HCI International 2020 – Late Breaking Posters: 22nd International Conference, HCII 2020, Copenhagen, Denmark, July 19–24, 2020, Proceedings, Part II [1st ed.] 9783030607029, 9783030607036

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HCI International 2020 – Late Breaking Posters: 22nd International Conference, HCII 2020, Copenhagen, Denmark, July 19–24, 2020, Proceedings, Part II [1st ed.]
 9783030607029, 9783030607036

Table of contents :
Front Matter ....Pages i-xxx
Front Matter ....Pages 1-1
Designing a Writing Grip for Children with Down Syndrome that Can Enhance Learning Process, Reduce Writing Exhaustion and Improve Quality of Life (Aalya AlBeeshi, Elham Almahmoud, Elaf Almahmoud, Nawara Alosaimi, Hind Alshammari)....Pages 3-9
Crowdsourcing Accessibility: A Review of Platforms, Mobile Applications and Tools (Reem Alqadi, Maryam Alhowaiti, Fatimah Almohaimeed, Mawaddah Alsabban, Sujithra Raviselvam)....Pages 10-17
Human Factors in the Design of Wheelchair Tray Tables: User Research in the Co-design Process (Abdullah Alshangiti, Mohammad Alhudaithi, Abdullah Alghamdi)....Pages 18-24
Open Architecture for the Control of a Neuroprosthesis by Means of a Mobile Device (Adrián Contreras-Martínez, Blanca E. Carvajal-Gámez, J. Luis Rosas-Trigueros, Josefina Gutiérrez-Martínez, Jorge A. Mercado-Gutiérrez)....Pages 25-31
Investigating Smart Home Needs for Elderly Women Who Live Alone. An Interview Study (Nana Kesewaa Dankwa)....Pages 32-38
Communication Support Utilizing AAC for Verbally Challenged Children in Developing Countries During COVID-19 Pandemic (Walia Farzana, Farhana Sarker, Ravi Vaidyanathan, Tom Chau, Khondaker A. Mamun)....Pages 39-50
An Evaluation of Augmentative and Alternative Communication Research for ASD Children in Developing Countries: Benefits and Barriers (Walia Farzana, Farhana Sarker, Quazi Delwar Hossain, Tom Chau, Khondaker A. Mamun)....Pages 51-62
Basic Study on Measuring Brain Activity for Evaluation Method of Visually Impaired Person’s Orientation and Mobility Skills (Hiroaki Inoue, Masaya Hori, Yu Kikuchi, Mayu Maeda, Yusuke Kobayashi, Takuya Kiryu et al.)....Pages 63-70
Turning Ideas into Reality for mHealth Technology Users with Disabilities (Hyung Nam Kim)....Pages 71-78
Mobile Social Media Interface Design for Elderly in Indonesia ( Restyandito, Febryandi, Kristian Adi Nugraha, Danny Sebastian)....Pages 79-85
An Open Source Refreshable Braille Display (Victor Rocha, Diogo Silva, Álvaro Maia Bisneto, Anna Carvalho, Thiago Bastos, Fernando Souza)....Pages 86-91
Frailty Assessment in Daily Living (FRAIL) - Assessment of ADL Performance of Frail Elderly with IMUs (Stephanie Schmidle, Philipp Gulde, Bart Jansen, Sophie Herdegen, Joachim Hermsdörfer)....Pages 92-101
Auditory-Reliant Intracortical Brain Computer Interfaces for Effector Control by a Person with Tetraplegia (Daniel J. Thengone, Tommy Hosman, John D. Simeral, Leigh R. Hochberg)....Pages 102-109
Impairments in Early Auditory Detection Coincide with Substandard Visual-Spatial Task Performance in Older Age: An ERP Study (Melanie Turabian, Kathleen Van Benthem, Chris M. Herdman)....Pages 110-118
Modeling a Low Vision Observer: Application in Comparison of Image Enhancement Methods (Cédric Walbrecq, Dominique Lafon-Pham, Isabelle Marc)....Pages 119-126
Usability Study of Electronic Product with Healthy Older Adults Based on Product Semantic (Yulan Zhong, Etsuko T. Harada, Shinnosuke Tanaka, Eriko Ankyu)....Pages 127-133
Front Matter ....Pages 135-135
‘Bring Your Own Device’ in VR: Intuitive Second-Screen Experiences in VR Isolation (Konstantinos C. Apostolakis, George Margetis, Constantine Stephanidis)....Pages 137-144
Automated Test of VR Applications (Adriano Gil, Thiago Figueira, Elton Ribeiro, Afonso Costa, Pablo Quiroga)....Pages 145-149
Augmented Reality Signage in Mixed-Use Shopping Mall Focusing on Visual Types of Directional Signage (Yoojin Han, Hyunsoo Lee)....Pages 150-155
Preliminary Study on the Influence of Visual Cues, Transitional Environments and Tactile Augmentation on the Perception of Scale in VR (Tobias Delcour Jensen, Filip Kasprzak, Hunor-Gyula Szekely, Ivan Nikolov, Jens Stokholm Høngaard, Claus Madsen)....Pages 156-164
Comparative Analysis of Cricket Games in VR and Other Traditional Display Environments (Md. Zarif Kaisar, Md. Sirajuddin Borno, Fahim Estiyak, Md. Shayanul Haq, Farhana Sayed Juthi, Khandaker Tabin Hasan)....Pages 165-172
Molecular Augmented Reality for Design and Engineering (MADE): Effectiveness of AR Models on Discovery, Learning, and Education (Hyejin Hannah Kum-Biocca, Edgardo T. Farinas, Nisha Mistry, Yutong Wan)....Pages 173-180
Towards Motor Learning in Augmented Reality: Imitating an Avatar (Eva Lampen, Maximilian Liersch, Jannes Lehwald)....Pages 181-188
Innovation of Interactive Design from the Perspective of Safety Psychology—Based on VR Technology (Feng Liu, Yu Dong, Xianheng Yi, Haiming Zhu)....Pages 189-196
Virtual Reality in Model Based Systems Engineering: A Review Paper (Mostafa Lutfi, Ricardo Valerdi)....Pages 197-205
Designing of a Seamless Training Experience Delivered Through VR Simulator for Winder-Operator (Chandni Murmu)....Pages 206-213
Design and Cognitive Considerations for Industrial Mixed Reality Systems (Prithvi Raj Ramakrishnaraja, Abhilasha, Srinjoy Ghosh)....Pages 214-220
Augmented Reality Space Informatics System (Olivia Thomas, Daniel Lambert, Beatrice Dayrit)....Pages 221-228
Mercury’s Boots: Extending Visual Information and Enabling to Move Around a Remote Place for VR Avatar (Koki Toda, Sayuki Hayashi)....Pages 229-237
Comparison of Different Information Display Modes for Smart Glasses Assisted Machine Operations (Chao-Hung Wang, Chih-Yu Hsiao, An-Ting Tai, Mao-Jiun J. Wang)....Pages 238-243
Building a Firefighting Training System in MR (Kazuya Yamamoto, Makio Ishihara)....Pages 244-250
Front Matter ....Pages 251-251
Technology for Training: Acquisition Recommender Support Tool (Julian Abich IV, Eric Sikorski)....Pages 253-258
Meta-Analysis of Children’s Learning Outcomes in Block-Based Programming Courses (Jen-I Chiu, Mengping Tsuei)....Pages 259-266
A Framework for the Design of Plant Science Education System for China’s Botanical Gardens with Artificial Intelligence (Lijuan Guo, Jiping Wang)....Pages 267-271
Research on Human-Computer Interaction of Online Course System for “New Media Management” Course of the Major of Journalism and Communication (Xiuyuan Guo, Yuxuan Xiao)....Pages 272-280
Modeling Learners’ Programming Skills and Question Levels Through Machine Learning (WooJeong Kim, Soyoung Rhim, John Y. J. Choi, Kyungsik Han)....Pages 281-288
Reviewing Mobile Apps for Learning Quran (Omar Mubin, Bayan M. Alsharbi, Mauricio Novoa)....Pages 289-296
Designing Discussion Forum in SWAYAM for Effective Interactions Among Learners and Supervisors ( Neha, Eunyoung Kim)....Pages 297-302
Educational Convergence with Digital Technology: Integrating a Global Society (Margel Parra, Cecilia Marambio, Javier Ramírez, Diana Suárez, Henry Herrera)....Pages 303-310
A Similarity-Calculation Method of Geometric Problems for Adaptive e-Learning (Shunichi Tada, Susumu Shirayama)....Pages 311-318
Effects of Virtual Reality Mudslide Games with Different Usability Designs on Fifth-Grade Children’s Learning Motivation and Presence Experience (Mengping Tsuei, Jen-I Chiu)....Pages 319-323
Rethinking Continuous University Education for Professionals – A Podcast-Based Course on Service Design and AI (Pontus Wärnestål, Jeanette Sjöberg)....Pages 324-332
COVID-19 Pandemic: A Usability Study on Platforms to Support eLearning (Cui Zou, Wangchuchu Zhao, Keng Siau)....Pages 333-340
Front Matter ....Pages 341-341
Visualizing Ancient Culture Through the Design of Intermodal Extended Reality Experiences (Joseph Chambers)....Pages 343-351
Information Design of an On-Site Interpretative Game (Chun-Wen Chen, Wei-Chieh Lee)....Pages 352-358
Augmented Reality as an Educational Resource Applied to the Teaching of Pre-Columbian Cultures Settled in the Pumapungo Archaeological Park (Edgar Marcelo Espinoza Méndez)....Pages 359-366
Research on the Design of Regional Cultural and Creative Products Based on Consumer Cognition (Da-wei Fan)....Pages 367-374
The Soundomat (Astrid K. Graungaard, August E. Enghoff, Johanne L. Fogsgaard, Laura K. Schmidt, Marc D. Hansen)....Pages 375-381
Design of Form and Meaning of Traditional Culture in Virtual Space (Jingjing He)....Pages 382-389
The Chladni Wall (Anca-Simona Horvath, Viola Rühse)....Pages 390-397
A Study on Framework Development and Augmented Reality Technological Factors Consumers’ Evaluation for Cultural and Creative Products (Yu-Ju Lin)....Pages 398-405
Digital Signage for a Guided Tour at the Science Museum (Miki Namatame, Meguru Ohishi, Masami Kitamura, Chie Sonoyama, Seiji Iwasaki)....Pages 406-410
SmArt Spaces: Restructuring Art Galleries as Interactive Portals (Glenn A. Terpstra, Laura A. Huisinga)....Pages 411-418
Front Matter ....Pages 419-419
Lokahi: The Wearable Body Pillow to Foster an Intimate Interaction Between Two Users Through Their Heartbeat Awareness (Beste Özcan, Valerio Sperati)....Pages 421-429
Strong Stimulation with Virtual Reality Treatment for Acrophobia and Its Evaluation (Su Chang, Makio Ishihara)....Pages 430-435
Technology-Enhanced Monitoring of Physical Activity (Albert Espinoza, Bernardo Restrepo, Edwar Romero-Ramirez)....Pages 436-441
Smart Service Design Facilitate and Develop the FCMC (Family-Centered Maternity Care) (Bo Gao, Xinyue Dai)....Pages 442-449
ABLE Music: Arts-Based Exercise Enhancing LongEvity (Paula Gardner, Stephen Surlin, Caitlin McArthur, Adekunle Akinyema, Jessica Rauchberg, Rong Zheng et al.)....Pages 450-454
Fundamental Study for Analysis of Walking Considering Base of Support for Prevention of Stumble Accident (Masaya Hori, Yusuke Kobayashi, Tatsuo Hisaoka, Takuya Kiryu, Yu Kikuchi, Hiroaki Inoue et al.)....Pages 455-463
Leveraging Twitter Data to Explore the Feasibility of Detecting Negative Health Outcomes Related to Vaping (Erin Kasson, Lijuan Cao, Ming Huang, Dezhi Wu, Patricia A. Cavazos-Rehg)....Pages 464-468
The Use of Human-Centered AI to Augment the Health of Older Adults (Ronit Kathuria, Vinish Kathuria)....Pages 469-477
Design and Application of Rehabilitation AIDS Based on User Experience (Yi Li)....Pages 478-485
A Sleep State Detection and Intervention System (David Lin, Gregory Warner, Weijie Lin)....Pages 486-492
Faye: An Empathy Probe to Investigate Motivation Among Novice Runners (Daphne Menheere, Carine Lallemand, Mathias Funk, Steven Vos)....Pages 493-499
Diabetweets: Analysis of Tweets for Health-Related Information (Hamzah Osop, Rabiul Hasan, Chei Sian Lee, Chee Yong Neo, Chee Kim Foo, Ankit Saurabh)....Pages 500-508
Development of a Non-Immersive VR Reminiscence Therapy Experience for Patients with Dementia (Angela Tabafunda, Shawn Matthews, Rabia Akhter, Alvaro Uribe-Quevedo, Winnie Sun, Sheri Horsburgh et al.)....Pages 509-517
Front Matter ....Pages 519-519
Neural Correlates of Mental Workload in Virtual Flight Simulation (Polina Andrievskaia, Kathleen Van Benthem, Chris M. Herdman)....Pages 521-528
Plane-Gazing Agorá: Design for Building a Community at The Airport Observation Deck Through Photography Activities (Shun Arima, Chihiro Sato, Masato Yamanouchi)....Pages 529-537
Development of a Driver-State Adaptive Co-Driver as Enabler for Shared Control and Arbitration (Andrea Castellano, Giuseppe Carbonara, Sergio Diaz, Mauricio Marcano, Fabio Tango, Roberto Montanari)....Pages 538-544
User Vocabulary Choices of the Voice Commands for Controlling In-Vehicle Navigation Systems (An-Che Chen, Meng-Syuan Li, Chih-Ying Lin, Min-Cian Li)....Pages 545-552
Augmented Berthing Support for Maritime Pilots Using a Shore-Based Sensor Infrastructure (Michael Falk, Marcel Saager, Marie-Christin Harre, Sebastian Feuerstack)....Pages 553-559
Designing Ride Access Points for Shared Automated Vehicles - An Early Stage Prototype Evaluation (Fabian Hub, Marc Wilbrink, Carmen Kettwich, Michael Oehl)....Pages 560-567
Cooperative Work Analysis in Case of Aerodrome Flight Information Services (Satoru Inoue, Taro Kanno)....Pages 568-574
Evaluating Global Integrated Transportation Application for Mega Event: Role of Trust and Exchanging Personal Information in Mobility as a Service (MaaS) (Soyoung Jung, Hyejin Hannah Kum-Biocca, Frank Biocca, SungMu Hong, Mincheol Shin, Hongchao Hu)....Pages 575-584
Users’ Internal HMI Information Requirements for Highly Automated Driving (Merle Lau, Marc Wilbrink, Janki Dodiya, Michael Oehl)....Pages 585-592
Automotive eHMI Development in Virtual Reality: Lessons Learned from Current Studies (Duc Hai Le, Gerald Temme, Michael Oehl)....Pages 593-600
Delineating Clusters of Learners for Driver Assistance Technologies (John Lenneman, Laura Mangus, James Jenness, Elizabeth Petraglia)....Pages 601-610
Multi Remote Tower - Challenge or Chance? An Empirical Study of Air Traffic Controllers Performance (Maximilian Peukert, Lothar Meyer, Billy Josefsson)....Pages 611-618
Communicating Issues in Automated Driving to Surrounding Traffic - How should an Automated Vehicle Communicate a Minimum Risk Maneuver via eHMI and/or dHMI? (Julian Schindler, Domenic Lysander Herbig, Merle Lau, Michael Oehl)....Pages 619-626
Analysis of Human Factors in Satellite Control Operation During Equipment Failure (Huiyun Wang, Mo Wu, Jingyu Zhang)....Pages 627-632
Design and Development of an Integrated Development Environment for the Driving Simulation Software Mave (Andreas Weisenburg, Arthur Barz, Jan Conrad)....Pages 633-638
A Language-Oriented Analysis of Situation Awareness in Pilots in High-Fidelity Flight Simulation (Alexia Ziccardi, Kathleen Van Benthem, Chris M. Herdman)....Pages 639-646
Back Matter ....Pages 647-651

Citation preview

Constantine Stephanidis Margherita Antona Stavroula Ntoa (Eds.)

Communications in Computer and Information Science

1294

HCI International 2020 – Late Breaking Posters 22nd International Conference, HCII 2020 Copenhagen, Denmark, July 19–24, 2020 Proceedings, Part II

Communications in Computer and Information Science Editorial Board Members Joaquim Filipe Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal, Setúbal, Portugal Ashish Ghosh Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata, India Raquel Oliveira Prates Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Brazil Lizhu Zhou Tsinghua University, Beijing, China

1294

More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/7899

Constantine Stephanidis Margherita Antona Stavroula Ntoa (Eds.) •



HCI International 2020 – Late Breaking Posters 22nd International Conference, HCII 2020 Copenhagen, Denmark, July 19–24, 2020 Proceedings, Part II

123

Editors Constantine Stephanidis University of Crete and Foundation for Research and Technology – Hellas (FORTH) Heraklion, Crete, Greece

Margherita Antona Foundation for Research and Technology – Hellas (FORTH) Heraklion, Crete, Greece

Stavroula Ntoa Foundation for Research and Technology – Hellas (FORTH) Heraklion, Crete, Greece

ISSN 1865-0929 ISSN 1865-0937 (electronic) Communications in Computer and Information Science ISBN 978-3-030-60702-9 ISBN 978-3-030-60703-6 (eBook) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6 © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Switzerland AG The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland

Foreword

The 22nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, HCI International 2020 (HCII 2020), was planned to be held at the AC Bella Sky Hotel and Bella Center, Copenhagen, Denmark, during July 19–24, 2020. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the resolution of the Danish government not to allow events larger than 500 people to be hosted until September 1, 2020, HCII 2020 had to be held virtually. It incorporated the 21 thematic areas and affiliated conferences listed on the following page. A total of 6,326 individuals from academia, research institutes, industry, and governmental agencies from 97 countries submitted contributions, and 1,439 papers and 238 posters were included in the volumes of the proceedings published before the conference. Additionally, 333 papers and 144 posters are included in the volumes of the proceedings published after the conference, as “Late Breaking Work” (papers and posters). These contributions address the latest research and development efforts in the field and highlight the human aspects of design and use of computing systems. The volumes comprising the full set of the HCII 2020 conference proceedings are listed in the following pages and together they broadly cover the entire field of human-computer interaction, addressing major advances in knowledge and effective use of computers in a variety of application areas. I would like to thank the Program Board Chairs and the members of the Program Boards of all Thematic Areas and Affiliated Conferences for their valuable contributions towards the highest scientific quality and the overall success of the HCI International 2020 conference. This conference would not have been possible without the continuous and unwavering support and advice of the founder, conference general chair emeritus and conference scientific advisor, Prof. Gavriel Salvendy. For his outstanding efforts, I would like to express my appreciation to the communications chair and editor of HCI International News, Dr. Abbas Moallem. July 2020

Constantine Stephanidis

HCI International 2020 Thematic Areas and Affiliated Conferences

Thematic Areas: • HCI 2020: Human-Computer Interaction • HIMI 2020: Human Interface and the Management of Information Affiliated Conferences: • EPCE: 17th International Conference on Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics • UAHCI: 14th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction • VAMR: 12th International Conference on Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality • CCD: 12th International Conference on Cross-Cultural Design • SCSM: 12th International Conference on Social Computing and Social Media • AC: 14th International Conference on Augmented Cognition • DHM: 11th International Conference on Digital Human Modeling & Applications in Health, Safety, Ergonomics & Risk Management • DUXU: 9th International Conference on Design, User Experience and Usability • DAPI: 8th International Conference on Distributed, Ambient and Pervasive Interactions • HCIBGO: 7th International Conference on HCI in Business, Government and Organizations • LCT: 7th International Conference on Learning and Collaboration Technologies • ITAP: 6th International Conference on Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population • HCI-CPT: Second International Conference on HCI for Cybersecurity, Privacy and Trust • HCI-Games: Second International Conference on HCI in Games • MobiTAS: Second International Conference on HCI in Mobility, Transport and Automotive Systems • AIS: Second International Conference on Adaptive Instructional Systems • C&C: 8th International Conference on Culture and Computing • MOBILE: First International Conference on Design, Operation and Evaluation of Mobile Communications • AI-HCI: First International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in HCI

Conference Proceedings – Full List of Volumes 1. LNCS 12181, Human-Computer Interaction: Design and User Experience (Part I), edited by Masaaki Kurosu 2. LNCS 12182, Human-Computer Interaction: Multimodal and Natural Interaction (Part II), edited by Masaaki Kurosu 3. LNCS 12183, Human-Computer Interaction: Human Values and Quality of Life (Part III), edited by Masaaki Kurosu 4. LNCS 12184, Human Interface and the Management of Information: Designing Information (Part I), edited by Sakae Yamamoto and Hirohiko Mori 5. LNCS 12185, Human Interface and the Management of Information: Interacting with Information (Part II), edited by Sakae Yamamoto and Hirohiko Mori 6. LNAI 12186, Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics: Mental Workload, Human Physiology, and Human Energy (Part I), edited by Don Harris and Wen-Chin Li 7. LNAI 12187, Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics: Cognition and Design (Part II), edited by Don Harris and Wen-Chin Li 8. LNCS 12188, Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction: Design Approaches and Supporting Technologies (Part I), edited by Margherita Antona and Constantine Stephanidis 9. LNCS 12189, Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction: Applications and Practice (Part II), edited by Margherita Antona and Constantine Stephanidis 10. LNCS 12190, Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality: Design and Interaction (Part I), edited by Jessie Y.C. Chen and Gino Fragomeni 11. LNCS 12191, Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality: Industrial and Everyday Life Applications (Part II), edited by Jessie Y.C. Chen and Gino Fragomeni 12. LNCS 12192, Cross-Cultural Design: User Experience of Products, Services, and Intelligent Environments (Part I), edited by P.L. Patrick Rau 13. LNCS 12193, Cross-Cultural Design: Applications in Health, Learning, Communication, and Creativity (Part II), edited by P.L. Patrick Rau 14. LNCS 12194, Social Computing and Social Media: Design, Ethics, User Behavior, and Social Network Analysis (Part I), edited by Gabriele Meiselwitz 15. LNCS 12195, Social Computing and Social Media: Participation, User Experience, Consumer Experience, and Applications of Social Computing (Part II), edited by Gabriele Meiselwitz 16. LNAI 12196, Augmented Cognition: Theoretical and Technological Approaches (Part I), edited by Dylan D. Schmorrow and Cali M. Fidopiastis 17. LNAI 12197, Augmented Cognition: Human Cognition and Behaviour (Part II), edited by Dylan D. Schmorrow and Cali M. Fidopiastis

x

Conference Proceedings – Full List of Volumes

18. LNCS 12198, Digital Human Modeling & Applications in Health, Safety, Ergonomics & Risk Management: Posture, Motion and Health (Part I), edited by Vincent G. Duffy 19. LNCS 12199, Digital Human Modeling & Applications in Health, Safety, Ergonomics & Risk Management: Human Communication, Organization and Work (Part II), edited by Vincent G. Duffy 20. LNCS 12200, Design, User Experience, and Usability: Interaction Design (Part I), edited by Aaron Marcus and Elizabeth Rosenzweig 21. LNCS 12201, Design, User Experience, and Usability: Design for Contemporary Interactive Environments (Part II), edited by Aaron Marcus and Elizabeth Rosenzweig 22. LNCS 12202, Design, User Experience, and Usability: Case Studies in Public and Personal Interactive Systems (Part III), edited by Aaron Marcus and Elizabeth Rosenzweig 23. LNCS 12203, Distributed, Ambient and Pervasive Interactions, edited by Norbert Streitz and Shin’ichi Konomi 24. LNCS 12204, HCI in Business, Government and Organizations, edited by Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah and Keng Siau 25. LNCS 12205, Learning and Collaboration Technologies: Designing, Developing and Deploying Learning Experiences (Part I), edited by Panayiotis Zaphiris and Andri Ioannou 26. LNCS 12206, Learning and Collaboration Technologies: Human and Technology Ecosystems (Part II), edited by Panayiotis Zaphiris and Andri Ioannou 27. LNCS 12207, Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population: Technologies, Design and User experience (Part I), edited by Qin Gao and Jia Zhou 28. LNCS 12208, Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population: Healthy and Active Aging (Part II), edited by Qin Gao and Jia Zhou 29. LNCS 12209, Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population: Technology and Society (Part III), edited by Qin Gao and Jia Zhou 30. LNCS 12210, HCI for Cybersecurity Privacy and Trust, edited by Abbas Moallem 31. LNCS 12211, HCI in Games, edited by Xiaowen Fang 32. LNCS 12212, HCI in Mobility, Transport and Automotive Systems: Automated Driving and In-Vehicle Experience Design (Part I), edited by Heidi Krömker 33. LNCS 12213, HCI in Mobility, Transport and Automotive Systems: Driving Behavior, Urban and Smart Mobility (Part II), edited by Heidi Krömker 34. LNCS 12214, Adaptive Instructional Systems, edited by Robert A. Sottilare and Jessica Schwarz 35. LNCS 12215, Culture and Computing, edited by Matthias Rauterberg 36. LNCS 12216, Design, Operation and Evaluation of Mobile Communications, edited by Gavriel Salvendy and June Wei 37. LNCS 12217, Artificial Intelligence in HCI, edited by Helmut Degen and Lauren Reinerman-Jones 38. CCIS 1224, HCI International 2020 Posters (Part I), edited by Constantine Stephanidis and Margherita Antona 39. CCIS 1225, HCI International 2020 Posters (Part II), edited by Constantine Stephanidis and Margherita Antona

Conference Proceedings – Full List of Volumes

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40. CCIS 1226, HCI International 2020 Posters (Part III), edited by Constantine Stephanidis and Margherita Antona 41. LNCS 12423, HCI International 2020 – Late Breaking Papers: User Experience Design and Case Studies, edited by Constantine Stephanidis, Aaron Marcus, Elizabeth Rosenzweig, P.L. Patrick Rau, Abbas Moallem, and Matthias Rauterberg 42. LNCS 12424, HCI International 2020 – Late Breaking Papers: Multimodality and Intelligence, edited by Constantine Stephanidis, Masaaki Kurosu, Helmut Degen, and Lauren Reinerman-Jones 43. LNCS 12425, HCI International 2020 – Late Breaking Papers: Cognition, Learning and Games, edited by Constantine Stephanidis, Don Harris, Wen-Chin Li, Dylan D. Schmorrow, Cali M. Fidopiastis, Panayiotis Zaphiris, Andri Ioannou, Xiaowen Fang, Robert Sottilare, and Jessica Schwarz 44. LNCS 12426, HCI International 2020 – Late Breaking Papers: Universal Access and Inclusive Design, edited by Constantine Stephanidis, Margherita Antona, Qin Gao, and Jia Zhou 45. LNCS 12427, HCI International 2020 – Late Breaking Papers: Interaction, Knowledge and Social Media, edited by Constantine Stephanidis, Gavriel Salvendy, June Way, Sakae Yamamoto, Hirohiko Mori, Gabriele Meiselwitz, Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah, and Keng Siau 46. LNCS 12428, HCI International 2020 – Late Breaking Papers: Virtual and Augmented Reality, edited by Constantine Stephanidis, Jessie Y.C. Chen, and Gino Fragomeni 47. LNCS 12429, HCI International 2020 – Late Breaking Papers: Digital Human Modeling and Ergonomics, Mobility and Intelligent Environments, edited by Constantine Stephanidis, Vincent G. Duffy, Norbert Streitz, Shin’ichi Konomi, and Heidi Krömker 48. CCIS 1293, HCI International 2020 – Late Breaking Posters (Part I), edited by Constantine Stephanidis, Margherita Antona, and Stavroula Ntoa 49. CCIS 1294, HCI International 2020 – Late Breaking Posters (Part II), edited by Constantine Stephanidis, Margherita Antona, and Stavroula Ntoa http://2020.hci.international/proceedings

HCI International 2020 (HCII 2020) The full list with the Program Board Chairs and the members of the Program Boards of all thematic areas and affiliated conferences is available online at:

http://www.hci.international/board-members-2020.php

HCI International 2021 The 23rd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, HCI International 2021 (HCII 2021), will be held jointly with the affiliated conferences in Washington DC, USA, at the Washington Hilton Hotel, July 24–29, 2021. It will cover a broad spectrum of themes related to human-computer interaction (HCI), including theoretical issues, methods, tools, processes, and case studies in HCI design, as well as novel interaction techniques, interfaces, and applications. The proceedings will be published by Springer. More information will be available on the conference website: http://2021.hci.international/ General Chair Prof. Constantine Stephanidis University of Crete and ICS-FORTH Heraklion, Crete, Greece Email: [email protected]

http://2021.hci.international/

Contents – Part II

Design for all and Assistive Technologies Designing a Writing Grip for Children with Down Syndrome that Can Enhance Learning Process, Reduce Writing Exhaustion and Improve Quality of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aalya AlBeeshi, Elham Almahmoud, Elaf Almahmoud, Nawara Alosaimi, and Hind Alshammari Crowdsourcing Accessibility: A Review of Platforms, Mobile Applications and Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reem Alqadi, Maryam Alhowaiti, Fatimah Almohaimeed, Mawaddah Alsabban, and Sujithra Raviselvam Human Factors in the Design of Wheelchair Tray Tables: User Research in the Co-design Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abdullah Alshangiti, Mohammad Alhudaithi, and Abdullah Alghamdi Open Architecture for the Control of a Neuroprosthesis by Means of a Mobile Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adrián Contreras-Martínez, Blanca E. Carvajal-Gámez, J. Luis Rosas-Trigueros, Josefina Gutiérrez-Martínez, and Jorge A. Mercado-Gutiérrez Investigating Smart Home Needs for Elderly Women Who Live Alone. An Interview Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nana Kesewaa Dankwa Communication Support Utilizing AAC for Verbally Challenged Children in Developing Countries During COVID-19 Pandemic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Walia Farzana, Farhana Sarker, Ravi Vaidyanathan, Tom Chau, and Khondaker A. Mamun An Evaluation of Augmentative and Alternative Communication Research for ASD Children in Developing Countries: Benefits and Barriers . . . . . . . . . Walia Farzana, Farhana Sarker, Quazi Delwar Hossain, Tom Chau, and Khondaker A. Mamun Basic Study on Measuring Brain Activity for Evaluation Method of Visually Impaired Person’s Orientation and Mobility Skills . . . . . . . . . . . Hiroaki Inoue, Masaya Hori, Yu Kikuchi, Mayu Maeda, Yusuke Kobayashi, Takuya Kiryu, Toshiya Tsubota, and Shunji Shimizu

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Turning Ideas into Reality for mHealth Technology Users with Disabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hyung Nam Kim

71

Mobile Social Media Interface Design for Elderly in Indonesia . . . . . . . . . . . Restyandito, Febryandi, Kristian Adi Nugraha, and Danny Sebastian

79

An Open Source Refreshable Braille Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Victor Rocha, Diogo Silva, Álvaro Maia Bisneto, Anna Carvalho, Thiago Bastos, and Fernando Souza

86

Frailty Assessment in Daily Living (FRAIL) - Assessment of ADL Performance of Frail Elderly with IMUs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stephanie Schmidle, Philipp Gulde, Bart Jansen, Sophie Herdegen, and Joachim Hermsdörfer Auditory-Reliant Intracortical Brain Computer Interfaces for Effector Control by a Person with Tetraplegia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Daniel J. Thengone, Tommy Hosman, John D. Simeral, and Leigh R. Hochberg

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Impairments in Early Auditory Detection Coincide with Substandard Visual-Spatial Task Performance in Older Age: An ERP Study. . . . . . . . . . . Melanie Turabian, Kathleen Van Benthem, and Chris M. Herdman

110

Modeling a Low Vision Observer: Application in Comparison of Image Enhancement Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cédric Walbrecq, Dominique Lafon-Pham, and Isabelle Marc

119

Usability Study of Electronic Product with Healthy Older Adults Based on Product Semantic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yulan Zhong, Etsuko T. Harada, Shinnosuke Tanaka, and Eriko Ankyu

127

Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality ‘Bring Your Own Device’ in VR: Intuitive Second-Screen Experiences in VR Isolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Konstantinos C. Apostolakis, George Margetis, and Constantine Stephanidis Automated Test of VR Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adriano Gil, Thiago Figueira, Elton Ribeiro, Afonso Costa, and Pablo Quiroga Augmented Reality Signage in Mixed-Use Shopping Mall Focusing on Visual Types of Directional Signage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yoojin Han and Hyunsoo Lee

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Preliminary Study on the Influence of Visual Cues, Transitional Environments and Tactile Augmentation on the Perception of Scale in VR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tobias Delcour Jensen, Filip Kasprzak, Hunor-Gyula Szekely, Ivan Nikolov, Jens Stokholm Høngaard, and Claus Madsen Comparative Analysis of Cricket Games in VR and Other Traditional Display Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Md. Zarif Kaisar, Md. Sirajuddin Borno, Fahim Estiyak, Md. Shayanul Haq, Farhana Sayed Juthi, and Khandaker Tabin Hasan Molecular Augmented Reality for Design and Engineering (MADE): Effectiveness of AR Models on Discovery, Learning, and Education . . . . . . . Hyejin Hannah Kum-Biocca, Edgardo T. Farinas, Nisha Mistry, and Yutong Wan Towards Motor Learning in Augmented Reality: Imitating an Avatar. . . . . . . Eva Lampen, Maximilian Liersch, and Jannes Lehwald Innovation of Interactive Design from the Perspective of Safety Psychology—Based on VR Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feng Liu, Yu Dong, Xianheng Yi, and Haiming Zhu Virtual Reality in Model Based Systems Engineering: A Review Paper . . . . . Mostafa Lutfi and Ricardo Valerdi

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189 197

Designing of a Seamless Training Experience Delivered Through VR Simulator for Winder-Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chandni Murmu

206

Design and Cognitive Considerations for Industrial Mixed Reality Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prithvi Raj Ramakrishnaraja, Abhilasha, and Srinjoy Ghosh

214

Augmented Reality Space Informatics System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Olivia Thomas, Daniel Lambert, and Beatrice Dayrit

221

Mercury’s Boots: Extending Visual Information and Enabling to Move Around a Remote Place for VR Avatar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Koki Toda and Sayuki Hayashi

229

Comparison of Different Information Display Modes for Smart Glasses Assisted Machine Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chao-Hung Wang, Chih-Yu Hsiao, An-Ting Tai, and Mao-Jiun J. Wang

238

Building a Firefighting Training System in MR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kazuya Yamamoto and Makio Ishihara

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Contents – Part II

Learning Technology for Training: Acquisition Recommender Support Tool . . . . . . . . Julian Abich IV and Eric Sikorski

253

Meta-Analysis of Children’s Learning Outcomes in Block-Based Programming Courses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jen-I Chiu and Mengping Tsuei

259

A Framework for the Design of Plant Science Education System for China’s Botanical Gardens with Artificial Intelligence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lijuan Guo and Jiping Wang

267

Research on Human-Computer Interaction of Online Course System for “New Media Management” Course of the Major of Journalism and Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Xiuyuan Guo and Yuxuan Xiao Modeling Learners’ Programming Skills and Question Levels Through Machine Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WooJeong Kim, Soyoung Rhim, John Y. J. Choi, and Kyungsik Han Reviewing Mobile Apps for Learning Quran . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Omar Mubin, Bayan M. Alsharbi, and Mauricio Novoa Designing Discussion Forum in SWAYAM for Effective Interactions Among Learners and Supervisors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neha and Eunyoung Kim Educational Convergence with Digital Technology: Integrating a Global Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Margel Parra, Cecilia Marambio, Javier Ramírez, Diana Suárez, and Henry Herrera

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281 289

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A Similarity-Calculation Method of Geometric Problems for Adaptive e-Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shunichi Tada and Susumu Shirayama

311

Effects of Virtual Reality Mudslide Games with Different Usability Designs on Fifth-Grade Children’s Learning Motivation and Presence Experience . . . . Mengping Tsuei and Jen-I Chiu

319

Rethinking Continuous University Education for Professionals – A Podcast-Based Course on Service Design and AI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pontus Wärnestål and Jeanette Sjöberg

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Contents – Part II

COVID-19 Pandemic: A Usability Study on Platforms to Support eLearning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cui Zou, Wangchuchu Zhao, and Keng Siau

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HCI, Culture and Art Visualizing Ancient Culture Through the Design of Intermodal Extended Reality Experiences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Joseph Chambers Information Design of an On-Site Interpretative Game . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chun-Wen Chen and Wei-Chieh Lee

343 352

Augmented Reality as an Educational Resource Applied to the Teaching of Pre-Columbian Cultures Settled in the Pumapungo Archaeological Park. . . Edgar Marcelo Espinoza Méndez

359

Research on the Design of Regional Cultural and Creative Products Based on Consumer Cognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Da-wei Fan

367

The Soundomat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Astrid K. Graungaard, August E. Enghoff, Johanne L. Fogsgaard, Laura K. Schmidt, and Marc D. Hansen

375

Design of Form and Meaning of Traditional Culture in Virtual Space . . . . . . Jingjing He

382

The Chladni Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anca-Simona Horvath and Viola Rühse

390

A Study on Framework Development and Augmented Reality Technological Factors Consumers’ Evaluation for Cultural and Creative Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yu-Ju Lin

398

Digital Signage for a Guided Tour at the Science Museum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miki Namatame, Meguru Ohishi, Masami Kitamura, Chie Sonoyama, and Seiji Iwasaki

406

SmArt Spaces: Restructuring Art Galleries as Interactive Portals . . . . . . . . . . Glenn A. Terpstra and Laura A. Huisinga

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Contents – Part II

Health and Wellbeing Applications Lokahi: The Wearable Body Pillow to Foster an Intimate Interaction Between Two Users Through Their Heartbeat Awareness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beste Özcan and Valerio Sperati

421

Strong Stimulation with Virtual Reality Treatment for Acrophobia and Its Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Su Chang and Makio Ishihara

430

Technology-Enhanced Monitoring of Physical Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Albert Espinoza, Bernardo Restrepo, and Edwar Romero-Ramirez Smart Service Design Facilitate and Develop the FCMC (Family-Centered Maternity Care) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bo Gao and Xinyue Dai ABLE Music: Arts-Based Exercise Enhancing LongEvity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paula Gardner, Stephen Surlin, Caitlin McArthur, Adekunle Akinyema, Jessica Rauchberg, Rong Zheng, Jenny Hao, and Alexandra Papaioannou Fundamental Study for Analysis of Walking Considering Base of Support for Prevention of Stumble Accident . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Masaya Hori, Yusuke Kobayashi, Tatsuo Hisaoka, Takuya Kiryu, Yu Kikuchi, Hiroaki Inoue, and Shunji Shimizu Leveraging Twitter Data to Explore the Feasibility of Detecting Negative Health Outcomes Related to Vaping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Erin Kasson, Lijuan Cao, Ming Huang, Dezhi Wu, and Patricia A. Cavazos-Rehg The Use of Human-Centered AI to Augment the Health of Older Adults . . . . Ronit Kathuria and Vinish Kathuria Design and Application of Rehabilitation AIDS Based on User Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yi Li A Sleep State Detection and Intervention System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . David Lin, Gregory Warner, and Weijie Lin Faye: An Empathy Probe to Investigate Motivation Among Novice Runners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Daphne Menheere, Carine Lallemand, Mathias Funk, and Steven Vos

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Diabetweets: Analysis of Tweets for Health-Related Information. . . . . . . . . . Hamzah Osop, Rabiul Hasan, Chei Sian Lee, Chee Yong Neo, Chee Kim Foo, and Ankit Saurabh Development of a Non-Immersive VR Reminiscence Therapy Experience for Patients with Dementia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Angela Tabafunda, Shawn Matthews, Rabia Akhter, Alvaro Uribe-Quevedo, Winnie Sun, Sheri Horsburgh, and Carmen LaFontaine

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HCI in Mobility, Automotive and Aviation Neural Correlates of Mental Workload in Virtual Flight Simulation . . . . . . . . Polina Andrievskaia, Kathleen Van Benthem, and Chris M. Herdman Plane-Gazing Agorá: Design for Building a Community at The Airport Observation Deck Through Photography Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shun Arima, Chihiro Sato, and Masato Yamanouchi Development of a Driver-State Adaptive Co-Driver as Enabler for Shared Control and Arbitration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Andrea Castellano, Giuseppe Carbonara, Sergio Diaz, Mauricio Marcano, Fabio Tango, and Roberto Montanari User Vocabulary Choices of the Voice Commands for Controlling In-Vehicle Navigation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . An-Che Chen, Meng-Syuan Li, Chih-Ying Lin, and Min-Cian Li Augmented Berthing Support for Maritime Pilots Using a Shore-Based Sensor Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Michael Falk, Marcel Saager, Marie-Christin Harre, and Sebastian Feuerstack

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Designing Ride Access Points for Shared Automated Vehicles - An Early Stage Prototype Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fabian Hub, Marc Wilbrink, Carmen Kettwich, and Michael Oehl

560

Cooperative Work Analysis in Case of Aerodrome Flight Information Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Satoru Inoue and Taro Kanno

568

Evaluating Global Integrated Transportation Application for Mega Event: Role of Trust and Exchanging Personal Information in Mobility as a Service (MaaS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Soyoung Jung, Hyejin Hannah Kum-Biocca, Frank Biocca, SungMu Hong, Mincheol Shin, and Hongchao Hu

575

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Contents – Part II

Users’ Internal HMI Information Requirements for Highly Automated Driving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Merle Lau, Marc Wilbrink, Janki Dodiya, and Michael Oehl

585

Automotive eHMI Development in Virtual Reality: Lessons Learned from Current Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Duc Hai Le, Gerald Temme, and Michael Oehl

593

Delineating Clusters of Learners for Driver Assistance Technologies . . . . . . . John Lenneman, Laura Mangus, James Jenness, and Elizabeth Petraglia

601

Multi Remote Tower - Challenge or Chance? An Empirical Study of Air Traffic Controllers Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximilian Peukert, Lothar Meyer, and Billy Josefsson

611

Communicating Issues in Automated Driving to Surrounding Traffic - How should an Automated Vehicle Communicate a Minimum Risk Maneuver via eHMI and/or dHMI?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Julian Schindler, Domenic Lysander Herbig, Merle Lau, and Michael Oehl

619

Analysis of Human Factors in Satellite Control Operation During Equipment Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Huiyun Wang, Mo Wu, and Jingyu Zhang

627

Design and Development of an Integrated Development Environment for the Driving Simulation Software Mave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Andreas Weisenburg, Arthur Barz, and Jan Conrad

633

A Language-Oriented Analysis of Situation Awareness in Pilots in High-Fidelity Flight Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alexia Ziccardi, Kathleen Van Benthem, and Chris M. Herdman

639

Author Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

647

Contents – Part I

HCI Theory, Methods and Tools How to Think About Third Wave HCI that Questions the Normative Culture in Computer Science?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pricila Castelini and Marília Abrahão Amaral

3

Direct User Behavior Data Leads to Better User Centric Thinking than Role Playing: An Experimental Study on HCI Design Thinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abhishek Dahiya and Jyoti Kumar

11

Moving Beyond Stuck: A Design-Based Approach to Enhancing Minority Tech Startup Launches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wanda Eugene, Yerika Jimenez, Ekaterina Muravevskaia, Carmen Lopez-Ramirez, and Juan Gilbert

19

Limiting Experience and Cognition by Flexibility, Interaction Design and Cybernetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tore Gulden and Frederick Steier

27

Exploring the Social Innovation Ecosystem: Case Report and a Brief Literature Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wang Jing

32

iVIS: Interpretable Interactive Visualization for User Behavior Clusters . . . . . Yieun Kim, Yohan Bae, Junghyun Kim, and Yeonghun Nam

47

Deciphering the Code: Evidence for a Sociometric DNA in Design Thinking Meetings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steffi Kohl, Mark P. Graus, and Jos G.A.M. Lemmink

53

Information Analysis with FlexIA - Reconciling Design Challenges Through User Participation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Christian Kruse, Daniela Becks, and Sebastian Venhuis

62

Emblem Recognition: Cultural Coaching Software via Hand Gestures . . . . . . Cris Kubli Using the Ethical OS Toolkit to Mitigate the Risk of Unintended Consequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mariana Lilley, Anne Currie, Andrew Pyper, and Sue Attwood Perception in Human-Computer Symbiosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mohamed Quafafou

70

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Contents – Part I

HCI Design Education at Hunan University: A Practical Case in Chinese Design Schools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hao Tan and Jialing Li An Idea of Designer’s Reasoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ye Wang

90 98

Mobile and Multimodal Interaction Littlebits Versus Makey Makey with Scratch: An User Perception for Tangible User Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lucas Barreiro Agostini and Tatiana Aires Tavares Sequence Based Two-Factor Authentication (2FA) Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . Devansh Amin and Yusuf Albayram Pilot Study on the Development of a New Wearable Tactile Feedback Device for Welding Skills Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manabu Chikai, Junji Ohyama, Seiichi Takamatsu, and Shuichi Ino User-Specific Interfaces of Teaching Devices for Manipulation of Collaborative Robot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jeyoun Dong, Seong Hyeon Jo, Wookyong Kwon, Dongyeop Kang, and Yunsu Chung Bridging the Gap Between Desktop and Mobile Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tyler Kass, John Coffey, and Steven Kass Palm-Controlled Pointing Interface Using a Dynamic Photometric Stereo Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yoshio Matsuda, Takashi Komuro, Takuya Yoda, Hajime Nagahara, Shoji Kawahito, and Keiichiro Kagawa Analysis of Multimodal Information for Multi-robot System . . . . . . . . . . . . . Artem Ryndin, Ekaterina Pakulova, and Gennady Veselov FAmINE4Android: Empowering Mobile Devices in Distributed Service-Oriented Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ioanna Zidianaki, Emmanouil Zidianakis, Eirini Kontaki, and Constantine Stephanidis

109 116

123

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134

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Interacting with Data, Information and Knowledge Design and Construction of a Device for Obtaining Three-Dimensional Coordinates in Different Topographic Surfaces Through the Use of Wireless Networks, Gps and Altimeter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marlene Ballestas, Vladimir Pinzón, Ruben Guerra, Alonso Barrera, and Jesús Vergara

167

Contents – Part I

Data Curation: Towards a Tool for All . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . José Dias, Jácome Cunha, and Rui Pereira

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BIMIL: Automatic Generation of BIM-Based Indoor Localization User Interface for Emergency Response. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yanxiao Feng, Julian Wang, Howard Fan, and Ce Gao

184

Towards Supporting Tools for Editors of Digital Scholarly Editions for Correspondences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tobias Holstein and Uta Störl

193

Body Map Pathway: Visual Guidance of Human Body to Diagnosis Efficiently . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HyunJin Jo

201

Novel Cluster Analytics for Analyzing COVID-19 Patient Medical Data . . . . Joseph E. Johnson and Dezhi Wu

209

A Study on Infographic Design of Door Dehumidifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Junyoung Kim, Eunchae Do, and Dokshin Lim

217

DNA as Digital Data Storage: Opportunities and Challenges for HCI . . . . . . Raphael Kim

225

Decision Making Process Based on Descriptive Similarity in Case of Insufficient Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ahto Kuuseok

233

Fortune at the Bottom of the Information Pyramid: Leveraging Data Logs to Derive Experience Insights, a Reflective Case Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rutuja More

241

Real-Time Video Stream Reduction on Mobile Devices for Generation of Ground Truth Data for Indoor Localization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Benny Platte, Christian Roschke, Rico Thomanek, Tony Rolletschke, Ruben Wittrin, Claudia Hösel, Frank Zimmer, and Marc Ritter Challenges of Simulating Uncertainty of Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adrienne Raglin, Somiya Metu, and Dawn Lott Discontinued Public Spheres? Reproducibility of User Structure in Twitter Discussions on Inter-ethnic Conflicts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anna S. Smoliarova, Svetlana S. Bodrunova, Ivan S. Blekanov, and Alexey Maksimov A Design and Evaluation of Coefficient of Variation Control Chart. . . . . . . . Chauchen Torng and Haoren Jhong

246

255

262

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Contents – Part I

A Study on Presentation Method of Video Thumbnail on SNS Using Micro-Moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wonseok Yang and Cliff Shin Enabling Authors to Produce Computable Phenotype Measurements: Usability Studies on the Measurement Recorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Limin Zhang, Hong Cui, Bruce Ford, Hsin-liang Cheng, James Macklin, Anton Reznicek, and Julian Starr

279

288

Interaction and Intelligence Experiencing AI in VR: A Qualitative Study on Designing a HumanMachine Collaboration Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alexander Arntz and Sabrina C. Eimler Interacting with a Salesman Chatbot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charlotte Esteban and Thomas Beauvisage An Empirical Study on Feature Extraction in DNN-Based Speech Emotion Recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Panikos Heracleous, Kohichi Takai, Yanan Wang, Keiji Yasuda, Akio Yoneyama, and Yasser Mohammad

299 308

315

Develop an Interactive Model of Impact of Basketball Players and Team Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yun-Chi Huang

320

Human-Centered Artificial Intelligence: Antecedents of Trust for the Usage of Voice Biometrics for Driving Contactless Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rohan Kathuria, Ananay Wadehra, and Vinish Kathuria

325

An HCI Approach to Extractive Text Summarization: Selecting Key Sentences Based on User Copy Operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ilan Kirsh and Mike Joy

335

Infrequent Use of AI-Enabled Personal Assistants Through the Lens of Cognitive Dissonance Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nicole O’Brien and Maarif Sohail

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Concept for Human and Computer to Determine Reason Based Scene Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adrienne Raglin and Andre Harrison

351

A Neural Affective Approach to an Intelligent Weather Sensor System . . . . . John Richard, James Braman, Michael Colclough, and Sudeep Bishwakarma

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Role-Based Design of Conversational Agents: Approach and Tools . . . . . . . . Ilaria Scarpellini and Yihyun Lim

366

How Users Reciprocate to Alexa: The Effects of Interdependence . . . . . . . . . Florian Schneider

376

User Experience, Emotions and Psychophisiological Computing Affective Analysis of Visual and Vibro-Tactile Feedback During Floor Cleaning Task Using Heart Rate Variability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kodai Ito, Tsubasa Maruyama, Mitsunori Tada, and Takuro Higuchi Perceived Usefulness of e-WOM Attributes on Buyer’s Choice. . . . . . . . . . . Shobhit Kakaria, Aline Simonetti, and Enrique Bigné Feasibility of Healthcare Providers’ Autonomic Activation Recognition in Real-Life Cardiac Surgery Using Noninvasive Sensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lauren R. Kennedy-Metz, Andrea Bizzego, Roger D. Dias, Cesare Furlanello, Gianluca Esposito, and Marco A. Zenati HRV Parameters Sensitively Detecting the Response of Game Addicted Players . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jung Yong Kim, Min Cheol Whang, Dong Joon Kim, Heasol Kim, and Sungkyun Im

387 394

402

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Horizontal Mouse Movements (HMMs) on Web Pages as Indicators of User Interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ilan Kirsh, Mike Joy, and Yoram Kirsh

416

Based on Inductive Quantization Method of Evaluation of Bank Experience Contact Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yong Li, Fu-Yong Liu, Rui-Ming Hao, and Zhen-Hua Wu

424

A Research on How to Enhance User Experience by Improving Arcade Joystick in Side-Scrolling Shooter Games. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shih-Chieh Liao, Fong-Gong Wu, Chia-Hui Feng, and Cheng-Yan Shuai

431

Determining Optimum Level of Automation in Task Design for Assembly Line Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rifat Ozdemir and Sara AlSharif

438

The Influence of Social Embarrassment on Engagement with Publicly Displayed Digital Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alexandra Pollock, Ethan Perry, and Tom Williams

450

Let’s Not Get Too Personal – Distance Regulation for Follow Me Robots . . . Felix Wilhelm Siebert, Johannes Pickl, Jacobe Klein, Matthias Rötting, and Eileen Roesler

459

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Contents – Part I

Effects of Font Size, Line Spacing, and Font Style on Legibility of Chinese Characters on Consumer-Based Virtual Reality Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ziteng Wang, Pengfei Gao, Liang Ma, and Wei Zhang

468

The Design-Related Quality Factors of Smart and Interactive Products: From Industrial Design to User Experience and Interaction Design . . . . . . . . Yichen Wu

475

The Zabuton: Designing the Arriving Experience in the Japanese Airport. . . . Hikari Yamano, Kasumi Tomiyasu, Chihiro Sato, and Masato Yamanouchi

483

Usable Security Case of Remote Web Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temechu G. Zewdie

491

Author Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Design for all and Assistive Technologies

Designing a Writing Grip for Children with Down Syndrome that Can Enhance Learning Process, Reduce Writing Exhaustion and Improve Quality of Life Aalya AlBeeshi1,3(&), Elham Almahmoud1, Elaf Almahmoud1, Nawara Alosaimi2, and Hind Alshammari3 1

3

King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia [email protected] 2 General Assembly, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) Design Lab, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Abstract. Currently, there is a major lack of funding for research regarding Down syndrome (DS) cases compared with other conditions. As a result, it is clear that in today’s world, the development expectations of individuals with DS have been underestimated. A common problem in this environment occurs because many children with DS have dexterity issues that make manipulating small objects and grasping a pen particularly difficult. In an attempt to provide DS children with the ability to write longer with no discomfort, our proposed solution is a novel attachable pen grip that quantifies forces applied by the human hand while grasping the pen to write. Initially, data from a comprehensive questionnaire was collected on grip styles, writing speed, and how many words are written. Several other research methodologies were used, such as surveys, observations and interviews. Participants included experts, specialists, individuals with DS and families of children with DS. In executing this work, we gained a better understanding of the difficulties the child is facing and we were able to refine the design to best accommodate their needs. The market gap and limited writing tools for children with DS motivated this study to create the suitable product to reduce cramping, improve handwriting practice and to fulfil the physical and emotional need for children with DS. The overall potential benefit of the envisioned product is to improve the quality of life for these children and ease the minds of their caregivers. Keywords: Design

 User experience  Usability

1 Introduction Down Syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder caused when an abnormal cell division results in an extra copy of chromosome 21. According to the world health organization, the estimated incidence of DS is between 1 in 1,000 to 1 in 1,100 live births worldwide [1]. There is a major lack of funding for research in this area compared with other disorders. As a result, it is clear in today’s world that the development expectations of individuals with DS have been underestimated. It is now encouraged to enroll children © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 3–9, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_1

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with DS in regular schools with regularly developing children, because it is shown that the task-rich environment of general population classrooms pushes them to achieve more especially with writing and reading tasks [2, 3]. A common problem in this environment occurs because many children with DS have dexterity issues that make manipulating small objects and grasping a pen particularly difficult. These dexterity issues are related to multiple factors including loosened joints and ligaments. The thumb joint can be particularly lax causing additional difficulties when manipulating small objects and developing pencil control [4]. Abnormal hand formation also contributes to this difficulty, as they have shorter fingers and smaller hands and some of them may even lack some of the wrist bones. [5]. In addition, hypotonia is present with low muscle tone that leads to reduced muscle strength [6]. Learning any motor skill requires practice. As the neural pathway gets exposed to the same movement over and over again, it gets comfortable and better at performing it. Moreover, active practice of motor skills helps with strengthening the muscles used to perform that particular task [7]. Children with DS have inefficient motor-neural pathways, they need more practice than typically developed children. However, hypotonia and loosened joints in children with DS make the learning process of writing particularly difficult leading them to feel discouraged and have shorter practice time. In an attempt to provide DS children with the ability to write longer and with no discomfort, we propose a writing-aid that was co-designed with the target user population. The purpose of this paper is to bring awareness to the barriers that children with DS have during handwriting practice. This paper also promotes human centered design and shows how working with the user as a co-designer via interviews and feedback can lead to the development of usable and useful solutions.

2 Background 2.1

Problem Background

Currently, there are a number of grips and new tools that are available in the market that aim to ease the writing process for children with disabilities, however, they are not effective with DS [8]. In fact, a research study carried out in Mumbai to examine the difference between grip strength in children with DS and children without DS proved that those that have it exhibit 60% less grip strength than those without it [9]. Therefore, the grips that are currently available in the market are not considering the difference of muscle strength. This market gap and limited writing tools for children with DS motivated this study to create the suitable product to reduce cramping, improve handwriting practice and to fulfil the physical and emotional need for children with DS. This is achieved by choosing the right grip design and the right user interface. Potential Grip Design. Our grip has a triangular shape which helps with achieving a tripod grip which is accomplished by grasping the pen or pencil by the thumb, index, and middle fingers. That is unique to the triangular shape because unlike the regular round pen grip, it has an indentation that aids in the adoption of a tripod grip. We aim for a tripod grip because experts and occupational therapists encourage it as it provides

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the hand with a wide range of motion while minimizing strain and pressure on the hand muscles and joints [10]. User Interface. The grip will be able to communicate inclusively by notifying the user about the strength of the grip through an intuitive and simple interface. It’s simply a face that changes expressions depending on the pressure applied. For example, a happy face when the right amount of pressure is applied. In an attempt to provide DS children with the ability to write longer and with no discomfort, our proposed solution is a novel attachable pen grip that quantifies forces applied by the human hand while grasping the pen to write. Measuring exerted pressure is done through a Force Sensing Resistor (FSR) which is “a device that allows measuring static and dynamic forces applied to a contact surface” [11]. It is a sensor that measures physical pressure, squeezing, and weight. The grip has a light-up feature to assist in inadequate pressure, the light is activated when the right amount of pressure is applied and deactivated when too much or too little pressure is applied. Studies show that writing pressure in a normal writing speed is 1.4–1.5 Newton (N). We will use this as a target pressure range.

3 Methods The design method for the grip was an integrated design model aligned with IDC’s Design Innovation (DI) approach [12]. The DI approach addresses design challenges in the creation of writing aids and integrates the creative, technical, and analytical methods that emerged from four schools of thought: Design Thinking, Business Design, Design Engineering and Systems Engineering. Through our work with our co-designer, we developed the initial requirements. We have since created a comprehensive questionnaire, to collect data on grip styles, writing speed, and how many words are written by our users. This is done after obtaining the informed consent of a parent. By doing so, we gain a better understanding of the difficulties the child is facing and we are able to refine our design to best accommodate their needs. 3.1

Humanistic Co-design for Access Technology

Initial tools of assistive and access technologies developed for people with disabilities were mostly manual, while later tools incorporated automatic technologies or human involvement. The co-design process in developing assistive technology uses a humancentered approach for a more accurate design to address user needs [13]. The Humanistic Co-Design Program, Co-Create, adopts the design innovation (DI) process in its co-design practices by focusing on the users’ needs via building empathy between designers, stakeholders and PWDs in the design process.

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4 Results Design Innovation modules is a human centered and interdisciplinary approach to innovate on and address complex challenges in our world. According to the design process, DI module is categorized into four phases: discover, design, develop and deliver (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. Design process model by the British Design Council in 2005

In the Discover phase, we conducted interviews. The interviews we conducted in the Humanistic Co-design workshop were used to extract deep qualitative insights, foresights and latent needs from users. By asking questions, the design team was able to uncover users’ intentions, motivations and emotions when they use writing aids. We then used a journey map to visualize the user’s journey and identify the specific area for innovation. The journey map allowed us to experience a typical day of our user’s life, this method helped us identify that the most important problem that the caregiver of the user wants to solve is to alleviate the cramping the user experiences during handwriting practice in order to be able to practice for a longer period of time (Fig. 2). In the Define phase we used personas to help us further define our user. based on our interviews and observations and other discovering methodologies, we created a fictional depiction of our typical or extreme users in order to develop a solution that is inclusive and suitable to all our stages (Fig. 3).

Designing a Writing Grip for Children with DS that Can Enhance Learning Process

Fig. 2. Journey map of our user

Fig. 3. Defined persona

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In the Develop phase we used collaborative sketching (C-sketch) to generate and build upon the ideas that designers and co-designers have for writing aids. This graphical, team based ideation technique was conducted with 5 designers and generated 3 graphical representations of ideas for writing aids with a total of 4 passes of the sketch activity (Fig. 4).

Fig. 4. Progressive sketch of writing aid

In the Deliver phase we used prototyping canvas to deliver our project strategically. This canvas helped us define important components like the stakeholders, the communication strategy for prototype, the prototyping approach, and the testing plans etc. Using a human-centered approach helped us innovate and use an interdisciplinary method to design our grip.

5 Conclusion Our main aim in this study is to create a product that helps in tackling some of the common problems that children with DS face, including dexterity issues, by providing a solution that gives them the ability to write longer with no discomfort. Several possibilities can be explored in the future to enhance the product’s impact. One can be developing an application for the caregivers of the child with DS to keep track of their progress. Acknowledgment. Special thanks to Dr. Shiroq Almegren, Dr. Areej Al-wabil and Dr. Mark Oleksak. We thank the Humanistic Co-Design Initiative at MIT and the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) Lab for supporting this work. We also thank the Saudi Authority for Intellectual Property (SAIP) and the Saudi Health Council’s National Lab for Emerging Health Technologies for hosting and mentoring this work. This work is part of the authors’ project that is carried out under the CoCreate Fellowship for Humanistic Co-Design of Access Technologies.

References 1. Genes and human diseases. (2020). https://www.who.int/genomics/public/geneticdiseases/ en/index1.html. Accessed 1 June 2020

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2. de Graaf, G., Van Hove, G., Haveman, M.: More academics in regular schools? The effect of regular versus special school placement on academic skills in Dutch primary school students with Down syndrome. J. Intellect. Disabil. Res. 57(1), 21–38 (2013) 3. Cornhill, H., Case-Smith, J.: Factors that relate to good and poor handwriting. Am. J. Occup. Ther. 50(9), 732–739 (1996) 4. Block, M.E.: Motor development in children with Down syndrome: a review of the literature. Adapt. Phys. Act. Q. 8(3), 179–209 (1991) 5. Jacobsen, F.S., Hansson, G.: Orthopaedic disorders in Down’s syndrome. Curr. Orthop. 14 (3), 215–222 (2000) 6. Morris, A.F., Vaughan, S.E., Vaccaro, P.: Measurements of neuromuscular tone and strength in Down’s syndrome children. J. Ment. Defic. Res. 26, 41–46 (1982) 7. Willingham, D.B.: A neuropsychological theory of motor skill learning. Psychol. Rev. 105 (3), 558 (1998) 8. Felix, V.G., Mena, L.J., Ostos, R., Maestre, G.E.: A pilot study of the use of emerging computer technologies to improve the effectiveness of reading and writing therapies in children with Down syndrome. Br. J. Educ. Technol. 48, 611–624 (2017). https://doi.org/10. 1111/bjet.12426 9. John, R., Dhanve, A., Mullerpatan, R.P.: Grip and pinch strength in children with Down syndrome. Hand Ther. 21(3), 85–89 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1177/1758998316649102 10. Seng, M.H.: Development of pencil grip position in preschool children. Occup. Ther. J. Res. 18(4), 207–224 (1998) 11. Sadun, A.S., Jalani, J., Sukor, J.A.: Force Sensing Resistor (FSR): a brief overview and the low-cost sensor for active compliance control. In: First International Workshop on Pattern Recognition (2016) 12. Camburn, B., et al.: Design innovation: a study of integrated practice. In: ASME 2017 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference (2017) 13. Brady, E., Bigham, J.P.: Crowdsourcing accessibility: human-powered access technologies (2015)

Crowdsourcing Accessibility: A Review of Platforms, Mobile Applications and Tools Reem Alqadi1(&), Maryam Alhowaiti2, Fatimah Almohaimeed3, Mawaddah Alsabban4, and Sujithra Raviselvam5 1

Qassim University, Qassim, Saudi Arabia [email protected] 2 RMIT University, VIC, Australia [email protected] 3 King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia [email protected] 4 Saudi Authority for Intellectual Property (SAIP), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia [email protected] 5 Singapore University of Technology and Design, Changi, Singapore [email protected]

Abstract. Crowdsourcing has the potential to become a preferred tool to rate the accessibility of the built environment and appeal preferences of users who are persons with disabilities (PwDs). Nevertheless, some reliability issues still exist, partially due to the subjectivity of ratings of accessibility features of places that might vary from one PwD to another or their caregivers. In this paper, we present a descriptive overview of existing crowdsourcing applications and the accessibility features that are included in such platforms as well as the diffusion, and popularity of these platforms. We also present several use cases and scenarios of use for these platforms via user populations. Keywords: Accessibility

 Platforms  Crowdsourcing

1 Introduction Collaborative rating sites for the accessibility of places have become essential resources that many users consult to learn about the accessibility of a place before visiting the site. However, the utilization of such platforms has not grown due to different reasons ranging from technical challenges, aligned with variability in the perceived value of subjective ratings, as noted in [2], to the limitation in the scope of people who are willing to participate in evaluating and rating the accessibility of places [1]. In this paper, we aim to review the existing crowdsourcing applications and the accessibility features that are included in such platforms and identify the geographic coverage, reach and popularity of the in se platforms in the community of persons with disabilities (PwDs). Therefore, we investigate two main research questions: “What are the features offered by the existing crowdsourcing platforms for accessibility?” and “How the selected platforms motivated a large population to participate in evaluating the accessibility of a place?” © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 10–17, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_2

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The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes related work on crowdsourcing accessibility for the built environment, followed by a technical review of existing crowdsourcing applications in Sect. 3. Following that, Sect. 4 describes the use cases and scenarios described in the scenario-based persona method. We conclude in Sect. 5 with key contributions and future directions for research.

2 Related Work on Crowdsourcing Accessibility In this section, we describe crowdsourcing as a concept, and we zoom into the scope of crowdsourcing for accessibility as a specific area of interest. As noted by Qui et al. in [3], “Crowdsourcing leverages the diverse skill sets of large collections of individual contributors to solve problems”. Figure 1 illustrates how crowdsourcing platforms systematically account for the different goals of information seekers, information contributors (content contributors), and platforms, and their interactions.

Information Seekers Goals

Content Contributors Crowdsourcing Platform

Goals

Fig. 1. Crowdsourcing models and interaction design for different users

We start in Sect. 2.1 with a focus on human-computer interaction HCI design consideration for crowdsourcing platforms, then we present a brief overview of the crowdsourcing technology designed specifically for PwDs to make the design of complex tasks easier and more efficient in Sect. 2.2. 2.1

HCI Design Consideration for Crowdsourcing Platforms

Since HCI is an essential aspect of crowdsourcing platforms, designers should consider motivating principles to encourage and retain user engagement, whether they are PwDs or beyond their scope. Moreover, it is important to ensure that the design is technically and functionally usable by people with disabilities. From the user experience perspective, the platform interface should be easily navigated and interacted with. Also, platform designers should consider that the interface can attract large users and meet the needs of different types of users; for example, visually impaired users need a nonvisual interface. From the system design perspective, the outputs produced by the crowd of people must be meaningful and reliable since these platforms may depend on unknown users with novice backgrounds, which in turn makes low-quality outputs. Moreover, most of the crowdsourcing platforms lack high-quality outputs and are ineffective against data manipulation and cheating [4]. Besides, crowdsourcing platforms encounter challenges in sustaining the participation of the crowd [5].

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Therefore, research has explored different methods to engage with the target user populations, filter out bad contributors, and produce high-quality output in crowdsourcing platforms [5, 6]. Examples include using specific, measurable physical properties to identify the accessibility of a place instead of using 5-stars rating schemes to highlight issues such as the reliability of the gathered data for quality control [4]. 2.2

Crowdsourcing Accessibility for PwDs

Collaborative rating platforms for accessibility of places drive a large number of decisions for PwDs. For example, caregivers rely on accessibility information and ratings to ensure a place is accessible before selecting a restaurant or cafe when they go out with a PwD. Typically, these platforms offer discrete information ranging from the accessibility of a specific part of a place, such as its entrance or seating to facilities and services or subjective ratings of accessibility posted via visitors.

3 Accessibility Platforms and Apps In this section, we describe the technical features and services of existing accessibility crowdsourcing applications. For each platform, we describe the main functionality, the compatibility of the applications with different platforms, the supported languages, and the geographical coverage of the platforms. Besides, we focus on how these platforms utilize the power of the “crowd” to facilitate large scale review tasks that are costly or time consuming with traditional methods. Moreover, we describe the accessibility ratings that are embedded in popular applications (e.g. Foursquare, Google Map). Table 1 compares the main features offered by the crowdsourcing platforms for accessibility. 3.1

Crowdsourcing Accessibility Applications

Jaccede [7] is a collaborative platform launched in 2006 aimed to help people with reduced mobility to search accessible places and allow them to share information about accessibility anywhere. Users can contribute by describing the accessibility of public places as a place entrance, indoor, outdoor, and additional information about services and facilities. Recently, Jaccede’s founders launched a new mobile application called Jaccede Challenge works with the crowdsourcing app Jaccede. They employ gamification in the app in order to attract people to enrich the maps with accessibility information to places. The application allows users to play a game of exploration and challenges, where users can form teams and get points by adding information about the accessibility of places. Apart from its platform, Jaccede also aims to raise awareness of the social inclusion of PwD. They are regularly organizing activities and events on accessibility to raise awareness and to get new members. It can be considered an important step to increase the popularity of such platforms and encourage the community to contribute to it.

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WheelMap [8] is an online map for finding wheelchair accessible places, launched in 2010. The platform uses a traffic light system to rate the wheelchair accessibility of a place. Accordingly, it shows the venue colors on the map based on their level of accessibility. In addition, they provide descriptive text under each color to help users assess accessibility more accurately. As green means that the entrance and all rooms are reachable without steps, and orange means that the entrance contains one step with 3 inches high. This description can help in avoiding the subjectivity in evaluation. On the other hand, the platform has a news page to get the community engaged. It opens volunteers to help in enhancing the content to support multiple languages. WheelMate [9] was launched in 2012. It allows users who use wheelchairs to find, rate, review, and add accessible restrooms or parking around the world. However, users cannot edit or report the inaccuracy of the existing entries. Thus, if a place or an establishment improved its accessibility or someone entered incomplete or false information, there is no way to edit it by the users. AXS Map [10] is a crowdsourcing platform for accessible places powered by Google Maps API. It was founded in 2012 by Jason DaSilva, who had been diagnosed with multiple sclerosis [11]. The main motivation behind creating this app is to help PwDs after the increasing difficulties that Jason DaSilva faced when navigating through his daily life. AXS Map uses a 5-star schema to rate the accessibility of the entry and toilet of a place. In order to engage more community members and enrich the platforms with places’ accessibility information, AXS Map founded AXS Marathons. Which are events that are held regularly in which community members come together using AXS Map to map the accessibility of the places and it has been held in over 50 US cities. Ability App [12] is a web platform launched in 2015. It is mainly based on community reviews to help people with mobility, vision, hearing, and cognitive impairments to find and rate accessible places all around the world. The platform allows users to browse accessible places through a list of categories, explore the map, or search by place name. A list of place names with an accessibility rating score appears based on the 5-score schema. For each place, four primary disability categories appear: mobility, vision, hearing, and cognitive, each of them has its unique number of features to rate 36, 31, 19, and 31, respectively. Users can assess the accessibility features of a place using a smiley face system: a happy, neutral, and sad face which indicates a specific accommodation in place. Although the application is comprehensive for all types of disability, too much information is requested in an evaluation which could be a time-consuming task and people might be discouraged to complete them. AccessNow [5] was launched in 2017. It provides an interactive map for people with different disabilities to rate, review, find, and add accessible places and establishments using the traffic light system —A green pin: fully accessible, yellow pin: partially accessible, and red pin: not accessible—. Besides, the AccessNow users can specify the accessibility features that are provided by the rated place (e.g., accessible parking, braille, and accessible restroom). However, this application does not offer a way to edit or report the inaccuracy of the existing entries. Thus, if a place or an establishment improved its accessibility or someone entered incomplete or false information, there is no way to edit it by AcessNow users.

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Access Earth [13] is a platform founded by Matt Macan in 2017, who has a physical disability himself. The application shows the nearest places and tells the users whether it is rated by others or simply asking them to rate the accessibility of the place. To assess the accessibility of a place, the app displays a number of yes or no questions. For example, “Are the doors wide enough for wheelchair access? − 32 in. wide”. This type of question is inflexible and may be confusing to users when rating a place. iAccess Life [14] was launched in 2019. It allows users who use wheelchairs to find accessible places and establishments that accommodate their needs. Users can rate, review, and find places around the world based on the accessibility of the place’s entrance, restroom, interior, and parking. Users can assess the accessibility of a specific place using the 5-star rating schema. In order to encourage people to contribute, this application provides users with a referral code to share it with their friends. It also allows users to gain insights on the total referrals and places that a user has rated using the lifetime activity dashboard. Sociability App [15] is a free app that was developed in 2019. The application main feature is to help people with physical disabilities to get information about “venues accessibility” in three main areas which are entrance (i.e. ramp access, door width and stairs), toilets and space (i.e. interior space and pathways) by showing the nearest venues around the area and which accessibilities it support or by searching for the desired venue and get the accessibility info based on that. The application uses great color-coded icons to help easily understand the level of accessibility the venue supports. The user can contribute to enhancing the content by adding access info for the places they are visiting. This app is still on a beta stage and it is expected to be officially launched at the end of 2020. Table 1. The table summarizes the main functionality of the platforms. Application Compatible platforms

Supported languages

Rating and comments feature

Diffusion

Target Disabilities

Jaccede

French, English, Italian, Germany, and Spanish 25 Languages

Yes

Mobility

No

France, some European cities, and 11 cities around the world Worldwide

English, Danish, French, Swedish, and Germany English English

Yes

Worldwide

Mobility

Yes Yes

US Worldwide

Mobility For all

English

Yes

Worldwide

For all

English

No

Worldwide

Mobility

English

Yes

Worldwide

Mobility

English

No

UK

Mobility

Web and Android WheelMap Web, iOS, and Android WheelMate iOS, and Android AXS Map Web Web Ability App AccessNow Web, iOS, and Android Access Web, iOS, Earth and Android iAccess iOS, and Life Android Sociability Web, iOS, App and Android

Mobility

Crowdsourcing Accessibility: A Review of Platforms

3.2

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Accessibility Rating in Popular Applications

Some travel apps and restaurant rating apps include accessibility information in their rating platforms, albeit in a limited way which falls short from conveying the important details for PwDs (e.g. parking, ramps, entrances, accessible routes, toilets, elevators). For example, Foursquare and Yelp have recently added the wheelchair accessibility feature to their apps. It allows adding information about the wheelchair accessibility to the venues, but without mentioning any other details. Also, they did not set specific standards on which wheelchair accessibility was assessed. This could cause a reliability problem with this information because the evaluation may be subject to personal opinions. Recently, Google has added a wheelchair accessibility feature to Google Maps, allowing users and business owners to contribute by adding accessibility information of entrance, toilets, seating, parking, and elevator. This, in turn, is a major contribution, in order to overcome the limitations of previous applications, by adding more details about places.

4 Use Cases for Crowdsourcing Platforms Research has shown that putting the wisdom of the crowd ‘to good use’ in the context of accessibility platforms is feasible, desirable, and viable. These platforms facilitate leveraging the potential and resources of today’s digitally connected, diverse, and distributed community of PwDs, their caregivers, and assistive technology (AT) enthusiasts. Although there are existing crowdsourcing platforms that enable a collaborative space to share information on accessibility, it is still challenging to realize a variety of scenarios a user might encounter while using application software. Personas and scenarios are considered to gather insights on the features that could enhance the accessibility of an accessibility crowdsourcing platform. In this section, we leverage personas and scenarios as one of the potential ways to capture such user experiences aligned with the approach in [16, 17] and depicted in Fig. 2, which describes several use cases and scenarios of use for these platforms via target user populations. A set of personas and a variety of scenarios associated with each persona are built and categorized to capture the common themes that arise during the identified scenarios. These personas are later used to derive the user-based feature requirements for the application software. Table 2 shows some of the built personas. The scenario-based personas combine the concepts of personas and scenarios in user-centered design [17]. Including persons with disabilities in large participatory innovation projects together with professional innovators such as developers, designers, engineers or clinicians often puts a strain on the person with disabilities who might not like to be the focus of attention. The artefacts depicted in Fig. 2 encapsulate the synthesized findings from user research and provide a communication tool for developers and stakeholders throughout the product design process from ideation to design, development and deployment. PwDs were part of knowledge gathering, idea generation, and concept development for this platform and the designers gave form to the ideas that emerged from the co-design process.

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Fig. 2. Tangible scenario-based personas for crowdsourcing users and content contributors

Table 2. Persona description in different scenarios Scenario’s Context Restaurant or cafe

Entertainment

Description Ahmad is a 21-year-old college student who is wheelchair-bound. He often spends his evenings in local cafes or restaurants to meet with his startup cofounders. He likes to check the accessibility of places before he visits the place and currently the only information he finds is from direct contact (phone call) or by word of mouth Sarah is a 20-year-old college student who is wheelchair-bound. She often spends her afternoons in campus cafes to do homework and meet with friends. She likes to check the accessibility of places before she visits the place and currently the only information she finds is from direct contact (phone call) or by word of mouth Nouf is an eighteen-year-old with motor disability and she uses a wheelchair to move around. Nouf loves movies and loves to watch the latest movies released in the cinema. Nouf often calls the cinema operator to inquire about cinema accessibility and provides special seats for wheelchairs May is a 35-year-old mother of 2 children. May is wheelchair-bound and she often spends her afternoons in local playgrounds with her children during their free play hours before homework. She likes to check the accessibility of public parks before she visits the place and currently the only information she finds is from direct contact (phone call) or by word of mouth

5 Conclusion This study sheds light on how accessibility crowdsourcing platforms and mobile applications offer intriguing new opportunities for accomplishing different kinds of tasks or achieving broader participation from the PwD communities than previously possible. Moreover, it described different use cases through the lens of scenario-based personas. For future work, we will investigate the limitations of these applications, and how to motivate people beyond the scope of PwDs to participate in such platforms. In

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addition, we will conduct a usability study and investigate more in the limitations and weaknesses of the existing platforms. Acknowledgment. We thank the Humanistic Co-Design Initiative at MIT and the HumanComputer Interaction (HCI) Lab for supporting this work. We also thank the Saudi Authority for Intellectual Property (SAIP) and the Saudi Health Council’s National Lab for Emerging Health Technologies for hosting and mentoring this work. This work is part of the authors’ project that is carried out under the CoCreate Fellowship for Humanistic Co-Design of Access Technologies.

References 1. Mazayev, A., Martins, J.A., Correia, N.: Improving accessibility through semantic crowdsourcing. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Software Development and Technologies for Enhancing Accessibility and Fighting Info-exclusion, pp. 408– 413. Association for Computing Machinery, Vila Real, Portugal (2016). https://doi.org/10. 1145/3019943.3020001 2. Salomoni, P., Prandi, C., Roccetti, M., Nisi, V., Nunes, N.J.: Crowdsourcing urban accessibility: some preliminary experiences with results. In: Proceedings of the 11th Biannual Conference on Italian SIGCHI Chapter, pp. 130–133. Association for Computing Machinery, Rome, Italy (2015). https://doi.org/10.1145/2808435.2808443 3. Qiu, C., Squicciarini, A., Rajtmajer, S.: Rating mechanisms for sustainability of crowdsourcing platforms. In: Proceedings of the 28th ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, pp. 2003–2012. Association for Computing Machinery, Beijing, China (2019). https://doi.org/10.1145/3357384.3357933 4. Challenges and solutions to crowdsourcing accessibility evaluations - Paper for Accessible Way-Finding Using Web Technologies. https://www.w3.org/WAI/RD/2014/way-finding/ paper5/#ableroad 5. Access Now - pin-pointing accessibility worldwide. https://accessnow.com/ 6. Vijayalakshmi, A., Hota, C.: Reputation-based reinforcement algorithm for motivation in crowdsourcing platform. In: Sahana, S.K., Bhattacharjee, V. (eds.) Advances in Computational Intelligence. AISC, vol. 988, pp. 175–186. Springer, Singapore (2020). https://doi. org/10.1007/978-981-13-8222-2_15 7. Jaccede - the guide to accessibility. https://www.jaccede.com/en 8. Wheelmap. https://wheelmap.org 9. WheelMate – Corporate. https://www.coloplast.com/products/bladder-bowel/wheelmate/ 10. AXS Map. https://www.axsmap.com/ 11. AXSMap (2020). https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=AXS_Map&oldid=957719028 12. Ability App. https://theabilityapp.com/ 13. Access Earth. https://access.earth/ 14. AccessLife. https://www.iaccess.life/ 15. Sociability. https://www.sociability.app/ 16. Moser, C., Fuchsberger, V., Neureiter, K., Sellner, W., Tscheligi, M.: Revisiting personas: the making-of for special user groups. CHI ’12 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 453–468. Association for Computing Machinery, Austin (2012). https://doi.org/10.1145/2212776.2212822 17. Saez, A.V., Garreta Domingo, M.G.: Scenario-based persona: introducing personas through their main contexts. CHI 2011 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 505–505. Association for Computing Machinery, Vancouver (2011). https:// doi.org/10.1145/1979742.1979563

Human Factors in the Design of Wheelchair Tray Tables: User Research in the Co-design Process Abdullah Alshangiti1,2(&), Mohammad Alhudaithi1,2, and Abdullah Alghamdi1 1

Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) Design Lab, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia [email protected] 2 King Abdullah University for Science and Technology (KAUST), Thawal, Saudi Arabia

Abstract. Wheelchair tray tables offer a convenient way for wheelchair users to carry out daily tasks such as eating, reading, and using mobile devices. However, most tray tables are made to serve the majority of wheelchair users and are inaccessible to some with a limited range of motion. In our work, we address this issue by exploring the ergonomic problems and possible solutions. In this paper, we describe the human factors in the design and development of powered wheelchair tray tables. The process of humanistic co-design relies on the direct involvement of the targeted demographic in the design process. This ensures the outcome is centered around the specific needs of the individual. Our approach employs user research studies (e.g., interviews, questionnaires, and actively working with a wheelchair using co-designer) as a means towards gleaning valuable insight into the needs of wheelchair users. In these studies, we sought to explore their experiences with using tables made for wheelchairs. We also collected data about whether the tray tables required external assistance to stow and use, and the problems they faced using existing solutions. We then highlighted the various specific needs presented by the co-designers and questionnaire respondents. These needs are embodied into scenario-based personas in which they may find themselves in need of a table for use with their wheelchairs. Deriving these personas from our survey results provides an effective method of keeping the insight gathered present throughout the design process. Implications for design are discussed. Keywords: Personas  Humanistic co-design peripherals  Tray tables

 Accessibility  Wheelchair

1 Introduction Individuals with spinal cord injuries, arthritis, balance disorders, and other conditions or diseases are typical users of wheelchairs. Research is underway to advance wheelchair design to prevent fatigue, reduce dependencies on caregivers or accommodate improved comfort related to stable surfaces for placing items while improving safety, functional performance and accessibility to the community of wheelchair users © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 18–24, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_3

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[1]. Wheelchair tables are designed with the majority of users in mind. However, some wheelchair-using individuals find their specific needs unfulfilled by what is currently available [2]. Human factors is defined as the science concerned with the application of what we know about people, their abilities, characteristics, and limitations to the design of equipment they use, environments in which they function, and jobs they perform [3]. Our approach is a human‐centered and interdisciplinary co-design process that aims to innovate on and address complex challenges facing persons with disabilities (PwDs). It involves the use of scenarios and personas to highlight the human factors in the design process. Scenario-based personas are used in user-centered design to cater to the specific needs and frustrations of the end-user [4, 5]. In our case, the main purpose of using personas is to provide a way to display the information gathered from the user research segment of our project in a useful way for the design process. Our approach consists of a text description of the user and situation as well as a visual illustration of the user and location. These provide a description of the predicted behaviors and desires of the end-users and allow us to effectively cater to their desires and frustrations, which will ensure their comfort. The remainder of this paper is structured as follows: Sect. 2 presents an overview of background and literature in the scope of user-centered design for wheelchairs. Section 3 describes the user research methods that we used, and results are presented in Sect. 4. We conclude in Sect. 5 with a summary of human factors in the design of wheelchair tray tables and an overview of directions for future research.

2 Background Information 2.1

Uses of Personas

Personas can take the form of a photo of a person and a text description. There are also instances where they take the form of a silhouette superimposed onto a stock photo of the persona’s location and a brief text description [5]. These representations could also be printed on tangible models, as shown in Fig. 1. Previous research into the use of scenario-based personas as a means for presenting user analysis studies has established their use within the humanistic co-design community [5, 6]. Personas can be used to present user information that may otherwise be misinterpreted if presented as statistical figures. The use of fictitious personas in the design process is outlined within the work of Aquino et al. where they are used as a user modelling tool to simplify communication and aid in project decision making [6]. 2.2

The Development of Wheelchair Designs

Power wheelchairs are used to increase the physical capabilities of a person with disabilities. However, certain commercial products do not completely address the needs of their user base, such as navigating narrow passages and servicing their broken wheelchairs [2]. Participatory design for the production of power wheelchairs has been used to provide comprehensive input in conjunction with subject matter experts such as doctors and accessibility researchers [2].

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Fig. 1. Tangible scenario-based personas for wheelchair users in different use cases with tray tables; taking into account user preferences, socio-cultural factors and contexts of use.

