 4 7 0 ). M o r e o v e r , t h e m a n u s c r ip t s s h o w th a t þrymlic t r o u b le d s e v e r a l r e a d e r s . B e s id e s t h e t e m p t in g s u b s t it u t io n in S w e h a v e grimlic and þrymlic in X k

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and, on the part o f W u lfstan (in T ) , a deliberate rew riting: se wearð hetol feond. A m inor puzzle is the presence o f the gloss pravus not only in S, w here it is righ tly attached to þwyrlic, bu t also in R , where it is w ritten tw ice, once as if glossing hetol, again not far rem oved from þrymlic. I think the glossator transferred the gloss from S or another m anuscript now lost w ith out fu lly realizing its im propriety. 115 .

K e m b le ’s em endation o f Minerua to Diana was m ade w ith out

know ledge o f the unanim ity o f the m anuscripts or the clear confirmation o f their reading in the L a tin source. I am not sure w hether Æ lfric w ould have regarded Uenus as capable o f alliterating w ith wæron. A t 150 the nam e need not alliterate w ith w if and wæs, and at 177 it m ay be called upon to alliterate w ith Fricg. 1 17. magan, ‘kinsw om en’ . A lth o u gh b y its form this w ord could be the accusative plural o f either mäga, w k. m ., or mäge, w k. f., the context strongly favours the fem inine word. T h e presum ptive source has neptes ‘granddaughters’ or ‘nieces’ , not the indeterm inate parentes chosen b y the glossator. Indeed, it is doubtful w hether Æ lfric w ould have used the w k. m asculine mäga except in the o bviously inappropriate sense ‘son’ or ‘m ale descendant’ . H is usual term for ‘kinsm an’ is the strong m asculine mæg> nap. mägasyw ith w h ich mäganytaken as apf., forms a satisfactory contrast. C f. L S x. 2 1 5 : M enn hæfdon on frym ðe heora magan to zvife. T h e same distinction is found in M id d le English. See O E D y mowé. 124. T h e identification o f Jove w ith T h o r, M ercu ry w ith O d in (line 140), and V en u s w ith F ricg (line 177) is the same, even to the spellings, as that w h ich occurs in Æ lfr ic ’s life o f St. M artin, L S x x x i. 7 1 4 sqq. In both places he has added these identifications to the names o f the classical deities provided b y his L a tin sources. 138. and to heagum beorgum him brohtan onsæg[ed]nysse. A cco rd in g to E . A . Philippson, Germanisches Heidentum bei den Angelsachseny p. 16 1, this line points to a characteristic feature o f the w orship o f W o d en -O j?in n rather than o f M ercu ry, for whose custom ary places o f w orship M artin o f Braga has properly m entioned only the crossroads. So also Bethurum , Homilies o f Wulfstan, 338, where the considerable evidence, m uch o f it from place-nam es, for the worship o f O d in on m ountains is conven iently sum m ed up. In all probability Æ lfric had heard enough about the reli­ gious cerem onies o f the D anes to know o f this feature, and it was natural for him to attribute it to M ercu ry, since he was considering M ercu ry and O d in as the same deity. It seems possible that he was also aware, if only from place-nam es, that the same god, called W oden, had been w orshipped on high places b y his an cestors; bu t w hatever he m ay have know n about the E n glish W o d en he kept to him self: a deliberate reticence appears, I think, w hen he discusses the days o f the week, 166 sqq. A s to the present passage, it should be observed that M artin o f Braga had pu t the idea o f sacrifices on high m ountains into Æ lfr ic ’s head, though not w ith reference to M ercu ry. A t the beginning o f the paragraph introducing the classical gods (D e Corr. R ust.y § 7) M artin speaks o f the demons, m inisters o f the

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devil, w ho began to appear to m en in various forms, ‘ et loqui cum eis et expetere ab eis, u t in excelsis montibus et in silvis frondosis sacrificia sibi offerrent et ipsos colerent pro d eo ’ . W ith this generalization to support him and the know ledge that M ercu ry was one o f the O ly m p ia n gods, Æ lfric w ould have needed no more than a vagu e notion o f O d in -w o rsh ip to bring forth his assertion. W e need not reject P h ilip p son ’s inference, b u t w e should certainly hesitate to suppose that Æ lfr ic ’s w ords reflect precise know ledge or any vivid personal experience. I w ish to thank M rs. U rsu la D ronke, w ho is concerned w ith the annotation o f Sigtýs bergi in

the

A tlak við a , for calling m y attention to this problem afresh. 1 4 1 -9 . O n the textual im portance o f this passage, w h ich is show n to be a later addition b y its appearance only in R , S, and, partially, W u lfsta n ’s revision (T ), see the introductory com m ent, p p . 6 73 -4 . 14 5 -9 . It is characteristic o f Æ lfr ic ’s scholarly training that he should appeal to the authority o f the heathen as w ell as the Christian writers, and should accord such particular respect to the ealdan hæðenan as w itnesses to Jo ve’s true parentage, a question that, w ith his euhem eristic assum p­ tions, he regards as one o f ordinary hum an genealogy. I cannot say w h ich o f the heathen authorities he had in m in d ; bu t the passions o f the m artyrs to w h ich he refers in 149 probably included tw o w ith w h ich he deals in the Lives of Saints. In the L atin source behind L S v. 16 6 -8 1 (the A cta S . Sebastiani attributed to A m brose, A S S , Jan. II. 635, § 41) Jove is explicitly said to be the son o f Saturn, and in the source behind L S x x x v . 10 4 -18 {Passio S S . Martyrum Chrysanthi et D ariæ , M om britius, Sa n c­ tuarium (Paris, 1910), I. 274) the same relationship is im plicit. 150. O n R ’s Uena see the introductory com m ent, p. 670. 154. haligey C L W ; healicey R (T ). T h e alignm ent here m igh t indicate a m inor revision b y Æ lfric, though the absence o f the passage from S deprives us o f a useful witness. I prefer to think that healice is a scribal substitution, because halige provides a sharper contrast to the lust attri­ buted to the goddess. 166-80. In this passage on the days o f the week Æ lfric seems deliber­ ately to avoid the obvious identifications. H e names Sunnandæg and Monandæg w ithout acknow ledging the fact that the names have persisted, as indeed is all too o b v io u s ; out w hen he comes to the other days he keeps back the En glish names and points the finger o f scorn only at the D anes. H e m ust have been aware o f what some at least o f the E n glish names stood for. E vid en tly he had no wish, as did some churchm en, to abandon the names, and to remind the English o f their ancient heathenism w ould have introduced an unnecessary com plication at best; yet his silence attracts attention. 1 7 1. feoht[e]-gode. U n ger was probably right in assum ing a com pound feohte-god ‘w a r-g o d ’, o f w hich the first m em ber is the uninflected feohtey corresponding to the weak fem inine feohte. M S . R alone insists on

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tw o w ords and therefore has feo h ta , gen itive plural o f the strong neuter fe o h t. A d m itte d ly C and L are unreliable witnesses, since th e y are so late that their feohte m ig h t be a m ere levellin g o f fe o h ta ; b u t W ’s feohte has w e igh t, and the co m p o u n d itself yields a superior m eaning. 1 8 1 -6 . U n d e r Sources, it is suggested that Æ lfr ic ’s transition from the days o f the w eek to the planets was influenced b y a passage in B e d e ’s D e Temporum Ratione, and his com m en t on the planetary m otion b y a passage in B e d e ’s D e N atura R erum . Æ lfr ic ’s fam iliarity w ith b o th w orks is attested b y his D e Temporibus A n n i, w here (at ix. 5) he refrains from tryin g to explain the planetary m otion. L ater, in the Interrogationes(ed. M a c L e a n , lines 1 14 sqq.), he departs from A lc u in to insert an explanation from D e N atura Rerum , b e gin n in g : ‘W ito d lice seo tunglene heofon tyrn ð æfre o n bu tan J?as eorpan easten w estw erd, and hire w innað ongean J?a seofon dw eligend an tu n g la n .’ L ater (M a c L e a n 135 sqq.) he elaborates: ‘D a s seofon tunglan gað æfre eas[t]werd ongean þa heofonan, ac seo h eofon is strengra, and abret hi ealle un derbæ c w estw ard m id hire ryne, and is fo[r]ði m ann um g e þ u h t sw ylce seo sunne and þa foresæ dan tun glan gangon w estw eard. S o ð pæ t is: w estw erd hi gað u n þan ces; ac hi gað swa]?eah ealle be heora m ihte æfre eastw erd.’ P resum ably the Interrogationes and D e Falsis D iis w ere w ritten at about the same tim e. 186. seo heofon. T h is form occurs also at 540 and 549 in the present h om ily, in the quotation from the Interrogationes in the preced in g note, and several tim es elsewhere in Æ lfric, in clu d in g D e Temporibus A n n i, v. 3, and C H I. 262/6, 11. It is apparently Æ lfr ic ’s substitu te for the w eak seo heofone in the nom inative singular, since he uses heofonan for the sin gu ­ lar in the other cases, as the G lo ssary s h o w s ; and in all p ro b ab ility he uses the strong m asculine w ord o nly in the plural, heofonas, etc. A n instance o f heofone in Hexameron 34 is supported o n ly b y our M S . P and an u n tru stw orth y Parkerian co p y in Q , against heof-on> - an, - en in O , R , and S ; y e t the preced ing line has stated that G o d created heofonan. Æ lfr ic appears to use the singular prim arily to describe the heaven o f the fixed stars, the firm am ent, for w h ich his other term is se rodor. H en ce, at Hexameron 149 w e read, Done rodor G od gehet heofon. (T h e gender here is not indicated, b u t in view o f w h at has been said above the chances are it should be classified as fem inine.) W h en he uses the plural it is pro b a b ly w ith som e th o u gh t o f invisible regions beyon d the firm am ent rather than sim p ly the Ptolem aic heavens, for in Hexameron 118 he speaks o f da upplican heofonas ða englas on wuniað. 18 7 -9 . Æ lfric returns to this typ e o f argum ent m ore elaborately in 6 4 9 -6 3. M a rtin o f Braga has used it w ith a sligh tly different turn in the passage quoted for lines 166-80. 190-209. A lth o u g h the first ten lines or so have som e foundation in D e Correctione Rusticorum and the Etymologise, the passage as a w hole, w ith its em phasis on the precious m aterials o f the im ages, their beauty, the skill o f the craftsm en w ho m ade them , and above all the scornful co n ­ trast betw een the craftsm an’s superiority to his artifact w hile he is m aking C

2710.2

Q

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it and his stupid veneration for it w hen it is finished, suggests some quite different source. Behind it, I am sure, are certain Biblical passages, am ong them I s . xlvi. 5 - 7 and especially S a p . xiii. 10 -19 , where the w hole process o f m aking an image, fixing it in place, and then treating it as a god is elaborately ridiculed in very m uch the same spirit. B u t the details here are different enough to suggest that Æ lfric was using his ow n inventive powers more freely than usual, or that there was an interm ediary w hose w ork I have not found. 19 1. asmeadan. W e m igh t expect asmiðedon, as in L S 11. 113 sq., ‘ and het asm iðigen o f sm ætum golde hyre anlycnysse’ . B u t the m anuscripts agree on asmeadan. A p p aren tly w e m ust take it in the unrecorded sense ‘ designed’ , for w h ich there is some oblique support in the com pound, smeawyrhta ‘ a skilled w orker’ , and also in smealice, on w h ich see the next note. 202. smealice. T h e exam ples o f this word in B T and B T S show its connexion w ith subtlety, depth, and m ental acuteness, notions that are easily associated w ith the verb smeagan a lso ; bu t the exam ples have to do w ith situations in w h ich a process o f thought rather than the craftsm an­ ship o f a sculptor is under consideration. H ere the m eaning is p robably ‘su b tly ’ or ‘ cu n n in gly’, unless ‘ exqu isitely’ be adm itted as a possibility. See B T , ‘sméalic, adj., I I I . exquisite, choice (? )’ , based on a gloss o f the com parative, ‘ smealicran exquisitiores\ 226. liegende. Since Æ lfric regularly treats god as m asculine even w hen he is referring to a pagan deity, the strict gram m atical form o f the parti­ ciple w ould be liegendne. Æ lfric m ay have preferred to leave it uninflected in this p o sitio n ; bu t there is a fairly strong possibility that the participle is a scribal m odification o f the infinitive liegan to w h ich the other tw o m anuscripts testify. For a few exam ples (all from poetry) o f findan w ith an infinitive see B T S , s.v., I. 5a and 6. 242. landleodan9 R . T h e weak form is attested beside the strong - leoda o f C and L , and also - leode. See Glossary. I am uncertain o f Æ lfr ic ’s preference. 255. eower9 R ; eowrum C L . O n ce again the choice is clouded, b u t the uninflected eozver is permissible and easier in this com bination. 256. hringas. B y translating anus as if it were anulus Æ lfric perhaps deliberately misses the point. W as there some precedent for this? 260. cæpsan. N apier (in C O E L ) cited the word from this passage in R, its only occurrence. It is a wk. fern, cæpse ‘b o x ’, from L a t. capsa. T h e gloss hespetecam for cæpsan in M S . R. A p paren tly this gloss is a hybrid com posed o f G erm anic hespe ‘ hasp’ (O E hæpse, M E haspe9 hespe9 O N hespa9etc.— see O E D ) and L atin t(h)eca from G reek OrjKrj ‘ box, case, chest’, as in bibliotheca. D u C a n g e lists these two elem ents separately under haspa (also aspa) and theca, defining the latter as ‘ capsa’ and citing

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a L atin life o f St. Egidius, so that the com bination, m eaning 'b o x w ith a hasp’ , seems w ithin reach o f a glossator o f the early thirteenth century. For the suggestion that hespe is to be taken as a form o f hasp I am indebted to D r. R oger Lass, to w hom I presented the problem as one I could not solve. I find the suggestion irresistible. T h e glossator here is probably the m an w ith the trem ulous hand, though the letters are som ewhat firmer than usual. 274. geforþodatiy ‘sent forth ’ . T h is m eaning is not adequately represented b y ‘ further, advance’ in H a ll-M e r itt, and does not appear under geforþian in B T ; b u t forþian is once so defined in B T S . 29 2-9. Æ lfric had told this story at greater length in the second Christm as hom ily, C H II. 18/19 sq q .; and before that, briefly, in the hom ily on St. Clem ent, C H I. 570/9-20. 3 0 0 -51. T h e passage corresponding to these lines in M S . G has been printed in m etrical lines b y Förster in his Altenglisches Lesebuch fü r Anfänger (H eidelberg, 19 13 ; fünfte A u fl., 1949, pp. 35-38). T h e re G ’s revision o f the opening lines can be more clearly apprehended than in W arner’s text o f G . 314. oð æfen G L ; ofhæfen C . T h e L a tin text shows plainly, if there were a doubt, that the reading o f G and L is correct. C ’s error was pro bably brought about b y the expectation that swiðe w ould be follow ed b y a parti cipial adjective, as indeed it often is. Since ofhebban is unrecorded, the supposed m eaning o f ofhæfen need not concern us. 346. R ’s gloss destrut for toworpen is an early and hitherto unregistered form o f destroyed close to O F destruit. T h e nearest parallel cited b y the M E D under destroien is destruet (c. 1225, Ancrene Wisse, M S . C C C C 402, f. 105; ed. T o lkien , E E T S 249, p. 198). 352. gedrinca. C ited from this passage in R b y N apier in C O E L y bu t incorrectly defined as ‘cupbearer’ on the strength o f the gloss pincerna, whereas the L atin Daniel has conviva ‘a table com panion’ . B T S gives the right m eaning, bu t H a ll-M e r itt, citing W arner’s text o f this passage from G , has ‘cupbearer’ . T h e O N version o f Æ lfr ic ’s hom ily in the Hauksbók (see above, p. 669 and n. 2) has it right also, for it reads (I. 162. 13): ‘þ a var D aniel en m otu nautur hans.’ C lea sb y -V igfu sso n defines mötu-nautry m ., as ‘a m essm ate’ . 363. Danihel. In W arner’s edition this is taken as vocative at the start o f the question, as suggested b y the punctuation o f her m anuscript, G . B u t the other m anuscripts punctuate after the name, and it seems better to take it as object o f axode. T h e L a tin accords w ith this pattern, and the lines balance better also. 380. cuman to his spræce, ‘ com e to speak w ith h im ’ . See note on x ii. 55. 383. g if ic gesund beo. O n the idiom , see G lossary, gesund.

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403. flo r e ; 404, flo r ; both acc. sing. O n the inconsistent forms o f this w ord see the G lossary. 410. þær[á] lac[á\. I have thus ventured to correct all the m anuscripts, w h ich differ am ong them selves bu t seem never to have it right. A partitive genitive after abat is to be expected, and þære lace in C L can be so inter­ preted (whereas R ’s þære lac is sim ply ungram m atical and G ’s þære lacan confuses declensions). B u t although Æ lfric him self on rare occasions seems to have used lac as a fem inine singular (see Glossary), his ordinary prac­ tice is to treat it as a neuter plural, except in the phrase to lace (lines 256, 373), where it is a dative singular and m ay be either neuter or fem inine. In the im m ediate context, w ith reference to the gifts offered to Bel, lac is clearly established as a nom inative plural neuter at 397, and m ay be presum ed to be the corresponding accusative at 401. H ence the genitive plural neuter is to be expected here. A ctu a lly C and L (like G ) have enough levelled endings to make it seem possible that their reading is a mere levellin g o f þæra laca. Indeed all the Æ lfric m anuscripts have a tend ency to substitute þære for þæra. 4 17 . gelettey C G L ; gelæhtey R . Either o f these words could be justified as an approxim ation o f tenuity bu t gelette seems a little more appropriate. I hardly think w e can take gelæhte as the author’s substitution in a second edition, though it m ay have been a variant in a co py m ade for the author. 420. fotlæsta. N apier noted this instance o f fotlæ st in the fem inine plural, citing it from R in the addenda to C O E L . 4 4 5 -7 . T h is passage is simplified in the Hauksbóky p. 163/16 sq., as fo llo w s: ‘ H ann toe bic oc bustir oc istr oc veldi alt saman oc ga f honum at eta.’ C on sequently it does not help us to solve the riddle described in the next note. 446. welerum. T h o u g h all four m anuscripts are in substantial agreem ent about this word (welerum R C , welrum L , wehren G ), w h ich looks like the dative plural o f the familiar weler ‘lip ’, it can hardly m ean ‘lip ’ here. Æ lfr ic ’s phrase berode to welerum corresponds to fecit massas in the V u lgate D aniel. E ven if we try to get around the difficulty b y taking to as ‘for’, w e hardly succeed: ‘kneaded for the lips’ is both an odd and a vague w ay o f conveying the idea o f fecit ?nassas. M oreover, the thirteenth-century glossator (the W orcester scribe w ith the trem ulous hand) wrote balles over welerumy and one m ust reckon w ith the possibility that his gloss was accu­ rate. A cco rd in gly I have long tried to discover evidence for attaching to weler, or to some word o f closely similar form w ith w h ich it m igh t have been confused, such a m eaning as ‘rounded m ass’, ‘cake’, or ‘ball’ . N o evidence has em erged, but I shall m ention the avenues I have explored thus vainly before proposing a solution less directly related to the gloss. O ld En glish weler ‘lip ’ is held to be the result o f m etathesis o f *werel-y corresponding to G o th ic wairilö, and w ithout the suffix, O ld N orse VQrr. T h e se words are referred to the Indo-E uropean root *uer- ‘a raised place (on the surface o f the earth or on the skin)’ . (W ald e-P okorn y, Verglei­ chendes Wörterbuch der indogermanischen Sprachen, I. 266.) S u ch a root

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m igh t conceivably give rise to a w ord m eaning a lum p or rounded mass, b u t apart from this passage there is not the slightest indication in any o f the G erm anic languages that it did so. E q u a lly w ith out substantiating evidence and phonologically question­ able is the possibility o f a connexion w ith O E wealwian, L W S zjvilzvan ‘to roll’ (spelled wylian at L S v m . 204), w h ich has cognates in L atin , G o th ic, and O ld N orse, and is referred to the In d o-E uropean root *u el- ‘turn, tw ist, roll’ (W ald e-P oko rn y, I. 302). B u t the G erm anic derivatives, like the L a tin volvere, have a -t/- after the root. I f the w ord in question w ere likewise a derivative, one w o u ld expect, for L a te W e st Saxon, a spelling weal(zv)- or zvil(zv)- or zvyl(zv)- rather than the four tim es attested zvel- o f the m anuscripts. N o r is there any recorded O ld E n glish w ord o f appro­ priate m eaning that m igh t have been spelled zvilerum or wylerum b y Æ lfric and m iswritten welerum b y the scribes. It appears barely possible that a scribe close to Æ lfric had substituted zjoelerum for pelerum, for although there is no d oubt o f the reading o f the four extant m anuscripts, zjvynn (the runic zv) and p are easily confused. In spite o f the fact that no such w ord as peler has been recorded for O ld E n g ­ lish or for any G erm anic language, I have explored the possibility o f a connexion w ith L a tin pila ‘ball’ b y w ay o f some V u lgar L a tin derivative, or b y w ay o f O ld British p el ‘ball* or its dim inutive pelen. B u t the ordinary O ld E n glish gloss for L a tin pila is þoðer ‘ball, sphere’, and the w hole notion o f a lonely peler disguised as zjveler appears hopelessly far-fetched. In short, I have not found adequate grounds for interpreting zjoelerum as a close rendering o f massas w ith a m eaning approxim ating ‘balls’ , or as a deceptive m isw riting o f such a w ord. I turn, therefore, to w h at seems a more prom ising interpretation. U n d er the w ord zveler in B o sw o rth -T o ller, am ong illustrations o f the one m eaning ‘lip ’ , is cited the gloss ‘w elrum buccis, buccellis', w h ich is printed in the W rig h t-W ü lc k e r Vocabularies (I. 195/32) from M S . H arley 3376, a ten th -cen tu ry glossary described in K e r ’s Catalogue, no. 240. N o w bucca, though in post-classical tim es it could m ean ‘lip ’ as w ell as the pu ffed -ou t ‘cheek’ or ‘m ou th ’ , on rare occasions m eant ‘m o u th fu l’ or ‘m orsel’ (the L ew is and Short Latin Dictionary cites Petronius and M artial for this m ean in g); and the dim inutive buccella regularly means, not ‘lip ’, b u t a small ‘m orsel’ or ‘portion’ . Since I have not traced the gloss to its source, I cannot be sure w hat the glossator m eant, b u t it seems possible that zveler ‘lip ’ had undergone a sem antic developm ent com parable to that o f bucca and buccella, so that it could refer to a portion o f food small enough to be received b y the lips all at once— hence a ‘m o u th fu l’ or ‘m orsel’ . I f w e take berode to zjoelerum as ‘kneaded to m orsels’ w e have the essential m eaning o f fecit massas, and can regard the gloss balles as m erely a reasonable guess or a deliberately inexact substitute. T h is hypothesis is strengthened, I believe, b y w hat looks like a co m ­ parable th o u gh hitherto unregarded sem antic developm ent o f the G e r ­ m anic alternative to zveler, O E lippa, m odern lip, as suggested b y certain passages in Piers Plozjvman to w h ich Professor E . T . D on aldson has directed m y attention. Skeat’s glossary o f that poem lists lippe ‘morsel, portion,

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part, b it’ and lyppe ‘a portion, p art’ , w ith reference to three passages that are essentially o n ly tw o. In one, A varice confesses to len d in g m on ey to people w h o are w illin g to lose part o f every coin, ‘a lippe in eche n o b le ’ (C -te x t, v ii. 245), or ‘a lyp p e at euery n o b le’ (B -text, v. 250). In the other, Recklessness says he w ould rather have ‘a lippe o f godes grace’ than all the w it and learning o f C le r g y and Scripture (C -te x t, x n . 226). R elevan t also, I think, is lipet ‘a small piece or b it’, cited b y the O E D from L y d g a te (A Ballade o f J a k H are, 18: ‘O f euery dyssh a lyp e t o u t to take’, M inor Poemsy ed. M acC rack en , Part II, E E T S , o.s. 192, p. 446; also in J. N o r to n -S m ith ’s annotated edition, John Lydgate, Poems, O xfo rd , 1966, p. 12). N o w it is true that the O E D classifies the lippe o f Piers Plowman as a separate word, lipe, sb. 1, su rvivin g in the C u m b erlan d dialect w ith the pronunciation [loip], and m eaning either ‘a portion, a slip ’ or ‘a pleat or fo ld ’ ; and it classifies L y d g a te ’s lipet as a d im inutive o f this w ord rather than o f lip. U n d er the first m eaning o f lipe w e find, besides the tw o passages from Piers Plowman, tw o quotations from glossaries o f the C u m b erlan d dialect dated 1851 ('Lipe, a fragm ent’) and 1878 ('L ip e, a large portion. U s u a lly applied to lan d ’). B u t for etym o lo gy the O E D says m erely, ‘ C f. O F . lipee (F . lippée)\ a suggestion that leads us back indirectly to the ordinary w ord lip. O ld Fren ch lipee is cited b y G o d efroy, Dictionnaire de Vancien langue franfaise (iv. 794b), from a text o f the fourteenth century, w here it refers to a draught o f w in e : ‘L ors trait une grande lipee’ ; and again (x. 86a) as lippee ‘bon m orceau’ from a text o f the sixteenth cen tu ry: ‘ L e roy d ’A n g le terre em portait tousjours quelque lip p ee’ . T h e w ord survives as lippée in m odern French, and is defined in E . L ittr é ’s dictionary as ‘ce q u ’on p eu t prendre avec la lippe, b o u ch ée’, a definition that points to the generally assum ed derivation from O F lippe ‘a protruding lower lip ’ , a w ord still in use w h ich has been found as early as the thirteenth cen tu ry and is re­ garded as a borrow ing from a L o w G erm an dialect. (See, for exam ple, E . G am illscheg, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der französischen Sprache, p. 564; W . v. W artburg, Französisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, x v i.

467- 8.) I am inclined to suspect that, though the C u m b erlan d lipe, w ith its pronunciation [b ip ], m ay well be derived from an A n g lo -F re n c h lipee, the lippe o f Piers Plozvman and the lipet o f L y d g a te are d irectly related to the ordinary E n glish lip, itself spelled lippe or lyppe in the fourteenth century. In any event, m y conjecture that Æ lfric was using weler in the sense o f a m outhful or morsel m ay seem less im probable in the ligh t o f the com parable sense-developm ent o f bucca, buccella, and certain m em bers at least o f the lip fam ily. 4 5 I_93- T h is story had been told som ew hat more briefly b y Æ lfric in his hom ily on St. C lem ent, C H I. 570/21-572/22. 472. embe secgan. It is tem pting to take these words as a com pound, b u t the ellipsis o f the object o f embe (pone seað) m ay be better conveyed b y

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givin g embe the slightly greater emphasis and deliberateness o f utterance that it can sustain as a separate word. For a few similar exam ples o f near­ com pounds o f embe and a verb, see Glossary, ymbe; and note also the clear separation at x ii. 7 1, þe Crist embe pa spræc. 483. o f er swiðe langne zveg. T h e Hauksbók here (I. 164/11) has ‘urn m ioc langan v e g ’ where the V u lgate has nothing to correspond— a clear sign that Æ lfr ic ’s hom ily has been used. 492. beorhthzvile. T h e form bearktmhwile o f L shows the derivation more clearly, bu t the shortened form o f the other m anuscripts m ay be Æ lfr ic ’s. See Glossary. 4 9 4 -5 10 . T h e re is a comparable passage in D e Correctione Rusticorum, § 1 3 , bu t it is altogether different in detail.

497 •fylðe, R ;fulnessey C L . Æ lfric uses both words, the context w ould allow either, and in the absence o f any certainty about the relationship o f C and L I have allowed R ’s reading to stand. 512. tozvurpon þon[n]e hæþengyld. T h e em endation þon[n]ey w hich is at least countenanced b y the am biguous pon (regularly for þonney rarely for pone) in L , seems almost certain on grounds o f sense as well as grammar. T h e scribes w ho wrote pone (as did those o f R and C ) were follow ing the normal expectation of the w ord-order but violating the traditional gender o f -gyld. T h e re is no other instance, to ju d ge b y the dictionaries, o f m ascu­ line instead o f neuter gender for this word, and the neuter pæ t is d u ly given at line 647 below. Furtherm ore, there is no clear antecedent for a dem onstrative pone at this point in the hom ily, whereas ponne makes good sense. Æ lfric has alluded vagu ely to such false gods as have appeared in the stories o f D aniel, and has intim ated that m any o f them were w or­ shipped before the com ing o f C h rist (lines 4 9 4 -7). H e then ushers in the revolutionary sixth age, touching ligh tly on C h rist’s m anifest divinity, displayed at his ascension as well as b y his miracles, and proceeds to the period im m ediately follow ing the ascension, saying: ‘ It is also a very long story to say how his faithful apostles then overthrezv idolatry, after the S aviour’s ascension, and pow erfully put to flight those abom inable gods from their images, w hile m en looked o n .’ T h e odd w ord-order is partially justified, I think, b y the rhythm ical balance o f the line. 515. biggengas. T h e gloss cultores in R m ust be w rong, for it is plain that the m eaning here, as norm ally in Æ lfric, is ‘ religious practices’, ‘rites’ . Æ lfr ic ’s usual word for ‘w orshippers’ is biggengan. See G lossary. 537. on menigfealdum cræfte. T h e relation o f this phrase to micelnysse is not clear to me, and I suspect w e should read and for on. W h at Æ lfric is referring to is probably a num ber o f subtle contrivances w h ich had been devised, according to Rufinus, ad stuporem admirationemque videntium. T h u s a narrow w indow placed w ith great accuracy allowed the sun to seem to kiss the lips o f Serapis at the very m om ent w hen an iron image o f the sun was being ‘ m agically’ elevated b y a m agnet hidden in the ceiling.

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Rufinus makes m uch o f these devices and then says there were multa alia that he has no tim e to describe. {Hist. Eccl. xi. 23, in Eusebius Werke, I I U. 1027 sq.) 556. sceoccenan. T h e gloss in R, deum demoniorumy suggests that this m igh t be a m iswriting o f sceoccena} gen. pi. o f sceoccay bu t though sceoccen is found here only, N apier was probably correct in accepting it and defining it as ‘devilish' in C O E L . It is formed like treowen ‘w ooden’, w hich m ay also have been in the glossator’s m ind, since he adds lingneum. 559. bucyhere obviously ‘trunk’ o f the body, a m eaning not recorded for O E . T h e O E D gives it for M E bouky q.v., but suggests it m ay have been borrowed from the cognate O N búkr. A further use o f the w ord in nearly the same sense b y Æ lfric seems to have escaped attention because o f the unreliability o f the late M S . B (B odley 343) in w h ich it is contained. It occurs in Belfour ix (the revision o f L S 1), p. 86/5, as the lod ging o f the soul while on earth, and is aptly translated ‘fram e’ b y Belfour. T h is is cited b y the M E D y bouky 1. (c), bu t only as ‘c 1175 (? O E ) ’ . 577. embe sume neodey virtually ‘on some business’ . C f. x x v i i . 85. 633* geancymey ‘ return’, as properly glossed, reditu, in R . O n this u n ­ recorded m eaning see Glossary. 669. Ure Hælend cwæð szoaþeah be his halgum þegnum, Ego dixiy etc. Æ lfr ic ’s statem ent that these words o f the psalm were spoken b y the Saviour to his servants is consistent enough w ith the traditional inter­ pretation o f the psalms, bu t seems slightly at odds w ith Jesus’s own treat­ m ent o f the verse w hen he quotes it at John x. 34. O n e can see better the train o f associations in Æ lfr ic ’s m ind b y turning to 1. 350 sqq., where the verse is quoted in support of John i. 12. H o m ily 1 was u n d ou bted ly com ­ posed later than xx i, and m ay show some added com plications in Æ lfr ic ’s understanding o f the verse, bu t no doubt the basic connexions were established long before.

XXII1 ‘WYRDWRITERAS US SECGAÐ DA DE AWRITAN BE CYNINGUM’ (Part of a lost composition pertaining to the defence of the kingdom) segment of discourse here edited appears without title and without formal conclusion in M S. P alone. Evidently excerpted from some larger composition, it stands in the company of other short, sometimes excerpted, pieces of Ælfric, several of which occur also in R and S. Perhaps the short pieces in all these manuscripts are derived from a single collection that has since disappeared. This particular excerpt has to do with the government of the kingdom and its defence against the invader, but it needs careful reading to be rightly assessed, because it has been so delimited as to lack unity. T he first eighty-six lines are designed to show by the example of history that some of the most successful rulers have delegated their military power to carefully chosen generals, thus lightening their own burdens and greatly extending the range of their defence against enemies (lines 3-5), while they have avoided the risk of depriving the people of leadership by an untimely death (47-49), and gained time to attend at home to other business for the people’s need (86). The greatest need of all in Æ lfric’s mind was G od’s support and protection, and this is partially indicated in the description of the emperor Theodosius II, who sent his generals against the enemy and stayed at home to ensure their success by prayer (73-77); but Ælfric has saved the greatest example of this until the end. In lines 87-94 he tells how Moses sent Joshua against Amalek and controlled the outcome of the battle by his prayer (a story he had told at length in D e O ra tio n e M o y s i, L S xiii), and adds, to show G od’s commitment to the cause of Moses, how in after years the Amalekites were utterly crushed by Saul. T he

1 In editing these lines I have profited by a trial edition undertaken as a class exercise by a former pupil, M r. R. K. Diebold.

726

‘W Y R D WR I T E R A S US S E C G A Ð ’

xxn

This final example serves as a transition to a new topic, which is boldly opened but left unfinished in lines 95-103, where the excerpt ends. The primary theme is that the well-being of the realm depends on God. All guidance and all defence must come ulti­ mately from him, and we must seek his counsel with constancy of mind and complete sincerity, so that the promises we make to him will be fæ ste and getreowe, trumran ponne stanzoeall. For God is truth, and loves truth, and will destroy all those that utter false­ hoods. We have thus entered upon a new phase of the discussion, aimed, it would seem, at all those in authority rather than the king alone, and needing further development and due subordination to the master-theme of the national welfare, which remains latent in the excerpt. Taken as a whole the excerpt sounds more like a letter than a sermon.1 Like other letters of Æ lfric’s it is homiletic in manner, a formal admonitory discourse that might suitably be addressed to a group rather than a single correspondent; but the advice con­ tained in the greater part of it would hardly have been offered to an ordinary congregation. The heavy insistence on authorities in the part about kings and their need of generals shows how much Æ lfric is concerned lest his advice should not be heeded. I think he must be addressing some nobleman of influence, hoping to reach the king himself and his chief ministers. He was probably ac­ quainted with other noblemen besides his patrons, Æthelweard (now presumably dead) and Æthelmær, and the three corre­ spondents, Wulfgeat, Sigefyrth, and Sigeweard, whose names have come down to us. It is even possible that his advice was solicited. We have some indication of the date of Æ lfric’s composition in his allusion, within the excerpt, to two earlier writings, the second part of L S vn, on Gallicanus, and the epilogue to the homily on Judges. O f these the second is the later, having been written, we may assume, after the publication of the Lives o f Saints as a set. Since he speaks of Judges as having been written hwilon (not, for example, hwene ær), it is possible that several years had elapsed since then, and I am inclined on general grounds to suspect that the excerpt belongs to the period of Æ lfric’s abbacy; but of this there is no proof. The ideals that lie behind the excerpt and are partly stated 1 This opinion has already been expressed by Dr. Clemoes, Chronology, 241.

XXII

‘W Y R D W R I T E R A S US S E C G A Ð ’

727

within it may be found elsewhere in Ælfric, with particular clarity perhaps in homily ix. 48-54, where both the king’s responsibility for the defence of the realm and his dependence on God for all authority and all victory are set forth. In the introduction to IX (pp. 373 sqq.) I have given reasons for supposing that Æ lfric’s views, though grounded in the Old Testament and in Augustinian doctrine, were somewhat affected by such later writings as D e Duodecim Abusivis and Sedulius Scottus’s D e Rectoribus Christi­ anis. On God as the source of victory and the need for prayer Sedulius is both explicit and copious, and it is hard not to believe that Æ lfric was affected by him at several points in his writings, especially those mentioned in the note on ix. 52-54. One of the most memorable passages is the list of kings who triumphed by their faith in God in the epilogue to Judges, to which Æ lfric here refers us for the victories of Theodosius II. What distinguishes the present passage is the elaborate plea for a delegation of the king’s authority to generals. T h is is made nowhere else in Æ lfric’s surviving works, so far as I can remember, and it seems to be a matter that he has thought out for himself under the guidance of the wyrdzoriteras, both in and out of the Bible. His examples are confined to the Old Testament and the Historia Ecclesiastica Tripartita ascribed to Cassiodorus, but he may be speaking truly when he refers to a larger company, heathen as well as Christian, as witnesses he could summon. In the tedious quotations about David one may detect something of the dis­ coverer’s anxiety for formal proof of his statements. Underlying the whole passage, however, is the much deeper anxiety that crops up in many places in Æ lfric as a counterpoise to his otherworldly serenity. There is such a thing as iustum bellum , as he says in his account of the Maccabees (L S xxv. 708), ‘wið ða reðan flot-menn, oþþe wið oðre þeoda J?e eard willað fordon’, and there is now a great need that it be waged successfully. In the injunction to seek from God himself urne ræ d mid anrædum mode (96 sq.) it is hard not to detect an allusion to the unræd so unhappily associated with Ethelred.1 1 Some interesting speculations concerning the occasion for Æ lfric’s argu­ ment have very recently appeared in a separate edition of this piece by W. Braekman. See the additional note, p. 733 below.

TH E

TEXT

Wyrdwriteras us secgað, ða ðe awritan be cyningum, þæt þa ealdan cyningas on ðam ærran timan hogodon hu hi mihton heora byrðena alihtan, for þan ðe an man ne mæg æghwar beon, and ætsomne ealle þing aberan, þeah ðe he anweald hæbbe.

5

D a gesetton pa cyningas, him sylfum to fultume, ealdormen under him, and hi oft asendon to manegum gewinnum, swa swa hit awriten is ge on hæþenum bocum ge on Bibliothecan; and pa. ealdormen gewyldon pa onwinnendan fynd,

10

swa swa we wyllað secgan sume bysne be þam of þam Leden-bocum, þæt man us ne lihnige. Dauid se mæra cyning, þeah ðe he cene wære, he äsende his heretogan, swa swa hit segð on Leden on þæra Cyninga Bocum, swa swa we cyðað her

15

on Ledenum gereorde, þæt man us gelyfe:

M isit D auid Ioab ducem, et omnem exercitum bellatorum, et cetera: *Dauid se cyning äsende his heretogan, íoáb gehaten, and [he] gefeaht wið Amón, and his fynd afligde mid ealre his fyrde.

*f. 63v 20

Factum est ergo, uertente anno, eo tempore quo solent reges procedere ad bella, misit D auid íoáb, et cetera. This piece is found only in P (Hatton 115), ff. 63-64^ where it stands as a separate item but without title and without formal conclusion. i W yrd- . . . awritan] in capitals across first line of M S . M S. 22 sol(u)ent M S .

19 he] not in

GlosseSy Latin: 7 hi: illos. 8 gewinnum: pre\io. 10 gewyldon: viceri/nt. 12 lihnige: mewtiatwr. M E : i Respelled above the line: wurðwritares us seggeð þeo þe awriten [be] (kinges), the last word partially erased. 13 mæra: gloss erased. S ources. 17 [II Reg. (II Sam.) x. 7] Quod cum audisset David, misit Ioab et omnem exercitum bellatorum. 18-20 [Summarizes the rest of the story, verses 8-14.] 21-23 [II Reg. xi. i y as given except autem for ergo, and ad bella procedere.]

Bodleian MS. Hatton 1 15, f. 63. The beginning of x x ii following De Septiformi Spiritu, Napier vin. In the main hand, with the characteristic Worcester marks and glosses.

XXII

‘WYRD WR I T E RAS US S E C G A Ð ’

729

Dauid se cyning äsende eft íoáb on ðam oðran geare to ðam Ammoniscum,

25

and he oferwann hi mid þæs cyninges werode, and sige ðær geferde, swa swa us segð seo racu.

Dixit ergo Dauid, nunc magis aflicturus est nos Sibá filius Bochri, et cetera. Siba wæs gehaten sum Dauides þegena, se astyrode þæt folc mid feondlicre spræce

30

ongean pone cyning Dauid, and cwæð þæt hi ne sceoldan Dauide fylian, ne be his ræde faran. Ð a fleah se Sibá mid fleamdome aweg; ac íoáb se heretoga his heafod begeat

35

æt þære burhware þe he to geboren wæs.

Factum est autem rursum prelium aduersus Israhel Philistinorum, et cetera. Eft wæs geworden wið Israhel gefeo[h]t; on ðam gefeo[h]te wæs sum wundorlic ent se wolde ofslean þone cyning Dauid,

40

ac him gehe[a]lp sona Abisai his ðegen, Ioabes broðor, and he pone ent ofsloh, for pon ðe he geseah hu he syrwde embe Dauid, wolde hine forstelan betwux his pegenum.

45

Ð a sworon sona ðæs cyninges ðegenas ealle, and sædon him pus to: Ne scealt ðu næfre heonon forð mid us to gefeohte, pinum feore to plyhte, 34 Da] no capital in M S . 39, 40 gefeoft, gefeofte M S . 40 ðam altered to ðæm M S . 42 geheolp M S . 47 Ne] no capital in M S . Glossesy Latin: 26 oferwann: vicit.

gigaws.

27 sige: vzctoriam.

40 ent:

44 syrwde: iws[id]iabatwr.*3 7

24-27 [Loosely summarized from the remainder of I I Reg. xi. 1 and xii. 26, passing over the story of Bathsheba and Uriah, and Davidys part in the victory over the Ammonites.] 28, 29 [II Reg. xx. 6] Ait autem David ad Abisai: Nunc magis afflicturus est nos Seba, filius Bochri, quam Absalom. . . . 30-36 [Summarizes I I Reg. xx. 1-22.] 37, 38 [II Reg. xxi. J5] Factum est autem rursum praelium Philisthinorum adversum Israel. . . . 40-49 [II Reg. xxi. 1 6 , 17] Iesbibenob, qui fuit de genere Arapha, cuius ferrum hastae trecentas uncias appendebat, et accinctus erat ense novo, nisus est percutere David. Praesidioque ei fuit Abisai, filius Sarviae, et percussum Philisthaeum interfecit. Tunc iuraverunt viri David, dicentes: Iam non egredieris nobiscum in bellum, ne extinguas lucernam Israel.

730

‘WYRD WR I T E R AS US S E C G A Ð ’

*j?elæste þu adwæsce Israhe[l]a leohtfæt:— þæt wæs Dauid him sylf be ðam ðe hi sædon swa.

xxii *f. 64

50

Constantinus, se casere ðe ærest beah to Cristendome, hæfde ænne heretogan se hatte Gallicanus, þone he äsende oft mid swiðlicere fyrdincge ongean ða onwinnendan leoda þe wunnon ongean þone casere, and he hi æfre gewilde to ðæs caseres willan.

55

A nd se Gallicanus wearð syððan swa halig þæt he wundra worhte and wearð gemartirod for Criste, swa swa ic awrat on Englisc on sumum spelle iu. Gratianus wæs gehaten sum healic casere, swyðe on God gelyfed, swa swa us segð seo bóc

60

Tripartita Istoria, þæt is, Pryfeald Gereccednyss. D a wunnon wið hine )?a wildan hæþenan, ac se casere äsende him sona togeanes Theodosium his heretogan, and he feaht wið ða hæþenan, and he feala ðusenda afylde þæra hæþenra,

65

and he for þam micclan sige syððan wearð casere, swa swa seo boc us segð, sece se pe wylle. Ð a caseras woldon ða cenan men ofaxian, and him fultum findan and hi eac fyrðrian to ealles folces ðearfe, and hi forð tihtan,

70

and wurðodon hi syððan hi sige hæfdon, swa swa we nu sædon be Theodosige. Theodosius se gingra and se wurðfulla casere 49 israhera M S . Glosses, Latin: 49 leohtfæt: lucernam. 53 swiðlicere fyrdincge: valido popi/lo. 58 iu: olim. 64 heretogan: Ducem (?) partially erased. 66 sige: Victoria. 69 fyrðrian: promouere. 71 sige: victoriam. 51-58 [Ælfric merely refers back to his ozvn account, L S vii. 296 sqq. See note.] 59-60 [Hist. Eccl. Tripartita, IX . 2] Gratianus . . . pietatem . . . operibus demonstrabat initiaque sui regni rerum omnium Domino dedicavit. 62-67 [IX. 4] Porro Gratianus Thraciam barbaros vastare cognoscens Italia relicta Paeoniam venit. . . . Cum barbari elevati victoria inexpugnabiles esse viderentur . . . [Theodosium] ab Hispaniis evocans et magistrum militum esse denuntians cum expeditu ad barbaros destinavit. . . . Immensaque caedes tunc facta est barbarorum. . . . Cumque pauci omnino transissent dies, qui pro victoriae inspectione missi fuerant, remearunt peremptaque hostium multa milia narraverunt. Quamobrem laetatus princeps Theodosium fecit imperatorem. 73-78 [Ælfricys generalization is confirmed by several passages in the Hist. Eccl. Trip.: e.g. X I. 9; X I. 15 ; and X I. 18. Cf. also the following statement at the end of X I. iy] Si quando bella moverentur, secundum David confugiebat ad Deum,

XXII

‘WYRD WR I T E RAS US S E C G A Ð ’

731

sende oft his heretogan, swa swa us segð seo racu, to gehwylcum gefeohtum for his leode ware,

75

and he him sylf wolde singan his gebedu, and Gode betæcan symle his fyrde, *and G od him eac fylste and his folc bewerode, swa swa we awriton on sumon spelle hwilon.

#f. 64v

Langsume tale we magon macian be ðysum gif we wyllað secgan be þam ðe us secgað béc,

80

of þam ðe us becymð se wisdom and seo wissung, hu oft wurdon äsende pa sigefæstan heretogan to manegum gewinnum heora leodum to ware; and ða cyningas sæton him sylfe swaðeah

85

æt ham ymbe oðre bysga h[eora] leod[um] to þearfe. Moyses se mæra, þe mihte wið G od sprecan, he äsende Iosue, swa swa us segð Exodus, togeanes Amalech; and Moyses pa hwyle motode wið God and abæd him sige æt þam soðfæstan Gode.

90

Ð is gewræc Saul eft syððan on Amalech, swa þæt he be Godes hæse gehergode þone eard, and pa hæðenan acwealde, and heora cynn adylegode, for pan ðe hi wunnon wolice wið Moysen. Ure wissung and ure warn sceal beon of Gode,

95

and we sceolon secan set Gode sylfum urne ræd mid anrædum mode, and on eornost sprecan,

pset ure behat beon þe we behatað Gode 86 his leode M S . Glosses, Latin: 83 sigefæstan: victoriosi. to : contra (misplaced over to in heretogan). 84 gewinnum : prclio. to ware : cauendum (/). 89 motode : loqt/cbatwr. 90 sige: victoriaw. 91 gewræc: vindicauit. 93 adyle­ gode: deleui*. 94 wolice: imuste. M E : 89 motode: spac (? erased). sciens eum proeliorum auctorem, [et] inimicos orationibus superabat. [All these passages in Book X I are drawn from the Ecclesiastical History of Socrates.] 87-90 [Free summary of Ex. xvii. 8 -16 .] 91-94 [/ Reg. (I Sam.) xv, esp. i-gy32, 33] Et dixit Samuel ad S a u l. . . : Hæc dicit Dominus exercituum: Recensui quæcumque fecit Amalec Israeli, quomodo restitit ei in via cum ascenderet de Ægypto. Nunc ergo vade, et percute Amalec, et demolire universa eius; . . . interfice a viro usque ad mulierem, et parvulum atque lactentem, bovem et ovem, camelum et asinum. . . . Percussitque Saul Amalec, ab Hevila donec venias ad Sur. . . . Et apprehendit Agag, regem Amalec, vivum ; omne autem vulgus interfecit in ore gladii. . . . Et in frusta con­ cidit eum [Agag] Samuel coram Domino, in Galgalis.

732

‘ WYRD WR I T E R AS US S E C G AÐ

XXII

fæste and getreowe, trumran þonne stanweall; for þan ðe G od is soðfæstnyss, and he soðfæstnysse lufað,

100

and he ealle ða fordeð þe leasunga sprecað, swa swa hit on Leden stent ðysum wordum awriten:

Perdes omnes qui loquuntur mendacium. 99 feste] the e underdotted as if for deletion M S . in M S .

103 Percies] no capital

Glosses, Latin: 99 trumran: firmior; another gloss, probably M E t erased.*4 2

103 [Psal. v. 7, in party as given.]

N O TES i. C f. the opening sentence of the hom ily on St. Bartholom ew, C H I. 454: ‘W yrdwriteras secgað þæt ðry leodscipas sind gehatene In d ia.’ 9. on hæþenum bocum. I do not know w hat heathen histories he had read. C f. xxi. 148. 12. þæ t man us ne lihnige\ 16. þæ t man us gelyfe. Æ lfr ic ’s concern for authority and his fondness for L atin quotations are everywhere apparent, bu t here he insists more than usual on the valid ity o f his testim ony. 20. fy n d . E vid en tly accusative plural, as the form regularly indicates. T h e phrase mid ealre his fy rd applies to Joab’s arm y (referred to as omnem exercitum bellatorum in the Latin), not to A m m o n ’s. C f. 26, mid þæs cyninges werode. 34. fleamdome. T h is is the only record o f the word, w h ich was cited from P b y N apier in C O E L . 42. geheolp, M S . It is conceivable that the scribe wrote this form inten­ tionally instead o f the normal gehealp, bu t it is more likely as careless an error as gefeoft in 39 and 40 or israhera in 49. 5 1-5 8 . Æ lfric ’s full account o f Gallicanus, to w h ich he here refers, is in L S v ii. 296-429, the A lia Sententia quam scripsit Terrentianus appended to the N atale Sancte Agnetis. T h e approxim ate source has been identified as the Passio Gallicani in M om britius, Sanctuarium (Paris, 1910), I. 5 6 9 -7 1. See J. H . O tt, Über die Quellen der Heiligenleben in Aelfrics Lives o f Saints I (Halle, 1892), pp. 26 sqq. 64. Th eod osius I is m entioned as the destroyer o f idols in xxi. 542, and his victory achieved b y the aid o f a miraculous storm is briefly described in the epilogue to Judges, lines 40-44 ( O .E . H ept., p. 415). T h e story o f his encounter w ith Am brose is told at length in xxvi. 79. swa swa we awriton on sumum spelle hwilon. T h a t is, in the hom ily on Judges, Epilogue, 4 5 -7 7 (O .E . H ep t.y pp. 415 sq.).

XXII

‘W Y R D W R I T E R A S

US

SECGAÐ*

733

8 7-90 . T h e story touched upon in these lines is told fully in D e Oratione M oysi, L S x iii. 1-2 9 . 88. swa swa us segð Exodus. T h is parenthesis m ay be an afterthought, since the line is com plete w ithout it; bu t it adjusts itself well to the alli­ terative schem e and produces an interesting variation.

A D D IT IO N A L

N O TE

A separate edition o f this piece b y W . Braekman (‘W yrdw riteras: an U n p u b lish ed Æ lfrician T e x t in M an u script H atton 1 1 5 ’ , Revue beige de Philologie et d ’histoire, X L I V [1966], 959-70) came to hand after this volum e w as already in page proof. In his introduction, p. 963, D r. Braek­ m an makes the interesting and plausible suggestion that Æ lfric com posed the principal part o f this extract in response to criticism o f Ethelred for not leading his troops in person on several im portant occasions, thus breaking the precedent set b y A lfred and his successors in the first half o f the tenth century. E v e n if this is so, how ever, lines 6 8 -72 suggest the need for m ore careful selection o f generals than had hitherto been made. D r. Braekm an’s edition is sim ilar in scope and m ethod to his sligh tly earlier edition o f no. x i x above, b u t here his text is free from contam ina­ tion b y the W orcester corrections. Its only blem ish is the interpretation o f the m anuscript godefæ ste (i.e. Gode fæ ste, lines 98 and 99 above) as a com pound, gode-fæste. W e differ about a few o f the glosses, w h ich are often hard to decipher. Instead o f mentiatur (som ewhat inaccurately glossin g lihnigey 12) he has inficiatur (certainly w rong, b u t I was differently w ro n g until the last m inute). H e m ay be right in reading a partially erased dvc above heretogan, 18; I can see only faint and uncertain traces in m y photostat. I think he is w rong in guessing ba {run ?) over heretogan, 64, where I have guessed Ducemy and he is certainly w rong in reading victoriali for victoriosi in the m argin as a gloss for sigefæstany 83. In the same line, I have reported the v ery clear but inappropriate or m isplaced abbreviation for contra above the to o f heretogany whereas he reports comes (w ithout indicating an abbreviation). Finally, w hat he reports as a partially erased licere above motodey 89, and attributes to confusion betw een the infinitives motian and motany is probably the correct M E gloss spæc or spac. T h e only L a tin gloss for motode is therefore the m arginal loquebatur, on w h ich w e agree.

C 2710.2

R

XXIII SANCTORUM ALEXANDRI, EVENTU, ET THEODOLI: PARS PRIMA (The preliminary phases of the story concluded in C H II. xx) T

his

narrative, composed in the same rhythmical prose as the

short piece on the passion of the three saints in the C a th o lic H o m ilie s ,1 can hardly be the work of anyone but Ælfric. T h e scribe

who copied it in part of an extra gathering at the beginning of M S . T (Hatton 114) indicated clearly that it was to be joined to the earlier piece, replacing some introductory lines and giving an account of the events preceding Alexander’s confrontation with the tyrannical Aurelianus. When the two pieces are joined together according to the instructions, we have a complete rendering (with some minor abridgements and variations) of the A c t a A le x a n d r i P a p æ as given in the Bollandist A c t a S a n c to ru m for the third of

May. O f the printed texts of the A c t a this is the closest to Æ lfric, though at one point (line 65) the text given by Surius is closer.2 It had been established by M ax Förster that Æ lfric had used the fourth and last chapter of the A c t a A le x a n d r i for his narrative in the C a th o lic H o m ilie s .3 Evidently Ælfric was not content to leave the rest of the story untold in English, though indeed the wonder is that he should have omitted the early chapters at first. Perhaps he was troubled by the fact that he had composed a homily on the invention of the cross for the same day, and thought he would keep this one within bounds by limiting it to the passions of Alexander and his atten­ dant priests. We know, too, from the Latin preface to the Second Series, that he was pressed for time because of the Danish raids and had to make some of the homilies shorter than usual. Under these circumstances he may have thought the preliminary chapters 1 Contained in M S S. D, E, K (Thorpe's), T (Hatton 1 14 as originally written), and Cotton Vitellius D. xvii. No longer in Cotton Otho B. x. 2 Historiae seu Vitae Sanctorum, V (Maius), Turin, 1876, pp. 73-81. 3 Über die Quellen von Ælfric s Homiliae Catholicae. I. Legenden, Inaug. Diss., Berlin, 1892, p. 38.

X XIII

SS. A L E X A N D R I ,

EVENTU,

ET

THEODOLI

735

of the A cta dispensable or even distracting, for while they exhibit the miracles performed by Alexander they make much of two remarkable converts,

Hermes and Quirinus.

The

passion of

Quirinus is related at some length, though his day comes earlier, at the end of March. O n second thoughts, however, one is bound to recognize the value of these preliminaries. A s sensational narra­ tives go this is ably constructed. T h e debate of Quirinus with Hermes, conducted with forbearance and leading to Quirinus’s conversion, stands in significant contrast to the violent altercation between Aurelianus and Alexander with its ensuing horrors; and the preliminary conflict between Aurelianus and Quirinus helps to prepare us for these excesses as well as to make the rage of the tyrant a little more intelligible. Æ lfric does not always make the most of the story as it stands in the Latin A cta . Some relatively subtle touches are lost in the pro­ cess of abridgement, and his rearrangement of the narrative at the beginning is of doubtful propriety. By putting first, in its chrono­ logical order, Alexander’s resuscitation of Hermes’s dead son, Æ lfric gains narrative simplicity and a powerful beginning, but weakens the organization of the whole. Perhaps he judged rightly, however, that a congregation would not easily follow the complica­ tions of the more sophisticated Latin narrative. T h e Worcester scribe who added this piece to Hatton 114 was not, in K er’s opinion, the same as any of the scribes who were responsible for other additions, and is to be sharply distinguished from the main scribe of the volume. All one can say is that his hand resembles other Worcester hands of the last quarter of the eleventh century, and that his spellings deviate markedly from those of the main scribe, who follows the prevailing L W S conventions. T h is man’s spellings show certain Anglian traits: (a ) a for ea before /, r plus consonant: a ld lic , 7, cw a rtern , -e , 69,

72, 78, etc. (14 times); a ll , 115; a lle , 140.

(b) i for ý (from E W S ie), gelefan , 98. (c) in, prep., for on, 1 7 1.1 T h e y also show a number of other small deviations from the stan­ dard, some of which are probably merely to be classified as late: 1 I had failed to notice this in when I said (I. 82/23 above) that M S . V had the only instance (at xxx. 114, not h i ) of in for on in the homilies here edited. M y oversight does not affect the argument.

736

SS. A L E X A N D R I ,

EVENTU,

ET

THEODOLI

XXIII

(d ) interchange of i and ig in by ri, 12 (acc. s . !); f i f t i , 40; h ig ,

106 and 108 (asf.), 155 (ap.); tw e n ti , 157; hu n g ria , 182. (e) ig for palatal g in -d æ ig , 19, 25; þ e ig n e , 53; aw eig , 153; m æ ig ð-, 197. (/) T h e infinitive ends in -en for -a n at 82 (twice), 119, 162, 167

(first), 175, 190, 194 (first), 198. (g ) T h e past participle ends in -a n for -en at 115.

(h ) a for æ in h a fð , 34; ic habbe , 102. (i) miscellaneous: G o d d , 31; w eorld- (for w oru ld - or less often zveoruld-), 58; w oldost for w oldest, 97; scu ld on for the prevail­

ing sceoldon, 177; Aafif for h æ tst, 108; w orpan for zoeorpan or the prevailing w u rp a n , inf., 194; ea//a for acc. pi. e a lle, 201; £)a /»a for the regular £)a />£ ‘those who’, 176; perhaps æ fninge for the regular æ fn u n g e , 90; and perhaps the variant sw yre for sw uran (acc. sing.), 132 (see note).

O f course many of these spellings can be found sporadically in manuscripts of the eleventh century or earlier, and some are per­ haps mere blunders; but the very large number of deviations is striking and sets this text apart from all others in this edition.

[V. N O N . SANCTORUM ET

M AII

ALEXANDRI,

EVENTU,

THEODOLI]

O n ðissum dæge we wurðiað mid lofsangum þone halgan papan þe is gehaten Alexander, se ðrowode martirdom mid twæm mæssepreostum þa wæron gehatene Euentius and Theodolus; hi ðrowodon on ðissum dæge for heora Drihtnes geleafan. He wæs se íifta papa æfter Petres ðrowunge,

5

iunglic on gearum, and aldlic on geleafan, halig on his weorcum; and he gewende þa hæðenan ðurh his godnesse to Godes geleafan, and feala ðara burhwitena he gebigde to Gode. Hermes wzes gehaten se yldesta burhwita

10

on Romana byrig, and he ða byri bewyste under þam casere Traianus gehaten. D a gelamp hit swa þæ t his sunu forðferde, Contained only in T (Hatton 114), ff. 5 -8 v. Title] Supplied from C H II. xx. No heading by original scribe. The Worcester scribe with the trembling hand adds, Alexandri, Euencii et Theodoli. Glosses, Latin: 8 gewende: conwertit.

10 burhwitena: dues (!)

Sources. 6-10 [A S S , Acta Alexandri Papæ, I. 1] Quinto loco a beato Petro Apostolo Romanæ urbis Ecclesiae Cathedram sedit Alexander, sanctitate in­ comparabilis; iuvenis quidem aetate, sed fide senior. Totius autem populi verum affectum gratia ei divina contulerat: ut et Senatorum maximam partem con­ verteret ad Dominum. 1 1 -1 3 [Ælfric's transition. Hermes is called Praefectum Urbis, Acta, I. 1, and Trajan is named in I. 2.] 14-36 [Ælfric puts first, in chronological order, the story of Hermes's son. In the Acta Alexandri it is told later, II. 7, in a speech by Hermes to Quirinus] Unicus mihi cum esset filius, in nimio languore positus, qui adhuc ad litterarum studia ambulabat, iste in Capitolium ductus est a me et a matre sua; et cum sacrificassemus omnibus Diis, . . . mortuus est. Tunc increpare me coepit nutrix eius, dicens: T u si ad sancti Petri limina eum adduxisses, et credidisses Christo, hodie filium tuum haberes incolumem. Cui ego dixi: Dum tu ipsa caeca sis facta, et non sis curata, quomodo filium meum mihi reddes incolumem ? . . . Vade, et crede: et si tibi oculos aperuerit Alexander, credam quod et mihi possit resti­ tuere unicum filium. Tu nc abiit ad ipsum caeca, circa horam tertiam: et ecce hora diei sexta, reversa est ad me sana, imponensque mortuum filium meum in

738

SS.

ALEXANDRI,

EVENTU,

ET

THEODOLI

seofon wintra cnapa, and he ða sarig wearð.

xxni 15

Ð a cwæð þæs tildes fostormodor to þam sarigan fæder, G if ðu gelyfdest on Crist, and gelæddest ðinne sunu to ðæs halgan Peteres cyrcan, na to hæðengildum, þu hæfdest þinne sunu ansundne nu todæig. Hermes hire cwæð to, Ð u eart ðe sylf blind; gelyf ðu on Crist, and gif ðin geleafa ðe gehælð,

20

þonne gelyfe ic syþþan þæt he minne sunu mage mihtelice of deaðe aræran. Ð a eode þæt blinde #wif ymb underntíd to Alexandre ðam papan, and eft ymbe mid-dæig

#f. sv 25

com ham to hire hlaforde mid halum eagum bliðe. Heo genam ða þæs cildes lie, and mid geleafan eode to ðæm halgan papan, and hine bæd georne þæt he hit arærde þurh ðæs Hælendes mihte. Hwæt ða Alexander on his gebedum cneowode, and þæt cild sona arás of deaðe þurh Godd,

30

and seo fostermodor hit bær bliðe to ðam fæder, hal and gesund, and he sona gelyfde on ðone ælmihtigan G od þe swylce mihte hafð. Hermes þa se fæder eode to ðæm papan and feoll to his fotum, fulluhtes biddende. He wearð ða gefullod æt ðam foresædan papan

35

mid wife and mid cildum and mid gesibbum mannum and mid æhtemannum, ealles twelf hundred manna and fifti, ða he gefreode ealle

40

and mid æhtum gegodode on ðæm halgan Eastordæge. Glosses, Latin: 18 na: non. 19 ansundne: incolumem. 39 aehte-: viii (/). 40 ða he gefreode: illos liberos fecit. 41 æhtum: opibns. humeris suis currere coepit. . . . Quæ cum venisset [ad Alexandrum], iactavit eum ante pedes eius dicens: Domine, redeat ad me caecitas, tantummodo ut iste resuscitetur ad vitam. Tunc sanctus Alexander dixit ei, Sic vero istum puerum resuscitet Christus, ut tibi semel quos redonavit non auferat oculos. Cumque oratione facta sanasset eum et ipse per se veniens ad me, reddidisset filium meum viventem et sanum, statim me misi ad pedes eius, et rogavi eum ut me faceret Christianum: et ex eo die credidi Christo. [Ælfric not only abridges but has the nurset not the pope, bring the child home.] 37-41 [Acta /. J, continuing sentence about Alexander quoted for 6-10 supra] . . . et Praefectum Urbis quoque, Hermen, cum uxore et sorore et filiis, baptizaret, cum mille ducentis quinquaginta servis suis, uxoribus quoque et filiis eorum, quos omnes in die sancto Paschae prius fecit fieri ingenuos, et ita baptizari: quibus postea etiam multa . . . dona concessit.

xxiii

SS. A L E X A N D R I ,

EVENTU,

ET TH EO D O LI

739

Ð is wearð gecydd þæm casere Traiane, hu Hermes his gerefa hæfde forlæten ðone hæþenscipe þe he on gelyfde and wære gefullod æt þam foresædon papan;

45

and he äsende sona sumne heretogan to Rome, Aurelianus gehaten, to ofsleanne ða Cristenan; ac T raianus gewat on þæm ilcan geare. Aurelianus þa ferde mid my*celre fare to Rome,

#f. 6

and he hæfde ðone anwald þe se oðer ær hæfde;

50

and he gebrohte on cwartern þone halgan papan and Ermen ðone heahgerefan he het healdan on bendum mid anum his þeigne, se hatte Quirinus. D a axode Quirinus þone arwurðan Ermen, H w i dest ðu ðe swa wacne, swa æðelboren swa ðu eart,

55

þæt þu þinne wurðscipe forlætst and on bendum þuss ligst ? Hermes him andwyrde ardlice and cw æ ð: Se weorldlica wurðscipe is awendedlic, and se heofonlica wunað ecelice. Quirinus him cwæð to, Cwist ðu þæt ænig lif sy

60

æfter þissum life, be ðan ðe ðu gelyfst? Hermes him andwyrde, N u for feawum gearum ic tælde þa Cristenan J?e cwædon pæt ænig Glosses, Latin: 48 gewat: obiit. vilem. 57 ardlice: cito.

