Handbook of Materials Science: Volume 1 General Properties [1 ed.] 9780429265792, 9780429560781, 9780429565250, 9780429556319, 9780367211639

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Handbook of Materials Science: Volume 1 General Properties [1 ed.]
 9780429265792, 9780429560781, 9780429565250, 9780429556319, 9780367211639

Table of contents :



1. The Elements 2. Elemental Properties 3. Miscellaneous Tables of Physical Properties 4. Conversion Tables Miscellaneous Materials Properties and Binary Phase Information 5. Materials Standards

Citation preview

CRC Handbook of Materials Science Volume I: General Properties Volume II: Metals, Composites, and Refractory Materials Volume III: Nonmetalic Materials and Applications Editor

Charles T. Lynch, Ph.D . Senior Scientist for Environmental Effects Metals Behavior Branch, USAF Air Force Wright Aeronautical Materials Laboratory W right-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

Volume IV: Wood Editors

Robert Summitt, Ph.D .

Professor, Departm ent of Metallurgy, Mechanics, and Materials Science Michigan State University East Lansing, Michigan

Alan Sliker, Ph.D .

Professor of Wood Science Forestry Departm ent Michigan State University East Lansing, Michigan

CRC Handbook of Materials Science Volume I: General Properties Editor

Charles T. Lynch, Ph.D.

Senior Scientist for Environmental Effects, Metals Behavior Branch, USAF Air Force Wright Aeronautical Materials Laboratory Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

Boca Raton London New York

CRC Press is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 Reissued 2019 by CRC Press © 1974 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

No claim to original U.S. Government works This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint. Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www. copyright.com (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged.

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PREFACE It has been the goal of the CRC Handbook o f Materials Science to provide a current and readily accessible guide to the physical properties of solid state and structural materials. Interdisciplinary in approach and content, it covers the broadest variety of types of materials consistent with a reasonable size for the volumes, including materials of present commercial importance plus new biomedical, composite, and laser materials. This volume, General Properties, is the first of the three-volume Handbook; Metals, Composites, and Refractory Materials is the second. Volume III, Nonmetallic Materials and Applications, also contains a section on materials information and referral publications, data banks, and general handbooks. During the approximately four years that it has taken to formulate and compile this Handbook, the importance of materials science has taken on a new dimension. The term “materials limited” has come into new prominence, enlarged from the narrower consideration of technical performance of given materials in given conditions of stress, environment, and so on, to encompass the availability of materials in commerce at a reasonable price. Our highly industrialized society, with its immense per capita consumption of raw materials, today finds itself facing the long-prophesized shortages of materials in many diverse areas of our economy. Those future shortages have become today’s problems. As we find ourselves “materials limited” with respect to availability and price, with a growing concern for where our raw materials come from and how supplies may be manipulated to our national disadvantage, increased economic utilization of all our resources, and particularly our materials resources, becomes an American necessity. With this changing background the purpose for this type of compilation has broadened beyond a collection of data on physical properties to one of concern for comparative properties and alternative employment of materials. Therefore, at this time it seems particularly appropriate to enter this new addition to the CRC Handbook Series. Most of the information presented in this Handbook is in tabular format for easy reference and comparability of various properties. In some

cases it has seemed more advisable to retain written sections, but these have been kept to a minimum. The importance of having critically evaluated property data available on materials to solve modern problems is well understood. In this Handbook we seek to bridge the gap between uncritical data collections carrying all the published information for a single material class and general reference works with only limited property and classification data on materials. On the basis of advice from many and varied sources, numerous limitations and omissions have been necessary to retain a reasonable size. This reference is particularly aimed at the nonexperts, or those who are experts in one field but seek information on materials in another field. The expert normally has his own specific original sources available to guide him in his own area of expertise. He often needs assistance, however, to get started on something new. There is also considerable general information of interest to almost all scientists, engineers, and many administrators in the field of materials and materials applications. Comments and suggestions, and the calling to our attention of typographical errors, will be welcomed and are encouraged. My sincere thanks is extended to all who have advised on the formulation, content, and coverage of this Handbook. I am grateful to many colleagues in industry, academic circles, and government for countless suggestions and specific contributions, and am particularly indebted to the Advisory Board and Contributors who have put so much of their time, effort, and talent into this compilation. Special appreciation is extended to the editorial staff of CRC Press, to Karen A. Gajewski, the Administrative Editor, and to Gerald A. Becker, Director of Editorial Operations. I want to pay special tribute to my wife, Betty Ann, for her magnificent patience, encouragement, and assistance, and to our children, Karen, Ted Jr., Richard, and Thomas, for giving their Dad some space, quiet, and assistance in the compilation of a considerable amount of data. Charles T. Lynch Fairborn, Ohio September 1974

THE EDITOR Charles T. Lynch, P h.D ., is Senior Scientist for Environmental Effects in the Metals Behavior Branch of the Air Force W right Aeronautical Materials Laboratory, W right-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Dr. Lynch graduated from The George W ashington University in 1955 with a B.S. degree in chemistry. He received his M.S. and Ph.D . degrees in analytical chemistry in 1957 and 1960, respectively, from the University of Illinois, Urbana. Dr. Lynch served in the Air Force for several years before joining the Air Force Materials Laboratory as a civilian employee in 1962. Prior to his current position, he served as a research engineer, group leader for ceramic research, and Chief of the Advanced Metallurgical Studies Branch. Dr. Lynch is a member of the American Chemical Society, American Ceramic Society, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Ohio Academy of Science, New York Academy of Science, Sigma Xi-RESA, and the Metallurgical Society of the AIM E. He holds 13 patents and has published more than 60 research papers, over 70 national and international presentations, and one book, M etal M atrix Composites, written with J. P. Kershaw and published by The Chemical Rubber Company (now CRC Press) in 1972.

ADVISORY BOARD Mr. C. Howard Adams

Francis S. Galasso Chief, Materials Science United Aircraft Research Laboratories East Hartford, Connecticut 06108

Allen M. Alper Director of Research and Engineering Chemical and Metallurgical Division GTE Sylvania, Incorporated Towanda, Pennsylvania 18848

Michael Hoch Professor, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering University of Cincinnati Clifton Avenue Cincinnati, Ohio 45221

SPI Research Associate National Bureau of Standards Washington, DC 20234

Harris M. Burte Chief, Metals and Ceramics Division Air Force Materials Laboratory Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433

Harry B. Kirkpatrick (deceased) 520 Odlin Avenue Dayton, Ohio 45405

Joseph E. Davison Assistant Professor of Materials Engineering University of Dayton 300 College Park Dayton, Ohio 45409

Jack L. Koenig Professor, Division of Macromolecular Science Case Western Reserve University 2040 Adelbert Road Cleveland, Ohio 44106

Winston H. Duckworth Research Leader, Ceramic Materials Section Battelle/Columbus Laboratories 505 King Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43201

George W. Latimer, Jr. Group Leader, Analytical Methods Mead Johnson Company Evansville, Indiana 47721

Ed. B. Fernsler Technical Service Manager Huntington Alloy Products Division The International Nickel Company, Incorporated Huntington, West Virginia 25720

David R. Lide, Jr. Chief, Office of Standard Reference Data National Bureau of Standards U.S. Department of Commerce Washington, D.C. 20234 Ward F. Simmons Associate Director, Defense Metals Information Center Battelle/Columbus Laboratories 505 King Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43201

CONTRIBUTORS C. Howard Adams Manager of Product Engineering Monsanto Company Air Park Technical Center Chesterfield, Missouri 63017 Allen M. Alper Director of Research and Engineering Chemical and Metallurgical Division GTE Sylvania, Incorporated Towanda, Pennsylvania 18848 Ray E. Bolz Vice President and Dean of the Faculty Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester, Massachusetts 01609 Allen Brodsky Health Physicist U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission W ashington, D .C. 20555 D. F. Bunch Atomics International Canoga Park, California 91304 Donald E. Campbell Senior Research Associate —Chemistry Research and Development Division, Technical Staffs Services Laboratories Corning Glass Works Sullivan Park Corning, New York 14830 William B. Cottrell Director, Nuclear Safety Program Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 Joseph E. Davison Assistant Professor of Materials Engineering University of Dayton 300 College Park Dayton, Ohio 45409

Ed B. Femsler Technical Service Manager Huntington Alloy Products Division The International Nickel Company, Incorporated Huntington, West Virginia 25720 Francis S. Galasso Chief, Materials Science United Aircraft Research Laboratories East Hartford, Connecticut 06108 Henry E. Hagy Senior Research Associate —Physics Research and Development Division, Technical Staffs Services Laboratories Corning Glass Works Sullivan Park Corning, New York 14830 C. R. Hammond Emhart Corporation P.O. Box 1620 Hartford, Connecticut 06102 Michael Hoch Professor, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering University of Cincinnati Clifton Avenue Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 Bernard Jaffe Vernitron Piezoelectric Division 232 Forbes Road Bedford, Ohio 44146 Richard N. Kleiner Section Head, Ceramics Department Precision Materials Group Chemical and Metallurgical Division GTE Sylvania, Incorporated Towanda, Pennsylvania 18848 George W. Latimer, Jr. Group Leader, Analytical Methods Mead Johnson Company Evansville, Indiana 47721

Robert I. Leininger Project Director, Biomaterials Department of Biology, Environment, and Chemistry Battelle/Columbus Laboratories 505 King Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43201 Robert S. Marvin Office of Standard Reference Data National Bureau of Standards U.S. Department of Commerce Washington, D.C. 20234 Eugene F. Murphy Chief, Research and Development Division Prosthetic and Sensory Aids Service U.S. Veterans Administration 252 Seventh Avenue New York, New York 10001 A. Pigeaud Research Associate Department of Metallurgy and Materials Science University of Cincinnati Clifton Avenue Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 B. W. Roberts Director, Superconductive Materials Data Center General Electric Corporate Research and Development Box 8 Schenectady, New York 12301

Gail D. Schmidt Chief, Radioactive Materials Branch Division of Medical Radiation Exposure Bureau of Radiological Health U.S. Public Health Service Rockville, Maryland 20852 James E. Selle Senior Research Specialist Mound Laboratory Monsanto Research Corporation Miamisburg, Ohio 45342 Gertrude B. Sherwood Office of Standard Reference Data National Bureau of Standards U.S. Department of Commerce Washington, D.C. 20234 Ward F. Simmons Associate Director, Defense Metals Information Center Battelle/Columbus Laboratories 505 King Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43201 George L. Tuve 2625 Exeter Road Cleveland Heights, Ohio 44118 A. Bennett Wilson, Jr. Temple University Health Science Center Krusen Research Center Moss Rehabilitation Hospital Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19141

TABLE OF CONTENTS

SECTION 1

THE ELEMENTS

3

SECTION 2

ELEMENTAL PROPERTIES

SECTION 3

MISCELLANEOUS TABLES OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

SECTION 4

CONVERSION TABLES, MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS PROPERTIES, AND BINARY PHASE INFORMATION 411

SECTION 5

MATERIALS STANDARDS

61

5.1 Analytical Standards 667 5.2 General Standards 685 5.3 Tables of Specific Compositional Standards

Index

233

714

745

CHART - SUMMARY OF BINARY PHASE DIAGRAMS

inside back cover

Section 1 The Elements

3 THE ELEMENTS

One of the most striking facts about the elements is their unequal distribution and occurrence in nature. Present knowledge of the chemical composition of the universe, obtained from the study of the spectra of stars and nebulae, indicates that hydrogen is by far the most abundant element and may account for more than 90% of the atoms or about 75% of the mass of the universe. Helium atoms make up most of the remainder. All of the other elements together contribute only slightly to the total mass. The chemical composition of the universe is undergoing continuous change. Hydrogen is being converted into helium, and helium is being changed into heavier elements. As time goes on, the ratio of heavier elements increases relative to hydrogen. Presumably, the process is not reversible. Studies of the solar spectrum have led to the identification of 67 elements in the sun’s atmosphere; however, all elements cannot be identified with the same degree of certainty. Other elements may be present in the sun, although they have not yet been detected spectroscopically. The element helium was discovered on the sun before it was found on earth. Some elements, such as scandium, are relatively more plentiful in the sun and stars than here on earth. Minerals in lunar rocks brought back from the moon on the Apollo 11, 12, and 14 Missions consist predominantly of plagioclase [(Ca, Na) (Al, Si)040 8] and pyroxene [(Ca, Mg, Fe)2Si20 6] two minerals common in terrestrial volcanic rock. No new elements have been found on the moon that cannot be accounted for on earth; however, two minerals armalcolite [(F3, Mg)Ti20 5] and pyroxferroite [CaFe6(Si03)7] are new. The oldest known terrestrial rocks are about 3.5 billion years old. One rock, known as the “Genesis Rock,” brought back from the Apollo 15 Mission, is about 4.15 billion years old. This is only about one half billion years younger than the supposed age of the moon and solar system. Lunar rocks appear to be relatively enriched in refractory elements, such as chromium, titanium, zirconium, and the rare earths, and impoverished in volatile elements, such as the alkali metals, in chlorine, and in noble metals, such as nickel, platinum, and gold.

F. W. Clarke and others have carefully studied the composition of rocks making up the crust of the earth. Oxygen accounts for about 47% of the crust, by weight, while silicon comprises about 28%, and aluminum about 8%. These elements, plus iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium, account for about 99% of the composition of the crust. Many elements, such as tin, copper, zinc, lead, mercury, silver, platinum, antimony, arsenic and gold, which are so essential to our needs and civilization, are among some of the rarest elements in the earth’s crust. These are made available to us only by the processes of concentration in ore bodies. Some of the so-called rare earth elements have been found to be much more plentiful than originally thought and are about as abundant as uranium, mercury, lead, or bismuth. The least abundant rare-earth or lanthanide element, thulium, is believed to be more plentiful on earth than silver, cadmium, gold, or iodine. Rubidium is the 16th most abundant element and is more plentiful than chlorine, while its compounds are little known in chemistry and commerce. Ninety-one elements occur naturally on earth. Minute traces of plutonium-244 were recently discovered in rocks mined in So. Calif. This discovery supports the theory that heavy elements were produced during creation of the solar system. While technetium and promethium have not yet been found naturally on earth, they have been found to be present in stars. Technetium has been identified in the spectra of certain “late” type stars, and promethium lines have been identified in the spectra of a faintly visible star HR465 in Andromeda. Promethium must have been made very recently near the star’s surface for no known isotope of this element has a half-life longer than 17.7 yr. It has been suggested that californium is present in certain stellar explosions known as supernovae; however, this has not been proved. At present no elements are found elsewhere in the universe that cannot be accounted for here on earth. All atomic mass numbers from 1 to 23 are found naturally on earth except for masses 5 and 8. About 280 stable and 67 naturally radioactive isotopes occur on earth, totaling 346. In addition,

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Handbook o f Materials Science

the neutron, technetium, promethium, and the transuranic elements (lying beyond uranium) up to Element 105 have been produced artificially. Laboratory processes have now extended the radioactive mass numbers beyond 238 to about 260. Each element from atomic number 1 to 104 is known to have at least one radioactive isotope. About 1700 different nuclides (the name given to different kinds of nuclei, whether they are of the same or different elements) are now recognized. Many stable and radioactive isotopes are now produced and distributed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn., U.S.A., to customers licensed by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Elements 89 (actinium) through 103 (lawrencium) are chemically similar to the rare earth or lanthanide elements (elements 57 to 71, inclusive). These elements therefore have been named actinides after the first member of this series. Those elements beyond uranium that have been produced artificially have the following names and symbols: neptunium, 93, (Np); plutonium, 94, (Pu); americium, 95, (Am); curium, 96, (Cm); berkelium, 97, (Bk); californium, 98, (Cf); einsteinium, 99, (Es); fermium, 100, (Fm); mendelevium, 101, (Md); nobelium, 102, (No); and lawrencium, 103, (Lr). It is now claimed that Elements 104 and 105 have been produced and positively identified. Element 104 is expected to have chemical properties similar to those of hafnium and would not be a member of the actinide series. Element 105 should have properties similar to those of tantalum. There is presently some reason for optimism in producing elements beyond Element 105 either by bombardment of heavy isotopic targets with heavy ions, or by the irradiation of uranium or transuranic elements with the instantaneous high flux of neutrons produced by underground nuclear explosions. The limit will be set by the yields of the nuclear reactions and by the half-lives of radioactive decay. It has been suggested that Elements 102 and%103 have abnormally short lives only because they are in a pocket of instability, and that this region of instability might “heal” around Element 105. If so, it may be possible to produce heavier isotopes with longer half-lives. It has also been suggested that Element 114, with a mass number of 298, and Element 126, with a mass number of 310, may be sufficiently stable to make discovery and identification possible.

Calculations indicate that Element 110, a homolog of platinum, may have a half-life of as long as 100 million years. Searches have already been made by workers in a number of laboratories for Element 110 and its neighboring elements in naturally occurring platinum. There are many claims in the literature of the existence of various allotropic modifications of the elements, some of which are based on incomplete evidence. Also the physical properties of an element may change drastically by the presence of small amounts of impurities. With new methods of purification, which are now able to produce elements with 99.9999 + % purity, it has been necessary to restudy the properties of the elements. For example, the melting point of thorium changes by several hundred degrees by the presence of a small percentage of T h02 as an impurity. Ordinary commercial tungsten is brittle and can be worked only with difficulty. Pure tungsten, however, is ductile enough to be drawn as a wire. In general, the value of physical properties given here applies to the pure element, when it is known. Actinium (Gr. aktis, aktinos, beam or ray) Ac; at. wt (227); at. no. 89; mp 1050°C; bp 3200°C ± 300°C (est.); sp gr 10.07 (calc.). Discovered by Andre Debierne in 1899 and independently by F. Giesel in 1902. Occurs naturally in association with uranium minerals. Actinium-227, a decay product of uranium-235, is a beta emitter with a 21.6-year half-life. Its p rin cip a l decay products are thorium-227 (18.5-day half-life), radium-223 (11.4-day halflife), and a number of short-lived products including radon, bismuth, polonium, and lead isotopes. In equilibrium with its decay products, it is a powerful source of alpha rays. Actinium metal has been prepared by the reduction of actinium fluoride with lithium vapor at about 1100 to 1300°C. The chemical behavior of actinium is similar to that of the rare earths, particularly la n th a n u m . Purified actinium comes into equilibrium with its decay products at the end of 185 days, and then decays according to its 21.6-year half-life. It is about 150 times as active as radium, making it of value in the production of neutrons. Aluminum (L. alument alum) - Al; at. wt 26.98154; at. no. 13; mp 660.37°C;bp 2467°C;sp gr 2.6989 (20°C); valence 3. The ancient Greeks and Romans used alum in medicine as an astrin-

5 gent, and as a mordant in dyeing. In 1761 de Morveau proposed the name alumine for the base in alum, and Lavoisier, in 1787, thought this to be the oxide of a still undiscovered metal. Wohler is generally credited with having isolated the metal in 1827, although an impure form was prepared by Oersted 2 years earlier. In 1807 Davy proposed the name alumium for the metal, undiscovered at that time, and later agreeed to change it to aluminum. Shortly thereafter, the name aluminium was adopted to conform with the “ium” ending of most elements, and this spelling is now in use elsewhere in the world. Aluminium was also the accepted spelling in the U.S. until 1925 at which time the American Chemical Society officially decided to use the name aluminum thereafter in their publications. The method of obtaining aluminum metal by the electrolysis of alumina dissolved in cryolite was discovered in 1886 by Hall in the U.S. and about the same time by Heroult in France. Cryolite, a natural ore found in Greenland, is no longer widely used in commercial production, but has been replaced by an artificial mixture of sodium, aluminum, and calcium fluorides. Bauxite, an impure hydrated oxide ore, is found in large deposits in Arkansas, Jamaica, and elsewhere. The Bayer process is most commonly used today to refine bauxite so it can be accommodated in the Hall-Heroult refining process, used to produce most aluminum. Two new processes based on chlorination as a first step show promise to replace the Bayer-Hall process. In the Alcoa smelting process, conventionally made alumina is chlorinated and the aluminum chloride electrolyzed to yield metal and recyclable chlorine. In the Toth process low grade clay minerals can be used. The clay is calcined, chlorinated in the presence of coke, and then reacted with manganese metal to produce aluminum metal and manganese chloride. The latter is then processed to recycle manganese and chlorine. Aluminum is the most abundant metal to be found in the earth’s crust (8.1%), but is never found free in nature. In addition to the minerals mentioned above, it is found in feldspars, granite, and in many other common minerals. Pure aluminum, a silvery white metal, possesses many desirable characteristics. It is light, nontoxic, has a pleasing appearance, can easily be formed, machined, or cast, has a high thermal conductivity, and has excellent corrosion resistance. It is nonmagnetic and nonsparking, stands second among

metals in the scale of malleability, and sixth in ductility. It is extensively used for kitchen utensils, outside building decoration, and in thousands of industrial applications where a strong, light, easily constructed material is needed. Although its electrical conductivity is only about 60% that of copper per area of cross section, it is used in electrical transmission lines because of its light weight. Pure aluminum is soft and lacks strength, but it can be alloyed with small amounts of copper, magnesium, silicon, manganese, and other elements to impart a variety of useful properties. These alloys are of vital importance in the construction of modern aircraft and rockets. Aluminum, evaporated in a vacuum, forms a highly reflective coating for both visible light and radiant heat. These coatings soon form a thin layer of the protective oxide and do not deteriorate as do silver coatings. They have found application in coatings for telescope mirrors, in making decorative paper, packages, toys, and in many other uses. The compounds of greatest importance are aluminum oxide, the sulfate, and the soluble sulfate with potassium (alum). The oxide, alumina, occurs naturally as ruby, sapphire, corundum, and emery, and is used in glassmaking. Synthetic ruby and sapphire have found application in the construction of lasers for producing coherent light. In 1852, the price of aluminum was about $545/lb, and just before Hall’s discovery in 1886, about $11.00. The price rapidly dropped to 30j£ and has been as low as 15jt/lb. Americium (the Americas) — Am; at. wt (243); at. no. 95; mp 994 ± 4°C; bp 2607°C; sp gr 13.67 (20°C); valence 2, 3,4, 5, or 6. Americium was the fourth transuranium element to be discovered; the isotope Am241 was identified by Seaborg, James, Morgan and Ghiorso late in 1944 at the wartime Metallurgical Laboratory (now the Argonne National Laboratory) of the University of Chicago as the result of successive neutron capture reactions by plutonium isotopes in a nuclear reactor: Pu2 3 9 (n, 7 )Pu2 4 0 (n, 7 )Pu2 4 1 ^ A m 24 1.

Since the isotope Am241 can be prepared in relatively pure form by extraction as a decay product over a period of years from strongly neutron-bombarded plutonium Pu241, this isotope is used for much of the chemical investigation of this element. Better suited is the isotope Am243

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Handbook o f Materials Science

due to its longer half-life (8.8 X 103 years as compared to 470 years for Am24 *). A mixture of the isotopes Am241, Am242, and Am243 can be prepared by intense neutron irradiation of Am241 according to the reactions Am241 (n/y) Am242 (n/y) Am243. Nearly isotopically pure Am243 can be prepared by a sequence of neutron bombardments and chemical separations as follows: neutron-bombardment of Am241 yields Pu242 by the reactions Am241 (n/y) Am24 2 Pu242 ; after chemical separation the Pu242 can be transformed to Am243 via the reactions Pu242 (n/y) Pu243£> Am243, and the Am243 can be chemically separated. Fairly pure Pu242 can be prepared more simply by very intense neutron irradiation of Pu239 as the result of successive neutron-capture reactions. Americium metal has been prepared by reducing the trifluoride with barium vapor at 1000° to 1200°C or the dioxide by lanthanum metal. The luster of freshly prepared americium metal is whiter and more silvery than plutonium or neptunium prepared in the same manner. It appears to be more malleable than uranium or neptunium and tarnishes slowly in dry air at room temperature. Americium is thought to exist in two forms: an alpha form which has a double hexagonal close-packed structure, and a loose-packed cubic beta form. Americium must be handled with great care to avoid personal contamination. As little as 0.02 fig of Am241 is the allowable body burden (bone). The alpha activity from Am241 is about three times that of radium. When gram quantities of Am241 are handled, the intense gamma activity makes exposure a serious problem. Americium dioxide, Am 02, is the most important oxide. AmF3, AmF4, AmCl3, AmBr3, and Aml3, and other compounds have been prepared. The isotope Am241 has been used as a portable source for gamma radiography. It has also been used as a radioactive glass thickness gage for the flat glass industry. Americium-241 is available from the A.E.C. at a cost of $ 150/g and Americium-243 at a cost of $ 100/mg. Antimony (L. antimonium) — Sb, (L. stibium, mark); at. wt 121.75; at. no. 51;m p630.74°C ;bp 1750°C; sp gr 6.691 (20°C); valence 0, -3 , +3, or +5. Antimony was recognized in compounds by the ancients and was known as a metal at the beginning o f the 17th century and possibly much earlier. It is not abundant, but is found in over 100 mineral species. It is sometimes found native, but more frequently as the sulfide, stibnite (Sb2S3); it

is found as antimonides of the heavy metals, and as oxides. It is extracted from the sulfide by roasting to the oxide, which is reduced by salt and scrap iron; from its oxides it is also prepared by reduction with carbon. Two allotropic forms of antimony exist: the normal stable, metallic form, and the amorphous gray form. The so-called explosive antimony is an ill-defined material always containing an appreciable amount of halogen; therefore, it no longer warrants consideration as a separate allotrope. The yellow form, obtained by oxidation of stibine, SbH3, is probably impure, and is not a distinct form. Metallic antimony is an extremely brittle metal of a flaky, crystalline texture. It is bluish-white and has a metallic luster. It is not acted on by air at room temperature, but burns brilliantly when heated with the formation of white fumes of Sb20 3. It is a poor conductor of heat and electricity, and has a hardness of 3 to 3.5. Antimony, available commercially with a purity of 99.999 + %, is finding use in semiconductor technology, for making infrared detectors, diodes, and H all-e ffe ct devices. Commercial-grade antimony is widely used in alloys with percentages ranging from 1 to 20. It greatly increases the hardness and mechanical strength of lead. Batteries, antifriction alloys, type metal, cable sheathing, and minor products use about half the metal produced. Compounds taking up the other half are oxides, sulfides, sodium antimonate, and antimony trichloride. These are used in manufacturing flame-proofing compounds, paints, ceramic enamels, glass and pottery. Tartar emetic (hydrated potassium antimonyltartate) is used as a medicine. Antimony and many of its compounds are toxic. The maximum allowable concentration of antimony dust in the air is recommended to be 0.5 mg/cm3. Atmospheric concentrations of stibine should not exceed 0.1 ppm. Argon (Gr. argos, inactive) - Ar; at. wt 39.948; at. no. 18; fp -189.2°C; bp -185.7°C; density 1.7837 g/1. Its presence in air was suspected by Cavendish in 1785; discovered by Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay in 1894. The gas is prepared by fractionation of liquid air, the atmosphere containing 0.94% argon. It is 2lA times as soluble in water as nitrogen, having about the same solubility as oxygen; best recognized by the characteristic lines in the red end of the spectrum. It is used in electric light bulbs and in fluorescent tubes at a pressure of about 3 mm, and in filling

7

photo tubes, glow tubes, etc., and as a laser light source. Argon is also used as an inert gas shield for arc welding and cutting, as a blanket for the production of titanium and other reactive elements, and as a protective atmosphere for growing silicon and germanium crystals. Argon is colorless and odorless, both as a gas and liquid. It is available in high-purity form. Commercial argon is available at a cost of about 10^/ft2. Argon is considered to be a very inert gas and is not now known to form true chemical compounds, as do krypton, xenon, and radon. However, it does form a hydrate having a dissociation pressure of 105 atm at 0°C. Ion molecules, such as (ArKr)+, (ArXe)+, (NeAr)+, have been observed spectroscopically. Argon also forms a clathrate with |3 hydroquinone. This clathrate is stable and can be stored for a considerable time, but a true chemical bond does not exist. Van der Waals’ forces act to hold the argon. Naturally occurring argon is a mixture of three isotopes. Five other radioactive isotopes are now known to exist. Arsenic (L. arsenicum, Gr. arsenikon, yellow orpiment — identified with arsenikos, male, from the belief that metals were different sexes —Arab. az-zernikh, the orpiment from Persian zerni-zar. gold) — As; at. wt 74.9216; at. no. 33; valence -3 , 0, +3 or +5. Elemental arsenic occurs in two solid modifications: yellow, and gray or metallic, with specific gravities of 1.97, and 5.73, respectively. Gray arsenic, the ordinary stable form, has a mp of 817°C (28 atm) and sublimes at 613°C. Several other allotropic forms of arsenic are reported in the literature. It is believed that Albertus Magnus obtained the element in 1250 A.D. In 1649 Schroeder published two methods of preparing the element. It is found native, in the sulfides realgar and orpiment, as arsenides and sulfarsenides of heavy metals, as the oxide, and as arsenates. Mispickel or arsenopyrite (FeSAs) is the most common mineral, from which on heating the arsenic sublimes leaving ferrous sulfide. The element is a steel gray, very brittle, crystalline, semi-metallic solid; it tarnishes in air, and when heated is rapidly oxidized to arsenous oxide (As20 3) with the odor of garlic. Arsenic and its compounds are poisonous. The maximum allowable concentration of arsenic is recommended to be 0.5 mg/m3 of air. Arsenic is also used in bronzing, pyrotechny, and for hardening and improving the sphericity of shot. The most important compounds are white arsenic (As20 3),

the su lfid e, Paris green 3 C u (A s0 2 ) 2 * C u (C 2 H30 2)2 , calcium arsenate, and lead arsenate, the last three being used as agricultural insecticides and poisons. Marsh’s test makes use of the formation and ready decomposition of arsine (A s H3). Arsenic is available in high-purity form. It is finding increasing uses as a doping agent in solid-state devices, such as transistors. Gallium arsenide is used as a laser material to convert electricity directly into coherent light. Astatine (Gr. astatos, unstable) — At; at. wt ~210; at. no. 85; mp 302°C; bp 337°C; valence probably 1, 3, 5, or 7. Synthesized in 1940 by D. R. Corson, K. R. MacKenzie, and E. Segre at the University of California by bombarding bismuth with alpha particles. The longest-lived isotope, At210, has a half-life of only 8.3 hr. Twenty isotopes are known. Minute quantities of At215, At2 18, and At219 exist in equilibrium in nature with naturally occurring uranium and thorium isotopes, and traces of At217 are in equilibrium with U2 33 and Np239 resulting from interaction of thorium and uranium with naturally produced neutrons. The total amount of astatine present in the earth’s crust, however, totals less than 1 oz. Asatine can be produced by bombarding bismuth with energetic alpha particles to obtain the relatively long-lived At209-21 1, which can be distilled from the target by heating it in air. Only about 0.05 jug of astatine have been prepared to date. The “time of flight” mass spectrometer has been used to confirm that this highly radioactive halogen behaves chemically very much like other halogens, particularly iodine. The inter-halogen compounds Atl, AtBr, and AtCl are known to form, but it is not yet known if astatine forms diatomic astatine molecules. HAt and CH3At (methyl astatide) have been detected. Astatine is said to be more metallic than iodine, and like iodine, it probably accumulates in the thyroid gland. Barium (Gr. barys, heavy) — Ba; at. wt 137.34; at. no. 56; mp 725°C; bp 1640°C; sp gr 3.5 (20°C); valence 2. Baryta was distinguished from lime by Scheele in 1774; the element was discovered by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808. It is found only in combination with other elements chiefly in barite or heavy spar (sulfate) and witherite (carbonate) and is prepared by electrolysis of the chloride. Barium is a metallic element, soft, and when pure is silvery-white like lead; it belongs to the alkaline earth group, resembling calcium

