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History of the Qutb Shāhī dynasty

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Provided by the Library of Congress Public Law 480 Program

History of the

Qutb Shahi Dynasty

Sulgan Quli Qutbw’l-Mulk, “Baya Malik”, Founder of the Quth (Courtesy, Director, Rijksmuseum,

Amsterdam.)

Shahi Dynasty.

HISTORY OF THE

QUTB SHAHI DYNASTY

Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

Munshiram Manekarial Pablishers Pvt. Led. 54 Rani Jhansi Road, New

Delhi

110055

Bookshop:

Delhi

110006

4416

Nai

First Published © 1969

P.

B.

Prof.

Haroon

Sarak,

January, Khan

1974

Sherwani

(b.

1891)

PRINTED IN INDIA BY B. D. SEN AT NABA MUDRAN PRIVATE LIMITED, CALCUTTA-4 AND PUBLISHED BY DEVENDRA JAIN FOR MUNSHIRAM MANOHARTAL PUBLISHERS PVT. LTD., NEW DELHI 110055

To the Memory of Nigaému’l-Mulk Agaf Jah I Statesman, Soldier, Administrator, whose

Descendents caused

the Re-florescence of Haidarabad as a great Cultural Unit.

CONTENTS

xiv

Maps

4

Illustrations System of Transliteration Abbreviations

xvii

Preface

Chapter

I THE

FOUNDATION

SutTAN-Quti

2.9.1543) Section

OF THE

Qursu’L-MuLk

STATE

(up

to

1. Sultan Quli’s Rise to Power

Sultan-Quli’s Antecedents. Conditions at Bidar. Sultan-Quli’s rise to power. Qutbu’l-Mulk, Tarafdar of Tilangana. Vijayanagar. Qutbu’l-Mulk and Yisuf

‘Adil. Battle of Deoni and fall of Raichir.

“The Declaration of Independence”. Extent

of the Province of Tilangana in 901/1496. Section

2. Qutbu’l-Mulk’s Military Campaigns

18

Orissa and Vijayanagar. Tilangana and Vijayanagar. Qutbul-Mulk’s Campaign in Tilangana: First phase. Qutbu’l-Mulk’s Campaign in Tilangana: Second phase. Qutbu’l-Mulk’s Campaign in Tilangana:

Third phase. Qutbu’l-Mulk’s Campaign in

Tilangana:

and

Fourth

phase.

Qutbu’l-Mulk

Isma’l ‘Adil. Qutbu’l-Mulk

and

‘Ali

Barid. Nalgonda and Kondvidu. Qutbu’lMulk’s last days and the manner of his death.

viii

HISTORY

Section

OF

THE

QUTB

SHAHI

DYNASTY

3. Qutbu'lMulk as a Man and as a Ruler

39

Difficulties he had to face. Impression of

Qutbu’l-Mulk on his Contemporaries. His Diplomatic Talent. As a Military Leader. Shi’ism. Architecture. The Man. Notes Chapter

II A PERIOD

52 OF

UNCERTAINTY

81

Jamsnip, 2.9.1543—22.1.1550. SusyAn, 22.1.1550—27.7.1550.

General Survey. Ibrahim. Offer of Kingship to Jamshid. Coalition between Tilang, Ahmadnagar and Berar. The end of the Coalition. Jamshid’s Supremacy and Death. Literary Aspects of the Reign. Adminis-

trative Reforms. Subhan-Quli, Daulat-Quli and Ibrahim.

Notes

Chapter Section

105

III THE KINGDOM AT ITS HEIGHT Ipranio Quis Suan, 27.7.1550—5.6.1580.

119

Diplomacy and Military Compaigns 1550-1565.

119

I.

Ibrahim’s Accession. Ibrahim’s General Policy. Alliance with Ahmadnagar. Jagadéva Rao’s Flight. The two Sieges of Ahmadnagar. Ascendency of Ramaraj. Section

2. Battle of Bannihatti, 23.1.1565

(i) (iti) (a) (c) (e)

Introduction. (i) Immediate Causes. League of the Four Sultans. (iv) War. Preparations. (b) Site of the Battle. The Opposing Forces. (d) Duration. The Action. (f) After the Battle.

137

CONTENTS

ix

Section 3. Diplomacy and Military Campaigns, 1565-1560. '

156

Vijayanagar after 1565. The Break-up of the League. Further Decline of Vijayanagar. . Subjugation of Southern Orissa. Elimination of the Kingdom of Berar. Ibrahim’s last days.

