Historical regional studies of Kazakhstan: textbook 9786010439030

The textbook deals with historical regional studies of Kazakhstan as an academic discipline, its formation and developme

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Historical regional studies of Kazakhstan: textbook

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A.B. Kalysh А.I. Isayeva


Almaty “Kazakh University” 2019


Historical regional studies of kazakhstan

UDC 94 (574) LBC 63.3 (5Каз) K 17 Recommended for publication by the Academic Council of the Faculty of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of al-Farabi Kazakh National University (Protocol №3 dated 06.02.2019) Reviewers: Doctor of Historical Sciences, professor, Zh.B. Kundakbayeva Doctor of Historical Sciences, professor, R.A. Bekhnazarov

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Kalysh A.B. Historical regional studies of Kazakhstan: Textbook / A.B. Kalysh, A.I. Isayeva. – Almaty: Kazakh University, 2019. – 172 p. ISBN 978-601-04-3903-0 The textbook deals with historical regional studies of Kazakhstan as an academic discipline, its formation and development, its current state, as well as the place where the national history of the Kazakhs is under research. The analysis of previous research and accumulated regional data on the historical, socio-economic, demographic, geographical and cultural development of the Republic of Kazakhstan is also presented. This textbook is intended for students of humanitarian universities and university lecturers and professors.

UDC 94 (574) LBC 63.3 (5Каз) ISBN 978-601-04-3903-0

© Kalysh A.B., Isayeva A.I., 2019 ©Al-Farabi KazNU, 2019



PREFACE The 21th century is entering the historical arena as a time of modernization, global change. Undoubtedly, the reforms have affected the field of education and science. The national traditions of the country are of great interest, which has created opportunities for their study. The Republic of Kazakhstan is known worldwide now. A lot of hopes are placed in modern youth, society needs an educated young specialists. Textbooks and manuals for the new generation represent a great chance to learn the ancient history of the Kazakh people, its rich culture. Nevertheless, there is a problem of a lack of of regional history development, but the shortage of regional studies is being addressed. The study of the history of each region should start from an early age, so it is important to increase the number of hours in regional history for school classes. This is directly related to training of future historians, armed with knowledge of regional studies, able to organize regional field works. Thus, one of the most important tasks of the higher school of Kazakhstan is the development of methods for organizing and conducting historical regional research, and introducing their results into the learning process both at the university and at school. Regional study is the process of comprehensive investigation of a particular locality, region, and settlement. As a rule, the objects of regional study are social-economic, historical-political, cultural achievements of the region, as well as its natural and geographical description. The content and research methods of regional study consists themes and problems that differ from each other, but in the aggregate they allow to thoroughly explore and investigate the region from the point of biew of several scientific disciplines. Students studying historical specialties at a bachelor course should gain specific knowledge and master skills in the regional study since, alongside with the educational function, historical regional study solves problems of social significance. This, in turn, forms students’ skills of socially useful activities, caring attitude and preservation of cultural and historical heritage. 3


Historical regional studies of kazakhstan

The future specialist-historian, in accordance with scientific principles, will know the main thematic branches of regional study, will learn to draw links between the knowledge acquired at the university and obtained in the course of the regional studies. In addition, such specialist will master the skills of independent study of historical and cultural artifacts of a particular area, native land, and attract pupils and schoolchildren to this activity. The content of students’ regional knowledge includes the knowledge of natural and geographical conditions of the area, the history of the settlement of the region, the historical distribution of its population; concepts of toponymy; the specifics of the locality, a particular area, village, city or part of the city; as well as the development of practical methods of regional study and use of it in educational activities. Thus, regional studies contribute to students’ understanding of the connection between national history, local history, as well as the natural and geographical conditions of the region. This should increase interest in the native land, the small homeland of both students and schoolchildren. It is well known that regional study materials help to restore events and processes of the national history, the past of people, thereby promoting to the spread of knowledge of the native land, increases the importance of the region contributing to the general development of the country, strengthening its role in interregional economic relations, as well as in cultural development. The use of the latest achievements in the field of ethnology, archeology, and museology in the teaching and educational process not only enhances students’ specific knowledge and skills, but also contributes to the formation of a broad historical worldview based on a deep understanding of important interrelations between the events that took place in a particular area and the national scale processes. Formation of a modern citizen with a high level of national identity is a long and complex process. This process is facilitated by the mastery of the future historian knowledge and skills in historical regional study. Therefore, this problem has not lost its relevance up to this day; it requires an urgent solution in the process of educational work at the university.



Competencies (results of education): Instrumental competencies: The ability to analyze, evaluate and compare various theoretical concepts in the field of historical regional study and to draw conclusions, to be able to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of using new methods in this field of historical knowledge. The ability to organize, plan and implement the process of scientific research in various areas of the considered academic discipline, taking into account their theoretical and practical developments. Interpersonal competencies: In terms of interpersonal communication and human resource management, to critically evaluate own strengths and weaknesses, outline ways and choose means of developing strengths and eliminating weaknesses; to be competent: in the field of scientific and scientific-pedagogical activity in the context of rapid updating and growth of information flows; in conducting theoretical and experimental research; in the formulation and solution of theoretical and applied problems in scientific research; in conducting professional and comprehensive analysis of problems in the relevant field; to possess the culture of thinking, to develop skills for the synthesis, analysis, perception of information, setting goals and choosing ways to achieve it; to realize the social necessity of their future profession and to have a high motivation to carry out future professional activities. System competencies: to know and understand current trends, trends and patterns in the development of regional study in the context of globalization and internationalization, system understanding of the field of study and demonstrate the quality and effectiveness of selected scientific methods. Subject competences: ability to synthesize and analyze scientific information, identify the interdependence of the main components of historical regional study, the ability to integrate the data into a single holistic idea for the formation of an interdisciplinary scientific problem.


Chapter 1. Subject, objectives, basic principles of research...

Chapter I SUBJECT, OBJECTIVES, BASIC PRINCIPLES OF RESEARCH METHODS AND SOURCES OF HISTORICAЦL REGIONAL STUDY The purpose of the lecture: the formation of ideas about historical regional study, knowledge of goals and objectives of the course, the definition of its role in the educational process. Basic concepts: history, regional study, methods, sources, differentiation, microhistory. The main issues: 1. Object, subject, objectives and basic principles of historical regional study. 2. Differentiation of regional study by forms of organization. 3. The main methods of research of historical regional study. 4. The method of analysis of microhistory as a new scientific method of regional study. 5. Sources of historical regional study.

1.1. Object, subject, objectives, goals and basic principles of historical regional study Historical regional study in the complex of local history disciplines - geographical, physiographic, natural history, ethnographic, toponymic, economic, art history, literary, etc., occupies a special place. The role of historical regional study in the system of special (archeology, ethnography) and auxiliary historical disciplines (archeography, paleography, toponymy, anthroponymy, heraldry, numismatics, etc.) is presented in a similar way. It is necessary to note the comprehensive links of historical regional study with museology, archival science, and the society for the protection of historical and cultural monuments, and other humanities and social scientific disciplines. It is important to emphasize the need to know the characteristics of the formation and development of historical regional study as a science 6

1.1. Object, subject, objectives, goals and basic principles of ...


with a unique source base (regional, historical, archaeological, ethnographic, folklore, statistical, cartographic, archival, field, etc.) and rich historiography (domestic, foreign). A significant role is played by historical regional studies in educating the younger generation in the spirit of Kazakhstani patriotism and respect for their native land. Historical regional study as a field of scientific historical knowledge serves as one of the inseparable parts of general local history, representing a separate academic discipline. Therefore, it considers historical events from its substantive point of view on the basis of written and material sources and is considered to be an independent direction. An object as a phenomenon, a subject on which the main attention of historical regional study is focused, which fixes on the totality of knowledge about monuments and memorials associated with historical events in the life of the region and the Republic, with the activities of individuals, as well as with the best examples of material and spiritual cultures, have historical, scientific, artistic and cultural significance. For example, special attention is paid to archaeological (settlements and kurgans, religious buildings, rock paintings), ethnographic (dwellings and buildings, household items and folk crafts, applied art, tools, etc.), architectural (monumental buildings, structures, obelisks) and other monuments in the context of modern historical education. Its subject is aimed at knowledge of features of historical and cultural heritage of the past and the present, materialized in the monuments of history and culture, art and architecture, economic and cultural types of the population of a certain region or the Republic as a whole, having an interdisciplinary focus. Taking this into account, as a specific part of the object of study, including the natural processes taking place in it, including the knowledge of the peculiarities of regional history both in the scale of the Republic and in the context of its individual regions, raises its importance. The main directions of this discipline studying are historical events of antiquity, early and late middle ages, modern times, and Kazakhstan in the Russian Empire and the Soviet state, as well as the independent period of development of the Republic of Kazakhstan.


Chapter 1. Subject, objectives, basic principles of research...

The purpose of the course is to study the origins of the historical and cultural heritage of the past to form students’ systematic knowledge of the history of their native land in the context of modernity, to expand a holistic view of identification, preservation and promotion of historical and cultural monuments, to determine the future development of this branch of historical knowledge. They should rely on documents and materials of archives (state, departmental), museums (national, republican, historical and regional), written sources, special historical and regional literature. The above objectives define the following tasks: –– to study the origins, conditions of formation, development and main directions of historical regional study; –– to investigate the main written (ancient, medieval, new and subsequent time), cartographic, statistical, oral, material, visual, and other sources of historical regional study; –– to know the relation of historical regional study with geographical, archaeological, ethnographic, toponymic, environmental, demographic and other factors; –– to master the general scientific principles and methods necessary in the study of historical regional study; –– to deepen and systematize knowledge about events, facts and phenomena related to the development of historical regional study of Kazakhstan. The principles of historical regional study are as follows: scientific (clear theoretical justification of objects, phenomena, processes of the surrounding reality), systematic and consistent (long-term, regular study of the region, the establishment of the relation and interdependence of objects, phenomena, events), objectivity (impartiality), complexity (a set of different scientific disciplines in the scientific and comprehensive knowledge of the region), regionality (comprehensive account of local conditions), mass character (active participation of the population in the study and promotion of knowledge about the region), historicism (study of the region from historical positions). The importance of the definition of the conceptual apparatus of historical regional study, including natural types (geological, soil, bio-

1.2. Differentiation of regional study by forms of organization


logical, zoological), objects of material and household culture, various types of sources and their typologies is increasing. Thus, historical regional study includes a complex of scientific disciplines that differ in content and private methods of research, but leads in its totality to the scientific and comprehensive knowledge of a particular region. 1.2. Differentiation of regional study by forms of organization Regional study by forms of organization is divided into state, school and public. Regional museums, local executive bodies, research institutions and institutes are engaged in state regional study. School regional study includes such objectives as the exploration of the native land and the collection of local historical materials, the use of collected materials at school lessons. Here, the main role in the study of the native land is given to students controlled by the teacher. The use of local materials in the process of teaching students opens the general laws of the phenomenon under study, awakens love for regional study, develops creative skills, helps in choosing a future profession. The use of elements of regional materials allows students to easily learn historical facts. Research works of the native land lead to the formation of their historical knowledge and concepts. Most of the materials on the native land can be used in teaching history at the lessons, after school hours or in the form of optional classes. The position of teaching regional study is linking the lessons of history included into the school curriculum with the skills and knowledge gained in the study of native land. School regional study plays a significant role in attracting students to the protection of historical monuments. In addition, regional study is an important tool in the implementation of interdisciplinary relations. It helps to establish the relationship of different subjects, which is of a great practical importance in the development of general knowledge and educational responsibilities. Such subjects as history, geography, literature are closely linked. Us-


Chapter 1. Subject, objectives, basic principles of research...

ing the position of regional study strengthens the relationship between practice and theoretical knowledge, helps to learn local history materials. Regional materials are considered as an integral part of national history. It is necessary to study the native land with the life of the peoples inhabiting it. The same is seen in the growing interest of the society in regional study. Indeed, regional study contributes to the development of public work skills. In regional study, most of the work is done through teamwork and the specific result of the work done strengthens common interests. Regional historians should carry out a huge mission in the study of their native land, in spreading public interest in regional study. Thus, regional study in this direction is capable of strengthening social activities, as many initiatives are implemented thanks to the successful activities of the society, as well as awareness of the importance of the participation of each individual in the implementation of goals and objectives. Historical regional study should be widely used in the program of general education (school), secondary special (colleges) and higher education (institutes and universities) and become the main informative sphere in this field of knowledge, expanding their horizons, forming the sense of patriotism. The study of the native land causes a special sense of pride of the Motherland, forms a positive public opinion. Currently, there is a growing interest in the history of the native land, due to the works of domestic and local scientists, writers. The main goal of regional historians should be aimed at a new coverage of the history of the region, the disclosure of “white” spots in its past, to return the lost and restore the past. This is what regional historians do both in the center and in the field. This publication is intended for those who are interested in this issue – puplis, students and undergraduates, teachers and the public, who need to make greater use of regional materials contained in special publications (books, brochures, textbooks, as well as in the media). Regional works not only form objective knowledge about the natural environment and phenomena, but also help to find a connection between them, increase interest in the native land, its values and

1.3. Main methods of historical regional study


features. Regional materials contribute to the knowledge and understanding of the laws and relationships of the environment, including the nature of the native land, its natural resources, the laws of its development, the characteristics of the local population and economic and cultural types. In the process of learning, students master not only specific knowledge and concepts, but also comprehend the specifics and diversity of this subject, expand their horizons and worldview. 1.3. Main methods of historical regional study The use of the concept of methodology to refer to a special doctrine of the principles, methods and means of scientific knowledge: a) as a doctrine of the structure, logical organization, methods and means of activity; b) the doctrine of the principles, methods and forms of construction of scientific knowledge. The methodology of regional research consists of a variety of systems of methods that are used in the research process in accordance with the specifics of the various scientific schools. This research methodology has a three-level structure: a) cognitive knowledge; b) theoretical knowledge, structure, principles, rules and methods of scientific research in general; c) subject attachment to a certain type of research problems and cognitive situations. The structure of the methodology of historical and regional study can be divided into the following levels: a) the system of the necessary knowledge that determines the subject area of scientific knowledge; b) the formulation and solution of a certain class of research problems; c) the formation of the scientific thesaurus, the model of the subject used as explanatory constructs; d) methods for solving individual research problems. There are various ways of structuring theories, typologies of classification of theoretical approaches, from simple empirical generalizations to metatheory are known. The simplest concept of scientific theory is reduced to the statement “description – explanation”, which corresponds to the scientific concepts of particulars (single) and universals (typical).


Chapter 1. Subject, objectives, basic principles of research...

Like any other science, historical regional study is based on the general methodological foundations and its specific methods as a way of research, presentation and a set of techniques for the study of various branches of historical regional study. The variety of techniques used by the nature of the tasks that are put in the study of a particular industry, while the tasks are always determined by the subject of study. Consideration of the method as a system of rules and methods of approach to the study of phenomena and laws of nature, society and thinking contribute to the understanding of the set of methods of doing something that makes up the technique. The main method of historical regional study is the method of historical research, which, in turn, is divided into: a) general scientific (historical, logical and classification) method, b) special (synchronous, diachronic, chronological, comparative-historical, retrospective, structural-system, descriptive) and auxiliary (quantitative, social, etc.) one. The historical method allows to investigate and recreate the studied events, phenomena and facts taking into account general and special moments in their development and in totality; logical method – in the analysis of the importance of factors in the disclosure and interpretation of certain historical events; classification method – in grouping and systematization of the studied elements on the basis of essential features of similarity or difference. Among the special methods, a synchronous method is used in the study of the relation of events occurring at the same time, but in different places; diachronic – in the study and analysis of the historical process as a whole, and by periods, including its individual parts, specific events and phenomena; chronological – focusing on the time sequence of individual elements of the historical process, taking into account the changes taking place in them; comparative historical -when comparing several objects under study, having both similarities and differences between them; retrospective – when modeling certain events of the past with the use of all available complex of materials; structural and system method – based on subsystems of social life or on the relationship of individual elements among themselves; descriptive, used in the study of the location of the studied objects, activities and resettlement, including the sets of quantitative data.

1.3. Main methods of historical regional study


Interdisciplinary methods used in historical regional study: – geographical, based on the identification of local or regional specificity of natural components and related physical and geographical, economic and geographical characteristics, including territoriality, complexity, specificity and uniqueness of the geographical objects in their development and changes; – cartographic, representing a special form of specific spatial distribution of natural, economic, historical, archaeological and architectural-memorial complexes by drawing and using geographical maps representing the location, size, degree of prevalence of such complexes; – aerospace, aimed at the study and mapping of a particular area by means of aircrafts or spacecrafts, carrying out photographic, electronic, geophysical and visual aerospace methods; – visual, based on purposeful and systematic observations, systematic collection of primary empirical data in the process of studying the object by recording, sketching, photographing, video recording; – questionnaire, including a written or oral survey of local historians or respondents of a particular locality with specially selected direct or indirect questions to identify information about the important events that occurred or historical and cultural monuments that are situated in the studied region; it is used in stationary, route and cluster survey. – statistical, which helps in identifying quantitative indicators in the characteristics of specific local history objects and phenomena, based on the methods of statistical evaluation, testing the proposed hypotheses, which can be represented in the form of a graph or diagram; – economic, aimed at the objective identification of the relationship and interdependence between economic indicators within a certain territory, which make it possible to predict the state and dynamics of the development of the regional history and tourism industry in it, etc.; – sociological, considering in a complex social phenomena and processes within the chosen territory, consumer and tourist preferences and recreational needs of the population, etc.;


Chapter 1. Subject, objectives, basic principles of research...

– field, aimed at search work, as well as at a specific survey of the territory of a natural or economic object with an emphasis on finding out the ecological status, geological structure of the area, archaeological or ethnographic objects. Materials collected as a result of the work of historical and archaeological, ethnographic, historical folk expeditions organized by A.Kh. Margulan Institute of archaeology and Ch. Valikhanov Institute of history and ethnology of the Committee of Science of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan, leading higher education institutions of the Republic, having specialized departments of archeology and ethnology (Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, L. N. Gumilev Eurasian national University, E.A. Buketov Karaganda State University, Kh.A. Yassaui International KazakhTurkish University, etc.), Central State Museum of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Almaty), the National Museum of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Astana), regional history museums are of great importance in the study of the history of the region. All of the above methods of historical and regional studies are used independently of scientific areas of regional work and are used not in isolation from each other, but in complex, in different combinations with each other. 1.4. Methods of micro-historical analysis is a new scientific method in the historical regional study The methodology of historical knowledge in our days is experiencing some difficulties associated with the transitional stage of our society. A number of foreign and domestic scientists and historians rightly point out at the prospect of a new direction of historical research – micro-historical analysis. A Russian historian L.P. Repina in this regard writes: «micro-approaches have become widespread and more attractive as the incompleteness and inadequacy of macro-historical conclusions, the unreliability of average indicators, the focus of the dominant paradigm on the curtailment of a wide panorama of the historical past in a narrow range of «leading trends», to reduce

1.4. Methods of micro-historical analysis is a new scientific ...


many variants of historical dynamics to pseudo-normative samples and types». Methods of microhistory significantly expand the horizons of historical knowledge. The previous methods of perceiving historical reality do not always correspond to the dictates of the time, as the historical process is much wider, fuller and deeper than we actually imagine. Now many historians and young researchers understand that history is being made not only in major cities and political centers of the country, but also in regions, small towns and rural areas. Studies conducted at the level of the region, district allow us to know the historical process from the inside, on behalf of those who directly create history. Micro-historical studies in science bring fresh and valuable facts and sources. It can be materials of local periodicals, archives, memories of local residents as samples of oral history. The results will be presented by a more thorough study of a particular area or part of the intellectual community, for example, the study of the characteristics of the ethno-cultural process or the local professional community of specialists. We call this method of cognition microhistory, although its results are insufficient for the formation of generalizing philosophical and theoretical concepts. Nevertheless, this method of historical research is necessary for the knowledge of the experience of ethno-cultural development of the local community, and its preliminary results allow a comparative analysis of the development of different regions of the Republic, cities and villages in order to identify common and special in their development, in the historical events and phenomena that took place. One of the disadvantages of macro-historical research is that the past of a separate village, district and even the individual remained unstudied, as if away from the researcher. The historian habitually studies the changes that have occurred in the society, nation, state, and the lives of ordinary people, i.e. the processes that took place in the history of a particular village, settlement, district or region usually remained outside the interests of the researcher. Microhistory, which studies the changes in public life through the prism of everyday life of the individual, may help get out of this


Chapter 1. Subject, objectives, basic principles of research...

situation. So, micro-historical analysis serves as one of the effective methods of cognition of history, society as a whole. In macrohistory, the voice of the creator of history – a citizen or an individual is drowned out in the mass of the people, class and social trends. If the life of an individual was studied, he had to be an outstanding statesman or public figure, commander or hero. But no one thought, what was the attitude of the inhabitants of a small village, town, district to the changes in public life, historical events. This question remained unanswered for a long time, now it is time to assess the past from the point of view of a resident of the region, town, village, from the position of microhistory. The researcher of the history of the region should take into account all factors, including the role and opinions of local residents alongside with the views of people conducting public policy. So he can approach the historical truth, because microhistory contributes to the establishment of an objective balance in history, the achievement of historical truth. It is important to pay more attention to the history of life of villagers, residents of small towns and districts, due to the fact that historical processes, events are reflected in the fate of ordinary people, the inhabitants of our country. For example, take a remote Kazakh village. At some time, many Kazakhstanis came out of the countryside and it would be great if the history of a particular village was written from the standpoint of microhistory. To do this, you need to answer the following questions: when was this aul established? How many generations of village inhabitants lived here? What socio-economic, cultural changes occurred in the historical period in this village? If there were more such studies, we would have enriched our national history, domestic regional study. It worthy to note that this direction was developed only under the leadership of a prominent scientist, Professor M.K. Koigeldiev. Now we see that in modern domestic historical science the research is conducted predominantly on nation-wide scale, and the number of works on the past of a particular village, district, family, individual is extremely small. Therefore, we should pay more attention to the micro-historical method of analysis. At present, the study of

1.4. Methods of micro-historical analysis is a new scientific ...


everyday life, its history and culture, which is especially developed in Europe and the United States, is gaining popularity in the world practice. The trends in the world of historical science are such that microhistorical research will become one of the priorities. However, it does not mean, that the study of the national history and the past of the state will take a back seat. Historical science should develop in many ways, covering all aspects of society. In historical regional studies a significant importance is given to the works on the history of agricultural policy, theory and practice of historical research. These works discuss the development of production forces and relations in the village, the dynamics and fate of the agricultural sector, the problem of staffing, the formation of culture and social infrastructure. Now historians face another important task – on the basis of newly identified sources and materials to conduct an objective study, discarding the political and ideological husk. In short, microhistory is a young scientific direction, which appeared in our Republic in the years of transition and was actively formed in the first years of independence. The microhistory of cities, districts and villages is most connected with the study of the problems of cultural construction. In this regard, the study can be presented by three groups: a) the first group includes general works on the history of cultural construction in Kazakhstan; b) the second one – the research on the history of cultural development of the village; c) the third – a significant number of historiographical works on the life of specific persons who have made an outstanding contribution to the development of the village, the Kazakh aul. The complexity of the problem can be seen in the discussions around the concepts and terms of microhistory, that were unfolded in domestic historical science. Scientists can not come to a consensus on such key concepts as the national idea, ethnicity, people, diaspora. In fact, in the 20th century there was a turn from the study of the role of individuals to the study of society. In this regard, historical science became closer to economics and sociology, and began to use the research methods specific for the latter. In turn, the study of the past of the region by the methods of microhistory presents many opportunities for solving urgent problems. Earlier, these problems were solved only by


Chapter 1. Subject, objectives, basic principles of research...

the methods of macro-historical analysis. For example, at the beginning of the 21th century in our country there were many reforms in the socio-economic sphere. Now, thanks to the micro-historical method, it becomes possible to identify their impact on a particular locality, area, region. Qualitative characteristics of the method of microhistory have been modified and refined. This is not just a general trend, but an opportunity to identify variations and additions. Micro-historical method allows to solve a number of major problems that occurred in the district, region. For example, we can find out what factors contributed to the demographic explosion in the rural areas of Kazakhstan in 1950-1960s. The researchers of this issue relied on special statistical methods and materials of various media, but underestimated the importance of these methods for the study of the processes in rural areas. Thus, the method of micro-historical analysis is useful when studying the history of a particular village, district, town, region, region. In most cases, with proper application, this method gives a positive and correct result, allows to reveal new facets of the past of the region. It is time to fully use this method of knowledge of the past in the study of theoretical and methodological problems of historical regional study. 1.5. Sources of historical regional study Under the historical source, all the remnants of the past, which are associated with human activities and reflect the history of human society are implied. Monuments and traces of human activity have come down to us in the form of the following sources: material and archaeological (remnants of labor tools and weapons, household items, architectural structures), linguistic (language), ethnographic (customs, customs), oral (folklore), etc. With the establishment and development of writing written sources emerged. It is important to collect, describe and publish written sources of the past. The description of the manuscript should contain the following information: the name of the manuscript (the author’s

1.5. Sources of historical regional study


name in the author’s works), the date of the manuscript with the possible degree of accuracy (year, century, part of the century) according to the modern chronology and information about watermarks (filigree), place of storage (library, archive, museum, etc.), cipher, format, number of sheets, their safety, writing material (parchment, paper), type of writing (uncial, half-uncial, cursive writing). The presence of scraped or washed-out texts is particularly noted. In the presence of the cover, the approximate time of its production (ancient, late), material and registration is specified. The presence of miniatures (their number), screensavers, endings, and initials with the characteristic of their styles is noted. The identification of monuments of ancient and medieval writing in the Republic, in the countries of near and far abroad under the state program “Cultural heritage” and their subsequent publication in the form of multi-volume publications are of great importance are of great importance. Differentiation of regional study by forms of organization: state, school and public. Museums, local self-government bodies (maslikhats), local administrations and research institutions are engaged in state regional study. School regional study has a dual purpose – a comprehensive study of the native land and the accumulation of regional material; the second – the use of the collected material in teaching history and geography at school. Here, the main role in studying their native land is given to students under the direct guidance of the teacher. The use of regional material in the learning process contributes to the disclosure of the general laws of the phenomena studied, awakens the students’ interest in knowledge, fosters their desire for independent creativity, and helps in choosing a future profession. Teaching with the elements of regional historical material facilitates the assimilation of historical concepts by students. They can use numerous materials about the native land in history lessons and especially in extracurricular activities. The principle of regional study in teaching is to establish a certain relationship of the school course of history with the skills and knowledge acquired as a result of the study of native land. School regional study stmulates students to work on the protection of historical monuments and this is of great importance.


