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REC'O DEC 211977
African American Center
San Francisco Public Library hic-rpRY DEPARTMENT
REFERENCE BOOK Not to be taken from the Library
AFRICAN HISTORICAL DICTIONARIES
Edited by Jon Woronoff 1. Cameroon, by Victor T. LeVine and Roger P. Nye. 1974 2. The Congo (Brazzaville), by Virginia Thompson and Richard Adloff. 1974 3. Swaziland, by John J. Grotpeter. 1975 4. The Gambia, by Harry A. Gailey. 1975 5. Botswana, by Richard P. Stevens. 1975 6. Somalia, by Margaret F. Castagno. 1975 7. Dahomey, by Samuel Decalo. 1975 8. Burundi, by Warren Weinstein. 1976 9. Togo, by Samuel Decalo. 1976 10. Lesotho, by Gordon Haliburton. 1977 11. Mali, by Pascal James Imperato. 1977 12. Sierra Leone, by Cyril Patrick Foray. 1977 13. Chad, by Samuel Decalo. 1977
Historical Dictionary *
African Historical Dictionaries, No. 10
The Scarecrow Press, Inc. Metuchen, N.J.
S. F. PUBLIC LIBRARY
3//3 ?A, 77
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Haliburton, Gordon MacKay. Historical dictionary of Lesotho. (African historical dictionaries ; no. 10) Bibliography: p. 1. Lesotho--History--Dictionaries. I. Title. II. Series. DT787. H34 968'. 6'003 76-49550 ISBN 0-8108-0993-1
Copyright © 1977 by Gordon Haliburton Manufactured in the United States of America
Terminology / Orthography
Abbreviations / Acronyms
Basutoland (Lesotho) Since 1868
Chief Clans and Peoples
The Warden & Napier Lines and Territories Taken from Lesotho
xviii xix xx
Monaheng (Kali) and Descendants
Moshoeshoe I and Descendants
xxi xxii xxiii
General Cultural Economic Historical Political Scientific Social
187 190 195 200 207 213 215
With the publication of a historical dictionary on Lesotho, this series has completed a very interesting sub¬ unit: the former High Commission Territories. Like Swazi¬ land and Botswana, Lesotho has often appeared almost as an afterthought in books on South or southern Africa. In this volume, it is studied as a country in its own right, with a long history, significant role and considerable potential. This is particularly important since Lesotho is one of Africa's few nation states rather than a conglomerate of dif¬ ferent ethnic groups. The land of the Basotho has been shorn of territories it dominated in bygone days, and many Basotho live in South Africa. In this way, its frontiers may also be artificial, but its national essence is very real. This book therefore sheds light on the life of the Basotho in pre-colonial times as well as the relations that developed with the intruders--both friend and foe. Since it is completely surrounded by South Africa, much of the story is one of a struggle for survival as a sep¬ arate entity. In such an unenviable position, Lesotho has had to cope with the situation in very different ways from other African states. Although no longer violent or readily visible, the struggle has continued to the present day and is admirably described here in a study of policies permitting the nation to bend without breaking, although the internal tension has occasionally been as intense as the outside danger. It is not surprising to find such detail and insight in a book written by Professor Gordon Haliburton. After all, he has lived a^d taught in this country for over a decade, and has been head of the Department of History at the University of Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland (now the National Univer¬ sity of Lesotho) since 1968.
Jon Woronoff Series Editor
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .r This dictionary could not have been compiled without the help of David Ambrose, Albert Brutsch, Mosebi Damane, Marcel Ferragne, Godfrey Kolisang, J. M. ”Mak" Mohapeloa, Shelagh Willet, and my students, H. T. Mothibe and H. S. P. Phoofolo. To all of them I express my sincere thanks. Most of all I owe thanks to my wife, who so carefully typed the final draft, and did extra research and editing on the select bibliography. Without her hard and patient work, extending over many months, it would never have been fin¬ ished, and so I pay her a very special tribute of gratitude. I am, myself, ultimately accountable for errors of fact, emphasis or omission in this book. It is my hope that regardless of its defects it may provide a basis for a more extensive and perfected work of reference which at some fu¬ ture date may be assembled by the History Department of the National University of Lesotho.
TERMINOLOGY / ORTHOGRAPHY
In introducing this volume a few explanations on the terminology used and the accepted orthography for writing Sesotho is advisable. The Basotho are commonly referred to by anthropologists and linguists as ’’the southern Sotho. ” This term has, of course, no political significance and in¬ cludes many people living in adjacent regions of South Africa. Related language-groups are the northern Sotho (baPedi) and western Sotho (baTswana). As much as possible I have followed the orthography accepted in Lesotho (i. e. Basotho rather than Sutu or Basuto or baSotho). Some simple clues to pronunciation are: when o appears before another vowel (e.g. , Batlokoa) it is normal¬ ly pronounced as "w. " Ph represents an aspirated p; th, an aspirated _t. When 1 appears directly before j_ it is sounded as a d. It may be that this orthography will be changed in the next few years. The scholar has a problem in rendering certain names. Parents are often addressed as ’’father" or "mother" of one of their children and sometimes these become their official names. Thus Chief Ramaneella is Ra-Maneella, "father of Maneella," while ’Mamohato is Ma-Mohato, "mother of Mohato. ” I have been inconsistent in my rendering of certain names of this type, despite the fact that in Lesotho today they are all written as one word. Recent books on the Basotho compromise by capitalizing the first letter of the child's name (’’ ’MaMohato”), and I have followed this practice when it seems that the mother is noteworthy because she is the moth¬ er of this particular child, or because customary usage sug¬ gests it. In the case of more modern women, such as the late regent chieftainess or the present queen, whose names are always rendered as single words, I have adhered to the modern usage. It should be noted that Lesotho has always been the name by which the Basotho know their country, and the only viii
novelty in its official adoption at independence was for foreign¬ ers. To the British it was always Basutoland and this was the official name during the years of British suzerainty. The terms Basutoland and Lesotho really have the same meaning; in this book "Basutoland” is commonly employed when refer¬ ring to the country in the^period 1868-1966, particularly when used in an official sense.
ABBREVIATIONS / ACRONYMS
A. A. P. C. A. M. E. B. A. C. BA NT A B. C. P„ B. F. P. B. M. P. B„ N0 P0 C. M. R. C. R. S. D. R. C. F. A. M. P. L.E. C. LECUSA L. M. P. L, M. S. L. N. D. C. LoT. L M. F. P. N. R. C. N. U. L. O. F. S. O. M. I. P. C. P.E.M. S. P. M. U.
Ro Co S.A.N. L. C. S. P. G. Sodepax
T. Y. U. B. B. S. U. B. L. S.
African Auxiliary Pioneer Corps African Methodist Episcopal Church Basutoland African Congress Basutoland African National Teachers' Associa¬ tion Basutoland Congress Party Basutoland Freedom Party Basutoland Mounted Police Basutoland (Basotho) National Party Cape Mounted Rifles Catholic Relief Services Dutch Reformed Church Fronter Armed and Mounted Police (of the Cape Colony) Lesotho Evangelical Church Lesotho Credit Union Scheme for Agriculture Lesotho Mounted Police London Missionary Society Lesotho National Development Corporation Lerotholi Technical Institute Marematlou Freedom Party Native Recruiting Corporation National University of Lesotho Orange Free State Oblates of Mary Immaculate Paramount Chief Paris Evangelical Missionary Society Police Mobile Unit (of the L. M. P.) Roman Catholic Church South African Native Labor Corps Society for the Propagation of the Gospel The Society, Development and Peace Commis¬ sion of the Lesotho Christian Council of Churches Teyateyaneng (headquarters of Berea District) University of Basutoland, Bechuanaland Pro¬ tectorate and Swaziland University of Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland xi
CHRONOLOGY of the History of Lesotho and Southern Africa
Vasco da Gama sighted the Cape of Good Hope.
Jan van Riebeeck founded Cape Town and the Dutch occupation of the Cape began.
Moshoeshoe, eldest son of the Great House of Mokhachane, was born at 'Mate Menkhoaneng.
The British occupied the Cape for the first time.
Moshoeshoe was circumcised and changed his old name, Lepoqo, for Letlama, "the Binder."
January. The beginning of the Second (and perma¬ nent) British Occupation of the Cape. Moshoeshoe met with Mohlomi and received good ad¬ vice from him.
Following a successful cattle raid against RaMonaheng, Moshoeshoe assumed the name by which he is henceforth known.
Moshoeshoe married 'Mamabela, daughter of a Bafokeng chief Seepheephe.
Moshoeshoe's first son, Mohato (Letsie) was born.
Death of Mohlomi.
April. The beginning of the Lifaqane; Moshoeshoe became accepted as clan leader of the Mokoteli.
June. Moshoeshoe took advantage of a defeat of the Batlokoa by the Ndebele to withdraw to a new fortress, Thaba-Bosiu, in the south. On the march his grand¬ father, Peete, was captured and eaten by cannibals.
Nehemiah Sekhonyana, son of Moshoeshoe, was born at Thaba-Bosiu, the first birth there.
The chief of the Baphuthi, Moorosi, pledged allegiance xii
to Moshoeshoe. During the winter they went on a cattle raid against the amaTembu, and brought back many animals together. 1829
The names Basotho and Lesotho began to be used.
The PEMS missionaries arrived and established Morija. The Wesleyan missionaries and Barolong arrived at Thaba 'Nchu and were permitted to set¬ tle there.
August. A raid on the Kora led by Letsie, Molapo, and others virtually extinguished this serious danger to the Basotho.
The Bataung of Moletsane accepted Moshoeshoe as their overlord.
The Napier Treaty.
Arbousset led a party of Moshoeshoe’s sons and others to Cape Town.
June. Moshoeshoe had a meeting with Governor Maitland. Major Warden was appointed British resi¬ dent in Trans-Orangia.
Warden visited Moshoeshoe at Thaba-Bosiu. Moshoeshoe met Sir Harry Smith at Win-
February. The Orange River Sovereignty proclaimed by Sir Harry Smith. 1852
October. The Batlokoa attacked, defeated and dis¬ persed by Moshoeshoe.
February. The British abandoned the Orange River Sovereignty, and the Orange Free State was founded.
General Cathcart’s invasion and retreat.
First Treaty of Aliwal North.
August. Moshoeshoe met Queen Victoria's son, Prince Alfred, at Aliwal North and asked to be re¬ garded as an ally of the Queen.
May. Nehemiah Moshoeshoe was expelled from Matatiele by Adam Kok. June. war)
The OFS declared war on Moshoeshoe (Seqiti
August. The OFS forces besieged and assaulted Thaba-Bosiu. 1866
January. Winburg. off.
The Basotho invaded the OFS as far as Molapo attacked Bethlehem but was driven
March 25. Molapo agreed to Treaty of Mpharane, whereby he with all his subjects became vassals of the OFS. April 3. Peace of Corn (Mabele) or Thaba-Bosiu, whereby Moshoeshoe brought an end to the war. 1867
May 22. Paulus Mopeli became OFS vassal and was given Witsie's Hoek. July 16.
War broke out again.
The first diamond was discovered at Kim¬
March 12. Britain.
Lesotho officially annexed by Great
February 22. Sir Philip Wodehouse convened a great pit so at KoroKoro. March 11. A meeting between Wodehouse and Presi¬ dent Brand at Aliwal North led to restoration of some of the "conquered territory" to the Basotho. Maseru was founded as administrative capital by Commandant J. H. Bowker, who moved there from KoroKoro.
May. J. H. Bowker was formally installed as "governor’s agent." June.
Moorosi was accepted as the Queen's subject.
July. The first postcart (mail wagon) began a regular service between Maseru and Aliwal North. August.
The first taxes were collected in Lesotho.
December 10. Leribe.
Chief Langalibalele was arrested at
Doda escaped from prison.
February 23. Magistrate John Austen and his staff fled to Palmfontein. March-November. his death.
War against Moorosi, ending with
October 16. Prime Minister Sprigg called great pitso at which he announced disarmament policy. 1880
January. Paramount Chief Letsie I petitioned Cape Parliament against application of disarmament policy. Received unfavorable reply in March. June 21.
The last day for giving up guns.
September 13. .» The Gun War began with the arrival of Colonel Carrington with his CMR contingent. November 8. Hlotse Heights was attacked by Joel. Second attack on November 14. 1881
Third attack on Hlotse.
January 28. John Austen was killed by the Batlokoa of Lelingoana. April 17. Chief Lerotholi held peace talks with Colonel C. D. Griffith. 1883
March 16. J. M. Orpen was replaced by Captain Blyth as governor's agent.
March 18. The Peace Pitso was held at Maseru; Lesotho was disannexed from the Cape; and Colonel Marshall Clarke took office as resident commissioner.
June 23. At a pitso in Maseru, Masopha was fined 1000 cattle for his clashes with Chief Peete over fields and boundaries.
October 22. A pitso was held at Thaba-Bosiu at which the resident commissioner announced that Lerotholi would henceforth act as his father’s deputy. On November 20 Letsie died.
February 5. A pitso was held at Matsieng to settle the dispute between Lerotholi and Maama over the inheritance of cattle and possession of Koro-Koro.
February 23. Chiefs Lerotholi, Jonathan, Tekho, Ne*. miah and Mojelo visited Cape Town at the invi¬ tation of Governor Sir Harry Loch. September 18. Sir Marshall Clarke departed and Mr. G. Y. Lagden became resident commissioner.
November 12. Rinderpest, a serious cattle disease, was discovered to have broken out in Lesotho.
January 6. Battle raged between Masopha and Lero¬ tholi at Qiloane because of Masopha's refusal to give two of his sons up to justice.
April 6. Sir Alfred Milner, governor and high com¬ missioner visited Lesotho. 1899
The Anglo-Boer War broke out.
May 31. Peace was signed at Pretoria between the British and Boers.
July 8. The first meeting of the National Council was held under the chairmanship of the resident com¬ missioner.
August 19. 69th year.
The first census was taken in Lesotho. Paramount Chief Lerotholi died in his
September 19. Chief.
Letsie II was installed as Paramount
September 25. The first train entered Lesotho (on the branch line to Maseru). 1906
January 25. The National Industrial School (Lerotholi Institute) was opened at Maseru.
January 1. High Commissioner Lord Selborne came to Maseru to open the National Council. A pitso was held at which discussion concerned the possibility of Lesotho entering the proposed Union of South Africa. January 16. Chief Seeiso and other chiefs departed from Maseru for England, ordered by Letsie H to put before the British government the request that Lesotho should not become part of the Union of South Africa. February 18. The chiefs were received at Bucking¬ ham Palace by Edward VII. April 18. Pitso at Maseru where Edward VU's favorable reply was read out.
Formation of the Union of South Africa.
January 8. Black representatives from southern Africa met at Bloemfontein to form Native National Congress. Letsie II sent Chief Maama, Philip Molise and Josias Mopeli as his representatives.
January 28. Death of Paramount Chief Letsie II at the age of 45 after ruling for eight years. April 11. Chief Griffith installed as paramount chief by High Commissioner Lord Gladstone.
August. The beginning of general war (World War I) in Europe.
October 4. Outbreak of "Spanish Influenza"; deaths of chiefs Leshoboro Majara and Josefa Molapo.
March 12. First observance of "Moshoeshoe’s Day" as a national ai}d patriotic holiday.
May 18. Visit of High Commissioner Prince Arthur of Connaught, with great pit so at Maseru.
September 9. Leribe.
Sinking of the troopship "Mendi. "
Death of Chief Jonathan Molapo at
Death of Paramount Chief Griffith.
Outbreak of World War n in Europe.
Death of Paramount Chief Seeiso.
Founding of the National Treasury.
March. Visit of King George VI and his family to Lesotho. Great pitso at Maseru.
Founding of Basutoland African Congress by Ntsu Mokhehle.
Founding of the Marema-Tlou party by Chief S. Matete.
Founding of BNP by Chief Leabua Jonathan.
The first general elections for district councils (and National Council) were held.
Founding of Marema-Tlou Freedom Party.
First direct general elections for National Assembly.
= district Ueadc^uarters
(L E SOTHO)
Before the Lific^ane (1815)
Lesotho, the home of the Basotho people, is an inde¬ pendent country imbedded in South Africa. On roughly two sides it is bounded by the Orange Free State, on another by the Cape Province and the Transkei, and finally by Natal. On the west its terrain is low--a continuation of the Free State "veld," which, in fact, was, for the most part, in¬ habited by the forefathers of the present Basotho. On the eastern side, the great mountains generally known as the Drakensberg present a striking setting for Lesotho's boundary with Natal and the Transkei. The country is basically mountainous, and the name of the country, Lesotho, translated as "the Lowland," is in this sense a misnomer, since most of the country is the "Maloti" or mountains. This has come about in the course of the past 140 years, as the Basotho have been pushed into the mountain country by the influx of white settlers in the heart of southern Africa. Lying well south of the tropics, and with its lowest points more than a thousand metres above sea-level, Lesotho enjoys a cool, dry, bracing climate that on a winter's night can be very cold. Winter, of course, comes during the northern hemisphere's summer; the coldest months in Lesotho are June and July. In the mountains it is colder than in the lowlands, and during the winter months there may be heavy falls of snow. The population of the country passed the million mark during 1970 and is increasing at more than 2 per cent per year. This is too numerous a population to exist on tradi¬ tional agricultural practices, and in consequence large num¬ bers of men are regularly employed in the mines and other industries of South Africa, earning money to support their families at home. Unlike certain other "new" countries in Africa, Lesotho xxm
is not threatened by tribalism. The Basotho Nation was uni¬ fied by Moshoeshoe I out of a number of clans of SothoTswana and Nguni origin so thoroughly that original loyalties have disappeared, original dialects are in most cases forgot¬ ten, and a reasonably homogeneous culture has emerged as people of various origins have intermingled and grown to¬ gether. Since only an infinitesimal percentage of the popula¬ tion lives in towns, the culture is still rural, the traditional chieftanship dominates the social system, especially in the allocation and use of land, and serious poverty and depriva¬ tion is endemic. The present government has encouraged the location of small industries in the country, but so far has met with limited success. For administrative purposes Lesotho is divided into nine districts: Maseru, Mafeteng, Mohale's Hoek, Quthing, Qacha’s Nek, Mokhotlong, Butha-Buthe, Leribe, and Berea. Each has an administrative center or "camp," the most ur¬ banized area in the district. Maseru, capital of the country, is the only reasonably large center. With its satellite vil¬ lages it probably has between twenty and thirty thousand people.
The Founding of the Nation Originally the land now called Lesotho was inhabited only by wild beasts and the Bushman (San) hunters who pene¬ trated the mountains in search of them. In the country to the north and east lived the ancestors of the present Basotho. They were part of a great body of people who lived on the high plateau of southern Africa south of the Limpopo, all speaking the same language and of the same physical stock, with some local variations. Most of the present black in¬ habitants of the Orange Free State, Transvaal and Botswana are, with those of Lesotho, their descendants. We do not know when the first Basotho settlers (as we can call them for convenience sake) entered this region, but north of the Limpopo, peoples came and went during the early centuries of the Christian era, and the mighty empire of the Mwene Mutapa developed around A. D. 1200. It may be presumed that population movements did not stop at the Limpopo and that the proto-Basotho were pushing slowly south among the Khoisan peoples during the first millennium A. D. The Lifaqane—the time of disorder and terror which
struck the "high veld” when Shaka was putting the finishing touches to his empire (roughly the ten years beginning in 1820)--is the watershed which divides the ’’Basotho" from the ancestral clans of the southern Sotho living along the rivers which water the Orange Free State of today. In the years before the Lifaqane they iqcjuded the Batlokoa, the Basia, the Bataung, the Baphuthi, the Bakoena, and others. After the Lifaqane one nation, the Basotho, was created with labor and intelligence from the scattered remnants of the clans. The man who fashioned this nation and became the towering fatherfigure of his people was Moshoeshoe. It is with the birth of Moshoeshoe that the history of the Basotho really begins. Originally known as Lepoqo, Moshoeshoe gained his "praise-name" in early manhood as a warrior. His ancestry was not notable, though of a chiefly lineage, among the Ba¬ koena in the upper reaches of the Caledon valley. His ambi¬ tions, however, were great, which the substitution of the war¬ like name Moshoeshoe for his initiation name (Letlama, "The Binder") may indicate, but in fact his career showed that he bound men to him even more successfully than he conquered his enemies.
