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Handbook of modern Japanese grammar
 4590005700, 0893461490

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HANDBOOK OF MODERN JAPANESE GRAMMAR including Lists of Words and Expressions with English Equivalents for Reading Aid

口語日本文法便覧 (日本語特殊表現とその英語相当訳及び例題付)

by

YOKO M ATSU O K A McCLAIN University of Oregon

198 1

TH E

H O K U SEID O Tokyo

PR E SS

PL M3/7 Copyright © 1981 by The Hokuseido Press, Japan. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

ISBN 4-590-00570-0 ISBN 0-89346-149-0

First printing,1981 Second printing, 1982 Third printing, 1982 Fourth printing, 1982 Fifth printing, 1983 衫ixth printing,1983

P u b lish ed b y T h e H oku seid o P ress 3-12, Kanda-Nishlldcho, Chiyoda-lcu, Tokyo

ACKNOWLEDGMENT The enthusiasm and earnestness of my students at the Univeristy of Oregon during the past several years gave me the courage, in­ spiration and moral support to write this book, and I would first like to thank all of them. I am also grateful to those who wrote me from time to time commenting on my previous two books; their kind words often gave me much-needed encouragement. Special thanks go to those who took their valuable time reading the manuscript and offering helpful suggestions: Professors Stephen Kohl and Ryoko Toyama; Messrs. Bruce Batten, John O’Donnell, Michael Powell, Miss Juliet Thorpe, my husband Robert and son Ken.

PREFACE This book is intended both as a Japanese grammar reference book and as a reading aid, that is to say, an effective reference tool for those who study Japanese, either in a classroom or on their own. For that reason I have tried to explain the various grammatical points simply and concisely, avoiding the use of most technical terms and, whenever possible, comparing Japanese gram­ mar with that of English for clarity. Reference has sometimes been made to traditional Japanese grammatical explanations, but considerable liberty has also been taken wherever necessary to arrive at satisfactory, as well as easily understood, explanations. It is clear that the problems of teaching Japanese grammar to English-speaking students are entirely different from those of teaching this grammar to native Japanese students. For example, no Japanese, not even little children, would ask which particle, wa ^ or ga が, should be used for a certain occasion. Nor would a Japanese wonder which would be the correct way to form a verb and adjective な-form, and so forth. These, however, are some of the most confusing, if not most difficult, proolems that non-Japanese students face when they study Japanese. Japanese grammar books written for non-native students must include clear and convincing explanations for these kinds of problems peculiar to the Japanese language. Traditional Japanese grammar sometimes serves well for this purpose, but at other times it tends to hinder students’ learning by making the Japanese language appear more complicated than it really is. Japanese grammar may be complex, but it is not as difficult to learn as many people believe. Once the basic principles are learned, the structure of most sentences can be understood. For example, main verbs are always at the end of a clause or sentence; any element which changes the status of these verbs, such as nega­ tive, desiderative, or passive forms, will be attached at the end of the verb; and every modifier, whether an adjective, adverb, or some others, always precedes what it modifies; the position of the

vi

PREFACE

rest of the words, such as adverbial phrases, is very flexible, and so forth. Therefore, in spite of the often-heard remark, “ Japanese is an impossible language,” it is indeed possible for most students to learn to speak, read, and write modern Japanese. Naturally, the students need to make a conscientious effort, receive effective in­ struction if possible, and use quality dictionaries and reference books. My previous two books, Intermediate Japanese Reading Aids , Volume I, Verbs and Verb-following Expressions, and Volume II, Particles and Noun-supporting Words and Expressions, have fortu­ nately been received favorably by many teachers as well as students of Japanese. My original intent was to continue the series with a third volume which would cover adverbs and some other smaller problems peculiar to the Japanese language. Several users of the two volumes have suggested, however, that I should combine the - third volume with the first two, making one comprehensive Japanese grammar reference book. I am thankful for this suggestion, because it is a logical step in making my work more useable. The first two volumes have been revised ;many additional gram­ matical points have been included, and Japanese script has been added after the romanized words and sentences to make the book more bilingual. Further, because there are many expressions in Japanese which are difficult, or sometimes even impossible, to find in the dictionaries, I have added, as in the previous two books, alphabetically arranged lists of such expressions at the ends of several appropriate chapters. In translating Japanese expressions into English, I have tried to show some literal relationships between the original Japanese and the English expressions, while also trying to make the English translations idiomatically sound. Sometimes, however, this was not possible because of the marked differences between the two lan­ guages, in which case the literal translation is given in the paren­ theses immediately after the more idiomatic equivalents. Readers may find some inconsistencies in the use of kanji and 々awe 仮名• For example, the word 如 is usually written in フ 7 in such a case as か そ ん な 事 “ such a thing,” but it seems to be more common to write it in hiragana in such an expression

PREFACE

as こ とにする “ to decide.” This variation also depends on writers. Although the Japanese government has on several oc­ casions issued guidelines concerning the use of kanji and kana as well as the readings of kanji, it seems that even at present no uniformity exists, and convention in some cases persists, and in others gives way. Words which are often written in hiragana, but sometimes in kanji, depending on the writer, are first transcribed in hiragana, then followed by the corresponding kanji in parentheses. The book now begins with verbs and then goes to adjectives, a special class 〇£ verbs in Japanese. It then proceeds to particles, nouns, and the remaining parts of speech. I have adopted this order because I believe that verbs and particles are the most im­ portant grammatical elements in Japanese, while nouns and other parts of speech, though they have their own peculiarities, are less complex than verbs and particles. The work is complete with cross references and two indexes, one for verb- and noun- following expressions, and the other for grammatical points. My sincere hope is that this book will prove to be a useful reference tool for all those who use it.

CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENT ................................*................................... iii PREFACE............................................................................................. PARTS OF SPEECH

v

........................................................................... 1

VERBS ................................................................................................. Dictionary Form of JapaneseV e rb s............................................ Three Categories of Japanese V erbs............................................. I. Vowel-stem verbs 1 . -IRU verb ................................. 2. -ERU verb ................................. Exceptions—Consonant-stem verbs, ending with 4ru or -eru II. Consonant-stem verbs ....................................................... 1 . Stem consisting of one or more syllables plus a consonant ................................................................. 2. Stem consisting of one or more syllables plus the consonant -W .............................................................. 3. Stem consisting of one or more syllables plus the consonant - T .............................................................. 4. Stem consisting of one or more syllables plus the consonant - S .............................................................. III. Irregular verbs 1 . suru ............................................ 2. kuru ............................................ 3. nasaru type.................................. 4. gozaru ......................................... Conjugations of Japanese V e rb s................................................... Functions of Six Bases 1 . First Base .................................. 2. Second Base .............................. 3. Third B a s e ...................

3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6

X

CONTENTS

4. Fourth Base .............................. 6 5. Fifth Base .................................. 6 6. Sixth Base .................................. 6 Conjugation Charts ............................................................... 6 I. Vowel-stem verbs ............................................................ 6 II. Consonant-stem verbs ....................................................... 8 III. Irregular verbs....................................................................... 10 Conjugation of Suffix M a s u .............................................................13 Copulas, Da and Desu....................................................................... 13 Conjugations of Da and Desu.................................................. 15 How to form Ta-iorm and Te-iovm of Verbs .......................... 16 I. Vowel-stem verbs ............................................................... 17 II. Consonant-stem verbs ......................................................... 17 III. Exception .............................................................................. 18 IV. Irregular verbs....................................................................... 18 Tenses of Japanese V erbs................................................................ 18 Specificity of Japanese Verbs in Describing an A ction............... 19 Transitive Verbs and Intransitive Verbs (力 .. 21 List of Taddshi and Jiddshi................................................... 22 Directional V e rb s............................................................................ 24 I. kureru, kudasaru................................................................. 25 II. yarn, ageru ........................................................................ 25 III. morau, itadaku.................................................................... 26 Directional Verbs as Auxiliaries................................................... 27 I. V«e kureru, kudasaru......................................................... 27 II. Vte yarn, ageru ................................................................ 27 III. Vte morauy itadaku............................................................. 28 Causative Verb 7>-form plus a Directional Auxiliary Verb---- 28 Other Verbs of Directional R estrictions...........••....................... 29 Conditionals....................................................................................... 29 I. V8 to .................................................................................. 30

CONTENTS

xi

III. ^ ta r a...................................................................................... 31 IV. V8 n a r a ............................................................................... 31 Use of Toki...................................................................................... 32 Subjunctive...................................................................................... 33 I. “ if” 1 . H ypothetical.................................33 2. Contrary to fact ....................... 33 II. ''I wish. . Wish orDesire.............................................. 34 Miscellaneous Conditional Patterns ............................................ 34 I. Prohibition........................................................................... 34 II. Obligation............................................................................ 35 III. Denial of Obligation .......................................................... 36 IV. Permission............................................................................ 36 V. Suggestion............................................................................ 37 AUXILIARY VERBS ........................................................................ 38 VERB-FOLLOWING EXPRESSIONS ............................................ 39 I. Expressions which follow the First Base of the Verb .. 39 II. Expressions which follow the Second Base of the Verb.. 47 III. Expressions which follow the Third Base of the Verb .. 60 IV. Expressions which follow the Fourth Base of the Verb.. 81 V. Expressions which follow the Fifth Base of the Verb .. 82 VI. Expressions which follow the Sixth Base of the Verb .. 82 VII. Expressions which follow the Stems of the Adjectives .. 83 VIII. Expressionswhich followthe Copular N o u n s......................86 ADJECTIVES...................................................................................... Conjugation of Adjectives 1 . -ai ................................................ 2. -» ................................................ 3. -ui ............................................... 4. -oi ................................................ Ku-iorm of Adjectives..................................................................... Kute-iorm of Adjectives................................................................. Common Adjectival Tenses ..........................................................

87 88 88 88 89 89 90 90

xii

CONTENTS

Comparative and Superlative Degrees of Adjectives ................ 91 NON-CONJUG ATIVE ADJECTIVES................................................ 92 PARTICLES.......................................................................................... 93 Alphabetical List of Particles and Their Functions................... 94 INTERROGATIVE WORDS PLUS PARTICLES........................... 141 Alphabetical list of interrogative w o rd s ......................................141 Interrogative word + 如 ..................................................................141 Interrogative word+ _ ..................................................................142 I. Interrogative word+ mo+ positive verb ........................... 142 II. Interrogative word+ wo+ negative verb........................... 144 Interrogative word+V«e mo {de m o )............................................. 145 Convenient things to remember concerning some forms of interrogative word+ particles.............................................147 N O U N S..................................................................................................150 I. Characteristics of Japanese Nouns ..................................150 II. Various Forms of Japanese Nouns .................................. 150 1 . Noun usage similar to English u s a g e ........................150 2. Nouns used as adverbs without changing in form ..150 3. Nouns which are modified not by (verbal) adjectives but by adverbs or non-conjugative adjectives__ 151 4. Nouns which can be used as adjectives as well as adverbs ..................................................................... 152 5. Nouns which are unique to Japanese........................152 Copular nouns (Adjectival n o u n s ).................... 153 Pseudo-nouns (Nouns in form )........................... 153 III. Derivation of Noun F o rm s................................................154 1 . True nouns..................................................................... 154 2. Nouns derived from other parts of speech ............. 154 3. Compound nouns.............. 154 4. Abbreviated n o u n s ....................................................... 154

CONTENTS

5.

xiii

Japanized Western words............................................. 155

NOUN-FOLLOWING WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS.................... 156 COMMON NOUN-PREFIXES ...........................................................175 COMMON NOUN-SUFFIXES .....................

179

COMMON PROPER NOUN-SUFFIXES ......................................... 182 Geographical Names................ 182 Personal Names................................................................................ 184 TERMS FOR FAMILY MEMBERS AND RELATIVES ............. 186 NOUN MODIFIERS.............................................................

189

PRONOUNS...........................................................................................191 I. Characteristics of Japanese Pronouns...............................191 II. Common Japanese Pronouns .............................................191 1 . P e rso n ............................................................................ 191 2. Thing (Demonstrativepronoun).................................... 192 3. Place.................................................. 192 4. Direction.........................................................................192 5. Interrogative.................................................................. 192 ADVERBS.............................................................................................. 193 I. Forms of Japanese Adverbs ............................................ 194 1 . True adverbs..................................................................194 2. Adverbs derivedfrom other parts of speech.................194 II. Common Adverbs and their U sage.................................. 195 1 . T im e................................................................................195 2. Q uantity......................................................................... 196 3. Degree............................................................................ 196 4. Circumstance..................................................................197 III. Commonly Used Adverbs with Limitations according to Use ................................................................................... 197 1 . Adverbs used only with positive expressions ..........197

xiv

CONTENTS

2. Adverbs used only with negative expressions or negative ideas ...........................................................197 3. Adverbs with meanings varying according to use with positive or negative expressions....................198 4. Adverbs used with conditional expressions ............... 200 5. Adverbs used with tentative expressions .................. 200 6. Adverbs used with negative-tentative expressions .. 201 7. Adverbs used with expressions of comparison........... 201 ONOMATOPOEIC WORDS {GISEIGO and G ITA IG O ).................202 Alphabetical List of Common Giseigo and Gitaigo .................... 202 CONJUNCTIONS ................................................................................208 Alphabetical List of Common Sentence-beginning Conjunctions.. 208 Conjunctions betw een..................................................................... 210 1 . Nouns ............................................................................ 210 2. Adjectives ..................................................................... 210 3. Copular nouns .............................................................. 210 4. Clauses............................................................................ 210 a. Co-ordinating conjunctions........................... 210 b. Subordinating conjunctions ........................211 INTERJECTIONS................................................................................213 I. S urprise................................................................ 213 II. Distress ................................................................................213 III. Address ................................................................................213 IV. Answer ................................................................................213 V. Doubt ................................................................................... 213 VI. Resolving D oubt..................................................................213 VII. Admiration .........................................................................213 VIII. Urging...................................................................................214 FORMAL LEVEL OF WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS................ 215 Levels of Formality in Japanese....................................................215

CONTENTS

I. Informal Level..................................................................... 215 II. Polite L e v e l.........................................................................216 III. Formal L e v e l ..................................................................... 216 IV. Very Familiar L evel......................................................... .216 Honorific and Humble Verb Forms .............................................217 I. Honorific Forms Borrowed from Other Verb Forms----217 1 . Passive voice fo rm ....................................................... 217 2. Causative-passive form ................................................ 217 II. Regular Honorific and Humble Forms ........................... 218 III. Irregular Honorific and Humble Verb F o rm s .................219 Chart of Irregular Honorific and Humble Verb F o rm s............. 220 Formal Level of Adjectives ...........................................................224 Formal Level of Some Common Expressions...............................225 Three Levels of Im perative...........................................................226 Honorific Noun-Prefixes: O and Go .............................................227 Nouns of Time in Formal Speech................................................ 229 Extremely Colloquial Expressions ................................................ 231 APPENDIX I COUNTING SYSTEM.............................................233 Numbers .......................................................................................... 233 Original Japanese counting system ......................................233 System borrowed from the Chinese......................................233 Ordinal num bers..................................................................... 234 Japanese numbers and English numbers ...........................235 Counters................................................................................... 235 D ates................................................................................................. 241 Japanese y ears.........................................................................241 Conversion table: Modern Japanese Eras/Christian Era .. 242 Months of the year .............................................................. 243 Days of the week ..................................................................243 Days of the m onth..................................................................240 Lunar months .........................................................................244

xvi

CONTENTS

The Chinese Zodiac.........................................................................244 Hour of the day ........................................................................... 245 Duration of time ........................................................................... 246 APPENDIX II