50 anwald: potestatem. 63 tælde: reprehendi.

55 wacne:

42-50 [Acta /. 2] Unde cum hæc opera eius ad Traianum Principem per­ venissent, misit Aurelianum Comitem utriusque militiae de Seleucia Isauriae, ad interfectionem omnium Christianorum: unde nutu Dei eodem anno defunctus est Traianus. Et ingresso urbem Aureliano, omnis senatus ita famulatus est ei, ut ipsum Principem crederent esse Traianum. 51-53 [Acta L 2] Statim ergo ut ingressus est Romam, . . . templorum Pontifices . . . ita animum Aureliani ad iracundiam concitaverunt, ut Hermen Praefectum Urbis in vincula mitteret, sed et S. Alexandrum Papam carceri manciparet. . . . [ / . 3] Igitur dum Hermes . . . haberetur in vinculis apud Quirinum Tribunum, 54-61 [Acta L 3 cont,\ dicit ei Quirinus: Quæ ratio est ut vir illustris . . . Praefecturae carens honore tamquam privatum vinculis te onerari aequanimiter feras ? Sanctus Hermes dixit: . . . Dignitas terrena . . . mutatur: dignitas vero caelestis aeterna sublimitate subsistit. Dicit ei Quirinus: Miror te prudentem virum ad tantam stultitiam devenisse, ut credas te extra istam vitam aliquid habiturum. . . . 62-67 [Acta L 3] Hermes dixit: Et ego ante hos annos ista deridebam, et istam carnalem utilem esse dicebam vitam. [Suritis, et solam hanc . . . vitam . . . in pretio habendam existimabam.] Dicit ei Quirinus: Fac et me probare, ut si ita est, sicut tu credidisti, et ego credam.

74©

SS. A L E X A N D R I ,

EVENTU,

ET

TH EODOLI

xx m

oðer lif wære æfter þissum life, and ic ðiss an lif to lufienne tealde.

65

Quirinus him cwæð to, D o þæt ic cunne ðæt lif, and ic swa gelyfe swa swa ðu gelyfst. Hermes cwæð him eft to, Alexander se papa, þe nu on cwarterne is, J?urh Crist me onlihte, and me geleafan tæhte, and ic gelyfe nu on God.

70

Gewend nu to ðam cwearterne and cyþ him uncer word. Quirinus him cwæð to, Ic gange nu to ðam cwarterne, and ic cweðe to Alexandre, G if ðu Cristes bydel eart, gecum to Ermen, oððe Hermes to þe,

pæt ic inc gemete ðurh Godes mihte ætgædere, *and ic syþþan gelyfe swa swa ðu me tæcst.

75 *f. 6V

Hermes him andwyrde, D o swa ardlice. Quirinus pa eode to ðam cwarterne hraðe, and gesette ma wearda ofer ðone halgan wer, and mid þrimfealdum locum pa duru beleac,

80

and mid primfealdum hæftnydum gehæfte ðone papan, and het hine cunnien gif he acumen mihte of ðam hæftnydum to ðæm halgan Ermen. Alexander ða clypode to Criste and cwæð, Eala Hælend Crist, ðe me hete gesittan

85

on Peteres setle, asend me þinne engel, þæt he me gelæde to Ermen ðinum þeowan, and eft on ærnemergen hider ongean gelæde, Glosses, Latin: 65 tealde: iudicauzi. 69 onlihte: illuminau/t. 70 gelea­ fan: fidem. 73 bydel: preco. 74 gecum: veni. 77 ardlice: mox. 79 gesette: posuit. wearda: custodes. 81 hæftnydum: funibwí. gehæfte: vincit. 82 acumen: exire. 85 ðe: qut. 68-77 [Acta /. 4] Hermes dixit: Sanctus Alexander, qui habetur in vinculis, hoc me docuit. . . . [Ælfric skips Quirinus's initial distrust of Alexander and supplies his own transition at line 71.] Quirinus dixit: . . . Ego vado ad eum et dico illi: Si vis ut credam te verum Dei esse praeconem, . . . aut te apud Hermen inveniam, aut Hermen apud te, et omnia quae mihi dixeris credam. Hermes dixit: Ita fiat. 78-83 [Acta I. 4] Dicit ei Quirinus: Vadam ergo modo, et super eum vincula triplicabo et custodes, dicamque illi ut eum apud te inveniam cænandi hora. . . . [//. 5] Cumque isset et hoc dixisset Tribunus Quirinus sancto Alexandro, et triplicasset ei custodes et claustra; 84-89 [Acta I L 5] mittens se in orationem Alexander, dixit: Domine Iesu Christe qui me in Cathedra Apostoli tui Petri sedere fecisti, praesta mihi ut . . . mittas ad me Angelum tuum, qui me . . . perducat ad famulum tuum Hermen, et iterum matutino huc revocet me, nemine sentiente usque dum ego hic redeam.

X X III

SS. A L E X A N D R I , E V E N T U , E T T H E O D O L I

741

swa þæt nan mann nyte hwænne ic fare oððe cume. Hwæt pa on æfninge com Godes engel

90

mid leohte to Alexandre, and gelædde hine to Ermen, to Quirines huse, þær þær he gehæft wæs. E ft on ærnemergen eode Quirinus into his hordcleofan, and pa halgan gemette, Alexandrum and Ermen, on heora gebedum samod,

95

and leoht ætforan heom, and he wearð afyrht. D a halgan him cwædon to, D u cwæde þæt þu woldost sona on G od gelefan gif ðu us gesawe ætgædere: gelyf nu on God, nu ðu us ætgædere gesihst. Hermes him sæde eac hu his sunu wearð aræred

100

of deaðe to life þurh * Alexandres geleafan.

*f. 7

Quirinus him andwyrde, Ic habbe ane dohtor wlitige on ansyne, ac heo is forðearle awlætt, for ðon ðe heo is hoferode; ac gehelpað hire, ic bidde, and ic syþþan gelyfe on ðone Hælend mid eow.

105

Ð a cwæð Alexander, Læ d hig to ðam cwarterne to me. Quirinus him andwyrde, D u eart on minum huse nu, and humeta hatst ðu hig bringan to pam cwarterne ? Alexander him cwæð to, Gang ardlice and bring hi, for ðan pe ðu me ðær gemetest þonne þu mid hire cymst.

no

H e eode ða sona, and Godes engel gelædde Glosses, Latin: 92 gehæft: ligatus. pulcrara. ansyne: facie. 109 ardlice: constanter.

99 gelyf: craie. 108 humeta: qualiter.

103 wlitige: hatst: iubes.

90-92 [Acta II. 5] Primo igitur nocturno silentio affuit puer, faculam ardentem ferens in carcerem, . . . et perduxit eum ad Hermen in domum Quirini, intra clausum cubiculum. 93-96 [Acta II. 6] Et veniens post, Quirinus aperuit ostium: et inveniens eos simul extensis manibus orantes, et faculam ardentem videns, exterritus est. . . . 97-99 [Acta II. 6] Dixerunt e i: Quoniam ex fide hanc definitionem habuisti in corde tuo, ut si nos . . . sociatos videres, crederes; ecce vidisti nos, crede. 100-1 [Ælfric here passes over Hermes's story of his sont which he has already used for lines 14-36.] 102-10 [Acta II. 8] Audiens hæc Quirinus . . . coepit dicere: . . . Habeo filiam adultam, . . . cuius aspectum quidem pulchritudo condecorat, sed collum eius struma circumdat. Hanc vos salvam facite, . . . et vobiscum Christum confiteor. Dicit ei sanctus Alexander: Vade et adduc eam ad carcerem ad me cito. . . . Quirinus dixit ei: Et cum tu hic sis in domo mea, quomodo te inveniam in carcere? Sanctus Alexander respondit ei: Festinanter vade, quoniam qui me adduxit ad te priusquam tu venires, reduci me ibidem faciet. m - 1 3 [Acta II. 8] Hæc cum dixisset, egressus est Quirinus. . . . E t . . . ecce

þone halgan papan eft to ðam cwarterne, and se engel syþþan gewat. Quirinus com pa syþþan and pæt cwartern gemette all swa feste belocan swa he hit ær forlet. He unleac ða duru, and Alexander se papa

115

sæt on þam cwarterne swa swa he ær gecwæð. D a feoll Quirinus afyrht to his fotum, ofdrædd þæt him Godes yrre on becumen sceolde. Se papa hine frefrode, þæt he unforht wære,

120

and he æteowde þæm halgan his unhalan dohtor. D a het Alexander hine axian hraðe hwæðer on ðam cwarterne wæron ænige Cristene menn for Godes geleafan belocene on ðam witum. He fandode pa, and afunde ðærinne twegen mæssepreostas, mæres lifes menn, Euentium and Theodolum, of estdæle *cumene.

125 *f. 7V

D a het Alexander pæt he mid arwurðnesse sceolde hi gefeccan swyþe raðe him to. Quirinus pa mid ofste adyde of ðæm papan

130

ealle pa hæftnedu pe he mid gehæft wæs. 129 after sceolde] M S has point here instead of after arwurðnesse. Glosses, Latin: 113 gewat: disparuit. 125 fandode: qwesiuti. 128 arwurðnesse: veneratione. 131 hæftnedu: ligatwras. infantulus ille cum facula paratus . . . revocavit eum [Alexandrum] in carcerem, eique vincula reposuit et abscessit. i i 4-21 [Acta II. 9] Post unam vero horam venit ad custodes . . . Quirinus, . . . et cum invenisset eos vigilantes, et claustra omnia integerrima atque signata, sicuti dimiserat, aperiens invenit S. Alexandrum Papam, ad cuius pedes pro­ cidens, coepit clamare dicens: Peto, Domine, ut ores pro me, ne veniat super me ira Dei, cuius tu es Episcopus. Cui respondens S. Alexander ait: Deus meus non vult perire quemquam, sed converti peccantes.. . . Tu n c prosternens se Quirinus dixit: U t iussisti, ecce ancilla tua filia mea. 122-7 [Acta III. 9. Ælfric skips Alexander's first question, Quot sunt in isto carcere clausae personae? and the reply, Prope viginti.] Sanctus Alexander dixit ei: Require si sunt hic aliqui pro nomine Christi clausi. Et cum requisisset, invenit ac renuntiavit ei dicens: Est ibi Eventius Presbyter senex, et Theodolus, quem dicunt de Oriente venisse Presbyterum. 128-34 [Acta III. 9] Dicit ei Alexander Papa: Vade cursim, et cum honore adduc eos ad me. Tamen, dum vadis et venis, tolle boiam de collo meo, et induc eam filiae tuae. Statim tollens omnia vincula ab eo Quirinus, osculari coepit pedes S. Alexandri, dicens: Tuis manibus impone eam illi. A t ubi imposuit urgere coepit Alexander Quirinum ut iret. Qui dum vadit, ecce puer ille subito cum facula apparuit, et venit ad puellam dicens ei: Salva esto. . . . Haec cum dixisset, abscessit. [Ælfric's abridgement of this passage blurs the story.]

XXIII

SS. A L E X A N D R I , E V E N T U , E T T H E O D O L I

743

D a dyde se halga wer on his dohter swyre þæt ilee geoc J>e wæs on his agenum swuran, and se faeder }?a eode æfter ðam preostum. E ft ða se fæder com mid þam foresædum preostum, þa wæs his dohtor hal, and he ofwundrod cw æ ð:

135

Eala ðu halga fæder, far heonon ic ðe bidde, ðe læs þe heofonlic fýr me færlice forbærne. Alexander him cwæð to, G if ðu me ænigne ðanc don wylt, gedo pæt alle J?as hæftlingas þe on ðissum cwarterne synt gebugon to Cristendome þurh þine tyhtinge.

140

Ð a cwæð Quirinus him to, G e Cristenan syndon halie, and þas hæftlingas synt swype fordone menn, sume morðslagan, sume manfulle forligras, sume unlybwyrhtan, sume yfeldæde,

14s

sume eac forscyldegode mid mislicum leahtrum. Alexander cwæð, Crist ure alysend com to middanearde for synfullum mannum, and he synfullan clypað simie to mildse; ne twynie ðe nan ðing, læt hi cuman ealle to me. Quirinus þa clypode to ðam mannum and cw æ ð:

150

Swa hwa swa wyle Cristen beon, cume hider to me; Glosses, Latin: 140 gedo: fac. 141 gebugon: comiertant. isti. i44m anfulle: iniqui. 145 unlybwyrhtan: pestiferi. scyldegode: cnminosi. 150 twynie: dubites.

143 þas: 146 for-

135-50 [Acta III. 10] Veniens autem pater puellae Quirinus cum Eventio et Theodolo Presbyteris, invenit filiam suam sanam, et coepit clamare: Exi hinc de ista custodia, Domine Alexander, ne forte, dum tu hic tardas, veniat ignis de caelo et consumat me. Dicit ei S. Alexander: Si vis mihi praestare beneficium, suade omnibus, qui sunt in carcere, baptizari, ut fiant Christiani. Quirinus re­ spondit: Vos Christiani sancti estis, horum autem alii effractores sunt, alii adulteri, alii malefici, alii diversorum criminum rei. Dicit ei S. Alexander: Pro peccatoribus filius Dei Dominus noster Iesus Christus de caelo descendit, et de Virgine natus omnes vocat ad indulgentiam. Noli ergo dubitare, sed omnes fac ad me venire. 151-60 [Acta I I L 10] T u n c Quirinus dixit omnibus clara voce: Quicumque voluerit fieri Christianus, fiat: et qui baptizatus fuerit, vadat liber quocumque voluerit. [III. j j ] Cumque venissent omnes ad S. Alexandrum Papam, aperuit Deus os eius, et coepit dicere: [Ælfric omits the sermon]. . . . [III. 12] Cumque universi credidissent, praecepit Eventio et Theodolo, ut manus eis imponerent, et catechumenos eos facerent. Post haec autem Quirinus, simul cum filia sua Balbina et omni domo sua, baptizatus est, omnesque qui simul erant in custodia. Et omnibus baptizatis apertus est career, et coepit esse quasi ecclesia. [The number tiventy in line 157 is given earlier in the Latin: see quotation at 122 supra.]

744

SS. A L E X A N D R I ,

EVENTU,

ET

THEODOLI

xxm

and se ðe gefulled beo, fare him freo aweig. Hi comon ða ealle to ðæm arwurðan papan, and he hig pa lærde, #and heora geleafan heom tæhte oðþæt hi ealle gelyfdon on þone lifigendan God,

#f- 8 156

and wurdon gefullode wel twenti manna; and Quirinus syþþan sona wearð gefullod mid eallum his hiwum on ðæs Hælendes naman, and pæt cwartern wearð pa gelic geleaffulre cyrcean.

160

Ðiss wearð pa gecydd þam cwellere Aureliane, and he het him gelangien þone gelyfedan Quirinum, and cwæð him sona to, Ic hæfde þe for sunu, and J?u me gebysmrodest, nu ðu gebogen eart þurh Alexander to oðrum bigenge.

165

Ð a cwæð Quirinus him to, Ic eom Cristen on eornest; wylle ðu beswingen, wylle ðu ofslean, wylle ðu adrencean, wylle ðu adydan, wylle ðu forbærnan, ne beo ic nan oðer. Witodlice ic dyde þæt pa gewurdon Cristene

170

ealle pe in ðam cwarterne beclysode wæron, and ic hi ealle gescrydde mid eall-hwitum reafe, and ic let hi frige faran gif hi woldon; and Alexandrum ic bæd, and Ermen eac swylce,

þæt hi ut ferdon, ac hi faren noldon.

17s

Ð a pa scyldige wæron, pa secgað mid geleafan, G if we for urum synnum ofslagene beon sculdon, and mid ealle amyrde, hu mycele swyþor Glosses, Latin: 159 hiwum: familia. 160 gelic: similis. 161 gecydd: notum. 162 him gelangien: ad se duci, accersiri. 164 gebysmrodest: derides. 168 adydan: occidere. 170 dyde: feci. þa:illi. 173 frige: liberi. 176 Ða þ a : qui. scyldige: rei. 161-5 [Acta III. 13] Tu nc abiit Commentariensis ad Aurelianum, dixitque ei universa quae gesta sunt. Unde iratus iussit ad se adduci Quirinum, et dixit ei: Ego te quasi filium dilexi, tu autem irrisisti me, deceptus ab Alexandro. 166-83 [Acta III. 13 ] Dicit ei Quirinus: Ego Christianus factus sum. Vis occidere, vis fustigare, vis incendere, aliud non ero. Nam et omnes qui erant in carcere feci fieri Christianos, et dimisi eos, et noluerunt usquam ire. Sanctum autem Alexandrum Papam, et virum illustrem Hermen rogavi, ut abscederent, et noluerunt, ibique sunt omnes in carcere, dicentes: Si pro criminibus nostris mori habuimus ac perire, quanto magis pro Christi nomine animas offerimus? Ego vero rogavi eos ut exirent omnes qui baptizati sunt, et vestibus candidis novisque vestiti, quia hoc exigit religio Christiana: sed ad martyrium omnes usque nunc astant, parati ad necem suam, sicut esuriens paratus ad epulas. Iam quod tibi placet, incipe facere.

X XIII

SS. A L E X A N D R I ,

EVENTU,

ET

THEODOLI

74S

sculon we ure sawla geoffrian for ures Hælendes naman. Ealle hi gewilniað þe on ðam cwarterne wuniað martirdom to þrowienne for Drihtnes geleafan,

180

swa swa se hungria mann his metes bið oflyst; onginn nu to donne loc hwæt ðe geðynce. Hwæt f>a Aurelianus *m id yrre him cwæð to, Ic hate nu forceorfan þine scearpan tungan,

*f. 8V 185

for ðon ðe ðu dorstest þus dyrstelice sprecan. Quirinus him andwyrde, Eala ðu erming, and J?u ungesæliga, alys ðine sawle, þæt þa ecan wita ðine sawle ne gelæccan. Ð a het Aurelianus on hengenne afæstnien þone halgan wer, and aðenian his lima

190

swa swa man webb tyht; ac he nan word ne gecwæð. He het þa forceorfan his handa and his fet, and syþþan beheafdien, and swa hundum worpan. His lie wearð þeah bebyrged fram þam geleaffullum Cristenum, and his dohtor ðurhwunode for hire Drihtnes lufon

196

on clænum mæigðhade, Criste ðeowiende. Aurelianus het eae syþþan beheafdien ðone arwurðan Ermen, and his agen swustor, Theodora gehaten, bebyrgde his lie.

200

Ealla ða hæftlingas þe se halga papa on ðæm cwarterne gefullode het se cwellere adrencan on anum tobrocenan scipe on deoppre sæ, and heora sawla swa siþodon to Criste. Glosses, Latin: 186 dyrstelice: temere. 188 alys: redime. 190 hen genne: patibwlo. 191 aðenian: extendere. 192 tyht: extendit. M E : 184 yrre: wreððe.

184-94 [Acta I I I . 14] Tu n c fecit ei linguam abscindi, dicens: Linguam tuam aufero, quia non timuisti sic audacter tua mihi pandere secreta, ut tacentem te torqueri iubeam in eculeo [Ælfric passes over the last clause, but cf. line 192]. Quirinus dixit: Miser et infelix, libera animam tuam, ne æternæ te poenæ suscipiant. Qui tortus in eculeo cum ab Aureliani non cessaret iniuriis, iussit ei manus ac pedes abscindi, et sic eum decollari, et proiici canibus. 19 5-7 [Acta III. 14] Tu nc corpus eius rapientes Christiani in via Appia sepelierunt. . . . Filia vero eius . . . in sacra virginitate permansit. . . . 198-203 [Acta III. 14 ] Qui [Hermes] cum ab Aureliano decollatus fuisset, corpus soror eius Theodora collegit. . . . Omnes in carcere baptizatos Aurelianus cum navi vetusto in altum mare duci iussit, et illic ligatis ad colla lapidibus mergi. [Ælfric adds line 204.]

74 6

SS. A L E X A N D R I ,

EVENTU,

ET

THEODOLI

Æfter sumum fyrste het se foresæda cwellere

XXIII

205

pone halgan Alexandrum to him gelædan mid þam twam mæssepreostum, and se manfulla him to cwæð, Alexander papa, ic axie ærest ðe, et reliqua. 208] Followed by the scribe*s note: \>æt her to lafe is þu fintst æíter þam spelle de inuentione sanctæ Crucis, mid ðissum tacne: The reference is to M S . f . 1 5 3> where begins the piece, ‘Sanctorum Alexandri, Eventii et Theo doli' as in C H II. 308. The corresponding sign (a chrismon) directs us to line 8 in Thorpe's texty ‘Alexander papa, ic sece ærest æt þe, pæt þu me ardlice secge/ etc. Glosses, Latin: 207 manfulla: imquus.*2 6 3 205-8 [Acta IV . J5] Deinde Sanctum Alexandrum Papam iussit sibi exhiberi, dixitque ei: Exquiro a te prius. . . . [Ælfric adds the masspriests in anticipation of later events.] N O TES 7. iunglic on gearum and aldlic on geleafan. Æ lfric is follow ing the L a tin for this antithesis, bu t the turn o f phrase is the same as in his description o f St. A g n e s : cildlic on gearum and ealdlic on mode (L S v n . 9). 10. burhwitena, L at. Senatorum. B T and B T S cite burhwita from glosses and charters, bu t not as a w ay o f describing a R om an senator. 15. seofon wintra. Probably for the adj. seofonwintre. C f. þritigwintre in the Glossary and see note on hundteontigzvintre, x ix. 20. 23. mage mihtelice of deaðe aræran. A n y one o f several transpositions w ould put the two alliterating words in different halves o f the lin e : e.g. mage o f deaðe mihtelice aræran. 26. N o te the effective postponem ent o f bliðe, best taken as an adjective. C f. pa eode heo eft to þam abbode sarig (Æ lfric’s exemplum, N ap ier x x x i, p. 152/22 sq.) In 32 bliðe is probably an adverb. 39. æhtemannum. T h is word translates servis and seems to m ean ‘ serfs’ , persons whose services were attached to the estates o f their masters. B T S gives the m eaning ‘ se rf’ from the L aw s and from Æ lfr ic ’s life o f S t. Sebastian, L S v. 308, where Skeat prints æhta mannum (v.l. æhté) as two words and translates, ‘ men on their estates’— for the sentence involves a distinction between these persons and an inn-hyrede{dat.), ‘ household ser­ vants’ . O ne other passage from Æ lfric is cited in B T w ith the assigned m eaning ‘ husbandm an, farmer, ploughm an: colonusy; b u t this too m ay mean prim arily ‘ serf’ .T h e word occurs in O ld and N ew Testament, 12 0 8 -9 : €Laboratores sind pe us bigleofan tiliað, yrðlingas and æhte m en to pam anum betæ hte.’ Clearly those w ho till the soil are described as yrðlingas and æhte-men, bu t Æ lfric m ay have m eant to distinguish betw een free farmers (yrðlingas) and serfs (æhte-meri). T h e glossator o f the present passage was inattentive enough to mistake æhte for the num eral eahta.

XXIII

SS. A L E X A N D R I ,

EVENTU,

ET

THEODOLI

747

53. mid anum his þeigne, ‘at the house o f a thane o f h is’ . Perhaps we should em end to peignay reading ‘one o f his thanes'. C f. an hys þegna, x x v i . 85. 55. H w i dest ðu ðe szva wacney ‘W h y do you so degrade yourself?' F o r the idiom , see Glossary, dony I ( / ) , and B T S , dony I I I . 3 and V I . T h e ad­ je ctive wacy usually con veyin g moral weakness, is here used b y the pagan Q uirinus in contrast to æðele w ith im plications o f social disgrace. 65. ic ðiss an lif to lufienne tealde. T h e re is perhaps a m ild ellipsis to be recognized here, since an does d u ty for ‘one’ and ‘alone'. T h e full statem ent m igh t include the indeclinable anay ‘ alone’ : ðiss an lif ana to lufienne. C f. hi wenað to soþum þ æ t þis lif ana syy L S v. 63, and for the various uses o f an and ana see the Glossary. 80, 81. þrimfealdum. It is hard to be sure w hether to regard this w ord as a full variant o f þryfeald w ith a com bining form, prim -yderived from the dative o f the numeral, or as a d o ubly-inflected com poun d presupposing the ordinary nom inative form pryfeald. B T adm its þrimfeald as a separate form, citing for comparison the com pound þrymnyss or þrimnyss as a variant on þry(n)nyssy for w h ich the present G lossary m ay be consulted. B u t it is noticeable that all the occurrences o f þrimfeald cited b y B T are datives w ith various prepositions, and though one o f these datives is þrimfeáldrey in w hich the second m em ber agrees w ith a fem inine noun in the dative singular, nevertheless it looks as if some writers, includ ing Æ lfric, regarded prim- as an inflected dative corresponding to the nom inative p r y -.In Æ lfric 's Grammar, ed. Z u pitza, pp. 286 sq., the nom inative pryfeald is given next to the dative, be primfealdum. See also the dative plural, ‘m id þrim fealdum lacum ', C H I. 104/21; and in con­ trast the accusative plural, ‘þryfealde lac’, in the same hom ily, p. 161/4. 81, 83. hæftnydum\ 13 1. hæftnedu. H ere the abstract noun hæftnydy ‘ captivity, confinem ent in bonds', is used concretely for that w h ich binds, so that the plural means ‘ bonds' or ‘shackles’ . B T S under hæftnid cites tw o passages from Æ lfric w ith plural forms ( L S xxi. 167 and C H I. 338/4) and says they have the force o f the singular (‘cu sto d y’ and ‘thraldom ’ in the respective translations o f S k ea ta n d T h o rp e). T h is seems possible, but both instances can be taken to m ean ‘shackles'. Indeed the passage in the Lives o f Saints gains greatly b y the concrete m eaning, since presently the w om an w ho has been pu t in hæftnydum is released b y Sw ithun, so that the fotcopsas fall from her and she runs to the church, her hands still bound. H ad she been kept in ‘ cu sto d y’ in a locked cham ber or under guard the m iracle w ould have taken a different course. T h e other passage refers figuratively to the devil's hæftnydum from w h ich w e were released b y the Saviour and can readily bear such a generalized sense as T h o rp e 's ‘ thraldom ’ , bu t the plural form suggests som ething concrete such as ‘ bo n ds’ or ‘shackles'. T h e se, o f course, w ill ordinarily be interpreted as sins. 132 .on his dohtor swyre. T h e form szvyre for ‘n eck’ is pu zzlin g, especially

748

SS. A L E X A N D R I ,

EVENTU,

w hen follow ed b y swuran in the next ordinary L W S swura, wk. m ., as at L S minne swuran). Occasionally y appears swyran), and this is usually taken as a

ET

THEODOLI

X X III

line. Æ lfr ic ’s norm al form is the 235 (nom. swura); v i i . 32 (acc. for w, as at C H II. 326/7 (foredum short y, a mere variant o f short u x ii.

after the w. (C f. S - B 113, A n m . 4 ; C p b , 241, 2, note 5.) W h at is trouble­ some about swyre, therefore, is the ending, w h ich can m ost easily be taken as accusative after on w ith a verb signifyin g m otion toward the object. T h e form is then probably enough contrasted w ith the dative swuran in the next line, w hich occurs after on and the motionless wæs. A n accusative swyre would im ply a weak neuter instead o f a weak m asculine, and there is some support for this (though it is not on record) in the established weak neuters for other parts o f the b o d y : e.g. eagey eare, wange. V e r y probably, however, the form swyre is not Æ lfr ic ’s.

XXIV ‘SE þE GELOME SWERAÐ’ (Addition to C H II. xxi: on False Swearing, Usury, and Manslaughter)

T

his

disjointed little passage may be of some interest for what

it says about usury, but we shall probably value it chiefly as a sign of Æ lfric’s continued attention to his most comprehensive treat­ ment of Christian morals. T h e homily for Rogation Monday in the Second Series (Letania M aiore , C H II. xxi) is an omnium gatherum assembled from a number of sources, among which the precepts of Jesus and of St. Paul are the principal guides, sup­ plemented here and there by the Mosaic law and the prophets.1 Æ lfric moves quickly from topic to topic, treating first the two basic Christian commandments and proceeding to a more or less bewildering array of particulars, in which the rules for married folk and for various ranks and conditions of men are included, and a great number of malefactors are reprehended. In spite of the casual organization of this compendium, it is evident that Ælfric devoted a good deal of care to its composition, since it is one of the few homilies of the Second Series to be written in his newly developed rhythmical style. Hence the fourteen added lines found in M S S . P and f b are stylistically similar to the rest. T h e added lines occur as an extension of a passage on the rich, beginning at p. 326/34 in Thorpe’s text and ending with a parti­ cular warning to dishonest merchants at p. 328/10. Th is passage is so relevant to most of the additional lines that I quote it here:2

Eft, se ðeoda lareow lærde ða rican þæt hi hi ne onhebbon on healicere modignysse, ne heora hiht ne besetton on ðam swicelum welum, ac hihton on God, þæra goda Syllend.3 Fela spræc se Hælend, and hefiglice be ricum; 1 Certain incidental sources are mentioned in the note on x. 31. 2 I have arranged Thorpe's text in rhythmical lines and omitted the accents. 3 I Tim. vi. 17. C 2710.2

S

750

‘SE þE G E L O M E S WE R AÐ ’

XXIV

ac he hi eft gefrefrode, ðus fægre tihtende : ‘Syllað ðone ofereacan eow to ælmes-dædum, and efne ealle ðing eow beoð geclænsode.1 Hwæt fremað ænigum men, ðeah ðe he ealne middaneard to his anwealdum gebige, gif he ana losað ?’2 Cypmannum gedafenað þæt hi soðfæstnysse healdon, and heora sawla ne syllon ðurh swicole aðas, ac lofian heora ðing buton laðre forsworennysse. God soðlice fordeð ða swicolan and leasan. This is the point at which the added lines are introduced, and it is evident that the first three continue the warning against false swearing, essentially what we should call fraudulent advertising. Both what Ælfric had originally said about the merchants and the second of the added lines refer back to the words of Jesus that have just been quoted, ‘ Hwæt fremað ænigum men’, etc. T h e same theme of unprofitable profits now leads to the attack on usury in the middle of the addition. It would seem that usury was as closely associated with merchants (cypmen ) in Æ lfric’s time as in Shakespeare’s. There is nothing surprising in Æ lfric’s re­ prehension of usury: as he says, it is forbidden in the law of Moses and in one of the prophets (Ezechiel), and it was forbidden by the medieval church. T h e Old English version of the penitential of pseudo-Ecgberht (II. 30) enjoins: Ælcum geleaffullum men is forboden, þæt he his feoh ne his æhta to nanum unrihtum gafole ne læne: þæt is þæt he hine maran ne bidde to agifanne þonne he him ær lænde.3 But Ælfric rarely mentions the subject. T w o passages only from his homilies are cited in Bosworth-Toller, and I recall no others. T h e first passage ( C H I. 66/11) is a glancing allusion in a speech derived from a life of St. John the Evangelist. T h e other is a parenthetical though explicit reminder that usury is forbidden in the midst of an exposition of the parable of the talents ( C H II. 554/9-11). T h e present heavily charged admonition is thus, it seems, Æ lfric’s major pronouncement. T h e warning against manslaughter in the last three lines seems oddly placed. Did Æ lfric simply remember that he had not been explicit enough about it elsewhere? Or did he mean to associate 1 Luc. xi. 41. 2 Matth, xvi. 26. 3 Josef Raith, Die alt englische Version des Halitgar* sehen Bussbnehes, 2nd ed., Darmstadt, 1964 (Bibi, der as. Prosa, X III), p. 35.

XXIV

‘SE þE G E L O M E S W E R A Ð ’

75,

it with the misdeeds that might arise from the pursuit of riches? Anyw ay it adds some weight to the generalization with which T h orp e’s next paragraph begins: Ealle we sceolon standan æfter ðisum life ætforan Cristes domsetle, þæt ælc ðær underfo swa hwæt he on lichaman adreah, oððe god oppt yfel. There is little to be learned about the date of this addition. O f the five full copies of the homily, three are in M S S . D, F, and K , and represent the textual tradition up to and including Thorpe’s text. M has only a few lines from the beginning in an unreliable compilation and thus tells us nothing. O nly the two manuscripts that contain the addition, P and f b, represent a textual tradition later than Thorpe’s K . O n a further alteration of the homily in f b, for which Æ lfric may or may not have been responsible, see the description of f b in the Introduction, pp. 89-90.

TH E

TEXT

Se pe gelome swerað, he byð forsworen untwylice; he geeacnað his feoh mid his sawle lyre, and his wite him wunað on ðære toweardan worulde.— Godes æ us forbyt, and Godes witegan eac swa,

pæt nan man ne sylle nan feoh to gafole, for ðan ðe se swicola mann ðe beswicð þa unwaran,

5

and se reða reafere þe bereafað pa Cristenan, and se þe his feoh sylð to gafole ongean Godes bebod beoð ealle gelice on heora arleasnysse. G if ðu ænigum menn gehylpst pe behofað þines feos

io

butan ælcum gafole, God ðe sylð þæs edlean.— Manslyht is eac swyðe manfullic dæd, ealra synna mæst, buton þæt man wiðsace G o d e : for ðan ðe se mann is Godes anlicnyss. T ext based on P (Hatton 115), f. 46/3-16. Collated with f b (Jesus College 15), f. v/23—vv/6. Round brackets indicate obscure or wholly illegible letters in f b. Where legible, f b often but not invariably has e for long æ. i (he bi)þ f b. untwilice f b. 3 ðere towe(ardan) f b. æ us forbytt) f b. second Godes] -s cut off at margin f b. 6 beswycð/^. 8 (o)ng(ean)/^. 9 arleasle(as)ny(sse)/*\ g(u)m/^. n (æ lc u )m /*\ ðes f b. 12 ded f b. mest f b. 14 anlicn(ys) f b.

ii

Glosses in P yLatin: i untwylice: indubitanter. butan: sine. M E : 4 æ: lawe. 5 sylle: giue.*14

4 God(es 5 s(y)lle f b. io(æ )nii3 e a llr a /* \

i o þe behofað: qui indiget.

Sources. 4-5 [Lev. xxv. 35~37] Si attenuatus fuerit frater tuus . . . et vixerit tecum, . . . pecuniam tuam non dabis ei ad usuram. [C/. Ex. xxii. 25; Deut. xxiiu 19 ; Ezech. xviii. 8 - 1 7 ; xxii. 1 2 .] 14 [Gen. ix. 6] Quicumque effuderit humanum sanguinem, fundetur sanguis illius: ad imaginem quippe Dei factus est homo.

XXV FOR ASCENSION EVE (Three Additions to C H II. xxv,

In Letania M aiore, Feria I V )

T

he

Wednesday of Rogationtide is concurrently the Eve of the

L o rd ’s Ascension, and to this occasion Ælfric directs the homily mentioned in the title. It is an exposition of John xvii. i - i i , based mainly on Augustine’s tractates c v - c v n .1Three extant manuscripts, C , D , and M , have the same version of the homily as that which Thorpe has printed from K , and it is probable that none of these represents a textual tradition later than K , for the section devoted to Rogationtide in M has apparently been derived from a textual tradition different from the rest, very probably earlier.2 Hence the three additional passages that appear fully in R and were once per­ haps complete in the codex represented by the fragmentary f b (where now only a few words of the third passage can be easily made out) may actually have been composed almost immediately after the issue of the K -text, though we find it represented in manuscripts of a much later textual tradition. Whatever their date of composition, they are written in ordinary prose like the rest of the homily, not in the rhythmical prose that already appears in some of the homilies of the Second Series and soon becomes Æ lfric’s habitual style. It is true that one can put several of the sentences in the first passage into rhythmical lines with more or less satisfactory alliteration, but the passage as a whole, like the other two, resists such treatment, and I think a prose arrangement is better throughout. T h e three passages, added to successive paragraphs on p. 368 of T horpe’s edition, represent what is probably a single intention, to expand the interpretation of the last three verses of the text, 1 M ax Förster, Anglia X V I. 35. A sermon for Ascension Eve in the collection of Paulus Diaconus was simply a copy of these tractates. Ælfric’s version of the homiliary may have had tractate civ also, which Förster thought had been slightly influential. See Smetana, Traditio X V . 198. 2 See the description of M in the Introduction, pp. 42 and 43, note 1.

754

FOR A S C E N S I O N EVE

XXV

which had originally been treated rather hurriedly and without a sufficiently climactic effect. T h e first passage, adding two con­ firmatory statements by Jesus to those already marshalled for verse 9, develops strongly the prospect of life in heaven for Christ’s servants. T h e second, a mere couple of sentences, adds to the rather perfunctory statement about the Trinity that had been evoked by verse 10 (‘ Ealle mine ðing sindon ðine, and ðine ðing sindon mine’), showing cause for the glorification mentioned at the start of verse 11 (Tc eom gemærsod on him’). T h e third, though attached to a paragraph on T c cume to ðe’ in verse 11, is partly a development of the seemingly opposite statement that had already been introduced as a qualification: ‘Efne ic beo mid eow eallum dagum, oð gefyllednysse ðyssere worulde’ {M atth, xxviii. 20). Ælfric brings several other passages to bear on the problem in order to show that both statements of Jesus, especially the second, are true, and to give full emphasis to the future life of the elect before his concluding comment on the great festival of the morrow. Augustine’s exposition of Æ lfric’s pericope in tractates civ- cvii does not supply suggestions for the added passages. Part of the first passage, however, and part of the third seem to depend on other portions of Augustine’s commentary on J o h n ,1 and I suspect that a similar source could be found for the second passage. 1 In the first passage Ælfric paraphrases passages from tractate li . 1 1 - 1 3 . According to Father Smetana, Traditio X V . 176, the thirteenth paragraph only was in Paul the Deacon’s homiliary, original version, 11. 68. Ælfric translated and interpreted John xii. 26 (the theme of the first passage and of Augustine’s exposition) on another occasion, probably later, in the short homily for a martyr printed as Belfour vm , of which the pericope is John xii. 24-26. A closely parallel passage is quoted in the notes below.

THE TEXTS (a) Christ’s Servants to be with Him in Heaven (Thorpe II. 368, after first paragraph) Be þyson cwæþ se Hælend on oðre stowe: Ðær f>ær ic sylf beo, þær biþ mid me se þe me þenaþ. And swa hwa swa me þenað, hyne arwurþað min Fæder se þe on heofonum is. M id hwylcum wurðmynte arwurþaþ se Fæder þone þén þe hys Suna þenað on þysnm life ? M id þam micclum wurþmynte þe Crist sylf cw æ þ: 5

pæt he hæbbe wununge mid him þær pær he sylf biþ on þære ecan myrhþe mid eallum hys halgum. Hwæt is se þen þe Criste þenað *on ðysum life? Æ lc þæra manna þe Cristes willan on ænige *p- 251 wisan gewyrcþ, he þenað Criste; and Crist þenað hym eft on heofonan rice swa swa he sylf cw æ þ: Am en dico uobis, quod 10

precinget sé, et fa ciet illos discumbere, et transiens ministrabit illis. Ð æ t is on urum gereorde, Soþ ic eow secge, þæt he begyrt hyne sylfne, and de]? hi sittan, and he gæþ sylf and hym þenað. Ð is sæde Crist be hym sylfum: þæt he wolde him sylf hys halgum þenian on hys rice. T o þyssere wynsuman þenunge becumaþ of 15 T ext of all three passages based on the only well-preserved copy in R (C C C C 178), pp. 250/22-251/15, 251/26-30, and 252/8-30. Traces of the third passage in f b (Jesus College 15), f. 4V, are recorded for (c) 8-10.

8 Ælc] no capital in M S .

12 Soþ] no capital in M S .

Latin glosses in R : 2 þenaj? or þenað: ministrat {in margin). 3 hyne: ilium. 4 þone . . . þe: illum . . . qui; another hand, quem. 7 þen: qui. 8 on ænige: in aliquo. 9 gewyrcþ: operatur. 12 gereorde: lingua, begyrt: precinget. 13 deþ: faciet. 15 wynsuman: iocund' (not clear what ending intended).

Sources. 1-3 [loan. xii. 26] Ubi sum ego, illic et minister meus erit. Si quis mihi ministraverit, honorificabit eum Pater meus. 3-9 [Augustine, In loan. Ev. Tract. L I. 1 1 , on preceding verse] Quo honore, nisi ut sit cum Filio eius? . . . Nam quem maiorem honorem accipere poterit adoptatus, quam ut sit ubi est Unicus? . . . [12] Quid sit autem ministrare Christo ? . . . Ministrant ergo Iesu Christo, qui non sua quaerunt, sed quae Iesu Christi. 10 -12 [Lue. xii. 37, as given.] 15 -16 [Cf. Augustine, Tract. L I. 13, still on loan. xii. 26] Nolite tantummodo bonos episcopos et clericos cogitare. Etiam vos pro modo vestro ministrate

FOR A S C E N S I O N EVE

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xxv

þyssere worulde ægþer ge pa gehadodan menn ge pa læwedan. Ærest pa gehadodan Godes þeowas þe nú Gode mid clænnysse þeowiaþ, and siþþan þa góódan læwedan menn þe heora lif rihtlice lybbað; ac to þam gereorde ne becymþ nan manhata ne nan swica, buton hi heora yfelnysse ær heora ende gebeton.

20

(b) A s Great an Art to Preserve and Govern the World as to Create It (Thorpe II. 368, after second paragraph) Eall swa micel cræft is to gehealdenne þa gesceafta p t he gesceop, and him to gewissienne, eall swa micel swa swa wæs hi to gescyppenne þa pa hi næron. God us gesceop, and gif he us fedan nolde, we næron sona.

(c) Christ Feels with His Chosen on Earth and Promises Them Heaven (Thorpe II. 368, after third paragraph) Ure Hælend sitt on heofonum nú mid urum lichaman, and he gefrét swa hwæt swa ús gelimpþ þe hys lima syndon, swa swa he clypode to Saule þe nu is Paulus, pa pa he ehte pæra Cristenra manna, þus cweþende: S a u l'e ', Saule , quid me persequeris? Ð æ t is Latin glosses in R : (a) 17-19 Summary in margin: quod ordinati pnus saluentur> et post laici. 19 gereorde: refectume manhata: hodiosus hominum. (b) i cræft; ars. gewissienne: regere. (c) 2 gefret: sentit.

gehealdenne: custodire, saluare. 2-3 gescyppene: creare.

2 him: eos.

3 ehte: persequebatur.

Christo, bene vivendo, eleemosynas faciendo, nomen doctrinamque eius quibus potueritis praedicando. (c) 1-10 [Augustine, In loan. Ev. Tract. X X I . 7] Quia et nos membra sumus Filii; et nos membra tamquam quod discimus, ipse discit quodammodo in membris suis. Quomodo discit in nobis ? Quomodo patitur in nobis. Unde probamus quia patitur in nobis ? Ex illa voce de caelo: SaiileySauleyquid me persequeris ? (Act. ix. 4.) Nonne ipse est qui iudex in fine saeculi residebit, et iustos ad dexteram ponens, iniquos autem ad sinistram, dicturus est: Venitey benedicti Patris meiypercipite regnum: esurivi enimy et dedistis mihi manducare? (Matth, xxv. 34, 35.) [Also Tract. L V I I . J] Sursum enim Christus est sedens ad dexteram Patris; sed profecto et hic est; propter quod et Saulo in terra saevienti dicit: Quid me persequeris ?

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757

on Englisc: Saule, Saule, hwi ehtst þu min? N e cwæþ he ná, hwi 5 ehtst þu minra manna, ac hwi ehtst þu min, for þam þe he gefredde hys halgena sarnyssa. Eft he cw æ þ: Esuriui enim, et dedistis mihi manducare : M e hingrode, and ge sealdon me etan. Him hingraþ on hys þearfum, and swa hwæt swa we doJ> Godes þearfum on Godes naman, þæt we doð Gode sylfum. Eac þonne we ymbe God ro smeagað, and to hym hopiað, we beoð mid him, swa swa Paulus cwæþ: Ure drohtnung is on heofonum. Eft cwæþ ure Drihten be hys gecorenum: Gaudete , quia nomina uestra scripta sunt in caelo. Ð æ t is on E nglisc: Blissiað, for þam þe eowre naman synd awritene on heofonum. Eft he cw æ þ: N on delebo nomina eorum de libro uitæ\ 15 ic ne adiligie heora naman of lifes béc. Ealra þæra manna naman þe to Godes rice becumað synd awritene on þære líflican béc, and we sceolon fundian mid geornfulnysse, and mid góódum weorcum, þyder þær ure naman synd awritene. 5 first Saule and Ne] no capitals in M S . 8-10 The following zoords can still be made out i n f b, last tivo lines off. 4V: me etan. . . . godes þearfum on godes naman. ðæt we doð. . . . (See above, I. 90.)

Latin glosses in R : 5 ehtst: p^rseqweris. 6 gefredde: sensit. 7 sarnyssa: dolorem. 8 ge: vos. 9 þearfum: egenis. 12 droht­ nung: conuersatio {repeated in margin). 16 adiligie {margin adilie): delebo. M E gloss: i i smeagað: þenceð.

12 [Philip. in. 20] Nostra autem conversatio in cælis est. 13 [Luc. x. 20] Gaudete autem quod nomina vestra scripta sunt in cælis. 15 [Apoc. iii. 5] Non delebo nomen eius de libro vitæ.

NOTES {a) 1 -3 . Æ lfric introduces the same quotation{Ioan.xii. 26) in tw o other places. In H o m ily xi. 5 4 3 -4 he abridges it slightly to make ju st two rh yth ­ m ical lin e s: þær ðær ic sy lf beo, ðær bið m in ðen, and se Öe m e ðenað, hine gearwurðað m in Fæder. In B elfour v n i, p. 7 4 / 1 5 -1 7 , where it is part o f the pericope for a m artyr (applied to St. V incent), he stretched it to three rhythm ical lines, if one can trust the late t e x t : ant þæ r ðær ic m e sy lf beo, þer bið eac m in þe3n, 7 pe ðe m e ðenaþ, him þonne arwurðað m in Fæ der Alm ihti3æ pe Öe is on heofenum.

758

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(a) 3 -7 . C f. Belfour v m , p. 76/26-30: M id hw ylce wurðm ente arwyrðæð þe Fæ der þone m on þe þenæð on þisse life his Sunu, butan m id þam w yrðm ente þæ t he w uniæ n m ote on þam ecan life þær þær he sy lf bið, 7 his wuldor iseon, 7 þare wynsum nesse a butæn ende brucæn m id alle his hal3um ? Evidently, Æ lfric either recalled the passage here edited or was using the same source. (T h ere is always a chance o f verbal substitution and trans­ position in Belfour’s m anuscript. I suspect that Æ lfric originally p u t brucan, now in the last line as brucæn, at the end o f the preced ing line, leaving the alliteration o f the last to the vowels.) (b) O n the im plicit doctrine, see 11. 22 0 -3 1, the quotation from A lcu in there given, and the note on 212 sqq., where other occurrences o f the same theme are m entioned. T h e turn o f Æ lfric ’s sentences here sounds to m e Augustinian, bu t I have not found an exact source. (C f. the pas­ sages quoted for 11. 9 8 -1 1 4 and vi. 119 -2 8 .) (c) 8. ge sealdon me etan. H ere is a clear instance o f syllan w ith the in­ finitive etan w ith w hich to support the not so clear instances o f syllan w ith the infinitive drincan. See the note on v. 13 and the G lossary, drincan.

X XVI THEODOSIUS AND AMBROSE (Addition to C H II. xxxm , Dominica X I I Post Pentecosten)

Æ l f r i c ’ s homily for the twelfth Sunday after Pentecost con­

trasts the proud and the humble in an exposition of the parable of the selfrighteous Pharisee and the contrite sinner at prayer, Luke xviii. 9-14 . T h e rather brief exposition, filling less than three pages in Thorpe (II. 428/5-432/20), is followed by two pages of examples showing how G od humbled Nebuchadnezzar and his son Belshazzar; after which the homily is speedily concluded (Thorpe 436/19-27).1 Besides Thorpe’s copy in K there are four other copies, in B, C , D , and E, with the same version, and an unrevealing fragment in f b; but in three manuscripts we have various additions, all of them undoubtedly written by Ælfric, but not all intended for this homily and only one thoroughly appropriate to it. I shall mention the less appropriate ones first. T h e addition in G , which is on display in Warner’s Early English Hom ilies , pp. 38-41, is the passage on Daniel in D e Falsis D iis, our xxi. 300-493, with a concluding sentence that consists of the next three lines of the original followed by an abridgement of three more. T h e addition occurs after the next to the last paragraph in T horpe’s text, replacing the benediction and doxology, for which there is no substitute later. Th at Æ lfric was not responsible for this addition is shown clearly enough, I think, by the fact that the theme of the overthrow of the false gods (which is proclaimed in the conclusion of the added excerpt) has nothing to do with the theme of the homily. T h e person who made the addition was thinking only of adding more stories from the book of Daniel. Moreover, it is unlike Æ lfric to present so lame an abridgement of his own 1 T h e expository portion is mainly from Bede’s commentary on Luke, as shown by M ax Förster, Anglia X V I. 26. In addition, some resemblances to a sermon by Augustine in the Migne edition of Paulus Diaconus are noted by Father Smetana, Traditio X V . 200.

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writing as what we find at the end (the refashioned beginning of the excerpt being less conspicuously inept), or to stop without a doxo­ logyIn R we find no less than two additions, for both of which Æ lfric was probably responsible; but they differ greatly from each other in character, style, and function. One, added at the very end, is the passage on first-fruits and tithes printed as the concluding part o f our xxx. 7 5 -1 1 4 , but with an introductory sentence that ties it to the homily now under discussion: Ge hyrdon nu þæt þiss godspell hrepode hwaethwega be þære teoðunge þe man Gode syllan sceal; be þam we willað eow sceortlice secgan. T h is sentence, in ordinary prose like the original homily and like the passage on tithes, sounds very much like Ælfric, and what it says is true: the gospel has touched somewhat on tithes, for the Pharisee boasts that he has tithed all his possessions. Apparently, then, Ælfric at some time found it convenient to remind his con­ gregation that tithes, though not to be boasted of, were still re­ quired. Since the twelfth Sunday after Pentecost will usually come in August, when the harvest is beginning, it might often be a good time for an admonition on tithes; but since the exact date varies from year to year, a preacher might sometimes find another Sun­ day more suitable. I think Ælfric must have attached the passage on tithes to this homily as a practical expedient for one or more particular occasions, without intending it as a permanent addition. That would explain why, though to judge by its style it should have been composed early, it is not to be found in the copy of the homily in H ,1 though this copy does have, true to type, the other stylisti­ cally more advanced addition in R that is yet to be described. T h e one fully appropriate addition is the famous story here edited, that of the emperor Theodosius I and St. Ambrose, bishop of Milan. It is found in both R and H, a sentence or two ahead of the places where the other additions occur, just after the account of Belshazzar’s feast has come to an end (Thorpe 436/18). Hence it serves as the climactic example of the humbling of a proud man, all the more valuable because of the rare virtue displayed on both 1 T h e scribe of H did not leave it out on his own initiative, unless he had a second, unexpanded copy of the homily to guide him, because he gives the original doxology, which in R has been replaced by a different doxology at the end of the addition.

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sides. Æ lfric follows the account in the Historia Ecclesiastica T ri­

partita, from Theodoritus, abridging it somewhat and sacrificing in the process some valuable details (especially the remarkably just and practical penance devised by Ambrose), but giving spirited expression to the whole in his most accomplished rhythmical style. Unlike the casually attached appendage on tithes, this addition has become an integral part of the homily and gives it a conclusion of great power.

TH E

TEXT

G y t we wyllað eow secgan be sumon gesæligon cyninge

pe wearð eac geeadmet, ná únþances swaþeah, ac for Godes ege for hys agenum gylte: þæt wæs Theodosius, þe æfter ures Drihtnes tocyme Cristendom underfeng and to fulluhte gebeah,

5

mid þam pe se Cristendóm þeonde wæs. Constantinus se æþela wæs ærest Cristen of eallum þam kaserum þe to Criste gebugon, and he ana ahte ealles middaneardes geweald. He awearp þone hæðenscipe, and awende his leode

io

to Cristes geleafan and to hys clænum biggengum. He ne tobræc swaþeah pa deofolican tempel pæra hæþenra goda for hys góódnysse, ac forbead hys folce pa fulan bigengas þære deofollican offrunge. A c Theodosius æfter feawum gearum feng to þam cynedóme,

15

ofer ealne middaneard geleaffull casere. He het pa tobrecan pa deofollican biggengas, and ealle pa anlicnyssa þæra ærenra goda, T ext based on R (C C C C 178), pp. 120-4. Collated with H (Cotton Vitellius C. v), ff. i7o v-2 . Round brackets enclose portions of the text as given by R for which H has approximately the right space but no longer any reading. T h e addition follows line 18 in Thorpe, C i f II. 436. i gesælige if. 2 (wearð eac geead)mett if. 3-4 his (agenum gylte: pæt w)æs if. 4 drihtenes if. 5 (Cristendom underfeng 7) if. 6 se] om. if. 6-7 (þeonde wæs. Constantin)us if. 8 eallum] /. i y i if. (ka)serum ð(e to Criste) if. 10 -scype ff. 11 his if. b(iggen)gum if. 12 He] sic i f ; no cap. R. deofollican if. templa if. 13 þæra] sic i f ; altered from þære R. his godnesse if. 14 his if. big­ gengas if. 15 deofellican if. Ac] no capital in M S S . 17 ea(lne) i f . 18 deofolica(n big)gengas if. 19 -nessa if. Glosses in R t Latin: i 6 þeonde: proficiscens. 9 ahte: habuit. 10 14 bigengas: cultum. 19 anlicnyssa: simulacra.

S ources. 4-27 [See note.]

gesæligon: felice. 7 þæela: nobilis. awende: conuerút. 17 geleaffull: fidelis. ærenra: æenea (sic).

5 gebeah: conuerút. 8 gebugon: converterunt. i i biggengum: cultu. 18 biggengas: cultus.

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and gyldene and seolfrene, for Godes geleafan, and pa mæran tempel pe menn *macodon gefyrn pam hæðenum godum to healicum wurðmyntum.

20

*p. i 2 i

He wæs swiðe sigefæst for his soðum geleafan, and æfre he oferwann his wiðerwinnan gehwær þurh þæs Hælendes fultum pe he on gelyfde, and he adwæscte gedwyld and pa gedwolan forseah, and he þone soðan geleafan symle arærde.

25

Thesalonica wæs geháten sum heafodburh pa on hys anwealde, swa swa ealle oðre wæron, on J?ære gelamp pa for sumere ceaste

30

þæt man þæs caseres menn mistucode þær, and sume hys gerefan oftorfodan mid stanum. pa wearð se casere þearle gegremod, and äsende his here to þære heafodbyrig, het ealle ofslean pa ceastergewaran,

35

ge scyldige ge únscyldige for hys forsewennysse, and man ofsloh pær pa seofon þusenda manna. Ð a wæs sum mære biscop, Ambrosius geháten, on Mediolana-byrig, swiðe breme lareow and swiðe ánræde mann, pa ofahsode he J?iss, 20 sylf(r)e(ne) i f . 21 tempi i f . macedon if . 22 þa(m) wyrðmynte i f . 23 swyðe i f . 28 T(he)salonica if . 29 his 32 his i f . oftorfodan] oftorfedon pær if . 34 äsende] äsende þa her(e) i f . 35 het] 7 het i f . 'of'slean i f . 36 ungescyldige his i f . 37 ofsloh þær] þær ofsloh i f . seof(on) i f . þusend 38 bisceop i f . 40 mann] godes mann if. þ(a) i f . ofaxode if.

40 if . if. if . if . if.

Glosses in R f Latin: 20 geleafan: fide. 21 menn: multitudo. gefyrn: olim. 22 healicum: pr^cipuo. 23 sigefæst: victoriosus. 24 ofer­ wann: vicit. wiðerwinnan: aduersarios. 26 adwæscte gedwyld: destruxit idola. gedwolan: hereticos. forseah: despecxit. 27 symle: semper. 28 þa: tunc. 31 þæs: illius. 33 þearle: valde. 34 here: excercitum. 35 ceastergewaran: ciues. 36 scyldige: rei. for hys forsewennysse: pro sua despeexione. 37 seofon þusenda: vii. m. 40 anræde: constans {repeated in margin) ofahsode: interrogamt {first t oddly formed). þiss: hoc. 28-37 [Hist. Eccl. Tripartita, IX . 30] Thessalonica civitas est grandis et populosa; in qua, dum fuisset orta seditio, quidam iudicum lapidati sunt atque tracti. Hinc indignatus Theodosius iracundiae non refrenavit infirmitatem; sed iussit iniustos gladios super omnes evaginari et una cum nocentibus innocentes interimi. Septem milia etenim hominum, sicut fertur, occisi sunt. . . . 38-480 Huiusmodi cladem plenam valde gemitibus audiens Ambrosius, cum princeps Mediolani venisset et sollemniter in sacrum voluisset intrare templum, occurrit foris ad ianuas et ingredientem his sermonibus a sacri liminis incessu prohibuit:

T H E O D O S I U S A N D A MBR OSE

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and he swiðe bemænde þæt se mæra casere swylce dæde gedyde ongean hys Drihten. Hit gelamp pa siððan æfter lytlum fæce

pæt se casere cóm mid hys cempum farende to Mediolana-byrig, wolde hyne gebiddan

45

æt þam biscopstóle, ac se biscop eode út hym togeanes and forwyrnde hym ínnganges. Ambrosius hym cwæð to: Eala þu casere, nast þu þa micelnysse þæra manna slegefs] þe ðu gefremodest þurh þine reðnysse, ne þin mód ne oncnæwð þone micclan hefe



þinre dyrstignysse þe þu gedon hæfst; oððe hwæþer þin miht pe mæge forwyrnan pæt ðu þas synne ne sceole oncnawan ? Hyt gerist swaþeah þæt þæt gerád oferswiðe þone woruldlican anweald, *and þu wite þæt ðu eart

55 *p. 122

mannes gecyndes þeah þu casere sý, 41 kasere H . 42 d(æde) H . his H. Drihten] drihtenes willan H . 43 syþþan H. lyttlum H. fæce] fyrste H . 44 his H . 45 mediola(na) H . wolde] 7 wolde H. hine H . 46 bisceop-, bisceop H. H has point after eode. 47 him (twice) H . 48 him H . 49 my cel- H . sieges] sic H ; siege R . 50 þ(u) H . 53 hw(æ)þ(er) H . 54 oncnawan] followed by another word at marginyH ? 55 Hit H . 56 -li(can an)weald H .

57 (sy) H. Glosses in R yLatin: 42 ongean: contra. 43 fæce: termino. 47 for­ wyrnde: prohibuit. innganges: ingressum. 49 siege: occisione. 50 gefremodest: fecisti. reðnysse: seueritate. 51 oncnæwð: connovit. hefe: fletum, honusy grauedinem. 52 dyrstignysse: presumtfonis. 55 gerist: dec et. gerad: sensus. oferswiðe: vincat. 56 wite: scias. M E : 43 fæce: first. 486-73 ‘Nescis, imperator, perpetratae a te necis quanta sit magnitudo, neque post pausam tanti furoris mens tua molem praesumptionis agnoscit; sed forte recognitionem peccati prohibet potestas imperii. Decet tamen ut vincat ratio potestatem. Scienda quippe natura est eiusque mortalitas atque resolutio et pulvis progenitorum, ex quo facti, ad quem redigendi sumus, et non flore purpureo confidentem infirmitates operti corporis ignorare. Coaequalium homi­ num princeps es, o imperator, et conservorum; unus enim est omnium Dominus, Rex omnium et Creator. (Quibus igitur oculis aspicies communis Domini tem­ plum? Quibus calcabis pedibus sanctum illius pavimentum? Quomodo manus extendas, de quibus adhuc sanguis stillat iniustus ? Quomodo huiusmodi mani­ bus suscipies sanctum Domini corpus? Quo praesumptione ore tuo poculum sanguinis pretiosi percipies, dum furore sermonum tantus iniuste sit sanguis effusus? Recede igitur, recede, ne secundo peccato priorem nequitiam augere contendas. Suscipe vinculum, quod omnium Dominus nunc ligavit; est enim medicina maxima sanitatis/

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and hwanon þu cóme and to hwam j?u gewendst. þu eart mannum gelíc þeah J?e þu mihte hæbbe, untrum swa swa mann þeah ðe þu werige purpuran,

60

and án soðlice is ure ealra Drihte[n], ealra þeoda Cyning, se ðe ana is Scyppend. M id hwylcum eagum besceawast þu þæs soðan Godes tempel, mid hwylcum fotum gæst þu on Godes halgan flore, hu miht ðu ahebban þine handa to Gode,

65

of ða[m J?e] gyt dropað þæt unrihtwise blód þe ðu þurh hatheortnysse nu hete ageotan? M id hwylcere dyrstignysse dearst þu underfon þæt halige husel æfter swylcere dæde ? Gew it aweg, gewít, þe læs þe þe gewurðe

70

þin anwilnyss to deopran synne. Underfoh þone bend þ>e ure Drihten geband: he is se mæsta læcedóm þinre manfullan dæde.

þa wiste se casere wel hwæt he mænde, þæt he sylf wære gebunden þurh þæs biscopes hæse,

75

and fram Godes cyrcan ascyred swa wære oðþæt se bisceop hyne [unbunde eft]; and he wæs pa gehyrsum hys hæsum sóna, 59 mann(um gelic) H. 60 (þu werige) H. 61 Drihten] dvihten H ; drihte R. 62 (þeoda Cyning, se) H. Scyppend] ece scyppend H. 63 hwilcum H. (e)ag(um) besce(awast þu þæs) H . soðan] (so)ðan /. i j i v H. tempi H . 64 M id H. hwilcu/n H . (fotum gæst þu) H. go(de)s H. flora H. 65 H u H . (t)o god(e) H. 66 (o)f H. ðam þe] þam þe H ; ða R. git H . 68 hwilcere H. 71 anwilnyss] anwille dyrstignyss H . (de)opran H . 72 þone] þæne H. 73 (he i)s H. 74 (wel) H . 75 bisceopes H, 77 hine H. unbunde eft] sic H ; eft unbende R . 78 his H. Glosses in R , Latin: 58 hwanon: vnde. 60 untrum: infirmus. 61 an: vnus, 62 þeoda: Gentium. ana: solns. 63 besceawast: respicis. 66 of ða[m] . . . dropað: ex quibns distillunt (for distillat). 67 hatheort­ nysse: furore. hete ageotan: iussisti fundere. 68 dyrstignysse: temeri­ tate, presumptzone. 70 Gewit: discede, gewurðe: fiat. 71 anwilnyss: opstinat/o, obstinat/o. 73 læcedom: remedium. manfullan dæde: ini­ quitate. 76 ascyred: prmatus, separatum. 77 unbende: solueret. 74-84 His sermonibus imperator oboediens— erat enim divinis eruditionibus enutritus et aperte sciens, quæ sunt propria sacerdotum, quæ regum— gemens et deflens ad regalia remeavit. Cumque octo mensium continuorum transissent tempora, propinquavit nativitatis Salvatoris nostri festivitas. Imperator autem lamentationibus adsiduis in palatio residens continuas lacrimas incessabiliter expendebat. C 2710.2

T

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gewende pa swa hám dreoriglice heofigende. He sæt pa on hys bure biterlice wepende

80

eahta monðas fullice for hys misdæde, pæt he næfre ne geswac þære sorhfullan geomrunge oðþæt hit genealæhte þæs Hælendes gebyrdtide to middanwintra pa he to mén wæs geboren.

þ a wolde an hys þegna hyne frefrian,

85

Ruphínus geháten, and eode inn to him

pær se casere læg on þære flore wepende, and ahsode hwi he wolde swa wundorlice heofian. He cwæð pa mid wope, M e þincð þæt ðu plegast and J>u mine yrmðe naht ne gefredst. Ic heofige and geomrie mine hefegan bendas, for þam p t þeowum mannum #to þissere halgan tide

9° *p . 123

and earmum mannum is inngang alyfed innto Godes cyrican G od to gebiddanne, and ic ne mót nú gan innto Godes húse; and eac þartoeacan me is heofon belocen. J>is he cwæð mid siccetunge and mid sarlicum wópe.

95

Ð a cwæð Ruphinus þæt he yrnan wolde 79 gewende þa] 7 gewende H . 80 his H. 81 his H. misdæda H. 84 menn H. wæs geboren] geboren wæs H. 85 his H . þegena H . hine H. frefrian] gefrefrian H . 86 rufinus H . 87 flora H . 88 axode H . 89 þingð H . 90 gefretst H . 91 geome(r)ige H . hefigan H . 92 þan H. þisse(r)e H . 94 into H . (g)odes H . cyrcean H. gebiddenne H. 95 (h)use H . 96 þær- H . heofen H . 97 Ðiss H . sicce(tu)nge H. Glosses in R> Latin: 79 heofigende: lugews. 82 geomrunge: gemitu. 85 an: vm/s. 90 yrmðe: miseriam. gefredst: sentis. 91 heofige: lugeo. geomrie: fleo. 92 þeowum: seruis. 93 earmum: miseris, inngang: ingressum. alyfed: licitum. 96 heofon: celum. 97 sicce­ tunge: suspiratione. 98 yrnan: currere. M E : 79 heofigende: wepinde. 88 heofian: weopen. 90 gefredst: feiest. 85-97 Ingressus autem Rufinus tunc magister et singularem apud principem fiduciam habens et videns principem in lamentatione prostratum accessit, ut lacrimarum causas inquireret. At ille amarissime ingemescens et vehementius lacrimas fundens: ‘T u / inquit, ‘Rufine, ludis et mea mala non sentis. Ego autem lamentor et gemo calamitatem meam, quia servis quidem et mendicantibus aperta sunt templa Dei, et proprium Dominum ingredientes licenter exorant, mihi vero ingressus ad eum non est; insuper etiam cæli sunt clausi/ Hæc dicens verba singula singultibus interrumpebat. 98-100 Rufinus: ‘Curro,’ inquit, ‘si tibi placet, pontificique precibus per­ suadeo, ut solvatur vinculum quod ligavit/

XXVI

T H E O D O S I U S A N D AMBROS E

767

to pam halgan biscope, and hine georne biddan

past he únbunde þone bend þe he gewrað. pa cwæð se casere, Ic cann hyne swa geare past he nele awendan Godes rihtwisnysse

100

for minum cynedome to nanre wohnysse. H i eodan swaþeah begen to þam biscope sona, and fundon hine sittende on cumena huse, and se casere hyne bæd mid soðre eadmodnysse past [he] hys bendas unbindan sceolde.

