Hands On! Painting - Visual Arts In The Classroom, Grade 1-8 [1 ed.] 9780888813459

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Hands On! Painting - Visual Arts In The Classroom, Grade 1-8 [1 ed.]
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Table of contents :
Introduction..................................................................................
Painting Processes and Explorations
Why Do We Paint?.........................................................................
Learning Goals...............................................................................
Painting in Kindergarten............................................................
Colour Concepts and Painting Examples in the Curriculum .
Looking at Art to Inspire Painting..............................................
Caring for Painting Tools and Materials.....................................
Painting Processes: Materials, Guidelines, Set-up, and Tips..
A. Painting with Watercolour........................................
B. Painting with Tempera................................................
C. Painting with Acrylic...................................................
D. Colour Mixing and Exploration.................................
Studio Painting Techniques.........................................................
A. Texture Rubbings and Wax Resists...........................
B. Wet on Wet.................................................................. .
C. Stippling.......................................................................
D. Effects with Salt and Plastic Wrap...........................
E. Dry Brush....................................................................
Painting with Bleeding Art Tissue Paper...............
Pulling It All Together................................................................
Stories from the Studio...............................................................
A. Painting Neighbourhoods.......................................
B. Looking at Aspects of World Architecture.............
C. Music as Inspiration....................................................
D. My Imaginary Doorway............................................
E. A Re-imagined Toronto............................................
F. Collaborative Painting: Creating Murals Together
Appendix 1: Professional Resources for Teachers.................
Appendix 2: Literature Sources................................................
Appendix 3: Basic Materials forTeaching Visual Arts...........
Appendix 4: Painting Apps.......................................................

Citation preview

HANDS ON! Painting Visual Arts in the Classroom, Grades 1-8

'Ibnmlo District DANCE

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VISUAL

4 4 ISBN: 978-0-88881 -345-9 HANDS ON! Painting: Visual Arts in the Classroom, Grades 1 -8

© 2017 Toronto District School Board Reproduction of this document for use by schools within the Toronto District School Board is permitted.

For anyone other than Toronto District School Board staff, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any other means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the Toronto District School Board. This permission must be requested and obtained in writing from:

Toronto District School Board

Library and Learning Resources 3 Tippett Road Toronto, ON M3H 2V1

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4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

4 Tel: Fax:

416-397-2595 416-395-8357

Email:

[email protected]

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Every reasonable precaution has been taken to trace the owners of copyrighted material and to make due acknowledgement. Any omission will gladly be rectified in future printings. This document has been reviewed for equity.

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Appendix 4: Painting Apps.......................................................

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Extensions Begin with several artworks (four to six) and have each question pertain to one image.

This collection of images could be thematically linked and may connect to another area of the curriculum (e.g., landscapes, portrait, documentary photographs).

B. Careful Looking Divide the students into groups of five or six, and give each group one artwork to

discuss. Students will engage in careful looking and group discussion as they share their observations. • What is happening in this artwork?

• Where in the world could this scene be taking place? • Does this image remind you of a place that you know?

• When you look at this artwork, how does it make you feel?

C. Talking about Colour and Composition • Describe the colours that the artist chose to use. • Are some colours more noticeable than others? What are they? • Where does your eye look first when you see this artwork?

• How has the artist arranged shapes, colours, and/or lines to direct your eye to a specific area?

□.The Illusion of Space: Discovering Foreground, Middle Ground, and Background • If you could step into this artwork, what is the first thing that you would touch? (Foreground)

• What is in the middle space of the painting? That is, if you kept

walking, what would you find next? (Middle Ground) • What is the most distant thing in the picture? (Background)

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• How does the artist make us believe that some things are up close and

others far away?

• What choices does the artist make about the size and placement of shapes?

• How does the artist use colour to create a feeling of depth? • How many steps do you think you would have to take to walk from the

foreground to the background?

E. Finding Textures and Patterns • Where does the artist use texture and pattern in the artwork? • How has the artist applied the paint? Is it applied thickly or thinly? • What patterns do you notice in the work? • How does the artist use light and/or dark (value), colour, and/or lines

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to create an illusion of texture?

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F. Imagining the Visual Story • What do you imagine the story of this picture to be?

• Based on what has been seen and

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discussed, share ideas about what the

artist is trying to say with this work of



art.

• What mood is evoked?

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• What is mysterious about this image? • What do you want to find out about

this artwork and the artist who made it?

Students look at and discuss their own work with each other. Talking about what they want to say through their art is important, and they will use the language (elements and principles) of art in their conversations, especially when this is modelled by the teacher.