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Handbook o f Materials Science

chemically. The metal oxidizes very easily and should be kept under petroleum or other suitable oxygen-free liquids to exclude air. It is decomposed by water or alcohol. The metal is used as a “getter” in vacuum tubes. The most important compounds are the peroxide (Ba02), chloride, sulfate, carbonate, nitrate and chlorate. Lithopone, a pigment containing barium sulfate and zinc sulfide, has good covering power, and does not darken in the presence of sulfides. The sulfate, as permanent white or blanc fixe, is also used in paint, in x-ray diagnostic works, and in glassmaking. Barite is extensively used as a wetting agent in oilwell drilling fluids, and also in making rubber. The carbonate is used as a rat poison, while the nitrate and chlorate give colors in pyrotechny. The impure sulfide phosphoresces after exposure to the light. The compounds and the metal are not expensive. Barium metal (99.5 + % pure) costs about $20.00/lb. All barium compounds that are water or acid soluble are poisonous. Natural-occurring barium is a mixture of seven stable isotopes. Thirteen other radioactive isotopes are known to exist. Berkelium (.Berkeley, home of Univ. of Calif.) — Bk; at. wt (247); at. no. 97; valence 3 or 4; sp gr 14 (est.). Berkelium, the eighth member of the actinide transition series, was discovered in December 1949 by Thompson, Ghiorso, and Seaborg, and was the fifth transuranium element synthesized. It was produced by cyclotron bombardment of mg amounts of Am241 with helium ions at Berkeley, California. The first isotope produced had a mass number of 243 and decayed with a half-life of 4.6 hr. Eight isotopes are now known and have been synthesized. The existence of Bk249 , with a half-life of 314 days, makes it feasible to isolate berkelium in weighable amounts so that its properties can be investigated with macroscopic quantities. One of the first visible amounts of a pure berkelium compound berkelium chloride — was produced in 1962. It weighed 3 billionth of a gram. Berkelium has not yet been prepared in elemental form, but it is expected to be a silvery metal, easily soluble in diluted mineral acids, and readily oxidized by air or oxygen at elevated temperatures to form the oxide. X-ray diffraction methods have been used to identify the following compounds: Bk02, Bk20 3, BkF3, BkCl3, and BkOCl. As with other actinide elements, berkelium tends to accumulate in the skeletal system. The maximum permissible

body burden of Bk249 in the human skeleton is about 0.0004 fig. Because of its rarity, berkelium presently has no commercial or technological uses. Beryllium (Gr. berryllos, beryl; also called Glucinium or Glucinum, Gr. glykys, sweet) — Be; at. wt. 9.01218; at. no. 4; mp 1278 ± 5°C; bp 2970°C; sp gr 1.848 (20°C); valence 2. Discovered as the oxide by Vauquelin in beryl and in emeralds in 1798. The metal was isolated in 1828 by Wohler and by Bussy independently by the action of potassium on beryllium chloride. Beryllium is found in some 30 mineral species, the most important of which are beryl, chrysoberyl, and phenacite. Aquamarine and emerald are precious forms of beryl Beryl (3BeOAl20 3 6Si02) is the most important commercial source of the element and its compounds. Most of the metal is not prepared by reducing beryllium fluoride with magnesium metal. Beryllium metal did not become readily available to industry until 1957. The metal, steel gray in color, has many desirable properties. It is one of the lightest of all metals, and has one of the highest melting points of the light metals. Its modulus of elasticity is about one third greater than that of steel. It resists attack by concentrated nitric acid, has excellent thermal conductivity, and is nonmagnetic. It has a high permeability to x-rays, and when bombarded by alpha particles, as from radium or polonium, neutrons are produced in the ratio of about 30 neutrons/million alpha particles. At ordinary temperatures beryllium resists oxidation in air, although its ability to scratch glass is probably due to the formation of a thin layer of the oxide. Beryllium is used as an alloying agent in producing beryllium copper, which is extensively used for springs, electrical contacts, spot-welding electrodes, and nonsparking tools. It is finding application as a possible aerospace structural material. It is used in nuclear reactors as a reflector or moderator for it has a low thermal neutron absorption cross-section. It is used in gyroscopes, computer parts, and inertial guidance instruments where lightness, stiffness, and dimensional stability are required. The oxide has a very high melting point and is also used in nuclear work and ceramic applications. Beryllium and its salts are toxic and should be handled with the greatest of care. Beryllium and its compounds should not be tasted to verify the sweetish nature of beryllium (as did early experimenters). The metal, its alloys, and its salts can be handled safely if

9

certain work codes are observed, but no attempt should be made to work with beryllium before becoming familiar with proper safeguards. The maximum allowable concentration of beryllium dust in an 8 -hr day is recommended to be about 2 jug/m3 in working areas. The average monthly concentration should not exceed 0 . 0 1 jug/m3 in non-working areas. Beryllium metal in vacuum cast billet form is priced roughly at $70/lb. Fabricated forms are more expensive. Bismuth (Ger. Weisse Masse, white mass; later Wismuth and Bisemutum) - Bi; at. wt. 208.9808. at no. 83; mp 271.3°C;bp 1560 ± 5°C;sp gr 9.747 (20°C); valence 3 or 5. In early times bismuth was confused with tin and lead. Claude Geoffroy the Younger showed it to be distinct from lead in 1753. It is a white, crystalline, brittle metal with a pinkish tinge. It occurs native. The most important ores are bismuthinite or bismuth glance (Bi2 S3) and bismite (Bi2 0 3). Peru, Japan, Mexico, Bolivia, and Canada are major bismuth producers. Much of the bismuth produced in the U.S. is obtained as a by-product in refining lead, copper, tin, silver, and gold ores. Bismuth is the most diamagnetic of all metals, and the thermal conductivity is lower than any metal, except mercury. It has a high electrical resistance, and has the highest Hall effect of any metal (i.e., greatest increase in electrical resistance when placed in a magnetic field). “Bismanol” is a permanent magnet of high coercive force, made of MnBi, by the U.S. Naval Ordnance Laboratory. Bismuth expands 3.32% on solidification. This property makes bismuth alloys particularly suited to the making of sharp castings of objects subject to damage by high temperatures. With other metals, such as tin, cadmium, etc., bismuth forms low-melting alloys which are extensively used for safety devices used in fire detection and extinguishing systems. Bismuth is used in producing malleable irons and is finding use as a catalyst for making acrylic fibers. When bismuth is heated in air it bums with a blue flame forming yellow fumes of the oxide. The metal is also used as a thermocouple material (has highest negativity known), and has found application as a carrier for U2 3 5 or U2 3 3 fuel in atomic reactors. Its soluble salts are characterized by forming insoluble basic salts on the addition of water - a property sometimes used in detection work. Bismuth oxychloride is used extensively in cosmetics. Bismuth subnitrate and subcarbonate are used in

medicine. High-purity bismuth metal costs about $4/lb. Boron (Ar. Bttraq, Pers. Bttrah) - B; at. wt. 10.81; at. no. 5; mp 2300°C;bp sublimes 2550°C; sp gr of crystals 2.34, of amorphous variety 2.37; valence 3. Boron compounds have been known for thousands of years, but the element was not discovered until 1808 by Sir Humphry Davy-and by Gay-Lussac and Thenard. The element is not found free in nature, but occurs as orthoboric acid usually in certain volcanic spring waters and as borates in borax and colemanite. Ulexite, another boron mineral, is interesting as it is nature’s own version of “fiber optics.” By far the most important source of boron is the mineral rasorite, also known as kemite, found in the Mojave desert of California. Extensive borax deposits are also found in Turkey. Boron exists naturally at 19.78% 5 B1 0 isotope and 80.22% 5 B 11 isotope. Highpurity crystalline boron may be prepared by the vapor phase reduction of boron trichloride or tribromide with hydrogen on electrically heated filaments. The impure, or amorphous boron, a brownish-black powder, can be obtained by heating the trioxide with magnesium powder. Boron of 99.9999% purity has been produced and is available commercially. Elemental boron has an energy band gap of 1.50 to 1.56 electron volts, which is higher than that of either silicon or germanium. It has interesting optical characteristics, transmitting portions of the infrared, and is a poor conductor of electricity at room temperature, but a good conductor at high temperature. Amorphous boron is used in pyrotechnic flares to provide a distinctive green color, and in rockets as an igniter. The more important compounds of boron are boric, or boracic acid widely used as a mild antiseptic, and borax (Na2 B4 O 7 *10H2 O), which serves as a cleansing flux in welding and as a water softener in washing powders. Boron compounds are used in production of enamels for covering steel of refrigerators, washing machines, and like products. Boron compounds are also extensively used in the manufacture of borosilicate glasses. Boron coated on a thin tungsten wire substrate is the principal reinforcement for both resin and metal matrix composites. The isotope boron 1 0 is used as a control for nuclear reactors, as a shield for nuclear radiation, and in instruments used for detecting neutrons. Boron nitride has remarkable properties and can be used to make a material as hard as diamond. The nitride also

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Handbook o f Materials Science

behaves like an electrical insulator but conducts heat like at metal. It also has lubricating properties similar to graphite. The hydrides are easily oxidized with considerable energy liberation, and are being studied for use as rocket fuels. Demand is increasing for boron filaments, a high-strength, light-weight material chiefly employed for advanced aero-space structures. Amorphous boron (90% to 92% grade) costs about $ 1 2 to $30/lb depending on quantity ordered. Elemental boron is not considered to be a poison, but assimilation of its compounds has a cumulative poisonous effect. Bromine (Gr. bromos, stench) — Br; at. wt. 79.904; at. no. 35; mp -7.2°C; bp 58.78°C; density of gas 7.59 g/1, liquid 3.12 (20°C); valence 1, 3, 5, or 7. Discovered by Balard in 1826, but not prepared in quantity until 1860. A member of the halogen group of elements, it is obtained from natural brines from wells in Michigan and West Virginia and from sea water by displacement with chlorine; electrolysis might be used. Bromine is the only liquid nonmetallic element. It is a heavy, mobile, reddish-brown liquid, volatilizing readily at room temperature to a red vapor with a strong disagreeable odor, resembling chlorine, and having a very irritating effect on the eyes and throat; it is readily soluble in water or carbon disulfide, forming a red solution; it is less active than chlorine but more so than iodine; it unites readily with many elements and has a bleaching action; when spilled on the skin it produces painful sores. It presents a serious health hazard, and maximum safety precautions should be taken when handling it. About 80% of the bromine output in the U.S. is used in the production of ethylene dibromide, a lead scavenger used in making gasoline antiknock compounds. Bromine is also used in making fumigants, flameproofing agents, water purification compounds, dyes, medicinals, sanitizers, inorganic bromides for photography, etc. Organic bromides are also important. Cadmium (L. cadmia; Gr. kadmeia - ancient name for calamine, zinc carbonate) — Cd; at. wt 112.40; at. no. 48; mp 320.9°C; bp 765°C; sp gr 8.65 (20°C); valence 2. Discovered by Stromeyer in 1817 from an impurity in zinc carbonate. Cadmium most often occurs in small quantities associated with zinc ores, such as sphalerite (ZnS). Greenockite (CdS) is the only mineral of any consequence bearing cadmium. Almost all cadmium is obtained as a by-product in the

treatment of zinc, copper, and lead ores. It is a soft, bluish-white metal which is easily cut with a knife. It is similar in many respects to zinc. It is a component of some of the lowest melting alloys; it is used in bearing alloys with low coefficients of friction and great resistance to fatigue; it is used extensively in electroplating, which accounts for about 60% of its use. It is also used in many types of solder, for standard E.M.F. cells, for batteries, and as a barrier to control atomic fission. Cadmium compounds are used in black and white television phosphors and in blue and green phosphors for color TV tubes. It forms a number of salts of which the sulfate is the most common; the sulfide is used as a yellow pigment. Cadmium and solutions of its compounds are toxic. Failure to appreciate the toxic properties of cadmium may cause workers to be unwittingly exposed to dangerous fumes. Silver solder, for example, which contains cadmium, should be handled with care. Serious toxicity problems have been found from long-term exposure and work with cadmium plating baths. The recommended maximum allowable ( 8 -hr day) concentration of cadmium vapor in air is 0.1 mg/m3. The current price of cadmium is about $2.50/lb. It is available in high-purity form. Calcium (L. calx, lime) - Ca; at. wt 40.08; at. no. 20; mp 839°C; bp 1484°C; sp gr 1.55 (20°C); valence 2. Though lime was prepared by the Romans in the first century under the name calx, not until 1808 was the metal discovered. After learning that Berzelius and Pontin prepared calcium amalgam by electrolyzing lime in mercury, Davy was able to isolate the impure metal. Calcium is a metallic element, fifth in abundance in the earth’s crust, of which it forms more than three percent. It is an essential constituent of leaves, bones, teeth and shells. Never found in nature uncombined, it occurs abundantly as limestone (CaC03), gypsum (CaS0 4 *2H2 0 ) and fluorite (CaF2); apatite is the fluophosphate or chlorophosphate of calcium. The metal has a silvery color, is rather hard, and is prepared by electrolysis of the fused chloride to which calcium fluoride is added to lower the melting point. Chemically it is one of the alkaline earth elements; it readily forms a white coating of nitride in air, reacts with water, burns with a yellow red flame, forming largely the nitride. The metal is used as a reducing agent in preparing other metals, such as thorium, uranium, zirconium, etc., and is used as a deoxidizer, desulfurizer, or decarburizer for

11

various ferrous and nonferrous alloys. It is also used as an alloying agent for aluminum, beryllium, copper, lead and magnesium alloys, and serves as a “getter” for residual gases in vacuum tubes, etc. Its natural and prepared compounds are widely used. Quicklime (CaO), made by heating limestone and changed into slaked lime by the careful addition of water, is the great cheap base of the chemical industry with countless uses. Mixed with sand it hardens as mortar and plaster by taking up carbon dioxide from the air. Calcium from limestone is an important element in Portland cement. The solubility of the carbonate in water containing carbon dioxide causes the formation of caves with stalactites and stalagmites and hardness in water. Other important compounds are the carbide (CaC2), chloride (CaCl2), cyanamide (Ca(CN2)), hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)2), nitrate (Ca(N03)2), and sulfide (CaS). Californium (State and University of California; Cf; at. wt (251); at. no. 98) - Californium, the sixth transuranium element to be discovered, was produced by Thompson, Street, Ghiorso, and Seaborg in 1950 by bombarding jug quantities of Cm242 with 35 MeV helium ions in the Berkeley 60-in. cyclotron. Californium (III) is the only ion stable in aqueous solutions, all attempts to reduce or oxidize californium (III) having failed. The isotope Cf249 results from the beta decay of Bk249 while the heavier isotopes are produced by intense neutron irradiation by the reactions: Bk2 4 9 (n, 7 )Bk2 s 0 -^*C f2 5 0 and Cf2 4 9 (n, 7 )Cf2 5 0

followed by Cf2 50 (n, 7 )Cf2 51 (n, 7 )Cf2 52 .

The existence of the isotopes Cf24 9, Cf2 50, Cf251 and Cf2 52 makes it feasible to isolate californium in weighable amounts so that its properties can be investigated with macroscopic quantities. Californium-252 is a very strong neutron emitter. One microgram releases 170 million neutrons/min which presents biological hazards. In 1960 a few tenths of a jug of californium trichloride CfCl3, californium oxychloride, CfOCl, and californium oxide, Cf20 3, were first prepared. Reduction of californium to its metallic state has not yet been accomplished. Because californium is a very efficient source of neutrons, many new uses are expected for it. It has already found use in neutron moisture gages and in well-logging (the

determination of water and oil-bearing layers). It is also being used as a portable neutron source for discovery of metals, such as gold or silver, by on-the-spot activation analysis. Cf2 5 2 is now being offered for sale by the A.E.C. at a cost of $100 per 0.1 jug. It has been suggested that californium may be produced in certain stellar explosions, called supernovae, for the radioactive decay of Cf2 5 4 (55-day half-life) agrees with the characteristics of the light curves of such explosions observed through telescopes. This suggestion, however, is questioned. Carbon (L. carbo, charcoal) - C; at. wt 12 exactly (C12); at. wt (natural carbon) 12.011; at. no. 6 ; mp ~3550°C, graphite sublimes at 3367 ± 25°C; bp 4827°C; sp gr amorphous 1 . 8 to 2.1, graphite 1.9 to 2.3, diamond 3.15 to 3.53 (depending on variety); gem diamond 3.513 (25°C); valence 2, 3, or 4. Carbon, an element of prehistoric discovery, is very widely distributed in nature. It is found in abundance in the sun, stars, comets, and atmospheres of most planets. Carbon in the form of microscopic diamonds is found in some meteorites. Natural diamonds are found in Kimberlite of ancient volcanic “pipes,” such as found in South Africa, Arkansas, and elsewhere. Diamonds are now also being recovered from the ocean floor off the Cape of Good Hope. About 30% of all industrial diamonds used in the U.S. are now made synthetically. Artificial diamonds are produced by a high temperature-high pressure process utilizing small amounts of catalysts. The method has the potential to manufacture high quality diamonds to rival natural diamonds. The energy of the sun and stars can be attributed at least in part to the well-known carbon-nitrogen cycle. Carbon is found free in nature in three allotropic forms: amorphous, graphite, and diamond. A fourth form, known as “white” carbon, is now thought to exist. Graphite is one of the softest known materials while diamond is one of the hardest. Graphite exists in two forms: alpha and beta. These have identical physical properties, except for their crystal structure. Naturally occurring graphites are reported to contain as much as 30% of the rhombohedral (beta) form, whereas synthetic materials contain only the alpha form. The hexagonal alpha type can be converted to the beta by mechanical treatment, and the beta form reverts to the alpha on heating it above 1000°C. In 1969 a new allotropic form of carbon was produced during the sublimation of pyrolytic graphite

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Handbook o f Materials Science

at low pressures. Under free-vaporization conditions above ~2550°K, “white” carbon forms as small transparent crystals on the edges of the basal planes of graphite. The interplanar spacings of “white” carbon are identical to those of a carbon form noted in the graphitic gneiss from the Ries (meteoritic) Crater of Germany. “White” carbon is a transparent birefringent material. Little information is presently available about this allotrope. In combination, carbon is found as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of the earth and dissolved in all natural waters. It is a component of great rock masses in the form of carbonates of calcium (limestone), magnesium, and iron. Coal, petroleum, and natural gas are chiefly hydrocarbons. Carbon is unique among the elements in the vast number and variety of compounds it can form. With hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, and other elements, it forms an infinite number of compounds, carbon atom often being linked to carbon atom. There are upwards of a million or more known carbon compounds, many thousands of which are vital to organic and life processes. Without carbon, the basis for life would be impossible. While it has been thought that silicon might take the place of carbon in forming a host of similar compounds, it is now not possible to form stable compounds with very long chains of silicon atoms. Some of the most important compounds of carbon are carbon dioxide (C 02), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon disulfide (CS2), chloroform (CHC13), carbon tetrachloride (CC14), methane (CH4), ethylene (C2 H4), acetylene (C 2 H2), b enzene (C 6 H6), ethyl alcohol (C2 H5 OH), acetic acid (CH3 COOH), and their derivatives. Carbon has seven isotopes. In 1961 the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry adopted the isotope carbon- 1 2 as the basis for atomic weights. Carbon-14, an isotope with a half-life of 5730 years, has been widely used to date such materials as wood, archeological specimens, etc. Carbon-13 is now commercially available at a cost of $700/g. Cerium - (named for the asteroid Ceres, which was discovered in 1801 only 2 years before the element), Ce; at. wt 140.12; at. no. 58; mp 799°C; bp 3426°C; sp gr 6.657 (25°C); valence 3 or 4 . Discovered in 1803 by Klaproth and by Berzelius and Hisinger; metal prepared by Hillebrand and Norton in 1875. Cerium is the most abundant of the metals of the so-called rare earths; it is found in a number of minerals including allanite (also

known as orthite), monazite, bastnasite, cerite, and samarskite. Monazite and bastnasite are presently the two most important sources of cerium. Large deposits of monazite found on the beaches of Travancore, India, in river sands in Brazil, and deposits of allanite in the Western United States, and bastnasite in Southern California will supply cerium, thorium and the other rare-earth metals for many years to come. Metallic cerium is prepared by metallothermic reduction techniques, such as by reducing cerous fluoride with calcium, or by electrolysis of molten cerous chloride or other cerous halides. The metallothermic technique is used to produce highpurity cerium. Cerium is especially interesting because of its variable electronic structure. The energy of the inner 4f level is nearly the same as that of the outer or valence electrons, and only small amounts of energy are required to change the relative occupancy of these electronic levels. This gives rise to dual valency states. For example, a volume change of about 1 0 % occurs when cerium is subjected to high pressures or low temperatures. It appears that the valence changes from about 3 to 4 when it is cooled or compressed. The low temperature behavior of cerium is complex. Four allotropic modifications are thought to exist: cerium at room temperature and at atmospheric pressure is known as 7 cerium. Upon cooling to -23°C, 7 cerium changes to P cerium. The remaining 7 cerium starts to change to a cerium when cooled to -158°C, and the transformation is complete at -196°C. a cerium has a density of 8.24. 5 cerium exists above 726°C. At atmospheric pressure, liquid cerium is more dense than its solid form at the melting point. Cerium is an iron-gray lustrous metal. It is malleable, and oxidizes very readily at room temperature, especially in moist air. Except for europium, cerium is the most reactive of the “rare-earth” metals. It slowly decomposes in cold water, and rapidly in hot water. Alkali solutions and dilute and concentrated acids attack the metal rapidly. The pure metal is likely to ignite if scratched with a knife. Ceric salts are orange-red or yellowish; cerous salts are usually white. Cerium is a component of misch metal, which is extensively used in the manufacture of pyrophoric alloys for cigarette lighters, etc. While cerium is not radioactive, the impure commerical grade may contain traces of thorium, which is radioactive. The oxide is an important constituent of incan-

13

descent gas mantles and it is emerging as a hydrocarbon catalyst in “self-cleaning” ovens. In this application it can be incorporated into oven walls to prevent the collection of cooking residues. As ceric sulfate it finds extensive use as a volumetric oxidizing agent in quantitative analysis. Cerium compounds are used in the manufacture of glass, both as a component and a decolorizer. The oxide is finding increased use as a glass polishing agent instead of rouge, for it is much faster than rouge in polishing glass surfaces. Cerium, with other rare earths, is used in carbon-arc lighting, especially in the motion picture industry. It is also finding use as an important catalyst in petroleum refining and in -metallurgical and nuclear applications. Commercial cerium metal costs about $75/lb. In small lots, 99.9% cerium costs about 65^/g. Cesium (L. caesius, sky blue) - Cs; at. wt 132.9054; at. no. 55; mp 28.40°C; bp 678.4°C; sp gr 1.873 (20°C); valence 1 . Cesium was discovered spectroscopically by Bunsen and Kirchhoff in 1860 in mineral water from Diirkheim. Cesium, an alkali metal, occurs in lepidolite, pollucite (a hydrated silicate of aluminum and cesium) and in other sources. One of the world’s richest sources of cesium is located at Bernie Lake, Manitoba. The deposits are estimated to contain 300,000 tons of pollucite, averaging 20% cesium. It can be isolated by electrolysis of the fused cyanide and by a number of other methods. Very pure, gas-free cesium can be prepared by thermal decomposition of cesium azide. The metal is characterized by a spectrum containing two bright lines in the blue along with several others in the red, yellow, and green. It is silvery-white, soft, and ductile. It is the most electro-positive and most alkaline element. Cesium, gallium and mercury are the only three metals that are liquid at room temperature. Cesium reacts explosively with cold water, and reacts with ice at temperatures above -116°C. Cesium hydroxide, the strongest base known, attacks glass. Because of its great affinity for oxygen the metal is used as a “getter” in radio tubes. It is also used in photo-electric cells, as well as a catalyst in the hydrogenation of certain organic compounds. The metal has recently found application in ion propulsion systems. Although these are not usable in the earth’s atmosphere, 1 lb of cesium in outer space theoretically will propel a vehicle 140 times as far as the burning of the same amount of any known liquid or solid. Cesium is

used in atomic clocks, which are accurate to 5 sec in 300 years. Its chief compounds are the chloride and the nitrate. The present price of cesium is about $ 1 0 0 to $150/lb, depending on quantity and purity. Chlorine (Gr. chloros, greenish-yellow) - Cl; at. wt 35.453; at. no. 17; fp - 100.98°C; bp-34.6°C; density 3.214 g/1; sp gr 1.56 (-33. 6 °C); valence 1, 3, 5, or 7. Discovered in 1744 by Scheele, who thought it contained oxygen; named in 1810 by Davy, who insisted it was an element. In nature it is found in the combined state only, chiefly with sodium as common salt (NaCl), carnallite (KMgCl3 • 6H2 0), and sylvite (KC1). It is a member of the halogen (salt forming) group of elements and is obtained from chlorides by the action of oxidizing agents and more often by electrolysis; it is a greenish-yellow gas, combining directly with nearly all elements. At 10°C one volume of water dissolves 3.10 vol of chlorine, at 30°C only 1.77 vol. Chlorine is widely used in making many everyday products. It is used for producing safe drinking water the world over. Even the smallest water supplies are now usually chlorinated. It is also extensively used in the production of paper products, dyestuffs, textiles, petroleum products, medicines, antiseptics, insecticides, foodstuffs, solvents, paints, plastics, and many other consumer products. Most of the chlorine produced is used in the manufacture of chlorinated compounds for sanitation, pulp bleaching, disinfectants, and textile processing. Further use is in the manufacture of chlorates, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and in the extraction of bromine. Organic chemistry demands much from chlorine, both as an oxidizing agent and in substitution, since it often brings desired properties in an organic compound when substituted for hydrogen, as in one form of synthetic rubber. Chlorine is a respiratory irritant. The gas irritates the mucous membranes and the liquid burns the skin. As little as 3.5 ppm can be detected as an odor, and 1 0 0 0 ppm is likely to be fatal after a few deep breaths. It was used as a war gas in 1915. The recommended maximum allowable concentration in air is about 1 ppm for prolonged exposure. Chromium (Gr. chroma, color) — Cr; at. wt 51.996; at. no. 24; mp 1857°C; pb 2672°C; sp gr 7.18 to 7.20 (20°C); valence chiefly 2, 3, or 6 . Discovered in 1797 by Vauquelin, who prepared the metal the next year. Chromium is a steel gray,

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Handbook o f Materials Science

lustrous, hard metal that takes a high polish. The principal ore is chromite (FeO • Cr2 0 3), which is found in Southern Rhodesia, U.S.S.R., Transvaal, Turkey, Iran, Albania, Finland, Malagasy, and the Philippines. The metal is usually produced by reducing the oxide with aluminum. Chromium is used to harden steel, to manufacture stainless steel, and to form many very useful alloys. Much is used in plating to produce a hard, beautiful surface and to prevent corrosion. Chromium is used to give glass an emerald green color. It finds wide use as a catalyst. All compounds of chromium are colored; the most important are the chromates of sodium and potassium (K2 Cr04) and the dichromates (K 2 Cr2 0 7) and the potassium and ammonium chrome alums, as KCr(S0 4 ) 2 • 12H2 0 . The dichromates are used as oxidizing agents in quantitative analysis, also in tanning leather. Other compounds are of industrial value; lead chromate is chrome yellow, a valued pigment. Chromium compounds are used in the textile industry as mordants, and by the aircraft and other industries for anodizing aluminum. The refractory industry has found chromite useful for forming bricks and shapes, as it has a high melting point, moderate thermal expansion, and stability of crystalline structure. Hexavalent chromium compounds are toxic. The recommended maximum allowable concentration of dusts and mists in air, measured as C r03, is 0.1 mg/m 3 for daily 8 -hr exposure. Chromium is available in high-purity form. Cobalt (Kobold, from the German, goblin or evil spirit, cobalos, Greek, mine) — Co; at. wt 58.9332; at. no. 27; mp 1495°C; bp 2870°C; sp gr 8.9 (20°C); valence 2 or 3. Discovered by Brandt about 1735. Cobalt occurs in the minerals cobaltite, smaltite, and erythrite, and is often associated with nickel, silver, lead, copper, and iron ores, from which it is most frequently obtained as a by-product. It is also present in meteorites. Important ore deposits are found in the Congo, Morocco, and Canada. Cobalt is a brittle, hard metal, closely resembling iron and nickel in appearance. It has a magnetic permeability of about two thirds that of iron. Cobalt tends to exist as a mixture of two allotropes over a wide temperature range. The /3-form predominates below 400°C and the a. above that temperature. The transformation is sluggish and accounts in part for the wide variation in reported data on physical properties of cobalt. It is alloyed with iron, nickel, and other metals to make Alnico, an alloy of

unusual magnetic strength with many important uses. Stellite alloys, containing cobalt, chromium, and tungsten, are used for high-speed, heavy-duty, high-temperature cutting tools, and for dies. Cobalt is also used in other magnet steels and stainless steels, and in alloys used in jet turbines and gas turbine generators. The metal is used in electroplating because of its appearance, hardness, and resistance to oxidation. The salts have been used for centuries for the production of brilliant and permanent blue colors in porcelain, glass, pottery, tiles and enamels. It is the principal ingredient in Serves and Thenard’s blue. A solution of the chloride (Co C12 #6H20 ) is used as sympathetic ink. The cobalt ammines are of interest; the oxide and the nitrate are important. Cobalt carefully used in the form of the chloride, sulfate, acetate, or nitrate has been found effective in correcting a certain mineral deficiency disease in animals. Soils should contain 0.13 to 0.30 ppm of cobalt for proper animal nutrition. Cobalt-60, an artificial isotope, is an important gamma ray source, and is extensively used as a tracer and a radio-therapeutic agent. Single compact sources of Cobalt-60 are readily available and have a equivalent gamma ray output equal to thousands of grams of radium. The cost of Cobalt-60 varies from about 40^ to $7.00/curie, depending on quantity and specific activity. Columbium —(see Niobium). Copper (L. cuprum, from the island of Cyprus) — Cu; at. wt 63.546; at. no. 29; mp 1083.4 ± 0 .2 °C; bp 2567°C; sp gr 8.96 (20°C); valence 1 or 2. The discovery of copper dates from prehistoric times; it is said to have been mined for more than 5000 years. It is one of man’s most important metals. Copper is reddish-colored, takes on a bright metallic luster and is malleable, ductile, and a good conductor of heat and electricity (second only to silver in electrical conductivity). The electrical industry is one of the greatest users of copper. Copper occasionally occurs native, and is found in many minerals, such as cuprite, malachite, azurite, chalocopyrite, and bornite. Large copper ore deposits are found in the U.S., Chile, Zambia, Zaire, Peru, and Rhodesia. The most important copper ores are the sulfides, oxides, and carbonates. From these copper is obtained by smelting, leaching and by electrolysis. Its alloys, brass and bronze, long used, are still very important; all American coins are now copper alloys; monel and gun metals also contain copper. The

15

most important compounds are the oxide and the sulfate, blue vitriol; the latter has wide use as an agricultural poison and as an algicide in water purification. Copper compounds are widely used in analytical chemistry, such as Fehling’s solution in tests for sugar. High-purity copper (99.999 + %) is available commercially. Curium (Pierre and Marie Curie) — Cm; at. wt. 247; at. no. 96; mp 1340 ± 40°C; sp gr 13.51 (calc.); valence 3 and 4. Although curium follows americium in the periodic system, it was actually known before americium and was the third transuranium element to be discovered. It was identified by Seaborg, James, and Ghiorso in 1944 at the wartime Metallurgical Laboratory in Chicago as a result of helium-ion bombardment of Pu2 3 9 in the Berkeley, California 60-in. cyclotron. Visible amounts (30 jug) of Cm2 4 2 , in the form of the hydroxide, were first isolated by Werner and Perlman of the University of California in 1947. In 1950, Crane, Wallmann, and Cunningham found that the magnetic susceptibility of jug samples of CmF 3 was of the same magnitude as that of GdF3. This provided direct experimental evidence for assigning a S f electronic configuration to Cm+3. In 1951, the same workers prepared curium in its elemental form for the first time. Thirteen isotopes of curium are now known. The most stable, Cm247, with a half-life of 16 million years, is so short compared to the earth’s age that any primordial curium must have disappeared long ago from the natural scene. Minute amounts of curium probably exist in natural deposits of uranium, as a result of a sequence of neutron captures and fT decays sustained by the very low flux of neutrons naturally present in uranium ores. The presence of natural curium, however, has never been detected. Cm2 4 2 and Cm2 4 4 are available in multigram quantities. Cm2 4 8 has been produced only in mg amounts. Curium is similar in some regards to gadolinium, its rare earth homolog, but it has a more complex crystal structure. Curium is silver in color, is chemically reactive, and is more electropositive than aluminum. Cm 02, Cm2 0 3, CmF3, CmF4, CmCl3, CmBr3, and Cml3 have been prepared. Most compounds of trivalent cerium are faintly yellow in color. The A.E.C. is attempting to produce several kilograms of Cm2 4 4 , an isotope with a 17.6-year half-life, by neutron irradiation of plutonium in a nuclear reactor. Ultimately, it is possible that it may be produced in ton quantities by converting a number of plutonium production

reactors to the manufacture of Cm244. Cm2 4 2 generates about three thermal watts of energy/g. This compares to one half thermal watt/g of Pu2 3 8 . This suggests use for curium as an isotopic power source. Cm2 4 4 is now offered for sale by the A.E.C. at $100/mg. Curium absorbed into the body accumulates in the bones, and is therefore very toxic as its radiation destroys the red-cell forming mechanism. The maximum permissible body burden of Cm2 4 4 in a human being is 0.002 Mg-