105

pa cwæð Ambrosius, Hwi come þu hider ? wilt pu forgægan Godes as nú, and mid þinum riccetere wéndan ongean G od?

no

Se casere hym andwyrde, Ne eom ic na swa dyrstig past ic durre tobrecan Drihtnes gesetnysse, ne ic nelle inn gan into Godes huse; ac 'ic ' bidde pe georne pæt ðu unbindan sceole mine swaran bendas, and gebide for me

115

99 (to) H . bisceope H. georne biddan] biddan georne H. ioo (b)end H. 101 geare] georne H . 102 awendon H. 104 eodon H. bisceope H. 106 hine H. (e)admodnesse H. 107 he] sic H ; om. R. his H. 108 (Hwi) H. 109 Wilt H. n o ricce(tere) H. h i kasere H. him H . (swa d)yrstig H. 112 drihtenes H. 113 (inn gan) H. innto H. 115 (mine swaran) H . me] me earminge H. Glosses in R y Latin: 100 gewrað: strinxit. 101 cann: coraiosco. geare: bene. 102 awendan: mutare, auertere. 104 begen: arabo. 105 on cumena huse: in domo hospitura. 109 forgægan: transgredere, preuaricare. æ: legera. n o riccetere: nobilitate, tirannide {second n seems written over another letter). i n dyrstig: audax. 113 inn gan: intrarz. 115 swaran: graue. gebide: ora. M E : 105 cumena huse: Gistenehuse. 115 swaran: heuie. 101-3 A t imperator: ‘Non*, inquit, ‘suadebis Ambrosio. Novi ego decretum illius esse iustum, neque reverebitur imperialem potentiam, ut legem possit praevaricari divinam.’ 104-10 [Ælfric omits complications] Cumque Rufinus verbis plurimis uteretur • . . imperator eum pergere cum festinatione praecepit; ipse vero spe data post paululum est secutus. . . . Cumque ad sacra limina pervenisset, in sanctam qui­ dem basilicam non praesumpsit intrare; sed veniens ad antistitem et inveniens eum in salutatorio residentem supplicabat, ut eius vincula resolveret. A t ille tyrannicam dicebat eius esse praesentiam et contra Deum vesanire Theodosium eiusque calcare leges. m - 1 7 Verum imperator: ‘N on’, inquit, ‘insurgo adversus ecclesiasticas san­ ctiones nec inique ingredi limina sacra contendo; sed te solvere mea vincla deposco et communis Domini pro me exorare clementiam nec mihi ianuam claudi, quam cunctis pænitentiam agentibus Dominus noster aperuit.’

768

T H E O D O S I U S A N D AMBR OS E

XXVI

pæt God me geopenige hys huses inngang, pone pe he geopenade eallum behreowsiendum. Ð a cwæð se biscop hym to, Hwaer is pin dædbót æfter swylcere unrihtwisnysse ? oððe hu hæfst ðu gehæled pa micclan wunda pinre manfullan dæde? þa cwæð Theodosius, pm scealt me tæcan

120

pone gastlican læcedóm, and to Gode me pingian, and ic sceal underfón æt pe pa bóte. Hwæt pa se biscop hym bóte pæs tæhte, and het hyne warnian eft wið swylce dæde,

125

and hyne unband pa fram hys synna bendum and lyfde him ingang into Godes huse; and se casere gehyrsumode eallum hys hæsum mid micelre eadmodnysse, and eode innto cyrcan, læg on pære flore eallum *limum astreht, and beot hys breost, biterlice wepende, and bæd hym miltsunge hys misdæda æt Gode,

*p. 124 131

and gestod pa mæssan mid oðrum mannum. W e magon wundrian pæs mæran bisceopes, 116 (his huses inngan)g H . 117 geopenode if. eallum] eallum eallum i f . 118 (Ða cwæð se biscop) hi(m to) if. 119 swilcere if. -rihtwis(nysse) /. 172 i f . h(æ)fst i f . 123 bote] dædbote i f . 124 bisceop i f . him if. 125 hine i f . swylce] swilcere i f . 126 hine i f . his if. 127 inngang i f . 128 And if. his i f . 129 mycelre i f . -nesse if. 130 laeg] 7 læg if. flora if. 13 1 his if. 132 him if. his if. 133 gestod] gestod him if. Glosses in R , Latin: 116 inngang: ingressum. 117 þone: illum, behreowsiendum: penitentibns. 118 dædbot: penitencia. 119 hæfst þu gehæled: sanasti. 120 manfullan: iniquo. 122 læcedom: remedium, þingian: intercedere. 123 bote: emendationem. 125 wamian: cauere. 127 lyfde: concessit. 133 gestod: constitit. 134 margin for paragraph: ingentia mangnalia. þæs: istius. 118-20 Tunc antistes: ‘Quam’, inquit, ‘pænitentiam ostendisti post tantas iniquitates ? Quibus medicaminibus incurabilia vulnera plagasque curasti ?* 121-3 A t imperator: ‘Tu um ’, inquit, ‘opus est et docere et medicamina tem­ perare, meum vero oblata suscipere/ 124-33 Un the Latin Ambrosius requires that Theodosius make a new law to prevent a recurrence of the injustice and Theodosius complies. Then follows] Quo facto vinculum eius solvit Ambrosius. . . . Sic igitur sacratissimus imperator ingredi limina praesumens . . . pronus in pavimento iacens, . . . frontemque per­ cudens et pavimento lacrimarum guttas aspargens veniam impetrare poscebat, fIn the Latin Theodosius is required by Ambrose to leave the chancel and stand with the congregation during the celebration of the mass. Ælfric states only the result.] x34” 9 IÆlfric*s conclusion, suggested by the Latin] Tali ergo tantaque et praesul

XXVI

T H E O D O S I U S A N D AMBR OS E

and hys anrædnyss is swyðe heriendlic,

769 135

and þæs caseres eadmodnyss eac þartogeanes is swiðe micel, pæt he mihte swa forberan on swylcum anwealde pæt he wære amansumod; ac seo eadmodnyss hym becóm to écere hæle. 135 his H . swiþe H. 136 þær- H. 137 is] wæs H . mycel H. 138 swilcum H . andwealde (less probably ond-) H. 139 Ac H. him H. hæle] followed in both M S S . by the conclusion of the original homily, C H II. 436/ig - 2 y y except that R omits the last clause and the Amen in order to intro­ duce another interpolation, for which see introduction, p. 760. Glosses in R> Latin: 135 anrædnyss: constandam (written twice in acc.). 138 anwealde: potestate. et imperator virtute darebant. Ego namque utriusque opus ammiror, illius fiduciam, huius autem oboedientiam, illius zeli fervorem, huius fidei puritatem.

N O TES 4 - 2 7 . T h i s h is t o r ic a l s u m m a r y d e p e n d s u lt im a t e ly , n o d o u b t , o n th e Tripartite History, f r o m w h i c h th e e n s u in g n a r r a tiv e , is d r a w n , a n d o n Æ l f r i c ’s o th e r c h i e f a u t h o r it y f o r th e p e r io d , R u fin u s . Æ l f r i c to u c h e s u p o n C o n s t a n t in e a n d T h e o d o s iu s in th e e p ilo g u e to Judges a n d in x x n . I n x x i . 5 4 2 s q q . h e m e n t io n s th e d e s t r u c tio n o f id o ls u n d e r T h e o d o s iu s , o n e e x a m p le o f w h i c h w a s t h e d e s t r u c tio n o f S e r a p is in A le x a n d r ia . 7 7 . unbunde eft H , eft unbende R . S in c e th e fo r m unbunde o f H is c l e a r l y s u p p o r t e d b y geband in 7 2 a n d gebunden in 7 5 as w e ll as b y th e unbunde o f b o t h m a n u s c r ip t s a t 100, I h a v e a c c e p t e d th e w o r d - o r d e r o f H a ls o . B T h a s n o e x a m p le o f th e w e a k v e r b unbendan, t h o u g h it r e c o r d s bendan a n d gebendan. 115. gebide. B o t h m a n u s c r ip t s h a v e th e im p e r a t iv e h e r e , w i t h a c o n ­ fir m a t o r y g lo s s in R , w h e r e t h e o p ta t iv e gebidde is r a th e r to b e e x p e c te d . 133« gestodþa mæssan mid oðrum mannumy ‘ a tte n d e d th e m a s s, s t a n d in g w i t h o th e r m e n ’ . T h i s u s e o f gestandan w it h th e a c c u s a t iv e a p p e a r s to b e n o r m a l in th e s e n s e ‘ to a t t e n d ’ a s e r v ic e a t w h ic h o n e s ta n d s ( B T S gestandany B . I I ) . Æ l f r i c is h e r e le a v in g o u t a c o m p lic a t io n in h is L a t i n s o u r c e , w h i c h t e lls h o w T h e o d o s iu s , h a v in g m a d e h is o ffe r in g a t th e m a s s , s t o o d (stetit) in th e c h a n c e l as h e h a d b e e n a c c u s t o m e d to d o in C o n s t a n t i­ n o p le , u n t il A m b r o s e e x p la in e d t h a t th e c h a n c e l w a s r e s e r v e d fo r p r ie s ts a n d t o ld h im h is p la c e w a s o u t s id e w i t h th e r e s t o f th e la it y . T h u s w h a t lit t le d is t in c t io n r e m a in s in Æ l f r i c ’s a b r id g e m e n t is b r o u g h t o u t, n o t b y gestodyb u t b y mid oðrum mannum. I t m a y s e e m a p it y , h o w e v e r , to lo s e th e im a g e in gestod b y so g e n e r a l a d e fin itio n as ‘ a t t e n d ’ .

XXV II VISIONS OF DEPARTING SOULS (Addition to C H II. xxxvi, Dominica X V I P o s t Pentecosten) T

he

text here edited is not only imperfectly preserved but diverse

in style. There is reason to believe that its opening and closing sections are the work of someone other than Ælfric, and therefore to doubt whether Ælfric ever added any part of it to the homily in which we now find it. Our witness is the third and last stratum of the copiously interpolated M S . H, a stratum that is otherwise limited to Æ lfric’s work but includes the probably unauthorized though ingenious compilation, xia, and the possibly unauthorized combination of Assmann n and the close of Assmann hi.1 Æ lfric’s homily for the sixteenth Sunday after Pentecost (C H II. xxxvi) occurs in the version printed by Thorpe from K in four other manuscripts, B, C, D, and F, which represent for C H I and prob­ ably for C H II the textual tradition up to K . In H, the only other manuscript in which the homily has come down to us, it has been inserted in an expanded form. T h e character of the addition can be better understood if we look first at the original homily. T h e homily as it stands in Thorpe is very brief, even allowing for Thorpe’s omission of most of the gospel. T h e exposition fills only two and a half pages. T h e gospel-text is the passage from the Sermon on the Mount on the impossibility of serving two masters, including the injunction to consider the lilies of the field {Matth. vi. 24-34), aneah hit (huru w)ære eall on u(r)um anwealde f. 176» pa (hwi)le þ(e w)e her on life wæron, gyf (we a wor)hton, p(a hwile þe) we mihton, past Go(de licode). W a pornie þam menn (J?e he)r s on þisum life geearnað him hellewite. Uton nu (forþi,) leof(an geb)roðra, andettan ure misdæda 7 synna pa hwile pe we magon (7 moton,) 7 betan (hi g)eorne, swa ure scrift us wisige; 7 uton geswican (æ)fre ælces yfeles, 7 don to gode J>one dæl þe we magon; ponne gebeor(ge) we ús sylfum wið éce wíte, 7 geearniað us heofena 10 (rice) mid pam eall(we)aldendan Criste. Witodlice ne mot se deofol ænigum menn pe hine (s)ylfne her on þisum life sylfwilles to his scrifte for Godes ege wregð (na)n þæra gylta him. ongean wyrpan æfter his forðsiþe pe he ær be (h)is scriftes wissunge gebete. We wyllað eow secgan sume bysne nu (b)e þysum, 15 pæt ge beon þe gewissran be eowre agenre þearfe. On þære (h)algan bee J?e hatte Uita Patrum ús segð swutellice pæt sum munuc on (we)stene Contained in H (Cotton Vitellius C. v), ff. i 70v- 7v, only. On f. i 70r the scribe concluded the sentence ending at line 8, p. 466 in Thorpe, having already trans­ posed the following sentence and put it after line 4 in Thorpe. He probably started the interpolation just before turning the page, but the last third of the bottom line of f. i70 r and most of the top line of f. i70 v have been destroyed. As elsewhere, the gaps in H are indicated by round brackets. Sometimes enough traces of letters remain to make a conjecture almost certain; sometimes the con­ text or the Latin source points clearly to a particular word. In these instances the missing letters are supplied within the brackets. Otherwise their approximate number is indicated by colons. i þæí we] partially visible though not unmistakable; similarly most other bracketed letters in the first paragraph; but see notes.

S ources. 18-24 [Vitas Patrum, V I, Ui. JJ, 1 4 •’ Migne, PL, L X X I I I . i o n sg.] Subintravit . . . in animo [cuiusdam fratris] cogitatus, velle videre animam peccatoris et iusti, quomodo abstrahitur a corpore. Et nolens Deus contristare eum in desideriis eius; dum sederet in cella sua, ingressus est lupus ad eum. . . . Lupus autem duxit eum usque ad aliquam civitatem, et dimittens fratrem illum, recessit.

776

V I S I O N S OF D E P A R T I N G S O U L S

XXVII

abæd æt his Drihtene paet he moste geseon hu se synnfulla mann (hi)s sawle ageafe,

20

7 hu se rihtwisa gewite of life. Ð a nolde se Hælend (hi)m þæs forwyrnan, ac him wæs gewissod pæt he ge wende to anre byrig (w)eard,

paet he mihte geseon swutellice be þam. Wiðutan þære byrig wæs (o)n sunderlicre wununge

25

sum namcuð wer sittende, swylce he ancer(se)tla wære, ac his lif wæs eall on yfel gelogod, Gode swiþe andsæte, swa (sw)a him aeode. Se læg pa swiþe seoc ungesæliglice, andbidigende (dea)þes mid eallura his synna.

30

D a geseah se munuc J>e of pam westene ( : : : : : )

paet an egeslic deofol of þære deorcan helle com to pam seocan menn (on his) forðsiþe, 7 hæfde him on handa þryfyrclede force, 7 pæt wæs glo(wen)de isen, paet he hine mid pære acwealde. 35 D a com stefen ufan fram (þa)m ælmihtigan Gode to þam sweartan deofle, þuss secgende him (to): Swa swa ic moste on þisum menn habban nane wununge naefre, (ne) minne willan on him, swa þu eac ne arige ne (him ne miltsi)ge (þonne þu ut) atyhst his arleasan sawle.

40

D a sette se deofol sona his (force) swylce glowende isen into his heortan 7 hine lange drehte (mid : : :)licum w itum ; 7 æfter manegum tidum þone mann adydde,

45

(paet he his sa)wle genam swa of þam lichaman, 7 hi laedde aweg mid 31 (stop)? povme p.

helle.

40-41 him . . . atyhst] M S has traces of all letters except

25-30 Cum vero sederet foras civitatem in monasterio, in quo erat quidam habitans, qui habebat nomen quasi magni solitarii, ipse vero solitarius infirmus erat, exspectans horam mortis suæ. . . . [Ælfric supplies 27 and 28, and omits the ironic accountywhich follows in the Latinyof the preparations for the funeral.] 31-47 Facta autem exitus eius hora, vidit frater ille tartaricum inferni descen­ dentem super solitarium illum, habentem tridentem igneum, et audivit vocem dicentem: Sicut anima ista non me fecit quiescere, neque una hora in se, sic neque tu miserearis eius evellens eam. Deponens igitur tartaricus ille quem tenebat tridentem igneum in cor solitarii illius, per multas horas torquens eum, abstraxit animam eius.

XXVII

V I S I O N S OF D E P A R T I N G S O UL S

777

Æ fter þisum eode se ylca foresæda (munuc oninnan þære) byrig, 7 he efne þa funde ænne seocne mann se) wæs ælþeodig mann, 7 he ana pær læg

50 *f. 177

: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : unge Godes engla(s) him to, Michael 7 Gabriel, swa swa G od

55

past hi þæs mannes sawle sceoldon underfon, 7 sæton hi

healfa oðþæí he sawlade;

ac his sawul nolde swa ut, swylce út of pam lichaman.

wære lað

Ð a cwæþ Gabrihel to Michaele (: : : : :), Genim þas sawle ardlice þe to,

60

7 uton siþian upp. Michael (him) andwyrde, U s is beboden fram þam ælmihtigan Gode

pæt we (butan) sarnysse þas sawle genimon: nu ne magon we forþig mid (nanre) earfoðnysse

65

þas sawle totwæman fram þam lichaman s(w : : : :). Ð a clypode Michael upp mid mycelre stefne 7 cw æ þ : Hu wylt þu, leof Drihten, embe þas sawle? Heo nele us geþafian past heo ut g(e)wite. Him com þa a n d ' s'waru þuss secgende of heofonum:

70

48-49 (munuc oninnan J?ære)] c f Latin and line 25 supra. Space favousr oninnan rather than into. 55 (him behead)? 57 hi(m ða on twa)? 58 (hit hire)? 60 (georne)? 66 s(wiðe)?

48-59 Posthæc autem ingressus frater ille in civitatem, invenit hominem pere­ grinum iacentem in platea aegrotum, non habentem qui ei curam adhiberet; et mansit cum eo die una. Et cum venisset hora dormitionis eius, conspicit frater ille Michaelem et Gabrielem descendentes propter animam eius. Et sedens unus a dextris et alius a sinistris eius, rogabant animam eius, ut egrederetur foras; et non exibat, quasi nolens relinquere corpus suum. 60-69 Dixit autem Gabriel ad Michaelem: Assume iam animam istam ut eamus. Cui Michael respondit: Iussi sumus a Domino, ut sine dolore eiiciatur, ideoque non possumus cum vi evellere eam. Exclamavit ergo Michael voce magna dicens: Domine, quid vis de anima hac, quia non acquiescet nobis, ut egrediatur ? 70-82 Venit autem ei vox: Ecce, mitto David cum cithara, et omnes Deo psallentes in Ierusalem, ut audiens psalmum ad vocem ipsorum egrediatur. Cumque descendissent omnes in circuitu animae illius cantantes hymnos, sic exiens illa sedit in manibus Michael, et assumpta est cum gaudio. [Ælfric adds the concluding details in 79-82.]

778

V I S I O N S OF D E P A R T I N G S O U L S

xxvn

Ic äsende nu rihtes þære sawle togeanes Dauid mid his hearpan, 7 þone heofenlican dream, ealle singende, p æ t seo sawul gehyre heora ealra stemna, 7 heo wyle swa ut. Hi comon pa. ealle to þære anre sawle 75 swyþe myrige singende, 7 heo V w a gewát ut of þam lichaman mid þam lofsange on Michaeles handuwi mid mycelre blisse, 7 heo wearð upp geferod mid eallum þam heape to þam soðan Hælende, þe heo swa gelicode; 80 7 se munuc gewende to p a m westene eft, hæfde p a gesawen swa swa he sylf gewilnode. Vs segð seo ylce boc p æ t sum oð(er) munuc hwilon, swiþe gezogen mann on mihte 7 on gearum, 85 com (into) anre byrig embe his agene neode. Ða gesæt he swa æt anes rice(s) mannes geate, se læg p æ r on forðsiþe, 7 se munuc pa beheol(d, for) þan p t he mihte geseon, for his micclum geearnungum, hu se (mann) geendode on his forðsiþe. D a geseah se munuc mycelne (getru)man, 90 swylce ridendra manna mid swyþe reþum anginne, ansynes mid eall-sweartum lichaman, 7 p a hors wær(on : : : : : : : : ) bæron pa deofla, be pam. þe he geseah þe hit eft ðu(: : : : : : : : : : : : :) lihton pa ealle 7 inn stopon caflice, 95 7 (ælc) hæfde h(: isenne sagol 71 nu rihtes] Space for one or two letters at end of line after nu in M S . but probably nothing missing. See note. 92 (egeslices) ? Perhaps too many letters, but margin uncertain. 93 wær(on swearte þe)? wær(on blace þe)? 94 ðu(s gerehte)? or ðu(s asæde)? 95 (Hi a)lihton.? 95 h(im on hand a ænne)? 83-89 Dixit iterum qui supra, de quodam sene, quia venit aliquando in civitatem, ut venundaret vasa quae operatus fuerat. Et cum explicuisset ea, con­ tigit eum sedere ante ianuam cuiusdam divitis, qui iam moriebatur. [Ælfric adds the explanationy 876-89.] 90-104 Sedens ergo senex ille, vidit equos nigros, et ascensores eorum nigros et terribiles, habentes singulos baculum igneum in manu sua. Cum ergo iam pervenissent ad ianuam illam, statuerunt equos suos foras, et intravit unus­ quisque cum festinatione. Infirmus autem ille videns eos, clamavit voce magna dicens: Domine, adiuva me. At illi dixerunt ei: Nunc memor factus es Dei, quando tibi sol obscuratus est ? quare usque in hodiernum diem non exquisisti eum, dum adhuc tibi splendor erat diei ? Nunc autem in hac hora non est tibi portio spei neque consolationis.

V I S I O N S OF D E P A R T I N G S O UL S

XXVII

779

on fyres gelicnysse, 7 sto(don) be(: : : : : : : : : pam ear)man seocan menn, 7 he geseah hi ealle. He cl(ypode Drihten, gehelp (min

mycelre angsumnesse, deoflu: 100

Eart pu nu gemyndig pæs (ælmihtigan Godes ponwe pin sunne) pe is forsworcen mid ealle ? Hw i nold(est J>u þa hwile pe ðu hæfdest ænig(: *f. i77v :::::::::: pe he symle

105 oð his

ende.

[T he following lines probably not by Ælfric\ :)bað swylce forebysne gehyred ge be(: : : : : : : : :)a his agene ( : : : : : ) sece to scrifte, p æt him wyrðe G od milde, for pam swa swa we (nu hwe)ne ær sædon, betere is manna gehwylcum p set him her on worulde (befor)an anum menn for his gyltum n o

sceamige, ponne him sceamige (eft on) Domes-dæg beforan Gode sylfum, 7 beforan eallum his englum, (7 be)foran eallum heofonlicum werede, 7 beforan eallum eorðlicum were(de), 7 beforan eallum deoflum. Hit his eall soð p æt we gyt secgan wyllað: (Dam) pe nele her nu his synna andettan his scrifte, 7 betan swa he him ns tæcð, him sceal on Domes-dæg sceamian beforan Gode sylfum, 7 eallum his halgum 7 eallum deoflum, swa pam menn dyde pe wurde færinga nacod beforan eallum folce, 7 nyste ponne mid hwam he his sceamigendlican bewruge: swa him b yð on Domesdæge buton he his synna aer bewreo mid andetnesse, 7 mid dæd- 120 bote, 7 mid ælmyssum. Ealle pa synna pe we her wyrceað, ealle hi beoð eft on us sylfum gesewene 7 geopenode, buton hi ær her on worulde gebette beon. 100 gehelp (min! A c him andwyrdon þa) deoflu? 104 ænig(ne hiht to forgifennysse) ? 106 (for ðan) pe he symle (wunode on his synnum) oð his ende? 107 (Leofan menn, nu ge hab)bað ? be(ðoht, loc hw)a? 108 (þearfe) ? 115 his] sic M S . for is. 123 beon] followed by the original conclusion of the homily: God ús gerihtlæce, 7 to þam ecan life gelaede, swa swa he behet þam þe hine lufiað. Si him wuldor 7 wyrðmynt on ealra worulda woruld, A M E N .

j8 o

V I S I ON S OF D E P A R T I N G S O UL S

xxvn

N OTES 2 -7 . T h e left-hand margin o f the m anuscript near the top o f the page has lost several letters. N o recognizable traces remain for the first four letters of wiðæftan (2), any at all o f hum (3), the first five o f we a worhton (4), the first four o f þe her (5), or the first three o f gebrodra (7). E veryth in g except huru (3), a pure guess to fill the space, is p retty w ell supported b y the first W ulfstan passage quoted above, p. 773 , or b y the context. I am also doubtful about leofre (2) despite plausible traces, for the W u lfstan passage ju st m entioned makes m e believe that another leofre> differently used, stood in the previous, now illegible line. A s for the bracketed hwi o f the first þa hwile þe (4), this cluster o f letters seems to have been turned over when the dam aged leaf was set in its paper frame, since there is no trace of it on the verse where it belongs, bu t it appears near the correspond­ ing spot on the recto, somewhat askew, where it cannot have had any place originally. T h e repetition o f þa hwileþe in lines 4 and 7 seems not uncharac­ teristic o f this author. 15. T h e antecedent o f þysum is b y no means clear, w hether w e try to discover it in w hat has ju st been said or in the last sentences o f the original hom ily. C f. xix . 136, where a com parable dam refers to the statem ent im m ediately preceding. In all probability the original ante­ cedent has been lost. W ith Æ lfric ’s formula in this line com pare the beginning o f the unattached exemplum b y him in N apier xx x i, p. 152/7: ‘W e willað nu seegan sume bysne to þisu m .’ H ere more obviously the excerptor has sacrificed the antecedent o f þisum. 44. mid : : : licum witum. A gain st hellicum is the lack o f any trace o f an ascender in the m anuscript. A gain st deoflicum is the doubt w hether there is enough space and the use o f deofol two lines earlier. I f - licum be allowed to carry the alliteration w ith lange w e can sup ply a non-alliterating syllable such as sar-. B ut Æ lfric m ay have had a better idea. 59. Apparently half a line containing to w ith a dative infinitive (as in v ii. 40) has dropped out. 70-80. T h e se lines have already been printed in an article b y W inifred T e m p le, ‘T h e Song o f the A n gelic H o sts’, Annuale M ediaevale (P itts­ bu rgh : D uquesne U n iv . Press), II (1961), 5 -1 4 . H er text, on p. 7, is taken directly from the m anuscript and is correctly printed, except that b y some oversight the printer has om itted all the ampersands. (See also the next note, on line 7 1.) T h e article deals w ith the clim ax o f the story as it appears in the Vitae Patrum, in Æ lfric, and in an O ld Irish version, and touches on its Oriental antecedents. T h e m ain w eight o f the article, however, is on the word dr earn, as explained in the note on line 72. 71 • nu rihtes. T h e re is room for at least one more letter after nu at the end o f a line in the m anuscript and we m ight perhaps read (ge)rihtes, b u t certainly not (þær)rihtesyas M iss T e m p le suggests and I too once supposed. In the com bination þærrihtey as in the m odern ‘ thereupon’, the þæ r points

XXVII

V I S I O N S OF D E P A R T I N G S O U L S

781

to some tim e other than the present. H ence it cannot w ell be used in conjunction w ith nu. Æ lfric uses þærrihte m ost often w ith the past tense, as at L S v n . 356; x. 94; xxi. 326; x x n . 1 3 1 ; x x x iv. 224. H e uses it also, in our xi. 303, w ith reference to a quick succession o f events in the distant future. B u t B T , under rihtey gives tw o exam ples o f nu rihtey translating iam nunc, from the O .E . Heptateuch (E x o d . ix. 19 and N um . xi. 23), and under nu9 two more exam ples from Æ lfr ic ’s Grammar (ed. Z u pitza, pp. 94/14 and 123/17). T h e form rihtes here, instead o f the usual rihtey m ay be scribal. A s for (ge)rihtesy though the m anuscript w ould adm it such a reading it does not require it, and there is no record in the dictionaries o f gerihte(s) as a tem poral adverb. 72. dream. M iss T e m p le, in the article m entioned above, has show n that the word here m ust mean ‘choir’ rather than ‘so n g’ or ‘ m usic’, and has pointed to several other passages in O ld E n glish where the same m eaning, if not required, w ould be relevant. T h o u g h not recognized in the d ic­ tionaries, this m eaning m ay be regarded as an extension (or parallel) o f the concrete sense ‘m usical instrum ent’ recorded in B T , drearn, II. Elsewhere Æ lfric uses the w ord w ith reference to heavenly singing, as at C H II. 342/10; 548/12; to the sound o f trum pets, as at C H II. 86/35 ; and in one other passage, perhaps, to the heavenly choir : nam ely, at L S x x x i. 1389, 139S, though this m eaning was not recognized b y Skeat. 94. þe hit eft ðu(s gerehte) ? T h e context requires some such clause, b u t since the beginning o f the next sentence is also lost the num ber o f letters m issing here is hard to estimate. Æ lfric need not have chosen an alliterat­ ing verb (such as asæde) since he had four m inor words beginning w ith þ and two w ith h . Possible parallels are L S x x v . 513, swa swa we her rehtony and even L S x x v i. 247, þa clypode he pone preost pe hit cydde eft pus. 10 9 -14 . O n the resem blance o f these lines to a passage in D e P enitentia see the introductory com m ent. 1 1 4 -2 1 . F o r the correspondence here w ith a passage in N ap ier x l v i see the introductory com m ent. T h e phrase, pone sceamiendan lichamany in N a p ie r’s text looks like a euphem istic substitute for the hitherto u n ­ recorded his sceamigendlican in line 119. T h e verb bewreon (119 , bewrugey and 120, bewreo) is not recorded in B T as a verb used b y Æ lfric, though I hesitate to count its occurrence here am ong positive signs o f a different author. Æ lfric does use the negatively prefixed onwreon ‘ to reveal’ (see G lo ssary); aioreon ‘ to reveal’ at O N T 879 (recorded in B T S ) ; and oferwreon ‘to cover’ at C H II. 196/25. T h e re m ay be unrecorded instances o f bewreon, but, even if not, Æ lfric tends to use prefixes so spontaneously that a rare use m ay crop up anywhere in his work.

C 2710.2

U

XX V III ‘PAULUS SCRIPSIT AD THESALONI CENSES’ (Lines on Antichrist added to C H II.

x l iv ,

In N a ta le Sanctarum

Virginum)

homily for Virgins, the fifth and last in the group of homilies for the common of the saints at the end of his Second Series, expounds the parable of the wise and foolish virgins in M atthew xxv. 1-13. Under the joint guidance of Gregory and Augustine,1 the coming of the bridegroom is taken as the coming of Christ to the great judgement, and at verse 6, M edia autem nocte clamor factus est, the dread question of the time of the coming is opened up.2 Æ lfric first explains that the middle of the night represents profound ignorance, for the end of this world will come when men least expect it ; and he quotes the passage in which St. Paul says the day of the Lord will come like a thief in the night (/ Thess. v. 2). But now, following Augustine’s lead for a sentence or two, he comments on the general anxiety: Æ l f r ic ’s

Oft cweðað men, ‘Efne nu cymð domes dæg’, forðan ðe ða witegunga sind agane, þe be ðam asette wæron. Ac gefeoht cymð ofer gefeohte, gedrefednys ofer gedrefednysse, eorðstyrung ofer eorðstyrunge, hungor ofer hungre, þeod ofer ðeode, and þonne gyt ne cymð se brydguma.

Thus far with Augustine, the end of the tenth century at one with the beginning of the fifth; but now Æ lfric continues: Eac swilce þa six ðusend geara fram Adame beoð geendode, and ðonne gyt elcað se brydguma. Hu mage we þonne witan hwænne he cymð? Swa swa he sylf cwæð, ‘on middre nihte’. Hwæt is ‘on middre nihte’ buton þonne ðu nast and þu his ne wenst, ðonne cymð he. Nis nan gesceaft þe cunne ðone timan þyssere worulde geendunge, buton Gode anum.3 1 Max Förster, Anglia X V I. 15, lists the passages most directly indebted to Gregory {Horn. X I I in Evang.) and Augustine (Sermo xcni). 2 C H II. 568/1 sqq. T h e quotations below are from lines 8-13 and 13-19. 3 Matth, xxiv. 36: De die autem illa, et hora nemo scit, neque angeli caelorum, nisi solus Pater.

xxvi i i

‘P A U L U S

SCRIPSIT

AD

TH ESALONICENSES’

783

U p to this point all the manuscripts agree. Four of them, B, D , E, and K (Thorpe’s), represent the early textual tradition as it was established before the middle of the nineties. T w o, P and V, represent traditions that originated some years after the turn of the century. In these two the passage just quoted is followed by a few lines that do not appear in the others. T h e added lines form two small units that are related in theme but were obviously not to be treated equally as additions to the text of the homily. T h e first unit, in Latin, must have been originally a marginal note, a parenthetical reminder to the author and other learned readers of a relevant though perplexing prediction of St. Paul’s ( I I Thess. ii. 7 sq.) in a well-known passage concerning Antichrist and the end of the world. T h e second unit alone, con­ sisting of nine vernacular lines carefully composed in Æ lfric’s rhythmical style, can be accepted as an integral part of the homily. These lines allude generally to the same text without quoting it or implying that it has been quoted, and offer a free interpretation of it based on a comment by Jerome. T h e Latin note has the same character as the notes that appear in T horpe’s text of the Catholic Homilies (from K ) at 1 . 172/24,186/25,

3 ° 4 /9 > 374 /2 5 . 382/28, 478/32; II. 60/16, 92/34, 386/34, 390/3, 446/20. Unlike the short Latin texts that Æ lfric quotes and trans­ lates, these notes cannot well have been intended for delivery from the pulpit as part of the homilies. T h e y are asides to the learned.1 T h e interpolation proper testifies to Æ lfric’s effort to deal as responsibly as possible with the disturbing predictions of the last days. T h e general idea appears in A dso’s popular account of Antichrist, which is discussed above, p. 588, as one of Æ lfric’s probable sources for x vm , but Adso does not document his state­ ments.

Æ lfric

characteristically

goes

here

to

the

ultimate

authorities, to St. Paul himself and to Jerome. Whether his addition belongs to the same period as his return to the subject of Antichrist in x v m is more than I can say. I have not found any allusion to this prediction elsewhere in Æ lfric or Wulfstan, but Æ lfric may have made use of another part of Jerome’s Epistula cxxi in homily xvi. 269-92. 1 A list of notes, Latin and English, in Æ lfric’s works is printed in Clemoes, Chronology, 219. It includes, for C H I and II, three similar Latin notes, marginal or interlinear, cited by Ker from M S S . A and K . T o the Latin list should be added, for completeness, the notes cited above for C H I. 382 and II. 386, 390, and of course the passage here printed.

TH E

TEXT

Paulus scripsit ad Thesalonicenses, nam ministerium iam operatur iniquitatis, tantum ut qui nunc tenet, teneat donec de medio fia t, et tunc reuelabitur ille iniquus, et cetera .— U s gebycnode swaþeah se Godes bydel Paulus

5

sume swutelunge be ðysum on sumon his pistole, and Hieronimus se snotera J>a swutelunge trahtnode, and cwæð pæt ne cymð na Antecristes tima þa hwile þe se casere his cynedomes gewylt. A c syððan þæs caseres rice J?e on Romana rixað

10

byð mid ealle toworpen, þonne cymð Antecrist, and se byð ofslagen mid þæs Hælendes tocyme, swa swa þeostru fordwinað on þære sunnan tocyme. T ext based on P (Hatton 115), f. 85/5-17. Collated with V ( C C C C 421), pp. 86/19-87/17. These lines follow buton Gode anum, C H II. 568/19. i tesalonicens V. 5 gebicnode V. i i bið V. 12 bið V. Latin glosses in P : 5 gebycnode: innuit. perhaps M E , 11 toworpen: destru[c]tuw. obscurantwr.

6 swutulunge V .

pisum V,

7 trahtnode: gloss erased, 13 fordwinað: euanescuni;

S ources. 2-4 [A slightly inaccurate reminder of I I Thess. ii. 7, 5] Nam mysterium iam operatur iniquitatis; tantum ut qui tenet nunc, teneat, donec de medio fiat. Et tunc revelabitur ille iniquus, quem Dominus Iesus interficiet spiritu oris sui, et destruet illustratione adventus sui eum. 8-14 [Jerome, Epist. C X X I , ad Algasiam, cap. xi, on I I Thess. ii. 3-8] Si enim aperte audacterque dixisset, non veniet Antichristus, nisi prius Romanum deleatur imperium, iusta causa persecutionis in orientem tunc Ecclesiam con­ surgere videbatur. Quodque sequitur, Iam enim mysterium operatur iniquitatis9 tantum ut qui tenet nuncy teneat, donec de medio fiatyet tunc revelabitur ille iniquus, hunc habet sensum: Multis malis atque peccatis, quibus Nero impurissimus Caesarum mundum premit, Antichristi parturitur adventus, et quod ille opera­ turus est postea, in isto ex parte completur, tantum ut Romanum imperium, quod nunc universas gentes tenet, recedat, et de medio fiat, et tunc Antichristus veniet, fons iniquitatis, quem Dominus Iesus interficiet spiritu oris sui. . . . Statim ut ille advenerit, interficietur Antichristus. Et quomodo tenebrae solis fugantur adventu, sic illustratione adventus suiyeum Dominus destruet atque delebit. . . .

X X V I II

‘PAULUS

SCRIPSIT AD

TH ESALONICENSES’

785

N O TES 10 . Romana. T h i s g e n it iv e p lu r a l a ft e r on m a y b e e llip t ic a l, b u t it s e e m s m o r e p r o b a b le t h a t s o m e s u c h w o r d a s byrig o r þeode h a s d r o p p e d o u t. 1 3 . fordwinað, ‘ v a n is h ’ . Æ l f r i c u s e s th e s a m e v e r b w i t h r e fe r e n c e to s m o k e a t C H I . 5 9 2 / 12 a n d to th e d e v il a t C H I I . 504/4.

XXIX MACARIUS AND THE MAGICIANS SAUL AND THE WITCH OF ENDOR (Addition to L S xvn, D e Auguriis)

I n two manuscripts, R and S, the passage edited below has been substituted for the last four lines of Æ lfric’s D e Auguriis as it appears in other manuscripts, and the substitution raises questions which are partially but not fully answered by the author of the colophon in R. According to this colophon, the homily ‘be þam wiglungum’, which is obviously D e Auguriis , is one of two that have been ‘geeacnode’ from other homilies, and the clear im­ plication is that the responsibility for the enlargement lies with the author of the colophon or his supervisor, not with Æ lfric.1 T h e very explicitness of the colophon invites belief. Moreover, the testimony thus provided seems to accord with the distribution of the unenlarged version of D e Auguriis in the manuscripts, for this survives not only in C, L , and W (Skeat’s basic manuscript), which can be expected to represent a relatively early state of the text, but also in O, P, and V, the last especially a manuscript that should be textually as late as R and S. If we accept, provisionally at least, the colophon’s testimony, we must still ask where the compiler found his material and whether he added anything of his own in order to adjust it to its new position. T h e addition has three unequal parts: a bridge passage of only three lines, establishing a link to D e Auguriis and introducing the topics to follow; then, in lines 4-35, the suc­ cinctly told story of Macarius and the magicians; and finally, in lines 36-128, the much longer, carefully expounded story of Saul and the witch of Endor. T h e first and third parts occur nowhere else, but the second part, 4-35, concerning Macarius, is already familiar to readers of Æ lfric’s Lives o f Saints , for Skeat found it in 1 See the description of R in the Introduction, I. 63-64. T h e conclusions set forth below differ from those anticipated on p. 64. A fresh look at my argument as it originally stood in proof has led me to modify it significantly.

X X IX

SAUL

AND

THE

W ITC H

OF

ENDOR

787

M S . W immediately after his xxi, the account of St. Swithun’s miracles. There it is headed ‘ Item A lia’, and bears instructions, which Skeat followed, to insert it just ahead of the closing doxology of the preceding piece. A s it appears in lines 4-35 of the addition in R and S, the Macarius passage exhibits no substantive differences from its appearance in W , and we may deduce that the setting accorded to it in W is both prior and authoritative. T h e opening words, ‘Mannum is eac to witenne’, properly introduce a new topic at the point indicated for the insertion of the passage in W — that is, after Skeat xxi. 463; but after line 3 of the addition in R and S, the eac is clearly illogical. Whoever put the passage in this setting neglected to make the proper adjustment. Moreover, the attach­ ment of the passage to Skeat xxi, though it may seem puzzling at first, is intelligible enough to be accepted as intentional on Æ lfric’s part. What is remarkable about St. Swithun, in view of the importance attached to him at Winchester, is that no details of his life were remembered there. Æ lfric acknowledges this lack of information, and confines himself perforce to the saint’s posthumous acts, recounting one miracle after another, including several dreams that are taken to be divinely authorized visions. Near the end (Skeat 403-13), Æ lfric seems to fear that he may be encouraging a dangerous credulity, for he issues warning against taking for divine visions the false dreams inspired by the devil. T h e Macarius passage is a further warning of the same sort, this time against the false illusions created by the devil’s agents, the magicians. It is a tribute to Æ lfric’s conscience rather than to his sense of literary design that he thus adds these notes of caution to his celebration of St. Swithun’s miracles. N ow the final passage in R and S, on Saul and the witch, has precisely the same didactic purpose. Saul thought the witch had called up the spirit of the prophet Samuel to help him, but it was really the devil foretelling his doom. Beware lest the appetite for miracles lead to similar delusions! Is it not very possible, then, that at some later time Æ lfric reinforced his appended warning by adding to the tale of Macarius the example of Saul ? T h e transition from one to the other at line 36 is flawless; and if Æ lfric had al­ ready put the pieces of his composition together in this fashion he had greatly simplified the task of the compiler. There is no obstacle to this hypothesis in the manuscript record.

788

M ACARIUS

AND

THE

M AG ICIAN S

XXIX

O f the two complete copies of the St. Swithun piece that survived into modern times (one in Cotton Otho B. x, now partially burnt, the other in W , Cotton Julius E. vii), only the one in W represents what may be called a second state by addition of the Macarius passage. W e may readily imagine a third state with the further addition of the Saul passage. M S . W shares with several other manuscripts an early state of D e Falsis D iis (xxi above), and M S S . R and S are witnesses to a later state. I f these conjectures are right, we have in lines 4-128 below an authentic composition of Æ lfric’s, produced in two instalments but intended to go together. In lines 1-3 we have a clever imitation of Æ lfric’s rhythmical style and diction, composed by the compiler in order to fit the rest to its new position at the end of D e A uguriis.1 So brief an imitation as this would have been relatively easy. T h e compiler deserves credit for a remarkably apt collocation of texts, so apt indeed that I was for a long time tempted to believe that Æ lfric himself had composed the Saul passage for D e Auguriis (with perhaps lines 1 and 2 as introduction, and some suitable adverb in line 36 in place of eac swylce). There is certainly talk of witches in D e Auguriis (Skeat xvii. 108-13 and 124-35), including in the first passage the question how it is that they can foretell what is going to happen. T h e discussion of Saul’s delusion gives a fuller answer to this question, and the comment about contem­ porary witches (118-23 below) provides an effective reminder of the main theme of the homily. R ’s colophon would allow us to suppose that the compiler was responsible for adding no more than line 3 and the Macarius passage. But this hypothesis is not only more complicated than the other; it is rendered improbable by the absence of any addition in the other manuscripts of D e Auguriis , by the fact that the addition, relevant though it is, has been placed inappropriately at the very end of the homily, where it forces cancellation of the now inapplicable conclusion, and by the fact that no fresh conclusion has been provided. It is not like Æ lfric to let a homily end without a doxology and an Amen. A few words must be added on the sources. T h e Macarius story 1 If we accept these lines as Æ lfric’s, we make him solely responsible for the addition (as does Clemoes, Chronology, p. 239). But this is to reject the statement of the colophon, blame Ælfric for retaining eac in line 4, and disregard several bits of evidence mentioned below. T h e compiler probably composed intro­ ductory sentences for his other acknowledged enlargement (see above, I. 63-64).

X X IX

SAUL

AND

THE

W ITC H

OF EN D O R

789

seems clearly enough to have had a single source, the Historia Monachorum of Rufinus; but several sources may have con­ tributed to the discussion of Saul and the witch. Æ lfric refers to Augustine in line 50, and there is a genuine treatment of the subject by him, with Æ lfric’s main conclusions plainly indicated, in one of the chapters of D e Diversis Quaestionibus ad Sim plicianum .1 But this chapter is strongly influenced, apparently, by an earlier work which passed for Augustine’s also until comparatively recent times. T h is is the Quaestiones Veteris et N o v i Testamenti in Migne,

P L xxxv, edited more elaborately by A. Souter.2 In Quaestio xxvii we find a discussion of Saul and the witch that is decidedly closer to Æ lfric than the corresponding passage in Augustine. T h is is particularly evident at lines 77-85, where Augustine has nothing to correspond, and at line

h i

, where the pseudo-Augustine is

responsible for the quotation Æ lfric mistakenly attributes to St. Paul. Whether Æ lfric had also read Augustine’s version, which is virtually the same in substance at many points, is hard to tell. I have quoted a bit of it for line 101 because it is much closer to what Æ lfric there says than the pseudo-Augustine, and a little closer than what I have quoted from Isidore. There is a very good chance that Æ lfric was familiar with the passage in Isidore (which I think had something to do with the three lines 102-4, an$. -Augustine §§ J, 4] Et quomodo homo Dei, qui cum Abraham in refrigerio erat, dicebat ad virum pestilentiae, dignum ardore gehennae, Cras mecum eris? (I Reg. xxviii, 19, inexactly). Subtilitatem fallaciae suae prodidit improvidus Satanas, quia . . . virum peccatis pressum, cum magna distantia peccatorum et iustorum sit, cum Samuele iustissimo futurum mentitus est. Verum potest videri si de Samuelis nomine taceatur, quia Saul cum diabolo futurus erat. Ad eum enim transmigravit, quem adoravit.

794

M ACARIUS

AND

THE

M AGICIANS

X X IX

Her we magon tocnawan þæt se cyning sceolde

70

for hys manfullum dædum to pam deofle becuman, and [for] þam wiccecræfte mid him á wunian, for þam ðe he næs na wyrðe þæt he wununge hæfde on Abrahames wununge mid þam witegan Samuhele. Ð a feoll se cyning mid fyrhte fornumen

75

to ðæs deofles fotum þe hyne bedydrode, wende pæt hit wære se witega Samuhel, and hyne to hym gebæd mid gebigedum lim um ; ac g yf hyt se witega wære, he wolde him forwyrnan pæt he to hym ne gebæde, his Hælende on teonan;

80

for pam pe man sceal hyne gebiddan to þam Hælende ánum, and hym ánum þeowian, se ðe ana is G[o]d. J?æs gewilnað se deofol þæt man hyne wurðige, and to him gebidde, þæt he hæbbe anweald ofer pa gedwolan J?e hys gedwyldum gelyfað, swa swa pa hæðenan dydan þe hyne wurþodan for god,

85

and forletan heora Scyppend pe hy gesceop to mannum; and swa swa Saul dyde on þære deoflican gesihðe, pæt he fullice wære *forwyrht to þam deofle. Saul pa syððan æfter þære deoflican gesihðe

*p. 100 90

71 his 5 . deofle] deoflum S. 72 for] sic S ; to R. 73 pan S . 76 hine S. bedyderode 5 . 77 samuel 5 . 78 hine S. him S. 79 gif hit S. forwyrnen S. 80 him S. 81 mann S. sceall S. hine 5 . 82 him 5 . God] god S-, gód R. 83 hine S. 85 his S . gedwildum S. gelefað S. 86 dydon S. hine S. wurþodon S. 87 forlæton S. hi S. gescop S. 89 forwyrht] sic R S, but R has small o above y. 90 siððan S. Glosses in R and S, Latin: 71 manfullum: iniquis R. 72 á: semper R. 75 mid fyrhte fornumen: timore consumpti« R. 78 gebæd: adorautí R. gebigedum: flexis R. 80 gebæde: genuflecteret R. teonan: contumelia RS. 81 gebiddan: adorare R. 83 þæs: hoc R S . gewilnað: desiderat S. 85 gedwyldum: errorem, erroribi« R ; errores S. 88 gesihðe: visione R. 89 forwyrht: damnatus R. 90 gesihðe: visionem R. 75-78 [7 Reg. xxviii. 20] Statimque Saul cecidit porrectus in terram; ex­ timuerat enim verba Samuelis. [Earlier, verse 14] Et intellexit Saul quod Samuel esset, et inclinavit se super faciem suam in terra, et adoravit. 77-85 [ps,-Augustine, § 3] Putans Samuelem, adoravit diabolum, ut fructum fallaciae suae haberet Satanas. Hoc enim nititur, ut adoretur quasi Deus. Si enim vere Samuel illi apparuisset, non utique vir iustus permisisset se adorari, qui praedicaverat Deum solum esse adorandum. 90-96 [7 Reg. xxviii. 25] Cum comedissent surrexerunt [Saul et servi eius], et ambulaverunt per totam noctem illam .. . . [xxxi. j ] Philisthiim autem pugnabant

XXIX

S A U L A N D T HE WI T C H OF E N DO R

795

gewende to hys fyrde fram þære wiccan huse, and pa Philiste[i] fuhtan fæstlice þæs on merigen wið Saul þone cyning, and ofslogan hys fyrde and hys þry suna, and he sylf pa feoll úppon his wæpne and gewat swa of life to pam swicolan deofle, swa swa he him ær sæde.

95

N u wundrað gehwá hu se deofol wiste þæt Saul sceolde sweltan þæs on merigen, ac he wat gehwsét þæs þe gewurþan sceal þurh hys scearpe andgit þæs engellican gecyndes, oððe þurh Godes geþafunge þæs ðe ús dyrne is, oððe þurh gebicnunge þæs mannes nebwlitan;

ioo

for ðam pe he wæs gefyrn, and fela hæfð gesewen, and wide and side færð, and cann fela searacræfta. Paulus cwæð be hym on sumon his pistole: 9i his S. 92 Philistei] philisteos R S. as if J?onne S. ofslogon S. his S. 96 ær sæde] sæde ær S. 98 swyltan S . 102 gebicnungæ 103 gesegen

105

fuhton S. 93 þone] poh 94 his S. preo S . sunu S. 99 sceall 100 his 105 cweð S. him S.

Glosses in R and S , Latin: 94 J?ry suna: iii filios R. 95 wæpne: armis S . gew at: obiit R . 97 gehwa: aliqms S . wiste: sciret R . 99 gehwæt: aliqmd S . 100 andgit: intellectum R S . engellican gecyndes: angdice natare S. 101, 102 oððe: vel S . 101 geþafunge: permissione R S. þæs: ea *S(!) pæs ðe: qui R (/). 102 gebicnunge: nutu R S ; vel singno S. nebwlitan: faciei S. 103 gefyrn: olim R ; diu S. 104 searacræfta: machinas R , machina S ; ingenia R. adversum Israel, et fugerunt viri Israel ante faciem Philisthiim, et ceciderunt interfecti in monte Gelboe. [2] Irrueruntque Philisthiim in Saul et in filios eius, et percusserunt Ionathan, et Abinadab, et Melchisua, filios Saul. . . . [4] Arripuit itaque Saul gladium, et irruit super eum. 97-104 [ps.-Augustine, § 2] Sed hoc quosdam fallit, quod de morte Saul et filii eius non sit mentitus: quasi magnum sit diabolo, ante diem occasum corporis praevidere, cum signa quaedam soleant apparere morituris; quippe a quibus Dei protectio amota videtur. Quanto magis diabolus quem angelica maiestate sub­ limem prophetica oracula fuisse testantur. [For 101 cf. Augustine, De Diversis Quaestionibus ad SimplicianumyII. iii. 3] Cum enim vult Deus, etiam per infimos infemosque spiritus aliquem vera cognoscere, temporalia dumtaxat atque ad istam mortalitatem pertinentia, facile est. . . . Tantum autem audiunt, quantum omnium Dominus atque moderator vel iubet vel sinit. [For 101-4 cf. Isidore, Etym. V III. xi\ Praesciunt [daemones] futura multa, unde et solent responsa aliqua dare. Inest enim illis cognitio rerum, plusquam infirmitati humanae, partim subtilioris sensus acumine, partim experientia longissimae vitae, partim per D ei iussum angelica revelatione. [See note on 102-4.] 10 5-12 [Cf. ps.-Augustine, § J] Hoc est praestigium Satanae, quo ut plurimos fallat, etiam bonos in potestate se habere confingit. Quod Apostolus inter caetera

796

MACARIUS AND THE MA GI CI A NS

XXIX

Transfigurat se in angelum lucis : He abryt hine sylfne to scinendum engle, pæt he mid hys lotwrencum pa geleaffullan fordo, ac he ne mæg pa fordon pe on Drihtne truwiað. Be pam ylcan cwæð eft se apostol puss:

no

A n ignoratis altitudinem Satane ? Oððe nyte ge lá pæs sceoccan deopnysse?— for pam pe we ne cunnan tocnawan pa deopnysse hys searacræfta hys swicolan modes; ac his miht nis naht wið pæne ælmihtigan Crist,

ns

pe us ealle bewerað wið hys wodnysse æfre, gif we mid geleafan and mid lufe hyne sécað. G y t farað wiccan to wega gelæton, and to hæpenum byrgelsum mid heora gedwimore, and clipiað to ðam deofle, and he cymð hym tó

120

on pæs mannes gelicnysse pe pær lið bebyrged, swylce he of deaðe arise; ac heo ne mæg pæt dón, pæt se deada arise purh hyre drycræft. *Deofolgild and drycræft, wiccecræft and wiglunga synd swyðe andsæte urum Hælende Criste,

*p. 101 125

and pa ðe pa cræftas begað syndan Godes wiðe[r]sacan, and hy soðlice belimpað to pam swicolan deofle, mid hym æfre to wunigenne on pam ecum witum. 108 his S . 109 drihten S. n o cweð S. J?us S. 1 12 -nesse S. 1 13 entire line om. S. 114 his (twice) S. 116 his S. -nesse S. 1 17 hine S. 118 gelætum S . 119 heþenum S. gedwimoræ S. 120 clypiað S. him S. 121 -nesse S. 122 swilce S. 123 hire S. 124 -gyld S. 125 swiðe *S. 126 syndon wiðer-]sií: S ; wiðes- R. 127 hi S. 128 him S. after witum] a buton ende S. Glosses in R and S , Latin: 107 abryt: transfigurat, fingzi, simulat R . 108 lotwrencum: machinis R S . fordo; perdat R. 109 þa: illos R . fordon: perdere R . truwiað: eonfidu/it R S ; sperant R . 112 deopnysse: altitudinem R S. 113 tocnawan: discernere R. 114 searacræfta: incantationes S. modes: animi R. 115 wið: contra R S . 118 wega gelæton: biuio R. 119 gedwimore: fantasma R S . 121 gelicnesse: similitudine S. 124 Deofolgild: idoloram seruitium R ; idolum S. drycræft: incantatio R. 125 andsæte: hodiosa R , odiosa S ; detestanda R S ; exosa R. 126 begað: excercent R S. wiðersacan: aduersarii, reprobi R : apostate S. ait, Ipse Satanas transfigurat se in angelum lucis (II Cor. xi. 14). . . . [§ 2] De cuius magnitudine Apostolus ait, An ignoratis altitudinem Satanæ? (Apoc. ii. 24; see note on line 1 11).

XXIX

S A U L A N D T HE W I T C H OF E NDOR

797

N O TES 4. eac. O n the inappropriateness o f this word in its present context see the introductory com m ent, p. 787. 6. wisceras. T h is w ord is spelled wischeras in W , from w hich Skeat printed the present passage at the end o f L S xxi. H e defined the word in his translation as ‘ diviners’ ; T o lle r, in his Supplem ent, taking it from Skeat, and giv in g hesitantly the nom inative singular as wischere, suggested ‘ w izard’ . T h e context makes these guesses plausible, though perhaps the em phasis should be placed squarely on spell-bin din g b y some such word as ‘ enchanter’ or ‘sorcerer’ . T h e etym ology o f the word, listed as wischere b y H olthausen also, is passed over b y him as unknown, and its uniqueness makes any guess hazardous. T h e spelling wiscerasy however, in M S S . R and S, here brough t into notice for the first time, suggests a direct con­ nexion w ith O E wise or wysc, f. ‘w ish ’ . O n e m igh t explain wiscere as an agen t-n o u n form ed directly from a com bination o f wise- and - ere, and applied to any practitioner o f m agical arts w ho claimed the power to bring about the satisfaction o f wishes. B ut if the w ord is an old one, as seems probable, it m ay be derived from less everyday associations o f wysc. It is to be noted that the O N cognate ósk appears in weak form as one o f the names o f O d in, Óski, in the Grímnismály stanza 49, and that ósk-mæry f., defined as ‘ chosen m aid ’ b y C leasb y-V igfu sso n , but possibly rather ‘m aid w ho governs choice’ or ‘m aid o f the G o d W ish ’, is a name for a V alkyrie. T h e w ord wishmay recorded b y the O E D seems to be m erely a translation o f the O N , b u t the O E D indicates an association o f wish w ith m agic w h ich m ay be m uch more ancient than the citations. See wishy v., 7 ; wish-hounds; wishing, d ; and perhaps wishty 2, though the O E D says this is o f unknow n origin. 7. swilce hi soðlice swylc þing don. T h e antecedent o f swylc is indefinite. Skeat translates, ‘ as if they w ould verily perform a desired m atter’, p ro bably taking the literal sense as equivalent to ‘such and such a th in g’ . Perhaps ‘such a thing (as they pretend)’ m ay equally w ell be meant. 45, 48. Æ lfr ic ’s use o f sceolde here calls attention to a m isunderstanding on the part o f the B iblical historian, w ho supposed, like Saul himself, that the w itch had raised the prophet Sam uel, or at least (as Æ lfr ic ’s source suggests) chose to tell the story as it appeared to Saul w ithout com m itting h im self as to its truth or falsity. See the G lossary under sceolany b. 10 2-4 . T h is explanation o f the d evil’s foreknowledge, whether or not it owes som ething to Isidore, corresponds in part to a passage in Æ lfr ic ’s life o f St. M aur, L S v i. 3 2 7 -9 , where an angel makes the statem ent: W itodlice se deofol w at towerde Sing, hw ilon, na sym le, J?urh sume gebienunge, be J?am pe he oft geseah, þeah pe he sy lf leas sy. N o te the w ord gebienunge in the same sense, ‘indication’ , as in our line 102. S keat has ‘ token’ in his translation o f the passage above, and this is the C 2710.2

X

798

MACARIUS AND THE MA GI CI A N S

XXIX

nearest m eaning listed in B T and H a ll-M e r itt. It is fairly close to the mark, bu t ‘ indication* better conveys the verbal force o f the word. In his Gramm ar, Æ lfric translates indicativus b y gebicniendlic (ed. Z u pitza, p. 124/14). C f. also gebycnode, x x v m . 5. h i . A n ignoratis altitudinem Satane ? Æ lfric supposes that the lus* o f the L atin text is St. Paul, as before; bu t Am brosiaster is referring to St. John and is sligh tly m isquoting Apoc. ii. 24. T h is clear b y tw o other passages. In Quæstio cii, § 19, Am brosiaster

‘ aposto­ actually is m ade gives at

length A p o c. ii. 18 -2 6 in an O ld L a tin form, and verse 24 includes the words, Vobis autem dico . . . qui hanc doctrinam non habetis et ignoratis altitudinem Satanse ( C S E L l . 2 14 ; P L . x x x v . 2309). T h a t the question he attributes to the apostle is a m odification o f this same verse seems evident from Am brosiaster’s com m entary on Romans viii. 38, 39, where w e find a m ore explicit attribution o f the same w o r d s : D e qua dicit Ioannes aposto­ lus: A n ignoratis altitudinem Satanæ ? ( P L x v ii. 130). T h e m odern editors o f A m brosiaster’s Quæstio x xvii have supposed, like Æ lfric, that St. Paul was at least partly in view , and have referred to I I Cor. ii. 11, ut non circumveniamur a Satan a: non enim ignoramus cogitationes eius, either alone (as in M ign e) or in conjunction w ith Apoc. ii. 24 (as in S o u te r); b u t the latter text alone is recognized b y P. Sabatier, w ho cites all three passages from Am brosiaster in his note on the O ld L atin readings o f the verse (Bibliorum Sacrorum Latinæ Versiones Antiquæ, Paris, 17 5 1, I I I . 996). 1 1 8. wiccan. Æ lfr ic ’s use o f heo in 122 seems to show that he was thinking o f female witches only. I know o f no instance o f his use o f the weak m asculine wicca instead o f the weak fem inine zvicce. See G lossary, wicce. 124. Deofolgild and drycræft, wiccecræft and zviglunga. T h e alliterative pairing here resembles W u lfstan ’s technique, bu t notice the repetition o f cræft in the m iddle, the difference betw een dry tially, I think, betw een male and female

and wicce- bein g essen­

XXX FROM H

e r e

DE VIRGINITATE

are printed two consecutive but not very closely related

passages that constitute the unedited remainder of a compilation in M S . V ( C C C C 419). It is entitled D e V irg in ita te, but the title is somewhat inaccurate even for the beginning, and it applies to only eight of the lines edited here. T h e piece consists of three originally unconnected passages by Ælfric (if we count as one pas­ sage two excerpts from the same homily), and a fourth passage also by him that has survived here only, but was probably, like the rest, excerpted from some longer piece rather than composed for the occasion. V gives no indication in the heading of the day or season for which the homily was intended, and it must, therefore, be classed as quando volu eris, but there is some evidence, as I shall explain later, that the compiler had in mind the harvest season and either the assumption of the Virgin (15 August) or her nativity (8 September). A brief analysis of the compilation as it stands in V, pp. 347-66, will reveal something of its character: 1. Pp. 347-52/17. A n excerpt from the L e tte r to S ig e fy r th , Assmann 11. 132-88. In this section Assmann’s text includes addi­ tional passages that appear only in our H among the manuscripts he has used. These additional passages are also in V. T h e excerpt, written in Æ lfric’s rhythmical style, presents the topic of the three estates pleasing to G od: lawful marriage, widowhood, and virginity, connecting these three with the good soil which, in the parable, brought forth fruit, some thirty, some sixty, some a hundred fold, and with the correspondingly multiplied heavenly rewards. 2. Pp. 352/17-354/19. T w o excerpts from D e D o c trin a A p o sto lic a , our xix. 34-42 and 53-60, which have been collated for that piece. T h e y are in non-rhythmical prose. T h e first contrasts the ‘increase and m ultiply’ of G en esis with Christ’s strict demands for marriage. T h e second forbids anyone to break a vow of chastity in G o d ’s service once it is made, and applies this particularly to children

8oo

FROM

DE V I R G I N I T A T E

xxx

whose parents have vowed on their behalf, pointing to the com­ mandment of obedience to parents. Since these two excerpts merely qualify and elaborate the original topic, everything up to this point could be adequately described by the alternative title given to the expanded Assmann n in H : not D e S a n c ta V ir g in ita te , but D e T rib u s O rd in ib u s C a s tita tis . But in the two sections that remain we proceed by an unsteady bridge to a very different range of topics. 3. Pp. 354/19-361/16. T h e first seventy-four lines below, the rhythmical portion of our text. It has survived nowhere else, so far as I know, but I think it can hardly have been composed to fill the place assigned to it here, because it does not bring the earlier passages into intelligible relation to a larger them e; it leads away from them and ends abruptly without any attempt to prepare us for what follows. Within it, on the other hand, there is an intelli­ gible sequence. Beginning with the topic of obedience, in which the warning to proud virgins (as explained in the notes) is a not very clearly related parenthesis, it asserts as its major theme that, as Samuel maintained, obedience to G od is better than offerings. T h is theme could easily have been related to the earlier themes, for Æ lfric often speaks of virginity as an offering made to G od (as at Assmann h i . 232-7, and our xix. 48-52, a passage skipped by the compiler), and the offering of children to G od by their parents is explicitly mentioned. But nothing is made of this. A s the passage proceeds, on the other hand, we have an extension of the theme by a direct consideration of almsgiving and the spirit by which it can be made a suitable offering to G o d ; and so from this, very briefly, to other acts of worship— to fasting and prayer. A new theme, N e s c ia t sin istra tua q u id fa c i a t d e xte ra tu a , is closely related to the

old and helps to draw the whole section together into a unified though progressive sequence. A s part of a larger treatment of how G od is to be loved and worshipped (still including, perhaps, some discussion of virginity) this passage might be clear and effective. It seems muffled and even disconcerting because of its lack of con­ cord with its neighbours. 4. Pp. 361/17-366. T h e final, non-rhythmical section of our text, 7 5 -114 , is a more or less independent discourse on tithes and first-fruits. It appears also in M S . R, where it is added to Æ lfric’s homily for the twelfth Sunday after Pentecost, just a few sentences later than the addition on Theodosius and Ambrose that has been

XXX

FROM

DE V I R G I N I T A T E

8oi

edited above as no. xxvi. T h e passage on tithes is preceded in R b y a linking sentence (quoted below in the apparatus at line 75) that is probably Æ lfric’s and indicates that on some occasion at least he found it convenient to attach the passage to the homily. It is self-contained except for the linking sentence and might have been attached to a number of homilies. T h e unstated connexion here is the theme of offerings introduced in section 3. If we seek for a rationale behind this compilation beyond the mere fact that each section after the first has some relation, how­ ever tenuous, with a theme in the section immediately preceding, we shall find it, I think, not in any ingenious synthesis of its various topics (for although a synthesis could have been made, none is even implicitly supplied) but, as I have already intimated, in a combination of topics that would fall together at or near one of the feasts of the Virgin during the harvest season. T h e first section and the last furnish the important clues. T h e topic of the first section, the three estates pleasing to God, or the three orders of chastity, would seem to be most appropriate for one of two periods in the year, to judge by Æ lfric’s own example and by that of certain manuscripts. Assmann II, though written first as a letter, occurs as a homily in three manuscripts. In O, it is assigned to the second Sunday after Epiphany; in N , to the fourth Sunday; in H (where it is enlarged) it bears a nonseasonal title {D e Sancta

Virginitate vel de Tribus Ordinibus Castitatis) but is placed with the homilies for the assumption of

of the Virgin. T h e assignment in N is erratic, a mere blunder;1 but that in H is obviously appropriate and that in O is intelligible. Æ lfric himself mentions the three orders of chastity in his homily for the second Sunday after Epiphany in the Second Series ( C H II. iv), and that is natural because the gospel-text for that day is the wedding at Cana in Galilee, John ii. 1 - 1 1 . For the present compilation, however, the choice would fall on either the assump­ tion or the nativity of the Virgin, not because of any indication in the first section alone, but because of what seems to be implied by the fourth. Æ lfric’s own choice of a day on which to talk about tithes was once, at least, the twelfth Sunday after Pentecost, as shown by M S . R. It is a reasonable choice, for the twelfth Sunday will usually fall some time in August when the harvest is beginning. Cæsarius 1 See the description of N , Introduction, I. 49.