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Works Cited Burman, Lisa. Are You Listening?: Fostering Conversations That Help Young Children Learn.

Redleaf Press, 2009. Meier, Deborah. The Power of Their Ideas: Lessons for America from a Small School in Harlem. Beacon Press, 2002.

Ontario Ministry of Education. The Full-Day Early Learning - Kindergarten Program. Queen's Printer for Ontario, 2010. www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/

kinderProgram2010.pdf. The Kindergarten Program (Interim Release). Queen's Printer for Ontario, 2016. —. The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 1 -8: The Arts (Revised). Queen's Printer for Ontario, 2009. www.edu.gov.on.ca/enq/curriculum/elementary/arts18b09curr.pdf. — (Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat). The Third Teacher. Capacity Building Series. Special Edition #27. Queen's Printer for Ontario, 2012. www.edugains.ca/resourcesLNS/ Monographs/ CapacityBuildingSeries/CBS ThirdTeacher.pdf-

Pelo, Ann. The Language of Art: Reggio-Inspired Studio Practices in Early Childhood Settings. Redleaf Press, 2007.

Resources Council of Ministers of Education, Canada. CMEC Statement on Play-Based Learning. 2010. www.cmec.ca/Publications/lists/publications/attachments/282/play-based-learning statement EN.pdf. Ontario Ministry of Education. "Learning Preferences Inventories and Surveys." The Differentiated

Instruction Scrapbook. Queen's Printer for Ontario, 2010, pp. 10-16. www.edugains.ca/ resourcesDI/EducatorsPackages/DIEducatorsPackage2010/ 201 ODIScrapbook.pdf.

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HANDS ON! Painting Visual Arts in the Classroom, Grades 1-8

It is essential for students to be engaged in meaningful, open-ended art-making activities that enable them to express personal feelings, experiences, and ideas. The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 1-8: The Arts, 2009

Painting is just another way of keeping a diary. - Pablo Picasso

Painting is self-discovery. Every good artist paints what he is. -Jackson Pollock

A room hung with pictures is a room hung with thoughts. -Joshua Reynolds

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Why Do We Point? Painting is the art of marking a surface with colour and is as old as art itself.

Painting is a tactile and immediate way for students to engage in inquiry and self­ expression.Through teacher-directed demonstrations, open exploration, and skills development, students will deepen their understanding that the medium of paint is an

expressive way to communicate ideas about themselves, their everyday lives, and the

world in which they live. Paintings created by students may be abstract (a combination of lines, colours, and/or shapes) or they may include recognizable images. As they

practise and grow, they will find their own unique style and thus will discover an expressive language that is as unique as they are.

Paintings can be made on paper, canvas, and board, or painted directly onto a wall surface as a mural or installation. They may be created individually or collaboratively.

To honour and respect our learners, we need to offer them explorations in a variety of paint and painting processes so that they can explore, discover, and see themselves as

artists.

Learning Goals The Learning Goals of this handbook endeavour to have teachers and their students: • become familiar with painting tools and processes • experiment with a range of tools, materials, and techniques to create

different effects • use a range of painting tools to make marks and express ideas • look at and respond to the paintings by artists from various cultures

past and present • begin to understand how to compose a finished painting, using water­ based paints

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Painting in Kindergarten Young children have an innate need to make sense of the world. The arts in the Full-Day

Early Learning - Kindergarten Program provide a vehicle through which children can express their growing sense of self and their interpretation of the world. Visual arts, music, dance, and socio-dramatic play contribute to the development of children's thinking and

communication skills. Providing children with opportunities to express themselves through

the arts develops decision-making skills, stimulates memory, facilitates understanding, develops symbolic communication, promotes sensory development, and encourages

creative thinking. Learning through the arts also fosters children's imagination, helps to

develop empathy, promotes the development of relationships, and builds self-esteem, while enabling children to experience a sense of accomplishment. The arts are a vehicle

for children to understand different cultures, as well as to express their own culture. Many

studies demonstrate that learning through the arts also improves literacy and numeracy.'

Provide access to a classroom art centre that invites children to make personal choices

of topics, ideas, and media. Painting can be conducted at the art centre, where children are encouraged to experiment with personal expression of ideas and to

explore colour and colour mixing. Make careful choices about the palette of colour on offer to the children, and the quality of the surface on which they are painting. Use

good-quality paper where possible.