PUNCTUATION................................................... 247

APPENDIX III

HOW TO READ A JAPANESE SENTENCE (SIMPLE STEPS TO FOLLOW) ....................248

INDEX

I

VERB-FOLLOWING EXPRESSIONS AND NOUN­ FOLLOWING EXPRESSIONS ....................... 253

INDEX II

GRAMMAR .................................................................264

PARTS OF S P E E C H 品詞くひんし〉 According to their uses in sentences, Japanese words are divided into seven large classes, which are again subdivided as shown below. Some parts of speech are similar to their English counterparts (e.g. common nouns such as tsukue {

Because the Japanese sentence often omits the subject, the verb assumes paramount importance for the reader. Tms chapter deals with various aspects of verbs, beginning with their conjugation. In order to present grammatical points as simply as possible, however, many of these points are included in the section “Verb­ following Expressions.” These expressions are alphabetically ar­ ranged under the six bases of verbs at the end of this chapter (pp. 39-83). For the benefit of those who are not familiar with Japanese verb conjugations, an alphabetical index of verb-following expres­ sions is provided at the end of the book (pp. 253-63), separate from the index of general grammatical points. The expressions which follow the stems of adjectives as well as of copular nouns are also included in this chapter, since many of these expressions are very similar to verb-following expressions (pp. 83-86). Some peculiarities of Japanese verbs which cannot be briefly explained in the section dealing with Verb-following Ex­ pressions (such as directional verbs, miscellaneous conditional pat­ terns, etc.) are presented under separate headings immediately after verb conjugations. DICTIONARY FORM OF JAPANESE VERBS The dictionary form of all Japanese verbs ends with u. This form appears as the third base of the verb conjugation on the charts that are presented on pp. 7-16. JAPANESE VERBS ARE ROUGHLY DIVIDED INTO THREE CATEGORIES I. Voweレstem verbs -IRU verb (Stem consisting of one or more syllaoles with the final vow el- / ) 上一段活用〈かみいちだんかつよう〉 e.g. m/r 汉 ( m i/ru ) 見 る “to see” frw ( i/ru ) い る “to be,’’ etc. 2. -ERU verb (Stem consisting of one or more syllables with

1 .

4

Three Categories of Japanese Verbs

the final vow el-五) 下一段活用〈しもいちだんかつよう〉 e . g . 化知ダ汉 ( ta b e /ru ) 食 べ る “to eat” ぬ rw (d e /ru ) 出 る “to go out,” etc. Exceptions: £he following verbs, though enamg with -iru or -erut belong to the consonant-stem verb group, (h air/u ) 入 る “to enter” み仍ゐ/⑼ ( h ash ir/u ) 走 る “to run” かw ( ir /u ) い ( 要)る “to need” (k aer/u ) 帰 る “to return” ゐ呀かw (kag ir/u ) 限 る “to limit” 々かw (k ir/u ) 切 る “to cut” s/z/rw (sh ir/u ) 知 る “to know,” etc. II. Consonant-stem v e r b s 五段活用〈ごだんかつよう〉 1 . Stem consisting of one or more syllables plus a consonant e.g. arw ( a r /u ) あ る ‘‘to be,” “to exist,” “to have” (kak/u ) 售く “to write” ッ麵 w (yom /u) 読 む “to read,” etc. 2. Stem consisting of one or more syllables plus the consonant -W (This -W is missing from the dictionary form. Thus the final u is preceded by another vowel.) e.g• か ( iw/ ) 言う “to say” 对 araw (naraw/ ) 習う “to learn” 3. Stem consisting of one or more syllables plus the consonant -T (Dictionary form of this group of verbs ends -TSU.) e.g. ma/sw (mat/ ) 待 つ “to wait” 化なm (tat/ ) 立 つ “to stand” 4. Stem consisting of one or more syllables plus the consonant •S e.g• ぬ sw (d a s/u ) 出 す “to take out,” “to mail” III.

Irregular verbs

1 . ⑽r な す る “ to do”サ行変格活用〈サぎょうへんかくかっよう〉 2 .

3 .

々Mrw来 る “to come” 力行変格活用〈力ぎょうへんかくかっよう〉 对 asar な な さ る “to do” (honoritic form of verb swrw) kuaasaru ドさる “to give” (honorific torm of verb ゐ鉍 ossharu おっしゃる “to say” (honorific form of verb か) かassみarw い ら っ し ゃ る “to be,” “to go,” “to come” (honorific

Six Bases of Japanese Verbs

5

不規則五段活用〈 ふきそくご だんかつよう〉 4 . 取 12c * m ご ざ る “to be” (polite form of the verb 不規則 五段活用

form of the verbs iruy iku, kuru)

Only the 2nd base is used in modern Japanese with the auxiliary masu. e.g. Koko ni hon ga gozaimasu. ここに本がございます. “There is a book here.” Koko ni hon ga gozaim asen. ここに本がございません•1 “There is no book here.” Koko ni hon ga gozaim ashita. ここに本がございました. “There was a book here.” etc. CONJUGATIONS OF JAPANESE VERBS On the following pages, the conjugations of Japanese verbs will be given. The six verb bases in traditional Japanese grammar are slightly different from the ones presented here. Due to the change in the kanazukai (kana usage) of verb endings, it seems logical to modify somewhat the traamonal conjugation in order to facilitate the student’s learning. It is essential for students to be well acquainted with these six bases, since numerous suffixes may be attached to them, creating broad ranges of meaning. FUNCTIONS OF EACH BASE (The Japanese term, the arbitrary English term, and the abbreviation are given with each base.) 1 . F/;が 及 脱 未 然 形 〈みぜんけい>—Negative Base (V\) Negative Base is an arbitrary term, because it refers to only one of the functions of this base. However, it may be helpful to use the term to keep the form in mind, because it is tairly simple to remember the nai-iovm of most verbs. 2. ゴ及脱連用形〈 れんようけい>—Continuative Base (V2) This is one of the most used forms. It is the form used in creating compound verb forms. Verbal nouns are also derived from it, e.g. kangae ^thoughf5 from kangaeru, “to think,” • 帰 り “the way back,” from ゐ 從 “to re­ turn.” The Second Base also functions as a coordinating conjunction, “and,” e.g. Ototo wa uchi de hon o yomi,

Six Bases of Japanese Verbs

6

3.

4.

5.

6

watakushi wa toshokan de benkyo sh im a sh ita . 弟は家で本を 読み私は図書館で勉強しました. “My younger brother read a book at home, and jl studied at the library.” 77h>ゴ 及 脱 Ja• 終止形〈しゆうしけい〉一 Conclusive B a se l 'v 、 \b• 連 体 形 く れ ん た い 分 い Attributive Base” 3’ The third base is the dictionary form of all verbs. The classical Japanese verb conjugation divided Conclusive and Attributive into two separate bases. However, the Japanese language has experienced fairly extensive grammatical changes through the centuries, and the conclusive and at­ tributive stems of modern Japanese no longer have separate forms (Exception: copular da [Conclusive], na [Attributive]. See p.lo.) Students should remember that the suffixes belong to the attributive verb functions. Tms will help to avoid confusion when students are introduced to classical grammar later. The attributive form of the verb is followed only bynouns. F ⑽バゐ及 ^ 仮定形〈かていけい〉一 Conditional (V4) The only function of this base in modern colloquial speech is to take the ending -bat which becomes simple conditional “if” or “when.” (For conditional-k, see pp. 30, 81.) i7/// み万仍设 命令形〈めいれいけい〉一Imperative Base (V5) As an imperative form, this is used only in rough speech. Therefore, the beginner should avoid it. However, this form is used often enough in sentences before the quotative to, e.g. Sensei ni kore o shiro to iwaremashita. 先生にこれを しろと言われました. “I was told to do this by the teacher.” . 汾ズ认 5as 沒推量形〈すいりょうけい>—Tentative Base (V6) In traditional Japanese grammar, the tentative verb was formed from the First Base. However, with use of the new kanazukai since 1946, it seems easier for students to re­ member this form if it is separated from the First Base and defined as a new base.

CONJUGATIONS OF JAPANESE VERBS I. Vowel-stem verbs

7

Conjugations of Japanese Verbs

-77?¢/ verb, m/rw (m i/ru ) 見



“ to

see”

suffix*

arbitrary term for base

1. mi

-nai, -zu -rareru -saseru, -sasu -saserareru, etc.

Negative

2.

mi

-masu -tai -sugiru -yasui, -nikui, etc.

Continuative

3.

mi

ru

a.

4.

mi

re

-ba

5.

mi

ro

stem

base formative

Conclusive —(desho, daro) (Dictionary Form) Attributive b. Noun Conditional Imperative

y〇

6.

mi

Tentative

y〇

■£7?ひ v e rb , 才 ^ erw (tabe/ru) 食 stem

base formative

1. tabe

べ る

“ to eat”

suffix*

arbitrary term for base

-nai, etc.

Negative

-masu, etc.

Continuative

2.

tabe

3.

tabe

ru

—(desho, daro) Conclusive (Dictionary Form) b. Noun Attributive

4.

tabe

re

-ba

5.

tabe

ro

a.

Conditional Imperative

y〇

6.

tabe

y〇

Tentative

Exceptions: Some verbs, though ending with - ir u or - e r u y belong to the consonant-stem verb group. For some examples, see p. 4. ♦For complete suffix list, see pp. 39-83.

8

Conjugations of Japanese Verbs

II.

Consonant-stem verbs

1 . 々M m (k ak /u ) 書 く “to write” stem

base formative

suffix*

arbitrary term for base

1.

kak

a

-nai, -zu -reru -seru, -su, etc.

Negative

2.

kak

i

-masu -tai, etc.

Continuative

3.

kak

u

a. b.

—(desho, daro) Conclusive (Dictionary Form) Attributive Noun

4.

kak

e

5.

kak

e

Imperative

6.

kak

5

Tentative

•ba

Conditional

2 .か ( iw**) 言 う “to say” stem

base formative

suffix*

arbitrary term for base

1.

iw

a

-nai, etc.

Negative

2.

i

i

-masu, etc.

Continuative

3.

i

u

a.—(desno, daro)

Conclusive (Dictionary Form) Attributive

b.

Noun

4.

i

e

5.

i

e

Imperative

6.

i

6

Tentative

-ba

Conditional

*For complete suffix list, see pp. 39-83. **In modern Japanese, the sound represented in transliteration by “w” disappears before all vowels except “a.”

Conjugations of Japanese Verbs

9

mafeM ( m a t /) 待 つ “ to wait” stem

base formative

suffix*

arbitrary term for base

1.

mat

a

-nai, etc.

Negative

2.

mach

i

-masu, etc.

Continuative

3.

mats

u

a.—(desho, daro) b. Noun

Conclusive (Dictionary Form) Attributive

-ba

Conditional

4.

mat

e

5.

mat

e

Imperative

6.

mat

6

Tentative

ゴ仍 m

( d a s /u ) 出 す “ to take out,” “to mail” stem

base formative

suffix*

arbitrary term for base

1.

das

a

-nai, etc.

Negative

2.

dash

i

-masu, etc.

Continuative

3.

das

u

a.一 (desho, daro)

Conclusive (Dictionary Form) Attributive

b. -ba

Noun

Conditional

4.

das

e

5.

das

e

Imperative

6.

das

0

Tentative *For complete suffix list, see pp. 39-83.

Note: The negative suffix n a i is the negative of the verb a r u t but n a i is in an adjectival form, and thus conjugates like an ad­ jective (see pp. 88-89). There is no such word as a r a n a i. Regarding the verb a r u (consonant-stem verb) and i r u (vowelstem verb): Both a r u and i r u mean Mto beJ, in the sense of “to exist,” but a r u is used with an inanimate object for its suoject, while ir u is used with an animate object for its subject. e.g. Koko ni /ww ga anVwfl似 . こ こ に 本 が あ り ま す . “There is a book here (A book exists here).’’

Conjugations of Japanese Verbs

10

K oko n i ゐ 你 g a 2•撕 似 • ここに人がいます. “The r e are people here (P eop le ex ist here).” A r u is also u sed in th e se n se of wto h a v e ,w but distin gu ish th is a ru from m otsu Kto have/* e.g. N 5 to g a o n ’wflSM k a • ノートがありますか‘ “D o you have notebook s (in you r p o ssession or to sell)?’’ N oto o m o tte im a su ka. ノートを持っていますか. “Do you have a n otebook (m you r personal p ossession )?, ,

III. irregular verbs 1 . stiru 寸'る

1.

suffix*

arDitrary term for base

i

-nai

N eg a tiv e

e

-zu

stem

base form ative

sh s s

a

-reru -seru , -su, etc.

2.

sh

i

-m asu

C ontinuative

-tai -niku i, -yasu i, etc. 3.

su

ru

a.一 (desho, daro) b.

4.

su

re

5.

se

yo

shi

ro

sh i

y〇

6.

-ba

N ou n

C onclusive (D iction ary Form ) A ttrib utive C onditional Im perative

T en tative ♦For co m p lete su ffix list, s e e pp. 39-83.

The verb suru is perhaps the most often used verb in the Japanese language. First, it is used as the verb meaning “to do,” or “to make** (something) into (something)•” e.g. Ima shukudai o s/h•な/桃仍w• 今宿題をしています. “I am doing my ** D istin gu ish th is “to m ak e” from “to m ake“ in th e sen se of “to crea te.” e.g. K yonen kon o y5fuk u o 去年この洋服を作りました. “I m ade th is dress la st year.”

Conjugations of Japanese Verbs

11

home work now.” Kono furui ki o (kitte) maki ni shimashd. この古い木を( 伐って) 薪にしましょう• “Let’s make firewood out

of this old tree (by cutting it).’’ It is also used as the verb meaning Kono udedokei wa ichiman-en shimashita. この腕時計は一万円しました• “This watch cost ¥ 1 0 , 0 0 0 It is also used for the passing of time, e.g. Ato ni-nen suru to uchi no kodomo wa daigaku o sotsugyd shimasu. あと二年す ると家の子供は大学を卒業します. “In two years our child will graduate from the university.” The verb suru is attached to many nouns of foreign origin (whether Chinese or Western), making them into verbs. For exam ple, つ^ 初 旅 行 ( t r a v e l ) m e a n s “to travel,” and ぬ ダ ン ス ( d a n c e ) m e a n s “to dance.” Also suru is used in some special expressions which almost cannot be translated into English. For example, Ano uchi wa omoshiroi 0 s/n•な m あの家は面白い形をしています. means aThat house has an interesting s h a p e , a n d Ano hito wa 仍 f we 0 か /桃a s w あの人は青い目をしています. means “That person has blue eyes.” m’ swrw 口にする means ato speak (of),,> or sometimes ato eat,}, and Ano hito wa sensei o shite imasu• あの人は失生'を 1 ています. means “He is a teacher (He serves as a teacher).’’ (for more usages oi the verb suru, see pp. 20-21) 来 る “to come” stem

base formative

suffix*

arbitrary term for base

1.

k

0

-nai -rareru -saseru, -sasu, etc.