Deuterium — an isotope of hydrogen (see Hydrogen). Dysprosium (Gr. dysprositos, hard to get at) — Dy; at. wt 162.50; at. no. 6 6 ; mp 1412°C; bp 2562°C; sp gr 8.550 (25°C); valence 3. Dysprosium was discovered in 1886 by Lecoq de Boisbaudran, but not isolated. Neither the oxide nor the metal was available in relatively pure form until the development of ion-exchange separation and metallographic reduction techniques by Spedding and associates about 1950. Dysprosium occurs along with other so-called rare-earth or lanthanide elements in a variety of minerals, such as xe no time, fergusonite, gadolinite, euxenite, poly erase, and blomstrandine. The most important sources, however, are from monazite and bastnasite. Dysprosium can be prepared by reduction of the trifluoride with calcium. The element has a metallic, bright silver luster. It is relatively stable in air at room temperature, and is readily attacked and dissolved, with the evolution of hydrogen, by dilute and concentrated mineral acids. The metal is soft enough to be cut with a knife and can be machined without sparking if overheating is avoided. Small amounts of impurities can greatly affect its physical properties. While dysprosium has not yet found many applications, its thermal neutron absorption cross-section and high melting point suggest metallurgical uses in nuclear control applications for alloying with special stainless steels. A dysprosium oxide-nickel cermet has found use in cooling nuclear reactor control rods. This cermet absorbs neutrons readily without swelling or contracting under prolonged neutron bombardment. In combination with vanadium and other rare earths, dysprosium has been used in making laser materials. Dysprosiumcadmium calcogenides, as sources of infrared radiation, have been used for studying chemical reactions. The cost of dysprosium metal has dropped in recent years since the development of

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Handbook o f Materials Science

ion-exchange and solvent extraction techniques, and the discovery of large ore bodies. The metal is still expensive, however, and costs about 70^/g or $ 190/lb in purities of 99 + %. Einsteinium (Albert Einstein) — Es; at. wt. 254; at. no. 99. Einsteinium, the seventh transuranic element of the actinide series to be discovered, was identified by Ghiorso and co-workers at Berkeley in Dec. 1952 in debris from the first large thermonuclear or “hydrogen” bomb explosion, which took place in the Pacific in Nov. 1952. The isotope produced was the 20-day Es253 isotope. In 1961 a sufficient amount of einsteinium was produced to permit separation of a macroscopic amount of Es2 53 . This sample weighed about 0.01 jug. A special magnetic-type balance was used in making this determination. Es2 53 so produced was used to produce mendelevium (Element 101). Recently, about 3 jug of einsteinium were produced at Oak Ridge National Laboratories by irradiating for several years kg quantities of Pu23 9 in a reactor to produce Pu24 2. This was then fabricated into pellets of plutonium oxide and aluminum powder, and loaded into target rods for an initial one-year irradiation at the A.E.C.’s Savannah River Plant, followed by irradiation in a HFIR (High Flux Isotopic Reactor). After 4 months in the HFIR the targets were removed for chemical separation of the einsteinium from californium. Twelve isotopes of einsteinium are now recognized. Es254 has the longest half-life (276 days). Tracer studies using Es253 show that einsteinium has chemical properties typical of a heavy trivalent, actinide element. Element 104 — In 1964, workers of the Joint Nuclear Research Institute at Dubna (U.S.S.R.) bombarded plutonium with accelerated 113—115 MeV neon ions. By measuring fission tracks in a special glass with a microscope, they detected an isotope that decays by spontaneous fission. They suggested that this isotope, which had a half-life of 0.3 ± 0.1 sec might be 104260, produced by the following reaction: 9 4 Pu2 4 2 +! 0 Ne2 2-»1042 60 +4n.

Element 104, the first transactinide element, is expected to have chemical properties similar to those of hafnium. It would, for example, form a relatively volatile compound with chlorine (a tetrachloride). The Soviet scientists have performed experiments aimed at chemical identifica-

tion, and have attempted to show that the 0.3-sec activity is more volatile than that of the relatively nonvolatile actinide trichlorides. This experiment does not fulfill the test of chemically separating the new element from all others, but it provides important evidence for evaluation. New data, reportedly issued by Soviet scientists, have reduced the half-life of the isotope they worked with from 0.3 sec to 0.15 sec. The Dubna scientists suggest the name kurchatovium and symbol Ku for Element 104, in honor of Igor Vasilevich Kurchatov (1903-1960), late Head of Soviet Nuclear Research. In 1969, Ghiorso, Nurmia, Harris, K. A. Y. Eskola and P. L. Eskola, of the Univ. of Calif, at Berkeley, reported they had positively identified two, and possibly three, isotopes of Element 104. The Group also indicated that after repeated attempts, so far they have been unable to produce isotope 104260 reported by the Dubna Group in 1964. The discoveries at Berkeley were made by bombarding a target of Cf2 4 9 with C1 2 nuclei of 71 MeV, and C1 3 nuclei of 69 MeV. The combination of C 1 2 with Cf249, followed by instant emission of four neutrons, produced Element 10425 7. This isotope has a half-life of 4 to 5 sec., decaying by emitting an alpha particle into No2 5 3 , with a half-life of 105 sec. The same reaction, except with the emission of three neutrons, was thought to have produced 1042 5 8, with a half-life of about 1/100 sec. Element 104259 is formed by the merging of C 1 3 nuclei with Cf249, followed by emission of three neutrons. This isotope has a half-life of 3 to 4 sec, and decays by emitting an alpha particle into No 2 5 5 , which has a half-life of 185 sec. Thousands of atoms of 104257 and 104259 have been detected. The Berkeley Group believe their identification of 1042 5 8 is correct, but they do not attach the same degree of confidence to this work as to their work on 104257 and 104259. The Berkeley Group propose for the new element the name rutherfordium (Symbol R/), in honor of Ernest R. Rutherford, New Zealand physicist. The claims for discovery and the naming of Element 104 are still in question. Element 105 — In 1967 G. N. Flerov reported that a Soviet team working at the Jt. Inst, for Nuclear Research at Dubna may have produced a few atoms of 105260 and 105261 by bombarding Am2 4 3 with Ne22. Their evidence was based on time-coincidence measurements of alpha energies. More recently it was reported that early in 1970

17

Dubna scientists synthesized Element 105 and that by the end of April 1970 “had investigated all the types of decay of the new element and had determined its chemical properties.” The Soviet Group have not proposed a name for Element 105. In late April 1970, it was announced that Ghiorso, Nurmia, Harris, K. A. Y. Eskola, and P. L. Eskola, working at the Univ. of Calif, at Berkeley, had positively identified Element 105. The discovery was made by bombarding a target of Cf2 4 9 with a beam of 84 MeV nitrogen nuclei in the Heavy Ion Linear Accelerator (HILAC). When a N 1 5 nucleus is absorbed by a Cf2 4 9 nucleus, four neutrons are emitted and a new atom of 105260, with a half-life of 1.6 sec., is formed. While the first atoms of Element 105 are said to have been detected conclusively on March 5, 1970, there is evidence that Element 105 had been formed in Berkeley experiments a year earlier by the method described. Ghiorso and his associates have attempted to confirm Soviet findings by more sophisticated methods without success. The Berkeley Group propose the name hahnium, after the la te G erm an sc ie n tist O tto Hahn (1879—1968), and Ha, for the chemical symbol. More recently, in October 1971, it was announced that two new isotopes of Element 105 were synthesized with the heavy ion linear accelerator by A. Ghiorso and co-workers at Berkeley. Element 1052 61 was produced both by bombarding Cf2 5 0 with N 15 and by bombarding Bk2 4 9 with O16. The isotope emits 8.93-MeV a. particles and decays to Lr2 5 7 with a half-life of about 1 . 8 sec. Element 1052 6 2 was produced by bombarding Bk2 4 9 with O 1 8. It emits 8.45 MeV a particles and decays to Lr2 5 8 with a half-life of about 40 sec. Erbium (Ytterby, a town in Sweden) — Er; at. wt 167.26; at. no 6 8 ; mp 1529°C; bp 2863°C; sp gr 9.066 (25°C); valence 3. Erbium, one of the so-called rare-earth elements of the lanthanide series, is found in the mineral mentioned under dysprosium. In 1842 Mosander separated “yttria,” found in the mineral gadolinite, into three fractions which he called yttria, erbia, and terbia. The names erbia and terbia became confused in this early period. After 1860, Mosander’s terbia Was known as erbia, and after 1877, the earlier known erbia became terbia. The erbia of this period was later shown to consist of five oxides, now known as erbia, scandia, holmia, thulia, and ytterbia. By 1905 Urbain and James independently succeeded

in isolating fairly pure Er2 0 3. Kelmm and Bommer first produced reasonably pure erbium metal in 1934 by reducing the anhydrous chloride with potassium vapor. The pure metal is soft and malleable and has a bright, silvery, metallic luster. As with other rare-earth metals, its properties depend to a certain extent on the impurities present. The metal is fairly stable in air and does not oxidize as rapidly as some of the other rare-earth metals. Natural-occurring erbium is a mixture of six isotopes, all of which are stable. Ten radioactive isotopes of erbium are also recognized. Recent production techniques, using ionexchange reactions, have resulted in much lower prices of the rare-earth metals and their compounds in recent years. The cost of 99 + % erbium metal is about $ 1 . 0 0 per g, in small quantities. Erbium is finding nuclear and metallurgical uses. Added to vanadium, for example, erbium lowers the hardness and improves workability. Most of the rare-earth oxides have sharp absorption bands in the visible, ultraviolet, and near infrared. This property, associated with the electronic structure, gives beautiful pastel colors to many of the rare-earth salts. Erbium oxide gives a pink color and has been used as a colorant in glasses and porcelain enamel glazes. Europium (Europe) - Eu; at. wt 151.96; at. no. 63; mp 822°C; bp 1597°C; sp gr 5.253 (25°C); valence 2 or 3. In 1890 Boisbaudran obtained basic fractions from samarium-gadolinium concentrates which had spark spectral lines not accounted for by samarium or gadolinium. These lines subsequently have been shown to belong to europium. The discovery of europium is generally credited to Demarcay, who separated the earth in reasonably pure form in 1901. The pure metal was not isolated until recent years. Europium is now prepared by mixing Eu2 0 3 with a 10% excess of lanthanum metal and heating the mixture in a tantalum crucible under high vacuum. The element is collected as a silvery-white metallic deposit on the walls of the crucible. As with other rare-earth metals, except for lanthanum, europium ignites in air at about 150 to 180°C. Europium is about as hard as lead and is quite ductile. It is the most reactive of the rare-earth metals, quickly oxidizing in air. It resembles calcium in its reaction with water. Bastnasite and monazite are the principal ores containing europium. Europium has been identified spectroscopically in the sun and certain stars. Seventeen isotopes are now recognized.

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Handbook o f Materials Science

Europium isotopes are good neutron absorbers and are being studied for use in nuclear control applications. Europium oxide is now widely used as a phosphor activator, and europium activated yttrium vanadate is in commercial use as the red phosphor in color TV tubes. Europium-doped plastic has been used as a laser material. With the development of ion-exchange techniques and special processes, the cost of the metal has been greatly reduced in recent years. Europium is one of the rarest and most costly of the rare-earth metals. It is priced at about $11 to $15/g, or $4000/lb. Fermium (Enrico Fermi) —Fm; at wt 257; at. no. 100. Fermium, the eighth transuranium element of the actinide series to be discovered, was identified by Ghiorso and co-workers in 1952 in the debris from a thermonuclear explosion in the Pacific in work involving the University of California Radiation Laboratory, the Argonne National Laboratory, and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The isotope produced was the 20-hr Fm 2 5 5 . During 1953 and early 1954, while discovery of elements 99 and 100 was withheld from publication for security reasons, a group from the Nobel Institute of Physics in Stockholm bombarded U2 3 8 with O 1 6 ions, and isolated a 30-min a-emitter, which they ascribed to 1 0 0 250, without claiming discovery of the element. This isotope has since been identified positively, and the 30-min half-life confirmed. The chemical properties of fermium have been studied solely with tracer amounts, and in normal aqueous media only the (III) oxidation state appears to exist. The isotope Fm 2 5 4 and heavier isotopes can be produced by intense neutron irradiation of lower elements, such as plutonium, by a process of successive neutron capture interspersed with beta decays until these mass numbers and atomic numbers are reached. Ten isotopes of fermium are known to exist. Fm 2 5 7 , with a half-life of about 80 days, is the longest lived. Fm250, with a half-life o f 30 min, has been shown to be a product of decay of Element 102254. It was by chemical identification of Fm 2 5 0 that it was certain that Element 1 0 2 (Nobelium) has been produced. Fluorine (L. and F. fluere, flow, or flux) — F; at. wt 18.99840; at. no. 9; mp - 219.62°C (1 atm); bp ~188.14°C (1 atm); density 1.696 g/1 (0°C, 1 atm); sp gr of liquid 1.108 at bp; valence 1. In 1529, Georgius Agricola described the use of

fluorspar as a flux, and as early at 1670 Schwandhard found that glass was etched when exposed to fluorspar treated with acid. Scheele and many later investigators, including Davy, Gay-Lussac, Lavoisier, and Thenard, experimented with hydrofluoric acid, some experiments ending in tragedy. The element was finally isolated in 1886 by Moisson after nearly 74 years of continuous effort. Fluorine occurs chiefly in fluorspar (CaF2) and cryolite (Na2 AlF6), but is rather widely distributed in other minerals. It is a member of the halogen family of elements, and obtained by electrolyzing a solution of potassium hydrogen fluoride in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride in a vessel of metal or transparent fluorspar. Modern commercial production methods are essentially variations on the procedures first used by Moisson. Fluorine is the most electronegative and reactive of all elements. It is a pale yellow, corrosive gas, which reacts with practically all organic and inorganic substances. Finely divided metals, glass, ceramics, carbon, and even water bum in fluorine with a bright flame. Until World War II, there was no commercial production of elemental fluorine. The atom-bomb project and nuclear energy applications, however, made it necessary to produce large quantities. Safe handling techniques have now been developed and it is possible at present to transport liquid fluorine by the ton. Fluorine and its compounds are used in producing uranium (from the hexafluoride) and more than 1 0 0 commercial fluorochemicals, including many well-known high-temperature plastics. Hydrofluoric acid is extensively used for etching the glass of light bulbs, etc. Fluorochloro hydrocarbons are extensively used in air conditioning and refrigeration. It has been suggested that fluorine can be substituted for hydrogen wherever it occurs in organic compounds, which could lead to an astronomical number of new fluorine compounds. The presence of fluorine as a soluble fluoride in drinking water to the extent of 2 ppm may cause mottled enamel in teeth, when used by children acquiring permanent teeth. After this was found to prevent tooth decay, smaller amounts of fluoride salts were added to the public drinking water of many cities and also to several commercial toothpastes as an effective dental prophylaxis. Elemental fluorine is being studied as a rocket propellant as it has an exceptionally high specific impulse value. Compounds of fluorine with rare gases have now been confirmed.

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Fluorides of xenon, radon, and krypton are among those reported. Elemental fluorine and the fluoride ion are highly toxic. The free element has a characteristic pungent odor, detectable in concentrations as low at 2 0 parts per billion, which is below the safe working level. The recommended maximum allowable concentration for daily 8 -hr exposure is 0 . 1 ppm. Francium (France) - Fr; at. no. 87; at. wt 223; mp (27°C); bp (677°C); valence 1. Discovered in 1939 by Mile. Marguerite Perey of the Curie Institute, Paris. Francium, the heaviest known member of the alkali metal series, occurs as a result of an alpha disintegration of actinium. It can also be made artifically by bombarding thorium with protons. While it occurs naturally in uranium minerals, there is probably less than an ounce of francium at any time in the total crust of the earth. It has the highest equivalent weight of any element, and is the most unstable of the first 101 elements of the periodic system. Twenty isotopes of francium are recognized. The longest lived, Fr 2 2 3 (AcK), a daughter of Ac227, has a half-life of 22 min. This is the only isotope of francium occurring in nature. Because all known isotopes of francium are highly unstable, knowledge of the chemical properties of this element comes from radiochemical techniques. No weighable quantity of the element has been prepared or isolated. The chemical properties of francium most closely resemble cesium. Gadolinium (gladolinite —a mineral named for Gadolin, a Finnish chemist) - Gd; at. wt 157.25; at. no. 64; mp 1313 ± 1°C; sp gr 7.9004 (25°C); valence 3. Gadolinia, the oxide of gadolinium, was separated by Marignac in 1808 and Lecoq de Boisbaudran independently isolated the element from Mosander’s “yttria” in 1886. The element was named for the mineral gadolinite from which this rare-earth was originally obtained. Gadolinium is found in several other minerals, including monazite and bastnasite, which are of commercial importance. The element has been isolated only in recent years. With the development of ionexchange and solvent extraction techniques, the availability and price of gadolinium and the other rare-earth metals have greatly improved. Seventeen isotopes of gadolinium are now recognized. Seven occur naturally. The metal can be prepared by the reduction of the anhydrous fluoride with metallic calcium. As with other related rare-earth metals, it is silvery-white, has a metallic luster, and is

malleable and ductile. At room temperature, gadolinium crystallizes in the hexagonal, closepacked a form. Upon heating to 1262°C a gadolinium transforms into the |3 form, which has a body-centered cubic structure. The metal is relatively stable in dry air, but in moist air, it tarnishes with the formation of a loosely adhering oxide form which spalls off and exposes more surface to oxidation. The metal reacts slowly with water and is soluble in dilute acid. Gadolinium has the highest thermal neutron capture cross-section of any known element (49,000 barns)*. Natural gadolinium is a mixture of seven isotopes. Two of these, Gd1 5 5 and Gd157, have excellent capture characteristics, but they are present naturally in low concentrations. As a result, gadolinium has a very fast burnout rate and has limited use as a nuclear control rod material. It has been used in making gadolinium yttrium garnets, which have m icrow ave a p p lic a tio n s. Com pounds of gadolinium are used in making phosphors for color TV tubes. The metal has unusual superconductive properties. As little as 1% gadolinium has been found to improve the workability and resistance of iron, chromium, and related alloys to high temperatures and oxidation. Gadolinium ethyl sulfate has extremely low noise characteristics and may find use in duplicating the performance of h.f. amplifiers, such as the maser. The metal is ferromagnetic. Gadolinium is unique for its high magnetic moment and for its special Curie te m p e ra tu re (above which ferromagnetism vanishes) lying just at room temperature. This suggests uses as a magnetic component that senses hot and cold. The price of the metal is $1.25/g or $250/lb. Gallium (L. Gallia, France) - Ga; at. wt 69.72; at. no. 31; mp 29.78°C; bp 2403°C; sp gr 5.904 (29.6°C) solid; sp gr 6.095 (29.8°C) liquid; valence 2 or 3. Predicted and described by Mendeleev as ekaaluminum, and discovered spectroscopically by Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875, who in the same year obtained the free metal by electrolysis of a solution of the hydroxide in KOH. Gallium is often found as a trace element in diaspore, sphalerite, germanite, bauxite, and coal Some flue dusts from burning coal have been shown to contain as much as 1.5% gallium. It is the only metal, except for mercury, cesium, and rubidium, which can be liquid near room temperatures; this makes possible its use in high-temperature thermometers. It has one of the longest liquid ranges

20

Handbook o f Materials Science

of any metal and has a low vapor pressure even at high temperatures. There is a strong tendency for gallium to supercool below its freezing point. Therefore, seeding may be necessary to initiate solidification. Ultra-pure gallium has a beautiful, silvery appearance and the solid metal exhibits a conchoidal fracture similar to glass. The metal expands 3.1% on solidifying; therefore, it should not be stored in glass or metal containers as they may break as the metal solidifies. Gallium wets glass or porcelain, and forms a brilliant mirror when it is painted on glass. It has found recent use in doping semiconductors and producing solidstate devices, such as transistors. High-purity gallium is attacked only slowly by mineral acids. Magnesium gallate containing divalent impurities, such as Mn+2, is finding use in commercial ultraviolet activated powder phosphors. Gallium arsenide is capable of converting electricity directly into coherent light. Gallium readily alloys with most metals, and has been used as a component in low-melting alloys. Alloying with gallium is surprisingly easy despite a low melting point. This is because of a long liquid range and a low vapor pressure at temperatures generally employed for alloying and heat treatment. Its toxicity appears to be of a low order, but should be handled with care until more data are forthcoming. The metal can be supplied in ultra-pure form (99.99999 + %). Germanium (L. Germania, Germany) - Ge; at. wt 72.59; at. no. 32; mp 937.4°C; bp 2830°C; sp gr 5.323 (25°C); valence 2 and 4. Predicted by Mendeleev in 1871 as ekasilicon, and discovered by Winkler in 1886. The metal is found in argyrodite, a sulfide of germanium and silver; in germanite, which contains 8 % of the element; in zinc ores; in coal; and in other materials. The element is frequently obtained commercially from flue dusts of smelters processing zinc ores, and has been recovered from the by-products of combustion of certain coals. Its presence in coal insures a large reserve of the element in the years to come. Germanium can be separated from other metals by fractional distillation of its volatile tetrachloride. The tetrachloride may then be hydrolyzed to give Ge02 ; then the dioxide can be reduced with hydrogen to give the metal. Recently developed zone-refining techniques permit the production of germanium of ultra-high purity. The element is a gray-white metalloid, and in its pure state is crystalline and brittle, retaining its luster in air at room temperature. It is a very important semi-

conductor material. Zone refining techniques have led to production of crystalline germanium for semiconductor use with an inpurity of only 1 part in 1010. Doped with arsenic, gallium or other elements, it is used as a transistor element in thousands of electronic applications. Transistors now provide the largest use for the element, but germanium is also finding many other applications including use as an alloying agent, as a phosphor in fluorescent lamps, and as a catalyst. Germanium oxide is transparent to the infrared and is used in infrared spectroscopes and other optical equipment, including extremely sensitive infrared detectors. Its high index of refraction and dispersion has made germanium useful as a component of glasses used in wide angle camera lenses and microscope objectives. The field of organogermanium chemistry is becoming increasingly important. Certain germanium compounds have a low mammalian toxicity, but a marked activity against certain bacteria, which makes them of interest as chemotherapeutic agents. The cost of germanium is about 5041% for 99.9 + % purity in small lots. Gold (Sanskrit Jval; Anglo-Saxon gold) - Au (L. aurum, shining dawn); at. wt 196.9665; at. no. 79; mp 1064.43°C; bp 2807°C; sp gr 19.32 (20° C); valence 1 or 3. Known and highly valued from earliest times. Gold is found in nature as the free metal and in tellurides; it is very widely distributed and is almost always associated with quartz or pyrite. It occurs in veins and alluvial deposits, and is often separated from rocks and other minerals by sluicing or panning operations. About two thirds of the world’s gold output now comes from South Africa, and about two thirds of the total U.S. production comes from South Dakota and Nevada. The metal is recovered from its ores by cyaniding, amalgamating, and smelting processes. Refining is also frequently done by electrolysis. Gold occurs in sea water to the extent of 0 . 1 to 2 mg/ton, depending on the location where the sample is taken. As yet no method has been found for recovering gold from sea water profitably. It is estimated that all the gold in the world, so far refined, could be placed in a single cube fifty feet on a side. Of all the elements, gold in its pure state is undoubtedly the most beautiful. It is metallic, having a yellow color when in a mass, but when finely divided it may be black, ruby, or purple. The Purple of Cassius is a delicate test for auric gold. It is the most malleable and

21

ductile metal; one ounce of gold can be beaten out to 300 ft2 . It is a soft metal and is usually alloyed to give it more strength. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity, and is unaffected by air and most reagents. It is used in coinage and is a standard for monetary systems in many countries. It is also extensively used for jewelry, decoration, dental work, and for plating. It is used for coating certain space satellites, as it is a good reflector of infrared, and is inert. Gold, like other precious metals, is measured in troy weight; when alloyed with other metals, the term carat is used to express the amount of gold present —24 carats being pure gold. For many years the value of gold was set by the United States at $20.67/troy oz; since 1934 this value was fixed by law at $35.00/troy oz, 9 /10th fine. On March 17,1968, because of a gold crisis, a two-tiered pricing system was established whereby gold was^still used to settle international accounts at the old $35.00/troy oz price while the price of gold on the private market would be allowed to fluctuate. Since this time, the price of gold on the free market fluctuated between $ 3 5 and $170/troy oz. On March 19, 1968, President Johnson signed into law a bill removing the last statutory requirement for a gold backing against U.S. currency. On August 15, 1971, President Nixon announced an embargo on U.S. gold to settle international accounts, and on May 18, 1972, U.S. monetary gold was revalued at $38/ troy oz. The commonest gold compounds are auric chloride (Au C13) and chlorauic acid (HAu C14), the latter being used in photography for toning the silver image. Gold has 21 isotopes; Au198, with a half-life of 2.7 days, is used for treating cancer and oth er diseases. Disodium aurothiomalate is administered intramuscularly as a treatment for arthritis. A mixture of one part nitric acid with three of hydrochloric acid is called aqua regia, because it dissolved Gold, the King of Metals. Gold is available commercially with a purity of 99.999 + %. For many years the temperature assigned to the freezing point of gold has been 1063.0°C. This has served as a calibration point for the International Temperature Scales (ITS-27 and ITS-48) and the International Practical Temperature Scale (IPTS48). In 1968 a new International Practical Temperature Scale (IPTS-6 8 ) was adopted, which demands that the freezing point of gold be changed to 1064.43° C. Many of the scale changes are of minor significance to the routine user. IPTS- 6 8 has defined several other fixed tempera-

ture points, among which are the boiling points of hydrogen, neon, oxygen, and sulfur, and the freezing points of zinc, silver, tin, lead, antimony, and aluminum. Hafnium (Hafnia, Latin name for Copenhagen) - Hf; at. wt 178.49; at. no. 72; mp2227 ± 20°C; bp 4602° C; sp gr 13.31 (20° C); valence 4. Hafnium was thought to be present in various minerals and concentrations many years prior to its discovery, in 1923, credited to D. Coster and G. von Hevesey. On the basis of the Bohr theory, the new element was expected to be associated with zirconium. It was finally identified in zircon from Norway, by means of x ray spectroscopic analysis. It was named in honor of the city in which the discovery was made. Most zirconium minerals contain 1 to 5% hafnium. It was originally separated from zirconium by repeated recrystallization of the double ammonium or potassium fluorides by von Hevesey and Jantzen. Metallic hafnium was first prepared by van Arkel and deBoer by passing the vapor of the tetraiodide over a heated tungsten filament. Almost all hafnium metal now produced is made by reducing the tetrachloride with magnesium or with sodium (Kroll Process). Hafnium is a ductile metal with a brilliant silver luster. Its properties are considerably influenced by the impurities of zirconium present. Of all the elements, zirconium and hafnium are two of the most difficult to separate. Their chemistry is almost identical; however, the density of zirconium is about half that of hafnium. Very pure hafnium has been produced with zirconium being the major impurity. Because hafnium has a good absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons (almost 600 times that of zirconium), has excellent mechanical properties, and is extremely corrosion resistant, it is used for reactor control rods. Such rods are used in nuclear submarines. Hafnium has been successfully alloyed with iron, titanium, niobium, tantalum, and other metals. Hafnium carbide is the most refractory binary composition known, and the nitride is the most refractory of all known metal nitrides (mp 3310°C). Hafnium is used in gas-filled and incandescent lamps, and is an efficient “getter” for scavenging oxygen and nitrogen. Finely divided hafnium is pyrophoric and can ignite spontaneously in air. Care should be taken when machining the metal or when handling hot sponge hafnium. At 700°C hafnium rapidly absorbs hydrogen to form the composition HfH1 8 6 .