1 OME. Full-Day Early Learning - Kindergarten Program. Queen's Printer for Ontario, 2010, p. 140.

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Interact with the children as they paint, prompting with open-ended questions. • Can you tell me about the colours you are using today? • What do you notice when you mix those colours together? • Tell me about this painting.

• How does it make you feel? • Is your painting telling a story?

Nature walks and field trips further expand the student's visual consciousness.Themes

or images developed by the children will grow out of classroom-based experiences and inquiries.

Many young children are responsive to using digital painting tools as well.

A classroom gallery is a wonderful way to celebrate the creativity of the children. Invite

the children to help curate the mounting and placement of the work in the classroom gallery. Include student artist statements to help make their inquiry, thinking, and learning visible.

These early experiences with the creative process—exploring materials and ideas

through painting—are foundational to the Grades 1 -8 curriculum concepts and expectations.

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Colour Concepts and Painting Examples in the Curriculum, The Arts, Grades 1 -8 Grade 1 • Colour: mixing of primary colours (red, yellow, blue); identification of warm (e.g., red, orange) and cool (e.g., blue, green) colours

Grade 2 • Colour: secondary colours (various colours made by mixing equal amounts of primary colours, such as violet, orange, green); mixing of

colours with a limited palate

Grade 3 • Colour: colour for expression (e.g., warm and cool colours); colour to indicate emotion; mixing of colours with white to make a range of warm and cool tints

Grade 4 • Colour: monochromatic colour scheme; colour emphasis through

variations in intensity (e.g., subdued colours next to bright, intense colours); advancing colour • Painting: use of tempera paint and a range of monochromatic colour values to represent the emotional state of a character at a critical moment in a story that they have written or read

Grade 5 • Colour: complementary colours, hue, intensity (e.g., dulling, or

neutralizing, colour intensity by mixing the colour with a small amount

of its complementary hue) • Painting: tempera paint or watercolour pencils, using unusual colours

or perspectives to suggest a fantasy world

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Grade 6 • Colour: the colour wheel; tertiary colours; colour for expressive purposes; colour for creating naturalistic images

• Painting: use of a variety of paint techniques (e.g., blending, scumbling,

glazing) in a mural of a landscape or cityscape, incorporating stylistic elements from contemporary pop culture

Grade 7 • Painting: making a cityscape that will serve as a background in an animated short movie, using experimental watercolour techniques

such as wet on wet or salt resist • Colour: analogous colours; transparent colour created with watercolour or tissue paper decoupage. Note: In creating multimedia

artworks, students may need some understanding of different colour models, such as RGB and CMY(K), and websafe colours

Grade 8 • Painting: making an acrylic painting of a magnified section of a sketch

or an image that is seen through a viewfinder or frame, then make changes to the painted surface with oil pastels to create a personal

interpretation of the image • Colour: tertiary colours; contrast of colour; absence of colour

»

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Looking at Art to Inspire Painting Viewing Original Art School visits to galleries and museums are an important part of experiential learning in visual arts. Teachers are encouraged to facilitate opportunities for students to see, discuss, and analyze original art whenever possible. Guided tours by gallery educators

and/or teachers can help facilitate critical analysis and consideration of cultural

context.

...the critical analysis process can help students understand how personal, sociocultural,

historical, and political frames of reference have a bearing on the creation and interpretation of particular works in the arts. Knowing something about the context in

which a work was created can shed valuable light on the meaning of signs and symbols used in the work.2

Using Art Reproductions Teachers are encouraged to build a collection of art reproductions for use in their

classrooms.

This collection may be built using postcards, calendar images, online artworks, and/ or art from magazines and books. The Toronto District School Board's (TDSB's) Library

Teaching Resources at the Tippett Centre has the following art reproduction kits

available forTDSB teachers:

K01318 - Adventures in art: large reproductions 1,2,3 (https://tdsb.insigniails.com/libra ry/ltemDetail?l=9999&i=1771245&ti=0) K01319 - Adventures in art: large reproductions 4,5,6

(https://tdsb.insigniails.com/library/ltemDetail?l=9999&i=1 771246&ti=0)

Classrooms that have access to Wi-Fi will be equipped to seek out and project art from

around the world.

2 OME. The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 1-8: The Arts. Queen's Printer for Ontario, 2009, p. 27.

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All the above may be done in small groups or with the whole class coming together to share their observations and ideas. Art reproductions (prints, postcards and/or projected images of artworks) serve as the stimulus for observing and discussing

different painting techniques and how they communicate meaning. By looking at a

wide range of art, students will find work that they connect with, and this will help to inspire them to make their own paintings. Refer to the Introduction: Strategies for Looking and Talking about Art, page xvi.