Negative

2.

k

i

-masu -tai -nikui, -yasui, etc.

Continuative

3.

ku

ru

a.

Conclusive —(desho, daro) (Dictionary Form) Attributive Noun

b. -ba

Conditional

4.

ku

re

5.

ko

i

Imperative

6.

ko

y〇

Tentative *For complete suffix list, see pp. 39-83.

Conjugations of Japanese Verbs

The character should be read ko, kit ku} according to the varied forms of its conjugation, e.g• 来 な い ( 々onai),来ま す W m asu), 来 る ( 々《r u ) , 来 れ ば ( 々wreba), 来 い ( 知?i) , 来よう {koyo). Note: The verbs iku and k u r u are sometimes used in a different way from the English verbs “go” and “come.” When one uses iku, the direction of the action is always away from the location of the speaker, while with k u r u the direction of the action is always towards the speaker. Therefore, while in English one can ask, “May I come to your house tomorrow?”, in Japanese one has to say, A sh ita otaku n i itte m o ii desu kat and never A sh ita otaku n i k ite m o ii desu ka, unless one is at the listener^ house, and asks, “May I come here again tomorrow ?’’ A sh ita m o k ite i i d e su ka. (See also p. 55 for Vte iku , pp. 56-57 for V«e k u r u )

nasaru な さ る (honorific form of swrw) stem

base formative

suffix*

arbitrary term for base

1.

nasar

a

-nai, zu, etc.

Negative

2.

nasa** i nasar

-masu -tai -yasui, nikui, etc.

Continuative

3.

nasar

a.

u

b.

一 (desho,

Noun

daro) Conclusive (Dictionary Form) Attributive

4.

nasar

5.

nasa** i

Imperative

6.

nasar

Tentative

e

-ba

6

Conditional

*For complete suffix list, see pp. 39-83. **r is dropped before -masu and in the imperative form.

gozaru ご ざ る (polite form of /zrw) In modern Japanese, only the following forms are used: gozaimasu ございます;gozaimashita ございました;gozaimasen ございません: g 〇zaimash6 ございましょう. ( r is dropped before -masu)

Conjugation of Suffix masu

13

CONJUGATION OF SUFFIX ルMSC/ ます Masu is attached to the second base of all verbs and makes the tone of speech polite. Aside from changing the tone, it has no meaning. stem

base formative

suffix

arbitrary term for base

1.

mas

e

-n

Negative

2.

mash

i

•te, -ta

Continuative

3.

mas

u

a.一 (desho) b. Noun

Conclusive (Dictionary Form) Attributive Conditional

-ba

4.

mas

ure

5.

mas mash

e i

Imperative

6.

mash

6

Tentative

Note: Te-form {m ashite) and Imperative (mase, m a sh i) are used onlyin a very polite level of speech. Attributive (m asu before noun) and Conditional (m asureba) are seldom used in modern Japanese. The forms m a sen (negative present), m a sh ita (per­ fective), m a su (present), m asho (tentative), m a sen desh ita (nega­ tive perfective) are very common.

COPULAS, DA fd AND DESU ^

(Be-verb)

Copula da (informal form) and desu (polite form) may both be used as follows: 1 . As a predicate verb, they show that the subject (A) equals the complement (B). A complement may be a noun or some other part of speech. e.g. Watakushi wa gakusei desu• 私ぬ学生•です. A B “I am a student.” (A=B) Watakushi no jugyo wa ni-ji made desu. 私の授業は A B = 二時までです. “My classes are until two o’clock•” (A=B)

14

Copulas, da and desu

2. As a predicate, da (desu) is sometimes used as a substitute for other predicate verbs. e.g. Boku wa kareraisu da (ni suru) kedo, kimi wa nan* ni s u r u ? 僕はカレーライスだけど君は何にする. ^Fll choose (decide on) curry and rice; how about you? Boku wa sushi d a . 僕はすしだ• “I’ll choose sushi.” Note: This d a is used when the meaning is clear from the context as shown above. It often expresses one selection out of many choices.

Watakushitachi no kurasu wa Amerika-jin ga go-nin de (ite) Furansu-jin ga san-nin desu (imasu) . 私達の クラスはアメリカ人が五人でフランス人が三人です. "In our class five are Americans and three are French (There are five American and three French people). 3. After a place noun, ぬ and 加 w mean “is located at (in)” and are used in the same way as ni arimasut or ni imasu. e.g. Watakushi no uchi wa 7^々少0 ゴ ぬ 私 の 家 ^: 東京です. =Watakushi no uchi wa Tokyo ni arimasu. “My house is in Tokyo.” Gakusei wa 々jyJs/w’fewぬ似•学生は教室です • =Gakusei wa kyoshitsu ni imasu. “The students are in the classroom•” 4. After o-V2i they form the honorific expression. e.g. Ano kata wa okosan ga takusan ocn• ぬsm•あの方はお 子さんが沢山おありです• = ⑽ n' m• 則 r/wz仍 “He has lots of children.” BUT: After predicate adjectives, desu changes the ending to the polite level. It should be remembered that this desu does not have a verbal function, since Japanese predicate adjectives are not only adjectives but also verbs. Because predicate adjectives are the informal verb ending form, da is redundant, as shown in the following example. e.g. Kono uchi wa (informal ending)• この家は大きい. “This house is large.” Kono uchi wa J 々“ ぬ sw (polite ending)•この家は大きい です. “This house is large.” Wrong: Kono uchi wa okii da. {Da is redundant and cannot be used after adjectives.)

Conjugation of Copula, da

5.

15

daro (desho) after V3 or Vta shows probability. e.g. Kare wa mo sugu Amerika e iku dard. 彼はもうす (直)ぐアメリカへ行くだろう. “He will probably go to America soon.” daro {aesho) after V8 or Vta also indicates a light question, when the statement ends with a rising tone. e.g. Ashita irassharu ぬs/^• 明日いらっしゃるでしよう. “You are going tomorrow, aren’t you?”

CONJUGATIONS OF COPULAS, DA AND DESU Conjugations of both da and desu are highly irregular. 1.

da f i stem 1.



2.

de dat

3.

base formative

suffix

Continuative -ta Conclusive (Dictionary Form) Attributive

da na

4.

nar

5.



6.

dar

arbitrary term for base

-ba

a

Conditional

Tentative

6

da—de aru present

perfective

positive

da: de aru datta: de atta

negative

de wa* nai

de wa* nakatta

tentative daro: de aro de wa* nai daro

*A more colloquial form of ぬ で は

is プa じや .

Conjugation of Copula, desu

16

2.

desu です stem

base formative

suffix

arbitrary term for base

-te*, -ta

Continuative

1.



2.

desh

i

3.

des

u

(na)

Conclusive (Dictionary Form) Attributive

4.

(nara)

Conditional

5.



6.

desh

6

Tentative

*T^-form (d e sh ite ) is not commonly used. place.

De

often takes its

desu=de arimasu present

perfective

tentative

positive

desu: de arimasu

deshita: de arimasnita

desho: de arimasho

negative

de wa* arimasen de wa* arimasen deshita de wa* nai desu de wa nai deshita

de wa* arimasen desho de wa nai desho

*A more colloquial form of d e w a is ja . used in informal prose; informal men’s speech de aru impersonal; used in formal writing such as newspaper and scholarly articles d esu polite conversational d e a r i m a s u used in such occasions as formal lectures and speeches

Differences in usage: d a

HOW TO FORM T^l-FORM AND TE-FORM OF VERBS In classical Japanese tari-tovm (modern day ^-form) and te-iorm were formed by adding tari and te directly to the second base ending of all verbs. This is still true with vowel-stem verbs (for use of ta-iorm and ^-form, see pp. 51-59).

Formation of /fl-form and お-form

I.

17

Vowel-stem verbs—simply add ta or te to the stem, i.e. to the second base. third base (die. form)

stem

iru いる miru 見る deru 出る taberu ^

i mi de tabe

ta - io v m

simply add t a or te

ita mita deta tabeta

te - io r m

いた 見た 出た

ite mite dete tabete

食べた

l 、て 見て 出て 食べて

II. Consonant-stem verbs—This group of verbs went through various changes through the years. The formation of the modern te-iorm can be divided into four categories as shown below, and the one exception (the verb iku) that follows. final stem consonant change

third base stem (die. form) 1.

yomu

yom

m

yobu

yob

b

呼 (ぶ )

shinu

shin

死 (ぬ )

2.

3.

4.

changes to n : yonda add d a or d e

changes to n : add d a or d e n remains: add d a or d e

i u 言 ( う) iw*

w

matsu

mat

t

wakaru

wakar

kaku

kak

isogu

isog

dasu

das

^a-form

changes to t : add ta or te

remains: add ta or te r changes to t : add t a or te

te - io r m

yonde

yonda

>(ん だ ) yonae

shmda

shinde

itta

itte

matta wakatta

'

>(っ た ) matte

>(ん で )

>(っ て )

wakatte,

changes to i : add ta or te g changes to i : add d a or d e

kaita

( い た ) kaite

(い て )

isoida

( い だ ) isoide

(い で )

add ta or te to the 2nd base

dashita

( した ) dasnite

( して)

k

Note: Generally, if the final consonant is voiced, the /-sound of to and お is changed to a ^-sound, d a and d e. *Exceptions: Some classical verbs ending with u う which are still in occasional use (e.g. / ⑽ 問 う ) becomes /⑽ /fl 問 う た .

Tenses of Japanese Verbs

18

III. Exception iku

行く

ik

k

changes to t : add ta or te

itta

行った

itte

行って

来た

kite

来て

IV. Irregular verbs 1.

k u r u 来る

add ta or te to the 2nd base

kita

2.

suru

add ta or te to the 2nd base

shita

する

した

shite

して

T E N SE S OF JA PA N E SE V ERBS Jap anese verb fo rm s h a v e tw o m a in te n se s, th e p resen t and th e p erfe c tiv e (w h ic h d en o te s c o m p letio n of a ctio n and o fte n eq u als th e p a st te n se in E n g lish ). T h e r e is no fu tu r e te n s e form , and th e p resen t te n s e fo rm se r v e s th a t fu n ctio n . F or ex a m p le, su ch E n g lish ex p r e ssio n s a s “I e a t,” “I sh a ll e a t,” “I w ill e a t,” and “I am g o in g to ea t /5 ca n all b e ex p re sse d in Jap an ese b y Watakushi wa tabemasw• 私 は 食 べ ま す . t h o u g h in a ctu a lity su ch e x p r e ssio n s as Tabeyd to omotte i m a s u . 食 べ よ う と 思 っ て い ま す . or Taberu to o m o im a s u . 食 べ る と 思 い ま す • a re m o re lik e ly to b e u sed . T h e Jap an ese p resen t te n se also e x p r e sse s h a b itu a l action : H undo shita

ato de wa itsumo yoku ta b em a su . い い 運 動 し た 後 で は い つ (何 時 )もよ く食 べ ま す . “Af t er e x e r c isin g w ell, w e a lw a y s ea t a lo t.”

O ne h a s to k eep in m ind, h o w e v er , th a t the_ p resen tJten se_Q i-th e Jap an ese verb o fte n im p lies an in sta n ta n e o u s a ctio n o f th e p resnt rath er th a n a p rolon ged a ction . F or ex a m p le, w h ile in E n g lish w e ca n u se a sim p le p resen t te n s e and sa y , “I liv e in T o k y o n o w ,” in Jap an ese o n e h a s to u se iru fo rm an d sa y , Watakushi wa ima Tokyo ni sunde i m a s u . 私 は 今 東 京 に 住 ん で ぃ ま す • a s lo n g as so m e d uration is in v o lv ed in th e a c tio n of th e verb. T h e fo rm Yte i^u (ita) is m a in ly u sed fo r th e te n s e eq u iv a len t to th e E n g lish (1) p resen t (past) p ro g re ssiv e (for an a ctio n o cc u r rin g at th e m om en t), and (2) p resen t (past) p e r fe c t (for an a ctio n th a t b eg a n in th e past and co n tin u es in to th e p resen t). T h e r e a re se v e r a l o th e r verb s b esid es sumu w h ic h are u su a lly u sed m th e V te iyu form . e.g. motsu { 幻 • な い わ け に は いかない can’t very well not do something, e.g. Tetsudawanai wake ni wa ikimasen deshita. 手 伝 わ な い わ け に は い き ま せ ん で し た . “I couldn’t very well not help them .” 夕o « 名な V、ように

in order not to,

e.g.

Gakko ni okurenai yd

m• み砂a 知 Mz•桃似 w• 学 校 に 遅 れ な い よ う に 早 く 起 き ま す • “I g e t up ea rly in order not to be late fo r sch oo l.”

-nakatta っ ャ こ (p erfectiv e of nai) -nakattara ナ&かつ t こb (n e g a tiv e con d itional) if not , e.g. Kyd owaranakattara md ososugimasu yo• 今 B 終 ら f t かつナこらもう、 遅•すぎ ま す よ • “If y o u don’t fin ish it tod ay, it w ill b e to o la te.”

-wa 知 ;^ ろ0 な け れ ば

=_nakattara

-wa知 r め 0 f 知 wa:/ な け れ ば ぃ け な ぃ :yaw m u st (often u sed w ith th e secon d person), e.g. Yoku benkyd shinakereba ikemasen y o . よく 勉 強 し な け れ ば い け ま せ ん よ • “Y ou m u st stu d y h a rd !” S e e p. 35 for m ore exam p les. なければならない/

first and th ird person), e.g.,

m u st (often used w ith th e

Ashita shiken ga aru karay kyd ben­

kyd shinakereba n a rim a se n 明 日 試 験 が あ る か ら 今 日 勉 強 し な け れ ば な り ま せ ん • “B e ca u se I h a v e a te s t tom orrow , I h a v e to stu d y hard tod ay.” S e e pp. 35-36 fo r m ore exam p les.

•nakute 卞:乂 て because n o t , e.g. Chikagoro gohan ga taberarenakute komatte im a s u . 近 頃 ご は ん ( 御 飯 )が 食 べ ら れ な く て 困 っ て い ます.

“Lately I haven’t been able to eat, and I am having

V^following Expressions

reru 43

trouble (because of it).”

•nakute mo ナこくて% even if you don’t •••, e.g. Neko wa nannichikan mo tabenakute mo shinanai so desu. 猫 は 何 日 間 も 食 べ な く て も 死 な な い そ う で す • “I heard that cats won’t die, even if they don’t eat for m any days.” •nakute mo ii な く て も い い need not, do not have to, e.g. 5^wひ

hon wa yomanakute mo ii d e s u . そ の 本 は 読 ま な く て も い い で す . “You don’t have to read th at book•” See pp. 36-37 for more ex­ amples.