Tradition says that Moshoeshoe went for advice to the revered Mohlomi--ruler, doctor and rainmaker--when he wanted to know whether the methods of harshness and fear he was applying to his following would bring him the greatness he craved. Mohlomi told him that it would not; his advice was to lead men by gentleness, a policy Moshoeshoe was to follow. He warned him against trying to get power with the aid of "medicine” and the people who practiced it and, accord¬ ing to Ellenberger, said "Never kill anyone for witchcraft. ” He advised him to extend his influence by marrying many wives. A general impression Moshoeshoe received from their conversations was that a policy of benevolence towards the distressed would be an effective way of becoming power¬ ful. He adhered to this policy throughout his life, with good results. Moshoeshoe built up his strength and standing from the time of his young manhood and by his own efforts, directed by his own sagacity, he and his people survived the years of disruption, formed themselves into an amalgamation of clans under the name of "Basotho," and by 1833 were entering a period when their horizons were ready to be broadened. The first catalyst or factor for constructive further change was the appearance in that year of the PEMS missionaries, Casalis, Arbousset, and Gosselin.
The Struggle for National Survival These missionaries who came to Thaba-Bosiu in 1833 found an embryo nation already in existence, a nation to which they could dedicate their labors and their allegiance. Through the good offices of the missionaries, Moshoeshoe was recognized by the Napier Treaty as the paramount power in the Caledon valley and an ally of Great Britain, and in the struggles against Britons and Boers, separately and together, which punctuated the period up to 1884, the French mission¬ aries stood with the Basotho. That is not to suggest that they did not criticize or attempt to instill a little humility in the Basotho; they did so as a God-given duty, for their des¬ tiny was inextricably intertwined with the nation, but they never betrayed them or wished to see them extinguished as a free and proud people. The Basotho needed help from knowledgeable Europeans, for increasing numbers of wandering European travelers were coming into their country, following close behind by settlers of European stock, the Boers, farmers of mixed Dutch, French and German origins. This was "the Great Trek. " Although its main thrust was into Natal, with a secondary thrust north across the Vaal, many settled in the area Moshoeshoe claimed. With the agreement of the local chief and of Moshoeshoe they made homes and gardens, but they were not regarded as owners of the land, any more than were the refugee Barolong and three clans of mixed blood who set¬ tled at Thaba 'Nchu and the Platberg under the auspices of their Wesleyan missionaries. In 1848 Governor Sir Harry Smith came up from the Cape and established the Orange River Sovereignty, which did not long outlive a confrontation between the administrator, Major H. Warden, and Moshoeshoe's forces at Viervoet in June 1851. A new governor, Cathcart, led an expedition against Thaba-Bosiu but was glad to accept the olive branch in the form of a conciliatory letter from Moshoeshoe and re¬ treated to the Cape. The setting up of the independent Orange Free State early the next year (1854) by the Bloemfontein Convention left Moshoeshoe with a border he would not accept (the Ward¬ en Line) and neighbors with whom he could not long be at peace. The first war, Senekal’s or the Month's War, which was concluded by the Peace of Senekal (First Treaty of Ali wal North) in the same year, took place in 1858.
Bounded on the west by the Warden Line, with modifi¬ cations made by the next governor, Sir George Grey, Moshoeshoe turned his gaze eastward beyond the mountains and sent his son Nehemiah to lead a group of Basotho to stake out a claim in "Nomansland. " The new governor at the Cape, Wode house, sent as commissioners to Moshoeshoe Messrs. Orpen and Burnett, and there was agreement in principle that the Basotho should expand eastward as well as that Moshoeshoe should come under the protection of ’’the Queen. ” However, the details of what this might mean, if anything, were left to the future. A period of uncertain peace followed, during which Governor Wodehouse attempted to trace out an acceptable boundary line between the Orange Free State and Lesotho. He was unsuccessful, and in May 1865 President Brand launched what became known as the ’’Seqiti War” ("the War of the Noise of Cannon"). It failed to capture Thaba-Bosiu, but a great part of the country was ravaged, cattle were taken and the Basotho were no longer able to take the offensive. In April 1866 peace was signed at Thaba-Bosiu, and by it Moshoeshoe agreed to give up large parts of his kingdom. The peace was, on the Basotho side, an opportunity to buy time to prepare for another war. After it became evident that the Basotho were not evacuating the ceded lands, from which they had harvested their crops, President Brand called out his commandos again in July 1867. The Basotho were not able to resist vigorously; within months serious losses had been inflicted on them, and Moshoeshoe again asked for the Queen's protection, this time more sincerely than ever before. With difficulty the Colonial Office was per¬ suaded to consent to annexation, and though the Orange Free State had control of virtually all of Lesotho, with the excep¬ tion of Thaba-Bosiu, it was forced to be content with only a part of its conquests, in particular the rich lands west of the Caledon River. Peace was actually made by the Convention of Aliwal North on 12 February 1869. Governor Wodehouse had come . Lesotho in April 1868 and at a great pitso spoke to the assembled nation, after Moshoeshoe had said, in its name, "The country is dead, we are all dead, take us and do what you like with us. ” Wodehouse agreed to accept the Basotho under the Queen’s government (delegated to either Natal or the Cape Colony) but warned them that there would be magistrates, an annual hut tax, and the application of a code of laws. It is
not clear what Moshoeshoe thought of this; he had always been wary of a white administration putting too heavy a yoke on his people, but now there was really no choice. Henceforth the English name for the country, Basuto¬ land, became the official name, and its government was, after November 1871, subordinate to the self-governing ad¬ ministration of the Cape. Colonel C. D. Griffith was a wise choice to be, as "governor's agent,” head of the local admin¬ istration, and he governed with success until the opening of the Gun War, for which he was not responsible. In the early days of the Cape administration there were many signs of change and progress. The economic basis was the opening of the Diamond Fields at Kimberley. Crowds of foreign miners found themselves in a barren region unable to provide them with food or firewood. Lesotho began to produce cereals, meat and wood for this market and to transport supplies across a hundred miles of veld. The Basotho acquired ploughs and wagons and trained their oxen to pull both. In addition, men went off to the Diamond Fields to earn guns for themselves, and here originated the tradition of young men going out of the country to earn money. Dur¬ ing this period too the PEMS and RC missions flourished and Anglican work was begun. The amount of money in circula¬ tion in the country rose suddenly from practically none at all to a substantial amount. Trading stations sprang up to handle the grain and wool produce and to sell articles of comfort and of utility new to the Basotho. Even people's homes were altered, as substantial stone huts replaced the grass huts of earlier days. The fact that the Cape government had allowed the Basotho to arm themselves with modern rifles was, within a few years, the source for the government of a humiliating progression of events during "The War of the Guns" or "The Gun War," which began when the government tried to dis¬ arm them. Actual fighting began in September 1880 and went on for seven months, with the Cape forces on the defensive and the Colony's financial burden increasing rapidly. Nego¬ tiations for peace were made between Colonel Griffith and Lerotholi in April 1881. Even then there was no peace in the north, where civil war continued to rage between Joel and Jonathan; even close to Maseru, Chief Mashopha would have no truce with the Cape administration. The terms of peace were humiliating for the Sprigg
government, which shortly afterwards was turned out of office. The high commissioner's terms for peace were that all arms should be either registered and an annual license fee paid or handed in, that traders and others, including the Loyals, were to be compensated, and that a fine of 5000 cattle should be paid. None of the obligations was actually assumed in full by the Basotho, but the Cape could not afford to fight them any more. It sent Orpen to take over from Griffith (who re¬ signed because of ill-health) but his administration was not strong enough to gain control. Finally, in September 1883 the Cape Parliament passed the Disannexation Act and in the following March the British imperial government annexed it for the second time.
Lesotho under Direct British Administration The British administration that governed Lesotho from 1884 to 1966 had very limited objectives. It was concerned to keep the peace between the Basotho and the Orange Free State and, within Lesotho, to support the paramount chief (whose authority was to be built up for the purpose) in pre¬ serving internal stability and, in a paternal way, to lead the Basotho, very slowly, to a modernization of their ways. Modernization and change were indeed very slow; there was no motive for spending money on development during almost the entire period, for it was expected that Basutoland would be absorbed into a general South African federation. The only question was, when would the South African political and social organism be such that the Basotho would willingly be¬ come a part of it? The answer was, until 1948, not in the immediate future and, after the National Party victory in the South African general election of 1948, never. Acceptance of that fact left the post-World War II British administration without any guidelines for development, for it was inconceiv¬ able then and only slowly accepted a decade later that Basuto¬ land could exist again as an independent nation completely sur¬ rounded by South Africa. Yet in the end it was accepted as a goal, and as realized as an accomplished fact in 1966. Landmarks of the period would include the checks to chiefs Maama and Masopha administered by the paramount chief, who thereby made his situation clearly superior; the founding of the Basutoland National Council in 1903, which was blessed by the British as a representative and progres¬ sive substitute for the outmoded National Pitso but which it¬ self soon showed a tendency to entrench the power of the chiefs
(mostly descended from Moshoeshoe); the projected Union of South Africa which brought all the Basotho together in oppo¬ sition to the inclusion of their country; the successful visit of the chiefs to England to prevent this development; the ap¬ pearance of nascent political organizations such as the Pro¬ gressive Association and Lekhotla la Bafo and their struggle to have the National Council reformed and more largely repre¬ sentative; the Pirn Report (the result of an inquiry prompted by the dire poverty that had, by 1933, overtaken the country); and the administrative reforms that followed, climaxing in the granting by Britain of independence in October 1966. From 1884 Basutoland was governed under two au¬ thorities. The resident commissioner, at Maseru, admin¬ istered the ’’government” under the authority of the high com¬ missioner in Cape Town or Pretoria. The paramount chief governed from his own capital, which for most of the period was Matsieng, near Morija. The two authorities were in close contact, when required, but normally there was little need for interference of one in the field reserved to the oth¬ er. The resident commissioner and his subordinates were concerned with external relations (most of them with South Africa), with collecting the tax, and with matters forwarded on to them from the native administration, such as boundary disputes between chiefs, serious crimes, and judicial appeals, which normally fell in the province of the paramount chief. During the long reign of Paramount Chief Griffith (1913-1939) there were marked advances in the spread of Christianity, of educational and medical institutions, in the appearance of a vernacular literature, and in improved com¬ munications, veterinary services, and vocational education. The death of Griffith in 1939 brought a constitutional crisis that could only be settled by the sons of Moshoeshoe. The succession was disputed between Chief Seeiso and his brother, Chief Bereng. Seeiso became paramount chief but died within the year. His principal wife, 'Mantsebo, became regent on behalf of Seeiso’s eldest son (by his second wife), Bereng, a development which was a departure from custom. The child's uncle, Chief Bereng Griffith, challenged this set¬ tlement in the courts, claiming the regency himself. He lost the case and presumably resorted to trying supernatural methods to gain what he considered his rights. In 1948 he was hanged for ordering a liretlo or medicine murder. The large number of medicine murders that occurred
in the space of a few years around this time indicated a deep malaise among the ruling class, for in most cases it was chiefs, of whom Chief Bereng was only one among others of importance, who commanded the killings. G. I. Jones, an anthropologist from Cambridge University, was appointed by the high commissioner in 1949 to come to Basutoland and dis¬ cover the significance and cause of these murders and to sug¬ gest remedies for their cure. He reported that the causes were political and, briefly, that the cure lay in bringing the dual administrations into closer contact with the people so that communities, lesser chiefs, and headmen would be able to make their wishes known and could participate more ef¬ fectively in their own local government. This advice, ac¬ cepted seriously, led to a faster development of local repre¬ sentative institutions, and along with the implementation of the Pirn Report, prepared post-World War n Basutoland for the advent of modern politics.
Political Consciousness in Lesotho Before and After Independence Although the Basutoland National Council was a coun¬ cil of chiefs (and in some cases commoners nominated by them), there was some division of interest and a certain de¬ gree of division between progressives and traditionalists. Around Chief Jonathan, and later his nephew, Motsoene, were grouped members of a progressive tendency, usually strength¬ ened by the nominees of the resident commissioner. On the conservative side were the group close to the paramount chief, particularly after the accession of Griffith. The Progressive Association, made up mainly of an educated and Protestant group, at first was heard in the Council through the nomination of some of its members by the resident commissioner. Eventually the Association de¬ veloped its own election procedures for presenting candidates for the resident commissioner's nomination, and also won the privilege of nominating two members directly to the Council. Thus, together with the Leribe group, they were able to air ideas favoring change and modernization. After World War I another association, Lekhotla la Bafo, fought for the right to be represented but although its main spokesman, Josiel Lefela, and other members were councilors at various times, they sat there as nominees of the paramount chief through the advice of the local chief.
Lefela, for example, was present as the nominee of his chief, Peete, and later, after World War n, when some members were elected through district councils, he was so elected, but in both cases he sat as a private individual and was never permitted to speak in the name of his organization. After World War II both these embryo political parties ceased to win the loyalty of the young, who looked for more dynamic and independent leadership. The rising personality was Ntsu Mokhehle, who at first belonged to Lekhotla la Bafo but soon found it inadequate as a political vehicle, while the Progressive Association was to him suspect because of the cordial relations and cooperation that had always existed be¬ tween it and the British administration. In 1952 Mokhehle founded the Basutoland African Congress for the purpose of waging a campaign for independence. This absorbed many of Lefela’s followers and Lefela's ideas too, but it reflected the interests of a much wider community. One of the burning issues of the day was resentment at the government's attempts to limit the powers of the chiefs. The better educated sectors of the population, the larger part of whom were Anglican and LEC, supported Mokhehle because of the progressive nature of his ideas on society and government. The more conservative Catholics were led by French-Canadian priests who thought well of Mokhehle's anti-British stance because they could not forget the defeat of the French at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham two hundred years before. Mokhehle's unquestioned leadership was, however, of comparatively short duration, as strains soon appeared. So far as the Roman Catholic community was concerned, the suspicion that Mokhehle was in contact with outside interests basically Communist soon led to a rupture. In addition, Mokhehle's avowed intention of expelling the white community when he came to power seemed to include not just British civil servants but French-Canadian priests, nuns, and monks also. In 1958 a new political organization, led by Leabua Jonathan, a Catholic and a staunch supporter of the regent chieftainess, 'Mantsebo Seeiso, emerged with the blessing of the church and almost assumed the character of a Cath¬ olic party. Much more conservative in its aims than the BCP, it called itself the Basutoland National Party. Other political parties emerged. A breakaway from the BCP by Chief S. S. Matete became the "Unity, ” or
Marema-Tlou, Party, which absorbed the remnants of the Progressive Association. This party gave particular support to the young paramount chief-designate (Moshoeshoe n) against the claims of the regent. She wished him to remain at his studies at Oxford while she continued to rule in the interests of conservative elements ip^the country. Since the coming into being of these modern political parties there have been three general elections in the country. The first, in 1960, which took place through the district coun¬ cils, gave a majority to the Congress Party, and the years thereafter were devoted to negotiating with Britain for inde¬ pendence. In the 1965 general election, the BNP came to power and Lesotho became fully independent in 1966 with Chief Leabua Jonathan as prime minister. During the period of the achievement of independence and the years immediately following, there were tensions be¬ tween the king (paramount chief), who felt that the constitution deprived him of powers that should have been his, and the prime minister, who was determined to have a strictly limited monarchy. The Thaba-Bosiu Incident of December 1966 was an extreme example of this tension. The main opposition to the government came, of course, from the BCP, which felt it actually enjoyed the confidence of a majority of the people. The General Election of 1970 was waged by the BCP with a confidence borne out by the results, which showed it gaining a majority of seats. However, before this could be¬ come official, Chief Leabua Jonathan declared a state of emergency, decreed the election results null and void, and suspended the constitution. The period that followed this coup was tense and marked by incidents verging on civil war. Religious differences were more than ever indicative of dif¬ fering political points of view, as many good Catholics praised Leabua as the saviour of the country, while Protestant doc¬ tors, teachers, and clergy declared that their people were terrorized and physically assaulted, and Protestant civil ser¬ vants (suspe ~>d or known to be BCP supporters) were dis¬ missed in large numbers. The government still mistrusted the king. At the time of the coup he was placed under house arrest and there was talk of his abdicating in favor of his brother or son. As a practicing Catholic, he found little support or comfort in the Catholic community. Eventually he went into exile in the Netherlands, while his wife, Queen 'Mamohato, acted as
regent. Following his return in just under one year, the tension dissipated, and the king and the prime minister were seen and photographed in public as apparently the best of friends. Ntsu Mokhehle, by contrast, lost ground steadily fol¬ lowing the coup. He was taken off to prison in a state of amazement, protesting that he was the rightful prime minister. He was detained for many months while Leabua spoke hope¬ fully of "a national government. " Mokhehle made it clear that he was not prepared to enter into a coalition with the BNP. On his release he tried to rally his party to show its strength in a way that would force Leabua to normalize po¬ litical life. In particular, a party congress was planned for December 1973. As a result of technical difficulties thrown in its way by the authorities, the meeting could not be held. Its cancelation was followed a month later by an attempt by numerous BCP supporters to seize arms from a number of police stations and forcibly reverse the coup of 1970. These assaults (see JANUARY 1974 DISTURBANCES) failed in their objectives and the government took a savage revenge through its police and its so-called "Peace Corps. ” Numerous BCP supporters were killed, while others fled the country. Groups of those remaining were arrested and put on trial for treason. The first trial came to an end in March 1975 when a number of the defendants were found guilty and sen¬ tenced to prison. However, Chief Justice Mapetla drew at¬ tention to the circumstances of suppression and intimidation that made recourse to violence understandable, and he con¬ demned the policies followed by the police. The political events outlined above have not prevented a certain amount of progress and change from coming about in Lesotho. Money has come into the country in various forms and it has paid for new and handsome buildings in the capital, the tarring of the main road from Leribe in the north to Mafeteng in the south (with extensions planned), and the appearance of various projects providing employment and developments for the future. However, it seems likely that a much more satisfactory economic development would have taken place had the political situation been more stable and the government in a position to call forth the best efforts of all the populace for the common good. Perhaps the most interesting development in the BNP Government itself has been its shift towards the very attitudes and policies it reprobated in the BCP. On 18 April 1975
Chief Jonathan and his ministers were attacked in the South African parliament by Prime Minister John Vorster, who re¬ sented their negative attitude towards the detente being fos¬ tered by Zambia, Botswana, and other African nations.