Section 4; Ibrahim the Ruler: A Retrospect

176

Section 5. Cultural and Administratice Set-up

179

Title and Coinage. Literature: 1. Telugu. A

typical

Vémana.

Aristocrat.

Dress

and

Manners.

Life in Tilangand. The Village.

2. Dakhni or Proto-Urdu. 3. Persian. Ad-

ministration.

Architecture

and

Public

Works.

Appendix 1. Military Organisation and Equipment

206

Appendix 2. Inter-statal Usage and Rules of Conduct

213

Notes Chapter

221

IV CULTURAL UPLIFT

Moyamman-Quii Quis SHA,

11.1.1612.

5.6.1580—

Section 1. Political and Military Aspects /Muhammad-Quli’s

Accession.

257

257 Coinage.

War and Peace with Bijapur. The Mughals in the Deccan (i) Early ,ccntacts. (ii) Dynastic Turmoil at Ahmadnagar. (iii) Chand Bibi. (iv) Fall of Ahmadnagar. (v) Advent of Malik ‘Ambar. Venkata II. Turmoil in the East. Muhammad-Quli’s last days. The Sultan’s Personality.

HISTORY

Section

OF THE

QUTB

SHAH!

pyNasTy

2. Heaidarabad Foundation of Haidarabad. The Charminar. Chiarkaman, Palaces, Gardens,

Parks. Other Buildings of Public Utility.

Section

3. Cultural Aspects

316

Architecture. Literary Patronage: (i) Telugu. (ii) Dakhni, or Proto-Urdu,. (iii) Persian. Section 4. Social Life

334

Appendix.

339

The Bhégmati Legend The Story. Historical Appraisal. Revival of the Legend. The Solution. Notes

Chapter V SIFAHAN-I-NAWI Suttin Muyammap

~

11.1.1612—31.1.1626

Section

Quys Snax,

1. Political Aspects

385

Sultan Muhammad's Accession. A peaceloving Monarch. Foreign Policy: (i) Deccani Kingdoms and Persia (ii) The Mughals and

Malik ‘Ambar.

Section

2. Cultural Aspects The Sultén’s Mental Equipment. Persian Literature. Dakhni. Architecture. Death of the King.

397

CONTENTS

xi

412

Section 3. Economic Aspects Establishment of European Factories. cles of Trade,

Price Levels,

Port

Arti-

Officers,

Roads. 418

Notes

Chapter

VI THE DOWNWARD TREND ‘Aspu’L-LAH Quys 21.4.1672.

Section

1.

SHAn,

431

1.2.1626—

Political and Military Aspects

431

Parentage and Accession. Foreign Relations. (i) Iran. (ii) The Mughals (a) Up to

1636.

(b)

Shahi

arms

Bijapur

and

1636-1656.

Karnatak.

in Eastern

(c)

1656-1672.

Progress

(iii)

of Qutb

Karnatak.

463 Section

1. Military Organisations

Section

2. Economic Aspects Coinage. Weights and and Manufacture (i) Textiles. (iii) Other Agricultural Produce. of Trade. Price Levels. Wages.

Section

463

Measures. Products Precious Stones. (ii) Manufactures. (iv) Imports and Balance Taxes, Salaries and

3. Sea Routes and Roads

The Records. Sea Routes. Trunk Roads (i) Roads from Surat to Haidarabad (ii) Roads from Haidarabad to Masulipatam (iii) Road from Haidarabad to Madras via Gandikota: (a) Sector from Hayatnagar to Kumbum. (b)

Sector

from

Kumbum

to

Gandikota.

xii

HISTORY

(c)

OF

THE

Sector

QUTB

from

SHAHI

DYNASTY

Gandikoté

to

Madras.

(iv) Road from Vijayavada to Madras. (v) Road

from

Masulipatam

to Srikakulam.

(iv) Road from Haidarabad to Ramallakota Diamond Mines. Means of Communication.

’ Section 4. Administration, International Conduct and Social Conditions I. Administration

502 502

The Dastiru’l ‘Amal. (a) Central Government: The King Majlis-i Diwan Dari. The Peshwa. Jumlatu’l-Mulk. Wazirs or Ministers,

Dabir,

Kotwal.

Sarkbél.

(b) Provincial Administration: Royal * Authority. The Simt. Shah Bandar. Military Command.

II. International Conduct

514

Categories of Envoys.

III. Social Conditions The

Sources.

and

Dance.