•nakuto mo 卞s:く

と も

=-nakute mo

-w必0 w似tzw似• ね ば な ら な い =-nakereba naranai (-neba is the conditional form of nu) ぬ (negative suffix) frequently contracted to -w as in

•rareru

られる

this form is attached to vowel-stem verbs, e.g. 来 る 々 and has three separate functions. It will generally be clear from the context which m eaning is intended. 1 . sign of passive, e.g. Watakushi wa kyo haha ni shikarare• 私は今日母に叱られました • “I was scolded by my m other today (and I suffered from In Japanese pas­ sive voice, the subject often suffers from the action expressed by the passive verb. T he agent which takes “by” in English is expressed by the particle m’ in Japanese (See p . 122).

化知rawrw, and to the irregular verb

Note: a. b.

Directional verbs are not made into passive forms. Intransitive verbs can be made into passive forms in Japanese.

Kyd isogashii no ni tomodachi ni korarete komatta.

今日忙

しいのに友達に 来られて困った .

“I was busy today, but my friend came and I had trouble.”

2.

as an honorific, e.g. Sensei ga taberaremashita. 先 生 が 食 べ られました • “T he teacher ate it.” (See pp. 217-23)

3.

as a potential, e.g.

raremasu ka.

Anata wa Nihon no tabemono ga tabe-

あなたは日本の食物が食べられますか.

“Can you eat Japanese food?” •rerw れる this form is attached to consonant-stem verbs, e.g. and to the irregular verbswrw ,する sflrerM, and lias two separate functions.

44 -saserareru

Vi-following Expressions

1 . sig n of p a ssiv e, e.g. Minna ni warawaremashita. 皆 に 笑 わ れ ま し た . “I w a s lau gh ed at by ev ery b o d y .” 2.

as an honorinc, e.g. Sensei ga warawaremashita. 先 生 が 笑 わ れ ま し た . “T h e tea ch er lau gh ed (or sm iled ).” Note: A consonant-stem verb has a different potential form, e.g. waraeru ucan laugh,H yomeru Kcan read,w kakeru ucan write/* etc. The irregular verb su m has a potential form, dekiru Mcan do.M The verb iku has two potential forms, ikeru (regular) and ikareru (irregular), ucan go/* both commonly used. Ikareru, besides being used as the potential form, has a slang usage, meaning “be touched in the head,” e.g. Aitsu wa konogoro mattaku ikaぴか/ na• あ い つ は こ の (此 ) 頃 全 く い か れ て い る な . “Something is really wrong with that guy(,s head) lately.w The verb miru has two potential torms, mieru (irregular), and mirareru (passive form): the former means Kis visible,w and is more commonly used. e.g. Kono mado kara Fuji-san ga mie騰 似 . こ の 窓 か ら 富 士 山 が 見 え ま す . “Mt. Fuji is visible (We can see Mt. Fuji) from this window.” Mirareru^ besides being used as the potential form, has a slang usage, meaning “can bear to look at,w e.g. Kare no kaita e wa mazukute totemo mirareta mono ja nai• 彼 の か い た 絵 は ま ず く て と て も 見 ら れ た も の じ ゃ な い . “His painting is so bad that you just can’t look at it.” The verb kiku has two potential forms, kikeru (regular) and 々/々 沉 (irregular); the latter means “is audible.” e.g. Nihonjin no oku wa eru to dru no chigai ga kikem asen. 日 本 人 の 多 く は ェ ル と ア ー ル の 違 い が 聞 け ま せ ん • “Many Japanese cannot hear the difference between “1” and “r.” Ii ongaku ga 々 沉 桃 • い い 音 楽 が 聞 こ え ま す a “ Good music is audible.” “I can hear good music.”

-saserareru さ せ ら れ る = ( causat i ve- passi ve) v o w el-stem verb, tsuzukesaserareru {tsuzukesasareru). It h a s tw o fu n ctio n s: 1 . is cau sed (forced) to, e.g. Tsumaranai shigoto o tsuzukesaserarem ashita. つ ま ら な い 仕 事 を 続 け さ せ ら れ ま し た . “I w as fo rced to co n tin u e a b o rin g job.” 2.

h igh form of honorific, e.g.

Heika ga sore o tsuzukesaserareta.

陛 下 が そ れ を 続 け さ せ ら れ た . “H is M ajesty d eig n ed to co n tin u e

it.” さ

( S e e p. 218) せ



(cau sative),

both

fo rm s

are

attached

to

tabesaseru (tabesasu)t m a k e s on e d o , e.g. Kodomo ni gohan o tabesasemashita. 子 供 に ご は ん (御 飯 )を食べさ v o w el-stem verb,

せ ま し た . “I m ade m y child ea t,” or “I fed m y ch ild .”

•sete ageru 45

Vi-following Expressions

似忍な 0飲 r w さ せ て 上 げ る = - s 似み/ か 0炊 rw -sas^ か fo rm is m ore refined and preferred. A llo w so m eo n e to do so m eth in g , e.g. fomo-

dachi ni tsuzukesasete agemashita•

友 逢 K■ 統 け さ せ て 上 y f ましすこ.

“I allow ed m y frien d to co n tin u e.” ネ-sasete

itadaku

さ せ X い た t i く = -s o :s み

do som eth in g, e.g.

/ か



be p erm itted to

Oishii mono o tabesasete itadakimashita•

しいものを食べさせていただきました.

お 、、

“ I w a s p erm itted to ea t th e

ta s ty food.”

*-sasete kudasam

さ せ て ~f さ る = - 從 shY 衫



allo w m e to do

失i电 が 較 ベ さ せ て 下 さ い ま し た . “ M y tea c h e r allow ed m e to com p are.”

so m eth in g , e.g.

Sensei ga kurabesasete kudasaimashita•

ネ-sasete

kureru させて く れ る = - 似 s/^•か 々 ⑽ m ea n in g sa m e as shove,e.g. Chichi ga sakuban dekakesasete kuremashita• 父 が 昨

晚 出 か (掛 ) け さ せ て く れ ま し た • “M y fa th er allo w ed m e to g o out

last n ig h t.” *-5仍 设 か さ せ て も ら ( 貰 )う a s -sasete itadaku, e.g. Mado

= - 似 s/w•か

m ea n in g sa m e

o akesasete moratte n desu ka.

を開けさせてもらっていいですか.

“A m I p erm itted

to



(m ay

I)

open tn e w in d o w rn *-似 s 沒か: さ せ て や る ageru, e.g. Kodomo ni

=-sashite yaru m ea n in g sa m e as -sasete okashi o tabesasete yarimashita. 子 供 に お

菓子を食べさせてやりました•

allow ed m y ch ild to ea t can d y.”

•從 rar び m せ ら れ る =-sareru ca u sa tiv e-p a ssiv e, th e se form s, a t­ tach ed to con son an t-stem verb, yomaserareru (yomasareru), h a v e tw o fu n ctio n s: 1 . is cau sed (forced) to, e.g.

Tsumaranai hon o yomasaremashita.

つまらない本を読まされました•

“I w a s fo rc ed

to

read

an

u n in te re stin g b ook.” 2.

h ig h fo rm of honorific, e.g. 陛下がそれを読ませられた•

Heika ga sore o yomaserareta. “H is M a jesty read it.”

( S ee p.

218) -從 m せ る ( -似 ) ( cau sative), th e se fo rm s a tta ch ed to co n so n a n t-stem verb,

yomaseru (yomasu),

e.g.

Imoto ni hon o yomasemashita.

妹 に 本 を 読 ま せ ま し た • “I m ad e m y y o u n g er sis te r read a book.”

*-從 な a: 辟 r w せて上げる

か 《炊 rw -沉 纶 fo rm is m ore refined *

* For a more detailed explanation on the use of causative verb

plus directional verbs, see pp. 28-29.

な-form

Vi-following Expressions

46 -sete itadaku and preferred.

A llo w so m eo n e to do so m eth in g ,

o yomasete a g e m a s u . こ の 本 を 読 ま せ て 上 げ ま す .

e.g . Kono hon “I’ll a llo w yo u

to read th is oook.” ネ-sete

itadaku せてい于こf i く = -shite itadaku be p erm itted to do so m eth in g , e.g. Sensei ni ikasete itadakim ashita. 先 生 に 行 か せ て い た だ き ま し た • “I w a s p erm itted to g o by m y tea ch er.”

ネ-sete

kudasaru

= -shite kudasaru a llo w m e to do Sensei ga watakushi ni kakasete kudasaimashita.

せ て 飞 さ る

so m eth in g , e.g.

先生が私に書かせて下さいました.

“My

tea c h e r

allo w ed

me

to

w rite .”

=-shite kureru m ea n in g sa m e a s above, Ototo ga watakusni ni hon o tsukawasete kuremashita. 弟

*-沉な々 wwrw せ て く れ る

e.g.

が 私 に 本 を 使 わ せ て く れ ま し た • “M y y o u n g er brother allo w ed m e

to u se h is b ook.” *-沉 か せ て も ら ( 貰 )う

itadaku,e.g.

= -sみ

/ か

m ea n in g sa m e as -沉な

Taro ni norasete moraimashita. 太 郎 に 乗 ら せ て も ら

い ま し た . “I w a s p erm itted by T a r6 to ride.”

*-沉なツ arw せ て や る = -shite yaru m ea n in g sa m e as -sete agerut e.g. Taro ni yomasete yarimashita. 太 郎 に 読 ま せ て や り ま し た . “I allo w ed TarO to read.”

-zaru o enai

ざ る を 得 な い ca n n o t h e l p . . . in g, e.g. Okorazaru 怒 ら ざ る を 得 な か っ た . “I cou ld n ’t help b ein g an g ry .”

-zu - f

o

an oth er n e g a tiv e en d in g, th e sa m e as -w瓜.

力Vwc/ ずじま L、( 仕 舞 ) end up w ith o u t. . . in g, e.g. Kyd wa amari isogashikute ichinichi-ju tabezu jim ai d a t t a . 今 日 は あ ま (余 )り忙 し く て 一 日 中 食 べ ず じ ま い だ っ た . “I w a s so b u sy all day to d a y th at I had no tim e to ea t (I en d ed up w ith o u t ea tin g ).”

•zu ni

=nai de w i t h o u t i n g , e.g. Gohan o tabezu ni nete m a s w . ご は ん (御 飯 )を 食 べ ず に 寝 て い ま す • “H e is sle e p in g w ithou t h a v in g ea te n d inn er.” m. 〇 幻

ずにお( 措 )か な い

can n ot help but t o

,

e.g.

Kono hon wa dokusha o miryo sezu ni wa o k a n a i. こ の 本 は 読 者 を 魅 了 せ ず に は お か な い • “T h is book can n ot h elp but fa scin a te th e

reader.”

•zu shite

ず し て

=-zu ni=nai de*

* For a more detailed explanation on the use of causative verb /e-form plus directional verbs, see pp. 28-29.

-ddshi 47

V2-following Expressions

Expressions which follow the Second Base 連 用 形 〈れ ん よ う け い 〉 of the verb. Som e of th e w ord s listed b elo w m a y also be used

II.

a s independent verbs. - か似o k sw お V 2 遊 ば す

h ig h form of honorific, e.g.

O似

a仰­

み 仍 お 坐 り 遊 ば し ま し た • “S he sa t d ow n .”

-か ^ば ( 栄 )え

show n (heard) to advantage, e.g.

Ano tenrankai wa

ぬ e 卵 化 • あ の 展 覧 会 は 見 栄 え が し た • “T h at exh ib ition w as

m uch to look at.” 沿 •々 み ⑽ A m 似 ⑽ 取 聞 き 栄 え の し な い 音 楽 “m usic not p leasin g to h ear” ぬ お

V2 だ

( colloqu ial h on orific) =〇 V 2 m.

例々々6

no oshigoto mo oari da shi,kodomo-san mo oari da kara oisogashii d 似 /^•あ な た は 学 校 の お 仕 事 も お あ り だ し 子 供 さ ん も お あ り だ か ら お 忙 し ぃ で し ょ う . “Perhaps you are busy, since you not only have

your schoolwork, but you nave children, too.” - d t o w 出す 1 . . . . 0 u t , e.g. Os/パc t e 如 • 押 し 出 し ま す • “I push it out.” 2. s t a r t . . . in g [in v o lu n ta r ily ], e.g. A rukidashim ashita. 歩き也 しまし た • “I started w a lk in g .” Note: The latter usage is the more common.

-de ga aru でがあ る be su bstan tial, e.g. Kono hon wa yomide ga a r im a s u . こ の 本 は 読 み で が あ り ま す • “It ta k es one a l o n g tim e to read th is book throu gh .”

•ddshi

どうし keep ••• ing, e.g. Asa kara ban made kyd wa tachi必 s M ゴぬか7a •朝 か ら 晚 ま で 今 日 は 立 ち ど う し で し た • “T od ay I kept

stan d in g from m o rn in g till night.**

48 -enai

V2-following Expressions

ぬ• え ( 得 )ない

is not possible ,e.g. Sonna koto wa a rien a i. そん “Such a thing can’t be possible.” positive of

な事は有り得ない.

•enaiy urut p. 59. •gachi がち tend to • • • ,e.g. Amari atsui no de namakegachi ni n a r im a s u . あ ま (余 )り 暑 い の で 怠 け が ち に な り ま す . “Be caus e it is too hot, w e ten d to g e t lazy.” •奴 / 甲 斐 如

w o r t h . . . in g ,e.g. Ano ko wa narC de mo yoku oboeru • 辦 arw •あ の 子 は 何 で も よ く 覚 え る か ら 教 え 甲 斐 が あ

る• “Because th a t child can learn everything well, it is worth teaching him.” -卵 t o • が た (難 )い

difficult t o = m •々如• ( -砂 :/瓜• is m ore literary)

Totemo imi arige na kao o shite watakushi o m im a sh ita . と て も 意 味 あ り げ な 顔 を し て 私 を 見

•供 げ

seeming condition of others, e.g.

ました • “He looked at me w ith a face th at seemed to hold some meaning.”

•hajinteru

始める start . . . ing, e.g. “W e start ea tin g .”

Tabehajimemasu. 食 べ 始 め ま す .

•katasu

荣ナこす finish," . wp ,e.g. Okane o sukkari tsukaihatashitcii お 金 を す っ か り 使 い 果 た し た • “I u sed up all m y m o n ey .”

-hateru 吳 てる en d up, be finished, e.g. Kyo wa isogashikute tsukarehatete shimaimashita. 今 日 は 忙 し く て 疲 れ 果 て て し ま い ま し た . “I w a s so b u sy th at I w a s ex h a u ste d .”

o-ttasu ^ V2 gC 'f

h um ble form , e.g.

Odenwa o okake itashimashita.

お 電 話 を お か け 致 し ま し た • “I called y ou .”

-kaest{ 返 す

( S ee p. 218)

Yomikaeshimashita.読 み か Iikaesu 言 い か え す . “talk b a ck .” (tadoshi,see pp. 21-24), (cf. V2 naosu, p. 50).

r e - . . . in g, do again , e.g.