ADVANCE POST. The original administrative headquarters of the Berea District under the Cape administration. It was moved from its first site north of the Tebetebeng River to a second site beneath the sandstone escarp¬ ment east of Lekokoaneng. This second "camp” was destroyed during the Gun War. Both sites are close to Teyateyaneng, which was established as district head¬ quarters under the second British regime. AFRICAN AUXILIARY PIONEER CORPS (A„ A„ P. C.). Basotho enlisted for service in World War II through this Corps which, like the S. A. Native Labor Corps of World I, was intended to carry on necessary hard work but not fighting. In Basutoland Josiel Lefela was put in deten¬ tion for bitterly attacking the non-combatant role of the Basotho. (See LEFELA.) In August 1941 the Basotho were given guns, mainly for use if the Germans broke through among them dur¬ ing the fighting in North Africa. In this sector they won admiration for the cool way in which, under heavy fire, they brought up ammunition, carried off the wound¬ ed, and repaired roads and railways. AFRICAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH (A.M.E.). Es¬ tablished in South Africa in 1896 when the Rev. James Dwane and the Rev. J. G. Xaba of the Ethiopian Church visited the United States to arrange a union of their chur with the well established A. M.E. Church there. Bishop H. M. Turner of the A. M. E. Church arrived in South Africa in March 1897 and guided the young church into assimilating the characteristics and institutions of the parent body. The church had barely begun to func¬ tion when a fission took place and the Rev. Dwane led a majority of the clergy and laity into the specially formed Order of Ethiopia of the Anglican Church in South Africa. Nonetheless the A. M.E. retained the loyalty of a sizable number. 1
It was probably after 1908 that A. M. E„ work began in Lesotho. The Rev. Dr. Cranmer Sebeta founded the first congregation at Matelile in the Mafeteng District. From here it spread to Mafeteng, to Maseru, and up the northern and eastern parts of Lesotho. In 1956 Lesotho was united with Botswana, Swazi¬ land and Mozambique into the 18th Episcopal District, separate from South Africa and normally under a sepa¬ rate bishop. Up to 1975, the bishops of the A. M. E. Church have always been Americans. As Maseru has become a more important center of population, the A, M. E. congregation there has shown con¬ siderable energy. The church, built in 1948-49, stands on a hillside overlooking the Roman Catholic Basilica (Our Lady of Victories) and the impressive LEC struc¬ ture. The A. M. E. complex became as imposing as the others with the building of a large community center in 1974-5. AFRIKANERS (Afrikaans- or Dutch-speaking farmers). They first made contact with Lesotho in June 1831 when a small hunting party of four came on Basotho villages near the Caledon River and Moshoeshoe rode over to have a look at them--the first men of purely European stock to appear in these parts. During the period of "the Great Trek,” beginning in 1833, many Afrikaners came to the area of the Caledon valley and took up farms on its fertile lands. Eventually they formed the Orange Free State, which absorbed part of the original Lesotho. ALIWAL NORTH. A town on the border of the Cape Colony, situated on the Orange River, which has played a part in Basotho history. It was first called by the Basotho Ha Ra Letsoai (Father of Salt’s place), in reference to Pieter de Wet, the first farmer there. Apparently the Basotho went there to buy their salt. Soon Moshoeshoe and his people found it important as a source of manu¬ factured produce. Aliwal North received its name (in honor of Sir Harry Smith’s victory in India) when a new magistracy was founded there on 12 May 1849. The mail for Lesotho came through the post office there, and supplies for the missionaries and traders came from there. In 1866 most of the PEMS missionaries sought refuge there from the harsh attitude of the Orange Free State.
ALIWAL NORTH, CONVENTION OF (February 1869). Also known as the ’’Second Treaty of Aliwal North. ’’ Signed by Governor Wodehouse and President Brand, it restored Leribe to Lesotho along with that part of "the conquered territory” east of the Caledon as far down almost as the Jammersberg drift ^and the town of Wepener, then along the Langebergen to a point on the Orange River. This has remained until today the western and southern boundary of Lesotho. It deprived the Free State of the chance for a corridor to Port St. John's. ALIWAL NORTH, TREATY OF (29 September 1858). This treaty was signed between Governor Sir George Grey and Moshoeshoe and followed Senekal's War (and is known in Lesotho as the Peace of Senekal). Since the O. F, S. and Transvaal were preparing to unite into one state in order to make a common war against Moshoe¬ shoe, the latter was persuaded to sign this agreement whereby claims for compensation on both sides were waived and the Basotho accepted the Warden Line, with some modifications in their favor, in the south. The Basotho lost the right to hunt in the O. Fo S„ ALLARD, Bishop FRANQOIS, 0„ M. L (1806-1889). Roman Catholic missionary. Born in France, he became a priest of the Society of Oblates of Mary Immaculate, and after working in Canada, he was consecrated as titular Bishop of Samaria and vicar apostolic of the new Vicariate of Natal, by Monseigneur de Mazenod, found¬ er of the CX Mo I., at Marseilles in 1851. Allard arrived at Durban in 1852 and took charge of Catholic mission work there. However, after nearly a decade he owned himself defeated by the Zulu and looked for another field. Late in 1861 he and Father Gerard, O. M. I., under¬ took an exploratory trip to the interior, reaching Bloemfontein around Christmas. They rode on from farm to farm, spending a few days of instruction with each Catholic family they found. Near modern Ficksburg ey gathered information about Moshoeshoe and met his son Molapo, who lived not far away. Molapo welcomed them to his village and gathered his coun¬ cilors around to hear them introduce themselves and their faith. The chief welcomed the idea of a Roman Catholic mission but referred them to his father for authorization. Accordingly, Bishop Allard and Father Gerard started off for Thaba-Bosiu. They were intro¬ duced to Moshoeshoe by George Tladi probably on 17
February 1862 and made their request. Two days later, Moshoeshoe gave them his per¬ mission and showed them a site for their mission not far from his mountain stronghold. They returned to Natal for their possessions and on their return were directed to a new site a few miles further away from Thaba-Bosiu in the fertile Tloutle Valley. This site was, by design, well away from any P. E. M. S. station. The Mission was formally named on 10 July 1863 as Motse-oa-'M’a-Jesu (the village of the Mother of Jesus) but it was soon popularly known as Ha Ba-Roma or "the home of the Roman people. " Moshoeshoe at¬ tended the consecration of their first chapel on 1 No¬ vember 1863. Not until 1941 was a mission station (Maryland, or la terre de Marie) established at Molapo's village where the first mass had been said in Lesotho. Bishop Allard retired to France because of illhealth, leaving the work in Lesotho in the hands of Father Gerard, Father Le Bihan, and three others. In 1874 he became titular Archbishop of Tarone. He died at Rome. His service to Lesotho is commemorat¬ ed in the Samaria mission and in the Bishop Allard Vocational School. (See ROMA; MOLAPO; ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. ) THE AMAVUNDLE. The AmaVundle are a numerous group of Nguni-speaking people who today are to be found in the south and east of Lesotho, particularly in the Mjanyane Valley of the Quthing District. Despite their language and the historic fact that they came from the south in the time of Moshoeshoe I, the fact that their totem is the hare as well as tradition suggest that originally they were a Sotho clan which at some distant date moved in among the Thembu. It is suggested that in fact they are a branch of the Bafokeng. Historically, they came into Lesotho after the Xhosa defeat that ended the War of the Axe. They entered the Baphuthi country in the south under their leader Tyhali, and put themselves under the protection of Moorosi, who was himself an ally and vassal of Moshoeshoe. After consulting with the latter, Tyhali and his immediate following were placed in the Mjanyane Valley, while other sections of the clan be¬ came subject to Posholi, Moshoeshoe's younger brother, who claimed jurisdiction in an adjoining area. When the Cape and Basotho forces attacked Moorosi
years later, the AmaVundle ignored the summons of their immediate master and remained neutral, while he was overcome and conquered. Although the senior line has continued from Tyhali through Stokwe, Vova, and Mhama, the present chief, its claim to be in some de¬ gree autonomous has-not been conceded. AMBROSE, DAVID. Writer on Lesotho. Born in London in 1939, he came to'teach mathematics at U. B. L. S. in 1965. He has contributed articles to Lesotho Notes and Records and has published a valuable series of "Qxfam Guides" to Lesotho combining geographical, historical, and general information. His major con¬ tribution in this field is his The Guide to Lesotho (1974). He has been mainly concerned since his ar¬ rival in Lesotho with curriculum development in math¬ ematics in the schools of Lesotho, Botswana and Swazi¬ land and his professional activities have been supple¬ mented by his special interest in maps of Lesotho. In this field he was as of 1976 giving valuable assist¬ ance to Lesotho's Department of Lands and Survey. ANGLICAN CHURCH IN LESOTHO (a part of the Anglican Church of the Province of South Africa). Robert Gray was the first bishop of the Church of England in Southern Africa and arrived at Cape Town in 1848. When he passed close to the borders of Lesotho two years later, on his way home from a visit to Natal, the prestige of the British was very high; Sir Harry Smith had shown the flag triumphantly at Boomplaats and had made a deep impression with his speed, vigor, and decisiveness. It was perhaps natural, therefore, that Moshoeshoe should send messengers to the bishop to ask for missionaries "of the Queen's church." Bishop Gray could not provide missionaries, but he did receive two of Moshoeshoe's sons at the new Anglican school at Zonnebloem and one of these, Jeremiah Libopuoa, was so promising a convert that he was sent on to England to study theology and to be¬ come an Anglican priest. Unhappily, he died there. In 1863 the Diocese of Bloemfontein (which covered a vast area of the interior of Southern Africa) was founded and the new bishop, Twells, stopped at ThabaBosiu on his way to his charge and held the first Ang¬ lican service in the country in the presence of Moshoeshoe. Not until 1868, when priests of the Brotherhood of
St. Augustine established themselves on two farms at Modderpoort (an area the O. F. S. had recently wrested from the Basotho), did Anglican ideas begin to reach Lesotho. By this time the Cape Administration was being set up in Lesotho and its officials and personnel in the magistracies included many Anglicans who were glad to have visits from Canon Beckett at Modderpoort and Canon Bevan at Thaba 'Nchu. In 1875 a priest, the Rev. E. W. Stenson, was appointed to live in Maseru and act as itinerant chaplain throughout the country. In 1876, with the help of the S. P. G., it was possible to found two permanent mission stations. Mr. Stenson established that at Mohale's Hoek and John Widdicombe that at Hlotse in Leribe. The bishop’s instructions, according to Canon Widdicombe's account, were: "(1) to keep aloof from politics, and not to take part in the pitsos or public political meetings of the tribes; (2) not to write letters of a public or political import for any of the chiefs; (3) not to identify the mission in any way with the government officials, lest the native should think it to be a department of the civil service, and the mission¬ aries paid or subsidized by the Queen; (4) to respect the labors of those missionaries already in the country who in the present state of Christendom are not in communion with our [Anglican] branch of the Church Catholic; (5) to abstain entirely from controversy un¬ less attacked, and to endeavor then to speak the truth in love; (6) not to receive into communion with the Church, should they desire it, Christians of other re¬ ligious bodies under censure for evil conduct, or any whose motives for wishing to join us were not, as far as could be judged, pure and above reproach. " Widdicombe met Chief Molapo on his journey of inspection and received a friendly welcome from him. He said he already had two cows--the French Protes¬ tants at Maoanamasooana (Leribe) and the Roman Catholics at Khomokhoana (St. Monica’s)--and he would welcome the new cow as a present from the Queen of England herself. Canon Widdicombe is popularly remembered as the Anglican pioneer in Lesotho, perhaps because of his publications and his long career. He established his mission on a tall bare ridge at Hlotse, above the river, and soon afterwards the Leribe magistracy moved to the same site, now popularly known as Leribe.
The Anglican missionaries, poor though they were, had the personal responsibility to find money to build up the mission in such matters as the erection of build¬ ings, payment of teachers and feeding their horses. So it was that when Chief Joel Molapo asked the mis¬ sion to come and teach his people, the Rev. Francis Balfour built, mainly from his own pocket, a stone church and school at Sekubu. By 1880 a number of projects were being launched from the two main mission stations. At Mohale's Hoek a boarding school was about to open for girls, while at Hlotse they were planning an industrial school to which boys from as far away as Thaba 'Nchu and Bloem fontein would come for training. The Gun War burst out at this point, and the Anglican missionaries and their people suffered as a result of their automatic loyalty to the Cape administration. Canon Widdicombe expressed the tragedy that over¬ took "the Loyals" as follows: "’Trust the Queen of England’ was the pith of our advice. Alas for the poor men who took our advice. They were promptly eaten up and lost everything at the outbreak of the rebellion. To this day none of the loyals of the north--and they were by far the greater number—have ever received more than two-thirds of the amount [of compensation] officially acknowledged as due to them. " The result of their "loyalty" was that while the P. E.M. S. and R. C. mission stations were left alone, the Anglicans saw their churches and schools destroyed and they themselves were driven out of the country. After the war they began the work of reconstruction. Anglican converts had fled to many parts of the country and Francis Balfour began his life of continuous travel in searching them out and ministering to them. New stations were established: Matsieng in 1881, Mafeteng in 1883, and later Tsikoane, Mokhotlong, Masite, and Teyateyaneng. Maseru, a mainly European community, built St. John's Church in 1890. However, there was a conotantly growing Basotho community, among whom Deaconess Maria Burton worked, and through her fund¬ raising efforts in England, the Church of St. James was built in 1905-6 on a hill above the town. When Basutoland became an independent diocese, St. James became its cathedral; in 1974-5 the little church was much enlarged to fit it to its greater role. The first Mosotho to be ordained priest was the Rev. John Velaphe in 1913, and others soon followed.
The first step in creating an independent diocese took place in 1901, when Francis Balfour became Archdeacon of Basutoland, and the last step came in 1950 when Bishop John Maund was appointed. The bishops of Bloemfontein during the actual period of Anglican mis¬ sionary work in Lesotho were Edward Twells (1863-69), Alan B. Webb (1870-1883), G. W. H. Knight-Bruce (1886-1891), J. W. Hicks (1892-99), Arthur Chandler (1902-1920), Walter J. Carey (1921-34) and A. H. HoweBrown (1935-51). In 1901, as noted above, Francis Balfour had been created Archdeacon of Basutoland and in 1911 he was made assistant Bishop of Bloemfontein, in both positions being in charge of the work in Lesotho. He was suc¬ ceeded in 1923 by Stanley J. Haynes, who was succeed¬ ed in turn by Thomas W. Stainton from 1940 to 1950. In that year, at Cape Town, John Arthur Arrowsmith Maund was consecrated first Bishop of Basutoland and was enthroned at Maseru on 14 January 195L As¬ sisted by Bishop Makhetha he headed up a church which had a loyal following in the region of 70, 000 with a variety of institutions and a firm standing in Lesotho. In 1976 he was succeeded by the Very Rev0 Desmond Tutu. ANGLO-BOER WAR. During the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902) Basutoland was officially neutral territory. The Boers sent envoys at times to try to rouse the Basotho to join them, but the advantage really lay with the British, who obtained horses, foodstuffs, and other supplies, and from inside the country they could keep an eye on the Orange Free State. ANNEXATION OF 1868. Lesotho was declared British terri¬ tory (Basutoland) on 12 March 1868, but officially this took effect (with the ratification of the Convention of Aliwal North) only in March 1870, when peace again prevailed between Lesotho and the Orange Free State. The reasons given for the annexation on the British side were that in holding Basutoland, the British govern¬ ment would hold the key to South African native politics, and that its annexation to Natal (which was at first planned), would strengthen that province. In the main, it was probably believed that the move would help guarantee peace around the frontiers of the British colonies at the least possible cost. ANNEXATION OF 1884. The inability of the Cape to win the Gun War and to restore peace and a respect for
the law on its conclusion led it to request Britain to take the country back as a direct dependency. Britain agreed to do so, with the approval of the Basotho chiefs, on the promise of the Cape to give an annual subsidy of £20, 000 towards the expenses of governing. The Cape Colony Parliament passed the Basutoland Disannexation Act in September 1883 and on 18 March 1884 a proclamation was issued, based on an order-in council of 21 February, which established British au¬ thority in Lesotho. The Basotho chiefs were asked whether they wished this annexation and with the excep¬ tion of Masopha, most did. API LEROTHOLI (c. 1874-1928). A son of Lerotholi by his third wife, he lived an uneventful life as chief at what is since known as Ramabanta's (Letsunyane Ward). His successors in the direct line have been: Ramabanta (named for Sir Godfrey Lagden) and then Api, on whose death his wife Makopoi acted as regent for their son Solomon (Salomone). (See MAKHAOLA.) ARBOUSSET, the Rev. THOMAS (1810-1877). P.E.M.S. missionary. He came as a young man from France to Lesotho in 1833, along with Casalis and Gosselin, to found Christian work among the Basotho. He spent most of his life at Morija but made extensive travels, especially during March, April and May 1836. He was searching for the source of the Orange River and iden¬ tified the range from which this river and a number of others, flowing both to the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, appeared to issue, as the Mont-aux-Sources. With his companion, the Rev. F. Daumas, he published an ac¬ count of his journey, which appeared in France in 1842 and in English at Cape Town in 1846. A later edition was published in England. Arbousset's second significant journey took place in 1840 when he and Moshoeshoe set off from ThabaBosiu, retracing the route Moshoeshoe and his people had ioilowed when they moved from Butha-Buthe to their present stronghold. They spent the night in the cannibals' cave and at Butha-Buthe visited the places Moshoeshoe had known so well as a boy and young man. Arbousset carefully noted Moshoeshoe's comments and the stories he told of his youth. From Butha-Buthe the party followed a new route through the mountains in an effort to find the Mont-aux-Sources, but again failed to find the exact spot. However, Arbousset has
received credit generally for making the discovery. His account of this expedition exists only in manuscript form as yet. In 1844 Arbousset led a large party that included sons of Moshoeshoe (Masopha, Sekhonyana and Makhobalo) and their uncles, Mopeli and Matete, to Cape Town. There the young men learned various skills. The whole party returned in 1846. ARCHBELL, JAMES (1798-1866). Wesleyan missionary. After serving for some years among different peoples in the Tswana area, he became minister to a wander¬ ing remnant of Rolong refugees, for whom the Platberg Mission (on the Vaal) was established in 1826. He worked as a translator of religious materials into Tswana and did some exploring. In 1833 he and his fellow missionaries, John Edwards and T. Jenkins, negotiated for the purchase of land at Thaba 'Nchu’ to which some 12, 000 Rolong had emigrated. While he was there, the Voortrekkers arrived (1836). Archbell seems to have welcomed them gladly, supplied them with food, persuaded Moroka and the Kora and other chiefs to be friendly with them, and acted as spiritual leader for some of them. He left Thaba 'Nchu in 1838. ARDEN-CLARKE,
ARROWSMITH, EDWIN PORTER. Resident commissioner in Basutoland from 1952 to 1956, he was born in 1909 and previously served in the Colonial Service in the Bechuanaland Protectorate and elsewhere. ASSEGAI
THE ASSEMBLIES OF GOD. This small denomination was founded at Makuabating in the southern part of Lesotho by David S. Fisher in 1912. The mission station was named Mount Tabor, and for a time flourished, attract¬ ing converts who wanted a strong manifestation of the working and power of the Holy Spirit in this world. With the death of Fisher in 1920 the mission passed through an uncertain period until it was taken under the wing of the Swiss Pentecostal Mission. Gschwend and others from Switzerland carried on the work, which was now affiliated with the Assemblies of God in South Africa. In 1930 the mission began the publication of
Met si a Kollang (Living Waters), now published in Pretoria. Under the Rev. August Kast and his wife the mis¬ sion was enlarged and a Bible school was opened. In 1950 missionaries from the United States arrived and the work was extended to the Maseru and Leribe dis¬ tricts. In 1969 the Bible school was established in Maseru. Since 1965 the church has been autonomous and the chairman' is a Mosotho. ATHLONE, Earl of (1874-1957). High commissioner. H. E. Major General Alexander Augustus Frederic William Alfred George Cambridge, Earl of Athlone and Viscount Trematon, K. G., etc., a brother-in-law of King George V, served as governor-general, high commis¬ sioner and commander-in-chief, Union of South Africa from 1923 to 1931. Previously he had served in the Matebele Rebellion (1896), the Anglo-Boer War, and World War I. AUSTEN, JOHN. The first magistrate at Mohale's Hoek (Cornet Spruit) under the Cape administration. He is believed to have been of mixed blood. His biggest problem was dealing with Moorosi who lived in his area. However, early in 1877 he was relieved of this burden when a new magistracy was set up at Quthing. His relief was not long as he was soon after transferred to the new district and was there responsible for locking up Doda for horse theft. Doda escaped and Austen found his position so dangerous that he retreated to the Herschel District of the Cape. (See MOOROSI.) Later, during the Gun War, Austen was killed in the Quthing District while pursuing a force of "rebels. ” His head was cut off and sent to Letsie by the Batlokoa in the rebel force—which was accepted by the chief as a sign of humble submission. (See BATLOKOA.)