A small list of painters and sample artworks is included below, and is meant to

encourage a focus on looking closely at the qualities of paint, discovering the element of colour, and examining works by Canadian artists.

Discovering the Qualities of Paint Invite students to look carefully at the different qualities of paint in works by different

artists. For example, highlight how mixing water with acrylic or watercolour paints and then blending and layering them can create expressive effects.

Note: If you are viewing this document digitally, click on the artists' names to see

examples of how some artists work in this "painterly" way.

1. Helen Frankenthaler Frankenthaler creates very large"colour field" paintings, where the pigment (colour) marks blend, resulting in a look of large gestural drawings.

www.frankenthalerfoundation.org/artworks/paintings

2. Paul Klee Klee often combined simple shapes to create whimsical paintings, and he was often inspired by the art of children.

www.watercolorpainting.com/famous-artist-paul-klee

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3. Georgia O'Keeffe O'Keeffe's watercolour paintings are inspired by the land and sky. www.moma.org/collection/works/33828

4. Mark Rothko Rothko paints in oil. His work has very strong watercolour-like images, as he often

works with large simple shapes that blur into each other to create a space that encourages meditative viewing. www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/features/slideshows/mark-rothko.html#slide_24

Discovering the Element of Colour The expressive qualities of colour have impact and often engage from a distance and this invites viewers to look more closely at the visual story unfolding. If you are viewing this document digitally, click on the artists' names to see an example of their work.

1. Leon Bellefleur Bellefleur is a Canadian artist, who was also an elementary school teacher. His work

was inspired by surrealist art, and paintings such as "Fish in the City" (1946) is a "patchwork of colours and textures" inspired by the children he taught.

www.gallery.ca/en/see/collections/artist.php?iartistid=406

2. Marc Chagall This Russian-born Jewish artist uses colour and space to put together fantastical stories through paint. In paintings such as "Green Donkey" (1911), he uses memories of his homeland in his work, which has a naive style and strange arrangement of figures. www.tate.org.uk/art/artists/marc-chagall-881

3. Wassily Kandinsky This Russian artist created the first abstract modern paintings. The painting titled "Composition IV" (1911) was inspired by music and uses exciting combinations of lines, shapes, and colours to engage viewers. www.wikiart.org/en/wassily-kandinsky/composition-iv-1911

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4. Henri Matisse The "Red Room" provides one example of how flat areas of colour can be used in unexpected and original ways.

www.henri-matisse.net/paintingselect.html

5. Bernard Piffaretti This French artist lives in Paris and creates abstract paintings. He defends the fact that "abstract painting doesn't need to be justified any longer." Students working with

combinations of simply colour and shape may be inspired by looking at this artist's

work. www.bernardpiffaretti.com/2014-2012.html

Discovering Contemporary Canadian Painters Introduce students to a range of works by Canadian artists. If you are viewing this

document digitally, click on the artists' names to see examples of Canadian artwork.

1. Ted Harrison Harrison was born in the UK and settled in the Yukon. His brightly coloured paintings tell powerful stories through a unique, illustrative style of painting.

www.tedharrison.com

2. Siobhan Humston This multidisciplinary artist uses music, writing, drawing, painting, and walking in her inspirational art. In series such as "Onto, Into, Above" (2014), she provides us with a

magical place to gaze and imagine. www.siobhanhumstonart.com/painting/

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3. George Littlechild This First Nations artist uses colour and imagery that deeply explore the complexities of history and connect to his commitment to how it is important for all human beings

to understand their past and potential powerful role they can play in their future. "Great Grandfather, Where Did All of the Buffalo Go?" (2014) is just one of his many

works that will instigate conversations and essential learning with students. www.georgelittlechild.com/gallery/ 4. Daphne Odjig

As one of Canada's most celebrated Aboriginal artists, Odiig has a unique style that changed over many decades. She was influenced by Cubism and Surrealism and has

been described as having an "unsurpassed"colour sense that she applies within her

strongly outlined and overlapping shapes.

www.gallery.ca/en/see/collections/artist.php?iartistid=24950

5. Jane Ash Poitras This Cree artist creates colourful and energetic imagery about transformation and spiritual power. In her painting titled "Shaman Power," students will see how she sends

her message by using bold shapes, textured paint, and figurative drawing with some

collage.

www.spiritwrestler.com/catalog/index.php?artists_id=58

6. Rod Prouse Prouse continues to redefine his own personal identification of the landscape genre. Paintings such as "Canadian Skies, Wolf Lake" (2014) combine expressive colour with

movement and collage. www.rodprouse.com/2015.html

7. Carl Ray Ray was an expert draughtsman and painted in many styles using a wide range of media. He was among one of the first Anishnabe artists to depict sacred legends.