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Handbook o f Materials Science

Hafnium is resistant to concentrated alkalis, but at elevated temperatures reacts with oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, boron, sulfur, and silicon. Halogens react directly to form tetrahalides. The price of the metal is in the broad range of $30 to $175/lb, depending on purity and quantity. The yearly demand for hafnium in the U.S. is now in excess of 60,000 lb. Hahnium (see Element 105) Helium (Gr. helios, the sun) - He; at. wt 4.00260; at. no. 2; mp below -272.2°C (26 atm); bp -268.934°C; density 0.1785 g/1 (0°C, 1 atm); liquid density 7.62 lb/ft 3 at. bp; valence usually 0. Evidence of the existence of helium was first obtained by Janssen during the solar eclipse of 1868 when he detected a new line in the solar spectrum; Lockyer and Frankland suggested the name helium for the new element; in 1895 Ramsay discovered helium in the uranium mineral clevite, and it was independently discovered in clevite by the Swedish chemists Cleve and Langlet about the same time. Rutherford and Royds in 1907 demonstrated that a particles are helium nuclei. Except for hydrogens, helium is the most abundant element found throughout the universe. It has been detected spectroscopically in great abundance, especially in the hotter stars, and it is an important component in both the protonproton reaction and the carbon cycle, which accounts for the energy of the sun and stars. The fusion of hydrogen into helium provides the energy of the hydrogen bomb. The helium content of the atmosphere is about 1 part in 2 0 0 ,0 0 0 . While it is present in various radioactive minerals as a decay product, the bulk of the Free World’s supply is obtained from wells in Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas. The only helium plant in the Free World outside the U.S. is near Swift River, Saskatchewan. The cost of helium fell from $2500/ft3 in 1915 to 1.5 cent/ft 3 in 1940. The U.S. Bureau of Mines has set the price of Grade A helium at $35/1000 ft3, Helium has the lowest mp of any element and has found wide use in cryogenic research as its bp is close to absolute zero. Its use in the study of superconductivity is vital. Using liquid helium, Kurti and co-workers, and o th ers, have succeeded in obtaining temperatures of a few microdegrees Kelvin, by the adiabatic demagnetization of copper nuclei, starting from about 0.01 °K. Five isotopes of helium are known. Liquid helium (He4) exists in two forms: He4 I and He4 II, with a sharp

transition point at 2.174°K (383 cm Hg). He4 I (above this temperature) is a normal liquid, but He4 II (below it) is unlike any other known substance. It expands on cooling; its conductivity for heat is enormous; and neither its heat conduction nor viscosity obeys normal rules. It has other peculiar properties. Helium is the only liquid that cannot be solidified by lowering the temperature. It remains liquid down to absolute zero at ordinary pressures, but it can readily be solidified by increasing the pressure. Solid He3 and He4 are unusual in that both can readily be changed in volume by more than 30% by application of pressure. The specific heat of helium gas is unusually high. The density of helium vapor at the normal boiling point is also very high, with the vapor expanding greatly when heated to room temperature. Containers filled with helium gas at 5 to 10°K should be treated as though they contained liquid helium due to the large increase in pressure resulting from warming the gas to room temperature. While helium normally has a 0 valence, it seems to have a weak tendency to combine with certain other elements. Means of preparing helium difluoride are being studied, and species, such as HeNe and the molecular ions He^ and He£* have been investigated. Helium is widely used as an inert gas shield for arc welding; as a protective gas in growing silicon and germanium crystals, and in titanium and zirconium production; as a cooling medium for nuclear reactors; and as a gas for supersonic wind tunnels. A mixture of 80% helium and 2 0 % oxygen is used as an artificial atmosphere for divers and others working under pressure. Helium is extensively used for filling balloons as it is a much safer gas than hydrogen. While its density is almost twice that of hydrogen, it has about 98% of the lifting power of hydrogen. At sea level, 1000 ft 3 of helium lifts 68.5 lb. One of the recent largest uses for helium has been for pressuring liquid fuel rockets. A Saturn booster, such as used on the Apollo lunar missions, requires about 13 million ft 3 of helium for a firing, plus more for checkouts. Holmium (L. Holmia, for Stockholm) —Ho; at. wt 164.9304; at. no. 67; mp 1474°C; bp2695°C; sp gr 8.795 (25°C); valence +3. The spectral absorption bands of holmium were noticed in 1878 by the Swiss chemists Delafontaine and Soret, who announced the existence of an “Element X.” Cleve, of Sweden, later independently discovered the element while working on erbia

23

earth. The element is named after Cleve’s native city. Pure holmia, the yellow oxide, was prepared by Homberg in 1911. Holmium occurs in gadolinite, monazite, and in other rare-earth minerals. It is commercially obtained from monazite, occurring in that mineral to the extent of about 0.05%. It has been isolated in pure form only in recent years. It can be separated from other rare earths by ion-exchange and solvent extraction techniques, and isolated by the reduction of its anhydrous chloride or fluoride with calcium metal. Pure homium has a metallic to bright silver luster. It is relatively soft and malleable, and is stable in dry air at room temperature, but rapidly oxidizes in moist air and at elevated temperatures. The metal has unusual magnetic properties. Few uses have yet been found for the element. The element, as with other rare earths, seems to have a low acute toxic rating. The price of 99 + % holmium metal is about $1.50/g or $500/lb. Hydrogen (Gr. hydro, water and genes, forming) — H; at. wt (natural) 1.0080; at. wt (H1) 1.0079; at. no. 1 ; mp -259.14°C; bp -252.87°C; density 0.08988 g/1; density (liquid) 70.8 g/1; (-253°C); density (solid) 70.6 g/1 (-262°C); valence 1 . Hydrogen was prepared many years before it was recognized as a distinct substance by Cavendish in 1766. It was named by Lavoisier. Hydrogen is the most abundant of all elements in the universe, and it is thought that the heavier elements were, and still are being built from hydrogen and helium. It has been estimated that hydrogen makes up more than 90% of all the atoms or three-quarters of the mass of the universe. It is found in the sun and most stars, and plays an important part in the proton-proton reactio n and carbon-nitrogen cycle, which accounts for the energy of the sun and stars. It is thought that hydrogen is a major component of the planet Jupiter and that at some depth in the planet’s interior the pressure is so great that solid molecular hydrogen is converted into solid metallic hydrogen. This transition is thought to take place at a pressure of one megabar. Ultimately it may be possible to produce metallic hydrogen in the laboratory. On earth, hydrogen occurs chiefly in combination with oxygen in water, but is also present in organic matter, such as living plants, petroleum, coal, etc. It is present as the free element in the atmosphere, but only to the extent of less than 1 part/million, by volume. It is the lightest of all gases, and combines with other

elements, sometimes explosively, to form compounds. Great quantities of hydrogen are required commercially for the fixation of nitrogen from the air in the Haber ammonia process and for the hydrogenation of fats and oils. It is also used in large quantities in methanol production, in hydrodealkylation, hydrocracking, and hydrodesulfurization. It is also used as a rocket fuel, for welding, for production of hydrochloric acid, for the reduction of metallic ores, and for filling balloons. The lifting power of 1 ft 3 of hydrogen gas is about 0.076 lb at 0°C, 760 mm pressure. Production of hydrogen in the U.S. alone now amounts to hundreds of millions of ft 3 /day. It is prepared by the action of steam on heated carbon, by decomposition of certain hydrocarbons with heat, by the electrolysis of water, or by the displacement from acids by certain metals. It is also produced by the action of sodium or potassium hydroxide on aluminum. Liquid hydrogen is important in cryogenics and in the study of superconductivity as its mp is only a few degrees above absolute zero. The ordinary isotope of hydrogen, iH 1 is known as protium. In 1932 Urey announced the preparation of a stable isotope, deuterium, with an atomic weight of 2(iH 2 or D). Two years later an unstable isotope, tritium (i H3), with an atomic weight of 3 was discovered. Tritium has a half-life of about 12.5 years. One part deuterium is found to about 6000 ordinary hydrogen atoms. Tritium atoms are also present but in much smaller proportion. Tritium is readily produced in nuclear reactors, and is used in the production of the hydrogen bomb. It is also used as a radioactive agent making luminous paints, and as a tracer. The current price of tritium, to authorized personnel, is about $2 /curie; deuterium gas is readily available, without permit, at about $1 /liter. Heavy water, deuterium oxide (D 2 0), which is used as a moderator to slow down neutrons, is available without permit at a cost of 6 4 to $l/g, depending on quantity and purity. Quite apart from isotopes, it has been shown that hydrogen gas under ordinary conditions is a mixture of two kinds of molecules, known as ortho- and para-hydrogen, which differ from one another by the spins of their electrons and nuclei. Normal hydrogen at room temperature contains 25% of the para form and 75% of the ortho form. The ortho form cannot be prepared in the pure state. Since the two forms differ in energy, the physical properties also differ. The melting and

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Handbook o f Materials Science

boiling points of para-hydrogen are about 0.1 °C lower than those of normal hydrogen. Of current interest is a substance known as polywater or anomalous water, which some observers believe to be a polymer of water. Indium (from the brilliant indigo line in its spectrum) — In; at. wt 114.82; at. no. 49; mp 156.61°C; bp 2080°C; sp gr 7.31 (20°C); valence 1, 2, or 3. Discovered by Reich and Richter, who later isolated the metal. Indium is most frequently associated with zinc minerals, and it is from these that most commercial indium is now obtained; however, it is also found in iron, lead, and copper ores. Until 1924, a gram or so constituted the world’s supply of this element in isolated form. It is probably about as abundant as silver. One to l lA million troy oz of indium are now produced annually in the Free World. Japan is presently producing more than 250,000 troy oz annually. The present cost of indium is about $1.50 to $ 5 .0 0 /troy oz, depending on quantity and purity. It is available in ultrapure form. Indium is a very soft, silvery-white metal with a brilliant luster. The pure metal gives a high-pitched “cry” when bent. It wets glass, as does gallium. It has found application in making low-melting alloys; an alloy of 24% indium-7 6 % gallium is liquid at room temperature. It is used in making bearing alloys, germanium transistors, rectifiers, thermistors, and photoconductors. It can be plated onto metal and evaporated onto glass forming a mirror as good as that made with silver, but with more resistance to atmospheric corrosion. There is evidence that indium has a low order of toxicity. Normal hygienic precautions should provide adequate protection. Iodine (Gr. iodes, violet) - I; at. wt 126.9045; at. no. 53; mp 113.5°C; bp 184.35°C; density of the gas 11.27 g/1; sp gr solid 4.93 (20°C); valence 1, 3, 5, or 7. Discovered by Courtois in 1811. Iodine, a halogen, occurs sparingly in the form of iodides in sea water from which it is assimilated by seaweeds, in Chilean saltpeter and nitrate-bearing earth, known as caliche, in brines from old sea deposits, and in brackish waters from oil and salt wells. Ultrapure iodine can be obtained from the reaction of potassium iodide with copper sulfate. Several other methods of isolating the element are known. Iodine is a bluish-black, lustrous solid, volatilizing at ordinary temperatures into a blueviolet gas with an irritating odor; it forms compounds with many elements, but is less active than

the other halogens, which displace it from iodides. Iodine exhibits some metallic-like properties. It dissolves readily in chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, or carbon disulfide to form beautiful purple solutions. It is only slightly soluble in water. Iodine compounds are important in organic chemistry and very useful in medicine. Twentyfour isotopes are recognized. Only one stable isotope, I127, is found in nature. The artificial radioscope I131, with a half-life of 8 days, has been used in treating the thyroid gland. The most common compounds are the iodides of sodium and potassium (KI) and the iodates (K I03). Lack of iodine is the cause of goiter. The iodide and thyroxin, which contain iodine, are used internally in medicine, and a solution of KI and iodine in alcohol is used for external wounds. Potassium iodide finds use in photography. The deep blue color with starch solution is characteristic of the free element. Care should be taken in handling and using iodine as contact with the skin can cause lesions; iodine vapor is intensely irritating to the eyes and mucous membranes. The recommended maximum allowable concentration in air is 1 mg/m3. Iridium (L. iris, rainbow) — Ir; at. wt 192.22; at. no. 77; mp 2410°C; bp 4130°C; sp gr 22.42 (17°C); valence 3 or 4. Discovered in 1803 by Tennant in the residue left when crude platinum is dissolved by aqua regia. The name iridium is appropriate, for its salts are highly colored. Iridium, a metal of the platinum family, is white, similar to platinum, but with a slight yellowish cast. It is very hard and brittle, making it very hard to machine, form or work. It is the most corrosion-resistant metal known, and was used in making the standard meter bar of Paris, which is a 90% platinum -10% iridium alloy. This meter bar has since been replaced as a fundamental unit of length (see under Krypton). Iridium occurs uncombined in nature with platinum and other metals of this family in alluvial deposits. It is recovered as a by-product from the nickel mining industry. Iridium has found use in making crucibles and apparatus for use at high temperatures. It is also used for electrical contacts. Iridium is widely used in thermocouples and resistor wires, alloyed with other precious metals such as 40% Ir to 60% Rh and 60% Ir to 40% Rh. Its principal use is as a hardening agent for platinum. With osmium, it forms an alloy which is used for tipping pens and compass bearings. The specific gravity of

25

iridium is only very slightly lower than that of osmium, which has been generally credited as being the heaviest known element. Calculations of the densities of iridium and osmium from the space lattices give values of 22.65 and 22.61 g/cm3, respectively. These values may be more reliable than actual physical measurements. At present, therefore, we know that either iridium or osmium is the densest known element, but the data do no yet allow selection between the two. Iridium costs about $160 to $190/troy oz. Iron (Anglo-Saxon, iron) Fe, (L. ferrum) - at. wt 55.847; at. no. 26; mp 1535°C; bp 2750°C; sp gr 7.874 (20°C); valence 2, 3, 4, or 6 . The use of iron is prehistoric. Genesis mentions that TubalCain, seven generations from Adam, was “an instructer of every artificer in brass and iron.” Homer mentions a ball of iron as the prize awarded to Achilles for athletic prowess. The metallurgy of iron began widespread development around 1400 to 1000 B.C., ushering in the Iron Age, with evidence of the ability to use steelworking and hardening to make weapons and agricultural implements. Today iron is the most useful metal and most widely used in modern civilization. The 1971 world output of iron ore is estimated at 785.8 million metric tons, pig iron at 430.12 million metric tons, and raw steel at 582.12 million metric tons. For the second year in a row the output of iron ore from the U.S.S.R. exceeded that of the U.S. at 203 to 82.1 million metric tons, and that of pig iron at 88.3 million metric tons compared to U.S. at 203 to 82.1 million million metric tons. The most significant change in production of iron ore has been the emergence of Australia as the number three producer of iron ore with France, fourth. For the first time in 1971 the production of steel in the U.S.S.R. exceeded that of the U.S. by 121 to 109.26 million metric tons, with Japan at 88.56 and West Germany at 40.31 following in tonnage. A remarkable iron pillar, dating to about A.D. 400, remains standing today in Delhi, India. This solid shaft of wrought iron is about 7*4 meters high by 40 cm in diameter. Corrosion to the pillar has been minimal although it has been exposed to the weather since its erection. Iron is a relatively abundant element in the universe. It is found in the sun and many types of stars in considerable quantity. Its nuclei are very stable. Iron is found native as a principal component of a class of meteorites known as siderites, and is a minor

constituent of the other two classes. The core of the earth, 2150 miles in radius, is thought to be largely composed of iron with about 1 0 % occluded hydrogen. The metal is the fourth most abundant element, by weight, making up the crust of the earth. The most common ore is hematite (Fe 2 0 3 ), from which the metal is obtained by reduction with carbon. Iron is found in other widely distributed minerals, such as magnetite which is frequently seen as black sands along beaches and banks of streams. In addition to magnetite (Fe 3 0 4 ), limonite (hydrated iron oxide), siderite (FeC03), and a magnetite bearing ore called taconite are important. Taconit e is becoming increasingly important as a commercial ore. Common iron is a mixture of four isotopes, 56, 54, 57, and 58. Six other isotopes are known to exist. Iron is a vital constituent of plant and animal life, and appears in hemoglobin. The pure metal is not often encountered in commerce, but is usually alloyed with carbon or other metals. The pure metal is very reactive chemically, and rapidly corrodes especially in moist air or at elevated temperatures. It has four alio tropic forms, or ferrites, known as a, jS, 7 , and 5, with transition points at 770°, 928°, and 1530°C. The a form is magnetic but when transformed into the j3 form, the magnetism disappears although the lattice remains unchanged. The relations of these forms are peculiar. Iron is smelted from the ore from a mixture with limestone and coke at high temperatures up to 1300°C, to produce cast iron or pig iron. Pig iron is an alloy of pure iron or ferrite containing about 3% of a glassy slag which is a complex high iron silicate containing S, Mn, and P, and other elements. It is hard, brittle, fairly fusible, and is used to produce other alloys. Wrought iron is obtained by oxidizing and fluxing the impurities from pig iron. It contains only a few tenths of % carbon, is tough, malleable, less fusible, and usually has a “fibrous” structure. Steel was originally made by long term heat treatment of wrought iron with charcoal to increase the carbon content to nearly 1%. In the Bessemer process introduced in 1856, an air blast was blown directly throught the melted pig iron to produce a high quality, relatively cheap product in large quantities. It revolutionized the industry and was followed by other large scale methods such as the open-hearth process. More recently the basicoxygen process which uses 99.5% pure oxygen has been utilized by a growing number of firms.

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Carbon steel is an alloy of iron with carbon. Carbon steels are divided into dead-soft steel (0.08 to 0.18% carbon), structural grade or mild steel (0.15 to 0.25% carbon), medium grade steel (0.25 to 0.35% carbon), medium-hard steel (0.35 to 0.65% carbon), and hard steel (0.65 to 0.85% carbon), the spring steels (0.85 to 1.05% carbon), and the high carbon tool steels (1.05 to 1.20% carbon). The addition of carbon to a-iron decreases the transition temperature to 7 -iron to a minimum of 723°C at 0.8% carbon. Above this temperature the bcc structure of ferrite transforms to an fee form called austenite which holds much greater amounts of carbon in solid solution than a-iron which forms ferrite containing a maximum of 0.025% carbon in solid solution at 723°C. When a steel containing more than 0.025% carbon is cooled below 723°C, the excess carbon forms a hard, brittle compound called cementite, Fe 3 C. At the eutectoid point at 0 .8 % carbon, 723°C, the austenite decomposes on cooling to ferrite and cementite in a lamellar structure called pearlite. Controlled heat treating of austenite containing varying amounts of carbon, followed by various cooling rates, produces a wide variety of metallurgical structures. Very rapid quenching produces a ferrite supersaturated with carbon called martensite. Steels produced with a mixture of cementite and martensite give a maximum hardness. Alloy steels are carbon steels with major alloying elements added. These are principally nickel, chrom ium , manganese, vanadium, molybdenum, boron, tungsten, and cobalt. Stainless steels contain greater than 10% chromium. The most important of these is a steel containing 18% chromium and 8 % nickel. Krypton (Gr. kryptos, hidden) - Kr; at. wt 83.80; at. no. 36; mp -156.6°C, bp -152.30 ± 0.10°C; density 3.733 g/1 (0°C); valence usually 0 . Discovered in 1898 by Ramsay and Travers in the residue left after liquid air had nearly boiled away. Krypton is present in the air to the extent of about 1 part per million. It is one of the “noble” gases. It is characterized by its brilliant green and orange spectral lines. Naturally occurring krypton contains six stable isotopes. Fifteen other unstable isotopes are now recognized. The spectral lines of krypton are easily produced and some are very sharp. In 1960 it was internationally agreed that the fundamental unit of length, the meter, should be defined in terms of the orange-red spectral line of Kr86, corresponding to the transition 5p[Oy2] 1

- 6 d[Oy2] i as follows: 1 meter = 1,650,763.73 wavelengths (in vacuo) o f the orange-red line o f Krs 6. This replaces the standard meter of Paris, which was defined in terms of a bar made of a platinum-iridium alloy. Solid krypton is a white crystalline substance with a face-centered cubic structure which is common to all the “ rare gases.” While krypton is generally thought of as a rare gas that normally does not combine with other elements to form compounds, it now appears that the existence of some krypton compounds is established. Krypton difluoride has been prepared in gram quantities and can be made by several methods. A higher fluoride of krypton and a salt of an oxyacid of krypton also have been reported. Molecule ions of ArKr+ and KrH+ have been identified and investigated, and evidence is provided for the formation of KrXe or KrXe+. Krypton clathrates have been prepared with hydroquinone and phenol. Kr8 5 has found recent application in chemical analysis. By imbedding the isotope in various solids, kryptonates are formed. The activity of these kryptonates is sensitive to chemical reactions at the surface. Estimates of the concentration of reactants are therefore made possible. Krypton is used commercially with argon as a low-pressure filling gas for fluorescent lights. It is used in certain photographic flash lamps for high-speed photography. Uses thus far have been limited because of its high cost. Krypton gas presently costs about $2 0 / 1 . Kurchatovium —(see Element 104). Lanthanum (Gr. lanthanein, to lie hidden) —La; at. wt 138.9055; at. no. 57; mp 921°C; bp 3457°C; sp. gr 6.145 (25°C); valence 3. Mosander in 1839 extracted a new earth, lanthana, from impure cerium nitrate, and recognized the new element. Lanthanum is found in rare-earth minerals, such as cerite, monazite, allanite, and bastnasite. Monazite and bastnasite are principal ores in which lanthanum occurs in percentages up to 25% and 38%, respectively. Misch metal, used in making lighter flints, contains about 25% lantha num. Lanthanum was isolated in relatively pure form in 1923. Ion exchange and solvent extraction techniques have led to much easier isolation of the so-called “rare-earth” elements. The availability of lanthanum and other rare earths has improved greatly in recent years. The metal can be produced by reducing the anhydrous fluoride with calcium. Lanthanum is silvery white, malleable, ductile, and soft enough to be cut with a knife. It is one of the

27

most reactive of the rare-earth metals. It oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air. Cold water attacks lanthanum slowly, and hot water attacks it much more rapidly. The metal reacts directly with elemental carbon, nitrogen, boron, selenium, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, and with halogens. At 310°C, lanthanum changes from a hexagonal to a face-centered cubic structure, and at 865°C it again transforms into a body-centered cubic structure. Natural lanthanum is a mixture of two stable isotopes, La1 3 8 and La139. Seventeen other radioactive isotopes are recognized. Rare-earth compounds containing lanthanum are extensively used in carbon lighting applications, especially by the motion picture industry for studio lighting and projection. This application consumes about 25% of the rare-earth compounds produced. La2 0 3 improved the alkali resistance of glass, and is used in making special optical glasses. Small amounts of lanthanum, as an additive, can be used to produce nodular cast iron. Lanthanum and its compounds have a low to moderate acute toxicity rating; therefore, care should be taken in handling them. The price of 99.9% La2 0 3 is about $8 /lb. The metal costs about $70/lb. Lawrencium (Ernest O. Lawrence, inventor of the cyclotron) - Lr; at. no. 103; at. mass no. 257; valence +3(7). The last member of the 5f transition elements (actinide series) was discovered March 1961 by A. Ghiorso, T. Sikkeland, A. E. Larsh, and R. M. Latimer. A three microgram californium target, consisting of a mixture of isotopes of mass number 249, 250, 251, and 252 was bombarded with either B1 0 or B11. The electrically charged transmutation nuclei recoiled with an atmosphere of helium and were collected on a thin copper conveyor tape which was then moved to place collected atoms in front of a series of solid-state detectors. The isotope of element 103 produced in this way decayed by emitting an 8 . 6 MeV alpha particle with a half-life of 8 sec. Flerov and associates of the Dubna Laboratory, in 1967, reported their inability to detect an alpha emitter with a half-life of 8 sec which was assigned by the Berkeley Group to 103257. This assignment has been changed to Lr2 5 8 or Lr259. In 1965 the Dubna workers found a longer-lived lawrencium isotope, Lr256, with a half-life of 35 sec. In 1968 Ghiorso and associates at Berkeley were able to use a few atoms of this isotope to study the oxidation behavior of lawrencium. Using solvent extraction techniques, and working very rapidly,

they extracted lawrencium ions from a buffered aqueous solution into an organic solvent, completing each extraction in about 30 sec. It was found that lawrencium behaves differently from dipositive nobelium and more like the tripositive elements earlier in the actinide series. Lead (Anglo-Saxon, lead) - Pb (L. plumbum); at. wt 207.2; at. no. 82; mp 327.502°C; bp 1740°C; sp gr 1 1.35 (20°C); valence 2 or 4. Long known; mentioned in Exodus. The alchemists believed lead to be the oldest metal and associated it with the planet Saturn. Native lead occurs in nature, but it is rare. Lead is obtained chiefly from galena (PbS) by a roasting process. Anglesite (PbS04), Cerrusite (PbC03), and Minim (Pb 3 0 4) are other common lead minerals. Lead is a bluish-white metal of bright luster, very soft, highly malleable, is ductile and a poor conductor of electricity. It is very resistant to corrosion; lead pipes bearing the insignia of Roman emperors, used as drains from the baths, are still in service. It is used as containers for corrosive liquids, such as in sulfuric acid chambers, and it may be toughened by the addition of a small percentage of antimony or other metals. Natural lead is a mixture of four stable isotopes: Pb2 0 4 (1.48%), Pb2 0 6 (23.6%), Pb2 0 7 ( 2 2 .6 %), and Pb2 0 8 (52.3%). Lead isotopes are the end products of each of the three series of naturally occurring radioactive elements: Pb2 0 6 for the uranium series, Pb2 0 7 for the actinium series, and Pb2 0 8 for the thorium series. Seventeen other isotopes of lead, all of which are radioactive, are recognized. Its alloys include solder, type metal, and various antifriction metals. Great quantities of lead, both as the metal and as the dioxide, are used in storage batteries. Much metal also goes into cable covering, plumbing, ammunition, and in the manufacture of lead tetraethyl, used as an anti-knock compound in gasoline. The metal is very effective as a sound absorber, is used as a radiation shield around x-ray equipment and nuclear reactors, and is used to absorb vibration. White lead, the basic lead carbonate, sublimed white lead (PbS04), chrome yellow (PbCr04), red lead (Pb 3 0 4) and other lead compounds are extensively used in paints. Lead oxide is used in producing fine “crystal glass” and “flint glass” of a high index of refraction for achromatic lenses. The nitrate and the acetate are soluble salts. Lead salts, such as lead arsenate, have been used as insecticides, but their use in recent years has been practically eliminated and replaced with less harm-

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Handbook o f Materials Science

ful organic compounds. Care must be used in handling lead as it is a cumulative poison. Environmental concern with lead poisoning has resulted in a naturally programmed reduction in the concentration of lead in gasoline. Specific limits are to be set by the Environmental Protection Agency with the goal of a two thirds reduction in lead content within approximately 5 yr. Lithium (Gr. lithos, stone) — Li; at. wt 6.941; at. no. 3; mp 180.54°C; bp 1347°C; sp gr 0.534 (20°C); valence 1. Discovered by Arfvedson in 1817. Lithium is the lightest of all metals, with a density only about half that of water. It does not occur free in nature; combined it is found in small amounts in nearly all igneous rocks and in the waters of many mineral springs. Lepidolite, spodumene, petalite, and amblygonite are the more important minerals containing it. Lithium is presently being recovered from brines of Searles Lake, in California, and from the Great Salt Lake, Utah. Large deposits are found in Nevada and North Carolina. The metal is produced electrolytically from the fused chloride. Lithium is silvery in appearance much like Na and K, other members of the alkali metal series. It reacts with water, but not as vigorously as sodium. Lithium imparts a beautiful crimson color to a flame, but when the metal burns strongly the flame is a dazzling white. Since World War II, the production of lithium metal and its compounds has increased greatly. Because the metal has the highest specific heat of any solid element, it has found use in heat transfer applications; however, it is corrosive and requires special handling. The metal has been used as an alloying agent, is of interest in synthesis of organic compounds, and it has nuclear applications. It ranks as a leading contender as a battery anode material as it has a high electrochemical potential. Lithium is used in special glasses and ceramics. The glass for the 200-in. telescope at Mt. Palomar contains lithium as a minor ingredient. Lithium chloride is one of the most hygroscopic materials known, and it, as well as lithium bromide, is used in air conditioning and industrial drying systems. Lithium stearate is used as an all-purpose and hightemperature lubricant. Other lithium compounds are used in dry cells and storage batteries. The metal is priced at about $8/lb. Lutetium (Lutetia, ancient name for Paris sometimes called cassiopeium by the Germans) Lu; at. wt 174.97; at. no. 71; mp 1663°C; bp 3395°C; sp gr 9.840 (25°C); valence 3. In 1907

Urbain described a process by which Marignac’s ytterbium (1879) could be separated into the two elements, ytterbium (neoytterbium) and lutetium. These elements were identical with “aldebaranium” and “cassiopeium” independently discovered by von Welsbach about the same time. Charles James of the University of New Hampshire also independently prepared the very pure oxide, lutecia, at this time. The spelling of the element was changed from lutecium to leutetium in 1949. Lutetium occurs in very small amounts in nearly all minerals contaning yttrium, and is present in monazite to the extent of about 0.003%, which is a commercial source. The pure metal has been isolated in recent years and is one of tfie most difficult to prepare. It can be prepared by the reduction of anhydrous L u C13 or LuF3 by an alkali or alkaline earth metal. The metal is silvery white and relatively stable in air. While new techniques, including ion exchange reactions, have been developed to separate the various rare earth elements, lutetium is still the most costly of all naturally occurring rare earths. It is slightly more abundant than thulium. It is now priced at about $26/g or $8000/lb. Lu176 occurs naturally (2.6%) with Lu175 (97.4%). It is radioactive with a half-life of about 3 X 1010 years. Stable lutetium nuclides, which emit pure beta radiation after thermal neutron activation, can be used as a catalyst in cracking, alkylation, hydrogenation, and polymerization. Virtually no other commercial uses have been found yet for lutetium, as it is still one of the most costly natural elements. Lutetium, like other rare earth metals, has a low toxicity rating. It should be handled with care. Magnesium (Magnesia, district in Thessaly) Mg; at. wt 24.305; at. no. 12; mp 648 ± 0.5°C; bp 1090°C;sp gr 1.738 (20°C); valence 2. Compounds of magnesium have long been known. Black recognized magnesium as an element in 1755. It was isolated by Davy in 1808, and prepared in coherent form by Bussy in 1831. Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element in the earth’s crust. It does not occur uncombined, but is found in large deposits in the form of magnesite, dolomite, and other minerals. The metal is now principally obtained in the U.S. by electrolysis of fused magnesium chloride derived from brines, from wells and from sea water. Magnesium is a light, silvery white, and fairly tough metal. It tarnishes slightly in air, and finely divided magnesium readily ignites upon heating in air and burns with a

29

dazzling white flame. It is used in flash-light photography, flares, and pyrotechnics, including incendiary bombs. It is one third lighter than aluminum, and in alloys is essential for airplane and missile construction. The metal improves the mechanical, fabrication, and welding characteristics of aluminum, when used as an alloying agent. Magnesium is used in producing nodular graphite in cast iron, and is used as an additive to conventional propellants. It is also used as a reducing agent in the production of pure uranium and other metals from their salts. The hydroxide {Milk o f Magnesia), chloride, sulfate (Epsom salts), and citrate are used in medicine. Dead-burned magnesite is employed for refractory purposes, such as brick and liners in furnaces and converters. Organic magnesium compounds (Grignard’s reaction) are important. Magnesium is an important element in both plant and animal life. Chlorophylls are magnesium-centered porphyrins. The adult daily requirement of magnesium is about 300 Mg/day, but this is affected by various factors. Great care should be taken in handling magnesium metal, especially in the finely divided state, as serious fires can occur. Water should not be used on burning magnesium or on magnesium fires. Maganese (L. magnes, magnet —from magnetic properties of pyrolusite; It. manganese, corrupt form of magnesia) — Mn; at. wt 54.9380; at. no. 25; mp 1244 ± 3°C; bp 1962°C; sp gr 7.21 to 7.44, depending on allotropic form; valence 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 , or 7. Recognized by Scheele, Bergman, and others as an element and isolated by Gahn in 1774 by reduction of the dioxide with carbon. Manganese minerals are widely distributed; oxides, silicates, and carbonates are the most common. The recent discovery of large quantities of manganese nodules on the floor of the oceans appears promising as a new source of manganese. These nodules contain about 24% manganese together with many other elements in lesser abundance. Large deposits of nodules, extending over many square miles, have been found in Lake Michigan and Lake Superior. Pyrolusite (Mn02) and rhodochrosite (MnC03) are common ores. The metal is obtained by reduction of the oxide with sodium, magnesium, aluminum, or by electrolysis. It is gray-white, resembling iron, but is harder and very brittle. The metal is reactive chemically, and decomposes cold water slowly. Manganese is used to form many important alloys. In steel, manganese improves the rolling and forging qualities,

strength, toughness, stiffness, wear resistance, hardness, and hardenability. With aluminum and antimony, especially with small amounts of copper, it forms highly ferromagnetic alloys. Manganese metal is ferromagnetic only after special treatment. The pure metal exists in four allotropic forms. The alpha form is stable at ordinary temperature; gamma manganese, which changes to alpha at ordinary temperatures, is said to be flexible, soft, easily cut, and capable of being bent. The dioxide (pyrolusite) is used as a depolarizer in dry cells, and is used to “ decolorize” glass that is colored green by impurities of iron. Manganese by itself colors glass an amethyst color, and is responsible for the color of true amethyst. The dioxide is also used in the preparation of oxygen, chlorine, and in drying black paints. The permanganate is a powerful oxidizing agent and is used in quantitative analysis and in medicine. Manganese is widely distributed throughout the animal kingdom. It is an important trace element and may be essential for utilization of vitamin B i. The world’s first manganese ore pelletizing plant has recently been constructed in Brazil. Mendelevium (Dmitri Mendeleev) — Md; at. wt 256; at. no. 101; valence +2, +3. Mendelevium, the ninth transuranium element of the actinide series to be discovered, was first identified by Ghiorso, Harvey, Choppin, Thompson, and Seaborg early in 1955 as a result of the bombardment of the isotope Es2 5 3 with helium ions in the Berkeley 60-in. cyclotron. The isotope produced was Md2 5 6 , which has a half-life of 77 min. This first identification was notable in that Md2 5 6 was synthesized on a one-atom-at-a-time basis. Four isotopes are now recognized. Md2 5 8 has a half-life of 2 months. This isotope has been produced by the bombardment of an isotope of einsteinium with ions of helium. It now appears possible that eventually enough Md2 5 8 can be made so that some of its physical properties can be determined. Md2 5 6 has been used to elucidate some of the chemical properties of mendelevium in aqueous solution. Experiments seem to show that the element possesses a moderately stable dipositive (II) oxidation state in addition to the tripositive (III) oxidation state, which is characteristic of actinide elements. Mercury (Plant, Mercury) - Hg (hydragyrum, liquid silver); at. wt 200.59; at. no. 80; mp -38.87° C; bp 356.58°C; sp gr 13.546 (20°C); valence 1 or 2. Known to ancient Chinese and