- B BAFOKENG. One of the original peoples making up the present Basotho, the Fokeng are said to be one of the earliest clans, They spread east and south of the Vaal and Limpopo, breaking up into a loose federation of peoples and, by intermarriage with other clans, pro¬ moting the formation of new ones. They have been re¬ garded by the Basotho as the first of their race to live
in their modern area, the other clans having migrated in. Thus the language of the Bafokeng is regarded as being the basis of modern Sesotho. The Bakoena chiefs, the lineage of the present ruling class in Lesotho, always preferred Bafokeng wives. Moshoeshoe's mother (Mokhachane's principal wife) and Moshoeshoe's first and principal wife were both daughters of Bafokeng chiefs, so the genetic ori¬ gins of the "Sons of Moshoeshoe" are heavily weighted towards this clan. BAKOENA. The royal clan of Lesotho (also, "the people of the crocodile") were said to be descended from Kuena, a prince of the Bahurutse who were, in turn, a branch of the Barolong, the most powerful people, centuries ago, in the northwest of the area now called the Trans¬ vaal. The royal family in Lesotho is of the branch called the Bamonaheng, being descended from Monaheng, who was a descendant of Napo, with whom the Bakoena of Lesotho separate from those of Botswana. BAKUBUNG LIHOJA
BALFOUR, the Rev. FRANCIS RICHARD TOWNLY (1846-1924). Anglican missionary. Educated at Cambridge, he came to Kimberley and thence in 1876 to Hlotse (Leribe) and soon learned Sesotho and took up the work of evan¬ gelization. In 1877 he was sent to Sekubu, for Joel had asked for a teacher for Butha-Buthe and assigned them a site there. It became a flourishing mission station, and by 1878 five rondavels and a stone church (in which school was held) had been built. After some years Balfour was moved to parishes outside of Lesotho, including Harrismith and Rhodesia. However, from 1894 he was director of the Basutoland mission, with his headquarters at Hlotse. In 1906 he became Archdeacon of Basutoland, and in 1911 he was consecrated assistant Bishop of Bloemfontein, with Basutoland as his special charge. He was extremely active in visiting all parts of the country--where pos¬ sible traveling with a canvas-covered wagon but in hilly country taking only what could be packed on a horse. He retired in 1922. I
BALIMO. The spirits of the ancestors. These spirits were the object of intercession. A family head interceded with his ancestors for his family, a chief interceded with his ancestors for all his people.
The ancestors were feared inasmuch as a faulty ceremony of intercession might anger them and they might bring misfortune on their descendants. BAPHETLA (or Phetla or Maphetla). The name derived from ho phetla, meaning J’to open. " They are regarded as pioneers who crossed the Drakensberg mountains from the Tugela Valley to the present Lesotho. They were followed by the Mapolane and later the Baphuthi. To¬ day the Maphetla, the Mapolane and the Baphuthi are all called Baphuthi, having been amalgamated by Moorosi, a Phuthi ruler. There are, however, slight dif¬ ferences of vocabulary and accent between the language of the Mapolane and the Sephuthi language as spoken by both the Baphuthi and the Maphetla. They live in the Quthing, Qacha's Nek and Mohale's Hoek districts. BAPHUTHI (or Phuthi). A clan of northern Nguni origin who, together with their relatives the Maphetla and the Mapolane, first settled in what is today called Lesotho. They now live mostly in the present Qacha's Nek, Mohale’s Hoek and Quthing districts. They became famous under Moorosi, their leader, who died on his mountain fortress in the war with the Cape Colony in 1879. BARING, Sir EVELYN, K. C. M. G. High commissioner (1944-1951) in succession to Lord Harlech. He was fond of walking in the mountains and while holding this post he trekked across Lesotho from Butha-Buthe via Mokhotlong and Sani Pass into Natal. At the time of the visit of King George VI and his family to Basuto¬ land (1947) he acted as their host. Controversial legis¬ lation intended to modernize Lesotho was implemented during his regime. BARKLY, Sir HENRY (1815-1898). Governor of the Cape. He c ne to South Africa in succession to Sir Philip Wodehouse, persuaded the Cape government to assume direct control over Basutoland (Lesotho), which was then under direct imperial control (1871), and to accept responsible government (1872), which, it was hoped in London, would be the first steps in a federation of southern Africa. Since Barkly was unable to bring about this federation, his term is regarded as a failure in some respects. BAROA.
The people now generally known to scholars as San
14 were called by the Basotho the Baroa. These small, pale brown or golden-colored hunters lived in southern Africa before the Bantu-speaking Negro peoples entered the region. They were living in present-day Lesotho before the ancestral Basotho came into the Caledon Val¬ ley. Their cave paintings are to be found in many places and show the game which then wandered in the hills and valleys. During historical times intermarriage took place between the Baroa and the proto-Basotho (often borne out in present-day physical characteristics) but there has been no separate group of Baroa known to exist since 1871, after separate attacks on them by Joel and Jonathan to bring an end to their cattle thefts. After 1871 most of the survivors went to live among the Baphuthi, with whom they had been friends for some generations.
BASIA. One of the original clans making up the present Basotho, they are "the people of the mist. " 'Ma-Nthatisi was born into this clan. Their home was some distance above present-day Harrismith in the Orange Free State. BASOTHO (pronounced Basootoo and formerly spelled BASUTO). The name applied to the people living in Lesotho and speaking the language called Sesotho. It is said that the term "Sotho" was first applied by Mbo Nguni to chiefdoms living on the Usutu River in Swaziland. The term evidently meant light -black or dark-brown, but whether it referred to the river, the people, or their clothing is not clear. The missionaries and other Europeans originally referred to all the interior peoples as "Bechuana” (Batswana) and only gradually distinguished Sotho as a sub-group and finally as a term at least equally or even more correct for referring to the re¬ lated groups of black inhabitants of the present Lesotho, Botswana, Orange Free State, Transvaal, and parts of the Cape. Wesleyan Mission papers showed "Amasuta" on a map of their stations published between 1829-1831, while the first use of the term in a newspaper (the Graham's Town Journal of 4 February 1836) appears to be the "Basootoos" distinguished from the "Mantatees" or "Bathakua" (Batlokoa). It would seem, therefore, that at some time after his arrival at Thaba-Bosiu in 1823, Moshoeshoe began using this term, or allowed the use of it, for his people, who belonged to many small clans and groups formerly independent. By the
time the French missionaries arrived in 1833 they were apparently able to say, after visiting Moshoeshoe, that they were going to live with "the Basotho. " (See CASALIS.) BASOTHO HAT. On the flag of Lesotho is shown the most distinctive of the several kinds of headgear woven and worn in Lesotho. This shallow-cone hat, ornamented with circles that spring from the apex, originated in the Leribe area and is now accepted as a distinctive national symbol. In 1962 the Ministry of Education erected a craft shop in Maseru that imitated in its thatched roof the exact design of the hat and was named for it. It was later taken over by the Lesotho Cooperative Handicrafts as a show room and shop, and with the Exhibition Center, across the road, which it controls, is the chief sales organization for Basotho crafts and other products, BASOTHO QWAQWA. The QwaQwa, or Witzieshoek region, north of Lesotho, is inhabited by Basotho closely con¬ nected to those in independent Lesotho, but they are subjects of South Africa and are citizens of the "Ba¬ sotho QwaQwa homeland. " This entity has a govern¬ ment under a chief minister. Until 19 May 1975, the chief minister was Chief Wessels Mota, ruler of the Tlokoa group there and a descendant of Sekonyela by his second wife Madrabeng, mother of Mota. The suc¬ ceeding chief minister is Kenneth Tsiame Mopeli, a descendant of Moshoeshoe's brother Mopeli (Paulus). BASUTOLAND. The name applied to the country of the Basuto (Basotho) by the early English officials and used officially in documents, etc., until the gaining of independence in 1966. At the same time, however, the word Lesotho was always used in Sesotho, and the early missionaries, when writing in French, always used the term Lessouto. BASUTOLAND AFRICAN CONGRESS (B. A. C.) LAND CONGRESS PARTY
BASUTOLAND CONGRESS PARTY. Founded by Ntsu Mokhehle in 1952 as the Basutoland African Congress, the party was inspired by Mokhehle's interest, while at Fort Hare, in African National movements in South Africa. It became widely known in Lesotho in 1955 when Mokhehle, B. M. Khaketla, and Ezekiel Mpheh-
lele (the South African writer who was at that time a refugee in Lesotho) founded Mohlabani (The Warrior), which was widely read and stimulated political con¬ sciousness among Basotho at home and in South Africa. Its first success was its campaign against the Moore Commission's proposals (1954) for a moderate degree of local government. The B. A. C. campaigned strongly against its conclusions, and the Basutoland National Council ultimately rejected them. Under the 1960 constitution the B. C. P. (as it was renamed before the elections in January of that year) won 73 of the 162 district council seats, and obtained 29 of the 40 elective seats in the Legislative Council. By the end of that year, however, a number of leading members withdrew from the party (e. g., B. M. Khaketla) and opposition to it grew. Its chief demands--for full democratic government and universal suffrage, direct elections, the defining of the paramount chief's role as that of a constitutional monarch and an unequivocal independence vis-a-vis South Africa—were more or less gained by the time of in¬ dependence in 1966. However, before this event, dur¬ ing the elections of 1965, the B. C. P. was defeated by the B. N. P. Consequently, the independence celebra¬ tions were more or less boycotted, the new national flag produced by the B. N. P. government was not hon¬ ored, and the party appeared to think that South African wealth and influence had brought about its defeat. Ac¬ cordingly, its leaders planned carefully for the elections of 1970, in which their confidence in receiving a mandate from the people seemed well placed until the government suddenly declared the results null and void and declared a state of emergency. Since that time the party has been impotent and persecuted. Although a rump led by Gerard Ramoreboli sat in the "Interim National Assembly" set up by Chief Leabua, it was disowned by the greater part of the party and officially expelled by the leadership. It has not been representative of B. C. P. feeling in the coun¬ try. The B. C. P. attempted to hold a party conference to discuss its policy and future in December 1973, but this was made impossible by certain police restrictions which are said to have included the following: (1) there was to be no display of party colors; (2) dele¬ gates arriving wearing red blankets (unofficial but popular as B. C.P. garb) were to be refused admission;
and (3) the police were to have freedom to come in whenever they wished. These conditions were not ac¬ ceptable to the party executive and the conference was canceled. A few weeks later, at the end of January 1974, incidents occurred that suggested the Party had lost all confidence in,a peaceful solution of its repres¬ sion and were resorting to force. The government was evidently prepared for trouble and easily put down the attempted coup. Since then the B. C. P. has been lead¬ erless and in a state of impotence. (See JANUARY (1974) INCIDENT.) BASUTOLAND COUNCIL COUNCIL
BASUTOLAND FREEDOM PARTY. In December 1960, fol¬ lowing a disagreement with Ntsu Mokhehle and other leaders of the B. C. P., the deputy president, B. M. Khaketla, resigned from the party and in April 1961 launched the B. F. P. , which attracted other former members of the B. C. P. In its manifesto the new party attacked the other for having antagonized the chiefs, having dictated how party members should wor¬ ship (Khaketla was a devout and active Anglican, while the B. C. P. leadership was cool to all churches, es¬ pecially those in which white missionaries were active), and having stifled independent thought. The manifesto promised that the new party would try "to inspire the confidence of overseas financiers and technicians whose money and skills are needed so urgently by the Basuto people." The B. F. P. ceased to exist in 1962 when it merged with Chief Matete's Marema-Tlou Party to form the Marema-Tlou Freedom Party. (See KHAKETLA, B. M. ) BASUTOLAND MOUNTED POLICE POLICE
BASUTOLAND NATIONAL COUNCIL. This developed as modernization of the "indirect" rule the British Ad¬ ministration fostered after 1884, as against the direct control exerted by the Cape through its magistrates. The chiefs were again agents of administration under the paramount chief, whose position had been officially and deliberately weakened under the Cape but was now to be built up. The resident commissioner was not
simply an instrument of the imperial administration but advised it, in the person of the high commissioner, while at the same time advising the paramount chief and assisting him when the time was ripe to increase his control over the other chiefs of the country, not least his kinsmen of the House of Moshoeshoe. The paramount chief, of course, had no tradition of arbitrary power to draw upon; even the great Moshoeshoe had to consult and persuade and did not always carry his own point of view when he met his people in a pitso. His successors carried on the cus¬ tom of calling the nation together in a pitso, but after 1888 these occasions tended to lose their consultative nature and become ceremonial occasions for receiving distinguished visitors and making announcements. Even before that date, the resident commissioner had sug¬ gested to Chief Letsie I that it meet once a year in Maseru to give advice and make suggestions as to what was best for the nation. For several years Chief Letsie conferred with his kinsmen and at last agreed, on 25 December 1889, that such a council, elected by himself and his people, would be a good thing. However, his decision was opposed so strongly by a number of powerful chiefs that progress in implementing it was slow. Finally, in 1903, with the backing of Paramount Chief Lerotholi, the Council was formed and met in July of that year, again in 1905, in 1908, and every year after that. It consisted of not more than 100 members, five nominated by the resident commissioner and the rest by the paramount chief. At its first meeting it adopted "the laws of Lerotholi. " By 1908 it was evident that the British colonies in South Africa were about to enter upon a union which might expand to take in the High Commission Terri¬ tories and it was felt that the existence of the National Council had better be confirmed in law. As a result a proclamation on 3 March 1910 set up the Basutoland Council, with the resident commissioner as president, the paramount chief as chief councilor, and the mem¬ bership as noted above. The Council's powers were to advise and to criticize. The Council could only discuss matters of a domestic nature, the resident commissioner having the right to determine what these were. From the beginning the "Sons of Moshoeshoe" formed a majority of the membership and as time went by used their strength to consolidate the powers of chieftainship.
In time, therefore, the resident commissioner found himself opposed when attempting to introduce reforms that weakened chiefly powers. As the years passed, there were certain reforms in government which affected the Council, though in 1929 the chiefs defeated the government's intention of issuing a proclamation defining relations between the administration and the chiefs on one side, and people and chiefs on the other. The Pirn Report of 1935 pointed out the need for modern methods of administra¬ tion. The eventual outcome was the formation of dis¬ trict councils (1945), which were partially elective and were authorized to elect members to the National Coun¬ cil (increased from two in 1948 to four in 1950), while other interests were also alloted seats. As the pressure built up in the 1950's in favor of independence, more changes were made in the National Council. In 1955 the Council passed a motion asking for the power to make laws in all internal matters. The British government responded by asking for detailed proposals and the result was the working out of a draft constitution by a dual committee assisted by Professor D. V. Cowen. It was considered in July 1958 by the Council, agreed to, and a delegation went to London to discuss it in November 1958. After nearly a year of talks the new constitution was agreed upon and became effective in 1960. The name, Basutoland National Council, was now applied to a legislature of 80 members, of whom 40 were elected from the membership of the district coun¬ cils, and the other 40 included the 22 principal and ward chiefs, four ex-officio government officers, and 14 nominees of the paramount chief. The president of the Council was, for the first year, the resident com¬ missioner. This body was basically an interim institution, for certain powers, affecting both internal and external mat¬ ters, ere reserved to the high commissioner. It was obvious, after the election of 1960, that more changes would be called for. Within two years there were pressures for a real independence from Britain. A constitution to this effect was worked out, but before it came into effect new elections were held in April 1965. Thereafter the National Council was transformed into a National Assembly and a Senate, and it was with these legislative bodies that Lesotho became independent on 4 October 1966.
BASUTOLAND (Basotho) NATIONAL PARTY (B.N. P.). The governing party in Lesotho since 1965, it was founded by Chief Leabua Jonathan, who has been prime minister during the whole post-colonial period. The party was formed in 1959 to take a more conservative stance than the B. C. P., and did badly in the elections of 1960. It was the more astonishing, therefore, that it won a majority of seats in the 1965 general election. It has maintained itself in power since 1970, when Chief Leabua suspended the constitution, through its control of the police. (See JONATHAN, LEABUA. ) BATAUNG. One of the clans tracing their origin to the original Barolong, they drifted away from the region of present-day Botswana and before the Lifaqane were divided into two groups living along the Vet and Valsh rivers in the present O. F.S. They were dispersed by the Lifaqane and one group, led by Moletsane, came to live at Mekuatleng. During the time of troubles they absorbed the Lihoja. After 1867 their home fell under the O. F. S. and they moved, firstly to Berea and then to the present Mohale's Hoek District. BATHEPU. People of Nguni origin in Lesotho, particularly in the south, are given this name. These include elements of the Fengo, Pondo, and Thembu, and of the latter, the Vundle are particularly distinctive. (See AMAVUNDLE. ) BATLOKOA ("The people of the wild cat"). The Batlokoa lived, before the Lifaqane, northwest of the Sotho clans of the Caledon Valley, in the vicinity of presentday Harrismith, near the passes down into Natal. Here they were in a position to act as middlemen between the Nguni, who produced iron weapons and tools, and the consumers of the interior. This group of Batlokoa were related to other branches of the same clan, and are distinguished as the Mokotleng. Around the beginning of the 19th century their chief was Mokotjo, whose wife, a daughter of a chief of the Basia further north (see Map 1), was to become in¬ famous as the terrible one-eyed female warrior, 'MaNthatisi. In fact she was a handsome woman who bore her husband four children before his untimely death, after which she became regent for her eldest son, Sekonyela. The Batlokoa had to leave their home when they
were attacked by part of the AmaHlubi clan, which was fleeing from Natal. This was the beginning of the Lifaqane. 'Ma-Nthatisi led her people into the Caledon Valley, to raid the peaceful and prosperous Sotho clans living there. They devoured the crops of the people they encountered and^fought at times with the AmaHlubi and with other roving bands as well as the settled in¬ habitants. A path of devastation was left behind them. Sekonyela had taken over leadership from his mother during this period and during 1824, after Moshoeshoe had escaped from his clutches by his withdrawal from Butha-Buthe to Thaba-Bosiu, the mother and son settled on neighboring hills at Merabing and Mpharane, west of the Caledon River. From here the Batlokoa con¬ tinued to war on their neighbors, and Sekonyela, who is described as being sullen, dull, and feared rather than loved by his people, was for many years Moshoeshoe's chief rival for paramountcy in the area. In 1853 Moshoeshoe decided that he was strong enough to rid himself of this rival, and his forces at¬ tacked Sekonyela's strong fortress of Khoro-e-betloa and took it, along with the Batlokoa villages. Sekonyela escaped with some members of his family and took refuge with British forces to the west. Sir George Clerk decided to settle them on lands in the Herschel District of the Cape. Here Sekonyela died and was buried in July 1856. His people were divided on the succession, some favoring Lelingoana, son of David Maketekete, the eldest son who had been killed in the war, while a majority favored another son, Lehana, who was recognized by the British. The lat¬ ter's descendants still live in the Cape Province. During the Gun War, Lelingoana fought on the side of the Basotho "rebels, " while Lehana was a leader among the "loyals. ” It was Lelingoana who intercepted and killed John Austen and sent his head to Letsie I as a sign of submission. This earned him the right to re¬ turn to Lesotho, and Letsie allowed him and his people to settle in the Mokhotlong District in the mountain area. Here they still live as one of the components of the present Basotho nation. Because of the remoteness of the area they were more or less independent of the paramount chief until the time of Griffith. In 1925 Griffith appointed his son Seeiso ruler over this branch of the Batlokoa; Lelingoana did not appreciate being forced into a subordinate position, and there was friction between the two chiefs until Lelingoana's death in 1934.
