Hazleton North, Gloucestershire, 1979-82: The Excavation of a Neolithic Long Cairn of the Cotswold-Severn Group 1850742138, 9781850742135, 9781848021617

With specialist contributions by Alister Bartlett, Martin Bell, Tim Darvill, Julie Douglass, Janet Keely, Bruce Levitan,

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Hazleton North, Gloucestershire, 1979-82: The Excavation of a Neolithic Long Cairn of the Cotswold-Severn Group
 1850742138, 9781850742135, 9781848021617

Table of contents :
List of illustrations vii
List of tables ix
List of contributors xi
Acknowledgements xii
1. Introduction 1
2. The pre-cairn phase 13
3. The quarries 23
4. Cairn construction 32
5. The chambered areas 60
6. The burials and other contents of the chambered areas 80
7. Cairn use and decay 126
8. Hazleton South 137
9. The prehistoric pottery 141
10. Flint and chert artefacts 153
11. Stone, bone, and fired clay 176
12. The human skeletal material 182
13. The non-human vertebrate remains 199
14. Plant and molluscan remains 215
15. The soils 223
16. Geological aspects of the excavation 228
17. Geophysical survey 232
18. Radiocarbon dating 235
19. Synthesis and discussion 240
20. Hazleton North in context 253
Summary / Résumé / Zusammenfassung 268
Bibliography 272
Index 278

Citation preview

EnglishtlHeritage

HAZLETON NORTH The excavation of a Neolithic long cairn of the Cotswold-Severn group Alan Saville

Hazleton North, Gloucestershire, 1979-82: The excavation of a Neolithic long cairn of the Cotswold-Severn group

EnglishOHeritage Archaeological Report no 13

Hazleton North, Gloucestershire, 1979-82: The excavation of a Neolithic long cairn of the Cotswold-Severn group Alan Saville with the assistance of Elizabeth Hall and Jon Hoyle and with specialist con tributions by Alister Bartlett, Martin Bell, Tim DarviJI, Julie Douglass, Janet Keely, Bruce Levitan, Richard Macphail, Paul Robinson, Juliet Rogers, Robert Scaife, Isobel Smith, Vanessa Straker, and Bernard Worssam

Historic BuiJdings & Monuments Commission for England 1990

V

Contents List of illustrations .... ....... .... ..... . ... ................... vii List of tables ..... .. ..... .. ..... .. .. ... . ... .. ... . ... .. ... ..... . .. ix Microfiche contents ........ ............................... .... x List of contributors ......... , .... , . ... .... ... . .. . ... , ......... xi Acknowledgements ......... ... ................ ............ xii 1 Introduction ................................................ 1 General location ..................... , .. . ..... , .. ..... . ......... 1 Site history ... ................................................... 2 Background to the project ...... .............. ..... .. ....... . 3 The excavation ............. ... . .... .... ...... ... ............... 4 Site recording ................................................... 8 Post-excavation .......................... .. ... .. .. .. ........... 8 Previous interim publications ............................. 10 The layout of this report .............. .. .................... 10 The archive ......... ... . ... ... . ... ........ .... .... .............. 10 2 The pre-caim phase ..................................... 13 Summary ....................................................... 13 Introduction ... ..... .. ... . ... ... . .... . ... .. .. .. ... ... .. ......... 13 Mesolithic activity .............. ... ........................... 13 Neolithic activity ..... . ... ... . ... ... . ... .. ... . ... .. ... ..... . ...14 Sub-cairn features .................. ... ....................... 16 The sub-cairn structure ..... ..... .. ..... . ... .. .. ............ 17 Peripheral features ..................................... ...... 20

3 The quarries ............................................... 23 Summary ... ..... . ... ..... ........ ..... ... . .. ... ................ 23 Introduction ........................... ... ...... ... .. ... ........ 23 The south quarry .................. ... . ........... .... ........ 23 The north quarry .............................................. 26 The extent of the quarries .................................. 27 The sequence and method of quarrying ... . .. ... ..... . .29

6 The burials and other contents of the chambered areas.................................................. ....... .. ... 80 Summary .. ..... . ... ... . ... .. ... . .. ...... . ... ... . ... ... . ... ... . .80 Excavation method ........................................... 80 Fill of the south chambered area .......................... 81 Fill of the north chambered area ........ . ........ .. ... . ... 88 Burial deposits in the south chambered area .......... 92 Burial deposits in the north chambered area ........ 103 Burning and burnt bones ................................. 104 Artefacts and fauna! remains from the burial deposits ............. ..... . ... ..... . ... ..... .. .. ..... .. ..... . ... ... 105 Analysis of the human bone distributions ........... 105 Cairn use and decay ............................... .... 126 Non-burial activity associated with the use of the cairn ............................................................ 126 The decay of the cairn ..................................... 127 Disturbances in the cairn ................ ... .............. 133