Chapter 1. Subject, objectives, basic principles of research...

In addition, regional study is an important means of establishing inter-subject relations. This subject connects various disciplines with each other, which is of great importance for the purposes of general education and educational tasks. Such subjects as history, geography and literature are particularly interrelated. The use of regional study principle links together theoretical knowledge with their application in practice, promotes to better assimilation of regional historical material. No less significant is the study of the native land by the active population. The public shows a similar interest in historical regional study. Regional studies contribute to the development of social work skills, as this work is done collectively: common interests emerge, reinforced by the awareness of the usefulness of their activities and the actual results of the work done. Regional study classes create conditions for research work. The interest of regional history researchers in the surrounding reality, phenomena and facts in the field of social life and natural science contributes to the appearance of the necessary publications on this problem. These include publications on the pages of periodicals and other special media. The importance of historical regional study increases in the course of investigation of the history of Kazakhstan of ancient, medieval, new and modern periods based on a significant source base, replenished in the last decade due to the state program “Cultural heritage”. Questions for fixing the material: 1. What research methods are common in the historical regional study? 2. Into what areas is regional study divided? 3. What are the organizational principles of regional study? 4. What is the place of local history among historical disciplines? 5. What is the importance of knowledge of regional study for future historical specialists? 6. What is the novelty of microhistory research methods? 7. Name the sources of historical regional study. 8. What refers to written sources? 9. Give examples of the use of methods of microhistory.

1.5. Sources of historical regional study


Additional materials and tasks No. 1. After reading the materials below, answer the following questions: 1. Who was Lewis Morgan? 2. What was the reason for the research of Indian clans and tribes? 3. Are ancient people sites found in your native region? Tell about it.

Houses and every day life of American natives L.G. Morgan (1818-1881) was an American historian and ethnographer who initiated a systematic study of the history of primitive society. His research is set out in the major work “Ancient society, or the study of the lines of human progress from savagery through barbarity to civilization” (1877). The author’s conclusions are based on materials taken from world history, Ethnology and archeology. “Ancient society” consists of four parts: 1) the development of intelligence through inventions and discoveries; 2) the development of the idea of management; 3) the development of the idea of family; 4) the development of the idea of property. The manuscript “Ancient society” had one more, the fifth part, dedicated to the development of the idea of home architecture, which was published by him later in 1881 “Houses and every day life of American natives”. Here we present the content of the author’s last book, which became the basis for ethnologists in the study of the life, settlements and dwellings of the inhabitants of traditional societies: 1. Social structure and organization of management. 2. The law of hospitality and its universal application. 3. Communism of home life. 4. Orders and customs relating to land and food. 5. Houses of Indian tribes living North of New Mexico. 6. Home of settled Indians of New Mexico. 7. The ruins of the homes of the settled Indians of the San Juan river and its tributaries. 8. The ruins of the homes of the settled Indians of the San Juan river and its tributaries (continued). 9. Homes of builders of the mounds. 10. Homes of the Aztecs or ancient Mexicans. 11. The ruins of houses of the settled Indians of Yucatan and Central America.


Chapter 1. Subject, objectives, basic principles of research... No. 2. After reading the materials below, answer the following questions: 1. What was the function of biis in the traditional Kazakh society? 2. Describe the role of Tole bi, Kazybek bi and Aiteke bi in strengthening the Kazakh khanate. 3. Were there famous biies in your region in the past? Please tell.

Tole bi Alibekuly (1663-1756) – an outstanding public figure of Kazakh khanate, speaker, leading bi of Senior Horde, one of the authors who participated in the codification of the code of laws “Zhety Zhargy” of Tauke Khan. After the death of Tauke Khan Kazakh khanate began to break up into separate regions. At this time, after many years of military battles in the cities of Turkestan, industry and trade fell into a sharp decline. However, in the North-Eastern part of Russia there was a rich market. Tole bi supported those ruling circles of the Kazakh people who adhered to pro-Russian policy. However, together with Aiteke and Kazybek bi he strived to adhere in foreign policy to particularly favorable conditions in the future life of the Kazakh people. Tole bi died at the age of 93 and was buried in Tashkent. Kaz dauysty Kazybek bi Keldibekuly (1665-1765) an outstanding statesman of the Kazakh khanate, a skilled diplomat, chief bi of the Middle Horde, who participated together with Tole bi and Aiteke bi in the adoption of the first systematized set of customary law “Zhety Zhargy”. He started his position as a bii at 18 years when he was a member of the diplomatic mission of the Kazakh khanate sent to the Dzungar khanate, to huntaydzhi Galdan Tceren. It was during this mission that the talent of the future judge was revealed. Due to this fact, the negotiations with the Dzungars were successful and resulted in signing the armistice. Kazybek bi is the author of the catchwords, which became the main principles of the foreign policy of the Kazakh khanate. As the ambassador of Kaz dauysty Kazybek bi visited Dzungarian khanate several times. In 1742 he with a talented military leader Malaisary and other prominent figures at the head of 90 biis released Abylai Khan

1.5. Sources of historical regional study


from the Dzungar captivity. Kazybek bi has reached a long-term peace agreement between the Kazakh and Dzungarian States. In the 40-60s of the 18th century, he led the foreign policy of the Kazakh khanate. At that period, relations between China and Russia were quite bad. Official negotiations with the authorities of China and Russia were held with the direct participation of Kazybek bi, an impartial adviser of Ablai. Aiteke bi Baibekuly (1689-1766) – one of the three main biis who made a great contribution to preservation of the unity of the Kazakh khanate, the public official. From the childhood was trained to read and write by the village mullah. His oratory is known from a young age. From the age of seven, he was brought up by such famous personalities as Aksha Khan and Zhalantos Batyr. Aiteke learned from his grandfather Aksha Khan the wisdom of governing the country, the peculiarities of diplomatic relations. In addition, the famous Batyr Zhalantos helped him in mastering his military art. At the age of 21, he became the main bi of all Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Karakalpaks, Kuramins living around Bukhara and Samarkand. He participated in compiling and codification of customary laws of “Zhety Zhargy”. For a long time he ruled the Junior Horde. Aiteke bi worthily fought for the unification of the Kazakh khanate, for a centralized state and a fair society. Standing at the top of power of the Kazakh society during the reign of Az-Tauke, these leaders of the Kazakh people made a huge contribution to the preservation of the Kazakh statehood.


Chapter 2. Types of sources on historical regional study

Chapter II TYPES OF SOURCES ON HISTORICAL REGIONAL STUDY The purpose of the lecture: the formation of concepts about the sources in the historical regional study, acquaintance with their types. Basic concepts: historical regional study, sources, archeology, ethnography, demography, toponymy, onomastics. Main problem: 1. The role of written sources, oral folk art and other types of sources in historical regional study. 2. Sources on historical regional study of medieval and post-medieval Kazakhstan. 3. Archaeological sources in the historical regional study. 4. Ethnographic sources and their use in the study of history of the native land. 5. Demographic sources in the historical regional study. 6. Toponymy – a source of study of the history of the native land.

2.1. The role of written sources, oral folk art and other types of sources in historical regional study Ancient authors about nomadic and settled regions of The Central Asia and Kazakhstan (5th century BC – 3th century AD). The appearance and development of a written language in Eurasia. The general condition of the source base on historical regional study. Main publications of sources. The problem of placement and localization of tribes on the modern map of Kazakhstan and The Central Asia based on Persian and ancient sources. –– Persian sources. Among these the most important are the inscriptions of kings Darius and Xerxes, composed in ancient Persian, Elamite and Akkadian languages, and a set of books of the Zoroastrian religion of ancient Iran – the Avesta. The territory of Saka and other associations and the historical geography of The Central Asia and southern Kazakhstan are represented well enough in the “Ach24

2.1. The role of written sources, oral folk art and other types ...


aemenid” inscriptions. The cuneiform fifth column of the Behistun inscription of Darius I (522-486 BC), the inscription “a” from Naksha Rustem, the texts “e” from Persopolis and Suz of the same Darius 1 and the so-called “Inscriptions on Devas” of Kserks (486-465 BC) are of a particular importance. Historical facts and the names of some tribes of the The Central Asia and southern Kazakhstan (Saka Paradaraiya – overseas Saka, Saka Haumavarga – making a drink haoma, Saka Tigrahauda – wearing pointed hats) whom faced the Achaemenid Empire are also contained in these inscriptions. In Avesta diverse in origin, content and time data on the studied problem are found. Texts Yashty, are recognized as the earliest texts of Avesta and Gathas – 17 poetic sermons, dedicated to the pastoralagricultural tribes and nationalities of the Central Asia 8th – 7th centuries BC. One of the earliest mentions of the pastoral tribes on the territory of Kazakhstan is in 13 Yasty (Arians, Turs, Sirima, Dahi, etc.). The name of ancient Kangha (Kangui) is also mentioned in Avesta. –– Ancient sources, mainly in Greek and partly in Latin. “History” of Herodotus (5th century BC) is the most valuable. The most important for Kazakhstan is the fourth book, where in connection with the description of the campaign of Darius I against the Scythians the most complete information about the tribes of Eurasia is presented. Valuable data contain the evidence of Ctesius collected in the work “History of Persia”. This work was used as a source by writers such as Diodorus (1th century BC), Pliny the Elder (1th century BC), Claudius elianus (2th – 1th centuries AD). An important source for the history and regional study of Kazakhstan is ancient geographical literature. The “Geography” of Strabo (1th century BC – 1th century AD) combines information about the natural conditions and lifestyle of the tribes of Kazakhstan and The Central Asia with various episodes of their political history. The geographical coordinates of the cities, rivers, mountain ranges, lakes, the boundaries of different regions of the The Central Asia and Kazakhstan are given in the “Geography” of Ptolemy (late 1th – 2th centuries BC). The mention of the country of the Saka (South of Kazakhstan, the Syrdarya river basin) and Scythia (a vast area from the Volgaup to Balkhash lake).


Chapter 2. Types of sources on historical regional study

The above mentioned written sources allow us to place on the the map of the territory of Kazakhstan in the described periods a number of tribes and tribal groups - in the South: Saka-tigrahauda, who were also described by Herodotus in the Greek sources, and Dahi (dai); in the West – Sauromats (Proaors), in the Central regions – Issedones, in the North-East – Arimasps. –– Chinese sources about the peoples and regions of Kazakhstan. Completeness of information about the situation in East Turkestan, Kazakhstan and The Central Asia . Purposeful collection of materials about the peoples and tribes, their way of life, political and social structure of Chinese ambassadors, merchants, travelers, missionaries, generals. The first data on the tribal associations of Xiongnu (Huns) and Dunhu, who lived near the borders of China in the 4th – 3th centuries BC. The mass penetration of the Huns to the territory of Kazakhstan and the Central Asia in the 1th century BC – 1th century AD. Reports of Zhang Jiang (2th century BC) on the state of the Wusun and the center of their possessions – the Ili valley, on the headquarters of Wusun – Chiguchane (the City of the red Valley) in the region of IssykKul lake, which became a significant political center and an important trading center on the “Great Silk Road”. Dynastic stories containing extensive and valuable data about the peoples of the the Central Asia and Kazakhstan. “Historical records” (Shi Ji), Sima Qian (145-86 BC), especially the chapter “The Narration about Huns” and “ The Narration about Davani”. Information about the possessions in the The Central Asia , their relationships with each other and China in the biographical descriptions of the Han emperors and generals. “A history of the Early Han” (Qan Kanshu), mostly written by Ban Gu in the 1th century BC and his educated sister Ban Zhao. In a special Chapter “The Narration about the Western region” (Xiuzhuan) a historical and geographical region new for the Chinese people is shown. The chronicle shows the main routes leading from the Han Empire to the The Central Asia , describes its peoples and tribes, economic and military situation, cities and trade. The same is applicable to the information about the possessions of Davan, Wu-

2.1. The role of written sources, oral folk art and other types ...


sun, Kangui, and Xiongnu, including the possession of Xiongnu Shanyo Zhizhi in the North-West of Tien Shan. Fragmentary information about the Wusun is available in the written sources of the later periods of the Middle Empire, for example in the History of the Yuanwai dynasty (Beishu), in the History of Liao (Liaoshi), in the Chronicles of Emperor Taizong (10th century) chronicles of the Tang dynasty. “Notes on the Western region of the great Tang dynasty” (Da Tang Siwitsai) Xuan Ztan (664-696), dedicated to his journey to India through the The Central Asia . Mentions of Suyab, Nevaket, Talas and various Turkic tribes. “The old history of the Tang dynasty” (Jiu Tang), written by a group of authors in the period of China’s fragmentation. “A New History of the Tang” (Sing Tansu) Sunn period (1043-1060), created by a team of authors headed by the prominent scholar and poet of China Suan Swu. The data on the Western Turks, Turgeshes, the formation of the Western Turkic and Turgesh kaganates and their disintegration; about Karluks, their settlement in Zhetysu and in the South of Kazakhstan; about policies (cities) located in East Turkestan, Zhetysu, valleys of the rivers Chu, Talas, lake Issyk-Kul. “Notes on the Journey to the West of the Righteous Chang Chun” (Chang Chun Zhan Czen Si Yuji) tell about the journey from Northern China to the The Central Asia in 1220-1224 during the reign of Genghis Khan. The route passed through Zhetysu, Chu valley and Gilis. “Description of the Journey to the West” of Yelyu Chutsai, who accompanied Genghis Khan in his campaigns in the The Central Asia and South Kazakhstan. Regional information on Kazakhstan in the “History of the Ming Dynasty”, “True Record of the Ming Dynasty”, “Summary Review of the Ming Empire”. Other sources: “Collection of information about the peoples who lived in The Central Asia in ancient times” by N.Ya. Bichurin, “Chinese records about the peoples of southern Siberia, The Central Asia and the Far East” by N.V. Kuener. –– Information about the territory and peoples of Kazakhstan contained in the ancient Turkic runic inscriptions (6th– 9th centuries) and historical-epic and historical-heroic narrations. The significance of the information available in the ancient Turkic runic inscriptions of


Chapter 2. Types of sources on historical regional study

the first millennium AD on the settlement of ancient Turkic and Turkicspeaking tribes. Written sources – ancient and original created by the Turkic authors. Ancient Turkic inscriptions found in Northern Mongolia, on the banks of the Yenisei and Talas are of great value. Ancient Turkic inscriptions discovered by N.M. Yadrintsev and I. Stralenberg in 20s of the 20th century, ancient Shezhire of Turkic peoples of the II century still exist on the banks of the Yenisei. In 1889 runic inscriptions found by N.M. Yadrintsev in Northern Mongolia, on the banks of the Yenisei River became one of the brightest discoveries of science. The Danish researcher V. Thomsen and the Russian scientist V. Radlov read and translated the”Orkhon-Yenisei” script, otherwisw called the ancient Turkic runic inscription. D. Klementz, P.M. Melioransky, A. Geikel, Y. Nemet, S.E. Malov, and others made a huge contribution to the development of the investigation of the runic script. At the time of the Turkic and Uyghur kaganates, the runic inscriptions of Northern Mongolia were located on the banks of the Orkhon, Toly, and Selenga. It is necessary to mention among them the inscription of Onga, Orkhon monuments (stone of the Selenga, stela Turchin), inscriptions of the Yenisei, stelas built in honor of Kultegin (732) in honor of Bilge Kagan (735), stella Kosho-Tzaidan, built in honor of Tonikok (716) and Kulshora (722). These monuments are valuable soureces for discovering the history and culture of the ancient Turkic tribes of the the Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Written language of the peoples of the Central Asia and Kazakhstan originated in early middle ages. During its long history, it changed several writing systems: ancient Turkic, Khorezm, Sogdian, Uighur, Manichaean, Arabic, Latin, and finally, one of the oldest types of letter writing is the ancient Turkic writing, which formed the basis of the written language of the Turkic peoples of the Central Asia , the Volga region, Transcaucasia and Kazakhstan. It originated in 6th – 7th centuries in the Central Asia . Monuments of ancient Turkic, runic scripts are localized in Mongolia (33 monuments), in the area of Orkhon on the Yenisei (85 inscriptions). The inscription from Issyk kurgan has not been deciphered yet. Runic inscriptions by genre can be divided into six groups: historical and biographical, epitaph or gravestone in-

2.1. The role of written sources, oral folk art and other types ...


scriptions; inscriptions on rocks, stones, buildings; magical and religious texts; legal documents (on paper); marks on household objects: this 38-letter alphabet was used in the 9th – 11th centuries. On the territory of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan there are runic inscriptions on the stones and mounds on the banks of the rivers Talas, Tareksas, rock inscriptions found in Taraz, inscriptions on pottery, coins, and household items. Inscriptions found on a tree on the banks of the Talas river, inscriptions on the bronze mirror from the Issyk kurgan, runic inscription on a jug in Eastern Kazakhstan, small inscriptions in Talgar that are the source and heritage of historical regional study. The runic inscriptions contain legends and stories related to the history of the Kazakhs: “Oguz-name”, legends and stories about Korkyt-ata, poem Alpamys, epic “Manas”. The “Oguz-name” tells the story about the ancient Turkic people’s genealogy (shezhire). The epic “Ogyz-Kagan” narrates myths and historical sources about Ogyz Kagan and his tribe Ogyz. The Ogyz Kagan – character of mythological Shezhire. Charecters of “Ogyz-name” – Ogyz Kagan and his children. There are two versions of this epic. It is an epic written in Uyghur and Arabic script. First, the epic Ogyz Kagan was investigated by K. Umiralieyev. “Shezhire i-Turk” or “Turki shezhiresi” of Abulgazi Bahadur Khan is the Shezhire about the life and public service of the tribes that were the ancestors of the Kazakhs. “Shezhire of Turks” are the legends and myths about political leaders who ruled before Genghis Khan and after him in the territory of Deshti Kipchak and the Central Asia , and in the Middle East. Shezhire consists of nine sections: 1) how God created Adam; 2) on the Khan of Mongols, and generations before Genghis Khan; 3) the story of the birth of Genghis Khan; 4) about Khan Ogedei; 5) about the second son of Genghis Khan Chagatai and about his visit to Mavrennahr and Kashkar; 6) on the youngest son of Genghis Khan –Toly, the rule of his dynasty in Iran; 7) about Jochi Khan and his rule in Deshti Kipchak; 8) about the fifth dynasty of Jochi Shiban and his rule in the Crimea, in Mavrenahr,


Chapter 2. Types of sources on historical regional study

Turan and Kazakh lands; 9) about Khan Jochi and his rule in Khorezm. For the first time “Shezhire Turks” become known in the 18th century. It is worth to note that the ancient and medieval written language had a great influence on the culture of the peoples of The Central Asia and Kazakhstan 2.2. Sources for the historical regional study of medieval and late medieval Kazakhstan The study of the history of the specified period is mainly based on written materials created by the authors from neighboring and remote Eastern countries; the most important material is contained in narrative works: historical, memoir, geographical, written mainly in Persian. They are supplemented by the essays published in Chagatay, Turkic, and in Arabic. The degree of representativeness of these sources varies. The most reliable are the works of authors from neighboring The Central Asia , Iran, and East Turkestan. At the same time, their most voluminous and fairly objective information relates to South Kazakhstan and Zhetysu. The accumulation of the data about neighboring and distant peoples and tribes of the Central Asia as a result of the Arab conquests in the east in the period of the Arab caliphate, was caused by the need for the Arabs to consolidate the conquered lands in the Central Asia and ensure external security from the militant nomadic tribes of Kazakhstan. Arab sources. The earliest information about the peoples of Kazakhstan in the classical Arab historical works and about the Arab conquests in some areas of southern Kazakhstan are found in the works of the authors of the 9th century: al-Balazuri, at-Tabari – “History of prophets and kings” (Tarikh ar-Rasul Wa-l-Muluk) and “Book of conquests of countries” (Kitab futuh al-Buldan). Description of the Turkic tribes of Kazakhstan and their territory of settlementis given in the book “Dignity of the Turks” (Manakib al-Atrak) al-Jahiz. The jorney of Arab Tamim Ibn Bahr in the first half of the 9th century through the

2.2. Sources for the historical regional study of medieval ...


country of Kimaks, located in North-Eastern Kazakhstan in the Irtysh river basin, to the capital of Hakan Tokuz-Oguz is also dfescribed. News about the tribes settled in the territory of Kazakhstan in the 9th century may be found in Arabic geographical works. Administrative-geographical directory of “the Book of ways and cities” (Kitab al-masalik Va-l Mamalik) of Ibn Khordadbeh. Routes of commercial traffic, the distances between different localities, the names of the towns and villages along the route of the Great road, which passed through the southern Kazakhstan and Zhetysu. Historical and geographical material about the Turks of Kazakhstan in the geographical book is contained in “The Book of Countries” (Kitab al-Buldan) by historian and geographer al-Yakubi. The information about the Karluks, Mimiks, Kipchak, Oguz, trade routes, cities and settlements and the distance between them in South Kazakhstan and Zhetysu is presented in the geographical-administrative work of an Arab geographer and philologist Kudama ibn Jafar “Book about kharadj and the art of the secretary” (Kitab al-Haraj va Sanet al-Kitaba) and in the“ Book of stories about countries” (Kigab Akhbar al-Buldan) by the Arab geographer Ibn al-Fakih (late 9th – early 10th centuries). It is worthwile mentioning historical and geographical characteristics of the nomadic Turkic tribes of the western regions of modern Kazakhstan in the “Notes” (Risal) of Ibn Fadlan and Abu Dulaf (X century); historical and geographical information about the Turkic tribes, the historical geography of early medieval Kazakhstan in the 30-volume historical-geographical encyclopedia “History of Time” (Akhbar al-Zaman) of the Arab historian and geographer alMasudi (10th century). Important information about the Central Asia and southern Kazakhstan (tribal composition of the population of cities and towns, trade routes is contained in the writings of al-Maqdisi (10th century). Besides, in such works as “The Best branch of knowledge of the climates” (Ahsan al-Takashima Fi Marifat al-aqalim), Ishaq Ibn al-Hussein (11th century) “Piles of pearls with a description of the famous cities in any place” by al-Marwazi (12th century), “The Natural properties of animals” (Tabai al-haywan) by al-Idrisi (12th century), “Entertainment of wandering in the regions” (Nuzhat al-Mushtaq Fi-hirak


Chapter 2. Types of sources on historical regional study

al Afak), Ibn Battuta (14th century), “The Gift of beholding of the curiosities of cities and wonders of travel” (Tuhfat en-nuserfi garaib fi al-amsar Va adjaib al-Asfar), Ibn Khaldun (14th century) “The Book of edification and instructive examples” (Kitab al-Ibar). Persian sources. Data on cities and towns, the location of the ulus of Chagatai, Jochi, Ogedei on the territory of Kazakhstan in the 13th century are found in the work of Ala ad-Din Ata-Malik of Juwayni (1260) “History of monopolies” (Tarikh-I Jahangiri). The most significant source on the history of Mongolian and Turkic tribes and peoples, toponymy, historical geography, political history of the 12th13th centuries is “Collection of stories” (Jami ‘ al-tavarikh) by Fazlallah Rashid ad-Din (1311). Materials on the historical geography of Dasht-i Kipchak, southern Kazakhstan, Zhetysu and Eastern Kazakhstan are in the writings of Nizam al-Din Shami “Zafar-name” (1404), Sharaf al-Din Yazdi (1425 g.), Muin ad-Din of Natanzi “Muntakhab al-tavarikh-i Mu-ini” (1414), Hafiz Abru “Majma al-tavarikh” in 4 volumes, al-Jurjani “Masalik al-mamalik” (1477). An important primary source on the history of the Kazakh khanate, Mogulistan and the neighboring territories of Kazakhstan in the 14th -15th centuries is the work of the famous historian and writer Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dulati “Tarikhi-I Rashidi” (1546). Valuable material on the Syr Darya cities – Otrar, Syganak, Sauran, and the tribes of Desht-I Kipchak, Kazakh khanate is in “Shaibani-nameh” and “Futuhat Hani,” Kamal al-din, Binaii (1510), historical and geographical materials on the Dasht-i the Kipchak and Turkestan, Syrdarya cities of southern Kazakhstan (Turkestan, Sauran, Arkuk etc., at the turn of the 14th – 15th centuries – in “Mihman-name-I Bukhara” (book of Bukhara guest) by Fazlallah Ibn Ruzbihan Isfahani. Historical geography and tribal composition of the population of East Desht-I Kipchak are described in Masud Ibn Kuhistani’s composition “Tarikh-I AbulkhairKhani” (1544). News about different sides of life of Syr Darya cities, about Waqf lands are in memoirs of Zayn Al-din Wasifi “Badai al-wakai” (Amazing events, 1537). There is a variety of materials on economic and ethno-geographical position of the towns near Syr Darya, steppes of Kazakhstan in the 6th century in the work of Hafiz Tanish Ibn Mir Muhammad Bukhari “Sharaf-nami-Yi Shahi” (book