Even then his son Mosuoe continued to make difficulties, and the government eventually placed the Batlokoa di¬ rectly under the paramount chief at Matsieng. Today the Batlokoa of Mokhotlong are ruled by Mats'ohlo, great-grandson of Lelingoana, as ward chief of the area, from the village of Tloha-re-bue. BECKETT, Canon. Anglican missionary. A priest of the newly founded Brotherhood of St. Augustine, at Modderpoort, O. F. S., he was the first Anglican clergyman to pay regular visits to Lesotho. From 1870 he reg¬ ularly visited the Magistracies ("camps") to minister to the police, magistrates, and other government servants established at these centers during the Cape regime, before the arrival of the missionaries Stenson and Widdicombe. BEERSHEBA (or Bersheba). Founded by Samuel Rolland in 1835, this was one of the most important P. E.M.S. mission stations. The Barolong, dispersed from their original homes, gathered around the Mission here. So did many refugees who had fled from the Lifaqane into the Cape Colony. There they had acquired skills and knowledge, and even more important, had become emancipated from traditional attitudes and were ready to become Christians. From these first converts des¬ cended many of the leading Protestant families in Le¬ sotho. Their generations, filled with individuals of marked quality making worthwhile contributions to society, can be traced to the present day. The Mission Press was first at Beersheba (18411858) and the first book to be printed in Lesotho, a small Sesotho hymn book, was issued here in 1842. The first qualified printer was Mr. Ludorf who later went to serve as Waterboer's missionary. Beersheba was destroyed in the wars with the O. F. S. and by 1865 the name had become extinct. (See ROLLAND.) BELL, Major CHARLES HARLAND (c. 1825-1881). Officer in the 63rd Regiment and C. M. R., and known to the Basotho as "Majorabella, " he was the first magistrate in the Leribe District. During the Gun War he de¬ fended the camp at Hlotse against heavy odds. "Major Bell's Tower, " which still stands there, was built as a vantage point from which to deploy his forces during the battles around the magistracy. He died during the
war and his son, C. G. H. Bell, was appointed tem¬ porary magistrate in his place. (See GUN WAR; LERIBE. ) BEREA DISTRICT. Adjoining the Maseru District on the western side, it takps its name from the Berea mis¬ sion. Its administrative center is at Teyateyaneng. BERENG, DAVID CRANMER THEKO (1900-1974). Born at Masite, son of Chief Bereng Letsie (and, through his mother, a grandson of George Tlali) he lived at Qacha's Nek. He served as a sergeant during World War II. A poet, his collection Lithothokiso tsa Moshoeshoe le tse ling (Poems in Praise of King Moshoeshoe) was published at Morija in 1931. This was a milestone in the modern writing of poetry, which was followed up by George Lerotholi and A. J. Selane. BERENG GRIFFITH (1902-1948). Only child in Griffith's fourth house, born at Phamong, he first attended Roma College, where he was taught by the Marist brothers, and later went to Pietersburg in the Transvaal. He was put forward by Griffith as his eldest son and heir, despite the fact that the accepted heir was Seeiso of his third house. A family council at Matsieng gave a decision in favor of Bereng (23 to 10) but it was known that this vote reflected fear of Griffith, and the government requested a secret ballot before confirming the decision. Griffith refused, on the grounds that it was not a part of Basotho custom. On Griffith's death in 1939 the "Sons of Moshoeshoe" decided in favor of Seeiso. Bereng took his father's place at Phamong. Here he ran a very efficient administration. On his brother's death he believed he, instead of Chieftainess 'Mantsebo, should have been regent for his nephew, Bereng Seeiso. In 1943 the High Court confirmed her in the regency. In 1948 Bereng was executed after being found guilty of ordering a liretlo or medicine horn murder. (See SEEISO.) BERENG LETSIE (d. 1898). A son of Letsie I by his second wife (and full brother of Lerotholi), he was placed at Masite (in the village of Rothe) and became one of the most important chiefs of his generation. Converted to Anglicanism, he encouraged an Angli¬ can presence in his area, and in 1885 Masite became
the site of an important mission that was Anglican headquarters for the south. Of all the sons of Letsie, he was most opposed to helping the Cape Colony au¬ thorities to attack Moorosi. Though he joined the ex¬ pedition, he turned back before reaching Mount Mooro¬ si. BERNARD, Brother PIERRE, O. M. I. (1827-1889). Roman Catholic missionary. He came with Bishop Allard and Father Gerard to establish the Roman Catholic mission¬ ary work in Lesotho and stayed at Roma mission for 27 years, except for a short stay at St. Monica's. He was the first teacher at the Roma School (for boys) in 1864. He started the first flour mill near the river and taught many Basotho how to plough with oxen, ask¬ ing people to lend him one ox which he spanned with his own oxen, training them successfully. He also encouraged Roma people to grow wheat. BETHULIE. A P. E.M. S. mission station founded by the Rev. J. -P. Pellisier, it had originally been the site of a station of the L. M. S. called "Bushman School" but later known as Caledon. The P. E. M. S. was requested by Dr. Philip to change the name as there was already an L. M. S. station "Caledon" in the Cape. PeUisier wished to call the station "Ver Huell" in honor of the chairman of the P. E. M. S., but was overruled. He decided on the name Bethulie, a region mentioned only in the Apocrypha, in the story of Judith. The new name was applied from November 1835. This station was not considered part of Lesotho in subsequent treaties and demarcations, but fell under the P. E.M. S. organization there. BLOEMFONTEIN. Chosen as the capital of the Orange River Sovereignty by Major Warden, it continued as capital of the Orange Free State. It lies about 120 km. west of Maseru. It evidently got its name from its first settler, Jan Bloem, and his spring or "fountain" which made it attractive. BLUE MOUNTAINS (Thaba-Putsoa). This name is applied especially to the first range of mountains (Maloti) run¬ ning from the south up to Leribe in the western part of Lesotho. It is still frequently used, as in the title Tales of the Blue Mountains (Liguori-Reynolds) and in the name of the hotel, "The Blue Mountain Inn, " at Teyateyaneng.
25 BOER WAR
BOHALI [pronounced "bohadi"]. This is the equivalent in Lesotho of the Zulu iobola or "bride-price, " as it is sometimes rendered in English. The exchange of cat¬ tle between the two .families concerned is an essential part of the marriage, and traditionally a marriage without the transfer of cattle is illegal and the issue from it illegitimate. From the time of their arrival in Lesotho the P. E.M. S. missionaries deplored the custom, but the Catholic missionaries, discovering how much it was valued, listened to local opinion, and Bishop Allard sought and received advice from Rome as a result of which he accepted it as a lawful custom in Lesotho. The Anglican missionaries did similarly. The P. E.M. S. has always opposed the bohali on the ground that this sort of marriage is potentially dis¬ soluble and polygamous, as well as a curtailment of freedom of choice. In addition, they saw it linked to the custom whereby a widow married in this way goes to one of her husband's brothers (who will raise up children for him. For examples, see MOTLOANG; MAJARA MOSHOESHOE. ) They also saw it as a cause of elopement. (See CHOBELISO. ) BOSHOF, JACOBUS NICOLAAS (1808-1881). President of the O. F. S. during the 1858 war with the Basotho (Senekal's War) was born at Swellendam in the Cape and worked first as a civil servant. He joined the Voortrekker community in Natal, where he made a name for himself as a capable leader. He was offered a minor position in the O. F. S. but on President Hoff¬ man's downfall was nominated to succeed him instead. He was successfully elected to the post and, as second president of the infant state, set its administration on efficient lines. Externally he favored economic cooper¬ ation with the Cape Colony. Under his leadership the O. F. S. was a greater danger to Lesotho than under his predecessor, though the Basotho were still the stronger. Aware of this, Boshof obtained the good offices of Sir George Grey in trying to come to a peaceful agreement on the thorny border dispute. However, in reaction to the unchecked raiding by the Basotho, Boshof declared war on Moshoeshoe (March 1858). Within three months the O. F. S. was exhausted and had to ask for peace. In September Sir George Grey gave his award at Aliwal North, and
it pleased neither side. A year later, frustrated by the divisions among the burghers of the O. F. S., Boshof resigned the presidency. (See SENEKAL'S WAR. ) BONHOMME, the Rt. Rev. JOSEPH CYPRIEN, O. M. I. (18891973). Second Bishop of Basutoland (titular Bishop of Tulana) he was born at St. Camille, Quebec, and was appointed bishop on 25 April 1933, being consecrated by Cardinal Villeneuve at Hull, Quebec, on 28 June. He came to Lesotho during the "Great Dust" (Lerole le letso) and a typhus epidemic, and found it necessary to begin his work in helping the poor and sick. This experience led him to foster the organizing of coopera¬ tives and farmers' associations. He founded hospitals at Roma and Par ay, opened new missions and many new schools, oversaw the founding of Pius XII Catholic College, and saw his church membership double while Basotho vocations multiplied in the nine religious congregations established in the country. BOTSABELO LEPER ASYLUM. As early as 1890 the preva¬ lence of leprosy was noticed and in 1913, a settlement for isolating and caring for them was established close to Maseru. Men and women were segregated, each in their own area, in which were living quarters, hospi¬ tals, staff quarters, barracks for guards, and other facilities. Before the end of 1914 some 693 lepers were in residence. This concentration camp was not popular and within a few months the men rioted so seriously that the B. M. P. from Maseru had to restore order. The original military-type discipline was soon relaxed and adequate medical treatment was instituted. Gradually Botsabelo became a place of healing and with the advent of modern methods of controling the disease, the number of patients steadily fell. However, in 1975 there were still a large number to be found there. BOWKER, JAMES HENRY (1822-1900). Born at Cape Town and brought up in the Eastern Cape, he served in the police and in other capacities administering in the Transkei area. In 1868 he was with Sir Walter Currie on his expedition to Lesotho and was appointed high commissioner's agent. In 1870 he was appointed to succeed Currie as commander of the Frontier Armed and Mounted Police (later Cape Mounted Rifles) and left Basutoland for duties in Griqualand West. In 1877
he returned as governor's agent and led the C. M. R. crushing Moorosi.
BRAND, JOHANNES HENRICUS (1823-1888). A president of the Orange Free State, he was born at Cape Town and trained in law in Holland. After being called to the bar in London he commenced a successful practice in Cape Town in 1848. He entered politics and held a seat in the Cape Parliament for ten years. When the O. F. S., foundering for lack of efficient leadership, asked him to become its president, he al¬ lowed himself to be nominated and was elected in Feb¬ ruary 1864. He held office 24 years until his death. The chief problem he faced was that of establish¬ ing peace with the Basotho. The boundary drawn by Wodehouse was ignored by the Basotho, who continued to farm in the area claimed by the Free State. Brand sent in Boer commandos to drive them off, and finally officially declared war on the grounds that Moshoeshoe had not punished Lesoana for his attack on Bethlehem. During the Seqiti War, President Brand stayed on the border to keep his men from drifting home. How¬ ever, their repulse from Thaba-Bosiu was a heavy blow to their morale, and instead of attacking the Basotho strongholds, they followed a policy of reducing their enemies to starvation by seizing their animals and destroying their crops. Peace was made by the Treaty of Thaba-Bosiu, which was a triumph for Brand. However, the peace was short-lived, and war was resumed in July 1867. Still the Boers were too strong for the Basotho, some of whom defected (see MOLAPO), while Moshoeshoe appealed fervently for British pro¬ tection. Brand was furious at being balked of final victory by Wodehouse's intervention and after the annex¬ ation of March 1868, sent a delegation to London to register his protest--in vain. On the other hand, the British were unable to restore its former boundaries to Lesotho, and the greater part of the "conquered territory" was absorbed into the O. F. S. During the Gun War, Brand was among those urging the British government to take direct responsibility for the Basotho. BRUTSCH, ALBERT. A missionary of the P. E.M. S. in Lesotho, he serves not only in that capacity but as his¬ torian of the church and of the country. He was born in Geneva in 1916 and arrived in Lesotho in 1942. He has served in executive positions in the mission and in
the L. E. C. He has been an active member of the Lesotho Scientific Association and many articles based on his research have appeared in its journal, Lesotho. BUCHANAN, DAVID D. A lawyer in Pietermaritzburg and one-time member of the Natal Legislative Council and editor of the Natal Witness, he accepted from the Baso¬ tho chiefs a commission (later repudiated by Moshoeshoe) to go to see the Colonial Secretary in London (Lord Granville) to protest the terms of the Convention of Aliwal North and to get a more favorable settlement for the Basotho. His intervention was hotly resented by the O. F. S., which wished for even more favorable terms for itself, and this has colored what South Afri¬ can historians have written about his role. He sailed for England from Cape Town on 4 May 1869, accom¬ panied by Ts'ekelo Moshoeshoe, who acted as his fa¬ ther’s personal representative. In London they joined forces with the Rev. Francois Daumas and Eugene Casalis and were given a courteous hearing by Lord Granville. However, Governor Wodehouse was able to prevent any modifications of the terms he had with dif¬ ficulty persuaded the O. F. S. to accept. BUCKINGHAM AND CHANDOS, DUKE OF. Secretary of State for the Colonies at the time Lesotho came under British administration in 1868. His term of office ran from 8 March 1867 to 10 December 1868. He was succeeded by Lord Granville. BURTON, MARIA (1837-1912)., Anglican missionary. Born in Ireland, she became a deaconess and came to Maseru to run a small European day school at a time when there was no regular Anglican work in the town, although a little church named for St. John had been built. In effect, however, St. John's was used for the European com¬ munity, even after Maseru had become regularly at¬ tended to as an out-station of Masite (1894). About this time a house was obtained for mission workers, evangelization among the Basotho was undertaken, and Deaconess Burton was in the forefront of the effort. Largely because of her activities on a special trip to England, work began in 1905 on the Church of St. James, now the Cathedral-Church of Lesotho. She wrote a little book entitled Happy Days and Happy Hours in Basutoland. BUSCH,
BUTHA-BUTHE. Here, on a high and easily fortified hill, Moshoeshoe made his home and stronghold during the early years of the Lifaqane (from c. 1822 to July 1824). From here he moved to Thaba-Bosiu. Later, in 1884, when Moshoeshoe's grandson, Joel, was chief of the are^.,, a district headquarters bearing the same name was built about a mile-and-a-quarter west of Moshoeshoe's original fortress. Butha-Buthe is today headquarters of the ButhaButhe District, smallest and most northerly of Lesotho's districts.
- C CALEDON RIVER (Mohokare). It was named for the Earl of Caledon (governor of the Cape, 1807-1811) by Colonel Collins, who in 1809 was exploring along the Orange River. He saw the Caledon flowing into the Orange from the north but was unable to reach it because the Orange was too swollen to cross. Since 1867 it has been accepted as the western boundary of Lesotho. Along it are the most populous areas of Lesotho, while some of the best farming land in the Free State lies in the "conquered territory" on the opposite side. CAMPS. These are the administrative centers in the various districts of Lesotho. They were mainly founded as magistracies by the Cape administration and today form the chief towns of Lesotho. They are set apart from the rest of the country because at the beginning they were government reserves, under the direct control of the district commissioner, and land could be owned for building purposes. Outside of the "camps, " traders, missions and institutions (including the National University of Lesotho) do not own land but occupy it. CAPE ADMxa ISTRATION. After annexing Lesotho, the British government was anxious to economize by attaching it to either Natal or the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope. In 1871, without consultation with the Basotho, the for¬ mal Act of Annexation was passed by the Cape Legisla¬ ture. The power of making laws and regulations was vested in the governor; Cape laws were to apply only if specifically extended by the governor or specifically provided for. Certain types of legal cases originating
in Basutoland would come under the Cape courts. The country was immediately divided into four ad¬ ministrative districts; Leribe, Berea, Thaba-Bosiu and Cornet Spruit. The whole country was put under the control of a governor's agent, who acted as chief magistrate in judicial matters. A comprehensive set of regulations was put in force and was supplemented by proclamations in 1877 and 1880. The chiefs were not used as agents of local rule but the magistrates progressively took over their judicial and other powers. To all appearances, Basutoland was a native reserve like others in the Cape Colony. Although rule by alien magistrates was not popular in the country, it was only the attempt to disarm the Basotho in 1880 that provoked direct resistance and brought on the Gun War. The Cape forces were unable to gain control and a compromise peace was made which was soon followed by the ceding of the territory to Britain again. (See GUN WAR; DISANNEXATION ACT). CARE (Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere). Came to Lesotho in 1968 to establish self-help rural develop¬ ment projects. It supports the building of schools and the production of school furniture at the L. T. I., has fostered the home spinning of mohair, worked with credit unions, and in other ways assisted in develop¬ ment. CASALIS FAMILY. Associated with Lesotho over several generations, this family was founded by JEAN-EUGENE CASALIS (1812-1891), probably the best known of the three pioneer P. E. M. S. missionaries among the Ba¬ sotho. He was born at Orthez (Basse Pyrenees) in France in a dedicated Protestant family. As he grew up he felt a call to mission work overseas and after training in Paris, was sent to southern Africa, along with Gosselin and Arbousset, when he was only twenty years of age. When he arrived with his companions and met Moshoeshoe, the Frenchmen agreed that Lesotho would be their field of work. Casalis wrote: "We become Basutos, from today onwards our destinies and those of the tribe are identical. " His working life in Lesotho reflects his wholehearted dedication to this commitment. When Moshoeshoe refused to move to Morija as the missionaries had hoped, Casalis decided to live at
Thaba-Bosiu and founded the mission station just below the mountain. From 1838 until his departure from Lesotho in 1856 he made his home here where he could see Moshoeshoe every day. He acted as his secretary and as his adviser on foreign and political matters. At a time when the emigrant Boers were appearing in the lowlands, and when the British authorities at the Cape were suddenly interested in knowing about matters in the interior and especially in entering into official re¬ lations with indigenous rulers, Casalis's knowledge and advice was crucial to Moshoeshoe's success in piloting the ship of state in a changing world, and Casalis ac¬ companied the chief on a number of his important meet¬ ings with the Cape governors. Casalis and his colleagues, being the first white men to live in Lesotho, introduced the Basotho to many of the common domesticated animals, plants, and fruit trees known in the larger world. They interested them¬ selves in improving the material conditions of the people hardly less than in presenting the Christian gospel and in winning converts. Eugene Casalis visited France in 1849-50 to help revive the interest in foreign missions that had been waning there since the 1848 Revolution; in this he had some success and made himself known among the Re¬ formed Churches in France. A result was that follow¬ ing the death of his wife (Sarah Dyke) in 1854, he was called back to Paris to become director of the training school for missionaries and headquarters of the P. E. M. S. In the years that followed he sent many young men out to serve in the mission in Lesotho. He re¬ tired in 1882. His writings on Lesotho form a valuable historical source. They include Les Bassoutos (1859) and Mes Souvenirs (1882). Both were later translated and pub¬ lished in English, the latter as My Life in Basutoland (1889). ^wo of Casalis's sons returned to work in Lesotho, and hxs eldest daughter lived long in Lesotho as the wife of the Rev. Adolphe Mabille. The first son to serve with the P.E.M. S. was Dr. EUGENE-ARNAUD CASALIS (1837-1891), who was born at Morija, studied in France and Switzerland, qualified in medicine in 1862, and returned to work among the Basotho. Except for the period of the war with the Free State, when he and most other P. E.M. S. mission¬ aries were living in exile, he served in P. E. M. S.
stations. In 1875 he added to his labors in medicine the directorship of the Morija Normal School. In 1891 he returned to France for medical treatment and there died. Another son of Eugene Casalis (by his second wife, Sophie Bourgeois) was the Rev. ALFRED CASALIS (1862-1950), who was born at Berne, grew up in Paris, studied theology, and came to Lesotho in 1889. He founded the mission station at Qalo. In 1894 he took up a variety of duties at Morija, including directing the Bible School, editing Leselinyana, writing extensively in Sesotho and reorganizing the Book Depot. After 1906 he left Lesotho for reasons of health and spent most of the rest of his life in Paris with the exception of the period 1919-1925, which he spent at Morija as director of the Normal School. Another member of the Casalis Family was Dr. Eugene's son, GEORGE CASALIS, who served as the medical officer at Leribe (1890-1895). CATHCART, SIR GEORGE (1794-1854). Governor of the Cape (1852-1854). Aide-de-camp to the Duke of Well¬ ington at the Battle of Waterloo, he was a lieutenantgeneral when appointed to succeed Sir Harry Smith. His chief concerns while in South Africa were to settle the eighth fronter war there and to resolve the tension be tween the Orange River Sovereignty and the Basotho. In November 1852 Cathcart marched with 2500 troops to meet with Moshoeshoe. He levied a fine of 10, 000 cattle on the Basotho, and when it was not forth¬ coming within the allotted time, attempted an assault upon Thaba-Bosiu. He was repulsed at Berea on 20 December and took advantage of Moshoeshoe's concilia¬ tory letter (see NEHEMIAH) to withdraw with only a fraction of the indemnity demanded. The chief result of this incident was that the British determination to relinquish control of the sovereignty (first mooted after Major Warden's defeat by Moshoeshoe at Viervoet in June 1851) was supported by Cathcart and carried out by Sir George Clerk, who negotiated the Bloemfontein Convention of 23 February 1854. Cathcart was regarded as a successful governor and was awarded a K. C. B. in 1853. t
CENEZ, Bishop JULES, O. M. I. (1865-1944). Roman Catholic missionary. First Vicar Apostolic of Basutoland, he was born in Metz in 1865 and became a priest in 1889.