7

8 Hazleton South ......................................... 137 Introduction ......... . ... .. .. .. .. ... ... . ... ..... .............. 137 The south trench ................ ....... ................ . ... . 137 The north trench .................................... ........ 138 The contour and geophysical surveys ................. 138 Discussion .. ... . .............................. .. .. ... . .. ... ... 138

9 The prehistoric pottery by I F Smith and Timothy C Darvi/1 .......................................................... 141 Introduction ........................ .. ..... . ... ..... . ... ..... . 141 The assemblage from the sub-cairn soil ............... 141 Sherds from the cairn periphery ......... .............. . 145 Sherds from the cairn fabric ................ .............. 145 Pottery associated with use of the monument ...... 145 Sherds associated with the decay of the monument. .............. . .................................... 146 Discussion of the pottery from Hazleton ............. 149 Iron Age pottery .................. .. ..... . ... ..... . ... ..... . 152 Pottery from Hazleton South ............................ 152

Cairn construction by A/an Saville and Jon Hoyle 32 Summary ........................ . ... ... . ... ........ . .. ... ...... 32 Introduction .................................................... 32 The primary dumps .. . ....................... .. .. . .. ......... 33 Axial elements and cellular units ......... .. ....... ....... 35 The outer cairn ...... . ........................................ .49

10 Flint and chert artefacts .......... ... ..... , .. ...... .. 153 Introduction .. ... ... . ... .. ..... . .............................. 153 The raw material ............................ ..... , ... ....... 154 Technology .. . ... ... . ... .. .................................... 154 The assemblage ............................. , . ... . ... ....... 154 Discussion of the stratified flints ....................... 167 Conclusion ................................... .. ....... ....... 174

5 The chambered areas by A/an Saville and fon

11

4

Hoyle ............................................................. 60 Summary ... ... .. ..... . ... ..... . ... ....... .. .. ... .. ... . ... ...... 60 Introduction ........................... ... ...... ... ............. 60 The orthostats ...................... .. ......... .. ... .. ......... 60 The south chambered area ................................. 63 The north chambered area ................................. 64 Paving within the chambered areas .................... . 69 Blocking features within the chambered areas .. ..... .69 Revelments and crosspieces associated with the orthostats ....................................................... 72 Roofing of the chambered areas .......................... 75 The external entrances ... ....................... . ........... 76 The chambered areas and the cairn construction sequence .. .. ... . ...... .......................................... 77 Construction of units K and L, surrounding the chambered areas .............................................. 78 Finds from cairn contexts around the chambered areas .................. .. ... . ... ....... .. ..... . ... ... .. ... . .. ... ... 79

Stone, bone, and fired day ................... ..... 176 Stone artefacts .. . .................................. .......... 176 Bone objects ............................................... ... 178 Fired clay.. . ................................. .................. 181

12 The human skeletal material by /llliet Rogers 182 Introduction ....... .. ... . ... .. ..... . .. ... ..................... 182 Identification .......................... .. ..... . ... ..... . ... ... 182 Burnt bone ... .............. ........................... ........ 183 Number of individuals . ... ................................ 183

The reconstruction of individual skeletons .......... 183 Age ... ... ... . ................................................... 186 Sex .............................................................. l87 Metrical observations ................. , ........ .... .. ...... 188 Non-metrical observations . .. ... . ... ..................... J.89 Dentition .... . ...... . ... ..... . ... .. ............................ 190 Evidence of bone disease and other abnormalities 191 Human bones from contexts other than the chambered areas ......................... ... . .. ... ... . ... ... 197