3 Materials and Methods Wheelchair trays are specially designed platforms or surfaces that attach to wheelchairs, providing a firm table for eating, working, reading, and other activities. In the process of requirements gathering, we sought to understand the ergonomics of existing wheelchair trays, and the challenges users encounter in their use of such devices. In this study, existing co-design methods and design principles were aligned with the Humanistic Co-Design model for assistive technology and tailored through a Design Innovation (DI) process to develop solutions with co-designers (i.e. Users of wheelchairs). Specifically, this study involved exploratory studies with co-designers and requirements elicitation from the community of wheelchair users through surveys. These studies were within the Design Innovation framework that is built, in part, on the UK Council’s ‘4D’ (Discover, Define, Develop, Deliver) model of design [7]. An online questionnaire was distributed to communities of PwDs via our codesigner, to gather data for our personas. The survey yielded 10 responses in a timeframe of 2 weeks. Basic demographic information about our respondents like age, gender, and place of residence was gathered. Following that, participants were asked about information relating to their experience with wheelchairs and wheelchair tray tables, and the problems they faced using them. The respondents were asked about their main uses for wheelchair tables and the heaviest items they place on them. We also conducted an interview with our co-designer, a wheelchair user. This gave us more insight into how specifically he used wheelchair tables. It also allowed us to deepen our understanding of the specific frustrations that wheelchair users face while using different tray table solutions. We were also able to develop a user journey map from his insights and comments. Using the responses gathered as a basis for the use cases, we constructed our personas in the form of a piece of text describing fictional characters aligned with PwDs in our target user population and outlining the contexts of use [3].

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Above the text is a silhouette in the image of the individual placed on a photo of a scene to describe the context of use Fig. 1.

4 Results and Discussion Understanding relationships between people, objects and their environments is important when considering human factors in designing assistive and accessible technologies. There is limited information on the difficulties PwDs experience in mounting objects on wheelchair tray tables and maneuvering their wheelchairs during daily activities. Insights from our user research studies were distilled into design implications for the shape, form, and function of mounting tray tables to wheelchair frames. After sending out the questionnaire to various online wheelchair user communities, we received responses about different problems they faced while using current wheelchair tray tables. The main aim of the survey was gathering useful qualitative data, including a significant portion of what is in Table 1. The demographic information was as follows: 10% of our respondents were female, and 90% were male. 10% were under 15 years of age, 70% were between 15 and 35 years old, and 20% were above the age of 35.

Fig. 2. Scenario-based Persona comprised of a brief text outlining a design consideration and a relevant illustration to communicate the setting of the situation.

The main takeaway from our results were the key features our respondents outlined. For example, one answered that the heaviest item they wish to place on a tray table

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would be a large Qur’an (approximate weight 3 kg), so one of the personas we designed had this as a primary use case as depicted in Fig. 2. Respondents also described their main uses for such a table which influenced our design considerations in Table 1. The human factors in the design of wheelchair tray tables are listed in the left column of Table 1, and the corresponding design considerations for tray tables are described in columns 2 and 3. Findings from the abovementioned user studies shed light on usability and accessibility issues as well as layout design limitations in wheelchair tray tables. The use of human factors to characterize the design considerations provides the reasoning and justification behind the design options [8–10]. It provides a factual basis to prioritize certain aspects of the user experience over others. For example, the ability to angle the table may be omitted if it interferes with the design of the folding mechanism and if the need for a folding table exceeds that of an angled one from the perspective of the user. It ultimately provides a way to relate the issues the users face to the potential solutions, as noted in [11, 12]. In future work, the factors will all be evaluated when developing and implementing the final design of the table. Table 1. Human factors in the design of wheelchair tray tables Human factors Vision: Maneuvering Visibility Vision: Control Visibility

Physical Factor: Lack of Dexterity Physical Factor: Muscle Fatigue Motivational Factor: Not being burdensome as not to disincentivize use Physical factor: Keeping cups stable during use Social factor: not relying on caregivers Physical Factor: Facilitating easy maintenance and cleaning Physical Factor: keeping items from falling off

Design considerations Shape, form, or function Transparency for visibility Salient visibility for components and ergonomic design for the controls Electrically folding without large movements from the user The ability to hold books and tablets at an angle that is comfortable to the user Activated by a button

Depression within the surface to prevent cups from sliding Independent folding without caregiver’s assistance Locks for tray table mounting

Rough table surface to prevent items from sliding

Tray table feature(s) Polycarbonate Tray Controlled by a button near the other wheelchair controls Folding feature Angled table

Flip Tray

Cup Holder Folding feature Unlockable mounting clamps Rough table surface

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5 Conclusion In this study, we were able to establish an initial connection between the users requirements and the physical design by utilizing scenario-based personas. We also gained a wealth of information from our co-designer through an initial interview and further correspondence. Going forward, we plan on conducting semi-structured interviews with a selected sample from our survey respondents to gain a deeper insight into their day to day needs regarding the use of tray tables and peripherals mounted on wheelchairs. This study furthers our understanding of the difficulties and pain points that wheelchair-using PwDs experience during daily activities that might be alleviated by the ergonomic design of wheelchairs’ tray tables. This knowledge will assist clinicians, technologists and researchers in two areas: in choosing design features that are ecologically valid for wheelchair users; and, in identifying areas for further development specific to the use of tray tables for wheelchairs. Acknowledgement. We thank the Humanistic Co-Design Initiative and the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) Lab for supporting this work. We also thank the Saudi Authority for Intellectual Property (SAIP) and the Saudi Health Council’s National Lab for Emerging Health Technologies for hosting and mentoring this work. We also thank Mawaddah AlSabban for her graphics in the design of scenario-based personas. The authors would also like to acknowledge the contribution of Ali Alnasser who was key during the initial stages of the co-design process, and the mentorship of Dr. Mark Oleksak and Dr. Ragad Allwihan. This work is part of the authors’ project that is carried out under the CoCreate Fellowship for Humanistic Co-Design of Access Technologies.

References 1. Cooper, R.A., et al.: Engineering better wheelchairs to enhance community participation. IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng. 14(4), 438–455 (2006) 2. Torres, I.G., Parmar, G., Aggarwal, S., Mansur, N., Guthrie, A.: Affordable smart wheelchair. In: Extended Abstracts of the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI EA 2019), pp. 1–6. Association for Computing Machinery, New York (2019). Paper SRC07, https://doi.org/10.1145/3290607.3308463 3. Wickens, C.D., Gordon, S.E., Liu, Y.: An Introduction to Human Factors Engineering. Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River (2004) 4. Moser, C., Fuchsberger, V., Neureiter, K., Sellner, W., Tscheligi, M.: Revisiting personas: the making-of for special user groups. In: CHI 2012 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI EA 2012), pp. 453–468. Association for Computing Machinery, New York (2012). https://doi.org/10.1145/2212776.2212822 5. Saez, A.V., Garreta Domingo, M.G.: Scenario-based persona: introducing personas through their main contexts. In: CHI 2011 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI EA 2011), p. 505. Association for Computing Machinery, New York (2011). https://doi.org/10.1145/1979742.1979563

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6. Junior, P.T.A., Filgueiras, L.V.L.: User modeling with personas. In: Proceedings of the 2005 Latin American Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (CLIHC 2005), pp. 277–282. Association for Computing Machinery, New York (2005). https://doi.org/10.1145/1111360. 1111388 7. “Design Innovation Learning Modules - What is Design Innovation?” Dimodules. www. dimodules.com/whatisdi 8. Paciello, M.G.: Designing for people with disabilities. Interactions 3(1), 15–16 (1996) 9. Bennett, C.L., Rosner, D.K.: The promise of empathy: design, disability, and knowing the “other”. In: Proceedings of the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1–13, May 2019 10. Van der Woude, L.H., Veeger, D.J.E., Rozendal, R.H.: Ergonomics of wheelchair design: a prerequisite for optimum wheeling conditions. Adapt. Phys. Act. Q. 6(2), 109–132 (1989) 11. Rajapakse, R., Brereton, M., Sitbon, L., Roe, P.: A collaborative approach to design individualized technologies with people with a disability. In: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Australian Special Interest Group for Computer Human Interaction, pp. 29– 33, December 2015 12. De Couvreur, L., Goossens, R.: Design for (every) one: co-creation as a bridge between universal design and rehabilitation engineering. CoDesign 7(2), 107–121 (2011)

Open Architecture for the Control of a Neuroprosthesis by Means of a Mobile Device Adrián Contreras-Martínez1 , Blanca E. Carvajal-Gámez1,2(&) J. Luis Rosas-Trigueros1 , Josefina Gutiérrez-Martínez3 , and Jorge A. Mercado-Gutiérrez3

,

1

Instituto Politécnico Nacional, SEPI-ESCOM, Av. Juan de Dios Bátiz S/N, Nueva Industrial Vallejo, Gustavo A. Madero, 07738 Ciudad de México, CDMX, Mexico {acontrerasm,becarvajal}@ipn.mx 2 Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingeniería y Tecnologías Avanzadas, Av Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2580, La Laguna Ticomán, Gustavo A. Madero, 07340 Ciudad de México, CDMX, Mexico 3 Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación, Calz México-Xochimilco 289, Coapa, Arenal Tepepan, Tlalpan, 14389 Ciudad de México, CDMX, Mexico

Abstract. The Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) based on Electroencephalography (EEG), allow that through the processing of impulses or electrical signals generated by the human brain, people who have some type of severe motor disability or suffer from neurological conditions or neurodegenerative diseases, can establish communication with electronic devices. This paper proposes the development of an expert system that generates the control sequences for a neuroprosthesis that will be used in the rehabilitation of patients who cannot control their own muscles through neuronal pathways. This proposal is based on the EGG record during the operation of a BCI under the rare event paradigm and the presence or not of the P300 wave of the Event-Related Potential (ERP). Feature extraction and classification will be implemented on a mobile device using Python as a platform. The processing of the EEG records will allow obtaining the information so that an Expert System implemented in the mobile device, is responsible for determining the control sequences that will be executed by a neuroprosthesis. The tests will be performed by controlling a neuroprosthesis developed by the Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación in México, which aims to stimulate the movement of a person’s upper limb. Keywords: Brain-Computer Interface EEG  Motor imagination

 Neuroprosthesis  Mobile devices 

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 25–31, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_4

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1 Introduction According to the World Report on Disability issued by the World Health Organization (WHO) [1], it is estimated that more than 1 billion people in the world live with some form of disability; of these people, almost 200 million have considerable difficulties executing actions or tasks that are considered normal for a human being. In the medical area, physical rehabilitation has been used for the retraining of people affected by lesions to the nervous system, and it is through functional electrical stimulation (FES) that the motor nerves are artificially activated, causing muscle contractions that generate functional movement by applying electrical current pulses. On the other hand, the brain-computer interfaces (BCI), based on electroencephalography (EEG) provide an alternative for humans to establish communication with external devices, and are helpful for people who have some type of severe motor disability, suffer from neurological conditions or neurodegenerative diseases; This is currently possible because EEG-based BCIs record brain signals in order to create a non-muscular communication channel between mental intentions and electronic devices. The main noninvasive methods of BCIs include Slow Cortical Potentials (SCPs), evoked potential of the P300 wave, Visual Steady State Potentials (SSVEPs) and Motor Imagination (MI) [2]. This change attracts the subject’s attention, forcing him to use working memory to compare the rare or infrequent stimulus with frequent previous stimuli [3]. In this work we propose the development of a system that generates the control sequences through the P300 component for a neuroprosthesis that will be used in the rehabilitation of patients who cannot control their own muscles.

2 Methods and Materials The general form of the methodology considered in this work is made up of the following steps: Step 1 Acquisition of signals: The signal acquisition stage aims to record the electrical activity of the brain, which reflects the user’s intentions, is carried out through an EEG using electrodes. In this first stage, the registered signal is prepared for further processing. Step 2 EEG registration: Hardware and Software: A 16-channel biopotential amplifier, model g.USBamp™ from the company g.tec ™, was used, with which the EEG was registered in 10 positions of the International 10–20 System (Fz, C4, Cz, C3, P4, Pz, P3, PO8, Oz and P07) during the operation of the P300 Speller application of the experimental platform for the BCI2000 ™ [4], based on the original Donchin Speller [5]. Step 3 Feature Extraction: The methods to extract features such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Common Spatial Pattern (CSP). For the analysis of the data in time-frequency, we find the Fourier Transform by Intervals (STFT), Wavelet Transform (WT), Autoregressive Models (AR) and Adaptive Filter (MF) with the same objective.

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Step 4 Classifiers: In this stage, the parameters that classify the signal between different patterns or classes are established. Which can be: neural networks, deep neural networks, the support vector machine (SVM), etc. Step 5 Control: Finally, the control stage corresponds to direct interaction with the end user. Once the features have been detected and they have been classified as control signals, the implemented application must perform the corresponding actions.

3 Results To validate the advances in this research, from the EEG record database [6], the following test considerations were taken. A set of test subjects underwent 4 registration sessions organized as follows:…. Session 1. Directed Spelling. Number of sequences per symbol: 15. Record: 1. Target word: HEAT. Record 2: Target word: CARIÑO. Record 3: Target word: SUSHI. Session 2. Directed Spelling with classification matrix. Number of sequences per symbol: 15. Record 1: Target word: SUSHI. Session 3. Free Spelling with classification matrix. Number of sequences per symbol: 15. From 1 to 4 registers. Target words chosen by the subject. Session 4. Free Spelling with fewer intensification sequences. Number of sequences: variable (1 to 15). From 1 to 10 records. Target words chosen by the subject.

3.1

Considerations

In directed spelling registers (sessions 1 and 2), the target words are predefined and the symbols that make them up are indicated one by one, performing 15 stimulation sequences per symbol. A stimulation sequence consists of the random intensification (the symbols contained in a row or column light up in white) of each of the 6 rows and the 6 columns of the symbol matrix. In the records of the free spelling sessions (3 and 4), the target words are freely chosen by the subject and the number of stimulation sequences per symbol in each record varies between 1 and 15, also by choice of the subject. For each of the 10 test subjects considered, each of the 4 EEG (directed spelling) records can be expressed as xi;ch (n), where i Є {1, 2, 3, 4} represents the record number, ch Є {1,2,…, 10} the channel number, n = 1, 2,…, N are the instants of the EEG signal sampling time, and N is the total number of samples from register i, which depends on the number of spelled symbols (5 or 6). Figure 2 shows the EGG signals. With the EEG raw signal from each of the 10 channels, for each record xi;ch (n), the following is done: • An EEG epoch is expressed as xk;y i;ch (n), with n = {1, 2, …, 257}, it is defined as a window with 257 samples (after the moment of stimulation) from register i and

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class k Є {a, u} where k = a indicates an epoch of the attended class and k = u, an epoch of the unattended class. • The super index k = a corresponds to the synchronized time with the intensification of a row or column of the matrix of the Speller P300, containing a target symbol (infrequent event), and k = u corresponds to a time of EEG associated with a intensification that does not include a target symbol (frequent event). The superscript indicates the type of epoch: the rows (y = f) or columns (y = c). • In each of the 4 EEG records of each subject, all available times are extracted and divided into 4 groups, Fig. 1. Times attended by rows: xa;f i;ch (n), times attended by u;f columns: xa;c i;ch (n), unattended times of rows: xi;ch (n), unattended times of columns: xu;c i;ch (n).

Fig. 1. Signal recording EEG in the target times.

The information from Record 1 of the Directed Spelling of Session 1 that has been specified in the previous section, was processed using Python tools and a total of 890 epochs were identified, of which 149 correspond to epochs attended and 741 to epochs not catered for. From said grouping, what is specified in Table 1 is obtained.

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Table 1. Number of times for record 1 of Directed Spelling. Letter C A L O R

Attended 29 29 29 29 29

Not attended 140 139 142 147 140

From the extracted signals, the average of the records of the times attended and not attended by letter is calculated, through Directed Spelling and the registration channel, obtaining the information records shown in Figs. 2, 3 and 4.

Fig. 2. Average recording of EEG signals of channels Pz, Cz, Oz that correspond to the times attended and not attended for the letter “C” of Directed Spelling.

As can be seen in Figs. 2, 3 and 4, the information that corresponds to the average of the times attended and not attended by the recording channel are very similar, this corresponds to the measurement of the signal power content versus the frequency of the channels that are of interest Pz, Cz and Oz.

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Fig. 3. Average recording of EEG signals of channels P3, C4, C3 that correspond to the times attended and not attended for the letter “C” of Directed Spelling.

Fig. 4. Average recording of EEG signals of channels P4, PO8, PO7 that correspond to the times attended and not attended for the letter “C” of Directed Spelling.

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4 Conclusions In the course of this research, the registration of the EEG signals is obtained for a population of 10 individuals with different abilities, who were presented with the test board to start the acquisition of the signals. The acquired signals were subjected to the corresponding filtering as well as the extraction of the signal spectrum to detect the frequency in which it presents the greatest energy, this point being considered as the center of attention of the individual in the letter they wish to express. From the previous process already established, the corresponding acquisitions will be made to extract the pertinent characteristics and continue with the selection of the training and classification algorithm on mobile devices. Acknowledgments. The team work thanks the Instituto Politécnico Nacional, the Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación y a la Secretaria de Educación, Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación de la Ciudad de México for the support, resources and facilities provided for the development of this research.

References 1. Organización Mundial de la Salud and Banco Mundial, Informe mundial sobre la discapacidad (2011) 2. Ortner, R., Allison, B.Z., Pichler, G., Heilinger, A., Sabathiel, N., Guger, C.: Assessment and communication for people with disorders of consciousness. JoVE 126, 1–8 (2017). https://doi. org/10.3791/53639 3. Mercado, J.: Implementación de una nueva estrategia de identificación del potencial P300 para interfaces cerebro-computadora utilizando información espectral del eeg. Master’s thesis, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, August 2016 4. Schalk, G., McFarland, D., Hinterberger, T., Birbaumer, N., Wolpaw, J.: BCI2000: a generalpurpose brain-computer interface (BCI) system. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51(6), 1034–1043 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1109/tbme.2004.827072 5. Farwell, L., Donchin, E.: Talking off the top of your head: toward a mental prosthesis utilizing event-related brain potentials. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 70(6), 510–523 (1988). https://doi.org/10.1016/0013-4694(88)90149-6 6. Ledesma-Ramirez, C., Bojorges-Valdez, E., Yanez-Suarez, O., Saavedra, C., Bougrain, L.: An open-access P300 speller database. In: Fourth International Brain-Computer Interface Meeting, May 2010

Investigating Smart Home Needs for Elderly Women Who Live Alone. An Interview Study Nana Kesewaa Dankwa(&) Research Centre for Information Systems Design, University of Kassel, Pfannkuchstrasse 1, 34121 Kassel, Germany [email protected]

Abstract. Identity aspects such as gender, race, culture, and socio-economic status should be considered when technologies are designed with and for persons [9]. HCI research in ageing populations can benefit from considering the complexity of identity, use and context of older persons. This short paper draws attention to gender as an aspect of identity in working with ageing populations. It presents results from an interview study with elderly women who live alone in Germany. This study is part of a larger research project dedicated to innovating smart home technologies with and for elderly women who live alone. The research project has comprised of an “exploratory getting-to know each other” session, use experience of a smart speaker and interview studies. This paper presents insights from semi-structured interviews with 7 elderly women who live alone. These insights are also presented as design considerations for smart home technology for elderly women living alone. The study is the basis for further work with the elderly women, which are co-creation sessions to design smart home devices and develop prototypes. Keywords: Interviews

 Ageing  Smart homes  Ageing-in-place  Gender

1 Introduction Past HCI research in ageing populations is criticized as deficit oriented, not incorporating the holism of ageing [4, 11]. Recent HCI research has gravitated towards positive models of ageing like Successful Ageing, Active Ageing, and Ageing in Place. These models accentuate a comprehensive outlook on ageing based on the pillars of health, participation, and security of the elderly [10]. Moving forward, HCI research for ageing populations can harness overlooked opportunities by considering the complex identity and use contexts of older persons. Instead of a focus on a disability, design can consider how identity aspects intersect, and identity is situated in design [3]. Gender, an aspect of an individual’s identity intersecting with age, is overlooked in technology design for older people even though gender influences participation, health, and financial status [8, 12]. This paper highlights these interactions. This study is part of ongoing research to design smart home devices with elderly women who live alone. It has till now engaged the women in an “exploratory getting to know each other” session, use experience of a smart speaker and interview studies.

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 32–38, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_5

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This paper presents the interview study with 7 elderly women (65+) who live alone in a suburb of Kassel, Germany. The goal was understanding the women’s lives, even as children and younger adults. The research questions were: How do elderly women manage their lives alone? What are the elderly women’s perceptions towards (smart) technology? The findings show how gender, birth year, and living situation influence older adults’ quality of life [12]. It shows their values and factors to wellbeing. This work paves way for future co-design of smart home technology. This paper’s contribution is three-fold. First, it presents an empirical study of elderly women living alone, adding to the scarce research corpus of this group. Second, it brings attention to the need to consider an individual’s identity as an intersection of varying factors. Third, it presents design considerations for smart home technology for the elderly.

2 Method Seven (7) elderly women (mean age = 79.9, SD = 2.61, age range = 75–83) were recruited for face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Semi-structured interviews are key in gaining in-depth insights into the ageing experiences of older persons [1, 2]. The questions were in four categories: 1. personal information, 2. life in past years, childhood, as young adults, family and hobbies, 3. present life, daily routines, social activities, relationships, and skills and 4. technology use and ownership. The interviews (avg. 53 min) were in German, audio recorded with a smart phone and in the women’s homes. They lived alone with no support for daily chores. All women but two lived in their houses, two in rented and owned apartments. They were recruited through snowballing sampling. For the women, the interviews were a follow-up to the “exploratory getting to know each other” session (Table 1). Table 1. Demographics of women. All names have been anonymized. PID

Age

Anna Heike Emma Beate Eva Hanna Barbara

81 83 82 80 79 75 79

Years in current home 51 50 50 38 45 19 55

Years living alone 10 7.5 3 3 11 19 1.5

Education/training Pharmacy Nursing (Pediatric) Sales + Cosmetology Home Economics Tax Office Bachelor (Education) Wholesales

Years worked – 6/7 10 24 30+ 30+ 45

The interviews were analysed using conventional content analysis [6]. Some themes that rose out of the categories are reported. This study is limited to the geographic location and cultural contexts of the women. They are white with no migration

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backgrounds. They have no financial or health constraints which is not reflective of all elderly women. Gender is based on societal structures and not self-defined.

3 Findings 3.1

Building on Life Experiences

Nationality, age group, and gender impact the quality of life older persons. Belonging to the Silent Generation, all participants’ parents experienced The Great Depression and World War II, influencing their lives as children, teenagers, and women. The choices for hobbies, education and jobs were marginal, making the best of what was available. For example, Eva said they “would have loved to study if there had been money” but did an apprenticeship. For this age group, family and childcare were definitive women roles. In the west of Germany, for example, where this study takes place, public nurseries for children below 3 years was non-existent and admission competitive. Mothers were not expected to be a primary part of the working class as fathers. All women were married relatively early (mean age = 22). Anna and Heike were housewives, raised 4 and 3 children, respectively. Emma, Eva and Beate worked dependent on child-care options, raising 2, 2 and 1 child(ren), respectively. Hannah and Barbara had no children and worked fulltime. The women were financially reliant on their or their husband’s pension. Elderly women may suffer more from pension deficiencies due to family and childcare roles or spousal separation. The factors detailed above can influence women’s lives especially if their pension benefits are minimal. They may be unable to afford sophisticated smart home technology that could help them live alone independently. 3.2

Living Alone but not Lonely

The participants were positive on ageing. They described aging as a stage of life, to be embraced and the most made of. ‘Old’ was reflective of how one felt. For Heike, “I am as old as I feel” “sometimes I feel like I am 60 and sometimes I think that is not possible, I cannot do that anymore….but overall I do not feel like 83, no no”. Barbara said, “everything has its time….and now when one is older, really old at 79, it is also a beautiful time…one can undertake several things, do a lot and have many friends”. Loneliness as a subjective measure of the quality of relationships one has is dependent on age, financial situation, and health [5]. Though the study did not measure states of loneliness, it noted the variance between being lonely and living alone. The women lived alone due to the demise of their spouse. They valued living alone and did not see themselves as lonely. Anna said “…being alone is enjoyable and when not, I go out to meet others”. Heike said “I do well living alone. I enjoy it as well”. The social environment and activities contributed to them not being lonely and a reluctance to move away as this could lead to loneliness. Emma said that „If I ever moved out of this neighborhood to a new place then I would be lonely”. Anna said, “When you keep busy, you do not fall into a hole. You keep a balance and have a feeling of self-worth”.

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All women did not wish to move to new environments even their children’s. Emma said she could not imagine “making new connections at 82 years”. The values of independence and freedom influenced their choice to live alone. For Beate: „As long as I am independent and can still take care of everything by myself, I do not wish to live in a [care] home”. Heike noted the freedom „to do what I want to do when and how I want to do”. Elderly men in the US shared similar values of freedom and satisfaction living alone [13] which contradict stereotypes of loneliness for the elderly living alone. After the loss of spouse, over time, they picked up new hobbies, habits (e.g. cooking habits) and friendships were discovered while some hobbies, activities, and friendships were stopped. 3.3

Engaging in and with the Community

The study underscored the value of proximate friends, family, neighbors, and groups to the women’s wellbeing. Each woman was a member of at least one club of a sort. For example, Anna, Emma, Beate, Hanna and Barbara were in a garden club, and Heike in a board game club. The clubs arranged periodic meetings for games, travel, Sunday lunches, dinner, or visits. Group membership and activities metamorphosed over the years. For example, Hanna goes out to eat every fortnight with a group she has been part of for 40+ years. They met for bowling, but due to health restrictions, the oldest now 99 years, now meet to eat out. Heike, Eva, and Emma were enrolled in courses at the Adult School. Eva in an english course, Heike, and Emma in a novel reading course. Beate and Heike were part of regular meetings at the Community Center for crafting, and painting. They said it kept their minds active and they met others. They used telephones mostly to keep in touch with their community and preferred face-to-face interactions. Anna said, “I prefer personal contact to talking on the phone.” They prioritized the nurturing of relationships over longer spans, meeting regularly, checking up on each other and running errands for each other. Korporaal et al. say this is a unique trait of women in guaranteeing the ongoing contact of kin and non-kin relationships [7]. 3.4

Living with Technology

Persons born between 1924–1945 are identified as having traits (e.g. frugal, demand quality and simplicity) formed due to living situations in the years. On technology purchase, the women believed technology should be purchased when needed. And if it met its function, it need not be replaced. Hanna said: “If a technology needs to be upgraded often with software or parts, then what was the essence of it”, In addition, if new technology could not play a substantial role in their lives, make it better, it was not needed. For example, Anna said when computers became popular, they did not get one because, “we never understood how a computer could make our lives better than it was”. And for Heike, Emma, Beate, Eva and Hannah who had computers, they used them rarely, for ‘administrative’ tasks such as online banking, printing, scanning, email etc. Play or leisure was with the television and radio. However, Eva played Mahjong on her smart phone, Beate liked taking photos with her smart phone. Anna read books and

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news on her iPad. Heike and Emma like exchanging messages with family, neighbours, and friends on WhatsApp. Hanna and Barbara had mobile phones but no smart phones. The use of a device did not imply emotional affinity, they did not need to have an attachment to technology regularly used. Also, a technology use skill could be acquired but not used. The acquired skill did not translate into affinity or desire to use the technology. For example, Anna and Hanna took computer and smart phone courses but did not have the devices. The use of smart phones was motivated by the desire to stay in contact with younger family generations. Their smart phone habits differed from younger persons. They did like to constantly carry or have conversations in public spaces with their mobile phones. Mobile phones were for emergency situations especially when travelling. On smart homes, the women were familiar with the basic concept. But Anna thought “it was for people who needed to do a lot at once”. They wondered if it were something that would fit into their lives. Beate asked “is there really a need to remotely control my blinds?”. From an earlier study with the women, where they received a smart speaker (Amazon Echo Dot) and a diary to document how they adopted the new technology into their lives. Heike used it for two days and plugged it out due to the discomfort of being listened to. Eva attempted to use the device (asked others how to use, installed the app but unsuccessful in use). The others did not use the device. Beate and Hanna did not have wireless internet and Barbara did not have a smart phone. They generally commented that the device did not fit into their lives with concerns for privacy and security.

4 Discussion 4.1

Design Considerations

Alternative Interfaces The design of alternative interfaces for smart homes that are ubiquitous, assimilating into the current habits, activities and spaces of the women could allow for the easy adoption of smart home technologies. The use of smart textiles, surfaces (e.g. mirrors, kitchen counters) as interfaces allow for easy integration into the women’s homes. It avoids the introduction of entirely new elements, making the presence of smart home technology not intrusive as new technology can often be daunting for elderly women. However, adoption may be easier if the technology stems from a place of familiarity. As smart home interfaces are often smart phones and with elderly women having different phone use habits, design could look at novel interfaces that do not require phones. Interactions can be based on switching knobs, pressing buttons or simple “on and off” buttons. In addition, this opens the opportunity for investigating diverse materials for designing smart home devices such as smart textiles and sustainable materials. The women preferred face-to-face interactions, but as most digital technology minimises personal contact, smart home design can compensate with face in this need by facilitating convention with interconnected visually appealing interfaces that allow one to know

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Designing with Elderly Women Living Alone Co-design sessions should align with positive aspects of the lives of the elderly women. This means identifying the inherent skills and creative activities the women enjoy. This should inform material and toolkits choices, which may not entirely be foreign to the women. But if the material or toolkit must be electronic, then the women may first be eased into ‘making’ with activities they are familiar with. In addition, tech design should embrace the women’s lives as valid as it is and not situated as a redeemer. If design is driven by the women, there may in the end be no need for new smart home tech, but a variation of current tech use. Varying forms of sharing knowledge may be needed as the elderly women preferred oral interactions when they received new technology. Each woman shared similar experiences, on receipt of new tech, the installer orally explained how to use the tech and they wrote notes for future use. Design sessions could explore ways of designing easy to use manuals with interactive oral knowledge forms for the elderly. Designing for Privacy and Security All women were concerned with smart home devices recording their data and being stored somewhere they did not know. How can design assure them their data will be used only for what the permit and not against them in future? Also, they were not comfortable using Amazon devices due to data sale for marketing controversies. They feared that having these devices always on, meant being listened to almost like a spy. How can privacy be designed as transparent for elderly persons? Design could position privacy as a central purpose of the device. Therefore, the device works in maintaining privacy and everything else is secondary. Thus, for example by visually communicating data sources being streamed from or to, one always knows when errors occurs.

5 Conclusion Elderly women may face additional barriers to wellbeing in living alone as compared to their peers and couples in other living conditions. The present case study contributes new understandings of the lives of elderly women, their values and their attitudes to technology use and ownership. It highlights the need to consider alternative interfaces, privacy & security and material choices to when designing considerations for smart home technology design which are Acknowledgements. This work was supported by the INTeGER (Innovation through Gender in Computing) research project. The author thanks all the women who participated in this study and Claude Draude for her supervision of the project.

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References 1. Bernard, H.R.: Research Methods in Anthropology, 5th edn. AltaMira, Blue Ridge Summit (2011) 2. Brandt, E., Binder, T., Malmborg, L., Sokoler, T.: Communities of everyday practice and situated elderliness as an approach to co-design for senior interaction. In: Proceedings of the 22nd Conference of the Computer-Human Interaction Special Interest Group of Australia on Computer-Human Interaction, pp. 400–403, November 2010 3. Brewer, R.N., Piper, A.M.: XPress: rethinking design for aging and accessibility through a voice-based online blogging community. Proc. ACM Hum.-Comput. Interact. 1(CSCW), 26 (2017) 4. Carroll, J.M., Convertino, G., Farooq, U., Rosson, M.B.: The firekeepers: aging considered as a resource. Univ. Access Inf. Soc. 11(1), 7–15 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10209011-0229-9 5. Gierveld, J.D.J., Van Tilburg, T.: The De Jong Gierveld short scales for emotional and social loneliness: tested on data from 7 countries in the UN generations and gender surveys. Eur. J. Ageing 7(2), 121–130 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10433-010-0144-6 6. Hsieh, H.F., Shannon, S.E.: Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qual. Health Res. 15(9), 1277–1288 (2005) 7. Korporaal, M., Broese van Groenou, M.I., Van Tilburg, T.G.: Effects of own and spousal disability on loneliness among older adults. J. Aging Health 20(3), 306–325 (2008) 8. Schiebinger, L., Klinge, I., Paik, H.Y., Sánchez de Madariaga, I., Schraudner, M., Stefanick, M. (eds.): Gendered Innovations in Science, Health & Medicine, Engineering, and Environment (genderedinnovations.stanford.edu) 2011–2018 9. Schlesinger, A., Edwards, W.K., Grinter, R.E.: Intersectional HCI: engaging identity through gender, race, and class. In: Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 5412–5427, May 2017 10. Nassir, S., Leong, T.W., Robertson, T.: Positive ageing: elements and factors for design. In: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Australian Special Interest Group for Computer Human Interaction, pp. 264–268, December 2015 11. Vines, J., Pritchard, G., Wright, P., Olivier, P., Brittain, K.: An age-old problem: examining the discourses of ageing in HCI and strategies for future research. ACM Trans. Comput.Hum. Interact. (TOCHI) 22(1), 1–27 (2015) 12. WHO: Active Ageing: A policy framework, Madrid, Spain, pp. 1–59 (2002) 13. Yetter, S.L.: The experience of older men living alone. Geriatr. Nurs. 31(6), 412–418 (2010)

Communication Support Utilizing AAC for Verbally Challenged Children in Developing Countries During COVID-19 Pandemic Walia Farzana1 , Farhana Sarker2 , Ravi Vaidyanathan3 , Tom Chau4 , and Khondaker A. Mamun1(B) 1

Advanced Intelligent Multidisciplinary Systems Lab, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, United International University, Dhaka, Bangladesh [email protected] 2 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Liberal Arts Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh 3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London, UK 4 Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Abstract. Functional communication is indispensable for child development at all times but during this COVID-19, non-verbal children become more anxious about social distancing and self-quarantine due to sudden aberration on daily designed practices and professional support. These verbally challenged children require the support of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) for intercommunication. Therefore, during COVID-19, assistance must be provided remotely to these users by a AAC team involving caregivers, teachers, Speech Language Therapist (SLT) to ensure collaborative learning and development of nonverbal child communication skills. However, most of the advanced AAC, such as Speech Generating Devices (SGD), Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) based mobile applications (Android & iOS) are designed considering the scenario of developed countries and less accessible in developing countries. Therefore, in this study, we are focusing on representing feasible short term strategies, prospective challenges and as long term strategy, a cloud based framework entitled as “Bolte Chai+”, which is an intelligent integrated collaborative learning platform for nonverbal children, parents, caregivers, teachers and SLT. The intelligent analytics within the platform monitors child overall progress by tracking child activity in mobile application and conversely support parents and AAC team to concentrate on individual child ubiquitous abilities. We believe, the proposed framework and strategies will empower non-verbal children and assist researchers, policy makers to acknowledge a definitive solution to implement AAC as communication support in developing countries during COVID-19 pandemic.

c Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020  C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 39–50, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_6

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W. Farzana et al. Keywords: Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) Intelligent system · Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) · Developing countries

1

·

Introduction

According to the International Society of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (ISAAC), AAC refers to a group of tools and procedures (sign, gesture, speech generating devices) to mitigate challenges of regular communication of non-verbal children [1]. AAC is employed when the development of communication does not follow conventional manner, substantial delay is observed and to augment (not replace) communication process AAC is introduced [2]. Due to COVID-19 pandemic situation, there is alternations in daily routines of verbally challenged children that might create distress and anxiety in verbally challenged children which can negatively influence family relationships and making parents empathetic during this pandemic time [3]. It is imperative for everyone to apprehend the ongoing pandemic situation, exhibit individual needs, and obtain significant information. These non-verbal children utilize AAC as a communication support and such assistance must be ensured remotely by parents, teachers, SLT to these AAC users. One of the feasible choice is to provide remote support via telepractice. Telepractice indicates to services arranged at distance utilizing video conference or other technologies [4]. To quote Kairy, Lehoux and Vincent [5], the World Health Organization (WHO) endorsed that telepractice leads to clinical equivalence or even better performance compare to traditional approaches and substantially improve access to service. In this study, we put forward certain short term strategies for developing countries to aid communication support with AAC for verbally challenged children during COVID-19 which are; telepractice with SLT, parent training and coaching via Tele-AAC, online classroom learning and multi-modal application and adaptation of accessible AAC system. However, some observable challenges which restrain communication support utilizing AAC in developing countries are; dearth of adequate budget and technical infrastructure for telepractice, bandwidth limitation in certain areas, lack of policy, skilled personnel and governmental support to ensure confidentiality in telecommunication service, non-cooperation of parents, teacher, SLT who have limited knowledge of technology. Considering the COVID-19 pandemic situation, as a long term strategy, we are proposing an integrated intelligent platform titled as “Bolte Chai+”, which is at present a framework under design process. This “Bolte Chai+” framework embeds all the features of “Bolte Chai” [6] along with integrated platform which enables monitoring of child progress while utilizing mobile application and the interactive dashboard provide opportunity of collaboration among parents, teachers and SLT. The intelligent algorithm within system will monitor child progress that will assist parents, teachers and SLT to acknowledge child development scope in communication skills. The nobility of this proposed framework is

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that it will enable collaboration among child, parents, teachers, SLT, administrative personnel through one single platform and will provide directions regarding child substantial improvement in communication skills. In this pandemic situation of COVID-19, we are delineating short term strategies, challenges and a framework “Bolte Chai+” as an aid to support communication with AAC for non-verbal children in developing countries. The following paper is organized as follows, Sect. 2 present short term strategies for communication support with AAC, Sect. 3 illustrate the challenges in developing countries. Finally, a demonstration of the framework, discussion and conclusion.

2 2.1

Strategies to Support Communication with AAC During COVID-19 in Developing Countries Mutli-Modal AAC Adaptation

Multimodal communication refers to utilization of one or more method during intercommunication. It might consists of manual signs, gestures (pointing), approximate vocalization, facial manifestation as well as aided AAC technology (PECS, SGD) [2]. Primarily, it includes anything that individuals apply for communication. Multimodal communication provide flexibility. For instance, parents can motivate the child to utilize PECS whereas SLT provide speech therapy via online applications. Moreover, if a child use mobile apps, picture with relevant vocabularies can be personalized to support their understanding regarding COVID-19. For example, mobile apps like Bolte Chai [6] and Avaz [7] provide customization option to caregivers or parents. 2.2

Telepractice with SLT

Student with language impairment often receive speech language therapy from Speech Language Therapists (SLT) as a part of their educational program [8]. Considering the COVID-19 situation, where in person service delivery should be limited, remote training or telepractice is a plausible solution. In order to execute telepractice service, structural planning is required which involves prioritizing need of individual child to determine learning targets, gleaning information from family members regarding available resources at home, implementing action plans via online video-conferencing, such as Zoom, Google Meeting, document sharing platform, for instance, Google Drive and parents training and coaching is required to ensure the implementation of home learning for non-verbal children [9]. 2.3

Online Classroom Learning

Considering the unusual situation of COVID-19, schools can facilitate classroom learning via internet, considering online or blended learning, which involves both elements of traditional education and online learning. A complete team is

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involved in school based online learning which comprises school administrators, teacher, technical support providers, parents, children and facilitator [10]. An effective collaborative approach is required for initiating learning opportunities, managing and distributing materials and gleaning information regarding student progress. 2.4

Blended Learning Network (BLN) via Tele-AAC

Blended Learning Network (BLN) refers to a method that facilitate knowledge exchange and learning about communication and AAC between parents and professionals of individuals with complex communication need [11]. Tele-AAC is a team based approach which call for appropriate technical structure, numerous practices and strategies [12]. While Speech-Language Professionals (SLP) train and coach parents, there will be a certain framework with different stages. The stages are identifying target skills that need to be improved in a child, strategies and parent friendly procedures developed by SLP to enhance targeted communication skills in child. Parent training and coaching has effective positive results for both parents and child, parents gain confidence in supporting their child and improvement in child expressive and initiation of communication [13].

3 3.1

Challenges in Disseminating Communication Support with AAC in Developing Countries Ensuring Privacy and Confidentiality

For successful telepractice it is imperative to guarantee confidentially, privacy of data and security of recorded data. Educational institutions should be prohibited to share student’s or non-verbal child information without parental consent. The pros and corns as well as prospective outcomes need to be disclosed to parents before offering telepractice services. However, the administrative system in developing country like Bangladesh is not yet reformed to meet the need of electronic world [14]. 3.2

Lack of Technical Infrastructure and Funding

Technical infrastructure is critical for success of telepractice. There are key things that should be available to both the provider and the client places which includes computer/laptop, internet access, video-conferencing or screen sharing software. Additional items that are required consists of internet usage policy and bandwidth allocation, administrative and technical support. According to World Health Organization(WHO), one of the constraint is funding in case of telepractice service in developing countries [15].

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3.3

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Dearth of Quality Service

Regardless of the facilities, resources or services provided, interventions and assessment of services provided via telepractice need to be assessed for therapeutic effectiveness and might include feedback from client, caregivers to maintain quality assurance [16]. Ingrained communication between service providers and receivers improve the overall quality of service via telepractice or active consultation. 3.4

Absence of Skilled Personnel

Most of the people in developing countries like Bangladesh do not have enough understanding of utilizing computer, internet or electronic delivery services [17]. Therefore, on site Information Technology (IT) support is required while introducing telepractice project, as the professional are aware of the technical infrastructure that can be used in the premises [18].

4

Proposed Theoretical Framework: Bolte Chai+

Considering the COVID-19 pandemic situation, it is imperative that parents, teachers and SLT work altogether to monitor child progress and apply AAC interventions to enhance their communication skills. Therefore, we are proposing a cloud based intelligent integrated platform with mobile application and the framework is titled as “Bolte Chai+”. The framework embeds all the features of Bolte Chai [6]. Basically, “Bolte Chai” application is based on PECS technology where parent mode and child mode is present and the parent mode enable customization of activities according to child preference. In addition, voice output through mobile microphone enable non-verbal child to express their needs and the help option within the application ensure that child could seek help from their relatives only by selecting pictures which enable sending immediate SMS. All the aforementioned features are incorporated with intelligent analytics in “Bolte Chai+” to monitor the progress of child through mobile application utilization and generated progress report can be viewed through interactive dashboard (Fig. 1). 4.1

Description of Proposed Framework

The diagram in Fig. 2 depicts the basic framework of Bolte Chai+ which integrates different users to cloud service. 4.2

User Role or Stakeholders of Bolte Chai+

In the proposed “Bolte Chai+” framework, there are in total six categories of users.

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Fig. 1. Proposed architecture of Bolte Chai+

Child. Non-verbal child of developing countries will utilize the pictogram based mobile application. Each individual child will be registered will a unique user id at home or respective institutions. Parents/Caregivers. Parents will have access to mobile application and integrated dashboard. In the mobile application they will able to customize help contacts; add/delete activities with picture, text and voice from cloud database or manually for child and in the website they will able to monitor child overall progress along with relevant information. Teachers. Teachers will be able to edit activities for child utilizing the mobile application. While the dash-board in the website will enable teachers monitoring child progress and providing respective feedback. Speech Language Therapists (SLT). SLT will recommend activities for child and will monitor child overall progress in interactive dashboard. Institutions. Institutions refer to school or special organizations that work for non-verbal children. Access to website will enable them to integrate subinstitutions or all relevant information of child in one single platform. Super-Admin. Super-Admin is responsible for user management, authentication and monitoring of the whole system with technical assistance from admin.

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Fig. 2. Proposed framework of Bolte Chai+

Basically, through interactive dashboard it will be possible to get an overview of the present status and progress report of all child users. 4.3

Bolte Chai+ System

Bolte Chai+ System encompasses mobile application, user defined dashboard and cloud service. The dashboard have distinct functionality on the basis of user role. Mobile Application. The application will have numerous activities with categories and sub-categories for both the android and iOS version. One example of activity is Food, under Food it will category that is breakfast, lunch and

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dinner. Therefore, under breakfast category, the sub-categories will be bread, jam, vegetables etc. User Defined Dashboard. The integrated website will have dashboard that will enable different functions according to user role. The functions of dashboard for parents will be different from the functions of dashboard for teachers (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3. Management dash-board function according to user role in Bolte Chai+

Cloud Service. It will be responsible for all kind of user management and controlling operations with the mobile application and integrated website. Registration and authentication of registered users will be done in cloud via internet. Moreover, cloud management will store database of 1000+ activities and integrates Data-base information with dashboard. The Fig. 2 depicts the user function options based on the hierarchy level. For instance, Parent UI of dashboard provide functional option to monitor child progress via daily, weekly, monthly and yearly report, institution list, caregiver list and related feedback from teacher, SLT to enhance child communication skills. Respectively, there are definitive functional option in dashboard according to user role in the framework and one of the notable factor is with increment in user hierarchy there are substantial increase in the functionality of the user. 4.4

Main Objectives of Bolte Chai+

The main objectives of Bolte Chai+ includes product development, user centric analysis for further modification in the framework and user adaptability in order to address user feedback.

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Product Development. We focused on the need of non-verbal children and their family to develop “Bolte Chai+”. In collaboration with families, teachers, SLTs and concerned organizations we have analyzed users characteristics, workflow. On the basis of the analysis, an integrated intelligent platform with mobile application is under development process to monitor child activities and assist parents, teachers, SLT to acknowledge child progress at any place at any time. The mobile application will have interactive User Interface (UI), login function, backend database and analytics, privacy and language settings. In the long run, Natural Language Processing (NLP) will be integrated to remotely detect the progress the non-verbal child in utterance of certain words. User Centric Analysis. After development and successful integration of “Bolte Chai+” in cloud server, user centric analysis (user experience, performance and security) will be conducted to analysis the efficacy of the android and iOS mobile application along with web service. Evaluation study of user experience will be conducted in schools, related organizations to gain feedback form the users and on the basis of feedback from parents, teacher, SLT and other stakeholders further development will be done in the application. All the critical findings will be considered for integration with the system and the application will be launched for public. User Adaptability. The integrated platform “Bolte Chai+” provide opportunity of collaboration among non-verbal children, parents, teacher, caregivers and SLT. The development of the platform will address user feedback and will iterate the development process based on user acquisition. Initially, the evaluation of “Bolte Chai+” platform will be focused on Bangladeshi non-verbal children. Moreover, traditional and digital media will be utilized along with the support of concerned organizations to promote the applications to distinct communities and countrywide. In future, additional support will be added in different languages to ensure global exposure and sustainability of the platform.

5

Outcome

The “Bolte Chai+” will provide an opportunity to non-verbal child to exhibit their desire in a innovative manner and gain communication skills with assistance from teacher, parents and SLT. Moreover, parents, teacher, SLTs and other stakeholders will be able to collaborate in one single platform and monitor child progress. One of the encouraging outcome during evaluation sessions of our previous version “Bolte Chai” application is that it assist in developing communication skills in non-verbal children and relatively less expensive in context of developing countries, like Bangladesh [6]. It is expected that incorporating intelligent analytics and advanced features of “Bolte Chai+” will be beneficial for non-verbal children.

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Discussion

The proposed framework “Bolte Chai+” possess the probability to become an optimal solution to support communication in non-verbal children during this COVID-19 pandemic and afterwards. Integration of machine learning and artificial intelligence in AAC systems has created a new dimension. For instance, application titled as LIVOX is a machine learning based android mobile application that recommend pictograms on the basis of time and location of user device [19]. Another example is Case Based Reasoning (CBR) machine learning approach that assist parent, caregiver and therapist to co-operate among themselves and closely monitor ASD children [20]. However, availability of these intelligent system is limited to developed countries. “Bolte Chai+” creates a premises of communication opportunity for non-verbal children in developing countries as well as for parents, teachers, SLTs and administrative authorities. A single platform integrates a complete team of concerned personnel in order to enhance the scope of communication skills for non-verbal children. Regarding the proposed intelligent integrated framework “Bolte Chai+” we have outlined the following beneficial effects1. Through the smart mobile application, personalization of activities can be done according to individual child preference. 2. With user defined account, activities of individual child will be stored in the cloud and in case if the mobile phone utilized by child is lost, it will be possible to retrieve all the information of that child just by logging into personalized account from any device. 3. Parents, teacher and SLTs can monitor the progress of their child and on that basis they can decide on next target skills that can be developed in child. 4. Administrative authorities and policy makers can visualize the overall information of non-verbal children or students in one place through the dashboard of the proposed integrated platform. For instance, the number of non-verbal children utilizing “Bolte Chai+” application, their age group, institution, respective teacher, speech language professionals etc. 5. Collection of all information in one single platform will reduce the additional effort to gain information regarding child progress from different personnel. 6. With the integration of cloud service, it will reduce the dependency on direct/in-person therapy for non-verbal children. 7. Utilization of the app and integrated platform will assist in reducing workload of concerned organization by digitizing relevant information collection process regarding non-verbal children and their progress. An intelligent integrated platform with mobile application, “Bolte Chai+”, through which the development in non-verbal child communication skills can be monitored by parents, teacher, SLTs and with the utilization of mobile application it is possible to have personalized account, customized activities according to child preference and access to cloud based database of activities.

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Conclusion and Future Work

In this study, we have focused on telepractice service and online education for non-verbal children as a short period strategy and underscored the significance of collaboration among parents, teacher, SLT and administrative personnel to support communication with AAC and illustrated a framework “Bolte Chai+” to provide an integrated platform. It is expected that with “Bolte Chai+” platform, we will be able to support development of communication skills in non-verbal and in the long run, with integration of Natural Language Processing(NLP)in the platform, we will be able to evaluate time frame of language development in individual non-verbal child. We believe that the proposed strategies, challenges and framework will direct researchers, developers, policy makers to acknowledge and initiate communication support with AAC for non-verbal children of developing countries during this unprecedented time of COVID-19. Acknowledgment. We are thankful towards “Touri Foundation”-school for gifted children and the ICT Division, Ministry of Posts, Telecommunications and Information Technology, People’s Republic of Bangladesh, for their financial and continuous support in research and development of this project.

References 1. ISAAC: International Society for Augmentative and Alternative Communication (ISAAC). Event (London) (2015) 2. Hill, K., Romich, B., Vanderheiden, G.: Augmentative and alternative communication. In: Med. Devices Hum. Eng. 47-1-47-10 (2014). https://doi.org/10.4324/ 9781315745152-5 3. Kathryn Asbury, L.F., Deniz, E., Code, A., Toseeb, U.: PsyArXiv Preprints — How is COVID-19 affecting the mental health of children with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities and their families? https://psyarxiv.com/sevyd/. Accessed 09 June 2020 4. ASHA: roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists in early intervention: guidelines (2008). https://doi.org/10.1044/policy.GL2008-00293 5. Kairy, D., Lehoux, P., Vincent, C., Visintin, M.: A systematic review of clinical outcomes, clinical process, healthcare utilization and costs associated with telerehabilitation (2009). https://doi.org/10.1080/09638280802062553 6. Khan, M.N.R., Sonet, H.H., Yasmin, F., Yesmin, S., Sarker, F., Mamun, K.A.: “Bolte Chai” - an Android application for verbally challenged children. In: 4th International Conference on Advances in Electrical Engineering, ICAEE 2017 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1109/ICAEE.2017.8255415 7. Avaz Full-featured AAC app - Features — Avaz Inc. https://www.avazapp.com/ features/. Accessed 01 June 2020 8. COVID-19 response plan for speech-language professionals: what to do if school gets shut down for coronavirus-the SLP solution. https://www.slpsolution.com/ covid-19-response-plan-for-speech-language-professionals/. Accessed 09 June 2020 9. COVID-19: Speech Language Therapy Services. http://www.fecisd.net/ UserFiles/Servers/Server 1268391/File/Required%20Documents/Speech Language%20Therapy%20Services%204.16.20.pdf

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10. Crutchley, S., Campbell, M., Christiana, D.: Implementing a school-based telepractice program. Perspect. Telepract. 2, 31–41 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1044/tele2. 1.31 11. Wilder, J., Magnusson, L., Hanson, E.: Professionals’ and parents’ shared learning in blended learning networks related to communication and augmentative and alternative communication for people with severe disabilities. Eur. J. Spec. Needs Educ. 30, 367–383 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1080/08856257.2015.1023002 12. Anderson, K., et al.: Tele-AAC Resolution, vol. 4, pp. 79–82 (2012) 13. Barton, E.E., Fettig, A.: Parent-implemented interventions for young children with disabilities. J. Early Interv. (2013). https://doi.org/10.1177/1053815113504625 14. Hoque, M.R., Mazmum, M.F.A., Bao, Y.: e-health in Bangladesh: current status, challenges, and future direction. Int. Technol. Manag. Rev. 4, 87 (2014). https:// doi.org/10.2991/itmr.2014.4.2.3 15. Word Health Organization: Global Observatory for eHealth: Atlas: eHealth country profiles. Atlhas eHealth Ctry. profiles Glob. Obs. eHealth Ser. 1, 230 (2011) 16. Professional Issues in Telepractice for Speech-Language Pathologists.https://www. asha.org/policy/PI2010-00315.htm. Accessed 09 June 2020 17. Khan, S.Z., Shahid, Z., Hedstrom, K., Andersson, A.: Hopes and fears in implementation of electronic health records in Bangladesh, In: Electron. J. Inf. Syst. Dev. Ctries. 54 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1681-4835.2012.tb00387.x 18. Boisvert, M., Hall, N., Andrianopoulos, M., Chaclas, J.: The multi-faceted implementation of telepractice to service individuals with autism. Int. J. Telerehabilitation 4, 11–24 (2012). https://doi.org/10.5195/ijt.2012.6104 19. Neamtu, R., Camara, A., Pereira, C., Ferreira, R.: Using artificial intelligence for augmentative alternative communication for children with disabilities. In: Lamas, D., Loizides, F., Nacke, L., Petrie, H., Winckler, M., Zaphiris, P. (eds.) INTERACT 2019. LNCS, vol. 11746, pp. 234–243. Springer, Cham (2019). https://doi.org/10. 1007/978-3-030-29381-9 15 20. Costa, M., Costa, A., Juli´ an, V., Novais, P.: A task recommendation system for children and youth with autism spectrum disorder. In: De Paz, J.F., Juli´ an, V., Villarrubia, G., Marreiros, G., Novais, P. (eds.) ISAmI 2017. AISC, vol. 615, pp. 87–94. Springer, Cham (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-61118-1 12

An Evaluation of Augmentative and Alternative Communication Research for ASD Children in Developing Countries: Benefits and Barriers Walia Farzana1 , Farhana Sarker2 , Quazi Delwar Hossain3 , Tom Chau4 , and Khondaker A. Mamun1(B) 1

Advanced Intelligent Multidisciplinary Systems Lab, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, United International University, Dhaka, Bangladesh [email protected] 2 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Liberal Arts Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh 3 Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Chittagong University of Engineering & Technology, Chittagong, Bangladesh 4 Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Abstract. Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) technology research not only enhance communication but also communal skills in verbally challenged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, the research on AAC technology is mainly concentrated in developed countries and less explored in developing countries. In this study, we utilized evaluation method to analyze the prospects, existing practices and future possibilities, benefits and barriers of AAC research in developing countries. It is found that Speech Generating Devices (SGD) are mostly preferred by children and in future artificial intelligence (AI) based mobile application will augment communication skills among verbally challenged children. We conclude with general recommendation on succeeding research, collaborative approach and implementation with funding opportunities for substantial growth of AAC technology research in developing countries. This study will facilitate directions for initiating AAC research in developing countries and will accommodate researchers, developers and stakeholders to acknowledge opportunities, barriers, probable and current state of AAC research. Keywords: Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) · Developing countries · Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) · Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) · Speech Generating Device (SGD)

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Introduction

Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) can be regarded as an approach that integrates tools and strategies (gestures, symbols, speech generc Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020  C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 51–62, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_7

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ating devices) to cope with daily communication challenges. AAC was devised with a view to making communication tools available to individuals with limited functional skills or verbal skills. According to World Health Organization (WHO), epidemiological data indicate that global frequency of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is one person in 160, which demonstrate 0.3% of the global burden of disease. On top of that, the ubiquity of ASD is unknown in many low and middle income countries [1]. Around 25% of individuals with autism are absent natural language as their simple means of contact as stated by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders [2]. It has been found that in 76% cases people diagnosed with autism will not strengthen eloquent communication and in case 30% cases no advancement to vocal output [3]. AAC system can be a feasible provisional or permanent communication resource for 30% ASD individuals who persist being non verbal throughout their life. According to H. C. Shane [4], there is alteration in nature and severity of communication techniques in individuals with ASD and distinguished collection of individuals fails to satisfy their day-to-day communication needs. There is a potential possibility in individuals to understand to handle picture exchange, speech generating device and manual sign but there emerge a noteworthy clinical question that which AAC mode will be appropriate for individual child with ASD [5]. Inspite of the upgrade in AAC, it can be burdensome, pricey and time consuming and can confound the user. In such cases, user level hardware (personal or tablet computer) can be employed to minimize the cost. The handheld devices available along with applications make a consumer-oriented distribution platform that allows for drastic transition in AAC for individuals with ASD. Furthermore, emerging technologies such as: Brain Computer Interface (BC1) and Machine Learning (ML) are also integrated in AAC research to overcome potential barriers for individuals with complex physical and verbal impairment. Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) can be commonly graded as aided and unaided AAC. Unaided AAC specifies certain modes not involving additional materials and examples are gesture, body language, sign language, facial expression etc. Aided AAC requires external materials and includes the low-tech, mid-tech and high-tech system. Low-tech systems don’t require battery service and uses paper, pencil and alphabet boards. Examples of low technology AAC are Visual schedules and Picture Exchange Communication System. Medium Technology AAC devices involve pre-recorded message, which ranges from single message to multi-level message to numerous messages in distinct stages. Examples of such mid-tech system are; BIGmackTM , LITTLE Step-byStepTM , and GoTalkTM . High technology AAC systems involve dynamic display speech generating devices. Most progress in the field of AAC is carried out in developed countries, which involves availability of resources and which are quite expensive in prospects of developing countries. However, in developing countries the research in AAC is limited even though it has the potential to enhance communication, communal interaction in non-verbal individuals. In this paper, we focus on evaluating opportunities and barriers of AAC technology research in developing countries.

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Research on AAC, Practices and Future Prospects Multi-Modal AAC System

Young non-verbal ASD children utilize variety of AAC systems based on their physical skills and communication impairments which ranges from sign language, Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS), Speech Generating Devices (SGD) to Mobile Apps. In order to ensure effective communicative means for non-verbal child, it is imperative to focus on their preference for AAC modes. Picture Exchange Communication System depends on picture symbols and provide visual reminder of objects for requesting. A smaller motor movement is required for requesting variety of elements. But the classical PECS has some demerits. At first, restricted capacity in the binder to accumulate cards and complexities to manage it out of convenient place, secondly, the paper cards containing picture decay after several use, Thirdly, the process to generate pictogram cards is rigorous. SGD is an electronic tool with speech-generating effects such as Proloquo2GoTM software and capable of incorporating considerable volume of vocabulary for the user and synthesized voice output is generated by tapping on the icons [6]. However, installation of app on commercial mobile device enhance the accessibility of AAC solution to families or care providers of individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Parents or caretaker can assess an app on the basis of rating and this grant a perceiving of authority and participation to the family in order to recognize voice for their child [7]. The purpose to adopt AAC device should not be limited to particularly requesting preferred items, in addition AAC instrument must assist students with ASD to express needs, exchange information and participation in social communication. 2.2

Comparative Usability of AAC Systems

AAC strategies begin with manual sign or hand gesture and advance to lowtech which includes communication boards and graphical symbols, which are nonelectric devices. With improvement in technology, mobile applications are becoming a major enthusiasm for the user because of low cost, portability and social acknowledgment. According to Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee’s Strategic Plan for Autism Spectrum Disorder Research (DHHS, 2011) [8], there is a necessity for comparative study as it is significant in facilitating informed decision making on the basis of “ head –to-head analyzes of interventions. In most cases participant preferred one of the AAC systems to others. Three AAC systems: PECS, SGD and Manual Signing (MS) were utilized among the participants in the study by McLay et al. [9,10]; where most of the participants exhibit preference and more frequently choose SGD system followed Picture Exchange Based System but almost all the participants maintained low preference for MS scheme. The reason behind preference can be related to some factors which are portability, demand of prerequisite skills, and advantages of SGD which are: variation in speech and local language according to the need of the user, minimal damage

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due to moisture, accidental falls, wears and tears and ease of maintenance, low demand of motor and linguistic skills due to simplistic design. Therefore, the AAC system which is suitable for individuals depends on multiple factors which are: learning priorities, existing physical and cognitive skills, families and individual’s preference, the environment where communal interaction is considered. On the other hand, the new mobile technology offers low cost solution. The apps can be updated regularly and wirelessly, customization of additional factors require little effort from the user end. The studies of mobile based application by Tulshan [11]; Soomro and Soomro [12]; Signore [13] have a common focus which is personalization according to the user need in order to stimulate communication, social and functional skills of verbally challenged children with ASD. With these available applications, parents/caregivers can teach their children at anywhere at anytime and low cost of such applications provide more accessibility. 2.3

Innovative Technologies in AAC Research

Mobile Applications. Mobile applications incorporate multiple levels of function to interact with users. The implicit and explicit features of mobile applications can be categorized into functionality, appearance, shape/color, analytics and customization, all of which are involved to approach broad area of functions by users. In the following Table 1, the features of mobile application that assist in improvement of communication and social skills are delineated. Table 1. Enhanced features in mobile application to Augment Skills in ASD children Feature Type Functionality

Existing Features in Mobile Application – User centric design on the basis of feedback from guardians [11] – Provide support in decision making for educators, parents, caregivers by monitoring [12] – Motivating factors by including game section, loud output from device [13] – Access to multiple innovate functions (e.g. visual representation of emotions [14], daily routine and progress analysis [11]

Appearance

– Utilization of menu page and different modules [11] – Visualization of progress chart [12] – Using emoji to express emotions or feelings [14]

Shape/Color

– Utilization of multi-color PECS symbols [13] – Incorporation of variety shapes of characters [14]

Analytics

– Automated progress report within defined timeframe [11] – Behavioral and neurophysiological data analysis [15]

Customization – User function for addition of images [12] – User based evaluation, design and availability [13] – Provide additional options to personalize images, voice according to cultural norm [14]

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Brain-Computer Interface (BCI). With widespread utilization of touchscreen technology, there are interactive user interface (UI) through which selection of desired items is made but for individuals with severe physical impairment, this selection process becomes burdensome. In that case, utilization of user brain signal [Electroencephalogram, (EEG)] is employed for user selection which is independent of neuromuscular activity.The utilization of BCI technology requires support to set up technology and support from trained caregivers for management of system [16].

Fig. 1. A basic diagram of Brain-Computer Interface in AAC. The brain signal acquired from scalp, form cortical surface or from within the brain, are examined for features of signals (EEG) to illustrate user preference. Those features are transformed into commands for operation user interface of AAC [16].

The aforementioned figure depicts the basic integration of Brain-Computer Interface in AAC. However, different standardized metrics need to be considered from performance assessment of BCI based AAC system [17]. Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence. The individuals with physical, cognitive and cognitive impairments utilize AAC system for ease of communication and such system should not become challenging and demanding. An application named LIVOX is a machine learning based android mobile application to recommend pictograms based on location and time of the user device. The notable features of LIVOX is artificial intelligence based recommendation system by analyzing past user data (used item, utilization time, touch time, GPS data, X and Y co-ordinates in touch screen) and another feature is Natural Language Processing (NLP) for speech recognition and enabling individuals to engage in conversation [18]. Moreover, a feedback framework which apply Case Based Reasoning (CBR) machine learning approach provide opportunity of close monitoring by therapists, parents or caregivers [19]. However, all these intelligent

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systems are available in developed countries. Even though there are research on detection on ASD children with machine learning methods, using home videos of Bangladeshi Children [20].

3 3.1

Opportunities and Benefits Enhancement in Research Interest

Research in the domain of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) has developed over years. In beginning, gestures and sign language was utilized, later Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and Speech Generating Device (SGD) acquire preference among non-verbal children. With the advancement of mobile technology, mobile applications become more productive and portable solution. Recently, with the progress in the field of Brain-Computer Interface and Machine Learning, there are integrated researches within the mentioned one and AAC. Analytics are employed for task recommendation to ASD children and monitoring of child progress by parents and educators [19]. Machine-Learning approach is utilized to distinguish ASD and Typical Developed (TD) child through voice analysis and it performed better than experienced Speech Language Therapists (SLP) [21]. Moreover, Brain-Computer Interface promises to banish potential functional obstacles to AAC interventions for those with substantial physical and linguistic disorders. But all the aforementioned progress happened in developed countries. However, collaboration among multidisciplinary researchers and stakeholders are required for developing AAC system in prospects of developing country. 3.2

Mobilization of Existing Resources

The collaborative approach between researchers and organizations can successfully utilize the limited resources in order to propose a possible AAC solution to individuals with complex communication need. One such example is “Bolte Chai” which is an AAC device to augment communication in non-verbal children, the developmental cost of such device is less than other devices available in Bangladesh [22]. Moreover, later an android application was developed which can be personalized according to the child or user need and the application was productive to support verbal communication for students in Touri Foundationschool for gifted children as well as Bangladeshi Children [23]. In addition, there are organizations like Neuro-Developmental Disability Protection Trust under Ministry of Social Welfare in Bangladesh where the aim is to disseminate knowledge and empower people with neuro-development disabilities. With the support and limited resources from such organizations researchers can develop AAC system and ensure AAC system opportunities even in the rural area of Bangladesh.

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Collaborative Approach Among Stakeholders

As the condition of individual ASD child is idiosyncratic and so does their challenges in case of utilization of AAC. To alleviate these challenges and proposing innovative technical solution, it is vital to have a direct collaboration with users and their respective families at each stage which ranges from problem identification, user testing, clinical evaluation to communal corroboration [23]. In terms of research and development it is imperative to have collaboration among service providers, technical developers, researchers from diverse discipline, special educators, speech language therapists, engineering knowledge in the field of computer science, cognitive science, performance evaluation of motor development, psychology and language development. Such multi-disciplinary intersection will maximize the technical development in the field of AAC. One of such example of virtual platform for collaborative approach is Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centre (RERC) on Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) [24]. The RERC on AAC enrich research and disseminate knowledge in AAC. One of the significant information shared by RERC is how to support communication in individuals with complex communication need during the COVID-19 pandemic. Above all, related government organizations need to provide research and resource support to advance AAC research. 3.4

Widespread Utilization of Mobile Application

Recently, the communication scope provided by AAC system not only limited to expressing needs of children but also need to support social communication skills, interaction with others and knowledge transfer. Communication need not to be confined into face-to-face, rather they can be in written form or telecommunication. AAC system need to comprise all sorts of daily diverse communication needs which includes texting, mobile, internet access, social interaction. With the advancement in mobile technologies, there are numerous available apps which serve as a communication means for individuals with dynamic need for communication. The number of mobile subscriber in Bangladesh has extended to 165.337 million at the end of March 2020 [25]. The mobile application can not be only regarded as speech prosthesis, rather it serve multi-modal functions which are accessibility to information, entertainment, gaming activities and social interaction [26]. Families need not to be solely dependent on the recommendation of professionals and wait for funding from agency, they can become active decision make while availing mobile technology and app. In addition, they can customize the applications according to the need of their children. 3.5

Improvement in Quality of Life

There has been substantial transition in the utilization of AAC technology from single function to multi-function mobile applications and AAC systems. The advancement of Speech Generating Device (SDG) and mobile applications has created new opportunities for interaction. This offers expansion in the horizon of

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communication function and social inter-connectivity. Current technologies offer organization, social networking, overcoming architectural barriers, online education for individuals with dynamic need for communication [27]. Beyond the increased opportunities in communication, education and employment facility, AAC mobile application technology enhanced public awareness and acceptance [28]. The technological progress in AAC now can serve those who were previously unserved due to severe motor, cognitive and language impairments. For instance, the application of brain-computer interface ease communication and access to computer to those who are suffering from severe motor impairments. Communication encompasses all sphere of life ranges from enhanced educational success, communal inclusion, employment facilities and overall improved quality of life. 3.6

Policy and Advocacy

Collective efforts are required to ensure disseminate knowledge of AAC to medical professionals, Speech Language Therapists (SLT) so that they acknowledge children who require AAC system in order to improve communication skills. Public awareness is required to facilitate AAC utilization and increase acceptance of AAC system so that there is no such social or cultural barrier in terms of AAC use by ASD children. In addition, government funding is required to allocate AAC technologies to children which will provide greater communication and social skills.

4 4.1

Barriers and Challenges Gap Between Research and Implementation

For effective technical solution it is imperative to have interaction between technical companies and multi-disciplinary regulation experts [24]. Industrial management team need to address the demand of individual ASD children and transfer such knowledge to technical developer and researchers so that they can focus on those field in terms of designing AAC systems. Collective effort is paramount to respond to the needs in case of low income and low resource country. In addition, technical companies need to place the demand of AAC technology that not only confined to individuals with slight impairments but also those with serious impairments. As research-driven technologies that are adequate for those with serious impairments can aid communities and make mainstream technology more effective [28]. Therefore, there is a crucial need for research that translates rapidly into daily practice and applicable to industrial stakeholders. 4.2

Lack of Research Driven Development

The traditional AAC systems were developed to augment the communication of individual with complex communication need but these systems were

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not designed according to the individual need of ASD children. According to research, when the technology is driven by practice (not by research), it might not appreciate underlying beliefs or values. As a consequence, AAC technology becomes demanding for utilization or learning [27,29]. In such case, research is imperative to apprehend the cognitive, motor skills, speech development, receptive perception of each ASD children and on that basis AAC system should be developed to meet the need of individual. Therefore, expanded research in AAC technology is required to truly response to the demand of each ASD children, their respective families and cultural and social acceptance. If AAC systems are research-driven, user centric and appropriate for individual then it become more effective in case of supporting and participation of individuals with complex communication need [28,30]. 4.3

Ensuring Professional Training

There is considerable differences between the possibilities of AAC intervention in research and the extent of practices in daily practice [29]. AAC team generally comprised of special educators, medical professionals and speech language therapists. For instance, speech language therapist requires the knowledge how to asses the physical, cognitive and perceptual abilities or limitations of individual ASD child and suggest the implementation of AAC system. Special educators should have the basic knowledge of troubleshooting and handling AAC system as well as motivating ASD child or student to utilize AAC system in day-to-day practice. Therefore, it is imperative to organize training and efficacious dissemination of knowledge for effective transition of practice from research to practice and promoting awareness among the general public [30]. 4.4

Absence of Acknowledgement and Acceptance

In order to ensure success in AAC implementation, it is prerequisite to acknowledge the preference and perception of families, clinical professionals and cultural, language diversity. In order to AAC system to be effective for ASD children, it needs to be ensured that they not only get access to their preferred AAC mode but also receiving accurate instructions to enhance their social and communication skills, literacy, strategic skills for communication purpose, support from family and assistance from communicative partner. There are erroneous beliefs among many clinicians that certain criteria of cognitive skills need to be fulfilled in order to implement AAC system and for such reason some of the children are deprived of the opportunity to utilize AAC. In addition some parents believe that utilization of AAC system will impede natural language development of their children. However, research evidenced that AAC does not affect negatively in speech development. Moreover, the positive result supported by research evidence that AAC system enhance awareness and acceptance [31].

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Recommendations

After the investigation on barriers and benefits of AAC research in context of developing countries, we recommend few immediate actions to be taken. At first, it is imperative to develop government policy and support for AAC research in developing countries. Secondly, in order to bridge the gap of research and implementation as well as developing intelligent AAC systems, collaboration is required among researchers, developers, educators, speech language therapists and related government organizations. Finally, disseminating knowledge of AAC for verbally challenged children to gain public awareness and acceptance.

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Conclusions

In this study, we concentrate on investigating benefits and barriers of Augmentative and Alternative Communication technology research in the context of developing countries. We have underscored the state-of- art research in AAC field in developed and developing countries, illuminating opportunities and barriers of AAC research on prospects of developing countries and elucidated the benefits of research in AAC. We believe that this study will assist researchers, technical developers, policy makers, stakeholders to have an overview of AAC research, benefits and challenges associated with AAC research and taking potential steps to bridge the gap between present and future applications and prospective impact of AAC technology research on community.

References 1. World Health Organization: Autism spectrum disorders & other developmental disorders: from raising awareness to building capacity. In: World Health Organization, Geneva, Switz, pp. 1–36 (2013) 2. National Institute of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders “NIDCD”: Communication problems in children with Autism spectrum disorder. In: NIDCD Fact Sheet (2012) 3. Wodka, E.L., Mathy, P., Kalb, L.: Predictors of phrase and fluent speech in children with Autism and severe language delay. Pediatrics 131, e1128 (2013). https://doi. org/10.1542/peds.2012-2221 4. Shane, H.C., Laubscher, E.H., Schlosser, R.W.: Applying technology to visually support language and communication in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 42, 1228–1235 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/ s10803-011-1304-z 5. Achmadi, D., et al.: Acquisition, preference, and follow-up data on the use of three AAC options by four boys with developmental disability/delay. J. Dev. Phys. Disabil. 26(5), 565–583 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10882-014-9379-z 6. Waddington, H., Sigafoos, J., Lancioni, G.E.: Three children with autism spectrum R disorder learn to perform a three-step communication sequence using an iPadbased speech-generating device. Int. J. Dev. Neurosci. 39, 59–67 (2014). https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2014.05.001

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7. Hershberger, D.: Mobile technology and AAC apps from an AAC developer’s perspective. Perspect. Augment. Altern. Commun. 28, 20 (2011). https://doi.org/10. 1044/aac20.1.28 8. Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC).: Strategic Plan for Autism Spectrum Disorder Research. In: U.S. Department Health Human Service Interagration Autism Coordination Communication (2017) 9. McLay, L., van der Meer, L., Sch¨ afer, M.C.M.: Comparing acquisition, generalization, maintenance, and preference across three AAC options in four children with Autism spectrum disorder. J. Dev. Phys. Disabil. 27, 323–339 (2015). https://doi. org/10.1007/s10882-014-9417-x 10. McLay, L., Sch¨ afer, M.C.M., van der Meer, L.: Acquisition, preference and followup comparison across three AAC modalities taught to two children with Autism spectrum disorder. Int. J. Disabil. Dev. Educ. 64, 117–130 (2017). https://doi.org/ 10.1080/1034912X.2016.1188892 11. Gilroy, S.P., Leader, G., McCleery, J.P.: A pilot community-based randomized comparison of speech generating devices and the picture exchange communication system for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Austim Res. 11, 1701–1711 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.2025 12. Tulshan, A., Raul, N.: Krisha: an interactive mobile application for Autism chil¨ dren. In: Singh, M., Gupta, P.K., Tyagi, V., Flusser, J., Oren, T., Kashyap, R. (eds.) ICACDS 2019. CCIS, vol. 1046, pp. 207–218. Springer, Singapore (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-9942-8 20 13. Soomro N., Soomro S.: Autism children’s app using PECS. In: Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), vol 2, pp. 7–16 (2018).https://doi.org/10. 33166/aetic.2018.01.002 14. Signore, A.P.B.T.Y.: You Talk!-YOU vs AUTISM. In: 14th International Conference, ICCHP 2014 (2014).https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-70540-6 15. Sharma, P., Upadhaya, M.D., Twanabasu, A., Barroso, J., Khanal, S.R., Paredes, H.: “Express your feelings”: an interactive application for Autistic patients. In: Antona, M., Stephanidis, C. (eds.) HCII 2019. LNCS, vol. 11573, pp. 160–171. Springer, Cham (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-23563-5 14 16. Wendt, O., Bishop, G., Thakar, A.: Design and evaluation of mobile applications for augmentative and alternative communication in minimally-verbal learners with severe Autism. In: Antona, M., Stephanidis, C. (eds.) HCII 2019. LNCS, vol. 11573, pp. 193–205. Springer, Cham (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-03023563-5 17 17. Hill, K.: Advances in augmentative and alternative communication as quality-oflife technology. Phys. Med. Rehabil. Clin. N. Am. 21, 43–58 (2010). https://doi. org/10.1016/j.pmr.2009.07.007 18. Thompson, D.E., Blain-Moraes, S., Huggins, J.E.: Performance assessment in brain-computer interface-based augmentative and alternative communication. Biomed. Eng. Online 12, 43 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-925X-12-43 19. Neamtu, R., Camara, A., Pereira, C., Ferreira, R.: Using artificial intelligence for augmentative alternative communication for children with disabilities. In: Lamas, D., Loizides, F., Nacke, L., Petrie, H., Winckler, M., Zaphiris, P. (eds.) INTERACT 2019. LNCS, vol. 11746, pp. 234–243. Springer, Cham (2019). https://doi.org/10. 1007/978-3-030-29381-9 15 20. Costa M., Costa A., Novais P.: A task recommendation system for children and youth with autism spectrum disorder. In: Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing (2017).https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-61118-1

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21. Tariq, Q., Fleming, S.L.: Detecting developmental delay and autism through machine learning models using home videos of Bangladeshi children: development and validation study. J. Med. Internet Res. 21, 1–15 (2019). https://doi.org/10. 2196/13822 22. Nakai, Y., Takiguchi, T.: Detecting abnormal word utterances in children with Autism spectrum disorders: machine-learning-based voice analysis versus speech therapists. Percept. Mot. Skills 124, 961 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1177/ 0031512517716855 23. Khan, M.N.R., Pias, M.N.H., Habib, K.: “Bolte Chai”: an augmentative and alternative communication device for enhancing communication for nonverbal children. In: 1st International Conference on Medical Engineering, Health Informatics and Technology, MediTec 2016 (2017).https://doi.org/10.1109/MEDITEC.2016. 7835391 24. Khan, M.N.R., Sonet, H.H.: “Bolte Chai”-an android application for verbally challenged children. In: 4th International Conference on Advances in Electrical Engineering, ICAEE 2017 (2017).https://doi.org/10.1109/ICAEE.2017.8255415 25. Frontera, W.R.: Rehabilitation research at the national institutes of health: moving the field forward (executive summary). Phys. Therapy 31, 304 (2017). https://doi. org/10.1093/ptj/pzx027 26. McNaughton, D., Light, J.: The iPad and mobile technology revolution: benefits and challenges for individuals who require augmentative and alternative communication. AAC Augment. Altern. Commun. 29, 107–116 (2013). https://doi.org/ 10.3109/07434618.2013.784930 27. Light, J., McNaughton, D.: Putting people first: re-thinking the role of technology in augmentative and alternative communication intervention. AAC Augment. Altern. Commun. 29, 299 (2013). https://doi.org/10.3109/07434618.2013.848935 28. Light, J., Wilkinson, K.M.: Designing effective AAC displays for individuals with developmental or acquired disabilities: state of the science and future research directions. AAC Augment. Altern. Commun. 35, 42 (2019). https://doi.org/10. 1080/07434618.2018.1558283 29. Kent-Walsh, J., Binger, C.: Methodological advances, opportunities, and challenges in AAC research (2018).https://doi.org/10.1080/07434618.2018.1456560 30. McNaughton, D., Light, J.: Building capacity in AAC: a person-centred approach to supporting participation by people with complex communication needs. AAC Augment. Altern. Commun. 35, 56 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1080/07434618. 2018.1556731 31. Light, J., McNaughton, D.: The changing face of augmentative and alternative communication: past, present, and future challenges. AAC Augment. Altern. Commun. 28, 197–204 (2012). https://doi.org/10.3109/07434618.2012.737024

Basic Study on Measuring Brain Activity for Evaluation Method of Visually Impaired Person’s Orientation and Mobility Skills Hiroaki Inoue1(&), Masaya Hori2, Yu Kikuchi3, Mayu Maeda2, Yusuke Kobayashi3, Takuya Kiryu3, Toshiya Tsubota3, and Shunji Shimizu1 1

3

Department of Applied Information Engineering, Suwa University of Science, Chino, Japan {hiroaki-inoue,shun}@rs.sus.ac.jp 2 Graduate School of Engineering and Management, Suwa University of Science, Chino, Japan {gh19701,gh18504}@ed.sus.ac.jp Shimizu Laboratory, Suwa University of Science, Chino, Japan [email protected]

Abstract. Visually impaired persons recognize their surrounding with a white cane or a guide dog while walking. This skill called “Orientation and Mobility” is difficult to learn. The training of the “Orientation and Mobility Skills” is performed at the school for visually impaired person. However, the evaluation of this skill is limited to subjective evaluation by teacher. We have proposed that quantitative evaluation of the “Orientation and Mobility Skills” is required. In this paper, we tried to execute the quantitative evaluation of the “Orientation and Mobility Skills” using brain activity measurements. In this experiment, brain activity was measured when subjects are walking in the corridor alone or with guide helper. Experimental subjects were sighted person who was blocked visual information during walking. The blood flow of prefrontal cortex was increased as the movement distance of the subject increased when subjects walk alone. From this result, it can be considered that the feeling of fear and the attention relayed to “Orientation and Mobility Skills” could be measured quantitatively by measuring human brain activities. Keywords: Visually impaired person Mobility Skills

 Brain activity  Orientation and

1 Introduction The visually impaired person recognizes the surrounding situation using a white cane and a guide dog while they walk. White canes and guide dogs are tactile information stimuli. At the same time as the tactile sensation, visually impaired people judge the surrounding situation by the environmental sound. It is very important to hear the environmental sound for recognition of their own position and surrounding situations in details. This means, they need “Orientation and Mobility Skills” [1, 2] to recognize the surrounding © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 63–70, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_8

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situation by using sound information. [3, 4] “Orientation and Mobility Skills” is necessary to move in an unfamiliar place. The training of the “Orientation and Mobility Skills” is carried out a person with the visual impaired at school. However, the evaluation of the education effect is subjective method by teachers belonging to the school for visually impaired person. It is difficult for the teacher to understand all recognition action of the student even if a student achieves the problem of the walk under strong uneasiness. We think that the subjective evaluation of “Orientation and Mobility Skills” has lowered the understanding of the importance of gait training to society. There is also a method of estimating the stress state during exercise from HF/LF. However, HF/LF is affected by heart rate variability due to exercise [5]. Therefore, we have proposed that quantitative evaluation of the “Orientation and Mobility Skills” is required. NIRS is an apparatus that was possible to easily measure brain activity compared to other measurement apparatus of brain activity such as PET (Positron Emission Tomography) and fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging). In these other brain activities measuring apparatuses, the subject’s posture needs to be fixed in a supine position. Obviously, brain activity measurement during walking is impossible with these apparatuses. NIRS is possible to measure brain activity during while subjects exercise. However, NIRS measurement data is influenced by the artifact of various factors. For example, there are the artifact due to heartbeat and body movement. It is also difficult to separate multiple information stimuli into individual elements. In this paper, we measured the brain activity data for the quantitative evaluation of the “Orientation and Mobility Skills”. In the Sect. 2, we described the method of experiments conducted in this paper. In Sect. 3, we described brain activity data obtained by these experiments. In Sect. 4, we described the relationship between brain activity data and the stimulation by experimental tasks. In Sect. 5, we described the summary of this paper and future works (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. NIRS and eye mask which were wear when these experiments.

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Fig. 2. NIRS used in these experiments.

2 Experimental Method 2.1

Measurement of Brain Activity when Walking Alone in the Corridor Without Visual Information

In this experiment, the brain activity that the subjects walked alone was measured. Walking distance is approximately 20 m. Subjects were blocked visual information by the eye mask. The resting time for stabilizing the brain activity of the subjects was set before and after walking. This resting time was more than 10 s. The experimental place is the corridor that the subject walks on a daily. These experiments were performed with no other pedestrians. The experiment task setting was set as shown in the upper part of Fig. 3. The corridor which subjects walked through all experiments is the same. The subject was instructed to walk at a constant speed as much as possible. Subjects were orally instructed the timing to start walking and stop walking. The measurement equipment of brain activity used for the experiment is “Pocket NIRS”, which was produced by DynaSense Inc in Japan (Fig. 2). This NIRS is lightweight and could measure brain activity in two channels in the prefrontal cortex. Measurement can be performed at a sampling rate of 100 Hz. 2.2

Measurement of Brain Activity when Subjects Walk with Guide Helper in the Corridor

In the above experiment, subjects walked alone in the corridor. In this experiment, the subjects walked with the pedestrians who simulated the guide helper. The experiment method was the same as the previous experiment. The experimental method is shown in the lower part of Fig. 3.

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Measurement of Brain Activity when Walking in a Wide Space with Visual Blocking

The environment of this experiment is different from the A) and B) experiments. This experiment was performed in a gymnasium. The large space like gymnasium has different acoustic characteristics from the corridor. Auditory information is important for visually impaired persons to perceive surrounding environment. Visually impaired persons also use their echoes and environmental sounds to recognize their position and situation. Such ability is referred to as obstacle perception. In the corridor, subject’s footsteps sound from corridor wall reach the ear of the subject in a short time. Thus, there is a possibility that the existence of the wall could be recognized from the echo sound. In the gymnasium, it takes longer time for subject’s footsteps from gymnasium wall to reach the subjects. On account of not make the subject conscious with the wall, we conducted this experiment in the gymnasium. The method of this experiment was the same as the previous two experiments. Instruction to start walking a subject

Instruction to finish walking

walking an aid

walking rest more 10 sec

task 10 sec ~ 20 sec

rest more 10 sec

Fig. 3. Flow of experiments.

3 Experimental Result 3.1

Measurement of Brain Activity when Walking Alone in the Corridor

Figure 4 shows an example of brain activity data when one subject walked alone. The red line shows the change in oxygenated hemoglobin. The blue line shows the change in deoxygenated hemoglobin. As a result of this experiment, the cerebral blood flow did not increase when the subject started walking according to the instructions. When

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the movement distance of the subject increased to some extent, a large increase in oxygenated hemoglobin could be confirmed on right and left prefrontal cortex. After subjects were instructed to stop walking, blood flow on right and left prefrontal cortex gradually decreased. This tendency was seen from most subjects. 3.2

Measurement of Brain Activity when Subjects Walk with Guide Helper in the Corridor

Figure 5 shows the brain activity result of the subject when walking with a pedestrian who simulated a guide helper. In this experiment, the subject’s cerebral blood flow decreased slightly after the onset of the gait task. Even when the migration distance increased, the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin in the blood did not increase greatly. In listening survey after the experiment, subjects said that they were able to concentrate on walking without feeling uneasy in this experiment. 3.3

Measurement of Brain Activity when Walking in a Wide Space with Visual Blocking

Figure 6 shows the measurement results when walking alone. Figure 7 shows the result of brain activity when accompanied by a pedestrian simulated the guide helper. An increase of blood flow on the prefrontal cortex was seen when the subject received instructions to walk. However, an increase oxygenated hemoglobin that continued was not confirmed during walking. When subjects walk with guide helper, there was no change in oxygenated hemoglobin similar to previous experiment in the corridors.