He came to Lesotho as the assistant of Father Gerard at St. Monica's in 1891. From 1893 to 1896 he was at Sion from where he was appointed in 1897 as the third prefect apostolic of Lesotho (after Mgr. Monginoux and Mgr. Beaudry) and as the first Vicar Apostolic of Lesotho in 1909. After a useful ministry during which he admitted two new religious orders to work in Lesotho (the Marist Brothers at Roma College and the Sisters of Holy Cross (Menzingen)), he resigned in 1930 and died in France on 2 March 1944. CHAKELA, KOENYAMA. A politician, he was born in the Leribe District in 1935. He worked in South Africa from 1951, was district secretary of the B. C. P. from 1957 and became provincial secretary 1960-61 (in this case, provincial refers to the Transvaal, which included many branches of the B. C. P.). From 1961 he was ap¬ pointed to represent the B. C. P. abroad. He was at the party office in Cairo from 1961 to 1964 and traveled widely from there; in December 1962 he and G. M. Kolisang appeared before the United Nations in New York to petition for independence. He was a candidate in the constituency of Likhetlane in 1965 and was elected to the Lesotho Parliament. In 1967 he was appointed to succeed Kolisang as secretary of the party. Early in 1974, following the crisis at the end of January, he left Lesotho and went into exile. CHAMPERNOWNE, the Rev. ROBERT KEBLE (d. 1887). Anglican missionary. Arrived with his sister in 1879 to help the Anglican mission at Hlotse, with a special interest in a proposed training college. The Champernownes left Leribe during the Gun War but returned at intervals to help the Rev. John Widdicombe, who stayed at the mission. Champernowne died suddenly in Decem¬ ber 1887. The permanent church at Hlotse, dedicated early in 1°90, was built as a memorial to Champernowne by the gifts of friends and relatives, while its fittings commemorated the other workers of the church who had died there. CHAPLIN, ALLEN GEOFFREY TURNSTALL (1908-1962). Resident commissioner. Born at Kokstad (East Griqualand), he joined the Basutoland government serv¬ ice at the age of 17. He was district commissioner at Butha-Buthe in 1940, then at Qacha's Nek. After years
with the British Colonial Office, he was appointed resi¬ dent commissioner for Basutoland in 1956, amidst a storm of protest because he was South African-born. He retired in 1962, the year he died. He had married a Miss Collier, a daughter of Cyril Collier of the wellknown Maseru trading firm, and their two sons, Sidney and Paul, have been active entrepreneurs in Lesotho. CHEVRIER, the Rev. ODILON, O. M. I. (1894-1973). Roman Catholic missionary. He arrived in Lesotho with the Rev. Gerard Martin in 1923, the first Canadians to serve the mission there. He founded the Roma (Minor) Seminary in February, 1924, and in 1927 became sec¬ retary for Catholic schools, serving as representative of the bishop in educational matters. Under his guid¬ ance more than a hundred new schools were opened, particularly in the mountains. For six years he edited the Teacher's Quarterly Molisana. He organized vocational courses at Roma College and launched a local branch of the Natal Catholic African Organization (C.A. O. ) to promote the social and economic welfare of Basotho farmers on a cooperative basis under the name of the Buyers and Sellers Association. He founded the mission stations of Villa Maria (near Quthing) and St. Benedict's (near Roma) and four new stations in the Leribe area: Masite, Maryland, Mount Royal and Kolonyama. He died in Canada. CHIEFS, COLLEGE OF. The Constitution of 1959 set up, as an innovation, a College of Chiefs consisting of all principal and ward chiefs, with the paramount chief as president, with the three duties of recognizing chiefs, investigating complaints against chiefs, and adjudicating disputes over succession and boundaries. In the 1966 Constitution its role was apparently changed. It was now concerned with designating the king's (paramount chief's) successor in case of his death or abdication. The same body has the right to appoint a regent during the king's illness or temporary absence. Following the Thaba-Bosiu Incident at the end of 1966, the govern¬ ment called together the College with the evident inten¬ tion of threatening the king with deposition if he did not undertake to abide by the constitution and other conditions imposed by the cabinet. Although it is ques¬ tionable that they had the power to demand this, the king did sign, on 5 January 1967, an undertaking that
satisfied the government. In 1970, during the state of emergency, the College was again called together to discuss the king's future. The chiefs were in disagree¬ ment about their constitutional position and about the necessity to elect a new king. On the whole, they sup¬ ported the status quo* That would appear to have been the last meeting of the College. CHIEFTAINSHIP HIERARCHY. At present, at the top of the traditional hierarchy is the paramount chief (king) who is responsible for the whole land of the nation. Below him are 22 principal and ward chiefs, each controlling a territory or ward. Below them are chiefs, sub-chiefs, and headmen with jurisdiction over various areas. The most important chiefs are members of the House of Moshoeshoe, for during the later days of Moshoeshoe I and the years that followed, the paramount chief made sure that his sons, especially those of his first house, were given control over territories suited to their birth and rank. So in each generation districts were rearranged and new appointments made; former chiefly lineages were moved down the hierarchy while new scions of the royal house appeared at the top. In this way power has been concentrated, up to the middle of this century, in the hands of the paramount chief and his near kinsmen. The principal and ward chiefs were (in 1973): (Name of Chief) (Name of Territory) Mathealira Seeiso Mokhotlong Masopha Seeiso* Matsieng Leshoboro Seeiso Likhoele Letsie Bereng Phamong Makotoko Theko Rat'soleli & Mashai Makopoi Ramabanta Api Ramabanta's Mohlalefi Bereng Masite, Kolo & Thaba-Tseka Letsie Jacottet Khoabane Thaba-Bosiu Mohale Seeiso Maama Maama's Matelile Seeiso Joel Moholobela Ts epo Qefate Sempe Quthing Makhaola Lerotholi Mojela Tebang Leribe Bolokoe Letsie Motsoena Tsikoane & Kolbere Jonathan Mathealira Butha-Buthe Kuini Manamolela Mopeli Masopha Gabashane 'Mamathe's & Thupa-Kubu Masopha Majara's Leshoboro Majara Koeneng & Mapoteng Makhabane Boshoane Mitchell
Nkhahle Mohale Tumane Thaabe Matela ’Mants'aase Monare Moeketsi Mats'ohlo Mosuoe
Tajane, Ramoetsana's & Mohale's Makhoakhoengt Taungt Tlokoengf
*Masopha Seeiso is actually regent for his nephew, Prince Mohato, son of King Moshoeshoe n. When the prince conies of age he will assume this chieftainship. tThe last three are not descended from or related to Moshoeshoe I. CHOBELISO. A kind of forced elopement or marriage by capture, in which a young man seizes a girl, rides off with her and makes her his wife by force. This often happens because of lack of bohali or some other im¬ pediment to a proper marriage. Following this, a special agreement as to bohali, less expensive for the young man and his family, can be negotiated. This, coupled with the lack of expense of a formal wedding, has led to a great increase in this practice. CHRISTELLER, the Rev. CHARLES (1868-1945). P.E.M.S. missionary. Born in France, he came to Lesotho in 1892. He was minister in turn at Qalo, Mafube, Maphutseng, and Morija, and then from 1927 was director of the theological school at Morija. For many years he was president of both the Missionary Conference and the Seboka, and occupied the leading position in the church. CHRIS TO L, the Rev. FREDERIC (1850-1933). P.E.M. S. missionary. An artist as well as an evangelist, he was born in Paris and came to Lesotho in 1882 and served at Bethesda and Hermon before returning to France in 1908. Through his paintings and drawings he made Lesotho known in France. CHURCH OF LESOTHO (or Lesotho Evangelical Church [LEC]) (in Sesotho, Kereke ea Lesotho). The Protes¬ tant Church established by the first missionaries in the country, those sent by the Paris Evangelical Mis¬ sionary Society. (See LESOTHO EVANGELICAL CHURCH.) CIRCUMCISION (Lebollo).
Held at a mophato or circumcision
school, this was the traditional initiation for boys. It still exists, but from the time of the earliest mission¬ aries has ceased to be universally supported, and now only a minority of boys, those of non-Christian families, participate in its activities. •f*
CLARKE, CHARLES NOBLE ARDEN. He was resident com¬ missioner in Lesotho between 1942-1946. At one period he traveled to North Africa to discuss with the Basotho troops serving there the reforms planned in reducing the number of chiefs, their courts, and establishing the national treasury. He is, of course, particularly well known for his period of service in Ghana. CLARKE, Sir MARSHAL JAMES (1841-1909). Resident com¬ missioner (1884-94). Born in Ireland, he made his career in the British army. He took part in several campaigns in South Africa and during the Cape regime in Lesotho was briefly magistrate of Quthing. He was posted to Egypt in 1882 but was recalled to take control of Basutoland in 1884. He pursued a policy of concilia¬ tion, and the regulations he made were generous as com¬ pared with the Cape laws in force during the previous 10 years (e. g. , he abolished flogging, save in cases of rape). After a ten-year term, he was appointed to the same office in Zululand. He retired to Ireland where he died. COCHET, the Rev. LOUIS (1815-1876). P.E.M.S. mission¬ ary. He arrived in Lesotho in 1845 and suffered many setbacks in mission work because of the wars and in¬ vasions that affected his mission stations. He died at his station at Bethesda (Maphutseng). COILLARD, the Rev. FRANCOIS (1834-1904). P.E.M.S. missionary. Born in France, he came to Lesotho in 1857. He was sent to open a mission for Molapo, in Lerib°, in 1859, but from 1865 to 1868, during the wars with the Orange Free State, he was exiled and found refuge in Natal. He was able to return to Leribe in 1869, after the ratification of the Treaty of Aliwal North. Around this time he wrote the words for what is now the national anthem of the Kingdom of Lesotho. His connection with Lesotho came to an end when, after making journeys to the north in search of other Sotho speakers in 1878 and following years, he crossed the Zambezi and founded the Barotseland mission in
38 1884. He was a prolific hymn writer, translated many of LaFontaine's fables into Sesotho, translated or adapted many of the songs of Sankey and Moody, and wrote as his major work his account of his work and travels, Sur le Haut Zambeze.
LEKHOTLA LA BAFO
CONNAUGHT, Prince ARTHUR of (1883-1938). Son of the Duke of Connaught and grandson of Queen Victoria, he was governor-general of the Union of South Africa and high commissioner from 1920-24. CONQUERED TERRITORY. The territory taken by the white settlers of the Orange Free State from the Basotho, in¬ cluding the right bank of the Caledon River. The largest amount was yielded by the defeated Basotho by the Treaty of Thaba-Bosiu. Some of this was recovered by the British by the Convention of Aliwal North. On 13 April 1961, some years before Lesotho's independence was gained, Chief Leabua Jonathan sent a memorandum to the United Nations asking it to press the British government to negotiate the return of these territories. In opening the National Assembly on 28 April 1973 King Moshoeshoe II implied that Lesotho would appoint members to a new joint boundary commission with South Africa to negotiate a more satisfactory boundary with the Orange Free State. The whole question of gaining back these lost lands is a perennial theme in political and patriotic speeches from all quarters. On 29 September 1975, at the General Assembly of the U. N. , the Foreign Minister of Lesotho (Mr. Kotsokoane) mentioned Lesotho's continued interest in this question. CONSTANTINUS BERENG SEEISO
CONSTITUTIONAL COMMISSION. Set up by the Legislative Council of Basutoland in 1961 as a result of a motion introduced asking the British government to grant re¬ sponsible government. The Constitutional Commission toured the country to discover the wishes of the people regarding the proposed constitution. Its report, drawn up with the assistance of Professor D. V. Cowen, was
debated in the Legislative Council between 25 November 1963 and 11 February 1964, and its conclusions were the basis for talks with the British government on selfgovernment. CONSTITUTION OF 1966. This was the Constitution under which Lesotho began its existence as an independent country, after some 98 years of control by Great Brit¬ ain. It came into,effect on Independence Eve, just before 4 October 1966, when the instruments of inde¬ pendence were handed over to King Moshoeshoe II by Princess Marina, the Duchess of Kent, representing Queen Elizabeth II. King Moshoeshoe accepted it, but with some reservations, basically because of the wide powers it gave the prime minister. This constitution was suspended on 30 January 1970, when a state of emergency was declared by Prime Minister Leabua Jonathan. On 31 January he described the suspended constitution as being "foreign and hybrid. " He promised a new constitution "made to measure to our way of life and our conception of democracy. ” Six years later this constitution was not yet published. CORNET SPRUIT (Makhaleng). A stream in the southern part of Lesotho, which at the time of the Cape rule gave its name to a district. This area is now divided into two districts, Mohale's Hoek and Quthing. The seat of the magistrate was the present Mohale's Hoek. Austen was first magistrate. In 1877 the Quthing Dis¬ trict was carved out of the original, with Hope as mag¬ istrate. COWEN, Professor DENNIS V. A member of the Faculty of Law at the University of Cape Town, he was called in by the Constitutional Committee of the Basutoland National Council in 1955 to give advice on a constitution for the country. The Committee's proposals, published in Ju.lv 1958, were for a Legislature Council of 80 mem¬ bers L replace the National Council), which would deal with all internal matters, and an Executive Council of four British and four African members. Professor Cowen was later recalled by Chief Jonathan as con¬ stitutional adviser and stayed for about two years, until after independence. CRISIS OF 1974
JANUARY (1974) DISTURBANCES
CURRENCY. The currency of Lesotho is that of South Africa, and has been ever since that country was formed in 1910. The present denomination is a rand divided into 100 cents. t
CURRIE, Sir WALTER (1819-1872). Born in Jersey, his family were among the "1820 settlers" of South Africa, and he grew up in the eastern Cape. He made his career in the armed forces of the Cape. He was com¬ mander of the Frontier Armed and Mounted Police when he was appointed by High Commissioner Sir P. E. Wodehouse to be his agent in Basutoland at the time of the proclamation that it had become British territory (1868). He was ordered to proceed to the assistance of the Basotho, still defending themselves against the Boers, with "the body of Frontier Police now collected under your orders in the Native Reserve. " He was to explain to the Boers that the Basotho were now British subjects, and encourage their with¬ drawal from the areas they had conquered. He was not to go on the offensive, but to "arrest any further aggression on their part" and to exercise his discretion in respect to supplying the Basotho with ammunition. He read the proclamation of annexation to Moshoeshoe and his followers at Thaba-Bosiu on 26 March 1868, and remained as the governor's agent until April 1868, when succeeded by J. H. Bowker. CUSTOMS. When the South African colonies were united in 1910 the new governments agreed to pay a fixed per¬ centage of customs receipts to each of the higji com¬ mission territories. This agreement, with some ad¬ justments since independence, has lasted to the present day, and Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland are thus part of a customs union with the Republic of South Africa.
- D DAMANE, MOSEBI. Born at Masitise in 1919, he attended P. E.M. S. schools, then Lovedale, then Fort Hare for two years. He had to return home before finishing and received his degree from U.N. I. S.A. He became a teacher with a special interest in local history. While at the Lesotho Training College (Morija) from 1937 to 1960 he published Peace, the Mother of Nations (1947), Moorosi: Morena oa Baphuthi (1948), Historia
ea Lesotho (1950), Marath'a Lilepe (1963) (an analysis in Sesotho of Mangoaela's collection of praise poems) and this formed the basis for Lithoko: Sotho Praise Poems (with P. B. Sanders), which was published by the Clarendon Press of Oxford University in 1974. While attached to the U. B. L. S. in 1973-75 he produced studies in Basotho history, including a study of the Batlokoa for the M. A. degree. Jt
DAUMAS, the Rev. FRANCOIS (1812-1871). P. E. M. S. mis¬ sionary. Born in France, he came to Lesotho in 1835. He founded at Mekoatleng a mission for Moletsane and the Bataung who had moved there from Beersheba. In 1836 he accompanied Arbousset in his first exploratory expedition in the Blue Mountains. In 1866 he was ex¬ pelled from his mission by the O. F. S. forces and took refuge in Natal. He remained there until the end of the war and then when he became aware of the terms of the Convention of Aliwal North he went to Britain (April 1869) to fight for the restoration of his mission station and to safeguard the lands of his Bataung com¬ munity. He was making some progress with the Coloni¬ al Office when in June he was unexpectedly joined by Ts'ekelo Moshoeshoe (sent by his father to represent his interests), and his companion, D. D. Buchanan of Pietermaritzburg, a former member of the Natal Legis¬ lative Council. The same boat brought letters from Governor Wodehouse which undercut their positions as spokesmen for the Basotho, although the Rev. Eugene Casalis hastened over from Paris to give them support. Later, a deputation of British members of Parliament, accompanied by the three representatives from the Basotho, waited on Lord Granville to protest the terms of the treaty, but they were unable to gain any revision. Daumas returned to Pietermaritzburg and died on 22 January 1871 without seeing Lesotho again. The Rev. Daumas has been reviled by some South African writers (including Theal) for his efforts to win back ms mission station and to have the terms of the Convention altered. This undeserved criticism may be partly the result of the belief that he visited ThabaBosiu and plotted with malcontents there early in 1869. In actual fact it was his 15-year-old son, Agenor, who seized the chance to visit his native country under the protection of Buchanan. Agenor Daumas grew up to become a colonial official in the Bechuanaland Protec¬ torate. Another son of Francois Daumas, Coloni,
42 served the Basotho as a doctor, being the second dis¬ trict surgeon at Maseru. He was an eye specialist and in 1880 moved to Aliwal North, where he continued to practice.