vi Lead analysis ................................................ 197 Discu ssion .................................................... 197 13 The non-human vertebrate remains by Bruce Levita11 ......................................................... 199 Introduction .................................................. 199 Pre-cairn activity ......................... ,.................. 199 Cairn construction .......................................... 204 Cairn use ........................................... ........... 209 14 Plant and molluscan remains ..................... 215 Carbonised plant macrofossils by Va11essa Straker .. 215 Pollen analysis by Robert G Scaife ........................ 218 The land molluscs by Marti11 Bell ........................ 219 15 The soils by Riclrard I Macplrail. .................... 223 Introduction and methods ............................... 223 The modern soils ........................................... 223 The buried soils ............................................. 223 Auger transect and soil-pit survey by Marli11 Bell a11d Riclrard I Macplrail ........................................... 226 16 Geological aspects of the excavation by Bemard Worssam ....................................................... 228 Introduction .................................................. 228 Geology of the site .......................................... 228 Construction mate rials of the cairn .................... 229 Stones from beneath the cairn ........................... 230 17 Geophysical survey by Alister Barllett ........... 232 Introduction .................................................. 232 Hazleton North ............................................. 232 Hazleton South ............................................. .-234 Barrow Ground Field ................ ...................... 234 Conclusions .................................................. 234 18 Radiocarbon dating .................. ................ 235 Introduction ........... ......... .............................. 235 The radiocarbon determinations ................ ,...... 235 Discussion ................... ................................. 238 19 Synthesis and discussion .......................... 240 Introduction .................................................. 240 The pre-cairn and post-cairn environments ......... 240 Mesolithk evidence ........................................ 240 Pre-cairn Neolithk occupation .......................... 240 Quarrying and labour requirements ................... 241 Monument construction sequence ..................... 243 External appearance of the monument ............... 246 The chambered areas and the entrances .............. 246 The burials and burial rites ............................... 250 20 Hazleton North in context .. ....................... 253 Introduction ......................................... ,........ 253 Pre-cairn activity and cairn location ................... 253 The quarries ...................................... ............ 255 Cotswold-Severn tomb architecture ......... .......... 255 Cotswold-Severn mortuary activity and its interpretations .......................................................... 260 Chronology, social context, and function ............ 265 SummaryfResume/Zusammenfassung............... 268 Bibliography ................................................ 272 Index ............................. ,............................. 278 Microfiche ................................... ..i11side back couer

vii

List of illustrations 1 Location map: Hazleton in its national and regional setting 2 Location map: the Hazleton cairns in their local setting 3 Hazleton North before excavation 4 Contour survey: Barrow Ground Field 5 Contour survey: Hazleton North 6 Hazleton North after the removal of ploughsoil 7 Aerial view of Ha:deton North 1980 8 Aerial view of Hazleton North 1981 9 Aerial view of Hazleton North 1982 10 General site plan 11 Buried soil in section 12 Location of sieved samples from the sub-cairn soil 13 Location of features below and beyond the cairn 14 Buried soil in section in the midden area 15 Sub-cairn features: plans and profiles 16 Sub-cairn feature 581 17 Features beyond the cairn limits: plans, section, and profiles 18 Sub-cairn structure: plan and profiles 19 Alignment of postholes and stakeholes beneath the cairn 20 Distribution of finds in the area of the sub-cairn structure 21 South quarry: viewed from the eMt 22 South quarry: viewed from the west 23 South quarry: plan and location of sections 24 South quarry: section one 25 South quarry: section two 26 South quarry: section three 27 South quarry: section four 28 South quarry: location of features 29 South quarry: plan of context 45 30 North quarry: plan and location of sections 31 North quarry: west trench 32 North quarry section, west trench, south end 33 North quarry section, west trench, north end 34 North quarry, south-western area 35 Suggested original extents of the quarries 36 Key to cairn units and locations of north-south sections

37 38 39 40 41

Section beneath unit V Face of axial revelments 469 and 618 West-east sections through the cairn and dumps Key to contexts in the west-east sections Plan of the dumps and lower axial revetrnents 42 North-south sections through the cairn and under!ying soil 43 Primary dump 377/379 and axial revetrnent 448 44 Segment of dump 377/379 in section 45 Plan of the cairn structure: axial elements 46 Plan of the cairn structure: internal and external revelments 47 Unit W 48 West end of unit VG 49 West end of unit JIH 50 Junction of units M and N 51 Axial revetment 619 52 Area of unit M 53 Main section