8o2

FROM

DE V I R G I N I T A T E

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of Arles preached his sermon on tithes earlier, near midsummer,1 but August or even early September would seem as good. Accord­ ing to a law of Edgar’s reign, the tithe on the young of cattle had to be paid by Pentecost, that on the fruits of the earth by the autumnal equinox.2 A n admonition from the pulpit a few weeks in advance of the equinox would thus be timely, and the feast of the assumption on 15 August, or a Sunday very close to it, might seem a better time than the twelfth Sunday, which changes its date from year to year. Probably the Virgin’s nativity on 8 September would be less satisfactory, but I include it as a marginal possibility. Either of these feasts might prompt a discussion of both chastity and tithes, and the other topics of the compilation would follow easily enough. Obedience and humility are readily associated with virginity, and the general topic of offerings to G od will include tithes. For Æ lfric himself, though nothing is said of the matter in the compilation, virginity itself is an offering. I f the compilation showed any sign of subtlety, one could go further; for the opening discussion of the three orders of chastity refers to the parable of the sower and represents the three orders as a harvest. T h e question remains whether we are to believe that Æ lfric himself put these pieces together. It is probably impossible to be certain that he did not, for one cannot expect unfailingly high standards of organization from so prolific and so practical an author. But M S . V shows no concern for the authorship or the textual authority of its homilies, and this compilation is so pedes­ trian that I am inclined to attribute it to some less gifted preacher. Whoever it was had access, however, to a range of Æ lfric’s work in a textually late form. T h e expanded version of Assmann 11 re­ presented by the first section must have been composed late in Æ lfric’s career, because the Letter to Sigefyrth as first issued names him as abbot. Very likely the unique third section, lines

1-74

below, is also late. Sections 2 and 4, on the other hand, since they represent Æ lfric’s early style, may be leftovers from his early career, as I have already suggested in the introductions to xix and xxvi, pp. 614 and 760. T h e two sections here edited are best considered by themselves, 1 Sermo xxxm , De Reddendis Decimis: Ante Natale S . Iohannis Baptistae (24 June). See Caesarii Ardatensis Sermonesy ed. Morin, C C S L cm . 142 sqq. 2 II Eadgar 3, Liebermann, Gesetze, I. 196. Repeated in V III Æthelred 9,

p. 265.

xxx

FROM

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803

apart from their function in the compilation. T h e first, indeed, seems to imply a larger structure now lost. If so, it may have followed some inclusive source that I have not found. I have had to be content with identifying Biblical quotations and a few bits from Augustine. T h e section on tithes and first-fruits has rather close connexions with a short version of the sermon by Caesarius that was mentioned above. T h e short version, printed in Migne,

P L Lxvii. 1078 sq., is quoted as a source rather than the long one, even when the two agree, because at a few points where they differ it is closer to Ælfric. For certain details of the correspondence, and also for certain parallels between Æ lfric’s teaching and the laws, the notes should be consulted. I suspect there are several sources I have not encountered.

TH E

TEXT

[A. Obedience better than Offerings; Humility in G o d ’s Service] Ure Hælend Crist *wæs gehyrsum his Fæder,

#p. 355

swa pæt he sylfwilles hine sealde to deaðe for ure alysednesse mid micelre lufe. N u sceal ælc beam beon his fæder underþeod

5

to þæs Hælendes willan, ac he ne sceal na swaþeah his ræde folgian gif he him misræt for Gode, ne his wissungum, gif he hine wemð fram Criste. D a pe on mægðhade and on modes clænnesse heora lif libbað, locien hy georne þæt hy pa ne forseon þe on sinscipe wuniað,

10

for ðan þe þæt eadmode wif, swa swa Augustinus cwæð, bið betere ætforan Gode *þonne pæt modige mæden. #p. 356 For ðam mot seo eadmodnes beon mid þære clænnesse pæt se mægðhad mage pa miclan geþincðe habban þæs hundfealdan wæstmes, swa swa se Hælend cwæð.

15

And æfre to Godes bebodum man sceal beon gehyrsum, [and] þam gastlican ealdre J»e him for Gode wiss[a]ð. Be ðam cwæð Samuel to Saúle þam cynge

pa pa he Godes hæse and his wissunge forseah: M elior est enim obedientia quam uictim a :

20

Betere is soðlice seo gehyrsumnes þonne seo onsægednes, þæt syndon #offrunga;

*p. 357

Text of both passages based on V (C C C C 419), pp. 354-66. For the first, lines 1-74, this is the only surviving copy. Th e second is collated with R (C C C C 178), pp. 124-6. 17 and] not in M S .

wissað] wissiað M S .

Sources. 11-12 [Augustine, Sermo C C C L I V , cap. ix] Quid enim prodest cui inest continentia, si dominatur superbia? . . . Non dubito praeferre humilem mulierem virgini superbae. 14-15 [C/. Matth, xix. 29] Et omnis qui reliquerit domum, vel fratres, aut sorores, aut patrem, aut matrem, aut uxorem, aut filios, aut agros, propter nomen meum, centuplum accipiet, et vitam aeternam possidebit. 20-28 [I Reg. (/ Sam.) xv. 22] Melior est enim obedientia quam victimae; et auscultare magis quam offerre adipem arietem; [23] quoniam quasi peccatum ariolandi est, repugnare; et quasi scelus idololatriae, nolle acquiescere.

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and betere is to heorcnienne J>æs Hælendes willan þonne him to offrigenne ænige oðre lac; for ðan J>e hit soðlice is, swa swa Samuel saede,

25

swylce hæðenscipe, and swylc swa is deofolgyld, J?æt se man wiðrige ongean Godes willan, and nelle gehyrsumian his hæsum nateshwon. D is is nu gesæd sceortlice pus, and we sæcgað gyt þæt we sceolan god dón

30

on urum ælmesdædum þam ælmihtigum Gode to lofe, se ðe ure lytlan lac mid lufe underfehð, gif we mid godum willan hy Gode betæcað, and on his pearfum #her hy aspendað.

*p. 358

He sceawað þæs mannes heortan swiðor ponne his lac, for ðam pe him nan neod nis ure lytlan sylene,

35

se ðe ægðer hæfð on his anwealde symble heofonan and eorðan, and pæt pæt him on w unað; ac he forgeaf us mannum middaneardlice ping us sylfum to bryce, and pact we hine oncnawan

40

mid pam eorðlicum pingum him to wyrðmynte, and he us forgylt eft be hundfealdum swa hwæt swa we her doð for his lufan to góde. G if pu oncnawst pinne Drihten on pinum aelmesdædum be ðinre lyt#lan mæðe on wanhalum mannum, hit fremað pe sylfum on pam selran life,

*p. 359 46

and Gode naht ne hearmað peah ðe pu hine forgite; G od girnð paere godnysse pines gódan modes, na pinra æhta, se ðe ah ealle ping. G if pu hwæt dest him to lofe on his lacum mid cyste,

50

pu geswutelast pine gódnessa swa mid paere dæde. G if þu þonne nan gód for Gode don nelt, þu geswutelast pa uncyste Junes yfelan modes, and seo yfelnes þe fordeð on ecnysse wið God. Be ðam J>e se Hælend on his halgan godspelle cwæð,

* N esciat sinistra tua quid fa cia t dextera tua ,

55 #p. 360

N yte }?in wynstre hand hwæt J>in swiðre hand dó, us nis na to understandenne be ðam stæflicum andgite, 56 [Matth, vi. 3> as given.] 56-65 [Augustine, De Serm. Dom. in Monte, II. 8] Nihil consequentius sinistra videtur significari, quam ipsam delectationem laudis. Dextera autem significat intentionem implendi praecepta divina. Cum itaque conscientiae facientis eleemo­ synam miscet se appetitio laudis humanae, fit sinistra conscia operis dexterae.

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ac be þam gastlicum andgite, þæt we for Godes lufan ure ælmessan don, na for idelum gylpe.

60

Seo wynstre hand getacnað þissere worulde gylp. N u se ðe ælmessan dælð þam Ælmihtigan to lofe, he dæ'l'ð soðlice mid þære swiðran handa.

And se ðe for idelum gylpe his ælmessan dælð, he dælð witodlice mid þære wynstran handa.

65

G if seo *swiðre hand bið seoc oððe untrum, wel he mot dælan mid þære wynstran handa,

*p. 361

gif he þone idelan gylp eallunga onscunað. Ealswa be fæstenum: gif we fæstað eawunga on gebodenum fæstenum, and þonne we us gebiddað betwux oðrum mannum, æt mæssan and æt tidsangum,

70

eall hit bið diglice gif we hit doð butan gylpe, urum Hselende to lofe, þæt we habban pa mede on þam soðan life on ecere gesælðe. [B. First-fruits and Tithes] G od sylf bebead on þære ealdan se, and eac manað on þære 75 niwan, pæt ælc Cristen *man sceal glædlice syllan Gode his frum- #p. 3* wæstmas, and his teoðunge ealra þæra wæstma þe him G od to þam geare forgifð, and ealre þære geoguðe pe him of his orfe acenned bið, and ealra þara goda þe him G od to þam geare foresceawað, to þy þæt he mid gesundfulnysse and Godes bletsunge þara nigen 80 75 In V this passage follows directly upon the preceding zuith no sign of a break. In R it is added independently to Ælfric's ‘ Dome. X I I Post Pent.9 (cf. no. xxvi supra) with an introductory sentence: Ge hyrdon nu pæt piss godspell hrepode hwæthwega be pære teoðunge pe man Gode syllan sceal; be pam we willað eow sceortlice seegan. 75 marg. an early heading, BE T E O Ð U N G E R. 76 syllan Gode] gode syllan R. hys R. 77 hys R. hym R . 78 geogoðe R. 79 góóda R. hym R. 80 pi R. pæra R. nigon R. Glosses in R> Latin: Sentence preceding line 75: G e: vos. hrepode: tetigit, hwæthwega: parum. In the margin as headings: De decima; de decimis. 75 manað: admonet. 76-77 frumwæstmas: pnmicias. 77 wæstma: fructu. 78 geogoðe: iuuenculam, pnmitias. acenned: natus. 80 gesundfulnysse: sospitate. M E : 75 æ: lawe. 69-74 [Augustine, ibid. II. 10] Et cum oratis, inquit, non eritis sicut hypocritae, qui amant in synagogis et in angulis platearum stantes orare, ut videantur ab hominibus {Matth, vi. 5). Neque hic videri ab hominibus nefas est; sed ideo hæc agere ut videaris ab hominibus. [See note.] 75” 85 [See notes.]

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dæla brucan mote; for ðam þe hit stent on halgum bocum þus awriten: S i quis p r im itia s retin u érit, a u t decim as de laboribus suis , m a led ictu s sit in om n i dom o sua. Ð æ t is on Englisc, swa hwa swa

his frumwæstmas *oððe teoðunge his agenre tilðe Gode ætbret, *p. 363 þæt he bið awyrged on ealre his hiwrædene. Eft is awriten, gif þu 85 æthæfst Gode þa teoðunge, þæt his rihtwisnes benæmð J?e þara nigon dæla, and læt þe habban þone teoðan dæl. Se ælmihtiga G od, þe us ealle þing forgifð, wile habban æt us þa teoþunga his agenre gife, na for his neode, ac for ure, him to wyrðmynte and us to þearfe, for þære gehyrsumnysse, swa swa he behet þurh his 90 witegan, þus cweðende: Betæcað *m e eowre teoðunge glædlice #p. 364 butan elcunge, and afandiað min swa, cwæð God, hwæðer ic eow forgife syððan rénscuras, and gode gewideru, and wæstmas oð fulre genihtsumnesse. Ð a twegen dælas þære teoþunge man sceal betæcan Godes þeowum into þam mynstre þær þær he to 95 hyrð, þær þ æ r he his Cristendom hæfð, and þone þriddan dæl man sceal dælan þearfum, and wuduwum, and steopcildum, and ælþeodigum mannum; for ðam þe seo teoðung is Godes dæl, and 81 hyt R. 83 maledictus] maledic R . englis R. 84 hys {twice) R . teoðunga R. ætbret] ætbrytt R. 85 hys R. gyf R. 86 teoðunga R. his] preceded by is erased V. -nyss R. 88 his] hys R. 89. hym R . wurð- R . 90-91 )?urh his witegan] written a second time and crossed outy V. hys R. 91 teoþunga R. 92 ælcunge R. æfandiað R. 93 gewyderu R. 94 genyhtsumnysse R . ]?æra teoþunga R . 95 innto R, 96 hyrð] gehyrð R . pær pær] pær pæ R. hys R . 97 wydewum R. second and] om. R. 98 ælþeodegum R. Glosses in R y Latin: 81 brucan: frui. 84 ætbrytt: aufert. 85 hiwrædene: domo. 86 æthæfst: retines. his rihtwisnyss: iusticia sua. benæmð: detinui, aufert. 89 gife: gracie. 92 ælcunge: dilatione, mora. 93 wæstmas: fructns. 94 oð: usque, genihtsumnysse: vbertate. 98 ælþeodegum: peregrinis. M E : 90 pearfe: neode. 97 þearfum: neodfule. 85-87 [Cæsarius, De decimis, P L L X V I L ioy g ] Hæc enim est Domini iustissima consuetudo, ut si tu illi decimam non dederis, tu ad decimam re­ voceris. 87-90 [Ibid.y earlier] Non eget Dominus Deus, non præmium postulat, sed honorem; Deus enim noster, qui dignatus est totum dare, decimam a nobis dignatur repetere, non sibi, sed nobis, sine dubio profuturam. 9 1-9 4 [Mal. iii. 10] Inferte omnem decimam in horreum, et sit cibus in domo m ea; et probate me super hoc, dicit Dom inus: si non aperuero vobis cataractas caeli, et effudero vobis benedictionem usque ad abundantiam, [jr] . . . Et non corrumpet fructum terrae vestrae. [Quoted by Cæsarius.] 94-98 [See note.] 98 sq. [Cf. Num. xviii. 20 sqq.y and Deut. xiv. 28 s#.]

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he sylf hy betæhte þam pe him synderlice þeowiað. Æ lcum #men *p. 36M þe ænige tilunge hæfð, oððe on cræfte, oððe on mangunge, oððe 100 on oðrum begeatum, ælcum is beboden pæt hy pa teoðunge Gode glædlice syllan of heora begeatum oððe cræftum pe him G od forgeaf. Se ðe næfð butan an cealf on geoguðe, oððe an lamb, he do swa micel to Godes lacum þærfore swa pær to teoþunge gebyrige, þæt is se teoða dæl þæs pe hit wyrðe is. Frumwæstmas 105 hatað sume men ælmes-æcer, se ðe us ærest geripod bið of þam man sceal don ælmessan be his mihte, and *bletsian þone niwan *p. 36c hlaf, and onbyrige ærest se Godes þeowa þæs hlafes, and ealra þara oðra wæstma, ær þam pe se hlaford his onbyrige. Frumwæstmas synd eac swa hwæt swa us ærest on geoguðe acenned bið, and 110 þæt is eall geteald to Godes lacum, þeah ðe hit eow ungewunelic sy. On þissum þingum and on eallum oðrum begeatum we scylon wurðian urne Drihten pe us ða gód foresceawað, se ðe leofað and rixað á in ealra worulda woruld á butan ende. Amen. 99 hy] hi R. hym R. menn R. i o i hy] hi R . teoðunga R . 102 syllon R . hym R. 103 geogoþe R. 104 my cel R. 105 hyt R. wyrð R. 106 menn R. 107 hys R. 109 þara] om. R. hys R . onbyrige] onbite R. 109-10 Frumwæstmæs R . n o iu g u ð e R. n i hyt R. 1 12 si R. Jrisum R. oðrum] urum sceolan R. 1 13 góód R . 1 14 rihsað R. in ealra . . . ende] on ecnysse R. Glosses in R> Latin: 99 synderlice: specialiter. þeowiað: seruiunt. 100 cræfte: arte. mangunge: mercatu, negociat/one. 103 geogoþe: etate. io 4” 5 gebyrige: decet. 105 Frumwæstmas: pnmicie. 106 geripod: matwrus. 108 onbyrige: Gustare. J?eowa: seruus. J?æs: illms. 109 wæstma: fructws. onbite: eowmedat. n o acenned: natus. M E : 106 ælmes-æcer repeated in margin as ælme aker. 108 onbyrige: eten.

99-103 [Cæsarius, loc. cit.] De negotio, de artificio, de qualicumque operatione vivis, redde decimas.

N O TES 1 -7 . T h is first paragraph follows im m ediately after xix. 53-60, in w hich the obligation to obey one’s parents is given as the reason w h y children whose parents dedicate them to a life o f celibacy in G o d ’s service m ay not afterwards repudiate the vow s m ade on their behalf. O bed ien ce to earthly parents is now qualified b y the higher requirem ent o f obedience to G o d , w hich is elaborated in lines 16-28. T h u s the transition from the previous excerpt is easy, though I hesitate to believe that the present passage was written expressly as a continuation.

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T h e se

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interrupt

the

otherwise

orderly

discussion

of

obedience, bu t before we conclude that the com piler thrust them in from some other context w e m ust recognize their latent relevance, w h ich m igh t seem m uch greater if w e knew w hat had originally preceded line 1. T h e comparison o f the proud m aiden w ith the hum ble w ife is more fu lly developed in Assm ann n i, Nativitas S . M ariae Virginis9 383-420, where, at 396 sqq., the closely allied virtues o f obedience and hum ility are brought to g e th e r: Betere bið pæt w if, pe w unað on sinscipe, G o d e a gehyrsum to his halgum bebodum and eadm od on heortan, . . . þonne pæ t m æden beo, pe m odig bið on heortan and G o d e ungehyrsum . N o w the whole passage in Assm ann h i appears to be drawn partly from A u gu stin e’s Sermo c c c l i v , in w h ich he states very explicitly w h y a hum ble w ife is better than a proud virgin, and partly from his treatise, D e Bono Coniugaliy cap. xxiii, where he maintains that obedience is a greater virtue than continence, and an obedient wife is better than a disobedient virgin, though at the end o f this treatise he also m entions the danger that virgins m ay be proud. (T h e partial dependence on D e Bono Coniugali is shown m ost clearly b y the comparison o f a healthy Zacchæus. and a diseased G o liath at Assm ann h i . 4 0 9 -12 , w hich is obviously prom pted b y cap. xxiii. 29: M elius est autem habere omnia bona vel minora, quam magnum bonum cum magno malo: quia et in corporis bonis melius est habere Zachæ i staturam cum sanitate, quam Goliæ cum febre. P L x l . 393.) T h u s in A u g u s ­ tine there is a very clear and em phatic association betw een obedience and h um ility w ith respect to wives and virgins, an association that has becom e alm ost parenthetical in Assm ann in and is not explicitly m entioned here. A gain , in w arning virgins not to despise w ives he reminds them explicitly that in doing so they are show ing disrespect for their parents. For example, he says in Sermo c c c l i v , cap. viii { P L x x x ix , 156 7): Usque adeo conti­ nentes homines plerumque superbiunty ut non solum quibuscumque hominibusy sed etiam parentibus ingrati sint9 et adversus parentes extollantur. H ence, there is latently a greater connexion than appears on the surface between obedience to parents and the w arning to virgins not to despise those that are married. A ll this m igh t have been clear if a preceding passage om itted b y the com piler had laid dow n the m ain themes. 29 -54 . T h is passage, em phasizing the all-im portance o f the spirit behind the givin g o f alms, elaborates a them e Æ lfric has treated several tim es before. C f. C H I. 580/5-584/25, including the statement, ‘ G o d sceawað pæs mannes heortan, and na his æhta’ (580/16), w h ich line 35 here almost repeats. A lso, partially, C H II. 10 6 /7-17, and our x v i. 163-98. 55-60 . I have punctuated these six lines as a single sentence, in accord­ ance w ith the gram m ar. T h e m anuscript has a full stop after the quota­ tion and starts a new sentence w ith a capital at 58.

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6 9 -7 4 . I f Æ lfric was bu ildin g on A u gu stin e’s com m ent as quoted, he altered the em phasis in order to ju stify the ecclesiastical observances o f his day. Perhaps his reference to fasting as well as prayin g was prom pted b y his rem em bering the Pharisee o f the parable w ho boasted in his prayer o f h avin g fasted and paid tithes (Luc, xviii. 12). 7 5 -8 1 . T h e basic scriptural texts behind this freely com posed generali­ zation include Exod, xxii. 29 and xxiii. 19 for first-fru its; Lev, x x v ii.30-33 and Deut, xiv. 22 -2 8 for tithes. Æ lfric has apparently been influenced, how ever, b y the short version o f C æ sarius’s sermon on tithes printed b y M ig n e, P L l x v i i . 1078 sq., which, unlike the long version printed b y M o rin as Sermo x x x m , masses a num ber o f quotations at the beginning. T h e first o f these quotations m ay be partly responsible for Æ lfr ic ’s adding, and eac manað on þære niwan (75), since it is represented as a say­ in g o f Jesus: ‘ D om in us dicit in E van gelio : Omnem decimationem vestram distribuite.’ I cannot find these words anywhere in the gospels, though Jesus recom m ends m uch more drastic distributions (as at M a tth , xix. 2 1 ; Luc, xii. 33), and also affirms his acceptance o f the O ld L a w in the Serm on on the M o u n t (M atth, v. 1 7 -1 9 ). T h e quotations that follow in Cæsarius are readily identified, and some o f these have been pu t to use b y Æ lfric , especially the passage in M alachi iii. 10 sq., w h ich he paraphrases in lines 9 1-9 4 . T h e next quotation, Hebrews vii. 5, is not directly used b u t m ay have helped to assure him that tithes were approved in the N e w T e s ta ­ m ent. It is coupled w ith St. P a u l’s saying in I I Corinthians ix. 7 : Hilarem enim datorem diligit Deusyand this is backed up b y a long quotation recom ­ m ending cheerful givin g from Ecclesiasticus xxxv. 1 1 —13. T h e se tw o quotations help to explain Æ lfr ic ’s glædlice in lines 76, 91, and 102. Im m ediately after the quotations, Cæsarius continues: ‘ Q u o d si decim am dederis, non solum abundantiam frugum recipies, sed etiam sanitatem corporum consequeris.’ H ence, probably, Æ lfr ic ’s mid gesundfulnyssey 80. 8 1-8 5 . I have not been able to trace this L atin m alediction, though it m igh t be deduced from the all-inclusive m aledictions of Deut, xxviii. 15 sqq. It m igh t also have been suggested b y the verses in M alachi ju st preceding those that Æ lfric paraphrases in lines 9 1-9 4 , particularly if Æ lfric had com e upon the follow ing passage in an adm onition on tithes and first-fruits from the Concilium Forojuliense o f St. Paulinus, Patriarch o f A q uileia (P L x c ix . 302): Sed quia indignatio et ira D e i m anet super gentem vel populum , qui hoc D o m in i praeceptum toto corde et bona voluntate non adim plet, supra praemiserat, dicens: S i ajfigety inquit, homo Deum y quia vos configitis me? E t dixistis: In quo configimus te? In decimis et in primitiis vestris. In penuria vos maledicti estisy et me vos configitis gens tota (M al, iii. 8, 9). Since Æ lfric does not usually invent Biblical quotations, however, it seems probable that he found the m alediction in some unidentified source.

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8 5 -8 7. Æ lfr ic ’s reference to G o d 's rihtwisnes seems to reflect Cæ sarius’s adjective iustissima. In the longer version o f his adm onition, Cæsarius deduces that G o d takes away the nine parts from those w ho w ithhold the tenth b y such means as are suggested b y the passage in M a la c h i: that is, b y droughts, frosts, and pests. ( Caesarii Sermones, ed. M orin , C C S L c m . 1 44 . T h e idea appears also in one o f the laws o f Æ th e lsta n : U s is to ðencanne, hu ondrislic hit on bocum gecw eden i s : ‘ G i f w e J?a teoðunga G o d e gelæstan nellað, pæt he us benim að þara nigon dæla þonne w e læst w enað, and eac w e habbað þa synne to eacan.’ T h e L atin version o f the threat is closer to Cæsarius and Æ lf r ic : Si decim am dare nolum us, ut auferantur nobis novem partes, et decim a sola relinquatur. (I Æ th elstan 3, Lieberm ann, Gesetze, I. 146, 147.) L ieberm ann calls attention to a m ilder statem ent o f the idea in the report o f a synod o f 786: Plerum que contingit, u t qui decim am non tribuit, ad decim am rever­ titur. (H addan and Stu bbs, Councils, I I I . 456.) In subsequent laws som ething like this threat is to be carried out b y the jo in t action o f certain specified reeves and the priest o f the m inster, w ho w ill take b y force the tenth part that has been w ithheld, allow to the offender a ninth part o f the remainder, and divide the other eight parts betw een the landlord and the bishop. (II Eadgar 3, 1 and V I I I Æ th elred 8, Lieberm ann, I. 196, 265.) 91 sq. Æ lfr ic ’s glædlice butan elcunge is not derived from M alach i. T h e butan elcunge is perhaps a rem iniscence o f E x o d . xxii. 29: Decimas tuas et primitias tuas non tardabis reddere. O n glædlice see the note on 7 5 -8 1 above. 94-98. P aym en t o f tithes to the m inster to w h ich a m an belongs is established as law in II Eadgar 1. 1: A n d m an agife ælce teoðunge to J?am ealdan m ynstre, pe seo hernes tohyrð. (Lieberm ann, I. 196.) T h e threefold division is prescribed first as a law in V I I I Æ th elred 6: A n d be teoðunge se cy n g and his witan habbað gecoren and g e­ cw eden, ealswa hit riht is, pæt ðridda dæl pare teoðunge, pe to circan gebyrge, ga to ciricbote and oðer dæl pam G o d es þeow um , þridda G o d es J?earfum and earman þeow etlingan. (Lieberm ann, I. 264.) T h is law m ay have been decreed some years after the passage in Æ lfric was w ritten. 101,

102. begeatum. O rdinarily the w ord begeat m eans either ‘ attain­

m ent, acquisition’ ( B T S , I) or ‘w hat is acquired, possessions, property’ ( B T S , II), and Æ lfric elsewhere uses the w ord in both these m eanings.

FROM

8l2

DE

VIR G IN ITATE

xxx

Below , line 112, the second m eaning is satisfactory; bu t here, where begeatum is treated as som ehow parallel to cræfte or cræftum and mangunge, some such m eaning as ‘gainful activity' or ‘means o f acquisition’ seems called for. 106. ælmes-æcer. C ited from this passage b y N apier in C O E L . T h e m etaphor is not otherwise known. T h e injunction to give alms from firstfruits occurs in C H II. 10 2 /9 -11, where Æ lfric is quoting Proverbs iii. 9: A rw urða ðinne D rihten m id J?inum æhtum , and o f ðinum frum w æ stm um syle ðearfum. 1 14. in ealra worulda woruld. T h e preposition in occurs here in M S . V instead o f the normal W S on. It is certainly not to be attributed to Æ lfric. T h e scribe o f this part o f V was probably responsible, since he copied a num ber o f texts b y other authors, in one o f w hich in is regular. See the description o f V in the Introduction, I. 82, where in line 22 the num ber h i should be 114, and the statem ent in line 23 should be m odified to include another instance o f in at x x m . 17 1. T h e latter instance also is to be attributed to the scribe, w ho is responsible for several other A n glian forms (see above, p. 735). T h e re is a lonely in for on in Æ lfr ic ’s hom ily for the second S un day in A d v e n t as edited b y T h o rp e , C H I. 618. T h o rp e was there printing not from his standard m anuscript, K , bu t from F ( C C C C 162), w hich is not quite so faithful to Æ lfric. In the present passage R ’s on ecnysse is probably correct, for although Æ lfric uses on ealra zvorulda woruldy he seems not to use it after a . T h e com bination a on ecnysse, on the other hand, is very com m on.

GLOSSARY AND WORD-INDEX INCLUDING PROPER NAMES A p a r t from Latin quotations, which are indexed in the Introduction, pp. 172-7, all words that occur in the text are listed, and all but certain very common ones, chiefly conjunctions, prepositions, pronouns, and the various forms of the substantive verb beon-wesan, are completely indexed. Even for beon-wesan an effort has been made to include all the different forms, and for the common but protean habban and don to include both forms and the full range of meanings. Nouns, adjectives, and adverbs are not fully indexed if, like God, Crist, mann, ælmihtig, halig, a, swipe, they occur frequently and without troublesome variations of meaning. Ordinarily the frequency of such words is roughly indicated by presenting the full count of their appearances in consecutive homilies, starting with the first, before cutting off the list with ‘etc.’ Certain common words receive much fuller, though incomplete, treatment in order to exhibit various forms: for instance, halig, of which the in­ flected forms are standardized in the manuscripts in a pattern not clearly indicated in the grammars. Others, such as casere and apostol, are given full treatment for their possible usefulness as a guide to per­ sons and topics. The prepositions are treated unevenly. I had intended at first to treat all of them as summarily as I have even now treated to, but found with several of them (notably be, frant, mid, of, on, and wip) enough perplexing or rare uses to make it seem desirable to enumerate shades of meaning, and sometimes to refer these to the definitions in Bosworth-Toller or the Oxford English Dictionary. In addition to proper names, unassimilated common nouns and adjectives from foreign languages are listed if they are introduced as individual words, not merely as parts of quotations. Forms are cited only for particular reasons. Normally the occur­ rences of a word are listed by homily and line after the main entry in numerical sequence without regard to variations of inflexion. If there are particular forms that require notice these are included in brackets after their line-numbers. For strong verbs, however, the particular forms that occur are specified and these forms are entered separately with cross-references if they are alphabetically distant from their in­ finitives. Irregularities of form in the weak verbs, even if they conform to well-known phonological laws, are cited whenever it has seemed that they might cause confusion. All verb-forms, except purely C 2710.2

Y

814

GLOSSARY

adjectival participles, are entered under their infinitives, even though some of the preterite-present infinitives (those enclosed in square brackets) are not on record for Old English. Entries are alphabetically arranged, except that all words beginning with the prefix ge- are listed according to their unprefixed forms. The digraph æ is treated like ae, following ad\ ð is replaced by p, which is treated as a separate letter between t and u. With the exception of the substitution of p for ð, the stems of the entries are spelled just as they appear in the text. When there is more than one spelling, cross-references are used to refer the reader to the preferred spelling. Occasionally, when a word appears with an unusual or ambiguous spelling, the usual dictionary form or a form indicating its derivation is placed immediately after it, enclosed in quotation marks and brackets. Final consonants that are doubled before inflexional endings are entered uniformly as double even though they often appear single in the text: so, for example, mann, eall, full. Similarly the suffix that appears variously as -nyss, -nys, niss, -nis, -ness, -nes, is standardized in accordance with its most frequent spelling in these manuscripts as -nyss. No notice is taken of the accents in the manuscripts (though the accents of the basic manuscripts have been included in the text), but the long vowels are distinguished by macrons according to the modern grammars unless a manuscript spelling is reported as such, words or phrases are quoted in illustration of a meaning, or reference is made to a dictionary entry. Vowels of foreign names are left un­ marked even though their quantities can often be surmised. An asterisk calls attention to a word or a particular meaning for which the only evidence so far adduced from Old English documents is in the homilies here edited. Among these asterisked words and meanings are some that have already been recognized in dictionaries, as the following list will show: I. A number of words appear in B TS and Hall (reprinted in HallMeritt) with citations originally supplied by A. S. Napier in his article, ‘Contributions to Old English Lexicography’, Transactions o f the Philological Society, 1903-6, pp. 265-352. Napier drew words from the pieces here numbered iv, v i i , vm, ix, xi, xn, xiv, xvi, xix, xxi, xxn, and xxx as they stand in the manuscripts called P, R, T (Hatton 113, 1 14), U, and V (C C C C 419) in this edition. Words otherwise unrecorded are ælmesæcer (incorrectly assigned by Hall to an earlier publication of Napier’s in Anglia XI), cæpse, Candelmæssedæg, gedrinca (redefined in BTS), dumbnyss, fleamdom, forpmann, fuhtian, hundteontigwintre, idellic, ome (less probably oma), samzceaxen, sceoccen, gesepnyss, ge-unblissian, ungedwimorlice, unhetol, unmæpfull. Words previously recorded but with otherwise unrecorded meanings are aberan (sense b), hama, hefigmod.

GLOSSARY

815

Other rare but not unique words and meanings cited by Napier are belyfan, cuplic (sense b), fiscnop, Frigeniht, inmede, sceawere (incorrectly assigned by Hall, as above), unhearmgeorn, wæterstream. He included also the accusative plural fotlæsta in xxi for its gender. Toller included the words at the beginning of the alphabet (a-c) in his ‘Additions and Corrections’ ; the others he was able to include in the main entries of BTS. 2. Toller called attention to four other words found only in these homilies. He cited unfæderlice in B T from Kemble’s edition of the first part of our xxi, and in B T S from Napier’s edition of Wulfstan’s re­ vision of the same passage, which hardly constitutes a second occur­ rence. He cited wischere (here wiscere) in B T from Skeat’s edition of the Lives o f Saints, for this portion of our xxix is a mere repetition of the same passage. After the publication of BTS, in an article in the Modern Language Review, X V II. 165 sq., he listed astæppan from a quotation given by Napier (from our xxi as in MS. R) in illustration of another word, and behegian from the opening lines of our hi as quoted in Wanley’s Catalogus. These words were included in Hall’s third edition and are reprinted in Hall-Meritt. 3. The following words are not listed in the dictionaries of Sweet, Bosworth-Toller, or Hall-Meritt: æfning(a mere variant of the familiar æfnung), amberlice, berian (except as a past participle), ceping, deafnyss, dyrne-ceorl, eall-sweart, eorpteolung (probably not Ælfric’s word), eunuchi (still Latin in form), feohte-god (though this was printed as a com­ pound by Unger in his edition of the first part of xxi), fore-don (probably better regarded as two words), fullcypan, hwylc-eower (perhaps a nonce-formation), lissian, miswyrcan, sceamigendlic (in a passage not by Ælfric), sundorrunung, swyre, pærfore, pryfyrclede, purh-hlynnan (conjectural), undigol, untimaset, utlice, gewiss as an adverb, wiperrsedlice. 4. The following words, already recorded and sometimes very familiar, have meanings in these homilies that differ from those given in the dictionaries: abredan (b), ahlyttrian and hluttrian, and with the supposedly Middle English meaning ‘if’, asmeagan{c), begeat(a), behypan, bepæcan (b), biscopstol, biter, buc, burhwita, craeft (d), Cristendom (d), cyst (b), dream (b), drifan (?), dynt (?), earnung,faru (d), geforpian,forwyrnan (d) , geancyme, geomrian as a transitive verb, gladian (with to), grama (b), habban (I, k), hæftnyd, healdan (k), hoc, gehradian, huxlice (b), leap, ofcuman, slean (b), smealice, stæppig, getæcan (b), talian, toferian, getrywsian, tweonung, pærwip, prafian, wel (e), weler (b), geworht, wyrcan (e) . Most of these unrecorded meanings are readily inferred from

816

GLOSSARY

meanings already recorded or, for compounds, from the separate elements. On the problematical weler, as it is used at xxi. 445, there is an elaborate note, pp. 720 sqq. above. 5. The combination gehwær and pær, listed under gehwær, seems to be idiomatic and is not registered in the dictionaries. A few other words have meanings so slightly modified from those on record that it has seemed unnecessary to distinguish them with asterisks.

A B B R E V IA T IO N S

The classes of strong verbs are indicated by arabic numbers from 1 to 7; of weak verbs, by roman numbers from I to III; preterite present and anomalous verbs by pret. pres. vb. and anom. vb. respectively. Nouns are indicated by a following m., f., or n. for masculine, feminine, or neuter; the other parts of speech by the usual abbreviations, adj., adv., pron., etc. Inflexions of nouns are indicated by case and number: ns. for nominative singular, dp. for dative plural, etc.; inflexions of adjec­ tives by case, number, and gender: nsn. for nominative singular neuter, etc. (usually only case and number in the plural); conjugational forms of verbs, when finite, by tense, person, and number: pret. 2s. for preterite, second person singular (sometimes without person in plural, as pret. pi.), to which subj. is added if the mood is subjunctive (optative) rather than indicative. Other verb-forms are marked imp. sg. for im­ perative singular, dat. inf. for dative infinitive, pres. part, for present participle, pp. for past participle. BT, A n Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, by J. Bosworth and T . N. Toller, Oxford, 1898, including Supplement unless contrasted with next item. BTS, The Bosworth-Toller Supplement, by T . N. Toller, Oxford, 1921, with Add., the Additions and Corrections. Cpb, A. Campbell, Old English Grammar, Oxford, 1959. Corrected reprint, 1962. Cited by paragraph. Hall, Hall-Meritt, A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, by John R. Clark Hall, 4th ed., with a Supplement by Herbert D. Meritt, Cam­ bridge, i960. Holt, or Holthausen, Altenglisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, von F. Holthausen, Heidelberg, 1934. 2nd ed., 1963. M ED, Middle English Dictionary, ed. by H. Kurath and S. M. Kuhn, and others. Michigan, 1952- (in progress). M LR, Modern Language Review. OE, Old English. OED, Oxford English Dictionary. ON, Old Norse. S-B, Sievers-Brunner, Altenglische Grammatik nach der angelsächsi-

GLOSSARY

817

sehen Grammatik von Eduard Sieversy neubearbeitet von Karl Brunner. 3rd. ed., Tübingen, 1965. Sweet, The Studenfs Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon , by Henry Sweet, Oxford, 1896. (This dictionary, though issued in later impressions, antedates the important contributions of Napier and Toller, so that it is seldom cited, though now and then useful for a definition.) The formula, "cited by Napier’, refers to his "Contributions to Old English Lexicography’, Transactions of the Philological Society , 1903-6, pp. 265-352, described above. For ‘Napier’s Wulfstan’, and for certain works of Ælfric— referred to either by abbreviated title, not here italicized (CH, Grammar, LS, O. E. Hept., O N T ) or by editor (Assmann, Belfour, Brotanek, Warner)— see the principal Table of Abbreviations at the beginning of Volume I.

A ä, adv. ever, always. i. 385; vii. 180; x. 33» 79> 124; etc.— in phrases meaning for ever: ä b ü tan ende, i. 166; iv. 1 1 5; etc. ä tö w o ru ld e, ii. 262; v. 290; vi. 153 (spelled aa), 373; e tc.; ä ( . . . ) on een ysse, iv. 172, 298; ix. 218; x. 210; etc. A a r o n , brother of Moses, i. 369; xx. 222, 243, 263, 271, 288, 367; xxi. 218 (gs. -es), a b ä d , see ab id a n . a b æ d , ab æ d o n , see a b id d a n . a b æ r, a b æ ro n , see ab era n . a b ä t, see a b lta n . A b b a c u c , Habbakuk the prophet (Dan. xiv. 32). xxi. 465, 470, 473, 476, 482. ab ed en e, see a b id d a n . a b e lg a n , 3, w. dat. to make angry, offend. pres. 3s. subj. a b e lg e , ii. 239; pret. ip. a b u lg o n , xv. 142; pret. 3s. subj. a b u lg e , xxi. 539. [Cf. g e b e lg a n , g e -æ b y lg a n .] a b era n , 4. (a) to bearf sustain, hold up. inf., xxii. 5; pret. 3s. ab æ r, iv. 280, 290; pret. 3p. a b æ ro n , xia. 109. *(b) to do without, inf., vii. 41. [Unique in sense (b); cited by Napier. Cf. beran.] a b e r sta n , 3. with üt, to burst out. inf., xiv. 166. [Cf. b erstan .] a b id a n , 1. (a) trans., to await, expect,

wait for. with acc., xi. 257; with clause, iii. 65; with gen. of person and clause, iii. 77 (I expected of them that . . .); with acc. or gen., iii. 79; with gen., xix. 184. (b) intrans., to wait. v. 10. [Forms: inf., xi. 257; pres. 2p. abide ge,xix. 184; pret. is, a b ä d , iii. 65, 77, 79; 3s., v. 10.— Cf. oferbidan.] a b id d a n , 5. (a) w. acc. or clause, to pray for, ask for, pray (that), i. 231, 236; viii. 82, 85, 126; xv. 178, 184; xvii. 99 (with two accs., person [usually aet with dat.] and thing; see note); xxvii. 19. (b) w. acc., to get by asking, obtain, viii. 73; xvi. 120; xxi. 466 (pp., obtainedy called in); xxii. 90. [Meanings (a) and (b) not always distinct.— Forms: inf., viii. 85 (3 more); pret. 3s. a b æ d , i. 231 (6 more); pret. 3p. ab æ d o n , viii. 73; pp. ap. abed ene, xxi. 466. Cf. bid d an , gebiddan.] A b ir o n , a rebel against Moses (Num. xvi. 1). xx. 220, 251. A b is a i, one of David’s officers (II Reg. [ = II Sam.] xxi. 17— A .V . Abishai). xxii. 42. a b lta n , 1. (a) w. acc., to devour, pret. 3s. a b ä t, xxi. 106; pret. 3s. subj. ab ite, xxi. 109; pp. np. ab iten e, xxi. 492. (b) w. gen., to tastey par­ take of. pret. 3s. a b ä t, xxi. 410, 448. [Cf. bitan.]

8i8

GLOSSARY

ab len d an , I. to blind. pret. 3s. ablen de, iv. 62; pp. ab len d , as adj., i. 297; iv. 6; xx. 210. ab lin n an , 3. to cease. pres. 3s. ab lin þ, xxix. 9. A b r a h a m , gs. A b r a h a m e s , vi. 361; xviii. 66; xix. n o ; xxi. 213; xxix. 52, 74; ds. A b r a h a m e , xx. 146. ab reca n , 4. with üt, to break out, break forth, pres. 3p. a b reca þ , xiv. 130. [Cf. tobrecan.] ab réd a n (‘-bregd-’), 3. (a) to take awayf take up, draw up. pres. is. ab réd e, iii. 68; pp. ab rö d en , xii. 132. *(b) to change, transform, pres. 3s. a b r ý t, xxix. 107 (Lat. transfigurat); pp. ab rö d en , viü. 192; xii. 163. [Meaning (b) not in diet, but see B T S , ‘bregdan’.— Cf. b rédan.] ab roþen , adj. (pp. of ‘abréoþan’) de­ generate. iii. 66. a b ü g a n , 2. to bow, incline, inf., iv. 256. [Cf. bügan .] a b u lg -, see a b elga n . ab ü ta n , adv. around, about. xv. 183; xviii. 1 16. a c, conj. but. i. 50, etc. (15 times); ii. 92, etc. (12 times); iii. 44, 72, n o , 119, 130; iv. 14, etc. (21 times); etc. acenn an, I. to give birth to, bringforth. pret. 3s. acen de, xkz. 72; every­ where else as pp. acenn ed , born: i. 50, 270 (acende for np. acennede), etc. (10 times); ii. 96; vi. 121, 229; viii. 60; xia. 60, 202 (asm. -ne), 213, 226; xii. 9, etc. (14 times); xix. 43; xxi. 16, 17, 189; xxx. 78, n o . [Cf. cennan.] acen n ed n yss, f. birth, nativity, (a) as an event (esp. the birth of Christ), i. 2, 114; xi. 7, 20; xi a. 76, 83, 94. (b) as the act or process of being born, physically or spiritually, vi. 254; xii. 71, 79, 83, 118, 119, 123, 142, 144. aeölian , II. to grow cold, xviii. 333,343. äcsian , see äxian . acu cian , II. to come to life, revive. vi. 141; xi. 303. a cu m a n , 4. (a) to bear, endure, with­ stand. inf., ix. 210. (b) to come away,

come forth (from), inf. a c u m e n (for -an), xxiii. 82. [Cf. cum an .] a cw e lan , 4. to die, perish, pres. 3p. acw e laþ , xii. 108. acw e lla n , I, pret. -e w e a ld -. to kill, destroy, iii. 128; vii. n o ; viii. 137; ix. 191 ; xi. 380; xiv. 141; xviii. 352; xx. 113, 116, 132; xxi. 112, 237, 247, 443, 454, 566; xxii. 93; xx vii. 35. A d a m . i. 189; iv. 194; xi. 95, 500; xia. 48, 148; xx. 341; xxi. 29, 33, 43> 79 ; gs. A d a m e s , i. 203, 204; iv. 190; vii. 182; x. 198, 203; xii. 134; xvii. 86; xxi. 58; ds. A d a m e , ii. 242. ad éafian , II. to become deaf. xvii. 86. [Hitherto recorded from one gloss (BT) and one passage in Leechdoms (BTS).] ad ela, wk. m. mud, dirt, filthy place. i. 421; xvii. 261. ad eo rcia n , II. to grow dark, xviii. 260, 399. a d ile g ia n , a d ý l- , II. to destroy, blot out. vi. 281 (purge away}); xii. 136; xix. 70; xxii. 93; xxv(c). 16 (a d ilig -). äd l, f. disease, infirmity, sickness, xvii. . 9y. I5’ a d lig , adj. sick, diseased, np. as noun, ii. 68. adön , anom. vb. to put away, take aivay. inf., xiii. 179 (with a w e g fram ); pret. 3s. a d y d e , xxiii. 130 (with of). [Cf. dön.] ad ræ fan , I. to drive aioay, drive out. iv. 9, etc. (14 times); vii. 184; viii. 105; ix. 180; xvii. 9, 127, 235, 256, 296; xxi. 574, 604; xxix. 32. ad ren ca n , I, trans, to submerge, droivn. xviii. 15 (pret. 3s. a d r e n c te ); xxi. 37; xxiii. 168 (inf. ad ren cean , used absolutely), 202. a d reo ga n , 2. to pass, spend (time), pres. 3p. a d réo g a þ , xiv. 131; pret. 3P . a d ru go n , xi. 387. ad rlfan , 1. with a w e g , to drive away. pres. 3s. adrlfþ, x. 39. [Cf. drifan.] ad rin can , 3, intrans, to drown, be drowned, pret. 3s. a d ran c, i. 238; 3p. ad ru n co n , xvii. 239; pp. ad ru n cen , xi. 333. [Cf. drincan.]

GLOSSARY

819

a d u m b ia n , II. to grow dumb. pret. guidance of, according to, in accord­ 3s. a d u m b o d e , xvii. 91. ance with. ii. 44, 61, 213; iv. 65; adün(e), adv. down, downward, adü n, v. 107; ix. 57; xia. 68, 70; xix. 102, xiii. 212; adü n e, xx. 48; xxi. 339. 1 12; xx. 245, 298.— aefter þ a m þ e , a d w æ s c a n , I. to quench, blot out. ii. conj. after {the time when), ix. 162. 102 (pret. 3s. a d w æ scte ); xviii. [Cf. hér-, þæ r-æ fter.] 283; xx. 77; xxi. 564, 647; xxii. 49; aeftergenga, wk. m. successor, v. 266; xxvi. 26. vi. 324. a d ý d a n , I. to destroy, kill, xxiii. 168 aeftew eard, adj. as noun, ds. in phrase on aefte w e a r d an , in the (used absolutely); xxvii. 45 (pret. 3s. adýdde). latter part, at the end. xv. 141. a d y d e , see adön. aeftra (‘æfterra’), comp. adj. second, a d ý le g ia n , see a d ile g ia n . next. xx. 261. æ , f. law; esp. the divine law, old and æ g h w a r , adv. everywhere, xxii. 4. new, according to the two Testa­ æ g þ e r, pron. adj. each {of two)y both. ments. Invariant form, ns., ds., as., as adj., xi. 314; xii. 214; xiv. 57, 58; as indecl. pron., vi. 267; xv. 137; i. 464; ii. 44, etc. (8 times); iii. 54, xxx. 37.— æ g þ e r ge . . . ge, conj. 90, 102; iv. 148, 261, 265; vii. 68; xv. 27, etc. (5 times); xviii. 66; both . . . and. i. 3; ii. 202; iv. 285; xx. 33, etc. (5 times); xxiv. 4; xxvi. v i i . 17, 74; x . 73; x i . i i , 147; x i a. 80; x i v . 156; x v . 166; x v i i . 214; x i x . 109; xxx. 75. g e -æ b y lg a n , I. to exasperate, offend. 2, 82; x x v ( a ) . 16. pp. np. g e æ b y lig d e , xxi. 451. æ h t, f. possessions, goods, property. [Cf. a b elga n .] i. 105; v. 201; xi. 357; xvi. 50, 55, æ c, see éac. 69, 176, 184, 248; xxiii. 41; xxx. 49. æ h tem an n , m. serf, xxiii. 39. [See aecer, m. field, cultivated land, xviii. note.] 28, 35, 141, 163, 202, 242, 312; xxi. 241. G o d e s aecer, the church, xviii. æ lc, pron. adj. each, as adj., i. 42, 273, 145, 146. [Cf. æ lm e s-æ c e r.] 328, 331, 334; iii. 109, 1 13; iv. 18, æ fen, n. or m. evening, xxi. 314, 413. 98; v. 189; vi. 143; etc.— after *æ fn in g , f. evening, ds. æ fn in ge, b ü tan , any. viii. 149; ix. 134; x. 72; xxiii. 90. [This spelling not recorded xi. 317; etc.— as pron., ii. 203; in diet., probably scribal; Ælfric v. 26, 137, 143; vi. 60, 358; ix. 169; x. 89; etc.— æ lc . . . än, each one. elsewhere has the usual ‘æfnung’.] i. 382.— æ lc þ in g , everything, xi. æ fre, adv. ever. i. 153, 160, 165; ii. 83, 564; xv. 217.— æ lce d æ g e (instr.) 286; iii. 55, 178, 181, 184; iv. 168, every day. ii. 227; vi. 120; xxi. 359, 170, 202; v. 67, 187, 188; etc. aefstan, see efstan . 461; æ lce gé are , xvi. 235; æ lce daeg (instr. with endinglesslocative), æ fte m y s t, adj. lasty hindmost, xi. 298 (v.l. -m e st). xv. 47 (twice); xx. 14, 106. aelfrem ed, adj. with fra m , estranged, aefter, prep. w. dat. after, (a) with separated, xiv. 139 (nsm. or uninfl. verbs of motion, following, behind. for asm.); xxi. 164. vi. 7 1; xii. 206; xxiii. 134. (b) æ lic, adj. of law, prescribed by law. marking an object of desire, {with longing) after, for. xx. 84; xxi. 277. ii. 66; xi. 24; xi iii. 29, 138; ip. subj. alæ d an , I. to leady lead away. xvii. a g y fa n , iii. 183; pret. 3s. subj. agéafe, xxvii. 20; 3p. subj. a g é a 1 15; xviii. 21 (pp., alæ d), 73. [Cf. fon, iii. 91. [Cf. gifan.] læ dan.]

GLOSSARY a læ ta n , 7, with ü t. to let {a ship) go out. inf., xiv. 16, 108. [Cf. læ tan.] a ld lic , see ea ld lic. a le c g a n , I. to put down, allay, suppress. inf. xx. 230; pres. 3s. subj. ale g c e (v.l. alecge), xviii. 173; pret. 3s. aléd e, xx. 67. [Cf. lecgan .] alé fia n , II. to injure, enfeeble, pp. np. aléfod e, ii. 26, 68 (as noun), 71. a lé o g a n , 2. to deny, leave unfulfilled. pp. alo g e n , xi. 150; xviii. 47. [Cf. léogan.] A le x a n d e r . Pope Alexander 7, ca. 106-115, identified in legend with Alexander the martyr, whose day is M ay 3. xxiii. 2, 30, and passim; gs. A le x a n d r e s , 101; ds. A le x a n d r e , 25; as. uninfl., 165; A le x a n d r u m , 9 5 ,17 4 ,2 0 6 . A le x a n d r ia , the city in Egypt, ds., xxi. 563.— A le x a n d r ia -b u r h , f. the city of A . ds. -b y r ig , xxi. 521. a lih ta n , I. (a) to lighten, alleviate. xxii. 3. (b) to dismount, xxvii. 95? (see llhtan). a ll, alle , see eall. a lo g e n , see a lé o g a n . a lý fa n , I. to allow, grant, xxvi. 93. [Cf. lýfan.] a lý s a n , I. to set free, delivery redeem. i. 409 (alýsen d e for d. inf. a lý senne?); ii. 93, 99; iii. 127, 129; iv. 193; v. 109, 1 12, 289; vi. 280, 342; vii. 125, 170; etc. [Cf. to lý san.] a lý s e d n y s s , f. deliverancey redemp­ tion. ii. 249; iii. 181 ; v. 197, 242; vi. 264; vii. 1 12; xi. 9, 45; xia. 78, 152; xviii. 61; xxx. 3. a lý se n d , m. redeemer, i. 409 (ds. for d. inf. alýsen n e ?); iv. 268 (uninfl. ds., v.l. -e); xia. 74; xxi. 347; xxiii. 147. A m a le c h , Amaleky the desert king and his descendants, enemies of Israel (Ex. xvii). xxii. 88, 91. a m ä n s u m ia n , II. to excommunicate. xix. 63; xxvi. 138. #a m b e rlic e , adv. fittingly, appro­ priately. iii. 141. [Unique. See note.] A m b r o s iu s , St. Ambrose, bishop of Milan, d. 397. xxvi. 38, 48, 108.

823

a m en , borrowed from Lat. (ulti­ mately Hebrew) as a concluding formula. A t end of each full homily, i-xxi, and of xxx. Concludes paragraphs at xviii. 216; xxi. 11. When the word occurs in the V ul­ gate gospels as part of a speech it is translated by söþ, verily. See söþ below. a m eta n , 5. to measure, mete out. pres. 2p. am etaþ, xiii. 18, 119; pp. am eten , xiii. 18, 119; np.— e, filled to the proper measure (?), xvi. 23, 130. a m e ta n , I. to painty decorate, xv. 77. A m m o n is c , adj. Ammonite (cf. next entry), wk. pi. as noun, xxii. 25. A m o n , Ammon, ancestral king of the Ammonites, here used for the tribe (II Reg. x, ‘Filii Ammon’), xxii. 19. a m y r r a n , I. to injurey destroy, xvii. 291; xxiii. 178. an, prep., see on. an, pron. adj., strong deck (a) before a noun, emphatic, one, a single, i. 76, etc. (11 times); ii. 132, 135, 137, 291; iii. 146; iv. 168, 170; vi. 120, etc. (7 times); vii. 209, 226; etc.— the noun understood, xi. 500, 501.— unemphatic, a certain, a. i. 431; ii. 11; iii. 6 (twice); v. 12; vi. 176, 182 (twice), 229, 302, 304; e tc — (b) after a noun or pron., alone, gsm., gsn. än es, iv. 207; xxix. 62; dsm., dp. ä n u m , i. 133, 141, 143; vi. 229, 254; xi. 132; xia. 28, 202; xx. 360 (tw ä m m a n n u m ä n u m ) ; xxix. 81, 82; asm. æ nne, iii. 55; xx. 139; nap. äne, vi. 320 (þa äne, those alone); xx. 200 (hi äne tw é g e n , they two alone)— elliptically, þ is s än li f , this one life (alone)yxxiii. 65; similarly, xx. 88.— (c) as pron., one {persony beingyor thing), ii. 125, 126, 134, 25 8; viii. 186, 194; xi. 429,450; xia. 13,214; etc.— with noun in appo­ sition, m id än u m h is þ e ig n e , xxiii. 53.— with part, gen., vii. 5; xii. 2, 53; xvi. 21, 128; xviii. 32, 87, 91; xxvi. 85.— correl. with öþer, {the) one . . . the other, ii. 116; xi. 130; xviii. 32, 87, 91; xix. 193; sé än, xviii. 36, 105, 142, 196; séo än,

824

GLOSSARY

än (cont.) xviii. 34, I I I , 140; in pi., ge pä äne ge pä öþre, both one sort and the other, xii. 115.— on än , adv., together, continuously, xi. 44; xia. 15 1 ; xx. 42. [The asm. usually ænne as at i. 251, änne occasionally as at iii. 6.— Cf. æne above and äna next below.] än a, indecl. adj. and adv. alone, only (orig. nsm. wk. of an?), (a) follow­ ing a sing, subject, masc., i. 182, 384; vi. 240, 262; viii. 202; xi. 88; xia. 2, 198, 226; xii. 206; xx. 37, 189, 415; xxi. 91, 98, 666; xxvi. 9, 62; xxvii. 51; xxix. 82; fem., séo þe än a, xi. 11; xi a. 80; neut., þaet w if än a, xiii. 220; folc, p e än a, xxi. 212.— (b) following a plural subject, h i än a, iii. 59; pä gö d an än a, xi. 353.— (c) following a plural noun in appositional phrase, nom., nä tw é g e n m en n än a, xviii. 108; acc., þ ä naced an w o rd äna, viii. 52. [In (a) the word may be taken as adj. alone or adv. only, since uninflected an is not used after a noun; in (b) adverbial only seems more likely since adjectival plural äne occurs as an alternative; in (c) the meaning is strongly ad­ verbial.] a n a m , see an im an . an b id ia n , a n d -, II. to await, expect. w. gen., ii. 27, 28, 140, 172; xi. 153; xxvii. 29. w. oþþæ t and clause, vi. 330. än cen ned, adj. only begotten, i. 53, 73, 139, 386, 428; vi. 1 17, 233, 241; xi a. 16, 54. [Cf. cennan.] an cerse tla, wk. m. hermit, xxvii. 26. g e -a n c su m ia n , II. to trouble, per­ plex. xxi. 599. [Cf. a n g su m n y ss.] an d, conj. and. (Almost always 7 in the manuscripts except at begin­ nings of sentences, where it is often spelled out and capitalized.) *An apparent instance of the conditional and, meaning if, with subjunctive, at xv. 52 (see note) and possibly 140. an da, wk. m. grudge, enmity, envy. xi. 103, n o , 551; xia. 38. a n d b id -, see a n b id -.

a n d e tn y ss, f. confession, vi. 141; xvii. 108, 179; XÍX. 247; xxvii. 120. an d etta n , g e -a n d e tta n , I. (a) to confess wrong-doing (to a priest), with g e -, xi. 196; xiii. 230(pres. 3s. gean d et); xix. 131, 143, 150, 153, 154, 244 (pret. 3p. gean d etta n ); without g e -, xi. 398; xxvii. 7, 115. (b) to avow a belief, without g e -, xvii. 134. (c) to acknowledge, declare belief in a person, with g e - , xxi. 26; without g e -, xvii. 173. an d fen ge, adj. acceptable, xv. 219; xvi. 198. a n d g it, - g y t , n. (a) meaning, sense, interpretation, i. 58; ii. 60, 61, 188; iii. 47; iv. 58, 65; v. 100; vii. 201; viii. 53, 55; ix. 73; xi. 4; xii. 224; xiii. 35, 162 (be þ a m y lc a n a n d gite, in the same sense) ; xvi. 86, 150; xvii. 49, 279; xviii. 271, 272; xix. 21; xx. 334; xxx. 58, 59. (b) under­ standing, intelligence, faculty of per­ ception. iii. 59; ix. 140; xii. 45; xiii. 142 (on m ic c lu m a n d g y te , in largeness of understanding, intellec­ tual pozver); xvi. 43, 51, 62; xvii. 126; xviii. 315; xx. 274; xxix. 100. an d ian , II. to feel envy, resentment. ii. 123. a n d lu m an , wk. m. pi. utensils, xxi. 519 (v.l. an d lam an). [See B T S , ‘andlóman’ and ‘gelóman’ ; O E D ‘loom’, sb. i.] an d rysn e, adj. terrible, xi. 349. an d sæ te, adj. hateful, repugnant, viii. 66; xvi. 201 ; xvii. 195(F); xxvii. 28; xxix. 125. an d su n d , see an sund . a n d sw a ria n , II. to answer, xi. 418. [See also a n d w y rd a n below.] a n d sw a ru , f. answer, ns., xxvii. 70; ds., to a n d sw a re , iii. 135; v. 14, 34; xia. 67; xvi. 179. a n d w ea rd , a n w ea rd , adj. present, of this world, earthly, v. 188; xiv. 62; xvi. 42 (-w e r d -), 95; xx. 348, 385; xxi. 377 ( -w y r d - , v.l. - w e r d - , -w e a r d -). a n d w e a rd n y ss, f. presence, iii. 109; with reference to Christ’s bodily presence on earth, on h y s a n d -

GLOSSARY w e a r d n y s s e , while he was present, ii. 158; vi. 327. a n d w y r d a n , I. to answer. inf., iii. 141; xxi. 595; pres. 3s. a n d w y r t, xi. 426 (v.l. - w y r d , -w e a r d a þ , -sw a ra þ ), 448; 3p. -w y r d a þ , xi. 444; pret. 3s. -w y r d e , ii. 33, 47; iv. 54, 287; v. 17, 25, 30, 59, 71, 226; vi. i i , 24, 57, 62; etc. (32 more); -w e r d e , xxi. 365; pret. 3p. - w y r d o n , -w y r d a n , ix. 66; xviii. 37, 203; xxi. 252. g e -a n d w y r d a n , I. to answer. inf., ii. 275; xxi. 598. än eg e d e , -G aged e, adj. one-eyed, blind of one eye. np., xi. 322. [See B T S , ‘an-eged*, for evidence of nom. sing, ending in ‘-e\] ä n feald , adj. single, simple, ii. 60; xi. 244; xvii. 279; xviii. 271. än fea ld lice , adv. singly, simply. iii. 46; xviii. 315. a n g in n , a n g y n n , n. (a) beginning. i. 28-155 (16 times); ix. 11, 151; x. 102; xi. 28, 4 1 1 ; xia. 44, 128, 200, 203; xii. 98; xiii. 234; xiv. 84, 141; xvi. 85; xviii. 347; xix. 34; xxi. 15, 16.— (b) undertaking, ix. 148.— (c) action, behaviour, xii. 51; xv. 168; xx. 80, 2 1 1, 246; xxvii. 90. [Spelled with y only at i. 28; xia.

44 -] a n g s u m n y s s , f. distress, xxvii. 99. [Cf. g e -a n csu m ia n .] a n im a n , 4. to take (away), pret. 3s. a n a m , vii. 182; xi a. 147. [Cf. nim an .] a n líc n y s s , f. likeness, image, idol. viii. 105; xia. 48; xvi. 65; xx. 351; xxi. 190, etc. (24 times); xxiv. 14; xxvi. i 9. ä n m ö d llc e , adv. unanimously, with one accord, xxi. 282, 343, 391. g e -a n n , see g e -u n n a n . A n n a , the widow who prophesied of Christ (Luke ii, 36-38). xi. 27; xi a. IOI.