Fig. 4. Measurement result of brain activity when the subject walked alone.

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Fig. 5. Measurement results of brain activity when subjects walked with guide helper.

Fig. 6. Measurement result of brain activity when the subject walked alone.

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Fig. 7. Measurement result of brain activity when the subject walked alone.

4 Discussion In these experiments, measuring brain activity were performed when subjects walk with guide helper and subjects walked alone. When subjects walked alone, it could be considered that subjects were in the state of mental strain. When subjects walked with a pedestrian who simulated a guide helper, subjects could rely on a pedestrian for safety confirmation and were able to walk in concentrating on walking. When subjects walked alone, most subject’s oxygenated hemoglobin on prefrontal cortex was not showed an increase after instruction to start walking. As subject’s walking distance increased, most subject’s oxygenated hemoglobin on prefrontal cortex was increased. Such a change in oxygenated hemoglobin is considered that subjects strongly conscious the collision with the wall and obstacles. When subjects stopped to walk, the oxygenated hemoglobin in prefrontal cortex decrease gradually. In the case of accompanying the pedestrian who simulated with guide helper, an increase of oxygenated hemoglobin in prefrontal cortex as compared with the case of walking alone could not be confirmed. Oxygenated hemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex of the subjects decreased slightly during walking. In addition, when subjects walked alone in the large space such as a gymnasium, no increase oxygenated hemoglobin was observed by the increase walking distance. Therefore, it is considered that the subject was able to walk without being conscious of a collision with a wall or an obstacle.

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5 Conclusion NIRS is a device that enable to measure brain activity easily without restraining the subject compared to other brain activity measuring devices. However, the obtained the brain activity data may contain many artifacts originate from body movements and heartbeats. In the experiment conducted this time, the subject was instructed to keep the walking speed as constant as possible. As the result, only heartbeat artifact could be confirmed. This artifact was sufficiently smaller than the brain activity data. Previous studies have not observed a large change in oxygenated hemoglobin during slow walking as well [6]. It is thought that brain activities data which were measured in these experiments include subjects’ consciousness of collision with walls and obstacles could be measured. We think that there is possibility to quantitatively measure visually impaired persons correctly process the information and walk without feeling uneasy. In the future work, we think that it is necessary to increase the number of subjects and types of experimental tasks. The place we used for experiments in this paper was a facility frequently used by subjects. As a psychological element, it is an experimental task that does not include brand newness or interest.

References 1. Cuturi, L.F., Aggius-Vella, E., Campus, C., Parmiggiani, A., Gori, M.: From science to technology: orientation and mobility in blind children and adults. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 71, 240–251 (2016) 2. Lahav, O., Schloerb, D.W., Srinivasan, M.A.: Rehabilitation program integrating virtual environment to improve orientation and mobility skills for people who are blind. Comput. Educ. 80, 1–14 (2015) 3. Seki, Y., Sato, T.: A training system of orientation and mobility for blind people using acoustic virtual reality. IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng. 19(1), 95–104 (2011) 4. Bluaert, J.: Spatial Hearing. MIT Press, Cambridge (1996) 5. Pichon, A., Bisschop, C., Roulaud, M., Denjean, A.: Spectral analysis of heart rate variability during exercise in trained subjects. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 36, 1702–1708 (2004) 6. Suzuki, M., et al.: Prefrontal and premotor cortices are involved in adapting walking and running speed on the treadmill: an optical imaging study. NeuroImage 23, 1020–1026 (2004)

Turning Ideas into Reality for mHealth Technology Users with Disabilities Hyung Nam Kim(&) Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411, USA [email protected]

Abstract. Various technology transfer models have been introduced in the literature, and those models have the potential to facilitate the design, development, evaluation, and dissemination of emerging technology. Yet, those models are less likely to be suitable to mobile health (mHealth) technology consumers who have disabilities due to lack of user-centered approach to technology transfer. To address the gap, this paper introduced an innovative framework for mHealth technology transfer to those with disabilities. The framework consists of technology concept, technology engineering, technology embedding, and ongoing participatory design. The framework is expected to contribute to usability, accessibility, and safety of consumer mHealth technology for users with disabilities, ultimately leading to enhancement of healthrelated quality of life and equity. Keywords: Users with disabilities Human factors

 Technology transfer  Mobile health 

1 Technology Transfer Models Technology transfer is a process of conveying a technology (or knowledge) from one party to another party, which is observed between countries, companies, and individuals [1]. Various technology transfer models (e.g., linear models, non-linear parallelsequential models, and non-linear back-feed models) have been introduced to facilitate the transition. For example, the linear models include the appropriability model, the dissemination model, and the knowledge utilization model [2–4]. The non-linear parallel-sequential model uses a cyclical process that functions in a similar way as for a linear model, yet different stages in multiple cycles are presented to enable non-linear parallel-sequential interactions within the model. Thus, the non-linear parallelsequential model can provide an opportunity to perform different stages simultaneously [5], decreasing the total time of the process. The non-linear back-feed model is to transform a parallel-sequential model into a back-feed model as the non-linear backfeed model is similar to the parallel processes with connections between stages. Each stage in the non-linear back-feed model collects and uses inputs from relevant organizations for the successful technology transfer.

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2 Limitations of Existing Technology Transfer Models In the following sections, we appraise the existing technology transfer models and discuss a way to improve them further, especially for mobile health (mHealth) technology users with disabilities. 2.1

Lack of Consideration for the Post-phase After Delivering Technology

Most technology transfer models tend to overlook the post-phase after disseminating new technology and merely emphasize the delivery process itself of new technology [6]. The technology transfer models are less likely to take into consideration whether the distributed technology is successfully adopted and continuously used by users. The technology transfer models merely focused on the relations between technology developments and outcomes; thus, the adoption stage was given less attention [7]. There is a need for a new technology transfer model that can continuously monitor the implementation and ongoing-use of technology in the end-user contexts. 2.2

Lack of Two-Way Iterative Process Approach

Although few studies took into account the post-phase after distributing technology, most of them paid less attention to updating their technology applications by adequately reflecting users’ needs and concerns. Technology transfer should be dynamic because technology can be innovative “today” but will be conventional “tomorrow.” Therefore, there is a need for a technology transfer model that contains a systematic means to continuously monitor and also update technology based on feedback from users in the field. Shahnavaz [8] conceptualized a utilization phase in the technology transfer model that facilitates interactions between technology suppliers and receivers, possibly leading to effective use of the transferred technology in the long run. Yet, the model did not elaborate sufficiently on how the utilization phase should be incorporated in the technology transfer model. Although the technology transfer model developed by Malik (2002) was set to reflect feedback from technology receivers, the model was designed to transfer technology only within a single organization. Thus, it would be inapplicable when technology is intended to be transferred from one domain (e.g., developers in the lab) to another domain (e.g., consumers in the field). 2.3

Exclusion of Consumers with Disabilities

Today, a great number of mHealth technology applications (apps) are developed and introduced in the consumer market to help people take care of their health conditions (e.g., disease prevention, chronic condition management, and so on) [9]. There is accumulating evidence that mHealth technologies have been used by all people regardless of their abilities and disabilities [10, 11]. Therefore, people with disabilities should also be viewed as major consumers of mHealth technology, and mHealth technology transfer models should not exclude those with disabilities.

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Less User-Centered Designs of mHealth Technology

Lack of attention has been paid to user interface designs of mHealth technology applications for healthcare consumers with disabilities [9]. Today, a great number of people with visual disabilities use health apps for self-care, it is essential to develop the health apps accessible to those with such special needs; otherwise, the health technology applications are likely to be abandoned by those users. In addition to low adoption issues, the poorly designed “health” technology has a potential for users to illadvisedly change their self-care regimens and ultimately encounter adverse health outcomes. People with disabilities frequently use the self-care apps that are available for free of charge in the app market and often they selected those apps without consulting their healthcare providers, ultimately transferring much of responsibility to the end users for any errors or adverse outcomes. Thus, a technology transfer model should take care of design, development, and dissemination phases comprehensively by ensuring good usability, accessibility, and safety for users regardless of their ability and disability. The standard ISO 9241-210:2010 [12] briefly mentioned the importance of system designs that accommodate people with the widest range of capabilities in intended user populations including people with disabilities; however, there is still a need for more concrete. practical guidelines for professionals and researchers.

3 An Innovative Framework of Transferring mHealth Technology to Users with Disabilities As pointed out above, there is a need to develop a systematic guide for researchers and professionals in designing, developing, evaluating, and implementing mHealth technology to be usable, safe, and accessible to users with disabilities. We argue that human factors engineering can contribute to developing the systematic guide. Human factors engineering is a discipline that helps to discover and apply information about human behavior, abilities, limitations and other characteristics to the design of tools, machines, systems, tasks, jobs and environments for productive, safe, comfortable and effective human use. Thus, incorporating human factors in the system development life cycle can lead to multiple benefits [13] as humans are the most important system component, the most complex system component, the least understood system component, and the most vulnerable to failure [14]. As conventional models for technology transfer tend to pay less attention to human factors, we propose a new model that integrates human aspects especially for mHealth technology used by people with disabilities. The proposed model consists of several iterative phases: technology concept, technology engineering, technology embedding, and ongoing participatory design (See Fig. 1). 3.1

Technology Concept

Concepts for a new technology can arise from a wide range of sources such as personal experience, professional experience, theories, media, and other research studies (e.g., published articles and pilot empirical studies). As this paper focuses on transferring the mHealth technology (e.g., self-care smartphone apps) from a research lab to consumers,

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Fig. 1. Framework for health technology transfer to consumers with disabilities

especially people with disabilities, mHealth technology concepts can be brought by healthcare service providers, healthcare service consumers, scientific research teams, industry, or any combination of them. The scientific research teams can consist of students, faculty, and other researchers and conduct an exploratory research study to seek and address a problem associated with mHealth technology applications. The mHealth technology industry can also bring a new technology concept to address their target consumers’ needs and concerns. Healthcare providers have a close relationship with healthcare service consumers (e.g., patients, caregivers, and family) in the healthcare field and have direct observations on how the consumers struggle with health problems and what they want. Thus, healthcare providers can contribute to developing ideas for a technology-based intervention. In addition, consumers can be active to inform those researchers and professionals about their needs and ideas of future mHealth technology to accommodate their needs. Ideally, they all should work together as a team. 3.2

Technology Engineering

In general, a research team in a lab can design and develop mHealth technology applications via collaborative partnerships along with industry, healthcare providers, users (e.g., those with disabilities and their family), and other research teams (e.g., other departments and colleges). Yet, in existing technology design and development approaches, users with disabilities are less likely to get deeply involved in design and development processes. Furthermore, even some prior studies that included users with disabilities merely focused on summative evaluation at the end of design and development processes or tended to conduct a study with participants who are not representative of the target user group [15]; for example, blindfolded sighted participants are instructed to pretend to be visually impaired for user experience testing. By inviting

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intended users, a deeper user involvement throughout the whole design and development processes is necessary. To facilitate the technology engineering phase, a research team can use a usercentered design method [16]. In the user-centered design (e.g., co-design [17]), users can serve as a co-designer to work with designers and developers, which will empower users to be deeply involved in the design and development process [18]. For instance, empathic design is one of the user-centered design approaches that can contribute to moving designers closer to users’ environments instead of bringing users to designcontrolled environments [19], which helps to build creative understanding of users and their everyday lives [20]. Creative understanding is viewed as the combination of rich, cognitive, and affective understanding of users, contributing to translating this understanding into user-centered product or service designs [21]. Users with disabilities will thus be able to deeply engage in the technology engineering phase and contribute to usability, accessibility, and safety-related user interface designs and testing via the user-centered design approach. Multiple benefits are expected; for example, the research team can obtain more accurate information about the target users and tasks, provide more opportunities for the users to influence directly design decisions, generate more or better design ideas than a designer alone, and receive immediate feedback on design ideas. After a prototype is ready for evaluation, various assessment methods can be considered, such as lab-based user performance testing and a field observation for a short or long period of time. When a high-fidelity prototype is ready, a feasibility test can be performed to examine the technology prototype in terms of effectiveness, efficiency, and overall satisfaction of the target user group. 3.3

Technology Embedding

In the phase of technology embedding, the newly developed technology will be implemented into the users’ contexts. A research team should develop a plan on how to introduce a new technology application to the intended user group and how to offer user trainings if needed. The mHealth technology application can be distributed for free but also commercialized or patented with supports from a university’s office of technology transfer. The Diffusion of Innovation Theory [22] can further contribute to facilitating technology adoption, which will process a series of steps: (a) knowledge (b) persuasion (c) decision (d) implementation, and (e) confirmation. In the knowledge stage, a new technology will first be introduced to users although users may not be much inspired to actively seek information about the new technology yet. In the persuasion stage, users would become interested enough to be more active in seeking detailed information about the technology. Technology introduction should be provided in a variety of alternative formats for users with disabilities (e.g., audio, haptic/tactile, large print and Braille for users with blindness). In the decision stage, users would weight and compare the advantages and disadvantages of using the technology, which helps users to make a decision whether they adopt or reject it. If users decide to adopt it, the implementation and confirmation stages will follow for a long-term use. If users decide to reject it, they may be encouraged to provide feedback to the developers such that an updated version would be prepared and introduced to the user group.

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Users in the decision stage would typically compare different mHealth apps to choose one that is believed to be best for their self-care without consulting their healthcare service providers. Therefore, the user’s evaluation could be further facilitated with adequate evaluation instruments. Although there are a variety of evaluation instruments available (e.g., questionnaires, surveys, guidelines, and checklists) to examine a system, they are not applicable to the contexts of this study (e.g., users with disabilities, mHealth apps, self-evaluation, usability, accessibility, and safety). For example, a research team by Stonyanov [23] developed a rating scale for measuring the quality of a mobile app that can be administered by users without engagement of professional evaluators, which is named User Version of the Mobile Application Rating Scale (uMARS). It includes a 20-items measure to examine a system’s quality associated with the following four components: functionality, aesthetics, engagement, and information. Yet, the uMARS is designed for general mobile apps such that it is not applicable to evaluating safety-relevant designs of mHealth apps. In addition, the uMARS is not applicable to users who have disabilities as it does not evaluate accessibility. Evaluation instruments for mobile apps used by people with disabilities should consider accessibility guidelines, such as Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) [24]. The Word Health Organization (WHO) mHealth Technical and Evidence Review Group (mTERG) developed a Mobile Health Evidence Reporting and Assessment (mERA) checklist [25]. The checklist covers 16 items comprehensively associated with mHealth technology, which helps to identify a set of information needed to define what the mHealth technology is (i.e., content), where it is being implemented (i.e., context), and how it is implemented (i.e., technical features). However, the mERA is expected to be used by expert reviewers, professionals, and researchers, but not by end users. Another research team has recently introduced an Interactive Mobile App Review Toolkit - IMART [26], i.e., a technology-assisted system for managing verifiable app reviews. The IMART provides a set of systematized reviews via a searchable library in which clinicians can find and compare reviews about apps that are used for patient treatments. Thus, the IMART does not serve as an app “evaluation” tool, but simply collects user reviews that already exist. Further, the IMART’s intended users are not patients (i.e., healthcare service consumers), but merely healthcare professionals. Another toolkit [27] is a Statement of Consolidated Standard of Reporting Trials (CONSRT) that contributes to the assessment and reporting of validity and applicability of mHealth technology. Yet, the CONSORT is also merely designed to support experts, but not end-users. There is a need to develop a user-friendly self-evaluation toolkit or checklist. 3.4

Ongoing Participatory Design

After dissemination of the technology application, users can still be engaged in improving further the technology application by providing feedback (e.g., user experience, error reports). The technology transfer model proposed by this study is an open, continuous loop to keep evolving to accommodate user needs. Thus, the proposed technology transfer model is anticipated to contribute to strong sustainability of the technology application.

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4 Conclusion In this paper, we argued that conventional technology transfer models are not suitable to mHealth technology applications for users with disabilities. Thus, we have discussed a new framework of transferring mHealth technology in which a new technology application is designed, developed, evaluated, and disseminated in collaboration with various stakeholders in different domains (industry, academy, and community) via a series of user-centered, system development life cycles: technology concept, technology engineering, technology embedding, and ongoing participatory design. The newly proposed framework of mHealth technology transfer would contribute to usability, accessibility, and safety of consumer mHealth technology for people with disabilities, ultimately leading to enhancement of health-related quality of life and equity. Acknowledgements. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1831969.

References 1. Bozeman, B., Rimes, H., Youtie, J.: The evolving state-of-the-art in technology transfer research: revisiting the contingent effectiveness model. Res. Policy 44(1), 34–49 (2015) 2. Hilkevics, S., Hilkevics, A.: The comparative analysis of technology transfer models. Entrepreneurship Sustain. Issues 4(4), 540–558 (2017) 3. Sung, T.K., Gibson, D.V.: Knowledge and technology transfer: levels and key factors. International Conference on Technology Policy and Innovation (ICTPI) (2000) 4. Bradley, S.R., Hayter, C.S., Link, A.N.: Models and methods of university technology transfer. Found. Trends® Entrepreneurship 9(6), 571–650 (2013) 5. Song, X., Balamuralikrishna, R.: JOTS v27n1-The process and curriculum of techonology transfer (2001). https://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JOTS/Winter-Spring-2001/song.html 6. Choi, H.J.: Technology transfer issues and a new technology transfer model. J. Technol. Stud. 35(1), 49–57 (2009) 7. Autio, E., Laamanen, T.: Measurement and evaluation of technology transfer: review of technology transfer mechanisms and indicators. Int. J. Technol. Manag. 10(7-8), 643–664 (1995) 8. Shahnavaz, H.: Role of ergonomics in the transfer of technology to industrially developing countries. Ergonomics 43(7), 903–907 (2000) 9. Jones, M., Morris, J., Deruyter, F.: Mobile healthcare and people with disabilities: current state and future needs. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 15(3), 515 (2018) 10. Pew Research Center. Device Ownership over Time (2016). Accessed 9 May 2016, http:// www.pewinternet.org/data-trend/mobile/device-ownership 11. DeRuyter, F., Jones, M.L., Morris, J.T.: Mobile health apps and needs of people with disabilities: a national survey (2018) 12. International Organization for Standardization. ISO 9241–210: 2010-Ergonomics of humansystem interaction-Part 210: Human-centred design for interactive systems (2010). https:// www.iso.org/standard/77520.html 13. Ohnemus, K.R.: Incorporating human factors in the system development life cycle: marketing and management approaches. In: Proceedings of IPCC 1996 (1996)

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14. Wenner, C.A.: What is Human Factors and Why is it Important? (No. SAND2013–7748C), Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States) (2013) 15. Sears, A., Hanson, V.: Representing users in accessibility research. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (2011) 16. Abras, C., Maloney-Krichmar, D., Preece, J.: User-centered design. In: Bainbridge, W. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 445–456. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks (2004) 17. Metatla, O., et al.: Voice user interfaces in schools: co-designing for inclusion with visuallyimpaired and sighted pupils. In: Proceedings of the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (2019) 18. Buhler, C.: Empowered participation of users with disabilities in R&D projects. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 55(4), 645–659 (2001) 19. Steen, M.: The fragility of human-centred design (2008) 20. Postma, C.E., et al.: Challenges of doing empathic design: experiences from industry. Int. J. Des. 6(1) (2012) 21. Wright, P., McCarthy, J.: Empathy and experience in HCI. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (2008) 22. Rogers, E.M.: Diffusion of Innovations, vol. 4. The Free Press, New York (1995) 23. Stoyanov, S.R., et al.: Development and validation of the user version of the mobile application rating scale (uMARS). JMIR mHealth uHealth 4(2), e72 (2016) 24. Patch, K., Spellman, J., Wahlbin, K.: Mobile accessibility: How WCAG 2.0 and other W3C/WAI guidelines apply to mobile, W3C (2015). Accessed 30 May 2018, https://www. w3.org/TR/mobile-accessibility-mapping/ 25. Agarwal, S., et al.: Guidelines for reporting of health interventions using mobile phones: mobile health (mHealth) evidence reporting and assessment (mERA) checklist. BMJ 352, i1174 (2016) 26. Maheu, M.M., et al.: The interactive mobile app review toolkit (IMART): a clinical practiceoriented system. J. Technol. Behav. Sci. 1(1–4), 3–15 (2017) 27. Eysenbach, G., Consort-EHEALTH Group: CONSORT-EHEALTH: improving and standardizing evaluation reports of web-based and mobile health interventions. J. Med. Internet Res. 13(4), e126 (2011)

Mobile Social Media Interface Design for Elderly in Indonesia Restyandito(&), Febryandi, Kristian Adi Nugraha, and Danny Sebastian Fak. Teknologi Informasi, Universitas Kristen Duta Wacana, Yogyakarta, Indonesia {dito,febriyandi}@ti.ukdw.ac.id, {adinugraha,danny.sebastian}@staff.ukdw.ac.id

Abstract. The most common problem faced by elderly is loneliness, especially when they live far away from familiy members. Furthermore, decreasing physical ability and mobility that comes with aging can also limit elderly’s ability to socialize with others. Fortunately, modern technology offers a solution to this problem of disconnectedness. Nowadays, people are communicating through social media despite the geographical distance between them. However, due to a technological leap, the elderly in Indonesia are often left behind in adapting and using technology. In this study, a social media application interface was designed based on the results of direct interviews with the elderly. The interface is more user-friedly, with features that can be properly used by the elderly. The effectiveness of this interface and its features is supported by the test result of each feature. The contact feature (task 1) scores 80%, the call log history feature (task 2) scores 100%, the video calling feature (task 3) scores 100%, the community feature (task 4) scores 90%, the entertainment feature (task 5) scores 90%, the voice calling feature (task 6) scores 100% and the notes feature (task 7) scores 77%. The results of this study can be used as a reference for software developers in designing application interfaces for the elderly, especially those who experience technological leap. Keywords: Gerontechnology

 Social media  Interface design  Mobile

1 Introduction In general, the most common problem faced by the elderly is loneliness. Loneliness is a personal matter that is handled differently by each individual. For some people loneliness is a normal part of life, but for some others loneliness can caused a deep sadness [1]. One of the factors causing loneliness in elderly is the lack of attention given by family members or closest relatives as a result of increased mobility among the younger generation. For example, many people migrate to other cities for work, leaving their parents at their home town. This increased mobility causes communication and interaction between elderlies and their families or relatives to decrease and become difficult to do. The possible impact of feeling lonely and lacking interaction experienced by the elderly is the feeling of isolation and depression. This causes the elderly to prefer to be © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 79–85, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_10

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alone, which is comonly called social isolation [2]. The occurrence of depression will result in changes in the form of thought, somatic sensation, activities, health, and less productive development of mind, speech, and socialization [3]. Therefore, the impact of loneliness needs to be recognized and given more attention by the family and relatives. Good communication is the solution to loneliness among the elderly. By taking advantage of social media, it is expected that interaction between elderly and their families, relatives and the outside world will be more affordable so that they are not limited by distance, time and place. However, the existing social media has too many features and complex functions that make it difficult for the elderly to use it. Therefore, it is necessary to design a social media that is suitable for the circumstances and needs of the elderly. Based on Indonesian Telecomunication Statistics released by Statistics Indonesia Bureau in 2018, the percentage of population aged 50 years and older who access Internet was only 6.61% [4]. It is comparatively small to the 50.79% people of the same group who have smartphones [5]. It indicates that even though smartphones are becoming more affordable, they are not being used effectively by the elderly, who only use them to make calls and send texts. Study by Restyandito & Kurniawan [6], found that many elderlies in Indonesia do not have self efficacy in using technologies. This condition widened the techological gap between elderly and younger generation, and prevent them from utilizing technology to improve their quality of life. There are several factors that influence product usability problem for elderly; cognition, perception, and movement control [7], consequently, to design usable interface these factors should be taken into consideration. Szeles and Kubota [8] pointed out that there are differences between regular application design and application design for elderly people in smartphone applications. For example, it must have simple features so that it is easy to use and has a suitable interface so that it does not confuse the elderly [9]. Grid menu layout is found to be easier to use compared to scrolled menu [10]. Taking into consideration user-friendly interface design for the elderly is expected to encourage them to adopt technology; hence, improve their quality of life.

2 Previous Study Social Media has become popular as means of communication. Prior studies have shown how people spend more time socializing through digital communication services [11]. Technology enables elders to contact and share information with family and friends through text, images, voice and videos [12, 13]. Nonetheless, many social media application such as Facebook were originally designed for frequent Internet users [14] which may not be the case of elderly in Indonesia. Elderly in Indonesia are experiencing technologycal leap resulting in them not having the experience to help them understand the technology that exists today. Coto et al. [15] pointed out it is important to take into consideration design strategies based on approaches such as human-computer interaction and participatory design that will allow designers to propose social media tools more convenient for

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elderly, by considering their life situations, habits and attitudes, and physical and mental conditions.

3 Method 3.1

Participants

Thirty elderly participate in this research (8 males, 22 females), age 60–83 years old (AVG = 73.2, STD = 6.66). Based on Indonesian constitution1, a person who is sixty years of age is categorized as elderly. All participants have cellphones (60% Android smartphone, 40% feature phone). 3.2

Requirement Gathering

Indept interviews were used to understand the phenomena experienced by eldery (such as behavior, perception, motivation, action, etc.) holistically. Questions asked include the condition of the elderly, their daily activities and their experience in using cellphones. 3.3

Apparatus

Low fidelity prototype was made using Corel Draw x7 and Just in Mind 5.8.0. High fidelity prototype was developed using Android studio. The prototype was tested on Xiaomi Red Note 5 (Qualcomm Snapdrageon 636 octa core, GPU Adreno 509, RAM 6 GB). 3.4

Design

Based on the results of the interviews, it is found that most participants communicate using voice call (36.7%) followed by video call (25.31%). Only 16.46% use their cellphones to send text messages, further analysis showed most participants found fonts on their cellphones are too small; which makes it difficult for them to read. Although respondents prefer to use voice call and video call, many of them do not know how to make calls, therefore they are dependent on their families and relatives to call them (passive users). When asked about social media application used by participants, 55.88% mentioned that they used WhatsApp, only 8.82% use Facebook. The rest of the participants (35.30%) do not use social media. Data that is gathered from the in depth interviews with the edlerly is used to design the prototype of the social media interface as seen on Fig. 1. Since many respondents who participated in this research are familiar with WhatsApp (either actively or passively) the prototype has a design similar to WhatsApp, such as color scheme and icon use. By doing so, it helps users to learn using the application more quickly because they can transfer their experience in using other

1

UU No. 13 Tahun 1998 tentang Kesejahteraan Lanjut Usia, Pasal 1 ayat (2),(3),(4).

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Fig. 1. Example of the interface of social media application for elderly

applications [16]. Yet, only 55.88% participants use WhatsApp, consequently the icons need to be tested. Prior to developing the application, a low fidelity prototype was made to measure the comprehensive level of icons used by participants. The application only had limited features, such as making voice call, video call, sending text, joining community, entertainment (linked to selected YouTube content based on user’s preference) and making notes. These features were chosen based on the activity of the participants related to their social life (both online and offline). Since there are only a handful features needed by elderly, it will minimize physical and cognitive stress due to too many menus and symbols [17]. The application also applies grid menu and one page layout design (except for call logs which still require scrolling) as pointed out by Restyandito et al. [10]. Last but not least, the design provides many ways to perform most frequently used feature. For example, there is short cut to make voice call in any section of the application, hence reducing the need to memorize specific order to use it. 3.5

Usability Testing

The proposed design underwent usability testing using performance metrics. Participants were given 7 tasks to be completed, ranging from making video calls to find information regarding community activities. Parameter used in this test was success rate and completion time. The test result is also compared to a control group consisting of 5 university students. After completing the usability test participants were also given a self reported metric by completing a User Experience Questionnaire.

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4 Results and Discussion The performance test conducted yielded an average of 90.95% success rate. Results of the performance test can be seen in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 respectively. Not all tasks can be completed by participants. Task 1 where participants were asked to input phone numbers in the address book, only resulted in a success rate of 80%. Task 4 where participants were asked to find announcement regarding community activities, only yield success rate of 90%. Task 5 where participants were asked to find video content, yield success rate of 90%. And Taks 7 where participants were asked to make a voice memo only yield 77%. Further analisys showed that participants who failed in task 1 and task 7 were those who have only been using feature phones. These tasks require several steps where participants need to understand menus and icons used. Lack of familiarity [16] may contribute to the failure of participants completing the task. Many users who are not technologically savvy rely on rote learning when operating their devices, hence they may face difficulties when they need to interact with new applications or technology [18]. Participants who failed task 4 and task 5 were mostly those who are older than 75 years of age. Task 4 and Task 5 are related to finding information, participants who failed to complete these tasks perhaps due to their declining cognitive ability. In this case, they might forget the instruction resulting in providing the wrong answer [19]. Participants’ completion time on average is 65.12% longer compared to the control group. From Fig. 3 we can see that the biggest difference occurs on Task 1 (138% longer) and Task 7 (73% longer). As DeFord et al. [20] pointed out, whilst young adults may rely on spatial attention in performing a task, eldery might rely on memory and executive function abilities. Since most of the participants who faced difficulties completing the task were participants who’ve only been using feature phone, they lack experience which they can memorized in interacting with smartphones. Lastly, self reported metric analysis using User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ) was found satisfactory where attractiveness, perspicuity, efficiency, dependability, stimulation and novelty received an excellent score.

Fig. 2. Participants’ success rate

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Fig. 3. Participant’s completion time vs control group’s completion time

5 Conclusions The results of this case-study on designing social media interfaces for edlerly in Indonesia emphasize the need to give attention to users’ experiences and cognitive abilities. Elderly in Indonesia experience two challenges in using technology: a decrease in physical and cognitive abilities, and a technological leap. Theses challenges cause them to become non-technologically savvy users. To overcome these challenges, designers should take into consideration users’ prior experience in using technology. Bigger fonts and interface improves readibility. Familiar interface helps users learn faster. Simple interface helps reduce users’ cognitive load. Lastly, alternative ways to use features eliminate the need to memorize specific steps.

References 1. Amalia, A.D.: Kesepian dan isolasi sosial yang dialami lanjut usia: tinjauan dari perspektif sosiologis. Sosio Informa 18(3), 203–210 (2013) 2. Kusumowardani, A., Puspitosari, A.: Hubungan antara tingkat depresi lansia dengan interaksi sosial lansia di desa sobokerto kecamatan ngemplak boyolali. Jurnal Ilmu Kesehatan 3(2), 184–188 (2014) 3. Kaplan, H.I., Sadock, B.J.: Pocket Handbook of Emergency Psychiatric Medicine. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore (1993) 4. Utoyo, S., Sujono, T., Sari, E.: Statistik Telekomunikasi Indonesia 2018. Biro Pusat Statistik, pp. 272–274 (2018) 5. Kominfo Survei Penggunaan TIK 2017 Serta Implikasinya terhadap Aspek Sosial Budaya Masyarakat, pp. 19 (2017). https://balitbangsdm.kominfo.go.id/publikasi-indikator-tik-9.htm. Accessed 28 May 2020 6. Restyandito, Kurniawan, E.: Pemanfaatan Teknologi oleh Orang Lanjut Usia di Yogyakarta. Prosiding Seminar Nasional ke-12 Rekayasa Teknologi Industri dan Informasi (RTII 2017), pp. 49–53 (2017)

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7. Siran, Z., Abidin, S.Z., Anwar, R.: Elderly usability interaction design model for home appliances: theoretical framework. In: Anwar, R., Mahamood, M., Md. Zain, D.H., Abd Aziz, M.K., Hassan, O.H., Abidin, S.Z. (eds.) Proceedings of the Art and Design International Conference (AnDIC 2016), pp. 365–374. Springer, Singapore (2018). https:// doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-0487-3_40 8. Szeles, J., Kubota, N.: Location monitoring support application in smart phones for elderly people, using suitable interface design. In: Kubota, N., Kiguchi, K., Liu, H., Obo, T. (eds.) ICIRA 2016. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 9835, pp. 3–14. Springer, Cham (2016). https://doi.org/10. 1007/978-3-319-43518-3_1 9. Yusof, MFM., Romli, N., Yusof, MFM.: Design for elderly friendly: mobile phone application and design that suitable for elderly. Int. J. Comput. Appl. 95(3) (2014) 10. Restyandito, Kurniawan, E., Widagdo, T.M.: Mobile application menu design for elderly in indonesia with cognitive consideration. J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 1196(1), 012058. IOP Publishing (2019) 11. Cornejo, R., Tentori, M., Favela, J.: Enriching in-person encounters through social media: a study on family connectedness for the elderly. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 71(9), 889–899 (2013) 12. Yang, Y., Yuan, Y., Archer, N., Ryan, E.: Adoption of social media and the quality of life of older adults. In: 2016 49th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), pp. 3133–3142. IEEE (2016) 13. Li, Q.: Characteristics and social impact of the use of social media by Chinese Dama. Telematics Inform. 34(3), 797–810 (2017) 14. Chou, W.H., Lai, Y.T., Liu, K.H.: User requirements of social media for the elderly: a case study in Taiwan. Behav. Inform. Technol. 32(9), 920–937 (2013) 15. Coto, M., Lizano, F., Mora, S., Fuentes, J.: Social media and elderly people: research trends. In: Meiselwitz, G. (ed.) SCSM 2017. LNCS, vol. 10283, pp. 65–81. Springer, Cham (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-58562-8_6 16. Sharp, H., Preece, J., Rogers, Y.: Interaction Design-Beyond Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 5. Wiley, New Jersey (2019). ISBN 978-1-119-54725-9 17. Sharma, S., Wong, J.: Three-button gateway smart home interface (TrueSmartface) for elderly: design, development and deployment. Measurement 149, 106923 (2020) 18. Krisnawati, L.D., Restyandito, : Localized user interface for improving cell phone users’ device competency. Int. J. Inform. Technol. Web Eng. (IJITWE) 3(1), 38–52 (2008) 19. Liew, T.M., Yap, P., Ng, T.P., Mahendran, R., Kua, E.H., Feng, L.: Symptom clusters of subjective cognitive decline amongst cognitively normal older persons and their utilities in predicting objective cognitive performance: structural equation modelling. Eur. J. Neurol. 26 (9), 1153–1160 (2019) 20. DeFord, N.E., DeJesus, S.Y., Holden, H.M., Graves, L.V., Lopez, F.V., Gilbert, P.E.: Young and older adults may utilize different cognitive abilities when performing a spatial recognition memory test with varying levels of similarity. Int. J. Aging Hum. Devel. 90(1), 65–83 (2020)

An Open Source Refreshable Braille Display Victor Rocha1(&) , Diogo Silva2, Álvaro Maia Bisneto2 , Anna Carvalho1 , Thiago Bastos2 , and Fernando Souza3 1

3

CESAR School, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil {vhr,agmc}@cesar.school 2 CESAR, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil {dfsls,abvmb,tab}@cesar.org.br Federal University of Perbambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil [email protected]

Abstract. With the exponential growth in the technological era, the need arose to bring the users a way to use Braille as a communication interface with computers and smartphones. In order to achieve this, electro-mechanical devices were created, called Braille displays, allowing users to make use of Braille on their own devices. However, access to this kind of devices is difficult, because the embedded technology makes it expensive. In this context, this work aims to create an integrated solution of hardware and software, based on the concept of one Braille cell using only open source components. The proposed system was evaluated by blind volunteers with different Braille knowledge and computer experience. Keywords: Accessibility Visual impairment

 Accessibility tools  Refreshable Braille display 

1 Introduction According to World Health Organization (WHO), there is an estimated 285 million people worldwide who suffer from severe visual impairment. Of these, about 39 million persons are blind and, by definition, cannot walk about unaided. They are usually in need of vocational and/or social support. Many people who suffer from severe visual impairment face a lifetime of inequality, as they often have poorer health and face barriers to education and employment. These figures highlight the need to give greater attention to create solutions that enable their integration into society [1]. In order for an individual to enjoy intellectual freedom, personal security, independence and have equal opportunities to study and work, one must be literate. There is no substitute for the ability to read, therefore no digital alternative can completely replace Braille. At the same time, this can also provide visually impaired people with a unique opportunity to integrate into society and to develop their skills to their full potential. The reader of Braille is not only able to read written texts, but also to read

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 86–91, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_11

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information in Braille while using different services (e.g., lifts, maps, signs) and to read information on products (food, medicines) [2]. The Braille system, also known as the white writing, was created 150 years ago and has become the reading and writing alphabet most used by blind people worldwide. The Braille system is based on a grid of six tactile dots presented in two parallel columns of three dots each. The combination of these six tactile dots signifies a specific letter. The points are in high relief, allowing, through touch, to read what is represented. The points are arranged in a rectangle, known as Braille cell [3]. There are three factors that currently work against the use of Braille as the primary reading modality for blind readers [4]: 1) The cost of refreshable Braille displays, which range from approximately $2,000 for a 18-character display to $50,000 for a half page of Braille, 2) the decline in support for teaching Braille to blind children and newly blind adults, which has resulted in a corresponding drop in levels of Braille literacy, and 3) the increasing cost of producing hard copy Braille books which has reduced the availability of recently published books in Braille format, which in turn impacts the interest in and practice of Braille reading, particularly for young readers. For all of these reasons, the pressure to develop a novel approach to the design of refreshable Braille displays is mounting [4, 5]. Refreshable Braille displays render Braille characters dynamically refreshed over time, standing to the Braille language as a computer screen or an e-reader stands to written information for sighted people. They offer the useful and unique advantage of a dynamic fruition of written information that needs to be available fast, i.e. during navigation and search of web contents, without the need of being stored on a physical sheet of paper [6]. Usually those kinds of display consist of 40 cells where the information is presented in Braille, and which is then updated on the subsequent (or previous) lines. The fact that Braille display technology has not changed significantly for 35 years is astonishing when considered alongside the continually shifting interaction paradigms of personal computing in general. In the years since the introduction of the first piezoelectric Braille cell in 1979, we have witnessed the demise of the command line, the evolution of the Windows-Icons-Menus-Pointer (WIMP) interface and finally the birth of co-located input and output in the form of the touchscreen [4]. In particular, Braille displays most of the time uses piezoelectric or electromechanical array that moves pins arranged vertically to represent multiple Braille cells [6, 7]. This tends to be an expensive approach, especially because it increases the number of cells to represent all information on computer screen [4]. This paper proposes a creation of a portable and refreshable one cell Braille display, using only open source technologies.

2 Related Work Several studies in the literature describe the importance of technological solutions for Braille reading. Most of these solutions use piezoelectric principles, which are expensive, and also there is a trend to increase the number of cells [8]. The search is on, therefore, for a low-cost refreshable display that would go beyond current technologies

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and deliver graphical content as well as text. Many solutions have been proposed, some of which reduce costs by restricting the number of characters that can be displayed, even down to a single Braille cell [4]. The difference between eye reading, which captures whole words and many other information almost instantly, blind people read essentially one character at a time. Based on that, some researchers have proposed a system based on a single ‘bigger’ Braille cell and a specific software interface and driver communication. The display was constructed using six servo motors controlled by an Arduino Uno and a computer. To read the words, the person who suffer from severe visual impairment leaves his finger on the cell while points are triggered depending on the letter that is been displayed. To display words and phrases the characters are displayed sequentially. The problem with this approach is that the size and weight of the display, although having only one cell for reading, is almost the size of a Braille display of 10 to 20 cells. Another problem is that it is not possible for this to be used with tablets or smartphones since the display must be connected to a computer to receive the information that needs to be displayed. Drishti is another solution that propose a different approach. The idea behind this solution is use a dot matrix to represent Braille dots using Solenoids. Although the design was quite good, it faced some problems such as high power consumption and noise, caused by the use of solenoids [9].

3 Proposed Solution This work presents a refreshable Braille display of a single cell, to be used with computers, smartphones and tablets. The Braille display proposed is inspired on the operation of a tally counter. Tally counters are digital counters built using mechanical components. They typically consist of a series of disks mounted on an axle, with the digits from 0 to 9 marked on their edge, the counter moves incrementally from right to left depending upon the number of clicks made, the logic behind the increment, follows the natural numerical order. Braille decodes each symbol in a cell composed of up to six dots. Dots of each cell are arranged in a matrix of two columns by three rows with fixed dimensions (see Fig. 1). Each Braille character is represented by a cell with different number and positions of the raised dots [6]. Instead of using movable pins to reproduce the relief of the points of a Braille cell, the idea is to replace these pins with a plastic disc (in the format of an extruded octagon) with eight sides and in each one on each side there is the relief of each of the eight possible configurations of 3 points. Combining two of these discs is possible to reproduce all 64 symbols of the traditional Braille system. For each of the blocks were mapped all possible combinations of the 3 points (both in relief and without), which gave a total of 8 possibilities for each block (see Fig. 1). So, each face of the extruded octagon contains one of the eight possible combinations (see Fig. 1). The mechanism is based on the principle that there isn’t any difference between the combination of the dots 1, 2, 3 and the 4, 5, 6 as shown on. The pieces were printed using the 3D printer Ultimaker 2.

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Fig. 1. Possible combinations for each column of Braille cell and extruded octagon [10]

Cell dimensions have to be optimal in order to allow the finger pad to cover the whole area of the cell and, at the same time, discriminate the different dots. During the years, Blind Unions and Authorities of different countries converged to a standardization of the Braille cell and dot dimensions [6]. According to the above recommendations, specifications of the Braille cells that are considered in the presented paper are summarized in Table 1. Table 1. Braille dimensions considered in the presented work according to the European Blind Union recommendations [6] Feature Dot height Dot diameter Intra-cell horizontal distance Intra-cell vertical distance Inter-cell horizontal distance

Dimensions [mm] 0.5 1.5 2.5 2.5 6

Once printed, each octagon was attached to a stepper motor (model 28BYJ-48), as can be seen in Fig. 2. Each of the motors has been connected to a ULN2003 driver, that is controlled by an Arduino Nano board, with an ATmega328 microcontroller. The communication with the user device (smartphone, tablet or PC) is via bluetooth, for that a HC-06 bluetooth module was connected to the Arduino (the complete circuit diagram could be seen on Fig. 3). So, the “letters” that must be displayed on the display are sent by the device using the bluetooth protocol. Finally, the step motors were attached to a stand and placed inside a box to prevent direct contact between users and the electronics (see Fig. 2).

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Fig. 2. Step motor with extruded octagon [10]

Fig. 3. Circuit diagram

4 Proof of Concept The tests were done by five volunteers from the Instituto de Cegos Antônio Pessoa de Queiroz, from Recife, Brazil. All volunteers work in the institute and are familiar with reading in Braille. To evaluate the prototype an android application was created, where you choose a letter to be displayed on the Braille display. This letter is sent via bluetooth to the device. The volunteers received an explanation about the Braille Display, its function and its relationship with smartphones, tablets and computers, as well as the goal of the all system. After the introduction the prototype was given to the user, the researcher chooses a character and sends it to be displayed on the display. The volunteer tries to recognize the characters represented at Braille cell, speaking aloud what character believes it is. During the tests the volunteers were encouraged to give feedback on the use of the prototype and talk about the readability of the display. Regarding the prototype, users commented that they found it interesting and were excited about the cost of the solution, since commercial Braille displays cost more than 2000 dollars. Some divergences between one cell solution and traditional Braille reading were detected. For example, cell points distances should be adjusted to reduce the distance between the two columns, because they were getting the impression that each column was a separate letter from the other.

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On the other hand, some of the advantages of one cell Braille solution are: static reading reduces fatigue, also the price of one cell equipment is lower, simplicity, lack of line-breaking problems because the hand remained static over the device and simpler maintenance.

5 Conclusions This work aims to contribute to the digital access of Braille by developing an integrated hardware and software solution. To this end, a single Braille cell was designed formed by two step motors controlled by an Arduino Nano. This study aimed to access the amount of effort required for reading Braille on a display formed by a single cell. It was designed to meet the demand of domestic and institutions appliances at low cost. Experiments were focused in user’s behavior, recording their evolution using the system. The use of a single cell showed promising results relating to cost and effort. The proposed solution represents an alternative way for communication of blind users, especially, young people, constantly discouraged by the traditional method of learning Braille. As a future work a mobile application is being developed to be used in conjunction with the display to teach Braille to the disabled without the need for an instructor.

References 1. WHO: Visual impairment and blindness. In: Fact Sheet (2019). http://www.who.int/ mediacentre/factsheets/fs282/en/index.html. Accessed 10 June 2020 2. Marcet, A., Jiménez, M., Perea, M.: Why Braille reading is important and how to study it. Cult. Educ. 28, 811–825 (2016) 3. Schmidt, M.B., Gustavo, L., Ramirez, A.R.G.: Single Braille cell. In: ISSNIP Biosignals and Biorobotics Conference, BRC, pp. 1–5. IEEE (2014) 4. Russomanno, A., O’Modhrain, S., Gillespie, R.B., Rodger, M.W.M.: Refreshing refreshable Braille displays. IEEE Trans. Haptics 8, 287–297 (2015) 5. Runyan, N.H., Blazie, D.B.: The continuing quest for the “Holy Braille” of tactile displays. In: Esteve, J., Terentjev, E.M., Campo, E.M. (eds.), p. 81070G (2011) 6. Leonardis, D., Claudio, L., Frisoli, A.: A survey on innovative refreshable Braille display technologies. In: Di Bucchianico, G., Kercher, P.F. (eds.) AHFE 2017. AISC, vol. 587, pp. 488–498. Springer, Cham (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-60597-5_46 7. Bisht, S., Goluguri, S.R., Maheshwari, R., et al.: Refreshable Braille display using raspberry pi and arduino. Int. J. Curr. Eng. Technol. 6, 965–968 (2016) 8. Cook, A.M., Polgar, J.M.: Assistive Technologies, 4th edn. Mosby, St. Louis (2015) 9. Kartha, V., Nair, D.S., Sreekant, S., et al.: DRISHTI - a gesture controlled text to Braille converter. In: 2012 Annual IEEE India Conference (INDICON), pp. 335–339. IEEE (2012) 10. Hazin da Rocha, V., Silva, D., Bisneto, A.B.V.M., et al.: Ensinando a Identificação de Caracteres Braille utilizando Dispositivos Móveis e um Display Braille. RENOTE 17, 82–91 (2019)

Frailty Assessment in Daily Living (FRAIL) Assessment of ADL Performance of Frail Elderly with IMUs Stephanie Schmidle1(&), Philipp Gulde2, Bart Jansen3, Sophie Herdegen1, and Joachim Hermsdörfer1 1

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Human Movement Science, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany [email protected] 2 Center for Clinical Neuroplasticity Medical Park Loipl, Bischofswiesen, Germany [email protected] ETRO-VUB, Department of Electronics and Informatics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium

Abstract. Frailty is accompanied by limitations in activities of daily living (ADL). These are associated with reduced quality of life, institutionalization and higher health care costs. Long-term monitoring ADL could allow creating effective interventions and thus reduce the occurrence of adverse health outcomes. The main objective of this study was to evaluate if ADL task performance can be assessed by activity measurements based on IMUs, and whether these measures can differentiate individual’s frailty. ADL data was obtained from seventeen elderly who performed two ADL tasks - tea making task (TEA) and gardening task (GARDEN). Acceleration data of the dominant hand was collected using an activity sensor. Participants were split up in two groups, FRAIL (n = 6; Fried score  2) and CONTROL (n = 11; Fried score  1) retrospectively. Collected data were used to determine trial duration (TD), relative activity (RA), peak standard deviation (STD), peaks per second (PPS), peaks ratio (RATIO), weighted sum of acceleration per second (SUM), signal to noise ratio (S2N) and mean peak acceleration (MPA). STD, RATIO, SUM and MPA showed good reliability over both tasks. Four of the calculated parameters (RA, PPS, RATIO, SUM) revealed significant results differentiating between FRAIL and CONTROL (effect sizes 1.30–1.77). Multiple linear regression showed that only STD correlated with the Fried score. In summary, the results demonstrate that ADL task performance can be assessed by IMU-based activity measures and further allows drawing conclusions on the frailty status of elderly, although the predictability of the exact Fried score was limited. Keywords: Activities of daily living  Frailty  Kinematic analysis  Wearables

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 92–101, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_12

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1 Introduction In Western societies, the prevalence of frailty and its adverse health outcomes including falls, delirium, institutionalization, hospitalization and mortality increases [1, 2]. Frailty is understood as a complex concept consisting of various cognitive, psychological, nutritional and social factors [3], representing a high burden for affected individuals, care professionals as well as health care systems [4]. According to the well-known standardized phenotype of frailty by Fried et al. [2], the following five criteria are assessed to determine frailty status: unintentional weight loss, exhaustion, slow walking speed, low grip strength and low physical activity. To be classified as frail, at least three criteria have to be present. In contrast, the presence of one or two indicators is categorized as pre-frail, whereas the absence of any indicator is termed robust. Elderly people categorized as frail, show an elevated risk of disability [5, 6]. Moreover, compared to non-frail elderly frail individuals demonstrate higher rates of disability in activities of daily living (ADL), often termed as basic ADLs, which are relatively more preserved in light of declined cognitive function. In general, those activities are defined as ‘activities essential for an independent life or necessary for survival, representing everyday tasks required for self-care’ [7] (e.g., bathing, dressing, eating, toileting and transferring) [4]. Those activities can be separated form instrumental ADLs (IADLs), which include more complex tasks and are more sensitive to early cognitive decline [8]. Changes in ADL performance and especially altered daily activity levels are associated with poor quality of life, increased health care costs, higher mortality and institutionalization [8]. Furthermore, they can provide important information regarding functional and cognitive abilities, loss of autonomy and deterioration in health status [9]. In recent years, the interest in automated methods of real-time, unobtrusive monitoring of ambulation, activity and wellness with technologies typically basing on inertial measurement units (IMUs) has steadily increased [10]. Thus, the analysis of such data has been subject to a plethora of intense research projects including the development of feasible algorithms that are required to translate such measurements into clinically relevant markers [10]. Research focuses on automated monitoring of mobility, ADL and physiological (vital) signs of elderly adults living independently in their homes [10]. Until now, the analysis of ADL performance was limited to subjective scoring and timed actions. Regardless of their validity, these approaches are time-consuming, they often lack objectivity and they are typically bound to a standardized lab setting [11]. Decreased costs of activity tracking systems and devices that are small, mobile and reliable, offer the possibility of a stronger embedding in the clinical routine [12]. Thus, the aim of this cohort study was to assess if ADL task performance can be assessed through a commercially available activity tracking sensor, and whether these measures can differentiate individual’s frailty.

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2 Methods 2.1

Subjects

Seventeen older adults (  60 years) participated (for detailed information, see Table 1). Subjects were recruited form care institutions and communities. Inclusion criteria for participation were defined as a minimum age of 60 years and a score of at least 24 points in the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) [13]. Elderly people with cognitive impairments ( 0.05.

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(a)

(b)

Fig. 2. Results of (a) motion similarity and (b) cumulative completion time.

4.3

Discussion

As from real world imitation learning expected, an implicit imitation of the demonstrated avatar’s motion is occurred, both for the untrained and the trained. Although the untrained imitated the motion pattern significantly more often. Due to the fact that the different tasks are conducted twice and for every trial a different motion pattern is demonstrated, an random conduction of similar movement pattern could only explain 50% of similar motions. However, thus the percentage of motion similarity for trained and untrained is higher than 50% a general imitation can be assumed. Interestingly, the trained group imitated the avatar although basic task solution strategies should be developed during the training process. Perhaps, due to the fact that the trained group’s taskdependent cognitive load was less, the free attention capacities are dedicated to the demonstrated instructions and with respect to the related work, an adjustment of the existing representation occurred for situations rated as appropriate. Bringing this together with the results indicating no significant difference of the cumulative completion time between the trained and untrained, the imitation of motion pattern during learning scenarios or even during working scenarios could enhance a consolidation and implicit imitation of ergonomic motion patterns without minimizing the time performance significantly. Because of the subject’s unawareness of the motion similarity criteria, an implicit imitation can be assumed instead of an explicit imitation. Regarding the imitation of different task categories, no significant differences are stated. However, for the category taking the lower body into account the smallest percentage of similar motions are recorded. Eventually, due to the possibility the upper body was rated as more important because of the interaction with assembly parts, a dedication of attention capacities mainly to the avatar’s upper body appeared. Furthermore, the limited field of vied (FOV) of the AR device could have lead to missing information, although on the basis of the procedure the FOV should have superimposed the relevant motions entirely.

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Conclusion and Future Work

Within this paper we evaluated a process-oriented assistance method in terms of motor learning by imitation. The presented results reveal the existence of implicit motion imitation in AR, comparable to real world effects. With respect to the manual assembly use case, the results further assume the opportunity of learning ergonomic motions without a substantial performance loss considering the time component. Moreover, for experienced employees with physical limitations a process-oriented assistance method could enable an adjustment of existing motion pattern representations and therefore lead to an ergonomically appropriated task conduction. However, due to the small sample size and the late breaking work character the topic of imitation learning in AR is ongoing research and the results reveal only a first insight. The authors intend further work on the basis of the captured data, considering the analysis of motion imitation in terms of similarity of joint angle trajectories. Hence, compared to the utilized visual analysis, the analysed task categories can be extended to more complex tasks such as assembly tasks, and the results can be analysed related to their task complexity. Acknowledgement. The authors acknowledge the financial support by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany (MOSIM project, grant no. 01IS18060A-H).

References 1. Anderson, F., Grossman, T., Matejka, J., Fitzmaurice, G.: YouMove: enhancing movement training with an augmented reality mirror. In: Proceedings of the 26th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology - UIST 2013, pp. 311–320. ACM Press (2013). https://doi.org/10.1145/2501988.2502045 2. Chen, X., et al.: ImmerTai: immersive motion learning in VR environments 58, 416–427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvcir.2018.11.039 3. Funk, M., Kosch, T., Greenwald, S.W., Schmidt, A.: A benchmark for interactive augmented reality instructions for assembly tasks. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia - MUM 2015, pp. 253–257. ACM Press. https://doi.org/10.1145/2836041.2836067 4. Ganier, F.: Factors affecting the processing of procedural instructions: implications for document design 47(1), 15–26. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPC.2004.824289 5. Guadagno, R.E., Blascovich, J., Bailenson, J.N., Mccall, C.: Virtual humans and persuasion: The effects of agency and behavioral realism, p. 22 (2007) 6. Han, P.H., Chen, K.W., Hsieh, C.H., Huang, Y.J., Hung, Y.P.: AR-arm: augmented visualization for guiding arm movement in the first-person perspective. In: Proceedings of the 7th Augmented Human International Conference 2016 on AH 2016, pp. 1–4. ACM Press (2016). https://doi.org/10.1145/2875194.2875237 7. Kim, K., Billinghurst, M., Bruder, G., Duh, H.B.L., Welch, G.F.: Revisiting trends in augmented reality research: a review of the 2nd decade of ISMAR (2008–2017) 24(11), 2947–2962. https://doi.org/10.1109/TVCG.2018.2868591

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8. Kim, K., Boelling, L., Haesler, S., Bailenson, J., Bruder, G., Welch, G.F.: Does a digital assistant need a body? The influence of visual embodiment and social behavior on the perception of intelligent virtual agents in AR. In: 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR), pp. 105– 114. IEEE (2018). https://doi.org/10.1109/ISMAR.2018.00039 9. Kim, K., Maloney, D., Bruder, G., Bailenson, J.N., Welch, G.F.: The effects of virtual human’s spatial and behavioral coherence with physical objects on social presence in AR: Virtual human’s spatial and behavioral coherence in AR 28(3), e1771. https://doi.org/10.1002/cav.1771 10. Kosch, T., Funk, M., Schmidt, A., Chuang, L.L.: Identifying cognitive assistance with mobile electroencephalography: a case study with in-situ projections for manual assembly 2, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1145/3229093 11. Lampen, E., Teuber, J., Gaisbauer, F., B¨ ar, T., Pfeiffer, T., Wachsmuth, S.: Combining simulation and augmented reality methods for enhanced worker assistance in manual assembly 81, 588–593. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2019.03.160 12. Limbu, B.H., Jarodzka, H., Klemke, R., Specht, M.: Using sensors and augmented reality to train apprentices using recorded expert performance: a systematic literature review 25, 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2018.07.001 13. Miller, M.R., Jun, H., Herrera, F., Yu Villa, J., Welch, G., Bailenson, J.N.: Social interaction in augmented reality 14(5), e0216290. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0216290 14. Deutsches Institut f¨ ur Normung, e.V.: DIN CEN ISO/TR 7250–2: Wesentliche Maße des menschlichen K¨ orpers f¨ ur die technische Gestaltung Teil 2. Anthropometrische Datenbanken einzelner nationaler Bev¨ olkerungen. https://doi.org/10. 31030/1935074 15. Patterson, R.E., Pierce, B.J., Bell, H.H., Klein, G.: Implicit learning, tacit knowledge, expertise development, and naturalistic decision making 4(4), 289–303. https://doi.org/10.1177/155534341000400403 16. Rizzolatti, G., Fogassi, L., Gallese, V.: Neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the understanding and imitation of action 2(9), 661–670. https://doi.org/10.1038/ 35090060 17. Schaal, S., Ijspeert, A., Billard, A.: Computational approaches to motor learning by imitation 358(1431), 537–547. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2002.1258 18. Schepers, M., Giuberti, M., Bellusci, G.: Xsens MVN: Consistent tracking of human motion using inertial sensing. https://doi.org/10.13140/rg.2.2.22099.07205 19. Snoddy, G.S.: Learning and stability: a psychophysiological analysis of a case of motor learning with clinical applications 10(1), 1–36. https://doi.org/10.1037/ h0075814 20. Waltemate, T., Gall, D., Roth, D., Botsch, M., Latoschik, M.E.: The impact of avatar personalization and immersion on virtual body ownership, presence, and emotional response 24(4), 1643–1652. https://doi.org/10.1109/TVCG.2018. 2794629 21. Webel, S., Bockholt, U., Engelke, T., Gavish, N., Tecchia, F.: Design recommendations for augmented reality based training of maintenance skills. In: Alem, L., Huang, W. (eds.) Recent Trends of Mobile Collaborative Augmented Reality Systems, pp. 69–82. Springer, New York (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-44199845-3 5

Innovation of Interactive Design from the Perspective of Safety Psychology— Based on VR Technology Feng Liu1, Yu Dong1, Xianheng Yi2, and Haiming Zhu3(&) 1

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School of Journalism and Communication, Shanghai University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China 2 College of Foreign Languages, Shanghai Jianqiao University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Shanghai Municipal Engineering Design and Research Institute (Group) Co., Ltd., Shanghai, People’s Republic of China [email protected]

Abstract. With the rapid development of science and technology, the era of “Internet of everything” is imminent, and “interaction” has emerged a new connotation. Interactive design should be reconsidered and defined in view of many new application scenarios. From the perspective of safety psychology, how to innovate interactive design methods and improve the effect of safety education become a problem that designers should take in to account. This greatly broaden the application scope of interactive design, and create more conditions for updating the application concept of interactive design and grasping the new connotation of interactive design based on the new technical environment. The traditional methods of safety education are hard to stimulate the participation of audiences, which fails to produce active and effective interactions, and then, conceptual update and innovation of interactive design is very difficult to take effect. The development of VR created the condition for the application of more novel visualization and interaction patterns, and interactive design can be innovated with the application of VR in Safety Education. Based on the characteristics of VR and its impact on interaction behaviors of human beings, this paper combining with the relevant viewpoints and requirements of safety psychology makes an exploratory analysis on the innovation methods of VR-based interactive design. Keywords: Safety psychology

 Interactive design  VR

1 Introduction With the rapid development of science and technology, the era of “Internet of everything” is imminent, and “interaction” has emerged a new connotation. Interactive design should be reconsidered and defined in view of many new application scenarios. Safety education plays a significantly important role in human production and life. Scientifically designed contents and methods of safety education can effectively improve the safety awareness and behavioral ability of the audience and meanwhile © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 189–196, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_24

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reduce the incidence of injury events. From the perspective of safety psychology, how to innovate interactive design methods and improve the effect of safety education become a problem that designers should take into account. The development of technical conditions provides new conditions for us to realize the innovation of interactive design methods. Based on the characteristics of VR and its impact on interaction behaviors of human beings, this paper combining with the relevant viewpoints and requirements of safety psychology makes an exploratory analysis on the innovation methods of VR-based interactive design.

2 Interactive Design Concept from the Perspective of Safety Psychology Safety psychology was initially developed on the basis of other disciplines such as industrial psychology, psychologists engaged in the design of machines, tools, equipment and working environment, working procedure that is suitable for psychologically and physiologically actual need of from the perspective of safety, in order to alleviate fatigue and prevent accidents. From such a specific perspective, a safety psychology has been gradually formed [1]. Safety Psychology is also known as Occupational Health Psychology [2], which refers to guide people to prevent from injuries and accidents by regulating their mental state. Safety psychology also has comprehensive and cross discipline attribute. Infact, “stress-response theory” [3] “selfregulation model” [4] were put forward by the psychologist so as to promote the application of safety psychology. Furthermore, Robert Heath developed the “Safety psychological intervention mode” [5] based on previous studies, which plays a significantly essential role in the industries of safety education. The applied research of safety psychology in different industries has created good conditions for the purpose of improving the scientific level of safety education and safety psychology intervention. For example, UNOH used the driving simulator as the test platform to set up the stress scene of suddenly driving out of the vehicle at the intersection. It aims to have a study on the stress hedging behaviors of drivers at different ages, and further provide specific stress response training programs for different age groups [6]. In addition, Crundall et al. designed a Faros GB3 simulator to study the training methods of verbal warning of potential risks for 9 different stress risk scenarios [7]. The development of safety psychology lays a foundation for the extension of the application scope of interactive design, and also suggestively puts forward new requirements. Safety psychology pays closer attention to timely identify severe safety in the process of application of psychological reaction of the individual. At the same time, it puts forward targeted intervention respectively according to its main reason based on both mental state and psychological problems. Besides, it concentrates on individual coping mechanisms, and is beneficial to improve the individual ability to cope with actual situations, in order to achieve a relative balance of physiological and mental state. It finally assists to adapt to the production process as well as obtains the optimum state of body and mind in its own conditions. After all, it is difficult for traditional design methods to meet these requirements. On the one hand, designers

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should deeply grasp the constructive needs of safety psychology in specific scenes. On the other hand, they need to creatively use interactive design methods to meet the above requirements. In general, both factors greatly broaden the application scope of interactive design, and create more conditions for updating the application concept of interactive design and grasping the new connotation of interactive design based on the new technical conditions.

3 The Application Dilemma of Interactive Design Concept in the Traditional Scene of Safety Psychological Education Different from general product designs, on the one hand, the content of safety education requires not only integrating and arranging interactive designs and safety materials, but also thinking about how to present safety education materials to the audience more effectively. On the other hand, from the perspective of products, if interactive functions were realized, many safety education scenarios tend to require larger scale venues, higher-cost machines and equipment and other hardware bases, which are greatly limited in flexibility, portability and application range. Therefore, the concept of interactive design has obvious application difficulties in the scene of traditional safety psychological education. The realization of “interactivity” in terms of traditional safety psychological education is restricted by many factors. For example, simple words, pictures and other safety education information contents are difficult to arouse interests and attentions of training personnel and audiences. As a matter of fact, the environment and way of traditional safety education are hard to stimulate the participation of audiences, which fails to produce active and effective interactions. Under such a scenario, conceptual update and innovation of interactive design is very difficult to take effect. As the scenario of safety psychological education is mainly applied in the industrial, engineering and specific life scenes, the application of interactive design in this area in addition to following the general design requirements for product interaction, should take these factors into overall consideration the relationship and interaction between various factors, such as human beings between, human and facilities, facilities between, human and material contents. it should take efforts to fully mobilize various elements. Therefore, the interactive design in this scenario goes beyond the design of product interactive “interface” in the traditional sense, and meanwhile the interactive design concept should be further integrated into every link of safety education design. The realization of this interactive design effect requires not only the conceptual update of the designers, but also the support of advanced technology. If there was no innovative technology that broke the physical and functional boundaries between different elements, the innovation of interactive design concept and method should not be realized. This is an original application dilemma in the traditional scene of safety psychology education. On the one hand, conceptual interactive design needs to be updated. On the other hand, there is a lack of innovative technical support.

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4 Opportunities for Innovation in Interactive Design Under the Background of VR Technology Development The development of VR technology created the condition for the application of more novel visualization and interaction patterns [8]. In fact, VR can not only make use of advanced digital technology to simulate the three dimensional space and provide users with a sensible, visible virtual scene, but also accomplish real-time interaction between people or between people and things with the help of intelligent terminal in the virtual scene. On the basis of these technical features, VR become an effective hardware support for interactive design work. According to a study of Majid Mastli et al. it suggests that applying VR technology to construction safety education and training and simulating real scenes can significantly improve the effect of construction safety training [9]. In addition, VR technology applied in safety education can provide various possibilities for innovative interactive design. In the first place, VR-based innovative interactive design can reduce the cost of education. Although the design of VR safety education and training system has a large one-time investment, in fact, it can be used repeatedly for a long time. In despite of a continuous and large-scale safety training, VR-based safety training is more costsaving than traditional training. In the second place, VR-based innovative interactive design can break a variety of restrictions. VR-based safety education and training tend to break the limitation of time and space. Through scientific design, trainees can carry out centralized exercises in different time and place. At the same time, they are able to quickly obtain the results of the exercise for evaluation and improvement. In terms of remote training, VR technology can also be used in the exercise synchronously. In addition, trainees can repeat the exercise according to their own time, which greatly increases the exercise time. Thirdly, VR-based innovative interactive design can stimulate trainees’ initiatives. Through effective interactive design, VR safe education training can achieve a “scenario-typed” + “experiential-typed” effect. Not only is it built on the basis of objective practice environment, but its practice is closer to production and living in line with the actual situation. A rehearsal scene with high-fidelity model makes trainees hard to tell true and false, and meanwhile interactivity of VR technology can make the training more interesting and funnier, motivate employees to participate in training the enthusiasm and passion, especially welcoming young employees. Fourthly, VR-based innovative interactive design can expand the application scenarios of safety education. Safety education in many industries involves dangerous factors such as falling high, electric shock, limited space, poisonous and harmful gas, etc. Actual operation is often accompanied by huge risks. If new employees are rushed to carry out on-the-spot practical training with any careless mind, it may cause heavy loss of life and property. Hence, training with VR technology can effectively avoid above risks. Trainees can remove the burden of potential accidents and carry out drills as much as possible, so as to quickly improve their skills and safety awareness. In a word, VR-based technology is conducive to promoting the application and development of interactive design concept in intelligent, intensive and convenient safety training mode. By applying VR technology, designers are able to propose for a

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comprehensive integrated simulation scene, set scientific interactive content and mode of science, simulate such risk scenarios as electric shock damage, falling, drowning, limited space, toxic or harmful gases. In fact, unlike previous propaganda and education models in a didactic or indoctrinatory way, experiencers are immersive in such a real-like accident. Such as physical simulation can not only make experiencers further understand safety accidents and effectively improve the efficiency and effect of safety training, but also provide opportunities for the conceptual and strategic innovation of interactive design from the perspective of safety psychology.

5 Research on Innovative Ways of Interactive Designs Based on VR Technology Based on VR technology, the development of interactive design should be considered more from the perspective of safety psychology. It shows that interactive design is not only an update of design methods, but also a breakthrough of design philosophy. The breakthrough of interactive design concept is not only reflected in the design of products or interactive interface, but also in the process of product conception, design, production, use and even feedback optimization. Based on these advantages of VR technology in immersion and interaction, this paper discusses how to realize the innovation of interactive design from the following four aspects such as the production of interactive basic content, environmental research and development of VR-based interactive design, specific design of interaction mode as well as feedback and optimization. First of all, it is the production of interactive basic content. VR-based interactive design should not only systematically cope with a lot of information and comprehensively take each element in VR virtual scene into consideration, but also pay attention to how these elements should be scientific arrangement in order to achieve the optimal foundation interaction effect. In general, Interactive design work based on VR technology gives a priority to produce basic content used for interaction comprehensively and scientifically. For example, before designing VR-based safety education system, basic training courseware should be completed over, which differs in the content of classroom teaching. It should take into full consideration the characteristics of interaction between people and devices in VR virtual environment, and conform to the basic principles of safety psychology. During the production of basic contents, it is necessary to design and develop a set of propagable safety training content characterized with comprehensive contents and various forms for needs of different sectors, combined with the characteristics of the work scene as well as relevant hazards prevention and control of training exercises, all kinds of emergency plans. Training contents include teaching materials, courseware and videos, all of which are exampled for a typical accident case analysis, the process, information, scientific principle, theoretical knowledge and practical experience of major dangerous crafts, etc. Secondly, it is research and development of VR interactive environment. This is an environment where interactive design can be realized. 3D models of work scenes can be created through digital technology. In this way, all the equipment, facilities and

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various instrument tables in the specific work can be input to simulate a real scene for trainers and audiences for teaching and training. The research and development of interactive environment can give full play to the advantages of VR technology. For example, the virtual prototype system can simulate dangerous scenes such as electric shock, falling high and limited space, so that the audience can feel the same feeling and constantly improve safety awareness and skills in avoid of dangers in work and life. The virtual prototype system of safety production training based on VR-based interactive environment can be used as a critical technology of safety education, training and assessment system. Its design is divided into two modules such as teaching and assessment. On the one hand, in terms of teaching, audiences can directly feel the objective work scenes, main equipment and facilities and functions through VR technology, which opens a variety of work operation exercises, and practices safety awareness and related skills in a variety of simulated dangerous events and environments. In terms of assessment module, audiences are tested with related processing and reaction check through the simulation of VR dangerous environment, where they are able to complete various interactive behaviors under a harmless virtual environment. As a result, they can judge the behavior of the print operators according to all functions and processes based on such teaching mode. In addition, combined with the analysis of examination score data, it is able to make an objective evaluation on individual safety skill level quickly and accurately, thus and finally find problems existing in their interaction. Thirdly, it is specific design of interaction mode. Technical factors play a vital role in VR-based interactive design. Therefore, specific design of interaction mode should be based on a comprehensively thorough understanding of technical factors. If there were greater technical conditions, it is better to develop a set of simulation environment integration center equipment based on interactive VR technology. For example, a combined device for VR interactive scene operation should be developed and manufactured, which consists of front experience area and backstage control area. Front experience area is an interface of direct contacts or an occasion of direct immersion activities, which contains educational training, simulation and assessment test of experiencer. In fact, experiencers are able to enjoy all kinds of risk factors and events in such a virtual reality scene, such as electric shock, fire, falls, etc. Furthermore, they can also use virtual devices in the dangerous scenes, and carry out the simulation operation instructions based on VR systems in the virtual environment. In the design process, it is necessary to pay attention to how to set the VR trap to capture the movement information of experiencers in the space in real time, guide the experiencer to operate the VR terminal to control the items in the virtual environment, and add gestures and other operations to realize such functions as environment switching and menu selecting. Background control area is the operation control area in the whole VR interactive system, which provides various resources such as sound source, light source and power source to support for front experience area and meanwhile ensures a smooth operation of the system. This control system includes a series of supporting services such as video monitoring, sound, photoelectric and VR system, so that the staff in the background control area can effectively guide the experientials in the front experience area to carry out various activities, and are able to take necessary corrective measures in case of abnormalities. At the same time, background control area can monitor the

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running state of the facilities and equipment in the whole center, which provides the basis for maintenance. Certainly, background control area is not a simple underlying technical hardware in the traditional sense, but a crucial part of interactive design. Many functions of front experience area should take effect with the real-time cooperation of the background control area. Fourthly, it is the design of feedback and optimization methods. Interactive design based on VR technology should give full play to the advantages of digital technology. Currently behaviors of interactive design accurately produce large amounts of data which can be stored in real-time through database technology. Besides, these behaviors can be digged out a lot of potential problems existing in the interaction based on data analysis, which provides a scientific reference to interactive behavior of the optimization and interactive design. In the process of interactive design, the consciousness of feedback and optimization should be reflected in each link. At the same time, the data of experiencers should be collected according to system settings. In addition, based on theoretical methods and tools from the perspective of safety psychology, a better optimization scheme and a further improvement of safety awareness of experiencers should be explored and discussed by means of combining investigation, statistics and data analysis. Therefore, VR-based interactive design can play a greater role in safety education. To sum up, it shows that from the perspective of safety psychology, on the one hand, VR-based interactive design not only is beneficial for interactive designs to open wider application scenarios, but also provides a new technical conditions and practical strategy for safety psychological education. In addition, it is able to prevent audience from being hurt or injured by the objective risk scenario, and runs well in a virtual simulation scenario with enjoying safety experience and education as well as learning safety skills. On the other hand, the application of the theories and methods of safety psychology also provides reference for the application and innovation of interactive designs in related fields. The combination with theories of other disciplines and interactive designs can promote the innovation of interactive design concepts and design methods. In terms of designers, in addition to constantly improving their design level and accumulating design skills, they also need to broaden their horizons and pay more attention to the application requirements of different fields. Before the specific design work, a large number of systematic preliminary work should be done well. According to the needs of different customers, through investigation and research, safety risks and dangers in their industries and fields should be taken into consideration. Furthermore, designers should participate in the production of safety training content for these specific risks. Only when the above preparations are made can it be clear that which links can be set up with interaction and how to do so when building VR scenes. Acknowledgements. This paper is supported by “Research on key technology and prototype system of integrated security simulation integration center” (Shanghai urban drainage Co., Ltd.), China social science foundation project “Research on the space production of newsroom under the background of media content convergence” (19FXWB025) and Shanghai social science foundation project “Research on the reproduction of newsroom space under the background of 5G” (2019BXW004).

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References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Munsterberg, H.: Psychology and Industrial Efficiency (1912) Chen, S.: Safety Psychology. Tianjin University Press, Tianjin (1999) Jin, Y.: An Overview of Modern Stress Theory. Science Press, Beijing (2008) Lin, Z.: A review of self-regulated learning theory. Psychol. Sci. 26(5), 870–873 (2003) Heath, R.: Crisis Management. CITIC Press, Beijing (2003). Wang Cheng, Song Binghui, Jin Ying, Translated Uno, H.: Aged drivers’ avoidance capabilities in an emergent traffic situation. Trans. Soc. Autom. Eng. Jpn. 32, 113–118 (2001) Crundall, D., Andrews, B., Van Loon, E., et al.: Commentary training improves responsiveness to hazards in a driving simulator. Accid. Anal. Prev. 42(6), 2117–2124 (2010) Wolfartsberger, J.: Analyzing the potential of Virtual Reality for engineering design review. Autom. Constr. 104, 27–37 (2019) Mastli, M., Zhang, J.: Interactive highway construction simulation using game engine and virtual reality for education and training purpose. In: Computing in Civil Engineering, pp. 399–406 (2017)

Virtual Reality in Model Based Systems Engineering: A Review Paper Mostafa Lutfi(&) and Ricardo Valerdi Department of Systems and Industrial Engineering, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA [email protected]

Abstract. Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) thrived in the recent decades in order to overcome the increasing complexity within systems. MBSE envisioned replacing document centric systems engineering by model centric systems engineering. MBSE can handle systems complexity efficiently by representing each entity in the model only once and generating different viewpoints. Most commonly used MBSE language is the “Systems Modeling Language (SysML)”. Virtual Reality can play a bigger role on creating truly model centric systems engineering approaches. The core application of MBSE approach implies utilization of a single system model, which will act as “source of truth” to all embedded system analyzing tools. Thus, the system model can communicate back and forth with Virtual Reality Environment to analyze the system performance. Systems engineer can conduct interactive immersive simulation of a scenario described in the system model and return the results obtained from the Virtual Reality Environment to the system model. Requirements analysis can be performed more efficiently by ensuring participation of the customers early in the product lifecycle utilizing the VR environment. A customer can walk into VR environment and see how the system design would look like and interact with it. Based on the interaction results, the systems engineer can modify the product/service specifications and design. This paper reviewed the works been done to incorporate virtual reality environment with SysML. The paper also proposed a framework on how VR environment can be implemented with SysML to perform true MBSE practice. Keywords: MBSE

 Virtual reality  SysML  VR  Systems engineering

1 Introduction 1.1

Virtual Reality

Virtual Reality (VR) is one of the most emerging technologies of the last four decades. Coates in 1992 defined VR as electronic simulation of environments with headmounted eye goggle and wired clothing, which allows the end user in realistic threedimensional situations to interact [1]. A simple VR system comprises of virtual environment design software, head mounted display, tracking sensors, input devices, tactile feedback devices and users [2, 3]. Immersion, Presence, and Interactivity are the three defining pillars of VR [4]. Immersion in VR is a sensation of being present in a © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 197–205, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_25

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non-physical environment. Presence is the level of engagement felt by the user in the VR environment. Immersion is a “technological component” of VR, whereas, presence depends on psychological, perceptual and cognitive behavior of the user being immersed [5]. 1.2

Model Based Systems Engineering

Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) focuses on formalized application of modeling to support systems engineering artifacts development from the conceptual design phase throughout the end of the system of interest (SOI) lifecycle [6]. Dr. Wayne Wymore at the University of Arizona in his book Model Based Systems Engineering first introduced the term MBSE in 1993 [7]. Systems engineers are in an era in which modern systems are increasingly complex [8]. Model Based Systems Engineering is the proposed solution for managing the systems complexity by various researchers [9, 10]. Different methodologies have been developed to implement the MBSE approach namely INCOSE Object-Oriented Systems Engineering Method (OOSEM), IBM Telelogic Harmony-SE, IBM Rational Unified Process for Systems, Engineering (RUP SE) For Model Driven Systems Development (MDSD), Vitech Model-Based System Engineering (MBSE) Methodology, JPL State Analysis (SA), Object-Process Methodology (OPM) and Arcadia [11, 12]. In recent years, Systems Modeling Language (SysML) has been the most common method for implementing MBSE approaches [13, 14]. SysML has its root from the Unified Language Modeling (UML) [15]. SysML follows the Object-Oriented Systems Engineering Methodology (OOSEM) developed by INCOSE [16]. SysML consists of nine diagram types distributed over four pillars, namely Structure, Behavior, Parametrics and Requirements [16]. Figure 1 below shows the SysML diagram taxonomy.

Fig. 1. SysML diagram taxonomy [17]

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Objective

VR has the potential to improve the MBSE practices in various system development and analysis. VR application in the field of Model Based Systems Engineering is increasing day by day. This paper reviews the work conducted to incorporate VR into MBSE by different researchers in recent years. As SysML is the most widely used MBSE language, the paper limited its focus to SysML driven MBSE approaches. The paper also outlines a VR-MBSE Framework to facilitate the integration between VR and SysML more convenient, which is currently under development.

2 Methodology The authors searched two widely used electronic databases-Google Scholar and Scopus for the research papers reviewed in this paper [18, 19]. The search terms used to select the papers were- “VR and MBSE”, “Virtual Reality and MBSE”, “VR and SysML “Virtual Reality and SysML” and “Application of VR in MBSE”. The authors only considered publications after 2010. This inclusion criterion was set considering research availability, novelty and advancement. The minimum citations to consider a research paper for inclusion in this review paper was set to four. In addition, the language of the included research papers was English. The authors evaluated the identified research papers on their feasibility of data extraction, first by abstract and, ultimately, by reading the full text. From the included research papers, authors extracted information on (i) research objective (ii) methodology (iii) year of publication and (iv) software used.

3 Application of VR in MBSE Practice Akshay Kande in 2011 was one of the first to conduct a thesis on the integration of MBSE and VR tools for system design [20]. The author used an open source software, namely Virtual Engineering (VE) suite, which consist of three core engines- VE Conductor, VE Computational Engine and VE Explorer. User can create interface through the VE conductor API and built in libraries. Computational Engine manages the integration between the COTS tools and Virtual Engineering framework. Explorer works as the graphical engine responsible for developing the virtual environment. The main objectives of the virtual systems modeling approach developed in the thesis paper are executable SysML Modeling in a MBSE tool, providing a graphical interface to demonstrate the system of interest and operations, enabling a decision making environment for the stakeholders, performing sensitivity analysis of the design parameters and maintaining a consistent information flow by providing an integrated environment. The major steps of the methodology followed in this thesis are structural model development in SysML, analytical model development in SysML, creation of VE-suite model and connecting the two analytical model and VE-suite model using relationship constructs.

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A. Madni in his research paper published in 2014 demonstrated a novel approach that mapped systems engineering (SE) artifacts modeled in SysML to virtual worlds within which various storylines can contextualize [21]. The methodology developed in this paper acts as a bridge between Model Based Engineering (MBE) and Story Based Engineering (StBE). The core steps involved in the mapping process are experiencing system CONOPS and system design in virtual environment, incorporation of SysML model with the virtual environment and story authoring. The author demonstrated the whole process with an illustrative example of Campus Security System (CSS). The author used Unity 3D software to create the virtual environment and Magicdraw software for the SysML model build up. Moreover, the paper also proposed a Dynamic Interaction Matrix (DIM) to capture the possible and actual interactions among technical story elements namely system elements, actors, environments, other system entities etc. In another journal paper published in the same year (2014), A. Madni et al. proposed MBSE+ i.e. bolstering MBSE with the integration of storytelling techniques [22]. The authors also suggested an Experiential Design Language (EDL), which is the combination of SysML and experiential perspective developed in the virtual world. In this research paper, the authors presented a framework showing the relationship between system models, experiential perspective and storytelling in the virtual world. The authors also demonstrated the transformation steps between the system design and storytelling spaces. The steps are as follows- (a) developing system models in SysML in BDD, activity and use case diagrams, (b) mapping systems models with storytelling space defined by VR world entities, (c) rendering VR world entities and their behaviors in order to tell the stories and (d) story extraction and data collection in the VR world. The authors also presented an illustrative example of a “diverted aircraft scenario” to execute the steps described in the methodology. Abidi et al. in their 2016’s paper utilized interactive VR simulation and SysML model to facilitate real time simulation of production flows in a lean environment [23]. The paper utilized the MASCARET framework, which provides a logical connection between system engineering artifacts and VR environment [24]. The methodology comprised of the following basic steps: (1) Conversion of the simulation model of the proposed system to a SysML model, (2) Exporting as XMI description, (3) Preparation of the MASCARET framework in order to analyze the XMI description, (4) Mapping the XMI description with VR environment and (5) Connecting the simulation tool (ARENA) with the VR environment through the RTI infrastructure. Interactive VR environment was created through Unity 3D. “OpenSlice” (an open source RTI supported library) enabled the data exchange between different tools of the proposed system. Moreover, the author created a custom interface namely “UnityInterface.dll” using C# to facilitate the connection between VR environment and RTI. The authors also mentioned some difficulties they encountered while developing the methodology namely building a custom data exchange module between ARENA and VR system, forced partial virtual design of the total simulation and transformation of ARENA models to SysML. Mahboob et al. in their paper titled, “Model based systems engineering (MBSE) approach for configurable product use-case scenarios in virtual environments” introduced a concept of defining behavior description of a use case inside SysML model to

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create VR environment [25]. This approach will facilitate the development of product’s life cycle specific VR models for early production evaluation, which in turn will help the stakeholders (product designer, production manager, customer, investors etc.) to achieve better knowledge of the product behavior in the later phases. The core methodology of the research papers are as follows: (1) VR scene is composed of the product, the environment and human actor(s), (2) Product, Environment and actor(s) have structural and behavioral components, which are modeled in SysML, (3) combination/modification of product, environment and actor(s) used to construct specific VR scenarios. This combination/recombination/modification of the VR components are performed with the use of SysML behavior diagrams. The use of proposed method eliminates the rigorous task of scripting the whole VR scenario for individual use cases throughout the product’s lifecycle. Finally, the authors used vacuum cleaner as an illustrative example to implement the methodology (Table 1).

Table 1. Review summary Title

Integration of model-based systems engineering and virtual engineering tools for detailed design, Expanding stakeholder participation in upfront system engineering through storytelling in virtual worlds Toward an experiential design language: augmenting MBSE with technical storytelling in VW

Year of Pub. 2011

Objective

Methodology

Software used

Executable SysML Modeling in a MBSE tool

(1) Structural and analytical model development in SysML, (2) Creation of VE-suite model and (3) Connecting the two analytical model and VEsuite model

VE Suite

2014

Mapping systems engineering (SE) artifacts modeled in SysML to virtual worlds

(1) Experiencing system CONOPS and system design in virtual environment, (2) Incorporation of SysML model with the virtual environment and (3) Story authoring

Unity 3D, MagicDraw

2014

MBSE+: bolstering MBSE with the integration of storytelling techniques

(1) Developing system models in SysML (2) Mapping systems models with storytelling space In VR (3) Rendering VR world entities (4) Story extraction/VR data collection

Unity 3D, MagicDraw

(continued)

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Title

Contribution of virtual reality for lines production’s simulation in a lean manufacturing environment

Model based systems engineering (MBSE) approach for configurable product usecase scenarios in virtual environments

Year of Pub. 2016

Objective

Methodology

Software used

Interactive VR simulation and SysML model to facilitate real time simulation of production flows in a lean environment

Unity 3D, OpenSlice, ARENA, MASCARET

2017

Defining behavior description of a use case inside SysML model to create VR environment

(1) Conversion of the simulation model of the proposed system to a SysML model, (2) Exporting as XMI description, (3) Preparation of the MASCARET framework in order to analyze the XMI description, (4) Mapping the XMI description with VR environment and (5) Connecting the simulation tool (ARENA) with the VR environment through the RTI infrastructure (1) VR scene is composed of the product, the environment and human actor(s), (2) Product, environment and actor(s) have structural and behavioral components, (3) Combination/modification of product, environ-ment and actor(s) used to construct specific VR scenarios.