Freedom and versus power

Section

518

Medical Dress.

Treatment.

Ornaments.

Education.

Music

Religious

Festivals.

Pomp

525

5. Literature

(i) Persian.

Proto- Urdu. Section

6. Painting

Section

7. Architecture

(ii)

Telugu.

(iv) Arabic.

(iii) Dakhni

or

548

Appendix to Section 5 (iv)

556

Notes

558

CONTENTS

xiii

Chapter VII THE END OF AN ERA Asu’L-Hasan 21.9.1687

QutTs

SHAH,

21.4.1672—

Abu’l Hasan’s Accession.

Section

1. Cultural Aspects

600

602

1, Language and Literature. (i) Persian (ii) Telugu. (iii) Dakhni or Proto-Urdu. 2. Architecture. 3. Painting. 4. Kichipidi Dance-Drama. Section

2. Political Aspects

625

Syed Mugaffar, Mir Jumla, Madanna, Mir Jumla. (i) Madanna’s Home Policy. (ii)

Relations with the English at Madras. (iii) The Marathas. (iv) The Mughals, and Bijapur. The two Battles of Malkhér. Siege and Fall of Golkonda.

Appendix. Administration and Finance Notes

654 658

Annexure 1. Contemporary Chronicles and other Accounts relating to Qutb Shahi Dynasty

681

Bibliography

704

Index

215

xiv

HISTORY

OF THE QUTB

SHAHI

pynasty

MAPS 1.

Plan of the Battle of Bannihatti, wrongly called the Battle

of Talikéta. Qutb Shahi Highways.

facing p. 137

Dominions

Lay-out of the principal time of Muhammad-Quli Genealogy

about

1670, indicating

roads and facing p. 493

buildings of Haidarabad at the Qutb Shah. Sacing p. 543

of the Qutb Shahi Rulers.

at the end

ILLUSTRATIONS

Frontispiece: Sultan Quii Qutbu’l-Mulk, “Bara Malik”, Founder

PLATE

1.

PLATE PLATE

2. 3.

PLATE PLATE PLATE

Pre

of the Qutb Shahi Dynasty. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam).

Director,

The Charminar. (Courtesy, Department of Archaeology and Museums, Andhra Pradesh). Mosque on the uppermost storey of Charminar. Ma’dhanah. on the top of Charminar from the Central arch of the mosque. Vista towards Golkonda from Charminéar. Vista towards Koh-i-Tur from Charminar. Two of the great arches enclosing the Jilikbana or Charkaman,

een

PLATE PLATE PLATE

(Courtesy,

Haidarabad.

The Purana Pul, Haidarabad, ¢. 1578. Daru’l-Shifa,

Haidarabad,

The

Southern

Wing.

Tomb of Muhammad-Quli Qutb Shah, ¢. 1611. (Courtesy, Department of Archaeology and Museums,

Andhra Pradesh).

PLATE PLATE PLATE

10. I1. 12.

Mihrab and Pulpit, Mecca Masjid. Yali Gate, Golkonda Fort. Mecca Gate, Golkonda Fort, ¢. 1559.

PLATE

13.

Taramati’s

PLATE

14.

Pemamati’s Mosque, near Golkonda Fort, c. 1670.

PLATE PLATE

15. 16.

c. 1670.

Music

Gallery, Near

Golkonda

Fort,

Baradari, Gosha Mahal, Haidarabad c. 1684. Tomb of ‘Abdu’l-lah Qutb Shah, c. 1672. (Courtesy,

Director

Andhra Pradesh).

of Archaeology

and

(The art plates appear between p. 544-545)

Museums,

XVi

HISTORY

OF

SYSTEM

THE

QUTB

SHAHI

DYNASTY

OF TRANSLITERATION

( Arabic, Persian, Urdu ) Vowel Sounds

\

a

t

|

om

|

of

}

I.

u .

Cc

u

77

ai

e!

au

3

II.



Consonants

j,5

a

uw

s

e

t

wv

sh:

&

t

w

S$

°

th

wv

%

&

ch

»

¢f

ec

2

b

2

e

kb

3 5

»

d

¢

@

gh

od

é

4

dh

>

Ww

r



h

of

g

Y

)

5

N

a

Zz

ier

t

ABBREVIATIONS A.N.—Abu'l-Fazl:

Akbar

Nama.