54 Main section: detail of junction between units 0 and Q 55 Unit 0 56 Main north-south section through the cairn and underlying soil 57 Plan of the uppermost surviving level of the cairn 58 South horn 59 Section through the outer cairn 60 Tail end of the cairn 61 External revetrnent and underlying soil in section 62 External revelment in the forecourt in partial section 63 External revelment in the area north of unit T 64 External revetment in the forecourt 65 Elevations and profiles of the external revetrnent 66 Elevations and profiles of the external revetrnent 67 Profiles of the cairn before excavation 68 Cairn stonework on the north-west side of the monument 69 Upper cairn surface in the area of unit R 70 South chambered area orthostats 71 North chambered area orthostats 72 Orthostats forming the south side of the north chamber 73 North chamber: orthostat 208 74 South chambered area: plans of orthostats, paving, and sockets 75 South chambered area: elevations 76 South chambered area: elevations 77 South chambered area: internal profiles 78 South entrance: orthostat 17 and block 326 79 North chambered area: plans of orthostats, paving, and sockets 80 North chambered area: elevations 81 North chambered area: elevations 82 North chambered area: internal profiles 83 North chambered area: excavated to the level of the paving 84 Elevations: blocking slab 366 and possible blocking slab 401 85 North passage: blocking slab 366 86 South entrance: intercalated revetrnent 426 87 South entrance: external blocking slab 237 88 North entrance: external blocking 273 89 Unit L and south chambered area 90 South chamber: burial deposits as first exposed 91 South chamber: burial deposits at second dearance level 92 South chamber: burial deposits at third clearance level 93 Chambered areas: plans at uppermost surviving level 94 Key to contexts visible in Figure 93 95 Chambered areas: sections through infill deposits 96 South chamber: surface of infill context 352 97 South chamber: location of artefacts and animal bones 98 North entrance: upper infill sectioned 99 North entrance: surface of context 612 100 North chamber: upper infill194 101 North chamber: collapsed orthostat 342 102 North chamber: human bones beneath orthostat 342 103 North chamber: slabs south of the sillstone

viii

104 North chamber: human bones in disturbance 604 105 South chambered area: plot of all human bones 106 South entrance: human bones on the northwest side 107 South passage: burial deposits on the southwest side 108 South entrance: lower burial deposits on the east side 109 South chamber: skull between orthostats 246 and 317 110 Burial deposits in the south entrance 111 Burial deposits in the south passage 112 BUrial deposits in the south chamber 113 North chambered area: plot of all human bones 114 Burial deposits in the north chamber 115 Burial deposits in the north entrance 116 North entrance: skeleton 1 from north 117 North entrance: skeleton 1 from west 118 North entrance: skeleton 2 from north 119 North entrance: skeleton 2 from west 120 Chambered areas: distribution of burnt human bones 121 Chambered areas: distribution of artefacts 122 South chambered area: distribution of leg, pelvic, and sacral bones 123 South chambered area: distribution of arm, skull, and mandible bones 124 South chambered area: distribution of hand bones 125 South chambered area: foot bone distribution 126 South chambered area: distribution of patellae, clavicles, scapulae, and axis and atlas vertebrae 127 Chambered areas: distribution of pairing bones 128 South chambered area and north chamber: distribution of articulating bones 129 South chambered area and north chamber: distribution of articulating and pairing bones 130 South chambered area and north chamber: distribution of bones belonging to identified individuals 131 South chambered area: distribution of tibiae and tarsal bones 132 North chamber: distribution of leg, arm, pelvic, sacral, skull, and mandible bones 133 North chamber: distribution of hand and foot bones 134 North chamber: distribution of patellae, clavicles, scapulae, and atlas and axis vertebrae 135 North entrance: distribution of bones belonging to skeletons 1 and 2 and individual A 136 North entrance: distribution of bones belonging to individual B, all pre-adult bones, all burnt bones, and all otherwise unassigned bones 137 Forecourt features 138 Extra-cairn stonework on north-west side of the cairn 139 Plan of the outer cairn 140 Sections through extra-cairn material 141 Sections through extra-cairn material 142 Sections through extra-cairn material 143 Sections through extra-cairn material 144 Segment of extra-cairn s tonework in section 145 Collapsed revelment at south horn 146 Collapsed revelment at south horn