2.2. Sources for the historical regional study of medieval ...


of Shah’s glory) (16th century). Diverse and very valuable materials on the history of late medieval Kazakhstan, on historical geography, on the characteristics of cities in the basin of the middle Syr Darya in the 17th century may be found in the encyclopedic work of Mahmud Ibn Wali “Bahr al-Asrar Fi manakib al ahyar” (Sea of secrets about the valor of the noble). Turkic sources. Location of ancient Uighur or Turkic writing since the 9th century on the territory of The Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Documents from the Turpan oasis. Distribution of Indian writing in the Turkic environment of the 9th – 10th centuries. Turkic sources of the later period. Essay on the universal history of “Zubdat al-Asar” (Cream of Chronicles) by Abdullah Balkhi (16th century). Ethnic history of the Kazakhs, data on the moguls of Zhetysu state Abulkhair in East Dasht-I Kipchak, the historical geography of southern Kazakhstan in the work of Babur (1483-1530) – the historian, the ruler, the founder of the Mughal Empire –”Babur-nama” (memoirs of Babur). Metric essay “Genghis-name” by Utemish-Haji (16th century) narrating about political, ethno-political, economic, social and cultural life of the population of medieval Kazakhstan. Geographical information about the Eastern Dasht-i Kipchak, near Syr Darya cities, the composition of the Turko-Mongol tribes in “Shaibani-nameh” (Book of Shaibani) by Muhammad Salih (16th century). Data on the history of the Kazakh khanate in the 15th –16th centuries are found in the historical work by Kadyrgali Jalairi “Of zhami at-tavarih” (Collection of stories, 1602). Significant information about the political, socio-economic history, ethnography and historical geography of many regions of the the Central Asia n region is contained in the “Genealogy of the Turks” (Shajara-Yi Turk) by Abulgazi (17th century), etc. Russian and Western sources. An important source on the history of the Northern part of Kazakhstan are Siberian Chronicles: Stroganov’s chronicle (17th century), “Siberian chronicle” by S. Esipova (1687), “Remezov chronicle” (early 18h century). They present the information about the settlement of tribes in this area and in Siberia. More than four dozen diplomatic missions from Bukhara and Khiva to Russia and nine Russian missions to the Central Asia passed through the Kazakh steppes in the 17th century. “The Big book of Drawing”,


Chapter 2. Types of sources on historical regional study

where the information about the Kazakh land makes almost an entire chapter, showing geographical data and cartographic materials from all over Kazakhstan. “Drawing book of Siberia” by S. Remezov, containing historical and geographical information on the territory of Kazakhstan with an indication of all possible geographical objects – mountains, rivers, tracts, crossings, wells, as well as settlements, distances between them. Western sources. In the 14th – 17th centuries, diplomats, merchants, missionaries travelling to Asian countries and Russia (G. de Clavijo, S. Herberstein, J. Barbaro and A. Contarini, A., A. Jenkinson, F. Avril, A. Olearius) and other persons, created new narrative sources containing local history and ethnographic data about the ethno-political associations on the territory of Kazakhstan. Maps of S. Herberstein (1546) and A. Vid (1555), based on Russian maps covered the territory of Western Kazakhstan up to the Yaik. The map of Jenkins (1562), who in 1558 set out from Moscow, on behalf of the English “Moscow Company” and went to the Central Asia for trade purposes, added geographical information about Kazakhstan. In this map, the Kazakhs are shown near the Syrdarya River, and at the Yaik River. A brief overview of written monuments allows us to conclude that a significant number of narrative medieval Eastern, Russian and Western sources were introduced into scientific circulation. Historical materials on Kazakhstan presented in the works of oriental authors are characterized by fragmentarity. The information is given predominantly on the political affairs, the history of the relationship of the tribes, peoples and rulers, and the population of the neighboring countries. Even more fragmented are the data on ethnic composition, economic activities and elements of spiritual and material culture. Data from Eastern sources are supplemented by the reports from Western European and Russian travelers, envoys, scientists, as well as by the information from Russian chronicles and archives. Local historical materials concerning oral folk art. Poetry of Zhyrau is considered from the point of view of main ideologists of the khanate, associates and advisers of the khans, warriors, the leaders of the tribes of the 16th –18th centuries. The main representatives of oral

2.3. Archaeological sources in the historical regional study


folk art were Shalkiiz Tlenshiuly (1465-1560), Dospambet zhyrau (1490-1523), Zhiembet zhyrau (17th century), Margaska (17th), Aktamberdy (1675-1768), Tattiqara (1705-1780), Umbetai (1697-1786), Bukhar Zhyrau Kalkamanuly (1698-1778). In the works of historical-epic and historical-heroic content about khans Esim, Tauke, Tursyn, Ablai, Toly, Kazbek, Ayteke, Syrym, Bogembay, Eset, Kabanbay, Karasai, and other batyrs specific historical and local historical materials are reflected. Such works ��������� reflected in the poetry the events and battles in various regions of Kazakhstan during the “great disaster”(“aktaban shubyryndy”). The content of the songs “Curataudin basinan kosh keledi” (“From the top of the Tau is the movement”) and “«Күншығыстан ызғарлы жел келеді»» («From the East blows the wind»). Historical and toponymic legends. Stories about an outstanding historical person who lived in a remote era, or the history of a certain area, locality, lake, river, etc. (“The Legend of Issyk-Kul”, “The Legend of Korkut”, “Okzhetpes”, “Atasu”, “Children of Tokpan”, etc.). 2.3. Archaeological sources in the historical regional study The role of archeology in regional study. Archaeology is a science that studies the historical past of the humankind on the real monuments and artifacts (primitive, ancient and medieval) and reconstructs the distant past of the human society. The head archaeological center in Kazakhstan is the Institute of Archeology. The Committee of Science under the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan coordinates and directs archaeological research of domestic archaeologists, departments of archaeology of higher educational institutions of the Republic. Material monuments and artifacts are the tools of production and material goods created with their help – luxury goods, clothing, various decorations, individual and public architectural structures, works of fine art, coins, weapons, i.e. everything that is the result of centuries of work and life of people. Physical monuments and artifacts are discovered by archaeologists who lead the excavations, restore the


Chapter 2. Types of sources on historical regional study

discovered items, structures, then date, classify, and examine them, publish the reports on the results of the work done. In this case, the archaeologists provide the basis for historians who use these findings and all types of sources, both material and written. Archaeology has extraordinarily expanded the temporal and spatial concepts of history as a science. The entire ancient history of the human society is known to us on the basis of archaeological data. Archaeologists present materials that largely complement written sources. Archaeological monuments – settlements and burials. Unfortified settlements, villages and fortified settlements. Settlements with gravestones (burial mounds, tombs) and burial grounds. Inventory of burials. Archaeological exploration and excavations. Archaeological research (field and laboratory). Stratigraphic observations, Archaeological excavations of ancient and medieval cities of Kazakhstan, of irrigation systems. Features of archaeological sources. Processing of archaeological materials. Determination of the age of the monument by the classical methods: comparative-typological analysis, mapping, etc., and by the new techniques: archaeomagnetic, dendrochronological, radiocarbon, thermoluminescence, spectral, chemical, astrophysical (solar radiation intensity), biological dating by varved clays, by spores, PillCam in the cultural layers of ancient settlements. The first stage of archaeological processing of materials (classification and typology). Differentiation of archaeological finds by categories, groups, classes, types and species. Five categories of archaeological finds: stone, ceramic, bone, metal, wood and other materials. Division of categories into groups. For example, ceramics is divided into groups: moulded ceramics, made only by hands, and pottery, made on a Potter’s wheel. Marking on the map the spread of similar complexes, and in some cases, of individual things ius widely used. This greatly facilitates the determination of the boundaries of the settlement of tribes, clans and peoples, clarification of trade routes, the location of settlements, settlements and cities on such maps. Reconstruction of the historical past of mankind on the material remains.

2.3. Archaeological sources in the historical regional study


Preparation for archaeological work. The results of the “Open Sheet” for the archaeological excavation or exploration by specially authorized state bodies. Categories of Open Sheets: a) №1 – the right to perform special archaeological work; b) №2 – exploration with baring of small areas of the monument; с) №3 – archaeological exploration without ����������������������������������������������� performance of any earthworks; d) №4 – the survey of archaeological sites which are under the threat of destruction as a result of natural phenomena, or in the case of their sudden detection during excavations for other purposes. Issuance of Open sheets at the request of archaeological institutions in the name of a particular person for one field season. Submission of the scientific report to the institution that issued the Open sheet is mandatory. The importance of archeology in the study of ancient settlements and settlements in Kazakhstan. Formation and development of settlements. Influence on them by the main economic and cultural types (nomadic, semi-nomadic and settled cattle breeding and agriculture). Features of settlements of the bronze age, early and iron age, early and late middle ages, the period of the Kazakh khanate. Three types of permanent settlements: wintering settlements of semi-nomads, settled villages and settlements. The instability of the composition and size of settlements of nomads and semi-nomads. Settling of nomads, the development of crafts and trade, the growth of material inequality stimulated the genesis of urban life. The heyday of cities falls on the 11th – 12th centuries. Numerous cities and settlements of Karluks, who occupied the territory from the Jungar Alatau up to the middle reaches of the Syr Darya river. The settled towns and cities of Oguzes, Kimaks, and Kypchaks. Excavations of medieval towns and settlements. The existence of 37 cities according to archaeological and written sources. Tatar-Mongol invasion and its negative consequences for the urban culture of the Syrdarya, Chu and Talas, Zhetysu. The rise of settlements and cities in the 15th -16th centuries. and the connection of this rise with the formation of the Kazakh khanate. The heterogeneity of the layout of the various parts of the cities on the territory of the Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Mandatory presence of the citadel, Shahristan and Rabat in large and small towns. The


Chapter 2. Types of sources on historical regional study

citadel as an important element of the city and its most fortified part, the residence of medieval feudal rulers. Shahristan as a concentration of wealthy individuals, “the court”. Rabat as a craft-shopping center. City block and its formation. The quarter as an array of urban development, consisting of several households, united by the intra-street or a segment of the main street. Radial-ring layout of the towns, although in general the plan of the city not always represented a figure close to a circle. Defensive constructions. Changes in the planning and construction of cities after joining the Russian Empire. The construction of fortress towns along the river Ural up to the Tobol and the Irtysh rivers in the 18th – 19th centuries. Street-block, chess system, intersecting at right angles streets and alleys. Prevalence of radial-ring system of city planning. New buildings of city and provincial institutions, the creation of architectural ensembles, etc. The use of archaeological material at school, both in the classroom and in extracurricular activities. Lesson-excursion to the loca museum. Elective courses in archaeology. The work of the archaeological circle. Archaeological expedition of schoolchildren. Archaeological seminars and conferences. Use of archaeological data at historical faculties of higher educational institutions. The importance of students ‘ participation in archaeological excavations and their independent work in the study of archaeological monuments of their native land. 2.4. Ethnographic sources and their use in the process of studying the history of the native land The role of ethnography in regional study. Ethnography as a historical science, studying the cultural and everyday features of peoples, their economic and cultural types, the system of their life, the problems of ethnogenesis and ethnic history, settlement and cultural and historical relations of peoples. Connection of ethnography with other historical disciplines, especially archeology, anthropology, cultural studies, sociology, geog-

2.4. Ethnographic sources and their use in the process of studying ...


raphy, architecture and ethnolinguistics is very close. In addition, it uses written and graphic documents, material and household materials. This is exactly what distinguishes Ethnography from other historical sciences. Ethnography deals with the study of everyday and cultural processes of different peoples of the world, a particular country, region or district. It refers to the usual, established, traditional forms of personal and social life. It should be emphasized that these forms of life in all ethnic groups have both common and distinctive features. Under the culture of an ethnic group is understood the whole set of cultural heritage inherent in this ethnic group in the person of its individual representatives, local groups. There are four subsystems of culture: production, life-supporting, socionormative and cognitive subsystem. The notion of the production subsystem of culture refers to the production and reproduction of material goods, tools and means of production within the limits in which production is separated from consumption. Life-supporting subsystem includes a set of mechanisms and tools aimed at directly maintaining the life of its carriers. Therefore, some related complexes, such as housing and settlement, food and utensils, clothing and jewelry, and a number of other ones, can be considered as the components of the subsystem. The socionormative subsystem of culture includes such institutions as a custom, ritual, a significant part of religious institutions and various social structures. The cognitive subsystem of culture includes both a set of scientific and empirical knowledge and experience, as well as the field of knowledge, which is carried out not in a rational but in a social way, through art in its various forms and manifestations. Features of ethnographic sources. Types of ethnographic sources. Material (real) cultural objects-artifacts. Legends or memorials. Classical written narrative sources. The involvement of other sciences and disciplines. Study of culture and life of the peoples of Kazakhstan, other countries and continents. Development of ethnography in pre-revolutionary Kazakhstan. The role of Russian pre-revolutionary researchers in the study of historical and traditional ethnography of the Kazakh people. Activities


Chapter 2. Types of sources on historical regional study

of the Russian Geographical Society and its branches (West Siberian, Orenburg, Turkestan), as well as other scientific organizations in Kazakhstan. Ethnographic research during the Soviet era. The central scientific institution coordinating ethnographic research in the Republic (Ch. Valikhanov Institute of History and Ethnology of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan). The main source of study of ethnographers is field expeditionary materials. Types of field observations. Field diary, conversations, sketches from nature, photographs, tape recordings, filming, etc. Collection of material artifacts: traditional national clothing, jewelry, crafts, various household utensils. Receipt of the specified things in historical and local lore and ethnographic museums. Two main methods in the fieldwork of an ethnographer are stationary and expeditionary methods. Stationary method is the observation of the researcher at the place of his permanent residence or long stay. The second method – a short stay in one or a variety of points during the research work. The ethnographer’s object of study is making clothes, building houses, collected data on the terminology and etymology of objects of material and spiritual culture of an ethnic group. The main methods of modern ethnographic research. Comparing the present with the past. The study of villages as the most important task of local historical and ethnographical research. Methods and techniques of work of the ethnographer-anthropologist. The study of rural villages. The importance of using the plan of settlement of a particular object on the basis of the involvement of materials of the national or regional archives, national or regional museums. Education and development of villages, rural settlements. Analysis of rural settlement plans. There are three main types of villages: 1) cumulus (nesting); 2) circular; 3) linear with their varieties. Few villages as a group of separate small settlements. Large and populous concentration of villages, often occupying extensive grounds gradually grew from initially small nodules. The nesting of the village as a svariant of cumulus. Their evolution from the early Iron Age until the early 20th century reflected in the archives of circular settlements. The emergence of

2.4. Ethnographic sources and their use in the process of studying ...


such villages around any center: the lake, fortress, shopping area, etc. the presence of circular Parking since ancient times-with the Neolithic and Eneolithic. Very pronounced circular plans of villages located around the lakes. From the ancient circular plan often over time, there was a radial plan. Various types of circular plans, including radial plans relating to the late time – a new period, especially when compared with the testimony of written sources, provide valuable material for the characteristics of socio-economic relations in the village and the aul. Wide distribution of the settlements located linearly with the orderly plan in the 20th century. Settlements with a linear plan, located on high banks, associated with the development of sedentary agriculture. The coastline settlements are often lthe estates with orchards, and in the riparian strip there was arable land. Association of several families connected by blood relationship in auls was traditional for the Kazakh society. As a rule, auls of blood relatives were located in the nearest neighborhood. In the pre-revolutionary period, the auls were divided into Bai auls, Sultan auls and auls for the poor, often consisting of the representatives of different Kazakh tribal units.The yurts were located nearby each other, or arranged in the shape of a semicircle, a direct line, or an arc opened to the South. By the end of 19th century the most ancient form of a nomadic camp - arrangement of dwellings in a circle the middle of which served as a shelter for cattle for the night had dissapeared. The close dependence of the size of villages on the property status, economic conditions, the landscape of the area. Large auls of 5080 yurts, wandering together were noticed in the 17th - 19th centuries. Prevalence of villages of five to ten yurts was typical for the 19th century; auls where the number of households exceeded 30 farms were met very rarely. The change in the size of villages significantly resulted from the accession of Kazakhstan to the Russian Empire, the development of productive villages, convenient distribution and intensive use of pasture areas. The dependence of the size of the villages from the nature of the pastures. Enlargement of villages near the rivers, on good rich pas-


Chapter 2. Types of sources on historical regional study

tures, was characteristic for poor cattle breeders, the reduction in their size was observed in deserts, mountains and other areas, intended for wealthy households. The association in the same camp on the winter pastures of the smallest number of farms was fixed, as well as drifting to the summer pastures of several winter auls. Differentiation of auls by social composition. The above described various types of settlements are a clear illustration that complements the archival sources about the life of different categories of population, including the indigenous Kazakhs and other nationalities-newcomers. A special ethnographic value of the specified source is that it provides the basis for socio-economic characteristics of settlements in different historical periods (antiquity, middle ages and new period). The plans of the settlements in one way or another reflect not only the appearance of the village, but its historical development, the life of the population. Sometimes it is possible to trace the history of the village through various historical formations on the drawings of the plans.The information about portable and fixed dwellings is of great importance for local history as well as the genesis and development of portable housing of the Turkic-Mongolian ethnic groups. Two main types of portable housing. Tilt carts and disassemblable dwellings that are installed at temporary encampments. Over time, a disappearance from the life of nomads of covered wagondwellings occurred. The appearance of the yurt with lattice folding walls among the steppe Turkic tribes in the middle of the I millennium A.D. played a great role. Further evolution of the yurt. Transformation of the yurt into the main nomadic dwelling of the Kazakhs in the 15th -16th centuries. The main areas of distribution of the yurt. The Kazakh yurt is one of the varieties of the Turkic type of yurts. The yurts are differentiated as follows: a hemispherical dome (spheroidal according to Ch. Valikhanov), domed by R. Karutz, ballshaped according to N.N. Kharuzin. The composition of the wooden frame of the yurt: 1) kerege – sliding lattice base; 2) uyk – dome poles; 3) shanyrak – circular dome; 4) yesik (sykyrlauk) – doors. The number of poles for uyks and the kerege or section was not always equal. The rim and the location of the mounting suyek. Shanyrak. The jambs of

2.5. Demographic sources in the historical regional study


the door leaf in the design of the door of the yurt. Felt covering of the yurt: 1) tuyrlyk – covering of the yurt base; 2) uzyuk – covering of the yurt dome; 3) tundik – covering of the shanyrak. Straps (bow), ropes (belbeu), woven bands (baskur). The interior of the yurt. Stationary dwellings of the Kazakhs 19th – early 20th centuries were of a transitional type. Causes of permanent dwellings appearance in the environment of the nomadic population. Information about the forms and spread of stationary dwellings of the Kazakhs until the midnineteenth century. Statistical information on the Kazakh housing, collected by the expeditions of the Resettlement Administration in the Ural, Turgay, Akmola, Semipalatinsk, Semirechensk, and Syrdarya regions and Bukey horde and published in the “Materials on Kyrgyz land use”. The process of mass construction of permanent dwellings on wintering grounds. It is necessary to note the diversity in the form, details of the construction, furnishings of the settled dwellings (in construction techniques, ways of heating, planning of the yard, etc.), caused by the difference of economic and natural conditions, as well as by the surrounding ethnic neighborhood. The dwelling could be round or square in plan, with a cone-shaped roof, as one of the ancient forms of a settled dwelling. The dwellings, rectangular in plan with a flat or gable roof were represented by dugouts, semi-dugouts and aboveground structures. Their design features were represented as follows: wicker, sod, adobe, stone, log dwellings. Geographical, social and economic factors played the major role in the choice of building materials in different regions of Kazakhstan. 2.5. Demographic sources in the historical regional study Features of historical and demographic sources. Appeal to demographic sources at the end of 17th – the beginning of 18th centuries in connection with a dispute about the ratio of population in antiquity, the Middle Ages and in modern times. This problem has been most acute in its practical significance since the end of the 19th century and especially in the 20th century, when demographic study has become


Chapter 2. Types of sources on historical regional study

systematic. Among the first sesearchers who turned to this problem, we may name K.Y. Beloch, E. Levasseur, Z. Dusinska and other scientists. This trend goes on to the present time. In the first half of the 20th century, there was a process of accumulation of the data on the history of the population, which were analyzed mainly in specific studies. Special work in this area was began in the middle of the 20th century. T. Hollingsworth gave the following list of the types of demographic sources: 1) the census of the population, especially if it contained names and age; 2) the ballots on mortality; 3) church documents; 4) tax documents; 5) military documents; 6) inventory of possessions; 7) genealogical records; 8) law; 9) marital agreements; 10) the testimony of witnesses; 11) prices over a long period; 12) the number and size of cities; 13) archaeological remains; 14) methods of agriculture; 15) administrative and ecclesiastical geography; 16) materials on the colonization of new lands; 17) cemetery data. For pre-revolutionary history of Kazakhstan in the Russian Empire, there are four main groups of sources: 1) data audit of the taxpaying population; 2) materials of the Church account; 3) the materials of the administrative police records; 4) materials of the General census of the population performed in 1897. Theoretic understanding of the source of these and other groups of historical-demographic sources becomes one of the urgent tasks of the development of this scientific discipline. In a broader sense, the demographic sources in the historical study of local museums include printed publications containing numerical information about the population and demographic processes. They differ in the degree of representativeness, ethnicity, nature of the data, time, method of collecting information, nature of the publication. At the same time, according to the degree of completeness and reliability of data, such sources are differentiated into primary and secondary ones. The primary ones are those containing direct results of processing and comparison of the collected statistical materials and the calculated indicators based on them. The basis of the secondary sources is the results of the evaluations and all sorts of calculations on the unprocessed data. However, they can be supplemented by other

2.5. Demographic sources in the historical regional study


sources – documentary, literary, periodic, etc., that do not contain direct quantitative data. These types of information can be expressed or hidden, mass or single, unique. A significant amount of hidden information is contained in mass sources (primary or consolidated), occupying a dominant position. At the same time, demographic sources are differentiated by types (real, written, pictorial, phonical), periods (antiquity, middle ages, modern times) according to the forms of recording social information. Thus, for the ancient period of demographic history the main information base of sources is written, paleoanthropological, archaeological, ethnoarchaeological, etc. In solving the problems in demography, it is important, as in any other science, the use of special methods, with which you can get available information about the object under study, process it and analyze. These include such general historical research methods as historical-genetic, historical-comparative, historical-ethnological, historical-systematic. These methods should also include a number of specific methods – synchronous (simultaneous) and diachronic (multi – temporal) analyses, as well as the actual demographic methods – cohort, longitudinal and transverse analyses, standardization of demographic coefficients, age-cohort-multi-time, multi-status, demographic tabular, multivariate statistical analysis, mathematical, cartographic, territorial-correlation, retrospective, graphic and industrial. Alongside with the further, deeper mastering of already known materials, it is necessary to develop a wide search for data, especially in the archives, the rich collections of which are investigated only in individual historical and demographic studies. The use of materials of the general censuses and other demographic sources. The materials of population censuses, current accounting and population surveys are of great interest for local history. The main ones are the statistical materials of the population censuses, which are more representative and reliable, covering almost the entire population of the country according to certain parameters of the survey. For example, the ethnodemographic state of the Kazakh people in the 15th – first half of the 19th centuries. It is possible to determine only


Chapter 2. Types of sources on historical regional study

approximately, with the accompanying difficulties and problems, the objective statistical data on the quantitative and qualitative composition of the population of Kazakhstan, that can be found in the materials of the General population censuses of 1897, 1926, 1937, 1939, 1959, 1970, 1979, 1989, 1999 and 2009. It is also possible to trace the dynamics of ethnodemographic processes on the territory of Kazakhstan at the end of 19th – on the threshold of 21th centuries. Here, first of all, we refer to the resettlement and placement of the population of the Republic by ethnic composition. Regions with a predominance of Kazakh (Western, southern Kazakhstan, Zhetysu), Russian-Ukrainian and German (Northern, Central Eastern Kazakhstan) population. Dynamics of ethnic composition of the population by regions and districts. Features of the location of the predominant ethnic groups, Rural and urban settlements. The Impact of urbanization and transitional market relations on the settlement and mobility of the population. Specifics of migration processes. Interstate, inter-regional migration by areas of departure and arrival, their ethnic composition. Excesses of the center in relation to the migration policy of the 1950s-1970s to strengthen the Eastern European population, etc. In the intercensal period appropriate state bodies had authorised the collection of the information (the current account of the population) on natural movement and population reproduction (births, deaths), family and marriage relations, including the conclusion and termination of marriages and migration processes at the scale of regions and countries. At the same time, random checks of the current statistics show that they are sufficiently representative and informative. No less valuable source of population data is the statistical material of the population survey. Here, a special program is carried out to collect information about the part of the inhabitants of the Republic for a specific study of their composition (age and gender), social and ethnodemographic processes or public opinion. Usually, such data are extremely difficult to obtain in censuses or in the current reports, so they are one-time, periodic or current, and they are diverse in subject matter. Depending on the purpose and task, their scale varies from several hundred to tens of thousands of respondents.