Aravidu—Heras: The Aravidu Dynasty of Vijayanagara. Asafiya—Asafiya State Library (now the State Central Library) Bahmanis—Sherwani: Bahmanis of the Deccan, an Objective Study. Barani—Ziyau'd-din Barani: Tarikh-i Firéz Shahi. Banerji—Banerji: History of Orissa. Basatin—Ibrahim

Zubairi:

Basatinu’s-Salatin.

Bernier—Bernier: Travels in the Moghul Empire. Briggs—Briggs: History of the Rise.of the Mahomedan : in India. Burhan—‘Ali

bin

‘Abdu'l-‘Aziz

Taba taba:

Burhan-i

Power

Ma’athir.

& W.—Bilgrami and Wilmott: Historical and Descriptive Sketches of H. H. the Nizam’s Dominions. C.H.I.—Cambridge History of India. E.D.—Elliot and Dowson: History of India as told by her own Historians. E.1—¥Epigraphia Indica. E.1.A.P.S.—Epigraphia Indica, Arabic and Persian Supplement. E..M.—Epigraphia Indo-Moslemica. E. Is—Encyclopaedia of Islam. English Factories—Foster: English Factories in India. Ethe—Ethe: Catalogue of the Persian Manuscripts in the Indiz

B.

Office Library. Fer—Muhammad Qasim Ferishta: Gulshan-i Ibrahimi, also called “Tarikh-i Ferishta.” Further Sources N. & V.—Nilkanta Sastri and Venkata Ramnayya: Further Sources of Vijayanagar History. Gribble—Gribble: History of the Deccan, I. H.A.—Mir ‘Alam (Aba Turab): Hadiqatu’l-‘Alam.

Hada’iq—Ali bin Taifar Bistami: Hada’iqu’s-Salatin. Hadiga—Nizimu'd-din Ahmad §a‘idi: Hadigatu’s Salatin. Hayat—Zor: 1.A—Indian

LC.—Islamic

Hayat Mir Antiquary. Culture,

Mu’min.

Haidarabad.

xviii

HISTORY

OF THE

QUTB

SHAHI

DYNASTY

1.H.C.—Indian History Congress. Ivonow—Catalogue of the Persian Manuscripts of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. J.AS.B.—Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. J.-H.—Journal of Indian History.

J.P.H.S.—Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society.

J.N.1I—Journal of the Numismatic Society of India. Kambo—Muhammad Swialeh Kambo: ‘Amal-i Swaleh. Lahori—‘Abdu'l-Hamid

Landmarks—Bilgrami:

Mahnama—Ghulam

M.A.—Muhammad

Lahori:

Nami.

Badshah

Landmarks of the Deccan.

Husain

Khan:

Ma’athir-i

Kazim;

Mahnami.

‘Alamgiri.

Muntakhabu’l-Lubab. Khan: M.L—Khafi Muntakbabu’t-Tawarikh. Munt.—Badaoni:

Num. Sup—Numismatic Supplement. Q.S.—Tarikh-i Muhammad Qutb Shah. Relations—Moreland: Relations of Golconda. R.H.A.D.—Report of the Hyderabad Archaeological

ment. Rieu—Rieu:

Catalogue

the

of

Persian

Manuscripts

British Museum. Rihlah—Ibn-i Batita: Rihlah. Salar Jung—Salar Jung Library, Haidrabad. Inscriptions S. & A.—Sewell and Aiyangar: Sewell—Sewell: A Forgotten Empire.

Sources—Aiyangar:

Sources of Vijayanagar

of South

History.

Depart-

in

the

India.

Catalogue of the Persian, Arabic and Sprenger—Sprenger: Hindu’sta’ny Manuscripts of the Library of the Kings of Oudh. Storey—Storey: Persian Literature a Bio-bibliographical Survey. Tab.—Nizamu'd-din Ahmad: Tabaqiat-i Akbar Shahi. Tadh.—Rafi'ud-din Shirazi: Tadhkiratu'l-Mulik. Tar. Gol—A.M. Siddiqui: Tarikh-i Golkunda.

T.Q.—Tawarikh Qutb Shahi.

Velugot—Velugotivarivaméavali,

Zaf—‘Abdu'llah el-Makki: Zafarah—Girdharilal

Ahqar:

ed. Vengata

Zafaru’l-Walih.

Ramnayya.

Tartkb-iZafarah.