え し ま し た • “I read it a gain .”

Note:

kaesu

means to return

-kakeru る s t a r t . . . i n g [but soon in terrup ted], e.g. Benkyo shikaketa tokoro e tomodachi ga k im a sh ita . 勉 強 し か け た と こ ろ へ 友 達 が 来 ま し た • “W h en I started stu d yin g, m y friend ca m e.”

-々flw w w 兼ねる be hard to, e.g. す が … “It’s hard to say, but … ”

從 m a s w 沿2 •.•申 し 兼 ね ま

•kata 卞 m anner , w ay, how to, e.g. Ano hito no Nihongo no hanashikata wa sukoshi okashii desu. あ の 人 の 日 本 語 の 話 し 方 は 少 し お か し い で す • “H is w a y of sp ea k in g Japanese is a little fu n n y .” •Sみ/々が a:辦 《の• . 仕 方 が な い “N o th in g can be done about it.” “It can’t b e h elped.” (cf. V 2 yd, p. 60)

-nagara 49

V2-following Expressions -々 か 谷 切 れ る

run out of, e.g.

te shimaimashita.

Kino uridashita no nit mo urikire-

昨日売り出したのに, もう売り切れてしまいまし

た . aAl t h o u g h th e y ju st sta rted se llin g it y este rd a y , it is already-

sold ou t.},

-kiru 会る be th rou gh , co m p letely , e.g. Kyo wa tchimchi-ju isogashikute tsukarekitte shimaimashita. 今 日 は 一 B 中 1 くて '腹h き っ て し ま い ま し た . “ I w a s so b u sy all day to d a y th a t I am

n ow

a ll tired ou t.” 込む

1 . in, in to, e.g. Hon ni kakikom im ashita. 本 に 書 き 込 み ま し た . “I w ro te in th e book.” Puru ni tobikomimashita. プ _ ル に 飛 び 込 み ま し た • “I jum ped in to th e p ool.” 2.

to s e ttle firm ly in th e sta te o f p reced in g V 2, e.g. Kare wa soko ni suw arikonda. 彼 は そ こ に 坐 り 込 ん だ . “ H e sa t d ow n th e re (and did not m o v e).”

o-kudasai

V2

p o lite im p era tiv e, e.g.

Onomi k u d a s a i. お

飲 み 下 さ い • “P le a se d rin k .” ゴ 從 お V 2 下 さ い ま せ m ore p olite im p e ra tiv e th a n above. O 如 知 々 wぬ似/桃仍设 • お か け 下 さ い ま せ “W ou ld yo u p lea se sit d o w n .”

-w 仍 w ま す (p olite suffix), s e e p . 13. w ill g o .” - m o . . . mo sw n / も • " も す る

e.g.,

I k im a s u . 行 き ま す •

do b oth . . . a n d .

Nihongo o yomi mo kaki mo shimasu•

e.g.

“I

Ano hito wa

あ の 尺 は H本 語 を 読 み も 售

き も し ま す • “H e read s Jap an ese and w r ite s it as w e ll.”

•mo shinai

也 し な \/、 d on’t e v e n do, e.g.

Mi mo sh in a k a tta . 見も

し な か っ た • “S h e d id n ’t e v e n look at it.”

-w o swr 以 0 V 2 肢 ?s 狀 m も す れ ば V 2 もする do b o t h . . . a n d . . . , not o n ly . . . but a lso • • • , e.g . Ano hito wa yoku tabe mo sureba nomi mo s h im a s u . あ の 人 は よ く 食 べ も す れ ば 飲 み も し ま す • “H e not o n ly e a ts a lot, b u t d rin k s a lot, to o .”

-mono 物 th in g , e.g. 食 物 ‘‘th in g to e a t,” “fo o d ” -nagara ヤ【が b sim u lta n e o u s sta te or actio n o f th e sa m e person (cf. V 3 aiday p. 60) 1 . whi l e, e.g. Rajio o kikinagara tabako o n o m im a s u . ラジオ を 聞きながらタバコ( 煙 草 )を の み ま す • “W h ile I am lis te n in g to

th e radio, I sm o k e .”

50 -naosu

2.

V2-following Expressions

though, e.g.

Shitte inagara nani mo iimascn dcshita. 知 っ て

ぃながら何も言ぃませんでした•

“Although he knew, he didn’t

tell me anything.”

•naosu

r e - . . . , e.g. Kakinaoshimasu. 書 き 直 し ま す • “I’ll re{naosu m eans {り さ え す ]

aIf only I had money, I would go to

Japan th is year, b u t . . . n

•shidai 、 次第

as soon as, e.g. Tabeshidai ik im a s h o .食べ次第行き go as soon as we finish eating.”

ま し ょ う . “ Le1:’s

-sd da

そうャと,

-sd na そう于s: 100k as if it will (seems imminent), Arne ga fu r iso d e s u . 雨 が 降 り そ う で す • “It looks like rain.” A m e ga furiso na soramoyd desu. 雨 が 降 り そ う な 空 模 様 で す .

e.g.

“T he sky looks like it will rain .”

V2-following Expressions

-ta{-da)bakari ni 51

-sd mo nai そ う も ts:、、 = -s o ni nai it lo o k s a s if d o . • • , e.g. Ano hito wa kyd kisd mo arimasen.

one w o n ’t e v e n あの入ぬ今

H朱

そ う も あ り ま せ ん • “I t lo o k s a s if h e w o n ’t e v e n c o m e to d a y .”

-sd ni naru そ う に ts:る almost ••• , e.g. Kesa puru de oboreso ni n a rim ashita. 今 朝 プ ー ル で 溺 れ そ う に な り ま し た • “T h is m o rn in g I a lm o s t d ro w n e a in th e pool.”

-sobireru そ び れ る fa il to •••, lo se a c h a n c e to •••, e.g . Daiji na koto o iisobiremashita.大 事 な 事 を 言 い そ び れ ま し た • “I m isse d a c h a n c e to s a y a n im p o rta n t th in g .”

-sokonau

損 fs :う

fa il to d o . . . , e.g .

Koen o kikisokonatta. 講 演 を

聞 き 損 っ た . “I m issed h e a rin g th e le c tu r e .”

-sugiru

過ぎる

o v e r - •••,e.g .

Kind tabesugim ashita. 昨 日 食 べ す ぎ

ま し た . “I o v e r a te y e ste rd a y .” -sm沿V w 々/r似• 辦



d e n cy to o v e r - . . . , e.g .

(過 )ぎ る き ら い (嫌 ) が あ る th e r e is a te n -

Ano hito wa hanasmsugiru kirai ga aru.

“S h e h a s te n d e n c y to t a lk to o m u c h .” あ の 人 は 話 し す ぎ る き ら い がある.

•ta {-da)

ャこ

Hon o y o n d a . 本 を Nihongo de sakubun o k a i t a . 日本 語 で c o m p o sitio n in Ja p a n e s e .” Ta-iorm is

in fo r m a l p e r fe c tiv e en d in g , e.g .

読 ん だ • “I re a d a b o o k .” 作文を書いた.

“I w ro te a

a lso used a s a n o u n m o d ifier,

e.g .

々/wJ

ぎa

昨日見た映画

“th e m o v ie th a t I sa w y e s te rd a y .” N o te :

F or fo rm a tio n o f ta {d a )-io rm , se e p p . 1 6 -1 8 ; w h en to u s e taio r m , se e N o u n M odifier, p p .1 8 9 -1 9 0 ;in form al le v e l,p p . 215-16.

-ta (-da) ato de

た後で

after" .ing , e.g. Gohan o tabeta ato de

ぬ 如 知 m c s / z J . ご は ん (御 飯 ) を 食 べ た 後 で 出 か (掛 ) け ま し ょ う • “L e t ’s N o te th e u se o f ^ - f o r m b e fo r e ato de, e v e n if th e tim e re fe rre d to is th e fu tu r e . -ta [-da) baai ▽ wa']于 こ 場 合 = イa r a c o n d itio n a l, if, in c a s e •••,e.g. Ame ga futta baai wa ik im a s e n . 雨 が 降 っ た 場 合 は 行 き ま せ ん • “If it r a in s , w e w o n ’t g o .” F o r V 3 baai, p. 60. •ta {-da) bakari す こ h a s ju s t, e ,g . Ima kita bakari d e s u . 今 来 た ば か り で す . “ I h a v e ju s t co m e now .” F o r V 3 bakari, p. 60. -ta {-da) bakari ni ヤこ] j us t b e c a u se , e .g . Byoki datta bakari ni nakayoshi no tomodachi no kekkonshiki ni deraremasen deshita. g o ou t a ft e r e a tin g d in n e r.”

病気だったばかりに仲良しの友達の結婚式に出られませんでした. Uju s t b e c a u s e I w a s i l l , I co u ld n ^ a tte n d m y good frie n d 's w ed ­ d in g ."

52 •ta{-da) ga saigo

V2-foll〇wing Expressi ons

•ta [-dd) ga saigo すこが最'後 = -か , 0 似 /卵 o n c e you d o . ••, e.g. ga saigo, kaette k im a s e n . 行 っ た が 最 後 帰 っ て 来 ま せ ん . “On c e

he

g o es, h e ’ll n e v e r co m e b a c k .”

•ta irda) k m ナこきり ju s t d i d a o karita kiri mada kaesanai.

n d . . . (im p lie s fin a lity ) e.g . お 金 を 借 り た き り ま だ 返 さ な い . “H e

ju s t b o rro w ed m o n ey and h a s n o t re tu rn e d it y e t.”

-ta {-da) koto ga aru すここヒ t *、あ る e x p e rie n c e up to th e p re s e n t, e.g . Nihon ni itta koto ga arimasu ka. 日 本 に 行 っ た こ と が あ り ま す か . “ H av e yo u e v e r b e e n to Ja p a n ? ” F o r V 3 koto ga arut p. 66. •ta {-da) koto ga atta 于こことがあっすこ p a st e x p e rie n c e , e.g . Sore made Nihon ni itta koto ga arimasen d e s h ita . そ れ ま で 日 本 に 行 っ た こ と が あ り ま せ ん で し た . “ U n til th e n I h ad n e v e r b e e n to Ja p a n ノ F o r V 3 koto ga attaf p. 66.

-ta {-da、 koto ni suru ここヒ K す る a ssu m e , e.g . Koko ni ita koto ni shimashd. こ こ に い た こ と に し ま し ょ う . “L e t ’s a ssu m e th a t w e w e re h e r e .” F o r V 3 koto ni suruf p. 66. (-ぬ ) たまま( 儘 ) a s it is, e.g. Omotta mama o itte kuda似 /•思 っ た ま ま を 言 っ て 下 さ い • “P le a s e te ll m e ju s t a s you t h in k .”

-ta {-dd) mono da 于こ% (Dfi h a b itu a l o c c u r r e n c e in th e p ast, e.g. Chiisai toki watakusm wa yoku ototo to kenka shita mono desu. 小 さ い 時 私 は よ く 弟 と け ん か (喧 嘩 )し た も の で す . “I fig h t w ith m y little b ro th e r w h e n I w as lit t le .”

da,

se e p.

o fte n u sed to F o r V 3 mono

68.

イa (-ゴa) M

た 覚 え が あ る re m e m b e r th a t •••, e.g . S o 簡

0 々〇/ひ

o yonda oboe wa a r im a s e n , そ ん な こ と を 読 ん だ 覚 え は あ り ま せ ん . “I d on’t re m e m b e r if I re a d ab o u t s u c h a th in g .”

-ta {-dd) tameshi ga {wd) nai ャこゆ\ ゼ、于以ヽ h a v e n e v e r . . . , e.g . Ano hito wa okotta tameshi ga arimasen• あ の 人 H 怒 っ ナ こ 例 が あ り ま せ ん • “H e h a s n e v e r b e e n m ad .”

-ta {-da) tokoro [ _ d a ] た と こ ろ = -/ a (-ぬ ) か2: 々狀/ h a v e ju s t, e.g. Im a kita tokoro d e s u , 今 来 た と こ ろ で す . “ I h a v e ju s t c o m e .” F o r V 3 tokoro, pp. 7 7 -7 8 . tokoro em p h asizes th e situ a tio n , w h ile bakari e m p h a siz es th e tim e . •ta {•da'} tokoro de 于こヒこらで e v e n th o u g h , e.g. Yonda tokoro de wakaranai desho. 読 ん だ と こ ろ で 分 ら な い で し ょ う . “E v e n if h e re a d s it, h e w ill n o t u n d e rsta n d i t .”

-ta {-da、 tokoro ga

ヤ こ と こ ろ が =-ta

{-dd) ga

w h en

(o fte n th e fo l­

V2-following Expressions

-tara {-dara) 53

low in g c la u se e x p re sse s s o m e th in g c o n tra ry to n o rm al e x p e c ta ­ tio n s), e.g. Osashimi o tabeta tokoro ga oishii deshita. お さ し み を 食 べ た と こ ろ が お い し い で し た • “W h e n I a te raw fish, it ta ste d good— to m y s u rp rise .” イ0 (■ゴa ) むw m o n .〔ぬ 〕 た つ も ( 積 )り

I am u n d er th e im p ressio n th a t

. . . , e.g. Tegami o dashita tsumori desu g a . . . 手 紙 を 出 し た つ も りですが ••• aI am u n d er th e im p ressio n th a t I m ailed th e le tte r, F o r V 3 tsumori, p. 78.

but. . . v

-ta {-da) ue de a fte r . . . m g, upon . . . m g, e.g. Hanashita ue de k im e m a s h d . 話 し た 上 で 決 め ま し ょ う . “L e t ’s d ecid e a fte r t a lk ­ in g it o v e r.”

-tagaru

w ish o f so m eo n e e lse o th e r th a n th e sp e a k er, w an t

to , e.g. Kodomo wa itsu mo okashi o tabetagarimasu. 子 供 は い つ (何 時 )も お 菓 子 を 食 べ た が り ま す • “C h ild ren a re alw ay s w a n tin g to e a t ca n d ie s.” イ ^た い

d esid erativ e, w an t t o .

e.g.

/々//似•ぬ抓.

行きたいです•

“I w an t to g o .” N o te :

-ta i c o n ju g a tes as an a d je c tiv e ; ta k u for k u -io r m , takereba for con d ition al, ta ka tta for p erfective, -tai can n ot b e u sed as an ind ep en d en t word. It is alw ays u sed as a verb suffix, cf. hoshii, p . 107.

-takute

ナ こ く て 仏 fo rm of

-takute tamaranai イ

《給え

すこくてt こ'

See

-kute tamaranai,

s e e p.

85.

a n im p e ra tiv e su ffix used by m en on a frie n d ly lev el

in m o d ern Ja p a n e se , e.g.

Ano hon o y o m ita m a e . あ の 本 を 読 み 給

え. “ R ead th a t b o o k .”

-tara {-dara) f c b collo q u ial co n d itio n al, if, w h en , e.g. ga futtara ik im a s e n . 明 日 雨 が 降 っ た ら 行 き ま せ ん . to m o rro w , I w on’t g o .”

Asnita ame

“I f it ra in s F o r m o re d etails on co n d itio n als, see pp.