Cameo systems modeler, CAVE Systems

4 Proposed VR-MBSE Framework All the reviewed papers incorporated VR into SysML though some custom made plugins and conversion techniques (XMI conversion, MASCARET etc.). These may hinder the mass use of VR-enabled SysML due to time and effort needed to set up those systems. Hence, we propose a VR-MBSE framework (see Fig. 2) which utilizes most widely used tools namely Cameo Systems Modeler (CSM), Unity 3D and Unreal Engine in an efficient way [26–28]. The proposed methodology for the framework is as follows: (1) Systems behavior and structural Modeling in SysML through CSM, (2) Simulation set up in Cameo Simulation Toolkit of CSM and (3) Communication with VR Engine through CSM’s scripting API (C# for Unity/Python for Unreal Engine). This framework will make the SysML model executable by incorporating VR in order to support design, analysis and verification activities early phases of the system lifecycle through enabling co-simulation.

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Fig. 2. VR-MBSE framework

5 Discussion VR can incorporate real time simulation, virtual storytelling, requirements verification and product/service performance evaluation early in the lifecycle of a product or service through the integration with MBSE approach. SysML is the most widely used MBSE tool. Hence, various efforts are taking place to develop VR enabled SysML. The reviewed papers are the most notable efforts happened in recent years to accomplish this goal. MBSE thrives under the principle that the whole systems engineering artifacts will be based on a “system model as the source of truth”. By utilizing the VR enabled SysML model, later phases of system lifecycle can be simulated/analyzed early in the early phases of the System of Interest (SOI). Moreover, SysML model can be used as an ontological repository for the creation of different VR scenarios (instead of creating each scenario separately).

6 Conclusion and Future Work The paper reviewed major research efforts to apply VR in MBSE practice through SysML. The review results are summarized in a table.Then, the authors proposed a VRMBSE framework that can make the VR-enabled SysML approach more accessible to everyone. Finally, the authors discussed major implications of the VR enabled SysML in a systems engineering lifecycle. To further the research, the authors intend to build the proposed VR-MBSE framework and test it using a use case.

References 1. Steuer, J.: Defining virtual reality: dimensions determining telepresence. J. Commun. 42(4), 73–93 (1992). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1992.tb00812.x 2. Biocca, F.: Virtual reality technology: a tutorial. J. Commun. 42(4), 23–72 (1992). https:// doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1992.tb00811.x

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3. Bamodu, O., Ye, X.M.: Virtual reality and virtual reality system components (2013). https:// doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.765-767.1169 4. Mütterlein, J.: The three pillars of virtual reality? Investigating the roles of immersion, presence, and interactivity, January 2018. https://doi.org/10.24251/hicss.2018.174 5. Berkman, M.I., Akan, E.: Presence and Immersion in Virtual Reality. In: Lee, N. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Computer Graphics and Games, pp. 1–10. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-08234-9_162-1 6. Hart, L.: Introduction To Model-Based System Engineering (MBSE) and SysML, p. 43 7. Wymore, A.W.: Model-Based Systems Engineering, 1st edn. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton (1993) 8. Calvano, C.N., John, P.: Systems engineering in an age of complexity. Syst. Eng. 7(1), 25– 34 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1002/sys.10054 9. French, M.O.: Extending model based systems engineering for complex systems. In: Presented at the 53rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Kissimmee, Florida, January 2015. https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2015-1639 10. Asan, E., Albrecht, O., Bilgen, S.: Handling complexity in system of systems projects– lessons learned from MBSE efforts in border security projects. In: Complex Systems Design and Management, pp. 281–299 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02812-5_21 11. Estefan, J.A.: Survey of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) Methodologies, p. 70 (2008) 12. Yaroker, Y., Perelman, V., Dori, D.: An OPM conceptual model-based executable simulation environment: implementation and evaluation. Syst. Eng. 16(4), 381–390 (2013). https://doi. org/10.1002/sys.21235 13. Peak, R.S., Burkhart, R., Friedenthal, S., Wilson, M.W., Bajaj, M., Kim, I.: Simulationbased design using SysML part 1: a parametrics primer (2007). https://doi.org/10.1002/j. 2334-5837.2007.tb02964.x 14. Sage, A.P., Lynch, C.L.: Systems integration and architecting: an overview of principles, practices, and perspectives. Syst. Eng. 1(3), 176–227 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI) 1520-6858(1998)1:3%3c176:AID-SYS3%3e3.0.CO;2-L 15. Hampson, K.: Technical evaluation of the systems modeling language (SysML). Procedia Comput. Sci. 44, 403–412 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2015.03.054 16. A Practical Guide to SysML - 3rd edn. https://www.elsevier.com/books/a-practical-guide-tosysml/friedenthal/978-0-12-800202-5. Accessed 7 Aug 2019 17. What is SysML? | OMG SysML. http://www.omgsysml.org/what-is-sysml.htm. Accessed 7 Aug 2019 18. Google Scholar. https://scholar.google.com/. Accessed 18 June 2020 19. Scopus - Document search. https://www.scopus.com/search/form.uri?display=basic. Accessed 18 June 2020 20. Kande, A.: Integration of model-based systems engineering and virtual engineering tools for detailed design, p. 79 21. Madni, A.M.: Expanding stakeholder participation in upfront system engineering through storytelling in virtual worlds. Syst. Eng. 18(1), 16–27 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1002/sys. 21284 22. Madni, A.M., Nance, M., Richey, M., Hubbard, W., Hanneman, L.: Toward an experiential design language: augmenting model-based systems engineering with technical storytelling in virtual worlds. Procedia Comput. Sci. 28, 848–856 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs. 2014.03.101 23. Abidi, M.-A., Lyonnet, B., Chevaillier, P., Toscano, R.: Contribution of virtual reality for lines production’s simulation in a lean manufacturing environment. IJCTE 8(3), 182–189 (2016). https://doi.org/10.7763/IJCTE.2016.V8.1041

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24. Chevaillier, P., et al.: Semantic modeling of virtual environments using MASCARET. In: 2012 5th Workshop on Software Engineering and Architectures for Realtime Interactive Systems (SEARIS), March 2012, pp. 1–8 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1109/searis.2012.6231174 25. Mahboob, A., Weber, C., Husung, S., Liebal, A., Krömker, H.: Model based systems engineering (MBSE) approach for configurable product use-case scenarios in virtual environments. In: DS 87-3 Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED 17), Product, Services and Systems Design, 21–25 August 2017, Vancouver, Canada, vol. 3 (2017). https://www.designsociety.org/publication/39633/Model+based+ systems+engineering+%28MBSE%29+approach+for+configurable+product+use-case +scenarios+in+virtual+environments. Accessed 19 June 2020 26. Cameo Systems Modeler. https://www.nomagic.com/products/cameo-systems-modeler. Accessed 22 Dec 2019 27. Technologies, U.: Unity Real-Time Development Platform | 3D, 2D VR and AR Visualizations. https://unity.com/. Accessed 19 June 2020 28. The most powerful real-time 3D creation platform - Unreal Engine. https://www.unrealengine. com/en-US/. Accessed 19 June 2020

Designing of a Seamless Training Experience Delivered Through VR Simulator for Winder-Operator Chandni Murmu(&) Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad 502285, Telangana, India [email protected]

Abstract. Winder-operators are responsible for the lives that they move down deep into the mines and bring them back safely to the surface. So, in order to have the same sense of responsibility in the training simulator, the user experience needs to be seamless and natural, including all the risks and surprises that a winder-operator faces in his real-world scenarios. To bring this objective to life, field studies, customer experience audits (interviews) and recordings were done to gather qualitative and physical data. Contents were inventoried, audited and analysed for body-storming and drawing up of the mental model of winderoperators. User persona was defined to maintain focus, even when expert reviews were taken. A contextual design process was followed to develop the simulator which included rigorous and multiple usability testing by the developer, designer and the winder-operators (end users). Keywords: UX

 User experience  Experience  Design  Design process

1 Introduction A hoist operator is a certified worker of sound physically and mentally health. He is also known as winder operator. The employer examines the operator on his knowledge on the regulations and procedures associated with the safe execution of the duties and decides on his competence (Safety Standard for Hoist Operations 2010). A man-hoist operator’s responsibility is to lower and raise conveyances within the mine shaft occupied with mining workers. A typical hoist operator works for a 12-h shift per day, with very few time offs. In such a fragile environment, having trainee hoist operators in the same cabin as the authorized winder operator, though it may just be for observation, will not only be counter-productive, but may also lead to a catastrophic incident, due to distraction. Hence, to provide an effective on-hands training, a VR simulator, simulating the essential features and experiences of a winder, was developed. The simulation was developed with close attention to design methodologies and was process oriented. A meaningful and better product can be built, by understanding and empathizing with users. Insights on methods and strategies to inculcate user emphasis were drawn from Martin and Hanington 2012. A collaborative research model for product development (Isaksson 2016; Shelly et al. 2005) ensured frontloading of the real-life © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 206–213, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_26

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challenging scenarios in the research practices and warranted a common understanding of key challenges across the teams. The work of Savage (2000) was used as a precautionary guide for user observations and the field research. Further, the works of Eyal and Hoover 2014, Rosenfeld et al. (2015) and Nodder (2013) were key instructors for strategy development and user motivation directed towards using and learning from the simulator

2 The Design Process The steps in the design process were developed taking inspiration from the contextual design method, a user-centered process that makes the ways in which designers work concrete, explicit and sharable, anchored in user data (Holtzblatt et al. 1998). 2.1

User Research

As the designed simulator had to be very user centric, it was very essential to do a detailed study of the user. Therefore, an extensive user research was done in order to understand user’s intellectual and behavioral aspects. Field Studies, Interviews and Recordings. Through multiple visits to a state owned mine, every single aspect of the operation of mine and its interaction on hoist operator were studied. Interesting observations were made such as only winder drums (see Fig. 1), on which the conveyance rope winds and unwinds, are visible to the operator from his cabin and the buzzer systems, indicator for hoist request origin was custom designed for that particular mine. Evolutionary development was ensured with structurally planned and formulized field visits. For instance, the first visit was observational, to observe the placement of the equipment and monitor the schedule of the day. Further visits’ objectives were broken down into smaller objectives based on the first visit, so that the visits could sync with pre-structured research sessions with worksheets utilization (where observations were entered), checklists (to keep track of covered pre-thought scenarios) and recording any form of behaviors and events (Martin and Hanington 2012). Authorized interactions were set-up. To obtain maximum possible answers, a thoughtful questionnaire was drawn, on the basis of the operator’s profile. The answers were tallied by cross-checking with another operator. In case of any discrepancy, a third user-interview was conducted, to capture most of the plausible scenarios. These questionnaires captured information on the users’ thoughts, characteristics, feelings, perceptions, behaviors or attitude (Martin and Hanington 2012). Background studies, done on mine shaft and its operators, provided design inquiry structure and control which was helpful in analysis later. Information collected in these interviews were primary in verifying and humanizing the data obtained from other sources. All the interviews were recorded, for transcription and analysis purposes. A weeklong videos and audios, of operators operating the machine, were made with cameras placed inside the operator’s cabin and just outside the cabin. These were helpful in empathizing with them and understand their physical experience. They were used for

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Fig. 1. A typical Winder operator’s cabin (Left) and Winder drums (Right).

bodystorming, generate user situations and contextually configure the simulator. A lot of understanding on decision making cognition, interactive experiences and emotional responses came from these recordings (Burns et al. 1994). 2.2

Content Inventory

To get an affinity of what the content is, what structure can be deduced and quick access to relevant information, it is important to have all the content inventoried. Carefully organized and easy to access spreadsheets were aggregated as the outcome of the quantitative exercise. Transcription and Record Labeling. For text based qualitative and quantitative verbal-behavioral analysis, the recordings were converted to transcripts. Interview transcripts were very handy for decision justifications. They were constructive in affinity diagrams (Holtzblatt et al. 1998), cognitive mapping (Kelly 1995) and persona definition. For inventory purposes, audio record summary, after listening the audio, was used as record label in spreadsheets. The video recordings were labeled on the basis of either the operator’s name or by the major task being done in the recording or any latent occurrences, if any. These were real time savers in quick access, collaborative or delegatory activities, assuring consistency in interpretation of the content. 2.3

User Persona

User personas consolidate archetypal descriptions of user behaviour patterns into representative profiles, so as to humanize design focus, test scenarios, and aid design communication (Cooper 2004). Defining a persona was essential for the project and the product team’s focus.

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Transcript Analysis, Pattern Identification. Above mentioned qualitative data, converted into quantitative transcripts, were analyzed for various physical and emotional touch points of the user. To get a 360-° view of hoist operator, these touch points where seen in different perspective, with the help of lenses mentioned by Jesse Schell (Schell 2015). Pattern were identified and segregated categorically with key behavioral aspects.

Fig. 2. (Left) An illustration of spreadsheet used for qualitative transcript analysis and (Right) spreadsheet for pattern identification from transcript analysis.

To avoid discrepancies in pattern, due to diversity in opinions; very difficult to govern, the number of analysts working on this task was limited to 1 to 3, only. Persona Definition. Core motivational drives and pain points were identified using octalysis framework (Chou 2015). The most influential drive for respective patterns were quantitatively decided by a designed system. The persona for the simulator was structured by this system and octalysis. Multiple decision-making, for the product features, as well as, justification of the value-added delivery to the other stakeholders, were dependent on the persona definition. 2.4

Functionality Design

All the features and functionalities of a mine winder were listed down, to construct the simulator and design the seamless experience. However, the features were imparted to the user in stages, and not all at once, as it would diminish the experience and would nullify the objective. Feature Identification, Segregation and Prioritization. Various hoist manuals helped in listing features and functionalities. User research revealed that features from the manual’s content were not enough, as, many mines’ hoist gets customized due to geographical and situational limitations, that cannot be eliminated. Such variants were identified and listed, as a separate category. Frequent revisiting of persona definition was important, to ensure that the simulator was engaging, user friendly and core oriented. The features were segregated into categories that reflected the major motivations and pain points and were contextual. After segregation, the features were prioritized, to ensure continued engagement, quality learning and training of the user, without creating any kind of frustration or learning fatigue (Osterwalder et al. 2014) (Fig. 3).

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Fig. 3. Example of octalysis framework applied to one of the patterns (Chou 2015).

Module Creation and Visual Aids. Appropriately ascending skill level and usercentric modules, distributed in a consumable and engaging fashion, were created with the help of storyboarding and user task flow. These modules, called levels, spreading from level 0 to level 25, left room for flexibility required if any alteration was needed upon user testing and also for accessing any level, on the basis of skill status of the user (Schell 2015). There were supporting features identified during the user research and persona definition, apart from the core functionalities. These were incorporated as visual aids, that indicated the learning progress to the winder operator. A timer, for example, informed the user on time taken to complete a task, instruction text bar (instructions for the task to be completed), a red bar (provide on top of the two drums for visual aid to judge the drum levels alignment), visual light indicators (on shaft scale), a console (with prominent physical quantity indicators), were provided. 2.5

Usability Testing

Winder operators, the tasks and responsibilities, they were required to meet, were the focus of the usability testing, and empirical evidences were sought on, to improve the usability and purpose of the simulator (Gould et al. 1985). Developers’ Contribution. The developers performed feature tests, for every feature to behave in the intended manner, to make sure that the functionality and the outcome the tasks are due to actions taken by the user. In order to have a structured qualitative testing, the lists of features were referred and functionality was tested, level after level. Agile process was followed after each round of testing, to rectify any failures. Designers’ Contribution. Ideally, after the developers give the confidence to go ahead, designer do the testing. However, for this project, to shorten the turn-around time, testing from designer’s side happened parallelly. Spreadsheets, which included visual components positioning, simulator’s interactivity and functionality, experiences felt while using the VR simulator, instructional content consistency, visual queue, and other design aspects, were maintained by designer, too, for quality checks. The spreadsheets were shared with the developer, after each round, to make amends in VR environment in the best possible way, to make the experience better.

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Fig. 4. User task flow sample.

Fig. 5. One of the initial contextual design for learning module levels.

End User Testing. The simulator was taken to the mine at the end of each developer and designer testing cycle, where it was setup in a room similar to the intended size that would get allocated for the training purposes. They were allowed to play with VR head set and haptic devices for a duration after a basic explanation on how to use them, to make them comfortable with the device. Once comfortable, the simulator was introduced to the user. As the instructions on the task needed to be performed were inbuilt, the user took on from there. Heatmap generator was integrated with the build, for tracking purposes, which was recorded for later analysis. Video recordings of the screen and user were done, for later analysis. Shortcomings were identified from these analyses and were taken for the subsequent improvement process cycles.

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Fig. 6. Indicative interactive component for east and west drum clutch being in safe mode.

3 Future Work and Conclusion Functionally perfect simulator, providing intended seamless experience, does not mark the end of the journey. To enhance the learning and training experience, many more possibilities and inclusions are there that can be integrated to the VR simulator. Data science, for example, can be augmented to the system for collecting quantitative data, for analysis of the user behavior with the simulator and allowing flexibility for customizing the simulator, to ensure that at the end of the training program a quality winder operator emerges and, thus, with the support of quantitative data, satisfying all the stakeholders.

References Safety Standard for Hoist Operations (2010) Martin, B., Hanington, B.: Universal Methods of Design: 100 Ways to Research Complex Problems, Develop Innovative Ideas, and Design Effective Solutions. Rockport Publishers, Beverly (2012) Isaksson, O.: Design research model–an aerospace manufacturer’s view. In: Chakrabarti, A., Lindemann, U. (eds.) Impact of Design Research on Industrial Practice. Springer International Publishing Switzerland (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-19449-3_24 Shelly, A.W., Lutz, W., Smyth, N.J., Charles, S.: Integrating Research and Practice: A Collaborative Model for Addressing Trauma and Addiction. Taylor and Francis Inc. (2005). https://doi.org/10.1080/15434610590956930 Savage, J.: Participative observation: standing in the shoes of others?. Qual. Health Res. 10(3), 324–339 (2000). Sage Publications Eyal, N., Hoover, R.: Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products. Penguin, London (2014) Rosenfeld, L., Morville, P., Arango, J.: Information Architecture for the World Wide Web: Designing for the web and beyond, 4th edn. O’Reilly Media Inc., Sebastopol (2015)

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Nodder, C.: Evil by Design: Interaction Design to Lead Us into Temptation. Wiley, Indianapolis (2013) Holtzblatt, K., Beyer, H.: Contextual Design: A Customer-centered Approach to Systems Design. Morgan Kaufmann, Burlington (1998) Kelly, G.: The Psychology of Personal Constructs (Volumes 1 and 2). Norton, New York (1955) Cooper, A.: The Inmates Are Running the Asylum: why High-Tech Products drive Us Crazy and How to Restore the Sanity. Sams - Pearson Education, Indianapolis (2004) Schell, J.: The Art of Game Design: A Book of Lenses. 2nd edn. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 (2015) Chou, Y.-K.: Actionable Gamification: Beyond Points. Packt Publishing Ltd., Badges and Leaderboards (2015) Osterwalder, A., Pigneur, Y., Bernarda, G., Smith, A.: Value Proposition Design: How to Create Products and Services Customers Want. Wiley, Hoboken (2014) Burns, C., Dishman, E., Verplank, W., Lassiter, B.: Actors, hairdos and videotape informance design: using performance techniques in multidisciplinary, observation-based design. In: CHI 94 Conference Companion, pp. 119–120 (1994) Gould, J.D., Clayton, L.: Designing for usability: key principles and what designers think. Commun. ACM 28(3), 300–311 (1985)

Design and Cognitive Considerations for Industrial Mixed Reality Systems Prithvi Raj Ramakrishnaraja(&) , Abhilasha and Srinjoy Ghosh

,

Siemens Corporate Technology, CT RDA UXD-IN, Bengaluru, India {prithvi.ramakrishnaraja,abhilasha, ghosh.srinjoy}@siemens.com

Abstract. In this paper we expound our theoretical hypothesis covering Design and Cognitive factors to be considered while designing an effective Augmented/Mixed Reality system solution for industrial use cases. For demonstration purposes, the targeted scenario chosen is an offshore oil-rig maintenance scenario: this scenario involves critical tasks in the areas of equipment maintenance, quick error recognition, safety, and effectiveness. With the goal towards enhanced effective Situational Awareness of the Oil Rig industrial system, the scenario involves oil-rig stakeholder collaboration/ participation and remote assistance. An additional aim of the paper is introducing new perspectives for effective operations in an industrial maintenance scenario using mixed reality systems: the perspectives extends towards the following principles of study - Experience Design, Usability, Cognitive Science and Situational Awareness. Using Cognitive Science principles and Design Thinking approach, we try to bridge the existing white gap in the research space and intend to spearhead research towards surfacing the points to be considered in effectively designing Mixed Reality systems in such Industrial scenarios. The use of multimodal sensory augmentations such as sound and haptics to aid a better experience in performing a particular task, is also given attention. Elucidation of a functional prototype built using Microsoft Hololens1 is shared and next steps and targets are showcased as well. Keywords: Mixed Reality Situational Awareness

 Experience Design  Cognitive factors 

1 Introduction New forms of ‘realities’ have emerged. ‘Reality’ technologies such as Mixed Reality, Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality and Augmented Virtuality are increasingly becoming indispensable to industry. Ranging from traditional application domains of architecture, design, and learning; these novel realities are the cornerstones for the this digitalization prone and smart-centric century: in a nutshell, these realities replace or merge with the normal physical world and subsequently be molded to enhance specific design comprehension, collaborating activities [7], and visualization activities [10]. These realities though promising on many fronts (industry wise) and having the ability © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 214–220, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_27

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to integrate seamlessly with the IoT revolution pose new challenges to the inherent aspects of decision making, integration of newer social-cultural and cognition capabilities (here recalibration) and influences. Clark and Chambers [2] in their groundbreaking article ‘The Extended Mind’, showcase the human cognition has the behavioral ability to realize familiar mental states and physical skills in structures and processes located beyond the scope of their immediate sense modalities; and the complete realization of a situation requires various forms and tendencies of external scaffolding and support (stimulus) oriented mechanisms. Involving user centric mixed reality in this context is a calculated extension, and as Doswell and Skinner [4] opine that ‘scientifically-grounded methods for identifying appropriate information presentation, user input, and feedback modalities in order to optimize performance and mitigate cognitive overload’ is a challenge for Human-computer interaction ecosystems, and similar is the case with AR and other forms of MR which base their ecosystem on delivering maximum user interaction. There are three important features for any MR system: (1) combining the real-world object and the virtual object; (2) interacting in real-time; and (3) mapping between the virtual object and the real object to create interactions between them [6]. The main goal of MR is the creation of a big space by merging real and virtual environments wherein real and virtual objects coexist and interact in real-time for user scenarios [1]. This focus of user immersion for the output of productive decision making in ICT trends today requires appropriate visualization strategies that take into account the ‘extended’ capabilities of a human user and this informs -the design of the application cognitively. For the purposes of this paper, we showcase the initial steps of integrating adaptive cognition elements (user centric) and expound our theoretical hypothesis covering Design and Cognitive factors to be considered while designing an effective Augmented/Mixed Reality system solution for an offshore oil rig maintenance scenario. This use case involves critical tasks in the areas of equipment maintenance, quick error recognition, safety, effectiveness etc. This involves multiple stakeholders. With the goal towards enhanced effective Situational Awareness of the Oil Rig industrial system, the experimental setup and prototypes designed would be elaborated. The paper extends towards identifying the key basic Cognitive and Design principles that designers need to consider while designing an industrial experience such as this.

2 Situational Awareness and Its Requisites for Sense Making Situation Awareness (SA) of the user is of prime importance for an integrated and productive industrial workflow. With the scenario showcasing an OIM maintaining an offshore oil rig (from the mainland on an extended scenario), a stabilized depiction of tailored situational inputs becomes the key. Highlighting this journey of SA and incorporating Endsley’s initial theoretical framework of SA [5] and involving the Lundberg’s holistic visuo-spatial centric enhancement [9], we have incorporated AR/MR integration for enhancement of an OIM’s task in the sense of making it more

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streamlined, direct and most importantly the possibility of him being productive on the go. Endsley’s framework consists of three interconnected parameters: a. Perception of elements in the current situation within a volume of time and space b. Comprehension of their meaning c. Projection of future status Importantly, the three conducive parameters are affected by visual display support and automation aids. Lundberg [8] enhances on this by incorporating specific visual artifacts that act as stimulus input for the user and is of the opinion that the visuo-spatial input is ‘anchored in the present’ but performs as the ‘locus of decision-making’ to incorporate the past scenarios and proceed towards a future action in the present midst of an ‘ongoing, dynamic, uncertain process’. This locus that he points out rests in the sensemaking and the data driven frame that the user (in our case) is exposed to: this centrality of framing data is resting on the correct symbiosis (again this has to be generated by the OIM) being deduced and affected upon. Critically, sense making opens up the gaps of requisite imagination [11] and requisite interpretation during the comprehension of the present situation [8]: both of which are inherent problematic concerns for a high-stress positionality of an OIM’s work output. Taking this crucial factor of mitigating the sense-making gap, our approach is detailed out in the next section of the paper which highlights an oil-rig maintenance use case.

3 Application Use-Case and Generation of Cognitive Prototype Design The application use case is Oil-Rig motor maintenance and the persona defined is an Offshore Installation manager (OIM). The key tasks of an OIM are monitoring, updating and allocating resources, delegating tasks to maintenance engineers (ME), collaboration and communication, implementing the plan and assessment of the situation given the information. In an oil rig, while the OIM can benefit from digital information, there is also an increased need for the OIM to remain in contact with physical reality when using several sophisticated tools. Nevertheless, the OIM is also responsible for recognizing the signs of stress, ensuring that all staff are regularly updated on situation along with demonstrate flexibility and adaptability as plan of action and goals change. Moreover, there is not just one but too many factors (visual elements) within the person’s environment that constantly compete for visual awareness and control of action. In such an overwhelming situation information overload is bound to happen. To tackle with this problem of information overload, our attention system actively and rapidly prioritizes and selects information according to its relevance for processing and achieving the goal. But one cannot deny the fact that detection of the relevant information while ignoring the irrelevant one might get affected by the increased cognitive load on the system. Therefore, in oil rig having knowledge of objects, situations, or locations in the environment is not only useful but even life-critical for workers as they

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may require assistance with (1) dangers, obstacles, or situations requiring attention; (2) visual search; (3) task sequencing; and (4) spatial navigation. Some situations would involve instances where responses are novel, dangerous and technically difficult while a few would involve planning and informed decision making, need for troubleshooting and error correction. Others may require a need to overcome some strong habitual response. But in most of the cases the most important thing that is common for all the activities is rapid generation of behavior in response to a new situation. Hence, the design of the AR/MR system had to be as such to enable the detection of inconsistencies for OIM in the easiest manner possible for effective and efficient decision making. The goal was to streamline the process of performing tasks where consideration is given to the related integration of cognitive functions while sparing OIM from the functional cues that are of no immediate need. Hence, the primary goal was addressing the human needs and how to augment human capabilities to overcome cognitive limitations in a decision-making process. The secondary goal was to make the system smarter as a result of the primary goal. The prototype design defines a specific OIM workflow where the steps in the process of motor maintenance are listed as follows – 1. OIM is currently working on a task using Hololens. He is focused on his current task of analyzing a Large Drive as a part of his daily routine. 2. OIM attention is directed to an emergency. A visual cue is provided in his periphery indicating an emergency. AR suffers a major setback that hinders the complete realization of its potential – The field-of-view (FoV) of the AR hardware is severely lacking as compared to the human eye, or even VR. With this context, the design was particularly perceptive to the aspects of the applications that focused on subtle, yet fairly accurate cues which fulfilled their purpose of guiding the user’s attention to certain elements in the application environment. 3. OIM uses voice command to attend to the emergency. Spatial tracking allows OIM to interact through pointing and natural voice commands. 4. The system opens OIM main dashboard with the error card details. Error information and rectification to enable the detection of inconsistencies for OIM in the easiest manner possible for effective and efficient decision making (Fig. 1). 5. OIM chooses to deep dive into the task. The system by allowing selection gives OIM a perceived sense of control. 6. A confirmation message is popped up checking if the OIM would want to leave the current task and take up the new one. System confirming the action to be taken.

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Fig. 1. Showcases steps 1–4.

7. a) The OIM confirms to take up the task and is asked to place the 3D model in a location wherever convenient. - System allowing comfortable navigating and move around easily. b) The model is placed and the error details is showcased. The physical error location on the Oil Rig is also highlighted. c) Spatial tracking to allow OIM to interact and have the perception of ‘Where I am’. d) OIM clicks on the object to deep dive to next and consecutive level. Presentation of relevant information while ignoring the irrelevant ones. e) OIM is at the final stage with details of error information. System is in a ready state for the OIM to delegate tasks to the Maintenance engineer. The maintenance engineer then gets instructions in their HoloLens to work on an existing maintenance task at hand (Fig. 2).

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Fig. 2. Steps 5 to 7 have been highlighted.

4 Conclusion The system has been designed in such a manner that it addresses the OIMs needs and augments capabilities to overcome cognitive limitations in his/her decision-making process. It also considers the following three aspects that has not yet been welldeveloped from an industrial experience point of view: First, not everything in the physical world is interactable or tagged. Second, the users still do not have well developed mental models of AR applications that might exist. Third, the visual language that these AR applications need to follow has still not reached its potential. Incorporating of the above mentioned cognitive centric aspects help to give designers a perspective on how to evolve the visual language and develop an application that attempts to deliver the best in class visual immersive experience. The observed cues are along 3 dimensions – the goal to be accomplished (task), the extent to which the cue blends in with the environment (markedness), and the context in which the cue is triggered into the user’s visibility (trigger) within the context. The challenge lies in keeping these cues minimalistic yet informative enough, so that the OIM remain immersive enough and the information is easy to understand and distinguishable from the environment. The result of this activity would be a smarter system that effectively incorporates expectations of the physical environment into the AR application and parallelly develops a well-defined visual language for the AR systems in an industrial setup. However, our immediate next step which is already in process is the scientific validation of the prototype with actual users. Verification and validation with data from eye tracker and user-specific tasks activity will focus on the following: 1. Validating with the actual users 2. Quantitative validation - latency and accuracy 3. Scalability of the framework to additional industrial use cases and domains. Additionally, we shall also focus on developing a more robust and texture specialized Visuo-Haptic Mixed Reality layer [3], as a continuation of the work mentioned in this paper.

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References 1. Chen, L., Day, T.W., Tang, W., John, N.W.: Recent developments and future challenges in medical mixed reality. In: Proceedings of 16th IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR) (2017) 2. Clark, A., Chalmers, D.J.: The extended mind. Analysis 58, 7–19 (1998) 3. Cosco, F., et al.: Visuo-haptic mixed reality with unobstructed tool-hand integration. IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 19(1), 159–172 (2013) 4. Doswell, J.T., Skinner, A.: Augmenting human cognition with adaptive augmented reality. In: Schmorrow, D.D., Fidopiastis, C.M. (eds.) AC 2014. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 8534, pp. 104– 113. Springer, Cham (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-07527-3_10 5. Endsley, M.R.: Toward a theory of situation awareness in dynamic systems. Hum. Factors J. 37(1), 32–64 (1995) 6. Hoenig, W., Milanes, C., Scaria, L., Phan, T., Bolas, M., Ayanian, N.: Mixed reality for robotics. In: Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Hamburg, Germany, 28 September–2 October 2015. IEEE, Piscataway (2015) 7. Lukosch, S., Billinghurst, M., Alem, L., Kiyokawa, K.: Collaboration in augmented reality. Comput. Supported Coop. Work (CSCW) 24(6), 515–525 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/ s10606-015-9239-0 8. Lundberg, J., Johansson, J.: Resilience, stability, and requisite interpretation in accident investigations. In: Proceedings of 2nd Resilience Engineering Symposium, pp. 191–198 (2006) 9. Lundberg, J.: Situation awareness systems, states and processes: a holistic framework. Theor. Issues Ergon. Sci. 16(5), 447–473 (2015) 10. Schnabel, M.A., et al.: From virtuality to reality and back. In: Poggenpohl, S. (ed.) International Association of Societies of Design Research 2007 (IASDR 2007), School of Design, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University 2007 Core A, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, 12–15 November 2007, Digital Proceedings, Day 4, Session D: Interaction/Interface (2007). ISBN 988-99101-4-4 11. Westrum, R.: A typology of resilience situations. In: Hollnagel, E., Woods, D.D., Leveson, N. (eds.) Resilience Engineering Concepts and Precepts. Safety Culture and Resilience Engineering: Theory and Application in Improving Gold Mining Safety. Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot (2006)

Augmented Reality Space Informatics System Olivia Thomas(&)

, Daniel Lambert

, and Beatrice Dayrit

Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725, USA {oliviathomas,daniellambert, tricedayrit}@u.boisestate.edu

Abstract. The Augmented Reality Space Informatics System (ARSIS) is a Microsoft HoloLens application developed for the NASA SUITS (Spacesuit User Interfaces for Students) challenge that provides an augmented reality (AR) interface for information display and communication to be used by astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVA) procedures. Astronauts are required to deal with complex and changing circumstances on EVA. The current status quo requires heavy reliance on voice communication with Mission Control Centers (MCCs) for everything from biometric data to assistance with procedures. ARSIS is designed with the dual purpose of increasing astronaut autonomy and making communication with MCCs more effective. Features of ARSIS include voice and gaze user interface (UI) navigation, anchored menus, planetary navigation aids, biometric information display, procedure instructions, and a suite of tools for enhanced communication with Mission Control including spatial telestration. User experience (UX) testing results for ARSIS have been generally positive overall, with the biggest takeaway being that users would prefer alternative modes of UI navigation to voice control. Eye tracking for UI navigation is a promising area of exploration in the future. Keywords: Augmented reality  Mixed reality  Virtual reality  Aerospace Computer supported collaborative work  Telestration  Telepresence



1 Introduction The Augmented Reality Space Informatics System (ARSIS) was designed for the NASA SUITS (Spacesuit User Interfaces for Students) challenge as a prototype for a heads-up display (HUD) interface to be integrated into astronauts’ helmets. During EVA missions, it is important to be able to communicate complex data and instructions to crew members. By showing this information in the astronauts’ physical space instead of on a traditional monitor, information can be communicated in a more direct, natural manner. ARSIS has a dual purpose of increasing astronaut autonomy and efficiency of communication with Mission Control. AR overlays additional information onto physical reality (PR). Mixed reality (MR) integrates these digital elements into PR. Virtual reality (VR) is an immersive experience which obscures PR. ARSIS uses a combination of all three, with AR/MR used by the astronaut and VR used by MCCs. One of the guiding design principles of ARSIS is the concept of embodied interaction. Embodied interaction reflects on a person’s familiarity with the real world to © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 221–228, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_28

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direct an experience in the digital world. Embodied interaction is the “creation, manipulation, and sharing of meaning through engaged interaction with these embodied phenomena” [1]. Research suggests that this concept may be useful when MR integrates into physical space. When a user interface is integrated into the physical space, the line between real and digital is blurred, allowing for more intuitive interaction. A major application of embodied interaction in ARSIS is spatial telestration between astronauts and Mission Control. This is used as a method of computersupported cooperative work (CSCW). The goal of CSCW is to “allow people to cooperate by overcoming barriers of space and time” [2]. In a setting where effective communication is critical, telestration can make communication more natural, providing operatives the ability to show the astronaut what they mean through visual cues rather than relying solely on audio explanations. This also provides the ability for asynchronous communication between the astronauts and Mission Control, which is useful in space exploration past our moon where significant communication lag may be encountered.

2 Background ARSIS was designed for NASA in response to the NASA SUITS challenge. The intended user is an astronaut on EVA. ARSIS also contains communication features to be utilized by Mission Control operatives. NASA provided specific requirements for ARSIS which were the primary consideration in the design. The next sections describe the users of ARSIS and the design requirements in more detail. 2.1

User Profiles

Astronauts. Astronauts are required to deal with complex and changing circumstances on EVA. Nominal procedures are read to NASA astronauts over voice by an intravehicle (IV) crew member [7]. Astronauts also use a paper cuff checklist secured to their wrist containing emergency procedures and their own notes [3, 7]. Former astronaut Steve Swanson spoke to his experience on EVA at the International Space Station (ISS), saying, “We have to rely on Mission Control to help us out. They monitor our suit data, so we don’t really get that insight into a lot of things that we are doing” [7]. A major goal of ARSIS is displaying more information to the astronaut to increase autonomy. Another important consideration is that EVAs can last up to 8 h [4]. Fatigue may set in, making the minimization of cognitive load crucial. Studies have shown that use of MR UIs through a HUD does not increase cognitive load [5]. According to a review of 87 studies by Santos et al. as cited by Leonard and Fitzgerald [6] MR can even reduce cognitive load. Finally, while current EVAs take place primarily on the ISS, ARSIS is also designed to be used for planetary exploration on the moon and Mars. Astronauts will face new challenges on planetary EVAs including navigating terrain, documenting and sampling geology features, and more [8].

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Mission Control Operatives. Mission Control operatives provide support to the astronaut on EVA. Swanson spoke to the experience of Mission Control operatives, noting that constant voice communication with astronauts slows them down. “Right now there is so much communication from the crew that they are always listening and trying to figure out what is going on, and then the little bits of time that they have that people aren’t talking they get a lot of work done. It would be more efficient if we could communicate without all of the voice” [7]. 2.2

Design Requirements

Following are the design requirements for the SUITS 2020 challenge [8]: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

EVA task instructions shall be displayed The astronaut must be able to access the status of the spacesuit at any time The astronaut shall be able to communicate with ground control at any time A caution and warning system must be implemented to inform the astronaut about a spacesuit anomaly In case of an interruption, the astronaut must be able to continue the task on hand seamlessly The user interface shall not permanently impede the astronaut’s ability to perform All hand gestures must be operable with EVA gloved hands (like heavy ski gloves) The user interface shall take field notes for lunar sampling

3 UI Navigation One of the most important design challenges tackled by ARSIS is UI navigation. Many HoloLens applications use hand gestures as a primary form of user input. However, this is not practical for the intended user of ARSIS. Astronauts currently wear thick gloves on EVA [3] and need to use their hands for their work. Voice control is an alternative available in HoloLens 1 and which is already being developed for control of robots in space by The German Aerospace Center in partnership with Mozilla [9]. Thus, ARSIS uses two interchangeable modes of UI navigation: voice commands and gaze + voice. These modes are detailed in Sects. 3.1–3.2. A third possibility for navigation is eye tracking, which studies have shown has promise as a mode of UI navigation [10, 11]. Menus are anchored in space and appear directly in front of the user when opened. Users can close a menu by using a voice command while looking at it. Multiple different menus can be opened at a time, although not multiple copies of the same menu. If a user attempts to do this, the currently open menu will be moved to where the user is looking. Some information, such as sensitive biometric data, warnings, and an indicator of microphone input, is configured to appear at the corner of the user’s view instead of staying anchored in space. This information is non-interactable.

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3.1

Voice Commands

All ARSIS functions are accessible by a unique voice command. Voice commands must be prefaced by the “Adele” keyword to aid in accurate recognition. Many voice commands, such as the commands to open menus, can be called at any time. On the other hand, commands which act on an open menu are only recognized when that menu is open. Menus include buttons with the names of possible voice commands to aid in navigation of the voice interface and memory of commands. A help menu contains a list of commands. During testing, users are also given an arm sleeve which holds a printed list of common voice commands. A microphone icon at the top left of the ARSIS display modulates in size based on the volume of audio input. When a command is recognized, the icon turns red and the name of the command appears briefly next to the microphone icon. This was designed to mitigate user confusion over whether their command was understood correctly. In case of voice command failure, a manual override can be called by Mission Control. This is detailed in Sect. 4.5. 3.2

Gaze + Voice

When a user looks directly at a button on a menu (determined using headset rotation), the button will light up. The user can then use the “Adele choose” voice command to select that button. This is a useful alternative for buttons with titles that would be long or ambiguous to pronounce (e.g. selecting a field note by date to view more details). This is also useful if a user finds that a voice command is not recognized reliably.

4 Features ARSIS is a fully functional HoloLens 1 application which allows users to do the following, detailed in Sects. 4.1–4.5: • • • • • •

Record and view spatial translation information View procedures via menus anchored in physical space Monitor biometric data Enter field notes through an interactive questionnaire Communicate with Mission Control through spatial telestration Receive additional help from Mission Control including remote UI navigation and real-time procedure and diagram updates

Translation ARSIS includes several systems that can be used to help the astronaut navigate to the work location. One system provides collaborative communication through telestration. This system is described in Sect. 4.4. Additionally, another system provides an autonomously controlled “breadcrumb” trail. When activated, the system renders a trail in the space showing the user’s location over time. These paths can then be saved and used to navigate back to the starting point, or for navigation to the same location in the future.

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ARSIS also includes a toggleable top-down map which shows users the spatial mapping data gathered from the HoloLens infrared sensors, as well as the user’s current position on the map denoted by a red dot. This map is pictured in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Top-down map (Color figure online)

4.1

Procedure Instruction

Upon reaching the work location, the user can activate the procedure instruction interface, shown in Fig. 2. This interface allows astronauts to view task instructions anchored in space. The user can open the appropriate procedure and navigate through it using commands such as “next” and “previous.” Commands are also available for displaying diagrams.

Fig. 2. Example procedure instruction

4.2

Biometrics

ARSIS displays biometric information including suit pressure, oxygen, and other relevant values. Currently this information is simulated over a web server. All measured information is shown in the biometrics menu, with colors indicating whether each value is in the expected range. However, it is important for astronauts to monitor the most sensitive information without having to open a menu. For this reason, a time left value (the smaller of oxygen time and battery time) is always shown persistently in the bottom left of the display. If biometric values are outside of the expected range or if another anomaly is encountered, a warning will be shown on the display.

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Field Notes

The field notes interface presents users with an interactive questionnaire used to document information about geology features. At the end of the questionnaire, users are asked to take a picture of the geology feature. Both the image and the questionnaire answers are stored on the device for future reference. 4.4

Telestration

When astronauts encounter unexpected scenarios or difficulties with procedures, voice communication with Mission Control is the current standard for resolving these issues. Spatial telestration adds a visual layer to the interaction. Spatial telestration has already been successfully implemented in surgical procedures [12]. It also allows for a form of asynchronous communication that may be beneficial in situations with communication delay. According to Swanson, back and forth communication is difficult with a com delay. He remarked, “If you can do it visually… that’s going to give the person much more information more quickly and in a way where they are not going to have a conversation back and forth” [7]. ARSIS includes two Ground Station applications through which telestration can take place, one in VR and one which can be used on a desktop computer. This feature builds upon work such as that by Kato and Billinghurst [13]. In ARSIS, spatial mapping data from the HoloLens is sent over a network to the Ground Station applications. This data is then rendered in VR or on the desktop. Mission Control operatives can see a marker of the astronaut’s location and can move around the space to see it from different angles. They can draw annotations in a manner similar to that described by Arora et al. [14]. The annotations will then be sent back and rendered in real space on the HoloLens display, as shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Spatial telestration – Mission Control drawing (right) and HoloLens view (left)

Operatives can also choose from a selection of preset icons (arrows, circles, etc.) to place in the space instead of or in addition to drawn annotations. 4.5

Additional Mission Control Features

If the astronaut is unable to use voice commands due to noise, a failure in the system, etc., Mission Control operatives can use a web portal to call commands remotely. The

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web portal also includes functionality to upload new procedures and diagrams to be displayed on the HoloLens. In the future, this web portal could be combined with the desktop telestration application for a more cohesive experience.

5 Testing Results ARSIS underwent testing at Johnson Space Center (Houston, Texas, USA). During these tests, astronauts and industry experts successfully used the system to complete simulated EVA tasks. In a separate UX test conducted at Boise State with 15 participants, 100% of users (high school students, parents, and university staff) reported that they would prefer ARSIS to complete a task over instructions delivered via paper or a tablet. 75% of users reported that the interface (which at the time used only voice navigation with no gaze option) was either somewhat or extremely easy to use. However, ease of using voice commands was a common complaint and 67% reported difficulty using the voice interface in a loud environment. The problem of noise would be less prevalent in outer space. However, these results prompted the addition of gaze-based navigation and the consideration of eye tracking as a future possibility. According to Swanson, a navigation solution which does not require voice would be beneficial as it would avoid taking up voice loop time with Mission Control [7]. The spread of COVID-19 in the United States in Spring 2020 prevented UX testing of the features developed during that time, including extensive testing of telestration features. Additional testing is planned in the future.

6 Conclusion Further work on ARSIS will explore additional methods of interaction between the Ground Station applications and HoloLens system, approaching telepresence. Other areas of possible expansion include object recognition, eye tracking for UI navigation, and solutions for high and low light scenarios. While applied specifically to the field of aerospace, the information display and communication methods demonstrated in ARSIS have applicability in a wide variety of instructional and operational scenarios where displaying information in space and/or collaborating with a remote expert are of value. As more and more information and communication become available digitally, the importance of displaying this information in a meaningful, context-driven manner, as accomplished by spatial systems like ARSIS, will only increase. Acknowledgements. Special thanks to our faculty advisors, Dr. Karen Doty and Dr. Steve Swanson, as well as our community advisor Charles Burnell.

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References 1. Dourish, P.: Where the Action Is. MIT Press, Cambridge (2001) 2. Wexelblat, A.: Virtual Reality: Applications and Explorations. Academic Press, Cambridge (1993) 3. NASA EMU Hardware Data Book. https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/atoms/files/esoc13_rev._v_emu_hardware_data_book_jsc-e-daa-tn55224.pdf. Accessed 14 June 2020 4. NASA General EVA Guidelines. https://msis.jsc.nasa.gov/sections/section14.htm#_14.1_ GENERAL_EVA. Accessed 14 June 2020 5. Cometti, C., Païzis, C., Casteleira, A., Pons, G., Babault, N.: Effects of mixed reality headmounted glasses during 90 minutes of mental and manual tasks on cognitive and physiological functions. PeerJ 6, e5847 (2018) 6. Leonard, S., Fitzgerald, R.: Holographic learning: a mixed reality trial of Microsoft HoloLens in an Australian secondary school. Res. Learn. Technol. 2160(26), 1–12 (2018) 7. Former Astronaut Steve Swanson, personal interview 8. NASA SUITS Challenge Descriptions. https://microgravityuniversity.jsc.nasa.gov/docs/ suits/SUITS%202020%20Mission%20Description.8.22.19.pdf. Accessed 14 June 2020 9. Astronauts adopt Mozilla speech tech to control Moon robots. https://www.zdnet.com/ article/astronauts-adopt-mozilla-speech-tech-to-control-moon-robots/. Accessed 14 June 2020 10. Boudoin, P., Otmane, S., Mallem, M.: Design of a 3D navigation technique supporting VR interaction. In: AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 1019, no. 1, pp. 149–153 (2008) 11. Zhu, D., Gedeon, T., Taylor, K.: “Moving to the centre”: a gaze-driven remote camera control teleperation. Interact. Comput. 23(1), 85–95 (2011) 12. Jarc, A.M., et al.: Beyond 2D telestration: an evaluation of novel proctoring tools for robotassisted minimally invasive surgery. J. Robotic Surg. 10(2), 103–109 (2016). https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s11701-016-0564-1 13. Kato, H., Billinghurst, M.: Marker tracking and HMD calibration for a video-based augmented reality conferencing system. In: Proceedings 2nd IEEE and ACM International Workshop on Augmented Reality (IWAR), San Francisco, CA, USA, pp. 85–94 (1999) 14. Arora, R., Kazi, R.H., Anderson, F., Grossman, T., Sign, K., Fitzmaurice, G.: Experimental evaluation of sketching on surfaces in VR. In: Proceedings of the CHI, Denver, CO, USA (2017)

Mercury’s Boots: Extending Visual Information and Enabling to Move Around a Remote Place for VR Avatar Koki Toda(&) and Sayuki Hayashi Revetronique, Tokyo, Japan [email protected], [email protected]

Abstract. In this research, we develop a mobile telepresence robot displaying a light field image of the VR avatar synchronizing its posture to that of the VR performer and VR controlling application rendering a point cloud of the scene before the robot to the VR system with an RGB-D camera. Both our robot and application communicate with each other via WebRTC. Our remote communication system compresses depth data approximately 100 kB, sends every about 200 ms and decodes it for 20 ms in average as the result of our performance test. In our online survey, 105 subjects generally expected our expecting effects, but some of them worried or suspected the limitation concerned to VR technology, network, or emotional expression of avatars. Keywords: VR avatar

 Telepresence  Remote communication

1 Introduction Under today’s widespread of communication devices and networking infrastructure in the world, enormous remote communication services or applications have been launched [1]. Some of them use a CG model called “avatar” to communicate with others [2]. Eventually, social VR services or “VTubers”, who are live streamers performing as a digital character have appeared in recent years [3]. Though using an avatar for remote communication become popular today, there are significant limitations for bidirectional communication or interaction such as running around live stages, eye contact, hug, or shake hands. By the way, telepresence robot is used for various purposes from business to personal use [4]. These robots can take people having physical, economic, or health problems to distant places, work in dangerous areas or situations, and move in or interact to the real world unlike video contents or software. However, it can hardly produce complex gestures and facial expressions, or its reliability, robustness, and maintainability will be decreased even if required components are installed. In this study, we develop a mobile telepresence robot displaying a light field image of the VR avatar and VR application showing a point cloud of the remote area to the VR performer so that a VR performer and his or her audience can communicate with each other as if they feel they are in the same place (Fig. 1).

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Fig. 1. VR player performing as a virtual character makes a communication with audience in remote space via our developing robot (left). VR player can watch the audience in the place where our avatar robot stands sterically through a point cloud (right).

Our research features and contributes are in the followings. – VR: performer • 3D rendering of a remote place using RGB-D images and point cloud. • Enhancement of the sense of immersion in a remote location through VR – Robot: audience. • Emphasizing the presence of avatars by showing a light field image. • Move an avatar in the real world. • Represent emotional expression such as gesture or face.

2 Related Works 2.1

Virtual Avatar

Recently, besides social VR services, platforms of virtual avatars, which is specialized in delivering live performance or live chat, were getting fulfilled [5]. Live shows of virtual avatars have been held in succession [6], and facilities for supporting live shows with virtual avatars also opened [7]. In addition, we can find some cases utilizing virtual avatars in economic or social activities [8, 9]. 2.2

Avatar Robot

Until today, large number and variety of telepresence robot have been researched and developed [4]. One of the representative robots is TELESAR researched and developed by Prof. Tachi and his laboratory [10]. “Orihime” has been provided for people with disabilities, especially for ALS patients [11]. 2.3

Researches for Interaction Between VR and Real

There are also some researches or applications connecting VR to the real. Chagué et al. used IR tracking cameras to capture physical objects for their VR experience [12]. Some remote communication systems using an RGB-D camera to unite distance places

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were launched [13]. Levitar displayed a stereoscopic image of a VR avatar which moved corresponding to the VR player’s head [14].

3 System

Fig. 2. System configuration.

We depict the configuration of our system in Fig. 2. Our VR system and robot are connected to the same wireless LAN via wifi. It utilizes WebRTC API for communication processes, WebGL for drawing 3DCG models, and WebXR for VR. The VR side is simply composed of a VR-ready computer and VR devices (HMD, tracking cameras, and VR controllers). On the other hand, robot side is built with a microcontroller unit (MCU), RGB-D camera, light field display, and two-wheel differential driving unit. The MCU manages communication process, 3DCG drawing process, and controlling its driving unit. The RGB-D camera scans the 3D geometry of audiences and their place, and the driving unit moves the VR avatar as the VR player’s operation. We also adopt a light field display of the video output device for enhancing the presence of the avatar.

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4 Implementation

Fig. 3. All devices in our system (left). Connection of all components in our robot (right).

Table 1. Hardware components. Side VR

Component Computer VR HMD Robot Drive unit MCU Camera Display

Device VR-Ready PC (with NVIDA GTX 1070) HTC Vive TurtleBot3 Burger NVIDIA Jetson Nano (Ubuntu 18.04) Intel RealSense D435 8.9″ Looking Glass

All devices used in our system are in Fig. 3 (light), and every component is listed in Table 1. We also develop Web applications for VR and robot side with html5, css3, and javascript. Our applications are stored in a web server built with Apache 2, and our VR system and robot execute each corresponding application by accessing it. 4.1

VR Side

Our VR system draws a VR avatar with using WebGL and WebXR. Every frame the posture of the VR HMD and controllers is applied to the avatar.

Fig. 4. Point cloud shown in the VR (left). The object captured with an RGB-D camera (right).

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The VR performer can see a 3D image (point cloud) of the remote place captured from the RGB-D camera attached to the robot (Fig. 4). It renders a point cloud of the remote place from an RGB and depth image received via WebRTC. The rendering processes are the followings. 1. 2. 3. 4. 4.2

Decoding the compressed depth image data with RVL (see Sect. 4.2). Converting the raw depth image from unsigned short to float. Generating a texture from a transformed array. Drawing a point cloud based on the generated depth texture and RGB image. Robot Side

Figure 3 (right) illustrates the connection of all components in our robot. This robot shows an image of the VR avatar sterically with the light field display, and also obtains the 3D geometry of the scene before the robot by using the RGB-D camera. Captured image has a resolution of W424  H240 pixels and is transferred to the VR application after compressing the depth image with RVL compression algorithm [15]. This robot can be moved by the VR performer and the avatar image shown in its display synchronizes to his or her posture. 4.3

Media and Data Communication

Our VR system and robot share the posture and input of the VR performer and the three-dimensional geometry of the scene in front of the robot via WebRTC.

Table 2. Directions and contents of our communication system with WebRTC. API From To Media stream Robot VR Data channel Robot VR

VR

Content RGB image from RGB-D camera Tag: “depth” Width and height of depth image Array data of compressed depth image Robot Tag: “posture” Posture and input of VR performer

The details of the whole data the system exchanges are listed in Table 2. All data exchanged via Data Channel are converted to JSON format. Owing to sending a largesize data depth image, the system disables ordered transfer and limit re-transmission time within 500 ms when opening a data channel. We aim to compress the data size by setting the depth over a certain threshold to zero so as to increase the number of chunks of zero-pixels.

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5 Experiment 5.1

Performance Test

We evaluated our system to display a point cloud of the remote place by measuring the interval of receiving a depth data, the receiving and decoding time, and compressing size and rate of it. Support that compressed depth data is contained in a 32-bit unsigned integer array and raw depth image in a 16-bit unsigned integer array, compressing rate is calculated with the following equation: ðCompressing rateÞ ¼ ðLcd  4Þ=ðw  h  2Þ

ð1Þ

where Lcd is the data size, w is the width, and h is the height of the depth image (Table 3).

Table 3. Measurement results among thresholds of distance. Threshold Transfer interval (ms) 1000 mm 218.37 ± 32.45 2000 mm 241.01 ± 26.27

Receiving time (ms) 21.08 ± 3.95 18.36 ± 2.34

Decoding time (ms) 3.23 ± 0.98 3.10 ± 0.98

Data size (kB)

Compressing rate 89.80 ± 13.76 0.44 127.99 ± 10.05 0.63

First, we compared its performance by changing the depth threshold to (a) 1000 mm and (b) 2000 mm (the size of depth image is W424  H240) (Table 4). Table 4. Measurement results among sizes of depth image. Image size Transfer interval (ms) 424  240 241.01 ± 26.27 480  270 269.24 ± 34.31 640  480 279.60 ± 24.98

Receiving time (ms) 18.36 ± 2.34 18.71 ± 1.93 17.73 ± 1.48

Decoding time (ms) 3.10 ± 0.98 2.97 ± 1.82 2.33 ± 0.33

Data size (kB)

Compressing rate 127.99 ± 10.05 0.63 117.18 ± 21.93 0.45 100.12 ± 1.19 0.16

Second, we also compared its performance by changing the size of depth image to (a) W424  H240 (same as the case (a) in the previous test), (b) W480  H270, and (c) W640  H480 (the depth threshold is 2000 mm). On the whole, even the system spent nearly 20 ms to decode, it took over 200 ms in average and the framerate of redrawing a point cloud goes down to less than 5 fps. We will improve it by optimizing arrangement of depth data in an array because the size of compressed data itself is relatively large (over 100 kB).

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Preliminary Survey

In order to expect potential and utility of our proposal system, we conducted a web survey in Japan. We have finally collected answers from 105 people from 20s to 50s who had VR experiences (of which 50 males, 53 females and 2 non-respondents). We mainly asked their impressions of CG avatars utilized for economic or social activity and expectation to our proposal system. The subjects rated 6 types (P1: easy to talk, P2: familiarity, P3: presence, P4: credibility, P5: psychological distance, and P6: discomfort) of impression to them on a 5-point scale (1: not at all - 5: definitely agree), and wrote their impressions of the experience, problems, and desired interactions. Then, they also rated and wrote about their impression and expecting features of our developing system after seeing its operating images. The whole questions in five-point scale evaluation are Q1) More realistic than display, Q2) More powerful than display, Q3) Psychological distance closer, Q4) Familiar than mechanical robots about our robot, and Q1) More realistic than display, Q2) Feel as if you talk with remote people in the same place, Q3) Psychological distance closer, Q4) More immersive in remote areas, Q5) Make the environment and situation of distant places comprehensive about our VR system.

Fig. 5. Results of the 5-point scale evaluation for the impression of VR avatars (left), mobile robot with a 3D avatar image (middle), and point cloud of the remote area in VR (right).

The results of the evaluation are shown in Fig. 5. None of the items were extremely positive or negative towards the real world use of avatar, while our remote communication system was generally rated 4 or more favorably. Especially for the VR system, the question 1 and 5 were rated 4 or higher by more than 80% of subjects. We also summarize some remarkable impressions and opinions in below: – Utilizing an avatar for economic or social activity • More realistic than they expected. • Something different from a real person because of the gap between their appearance and voice, psychological distance, and incomplete expressions. • Technical limitations or problems, especially in VR sickness or time lag. • Presenting the five senses, physical actions from the avatar, participation in events in remote areas, and solving social isolation were desirable. – Mobile robot that displays a light field image of an avatar • Useful for visiting remote areas, guide, signage, and live performances. • The two main problems are the drive unit is large and display area is small.

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– Point cloud of the remote place rendered in VR • Enhancing the presence and reality of the remote place. • Useful for visiting remote areas, working at dangerous sites, and collaborative work with people in a remote place • Subjects requested sharpening image, presenting thermal or tactile sense.

6 Conclusion For the purpose of extending remote communication, we develop a new mobile telepresence robot and VR application with using a VR avatar. Our robot enables a VR avatar to move around a distant place by displaying a light field image of the avatar and driving its wheels as the VR performer’s control. In our VR system, the VR performer can see a point cloud of the remote place through the HMD. We conducted a performance test and online survey of our system. In the performance test, we inspected our transfer system for compressed depth data. The decoding time was about 20 ms, while the average transfer interval was almost always over 200 ms because the data size exceeded 100 kB. We also conducted a preliminary survey for 105 people with VR experience. Our system was generally rated highly. Some subjects told that our system could be used for remote visit, signage or facility guidance, and collaborative work in remote areas. In future, we will improve the compression algorithm, enable a VR performer to represent emotional expressions as his or her will, and examine how our proposal system effects remote communication through user studies.

References 1. Odlyzko, A.: The history of communications and its implications for the internet. SSRN Electron. J. (2000). https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.235284 2. Ventrella, J.J.: Virtual Body Language: The History and Future of Avatars: How Nonverbal Expression is Evolving on the Internet. ETC Press, Pittsburgh (2011) 3. Bredikhina, L.: Designing identity in VTuber era. In: Proceedings of Laval Virtual VRIC ConVRgence 2020, pp. 182–184. https://doi.org/10.20870/IJVR.2020...3316 4. Kristoffersson, A., Coradeschi, S., Loutfi, A.: A review of mobile robotic telepresence. Adv. Hum. Comp. Int. 2013 (2013). Article 3, 1 page. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/902316 5. Wright Flyer Live Entertainment Inc.: Reality (2018). https://reality.wrightflyer.net/ 6. Ichikara Inc.: Virtual to Live in Ryogoku Kokugikan (2019). https://event.nijisanji.app/ vtlryougoku2019/ 7. Pony Canyon, Inc.: Harevutai (2020). https://harevutai.com/# 8. ADVAC Corp.: Vataraku (2018). https://saisyun-kaiba.com/vataraku/ 9. Heroes Inc.: AVASTAND (2019). https://www.heroes-tokyo.com/ 10. Fernando, C.L., et al.: Design of TELESAR V for transferring bodily consciousness in telexistence. In: 2012 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Vilamoura, pp. 5112–5118 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1109/iros.2012.6385814 11. Ory Laboratory: OriHime (2012). https://orihime.orylab.com/

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12. Chagué, S., Charbonnier, C.: Real virtuality: a multi-user immersive platform connecting real and virtual worlds. In: Proceedings of the 2016 Virtual Reality International Conference (VRIC 2016), article 4, pp. 1–3. Association for Computing Machinery, New York (2016). https://doi.org/10.1145/2927929.2927945 13. Stocking, H., Gunkel, S.N.B., De Koninck, T., van Eersel, M., Kok, B.: AR/VR for conferencing and remote assistance. In: Proceedings of Laval Virtual VRIC ConVRgence 2020, pp. 175–177 (2020). https://doi.org/10.20870/IJVR.2020...3316 14. Tsuchiya, K., Koizumi, N.: Levitar: real space interaction through mid-air CG avatar. In: SIGGRAPH Asia 2019 Emerging Technologies (SA 2019), pp. 25–26. Association for Computing Machinery, New York (2019). https://doi.org/10.1145/3355049.3360539 15. Wilson, A.D.: Fast lossless depth image compression. In: Proceedings of the 2017 ACM International Conference on Interactive Surfaces and Spaces (ISS 2017), pp. 100–105. Association for Computing Machinery, New York (2017). https://doi.org/10.1145/3132272. 3134144

Comparison of Different Information Display Modes for Smart Glasses Assisted Machine Operations Chao-Hung Wang1, Chih-Yu Hsiao1, An-Ting Tai1, and Mao-Jiun J. Wang2(&) 1 Department of Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Sec. 2, Guangfu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan R.O.C. 2 Department of Industrial Engineering and Enterprise Information, Tunghai University, No. 1727, Sec. 4, Taiwan Boulevard, Xitun District, Taichung 40704, Taiwan R.O.C. [email protected]

Abstract. A pair of commercially available smart glasses, Epson BT-200, was evaluated with different information display modes for assisting machine operators. Two information display modes were selected, displaying animated images only, and displaying animated images with text illustrations. Direction prompts were added in the system. Whether the prompts are helpful or not was also discussed in this study. Task completion time and error rate were collected during the experiment. System Usability Scale (SUS) and NASA-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) were used to collect subjective information after each experiment. Twenty participants (10 males and 10 females) were recruited. The results showed that the display mode of having smart glasses displaying animated images versus displaying animated images with text illustrations showed no significant difference in task completion time and error rate. But the significant difference was found in the result of SUS scores. Participants preferred the display mode of animate images with text illustrations according to the SUS scores. Moreover, the results indicated that the use of direction prompts had significant influences upon all the measures. Participants completed the tasks faster and had lower error rate by using the smart glasses with direction prompts. And the results of subjective ratings also showed higher SUS score and lower NASA-TLX score were associated with using smart glasses with direction prompts. Thus, the implementation of using smart glasses to guide machine operations should be considered the design of adding direction prompts to increase efficiency and effectiveness of the operations. Keywords: Augmented reality

 Information display  Smart glasses

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1 Introduction With the trend of promoting Industry 4.0, the awareness of developing smart factory is becoming more universal around the world. Smart glasses are considered to be advantageous for assisting machine operators in smart factory environment. Smart glasses can simultaneously assist operators to work with their hands free, and provide required information through the lens [1]. The transparent displays of smart glasses allow operators to read instructions virtually, and the functionality of augmented reality (AR) have been identified helpful for the operators in shop-floor [2]. Paelke (2014) [3] proposed virtual instructions for assembly tasks in a pair of optical see-through glasses, and indicated that participants without prior experience in assembly tasks were also able to complete the tasks. Zheng et al. (2015) [4] designed a wearable solution for industrial maintenance tasks by using Google Glasses, which contained virtual workflow guidance via pictures, videos, and voice annotations. Smart glasses or headmounted displays (HMDs) were widely used in the industry universally, various evaluations of smart glasses/HMDs used in factory floors were exhibited in recent years. Such as, comparing video see-through glasses with optical see-through glasses for displaying virtual annotations [5], comparing Google Glasses with tablet PC for assembly tasks [6], or comparing different types of augmented reality smart glasses on the market [2]. However, research focusing on the information display of smart glasses for the machine operations was few. Augmented reality technology has been widely applied in various fields. By superimposing virtual objects and animations onto the scenes in real environment, AR was considered a promising technology for assisting maintenance operations, including dis/assembly, repair, inspections, and training [7]. In order to enhance the effect of AR, cues or prompts were added to help operators to understand the direction or sequence. Tonnis and Klinker (2006) [8] compared 3D arrow with bird’s eye perspective demonstration for an AR head-up display tasks, and indicated the 3D arrow was preferable for the participant drivers. Henderson and Feiner (2010) [9] designed an AR head-worn display system for assisting mechanics, where virtual arrows were also included to guide mechanics’ attention. Rehrl et al. (2012) [10] proposed a mobile AR system for navigating pedestrians, and they put semi-transparent circles on the overlay for cuing users the destination. Sanna et al. (2015) [11] exhibited an AR step-by-step assembly task, and they provided arrows for operators to travel among steps. Renner and Pfeiffer (2017) [12] demonstrated different virtualizations for a picking and assembly task, and they discovered the in-view image and in-situ line guiding methods were preferred. Based on the review of previous studies, different guidance and information modes led to different results. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of machine operation under two information modes (animated images only and animated images with text) and two situations of direction prompts (with prompts or without prompts). Completion time and error counts were collected during the experiment as the objective performance measures, system usability scale (SUS) [13] and NASA task load index (NASA-TLX) [14] questionnaires were filled after each experiment for understanding the satisfaction and mental workloads.

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2 Materials and Methods 2.1

Participants

Twenty participants (10 males and 10 females) were recruited, the average age was 22.8 (±1.33) years. All of them were graduate students of engineering school at National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan). They had basic knowledge of machine operations. Participants had to wear the BT-200 during the experiment. Thus corrected vision of 20/20 was required for each participant. 2.2

Apparatus and Materials

A coil straightener machine was selected as the research target in this study. The whole operation process contains 14 steps. The instruction of each step was designed and displayed in the smart glasses—BT-200. Two types of information modes (animated image only and animated image with text) were included. The appearance of animated images for both modes were consistent. The only difference was the text illustrations. Besides, considering the real situation of operating a coil straightener, operators have to move back and forth aside the machine. Direction prompts were added to the experimental design to find out whether the prompts can affect the performance or not. The appearance of direction prompts was designed as a little yellow arrow with text of the next step. Figure 1 shows the two information modes and the direction prompt.

Fig. 1. The illustration of display with animated image only mode (left), animated image with text mode (middle), and the appearance of direction prompt (right).

2.3

Experimental Design

A factorial design was employed. The independent variables were information display modes (animated image only, and animated image with text) and direction prompts (with, and without). The dependent variables were completion time, error counts, SUS, and NASA-TLX scores. Each participant had to complete the 14-step procedure in each sub-experiment, and 4 sub-experiments were included (animated image with prompts, animated image without prompts, animated image with text and prompts, and animated image with text and no prompts) in the whole experiment. In order to reduce the learning effects, all the sub-experiments were randomly arranged and the machine parameters were varied every time.

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Statistical Analysis

The recorded data was first processed in Microsoft Excel. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were conducted using SPSS 17.0 (IBM Inc) with a = 0.05.

3 Results Table 1 shows the summarized ANOVA results, both the objective and subjective measures were listed. Information mode showed significant effect in SUS score. The use of direction prompt showed significance in completion time, error counts, SUS, and NASA-TLX scores. No interaction was found between information mode and direction prompt. Table 1. Z. Summarized ANOVA results for objective and subjective measures. Objective Subjective CT ERR SUS TLX * * * ** **

Information mode Prompt Information mode*Prompt Note: * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001 Note: CT = completion time; ERR = error counts; SUS = system usability scale; TLX = NASA-TLX scale.

3.1

Information Display Mode

As Table 1 shows, the significant effect of information display mode was only found in SUS score (p = 0.02 < 0.05). Animated image with text received a better score of 76.5 (±17.52) than the animated image having the average score of 67.38 (±17.95). 3.2

Direction Prompt

The use of direction prompts affected all objective and subjective measures. The average completion time for operations with prompts (160.48 s) was significantly lower than the average completion time for operations without prompts (179.78 s). In addition, operations with prompts had significantly lower error counts (0.43) than the error counts for operations without prompts (0.78). As for the SUS scores, the average rating for operations with prompts was 77.63 (±14.81), and was significantly higher than the average rating for operations without prompts 66.25 (±19.67). And for scores of NASA-TLX, the average rating for operations with prompts was 30.08 (±13.95), and was significantly lower than the average rating for operations without prompts 40.42 (±17.10). Figure 2 showed the differences direction prompt effect for both the objective (left) and subjective (right) measures.

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Fig. 2. The comparisons of operating with and without direction prompts on objective (left) and subjective (right) measures.

4 Discussion The results showed the information display mode effect was significant on SUS score. The participants were more satisfied with the information display mode of animated image with text. Since the operation process contained various actions, such as pressing a button, lifting a handle, or adjusting a roller, some of the steps were hard to comprehend by viewing the animated images without any illustration. Diaz et al. (2015) [15] reported that AR application using audio and text as supplementation can lead to a better quality of learning. As for the system usability of animated image without text, the rating score was only 66.25, which was below 70 and was considered as “poor” system usability [16]. Moreover, operations with direction prompts received an overall positive outcome compared to the operations without prompts. Operating with direction prompts had less completion time and error counts, and had a lower NASA-TLX score and a higher SUS score. For AR applications of using virtual objects to guide users, Henderson and Feiner (2010) [9] used 2D and 3D arrows to direct mechanics’ attention. Volmer et al. (2018) [17] compared different kinds of cues for AR procedural tasks, and reported that using “lines” to guide users had the best outcome, and the condition of using none cues had the longest response time and higher errors.

5 Conclusions This study focused on evaluating the effect of information display for machine operation tasks using the BT-200. The results of objective performance showed no difference between the two information display modes (animated image and animated image with text), but the results in SUS score was significant. More conditions of information display modes should be included in the future. The results showed that the use of direction prompts were helpful to accomplish this task. The outcome was reasonable, due to the operation process of the coil straightener machine required participants to move back and forth. In conclusion, direction prompts should be considered in similar situations, to guide the operators and to increase operation performance.

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References 1. Barfield, W.: Fundamentals of Wearable Computers and Augmented Reality. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2015) 2. Syberfeldt, A., Danielsson, O., Gustavsson, P.: Augmented reality smart glasses in the smart factory: product evaluation guidelines and review of available products. IEEE Access 5, 9118–9130 (2017) 3. Paelke, V.: Augmented reality in the smart factory: supporting workers in an industry 4.0. environment. In: Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE Emerging Technology and Factory Automation (ETFA), pp. 1–4. IEEE, September 2014 4. Zheng, X.S., Matos da Silva, P., Foucault, C., Dasari, S., Yuan, M., Goose, S.: Wearable solution for industrial maintenance. In: Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 311–314, April 2015 5. Baron, L., Braune, A.: Case study on applying augmented reality for process supervision in industrial use cases. In: 2016 IEEE 21st International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA), pp. 1–4. IEEE, September 2016 6. Wille, M., Scholl, P.M., Wischniewski, S., Van Laerhoven, K.: Comparing Google glass with tablet-pc as guidance system for assembling tasks. In: 2014 11th International Conference on Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks Workshops, pp. 38–41. IEEE, June 2014 7. Palmarini, R., Erkoyuncu, J.A., Roy, R., Torabmostaedi, H.: A systematic review of augmented reality applications in maintenance. Robot. Comput. Integr. Manuf. 49, 215–228 (2018) 8. Tonnis, M., Klinker, G.: Effective control of a car driver’s attention for visual and acoustic guidance towards the direction of imminent dangers. In: 2006 IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, pp. 13–22. IEEE, October 2006 9. Henderson, S., Feiner, S.: Exploring the benefits of augmented reality documentation for maintenance and repair. IEEE Trans. Visual Comput. Graphics 17(10), 1355–1368 (2010) 10. Rehrl, K., Häusler, E., Steinmann, R., Leitinger, S., Bell, D., Weber, M.: Pedestrian navigation with augmented reality, voice and digital map: results from a field study assessing performance and user experience. In: Gartner, G., Ortag, F. (eds.) Advances in LocationBased Services. LNGC, pp. 3–20. Springer, Heidelberg (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/9783-642-24198-7_1 11. Sanna, A., Manuri, F., Lamberti, F., Paravati, G., Pezzolla, P.: Using handheld devices to support augmented reality-based maintenance and assembly tasks. In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), pp. 178–179. IEEE, January 2015 12. Renner, P., Pfeiffer, T.: Evaluation of attention guiding techniques for augmented realitybased assistance in picking and assembly tasks. In: Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces Companion, pp. 89–92, March 2017 13. Brooke, J.: SUS-a quick and dirty usability scale. In: Usability Evaluation in Industry, vol. 189, no. 194, pp. 4–7 (1996) 14. Hart, S.G.: NASA-task load index (NASA-TLX); 20 years later. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 904–908. Sage Publications, Sage CA, Los Angeles, October 2006 15. Diaz, C., Hincapié, M., Moreno, G.: How the type of content in educative augmented reality application affects the learning experience. Procedia Comput. Sci. 75, 205–212 (2015) 16. Bangor, A., Kortum, P., Miller, J.: Determining what individual SUS scores mean: adding an adjective rating scale. J. Usability Stud. 4(3), 114–123 (2009) 17. Volmer, B., et al.: A comparison of predictive spatial augmented reality cues for procedural tasks. IEEE Trans. Visual Comput. Graphics 24(11), 2846–2856 (2018)

Building a Firefighting Training System in MR Kazuya Yamamoto1(&) and Makio Ishihara2 1

2

Graduate School of Computer Science and Engineering, Fukuoka Institute of Technology, 3-30-1, Wajiro-Higashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 811-0295, Japan [email protected] Fukuoka Institute of Technology, 3-30-1, Wajiro-Higashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 811-0295, Japan [email protected]

Abstract. This manuscript builds a firefighting training system using AR functionality designed for home use. In the system, the user can practice manipulating a fire extinguisher to put out the fire burning in the room. The speed of fire is examined to yield the sense of urgency and a pilot experiment is conducted. The result shows that the mechanism a fire’s flame continues to spread if nothing is done, could give the subject a sense of urgency while there are opinions that the image quality of the camera is low, and that the brightness of the virtual object is different. Keywords: Pilot experiment Mixed reality

 Firefighting training  Disaster prevention 

1 Introduction In recent years, with the development of virtual reality or VR technology, the use of VR in evacuation training for disasters has become reality. Unlike real evacuation training, the training in VR can be performed safely in any location and time. However, for the use of VR, it is necessary to prepare a tracked open space to avoid collisions between the user and objects during the training because the real space is invisible to the user. So, it is not so easy to train at home. Kawano et al. [1] developed an evacuation training method in augmented reality or AR using a tablet PC. AR is a technique of displaying computer-generated objects overlaid on the real space simultaneously and it provides the user with a feeling as if those objects existed in the real space. In their method, the user carries a tablet PC and does the training intuitively and safely. However, it is difficult for the user to feel the sense of urgency because the user sees the AR space just through a small screen of the tablet PC, resulting in lack of reality, immersion, and feelings of those virtual objects in existence. In addition, it is difficult to operate virtual objects. In that respect, the HTC VIVE allows a wide range of training that can be performed using the controller. Therefore, in this study, a prototype of a fire fighting training system in AR using a head mounted display or HMD is built and a pilot experiment in sense of urgency is conducted. An HMD provides a wide field of view with the user’s eyes to yield high reality, high immersion, © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 244–250, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_31

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and high fidelity of existence of virtual objects. Referring to the research of Yoshioka et al. [2], it was found that a sense of time leads to a sense of urgency. In this study, the speed of the fire’s flame spreading is discussed to have the user feel the sense of urgency.

2 Firefighting Training System In our system, a subject wears a video see-through HMD and puts out a fire with a fire extinguisher, which has occurred at a preset location in the AR space. Table 1 shows the hardware setups and their specs used for our system. To simulate a fire in the AR space, our system employs the game engine of Unity and VIVE SRWorks SDK 0.9.0.3 for adding AR functions to VIVE Pro. For example, a 3-dimensional representation, called a mesh, of the surrounding objects such as walls, desks, chairs, ceiling and other things are built and available in real time. The fire has already been burning when the system starts to run, and it spreads over time. As the user sweeps the nozzle of the fire extinguisher on the fire, it gradually gets smaller and eventually goes out. Figure 1 shows a mesh of the surrounding objects built by VIVE Pro, and Fig. 2 shows a stereo image of a simulated fire which is placed on the mesh. Spreading time of the fire is assumed to be 20 s for general households and an amount of smoke increases in proportion to the size of the fire’s flame. The user sprays materials from the nozzle of the fire extinguisher by pressing a button on the VIVE controller. The controller vibrates during spraying. The position of the simulated fire is hopefully chosen on the mesh in a random manner, but it is constant now of our system. Table 1. Hardware setups HTC Vive pro Resolution Refresh rate Viewing angle Weight PC CPU Graphics Card Memory OS

2880 * 1600 pixel 90 Hz 110° 765 g Intel core i7 7820x GeForeceGTX1080ti 16.00 GB Windows10pro 64bit

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Fig. 1. The obtained mesh

Fig. 2. Computer-generated fire in Unity

Fig. 3. A floor plan and dimensions of the room where the experiment is conducted

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Fig. 4. A subject who is performing the firefighting in our training system

3 Experiment The purpose of this experiment is to make a prototype of a firefighting training system and conducts a pilot experiment in sense of urgency. To evaluate the sense of urgency, the questionnaire with a five-point scale of 1 being no and 5 being yes shown in Table 2 is employed, referring to Yoshioka et al. [2] and Iimura et al. [3]. Figure 3 shows a sketch of the room used for the experiment. The subject’s starting point is shown in blue, and the fire-starting point is shown in red. Figure 4 shows a scene of the experiment, and Figs. 5 and 6 show the progress of firefighting. There are 7 subjects (7 males) with the ages between 20 and 24. The flow of the experiment is shown below. Step 1. Ask the subject to wear an HMD and use our system until they get used to manipulating the VIVE controller and handling how to use the fire extinguisher. Step 2. Instructs the subject to put out the fire. Step 3. The training lasts until the size of the fire’s flame reaches the ceiling or disappears completely. Step 4. Remove the HMD and ask the subject fill out the questionnaire and note down an overall impression of the system.

Table 2. Questionnaire Q1 Did you feel as if you were in a fire? Q2 Did you feel you had to put out the fire soon? Q3 Did you feel the flame approaching? Q4 Did you feel sick during the experiment? In addition, note down an overall impression of the system

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Fig. 5. A stereo image from the HMD view at the beginning of the experiment

Fig. 6. An HMD view where the room is filled out with a large amount of smoke

4 Result

Evaluation

Figure 7 shows the questionnaire result. For the questions Q1 till Q3, the average of evaluation points is considerably larger than the neutral evaluation point of 3. For the question Q4, all the subjects answered 1. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test shows that the average is significantly different from the neutral evaluation point of 3 at all the questions [T(7) = 0 at p < .05, T(7) = 0 at p < .05, T(7) = 0 at p < .05, T(7) = 0 at p < .05]. Table 3 shows the list of overall impression of the system obtained from the subjects. 5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1

4.1

3.7

4.3

1 Q1

Q2

Q3

Question number Fig. 7. Questionnaire result

Q4

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From the results, our system seems to provide the sense of urgency with the subjects while some points in improvement were found.

Table 3. Subject’s impression Comment 1 I was surprised when the flame spread and approached Comment 2 Feeling that the brightness of the real-world image and the virtual reality object are different Comment 3 Feel like low resolution Comment 4 Feel a little lag

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

1 258 515 772 1029 1286 1543 1800 2057 2314 2571 2828 3085 3342 3599 3856 4113 4370

FPS

Figure 8 shows the change of frame rate for one of the subjects during the experiment. The horizontal axis shows the sequence number of frames and the vertical one does the number of frames per second or FPS. From the figure, the FPS increased to 90 at some points while it was stabilized at approximately 40. Considering if it is practical, the FPS of 60 is necessary and some improvements in terms of both the software and hardware aspects are required.

millisecond Fig. 8. FPS during the experiment

5 Conclusion This manuscript built a firefighting training system using AR for home use and conducted a pilot experiment in performance and evaluated if our system would yield the sense of urgency by questionnaire. The results showed that the mechanism a fire’s flame continues to spread if nothing is done, could give the subject a sense of urgency but there is still room to take a consideration into speed of spreading. In the future, we would like to prepare several speed patterns and conduct comparative experiments.

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References 1. Kawano, T.: Development of disaster evacuation training method applying simulated experience using AR. Ergonomics 52(Suppl.), S358–S359 (2006) 2. Yoshioka, T., Takebe, K., Suzuki, K.: The effects of fire evacuation on stress and crisis avoidance behavior. Architectural Inst. Japan 615, 69–74 (2007) 3. Iimura, K., Nakamura, H., Okura, N., Komatsu, T.: Experiment of quantification and evaluation of realism and reality. In: Japan Ergonomics Society 53rd Conference (2012)

Learning

Technology for Training: Acquisition Recommender Support Tool Julian Abich IV(&) and Eric Sikorski Quantum Improvements Consulting, Orlando, FL 32817, USA {jabich,esikorski}@quantumimprovements.net

Abstract. Immersive technologies, such as augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR), are increasingly being utilized for training in various domains, especially the military. Although immersive technology’s potential for meeting specific training needs should be analyzed prior to implementation, an in-depth analysis is not always feasible. Therefore, military acquisition personnel often take an approach focused on logistical constraints when making decisions about acquiring new technology for training though no solution exists to guide these acquisition personnel through that selection process. The goal for this effort is to develop a software tool that will equip acquisition personnel with the ability to make evidence-based decisions about technologies for training prior to their acquisition. This support tool will help users make informed acquisition decision by inquiring about parameters (e.g. group size) and practical constraint (e.g. outdoor environment) considerations through various data extraction techniques. The ultimate goal is more efficient training as a result of guidance during the training technology acquisition process. Keywords: Training tool

 Immersive technology  Defense acquisition  Support

1 Introduction The Department of Defense (DOD) acquisition workforce is defined as “uniformed and civilian government personnel, who are responsible for identifying, developing, buying, and managing goods and services to support the military [1].” The DOD is continuously attempting to reform the defense acquisition process with the goal to reduce wasteful spending and mismanagement of programs [2, 3]. While efforts have been made to improve acquisition efficiency and effectiveness by enhancing workforce capabilities, task loads and contract complexities continue to hinder progress. Further, the Defense Acquisition University (DAU) educates and trains the acquisition workforce across a variety of career fields (e.g. engineering, auditing, logistics, etc.), yet there does not appear to be any focus on learning science, instructional design, or training methodology as standalone or integrated within related courses (e.g. Science and Technology Management). There currently is no solution available to provide acquisition personnel with training focused guidance when determining the most effective technological training solutions. Therefore, when acquisition personnel are faced with the task of acquiring new technology to support learning and training within © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 253–258, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_32

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the military, they may not have a solid foundation to make critical decisions when choosing optimal technology to facilitate training. The goal for this project is to develop a software support tool that guides acquisition personnel through a learning and training perspective, granting them the ability to make evidence-based informed decisions when acquiring technology for training. As the proliferation of new immersive technologies flood the market, the desire to utilize them for training applications increases. Acquisition personnel must not succumb to temptation by the face validity (e.g. replicates the real-world or operational environment) of these technologies to support training outcomes. Instead, decisions to leverage new technologies, regardless of the type, should be based on specific criteria related to learning objectives and desired training outcomes [4]. Further, they must provide the trainee with the opportunity to learn the specific components of the tasks and eventually support practice of those tasks as they would occur in the operational environment. The benefits of replicating the operational environment, along with other types of fidelity [5], are only realized when fidelity is aligned with the appropriate phases of training [4, 6, 7]. Since acquisition personnel are not specifically educated on training methodology, they are challenged when faced with the decision to acquire technology that will be the most effective to facilitate successful training outcomes while reducing cost of diminishing returns. 1.1

Our Approach

The research team is developing an acquisition support tool prototype. The tool features a series of questions for the user in areas such as learning objectives, fidelity, and environmental factors. The questions are being developed based on the assumption that its users (i.e. acquisition personnel) do not typically have advanced knowledge of training methodologies or instructional design principles. The types of questions and wording in the tool guides the user rather than relies on knowledge of training. The output will be a set of technology recommendation based on user responses as well as research-based recommendations of immersive technology applications for training. To develop a prototype, the sample of technology options available for recommendation are scoped down to include only augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR) devices that were available in 2019. 1.2

Aim for This Paper

This paper will focus on the design approach to extract user knowledge of the acquisition process, describe how the information will be translated into design documents for communication with the development team, and explain how the tool will be used. To inform tool development, a literature review was conducted on the acquisition process for non-major (i.e. below a few million dollars) technology acquisition. Front-end analysis, such as structured interviews with subject matter experts, are underway to understand gaps that exist between the current and desired acquisition process. These results will drive the design of the conceptual framework, requirements specification, content architecture, user flows, wireframes, and mockups.