2.6. Toponymy – a source of study of the history of the native land


The secondary statistical information contained in monographs, collections, special reference books or bulletins, etc., is of some interest for the demographic analysis of the population. For example, it is possible to find both specific and circumstantial data on the migration of the Kazakhs in the Republic, Kazakh Diaspora and irredenta in the countries of near and far abroad, forcibly deported peoples and their settlement on the territory of Kazakhstan in 1937-1939, 1939-1940, and 1941-1945. The same applies to the disclosure of the impact of local, environmental, economic and ethno-political factors on the population growth of the region of the Republic. When developing these sources, it is necessary to involve observations and conclusions of such related disciplines as historical geography, historical psychology, historical sociology, medical and biological sciences, ethnography, etc. Thus, historical demography together with demography provides knowledge of the laws of the population development requires the availability of special knowledge, especially in the field of history and demography and attracts a wide range of sources listed by us. 2.6. Toponymy – a source of study of the history of the native land The concept of toponymy and its features. Toponymy is the science of geographical names; toponymy is a set of geographical names. Thus, toponymy is the language of the earth and the earth is a book where the history of the humankind is recorded in the geographical nomenclature. Geographical names are direct objecttoponymies. Microtoponymy – the name of micro-objects, standing on the verge of their own and common names. Consequently, toponymy is designed to explain the origin of geographical names, to cover the history of their development and significance. The term “toponymy” consists of the Greek words “topos”– place, and “onima” – name, i.e. the science of place names. Currently, the word “toponymy” is used in the meaning of geographical names. Toponymy covers not only the names of


Chapter 2. Types of sources on historical regional study

large objects (mountains, forests, cities), but also small ones (streets, tracts, ravines, streams, small river tributaries, etc.). Geographical terms are not a part of toponymy, but they are important for its study. Unnamed “object” is not a toponym. Toponymy does not study geographical objects, but their names. Since a toponym is both a linguistic, historical and geographical fact, it is important as a valuable source. The different meaning of toponymy depends on its connection with linguistics, history, geography, archeology, etc. Toponymic material should be involved in the study of local history, taking into account additional data that allow to link toponymy with historical and local lore information. The very place names often lack historical justification. For example, for the correct dating of a monument, it is necessary to trace the development of its name and the contexts related to it over a long period. This method, based on the study of written sources, allows you to date correctly the appearance of names and the emergence of secondary names. Changes in the same names can only be traced over a significant period. It is established that the toponymy of each region is the result of complex processes that have deposited numerous cultural strata. A geographical name, like any proper name, is social. It arises from the practical needs of people to name a particular object. What characteristics of the object will give the basis for the name depends on the level and nature of socio-economic and political development. Among the names of settlements (oikonyms), there are many different types: 1) names connected with the names of their founders, owners, or named after the river on which the settlement stands; 2) based on the occupations of the residents, names of buildings; 3) on local geographical conditions, etc. So, the village can be named after a relatively rare natural feature (Karazhar), after the local river (Shu), by the name of the winter road (Toraigyr) or the owner (Medeu). In accordance with the methodology of toponymy as a science it is necessary to take into account the following basic requirements in its study: the use of the data on the origin of the toponym, the establishment of all forms of names, the selection of names and terms in connection with the places where they arose, the need to study the areas of toponymic bases. To verify the correctness of the names, to-

2.6. Toponymy – a source of study of the history of the native land


ponymic sources and methods of studying the researcher must apply to the written and other sources. Great importance is attached to the regional study associated with a comprehensive and thorough description of the local place names. Collection and use of toponymic material in the study of the history of native land. The study of place names begins with the collection of the material. Field collection in the areas of the conducted local work in the village, administrative district, region, outside the region is required. Selection of material is possible only after preliminary preparation of the program and the questionnaire: on this basis, the work is consistently carried out. During the field survey, it is necessary to keep records of observations and information received from the population. When examining the material obtained as a result of a survey or conversation, the card index is compiled according to the categories of toponymy; in the future, dictionaries are compiled on this basis. The collected and studied material is stored in local history museums, libraries as an independent section. Work on the collection of toponymic material is often carried out in parallel with the study of the history of the native land. It is impossible to separate and isolate the place names from local history. Without a good knowledge of the history of the region is difficult to use place names as one of the sources for local history. A significant role in the collection and study of toponymic material plays a toponymic dictionary, which is often used in conjunction with the dictionary of local geographical terms. During the collection of toponymic material it is necessary to consider the following types of place names: 1) place names related to natural conditions of the region; 2) place names of settlements, land; 3) place names connected with occupations and crafts of the population; 4) place names associated with the socio-economic conditions. Some data on the study of certain categories of onomastics. All categories of place names are subsections of onomastics, i.e. the doctrine of proper names. Onomastics being at the junction of sciences (linguistics, history, geography and myography), and being a young, rapidly developing science, studies proper names. Since proper names are part of the language, onomastics, including historical ones, is part


Chapter 2. Types of sources on historical regional study

of the science about the language – linguistics. Their emergence and changes are instructive not only due to the laws of phonetics or morphology, but also due to the development of society. Proper names (onoma) are a fact of history, historical sources that give historians valuable additional material. The onomastics sections are associated with different categories of proper names. Geographical names (toponyms) are studied by toponimics, the combination of water names (the hydronyms) – by hydronymics, names of peoples (ethnonyms) – ethnonymics, personal names (anthroponyms) – anthroponymics, names of deities (theonyms) – teonimics, names of celestial bodies (astronyms) – astronimics, pet’s names (zoonyms) – zoonimics, etc. Of these sections of onomastics for historical lore of the greatest importance are toponymics, onomastics and anthroponymics. Onomastics is also characterized by its general regularities related to all its sections. The main of them is detymologization of a proper name. In more and more frequent use of it gradually disappears its etymology, genesis. However, there are several layers of meaning in a proper name. The first layer is associated with the pre-onomastic meaning of the name. For example, the pre-onomastic meaning of the word “Turkestan” is a city or a country of the Turkic tribe. The second layer of meaning is onomastic. It is simpler. Turkestan is the city of southern Kazakhstan, where the famous mausoleum of Yassawi is located. The third layer – otonomastic – appears not always and at least not for everyone. Thus, the name of the village of Algabas will not arouse any associations in the majority of the population of our Republic. However, the one who was born there or was grown up or at least the one who has relativesin this village, will never forget it. The function of each name is twofold: it must distinguish one geographical object, one person, etc. from another one, select from a number of objects. However, those who were born in this village or who has relatives there, will never forget this name. In addition to the knowledge of names, the formants or those repetitive parts of proper names that form it as a proper name help us in our research. These can

2.6. Toponymy – a source of study of the history of the native land


be suffixes, endings, a combination of suffixes and endings, etc., for example, Semipalatinsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk, etc. One of the branches of onomastics is anthroponymics – the names of people. There are four trends in the origin and development of human names: 1) the names originated through the mother (in the matriarchy), later, in the patriarchate, the patronymic is preserved; 2) the place of birth is noted in combination with the title name (for example, Muhammad al-Farabi); 3) the emergence of names linked with occupation, nationality, tribal affiliation or social status (for example, Kadyrgali Zhalairi); 4) the primacy of nicknames (for example, Tamerlane or Aksak Temir). Questions for fixing the material: 1. What is reflected in the “Achaemenid” inscriptions? 2. What is the location of the Saka tribes? 3. What Chinese sources mention the territory of settlement of the Wusun and Hun? 4. What scientist first discovered runic writing in the valley of the Yenisei River? 5. Which Arabic source contains the earliest mention of the territory of Kazakhstan? 6. Name the author of the «History of the conqueror», written in Persian. 7. What Turkic-language sources provide the data on East Desht – i-Kipchak? 8. Who wrote the «Drawing book of Siberia»? 9. What is the difference between archaeological excavations and office processing? 10. What is dendrological dating method based on? 11. What are the interdisciplinary connections of ethnography with other scientific disciplines? 12. What attracts local historians in ethnographic sources? 13. What are the most common types of traditional villages? 14. Since when do we have demographic sources? 15. What is the novelty of the demographic sources proposed by T. Hollingsworth? 16. How many population censuses were conducted on the territory of Kazakhstan in the 19th – 20th centuries? 17. In what year was the first census of the population of the Republic of Kazakhstan? 18. What is the basis of microtoponymy?


Chapter 2. Types of sources on historical regional study 19. What is the essence of oikonyms? 20. What is the set of water names? 21. What directions exist in anthroponymics? Additional materials and tasks No. 1. After reading the materials below, answer the following questions: 1. Why was Herodotus called the “Father of history”? 2. What is the importance of Herodotus manuscript? 3. Make a story about the tribes who lived in the region in ancient times.

Fragment from the “History” of Herodotus Herodotus of Halicarnassus (C. 484-425 BC) Greek historian, the famous Roman orator Tullius Cicero named him as “the father of history.” “History” of this author, created in the late 40s-30s of the V century BC, preserved in Greek in the copies of 10th -15th centuries, was translated into Latin by Lorenzo Valla in 1427. 215. Massagets wear clothes similar to the Scythian’s, and follow a similar lifestile. They fight on horses and on foot (both). They usually have bows, spears and battle-axes. From gold and copper, all things are made. However, all the metal parts of the spears, arrows and battle-axes are made of copper, and hats, belts and bands are decorated with gold. As for the horses, they put on them copper brigandins as bibs. The bridles, mouthpieces and cheek guards are inlaid with gold. Iron and silver they do not have in everyday life. However, gold and copper there is in abundance. 216. About the customs of Massagets, it is necessary to say the following. Each of them marries one woman. No limit for human life they set. Massagets do not sow bread, but live by cattle breeding and fishing, and drink milk. The only God they worship is the sun. They sacrifice horses to the sun, thinking that the meaning of this sacrifice is that the fastest God needs the fastest living being in the world. No. 2. After reading the materials below, answer the following questions: 1. Who is Strabo? 2. What is the role of ancient sources in the study of local history?

2.6. Toponymy – a source of study of the history of the native land


3. Try to remember other sources that tell about the historical geography of your region.

Fragments from the “Geography” of Strabo Strabo (64/63 BC – 20/24 ad) is an ancient Greek historian and geographer, the author of “Historical notes” and “Geography” in 17 books. His books contain a lot of valuable information on ancient peoples and tribes of the Caucasus and Central Asia. Early records of “Geography” refer to the 10th century, later and more complete ones – to 1393, this records were published in Latin in 1472, and in Greek – in 1516. 8. (2) Most of the Scythians, starting from the Caspian sea, are called the dayas, living further to the East are called the Massagets and Saks, and others are called Scythians in general, but each tribe has a private name. They live mostly nomadic life. 8. (6) the Massagets showed their prowess in the war with Cyrus, which is narrated by many. About Massagetae they say and so that some of them live in the mountains, some on the plains, others in the bogs formed by the rivers, others occupy islands in these bogs. Massagetae recognize for the deity only the sun and bring him horses in sacrifice. Everyone takes one wife. They are good equestrian and dismount warriors, armed with bows, knives, brigandins and copper axes. 8. (7) Those living on islands without land for planting, feed on roots and wild fruits and drink juice squeezed from the the fruits growing on the trees. Those living in the marshes eat fish. Mountain dwellers also eat wild fruits, but keep sheep, although in small quantities. The inhabitants of the plains, although they have arable land, but do not cultivate it, and live on sheep breeding and fishing, like nomads and Scythians. All such peoples have similarities in their way of life; their funerary rites, mores, and the whole way of life are similar. No. 3. After reading the materials below, answer the following questions: 1. What is the main view of the name Zhetysu.


Chapter 2. Types of sources on historical regional study 2. What scientists do you know, famous for their scientific publications on the history of this region? 3. What are the main toponyms of Zhetysu.

Zhetysu According to the national geographic presentation Zhetysu is a region covering Alakol in the North-East, and the space up to the Talas river – in the South-West. This name of the region is associated with the presence of “seven rivers”. According to Kurbangali Khalidi these seven rivers are the Ili, Koksu, Karatal, Aksu, Baskan, Sarkand, Lepsy, while the river Ayagoz he excludes from Zhetysu attributing it to Sary-Arca. A. Vlangali includes in Zhetysu the following seven rivers: the Ayaguz, Lepsy, Aksu, Boyen, Karatal, Koksu, Ili. Academician V.V. Bartold who wrote the historical essay on Zhetysu refers to the seven rivers the Lepsy, Baskan, Aksu, Tambourine, Kyzylagash, Karatal, Koksu. The above-mentioned views of experts are based on the fact that the above seven rivers mainly flow into lake Balkhash. However, in fact, only the rivers Lepsy, Aksu, Karatal, Ili flow into Balkhash, while the rest do not fall directly into Balkhash, for example, the Koksu flows into the Karatal, the Baskan – into the Lepsy, Buyen – into the Aksu. Subsequently, V.V. Bartold includes the ChuTalas valley in this region. In general, in the scientific literature, the concept of Zhetysu includes the region located from the Dzungarian Alatau (from Arkas mountain) up to the Karatau.

Chapter ІІІ. Regional studies of kazakhstan


Chapter ІІІ REGIONAL STUDIES OF KAZAKHSTAN The aim of the lecture: introduction to the formation and development of different areas of study of local lore of Kazakhstan, the analysis of existing knowledge on the historical study of local lore. Basic concepts: historical local history, materials on historical local history, scientific institutions, the Imperial Russian Geographical society, local history research. Main problem: 3.1. Historical and regional study developoment the 16th -17th centuries. 3.2. The development of historical regional studies of the 18th – the second half of the 19th centuries. 3.3. Development of historical regional studies in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. 3.4. Historical regional study of Kazakhstan in the 20s of 20th century. 3.5. The role of scientific institutions of the 1930-1980-ies in the development of regional study of Kazakhstan. 3.6. Historical regional study in the conditions of independent Kazakhstan.

3.1. Historical regional study data of the 16th – 17th centuries Historical regional study data of the 16th century. Survey of Russian and European merchants, travelers and scientists who visited the Kazakh khanate in the late 15th – early 16th centuries (D. Rubin in 1535, S. Herberstein in 1516-1527., P.фN. Nowokanski). Literary sources of the second half of the 16th century. (S. Maltsev, B. Domozhirov, A. Jenkinson, V. Stepanov, etc.) the ambassade of Kul-Muhammad to Moscow in 1594. One of the first drawings of the Kazakh steppe and Central Asia (1599) which played a significant role in the further development of this territory. Historical and ethnographic information about the Kazakh khanate in the work “Jami at-tavarih” by K.H. Zhalairi (1602). Data on summer nomadic residencies, winter camps and settlements, etc. 55


Chapter ІІІ. Regional studies of kazakhstan

Further state of information in the 17th century. Reports, petitions, reports, paintings, road records, tales, article lists, drawings, routes, maps of the Kazakh lands, the location of the nomads on the rivers, the caravan route through the Kazakh steppe stored in Moscow and Siberian archives, representing a combination of rich scientific material on the history, local history and ethnography of Kazakhstan. “The book of the big drawing” (1627), the territory of Kazakhstan and many geographical points from the Ural river to the Ishim river and Sarysu, and to the Ulytau and Karatau mountains in the East and South-East, and to Tashkent in the South. Nomadic Kazakhs in the “Siberian chronicle”of S. Esipov (1636). Possessions of “Cossack Horde” in the first Russian ethnographic map of Siberia, published in Tobolsk in 1673, the records of the diplomatic missions of F. Baikov (1654-1658), N. Perfiliev (1659), P. Ablin (1668), B.S. Pazuhanich (1670-1672).G. Spafary-Milescu (1675), V. Kobyakov (1692), M. Skibin and M. Troshihin (1695). Kazakh steppe in maps of S.U. Remezov (1697-1699). 3.2. Development of historical regional studies of the 18th – the second half of the 19th centuries The updating and deepening of knowledge about Kazakhstan in the early 18th century. The strengthening of natural geography and historical regional study of the Kazakh steppes during the reign of Peter I. Expeditions of N.D. Buchholz (1714-1717), N.M. Likharev (17171720), A. Bekovich-Cherkassky, A.N. Urusov and L.Y. Simonov (1714-1726), I. Unkovsky (1722-1723) and others. The creation on this basis of the maps of Western, Northern and North-Eastern Kazakhstan. The development of regional studies in the second quarter of the th 18 – mid-19th centuries. Establishment of the Academy of Sciences of Russia and the organization of the Academic expeditions in the national outskirts of the Russian Empire. Activity of the Orenburg expedition, and later the Orenburg Commission under the leadership of I. K. Kirillov and V.N. Tatishchev. Mapping of the newly formed

3.2. Development of historical regional studies of the 18th – the ...


Orenburg region, including the lands of Juniour and Middle Hordes by a surveyor A. Norov (1737). Geographical and ethnographic survey of the first academic expedition and the writings of G.F. Miller on the history of Siberia, the trip to the Kazakh steppe (K. Miller, D.V. Gladyshev, I. Muravin, I. Urakov, R. Urasin, M. Arapov, Y. Gulyaev, A. Yakovlev). Works on Western Kazakhstan by P.N. Rychkov (1712-1777): “Description of Orenburg”, “Orenburg Topography”. Work of the second academic expedition organized in 1768 for geographical and ethnographic survey of the Russian Empire. Trip to Kazakh auls of P.S. Pallas and I.G. Georgi, I.P. Falk, N.P. Rychkov in 1769-1771. The visit of the Russian people to the Kazakh steppe in the last third of the 18th century. Works of F.S. Efremov, N.G. Andreyev, H. Bardanes. Historical and ethnographic studies of the late 18th – early 20th centuries. The publication of T. Burnashev, Blankennagel, Ya. Gaverdovski, F.M. Nazarov. The accumulation of historical and ethnographic materials in Kazakhstan in 20-40s of the 19th century (E.K. Meiendorff, E.A. Eversmann, N.N. Potanin, G.N. Karelin, G.F. Gaines, A.N. Shrenk, I.F. Blaramberg, N. Khanykov, etc.). Questions of historical regional study of different regions of Kazakhstan in the writings of G.I. Spassky, I.Y. Bichurin, S.B. Bronevsky, V.N. Dahl. “Description of Kirghiz-Cossack or Kirghiz-kaisak hordes and steppes” A.I. Levshin, published in three parts in St. Petersburg in 1832 Research of Kazakhstan in the middle and second half of the th 19 centuries. Formation of the Russian geographical society and its activities in 1845-1861. Development of materials on the history, geography and ethnography of the Central Asia and Kazakhstan. “The map of the Kyrgyz lands of the Middle and Junior Horde” (1845), “Map of the Aral sea and Khiva khanate with their surroundings” (1851), “Map of the North-Western part of the Middle Asia with applications” (1855) of Ya.V. Khanykov. The works of M.I. Ivanin, A.N. Butakov, A.N. Maksheev, P.N. Nebolsin, I.P. Kornilov, P.P. Seme­nov-Tyan-Shansky, P.N. Köppen, P.V. Grigoriev, V.V. VelyaminovZernov, N.N. Ilmensky, L.M. Evreinov, A.N. Tereshchenko. Contribution of the outstanding Kazakh scientist and educator Ch. Valikhanov (1835-1865) in the development of historical studies,


Chapter ІІІ. Regional studies of kazakhstan

local historical studies and geography of Kazakhstan. Scientific heritage of Ch. Ch. Valikhanov in the study of other ethnic groups of polyethnic population of the Russian Empire and Kazakhstan. The works of Chokan Chingisovich on the study of the formation of the Kazakh people, social and political history of Kazakhstan of the 18th – the first half of the 19th century, acceptance by the Kazakhs of the Russian citizenship, spiritual and material culture, geography, ethnography and folklore of the peoples of Central Asia and Eastern Turkestan. The role of scientific societies of the second half of 19th century in the study of local history of Kazakhstan. Research of S.G. Rybakov on Turgay region, A.K. Gaines on steppe regions, N.I. Grodekova in the Turkestan region. Formation and activities of the Orenburg Department of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society. The works of L. Meyer, M.S. Babadjanov, M.G. Taukin, I. Altynsarin, B. Daulbayev, S.A. Castorin, V.N. Plotnikov. The study of the southern Kazakhs and activities of Turkestan scientists and researchers (A.F. Golubev, M.N. Vanyukov, A. Protsenko, M. Poltoratsky, L.F. Kostenko, Kh. Kustanaev, V.V. Radlov, N.A. Mayev, P. Khoroshkin, G.S. Zagryazhsky). The territory and population of Kazakhstan in paintings and sketches of Russian artists. The lands and the Kazakh population of the Junior Zhuz in paintings and sketches of T. G. Shevchenko (18141864) – the artist, the great Ukrainian poet and playwright who served in Kazakhstan during ten years of exile (1847-1857) in the Orenburg steppes, in the fortress of Orsk, and then in the Novopetrovsky fortification on the Mangyshlak Peninsula and on the Caspian sea coast. Participation in the work of two expeditions – the Aral and Karatau. He created during his stay in the Aral Sea region in 1848-1849 paintings and graphic works, landscapes, which are directly related to the local history and life of the Kazakh people, as “Kazakh encampment on the Kos-Aral”, “Fort Kara-Butak”, “Fortress Irgiz-Kala”,” Fortress of Raim. View from the shipyard to the Syr Darya”, “Raim Tract from the West”, “Pier on the Syr Darya”, “At the Aral sea coast”, “Kazakh encampment on the Kos-Aral”, “ Fortress of the Kos-Aral in winter”, “Kazakhs in a Yurt”, “Kazakh family”, “Kazakhs on a horse»

3.3. Development of historical regional studies in the late ...


Albums and sketches of the Tomsk landscape painter P.M. Kosharov (1824-1902) with the types of architecture, material culture of Western Siberia and Northern Kazakhstan, and Zhetysu – the early documentary image of Verny (“The square in fortress Verny”, “Verny fortress”), the mineral water source Kapal-Arasan (“Warm springs of Arasan”), etc. South Kazakhstan and Zhetysu in canvases and sketches of V.V. Vereshchagin (1842-1904) – the artist in the service of Turkestan Governor-General K. P. Kaufman, the author of paintings “Turkestan series” (1871-1874), illustrated book “Turkestan. Etudes from Nature” (1874). It is worth mentioning among the most attractive pictures the view of the mountains near the village of Lepsinskaya, the valley of the Chu River, the Kazakh yurts of this valley, a portrait of a noble Kazakh hunter with falcons, the Kazakhs in tradicionnyh costumes, etc. Interesting study materials are found in the picture book of V.V. Vereshchagin “Essays, sketches, and reminiscences” (1883). “Turkestan Vedomosty”, “Turkestan Collection”. Education and activity of the West Siberian Department of RGS. The region under study in the writings of N. Abramov, I.N. Zavalishin, M. Shormanov, G.N. Potanin, N.I. Slovtsov, G.E. Katanaev, P.E. Makovetski, et al. Issues of local history of Kazakhstan in the periodical press (“The Orenburg Provincial Vedomosty”, “The Orenburg Leaf”, “The Turgay Regional Vedomosty”, “The Turgay Newspaper”, “The Kyrgyz Steppe Newspaper”, etc.). Local history topics in the work of Turkestan (1868), Semirechensk (1879) and the Syr-Darya (1887) regional statistical committees. 3.3. Development of historical regional studies in the late 19th-early 20th centuries Contribution of the staff of the Academy of Sciences, the Imperial Russian Geographical Society, the Eastern branch of The Russian Archaeological Society, the Society of lovers of Natural Sciences, Anthropology and Ethnography under the Moscow University, muse-


Chapter ІІІ. Regional studies of kazakhstan

ums and other scientific institutions in the collection of materials and publication of books on the problems of local history of Kazakhstan. Publication in 1898-1914 of a multi-volume edition “Russia. A Full Description of our Fatherland”, that included volume 18 devoted to the “Kyrgyz region” (1903), and volume 19 – to the “Turkestan region” (1913), edited by P.P. Semenov-Tyan-Shansky and V.I. Lamansky. Scientific activity of V.V. Bartold (1869-1930). Useful materials of the expedition of statisticians and migrant organizations under the leadership of F.A. Shcherbina in 1898-1909, P. A. Skrylev in 1906-1912. Materials of P. P. Rumyantsev collected in the period of 1908-1913, valuable materials of P.A. Khvorostyansky, V.K. Kuznetcov and A.V. Perepletchikov collected in 19041911 in Turgai, Ural, Akmola, Semipalatinsk, Semirechensk and Syrdarya regions. “Materials on Kyrgyz land use” in 34 volumes. Three-volume collection “Asian Russia” (1914) with atlases of geographical maps. Activities of Orenburg scientific societies and institutions. The works of A.E. Alektorov, A.N. Dobromyslov, I.N. Kraft, J.J. Polferov. Regional studies of the West Siberian Department of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society, the Semipalatinsk regional statistical Committee. Publications of E. P. Makovetsky, V.I. Maevsky, L.K. Cermak, A.I. Yanushkevich, M.I. Suvorov, V. Rogalevich, N.I. Konshin, A.N. Sedelnikov, E.P. Michaelis, L.A. Kuznetsov. Contribution of local historians to the collection and publication of valuable local material on the history, economy, natural and geographical conditions of Northern Kazakhstan. The organization of the local history Museum, presenting significant exhibits on ethnography, flora and fauna, mineralogy of the region, that has become a significant phenomenon not only for Kazakhstan but for the whole of Siberia as well. Publications of Turkestan scientists and local historians united in the Syr-Darya Regional Statistical Committee, Turkestan Circle of Archeology Fans (1895-1917), and Turkestan Department of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society (1897-1917), Department of the

3.4. Historical regional study of Kazakhstan in the 20s of the 20th century


Society of Oriental Studies (1901-1913). I.N. Anichkov, G.A., Arandarenko, M.N. Brody, I. Geyer, A. Divayev, and others. The role of P.P. Semyonov Tyan-Shansky, A.N. Krasnov, V.V. Sapozhnikov, F.V. Poyarkov, N.N. Paltusov, A. Golubev, M.I. Venyukov and others in the study of local history, archaeology, ethnography and geography of Zhetysu. 3.4. Historical regional study of Kazakhstan in the 20s of the 20th century The activities of the historical and statistical Department of the Revolutionary Committee of Management of Kirghiz (Kazakh) Krai (Kraikom), formed in 1919, the work of the scientific Department of the National Commissariat of Education (Kaznarkompros) for Science, Literature and Art, museums and archives (1920), and starting from 1921 – the Academic Center of the People’s Commissariat of Education which was the part of the Head Committee on Museums and the General Directorate of Archives (Glavarkhiv). A society of studying Kazakhstan as a center of the work on the problems of local history of the post-revolutionary Kazakhstan, established in 1920 on the initiative and with direct participation of the famous explorers of the region A. Divaev, P.A. Gra, A.L. Melkov, S.M. Petrov, A.A. Chetyrkin, A.P. Chuloshnikov and others. It is worth noting the separation of the Society for the Study of the Kyrgyz Region (1925 – Kazakh) from the Scientific Department of Narkompros as the successor to the Orenburg scientific Archival Commission, Orenburg division of the Russian Geographical Society, as well as the Historical and Statistical Department of Kirrevkom in 1920. Orenburg (1920-1925), Kzyl-Orda (1925-1929) and Alma-Ata (1929) periods of the activity of the Society for the Study of the Kyrgyz Region. Goals and objectives of the Society, its branches in the regions. Organization of the Department of the School Regional Study (1924). The first conference of local history societies of Kazakhstan in Semipalatinsk (1924).