29-32. (in te rro g a tiv e w o r d )-k r a (dflrめ “ 々0 如0々0,0衫0/ た ら い い か わ か ( 分) らない• = (in te rro g a tiv e ) V m u 々似^对 仍 don’t know (w h a t, e tc .) to d o , e.g. Do shitara ii ka w a k a r a n a i. ど う し た ら い い かわからない. “I don’t kn o w w h at to do.” A ? 知? 衫 // 如 々 似 • どこ( 何 処 )へ 行 っ た ら い い か わ か ら な い . “I don’t k n o w w h ere to g o .”

54 イara (-ぬ m) sfl如

V2-following Expressions

-tara (-dara) saigo ナ こ ら 最 後 = -ta {-da) g a saigo •tari (-dari ) すこり

1.

wi t h tw o (o r m ore) tari, a c tio n in a lte rn a tio n , now d oing th is, now d oing th a t, e.g. K in d ason dari benkyd sh itari shim a土 如 . 昨 日 遊 ん だ り 勉 強 し た り し ま し た . “Y e s te rd a y I played and stu d ied .” N o te :

2.

L ast ta r i {dari) is u su ally follow ed b y th e verb su r u , w h ich it­ se lf d oes not m ean an yth in g.

one tari, re p re s e n ta tiv e o r ty p ic a l a ctio n s, do su ch th in g s as . . . , e.g. Natsu wa umi ni oyogi ni ittari s h im a s u . 夏をt 海 に 泳 ぎ に 行 っ た り し ま す . “ Du r i n g th e su m m e r w e do su ch th in g s a s go to th e se a sh o re to sw im .”

Note: tan {dari) is usually followed by the verb suru.

-te (-d e) て

fo r th e fo rm a tio n o f か-fo rm , s e e p p . 16-18.

7^ -fo rm

h as no te n se o f its o w n ; it u su ally fo llow s th e te n se o f th e fin al verb . 1 . c o n ju n c tio n fo r seq u en ce o f a ctio n s, and, e.g.

Toshokan ni

椒 み ⑽ 物 如 • 図 書 館 に 行 っ て 勉 強 し ま し た • w e n t to th e lib ra ry , and stu d ied .” 2.

c o n ju n c tio n fo r sim u lta n e o u s a ctio n s, w h ile, e.g. /桃 似 本 を 読 ん で 笑 っ て い ま す . w h ile re a d in g .”

3.

“W e

Hon o yonde

“He is la u g h in g

how tn e a c tio n of th e m ain v e rb s is p erfo rm ed , e.g.

ni notte ikim a sh ita . 電 車 に 乗 っ て 行 き ま し た . (rid in g a) tr a in .” Aruite gakkd ni ikimasu.

Densha

“I w e n t by 歩 、、て 令 狡

](c

行 き ま す • “W e go to sch o o l on fo o t.” 4.

e.g. Koko wa ichinenjii atatakakute totemo sumiyasui d e s u . ここは一年中暖かく

b eca u se , th e c a u se o f th e m a in v erb ,

て と て も 住 み や す い で す . “ B e c a u s e th is p lace is w arm all y e a r, it is v e ry e a sy to liv e h e r e .), T h is u sag e is sim ila r to th e E n g lis h p a rticip ia l p h rase, uBeing warm, it is an e a sy p la ce fo r people to liv e .”

5.

sentence-ending in colloquial women’s s p e e c h , ⑴ Mild im ­ p e rativ e , e.g. ル ゐ 加 々 办 ( 似 ).明 日 来 て • “C om e to m orrow , O K ?^ (2) I u n d erstan d t h a t . . . , e.g. Ano kata mo Osaka

e irasshatta n f desutte. ul

h eard th a t sh e h as alread y gone

to O sa k a .” O th e r th a n th is usage, /^-form does n o t com e a t th e end o f th e sen ten ce.

V2 -following Expressions

6.

-te (-de) iku 55

a fte r , o fte n used b e fo re th e tim e w ord, e.g. Kurisumasu no yasumi ga owatte sugu shiken ga aru kara yasumi-chu mo is o g a s h ii. ク リ ス マ ス の 休 み が 終 っ て す ぐ 試 験 が あ る か ら 休 み 中 も 忙 し い • “E v e n d u rin g th e v a c a tio n I am busy, b ecau se w e ’ll h av e e x a m s r ig h t a fte r th e C h ristm a s v a ca tio n is o v e r.”

^-te {-de) ageru て あ (上 )げ る (I ) do a fa v o r in d oing so m e th in g , e.g. Tomodachi ni hon o yonde agemashita • 友 達 :に 本 を 読 ん ' で あ げました. frie n d •”

“I read a book (did a fa v o r in re a d in g a book) to m y (cf.

-か ( -cfe)

-te yarut

p. 59)

て あ る 如 ゴ 沉 ゐ / + か orw, d e scrib e s an a c tio n w h ich has

o ccu rre d and is s till in fo rc e , e.g. Mado ga akete a r im a s u . 窓力: あ( 開 ) け て あ り ま す • “T h e w indow is op en (T h e w indow h a s b een opened and is s till op en).,’

-te (-de) bakari iru

S e e pp. 21-22 .

てばかりいる

alw ay s, e.g.

Tabete bakari imasu.

食 べ て ば か り い ま す • “H e is alw ay s e a tin g .”

•te (-de) hoshii て 欲 b い =-te moraitai w an t so m eo n e to do so m e ­ th in g , e.g. Ano hito ni atte hoshii n’ d e s u . あ の 人 に 会 っ て ほ し い ん で す . “I w an t you to m e e t h im .”

-w似• ぬ /

^

se e p. 40.

-te (-de) ii \_no] ka wakaranai て い い か 分 ら な I 、 don^ know how (w h at, e tc.), e.g. Muzukashii ji o do shite mitsukete ii ka w a k a r a n a i. 難 し い 字 を ど う し て 見 つ け て い い か 分 ら

(in te rro g a tiv e word)

な い • “I d on’t know how to find d ifficu lt c h a r a c t e r s .”

•te (-de) iku 1.

て行く

(o p p osite o f

-te kurut

p. 56)

d ire ctio n of th e a c tio n w h en it is aw ay fro m th e lo ca tio n of th e sp e a k er, e.g.

So iinagara heya o dete ik im a s h ita . そう

言 い な が (乍 )ら 部 屋 を 出 て 行 き ま し た • “S a y in g th a t, he w ent ou t of th e ro o m .” Kyd kodomo o gakkd ni tsurete ikimashi如. 今 日 子 供 を 学 校 に 連 れ て 行 き ま し た . “ I to o k m y ch ild to sch o o l to d ay .” Obentd o motte ikimashd • お 弁 ' ^ を 持 っ て 行 き ま し ょ う • “L e t ’s ta k e ou r lu n ch .” むwr谷 な /々m is used to ta k e a p erso n o r p et along, w h ile

motte iku

is used to

c a r r y so m e o b je c t along. 2.

v e rb of le a rn in g o r p e rfo rm in g a sk ill 4 -^

iku

r e fe r s to th e

p e rfo rm a n c e o f an a c tio n fro m th e p re se n t o r so m e fu tu re p o int in tim e onw ard s, e.g. Kore kara so shite ikimasu. こ れ か ら そ う し て 行 き ま す • ‘T U do it th a t w ay fro m now on .,> (cf.

-te kuruy

p. 57.)

* For a more detailed explanation on the use of /e-form +directional verbs, see pp. 27-28.

56 -te {-de) irai

V2-following Expressions

-te {-de、 irai て 以 来 since • • • ,e.g. Nihon ni itte irai Nihon ga suki ni n a rim a sh ita . 日 本 に 行 っ て 以 来 日 本 が 好 き に な り ま し た • “S in c e I w e n t to Ja p a n , I c a m e to lik e Ja p a n .M

•te (-de) iru て い る 1. taddshi + te iru

p ro g re ssiv e fo rm , co n tin u a tiv e actio n , doing so m eth in g , e.g. Tegami o kaite im a s u . 手 紙 を 書 い て い ま す . “I am w ritin g a le tte r.” S e e p. 22.

jiddshi+te ini

2.

d escrip tiv e m ean in g , e.g.

Mado ga shimatte

• 窓 が 閉 ま っ て い ま す • “T h e w indow is clo sed .” p.

S ee

21.

*-te [-de) itadaku

てい于こナと(戴 , 頂) く

som eo n e’s fav o r, e.g.

(to be fo rtu n a te ) to re ce iv e

Sensei m eigo o oshiete itadakimashita.

先 生 に 英 語 を 教 え て い た だ き ま し た . ( I am fo rtu n a te th a t) m y te a c h ­ e r ta u g h t m e E n g lis h .” (cf. -te morauy p. 58).

•te {-de、 kara て t 、 b alteT, e.g. Gohan o tabete kara, gakkd e ik im a s u . ご は ん (御 飯 )を 食 べ て か ら 学 校 へ 行 き ま す . “Af t e r e a tin g a m e a l , I go to sch o o l.”

•te (-de) koso X こ そ only w hen, e.g. Sonna muzukashii kyoku ga utsukushiku hikete koso, idai na ongakuka to i e r u . そ ん な 難 し l 、 曲 が 美 し く 弾 け て こ そ 偉 大 な 音 楽 家 と 言 え る . “Onl y w h en he can play su ch difficult m u sic b eau tilu lly, ca n w e sa y he is a g re a t m u sicia n .”

•te (-de) kudasai

て さ い

m ild im p erativ e,

読 ん で 下 さ い “P le a s e read .” ネ-te

e.g.

ぬ々

Yonde kudasai. p. 40.

(-de) kudasaru て さ る (he) is kind to do so m e th in g fo r (m e), Sensei ga watakushi ni hon o kashite kudasaimashita.先生

e.g.

が 私 に 本 を 貸 し て 下 さ い ま し た . “My te a c h e r w as kind en ou gh to lend m e a book.” (cf. 4e kureru, see below )

•te i-de) kure X

く ix abrupt im p erativ e used by m en, 々wr谷 .こ れ を し て く れ • “Do th is (fo r m e).”

*•な々

て くれる

sam e as -な々 mぬ sflrw

e.g.

o

•か

Imoto ga yofuku

0 お汉 如说 々紛^ mas/h•以 •妹 が 洋 服 を 作 っ て く れ ま し た • “M y you n ger s is te r m ade a d ress fo r m e. (M y y o u n g er s is te r w as kind enough to m ak e m e a d ress.)’’

-te {-de、 kuru X 来 る 丄.

ver b of m o tio n + か々Mrw d irectio n o f th e a ctio n w h en it is tow ard s th e sp eak er, e.g. Heya ni haitte kim a sh ita . 部屋 に入って来ました. p. 55).

“He ca m e in to th e ro o m .”

( c f . -お /々w,

V2-foliowing Expressions

-te (-de) mo kamaw anai 57

2.

verb of learning or perform ing a s k i l l kuruf refers to the perform ance of an action beginning at any point in the past and continuing as fa r as the present, but not beyond, e.g. Ima made so naratte k im a sh ita . 今 ま で そ う 習 っ て 来 ま した. “I have learned it th a t way up to now.” (cf. -te iku, p. 55).

3.

some jiddshi+te kuru begin t o , Ame ga futte kimashita. 雨 が 降 っ て 来 ま し た • “It has begun to rain .”

-te (-de) made て ま で even going to the extent o f , e.g. Hito no okane o tsukatte made sonna koto ga shitai desu k a . 人 の お 金 を使 っ て ま で そ ん な こ と が し た い で す か • “Do you w ant to do such a thing, even at th e expense of oth er people (even going to the exten t of using oth er people’s m oney)?’’ -か ( -ぬ ) /

て見える

appears a s if, e.g.

心 加 ル 々

m

0 々かw か

futotte m ie m a s u . こ の 洋 服 を 着 る と 太 っ て 見 え ま す • “W hen I w ear tm s dress, I look fat (it appears as if I w ere fat).”

-te {-de、 miru

てみる

1 . try doing som ething, e.g. Furansugo o benkyo shite mimashita

ga m uzukashisugim ashita. フ ラ ン ス 語 を 勉 強 し て み ま し た が 難しすぎました•

2.

“I tried studying French, but it was too difficult.” to do som ething and see w hat happens, e.g. Kono hon o yonde mimasho k a . こ の 本 を 読 ん で み ま し ょ う か • “Shall we read th is book (and see w hat kind of a book it is) ?”

-te (-de) mo

ても even if, e.g. Anata ga itte mo watakusni wa w . あ な た が 行 っ て も 私 は 行 き ま せ ん . “Even if you go, I w on’t go.” (interrogative word)- 化 ( -ぬ )wo ても no m atter how (what, etc.), e.g. Ano hito wa donna ni tabete mo okiku n a rim a se n . あ の 人 は ど ん な に 食 べ て も 大 き く な り ま せ ん . “No m a tte r how m uch he eats, he doesn’t g et big.” 脱

-te (-de) mo ii

てもいい

you may, e.g. Sore o tabete mo u desu yo. “You m ay eat it.” (see pp. 36-37)

それを食べてもいいですよ•

-te (-de) mo kamawanai

ても構わない It doesn’t m atter even if you d o ...,e .g . な ⑽ . や め て も 構 い ま せ ん • “Even if you quit, it doesn’t m atter.” (see p. 36)

* For a more detailed explanation see pp. 27-28.

o n

the use of ^-form +directional verbs,

58 -te (-de) mo "Vnakute mo -な ( -ぬ )wo

V2-foliowing Expressions

w o ても V なくても

w h eth er or, e.g_ こんなことはしても

koto wa shite mo shinakute mo kamaimasen. しなくても構いません. th in g o r n o t.” •か ( -ぬ )

“I t d oesn’t m a tte r w h e th e r you do su ch a

仏w• て も ら ( 貰 )い た い

=-te hoshii

w an t som eon e to

do so m eth in g , e.g. Kodomo m hayaku okiRu natte moraitai desu. 子 供 に 早 く 大 き く な っ て も ら い た い で す • “I w an t m y ch ild to g ro w fa s t.” -nai de moral tai, p. 40. *-な ( -ぬ ) moraw て も ら ( 貰 )う (I ) am fo rtu n a te to re c e iv e so m eo n e’s fav o r, e.g. Ane m ydfuku o tsu/mtte moratmas/nta. 姉 に 洋 服 を 作 っ て も ら い ま し た • ( “I am fo rtu n a te th a t) m y s is te r m ad e a d ress fo r m e.” (cf. ~te itadaku, p. 56)

-te {-de') naranai







=-te {-de、 shiyd ga nai.

•te {-de、 nokeru て る m an ag e to do, e.g. Hidoku muzukashii shigoto o umaku shite n o k e ta . ひ ど く 難 し い 仕 事 を う ま (旨)くしての け た . “ I m an ag ed to do a v e ry d ifficu lt jo b w ell.”

•te {■de') oku

ておく

1 . do so m e th in g fo r fu tu r e use, e.g.

Tomodachi ga kuru kara

okashi o katte okimasu.

友達が来るからお菓子を買っておき ます. “I ’ll buy c a k e s b e ca u se m y frie n d w ill c o m e .”