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A user-centered design methodology taking an iterative development approach is being applied. Ideally, there is a linear sequence of activities during this process though variability in executing them is typical, due to external events (e.g. inability to access SMEs). The process described here will discuss some of the steps that have been executed along with the challenges faced thus far and implemented resolutions. The intent is to present the lessons learned to inform future design processes.

2 Methodology 2.1

Front-End Analysis

A front-end analysis was conducted to build a knowledge foundation of the defense acquisition process. The Defense Acquisition System (DAS) established acquisition categories (ACAT) to manage the decision-making, execution, and compliance for each category type. The main categories range from ACAT I through IV. The general differences in the categories lie in the total funds procured, where in the acquisition process a program resides, and who has decision authority. The customer indicated this tool will support ACAT IV which is specific only to the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps. Challenge. ACAT IV is defined as “ACAT programs not otherwise designated as ACAT III [8].” The same definition exists for ACAT III, meaning the criteria for categorization is that it does not fall into any preceding category. The challenge becomes apparent by the nature of that definition. Very little documentation about the process exists, making this step strongly dependent on stakeholder, SME, and user input and feedback. Another challenge is trying to gain access to SMEs or users that have ACAT IV acquisition experience. Resolution. To resolve this challenge, the intent of the support tool was re-evaluated. Instead of trying to integrate the current acquisition process into the tool, the tool was reconceptualized to educate acquisition personnel about the importance of basing technology acquisition decisions on specific task objectives. By reviewing the course curriculum and descriptions provided by the DAU, it was realized that none provided education on training methods or instructional design. This realization was confirmed with the customer and allowed us to go forth with the reconceptualized design. 2.2

Conceptual Framework and Concept of Operations (CONOPS)

A conceptual framework for the support tool was created leveraging the information gathered in the front-end analysis combined with the literature found on training device design and implementation. This provided a basis for the components that guide the technology acquisition recommendation process. Once established, the CONOPS was generated that provided the characteristics of the support tool and described the process a user would go through when using the tool. Challenge. The initial framework was complex and strongly emphasized the concepts of designing a training device, rather than capturing an approach for the acquisition

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process. The CONOPS reflected this in terms of components of the support tool and the steps a user would take to achieve the technology recommendation. Resolution. Through repeated discussion and brainstorming sessions with the internal design team, external development team, and stakeholder feedback, both documents were revised to reflect only the essential training related components that the acquisition personnel would need to generate the technology recommendation. Sample content was generated to better understand the information that would be presented to the user and how to format it. 2.3

User Flow

The user flow provides a visual diagram of a prototypical user’s path through the decision support tool. After refining the conceptual framework and CONOPS, a basic user flow was designed for the support tool. Beyond the basic login and profile creation, the flow illustrated each step the user would go through to reach the technology recommendation. Challenge. The process must guide users in determining if technology is appropriate and, if so, then which one. The acquisition tool may not recommend a technology, if technology is not the most appropriate solution, which helps to mitigate the issue of wasteful spending. Combining this concept into the process poses a challenge as the knowledge needed to make this decision is usually outside the user’s training and that user, as an acquisition professional, may be biased toward acquiring technology. Resolution. After further evaluation of the of the user flow and components, an evaluation of the process was conducted using a sample use case derived from the literature. Utilizing the use case, the original flow was evaluated at each decision point. Each decision point is an opportunity to extract pertinent information from the end user to refine the final technology recommendation. An in depth understanding of the goals to be achieved at each step were mapped out and described to show how output in one step would support the input of the next. Through this evaluation, extraneous components were identified and either removed or integrated into subsequent steps as a way to preserve the contribution of these components but to present them in an appropriate format for the acquisition users. 2.4

Mockups

The mockups provide the visual details of the user interface, such as typography styles, colors, and scale of content, to provide a realistic representation of the final support tool user interface. These mockups reflect the functionality of the system in a visual format to convey critical design information to the development team. Challenge. This support tool is being integrated into a previously designed tool intended to provide decision support for training researchers. When designing the user interface for a completely new system, there is more opportunity for creative freedom. For this support tool, the challenge was designing the interface for a different user than

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for whom it was originally conceived while maintaining the look and feel of the original solution. Resolution. Through the iterative design process, a mix of wireframes and mockups were generated and tested internally with the design team. Once an agreed upon design was set, input from the development team was gathered and integrated. This process resulted in a final mockup set that was presented to the stakeholders to ensure the support tool was aligned with their vision and expectations.

3 Future Steps Validation is the next major project milestone. First approach requires validation of the design documents. At this stage, the mockups will need to be reviewed by potential users or at least someone with experience and knowledge of the ACAT IV acquisition process. The best candidates will be the Navy researchers that have both the expertise in training and experience with the acquisition process. They will understand the process from both perspectives and will be able to provide valuable insight into the practicality of the support tool. Another recommended validation activity is to test the support tool against a full stakeholder provided use case. By implementing a stakeholder use case, the support tool can be tested on its ability to provide recommendations to a situation most familiar to them. A second and third validation approach is to leverage a use case that is a current challenge the users face or a retro-analysis from a past technology acquisition, respectively. A current use case will allow the system to be evaluated for a new training technology acquisition decision. A use case alone will not determine how effective the recommended technology so a training effectiveness evaluation should also be conducted. Alternatively, a retro-analysis would provide insight into whether the technology recommendation aligns with what was acquired. The limitation of the retroanalysis is that although a particular technology was acquired, it may not have been the most effective solution. Therefore, the best solution is to execute all three approaches to provide a robust validation of the support tool as each may uncover different opportunities for improvement.

4 Conclusion The goal for this project is to develop a support tool for Navy and Marine Corps acquisition personnel when executing ACAT IV acquisitions. Specifically, this tool is designed to help provide informed decision making for personnel with no instructional design or training development background. The support tool presented here is still a work in progress but was presented to highlight the accomplishments and challenges overcome throughout the design process. These provide lessons learned for future design work. This support tool can help avoid DOD wasteful spending associated with acquiring technology not aligned with training outcomes. Further, with proper implementation,

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this tool will lead to more effective training, which in turn could result in additional cost savings while better preparing trainees for operational tasks. Acknowledgements. This research was accomplished under Contract No N68335-19-C-0089. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of NAWCTSD or the US Government. The US Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Government purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation hereon. NAWCTSD Public Release 20-ORL043 Distribution Statement A – Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

References 1. Gates, S.M., Keating, E.G., Jewell, A.D., et al.: The Defense Acquisition Workforce, An Analysis of Personnel Trends Relevant to Policy, 1993-2006. RAND Corporation, Santa Monica (2008) 2. Schwartz, F., Francis, K.A., O’Connor, C.V.: The Department of Defense Acquisition Workforce: Background, Analysis, and Questions for Congress. Congressional Research Service (CRS Report R44578), pp. 1–14 (2016) 3. U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO). Homeland Security Acquisitions: Identifying all non-major acquisitions would advance ongoing efforts to improve management (Report GAO-17-396), Washington, D.C. (2017) 4. Kinkade, R.G., Wheaton, G.R.: Training device design. In: Van Cott, H.P., Kinkade, R.G. (eds.) Human Engineering Guide to Equipment Design, pp. 667–699. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. (1972) 5. Liu, D., Macchiarella, N.D., Vincenzi, D.A.: Simulation fidelity. In: Vincenzi, D.A., Wise, J. A., Mouloua, M., Hancock, P.A. (eds.) Human Factors in Simulation and Training, pp. 61– 74. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2009) 6. Andrews, D.H., Carroll, L.A., Bell, H.H.: The future of selective fidelity in training devices (Report AL/HR-TR-1995-0195). Air Force Material Command, Brooks Air Force Base, TX (1996) 7. Padron, C., Mishler, A., Fidopiastis, C., Stanney, K., Fragomeni, G.: Maximising return on training investment in mixed reality systems. In: Proceeding of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) (2018) 8. Defense Acquisition University. Acquisition Category (ACAT). https://www.dau.edu/ acquipedia/pages/articledetails.aspx#!313. Accessed 10 Mar 2020

Meta-Analysis of Children’s Learning Outcomes in Block-Based Programming Courses Jen-I Chiu(&) and Mengping Tsuei Graduate School of Curriculum and Instructional Communication Technology, National Taipei University of Education, Taipei, Taiwan [email protected], [email protected]

Abstract. In the last two decades, the importance of research on block-based programming education has grown. The use of block-based programming tools is receiving attention not only in computer science courses, but also in robotics education. The effects of such programming on children’s learning outcomes have been examined, but the results have been inconclusive. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the mean effect of block-based programming compared with traditional instruction (i.e., text-based programming) on children’s learning outcomes, including problem-solving skills, programming skills, computational thinking and motivation. The effect size and effects of moderators (publication year, sample size, publication sources and study region) were also examined. The database search yielded 19 publications with 31 effect sizes (n = 1369). Block-based programming had a significantly larger effect size than did traditional instruction for overall learning outcomes. More specifically, we found a large effect size for problem-solving skills, small effect sizes for programming skills and computational thinking, and a trivial effect size for motivation. No moderating effect was detected. Effect sizes for outcomes were large in research conducted in the Americas and Asia, medium in studies conducted in Europe and trivial in studies conducted in the Middle East. No evidence of publication bias in the studies was detected. These study findings support the benefits of block-based programming education for children’s learning outcomes, especially their problem-solving skills. Future research should examine additional dependent variables. Keywords: Block-based programming programming language

 Meta-analysis  Visualized

1 Introduction In the last two decades, the importance of research on programming education has grown. Programming education has been shown to benefit students’ reading, writing and problem solving (Felleisen et al. 2004). Students show stress and low motivation when using traditional text-based programming tools because the procedures they describe are difficult to remember, leading to susceptibility to syntax error. Bau et al. (2017) noted that block-based programming is easy to learn, reduces cognitive loading © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 259–266, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_33

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and syntax error and increases motivation. Findings from several other studies suggest that block-based programming improves learning outcomes (Brown et al. 2008; Wang et al. 2009; Hermans and Aivaloglou 2017). Although most scholars agree that the use of block-based programming leads to positive learning outcomes, some argue against this conclusion. Costa and Miranda (2019) found no significant difference in logical thinking skills among students with low socio-economic status exposed to traditional and block-based programming. Similarly, Nam et al. (2010) found no difference in problem-solving skills among students exposed to traditional and block-based programming. The purposes of this meta-analysis were to compare the mean effects of block-based programming and traditional instruction on children’s learning outcomes, and to identify factors moderating these effects.

2 Block-Based Programming Recently, many researchers have suggested that block-based programming facilitates children’s acquisition of programming, computational thinking and problem-solving skills. Block-based programming tools have user-friendly interfaces that enable students to ‘drag and drop’ blocks for composite programming. Commonly used tools for children include Alice (Costa and Miranda 2019), Scratch (Oh et al. 2012) and APP Inventor (Papadakis et al. 2016). Numerous studies have shown that children who use these tools have significantly better programming skills than do those receiving traditional instruction (Wang et al. 2009; Hermans and Aivaloglou 2017). Primary-school and sixth-grade students who use Scratch have been shown to have significantly better problem-solving and mathematical skills, respectively, than students receiving traditional instruction (Lai and Yang 2011; Calao et al. 2015). Durak (2018) also noted significantly enhanced self-efficacy among fifth-grade children who had taken blockbased programming courses. Other researchers, however, have reported negative effects or no specific effect of block-based programming courses. Cooper et al. (2003) noted that the use of blockbased programming might make children miss the opportunity to do ‘real’ coding. Kormaz (2016) found no significant difference in the programming skills of children receiving block-based and traditional programming instruction. Many recent studies have examined the efficacy of block-based programming, but the results have been inconclusive. Our findings will be useful for teachers and researchers when instructional design.

3 Method This meta-analysis included 19 publications dating to 2008–2019. We followed metaanalytic procedures, including the gathering of studies and coding of features to calculate the effect size and moderating effects (Cheng et al. 2019). As existing research focused on ‘children’ refers to primary- and secondary-school students.

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261

Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria

The titles, keywords and abstracts of identified publications were read to determine their applicability to this study. Eligible publications described studies comparing block-based programming (treatment) with traditional programming (control) instruction. The exclusion criteria were: 1) no use of a (quasi) experimental approach, 2) provision of insufficient data for effect size calculation, 3) use of an undergraduate or older sample and 4) inaccessibility of full text. 3.2

Publication Selecting and Coding

The EBSCOhost platform, ACM Digital Library and IEEE Xplore Digital Library were searched to identify relevant studies published between 2008 and October 2019. Data on the author, year of publication, title, publication source (e.g. journal, conference proceeding), sample size, participant nationality, block-based tool (i.e. Scratch, Alice, APP Inventor), learning outcomes and quantitative results (e.g. means, standard deviations, t and p values) were extracted. After the removal of duplicates, the sample comprised 19 publications (11 journal articles and 8 conference proceeding papers) and 31 effect sizes (n = 1369), including eleven journal articles and eight conference proceedings. The independent variables were the block-based programming tools (Scratch, Alice and APP Inventor). The dependent variables were programming skills, computational thinking skills, problemsolving skills and motivation. The included studies were conducted in the Americas, Asia, Europe and the Middle East. 3.3

Effect Size Calculation

The Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (version 2.0) software was used to calculate effect sizes and assess publication bias, using the standardised measures of Cohen’s d and 1 Hedges’ g (Cheng et al. 2019). The formula for Cohen’s d is as following. Where X 2  2 represent the mean scores, n1 and n2 represent the sample sizes, and S and S2 and X 1 2 represent the variances of two groups. 1  X 2 X Cohen's d ¼ qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2 2 ðn1 1ÞS1 þ ðn2 1ÞS2 ðn1 þ n2 2Þ

Hedges’ g has the best properties for small sample size, the formula of Hedges’ g is: J¼1

3 ; Hedge'g ¼ J  Cohen's d 4ð N  2Þ  1

The effect sizes > 0.2 were considered to be small, those of 0.5 were considered to be medium, and those of 0.8 were considered to be large (Cohen 1992, 1998). As the

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region and year of publication varied widely among publications, a random-effects model was used (Borenstein et al. 2007). Publication bias was evaluated using the failsafe N procedure.

4 Results 4.1

Overall Effect of Block-Based Programming

The total sample comprised 1369 children who received block-based (n = 779) and traditional (n = 590) programming instruction. The overall effect size was medium (g = 0.71, 95% confidence interval –2.32 to 5.88; Z = 2.68, p = .01). For learning outcomes overall, the effect size for block-based programming was significantly larger than that for traditional instruction. 4.2

Publication Bias

We used the classic fail-safe N test to examine publication bias; the formulas are: Fail - safe numberð:05Þ ¼ 19s  n; Tolerance level ¼ 5K þ 10 where s – n represents the difference in the number of studies yielding significant and nonsignificant differences and K represents the total number of studies. When the failsafe number, which is the number of missing studies needed to render the overall mean effect size trivial, exceeds the tolerance level, the absence of publication bias is suggested (Rosenthal 1991). The fail-safe N (422) exceeded the tolerance level (105), indicating the absence of evidence of publication bias. 4.3

Effects on Learning Outcomes

Table 1 shows effect sizes for the learning outcomes examined. The effect sizes were large for problem-solving skills (n = 5; g = 1.11, p = .07), small for programming skills (n = 11; g = 0.64, p = .07) and computational thinking (n = 4; g = 0.57, p = .29), and trivial for motivation (n = 11; g = 0.13, p = .38). Table 1. Effect sizes on four moderator variables Effect size and 95% confidence interval Heterogeneity K g SE Lower limit Upper limit Problem-solving 5 1.11 .62 −.11 2.32 Programming 11 .64 .35 −.05 1.33 Computational thinking 4 .57 .54 −.48 1.62 Motivation 11 .13 .15 −.16 .42 Total between

Z 1.79 1.83 1.06 0.88

p Q df p .07 .07 .29 .38 4.14 3 .25

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Effect According to Publication Sources. The results provide the effect sizes on four moderator variables: publication source, study region, publication year and sample size. In terms of publication source, the effect sizes were large for conference proceedings papers (n = 8; g = 0.96, p = .02) and medium for journal articles (n =11; g = 0.53, p = .16). The effects on learning outcomes were not moderated by the publication source (Q = 0.61, p = .44) (Table 2). Effects According to Study Region. The effect sizes of study region indicated that effect sizes were large for research conducted in the Americas (n = 3; g = 1.18, p = .03) and Asia (n = 6; g = 0.95, p = .03), medium for studies conducted in Europe (n = 6; g = 0.66, p = .43) and trivial for studies conducted in the Middle East (n = 4; g = 0.05, p = .80). The effects on learning outcomes were not moderated by the study region (Q = 7.04, p = .07) (Table 2). Effects According to Publication Year. Effect sizes were large for studies published in 2016–2019 (n = 9; g = 1.05, p = .09) and small for those published in 2012–2015 (n =7; g = 0.47, p = .08) and 2008–2011 (n =3; g = 0.31, p = .18). The effects on learning outcomes were not moderated by the publication year (Q = 2.22, p = .33) (Table 2). Effects According to Sample Size. Effect sizes were large for samples  30 (n = 13; g = 0.94, p = .00) and small for samples < 30 (n = 6; g = 0.69, p = .70). The effects on learning outcomes were not moderated by the publication year (Q = 1.66, p = .20) (Table 2). Table 2. Effect sizes on four moderator variables Effect size and 95% confidence interval K

g

Heterogeneity

SE

Lower limit

Upper limit

Z

p

Q

df

p

.61

1

.44

7.04

3

.07

2.22

2

.33

1.66

1

.20

Publication source Journal articles Conference- proceedings

11

.53

.38

−.21

1.27

1.41

.16

8

.96

.41

.17

1.75

2.37

.02

Total between Study Region Middle East

4

.05

.18

−.30

.39

0.25

.80

Asia

6

.95

.45

.08

1.83

2.14

.03

The Americas

3

1.18

.53

.13

2.22

2.20

.03

Europe

6

.66

.83

−.98

2.29

0.79

.43

Total between Publication year 2008–2011

3

.21

.15

−.09

.51

1.36

2012–2015

7

.47

.26

−.05

.99

1.77

.08

2016–2019

9

1.05

.62

−.17

2.26

1.69

.09

.18

Total between Sample size Less than 30 Above 30 Total between

6

.19

.49

−.77

1.15

.39

.70

13

.94

.32

.31

1.58

2.91

.00

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5 Discussion and Conclusions This meta-analysis of 19 publications showed that block-based programming courses contribute to the improvement of children’s programming, problem-solving and computational thinking skills, but have a trivial effect on their motivation. Effect sizes for overall learning outcomes were large for research conducted in the Americas and Asia, medium for studies conducted in Europe, and trivial for studies conducted in the Middle East. They were large for conference proceedings papers and studies published in 2016–2019, medium for journal articles and small for studies published in 2008– 2015. They were large for samples more than 30 and small for samples less than 30. No moderating effect was detected. One possible reason for the trivial effect on children’s motivation is that most children included in the studies were novice programmers. Programming learning may still challenge tasks for children. The children might have struggled to learn in the block-based environment. We recommend that teachers should consider children’s programming skills during courses and using teaching strategies to familiarise them with block-based programming. The trivial effect size observed for studies conducted in the Middle East is likely due to the small sample (K = 4). More empirical research on the effects of block-based programming in the Middle East is needed. Overall, the results of this study suggest that the development of programming, problem-solving and computational thinking skills using block-based programming tools improves the performance of primary- and secondary-school students. We suggest that block-based programming not only could be used in computer science courses, but also could be integrated into courses in other disciplines (i.e. mathematics, language and art). This preliminary research on block-based programming education limited by its focus on studies involving children. The findings, however, provide a basis for future research of meta-analyses on other dependent variables.

References

References Marked with an Asterisk Indicate Studies that are Included in the Meta-Analysis Bau, D., Gray, J., Kelleher, C., Sheldon, J., Turbak, F.: Learnable programming: blocks and beyond. Commun. ACM, 72–80 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1145/3015455 Borenstein, M., Hedges, L., Rothstein, H.: Meta-analysis: fixed effect vs. random effects (2007). www.meta-analysis.com/downloads *Brown, Q., Mongan, W., Kusic, D., Garbarine, E., Fromm, E., Fontecchio, A.: Computer aided instruction as a vehicle for problem solving: scratch boards in the middle years classroom. In: Proceedings of 2008 Annual Conference & Exposition, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (2008)

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*Calao, L.A., Moreno-León, J., Correa, H.E., Robles, G.: Developing mathematical thinking with scratch. In: Conole, G., Klobucar, T., Rensing, C., Konert, J., Lavoue, E. (eds.), Design for teaching and learning in a networked world, Toledo, Spain (2015). https://doi.org/10. 1007/978-3-319-24258-3_2 Cheng, L., Ritzhaupt, A.D., Antonenko, P.: Effects of the flipped classroom instructional strategy on students’ learning outcomes: a meta-analysis. Educ. Technol. Res. Dev. 67(4), 793–824 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-018-9633-7 Cohen, J.: Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd edn. Erlbaum, Hillsdal (1988) Cohen, J.: A power primer. Psychol. Bull. 112(1), 155–159 (1992). https://doi.org/10.1037/00332909.112.1.155 Cooper, S., Dann, W., Pausch, R., Pausch, R.: Teaching objects-first in introductory computer science. ACM SIGCSE Bull. 35(1), 191–195 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1145/792548.611966 *Costa, J.M., Miranda, G.L.: Using alice software with 4C-ID model: effects in programming knowledge and logical reasoning. Inf. Educ. 18(1), 1–15 (2019). https://doi.org/10.15388/ infedu.2019.01 *Durak, Y.H.: Digital story design activities used for teaching programming effect on learning of programming concepts, programming self‐efficacy, and participation and analysis of student experiences. J. Comput. Assist. Learn. 34(6), 740–752 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal. 12281 Felleisen, M., Findler, R.B., Flatt, M., Krishnamurthi, S.: The teach scheme! project: computing and programming for every student. Comput. Sci. Educ. 14(1), 55–77 (2004). https://doi.org/ 10.1076/csed.14.1.55.23499 *Hermans, F., Aivaloglou, E.: Teaching software engineering principles to k-12 students: a MOOC on scratch. In: Proceedings of 2017 IEEE/ACM 39th International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering Education and Training Track, Buenos Aires, Argentina (2017). https://doi.org/10.1109/icse-seet.2017.13 *Ideris, N., Baharudin, S.M., Hamzah, N.: The Effectiveness of scratch in collaborative learning on higher-order thinking skills in programming subject among year-six students. In: Paper presented in 4th ASEAN Conference on Psychology, Counselling, and Humanities, Universiti Sains, Malaysia (2019). https://doi.org/10.2991/acpch-18.2019.99 Korkmaz, Ö.: The effect of Scratch-based game activities on students’ attitudes, self-efficacy and academic achievement. Int. J. Mod. Educ. Comput. Sci. 8(1), 16–23 (2016). https://doi.org/ 10.5815/ijmecs.2016.01.03 *Lai, A.F., Yang, S.M.: The learning effect of visualized programming learning on 6th graders’ problem solving and logical reasoning abilities. In: Proceedings of 2011 International Conference on Electrical and Control Engineering, Yichang, China (2011). https://doi.org/10. 1109/iceceng.2011.6056908 *Master, A., Cheryan, S., Moscatelli, A., Meltzoff, A.N.: Programming experience promotes higher STEM motivation among first-grade girls. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 160, 92–106 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2017.03.013 *Moreno-León, J., Robles, G., Román-González, M.: Code to learn: where does it belong in the K-12 curriculum. J. Inf. Technol. Educ. Res. 15, 283–303 (2016). https://doi.org/10.28945/ 3521 *Nam, D., Kim, Y., Lee, T.: The effects of scaffolding-based courseware for the Scratch programming learning on student problem solving skill. In: Wong, S.L., (eds.) 18th International Conference on Computers in Education, Putrajaya, Malaysia (2010)

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*Oh, J.C., Lee, J.H., Kim, J.A., Kim, J.H.: Development and application of STEAM based education program using scratch: focus on 6th graders, science in elementary school. J. Korean Assoc. Comput. Educ. 15(3), 11–23 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-0076738-6_60 *Oluk, A., Saltan, F.: Effects of using the scratch program in 6th grade information technologies courses on algorithm development and problem solving skills. Participatory Educ. Res., 10– 20 (2015). https://doi.org/10.17275/per.15.spi.2.2 *Papadakis, S., Kalogiannakis, M., Zaranis, N., Orfanakis, V.: Using scratch and app inventor for teaching introductory programming in secondary education: a case study. Int. J. Technol. Enhanced Learn. 8(3–4), 217–233 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1504/ijtel.2016.10001505 *Rodríguez-Martínez, J.A., González-Calero, J.A., Sáez-López, J.M.: Computational thinking and mathematics using Scratch: an experiment with sixth-grade students. Interact. Learn. Environ., 1–12 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2019.1612448 Rosenthal, R.: Applied Social Research Methods: Meta-Analytic Procedures for Social Research. SAGE, Thousand Oaks (1991). https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412984997 *Sáez-López, J.M., Román-González, M., Vázquez-Cano, E.: Visual programming languages integrated across the curriculum in elementary school: a two year case study using “Scratch” in five schools. Comput. Educ. 97, 129–141 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016. 03.003 *Su, A.Y., Yang, S.J., Hwang, W.Y., Huang, C.S., Tern, M.Y.: Investigating the role of computer‐supported annotation in problem‐solving‐based teaching: an empirical study of a Scratch programming pedagogy. Brit. J. Educ. Technol. 45(4), 647–665 (2014). https://doi. org/10.1111/bjet.12058 *Tekerek, M., Altan, T.: The effect of scratch environment on student’s achievement in teaching algorithm. World J. Educ. Technol. 6(2), 132–138 (2014) *Wang, T.C., Mei, W.H., Lin, S.L., Chiu, S.K., Lin, J.M.C.: Teaching programming concepts to high school students with alice. In: Proceedings of 2009 39th IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, San Antonio, TX, USA (2009). https://doi.org/10.1109/fie.2009.5350486 *Yünkül, E., Durak, G., Çankaya, S., Abidin, Z.: The effects of scratch software on students’ computational thinking skills. Electron. J. Sci. Math. Educ. 11(2), 502–517 (2017)

A Framework for the Design of Plant Science Education System for China’s Botanical Gardens with Artificial Intelligence Lijuan Guo(&) and Jiping Wang School of Art Design and Media, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China [email protected], [email protected]

Abstract. The framework of the traditional plant science education has lagged, which is hard to meet the needs of various visitors in China. In the following paper, we propose a unified interaction framework to help the design of the plant science education system. That is suitable for various visitors from China. They are from young to old with different levels of education, and some of them have dialect or accents. Inspired by the background, we try to design a new framework that takes advantage of the variety of the visitors’ output, aiming to make the plant science education system very smart to understand what the visitors want to learn. Firstly, all the plants are numbered with the non-linear digital numbering method, which can be seen as the label of the training process for deep learning networks. Afterward, the interaction continuously collects the visitors’ plant-related voice data as the input of the deep learning networks during the operation of the system to improve the performance and the stability of the plant science education system. Through continuous training, the overall accuracy of the system could be improved, and the system can gradually understand the regular pattern and central issue of people cares for the plant. The framework provides a new idea for the science education of the botanical garden and further improves the level of science education in China. This framework helps achieve sustainable development and environmental protection. Keywords: Plant science education  Botanical gardens  Artificial intelligence

1 Introduction As world populations become more urbanized, botanical gardens are increasingly recognized as among the important cultural resources of industrialized nations [1]. China is one of the largest countries that owns a large variety of plants. For multiple purposes, such as scientific research, species conservation, and science education, Although the major contemporary objective of botanical gardens is to maintain extensive collections of plants, this paper aims to address the problem of mainly discuss plant science education. This paper focuses on the effect of the design for plant science education. Considering that plant science education relates to the issue of environmental protection and public literacy. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 267–271, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_34

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In modern times, these botanical gardens not only contain a large number of plants, but also utilizes many modern techniques to effectively protect the plants, show rare plants, and satisfy the public’s needs of science knowledge. Compared with other places, the botanical garden is more suitable to carry out environmental education on plant science. Their key advantage is the wide variety of plants could attract the public’s interest and motivate them to look inside the deeper information of the plants in practice. However, although the botanical garden upgrades their equipment well, the interaction is not well design, thus could hardly achieve satisfactory effects. A good design framework of Artificial Intelligence(AI) could provide visitors of all ages with the opportunity to connect with nature and promote environmental literacy.

2 Botanical Garden Science Education Education in Botanical gardens relates closely to many scientific disciplines [2]. China has built more than one hundred botanical gardens, which are “open-air science museums” where numerous plants lead visitors to discover science [3]. From the 1950s to the 1980s, the plant science education in China’s botanical gardens began. In this early period, with the construction progress in the botanical gardens, traditional plant science education was gradually carried out [4]. Nowadays, people have a new understanding of environmental protection and plant science education. Traditional botanical science education cannot meet the increasing demands of people [5]. The Chinese botanical gardens play a significant role in the plant science education of the residents. However, for a long time, the plant science education work of the Chinese Botanical Garden still relies on old methods such as nameplates, bulletin boards, and manuals. These methods have poor effect at the aspects of interaction with visitors. Initiatives to support plant science education innovation should be taken to adapt to changes in the pace of technology. In this paper, plants are numbered according to existing species in the botanical garden with a non-linear digital method. The voice was interactive with the science education program focused on deep learning that supports the Chinese botanical garden ‘s artificial smart and digital transformation. So that people can enjoy the benefits of education by the advancement in science and technology.

3 Voice Interaction Voice interaction establishes communication between humans and machines through voice, and usually have the feature of speech recognition, semantic understanding, speech synthesis, and dialogue management [6]. Artificial intelligence allows more connectivity between people and systems, thus making the system more friendly. Voice recognition has gained prominence and is widely used in various applications since the improvement of computing power. It could be seen as one of the most suitable and feasible ways to communicate with visitors and plants. The friendly interaction way

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frees hands and could be used under various weather conditions for visitors of all ages because it also requires very little for them. A typical scenario is that the visitors receive education in the way of talking to the plants., making the uncommon knowledge get closer to visitors. We believe that it is the trend of plant science education, which is conducive to the humanized construction of the system of the botanical garden. The effect of voice interaction relies on how smart the plant education science system is. The combination of artificial intelligence and voice interaction system makes the science education of botanical garden smarter. Benefit from the convenient operation of voice interaction., the education system could obtain large amounts of users’ voice data if the visitors agree to upload their dialogue data with the system to improve the effect. Once the system collects more data, it will dig deeper into the needs behind the collected voice data. The team of the botanical garden can discover the interest of visitors from the collected data, and then display customized content of plant sciences. The system has a very positive impact on the continuous improvement of botanical garden services. From the perspective of the obtain of automatic feedback, the intelligent voice interaction system promotes the development of plant science education and improves the satisfaction of visitors.

4 Deep Learning Generally, training deep neural networks need voice data as the basic input and the label as the output. However, if the interaction mode is not well designed, the scale of the voice data will be small and the quality of the data will be poor. Besides, the label can also be hard to obtain. Specifically, the challenges of voice interaction technology remain three aspects. Firstly, a large proportion of the names of the plants in Chinese characters seems uncommon and the names of some plants share similar pronunciations, which tremendously increase the recognition difficulty of the voice interaction system. Furthermore, China is a big country with diverse culture and nature, people from different regions has different dialects Finally, in the open-air environment of the botanical gardens, noise must be taken into consideration when using the voice recognition technology. To address these problems, we design a novel framework. In this framework, visitors only need to say a combination, i.e., code+name. The coding of the plant name is generated with an expansive nonlinear coding method. This coding strategy converts the non-linear digital number obtained from the visitors into the index, which corresponds to the plant science knowledge stored in the system. The use of non-linear digital numbering enhances the recognition rate of the plant science education system and minimizes environmental interference. In such cases, even if visitors do not know the name of the plants, they can obtain the expected knowledge quickly. The voice interaction system of nonlinear numbered plant science education is more friendly to children and the elderly. This framework increases efficiency and improves user experience. The framework based on deep learning seems like the computer “understands” the words and in turn “communicate” with the people. This process involves speech

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recognition and natural language processing. The framework takes the number said by visitors as the label of the deep learning neural network during the training process. Then, the system analyzes it, extracts features as the voice features vectors, and performs supervised training. Through the iterative process, the system establishes a set of corresponding patterns and the optimal network can be used. Compare these voice parameters with the data in the pattern set, the framework recognizes the voice, and finally, output the corresponding speech for feedback, as shown in Fig. 1. The voice interaction system recognizes and uses human language that stimulates the human brain’s process of language processing and communication. It converts the voice information input by visitors into fluent spoken output analyzed by the system.

Fig. 1. Voice interaction process based on deep learning

The artificial intelligence system of plant science collects a large amount of plantrelated voice data generated from visitors during the tour as input to the deep learning networks. The stability of plant science education is continuously improved through training. As more and more users interact with voice recognition technology, the voice recognition system will have more data and information to feedback into the neural networks, thus improving the capabilities and accuracy of the plant science education system. By analyzing massive amounts of input data, the system gradually evaluates the plant-related issues that are a public concern. Based on the above process, recognition and analysis of visitors’ voice input can be realized, responding to visitors’ needs, and providing visitors with high-quality intelligent science education services.

5 Conclusion We have demonstrated that artificial intelligence technology can be used in the plant science education of botanical gardens. By using the non-linear numbered voice interaction system based on deep neural networks, the difficulties, such as the uncommon and similar names, the diverse dialects, and the environmental noise, are addressed and continuous improvements have been achieved. Benefited from welldesigned interaction mode and the continuous optimization of the neural networks, this framework enhances the effect of plant science education of China. This framework is a reference for the interaction design of the Chinese botanical gardens.

References 1. Abotanic garden. https://www.britannica.com/science/botanical-garden-study-and-exhibitiongarden. Accessed 18 June 2020

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2. Yourun, L., Zhenhua, X.: Discussion on the issue of “Botanical Gardening”. Plant Res. 24(3), 379–384 (2004) 3. Fengjun, G.: The development and innovation of plant science education. Trop. Agric. Eng. 43(02), 210–214 (2019) 4. Ling, X., Jin, C., Daguang, L., et al.: Exploring the development of science popularization in Chinese botanical gardens through three botanical gardens. Sci. Popularization Res. 4(22), 80–83 (2009) 5. Nan, W.: The current situation and development of landscape science education. Heilongjiang Agric. Sci. 6, 130–132 (2017) 6. Zhikang, P.: Research on voice interactive product design based on user experience. Public Lit. 19, 139–140 (2019)

Research on Human-Computer Interaction of Online Course System for “New Media Management” Course of the Major of Journalism and Communication Xiuyuan Guo(&)

and Yuxuan Xiao

Hunan University, Changsha, China [email protected], [email protected]

Abstract. During this special period, many classes have become an online curriculum, including dissemination of Journalism and Communication major. This paper starts from the problem of human-computer interaction of the online course system for “New Media Management” course of the Journalism and Communication Major, method based on an online survey from 13 teachers and 157 students, we studied the influence and role of online teaching methods on teachers and students of dissemination of news major. Based on the research purposes, the human-computer interaction behavior, demand, and usability of teachers and students in 13 online class hours are studied on field research. Research shows that the real-time interaction, integration of multi-channel interaction, situation awareness, and practical mode of dissemination of news majors are the key problem of the online teaching system of dissemination of news majors, then we improved the online course system and completed the design of the online course system. Keywords: New media management computer interaction

 Online course system  Human-

1 Introduction Online courses because of the small space limitations, time relatively free, low marginal cost advantage, has become a trend. In the form of human-computer interaction, however, the effect of knowledge dissemination and evaluation has obvious difference polarization. From the perspective of curriculum setting, some courses are naturally suitable for human-computer interaction, and their technical means can assist teaching presentation, students’ perception and practice. But for other courses, the teaching method of human-computer interaction may become obstacle to the communication effect for some extent. From the perspective of audience perception, the difference of individual knowledge system will also bring great differences in communication effect. This study is based on the online teaching practice of the series of “New Media Management” courses in the field of Journalism and Communication. The audience is all college students majoring in Journalism and Communication, and they have relatively consistent background of knowledge and learning ability. Therefore, the impact © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 272–280, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_35

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of audience differences on this study is relatively small, which is more conducive to indepth discussion from the perspective of curriculum setting. In the field of online education, the teaching of journalism and communication is always a special research object. How to develop news production and dissemination on the latest Media always brings New challenges to “New Media Management” series of courses. On the other hand, the change from offline teaching to online teaching is not achieved through good teaching research and long-term validation, but is by necessity to a large extend. In this case, this study has a practical significance. The research shows that: (a) In terms of teaching methods and design, the teaching syllabus does not present significant changes for online teaching. (b) In terms of the selection of teaching platforms, teachers generally use professional online education platforms in the commercial market. (c) The use of online teaching function, playback is favored by the students. (d) The interaction between teachers and students based on online teaching is significantly higher than that on offline. (e) In terms of human-computer interaction situation, the duration of teacher’s image appears are random distribution. And so on.

2 Related Work Currently, relevant researches are mainly carried out at the following levels: First, the design and development of the human-computer interaction platform for online teaching are introduced, which is mainly carried out in the basic computer field. For example, Ovaska et al. [1] introduced the operation mechanism and teaching content of some large-scale online open courses (MOOC) in User Experience and Learning Experience in Online HCI Courses. Second, the research on the evaluation and achievement system of online teaching from the perspective of human-computer interaction are introduced. Tang et al. [2] put forward a bottom-up evaluation index system in Construction of “Bottom-up” Evaluation Index System of Open Online Course Based on the Delphi Method. Third is an empirical study of online teaching in a curriculum field is introduced. Leventhal and Barnes et al. [3] outlined a project-oriented human-computer interaction course in Two for One: Squeezing Human-Computer Interaction and Software Engineering into a Core Computer Science Course. Fourth the research and reflection on the advantages and disadvantages of humancomputer interaction teaching mode are introduced. Henk [4] starting from the concept of “the right to education”, discuss Open courseware (OCW) to provide a wider range of potential opportunities provided by the higher education opportunity. Fifth, the utility of human-computer interaction teaching mode is studied. Cheng et al. [5] designed and implemented a real-time Attention Recognition and Feedback System to measure The change of learners’ Attention state.

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3 Method This paper mainly uses the methods of questionnaire survey and interview the participating students and teachers of new Media Operation course researching on humancomputer interaction behavior, demand and usability. The research in-volves real-time interaction, situational awareness and other issues in the teaching process of journalism major, and puts forward suggestions on the design of network course system.

4 Experiment 4.1

Student Needs and Platform Availability

The common results of students’ questionnaires and teachers’ interviews show that: • Platform Usage Survey Statistic of “What is the teaching platform used for this course?” shows (Fig. 1):

19.75% 19.11% 2.55% 1.27%

55.41%

0.64% 17.83%

40.13%

Tencent's class Tencent meeng The rain classroom Super star Wisdom tree Learning through Bilibili Others

Fig. 1. Distribution map of online course teaching platform (Self-designed Form)

Statistical results show that the maximum data is from Tencent’s class, was 55.41%, and the teachers’ interview also reflects its main advantage is that the system has relatively high stability, simple operation, functional switching is also in a easy way, which is suitable for theoretical class. Most teachers have tried more than one teaching platform and finally confirmed one as the main teaching platform. • Teaching Styles For “What is the teacher’s online teaching method?”, 90.45% of real-time online teaching, 3.82% of Video broadcast. Meanwhile, Besides attending classes, most teachers used other auxiliary teaching methods to assist the job, 76.92% of teachers released electronic Courseware, 84.62% issued a syllabus and teaching plan, etc., 53.85% of teachers allowed to use Courseware Playback, 100% of teachers participated in group discussion between teachers and students (WeChat group, etc.), and 84.62% of teachers set communication with students one to one. Teachers have a relatively high level of engagement in devoting to the online teaching on the whole, and they are generally concerned about the students’ attention.

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• Course Playback On the subject, there is a bigger difference between teachers and students answer. How many times do you think students need to watch the replay of the class after the first live broadcast of the class (or play the class video) is over? For this point, teachers believe that if the students want to master the corresponding classroom knowledge, 53.84% of the course need to watch the replay, and 7.69% of them even need to replay 5–10 times. But only 38.52% of the students had watch playback, and watch the replay of students, a large proportion is from other than “classroom knowledge not mastered” why choose to watch a replay, as shown in the Table 1.

Table 1. The reason of students playback (Self-designed Form). The reason of students playback The course is very difficult The course progress is fast The course requires students to follow and carry out practical operation in real time High interest in the course content Poor reception in the first class due to network reasons The course feedback channel is not unobstructed, so it is inconvenient to ask questions immediately Others

Rate (%) 26.11 31.21 28.66 29.94 9.11 15.29 10.83

The statistical results show that teachers and students have great deviation in judging the difficulty of the course. Teachers believe that in the case of online teaching, it is impossible for students to master the practical knowledge and complete homework through a course because they cannot gradually guide students to complete the operation face to face. And there is obviously a part of students think they can. However, as far as the concerned shows in interview of teachers, it does not see that there is an obvious increase of error rate and other negative situation in students’ homework. 4.2

Multi-channel and Real-Time Interaction

According to the common results of student questionnaire survey and teacher interview, teachers and students generally believe that during the online teaching process, the frequency of teacher-student interaction has been greatly improved and the overall interaction is in good condition. In the online class, only 1.27% of students never participate in the interaction. Actively engaging with teachers in the course accounted for 54.78% of the students. 40.76% of the students can follow the teacher to answer questions. This level of interaction is much higher than that of offline teaching.

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• Student Participation Ways in the Interaction According to student questionnaires, there are two channels for students to participate in online interaction: “using the built-in function of the teaching platform” and “using channels other than the teaching platform”. However, different interactive channels have no significant impact on “whether to participate in interaction” (Table 2). Table 2. The channels of online class interaction (Self-designed Form). The channels of online class interaction On the platform, use voice interaction On the platform, use text to interact On the teaching platform, use pictures (including emoticons, gifs, etc.) to interact On the platform, use video interaction Outside the teaching platform, use social groups (such as qq group, WeChat group, etc.) to interact Others

Rate (%) 32.9 89.68 18.06 8.39 45.81 0.65

Many teachers and students interact on two or more platforms. Some teachers said that this practice was out of concern for the special circumstances such as “the poor quality of sound”. In addition, online classroom interaction has obvious fragmentation characteristics. Due to the limitation of platform condition, most teachers reduce the interactive design of students’ group discussion and oral presentation in class, and set more simplified topics that can easy reply in words and symbols, which may be part of the reason for the students’ cognition of the course as low challenge. • Interactive intention and content There are 74.52% of students take the initiative to communicate with teachers, this proportion is much higher than offline data (Table 3). Table 3. Students’ active intention statistics (Self-designed Form). Students’ active intention statistics No intention of active communication Wants to communicate with the teacher about the extension of the curriculum Wants to communicate with the teacher in writing papers (research papers, graduation papers, etc.) I want to communicate about academic planning Interested in the teacher’s research direction, consider participating in the teacher’s research project or team Wants to communicate about life, entertainment and other non-curriculum contents Others

Rate (%) 25.48 63.06 22.93 14.01 14.65 15.92 1.27

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Studies show that online classes actually bring teachers and students closer together. Even in 31.85% of the online classes, the teacher’s image never appears in the visual area of students, but because students are individually alone in the real situation of attending class, there is the psychological feeling of “the teacher seems looking forward to me”, to some extent, the long-term isolation from the group atmosphere also improves the desire for their individual expression. 4.3

Human-Computer Interaction Situation

Teachers and students generally have a high evaluation on the human-computer interaction condition in this course, but they have underestimate on appealing for the human-computer interaction design of this course. However, this does not prevent the communication effect of the course from showing a good tendency. • Course satisfaction in human-computer interaction

100.00% 50.00% 0.00% Very sasfied with

Basic sasfacon teachers

general

Not sasfied with

Very dissasfied

students

Fig. 2. Online course satisfaction profile (Self-designed Form)

With the exception of very few individuals, most of the teachers and students are satisfied with the online class. Especially among the students, 47.77% very satisfied with it and 48.41% of them with basic satisfaction. Among the teachers, 61.54% have basic satisfaction. None of teachers rated “Not satisfied with” and “Very dissatisfied” (Fig. 2). • Human-Computer Interaction Situations Effects on Concentration

100.00% 50.00% 0.00% Online classes are more Offline classes are more focused focused Focus of teachers

They are similar

Focus of students

Fig. 3. Online course concentration comparison chart (Self-designed Form)

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Research shows that only 14.01% of students think online classes are more focused, to some extent, we can realize that the students listening to lectures online are under the condition of relatively low concentration, still finished tasks properly, which made us consider other reason for this change. Teachers are significantly more focused on online teaching, with 30.77% believing that online classes are more focused and 7.69% believing that Offline classes are more focused. Objectively, more teachers invest more attention in online teaching and spend more time and energy to think about the way to improve (Fig. 3). • The Influence of Human-Computer Interaction Condition on the Teaching Effect In terms of the presentation and perception of the effect, teachers and students majoring in journalism and Communication show relatively different judgments (Fig. 4).

Fig. 4. The comparison chart of online class interpersonal interaction situation evaluation (Selfdesigned Form)

General speaking, most of teachers and students think offline teaching would has better effect, only 15.38% of the teachers and 28.03% of the students think the context of the online lecture is conducive to the course learning. but it is interesting to note that these judgments are inconsistent with the actual data from the performance of the communication effect. It is evident in the dramatic increase in the frequency of student interaction and in the fact that student’s mastery of knowledge has improved than teachers’ expectation.

5 Conclusion Based on the above data analysis, the research says that: first, in terms of student demand and platform availability level, the online teaching platform used by the current courses has its advantages and disadvantages, which can generally meet the students’ online learning needs of information transmission. However, as for the details of human-computer interaction settings, which needs to be used in different courses, such as the inability to import operational procedures for teacher-student alternations and inspections in practice classes, there is still a room to grow. Secondly, on the real-time

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interaction and multi-channel interaction level, the current course platforms have obviously deficiencies on the user service function. However, in this study, students’ enthusiasm for interaction is motivated by the particularity of interpersonal interaction, and teachers’ non-confidence in network communication objectively stimulate the number of interactions. In fact, that improving the degree of interaction between teachers and students is conducive to enhancing the communication effect of online courses. Moreover, it unconsciously constitutes the basic situation of positive interaction, which can even compensate for the lack of hardware in some points of view. Thirdly, in the context of human-computer interaction, the course produces a good situation which is not easily perceived by teachers and students, but this does not obstruct the improvement of the communication effect. The efficiency of students’ knowledge acquisition has been improved, and students have generally completed learning at much lower playback rate than that estimated by teachers. This conclusion can be supported by homework completion and accuracy rate. The interaction between teachers and students is significantly enhanced. Due to the psychological implication of one-to-one teaching and the absence of personal image in class, students feel reduce the risk of wrong answer, improve the willingness of communication, and form a good virtuous circle and communication expectation. Based on these, the following aspects should be improved in setting the online teaching system of New Media Operation in the future. First, a special online teaching platform should be built according to the teaching requirements of different disciplines, designed access ports for various practical operating software. Second is to reduce the systematic and deliberative topics setting of class interaction, increase the schedule of extracurricular teacher-student interaction that is not limited to the course content, and the establishment of close relationship between teachers and students. Third, enhance the perception ability of teachers and students majoring in news communication for human-computer interaction situation, avoid the effect perception barriers caused by different professional fields, miss the human-computer interaction situation data that really contributes to the communication effect, and tend to take their own feelings and experience as evaluation criteria. In addition, because the course has not yet completed the final evaluation, the assessment of students’ knowledge understanding is mainly based on several current assignments, therefore, systematic data presentation has not been achieved in the evaluation of online communication effect of this course. There is flaws here, that is expected to be in a follow-up study to continue carrying out the analysis.

References 1. Ovaska, S.: User experience and learning experience in online HCI courses. In: Kotzé, P., Marsden, G., Lindgaard, G., Wesson, J., Winckler, M. (eds.) INTERACT 2013. LNCS, vol. 8120, pp. 447–454. Springer, Heidelberg (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-40498-6_ 34 2. Tang, X.J., Lu, Y., Liu, N., Wang, H.W., Gongyuan, Q.: Construction of “bottom-up” evaluation index system of open online course based on the delphi method. In: 2016 International Conference on Power Engineering & Energy, Environment (PEEE 2016), pp. 1– 9 (2016)

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3. Leventhal, L., Barnes, J.: Two for one: squeezing human-computer interaction and software engineering into a core computer science course. Comput. Sci. Educ. 13(3), 177–190 (2003) 4. Henk, H, Tas, B, David, B.: OpenCourseWare, global access and the right to education: Real access or marketing ploy. In: International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 2008, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 13 (2008) 5. Cheng, P.Y., Chien, Y.C., Huang, Y.M.: The design and implementation of a real-time attention recognition/feedback system in online learning course. In: 2017 International Conference of Educational Innovation through Technology (EITT). IEEE (2017)

Modeling Learners’ Programming Skills and Question Levels Through Machine Learning WooJeong Kim1 , Soyoung Rhim1 , John Y. J. Choi2 , and Kyungsik Han1(B)

2

1 Ajou University, Suwon, Republic of Korea {gks3284,ter194,kyungsikhan}@ajou.ac.kr Coding Robot Lab, Inc., Seoul, Republic of Korea [email protected]

Abstract. Many universities have started to adopt online programming tools to support students’ programming practice, yet the services currently offered by the existing tools are somewhat passive with respect to considering a student’s programming skill level and providing appropriate code questions. To enhance students’ learning experience and improve their programming skills, it would be helpful to examine students’ programming abilities and provide them with the most suitable code questions and guidelines. Machine learning can play a role in modeling the level of students’ programming skills as well as the difficulty of questions by taking the students’ programming experience and code submissions into account. This paper presents a study on the development of machine learning models to classify the levels of students’ programming skills and those of programming questions, based on the data of students’ code submissions. We extracted a total of 197 features of code quality, code readability and system time. We used those features to build classification models. The model for the student level (four classes) and the question level (five classes) yielded 0.60 and 0.82 F1-scores, respectively, showing reasonable classification performance. We discuss our study highlights and their implications, such as group and question matching based on code submissions and user experience improvement. Keywords: Programming

1

· Machine learning · Learning matching

Introduction

The popularity of programming continues to rise. The importance of programming education to help with mathematical and logical thinking has been emphasized around the world, and there have been many educational efforts to cultivate talented programmers at the national level. For example, the United States has adopted programming as a subject of formal education in many public schools, including those in Florida, Arkansas and California1 . In Finland, programming 1

https://advocacy.code.org/.

c Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020  C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 281–288, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_36

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education has been mandatory for elementary school students since 2016 [3]. India has designated software education as an elementary, middle and high school requirement since 2010. The demand for skilled programmers is high. Not only IT companies but also companies in various fields such as finance, biotechnology, health care, manufacturing and distribution are actively recruiting talented software engineers. The demand for fostering students into good programmers at the university level is similarly high as well. Despite high popularity, expectations and demands, many students majored or minoring in computer science or engineering, as well as those from other departments (e.g., humanities) who want to learn programming, are struggling in programming classes. According to Bennedsen and Caspersen’s research [2], the average failure rate of students taking CS1 (“Introduction to computer programming”) in 2017 was 28%. Similarly, Watson and Li’s article about failure statistics reported the average failure rate of CS1 at 33.3% [8]. These results indicate that almost one third of students fail the introductory course. This problem is also reflected in the high dropout rate of students majoring in computer science. The Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) indicated that the percentage of dropouts from the computer science major was 9.8% during the 2016–17 academic year, which is greater than that of other majors such as business and administration (7.4%) or engineering and technology (7.2%)2 . To mitigate such challenges, universities have been making many efforts such as expanding and strengthening programming practice and providing online or video-recorded lectures, etc. In particular, many universities have adopted an online programming support tool that may be used in classrooms, or available to students individually to assist them with their programming practice. To name a few of the anticipated benefits, it is expected that students can use the programming tool to access many step-by-step, thematic programming questions and improve their programming skills by evaluating their submitted code (e.g., LeetCode3 , Baekjoon4 , Exercism5 ). Despite many advances and the expanding roles of programming support tools, our review on the current tools indicates that the services presently being offered are somewhat passive for learners; code questions are provided in a simple list by theme, and learners (randomly) select the desired questions from each topic to solve the problem. Many of the tools are designed to support students who want to participate in coding competitions (e.g., ICPC by ACM) and prepare for job interviews, which may not (yet) be the objective of students who are new to programming (e.g., freshmen, students from non-computer science departments) and who need more programming guidelines. This means that the service of providing learner-customized questions through the analysis of the learner’s code submissions does not seem well supported or explicitly highlighted in the current tools. We believe that artificial intelligence (machine/deep 2 3 4 5

https://bit.ly/37izVmz. https://leetcode.com/. https://www.acmicpc.net/. https://exercism.io/.

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learning) technology can play a role in modeling a learner’s programming skill level and providing a better learning environment; however, based on our review, research on the possibility and specific applications of machine/deep learning in the context of programming learning has not been extensively conducted to date. The purpose of our research is to increase the effectiveness of learning by providing learners with the most suitable questions based on large-scale data of code submissions. In this paper, we present a study on the development of machine learning models to classify levels of programming skills and those of question levels, based on the code data submitted by college students using a cloud web, IDE-based programming learning tool6 . For two semesters (around 8 months in total), we collected data (2574 code submissions) from 644 students (302 freshmen, 219 sophomores, 86 juniors and 37 seniors) in the seven “Introduction to Computer Programming” and three “Data Structures” classes. We extracted a total of 197 features based on code quality and code readability, which are essential aspects of the code, and system time-related features. We used the features to build the classification models. As a result, the classification models yielded 0.60 and 0.84 f1-scores for the user-level and the question-level classification, respectively. The performance seems reasonable and also suggests room for improvement and opportunities (e.g., peer and question matching) in the future. Our study highlights the possibility of classifying the level of learners and questions through code analysis. This is meaningful in that learners can be assigned to learning groups whose members have similar programming skills, and be provided with the most necessary questions using a recommendation approach. Depending the learner’s performance, he/she can move up or down to another level and access the most suitable questions. Thus, it is expected that learners will experience a better environment for conducting programming exercises and improving their programming skills. Unlike existing measurement studies [7,9], our measurement framework brings new opportunities for data analysis to the fields of educational data mining and learning analytics [5].

2

Feature Extraction

2.1

Code Quality Features

To capture code quality (185 features in total), we used two measurements: OCLint7 and C-Quality Metrics8 . First, OCLint is a static code analysis tool for C, C++, and Objective-C codes that looks for the following potential problems: possible bugs, unused code, complicated code, redundant code, etc. It relies on the abstract syntax tree of the source code for better accuracy and efficiency. Second, C-Quality Metrics [6] reads the code from its standard input and prints on its standard output a single line with features including size, complexity, used 6 7 8

http://calmsw.com/. http://oclint.org/. https://github.com/dspinellis/cqmetrics.

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Fig. 1. Software used for data collection

keywords, comments and documentation, use of the C preprocessor and observed formatting style (e.g., number of lines, empty lines, functions, specific keywords, declarations and many occurrence cases) (Fig. 1). 2.2

Code Readability Features

We used an Automatic Readability Checker9 that takes a code sample and calculates the number of sentences, words, syllables and characters. The checker plugs these numbers into the following nine popular readability formulas: Flesch Reading Ease formula, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Fog Scale, SMOG Index, Coleman-Liau Index, Dale Chall, Spache, Automated Readability Index and Linsear Write Formula. 2.3

System Time Features

Our programming tool provides the following three types of information that we used as the system features: minimum/maximum/average execution times. 2.4

Target Variable

We considered two target variables – user level and question level – in this study. The user level was determined based on student grade (from freshman to senior), meaning that students in a higher grade are more likely to have more programming experience and skill, which will be reflected in their codes. Our correlation analysis between student grade and score in our sample showed positive results (r = 0.10, p < 0.05), thus our assumption is valid. The number of samples in each class was as follows: freshmen (302), sophomores (219), juniors 9

More information about each formula is explained at https://bit.ly/2viSaen.

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(86) and seniors (37). The question level was determined based on the average score of the question, meaning that students are likely to have lower scores if the question is difficult. Given that the range of the score is from 0 to 100, we divided the score into five sections (by 20) and used these sections as the target variables. The number of samples in each class was as follows: scores between 0–20 (485), 20–40 (879), 40–60 (577), 60–80 (369), and 80–100 (264).

3 3.1

Model Development and Performance Code Cleaning

When students use the system, each question is presented with a pre-defined code template; it asks the students to type the essential code to run the program and see the score for their submission. Students do not have to use the template. They can clean the template and start programming from scratch. We found that most students actually kept the template and added their code. The problem here is that even if a student submits only a template code, the features of that code will be calculated and can be used for modeling. Therefore, in order to more accurately apply code quality and readability to model development, we removed the submission samples that only had the template code based on cosine-similarity between the sample and the template. Based on our qualitative analysis, scores above 0.95 indicate that the submission and the template are almost identical. We thus removed the corresponding submissions and had 2574 submissions for the analysis. 3.2

Model Development Procedure

We developed two models that classify (1) the level of a student’s programming and (2) the difficulty of a programming question. We normalized all of the features through a min-max normalization. We used LightGBM (Gradient Boosting Model) as a model algorithm [4]. LightGBM is a gradient boosting framework that uses tree based learning algorithms, designed to be distributed and efficient with several advantages, such as faster training speed and higher efficiency, lower memory usage, better accuracy, and the capacity to handle large-scale data. We prepared 60% of the data as the training data, 20% as the validation data, and 20% as the test data. We applied 10-fold cross-validation. Note that our intention in conducting this research was to assess the feasibility of classifying user levels and question levels based on the quality and readability of the code, not to achieve the best performance of the model through a rigorous model comparison analysis. We consider the latter objective to be the subject of future studies. 3.3

Model Performance

Table 1 shows the overall performance of the model. In addition to accuracy as a metric, because the sample sizes of each class were unbalanced, we used

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0.60

0.82

Accuracy 0.64

0.83

F1-score. The model yielded 0.60 and 0.82 F1-score (0.64 and 0.83 accuracy) for classifying user level and question level, respectively. These findings indicate the feasibility of using code quality and readability to assess a learner’s skill level in programming and the difficulty of the question. It appears that identifying user level is a bit challenging. As we looked more deeply into our sample data, we found some cases in which some freshmen had high test scores while some juniors and seniors had relatively lower test scores, which can be easily explained in many real scenarios. On the other hand, classifying question level yielded reasonably good results. This further means that the level of a learner’s submitted codes can be measured and assigned to a proper group of code questions. Then the learner can be provided with questions that are more relevant to his/her learning and any related programming materials (e.g., related data structure algorithms, sample codes) can be provided, increasing user experience in learning.



Dale Chall Spache

SMOG

Coleman-Liau

Dale Chall

Style inconsistency

ARI

Line length SD Line length mean

Short variable name

Indentation spacing SD

Spache

Linsear write ARI

Colemean-Liau Statement Nesting SD

0

150

300

450

600

Readability

0

225

450

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Quality

Fig. 2. Feature importance for the user level and the question level

3.4

Feature Importance

We measured the importance of the features to see how much influence the three main feature groups – code quality, code readability and system time – had in model performance. Figure 2 illustrates the top ten features for the user and the question levels. The results indicate that the quality and readability groups

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influenced the model performance quite evenly. The system time features were not included in the list. Readability features, some of them are length-related (e.g., line length, identifier length), tended to highly influence the user level, while those related to identifiers highly influenced the question level. Quality features for the user and question levels were quite overlapped; these included Dale Chall, Spache, Coleman-Liau and ARI. We paid close attention to the fact that many readability features are length-related. This indicates that the basic programming rules (e.g., not having long lines of code) do not seem to be well followed by many students; such programming practices could be addressed by providing learners with proper feedback.

4

Discussion and Conclusion

Our study demonstrates the possibility of classifying the level of learners and questions through code analysis with machine learning. The model could be improved by collecting more samples (e.g., programming submissions, diverse classes from multiple departments), building more complex models (e.g., multimodal models, sequence-based deep learning), applying additional features (e.g., code2vec [1]), having additional important target variables, etc. Our study insights are meaningful in that through the use of the classification model, learners can be assigned to learner groups based on programming skills and be provided with the most suitable programming questions through a recommendation technique. Depending on their programming performance, learners can move up or down to another level and be provided with questions appropriate to each level. Through this process, it is expected that learners can experience a better environment for engaging in programming exercise, improve their programming skills and possibly contribute their experience to helping other learners and peers.

References 1. Alon, U., Zilberstein, M., Levy, O., Yahav, E.: code2vec: learning distributed representations of code. In: Proceedings of the ACM on Programming Languages 3(POPL), pp. 1–29 (2019) 2. Bennedsen, J., Caspersen, M.E.: Failure rates in introductory programming: 12 years later. ACM Inroads 10(2), 30–36 (2019) 3. Hiltunen, T.: Learning and teaching programming skills in finnish primary schoolsthe potential of games. University of Oulu (2016). Accessed 16 Dec 2016 4. Ke, G., et al.: LightGBM: a highly efficient gradient boosting decision tree. In: Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, pp. 3146–3154 (2017) 5. Romero, C., Ventura, S.: Educational data mining: a review of the state of the art. IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. Part C (Appl. Rev.) 40(6), 601–618 (2010) 6. Spinellis, D., Louridas, P., Kechagia, M.: The evolution of c programming practices: a study of the unix operating system 1973–2015. In: 2016 IEEE/ACM 38th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE), pp. 748–759. IEEE (2016)

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7. Wang, Z., Bergin, C., Bergin, D.A.: Measuring engagement in fourth to twelfth grade classrooms: the classroom engagement inventory. School Psychol. Q. 29(4), 517 (2014) 8. Watson, C., Li, F.W.: Failure rates in introductory programming revisited. In: Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Innovation & Technology in Computer Science Education, pp. 39–44 (2014) 9. Zhou, M., Ma, M., Zhang, Y., Sui, A,K., Pei, D., Moscibroda, T.: EDUM: classroom education measurements via large-scale WIFI networks. In: Proceedings of the 2016 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing, pp. 316–327 (2016)

Reviewing Mobile Apps for Learning Quran Omar Mubin, Bayan M. Alsharbi(B) , and Mauricio Novoa Western Sydney University, Victoria Rd., Rydalmere, NSW 2116, Australia [email protected]

Abstract. The Quran is the holy book for millions of Muslims around the world and is read and learnt in Arabic. We are witnessing a spawning of many mobile apps claiming to provide a digitised experience of Learning Quran. In our research we present a thorough review of 37 such apps from the Google Play Store and 85 apps from iOS Apple Store. Our results shows that while most apps provide tailored interaction, in general the main target group remains adult Arabic speaking users. Moreover, real time feedback remains a sought after feature, due to limitations in speech recognition. Accreditation and authentication of the sanctity of these apps remains a key worry for most users. In conclusion, we present design implications emerging from our results that could be applied to mobile apps for Quranic teaching. Keywords: Mobile apps

1

· Arabic · Quran · Islamic education

Introduction

Religious sculptures and writings have been passed on from generations and are such integral to the sanctity of the religion. The use of digital technology can provide us with a mechanism to not only maintain the consistency of the teachings but also establish a real time learning experience for users. Islam is one of the largest religions in the world with almost 1/5th of the world’s population being of Muslim faith (Hackett et al. (2015)). Since the birth of the religion took place in Saudia Arabia of today, most rituals, teachings and practice related to Islam is done in the Arabic language. Although, the holy book of Islam: The Quran is translated in many languages it is also read in Arabic as a matter of principle and custom. A common myth regarding Muslims is that they all can speak Arabic - current estimates indicate that only 20% of Muslims speak Arabic as their first language (Mohammed (2005)). Hence many Muslims in non-Arabic environments either rely on rote learning of Arabic verses within Islam without a focus on proper pronunciation, especially in younger children. This is particularly a dilemma if Arabic instructors are not available, as correct recitation of the Quran is imperative as a matter of principle (Kamarudin and Salam (2012)). Traditionally all forms of Islamic teaching in the Muslim world, particularly learning and reading of the Quran and praying begins from young ages (as little as 7 years c Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020  C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 289–296, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_37

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old). Additionally reading and understanding Quran forms an integral part of muslims and many continue the learning process well into adulthood (Ahmad et al. (2016)). Currently, most Islamic education takes places in dedicated religious schools (Madrassahs), mosques, Islamic specialized private schools, or at home by either parents or religious scholars (Anzar (2003)). Further, most Quranic teaching is established on the basis of “memorization”, which we already know on the basis of pedagogical literature (Orlin (2013)) is a challenge, particularly in order to retain the attention of the student. State of the art research indicates that there is recent intersection of Islam and technology. Advancements in Arabic speech recognition have allowed checks and verification of Tajweed Khir et al. (2016); i.e. pronunciation of verses from the Quran (Muhammad et al. (2012); Elhadj (2010)). We can observe the proliferation of mobile apps in the developing world and the uptake of the same to teach languages (GodwinJones (2011)) such as Arabic (Gharawi and Bidin (2016)). A seminal overview (Campbell et al. (2014)) of such apps showed that search terms related to Islam and Christianity resulted in more than 3000 hits on iTunes. Therefore, therein lies great potential in further utilising mobile computing technology to promote Quranic education (Kamarudin and Salam (2012)) particularly to the non native speakers of Arabic. The aim of this work was to set out to perform a review of existing Islamic religion based commercial applications in the market to understand the gaps, trends, learning styles and user preferences. To the best of our knowledge such an overview does not exist, one exception being (Machfud and Mahmud (2016)), however the stated overview did not focus on pedagogical or Quranic recitation methodologies associated with learning the Quran. Another exception is (Rippin (2013)), however it only focuses on web solutions meant to teach Quran. We contribute towards Educational technology literature by providing design implications extracted from our review, which are firstly, relevant to apps aimed to teach Quran but some findings can be generalised and applied to other religious apps.

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Method

Our meta analysis of mobile apps is a commonly followed methodology or paradigm in health informatics or educational technology literature (Mateo et al. (2015); Crompton et al. (2017)). For our overview we focused on apps available on the Android platform as well as the Apple Store. We performed a thorough search on both App stores to shortlist relevant apps. Keywords that we utilised were “Learning Quran”, “Memorising Quran”, “Reading Quran”, “Understanding Quran” and their Arabic translations. Since more than half of the research team was bilingual (spoke both Arabic and English), we included any app that used English, Arabic or both in combination as the mode of interaction. Apps that we could not browse or download were excluded from our analysis. We only focused on apps which were meant for teaching Quran as there are a number of apps which provided general Islamic education.

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Coding Scheme

The coding scheme comprised of a number of extracted variables. The codes are summarized here under: 1. Medium of instruction, which was either Arabic or English 2. The second code attempted to classify the main target group of the app into children, adults or the elderly 3. The third code was the type of learning focus or main pedagogical technique employed by the apps which we coded into the following possibilities: (a) Tajweed: Tajweed refers to the correct elocution, pronunciation of Quranic verses with a suitable speed of articulation (Ibrahim et al. (2015)). Any app which focused on this learning style was placed into this category. (b) Tafseer: Tafseer is referred to as the science of the mode of articulating the expressions of the Quran, its linguistic indications and singular and composite rules, its meanings interpreted as composite constructions and related matters al (Andalusi (1970)). Apps dealing with the semantics were hence placed into this category. (c) Hifiz: An app that employed Hifiz as its mode of teaching concentrated on memorisation of Quranic verses by heart through repeated recitations (Nawaz and Jahangir (2015)). (d) Noorani Qaida: The Noordani Qaida is a teaching method for the Quran that explains the basic pronunciations of various phonemes. It is typically intended for children or for those who are beginning to learn the Quran. (e) General: An app was placed into this category if it used two or more of the aforementioned pedagogical techniques in combination. 4. The modality of learning interaction made it as the fourth code, where we checked if the app utilised audio, video or an interactive combination thereof (listen and repeat, listen and record). 5. As a fifth code we also noted the Human Computer Interaction elements comprised within the apps, pertaining to their specific features, functionalities and interaction styles. 6. The last three codes were quantitative in nature and were sourced from the App stores. They were: (a) Number of downloads as a range (b) total number of reviews (c) average app rating All codes had a possibility to mark a category as not applicable or not available. Two coders independently coded 25% of the apps to resolve any ambiguities or disagreements in the coding scheme.

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Results

In this section, we present our results and findings in two subsections where the first sub-section provides our findings from the Google Play store and the second sub-section summarizes our findings from the Apple store.

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Google Play Store

Initially our search gave us 256 apps upon which we applied exclusion criteria mentioned earlier giving us a total of 37 Learning Quran apps which were shortlisted for further analysis. Most of the apps were targeted specifically towards Arabic speakers (16). There only 7 apps meant primarily for non native Arabic speakers. Similarly there were only 6 apps designed for younger users such as children. With regards to the learning focus of our selection of apps the popular type was Hifiz or memorisation with almost 1/3rd in number. Tajweed and Tasfeer in comparison were adopted in fewer apps (around the 25% and 10% mark respectively). More than 2/3rd of the apps employed a listening to audio approach with about half of them also providing an opportunity to the user to repeat the verses. Only 6 apps facilitated the recording of user audio. We noticed that the apps incorporated a wide variety of features and Human Computer Interaction aspects. Most apps allowed users to create profiles and consequently design tailored and guided lesson plans. A number of interaction strategies were designed to motivate the learners, for example through recording, sharing and comparing performance in online quizzes with others. In addition, most apps also provided offline interaction, allowing users to use the app without a data connection. Customisation was a key feature; most apps allowing users to choose particular verses to learn through a number of recitation or memorisation settings. Real time detection of phonological errors and searching for words through voice was a novel feature, present in only 2 apps (such as in Quran Tutor. In order to replicate student scholar interaction as is in conventional learning of the Quran, some apps used video snippets of scholars reciting verses or phonemes which users could use to practice (such as in Learn Quran - Qaaida Noorania). We also recorded the range of total downloads and associated user reviews made on each app to gauge their popularity. Around 50% of the apps were downloaded between 100,000 and 1,000,000 times. On average, each app received a total of 12,065 reviews and a rating of 4.56. The most popular apps were Al Quran and Ayat Al Quran with more than 5,000,000 downloads, 100,000 user reviews and ratings of 4.5 and 4.7 respectively. We explored these two apps with some detail to analyse their features and design aspects. Al-Quran had a number of key attributes which stood out, such as it allowed for easy navigation between the various chapters and sections of the Quran. Users were also able to go back to their active session conveniently. In addition, Al-Quran provided a two way mechanism to explore the Quran (scrolling or paging). Ayat Al Quran supported different techniques to learn the Quran (Tafseer, Tajweed and memorisation). It also allowed users to drill down and select specific verses for recitation. 3.2

Tunes Store

Our search in the iTunes store gave us approximately 250 apps upon which we applied exclusion criteria mentioned earlier giving us a total of 85 Learning Quran apps. 20 apps (23.5%) were meant for Arabic speakers only, unlike Google Play, many apps were found to be targeting non-native speakers. iOS apps that

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were meant to teach Quran by translation to another language were 54 in number. Interestingly, 24 apps were designed for young users and children. Similar to the Android platform, the learning focus of iOS apps was on Hifiz (more than 1/3rd of our sample), followed by Tajweed. The proportion of apps that utilised Tafseer as the main aspect were more in comparison to the Android platform (27% vs 10%). There were only 6 apps that did not employ a listening to audio approach, while 18 apps intended to use an interactive approach for teaching. Similar to our findings in Android apps, most apps on the iOS platform incorporated a wide variety of features and Human Computer Interaction aspects. A majority of the apps were visual in nature relying on graphics and animations during the interaction. Hovering upon particular words and then highlighting them while being pronounced by the app was also an interesting technique. Profiling, customisation and tailoring the lesson plan to one’s own preferences was widely seen. Users could choose what to learn, in which order and how many repetitions. Most apps also allowed users to choose particular verses to learn through a number of recitation or memorisation settings. In order to replicate student scholar interaction as is in conventional learning of the Quran, some apps used audio snippets of scholars reciting verses or phonemes which users could use to practice (such as Al Qaida Al Nooraniya). Another key user interaction featured employed by iOS apps was the usage of motivation such as in Quran Star. In this app, numerous reward mechanisms were seen. For example, earning 3 gold stars on every surah read or sharing accomplishments and performance with friends on social media. Quran Star was seen to comprise of a recording feature built into the app that allowed the user to test their memorization of each surah and send recordings to friends and family. Finally, in the app the unique HuroofMeter counted the number of letters read through each ayah.

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Discussion

Results from our review of mobile apps intended to teach Quran on the Android and iOS platform have revealed that although a number of relevant apps are present there are still some open gaps in the field. Our findings show that the primary target group for such apps is adult native Arabic speakers. In comparison there were fewer apps for children and Muslims whose first language was not Arabic. It is commonly acknowledged that most digital solutions used to learn and read the Quran are tailored to Arabic speakers (Elsayess and Hamada (2013)). In addition, is it also known that there is a dearth of Islamic apps specifically tailored for children (Machfud and Mahmud (2016)). Our findings also show that real time feedback on correctness of pronunciation of Quranic verses is a rarely present feature, possibly due to challenges of voice recognition. Prior work shows that Arabic speech recognition is still a work in progress venture with fluctuating recognition accuracy rates. Challenges of processing the Arabic language are also known (Farghaly and Shaalan (2009)). Our overview also shows that most app developers realise the importance of providing a customised user experience when using mobile apps to learn the

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Quran. A wide user base who wish to learn the Quran requires mobile solutions to adapt to different learning styles, skill levels and convenience (Ibrahim et al. (2015); Ragab (2009)). Self-Customisation and user-profiling of learning patterns and styles would be an essential design feature of any app which promotes educational aspects of a religion, such that users can learn, read and practice at their own pace. Providing discrete and private learning opportunities is well understood in educational literature (Cheong et al. (2012)), primarily with the focus of being “inclusive” and allowing students with different personality traits an equal opportunity to learn. Our analysis also shows that about 1/3rd of our short listed apps provided the possibility of reading and learning the Quran through Tajweed. This is not as large a number as we would expect given the importance of (Tajweed Elhassan et al. (2015)). Tajweed relies on audio and visual feedback hence apps which intend to incorporate Tajweed may be susceptible to technical limitations. The review of the apps also illustrated that there was no evident mechanism to establish or verify the veracity and authenticity of the sacred content presented in the mobile apps. For example information about accreditation or certification can be stated in the about us section or through an appropriate logo on the home page. We were unable to establish if this was the case in the apps that we considered, at least such information was not immediately visible.

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Conclusion and Future Work

In this paper, we have presented an overview of mobile apps dedicated to teach Quran as a result of which we present certain implications for Quranic app design which could also be considered for apps from other religions. We believe that the category of Quranic apps is still in embryonic stage as the combination of Islam and technology is a sensitive issue (Khan and Alginahi (2013)), particularly if unintentionally errors occur during interaction. Furthermore, uptake of mobile apps to read Quran is still met with resistance by some users, as face to face learning or reading the physical copy of the Quran (“Mushaf”) may be a preference (Muhammad Nasrullah (2015); Kamarudin and Salam (2012)). In addition, we may still be a fair way away from the mass usage of such Quranic apps in local Islamic teaching setups, primarily due to issues related to stereotypical perception of technology, lack of support from the educational boards and simply the diversity in pedagogical methods followed in Islamic education. Our review has also indicated that there is a shortage of apps focusing on non native Arabic speakers. Our long term research endeavor is to utilize mobile technology to promote the uptake and learning of Arabic, Islamic teachings and Quran in non-Arabic speaking users. As a first step in our user centered design process we aim to involve Sheikhs (religions scholars) from our community and internationally as a means to ground and validate our findings and design ideas. We also aim to complete our overview by considering apps from the iTunes store.

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Designing Discussion Forum in SWAYAM for Effective Interactions Among Learners and Supervisors Neha(&) and Eunyoung Kim(&) School of Knowledge Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi-shi, Ishikawa 923-1292, Japan [email protected], [email protected]

Abstract. Discussion forum boards play a crucial role in the interactions among learners and supervisors on e-learning. SWAYAM (Study webs of Active Learning for Young Aspiring Minds) is the first Indian MOOC (Massive open online course) adopted in all higher education institutes, high schools, and vocational schools as a database of their learning materials and discussions. However, being in its initial stage, SWAYAM lacks a well-designed structure in its discussion forums which is necessary for encouraging student engagement in learning. In this study, we aim to redesign the discussion forum systematically by classifying queries to enhance the learner-supervisor interactions in SWAYAM. In a previous study, FENG [1] developed a model with a convolutional neural network on Rossi’s data set to classify posts in the discussion forum of Coursera which helped to improve the course quality in MOOCs and students’ learning effect. Our study initially adopted a manual classification while in the future we will implement a hybrid approach of machine learning along with the RuleBased expert system to predict a type of query in the discussion forum of SWAYAM. This proposed system will segregate the comments of the discussion forum using specified indicators and identify repetitive comments. The learners can acquire knowledge frequently from the discussions instead of navigating all the comments separately or retrieving the visual learning materials. On the other hand, subject matter experts (SME) can answer the relevant queries at once after indicator-based segregation of queries and need not to reply to every query distinctly. Keywords: MOOCs supervisor interaction

 Discussion forum design  Classification  Learner

1 Introduction With the rapid development of information technology, E-learning became an essential approach to enhance our way of learning new knowledge and developing skills. Increasing demands for learning centers such as universities and colleges cannot be fulfilled by the conventional way of teaching. In this regard, MOOCs platform has been developed to provide knowledge or information in the form of course content for © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 297–302, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_38

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various types of learners. There are numerous MOOCs platforms like Coursera, edX, FutureLearn, etc. Swayam is an Indian-based platform that all the courses are provided free of charge except for the certification. It delivers all the courses that are taught from class 9 to postgraduate in India. It is developed by the Ministry of Human Resource and Development, National Program on Technology Enhanced Learning and Indian Institute of Technology Madras with the help of Google Inc. and Persistent Systems Ltd along with nine national coordinators. Currently, around 12,541,992 students are enrolled in this platform but only 654,664 students passed the course certification [2]. According to the Learning pyramid developed by the National Training Laboratory Institute, 50% of the learning process depends upon discussion and this discussion phase relies on student’s interaction with studying materials and instructors [3]. If we compare with traditional classroom learning and many intelligent tutoring systems, MOOC learners face difficulty in the interaction with instructors. A well-structured discussion forum benefit learners, instructors, and developers of MOOC. This paper aims to re-design the discussion forum systematically through the following three steps: (1) Identification of queries in the discussion forum; (2) Manual classification of queries based on the specified indicators; (3) Recommendation of tasks for instructors and learners. The ultimate goal of this study is to provide a system that can automatically classify queries/comments with a new platform of discussion form, not only for the learner but also for the instructor. Moreover, classification based on different indicators will be explored.

2 Related Work Several research efforts have been devoted to supporting the discussion forum in MOOCs for its importance. Feng et al. regarded the discussion forum as the only way for students and instructors to communicate in MOOCs [1]. They expressed 18 features based on user interaction behaviour and performed on a limited data set. Thomas et al., reported that an online discussion forum actively encourages cognitive engagement and critical thinking. Despite this fact, the virtual learning of it did not support coherent and interactive dialogue which is important for conversational learning [4]. Feedback is information about the content and understanding of the construction that students have derived from the learning experience [5]. Diyi Yang et al. studied confusing states from MOOC’s forum which are mainly caused by neither receiving a response nor support from the instructor timely. The large number of learners registered in MOOC which often enable face to face interaction with the instructors or other well-performing learners. Classification of discussion threads in MOOC forums is essential and should be reasonable for the better utilization of MOOC forums [6]. The quality of questions and chances of getting answers can be increased by understanding the factors that contribute to questions being answered as well as questions remain ignored which can further help the discussion forum users [7]. The manual effort can break the continuation of the evaluation and efficiency of instructors as it requires a considerable amount of time. Data and text mining can be a solution to

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decline the problems faced by instructors, but it requires a highly specified domain [8]. The implementation of machine learning and expert system achieves a precision that is comparable to top-ranked methods and there is no need to train with human experts [9]. Thus, this study will adopt a hybrid approach of machine learning and expert system.

3 Research Procedure 3.1

Data Collection

In the Discussion forum of SWAYAM, there are unstructured comments. Comments may cover questions, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, replicated ones, etc. Usually, a course in SWAYAM is for 12 weeks and a learner can put comments in an online discussion forum of a particularly registered course. These comments may be related to the content, quiz, assignment, enquires. In this study, we selected two computer courses as shown in Table 1 representing their information. Table 1. Information about the two computer courses Course title Category Duration Start Date End Date No. of registered students Total no. of posts

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Computer architecture Programming in Teaching 16 weeks 3 September 2019 31 December 2019 7,318 95 (as of 4 March 2020)

Computer networks Computer Science & Eng. 12 weeks 16 January 2020 18 April 2020 11,939 16 (as of 4 March 2020)

Data Coding

We manually classified queries of the discussion forum in these two computer courses, but their classification is challenging due to their high volume and unstructured nature [10]. The system will follow the statistical procedure as it will take the input data from the short description box which is already present while asking questions in SWAYAM. Then it will map these input data with five indicators to classify comment and these indicators are Content related (CR), Assignment related (AR), Quiz related (QR), Time related (TR) and Others(O) depending on the query. In the initial stage, a data set of manual classification or human coded data is required to secure the accuracy of indicator-based segregation. After that, a classifier will be trained to predict the query. The construction of the classifier can be done by checking the repository data or log file where we can find the previously asked queries. In case some comments/queries do not contain any of the categorized tags then in this situation, the system will categorize it as “others”. This will help in segregating relevant and irrelevant parts. Further, we need an expert system that will use simple rules based on the logic expression for fine-tuning. Some keywords from the short description box may overlap with others. For instance, it will categorize the query based on the number of terms that

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satisfy the logical expression. Each input is then tested for acceptance, rejection or for the option to categorize as “others”. 3.3

Data Analysis

One of the roles of feedback is to determine the quality and standard of teaching and learning. In classroom teaching, there is an advantage that a learner can ask questions at any point, but some learners feel shy while asking questions at the same time. In Elearning, it takes a lot of time by the supervisor to answer every post and it becomes more difficult when the comments are unstructured. Sometime there may be a repetition of comments also occurs. We can solve such problems by focusing on discussions in online learning. Segregation of comments in the discussion forum can make the task easier for the subject matter expert (SME) in SWAYAM to answer the queries effectively. It can save the time of the learner and the SME simultaneously because, in this situation, SME does not need to answer every post and the learner can get the knowledge frequently from discussions. For instance, queries related to the content part can be answered separately. Analysis of coded data can be done by calculating the students taking part in the discussion forum of a course over students enrolled in that course. Analyzing the type and number of queries can help in determining the most occurring problem. After solving queries related to an indicator, we can evaluate by observing the learner participation experience. For instance, there is a quiz system in SWAYAM so maybe solving queries related to the quiz can enhance the numbers of quiz takers and the same can be done in case of assignment, content, etc.

4 Results 4.1

Analysis of Various Posts in the Discussion Forum of Two Computer Courses

In Fig. 1, there is an analysis of various posts of SWAYAM discussion forum in computer networks (Course A) and computer architecture course (Course B) and these posts are Content related (CR), query related (QR), assignment related (AR), time-related (TR) and others which are not related to these specified indicators. We can observe the highest number of queries are asked by learners is of content related in both the courses. In Course A, the content related queries are 38% while in Course B its 49%.

Fig. 1. Frequency of various posts

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Interactions Among Learners and the Supervisor

It is rare to find the thread of similar queries in the discussion forum. For example, in the case of a computer architecture course, there are 95 posts in the discussion forum in which there are 4 queries which were posted in a single thread but all the queries have a reply from the instructor (see Fig. 2) and a single reply was from a learner. Overall, only 9 queries out of 95 which got a reply from the instructor. On the other hand, the computer networks course has only 16 posts so far, as of the 7th week of the total 12th week’s course, and 10 posts from them were answered by the instructor and a single post by the learner. However, gradually when the number of posts increases, it results in a mingling of comments. It becomes very difficult for an instructor to answer individually to all the posts. It was found that there is still no reply from the instructor regarding several queries related to the course content. However, CR queries are most important part of an online discussion forum in E-leaning platform and should be higher. As Table 2 suggest, interactions regarding CR queries for Course A and Course B is 50% and 19% respectively, while interactions about AR (Course A 83% and Course B 25%) and TR (Course A 60% and Course B 25%) queries are comparatively high. Also, the total percentage of interaction between learners and supervisors in course A is 69% and in course B is 19% which is very low compared to registered students. Table 2. Interactions among learners and supervisor Query type Course A No. of posts CR 06 QR 00 AR 06 TR 05 Others 00 Total 16

Course B Posts with interactions No. of posts 03 (50%) 47 00 (-) 06 05 (83%) 16 03 (60%) 20 00 (-) 06 11 (69%) 95

Posts with interactions 09 (19%) 00 (-) 04 (25%) 05 (25%) 00 (-) 18 (19%)

Fig. 2. Screenshot of a Discussion forum with a single query; and similar queries

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5 Conclusion The findings of our study can be summarized as follows: • Similar queries clustered at the same place are more expected to answer by the instructor. • After the segregation of comments or queries, learners can acquire frequent knowledge from discussion instead of navigating all the comments. • Classification helps the instructor to work on the specified area after finding the number of queries relating to specified indicators. However, our study has limitations that we manually classified repetitive comments and we couldn’t identify the factors that are responsible for less interactions among learners and supervisors. In our future study, we will implement a hybrid approach of machine learning and rule-based systems to classify queries and try to find the responsible factors to design a discussion forum platform.