www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/carl-ray/

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Caring for Painting Tools and Materials When paint materials and tools are well organized, easily accessible, and ready to use, students are able to launch into the hands-on creative explorations efficiently and

effectively. It is important to explicitly teach routines and expectations to ensure that materials and tools are well cared for. Engaging students directly in the design of the

space and the classroom procedures for painting (e.g., where materials are stored,

tools are labelled, cleanup teams are scheduled), will encourage a shared sense of responsibility for establishing and maintaining an environment that is conducive to creativity.

Here are a few tips to keep in mind for all painting activities: • Store tools and materials in appropriate containers and label them. It

may also be helpful to label the shelves to ensure that materials are returned to their designated storage area. • Engage students whenever possible in the planning and decision

making regarding storage. • Establish routines for distributing, cleaning, and storing painting materials and tools. Consider assigning responsibilities to students as

work teams, on a rotational basis, for some tasks. • Establish a designated location for work to dry and be stored (e.g.,

drying rack or window sill). • Be clear and consistent with your expectations for individual students

(e.g., each student carries his or her own work to the drying rack; puts his or her own brushes in the pail of soapy water) and for the work

teams (e.g., washing and rinsing of brushes, collection and storage of tempera paint blocks).

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Teachers are encouraged to buy good-quality paintbrushes in a variety of sizes. Establish a routine for cleaning brushes to ensure that they remain in good condition

for a long time. Here is a suggested routine: 1.

Put warm soapy water into a large bucket or container.

2.

Gather paintbrushes after each use.

3.

Wash in soapy water for 2-3 minutes to get paint off the brush.

4.

Rinse with water (or have a rinse clean water bucket set up).

5.

Lay brushes flat to dry on paper towels.

6.

After the brushes have dried, store them according to size in sturdy

containers.

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Painting Processes: Materials, Guidelines, Set-up, and Tips The intention of this handbook is for teachers to see applications for processes and subject matter across the grades. Often the simplest ways of applying paint will

produce the most exciting effects. Teachers are encouraged to embed all of the

techniques described and to remember they are not grade specific. It is important to give all students opportunities to use a variety of paints where they will discover

the differences. The following offers some basic information about three types of commonly used water-based paints that are suitable for use in Grades 1 through 8.

Visual Arts Materials Student access to quality materials is important.The following link provides teachers with a brief summary of materials and ways to combine them for open-ended

explorations in painting, drawing, mixed media, printmaking, and sculpture.

Basic Materials forTeachinq Visual Arts

These materials are also provided as Appendix 3.

Note: TDSB teachers - The full catalogue of Visual Arts materials is available through

theTDSB Distribution Centre.This is accessible through theTDSB home page under Purchasing (under"Services").

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A. Painting with Watercolour Watercolour comes in blocks of dry paint and tubes of colour. A small palette of colour provides a wide range of colours in one container with a lid. Giving students access

to all of the colours in this kind of palette may lead to too much mixing and therefore

muddy colours. Teachers may want to take out some of the colours that can be easily popped out.

Tip: If using colours that come in a palette set, cover the black block of paint with masking tape to avoid the use of black, which will overpower the other colours and

will encourage students to mix their own dark colours.

Soft, absorbent, natural bristled brushes must be used, as these can hold the watery paint and allow young artists to make washes of colour. Small synthetic brushes may be used for fine detail, as they will maintain a fine point.

See the set-up image for tempera paint. Teachers may wish to pop out a few colours (e.g., black, dark brown) in order to encourage students to make their own dark colours. The lid of the palette may be used to mix colours when working on a small watercolour painting.

Small amounts of watercolour paint will work on cartridge or even photocopy paper, but this should only be used for exploring and experimenting. Ideally, watercolour

paper should be used as it has texture (referred to as "tooth" on watercolour paper) that is more absorbent and will allow the qualities of the paint to be expressed.

Watercolour paper comes in a range of weights, and thicker paper will dry flat. Ninety-pound watercolour paper is suitable for students and can be taped down with

masking tape around the edges. When the painting is dry, tape is carefully removed,

leaving a crisp, white border that will frame the final artwork.

Watercolour paint "loves" to be watery, so encourage students to add clean water to their mixed-colour washes. There is no white in watercolour paint because using the

white of the paper and water is how colours appear lighter. This paint is transparent, and so layering on new colours over dry paint will create depth and visual interest.