Chapter ІІІ. Regional studies of kazakhstan

Research activities of the society for the study of the Kyrgyz region. It is the activity of this scientific institution that is organically connected with the systematic collection and study of materials not only on local history, but also on the traditional material and spiritual culture of the Kazakhs, the first development of socio-economic, political and ethnic history of the indigenous population of the region in a wide chronological range. In a number of studies, especially in the writings of T. Togzhanov and V. G. Sokolovsky, important in practical terms, theoretical and specific historical aspects of the traditional socio-economic structure of the Kazakh aul were considered. Collection, systematization and partial study of sources on local history, material culture and other problems as a result of the expedition surveys of the Kazakh auls organized in 1920 – early 1930s. The historical – local lore and ethnographic materials collected during the expedition trips to different regions of the Republic are unique not only in their subject-thematic diversity, but also in their informative richness and saturation. The Commission for the Study of the Tribal Composition of Russia (CSTC, since 1922 – of the USSR). Activities of the CSTC and its Siberian branch in the preparation and conduct of the national-state division of the Republics of the Central Asia and Kazakhstan were especially important in the establishment of the limits of movement of the Kazakh nomadic population and localization of the settled population. The publication of the “Ethnographic Map of the Peoples of the USSR” (IPIN) in 1928 and organization of field research in the pastoral regions of the Republic. Scientific Commission on the study of the life of the indigenous population of Turkestan under the guidance of Professor N.N. Kun. Convocation in 1930 in Alma-Ata of the first all-Kazakhstan regional Congress with participation of representatives of research and local history institutions and organizations, museums and other cultural centers. Introduction of local lore into the curricula of technical schools and higher educational institutions across the country in 1930. The establishment in 1931 of the Republican Organizing Bureau of Regional Studies consisting of the representatives of the People’s Commissariat on Education, State Planning Commission and

3.5. The role of scientific institutions of the 1930-1980s in the ...


the Board of the Society of Studying Kazakhstan. The registration of local history management in regional centers (Alma-Ata, Shymkent, Semipalatinsk, Uralsk, Aktobe) and organization of new 42 local history cells. The second all-Kazakhstan Regional Conference (1932). Reorganization of the local history system in the Republic, the election of the Central Bureau of Local History of Kazakhstan under the direct leadership of the People’s Commissariat of the Kazakh SSR. 3.5. The role of scientific institutions of the 1930-1980s in the development of regional study of Kazakhstan The role of scientific institutions of the 1930s-1940 s in the development of local history of Kazakhstan. The foundation of the Kazakh University and the Kazakh Research Institute of National Culture in 1934. Short-term revival of the Society of Studying Kazakhstan in 1935. Opening of the Kazakh branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1938. Training of national staff of historians, archaeologists, ethnographers and local historians. Slowdown of local history works during the great Patriotic War. The rise of local history in the postwar years. Creation of Ch. Valikhanov Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR in 1945. Organization of joint expeditions of the Institute of Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR and the Central Museum of the Republic in various regions of the Republic to collect scientific materials, including those on local history. Purposeful and detailed development of the fundamental direction – culture and life of the multinational population of the Republic. Expeditions and surveys of the regions of Kazakhstan in the 1950s-1960s. The preparation of the historical-ethnographic Atlas of Kazakhstan, including the albums of drawings, typological tables and maps, ethnographic, archaeological, anthropological, natural history, terminology, dialectology materials confined to certain historical periods. Accumulated in the process of field work data on material cul-


Chapter ІІІ. Regional studies of kazakhstan

ture (economy, settlement and housing, clothing and jewelry, food and household utensils, transport and vehicles), folk artistic trades, made the original source base for the creation of a cycle of studies revealing various signs of culture and life of the Kazakh ethnic group. In 19501952, the contemporary lifestyle of the Kazakh collective farm was studied by G.N. Valikhanov in Kokchetav and by V.V. Vostrov in West Kazakhstan regions. The main directions of work and activity of the Local History Society of the Republic and its regions in the 1960-1980-s. Contribution to the development of local history studies of domestic historians and ethnographers. Monograph of the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Kazakh SSR “Culture and life of the Kazakh collective farm aul” (1965). The publication of the monograph by V.V. Vostrov and “The Material culture of the Kazakh people” (1972), “The Kazakh Yurt” (1981)” by M. S. Mukanov, “The Kazakh folk applied art” in three volumes (1986-1994) by A.Kh. Margulan and “The Kazakh national dwelling” (1989) by I.V. Zakharova, etc. Organization in 1973 of the all-Union tourist expedition to study the history, economy, culture, life, nature of indigenous peoples of different parts of the Soviet Union. Activities of regional history fan circles. Work of local centers of local history and local history museums, houses of culture and other institutions. 3.6. Historical regional study in independent Kazakhstan Features of local history of sovereign Kazakhstan: difficulties, problems, heritage of the Soviet totalitarian regime. Formation and search of new ways in this work in the conditions of independent development of the Republic. Significance of the “Concept of Humanitarian Education in the Republic of Kazakhstan” dated August 26, 1994, the “Concept of formation of historical consciousness in the Republic of Kazakhstan” dated June 30, 1995, the “Concept of ethnocultural education in Kazakhstan” dated July 15, 1996, as well as of the “State program of patriotic education of the citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan” dated October 12, 2006 in the actualization of the

3.6. Historical regional study in independent Kazakhstan


educational value of local lore work in the specified directions which are aimed at formation in young generatiosn of high patriotic consciousness, the feeling of pride for the Republic and the native land. Significance of the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan of December 8, 1993 “On administrative-territorial structure of the Republic of Kazakhstan” in the regulation of names and renaming of organizations, railway stations, airports, as well as physical and geographical objects of the Republic of Kazakhstan and changes in the transcription of their names, approved by the Regulation № 281 of the government of the Republic of Kazakhstan on March 5, 1996. A similar role of the “Concept of state onomastic work in the Republic of Kazakhstan” dated March 31, 2011, aimed at streamlining the names of administrative-territorial units, as well as renaming settlements and restoring the former historical geographical names in the Republic. Taking into account when assigningthe names to administrative-territorial units or renaming those the names of people who have special services to the Republic and who have made a significant contribution to its history, science, culture, literature and art, as well as similar names of the state and public figures and outstanding figures of science and culture of the world scale. The revival of local history institutions, the study of the former native geographical names, their return, and the collection of rich cultural heritage lost in the past, protection of historical and cultural monuments. New moments in the activities of regional, district historical museums. The activities of the various scientific research institutions of higher education, scientific institutions, museums in the field of collection of local history material. –– State program “Cultural heritage”. A phased implementation of the state program “Cultural heritage” in the Republic of Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2011 and preparation of a long-term program for the next two decades, the main purpose of which is the study, restoration, systematization and preservation of significant historical and cultural monuments of national history and archeology, their promotion in the countries of near and far abroad. “In our country there are no Egyptian pyramids and the Roman Colosseum, – said the President of the Republic N.A. Nazarbayev – but the role of nomads, who lived


Chapter ІІІ. Regional studies of kazakhstan

in ancient times in Kazakhstan, is invaluable not only for Eurasia, but also for the world history. We must show the greatness of the steppe civilization at the world level - this is one of the main tasks of the program “Cultural heritage”. During the implementation of this state program, significant experience has been obtained in preserving and promoting the historical and cultural heritage, improving the quality and quantity indices of Kazakhstan’s culture and science and bringing then to a new level, corresponding to the international standards. This implementation is carried out in three directions. The first direction of work is connected with the activity on reconstruction of historical and cultural monuments. There are more than 25 thousand stationary monuments of history, archeology and monumental art, 147 museums, 7 historical and cultural reserves-museums, 215 archives in Kazakhstan. Universal inventory of domestic monuments and approval of the list of 218 objects of history and culture of the Republican and 11 277 objects of local importance, including settlements, encampments, burial grounds and burial mounds. The historically significant lands of local importance and areas that may subsequently have an impact on the modern construction of residential, cultural, administrative and industrial zones are specified. Preliminary analysis of the natural landscape and ecological factor for the formation of the historical urban structure. Continued publication of the series “A set of historical and cultural monuments”, covering Akmola, Aktobe, Pavlodar and other regions of the Republic. In the process of implementation of the above-mentioned state program in Kazakhstan restoration works on about 80 archaeological and architectural monuments are carried out, 37 archaeological, 26 ethnographic, local history and scientific and applied studies are organized to enrich the national science with thousands of valuable findings, artifacts of various historical periods of our country. The excavations of mounds Shilikty and Berel in East Kazakhstan gave the archeologists unique examples of applied art of Saks in a pronounced animal style of the 5th - 3th centuries BC. The gold complex of Saka period dated 6th century BC, found by archeologists in 2010 in burial ground Taldy-2 in Karaganda region, is of the same high importance.

3.6. Historical regional study in independent Kazakhstan


Among these finding we should mention the ancient cities of Sairam, Otrar, Taraz, Kayalyk, Syganak, Zhankent, Zhent, burial mounds Issyk, Berel, petroglyphs of Tamgaly, mausoleums of AishaBibi, Babadzhi-Hatun, the complex of Yassavi enjoying the Eurasian and international fame. Among the above 37 archaeological studiesit is necessary to mention Koilyk, Talgar, Issyk in Almaty; Akyrtas in Zhambyl; Otrar, Sauran, Sidak, Shymkent, Juan Tobe, Karaspan Tobe in South Kazakhstan; Chirik Rabat, Zhankent, Aral Asar, Bulandy in Kyzylorda; Kyzyl uyk in Aktobe; Kyryk oba in West Kazakhstan; Bozok in Akmola; Aybas-darasy, Kent, Taldysai in Karaganda; Auliekol in Pavlodar region; Akkol in Kostanay region; Berel, Chilikty in East Kazakhstan oblast. Restoration of the complex of the Khan headquarters of Bukeyev Horde and the house of appointed hetmans of the 19th century in the city of Uralsk in the West Kazakhstan region; the medieval main gate of the Shahristan (Musalla-Kakpa), mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi in Turkestan, the mosque-medrese in the village of Shaian, mausoleum of Abdel-Aziz-Bab and the minaret of Khyzyr of the 6th -17th centuries in s. Sairam, Haji Taliga, Mirali-Bab, Khan Abulmambet’s residence in Turkestan, mausoleums of Ibrahim - Ata, Karashash Ana, mosque-medrese of Shamet Īśhan – in South Kazakhstan region; Central mosque- medrese of Syganak settlement, the mosque of Khoja Nazar in Kyzylorda oblast; the palace complexes Akyrtas and Balasagun in Zhambyl region; the Museum-estate of Ayganym - the widow of Wali Khan in the North-Kazakhstan region; the mausoleum of Zhanys Ata in Aktobe region; historical and archaeological sites of ancient settlement Talhisa in Almaty oblast. Among the restored monuments of history and culture, there are those that are directly related to the historical past of Kazakhstan, although they are situated in foreign countries. Thus, in the capital of Syria - Damascus a historical and cultural center and a mausoleum at the burial site of the outstanding medieval thinker al-Farabi is situated. Here it is also possible to mention the reconstruction of the mosque of Sultan al-Zahir Beybars al-Bundukdari – the mamluk sultan of Egypt and Syria, built by himself in 1266 in Cairo (Egypt), as well as the architectural complex in Damascus, bearing his name, which includes


Chapter ІІІ. Regional studies of kazakhstan

the mausoleum, medrese and archive. In the course of restoration works, the buildings and architectural forms of the complex, mosaics and ornament, the archive, containing more than 200 thousand rare books, were reconstructed. Celebration at the international leve of the 1500th anniversary of Turkestan in 2000 and 2000 anniversary of Taraz in 2002 in the framework of the UNESCO. The list of the UNESCO world heritage sites in Kazakhstan: 1) mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yassawi in Turkestan (the year of listing - 2003); 2) petroglyphs of the archaeological landscape in Tamgaly (2004), on the rock galleries where than 5,000 drawings-petroglyphs of the Bronze Age, Saka and Turkic periods are found; 3) steppes and lakes of Sary-Arka (2008), consisting of Korgalzhyn and Naurzum reserves, the area of which exceeds 450 thousand hectares; 4) settlement Kayalyk, 8th-14th centuries (2014), which was a significant trade, craft and cultural center of the North-Eastern Zhetysu, and also the headquarters of Karluk jabgu. Excavations of Manichaean and Buddhist temples, Muslim mosque, mausoleums and khanaka; 5) Karamergen settlement (2014), located on the right bank of the Talgar river – a former medieval city, the area of which in the 10th century reached approximately 30 hectares; 6) Aktobe settlement (2014), dated back from the 6th – 13th centuries of the Turkic and Karluk Khaganate epoch, the ruins of which are located in the Shu district of Zhambyl region, which has a citadel, that housed the ruler’s Palace, the shakhristan - inhabited by wealthy citizens and the rabad - inhabited by artisans and traders; 7) Akyrtas settlement (2014), located 45 km from Taraz, the Palace complex of which is dated back to 8th -9th centuries; 8) Kulan settlement (2014), located on the territory and near the village Kulan of Ryskulovsky district of Zhambyl region, related to the 6th – the beginning of the 13th century, which is mentioned in Chinese and Arab sources. The settlement today is known for the fact that there the last Western Turkic Kagan Ashina Syn was killed in 740;

3.6. Historical regional study in independent Kazakhstan


9) Kostobe settlement (2014), located to the East of Sarykemer village, on the right bank of Talas river of Baizak district of Zhambyl region, dated 6th – 12th centuries; 10) the site of Ornek (2014), located at the junction of two rivers – the Shybyndy and Altynsu, having a 31 tower, dated back to the 8th – 12th centuries. Large-scale work to detail the boundaries of the territory and areas of protection of cultural and mixed heritage included in the preliminary list of the UNESCO and the creation of a database of potential world heritage sites. The relevant official agencies, including the Ministry of Culture and Sports of the Republic of Kazakhstan prepare the data on a number of objects located along the great Silk Road for their subsequent inclusion in the UNESCO world cultural heritage list. These objects are located along four segments of theGgreat Silk Road – Zhetysu segment (8 monuments), the Syrdarya segment (16 monuments), West Kazakhstan and South Kazakhstan (“Monuments of Otrar oasis”). Organization of two historical and cultural reserves of the national scale: “Berel” – in East Kazakhstan and “Issyk” – in Almaty region, including the administrative building with an exhibition hall. The second large direction of the program is the purchase of copies of books, documents, manuscripts in the archives of China, Iran, Turkey, Egypt, Russia, Mongolia, Western Europe, the United States, a number of other neighboring countries, which are directly related to the history of Kazakhstan. This purchase resulted in the identification of more than 10 thousand archival materials, rare documents, manuscripts and artifacts that became the basis for the publication of 537 books on history, archeology, local history, ethnography and culture of the Kazakh people. On March 25, 2010 in the main building of the Eurasian national University named after L.N. Gumilev the copies of ancient Turkic (Orkhon) monuments with runic inscriptions of the 8th century AD from Mongolia – Tonykok and Terkin – were exhibited. More than 20 documentaries, including “Architectural monuments of ancient Turkestan”, “Petroglyphs of Tamgaly”, “Mausoleum


Chapter ІІІ. Regional studies of kazakhstan

of Zhusup Ata”, “Korkyt”, “History of kui”, “Musical heritage of nomads”, etc., by Kazakhfilm Studio were released under the program “Cultural heritage”. The third direction of the program is aimed at the study, development, systematization and publication of the multifaceted heritage of national literature in special series of popular science and literary works. About 450 books on literature, history, ethnography, archeology, including 100 volumes of “Babalar sozi” (the Word of ancestors), “One Hundred Kazakh novels” in 200 volumes, 20 volumes of heritage of Kazakh thinkers from antiquity to modernity, 10 volumes of the national encyclopedia have been published. Publication of local history materials in periodicals and other special publications. Issue of compilation lists of historical monuments of the regions of the Republic, as well as the publication of encyclopedias of different regions, districts of Kazakhstan, containing historical, geographical, toponymic, local history, architectural and other information. Questions for fixing the material: 1. Name the author of the work “Jami at-Tavarih” 2. What areas of Kazakhstan did the expedition of N.D. Buchholz and N. Mm. Likhareva explore? 3. Who wrote “Topography of Orenburg”? 4. What sources form the basis of “Materials on Kyrgyz land use”? 5. In what aspect was the study of local lore touched upon in the activities of regional statistical committees? 6. Historical study of local lore of Kazakhstan in the 20-ies of 20th century. 7. The role of scientific institutions of the 1930s-80s in the development of local history studies in Kazakhstan. 8. Local history in the conditions of independent Kazakhstan. 9. In what year was the Society for the Study of Kazakhstan created? 10. What was the basis of the activities of the CSTC? 11. Where was the the IstAll-Kazakhstan regional Congress held? 12. What research was conducted in the 1950s and 1970s by scientists of Ch. Valikhanov Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Kazakh SSR? Additional materials and tasks No. 1. After reading the materials below, answer the following questions: 1. How did the sources of oral folk history get to us? 2. What kind of help do the sources of oral folk history provide in the study of the native land?

3.6. Historical regional study in independent Kazakhstan


3. Contribution of the American scholar Yang Wanxing in the research of oral history. 4. How can you interpret M.-Zh. Kopeev’s statement regarding oral sources?

Oral history – a mirror of the ancient world The history of our Fatherland is mainly found in written sources in various languages (Greek, Chinese, Persian, Arabic, Russian, etc.) of other peoples. Until now, many historians are based on the written information left by other peoples. Since ancient times on the Kazakh land there was a tradition of written history. The evidence of this is the inscription on a silver bowl found in the Issyk mound (6th century BC) or historical and epitaphic inscription on the tombstone of the ancient Turks (Kultegin, Bumyn Kagan, Tonikok, etc.) left in the Middle Ages. Kazakh historians wrote works using the Arabic alphabet (Mohammed Haidar Dulati, Kadyrgali Zhalairi). In addition, our ancestors had a tradition of oral transmission of history. The oral history includes the epic legends or poems, the pedigree. Oral history as part of historical science in the far abroad originates from the second half of the twentieth century. In 1948, Professor of the Columbia University A. Nevinson first used the term «oral history» in English. To date, a remarkable example of the study of the oral history of Jan Vansin is known. He mainly studied the oral historiography of the peoples of Asia and Africa. In addition, our great researchers Chokan Valikhanov, Halel Dosmukhamedov, Mukhamedzhan Tynyshbayev, Ermakhan Bekmakhanov, and others when writing our history used the heritage of our ancestors such as epos, legends, stories, poems, pedigrees and referred to them. Oral information the humankind used to leave their collected knowledge before the advent of written history. The history of the past, the first works of art were the form of heritage to the next generation. Oral history in the form of epics, legends, poems and pedigree reflects the first ideas about nature, ancient society, and people. The first oral information appeared in the form of myths about the gods, who created the Earth, later it took the form of epic poems about heroes. For example: the poems “Iliada” and “Odys-


Chapter ІІІ. Regional studies of kazakhstan

sey” of the Greek poet Homer, Russian “The word about Igor’s regiment”, “The Word about Roland” of the French people were the first literary compositions transmitted orally and then put on paper. All this happened in different ways, as writing appeared in each nation at different time. Oral epic poems, myths, pedigrees of ancient peoples of the Middle East (Mesopotamia, modern Iran, representatives of Iraq, Egypt, and Palestine) were drawn on the stones. Nevertheless, the tradition of passing oral history of the nomadic peoples of The Central Asia in the form of rock carvings has been preserved to our days (for example, “the Orchon-Eniseys written records”). With the advent of writing, there was a tradition to record the current history that began to replace the tradition of transmission of oral history, i.e. oral information. For a long time the study of the tradition of oral transmission of history was engaged in the science of folklore. Although in Europe and Asia this tradition began to disappear, in tropical Africa we come across myths, legends, epics, pedigrees of people who do not have writing. For example, the Belgian scientist Jan Vansina, who lived in Africa for 25 years, thanks to the collected materials was able to convey the oral history of Equatorial Africa (Rwanda, Burundi, Zaire, Congo), that has a small number of written and archaeological monuments available for modern science. Therefore, we can call the tradition of oral history the “historical source”. It is much better to study the history of the people using their oral historical information, than written history found only in foreign sources. You can cite the words of M. Tynyshpaev “in order to study the history of a certain people, you need to know their language, traditions, rituals and way of thinking.” Without knowing the language, without understanding the religion, it is impossible to write the history of another nation. M. Zh. Kopeyuly who wrote “The Genealogy of the Kazakhs” says: “…writing history, being natives of other people, not knowing where they will face and where they will come from...I write processing of what I have heard from my elders.” He writes about the importance of oral history. The word “bloodline” has two meanings. In Arabic, it means a branch of a tree, and in Mongolian and Turkic, it means, “to remember, to keep”. Oral history is primarily the history in the form of ancestral

3.6. Historical regional study in independent Kazakhstan


heritage transmitted from generation to generation. Recently, historical science has revealed a special interest to heroic epics, legends, oratory words and aityses alongside with genealogy. No. 2. When reviewing the materials below, please answer the following questions: 1. In what expeditions did Ch. Valikhanov take part and what is their significance in the history of the Kazakh people? 2. Give a brief information about the contribution of Ch. Valikhanova to the development of local history and culture of Kazakhstan. 3. Express your opinion, whether the works and manuscripts of Chokan Chingisovich are the sources of local history of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Eastern Turkestan? Justify your answer.

Ch.Ch. Valikhanov – an outstanding Kazakh scientist and educator Chokan Valikhanov, his real name is Muhammad-Kanafiya was born in November, 1835 in the fortification of Kushmurun of Aman-Karagay external district of Omsk region (now Sarykol district of Kostanay region) in the family of the senior Sultan of the said district Genghis Valikhanov, the grandson of Abylay Khan. At 5 he knew to read and write. Chokan received his primary education at the Kazakh school, where he had the opportunity to learn Chagatai, Arabic and Persian languages. The second name was given to him by his beloved grandmother Aiganym. The initial years of his childhood were associated with Kushmurun, later he lived in the family estate Syrymbet, the beautiful nature of which contributed to his formation in the future as a scientist. Since the childhood, Chokan was close to knowledge and science, this is a great merit of his father. Genghis was familiar with many representatives of the Russian intelligentsia. Many of them visited the village of Genghis. He got his first knowledge at the Kazakh school, where he learned Arabic and the art of drawing. He got acquainted with the works of Oriental scientists. In 1847, his father with the support of Russian friends helped him to enter the Siberian cadet corps, which was considered one of the most prestigious educational institutions of that time. After fin-


Chapter ІІІ. Regional studies of kazakhstan

ishing education in the cadet corps, having graduated in 1853 he received the title of horse-army cornet. From his youth he participated in the expeditions to explore the Central Asia. He visited Issykkul in 1856, in 1857 he travelled to the Alatau Kirgizes, in 1858-1859 years – to Kashgar. He was the first to put on paper the famous Kyrgyz poem “Manas”. Chokan is the first scientist who visited Kashgar after Marco Polo and jesuit Goest. The stay in St. Petersburg in the years 1859-1861 remained in the memory of Chokan Chingisovich as one of the most memorable periods in his life. He maintained ongoing ties with prominent Russian writer F.M. Dostoevsky, the advanced representatives of the Russian culture, researchers of the East and Russian scientists, poets. His brilliant knowledge of German, English and French helped him to work on scientific papers in these languages and to study different maps. In 1861, after the the exacerbation of consumption, he was forced to return to his native village. Chokan died suddenly at the age of 30 in April of 1865 in Zhetysu – in the mountain area Кoten-Togan at the foot of the Altynemel ridge (modern village Shokan, Kerbulak district, Almaty region). The 5-volume collection of works was published under the guidance of academician Alkey Кhakanovich Margulan in honor of the 150th anniversary of the birth of Ch. Valikhanov.