147 Disturbances in the cairn: location plan 148 Distribution of prehistoric artefacts from superficial contexts 149 Hazleton South: contour survey and trench location 150 Hazleton South: trench plans and context keys 151 Hazleton South: south trench 152 Hazleton South: north trench 153 Hazleton South: resistivity survey 154 Hazleton South: resistivity survey contour p lot 155 Distribution of Neolithic sherds from the sub-cairn soil 156 Neolithic pottery 157 Neolithic and Iron Age pottery 158 Bone temper from vessel in south quarry 159 Distribution of pottery from the upper south chamber 160 Location of uruetouched flake samples from the sub-cairn soil 161 Length/breadth scatter diagrams for unretouched Oakes 162 Distribution of flint artefacts from the sub-cairn soil 163 Distribution of runt artefacts from the sub-cairn soil 164 Key to symbols used in runt illustrations 165 Flint and chert artefacts 166 Hint artefacts 167 Flint artefacts 168 Flint artefacts 169 Flint artefacts from the chambered areas 170 Trend surface plots of sub-cairn flint distribution 171 Flint artefacts: refitting pieces 172 Flint artefacts: refitting pieces 173 Distribution of refitting flints from sub-cairn soil 174 Stone objects )75 Distribution of stone artefacts in the sub-cairn Soil 176 Stone objects 177 Bone beads, stone bead, and bone points 178 Daub fragment 179 Skeletons 1 and 2, bone-presence diagrams 180 Individuals A and C, bone-presence diagrams 181 Bones assigned to individual E 182 Fragments of ossified thyroid cartilage and a hyoid bone 183 Mandible showing abscess cavities 184 Pair of patellae with slight vastus notches 185 Head of a femur with an infective lesion 186 Temporo-mandibular joint with osteoarthritic change 187 Osteoarthritic change in a pair of metacarpals 188 Changes in cervical vertebrae due to spondylosis 189 Spinal group with fused lumbar vertebrae 190 Thoracic vertebrae showing Forestiers Disease 191 Osteochondritis dissecans in a distal femur 192 Osteoporotic vertebra 193 Cribria orbitalia in a child's skull 194 Femoral cyst 195 Distribution of animal bones beneath the south horn 196 Anatomical representation in major species from the sub-cairn assemblage

ix

197 Distribution of bones of cattle. sheep. and pig from the sul>-caim soil 198 Distribution of small mammal bones from the sub-cairn soiJ

199 Distribution of red deer antlers in the south quarry 200 Red deer antlers from lower quarry fills 201 Red deer antlers from lower quarry fills 202 Red deer antler 203 Two red deer antlers 204 Red deer antler 'top' 205 Distribution of bones of larger animals associated with human burials in the chambered areas 206 Distribution of bones of larger mammals in lower fills of the south quarry 207 Distribution of bones of larger mammals in the forecourt area

208 Distribution of charcoal, hazelnut shells. and carbonised cereal and weed seeds from the sul>-caim soil 209 Carbonised plant remains 210 Carbonised tuber fragments of onion couch 211 Mollusc diagrams for columns 2 and 6 212 Mollusc diagram for column 5 213 Location maps for soil samples 214 Sections at soil profiles 1-4 215 Location of auger transect and soil pits 216 Transect proftle and soil-pit sections 217 Geological sketch map 218 The east face of pit on the edge of Barrow Ground Field 219 Sketch of exposures to the south-east of the cairn 220 North edge of the south quarry 221 Location of the geophysical survey areas and a plot of the magnetometer survey data 222 Plot of resistivity survey data 223 Location of radiocarbon samples from the quarries, cairn, and sub-cairn surface

224 225 226 227

Location of radiocarbon-dated human bones Radiocarbon dates in chronological sequence Radiocarbon dates in phase groups Cairn construction stages 228 Cairn shape reconstructions 229 Isometric reconstruction of external appearance of the cairn 2.30 Isometric projection of the south chambered area

231

Isometric projection of the north chambered

area

232 Isometric reconstruction of the outer north entrance 233 Distribution of human patellae 234 The 'Ointknapper' burial 235 Flint artefacts from fieldwalking {MF) 236 Lower Penhill Field: distribution of surface Oints (MF) 237 Metal objects: iron nails and copper alloy ring (MF) 238 Eighteenth-century shoe buckle (MF)

239 Mollusc densities and soil particle-size analyses (MF) 240 Mollusc densities and soil particle-size analysis (MF)

List of tables 1 Features comprising the sul>-caim structure 2 South chambered area orthostats 3 North chambered area orthostats 4 South chambered area orthostat sockets 5 North chambered area orthostat sockets 6 Human bones from south chambered area orthostat sockets 7 Artefacts from the upper fills of the south chambered area 8 Summary of animal bones and fragments (in· cluding human) from the upper fills or the south chambered area 9 Summary of animal bones and fragments (including human) from the upper fills of the north chambered area 10 Summary of artefacts from the burial deposits 11 Human longbones from the south chambered area