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B. Painting with Tempera Tempera paint comes in liquid and circular blocks (sometimes called paint "pucks").

This paint is not transparent like watercolour paint, and it dries with a more opaque, chalky finish. It comes in a range of colours and also in white.The same techniques used with watercolour paint may be used with tempera.This paint may be diluted

to create delicate washes, or it may be used with less water to create deeper, solid opaque colours.

Synthetic brushes should be used with this paint, and it may be applied onto

cartridge paper, watercolour paper, primed canvas, primed masonite boards, or heavy

cardboard.

Place primary-coloured tempera blocks in palette and leave space for mixing a green wash, A cup ofclean water is used after excess paint is rinsed off in the dirty water. This keeps mixed colours from getting "muddy." Have available a variety of brushes, as well as paper towels to dab off excess paint or water.

C. Painting with Acrylic Acrylic paint comes in tubes, small tubs, or plastic bottles. Acrylic paint has a plastic

base. It dries opaque unless mixed with acrylic medium, and it will provide more vibrant colours than watercolour or tempera. Many primary classrooms use acrylic paint, and specific tips on using this paint with younger children are described in more

detail later in this handbook.

Brushes must be synthetic, and this paint may be used on a wide range of surfaces.

See the set-up for tempera paint. Place a plastic spoon or wooden stick in the paint for easy access to small quantities. Limit the access to colours and encourage mixing onto waxed paper taped inside a rectangular aluminum tray.

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D. Colour Mixing and Exploration Exploring colour with watercolour, acrylic, and tempera is an important part of

becoming comfortable with paint. Each type of paint will respond differently. The

focus here is on exploring and experimenting with tempera paint blocks. These suggestions may also be applied to paints such as liquid tempera, acrylic, and watercolour paints.

Materials • A variety of paintbrushes (flat, round, synthetic) • A variety of alternative painting tools (e.g., new toothbrushes, small pieces of thick cardboard, small rollers, spatulas, wooden spoons,

found twigs/sticks, and/or sponges) • Water and water container (ensure that the container is high enough

that it won't tip over when the brush is in it) • Cartridge paper or other heavy paper that can absorb small amounts of water

• Plastic tablecloth, large sheets of newsprint to protect tables

(reusable) • Tempera paint blocks • Plastic palettes for blocks (tempera blocks can also be placed in small plastic containers)

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Lesson Vocabulary The following definitions are taken from The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 1-8: The Arts.

Using this language naturally when creating or talking about art should be embedded

during class. Creating exercises to memorize and define these words or making colour wheels will not be meaningful learning.

Colour: An element of design. The particular wavelength of a light seen by the eye when an object reflects or emits light. The four characteristics of colour are hue

(name), value (lightness and darkness), intensity (saturation, or amount of pigment), and temperature (warm and cool).

Primary Colours: Red, yellow, and blue.These are colours that cannot be created by

mixing other colours, but that can be mixed to produce all other colours.

Warm Colours: Colours that suggest warmth (e.g., red, yellow, orange). Warm colours usually appear to advance into the foreground.

Cool Colours: Colours that suggest coolness (e.g., blue, green, purple). Cool colours often appear to recede into the background or distance).

Colour Wheel: A tool for creating and organizing colours and representing

relationships among colours.

Set-up and Routines • Cover tables with plastic tablecloth, newspaper, or newsprint.

• Distribute palettes of colour (e.g., tempera blocks in plastic palette). • Use the colours at an art centre or close to your desk area and explore

the various colours you can make. • Ideally students should have access to two containers of water. One

is to rinse their brush after each colour and the other is to get "clean" water for diluting paint. Select students who are responsible for

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exchanging the "dirty" water periodically. This practice will keep the colours fresh and helps avoid making colours combine on the palette. • Pairs of students should share a palette and be able to access it when standing to paint.

• Encourage students to create "recipe" notes on how they made a

particular colour that they like. • Place the variety of brushes and other painting tools on a supplies table, or distribute these to table groups in a plastic bin or large plastic

zip-lock bag. • Consider the colour-mixing concept(s) you are intending students

to explore and the purpose behind the activity. Be deliberate and

intentional with the colours you put out for the students to explore. Limit the colour palette for success (avoid putting all colours out, which often results in a "muddy" result).