PREFACE

My study Mahmiid completed natural to d’oevre,

of the Bahmanis was motivated by my Life of Gawain which was published in 1942, and when I the history of the Bahmanis in 1953 it was only pass on to the study of the Qutb Shahis whose chef thrives

still

Haidarabad,

as

the

modern

of

capital

Andhra Pradesh and as the seventh largest city of the sub-continent. The scions of the dynasty formed a connection link between the Bahmanis and the Asaf Jahis, and they were also the promoters of that peculiar culture which is sometimes dubbed Dakhni culture, itself the result of the synthesis of cultures from practically all parts of the country as well as from overseas, which came face to face in the great tableland of which the Qutb Shahi dominions formed a significant part. Beginning as an enclave round the great natural bastion of Golkonda, Qutb Shahi dominions spread in all directions, till the time

came

when

south

as San

and

Indir,

administered

officers

their

while.

inland

and

Thome

as far

north-eastern

their

east

the

as

ran

far

Karnil

Penukonda,

border

as

coast

with

the

for

the

border of northern Orissa. The whole of this vast area, which in fact exceeded modern Andhra Pradesh to some extent, has been

named

Tilang

hy

our

Indo-Persian

chronicles,

generality of a very large part of the population of the region spoke Telugu as their mother-tongue. Literature flourished, and most of the rulers were poets of some merit in Persian and Dakhni, while a majority of them were patrons of Telugu which had virtually become their second mother-tongue. The period saw a complete understanding between the two great sections of the populatien, Hindu and Muslim. These included migrants from the north as well as those from over the seas, mainly

from

Iran

and Central

Asia,

the home

of the

Qutb Shahi progenitors. The city of Haidarabad was founded in 1000/1592-3, and it soon proved to be the sangam of practically all the cultures of India. Owing to the insistence of friends, the life histories of two Qutb

Shahr

monarchs,

Muhammad-Quli

Qutb

Shah

and

Muhammad Qutb Shih, have already been published, while numerous papers on the Qutb Shahi period have been included in some of the learned journals in India and abroad. I am

xX

HISTORY

OF

THE

QUTB

SHAHI

DYNASTY

grateful to the publishers of the two monographs as well as to the editors of the Journals for having allowed me to utilise the materials contained in them. I have revised practically every word of my published papers in the light of my later studies

and have had to change large portions of the script in order

to link together the subject matter in the form of a book. An attempt has been made to transliterate non-English names

and

technical

terms

according

to

the

scheme

of diacritical

marks attached, as correctly as possible; but the exigencies of the press have sometimes come in the way. Moreover it has not been considered necessary to put diacritical marks to fami-

liar names of places like Golkonda, Bijapur, Ahmadnagar, Bidar

and Gulbarga, and to the names of Mughal Emperors, Jahangir, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb. The anglicised names of towns like Delhi,

Calcutta,

Bombay,

Madras,

Mysore,

Bangalore,

Masuli-

patam etc., have likewise been left untouched. For the spelling

of name of the later Qutb Shahi capital, “Haidarabad” has been preferred to the rather outlandish “Hyderabad”, though the latter has been used when an indication had to be made regarding the place of the publication of a certain book of

the locus Notes, the end that they but may

of a library. both explanatory and referential, have been placed at of each chapter rather than at the end of a page so might not detract the attention of an ordinary reader be of help to those who wish to make a further study.

For the sake of brevity, whenever a reference has been made to a chapter of a book or an article in a Journal, generally only the first page of the chapter or the article is indicated.

It is a matter of satisfaction that I have been able to find the correct longitudes and latitudes of practically every city, town

and village of south India which has any importance in the history of the Qutb Shahis—and these number more than 250. This has been an uphill task mainly for two reasons. Firstly

years ago have been dwarfed out of all recognition today and it has been difficult to find them in the Survey of India Sheets;

and secondly, because the orthography of the names of most of these places has been twisted to an almost impossible degree in the accounts left to us by European travellers, and to a lesser extent by our Indo-Persian chronicles. The longitudes

PREFACE

and

iatitudes

of historical

places

xxi

have

becn

mentioned

only

once in the text. The history of the Bahmani Succession States has been eclipsed by the scintilating period of Mughal supremacy. If the present study, which comprises a discussion of the political, linguistic and cultural development of the region, puts into lime-light the lesson that, after all, what we call Indian Culture

is the result of the synthesis of cultures prevalent in different parts of the country, the efforts of the author in bringing out this volume would not be in vain Haidarabad

August,

1972.

H.

K.

S.

xxiv

HISTORY

371

i

x7

21

%A7

21

421

facilitate

9 8

16 Ww

65

THE

Bagh

19

lat

Of

bne

su & 31 x .