ä n n y s s , f. unity, i. 166; ii. 127, 128; vi. 266; viii. 194; ix. 107; xia. 219; unanimity, agreement, xvi. 250, 255. a n ræ d e , adj. concerted, constant, un­ wavering, resolute, iv. 112, 283; ix. 70; xviii. 193; xx. 54; xxii. 97;

825

xxvi. 40.— a n ræ d ra , comp., ii. 4 (np. -an). [Ælfric elsewhere uses ns. an ræ d e with final -e , as here at xxvi. 40. Cf. B T S , ‘an-ræd'. That he understood the first syllable as an ‘one’ is suggested especially by iv. 282-3.] án ræ d lice, adv. resolutely, without hesitation, ii. 47; xxi. 365. a n ræ d n y ss, f. constancy, singleness of mind, resolution, ix. 141, 153; xv. 229; xx. 353; xxvi. 135. an su n d , adj. sound, entire, perfect; unimpairedy undiminished; in good healthy safe and sound, i. 426; ii. 109; vii. 144, 155; xi. 324; xvi. 162 (np. an dsun de); xix. 155; xxi. 65, 486; xxiii. 19; xxix. 34. an sý n , n. countenance, face. xi. 541 (twice); xxiii. 103; xxvii. 92 (gs. a n sý n e s, supporting neuter rather than feminine gender). A n te c r is t, m. Antichrist, ns., xviii. 289, 296, 403; xxviii. 1 1 ; gs. -e s, xviii. 89, 356, 387; xxviii. 8. a n tim b e r, n. material, i. 261; xxi. 193, 528, 532. [See B T , B T S , ‘ontimber’ : several citations from Ælfric, all with ‘an-’.] an þ ræ c, adj. horrible, dreadful, nsn., xix. 174. [See B T , B T S , ‘onþræc*: seven citations, all from Ælfric, all dat. ‘anþræcum’ or ‘andþræcum’. This unique example of the nomi­ native disposes of B T 's alternative, ‘anþræce’.] an w e a ld , m. power, rule, authority, sway. i. 47, 350, 354, 3^3; iv. 189 (a n d -); vii. 61, 126, 170, 177, 183; ix. 53; x. 198; xia. 136; xiii. 185; xvii. 302, 313; xx. 225; xxi. 30; xxii. 5; xxvi. 29, 56, 138; xxvii. 3; xxix. 84; xxx. 37.— spelled an w ald , xxi. 369, 453; xxiii. 50. ä n w iln y ss, f. self-will, obstinacy, ix. 57, 79, 203; xiv. 104; xxvi. 71. A p o c a ly p s is , The Revelation of St. John. ds. A p o c a ly p s i (? last three letters lost), i. 11. A p o llo , xxi. 582, 616. ap o sto l, m. apostle, ns., (referring to Paul) i. 107; ii. 168, 198; xi. 538; xv. 169; xvii. 159; xviii. 301; xix.

8z6

GLOSSARY

apostol (cont.) 70, 74, 105; xx. 390, 422; xxix. n o ; (referring to Peter) xiv. 10, 75.— np. a p o sto li, i. 429; v. 199, 260; vi. 3^4, 338, 349; viii. 250; xxi. 515; a p o sto la s, iv. 126 (9 more); ap. a p o sto la s, v. 266 (11 more); gp. a p o sto la, v. 202; dp. a p o sto lu m , i. 317 (23 more); the plural forms occur in i, ii, iv-xi, xia, xiii-xvi, xviii, and xxi. är, f. mercy. i. 231. är, n. brass, copper. xx. 328; xxi. 520. aræ fnian, II. to endure. vii. 25, 188. aræ ran , I. (a) to raise (from the ground), erect, build, viii. 106; xii. 230; xiv. 95; xxi. 194, 525.— (b) to raise (from death to life), vi. 109, etc. (17 times); vii. 92, 107, 108; viii. 75; xi. 48, 315, 336, 521; xia. 1 14, 157, 167 (undecl. pp. aræ red for np. aræ rde); xxiii. 23, 29, 100; xxix. 46, 61, 63.— (c) to raise (the soul from sin), vi. 193, 210, 298, 371. (d) to set up, establish (a religion, a doctrine, etc.), xiv. 233 (pp. aræ red, M S. ahred alt. to ahraered); xviii. 174, 285; xxi. 72; xxvi. 27. a r ä s, see arisan . arc, m. the ark of Noah, xviii. 13, 16. [Apparently Ælfric uses this form, for Noah’s ark exclusively. See B T , ‘arc’, B T S , ‘earc’.] arcam D o m in i Lat. phrase treated almost as proper name and inflected (asf.) as part of Æ lfric’s sentence; translated as D rih tn es serin , xxi. 216. ard lice , adv. quickly. ii. 273; v. 69; viii. 140; xxi. 334, 405, 482, 550; xxiii. 57, 77, 109; xxvii. 61. a rfæ st, adj. (a) virtuous, pious, v. 187; xi. 426. (b) merciful, gracious, xi. 159, 418. arfæ stlice, adv. piously, ii. 172. a r fæ stn y ss, f. (a) piety, ix. 142; (b) mercy, xi. 152; xix. 134, 247. ärian , II. to be merciful to, spare. xxvii. 40. a risa n , 1. to arise, (a) to get to one's feet, stand up. ii. 38, 185, 186, 193;

vi. 68, 72; xvii. 2 1 1 ; xix. 190. (b) to arise from death, ii. n o , 251, 253; vi. 55, 56, 119; vii. 55, 120, 123, 129, 143, 159; ix. 159, 162; x. 156; xi. 40, 46, 298, 332, 340; xia. 143, 153; xvi. 80, 172; xviii. 419; xxi. 502; xxiii. 31; xxix. 122, 123.--from the death of the soul caused by sins, vi. 139; from the mire of sins, vi. 206. (c) to rise up in revolt. xx. 217. (d) to come into being, appear. xvii. 205; xviii. 256, 332, 379. [Forms: inf.,ii. 186; xi. 332; imp. sg. a r is , ii. 38, 185; pres. 3s. a r is t, ii. n o ; vi. 55, 56, 139; xi. 340; xviii. 332, 419; ip. a r isa þ , vii. 159; xvi. 172; 3p. xi. 298; xviii. 256, 379; 3s. subj. arise , vi. 206; xxix. 122, 123; pret. 3s. a r ä s , ii. 251 (20 more); 3p. ariso n , xix. 190; xx. 217; pret. 3s. subj. a r ise , ii. 193; vi. 119.— Cf. gerisan .] ä r le a s, adj. impious, iv. 274; x. 191; xi. 269, 451, 466; xviii. 289, 424 (as noun), xix. 216; xxvii. 41. a r le a s n y ss, f. impiety, wickedness. ii. 169; xxiv. 9. arn , see y rn an . A r r iu s . Arius the heretic, d. 336. x. 159. a rw u rþ e , a r w y rþ e , adj. honourable, venerable, iv. 289; xx. 243, 324; xxi. 139, 190, 545, 632; xxiii. 54, 154, 199; xxix. 21.— comp., np. á rw u rþ ra n , xxi. 651; sup., nsm. a r w u rþ u st, xxi. 122. árw u rþ ia n , g e -a r w u r þ ia n , II. to honour, reverence, do honour to. without g e -, vii. 180; xxi. 353; xxv (a). 3, 4. with g e -, xi. 544. [Cf. w urþian.] á rw u rþ líc e , adv. reverentially, solemnly, xxi. 223, 254.— comp, a r w u rþ líc o r, xxi. 181. á r w u rþ n y ss, f. reverence, vi. 5; xxiii. 128. a r w y rþ e , see arw u rþ e . asæ d e, see a se e g a n . asce acan , 6. to shake off. imp. sg. a sce a c, ii. 189. a s c iria n , a sc y ria n , I (II). to dissever, separate, inf. a sc y r ia n , xvii. 196; pp., nsm. a sc y re d , xxvi. 76; np.

GLOSSARY a sciro d e (v.l. -ede), xia. 37. [Cf. b escirian .] a scü fa n , 2. to push away, remove, inf., xiv. 12, 77; pret. 3s. a scé a f, viii. 1 16. [Cf. bescéofan.] a s c y r ia n , see a sciria n . a s e c g a n , III. to say out, telly narrate. pret. 3s. a sæ d e, xxi. 632. [Cf. secgan .] ase n d a n , I. to send. i. 37 (pp. asend), 299, 301; ii. 18 (pret. 3s. äsende), 230 (pres. 3s. asent); iii. 126; v. 76, 241; vi. 96 (pret. 2s. asendest), 285; vii. 9, 15 (pres. is. äsende), 33» 65, 81; etc.— spelled with æ for e in variants from M S . U at vii. 9 and frequently in v iii-x ; from M S . N at vii. 81; from M S S . C and (without prefix) G at xxi. 328. [Cf. sendan.] aséo n , 5. to look upon, inf., xx. 408. [See note on construction. Cf. geséon.] A s ia , the continent, gs. A s ia n , i. 20. a sm é a g a n , II. (a) to imaginey conceivey think. i. 136 (pp. asm éa d ); xv. 1 16. (b) to scrutinize, viii. 247. *(c) to design (}). xxi. 191 (pret. 3p. asm éad an ). [Meaning (c) not re­ corded; see note on the passage. Cf. sm éagan .] a so lce n , adj. (pp. of ‘aseolcan’ , 3) sluggish, idley dissolute. xvi. 117 (wk. as noun, sluggard); xviii. 193. a so lce n n y ss, f. sloth, laziness, iv. 251; xix. 129. asp en d an , I. to spend, squander, dis­ sipate. xvi. 6, 50, 69, 70 (pres. 3s. aspent)y 89; xxx. 34. a s p r in g a n , 3. to spring forth, spread. pret. 3s. a s p r a n g , xvii. 11. a s s a , wk. m. ass. i. 271; ii. 272. *astaeppan, 6. to imprint (a footstep), pp. ap. a sta p e n e , xxi. 420. [Unique in this passage. Quoted by Napier, p. 344, from M S . R but defined by Toller, M L R , X V II. 165. Cf. stæ ppan .] a ste lla n , I. to establish, ordain, pret. 3s. a ste a ld e , xii. 72; xix. 49. a s tig a n , 1. (a) to ascend, inf., v. 174; pres. 3s. astíh þ , xii. 35, 197; Pret.

827

3s. a stä h , i. 435; vii. 36, 64; viii. 223; xi. 47; xia. 154; xii. 203, 206; xix. 124; xxi. 503; 3p. a stig o n , xx. 204. (b) to descend, imp. sg. a stih , xx. 48; pres. 3s. subj. a s tlg e , xviii. 240, 310; pret. 3s. astä h , ii. 92; xii. 36, 198, 202, 217; xx. 52. (c) to em­ bark. pret. 3s. a stä h , xiv. 11, 76. [Cf. stigan .] a stre c c a n , I. to stretch out. ii. 86, 87 (pret. 3s. astrehte), 89; xxvi. 130 (pp. astreht). a s ty r ia n , I and II. to arouse, stir up. as wk. II, ii. 122; xviii. 263, 402; xx. 165; xxii. 31; as wk. I, xviii. 4°5 (PP* np. astyred e); xx. 89 (pp. astyred ). [Cf. styrian .] a sw ä p a n , 7. to sweep (off), clean, pp. a sw ä p e n , iv. 240. a s y n d ria n , II. to separate, divide, dissever, xi a. 35; xviii. 429. a telic, adj. dire, terrible, xvii. 267; xix. 181, 186, 197. atéon , 2. to draw (out), with limiting adverbs (up, üt) and/or preposi­ tions (of, fr a m , tö). inf. ii. 273; xii. 128; xiii. 157; xiv. 69; xxi. 334, 490; imp. sg. atéoh , xiii. 31, 172; pres. 2 S . a tý h st, xxvii. 41; pres. is. subj. atéo, xiii. 28, 150; 2s. subj., xiii. 33, 174. [Cf. téon.] atéo rian , II. to fail, come to an end. ii. 237; xx. 100. a tto r, n. poison, xii. 233; xvii. 94; xx. 337. [Orig. ‘átor’, S -B 138. 1.] aþ en ian , I. to stretch out. xxiii. 191. aþ éo strian , II. to become dark, ob­ scured, eclipsed, xviii. 261, 400. oper or S þ o r, pron. either, ix. 45 (dsn. äj>rum). [Ælfric has the acc. sg. at L S xxv. 68, where it is spelled ‘aþor’. See B T S ‘ahwæþer’ and O E D ‘outher’.] aþ w éan , 6. to wash, cleanse, inf., xvii. 263; pres. 3s. a þ w y h þ , xii. 93, 105; pret. 3s. aþ w ö h , vi. 307; pp. aþ w o g e n , xii. 73 (np. -e), 133 (v.l. aþw æ gen). [Cf. þw éan.] A u g u s tin u s , A g u s tin u s , St. Augus­ tine, bishop of Hippo, i. 55; ii. 61; xxix. 50; xxx. II. A u re lia n u s, a general under Trajan, said to have posed as emperor after

828

GLOSSARY

A u relia n u s (coni,) the latter’s death, xxiii. 47, 49, 161 (ds. A u relian e), 184, 190, 198. a w æ g a n , I. to destroy, nullify, invalidate, xiii. 95; xix. 54; xxi. 147; perhaps also i. 237, but see a w e c ga n . [Cf. w æ g an .j aw æ n d an , see aw en d an . aw e cca n , I. to awaken, vi. 31. [Cf. aw reccan .] a w e c g a n , I. trans., to movey sway, pret. 3s. a w æ g d e , altered to a w e g d e , i. 237. [Form and mean­ ing doubtful; see aw æ gan .] a w é d an , I. to be mady rage, xvii. 243. [Cf. w édan.] a w e g , adv. away. iii. 108; iv. 262; viii. 97, 105; x. 39; xiii. 180, 227; xvii. 295; xviii. 30; xx. 254; xxi. 626; xxii. 34; xxiii. 153 (a w e ig ) ; xxvi. 70; xxvii. 47. aw en d a n , aw æ n d an , I. (a) trans, to turny changey convert, pervert, i. 187 (pp. np. aw endfe]), 196, 404; ii. 108; viii. 15, 19, 83, 129; xi. 42; xia. 3 0 ,1 12 (pret. 3s. awende), 145; xii. 152, 155 (ellipsis of object); xv. 36, 101 (pres. 3s. aw ent); xvi. 51, 62, 265; xvii. 1 16; xxi. 662; xxvi. 10, 102; xxix. 22, 24 (pres. 2s. subj. awende), 27. (b) refl., to turn one­ selfy change, turn, xvii. 119; xix. 24. (c) intr. to change, deviate. viii. 191; xx. 18.— spelled with æ for e at xvi. 265 (M S. U) and in variants from U at viii. 15, 19, 83, 191 and from C at xix. 24 and xxi. 662. [Cf. w endan.] a w en d ed lic, adj. changeable, mutable, xxiii. 58. [Manuscripts of other Ælfric texts have both ‘awended-’ and the more logical ‘awendend-’.] aw eo rp an , see aw u rp an . a w ésta n , I. to lay waste, iii. 71; xxi. 241. a w læ ta n , I. to disfigurey deform, pp. a w læ tt, xxiii. 103. [B T S cites two other examples from Ælfric. Cf. w latian .] a w o rp en n y ss, f. confusiony destruc­ tion, iv. 103. a w re cca n , I. to arouseyawake, i. 227; 11. 137; xvii. 209 (pret. 3p. a w re h ton). [Cf. aw eccan .]

a w r ita n , 1. to write (down)y say in writing, record, inf., xvi. 24, 131; pres. part, a w r iten d e, i. 155; pres, ip. a w r íta þ , i. 61; pret. 3s. a w r ä t, i. 4, 70, 107, 144; ii. 168; iii. 57; iv. 136; vii. 4; etc. (17 more); ip. a w rito n , xxii. 79; 3p., i. 17; xvii. 310; xxi. 148; a w r ita n , xxii. 1; pret. 3s. subj. a w r ite , i. 21; pp. a w rite n , ns. xi. 469 (11 more); np. -e, iv. 145 (8 more); ap. -e , xix. 179; asm. -e for -n e , xxi. 342. [Cf. w ritan .] aw u rp a n , aw e o rp an , a w y r p a n , 3. (a) where the purpose is simply to be rid of the object, lit. or fig., to cast ojf9 out, aside, iii. 32; iv. 265; viii. 134; xiii. 158; xvi. 235, 237; xix. 18; xxvi. 10. (b) where the object is purposefully directed, to cast out (nets for fish), xiv. 18, 22, n o , 1 18 (twice), 159, 168, 170.— with in , in to , to cast inyinto, xi. 467. xviii. 431; xxi. 293, 335, 337, 491; — with on and acc., to cast at, xiii. 216. [Forms: inf. a w e o rp a n , xiv. 18 (v.l. aw y rp a n ); a w u rp a n , xiv. 110(5 more); pres. is. a w u rp e , xiv. 22, 1 18; 3s. a w u rp þ , xvi. 235; 3P- aw u rp a þ , xviii. 431; 2s. subj. aw u rp e (v.l. aw eorpe), xiii. 158; 3s. subj. a w y r p e , xiii. 216; pret. is. a w e a rp , xix. 18; 3s., viii. 134 (2 more); 3p. aw u rp o n , iv. 265 (2 more); pp. aw o rp en , iii. 32 (2 more). Cf. w urpan .] a w y r d n y s s , f. corruption, xi. 321. [For this meaning see B T S.] a w y r g e d , adj. (pp. of ‘awyrgan’) accursed, damned, xi. 437 (a w y r ig e d -), 452, 457; xi a, 30, 4 1; xvii. 25°, 254, 288; xviii. 58; xix. 20, 22; xxix. 22; xxx. 85. a x e , wk. f. (burnt) ash, xvii. 63; xxi. 403, 422. ä x ia n , ä csia n , ä h sia n , II. to ask, ii. 49, 266, 271; viii. 48, 243, 249; xiii. 213; xviii. 3, etc. (8 times); xx. 221; xxi. 249, etc. (7 times); xxiii. 54, 122, 208; xxvi. 88; xxix. 19; pres, part., dp. þ a m ä x ie n d a n , to those who asked, xxi. 252. [Cf. o fä xia n and next entry.]

GLOSSARY g e -ä x ia n , II. to learn, discover. vi. 16; xx. 410.

829

(a command, someone's will or decision, consent, advice, an out­ line, an example, etc.), according to, in accordance with, by. i. 2 8 3 ; ii. 20, B 6 7 ; viii. 1 14, 14 1 ; ix. 47 (twice); x. 209; xi. 257, 2 77, 278, 399; xii. B a a l, pagan god identified with B e el 2 2 8 ; xiii. 86 (b e e n d e b y r d n y s s e , in and B e e lze b u b , iv. 77. order), i Ó 2 ( b e þ a m y l c a n a n d g y t e , B a b ilo n , B a b ilo n ia , Babylon. ds. with the same meaning); xiv. 220; B a b ilo n e , xxi. 354; B a b ilo n ia n , xv. 205; xvii. 49 (like xiii. 86), 152 xxi. 468 (where the city is meant, ( b e þ æ r e y l c a n d æ d e , in imitation not the country). [For B a b ilo n ia of that same deed)*, xviii. 6 (b e see Napier's Wulfstan, p. 194.] c é p i n g e , in accordance with observa­ B a b ilo n is c , adj. Babylonian. np. wk. tion), 122, 124, 320; xix. 48, 121; as noun, xxi. 433, 451. xxii. 33, 92; xxx. 58 (b e þ a m s t æ f b æ c, n. back. ii. 4 1; xiii. 57. [Cf. lic u m a n d g i t e ) , 59 (b e þ a m u n d erb æ c.] g ä s t l i c u m a n d g i t e ) . (b) indicat­ (g e )b æ d , (g e)b æ d e, (ge)b æ d o n , ing the standard of judgement for see b id d a n , g e b id d a n . a pronouncement, by, according to, b æ fta n , prep. w. dat. after, behind. in, xix. 88. (c) marking that which xviii. 103; xx. 192.— adv. after­ regulates or determines the speci­ wards, in the combination h er fied action or condition by its b æ fta n , see h er. quantity or quality, in proportion to, b æ r , f. bier. vi. 190. according to. i. 218; vi. 216; xi. b æ r , g e b æ r , bæ re, bæ ron , see 127, 184, 460, 496, 548; xia. 165; h era n , ge b e ra n . xii. 45 ; xiii. 122; xvi. 163, 164; xviii. b æ r s t, see b e rsta n . 26, 50, 315; xxi. 667; xxx. 45, 107. b æ þ , n. bath. x. 171 (ds. bæþe), (d) indicating the degree or extent o f 175 (ds. baþe). difference or fulfilment, by, in. v. g e b a n d , see ge b in d an . 161; xi. 514, 569 (b e t w ý f e a l d a n , be, prep. w. dat. I. indicating the doubly); xiii. 108; xvi. 159, 178; place where something is found or xxi* 59» 63 (b e f u l l a n , in full); whence it is derived, in or from xxx. 42. IV . indicating the medium (the writings of), iv. 57. [Cf. or means, by. (a) a means of know­ O E D , ‘b y’, prep., 3. c.] II. about, ing, vi. 258. (b) a means of living, concerning, of, with respect to. (a) xvi. 266; xxi. 376. (c) the part by after verbs of knowing, thinking, which an action is applied to the judging, saying, seeing, hearing, whole, xxi. 473 (b e þ a m f e a x e ) . etc., i. 2, etc. (26 times); ii. 2, 31, V . by reason of, in consequence of. 84, 96; iii. 30, etc. (11 times); xxi. 58.— b e þ a m þ e , rarely b e iv. 27, etc. (5 times); etc. (about J>an p e, conj. (a) concerning which 129 more), (b) after impersonal or whom. xiv. 150; xvii. 159; xxii. h ü h it w æ s , with respect to, with. 50. (b) concerning that which, xxx. xviii. 62, 63, 64. (c) after þ r é a g a n , 55. (c) according to that which (sometimes translatable by a mere marking the abstract grounds of censure, with respect to (?). vii. as): where þ e is subject or com­ plement of the following verb, 17-22, 74-85, 162, 171 (14 times), (d) marking the object of an i. 382; iv. 162; ix. 122; xxi. 193 (b e þ a m þ e h e o r a m i h t a w æ r o n , accusation (w rö h t), concerning, according to what their powers were), against, xiii. 207. [Cf. O E D , ‘by', 205 (b e þ a m þ e h i s w u r þ w æ s , prep., 26. d.] III. by, according to, in. (a) indicating a model, according to what his value was); where pe is object, vii. 161; xi. 210, pattern, rule, or standard of action C 2710.2

Z

830

GLOSSARY

be (cont.) 219, 231, 515; xia. 170; xv. 149; xvi. 107, 203; xxii. 81; xxiii. 61; xxvii. 94. (d) where þe is oblique­ ly related to the following verb, according as, as. i. 383; x. 117; xi. 71, 230, 550; xia. 187; xxi. 63, 204. (e) where þ e , like þ æ t, introduces a clause explaining þ a m , to the extent that, in so far as, in that. x. 15 1, 154, 155 (note the parallel on þ a m þe in 156). b ead , see béodan. b éah , gebéah , see b ü ga n . b e ald lice, adv. boldly, i. 313; xxi. 47. b e a m , m. beam, piece of wood. xiii. 25, etc. (8 times). b e a m , n. child, offspring, i. 48, 351, 353» 355. 362, 400; v. 25; xii. 138; xvi. 32, 34, 215, 217; xvii. 74 (conject.); xix. 54, 55, 56, 57, 107, 1 12; xxi. 336, xxx. 4. bearn éacn igen d e, adj. (pres, part.) pregnant, xix. 113. b e a rn té a m , m. procreation of chil­ dren. i. 393. béatan , 7. to beat, strike, pres. part, béaten de, xvii. 226; pret. 3s. béot, xxvi. 131. bebéodan, 2. to bid, command, w. acc. object, a clause, or dat. inf.; or absolute; often also w. dat. of per­ son. pres, part., nsm. bebéodende, ix. 97; pres. is. bebéode, xix. 99; 3s. b e b ý t, iii. 102; xix. 100; xx. 404; b e b ý tt, xvii. 302; pret. 3s. b ebéad, ii. 54, 184; viii. 70; xi. 25, 105; xia. 99; xiii. 37, 203; xv. 9, 34, 67, 103, 125; xvi. 226; xvii. 39, 180, 189; xx. 369; xxx. 75; pp. beboden , xv. 80, 90; xxvii. 63; xxx. 101. [Cf. béodan.] b ebin d an , 3. to bind fast. pret. 3s. subj. bebun de, xix. 50. [Cf. gebindan.] bebod, n. command, as., x. 28, 206; xi. 105; xi a. 50; xii. 134; xvii. 88; xxi- 32, 35, 44, 45; xxiv. 8; ds. bebode, x. 209; xix. 50; np. beb o d a, xv. 29, 34; ap. b ebo d a, ii. 78, 146; iii. 102; xv. 67, 103, 105; xviii. 188; xix. 7, 29; xx. 279; 281; bebo du , xv. 9, 125; dp. b e b o d u m ,

ii. 142; xv. 37, 172; xvii. 1 17; xix. 8, 33; xx. 356; xxx. 16. b e b rü can , 2. to consume (food), pp. np. beb ro cen e, xxi. 397. [B T S cites once from Greg. Dial, and once with different meaning from pseudo-Ælfric, L S xxiii b . Cf. brücan.] b e b y r g a n , I. to bury. pret. 3s. b e b y r g d e , xxiii. 200; pp. beb y r g e d , vi. 43, 44, 88, 168, 197; x. 155; xi. 38; xia. 140, 142; xxiii. 195; xxix. I2I. b e b ý t(t), see bebéod an . b ee, see böc. becé ap ian , II. to sell. v. 201. b e c lý sa n , I. to confine, pp. np. b e cly sed e , xi.507; irreg. beclý so d e, xxiii. 171. b e cu m a n , 4. intr. to come (the prefix implying arrival), (a) absolute, to come, come to pass, come to be. vii. 217; viii. 96; ix. 14, 187; xi a. 40. (b) w. dat. of person, to come to, befall, ii. 129, 131; ix. 212; x. 163; xi. 1 17, 122, 130, 131, 201, 275, 283; xviii. 84; xx. 106, 341; xxii. 82. (c) w. on and acc. (place or person), to come into, in unto. i. 43, 329; iv. 33, 134, 174; w. on and dat. of person, to come upon, xxiii. 119. (d) w. ofer and acc., to come upon, overwhelm, xviii. 14; ofer w. dat., to come over, extend over, xviii. 306. (e) w. tö and dat. of person, to come to, visit, x. 5, 25, 36, 188; xxix. 40, 71. (f) with a destination, stoppingplace or stage of a journey (lit. or fig.), object of aspiration or desire indicated by adv. or prep, phrase (tö, into), to come to, arrive at, attain (to), enter into, with personal subject, vii. 204, 205; xi. 141, 233, 545; xii. 121; xiii. 71, 191; xiv. 165; xv. 5, 56; xix. 18, 252; xx. 1 18, 187, 201, 306; xxv(a). 15, 19; xxv(c). 17; with impers. subject, ii. 241 (h w æ r h it eal b e c u m e , where it all gets to, i.e. what becomes of it all); xiv. 1 13; xxi. 246; xxvi. 139 (h y m b e c ö m tö h æ le, came to salvation for him, i.e. became his salvation).— twice under (c) above, once under

GLOSSARY (f), the manner of coming is in­ dicated by an adj. or pp. in agree­ ment with the subject: i. 43 and 329 (on m id d a n g e a r d b e c y m þ to m e n n ge b o ren , comes into the world born as man) ; xx. 118 (b ecö m cu cu to lan de, came to land alive). [Forms: inf., vii. 204; xx. 187, 201; xxiii. 1 19 (-en); xxix. 7 1; pres. 3s. b e c y m þ , i. 43 (20 more); ip. bec u m a þ , x. 5, 36; 2p., xv. 5, 56; 3 P . , ix. 212 (6 more); 3s. subj. bec u m e , ii. 241; vii. 205; xi. 141, 275; pret. is. b e cö m , xix. 18; 3s., ii. 131 (11 more); 3p. b e cö m o n , vii. 217; xviii. 84; xx. 306; 3s. subj. b e ­ co m e , xxix. 40.— Cf. cum an.] g e b e d , n. prayer, viii. 66, 147, 153, 155; xi. 165; xv. 198, 215; xvii. 201; xxii. 76; xxiii. 30, 95. B e d a , Bede. xix. 137, 208. b e d æ la n , I. w. gen., to deprive of. xii. 46 [Cf. dæ lan.] b e d d , n. bed. ii. 38, 49, 50, 2 11; xviii. 31, 86, 90, 92, 106, 201. b e d d in g , f. bedding, bed. ii. 46. b e d (d )rid a , -r y d a , wk. m. and adj. bedridden (man), as noun, ii. 28, 139, 147, 184, 192; xia. 104.— as adj., xvii. 13. b e d ecia n , b e d icia n , II. to beg. xvi. 14, 102, 108, 1 18. [B T S cites Æ lfric in Assmann, 1. 230.] b e d elfa n , 3. to dig round, pp. b ed o lfen , iii. 72. [Cf. delfan.] b e d ig lia n , II. to conceal, ix. 44. b e d y d r ia n , II. to delude, xxix. 3, 6,

76bedyppan,

I. to dip, immerse, xii.

127, 131. B e e l, B e l, pagan god; in iv, spelled B e e l, then B e l, and identified with B a a l and B e e lz e b u b ; in xxi, from Daniel, uniformly spelled B e l, and not otherwise identified, iv. 77, 84; xxi. 355, 360, 361, 364, etc. (17 times). B e e lze b u b , a devil mentioned at Luke xi. 15 and identified with the pagan god B a a l or B eel. iv. 14, 24,

74» 83,117. b e -e o d e , b e -é o d a n , see b e g a n , b e fe a lla n , 7. with on and acc., to fall

83»

into, inf., xix. 132; pres. 3s. befylþ , ix. 175; 3p. subj. befeallon , xix. 91; pret. ip. beféollon, xvii. 141. [Cf. feallan.] befön, 7. to envelop, surround, invest. pret. 3s. befén g, ix. 132; pp. b e­ fan gen , ii. 65; vi. 101; viii. 208; xi. 9; xi a. 78; xiii. 199; xvi. 236. [Cf. fön.] beforan, prep. w. dat. before, in front of. xiv. 103; xxi. 393; xxvii. 1 10-18 (8 times); marking relative order, in advance of, xvi. 158.— adv. before, earlier, in the combination h er beforan, see h er. befrin an , 3. to ask. (a) followed by a question, direct or indirect, inf., v. 62; pres. 3s. befrin þ, vii. 10; and with acc. of person, pret. 3s. b efrän , ix. 64; xvi. 8, 91; xvii. 232. (b) absolute (the question implicit), dat. inf. befrlnenn e, vii. 34. (c) w. gen., to ask about, pret. 3s. b efrän , xxix. 49; 3p. befrünon, xxi. 590. [For constructions with gen. see B T S , ‘befrinan’, III, and ‘frignan’, (3 b a).] b e fýlan , I. to befoul, defile. i. 421 (prefix obliterated), 425; v. 129; xii. 92; xvii. 264. b e g a n , anom. vb. to go about, attend to, engage in, perform, practise, pres. 3P. h eg áþ , xi. 281; xviii. 94, 114; xxix. 126; pret. is. b e-éo d e, xix. 19; 3P- b e -e o d an , xviii. 19. [Cf. gän.] b e g e a t, m. *(a) gainful activity (?). xxx. 101, 102 (see note), (b) ac­ quisitions, gains, xxx. 112. [For pre­ viously recognized meanings see B T S , ‘be-geat’ and O E D , ‘beget’, sb. Th e diphthong should be short, as in Holthausen, ‘geat 2’. Cf. begytan .] b é ge n , adj. pron. m. both. nom. b é ge n , ix. 1 16; x. 6, 37,42; xiii. 21, 125; xx. 267; xxvi. 104; acc. b é ge n , ix. 125; gen. b é g r a , vi. 234, 236, 238, 246, 257; ix. 1 13; x. 41; xia. 13, 221; dat. barn, vi. 235, 240; vii. 211 viii. 121, 188, 189; ix. 112; x. 72, 94; xia. 2 1 1, 213; xxi. 18. [Only the masc. represented. Cf. b ü -tü .]

832 b e ge o n d an ,

GLOSSARY prep. w. dat. beyond.

xvii. 79. b e gin n a n , 3. to begin, w. to and dat. inf. except xx. 68, w. uninfl. inf. only: pret. 3s. b egan (n ), v. 219; xxi. 624; 3p. begu n n o n , xx. 45, 68, 307. [Cf. un b egu n n en , onginnan.] b e g y rd a n , I. to gird. pres. 3s. b e g y r t, xxv(a). 12. b e g y ta n , b e g ita n , 5. (a) to gety obtain, gain possession of. dat. inf. b e gyten n e, xx. 160; pres. 3p. beg y ta þ , - g i t - , xviii. 165, 220; pret. 3s. b e g e a t, xxii. 35. (b) to bring about, pret. 3p. b e gé ato n , xix. 64. [Cf. fo rg y ta n , u n d ergyta n .] b e h ät, n. promise, vow. xi. 150; xxii. 98. b e h ä t an, 7. to promise, (a) intrans, after s w ä sw ä , pret. 3s. beh ét, viii. 227; xxx. 90; and w. dat. of person, iii. 186; iv. 238; vii. 66, 135; viii. 9; x. 138; xi. 142, 526; xii. 238; xv. 38; xx. 146. (b) w. acc. object or clause and dat. of person, pres. 3s. b eh æ t, xix. 53 (v.L b eh at alt. to pret. behet); ip. beh átaþ, xxii. 98; pret. 3s. beh ét, v. 135; vii. 158; xii. 204; xv. 1 14, 1 18; xix. 66, 248; xx. 382; pret. 3s. subj. beh éte, xi. 145; perf. hæ fþ behüten, xi. 151. (c) pp. behüten in passive w. dat. of per­ son, xi. 141; xv. 1 12 (nsn. followed by plural subject), 121; xx. 188, 376 (subject a clause). [See also next entry. Cf. hätan.] behüten, adj. (pp. of behatan), with eard or lan d, (the) promised (land). xx- 145, 362, 372. beh éafdian , II. to behead, ix. 196; xxiii. 194, 198 (inf. -en). b eh eald an , 7. (a) w. acc. object or indirect quest., to behold, contem­ plate, have regard for, consider, inf., xx. 345; pres. 3s. b e h y lt, v. 182; 1p. beh eald aþ, vi. 114; pret. 3s. beh éold, xxvii. 87. (b) intrans., to look. pret. 3s. beh éold , xxi. 421. (c) intrans, w. clause of purpose, to keep watch, take care, inf., xxi. 50. [Cf. healdan.] *b e h e g ia n , II. to hedge in, enclose.

iii. 5, 81. [Unique in this passage. Cited by Toller from Wanley’s Catalogus, M L R , X V II. 166.] beh öfian, II. (a) with object in gen., to have need of, require, xi. 165, 341; xviii. 1 17; xix. 5; xxiv. 10. *(b) with gen. þses and a clause, to need to, be well-advised to (do such and such), ix. 46. [Meaning (b) not ex­ plicit in diet.] b e h réo w sian , II. to rue, repent of. vi. 192, 225, 260, 297; x. 86. part, adj. b eh réo w sien d e, penitent, vi. 276; as noun, xxvi. 117. b e h ré o w su n g , f. repentance, peni­ tence. xi. 197 (ds. b e r é o w s u n g e ); xix. 143, 151, 222, 244. b eh ýd an , I. to hide. ix. 40,44; xi. 391. *b e h ý p a n , I. to heap up. xiii. 57 (pres. 3s. b e h ýp þ , but with v.l. behefj* as if from *b eh eb b an , probably a mere blunder). [This meaning not in diet., but B T S has it for ‘behipian’, II, based on the gloss ‘behypedan’ cited in Napier’s Anecdota Oxoniensia.] B e l, see B eel. b e lä d u n g , f. excuse, xx. 419, 421. b e læ w a n , I. to betray, vi. 351; vii. 3; xiv. 135. g e b e lg a n , 3. refl., to become angry. pret. 3p. g e b u lg o n , iii. 171. [Cf. ab elgan .] b e lim p a n , 3. with tö , to belong to. pres. 3s. b e lim p þ , v. 98; vi. 254, 255; 3P- b e lim p a þ , xxix. 127. [Cf. gelim p an .] b elü can , 2. (a) to lock, shut (fast), iii. 99; vi. 273; xv. 187; xxi. 329, 394, 630; xxiii. 80, 1 15; xxvi. 96. (b) to lock in, imprison, enclose, include. i. 84; ii. 141, 202; xi. 482, 488; xviii. 200; xxiii. 124. (c) to conclude, xi. 76; xi a. 192. (d) with w iþ h ta n , to exclude, shut out (from), xvi. 114; xviii. 104, 139, 199, 217. [Forms: inf., xi. 488; imp. sg. b e lü c, xxi. 394; pres. 3s. b e lý c þ , ii. 202 (2 more); 1 p. b e lö c a þ , xi. 76; xi a. 192; 2p., iii. 99; pret. 3s. b e léa c, ii. 141 (3 more); pp. b elo cen , i. 84 (9 more); b e lo can , xxiii. 115.— Cf. unlücan.]

GLOSSARY

833

b e lý fa n , I. to believe. xxi. 488. [This i. 32; n y s, iv. 39; pret. 1, 3s. n a s , instance, with others in Ælfric, was vi. 38; i. 41; pi. n a r o n , vi. 319; cited by Napier to show use in early pret. subj. sg. n a r e , i. 314; pi. n a r o n , xxv(6). 4.— þ æ t is , i. 28 n t h century. B T S has the other examples. Cf. gelýfan .] (frequent); pi. þaet syn d o n , i. 340; b e m æ n a n , I. to bewail, lament. ii.264; þ æ t sy n d , i. 400. [As with other xxi. 6 1 1 ; xxvi. 41. [Cf. m æ n an , verbs, certain scribes occasionally substitute -a n for -o n : e.g. syn d a n , to meany considered b y Holthausen xxix. 126; wærían, xxi. 63.— Cf. to be etymologically related; but fore-béon .] see O E D , ‘moan*, sb.] b én , f. prayer, request, petition. viii. beorcan , 3. to bark. inf., xviii. 176. 85, 97; xiv. 199; xxi. 304. b e o r g , m. mountainy hill. xxi. 138. b e n æ m a n , I. (a) w. dat. of person, to g e b e o rg a n , 3. to guardyprotect, pres. ip. ge b e o rg e w é , xxvii. 10. take something away from some­ one. iv. 5 (h im w æ s b e n æ m ed h is b eo rh t, adj. bright, xi. 290.— comp., g e sih þ an d sp ræ c , his sight and nsf. b eorh tre, xxi. 59; np. b eo rh tspeech had been taken away from ra n , xi. 515. him), (b) w. gen. of thing, to deprive b eorh te, adv. brightly, i. 442; xi. 571; someone of something, xxi. 57; xxx. xix. 167. b e o rh th w il, f. moment, twinkling of 86. [The first construction is not illustrated in BT.] an eye. xxi. 492 (v.l. b e a rh tm -). b e n d , m. bond, fetter (lit. or fig.), iv. [Several instances recorded in B T S 61 (gs. b e n d a s, v.l. -es); vi. 104; from Greg. Dial, and glosses; also xvii. 37, 169; xxi. 329; xxiii. 52, 56; this passage cited by Napier and xxvi. 72, 91, 100, 107, 1 15, 126. printed by Warner from M S . G.] beo, wk. f. bee. np. béon , i. 270. b e o rh tn y ss, f. brightness, vii. 7 1; béo d an , 2. to command, w. acc. object xh 261, 324, 531; xxi. 57, 61, 63, 83. or clause and (3 times) dat. of per­ ge b é o rsc y p e , m. feast, eating and son, pres. is. béod e, iii. 74; pret. drinking, xx. 45. 3s. b e ad , i. 23; ix. 106; xv. 83; xix. béot, see béatan . 55. [Cf. beb éod an , fo rbéod an , ge b é o t, n. boast, only in m id g e and next entry.] béote, with boastful speech, prege b é o d a n , 2. to ordain, prescribe, pp. sumptuously, xx. 210. dp. ge b o d e n u m , xxx. 70. b ep æ ca n , I. (a) to deceive, xxi. 78 b é o n -w e sa n , anom. vb. to be.— *(b) to defraud, xix. 93 (Lat. forms, one example each: inf. béon, fraudare). [B TS implies meaning i. 136; w e sa n , i. 190 (once only); (b), citing ‘bepæcst defraudas9 from d. inf. béon ne, i. 48; imp. sg. béo, Lib. Scint., ed. Rhodes, p. 109/8.] ii. 195; pi. béoþ , xvi. 228; pres. is. b epæ cen d , m. deceiver, seducer. as. e o m , i. 69; béo, xvi. 100; 2s. ea rt, xvii. 92; np. be p æ ce n d ra s, xxi. ü- 55; b is t, xvi. 169; b y s t, vi. 193; 289. [See S -B 286, Anm. 3; Cpb 3s. is , i. 28 (once h is, xxvii. 114); 633*] y s , iii. 21; b iþ , i. 393; b y þ , vi. 225; b e ræ d a n , I. to take by treachery, iii. pi. sy n d , i. 50; syn d o n , i. 31 43, 165; vi. 336. [See B T S , ia, (rarely sin t, ii. 285; sy n t, v. 78); where Ælfric is cited for this mean­ beoþ , i. 95; pres. subj. sg. si, i. 159; ing. Cf. ræ dan.] s ý , ii. 290; béo, i. 163; pi. syn d o n b eran , 4. (a) to bear a burden, carry. (not ‘syn’), i. 162 (also viii. 197; inf., ii. 194; xxi. 468; imp. sg. ber, xia. 218); béon , ii. 3.— pret. 1, 3s. ii. 39, 185, 195; pi. beraþ , ii. 200; w a s , xi. 414; i. 28; 2s. w a r e , xvi. pres. 3p. b e ra þ , xi. 290; ip. subj. 212; pi. w æ ro n , i. 191; pret. subj. bero n , ii. 208 (M S. bæ ron ); pret. sg. w a r e , i. 108; pi. w æ ro n , xi. 3s. b æ r, ii. 41, 2 1 1 ; xi. 22; xia. 96; 3 °7 — negative forms, pres. 3s. n is, xx. 256; xxi. 466, 474; xxiii. 32;

834

GLOSSARY

séonne, xxi. 536; pres. ip. b eséo þ , beran (cortt.) xii. 235; pres. 3s. subj. b eséo , xx. 3p. bæ ron , xxi. 433; xxvii. 93; 327; pret. 3s. b e sea h , xvii. 32, 135, pp. gebo ren , conveyed (?), xxii. 36. 138; xxi. 485 (intð, into it); 3p. — (b) to bear fruit, pres. 3s. subj. be sä w o n , xii. 231; xx. 331; xxi. bere, xix. 23; pret. 3s. subj. b æ re, 414. [Cf. geséon.] iii. 65. [Cf. a -, fo r -, to -b e ra n , and b e setta n , I. to sety imposey place, ix. next entry.] 197; xvi. 264. [Cf. settan.] ge b e ra n , 4. to bear a child, pret. 3s. b e sitta n , 5. to be stationed around, g e b æ r, i. 418; iv. 52, 271; v. 196; surround, pret. 3p. b e sæ to n , i. 234; pp. geb o ren , born, i. 43, 329, 458; vii. 1 19. [Cf. sittan.] viii. 200; xvii. 3; xxi. 106; xxvi. 84. b e sw lc a n , 1. to deceive, seduce, betray. [See also preceding entry.] b e réafían , II. to despoil. xxiv. 7. [Cf. dat. inf. b e sw lcen n e ,xv ii. 97; xviii. réafian.] 257; -arm e, xviii. 380; pres. 3s. b esw ícþ , xxiv. 6; 3p. b e sw ica þ , beren , adj. of barley, xia. 121. [Ælfric xviii. 390; pret. 3s. b e sw ä c , xi uses the word in describing the same miracle, C H I. 182/12 and 104; xia. 49; xvi. 231; xxi. 79; 3p. b e sw ico n , iv. 112; xxi. 197; 3p. 188/4.] b e réo w su n g , see b e h réo w su n g. subj.,ii. 124; pp. b e sw ic e n ,ix . 176; *b e ria n , I (and II). to beat, knead ( 1). xix. 157. [Cf. ge sw ica n .] pret. 3s. berode (v.l. berede), xxi. b e sw in ca n , 3. to labour upon. pret. 446. [Hitherto recorded only as 2p. and 3p., b e sw u n co n , v. 86, pp.; see B T and B T S , ‘gebered’ ; 254 (two in each line). [Cf. sw in can.] O E D , ‘berry1, v. 1; and the note on this passage.] b e s w in g a n , 3. to flogy beat, scourge. b erie, wk. f. berry, grape, fruit. iii. 66; inf., xxiii. 167 ( - e n ) ; pret. 3s. xvi. 134; xx. 155. b e s w a n g , xx. i n ; 3p. b e sw u n b ern , n. barn. v. 261. go n , iii. 13, 120; ix. 182. b e rsta n , 3. to burst, pret. 3s. b æ r st, b e sy lia n , II (orig. I), to sully, defile. xiv. 24, 127, 152, 161. [Cf. a -, æ t-, pres. 3s. b e sy la þ , xiii. 233. to -b erstan .] b e sy rw a n , I. to deceive, ensnare, iii. b e rýp a n , I. to rob. xiii. 59. 95, 172; xxi. 305. [Cf. syrw a n .] b e sä w a n , 7. to sow. pres. 3s. b e ­ b et, comp. adv. better, vi. 299; xii. säew þ, ix. 121. [Cf. säw an.] 232.— b e tst, sup. adv. best. ii. 196. b e scéa w ia n , II. to observe, look upon. b etæ can , I, pret. b e tæ h te, pp. xvi. 233; xxvi. 63. [Cf. scéaw ian.] betæ ht. (a) to givey assigny commit, bescéofan , 2. to thrust, throw, inf., entrust, i. 204; vi. 187, 194 (pres. xxi. 313 (M S. G , bescufen). [Cf. 3s. betæ cþ); xi. 522, 524 (pres. 3s. ascüfan.] b etæ ch þ , betæ hcþ); xiv. 204; xvi. b escln a n , 1. to shine upon, illuminate. 41; xxii. 77; xxx. 33, 91, 95, 99. pres. 3s. bescín þ, i. 294; viii. 233. (b) to consecrate, dedicate, xix. 57; [Cf. sclnan.] xxi. 635. (c) to consign, surrender b e scira n , 4. to shave, give the tonsure. (a person), xiii. 53; xvii. 267; xxi. pp. besceoren , tonsured, viii. 133. 429, 456 (pres. 2s. subj. b e tæ ce, as b e sciria n , I. to cut offy discharge, imp.; M S . G has imp. betæ h), deprive of office, pp. b e scired , xvi. 458. (d) to lease, let out. iii. 7, 28, 12, 100. [Cf. ascirian.] 89, 107, 137. (e) to give up, resign besen can , I. to {cause to) sink. ii. 176; (an office), xvi. 9, 92 (imp. betæ c), xi. 456 (pp. np. b e s e n c te ); xiv. and with clarifying fr a m m e , 18, 138, 193; xviii. 57; xxi. 70. 125. [Meanings (d) and (e) not beséo n , 5. intrans., to looky with explicit in B T . Cf. tæ can.] limiting adverbs or prepositions (in, b é ta n , geb e tan , I, pret. g e b é tte , in tð, on, tö, þæ rtð). dat. inf. bepp. ge b é t(t). (a) to make amends

GLOSSARY for, compensate for. vi. 222; xi. 175, 220, 222, 395; xv. 18, 99, 124, 136, 156, 157; xviii. 123; xx. 295, 302; xxv(a). 20; xxvii. 8, 14, 115, 123. (b) intrans, or elliptical, to make amends. vi. 214. (c) to amende reform (one’s own sin), xiii. 169; (another’s sin), xix. 212; (a person), xvi. 275. [Without prefix only at xviii. 123; xxvii. 7, 115. Cf. d æ d b étan , u n geb étt.] b e te lla n , I. to speak about, testify about. xi. 403. [Cf. tellan.] b e te ra , comp. adj. better. xii. 89, 164 (dsm. with strong ending -u m ); xvi. 207; xxi. 629; xxvii. 109; xxx. 12, 21, 23.— s w ä betere (nsn.) sw ä w y r s e , whether it is better or worse, for better for worse, xi. 484.— to b e te ra n , for the better, ix. 77; xv. 101. — þ æ t b etere, n. the better, what is better, as., xx. 399; gs., i. 224. b e te ru n g , f. improvement, viii. 13; x. 1 12; xii. 171; xiv. 225; xx.

397. B e th a n ia -w ic , B e th a n ia n w ie , f. the village of Bethany, vi. 3, 44 (end­ ingless locative, w ie, twice). [For gender and form, cf. ‘to anre wie’, C H I. 402/22 and II. 382/13. For the form see S -B 237, Anm. 2; C p b 572.] B e th le e m , B e th le h e m , uninfl. ds., xvii. 4. B e th s a id a . (a) the pool in Jerusalem called also Bethesda. ii. 11. (b) the city in Galilee condemned for un­ belief (Matth, xi. 21). xvii. 58, 59. b e ts t, see b et. b e tw u x , b e tw e o x , b e tw y x , prep, w. dat. among, between, ii. 100; iv. 177; v. 270; vi. h i ; xvi. 188, 250, 253; xxi. 124, 139, 486, 533; xxii. 45; xxx. 71. — b e tw u x þ a m , meanwhile, v. 11, 70, 225. b e tw y x þ is u m , meanwhile, xvi. 15, 122. b e tw ý n a n , prep. w. dat. among, be­ tween, directly following a personal pronoun in dp., ii. 200, 204, 208; iii. 42, 164; v. 73; vi. 235; xvii. 300; xx. 85, 166. beþen can , I. (a) to take thought for,

835

plan. pp. beþö ht, i. 469. (b) refl., to bethink oneself, take heed, inf., xvi. 97. [Cf. þencan.] b e w eria n , II (orig. I), to guard, pro­ tect, defend, i. 226; xiii. 93; xvi. 240; xxi. 315; xxii. 78 (pret. 3s. bew erode); xxix. 116 (pres. 3s. bew eraþ). [Cf. w erian.] be w in d an , 3. to wind {about), wrap. inf., xvi. 241; pres. 3s. b e w in t, xi. 339 ; PP- b ew u n d en , vi. 100 [Cf. æ tw in d an .] b e w ita n , pret. pres. vb. to govern. pret. 3s. b e w y ste , xxiii. 12. [Cf. w itan.] bew reo n , 2 (orig. 1). to cover over, hide. pres. 3s. subj. bew réo , xxvii. 120; pret. 3s. subj. b e w ru g e , xxvii. 1 19. [Not recorded from Ælfric in B T . Cf. onwréon.] b e w y re a n , I. (a) to build around, surround, pret. 3s. b ew o rh te, ii. 12; pp. b e w o rh t, ii. 63. (b) to cover over, adorn, pp., xxi. 530. [Cf. w yrean .] b e w y ste , see b e w ita n . B ib lio th e c a , the Bible, ds. -n , xxii. 9. b ie g a n , g e b ie g a n , I. to buy. inf. g e b ie g a n , xvi. 113; pres. 3p. b ic g a þ , xix. 77; pret. 3p. bo h ta n , xviii. 18; 3p. subj. b o h to n , v. 10. b icn ian , g e b icn ia n , II. (a) to beckon. xiv. 24, 176. (b) to indicate, xxviii. 5 (gebýcnode). ge b ie n u n g , f. indication, xxix. 102. [See note.] b id d a n , 5. (a) intrans, or absolute, to ask, entreat, pray. ii. 200; viii. 33, 37, 61 (first), 70, 159, 163, 179, 181 (twice); xv. 171, 180; xxiii. 104; and with fo r, on behalf of, xi. 172. (b) to ask, entreat someone (acc.)— what is sought not included, v. 19, 70, 225; viii. 38, 206, 209 (with for, on behalf o f); xv. 43; xx. 207, 323; xxi. 637; xxiii. 137;— what is sought introduced b y þ æ t, i. 20; v. 92; vi. 278, 370; viii. 80, 1 13; xvii. 27, 234, 244; xxiii. 28, 174; xxvi. 99, 106, 1 14; xxix. 23;— what is sought in gen., to ask someone for something, v. 14; vi. 54. (c) without mention of person entreated, what is sought in

836

GLOSSARY

b id d an (cont.) gen. or acc., to ask for, pray for something;— gen., vii. 121 (gen. explained by a clause); viii. 164; xx. 82; xxi. 227, 634; xxiii. 36— gen. or acc., xv. 42; xix. 247;— acc., viii. 32, 158, 161 ;— what is sought intro­ duced by þ æ t, to ask that> pray thaty v. 282; xvii. 101, 236; xviii. 246, 326; xix. 150, 221. (d) to ask for something (gen. or acc.) for one­ self (reflex, dat.) or another (dat.). viii. 61 (second), 63, 69 (yfeles æ n ig u m ö þ ru m m e n n ) ; xvii. 273. (e) to obtain something (acc.) for oneself (dat.) by asking, xvi. 1 13. (f) constructions c or d with person from whom something is sought introduced by aet. v. 118 (c, with acc. or gen. or inf. object); xviii. 342 (c, with a clause); xxi. 303 (c, with acc.); viii. 29, 56; ix. 52; xxvi. 132 (these four, d). [Forms: inf., v. 14(11 more);pres, part, biddende, xxi. 634; xxiii. 36; imp. sg. bid e, viii. 63; xv. 171; pi. bid d aþ , viii. 33, 163; xviii. 246, 326; pres. is. bid d e, ii. 200 (4 more); 2s. b itst, vi. 54; viii. 69, 70; 3s. bit(t), viii. 61 (twice), 209; ip. b id d aþ , xv. 43; bid de w é, xxix. 23; 2p. b id d aþ , viii. 29, 37, 56, 179; 3p. viii. 181 (twice); xx. 82; pret. is. bæ d , xxiii. 174; 3s., v. 118 (11 more); 2p. bæ d e g é , viii. 32, 158; 3p. bæ d on , i. 20 (13 more); pret. 2s. subj. bæ d e, v. 19; 3s. subj., xxi. 227, 303— Cf. ab id d a n , esp. sense (b) for sense (e) above, and next entry.] ge b id d a n , 5. to pray (used only of formal prayer to a deity, generally intrans, or reflex, as in a, b, c). (a) absolute, to pray. v. 43, 55, 173; and reflex., v. 41, 163, 175, 180, 191; xxvi. 45; xxx. 70. (b) with for and acc. or dat., or fore and dat., to pray on behalf of someone, xi. 237; xvii. 109; xix. 226; xx. 273, 323; xxvi. 1 15; xxix. 23. (c) with tö, to pray to. v. 53, 5 4 ,17 1,17 2 ; xviii. 298; xx. 51; xxix. 80, 84; and reflex., v. 45, 51, 169; xviii. 283; xix. 94; xxi. 196,

309, 360, 362, 364, 437, 439; xxix. 78, 81. (d) trans., to pray tof sup­ plicate 9 worship; the object God, xxvi. 94; and with for, on behalf ofy xx. 76; xxix. 31; the object a clause, v. 48 (first), 166 (first); and with reflexive (dat.?) pron., v. 48 (second), 166(second), 192. [Forms: inf., v. 41 (6 more); dat. inf. -en n e, v. 43, 173; -a n n e , v. 55 (3 more); imp. sg. ge b id e,x x i. 437; xxvi. 115; pres. is. ge b id d e, xxi. 439; pi. g e b id d a þ , v. 45 (15 more); pres. 2s. subj. g e b id d e , xxix. 23; 3s. subj., xxix. 84; 3p. subj. g e b id d a n , xviii. 298; xix. 94; pret. 3s. g e b æ d , xx. 76 (6 more); 3p. ge b æ d o n , v. 191 (2 more); pret. 3s. subj. g e b æ d e , xxix. 80.] b id d e n d , m .petitioner, nap. b id d e n d ra s, v. 51, 53, 169, 171. [Cf. S -B 286, Anm. 3; Cpb 633.] g e b lg a n , I. trans, (a) to bend. xxi. 309; xxix. 78. (b) to turn. xxi. 186. (c) to humble, vi. 278. (d) to convert. v. 246; viii. 78; x. 104; xi. 64; xia. 181 ; xiv. 94; xviii. 149, 178, 349; xx. 391; xxiii. 10. [Cf. b ü gan .] b ig e ls , m. archy vault, xxi. 533. [B T S cites Ælfric twice.] b ig g e n g , b ig e n g , - g e n c g , m. wor­ ship y (religious) practice, iii. 56; iv. 238; V . 121, 127; xi. 387; xxi. 7, 121, 390, 515 (ap. - a s , glossed cul­ tores by mistake), 571; xxiii. 165; xxvi. i i , 14, 18. b ig g e n g a , b ig e n g a , wk. m. wor­ shipper. iv. 83 (np. b ig e n g a s for -an ); xxi. 163, 290, 379, 449, 455, 495, 509, 539, 568, 585, 598. b ig le o fa , wk. m. sustenancey foody means of subsistence. i. 209; v. 203; xvi. 192; xx. 130, 133; xxi. 462, 612. b ig s p e ll, b is p e ll, n. parable, ii. 271; iii. i, 2, 40, 162, 171; viii. 34, 35, 46, 167, 168, 170, 173, 238; xiii. 19, 123, 126; xvi. 3. g e b íg þ , see g e b ig a n . g e b ih þ , see b ü g a n . bile w it, b y le (h )w it, adj. innocent, simpley sincere, nsf. b y le w it, xvi. 249 (corrected from b y le h w ite ,

GLOSSARY v.l. b ile w it e ) ; np. b y le h w ite, xvi. 229 (v.l. bilew ite). b ile w itn y s s , f. innocence, simplicity. xvi. 226 (b ile h w it-, v.l. b ilew it-), 257 (b y le w it-). g e b in d a n , 3. to bind. pres. 3s. subj. g e b in d e , vii. 105; pret. 3s. g e b a n d , xxvi. 72; pp. geb u n d en , xxvi. 75; ap. geb u n d en e, v. 275 (so M S . H ; F improperly -en ne); xxi. 196. [Cf. b e b in d an , u n bin dan.] bin n an , bin n on , prep. w. dat. within. i. 20; ii. 20, 54; V . 191; xvi. 139; xvii. 201; xx. 8, 267; xxi. 303, 585. g e b ir ia n , see g e b y ria n . b isce o p , b isco p , m. (a) bishop. i. 20, 55; viii. 101, h i , 125; xiv. 203; xviii. 123, 154; xx. 276; xxi. 575, 610, 632, 637, 640, 644; xxvi. 38, etc. (9 times), (b) high priest of the Jews: applied to Aaron as first bishop, xx. 243, 244, 287; xxi. 218. b isceo p e a ld o r, m. high priest of the Jews. iii. 40, 162. b is co p h ä d , m. office of bishop, epi­ scopate. xxi. 645. *b is c o p s tö l, m. episcopal seat, cathe­ dral. xxvi. 46. [This sense not in diet.] b is m e r ( -) , see b y s m o r (-). b lta n , i. to bite. pret. 3p. b ito n , xxi. 47. [Cf. ab ltan .] * b ite r , adj. bitter to the taste, like undeveloped fruit; here applied to death in childhood, translating acerba (i.e. painfully early), xi. 113, 115. [This figurative use not in diet.] b ite rlic e , adv. bitterly, xxvi. 80, 131. b ite r n y s s , f. bitterness, grief, xvi. 253 (b y te r -). b its t, b it(t), see b id d an . b læ d , m. blast of wind. xi. 335; xvii. 207. [The instance in xvii already cited in B T S from CH.] b lä w a n , 7. (a) intrans., to blow. pres, part, b lä w e n d a n , asm. wk., xia. 109; pret. 3s. b lé o w , vii. 56. (b) trans., to blow a trumpet, pres. 3s. b læ w þ , xi. 297; 3p. b la w a þ , xviii. 418. b lé ts ia n , g e b lé ts ia n , II. to bless, i. 130; xi. 409; xv. 178; xxix. 9; X X X . 107.

837

b lé ts u n g , f. blessing, xi. 26; xia. 100; xxx. 80. b lé w þ , see blö w a n . b lin d , adj. (a) blind, ii. 76; xxiii. 20, 24.— absolute in pi., blind persons. ii. 26, 69; xia. 104; xvi. 169.— wk. w. def. art. as noun, the blind {man). i. 294, 295; vi. 84; xiii. 20 (twice), 124 (twice), (b) dark. xiii. 21, 125. b lin d n y ss, f. blindness, iv. 62. b lis s , f. bliss, v. 264; viii. 33, 44, 163, 164, 165, 236; x. 138; xi. 156, 157, 243> 244> 255» 264, 485, 505, 561; x v i.2 14 ;xviii.4 3 9 ;xxi. 33;xxvii. 78. b lis sia n , II. to rejoice, ii. 182; v. 83, 251, 263; vi. 37, 1 1 5; x. 19, 139, 144; xi. 107, 205, 255; xix. 77 (twice); xxv(c). 14. [Cf. g e -u n b lis sian.] b llþ e, adj. (a) joyous, glad, xxiii. 26. (b) gentley kind. xx. 409.— adv. joyously, gladly, iv. 290; xxiii. 32. b líþ e líce , adv. blithely, joyously, ii. 211. b lö d , n. blood, i. 49, 391, 393; viii. 126; xxvi. 66. b lö w a n , 7. to blossom, flower, pres. 3s. b lé w þ , xix. 22. b ö c, f. book, (a) singular, referring to some part of the Bible, xii. 100; xv. 154; Book of Life, xi. 468, 471; xxv(c). 16, 17; Vita Patrum, xix. 62; xxvii. 17, 83; Liber Regum, xxi. 210; Hist. Tripartita, xxii. 60, 67; unnamed books in a vision, xix. 167, 169, 172, 176, 178, 181, 184. (b) C r is te s b ö c, {the) Gospel, i. 26; ii. 6; v. 233; vi. 170; viii. 24; ix. 129; xvii. 280; xviii. i. 226. (c) plural in references, specific or general, to books of the Bible, or vaguely to other written authority, ii. 66, 142, 228; iii. 31, 50, 56; iv. 166; vii. 200; viii. 170; ix. 36; x. 164; etc. (37 more). [Forms: ns., vi. 170 (7 more); as., i. 26 (7 more); ds. bee, ii. 6 (11 more); nap. bee, ii. 142; iii. 56 (19 more); gp. bö ca, xix. 102; dp. b ö c u m , ii. 66 (25 more).] bö cere, m. scribe, pi., referring to the Jewish scribes, iii. 89, 97; xiii. 197; xv. 8, 59, 60.

838

GLOSSARY

b ö clic, adj. of books, esp. scriptural, vi. 152; xiii. 198; xiv. 58 (of, from and tö); xvii. 13, 25, 10 1; xviii. 420; biblicaly canonical. ii. 3; iii. 158; xix. xix. 232 (tö déaþe, to the point of 112. g e b o d en u m , see gebéodan . death); xx. 174; xxi. 201, 290 (into); b o d ian , II. to telly proclaim, preach. xxiii. 108; destination omitted, xvii. 39, 180; xxi. 336; xxiii. 109. (c) i. 313; v. 215, 219; vii. 30, 72, 220; w. acc. of person and on w. dat., to viii. 175; ix. 136, 156, 183, 192; cause to be in a place or state, bring xvii. 7, 247; xviii. 178, 184. b o d u n g, f. preaching, message. ix. tOy reduce toyput iny put to. ii. 261; vi. 286; xi. 506; xia. 106; xx. 214; 158, 184; xi. 62; xia. 66, 179. boh ton, -a n , see b ic g a n . on w. acc., intoy xxi. 160; xxiii. geb o ren , see geberan . 51, xxix. 52 (or dat.). (d) w. a w e g , to take away (with one), xviii. 30. b ö sm , m. bosom, xia. 204; xiii. 14, (e) to bring abouty induce a state or 109. quality (acc.) in a person (on w. b ö t, f. amends, atonement, penance. dat.), xii. 171. [(a) without pref. exc. xv. 52, 139; xxvi. 123, 124. b ra d , adj. broad, viii. 120; xi. 462, i. 466; (b) with pref. exc. xxiii. 108, 109; xvii. 39, 180; the rest with 468, 506, 5 1 1 ; xiv. 4; xviii. 80, 432; pref.— Cf. fo rþ b rin gan .] xxi- 290, 533. b ro c, n. afflictiony disease, ii. 268. b r ä d e , adv. broadlyyfar and wide. ii. 77. g e b ro cia n , II. to hurty afflict, ii. 25, b ræ d , f. breadthy width, xiv. 44. bráéþ, m. odour, xvii. 161, 162. 280. b ra stlia n , II. to crackle, roar (as a b r ö g a , wk. m. terror, xviii. 79. b rö h t(-), g e b rö h t(-), see b rin g a n . fire), xi. 462. b ro sn ia n , II. to decay, ii. 107 (pres. b réd an (‘bregdan’), 3. to weave, fre. pres. 3s. b r ý t (v.l. b r y tt, bret), part, b ro sn ig e n d a , perishable). xi. 164 (fig. of the devil’s knotted b rö þ o r, brö þ u r, m. brother (undecl. snares: cf. Beow. 2167). [Cf. in sing. exc. dat.). voc. s., xiii. 28, ab réd a n , æ tb réd an , forbrédan.] 150; ns., i. 369; vi. 4. 52, 55, 76; xv. b ré m e , adj. famous, glorious, noble. 20, 192, 203; xx. 367; xxi. 152, xxii. 43; as., vi. 16, 109; xv. 14, 130, 206; i. 241; xxvi. 39. b ré m e l, m. bramble, iii. 72. xx. 288; gs., vi. 48; xiii. 25, 33, 147; b ré o st, n. breast, np. þ a b ré o st, iv. xviii. 66; ds. b réþ er, xiii. 27, 149; 53, 272, 280; as. or ap. b ré o st, i. 7; xv. 23, 143, 195. [Plural only as in vii. 148; xxvi. 131. [The word is next entry.] often used in the plural where ge b rö þ ra , coll, pi., m. (orig. n.). modern English has the singular; brothers, (a) sons of the same the evidence here is uncertain.] parent(s). viii. 119; xiv. 210; xxi. b rice , see b ryce . 109. (b) Christians or men generally b rin g a n , g e b rin g a n , 3, I, pret. or saints, as sons of God, brothers b rö h t-, trans, to bring, (a) to bring of Christ, i. 387, 388; xi. 257, 429; something, material or immaterial, xvi. 253; xxi. 6; xxvii. 7 (the last to a person (dat.), i. 466; v. 74; xi. two the preacher’s congregation), 14; xia. 88; xix. 167, 184; the per­ (c) monks, xix. 212, 220, 221. [geb röþ ra 11 times, nva. and g p .; son not specified, xvi. 191, 192; the ge b rö þ ru m , dp., xvi. 253; xix. person linked with a dat. inf. of pur­ pose (h im to sceaw ienne), xx. 220.— variants without prefix at 150, 154; to a person (dat.) and a xi. 257 and xxi. 109.] b rü ca n , 2, w. gen. to enjoy, partake of. place (tö w. dat.), xxi. 138; to a place (tö w. dat.), xxi. 592. (b) to inf., i. 218; v. 125; xiii. 62; xxx. 81; pres. part, b ru cen d e, viii. 161; bring9leady conduct, convey a person, a soul, a body to (tö) a person, pres. 3p. b rö c a þ , xix. 78; 3p. subj. bru co n , xix. 79. [Cf. beb rü can .] place, state, or condition, iv. 3, 180;

GLOSSARY b r y c e , b ric e , m. (a) use, enjoyment. xxi. 92; xxx. 40. (b) useful thing, fruit. i. 209 (ap. b r ic a s , things). b r ý d g u m a , wk. m. bridegroom. xvi. h

i

.

b r y m , m. xvii. 220 (sea of Gali­ lee). [Distinct from ‘brim’, n. See B T S , ‘brymm’, and Holthausen. B T S cites this passage from C H as printed by Thorpe.] b r y n e , m. burning, flame, heat. xi. 479; xviii. 77; xx. 270; xxi. 87. b r ý t, see b ré d an . *b ü c , m. trunk of the body. xxi. 559. [This meaning not recorded for OE. See note.] b ü g a n , g e b ü g a n , 2. (a) of bodily action, to stoop. pret. 3s. b éah , xiii. 212. fig., with tö , to bow, incline, submit to a god, a faith, a rite, etc. inf. g e b ü g a n , viii. 68; pres. 3s. g e b íh þ , iv. 68 (v.ll. g e b ý g þ , g e b ý h þ ); 3p. g e b ú g a þ , xiv. 128, 132; pres. 3s. subj. b ü g e , xxi. 343; 3p. subj. g e b ü g o n , xxiii. 141; pret. 3s. b é a h ,xxi. 282; xxii. 51; g e b é a h , xxvi. 5; 3P- b u go n , v. 117; xxi. 294; g e b u g o n , vi. 222; xix. 242; xxi. 516, 571; xxvi. 8; pret. 3s. subj. g e b u g e , xix. 221; 3p. subj. g e ­ b u g o n , vii. 133; pp. g e b o g e n , xxiii. 164. [Cf. a - , fo r -b ü g a n and ge b ig a n .] g e b u lg o n , see g e b e lg a n . g e b u n d -, see g e b in d a n . b ü r, n. (private) chamber, xxvi. 80 (the emperor’s private apartment), b u rh , f. walled town, fortress, city. gs. b y r ig , v. [88]; ds. b y r ig , ii. 10; v. 3, 9, 11,6 5 , 113 ,2 15 , 218; vi. 182; xvii. 3, 4, 57, 58, 240; xviii. 21; xxi. 354, 432, 474; xxiii. 12; xxvii. 23, 25, 49, 85; as. b u rh , xiii. 192; xxi. 471, 558; b y r i (!), xxiii. 12; nap. b u r g a , xvii. 51; xx. n o , 161; xxi. 243, 245; dp. b u r g u m , iii. ^ ( f o r t ­ resses9fortified towns)) xvii. 53; xxi. 255» 563; b u r h g u m , xxi. 272. [Em­ phasis on fortification only at iii. 82; xx. 16 1 ; and perhaps xx. n o . Cf. A le x a n d r ia - , C a p h a r n o n -, M e d io la n a -b u r h , and h éafod b u r h ; also inbu rh.]