Students may focus on combining colours in the following ways:

• Primary colour (blue, yellow, red) pairs to discover secondary colours • One or two colours plus white to explore tints • One or two colours plus black to explore shades • Complementary colour combinations (e.g., yellow/purple, blue/

orange, red/green) to explore ways to dull down colours • Analogous colours (colours close to each other on the colour wheel,

such as blue, green, blue/green) • Random choices made by students or teachers to simply explore possibilities

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\'

2

Mixing primary colours yellow and red to get the secondary colour orange

II U



Adding white to lighten (tint) colour

Experimenting with mixing white and black to create a range of values

Experimenting with mark-making, using the three primary colours, red, yellow, and blue

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Art Inquiry and Exploration Use the following guidelines with students: 1.

Demonstrate how to dilute the tempera block by applying (rubbing) a wet paintbrush into the paint. Re-apply clean water with paint

into a clean small container (or within the plastic palette) to create a "puddle" or wash of colour.

2.

Invite students to the tools at each table to explore the various ways

to apply the paint.

3.

Provide large blocks of time to explore and experiment with diluting,

mixing, and applying the paint. 4.

Pause for peer feedback and encourage a quiet workspace so

the teacher can offer descriptive feedback and other prompts to individual and groups of students. With a quiet workspace, everyone can hear this feedback and it is easier to focus on decisions being

made. Sometimes the right music can support a creative painting

environment.

Re-invented flower created from the paint mark­ making experimentation. Completed painting experiments were cut into shapes, reassembled, and glued onto a portion of one of the paintings. Children worked in small groups and created these flowers after examining and drawing from many flowers outside and in books.

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Teacher Tips

• Emphasize the importance of painting with clean water.

• Discuss what happens if too much water is applied. (You may choose to not explicitly teach this and set up as a discovery model and discuss afterward).

• Encourage students to stand up during their exploration with paint to encourage large brush strokes with a movement that uses the whole

arm. • Encourage students to try holding their brush near the end (away from

bristles) to create large sweeping brush strokes. • Experiment with holding the brush close to the bristles to get a

smaller, more controlled application of paint.

• Encourage students to experiment with mixing and layering colours. • After a painting is dry, re-apply paint to a section to discover how to

layer colours.

Gathering Evidence of Student Learning Pause the art making and encourage breaks for students to look at each other's work

and for feedback. • Listen to what students are saying during the process of the art exploration and record their thinking.

• Record student questions about the process and invite students to

answer each other's questions. • Look at samples and have students verbally guess how it was made (modelling art vocabulary). • You may investigate colour names (discuss paint colour names and

collect paint chips from a commercial paint store) and invite students

to name the colours they created.

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• Compare various colours and create anchor charts that capture this

learning. • Model proper arts vocabulary and give students opportunities to

practise. • Invite students to share their findings and discoveries with each other

(e.g., at circle time). • Document what the students are saying while engaged in the process

(i.e., what they notice or discover in the exploration). • Ask open-ended questions to provide opportunities for students to

share their thinking. • Display student quotations with both process and product examples

from students.

Gather students in large or small groups for sharing. This supports students in making decisions about what to do in their next painting.

Sample questions in large-group sharing may include:

• I wonder how Ben made this colour?

• I wonder how Chandra created the waves in this painting? • What kinds of colours did Matheson use in his painting? • I notice Sunny used cool colours in this painting. How does that colour

combination make you feel? • Tell me about the colours you used in this painting? How do these colours make you feel?

• What do you like most about your painting? Why? • Is there anything you would do differently the next time? • What do you think is the most important part of your painting?

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Additional questions to ask students: • What colour did you make here? • How did you make it? Can you show how you made it?

How would you describe that blue you made? What did you discover about mixing colours today? What did you notice about using a sponge to apply the paint? Where did you layer the colours? How did you create that effect?

When we continue tomorrow, what might you do next? Which purple is darker?

What is the difference between these two shades of yellow?

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Studio Painting Techniques A. Texture Rubbings and Wax Resists Invite students to explore and create their own textures on paper by rubbing paperless crayons, oil pastels, or white candles onto paper that is placed on a textured surface or texture plate. Creating a paint wash on top of this wax layer of texture will resist the

paint and the pattern will remain.

Materials • A variety of textures (e.g., wallpaper samples, corrugated cardboard, netting, doilies) • Texture rubbing plates (found, made, or purchased commercially) • Oil pastels, crayons, and/or wax candles (remove paper from pastels and crayons) • Cartridge paper and/or watercolour paper (90 lb.)