12 Numbers of individuals based upon pairing longbones from the south chambered area 13 Minimum numbers of individuals based upon unpaired longbones from the south chambered area 14 Total numbers of Jongbones from the south chambered area 15 Minimum numbers of individuals based upon both paired and unpaired longbones from the south chambered nrca 16 Identifiably separale skulls from the south chambered area 17 Tarsal bones from the south chambered area 18 Human longbones from the north chamber 19 Neotithic pottery: general quantification 20 Neolithic sherds from the sub-ca.irn soil 21 Neotithk sherds from the cai.m periphery 22 Neolithic pottery from the upper fill of the south chamber and adjacent areas 23 Neolithic pottery from the quarry fills 24 Ncolithic feature sherds from the sub-cairn soil. the cairn periphery. and contexts associated with the decay of the monument 25 The total excavated flint assemblage: typology and phasing 26 Mesolithic and Neolithic flints from the sul>-caim soil 27 Composition of the pre-caim samples used for unretouched flake analyses 28 Proportions of complete and broken flakes among forecourt and midden samples 29 Unretouched flakes: cortex groups 30 Unretouched flakes: length values 31 Selected implement categories: length values 32 Unretouchcd flakes: length/breadth index values of complete flakes 20mm or more in length or breadth 33 Unretouched flakes: breadtMength ratio values of complete flakes 20mm or more in length or breadth 34 Selected implement categories: length/breadth index values of complete examples 35 Cores: maximum dimensions 36 Cores: weights 37 Maximum lengths of surviving flake scars on all complete cores 38 Flake shapes of surviving negative scars on cores from middcn and forecourt areas

X

39 Microlith typology 40 Mean size values of complete microliths 41 Microburin classification 42 Scrapers: typology and contexts 43 Flints from the lower fills of the chambered areas, in association with the burial deposits 44 Flint refits from the sub-cairn soil 45 Mean values of distances (in m) separating refitting Oints 46 Comparison of lengthlbreadth index values of unretouched flakes 20mm or more in length from Hazleton and Cam Brea, Cornwall 47 Quartzitic pebbles with abrasion 48 SaiSen fragments from the sub-cairn soil 49 Human bones with animal tooth-marks 50 Burnt human bones (mostly fragmentary) 51 Minimum numbers: north chambered area 52 Minimum numbers: south chambered area 53 Ages of pre-adults estimated from tooth eruption 54 Ages of children estimated from diaphyseal lengths: north and south chambered areas 55 Age assessment of adults from tooth attrition 56 Age of adults estimated from pubic symphysis 57 Sex data from pelvic morphology 58 Sex data from skull morphology 59 Sex determination from femora measurements 60 Sex determination from humeri measurements 61 Cranial indices 62 Meric index: north chambered area 63 Meric index: south chambered area 64 Stature estimates 65 Maxillae dentition: north chambered area 66 Maxillae dentition: south chambered area 67 Mandibular dentition: north chambered area 68 Mandibular dentition: south chambered area 69 Dentition of matched maxillae and mandibles: north chambered area 70 Dentition of matched maxillae and mandibles: south chambered area 71 Peripheral joint changes: north chambered area 72 Peripheral joint changes: south chambered area 73 Changes in the joints of the spine 74 Bone mineral content of normal and affected lumbar vertebrae 75 Species list of all non-human vertebrates identified 76 Numbers of bones from pre-ca•rn contexts 77 Assemblage of bones from the sub-cairn soil below the south horn 78 Anatomical representation for the major animal species from pre-caim contexts 79 Summary of ageing data for cattle, sheep, and pig from pre-cairn contexts 80 Bones of larger mammals from within the cairn fabric 81 Bones of small animals from within the cairn fabric 82 Stages of development in red deer antlers 83 Summary of measurements of 14 antlers, with comparative data from other Neolithic sites 84 Non-human bones from the lower fills of the chambered areas, excluding small animals and bone artefacts 85 Bones of larger mammals from the lower quarry fills

86 Arumal bones associated with collapsed external revelment in the forecourt area and around the cairn perimeter 87 Charcoal from the sub-cairn soil 88 Carbonised cereals and weeds from the sub-cairn soil 89 Pollen analysis 90 List of soil samples 91 Soil samples: basic analytical data 92 Pedogenic and human history at Ha:deton, based on soil micromorphology, chenustry, and magnetic susceptibility characteristics of the buried soil 93 Formations at outcrop in the vicinity of Hazleton 94 Bed descriptions for waste-disposal pit section 95 List of Hazleton radiocarbon dates 96 &sic dimensions of some Cotswold-Severn cairns 97 Radiocarbon dates from Cotswold-Severn tombs 98 Roman and later pottery from Hazleton North (MF) 99 Key to Roman and later pottery fabrics from Hazleton North (MF) 100 Roman and later pottery from field walking (MF) 101 Key to Roman and later pottery fabrics from fieldwalking (MF) 102 Flints from Hazleton South (MF) 103 Surface Oints from field survey (MF) 104 Comparison between the surface flint collections from Hazleton and Cow Common, Swell (MF) 105 Lower PenhiU Field: surface flint collection, subdivided into grid-recorded and unlocated samples (MF) · 106 Bones of small animals from the upper fills of the chambered areas (MF) 107 Bones of small animals from the lower fills of the north chambered area (MF) 108 Bones of small animals from the lower fills of the south chambered area (M F) 109 Mollusc identifications of column 6 samples, sub-cairn soil (MF) 110 Mollusc identifications of miscellaneous subcairn samples (MF) Ill Mollusc identifications of column 2 and other north quarry samples (MF) 112 Mollusc identifications of column 5 samples, south quarry (Mf) 113 Mollusc identifications of column 4 samples, south quarry (MF) 114 Mollusc identifications of samples from onsite sieving and hand collection (M F) 115 Nutrient chemistry of selected soil samples (MF) 116 Mollusca: soil pit D (MF)