839

b u rh sc ir, f. city, township, xvii. 24 (?), 80 (see T ý n B u rh sc ira ); xviii. 21,

23, 70. b u rh w a re , mp. citizens, v. 65, 219. b u rh w a ru , f. citizens, townsfolk (col­ lectively). v. 69, 88, 92, 246, 279; xviii. 68; xxii. 36. * b u r h w ita , wk. m. (city councillor), senator (of Rome), xxiii. 10, 11. [This specific application not in diet.] b ü ta n , b ü to n , prep. w. dat. (a) without, i. 32, 153, 166, 417, 426; ii. 128; iv. 1 15; v. 104, 154, 203, 237 (twice), 238; vi. 1 51; vii. 145, 146, 148, 152; etc. (for particular combinations see ä and ælc). (b) after ea ll, except. xviii. 15; xx. 360; and with obj. clause instead of dat., xxiv. 13.— after a specific num­ ber, not counting, xi a. 120; xx. 12.— conj. (a) subordinating, w. subj., unless, i. 325, 396; ii. 207; iii. 49; v. 100; vi. 141; x. 53, 109; xii. 6, 9, 58, 68; etc. (b) co-ordinating, after negatives, buty except, i. 191, 335; xi. 517; xii. 36, 198; xiii. 85; xviii. 79, 434; xix. 1 12; xx. 37, 88, 1 19, 189, 199; xxi. 95, 304, 665, 675.— with ellipsis, ne . . . b ü ta n , only. vii. 79, 209; xxx. 103. [Some scribes have a tendency to spell the prep, b u tan and the conj. buton, but there is no general rule.] b u te re, wk. f. butter, xvi. 135. b ü tü , b ü ta , adj. pron. common gen­ der (orig. n.). both. acc. n. b ü tü , xiv. 188; b ü ta , xiv. 27; nom. acc. f. b ü ta , xiv. 175; xxi. 116. [Cf. b é ge n , tw égen .] g e b ý c n ia n , see b lcn ia n . b y d e l, m. heraldyproclaimery minister. i. 309; v. 221; vii. 72; ix. 191; xx. 276, 281; xxiii. 73; xxviii. 5. g e b y ld a n , I. to embolden, pret. 3s. g e b y ld e , xi. 62; xi a. 179; pp. np. g e b y ld e , vii. 214; ix. 152. b y le w it, b y le h w it, see bile w it. b ý m e , wk. f. trumpet, xi. 297 (as. b ý m a n , v.l. b ým e); xviii. 418; xx.

32. g e b y r d , f. or n. (birth), parentage. xiv. 213 (dp. -urn), g e b y r d tld , f. time of birth, xxvi. 83.

840

GLOSSARY

b y te r n y s s , see b ite m y s s . b y r g e ls , m. tomb. xxix. 119. b y tlia n , II. to build, xi. 281; xviii. 19 b y r g e n , f. tomby place of burial, ii. (pret. 3p., byttlo d an ). 249; vi. 73, 85, 133, 134; vii. 1 19, 120; xv. 76 (np. b y rg e n u , v.l. b irgena); xvii. 223, 226; xviii. 420. C [The n not doubled before a vowel except at vi. 73, 85.] ♦ cæpse, wk. f. box. xxi. 260. g e b y ria n , ge b iria n , II (orig. I), (a) [Unique in this passage. Cited by with on or to, to be {meant) for a particular time, pertain to, belong to Napier.] caflice, adv. boldly, xxvii. 95. a particular ceremony, ii. title (and c a m p ia n , II. to do battle, xi. 149. in titles of iii, vi in M S. H); x. 106; *C a n d e lm æ s s e d æ g , m. Candlemas xvii. 19. (b) with to, to be fitting for day. xi. 21; xia. 95. [Here only. the payment of an obligation, xxx. Cited by Napier.] 104-5. (c) inipers. w. dat. of person can n , see cun nan . and clause as subject, to be incum­ C a p h a r a o n -b u r h , f. the city of bent on> behove, xii. 19, 141. b y m a n , 3, intrans, to burn. pres. part, Capernaum in Galilee, xvii. 281 (ds. -b y r ig ). byrn en d e, variously inflected, v. 275; vii. 7 1; xi. 473; xx. 315; xxi. cä se re , m. Cæsary emperor, viii. 133, 294; pres. 3s. b y rn þ , xvi. 139; 3p. 135, 143, 150; xxi. 543, 561; xxii. b y rn a þ , xi. 473, 475; xviii. 432. 51, etc. (8 times); xxiii. 13, 42; xxvi. [Cf. fo rb yrn an and forbæ rnan.] 8 (k a se r u m ), 17, etc. (15 times); b y r s t, f. bristle, xxi. 446. xxviii. 9, 10. b y rþ en , f. burden, ns. xix. 177 cea ld , adj. cold. xvi. 195. (sw y lce m an n es b y rþ en , as big c e a lf, m. calf. xxi. 264, 266, 277; xxx. as a man could carry)] as. byrþ en e, 103. xiii. 57 (generic sing, for pi.); ap. cea rf, see ceorfan. b yrþ en a , ii. 200, 208; xxii. 3. g e céa s, see ge céo san . b ýsen , f. example, patterny model, ix. c é a s t, f. strifey contention, viii. 123 31, 74, 78, 80, 81, 177; xiii. 133, (np. céastu ); xx. 266; xxvi. 30. 136, 189; xv. h i ; xvi. 156; xvii. c e a ste rg e w a r a n , wk. mp. citizens. 190; xix. 136; xx. 398; xxix. 10— v. 222; xvii. 242; xxvi. 35. ap. býsn e (as. in form), xxii. 11 and c e m p a , wk. m. warrior, xxvi. 44. perhaps xxvii. 15. [Cf. forebýsen.] cén e, adj. boldybrave, xxii. 13, 68. b y s g u , f. occupation labour, ap. cén lice, adv. boldly, ix. 136. b y s g a , xxii. 86. cen nan, I. to conceive, xi a. 64. [Cf. b y s m o r , n. or m. disgrace, scandal, acen n an , g e -e d ce n n a n , äncenned.] shame, xvi. 108; xxi. 163, 386. b y sm o r fu ll, b is m e r -, adj. disgrace­ c en n in g, f. conceiving, bearing (of f u l ignominious, vi. 168; xxi. 495. children), i. 394. g e b y sm o r ia n , II. to mocky put to C é n red , K én red , king of the M er­ shame, pret. 2s., g e b y s m r o d e st, cians, 704-9 (Bede’s Coenred). xix. xxiii. 164. 139, 149b y s m o r lic , adj. shamefulyignominious. ceo rfan , 3. to cut. pret. 3s. cea rf, x. 164; xx. n o , 288; xxi. 568. xxi. 55°- [Cf. forceorfan.] b y sm o r lic e , adv. shamefully, ignoceo rian , II. to murmur, complain, ii. miniously. xviii. 69. 212; vi. 369; xx. 68, 79, 83, 186. b ý sn ia n , g e b ý sn ia n , II. to teach by ceo rlfo lc, n. common people, xx. 12. example, set an example, xiii. 140; [Hitherto recorded only from xviii. 160. Æ lfric’s Grammar, defining vulgus, g e b y s m m g , f. example, pattern, ix. Zupitza, p. 28/21. See note.] 17s; xvi. 275 ; xxi- 645ceo rlia n , II. to take a husband, xi.

GLOSSARY 282, 319; xviii. 12; xix. 74, 83, 87, 92. c e o ru n g , f. murmuring. xx. 72, 105, 166, 218, 264, 307, 314, 393. g e cé o sa n , 2. to choose, pres. 3s. g e c ý s t, xx. 228; 3s. subj. ge céo se, xix. 49; pret. 3s. g e c é a s, xiv. 185, 228; xx. 244; 3p. g e cu ro n , xvii. 260; xix. 67; pret. 3s. subj. g e cu re , xx. 242.— pp. ge co ren , chosen, np. -e , xviii. 96, 132; xxi. 189; referring to G o d’s elect, wk. as adj., xiv. 167; xviii. 258, 267, 294, 368, 381, 415, 421; after h is, G o d e s, or dem., as noun, i. 356; v. 132; x. 203; xi. 344, 517; xiv. 57, 128; xviii. 252, 375; xxv(c). 13. [Cf. w iþercoren .] cép a n , I. (a) to desire, seek after (w. gen.), xx. 387. (b) to be mindful of, intent on (w. gen.), iv. 207; xiv. 97; xix. 82. (c) to take heed (w. clause of purpose), xix. 93. (d) to keep watch of, spy on (w. gen.), xxi. 310. (e) to discover by observation (w. ind. question), xviii. 44. * c e p in g , f. observation, xviii. 6. [Not in diet.] C h a ld e a rice , n. the kingdom of the Chaldeans. xxi. 293. [C h ald ea, gp., suggests np. C h a ld e i ; cf. Iudei.] C h a le p h , Caleb (Num. xiv, 6). xx. 170, 189, 199, 360 (ds. uninfl.). C h a n a n é isc , adj. Canaanitish. xx. 212. C h o re , Korah, a rebel against Moses (Num. xvi. 1). xx. 220, 237, 256. C h ristu s, cited as a Greek form, v. 208. [Cf. C rist.] cid a n , I, w. dat. to chide, iii. 96; xv. 65, 71, 167, 17 1; xvii. 53; xx. 307. c ild , n. child, nas., xii. 87, 88, 120, 13 1 ; xvii- 153; xix- 3> 20; xxiii. 31; gs. cild e s, xvii. 154, 155; xix. 22; xxiii. 16, 27; ds. c ild e, xi a. 69, 70; nap. cild , xi. 147, 319, 380; xii. 106, 109, 1 12, 135; xviii. 321; xx. 169; np. c ild r a , xx. 190; gp. c ild r a , vii. 10 1; cild a , xxi. 423 (v.l. -r a ); dp. c ild u m , xi. 115, 498; xia. 120; xx. 12, 252; xxi. 406; xxiii. 38. c ild h ä d , m. childhood, iv. 280; viii. 59; xi. 307, 3 1 1. c ild lic , adj. childish, of a child, xix. 19.

841

c in in g , c in g , see cy n in g . clæ n e, adj. clean, (a) without taint of sin, pure, chaste, i. 6, 459; iv. 216, 234 (as noun); xi. 189; xvi. 56; xix. 50, 57, 82; xxi. 571; xxiii. 197; xxvi. i i . (b) of animals, wholesome for food. i. 212. clæ n h eo rt, adj. pure in heart, iv. 215 (dp. -u m w. def. art. as noun), clæ n líce , adv. with purity, chastely. xix. 94; xxi. 638. c læ n n y ss, f. purity, virginity, chastity. xi. 148; xix. 49, 53, 67; xxi. 165, 510; xxv(a). 17; xxx. 8, 13. g e clæ n sia n , II. to cleanse, i. 424; iv. 70, 242; xviii. 83; xix. 1 1 8. cleofian , II. to stick, pret. 3s. cleofode, xx. 101 (v.l. clifode). clif, n. cliff, viii. 108. cly p ia n , c lip -, II. (a) intrans, to cry out. xix. 161, 163, 199; xxi. 415, 487; xxvii. 99 (uncertain constr.).— with u p p , to call upwards, xxvii. 67. — introducing direct discourse, to cry out, proclaim, call. vi. 97; xvii. 229; xxi. 324; and with to and dat. of person, xxi. 476. (b) intrans, w. to and dat. of person, to call to someone from a distance, i. 448, 452; xi. 527; xxiii. 15 1 ; xxv(c). 3. — to call to for help, call upon, appeal to, invoke, v. 184; vi. 291; ix. 46; xx. 75; xxi. 601; xxiii. 84; xxix. 120.— (c) trans, to cry out, pro­ claim, say. iv. 50, 269; xvii. 288. (d) trans, to call, summon, v. 33; vi. 66, 67; xvi. 94; xxiii. 149. [Uniformly c ly p - except c lip - at xxix. 120 and occas, cleop - in variants.] c ly p u n g , f. cry, supplication, viii. 156. c lý s in g , f. enclosure, xix. 198. cn a p a, wk. m. boy. xii. 120 (giving progression in age: cild , cn a p a, cniht); xxi. 566; xxiii. 15 (seofon w in tra ). cn éo w , n. knee. xiv. 30, 196; xxi. 308. cn éo w ian , II. to kneel, xxiii. 30. cn ih t, m. (a) young man. vi. 182; xi. 169, 172, 174; xii. 121; xviii. 12; xix. 102; xxi. 292. (b) servant, re­ tainer. iv. 105. cn o tta , wk. m. knot. xi. 164.

842

GLOSSARY

g e c n y rd n y ss, f. diligence, zeal. xix. 9. co ccel, m. cockle, weeds, v. 269. co l, n. coal. x. 175. c ö m (-), see cu m an . consolator, cited as Latin name for the Holy Spirit, x. 84. C o n sta n tin u s, Constantine the Great. xxii. 51; xxvi. 7. gecoren , see gecéo san . ge co ren n yss, f. choice, election, xix.

48. co rn , n. (a) kernel of wheat or other cereal grass, xix. 23. (b) collectively, corn, grain, viii. 131; xxi. 466. C o ro za im . Chorazin, a town near Capernaum, condemned by Christ (Matth, xi. 21). xvii. 57, 59. co stn ia n , II. to try, tempt, xi. 31; xia. 131. co stn u n g , f. temptation, viii. 182; xi. 149; xiv. 191, 205. coþu, f. disease, sickness, xiii. 2. cræ ft, m. (a) skill, artistry, contrivance, cunning, iii. 85; xviii. 389; xxi. 191, 202, 526, 537 (orpower}); xxv(6). 1; xxix. 5, 8. (b) an art, craft, skilled occupation, xix. 55; xxx. 100, 102; magic art, xxix. 126. (c) work of art, creation, xi a. 208. *(d) artist’s idea, conception, design, i. 281 (see note). [Meaning (c), in Æ lfric’s use, verges on (d). Cf. his Hexameron, ed. Crawford, lines 36-38, which Craw­ ford mistranslates.] g e c r a m m ia n , II. to cram, stuff, xiii. 16, h i . C r e ta , the island of Crete, xxi. 104. C r is t, m. Christ, i. 6, etc. (10 times); ii. 6, etc. (10 times); iii. 95, etc. (5 times); iv. 7, etc. (16 times); etc. — np. C r is ta s , xviii. 255, 378, 386. — C r ís te s b ö c, see bö c. [Cf. Christus.] C r iste n , adj. Christian. iv. 179, 237, 284; viii. 132; ix. 49; xi. 81, 372, 432, 433> 536, etc.— pi. as noun, iii. 160; xi. 390, 406, 434; xiv. 140, 163; etc. C r iste n d ö m , m. (a) Christianity, iv. 237; x. 102; xiv. 141; xviii. 281, 347; xxii. 51; xxiii. 141; xxvi. 5. (b) w. def. art., the Christian faith, xiv. 232; xviii. 158, 285; xix. 120; xxi.

648; xxvi. 6. (c) Christendom: body of persons and territories under Christian rule. xiv. 114, 181. *(d) Christian supervision (of the in­ dividual by his local minster), xxx. 96. [Meaning (d) not in diet.] c ristn ia n , II. to christen, xxi. 638. cro cc, f. or c ro cca , wk. m. crock, dp. c ro c c u m , xx. 127. [Ælfric has 'olla crocca’ in his Grammar, Zupitza, p. 25/7.] cü, f. cow. nap. c ý , xxi. 261, 265,

275cu cu , (‘ewie’), adj. quick, alive, ns., vi. 193; vii. 120, 122; xia. 168; xviii. 419; xx. 1 18; xxi. 436, 548; dsm. c u c u m , xi. 273; np. cu ce, i. 270; xi. 299, 300, 392; xia. 166; xx. 253; wk. w. def. art. as noun, np. cu ca n , xi. 302. cu lfre, wk. f. dove. xvi. 229, 249. c u m a , m. stranger, guest, x. 38, 40; xi. 414, 422, 441, 446; xvi. 174.— cu m en a h u s, n. guest-house. ds., xxvi. 105. [Lat. in salutatorio, ‘in the audience-chamber’, but the O E is glossed in domo hospitum. See B T , ‘cuma’.] c u m a n , 4. to come. i. 18, etc. (11 times); ii. 21, etc. (9 times); iii. 26; iv. 36, etc. (7 times); v. 3, etc. (17 times); vi. 43, etc. (15 times); vii. 14, etc. (13 times); etc., including the following relatively uncommon uses: (a) with of, to come from, he derived from. i. 2 71-4 ; ii. 232-3. (b) with dat. of person, to come to, befall someone, xx. 90. (c) with tö , to come to, result in: c y m þ h eo ra sa c u h im tö a w o rp en n y sse, their strife will result in their destruction, iv. 103. (d) cu m a n tö m a n n u m , to he horn; said of ordinary children, xx. 114, and also, with additional literal sig­ nificance, of Christ, i. 18; vi. 64; xi. 8; xi a. 77; xxi. 656; see note on i. 43. (e) c u m a n u n d er iu ce, to be put under a yoke. xxi. 261. (f) c u m a n æ fter, síþ , to come (into the world) at a later time {than), xxi. 650, 652. [Forms: inf., xvii. 10 (7 more); pres. part, cu m en d e, xviii. 264, 408; imp. sg. c u m , v. 34; vi. 81, 98;

GLOSSARY

843

pi. c u m a þ , v. 66, 157; xi. 409; (g e )c w æ d -, g e c w æ d -, (ge)cw æ þ , pres. is. cu m e , ii. 36; x. 18, 136; see cw eþan . 2s. c y m s t , xv. 24, 196; xxiii. n o ; c w a lu , f. violent death. iv. 264. 3s. c y m þ , ii. 37 (51 more); ip. c w e a lm , m. deaths pestilence, xxi. c u m a þ , xia. 166; 3p., i. 271 (10 244, 246, 269. more); pres. is. subj. c u m e , xxiii. c w e a lm b æ re , adj. deadly, murderous. 89; 3s., v. 78 (7 more); pret. is. xix. 173. c o m , viii. 42, 219; 2s. co m e , vi. cw e a rte rn , cw a r te rn , n. prison, xi. 64 (8 more); 3s. c o m , i. 18 (68 417, 425> 443, 447; xxiii. 51, 69, 71, more); ip. cö m o n , xi. 425; 2p., xi. etc. (16 times).— unbroken c w a r t4 17; cö m e g é , xi. 443; 3p. cö m o n , is peculiar to the scribe of xxiii. i. 373 (25 more); cö m a n , xxi. 230, gecw ed e n , see cw eþan . 310; pret. 3s. subj. cö m e , ii. 21 cw e llere , m. killer. xxiii. 161, 202, (8 more); 3p. subj. cö m o n , xiv. 205. 26, 178; xx. 232; pp. cu m en , vi. g e c w é m a n , I, w. dat. to please, ix. 49; vii. 79; xxiii. 127 (ap. -e).— Cf. 54; xi. 124, 140 (pret. 3s. subj. in­ a - , b e -, o f-, o fe r-c u m a n and stead of pres.?), 185, 366; xviii. next entry.] 138; xix. 80, 81. g e c u m a n , 4. to come. imp. sg. g e c u m , g e c w é m e , adj., w. dat. agreeable, xxiii. 74. pleasing, acceptable to. iv. 215, 234; cu n n an , pret. pres. vb. (a) w. inf., xi a. 149; xviii. 96; xix. 67. to be able, can. pres. 3s. can n , i. g e c w é m e d n y s s , f. pleasure, satisfac­ 283; ip. cu n n an , xxix. 113; 2p. tion. G o d e tö g e c w é m e d n y sse , cun non, iii. 48. (b) w. acc., to be for God’s satisfaction, xxi. 646. acquainted with, know. pres. is. cw eþan , gecw eþ an , 5. (a) w. acc. or can n , xxvi. 101; 3s., xv. 75; xxix. clause, or direct discourse, or ab­ 104; 3p. cun non, ix. 17, 200; xvi. solute, to say, speak, inf., cw eþan , 218; pres. is. subj. cun ne, xxiii. xviii. 1 19, 143; xxi. 436; pres. part, 66; 3s. subj., ix. 41; pret. 3s. cuþe, cw eþen de, i. 444; iv. 136; v. 70, v. 233; xiii. 142; 3p. cúþon , vii. 225; vi. 66; etc. (9 more); imp. pi. 200; ix. 193; xi. 234 (twice), 372, cw eþe g é , v. 68; pres. is. cw eþe, 386; xv. 63; pret. 2s. subj. cüj>est, xxiii. 73; 2s. c w is t, xxiii. 60; 3s. v. 18, 130; 3s. subj. cö þ e, iv. 255; c w y þ , c w iþ , cw e þ , i. 225; iv. 44 xii. 142; 3p. subj. cú þ an , xxi. 90. (M S cw æ þ ,v.ll. c w e þ ,c w y þ ), 235; (c) absolute, to understand. pret. vi. 218, 269; etc. (6 more); g e c w y þ , is. cu þ e, xix. 17 (translating vi. 226; viii. 95; xv. 15, 143, 173; ip. sapiebam). cw eþ aþ , i. 77, 281, 472; xi a. 234; cu n n ian , II. (a) to seek to know, look xii. 241; cw eþe w é , xx. 406; 3p. to see. x. 192; xxi. 230. (b) to try. cw eþ aþ , xviii. 7; pret. 2s. cw æ d e, xxi. 442; xxiii. 82 (inf., -en for -an). v. 36; xxiii. 97; 3s. cw æ þ , i. 108; [Meaning (a) is a slight extension etc. (30 times in i-iv); ge c w æ þ , iv. of B T S , ‘cunnian’, III. 1.] 220; xii. 78, 213; xv. 3, 29; xvi. g e c u re , g e cu ro n , see gecéo san . 1 16, 121; xvii. 163; xviii. 392; xxiii. ciiþ, adj. known, ii. 219; vi. 161, 190; 1 17, 192; ip. cw æ d o n , iii. 155; viii. 183; ix. 89, 2 1 1 ; xi. 273, 380; 3p., i. 410, 454; ii. 44; iii. 20, 26; xviii. 44. [Cf. fullcúþ.] v. 95, 285; vi. 21, 32, 73, 80; etc. c ö þ -, pret. forms, see cun nan . (15 more); ge cw æ d o n , xxi. 242; cüj?lic, adj. (a) evident. i. 444. (b) cer­ pp. ge cw æ d e n , v. 84; ge cw ed en , tain. ix. 8, 87 (asf. or adv. ?). [Napier v. 252; x. 150; xiii. 120; xviii. 322; cited passage in ix to illustrate spoken of, mentioned, xviii. 88, 128 meaning (b). Accepted in B T S Add.] (np. -e), 189 (np. -e),— (b) w. acc. cú þ lice , adv. clearly, openly, i. 448; and compl. noun, to call, name, ii. 73; xx. 232. interpret, pres. ip. cw eþ aþ , xi. 21;

844

GLOSSARY

c w e þ a n , g e cw e þ a n (cont.) 195, 199; vii. 79; x. 198, 203; xi a. 149; xvii. 86; xx. 58, 132, 163; xia. 95; and in passive w. compl. or xxii. 93. (b) species, kindy nature. sw a , pp. gecw ed e n , v. 206; viii. i. 373 (gp. cy n n a , governing noun 62; xiii. 144; xiv. 88; xx. 306; xxix. obliterated); vi. 161; xi. 227; xvi. 37. (c) in passive when subject anti­ 73; xix. 10, 24; xx. 17. cipates unexpressed complement, cyn ren , c y n r y n , n. kindredy genera­ pp. gecw ed en , so-called, viii. 2; tion. xvi. 33, 216. xi. 1 1 5. [Cf. w iþcw eþan.] cy rc e , c y ric e , wk. f. church, iii. 144; cw y d e , m. discourse, homily, xx. 2. xi. 3, 66; xia. 183; xiv. 95; xvi. cw y lm ia n , II. to suffer, vi. 158; xi. 83, 139; xix. 228; xxiii. 18, 160; 390,489,507. xxvi. 76, 94, 129. c w y lm in g , f. suffering, tribulation. eyre, m .free willy choice, iii. i n , 113. xviii. 352; xxi. 71, 291. c y r r , m. {turn)y time, occasion, xiv. c w y rn , f. hand-mill} mill, xviii. 33, n o , 113, 115, 201. 158. c ý , see cü. c y rra n , I. to turn, return, iv. 263; c ý d d -, ge cý d d , see cýþ an . xvii. 265; xviii. 243, 313. g e c y rra n , I. (a) of physical move­ cy le , m. chilly cold, coldness, xvi. 117; ment, to turny return, xx. 167; xxi. xxi. 41, 583. c y m s t, c y m þ , see cu m an . 277, 579, 582. (b) of spiritual change, to turn (from sins) to God. xi. 196; ge cyn d , n. naturey kind. i. 333 xiii. 51, 77; xv. 42, 54, 161; ab­ (natural capacity)y 412; v. 107; vi. 249; viii. 196; x. 94; xi. 87; xia. solutely or elliptically, to turn from one's {evil) waysy change {for the 19, 212; xii. 103, 162, 214; xvii. better), be converted, xiii. 53; xv. 51; 259; xix. 30 (twice); xxi. 24, 510; xxvi. 57; xxix. 17, 26, 28, 100. xix. 223, 241. g e cyn d e lic, adj. natural, xi. 114, 117; g e c y rre d n y s s, f. conversion, iv. 66. xxi. 52. C y r u s , king of Persia, xxi. 351, 442. cyn ecyn n , n. royal family, v. 196. c y s t, f. (a) generosity, munificence, i. cy n e d ö m , m. kingly rulef kingdom. 212; xvi. 46; xxx. 50. *(b) bountiful xxi. 351; xxvi. 16, 103; xxviii. 9. gift{s)y bounty, i. 257. [Meaning (b) cyn eh läfo rd , m. royal lord, king. iv. a concretion of (a); cf. B T S , II, excellent thing, and III, liberality, 102. cyn e rlce , n. kingdom, iv. 18, 98, 104. etc.] cy n in g , m. king, (a) with reference to g e c ý s t, see gecéo san . various earthly kings, i. 229, 241, c y s tig , adj. bountifuly generous, i. 257; xvi. 193. 371; ii. 12; iv. 101 ; ix. 46-55, 137; xi. 13; xia. 87; xviii. 187; xix. 9, c y s tig n y s s , f. liberality, bounty, i. 139-63; xx. 1 16, 406, 409; xxi. 352, 389; xvii. 72. 293-493, 516; xxii. 1-46, 85; xxvi. c y te l, m. kettley cauldron, xxi. 518. i ; xxix. 38-93; xxx. 18 (ds. cynge). cýþ an , I, pres. 3s. c ý þ , pret. c ý d d -, spelled cin in g, xxi. 323, 327; c in g , pp. gecýd d . (a) w. acc. object or xxi. 306, 31 1 , 391. (b) with reference clause or both, often w. dat. of per­ to God, v. 196 (K yn in g) ; xi. 426; son, to make knowny show forth, xxvi. 62. telly declarey proclaim, i. 229 [double C y n in g a bö c, f., w. def. art. þ æ ra . construction; see also sense (b) Book of Kings, xxii. 15; xxix. 37. below], 389; ii. 121, 288; iii. 109; [These references are to the first v. 58, 222, 233; vi. 328; vii. 28, 120, two books of Kings in the Vulgate, 215, 217; ix. 32; xia. 57, 64; xiv. I and II Samuel in A.V . See also 143; xvii. 42, 131 (construction un­ L ib e r R e g u m below.] certain), 183, 246; xix. 152; xxiii. cyn n , n. (a) kindredy tribe, raceynation. 42, 71, 161.— c ý þ a n g e c ý þ n y sse , i. 348, 459 ; iv. 130, 181; v. 1 15, to give testimony, testify, i. 39, 41,

GLOSSARY 304» 310; v. 90, 224; ix. 8, 10, 87, 1 15, 130, 150.— (b) absolute after s w ä s w ä , to testify, xi. 81; xxii. 15; and w. dat. of pers., to tell, xii. 173; xvi. 183; xviii. 226; xxi. 646; with sense (a) also, i. 229. (c) intrans., w. be or e m b e , to tell of, testify about. i. 9, 1 14; v. 256; xvii. 241; and w. dat. of person, v. 285; viii. 36, 169, 175. [Cf. fu ll-cýð an .] c ý þ n y s s , f. testimony, xia. 57. g e c ý þ n y s s , f. (a) testimony, i. 39, 40, 41, 302, 304, 305, 310; v. 90, 224, 286; ix. 8, 10, 87, 1 15, 124, 130, 150; xii. 30, 176. (b) testament (Old or New), dispensation, ix. 165, 193; xix. 36. c ý þ þ , f. kinship, friendship, acquaintanceyin the phrase, h ab b an cýþ þ e tö , to have friendly relations withy be on good terms with. xi. 385; xvi. 47. [In Æ lfric’s period there is evidence for ns. ‘cyþ(þ)’, not for ‘cyþþu’.]

D d £ d , f. deed. ii. 187, 197, 286; iv. 200; vi. 169, 200, 267; ix. 39; x. 35; xi. 124, 373, 394, 404; xia. 165; xiii. 120, 122, 205; xiv. 37, 137, 215; etc. d & d b é ta n , I. to do penance, pres, part, as adj., daédbétende, penitenty vi. 251. [Cf. b é ta n and next word.] d æ d b ö t, f. penance, iii. 149; iv. 68; vi. 142, 215; xi. 399; xia. 10; xii. 154; xv. 162; xvi. 95; xvii. 63; xix. 1 1 8, 147, 201; xxvi. 1 18; xxvii. 120. g e d æ fta n , I. to arrange, put in order. pp. gedaeft, iv. 46, 241. d æ g , m. day, time. i. 23, 207, 326; ii. 43, etc. (12 times); vi. 22, etc. (9 times); vii. 139; viii. 37, 142, 179, 180, 181; ix. 159; x. 43, 99; etc.— on d æ g , in the daytimey by dayf w. endingless locative (less probably acc.), vi. 26, 344 (cf. on d æ g e , i. 207; viii. 181; and see n ih t below); for æ lce d æ g , su m e d æ g , see æ lc, s u m .— se m ic c la d æ g , the C 2710.2

84S

great day (of the Judgement), iv. 128; xi. 247, 283.— d æ g e s, adv. by day. xii. 50, 65; xvii. 226; þses y lc a n d æ g e s, on the same dayt xix.

249d æ g h w a m líc e , adv. daily, iv. 64; vi. 138; xi. 149, 254; xxi. 356, 373. daegréd, d æ g eré d , n. daybreak, dawn. i. 306; xxi. 323. d æ l, m. portionf part. iv. 195; viii. 111; xvi. 177; xx. 74; xxvii. 9; xxx. 81-105 (7 times).— be s u m u m d æ le, partly, v. 161. d æ lan , I. (a) trans, to distribute. xvi. 158, 176, 269, 292; xxx. 62, 64, 97; trans, or absolute, xiii. 13, 106; xvi. 273. (b) intrans, or absolute, to distri­ bute, give alms.xiii. 15,107, n o ; xxx. 63, 65, 67. [Cf. b e -, to-d æ lan .] ged afen ian , II, impers. to befitting. iii. 104; v. 43; ix. 185; xii. 40, 221; w. dat. of person, to be fitting for, i- 53, 416, 428; v. 55, 173; xix. i i ; xxi. 234. D a g o n , a god of .the Philistines, xxi. 224, 228, 231 (gs. D agones), 233. D a n ih el, D a n iel, the prophet, xviii. 234, 278; xxi. 300-490 passim, in­ cluding gs. D a n ih eles, 344, 429, and ds. D an ih ele, 318, etc. D a riu s, king of the Medes. xxi. 302 (gs. D aries), 306 (ds. D arige), 311, 318, 323. d aru , f. impairment, ix. 134. D a th an , a rebel against Moses (Num. xvi. 1). xx. 220, 231 (ds.uninfl.),250. D au id, David, i. 459 (gs. -es); xxii. 13, 18, 24, 30, 32, 33 (ds. -e), 41, 44, 50; xxvii. 72. d ead , adj. dead. vi. 52, etc. (12 times); x. 156, 157, 158; xi. 273, 307, 330— absolute as noun, ap. ealle déad e, vi. 128; næ nne d éadne, asm., no dead person, xxix. 61 (where either naenne or déadne may be regarded as a sb.).— wk. as noun, dead {person), sg., vi. 188, 190, 196; xi. 339; xxix. 123; pi., vi. 211, 318; vii. 92, 107; viii. 75; xia. 1 14; xxix. 63. d éad lic, adj. mortal, xi. 98, 106; xia. 51; xvii. 87.— ap. wk. as noun, i. 135-

846

GLOSSARY

deaf, adj. deaf. ii. 80; xvii. 26, 85.— wk. w. def. art. as noun, the deaf {person). sg., xvii. 83, 99; pi., xvii.

xxi. 234; xxvi. 12, 15, 18; xxix. 88,

_9°-_ déoflíce, adv. devilishly, iv. 6 (v.l. déofollíce). 44, 185. # deafnyss, f. deafness, xvii. 150. déofol, m., pi. déoflu, d éofla, n. [Not in diet. First example in O E D devil, the devil, i. 187; iv. 8, 13, 23, and M E D dated 1398.] etc. (33 times); vi. 282, 284; vii. d e a rst, see d urran. 125, 126, 170, 173, 177, 181, 184, déaþ, m. death, ii. 108, n o , 114, 251; 185; viii. 136, 139, 141, 144; ix. 62; iv. 193; vi. 12, etc. (21 times); vii. x. 190, 197; etc.— references to 55, etc. (11 times); etc. Satan sometimes have def. art. (e.g. d éaw , m. or n. dew. xx. 15. se déofol, iv. 62; x. 197), some­ delfan, 3. to dig. (a) trans., inf., iii. 5. times not (e.g., déofol, iv. 188, 204; (b) intrans., inf., xvi. 13, 101, 103. deofle(s), iv. 239, 254). [Cf. bedelfan.] d éo fo lgy ld , - g ild , n. (a) idol, pagan d é m a , wk. m .judge, iv. 125, 128; vii. god, image of the devil, iii. 60; viii. 104; xi. 197, 418, 435, 444, 448. 134 (ap. ?); xviii. 234, 278, 282, 300. d ém an , g e d ém a n , I. (a) intrans, or (b) devil-worship, idolatry, xviii. absolute, to judge, xiii. 10 (first), 87 296; xxix. 124; xxx. 26. (first), 89, 92. w. clause, to decree. d éofollic, see déoflic. xxi. 302. (b) intrans, w. dat., to déop, adj. deep (lit. or fig.), v. 21; pass judgement on, judge someone, xia. 208; xiv. 59; xix. 215; xxiii. xi. 359, 363 (second), 369 (first); 203 (dsf. déoppre).— comp., dsf. xi 14; xxx. 83. en t, m. giant, xx. 162, 163; xxi. 74, 10 1; xxii. 40, 43. éode, éodon, see gä n . eo rn o st, n. seriousness, only in phrase, on eo rn o st, seriously, in earnest, viii. 91; xvi. 268; xxii. 97; xxiii. 166. eo rn o stlice, adv. (a) therefore (Lat. ergo), vi. 107; ix. 100; xiii. 9, 38; xviii. 259(F), 382(F). (b) truly, indeed (Lat. autem), xviii. 246, 326. éorod, n. or f. {troop), legion, xvii. 233, 249. eorþe, f. {the) earth, i. 72, etc. (8 times); v. 197; vii. 54; xi. 61, 237, 263, 510, 516, 527; xia. 45, 178; xii. 192; xiii. 213, 217; xviii. 81, 269, 305, 417; xix. 35; xx. 249; xxi. 89, 368, 407, 528, 541, 549; xxx. 38. eo rþ lan d , n, arable land. viii. 127

854

GLOSSARY

eo rþ la n d , (cont.) (v.l. yrþ -), in contrast to fishing grounds. [B T and B T S , ‘irþland’ ; Hall, ‘y rþ -\ Unmutated ‘eorþ-’ is recorded but rare.] eo rþ lic, adj. earthly. viii. 83; xia. 228; xii. 32, 186, 189, 192; xiii. 46; xv. 1 13; xvi. 269; xvii. 142; xix. 9; xx. 378, 389; x x i. 30; xxvii. I 13; XXX.

F

fäcen fu ll, adj. deceitful, fraudulent. xxi. 134. fäcn , n. deceit, fraud, xvi. 155, 201; xxi. 416. gefad ian , II. to arrange, dispose, ii. 161; ix. 38; xxi. 526. fæ c, n. space of time, while, xxvi. 43. fæ d er, m. (uninflected in sing.) father, 41. *e o rþ te o lu n g , f. agriculture. xviii. i. 65, etc. (11 times); ii. 233 (twice), 290; iii. 130, 178; iv. 155, 165, 169; 152 (M S. P, probably non-Ælfrician etc. (usually God the Father; — see tillin g and note). [Unique; occasionally human fathers, e.g. ii. B T , B T S have ‘eorþtilþ’.] éo w , see pü. 233; v. 23; Adam, xi. 95; a religious elder, xxix. 11; np. fæ d e ra s, v. 40; éo w e r, poss. adj. your. ii. 4, 200; iii. pä h ä lg a n fæ d e ras [Biblical and 35, 10 1; iv. 26, 1 19, 125; vii. 39, 48; etc. [For the pronoun see þö.] ecclesiastical?], xi. 82). eria n , II (orig. I), to plough, viii. 130; faeger, adj. (a) beautiful, viii. 53 (fig.); xvi. 117; xviii. 35, 141. xi. 248; xiv. 41; xvi. 138; xxi. 198. E r m e n , see H e rm e s, (b) of words, fair, pleasing, cheerful. e r m in g , see e a rm in g . x. 131, (c) of spiritual attainments, éstd æ l, see éa std æ l. fair, resplendent, xviii. 144. fæ ge re , adv. (a) with decorum, pro­ éstfu ll, adj. {full of grace), devout. ix. perly. ix. 38. (b) graciously, xiv. 217. 123. é stm ete, m. (pi. -m e tt-). dainty fæ g e r n y s s, f. beauty, xi a. 20. (food), delicacy. xvi. 136; xx. 87, 135. fæ g n ia n , II. w. gen., to exult, rejoice etan , 5. to eat. inf., v. 17; xx. 312; in. xx. 44; xxi. 333. xxv(c). 8; d. inf. etenne, v. 72; faer, n. (a) journey, x. 133; (b) course of etanne, v. 227; pres. part, etende, life, proceedings, i. 469; ix. 137. vii. 193 (uninfl. asm.); imp. s. ett, faereld, n. or m. (a) journey, xx. 354, v. 71, 226; pres. 3s. et, xvi. 135; 365; (b) course of life, progress, xi. y tt, xxi. 384; ip. etaþ , xvi. 135; 84. pret. 3s. set, v. 228, 236, 237; vii. fæ rin g a , adv. suddenly, unexpectedly. 136, 150; xx. 19; xxi. 377 (M S. R ix. 212; xxvii. 1 18. yt), 481 (M S. R e(a)t?); pi. æ ton, fæ rlic, adj. sudden, unexpected, ix. 212; ix. 161 ; xviii. i i , 18; xx. 99; xxi. xv. 135; xviii. 8; xx. 270; xxi. 87, 408; 3s. subj. æ te, v. 231, 234; 3p. _237, 247. subj. æ ton, xi. 333. fæ rlíce, adv. suddenly, unexpectedly. g e -e ta n , 5. to eat, consume, pres. 3s. x. 174; xi. 334, 512; xvii. 205; xviii. g e -e t, xiii. 232; g e -y t t, xxi. 398. 8, 14, 20, 76, 262, 401; xix. 144, éþel, m. or n. country, native land. 171, 173; xx. 255; xxi. 38, 467, 613; xvii. 282. xxiii. 138. E u a, see Efa. faest, adj. fast, firmly fixed, secure, E u en tiu s, a priest martyred with constant, ii. 13; iv. 34, 183 (both Pope Alexander I. xxiii. 4, 127 (as. asf. faeste, or adv.); xix. 243; xxii. -urn). 99 (np. faeste). *eu n u ch i, mp. eunuchs, xix. 43,44, 45. faestan, I, pret. 3s. faeste. to fast. ii. [Lat. form from Vulgate; O E D and 152, 154, 158, 177; xi. 30; xia. 130; M E D date English forms after 1400.] X X X . 69. e x l, f. shoulder, vii. 155. faeste, adv. fast, firmly, securely, iv. 34, E x o d u s, the Biblical book. xxii. 88. 183 (or both may be asf. of faest); E zech iel, the prophet, i. 11. xxiii. 1 15.

GLOSSARY fæ sten , n. fast (act or period of fasting) i. 23, 24; Ü. 156, 165, 167 (fig.), 177; 69, 70. fæ stlice , adv. resolutely, vigorously. xxix. 92. [Cf. B T S , 3.] ge fæ stn ia n , II. to fasten, fix , raa&e /as*, i. 82; vii. 141; xi. 35; xia. 138; xxi. 533. [Cf. afæ stnian.] faet, n. vessel: drinking-vessel, v. 124, 126 (dp. fatu m ); any household vessely utensily xviii. 30 (gp. fata), fæ te ls, m. container, receptacle. xxi. 260. fæ t(t), adj./ai, unctuous. xvi. 138 (re­ ferring to the consistency of oil), fæ þ m , m. fathom. xxi. 532. fan d ia n , II. (a) w. gen., io tempt. iv. 91, 96; xiii. 206; xx. 103. (b) to investigate, search (intr.). xxiii. 125. [Cf. afandian.] fa n d u n g , f. trialy test. ii. 284; xx. 31. fa n t, m. {baptismal) font. xii. 132. fa ra n , 6. (a) to fare, go. ii. 8, 106; iii. 99,100,108; iv. 42,44, 213, 235; etc. (b) to take one's way in life, bey be­ have. ii. 79, 149; xxi. 625. (c) fara n be, to go by, act in accordance with. ix. 47; xxii. 33. [Present stem only is represented: inf., ii. 8, etc. (20 times); d. inf. faren n e, xxi. 617; part, faren d e, ii. 79; xvii. 22; xx. 364; xxvi. 44; imp. sg. fa r, viii. 93; xv. 22 (fæ r), 194; xvii. 245; imp. pi. fara þ , ix. 100; fare g e , xx. 207; pres. is. fare, vii. 9, etc. (7 times); viii. 43, 220; x. 18, 20, 136, 140; pres. 3s. fæ rþ , ii. 106, 149; iii. 108; iv. 42, 213; vi. 316, 344; xi. 519; xxi. 625; xxix. 104; pres. pi. fara þ , iii. 99; xi. 209, 453; xii. 1 13, 209; xviii. 304, 389, 428; xxi. 184; xxix. 1 18; pres. is. subj. fare, vii. 10, 13, 46; xxiii. 89; 3s. fare , viii. 97; ix. 47; xii. 22, 148; xxiii. 153.— preterite replaced by that of féran , q.v. See also fo r -, fo rþ -, m is fa ra n and fo r -, fo r þ -, to-féran .] F a r a o , see P h a ra o . fa ru , f. (a) journey, xx. 70; xxi. 609. (b) course of life, progress, ix. 155. (c) the troops of a general on the march, xxiii. 49. *(d) equipment or freight of a vehicle on a journey, xxi. XXX.

855

274 [Meaning (d) not in diet, but see B T S , III, 4 and IV. Also O E D , ‘fare’, sb.1, esp. ic and 5b.] fata, fa tu m , see fæ t. feala, see fela. feallan , 7. to fall, inf., xxi. 339; pres. 3s. fy lþ , ii. 272; iii. 38, 152, 153; fealþ, iv. 20, 100; 3p. fea llaþ , xiii. 21, 125; xviii. 262, 401; pres. 3s. subj. fealle, iii. 150, 151; 2p. subj. feallon, xx. 209; pret. 3s. féoll vi. 75; xiv. 30, 196 (féol) ; xvii. 228; xxi. 308, 549, 634; xxiii. 36, 1 18; xxix. 75, 94; 3p. féollon, xvii. 255; xx. 102, 198; pret. 3s. subj. féolle, xxi. 50. [Cf. a -, b e -, of-feallan.] g e fea rh su g u , f. sow in farrow, xviii. 323. [BT, B T S cite two glosses only.] fea rr, m. bull. i. 269. [B T and Hall give ox also but without supporting evidence. Bull is likelier here.] féa w a, pron. adj. few, a few. (a) as adj., nap. féa w a, xix. 170, 171; dp. fé a w u m , vi. 22; xia. 124; xxi. 100; xxiii. 62; xxvi. 16. (b) as pron., np. féa w a, vi. 144; xi. 119; ns. féaw a w. part, gen., xviii. 172. fea x , fex , n. hair {of the head), vi. 7, 308; xxi. 297, 473feccan , gefeccan (‘fetian’), I, pret. fette, to fetch, obtain, bring, i. 388; v. 12; x. 137, 202; xxiii. 129. fédan, I. to feed (trans.) xi. 420; xviii. 245, 319 (pres, part, as noun, féd en d u m , Lat. nutrientibus), 321; xix. 3 (pres. 3s. fét), 4 (pres. 2s. fétst); xxi. 356; xxv(b). 3. [Cf. afédan.] g e féga n , I. to join, unite, iii. 144. féh st, see fön. fela, feala, indecl. pron. and adj. many, much. i. 47, 145, 350; ii. 25, 246; iv. 30, 123; vi. 202; vii. 24, 80, 93, 187, 189; viii. 23; etc.— usually treated as pron. w. part. gen. but alone as a pi., many {people), i. 47, 350 (both sw ä fela sw ä , as many as, all those who); ii. 246.— occa­ sionally as adj., e.g., vii. 24, 187, 189; viii. 23; x. 24, 185; where M S S . vary between fela þ in g a and f e la þ in g .— construed as a singular in eo w e r fela nä t, many of you know

856

GLOSSARY

fe la (cont.) not, xviii. 63.— spelled feala at xx. 38, 87, 103, etc. feld , m. field, open land. only as ds. feld a. viii. 129; xx. 149, 378. fell, n. skin. xvi. 236. (ge)fén ge, (ge)fén gon , see fön. fen lic, adj. of the fen, miry. xvii. 261. feoh, n. (material) goods, wealth, money, xvi. 20 (ds. féo), 127, 263, 265, 266, 269; xxiv. 2, 5, 8, 10 (gs. féos). gefeo h t, n.fight, battle, viii. 124; ix. 209, 213; xxi. 129, 132 (twice); xxii.

39, 40, 48, 75feoh tan, gefeoh tan, 3. (a) to fight. inf. feohtan, xxix. 43; pret. 3s. feaht, xxii. 64; gefeah t, xxii. 19; pret. 3p. fuh ton , xxi. 211; fu h tan , xxix. 92. (b) trans., to win. pret. 3p. fuh ton , xxi. 215 (v.l. gefuh ton , the normal form in this meaning). [Cf. onfeohtan.] *fe o h te -g o d , m. war-god. xxi. 171. [Not in diet., though Unger rightly printed it as one word in his text of M S. W.] féol(l), féolle, féollon, see feallan . féond, m. enemy, devil, xi. 167, 168; xv. 82 (ap. fýnd), 86; xx. 116, 209, 380; xxi. 284; xxii. 10, 20 (as. fýn d for féond ; see note). féond lic, adj. devilish, fiendish, xi. 173; xviii. 290, 389; xxi. 590; xxii. 3 I* feorh, m. or n. life. xxii. 48. feorr, adv. far. iii. 108; viii. 93. feo rran , adv. (a) from afar. xx. 95. (b) far away, xvii. 141 (conjectured reading). féorþa, wk. adj. fourth. vi. super­ scription (M S. H), 43; viii. 81; ix. 129; xi. 384; xxi. 172. féo rþ lin g, m. (fourth part), farthing. xvi. 187. féow er, num. four. ii. 161; v. 78; vi. 88; xi. 36, 360; xi a. 123, 138; xviii. 268 (feow or), 416; xix. 125, 126. féow erfeald, adj. fourfold. only in phrase, be féo w erfea ld u m , quadruply. xvi. 178. féo w ertéo go þ a, wk. adj. fortieth. xi. 20, 46; xi a. 94, 153 (-te o g e þ -).

fé o w e rtig , num. forty, (a) as sb., without ending, acc. of extent of time w. part. gen. d a g a , g é a r a , w in tr a . ii. 152, 159; vii. 139; xi. 30; xi a. 130; xx. 5, 42, 354, 3^4-— dp. after prep., tö þ a m t w ä m læ s fé o w e rtig u m , to the two-less-thanforty. ii. 146. (b) as adj., dp. -u m , xxi. 356. [Ælfric’s Grammar has ‘duodeviginti twam læs twentig/ ed. Zupitza, p. 287, showing that the dative in ii. 146 is not due to ‘læs’.] fé o w e r tig -g e te l, n. the number of forty, ii. 148 (v.l. -getæ l). féo w ertýn e, num. fourteen, xx. 270. ge féra , wk. m. companion, vi. 40; vii. 34; ix. 20; xiv. 25, 33, 177, 207; xvi. 250; xviii. 388; xx. 189, 231. féran , I (only in pret., replacing strong pret. of fara n , q.v.). (a) to fare, go. férde, pret. is., viii. 41, 42, 214, 219; pret. 3s., i. 388; iii. 8, 92, 106; iv. 45, 236, 262; vi. 42, 331; etc. (12 times more); pret. 3s. subj., vi. 335; férd on , pret. 2p., v. 87, 255; pret. 3p., iii. 173; xi. 63; xia. 180; etc. (7 more); pret. 3p. subj., xxiii. 175.— (b) to take one's way in life, behave. pret. 3p. férd on , xviii. 102. [Cf. g e -, fo r -, fo r þ -, to -fé r a n , all in pret. only.] geféran , I. to attain, gain. xxii. 27 (pret. 3s. sige geférde). [The same phrase used by Ælfric in L S , xxv. 730, but at 721 is an exceptional ‘sige gefor\] ferian , II (orig. I), pp. ge fero d , -ed . to carry, convey, transport, vi. 178, 183, 189; xii. 101; xxi. 221, 245, 262, 482; xxvii. 79. [Cf. toferian.] fers, n. or m. verse, sentence, i. 84. fersc, adj. not salt, fresh, xiv. 44. fét, see föt. fét, fétst, see fédan. fette, gefette, see fecca n , gefeccan . feþerféte, adj. four-footed, ii. 236. fex , see fea x. ficsian , fix ia n , II. to fish. xiv. 8, 61, 148. [Cf. fisc , etc., below.] ficsn o þ, see fiscn oþ. fif, num. five. ii. 13, 63, 66; iii. 56; v.

GLOSSARY 37; xia. 1 19, 121; xvm. 21, 23, 70; xxi. 184, 243-73 (8 times), fifta , wk. adj .fifth, xxi. 174; xxiii. 6. fíftén e, num. fifteen, vi. 45. fiftig , num .fifty, ii. 178; xvi. 24, 131; xxiii. 40 (flfti).— used as sb. with part. gen. or alone, acc. or nom. without ending. [Cf. féo w e rtig.] fin d an , 3. to find. inf., ix. 34; xxii. 69; pres. 3s. fin t, iv. 43, 214, 234; pret. 3s. fun de, x. 194; xxi. 565; xxvii. 49; pret. 3p. fun d on , xxi. 161, 226; xxvi. 105. [Cf. afindan.] fin g e r, m. finger. i. 264, 266; iv. 32, 133-60 (8 times); xiii. 212; xvii. 30, 120, 121, 153; xxi. 220. fisc , fix , m. fish. i. 210 (?); ii. 236; xia. 121, 124; xiv. 23, 28, 38, 126, 149, 160, 189, 216, 223; xx. 87. [Cf. ficsia n above.] fisce re , m. fisherman, fisher, xiv. 8, 10, 66, 72, 75, 228. fiscn o þ , ficsn o þ, fix n o þ, m. (a) fishing-ground, fishery, viii. 120, 124, 128, 130; xiv. 3, 41, 66. (b) fishing, catching of fish. xiv. 18, 47. (c) catchy draught of fishes, xiv. 29, 35, 152, 154, 162, 195, 209. [Napier cited these passages, with defini­ tions, as registered in B T S .] fix , see fisc, fix ia n , see ficsian . flæ sc, n. fleshy meat. i. 49, 51, 217, 269, 271, 272, 391, 398 (twice), 403, 404; xi. 9; xia. 78; xii. 16 (twice), 1 16 (twice); xx. 101, 127; xxi. 107, 369 (Lat. carnis, ‘fleshly creatures’), flæ sc lic , adj. fleshly, xii. 137; xx. 123, 297. flæ sc m e te , m., pi. -m e tt -.flesh (for food), animal food. xx. 84, 85, 92 ( -m æ tt-) . fléa , wk. m. or i. flea. i. 227; xxi. 47. fle a m , m. flight (of a defeated force), xx. 214 (on fléa m e ge b rö h to n , put to flight); xxix. 42. #flé a m d ö m , m. the condition of a a fugitive, m id flé a m d ö m e , as a fugitive, xxii. 34. [Unique in this passage. Cited and defined by Napier.] fléo ga n , fléon, 2. to fly. part, fléo g e n d e , xx. 95; xxi. 467; pres. 3p.

857

fléoþ, i. 270; pret. 3p. flu g o n , i. 233; xx. 96; xxi. 198. [Cf. fléon below.] fléo ge , wk. f. fly, any winged insect. i. 230; iv. 82, 84 (twice), 85. fléon, 2. to flee. pres. 3p. fléoþ, xviii. 238, 308; pret. 3s. flé a g , xx. 254; fléah , xxi. 626; xxii. 34; pret. 3p. flu g o n , xvii. 240; xx. 267. [Already some confusion with fléo gan . Cf. ætfléon.] fléw þ , see flö w an . flit an, i . to make accusations (against), inf., xx. 262. flo cc, m. (flock)y troop, multitude, xi. 360; xix. 190. flo c c m æ lu m , adv. in flocks, multi­ tudes. xxi. 553. flö d , n. (a) body of watery water, i. 210; xiv. 48, 61; (b) streamyriver, v. 145. (c) (Noah’s) flood, xviii. 10, 14, 61, 63; xxi. 73, 75. flö r, f. or m.floor, ds. flöre, v.l. flo ra, xxi. 226, 420, 426; xxvi. 64, 87, 130; as. flö r, xxi. 404 (two M S S . treat as fern., two as masc.), 553 (fern.); as. flö re, xxi. 403 (v.l. flö r, twice fern., once masc.). [Orig. fern. f/-stem, ds. ‘flora’, as. ‘flör’.] flo t, n. deep water, sea. on flo t, afloat, at sea. i. 245 (?) flö w an , 7. to flow. part, flö w en d e, xx. 26; pres. 3s. fléw þ, xiv. 45; 3p. flö w aþ , v. 145. [Cf. oferflöw an.] flu g o n , see fléo ga n and fléon. fly h t, m . flyingy flight, xxi. 475. fö d a, wk. m. food. xiii. 46. fo lc, n. folk, people, nation, i. 449; ii. 65, 85, 95, 97, 122; iii. 45, 81, 144, 145, 167; iv. 30, 31, 123, 132, 149, 179, 261, 262, 284; etc. fo lgere, m. a follower, vii. 8, 165; viii. 44, 236; ix. 4; x. 10 1; xii. 143; xiv. 228. fo lg ia n , II. (a) w. dat. to follow a moving object, xxi. 279. (b) w. dat. to folloWy serve a person or a doc­ trine. i. 449; iv. 126; v. 202; vi. 184, 350; x. 10 1; xi. 49, 123, 354; xia. 155; xii. 204; xiii. 145; xiv. 40, 65 (doctrine), 227, 230 (both doctrine and person); xvi. 185; xxi. 570. (c) w. dat. to follow advice, xxx. 6.

858

GLOSSARY

fo lg ia n (cont.) (d) w. aefter, to follow after someone who has departed, xii. 208. [Cf. fy lg a n and S -B 417. 2, Anm. 7; Cpb 763, n. 4.] fo lgo þ , m. employment, service. xvi. 10, 93. fön, gefön , 7. (a) trans., of fish or birds, fig. of men, to take, catch, inf. gefön , xiv. 219; pres. 2s. féh st, xiv. 38, 216; pret. 2s. fén ge, xiv. 38, 216; 3s. g e fén g, xiv. 221, 223; X X . 97; pret. ip. gefén go n , xiv. 21, I I 7>3P->xiv - 160; fén go n , xiv. 148. (b) fön tö , w. dat. inf., to take to, begin to. pret. 3p. fén go n , xxi. 100. — w. dat. to take up,begin to do. inf., xix. 14 7;— to accept, pret. 3p. féngo n , xxi. 2 7 1.— to succeed to a position or office, pret. 3s. fén g, vi. 352 (w. þ æ r instead of dat.); xxi. 351; xxvi. 16. (c) fön tö g æ d ere, to join together (to do something), imp. p l.föþ ,xxi. 255. [Cf. b e - , f o r - , o n - , u n d e r-fön.] for, prep. for. (a) w. dat., because of, on account of, for the sake of. i. 116, 206, 223, 266; ii. 127, 212, 219, 280, 282, 284 (twice); iii. 131, 132; iv. 79, 161; v. 90, 94, 95, 127, 177, 264; vi. 13, etc. (9 times); etc. (b) w. dat., in spite of, in opposition to. iii. 173. (c) in a temporal sense, w. dat. and nü, before, since, ago: nü for féa w u m d a g u m (g éa ru m ), only a few days (years) ago. vi. 22; xxiii. 62. (d) w. acc., for the sake of, on account of. viii. 64; x. 133; xxix. 23, 31. (e) w. acc., marking estimate formed, character attributed, for, as. iii. 45, 167; xiv. 175; xxi. 82, 88, 128, 154, 209, 434, 663; xxiii. 163; xxix. 86.— fo r þ a m (þan, þon) þe, conj.for, because, i. 87, etc. (8 times); 11. 72, etc. (7 times); iii. 45, etc. (8 times); etc.— the spelling þon occurs chiefly in the late manuscripts; þ æ m at xxi. 15.— for þ a m (þan, þon), conj. withoutþe occurs occasionally, e.g. vi. 140, 296 and in M S. F at ii. 120; v. 48, 167, 193.— f o r þ a m . . . þ æ t, in order that. xxx. 13. [Cf. fo rþ a m , adv. and forþí.]

for, adv. too, very. xxi. 511 (for la n g su m ). [Cf. fornéan, fo ro ft, fo rþearle.] foran , adv. in advance, vii. 217. fo rb æ rn an , I, trans, to burn up, con­ sume. x. 175; xi. 334; xviii. 23, 70; xx. 73, 256, 269; xxi. 559; xxiii. 138; used absolutely, xxiii. 169. [Cf. fo rbyrn an.] fo rbéod an , 2. to forbid, w. acc. object or clause (absolute at xx. 206); 5 times with dat. of person; inf., xiii. 130; pres. 3s. fo rb ý t, xxiv. 4; 3p. forbéod aþ, xix. 65; pret. 3s. fo rb é a d , xia. 117; xiii. 88; xvii. 198; xx. 206; xxvi. 14; pret. 3p. fo r bu don , ix. 182. [Cf. béodan.] fo rb eran , 4. to endure, suffer, sustain. inf., ii. 204; xiii. 139; xxvi. 137; imp. s. fo rb er, ii. 196; pres. 3s. fo rb e rþ , xi. 484 (v.l. forbyrþ). [Cf. beran .] fo rb réd an (‘-bregd-’), 3. to change for the worse, transform, pp. fo r brö den , xxix. 13, 15. [So defined by B T S from this passage as printed by Skeat. Cf. brédan.] fo rb ü g a n , 2. to refrain from, inf., ii. 260;xi. 100,102; pres. ip. su b j.fo rb ü g o n (? ), xvii. 192. [Cf. b ü gan .] fo rb y rn a n , 3, intrans, to burn, be consumed by fire, burn up. inf., xi. 476; pret. 3p. fo rbu rn o n , xx. 257; pp. fo rbu rn en , xviii. 83. [Cf. fo rbaernan and byrn an .] *fo rc, f. a pitchfork, as. fo rce, xxvii. 34, (42). [B T and B T S give ‘forca’, wk. m., and ‘force’, wk. f., but this seems to be str. f. Th e dp. ‘forcum* cited by B T S from Ælfric might be any of these.] forceorfan , 3. to cut off. inf., xix. 61; xxiii. 185, 193; pp. forcorfen , xxi. 231. [Cf. ceorfan.] fo rd ém an , I. to condemn, vii. 104; xi. 213, 504; xkz. 51; xiii. i i (twice), 99 (twice), 223, 225, 226; xviii. 219; xix. 217. [Cf. dém an.] fo rdön, anom. vb. (a) to bring to ruin, destroy, inf., iv. 203; xiii. 94; xviii. 374; xxix. 109; d. inf. fordönne, xvii. 291; pres. 3s. ford éþ, iii. 27, 136; xxii. 10 1; xxx. 54; 3p. ford ö þ, xviii. 324; pres. 3s. subj. fo rd o ,

GLOSSARY xxix. 108; pret. 3s. fo rd yd e, xix. 141; 3p. fo rd yd o n , xxi. 241; pp. fo rd ö n , xi. 501; xx. 253 (np. -e). (b) to corrupt. pp. ford ön as adj. corrupt, depraved. vi. 302; xi. 191, 223; xxiii. 143. [Cf. dön.] fo r d r ü g ia n , II. to dry up. ii. 83. fo rd w in a n , 1. to vanish. pres. 3p. fo rd w in a þ , xxviii. 13. [B T cites from C H I. 592/12; II. 504/4.] fo r d y tta n , I. to obstruct. xv. 184« fo re, prep. w. dat. for the sake of> in support of, on behalf of; placed after its pron. object and im­ mediately before verb. xi. 212, 223 (or as prefix both times, foredéþ ?), 230 (or as prefix, forebéoþ?); xvii. 109; xix. 226. [Perhaps also xi. 166 and xviii. 162: see fo reþingian.] fo rea ld ia n , II. to grow old. ii. 113. [Cf. ealdian.] ?*fo re-b eo n , anom. vb. to be supporter of9 be for (someone), pres. 3p. fo reb éo þ, xi. 230 (but prob­ ably two words: see fore). [Note Æ lfric’s Grammar, ed. Zupitza, p. 200, ‘præsum ic fore eom\ Cf. béon.] fo re b ý se n , f. (premonitory) example. xxvii. 107. [B T cites only one instance, late OE. See M E D , ‘forebisne’, and cf. bysen.] ?*fo re-d ö n , anom. vb. to do (some­ thing) on behalf of (someone), pres. 3s., fo redéþ, xi. 212, 223 (but prob­ ably two words: see fore and dön). fo resæ d , adj. (pp. of fo resecgan ). aforesaid, i. 36, 293; ii. 24, 263; iii. 10; vii. 8; xi. 228, 428; xi a. 160, 215; etc. fo re scé a w ia n , II. to foresee, preordainf provide, i. 253; xi. 259, 342; xviii. 76; xxx. 79, 1 13. [Cf. scéaw ian.] fo r e s c é a w u n g , i. foresight yprovidence. xi. 279. fo re se cg a n , III. to predict, mention before, iii. 142; xi. 361 (þe w é hér fo resæ d o n , that we have just men­ tioned; or as two words, h er fore sæ don?); xx. 237. [Cf. fo resæ d above and secgan .]