4.1. The role of museums in regional studies


Chapter IV THE ROLE OF MUSEUMS, ARCHIVES, ASSOCIATIONS FOR PROTECTION OF MONUMENTS OF HISTORY AND CULTURE IN THE HISTORICAL REGIONAL STUDY OF KAZAKHSTAN The purpose of the lecture: disclosure of the diverse role of museums, archives, associations for protection of historical and cultural monuments in the historical regional study of Kazakhstan. Basic concepts: Museum, regional museums, museum affairs, archive, archival affairs, associations for protection of historical and cultural monuments. Main problem: 4.1. The role of museums in regional studies. 4.2. The relationship of archival science with the historical regional study and other scientific disciplines. 4.3. Relationship of regional study аnd associations for protection of historical and cultural monuments of Kazakhstan.

4.1. The role of museums in regional studies Theoretical and practical aspects of museology. Among the sources of historical local lore a special place is occupied by the materials of museums and scientific institutions engaged in the collection, storage, study and promotion of natural and historical collections and monuments of material and spiritual culture. Collections of original monuments, which are the basis of all the activities of museums, determine their distinctive features (specifics) as research and educational institutions. It is on the basis of these monuments that museums conduct research, scientific and educational work. The most effective in historical museology is the use of methods of historical science and its auxiliary disciplines, including methods of archeology, paleography, ethnography, numismatics, sphragistics and methods of literary and art history. Assistance of these disciplines 75


Chapter IV. The role of museums, archives, associations for protection

in various forms of cultural and educational activities. The uniqueness of museums. Similar features in the composition of their collections, scale of activities, legal status, etc., that allow distributing all the diversity of the museums of the world into certain groups taking into account their specialization, connection with a particular science or art form, production and its branches. Differentiation of historical museums into general historical, military-historical, historical-household, other historical museums dedicated to the history of a particular city, enterprise, institution, etc. Types and profiles of museums. All museums in the Republic differ in types, which are determined by their main purpose. The vast majority of museums belong to the type of research and educational ones. Another type of a museum is a research museum, designed mainly for the storage and study of primary sources in any of the scientific disciplines. This is a kind of a museum-laboratory, where scientists conduct research work (for example, Geological Museum of the NAS of the Republic of Kazakhstan). Then, training museums – this is the third type of museums that exists in many institutions of higher education. Their main purpose is to contribute to the improvement of the educational process. The type of a museum largely determines the nature of the fund of the museum collections and the directions of its activities. Museums are also divided by profiles determined by their relation to scientific disciplines, fields of art, industries. So, among the main profiles historical museums (including historical-revolutionary, archaeological, ethnographic, military-historical, memorial, etc.), natural science, art, literary, technical profiles can be called. Local history museums and their structure. Historians use funds of all available museums. However, the most valuable subject materials are found in the museums of local lore. You can rely on the right sources in local history museums. The great importance of local history museums as an important source for the study of the history and modern development of the native land determines the requirement of accurate knowledge of the nature of this scientific institution, its structure, composition of its collections, activities.

4.1. The role of museums in regional studies


The museum of regional study, as mentioned above, is a museum of a complex profile. It studies and collects not only historical monuments and artifacts of the region, but also natural ones. Hence the connection of humanitarian and natural science profiles. This is reflected in the structure of the museum, that includes historical departments and departments of nature. The number of departments and their functions depend on the composition and size of the collections, the size of the exhibition, etc. Usually a regional museum has the following departments: the history of the pre-revolutionary period (from ancient times to the beginning of 20th century), the history of the Soviet period, the stage of sovereign and independent development of Kazakhstan, nature, scientific, educational, artistic and design departments with a photo laboratory, etc. In the district museums, of course, there are fewer departments, but in all cases there are sections of history, nature and funds. The main task of the historical departments and the department of nature is to create exhibits and exhibitions, completing and studying collections, while the fund department keeps records and collections, performs scientific processing of these, stores monuments and artifacts. Sources of acquisition of funds. Acquisition of the main fund is the prerequisite for the emergence of the museum, it is one of the main aspects of its activities. The purpose of this acquisition is to preserve for our contemporaries and descendants the originals and primary sources of social, scientific and artistic value; to create conditions for continuous improvement of expositions, exhibitions through which the public get a feel for the historical experience and culture. The work on the acquisition of the fund is of a research nature and represents one of the distinctive features of the scientific activity of museums. Sources of acquisition of funds vary depending on the time to which they belong. In modern local history museums, the main methods of acquisition of the fund are scientific expeditions and systematic planned collection of materials. Among the sources of significant interest for local historians in museums, we distinguish material, written and visual sources.


Chapter IV. The role of museums, archives, associations for protection

Material sources. These are any material remains, from archaeological artifacts and household items to architectural structures. Classification of material monuments is prformed according to their purpose. Such material sources of museums as coins, medals, seals are used to establish historical facts. Other sources stored in museums are widely used by the representatives of other humanitarian disciplines: archaeology (archaeological finds), ethnology (settlements, costumes, jewelry, dishes and utensils), art history (chemical composition of paintings, technological processes of production of porcelain, faience, glass, metal alloys, etc.), numismatics (coins), sphragistics (seals), faleristics (orders, medals, insignia), bonistics (paper money), filigree studies (paper and watermarks on it), history of material culture and life. Written sources. Unlike archives, the main source of acquisition of written sources in local history museums is the collection of materials from private citizens in accordance with the topics studied by the museum. The same can be said about recording of memories, the collection of photo-documentary materials, as well as individual documents of historical and public interest. Collections of written sources have a lot of such materials that the regional archives are not able to include in their funds (posters and ads, leaflets and invitations, newspapers, banknotes, rare books and manuscripts, etc.). Visual sources of museums are the object of study in archeology, ethnology, art history, book studies (book miniature) and other humanities. This type of sources is divided into the following types: fine art sources (works of fine art, art photography, art film and video materials); graphic sources (maps, plans, schemes); depictive natural sources (documentary photography, documentary film and video materials). The process of formation and development of museums in Kazakhstan. Statistical information about the museums of Kazakhstan: 1913 – 3, 1927 – 9, 1937 – 19, 1939 – 25, 1970 – 29, 1991 – 88, the beginning of the 21th century – 230. Prerevolutionary period. Organization of Orenburg Regional Museum on the initiative of V.I. Dal (1831). In 1857-1862 in Oren-

4.1. The role of museums in regional studies


burg, a significant amount of local history materials on Kazakhstan was collected for the Moscow and Kazan museums. Opening of the Omsk Museum in 1878. Foundation of the museum in Semipalatinsk on the initiative of E.P. Michaelis, Abay Kunanbayev and P.I. Dolgopolov (1883), the Semirechensky museum – on the initiative of P.M. Pantusov (1898) and in 1915 – foundation of the Kustanay museum. Soviet period. In this period, the work of the Republican museums was coordinated by the Glavmuzey of the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic as part of the Academic Center of the People’s Commissariat of Education. Functioning of new museums in the initial period of Soviet power: Ural (1920), Kokchetav (1920), Syrdarya (1921), Akmola (1923), Petropavlovsk (1923), the Central State Historical Museum of Kazakhstan (1923) on the basis of the Orenburg district Museum. Close contact of the activities of the Museum of Kazakhstan and other provincial museums with the Society for the Study of Kazakhstan, expedition work and thematic exhibitions of museums. Completion of registration of local history profile of provincial museums of Kazakhstan by the end of the 1920s. Functioning of 9 local history museums in Kazakhstan in 1927. Movement of the Central State Museum from Kzyl-Orda to Almaty in 1929. The expositions of the Museum: the first hall was dedicated to the paleoanthropology and archaeology; the second exhibition covered the period from the 15th to the end of the 18th century; the third hall presented Kazakhstan of the Soviet period. Opening of new museums in the regions and cities of the Republic: Aktobe Regional Museum of Local History (1929), the State Museum of Arts (1935), the State Historical and Cultural Museum-reserve of Abai (1940), Pavlodar Museum of Local History named after G.N. Potanin, the House-Museum of M.O. Auezov (1962), the Museum of Archeology of the Kazakh SSR (1973), the Museum of Archeology and Biography of the Kazakh state University named after S.M. Kirov (1974), Mangystau Museum of local history (1975), the Republican Museum of Books (1978), Literary and Memorial Museums of S. Mukanov (1978) and I. Musrepov (1987), Republican Museum of Folk Instruments named after Yclas (1980), the State Memorial Complex of Ch. Valikhanov in Altyn-Emel (1989), and other museums.


Chapter IV. The role of museums, archives, associations for protection

The Republican seminar of Museum workers and scientific session of the Scientific Council of the Central Museum of the Kazakh SSR in 1989 in Alma-Ata. Expedition work and thematic exhibitions of museums. Enthusiasts and organizers of the Museums and sincere admirers of local history of Kazakhstan. The research activities of museums in 1950-1980-years. The period of independent development of Kazakhstan, foundation of new museums in the period of independent development of Kazakhstan in 1990-2000. Opening of the state Museum of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the capital city of Astana on February 20, 2000, Later the museum was converted into the Presidential Cultural Center in October of the same year. New exhibits are displayed in five galleries, three halls and in the atrium, they are dedicated to the history, archaeology, ethnography, and culture of ancient inhabitants of Kazakhstan, nomads and the settled population of the middle ages and modern times, the Soviet period, the period of independent and sovereign development of the Republic, Emergence of new museums of various profiles: the Memorial Museums of K.I. Satpayev, D.A. Kunayev, the Museum of the National Currency of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Museum of the Paleolith of Kazakhstan in the Kazakh National University named after al-Farabi, etc. In Astana on July 2, 2014 the largest museum of the country - the National Museum of the Republic of Kazakhstan, created as a result of the state program “Cultural heritage” (Madeni Mura) was opened. The Museum Complex covers an area of 74 thousand square meters and is located in 7 blocks with a variable number of storeys up to the ninth floor, the exposition of which occupies 11 halls: the Hall of Astana, the Hall of the Independent Kazakhstan, the Gold Hall, the Hall of Ancient and Medieval History, the Hall of Ethnography, Halls of Modern Art. There is also a research Institute of National Heritage, which has 3 departments (archaeological heritage, traditional culture, monitoring and examination of objects of historical and cultural heritage) and 2 laboratories (of physical anthropology, as well as of the primary restoration and conservation of archaeological artifacts). The Museum also houses a room for a Children’s Museum, a Center for Children’s

4.2. The connection of archive science with the historical regional ...


Creativity, two exhibition halls, a storage facility, a scientific library with a reading hall, a conference hall. The decision of the National Commission of the Republic of Kazakhstan for UNESCO and ISESCO affairs of February 2013 on the resumption of activities of the “Kazakhstan Committee of the International Council of Museums” (ICOM Kazakhstan) – the international organization of museums and museum professionals who are engaged in the storage, development and interaction of society and the world natural and cultural, present and future, tangible and intangible heritage. The ICOM wascreated on the basis of ethno-memorial complex “Map of Kazakhstan “Atameken”, functioning since September 8, 2001 on the initiative of the President of the Republic N.A. Nazarbayev. 4.2. The connection of archive science with the historical regional study and other scientific disciplines Specifics of archival documents. Implementation of the vast majority of historical research, including local history is based on archival materials. They are characterized by a source of information that enrich them with new facts, allow a new, more correct assessment of the studied problem. The archival documents depict the results of the work of previous generations. For example, a specific interest now is aroused by the graphics and text documents, the remainders of the design and constructions of the 19th – early 20th centuries, engineering structures. Archival materials are of exceptional importance in the restoration of monuments of architecture and art. They are also used in restoration of the original appearance of ancient monuments destroyed by time and distorted by later reconstructions. For example, memorial complexes of H.A. Yassavi, Aisha-Bibi, etc. The use of archival documents in local historical studies in almost all cases consists of a number of operations, among which the main ones are as follows: a search, establishment of authorship, time and


Chapter IV. The role of museums, archives, associations for protection

conditions of writing documents, their source assessment, and, finally, direct work on documents, study and use of their content. All such documents, available in the collections of various archives, are presented in the form of texts, graphics, as well as films and photo documents and other kinds of documents on various physical media. All of them were formed as a result of the activities of various government agencies, public organizations, enterprises, individuals. Depending on the physical media historians distinguish a variety of documents: from rock inscriptions of primitive people to modern computer documents. Their content adequately reflects the entire life of people and society. In their development, documents are evolving from documentation – information recording on various media according to established rules – to its archival storage. Archival affairs in pre-revolutionary Kazakhstan. The main features of the state of archival business at the turn of 19th – early 20th centuries were: the established system of historical and current archives, fragmentation, decentralization of archives, incomplete acquisition of cases in the offices, current and historical archives. During this period, there were new types of documents – film and photo documents, typewritten, scientific, and technical documentation. Concentration of historical documentary materials in departmental archives, various administrative centers of pre-revolutionary Kazakhstan, e.g.in archives of Orenburg Governorate-General (Ural and Turgay regions) with the center in Orenburg, West Siberian or Steppe Governorate -General (Akmola and Semipalatinsk regions) with the center in Omsk, Turkestan Governorate-General (Semirechensk and Syrdarya regions) with the center in Tashkent. The role of the Orenburg Scientific Archive Commission in preservation of historical documentary heritage of the past. Local history materials in departmental archives, manuscript departments of libraries, museums, scientific organizations. Funds of the “Regional Government of the Orenburg Kyrgyz under the Ministry of Internal Affairs”, “ Regional Government of the Siberian Kyrgyz under the Ministry of Internal Affairs”, “Border management of the Siberian Kyrgyz”, “Office of the Steppe Governorate-General”, “Office

4.2. The connection of archive science with the historical regional ...


of the Military Governor of the Semirechensk region for Kuldzha Affairs”, “Altai Mining Government” and other institutions as the most important sources of materials on local history of pre-revolutionary Kazakhstan. The value of Manchurian, Chinese documents, Oriental manuscripts, manuscripts of individuals stored in the archives of prerevolutionary Kazakhstan. Formation of the Soviet archive system. The history of creation of state archives in Kazakhstan and acquisition of their archival fund in the Soviet period. In connection with the arrival of the new government, there was a problem of preservation of pre-revolutionary archives, which were spontaneously destroyed en masse, especially at the local level. Archival work included protection of existing archives, collection of documents of the liquidated institutions and organizations, the formation of archives of the new government. The initial period of archival affairs of the Republic. The creation of a legal framework for the development of the Soviet archivistics in Kazakhstan in 1918-1922. New archives created during the Soviet era. New order of management of archival affairs in the Republic. The opening of the Orenburg-Turgai provincial archive. The establishment of the Main Archival Administration under the People’s Commissariat as the body responsible for archives in Kazakhstan in 1921. Formation of the first Republican archive - the Central Regional Archive. Regulation “On the Central Regional Archive of the Kazakh SSR of January 24, 1922”. Transfer of the Main Archive and its institutions from the jurisdiction of the People’s Commissariat to the CEC of KazASSR. The activities of the provincial archival bureaus of the Republic. Creation of a documentary base for historical research, including local history. Transfer of the Central Regional Archive from Orenburg to Kzyl-Orda. The first conference of archival workers of Kazakhstan. Relocation of the regional archive from Kzyl-Orda to Almaty. Reorganization of archival management bodies in the 1930s. Development of archival affairs in pre-war and war periods. The influence of totalitarian systems on archives. Completion of concentration in the state archives of the Republic of the main array of archival documents on the history and local lore of Kazakhstan, stored


Chapter IV. The role of museums, archives, associations for protection

in the archives of other republics and regions, the transformation of the Main Archival Department of the Republic into the Department of State Archives of the NKVD of the Kazakh SSR (1936). The regulation on the State Archival Fund of March 29, 1941. A new system of archives in the USSR and the Republic. Tighter state control over the archival affairs in the country. Archival affairs in the postwar period. Influence of consequences of the Great Patriotic War on archival affairs, Regulation on the State Archival Fund of the USSR of August 13, 1958. Replenishment of local history materials in archival institutions in 1940-1960-ies. Change of jurisdiction and legal status of archival bodies of the Republic. The release of the Main Archival Administration of the USSR from the jurisdiction of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs and transfer under the subordination of the Council of Ministers of the USSR in 1960. Establishment of the Main Archival Administration of the USSR as the all-Union archival body for scientific and organizational-methodical management of all archival affairs in the USSR and the Union Republics. Archival affairs in the country and the Republic in 19701980-ies. Regulations on the Main Archive Fund of the Kazakh SSR and the Main Archive Department under the Council of Ministers of the Kazakh SSR in 1980. Development of archival affairs in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Changes in the system of archives in connection with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the cessation of activities of the Communist party. Construction of the archive system in Kazakhstan. The establishment of an independent system of archives of the Republic since 1991. Basic principles of archival affairs and the Agreement of the leaders of the CIS countries dated 6 July, 1992 on legal succession in respect of archives of the former Soviet Union. The main provisions of the Agreement: the principle of integrity and indivisibility of the funds; preservation as a whole of the documents of the Central Archives of the republics of the former USSR; inviolability of all archives of the CIS countries. Reorganization of the former party archives.

4.3. Interrelations of the institutions involved in regional studies аnd the ...


As a result of these changes, in 1991-1992 the system of management and the network of national archives were formed, the importance of archives as an integral part of cultural values was determined. The following basic principles of archival affairs in the Republic of Kazakhstan were fixed: archives were recognized as a field of culture and included in the cultural heritage of the Republic; every citizen has the right to gain access to cultural values, to archival funds. Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan of December 22, 1999 “On the National Archival Fund and Archives”. Types of state archives (central, regional, city, district and their branches). Formation of the society of archivists of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The role of local historians in the collection of archival materials and sources. Historical and local history research using archival documents. Methods and techniques of work on archival documents. Publications of state archives. Development of the concepts and the program of the development of archival affairs in Kazakhstan for 2001-2005. 4.3. Interrelations of the institutions involved in regional studies аnd the associations for protection of monuments of the Republic of Kazakhstan Importance of monument protection in the first years of the Soviet power (1920-1930s.) Withdrawal of historical monuments in the years of colonial domination of the Russian Empire. Fixation and description of valuable historical monuments (architectural structures and complexes, burial mounds, villages, gravestones, religious, social ensembles, basreliefs, petroglyphs, etc.) performed by the pre-revolutionary Russian scholars, travelers, diplomats, etc., the problem of their preservation in the first years of Soviet power. Identification, accounting and protection of historical monuments and mounds on the basis of the directives of the people’s Commissariat of KazASSR, creation of the Commission for the protection of monuments of art, ewveryday life and antiquity in the 1920s. The appointment of local historians provided with special mandates of commission-


Chapter IV. The role of museums, archives, associations for protection

ers with an indication of the area of their powers. Their publications in the local press, presentations, exhibitions of antiquities, material culture, etc. Close cooperation of the Commission for the protection of ancient monuments with the Central Museum of Kazakhstan, other provincial museums and the Society for the Study of Kazakhstan in 1923-1924. Interdepartmental meeting “On the organization in Kazakhstan of the Committee for the Protection of Monuments of Nature, Antiquity and Art, working in contact with local scientific and historical organizations”. Coordination Scientific-Methodical Council of the People’s Commissariat of Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic issues regulations on the museum building, protection of nature, monuments of history and culture in the 1930s. Types of historical and cultural monuments. Completion of registration of monuments of antiquity and art, fixation of their location on the map and description (1937). Activity of the Assosiations in the 1950-2000s. Contribution of the Society for Monuments Protection under the State Committee of the Kazakh SSR on culture to the monuments preservation in 1950-1970s. The law of the Kazakh SSR of August 11, 1978 “On protection and use of historical and cultural monuments”. The work of the Department of the Code of monuments of history and culture of the Kazakh SSR of Ch. Valikhanov Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography in the 1980s. Publication of the “Code of historical and cultural monuments of the South Kazakhstan region” (1994) and a similar code on Zhambyl region (2002). Clarification and revision of the existing lists of historical and cultural monuments by the Republican historical and cultural museums-reserves in the 2000s. Issue of encyclopedia of cities and regions of the Republic. Implementation of the programme of the project “Cultural heritage” in the 2000s. The importance of the protected area – the area that surrounds the historical monument. Instructions for the regime of protection zones. Prohibition of new construction and redevelopment on the territory of the monument; demolition of later buildings, distorting the monument, hindering its viewing or cluttering its territory. Protection zone for monuments with a cultural layer the limits of which are unknown must be not less than 50 m radially from the outbreaks of the cultural

4.3. Interrelations of the institutions involved in regional studies аnd the ...


layer. For settlements of all ages, the boundaries of which are defined it must be not less than 25 m from the boundaries of such a monument. The protection area for burial mound groups, petroglyphs, and burial grounds varies within the band with the width of 50 m from the trenches of the mounds last in the row. For ancient settlements, which are located near quarries, stone mines, foundation pits the radius of the protection zone zone is 200-300 m. Questions for fixing the material: 1. What connects the museum with the historical study of local lore? 2. What are the main types and profiles of museums? 3. What is the difference between real and written sources? 4. How many museums operated in Kazakhstan at the beginning of the 21th century? 5. What is the specificity of archival documents? 6. Where were the pre-revolutionary archives located on the territory of Kazakhstan? 7. When was the Main Archival Administration of the Republic established? 8. What normative documents regulate legal activity of archives of the Republic of Kazakhstan? 9. What was the attitude of tsarist Russia to the monuments of antiquity in Kazakhstan? 10. When was the Regulation on the Kazakh Committee for the Protection of Monuments of Nature, Antiquity and Art adopted? 11. What is a protection zone? Additional materials and tasks No. 1. When reviewing the materials below, please answer the following questions: 1. For what purpose do archaeologists study the structure of barrows? 2. What important information does archaeological science provide for local history? 3. Are there archaeological sites and mounds in your area, in the vicinity of your settlement? Tell about them.

Structure of kurgan Exploring the kurgans, you can learn the rite of burial of the Saka. The Saka made coffins-sarcophagi closely positioning the logs with


Chapter IV. The role of museums, archives, associations for protection

each other. Under the deceased the bed was made. The clothes of the deceased man were decorated with gold. Weapons, jewelry and personal items were put nearby. The kurgan was built on several floors. The first floor was made of large stones up to 2 meters, the next one – of small stones and earth. Its thickness was 13 meters. On the top of that, 2-3 meters of stones were placed. A stone fence was erected around the kurgan. Near a fence with large stones menhirs were also placed. From the kurgan a special underground path – dromos - was made. Archaeological monuments of the Saka period are mainly found in the form of kurgans. According to their size, the kurgans of the Saka of Zhetysu can be divided into three types. The first is big kurgans. Their diameter varies from 48 to 104 meters, and the height - from 7 to 20 meters. The second type is middle kurgans. Their diameter makes from 30 to 45 meters, and the height – 2-6 meters. The third type is presented by small kurgans with the diameter of 6-18 meters, and the height of 50 cm to 1 meter. There is a special significance of the volume and height of kurgans. The size of the kurgan depends on the social status and authority of the buried person. This should be interpreted as follows. Famous tribal leaders, authoritative people of the tribe were buried in huge spacious burial mounds, while ordinary people were buried in small burials. At the burial places of chiefs and warriors a bow and arrow, spear, and other weapons were placed. In addition, various tools, garments, utensils and decorations of gold, silver and bronze were also buried with authoritative persons. No. 2. When reviewing the materials below, please answer the following questions: 1. What information do you get from this passage? 2. How do you imagine the modernization and improvement of the activities of the museums of the Republic? 3. What programs of such modernization and improvement do you know? Tell about them.

Program of practical measures aimed at modernization and improvement of the activities of museums of the Republic of Kazakhstan

4.3. Interrelations of the institutions involved in regional studies аnd the ...


–– In the sphere of ensuring the legal framework of Museum activities: 1. To develop a Draft Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On museums and museum activities» and submit the proposal for its adoption to the Parliament of the Republic. 2. To develop proposals, taking into account the relevant international experience, to amend the law “On taxes and other mandatory payments to the budget”, providing for preferential taxation of museum institutions and sponsorship organizations (the system of tax incentives as an incentive for the growth of donations to museums and other cultural objects). 3. To replace outdated documents and develop a new package of all regulations governing the conditions and functioning of the Republican museums of different levels and and irrespective of their departmental affiliation. * To improve the management and coordination of museum activities: 1. To create a specialized Department of museums in the structure of the Committee, whose tasks will include management and coordination of the activities of museums of Kazakhstan. 2. To create a real Center for scientific and methodological support and coordination of the activities of museums of the Republic. 3. Provide financial support and create the necessary conditions for the normal functioning of the newly organized National Committee of the international Council of museums (ICOM) (allocation of 2-3 staff units, premises, technical means, etc.). * Introduction of new approaches and technologies in the management and organization of museums: 1. To hold a seminar for the heads of the museums of the Republic dedicated to new technologies in the field of management and the use of own economic mechanisms (marketing) with the participation of foreign and domestic experts. 2. To study foreign experience in the field of modern methods of management and organization of museum activities and make specific proposals for their use in the practice of museums of the Republic.