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Handbook o f Materials Science

Hindus; found in Egyptian tombs of 1500 B.C. Mercury is the only common metal liquid at ordinary temperatures. It only rarely occurs free in nature. The chief ore is cinnabar (HgS). Spain, Italy, and the USSR, together produce about 50% of the world’s supply of the metal. The commercial unit for handling mercury is the “flask,” which weighs 76 lb. In the past few years, the price has fluctuated widely between $150 and $270 per flask. The metal is obtained by heating cinnabar in a current of air and by condensing the vapor. It is a heavy, silvery white metal; a rather poor conductor of heat, as compared with other metals; and a fair conductor of electricity. The metal is widely used in laboratory work for making thermometers, barometers, diffusion pumps, and many other instruments. It is used in making mercury-vapor lamps and advertising signs, etc., and is used in mercury switches and other electrical apparatus. Other uses are for making pesticides, mercury cells for caustic-chlorine production, dental preparations, anti-fouling paint, batteries, and catalysts. The most important salts are mercuric chloride (HgCl2, corrosive sublimate — a violent poison), mercurous chloride Hg2 Cl2 (calomel — occasionally still used in medicine), mercury fulminate (Hg(ONC)2, a detonator widely used in explosives), and mercuric sulfide (HgS, vermillion, a high-grade paint pigment). Organic mercury compounds are important. It has been found than an electrical discharge causes mercury vapor to combine with neon, argon, krypton, and xenon. These products, held together with van der Waals’ forces, correspond to HgNe, HgAr, HgKr, and HgXe. It is not generally appreciated that mercury is a virulent poison and is readily absorbed through the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract, or through unbroken skin. It acts as a cumulative poison since only small amounts of the element can be eliminated at a time by the human organism. The present adopted threshold limit value for mercury in air (except for alkyl compounds) is 0.05 mg/cu. meter. Since mercury is a very volatile element, dangerous levels are readily attained in air. Air saturated with mercury vapor at 20°C contains a concentration which exceeds the toxic limit by more than 1 0 0 times. The danger increases at higher temperatures. It is therefore important that mercury be handled with utmost care. Containers of mercury should be securely covered and spillage should be avoided. If it is necessary to heat mercury or mercury

compounds, it should be done in a well-ventilated hood. Methyl mercury is a dangerous pollutant and is now widely found in water and streams. Molybdenum (Gr. molybdos, lead) - Mo; at. wt 95.94; at. no. 42; mp 2617°C; bp 4612°C; sp gr 10.22 (20°C); valence 2, 3, 4?, 5?, or 6 . Before Scheele recognized molybdenite as a distinct ore of a new element in 1778, it was confused with graphite and lead ore. The metal was prepared in an impure form in 1792 by Hjelm. Molybdenum does not occur native, but is obtained principally from molybdenite (MoS2). Wulfenite (PbMo04) and powellite (Ca(MoW)04) are also minor commercial ores. Molybdenum is also recovered as a byproduct of copper and tungsten mining operations. The metal is prepared from the powder made by the hydrogen reduction of purified molybdic trioxide or ammonium molybdate. The metal is silvery white, very hard, but is softer and more ductile than tungsten. It has a high elastic modulus, and only tungsten and tantalum, of the more readily available metals, have higher melting points. It is a valuable alloying agent, as it contributes to the hardenability and toughness of quenched and tempered steels. It also improves the strength of steel at high temperatures. It is used in certain nickel-based alloys, such as the “Hastelloys,” which are heat-resistant and corrosionresistant to chemical solutions. Molybdenum oxidizes at elevated temperatures. The metal has found recent application as electrodes for electrically heated glass furnaces and forehearths. The metal is also used in nuclear energy applications and for missile and aircraft parts. Molybdenum wire is valuable for use as a filament material for metal evaporation work, and as a filament, grid, and screen material for electronic tubes. Molybdenum is an essential trace element in plant nutrition. Some lands are barren for lack of this element in the soil. Molybdenum sulfide is useful as a lubricant, especially at high temperatures where oils would decompose. Almost all ultra-high strength steels with minimum yield points up to 300,000 psi (lb/in.2) contain molybdenum in amounts from 0.25% to 8 %. Molybdenum powder is priced at about $4/lb, and bars rolled from arc-cast ingots cost about $ 15/lb. Neodymium (Gr. neos, new, and didymos, twin) - Nd; at. wt 144.24; at. no. 60; mp 1020°C; bp 3168°C; sp gr 6.80 and 7.007, depending on allotropic form; valence 3. In 1841 Mosander extracted from cerite a new rose-colored oxide,

31

which he believed to contain a new element. He named the element didymium, as it was “ an inseparable twin brother of lanthanum.” In 1885 von Welsbach separated didymium into two new elem en tal components, neodymia and praseodymia, by repeated fractionation of ammonium didymium nitrate. While the free metal is in misch metal, long known and used as a pyrophoric alloy for lighter flints, the element was not isolated in relatively pure form until 1925. Neodymium is present in misch metal to the extent of about 18%. It is present in the minerals monazite and bastnasite, which are principal sources of rare-earth metals. The element may be obtained by separating neodymium salts from other rare earths by ion exchange or solvent extraction techniques, and by reducing anhydrous halides, such as NdF3, with calcium metal. Other separation techniques are possible. The metal has a bright silvery metallic luster. Neodymium is one of the more reactive rare-earth metals and quickly tarnishes in air, forming an oxide that spalls off and exposes metal to oxidation. The metal, therefore, should be kept under light mineral oil or sealed in a plastic material. Neodymium exists in two allotropic forms, with a transformation from a double hexagonal to a body-centered cubic structure taking place at 860°C. Natural neodymium is a mixture of seven stable isotopes. Nine other radioactive isotopes are recognized. Didymium, of which neodymium is a component, is used for coloring glass to make welder’s goggles. By itself, neodymium colors glass delicate shades ranging from pure violet through wine-red and warm gray. Light transmitted through such glass shows unusually sharp absorption bands. The glass is useful in astronomical work to produce sharp bands by which spectral lines may be calibrated. Glass containing neodymium can be used as a laser material in place of ruby to produce coherent light. Neodymium slats are also used as a colorant for enamels. The price of the metal is about 50^/g or $ 1 2 0 /lb. Neodymium has a low-to-moderate acute toxic rating. As with other rare earths, neodymium should be handled with care. Neon (Gr. neos, new) — Ne; at. wt 20.179; at. no. 10; mp -248.67°C; bp -246.048°C ( 1 atm); density of gas 0.89990 g/1 (1 atm 0°C); density of liquid at pb 1.207 g/cm3 ; valence 0. Discovered by Ramsay and Travers in 1898. Neon is a rare gaseous element present in the atmosphere to the extent of 1 part in 65,000 of air. It is obtained by

liquefaction of air and separated from the other gases by fractional distillation. Natural neon is a mixture of three isotopes. Five other unstable isotopes are known. It is a very inert element; however, it is said to form a compound with fluorine. It is still questionable if true compounds of neon exist, but evidence is mounting in favor of their existence. The following ions are known from optical and mass spectrometric studies: Ne3, (NeAr)+, (NeH)+, and (HeNe)\ Neon also forms an unstable hydrate. In a vacuum discharge tube, neon glows reddish orange. Of all the rare gases, the discharge of neon is the most intense at ordinary voltages and currents. Neon is used in making the common neon advertising signs, which accounts for its largest use. It is also used to make high-voltage indicators, lightning arrestors, wave meter tubes, and TV tubes. Neon and helium are used in making gas lasers. Liquid neon is now commercially available and is finding important application as an economical cryogenic refrigerant. It has over 40 times more refrigerating capacity per unit volume than liquid helium and more than three times that of liquid hydrogen. It is compact, inert, and is less expensive than helium when it meets refrigeration requirements. Neon gas costs about $1.50/1. Neptunium (Planet Neptune) — Np; at. wt 237.0482; at. no. 93; mp 640 ± 1 °C; bp 3902°C (est.); sp gr 20.25 (20°C); valence 3, 4, 5, and 6 . Neptunium was the first of the synthetic transuranium elements of the actinide series to be discovered; the isotope Np2 3 9 was produced by McMillan and Abelson in 1940 at Berkeley, California, as the result of bombarding uranium with cyclotron-produced neutrons. The isotope Np2 3 7 (half-life of 2.14 ± 106 years) is currently obtained in gram quantities as a byproduct from nuclear reactors in the production of plutonium. Trace quantities of the element are actually found in nature due to transmutation reactions in uranium ores produced by the neutrons which are present. Neptunium is prepared by the reduction of NpF 3 with barium or lithium vapor at about 1200°C. Neptunium metal has a silvery appearance, is chemically reactive, and exists in at least three structural modifications: a-neptunium, orthorhombic, density — 20.25 g/cm3; j3-neptunium (above 280°C), tetragonal, density (313°C) — 19.36 g/cm3 ; 7 -neptunium (above 577°C), cubic, density (600°C) 18.0 g/cm3. Neptunium has four ionic oxidation states in

32

Handbook o f Materials Science

solution: Np +3 (pale purple), analogous to the rare earth ion Pm +3, Np +4 (yellow green), N p0 2 (green blue), and N p02+ (pale pink). These latter oxygenated species are in contrast to the rare earths which exhibit only simple ions of the (II), (III), and (IV) oxidation states in aqueous solution. The element forms tri- and tetrahalides such as NpF3, NpF4 , NpCl4, NpBr3, Npl3, and oxides of various compositions such as are found in the uranium-oxygen system, including Np 3 0 8 and N p02. Fifteen isotopes of neptunium are now recognized. The A.E.C. has Np2 3 7 available for sale to its licensees and for export. This isotope can be used as a component in neutron detection instruments. It is offered at a price of $225/g or $0.25/mg for quantities less than 1 gram. Nickel (Ger. Nickel, Satan or “Old Nick,” and from kupfernickel, Old Nick’s copper) —Ni; at. wt 58.71; at. no. 28; mp 1453°C; bp 2732°C; sp gr 8.902 (25°C); valence 0, 1 ,2 , 3. Discovered by Cronstedt in 1751 in kupfernickel (niccolite). Nickel is found as a constituent in most meteorites and often serves as one of the criteria for distinguishing a meteorite from other minerals. Iron meteorites, or siderites, may contain iron alloyed with from 5% to nearly 20% nickel. Nickel is obtained commercially from pentlandite and pyrrhotite of the Sudbury region of Ontario. This district produces about 70% of the nickel for the free world. Small deposits are found in Norway, New Caledonia, Cuba, Japan, and elsewhere. Nickel is silvery-white and takes on a high polish. It is hard, malleable, ductile, somewhat ferromagnetic, and a fair conductor of heat and electricity. It belongs to the iron-cobalt group of metals and is chiefly valuable for the alloys it forms. It is extensively used for making stainless steel and other corrosion-resistant alloys, such as Invar, Monel, Inconel, and the Hastelloys. Tubing made of a copper-nickel alloy is extensively used in making desalination plants for converting sea water into fresh water. Nickel is also now used extensively in coinage, in making nickel steel for armor plate and burglar-proof vaults, and is a component in Nichrome, Permalloy, and Constantan. Nickel added to glass gives a green color. Nickel plating is often used to provide a protective coating for other metals, and finely divided nickel is a catalyst for hydrogenating vegetable oils. It is also used in ceramics, in the manufacture of Alnico magnets, and in the Edison storage battery. The sulfate and the oxides are

important compounds. Natural nickel is a mixture of five stable isotopes. Seven other unstable isotopes are known. Niobium ( Niobe, daughter of Tantalus), Nb; or Columbium (Columbia, name for America) — Cb; at. wt 92.9064; at. no. 41; mp 2468 ± 10°C; bp 4742°C; sp gr 8.57 (20°C); valence 2, 3, 4?, 5. Discovered in 1801 by Hatchett in an ore sent to England more than a century before by John Winthrop the Younger, first governor of Connecticut. The metal was first prepared in 1864 by Blomstrand, who reduced the chloride by heating it in a hydrogen atmosphere. The name “niobium” was adopted by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry in 1950 after 100 years of controversy. Many leading chemical societies and government organizations refer to it by this name. Most metallurgists, leading metal societies, and all but one of the leading U.S. commercial producers, however, still refer to the metal as “columbium.” The element is found in niobite (or columbite), niobite-tantalite, pyrochlore, and euxenite. Large deposits of niobium have been found associated with carbonatites (carbon-silicate rocks), as a constituent of pyrochlore. Extensive ore reserves are found in Canada, Brazil, Nigeria, the Congo, and the U.S. The metal can be isolated from tantalum, and prepared in several ways. It is a shiny, white, soft, and ductile metal, and takes on a bluish cast when exposed to air at room temperatures for a long time. The metal starts to oxidize in air at 200°C, and when processed at even moderate temperatures must be placed in a protective atmosphere. It is used as an alloying agent in carbon and alloy steels and in nonferrous metals. These alloys have improved strength and other desirable properties. The metal has a low capture cross-section for thermal neutrons. It is used in arc-welding rods for stabilized grades of stainless steel. Thousands of pounds of niobium have been used in advanced air frame systems, such as were used in the Gemini space program. The element has superconductive properties; superconductive magnets have been made with Nb-Zr wire, which retains its superconductivity in strong magnetic fields. This type of application offers hope of direct large-scale generation of electric power. Sixteen isotopes of niobium are known. Niobium metal (99.5% pure) is priced at about $15 /lb. Nitrogen (L. nitrum, Gr. nitron, native soda; genes, forming) — N; at. wt 14.0067; at. no. 7; mp

33

-209.86°C; bp -195.8°C; density 1.2506 g/1; sp gr liquid 0.808 (-195.8°C), solid 1.026 (-252°C); valence 3 or 5. Discovered by Daniel Rutherford in 1772, but Scheele, Cavendish, Priestley, and others about the same time studied “burnt or dephlogisticated air,” as air without oxygen was then called. Nitrogen makes up 78% of the air, by volume. The estimated amount of this element in the atmosphere is more than 4000 billion tons. From this inexhaustible source it can be obtained by liquefaction and fractional distillation. Nitrogen molecules give the orange-red, blue-green, blueviolet, and deep violet shades to the aurora. The element is so inert that Lavoisier named it azote, meaning without life, yet its compounds are so active as to be most important in foods, poisons, fertilizers, and explosives. Nitrogen also can be easily prepared by heating a water solution of ammonium nitrite. Nitrogen, as a gas, is colorless, odorless, and a generally inert element. As a liquid it is also colorless and odorless, and is similar in appearance to water. Two allotropic forms of solid nitrogen exist, with the transition from the a to the j3 form taking place at -237°C. When nitrogen is heated, it combines directly with magnesium, lithium, or calcium; when mixed with oxygen and subjected to electric sparks, it forms first nitric oxide (NO) and then the dioxide (N02); when heated under pressure with a catalyst with hydrogen, ammonia is formed (Haber process). The ammonia thus formed is of the utmost importance as it is used in fertilizers, and it can be oxidized to nitric acid (Ostwald process). The ammonia industry is the largest consumer of nitrogen. Large amounts of the gas are also used by the electronics industry, which uses the gas as a blanketing medium during production of such components as transistors, diodes, etc. The drug industry also uses large quantities. Nitrogen is used as a refrigerant both for the immersion freezing of food products and for transportation of foods. Liquid nitrogen is also used in missile work as a purge for components, insulators for space chambers, etc., and by the oil industry to build up great pressures in wells to force crude oil upward. Sodium and potassium nitrates are formed by the decomposition of organic matter with compounds of the metals present. In certain dry areas of the world these saltpeters are found in quantity. Ammonia, nitric acid, the nitrates, the five oxides (N 2 0 , NO, N2 0 3, N 02 , and N 2 0 5), TNT, the cyanides, etc. are but a few of the important

compounds. Nitrogen gas prices vary from 24 to $2.75 per 100 cu. ft, depending on purity, etc. Production of nitrogen in the U.S. is more than 160 billion cu. ft/year.

Nobelium (Alfred Nobel, discoverer of dynamite) - No; at. no. 102; valence +2, +3; Nobelium

was unambiguously discovered and identified in April 1958 at Berkeley by A. Ghiorso, T. Sikkeland, J. R. Walton, and G. T. Seaborg, who used a new double-recoil technique. A heavy-ion linear accelerator (HILAC) was used to bombard a thin target of curium (95% Cm2 4 4 and 4.5% Cm246) with C 12 ions to produce 1022 5 4 according to the Cm2 4 6 (C12, 4ri) reaction. Earlier in 1957 workers of the U.S., Britain, and Sweden announced the discovery of an isotope of element 102 with a 10-min half-life at 8.5 MeV, as a result of bombarding Cm2 4 4 with C13 nuclei. On the basis of this experiment the name nobelium was assigned and accepted by the Commission on Atomic Weights of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. The acceptance of the name was premature, for both Russian and American efforts now completely rule out the possibility of any isotope of element 1 0 2 having a half-life of 1 0 min in the vicinity of 8.5 MeV. Early work in 1957 on the search for this element, in Russia at the Kurchatov Institute, was marred by the assignment of 8.9 ± 0.4 MeV alpha radiation with a half-life of 2 to 40 sec, which was too indefinite to support claim to discovery. Confirmatory experiments at Berkeley in 1966 have shown the existence of 1022 5 4 with a 55-sec half-life, 1022 5 2 with a 2.3-sec half-life, and 1022 5 7 with a 23-sec half-life. Four other isotopes are now recognized, one of which — 1022 5 5 - has a half-life of 3 min. In view of the discoverer’s traditional right to name an element, the Berkeley Group, in 1967, suggested that the hastily given name nobelium, along with the symbol No, be retained. Osmium (Gr. o sm e , a smell) —Os; at. wt 190.2; at. no. 76; mp 3045 ± 30°C;bp 5027 ± 100°C; sp gr 22.57; valence 0 to +8 , more usually +3, +4, +6 , and +8 . Discovered in 1803 by Tennant in the residue left when crude platinum is dissolved by aqua regia. Osmium occurs in iridosime and in platinum-bearing river sands of the Urals, North America, and South America. It is also found in the nickel-bearing ores of the Sudbury, Ontario region along with other platinum metals. While the quantity of platinum metals in these ores is very

34

Handbook o f Materials Science

small, the large tonnages of nickel ores processed make commercial recovery possible. The metal is lustrous, bluish-white, extremely hard, and brittle even at high temperatures. It has the highest melting point and lowest vapor pressure of the platinum group. The metal is very difficult to fabricate, but the powder can be sintered in a hydrogen atmosphere at a temperature of 2000°C. The solid metal is not affected by air at room temperature, but the powdered or spongy metal slowly gives off osmium tetroxide, which is a powerful oxidizing agent and has a strong smell. The tetroxide is highly toxic, and boils at 130°C (760 mm). Concentrations in air as low as 10 "7 g/m 2 can cause lung congestion, skin damage, or eye damage. The tetroxide has been used to detect fingerprints and to stain fatty tissue for microscope slides. The metal is almost entirely used to produce very hard alloys, with other metals of the platinum group, for fountain pen tips, instrument pivots, phonograph needles, and electrical contacts. The price of 99% pure osmium powder — the form usually supplied commercially —is about $5/g or $300 to $450/troy oz, depending on quantity and supplier. The measured densities of iridium and osmium seem to indicate that osmium is slightly more dense than iridium, and osmium has generally been credited with being the heaviest known element. Calculations of the density from the space lattice, which may be more reliable for these elements than actual measurements, however, give a density of 22.65 for iridium compared to 22.61 for osmium. At present, therefore, we know either iridium or osmium is the heaviest element, but the data do not allow selection between the two. Oxygen (Gr. oxys, sharp, acid, and genes, forming; acid former) — 0 ; at. wt (natural) 15.9994; at. no. 8 ; mp -218.4°C; bp 182.962°C; density 1.429 g/1 (0°C); sp gr liquid 1.14 (-182.96°C); valence 2. For many centuries, workers from time-to-time realized air was composed of more than one component. The behavior of oxygen and nitrogen as components of air led to the advancement of the phlogiston theory of combustion, which captured the minds of chemists for a century. Oxygen was prepared by several workers, including Bayen and Borch, but they did not know how to collect it, did not study its properties, not did they recognize it as an elementary substance. Priestley is generally credited with its discovery, although Scheele also

discovered it independently. Oxygen is the third most abundant element found in the sun, and it plays a part in the carbon-nitrogen cycle — one process thought to give the sun and stars their energy. Oxygen under excited conditions is responsible for the bright-red and yellow-green colors of the aurora. Oxygen, as a gaseous element, forms 2 1 % of the atmosphere by volume from which it can be obtained by liquefaction and fractional distillation. The element and its compounds made up 49.2%, by weight, of the earth’s crust. About two thirds of the human body, and nine tenths of water are oxygen. In the laboratory it can be prepared by the electrolysis of water or by heating potassium chlorate with manganese dioxide as a catalyst. The gas is colorless, odorless, and tasteless. The liquid and solid forms are a pale blue color and are strongly paramagnetic. Ozone ( 0 3), a highly active allotropic form of oxygen, is formed by the action of an electrical discharge or ultra-violet light on oxygen. Ozone’s presence in the atmosphere (amounting to the equivalent of a layer 3 mm thick of ordinary pressures and temperatures) is of vital importance in preventing ultra-violet rays from the sun from reaching the earth’s surface and destroying life on earth. Undiluted ozone has a bluish color. Liquid ozone is bluish-black, and solid ozone is violet-black. Oxygen is very reactive and capable of combining with most elements. It is a component of hundreds of thousands of organic compounds. It is essential for respiration of all plants and animals and for practically all combustion. In hospitals it is frequently used to aid respiration of patients. Its atomic weight was used as a standard of comparison for each of the other elements until 1961 when the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry adopted carbon 12 as the new basis. Oxygen has eight isotopes. Natural oxygen is a mixture of three isotopes. Oxygen 18 occurs naturally, is stable, and is available commercially. Water (H20 with 1.5% O18) is also available. Commercial oxygen consumption in the U.S. is estimated at more than 350 billion ft 3 /year, and the demand is expected to increase substantially in the next few years. Oxygen enrichment of steel blast furances accounts for the greatest use of the gas. Large quantities are also used in making synthesis gas for ammonia and methanol, ethylene oxide, and for oxy-acetylene welding. Air separation plants produce about 99% of the gas; electrolysis plants

35

about 1%. The gas costs 2.53.6 X 1017 years. Fifteen other unstable nuclides and isomers of zirconium have been characterized. Zircon, ZrSi04 , the principal ore, is found in deposits in Florida, South Carolina, Australia, and Brazil. Baddeleyite, found in Brazil, is an important zirconium mineral. It is principally pure Z r0 2 in crystalline form having a hafnium content of about 1%. Zirconium also occurs in some 30 other recognized mineral species. Zirconium is produced commercially by reduction of the chloride with magnesium (the Kroll Process), and by other methods. It is a grayish-white lustrous metal. When finely divided, the metal may ignite spontaneously in air, especially at elevated temperatures. The solid metal is much more difficult to ignite. The inherent toxicity of zirconium compounds is low. Hafnium is invariably found in zirconium ores, and the separation is difficult. Commercial-grade zirconium contains from 1 to 3% hafnium. Zirconium has a low absorption cross section for

neutrons, and is therefore used for nuclear energy applications, such as for cladding fuel elements. Zirconium has been found to be extremely resistant to the corrosive environment inside atomic reactors, and it allows neutrons to pass through the internal zirconium construction material without appreciable absorption of energy. Reactors of the size now being made may use as much as a half-million lineal feet of zirconium alloy tubing. Reactor-grade zirconium is essentially free of hafnium. Zircaloy is an important alloy developed specifically for nuclear applications. Zirconium is exceptionally resistant to corrosion by many common acids and alkalis, by sea water, and by other agents. It is used extensively by the chemical industry where corrosive agents are employed. Zirconium is used as a getter in vacuum tubes, as an alloying agent in steel, in making surgical appliances, photoflash bulbs, explosive primers, rayon spinnerets, lamp filaments, etc. It is used in poison ivy lotions in the form of the carbonate as it combines with urushiol. With niobium, zirconium is superconductive at low temperatures and is used to make superconductive magnets, which offer hope of direct large-scale generation of electric power. Alloyed with zinc, zirconium becomes magnetic at temperatures below 35°K. Zirconium oxide (zircon) has a high index of refraction and is used as a gem material. The impure oxide, zirconia, is used for laboratory crucibles that will withstand heat shock, for linings of metallurgical furnaces, and by the glass and ceramic industries as a refractory material. Its use as a refractory material accounts for a large share of all zirconium consumed. Commercial zirconium metal sponge is priced at about $ 5/lb. Fabricated zirconium parts are higher in cost.

Modified from Hammond, C. R., in H a n d b o o k o f C h e m is tr y a n d P h y sic s, 55th ed., Weast, R. C., Ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1974, B-4.

Section 2 Elemental Properties

61

Table 2 -1 PROPERTIES OF THE CHEMICAL ELEMENTS3

Atmospheric Pressure at Room Temperature

N am e

Actinium Aluminum Americium Antimony (Stibium) Argon Arsenic Astatine Barium Berkelium Beryllium Bismuth Boron Bromine Cadmium Calcium Californium Carbon Diamond Graphite Cerium Cesium Chlorine Chromium Cobalt Copper Curium Dysprosium Einsteinium Erbium Europium Fermium Fluorine Francium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Gold (Aurum) Hafnium Helium Holmium Hydrogen Indium Iodine Iridium Iron (Ferrum) Krypton Lanthanum Lawrencium Lead (Plumbum) Lithium Lutetium Magnesium

InterA tom ic national S ym b ol num ber at. wt.*5

Ac A1 Am

89 13 95

(227) 26.9815 (243)

Sb Ar As At Ba Bk Be Bi B Br Cd Ca Cf C

51 18 33 85 56 97 4 83 5 35 48 20 98 6

121.75 39.948 74.9216 (210) 137.34 (247) 9.0122 208.980 10.811 79.904 112.40 40.08 (251) 12.01115

Ce Cs Cl Cr Co Cu Cm Dy Es Er Eu Fm F Fr Gd Ga Ge

58 55 17 24 27 29 96 66 99 68 63 100 9 87 64 31 32

140.12 132.905 35.453 51.996 58.9332 63.546 (247) 162.50 (254) 167.26 151.96 (257) 18.9984 (223) 157.25 69.72 72.59

Au Hf He Ho H In I Ir

79 72 2 67 1 49 53 77

Fe Kr La Lr

26 36 57 103

55.847 83.80 138.91 (257)

Pb Li Lu Mg

82 3 71 12

207.19 6.939 174.97 24.312

196.967 178.49 4.0026 164.930 1.00797 114.82 126.9044 192.2

S p ecific gravity (or density)

(10.02) 2.70 11.7 6.69 1.78 g/1 5.73 (gray) —

3.5 —

1.85 9.75 2.35 3.12 (liq.) 8.65 1.55 —

3.5 2.1 6.77 1.87 3-21 g/1 7.2 8.9 8.96 —

8.54 —

9.05 5.25

M elting p oin t, ° C

1050. 660. 994. 630. -189. 815C 729. 725. —

1285. 271.4 2300. -7 .2 321. 840. —

> 3800. > 3500. 798. 28.6 -101. 1860. 1495. 1084. —

1409. —

1522. 822.



1.11 (liq.) —

7.90 5.91 5.32

-219.6 27. 1311. 29.8 937.

Boiling p oin t, ° C

3200. 2441. 2607. 1750. -186. 613. (subl.) 2125. 1630. —

2475. 1560. 2550. 58.8 767. 1485. —

4827. 4200. 3257. 678. -3 4 .6 2670. 2870. 2575. —

2335. —

2510. 1597.

Sp ecific heat at 25° C —

0.215 —

0.050 0.125 0.079

0.436 0.030 0.245 0.11 0.055 — —

0.124 0.170 0.047 0.057 0.114 0.110 0.10 0.092 —

0.0414 —

0.04 0.042



2.18 0.084 —

0.45 x 1 0 '4 0.92 1.3 —

1.5(0°) 0.24 0.11 _

0.86 x 10~4 0.91 0.69 3.98 —

0.10 —

0.096 —





-1 8 8 . 677. 3233. 2300. 2830.

0.197 0.055 0.089 0.077

0.088 0.29-0.38 0.59

0.031 0.035 1.24 0.039 3.41 0.056 0.102 0.031

3.15 0.220 14.8 x 10"4



1536. -157. 920.

2870. -152. 3454.

0.108 0.059 0.047







327.5 180. 1656. 650.





7.87 3.73 g/1 6.17 11.35 0.53 9.84 1.74

0.185 1.75 x 10"4



1470. -259. 156. 113.5 2450.







0.046

2857. 4700. -269. 2720. -253. 2050. 184.4 4390.





2.37



19.32 13.29 0.177 g/1 8.78 0.0899 g/1 7.31 4.93 22.42

1063. 2220.

Therm al co n d u ctivity, w att/cm °C

1750. 1342. 3315. 1090.

0.031 0.84 0.037 0.243



2.63 x 10"4 —



18.4 x 10” 4 0.24 43.5 x 1 0 '4 1.47 0.803 0.94 x 10‘ 4 0.14 —

0.352 0.71 —

1.56

62

Handbook o f Materials Science

Table 2—1 (continued) PROPERTIES OF THE CHEMICAL ELEMENTS

Nam e

Manganese Mendelevium Mercury (Hydrargyrum) Molybdenum Neodymium Neon Neptunium Nickel Niobium (Columbium) Nitrogen Nobelium Osmium Oxygen Palladium Phosphorus, white Platinum Plutonium Polonium Potassium (Kalium) Praseodymium Promethium Protactinium Radium Radon Rhenium Rhodium Rubidium Ruthenium Samarium Scandium Selenium Silicon Silver (Argentum) Sodium (Natrium) Strontium Sulfur Tantalum Technetium Tellurium Terbium Thallium Thorium Thulium Tin (Stannum) Titanium Tungsten (Wolfram) Uranium Vanadium Xenon Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc Zirconium

A tom ic S ym b ol number

International at. wt.*5

Sp ecific gravity (or den sity)

54.9380 (256)

7.21-7.44

Boiling p oin t, °C

Sp ecific heat at 25° C

1244.

2060.

0.114

-38.86 2620. 1010. -249. 640. 1453.

356.55 4651. 3127. -246. 3902. 2914.

0.033 0.060 0.049 0.246 0.296 0.106

0.905

2467. -2 1 0 .

4740. -196.

0.064 0.249

0.53 2.55 x 10"4

3025. -218.4 1550.

4225. -183. 2927.

0.031 0.220 0.058

0.61 2.61 x 10~4 0.71 0.73 0.08

M elting poin t, °C

Thermal condu ctivity, w att/cm °C

_ —

Mn Md

25 101

Hg Mo Nd Ne Np Ni

80 42 60 10 93 28

Nb N No Os O Pd

41 7 102 76 8 46

92.906 14.0067 (254) 190.2 15.9994 106.4

22.57 1.43 g/1 12.02

P Pt Pu Po

15 78 94 84

30.9738 195.09 (244) (209)

1.82 21.45 19.84 9.32

44.1 1770. 640. 254.

280. 3825. 3230. 962.

0.18 0.032 0.032 0.030

K Pr Pm Pa Ra Rn Re Rh Rb Ru Sm Sc Se Si

19 59 61 91 88 86 75 45 37 44 62 21 34 14

39.102 140.907 (145) (231) (226) (222) 186.2 102.905 85.47 101.07 150.35 44.956 78.96 28.086

0.86 6.77

63.3 931. 1080.

760. 3212. 2460.

700. -7 1 . 3180. 1965. 39. 2400. 1072. 1539. 217. 1411.

1700. -6 2 . 5650. 3700. 700. 4100. 1778. 2832. 700. 3280.

0.180 0.046 0.044 0.029 0.029 0.0224 0.033 0.058 0.086 0.057 0.047 0.135 0.077 0.17

0.005 0.835

Ag

47

107.868

961.

2212.