DAVID, the Rev. GABRIEL. Anglican priest. A Morolong, he was the first member of the Barolong nation to be¬ come an Anglican priest. He was ordained at Hlotse in 1890 and served at Masite, succeeding Canon Weigall there. DEBESHE, EDWARD. A Methodist evangelist who in the 1920's founded a congregation near Mafeteng and over¬ saw work among Methodists in Lesotho until it was of¬ ficially undertaken by the Methodist Church of South Africa in 1927. DES ROSIERS, Bishop JOSEPH DELPHIS, O. M. I. Roman Catholic missionary. Born near Ottawa, Canada, in 1906 and ordained a priest in 1930, he arrived in Lesotho in 1932 to teach at Roma Seminary. In 1939 he became superior of the seminary, leaving it in 1942 to become superior and manager of the Mazenod Insti¬ tute. In 1944 he became provincial of the oblates in Lesotho and four years later was appointed titular Bishop of Pachenemonis and Vicar Apostolic of Basuto¬ land in succession to Bishop Bonhomme. On 11 Janu¬ ary 1951 he became first Bishop of Maseru and in 1961, when Maseru became a metropolitan see with a Mosotho as archbishop (the Most Rev. Emmanuel ’Mabathoana), Bishop Des Rosiers was translated to the Suffragan See of Qacha's Nek. DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS. Since independence a number of rural development projects have been launched in Lesotho. One of the largest is the Thaba Tseka pro¬ ject, backed by Canada. Others of promise are the Thaba-Bosiu project and the Roma Valley project. Another project with a specialized objective is the Thaba Khupa Ecumenical Farm Institute Project, which trains young farmers in intensive farming methods. DIETERLEN FAMILY. The Rev. HERMANN DIETERLEN (1850-1933) was a P. E.M. S. missionary. Born in France, he came to Lesotho in 1874. After a period of adjustment at Morija, he was sent in 1876 to the north to establish a station among the Banyai. The
attempt failed when the Transvaal authorities arrested his party and it was turned back. Dieterlen was then put in charge of the mission station at Hermon (18771887) after which, until 1894, he was in charge of the theological school at Morija. He was at Leribe (18941913), served briefly at the Bots'abelo Leper Settlement, and then spent the years until his retirement in 1919 at Likhoele. During his career he wrote prolifically in French and Sesotho (e. g., Vie de A. Mabille, Missionaire au Lessouto). His wife (nee Anna Busch, 1859-1945) contributed to the knowledge of the botanical riches of Lesotho. She came to assist in the normal school for girls at Thaba-Bosiu in 1877, and after her marriage a year later worked with her husband as well as building up her collection of plants (most of which were given to the Institute of Botany in Strasbourg). Their son, GEORGES DIETERLEN (1879-1950), also served in Lesotho. Educated in France, he was ordained a minister in Lesotho in 1908, served in a parish and in 1914-18 served in the French army. He returned to P. E.M. S. work at Berea and at Thaba-Bosiu. In 1932 he was elected president of the mission and posted to Morija, where he edited Leselinyana. In 1938 he gave up parish work and was head of the theological school, but he had to resume parish duties during World War
n. DISANNEXATION ACT. In 1884 the parliament of the Cape Colony, disheartened by the expensive struggle to re¬ store its control over the Basotho, passed an act re¬ fusing any further responsibility for Basutoland, which then returned to direct imperial control. DOBSON MAP. The standard map of Lesotho, to the scale of 1:250, 000, it was prepared from a reconnaissance survey made in 1904-09 by Captain M. C. Dobson, an artillery officer (and son-in-law of Sir Herbert Sloley), who was killed in action in France during World War I. Dobson covered all of Lesotho on horse and foot, and his map stands as an amazing one-man achievement. The map was published as a supplement to a military report on Basutoland in 1910. DODA. A son of Moorosi and the cause of the latter’s down¬ fall. He was arrested for stock theft in April 1878 and again (for horse theft) in November. The second
time he was sentenced to four years of hard labor in the Cape. On New Year's Eve he and five other pris¬ oners (two of them his brothers) were rescued from jail. The government decided on stern measures against Moorosi, who in turn, looted the magistracy and engaged in open warfare from about the middle of February 1879 and was eventually defeated and killed. (See MOOROSI.) DONGA. The deep gully or ravine formed through erosion. Lesotho has been very badly eroded through over-graz¬ ing and other bad agricultural practices. The heavi¬ ness of the rainfall on occasion, added to the peculiar quality of the soil (which readily forms a solution in suspension), aggravates the tendency of the soil to erode, so dongas are found everywhere. DRAKENSBERG (Quathlamba Mountains). They mark the eastern boundary of Lesotho; part of them lie in Natal. DRIFT. A South African term for a ford, applied commonly in Lesotho to the many places where shallow streams cross the roads and are not bridged. DUNCAN, PATRICK BAKER (1918-1967). Born in Johannes¬ burg, son of Sir Patrick Duncan (a member of "Mil¬ ner’s Kindergarten" and later governor-general of the Union of South Africa), he graduated from Oxford and became private secretary to High Commissioner Sir Evelyn Baring (1946-47). From that post he entered the Basutoland government service as assistant district officer (1947-49) and judicial commissioner (1950-52). It was during this time, when he was judicial com¬ missioner, that Leabua Jonathan was associated with him as assessor, and it was then that Duncan urged Leabua to interest himself in the political future of his country. Duncan himself felt he had to take an active part in the political life of South Africa, which he saw as following the wrong path. In 1952, therefore, he re¬ signed his position in order to take part in the "De¬ fiance Campaign" of the South African Indian Congress and the African National Congress. To earn his living, he opened a bookshop just across the river from Mase¬ ru. He served a term in prison for entering a Bantu location without the required permit. Afterwards he helped found the Liberal Party in South Africa and after
moving to Cape Town in 1958, edited its paper, Con¬ tact. He switched his support from the A. N. C. to the Pan-African Congress, and in March 1960 was banned from all gatherings for a period of five years under the (South African) Suppression of Communism Act. In 1961 he returned to Lesotho but in the next year moved to England. In failing health, he continued to fight for equality of all races in South Africa, which he believed would only be attained by resorting to violence. DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH. Until recently there was no D. R. C. work in Lesotho, since there was general agree¬ ment among the Protestant Churches in South Africa that the P. E.M.S. should be left to carry on Protestant work in Lesotho. When Basotho members of the L.E.C. went to South Africa, they carried letters of membership from their own churches, which were accepted by other Protestant denominations. The D. R. C. was anxious to help the P. E. M. S. with men and money as early as 1924, a time when the Methodists first began work in Lesotho. However, Chief Griffith forbade cooperation "with the Boers." On the other hand, the L. E. C. be¬ lieved it would be advantageous to be able to follow its members to the new gold mining communities of the O. F. S., and in return were willing to allow the D. R. C. to enter Lesotho. In the early 1960's the high commis¬ sioner gave permission for the first D. R. C. churches to be erected in the country. There are thus a few congregations, mostly close to the O. F. S. border, of people who joined the D. R. C. while working in South Africa. This work is supported from South Africa and has no more than a toe-hold in Lesotho. DYKE FAMILY. An outstanding missionary family serving Lesotho through a number of generations. The connec¬ tion began when Sarah Dyke married the Rev. J. -E. Casalis. Her brother, HAMILTON MOORE DYKE (1817-1898), established the family name in Lesotho. Born m England, he was left behind when his parents emigrated to South Africa and joined them at Cape Town only in 1832. He became a member of Dr. John Phil¬ ip's Congregational Church. He had trained as a teach¬ er and at Dr. Philip's suggestion, he concentrated on education for the non-white section of the population. At the end of 1837 he opened a day school for colored boys, receiving a salary of £50 from the L. M. S. He took courses in theology with a view to joining the
46 P. E.M. S. mission in Lesotho, where his sister and brother-in-law were. In 1839 he arrived in Lesotho and was appointed a schoolmaster. Mr. Dyke drew a map of Lesotho (published in 1847) which is a prime source for the period. In 1847 he was ordained as a minister in the Dutch Reformed Church (on behalf of the P. E. M. S. ) and was married to Mary Jane Archi¬ bald. In 1851 they founded the mission station at Hermon. Dyke wrote many letters for Moshoeshoe and acted as his translator as well as curator of his official correspondence. He provided Theal with much of the material for his Basutoland Records. In 1868 Mr. Dyke became, first, principal of the Morija central school and then director of the normal school. He re¬ tired in 1878 and lived at Morija with his one surviving son, R. H. Dyke, until his death. His son, ROBERT HENRY DYKE (1850-1912), was born at Hermon, and at first intended to make a career in the diamond business and went to London to train for it. However, while there he underwent Christian ex¬ periences that decided him to follow in his father's footsteps. He trained at the Maison des Missions in Paris and then, for 18 months, studied the rudiments of medical practice at Glasgow. He married Mary Henry Alston in 1877 and came back to Lesotho. Here, as headmaster and later director of the normal school, ’ he passed the remainder of his life. On the death of his first wife in 1894 he married his second cousin, Aline Mary Mabille (1864-1950). From his marriages came several sons who served the Basotho as medical doctors. The eldest was HAMILTON WILLIAM DYKE (1881 1961), who was born at Morija. He qualified in medi¬ cine at Glasgow and began practicing at Butha-Buthe. He joined the Basutoland government (medical) service in 1913. During World War I he served in France as a captain with the Royal Army Medical Corps and was attached to the Basutoland Labor Corps when it arrived. Following the war he worked in Lesotho, then was trans¬ ferred to Palestine (1927-29) and thence to the Bechuanaland Protectorate as P. M. O. in 1929. In 1935 he was sent back to Lesotho and was awarded the C. B. E. He retired from government service at the close of the war but continued until retirement in 1952 to administer the Basutoland Pioneer Pension Fund. Two of H. W. Dyke's brothers, RONALD and ERIC JOHN DYKE, were at different times in medical practice
at Butha-Buthe, while a third, KENNETH HENRY DYKE, was in government service and eventually served as director of medical services. The daughter of R. H. Dyke, Ella (Mrs. Harrison W. Gibson), also lived in Lesotho and was for a long time commissioner of the Girl Guides.
- E -
"EAT UP. " A phrase denoting the spoiling of an individual or group by another, generally taking the form of seiz¬ ing their wealth, especially cattle. ELLENBERGER FAMILY. An outstanding missionary family that served Lesotho over several generations, it was founded by DANIEL FREDERIC ELLENBERGER (18351920), who was born in Switzerland and came out in 1860 under the P. E. M. S. In 1862 he succeeded Germond at Bethesda, but in 1866 had to flee from O. F. S. forces and founded a new station at Masitise, where he built a home for his family in a cave. This cave-house is still intact and a point of interest for tourists in the Quthing District. Ellenberger remained at Masitise until his retirement in 1905. Ellenberger's interest to historians lies in his History of the Basotho, Ancient and Modern, which he wrote in French from Sesotho sources, and which was published (1912) only in an English version, trans¬ lated and edited by his son-in-law, J. C. Macgregor. He intended to publish his history in Sesotho in three volumes; only one had been published at the time of his death and the project was never completed. Among D. F. Ellenberger's sons were JULES ELLENBERGER (1871-1974), who went into government service in the Bechuanaland Protectorate and was ul¬ timately resident commissioner there; and RENE ELLENBERGFR (1873-1944), who worked on the Sesotho version of the Jistory, founded the P. E.M. S. Archives at Morija, and, after serving as missionary to the Basotho in Johannesburg, joined the University of the Witwatersrand as professor of Bantu languages in 1927. The youngest son, the Rev. VICTOR ELLENBERGER (1879-1974), went originally to Barotseland but served for most of his life in Lesotho at Leribe. He was the author of A Century of Mission Work in Basutoland, 1833-1933; other works included La Fin Tragique des Bushmen
(1953) and Sello, ou la vie d'un Berger Mossouto (1936), and the translation into French of Mofolo’s Chaka. Two of Victor's sons, Professor FRANCOIS ELLENBERGER of Paris and the Rev. PAUL ELLENBERGER of Masite Mission, have written extensively on the geology and paleontology of Lesotho. THE ERINPURA. A troop-ship sunk in the Mediterranean in 1943 with a loss of the lives of 624 Basotho of the African Pioneer Corps (out of approximately 1000 Ba¬ sotho lost in all theatres of war).
- F FERRAGNE, the REV. MARCEL, O. M. I. Roman Catholic missionary. Born in Canada in 1914, he received his M. A. from the University of Ottawa in 1945 and in the same year came to Lesotho. He started the Catholic Centre at Roma, in connection with Pius XII College, in 1945 but in 1951 he transferred it to the Mazenod In¬ stitute where it developed into the Mazenod Book Centre (1965). He was for five years editor of Moeletsi oa Basotho as well as of the "digest, " Li-tsoa-Kotleng, and the French magazine, La Voix du Basutoland. In 1959 he founded the social center at Mazenod, here offering selected socio-economic courses. This was transferred to St. Michael's Mission in 1966 and Father Ferragne found an outlet for his interest in history, anthropology, literature, and studies of Basotho culture generally, by editing and cheaply producing, through his classes in typing and duplicating, some sixty books. These include four volumes of memoirs of Father Gerard (Le Pere Gerard Nous Parle). In 1971 he founded the Bishop Allard Vocational School where boys are taught vocational skills and girls learn home eco¬ nomics. FICK,
Commandant-General JOHAN IZAC JACOBUS (Jan) (1816-1892). Commander of the O. F. S. forces during the Seqiti war, he emerged from it a hero to his people and founded the village of Ficksburg in the "conquered territory, " close to the Basutoland border. He had been fighting Africans from the age of 11, when his father's farm was attacked by the Xhosa. Following the Great Trek he had made his home in the Winbure dis¬ trict of the O. F. S.
FORSYTHE-THOMPSON, Lt.-Col. AUBREY DENZIL. Resi¬ dent commissioner of Basutoland from 1946-1952, he was born in 1897 and entered the Colonial Service in Uganda in 1921. Befgre coming to Basutoland he had been resident commissioner in the Bechuanaland Pro¬ tectorate. .r
FRASER BROTHERS. Traders in Lesotho (Basutoland) from 1877, DONALD and DOUGLAS FRASER came from Ip¬ swich in England and began their business by buying a store at Liphiring, near Mafeteng. They prospered from the beginning, but lost their store in the Gun War. Despite this they bought up many other businesses at bargain prices and were ready to expand when peace returned. They moved their headquarters to Wepener in the O. F. S. and from there built up a large business in the southern part of Lesotho. The firm of D. & D. H. Fraser was founded in 1891, and in 1921 became Frasers Ltd. Today they have many branches in the O. F. S. as well as in Lesotho and also control K. Nolan Ltd. in northern Lesotho. The firm plays a very important part in the economy of Lesotho. FRASER, Sir IAN (Lord Fraser of Lonsdale) (1897-1974). Chairman of Frasers Ltd. (the most important trading firm in Lesotho) from 1956 until his death late in 1974, William Jocelyn Ian Fraser was born in England (al¬ though his father, W. P. Fraser, normally lived in Johannesburg) and grew up as part of the Fraser trad¬ ing dynasty associated with Lesotho. Educated at Marl¬ borough College and Sandhurst, he served in the British Army in 1915-16 and was blinded. After the war he founded St. Dunstan's for Blinded Ex-Servicemen. A member of the British Parliament in 1924, he held his seat until 1958, when he was appointed to the House of Lords ?s a Life Peer. Despite his blindness he traveled to the remotest branches of the firm in the Lesotho mountains. During his term of office the firm continued to expand in Le¬ sotho and in South Africa.
- G GABASHANE MASOPHA.
The principal chief of Masopha's
Ward and a great-grandson of the first Masopha, he was sent for an education to Fort Hare. He succeeded his father Masopha in 1938, amidst hopes that he would give an enlightened administration. Chief Seeiso brought him to Matsieng as one of his chief councilors, and during the chief's last illness he acted for him. He engaged in a ritual (or medicine) murder (liretlo) in 1948 and was hanged and was succeeded by his son David. GEORGE (son of Moshoeshoe)
GEORGE VI (King of Great Britain, etc.). Visited Basuto¬ land on 11-12 March 1947. For this visit the first stretch of tarred road in Lesotho was made; it ran from the station to the residency and up to the end of the main street, which has ever since been known as Kingsway. His visit culminated in a great national pitso. GERARD, the Rev. JOSEPH-JEAN-CHARLES, O. M. I. (18311914). Roman Catholic missionary. Born near Nancy, France, he was ordained a deacon by Mgr. de Mazenod before his departure for Africa on 10 May 1853 with Father J. Barret and Brother Bernard. He was or¬ dained a priest by Bishop Allard at Maritzburg on 19 February 1854. He came to Lesotho with Bishop AHard in 1862 and settled at Roma. He remained in charge of Roma mission for 13 years until the new Vicar Apostolic of Natal (and Lesotho), Bishop Jolivet, sent him to found a new mission in the northern district of Leribe at St. Monica's on 1 June 1876 with Father Barthelemy. He traveled all around that area and helped in the foundation of (old) St. Margaret's, Gethsemane and Sion. By the end of December 1897 old Father Gerard came back to Roma as parish priest until 1907 when young Father Guilcher took over. After having cele¬ brated his 60th anniversary of priesthood in 1914, he died at Roma Mission on 29 May 1914. His burial was a national event in the presence of government officials, Paramount Chief Griffith, and a crowd esti¬ mated at 15, 000. Christians soon started to pick up soil from his tomb to bring home for its supernatural power. The title of "Servant of God" has been allowed to him by the Holy See and steps are currently being
taken to make proof of his sanctity and to get for him the honor of beatification in Rome. Father Gerard was the translator into Sesotho of many hymns and prayers and the author of some books, including the first Roman Catholic book in Sesotho printed at ,rNatal Mercury" ©urban) in 1865. GERMOND FAMILY. Connected with Lesotho for well over a century, this family was founded by PAUL GERMOND (1835-1918), who was born in Switzerland and came out from Paris in 1859. Placed first at Bethesda, he was directed to establish and direct a station at ThabanaMorena, where he remained until 1895. While exiled during the O. F. S. war, he went to No Man's Land, which led the P. E. M. S. to found the station at Matatiele. He left the Lesotho field in 1895, going first to Griqualand East (Mafube), and then abroad after 1899. His special interest was in the founding of an industrial school, and at his own volition and expense he established such an institution at Thabana-Morena. In 1878 the mission formally supported it and Jean Preen was transferred from Matatiele to put it on proper lines. In 1880 it was moved to Leloaleng where it still flourishes. Paul Germond's son, JACQUES-LOUIS -FRANCOIS GERMOND, (1861-1941), was born at Cape Town just after his parents arrived from Europe en route to Lesotho. He was educated in Switzerland and trained at the Maison des Missions in Paris, and in 1886 came back to Lesotho. Louis Germond served as the mission¬ ary at Siloe and was ordained in 1889 at his father's station of Thabana-Morena. He was transferred to Thabana-Morena in 1899 and lived there until after his retirement. In 1932 he went to live at Margate on the coast of Natal. His son, ROBERT CHARLES GERMOND, (18971971), was born at Siloe, Lesotho, and after medical training abroad returned to Lesotho in 1928. He was in government service as medical officer at the Bots'abelo Leper Settlement from 1933 to 1939 and thereafter until his retirement continued in general medical service. He retired from it in 1951 and worked for the Witwatersrand Native Labor Association until 1956, when he re¬ turned to Lesotho for five years in general practice at Butha-Buthe. He compiled and edited Chronicles of Basutoland (Morija, 1967), based on P. E. Missionary reports from 1830 to 1902.