Microfiche contents: appendices I Excavation project statement: Cotswold-Severn long barrows ........................................ Ml:A4-IO 2 Illustrated pottery concordance .. .. .. .. ...... Ml:AI2 3 The Roman and later pottery IJy Ja11et E Keely ..................................................... MI:BI-8 4 Inventory of the flint and chert artefacts Ml:BJa-

C2

xi 5 UlusiTated flint artefacts concordance ..... M! :C4-7 6 The flints from Hazleton South ................. MI:C9 7 Ha:tleton surface flints ..................... MI:Cll-06 8 The Roman coms by Poul H Robinson .......... M I :08 9 Miscellaneous post-prehistoric finds ... Ml:DIG-12 10 Inventory of human bones assigned to individual burials by Eliwbetll Hall, Juliet Rogers, ond A/an Saville ....................•...........................•. Ml:El-10 11 Animal bones from intrusive contexts by Bmce Levita11 ........................................ ....... M1:E12-13 12 The small anima l bones from the lower fills of the chambered areas by Julie A Douglass a11d A/an Saville ................................................... MI :FI-7 13 The land molluscs: details of samples by Marti11 Bell •....•.•..•........•..........•.•.................. M1 :F9-CIO 14 Soil profile descriptions by Ricllard I Macp1Jai/ .....•.•.•........................•.•........ MI:G12-13 15 Soil micromorphological description and in· terpretation by Ric/Jard I Macpllail ...........••• M2:A2-B2 16 Comparable Neolithic soils by Ric/Jard I Macpllail ............••.•....•........................... M2:84-8 17 Profile descriptions and moUuscan analysis of soil pits by Martin Bell ..•....•.•.................. M2:BIG-12 18 Modern grape-pip from the subs, and general corr(.l.cairn soil examiw!d by sitving character and that it precedes the caim construction. No features could be linked with the scatter of Mesolithic flintwork. Residual microliths and a microburin occurred within the area of the Neotithic midden (Fig 163). A similar residual explanation applies to the microlith from the south chamber (context 412). Proximity between the Mesolithic flint scatter and the two features 4.37 and 598 (Fig 13) might suggest contemporaneity, and similarly so with context 582, but this would remain circumstantial, especially in view of the ambiguity of these features (sn below). The flintwork involved the preparation of tools, among which microliths appear to predominate. The assemblage could imply a temporary camp for retooling of hunting equipment. The distribution of the Mesolithic flintwork (Fig 163) had a spatial separation from the concentration of Neolithic pre-cairn activity (Chapter 10). This separation is assumed to signify a chronological gap between the Mesolithic and Neolithic activity.

Neolithic activity Pre-n f

profiltiH\ll

618

hh~ll

"'"'~o~.n

"?'d eastwards to the limit of 618. but on the west side the base of 444 terminated some 0.4m short of the corner formed by the end of 618. Following the deposition of 444, the cellular subdivision of this area began, but in a different fashion to that on the north side, since the two outer units Sand W were delineated firSt with unit U built betwe-en them. ln unit S, a rubble fill 254 overlay the primary dumps 309, 3.30, and 552, and the southern edge of 444. On its eastern edge. 254 was revetted by east· facing 264, which was founded upon dumps 330 and 552, 31\d at its northern end built on the south·eastern edge of 444. On the south, 254 was rcvetted by south·fadng 346. partly founded upon the southern edge o f dump 309 and partly upon soil. and on the west 254 was revetted. by west·facing 265, founded upon the eastern crest of dump 309, and which at its northern end overlay the southern edge of 444. Both revelments 264 and 265 formed bonded, curving corners with 346. lnfiJJ 254 may have b(••en further subdivided. Context 308 (Figs 39-40, section 2) was originaUy tho ught to have been a revetment, but could not be identified in plan and was perhaps just a fortuitous assodtltion of horizontal stones. In section, 265 did not look very oonvi1\dng as an east· facing rcvetment, but its Credibility depended on the clearly·defined. northern return of revetment 346 at its western end, where the o uter face was abutted by revelment 418. and upon the existence of a fin, 31, against the western edge o( the upper levels of 265. This fin was recorded in plan (Fig 57; arch drgs 18 and 147), but did not appear in section. The construction of unit W appeared to have been guided by the ex-tent of the primary dump 446. The infiJJ of rubble with some m;~rly lenses, 347, overlay 446 and 444, On the east, 347 was revetted by the east· f3cing 30. At its north end, 30 overlay the SC)tlthern edge of 444, at its rentre, it overlay the eastern edge of dump 446, and, at its south end, it was founded directly on soil. The south-facing southern revelment (419) to 347 was also founded