2 . l eave it o r le t it g o at th a t, e.g. う答えておきました. th a t.”

“I

So kotaete okimasnita.



an sw ered th u s, and let it go at

て お り =-te tta (co n ju n ctiv e ) is d o i n g . . . , and e.g. Chichi wa ima Tokyo ni ryokd shite ori, haha wa Kyoto ni nokotte o rim a su . 父 は 今 東 京 に 旅 行 し て お り , 母 は 京 都 に の こ っ て お り ま す .

-紿 ( -a の o n

“F a th e r is K y o to .”

tra v e lin g

in T o k y o

now,

and M o th e r

re m a in s

in

-te (-de) sae てさえ V ば on ly if, e.g. Yoku benkyd shite sae okeba daijobu d e s u . よ く 勉 強 し て さ え お け ば 大 丈 夫 で す • “O nly if you stu d y h ard now w ill e v e ry th in g b e all rig h t.”

•te (-de) shimau て し ま う co m p letio n o r fin a lity Wasurete shim aim ashita. 忘 れ て し ま い ま し た •

o f an a ctio n ,

e.g.

“I co m p le te ly fo r ­

g o t about it.”

4e {-de) shiyd {sho) ga nai

て 仕 様 (しよう)が な い = ■か WGrawfl:/

cou ld n’t h e l p . . . in g , e.g. Nakete shiyd ga が な か っ た • “I co u ld n ’t help c ry in g h ard .”

nakatta.

粒} f て 仕 緣

V2-follctWing Expressions

4e {-de) wa

て^:

c o n d itio n a l fo r m

n e g a tiv e co n se q u e n c e .

-wa shinai 59

o f th e p a tte rn , i f

A, th e n

a

E x a m p le s a re b elow . S e e also pp. 3 4 -3 5 .

•か ( -ぬ ) /々ewa/ て は い け な い ( p ro h ib itio n ) lite ra lly , it c a n ’t go if yo u do s o m e th in g , th e r e fo r e , you m a y n ot, e.g. Mite wa ik e m a se n . 見 て は い け ま せ ん • “Y o u m a y n o t lo o k .” S e e p. 35. •化 ( -ぬ )

似 • て は い ら れ な い b e u n able to b e a r . . •,e.g . T o か;^ ?

mite wa ira re n a k a tta . と て も 見 て は い ら れ な か っ た .

“I

co u ld n ’t

b e a r to lo o k a t i t.”

•te (-de) wa komaru X M 祖 る w e w iil Sonna koto o shite wa komarimasu•

b e m d ifticu lty if you do ••., そ ん ナ こ こ }! を し て は 思 り 戈 す

.

“ Y o u d is tr e s s m e (in c o n v e n ie n c e m e) by d o in g s u c h a th in g .” S e e pp. 3 4 -3 5 fo r m o re ex a m p le s.

4e {-de) wa naranai て は な ら な い (p ro h ib itio n ) w e m u st n o t, e.g. Nihongo no kurasu de wa eigo o tsukatte wa naranai no desu. 日本語のクラスでは英語を使ってはならないのです.

“W e

m u st not

u se Jbnglish in o u r Ja p a n e s e c la s s .,> *-な ( -ぬ )夕an/ て や る (I )

do a la v o r

in d oing s o m e th in g ,

e.g.

Kodomo ni hon o katte ya rim a sh ita . 子 供 に 本 を 買 っ て や り ま し た . “I did a fa v o r in b u y in g a b o o k fo r m y c h ild .” (cf. -te ageruy p. 55) -なな々wsw 尽 く す fin ish up, e.g. Motte iru mono o zenbu uritsukusnim 仍 /h•如. 持 っ て い る も の を 全 部 売 り 尽 く し ま し た . “ I sold e v e ry th in g t h a t I h ad .”

-tsutsu つ つ =-nagara sasete shimaimashita.

w h ile, th o u g h , e.g.

Warui to shiritsutsu

悪いと知りつつさせてしまいました. tn o u g li I k n e w it w as w ro n g , I ie t h im do it.”





r w 続ける

c o n t in u e •. •in g , e.g .

B ⑽ 妙 J s み治な從如rw.

“ A 1勉強

し 続 け る • “H e c o n tin u e s s tu d y in g .”

-teru

得る

b e p o ssib le t o . • .,e.g . Scwwa 知?かどa a n なrw バ從2^ ダa w似.

そ ん な こ と が あ り 得 る は ず (箸 ) が な い “ S u c h a sib ly o c c u r .”

n e g a tiv e o f

uru, enai,

th in g

can n o t

p o s­

see p. 48.

-wa sfumai i/th ま V、 泌



(n e g a tiv e te n ta tiv e ), e.g . Sonna mono wa mi • そ ん な も の は 見 は し ま い • “P e rh a p s h e w o n ’t look at

s u c h a th in g .”

•wa shmai

は/L ナ ^\ 、

(e m p h a tic n e g a tiv e ), e.g .

Sonna mono wa ari

* For a more detailed explanation on the use of な-form + directional verbs , see pp. 27-28.

V8-following Expressions

60 -yasui

iva (arya) s h i n a i . そ ん な も の は あ り は し な い .

“T h e r e

is n ’t

an y

s u c h th in g .” is e a s y to . . . (o p p o site o f -nikui , p. 50) e.g . Kono pen wa kakiyasui d e s u . こ の ペ ン は 書 き や す い で す . “T h i s p en is e a sy to w r ite w ith •” kakiyasui pen 鲁 き や す \ヽ ペ ン “a p en

■ ■ 夕 asw/ や す ( 易 )い

w m c h is e a sy to w r ite w ith .” づ^

よ う (様 )

wa y o f . . . in g , e.g .

そんなものは食べようがない. th in g .” (cf. V 2 katay p. 48) o r nai,

\

Sonna mono wa tabeyo ga nai.

“T h e r e is n o w ay to e a t s u c h a 2 y 〇 is o fte n u sed w ith v e rb s aru

I II. E x p r e s s io n s w h ich fo llo w th e TTu’rrf

終 止 形 〈し ゅ う し け い 〉 ,

連 体 形 〈れ ん た い け い > o f th e v e rb an d so m e a d je c tiv e s . - 0/ゴa 間

Hah a ga kaimono ni itte yonde i m a s h i t a . 母 が 買 物 に 行 っ て

w h ile, a ll th e tim e w h en , e.g .

iru aida, watakushi wa hon

0

い る 間 , 私 は 本 を 読 ん で い ま し た • “ W h ile m y m o th e r w a s ou t sh o p ­ p in g , I w as re a d in g a b o o k .” N o te :

In a s e n te n c e u sin g -aida, su b je cts for th e p rin cip al c la u se and th e su b ord in ate c la u se are u s u a lly d ifferen t. F or th e sa m e su b ­ ject, it is m ore c o m m o n to u s e V 2 na g a ra , s e e p. 49.

- 600/ 場 合

w h en , in th e c a s e o f e . g . Nihon ni iku baai, hikoki de i k i m a s u . 日 本 に 行 く 場 合 , 飛 行 機 で 行 き ま す • “W h e n w e g o to Ja p a n , w e 'll g o b y a irp la n e .5* F o r V ta baaiy s e e p. 51. •b akari ば か り 1 . onl y, e.g.

Taberu bakari de shigoto wa s h im a s e n . 食 べ る ば

かりで仕事はしません. w o rk .” 2.

“ H e o n ly e a ts, and d o e sn ’t

do th e

b e a b o u t t o , e.g . Taberu bakari no tokoro e Toda-san ga 々 如 仏 食 べ る ば か り の と こ ろ へ 戸 田 さ ん が 来 ま し た . “ Mr . i'o d a c a m e ju s t a t th e tim e w h en w e w e re ab o u t to e a t.” For

Vta bakari,

p. 51.

to th e e x te n t t h a t , p ra c tic a lly , a lm o st, e.g . Kanashikute mune ga sakeru bakari d e s h i t a . 悲 し く て 胸 が 裂 け る ば か り で し た .

3.

“I w as so sad th a t m y h e a r t a lm o s t b r o k e .”

•bakari de urn nai h孓 力、り で n o t o n ly t h a t . . . , e.g . Nihon e itta bakari de wa naku Taiwan e mo i k im a s h ita . 日 本 へ 行 っ た か り で は な く 台 湾 へ も 行 き ま し た • “N o t o n ly did h e g o to Ja p a n , b u t h e also w e n t to T a iw a n .”

V3-foliowing Expressions

•dokoro ka 61

ベ {可 )か b 客 る (p reced es noun) th a t w h ich should not be •••ed ,e.g. jywrwsw知々似ぬ^ r w 々W o ゴa • そ れ は 許 す ベ か ら ざ る こ と だ • “I t is a th in g w h ich should n o t b e p e rm itte d .”

•bekarazaru

ベ (可 )か ら ず

negative of を々“n • ( ぬ sAf), prohibition in

bungotai (literary form) don^, m ust not, e.g. Hairu bekarazu. 入るべからず•

“Don’t e n te r!” -beki べ き attributive form of beshi of bungotai (literary form) meaning must, should, e.g. Kore wa dare mo ga yomu beki hon d a . こ れ は 誰 も が 読 む べ き 本 だ . “This is a book everyone should read.,> Beki is also used before the copula aa {desu). As hit a iku beki d e s u . 明 日 行 く べ き で す • “You should go tomorrow.” N o t e : For th e verb su r u both s u m beki and su beki (ru is om itted) are used. e.g. K o n n a koto wa im a subeki koto de wa n a i. こんなこと は今すべきことではない. “T h is kind of th in g sh ould not be done now .”

-dake

(丈 )



1 . as m u ch as, e.g. Taberareru dake tabete kudasai. 食 べ ら ix る だ け 食 べ て 下 さ い . “Pl e as e e a t a s m u ch a s you c a n e a t.”

2.

only, ju s t, e.g. けで仕事は

b t

Taberu dake de shigoto wa shimasen • 食 べ る i t せ ん •= Taberu bakari de shigoto wa shimasen.

“H e only e ats, and d oes no w o rk .”

•dake atte す あ っ て =-dake ni -dake de wa nai だ け で は な い =bakari de wa nai -dake ni す と け に =-dake atte as m ig h t be exp e cte d , e.g. Ano otoko wa itsumo okashina koto o jiman suru dake ni doko ka tarin a i . あ の 男 は い つ (何 時 )も お か し な 事 を 自 慢 す る だ け に ど こ か 足 り な い. aT h a t h e is so m ew h at w e a k in th e h ead m ig h t b e e xp e cte d fro m th e f a c t th a t h e is alw ay s b ra g g in g about stra n g e th in gs/ '

-dard ナどb う =-deskd probably, e.g. Ima kare wa uckt m tru d a r d . 今 , 彼 は 家 に い る だ ろ う . “ H e is pro bably h om e now .” •deshd で し ょ う = -dard See p.1A for more dard (desh&). •dokoro de wa nai ど こ ろ で \Vfs5 、 =-dokovo no hcmashi de wa nai = -dokoro no sawagi de wa nai em p h atic, f a r f r o m , e.g. Isogashikute kaimono ni iku dokoro de wa n a k a tta . 忙 し く て 買 物 に 行 く ど こ ろ で は な か っ た . “I w as so busy th a t I co u ld n ’t go shop ­ ping (fa r fro m h a v in g tim e to go snopp ing).” •ゐ 々on? 々a

どころか

f a r fro m . . . but, not at a l l ••• but, e.g.

iT y J

62 -furi o suru

V3-following Expressions

wa amari isogashikute hon o yomu dokoro kay gohan o taberu hima mo arimasen deshita . 今 日 は あ ま (余 )り 忙 し く て 本 を 読 む ど こ ろ か ご はん( 御 飯 )を 食 べ る 暇 も あ り ま せ ん で し た . “I was so busy today tn at not only was I unable to read (far from having tim e to read), but I didn’t even have tim e to eat.”

-furi o sum ふ (振 ')り を す る pretend, e.g. Rare wa watakushi o mite mo itsumo minai furi o shimasu. 彼 は 私 を 見 て も い つ も 見 な い ふ り をします •

“He always pretends not to see me, even if he does

see me.”

-ga が conjunctive particle, but, however, e.g. Kino wa samukatta ga kyo wa a ta ta k a i, 昨 日 は 寒 か っ た が 今 日 は 暖 か い . “It was cold yesterday, Dut it is w arm today.” N o te : S o m etim es -ga m ay lo se all ad versative im p lication , in w h ich c a se it is b e st to tra n sla te it as “and .”

•ga mono wa nai sw rw 卵 wdmo to think it out.”

wa/.

there is no need t o , e.g. Kufu ‘‘There is no need

工夫するがものはない.

-goto ni

ごと( 每)K こ every tim e た w ith each occurrence, progressive increase or decrease), e.g. Otanjobi ga kuru goto ni hitotsu toshi o to rim a su . お 誕 生 日 が 来 る ご と に 一 つ 年 を と り ま す . “Every tim e a m rthday comes, we get one year older.”

ず( 害)

(norm al expectation) supposed to, expected to, e.g. は ず で す . “ He is supposed to go

Kyo iku haza d e s u . 今日行く today.”

•kazu ga (wa) nai iitず

( 箸 )が >な い

no reason to expect that, e.g.

it is not likely th at

there is

Ano hito ga sonna uoto o iu hazu

ga n a i . あ の 人 が そ ん な こ と を 言 う は ず が な い • “T here is no reason to expect th at he would say such a thing.” {-nai hazu wa nai, P. 41)

-hazumi ni は ず み に = - ゐツ勿/^• m’ in the act of, e.g. TTa/ぬ w 0 oriru hazumi ni ashi 0 suberasemashita. 階 段 を 降 り る は ず み に 足 を 滑 ら せ ま し た . “ He

slipped in th e act of descending the stairs.”

-hi ni wa 日 KJft it, m case, e.g. A shigoto bakari shite iru hi ni wa tsukarekitte bydki ni natte shimau d a r o . あ あ 仕 事 ば か り し て い る 日 に は 疲 れ き っ て 病 気 に な っ て し ま う だ ろ う . “If he works like th at all th e time, he will probably be exhausted and become ill.”

•hd

方 literally “direction,” side, one as compared w ith or opposed to another, e.g. Chikatetsu de iku ho ga basu de iku yori zutto

V3-following Expressions

-ka 63

hayai desu y o . 地 下 鉄 で 行 く 方 が バ ス で 行 く よ り ず っ と 早 い で す よ . uIt is m uch faster to go by subway than to go by bus.n N o t e : It is co n v en ien t to rem em ber th a t w h en ho is used , a d jectiv es sh ould b e tran slated as com p arative, e.g. K o n o ho ga ii desu. この方がいいです. “T h is is b etter.”