0.057

4.27

Na Sr S Ta Tc Te Tb T1 Th Tm

11 38 16 73 43 52 65 81 90 69

22.9898 87.62 32.064 180.948 (97) 127.60 158.924 204.37 232.038 168.934

97.83 770. 113. 2980. 2172. 450. 1360. 304. 1750. 1545.

884. 1375. 445. 5365. 4877. 990. 3041. 1480. 4800. 1727.

0.293 0.072 0.175 0.034 0.058 0.05 0.0435 0.031 0.03 0.0385

1.34

Sn Ti

50 22

118.69 47.90

232. 1670.

2600. 3290.

0.054 0.125

0.67 0.22

W U V Xe Yb Y Zn Zr

74 92 23 54 70 39 30 40

183.85 238.03 50.942 131.30 173.04 88.905 65.37 91.22

3400. 1132. 1900. -1 1 2 . 824. 1523. 419.5 1852.

5550. 4140. 3400. -1 0 7 . 1193. 3337. 910. 4400.

0.032 0.028 0.116 0.038 0.071 0.0925 0.093 0.067

1.78 0.25 0.60 5.2 x 10~4

200.59 95.94 144.24 20.183 (237) 58.71



13.546 10.22 7.00 0.90 g/1 18.0-20.45 8.90 8.57 1.251 g/1





(15.37)



9.73 g/1 21.0 12.41 1.532 12.4 7.54 2.99 4.8 2.33 10.50 0.97 2.55 1.96-2.07 16.6 (11.50) 6.24 8.23 11.85 11.7 9.31 7.31 4.54 19.3 18.8 6.1 5.89 g/1 6.97 4.46 7. 6.53

















0.0839 1.38 0.13 4.77 x 10“ 4







0.99 0.12

_ — — _

0.71 1.50

— — — —



26.4 x lO " 4 0.575

—,

0.059



0.39 0.41

_



0.15 1.21 0.227

63

Table 2 —1 (continued) PROPERTIES OF THE CHEMICAL ELEMENTS aTable 2 - 2 gives additional properties of the chemical elements. See also Weast, R. C., Ed ..Handbook o f Chemistry and Physics, 55th ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1974. bA value in parentheses is the mass number of the most stable isotope of the element. cAt 28 atm. From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., Handbook o f Tables for Applied Engineering Science, 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 329.

Table 2 - 2 ADDITIONAL PROPERTIES OF THE CHEMICAL ELEMENTS3

Nam e

A tom ic num ber

Latent heat o f fusion, cal/g

Actinium (227) Aluminum Americium (243) Antimony Argon

89 13 95 51 18

11 95 10 38.5 6.7

Arsenic Astatine Barium Berkelium Beryllium

33 85 56 97 4

88.5

Bismuth Boron Bromine Cadmium Calcium

83 5 35 48 20

Californium (251) Carbon (Graphite) Cerium Cesium Chlorine

98 6 58 55 17

Chromium Cobalt Columbium See Niobium Copper Curium (247) Dysprosium Einsteinium (254)* Erbium Europium Fermium

66 99 68 63 —

Fluorine Francium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium

9 87 64 31 32

Gold Hafnium Helium

79 72 2



13.4 — 324 12.4 400 16.2 13.2 52 — —

C oef o f linear thermal expansion X 106, K 1 -----------------------------------100 300 500 ___

12.5 —

9 -

_

24 — 9.5 -

_

27 — 10.5 -

4.7 — 16 — 12

— 24 — 15

— 26 17.5 —

13 2 — 30 23 _

13.5 — — 38 26 —





_

— — — 12 —





Elasticity m odulus, psi X 1 0 “ 6

_

10.0 — 11.3 —



_

— 40-44 4.6 64 — 8 3.2-3.8 — 0.7 4.4 — -

First ion ization p otential, eV

6.9 5.984 _

Thermal neutron absorption cross section , barns*5

510. 0.24 —

5.7 0.66

8.639 15.755 9.81 9.5 5.21 _

4.3 _

1.2 —

9.32

0.01

7.287 8.296 11.84 8.991 6.111 _ 11.256 5.6 3.893 13.01

0.034 755 6.7 2 450. 0.44 — 0.004 0.73 30.0 34.

9 3.8 2.16

— — -

8 97 -

— — -

24 27

79 66

3.5

6 12

9.5 13

36 30

6.764 7.86

3.1 38.

29 96

49 26.4 — 24.6 16.9 —

16.5 -

18 _ — _

17 -

7.724 -

-

9.2 — 10.6 2.1 -

6.8 — 6.08 5.67 -

10.5 _

-

9.0 — 9.0 26 -

16.4 19.2 114

— — — 2.5

— 4 18 5.6

15 34 1.2

11.5 — —

10.1 —



— —

_

___

14 6 -



___

___

— — — 6.5

— 8.1 _ -

17.418 4 6.16 6 7.88

15 — —

10.8 20 —

9.22 7 24.481

3.8

950. — 170. 4 300. 0.01 —

46 000 2.8 2.45 98.8 105. 0.007

64

Handbook o f Materials Science

Table 2 - 2 (continued) ADDITIONAL PROPERTIES OF THE CHEMICAL ELEMENTS

Nam e

A tom ic number

L atent heat o f fusion, cal/g

C o ef o f linear thermal expansion X 106 , K "1 100

300

500

E lasticity m odulus, psi X 10 6

Holmium Hydrogen

67 1

_







15.0

9.7

-





-

Indium Iodine Iridium Iron Krypton

49 53 77 26 36

6.8 15 33 65 4.7

25

33 93 6.5 12

-

-



Lanthanum Lawrencium Lead Lithium Lutetium

57 103 82 3 71

10



5

6.5

5.5















Magnesium Manganese Mendelevium Mercury Molybdenum

12 25 101 80 42

88.0 64

60 10 93 28 41

13 4.0 9.7 71 68

Neodymium Neon Neptunium (237) Nickel Niobium

5.5 103 26.4



2.7 69



4 6

25 23 —

15 11.5

29 50

7.5 14.5

32

75 28.5 —

2.0



12.2

25 23

29 28

6.4 23



















7

7.5







3



6.5 5

5



13 7

34 3.3 38

Phosphorus Platinum Plutonium (244) Polonium Potassium

15 78 94 84 19

4.8 24 3 11 14.5

Praseodymium Promethium Protactinium (231) Radium (226) Radon (222)

59 61 91 88 86

17





17 10 3.1

— —



Rhenium Rhodium Rubidium Ruthenium Samarium

75 45 37 44 62

42 50 6.3 60 24.7

Scandium Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium

21 34 14 47 11

87 16 430 26.5 27

Strontium Sulfur Tantalum Technetium Tellurium

38 16 73 43 52

25 9.2 41 56.7 33

6.2 —

— —

-

7 102 76 8 46

Nitrogen Nobelium Osmium Oxygen Palladium

— —

5.5



15.5 7.5

40

5.5

— —

31 15

First ionization potential, eV —

13.595 5.785 10.454 9 7.87 13.996 5.61 —

7.415 5.39 —

7.644 7.432 —



7.633 6.88





14.53







5.5 —

8.5

12

13

80 —

17



125 8.9 54



21.3 14









-



5.

5.3





4.7 6.1







6.8

-

83



9.5











-

-

-

-

_

5.0 — —

7 8.3 90 9

-

-





_

9.3 — — _

66.7 42 —

60 4.9 11.5 8.4 16 10.5

14.3 45.7

35 2.5 19.0 70.0

3.5 20.6 -

-

___

___

___







— —

42 5.2 —

-

63



6 .6

6.9





17



27 —

17

0.18 71. 112. 0.07 13.3 —

46. -fr-448, p. 219,1960. Letaw, H., Portnoy, W. M., and Slifkin, L.,Phys. Rev., 102,636, 1956. Sandulova, A. V., Droniuk, M. I., and P’dak, V. M., Fiz. Tverd. Tela, 3, 2913,1961. Boltaks, B. I., Grabtchak, V. P., and Dzafarov, T. D.,Fzz. Tverd. Tela, 6, 3181,1964. Ignatkov, V. D. and Kosenko, V. E., Fiz. Tverd. Tela, 4(6), 1627, 1927; Sov. Phys. Solid State (English transl.), 4(6), 1627,1962. Tagirov, V. I. and Kuliev, A. A., Fiz. Tverd. Tela, 4(1), 272,1962; Sov. Phys. Solid State (English transl.), 4(1), 196, 1962.

141 Table 2 - 1 9 (continued) RADIOACTIVE TRACER DIFFUSION DATA FOR PURE METALS 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103.

Mallard, W. C., Gardner, A. B., Bass, R. F., and Slifkin, L. M .,Phys. Rev., 129(2), 617,1963. Duhl, D., Hirano, K., and Cohen, M.^Acta Met., 11(1), 1, 1963. Mortlock, A. J. and Rowe, A. H., Philos, Mag., 11(114), 115,1965. Reynolds, J. E. Averbach, B. L., and Cohen, M., Acta Met., 5, 29, 1957. Mortlock, A. J., Rowe, A. H., and LeClaire, A. D .,Philos. Mag., 5, 803, 1960. Winslow, F. R. and Lundy, T. S., Trans. Met. Soc. AIME, 233, 1790, 1965. Anthony, R. R. and Turnbull, D., Phys. Rev., 1 51,495,1966. Amonenko, V. M., Blinkin, A. M., and Ivantsov. I. G., Fiz. Metal. Metalloved., 17(1), 56, 1964; Phys. Metals Metallogr., 17(1), 56, 1964. James, D. W. and Leak, G. M., Philos. Mag., 14, 701,1966. Bondy, A. and Levy, V., C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. C (Paris), 272(1), 19, 1971. Borg, R. J. and Lai, D. Y. F .,Acta Met., 11(8), 861,1963. Homan, C. G., Acta Met., 12,107 1 ,1 9 6 4 . Huntz, A. M., Aucouturier, M., and Lacombe, P., C. R. Sci. Ser. C (Paris), 265(10), 554, 1967. Anand, M. S. and Agarwala, R. P., J. Appl. Phys., 3 7 ,4 2 4 8 ,1 9 6 6 . Angers, R. and Claisse, F., Can. Met. Quart., 7(2), 73,1968. Tomilov, A. V. and Shcherbedinskii, G. V., Fiz. Khim. Mekh. Mater., 3(3), 261, 1967. Nohara, K. and Hirano, K., Proceedings, International Conference on Science and Technology for Iron and Steel, Tokyo, 1970. Borisov, V. T., Golikov, V. M., and Shcherbedinskii, G. V., Fiz. Metal. Metalloved., 22(1), 159,1966. Hirano, K., Cohen, M., and Averbach, B. L., Acta Met., 9(5), 440, 1961. Seibel, G., Compt. Rend., 256(22), 4661, 1963. Bruggeman, G. and Roberts, J., J. Metals, 20(8), 54, 1968. Lyubimov, V. D., Izv. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. Met., 3, 201,1969; Lyubimov, V. D., Tskhai, V. A., and Bogomolov, G. B., Tr. Inst. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. Ural Filial. 1 7 ,4 4 ,4 8 , 1970. Grigorev, G. V. and Pavlinov, L. V., Fiz. Metal. Metalloved ., 25(5), 836, 1968. Suzuoka, T., Trans. Jap. Inst. Metals, 2 ,1 7 6 , 1961. Bowen, A. W. and Leak, G. M., Met. Trans., 1(6), 1695,1970. Heumann, T. and Imm, R., J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 29(9), 1613,1968. Gruzin, P. L. and Mural, V. V., Fiz. Metal. Metalloved., 16(4), 551,1963; Phys. Metals Metallogr. (English transl.), 16(4), 50,1963. Hoshino. A. and Ataki, R., Tetsu to Hagane, 56(2), 252,1970. Sato, K., Trans. Jap. Inst. Metals, 5 ,9 1 ,1 9 6 4 . James, D. W. and Leak, G. M., Philos. Mag., 14, 701,1966. Dariel, M. P., Erez, G., and Schmidt, G. M. I.,Philos. Mag., 19(161), 1053, 1969. Kuzmenko, P. P., Grinevich, G. P., and Danilchenko, B. A., Fiz. Metal. Metalloved., 29(2), 318,1970. Kidson, G. V., Philos. Mag., 13, 247,1966. Miller, J. W .,Phys. Rev., 181(3), 1095,1969. Dyson, B. F., Anthony, T., and Turnbull, D., J. Appl. Phys., 37, 2370,1966. Resing, H. A. and Nachtrieb, N. H .,Phys. Chem. Solids, 21(1/2), 40, 1969. O tt, A. and Lodding, A., International Conference on Vacancies and Interstitials in Metals, Julich, Germany, Vol. 1, p. 43,1968; Z . Naturforsch., 23A, 1683, 2126, 1968. O tt, A., Lodding, A., and Lazarus, D., Phys. Rev., 188(3), 1088,1969. O tt, A., /. Appl. Phys., 40(6), 2395, 1969; Mundy, J. N., O tt, A., Lowenberg, L., and Lodding, A., Phys. Status Solidi, 35(1), 359,1969. O tt, A., Z . Naturforsch., 25A(10), 1477, 1970. Lodding, A., Mundy, J. N., and O tt, A., Phys. Status Solidi, 38(2), 559, 1970. Lai, K., Report CEA-R 3136, Commissariat d TEnergie Atomique, Paris, 1967. Pavlinov, L. V., Gladyshev, A. M., and Bikov, V. N., Fiz. Metal. Metalloved., 26(5), 823,1968. Shewmon, P. G., Trans. Met. Soc. AIME, 206,918, 1956. Borisov, Y. V., Gruzin, P. L., and Pavlinov, L. V., Met. Metalloved. Chistykh. Metal., 1, 213, 1959, translated in JPRS-5195. Nakonechnikov, A. Y., Pavlinov, L. V., and Bikov, V. N., Fiz. M etal Metalloved., 22, 234, 1966. Askill, J.,Phys. Status Solidi, 9(2), K-l 13,1965. Pavlinov, L. V. and Kordev, A. A., Fiz. Metal. Metalloved ., 29(6), 1326, 1970. Dubinin, G. N., Benediktova, G. P., Karpman, M. G., and Shcherbedinskii, G. V., Khim. Term. Obrab. Stali Splavov, 6 ,1 2 9 , 1969. Askill, J. and Tomlin, D. H., Philos. Mag., 8(90), 997,1963.

142

H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

Table 2 - 1 9 (continued) RADIOACTIVE TRACER DIFFUSION DATA FOR PURE METALS 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. 129. 130. 131. 132. 133. 134. 135. 136. 137. 138. 139. 140. 141. 142. 143. 144. 145. 146. 147. 148. 149. 150. 151. 152. 153. 154.

Vandyshev, B. A. and Panov, A. S., Fiz. Metal. Metalloved., 26(3), 517, 1968. Benediktova, S. Z., Dubinin, G. N., Kapman, M. G., and Shcherbedinskii, G. V .,Metalloved. Term. Obrab. M etal, 5, 5,1966. Vandyshev, B. A. and Panov, A. S., Fiz. Metal. Metalloved, 25(2), 321, 1968. Pavlinov, L. V., Nakonechnikov, A. Y., and Bikov, V. N.,,4f. Energ., (U.S.S.R.), 19, 521, 1965. Askill, J .,Phys. Status Solidi, 23, K-21,1967. Chatterjee, A. and Fabian, D. J .,/ . Inst. Metals, 96(6), 186, 1968. Hassner, A. and Lange, W., Phys. Status Solidi, 8 ,7 7 , 1965. Monma, K., Suto, H., and Oikawa, H., J. Jap. Inst. Metals, 28, 188, 1964. Shinyaev, A. Ya., Izv. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. M etal, 4, 182, 1969. Blechet, J. J., VanGryeynest, A., and Calais, D., J. Nucl. Mater., 28(2), 177, 1968. Kuzmenko, P. P. and Grinevich, G. P., Fiz. Tverd. Tela, 4(11), 3266, 1962; Sov. Phys. Solid State (English transl.), 4(11), 2390,1962. Bokshtein, S. Z., Kishkin, S. T., and Moroz, L. M., Investigation o f the Structure o f Metals by Radioactive Isotope Methods, State Publishing House of the Ministry of Industry, Moscow, 1959; (AEC-tr-4505), 1961. Anand, M. S., Murarka, S. P., and Agarwala, R. P., J. Appl. Phys., 36(12), 3860, 1965. Lyubimov, V. D., Izv. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. M etal, 3, 209, 1969; Lyubimov, V. D., Tskhai, V. A.,and Bogmolov, G. B., Tr. Inst. Khim. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. Ural Filial, 17, 4 4 ,4 8 , 1970. Peart, R. F., Graham, D., and Tomlin, D. H., Acta Met., 10,519 ,1 9 6 2 . Pelleg, J .,J. Metals, 20(8), 54, 1 968;/. Less Common Metals, 17, 3 1 9 ,1969 \ Philos. Mag., 19(157), 25, 1969. Lundy, T. S., Winslow, F. E., Pawel, R. E., and McHargue, C. J., Trans. Met. Soc. AIME, 223, 1533, 1965. Vandyshev, B. A. and Panov, A. S., Izv. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1, 206, 1968. Askill, J. Phys. Status Solidi, 9(3), K -1 6 7 ,1965. Pelleg, J., Philos. Mag., 21(172), 735, 1970. Agarwala, R. P., Murarka, S. P., and Anand, M. S.,Acta. Met., 16(1), 61, 1968. Fedorov, G B., Zhomov, F. I., and Smirnov, E. A..,Met. Metalloved. Chistykh. Metal, 8, 145, 1969. Peterson, N. L., Phys. Rev., 136(2A), A -568,1964. Nachtrieb, N. H. and Handler, G. S., J. Chem. Phys., 2 3 ,1 1 8 7 ,1 9 5 5 . Kucera, J. and Zemcik, T. Can. Met. Q., 7(2), 83, 1968. Kidson, G. V. and Ross, R., Proceedings of the 1st International Conference onIsotopes inScientific Research, United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization, New York, 1958, 185. Smith, F. A. and Barr, L. W ., Philos, mag., 21(171), 633, 1970. Mundy, J. N., Miller, T. E., and Porte, R. J., Phys. Rev., B-3(8), 2445,1971. Barr, L. W., Mundy, J. N., and Smith F. A., Philos. Mag., 16, 1139, 1967. Smith, F. A. and Barr, L. W., Philos. Mag., 20(163), 205, 1969. Tate, R. E. and Edwards, G. R., Symposium on Thermodynamics with Emphasis on Nuclear Materials and Atomic Solids, Vol. 2, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, 1966,105. Tate, R. E. and Cramer, E. M., Trans. Met. Soc. AIME, 230, 639, 1964. Dupuy, M. and Calais, D., Trans. Met. Soc. AIME, 242, 1679, 1968. Dariel, M. P., Erez, G., and Schmidt, G. M. J., / Appl. Phys., 40(7), 2746, 1969. Dariel, M. V., Philos. Mag., 22(177), 653, 1970. Dariel, M. P., Erez, G., and Schmidt, G. M. J., Philos. Mag., 18(161), 1045, 1069. Kuliev, A. A. and Nasledov, D. N., Zh. Tekh. Fiz., 28(2), 259, 1958; Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. (English transl.), 3(2), 235, 1958. Braetter, P. and Gobrect, H., Phys. Status Solidi, 41 (2), 631,1970. Boltaks, B. I. and Plachenov, B. T., Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. (English transl.), 27(10), 2071,1957. Peart, R. F., Phys. Status Solidi, 15, K-l 19, 1966. Wilcox, W. R. and LaChapelle, T. J., / Appl. Phys., 35(1), 240, 1964. Newman, R. C. and Wakefield, J., Phys. Chem. Solids, 19(3), 230, 1961. Boltaks, B. I. and Sozinov, 1.1., Zh. Tekh. Fiz., 28(3), 679, 1958;Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. (English transl.), 3(3), 636, 1958. Struthers, J. D. , / A p p l Phys., 27(12), 1560,1956; Errata, 28(4), 516,1957. Bonzel, H. P.,Phys. Status Solidi, 20, 493, 1967. Mackawa, S., J. Phys. Soc. Jap., 17(10), 1592, 1962. Rahan, J. J., Pickering, M. E., and Kennedy, J., J. Electrochem. Soc., 106(8), 705, 1959. Rothman, S. J., Peterson, N. L., and Robinson, J. T., Phys. Status Solidi, 39(2), 635, 1970. Tomizuka, C. T. and Slifkin, L. M,,Phys. Rev., 96, 610,1954. Bemardini, J., Combe-Brun, A., and Cabane, J., Ser. Met., 4(12), 985, 1970.

143 Table 2 - 1 9 (continued) RADIOACTIVE TRACER DIFFUSION DATA FOR PURE METALS 155. 156. 157. 158. 159. 160. 161. 162. 163.

Sawatskii, A. and Jaumot, F. E., Trans. Met. Soc. AIME, 209, 1207,1957. Mullen, J. G.,Phys. Rev., 121, 1649, 1961. Hoffman, R. E Acta Met., 6, 95, 1958. Hirone, T., Miura, S., and Suzuoka, T., J. Phys. Soc. Jap., 16(12), 2456, 1961. Hoffman, R. E , Turnbull, D., and Hart, E. Yf.,Acta Met., 3, 417, 1955. Pierce, C. B. and Lazarus, D., Phys. Rev., 114, 686, 1959. Barbouth, N., Ouder, J., and Cabane, J., C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. C (Paris), 264(12), 1029, 1967. Kaigorodov, V. N., Rabovskii, A. Ya., and Talinskii, V. K., Fiz. Metal. Metalloved., 24(4), 661, 1967. Kaigorodov, V. N., Klotsman, S. M., Timofeev, A. N., and Traktenberg, I. Sh., Fiz. Metal.''Metalloved., 28(1), 120, 1969. 164. Sawatskii, A. and Jaumot, F. E., Phys. Rev., 100, 1627,1955. 165. Barr, L. W., Mundy, J. N., and Smith, F. A., Philos. Mag., 20(164) 389, 1969. 166. Mundy, J. N., Barr, L. W., and Smith, F. A., Philos. Mag., 14, 785, 1966. 167. Son, P., lhara, S., Miyake, M., and Sano, T., J. Jap. Inst. Metals, 33(1), 1, 1969. 168. Vasilev, V. P., Kamardin, I. F., Skatskill, V. I., Chemomorchenko, S. G., and Shuppe, G. N., Tr. Sred. Gos. Univ. V. J. Lenina, 6 5 ,47, 1955; English translation, (AEC-trans.-4272), 169. Pawel, R. E. and Lundy, T. S., J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 26, 937,1965. 170. Vandyshev, B. A. and Panov, A. S., Izv. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. Metal., 1, 244, 1969. 171. Molanov, S. and Kuliev, A. A., Fiz. Tverd. Tela, 4(2), 542, 1962. 172. Ibraginov, N. I., Shachtachtinskii, M. G., and Kuliev, A. A., Fiz. Tverd. Tela, 4, 3321,1962. 173. Ghoshtagore, R. N.,Phys. Rev., 155(3), 698, 1967. 174. Anthony, T. R., Dyson, B. F., and Turnbull, D., J. Appl. Phys., 39(3), 1391,1968. 175. Shirn,G. A .9Acta Met., 3 ,8 7 , 1955. 176. Schmitz, F. and Fock, M., J. Nucl. Mater., 2 1 ,3 1 7 , 1967. 177. Dyson, B. F A pp l Phys., 37, 2375, 1966. 178. Chomka, W. and Andruszkiewicz, J., Nukleonika, 5(10), 611,1960. 179. Sawatskii, A., J. Appl. Phys., 29(9), 1303,1958. 180. Yolokoff, D., May, S., and Adda, Y., Compt. Rend., 251(3), 2341, 1960. 181. Bartha, L. and Szalay, T,,Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot., 20(2), 825, 1969. 182. Dyment, F. and Libanati, C. M., J. Mater, Sci., 3(4), 349, 1968. 183. Askill, J., Phys. Status Solidi, B-43(l), K -l, 1971. 184. Pavlinoy. L. V., Grigorev, G. V., and Gromyko, G. O., Izv. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. Metal., 3, 207,1969. 185. Nakonechnikov, A. Y., Pavlinov, L. V., and Bikov, V. N., Fiz. Metal. Metalloved., 22, 234, 1966. 186. Gibbs, G. B., Graham, D., and Tomlin, D. H Philos. Mag., 8(92), 1269, 1963. 187. Askill, J. and Gibbs, G. B., Phys. Status Solidi, 1 1 ,5 5 7 ,1 9 6 5 . 188. Murdock, J. F., Lundy, T. S., and Stansbury, E. E., Acta Met., 12(9), 1033, 1964. 189. Pavlinov, L. V., Fiz. Metal. Metalloved., 30(4), 800, 1970. 190. Murdock, J. F., Lundy, T.S., and Stansbury, E. E^Acta Met., 12(9), 1033, 1964. 191. Pavlinov, L. V., Fiz. Metal. Metalloved., 24(2), 272,1967. 192. Pawel, R. E. and Lundy, T. S., Acta Met., 17(8), 979,1969. 193. Laiikov, L. N., Tyshkevich, V. M., and Chorna, L. F ., Ukr. Fiz. Zh., 12(6), 983, 1967. 194. Adda, Y., Kirianenko, A., and Mairy, C., Compt. Rend., 2 5 3 ,4 4 5 ,1 9 6 1 ; /. Nucl. Mater., 6(1), 130, 1962. 195. Dariel, M. P., Blumenfeld, M., and Kimmel, G., J. Appl. Phys., 41(4), 1480, 1970. 196. Federov, G. B., Smirnov, E. A., and Moiseenko, S. S,,Met. Metalloved. Chistykh. Metal., 7 ,1 2 4 , 1968. 197. Rothman, S. J .,/ . Nucl. Mater., 3(1), 77, 1961. 198. Peterson, N. L. and Rothman, S. J . ,Phys. Rev., 136(3A), A-842, 1964. 199. Son, P., lhara, S., Miyake, M., and Sano, T Jap. Inst. Metals, 33(1), 1, 1969. 200. Paxton, H. W. and Wolfe, R. A., Trans. Met. Soc. AIME, 230, 1426, 1964. 201. Coleman, M. G., Ph.D. thesis, University of Illinois, Chicago, 1967; University microfilm 68-1725,1968. 202. Vandychev, B. A. and Panov, A. S., Izv. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. Metal., 2, 231, 1970. 203. Peart, R. F Phys. Chem. Solids, 26,1853, 1965. 204. Gorney, D. S. and Altovskii, R. M., Fiz. Metal. Metalloved., 30(1), 85,1970. 205. Rosolowski, J. H.,Phys. Rev., 124(6), 1828, 1961. 206. Ghate, P. B.,Phys. Rev., 130(1), 174, 1963. 207. Batra, A. P. and Huntington, H. B,,Phys. Rev., 145, 542,1966. 208. Batra, A. P. and Huntington, H. B,,Phys. Rev., 154(3), 569,1967. 209. Warford, J. S. and Huntington, M. B.,Phys. Rev., B-l(4), 1867,1970. 210. Peterson, N. L. and Rothman, S. J ,,Phys. Rev., 163(3), 645,1967.

144

H a n d b o o k o f M a te r ia ls S c ie n c e

Table 2 - 1 9 (continued) RADIOACTIVE TRACER DIFFUSION DATA FOR PURE METALS 211. 212. 213. 214. 215. 216. 217. 218. 219. 220. 221. 222. 223. 224. 225. 226. 227. 228.

Agarwala, R. P., Murarka, S. P., and Anand, M. S., Trans. Met. Soc. AIME, 233, 986,1965. Blinkin, A. M. and Vorobiov, V. V., Ukr. Fiz. Zh., 9(1), 91,1964. Agarwala, R. P. and Paul, A. R., Proceedings, Nuclear Radiation Chemistry Symposium, Poona, India, 1967, p. 542. Gruzin, P. L., Emelyanov, V. S., Ryabova, G. G., and Federov, G. B., Proceedings, 2nd International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Vol. 19, 1958, 187. Borisov, Y. V., Godin, Y. G., Gruzin, P. L., Evstyukhin, A. I., and Yemelyanov, V. S., Met. Metal. Izdatel. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. Moscow , 1958; English translation NP-TR-448, p. 196, 1960. Flubacher, P., E. I. R. Ber., 49, 1963. Andriyevskii, R. A., Zagraykin, V. N. and Meshcheryakov, G, Ya., Fys. Metal. Metalloved., 19(3), 146, 1966. Agarwala, R. P. and Paul, A. R., Report CONF-670335, International Conference on Vacancies and Interstitials in Metals, Julich, Germany, Vol. 1, p. 105,1968; Report BARC-377,1968. Kidson, G. V. and Young, G. J ..Philos. Mag., 20(167), 1047, 1969. Federov, G. B., Smirnov, E. A., and Novikov, S. M .,Met. Metalloved. Chistykh. Metal., 8 ,4 1 , 1969. Vandychev, B. A. and Pavoc, A. S., Izv. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. Metal., 2 ,2 3 1 , 1970. Federov, G. B., Smirnov. E. A., and Zhomov. F. l.,M et. Metalloved. Chistykh. M etal, 7, 116, 1968. Pavlinov. L. V .,Fiz. Metal. Metalloved., 24(2), 272, 1967. Gilder, H. M. and Lazarus, D ,,/. Phys. Chemi Solids, 26, 2081,1965. Kidson, G. V. and McGum, J., Can. J. Phys., 39(8), 1146, 1961. Pawel, R. E. and Lundy, T. S., J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 26,937, 1965. Rothman, S. J., Lloyd, L. T., and Harkness, A. L., Trans, Met. Soc. AIME, 218(4), 605,1960. Federov, G. B., Smirnov, E. A., and Gusev, V. N,,A t. Energ., 27(2), 149, 1969.

Table 2 - 2 0 DIFFUSION OF METALS INTO METALS Diffusing m etal Ag

Metal diffused into A1

Pb

Sn A1

Cu

As

Si

Au

Ag

T em perature (°C)

D (cm 2 /hr)

466 500 573 220 250 285 500

6.84-8.1 X 10-7 7.2-3.96 X 10-* 1.26 X 10 s 5.40 X 10' 5 1.08 X 10~4 3.29 X 1 0 '4 1.73 X 10“

500 850

6.12 X 10“9 7.92 X 10“ 0 32"8 , >000/ r

456 491 585 601 624 717 729 767 847 858 861 874 916 1040

t

1.76 X 1 0 '9 0.92-2.38 X 103.6 X 10 -* 3.96 X 10“ 2.5-5 X 10-“ 1.04-2.25 X 10H 1.76 X 10“ 1.15 X 10“ 2.30 X 10“ 3.63 X 10-8 3.92 X 1 0 '8 3.92 X 1 0 '8 5.40 X 10“ 1.17 X 10“

145 Table 2 —20 (continued) DIFFUSION OF METALS INTO METALS Diffusing metal

Metal diffused into

Temperature (°C)

D (cm2 /hr)

Au (cont.)