859

fo restlh tu n g , f .predestination, xi. 472. fo reþ in gia n , II. to intercede for. xi. 166; xviii. 162. [Both instances can be taken as two words: see fore and þin gian .] fo reþ in g u n g , f. intercession, xi. 242. fo rfara n , 6. to go astray, perish, pres. 3p. fo rfaraþ, fi. 246. [Cf. faran.] fo rféran, I (only in pret.). to go astray, perish, i. 194, 245; viii. 138. [Cf. féran.] forfön, 7. to forestall, inf., xv. 135. [Cf. fön.] fo rg æ g a n , I. to transgress, i. 186; xxvi. 109. fo r g æ g e d n y s s ,f. transgression, i. 189; iv. 190; xii. 134; xvii. 88. fo rgifa n , -g y fa n , 5. (a) to give. inf. fo r g y fa n ,i. 390; fo rgifa n , vii. 54; pres. 3s. fo rg y fþ , v. 132; 3s. subj. fo rg y fe , vi. 372; pret. 3s. fo rgeaf, i. 47, 213, 215, 350; v. 5, 24; vii. 61, 183; pp. fo rg y fen , v. 150;— etc. (b) to forgive, inf., vi. 259; vii. 60; pres. 3s. fo r g y fþ , vii. 106; pp. fo r­ g y fe n , vi. 225, 242 (np. -e), 3 1 1 (np. -e); np. fo rgifen e, vii. 59, 60;— etc. [Cf. g if an.] fo rgife(n )n yss, - g y f - , f.forgiveness. i. 97; iii. 148; vi. 219, etc. (8 times); vii. 58; x. 87; xi. 202; etc. fo rg y ld a n , -g ild a n , -g e ld a n , 3. trans, or intrans., w. dat. of person if mentioned, to pay for, requite, re­ pay. inf. fo rg y ld a n , xvi. 178; pres. 3s. fo rg y lt, xiii. 108; xvi. 271; xxi. 667; xxx. 42; pres. 3s. subj. forg ild e , xvii. 202; 3p. subj. fo rg e ldon (v.l. -gy ld o n ), xvi. 170; pp. fo rgo ld en , xvi. 171 (future pas­ sive, with b iþ , it shall be repaid). [Cf. gyld an .] fo r g y ta n , -g ita n , 5. to forget, pres. 2s. subj. fo rg ite , xxx. 47; 3p. subj. fo rg y ta n , xiii. 187. [Cf. b e -, u n d e r -g y tan.] fo rh ab b a n , III, refl. to restrain one­ self, abstain, ii. 169; xix. 45 (see note). [Cf. h abban.] forhaefednyss, f. self-restraint, con­ tinence. xix. 1 16; xxi. 639 (-haefd-). fo rh o g ia n , II. to scorn, neglect, xix. 13, 27. [Cf. hogian.]

86ö

GLOSSARY

fo rh tian , II. to be afraid. x. 16, 130, 142. fo rh tlice, adv. timidly. vi. 308. fo rlæ d an , I. to mislead, seduce. iv. 69; xxi. 200. [Cf. lædan.] fo rlæ g , see fo rlicg an . fo rlæ ra n , I. to lead astray, deceive, seduce. i. 259; xia. 42; xvi. 234; xx. 342; xxix. 59. [Cf. læ ran.] fo rlæ tan , 7. (a) io let go, leave, re­ linquish, abandon, forsake, neglect. inf., xiv. 203; xvii. 274; xix. 25, 108. d. inf. fo rlæ ten ne, vii. 40; forlæ ten e, iii. 105; pres. is. forlæ te, viii. 43, 220; 2s. fo rlæ tst, xxi. 480; xxiii. 56; 3s. fo rlæ t, iv. 69, 216; x. 54; xviii. 103; xix. 38; ip. fo rlæ taþ , i. 221; 2p., iii. 101; 3p.,xiv. 206; pres. 3s. subj. fo rlæ te, x. 53; xix. 95, 98; ip. subj. forlæ ton , ix. 148; pret. 3s. fo rlet, v. 64, 214, 220; viii. 223; x. 125; xix. 2 1 1 ; xxi. 640; xxiii. 1 15; 3p. forléton, -a n , i. 187; xi. 356; xia. 36; xiv. 40, 145, 227, 229; xv. 102, 108; xvi. 184; xviii. 126; xxi. 84, 280, 413; xxix. 87; pret. 3s. subj. forléte, v. 121; pp. forlæ ten , x. 52; xviii. 32-217 (12 times); xix. 39; xxiii. 43. (b) to leave something (acc.) to someone (dat.). pres. is. fo rlæ te, x. 14, 121. [Cf. læ tan.] fo rleg en , adj. (pp. of forlicgan). adulterous. xiii. 209. fo rleo san , 2. to lose. pres. 3s. subj. forléose, vi. 208; ip. subj. forléoson, xvi. 248; pret. 3s. fo rléa s, x. 197; xxi. 46; pp. forloren , vii. 160. [Cf. forloren , adj.] fo rlicg a n , 5. to lie with (illicitly), pret. 3s. fo rlæ g , xxi. 116. [Cf. fo rlegen and licgan .] for lig e r , fo rlir, n. adultery, fornica­ tion. iv. 250; xiii. 199, 202; xv. 97; xvi. 73; xix. 91. fo rlig e r, fo rlir, m. adulterer, forni­ cator. xi. 379; xix. 39, 40; xxiii. 144. forloren , adj. (pp. of forleosan). (spiritually) lost, abandoned, vi. 203. fo rm a , wk. adj .first, earliest, ii. title; xi. 361, 4 1 1. [Cf. fyrm est.] fo rm o lsn ian , II. to rot away, decay. xi. 246«

fornéan, adv. very nearly, almost, xiv. 28, 189. fo rn im a n , 4. to seize, possess, take away. pp. fo rn u m en , ii. 108; xvii. 255; xxix. 75. [Cf. nim an.] foroft, adv. very often, ii. 241; vi. 296; xi. 201, 205; xiii. 65, 141; xvii. 96; xviii. 410; xix. 31, 242; xx. 3 5 7. fo rro to d n yss, f. corrupt matter, rot­ tenness. xv. 78. fo rsæ d , see fo rsecg a n . fo rsä w e , fo rsäw o n , see forseon . fo rscru n cen , adj. (pp. of ‘forscrincan’). shrunken, withered away. ii. 69, 82. fo rs c y ld (e )g o d , adj. (pp. of ‘forscyldigian’). condemned, guilty, xi. 448, 492; xiii. 204; xvii. 271; xviii. 69; xix. 246; xxiii. 146. fo rseah , see forseon. fo rsea ro d , adj. (pp. of ‘forsearian'). dried up. ii. 87. fo rse cg a n , III. to defame, accuse. pp. fo rsæ d , xvi. 5, 88. [Cf. s e c g an.] forseon, 5. to despise, scorn, neglect. inf., vi. 296; pres. 3s. fo rsy h þ , vi. 272; xx. 280, 286, 291, 294, 407; fo rsih þ , viii. 156; xiii. 48; xx. 286; pres. ip. forséoþ, xx. 300; 3p., ii. 176; vi. 277; xiii. 78; xxi. 70, 508; pres. 3s. subj. forséo, xix. 30; ip. subj. forseon, xiv. 107; 3p., xviii. 299; xxx. 10; pret. 3s. fo rsea h , xix. 146; xx. 410; xxi. 361; xxvi. 26; xxx. 19; 3p. fo rsä w o n , i. 345; iii. 95; xi. 192,294, 357; xviii. 55 (-a n ); xx. 105, 233, 260, 287; xxi. 81; pret. 3s. subj. fo rsä w e , xxi. 312. [Cf. geséon.] fo rsew e n n yss, f. contempt, i. 198; xx. 238, 280, 289; xxvi. 36 (for h is f., for contempt of him). fo rsih þ , see forseon. fo rstelan , 4. to steal, carry off. inf., xvi. 160; xxii. 45. fo rsw æ la n , I. to burn, burn up (trans.). xxi. 297. fo rsw e lg a n , 3. to swallow up. pres. 3p. fo rsw e lg a þ , xiii. 165; pret. 3s. fo rsw ea lh , xx. 250. fo rsw eo rca n , 3. to grow dark. pres. 3s. fo rsw eo rcþ , xi. 285; pp. fo r-

GLOSSARY sw o rce n , xxvii. 102. [Cf. g e sw eorcan .] fo rsw o re n , adj. (pp. of ‘forswerian’). perjured, forsworn, xi. 378; xxiv. 1. [Cf. sw erian .] fo rsy h þ , see forseon. fo rtred a n , 5. to tread down, trample on. inf., vii. 185; pres. ip. subj. fo rtred o n , xiv. 106; pp. fo rtred en , iii. 70. [Cf. getred an .] fo rþ , adv. (a) forth, on, onward, out, into view. vi. 42, 99, 178; viii. 146; xi. 453; xxi. 266; xxii. 70. (b)/rora that time forth, on, marking the con­ tinued action of a verb: gæ þ forþ, goes on, continues, xviii. 181; ge fylþ fo rþ , goes on filling, xiv. 190. (c) with other adverbs: forþ on, onward, further, i. 275; viii. 205; forþ g it, g it fo rþ, still further, x. 181, 184; xiii. 86; for heonon forþ see heonon. fo rþ a m , fo r þ a m , fo rþan , adv. for that, for that reason, therefore. iv. 125; xiii. 223; xiv. 168; xviii. 360. [Cf. f o r þ í ; for conj. for þ a m (þe) see for.] fo rþ b r in g a n , 3 , 1, to bringforth, iii. 66 (pret. 3s. -brö h te). [Cf. b rin g an .] fo rþ e arle , adv. very much, greatly, ii. 7 1; iv. 14, 74; v. 232; xxi. 569; xxiii. 103. fo rþ fara n , 6. to depart, die. only as pp., fo rþ faren , dead. ii. 248; vi. 34, 37, 99, 331- [Cf. faran.] fo rþ féran , I. to depart, die. pret. 3s. -fé rd e , xix. 144 (subj.); xxiii. 14. [Cf. féran.] fo rþ i, fo rþ ý, fo rþ ig , adv. for that reason, therefore, ii. 24, 165; iii. 35; iv. 159; v. 161; vi. 155, 337; viii. 158; etc.— spelled - þ ig at xiv. 172; xv. 152; xxvii. 65. *g e fo r þ ia n , II. to send forth, xxi. 274. [This meaning not in Hall, and not in B T or B T S under ‘geforþian’ ; but one instance in B T S under ‘forþian’.] *fo r þ m a n n ,m . man of rank. xix. 138. [Unique in this passage. Cited by Napier.] fo rþo n , adv. see furþon . fo rþ slþ , m. going forth, decease, xi. C 2710 2

86i

127, 164, 167, 171, 181, 182, 205, 209; xv. 123; xvi. 37, 153, 260; xix. 243; xxvii. 14, 33, 87, 89. fo rþ stæ p p a n , 6. to proceed, step forth. inf., ii. 210; pres. 3s. fo rþ stæ p þ , ix. 7, 86, i n , 1 12. [Cf. stæ ppan.] forþtéon, 2. to draw forth, bring forth. pret. 3s. -té a h , xix. 176. [Ælfric has ‘forþteah' at Gen. i. 12. T h e prefix rather than the adv. seems especially likely here in view of the Lat. proferens. Cf. téon.] fo rþ ý, see forþl. fo rw an d ia n , II. to reverence, iii. 19. [Cf. w an dian.] fo rw ré g a n , I. to accuse, calumniate. xxi. 491. [Cf. w regan .] fo rw u rþ an , 3. to perish, be destroyed. pres. 3p. fo rw u rþ aþ , xi. 389; xx. 426; pret. 3s. subj. fo rw u rd e, xviii. 74, 251, 367. [Cf. w urþan .] fo rw y rd , f. or n. (a) destruction, ruin. ix. 80; xi. 108; xiv. 134; xviii. 293; xix. 251; xxi. 157. (b) place of damnation, xix. 188. . fo rw y rh t, adj. (‘forworht*, pp. of ‘forwyrcan’). made forfeit by evildoing, damned, xxix. 89 (glossed damnatus). [Cf. B T S , ‘forwyrcan’, II, Ha, III.] fo rw y rn a n , I. (a) to deny something (gen.) to someone (dat.). viii. 148; xi. 449, 450; xxvi. 47; xxvii. 22. (b) to restrain, prevent someone (dat.) from doing something (neg. clause of purpose), iv. 142 (clause omitted); xxvi. 53. (c) to forbid, prohibit (same constr.). xxix. 79. *(d) to keep off, withhold something (acc.). viii. 81. [Meaning (d) not clearly illustrated in B T , B T S , though perhaps close to Beow. 1142, ‘he ne forwyrnde woroldrædenne\] fö sto r, m. feeding, xviii. 325. fö sto rm ö d o r, f. foster-mother, xxiii. 16, 32 (fo ster-). fo t, m .foot. v. 202; vi. 7 (ap. fét), 75, 101, 306, 307, 344; vii. 141, 146; xvi. 13, 10 1; etc. fö tco p s, m .foot-fetter, xvii. 224, 225. [B T cites this instance from Thorpe’s text of C H ; B T S gives other instances in Ælfric.]

B b

862

GLOSSARY

fö tlæ st, i. footprint, xxi. 420 (ap. fö tlæ sta). [This form cited by Napier to call attention to its gender.] fraco d , adj. infamous, indecent, aban­ doned. vi. 169; xi. 379; xxi. 15 1,

5 * 3fra co d n y ss, f. abomination, xxi. 496, 567.

ge fræ tew ia n , II. to adorn, iv. 245; viii. 53; xi. 248 (-fr e t-, v.l. -fræ t-). fr a m , once fro m (xviii. 84), prep. w. dat. from, (a) indicating whence there is motion or direction, literal or figurative (going or coming, sending, leading, taking away, rais­ ing, driving, separating, etc.), i. 37, 299, 301 (these three can also mean by); iii. 58, 68; iv. 9, 208, 257, 262; vi. 281, 371; vii. 14, 46, 52, 133; etc. (b) indicating that from which one refrains or is cut off or ex­ cluded. ii. 169, 170; xi. 133 (losaþ fra m , is lost from); xvi. 114 (fram C r iste , perhaps also by); xviii. 341; xix. 45; xxvi. 76. (c) indicating that from which one is healed, cleansed, saved, released, ii. 23 (from w. h äl, by w. geh aefd; see note), 97, 105, 1 1 8, 268; iv. 60, 61, 62, 70, 242; vii. 126; xi a. 136; etc. (d) indicating that (good or bad) from which there is turning, change, correction, xii. 163; xiii. 132; xv. 54, 161; xvi. 63 ;'xvii. 116; xxi. 295. (e) with adjec­ tives signifying lack, difference, estrangement: w. æ m tig , devoid of, free from. ii. 149; iv. 244; xviii. 93, 99, 343Í w. æ lþ é o d ig , alien from. v. 1 15; w. æ lfre m e d , estranged from, xiv. 139 (twice); xxi. 164. (f) indicating a past event or period from which an interval of time is measured, i. 469; ii. 242 (fram A d a m e , from Adam's time); viii. 59; ix. i i , 151, 155; xi. 20, 4 1 1 ; xia. 94; xviii. 84; xxi. 525. (g) of source, indicating from whom some­ thing is acquired, xiii. 185. (h) of agency, indicating the person or thing whence action proceeds, now usually by. i. 136, 192; ii. 23 (w. geh aefd; see above, sense c), 265; viii. 60; x. 52; xi. 15; xia. 89; xii.

229; perhaps xvi. 114 (see above, sense b); xxiii. 195; xxvii. 63.) free, adj. greedy, voracious, xxi. 493. fré ced n yss, f. danger, peril, harm. vi. 335; xiv. 191; xviii. 245, 319, 321; X X ix. 49. frécen fu ll, adj. perilous, vi. 316. [Cf. B T and Hall, Suppl.] gefréd a n , I. to feel, perceive, i. 266; xi. 218 (pres. 3s. gefrét), 479, 486; xxi. 547; xxv(c). 2, 6; xxvi. 90. fréfria n , ge fréfrian , II. to comfort. vi. 48, 186, 253; vii. 42; x. 85, 131; xia. 7; xiv. 217; xx. 82; xxiii. 120; xxvi. 85. fré frig en d , m. comforter (the Holy Spirit), x. 85. fre m fu ll, adj. benignant, xviii. 195. fre m ia n , II (orig. I), to be of advan­ tage to someone (dat.), avail, benefit, impers., vii. 12, 44, 47; xi. 223, 272; xix. 202; xxx. 46; pers., xi. 160. g e frem ia n , g e fre m m a n , II, I. toperform. v. 67 (pret. is. gefrem od e), 91; vi. 164 (pres. 3s. ge frem aþ ); x. 46; xi. 406; xii. 60, 126; xv. 97; xvi. 208; xvii. 60, 62, 187; xviii. 362 (inf. ge frem m a n ); xix. 180; xxvi. 5 °. fr e m m in g f.performance, vi. 175, 181 (-in ege); ix. 147; x. 31, 34, 46; xii.

154fre m u , f. advantage, use. ix. 45. fréo, fr ig , adj. free. xix. 86 (nsf. frig); xxiii. 153 (nsm. fréo), 173 (np. frige). ge fréo ga n , II. to set free, xxiii. 40 (pret. 3s. gefréode). freolice, adv. freely, ii. 267. fréo ls, m. or n. festivity, festival. ii. 43, i 83> 255* fréolsdaeg, m .feast day. ii. 267; xviii. 339* fré o lsian , II. to celebrate, keep as a feast, ii. 218, 263; xvi. 78; xxi. 174. fre o lsllce, adv. festively, joyfully, ii. íyS. fréon d, m. friend, vi. 30; viii. 64; xi. 139, 153, 230 (np. frýnd), 239, 27 L 272; xv. 82 (ap. frýnd), 85 (ap. freon d, v.l. frin d both times); xvi. 15, 36, 122, 150, 155, 259; xvii. 106.

GLOSSARY fréo n d ræ d en , f. friendship. xvi. 147, F r ic g . Frigg, the Scandinavian god­ dess, wife of Odin, corresponding to O E F r ig as in F r íg e d æ g . xxi. 177 (v.l. fr y c g , fricge). fr ig , see fréo. F r lg e d æ g , m. Friday. ii. title (and in titles of iii, v, vi in M S. H); xi. 36. (L a n g g a n F r lg e d æ g e , Good Friday). F r ig e n ih t, f. Thursday night. viii. 20. [This instance cited by Napier with two other examples. B T S has these and a fourth.] friþ , m. or n. peacey protection. xxi. 227. frö for, f. (?) comfort, help. ix. 213; xxi. 172, 179. fr ö fo r g ä st, frö fe r-, m. Spirit of comforty Comfortery Paraclete. vi. 253; vii. 14, 46, 52, 54, 57; ix. 5, 84, 1 12; x. i i , 80; xia. 7. fro m , see fra m . fr u m a , m. beginning. only in set frum a n , at first, ii. 226; xiii. 143; xvi. 173; xvii. 145; xix. 34. fru m sce a p e n , adj. first createdyfirst, xi. 94; xvi. 231. fr u m w æ s tm a s , mp. first-fruits, xxx. 76, 84, 105, 109. fr y m þ , m. (?) beginning, fr a m fr y m þ e , i. 469; ix. 155; xi. 82, 472; xviii. 84; on fry m þ e , xxi. 188. frý n d , see fréon d. fu g e l, m. birdy fowl, i. 210; ii. 236; xx. 87. fu g e lcy n n , n. bird-tribey species of birds, xx, 95. fü h t, adj. dampy moist, iv. 223. *fü h tia n , II. to be moist, drip, iv. 229. [Unique in this passage. Cited by Napier.] fu l, adj./ow/. i. 421; ii. 190; iv. 44, 82, 229, 235, 245, 262; v. 129; xi. 374, 379» 384; xiii. 199; xvi. 68; xvii. 268; xviii. 74, 373; xxi. 121, 161, 565, 570, 593; xxvi. 14. fü le , adv, foully, i. 269; vi. 169, 198. comp., fü lre , xvi. 68 (or adj., -r e for -ra). fu ll, adj. fully filledy complete, viii. 33, 163, 165; xia. 105, 122, 125; xii. 236; xiv. 186; xx. 102; xxx. 94.—

863

with gen. pi., full of. xiv. 23, 126, 149.— with m id , filled with. i. 54, 456.— be fu lla n , fully, xxi. 63. fu ll, adv. completely, to the full, (a) ful g o d , entirely good. xi. 187 (np. göde). (b) ful str ä n g , at full strength, xx. 371. (c) ful söþ, adv. with perfect truth, viii. 244. [In other expressions the adverb has been treated as a prefix, presumably with subordinate stress. Cf. the next five entries and fu llw eaxan .] fu ll cö þ , fu lcö þ , adj. well-known, xi. h i ; xii. 79; xiv. 1 14; xxi. 292. *fu llc ý þ a n , I. to utter completely, de­ clare in full. i. 131. [Not in diet. Cf. cýþan.] fu llfrem ed , fu l-, adj. complete, per­ fect. i. 1 18; xiii. 23, 135, 145; xix. 1 15; xxi. 654. fu llfre m e d llce , adv. completely, per­ fectly. xxi. 641. fu llfre m e d n y ss, f. perfection, com­ pleteness, ii. 149(ful-) ;xviii. 120,144. fu llian , II. to baptize, i. 308; iv. 232; ix. 101; xii. 87; xvii. 153. gefu lllan , II. to baptize, pret., xi. 65; xia. 182; xxiii. 202; pp. gefu llo d , vi. 195; ix. 106; xi. 15, 503; xia. 89; xii. 89, 1 13, 126; xxi. 641; xxiii. 37, 45» 157, 158; gefu lled , xxiii. 153, [Cf. un gefullod .] fü lllce , adw. foully, xi. 374; xvii. 264; xxi. 103, 1 16, 158. fu lllce , adv. fully, ii. 148; v. 284; xia. 7 1; xxvi. 81; xxix. 89. fu llu h t, n. baptism, i. 401; iv. 243, 244; vii. 133; xi. 18; xia. 92; xii. 72, 85, 94, 101, 104, 124, 133» 193; xvi. 140; xvii. 175; xxi. 8, 634; xxiii. 36; xxvi. 5. fu llu h tere, m. baptist (confined to John the Baptist), i. 437; ix. 67; xi. 15; xia. 89. fu llw e a x a n , 7. to grow to maturity, xi. 310 (pret. 3s. subj. fulw éoxe); xii. h i (pret. 3p. subj. fulw éoxon). [Hall cites the form at xii. 111 from Belfour’s text. Otherwise recorded only as pp., ‘fulweaxen\ full-grown. Cf. w eaxan .] fü ln y ss, f. foulness, filth, i. 415; iv. 219; xvii. 261.

864

GLOSSARY

fu ls tan , see fy lsta n . fu ltu m , m. help, support. i. 60, 215, 264; ii. 159; ix. 51; xi. 162; xiv. 164, 233; xx. 82, 160; xxi. 171; xxii. 6, 69; xxvi. 25. fu ltu m ia n , II. to help, support, assist. xiv. 26, 178 (dat. inf. -igen n e); xxi. 131 (v.l. gefultum ian ). fu lw é o xe, fu lw éo x o n , see fu llw eaxan. fun de, fundon, see fin dan . fun dian , II. to direct one's course. xxv(c). 18. fu n d u n g, f. departure. viii. 23; ix. 4;

in xx to the Israelites on the march to the promised land), xx. 11, 60, 96; xxii. 20, 77; xxix. 91, 93. fy rd ia n , II. to go on a military expedition, march, xxi. 129. [B T S cites this passage from Wulfstan’s adaptation in M S . T.] fy r d in g , f. (a) an army (called out for a campaign), xxii. 53 (ds. -in cg e ); xxix. 44 (ds. -u n g e , v.l. -Inge), (b) an expedition, campaign. xxix. 42 (ds. -u n g e , v.l. -in ge). fy rd lä f, f. remnant of an army. xx. 214 (ds. where as. is to be expected: see note). [B T S cites one passage only, L S xxv. 377.] fý re n , 2id]. fiery. xx. 316. fy rh tu , f. fright, dread, xvii. 255; xxix.

x. i 33‘ fu rla n g , n. furlong, vi. 45. furþon, forþon, furþ an, adv. even, indeed. i. 173, 251, 415; v. 126; vii. 160; xi. 504; xviii. 336; xix. 241; 75xx. 7, 26; xxi. 48, 297, 339; xxix. 61. fy rle n , adj. distant, remote, iii. 8, 92, 107 (asm. fyrlen[n ]e); ix. 100; xiv. fu rþ or, ad v. further (than), ahead (of). 180; xxi. 77. v. 23; xi. 556; xiii. 22, 134. fy r m e s t, adj. (sup. of form a), first, fu s , adj. ready to depart, eager or in chief; wk. as noun, the foremost, the haste to go (sometimes best trans­ leader, xi a. 32; xvi. 136, 174; xix. lated by an adverb), x. 76 (‘speedily’) 143 (‘close to going’); xx. 207 176; xxi. 158, 523. g e fy rn , adv. long ago, formerly, i. 467; (‘eagerly’). ge fylc(e ), n. band of men, host. xi. 360 ii. 15 1, 190; xv. 9, 61, 125; xvii. 62; (np. gefylcu), 361 and 384 (both xviii. 10; xx. 146; xxvi. 21; xxix. ns. g e fy lc, v.l. ge filc, gefylce). 52, 103. fy lg a n , fylia n , I, w. dat. to follow, i. fy rn lic , adj. former, vii. 133; xi. 290; vi. 347 (both pres. 3s. fy lig þ , 503. f ilig þ ) ; x. 146 (inf. fy lia n ) ; xii. 206; fy rn lice (‘ firen-’), adv. sinfully, xvii. 204 (both pret. 3p. fy lig d o n ); wickedly, xvii. 268. xxii. 33 (fylian ). [Cf. folgian.] fy r s t, m. or n. period, space of time. g e fy lla n , I. to fulfil, perform, fill, viii. 142; xviii. 372; xix. 147; xx. 7, complete, i. 467; ii. 79, 201, 205, 8; xxi. 73; xxiii. 205. fy rþ ria n , g e fy rþ ria n , II. to further, 207; v. 77, 241; vi. 353; ix. 24, 190; x. 64; xiii. 49; xiv. 186, 190; advance, benefit, xi. 162 (inf. -iu n ); xv. 106; xvi. 202; xix. 35; xx. 144, xx. 1 12; xxii. 69. 373. [Cf. a fy lla n 2.] g e fy ls ta , m. helper, xv. 224. fy lsta n , fu lsta n , I, w. dat. to support, G help. ii. 203; xvii. 109; xxii. 78 (pret. 3s. fylste). G a b r ie l, the angel, xia. 62; xxvii. 55, 60 (G a b rih el). fý lþ , f. filth, impurity, unclean practice. i. (423); xviii. 84, 371; xxi. 497, 568. g e g a d a , wk. m. comrade, companion. fy lþ , see feallan . xi a. 34; xx. 238. fý n d , see féond. g a d e ria n , g e g a d e r ia n , II. (a) trans, fý r, n. fire. ii. 180; v. 275; vii. 7 1; ix. or absolute, to gather, unite, iv. 40, 132; x. 97, 174; xi. 58, 226, etc. (16 56, 199, 2 1 1 ; v. 82, 250, 261, times); etc. 273 ; xi. 343; xii. 2 1 1 ; xvi. 134; fy r d , f. (national) army, host (applied xvii. 74; xviii. 212 (pp. np. g e g a -

GLOSSARY dorade), 267, 415. (b) refl. to come together. xviii. 211. (c) refl. w. eft, to he reunited, reconciled. xix. 101. (d) intr. to gather. xviii. 39 (pres. 3p. gad riaþ), 205 (g ad eria þ ). g e g a d e r u n g , f. gathering, assembly. xiv. 90 (translating S in a g o g a ). g æ r s , n. grass, xix. 23. g æ r s ta p a , wk. m. grasshopper, locust, i. 235; xx. 164. g a fo l, n. interest, usury, xxiv. 5, 8, ii. g ä l, adj. lustful, xxi. 113. G a lile is c , adj. Galilean, 0/ Galilee. xiv. 42; xvii. 2, 23(F), 282. G a llic a n u s , a general under Con­ stantine the Great, xxii. 52, 56. g ä ln y s s , f. lust, wantonness. i. 415 (?); iv. 229; xi. 317; xxi. 151. g a m e n , n. sporty merriment, xxi. 551. g ä n , anom. vb. to go, proceed. inf., ii. 49, etc.; pres. 2s. g æ s t, xxi. 396; xxvi. 64; 3s. g æ þ , i. 291, 306; etc.; 3p. g á þ ,v i. i34;p ret. 3s.eode, i.438; etc.; 3p. éodon, v. 9; éodan, xxvi. 104; etc. [26 times in i-vii. Cf. a - , b e -, o fe r-, þ u r h -g a n and next entry.] g e g ä n , anom. vb., w. dat. of pers. to attain to. inf., vi. 283. [B TS, II. 1, with examples from Ælfric.] g a n g , m. privy, x. 166. g a n g a n , 7. to goy walky occas, come. pres. part, g a n g e n d e , ii. 39, 2 11; xx. 120 (m id fö tu m , on foot); imp. sg. g a n g , ii. 185; v. 33; xiii. 227; xvi. 214; xxiii. 109; pres. is. g a n g e , xxiii. 72; pres. 3s. subj. g a n g e , vii. 118 (g a n g e of, descend from); xix. 130; xx. 56 (come). [Ap­ parently substituted in these forms for the corresponding forms of gän.] G a n g w u c e , wk. f. Rogation Week. xi. 51; xia. 159; xix. 123. g ä r s e c g , m. ocean. xia. 46. g a s t, m. ghost, spirit, (a) the Holy Spirit, i. 25, 75, etc. (9 times); ii. 179, 291; iii. 179; iv. I 3 5 > etc. (8 times); v. 131, 132, 146, 210; vi. 218-82 (16 times); vii. 26, etc. (10 times); etc. (b) abstract spirit, or a living person’s spirit, i. 399

865

(twice); v. 52, 54, 55, 170, 172, 173; vi. 79; etc. (c) a demonic spirit, iv. 41, etc. (9 times); etc. g ä s tlic , adj. spiritual, i. 10, 400; ii. 61, 259; iv. 65; v. 242; vii. 202; viii. 55; ix. 1 19; x. n o ; etc. g ä s tlic e , adv. spiritually, xvi. 202. g a ta , see geat. ge, conj. and. i. 173.— usually as corr., both . . . and. i. 348; ii. 236 (three times); iv. 129, 149, 181-2; v. 235; vii. 148; etc. [Also with æ gþ er, q.v.] g e , see p a . g e a lla , m. gaily bile. xvi. 249. *g e a n c y m e , m. return, xxi. 633 (glossed reditu). [This meaning not in diet., which gives meeting; but see B T , B T S , ‘geancyrr/ meaning both meeting and return.] g e a r, n. year. viii. 81; xi. 5, 90; xvi. 235 (is. æ lce géare); xviii. 329, 369 (ap. gear); xix. 21; xx. 5, 354, 366; xxii. 25; xxiii. 7, 48, 62; xxvi. 16; xxvii. 84; xxx. 78, 79.— on ge are , some year. i. 273 (see B T S , III. a, citing Napier); a year, xix. 130. [Gender elsewhere sometimes masc. as at C H II. 300/32; here neuter at xviii. 369; otherwise uncertain.] ge a rcia n , g e g e a rc ia n , II. to prepare. ii. 191; ix. 15, 122, 188; w. prefix, xi. 410, 438, 518; xix. 218. g e are , adv. with w ita n and cunnan, well, perfectly, for certain, xii. 29, i75 (g ea ru , v.l. g e a r e ); xvii. 292(F); xxvi. IOI. g e a ru , adj. prepared, ready, v. 80, 248; xv. 43; xx. 203. g e a t, n. gate. xix. 214 (ap. helle ga ta); xxvii. 86. [B T S questions ‘helle-geat’ as a compound.] G elb o e, Mount Gilboa (Vulg. Gelboe) in Galilee. (I Reg. xviii. 4). gs. G e lbo es, xxix. 44. ge ld , n. money-payment, tax. xiii. 69 (v.l. gild -). [Cf. gyld an .] G e n e sare þ , Genesareth, another name for the Sea of Galilee, xiv. 4. ge o c, iu c, n. yoke, collar, xxi. 261; xxiii. 133; fig., domination, xix. 85. ge o g u þ , f. youth, xxx. 103, n o . with def. art., (a) the younger generation,

866

GLOSSARY

g e o g u þ (cont.) xx. 370; (b) the young (of cattle), xxx. 78. #g e ö m ria n , II. trans, to bewail. xxvi. 91. [This use not illustrated in dic­ tionaries, but see O.E. Bede, I. 27, ed. Miller, I. i. 82/12 and 88/15. Usually intrans, to sighy groan, lament, as in M S. F ’s emendations at vi. 79, 85.] g e ö m ru n g , g e ö m e ru n g , f. lamenta­ tion, groaning. xv. 162; xvii. 32, 135, 138, 143, 146; xxvi. 82. geon d, prep. w. acc. beyond, throughy throughout. xi. 63; xia. 180; xvii. 5; x v i i i . 282, 305, 389; x x i . 1 5 7 , 240,

243, 245, 34 L 403, 553, 558. ge o n g , iu n g , adj. young. xi. 116, 172; xix. 16, 87; xxi. 261, 275. comp., g in g r a , xxii. 73. g e o n g lic, iu n g lic , adj. youthful, young. vii. 102; xxiii. 7. (g e o n g lin g ), iu n g lin g , m. yowwg oney child. xix. 16. georne, adv. eagerly, earnestly, carefully. iii. 182; v. 92; vi. 155; xiii. 195; xviii. 395; xxi. 86, 310; xxiii. 28; xxvi. 99, 114; xxvii. 8; xxx. 9. georn fu ll, adj. zealous, diligent. xviii. 192. g e o rn fu ln yss, f. diligence, xxv(c). 18. georn lice, adv. earnestly. viii. 37, 179; xi. 172; xii. 184; xviii. 172; xx. 393* G e ra se n o ru m , gp. 0/ Geraseniy A. V. Gadarenes (Mark v. 1). xvii. 221 (the Lat. gp. to be taken with lande.) Étf» g y f, conj. if. i. 147, etc. ( 1 1 times); ii. 175, 272; iii. 140, 172; iv. 21, etc. (15 times); etc. gifan , g y fa n , 5. to give, only as pres. 3s* éyfþ»i. 354, g ifþ ,iv . 161; x. 15; xi. 68; xia. 185. [Cf. a g ifa n , forgifan.] gífe rn y ss, g ý fe rn y ss, f, greediness, gluttony, iv. 250; v. 237; xix. 128. gifu , g y fu , {.gift, grace, i. 54, 335,456, 457, 466; ii. 74, 94; iv. 156, 161; v. 18, 130, 131, 212; vi. 277; vii. 218, 222; etc. g in g r a , see ge o n g.

g irn a n , I, w. gen. to ask fory demand. X X X . 48. g it, see g ý t. g itse r e , m. miser, xi. 375. g lts u n g , g ý ts u n g , f. avarice, greedi­ ness. iv. 250; v. 203; xix. 128. g la d ia n , g e g la d ia n , II. (1) trans. to make glad: (a) of G o d ’s action toward men, to gladdeny cheer: ix. 145; x. 89; xi. 490; *with to , to cause to rejoice in: i. 92; x. 91. (b) of man’s action toward God, to please, appeasey propitiate, iii. 149; vi. 142; xv. 48, 158; xvii. 177; xviii. 52; with dat., to make pleased with: i. 255. (c) of one man’s action to­ ward another, to appease, be re­ conciled to: xv. 23, 142, 195, 206. (d) the object a feeling (anger), to placate, mitigate: xv. 134.— (2) in­ trans. to rejoice: xi. 207. [Only six without prefix: iii. 149; vi. 142; ix. 145; xi. 207; xv. 48; xvii. 177. T h e use with to is not in diet.] g læ d lic e , adv. gladly, willingly, xiii. 1 15; xv. 208; xxx. 76, 91, 102. g læ d n y s s , f. gladness, joy. xix. 51. g le a w lic e , adv. wisely, prudently, xvi.

233g e g le n g a n , I. to adorn, decorate, xvii. 278. g lö w a n , 7. to glow. part, glö w e n d e , xxvii. 35, 43. gnaett, m. gnat. i. 230; iv. 142. g n a g a n , 6. to gnaw. pret. 3p. g n ö g o n , i- 235g o d , m. God, a god. i. 29 (twice), 30, 37, 48, 50, 53, etc.— nap. g o d a s (not neuter, though applied in some instances to heathen gods), i. 162, 358, 362, 379, 381; xxi. 80, 82, 86, etc.— spelled G o d d , xxiii. 31.— G o d es aecer, see aecer; G o d e s m a n n , man of Gody xxi. 325, 477 (Daniel). [This word is usually dis­ tinguished from gö d in the M S S . by having no accent, but the rule is broken on several occasions. In M S. V it is sometimes clearly dis­ tinguished by a breve, ‘göd’, xi. 104, etc.] g ö d , gö ö d , adj. good. i. 130, 191, 192, 198, 252; ii. 209; iii. 63 (twice),

GLOSSARY

867

9 i, 183; iv. 238, 244; v. 134; vi. 309; xxi. 236, 452. *(b) manifesta­ 294, vii. 88 (gp. gö d d ra ); etc.— tion of divine wrath, plague, xx. 273; strong pi. as noun, good ones, xiv. xxi. 257* [Meaning (b) is a special 156.— wk. pi. with art. þ a g ð d a n , instance of B T S , II.] etc. the good. xi. 348, 353; xviii. 207 g r a m lic , adj. fierce, cruel, iv. 88; xi. (göö d -), 209 ( g ö ö d - ) ; xxi. 54 373; xxi. 288, 296; xxix. 39. (g ö ö d -). [Frequently accented, g rä p ia n , g e g r ä p ia n , II. to lay hold ‘gód, good’, but see comment under of, touch, vii. 140, 147, 154. [Cf. preceding word.] ge grip an .] g ö d , n. (a) goody benefit, good thing, grä p ie n d lic , adj. palpable, tangible. wealth. i. 335, 402; xi. 381; xiii. 13 xi. 325. [B T cites one example only, (twice), 106 (twice), 113; xvi. 6, 89, C H I. 230.] 154, 168, 214, 273; xix. 162; xxx. G ra tia n u s, Roman emperor, a .d . 52, 79, 1 13. (b) good deed{s), good. 375-83. xxii. 59. xxx. 30. (c) moral good, virtue, vi. G r e c is c , adj. Greek, x. 84. on G re 135; xia. 1 16; xii. 152; xvi. 109; xxi. c isc , in {the) Greek {language), v. 52 (ap. gööd). (d) tö gö d e , for a 208. good end. xiii. 116; xxvii. 9; xxx. 43. G r e g o riu s, Gregory the Thaumaturg o d cu n d , adj. divine, i. 333; iv. 7; xi. gist, d. a .d . 266. viii. 101, 106; xxi. 289; xvii. 216; xxi. 6. 575» 605 and 608 (gs. G re go ries), g o d c u n d lic , adj. divine, x. 158. 615, 626, 628, 629, 643 (ds. G r e g o d c u n d n y ss, f. divinity, godhead. gorie). g r e m ia n , g e g r e m ia n , II (orig. I), to i. 3» 9» etc. (11 times); ii. 291; iv. 168; vi. 239, 248; vii. 209; viii. 104, enragey provoke, irritate, i. 256; xi. 187, 195, 210, 226, 246; etc. 373; xv. 190; xvii. 174, 269; xviii. g e g ö d ia n , II. to endow, xxiii. 41. 56; xx. 40, 80, 104, 235» 265, 358, g ö d n y s s , g ö ö d n y s s, f. goodness, i. 394; xxvi. 33. 206, 353; vi. 294; viii. 68; X . 64; xi. g ré ta n , I. to greet, xxi. 341, 616. 152; xia. 8; xiii. 39, 55; xv. 48; xvii. g rin d a n , 3. to grind, part, grin d en d e , 148; xix. 24, 245, 253; xxi. 92; xviii. 1 13; pres. 3p. g rin d a þ , xviii. xxiii. 9; xxvi. 13; xxx. 48, 51 (ap. 3 3 >_i i o . g ö d n e ssa for as. -e?). g e g r ip a n , 1. to snatch up, carry off. g o d sp e lb o d u n g , f. gospel-preaching, pp. np. g e grip e n e. xviii. 207. [Cf. gräpian .] new dispensation, xix. 36. g o d s p e ll, n. gospel, i. 2, 17, etc. (9 g r is tb itia n , II. to gnash the teeth, xi. times); ii. 2, 59, 84, 160; iii. 46, 120; 328. iv. 56; v. i, 98, 160, 272; vi. i, 131, g r is tb itu n g , f. gnashing of teeth, xviii. 217, 301; vii. I , 5; etc.— the word 433explicated, viii. 1 -1 1 . g e g ru n d w e a llia n , II. to establish, ii. g o d sp e lle r e , m. evangelist, i. 12, 17, 164. [Cf. gew eallod .] etc. (8 times); ii. 5, 161; iv. 57; v. 1; g r y m e tta n , I. to cry out. vi. 79, 85 viii. 24; etc. (Lat. infremuit, fremens, where A .V . g o d s p e llic , adj. evangelical, v. 267; has the milder groaned, groaning; xi. 62; xia. 179; xvi. 202. M S. F emends; see geöm rian). g o ld , n. gold. i. 248; xx. 43, 46, 50; g r ý tr a , wk. adj. (comp, of ‘great'). xxi. 191, 530. greater, xvi. 134. g o ld h o rd , m. treasure, ix. 44. g y d e n , f. goddess, ns., xxi. 114— in­ gö ö d , see gö d . flected as if from ‘gydene', wk. f . : g r æ fs e a x , n. graving tool. xxi. 207 g y d e n a n , ds., xxi. 176; as., xxi. [B T has only one instance, from a 154; np., xxi. 156. [See S -B 258, gloss.] Anm. 2; Cpb 592 (c), (e).] g r a m , adj. angry, xx. 178; xxix. 39. g y f, see gif. g y fa n , see gifan . g r a m a , m. (a) anger, wrath, xx. 221,

868

GLOSSARY

g ý fe r n y s s , see g ífe rn y ss . g ý t see fo rþ .— spelled g y t t, viii. é y fu , see gifu . 158. g y ld a n , I. to pay, requite, xiii. 122 g y te , m. pouring forth, shedding. only (pres. 3s. g y l t ; v.l. fo rg y lt); xvi. in blö d es g y te , bloodshed, viii. 126. 21, 128 (v.l. gild -). [Cf. g e ld and g ý ts u n g , see g its u n g . a g y ld a n , fo rgyld an .] g y ld e n , adj.golden, xxi. 256, 257, 263, 273; xxvi. 20. H g y lp , m. boasting, pride, xxx. 61, 72. sé id ela g y lp , vainglory, xvii. 192, h a b b a n , III. to have. I, as an in­ 194; xxx. 60, 64, 68. dependent verb, (a) to possess, enjoy, g y lt, m. sin, offence, i. 204; vi. 216; entertain, experience, have in various ix. 176; x. 54, 193; xi. 225; xiii. 167, familiar senses: e.g. to have in one's 168, 182, 228; xv. 18, 157; xxi. 58, possession as property, to have the 332; xxvi. 3; xxvii. 13, n o . use or benefit or assistance of, to g ý m a n , I, w. gen. to care for, take have a servant, master, friend, or heed to, regard, observe, xiii. 79; xiv. relation, to have an attribute, name, 74; xviii. 78; xxi. 322. meaning, quality, faculty, power, g ý m e lé a s , adj. careless, negligent, xi. to have a feeling, opinion, senti­ 228; xviii. 192; xix. 140. ment, to have a subordinate part or g ý m e n , f. care, diligence, xxi. 54. adjunct, a place, etc. [Cf. B T S , II. g y r d , f. rod. xxi. 218. 2, IV, V, V I, X ; O E D , I. 1-4, 9.] * g y r le , wk. f. dress, apparel, xi. 244 i. 173, 180, 181 (?), 291, 457, 461; (dp. gyrlu m ), 342 (gsf. gyrlan). ii. 64, 82; iii. 51, 59, u i , 113; [B TS records only ‘girela', wk. m., >v. 35> 78, 84, 184, 252; v. 37 (twice), and str. f. ‘girelu’.] 72, 1 14, 220, 227; vi. 199, 248, 322, g ý t, g it, adv. yet. (a) marking con­ 343> 348; vii. 49, etc. (xi times); tinuance, still, yet. i. 195, 219; iv. 64; etc. [For h a b b a n c ý þ þ e tð , see ix. 171; xi. 154; xiv. 96, 224; xvii. cýþþ.] (b) to hold in possession, 96, 152; xxi. 54; xxvi. 66; xxix. 118. keep. [B TS, IX ; O E D , I. 1.] xxi. (b) as complement to a period of 239, 251. (In 239 h a b b a n , keep, is time or a quantity, remaining, still, contrasted with h æ fdon in 238: the yet. v. 78; vii. 24, 187. (c) in addi­ Philistines were holding the ark as tion, further, i. 343; xvii. 277; xx. if they intended to keep it.] (c) to 9; xxi. 572; xxvi. 1; xxvii. 114; have, hold in a relation specified by xxx. 30. (d) with negatives, yet ( till a prepositional phrase. [B TS , III; now, till then, even now, even then). O E D , I. 2. b.]— with m id , to have viii. 32, 38, 158, 206; xix. 6; xx. 183. in one's company, enjoy the presence of. (e) with comparatives, still, yet. iv. v. 187; viii. 160; xi. 546.— with 54, 287, 291; xviii. 180; xxi. 181.— tö , to have or accept someone as with other adverbs: eft g y t, yet such and such. ix. 163 (to have again, i. 77.— g ý t æ fre, now {still) the prophets as witnesses); xia. 31 (to and ever after, xii. 185.— þ a g ý t have their Creator as their Lord).— (where þ a limits the meaning to the with on an w ea ld e, to hold in one's time it points to), (a) marking per­ power, iv. 189.— with on ge w u n a n , sistence, still, vi. 69; xiii. 213; xx. to be accustomed to, make a habit of. 101. (b) of consecutive action, vi. 200; xiii. 68.— with to h o sp e, further, besides, ii. 193; x. 204. (c) tö ta le , tö fo rse w e n n y sse , to hold with negatives, as yet, yet, till then. in scorn, reproach, contempt, vi. 219; i. 142, 193; id. 134; v. 151, 155; x. 173; xx. 182, 280. (d) with vi. 178; vii. 42, 78; xii. 70; and re­ object and dat. inf., to have as a duty versed at beginning of sentence, or thing to be done. [B TS, V II ; g í t þ a , even then. xxi. 99.— forforþ O E D , I. 7.] vii. 24, 187 (‘ic hæbbe

GLOSSARY cow to secgenne fela þing’). (e) with fo r, to consider as, regard as. [B T S , X I I ; O E D , I. io.] iii. 4 5,167; xxiii. 163. (f) to have, hold, carry on some proceeding. [B TS, X I I I ; O E D , I. ii.] viii. 21 (had a talk), (g) to come into possession of, have by taking or receiving, obtain, receive. [B T S , X V ; O E D , I. 14.] i. 325, 387; iii. 116, 148, 185; iv. 7 1 ; V . 22; vi. 264; vii. 134; viii. 7, 1 12; ix. 215; xi. 137, 370, 410, 557; xii. 42, 223, 237; etc. (h) to possess a woman carnally, xv. 96. [Sweet has ‘wif habban have intercourse with*; not in B T or Hall, though perhaps con­ sidered a special instance of (g). An instance at L S xxx. 162 (nonÆlfrician).] (i) of parents, to have a child by getting or bearing. [A special instance of (g): B T S , X V ; O E D , I. 14.] xix. 107 (said nega­ tively of a barren wife). *(k) with w illa n , to wish to find present in another a quality one approves or enjoins. [Not in diet, but cf. O E D , I. 18. b.] xvi. 225 (‘Crist wile habban unsceþþinysse on us'). (1) with to , in to, to cause to go or come, to receive, bring, take to or into a place or state. [B TS, X V I ; O E D , I. 16.] ii. 243; xi. 170; xiv. 70, 184, 187; xvii. 71. II, as an auxiliary verb. [BT, IV, V ; B T S , B. II; O E D , II. 24, 25.] (a) with object and inflected past participle, once only: xxi. 465, hæ fde rifte ra s ab ed en e, almost had reapers who had been called in. (b) with pp. un­ inflected (or uncertain): present forms making a compound perfect tense, ii. 59; iii. 46; vi. 229; viii. 50, 240; xi. 15 1 ; xvi. 18, 125; xviii. 43, 222, 259, 270, 382; xx. I, 49, 319; xxi. 453, 506; xxvi. 52, 1 19; xxix. 103.— preterite forms making a com­ pound pluperfect tense, iii. 32, 52; xvii. 259; xx. 260, 264; xxi. 45; xxiii. 43; xxvii. 82. [Forms: inf., ii. 243 (49 times); imp. pi. h a b b a þ , xi. 410; pres. is. h æ b b e, v. 7 2 (7 times); h a b b e , xxiii. 102; 2s. h æ fst, v. 37 (4 times); 3s. h æ fþ, i. 291 (45

869

times); h afþ, xxiii. 34; ip. h ab b aþ , ii. 59 (16 times); h æ b b e w é , vi. 264; xvi. 257; 2p. h ab b aþ , xxi. 506; 3p., i. 173 (15 times); pres. subj. 1, 2, 3 sing, haebbe, xvi. 164, 223; xix. 89 (12 times); 1, 3 p. h ab b on -a n , i. 325; iii. 185 ( 1 1 times); pret. is. h æ fde, xxiii. 163; 2s. h æ fd est, v. 37; xxvii. 104; subj., xxiii. 19; 3s. hæ fde, i. 457 (37 times); subj., i. 387 (4 times); ip. haefdon, vii. 161; 3p., iii. 59(16 times); 3p. subj., ix. 215; xvii. 76; xxi. 251. For pp. see next entry. Cf. also set-, forh a b b a n , and nabban.] ge h a b b a n , III, only as pp. geh æ fd . (a) possessed or afflicted (by a disease). ii. 23. (b) vaguely owned or kept in use, maintained, but equivalent, with waes, to was situated or even there was. ii. 10 (see note). h ad , m. (a) person (of the Trinity), viii. 198; xia. 6, 200. (b) state, estate. xix. 86, 88 (‘widowhood’), 115 (‘lay­ man’s estate’), (c) sex. xi. 314. ge h ad o d , adj. (pp. of ‘gehádian’). ordained, consecrated, xi. 148, 166; xxv(a). 16, 17. geh æ ftan , I, pret. 3s. gehaefte, pp. gehaeft. to bind, fetter, xvii. 224; xxiii. 81, 92, 131. haeftling, m. captive, prisoner, xxiii. 140, 143, 201. *haeftnýd, h æ ftn éd , f. captivity, confinement in bonds; here in pi. con­ cretely: bonds or shackles, xxiii. 81, 83, 131. [This meaning not recog­ nized in diet.: see note.] haeftnyss, f. captivity; in pi., snares? bonds? dp. h aeftnyssum , xi. 159 (v.l. éh tn yssu m ). [Two examples, not from Ælfric, cited by Hall, ‘hæftnes’. Plural not recorded.] h æ l, m. salvation, health, ii. 129, 131; v. 49, 167, 193, 194; vi. 3 2 ijx i. 567; xvi. 180; xvii. 173 (ds. h æ le, per­ haps rather from hælu). ge h æ lan , I. (a) to heal: ii. 40, 45, etc. (26 times, including 276, 287, pp. as wk. adj., geh æ led a); iv. 8, 59, 89, 93; vi. 84, 332; etc. (b) to castrate: xix. 62. [Meaning (b) not in B T ; see Hall.]

870

GLOSSARY

H æ len d, m. Saviour, Jesus. i. 2, etc. (13 times); ii. 7, etc. (21 times); iii. 30, 142, 143, 185; iv. I, etc. (19 times); etc. [Ælfric normally uses def. art., ‘se Hælend’, but at viii. 62 he points out that the name Jesus means ‘Haelend’.] h æ lu , f. healthy salvation. ii. 109, 140; v. 244; viii. 61, 63, 72; xia. 105; xvii. 100, h i ; xx . 356; xxvi. 139; perhaps ds. h æ le, vi. 321 and xvii. 173 (see hæl).— in sing, only; ob­ lique cases have both -u and -e. h æ m a n , I. to have intercourse, cohabit. xv. 90. h æ m e d , n. cohabitation. i. 426; xix. 45, 72, 101, II I. h æ r, n. a hair. vii. 160. h æ r, adv. see h er. h æ re, wk. f. sackcloth of hair. xvii.

nsm. h älre (v.l. h ä lra , properly), vi. 106. ge h ä l, adj. whole, entire, xiii. 165. g e h ä lg ia n , II. to hallow, sanctify, ii. 217, 252; ix. 50; xi. 18; xia. 92; xii. 103, 104; xvi. 141; xxi. 581,

J>44-

h ä lig , adj. holy, (a) strong del., ex­ amples of forms: ns., i. 133; asn., viii. 107; gsm. h ä lig e s , xxi. 301; dsm. häl g u m , vii. 112; d sf.h äligre, ii. 133; asm. h älig n e , viii. 100; np. h älie (for h alige), xxiii. 142; ap. h älige, ii. 142; dp. h ä lg u m , iii. 56. (b) wk. as adj., examples of forms: nsm. h ä lg a , i. 393; nsf. h a lig e , i. 85; nsn., i. 404; asn., i. 2; gsm. h ä lg a n , i. 109; dsm., i. 25; asm., i. 21; dsf., i. 320; asf., i. 26; dsn., ii. 2; np., iv. 126; ap., iii. 61; gp. h ä lig r a , xi. 258; dp. h ä lg u m , i. 201,— sé H ä lg a 63h æ s, f. behest. ii. 80, 175; xia. n o ; G ä s t, the Holy Spirit, variously xii. 228; xiii. 48; xv. 89; xvii. 217; inflected, i. 88, 92, 159, 397, 401, xviii. 320; xix. 30, 52; xx. 63, 233, 471; ii. 179, 291; iii. 179; iv. 135, 152, 160, 162, 167; etc.— similarly 361; xxi. 69; xxii. 92; xxvi. 75, 78, with F r ö fo r g ä s t, vii. 57; x. 11, 80; 128; X X X . 19, 28. h æ te, f. heat. xxi. 42. xia. 7.— wk. as noun w. def. art., poss. G o d es or h is, saint, nsm. hæ þen, adj. heatheny gentile. i. 113, h ä lg a , xvii. 292; dsm. h ä lg a n , 146, 348 (contrasting Jews and gentiles); iii. 145 (same); iv. 76, xxiii. 121; nap. h ä lg a n , viii. 176, 232; v. 122; viii. 78, 104; xii. 107, 199; xi. 458; xiv. 167, 194; etc. (16 times); gp. h ä lg e n a , viii. 155; xi. 108, 1 12; xiv. 55, 85, 180 (these three referring to the once-heathen 470, 533, 546; xvi. 82; xxv(c). 7; dp. h ä lg u m , i. 133; iv. 155, 161; etc. but converted gentiles); xvii. 222; (15 times). xxi. 145, 2 1 1, 283, 286, 581; xxii. 9; xxvi. 13, 22; xxix. 1 1 9.— as noun, h ä lig d ö m , m. {holiness), holy things. dp. strong, e a llu m h æ þen u m , xxi. xxi. 222 (the contents of the Ark of the Covenant). 139.— as noun, wk. w. def. art.‘ the h ä lsia n , II. to adjure, xvii. 230 (Lat. heathenyusually in pi. iv. 80; v. 125, adiuro per Deum). 129; xi. 64, 384; xia. 181; xii. 93 (þone h æ þen an ); xiv. 93; xviii. h älw en d e, adj. healing, salutary, xvii. 184; xxi. 99, etc. (17 times); xxii. 31, 121, 125, 130, 151; xx. 356. 62, 64, 65, 93; xxiii. 8; xxix. 86. h a m , m. home, (a) in phrase, set h ä m , h æ þ e n gy ld , n. (a) idolatry. xviii. at homey with endingless locative, 288; xxi. 72, 512 (see note), 647 vi. 50; xx. 108, 127; xxi. 264; xxii. (-g ild ), (b) idoly heathen shrine. 86. (b) as adv., homey homewards, v. xxiii. 18 (dp. -g ild u m ). 218; xvii. 245; xxi. 222, 251, 253, h æ þen scipe, -s c y p e , m. idolatry, 262, 620; xxiii. 26; xxvi. 79. paganism, xviii. 284, 350; xxi. 239; #h a m a , m. {covering), slough of a snake, xxiii. 44; xxvi. 10; xxx. 26. xvi. 235. [Uniquely used for slough h äl, adj. wholet soundy well. ii. 22, 32, in this passage; already cited by 38, 86, 193; vii. 192; xvii. 83; xx. Napier.] 346; xxiii. 26, 33, 136.— comp. h an d , f. (w-decl.) hand. ii. 26, 69, 82,

GLOSSARY 86, 89; iv. 150, 166; vi. 10 1; vii. 140, 141, 154; etc. [Forms: nas. h an d , ii. 82; iv. 150; ds. h a n d a ,x x v ii. 34; nap. h a n d a , vii. 154; xxvi. 65; dp. h a n d u m , ii. 26.] h a n d b re d , n. palm of the hand. xxi. 232 (np., -bred a). h a n d g e w e o rc, n. handiwork, cre­ ation:. ix. 63; xia. 147. h a n d lia n , II. to handle. vii. 140. h a n g ia n , II, intrans, to hang. xix. 246 [Cf. ahön.] h a t, adj. hot. xix. 198. h ä ta n , 7, pp. geh äten . (a) to bid, order, command. imp. s. h a t, xx. 325; pres, is. h a te , xxiii. 185; 2s. h ä tst, xxiii. 108; 3s. h a t, xiii. 104 (v.l. hét); pret. 2s. h éte, xxiii. 85; xxvi. 67; 3s. h ét, ii. 48, etc. (6 times); iii. 4, 5; viii. 164; xia. 64; xiii. 54, 104 (v.l. hat), 179; etc. (46 times more); 3p. h éton , xix. 168; xxi. 517; 3s. subj. h éte, xiii. 2 11; xix. 46. (b) to cally name: pres. 3s. h æ t, xv. 16, 150; xxi. 578; ip. h ataþ , xi. 56; xia. 173; xviii. 5; 3p., iv. 14, 24, 74, 117; xiv. 46; xx. 28; xxi. 142, 143; xxx. 106; pret. 3s. h ét, i. 140, 362; iii. 61; vii. 173; xv. 227; xxi. 673; 3p. h éto n , iv. 77, 83; xiv. 47; xxi. 194; pp. ge h äte n , called, i. 175, 324; ii. 11; iv. 159, 165; v. 4, 57; vi. 183, 231, 262; etc. (c) h ä tte , is called, was called. vi. 304; viii. 145; x. 159; xvii. 57; xxi. 124, 126, 150, 224; xxii. 52; xxiii. 53; xxvii. 17. [Cf. behätan.] h ä th e o rtn y ss, f. rage. xxvi. 67. h a tia n , II. to hate. iv. 105; ix. 206 (twice); xiii. 47, 48, 155, 161; xv. 82. h a tu n g , f. (a) hatey hatred, ii. 202; xiii. 154, 159, 180. (b) a demonstra­ tion of hatred, dp. h a tu n g u m , ix. 198. h é, m., héo, f., h it, n., pron. 3d per­ son. i. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, etc. Prevailing forms include gdsf. h ire, asf. and nap. h i, gp. h eora (very rarely h y r a , as at iv. 17, M S. T and xi. 245, M S . U). Substitution of y for i occurs frequently in h it, h is, hine, h ire, and occasionally in h i. Th e dsm. and n. h im usually [retains i

871

and some M S S . (e.g. L , R, U) tend to distinguish the dp. by spelling it h y m . Others (e.g. C, E, M , and the interpolated sections of H) have dp. h eo m and h io m . Late alterations in the Worcester M S S . (E, P, R, S, T , X d), not here recorded, give dp. h a m . Use of ig as a spelling for long i leads to an occasional h ig for h i (e.g. vi. 290, 291; xxiii. 106, 108, 155) and even h y g (xiii. 115). héafod, n. head. i. 7; vi. 101 (héafu d ); xi. 433, 533; xii. 201, 207, 2 1 1 ; xvi. 240, 241, 242, 245; xix. 193; xxi. 231, 550, 552, 558, 566 (ap. héafda); xxii. 35. h éafo d b u rh , f. chief city. xxi. 522; xxvi. 28, 34. h éad fod leah ter, m. capital sin. iv. 249, 252, 263; xiii. 159; xvii. 199; xix. 127. h éad fod léas, adj. headless, xxi. 233. h éafo d m an n , m. head man9 elder, leader, xiii. 218; xx. 148, 219. h éah , adj. high, nsn., viii. 108; xxi. 535; nsf., xxi. 531; nsm. wk. h é a g a , v. 178; asf. wk. h é a g a n , v. 178; dsm. wk. h éan, v. 176 (v.l. h éagan ); dp. h é a g u m , xxi. 138. — sup. h éh st(a), only in wk. decl. for God, the Highest, gsm. H é xta n , i. 359 (as noun); H éh stan , xviii. 229 (as adj.); xxi. 671 (as noun), h éa h en gel, m. archangel, xia. 62. h éahfæ d er, m. patriarch, iii. 118; v. 4, 256; xx. 146. h éa h geréfa, wk. m. (high sheriff), pre­ fect. xxiii. 52. h éa h n y ss, h éa n n yss, f. high place. V . 182; xii. 40, 221. h ea h set(t)l, n. throneyjudgement-seat, xi. 362. h éah þ egen , m. chief minister, xxi. 301 (G od es h ., the prophet Daniel), h ea ld an , ge h eald a n , 7. (a) to hold, sustain, govern, i. 88, 181 (?); x. 118. (b) to guardy preservey protect, save. iv. 202; v. 262; vi. 33; ix. 50, 55; xiv. 194; xviii. 391; xix. 59; xxi. 53; xxv(b). i ;— against (w iþ) an ad­ versary, vi. 282; xxi. 283, 326, 348. (c) to keep something in store, xvi. 162 (w. dat. of pers. for whom);

872

GLOSSARY

h e a ld a n , ge h eald a n (cont.) with extension or complement, to keep in a place, xxi. 217; in a place and condition, xxi. 264; in a con­ dition (compl. adj.), xii. 106. (d) to hold, keep from getting away, by (m id) some specified means, xvii. 223; in (on) a restraining medium, xxiii. 52. (e) w. faest, to hold fast, keep safe. iv. 34, 183. (f) to hold in place, hold together. iii. 143. (g) fig., to have hold of, possess a spiritual benefit, i. 332. (h) to hold an office, xxi. 644. [B TS, ‘healdan1, V III. a.] (i) to keep, observe faithfully, keep unbroken or inviolate a religious faith, a rite, a designated day or season, a command, a law, a state of purity, etc. ii. 165, 167; iii. 90; iv. 55, 182, 237, 288, 292, 294, 296; ix. 108; x. 4, 7, 30, 58; xi. 2, 105, 137, 148; xiv. 96, 98; xv. 28, 32, 64, 66, 104, 105, 1 12, 1 14; xvi. 82, 252; xviii. 395; xix. 7, 46 (twice), 47, 114, 121 ; xxi. 35, 44;— with fr a m , keep free from, xviii. 340. *(k) to hold in veneration, worship a god. xxi. 658 (apparently an extension of the pre­ ceding, glossed obseruabant). (1) to withhold from present use, reserve. vi. 129. (m) to hold back, restrain. xv. 179;— refl., to restrain oneself (sometimes also, from sense b, to be on guard}), ii. 55 (w. neg. clause, lest), 278 (w iþ, from, against); xiii. 229 ( w iþ ) ; xxi. 55 (w iþ). (n) pp. geh eald en on, satisfied with. xxi. 99 [B TS, ‘gehealdan’, X I. a, including this instance, cited from the revised excerpt by Wulfstan.]— [Forms: inf. h ea ld an , ix. 50 (11 times); ge h ., iv. 202 (6 times); d. inf. healden ne, ii. 165 (4 times); ge h ., xv. 28 (3 times); imp. sg. h e a ld , ii. 55; g e h ., ii. 278; imp. pi. h ea ld aþ , xxi. 264; pres. 3s. h ea lt, iv. 34 (5 times); h y lt. i. 88 (8 times); g e h y lt, i. 332 (3 times); ip. h eald aþ, xi. 2 (3 times); 3p., iv. 182 (6 times); g e h ., iv. 55, 288; pres. 3s. subj. h eald e, xix. 46; g e h ., vi. 282; xv. 179; ip. subj. h eald an , xvi. 252; xviii. 395; pret. 3s. h éold , vi. 129;

xxi. 348; g e h ., xxi. 35 (4 times); 3p. h éold on, iii. 90 (4 times); 3p. subj., xv. 1 12; pp. ge h ea ld e n , v. 262 (7 times).— Cf. beh eald an.] g e h e a ld s u m n y ss, f. (a) (religious) observance, xv. 80. (b) moral practice (or restraint}), xvii. 276 (-h e a lt-). h ealf, f. side, always in the phrase, on . . . healfe (acc. sg.) or h ea lfa (acc. pi.), iii. 1 12; xi. 407; xiii. 1 18; xiv. 159, 170; xix. 175; xxvii. 57. healf, adj. half. viii. 81 (to féorþ an h ealfan gé a re , for three years and a half)', xvi. 177; xx. 218, 257 (both þ rid d e h ea lf h u n d , two hundred and fifty). h éa lic, adj. (a) physically high, on high, lofty, xviii. 239, 265, 309, 409. (b) of spiritual signs, meanings, lofty, sublime or deep, profound, vi. 322; xii. 39, 220. (c) of honours, adoration, high, exceptional. xix. 14; xxvi. 22. (d) of gods or great men, highly honoured, exalted, iv. 80; xxi. 1 14, 128; xxii. 59. (e) of a heretic, proud or notable, x. 159. (f) of a heresy, egregious or grievous, pro­ found. xxi. 160, 592. h éa llce, adv. loftily, proudly, xxi. 235. h e a lt, adj. lame. ii. 78. str. pi. as noun, lame persons, cripples, ii. 26, 69; xia. 105; xvi. 169. h éan, adj. lowly (in rank and power). i. 214; nsm. wk. as noun, xi. 401. héan, see héah. h éa n n y ss, see h éa h n y ss. h ea p , m. throng, company, xi. 153, 435; xxvii. 79. h ea rd , adj. hard. xix. 31, 32; xx. 22. h eard e, adv. severely, greatly, grievously, xvii. 140; xxi. 50. h ea rd h eo rt, adj. hardhearted, iii. 168; iv. 31, 132, 258. h e a rd h e o rtn y ss, f. hardness of heart. vi. 275, 314h e a rd n y ss, f. hardness, xix. 14. h e a rm ia n , II. to harm, injure, xxx. 47. h e a rm lic , adj. harmful, grievous, xx.