References 1. Feng, L., et al.: Classification of discussion threads in MOOC forums based on deep learning. In: 2nd International Conference on Wireless Communication and Network Engineering, (WCNE 2017). https://doi.org/10.12783/dtcse/wcne2017/19907 2. SWAYAM. https://swayam.gov.in/about. Accessed 04 Mar 2020 3. Bloom, B.S.: Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, vol. 1. Cognitive Domain. McKay, New York (1956) 4. Thomas, M.J.: Learning within incoherent structures: the space of online discussion forums. J. Comput. Assist. Learn. 18, 351–366 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0266-4909.2002. 03800.x 5. Hattie, J., Timperley, H.: The power of feedback. Rev. Educ. Res. 77(1), 81–112 (2007). https://doi.org/10.3102/003465430298487 6. Yang, D., et al.: Exploring the effect of confusion in discussion forums of massive open online courses. In: ACM Conference on Learning (2015). https://doi.org/10.1145/2724660. 2724677 7. Fong, S., Zhuang, Y., Liu, K., Zhou, S.: Classifying forum questions using PCA and machine learning for improving online CQA. In: Berry, M.W., Mohamed, A.H., Wah, Y.B. (eds.) SCDS 2015. CCIS, vol. 545, pp. 13–22. Springer, Singapore (2015). https://doi.org/ 10.1007/978-981-287-936-3_2 8. Laurie, P., Ellis, D.T.: Using data mining as a strategy for assessing asynchronous discussion forums. J. Comput. Educ. Arch. 45(1), 141–160 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu. 2004.05.003 9. Villena, J.: Hybrid approach combining machine learning and a rule-based expert system for text categorization. In: Artificial Intelligence Research Society Conference (2011). https:// aaai.org/ocs/index.php/FLAIRS/FLAIRS11/paper/view/2532 10. Rantanen, A.: Classifying online corporate reputation with machine learning: a study in the banking domain, emerald insight (2019). https://doi.org/10.1108/intr-07-2018-0318

Educational Convergence with Digital Technology: Integrating a Global Society Margel Parra1(&), Cecilia Marambio2, Javier Ramírez3, Diana Suárez4, and Henry Herrera4 1

2

4

Corporación Universitaria Reformada, 38 Street #74 -179, Barranquilla, Colombia [email protected] Universidad Andrés Bello, Republica 239, Santiago de Chile, Chile 3 Corporación Universitaria Latinoamericana, 58 Street #55-24a, Barranquilla, Colombia Universidad de la Costa, 58 Street #55-66, Barranquilla, Colombia

Abstract. The current society of change places the human being in a situation of new learning in emerging moments, therefore, it is necessary to place the teacher and the student in this new social paradigm. The objective of the present study was directed towards understanding the role of the educational technological society as an integrated component for the promotion of citizenship within virtual spaces. The methodology used in this study had a quantitative approach, this being a research with a descriptive level and a non-experimental and field design; where it was selected a sample of forty (40) faculty from three (3) universities in the city of Barranquilla for data collection, which was supported by a 120 question questionnaire related to the use of information technologies in education and the promotion of values within these environments. The results allowed to recognize that within the educational institutions that made part of the sample there is an optimal level in the use of information technologies, as well as in the promotion of the values in these institutions by teachers. The article concludes with a reflection of how the web spaces of today are the door for new generations to be more interconnected and informed, nourishing themselves in their growth process as individuals and citizens. Keywords: ICT

 Digital citizenship  Virtual education

1 Introduction In today’s globalized world, interconnection figures as the catalyst factor for information and access. In this way, it is recognized that new technologies are a fundamental element for the unification of a global integrated system where people can be part of it [1]. Considering the role of information technologies within the processes of globalized society, it is essential that individuals can adapt and become part of the process. Various studies recognize that international efforts to provide digital spaces for citizens are growing and much more transparent, therefore new platforms are generated in the private sector making the link to digital spaces more attractive. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 303–310, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_39

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However, it is noted that beyond the efforts made to link the population, the need to generate the promotion of digital citizenship is developed involving generic competences constituting human development [2]. In addition, there is a human being who appropriates technology to serve society in building a digital system that contributes to the development of information in the expansion of knowledge. In the need to generate knowledge management not only within administrative processes in schools, today it becomes urgent to educate young people towards the development of knowledge management within an experiential learning process for the development of wisdom which results in a knowledge of practice that leads us to improve the deficiencies of culture. Which should make sense in the different implications of socio-educational processes to form towards continuous and autonomous training. The cultural deficit is reflected in the lack of the development of wisdom, so there is a stagnation in alluding to a socially and democratically shared and built knowledge. Wisdom is from an ontological dimension with a qualifying assessment. The components that will be able to support a school’s open vision to change are the possibilities of developing: action research, semantic thinking, knowledge management and solidary education [3]. These postulates lead to reflection on how to develop the information society in such a way, that all students can agree to develop meaningful learning, in a cooperative learning action, making use of information technologies and connecting to a virtual world that is now global [4]. In this way, the importance of providing virtual spaces to students is visualized; in the same way as the training needed to operate within these spaces in a civic way and with a critical perspective [4]. With this point, it is stated that the objective of this study was aimed at understanding the role of educational technology society as an integrated component for the promotion of a citizenship within virtual spaces. 1.1

The State of ICT in the Classroom Nowadays

In a very broad sense, technologies have managed to transform the most intimate core of education, that is, the teaching and learning processes [5], technology is essential, influences and improves what students are taught. In this regard, there is a significant divergence between the potential of computer technology to contribute to a meaningful learning, in the generation of positive attitudes and the facilitation of active learning modes, and the observed use of these resources in the establishments. Different investigations show that there is little pedagogical use of computing resources, even though their potential is recognized as a tool capable of transforming learning environments [3]. Technological media offer great possibilities for education. These resources are valuable because they can bring about significant changes in pedagogical practices, in teaching methodologies and in the way students’ access and interact with the diverse knowledge. It should be noted that the most important thing that investigations have pointed out, regarding the integration of technological resources into learning and teaching, it is

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not to make use of technology, it is how to do it. In this sense, it is vital to examine the purpose of the lesson and how technology fits within that purpose. On the other hand, in addressing the, educational model for the development of meaningful learning: information processing from Schmeck [6]; it is noted that curricular management makes it necessary to adopt a model of learning strategies that will profile an institutional pedagogical policy, that manages to structure educational quality in the training processes of students, resulting in an effective school, with high performance and able to develop meaningful learnings in students [7], to this end, the proposal by the American psychologist Ronald Schmeck is presented, whose study corresponds to an analysis of research into the structure of memory and the functions of how and what students learn. For Schmeck, a style of learning, is simply the cognitive style that an individual manifests when faced with a learning task, and reflects the student’s preferred, common and natural strategies for learning, hence it can be located somewhere between personality and learning strategies, for not being as specific as the latter, nor as general as the first [6]. Which allows for the evolution of cognitive structures in the student related to the design of strategies that allow the development of higher cognitive skills [7]. For Professor Schmeck, learning and memory are a byproduct of thought and strategies are those that have the greatest impact on thought [6]. Schmeck defines learning strategies as the activity plan a person uses in information processing when they need to perform a learning task and sets differences with learning styles, pointing out that these are understood as predisposition towards certain strategies, so a style is a set of strategies that are used consistently [2]. This will distinguish itself for each learning style, a set of tactics, which are defined as more specific observable activities performed by the individual when executing a certain strategy. The acquisition of strategies is part of the process of personal development of students, until, according to their use, they will create a style of learning. Changing the strategy means influencing the style that is part of the student’s personal characteristics, so strategies and learning style reflect the way students will develop thinking. Getting academics to master information technologies to promote their research and interact with their students, moves the process towards a placed learning, where students meditate with their teacher on research bodies and develop research skills using digital tools, provoking a social reach of generating advanced human capital, for this it is important to incorporate the ICT as explained below: The technological tools needed to support this approach should contribute and favor information search, analysis and contrast activities, reflection on the phases and time of organization and management, as well as the communication and interaction of students [3]. To systematize student’s progress towards critical thinking as raised by Álvarez & Nadal and Marambio, authors who point to Professor Schmeck’s theoretical model [2, 3], which identifies three dimensions of learning and information processing styles, these are: deep, elaborate and superficial, each is characterized by using a particular learning strategy and different learning levels, ranging from simple to complex: • Superficial Processing: students using a memorization-focused strategy; the student only remembers the reviewed content while studying, achieving a strategy for

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facilitating low-level learning. It involves assimilating information as perceived and not, rethinking it, attending to more phonological and structural aspects, repeating and memorizing information in its original form. • Elaborate Processing: students who use the personalized strategy, the content of their study must be directly related to themself, to their experiences, to what have happened or what they think will happen, achieving a strategy of facilitating midlevel learning. It involves how to process information in such a way that it is enriched, made more concrete and personally relevant. • Deep Processing: students who use the conceptualization strategy, which means that when they study, they abstract, analyze, relate, organize abstractions achieving a high-level learning facilitating strategy.

2 Method This study was developed with a quantitative approach, this being a descriptive level research, thus studying the use of information technologies within higher education institutions. On the other hand, the design used was of a non-experimental, field, and transactional cut; where data was obtained from its original source, in a single measurement and without manipulating the variables. The study population was constituted by forty (40) teachers from three universities in Barranquilla (Colombia) with a full-time dedication and faculty members of economic sciences and psychology. It is provided that within the context there is a finite number of subjects, determined and accessible for their handling; therefore, the sample was equal to that population, this being an intentional sample. The data collection tool used, was a questionnaire developed for this study, which allowed to know the use and level of information technologies within the university context. To determine the reliability of the instrument, the Alfa Cronbach method was applied, resulting in rtt: 0.80, for the instrument, which determines that they were highly reliable. The instrument applied consisted of 120 questions in fifteen (15) sections which were distributed in five (5) dimensions: Institutional portal, Virtual Education Platform, Institutional Mail, Computer Rooms and Digital Citizenship.

3 Results Below, the exposition of the results from the data collection instrument applied to the sample under study (Table 1): When analyzing the use of the technological platforms utilized by teachers within academic processes in the field of higher education, in the first instance the indicator called institutional portal represents that institutions use it as an educational resource, counting with telematic networks for the implementation of the various learning activities.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Institutional portal

Digital citizenship

Computer rooms

Institutional mail

Virtual Education Platform

Section

Indicator

FA 11 0 11 2 1 0 20 13 11 30 0 11 0 0 30

% 27% 0% 27% 5% 3% 0% 50% 33% 27% 75% 0% 27% 0% 0% 75%

Always

Almost Always FA % 29 73% 40 100% 28 70% 28 70% 20 50% 11 27% 11 28% 18 45% 29 73% 10 25% 30 75% 28 70% 40 100% 30 75% 9 23% FA 0 0 0 9 19 29 9 9 0 0 10 1 0 10 1

% 0% 0% 0% 23% 48% 73% 23% 23% 0% 0% 25% 3% 0% 25% 3%

Sometimes

Almost Never FA % 0 0% 0 0% 1 3% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%

Table 1. Use of technology platforms

FA 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Never % 0% 0% 0% 3% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4

Sections

4,2

4,3

4,2

3,6

4,2

Indic

4,10

Total

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This was found by reviewing that the at 73%, 100% and 70% (respectively for Sect. 1, 2 and 3) of the sample choose the response almost always, with an average of 4.2, which allows to set its frequency according to the scale. Its tendency being the high identification with the existence of the institutional portal. Then, on the indicator virtual education platform, results are inclined towards the use in a continuous way, which is based on the institutions having virtual education platforms, as well as educational resources in electronic versions, in addition the platforms provides information to the university community. Considering the respondents’ responses, it is observed that, for section four (4) the percentage towards almost always was 70%, while section five (5) almost always received 50% and sometimes 48%. Then in section six (6) the option almost always got 27% and sometimes 73%, resulting in a total dimension average of 3.5, these achievements demonstrate the existence of the virtual education platform. On the other hand, with regard to institutional mail, for section seven (7) there was a 50% representation in the always option about the involvement of mail in university processes, where it was also achieved a 27% in almost always, and 23% for the option sometimes. Also, on section eight (8) addressed to know if mail is used as a dissemination way in teaching work, it was known that 45% answered almost always, 33% always, while 23% sometimes. Then, in section nine (9), with the intention to know if it is conceived as a necessary service for the educational process, 73% leaned towards the option almost always, while 27% did so with always. In this way, it is emphasized that the average within this institutional mail dimension was 4.2 establishing the frequency of its use. On the other hand, with regard to the size of the computer room, the responses associated with the section indicate the existence of it as part of the technological platform in the higher education institutions in Barranquilla, since 75% of the population considered the option always, while 25% almost always within section ten (10). In relation to section eleven (11), 75% of the population considered the option almost always, while 25% sometimes, establishing that institutions under study, have computer rooms that allow the development of academic and research activities. As for section twelve (12) which involves whether if the computer rooms promote the relation between work, and communication, 70% assumed the option almost always, while 27% always. Its average was 4.3, giving a high trend towards an adequate process of using computer rooms as a process of dynamization of learning. With the last dimension, it was analyzed the so-called digital citizenship, where teachers were asked about the various processes, they develop to promote the appropriate and critical use of digital media provided by the institutions. Having 75% of the sample taking the option always and 23% almost always and just 3% choosing sometimes. In this regard, it is noted that the average in this dimension was 4.2, which allows to recognize the processes developed by teachers to promote values within the use of ICT.

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4 Discussion and Conclusions To begin results’ discussion, it is provided that for Moreira the technologic platform represents the whole of the components that are part of the material part of a computer. It refers to the logical components required to enable the completion of a specific task, i.e. it is a set of instructions for them to be executed by a processor [8]. Backed by the opinion of Sánchez who states that technology platforms are container systems of courses, but, in addition, they incorporate tools of communication and monitoring of students. Others refer to the space in which learning takes place [9]. For others, the nuance of the content or the sequence of learning activities is what is significant. In this regard, Moreira states that educational portals of an informative nature are those to access for obtaining a specific information or data, they are of a formative nature, in addition they have been created to generate a particular process of learning and teaching [8]. It should be noted that in Colombian higher education institutions the educational portal provides information to the university community, as well as tools to develop internet research, providing educational resources of all kinds, free and usable directly from the internet (online teaching materials) or from computers. The process of teaching and learning through ICT enables the possibility of adapting information to the needs and characteristics of users, both for the levels of training they may have, and for their preferences regarding the channel by which they want to interact, or simply by the formative interests planned by the teacher [7]. Ferro, Martínez & Otero consider that this network society is the current society whose structure is built around information networks from microelectronic information technology structured on the internet, this is an environment that covers the organizational form of society equivalent to what was the factory in the industrial age or the large corporation in the industrial age [1]. The internet is the heart of a new technical partner paradigm that is the technological basis of our lives and our forms of relation, between work and communication. In conclusion, it is considered that easy adaptation to change will be a necessity to live in this global scenario, which will generate an open mind to new knowledge. These skills must be borne in mind in the new educational approaches, because from there, a new concept of education will have to be generated that prepares children and young people to face 21st century society. In schools, nowadays, the work is focused on training the citizen of this global world. If it has to be introduce a new concept in education, the following premise should not be overlooked: the people who will be part of society are formed and this society expects from them the attitude of a dynamic, productive being with the possibility of contributing to social and cultural progress, therefore the curriculum approach, that allows 21st century schools to respond to the learning needs of new generations should focus on managing cognitive skills, accompanied by the development of emotional intelligence and the mastery of information technologies. It is an open door to curriculum innovation to take on technological and scientific changes inside the classroom. The relevant part is that young people leave school

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prepared to face this technological social world, and able to handle all kinds of knowledge required by the information society. Above all, try to break from schools the digital division that produces so much inequality today the development of cultural capital. Certainly, the linkage of ICT within educational processes allows not only the training of individuals capable of developing in electronic media as professionals, but in doing so demonstrate civic behaviors within these new virtual contexts.

References 1. Ferro, C., Martínez, A., Otero, M.: Ventajas del uso de las TICs en el proceso de enseñanzaaprendizaje desde la óptica de los docentes universitarios españoles. Edutec. Revista Electrónica de Tecnología Educativa 29(1), 1–12 (2016) 2. Marambio, C.: Estrategias para estimular competencias cognitivas superiores en estudiantes universitarios. Revista Contextos Estudios de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales 38(1), 107– 123 (2017) 3. Álvarez, G., Nadal, J.: Escenarios de aprendizaje diseñados en conjunto por estudiantes y docentes en la universidad: el caso de la asignatura Tecnología Educativa. Virtualidad, Educación y Ciencia 10(19), 57–74 (2019) 4. Castell, M.: Globalización, sociedad y política en la era de la información. Bitácora Urbano Territorial 1(4), 42–53 (2000) 5. Brunner, J.: Nuevos Escenarios Educativos. PREAL, Santiago de Chile (2000) 6. Schmeck, R.: Learning Strategies and Learning Styles. Springer Science & Business Media, New York (2013) 7. Godoy, M., Calero, K.: Pensamiento crítico y tecnología en la educación universitaria. Una aproximación teórica. Revista espacios 39(25), 36–42 (2018) 8. Moreira, M.: Aprendizaje significativo crítico. Instituto de Física da UFRGS, Porto Alegre (2005) 9. Sánchez, C., Cesar, A.: Creación de Conocimiento en las Organizaciones y las Tecnologías de Información como Herramienta para alcanzarlo (2005)

A Similarity-Calculation Method of Geometric Problems for Adaptive e-Learning Shunichi Tada(B) and Susumu Shirayama University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan [email protected]

Abstract. In the recent years, increasing attention has been drawn toward adaptive e-learning, which is a learning method that uses educational big data to flexibly change the learning content according to the proficiency of a learner. In this study, we proposed an overview of an adaptive e-learning system that focuses on the solution procedure, which comprises the knowledges and operations used by a learner to solve a problem. Using the example of elementary geometric problems, we develop a prototype of our proposal in which the situations of learning are formalized on the basis of an adaptive e-learning context model, which is represented using a meta-network. This prototype comprises three subsystems. One is an expert system that automatically generates various solution procedures for a given problem. The other two are an inference system that identifies the procedures that a learner is using by calculating their similarity with the procedures generated by an expert system and a classification system of given problems by calculating the similarity of the procedures of each problem; the similarity is calculated using both the Levenshtein distance and Needleman–Wunsch algorithm, respectively. Compared with conventional methods, the proposed system might provide more detailed support for learners.

Keywords: Adaptive e-learning String-similarity metric

1

· Meta-network · Expert system ·

Introduction

Currently, the education reform by EdTech is being promoted as a part of “Society 5.0” advocated by the government of Japan [1]. In the promotion of the education reform by EdTech, adaptive e-learning is mentioned as a task that should be immediately started. Adaptive e-learning is defined as the learning method that delivers the right content to the right person, at the proper time, in the most appropriate way [2]. The existing adaptive e-learning services suffer from various issues regarding the manner of providing content. For example, Truong, after reviewing adaptive e-learning research from the year 2004 to 2014, c Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020  C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 311–318, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_40

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suggested that learning styles were important in adaptive e-learning [3]. According to Truong, many adaptive e-learning studies use the Felder and Silverman model [4], which determines the learning style by calculating the tendency of each of the following four-axis: active–reflective, sensing–intuitive, visual–verbal, and sequential–global. However, the aforementioned model merely categorizes an individual’s learning behaviors that are not even associated with the domain of learning. Therefore, the adaptive e-learning service based on this model cannot consider the parameters of the learning behavior that is specific to the learning domain; the examples of such learning behavior include the manner of solving each problem. In addition, Barr et al. suggested that the behavior of a learner could be analyzed to provide real-time support upon combining learning record store (LRS) and learning management system [5]. However, the research that utilizes LRS for adaptive e-learning services is still in its infancy. Based on these backgrounds, the purpose of this study is to develop a new adaptive e-learning system that can provide real-time learning analysis and support. To that end, we consider the solution procedure as a parameter that is specific to the domain of study, as well as the learning style of a learner. In addition, we attempt to automatically classify problems on the basis of the solution procedure.

2

Implementation

To identify a learning context that includes the situation of learners and their progress, we defined a context model of adaptive e-learning. Generally, adaptive e-learning is a system in which a learner studies alone using a computer or tablet terminal; therefore, there are no instructors in the system. This style of learning is called self-studying. We extend the meta-network model by [6], which represents socio–cultural systems by defining several types of nodes, to an educational form, and we then define another meta-network model for self-studying. In Table 1, we present the contextual elements that comprise self-studying, and in Table 2, we list the interrelationships between the elements. Table 1. Elements in self-studying Type of elements Description Agents

The individual learner

Knowledges

Knowledges or operations required for answering

Resources

Learning histories regarding the manner in which the learner solves a problem

Tasks

Listed problems

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Table 2. Relations between the elements in self-studying Types

Knowledges

Resources

Tasks

Agents

Proficiency

Access to resources

Problems assignment

Knowledges Dependencies among knowledges and operations

Knowledges and operations used in learning history

Knowledges and operations required for problems

Resources

Time series of learning histories

Problems solved in each learning history

Tasks

Priorities of problems

In Table 3, we present the changes expected from the conventional selfstudying in the meta-network model when our proposed system is applied. In the conventional self-studying, we assumed that the learners do their homework, which is assigned at the elementary school, at their home. In Table 4, we summarize the functional requirements for the adaptive e-learning system to realize the changes expected. Table 3. Changes in self-studying Changes

Elements or relations

Change 1 Resources Tasks

Conventional self-studying

Adaptive e-learning

Paper media such as notebooks and textbooks

Electronic terminals such as tablets

Change 2 Agents - Knowledges The learner investigates Agents - Resources his/her own proficiency and progress by looking back at his/her answers

Automatically visualize the proficiency and progress of the learner by using learning histories

Change 3 Agents - Tasks Tasks - Tasks

The order of problems dynamically changes according to the proficiency of the learner, and support is provided as needed while answering

The order of the problems is specified, and no support is available while answering

Table 4. Functions of the AL system Changes

Functions

Changes 1 Hold problems and learning histories in an expression format that can be used on a computer Changes 2 Quantify the proficiency of knowledges and operations required for answering Changes 3 Varying the order of problems on the basis of both the knowledges and operations required for answering and the proficiency of the learner

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Problem Model

We developed a model to describe elementary geometric problems. The model is used to automatically generate possible solution procedures in the expert system. The model describes the following three aspects of a problem, and these aspects are implemented using Prolog [7]. Using this knowledge, the system infers both the necessary knowledge and order of operations to solve the problems. 1. Figure structure The data describe the structural features of the figures given in the problems. The following three components comprise a geometric figure: points, segments, and polygons. In addition, various geometric relationships exist between the components. We defined Prolog predicates to describe the components as facts. In Table 5, we present the predicates of each component, and in Table 6, we list the relationships between the components. Table 5. Components of the geometric shapes Component

Predicate

Description

Point

point(P, X, Y)

P: name of the point X: x coordinate of the point Y: y coordinate of the point

Segment

segment(L, P1, P2)

L: name of the segment P1, P2: name of the endpoint

Polygon

polygon(Poly, Ps)

Poly: name of the polygon Ps: vertexes of the polygon

Regular polygon regular polygon(Poly, Ps) Poly: name of the regular polygon Ps: vertexes of the regular polygon

2. Problem condition This data describe the physical quantities such as the length and angle set for each problem and the object asked in the problem, and these are also represented as Prolog facts. 3. Mathematical knowledges and operations This data represent the knowledges and operations required to solve problems, and these are also represented in Prolog facts and rules. In this study, we regarded axioms and formulas as knowledges, and we considered editing geometric shapes such as drawing auxiliary lines as operations.

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Table 6. Relations between the components Components

Predicate

Point - point

reflect(P1, P2, P0) Point P1 is the symmetry point of point P2 with respect to point P0

Point - segment

on line(P, L)

Point P is on segment L

Point - polygon

vertex(P, Poly)

Point P is a vertex of polygon Poly

Segment - segment straight(L1, L2)

parallel(L1, L2) Segment - polygon edge(L, Poly)

2.2

Description

Segment L1 and segment L2 are on the same line Segment L1 and segment L2 are parallel Segment L is a side of polygon Poly

Similarity-Calculation Method

To support learners by setting an appropriate order of problems or providing a hint while they are answering, we must calculate the similarity of the solution procedures. The first reason is that to set an order of problems, the system must classify all the problems according to the correct solution procedure of each problem. The second reason is that to provide learners a hint while they are answering, the system must compare the correct solution procedure of the problem they are answering with the actual procedure they performed thus far, and then judge the content that they are overlooking. The solution procedure for a graphic problem is represented as a finite number of overlapping permutations that comprise axioms, formulas, and operations. To calculate the similarity between sequences such as character strings, both the Levenshtein distance [8] and Needleman–Wunsch (NW) algorithm [9] are often used. The Levenshtein distance is the number of editing operations required to convert from one character string to another. We considered the following three operations as editing operations: insertion, deletion, and character replacement. If two character strings are similar to each other, the number of editing operations required to convert the character strings is small. Conversely, if the strings to be compared are significantly different from each other, the number of operations required for the conversion should increase. That is, the magnitude of the Levenshtein distance between character strings indicates the similarity between them. The NW algorithm is used to calculate the similarity between character strings in the same manner as the Levenshtein distance does. The NW algorithm was developed to extract the common parts between amino-acid sequences and

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DNA molecular sequences, and it has become a common technique in the domain of bioinformatics.

3 3.1

Results Generation of Solution Procedures

In this study, we prepared 31 problems of plane figures and attempted to generate their correct solution procedures by using an expert system. Notably, the expert system could generate the correct solution procedures of eight problems asking an angle. However, it failed to generate the correct solution procedures of the other 23 problems. Particularly, all the problems that involved area calculations could not be solved. There are various reasons, but one of the major reasons is regarding the order in which Prolog inferences are performed. In the inference process, references are made in an order starting from the top of the source code; therefore, the facts and rules written at the bottom may not be referenced, thereby resulting in incorrect procedures. In Fig. 1, we depict one of the solvable problems, and in Fig. 2, we show one of the unsolvable ones.

Fig. 1. Solvable problem

3.2

Fig. 2. Unsolvable problem

Calculation of Similarities

We attempted to calculate the similarity using both the Levenshtein distance and the NW algorithm, respectively, for the solution of the problem group depicted in Fig. 3, 4, 5 and 6. Problems 1 and 2 required operations that were related to parallel lines such as complex angles. However, Problems 3 and 4 required operations that employed regular polygons and isosceles triangles. Therefore, we expected high similarity between Problems 1 and 2, and that between Problems 3 and 4.

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Table 7. Calculation using the Levenshtein Distance Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Problem 1

0.75

Problem 2

1.0

0.95

0.83

0.95

Problem 3

0.75

Problem 4 Table 8. Calculation using the NW algorithm Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3

0.25

0

0.05

0.17

0.05 0.25

Problem 4

The calculation results obtained using the Levenshtein distance are presented in Table 7, and those obtained using the NW algorithm are listed in Table 8. Expectedly, the similarity between Problems 1 and 2, and that between Problems 3 and 4 were higher than those between other problem pairs, in both the calculation methods.

Fig. 3. Problem 1

Fig. 4. Problem 2

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Fig. 5. Problem 3

4

Fig. 6. Problem 4

Conclusion

In this study, we proposed a new adaptive e-learning system that considered the solution procedure while aiming the real-time learning analysis and support, and we built the problem model to automatically generate the solution procedure. In addition, we applied both the Levenshtein distance and NW algorithm to calculate the similarity between the solution procedures. Further studies must be performed to solve more types of problems, and now we are considering to introduce the similarity of each knowledge and operation in order to develop a similarity-calculation method that is based on the NW algorithm.

References 1. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology homepage. http:// www.mext.go.jp/. Accessed 17 Nov 2019 2. Shute, V., Brendon, T.: Adaptive e-learning. Educ. Psychol. 38(2), 105–114 (2003) 3. Truong, H.M.: Integrating learning styles and adaptive e-learning system: current developments, problems and opportunities. Comput. Hum. Behav. 55, 1185–1193 (2016) 4. Felder, R.M., Silverman, L.K.: Learning and teaching styles in engineering education. Eng. Educ. 78(7), 674–681 (1988) 5. Barr, A., Robson, R.: Missing pieces: infrastructure requirements for adaptive instructional systems. In: Sottilare, R.A., Schwarz, J. (eds.) HCII 2019. LNCS, vol. 11597, pp. 169–178. Springer, Cham (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-03022341-0 14 6. Carley, K. M., Pfeffer, J.: Dynamic network analysis (DNA) and ORA. Advances in Design for Cross-Cultural Activities Part I, 265–274 (2012) 7. Kowalski, R.: Logic for problem solving. Department of Computational Logic, Edinburgh University (2014) 8. Levenshtein, V.I.: Binary codes capable of correcting deletions, insertions, and reversals. Soviet Phys. Doklady 10(8), 707–710 (1966) 9. Needleman, S.B., Wunsch, C.D.: A general method applicable to the search for similarities in the amino acid sequence of two proteins. J. Mol. Biol. 48(3), 443–453 (1970)

Effects of Virtual Reality Mudslide Games with Different Usability Designs on Fifth-Grade Children’s Learning Motivation and Presence Experience Mengping Tsuei(&) and Jen-I Chiu Graduate School of Curriculum and Instructional Communications Technology, National Taipei University of Education, Taipei, Taiwan [email protected]

Abstract. Mudslide disaster prevention education is important for children who face related life-threatening situations in their daily lives. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two virtual reality (VR) mudslide games with different usability designs on children’s presence experience and learning motivation. The games provided users with three options (riverside, bridge and hillside) for escape from a mudslide disaster. Sixty-six fifth-grade students in Taiwan participated; 18 students played Game 1 and 48 students played Game 2 individually for 10–15 min. A 24-item questionnaire assessing the students’ learning motivation and presence experience was administered after game play. Questionnaire responses indicated that the students had positive attitudes toward learning via the two games. Learning motivation, presence and total questionnaire scores were higher among students who played Game 2 than among those who played Game 1, but these differences were not significant. All three scores were higher among boys than among girls who played Game 2, as indicated by nonparametric analysis. The results indicate that the low-polygon VR mudslide game designed for usability facilitated children’s, and especially boys’, learning about mudslide disaster prevention. Keywords: Virtual reality Children

 Mudslide education  Disaster prevention 

1 Introduction Mudslides are usually caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, melting snow or downpours of rain. In recent years, typhoons and downpours of rain have consistently caused serious mudslide-related disasters in mountainous areas of Taiwan [1]. Mudslide disaster prevention education is thus an important educational focus in Taiwan. Lave and Wenger [2] indicated that situated learning may improve prevention and risk reducing. Virtual reality (VR) immersion scenarios can be used to simulate problem-solving experiences for real-world disasters, and students can improve their disaster prevention knowledge by interacting with the virtual learning environment. The use of VR in disaster prevention training has had successful outcomes, helping © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 319–323, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_41

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participants to develop skills related to fire safety [3], street crossing [4], flood risk [5] and earthquake risk [6]. Thus, VR application for mudslide prevention education has important potential. In our previous work, we developed a VR mudslide game for children, played with the HTC Focus Plus headset. In a preliminary study, children were satisfied with the usability of the game [7]. This study extends our work; we compared the effects of two VR mudslide games with different usability designs on fifth-graders’ presence experience and learning motivation.

2 Related Works VR can be used for disaster simulation, prevention drills and training. Ren, Chen, Shi and Zou [8] developed a VR system in which users navigate a virtual building with an active fire, and perform emergency evacuation drills. The system’s properties can be configured to simulate various types of flame and smoke. The researchers did not explore the user’s tests. Cakiroğlu and Gökoğlu [3] developed a VR system for fire safety training for children. In the system’s multi-user virtual environment, children interact with avatars, including mentors and teachers. The researchers found that children developed fire safety skills in VR and face-to-face training sessions, and could transfer the skills acquired with the VR system to real-life conditions. Yamashita, Taki and Soga [6] developed an augmented reality (AR) system with animation of furniture falling during an earthquake. They found that system users developed significantly better abilities to estimate safety and danger zones and to prepare for earthquake disasters than did a control group by training in face to face.

3 Method 3.1

VR Mudslide Games

The effects of two VR mudslide games were compared in this study. The first game was designed by the Shadowork studio in Taiwan. Our research team collaborated with the Shadowork studio to develop the second game. In both games, the user is presented with three options (riverside, bridge and hillside) for escape from a mudslide disaster. Game one was designed with real-time rainfall calculation and simulation of a mudslide scene (Fig. 1); the user wears an HTC Vive headset and uses eye-gaze points to play. The other VR game (Game 2) has the same content, but features a low-polygon mudslide scene; the user wears an HTC Focus Plus headset and uses a controller to play.

Effects of Virtual Reality Mudslide Games

(A) Game 1

321

(B) Game 2

Fig. 1. Mudslide scenes in the two virtual reality games.

3.2

Participants

Sixty-six fifth-grade students (36 boys and 30 girls) in an elementary school in New Taipei City, Taiwan, participated in the study. Most participants had no prior experience with VR games. 3.3

Assessment of Users’ Learning Motivation and Presence Experience

A questionnaire was administered after the VR game-playing sessions to assess the students’ learning motivation and presence experience. Learning motivation was assessed using eight items adapted from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) [9]. Sixteen items were used to address presence, based on a previous study [10]. The alpha coefficient for the questionnaire was 0.94, indicating adequate internal consistency.

4 Results The questionnaire scores reflected students’ overall strongly positive attitudes toward both VR mudslide games (Table 1). Learning motivation, presence experience and total questionnaire scores tended to be higher among students who played Game 2 than among those who played Game 1, but these differences were not significant. Table 1. Mean questionnaire scores and differences between games Score

Game 1 Mean (SD) Overall 4.51 (0.65) Learning motivation 4.57 (0.76) Presence experience 4.46 (0.58)

Game 2 Mean (SD) 4.65 (0.41) 4.75 (0.41) 4.54 (0.47)

t –0.98 –1.26 –0.58

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We used nonparametric analysis to compare boys’ and girls’ attitudes toward use of the two games. Among students who played the second game, boys had significantly higher learning motivation (Z = 2.72, p < 0.01), presence experience (Z = 2.08, p < 0.05) and total (Z = 2.44, p < 0.05) scores than did girls (Table 2). Table 2. Mean questionnaire scores among boys and girls Score

Game 1 Boys (n = 7) 9.64 8.86

Overall Learning motivation Presence 10.36 experience *p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01.

Z Girls (n = 11) 9.41 9.91

–0.09 –0.44

Game 2 Boys (n = 29) 28.47 28.66

8.95

–0.54

27.88

Z Girls (n = 19) 18.45 18.16

–2.44* –2.70**

19.34

–2.08*

5 Discussion and Conclusions The present study revealed significant benefits of the use of VR mudslide games. Improvements in children’s learning motivation and presence experience were observed, especially after the use of Game 2. Among students who played Game 2, boys had significantly greater learning motivation and presence experience than did girls. These results are in agreement with those of previous studies [3–6] examining the use of virtual environments in disaster prevention education. Our results indicate that the low-polygon design was more suitable for disaster prevention education than was the realistic scene design. Thus, designers should focus on the usability design. They also indicate that VR game play using the HTC Focus Plus controller was more intuitive than was interaction via eye-gaze. Moreover, they revealed that icons with which users interact in VR games designed for children need to be large and consistent, permitting easy recognition and manipulation. This study adds to existing knowledge about the efficacy of VR learning environment used in disaster prevention education. Acknowledgments. This work was supported by funding from the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan (MOST-107-2622-H-152-002-CC3).

References 1. Taiwan Ministry of the Interior, Mudslide information. https://246.swcb.gov.tw/ 2. Lave, J., Wenger, E.: Situated Learning. Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge University Press, New. York (1991) 3. Cakiroğlu, Ű., Gökoğlu, S.: Development of fire safety behavioral skills via virtual reality. Comput. Educ. 133, 56–68 (2019)

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4. Morrongiello, B.A., Corbett, M., Milanovic, M., Beer, J.: Using a virtual environment to examine how children cross streets: advancing our understanding of how injury risk arises. J. Pediatr. Psychol. 41, 265–275 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsv078 5. Zaalberg, R., Midden, C.J.H.: Living behind dikes: mimicking flooding experiences. Risk Anal. 33, 866–876 (2012) 6. Yamashita, N., Taki, H., Soga, M.A.: Learning support environment for earthquake disaster with a simulation of furniture falling by mobile AR. In: 2012 International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training (ITHET), pp. 1–5. IEEE Press (2012). https://doi.org/10.1109/ithet.2012.6246053 7. Tsuei, M., Chiu, J.-I., Peng, T.-W., Chang, Y.-C.: Preliminary evaluation of the usability of a virtual reality game for mudslide education for children. In: Trescak, T., Simoff, S., Richards, D. (eds.). Proceeding of 25th ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (VRST 2019), Article No.: 85, pp. 1–2. Association for Computing Machinery, New York (2019). https://doi.org/10.1145/3359996.3364710 8. Ren, A., Chen, C., Shi, J., Zou, L.: Application of virtual reality technology to evacuation simulation in fire disaster. In: Proceeding of CGVA Conference, pp. 15–21 (2006) 9. Pintrich, P.R., Smith, D.A.F., Garcia, T.W., McKeachie, J.: Reliability and predictive validity of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire. Educ. Psychol. Measur. 53, 801–813 (1993) 10. Witmer, B.G., Jereme, C.J., Singer, M.J.: The factor structure of the presence questionnaire. Presence 14, 3-198-312 (2005)

Rethinking Continuous University Education for Professionals – A Podcast-Based Course on Service Design and AI Pontus Wärnestål1(&) 1

2

and Jeanette Sjöberg2

School of Information Technology, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden [email protected] School of Education, Humanities and Social Sciences, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden [email protected]

Abstract. The knowledge demand in the intersection between human-centered design and Artificial Intelligence (AI) has increased rapidly in both the private and public sectors. However, higher education is struggling to provide relevant content to already established senior professionals in a flexible and timely way. Mobile learning (m-learning) provides a promising way, but more research and practice is needed to design and launch efficient m-learning initiatives. In this paper, we share our experiences in designing and launching a flexible and selfpaced podcast-based, free university course for established professionals on the topic of human-centered design and AI. We present our design process and highlight the findings from our on-going student survey evaluation. The questions addressed in this paper are: (1) How can educators design podcast-based courses for professionals in Higher Education? (2) What impact does a podcastbased format have on a student’s engagement in higher education? Preliminary results indicate that the podcast-based format is an appreciated form of flexible learning, and that the content of human-centered design and AI is of high interest for a multidisciplinary community of professional practitioners. Keywords: M-learning

 AI  Higher education  Podcast  Course design

1 Introduction The knowledge demand in the intersection between User Experience (UX) Design, Service Design and Artificial Intelligence (AI) has increased rapidly in both the private and public sectors [1]. At the same time, 46% of EU workers feel their skills will become outdated in the next five years [2]. The EU Commission is increasing its annual investments in AI by 70% and will reach EUR 1.5 billion for the period 2018–2020. One of the central aims is to increase trust and utility of human-centric AI [3]. University education caters mostly to young people getting a full-time campus-based education before entering the professional workforce. Changes in the curriculum therefore takes several years before their effects reach the profession. Flexible education usually includes digital technology in teaching, stimulating the development of distant learning [4]. However, contemporary HEIs are often criticized © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 324–332, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_42

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for their slow pace when it comes to adopting new pedagogical approaches in relation to emerging digital technology [e.g. 5]. Simultaneously, learners have become accustomed to using digital technology for learning [6]. “‘Going to the classroom’ will be less identified with spending time in a well-defined and constrained physical location. The classroom has become virtual and may exist everywhere and at all times of the day” [7]. In 2015, 49% of students had taken an online course and this number is increasing as more online learning opportunities become available [8]. This, in turn, generates new issues about changing conditions for learning and teaching in higher education and the implementation of digitally based pedagogical approaches [9, 10]. Hence, emerging digital technologies in everyday life need to be related to the pedagogical methods being used [11]. Podcast-based education is an example of mobile learning, or m-learning, which is a subset of e-learning in higher education [e.g. 12, 13]. The focus in m-learning is on student mobility through interaction with portable technologies, and research shows that key factors for students’ usage of m-learning are perceived usefulness, ease of use [13] and accessibility [14]. Podcasting as a form of m-learning consists of educational audio episodes that are listened to on a mobile device. Podcast episodes automatically pushed to a subscribing device of a “show” (i.e. a collection of episodes), so that the most updated content is available, and possibly also synchronized across different devices. This “push” functionality reduces the effort to search for, and manually load, relevant content [15], and allows learners to choose when and where they study [12]. When it comes to podcasting in education, one of the most important questions within research has to do with how podcasts optimally can be designed in order to improve student learning [e.g. 16]. Several practitioners within the field of higher education claim that podcasting has a major pedagogical potential when it comes to enhancing teaching and learning [15, 17, 18]. According to previous research, however, much indicates that the most common use of podcasts in higher education is either teacher-distributed lectures or studentgenerated podcasts [17, 19], which raises concerns that podcasts are used in a regressive way, focusing on recording lecture materials and study questions [e.g. 20], rather than adapting the medium for unique learning opportunities and thus utilizing its full potential. Our work has a twofold purpose: First, to develop new course content at the intersection between AI and human-centered UX and Service Design in order to increase the professional skill and ability for AI and design professionals in private and public sector organizations. The question guiding this part of the work is: what skills do professionals in this cross-disciplinary field need in order to build human-centered AIdriven services that provide value to individuals, organizations, and society at large? Second, the project explores a new course format for flexible and short courses at an advanced level for practitioners. The target group for this type of course is experienced and operates in advanced knowledge-intensive environments. Furthermore, the target group works in a time-pressured context where knowledge and skills need to be continuously developed, but where traditional full- time campus- education often is unrealistic. The course format needs to be flexible, modularized, remote, and selfpaced.

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The questions addressed in this paper are: 1. How can educators design podcast-based courses for professionals in Higher Education? 2. What impact does a podcast-based format have on a student’s engagement in higher education?

2 Design of the Podcast-Based Course In order to systematically design a podcast-based course in the intersection of humancentered design and AI that is relevant for professionals, a working group consisting of industry representatives, pedagogical experts, as well as researchers in the fields of HCI, digital service innovation, and AI and Data Science was formed. All participants in the group are active podcast listeners and use podcasts as a way to learn and develop their own skill set. The group met weekly for four months (January through April 2019) in order to answer three key questions: 1. What are the critical characteristics of the target learner group? 2. What content do professionals in this cross-disciplinary field need in order to build human-centered AI-powered services that provide value to individuals, organizations, and society at large? 3. What format should be used to design a good learning environment based on podcast-based m-learning, given the target group and the content? 2.1

Learner Target Groups

The aim of the course is to concretize and make knowledge available about AI and human-centered user experience (UX) design and service design for professionals and contribute to flexible and self-paced learning. The target group for this course thus has specific characteristics that need to be taken into account when designing both content and format. Based on workshops with the project’s working group, as well as five complementing interviews with people from industry outside of the working group, a list of characteristics for two different target groups was compiled. It was expected from the outset – and confirmed in the workshops and interviews – that the target group of professionals for this course are either (a) professional designers who want to learn more about how AI and Data Science will influence and benefit their design work, or (b) engineers and developers who are already knowledgeable in the technology and algorithmic aspects but want to learn how to apply this knowledge in human-centered services, beyond the mere technical aspects. Learners in both target groups typically exhibit the following general characteristics: • Deep practical knowledge in their field. Learners have deep experience in a concrete application domain (such as automotive, MedTech, or telecom), or in the case of design professionals, a strong ability to apply human-centered design principles in any domain.

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• Learners have varying academic backgrounds. Even in senior positions, academic backgrounds range from self-taught to PhD degrees. • Focused on practical, day-to-day matters in order to deliver value in several simultaneous projects. • Time-pressured with limited possibilities to take external courses. Flexibility in learning is critical. • Senior and strategic mindset. Even though some of them have not started any practical AI implementations yet, they are in the process of shaping offers and positioning in the area of AI-powered service development. • International work environment. English is often the official workplace language for designers and AI developers, who work in multinational companies, and most articles and literature in the field is only available in English. 2.2

Content and Scope

Since the topic of human-centered design for AI-driven services is open-ended and a vast topic, some effort had to be put into a relevant and suitable scoping of the content. The knowledge demand in the area of AI and human-centered design has increased rapidly recently within both industry and public sector. Putting AI to use in real-life implementation is a prioritized goal for companies as well as national and international policymaking [cf. 3, 21]. And even though there is considerable literature and research available for each of these two fields, there is still theory and methodology lacking in terms of combining the two. Therefore, one of the goals of the course is to find examples of the interdisciplinary overlap between the fields. Furthermore, as there are considerable and complex ethical implications when implementing AI-powered services in society, an underlying theme in the course is ethical considerations for designing and implementing data-driven and AI-powered services. In order to serve both target groups and to be relevant to professionals’ practical work on AI in human-centered services, it was decided that the course should first establish a common ground and consistent technical vocabulary, and then move into application areas and examples. It was also decided that the course “Human-Centered Machine Learning” should be short – roughly equivalent to 3 ECTS (European Credit Transfer System) in scope. However, there are three reasons for offering the course as a MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) without ECTS. First, due to the varying background of the target learner group, prerequisites to enter the course would have to be individually assessed which would be very resource consuming. Second, an official ECTS course comes with an administrative overhead which would limit the reach to a large audience. Third, by giving the course freely available without examination and grading, the course development work can focus on podcast design and production, and without examination dates, learners can be completely self-paced. Fourth, in previous internal surveys among students in other short courses aimed at senior professionals there is a clear attitude that credits are of little – if any – importance when deciding to take the course. The working group iterated the content and episode design and decided on a total of twelve episodes. The first six episodes focus on technical aspects of AI and are followed by six design-oriented and applied episodes. Ethical considerations are part of all

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episodes, but the final episode is dedicated to ethical considerations. The participants in the episodes are experts in their fields, and include both researchers and practitioners from academia, research institutes, and companies. Table 1 summarizes the episodes and content of the course. Table 1. Human-centered machine learning podcast overview. Download count is generated by the Spreaker platform from October 1, 2019 to February 29, 2020. Episode 1

Topic Introduction

2

What is Artificial Intelligence? Machine Learning: Theory Practical Machine Learning Deep Learning

3 4 5 6

7

8

Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) Designing AI Services

10

Agentive Technology AI for Learning and EdTech AI in Healthcare

11

AI and Mobility

12

Ethical Challenges

9

Total downloads

2.3

Episode participants Researchers in AI (2), HCI (1), and Pedagogy (1) 2 AI researchers, 1 senior AI expert from a research institute 2 AI researchers, 1 senior AI expert from a research institute 2 AI researchers, 1 senior AI expert from a research institute 2 AI researchers, 1 senior AI expert from a research institute 2 AI researchers, 1 senior AI expert from a research institute 1 HCI researcher, 1 CEO of a company with end-user AI service development experience 1 HCI researcher, 1 design expert and author of a seminal AI design textbook 1 Pedagogy researcher, 1 AI researcher and EdTech expert 1 HCI researcher, 1 CEO of a company in data-driven healthcare 1 HCI researcher, 1 AI researcher, 1 mobility researcher from a research institute 1 HCI researcher, 1 AI researcher, 1 Design Ethnography researcher

Downloads 552 490 310 218 187 186

182

125 122 132 125

354 3,042

Format and Production

During the workshops several participants in the working group highlighted that the podcast format presents a unique opportunity to “listen in” on experts in dialogue with each other, or in dialogue with a skilled interviewer. Expert guests were recruited and booked, and the episodes were recorded during August-September. Based on the insights on the international target group, and the mother tongue of some of the guests, it was decided that all content should be given in English.

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The podcast episodes were recorded in the university’s recording studio and edited using the GarageBand™ software. Recordings were made with state-of-the-art multichannel studio equipment and directed microphones. The only exception to this was Episode 8, which was recorded backstage on an international design conference where one of the speakers was interviewed. The equipment used for that particular episode was a Zoom H5 portable digital recorder with two directional microphones. After two weeks of post-production, the entire collection of episodes was published in October 2019. All episodes were published as a podcast show with the course name “Human-Centered Machine Learning” on the Spreaker1 platform that generates an RSS feed, allowing for publication on all major podcast platforms, such as Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, and Spotify. All episodes were also embedded on the course’s own website2. The website holds additional learning resources connected to each episode.

3 Evaluation For the purpose of evaluating the podcast-based approach to course development, we continuously monitor an online anonymous survey directed at people from the learner target group (professionals working with either human-centered design or AI technology and software development). This paper reports on the first seven complete responses. 3.1

Participants

The anonymous participants in the evaluation group all finished the twelve episodes within three weeks. Their age span is between 25 and 54 years. Six participants identify as male, and one as female. Three participants have a professional background in HCI (including titles such as UX Designer, Service Designer, and Interaction Designer), two participants have a technical profession (Software Engineer and Programmer), and two participants have a business or management background (Project Manager and CEO). Five of the participants have more than 11 years of relevant professional experience, one has 6–10 years, and one is in the 3–5-year span. 3.2

Flexibility

The results of the survey indicate that students value the flexibility offered by mlearning in the form of podcasts. They appreciate that they can listen in contexts where they usually cannot access traditional e-learning resources. Participants listened to the course while commuting, exercising, doing household chores, walking, and driving. Only one person said s/he listened to one of the episodes sitting at his/her desk at work.

1 2

http://www.spreaker.com. http://dap.hh.se.

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Content and Learning

The topic of human-centered AI sparks interest and is perceived as being highly relevant by all participants. Two participants commented on the interdisciplinary aspect of the course, and highlight self-reflection of their own skills and knowledge in relation to the course content: “It was a good mix of different researchers and different themes. I will probably go back and listen to the first episodes, they would probably be more beneficial to me as I’m not that proficient in these areas.” “Nice overview of the field. […] Enjoyed the more techie episodes the most, but that’s probably because I know least about this.” Learning resources beyond audio, such as articles and links to other resources, are only available via the course’s website. Regular podcast channels only support audio, and learners accessing the course via regular podcast outlets therefore need to actively go to the course’s website. Four of the seven participants said that they used the external resources available on the website. All seven participants indicate that they would like to take more podcast-based courses in the future. 3.4

Format and Listener Experience

The interview genre was appreciated, which is consistent with previous research findings, claiming that higher education professionals “can provide content-rich educational content related to an authentic context, by producing and implementing podcasts linked to their field of study or interest” [22, p. 428]. One participant contrasts the interview genre with the traditional lecture genre: “Very interesting and diverse. Unique position between tech and human-centered design. I like the ‘interview’ format, instead of just “lectures” as in most e-learning courses I have taken before.” The user experience of a podcast is naturally very sound-dependent. Therefore, it is critical to invest in technology and know-how to ensure high sound quality. For example, making sure that speakers are positioned correctly in relation to microphones and setting recording levels correctly is required to ensure that listeners have good experience even in noisy environments, such as when walking in a city environment or listening on the subway. Another aspect of a good auditory experience is in relation to language. About half of the speakers in the episodes are native Swedish speakers and speak English as a secondary language. One of the reviewers commented on this: “Listening to Swedes speaking non-perfect English is a bit annoying, but these are minor details.” However, by using English the course serves listeners all over the world. According to the listener statistics, 62% listened in Sweden, and the remaining 38% accessed the podcast from other countries (predominantly with listeners from the USA, the UK and Germany).

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4 Conclusion and Future Directions The overall research aim of this work is to explore how podcast-based courses can be designed, and what features facilitate and challenge the learning experience for professionals. A second aim, and of particular interest to the HCI and design community, is to provide content in the intersection of AI and human-centered design. We have provided an account of the experiences in designing and launching a podcast-based course from a course development perspective, and provided initial insights on the impact of a podcast-based format from the learners’ perspective. Seven responding participants in the evaluation is a too small number for extracting statistical significance. However, the responses give indications of podcasts as a promising way to provide accessible and relevant content for time-sensitive knowledge professionals. The format of interviews and listening in on dialogues between experts was listed as helping build a positive learning experience by several of the respondents. One drawback based on the responses include the lack of visual learning, such as using figures and diagrams for example. A second drawback highlighted by the developers of the course (but not present in the learners’ evaluation so far) is the lack of interactive aspects and student-generated discussions. The combination of existing pushed podcast technology and interactive m-learning is an interesting area of future research for education and HCI researchers. One idea that comes to mind is to provide questionand-answer episodes injected between the regular episodes, where students can pose questions to be discussed by experts in the studio. Live broadcasts with students having the ability to write or call in, could also be a possible way to add interaction. These ideas, however, could limit the desired flexibility and self-paced experience for some learners. Acknowledgements. This research was supported by VINNOVA. We thank the members of the working group, Halmstad University’s technical staff for help in the studio, and the invited external experts who provided insights and expertise in the podcast episodes.

References 1. Noessel, C.: Designing Agentive Technology: AI That Works for People. Rosenfeld (2017) 2. Skills Panorama: Skills Obsolescence EU Commission Report. European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (2019). https://skillspanorama.cedefop.europa.eu/en/ indicators/skills-obsolescence. Accessed 20 Feb 2020 3. EU Commission: Artificial Intelligence Policy (2019). https://ec.europa.eu/digital-singlemarket/en/artificial-intelligence. Accessed 20 Feb 2020 4. Ferri, F., D’Andrea, A., Grifoni, P., Guzzo, T.: Distant learning: open challenges and evolution. Int. J. Learn. Teach. Educ. Res. 17(8), 78–88 (2018) 5. Buzzard, C., Crittenden, V.L., Crittenden, W.F., McCarty, P.: The use of digital technologies in the classroom: a teaching and learning perspective. J. Market. Educ. 33(2), 131–139 (2011) 6. Moos, D.C., Honkomp, B.: Adventure learning: motivating students in a minnesota middle school. J. Res. Technol. Educ. 43(3), 231–252 (2011)

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7. De Meyer, A.: Impact of technology on learning and scholarship and the new learning paradigm. In: Weber, L.E., Duderstadt, J.J. (eds.) University Priorities and Constraints, Gilon Colloquium Series, no. 9, Economica, London, Paris, Geneva (2016) 8. Statista: Global student online course usage rate, 7 December 2015. https://www.statista. com/statistics/548112/online-course-student-access-worldwide/. Accessed 20 Feb 2020 9. Liu, C.: Social media as a student response system: new evidence on learning impact. Res. Learn. Technol. 26 (2018) 10. Jain, A., Dutta, D.: Millennials and gamification: guerilla tactics for making learning fun. South Asian J. Hum. Resour. Manag. 6(1), 1–16 (2018) 11. Hansson, E., Sjöberg, J.: Making use of students’ digital habits in higher education: what they already know and what they learn. J. Learn. Dev. High. Educ. (14) (2019). ISSN: 1759667X 12. Evans, C.: The effectiveness of m-learning in the form of podcast revision lectures in higher education. Comput. Educ. 50(2), 491–498 (2008) 13. Sabah, N.M.: Exploring students’ awareness and perceptions: influencing factors and individual differences driving m-learning adoption. Comput. Hum. Behav. 65, 522–533 (2016) 14. Crescente, M.L., Lee, D.: Critical issues of m-learning: design models, adoption processes, and future trends. J. Chin. Inst. Ind. Eng. 28(2), 111–123 (2011) 15. Campbell, G.: There’s something in the air: podcasting in education. EDUCAUSE Rev. 40(6), 32–47 (2005) 16. Drew, C.: Edutaining audio: an exploration of education podcast design possibilities. Educ. Media Int. 54(1), 48–62 (2017) 17. Dale, C.: Strategies for using podcasting to support student learning. J. Hospitality Leisure Sport Tourism Educ. 6(1), 49–57 (2007) 18. Abdous, M., Facer, B.R., Yen, C.-J.: Academic effectiveness of podcasting: a comparative study of integrated versus supplemental use of podcasting in second language classes. Comput. Educ. 58, 43–52 (2012) 19. Hew, K.: Use of audio podcast in K-12 and higher education: a review of research topics and methodologies. Educ. Tech. Res. Dev. 57, 333–357 (2009) 20. Hew, K., Cheung, W.: Use of web 2.0 technologies in K-12 and higher education: the search for evidence-based practice. Educ. Res. Rev. 9, 47–64 (2013) 21. Future of Life Institute: National and International AI Strategies (2020). https://futureoflife. org/national-international-ai-strategies/. Accessed 8 Mar 2020 22. Norkjaer Nielsen, S., Holm Andersen, R., Dau, S.: Podcast as a learning media in higher education. In: Ntalianis, K., Andreats, A., Sgouropoulou, C. (eds.) Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on e-Learning (2018)

COVID-19 Pandemic: A Usability Study on Platforms to Support eLearning Cui Zou(&), Wangchuchu Zhao, and Keng Siau Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, USA {tracyzou,wzkt2,siauk}@mst.edu

Abstract. With the COVID-19 pandemic, the higher education communities throughout almost the entire world have moved from traditional face-to-face teaching to remote learning by using video conferencing software and online learning applications and platforms. With social distancing requirements, it is expected that eLearning will be part of the delivery modalities at least until an effective vaccine is widely available. Even after the pandemic is over, it is expected that remote learning and online education will be part of the “new or next normal.” Such online and remote learning modalities are not simply restricted to academic institutions. Businesses are using online and remote learning to re-train, re-tool, and re-educate their employees. The students, in general, are not enthusiastic about the virtual classroom. Niche.com surveyed 14,000 undergraduate and graduate students in April 2020 and found that more than 2/3 of them thought online classes are not as effective as in-person and teacher-centered classes. This unplanned change in teaching modes caused by COVID-19 and the negative feedback from students creates some serious concerns for educators and universities. How to enhance the eLearning experience for students? How to choose from many eLearning platforms on the market? Which eLearning platform is the most user friendly and the best suited for online classes? Which eLearning platforms enable the best class participation and student involvement? In this research, we apply the eLearning usability heuristics to evaluate the major video conferencing platforms (e.g., Cisco Webex, Microsoft Teams, and Zoom). Keywords: COVID-19  Pandemic  eLearning  Online teaching  Video conferencing software  Higher education  Usability heuristics  Virtual classroom

1 Introduction eLearning is learning conducted via electronic media, typically using the Internet. Synchronous and asynchronous eLearning are methods to substitute the traditional face-to-face learning method to improve learning performance and meet the social distancing requirement amid the COVID-19 outbreak. Educators and instructors have numerous options when choosing from different eLearning platforms based on features and purposes [1, 2]. The purpose of this study is to present a comparison of three popular eLearning platforms by functions and rank the platforms by the evaluation results. Usability is the key factor in eLearning [3]. To date, some research projects © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 333–340, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_43

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have sought to understand the various technologies and tools (e.g., video conferencing, learning management systems, multimedia, virtual reality, gamification) used in eLearning, the usability of different eLearning tools, the usability of mobile technologies, and the impact of usability on student performance [4–6, 8–17]. Previous research has also investigated mixed usability heuristics, from the “Nielsen’s 10 general heuristics” to some recent domain-specific heuristics targeting web sites, mobile applications, virtual reality, video games, and eLearning environments [17–20]. Evaluation heuristics to study the eLearning platforms in higher education during a pandemic is new because the situation is unprecedented. With COVID-19, we are relying almost completely on online and remote learning with hardly any face-to-face interactions [21]. Further, many instructors and students are forced into the situation and they have not self-selected to participate in eLearning. Although many articles online have discussed the pros and cons of popular eLearning platforms, again, these studies are focusing mainly on the needs of business users and not higher education. Our research seeks to fill this gap by using a set of evaluation heuristics tailored for eLearning and using the evaluation heuristics to review the usability of major eLearning platforms. The results can be used to guide educators in boosting learners’ participation and involvement in an eLearning by selecting the most appropriate platforms. The results can also help the developers of eLearning platforms to improve and tailor their products to better support pedagogical requirements.

2 Literature Review 2.1

Heuristic Evaluation

One of the popular evaluation heuristics is the one proposed by Nielsen and Molich [17]. This evaluation method usually involves a group of usability experts to examine an interactive software system based on a set of guidelines (so-called “Nielsen’s Heuristics” [18]) to capture and categorize problems in the system. Compared to fullscale usability study involving actual users, heuristics evaluation is cost-effective and efficient. However, Nielsen’s heuristics were considered too general to evaluate domain-specific user interfaces. Therefore, a considerable number of new sets of usability heuristics have been developed to target the needs of different domains by modifying Nielsen’s heuristics and/or adding new heuristics. For example, some researchers designed heuristics tailored to domains such as virtual worlds [3], social networks, mobile interfaces [5], and u-Learning applications [6]. However, according to a systematic review of 70 studies of domain-specific heuristics, many heuristics propositions lack validation and less than 10% of all the studies report acceptable robustness and rigorousness. Further, more than 80% of the studies adopted similar heuristics as Nielsen’s [20]. The use of eLearning as the domain of our study arises from the COVID-19 pandemic and the sudden need to transfer from face-to-face teaching to remote learning and virtual classroom [21]. Nielsen’s heuristics are not sufficiently specific for eLearning, especially when using video conferencing platforms. As a result, we decided to use the Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) heuristics developed by

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Figueroa et al. (see Table 1) [20]. It is a new and validated set of usability heuristics that is not only applicable to this specific domain but it also provides the evaluation of the virtual learning environment for educational purposes. It also takes user acceptance during the learning and teaching processes into consideration. Table 1. VLEs heuristics developed by Figueroa et al. [20]. Id H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 H7 H8 H9 H10 H11 H12 H13 H14 H15 H16 H17 H18

2.2

Name of VLEs Heuristics Visibility of system status Match between system and the real world User control and freedom Consistency and standards Error prevention Recognition rather than recall Flexibility and efficiency of use Aesthetic and minimalist design Help users recognize and diagnose from errors and recover from errors Help and documentation System elements consistency Web standards and symbols Teaching-Learning process indicator Flexible configuration of resources and learning objects Storage capability Interactive communication Multiple devices adaptation Measuring learning

eLearning and Blended Learning

eLearning and blended learning provide learners with flexibility in terms of time, place, and learning pace in higher education. They reduce person-to-person interaction to ensure social distancing during the pandemic. However, traditional learning approaches provide learners with an enhanced sense of participation and involvement. Online and traditional learnings have their advantages and applicable scopes [22]. Blended learning is a mixture of online and traditional learnings and provides learners and trainees with a wide range of basic online resources that are suitable for students with different backgrounds and needs. Some researchers [7, 8] suggest that blended learning stimulates learners’ interests in participating in an interactive classroom and results in significantly higher academic performances and better learning outcomes. 2.3

eLearning Platforms

Zoom is a cloud-based and web-based conference tool that people can use to virtually communicate and interact. Zoom offers several unique features that increase its

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popularity among small-, medium-, and large-sized groups of people. Zoom offers multiple free functions such as online meeting either by video or audio or both for 100 people maximum with a 40-min time limit, and other free functions such as live chat, screen sharing, and recording. Zoom provides functions and performances across multiple operating systems including Windows, Mac, Linux, iOS, Android, and Blackberry [23]. Over half of Fortune 500 companies reportedly used Zoom in 2019 [24], and Zoom has gained even more users worldwide since the outbreak of COVID19 because of its versatility and compatibility. With the number of users soaring, Zoom and its products are placed under the spotlight. Some cybersecurity researchers pointed out the vulnerabilities, security flaws, and data leaking risks when using Zoom. As a result, the Pentagon [25], German government [26], Taiwan government [27], and Singapore teachers [28] were warned about or restricting Zoom use. Even though the founder of Zoom, Eric Yuan, admitted the “missteps” and committed to focusing on privacy and security [29], security concerns remain. Cisco Webex is another popular online conference platform on the market. Webex has similar functionalities as Zoom and has comparable pricing plans as Zoom. The key difference between the two is that Webex’s free plan allows users to host meetings of any length of time whereas Zoom’s free plan limits a meeting to 40 min. As the typical length of a class is longer than 40 min, Webex is more suitable for a longer class session and Zoom is suitable for a short group meeting. Compared to Zoom, Webex’s pricing for the next two tiers designed for small teams and mid-sized teams are cheaper at $13.50/mo per host and $17.95/mo per host respectively. With Zoom, it costs $14.99/mo per host for small teams and $19.99/mo per host for mid-size teams [30]. Thus, Webex is commonly used for mid-sized classrooms or large group meetings whereas Zoom is popular with small classrooms or small group meetings. Microsoft Teams is a digital hub that brings conversations, meetings, files, and applications into a single learning management system. Microsoft Teams allows individual teams to self-organize and collaborate across different business scenarios. In Microsoft Teams, teams are a collection of people, content, and tools surrounding different projects and outcomes within an organization. Channels are dedicated sections within a team to keep conversations organized by specific topics, projects, and disciplines. It is estimated that by the end of 2020, 41 percent of organizations will be using Microsoft Teams globally [31]. Similar to the Zoom and Webex, Teams allows audio, video, and desktop sharing. Technology has played and continues to play an important role in the development and expansion of eLearning [32–34]. This paper investigates the functionalities that various platforms can offer educators in higher education institutions.

3 Research Procedures The usability of some popular online and remote learning platforms was evaluated using the new and validated set of VLE usability heuristics in this research. Some of the popular eLearning technologies that have been used in eLearning are Cisco Webex, Microsoft Teams, and Zoom. Different eLearning platforms have their unique strengths and each platform emphasizes different functionalities. In this research, Cisco Webex,

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Microsoft Teams, and Zoom were evaluated based on the 18 VLE usability heuristics by two evaluators. The results summarize the pros and cons of each focusing on their usage in higher education institutions.

4 Results and Discussions The usability of Microsoft Teams, Webex, and Zoom are generally very good and that is probably the reason for their popularity in the market place. The three also have very similar features and functions. The market is hyper-competitive and a useful feature in one is quickly adopted by the others. Further, the lock-in features of these platforms are weak. In other words, customers can switch easily from one platform to another. Usability, functionalities, and costs are keys for competition in such circumstances. In the following, we provide some suggestions to further enhance their usability for eLearning environments. Some of the suggestions provided below may not be relevant to corporate customers. Again, it should be emphasized that the evaluation was done with higher education environment in mind. After evaluating Microsoft Teams, Webex, and Zoom using the VLEs heuristics, we found several areas of improvement related to heuristics 2, 6, 7, 16, and 18 for eLearning. Sharing screen is common in eLearning and online teaching environments. For these three platforms, screen sharing is not as intuitive and simple as it should be for a novice user. The interaction needs to be made more natural and obvious. Also, for pedagogy, the instructors may need to view the screen of the students. For example, the instructors may be giving a test and need to ensure that the students are not searching for answers online. In the face-to-face environment, the instructors would be walking around to proctor the test. Although formal exams may need the professional proctoring service, proctoring of simple quizzes in eLearning can be accomplished easily when the instructors can view the screen of the students. This feature needs not be activated all the time – just when needed (e.g., during quizzes) and with the consent of the students. This is related to heuristic 2 – match between system and the real world. Proctoring of tests and exams is related to heuristic 18 – measuring learning. One effective way to evaluate eLearning involvement is to check on class attendance. While Teams gives a one-click tool to download the attendance list from the side menu, Webex and Zoom make the operation a little more complicated – the instructors have to go through a few steps before they can download the attendance lists. One suggestion is to make commonly used/needed features to be accomplished in one-click. This is related to heuristics 7 and 18 – flexibility and efficiency of use, and measuring learning. Although Teams provide a neat user interface during video conferencing, the meeting icon used to open a video meeting can be made more visually distinct and easily recognizable. The icons used should be easily identifiable and conforming to the norm (i.e., what is commonly used at this time) [35]. This is related to heuristics 6 and 7 – recognition rather than recall, and flexibility and efficiency of use. Another suggestion is related to heuristic16, interactive communication. Compared to face-to-face classroom, eLearning calls for a more engaging interactive

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communication to keep students involved and instructors informed of students’ statuses [36]. This is important for some eLearning sessions where the instructors are lecturing and would like to know the students’ statuses. Teams, Webex, and Zoom have features that address this need – embedded non-verbal feedback using icons such as raise hand, clap, and go slow. These icons enable the students to provide feedback and allow students to express their understanding of the course content. However, these icons are not visible unless a chat screen is open. One suggestion is that these icons can be made more visible and a few more such icons can be included (e.g., an icon for “Please Elaborate/Explain”) for eLearning environment. This is also related to heuristic 2 – match between system and the real world.

5 Conclusions COVID-19 propels the importance of eLearning platforms to a new height. In this research, we investigated three eLearning platforms – Cisco Webex, Microsoft Teams, and Zoom. The Virtual Learning Environments heuristics was selected as the evaluation criteria. The evaluation results show that the three platforms score well in usability and have similar basic functions including online meetings using video and/or audio, live chat, screen sharing, and recording. The evaluation also reveals some areas where the three platforms can be enhanced for eLearning. Features that can be enriched include ease of sharing screens, employ intuitive icons, and tailor the platforms to pedagogical needs such as collecting class attendance and viewing of students’ screens during tests. Cisco Webex, Microsoft Teams, and Zoom are not designed specifically with eLearning in mind. With COVID-19, millions of students in many countries are suddenly forced to use these platforms to continue their education. Their experience and exposure to different eLearning platforms will change the pedagogical landscape postpandemic. It will not be education as usual after COVID-19 is managed and controlled. Issues to resolve to further enhance the acceptance of eLearning include security, privacy, and trust [37–40]. Nevertheless, a massively huge market is there to be grabbed for the platforms that are best designed for eLearning! Usability is a critical success factor in this competition! [41]

References 1. Chen, X., Siau, K.: Technology-mediated synchronous virtual education: an empirical study. J. Database Manag. 27(4), 39–63 (2016) 2. Eschenbrenner, B., Nah, F., Siau, K.: 3-D virtual worlds in education: applications, benefits, issues, and opportunities. J. Database Manag. 19(4), 91–110 (2008) 3. Rusu, C., Muñoz, R., Roncagliolo, S., Rudloff, S., Rusu, V., Figueroa, A.: Usability heuristics for virtual worlds. In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Advances in Future Internet, IARIA, pp. 16–19 (2011) 4. Chen, X., Siau, K., Nah, F.: Empirical comparison of 3-D virtual world and face-to-face classroom for higher education. J. Database Manag. 23(3), 30–49 (2012)

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26. US Senate, German government tell staff not to use Zoom. https://www.zdnet.com/article/ussenate-german-government-tell-staff-not-to-use-zoom/. Accessed 8 July 2020 27. Taiwan instructs government agencies not to use Zoom. https://www.zdnet.com/article/ taiwan-instructs-government-agencies-not-to-use-zoom/. Accessed 8 July 2020 28. MOE suspends use of Zoom in home-based learning following breaches involving obscene images. https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/singapore/moe-suspends-zoom-homebased-learning-obscene-images-12626534. Accessed 8 July 2020 29. Zoom CEO responds to security and privacy concerns: ‘We had some missteps’. https:// www.theverge.com/2020/4/5/21208636/zoom-ceo-yuan-security-privacy-concerns. Accessed 8 July 2020 30. What users are saying about Webex Meeting vs Zoom. https://www.trustradius.com/ compare-products/cisco-webex-meetings-vs-zoom#:*:text=Webex%20Meetings%20and% 20Zoom%20have,to%2040%20minutes%20per%20meeting. Accessed 8 July 2020 31. Microsoft: Welcome to Microsoft Teams (2018). https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/ microsoftteams/teams-overview. Accessed 8 July 2020 32. Erickson, J., Siau, K.: Education. Commun. ACM 46(9), 134–140 (2003) 33. Siau, K.: Education in the age of artificial intelligence: how will technology shape learning? Glob. Anal. 7(3), 22–24 (2018) 34. Siau, K., Messersmith, J.: Analyzing ERP implementation at a public university using the innovation strategy model. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Interact. 16(1), 57–80 (2003) 35. Siau, K.: Human-computer interaction-the effect of application domain knowledge on icon interpretation. J. Comput. Inf. Syst. 45(3), 53–62 (2005) 36. Siau, K., Sheng, H., Nah, F.: Use of a classroom response system to enhance classroom interactivity. IEEE Trans. Educ. 49(3), 398–403 (2006) 37. Siau, K., Wang, W.: Building trust in artificial intelligence, machine learning, and robotics. Cutter Bus. Technol. J. 31(2), 47–53 (2018) 38. Siau, K., Shen, Z.: Building customer trust in mobile commerce. Commun. ACM 46(4), 91– 94 (2003) 39. Wang, W., Siau, K.: Artificial intelligence, machine learning, automation, robotics, future of work, and future of humanity – a review and research agenda. J. Database Manag. 30(1), 61– 79 (2019) 40. Siau, K., Wang, W.: Artificial intelligence (AI) ethics – ethics of AI and ethical AI. J. Database Manag. 31(2), 74–87 (2020) 41. Stephanidis, C., et al.: Seven HCI grand challenges. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Interact. 35(14), 1229–1269 (2019)

HCI, Culture and Art

Visualizing Ancient Culture Through the Design of Intermodal Extended Reality Experiences Joseph Chambers1,2(&) 1

The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA [email protected] 2 Department of Design, 100 Hayes Hall, 108 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210, USA

Abstract. The purpose of this paper is to propose findings on a process for developing and designing a hybrid Virtual Reality/Augmented Reality (VR/AR) system that facilitates artifact discovery and meaning-making at the Guard dig site near the Little Miami River. Both researchers and visitors use this active archeological dig site. The content for this system uses a combination of computer-generated and photogrammetry type models to show the world of the Ft. Ancient people. The virtual presentation of these artifacts uses both a VR and AR system or Extended Reality (XR) system, to share critical cultural stories about this ancient culture. Approaching the design of this project demanded the use of designerly thinking, design research and co-design principles with archeologists, the local community, and potential visitors. This process, based on agile methodologies, ensures the needs of researchers, stakeholders, and visitors are met. The research highlights the challenges facing, exhibit, museum and historical landmark designers as they strive to create a more vibrant and dynamic experience while at the same time creating a historically accurate recreation. The main issues facing an immersive designer consist of the blending of relevance, expectations, engaging interpretation, and finally creating a cultural hub. Keywords: Design  Extended reality  Virtual cultural heritage  Archeology  Virtual reality  Augmented reality  Museum  Ft. ancient culture

1 Introduction In his book, Space and Place, Yi-Fu Tuan has remarked, “As social beings and scientists we offer each other truncated images of people and their world. Experiences are slighted or ignored because of the means to articulate them or point them out are lacking. The lack is not due to any inherent deficiency in language. If something is of sufficient importance to us, we usually find the means to give it visibility” [1]. This passage is rather poignant to the design research conducted in this project as several emerging technologies were designed to tell stories; that engage and immerse the visitor in more informative ways.

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The idea of placing a visitor in a time and place that connects them to an ancient people and transports them through time is a way to immerse a user or visitor in a particular culture. This type of transportation has been a goal of artists and philosophers since ancient times. Aristotle proclaimed in his classic Poetics, “…Tragedy is an imitation, not of men, but of an action and of life, and life consists in action, and its end is a mode of action, not a quality” [2]. Immersive technology like Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) allows us to insert action into lessons and shared experiences, thus recreating a “life” that was once limited to passive experiences. A fully immersive VR project allows us to build, play, and manipulate artifacts within a virtual world. The technology of AR inserts computer-generated models into a user’s place and space and then allows them to not only see those objects but also interact with them. The blending of the technology can provide an engaging extended reality experience for a historical, cultural heritage site.

2 Expert Domain 2.1

Subject Matter Experts and Stakeholders

While approaching the beginning stages of the design, it is helpful to identify who the stakeholders and domain experts are for the project. The VR and AR expertise is provided by the project designer, but the domain experts were those fluent in Ft. Ancient culture. The subject matter experts consisted of faculty from The Ohio State University Department of Anthropology, the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, the Archeological Research Institute, and others from The Ohio State University Department of Anthropology. The stakeholders, as described in this paper, are also the community at large and visitors to the site. 2.2

Ft. Ancient Culture

The origins of the Ft. Ancient Culture date back to roughly 1000 AD [3]. At this time, the culture was a weak and stagnant group. Most of the houses were pit-house style, and they farmed mostly corn, bean, and sunflower. Ft. Ancient society was a melting pot of cultural influences. They borrowed from many different peoples and civilizations. This melding helped the culture become fuller, more productive, and it grew more substantial as a result. This is also when European made goods found their way into the villages through trade. The foreign objects would include brass, glass, steel, and other products. Along with the increase in trade and material came the introduction of infectious diseases. Around 1300 AD many Ft. Ancient sites were abandoned in Southwest Ohio and Southeastern Indiana due to social and ecological changes that they encountered [3].

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3 Designing for a Specific Domain 3.1

Adopting Design Principles

Design thinking is a powerful tool that is useful when looking to build alternative learning environments [4]. In researching what process would be necessary to design current immersive learning experiences, the process of design thinking emerged as a critical candidate. Brown states there are “three spaces of innovation: inspiration, the problem or opportunity that motivates the search for solutions; ideation, the process of generating, developing, and testing ideas; and implementation, the path that leads from the project room to the market” [4]. In proceeding with the first part of this project, inspiration was realized from the Archeologist group. The ideation phase of this project consisted of a collaboration with stakeholders using a framework of co-design principles used throughout the ideation process. An agile methodology heavily influences the implementation path. 3.2

Identifying the Strengths of Each Medium

To identify what medium, when comparing AR to VR, would be most useful, a rating system was put in place to quantify the ability of AR and VR to accurately portray the affordances each area supports (see Fig. 1 and 2). It was readily apparent some design elements would lend themselves to AR, while others VR. For instance, if you want to control every aspect of an environment, like weather, VR would be a better option visually as we could control the elements no matter what season it is. In contrast, viewing AR snow in the middle of July wouldn’t have the same effect. Particular areas of interest received a rating to help identify which medium would work best.

Fig. 1. Rating AR vs VR

3.3

Fig. 2. AR vs VR data

General Issues in Designing for XR

Virtual Reality Design Considerations. It is helpful to briefly describe some of the most active elements of VR and AR so that they can be used to communicate effectively. As VR scholar Jason Jerald points out, “A fully immersive VR experience is more than merely presenting content. The more a user physically interacts with a virtual

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world using their own body in intuitive ways, the more than a user feels engaged and present in the virtual world” [5]. This enhanced engagement can make the experience more relatable to others. It can create a new world around us, which allows us to build, play, and manipulate objects within that world. This play and learning are at the heart of the project, so being able to have a system that can utilize these important traits is essential. VR will transport a guest to a new place, a new time, and give them a new perspective. Augmented Reality Design Considerations. Augmented Reality is a technology that changes the visual views of its user. According to Papagiannis, “(In AR) you are more deeply immersed and engaged with your surroundings via newfound contextual understanding assisted by technology” [6]. The technology of AR inserts computergenerated objects into a user’s place and space and then allows them to not only see those objects but also interact with them. This ability to “augment” a scene allows for visual overlays, object interactions, and instructions to engage a user seamlessly. Paired with the ability to set up physical trigger markers and GPS beacons, the immersive designer can place those digitally designed artifacts at specific locations and create a method of discovery learning. 3.4

XR Design Considerations for Historical and Cultural Heritage

The current exhibit, museum and historical landmark designer has several issues they need to address in order to create a vibrant and dynamic immersive experience for cultural heritage purposes. The main problems facing a designer consists of some blend of relevance, expectations, and engaging interpretation [7]. For this project, it was helpful to consider the following elements throughout the process.

Fig. 3. Website for domain experts

Fig. 4. Guard dig site in Indiana

Engagement. Active user participation enhances the cognitive processes in the areas of problem-solving, decision-making and evaluation. Active user participation encourages the visitor to engage with the subject matter. Engagement theory can involve collaboration, discovery and visionary types of motivation [8].

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Flow. Additionally, there are design elements like FLOW and user engagement that need to be considered [9]. When the visitor comes to the location of the site, they should feel like they are visiting the past. This feeling of both arousal and control should never leave the visitor throughout the entirety of the experience. We offer a guide to assist the user throughout the teaching moments. Gamification and Interaction Design. The interactivity of the project was considered, designed, and tested for. When approaching the design of non-gaming systems, ‘gamified’ elements can be used to increase a visitor’s interest and motivation. Providing motivational powers to goals through mastery seeking, reputation, and identity signaling of valued accomplishments are just a few of the techniques that can be explored through these design elements [10]. Interface Design. The virtual interface was considered very carefully. If the interface does not amplify the power and control a visitor has over content, the interface can become a wall. The visitor should be provided with information that isn’t obvious by just looking around the field or perusing the artifacts in the museum. The way the information is delivered to the visitor is considered [11]. Inclusivity. Research was done by going to museums and noting what all age groups do and say. This helped influence the conceptual designs for each group. Identifying topics to be addressed included how small interactions and environmental spaces can provide a meaningful outcome. It also meant having a place for the stakeholders to view the project in various states. To address this, a website was developed to share models created by individuals like OSU graduate student Jiaxing Gao with archeologists and subject matter experts (see Fig. 3). Appropriate Visual Representation. It is challenging for a scientific researcher to share their discoveries with others outside their field. This is simply due to the very complex and dynamic elements that inhabit a historical space. While the archeologist knows the intimate experience through their hours of research and examination, much of the cultural relevance that is attached to the fragment is lost on the public without more extensive explanation. A solution to this might be to virtually incorporate emerging theories about a culture. It is important to know how a digital artifact’s value is being considered by the user [1].

4 Extracting Methodology and Design Principles 4.1

Co-design and a Designerly Approach

As design researcher Sanders points out, “Approaches to design research have come from a research-led perspective and from a design-led perspective” [12]. Work by Sanders also bounds design research using both an expert mindset and a participatory mindset, referring to an approach that acknowledges the community around a project and the creators of the project. It was using this mindset that sparked discussions that informed this design. Much of the archaeologist’s work is written, hand-drawn, or is research in progress, so it became critical that to connect with the archeology lab at

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subject matter experts. The Ft. Ancient culture is particularly hard to visualize. While this group has unearthed many artifacts, there is no modern culture to investigate and no physical structures to visit (see Fig. 4). Because of the Ft. Ancient’s quick departure and their tendency to burn dwellings that were old, or inhospitable, there is little material culture left. Discussions led to an agreement about digitally visualizing three significant areas: the spiritual journey through a central village pole, a family domicile that relates to daily activities, and finally, the wilderness outside the village stockade. 4.2

Combining Co-design with Agile Methodology

By using a co-design methodology that treats the domain experts and the visitors as first-class members, we can combine design techniques used in Human-Computer Interaction, software development, and mutual learning. This project uses an interpretation of the agile co-design methodology as presented by designers at the University of Southampton [13]. This system creates scope and shared understanding upfront, then uses an iterative development process to move the project forward. The first stage is defining the problem and understanding the requirements of the stakeholders. Continuing the understanding between the stakeholders and designers from phase one, we move on to creating personas, scenarios, and activity diagrams. The next step is to develop, test and refine elements from stakeholders and possible users. 4.3

User Profiles and Journey Maps

User profiles and journey maps, also known as user personas, can help to discover the complex elements and help to aid in approaches to human-centered design. The persona and journey maps created can provide a broad picture of a participant’s thoughts and the benefits associated with some of the more complex issues a design is trying to address. As Newton and Riggs point out, the personas can help to “identify broader trends, including common issues or inquiries made by particular client types” [14]. In the case of this project, the client types are the archeologists, the visitors and the local residents (see Fig. 5 and 6).

Fig. 5. User persona

Fig. 6. User journey map

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Experience Roadmap

In addition to personas and user maps, there is a need to create a roadmap, or storyboard of the experience so that the designers and creators can identify what elements are essential to create a working prototype. Experience diagrams and storyboards are the tools of choice. These diagrams (see Fig. 7 and 8) were chosen because as Walsh states, “visual presentation of ideas helps respondents to identify themselves with the use situation and enhance imagination [15].

Fig. 7. Experience map

4.5

Fig. 8. Ancient culture

Importance of a Prototype

Continuing with an agile co-design methodology, there is a need to build and showcase a working prototype. Wensveen states in discussions about design research, “the practice of prototyping, as a means of inquiry often receives the least attention as a research contribution, it is often the case that a prototyping process has been vital for the exploration and further development of research directions, or has provided a conceptual background for the later stages of research” [16]. The effect on creating a prototype for the stakeholders provided them with the ability to see what this technology is capable of and what type of stories they can afford to the public. AR Prototype. The AR prototype places artifacts in the desired location at the Guard site and connects the visitor to the history contained there. The artifacts include information about discovery and purpose. The user’s ability to move around and see the artifact in its native surroundings was tested. The project supports physical movement through a location-based AR experience (see Fig. 9 and 10).

Fig. 9. AR prototype iPad

Fig. 10. AR prototype of pole

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VR Prototype. The VR prototype places the visitor in a remote location like a museum but virtually transports them to the site (see Fig. 11 and 12). Annotation and information is contained in each artifact and presented to the visitor. By acknowledging individuals who learn best when encouraged to explore physical space, the project was leveraged by introducing historical artifacts with immersive technologies. Embodiment and movement are achieved using VR.

Fig. 11. Village in VR - night

4.6

Fig. 12. Village in VR - day

Considerations

• Appealing to a wide range of ages and backgrounds • Networking will allow functionality and learning with a mass mindset • Given the time and resources available, there could be limitations in visualizing all the areas the domain experts would like to have. • Weather • Technology changes

5 Conclusion Immersive designers should take note of designerly thinking and the ability to use the design tools to enhance their design. Using personas, scenarios and prototypes are vital tools throughout the design process. Moreover, weaving the subject matter experts and stakeholders into the development process, even if they have limited experience with extended reality systems, is needed to ensure the project is accurately representing a cultural heritage site. A primary goal of this project is to raise awareness of this culture. There is a need to allow the design of these immersive experiences the ability to build more than just a walkthrough, but a place that can offer an enhanced culturally immersed experience. This can only happen through collaboration and the sharing of design choices.