Au Bi Cu Hg Pb

Si Sn B

Si

Ba

Hg

Bi

Si Pb

C

W Fe

Ca

Hg

Cd

Ag Hg

Pb

1120 1189 800 900 1020 500 970 11 100 150 200 240 300 500 500

2.29 X 1 0 ’ 5 5.42 X 10** 1.17 X 1 0 ‘ * 9 X 10'* 5.4 X 1 0 '7 1.88 X 10'* 5.04 X 10-* 3 X 1 0 -J 8.28 X 1 0 -‘ 1.80 X 1 0 ‘4 3.10 X 1 0 '4 1.58 X 10"3 5.40 X l O '3 1.33 X 1 0 -’ 0 . 0 0 1 1"* 5,3 ° ° / RT 1.94 X 1 0 -‘ 10 ^-8

7.8 220 250 285 1700 930 10.2

5 ,0

0 0 /RT

2.17 X 1 0 ‘ 3 1 0 3 0 " '0 7.« 0 ®/RT 1.73 X 1 0 '7 1.33 X 1 0 -‘ 1.58 X 1 0 ’* 1.87 X 10'* 7 .5 1 -9 .1 8 X 1 0 ‘* 2.25 X 1 0 - J

650 800 900 8.7 15 20 99.1 200 252

9.36 4.68 2.23 6.05 6.51 5.47 1.23 4.59 3.10

1.66 X 1 0 '7

Cd, 1 atom %

Pb

167

Ce Cs

W Hg W

1727 7.3 27 227 427 540

Cu

A1

440 457 540

3.42 1.88 4.32 5.40 2.88 1.44

X X X X X X X X X

l O '7 10 10‘ ! 10 '* 1 0 ‘3 10' 3 1 0 '1 1 0 '7 1 0 ‘‘

X X X X X

10 l O '3 l O '3 10' 4 1 0 -3 X lO "'

1.8 X lO ’ 7 2.88 X 10*7 5.04 X 10

146

H a n d b o o k o f M aterials S cien ce

Table 2—20 (continued) DIFFUSION OF METALS INTO METALS Diffusing metal

Metal diffused into

Temperature »_

A b = a to m ic b e a m m a g n e tic r e s o n a n c e ( h y p e rfin e s tr u c tu r e , d o u b le o r trip le re s o n a n c e o r o t h e r m e th o d )

°

1 .6 9 0 - 0 .8 5 4 4 9 3 .6 3 8 5

2 .2 1 6 1

2 .0 9 3 - 1 .8 8 6 -0 .6 6 1 4 0 2 .3 8 6 1 1 .7 4 6

2 .6 2 7 2 7

0 .7 1 9 - 1 .8 9 3 0 4 .7 2 0

- 0 .2 8 2 9 8

0 .4 0 3 4 7

0 .7 0 2 1 9 9 ( - ) 0 .3 2 2

2 .6 8 8 0

1 .8 0 0 7

- 1 .1 7 7 4

1 .6 5 3

0 .8 2 1 9 2 3 .2 5 6 0

- 2 .1 2 7 4

2 .9 7 8 7 7

2 .7 9 2 6 8 0 .8 5 7 3 8 7

- 1 .9 1 3 1 5

34 13 35

17

27 28 29 30 31

20 21 23 24 26 17 21

19 20 21

13 15 17 18

11 12

6 7 8 8

3 5

2

l

§5

a

0

Magnetic Moment u

S

N Ab N N N N Ab Ab Ab Ab N Ab N N 0.149

0 . 1 4 - 0 .1 5

-

- 2 .6 x 1 0 “ *



-

1.6x10"*



7 .4 X 1 0 “ * 3 .5 5 X 1 0 “ * —

N N N

Ab N

5 .2 x 1 0 “ *

6 .9 x l0 “ 4 -3 X 1 0 “ *

-

2 .7 3 X 1 0 “ * —



___

N

N N Ab

Ab N N N N

I

36

33

32

25

16 16

14

9 10

4

1

g

s

Electric Quadrupole Moment Q

Ab

O

M

Me

Ab Ab Ab

O

N

Ab

2

■8

E = e le c tro n s p in re s o n a n c e o r e le c tro n - n u c le a r d o u b le re s o n a n c e M = m ic ro w a v e a b s o rp tio n in g a ses

In multiple! the nuclear magneton (eh/4xM c)

( ) — a s s u m e d o r e s tim a te d v a lu e s

Q = q u a d ru p o le m o m e n t in u n its o f b a r n s (10“ *4 cm*) Z = a to m ic n u m b e r * = ra d io a c tiv e iso to p e • = m ag rm tic m o m e n t o b s e rv e d b y

23 23 23 24 25 25 25

20 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22

20

19 19 19 19

19

19

17 17 18

16 16 17

15

14 15

Z

•C a •C a Sc Sc Sc •Sc Sc Sc Ti •Ti •Ti V •V •V •C r Mn Mn Mn

K

•K K •K K

At K

S •C l •C l •C l

•s

•Si •p p

El

Isotope A

45 46* 47* 45* 47 49 49* 50 51 53 52* 52m 53*

44m

43 43* 44*

43* 41*

40* 41 42*

39

37* 38*

36* 37

33 35* 35

31 32*

29

I

1/2 1/2 1 3/2 3/2 3/2 2 3/2 3/2 3 3/2 4 3/2 2 3/2 7/2 7/2 7/2 2 6 7/2 4 7/2 7/2 5/2 7/2 7/2 6 7/2 3/2 6 2 7/2

1

* •?

2 .8 6 4 6 1 0 .0 4 9 .7 6 5 .0 3 1 0 .3 4 3 5 .7 7 1 1 .6 0 .2 0 7 2 .4 0 0 0 2 .4 0 0 5 9 .7 1 4 .2 4 5 0 1 1 .1 9 2 .4 0 6 5 3 .9 0 7 0 .0 3 0 1 1 .0

3 .4 6 8 1

2 .4 7 0 1 .0 9 0 5 4 .3 4 5 0 .8 2 8

1 .9 8 6 8

5 .0 8 3 .4 9 1

4 .8 9 3 1 3 .4 7 2

1 .9 2 3 3 .2 6 5 4 5 .0 8 4 .1 7 1 7

8 .4 5 7 8 1 7 .2 3 5

S s .S z . s a

§

0> >0_



— —

0.24 99.76 9.55



7.28 5.51



_

100

— —

0.145

_



6.88

1 .1 8 x 1 0 “ *

93.10





24.47



75.53

0.76




a

I

I n m u ltip le s o f b a rn s (10**cm *) - 0 .2 0 .12 1.1 0.3

111

108 109 109

105



- 0 .1 6



101 104

101

0.13 0 .2

0.27

0 .9 0.27 0.33 0.2 0 0 .76 0.28 (+ )0 .7 6 0.15 0.25





40 92 93 94 94 93 95 97 98

88 89

- 0 .2 0.3

0.178 0.112 0.72

3 .1 x 1 0 *

O N N O

Ab

Ab E

Ab

M Ab Ab Ab Ab Ab Ab O O

M M

O O Ab Ab Ab Ab

83 83 84 85 85 86

-2 .4 x 1 0 *

0.15

E

E

Ab

M

82

82

78

72

1 o> 2

- 0 .1 5

- 0 .1 6

0.4 0

0.55

£

i

Ag •A g

47 *7

H 4m 115* 1152. 116* 116 m 115 117 119 121 122* 123 119* 123 125 125* 127 129* 131* 129 131 127* 129* 130* 131* 132* 133 134*

Sb •S b Te •T e •T e 1 •I •I I •X e •X e Cs Cs Cs Cs Cs •C s Cs Cs

51 51 52 52 52 53 53 53 53 54 54 55 55 55

55

55

55

55

55

113 m 115*

1 34m

1 13m

113

1152a

Cd Cd Cd •In In In •In In In In •S n •S n •S n •S b

48 48 48 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 50 50 50 51

111 113

•C d

•C d

111* 112* 113* 107* 109*

110m

109

48

48

c l Cd

Ag Ag Ag

107

•A g

47

47 47 47 47 48 48

105 104* 10C 105*

•P d Ag Ag Ag

46 47 47 47

108*

103

A

•R h

El

Is o to p e

45

Z

S p in I 1 /2

4 8

7 /2

7 /2 1 /2 1 /2 1 /2 5 /2 5 /2 7 /2 7 /2 1 /2 3 /2 1 /2 1 /2 1 5 /2 2

2

9 /2 1 /2 5 9 /2 1 /2 5 5 1 /2 1 /2 1 /2 5 /2

1 1 /2

1 1 /2

1 /2

1 /2

6 1 /2 2 1 /2 5 /2 5 /2

1 /2

1

1 /2

5 /2 5 2 1 /2

1 /2

i

.

5 .6 6 6 1.0447

5.58469

5.5176 4 .12 11.16 13.45 9 .0 8.5183 5.6694 5.963 11.777 3.4911 21.8 22.4 10.7 10.72 8.46

7.24

1.51 9 .862 1.447 9.3099 3.209 7.2 9.3301 3.715 6 .4 2 6 .7 13.922 15.168 15.869 10.189

9.445

9.028

4.557 2.21 0.2077 2.41 1.879 2.529

1.9807

32.0

1.7229

1.95 6 .1 1 4 .0 1.54

1.3401

§ !

^421

£>O a







100



— —





26.44 21.18





100

—■

0 .8 7 6.99

42.75

-

0.35 7.61 8 .5 8 57.25

— — —

95.72

— —

4.28

— —



12.26

12.75

— —

— — —



48.18



51.82



— —

22.23

100

i l la J ! i s

0.345

0.116

6 .2 8 X 1 0 * 1 .4 2 X 1 0 *

4 .7 4 x 1 0 *

6 .2 8 x 1 0 *

0.1 8 6

4 .2 0 X 1 0 *

0.134 0 .1 4 6

9 .3 4 x 1 0 * 4 .9 6 x 1 0 * 5 .7 7 x 1 0 * 2 .1 2 X 1 0 * 2 .7 6 X 1 0 *

4 .5 7 X 1 0 * 9 .0 4 x 1 0 “* 1 .8 X 1 0 * 3 .1 5 x 1 0 *

3 .9 4 X 1 0 *

0 .1 6 0

3 .5 0 x 1 0 * 4 .5 2 x 1 0 * 5 .1 8 X 1 0 *

0.137 0.1 5 6

6 .6 4 x 1 0 “ *

0.191 0.3 4 7

4 .2 8 X 1 0 *

2 .1 3 X 1 0 * 1 .2 4 X 1 0 * 1 .8 7 x 1 0 *

1 .0 9 x 1 0 *

9 .5 4 X 1 0 *

6 .8 7 x 1 0 * 1.40X10“* 9 .0 0 X 1 0 * 1.81X10“ * 1 .0 0 X 1 0 * 2 .4 4 X 1 0 *

1 .0 1 X 1 0 *

1.13

6 .6 2 x 1 0 *

4 .7 3 X 1 0 *

0.118 0.291

1 .1 2 x 1 0 *

3 .1 1 x 1 0 *

3

L

R e la tiv e S e n s itiv ity fo r

2.72

3.55 2.36

2.75

0.262 0.316 2.51 2.33 2.8 0 2.94 0.277 0.410 0.512 0.526 0.668 2.94 1.59

9 .6 7 x 1 0 *

1.36

6 .03 6 .3 0 0.327 0.3 5 6 0.373 2.79

8 .7 3 x 1 0 *

6.73 7.23

7 .5 4 x 1 0 *

1.69 0.232 1.62 7.22

0.222

0.212

0.515 0.693

5.99

5 .1 9 X 1 0 * 3 .9 0 x 1 0 * 5 .8 6 x 1 0 *

4 .8 5 X 1 0 *

2.01

4 .0 5 X 1 0 *

3 .6 2 x 1 0 *

0.534 5.73 2.6 5

3 .1 5 x 1 0 *

At c o n s ta n t f re q u e n c y

E le c tr ic Q u a d ru p o le O

4.4

2.22

2.973 1.0964

2 .56422

2 .5 3 3 4 0 .2 7 - 0 .7 3 1 9 - 0 .8 8 2 4 3 2.7937 2.6031 2 .738 -0 .7 7 2 4 7 0 .6 8 6 9 7 1.43 1.47 1.4 3.517

- 1 .9 0

-0 .9 1 3 2 0 -0 .9 9 4 9 0 -1 .0 4 0 9 3 .3415

- 1 .0 9 -0 .6 4 6 9 - 1 .0 4 4 5 .4 9 6 0 - 0 .2 1 0 5 4.7 5 .5079 - 0 .2 4 3 7 4.21

- 0 .6 1 9 5

-0 .5 9 2 2

3.587 - 0 .1 4 5 0 .0545 0 .158 -0 .6 1 6 2 -0 .8 2 9 3

-0 .1 2 9 9 2

4.2

-0 .1 1 3 0 1

- 0 .6 3 9 4 .0 3 .7 0.101

- 0 .0 8 7 9 0

43

m

148 150

8

138 139 139 141 142 142 144 144 144 145 144

37 37

137

45

128 129 130 131 132 129 125 125 125 133 135 136

45

118 120 121 122 122 123 124 125 126 125 126 239 127 127

47

118 119

47

114 115 116 116 117

I

I

M a g n e tic M om ent

I n m u lt ip l e t h e n u c le a r m a g n e to n ( e h /4 irM c )

Table 2—38 (continued) NUCLEAR SPINS, MOMENTS, AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE FREQUENCIES

M e th o d Ab Ab

N

N Ab N N M N N Ab N N Ab Ab Ab Ab Ab

No

O O 0 N Ab Ab N Ab Ab Ab N N N N

N

N

Ab Ab Ab Ab O O

N

Ab

N

N Ab Ab Ab

N



0.43

-3 X 1 0 *

— —



- 0 .1 2

- 0 .6 6 - 0 .6 9 - 0 .4 8 -0 .4 1

— —

- 0 .7

- 0 .5

— —

— .



1.16





-0 .6 1 1.14

-0 .7 8

-

-

0.8 0.8







-



-

146 147 149

143

138 134 140 141

134

134

97

97

127

239

123 124

1 £

E le c tr ic Q u a d ru p o le M om ent Q I n m u lt ip l e o f b a rn s (10“ **cm*)

O

Ab

0

%

M O

O

O

Ab

0 Ab

0

O O

2

|

V V© ©

141

143*

144*

•P r

Pr Nd Nd Nd

Pm

57 57 58 58 58 58 58

59

59 60 60 60

61

•G d

•G d

Tb Tb Tb Dy Dy Dy Dy Ho Er Er Er Er Tm

•T m

Tm Tm

•Y b

65 65 65 66 66 66 66 67 68 68 68 68 69

69

69 69

70

Eu

63

64

•E u

63

64

Pm

Pm Pm Pm Pm Pm Sm Sm •E u Eu

61

61 61 61 61 61 62 62 63 63

3.8 9.66 4.1 1.1 1.6 1.4 2.0 8.73 2.0 1.23 7.8 2.1 0.19

3/2

3 3/2 3

1/2

170* 171*

171

5/2 5/2 7/2 5/2 7/2 1/2 5/2 2

1/2 1 1/2

169

156* 159 160* 155* 157* 161 163 165 165* 167 169* 171* 166*

(3/2) (3/2)

1.6

2.0

3/2

7.4990

2.0 3.46

3.52

4.6627

157

154*

153

149* 151* 147 149 151 152*

148m

147* 148*

155

11.6 8.5 2.6 2.3 5.62 16 2.3 7.2 5.5 1.76 1.40 10.559 4.858

5.084

(5/2) (7/2)

5.6171 5* 7/2 6.0144 3/2 4.6 11/2 0.96 3/2 5.1 2.1 7/2 2.2 7/2 5/2 12.5 2 1.1 2:315 7/2 7/2 1.42 5/2 1.77

4.7315

4.2296

3/2

3/2

5.9096 6.1459

7/2 7/2

’3. tw

H-4

(5) (6) 7/2 1 6 7/2 5/2 7/2 7/2 5/2 3 5/2 3

142* 143 145 147*

138 139 137* 137m 139* 141* 143*

•L a •L a

56

Ce Ce Ce Ce Ce

135

137

•B a

•B a

56

135* 137*

Cs Cs

55 55

A

El

z

Is o to p e

N M R F req in M H z for k ilo g a u ss fit

_

^

— — 18.88 24.97 100 — 22.94 — — — 100 — — 14.31



15.68 _ 100

14.73

— — — — — 14.97 13.83 47.82 — 52.18 —

-



0.089 99.911 — — — — — 100 _ 12.17 8.30

11.32

6.50



5.46x10“*

2.69X10“* 5.37x10“*

5.66x10“*

1.18x10“* 5.07X10“* 6.09x10“* 1.47x10“* 7.17X10-7

0.181

1.15x10“* 5.83x10“* 1.39x10“* 7.87X10“* 2.79X10“* 4.17x10“* 1.12x10“*

5.44x10“*

2.79x10“*

2.72X10“*

1.53X10“*

2.38x10“*

0.178

2.50x10“* 1.48x10“* 7.47x10“*

0.101

8.68X10“*

0.142

9.02x10“* 8.68x10“* 4.83X10“*

0.235 0.167

1.55x10“* 3.38X10“* 7.86x10“* 8.32X10“*

0.293

9.19x10“* 5.92x10“* 6.20x10“* 5.40x10“* 8.50x10“* 2.57X10"* 2.81X10“*

6.86x10“*

4.90x10“*

5.62x10“* 6.32x10“*

a 3

At cons field

05 H

156 158

0 .9 7

0.176

8.13X10“*

0.124

8.27x10“*

3.58x10“*

16 3

0 .5 7 9 ( 3 .8 ) ( 3 .9 )

158 158 158 166 162 179 18 0 181 182

- 0 .4 6 0 .6 4 4 .0 1 0 .6 5

0 .4 9 1 8 8

0 .2 6 0 .2 2 7

- 0 .2 3 1

0 .7 0 0 .0 5

- 0 .5 6 5 0 .5 1

183 180 184 185

160

178

0 .3 2

1 .5 1 .9 0

-0 .4 0

1.6 0.21

173 174

17 2 158

158 169 171 169

163 167 168

166 163

165

173 174 175 158 17 7 178

-0 .3 2

- 0 .6 4 3 3 .4 6 3 0 1 .9 1 2

- 0 .8 0 7

1.8

3 .3

2.1 1.8

( 1 .8 ) 2 .5 8

164

15 8

-1 .0 6 3 - 0 .6 5 4

( 1 .7 )

161 16 2 162

2.001

0 .3 0

4 .0 9

1.0 15 6 159 160

156 157

1.0

154 107

3 .6 8 4 4 2 .7 6 1 5 0 .9 0 .6 9

1.91

0.191

148 14 8 151 152

S,

151 152

$

1

0 .9 3 1 0 7

0 .8 3 2 2 9

2 .8 2 1 9

2 .7 1 3 4

_ ® «

1 .5 2 9 2

0.239 1.43 1.13 1.53 0.125 0.191 0.384 0.535 4.31 0.543 0.607 0.183 0.585

^

i l l s

0.215 1.14 0.703 0.484 3.17 4.19 2.43 3.01 2.77 1.00 3.01 3.54 1.50 0.867 0.691 2.89 1.83 1.28

0.556 5.28 2.97 0.537 1.07 0.597 1.04 1.07 3.42

0.497

2.91 3.03

-is *

II

o>> s

JS

No

E

N N No No No

N

N

Ab Ab

0

Ab Ab

Ab

No E No No No E E Ab Ab Ab Ab Ab Ab

0

0

E

Ab

0 Ab No No Ab Ab Ab Ab Ab

No

No

Ab Ab Ab E

0

M a g n e tic M om ent a 5 ^

k

-

0.61 —

4.6



1.4 1.6 2.82 2.2 2.83

1.4 1.3 1.9

2

1.6

2.9

1.16

- 0 .2 0 8 6 .0 x 1 0 “ *

1.9

0.7 0.2

- 0 .4 8 - 0 .2 5

4x10“ *

- 5 .9 X 1 0 “ *

2.7 0.21

0.2

0.25

k

‘S a s i s *

*S

183

181

158 158 15 8 166 162

175 176 17 7

173

173

J70

167 158 158 170

165 166

161 162 162

158

15 5

154

153

15 3

3

8 S

§

E le c tr ic Q u a d ru p o le M om ent Q

0

No

Ab

Ab

E E Ab Ab Ab

No

O

0

0

0

Ab Ab Ab 0

0 Ab

Ab Ab Ab

Ab

Ab

N

0

1 a> S

83

83 83 83

81 31 81 81 82

203* 204* 205* 206*

205 20 7

20 3 204*

200* 201* 202*

199 *

Hg T1 T1 T1 T1 Tl •T 1 Tl • T l•P b Bi Bi Bi Bi 81 81

201 203* 197*

•H g 80 81 81

199 80

•H g

195m 197 *

Hg Hg

80 80 80

195*

Hg

80

193 * 193m

198 * 199*

197

195* 196*

195 190 * 194 *

193

191

188* 187 189

187*

186*

185

181 183

80

•A u

•P t Au Au Au Au

•Ir

177 17 9

Au Au Hg Hg

79 79 80

79

79 79

79

78 79

77

•Ir

•O s •O s

76 76 77

Re

•R e

Re

•R e

75

75

75

75

•w

Hf •T a

73 74

Hf

72 72

17 5 176* 177*

175*

Yb •L u Lu Lu

70 71 71 71

173

A

Yb

El

70

Z

I s o to p e

5 /2 1 /2 1 /2 2 1 /2 2 1 /2 2 1 /2 1 /2 9 /2 6 9 /2 6

3 /2

1 /2

1 /2

1 3 /2

1 /2

1 3 /2

2 3 /2 3 /2

3 /2

1 /2 1 1 3 /2 2

3 /2

3 /2

1 1 /2 3 /2

5 /2

1 .5 3 X 1 0 “ *

7 .7 8 5 .4 0 9 .3 5 .7 9

2 4 .5 7 0 8 .9 0 7 7 1

0 .5 7 2 4 .1 0 .5 7 2 4 .3 3 2 0 .3 4

2 3 .9

2 .5 2 3 .6

2 .8 0 9 9

7 .5 9 0 1 2



— —

70.5 0 22.6



29.50

— — —

— — —

13.22

16.84

0.201 0.114 0.3 4 6 0.141

9 .1 6 x 1 0 “ *

0.192

4 .0 5 X 1 0 “ *

0.1 8 7

1 .9 4 X 1 0 “ *

0.181

0.171 0 .178

1 .9 4 x 1 0 “ *

2 .4 5 X 1 0 “ *

1 .4 4 x 1 0 “ *

5 .6 7 x 1 0 “ *

6 .4 6 x 1 0 “ *

— —

1.22 7 .9

6 .8 4 x 1 0 “ * -

8.1

1 .1 4 X 1 0 “ * 1 .6 2 x 1 0 “ * 1 .9 3 x 1 0 “ * 1 .5 7 x 1 0 “ *

2 .5 1 X 1 0 “ *

2 .6 5 x 1 0 “ * 1 .2 4 x 1 0 “ *

0.577 0.209 6.03 7.10 7.22 7.62

6 .3 7 x 1 0 “ *

0.693 0.555 0.562 0.107 0.566 0.107 0.571

0.3 3 0

0.178

1.86 0.186

0.1 9 0

0.418 0 .1 6 0 0.364 1.88

8 .5 6 x 1 0 “ *

0.430

8 .7 1 x 1 0 “ *

0.215 3 .1 0 x 1 0 “ * 3 .4 9 x 1 0 “ *

9 .9 4 x 1 0 “ *

9 .3 6 x 1 0 “*

8 .5 9 x 1 0 “ *

0.388

2 .3 0 x 1 0 “ *

0.848

2.65

0.825

2.63

4 .2 0 X 1 0 “ * 5 .9 5 X 1 0 “ *

3 .2 7 x 1 0 “ *

2 .5 3 x 1 0 “ *

8 .5 9 X 1 0 “ * 1.2 2 x 1 0 “ * 2 .3 4 x 1 0 “ *

0.137

7 .9 0 x 1 0 “ *

0.133

4 .1 6 x 1 0 “ *

7 .2 0 x 1 0 “ *

0.655

1 .6 1 1 6 0 .5 8 4 2 8 4 4 .5 9 4 .2 5 ( 5 .5 ) 4 .5 6

219 219

1 .5 8 v( 0 .1 5 ) 1 .5 9 6 0 0 .0 8 9

22 3 223 223 22 3

220 221 8 222

217 218 219 219

215

214

21 3 45

209

212

210 211

208 209

207 207

205

201

204

204

203 204

45

200 201 200 201

198 199

197

13

197

13

19 6

193 194

18 8 190 191 192

184 185 187

3

£

3 3

0 .8 3 1 .5 5 1 .5 7 ( 0 .1 5 )

- 0 .5 5 2 9 3

0 .4 9 7 8 5 9

-1 .0 4 0 .5 2

0 .5 3

- 1 .0 5

0 .2 6 7 3 - 0 .6 1

0 .5 8 4 2

0 .1 4 3 4 8 9

0 .1 4 6

0.6

0 .0 6 5 0 .0 7 3

0 .6 0 0 4

0 .1 5 6 8

0 .1 4 4 0

0 .6 5 0 0 4

1 .7 7 7 0 .0 6 4 3 2

3 .1 7 5 9

1 .7 2 8

3 .1 4 3 7

2 .3 4 0 0 .1 1 6 2 0 5

- 0 .4 7

0 .6 1

2.22

-0 .1 5

0.161 2.40 5.92 2.38 2 .2 3 3 .1

- 0 .6 7 7 5 5

0.617 2.51





— —

100



— — —

33.8

62.7

37.3

1.64 16.1

62.93 __



37.07

«

M a g n e tic M om ent u

0 .5 6 6

2 .1 6 X 1 0 “ * 3 .6 0 x 1 0 “ *

6 .3 8 x 1 0 “ *

3 .1 2 x 1 0 “ * 3 .7 2 X 1 0 “ * 3 .0 8 x 1 0 “ *

9 .4 0 x 1 0 “ *

1 .3 3 X 1 0 “ *

+» g ?

"S

R e la tiv e S e n s itiv ity fo r EViiial M nmKeii rtf \Jiiolai

3 .1 1 .2 3

2 .2 2 7 1 .3 5 8

0 .7 2 9 1 8 8

2 .3

0 .5 6 0 .7 4 2

9 .1 5 3 0 .4 9 6

0 .7 9 6 8

0 .7 3 1 8

0 .9 8 0 5 9 3 .3 0 3 4

1 3 .5 5

9 .6 8 3 7

1 3 .1 7

9 .5 8 5 5

5 /2

13.75 99.988 14.40

18.50



1.3

97.41 2.59

16.13

4 .8 4

0 .8 0 5 .0 9 6 1 .7 7 1 6

1

£

0 .3 3 4 .8 6 3 .4

2 .0 6 5 9

z .s a

SSl ^

9 /2 7 /2 1 /2

7 /2

7 /2 7 7 /2

(7 /2 )

5 /2

s

a

£42

o © a . s - 9 N a tu ra l A bundance

R e la tiv e S ensi t iv i t y for E qual N um ber o f N u c le i At c o n s ta n t fre q u e n c y

o ©

N a tu ra l A bundance

Table 2—38 (continued) NUCLEAR SPINS, MOMENTS, AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE FREQUENCIES

I n m u ltip le t h e n u c le a r m a g n e to n ( e h /4 irM c )

N Ab N N Ab Ab Ab Ab

O

0 0

O

0 0

0

No

0 0

0

Ab Ab 0 0

Ab

N Ab Ab Ab Ab

N

N

Ab N N

N

Ab

223 223

- 0 .1 9

223

217

216

209

209

206

202

202

19 5

97 241

97 241

19 3 193 195

18 9 19 0 191 19 2

186

Cr(NOa), Co(NO,)a

W

Bala

A

W

SbaSa

W

B i(-),

Ba(OH)a Bi(OH)a

W

Ba(—)2

W

BaF2

w

w

BiFa

W

Cd2( - )

w

W

Baa 1 1 0 0

503 586 730

dec.

3

Solid, a. Solid, j3 Liquid Gas Solid Liquid Solid

Solid

Au 2 0

As2 O s

A s0

As 2 0

A m 02

(2225) (3400) dec.

Solid Liquid Solid

Am 2 0

3

2300 dec.

Solid Liquid

a i20 3

(2250)

dec. 460 dec.

Solid Liquid

Solid Solid

3

Phase

Ag20 Ag2 0 2

Ac 2 0

Oxide

Temperature of transition (K)

(5.2) (2 0 ) 13.8 (62) (5.7) -

5.27 (55)

-

4.1 4.4 7.15 (9.0) -

(17) (85) -

-

-

(5.9) (19) 6.28 (2 1 ) (7.9) -

7.29 (22 )

8 .2

7.5 9.79 (7.5) -

(7.6) (25) -

11

-

-

_

_ 26

(8.9) -

Entropy o f transition (e.u.)

(2 0 ) -

Heat o f transition (kcal/mole)

16.8 (18.5) -

-

(23.5)

12.91 -

30

25.6 (13) 25.2

(37) (2 0 )

12.186 -

29.09 (20.4)

(36.5) -

Entropy at 298 K (e.u.)

( 2 0 .0 ) (2 2 ) (15) 12.74 (13.9) (13.6) (2 1 )

8.73 30.50

(23.5)

8.37 8.37 (39) (21.5) (8.5) (2 1 ) (31.1)

( 2 0 .0 ) (38.5) (14.0)

26.12 (33)

13.26 (16.4)

( 2 0 .0 ) (40)

a (cal/g mole)

( 2 .2 ) 1.040 ( 2 .0 ) -

25.40 -

(4.8)

48.6 48.6 (9.4) (16.4)

(15.6) ( 6 .8 )

4.388 -

7.04 ( 1 2 .2 )

(20.4) -

b (cal/g mole)

_

-

_

-

_

-

-

-

_

-

_

-

_

-

_

-1.984 -

_

-1.31 -

-

(-5.4)

-

_

-

_

-7.269 -

-

_

-

_ -

d (cal/g mole)

c (cal/g mole)

For description of headings and symbols see Table 2—23.

Table 3 - 7 THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF THE OXIDES

(6.061) (1.769) (-25.51) 4.510 (-9.341) (4.144) (3.241)

4.171 7.822

(7.220)

4.656 0.556 (5.760) (-14.164) (2.952) (2.184) (11.813)

(6.657) (-7.796) (4.477)

10.422 (-11.655)

4.266 (5.432)

(6.870) (-19.767)

A (kcal/mole)

(91.1) (96.8) (29.0) 57.2 (57.5) (59.6) (99.0)

45.04 161.59

(105.3)

36.6 28.4 (187.6) (62.5) (38.2) (108.0) (159.9)

(81.6) (181.8) (61.8)

142.03 (174.1)

48.56 (76.7)

(80.9) (180.5)

B (e.u.)

1960 (3 5 0 0 ) 3000

2078 (2 9 0 0 ) dec. 124 0

Solid Liquid Solid

S olid Liquid Solid

C e2 0 3

CoO

Solid Liquid S olid Liquid

C s20

Cs2 0 2

Solid S olid Solid Liquid Gas

Cr20 3 C r02 C r03

C o 30 4

763 dec. 867 dec.

2538 dec. 7 00 460 (1 0 0 0 )

dec.

Solid

CdO

C e02

2860

Solid

CaO

-

-

Gas Gas

_

-

co2

CO

1090 (d ec.)

(1 1 7 5 ) (1 9 2 0 )

Solid Liquid Gas S olid Liquid

BiO

B i2 0 3

dec.

Solid

Phase

BeO

O xide

Tem perature o f transition (°K )

(4 0 ) -

(6 .3 ) -

(5 .5 ) -

-

(2 3 )

-

(6 .0 )

-

(4 .5 8 )

-

-

(1 3 ) (2 5 )

(6 .1 ) (2 5 ) -

19.4 (1 1 .5 ) (1 7 .5 )

(3 5 .5 )

-

10.5

17.7

-

(3 3 .5 )

13.1

9.5

4 7 .3 0 5 1 .0 6

-

3 6 .2

-

(1 5 )

3 .3 7

Entropy at 29 8 ° K (e.u .)

-

-

(1 0 )

(2 5 )

-

-

(5 .8 ) (2 1 )

-

(1 2 ) (6 1 )

(2 3 ) (6 .3 )

GO)

-

(2 0 ) (8 0 ) (1 9 )

(6 .3 )

-

-

(1 8 )

-

_

-

-

6 .2

6 .8

-

(3 .1 ) (2 8 )

-

E ntropy o f transition (e .u .)