Another son of J. ~L. -F. Germond, SAMUEL GERMOND, (born 1902), served the P. E. M. S. mission as assistant director of the normal school at Morija and later as P. E. M. S. educational secretary, from which he retired in 1965. He edited and published a number of textbooks. His son, Dr. THEODORE GERMOND, was as of 1976 serving the P. E.M. S. mission at the Scott Hospital at Morija. GHOYA
GIJLSWUK, Archbishop BERNARD J. Sent as the first dele¬ gate apostolic to Southern Africa, he visited the Catho¬ lic community in Lesotho on many occasions, laying cornerstones, opening institutions, and ordaining Basotho candidates for the priesthood. He was particularly in¬ terested in founding a university for Africans in his area and is credited with inspiring the founding of the Pius Xn Catholic University College, the forerunner of the University of Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland. GILES, Sir ALEXANDER FALCONER. The last British ad¬ ministrator in Lesotho before independence, Sir Alex¬ ander Giles was born in Scotland in 1915. An Oxford graduate in the Colonial Service, he was appointed resi¬ dent commissioner in Basutoland in 1962. In 1964 the office of high commissioner was abolished and Sir Alexander assumed direct responsibility for territorial affairs and was directly responsible to the Secretary of State for the Colonies. During this time his title was altered (April 1965) to "the British Government Representative. " He attended the 1964 Constitutional Conference, the 1965 talks, and the 1966 Independence Conference in London. GOSSELLIN, CONSTANT (1800-1872). P. E.M. S. missionary. Originally a mason by trade, and a convert from Catholicism, Gossellin responded to a call for Christian artisans to go to the mission field, and accompanied Arbousset and Casalis in 1833. For forty years, the remainder of his life, he helped construct the buildings on almost every station, beginning with Morija and in¬ cluding Thaba-Bosiu, Bethulie, and Bethesda, where he spent most of his life. His fund of good humor and practical optimism were of great help to his young companions in their earliest days in Lesotho.
THE GOVERNMENT. During the days of the British ad¬ ministration the phrase, "the government, " referred to the British administration in Maseru and not to that of the paramount chief. GOVERNOR'S AGENT. On-the assumption of British authority over Lesotho as Basutoland in 1868, the chief adminis¬ trator appointed for the country was termed the "gov¬ ernor’s agent"; when the country reverted, after the Gun War, to direct control from Britain, the chief ad¬ ministrator was termed the "resident commissioner. " However, the correct title while Lesotho was still under direct British control (1868-1871) was "high com¬ missioner's agent, " since it was in the capacity of high commissioner that the governor exerted control over it. Col. Griffith was thus actually the first to be "gover¬ nor's agent. " The men who held this post were: 1868--Sir Walter Currie; 1868--Mr. J. H. Bowker; 1870—Mr. W. H. Surmon; 1871—Col. C. D. Griffith; 1881—Mr. J. M. Orpen; and 1883—Captain M. Blyth. GREY, Sir GEORGE (1812-1898). Governor of the Cape Colony 1854-59 and 1860-61. After service in the British army and high imperial office in Australia and New Zealand, on his arrival at the Cape he implemented a progressive "native policy, " which meant that he wished to assimilate the African population to European civilization. He disapproved of the conventions by which the O. F. S. and the Transvaal were independent of Britain and was unsympathetic to the former during its struggles with the Basotho. However, he consented to act as mediator to bring an end to the first war (Senekal’s War) between the Basotho and the Free State, and drew a boundary line between the two that really satisfied neither of them. However, the judgment was made after full consultation at Bloemfontein and at Thaba-Bosiu, and again with Moshoeshoe at Morija, and finally Tvith representatives of both sides at Aliwal North. Sir George Grey was in favor of a frederation of the colonies, territories, and republics of South Africa, and because he boldly advocated it (a measure many people in the O. F. S. thought might be a solution to their problems with the Basotho), he was recalled by the angry government at home. He returned for another year before being transferred, at his own request, back to New Zealand.
GRIFFITH, CHARLES DUNCAN (1830-1906). Governor’s agent during the Cape administration, he made a deep impression on the country and its people at a crucial time. He was born at Grahamstown in the Cape Colony and became an officer in the Frontier Armed and Mounted Police. He served as magistrate at Queens¬ town and Grahamstown before being appointed high com¬ missioner's agent in Basutoland in June 1871. His first years there were highly successful, as the system of magistrates was inaugurated and expanded and trade be¬ came much more important. However, the revolt of Moorosi in 1879 foreshadowed trouble. When the dis¬ armament proposals were put forward by the prime minister of the Cape, Griffith opposed them as strongly as he could but he was not heeded. The resulting Gun War shut him up in Maseru and destroyed his years of patient and tactful work, for by force of personality alone, not by arms, he had controlled the Basotho and introduced administrative innovations. Among other things, he had formed in October 1872 the Basutoland Mounted Police, which made a proud name for itself, and today, as the Lesotho Mounted Police, stiU repre¬ sents the only security force in the country. In August 1881, dissatisfied with the terms by which peace was restored in the country, Colonel Grif¬ fith withdrew into retirement. GRIFFITH LEROTHOLI (c. 1871-1939). Paramount chief of the Basotho from 1913, son of Lerotholi, brother of Letsie II. Named after Col. C. D. Griffith, he was placed as chief at Phamong, in the Orange Valley in the Mohale's Hoek District. The Baphuthi who lived there resented him and refused to acknowledge his authority, so in December 1897 he attacked them and they fled for a time to the Herschel District of Cape Colony. They returned but their chief, Mocheko, still made trouble and was banished by the government in 1902. In January 1898 Griffith took part in the war against Masopha at Thaba-Bosiu, and with his brother Letsie, led their father's forces in inflicting a decisive defeat on him. In 1913 when Letsie II died it was suggested that Griffith act as regent for the young heir, Tau. Grif¬ fith refused, for he said he wanted to sit on the throne ’’with both buttocks. ” Tau died, and Griffith became paramount chief, a post he held without incident until his death in 1939.
From 1912, when he was received into the church by the Rev. Joseph Foulonneau of Bethel Mission (under the baptismal name Nathaniel), he was a devout Roman Catholic and forwarded the fortunes of its mission work with all his influence. However, he had many wives, among them two daughters of Nkoebe, who were re¬ spectively mothers of his rival heirs, Seeiso and Bereng. (See SEEISO GRIFFITH.) GRIQUALAND EAST
NO MAN'S LAND
GRIQUAS. A collective term for a variety of groups of mixed European and African origin or, at least culturally, part¬ ly European. They are variously termed Hottentots, Bastards, Griquas, and Korannas (Kora). They lived by plundering and began to trouble the Basotho as the troubles of the Lifaqane began to fade. The Basotho coveted their horses and guns, and on occasion counter¬ attacked when the raiders were drunk on the beer found in captured villages and thus obtained their first fire¬ arms and horses. Within a few years the Basotho had become excellent horsemen and had learned to handle firearms. This fact helped to make them more success¬ ful opponents of the Europeans than other African peoples. Around 1833 groups of these people arrived on the borders of Lesotho and requested permission to settle. They included Barend Barends and his "Griqua, ” Carolus Baatje and his "Bastards, " and Jan Kaptein and his "Kora. " These groups had Wesleyan missionaries and were welcomed as vassals by Moshoeshoe. Other groups of Kora remained hostile to the Basotho until an expedi¬ tion in force attacked their villages south of Lesotho during 1836. From that time on they ceased to be a danger to the Basotho. GUMA, Dr. SAMSON MBIZA. Author of historical novels in Sesotho, Morena Mohlomi, mor’a Monyane (1960) and T^ehlana tseo tsa Basia (1962), he was appointed head oi the Department of African Languages in the new University of Basutoland, Bechuanaland Protectorate and Swaziland in 1964. He assumed important adminis¬ trative responsibilities in the university and in early 1971 became pro-vice-chancellor of the Swaziland branch of U. B. L. S. GUN WAR (or War of the Guns). The war precipitated by the demand of the Cape government for voluntary dis¬ armament by the Basotho. It was announced by Cape
Prime Minister J. Gordon Sprigg in a pitso at Maseru on 16 October 1879, at which time he told the crowd that the Basotho were like children who might become excited and join in an unintended rebellion. The para¬ mount chief petitioned the Cape Parliament against it, but before a reply was received, the Peace Preserva¬ tion Act was applied (21 May 1880). There was a wide¬ spread resistance to it; those chiefs who obeyed it were attacked and "eaten up, " and the war began. The major period of the war between Cape troops and the Basotho "rebels" was from September 1880 to April 1881. The Cape troops were unable to crush the rebellion and ul¬ timately had to abandon the struggle. Finally the Cape government abandoned the attempt to control the Basotho and conveyed responsibility for them back to Britain. (See DISANNEXATION ACT; GRIFFITH, C. D.)
- H HARTLEY, Dr. EDMUND B. The first district surgeon in Lesotho, he was brought from Cape Town by Colonel Griffith in 1875. He was stationed at Maseru but tra¬ veled all over the country attending officials and police as well as carrying on a private practice. In 1878 he resigned to become surgeon major in the C. M. R. and was in Lesotho during the campaign against Moorosi. For his conspicuous bravery at this time he was award¬ ed the Victoria Cross. At this time and again during the Gun War he was principal medical officer of the forces. Fort Hartley on the Orange River in the Quthing District was the site of his base hospital during 1879. HECTOR, GORDON MATTHEWS. Born in Scotland in 1918, he graduated from Oxford in 1939, served in the British forces during the war, joined the Colonial Service, and in 1956 was appointed deputy resident commissioner and government secretary in Lesotho. From 1960 he served as leader of the house in the Basutoland National Coun¬ cil. During the successive constitutional stages his post was redesignated chief secretary and deputy British government representative. During his years in Lesotho (which ended upon independence), Mr. Hector served on a variety of independent and government bodies, such as the Civil Servants Appointments and Promotions Board, the Basutoland Constitutional Commission for Constitu¬ tional Reform, and the 1962 Constitutional Commission.
HERTIG, Dr. GEORGE. Trained in medicine at Lausanne, he took up a practice at Morija as a private practition¬ er about 1896 and from there visited far-distant outstations. His influence in instilling good health habits of daily life as preventive medicine was very great. He died in an accident in 1929. HERTZOG, General JAMES BARRY MUNNIK (1866-1942). South African politician. General Hertzog, when prime minister of South Africa (1924-39), raised for the first time the question of the incorporation of the high com¬ mission territories into the Union. However, he told the Union Parliament in 1924 that he would not press it unless the natives of the territories were prepared and desired to come in. Again in 1934 he called for their transfer and hinted that a delay might raise dif¬ ficulties for the inhabitants when in the Union. This led to a British suggestion that methods of cooperation between the Union and territories be worked out, and was followed by a South African offer of £35, 000 which, Hertzog announced in Parliament, was "to help secure the good will of the Native for the hand-over." These words alarmed the peoples of the territories, and despite the assurances of the resident commission¬ ers that using this money would put them under no ob¬ ligation to the Union Government, they made their fears so strongly expressed that the high commissioner had to postpone his acceptance of the gift and in the end the offer was withdrawn. (See TRANSFER QUESTION.) HIGH COMMISSION TERRITORIES. Lesotho, Botswana and Swaziland (Basutoland, Bechuanaland Protectorate and Swaziland until 1966) were known as the high commis¬ sion territories during the period between 1910 and their gaining of independence. This was because they were under the authority of the high commissioner at Preto¬ ria in South Africa. HIGH COMM 'SIONERS. Because of the necessity for the British government to have a representative in southern Africa who could negotiate with tribes beyond the bound¬ aries of its colonies, the office of high commissioner was created in 1846 and held by the governor of the Cape Colony. With the formation of the Union of South Africa in 1910 the office was held by the governorgeneral. However, after 1931, with the Statute of Westminster, which recognized the autonomy of the Union
58 of South Africa (along with the other "dominions"), the office was separated from the governor-generalship and existed in one aspect as the British diplomatic repre¬ sentative to the Union while continuing to represent British authority over Basutoland, the Bechuanaland Protectorate and Swaziland, "the high commission terri¬ tories. " Not until late 1964 was the office of high commis¬ sioner done away with and the resident commissioner, now "queen's commissioner" (and after May 1965, "British government representative") in each territory became directly responsible to the Secretary of State for the Colonies. The high commissioners were: Maj. -Gen. Sir Henry Eldred Pottinger, 1847. Maj. -Gen. Sir Harry Smith, Dec. 1847-March 1852. Lt. Gen. the Hon. George Cathcart, March 1852May 1854. Sir George Grey, Dec. 1854-Aug. 1861. Sir Philip Wodehouse, Jan. 1862-May 1870. Sir Henry Barkly, Dec. 1870-March 1877. Sir Bartle Frere, March 1877-Sept. 1880. Sir Hercules Robinson, Jan. 1881-May 1889. Sir Henry Loch, Dec. 1889-May 1895. Sir Hercules Robinson (Lord Rosmead), May 189 5April 1897. Sir Alfred Milner, May 1897-April 1905. Lord Selborne, April 1905-May 1910. After 1910 the office of high commissioner was held by the governor-general of the Union of South Af¬ rica. These were: Viscount Gladstone, May 1910-July 1914. Viscount Buxton, Sept. 1914-July 1920. Prince Arthur of Connaught, Nov. 1920-Dec. 1923. Earl of Athlone, Jan. 1924-Dec. 1930. In 1931 the office of governor-general was bestowed on a representative of the British monarch rather than the British government, and high commissioners were separately appointed. They were: Sir Herbert Stanley, April 1931-Jan.. 1935. Sir William Clark, Jan. 1935-Jan. 1940. Lord Harlech, May 1941-May 1944. Sir Walter Huggard, June 1944-Oct. 1944. Sir Evelyn Baring, Oct. 1944-Oct. 1951. Sir John le Rougetel, Oct. 1951-Feb. 1955. Sir Percivale Liesching, March 1955-1958. Sir John Maud, 1959-1963. Sir Hugh S. Stephenson, 1963-1966.
HLASOA MOLAPO. A son of Molapo, he was placed as chief at Tsime in Butha-Buthe, where he guarded some of Molapo's herd of horses. This was one place where the old Basotho pony was bred. Hlasoa played an active part in the Gun War as an ally of Joel. Mrs. Leabua Jonathan, wife of the^prime minister, is one of his granddaughters. HLOTSE
HLOTSE RIVER. The river that flows below Hlotse Heights in the Leribe district of Lesotho. Moshoeshoe was living along its banks when the Lifaqane broke out in 1822. HOELETSA. The system by which messages can be called over long distances, best done from mountain to moun¬ tain. The best time for it is between 7 and 7:30 in the evening. It is based on tonal variations and special talents are involved. HOFFMAN, JOSIAS PHILIPPUS (1807-1879). First president of the Orange Free State. He showed friendship to Moshoeshoe and made a state visit to Thaba-Bosiu in August 1854. He was later driven from office when it was revealed that he had sent Moshoeshoe a bag of gun¬ powder to replace that used in saluting him. Thereafter relationships between the Boers and Basotho steadily deteriorated. HO KENELA. The practice by which a widow has to take another husband from her husband's family, if the head of the family desires it. Her bohali in that case stays in the family. HOPE, HAMILTON. A Cape civil servant, he linked himself with the French missionaries when he married one of Samuel Rolland's daughters. He was appointed magis¬ trate fc the new district of Quthing in 1877, with a special responsibility for Moorosi. He was defied by Doda, Moorosi's son (see MOOROSI), but was trans¬ ferred out of Lesotho before the final confrontation came. Hope was murdered in 1880 by the Pondomisi chief Umhlonhlo, who was tried in court but never punished, as the case was dismissed on a technicality. HOUSE. "First house," "second house," etc., refers to the progeny of a chief (or any man) by his various wives
in order of seniority. The first house, or principal house, would be, of course, the family of the principal wife. HOW, DOUGLAS WALSHAM (d. 1942). He entered the Colo¬ nial civil service in 1910 and served as police officer and district commissioner before becoming government secretary, first in the Bechuanaland Protectorate and then in Basutoland, where he was also deputy resident commissioner. During World War II he accompanied the African Auxiliary Pioneer Corps to the Middle East as assistant adjutant-general, with special responsibility as high commissioner's representative for the men from the high commission territories. The regent of Basuto¬ land and her councilors conferred on him the title Ntat'a Basotho. His widow, Marion (Macgregor) How, a granddaugh¬ ter of D. F. Ellenberger, was the author of The Moun¬ tain Bushmen of Basutoland and other historical writings.
- I IMPERANI
INITIATION SCHOOL (Lebollo). The institution for the com¬ ing of age of girls, corresponding to the Circumcision School for boys.
- J JACOTTET, the Rev. EDOUARD (1858-1920). P. E.M.S. missionary. Born in Switzerland, he arrived in Lesotho in 1884. He served at Thaba-Bosiu from 1885 to 1907, and then was posted to Morija, where he was in charge of the theological school. Ellenberger, in A Century of Mission Work in Basutoland (1938), wrote of him, "He has, without doubt, been one of the greatest mission¬ aries of our Society, a man whose deserved reputation had spread far beyond the limits of his activities and thanks to whom the country as well as the Mission have benefited by sure and safe counsels. He discerned the true interests of the nation, which always listened to him and which he could, at the same time, counsel, ad¬ vise and protect. His knowledge of the Basutos was equalled only by his vigilance in defending and safeguard-
ing their rights. He was a great inspirer and animator of men. [The Basotho] owed to him many school books, among others one of the history of their country.... It was he also who, after Rev. Casalis and Rev. F. H. Kruger, enabled them, through his excellent grammar, to become acquainted with the genius of their language. " Mr. Jacottet's works included A Practical Method to Learn Sesotho (1906), Etudes sur les Langues du Haut Zambeze, Thq Treasury of Basutho Lore, etc. In the years preceding the Union of South Africa (1910), Jacottet was an active defender of the rights of the Basotho to their own country and its destiny. Through his correspondence with sympathizers of in¬ fluence who could modify the original proposals, Lesotho was preserved intact with the right of appeal to the British government in the event that the schedule relat¬ ing to the high commission territories in the South Af¬ rica Act (1909) were implemented. JANUARY (1974) DISTURBANCES. In January 1974 there were disturbances in the Leribe District and adjoining areas when, on the early morning of January 9, B. C. P. supporters attacked police stations at Mapoteng, Peka, and Ha Rakolo (the village of Prime Minister Leabua Jonathan) in the hope of seizing weapons and launching an armed uprising against the government. Later the police station at Monontsa was attacked and it was re¬ ported that at least 15 of the attackers had been killed and the rest driven off. Apparently the B. C. P. believed that they stood in danger of being absolutely suppressed by the government if they did not succeed in overthrowing it. Unfortunate¬ ly for their plans, the government was either fore¬ warned or extremely suspicious, for the police were not taken completely by surprise. During the disturbances the leader of the B. C. P., Mr. Ntsu Mokhehle, who had a price on his head, sought refuge in Botswana and later traveled to the north. "Hie rising was ruthlessly suppressed by the P. M. U., especially at the B. C. P. stronghold of Mapo¬ teng, where a large number of dissidents were killed, their homes destroyed, and their wives and children left without shelter. (See TREASON TRIAL.) JEREMIAH MOSHOESHOE (d. 1863). Jeremiah or Libopuoa was a younger son of the great Moshoeshoe I and was among those who were educated at Zonnebloem. He
became an Anglican and in 1861 traveled to England to study for the priesthood; there he met an untimely end. Had he returned to Lesotho as an Anglican priest, the religious development of the country might have assumed a different shape.