CAIRN CONSTRUCfiON

39

Fig 47 U11it W viewed from the south; scales in 0.5m divisions directly on soU and fonned a bonded oomer with 30, as it did with the west-facing 303 to the west. Revetment 303 was sited just west of the extent of the dump 446, founded directly on soil, and appeared to have been constructt.>d as a continuous alignment up to the external face of 618 whkh it abuttt."d, thus forming a revetment face to the western edge of 444 at this point. On the eastern side of the slabs forming revct.mcnt 303, the unit fill was of a more cart'fuUy and more massively constructed ruHurt' than the general fill347, almost constituting a double revetment. Context 340, parallel to 303 and overlying the western edge of dump 446, was regarded as a crude initial revelment to 347 on its

western side, with additional limestone rubble, 345, deposited against its outer face to be revelled by 303 (Figs 39, 40. and 47). Hence, on some interim plans (Saville 1934a, fig 3), unit W is shown as havi.ng a double western revetment. FuiJer consideration suggested th:at, rather than 340 being :a fully-fledged revelment, since it did not have a dear external face and since there was considerable interdigitation bel\\•een 340 and 345, the sequence o( 340, 345, and 303 was more probably just a method of constructing a robust backing for the subsequent south hom. Followi.ng the construction of units S nnd W. unit U was built between them by the deposition of 261. rubble with some soil a•ld marl, over the top of primary dump 309 and the southern slope of 444 and abutting the external (aces of 30 and 265 to the west and east respectively. On its southern edge, 261 was revetted by 418 which was founded directly on soil and which abutted the bonded corners of 301419 to the west and 2651346 to the east. As mentioned previously, a vestigial fin o f pitched slabs (31) was not~ at the surface of 261 against revelment 265. Unit U was initially treated as possibly subdivided by a further north-south revelment, 337 (Saville 19$4a, fig 3). This revelment was not apparent in section, however. where a marly lens was continuous across the supposed position (Figs 39-40. se lornwr lAnd surface. Un1lj NfP.Q hold .a dilf«--rent method nl (Ontlruction whictl did noc lnvot ...(' tlw Mm~ ~uc.!n.t"f', romm~nang wuh pnrrutry dunlpl, u the- mt of tM mm. Poilrt$ of chd art';a "'-'tn- among the fim .sectorJ ol the.- t.l.im to bf' fuOyexc.a"~.tttd tn 1981. ocht•T pam \\·ere ttw WfY List to b.! rem.cavation rationalisatiOn During the initial stotges ot construction.. unit P was not

subdivided. lt comprised ' l'\lbble and mart infill 285. wh•ch ibuUed the f;lCes or revetn1ents 270 and 495 and overlay dump 286 and the rear o( the axi."l element 553. On its eastern side thi5 in fill wa.s revetted by five to six courses of hori:wntal slabs (context IS; Figs 39-40), which dlrt"("tly overlay the dump 286f29.11324 and SSJ. and on the south proi:Mbly (omuxl a bonded corner with the lower rourses of revetmcnt 14. ihis revelment diredly overlay an eastwards continuation o( 556. the southern rcvetment to 28612941324, ond aby th< nort""m port of ""~ment IS. Approximately h.lllw•y olong th< length of ,.._ttmentiS, S781onnod • bonded comer Wlth !M two to thrH cou"" ol thf...outh..faong ~"ffr'Mf\t 258. whiC'h ovtrl.atd the rubb4-t infill 285 and at ats west md abutttd the- outer face o/495. At 1ts soutMm t-nct u.rut P comprised" mixed anfill o( rubble and mart (234), whJ