( ツが)方 が い い

it is b etter t o . . , , e.g.

iTjyJ /々w み ぎ a “

desu y o . 今 日 行 く 方 が い い で す よ • “It is b etter to go today.” (-似 / ho ga ii, see p. 41) ゐ ほ ど ( 程) = -kurai to the extent that, so m uch so t h a t . . . , e.g. Ano hito wa suteru hodo okane ga a r im a s u . あ の 人 は 捨 て る ほ ど お 金 が あ り ま す . uHe has so much money th a t he can afford to throw it away (He has money to the extent th at he throw s it away).” -hodo no koto wa nai ほ ど {程')のこ there is no need to, it’s not w orth . . . ing, e.g. Sonna ni okoru hodo no koto wa nai desho. そ ん な に 怒 る ほ ど の こ と は な い で し よ う . “It’s not w orth being so mad about, is it?” -hoka [wa] nai =-yon hoka [wa] nai, see. p. 81.

-hydshi ni = -hazumi ni in the act of, e.g. Tachiagaru hyoshi ni ocha o koboshimashita.立 ち 上 が る 拍 子 に お 茶 を こ ぼ し ま した .

“ In th e act of standing up, I spilled the tea.”

-f例 / ! > / ,w ;a] 以 外

except th a t • • • ,e.g.

ア⑽ “ 如 -似 w 砂 :々狀汉 な h

wa dare mo konai d e s h o . 田 中 さ ん が 来 る 以 外 は 誰 も 来 な い で し よ う . “Except for Mr. T anaka (Except th a t Mr. T anaka comes), perhaps nobody will come.” -(/ J | > a ] 以上 so long as ••• ,e.g. Ikite iru ijd wa nani 似生きている以上は何かしなければならない•

ka shinakereba “So long as we

live we have to do som ething.”

•ka 1 . interrogative particle, e.g. Ashita gakko ni ikimasu k a . 明日 学 校 に 行 き ま す か . ‘‘Do you go to school tom orrow ?” N o te : T ra d ition ally th ere w a s no q u estion m ark in Japan ese, but around 1887 it m ade its first app earance, and in contem p orary Japan ese it is q u ite freq u en tly used.

2.

Ano hito ga sonna koto o suru mono desu k a . あ の 人 が そ ん な こ と を す る も の で す か • “He won’t do

rhetorical question, e.g. such a th in g !”

“Do you think he would do such a thing?

64 -ka do ka

V3-folio wing Expressions

No, h e w o uld n’t ! ” 3.

u n c e rta in ty , e.g.

Tanaka-san ga itsu kuru ka shirimasen.

田 中 さ ん が い つ (何 時 ) 来 る か 知 り ま せ ん . M rs. T a n a k a w ill c o m e .),

=-ka Vnat ka w h e th e r ka s h ir im a s e n . 行く か ど う か 知 り ま せ ん .

-々0 ぬ 々 0 か ど う か

“ I don’t know w h en

o r not, e.g.

Iku ka do

“I don’t kn o w w h e th e r

h e is g o in g o r n o t.”

-ka dd ka ni yotte t 、 E うt 、K• 爻 っ -ka mo shirenai か も し れ な い • =



=-ka Nnai ka ni yotte

- 々0 w o 以か设 衫な lite ra lly , ca n n o t know ev e n w h e th e r, e.g. Ashita

m ay,

possibly,

iku ka mo shire-

煎 脱 w• 明 日 行 く か も し れ ま せ ん • “I m ay go to m o rro w .”

-ka mo shirenu -々0

力、も し れ ぬ

=-ka mo shivenai Iku ka ikanai ka shirimasen.

V«山々a か V な い か =~-ka dd ka

行くか行かないか知りません. or n o t.”

“I don’t k n o w w h e th e r h e is g o in g

•々0 V «似• 々0 m•ツ0/な か V な い か に よ っ て d ep end ing on w h e th e r . o r not, e.g. Ano hito ga iku ka ikanai ka ni yotte kimemasu. あ の 人 が 行 く か 行 か な い か に よ っ て 決 め ま す . “ I w ill d ecid e,depend­ in g on w h e th e r o r n o t h e g o e s.”

-ka shira[n~\ か し ら I w o nd er if _•■,e.g. Ano hito wa Nihongo ga yoku hanaseru ka s h ir a { n ). あ の 人 は 日 本 語 が よ く 話 せ る か し ら . “I w ond er if h e c a n sp e ak Ja p a n e s e w e ll? ”

-ka to omou to t

=-ka to omottara w h en I th o u g h t th a t Kita ka to omou to mo itte shimaimashita.

、ヒ冠、ろ と

. . . , as soo n as, e.g.

来たかと思うともう行ってしま( 了)い ま し た . h e le ft."

“ A s soo n a s h e cam e ,

as as,e.g. Watakushi no shitte iru kagiri kare wa shojikimono d e s u . 私 の 知 っ て い る か ぎ り , 彼 は 正 直 者 で す • “A s

-々a沿>/ かぎり

fa r a s I know , he is a n h o n est m a n .n

-kankei jo 50® _h due to th e f a c t t h a t . . . , e.g. Koko wa natsu de mo kiko ga samui kannei jo, shokubutsu ga yoku sodachimasen. ここ( 此 処 ) は 夏 で も 気 候 が 寒 い 関 係 上 植 物 が よ く 育 ち ま せ ん . “ D ue to th e fa c t th a t it is cold h e re e v e n in su m m er, p la n ts do n o t grow w ell.”

•kara t 、ら de, p. 72)

b ecau se , sin ce (p laces em p h asis on th e re su lt, c f. -no e.g. Mo sugu iku kara matte itc k u d a s a i . も う す ( 直)

ぐ行くか ら 待 っ て い て 下 さ い .

^ P lease w ait fo r m e, b eca u se I w ill

-koto 65

V8-following Expressions co m e (go) v e ry soo n.” -々似tz 如 so か ら こ そ ( e m p h atic) p re cise ly b eca u se , e.g.

ga iku kara koso, kare mo iku n’ desu.

私が行く からこそ 彼 も 行 く ん で す . “P re c is e ly b e ca u se I go, h e g oes to o .”

•kara ni wa s/w•どぬ?0

负 、ら KJit

now th a t, sin ce , if, e.g. Yarn kara ni wa n • や る か ら に は い い 仕 事 を し な さ い • “If you do it

a t all, do a good jo b .” Kimi ga iu kara ni wa honto ni chigai君 が 言 う か ら に は 本 当 に 違 い な い • “I f you sa y so, it m u st be

nau

tr u e .”

-kara to itte か ら と 言 っ て ju s t b e ca u se , e.g . Tsukareta kara to itte nete bakari iru wake ni mo ikimasen. 疲 れ た か ら と 言 っ て 寝 て ば か り い る わ け に も い き ま せ ん . “J u s t b eca u se I am tire d , I c a n ’t v e ry w ell sleep all th e tim e .” -々似^ n. m• か わ り に

如a

in p lace of, in e x c h a n g e fo r, e.g.

gakko e iku kawari ni machi e ikimashita. りに町へ行きました.

今日は学校へ行く かわ “I ns t e ad of g o in g to schoo l, I w en t to to w n

to d ay .”

-keredomo け h ど % =-keredo but, h ow ever, m o re co llo q u ia l th a n -ga, e.g. Ano hito wa okane ga aru keredomo kecm de chittomo tsukaim asen. あ の 人 は お 金 が あ る け れ ど も , け ち で ち っ と も 使 い ま せ ん.

“He h a s m o n ey, b u t he is s tin g y and d o e sn ’t spend it at

a ll.” 沿z

気がある

h av e

a

m in d

to .

e.g .

Anata ni sore o

sum ki ga areba shite mo ii desu.

あなたにそれをする気があれば し て も い い で す . “ If you h av e a m in d to do th a t, you m ay do it.”

•ki ga suru 気 が す る h a v e a fe e lin g t h a t . . . » fe e l l i k e . . . in g , e.g. Kyd wa gakkd e iku ki ga sh im a se n . 今 Hk% 举 校 へ 行 く気 が 支 せ ん . “I don’t fe e l lik e g o in g to sch o o l to d ay .”

•ki ni naru る co m e to fe e l l i k e . . . in g , e.g. Atatakaku natte kita no de, niwa de hataraku ki ni natte k im a sh ita . 暖力、く なってきたので,庭で働く気になってきました. “S i n c e it’s g e ttin g w arm , I am b e g in n in g to fe e l lik e w o rk in g m th e y a rd .” ■々かぬ•沿z

-koto 1.

きらい( 嫌 )がある

=-sugiru kirai ga aru,p.

こ と lite ra lly “th in g ” in th e a b s tra c t se n se (cf. -m ⑽ 0, p.

68)

c a us e s th e v e rb w h ich p re ce d e s it to b e c h a n g e d in to a noun,

e.g. Oyogu koto ga suki desu• sw im m in g .”

泳ぐことが好きです

• “I like

V8-foll〇wing Expressions

66 -koto ga aru N o te :

2.

か o ften is interp reted as “f a c t” or “a c t.” K o to is in ter­ ch an geab le w ith n o , in tm s u sage, ex ce p t w h en k o to is u sed in se t ph rases (see th e fo llo w in g several expressions).

Ano hito wa yoku taberu

e x c la m a tio n , em p h atic en d in g , e.g.

か• あ の 人 は よ く 食 べ る こ と • “H ow th a t m an e a t s !” 3.

v e rb a l a d je c tiv e o f tim e , fo r a p eriod = -aida e.g. Nagai koto ome ni kakarimasen d e s h ita . 長 い こ と お 目 に 力 、

w ith

か り ま せ ん で し た . “ I h a v e n ’t se e n you fo r a lon g tim e .”

•koto ga aru こ ヒ る th e re a re o cca sio n s w h en •••,e.g. Nihon ni iku koto ga arimasu ka. B 本 K ■行く こ と が あ り 隻 す か . “D o you h av e o cca sio n to go to Ja p a n ? ” F o r Vta koto ga aru} s e e p. 52. -koto ga atta こと力t あ っ た th e re w e re o c c a sio n s w h e n . e . g . Mukashi wa yoku Nihon ni iku koto ga a r im a s h ita . 昔はよく 日 本 に 行 く こ と が あ り ま し た . “F o r me r l y th e re w e re m a n y o cca sio n s w h en I w en t to Ja p a n .” F o r Vta koto ga atta, see p. 52.

-koto ga dekiru こ ヒ が で き {也来)る it is p o ssible to , c a n . . . ,e.g. Nihongo o hanasu koto ga dekimasu ka. H本 語 を 話 す こ と が 'で き ま す か =]Snhongo ga hanasemasu na. ^Can you sp eak Ja p a n e s e ? n •koto ni [to) naru こ t K 卞s:る it is d ecid ed th a t •••, it is a rra n g e d t h a t . . . , it h a s co m e about t h a t , e.g . Ototo ga Amerika ni kuru koto ni narimashita. 弟 が ア メ リ カ に 来 る こ と に な り ま し た . “I t is a rra n g e d th a t m y b ro th e r w ill co m e to A m e r ic a .”

-koto ni [td) natte iru

こ と Kfs:っ て い る

c u sto m a ry t h a t ..., e.g.

th is is th e p ra c tic e , it is

Mainicniyo ane no uchi ni iku koto ni

故 /mflsw• 每 日 曜 姉 の 家 に 行 く こ と に な っ て い ま す . “ I t is c u sto m ­ a ry th a t I go to m y s is te r ’s e v e ry S u n d ay .”

-koto ni {to') shite iru こ と \こ1 て い る m a k e it a p ra c tic e t o •••,e.g. Mainichi sukoshi sanpo suru koto ni shite i m a s u . 毎 日 少 し 散 歩 す る こ と に し て い ま す • “I m a k e it a p ra c tic e to ta k e e v e ry day_”

a sh o rt w alk

-koto ni suru こヒ \こする d ecid e, e.g. Kotoshi no natsu Nihon ni iku koto ni s h im a s h ita . 今 年 の 夏 日 本 に 行 く こ と に し ま し た • “I d e­ cided to go to Ja p a n th is s u m m e r.” F o r Vta koto ni suru, se e p. 52.

-koto to omou ことと思う = -to omou Yamada-san ga kuru koto to omoimasu.

I

th in k th a t,

e.g .

Kyd

今日山田さんが来ること

と 思 い ま す • “I th in k M r. Y a m a d a co m es to d ay .” -々o h 浓

0 V 3 ことは V 3= V 3 m’

Va

re p e titio n of th e sam e v erb ,

V3-following Expressions

~mae ni 67

as far a s . . . is concerned, it is all right, b u t. . . , e.g. Taberu koto wa tabemasu ga amari suki de wa a rim a sen . 食 べ る こ と は 食 べ ま すがあま( 余 )り 好 き で は あ り ま せ ん •

“I eat it all right, but I don’t

particularly like it.”

-kurai

くらい( 位)

=-gurai=-hodo to the extent th a t . . . , even, so Sonna hanashi mo aru kurai d e s u . そん

m uch so t h a t , e.g.

な話もあるく らい で す . uT here is even such a story (It is to the extent th at even such a story exists).” Ano hito wa bnnonjin

to machigaerareru kurai Nihongo ga jozu d e s u . あ の 人 は 日 本 人 と 間 違 え ら れ る く ら い 日 本 語 が 上 手 で す . uHe is so good in Japanese as to be m istaken for a Japanese person (He is good m Japanese to th e extent th at he is m istaken for a Japanese person).’’

-々mm m• く せ ( 癖 )に although, always followed by a negative idea or feeling of contem pt (cf. -no ni, p. 73) e.g. Yomanakatta kuse

ni, yonda yd na koto o itte im a sh ita . 読 ま な か っ た く せ に 読 ん だ よ う なことを言 っ て い ま し た •

“Even though he did not read it, he

talked as if he had.” •ma wo w dw 間もなく

w ithout having tim e to do

e .g .汾如

nani o suru ma mo naku uchi o denakereba narimasen deshita. 今朝何をする間もなく家を出なければなりませんでした.

“W ithout having tim e to do anything, I had to leave home tm s m orning.”

-made

支で

until, e.g. Anata ga kuru made matte im a s u . あ な た

が来るまで待っています•

“I’ll be w aiting until you come.”

-made mo nai までもす s:、、 goes without ••• ing, e.g. Sonna koto wa iu made mo nai (koto) d e s u . そ ん な こ と は 言 う ま で も な い こ と で す . “It is needless to say such a thing.”

-made ni





by e.g. Kare ga kuru made ni owatte iru to omoi-

w f ls w . 彼 が 来 る ま で に 終 っ て い る と 思 い ま す • “I think it will be finished by th e tim e he comes.” -w 從 m• 前 に (sequence of action) before. Use of w 沉 and m are som etim es interchangeable, but ni often pinpoints the tim e more definitely. T hat is, w ithout ni the period before may be more indefinite, but w ith ni emphasis is on the tim e just before, e.g. Nihon ni iku mae ni Nihongo o naraim ashita. 日本に行 く 前 に 日 本 語 を 習 い ま し た • “I learned Japanese before I went to 私

pan:、 Amerika ni kuru mae Nihon ni sunde im a s h ita . ア メ 、)

力に来る前日本に住んでいました.

was living in Japan.”

“Before I came to America, I

V3-foliowing Expressions

68 -mai

-me/ ま い ( te n ta tiv e n eg ativ e) op posite o f te n ta tiv e fo rm s, - J , -jy