*75h ea rp e, wk. f. harp, xxvii. 72. h eb b an , 6. to lift up. pret. 3p. h öfan , xxi. 228. [Cf. a h e b b an , u p ahebban.]

GLOSSARY h efe, m. weighty burden. xxvi. 51. h e fig , adj. heavy, burdensome. xi. 253; xiii. 57, 68; xviii. 118; xxvi. 91 (h efeg- last three), g e h e fig ia n , II. to oppress, burden. only as pp. np. ge h efeg o d e , ii. 62; v. 158. *h e fig m ð d , adj. heavy-hearted. xi. 559- [Unique in this sense. Cited by Napier.] h e fig tý m e , adj. grievous. xxi. 41. h e g e , m. hedge. iii. 68. H é h sta n , see héah. H e lia s. Elias {Elijah), ii. 154 (v.l. elias); viii. 79; ix. 67. h e ll, f. hell. iv. 196; x. 202; xi. 170, etc. (11 times); xi a. 51; xii. 112; xviii. 57, 218, 432; xix. 214 (helle g a ta , see ge a t), 224, 229; xx. 253; xxi. 70; xxvii. 32, 47. h e lle g ru n d , m. abyss of hell. ii. 176. h e lle w lte , n. hell-torment, xia. 85; xxvii. 6. h e llic, adj. hellishy of hell. iv. 113; xi. 134; xviii. 7 1; xix. 198, 219, 237; xxi. 201, 291. g e h e lp a n , 3, w. gen. (as indicated) or dat. to help, inf., ix. 215; xiv. 194 (w. gen.); imp. sg. ge h elp , xvii. 209 (w. gen.); xxvii. 100 (w. gen.?); imp. pi. g e h elp a þ , xxiii. 104 (w. gen. or dat.); pres. 2s. g e h ylp st, xxiv. 10; 3s. g e h elp þ , xi. 242; g e h y lp þ , xv. 228; pres. ip. subj. g e h elp o n , xv. 215; pret. 3s. g e h e a lp , xxii. 42 (M S. geheolp). ge h en d e , adv. and prep. w. dat. near. (a) adv., viii. 108; xiv. 81; xxi. 580 (all three w. þæ r). (b) prep., ii. 10; v. 183; viii. 107; xiv. 13, 78.— comp, ge h en d o r, nearer, v. 176; xix. 27 (w. dat.). h e n g e n , f. rack (instrument of tor­ ture). ds. h en gen n e, xxiii. 190. h en ta n , I, w. gen. (a) to capture an animal, i. 214. (b) to get at with a blow, strike, xvi. 242. h eo, see he. h éo fia n , II. to lament, xi. 293, 328; xxvi. 79, 88, 91. heofon, m. heaven. ns., xxvi. 96 (or f., see next)— all other instances pi. nap. h eo fo n as, i. 82, 200, 359; xi.

873

79; xia. 45, 195; xxi. 368; gp. heofona, heofena, iii. 179; xxvii. 10 (both w. ric e , normally wk. fern, heofonan and so v.l. at iii. 179); dp. h eofonum , h eofen um , i. 89, 435,

443, 453 ; Ü- 92 ; hi- 126; etc. (52 times more). heofon, f. heaven, ns. séo heofon, xxi. 186, 540, 549; heofon (uncer­ tain gender), xxvi. 96. [See note on xxi. 186.] heofone, wk. f. heaven, only in sing, as heofonan, gs. v. 197; xviii. 263, 402; and w. ric e , iii. 98; iv. 196; v. 150, 262; xi. 142, 151, 370; xv. 6, 57; xvi. 272; xviii. 54, 166, 422, 436; xix. 45, 69; xxv(a). 10; ds. xi. 516; as. i. 72, 280; xi. 510; xviii. 269, 417; xix. 234; xxx. 38. heofonlic, adj. heavenly, i. 91, 146, 405, 471; ii. 19, 233, 244; iii. 52, 1 17; iv. 59, 164, 167, 180; v. 47, 103, 165, 181; vii. 33, 63, etc. héold, héoldon, see h eald an. heonon, h eonan, adv. hence, ii. 39; x. 201; xi. 436; xii. 209; xxi. 268, xxiii. 137.— heonon forþ, henceforth, ii. 55; v. 32, 153; x. 24, 185; xiii. 227; xiv. 38, 216; xxii. 47. h eo ra, see he. h eo rcn ian , II. (a) to hearken toy w. gen., viii. 18. (b) to give heed to. xxx. 23 (construction not clear), h eo rd , f. herd, flock, xiv. 206; xvii. 235h eo rte, wk. f. heart, i. 94; ii. 78, 144; vi. 286; vii. i i , 39, 223; viii. 95, 247, 254: etc. h er, adv. here. i. 26, 80, 84, 147, 157, 346, 352, 405; v. 32, 153, 228; vi. 52, 67, 76 (hæ r), 215; etc.— h er on life, in this life. i. 4; ii. 7; v. 2; vii. 128; ix. 1; etc.— h er on w o ru ld e, v. 270; vii. 95.— h er bseftan, after this, immediately after, i. 343.— h er b eforan , earlier in this {discourse). vi. 198. [On h er with other adverbs, see O E D , ‘here*, adv. 16. T h e next entry is similar but seems a little more closely united.] h éræ fter, adv. hereafter, immediately after, xiii. 98. h ere, m. army. ix. 51; xx. 64; xxvi. 34.

874

GLOSSARY

h ereréaf, f. booty, plunder. iv. 38, 187, 193; x. 202. h e re to g a , m. general, i. 70; iii. 57; xi. 25; xia. 99; xii. 227; xx. 141, 236, 369; xxii. 14, 18, 35, 52, 64, 74, 83; xxiii. 46. g e h e rg ia n , II. (a) to overrun with an armyt lay waste, xxii. 92. (b) to carry off as spoil, xx. 169. h erian , II (orig. I), to praise, ii. 289; iv. 71 (pres. 3s. heraþ), 285, 295; xi. 73, 90, 563; xia. 190; xvi. 29, 193, 204, 207; xvii. 1 12, 272; xxi. 299. pp. geh ered , xiii. 188. h erien d lic, adj. laudable, xxvi. 135. H e rm e s, (a) Hermes Trismegistus. i. 1 15, 138, 144. (b) HermeSy Prefect of Rome and martyr in the time of Pope Alexander I. xxiii. 11-19 9 (ns. i i , etc., 10 times; ds. E r m e n , 74, 83, 87, 91; as. E r m e n , 52, 54, 95, 174, 199)h e ru n g , f. praise, xv. 79; xvi. 207; xvii. 91. h etelice, adv. malignantly, savagely, fiercely, vii. 100; xix. 192; xxi. 207. h eto l, adj. hostiley malignant, evil. iii. 168; iv. 8, 107, 206; vi. 275, 284; vii. 173; xi. 31; xi a. 131; xiii. 155; xviii. 184; xix. 237; xxi. n o , 145. H é xta n , see héah. h i, see he. h id er, adv. hither, v. 34, 74, 76, 241; vi. 98; vii. 9; xii. 36, 198; xxiii. 88, 152; xxvi. 108. H ie r e m ia s , Jeremiah, ix. 68. H ie ro n im u s, Jerome, xxviii. 7. H ieru sa le m , Jerusalem, ii. 9; iii. 84; v. 42, 46, 164; vi. 45 (I e r u -) ; xiii. 192; xvi. 189. [Uninfl. in ds. and as.] h ig , see he. h ih t, h y h t, m. hopef expectation, ii. 173; xvi. 264, 267; xix. 250. h ih tan , I. to hope, trust, xiii. 82; xix.

based spelling of pres. part. asm. h in grien d n e, but it may be in­ tended for h u n g r ig n e : see h u n ­ g r ig , and the note on xi. 420. ge h ira n , see g e h ýra n . h ire, see he. h ired , m. household, family, iii. 4, 51, 115, 133; iv- 105; xv. 2; xvi. 180. h is, h it, see he. h iw , n. (a) form, appearance, vii. 47; xii. 128; xviii. 82; xix. 79. (b) colour, xvii. 260. (c) nature, xii. 137 (h ýw e). hi w a n , mp. {members of a) household. xvii. 245; xx. 251 (households); xxiii. I 59h iw e re , m. hypocrite, iii. 98; xiii. 31, 172 (h ýw ere), 175. g e h iw ia n , II. (a) to simulate, xx. 351; xxix. 29. (b) reflex., to disguise one­ self. xxix. 66. h íw ræ d en , f. family, household, iii. 76; iv. 20 (twice), 100 (twice); xxx.

85h iw u n g , f. {false) pretence y dissimulationy hypocrisy, iv. 227, 245; xv. 84, 207; xviii. 97, 102, 109. h lad a n , 6. to draw water, inf., v. 32,

153ge h la d a n , 6. to loady heap up. pp. ap. geh lad en e, xiv. 39, 226. h læ d fæ t, n. vessel for drawing watery pitcher, v. 22. h läf, m. loafy bread, xi a. 121, 124; xix. 4 (twice), 5; xx. 312; xxx. 108 (twrice). h läfo rd , h läfu rd , m. lord. iii. 12, 15, 25, 106; iv. 105; v. 31, 39, 152; vi. 10, 52, 62, 76, 81, 87; etc. h läfo rd scip e, m. authority, rule. xia. 36. h lid , n. lidy cover, vi. 91 (stone cover of Lazarus's tomb), ge h lid , see ge h lý d . h lisa , m .famey repute, vi. 167; ix. 76; 133h ih tléa s, adj. hopeless, ix. 175; xix. xv. 79; xvii. i i , 304. hloh , see h lyh h a n . 135h im , hine, see he. h lö w a n , 7. to low (as do cows), pres. h in g ria n , II (older ‘hyngran', I), to part, h lö w en d e, xxi. 276. hunger, (a) impers. w. dat. of person, hlüde, adv. loudly, i. 453; vi. 97; x. ii. 1 12; xi. 412, 439, 559; xxv(c). 8 97; xviii. 418. (twice), (b) w. nom. of person; per­ h lu tto r, adj. purey unsullied, xiii. 181. haps h u n grien n e, xi. 420, is a de­ *h lu ttr ia n , II. to strain out (an im-

GLOSSARY

875

purity from a liquid), xiii. 168. [This quicklyf accelerate, xviii. 375. [This meaning not in diet. See a h ly tsense not in diet; cf. B T S , I.] tr ia n , for which this verb is sub­ h raþe, h ræ þ e ,r a þ e , adv. quickly, im­ stituted in a partial repetition.] mediately ysoon, h raþe, ii. 189; viii. g e h lý d , g e h lid , m. noisey tumult. 31, 58; xi. 254, 300; etc. (12 times xvii. 1 15; xx. 266. [Sometimes fern, more), raþe, iv. 104; vi. 72, 91; xv. but xvii treats as masc.] 194; xix. 47; xxiii. 129.— sw a raþe h ly h h a n , 6. to laugh. pret. 3s. h lö h, sw ä , as soon as. xi. 194.— hraþe xxi. 417. þ æ s , immediately (after that), there­ h ly s ta n , I. to listen to (w. gen.), xix. upon. xv. 53 (h r æ þ e ); xix. 200.— comp, h raþ o r, sooner, more readily. 25. h n e sce, adj. soft. xix. 30. xi. 340 (with logical force), *h ö c , m. hooky here fig., crafty device. b r e a m , m. lamentationy sorrow, cry. xvi. 219. [This fig. sense not re­ iii. 79; xx. 254. corded in B T or B T S , though h réod , réod , n. reedy rush. iv. 223, something similar is cited from 227 (réodes, réod , v.l. h réod es, C H I. 362/27. Nearest definition hréod); vii. 101 (réodum ). in O E D is I. 2. b, dating from 1430.] h réo flig, adj. leprous, xia. 105. h öfan , see h eb b an . h réo h n y ss, f. rough weather, storm. h oferode (‘hoferede’), adj. hump­ xvii. 205 (-n ess). backed. xxiii. 104. h rep p an , I, h rep ian, II. to touch. h o g ia n , II. to think, consider, be xvii. 27, 31, 130 (hrepode) ; xix. 91 solicitousy take carey xi. 125, 126; (pres. 3s. subj. h reppe); xxi. 48 (inf. xiii. 175; xvii. 174; xviii. 155, 172, hreppan). 182; xix. 80, 81; xxii. 3. [Cf. fo rh re p u n g , f. touch, xvii. 82, 152. h ogian .] h rin g , m. ring. xxi. 256, 272 (orna­ h o g u , f. concern, anxiety, xi. 271. mental gold), 395 (a seal-ring), h o h fu ll, adj. anxious, solicitous, xi. g e h risia n , II. to shake together, pp. g e h ry se d , xiii. 16; g e h riso d , xiii. I54* h oi, adj. hollow, iv. 227. h i . (Lat. coagitatam.) h o ld , n. dead bodyy carcase, xviii. 39, h röf, m. roof, xviii. 239, 240, 309, 310. 205, 211. h r ý m a n , I. (a) to rave. xvii. 226. (b) b o ld , adj. (a) gracious, xxi. 507. (b) to cry out, wail. xxi. 248. faithful, xi. 153, 239. h rý þ e r, n. ox (including cowf bull). h o ld lice , adv. faithfully, xvi. 292. iv. 81 (ap., -11). [Shortened y? See h o lia n , II. to hollow out. xxi. 207. O E D , ‘rother’ .] H on, a rebel against Moses (Num. hü, adv. how. (a) in direct questions, xvi. i sqq.). xx. 220. modifying a verb. iii. 25; iv. 22, 109; h o p ia n , II. (a) w. tö, to look with ex­ xii. i i , etc. (6 times); xiii. 20, etc. pectation tOy put trust in (God), xv. (6 times); xix. 223; xxvi. 65, 119; 229; xix. 252; xxv(c). i i . — to hope xxvii. 68. (b) in direct questions, for (a satisfaction), xvi. 146; xix. modifying an adj. or adv., to what 133. (b) w. on, to put trust in (a extent or degree, xx. 182; xxiii. 178. thing), xvi. 264. (c) in an exclamation, modifying an h o rd cleo fa, m. treasury, secret cham­ adj. xix. 230 (hü m y c e l tö d a l, how ber. xxiii. 94. great a difference!).— (d) in de­ h o r s, n. horse, i. 272; xxvii. 93; xxix. pendent questions, modifying a 28. verb. i. 18, 120, 430, 435; ii. 124; iii. h o sp , m. reproachy insult, blasphemy, 43,165; iv. 1 12, 207; vi. 82,109,206; scorn. vi. 219, 224, 226, 269; x. 173; vii. 131, 141; etc. (55 times more); xiii. 170; xv. 15, 143, 144, 153; xx. *(e) elliptically, the verb of the de­ 288; xxi. 558. pendent clause omitted, iii. 172 (g y f * g e h r a d ia n , II, trans, to make pass h l w isto n hü). [O ED , 12, first

876

GLOSSARY

though indeed) ; xix. 93; xxvii. 3 (?)• h ü (cont.) (d) even. xvi. 195. (e) only. xi. 195quotation 1200.] (f) in dependent (f) above all. xvi. 242. questions, modifying an adj. or h ü s, n. house, (a) an ordinary dwelling. adv. i. 180; xi. 287; xvii. 246; xxi. vi. 177; x. 100; xi. 58; xi a. 175; xvi. 495> 507; xxii. 83. — (g) as interjec­ 17, 124, 148, 182; xviii. 28, 239, tion introducing a negative question 241, 309, 3 1 1 ; xix. 174; xxiii. 92, and calling for an affirmative answer, 107; xxix. 91. (b) the house of a god, lä hü ne, what! will not, etc. v. 77; vi. 25, 83, 89; xxi. 628. hü ne, will a temple, a church, xxi. 194, 535 > xxvi. 95, 1 13, 1 16, 127. (c) a guest­ noty can it be th at. . . not. xiii. 21, house. xxvi. 105 (ds. cu m en a h ü se, 125. (Lat. nonne.)— (h) sw ä hü see cum a). (d) fig., iv. 45, 236; xiv. sw ä , conj., howsoever. xx. 21 [i.e. 12 1 ; xix. 68. in whatever style {of cookery?)]. h ü sel, n. houself Eucharist, xi. 177; geh ü , adv. in some way or other, i. 199. xix. 1 1 9, 12 1, 130; xxvi. 69. h ü m e ta , adv. in what wayt how. xx. h ü slia n , II. to administer the sacra­ 183; xxiii. 108. ment. xix. 131. hund, m. hound9 dog. i. 233; xiii. 232; h ü slin g , f. administration of the sacra­ xviii. 176 (np. h u n d as, one M S. ment. xix. 226. h und an as if from wk. hunda); h ü x lic (‘hüsc-’), adj. contemptible, xi. xxiii. 194. h und , n. hundred. xx. 10, 218, 257. 34 1« h ü x lic e , adv. (a) shamefully, ignoh u n d ea h ta tig, num. eighty, xvi. 28, miniously: xiv. 142. #(b) con­ 145temptuously, insultingly: xiii. 170; h un d feald, adj. hundred-fold. xxx. 15.— be h u n d feald u m , adv. by a xx. 275. [Meaning (b) not in diet, though implicit in ‘hüsc’.] hundred-fold. xiii. 108; xvi. 159; h w ä , m. (f.), h w æ t, n., intern pron. xxx. 42. who, what. nsm. h w ä , v. 18; vi. h u n d red, n. hundred, xxiii. 39. 114; xi. 143, 157; xx. 85; xxi. 382, h und seofantig, num. seventy.xxi. 389. 404; gsm. h w æ s, iv. 26, 119; xxi. h u n d téon tig, num. hundred, xvi. 23, 420; asm. h w æ n e, x. 176; xi. 291; 26, 130, 143. xx. 228.— nsn. hwaet, ii. 50, 51; *h u n d te o n tigw in tre , adj. a hundred vii. 103; ix. 65, 69 (second), 146; years old. xix. 20. [Cited by Napier from this passage, where it is unique; etc. (12 more including xxiii. 183, cf. þ rltigw in tre.] löc hwaet, see löc); asn. hwaet, h u n d tw e lftig , num. hundred and iii. 24, 67, 1 14, 133; V . 63 (twice), twenty, x. 100; xx. 366; xxi. 503 (dp. 155; etc. (24 more); gsn. hwaes, i. -um ). 224; xix. 184; dsn. h w ä m , xxvi. h u n g o r, m. hunger, xxi. 41. 58; xxvii. 1 19; isn. h w i in to h w l, h u n g r ig , adj. hungry, xi. 420 (asm. for what reason, whyf xvii. 210. [See h u n grien n e, v.l. h u n grign e), 446 also h w i, adv.]— indef. pron. some(asm. h u n grin n e, v.l. h u n grign e); one, anyone, somethingy anything. xxiii. 182 (nsm. wk. h ungria). [For nsm. h w ä , vi. 224; viii. 48, 91, 243; an alternative interpretation and xv. 173; xvi. 194; xviii. 27, 253, discussion of the curious form 376; xix. 106; xxi. 539; xxix. 9.— h u n grien n e see h in g ria n and the asn. hwaet, xxx. 50; gsn. hwaes, note on xi. 420.] xxi. 590.— sw ä h w ä sw ä , whoso­ h ü ru , interj. and adv. marking the ever. nsm., ii. 128; xii. 14, 96; xix. emotional and logical force of the 37; xxiii. 152; xxv(a). 2; xxx. 83.— neighbouring words, hence to be sw ä hwaet sw a , whatsoever, nsn., variously translated, (a) at least, xix. xxv(c). 2; xxx. n o ; asn., v. 91; vii. 7, 130. (b) at last. xi. 198; xix. 151, 27, 207; viii. 95; tc. (5 m ore).swä 253. (c) indeed, xii. 50 (sw ä hüru, hwaes sw ä , gsn., vi. 54.

GLOSSARY g e h w ä , m. (f.), g e h w æ t, n., indef. pron. (a) each one, everyone. g e h w ä , nsm. vi. 289; ix. 210; xix. 53; g e h w æ n e , asm. xvi. 256; xvii. (71)?— (b) someone, something, some­ what. g e h w ä , nsm., xxix. 97; g e h w æ t, asn., xxi. 586; xxix. 99. g e h w æ d e , adj. small, slight. xix. 168. h w æ n n e, hw en n e (v.l. h w an n e, hw onne), adv. when, (a) in direct questions, xi. 419, 422, 423, 424, 445. (b) in dependent questions, xi. 275; xviii. 45; xxiii. 89. h w æ r , adv. where, (a) in direct ques­ tions. vi. 80; xiii. 222; xxvi. 1 18. (b) in dependent questions, ii. 241; xix. 218.— s w ä h w æ r sw ä , where­ soever. xviii. 39, 205; xx. 16; xxi. 246 (h w ä r). g e h w æ r , adv. everywhere, iv. 233; xxvi. 24.— *g e h w æ r an d þ æ r , there and everywhere? xxi. 648. [This idiom not listed in diet.] h w æ t, interj. what! occurs only at head of sentence or question, (a) be­ fore a question, xiv. 136; h w æ t lä, ii. 272; xvii. 213. (b) with adv. þ a before another step or phase in a narrative; the combination often to be translated merely by then, so theny and then, h w æ t þ a , iv. 7; viii. 125; xiii. 218; xvi. 29, 204; xvii. 36; xix. 176; xx. 329; xxi. 498; xxiii. 30, 90, 184; xxvi. 124. h w æ t þ a sön a, xvii. 168, 2 1 1 ; xx. 57. h w æ t . . . þ a , xxi. 271, 406. h w æ t . . . þ a þ a , in. 40, 162. h w æ t, g e h w æ t, pron., see h w ä, gehw ä. h w æ te , m. wheat, xvi. 26, 143. h w æ th w e g a , pron. somewhat, a little. xi. 93.— as adv., xiv. 24, 127. h w æ þ e r, pron. adj. which (of two), as adj. in dependent question, asf. h w æ þ re , xiv. 170.— sw ä h w æ þ e r s w ä , whichever (of two), xi. 219. h w æ þ e r, conj. w. subj. whether, (a) introducing a dependent question, no alternative given, whether (or not)y if. ii. 267; v. 68; xx. 152; xxiii. 123; xxx. 92.— with alterna­ tive, h w æ þ e r . . . oþþe, whether. . . 0 2710.2

877

or. x. 50-51; xxi. 251.— with ellipsis of verb and contrast of two nouns, h w æ þ er þe. . . þ e , whether . . . or. xxix. 41.— (b) introducing a direct question, no alternative given, with declarative word-order, approx, say whether (or not); but need not be translated if ordinary form of ques­ tion is substituted, v. 74; xxi. 415; xxvi. 53. h w an on , adv. and conj. whence, (a) in­ troducing a direct question, v. 22. (b) introducing a dependent ques­ tion, w. subj., xii. 22, 148; w. ind., xxvi. 58. ge h w an o n , adv. from everywhere. xvii. 17. h w én e, adv. (instr. of hwön). some­ what , a little, xxvii. 109(F). h w en n e, see hwaenne. h w er, m. pot, bowl. xxi. 518. h w i, adv. and conj. (instr. of hw æ t). why. (a) in direct questions, v. 14; viii. 143; xx. 104, 222, 310; xxi. 364, 601; xxiii. 55; xxv(c). 5 (twice), 6; xxvi. 108; xxvii. 103. (b) in dependent questions, viii. 2; xx. 224; xxi. 603; xxvi. 88. [For tö h w i, see hwä.] h w id er, h w y d e r, adv. and conj. whither, vii. 10; xii. 22, 148; xviii. 38, 204, 207, 208.— sw ä h w id er sw ä , whithersoever, xvi. 185. h w il, f. while, time, su m e h w ile, for a certain time. v. 282; vi. 148. lý tle h w ile ,/o r a little while, xi. 229. pä h w ile, meanwhile, v. 10; xx. 42; xxii. 89(hw yle).£ä h w ile þe, conj., while. xi. 178, 482; xix. 85; xxi. 35, 44; xxvii. 4 (twice), 7, 104; xxviii. 9. h w ile, g e h w ile , see h w y lc , g e h w y lc . h w ilo n , h w ilu m , adv. (a) once, at one time. i. 322, 430; iv. 75; viii. 79, 103, 139; ix. 64, 72; xii. 3; xiv. 140; xv. 3; xvii. 52; xxii. 79; xxvii. 83. (b) sometimes, xv. 148, 166; xxi. 668.— corr. or with a similar expression, sometimes . . . sometimes, h w ilu m . . . h w ilu m , xviii. 315 -16 ; h w ilon . . . on su m n e sæ l, xiv. 73. h w ilw e n d lic e , adv. temporarily, xx.

351-

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GLOSSARY

h w ít, adj. white. xxi. 192, 530. See also ea llh w it. h w ö n , adv. somewhat, a little. xiv. 12,

77. h w ö n líco r, comp. adv. to a slighter extenty less. xi. 494 (twice), h w y lc , h w ilc, adj. and pron. (a) as interr. adj., attributive, whaty what sort ofy how much. i. 180; v. 151; vi. 1 19; ix. 45, 75, 76; xxi. 287; xxv(a). 3; xxvi. 63, 64, 68.— predicative, whaty of what nature, xv. 131. (b) as interr. pron., neuter, whaty what sort of thing. xvii. 213. (c) as indef. adj., anyy somef a. xix. 94, 97. (d) sw ä h w y lc . . . sw ä , rel. adj. and pron. whichever, whatever, as adj., ii. 21, 23; xix. 54; as pron., w. gen., xiii. 215 (nsm. h w y lc éower). *h w y lc -e o w e r , indef. pron. {any) one of you. gsm. h w y lc -éo w res, of one of you. ii. 272. [See note.] g e h w y lc , g e h w ilc , indef. pron. and adj. (a) in sing., eachy every, every sort of. as pron., i. 380; xxvii. 109 (w. gp. m ann a); as adj., i. 396 (g eh w ylc m an n in neg. sentence, a manyno matter who); iv. 158. (b) in pi., manyf numerous, as pron., np. g e h w y lce öþre, many others9 xix. h i ; transposed, xxi. 152; as adj., xiv. 1 12; xxii. 75. h w ý le , see h w il. h ý, h y g , see he. h y h t, see h ih t. h y m , h yn e, h y ra , see he. h ý ra n , I. (a) with tö, to belong to. xxx. 96 (þæ r þ æ r hé tö h ý rþ , whereto he belongs), (b) w. dat., to serve, obey. xv. 32. [Cf. g e h ý r su m ia n , and next entry.] g e h ýra n , I. (a) trans, or intrans., to hear. i. 56, etc. (8 times); ii. 2, 81; iii. 40, 162, 174; iv. 10, 55, 288, 293; v. 96, etc. (7 times); vi. 1, etc. (6 times); vii. 27, 77, 153, 207; etc.; spelled g e h ira n , xvii. 89. (b) w. dat., to obey. xi. 97. h y rd e , m. shepherd, guardian, iv. 206; ix. 50. h y rd ræ d e n , f. guardygarrison, iii. 82 (ds. -a); xv. 182. h y re, see he.

h yrn e, f. corner, iii. 33. h y rn e t(t), f. hornet, i. 272. h y rn stä n , m. cornerstone, iii. 30, 31, 142, 148. g e h ý r s u m , adj. obedient, w. dat., iii. 130; x. 208; xv. 89; xix. 56; xx. 355, 361; xxvi. 78; xxx. i ; w. tö , xxx. 16. g e h ý r s u m ia n , II, w. dat. to obey. i. 201, 446; ii. 81, 133, 175; iv. 205; ix. 185; xi. 138, 191; xvii. 214; xviii. 5 1 ; xx. 418; xxi. 69; xxvi. 128; xxx. 28. g e h ý r s u m n y s s , f. obedience, xvii. 1 17; xx. 285; xxx. 21, 90. h y rw a n , I. to slander, blaspheme, xxi.

399* h y s , see he. h y se c ild , n. male child, xx. 113. h y t, see he. b ý w e , h ý w e re , see h lw , h i w e re.

I Ia co b . (a) Jacoby son of Isaac, v. 4, 6, 23; vi. 361 (gs. -es), (b) James the Apostle, son of Zebedee. ix. 196; xiv. 34, 208, 210. (c) James the Just, head of the church at Jerusalem, author of Epistle, regularly identi­ fied at this time with the Apostle, son of Alphæus. ix. 195; xiii. 100 (‘ Iacob se rihtwisa’). [Cf. Æ lfric’s account of the martyrdom, C H II. 298, and the note on ix. 195.] ic , pron. ist pers., I. ns. i. 69 (twice), 290, 358, 463; Ü- 34, 36, etc.— m in , gs. xxi. 479; xxv(c). 5, 6; xxvii. 100 (?); xxx. 92; usually as posses­ sive adj., see separate entry, m in . — m e , ds. i. 290, 440, 445; iii. 65; etc. as. ii. 34, 48 (twice); etc.— w é , np. i. i, 26, 52, 61, 77, etc.; ü re, gp. i. 134; ii. 203; xi. 393; xi a. 169; xvii. 209; xxvi. 61; for possessive see separate entry, Öre.— ü s, dp. i- 37, 51, 63, 96, etc. ap. i. 315, 362; ii. 99; etc.— w y t, n. dual, viii. 190, 194; x. 5; w i t , x. 36.— u n cer, g. dual as possessive adj., xxiii. 71. Idel, n. emptiness, vanity, only in phrase, on Idel, in vain. ii. 119; xiv. 20, 1 16, 122, 125; xx. 215 (ýd el).

GLOSSARY Idel, adj. idle, vain. ii. 210; x. 59; xv. 185; xvii. 179, 192, 194; xxx. 60, 64, 68. id e lg y lp , n. vainglory. iv. 251; xix. 129. *Id e llic, adj. idley foolish, vain. vii. 103. [Cited by Napier from this passage.] id e ln y s s , f. vanity, frivolity, xix. 18,

25Ie r u s a le m , see H ie ru sa le m . Ie su s, Jesus. viii. 59, 62. [Elsewhere replaced by translation, H æ lend or se H æ lend.] ig la n d , Hand, n. island, xxi. 104, 111. ile a , see y lc a . in , in n , adv. in. (a) before a verb of motion or its negative, iii. 99, 100; xxi. 225, 335, 396, 414, 418, 426, 491; xxvi. 1 13 (inn g a n in to ); xxvii. 95; and with to after the verb, xii. 12, 76; xiii. 194. (b) after a verb of motion, ii. 117; and followed directly by tö , v. 87, 255; xix. 160; xxi. 459; xxvi. 86; and elliptically after m æ g , xii. 15, 97. [The line between in to and in to, q.v., is not always clear.] in , prep. in. xxiii. 17 1; xxx. 114 (in e a lra w o ru ld a w o ru ld , for ever; v.l. on een ysse : see note). in b u rh , in n b u rh , f. hall (entrance hall or court of a stronghold, trans­ lating atrium), iv. 34, 183. in c , see þ ö . in cu n d , adj. inwardy heartfelt, ix. 134 (dsf. in cu n d re, v.l. in w eard licre). in c u n d n y ss, f. inward convictiony sincerity, xxi. 97. in fæ r, n. ingress, xi. 52; xia. 160; xii. 108 (innfaer). in g a n g , in n g a n g , m. going iny en­ trance. xi. 19; xi a. 93; xxvi. 47, 93, 1 16, 127. in g e h ý d , in n g e h ý d , n. consciousness, mindyintention, iv. 225; ix. 142, 145; xv. 206; xviii. 94. [As elsewhere in Ælfric, the gender is neuter, not fern.] in m é d e , adj. close to one's heart, dear. xvi. 55. comp., in m é d d re (for nsm. in m éd d ra ), xx. 135. [Cited by Napier from the passage in xvi

879

and from the homily later printed by Brotanek, p. 15. It occurs also in Benedictine Rule.] inn an , prep. withiny inside, into. xvii. 154 (w. acc.); xviii. 16 (w. dat.). inne, adv. inside, xi. 59; xia. 176. in n e w ea rd , adj. inward, innermost, sincere, xv. 44. innoþ, m. (a) the inside of the body, inwards, vitals: x. 165, 167; xix. 195. (b) the belly: v. 145; vii. 148, 150. (c) the womb: i. 406; ii. 231; iv. 52, 271, 279; xi a. 65, 168; xii. 12, 76. in ra , wk. adj. (comp, of inne). inner. xviii. 316. g e in se g lia n , II. to seal. xxi. 320, 395,

405, 413in tin g a , m. cause, xxi. 602. in to, in n tö , prep. w. dat. into. ii. 21, 35» 37, 244; iv. 45, 236, 237; v. 9, 65, 82, 250, 261, 275; x. h i ; xi. 437, 452, 462, 467; etc.— ellipti­ cally as adv., into (it)y xxi. 485. [Can sometimes be taken rather as two words. Cf. in.] lo a b , Joaby David’s general (II Reg. x. 7 sqq.). xxii. 19, 24, 35, 43 (gs. Ioabes). lo b , Job. xvii. 163. Iohannes, John, (a) the Evangelist, i. 4, 21 (as. Iohan nem ); ii. 5; v. 1; vii. 4; viii. 24; ix. 128 (gs. Io h a n ­ nes), 129; x. 1; xi. 459, 466, 508, 536; xiv. 34, 208, 210. (b) the Baptist, i. 38, 300, 307, 316 (as. -em ), 437; ix. 67; xi. 15 (ds. Io h an n e); xi a. 89 (same). Io rd an , the river Jordan, i. 437 (ds. Iordanen?); xi. 16 (ds. Iordane); xia. 90 (same); xiv. 46 (as. Io r­ danen, v.l. Iordanem ?). Io sep , Josephyson of Jacob, v. 5 (ds. Iosepe). Io su e, Joshua, xx. 170, 189, 200, 360, 368, 372; xxii. 88. [Uninflected in dat. and acc.l Io u is, the god Jove. xxi. n o , 113, 122, 1 4 2 , 1 4 5 , 1 5 0 (gs. Ioues), 175 (ds. Ioue). irn an , see yrn an . Isa a c , son of Abraham, vi. 361; xix. i n (both gs. Isaaces).

88o

GLOSSARY

Is a ia s , the prophet Isaiah. iii. 64; v. 213; xix. 66 (as. Isaiam ). isen , n. iron. i. 247; ix. 133; xxvii. 35,

43* isen , adj. of iron, xvii. 225; xix. 191; xxvii. 96. Isra h el, Israel, the land or people of Israel, xii. 167 (ds. uninfl.); xv. 10, 126 (ds. Israh ele); xxi. 282; xxii. 39Isra h ela , gp. of the Israelites (as if from np. Israhele). iii. 76, 81; xii. 26; xx. 1 19, 304; xxi. 212, 276, 280; xxii. 49 (M S. israh era). iü , adv. of old, formerly, already, i. 113, 228, 364, 464; vii. 94; ix. 158; x. 159; xiv. i ; xvi. 4, 87; xvii. 281 (M S. iv); xviii. 65, 281; xxii. 58.— m æ r , long ago, ix. 144; nü iü, even now, already, xx. 50; þ á iü, even then, already, v. 154; xii. 102. [Usually accented in the M SS., sometimes on the originally consonantal i rather than u ; perhaps the pro­ nunciation varied.] iu c, see geoc. g e -iu c ia n ( ‘-geo c-’), II. to yoke. xxi. 275. Iu d as, Judas Iscariot, vi. 351. Iu d ei, np. the Jews, np., ii. 70, 257 (v.l. Iu deiscan); iii. 119, 127; vi. 7 1; dp. Iu d eu m , iii. 80; gp. Iu d ea, w. lan de, folce: vi. 20; xiii. 192; xiv. 42, 54, 92, 1 12, 183; xvii. 1; xviii. 237, 3° 7> 339; xxi. 464. [Ex­ cept in gp., an infrequent substitute for þ a Iudeiscan.] Iu d e isc, adj. Jewish, i. 348; ii. 65, 122; iii. 53, 145; iv. 261; v. 15, 49, 115, 167, 193, 195; vi. 310; vii. 79; xii. 2, 54; xiv. 89; xvii. 253; xx. 132.— wk. with def. art. as noun, the Jew(s). nsm. se Iu d eisca, as epithet of Lazarus, vi. 197; everywhere else in pi. ii. 16, etc. (7 times); iii. 3, 26, 133; iv. 12, etc. (7 times); v. 16, 124, 190; vi. 22, etc. (6 times); vii. 96, 109; ix. 29, etc. (5 times); xii. 51, 181, 189; xv. 167; xix. 37, 216. Iu lia n u s, Julian the Apostate, viii. 132. lu n g , h in g -, see g e o n g , g e o n g -.

Iu no, the goddess Juno, xxi. 114.

K , see C

L la , interj. lo, (a) by itself, calling atten­ tion parenthetically to a question, v. 23; vi. 1 19; xii. 12, 76; xiii. 20, 24, 124, 146; xvi. i i , 100; xvii. 301; xx. 310; xxi. 325, 371; xxix. 1 12. (b) reinforced by hwaet, interj., before a question, ii. 272; xvii. 213. (c) lä b ü ne, is it not true that (Lat. nonne), calling for an affirmative answer, v. 77; vi. 25, 83, 89; xxi. 628. [Cf. hü.] (d) with a vocative: lä léof, dear sir, O siry sirs, ii. 33; v. 68; xxi. 471; lä léof h läfo rd and lä r e o w , vi. 10, 21; lä w íf, xiii. 222; lä c y n in g , O kingyxxi. 419. lä c , n., rarely f. gifty sacrifice, usually neuter plural: iii. 88; xi. 14, 24; xia. 88, 98; xv. 19, 21, 24, 191, 193, 196, 208, 214, 218; xvi. 198 (or as.); xx. 44, 51; xxi. 84, 130, 137, 254, 260, 263, 397, 401, 410 (see note), 444, 591, 597; xxx. 24, 32, 35, 5°, 104, iii. oncensf., l ä c , xix. 50; ds., läce (gender not indicated), xxi. 256, 373. g e lä cn ia n , II. to heal, cure. xiii. 3. -læ c a n , I, verbal suffix, to cause to be, become. Cf. g e d y r s t-, g e -e d -, g e efen -, g e n é a -, g e r ih t-, g e þ w æ r læ can . ge læ cca n , I, pret. 3s. g e læ h te , pp. gelaeht. to seize, attach, grasp, iii. 12, 23; x. 197; xiii. 202; xxi. 216, 338, 417 (v.l.), 424, 473; xxiii. 189. læ ce, m. physician, xiii. 1. læ ce cræ ft, m. leech-craft, art of heal­ ing. xiii. 3. læ ce d ö m , m. medicine, healing, re­ medy. i. 216; xv. 188; xvii. io8;xxvi. _73, 122. læ d a n , ge læ d a n , I. to lead, take, bring, convey, iii. 23, 58; iv. 196; vii. 89 (pres. 3s. g e læ t); xi. 183; xiii. 20, 124; xiv. 64; xvii. 29, 1 14; xix. 254; xx. 145, 174, 310, 372; xxi. 242; xxiii. 17 (pret. 2s. subj. gelæ dd est),

GLOSSARY 87, 88, 91, 106 (imp. sg. læd), m , 206; xxvii. 47; xxix. 18. [Cf. a - , fo r-læ d an .] læ fan , I. to leave, leave behind, leave remaining. xia. 125; xxi. 108; xxvii. 2. læ g , see lic g a n . g e læ h t(-), see g e læ cca n . læ m e n , adj. of clay, earthen. xxi. 376. g e læ n d a n , see gelen d an . læ n e, adj. transitory. i. 341; xii. 210. læ ra n , I. to teach, instruct. ii. 85; v. 284; vii. 131, 199; ix. 10 1; xiii. 143, 195; xiv. 14, etc. (9 times); xv. 164; xvi. 274; xvii. 6, 283; xix. 1; xx. 277; xxiii. 155.— pp. ge læ re d , learned, well-instructed. vii. 197; xiv. 231; xv. 62; xix. 208. [Cf. forlæ ra n , u n gelæ red .] læ s , adv. less. ii. 146 (tö þ a m tw ä m læ s fé o w e r tig u m , to the two less than forty).— for þ ý læ s þ e , þe læ s þ e , see þ ý læ s te . læ s s a , comp, adj., wk. lesser, in­ ferior, weaker. iv. 165 (læ sse for nsm. -a ); vii. 121; x. 153 (læ sse for -a ); xia. 223; xv. 105; xvi. 282, 286; xvii. 65. asn. as noun, læ sse , less, a lesser quantity (of worldly goods), xvi. 165. pi. as noun, þ a læ ssa n , the weaker, the poor. xiii.

59. læ s t, sup. adj. least, vii. 160; xi. 555. g e læ s ta n , I. to carry out, grant, xi. 526 (pres. 3s. gelæ st). læ ta n , 7. (a) to let, allow, cause, iii. 1 1 1 ; vi. 104; xiii. 43, 200; xvi. 256; xxi. 316; xxiii. 150, 173; X X X . 87. (b) to leave something (acc.) in (on) someone’s control, iii. n o . (c) to leave some portion (acc.) of an enter­ prise to the action (dat.) of another, ix. 124. (d) with acc. and comple­ ment, to consider, xvi. 244. (e) with ü t, to let a ship go out. xiv. i i i (léton ü t to r ) .( f ) with éaþe, to take easily, xix. 146 (let h im éaþe em b e þ æ t, he took the matter easily). [Forms: inf., xvi. 244; imp. sg. læ t, xxiii. 150; pi. læ ta þ , vi. 104; pres. 3s. læ t, xiii. 43; xxx. 87; pres. ip. subj. læ ta n , xvi. 256; pret. is. let, xxiii. 173; 3s., iii. n o (5 times); 3p.

881

léto n , xiii. 200; xiv. i n . — See also a læ ta n , forlæ tan.] g e læ te, n. meeting, only in w e g a ge læ te, crossroads, xxi. 137 (dp. -u m , v.l. w e g e læ tu m , probably for the compound, ‘weg-gelætum’); xxix. 118 (dp. -o n , v.l. -urn), læ w ed e, adj. lay, unlearned, xiii. 129; xix. 115; xxv(a). 16, 18;— wk. w. def. art. as noun, dp. læ w e d u m , xiii. 133. läf, f. what is left, only in tö läfe béon, to be left over. xia. 122. lä g e , lä g o n , see lic g a n . la g u , f. [from O N neuter pi.] law. ns., i. 465; ds. lä g e , vii. 201; xiii. 203; xv. 10, 30, 62, 81, 126; as. lä g e , viii. 17; ix. 190; xiii. 208 (M S. H); npn. la g u , xv. 35 (?); xx. 34; la g a , xiii. 208 (M S. U). [See note on xx. 34.] la m a , wk. m. lame person, cripple, ii. 33» 85.— as adj., same form, lame, crippled, ii. 147; xi. 323. la m b , n. lamb. xxx. 103. g e la m p , see g e lim p a n . la n d , n. land. i. 20, 259; iii. 8, 58; iv. 140; v. 185, 189; vi. 20, 146; etc. lan d léo d , m. or -lé o d a , wk. m. in­ habitant of a country, native, xxi. 242 (np. -an). [Wk. forms recorded only in pi., but see B T S , ‘landleoda’ and ‘leoda’.] la n g , adj. long. i. 147; xi. 229; xiii. 153; xiv. 43; xxi. 483, 557, 610. L a n g a F r íg e d æ g , m. Good Friday. xi. 36 (ds. L a n g g a n , v.l. la n g a n , lan gu m ). la n g e , adv. long. ii. 31, 154; xi. 120; xii. 107; xx. 182; xxi. 570, 637; xxvii. 44.— lan ge sy þ þ a n , long after, vi. 105; xia. 115 (lan ge . . . syÞÞ an); xviii. 348. sw ä la n g e sw ä , as long as. xvii. 164; xxi. 206. sw a la n ge o þþæ t, just long enough until, vi. 330. [Comp, le n g , q.v.] g e la n g ia n , II. to summon, send for. xvi. 7, 90, 94; xxiii. 162 (inf., -en). [Cf. gelen cgan .] la n g s u m , adj. long (in duration), ii. 147; v. 98; vi. 145; vii. 2; viii. 22; xx- 354; xxi- 5 1 1 ; xxii. 80. lä r , f. lore, teaching, instruction, doc­ trine. i. 320; ii. 3, 123, 162, iii. 158

882

GLOSSARY

lä r (cont.) 174; iv. 127; v. 94, 257, 267; vi. 204; vii. 131, 194; etc. lä reo w , m. teacher, master, i. 268; iii. 49; v. 71, 226; vi. 2i, 67; vii. 206; viii. 102; xi. 399; xii. 4, 26, 56, 89, 167, 169; etc. spelled la r e a w , xiii. 135, 136. lä r lie, adj. instructive. iii. 171. la te , adv. tardily, viii. 143.— comp., la to r, later (of later origin or action), xia. 223. [Cf. C H I. 284/7: ‘þæt þæt lator biþ, þæt hæfþ anginn’, where also the adv. is used rather than the adj.] láþ , adj. hatefuly grievous, vii. 40 (h im w æ s láþ , it was abhorrent to themy they were very loath) ; xia. 84, 135; xx. 1 15; xxi. 509; xxvii. 58. laþ ian , II. to invite, v. 229. gelaþ ian , II. to summonf call in. xvi. 19, 126, 168. g e la þ u n g , f. congregation church, i. 400; ii. 129; iii. 146; iv. 65, 178, 283; v. 1 16; vi. 194; xii. 83, 130; xiv. 84, 87, 129, 154, 232; xviii. 146, 190. L a z a r u s, the brother of Mary and Martha, vi. 2 (ds. L azare), 16 (as. -um ), 30, 34 (gs. -es), 37, 98, 1 13, _ 197, 298, 328, 355. lead , n. lead. xxi. 196. leaf, f. leavey permission, xvii. 257; xix. 121 ; xxi. 440, 608, 616. ge léa fa , wk. m. faithy belief, i. 151, 319, 332, 345, 395 ; Ü- 71, etc. (9 times); iii. 88, etc. (6 times); iv. 71, etc. (8 times); v. 117, etc. (6 times); etc. geléa ffu l, adj. faithful, believing, of the true faithy Christian, x. 123; xi. 3, 13, 70; xia. 87, 186; xvi. 34, 217; xviii. 73, 149; xix. 96, 97, 99; xxi. 464, 5 1 1, 610; xxiii. 160 (Christian)y 195; xxvi. 17.— in pi. as noun, i. 321; xxix. 108. comp., np. geléa ffu lra n , ii. 3. ge léa fléas, adj. faithless, iii. 3 (M S. g e le a fsu m u m for g e le a fle a s u m ; see note.) [B T S has two quotations from Æ lfric’s LS.] ge lé a flé a st, f. unbelief\ faithlessness. iv. 275; vii. 12 1; XX. 71.

léah , see léo gan . le a h te r, m. vice9 sin, offence, ii. 102, 190; iv. 208; v. 239; vi. 168, 203; x. 51; xi. 220; xiii. 130, 177; xvi. 52, 68, 72; xvii. 264, 269; xviii. 323; xxi. 55, 162, 165, 508; xxiii. 146. le ah te rfu ll, adj. full of sinst vicious. xiii. 130, 177; xxi. 509. *le a p , m. dead body, corpse. xxi. 462 (translates corpora). [Hitherto cited only as trunk of the body from Judith i n : B T , ‘leap*, II.] le as, adj .false, xi. 390; xviii. 102, 255, 298, 322, 378, 386 (twice), 388; xxi. 424, 494, 544, 572. lé a s b r e g d n y s s , f. deception, false­ hood. xxi. 135. [B T S cites L S , xvii. 107, and this passage, from Kem ble’s ed.] lé a slice, adv. falsely, xxix. 30. lé a s u n g , f. lying, falsehood, xvi. 76; xvii. 167; xxi. 200; xxii. 101; xxix. 50. le e g a n , I, pret. 3s. léd e, pp. g e léd . to layyplace, set, bury. i. 7; ii. 146 (imp., le g e . . . to , lay next toy add to); v. 201; vi. 80 (pret. 2p., léde g é , buried)y 102 (pp., buried); xxi. 621. [Cf. alecgan .] L ed en , n. Latin: on L ed en , in (the) Latin (language), i. 117(F); v. 209; x. 84; xv. 149; xxii. 14, 102.— adj. Latin, xxii. 16. L e d e n -b ö c, f. Latin book. xxii. 12. léd on , see le ega n . geléfan , see ge lý fa n . lege, see leegan . le g e r , n. (a lying sick)t sickness, ii. 147. le g e r b e d d , n. sick-bed. ii. 39, 41, 140, 185, 194, 195g e le n c g a n , f. to lengthen, vi. 367. [Cf. gelan gia n .] L en cten , L e n g te n , m. Lent. ii. 163; vi. title (as in M S . H ); xi. 28, 33; xia. 128, 133. L en cten fæ sten , n. Lent. xix. 122. L en cte n w u ce , wk. f. a week in Lent. ii. title (and the titles of iii and v as in M S. H.) gelen d an , g e læ n d a n , I. to land, reach the land. xiv. 201; xvii. 220. [B TS, ‘gelendan’, I, records the instance in xvii from CH .]

GLOSSARY le n g , adv. (comp, of lange), longer. i. 265; vi. 367; x. 187; xi. 161; xvi. 9, 92; xxi. 251, 316. L e n g te n , see L en cten . le n g u , f. length; of the human or quasi-human figure, height, stature. xi. 308; xxi. 531. lé o , m. lion, nap., xxi. 326, 338, 460; gp. léon a, xxi. 313, 329, 475; dp. lé o n u m , xxi. 317, 461. lé o d , f. in singular, people of a country collectively, nation: ix. 59; xiv. 135; xxi. 236; xxii. 75; xxvi. 10.— in plural, (a) peoples, nations: iv. 76, 129; viii. 78; xxii. 54, 84, 86; (b) the people of a country individually: iv. 101, 102; xxi. 125, 283, 341,

- 538lé o d scip e , -s c y p e , m. nation, people. iv. 182; v. 1 17; xiv. 185; xviii. 67; xx. 391, 4 1 1, 416. léof, adj. dear, beloved, i. 330, 440, 445» 465; v. 71, 226; vi. 10, 21, 87, 209, 264; vii. 2, 40, 91, 128; etc.— used absolutely in vocative, dear 0one), {dear) sir, ii. 33; v. 68 (pi.); viii. 4 5 ,2 3 7 ;xx. 320;x x i.471 ;xxix. 23.— comp, léofre, dearer, more to one's liking, more pleasing, nsn., xxvii. 2(?); and w. dat. of person, nsf., xv. 45; nsn., vi. 207; xix. 48.— sup. léofost, dearest, wk., voc., pi., ii. 1; xxi. 6. h im léofo st b y þ , is most to their likings best pleases them. xix.

55leofa, leofaþ, le o fo d -, see lib b a n . lé o g a n , 2. to speak falsely, lie. pret. 3s. léah , v. 232; 3p. lu g o n , iv. 14, 74. [Cf. aléo gan .] lé o h t, n. light, a light (lit. and fig.)« i« 34-42, 207, 286-332 (32 times); ii. 77; iv. 71, 226; vi. 27, 29, 345, 346, 348; etc. [Probably not used as an adj., bright; at i. 316 it might be so interpreted, but the Latin source favours a light.] lé o h t, adj. not heavy, (a) light in weight, xi. 252. (b) minor, trifling, xi. 225. (c) delicatey insubstantial, xx. 313. (d) light in oppressiveness or severity, comp., nsn. léo h tre, xv. 139; sup., nsn. wk. lé o h to ste, xi. 497«

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léoh tfæ t, n. a lanterny lamp, light, i. 207; xvi. h i , 138; xxii. 49. lé o m a , m. light, radiance, ray of light. Í« 15» 295; viii. 231, 235. léon (-), see léo. leorn ian , II. to learn, ii. 228; xi. 183; xii. 64; xiii. 141; xvi. 238; xix.

7« le o rn in g cild , n. {young) pupil, xiii. 141. [Cited by B T from one passage in Ælfric only.] le o rn in gcn ih t, m. disciple, (a) in plural, Christ's disciples, iii. 3; v. 60, 70, 207, 225, 229; vi. 19, 21, 334; viii. 22; xvii. 205, 208; xviii. 225, 286; xix. 40. (b) generally, ns., xiii. 22, 134. ge le tta n , I. to hinder, stop. vi. 334; viii. 144 (pp. gelett); xxi. 417 (pret. 3s« ge le tte , v.l. g e lse h te : see gelæ ccan). L eu i, Levi, son of Jacob, xx. 58 (gs. Leuies). lib b a n , ly b b a n , III (pret. and one form of pres. part, as from ‘lifian, leofian’, II). to live. i. 284; ii. 171, 178; iv. 219; v. 270; vi. 59, etc. (11 times); vii. 137; etc.; trans, lib b a n . . Alf, to live (one's) life, xviii. 133 ; xxv(a). 19; xxx. 9.— pres. part, has two forms: (a) libben d e, lyb b en d e, with ordinary verbal sense, iv. 154; vi. 362; xi. 482; xv. 139; xvi. 2 (applied to Christ living as man); xviii. 237, 307; as noun, þ a ly b b en d a n , xi. 301. (b) lifi(g)en d e, lyfi(g)en d e, as epithet of the living God in one of his three persons, i. 75, 152, 323, 383; iii. 169, 177; v. 89, 223; vi. 255; vii. 87; etc. (14 more)— falsely claimed for Bel, xxi. 372. [Other forms: inf. lib b a n , vi. 364 (3 times); ly b b a n , xi. 120 (3 times); imp. sg. leofa, xxi. 327; pres. 3s. leofaþ, vi. 59 (12 times); lyfaþ , xxi. 372, 376; pres, ip. ly b b a þ , i. 284; ii. 178; 3p. ly b b a þ , iv. 219 (6 times); lib b a þ , x\a. 24 (5 times); pres. 3s. subj. ly b b e , xv. 51; ip. ly b b a n , ii. 171; 3p. ly b b a n , vi. 150; ly b b o n , vi. 300; pret. 3s. leofode, vi. 105 (6 times); lyfo d e, xi. 122; xxi. 591,

884

GLOSSARY

libban, ly b b a n (cont.) 638; 3p. leofodon, xia. 115 (3 times); leofedon, xvii. 70; leofod an , xviii. 11; xxi. 158; lyfed o n , xi. 374; lyfodon , xviii. 437.] L ib e r R e g u m , the first book of Kings according to the older reckoning, now I Samuel, xxi. 210. [Cf. C y n in g a böc.] lie, n. body. x. 175; xx. 192; xxiii. 27, 195, 200. g e lic , adj. (a) alike. iv. 201; xi. 235, 400; xxiv. 9. (b) with dat., liket similar to. vii. 99; ix. 113; xi. 534; xiii. 232, 233; xv. 175; xvi. 61; xvii. 271; xxiii. 160; xxvi. 59. g e lic a , wk. m. the like or equal of another, i. 225. ge lice , adv. alike, equally, vi. 235; vii. 2 1 1 ; x. 1 15; xi. 87, 201; xiii. 43; xxi. 18. lie g a n , 5. to lie. (a) of persons, to be in a recumbent or prostrate position, ii. 24, 28, 68, 85, 91; vi. 30, 306; xxi. 226; xxvi. 87; xxvii. 5 1(?). (b) with predicative complement ex­ pressing condition: to lie sick, dead, buried, etc. ii. 249; vi. 2, 8, 34, 177, 197; x. 155; xx. 168; xxi. 233; xxvii. 29, 87 (on forþsíþe, at the point of death); xxix. 121. (c) to lie sick. vi. 329; xi. 169; xix. 149. (d) fig. to be in a state of captivity. xxiii. 56.— in a state of indolence. xix. 2 1 1, (e) fig. to lie in sins, in lusts, as if in mud or in the grave, ii. 190; iv. 67; vi. 202, 207; xvi. 67. (f) of animals, to dwell, have their lair ? xxi. 317. (g) of bodies, to lie (ilifeless) in or on the ground, xx. 192. (h) of something material, to be situatedybe contained in a place, xiii. 153. (0 t0 assume a prostrate positionf lie {down), xxvi. 130. [Forms: inf., xiii. 153; xx. 192; d. inf. lic g a n n e ,v i. 207; pres. part, l i e g ­ ende, vi. 306, 329; xi. 169; xix. 149; xxi. 226 (uninfl. asm., v.l. lie g a n , inf.); pres. 2s. lig s t, xxiii. 56; 3s. líþ , vi. 30; xxix. 121; 3p. lie g a þ , vi. 202; 3s. subj. lie g e , xvi. 67; ip. subj. lie g a n , xx. 168; pret. 2s. lä g e , ii, 190; 3s. f e g , ii.

28 (17 times); 3p. lä g o n , ü. 24 (4 times). Cf. fo rliegan .] lie h a m a , wk. m. body. i. 407, 435; ii. 94, 107, 1 14, 228, 230, 234; vi. 145, 151, 157, 207; vii. 144, 155, 161; etc. llc h a m lic e , adv. bodilyy in the flesh. ii. 8; x. 75; xix. 124. Ueian, ge lie ia n , II, w. dat. to please, be pleasing to. (a) the subject a person or a thing, i. 440; vi. 290; viii. 86; xvii. 118; xix. 84; xx. 20, 7 1; xxi. 162; xxvii. 5( ?), 80. (b) the subject a clause, xix. 12. (c) the sub­ ject undefined, i. 445 (on þ á m m é w e l líca þ , in whom I am well pleased). [Cf. m islicia n .] g e lic n y s s , f. likeness, i. 12, 14; ii. 180; ix. 132; x. 97; xi. 58, 217; xi a. 175; xviii. 60 {analogue); xxvii. 97; xxix. 59, 67, 121. lícw eo rþ e , -w y r þ e , adj. pleasing, at­ tractive. viii. 54; xv. 220. Ilf, n. life (as vital principle, the life of an individual or of men in general, the present or future life, the divine life, etc.), i. 33, etc. (12 times); ii. 99, etc. (7 times); iii. 114, 132, 185; v. 30, etc. (8 times); vi. 58, etc. (6 times); vii. 63, 134, 204; etc.— gs. lifes, as predicate, alive, vi. 365. on life, in lifet in the world, i. 19; vii. 161 ; viii. 1 19 (w elige on life, rich in worldly goods); etc.— h er on life, in this lifeyin this world, i. 4; ii. 7; v. 2; vii. 128; etc.— h ä lig e s lifes m a n n , a man of holy life (character and conduct), xxi. 301; xxix. 47.— m æ re s lifes m en n , men of dis­ tinction. xxiii. 126.— béon of life, to pass awayy die. xv. 53. ge lif, see ge lýfan . ge liffæ stan , I. to quicken, endow with life. pres. 3s. -fæ s t, ii. 228, 234; pret. 3s. - f e s t e , i. 75; vi. 245; xia. 209; pp. - f e s t , -e , iv. 154; vi. 153; xia. 14; xxi. 19. lifi(g)en d e, see lib b a n . liflé a st, f. loss oflifeydeath, xxi. 398. liflic , adj. livingy of life. i. 279; v. 20, 22, 31, 145, 148, 152; vi. n o , 273; xi. 468; xi a. 66; xvii. 55; xxv(c). 17. lig , m. or n.fireyflame, xx. 30; xxi. 298. lig e t, n. or m, lightning, xviii, 8,

GLOSSARY lih n ia n (‘lygnian’), II. to give the lie, contradict. xxii. 12. lih ta n , I. to alight, dismount. xxvii. 95 (pret. 3p. lih to n , after lacuna: perhaps a llh t o n ; see alihtan). lih tin g , f. lighting, illumination. i. 326; xvi. 1 15. [In both, artificial light is meant; in i, with contrast to daylight.] lim , n. limb. iv. 158; vii. 145, 157 (gp. lim e n a); xi. 217, 323, 434; xii. 207; xviii. 388; xix. 61; xxi. 309, 330, 338, 557, 559; xxiii. 191; xxv(c). 2; xxvi. 130; xxix. 78. g e lim p a n , 3. to befalL inf., xxix. 41; pres. 3s. g e lim p þ , xxv(c) 2; subj. g e lim p e , ii. 57, 279; pret. 3s. g e la m p ,x iii. 196; xviii. 10, 17; xxi. 214, 270; xxiii. 14; xxvi. 30, 43. [Cf. belim p an .] lis s , f. kindness, mercy, xiii. 64, 66. *lis s ia n , II, w. dat. to be lenient toward, show kindness or mercy to. xiii. 67; xvi. 146. [Not in diet., but see O E D , ‘lisse’ ; cf. llþ ian (a).] HÞ, n. {fermented.) drink, xiii. 164. liþ , see lie g a n . llþ e , adj. gentle, gracious, vi. 252.— comp., dp. líþ ra n , xix. 7. sup., nsn. wk. líþ o ste , xi. 497. líþ ia n , II. (a) w. dat., to be kind or lenient to. xiii. 65. (b) to be gentle, xv. 361 líþ n y s s , f. softness, gentleness, kind­ ness. xiii. 67, 186, 208; xix. 2, 6, 13. lo c, n. (a) lock, bolt, bar. xxi. 395; xxiii. 80. (b) a locked enclosuref closet, xvii. 201 (dp. lo c u m , less probably from ‘loca’, wk. m.). lo c, interj. look, look you. only in löc h w æ t, whatever, xxiii. 183. lö c ia n , II. to looky take heed. ii. 77; xiii. 32, 173; xxx. 9; preceded by on as post-positive prep. w. dat., to look uþony xii. 161 ; xxix. 16; pre­ ceded by adverbial on, to look ony beholdy xxi. 514. [The last three examples might be taken under o n lo cian , q.v., though in the last two if on is stressed it improves the alliteration.] lof, n. praise, glory, i. 470; iii. 187; v t 290; vi. 212, 373; xii. 156; xiii.

885

236; xv. 217; xvi. 79, 83, 200; xx. 429; xxi. 676; xxx. 31, 50, 62, 73. lo fsa n g , m. song of praise, hymn. xi. 3, 13, 29, 76; xi a. 82, 87, 129, 183, 190, 192; xxiii. 1; xxvii. 77. lo g ia n , g e lo g ia n , II. (a) to lodget place, i. 147; iii. 52; xviii. 131; xxi. 195, 401. (b) to order, dispose, v. 238; xviii. 372; xxvii. 27. [All with pref. except i. 147.] g e lö m e , adv. frequently, ii. 17, 20; iii. ii7 ;v iii. 172; xiii. 126; xvii. n o ; xix. 33, 145; xxi. 2 1 1, 597; xxiv. I. g e lö m lic e , adv. frequently, continu­ ally. vi. 306. lo sia n , II. to be lostyfail, perish, xi. 133; xii. 41, 222; xvii. 210; xix. 135, 251; xxi. 612. lo tw ren c, m. deceitful device, xvi. 234; xxix. 108. L oþ , Lot. xviii. 17 (gs. Loþes), 20, 61, 64 (ds. Loþe), 65, 73L u c a s , Luke the Evangelist, iv. 57 (ds. L u c a m ); xiii. 1; xvii. 279. lufian , II. to love. i. 221, 341, 383; ii. 143; iii. 1 14, 186; iv. 292, 296; v. 179; vi. 10, 14, 82, 312; vii. 135, 175, etc. lu flice, adv. lovingly, kindly, xxi. 341. lufu , {., with occas, wk. ds. lufan (as if from ‘lufe’ wk. f.). love, strong forms ver