Chapter IV. The role of museums, archives, associations for protection

3. To introduce into the staff structures of the major museums of the Republic (Central, regional ones) management units responsible for marketing strategy conducted by the institution (Deputy Director). 4. To study and summarize the relevant experience gained by the museums of the Republic in the field of marketing and obtaining their own (extra-budgetary) sources of income (sponsorship, grants, fundraising, publishing) and share it in a specially issued newsletter. * In order to transform and improve the effectiveness of the main directions of museum activities: 1. To create a Department (laboratory) of museum studies at the Institute of Culture of the Republic of Kazakhstan, engaged in the research of actual theoretical and practical problems of museum affairs. 2. To develop in each museum of the Republic long-term research plans, including: the development of the scientific concept of the Museum; research in the field of acquisition of the collection; the study of Museum collections; scientific design of displays and exhibitions; applied (sociological, pedagogical, etc.) research aimed at the study of the museum audience; museum and pedagogical research; research within the specialized sciences, etc. 3. To develop plans for modernization of the Museum information support system (computerization, audiovisual facilities, creation of a local network, etc.). Methodological guidance in this area of work to assign to the information Centre at the Central state Museum of Kazakhstan. 4. Regularly hold Republican and zonal scientific and practical conferences on topical issues of museum affairs. 5. To implement more widely the practice of organizing intermuseum projects (joint exhibitions, publications, etc.). Prepare a longterm project plan for the next 5 years. 6. To establish the issue of a newsletter summarizing and disseminating the best foreign museum experience (based on ICOM materials). 7. To create an author’s group of scientists and leading specialistsmuseologists to prepare a textbook on the basics of museum affairs, intended for employees and students. To find funds for its publication.

4.3. Interrelations of the institutions involved in regional studies аnd the ...


8. To carry out a reform on the unification and standardization of all samples of documentation used in the activities of museums. 9. To develop the “Instruction on accounting and storage of museum values of the Republic of Kazakhstan”. 10. Consider the organization of the Republican center for the restoration of museum monumentsand artifacts. –– In order to improve the professionalism and skills of Museum workers: 1. To re-organize for museum employees the training courses that previously functioned at the Institute of Culture of the Republic of Kazakhstan. 2. To carry out certification of museum workers of the Republic. 3. To assign the regional offices to develop their own programs, providing a set of measures for the reform and revitalization of the museums of the region and submit them for approval to the Committee of Culture. The list of topics of essays 1. The importance of archaeological monuments for historical local lore. 2. Methods of processing archaeological monuments. 3. The importance of ethnographic materials in the study of historical local lore. 4. Works of Russian pre-revolutionary scientists and travelers on local lore of Kazakhstan. 5. Expansion of relations of modern Kazakhstan with foreign countries and its influence on local lore. 6. The role of petroglyphs, ancient inscriptions, signs and written sources in historical local lore. 7. The importance of the toponymic sources in the historical study of local lore. 8. The importance of demographic sources in the historical study of local lore. 9. The beginning of local lore work in Kazakhstan and its main stages. 10. Regional, Republican conferences, congresses on the study of local lore. 11. Works of Ch. Ch. Valikhanov in the study of local lore of Kazakhstan and neighboring countries. 12. Problems of local lore study in Kazakhstan in the works of A. Divayev and S. Babadjanov. 13. Activities of the RGS, its departments in the study of historical local lore of Kazakhstan and its regions.


Chapter IV. The role of museums, archives, associations for protection 14. Activities of statistical committees and their departments in the study of historical local lore of Kazakhstan and its regions. 15. Creation and activity of local lore museums of Kazakhstan. 16. The importance of epigraphic materials in the historical study of local lore. 17. Education and activits of the Central Bureau of local lore of the Republic. 18. Historical study of local lore of Kazakhstan in the 1920-1930s. 19. Historical study of local lore of Kazakhstan. 20. The work of the Department of the Code of Monuments of History and Culture at the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of KazSSR in the 1980s. 21. Historical study of local lore of Kazakhstan in the 1990s. 22. The Society of the Study of Kazakhstan as the center of local lore activities in Kazakhstan. 23. The work of the first All-Kazakhstan regional Congress. 24. Theories and concepts of ethnos in ethnological science. 25. Methods of study of paleography and historical local lore. 26. The importance of ancient Turkic writing in the study of historical local lore. 27. Symbolic signs and symbols in the ancient Turkic monuments. 28. Museum as a research center in the study of local lore. 29. The contribution of the Society of Monuments Protection in the study of the region. 30. The specifics of the school local lore.



GLOSSARY –A– A small city – a settlement classified according to the legislation of the state to the category of cities and having a population of less than a certain number. Acclimatization – the process of adaptation of the human body to new climatic conditions. Acculturation – the transfer of cultural elements from one generation to another within one culture. Astyonym – proper name or the name of a city. Agriculture - one of the most important branches of agriculture: production of food, technical, fodder crops, etc. Agroonim – the name of the land, arable land, fields. Agoronim – the name of a town square market. Aivan – a terrace with a flat surface on the pillars Alashyk – a felt tent of the peoples of The Central Asia , Kazakhstan and Caucasus. An individual – 1) an individual, a separately existing organism or a single person as a representative of the human race; 2) a separate representative of a society, people, class, certain social group. Anthropology – 1) the science studying the origin and evolution of the man, the formation of human races and the normal variations of the physical structure of the man, referred to as physical anthropology; 2) the science that studies the culture of primitive, traditional and modern societies; the same as ethnography, ethnology, cultural anthropology; 3) the science that studies the man in a variety of forms of his life. It includes a number of disciplines: prehistoric anthropology, cultural anthropology, linguistic anthropology, physical anthropology, etc. Anthroponyms – names, which are based on the personal names of people. Anthroponymy – a section of onomastics that studies the names of people (proper names). Archaeology – a science that studies the historical past of the humankind by physical monuments. Archetype – prototype, primary form, sample. The term became widespread thanks to the works of the Swiss psychologist C.G. Jung. Archetype is innate mental structures that are the result of the historical development of the humankind, representing a “collective unconscious”. It is embodied in dreams and myths, fairy tales, acts as a source material for fiction and art. Archival science – a complex discipline that studies the history and organization, theory and practice of archives and the field of accounting, description and preservation of documents, scientific organization of labor and the economics of archival affairs.



Historical regional studies of kazakhstan

Area – the main administrative-territorial unit in a number of states in the past and present. Area (cultural) – a geographical area, the inhabitants of which are characterized by a common culture or cultural pattern. Area in toponymy – the area of distribution of certain toponymic facts, repetitive models, similar geographical terms, etc. Arid zone – the collective name of geographical areas with low precipitation level, where agriculture is possible only with artificial irrigation (desert and semidesert areas). Art - one of the elements of culture, interpreted in modern cultural studies as the degree of improvement of artistic technologies, the result of human activity and the degree of personal development. Artifact – any subject of not natural but artificial origin. Assimilation – the formation of a new community as a result of the loss by two or more ethnic groups, peoples of own values (sometimes religious), orientations, cultural, ethnic, linguistic identity, traditional forms of activity. Attribute – an essential feature, necessary, integral property of the object. In sociology, it is an objective trait belonging to individuals or social categories, or a characteristic of the state of their consciousness. Attributes are, for example, the amount of income, level of education, profession, as well as self-assessment of one’s own social position, life values and aspirations; a certain attitude to the surrounding reality as a whole. Aul – a traditional settlement, camp, community of nomads and semi-nomads. Avunculocal (residence) – located at or centered around the residence of the husband’s maternal uncle.  –B– Bilocality – the societal postmarital residence in which couples, upon marriage, choose to live with or near either spouse’s parents. Bipatrides – persons who simultaneously have a citizenship (citizenships) of two or more states (multi-citizenship). –C– Calendar – a system of long periods of time calculation, based on the periodicity of natural phenomena associated with the movement of the celestial bodies. There are lunar, solar, Julian, and Gregorian calendars. Cape – a piece of land that goes into the sea, lake or river Ceramics – products formed from suitable for molding clay masses and reinforced by one or more firing. It includes pottery ceramic products. Ceremony – a solemn official act, during which a certain order is established.



Channel – artificial channel of the correct form created by the non-pressure movement of water connecting two and more water objects. Charisma – a special power that some people have naturally that makes them able to influence other people and attract their attention. Christianity – one of the three world religions (alongside with Buddhism and Islam). It has three main branches: Catholicism, Orthodoxy and Protestantism. A common feature that unites the Christian faith and sects is faith in Jesus Christ as the God-man, the Savior of the world. The Main source of the creed is Scripture (the Bible, especially the New Testament). Christianity emerged in the I century AD in the Eastern province of the Roman Empire (Palestine) as a religion of the oppressed. Chronology – the science that deals with measuring time by regular divisions and that assigns to events their proper dates. Churchyard – the center of a country rural community around which the village is grouped. Circular layout – a type of settlement with a circular arrangement of buildings. Citadel – the most fortified part of the fortress; the construction of the fortress type inside the ancient cities. As a rule, it included the ruler’s Palace, administrative and religious buildings. Citizenship – constitutional and legal status, stable political and legal relationship of a person with the state, expressing the totality of their mutual rights and obligations. City – a locality referred by the legislation of the state to the category of cities. Civilization – 1) a synonym of culture, in the narrow sense – of material culture; 2) the level of the development of material and spiritual culture (ancient civilization, modern civilization); 3) the stage of human development, following the savagery and barbarism (L. Morgan). The concept of “civilization” appeared in the eighteen century in close connection with the concept of “culture”. The basis of the categorical distinction of civilization and culture is the divergence of the personal structure of the man and the structures of the labour of the man. The reproduction of the labor force, the increase in free time - these are the signs of civilization; the reproduction of human personality structures through education – this is a sign of everyday culture, its traditions, norms and values. Clan – 1) a genus or related group associated by economic and social bonds; 2) kinship group, originating on the maternal or on the paternal side, bearing the name of a common ancestor. Clans are usually exogamous and have different religious, political and economic functions. Classification – 1) the system of subordinate concepts (classes, objects, phenomena) in a particular branch of knowledge or human activity, based on the account of common features of objects and natural relationships between them, allowing to navigate in a variety of objects and being a source of knowledge about them; 2) the distribution of any objects by classes (departments, categories) on the basis of their common features, similarities and differences, reflecting the relationship between classes of objects in a single system of this branch of knowledge.


Historical regional studies of kazakhstan

Collective farm – artel, cooperation for farming on the basis of socialized means of production and collective labor on a state land. Comonim – proper name of any rural settlement. Community – a group of people united by historically established stable social ties, relations, and having a number of common features (traits) that give it a unique identity. Community – self-governing economic and social-household collective in preclass (primitive community) and pre-capitalist class societies (neighbor or peasant community). Comparative method – a method of identifying similarities and differences between the phenomena in one society, in a society of the same type and in different historical types of societies in order to establish common and specific characteristics and patterns. There are a cross-cultural method and comparative-historical method. Concept – a system of views, a way of understanding any phenomena, processes; the basic idea of any theory. Construction – frame construction, pillar construction of the dwelling, the basis of which is the frame (vertical pillars and horizontal frames, where the gaps are filled with any light material (wicker, clay, straw, etc.). Conventional signs – symbols used on maps to depict various objects and their characteristics. Creativity – a generating ability, a characteristic feature of the creative personality, manifested in the change of the universe or culture, the experience of the individual, the sphere of cultural values and meanings. Cosmogony – a branch of astronomy that studies the origin and development of celestial bodies and their systems. County – administrative-territorial unit of lower order, subordinate area. Criterion -a measure of evaluation, definition, comparison of a phenomenon or process; a sign that is the basis of classification. Cult – 1) one of the elements of religion, the actions (movements, reading, or singing, etc.) aimed to give visible expression to religious worship; 2) excessive exaltation of something or someone (the cult of ancestors, the cult of heroes, the cult of personality, etc.). Cultural anthropology - a comparative study of cultural communities or societies; the study of the influence of geographical, historical, social and psychological factors on the development of culture, its characteristics and the specifics of its change. Cultural genesis – the process of origin of material and spiritual culture of the humankind, taking place in close connection with the formation and development of tools and material and technical activities and social laws. Cultural layer – (archaeological) layer of the earth containing the remains of human activity; ancient structures, constructions, household wastes, ash, etc. Culture – 1) a polysemous concept, denoting, first, everythingl that is created by the man himself in contrast to created by nature. This definition fixes the outer boundaries of the culture and its source – appropriate activities. It is used to refer



to a historically defined level of the development of the society, creative forces and development of human abilities, expressed in the types, forms of organization of life and activities of people, as well as in the material and spiritual values created by them. Since in culture the subject, object and final product is the person himself as the value of all values, so far as culture can be called the production of a historically certain type of a person; 2) in the socio-historical sense – the dominant way of accumulation and transmission of creative experience – heritage – from generation to generation (primitive culture, feudal, bourgeois, etc.); 3) specifically systematic way of reproduction (cultivation) of certain human qualities, properties and their complexes (professional, emotional, intellectual, physical, environmental, etc.); 4) a measure of assimilation of personal achievements of the mankind and the way they are used in art and communication; 5) the result of every and any human activities during the existence of people. Cumulonimbus settlement planning – a type of planning, where the buildings in the settlement form clusters. Custom – the rule of social behavior, transmitted from generation to generation, reproduced in a particular society or social group, ingrained habit, life and consciousness of their members. Custom serves as a means of introducing individuals to social and cultural experience; it regulates the behavior of individuals and supports intragroup cohesion. Cyrillic – Slavic Cyrillic alphabet. –D– Darya – is a term that indicates the level of water. It is part of the names of a number of rivers in the Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Definition – a brief logical definition that establishes the essential distinctive features of the subject or the meaning of the concept, its content and boundaries. Delta – lowland in the lower reaches of the river composed mainly of river sediments and cut through by an extensive network of arms and channels. Demography– the science that studies the population and the laws of its development (reproduction, change in number, national composition, territorial or regional location, internal and external migration, etc.). Dendrochronological method – discipline focused on methods of dating of archaeological remains and natural phenomena, based on the analysis of annual rings of wood. Dense settlement – settlement with a compact arrangement of buildings. Deportation – a forcible expulsion of a person or entire category of persons to another state or another locality. Desht – arid gravel and pebble surfaces, salt marshes. Diaspora – the stay of a significant part of the people (ethnic community) outside the country of origin. Dispersion – the degree of dispersion of geographical objects in a certain area.


Historical regional studies of kazakhstan

Dolmens – megalithic structures: several vertically placed stones covered with one or several huge stone slabs. Dromonim – the name of any way connecting two point (road, path, etc). Dugout – dwelling dug in the ground. Dunes – forms of sand relief produced by wind accumulation. Duval – a mud wall around the settlement or estate. –E– Economic and cultural type – a certain set of features of economy and culture, which historically develops in different peoples who are at close levels of socio-economic development and live in similar environmental conditions. Ecumene – the habitable part of the globe Emigrant – a person who has left for a permanent residence in another state, leaving the country of his citizenship or permanent residence. Emigration – voluntary or forced movement of persons or peoples from the countries of their permanent residence to other countries, caused by various reasons (economic, political, religious, etc.). Encampment – conventional name of non-fortified settlements of the stone and bronze age. Eneolithic age – Copper-Stone Age, another name - Chalcolithic. Epic – one of the three branches of fiction (along with the lyrics and drama), a narrative, characterized by the image of events external to the author. Epigraphy – a discipline that studies inscriptions and evolution of signs of writing on solids (stone, metal, bone, clay) objects. Era – An era is a span of time. Etiquette – a set of rules and norms of behavior governing the external manifestations of human relationships, an integral part of the external culture of the man and society. It includes the treatment of others, behavior, manners. Types of etiquette: court, diplomatic, military, business, civil. Ethnic assimilation – merging of one nation with another one that is associated with the loss by one of them of their language, culture, national identity, that results in a certain (often dramatical) transformation of the national-psychological characteristics. Ethnic community – any community that develops in a certain area among people who are among themselves in real socio-economic relations, speak a common language, preserve throughout their life a certain cultural specificity and self-awareness of a separate independent group. Ethnic contact – the process of interaction between two or more ethnic groups or different ranks of the ethnic hierarchy. Ethnic culture – traditions and customs – a set of cultural elements of structures that have ethnic specificity and perform differentiating functions.



Ethnic dispersion – the separation from the primary ethnic group of relatively small ethnic groups with the following resettlement on their non-ethnic territory; the main factor in this process is migration. Ethnic dominant – a system of political, ideological or religious values, created with the appearance of any ethnic integrity and serving as a unifying principle for it; a set of phenomena in the public consciousness of people uniting into a new ethnic system. Ethnic group – a part (fragment) of the ethnic group (tribe, people, nation), which for a number of reasons is separated from the core of the ethnic group and operates outside it, in a foreign environment, it may be in a compact and dispersed state. The same as sub-ethnos. Ethnic hierarchy – the subordination of ethnic systems, where each ethnic system of higher rank includes several ethnic systems of a lower rank. Ethnic identification – classifying oneself as a group of a certain nationality. Ethnic identity – the awareness of individuals belonging to a particular ethnic community. Ethnic minority – a part of the ethnic group separated from the main ethnic group and living in a non-ethnic environment; should be differentiated from the notion “small nations”. Ethnic morphology – a set of anatomical features and forms peculiar to a particular ethnic group. Ethnic partitioning – the division of a single ethnic group into several more or less equal parts. Ethnic self – identification as a conscious act of ethnic self-determination of a person, referring himself to a certain ethnic community. Ethnic separation – separation from any ethnic group of its part (usually relatively small), which eventually turns into an independent ethnic group. Ethnic symbolism – a complex of phenomena and elements of the material and spiritual culture of the ethnic group, which performs an ethno-distinctive function and serves as a distinctive sign indicating the ethnicity of its bearers. Ethnical adaptation – the process of active adaptation of ethnic groups (communities) to the changed natural and socio-cultural environment. Ethno- confessional community – community arising from close conjugation in an ethnos or any of its parts of an ethnic and religious trait. Ethno-cultural identity – the process of identification of the individual with the ethnic community, allowing him to learn the necessary stereotypes of behavior, requirements for the main cultural roles. Ethnodemography – an interdisciplinary scientific direction that studies the structure of the population, changes in it, settlement and migration of ethnic groups. Ethnography – a part of ethnology, descriptive level of the research, fixing cultural and social differences between nations. Ethnology – a science that studies the processes of formation and development of different ethnic groups, their identity, forms of their cultural self-organization, pat-


Historical regional studies of kazakhstan

terns of their collective behavior and interaction, the relationship of personality and social environment. Ethnonym – the name of the ethnic group, i.e. a self-name and the name given to it by other peoples. Ethnos – historically formed in a certain territory a stable set of people with common, relatively stable characteristics of culture (including language), as well as the consciousness of their unity and difference from all other similar entities (selfconsciousness), fixed in the self-name (ethnonym). – F– Farm – a single-family rural settlement Fatherland – historically caused form of social life of people of this ethnic group or ethnic groups living in a separate geographical area. Fetishism – belief in supernatural properties of certain inanimate objects. Folklore – artistic creative activity of the people, created by the people and existing in the mass poetry, music, theater, architecture, fine arts, etc. Fortress – a fortified point (city), surrounded by strong fortifications, prepared for a circular defense and a long struggle under siege. –G– Genesis – origin, emergence; the process of formation of the developing phenomenon. Geographical environment – earthly environment of human society, in one way or another mastered by man and involved in social production; complex in structural and spatial relations, the combination of natural and anthropogenic components that make up the material basis of the existence of the human society. Geopolitics – the study of the effects of geography (human and physical) on politics and international relations. Globalization – 1) the objective, natural process of dissemination of the achievements of the high cultures all over the world, primarily on the culture of “lower” for the purpose of their approach to the culture of the advanced countries; 2) the desire for the dictatorship of the US and the West over other peoples and cultures with the purpose of exploiting them, as the subordination of all national cultures of a single cosmopolitan (predominantly American) cultural standard, i.e., performs an extreme form of Westernization (globalization of “white” and “black”). –H– Historical cultural region – the territory populated by ethnic groups united due to general environmental conditions, history and close cultural ties by common features of traditional culture, similar cultural and domestic features.



Historiography – the field of historical science, it deals with the writing of history. In the broadest sense, it is the study of the history of history (as it is described by historians – the accumulation of historical knowledge, the struggle in the interpretation of historical events, change of methodological approaches in historical science, etc.). Historical homeland – 1) the place of birth of a particular person, i.e. the state in the territory of which he was born; 2) the state of the titular nation of which the person belongs by birth, regardless of place of birth; 3) the relationship of a person with the state of which he is a citizen. Hodonim – the name of the avenue, street, line, lane, boulevard, etc. Homeland – a place, a country in which a person was born, historically belonging to a particular ethnic group, the territory with its nature, population, features of the historical development of language and culture, life, customs. Housing – in various ways arranged shelter, a special building or structure for human habitation and protection from natural phenomena. It is customary to distinguish between seasonal dwellings (winter and summer): portable (yurt, tent), permanent (house, hut). Hydronym – proper names of oceans, seas, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, canals, wells. – I– ICOM – an international organization of museums and museum professionals engaged in the storage, development and interaction of the society and the world’s natural and cultural heritage, present and future, tangible and intangible heritage Identification – 1) establishment of identity of objects on the basis of certain features; 2) the process of identification of the individual with an object, person or group, based on the assimilation of their inherent properties, standards, values, social attitudes and roles; 3) Z. Freud – psychological process through which an individual assimilates an aspect, property or attribute of the other, resulting in partial or complete transformation of his personality in the image and likeness of another. Identity – a socio-psychological process, which is the awareness of one’s social group identity (the unity of all members based on any evidence) by a private individual belonging to a particular group. Immigrant – a foreigner who has arrived in any country for permanent residence. Immigration – an integral part of the migration of the population, which is characterized as the entry into the country. Isogloss – a line on the map indicating the boundaries of distribution of individual linguistic phenomena in different local versions. Insulonim – the pproper name of any island. Intellectual – 1) a person with a highly developed intellect; 2) a representative of intellectual labor; 3) a representative of the social layer of the intelligentsia;


Historical regional studies of kazakhstan

4) a representative of the intellectual elite of the society; 5) a representative of the humanitarian elite. Interior – the interior of a residential building. Interpretation – in the history and humanities: interpretation of texts aimed at understanding their semantic content; in mathematical logic, logical semantics, philosophy: the establishment of the values of formal language expressions. Irredenta – a part of an ethnic group constituting a minority of the population within a given state, but living in a close proximity to the state, where a close or identical people represent the majority. Irrigation agriculture – irrigation agriculture, agriculture in the area with insufficient seasonal rainfall, based on artificial irrigation using irrigation systems. Islam – one of the world religions. Originated in Western Arabia in the seventh century AD. The creed of Islam is outlined in the Holy Book of Muslims – the Koran. It is based on the belief in the only one God (Allah), the Creator of the heavens and the earth, by whose will all events in the surrounding world are committed, the destinies of people are formed. The founder of the creed is the prophet Muhammad. Islam is widespread mainly in the Middle East, North Africa, South-East Asia, in a number of post-Soviet Republics. Izba – 1) heated living dwelling of the peoples of Eastern Europe; 2) log dwelling in Russia. –K– Kishlak – a rural settlement in the Central Asia , originally – a wintering of semi – nomadic and nomadic population. Komonim – a name of a village. Kurgan – is usually characterized by the construction of an earth mound above the burial pit. It is usually of a hemispherical or conical shape, kurgans are met in groups and singly; height - from 30-60 cm to 20 m, diameter – from 3-4 m to 100 m, sometimes more. Kyariz – underground irrigation canal, which is intended to bring groundwater to the surface and used for irrigation and water supply. –L– Legislation – 1) the activities of the authorized bodies of the state for the publication of laws, their repeal or change; 2) the compatibility of all laws in force in the state as a whole or in individual branches of law. Limnonym – a proper name of the lake as an object of study. Linear plan of the settlement – a type of planning where buildings form a single line, usually along a road or river. Livestock – breeding of farm animals for the production of livestock products, one of the main sectors of the agricultural sector.