• Tempera block paints • Vegetable food colouring • Paintbrushes (large) • Small sponges

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Lesson Vocabulary Texture: The feel or look of a surface

Texture Plate: These are surfaces of texture that can be placed under paper and rubbed

with wax crayon, oil pastel, or candle wax to create layers of texture. They are available from art supply stores or may be made by gluing low textures onto heavy cardboard. Glue-gun patterns may be applied onto heavy cardboard and also work as texture

plates after they are dry.

Paint Resist: A technique in which colour or white is drawn or rubbed onto paper with

wax crayons or oil pastels, followed by the application of a water-based wash that "resists" the crayon or pastel marks.

Wash: A technique that involves broadly applying thin layers of diluted pigment to a surface, producing an almost transparent effect.

Warm Colours: Colours that suggest warmth (e.g., red, yellow, orange).

Analogous Colours: Two or more colours that are next to each other on the colour wheels, such as red, red-orange, and orange.

Loading Your Brush: Getting paint onto the brush by dipping the brush into paint.

Set-up and Routines • Cover tables with a plastic tablecloth, newspaper, or large sheets of

newsprint. • Avoid using easels, as paint will drip. If this is the desired effect, then

place paper onto the floor to collect the drips. • Discuss the concept of texture, and observe textures around the room

and outside of the classroom. • As a class, collect a variety of items from which to create rubbings

(e.g., doilies, textured wallpaper, sandpaper, corrugated cardboard,

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commercial texture plates, netting from fruit packaging) and create an anchor chart of various texture words (e.g., bumpy, smooth, rough).

• Demonstrate this art technique as a whole class, and then set up a centre for students to rotate through and explore.

• Label materials when possible and make sure students know where

these are stored. Clear containers are helpful for students to see what

the materials are (e.g., clear plastic egg containers, baby food jars, clear plastic containers).

• Take time to show students where materials are kept in the class, and

encourage them to help with set-up and putting materials away. • Model how to use and care for materials and tools (e.g., explicitly teach students how to wash brushes with soapy water, rinse them, and lay

them out flat to dry).

• Teach students the proper names for tools and materials, and give them opportunities to practise using the proper names of materials. • Find a designated location for work to dry and be stored. Drying racks

are the best solution, but use what space you have to store wet work while it's drying (e.g., window sill). • Organize cleanup routines that are clear and consistent (e.g., use a cleanup song).

• Delegate specific tasks to students, and signal time to stop working and begin tidying up.

Art Inquiry and Exploration Use the following guidelines with students: 1.

Choose a flat textured item to create a rubbing (e.g., sole of a shoe,

rubber car floor mats, texture plate). 2.

Place textured item under cartridge paper (texture side up).

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3.

Using the side of a peeled crayon, oil pastel, or wax candle, rub over

the texture onto the paper.

iff ____ 4.

Repeat using a variety of textures and layer the crayons/oil pastels/wax candles.

5.

Once rubbings are completed, create a paint wash with vegetable food

colouring or by diluting some block

tempera paint or acrylic paint (about 1 teaspoon of paint to 3-4 teaspoons of A tempera wash is applied over crayon rubbings, using a large brush.

water)

6.

Load the paintbrush with diluted paint

or vegetable food colouring, and apply

it over the texture rubbing, using large

brush strokes. Repeat until the whole

paper is covered in a wash. Choosing a

contrasting colourwash will enhance the rubbing. 7.

Lay the paper flat to dry.

A texture rubbing made with warm colours (red and yellow) is placed on a large sheet of newsprint before a wash of contrasting blue paint is applied with a small sponge brush.

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Samples of this painting technique after the paper has dried

A flower created from texture rubbings, where dried rubbings were cut and assembled into a flower pattern

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Teacher Tips

• Consider colour combinations to explore (e.g.; you may focus on warm

colours or analogous colours). • Encourage students to overlap textures and colours and fill the whole

page of paper. • Students may wish to work in pairs or small groups and work on larger

paper. • Encourage students to stand up and use their whole arm in broad

strokes. • Encourage students to try using a white crayon/oil pastel/candle for

the rubbing, and investigate what happens.

Gathering Evidence of Student Learning Engage in active observation and meaningful conversations while the students

are engaged in their art inquiries and explorations. Ask open-ended questions to understand their creative process and their thinking processes.

• Ask students to describe what they notice. Why does the paint not stick to the wax crayon?

• Take breaks during the art-making process for students to look at each other's work and for feedback.

• Take opportunities to model how to give specific feedback. • Listen and document what students are saying (i.e., their discoveries

and comments). • Record their thinking and post their words with the art.

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B. Wet on Wet This process explores what happens when two wet colours meet on paper or when wet paint is gently applied onto slightly wet paper.