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References 1. Tuan, Y.-F.: Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience. U of Minnesota Press (1977) 2. Fergusson, F.: Aristotle’s Poetics. Macmillan (1961) 3. Cook, R.A.: Continuity and Change in the Native American Village: Multicultural Origins and Descendants of the Fort Ancient Culture. Cambridge University Press (2017) 4. Brown, Tim, Katz, Barry: Change by design. J. Prod. Innov. Manag. 28(3), 381–383 (2011) 5. Jerald, J.: The VR Book: Human-Centered Design for Virtual Reality. Morgan & Claypool (2015) 6. Papagiannis, H.: Augmented Human: How Technology is Shaping the New Reality. O’Reilly Media, Inc. (2017) 7. VernerJohnson Homepage. http://www.vernerjohnson.com/. Accessed 14 Feb 2020 8. Kearsley, G., Shneiderman, B.: Engagement theory: a framework for technology-based teaching and learning. Educ. Technol. 38(5), 20–23 (1998) 9. Csikszentmihalyi, M.: Flow: the psychology of optimal experience (Nachdr.) (2009) 10. Deterding, S.: Gamification: designing for motivation. Interactions 19(4), 14–17 (2012) 11. Schell, J.: The Art of Game Design: A Book of Lenses. CRC Press (2008) 12. Sanders, L.: An evolving map of design practice and design research. Interactions 15(6), 13– 17 (2008) 13. Millard, D., Howard, Y., Gilbert, L., Wills, G.: Co-design and co-deployment methodologies for innovative m-learning systems. In: Multiplatform E-Learning Systems and Technologies: Mobile Devices for Ubiquitous ICT-Based Education, pp. 147–163. IGI Global (2010) 14. Newton, K., Riggs, M.J.: Everybody’s talking but who’s listening? Hearing the user’s voice above the noise, with content strategy and design thinking (2016) 15. Walsh, T., Nurkka, P., Koponen, T., Varsaluoma, J., Kujala, S., Belt, S.: Collecting crosscultural user data with internationalized storyboard survey. In: Proceedings of the 23rd Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference, pp. 301–310 (2011) 16. Wensveen, S., Matthews, B.: Prototypes and prototyping in design research. In: The Routledge Companion to Design Research. Taylor & Francis (2015)

Information Design of an On-Site Interpretative Game Chun-Wen Chen(&)

and Wei-Chieh Lee

Taipei National University of the Arts, No. 1 Hsueh-Yuan Road, Peitou District, Taipei 11201, Taiwan [email protected]

Abstract. This research proposes to develop a design and application model for interpretative media for ecomuseums and other exhibit facilities. With perspective of information design, we consider the form of an on-site interpretative game to combine the benefits of field interpretation and game tasks. This research takes Beitou area in northern Taiwan as the sample site of ecomuseum, to develop the contents of the interpretative game. With different styles of information design, including the order of task and interpretative text, and the use of realistic or schematic image, a card-based on-site interpretative game is designed and made. We conduct on-site user tests to understand the difference and features of usability and satisfaction among combinations of different styles of information design. Quantitative and qualitative data is collected to be analyzed. The guidelines for information design of on-site interpretative game are concluded and proposed. Keywords: Information design

 Interpretation design  Game-based learning

1 Introduction Ecomuseum is a kind of museum in concept. The concept is to utilize real sites or objects of culture, history or nature as subjects for visiting, but not to collect them in museum. Because the subjects are not located in controllable venues, how to process an appropriate exhibit interpretation becomes an important issue. This research proposes to develop a design and application model for interpretative media for ecomuseums and other exhibit facilities. With perspective of information design, we consider the form of an on-site interpretative game to combine the benefits of field interpretation and game tasks. It could be guided by an interpreter or operated by users themselves, to improve the visiting experience. The interpretative tool should be compact to carry and can demonstrate the functions of interpretative media well. It should have a concise form to provide basic and important site information, as well as to match the needs and styles of tasks and the context. This research takes Beitou area in Taiwan as the sample site of ecomuseum, to develop the contents of the interpretative game. This paper is the pilot study that tested the paper prototypes on the real site with fewer participants. Guidelines are concluded to make the final test model of the on-site interpretative game. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 352–358, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_45

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2 Literature Review 2.1

Interpretation

Interpretation is a kind of educational activity. It is multiple methods and media of demonstration and explanation for visitors to understand the themes and contents of exhibits. Tilden [11] provided a definition of interpretation for dictionary purpose as follows: An educational activity which aims to reveal meanings and relationships through the use of original objects, by firsthand experience, and by illustrative media, rather than simply to communicate factual information (p. 33).

Beck and Cable [2] took interpretation as a procedure of transmitting information and inspiration for us, to promote the understanding, appreciation, and protection to cultural and natural heritage. We can see that interpretation is a method of education, with direct experience and explanative information, to inspire the understanding and insights of visitors to the themes and contents of exhibits, and to actively promote the protection of the cultural and natural environment. It is also the purpose of this research. The effect of direct experience on learning has been richly discussed in literature, mainly due to the benefits of multiple sensory stimulation and connection. Experiential learning (or experience-based learning) is a way of learning through experience, especially learning by reflection in operation. Kolb [6] proposed the experiential learning theory that defines experience learning as the process of knowledge generation through the conversion of experience. Kolb’s experiential learning model (ELM) is divided into four stages, from individual concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, and finally to verification of the concept (active experimentation). Knowledge is obtained by summing up experience from actual situations, and promoted from verification and application. This is originally a natural way to obtain usable knowledge from experience, but it is more efficient for us to directly utilize the experience gathered by our predecessors, with means such as reading. Now we lose the ability to learn directly from experience, and also lose the learning effect of multiple senses. Kolb is to retrieve this original learning method. Tilden [11] believes the two concepts that the interpreter must think about. One is that the statement must go beyond the facts to inspire more important meanings behind the facts. The other is that the explanation should make full use of human curiosity to enrich and enhance human intelligence and mind. This means that interpretation can use people’s instinct of curiosity for novelty, to provide multiple experiential environments, just like puzzles to be solved, to trigger learning motivation, and to open up potentially important meanings. The interpretative media is the medium that conveys the content of the message. Broadly speaking, it also covers the means and methods of using the media to elicit the reaction of the recipient, including the methods, facilities and tools of communication. Sharpe [10] divides the interpretative media into two categories: staff interpretation and non-staff interpretation. 1. Personal or attended service: the use of personnel to explain

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directly to tourists. 2. Non-personal or attended service: using a variety of facilities to explain the subject matter, without personnel explanation. This research conducted test with a means of non-personal service. 2.2

Information Design

The name information design is derived from the field of graphic design, and is also traditionally called information graphics. It is a method of explaining facts and numerical concepts by combining graphics and text. In the development of human civilization, it is natural to use graphics and text to convey ideas at the same time. After the development of many pioneers in modern times, it has gradually become an integrated design professional field. Information design is defined by the International Institute for Information Design (IIID) [5]: is “the defining, planning, and shaping of the contents of a message and the environments in which it is presented, with the intention to satisfy the information needs of the intended recipients.” Information architecture refers to a set of methods for describing the structure of an information system, including how information is organized, how information is navigated, and vocabulary and term selection [1]. Morville and Rosenfeld [7] believe that the information structure can be divided into four parts: organization system, labeling system, navigation system, and search system. Information graphics is a comprehensive graphic and text to explain the facts and numerical concepts. There are many different views on the scope and classification of information graphics. Wildbur and Burke [13] divide information graphics into three categories according to their usage: 1. Organized presentation of facts or data; 2. Methods to understand the situation or process; 3. Design of control systems. 2.3

Game-Based Learning

Game-based learning (GBL) is a learning method that uses games to achieve specific learning purposes. It includes games through various media, such as computers, video games, paper cards, board games, etc. The game-based learning using digital media is called digital game-based learning (DGBL). In recent years, there are researches on the effectiveness of digital game-based learning. Although many results have proved to be beneficial to learning, the disputes continue [3, 8, 12]. The most questioned question about the strategy of attracting visitors in museum exhibition with entertainment is: Regardless of whether the visitors pay attention to and understands the theme information, the entertainment effect can still be achieved. It is difficult to determine whether the visitors have learned something. Screven [9] proposed two modes of participation: passive participation and interactive participation. Passive participation usually only plays the role of the initiator. The visitors can see the dynamic demonstration, but has no power of choice. This kind of participation is oneway only, and the system has the same response to all feedback. While interactive participation does not only provide visitors a chance to make a decision. The focus is to encourage visitors to find the answer from the exhibit to achieve the best cognitive learning effect before visitors make a decision. Interactive participation is closer to the ideal way of participation in education and entertainment.

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About digital games on real site, Hwang, Tsai and Yang [4] discussed the locationbased mobile learning environment on the topic of context-aware ubiquitous learning environment. They suggested the learning environment should be environment-aware, that is, the state of the learner or environment can be detected before the system can perform learning activities. And the learning environment should provide personalized support or prompts at appropriate paths, locations, and times that based on the learner’s personal, environmental factors and learning process.

3 Method This research takes Beitou area in northern Taiwan as the sample site of eco-museum, to develop the contents of the interpretative game. In Beitou, many cultural and historic spots are very worth visiting. We select some important spots to form an appropriate visiting path. With different styles of information design, including the order of task and interpretative text, and the use of realistic or schematic image, a card-based on-site interpretative game is designed and made. Every card matches a specific spot with its task description, interpretative text and image (see Fig. 1).

(a)

(b)

Fig. 1. Game cards: (a) with realistic photos; (b) with hand drawing.

In this pilot study, paper prototypes were tested in three stages by eight participants. Paper prototypes were made with three design factors: (1) order of task and text, (2) realistic or schematic image, and (3) with or without background color under lower texts. A hand-drawing map and puzzle booklet like elementary school homework were also designed as parts of the game (see Fig. 2). Each group of two participants took one prototype with a combination of the factors and started to arrange a suitable route for all spots on the cards. They had to follow the task directions on the cards to complete the tasks on the spots and also try to solve the number puzzle on the booklet. After a group of participants finished their tasks and solved the puzzle, a group interview was conducted to understand the problems and satisfaction that participants met. After each test stage, the prototype was modified to make new version. We will conduct on-site user tests to understand the difference and features of usability and satisfaction among combinations of different styles of information design. Quantitative and qualitative data is collected to be analyzed.

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Fig. 2. Game map

4 Results and Discussion This pilot study collects qualitative data in three group interviews. The results show three categories of reflections and insights about the game design: (1) process and puzzle design: the game integration and puzzle solving, (2) information and visual design: the order of objects and visual styles, and (3) task design: how the experience can be gather. Stage 1. Two participants. (1) Process and puzzle design: Users can understand how the game progresses from documents and cards. The puzzle solving is processed on the booklet, so it should provide obvious hints and directions. (2) Information and visual design: “Title, introduction, image, task” is the most acceptable visual order of information presented. Users think that tasks are more important than introduction. You need to know what the mission is before you start to explore. The task texts should be emphasized. The yellow background can highlight the task texts. The images that utilize hand-drawing style got better satisfaction. User can explorer the spots with hints in the drawing images. The routes on the map can provide the function of positioning to locate personal position. (3) Task design: The task on the card can make users want to go inside the train station to find the answer. It is good to get experience of problem solving. The tasks should have clear instructions and have obvious correspondence with the spots (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3. On-site test in Thermal Valley, Beitou.

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Stage 2. One participant. (1) Process and puzzle design: Relevance and priority of tasks and puzzle solving is important. If there is no relevance, it is easy to guide users focus on the puzzle solving and ignore the experiential tasks. The time without limitation is good for users to get more experience in the site. The free exploration is encouraged. Users also like the manner that users can freely arrange their routes to go through the spots shown on the cards. But they like a clear method to finish the tasks, such as blank squares to fill the answers. (2) Information and visual design: The mapping between cards and the map is well for wayfinding. The landmarks on the map should be showed on the correct related positions so that they can be referred easily. (3) Task design: The task should be designed with answer searching or rich field experience to prevent users to skip the tasks. Users could start drawing after deep observation: such as the task that starts observation on Thermal Valley and try to draw witch image from the scene. Finally, the clear and important knowledge can be understood, such as the story that Beitou waterway system was completed in 1911. Stage 3. Four participants. (1) Process and puzzle design: Users will also observe things that are not card tasks. The path they have taken is that we have not traveled before. There are two groups that will compete and have more fun. A group is suitable for 2–3 people to cooperate through barriers. (2) Information and visual design: The arrangement of tasks above and introduction below will be misunderstood that the instruction below is the answer. Observation skills can be trained, and card clues can assist in correspondence. The map does not need to be drawn with too much details, and this map is just good. And real photos used in the cards are less fun. It makes the card designed more like a sightseeing manual. (3) Task design: They also pay attention to the information along the road to see if they can find the answer for the tasks. They like the interactive way on site, such taking pictures in the Little Bath and finding a green-building book in the library. The tested cards can be used as a self-guided interpretation tool. It can fulfill the most principles by Tilden [11]. It can provide experiential connection between users and knowledge. The interpretation function works better than mere information by tasks that can stimulate people’s imagination.

5 Conclusion The guidelines for information design of on-site interpretative game are concluded and proposed. (1) The simple on-site game can provide similar functions of a person’s interpretation. The tasks are good to get experience of problem solving. The tasks should have clear instructions and have obvious correspondence with the spots. (2) In the game context, “Title, introduction, image, task” is the most acceptable visual order of information presented. Users think that tasks are more important than introduction. The task texts should be emphasized.

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(3) The images that utilize hand-drawing style got better satisfaction. User can explorer the spots with hints in the drawing images. Real photos used in the cards are more formal and less fun. (4) Relevance and priority of tasks and puzzle solving is important. If there is no relevance, it is easy to guide users focus on the puzzle solving and ignore the experiential tasks. (5) The free exploration is encouraged. The time without limitation is good for users to get more experience in the site. (6) The mapping between cards and the map is important for wayfinding. The landmarks on the map should be showed on the correct related positions so that they can be referred easily. This pilot study shows that without a real person’s interpretation, this game can play a similar role to interact with visitors and bring rich experience on the real site. Acknowledgments. This research was partly sponsored by grants, MOST 108-2410-H-119003, from the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan.

References 1. Barker, I.: What is information architecture? https://www.steptwo.com.au/papers/kmc_ whatisinfoarch/. Accessed 2019 2. Beck, L., Cable, T.: Interpretation for the 21st Century: Fifteen Guiding Principles for Interpreting Nature and Culture, 2nd edn. Sagamore, Urbana (2002) 3. Bedwell, W.L., Pavlas, D., Heyne, K., Lazzara, E.H., Salas, E.: Toward a taxonomy linking game attributes to learning: an empirical study. Simul. Gaming 43(6), 729–760 (2012) 4. Hwang, G.-J., Tsai, C.-C., Yang, S.J.: Criteria, strategies and research issues of contextaware ubiquitous learning. J. Educ. Technol. Soc. 11(2), 81–91 (2008) 5. International Institute for Information Design Definitions. https://www.iiid.net/home/ definitions/. Accessed 2018 6. Kolb, D.: Experiential Learning as the Science of Learning and Development. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1984) 7. Morville, P., Rosenfeld, L.: Information Architecture for the World Wide Web. O’Reilly Media, Sebastopol (2006) 8. Prensky, M.: Digital game-based learning. Comput. Entertainment 1(1), 21 (2003) 9. Screven, C.G.: Information design in informal setting: museum and other public spaces. In: Jacobson, R. (ed.) Information design, pp. 131–192. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (1999) 10. Sharpe, G.W.: Interpreting the Environment, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York (1982) 11. Tilden, F.: Interpreting our Heritage, 3rd edn. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill (1997) 12. Van Eck, R.: Digital game-based learning: it’s not just the digital natives who are restless. Educause Rev. 41(2), 16–30 (2006) 13. Wildbur, P., Burke, M.: Information Graphics. Thames and Hudson, London (1998)

Augmented Reality as an Educational Resource Applied to the Teaching of Pre-Columbian Cultures Settled in the Pumapungo Archaeological Park Edgar Marcelo Espinoza Méndez(&) Universidad de Cuenca, Cuenca 010112, Ecuador [email protected]

Abstract. The objective of the project focuses on the use of Augmented Reality and free software applied to a playful, puzzle-like game that serves as didactic support in the teaching and diffusion of archaeological patrimony in museums. For the study case, we choose The Pumapungo Museum and The Archaeological Park located in the city of Cuenca, Ecuador, which have an important archaeological and patrimony reserve and are also located on one of the most important Inkas settlements in the country. According to its statistics, around 164,000 thousand tourists visit it annually, and 14.64% of them are children; therefore, based on these data, the defined audience of users for the study were primary school children between 6 and 8 years of age. As a pedagogical methodology, the learning theories in education were used, by Seymour Papert (Constructivism) and John Dewey (Learning by doing), tools that have improved the learning process through exploration and experience. Likewise, we worked with formal and non-formal learning schemes that allow improving the interaction of children with the museum environments, reinforcing the knowledge from the guided visits. The results show that the use of Augmented Reality in the learning process arouses the interest and curiosity of children in a given topic because it allows them to get involved in real time in historical contexts and therefore learn about the material and intangible heritage or patrimony of their country. The research and development of the project was carried out in 2015, so the technological and bibliographic references correspond to that date. Keywords: Augmented Reality  Free software  Pedagogy Constructionism  Learning by doing  Game  Museum



1 Introduction Augmented Reality as technology has allowed the development of multiple applications in cultural, scientific or educational fields, showing the versatility that it offers not only on computers but also on mobile devices; In the time of the study, examples such as from the School of Computing and Information Systems, University of Tasmania, where several work is carried out to reduce the problems of students for the study of © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 359–366, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_46

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Anatomy with the use of haptic Augmented Reality, with results expressed by their authors as “promising” (Yeom 2011); An investigation was carried out In Bogotá, Colombia about the use of Augmented Reality to enhance the main points of tourist interest through a website (Cuervo et al. 2011); According to (Fabregat 2012) the Adaptive Hypermedia Systems and The Augmented Reality can be coupled for the benefit of students when teaching, through the use of e-learning platforms, as a tool in adaptive environments; In more specific cases and related to this project, studies have also been carried out where “… the possibilities that Augmented Reality offers in museum environments have been observed, taking into account its pedagogical nature, since the simplicity of the applications makes them adapt to a wide spectrum of public…” (Ruiz Torres 2011, p. 223). Based on the mentioned cases, we can say that Augmented Reality has proven to be an optimal resource to be applied as a didactic and pedagogical tool, which is in accordance with the public policies of the Network of National Museums of the Ministry of Culture of Ecuador, that promotes the valuation, preservation of Ecuadorian cultural patrimony so that museums could be “a powerful tool for content transmission and non-formal pedagogical complementarity” (Celi et al. 2010, p. 3), besides contributing to the main objective of this project, which is to demonstrate that the didactic experience of visitors to the Pumapungo Archaeological Park can be reinforced and improved, through the use of a game based on Augmented Reality and free software; technologies that allow the creation of highly useful applications, at a lower cost and with the scope of being able to mix multimedia elements such as video, sound and 3D.

2 Materials and Methods 2.1

Theoretical Framework

To conceive the application design in Reality, we relied on the following concepts: Teaching in Museums. It proposes formal and non-formal learning that contributes to teaching methodologies within these spaces of historical collectivity. If we rely on the concepts of formal education, museums would fulfil a similar objective of a library “… from the perspective of formal education, we should go to the museum and do what is not possible to perform in school or look for answers to previously raised questions” (Santacana 1998). It is then when processes must be organized to follow before, during and after the visit to a museum, where dialogue and coordination with educational entities is a fundamental part of it. As a consequence of formality, we can talk, then, of non-formal learning, where the museum’s visitor himself is the person who must interact directly with the object or space intentionally prepared for the visit, culturally stimulating their knowledge and potential questions or answers, generating a self-interest of knowledge as a user. Although its name is called “non-formal” (Papert 1981) this does not mean that this type of learning is completely removed from the processes; in other words, the experimentation on the object is potentiated and the subject becomes part of the previously designed process.

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Seymourt Papert - Constructivism. His theoretical approach is based on the fact that computers would be a useful tool to improve the development of children’s creativity and learning, as well as the possibility that, in the future, these machines would be a personal object of each student. As a result of his theory about computers in education, he developed a programming language called “LOGO” (Turtle Language), a tool with which children, in this case, and machines, can communicate in an easy and attractive language, becoming the developers of their own learning universe, but also working together with the educator; that is, children understanding that the educator is also a student and that everyone, including the teacher, learns from their mistakes, “Sharing the problem and the experience of solving it allows the child to learn from the adult, not “doing what the teacher says “but” doing what the teacher does”” (Papert 1981, p. 137). John Dewey - Learning by Doing. His theory is based on the fact that children develop precise skills to solve problems established by themselves, through exploration and investigation within a space; that is, learning from their experience, seeking to generate inquiry and interest in them, stimulating a more creative response for future situations that occur in their learning. In “Experience and Education” Dewey conceives a theory of experience, this way configuring a “corpus of certainties” and prescriptions that the school should promote: – The student as the center of educational action. – Learning by doing. – The school as the place Didactic or Playful Games, What Benefits Do They Have for Pedagogy in Children. In children the word “game” is directly related to fun, and in pedagogy with learning and how it can stimulate in them. If it is not their main activity, games are presented as a stimulant to children so that they develop different cognitive, concentration or social interaction skills. Playing can be seen as a distracting action, but also as an effective guide applied to make a child understand reality. Through this, people, especially the little ones, experience learning as a way to make them grow in the educational environment. Regardless of their age, playing becomes part of the recreational activities that will accompany their knowledge. Children grow up playing therefore, a very important part of their development has to do with games, since it stimulates the growth of their intelligence and creativity; didactic games help children to think more, to be able to reason better and to have a greater capacity for analysis and synthesis. (Educational toys: Invite to learn)

Augmented Reality and Free Software. Augmented Reality is basically the mixture of virtual information of any kind: images, text, 3D figures or video, with physical information, on the same scene and in real time, it aims to expand the reality that we perceive with our senses, enrich a real physical object, with any type of digital information, using technological devices and of course a computer system (Fig. 1). In the development of work in Augmented Reality, the use of specialized software and libraries is very important, on the internet you can find some applications that were based on the concepts of free software and open source code and are available to users,

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Fig. 1. Scheme of the necessary components for an Augmented Reality system

since this allows the exchange of knowledge, updates, improvements and contributions to increase the benefits that each of them can offer. Richard M. Stallman, founder of the Free Software Foundation, a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting the use and development of free software, defined the four freedoms or principles of free software as: 1. The freedom to run the program for whatever purpose. 2. The freedom to modify the program to adjust it to your needs. (For effective freedom in practice, you must have access to the source code, because without it the task of incorporating changes into a program is extremely difficult.) 3. The freedom to redistribute copies, either for free, or in exchange for paying a price. 4. La libertad de distribuir versiones modificadas del programa, de tal forma que la comunidad pueda aprovechar las mejoras introducidas. (Stallman 2004, pág. 19) The project was developed with tools such as: Blender for 3D modeling, ARToolKit Marker Generator Online for creating markers, OpenCollada plugin for handling 3D files and Adobe Flash Builder (software with license) with free source code for game programming. 2.2

Methodology

Taking into account the aforementioned concepts, the design process of the Augmented Reality application was developed under the following work scheme: – Evaluation of the different spaces and elements of the park to determine what the main archaeological attractions are that will form part of the prototype of the game. – Research on the Inca settlement in Pumapungo, current city of Basin. – Research on the types of free software with which you can program the game. – Creation of a storyboard for the narrative of the game. – Design of the different elements of the game. – Prototyping and testing.

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3 Game Design The game in Augmented Reality is called “Pumapungo World”, and its objective is to hypothetically teach how the Inca site could have been in Pumapungo, using graphical elements of this culture taking as a reference the illustrations of the indigenous chronicler Felipe Guamán Poma de Ayala. The Pumapungo World is made up of the main architectural spaces (scenarios) that the Incas built on the site (The Kancha, The Barracks o Kallankas, The Aqlla Wasi, The QuriKancha, Canal-Bathrooms-Lagoon and Outer Palace) and the context that revolves around it so that children can idealize What this wonderful settlement could have looked like (Table 1). Table 1. Scheme of relationship between architectural spaces and other elements of the Puzzle. Ground Represents the space where the settlement Inca was Stage stand

Living area It represents the main constructions or vestiges found on the site The Kancha

Character It shows who used the houses or buildings

Environment It exemplifies a context of the agricultural work of the Inca people

Inca people

Stage stand

The Barracks o Kallankas

Soldiers

Stage stand

Aqlla Wasi

Aqllas and Mamaconas

Stage stand

The Qurikancha

Priests

Stage stand

Canal Bathrooms Lagoon Outer Palace

Inca Emperor

Open space, place of gathering of the people Rooms for the armies of the empire Species of convent inhabited by women consecrated to the sun Greater temple and astronomical observatory, symbolizes religious power Space dedicated to the God Tiksi Wiraqucha Architectural construction

Stage stand

Inca Royalty

Video It is narrative type and complements the 3D information presented Video related to the topic Video related to the topic Video related to the topic

Video related to the topic

Video related to the topic Video related to the topic

The game starts from the conception of a thematic puzzle made up of four chips and a support base, each one incorporates a marker (element that activates Augmented

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Reality) with topics related to archaeological spaces of the Pumapungo Park (Fig. 2 and Table 2).

Table 2. Chart of 3D graphics and markers using the Aqlla Wasi scenario as an example. Marker

Element

3D Graphic / Video

Logo introduction to the Pumapungo World

Terrain / Stage Support

Character

Aqlla Wasi

Environment

Video

Puzzle Base

Assembled Puzzle

Assembly Structure

Fig. 2. Puzzle tabs with their own Augmented Reality markers

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For the development of the application, programming tests were carried out, first with Flash Builder version 4.6, plus libraries and free use codes based on multimarkers and video loading for Augmented Reality which were created with the ARToolKit Marker Generator Online tool. The modeling and animation of 3D elements were made with 3D Studio Max software. A second test was performed with AR Media software; its plugin was used to 3D Studio Max and marker generation with AR Media marker Generator, this software allows the assembly of the elements of the application in the same 3D program while creating an executable file for its operation (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3. Evaluation tests of the app

4 Results The evaluation of the prototype was done with 20 children from a rural school in the city because they have less contact with computers and new technologies for their scarce economic resources; by observing usage and behavior, the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed model were determined. The puzzle was perhaps the most involved element. The majority of opinion from the children is that more tiles should be included in order to see more 3D animations, in some cases the apparent complexity of the puzzle due to the shape of the puzzle did not allow them to assemble it easily; This led to unintended individual activity becoming a group activity because of other children’s interest in helping to solve the puzzle. The level of interaction of the children with the game was high since the size of the tiles allowed them to correctly manipulate and observe each of the elements. The use of Augmented Reality in the field of education allows children to become more involved in learning about a specific subject. By showing a different perspective of an intangible reality, we managed to awaken curiosity in children, first, about the operation of the application and, second, about the theme presented. It must be emphasized that the motor and cognitive development is different in each child, so in some cases the instructions on how the puzzle works should be personalized. This technology can provide the user with new experiences in non-immersive environments, since its easy use makes it totally attractive, especially for children who, in general, are more and more accustomed to the technological advances that stimulate their minds. The proposed application can be adapted and modified, according to the needs of the Park and in its first stage was limited to an emblematic area previously analyzed by

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the park managers. The use of technologies based on free software allows the realization of applications of great utility and at a lower cost. The application that gave the best result when doing the tests prior to the final evaluation was 3D Studio Max plus the AR Media plugin.

References Yeom, S.-J.: Augmented reality for learning anatomy. In: Ascilite, pp. 1377–1383 (2011) Cuervo, M.C., Salamanca, J.Q., Aldana, A.A.: Ambiente interactivo para visualizar sitios turísticos, mediante Realidad Aumentada implementando Layar. Ciencia e Ingeniería Neogranadina 21(2), 91–105 (2011) Fabregat, R.: Combinando la realidad aumentada con las plataformas de e-elearning adaptativas. Enl@ce: Revista Venezolana de Información, Tecnología y Conocimiento 9, 69–78 (2012) Ruiz Torres, D.: Realidad Aumentada, educación y museos. Revista Icono 14(2), 212–226 (2011) Celi, I., Bedoya, M., Cevallos, P.: Propuesta del Sistema Ecuatoriano de Museos y Política Nacional de Museos. Ministerio de Cultura del Ecuador, Ecuador (2010) Santacana, J.: Museos, ¿al servicio de quién? Iber (15), 39–50 (1998) Papert, S.: Desafío a la Mente. Computadoras y Educación. Galápago, Buenos Aires (1981) Juguetes didácticos: Invitan a aprender. (s.f.). Recuperado el Julio de 2014, de Proquest. http:// search.proquest.com/docview/307174190/EF49A4CA43FF4B1CPQ/5?accountid=36552 Stallman, R.: Software libre para una sociedad libre, vol. 1. Traficantes de Sueños, Madrid (2004)

Research on the Design of Regional Cultural and Creative Products Based on Consumer Cognition Da-wei Fan1,2(&) 1

2

Jincheng College of Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211156, China [email protected] College of Economics and Management, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211106, China

Abstract. Products are of commemorative significance when associated with regional culture, whose differences in design themes and cultural attributes cause consumers to have different perceptions of regional culture. In view of this, this paper took the regional culture of Nanjing as an example to study the consumer cognition of two types of products in five attributes including cultural and historic natures, cultural story-based natures, local characteristics, cultural connotations, and cultural art, with cultural and creative products designed for architecture and IP roles as the research objects. The research findings show 1. Consumers had different cognitions towards design attributes of regional cultural and creative products of Nanjing, which have different design themes. 2. Consumers had different cognitions towards design attributes of regional cultural and creative products of Nanjing on different design levels. 3. Cognition of design attributes of regional cultural and creative products of Nanjing was influenced by design themes and design levels. The research can provide a reference for the design of regional cultural and creative products, help designers master consumer demands better and prevent design deviations. Keywords: Consumer cognition products

 Regional culture  Cultural and creative

1 Introduction Culture and design influence each other. Through abstractive and refined application of cultural information of different themes (such as architecture, clothing and language) in cultural and creative products, the regional culture has been continued and propagandized, which can help consumers understand natures and connotations of regional culture. According to classification of three levels of cultural products by Wu, Tyan-Yu et al. [1], we can classify regional cultural and creative products into symbolic design with direct transplantation of cultural elements, functional design highlighting product practicality and metaphor design highlighting cultural connotations. As for the same regional culture, due to different design themes and skills of designers, consumers will have different cognitions towards cultural and creative products with different design © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 367–374, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_47

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themes. Therefore, whether a design is successful depends on whether the product can effectively convey natures and connotations of regional culture to consumers. Hence, it is quite necessary to design cultural products which have local characteristics and satisfy consumer cognitions. Therefore, the paper aims to, from the perspective of consumer cognition, explores design strategies of regional cultural and creative products and help designers effectively grant products with unique cultural features during design of cultural and creative products, so as to establish associations with local culture in consumers’ cognition.

2 Relevant Studies 2.1

Design and Development of Regional Cultural and Creative Products

Regional culture refers to a unique type of culture given regional marks, which is formed through the integration of culture with surroundings in a certain regional environment. Based on regional traditional culture, it absorbs essences of external culture and features inheritance, growth and inclusiveness [2]. As believed by the UNESCO, cultural products carry economic and cultural natures and become a carrier of cultural features, values and significances through use and preservation of cultural heritage [3]. As proposed by Lin Rongtai (2007), cultural and creative products can be designed through scene application and storytelling. The design comprises four steps, namely investigation (set a scenario), interaction (tell a story), development (write a script) and implementation (design a product). In addition, designers shall assess features, significances and adaptability of products and perfect the design according to assessment results [4]. Yi Jun et al. (2018) aiming at design and development of cultural and creative products proposed construction of a service platform including sub-platform for integration of design resource of regional culture, design assistant subplatform, and rapid prototyping manufacture sub-platform. This platform involves all processes of product design and development, wherein each module is mutually independent and realizes mutual cooperation and influences, acquisition paths of cultural resources are simplified, and design efficiency is increased [5]. 2.2

Consumer Cognition

As believed by Zhi Jinyi (2007), consumers’ cognition responses towards products to a certain extent involve the selection of visual perception and are directly associated with consumers’ former visual experience, memory and image arising [6]. Consumers’ cognition of products is influenced by product factors and consumer factors. The information generated from product design, including functions, forms, textures, colors and styles will bring consumers with aesthetic experience. Social and cultural environment, educational level, age, job, gender, customs and other factors of consumers will influence their cognition and experience of products. During the design of cultural and creative products, designers will according to the cognition of the regional cultural object use the design knowledge mastered to conduct the design. If the designed

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product has proper content and information on regional culture, correct cognition responses of consumers will arise, so accurate cognition matching can be acquired [7]. Therefore, in the research, cultural targets of architecture and IP roles are used as the design themes. In addition, cultural and creative products designed based on these two themes were selected for the research from three design levels such as symbolization, functionality and metaphor. In this way, consumers’ cognition and preferences for cultural and creative products are judged, and design references can be provided for designers in the design of regional cultural and creative products.

3 Experimental Design The research is divided into two stages. Firstly, preliminary survey: Literature research was conducted in the first stage. 30 testing samples were extracted from Jiangsu Travel Commodity Website and Qinhuai Gift Taobao Official Flagship Store. Their design levels and themes were researched and classified. Through collection of comments of five experts in the design field, six representative products were screened as experimental samples. In the second stage, questionnaire survey was conducted on cognition preferences of 131 tests. Survey results were analyzed by SPSS statistical software. ANOVA analysis of design themes (IP roles, architecture)  design levels (symbolization, functionality, and metaphor) was conducted, so consumers’ cognitions and preferences towards regional cultural and creative products of Nanjing were explored. Hypothesis 1: Consumers have the same cognition towards design attributes of regional cultural and creative products of Nanjing with different design themes. Hypothesis 2: Consumers have the same cognition towards design attributes of regional cultural and creative products of Nanjing with different design levels. Hypothesis 3: Design themes and design levels cannot influence the design attributes of regional cultural and creative products of Nanjing at the same time. 3.1

Tests

Main consumers of regional cultural and creative products are basically young people [8–10]. Thus, in the research, young people of 18–40 years old (34.09% for males, and 65.91% for females) were taken as the research objects. In total, 131 valid questionnaires were collected for statistical analysis. 3.2

Samples of Cultural and Creative Products

As one of the Chinese cities with deepest cultural deposits, its culture integrates elements in North and South, features inclusiveness and embodies uniqueness. There are abundant cultural and creative products with Nanjing culture as the research target. In the paper, samples of cultural and creative products were extracted from Jiangsu Travel Commodity Website and Qinhuai Gift Taobao Official Flagship Store. According to the sales ranking, 30 testing samples were selected and classified according to design levels and design themes. Then, five experts in the design field of cultural and creative products were invited to choose 6 representative products as experimental samples.

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Items of Attributes of Cultural and Creative Products

Survey questionnaires were sorted through a literature review. In total, five dimensions of cognition towards cultural and creative products were obtained, which include Cultural historical nature, Cultural story-based nature, Local characteristic, Cultural connotation, Cultural artistic nature. 3.4

Implementation of Experiment

Based on the reference review and preliminary survey, 6 products and 5 dimensions were collected from samples. For purposes of the research, scores of 1–5 points were marked for preferences of 6 cultural and creative products and cognition of 21 design attributes in the questionnaire. 5 points refer to the highest intensity of attribute recognition, and 1 point refers to the lowest intensity of attribute recognition. Then, scores were graded for preferences of product samples, wherein 1 refers to “dislike the most” and 5 refers to “like the most”.

4 Results and Discussion 4.1

Cultural Historical Nature and Cultural Artistic Nature

1. Design levels of cultural and creative products had significant influences on consumers from the perspective of cultural historical natures (F (2, 260) = 125.09, p < .001). It is shown through Scheffe method: consumers’ cognition towards the levels of symbolization and functionality was significantly stronger than that of the metaphor level, while there was no significant difference between cognitions on the levels of functionality and symbolization. In other words, as for consumers’ cognition of cultural historical natures in cultural and creative products, the design level of metaphor is the least perceivable one for consumers in comparison with design levels such as functionality and symbolization (see Table 1). 2. Design themes and design levels had significant interactions in consumers’ cognition of cultural historical natures, wherein F (2, 260) = 3.539, p = 0.03. Further simple main effects were checked. Results are as follows: as for levels such as symbolization, functionality and metaphor, design themes had significantly simple main effects (F (1, 390) = 8.38, p = 0.004; F (1,390) = 5.94, p = 0.015; F (1,390) = 33.50, p < 0.001). Consumers’ cognition of architecture-themed cultural and creative products on three levels (M = 4.03, SD = 0.64; M = 4.01, SD = 0.65; M = 3.43, SD = 0.84) was stronger than that of IP role cultural and creative products on the same level (M = 3.84, SD = 0.69; M = 3.85, SD = 0.72; M = 3.05, SD = 0.87). In addition, as for cultural artistic natures, consumers’ cognition of attributes of cultural and creative products was similar with that of cultural historical natures; the design level has significant effects on consumers’ cognition of cultural artistic natures (F (2, 260) = 15.667, p < .001), while the metaphor level of design is the least perceivable aspect for consumers (see Table 1). However, as for cultural artistic natures, there was no significant interaction between design themes and design levels.

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371

Cultural Story-Based Natures and Cultural Connotation

According to research results, consumers had similar cognitions towards cultural storybased natures and cultural connotations of cultural and creative products, which are mainly manifested in the following aspects: 1. Design levels of cultural and creative products had significant effects on consumers’ cognitions towards attributes of cultural story-based natures and cultural connotations (F (2, 260) = 70.113, p < .001; F (2, 260) = 48.841, p < .001). As shown through Scheffe method, as for consumers’ cognitions towards cultural story-based natures and cultural connotations in cultural and creative products, the functionality was most easily perceived by consumers, with design on the symbolization level ranking the second place; in comparison with design levels of functionality and symbolization, the metaphor design level was least perceivable by consumers. 2. Design themes and design levels of cultural and creative products had significant interactions as for consumers’ cognition on cultural story-based natures and cultural connotations (F (2, 260) = 30.407, p < 0.001; F (2, 260) = 11.222, p < 0.001). Further simple main effect testing was conducted, as follows: (1) As for the symbolization level, design themes has significant simple main effects (F (1, 390) = 5.43, p = 0.020; F (1, 390) = 58.98, p < 0.001); but differently, consumers’ cognition towards cultural story-based natures of cultural and creative products of architecture (M = 3.12, SD = 0.95) was weaker than that of IP roles (M = 3.26, SD = 0.82); the results was opposite for cognition of cultural connotations, namely the cognition for architecture (M = 4.02, SD = 0.62) was stronger than IP roles (M = 3.58, SD = 0.80). As for the functionality level, design themes also had significant simple main effects (F (1,390) = 61.22, p < 0.001; F (1,390) = 4.39, p = 0.037). Consumers’ cognition towards attributes of cultural and creative products of IP roles (M = 3.31, SD = 0.76; M = 3.97, SD = 0.66) was weaker than that of architecture (M = 3.78, SD = 0.71; M = 4.09, SD = 0.66). As for the metaphor level, design themes had no significant simple main effects from the level of cultural story-based natures (F (1,390) = 2.24, p = 0.135). However, as for cultural connotations, design themes had significant simple main effects on the metaphor level. Cognition of architecture (M = 3.64, SD = 0.79) was stronger than that of IP roles (M = 3.51, SD = 0.74)). (2) As for cultural and creative products of IP roles, the design level had significant simple main effects (F (2, 520) = 21.90, p < 0.001; F (2, 520) = 33.26, p < 0.001). As for cognition of cultural story-based natures, the symbolization level was weaker (M = 3.26, SD = 0.82) than that of the functionality level (M = 3.31, SD = 0.76). However, as for cognition of cultural connotations, the symbolization level (M = 3.58, SD = 0.80) was stronger than the functionality level (M = 3.97, SD = 0.66). As for architecture products, the design levels had significant simple main effects (F(2,520) = 87.61, p < 0.001; F(2,520) = 31.74, p < 0.001), while the functionality (M = 3.78, SD = 0.71; M = 4.09, SD = 0.66) was stronger than symbolization (M = 3.12, SD = 0.95; M = 4.02, SD = 0.62).

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Local Characteristics

1. Design levels had significant effects on consumers’ cognition of local characteristics (F (2, 260) = 66.764, p < .001). As shown in Scheffe method, consumers’ cognitions towards the functionality level (M = 3.82, SD = .74) and the symbolization level (M = 3.65, SD = .73) were significantly stronger than that of the metaphor level (M = 3.28, SD = .89) (p < 0.001). Meanwhile, symbolization was significantly stronger than functionality. In other words, as for consumers’ cognition of local characteristics in cultural and creative products, functionality was most easily cognized by consumers, with the symbolization-level design ranking the second place; in comparison with design levels of functionality and symbolization, the metaphor design level was the least perceivable for consumers. 2. Design themes and design levels had significant interactions as for consumers’ cognition of local characteristics (F (2, 260) = 15.115, p < 0.001). As found in further simple main effect testing that: as for levels of symbolization, functionality and metaphor, design themes had significant simple main effects (F (1, 390) = 3.94, p = 0.020; F(1,390) = 67.97, p < 0.001; F(1,390) = 16.99, p < 0.001); cognition of architecture (M = 3.71, SD = 0.66; M = 4.09, SD = 0.62; M = 3.41, SD = 0.82) was stronger than that of IP roles (M = 3.58, SD = 0.80; M = 3.55, SD = 0.76; M = 3.14, SD = 0.94). As for IP roles, design levels had significant simple main effects (F (2, 520) = 31.79, p < 0.001); cognition of the symbolization level (M = 3.58, SD = 0.80) was stronger than that of the functionality level (M = 3.55, SD = 0.76). As for architecture products, the design levels also had significant simple main effects (F (2,520) = 61.10, p < 0.001); cognition of functionality (M = 4.09, SD = 0.62) was stronger than that of symbolization (M = 3.71, SD = 0.66).

Table 1. Scheffe’s post hoc test and Interaction Analysis of Design Attribute Cognition Items Cultural historical nature

Local artistic nature

Cultural storybased nature Cultural connotation Local characteristic

Scheffe’s post hoc test Symbolization (M = 3.94, SD = .67) > metaphor (M = 3.24, SD = .87) (p < 0.001)); Functionality (M = 3.93, SD = .69) > metaphor (p < 0.001) Functionality (M = 3.98, SD = .69) > metaphor (M = 3.77, SD = .74) (p < 0.01)); Symbolization (M = 3.95, SD = .69) > metaphor (p < 0.01) Functionality (M = 3.55, SD = .77) > symbolization (M = 3.19, SD = .89) > metaphor (M = 2.98, SD = .88) Functionality (M = 4.03, SD = .66) > symbolization (M = 3.80, SD = .75) > metaphor (M = 3.58, SD = .77) Symbolization (M = 3.65, SD = .73) > functionality (M = 3.82, SD = .74) > metaphor (M = 3.28, SD = .89)

Interaction p = 0.03

p = .239

p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001

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5 Conclusion With the regional culture of Nanjing as the example, the paper studies cultural and creative products based on design themes of architecture and IP mages so as to explore consumers’ cognition towards five attributes including cultural historical nature, cultural story-based nature, local characteristics, cultural connotation and cultural artistic nature of two products. Results show: 1. Consumers’ cognitions were different towards design attributes of regional cultural and creative products with different design themes. As for historical nature/artistic nature/connotation and local characteristics of cultural and creative products, consumers’ cognition towards cultural and creative products of architecture was stronger than that of IP roles; however, as for cultural story-based natures, consumers’ cognition towards cultural and creative products of architecture was weaker than that of IP roles. The cause may be that cultural and creative products of architecture mainly have concrete forms which can relatively directly convey attributes of design themes. As for cultural story-based natures, shaping and manifestation of IP roles can more easily cause consumers’ emotional resonance, so as to help them understand story contents conveyed by cultural and creative products. 2. Consumers’ cognitions are different towards design attributes of regional cultural and creative products of Nanjing based on different design levels. Research findings show that as for cognition of five attributes of two types of products, consumers’ cognitions of design attributes on levels of functionality and symbolization were stronger than those of the metaphor level. In other words, attributes of cultural and creative products implied on the metaphor level were least perceivable by consumers. 3. Design themes and levels could influence the cognition of design attributes of regional cultural and creative products of Nanjing at the same time. Except for cultural artistic natures, as for historic nature/connotation/story-based nature and local characteristics of cultural and creative products, design themes and levels of cultural and creative products had interactions. Thus, through the rational combination of design themes and design levels, consumers can better cognize regional attributes of cultural and creative products. The research can provide a reference for the design of regional cultural and creative products, help designers better know about consumers’ cognition and prevent the occurrence of design deviations. Acknowledgements. The research is sponsored by Qing Lan Project of Jiangsu Colleges and Universities and the 2018 Philosophy and Social Science Research Fund of Jiangsu Colleges and Universities (2018SJA2093).

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References 1. Wu, T.-Y., Hsu, C.-H., Lin, R.: The study of Taiwan aboriginal culture on product design. In: Proceedings of Design Research Society International Conference Paper, vol. 238, pp. 377–394 (2004) 2. Liu, X., Xu, Q., Feng, X.: Creative cultural product and strategy of increment of value based upon cultural research. Hundred Sch. Arts 32, 54–57 (2016) 3. UNESCO: Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (2005) 4. Lin, R.-T.: Transforming Taiwan aboriginal cultural features into modern product design: a case study of a cross-cultural product design model. Int. J. Des. 1, 2 (2007). Chinese Institute of Design 5. Yi, J., Zhang, Z.: Construction of service platform for regional cultural creative product design. Packag. Eng. 39, 108–114 (2018) 6. Zhi, J.: Analysis of product visual references influencing consumer cognition. Packag. Eng. 28, 124–126 (2007) 7. Shang-shang, Z.H.U.: Study of regional cultural image in modern product design. Packag. Eng. 5, 1 (2009) 8. Zhang, X.B.: Suggestions on the market positioning and marketing strategy of the palace museum. Forbid. City 1, 168–181 (2016) 9. Niu, L.Q.: Museum “cultural and creative blue ocean”. New Econ. Guide 3, 25–29 (2015) 10. Zhu, Y.: 600-year-old Forbidden City is also “selling Moe” cultural and creative industry chain has not yet opened. Bus. Sch. Z1, 27–30 (2017)

The Soundomat Astrid K. Graungaard, August E. Enghoff, Johanne L. Fogsgaard(&), Laura K. Schmidt, and Marc D. Hansen Aalborg University, Rendsburggade 14, 9000 Aalborg, Denmark [email protected]

Abstract. This paper will examine the interactive sound sculpture The Soundomat, constructed with the aim of making an engaging experience while challenging our perception of music. The concept of music will be discussed through people’s reaction, to an installation which is based on musique concrète. Furthermore, it will analyze and investigate where the project originated from, through methods of idea development, designing, coding and conceptualization. It will illustrate and describe what inspired the work, and the reasoning behind the choices that were made. The installation is playful in its design, and It has the intention to stir imagination, curiosity and provoke playfulness, while looking intriguing with its vibrant color scheme and ‘turntable’ element. Additionally, we will discuss and analyze the interaction between The Soundomat and the participants, through interviews, observations and the feedback received. It observes that people had two different ways of interaction. Either they picked the soundblocks based on the materials and the sounds they expected from them, or they worked in a more systematic manor and only added one soundblock at a time. There was no clear indicator, why some used one method over the other. Even though some of the participants were not aware of the concept musique concrète, they described the soundscape from The Soundomat in a way that corresponds with the definition of musique concrète. Lastly it will be analyzed, whether the project fulfills its intent, as well as its future work and improvements. Keywords: Sound  Machine Creativity  Curiosity

 Musique concréte  Design  Interaction 

1 Introduction “Sound installations, for better or for worse, get us listening to the world” (Rogill 1989). Sound installations often use sounds from our everyday life, these sounds are usually not noticed, either they are ignored, or our brain filters it out as noise. Many of the sounds seem recognizable but are easily discarded as the noise of the world. What if we listened? This question has led us to the problem formulation: “How does people react and interact, either alone or together, with an installation that encourages and inspires the users, to experiment with different materials to create a soundscape from their own creativity and curiosity, and thereby challenges the users perception of music?”

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 375–381, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_48

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We wanted to facilitate this investigation and exploration in an intriguing way that stirred the user’s imagination, curiosity and provoked playfulness. To this purpose, we developed The Soundomat. The Soundomat is an engaging sound installation that aims to explore the relation between sound, noise and music, based on the theory and concept of musique concrète introduced by Pierre Schaeffer in 1948. As he describes in an interview: “Musique concrète is music made of raw sounds: thunderstorms, steam-engines, waterfalls, steel foundries… The sounds are not produced by traditional acoustic musical instruments. They are captured on tape (originally, before tape, on disk) and manipulated to form sound-structures” (Hodgkinson 1987). The Soundomat aims to experiment and investigate raw sounds, it allows the participants to investigate the properties, textures and sounds through ‘soundblocks’. Soundblocks consists of raw materials, which are placed on Velcro strips around the artefact, they can then be placed on the turntable. Contact microphones pick up and enhance the sound of the different materials. Users are encouraged to create their own composition and soundscape, and through this process listen to the world anew. During the exhibition at Aalborg University we gathered data, through interviews and observations, about the user’s experience, their creative approach, and their perception of sound and Music. This will be analysed and discussed.

2 Method and Design In this section we will account for the design process and discuss our choices in term of the design we chose to make an artefact as clear to understand and as user-friendly as possible. The process started with the idea of having a pickup bar with contact microphones, which would allow the participants to experiment with sound and music. To expand on this idea and to find a systematic order to the ideas and the process we chose to work with mind mapping and concept mapping. Through both mappingconcepts it helped to expand our creative design thinking further and get even more ideas written down for discussion. Nick Pride puts it this way: “Drawing out everything that’s in your mind gets rid of the ideas that you’ve used before that clutter your brain.

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Get these down, know that they’re out of your mind, then you can turn the page and get on to the new.” (Pride, as cited in Ingeldew 2016). The team took the advice into consideration and worked with a-no-fear-process towards each other– it was crucial for the idea – and design process that all team members never left an idea unsaid and that everybody came over their fear of embarrassment: “Get over this fear of humiliation and always voice your wildest ideas” (Ingeldew 2016) - and so, we did. We used an iterative design process, developing ideas before starting over with new concepts. While this design method was not planned, it did allow us to improve the important elements of the design through the multiple iterations. One aspect of the design which changed over time and in the end was dropped was the space around the pickup bar. We started of wanting to create a room and closing off the space by having it be a dome with the pickup bar built into it. Trough iterations this chanced to a half dome and a roof overhanging the turntable to still create a room and encompass the participant. In the end the roof was removed from the design altogether. This way the artifact could include more people both working together but also making it possible for them to observe and share the experience. By making the artifact including for the participants around it we discovered when the participants worked individually everybody else became spectators. The artifact became a stage for everybody to become an artist. A key aspect of the artifact was to have it be intuitive and be user-friendly. To achieve this, we wanted to guide the user’s eyes by using bright colors, to indicate where and how to interact with the artefact. The use of velcro helped make it clear to participants that the soundsblock were movable and where they should be moved to. To draw the participant eyes to the rotating plate it was made in a different material than the rest of the artifact. We placed LED lights beneath the plate which would change colors slowly, this combined with the rotating plate made it the only moving part of the artifact. We also made the walls of the exterior structure narrow towards the top to again help guide the user’s eyes up. It was important for the artefact to be as inviting and eye-catching as possible. The bright colors, that were used to make the artefact intuitive, were not only useful for usability but is was also an excellent choice to make the artefact very eye-catching and intriguing. Through an iterative design process and especially design thinking as a method we were able to create an artifact which challenged the participants perception sounds and music by facilitating an engaging and user-friendly experience. At the exhibition the team discovered that the participants of all ages and different musical backgrounds found it intuitive and entertaining.

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3 Analysis of Interaction To collect data from the participants of The Soundomat we used the general interview guide approach; This gave us the possibility to interact with the participants in a relaxed though formal manner. As part of our data collection we talked with dozens of people at an exhibition and further interviewed 12 people. Additionally, we coupled this with observations of the participants interaction with the artifact. We observed two main approaches to creating a soundscape. The first approach depended on the participants worked in a systematic fashion and here by placing the soundblocks on the artifact one at the time to gain knowledge about the individual sound of every soundblock or rotating it to find the most satisfying sound. One participant using this method stated as followed: “I am curious about which different sounds the materials could make but when you put all the soundblocks together, you have no idea, how it will sound” The team discovered when the participants chose a soundblock, they got an expectation of which sound they also wanted to add to the soundscape. Somehow the participants who worked in a systematic manor also planned how the soundscape should sound through expectations to the soundblocks. When they chose a soundblock that lived up to their expectations, they then sought to discover a new sound which then led the way to a new plan and new expectations to the soundscape. The other approach relied on people’s expectations of the materials on the soundblocks. We observed multiple participants touching or tapping the soundblocks before placing them. Before testing whether this method would match with the sound produced. They would place several soundblocks before hearing the sound it makes, with a clear expectation of how it would sound. This despite none of them having experience with contact microphones. One user who mistook a soundblock with plastic for glass described their expectation as follows: “Glass appealed to me, because I assumed it would have a high-pitched sound. I also listed to the leather which reminded me of a bass. So, I tried to choose sounds, based on where they might fit in the timbre.”

The participants who used this method would often be surprised by the finished soundscape as it would not match their expectations. This forced them to experiment further, often still using their expectation to the material but now in tandem with their new knowledge of how the materials sounds through contact microphones. However, they would still change several soundblocks at a time making it difficult to distinguish the different sounds, this did not seem to hinder the participants from creating a soundscape they were satisfied with. We see that participants using either method worked using their expectations but in very different ways. Perhaps this shows how people cannot help but use expectations as a tool for learning even when faced with an artifact which works in such a way, they have no prior experience with. There was no clear distinction between participants with high or low level of musical experience and which method they used when interacting with The Soundomat. It would be interesting to see if participants with experience making musique concrète would interact differently, but we were unable to arrange this.

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“When ask whether or not they would classify the soundscapes as music the participants never gave a clear answer. They would start pondering the definition of music, arguing with themselves back and forth before concluding that it was music. Some gave the reasoning that because there was a rhythm it must be music. While another argued that the fact it was intentionally created made it music. A lot of participant stated while they did not necessarily enjoy it, they would classify it as music. It was clear that experimenting with The Soundomat made them question and reevaluate what they would normaly define as music.”

Musique concrète has a clear process of creation. It helps define which music that is concrete and which music that is defined as regular music (According to Pierre Schaeffer). The participants that worked with The Soundomat worked in a way that corresponds with the process of creation dictated by Pierre Schaffer. The participants who contributed to the interview were asked if they had heard of the concept ‘musique concrète’, of which they all answered ‘no’. Further in the conversation the participants mentioned musical genres as ‘stomp’ and ‘beatboxing’ – these modern musical genres are good examples of what musique concrète is, even though the participants who mentioned it knew of musique concrète. Additionally, the participants compared The Soundomat to ‘stomp’ and ‘beatboxing’. The interesting part in this assertion is that the participants did not know of musique concrète, but they managed to mention genres that is known as subgenres to musique concrète right after they interacted with The Soundomat. It that case we can derive a comparison of the participants between musique concrète and the The Soundomat, despite not knowing the concept. At the exhibition we were able to observe participants interaction both working in groups and alone. Some felt frustrated working in groups, they felt it kept them from freely experimenting. While others felt working together made the experience better, these people would often stay longer to observe other people’s soundscapes even after the people they had collaborated with had left. It was not possible based on our observations and interviews to come up with any hypothesis to why people felt differently.

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4 Conclusion We conclude that we succeeded in creating an installation that made its users think about their understanding of music by allowing them to make their own soundscape by experimenting with different materials and their creativity. They did this either by reflecting on their expectations to the sounds of different materials or by experimenting with limited expectations and working only by pure curiosity. Many of the participants were surprised by the sounds coming from the soundblocks, but this only contributed with more curiosity and experimentation. Some of the participants chose to work by systematically placing a single or few soundblocks at the time and then adjusting each of them to get the exact rhythm they wanted. Others chose the soundblocks more randomly without putting a lot of thought into the process. Most of the participants would describe their soundscapes as music, though often only after some contemplation and afterthoughts. They wondered about the definition of music and were often thinking about different definitions before they would conclude that they would describe their soundscapes as music. The Soundomat both challenges and facilitates the creation of musique concrète. The installation has inspired and encouraged the participants to use creativity to discover sonic properties of different materials and experiment with these to challenge and question their perception of what they would define as music.

References Hodgkinson, T.: An interview with Pierre Schaeffer – Pioneer of Musique Concréte. ReR Q. Mag. 2(1) (1987) Ingledew, J.: How to Have Great Ideas: A Guide to Creative Thinking. Laurence King Publishing, London, UK (2016) Rogill, R.: Sound Sculpture: Turning into the world (1989). https://search.proquest.com/ docview/398074795/abstract/745E18D5881D4959PQ/1?accountid=8144

Design of Form and Meaning of Traditional Culture in Virtual Space Jingjing He(&) Shanghai University, Shanghai, China [email protected]

Abstract. On the background of innovative concepts for the creation of cultural virtual spaces, the article discusses the fiction of form and meaning of traditional culture within virtual worlds. It argues that current digital forms in virtual worlds obscure and separate their cultural context. Moreover, commercially motivated design masks the separation of form and meaning, and the growing realism of virtual reality facilitated by technology is imperceptibly contributing to the intensification of this separation. This has a negative impact on the communication of traditional cultural values within virtual worlds. That is one of the problems between traditional culture, human, machine and virtual environment in modern society. Therefore, by speculating about the relationship and characteristics of the virtual form and the real meaning of digital culture, by means of the design of virtual narrative environments, citing the traditional cultural form and meaning as props, analyzing the relationship between designers and audiences, grounding our observations on design experiments and measurements of data, we can explore the new design ideas of virtual form and meaning of traditional cultural in the virtual environment. Keywords: Digital traditional culture Virtual narrative environments

 Form  Meaning  Virtual reality 

1 Introduction Benjamin has already regarded the new technology as the principle and form of generating new meanings in the book “The Little History of Photography”. “We can also get hints from the descriptions of the excitement that surrounded the introduction of stereoscopic mirrors in the 19th century” [1]. For the first time, the world was faithfully reproduced in another medium, and the image in the other medium was also controlled by the person who created them. Redesigning, disguising, tampering, and purposeful editing of meaning has become convenient and simple. These artistic meaning makers no longer have to depict the world of divine greatness with reverence, just like operating new inventions. Like the machine, the digital art is used to manipulate the form, and the artistic image is used to charm the eyes of the human being. Project Source: “Speculation and Evidence: Theory and Teaching Mode of Intelligent Design for Product Combined with Augmented Reality” (No.: C19100, Shanghai University). Education Research Project, Shanghai Municipal Education Commission, 2019. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 382–389, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_49

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2 The Form and Meaning of Digital Culture The reason why digital culture has a great impact on human life is that the human brain has the most complicated way of thinking. The digital culture only constantly satisfies and reflects the human thinking through more and more realistic avatars. And the most direct chemical effect on thinking is the visual form. Therefore, rather than saying that digital culture is affecting human life, it is better to say that it is constantly satisfying human thinking by using virtual visualizations. Is caffeine-free coffee a coffee? The coffee without caffeine masks the absence of caffeine (the real meaning) in the virtual form of coffee, and the caffeine separated by the technique obtains a false existence by means of the virtual form. It is not difficult to find that the marketing has realized this kind of discipline, that is the separation of form and meaning, and given satisfaction, and look forward to meeting the spiritual needs of customers.

3 Speculative Design of the Form and Meaning of Traditional Culture Fiction As far as the virtual designer of traditional culture is concerned, speculate the problem of the digital expression of traditional cultural form and meaning is that it is fictitious and depends on the imagination of the designer. The aforementioned advertisement is a typical representative of the relationship between virtual form and meaning. The author uses the analogy analysis method to speculate on the fictional design of traditional culture. One of the methods is to pay attention to the props [2] of the virtual form in the advertisement (visual elements). According to the intimation of the props, the audience can understand and imagine the virtual world to which the fictional object belongs in accordance with their own ideas. Props must definitely support advertising appeals, with the characteristics of recognizability, readability, experience and synesthesia, but it destroys the possibility of the audience to create surprises and challenges from advertising, and the passive audience can only rely on the designer’s imagination to get the meaning (this meaning is not necessarily true). In fact, rather than the audience wants to be the person in the advertisement or get the product in the advertisement, it is more concerned with whether the product can really achieve the expected effect of the advertisement. It is difficult for designers to achieve this. Advertising can only provide the concept of virtual form, but the audience wants more to get the result of real meaning. Traditional culture has a specific form and meaning, which is different from general business and consumer culture and has clear social attributes. Therefore, “I don’t want to create, but I want to quote… More importantly, learn as much as possible about contemporary imagery that has long been ingrained in human consciousness” [3]. This is the main difference between the advertising props and the fiction of the traditional cultural virtual design.

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4 The Design of Virtual Narrative Environments In the virtual world of traditional culture, the designer’s role is to create a virtual environment (environmental narrative story designer). The so-called environmental narrative is to design a story purposefully, or to make a certain story possible, just like a literary story intended to spread ideas and information, and the story is not like everyday life [4–7]. By citing the elements of traditional cultural forms and images, the designer designs story props that can trigger the audience’s imaginative feedback. With the explicit (the form that interacts directly with the audience: images, words, objects, and face-to-face conversations, etc.) and implicit (comprehension of meaning in the virtual environment narrative experience: shape, scale, color, light, sound, material and human behavior, etc.) communication of the narrative environment, so that the audience can generate their own ideas and build a world shaped by their own ideals, values and beliefs, and form the cultural memory. “After the end of the creation, the designer loses control of the meaning in the virtual form” [8], and the person who enters the virtual environment enjoys the satisfaction of the virtual form for his fictional needs. Meanwhile also experience the meaning in the subconscious. When designers start to adopt the reference strategy, it may make the audience’s understanding of the virtual object more difficult. It is necessary to encourage the audience to participate more actively in the design and change the state of passively accepting information. Spatial narrative can promote learning and interactive communication, support business, form community and cultural memory, develop and establish specific values in power relations and knowledge order [9–12]. Therefore, this virtual narrative environment of citing traditional culture is an effective place for new discourse practice and cultural innovation.

5 People in Virtual Reality Environment In the virtual world, the accurate expression of traditional cultural form and meaning depends on the communication and feedback of people (including designers and audiences) in the virtual environment, and the audience needs to be involved in the design process, through “participate in design” [13], “active design” [14] and “Flexible System Design” [15, 16] to achieve the meaning communication and education process (social embodiment). “The designer is both a producer and a maintainer, and also a professional participant. It needs to remain open, willing to be weak, exposed to the public, accepting itself as a participant, not a leader in the design process” [17]. The audience should act as a producer and feedback participant. The traditional culture cited by the designer exists as a virtual prop, which also makes the experience more vivid, energetic and intense. As described by Professor Ezo Mancini, “the resilience system characterized by diversity, redundancy, feedback and continuous experimentation makes the vitality of the public space more visible and tangible” [18].

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6 Empirical Analysis The author’s work “Shan Hai Jing: Shen You” (2017.12, Fig. 1) exhibited at the Liu Haisu Art Museum in Shanghai, “China Creation World Myth - Internet Art Exhibition”, cites some of the stories of the traditional Chinese culture “Shan Hai Jing” and the image of the fish, using AR technology, the fictional design is presented in a surreal way, allowing the audience to follow the fish in the exhibition hall with electronic mobile device, to be able to participate in the greatest extent and to give feedback. The project does not contain any position or assertion of the designer, but only shows the audience some possibility. Because of the individual, each person will see or feel different virtual worlds, and the audience decides whether to agree.

Fig. 1. Shan Hai Jing: Shen You

The project design team conducted on-site audience sampling data survey and measurement analysis on the effect of the work, and effectively investigated the number of visitors is 921. First, to study whether individual characteristics will affect the audience preferences, including gender, age, occupation, education, the level of understanding of AR technology, etc. through descriptive statistical analysis (Table 1). The ratio of male to female is quite similar. The sample selection is more suitable to ensure the objectivity of the research results. According to data analysis of the audience in Shanghai, the audience is mainly concentrated in the 18 to 40 age group, followed by the 41 to 65 years old audience. Academic qualifications are mainly concentrated in junior college, undergraduate and below, accounting for more than 90%. Students, state agencies, enterprises, research and education units are the main groups, followed by manufacturing and transportation industries, and art workers account for the least. The proportion of people with a low level of understanding of AR technology is only a quarter. As far as China’s current situation is concerned, people generally have a high degree of interest in the digital display form of traditional culture. The influence of age, education, occupation and other factors is low, but the familiarity with AR technology is not high, indicating that the rate of the education of related knowledge is low. Thus, the introduction of appropriate education and training related technologies in the above industry applications, will improve the efficiency of the work. At the same time, the

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public is also looking forward to the virtual form of traditional culture, and it is expected to increase their social experience and cultural quality. Table 1. Statistics of individual characteristics of the audience. Audience basic information Gender Male Female

Proportion

Age

Under 18

17.15%

18–40

38.98%

41–65

27.58%

Above 65

16.29%

High school or Below College and Undergraduate Master Degree or Above

40.07%

Education

453 468

53.2% 6.73%

Audience basic information Occupation Student State Agencies, Enterprises, Research and Education Units Private Enterprise Digital Information Related Professional Technical and Service Manufacturing and Transportation Artistic or Designer Others

Proportion

Familiarity with AR

Know well

25.2%

Do not know much Hardly Know

63.95%

31.16% 24.1%

8.36% 12.7%

16.07%

3.69% 3.91%

10.86%

Second, the individual psychological factors are the motivation for the formation of viewers’ preferences. The author measures the three dimensions of emotion, cognition and intention of the work, and confirms these factors through reliability analysis and factor analysis. Among them, emotional factors include satisfaction, positive and negative effects of the work, and feedback on the use of equipment (Table 2). The survey results show that the audience is more satisfied with the work, the proportion of positive affecting factors is balanced (M2—M6), the M3 and M4 indexes are higher, and M2 and M5 are second. This shows that this work has a positive impact on the audience with the design of virtual narrative environment story, guiding the audience to participate in interactive communication, feedback and so on. Cognitive factors include popularity, evaluation, and image cognition. For cognitive factors analysis, the author selected the more popular virtual design works on the

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Table 2. Descriptive analysis of the individual emotional factors of the audience. Measurement dimension Emotion factor

Measurement item Satisfaction

Positive Effect

Negative Effect

Equipment Use

Audience basic information 35.32% very satisfied; 43.48% satisfied; 16.69% general; 2.68% not satisfied; 1.83% extremely dissatisfied The content design is novel and interesting, helping to understand traditional culture and stimulate the fun of learning new knowledge Can generate more interaction with others (friends, strangers, family, etc.) Open up the horizon and be attracted by the application of new technologies More interesting than traditional forms of presentation Protect exhibits better and avoid damage Lack of aesthetics of the exhibit itself Just a new technology show, content design is not attractive enough There are too many people in the pavilion, the order of the visit is chaotic, affecting the experience The exhibition equipment is easy to operate and convenient Dissatisfied with the way that user needs to carry electronic mobile devices Long-term use will be slightly dizzy

Proportion

Serial no. M1

39.97%

M2

50.43%

M3

52.5%

M4

41.78%

M5

30.09%

M6

38.61%

M7

40.68%

M8

37.15%

M9

22.78%

M10

49.7%

M11

38.37%

M12

market, such as IKEA “Home Guide”, Tokyo “Sunshine Aquarium App”, AR real scene selection color “Yocli”, Pokemon “Pokemon Go”, Dinosaur APP “AR Dinopank”, AR scale tool “Aug Measure”, the audience satisfied with IKEA “home guide” satisfaction accounted for 47.38%, this work accounted for 43.73%, ranked second. In terms of image recognition, we have listed virtual works of digital traditional culture on the market. The results of various age groups show that a small number of

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understandable indexes are high, and most of them are understandable. Among them, more than 63% of the audience under the age of 18 and over 65 believe that only a small number of people understand the meaning of the work. 88.31% of the audience expressed their willingness to participate in the experience, participate in content design, provide design related materials, feedback and other intent. They most interested in the AR application of the virtual restoration of the real face of the exhibit, the resurrection of the exhibit and interaction with it, and the AR navigation in the hall. Most of the audience expressed satisfaction and expectation for this kind of cultural education display and communication form of AR exhibition hall or AR classroom. Especially the group over 65 years old think that digital classroom is very helpful to understand traditional culture or learning knowledge. Finally, the author interviewed dozens of experts and scholars in the art design profession. It is understood that most traditional culture and art workers believe that the current artistic aspects of most virtual works are quite different from the original works. Most of them are only the display of new technologies, lack the design of connotation and depth of cultural communication, and even the misunderstanding of the audience, which remains to be seen. Therefore, the development of traditional culture needs to be strengthened in the virtual narrative, highlighting the attraction of culture.

7 Conclusion The currently existing cultural virtual design works on the market are mainly concentrated in specific places such as museums, exhibition halls, tourist attractions, etc. The design content is still set at the designer’s unilateral information transfer level, and the audience’s design engagement and feedback rate are low. The author seems that the cultivation of innovative thinking about narrative virtual environment and the citing imagination of traditional cultural fictional design is the primary problem at present, and it is necessary to pay attention to the social nature of fictional culture. “Although design speculation has always existed (such as auto show, future vision, high fashion show, etc.)” [19]. In the face of domestic cultural inheritance and development issues, designers should not only create a virtual environment. At the same time of commercial design, they should face more social goals and exert more social imagination to satisfy the public and not only consumers’ demands. You can try to solve both problems at the same time [20].

References 1. Gang, L., Wei, G.: Visual Culture Reader, pp. 203, 206. Guangxi Normal University Press, Guilin (2003) 2. Dunne, A., Fiona, Li, Z.: Speculative: Design, Fiction and Social Dreams. (Dunne, A., Raby, F.: Speculative Everything – Design, Fiction, and Social Dreaming. The MIT Press (2013)), p. 70. Jiangsu Phoenix Fine Arts Publishing House (2017) 3. Stuart Candy. The Child Who Praises Humanity, The Sceptical Futuryst Blog, 12 April 2008. http://futuryst.blogspot.com/2008/04/in-praise-of-children-of-men.html

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4. Aristotle, translated by H.S. Butcher. Poetics. Hill and Wang, New York (1989) 5. Bal, M.: Narratology, Introduction to the Theory of Narrative. University of Toronto Press, Toronto (1997) 6. Kermode, F.: The Art of Telling, Essays on Fiction. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (1978) 7. Porter Abbott, H.: The Cambridge Introduction to Narrative. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2008) 8. He, J.: Digital art space in the digital age. Art Des. (Theory) (286), 86–88 (2014) 9. Austin, T.: Enhancing Social Cohesion through the Design of Narrative Environments in the Pubic Realm. Open Your Space: Design Intervention for Urban Resilience, p. 183. Tongji University Press, September 2017 10. Foucault, M.: The Order of Things. Tavistock Publication, London (1970) 11. Hooper Greenhill, E.: Museums and the Shaping of Knowledge. Routledge, London (1992) 12. Lefebvre, H.: The Production of Space. Blackwell Publishers, Oxford (1991) 13. Ni, Y., Zhu, M.: Open Your Space: Design Intervention for Urban Resilience. Tongji University Press, September 2017 14. Fang, X.: On Active Design, Decoration, no. 267. Tsinghua University Press, July 2015 15. Gunderson, L.H., Holling, C.S. (eds.): Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Systems of Humans and Nature. Island Press, Washington DC (2002) 16. Scheffer, M., Carpenter, S., Foley, J.A., Folke, C., Walker, B.: Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Nature 413, 591–596 (2001) 17. Williams, D., Cuoco, R.: Co-creating a city spectacle: fashion as facilitator of social ties and forms. CoR website (2016) 18. Manzini, E., Till, J. (eds.): Cultures of Resilience: Ideas. Hato Press, London (2015) 19. Dunne, A., Raby, F.: Speculative Everything – Design, Fiction, and Social Dreaming. The MIT Press, Cambridge (2013) 20. Clark, S.R.L.: The Future of Philosophy, p. 17. Peter Lang, Frank furt am Main (2011)

The Chladni Wall Anca-Simona Horvath1(B)

and Viola R¨ uhse2

1

Research Laboratory for Art and Technology, Aalborg University, Rendsburggade 14, 6223 9000 Aalborg, Denmark [email protected] 2 Department for Images Science, Danube University Krems, Dr.-Karl-Dorrek-Straße 30, 3500 Krems, Austria [email protected], https://vbn.aau.dk/da/persons/143403 https://www.donau-uni.ac.at/de/universitaet/organisation/ mitarbeiterinnen/person/4295238221

Abstract. This article describes a practice based artistic investigation which produced a participatory installation consisting of sculptural objects informed by sound vibration patterns. The installation, called the “Chladni Wall”, brings together Chladni bricks. These are based on analogue 2D Chladni patterns made with granular material scattered on a plate and activated by sound vibrations. One or more Chladni patterns are transformed into 3D sculptures. Four areas where Chladni pattern informed 3D objects could be applied further are identified. Namely, for (1) educational curricula which integrate teaching acoustics, 3D modelling and digital fabrication, (2) for designing objects with special acoustic properties, (3) as help in voice training and with speech impediments and finally (4) for providing sonic experiences to the hearing impaired. Keywords: Computational design · Digital fabrication of sound · Form-finding · Chladni patterns

1 1.1

· Visualization

Introduction Context: Visualisation of Sound Waves Through History

One significant characteristic of sound is its transitoriness, hence there have been several visualization attempts in the past. These visualizations are connected to the research of sound waves that has a longer history. The first beginnings can be dated back to the Renaissance. Leonardo mentioned in his notebooks that “when a table is struck in different places the dust that is upon it is reduced to various shapes of mounds and tiny hillocks.” [1] Afterwards Galileo Galilei described marks related to sound vibrations in “Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences” (1632): Aalborg University. c Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020  C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 390–397, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_50

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“As I was scraping a brass plate with a sharp iron chisel in order to remove some spots from it and was running the chisel rather rapidly over it, I once or twice, during many strokes, heard the plate emit a rather strong and clear whistling sound: on looking at the plate more carefully, I noticed a long row of fine streaks parallel and equidistant from one another.” [2] The English scientist Robert Hooke (1635–1703) observed nodal patterns in association with the vibrations of a glass plate with flour caused by a violin bow on July 8, 1680 [3]. In Germany, Ernst Chladni (1756–1827) repeated and developed Hooke’s experiment further. He scattered sand over a thin metal plate and by striking a violin bow against the plate noticed the sand grain accumulating in certain areas. He perfected his method and was able to create different patterns published in “Entdeckungen u ¨ber die Theorie des Klanges [Discoveries in the theory of sound] (1827) [4] for the first time and later in his famous book “Die Akustik [Acoustics]” (1802) [5]. He tried to develop mathematical formulas and his public demonstrations of the experiment became very popular. The patterns were admired by contemporaries such as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe [6]. Physicists such as Michael Faraday and Lord Rayleigh developed Chladni’s results further in the 19th and early 20th centuries [7]. In addition, singers such as Margaret Watts-Hughes and vocal therapists such as Holbrook Curtis began to experiment with them [8,9]. Hans Jenny published a widely received book on his experiments inspired by Chladni patterns [10] and introduced the term ‘Cymatics’ to describe the study of visible sound vibration. Most artistic explorations of Chladni patterns and cymatics today are conducted, unsurprisingly, by sound artists and musicians, and come in the form of projections or holograms. The work of musician and sound artist Nigel Stanford ‘CYMATICS: Science Vs. Music’ is notable in showing sound vibration patterns in various mediums [11]. The number of other artistic applications and research experiments where sound is visualized through real objects derived from sound informed 3D models is smaller. These projects tend to take advantage of technological advances in computational design and digital fabrication and they fit within a strand of art and technology which explores (or simply exposes) scientific phenomena. German researchers Skrodzki et al. describe a method for the digital production of 3D models based on the mathematical equations of Chladni patterns and ˙ Yıldan describe present several rendered images [12]. Architects V. Y¨ ucel and I. a software application which visualizes Chladni patterns based on mathematical functions. The application allows users to create their patterns by playing with parameters such as frequency and amplitude and to export images. Derived from one image, a fabrication method using CNC milling is presented. The authors suggest that this strain of research can have possible applications in sectors such as architecture, product design, or interior design [13]. In ‘Spatial Cymatics’, L. M. Tseng and J. H. Hou further investigate the physical production of Chladni pattern informed 3D objects. The authors describe a setup they design to create Chladni patterns using sounds controlled through a script. These patterns are then digitised and four algorithms are compared to process the images. Finally,

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they present a 3D printed piece based on processing images of Chladni patterns [14]. Dutch designer Ricky van Broekhoven used Chladni patterns to informs the shape of the “Soundshape Speaker” which was exhibited during the Dutch Design Week 2013 [15]. There are aspects that are still under-explored in the current state of the art of Chladni pattern informed production of physical artefacts. Effective 3D modelling methods that are fabrication-ready need more investigation. Only a few workflows for going to patterns to 3D models have been reported. Experiences of artists and designers working across design spaces (sound, 3D modelling, fabrication) are yet to be analyzed [16]. Participatory works that involve audiences in developing sculptural pieces from sound vibration patterns can be investigated in more detail. The Chladni Wall was used as a medium for art-based action research [17] on making invisible sounds tangible through an artifact. More specifically, by thinking through making, and in a participatory setup, it was asked: what possible applications can come from the process of taking a sensory-somatic experience (of creating a Chladni pattern) to a technologically mediated representation (an index, or symbol) of it. From sound to pattern to virtual 3D shape and afterward to fabricated sculpture. A preliminary analysis and reflections upon areas of possible applications are presented in this paper.

2

Method

In this section, the workflow of producing the Chladni Wall is described. 16 participants were involved and 17 bricks sculptural Chladni bricks were created. This process was framed as a two-week workshop with Art and Technology students and as part of a course meant at introducing 3D modelling and digital fabrication. During this workshop, the artistic potential of working with 2D Chladni patterns was enlarged by taking advantage of current 3D modeling and fabrication technologies. In order to understand where sound-informed fabricated shapes can find their applications, this process of art-based action research was observed and reflected upon. Additionally, participants completed a survey after the completion of the artefact. Two main aspects were interrogated in detail: 1. knowledge about sound, the physicality of sound, and relationship to own voice 2. their feelings during the creative exploration. 2.1

Workflow of Producing the Chladni Wall

The shape of the Chladni Wall was pre-designed and divided into bricks. Each of the 16 participants was asked to create one or more bricks. The requirements were to use 2D Chladni patterns to inform the 3D design of the brick, to use laser cutting for production, to use the same wood material, and to maintain the outside shell of each brick so that the wall can be assembled and exhibited.

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A simple setup made up from a vibration generator triggering a small rectangular metal plate and connected to a microphone was introduced to participants. Scattering salt or sugar on the rectangular plate and playing sounds into the microphone allowed participants to visualize sounds through Chladni patterns. Higher frequencies would create more complex patterns, while lower frequencies would result in simpler ones. The steps in the production process were: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

to create Chladni patterns using the setup. to digitize these patters to place the patterns in a 3D modelling software to create a 3d model informed by the patterns - here participants had full explorative freedom to place this 3d model inside the 3d model of the pre-assigned brick and to merge these two to slice the object for fabrication using laser cutting to fabricate the layers and glue them together to form a Chladni brick to assemble the Chladni bricks in a wall.

3

Results

This section presents the final result of the Chladni wall together with a preliminary analysis of how participants explored the different design spaces - namely that of producing sounds, that of creating 2D patterns through sound vibration, the 3D environment and the fabricated objects. The layered wooden bricks were informed by 1, 2 or 3 Chladni patterns and most of the pieces had symmetry on one or more axes (see Fig. 1). In general, the visual grammars are organic and the initial patterns are vaguely recognizable. 3.1

Producing Sounds and Relationship with Own Voices

There were no binding instructions on how to use the analogue Chladni setup for the participants. Most of them preferred to create sounds using instruments such as frequency generation phone apps or sound or music pieces played from their laptops. Engaging with their own voices would have been interesting to observe, but most seemed too shy to do so. The survey questions which investigated how they feel about their own voices showed that the majority have a negative attitude to this (10 out of 16). 5 Participants declare that they “cannot stand their own voice.” and 4 feel they do not control their voice in daily life. One reports having no consciousness of the voice “I am not listening to my own voice”. Only one-third of participants have a very good/positive attitude towards their own voice: one says they have the feeling that their own voice has ‘magical powers’ and two report they enjoy hearing their own voice.

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Fig. 1. The production process, a selection of Chladni bricks, and the assembled Chladni Wall

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3.2

395

Preliminary Reflections on the Process of Producing Chladni Pattern-Inspired Objects for Digital Fabrication

When asked to talk about their experiences of making sounds, Chladni patterns, 3D models, and sculptural objects, 12 participants reported having a deep attachment to the brick and their 3D models. Interesting remarks were made about the sizes of the design spaces which were explored: 4 participants reported that the Chladni patterns were not “unique enough” or that “frequencies cannot be owned”. By contrast, the 3D models and the fabricated objects were considered as “their own works”. This can be because there is a limited number of significantly different Chladni patterns which can be created on a plate of a certain size, as opposed to a considerably larger array of 3D models to explore. The physical shape was seen as a visual “memory” of the ephemeral sounds. In general, the project was also seen as a good learning example for 3D modelling.

4

Discussion and Conclusion

This paper presented a participatory sculptural artifact which brought together sound experimentation, 3D modelling, and digital fabrication. By thinking through making and reflecting along the creative process [17], possible applications of Chladni pattern informed geometries are identified. In general, 3D Chladni patterns still have under-explored potential for application in various fields. The most obvious application is to use them in educational setups which introduce 3D modelling and digital fabrication together with sound exploration. This can be done at different levels. The use of 3D Chladni visualisations as an educational tool for teaching acoustics to school children is generally accepted and apps available for free have been developed for it [20]. Merging the teaching of acoustics with that of 3D modelling and digital fabrication can be a way to enhance classroom engagement with science but also allow creative freedom. A possible next step to such explorations is the development of objects with special acoustic properties, given that Chladni patterns are used to inform the design of string musical instruments. Given the relatively large number of participants who have negative feelings about their own voices, using Chladni patterns to encourage vocal somatic experimentation can also prove interesting. This method could then also be used as practice training for speech impediments. Cymatic visualisations have been used as a therapeutic tool that improves sensory impaired patients such as people with autism, but so far, only 2D Chladni images have been tested in this field [18,19]. 3D models derived from Chladni patterns could find applications for speech development of the hearing impaired as a supplement to conventional computerbased training methods for instance after cochlear implantation. A workshop similar to the one used to produce the Chladni Wall installation would be also relevant for initiatives such as ‘CymaSpace’ in Portland who focus on offering cymatic experiences, especially for the deaf and hearing-impaired [21].