Local history – the study of nature, population, economy, history and culture of any part of the country, administrative or natural area, of the settlements with their immediate environment. Locality – permanently or seasonally inhabited places of residence of the population, possessing a geographical name (toponym). It can have different spatial forms (compact, dispersed, etc.), economic functions, size (population), administrative status, etc. Localization – referring something to a certain place, limiting the spread of the phenomenon, the process. Locomotion – change of location, movement. –М– Macroliths – large and coarse stone tools. Manor – an essential feature of the traditional residential complex, consisting of a diverse shape of the yard, ways to connect residential and commercial buildings. Map – a reduced generalized image of the Earth’s surface and related objects on the plane in a different map projection and a system of symbols; has a scale, metricity, high visibility. Mapping – a process of making geographical maps. Marginal area – the territory where two or more cultures” meet”, where due to this fact, features of neighboring cultures are found. Marginal group – 1) a group that is located on the border of two cultures or subcultures and has some identification with each of them; 2) a group that rejects certain values and traditions of the culture in which it arises, and asserts its own system of norms and values. Material culture – a set of embodied results of human activity, including both physical objects created by the man and natural objects used by him. Matrilineal system of kinship – based on kinship by the maternal, female line. Megaliths – constructions of blocks of stone, apparently for religious purposes. Megapolis – the largest form of the settlement, formed as a result of the coalescence of a large number of neighboring urban agglomerations. Mentality – inherent in the individual or a certain social community a set of specific thinking and feelings, value orientations and attitudes, ideas about the world and about themselves, beliefs, opinions, prejudices. The mentality forms an appropriate cultural picture of the world and largely determines the way of life, human behavior and the form of relations between people. Mesolithic period – Middle Stone Age. Metaphorical names – figurative, allegorical names used in a figurative sense to refer to the details of relief, hydrography and other geographical names. Method – 1) consciously and consistently applied method to achieve the goal; 2) method of knowledge, research of the phenomena of nature and society in order to build and justify the system of knowledge.


Historical regional studies of kazakhstan

Method of cross – cultural comparison – a method of identifying universal and specific patterns of behavior of individuals, social groups, organizations, institutions in the context of different cultures. Methodology – 1) the doctrine of the methods and means of scientific activity; the system of the most general principles, provisions and specific methods and techniques that form the basis of science; 2) methods of obtaining knowledge, its description, explanation, justification and evaluation; 3) a set of research techniques used in this science. Metrology – investigates measures of length, weight, surface and capacity that existed in different periods of history, their relationship with the modern system of measures. Microliths – small stone inserts in composite tools. Microtoponymy – a set of local geographical names (settlements, villages, settlements, swamps, meadows, etc.). Migrant – a person who crosses state borders in order to change his / her permanent place of residence. Migration – 1) in a broad sense refers to any movement of the population beyond the boundaries of a certain territory, regardless of how long and for what purpose the movement was undertaken; 2) in a narrow interpretation it is the movement associated with the change of the place (locality) of permanent residence. Mores – the customs that have moral significance. This concept characterizes all forms of human behavior that exist in a given society and can be subjected to moral evaluation. Monuments – items that mark significant events in the history and activities of outstanding personalities. Morality – one of the forms of social consciousness, a social institution that performs the function of regulating the behavior of people in all spheres of public life. Unlike simple custom or tradition, moral norms receive ideological justification in the form of ideals of good and of evil, proper behaviour, justice and so on. Morality is studied by a special philosophical discipline – ethics. Myth – a legend that conveys the idea of the ancient peoples of the origin of the world, the phenomena of nature, the gods and the legendary heroes; all peoples at the early stages of development composed myths to explain the phenomena of nature. Mythology – a set of myths, legends, stories about the gods, heroes, demons, etc., reflecting the fantastic ideas of people about the world, nature, human existence in pre-class and early class societies. Mythology was the dominant form of worldview in the tribal community. –N– Nation – a historical type of ethnic group, which is a socio-economic integrity, which is formed and reproduced on the basis of common territory, some features of culture, psychological features and ethnic identity.



Nationality – a term derived from the word “nation”, which is used in two meanings: 1) to denote a person’s belonging to a certain ethnic community (for example, in population censuses); 2) to denote a set of different forms of socio-ethnic communities – nations, nationalities, ethnic groups, excluding a tribe. Natural conditions – a set of geographical features of the territory, natural resources and other components of geographical environment. Natural environment – a natural component of the habitat and production activities of a humankind – part of the environment. It includes the whole set of objects of living and inanimate nature surrounding a person, both not affected by human activity, and in varying degrees affected by anthropogenic factors. Neolithic – New Stone Age. Neolocality – marital settlement of spouses living separately from the relatives of the husband or wife. Network of settlements – the totality of all settlements located in any territory inhabited by people; it is characterized primarily by the population of settlements, the density of settlements, as well as by a certain pattern of settlement. Nomadism – systematic or temporary movement of certain groups of the population; type of spatial mobility of the population, due to the nature of production and lifestyle. Numismatics – a discipline that studies coin production, the history of monetary systems and monetary circulation. –O– Object – 1) a thing, phenomenon, process or their individual parties that exist in reality; 2) a thing, phenomenon, process, onto which any activity, thought, feeling, etc., is directed; 3) something that is opposed to the subject in its subject-practical and cognitive activity. Oikonym – a type of a toponym, names of settlements (village, settlement, city). Onomastics – a branch of linguistics that studies proper names, the history of their origin and transformation. Ontology – the doctrine of being, of its forms and fundamental principles, of the most common definitions and categories of being. Open sheet – permission for the right of archaeological excavations or exploration, issued by special authorized state bodies. Oronims – names of mountains, peaks, heights, ridges, hills, mountain passes, plains, forests, tracts, and other orographic features. Ostrog – permanent or temporary settlement, designed to accommodate military teams. Outbuildings – independent structures required for the conduct of the peasant economy. They are used for livestock accommodation, storage and threshing of grain.


Historical regional studies of kazakhstan –P–

Paleography – explores the outward signs of the manuscript sources and related graphics, letters, material, artistic ornaments. Paleolithic – Old Stone Age. Parchment – leather material for writing. Patriarchy – a man’s supremacy in family and society, the same as a father’s right. Patrilocality – marital settlement of spouses in the group of her husband. Patronimia – a group of families calling themselves by the name of common patrilineal ancestor. Pelagonia – proper name of any sea as an object of study. Pendulum migration – regular movement of people between two or more settlements without changing their place of residence, connected with work, study or rest. Periphery – areas remote from the center, the outskirts. Personality – 1) an individual as an individual, as a subject of relations and conscious activity, in the process of which he creates, reproduces and changes social reality; 2) relatively stable significant and unique personal traits that characterize the individual, who has been formed in the process of socialization and is a product of individual experience and social interaction; 3) an individual with outstanding qualities that has an impact on the masses and the course of history; 4) an individual who is in the center of attention of the society due to the occupied social position and performance of a social or professional role. Petroglyph – slightly in-depth image carved on the rock. Pit – a house or building, partially recessed into the ground. Place-name elements – geographical common nouns. Population – 1) the totality of people living in a certain territory in a given period of time; 2) a large group of people continuously renewable in the process of reproduction of the population of people living on Earth as a whole or any part of it (country, group of countries); 3) the totality of people living within the state and subject to its jurisdiction. The population consists of citizens of the country, foreigners living in it for a long time, stateless persons and persons with dual or more citizenship (bipatrides). Population census – an integral part of the national statistical system of the country; the main source of data on population, language proficiency, housing conditions, satisfying the information needs of users of statistical data at the regional, national and international level on demographic, social and economic issues. Population of settlements – the size of the settlement, expressed in terms of the number of its inhabitants. Potamonym – a proper name of any river as an object of study. Potestary organization – a term adopted in the national ethnology to refer to the organization of power in a pre-state, pre-political society.



Poverty – a characteristic of the economic situation of an individual or a group in which they cannot pay for the necessary goods themselves. Poverty is a relative notion and depends on the general standard of living, the standard of living in a given society, the distribution of wealth in the society, the status system and the system of social expectations. Primary toponym – the original, the most ancient geographical name, from which later names of the geographical objects were derived. –R– Rabat – a part of the city, which was a craft and shopping center. Radial layout of the settlement – a type of planning where the streets converge as radii to the center of the settlement. In combination with the circular principle of the location of buildings forms a type of radial-ring layout. Reimmigration – the reverse outflow from the country of persons who arrived in the country as a result of immigration. Region – a large individual territorial unit (natural, economic, political, etc.). Religion – a form of worldview, as well as appropriate behavior and specific actions (cult) based on the belief in the existence of God or gods, as well as in supernatural forces. The earliest forms of religion are animism, totemism, fetishism, and magic. Historical forms of religion development: tribal, national – state (ethnic), world religions. Religious buildings – buildings, specially built for worship and various religious rites, there are many different architectural and compositional techniques in accordance with religious cults, for the performance of which these special facilities are designed. Repatriate – to return to the country of citizenship, permanent residence or origin from the territory of other states. Research – a kind of systematic cognitive activity aimed at obtaining new knowledge, information, etc., to study certain problems on the basis of special standardized methods (experiment, observation), etc. Ring layout of the settlement – a type of planning, where the buildings are arranged in a circle. Ritual – traditional actions that accompany the important moments of life and production activities of the human collective. The rituals are associated with birth, marriage, death, and agricultural works. Rural community – the term used to denote the neighborhood communities among the nomadic and semi-nomadic pastoralists. Rural population – residents of the entire population of rural settlements of the country, region, district; permanent population of rural areas. Rural settlement – agricultural settlements, where the majority of the residents are employed in the agricultural sector, a settlement that does not meet the criteria of urban settlements.Rural settlement is a form of territorial organization of life of the


Historical regional studies of kazakhstan

population in non-urban areas in the form of a set of rural settlements of various types intended for permanent or temporary residence. –S– Sacred – belonging to a religious cult or ritual. Science – the sphere of human activity aimed at the production of new knowledge about the nature, society and thinking that includes all the conditions and moments of this production: scientists with their knowledge and abilities, qualifications and experience, with the division and cooperation of scientific work, scientific institutions, experimental and laboratory equipment, methods of research, conceptual and categorical apparatus, the system of scientific information, as well as the entire amount of scientific knowledge acting as a prerequisite or means or result of scientific production. Self – identification – an individual-psychological and socio-psychological process of awareness by a person or a social group of their properties, qualities, position in the system of social relations of interests, ideals and values. Semiotics – a science engaged in the comparative study of sign systems from the simplest signaling systems to natural and formalized languages of science; analyzes the functions of sign systems (message transmission or expression of meaning, as well as communication. Semiotics considers culture from the point of view of its functioning as a sign system. There are three main sections of semiotics: 1) syntactics, or the study of the internal structure of sign systems regardless of their functions; 2) semantics, studying sign systems as a means of expressing meaning; 3) pragmatics, studying the relations of sign systems with those who use them. Settlement – the remains of an ancient fortification, settlement of the Neolithic, Iron Age. Usually it is a triangular, round or rectangular Area protected by natural obstacles (rivers, ravines). Shahristan – a fortified part of the city, the concentration of wealthy individuals, “court”. Shamanism – the belief in the ability of certain people to communicate with spirits in an ecstatic state. Shoshala (toshala) – a primitive construction, round, with a conical roof made of reeds, turf, wood, clay or brick. A roof of turf or earth rests on 3-4 posts inside the house. Speleonim – proper name of the caves. Sloboda – a suburban settlement or village where farmers, artisans, traders, servants, etc. lived. Society – 1) the established in the process of historical development relatively stable system of social relations and relations between people on the basis of joint activities aimed at the reproduction of material conditions of existence and satisfaction of needs. Society is supported by the force of customs, traditions, laws, etc.; 2) the community (Gemeinschaft), the type of organization of social life with a mechanical



connection of the parts that make up The social whole; it is characterized by opposing aspirations of its participants, rational exchange, calculation, consciousness of usefulness and value; 3) in ethnology (cultural anthropology) – a group of individuals with a special culture (system of values, tradition) and existing independently of other groups, i.e. not being their subgroup. Sources – all objects that directly reflect the historical process and give the opportunity to study the past of human society, i.e. everything created by man, as well as the results of his interaction with the environment. Sovereignty – the autonomy and independence of any nation (state-nation) in the implementation of power belonging to it (status, functions, powers, or capabilities). Sphragistics – the discipline that studies seals, stamps. Spiritual culture – 1) includes both the totality of the results of spiritual activity and spiritual activity itself; 2) includes everything that does not have a direct embodiment (language, ideology, knowledge, values, customs, morality, etc.). State – a special subject of the political system, characterized by constitutional values, universality, territoriality, legality, legal personality, publicity Stateless persons – persons without citizenship. Stratigraphy – fixation of alternation of layers of the earth’s surface. Street planning of settlements – a type of planning where buildings form streets. Suburb – a settlement located near the territory of the city and gravitating to it in economic, cultural, domestic, labor and other relations. Symbol – a universal category in culture, revealed through the comparison of the subject image and deep meaning. 1) object, action, etc., serving as a symbol of any image, concept, idea; 2) artistic image, embodying any idea; 3) conditional identification mark for members of a particular social group. –Т– Tent – 1) covered wagon; 2) the same as the yurt. Terrain – part of the earth’s surface with all its natural components, as well as ways of communication, settlements, industrial, agricultural and socio-cultural objects. Territory – part of the surface of the earth’s land with its inherent natural and created as a result of human activity properties and resources. Titular ethnic group – a term introduced into the scientific ethno-political turnover as the equivalent of the term indigenous ethnic group, this term emphacized only one ethnicity, an ethnonym, which is reflected in the name of the state, i.e. the ethnic group that gave the name to the state. Tomb – the architectural structure, or sarcophagus, containing the body of the dead and perpetuating his memory. These are the ancient Egyptian pyramids, rock


Historical regional studies of kazakhstan

tombs of the Mediterranean and Asian countries of antiquity, the Middle Ages and the later mausoleums Toponym – the name of the area, which is often transferred to its population regardless of ethnicity. Toponymic spectrum – geographical names of a certain territory, related in origin to different languages. Toponymy is a section of onomastics that studies geographical names, including their origin, meaning, change of spelling, etc. Totem – any kind of animals, more seldom – plants, even more seldom – other objects or phenomena of nature, considered as a direct relative, later – ancestor. In the further development the totem becomes only an emblem of the ethnic unit. Totemism – belief in the existence of a close connection with the totem. Tracing – a translated copy of the name, changing the form of the name, but not its content and preserving its etymology. Tradition – elements of cultural heritage, passed down from generation to generation and preserved in a certain society for a long time. Transformation – partially or fully preserved the ability of self-development. Tribe – one of the most ancient forms of ethnic community, consisting of clans. Types of settlements – village, aul, town, fortress, posad, a suburb, sloboda. Typology of settlements – groups of settlements singled out on the basis of one or several essential features. –U– Uniqueness – a state or condition wherein someone or something is unlike anything else in comparison. Unpaved roads – the ways of communication suitable for movement of wheeled transport, not having a solid road surface. Urban population – the population living in urban settlements. Urban settlements – settlements that have a particular size and perform a specific, predominantly non-agricultural function. Urbanization – the process of concentration of population and economic life in large cities; the spread of features and characteristics peculiar to the city, the industrial center. UNESCO – a specialized Agency of the United Nations, educational, scientific and cultural Organization, whose main objective is to promote peace and security by enhancing cooperation among the states and peoples in the fields of education, science and culture; to ensure justice and respect for the rule of law and universal respect for the human rights and fundamental freedoms proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations for all peoples, without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion.


Glossary –V–

Villages – rural settlements on the territory of the former Cossack settlements. Virilocality – in social anthropology, patrilocal residence or patrilocality, also known as virilocal residence or virilocality, are terms referring to the social system in which a married couple resides with or near the husband’s parents. Volost – administrative-territorial unit of the lowest level in the Russian Empire. –W– Welfare – the provision of the population with the necessary material and spiritual benefits; it is expressed by a system of indicators characterizing the standard of living. Worldview is a system of generalized views on the objective world and man’s place in it, people’s attitude to the surrounding reality and themselves, as well as their beliefs, ideals, principles of cognition and activity. –Y– Yurt – a portable dwelling made of felt, mainly round in plan with a domeshaped roof. –Z– Zaimka – a small, usually single-family settlement with a land plot on newly developed lands; temporary settlement in the forest.


Historical regional studies of kazakhstan

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6. 7.

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Historical regional studies of kazakhstan APPENDICES APPENDIX І. Scientists and well-known figures

Herodotus (484-425 BC)

Pausanias (2th century BC)

Strabo (64 BC –24 AD)

Pliny the Elder (22–79)

Sima Qian (145 BC –86)

Kul Tigin (684–731)




Abu Nasr Muhammad al-Farabi (872-951)

Yusuf Khass Hajib Balasaguni (9th сentury)

Abu’l Qasim Firdousi (932/941–1020/1026)

Abu Rayhan Muhammad Al-Biruni (973-1048)

Ahmad Ibn Fadlan (10th century)

Mahmud al-Kashgari (1029-1101)


Historical regional studies of kazakhstan

Omar ibn Ibrahim al-Khayyam (1048-1131)

Khoja Ahmad Yasawi (1103-1166)

Ye-lii Chu-cai (1189–1243)

John of Pian de Carpine (1200-1252)

William of Rubruck (1215-1270)

Rashid al-Din (1247-1318)



Ibn Battuta (14th century)

Abu Zayd ibn Khaldun (1332-1406)

Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo (?–1412)

Muhammad Taraghay Ulugh beg (1394-1449)

Ambrogio Contarini (1429-1499)

Zahiriddin Babur (1483-1530)


Historical regional studies of kazakhstan

Alisher Navoi (1441-1501)

Sigmund Herberstein (1486-1566)

Muhammad Haydar Dughlat (1499-1551)

Anthony Jenkinson (1529-1610)

Kadirgali Zhalairi (1530-1605)

Adam Olearius (1599-1671)



Savva Yesipov (17th century)

Fyodor Baykov (1612-1664)

N.G. Milescu-Spafari (1636-1708)

Semyon Remezov (1642-1720 )

Philippe Avril (1654-1698)

Ivan Likharev (? – 1722)


Historical regional studies of kazakhstan

Prince Alexander BekovichCherkassky (? – 1717)

Ivan Buchholz (1671-1741)

Johann-Georg Gmelin (1709-1766)

Peter Rychkov (1712-1777)

Johann Peter Falk (1727-1774)

Johann Gottlieb Georgi (1729-1802)



P.S. Pallas (1741-1811)

Nikolai Rychkov (1746-1784)

Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859)

Nikita Bichurin (1777-1853)

Grigory Spassky (1783-1864)

Semen Bronevsky (1786-1858)


Historical regional studies of kazakhstan

Yakov Gaverdovsky (19th century)

Georg Meyendorff (1794-1863)

Edward Eversman (1794-1860)

Alexey Levshin (1799-1879)

Ivan Blaramberg (1800-1878)

Grigorij Karelin (1801-1872)



Vladimir Dal (1801-1872)

Alexei Butakov (1816-1869)

Alexander Shrenk (1816-1876)

Vasily Grigoriev (1816-1881)

Pavel Nebolsin (1817-1893)

Ippolit Zavalishin (19th century)


Historical regional studies of kazakhstan

Musa Shormanov (1818-1883)

Konstantin Kaufman (1818-1882)

Nikolai Ilminsky (1822-1892)

Peter Semenov Tyan-Shansky (1827-1885)

Vladimir Velyaminov-Zernov (1830-1904)

Peter Makovetsky (19th century)



Herman (Arminius) Vambery (1832-1913)

Muhammad-Salyk Babazhanov (1834-1871)

Alexander Gaines (1834-1892)

Yakov Polferov (1834-1914)

Chokan Valikhanov (1835-1865)

Grigory Potanin (1835-1920)


Historical regional studies of kazakhstan

Vasily Radlov (1837-1918)

Leo Kostenko (1841-1891)

Ybyray Altynsarin (1841-1889)

Vasily Vereshchagin (1842-1904)

Nikolai Yadrintsev (1842-1894)

Nikolay Karazin (1842-1908)



Nikolai Grodekov (1843-1913)

Abai Kunanbayev (1845-1904)

Alexey Kuropatkin (1848-1925)

Fedor Shcherbina (1849-1936)

Fedor Poyarkov (1851-1910)

Axel Olai Heikel (1851-1924)


Historical regional studies of kazakhstan

Ivan Kraft (1861-1914)

Alexander Alektorov (1861-1919)

Nikolay Konshin (1864-1937)

Sergey Rybakov (1867-1921)

Vasily Barthold (1869-1930)

Alexander Sedelnikov (1876-1919)



Sergey Malov (1880-1957)

Dyula Nemeth (1890-1976)

Boris Kuftin (1892-1953)

Kanysh Satpaev (1899-1964)

Alkey Margulan (1904-1985)

Malbagar Mendykulov (1909-1986)


Historical regional studies of kazakhstan APPENDIX ІІ Maps featuring Kazakhstan

The map of Ptolemy (2th century BC)

Map of A. Vidt (1555)

Map of Jenkinson (1562)




Map of the Caspian sea of Bekovich-Cherkassky (1715)


Historical regional studies of kazakhstan

Map of the Aral sea, Y. Khanykov (1851)



Map of Orenburg province (1771)


Historical regional studies of kazakhstan

Map of the North-Western part of the Central Asia of Y. Khanykov (1851 )


Appendices APPENDIX ІІІ The sights of pre-revolutionary Kazakhstan

Sauran. Fortress walls. South Kazakhstan. 14th – 16th centuries

Syganak. Remains of necropolis and khanaki. South Kazakhstan. 14th – 15th centuries



Historical regional studies of kazakhstan

Fort № 1 (Kazaly). 19th century. Artist N.N. Karazin

Zhulek fortress. South Kazakhstan. 19th century. Artist N.N. Karazin

On the way to Aulie-Ata. South Kazakhstan. 19th century



Kostanai. North Kazakhstan. Late XIX – early XX century

Mosque in Naryn Sands. Khan’s Horde in Bukei Khanate. Western Kazakhstan. Artist Cheredeev

Khan’s Horde and House in Bukei Khanate (1889). Western Kazakhstan


Historical regional studies of kazakhstan APPENDIX IV Coats of arms of cities of Kazakhstan

















Historical regional studies of kazakhstan








Appendices APPENDIX V Local history and other museums of cities and regions of the Republic of Kazakhstan









Historical regional studies of kazakhstan













National Museum, Astana

Central State Museum of Kazakhstan, Almaty


Historical regional studies of kazakhstan

CONTENT PREFACE.......................................................................................................3 Chapter I SUBJECT, OBJECTIVES, BASIC PRINCIPLES, RESEARCH METHODS AND SOURCES OF HISTORICAL OF LOCAL STUDY......................................................6 1.1. Object, subject, objectives, goals and basic principles of historical regional study..............................................................6 1.2. Differentiation of regional study by forms of organization ......................................................................................9 1.3. Main methods of historical regional study..............................................11 1.4. Methods of micro-historical analysis is a new scientific method in the historical regional study...........................................14 Chapter II TYPES OF SOURCES ON HISTORICAL REGIONAL STUDY....................................................................................24 2.1. The role of written sources, oral folk art and other types of sources in historical regional study..................................24 2.2. Sources for historical regional study of medieval and late medieval Kazakhstan........................................................................30 2.3. Archaeological sources in historical regional study ...............................35 2.4. Ethnographic sources and their use in the process of studying the history of the native land.......................................................38 2.5. Demographic sources in historical regional study .................................43 2.6. Toponymy – a source of study of the history of the native land ....................................................................47 Chapter ІІІ REGIONAL STUDIES OF KAZAKHSTAN.....................................................................................55 3.1. Historical regional study data from the 16th-17th centuries ............................................................................55 3.2. Development of historical regional studies of the 18th – the second half of the 19th centuries...........................................56




3.3. Development of historical regional studies in the late 19th – early 20th centuries...............................................................59 3.4. Historical regional study of Kazakhstan in the 1920s of the 20th century......................................................................61 3.5. The role of scientific institutions of the 1930-1980 in the development of regional study of Kazakhstan.........................................................................63 3.6. Historical regional study in independent Kazakhstan............................................................................64 Chapter IV THE ROLE OF MUSEUMS, ARCHIVES, ASSOCIATIONS FOR PROTECTION OF MONUMENTS OF HISTORY AND CULTURE IN THE HISTORICAL REGIONAL STUDY OF KAZAKHSTAN.......................................................................75 4.1. The role of museums in regional studies ................................................75 4.2. The connection of archive science with the historical regional study and other scientific disciplines..........................81 4.3. Interrelations of the institutions involved in regional studies аnd the associations for protection of monuments of the Republic of Kazakhstan ..............................................85 GLOSSARY...................................................................................................93 LIST OF REFERENCES ............................................................................112 APPENDICES.............................................................................................140 APPENDIX I. Scientists and well-known figures.......................................140 APPENDIX ІІ. Maps featuring Kazakhstan................................................155 APPENDIX ІІІ. The sights of pre-revolutionary Kazakhstan ....................160 APPENDIX IV. Coats of arms of cities of Kazakhstan...............................163 APPENDIX V. Local history and other museums of cities and regions of the Republic of Kazakhstan....................................166


Historical regional studies of kazakhstan

Еducational issue

Amanzhol Boranbayuly Kalysh Аliya Isaevna Isayeva

HISTORICAL REGIONAL STUDIES OF KAZAKHSTAN Textbook Editor V. Popova Typing by: M.-A. Boranbay

Typesetting and cover design U. Moldasheva IB No. 12672

Signed for publishing 04.04.2019. Format 60x84 1/16. Offset paper. Digital printing. Volume 10,75 printer’s sheet. 80 copies. Order No. 1682. Publishing house «Qazaq University» Al-Farabi Kazakh National University KazNU, 71 Al-Farabi, 050040, Almaty Printed in the printing office of the «Qazaq University» publishing house.