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References 1. da Vinci, L.: Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci, Arranged, Rendered into English and Introduced by Edward McCurdy, p. 542. Reynal and Hitchcock, New York (1939) 2. Galilei, G.: Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences (1632), p. 101. Macmillan Co., New York (1914) 3. Hooke, R.: The Diary of Robert Hooke 1672–80. Taylor & Francis, London (1935). p. 448 (entry of July 8, 1960) 4. Chladni, E.F.F.: Entdeckungen u ¨ ber die Theorie des Klanges. Weidmanns Erben und Reich, Leipzig (1787) 5. Chladni, E.F.F.: Die Akustik. Breitkopf und H¨ artel, Leipzig (1802) 6. de la Motte-Haber, H.: Musik und Licht - Zeitfarben. In: B¨ ohme, G., Olschanski, R. (eds.) Licht und Zeit, p. 87. Wilhelm Fink Verlag, Munich (2004) 7. Ullmann, D.: Chladni und die Entwicklung der Akustik von 1750–1860. Birkh¨ auser, Basel (1996). p. 11 and p. 25 f 8. Watts-Hughes, M.: Eidophone. Christian Herald, London (1904) 9. Curtis, H.: The Tonograph. Sci. Am. 76(33), 345–346 (1897) 10. Jenny, H.: Kymatik. Wellen und Schwingungen mit ihrer Struktur und Dynamik/Cymatics. The structure and dynamics of waves and vibrations. Basilius Presse, Basel (1967) 11. Stanford, N.: CYMATICS: Science Vs. Music, music video (2014) 12. Skrodzki, M., Reitebuch, U., Polthier, K.: Chladni Figures Revisited: A Peek Into The Third Dimension. In: Proceedings on Bridges 2016: Mathematics, Music, Art, Architecture, Education, Culture, pp. 481–484. Tesselations Publishing, Phoenix (2016), p. 481 ˙ Form follows algorithm: differentiation of chladni patterns 13. Y¨ ucel, V., Yildan, I.: through mathematical functions in processing. In: Proceedings on XX Generative Art Conference, GA (2017). https://www.generativeart.com/. Accessed 20 Mar 2020 14. Tseng, L.M., Hou, J.H.: Spatial Cymatics, Conference Paper presented at ArtsIT 2019–8th EAI International Conference: ArtsIT, Interactivity and Game Creation, November 6–8. Aalborg, Denmark (2019) 15. Madlener, A.: Soundshapes by Ricky van Broekhoven, frameweb Homepage, 16 November 2013. https://www.frameweb.com/news/soundshapes-by-ricky-vanbroekhoven. Accessed 15 Mar 2020 16. Horvath, A. S., R¨ uhse, V.: Chladni Patterns gone 3D: computational design and digital fabrication methods for producing sound-informed geometries. In: AMPS2020 Canterbury: Connections: Exploring Heritage, Architecture, Cities, Art, Media (2020). https://tinyurl.com/y7u2djm3. Accessed 18 June 2020 17. Coghlan, D., Brydon-Miller, M.: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Action Research (Vols. 1–2). SAGE Publications Ltd., London (2014). https://doi.org/10.4135/ 9781446294406 18. CymaScope Homepage. http://www.cymascope.com. Accessed 24 May 2020 19. McGowan, J. et al.: CymaSense: a novel audio-visual therapeutic tool for people on the autism spectrum. In: ASSETS 2017: Proceedings of the 19th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility, pp. 62–71. Association for Computing Machinery, New York (2017)

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20. “Resonant Chladni patterns” app. Technical University Munich website, Application Library of the Chair of Vibroacoustics of Vehicles and Machines. https:// tinyurl.com/ybwd7vp9. Accessed 15 May 2020 21. CymaSpace, 5040 SE Milwaukie Ave, Portland OR 97202, USA. https://www. cymaspace.org/. Accessed 15 May 2020

A Study on Framework Development and Augmented Reality Technological Factors Consumers’ Evaluation for Cultural and Creative Products Yu-Ju Lin(&) Department of Commercial Design and Management, National Taipei University of Business, Taoyuan 32462, Taiwan [email protected]

Abstract. Following the rapid development of high-technology industries, digital applications have been applied in various technologies, bringing people a whole new daily living experience. Interactive technology has led to breakthrough innovations. Application of augmented reality (AR), in addition to people’s approaches to interact with the physical world, has changed industry owners’ methods in designing products. This reveals the criticality of designing products with AR technology and new forms of interactions. This study investigated the current status regarding the cultural and creative products in consumer markets and the effectiveness of incorporating AR technology into cultural and creative product design courses. Data were analyzed to clarify said effectiveness and confirm the feasibility of AR technology in cultural and creative product design. A survey was performed on the cultural and creative products in the National Palace Museum located in Taipei and those designed by university students majoring in design to explore the effect of AR technology employed in cultural and creative product design on consumers’ review of and purchase intentions for the products. The following conclusion was reached: (1) The scale constructed to evaluate the cultural and creative products designed using AR technology was feasible. (2) AR technology positively affected participants’ review of and purchase intentions for cultural and creative products. (3) The products created by students according to the teaching method employed exhibited business value of high interactivity. Future cultural and creative product design courses can employ AR technology in their principles and practices in training innovative talents that satisfy the market demand. The design principles developed thereof can also serve as a reference for industry owners in designing cultural and creative products. Keywords: Cultural and creative product design Evaluation  Purchase intention

 Augmented reality (AR) 

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 398–405, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_51

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1 Introduction With evolutions in society and technology, developments in interactive and experiential technology have enhanced teaching and learning; people are increasingly learning in a virtual rather than physical space. Experiential technology emphasizes interactivity in thee connections and communications hat users have with a product or service; such technology stimulates all our senses and makes user participation more fun and meaningful. Digital technology is capable of disseminating large quantities of information; is versatile, being capable of applications in a variety of fields; is timesensitive and interactive; is capable of furnishing immersive visual stimuli; and is capable of being applied in different forms. Excellent interactive design is key to retaining users of this technology and providing them with an immersive experience.

2 Literature Review 2.1

Cultural and Creative Products in the Age of Interactive Experience

Interactive developments have made contact more sensory, intimate, and integrated. Therefore, the application of interactive digital technology has become an inevitable trend in design and creation. Cultural and creative product designs integrate art, culture, and science. Such designs convey various ideas and facilitate cultural contexts in products not related to their functions and in doing so, redefine lifestyles. Therefore, products must feature technological and aesthetic innovation to induce an emotional experience in customers, thus facilitating customer retention [1]. To make homogeneous cultural and creative products more competitive in the market, in addition to making them more functional and aesthetically pleasing, the delivery and construction of consumer knowledge must also be improved. Such improvement in knowledge helps users better learn about and interact with these products; users can also better appreciate the intangible meanings embedded in the products and better identify with them, similar to how a museum’s visitors feel toward the exhibits. 2.2

Applying Augmented Reality (AR) and Related Models in Cultural and Creative Products

Aauma, AR affords users a deeper interaction with the real world and the opportunity to gain experiences that cannot be otherwise acquired; AR brings users closer to their everyday environment and improves their use experience [2]. Therefore, cultural and creative product designers should consider the user’s physical sensations and psychological state. The integration of AR into cultural and creative product designs enables users to improve data acquisition methods, visualize data, and optimize product performance using real-time data; in doing so, users can better interact with and control the product [3–6].

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Effect of AR Integration in Cultural and Creative Products on Consumer Preferences and Purchase Intention

Witmer, Jerome and Singer organized the factors influencing sense of presence into four dimensions: involvement, sensory realism, adaptation/immersion, and interface quality. Involvement refers to how natural interactions and experiences are in a virtual environment; an user who becomes involved has a firm control of their activities within the environment and is focused on their experience in the environment [7]. With the recent emergence of digital technology and consumer awareness, the development of new products must involve encouraging consumer purchases through the stimulation of the consumer’s senses [8, 9].

3 Research Methods 3.1

Participant Selection and Testing

This study selected 10 samples, five of which were commercial works and the other five were student works; the student works were assignments in a cultural and creative product design course taught by the researcher. The commercial works were those on sale in the shop of the National Palace Museum. A commercial work was chosen if it satisfied all of the following conditions: (1) it is a bestselling product during the research period, (2) its design is based on a collection in the museum, and (3) it is an article for daily use. As for student works, a work was chosen if it satisfied all of the following conditions: (1) it is an exceptional works incorporating AR technology, (2) its design is based on one or more collections in the National Palace Museum, and (3) it serves an everyday function (Fig. 1).

A. Qingming Shanghetu

B. Cultural Relics Puzzle

C. Revolving Vase-

D. Dragon Scale Binding-

E. Wine Bottle Stopper-

Music Bell

Game -AR

Tea maker

Children Book-AR

The Emperor Qianlong of Qing Dynasty

F. Table Corner Anti-colli-

G. Blue Dragon Sauce

H. Fashion Raincoat-

I. Silk Scarf -Autum Scene at the

J. Perfume -Painted Ena-

sion-Jade Man and Bear -AR

Dish -Chopsticks Holder

Diwang Daotong Wannian Tu -AR

riverside of Fuchun River

mel Snuff Bottle -AR

Fig. 1. Research object

3.2

Research Instruments

The dimensions and evaluation in the questionnaire’s scale measured the sensory, emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and relational aspects of experiential cultural and creative product designs as well as consumer purchase intention and preference. The

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questionnaire comprised seven dimensions, encompassing 21 items. To verify the feasibility of the questionnaire, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed after the survey was complete. 3.3

Experiment Design

Creative values are determined by how consumers feel toward products. Before consumers actually use or view a specific product, they cannot accurately determine the creative values the product affords them. Therefore, experiential marketing must emphasize creating various modes of experience for consumers. In the present study, a total of 127 participants, 42 of whom were male and 85 were female, were selected through purposive sampling. Most of the participants were tourists with a basic understanding of the given historical culture and relics, and tourists are the primary consumers in the cultural and creative product market. The participants were shown the sampled creative works, namely the products sold in the National Palace Museum Shop and students’ works created with AR technology.

4 Research Results and Discussion 4.1

Confirmatory Factor Analysis

The standardized factor loadings (SFLs) for the sensory, emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and relational dimensions of cultural and creative products were 0.39–0.94, 0.50–0.75, 0.56–0.69, 0.82–0.90, and 0.42–0.62, respectively; the SFL for purchase intention was 0.70–0.91. The estimated SFLs of all the items were >0.6, indicating that the scale satisfied the requisite standards. Furthermore, the convergent reliability and average variance extracted (AVE) of the scale were 0.56–0.85. This indicated that the research model had acceptable internal consistency. According to the diagonal values, the square roots of the AVEs of the dimensions ranged between 0.55 and 0.86, larger than the correlation coefficient of each dimension and constituting  75% of the overall comparative values. Therefore, the discriminant validity of the research model was satisfactory (Tables 1 and 2). 4.2

Structural Model Analysis and Research Hypothesis Verification

Nearly all the indices in the model attained or were close to the level of acceptance, indicating a satisfactory fit between the structural model and the theoretical framework with the empirical data (Table 3). According to the model path analysis results, the factors related to cultural and creative product designs were critical; experiential design, consumer preferences, and consumer purchase intention mutually influenced each other. As revealed in the structural equation model, the pleasure factors under the experiential design dimension significantly influenced consumer preferences, but none of the hypotheses related to the other factors were supported. Accordingly, all the factors pertinent to emotional designs should be integrated to increase purchase intention and make consumer preferences

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Y.-J. Lin Table 1. Table of CFA results for the research model

Variable M SD SK KU SFL(t) SMC EV CR AVE S. Sense 5.69 0.80 0.48 S1 This product 5.62 1.01 −0.29 −0.57 0.39 0.11 0.91 is fashionable (11.37) S2 This product 5.84 0.89 −0.46 −0.19 0.70 0.21 0.62 has good style (26.12) and proportions 0.15 0.53 S3 The colors 5.63 0.79 −0.00 −0.21 0.40 are consistent (13.50) with the overall style of the product 0.71 0.25 S4 This product 5.70 0.91 −0.24 −0.63 0.84 (34.61) features outstanding details in design S5 This product 5.68 0.95 −0.23 −0.74 0.94 0.88 0.11 is interactive (39.74) Mardia 7.29 P (P + 2) = 5  7 = 35F. Feel5.710.690.43F1 This product brings me a sense of happiness5.780.94−0.34−0.740.50 (15.99)0.250.65F2 This product takes me to a story context5.620.98−0.41−0.370.75 (21.26)0.560.42F3 This product is fun5.730.87−0.44 −0.170.70 (20.40)0.490.05Mardia0.06P(P + 2) = 3  5 = 15T. Think5.900.700.37T1 This product is practical5.930.79−0.450.050.69 (21.55)0.470.33T2 This product is novel6.030.79 −0.690.740.56 (17.64)0.310.43T3 This product is original and innovative5.940.76 −0.470.480.56 (17.51)0.310.40T4 This product has a strong association with a cultural relic5.710.97−0.24−0.810.60 (19.02)0.360.60Mardia3.23P(P + 2) = 4  6 = 24A. Act5.880.850.74A1 I intend to share this product5.880.91−0.38−0.550.90 (22.83)0.000.17A2 I intend to learn more about the cultural relic and its history5.880.85−0.32−0.240.82 (22.83) 0.000.23Mardia3.00P(P + 2) = 2  4 = 8R. Relate5.780.560.30R1 This product is unique5.770.82−0.20−0.530.62 (27.93)0.390.42R2 This product enables me to discover fun in life5.870.83−0.29−0.400.42 (20.52)0..840.11R3 This product teaches me about cultural values5.710.85−0.34−0.140.58 (19.37)0.340.48Mardia3.24P(P + 2) = 3  5 = 15Purchase IntensionPI. Purchase Intension5.690.830.62PI1 I intend to purchase this product5.770.90 −0.13−0.800.70 (26.12)0.490.42PI2 I intend to buy similar products that I find appealing5.610.82−0.03−0.440.91 (35.26)0.830.12PI3 I intend to buy this product ifs someone else recommends it to me5.690.79−0.08−0.070.74 (28.03)0.550.28Mardia6.596P (P + 2) = 3  5 = 15Product PreferencePR1 I like this product5.780.77−0.00−0.52Note 1: *a = 0.05, indicating the level of statistical significance. Note 2: M = mean; SD = standard deviation; SK = skewness; KU = kurtosis; SFL = standardized factor loading; SMC = square multiple correlation; EV = error variance; CR = convergent reliability; AVE = average variance extracted. Note 3: p = the number of observed variables. Experiential Design of Cultural and Creative Product

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Table 2. Table of CFA results for the research model Code Facets

Amount Correlation coefficient S. F. T. A. R. PI. S. Sense 5 0.69 F. Feel 3 0.57** 0.66 T. Think 4 0.68** 0.68** 0.61 A. Act 2 0.41** 0.64** 0.60** 0.86 R. Relate 3 0.52** 0.58** 0.60** 0.50** 0.55 PI. Purchase Intension 3 0.40** 0.52** 0.52** 0.53** 0.66** 0.79 Note 1: The variable mean indicates the aggregate mean of all the items. Note 2: The diagonal value indicates the square root of the AVE of the latent variable, which should be larger than the nondiagonal value. Note 3: *a = 0.05 indicates a significant correlation between the variables.

Table 3. SEM-analysis results SFL Purchase Intension ← Experiential Design of Cultural and Creative Product Product Preference ← Experiential Design of Cultural and Creative Product Purchase Intension ← Sense Product Preference ← Sense Purchase Intension ← Feel Product Preference ← Feel Purchase Intension ← Think Product Preference ← Think Purchase Intension ← Act Product Preference ← Act Purchase Intension ← Relate Product Preference ← Relate Purchase Intension ← Product Preference Note: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001

C.R.

P

0.33

16.75

***

Hypothetical test Effective

0.55

23.41

***

Effective

−0.06 0.08 0.03 0.07 0.08 −0.04 0.15 0.17 0.28 0.47 0.57

−3.37 3.17 1.75 2.92 4.99 −1.60 8.20 7.03 13.93 19.54 27.54

*** 0.00 0.08 0.00 *** 0.11 *** *** *** *** ***

Effective Invalid Invalid Invalid Effective Invalid Effective Effective Effective Effective Effective

more favorable toward the product. Factors relating to manufacturing, marketing, and cost were excluded in this study. According to the afore mentioned results, due to a well-planned teaching model for design, the AR-integrated products created by the students exhibited considerable potential for commercialization; compared with the commercial works in the museum shop, the works integrated with AR made the participants’ preferences and purchase intention more favorable (Table 4).

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Y.-J. Lin Table 4. Regression weights The commercial works from the shop SFL C.R. P Hypothetical test

Purchase 0.16 4.91 *** Effective Intension ← Experiential Design of Cultural and Creative Product Product 0.29 7.53 *** Effective Preference ← Experiential Design of Cultural and Creative Product Purchase Intension ← Sense −0.15 −5.36 *** Effective Product Preference ← Sense 0.06 1.54 0.12 Invalid Purchase Intension ← Feel −0.06 −2.08 0.04 Invalid Product Preference ← Feel 0.05 1.38 0.17 Invalid Purchase Intension ← Think 0.11 3.80 *** Effective Product Preference ← Think −0.13 −3.68 *** Effective Purchase Intension ← Act 0.14 4.71 *** Effective Product Preference ← Act 0.16 4.43 *** Effective Purchase Intension ← Relate 0.25 8.13 *** Effective Product Preference ← Relate 0.33 9.02 *** Effective Purchase Intension ← Product 0.54 17.25 *** Effective Preference

Student-made AR-integrated works SFL 0.26

C.R.

P

Hypothetical test

9.87 ***

Effective

0.53 15.53 ***

Effective

0.09 3.85 *** Effective 0.09 2.66 0.01 Invalid 0.09 3.87 *** Effective 0.04 1.12 0.26 Invalid −0.11 −4.57 *** Effective 0.07 2.08 0.04 Invalid 0.16 6.82 *** Effective 0.07 2.08 0.04 Invalid 0.22 8.18 *** Effective 0.50 14.60 *** Effective 0.62 22.75 *** Effective

Note: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001

5 Conclusion The results of this study provide a reference for the implementation of AR in cultural and creative products. The results were as follows. • Data analyses confirmed that the structural equation modeling fit of the scale was satisfactory, indicating the feasibility of the scale. The structure of the instrument was based on interactive experience; it was designed to investigate the effect of AR integration in cultural and creative products, providing a reference for product design education and value-added product design in the relevant industries. • As revealed in the structural equation model analysis, the integration of AR technology in cultural and creative products significantly affected the participants’ purchase intention; the dimensions for experiential design, customer preference, and purchase intentions mutually influenced each other. As for experiential design, act and relate factors clearly and directly influenced preferences; the other three factors were also necessary for experiential design’s influence even though they directly influenced either consumers’ preference or consumer purchase intention. These factors also affected preferences in a joint manner. In designing cultural and creative products, interactivity, story contexts, strong association with cultural relics, the enhancement of knowledge on the relics in question and their history, and the

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delivery of cultural value should be considered. Moreover, preference was confirmed to substantially mediate the relationship between experiential design and purchase intention; applying AR technology in cultural and creative products influenced the participants’ preferences for the products, thereby heightening their purchase intention. • This study explored the differences between the commercial works from the shop of the National Palace Museum and the student-designed AR-integrated works with respect to consumer preferences and purchase intention. The results revealed that the AR-integrated works exhibited strong potential for commercialization, even exhibiting higher commercial values than did the commercial works. This study clarifies the focal points of AR integration in cultural and creative products for future studies. Studies and educational practices have revealed that the design thinking and design methods employed in students’ technological innovations have challenged the conventional production procedures employed in various industries. Institutions should first, train designers who fulfill contemporary market demands, and second, enable the capacity for high-quality and culturally rich product design in the relevant industries. In doing so, the experience economy and the visibility and competitiveness of cultural and creative industries can be enhanced.

References 1. Yan, H.Y.: A study on framework development and emotional design factors affecting consumers’ preferences for cultural and creative products. J. Des. 23(4), 21–44 (2018) 2. Azuma, R.T.: A survey of augmented reality. Presence Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 6(4), 355–385 (1997) 3. Burdea, G.C., Coiffet, P.: Virtual Reality Technology. Wiley, Hoboken (2003) 4. Kikuo, A.H., Tomotsugu, A.: Augmented instructions-a fusion of augmented reality and printed learning materials. In: Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT05), pp. 213–215 (2005) 5. Kung, C.H.: The Application of Augmented Reality for Product Concept Promotion. Graduate School of Art and Design, National Taipei University of Education (2017) 6. Hsu, K.F.: Expand reality application business opportunities and industry trends. J. Autom. Intell. Robot. 27, 24–29 (2018) 7. Witmer, B.G., Jerome, C.J., Singer, M.J.: The factor structure of the presence questionnaire. Presence Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 14(3), 298–312 (2005) 8. Tsai, Y.C.: The Study and Design of Augmented Reality technology used in the digital interactive advertising display. Graduate School of Design, National Taiwan Normal University (2012) 9. Tsai, M.T.: Exploring the Applicability of Augmented Reality in Brand Communication: A Case Study of AR-Assisted IKEA 2013 Catalogue. Graduate School of Public Relations and Advertising, Shih Hsin University (2013)

Digital Signage for a Guided Tour at the Science Museum Miki Namatame1(&), Meguru Ohishi1, Masami Kitamura1, Chie Sonoyama2, and Seiji Iwasaki2 1

2

Tsukuba University of Technology, Ibaraki 3058520, Japan [email protected] National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo 1108718, Japan

Abstract. In our previous survey (February 2018, Japan), 70 people with hearing loss indicated the lack of necessary information at museums. The d/Deaf or hard-of-hearing visitors at museums want sign language interpreters. Therefore, we organized guided tours with a curator explaining in sign language on the B1 floor [Evolution of Life -Exploring the Mysteries of Dinosaur Evolution] at the National Museum of Nature and Science in Tokyo, Japan. The guided tours showed that many jargons did not have corresponding signs in the sign language, which made seeing some exhibitions difficult. We had to support with written text to convey these jargons. We prepared a portable digital signboard. A tablet PC attached to a portable stand displayed technical terms and jargons in Japanese. The curator was able to navigate the exhibition floor easily while carrying the signboard. As the digital signboard was self-supporting, the curator could use both the hands freely. It was effortless, involved low technology (hence, inexpensive), and very convenient to use at museums. This practice paper will report the design method to support technical terms in written Japanese. While displaying in writing, we recommend the following: 1. Use easy Japanese; 2. Proper nouns must be written; 3. Add Kana for difficult Kanji; 4. Display structured information; 5. Align text to the exhibition layout. These methods will be useful not only for the d/Deaf or hard-of-hearing but also for the hearing. We aimed at improving information accessibility of the museum based on “universal design” and “design for all.” Keywords: Design method

 Written content  d/Deaf guide

1 Introduction We surveyed 70 d/Deaf or hard-of-hearing people from June 30, 2017 to February 21, 2018, in Japan. The results indicated the lack of necessary information or knowledge at museums. Therefore, we provided guided tours with a sign language interpreter at the National Museum of Nature and Science in Tokyo, Japan, on April 29, 2019 [1]. The experimental guided tours showed that communication at the science museum for the d/Deaf is facilitated by sign language. However, it is difficult to convey technical terms and jargons in sign language.

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2 Research Questions In our experimental guided tours at the museum by a d/Deaf curator who explained the exhibition using sign language, we had to provide support by showing many technical terms and jargons in writing. The research questions for this paper were: 1. Which display device is most useful on a guided tour for a d/Deaf curator? 2. How can we provide support to convey these jargons in writing?

3 Design Method In this research, we used the methodology of inclusive design principle. The team consisted of five members: a d/Deaf trainee, two museum staff, a sign language interpreter, and a designer. Two museum tour workshops and three design workshops were conducted. At the beginning of the workshop, the trainee chose his favorite theme. He picked up “Evolution of Life -Exploring the Mysteries of Dinosaur Evolution-.” The first workshop was a guided tour for the d/Deaf trainee by the museum staff to the permanent exhibition at the museum with a sign language interpreter and KAHAKU Navigator (Ka-ha-ku navi) Audio Guide on a tablet [2] (Fig. 1). The tour was planned for about 45 min. After the tour, the trainee wrote about his guided tour scenario and got it checked by the museum staff. The three design workshops focused on the following: 1. Consideration of device; 2. Design to convey meanings of jargons in writing; and 3. Modification of design to convey meanings of technical terms in writing. The final workshop was a guided tour for the museum staff by the d/Deaf trainee with the sign language interpreter.

Fig. 1. Snapshot of the guided tour for the d/Deaf trainee

4 Outcome of Inclusive Design 4.1

Which Display Device Is Most Useful?

In order to find the answer to this question, we prepared three display devices. Table 1 shows the merits and demerits of these devices. The most crucial point was that both

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the hands of the trainee had to be free as he had to explain the exhibitions in sign language. The first device was designed to hang on the neck and was made of paper. It was not heavy but presented only limited information. The second device was a tablet PC that was also hung on the neck, but the trainee commented on experiencing some difficulties; the sign language was hiding the displayed information and the device caused a neck strain. The third one was a tablet PC fitted on a portable stand, which freed the hands of the trainee. This display style was very comfortable for the guide who used sign language, but it had to be ensured that the set-up was not causing inconvenience to the other visitors in the crowded museum. Table 1. Merits and demerits of the display devices

Title

Trial 1 Hang on the neck made of paper)

Trial 2 Hang on the neck (Tablet PC)

Trial 3 Portable stand (Tablet PC)

Display Style

Merits

Both hands can be used freely Not heavy to hang on the neck

Both hands can be used freely Presented unlimited information

Both hands can be used freely Presented unlimited information Sign language does not hide the display

DeMerits

Presented limited information Sign language hides the display Cannot be used on dark floors

Heavy to hang on the neck Sign language hides the display Too bright on dark floors

Get in the way of other visitors

4.2

How to Write and Communicate Jargons?

Moreover, representation of scientific jargons in writing was considered. The communication problems on the dinosaur evolution floor were: 1. As the name of the dinosaur was not known, the sign interpreter showed it in writing, but reading manual alphabets was challenging; 2. The jargons were not familiar sounds. Even if visitors understood the content of the explanation, they could not understand the meaning. Even if jargons were indicated in written Kanji, visitors could not read it. 3. Content of

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the guided tour was linear, but the exhibition at the museum was not, because evolution had a process of differentiation. The guide needed to explain and clarify this evolutionary process to promote audience understanding. 4. The exhibition of dinosaurs was huge, and there was some distance between the exhibits and audience on this floor. A small scheme was, therefore, required to associate a layout on display with the real space of the museum. In order to solve these problems, the following methods in writing were adopted (Table 2). Table 2. Representation in writing and the guide’s scripts

1.Katakana wrote the dinosaur's name. "This is a skeletal model of Bambiraptor, a companion of Theropoda."

2. Jargons wrote in Kanji with Kana. "The Mesozoic is subdivided into three major periods: the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous."

3. Represent a construction of evolution. "Dinosaurs can be divided into two groups of Saurischia and Ornithischia; shall we look at Saurischia first?"

4. Correspondence between physical space and layout on display "We can see that the dinosaur on the left is Herrerasaurus, and the dinosaur on the right is Prestosuchus."

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5 Conclusions In this practice paper, we discussed the design method to support jargons using written Japanese. We considered the most useful display device for a guided tour by a d/Deaf curator at the museum. We proposed to attach a tablet PC to a compact stand. The guide moved with it while explaining the points. Both hands of the guide were completely free, and the sign language did not hide the display of the device. While displaying jargons in writing, we recommend the following: 1. Use easy Japanese; 2. Proper nouns must be written; 3. Add Kana for difficult Kanji; 4. Display structured information; 5. Align text to the exhibition layout. These methods will be useful not only for the d/Deaf or hard-of-hearing but also for the hearing. We aimed at improving the museum’s information accessibility based on “universal design” and “design for all.” Figure 2 is a snapshot from the final guided tour workshop at the museum for the museum staff by the d/Deaf trainee with a display attached stand. The digital signage proposed by inclusive design was beneficial for both the audience and guide. This guided tour was successful. In the future, we will evaluate the digital signage displaying jargons and guided tours in the science museum.

Fig. 2. Snapshot of the curator having a guided tour using sign language and a digital signage Acknowledgments. We thank the National Museum of Nature and Science in Tokyo and the four students of the Tsukuba University of Technology. Furthermore, we also gratefully acknowledge the grant from JSPS KAKENHI (#18H01046).

References 1. Namatame, M., Kitamura, M., Iwasaki, S.: The science communication tour with a sign language interpreter. In: Pacific Rim International Conference on Disability & Diversity. 4th coming (2020). https://pacrim2020.exordo.com/programme/presentation/509 2. KAHAKU navigator (Ka-ha-ku navi): audio guide by tablet to permanent exhibition. National Museum of Nature and Science. https://www.kahaku.go.jp/english/userguide/access/id/index. html

SmArt Spaces: Restructuring Art Galleries as Interactive Portals Glenn A. Terpstra(&) and Laura A. Huisinga California State University Fresno, Fresno, CA 93702, USA [email protected]

Abstract. Continued oscillation between digital environments and physical realities has created a demand for hyper-interactive community spaces. Because the overall cost of prototyping extended reality (XR) experiences can require large initial investments of time and money, current art spaces could be used for prototyping digital environments with physical spaces. Integrating an art gallery with digital sensors, cameras, and projectors could allow for rapid prototyping of XR development, solving rudimentary problems found with spatial navigation, sensory exposure, and psychological ramifications in a more cost efficient manner. Not only do these SmArt Spaces provide pivotal community engagement centers, they act as cultural hubs transcending divisions based on location. Connecting multiple spaces with virtual, and mixed reality experiences embrace concepts of the omni-connected environments in the near future. Integrating the primal functions of both art and an art gallery in the form of experience engages those willing to enter the space and provides an excellent opportunity for XR prototyping case studies. These spaces would naturally develop as community research centers and allow for a centralization of cultural experience and organization. This writing aims to establish a baseline of artistic explorations relating to the interconnectivity of all humans through technology. Combining culture, location, and communication this seminal work attempts to better define underlying truths to how humans experience while providing a synthesis of physical and digital elements in order to create future SmArt Spaces Keywords: Experience design

 Mixed reality  Art and design

1 Introduction This research explores controlled spatial designs, such as art galleries, showing how people navigate space and different interactive components in a physical environment, to better design digital Extended Reality (XR) environments. The results of this research provides a potential framework for future interactive community collectives of digitally charged art galleries world-wide. Experience is one of the foundations to human existence and should be used as a vehicle to better explain where we come from as well as represent where we are currently. Experience design goes well beyond technology and it is pertinent to question the assets we currently have in our communities, ripe for adaptation to social equalizing © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 411–418, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_53

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design philosophies. The primary goal of this research is to connect different environments that define cultural norms seen in artistic expressions throughout the world. These art spaces can act as technology safe havens where anyone has access to super computing power and connect with anyone in similar SmArt Spaces. Because divisions of technology there is a rising gap beyond just having the technology but, between those embracing all computing power possible versus the majority of computing being done from a phone or mobile device. These are elements beyond the scope of this research but are considered as a reason and purpose for community based technology infused engagement points. 1.1

History and Future Needs

On the most basic level a work of art shares an idea, art galleries share collections of ideas, different towns or cities have different collections of galleries, regions and beyond all establish definitive and measurable inferences of how we all see the world differently, not only because of our independence, but the environments that influence us. “The number of basic colors depends largely on who you ask: a neurophysiologist, a psychologist, a painter, a philosopher, a photographer, a painter, a stage designer and a computer graphics expert will all have different answers” [1]. If all perspectives are original then it becomes critical to allow the viewer of art influence the art they are seeing. With recent advances in XR interfaces possibilities of interconnected communication and shared experiences can reach a new level for all humanity. 1.2

Simple and Scalable

Producing a low-cost interactive space from art galleries opens communities, both urban and rural, to an unattainable operating system. Everyday art viewers, local makers, artists, researchers, and community endeavors would all benefit from a space that reacted to their presence and reminded of the global perspective. As these spaces develop beyond simple art installations, they will evolve to collect measurable data that can influence or change environments in a different part of the world. Embracing the artistic exploration of experience design removes the limits sciences places on exploration and engages not only raw human interaction but the cultural, emotional, and openness imagination allows for. By releasing specific constructs researchers and designers are able to infer solutions that were previous not visible. Viewers entering an art gallery space could change what they are looking at. Based on the collapsing powers of experience all art is perceived as a unique documentation of a point in space and time, while in truth, art is not real until experienced. Acting as a founding principle to experience itself, it becomes critical to analyze and dissect experience through relative terms and if possible, through the quantifiable structures of bigdata and artificial intelligence processing. One art show experience connecting several art galleries throughout the world could be used as a metric to compare data produced by viewers in the space on an infinite level of complexity. The purpose comes back to the average community member being able to interact with a specific environment either controlled by or controlling how they interact in the space. This concept investigates physical

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environments, through virtual reality art galleries, to provide a constantly changing art experience. As a result this produces qualitative data charged with psychologic undertones based in spatial design.

2 Background The Intelligent Interior Design Framework (IIDF) Developed by Professor Holly Sowles [2] defines three domains, Smart Geometry, Information Modeling and Ambient Intelligence. Smart Geometry uses parametric or algorithms to create designs. Information Modeling uses integrated software to create kinetic deployable designs. Finally, Ambient Intelligence uses sensors that are activated through interaction and interfaces to provide non-obtrusive assistance. The vision for these SmArt Spaces utilizes all three of the IIDF domains [2]. 2.1

Experience Design

Experience design is the relationship we have with the world. We do not usually notice when an experience is well designed but we certainly notice when one is poorly designed. Often experience design is talked about in the realm of websites or applications, however experience design is all around us and covers many aspects of our lives. How we move through spaces or interact with our environment is often influenced by the design of that experience. 2.2

Environmental vs Digital Environments

As we engage with developing 5G technologies, the Web 3.0 or the Spatial Web, can start to come online. “The term “spatial” in the Spatial Web references how our future interfaces enable a web that extends beyond the screen to integrate and embed spatial content and interactions, facilitated by distributed computing, decentralized data, ubiquitous intelligence and ambient, persistent, edge computing [3]”.

The Spatial Web will enable an extended reality to permeate our physical reality and allow a blending of the physical and digital environments. When this happens our physical environments, or hardware will be activated by dimensions of information seen as the software overlay. Data blends the two worlds seamlessly and the results leave us wondering where the significance of experience resides. 2.3

Navigating Space or Space Navigating You

We navigate through space on a daily basis but do not consider how we are choosing to navigate or if we are really making decisions of how we navigate. The cartesian mind would infer we can move in relative terms to previous known positions. Descartes cogito, ergo sum, or I think therefore I am, leaves us with significance placed on experience in order to determine our own realities.

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Intentionally designed environments create a flow of movement through the space that guides our experience in the space. Even when making decisions about how we navigate, the way an environment is designed sets up the experience we will have in the space. Signage and wayfinding can direct us through a space but strategically placed interior elements and the use of ambient intelligence can drive an experience that seamlessly moves us through a space in an intentional way.

3 Evidence The primary form of evidence for this research begins with an experience designed art installation in the January 2020 at the Conley Art Gallery at California State University, Fresno. The purpose of the show provides the viewer with five experience driven art installations that challenges how we look at art on a wall in an art gallery. Attention to how we see rather than what we are looking at is worth questioning as all elements and events will be recorded and reviewable in the future altering our perceptions of time. The work has artistic merit with each work independently, but the whole experience of the space and who you share the space with matters just as much if not more. This is the first art space manipulation by the SIXhalf Artist Collective in order to develop SmArt Spaces as a community engagement point. The two contributing artists Robert Hagen and Glenn Terpstra produced the environment as a way to begin the discussion of what people expect from art galleries both locally and globally. 3.1

Perspectrum: A Human Eye Versus the Word [4]

Perspectrum is an artistic installation that places the viewer in a variety of environments intended to make them think twice about how and what they perceive as art in a gallery. Breaking the stereotype of framed work on a wall, this exhibit capitalizes on sensory experience to provide a new lens to understand the world around us. How we conduct ourselves in a community space has certain connotations and expectations that can be shifted when the anticipated environment is rewired or flipped upside down. This action encourages the same reflection on our current cancel culture and post-truth society. Though the work presented is deeply rooted in intelligent interiors research, the installations take advantage of the chaos and influence new technologies have on our current and future lives. Simultaneously each piece subtly questions what you had previously been looking at, due to a change of perspective. Micro/macro relations, moments of time, and the collapse of a superposition creates an environment worthy of slowing down, reflecting, and realizing the power held with perception. Showing installations and paintings in changing light drives a core theme of the exhibit, to encourage a shift in perspective, in order to better understand innate perceptions. By creating works that alter how we look at, hear or experience an idea, points to the significance of uniqueness and individuality. Each of us have a history of values and culture influencing our perceptions–realizing the wide range of perspectives is critical if we are to navigate the development of Artificial Intelligence and should be thought of as a spectrum over ones and zeros.

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Word Wall and a Full Range of Emotion

Being directed to the left upon entering the exhibit a viewer is faced with choice from the beginning, follow the flow or go right, ignoring signage and entering through the exit. Comprised of 19 triangle panels with screen printed words on them, this work is arranged by students at California State University, Fresno through a workshop held in the Conley gallery. Three teams of students collaborated to produce design proposals for the space and defended their experience designs to the group as a whole. The arrangement of the first six triangles represent stability and structure while the second arrangement of six triangles indicate stability is not guaranteed. Ultimately chaos consumes attempts of order as triangles randomly scattered through the space. This arrangement looks at the constant flux between order and chaos through physical arrangement of panels, constant lighting changes, and the directed experience by following the flow of the space. Each of these panels produce a unique collection of words, six colors have been chosen to represent six essential emotions, (Happy-Pink, Disgust-Green, SadnessViolet, Anger-Yellow, Fear-Blue, Orange-Surprise). The words chosen to print are synonyms of these six core words. When light matching the colors used for each emotion causes them to fade away and reveals alternative emotions. The interplay of words and emotions begins to question how different lighting can alter emotion and even influence experience. Once passing the installation, a reveal to the entirety of the galley gives the viewer a choice of navigation rather than a suggested path as experienced with the initial entrance. To the left is a sound installation intended to shift how we think of sound. This data driven work is comprised of recordings from Fresno, California sounds based on current environment conditions. the walls are white boxes with color changing circles and a five panel print installation. Centrally located is an interactive living installation with a motion responsive coffee table, and to the right is a wall of lenses looking through the wall of light from the first installation. At this point the viewer must reflect on which space to enter and react to the idea that others could have been watching their experience previously. 3.3

Small Worlds

The collection of paintings has been encased in white boxes mounted to the wall, small holes cut into the face of these boxes allows changing light to take the form of floating circles. When viewed from a distance it is hard to not compare the different worlds, though the details of these worlds can not be determined. When moving closer to any one world changes fixation from the series as a whole to an individual cluster of circles in one world. This transition forces the decision of what hole to look through that tends to lead to looking through an additional hole for comparison. The purity of curiosity drives a constant change to what is being viewed and in is the collapse of a superposition established prior to looking through one hole. This choice creates a singularity of perspective, observing a world that is still changing due to the light within the box. It is hard to put a limit to which hole is looked through, but if this was the case, using technology could provide more information than is

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observable with the naked eye. Placing a smartphone camera to one of these holes could reveal the entirety of any painting with a wide-angle lens. Taking a photo of one of these tinyworlds would flatten the observable reality and represent a moment of time for that world. Sharing this world on social media is an entirely different mechanism all together and is a launching point for new interpretations and experience beyond gallery spaces. Technology is seen as a great equalizer and seeing in these boxes can be enhanced through the use of a digital advantage. According to principles of universal design, this work would fail greatly due to limitations of access. This is intentional as a means to reflect on what is not accessible to all requires mechanisms of equalizations in how we interact with our environments. Making all things accessible helps all to access them. The paintings within these boxes have several layers of color that shift how the world is viewed and imply the quantum nature of the world around us. Because the worlds are in constant flux the color theory of the painting results in different layers coming forward and going backward, activating an otherwise stagnant environment. The layers of paint and the chaotic nature of application reflect on the post impressionists, but through the lens of an RGB LED world of light over natural light. Lighting has the ability to adjust experience and can greatly impact how one interprets that experience. It is critical to reflect on the impact exposure to unnatural lights from our devices and screens both physically and psychologically. 3.4

Listening

Audio visual artist Robert Hagen continues with describing the next environment altering installation, Listening is a dynamic composition and musical space that draws upon live data streams retrieved from Fresno itself and programming methods to create an ever-changing music. Lacking motivic, melodic, or harmonic structure, Listening is driven purely by Fresno as a community, a city, and the layers of data that comprise it. The sound of Listening is always unique from day to day and moment to moment - each moment unrepeatable. Here you can listen to Fresno, the nearby seismic activity, the humidity, the quality of the air, the direction of the wind, the sounds of the San Joaquin River. Listening invites the listener to meditate in a space which reflects its exterior. The outside is brought in, creating an ambient intelligence that asks the listener to listen wholly and look inwards [4].

The sound field is constantly generating new waves of auditory exploration and provides a space that alters how you can use your ears for new ways of interpretation. The deep blue and violet fabric walls dampen external sounds and allow the listener to not be distracted by visuals but rather focus on the sound field produced by eight hanging speakers and two subwoofers. A rich neon violet rope light illuminates the end of the room, activating the fabrics and mimicking the rhythm of the San Joaquin River, where the installation sounds originate from. Fluctuations of the various source samples depend on actual input data from nature surrounding Fresno, California. This experience produces new ways to interpret this data and paints an auditory picture of how these sounds come together. If the weather outside the gallery is uncomfortable the sounds in the installation reflect this discomfort. If there were to be

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an earthquake the seismic readings as an input to the installation would force an audio output reflecting this extreme intensity with loud rumbling. 3.5

Living

Creating an environment where a viewer can fantasize about the future technology is possible with motion sensing cameras that change the content of your physical experience. Hagen continues to explain, Living envisions the coffee table book of an unknown future - one that is perhaps human, or perhaps enhanced by AI, sentient computing, or other advanced robotics. In a broken modernity where devices and tech serve as walls between people, Living presents an interactive and intelligent screen which encourages people to gather together. Gesture and space are intuitive and expansive in rooms that have awareness of their designers and guests. Sustainable and intelligent design can improve and enhance daily life without being novel in the extreme. Smart furniture may reinvent the former centerpieces of a home such as the dining table and television but Living also questions the necessity of the coffee table book and other excesses of materialism. [4].

3.6

Levelalls

This series of 5 prints comes from an 8”  10” painting and shows how scale, medium, and reproduction changes interpretation. The subject matter shows the last scramble for resources experienced by the Levelalls who inhabit earth in the future. Waste left behind by humans, has till this point, proved to be a valuable energy supply and is now running out. The mass chaos that occurs symbolize the over-saturation of content we experience today. Tones of magenta plague the environment and tie the space and time back to our current attention seeking culture. Using magenta is crucial to the exhibit as a whole because of the short circuiting that happens in our brains in order to see this color. Red, Blue, and Green cones in our eyes produce a good range of hue for us to understand our environments but, on an electromagnetic level, the frequency for a magenta color struggles to exist within our visible spectrum. This is a lie our brains fabricate to suggest a circular connection of the colors we experience but has a greater impact with the creation of RGB LEDs. Breaking this painting up into five distinct prints isolates the content of the whole and allows for deconstruction of an otherwise overwhelming environment. 3.7

Results

The designed space of the Perspectrum exhibit provides several real-world case examples worthy of exploring further, such as how people view work or generating a heatmap of viewer movements. Determining universal design principals can help ensure accessibility to all experiences equally, or at a minimum help determine where some sticking points arise in spatial design or designed environments. When we think of art spaces, they tend to be made of art on a wall or podium, when in reality the spaces tend to be designed to manage movement of the viewer between these points. Considering how one engages with an element is just as significant as the element itself and why this research will continue to determine how people interact with space.

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4 Connections How we see the world and navigate daily challenges is mostly done without thinking. When a gallery space is predictable it becomes formulaic, leading to an inefficient mechanism for an artist to share their work. We are inundated with visual stimulus from the moment we wake to sleep and do not consider what this does to our actions and way of life. Moving screens closer and closer to our eyes will lead to the point of transition, where the content is within us and we no longer share what we are looking at. 4.1

Theory to Model

Beyond this dark interpretation, it is significant to research how we move through physical environments and question how people would interact with a space they can control. Ideally there is a dualism of an art exhibit where physically movable elements of various sizes act as markers within the space and can be arranged by all who visit the space. By moving these elements in the physical space, a virtual gallery of the space would change as a result. This may not seem significant, but the process begins to show threads of a double blind study. Giving people permission to move art frees the constructs of a gallery space and since it is in the name of art, more liberty and subliminal intuitions come to the surface. An art space as a data collecting interactive hub of digital program development would save time and money for XR by moving prototype development to an improved starting point based on the highly authentic data driven results. 4.2

Conclusions

The ending of this research is the beginning of a new chapter, the results are still being processed and will continue to evolve over time. The ultimate take away is that people strive for community discussion and forgotten art galleries could solve an endless array of problems for a multitude of situations. Considering the great things an artist makes on a miniscule budget, give artists access to good tech and the digital synthesis of neighborhoods will naturally follow.

References 1. Elkins, J.: How to Use Your Eyes, p. 202. Routledge, New York (2000) 2. Sowles, H.M.: Distributed knowledge in interior design: an emerging theory for the future of intelligent interior design. Doctoral dissertation, Washington State University (2016) 3. Rene, G., Mapes, D.: In the Spatial Web: How Web 3.0 Will Connect Humans, Machines, and AI to Transform the World (2019) 4. Hagen, R.J., Terpstra, G.A.: Perspectrum: A Human Eye Versus the Word, California State University Fresno, Fresno, CA (2020). www.sixhalfstudios.com/perspectrum

Health and Wellbeing Applications

Lokahi: The Wearable Body Pillow to Foster an Intimate Interaction Between Two Users Through Their Heartbeat Awareness (B) ¨ Beste Ozcan

and Valerio Sperati

Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, National Research Council of Italy ISTC-CNR, Rome, Italy {beste.ozcan,valerio.sperati}@istc.cnr.it

Abstract. We present the design concept Lokahi: a soft, interactive, wearable device which aims to promote a pleasant, intimate closeness sensation between two people. Its shape is designed to encourage hugging, while the embedded electronics –through pulsating coloured lights– lets the users to visualise their own heartbeats, so that they are aware of each other’s current affective state. Lights hues mix according to the synchronisation of the two heartbeats, possibly producing a single hue: such shared visual feedback can potentially be used in relaxing and meditative exercises, where two people try to synch their own heartbeats. Keywords: Bio-feedback

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· Intimacy · Design · Well-being

Introduction

We were designed to be emphatic, to emotionally connect with each others. Sharing an affection for other individuals is a feature deeply grounded in our human nature, and makes us feel like part of a group [22]. Social interaction is consequently a very crucial feature of our species: through emotions, Man interprets and understands the circumstances and the interactions with his own kind [11]. Emotional competencies are then critical for our behavior, as they convey information about people’s thoughts and intentions and coordinate social encounters [13]. From the viewpoint of a product designer, such issues can be very important when conceiving an idea. In particular, designing a product for engaging social interactions, and at the same time furnishing emotional experiences to users, is a really challenging task. Indeed, the affective information is still not much considered in the design perspective [17], while it is clear that experience-based interaction involving emotions is becoming a more and more important issue, especially in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) field [2]. New technologies can be exploited in this regard: for example, sensors for detection of physiological parameters (e.g. Heart Rate Variability or Electrodermal Activity) started to be embedded in smart clothes, like t-shirts or wristbands, mainly for use in sport c Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020  C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 421–429, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_54

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Fig. 1. On left, the front view of Lokahi; on right, the device used during a hug: the two pockets host two sensors detecting the heartbeats of the partners, displayed by the blue and red pulsating lights (respectively for first and second partner). (Color figure online)

activities or health monitoring [16]. Interestingly, such devices provide data that can also be used to detect the affective states of the user [21]: communicating emotions through wearable technology can potentially introduce new approaches to social interaction, and enhance the human body’s role in mediating the communication. Designers could take an advantage of such technologies and conceive new ways of physical interactions and experiences between “smart” products and their users [10]. Although the advances in technology can provide new means for enhancing social communication, we should not forget that humans are beings that relate to external world through senses. The current work mostly focuses on the sensation of intimacy and social connectedness, relying on the senses of touch and sight. About the first, we mainly look at the importance of a fundamental human gesture: an intimate hug. Through hugging, people have a close physical contact characterised by a rich haptic feedback. Touch not only functions for identifying an object but also plays a major role in social interaction [21]. From the very first stage of the human beings touch sense exists to experience and express emotions [15]. Psychological studies show that touching has an important affect in emotional development for both infants and adults too [4]. Since touch is an intimate way of communication and emotional expression, it is crucial in interpersonal relationships [20]. Therefore, it can work as a therapeutic tool making people experience positive and calm feeling which reduces anxiety [8]. In this paper we present Lokahi, an interactive, wearable body pillow designed to enhance the feeling of closeness between two partners (see Fig. 1). Its shape is meant to encourage an intimate hug, during which embedded coloured lights pulsate at the rhythm of users’ heartbeat. We propose that such combined haptic

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and visual feedback can potentially create a deep emotional connection in people, facilitating relaxing and soothing sensations. We call this positive experience cofeeling, which means experiencing to feel together. In the next 3 sections we firstly overview related works on technologies promoting social connectedness, then we describe the current Lokahi prototype, and finally we discuss and suggest potential scenarios for the use of the device.

2

Related Works

The research on perceived social connectedness by means of technological applications is a relatively new field of study. The proposed ideas are often based on the detection and sharing of important physiological signals. For example in [14] the authors developed imPulse, a device which senses the user’s heartbeat and translates it into a pleasant pulsating light and a vibration; if a second user is present with his own device, the two units get wirelessly connected and the visual and haptic feedback are shared, so that the partners are aware about the internal status of each other. Authors propose the use of imPulse for meditative moments between people at distance. A similar idea was investigated in [19], where authors observed the effect of Heart Rate (HR) feedback on social perception: in this study couples of participants wearing an heartbeat chest belt shared the HR information of each other -through visual or aural feedback from a connected laptop- reporting pleasant feelings of connectedness, especially when there was a physical distance between them. The explicit synchronisation between users of emotionally relevant informations was observed in the social game SinKin [23]: here two facing players were equipped with sensors measuring brain, heart and electrodermal activities, while a cam detected their facial expressions. All this data, available to users on a display, were then combined into a single, general measure of emotional syncronisation between players. As reported by authors, people found very amusing and engaging the activity and -interestingly- called it as Friendship Game. Although emotion-based bio-signals are clearly very important in such type of studies, feelings of togetherness can be conveyed even through simpler sensory feedback, as shown in the design concept The Hug, meant to keep alive the social relationships of elderly people [5]: this is an interactive pillow, the shape of which encourages the gesture of hugging. When a user embraces and pets it, the information is wirelessly transmitted to a twin device in the hands of a second, far user. The receiver pillow starts then to vibrate softly and to slowly warm up, creating a pleasant perception of emotional closeness between users across distance. With respect to the previous concepts, Lokahi aims to enhance the intimate interaction between two people who are actually in physical contact, combining the haptic feedback inherent to hugging, and a visual feedback (pulsating lights) reflecting the users heartbeats and their synchronisation.

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Design of the First Prototype

The design of Lokahi for user experience impacts what kind of feelings become shareable, how they can be shared and how others can respond to these shared experiences. Persuasive design of the product influences positive behaviors such as encouraging two people to hug each other. This positive touch can relieve negative effect and evoke pleasure [6]. Another design affordance of the product to promote pleasurable touch is having soft, furry material: Harlow states in his experimental studies with monkeys that soft, fluffy things provide a sense of security and comfort [9].

Fig. 2. On left: in a room with dim light, the pulse of lights on Lokahi are clearly visible to both users; on right, Lokahi can also be used as a separate object, and placed in the middle of a couple.

Lokahi is a kind of soft, interactive and wearable body pillow, which lets two users visualise their own heartbeat –through synchronised pulsating lights– and promotes an intimate hug between users (see Fig. 2, left). They can see, hear, touch and talk during a hug, so they become human interfaces to interact with each other. As an interdisciplinary project combining design, engineering, and psychology, it is expected to experiment positive effects of physical closeness through touch (intended as hugging) and heartbeat visualisation. Two pulsating lights, embedded in transparent silicone shapes displaced on the sides of the device, display blue and red colors, respectively for the first and second users. The pace of pulse mirrors the users heartbeats. During a hug (or similar personal circumstance, as staying on the same bed, see Fig. 2, right), if the same heartbeats rhythm is detected by the pillow, the two colors mix into a unique magenta shade1 . Sharing this intimate experience can potentially provide calming, trusting, affection effect between two users. 3.1

Hardware Specifications

The device is based on the principle of photoplethysmography (PPG), a noninvasive technique to measure the blood volume variations in tissues using a light 1

See supplementary video material at link https://vimeo.com/427703690.

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source and a detector. Since the change in blood volume is synchronous to the heartbeat, this method can be used to detect the heart rate. Two PPG sensors (or pulse oximeters) are embedded within two Lokahi pouches, where users can put their index fingertip. Power is supplied by a rechargeable 3.7V LiPo battery. Lights are implemented with a single addressable LED strip composed by 10 LEDs (5 per each sensor); lights are diffused through a silicone shape. A custom PCB hosts an ATmega328 chip and the electronic circuit (adapted from [7]). Each PPG sensor is implemented assembling a standard red LED (as a light emitter) and a standard IR detector (as a signal detector) in a thimble-like structure, where the user’s index fingertip can be hosted. 3.2

Signals Filtering

Given the hardware features, each pulse oximeter reports a raw, continuous PPG value x close to 8002 when a heartbeat is detected, and close to 0 otherwise, producing then a cyclic square wave. We then transformed x in a binary value y through a step function:  1, if x > 750 (1) y= 0, otherwise Filtering y through a Leaky integrator function with temporal parameter τ = 4 [1] we obtained a signal u: 1 (−ut−1 + yt ) (2) τ Equation 2 produces a smooth value in [0, 1] which gently increases when y = 1 and gradually leaks a small amount when y = 0 (see Fig. 3). Given that Lokahi presents two pulse oximeters, we have two signals denoted as ua and ub respectively for the user a and the user b. ut = ut−1 +

3.3

Synchronisation Computation

In order to compute a signal s reflecting a synchronisation between data ua and ub , we first computed the mean squared error (MSE) between two vectors containing the last L = 100 values of ua and ub . Since sensors are updated each 20 ms, the vectors contain data for two seconds3 MSE will be close to 0 if the two heartbeats data are equal, and positive otherwise, with greater and greater value as the signals increase their difference. We normalised the obtained value in [0, 1], fixing an arbitrary maximum threshold α = 0.4 observed when the two signals are reasonably different4 . Formally s is then computing with the following equation: 2 3 4

Analog inputs on ATmega328 range in [0, 1023]. The current value of L was set to 100 due to memory limits of the chip. This was done generating random noise on both sensors.

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Fig. 3. Signals visualisation (screenshot from Arduino serial plotter): red and blue lines represent the heartbeats of two wearers (after filtering), i.e. ua and ub ; green line represents the sync value. In this example, noisy signals were deliberately generated by a single user (who played the role of both partners) simply moving the fingers within the sensors; around step 9200 fingers were then correctly arranged and heartbeats were revealed. As shown, the sync signal properly computes the matching between ua and ub values. (Color figure online)

 s=1−

 L 1  a 1 (un − ubn )2 · L n=1 α

(3)

Given the Eq. 3 the variable s will be close to 1 when users heartbeats will be equal (i.e synchronised), and will reach 0 when signals are reasonably different. In order to have a synchronisation value with a smooth temporal development, we computed a moving average of s in the last L steps, obtaining smov . Variables smov , ua and ub were then used to select the hue and intensity of the two light effectors5 , for user a and user b, namely colour ua and colour ub : ⎧ ⎧ a a ⎪ ⎪ ⎨red = u ⎨red = smov · u a b colour u = green = 0 (4) colour u = green = 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎩ b b blue = smov · u blue = u

Fig. 4. Red and blue lights pulse respectively with heartbeats of users a and b. The two lights turn to magenta hue when heartbeat synchronisation between users is detected, otherwise individual colors are maintained. (Color figure online) 5

LEDs hue is based on three values in [0, 1] respectively for red, green and blue.

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Equation 4 make the two effectors light up respectively in red and blue hue, according to the heartbeats signals. However, according to the synchronisation signal intensity, blue and red can be mixed to produce a magenta colour (see Fig. 4).

4

Conclusion and Future Work

We presented Lokahi, the wearable body pillow designed to provide an intimate, emotional experience of closeness between two people. Its simple shape with two pockets and soft material which is pleasant to touch encourage positive behaviors such as hugging or lying down to calming together. Through embedded electronics, Lokahi displays to the users their heartbeats, through pulsating coloured lights which are synchronised with their heart rates. Furthermore, the device computes the level of synchronisation between users signals and mixes the lights shades accordingly. We hypothesize that these visual feedback –along with the haptic feedback due to hugging– can potentially create a close, interactive loop between users, resulting in a shared experience characterized by intimacy and deep connection (“Lokahi” means harmony and balance in Hawaiian language). We call this positive experience as co-feeling which means experiencing to feel together. The logic behind our supposition is that such feedback are directly in touch with a (philosophically) meaningful, essential process of life itself: the beats of one’s own heart. In the next research step, we plan to experiment Lokahi on pairs of people, with two main purposes. First, we want to test our design hypothesis and see –through an evaluation of emotional involvement of participants– if Lokahi helps to develop a better social interaction between people (with possible potential benefits on the treatment of neurodevelopmental conditions involving social impairments like Autism Spectrum Disorders [3]). As a second purpose, we want to see to what extent users manage to synchronise their heartbeats, during meditation exercises. This last point is particularly relevant for scientific research on biofeedback: it is well known in fact that heart rate can be voluntarily influenced if the right feedback is furnished and that such awareness can have positive effects on well-being [12,18]. Acknowledgments. This paper was funded by Regione Lazio, project +me: motivating children with autism spectrum disorders to communicate and socially interact through interactive soft wearable devices (Progetto di Gruppo di Ricerca finanziato ai sensi della L.R. Lazio 13/08).

References 1. Abbott, L.F., Dayan, P.: Theoretical Neuroscience: Computational and Mathematical Modeling of Neural Systems. MIT Press Ltd., Cambridge (2001)

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2. Blythe, M.A., Overbeeke, K., Monk, A.F., Wright, P.C. (eds.): Funology: from Usability to Enjoyment, vol. 3. Springer, Dordrecht (2005). https://doi.org/10. 1007/1-4020-2967-5 3. Boucenna, S., et al.: Interactive technologies for autistic children: a review. Cognit. Comput. 6(4), 722–740 (2014) 4. Bush, E.: The use of human touch to improve the well-being of older adults. A holistic nursing intervention. J. Holist. Nurs. 19(3), 256–270 (2001) 5. DiSalvo, C., Gemperle, F., Forlizzi, J., Montgomery, E.: The hug: an exploration of robotic form for intimate communication. In: 2003 2003. Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, ROMAN 2003, Millbrae, CA, USA, pp. 403–408. IEEE (2003) 6. Ellingsen, D.M., Leknes, S., Løseth, G., Wessberg, J., Olausson, H.: The neurobiology shaping affective touch: expectation, motivation, and meaning in the multisensory context. Front. Psychol. 6, 1986 (2016) 7. Embedded Lab: Introducing Easy Pulse: A DIY Photoplethysmographic Sensor For Measuring Heart Rate (2012). https://bit.ly/2At0V5v 8. Gallace, A., Spence, C.: The science of interpersonal touch: an overview. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 34(2), 246–259 (2010) 9. Harlow, H.F., Zimmerman, R.R.: Affectional responses in the infant monkey. Science 130(3373), 421–432 (1959) 10. H¨ oo ¨k, K.: Knowing, communicating, and experiencing through body and emotion. IEEE Trans. Learn. Technol. 1(4), 248–259 (2008) 11. Lazarus, R., Lazarus, B.: Passion and Reason: Making Sense of Our Emotions. Oxford University Press, New York (1994) 12. Lehrer, P.M., Gevirtz, R.: Heart rate variability biofeedback: How and why does it work? Front. Psychol. 5, 756 (2014) 13. Lopes, P.N., Brackett, M.A., Nezlek, J.B., Sch¨ utz, A., Sellin, I., Salovey, P.: Emotional intelligence and social interaction. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 30(8), 1018–1034 (2004) 14. Lotan, G., Croft, C.: imPulse. In: CHI 2007 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems - CHI 2007, p. 1983 (2007) 15. Montagu, A.: Touching: The Human Significance of the Skin. William Morrow Paperbacks, 3 edn. (1986) 16. Nag, A., Mukhopadhyay, S.C.: Wearable electronics sensors: current status and future opportunities. In: Mukhopadhyay, S.C. (ed.) Wearable Electronics Sensors. SSMI, vol. 15, pp. 1–35. Springer, Cham (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3319-18191-2 1 17. Overbeeke, K., Djajadiningrat, T., Hummels, C., Wensvveen, S., Frens, J.: Let’s Make Things Engaging. In: Blythe, M.A., Overbeeke, K., Monk, A.F., Wright, P.C. (eds.) Funology: from Usability to Enjoyment, chap. 1, pp. 7–17. Springer, Dordrecht (2005) 18. Schoenberg, P.L.A., David, A.S.: Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review. Appl. Psychophysiol. Biofeedback 39(2), 109–135 (2014) 19. Slovak, P., Janssen, J., Fitzpatrick, G.: Understanding heart rate sharing: towards unpacking physiosocial space. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2012), New York, NY, USA, pp. 859–868. ACM (2012) 20. Thayer, S.: History and strategies of research on social touch. J. Nonverbal Behav. 10(1), 12–28 (1986)

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21. U˘ gur, S.: Wearing Embodied Emotions: A Practice Based Design Research on Wearable Technology. Springer, Mailand (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-88470-5247-5 22. de Vignemont, F., Singer, T.: The empathic brain: how, when and why? Trends Cogn. Sci. 10(10), 435–441 (2006) 23. Wikstr¨ om, V., Makkonen, T., Saarikivi, K.: SynKin: a game for intentionally synchronizing biosignals. In: CHI EA 2017 Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 3005–3011. ACM (2017)

Strong Stimulation with Virtual Reality Treatment for Acrophobia and Its Evaluation Su Chang1(&) and Makio Ishihara2 1

Graduate School of Computer Science and Engineering, Fukuoka Institute of Technology, 30-3-1, Wajiro-Higashi, Higashi-Ku, Fukuoka 811-0295, Japan [email protected] 2 Fukuoka Institute of Technology, 30-3-1, Wajiro-Higashi, Higashi-Ku, Fukuoka 811-0295, Japan [email protected]

Abstract. This manuscript discusses an acrophobia treatment procedure using virtual reality of VR technology and conducts a pilot experiment on feasibility. The core of our treatment produce is a exposure therapy with a strong shock. In our treatment produce, patients wear a head-mounted display or HMD and they are left on the top of a mountain in a virtual space. They are given five minutes to find a way down the mountain and only a way down is to jump off. There are some artifacts for them to do that by themselves. A strong stimulation is given to the patients at the moment of jumping. The experiment results show that our treatment procedure demonstrates the potential for alleviating acrophobia and a stronger stimulation is acceptable for alleviating acrophobia. Keywords: Pilot experiment reality  Acrophobia

 Shock treatment  Exposure therapy  Virtual

1 Introduction About the treatment of acrophobia, now the common treatment for acrophobia is exposure therapy, the core of which is to make patients repeatedly face the scene and things they are afraid of and stimulate them constantly so that they adapt to the stimulation. Finally, they feel numb and insensitive to the things they are afraid of. So the reality treatment requires professional guidance and facilities [1]. Our treatment is performed with virtual reality technology and lets subjects experience the feeling of falling from the height instead of just walking and watching in a virtual space. The core idea of our treatment is strong stimulation. The preliminary experiment result [2] shows that adding some powerful stimulation of fear may have a certain positive effect in treating acrophobia and the aim of this manuscript is to evaluate it. In our treatment procedure, subjects are allowed to move freely on a very high mountain with a lot of open space as watching waterfalls and lightning, listening to howling of the wind and thunder. This surrounding noise could distract the subjects from suffering from fear of height so that they could have little burden of jumping off the mountain top. It results in making them feel smug and find confidence in chance of alleviating acrophobia. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 C. Stephanidis et al. (Eds.): HCII 2020, CCIS 1294, pp. 430–435, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60703-6_55

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2 Related Work If people adopt a method of virtual reality technology for acrophobia treatment, the treatment just completes in a closed room without any professional guidance and facilities but the effect of the treatment is not obvious [3]. However, most VR treatment techniques are limited to specific mobile routes and specific treatment methods such as taking sightseeing elevators, flying in the sky and so on. Their stimulation to patients is smooth without any fluctuation [4]. In addition, there are many different ways to move in a VR space for acrophobia treatment such as use of whole-body movement, use of hand controllers, or moving along the established route without any operating procedures and the survey [5] found that use of whole-body movement made patients feel more involved while it did them feel dizziness about VR, having them only operate with the controller. In our VR environment, patients will receive stimuli with strong fluctuations and the way to move is diversified. The hand controller is combined with use of the whole-body movement.

3 Experiment 3.1

Our VR System

Our system runs on a Windows10 desktop powered by UNITY 3D and an HTC-Vive system, which provides subjects with an immersive VR environment. Figure 1 shows the HMD view from the virtual world. From left to right is a panoramic view of the virtual world, the subject’s view from the edge of the mountain, and the view after landing. The VR space is set in a natural environment of 10 km2, among which the highest peak is set at about 80 m. The subject stands at the top in the beginning and he/she is asked to find the way down the mountain in 5 min. The subject finally finds that there is no way down the mountain except for jumping down the mountain in a tight time, during which the subject is greatly shocked. If subjects choose to use the controller, they will use the HTC handle to operate: the round button on the slide handle to move in the direction.

Fig. 1. HMD view from the virtual world

3.2

Procedure

Eighteen patients with severe acrophobia are chosen as subjects through the acrophobia questionnaire introduced in [6]. They are divided into two groups of A and B. The group A performs our treatment procedure and it takes about three minutes once a week

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for four weeks. The group B performs a simple reality treatment procedure about three minutes once a week for four weeks as well. The subjects in the group B just simply look down from the top of an eight-story building over the window frame. All the subjects from the two groups are asked to take the acrophobia test and the acrophobia questionnaire to assess the level of acrophobia before and after the given four-week treatment procedure. For the test, the subjects are asked to look down from a high-rise building and their biological data is obtained for assessment. When people are nervous and afraid, their heart rate will increase and their ECG rhythm will become irregular [7]. The change of heart rate (beat per minute or BPM) and the balance (LF/HF) of low frequency (LF) to high frequency (HF), which is represented by Eq. (1), are used to estimate the level of acrophobia: R 0:15HZ LF=HF ¼ R0:04HZ 0:40HZ 0:15HZ

f ðkÞdk f ðkÞdk

;

ð1Þ

where f ðkÞ is the power spectrum at the given frequency k for the obtained RRI. 3.3

Acrophobia Questionnaire [6]

The questionnaire is designed to determine whether the subjects have acrophobia and its level of acrophobia. At the beginning, this questionnaire will ask some simple questions, such as do you feel afraid if you stand tall in your life, do your heart rate increase, etc. These questions are used to screen the subjects for acrophobia, and the next stage of the problem is to identify their level of acrophobia. There are 13 levels and the most severe is 13. People with severe acrophobia will have a level of nine or more.

4 Result Table 1 is the comparison results between the two groups of A and B. Figure 2 and Fig. 3 show the mean change in BPM and mean change in the balance before and after the treatment in group A and B. The results show that there is little change in BPM before and after treatment in two groups and there is no significant difference on it. As regards the balance, there is significant change for group A before and after treatment ½tð8Þ ¼ 4:750 at p\:05 and the group B does not show any significance.

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Table 1. Experiment results Items Group A Group B Mean of changes in BPM −2.2 −1.9 LF/HF before treatment 2.95 ± 0.93 2.95 ± 0.97 LF/HF after treatment 2.10 ± 1.26 2.61 ± 0.65 Mean of change in LF/HF −0.98 −0.2

Fig. 2. Mean change in BPM

*

* : p 0.1. Also shown in Fig. 3, there were similar effects of the message segment in the older age group. In the older group, there was a main effect of the message segment on the mean performance, F(3, 47) = 30.249, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.673. Posthoc comparisons (Bonferroni) found that the main effect of the message segment was driven by significant differences between Call Sign (M = 0.59) and Type (M = 0.78) with Location (M = 1.37), as well as Call Sign with Intention (M = 1.15), p < 0.05. There was no significant difference between Intention and Location, nor with Type and Call Sign, p > 0.1 For each message segment, paired t-tests were conducted to examine the effect of age on SA. The strongest effect of age was seen for Type, such that lower SA scores were seen in the older (M = 0.78) as compared to younger participants (M = 1.18),

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Fig. 3. Mean situation awareness performance

t(5) = 9.83, p < .001. Similar negative effects of age were seen for Call Sign and Location, p < 0.05. In contrast, there was no significant effect of age for intention p > .1. 3.2

Linguistic Analyses

Pitch. A Univariate ANOVA revealed an overall effect of the message segment on the average pitch, F(3, 47) = 2.894, p < 0.046, η2p = 0.165. Posthoc analyses (Bonferroni) revealed that the average pitch of Type (M = 39 Hz) was significantly higher than that of Call Sign (M = 21 Hz), p = 0.043. Similarly, the average pitch for Type was higher than that of Location (M = 24.21), p = 0.08. Intensity. A Univariate ANOVA revealed an overall marginal effect of the message segment on the average intensity, F(3, 47) = 2.473, p < 0.074, η2p = 0.144. Posthoc analyses (Bonferroni) revealed that this effect was produced by greater intensity for Call Sign (M = 30.93 dB) as compared to Intention (M = 18 dB), p = 0.076. 3.3

ERP Analyses

The neural responses to repeated tone stimuli were investigated to understand how age affects the processing of auditory information during flight. An ERP analysis examined the allocation of neural resources for earlier auditory processing in older and younger pilots in the primary auditory cortices. The ERSP, using an ICA dipole fitting method, investigated tone-related perturbation in the parietal regions. Auditory Cortex Tone Processing. Figure 4 illustrates the average ERP linked to the onset of the tones for both age groups in the left and right primary auditory cortex. In the left primary auditory cortex, there was no significant difference in the processing of the tone at any latency. We also see that in the right primary auditory cortex, there is a

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significant (p < 0.05) difference in the processing of the tone at the P200 such that older pilots have greater neural responses at this point at this stage in processing.

Fig. 4. Auditory cortex ERPs in the left (left ERP) and right cortex (right ERP).

ERSP. The ICA dipole fitting found there to be clusters of activity in the left parietal region. In Fig. 5. we see that around 250–300 ms there is greater neural activity in the younger participants that is greater than that of the older participants. This points to later-tonal processing along the auditory processing pipeline. The younger participants (see Fig. 5), in the beta range (20–25) show dedicated energy being put in tonal processing in which we do not see as intense in the aging group’s data.

Fig. 5. ERP (left image) and ERSP (right image) at the left parietal region. The far-right image illustrates areas where age differences in the ERSP were observed (red cells are p < 0.05).

4 Discussion The present research investigated age-effects of linguistic processing on situation awareness in pilots. It was hypothesized that older pilots would have lower situation awareness scores than younger pilots. Additionally, higher pitch was predicted to have a negative effect on pilot performance. Finally, tone-processing was expected to produce greater neuronal activation in earlier than in later cognitive auditory processing. The first hypothesis, that older pilots would perform worse on SA tasks, was supported by the findings. These results are consistent with the aging literature. Bolstad [5] found that SA performance scores, in non-aviation related tasks, were lower for older individuals. In a similar analysis, Van Benthem, Enouy, and Herdman [9] also found that mental models based on auditory information were less robust in older aviators, although this age effect was attenuated by having greater recent flight hours.

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Significant effects of the message segment were found on SA performance in both age groups, such that the Type and Call Sign scores were significantly lower than scores for Location. Linguistic analyses supported the second hypothesis, in that the message segment, Type, had a strikingly higher overall pitch than the other segments and illustrated the greatest differentiating performance results between pilot age groups. The impact of pitch suggests that message segments with higher pitch may disadvantage older pilots, since higher pitch is known to reduce auditory processing in older adults. The ERP analyses showed that in the left primary auditory cortex, there were no significant differences in processing of tones. However, in the right primary auditory cortex there was a significant difference between groups at P200 such that older pilots showed greater neural responses at this stage of processing. These results could be associated with hemispheric lateralization of speech versus tone processing in the auditory cortex [10]. The ERSP analysis showed clusters of activity in the left parietal region in the younger participants that was greater than the activity of the older participants, pointing to age-related alterations in later stages of the auditory processing pipeline.

5 Conclusion The results of this study suggest that there can be processing issues in the auditory processing pipeline. These processing issues can lead to critical issues related to processing radio messages and transforming these messages into aspects of mental models. The greatest effect seemed to be that higher pitch was linked with less accurate SA in older pilots. The findings of this research contribute to efforts investigating the role of aging in flight performance. Ideally, the findings can inform the development of technology and resources to address pilot safety

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Author Index

Abhilasha II-214 Abich IV, Julian II-253 Abrahão Amaral, Marília I-3 Agostini, Lucas Barreiro I-109 Akhter, Rabia II-509 Akinyema, Adekunle II-450 Albayram, Yusuf I-116 AlBeeshi, Aalya II-3 Alghamdi, Abdullah II-18 Alhowaiti, Maryam II-10 Alhudaithi, Mohammad II-18 Almahmoud, Elaf II-3 Almahmoud, Elham II-3 Almohaimeed, Fatimah II-10 Alosaimi, Nawara II-3 Alqadi, Reem II-10 Alsabban, Mawaddah II-10 Alshammari, Hind II-3 Alshangiti, Abdullah II-18 Alsharbi, Bayan M. II-289 AlSharif, Sara I-438 Amin, Devansh I-116 Andrievskaia, Polina II-521 Ankyu, Eriko II-127 Apostolakis, Konstantinos C. II-137 Arima, Shun II-529 Arntz, Alexander I-299 Attwood, Sue I-77 Bae, Yohan I-47 Ballestas, Marlene I-167 Barrera, Alonso I-167 Barz, Arthur II-633 Bastos, Thiago II-86 Beauvisage, Thomas I-308 Becks, Daniela I-62 Bigné, Enrique I-394 Biocca, Frank II-575 Bishwakarma, Sudeep I-359 Bizzego, Andrea I-402 Blekanov, Ivan S. I-262 Bodrunova, Svetlana S. I-262 Borno, Md. Sirajuddin II-165 Braman, James I-359

Cao, Lijuan II-464 Carbonara, Giuseppe II-538 Carvajal-Gámez, Blanca E. II-25 Carvalho, Anna II-86 Castelini, Pricila I-3 Castellano, Andrea II-538 Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A. II-464 Chambers, Joseph II-343 Chang, Su II-430 Chau, Tom II-39, II-51 Chen, An-Che II-545 Chen, Chun-Wen II-352 Cheng, Hsin-liang I-288 Chikai, Manabu I-123 Chiu, Jen-I II-259, II-319 Choi, John Y. J. II-281 Chung, Yunsu I-129 Coffey, John I-134 Colclough, Michael I-359 Conrad, Jan II-633 Contreras-Martínez, Adrián II-25 Costa, Afonso II-145 Cui, Hong I-288 Cunha, Jácome I-176 Currie, Anne I-77 Dahiya, Abhishek I-11 Dai, Xinyue II-442 Dankwa, Nana Kesewaa II-32 Dayrit, Beatrice II-221 Dias, José I-176 Dias, Roger D. I-402 Diaz, Sergio II-538 Do, Eunchae I-217 Dodiya, Janki II-585 Dong, Jeyoun I-129 Dong, Yu II-189 Eimler, Sabrina C. I-299 Enghoff, August E. II-375 Espinoza Méndez, Edgar Marcelo II-359 Espinoza, Albert II-436 Esposito, Gianluca I-402 Esteban, Charlotte I-308

648

Author Index

Estiyak, Fahim II-165 Eugene, Wanda I-19 Falk, Michael II-553 Fan, Da-wei II-367 Fan, Howard I-184 Farinas, Edgardo T. II-173 Farzana, Walia II-39, II-51 Febryandi II-79 Feng, Chia-Hui I-431 Feng, Yanxiao I-184 Feuerstack, Sebastian II-553 Figueira, Thiago II-145 Fogsgaard, Johanne L. II-375 Foo, Chee Kim II-500 Ford, Bruce I-288 Funk, Mathias II-493 Furlanello, Cesare I-402 Gao, Bo II-442 Gao, Ce I-184 Gao, Pengfei I-468 Gardner, Paula II-450 Ghosh, Srinjoy II-214 Gil, Adriano II-145 Gilbert, Juan I-19 Graungaard, Astrid K. II-375 Graus, Mark P. I-53 Guerra, Ruben I-167 Gulde, Philipp II-92 Gulden, Tore I-27 Guo, Lijuan II-267 Guo, Xiuyuan II-272 Gutiérrez-Martínez, Josefina II-25 Han, Kyungsik II-281 Han, Yoojin II-150 Hansen, Marc D. II-375 Hao, Jenny II-450 Hao, Rui-Ming I-424 Haq, Md. Shayanul II-165 Harada, Etsuko T. II-127 Harre, Marie-Christin II-553 Harrison, Andre I-351 Hasan, Khandaker Tabin II-165 Hasan, Rabiul II-500 Hayashi, Sayuki II-229 He, Jingjing II-382 Heracleous, Panikos I-315

Herbig, Domenic Lysander II-619 Herdegen, Sophie II-92 Herdman, Chris M. II-110, II-521, II-639 Hermsdörfer, Joachim II-92 Herrera, Henry II-303 Higuchi, Takuro I-387 Hisaoka, Tatsuo II-455 Hochberg, Leigh R. II-102 Holstein, Tobias I-193 Hong, SungMu II-575 Hori, Masaya II-63, II-455 Horsburgh, Sheri II-509 Horvath, Anca-Simona II-390 Hösel, Claudia I-246 Hosman, Tommy II-102 Hossain, Quazi Delwar II-51 Hsiao, Chih-Yu II-238 Hu, Hongchao II-575 Huang, Ming II-464 Huang, Yun-Chi I-320 Hub, Fabian II-560 Huisinga, Laura A. II-411 Im, Sungkyun I-409 Ino, Shuichi I-123 Inoue, Hiroaki II-63, II-455 Inoue, Satoru II-568 Ishihara, Makio II-244, II-430 Ito, Kodai I-387 Iwasaki, Seiji II-406 Jansen, Bart II-92 Jenness, James II-601 Jensen, Tobias Delcour II-156 Jhong, Haoren I-270 Jimenez, Yerika I-19 Jing, Wang I-32 Jo, HyunJin I-201 Jo, Seong Hyeon I-129 Johnson, Joseph E. I-209 Josefsson, Billy II-611 Joy, Mike I-335, I-416 Jung, Soyoung II-575 Juthi, Farhana Sayed II-165 Kagawa, Keiichiro I-142 Kaisar, Md. Zarif II-165 Kakaria, Shobhit I-394 Kang, Dongyeop I-129

Author Index

Kanno, Taro II-568 Kasprzak, Filip II-156 Kass, Steven I-134 Kass, Tyler I-134 Kasson, Erin II-464 Kathuria, Rohan I-325 Kathuria, Ronit II-469 Kathuria, Vinish I-325, II-469 Kawahito, Shoji I-142 Kennedy-Metz, Lauren R. I-402 Kettwich, Carmen II-560 Kikuchi, Yu II-63, II-455 Kim, Dong Joon I-409 Kim, Eunyoung II-297 Kim, Heasol I-409 Kim, Hyung Nam II-71 Kim, Jung Yong I-409 Kim, Junghyun I-47 Kim, Junyoung I-217 Kim, Raphael I-225 Kim, WooJeong II-281 Kim, Yieun I-47 Kirsh, Ilan I-335, I-416 Kirsh, Yoram I-416 Kiryu, Takuya II-63, II-455 Kitamura, Masami II-406 Klein, Jacobe I-459 Kobayashi, Yusuke II-63, II-455 Kohl, Steffi I-53 Komuro, Takashi I-142 Kontaki, Eirini I-156 Kruse, Christian I-62 Kubli, Cris I-70 Kumar, Jyoti I-11 Kum-Biocca, Hyejin Hannah II-173, II-575 Kuuseok, Ahto I-233 Kwon, Wookyong I-129 Lafon-Pham, Dominique II-119 LaFontaine, Carmen II-509 Lallemand, Carine II-493 Lambert, Daniel II-221 Lampen, Eva II-181 Lau, Merle II-585, II-619 Le, Duc Hai II-593 Lee, Chei Sian II-500 Lee, Hyunsoo II-150 Lee, Wei-Chieh II-352 Lehwald, Jannes II-181

Lemmink, Jos G.A.M. I-53 Lenneman, John II-601 Li, Jialing I-90 Li, Meng-Syuan II-545 Li, Min-Cian II-545 Li, Yi II-478 Li, Yong I-424 Liao, Shih-Chieh I-431 Liersch, Maximilian II-181 Lilley, Mariana I-77 Lim, Dokshin I-217 Lim, Yihyun I-366 Lin, Chih-Ying II-545 Lin, David II-486 Lin, Weijie II-486 Lin, Yu-Ju II-398 Liu, Feng II-189 Liu, Fu-Yong I-424 Lopez-Ramirez, Carmen I-19 Lott, Dawn I-255 Lutfi, Mostafa II-197 Ma, Liang I-468 Macklin, James I-288 Madsen, Claus II-156 Maeda, Mayu II-63 Maia Bisneto, Álvaro II-86 Maksimov, Alexey I-262 Mamun, Khondaker A. II-39, II-51 Mangus, Laura II-601 Marambio, Cecilia II-303 Marc, Isabelle II-119 Marcano, Mauricio II-538 Margetis, George II-137 Maruyama, Tsubasa I-387 Matsuda, Yoshio I-142 Matthews, Shawn II-509 McArthur, Caitlin II-450 Menheere, Daphne II-493 Mercado-Gutiérrez, Jorge A. II-25 Metu, Somiya I-255 Meyer, Lothar II-611 Mistry, Nisha II-173 Mohammad, Yasser I-315 Montanari, Roberto II-538 More, Rutuja I-241 Mubin, Omar II-289 Muravevskaia, Ekaterina I-19 Murmu, Chandni II-206

649

650

Author Index

Nagahara, Hajime I-142 Nam, Yeonghun I-47 Namatame, Miki II-406 Neha II-297 Neo, Chee Yong II-500 Nikolov, Ivan II-156 Novoa, Mauricio II-289 Nugraha, Kristian Adi II-79 O’Brien, Nicole I-342 Oehl, Michael II-560, II-585, II-593, II-619 Ohishi, Meguru II-406 Ohyama, Junji I-123 Osop, Hamzah II-500 Özcan, Beste II-421 Ozdemir, Rifat I-438 Pakulova, Ekaterina I-148 Papaioannou, Alexandra II-450 Parra, Margel II-303 Pereira, Rui I-176 Perry, Ethan I-450 Petraglia, Elizabeth II-601 Peukert, Maximilian II-611 Pickl, Johannes I-459 Pinzón, Vladimir I-167 Platte, Benny I-246 Pollock, Alexandra I-450 Pyper, Andrew I-77 Quafafou, Mohamed I-83 Quiroga, Pablo II-145 Raglin, Adrienne I-255, I-351 Ramakrishnaraja, Prithvi Raj II-214 Ramírez, Javier II-303 Rauchberg, Jessica II-450 Raviselvam, Sujithra II-10 Restrepo, Bernardo II-436 Restyandito II-79 Reznicek, Anton I-288 Rhim, Soyoung II-281 Ribeiro, Elton II-145 Richard, John I-359 Ritter, Marc I-246 Rocha, Victor II-86 Roesler, Eileen I-459 Rolletschke, Tony I-246 Romero-Ramirez, Edwar II-436

Rosas-Trigueros, J. Luis II-25 Roschke, Christian I-246 Rötting, Matthias I-459 Rühse, Viola II-390 Ryndin, Artem I-148 Saager, Marcel II-553 Sarker, Farhana II-39, II-51 Sato, Chihiro I-483, II-529 Saurabh, Ankit II-500 Scarpellini, Ilaria I-366 Schindler, Julian II-619 Schmidle, Stephanie II-92 Schmidt, Laura K. II-375 Schneider, Florian I-376 Sebastian, Danny II-79 Shimizu, Shunji II-63, II-455 Shin, Cliff I-279 Shin, Mincheol II-575 Shirayama, Susumu II-311 Shuai, Cheng-Yan I-431 Siau, Keng II-333 Siebert, Felix Wilhelm I-459 Sikorski, Eric II-253 Silva, Diogo II-86 Simeral, John D. II-102 Simonetti, Aline I-394 Sjöberg, Jeanette II-324 Smoliarova, Anna S. I-262 Sohail, Maarif I-342 Sonoyama, Chie II-406 Souza, Fernando II-86 Sperati, Valerio II-421 Starr, Julian I-288 Steier, Frederick I-27 Stephanidis, Constantine I-156, II-137 Stokholm Høngaard, Jens II-156 Störl, Uta I-193 Suárez, Diana II-303 Sun, Winnie II-509 Surlin, Stephen II-450 Szekely, Hunor-Gyula II-156 Tabafunda, Angela II-509 Tada, Mitsunori I-387 Tada, Shunichi II-311 Tai, An-Ting II-238 Takai, Kohichi I-315 Takamatsu, Seiichi I-123

Author Index

Tan, Hao I-90 Tanaka, Shinnosuke II-127 Tango, Fabio II-538 Tavares, Tatiana Aires I-109 Temme, Gerald II-593 Terpstra, Glenn A. II-411 Thengone, Daniel J. II-102 Thomanek, Rico I-246 Thomas, Olivia II-221 Toda, Koki II-229 Tomiyasu, Kasumi I-483 Torng, Chauchen I-270 Tsubota, Toshiya II-63 Tsuei, Mengping II-259, II-319 Turabian, Melanie II-110 Uribe-Quevedo, Alvaro

II-509

Vaidyanathan, Ravi II-39 Valerdi, Ricardo II-197 Van Benthem, Kathleen II-110, II-521, II-639 Venhuis, Sebastian I-62 Vergara, Jesús I-167 Veselov, Gennady I-148 Vos, Steven II-493 Wadehra, Ananay I-325 Walbrecq, Cédric II-119 Wan, Yutong II-173 Wang, Chao-Hung II-238 Wang, Huiyun II-627 Wang, Jiping II-267 Wang, Julian I-184 Wang, Mao-Jiun J. II-238 Wang, Yanan I-315 Wang, Ye I-98 Wang, Ziteng I-468

Warner, Gregory II-486 Wärnestål, Pontus II-324 Weisenburg, Andreas II-633 Whang, Min Cheol I-409 Wilbrink, Marc II-560, II-585 Williams, Tom I-450 Wittrin, Ruben I-246 Wu, Dezhi I-209, II-464 Wu, Fong-Gong I-431 Wu, Mo II-627 Wu, Yichen I-475 Wu, Zhen-Hua I-424 Xiao, Yuxuan

II-272

Yamamoto, Kazuya II-244 Yamano, Hikari I-483 Yamanouchi, Masato I-483, II-529 Yang, Wonseok I-279 Yasuda, Keiji I-315 Yi, Xianheng II-189 Yoda, Takuya I-142 Yoneyama, Akio I-315 Zenati, Marco A. I-402 Zewdie, Temechu G. I-491 Zhang, Jingyu II-627 Zhang, Limin I-288 Zhang, Wei I-468 Zhao, Wangchuchu II-333 Zheng, Rong II-450 Zhong, Yulan II-127 Zhu, Haiming II-189 Ziccardi, Alexia II-639 Zidianaki, Ioanna I-156 Zidianakis, Emmanouil I-156 Zimmer, Frank I-246 Zou, Cui II-333

651