(3 .7 ) (5 4 )

-

H eat o f transition (k ca l/m o le)

(1 6 .5 ) (2 2 ) (2 1 .4 ) (2 9 .5 )

(1 1 .4 ) -

-

(5 .4 )

-

-

2 .2 0 (3 .0 ) (4 .0 )

(2 .2 ) (1 7 .0 )

(9 .8 ) (1 5 .5 ) (2 9 .5 ) 2 8 .5 3 (1 6 .1 ) (1 8 .1 ) (2 7 ) (2 0 )

2.5

-

(9 .0 )

_

-

-

-

-



-

- 3 .7 3 6 ( - 3 .0 ) ( - 2 .0 ) -



_

-

-

_

-

-

_

-

-



-

_

-

-

2 .0 8

- 1 .0 8

-

-

_

4 .8 4

_

-

-



- 3 .1 3

d (ca l/g m o le)

- 0 .8 3

-



-

c (cal/g m o le)

1.2 5.3

-

11 .0 5

(-23.0) (3 7 ) 15.0

9 .6 5

1 0 .0 0

6 .6 0 7 .7 0

(3 .0 )

(9 .7 ) (1 4 ) (8 .9 ) 2 3 .2 7 (3 5 .7 )

-

3.6 5

b (ca l/g m o le)

8 .6 9

a (cal/g m o le)

Table 3—7 (continued) THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF THE OXIDES

- 9 .3 4 - 5 .6 4

2 .021 2 .4 9 0

14 5 .9 (8 2 .8 ) (8 7 .9 ) (1 2 7 .0 ) (5 3 .6 ) (7 2 .6 ) (9 9 .0 ) (8 5 .3 ) (1 2 3 .8 )

(5 .1 6 0 ) (3 .2 0 5 ) (6 .8 8 7 ) (4 .1 2 5 )

(4 6 .0 ) (7 9 .2 ) (1 3 7 .6 )

(1 0 0 .2 ) (1 7 8 .5 ) 6 8 .5

4 2 .5

9 .8 5 7 (5 .9 4 6 ) (6 .2 4 5 ) (3 .3 8 1 ) ( - 2 8 .6 2 )

( 3 .0 2 0 ) ( - 1 .8 8 6 ) (9 .5 5 1 )

( 7 .2 5 8 ) . ( - 2 .5 9 1 ) 4 .5 7 9

2 .9 7 0

4 9 .5

(4 1 .2 ) (6 4 .9 ) ( - 1 .8 ) 9 9 .7 (1 6 8 .3 ) (3 .0 2 5 ) (2 .3 0 6 ) ( - 6 1 .4 9 ) 7 .4 2 9 (7 .6 1 4 )

3 .5 5 9

4 8 .9 9

B (e.u .)

3 .8 0 3

A (k ca l/m o le)

254

Handbook o f Materials Science

InO

ln 2 0

G e02

3

Solid Liquid Gas Solid Liquid

(1325) (2 0 0 0 )

(600) (800)

1389 (2625)

(2900) 983

-

-

(21.5) (14) 11.77 (35.5) (10.4)

— (12.5)

(26) (51)

(75) (50)

GeO

Ga 2 0

Liquid Solid Gas Solid (o£,/3) Liquid

(9.2) (2 0 ) (ID

(8.5) (2 0 ) (2 2 )

(925) (1 0 0 0 )

Solid Liquid Gas Solid

Ga20

2013

23.49 36.00 31.71 (13.8)

(22.5) 20.23

-

-

0

3

Fe 2 0

(4.0) (60)

-

(3.0) (30)

-

(28)

(7.5) (2 0 )

(4.5) (16)

(14.5) -

-

-

(12.5) -

-

7.56 (23)

-

10.5 (61)

-

35.0

(14.7) (2 2 ) (15) ( 1 0 .0 ) (14)

2 1 .8 8

21.5 -

0.17 0

0.16

4

Fe 3 0

-

10.4 -

48.00

-

-

-

-

9.27 (14.5) 12.38 (14.5)

12.9

4.6 (2 0 ) (0 )

7.5 (55) (0 )

1641 (2700) 900 dec. 950 1050 dec.

Solid Liquid Solid, a Solid, (3 Solid, a. Solid, 0 Solid, 7

FeO

CuO

-

(3.2) -

-

-

(7.8)

— 25.2 ( 2 .6 )

-

1 .8

18.6 -

48.20 18.6

4.80 1.62 -

-

( 8 .6 ) -

(13.4) (21.5) 14.34 (2 2 )

22.44

8.92 (5.5) 6 .2

( 2 2 .6 ) -

(24.0) (35)

(47) -

(10) -

(7.75) 13.4 (8.9) -

775 dec.

1503 dec. 1609 dec.

Solid Liquid

Solid Liquid Solid Liquid

3

Phase

b (cal/g mole)

a (cal/g nude)

Entropy at 298° K (e.u.)

Entropy of transition (e.u.)

Heat of transition (kcal/mole)

Cu20

Cs2 0

Oxide

Temperature o f transition (°K)

Table 3—7 (continued) THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF THE OXIDES

-

-

-

-

-

_



-

-

-

-

_

-

-

(43.8) (69.2) 58.3 (66.7)

(2.977) (-3.721) 3.826 (-2.399)

-

-

-

_

(-0.5)

-

(4.730) (3.206) (-18.39) (3.124) (1.615)

(-0.559) (-28.06) (4.630) ( - 2 0 .6 6 ) (3.384)

(58.1) (92.6) (25.8) (43.4) (64.9)

(94.1) (22.3) (54.35) (173.2) (47.8)

119.9 187.6 159.7 (58.7)

9.021 11.979 8.467 (4.497) -3.55 -

104.0 238.3 12.652

8 .6 6 6

(96.0) (54.9) 61.11 (98.91)

(96.5) (142.2)

(8.160) (2.148) (4.378) (3.721) 4.551 (-4.339)

B (e.u.)

A (kcal/mole)

-

-0.38 -

-

_

-

-

_

-

-

_

-

_

-

_

-

-

d (cal/g mole)

_

c (cal/g mole)

Solid Liquid Solid Liquid Gas Solid Liquid Gas Solid Liquid

K 20

Solid

Solid Liquid Solid

Solid Solid

Solid Liquid

La2 0 3

U 20

L i2 0 2

MgO M gO ,

MnO

2

2o 3

k

k o

2o 2

k

Ir02

Solid Liquid Gas Solid

Gas Solid Liquid

Phase

Ir2 0 3

ln 20 3

Oxide

-

2058 dec.

3 0 75 dec. 361

2000 2600 d ec. 4 7 0

2590

653 dec.

703 (9 7 5 )

(9 8 0 ) dec. 763 (1 8 0 0 )

-

-

dec. 1373

(1 4 5 0 ) (2 2 5 0 )

(2 0 0 0 ) (3 6 0 0 )

_

Temperature o f transition (°K)

(7 .5 )

-

13.0

-

18.5

-

(1 4 ) (5 6 )

(1 8 )

-

- 3 .2 7 5

_

3 .0 7 6 (5 .4 )

1.94

11.11 14.27

-

6 .3 2

-

-

(1 3 .5 )

1 .1 9 7 (2 .4 ) 1 0 .8 6 (1 2 .1 )

6 .4 (2 0 .5 )

5 .8

-

(5 .4 )

-

(1 6 .5 )

-

-

(1 1 .4 ) (2 1 ) (1 7 .0 )

(7) (2 2 )

(7) 9 .0 6

-

(5 .0 ) (1 2 .0 )

-

(2 3 .2 )

-

(5 .4 )

-

_

-

_

-

- 0 .8 8

-

- 2 .0 8 7



_

_ -

_ -

(6 .4 )

(1 0 ) 1 5 .2 0

-

— -

— -

-

(1 4 .4 )

-

(6 .0 )

_

-

d (cal/g mole)

_

c (cal/g mole)

-

_

b (cal/g mole)

2 8 .8 6

-

27.9

-

(3 3 .5 )

-

(1 5 .9 ) (2 2 ) (2 0 .8 ) (2 9 ) (2 0 ) (1 9 .1 ) (3 5 .5 ) (2 0 ) (1 5 .0 ) (2 4 )

(2 1 .8 ) (3 5 ) (2 0 ) 9 .1 7

(9 .0 ) (2 2 .6 ) (3 5 )

a (cal/g mole)

(3 6 .5 )

-

-

(4 .9 )

-

(8 .7 ) (2 6 )

-

(6 .1 ) (2 5 )

-

-

(2 7 )

(9 .2 ) (2 5 )

(7 .0 ) (4 5 )

-

(2 3 )

-

-

(1 5 .9 )

(6 .9 )

-

-

(6 .8 )

-

(2 6 .5 )

(6 .8 ) (2 2 )

GO) (5 0 )

-

30.1

GO) (2 4 )

(2 0 ) (8 5 )

_

Entropy at 298° K (e.u.)

_

Entropy of transition (e.u.)

_

Heat o f transition (kcal/mole)

Table 3 - 7 (continued) THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF THE OXIDES

3 .6 8 9 ( - 8 .5 4 3 )

3.9 9 1 (3 .7 1 4 )

(3 .6 3 9 ) ( - 1 .9 6 1 ) (5 .3 0 9 )

9 .8 4 0

(5 .0 2 5 ) (1 .1 3 0 ) (6 .4 4 2 ) (4 .1 2 7 ) ( - 5 7 .0 7 ) (6 .7 5 0 ) ( 6 .4 4 7 ) ( - 3 1 .2 9 ) (5 .0 0 6 ) (3 .4 2 4 )

(7 .1 4 0 ) (0 .7 0 6 ) ( - 5 7 .7 3 ) 3 .4 1 0

( - 6 8 .3 8 ) (7 .0 0 5 ) ( - 0 .1 9 5 )

A (kcal/mole)

5 0 .1 0 (5 8 .0 2 )

5 7 .0 (4 9 .2 )

(5 7 .5 ) (1 1 2 .7 ) (8 2 .0 )

(1 3 0 .7 )

(6 9 .5 ) (9 8 .3 ) (9 3 .1 ) (1 3 4 .2 ) (4 1 .7 ) (8 2 .2 ) (1 6 4 .7 ) (3 7 .3 ) (6 1 .1 ) (1 0 5 .5 )

(1 0 2 .0 ) (1 7 0 .3 ) (5 4 .8 ) 4 0 .9

( - 3 .1 ) (1 0 0 .5 ) (1 7 2 .8 )

B (e.u.)

Handbook o f Materials Science

(2650) (2275) (3800) 1733 (3200)

2545

2230 dec.

Solid Solid Liquid Solid Liquid

Solid

Solid Liquid

N d20 3

NiO

N b2O s

NbO N b02

Gas

Solid Liquid Solid Solid Liquid

N a20

Na20 2 N a02

1193 dec. dec. 919 (825) (1300)

Gas

Gas



-

(2 2 0 0 ) dec. 2250 1068 1530 —

1445 1863 (2900) dec. 1620 dec. 1 1 2 0

N 20

Mo 0 3

Mo 0 2

Solid Liquid Solid Liquid

Solid, a Solid, j8 Liquid Solid Solid

Mn 3 0 4

Mn 2 0 3 M n0 2

Phase

Oxide

Tem perature o f transition (°K )

( 1 2 .1) -

(2 2 )

(16) (16) (85) (28) (80)

(7.1) (6 .2 ) (28) —

-

(16) 12.54 33 —

4.97 (33) (75) -

H eat o f transition (k ca l/m o le)

-

-

2 2 .6

9.22 -

(35.3)

(8.8) (5.43) -

(12) (12.7) 32.8 -

27.7 -

13.69 (14.3)

28.99

(44.2)

2 1 .8 8

(9.6) (17.1) (24)

15.70 (2 2 ) (2 0 .2 ) (16.2) (23) (15)

(10.92)

52.58 17.4 -

(16.2) (23) 13.6 (28.4) (18.1)

34.64 50.20 (49) 24.73 16.60

a (cal /g m ole)

(14.5) 18.68 —

35.5 _ 26.4 12.7

Entropy at 2 9 8 ° K (e.u .)

( 6 .0 ) (7.0) (2 2 ) (16) (25)

(6 .0 ) (7.5) (2 2 ) -

22

(7.3) 11.74

3.44 (18) (26) -

E ntropy o f transition (e .u .)

0.83 -

5.760

(4.4) ( 1 .6 ) 28.2 -

5.40 (3.8) (3.6) -

2.06

(3.0) 13.5 -

10.82 — 8.38 2.44

(ca l/g m o le)

b

Table 3—7 (continued) THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF THE OXIDES

_

_

-

_

-

-

-

-2.915 -

(-4.159)

( - 2 .8 ) -

_

_ -

-2.04

-

-

(-3.0) —

-

-

-

-

_

- 2 .2 0 — -3.23 -3.88

_ — -

d (ca l/g m o le)

c (cal/g m ole)

5.097 (-7.861)

10.295

(3.058) (6.109) (1.033) 7.776 (-24.09)

4.921 (1.494) (6.192) (4.990) (3 4 7 5 ) (-35.22)

4.032

(5.973) (-2.463) 4.655 ( 0 .2 2 2 ) (-48.54)

11.312 17.376 (-17.86) 8.829 6.359

70.67 (67.91)

(133.9)

(44.0) (84.6) (127.2) 100.3 ( 2 0 1 .6 )

73.7 (105.9) (93.6) (65.7) (100.9) ( 2 2 .0 )

11.40

(80.4) (118.4) 62.83 (139.88) (42.8)

166.3 260.4 (233.4) 118.8 84.8

B (e.u .)

A (k ca l/m o le)

762 1159 1745

dec. dec*

dec. 1150

(8 2 5 ) (d ec.)

Solid, red S olid, y ello w Liquid Gas Solid S olid

Solid

Solid Liquid

PbO

Pb20 4 Pb02

PdO

Po02

-

(2 5 6 0 ) (2 0 5 0 ) (3 3 5 0 )

S olid Solid Liquid

-

-

Pa02 Pa2 O s

P*0S

(3 5 0 ) (d ec.) 6 31

4 4 8 .5

Liquid Gas Solid Liquid Solid Gas

P2 0 3

P02

dec. 92 3 3 1 3 .3 403

Solid Solid Liquid Gas

0s0 2 O s0 4

-

(2 6 0 0 ) dec. 8 0 0 - 9 0 0 K

Solid Solid

Phase

N p02 N p 2O s

O xid e

Tem perature o f transition (°K )

(3 4 .5 ) (1 5 ) (1 1 .3 ) (2 0 ) 8.375 3 6 .8 0 (1 4 .4 ) (2 8 .4 )

(3 4 ) (1 1 .5 ) 33.5

(1 7 .8 ) (3 7 .5 )

(5 .5 ) -

-

-

_

(6 5 .0 ) (1 2 7 .7 ) (2 4 1 .1 )

( 4 .4 0 9 ) (8 .9 7 5 ) ( - 0 .8 0 0 )

(4 .5 1 3 ) (3 .4 6 0 ) -

— (5 .6 )

(1 4 .3 ) (2 2 ) (1 7 ) -

(1 6 2 .6 ) (3 8 .0 ) (5 4 .4 ) (9 5 .9 ) 30 .3 1 6 5 .6

(1 0 .2 8 7 ) ( - 1 .9 5 3 ) (3 .5 9 1 ) (3 .6 4 0 ) 4 .8 9 7 3 .2 8 4

1.615 -

14.2 3 .3 0

(5 2 .8 ) (6 7 .0 ) (1 4 3 .0 ) (2 5 .3 )

(3 .6 9 6 ) (6 .7 2 6 ) (6 .6 1 2 ) ( - 7 .6 4 4 )

(6 6 .1 ) (1 0 6 .5 )

(1 3 .9 )

4 5 .4 3 6 .4 6 5 .7 ( - 1 1 .0 ) (1 3 2 .0 ) 5 6 .4

(8 4 .0 8 ) (1 4 5 .4 )

(6 .2 9 2 ) (1 0 .2 2 )

3 .3 3 8 2 .4 5 4 1 .7 8 8 ( - 5 9 .9 4 ) (1 0 .0 5 5 ) 4 .1 3 3

B (e.u .)

A (k ca l/m o le)

-

-

-

(6 .7 ) -

-

-

50.5 18.3

-

(9 .1 )

-

-

-

-

-

-

_ -

-



-

_

-

-



-

_

-

_

-



( - 2 .4 ) - 4 .6

_

( - 2 .6 ) —

d (cal/g m ole)

-

-

_

c (cal/g m o le)

_

(2 .6 ) (1 1 .4 ) -

-

GO) (5 .0 ) 5 .4 0

_

(6 .0 ) (2 3 .1 ) 8 .6 0

(3 .2 ) (1 2 .6 )

b (c a l/g m o le)

4 .0 0 6 .4 0 (0 .4 ) (1 7 .6 ) 7 .8 0 1 0 .6 0 9.05 (1 4 .6 ) (8 .1 ) (3 1 .1 ) 12.7

--

-

16.2 -

(0 .5 ) 2.4 29

(0 .4 ) 2.8 51

(7 .8 ) (1 3 ) (2 8 )

-

-

(7 .7 ) 13.9 -

10

-

(20) (2 6 ) (9 5 )

8.8

(2*7)

4.5

-

(48)

(1 1 .5 ) (1 6 .4 ) (3 3 ) 16.46

(1 4 .5 ) 34.7 -

_

10.9 23.4

_

-

(1 7 .7 ) (3 2 .4 )

19.19 (4 3 )

(5 .7 ) -

a (cal/g m ole)

Entropy at 298° K (e.u .)

E ntropy o f transition (e .u .)

3.41 9.45

(1 5 ) -

H eat o f transition (k ca l/m o le)

Table 3—7 (continued) THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF THE OXIDES

258 Handbook o f Materials Science

(1 8 8 0 ) (3 2 5 0 ) (2 4 0 0 ) (3 5 0 0 )

(> 2 5 0 0 )

(9 1 0 ) dec. 843 (dec.) 762 dec. 6 85 dec.

S olid

Solid Liquid S olid Liquid S olid L iquid S olid Liquid

Pu2 0 3

RaO

Rb20

R e02 R e02 R eQ 3

R b02

Rb2 0 3

R b20 2

Pu02

(1 4 7 5 ) (3 2 5 0 ) 433 dec.

(1 2 9 0 ) (2 3 2 5 )

S olid L iquid Gas Solid Liquid Solid Liquid

PuO

S olid L iquid S olid L iquid

dec. 7 8 0 (dec.) 723 dec. 7 5 0

S olid Solid S olid L iquid

PtO P t30 4 P t0 2

P r02

(2 2 0 0 ) (4 0 0 0 dec. 7 0 0

S olid Liquid S olid

Phase

Pr20 3

O xide

-

Tem perature o f transition (°K )

-

(1 2 ) (8 0 ) 5 .2

(4 .1 ) -

(7 .6 ) -

-

(5 .7 ) (7 .3 )

-

(16) (75) (1 5 ) (9 0 )

-

-

-

(8 .1 ) (2 5 ) 12

-

GO) (6 .0 )

-

(6 .3 ) (8 .7 )

-

(5 .6 ) (2 0 ) (8 .5 ) (2 3 ) (6 .2 ) (2 6 )

(6 .4 )

(7 .2 ) (4 7 )

_ -

_

-

-

(4 .6 )

GO) (2 3 )

E ntropy o f transition (e.u .)

(22) (9 0 )

H eat o f transition (k ca l/m o le)

-

(1 5 ) 19.8

-

(3 2 .5 ) (2 1 .5 )

-

(2 7 ) (2 7 .5 )

(1 7 )

-

(2 0 ) (3 8 ) (1 9 .7 )

-

(1 3 .5 ) (4 1 ) (1 6 .5 )

(1 7 )

-

(3 5 .5 )

E ntropy at 2 9 8 ° K (e.u .)

(1 0 .8 ) (2 4 .5 ) (1 8 .0 ) 29

(1 5 .4 ) (2 2 ) (2 0 .9 ) (2 9 ) (2 0 .5 ) (3 4 ) (1 3 .8 ) (2 1 )

(1 0 .5 )

(1 2 .0 ) (1 4 .5 ) (8 .9 ) (2 1 .2 ) (4 0 ) (1 7 .1 ) (2 0 .5 )

(1 1 .1 ) (2 1 )

(9 .0 ) (3 0 .8 )

(2 9 .0 ) (3 6 ) (1 7 .6 )

a (cal/g m ole)

-

(9 .8 ) (5 .8 )

-

(1 3 .0 ) (6 .4 )

-

(5 .8 ) (8 .0 )

(2 .0 )

-

(2 .4 ) (1 8 .2 ) (3 .4 )

-

(6 .4 ) (1 7 .4 ) (9 .6 )

(3 .4 )

-

(4 .0 )

b (cal/g m ole)

Table 3 -7 (continued) THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF THE OXIDES

-

-

_ -

_

-

-

-

-

-

_ -

_ -

-

-

-

-

( - 2 .6 )

_ -

_ -

-

-

-

_

( - 4 .0 ) ( - 2 .8 )

d (ca l/g m o le)

-

-

_

-

-

_

c (cal/g m ole)

(3 .6 5 6 ) (1 .2 0 4 ) (5 .6 2 5 ) (4 .6 4 4 )

(4 .8 5 0 ) (2 .7 5 4 ) (6 .5 8 7 ) (3 .2 7 3 ) (6 .6 9 0 ) (5 .6 0 3 ) (4 .3 9 9 ) (3 .7 2 0 )

(3 .2 2 0 )

(3 .6 8 5 ) ( - 2 .2 8 7 ) ( - 6 2 .3 0 7 ) (7 .1 3 0 ) ( - 5 .6 9 1 ) (6 .1 2 2 ) ( - 1 0 .6 2 )

(2 .9 6 8 ) (9 .9 5 7 ) (3 .7 3 6 ) (3 .7 8 5 )

(1 0 .1 6 6 ) ( - 6 .2 9 8 ) (6 .3 3 8 )

A (k ca l/m o le)

(4 9 .5 ) (1 2 7 .0 ) (8 4 .5 ) (1 3 6 .8 )

(6 2 .5 ) (9 5 .9 ) (9 4 .0 ) (1 3 3 .2 ) (8 8 .2 ) (1 5 7 .8 ) (5 9 .0 ) (9 5 .7 )

(4 3 .4 )

(4 9 .1 ) (5 8 .3 ) ( - 5 .3 ) (8 8 .2 ) (1 8 7 .2 ) (8 0 .2 ) (9 2 .2 )

(3 9 .7 ) (1 3 9 .7 ) (4 9 .6 ) (1 0 1 .5 )

(1 3 3 .2 ) (1 6 8 .3 ) (8 5 .9 )

B (e.u .)

259

dec. dec.

Solid Liquid

Solid Solid

Solid

Sb 2 0

Sb02 Sb 2 Os

Sc2 0

SeO

_ (I D

_ (3.2)

23.17

15.2 29.9

(6.5)

(4.7)

(12)

Solid

SiO

Gas

(2550)

603

Solid

S e0 2

-

(ID (15) -

(5.5) (22) (40.6) -

(7.6) (45) (24.5) -

(1375) (2075)

Solid Liquid

Gas

24.8

(9.3)

(23)

(2500)

3

-

-

(7.3)

( 1 2 .8 ) (14.5)

8 .2 0

(9.1) (15.5)

19.10 (36) (2 0 .8 ) 11.30 (22.4)

-

29.4

15.88 5.25

14.74 8.92

_ —

5.64 (3.8) 0.50 (6 . 1 ) (2.4)



— -0.80 ( - 0 .2 ) -

-

-

_ -

_ -

8 .1

-2.045

— -

-

-

(-2 .0 ) (-5 .0 )

-

(-3 .0 )

d (cal/g m ole)

-

_ -

-

-

-

-

_ -

c (cal/g m ole)

(23.6)

-

17.1

1.414

11.4

59.40

-

( 6 .0 )

13.80

(8.6) 6.47 (5.53)

-

(10.8)

-

(14.8)

b (cal/g m ole)

(11.4) (2 0 ) (33)

-

-

(12.5) (32.5)

(25.5) (12) (23)

-

-

(41.8) (65.7) (38.2) (21.4) (33) (16.5) 15.59 (9.84) 20.73

a (cal/g m ole)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

(34.5)

44

E ntropy at 298° K (e.u.)

-



-

-

-

-

-

-

-

(10) (20)

(4.2) (9.3)

-

27.8 27.9

E ntropy o f transition (e.u.)

15.8 17.7

H eat o f transition (kcal/m ole)

— —

Gas

928 1698

Gas

dec. 1400 300 dec.

S02

3

-

-

dec. 1400 dec. 1394 dec. 1388

420 (460)

569 635.5

Solid Solid Liquid

Solid Liquid Gas Solid Liquid Gas Solid Solid Solid

Phase

Ru02 Ru 0 4

R h 20 RhO R h 20 3

R e04

R e20 7

Oxide

T em perature o f transition (°K )

Table 3—7 (continued) THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF THE OXIDES

(2.283)

(35.8)

(42.0) (77.5) (0.7) (59.9) (26.4)

108.9

7.159 (2.882) T0.490) (-58.54) (4.150) (-20.45)

84.5 (168.2) (49.9) 51.6 (104.8)

7.12

(54.2) (81.5) (144.9)

(99.2)

(200.3) (314.7) (109.3) (91.8) (146.7) (30.6) (65.3) (45.7)

B (e.u.)

6.455 (0.035) (-34.70) 3.725 (7.723)

4.148

3.666 (5.963) (6.663)

6.794

(14.127) (9.203) (-2 5 .9 7 ) (7.531) (6.775) (-8 .1 1 8 ) 4.936 (3.179)

A (kcal/m ole)

260 H a n d b o o k o f M aterials S cien ce

Solid Liquid Solid Solid Liquid Gas

Tc 0 2

T e02

T e03

TeO

Solid Liquid

Solid Liquid Gas Solid Liquid

Solid Liquid

Ta2 0 5

Tc 0 3 T c 20 7

Solid Solid

SrO S r0 2

-

(2150) (3250)

1006 dec.

(1020) (1775)

-

(2400) (4000) (dec. < 1 2 0 0 ) 392.7 583.8 -

2150

2703 dec. 488

1898 (3200)

-

Solid Liquid Gas Solid Liquid

SnO

Sn02

(2150) (3800)

Solid Liquid

Sm 20 3

(1315) (1800)

856 1883 dec. 2250

Solid, 0 Solid, a. Liquid

Phase

S i0 2

Oxide

T em perature o f transition (°K )

-

-

-

(13) (65)

3.2

(7.1) (50)

(14) -

-

-

(6.0) (20)

3.2

(7.0) (28)

-

(28) (24) -

-

(7.5) (26)

(7.4) -

6.2

(5.95) (23)

(ID

(18) (105)

(16) -

16.7 -

(11.39) (75)

-

(4.9) (33)

(6.4) (60) -

(9.3) (21)

0.18 1.08 -

E ntropy o f transition (e.u.)

(20) (80)

0.15 2.04 -

H eat o f transition (kcal/m ole)

-

(16)

-

16.99

-

-

(13)

-

-

(19.5) (42.5)

-

(13.5)

34.2 -

13.0 (14.8)

12.5 -

-

-

13.5

-

(36.5)

-

-

10.06

E ntropy at 298° K (e.u.)

(11.0) (15)

(8.6) (15.5) (8.9) 13.85 (20)

(10.4) (25) (19.4) (39.1) (64) (25)

29.2 (46)

12.34 (16.8)

9.40 (14.5) (9.0) 17.66 (22.5)

(25.9) (36)

11.22 14.41 (20)

a (cal/g m ole)

-

(2.4)

-

6.87

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-



-

(6.2)

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

(-2 .0 ) (-2 .4 )

-

_

-

_

-1 .8 0 6 (-3 .0 )

-5 .1 6 -

-

-

_

-

_

_

-

-

-

-2 .7 0

d (cal/g m ole)

_

-

-

_

c (cal/g m ole)

(28)

(5.2) (18.6)

-

(9.2)

10.0 -

1.120 (2.2)

2.40 -

-

-

3.62

(7.0) -

8.20 1.94 -

b (cal/g m ole)

Table 3—7 (continued) THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF THE OXIDES

(3.386) (-6 .5 6 1 )

(2.840) (-0 .4 4 8 ) (-6 2 .1 6 ) 4.435 (3.940)

(3.510) (-5 .9 4 6 ) (6.686) (13.29) (10.02) (-2 1 .9 8 )

9.151 (6.158)

4.335 (6.113)

2.964 (0.141) (-6 9 .7 6 ) 7.103 (0.304)

(8.033) (-6 .4 3 1 )

4.615 4.602 (9.649)

A (kcal/m ole)

(47.4) (66.9)

(37.8) (72.3) (-5 .2 ) 63.97 (96.4)

(48.6) (132.7) (93.7) (187.2) (299.8) (43.8)

135.2 (235.1)

58.7 (83.3)

41.1 (68.1) (-6 .4 ) 91.7 (117.7)

(113.2) (166.3)

57.83 73.67 (111.08)

B (e.u.)

261

v

3o 4

v 2o 3

VO

uo3

u 3o s

uo uo2

t i2o 3

T 1,0

T i0 2

T i3O s

Solid Liquid Solid Liquid Solid Liquid

Solid Solid Solid Solid

Solid Liquid Gas Solid Liquid

Liquid Solid Liquid

-

(2350) (3400) 2240 dec. 3300 (2 1 0 0 ) (dec.)

(2750) 3000 dec. dec. 925

990 (dec.)

573 773

(3600) 2128 dec. 3200

1264 dec. 2010 473' 2400 3300 450 (2450)

Solid, a Solid, 0 Solid, a Solid, 0 Liquid Solid, a Solid, 0

TiO

T i20 3

3225

Solid

Phase

Th02

O xide

T em perature o f transition (°K )

4.98 (20)

2.24 (50)

(15) (70) (24) (42) -

(14) -

(5.0) (17) (12.4) -

(85) (16) -

23.58 (32) -

9.3

(6.4) (2 1 ) ( ID (2 0 ) -

11.32 (14.5) 29.35 (38) (36) (55.6)

( 1 0 .6 ) 19.20 (65) 22.09

23.8 (33.5) -

(8.7) (2 2 ) (13) (16) 18.63 (66) 23.57

-

(5.1) -

(15.8) (2 2 . 1 ) (13.7) (23.0) (35.5)

1 2 .0 1

10.57 11.85 7.31 34.68 (37.5) 35.47 41.60

(60) 17.97 (21.4)

-

30.92

-

18.83

-

16.45

15.59 8.31

a (cal/g m ole)

E ntropy at 298° K (e.u.)

(24) (7.5) -

-

0.455 GO)

0.215 (24)

-

0.65

-

(5.6)

E ntropy o f transition (e.u.)

0.82

-

(18)

H eat o f transition (kcal/m ole)

1.61 4.76 (30) -

( 2 .0 ) 1.62 (7.5) 2.54

( 6 .0 ) (5.0) -

0.28 -

8 .0 0

29.50

-

3.60 3.00 53.52 1.30

2.346

b (cal/g m ole)

Table 3 - 7 (continued) THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF THE OXIDES

-

_

-

_

-

_

-1.26 -5.42 -

_

-3.957 (-10.9) -2.973

(-0.3) -

-4.35 -

-1 0 .2 0

3.869 (-8.157) 10.780 (-6.028) (12.07) (-54.72)

(3.249) 7.124 (23.37) 7.969

(5.078) (2.651) (-20.94) (7.080) (4.604)

(-18.701) 6.829 (-2.610)

3.935 4.108 4.559 13.605 (-7 .7 9 6 ) 11.887 10.230

-1 .8 6

_ -

5.721

-2 .1 2 4

-

-

A (kcal/m ole)

d (cal/g m ole)

c (cal/g m ole)

56.4 (70.9) 148.12 (193.4) (182.1) (249.1)

(45.0) 93.37 (312.7) 104.72

( 6 8 .2 ) (96.0) (18.0) (99.0) (167.8)

(306.4) 92.92 (111.08)

54.03 61.71 38.78 184.48 (193.2) 179.98 202.80

80.03

B (e.u.)

262 H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

(1543) dec. 2125 1743 (2 1 0 0 ) -

(2500)

dec. 1478 2950

Solid

Solid Solid, a Solid, /3

W 01

y 20 3

(26.0)

19.90 (29.5)

GO)

_ 0.961 7.0

(25)

_ 1.420 2 0 .8

(9.8) (2 0 ) -

(17) (43) -

-

10.4 12.03 -

-

313 -

11.71 16.64 17.80

(17.6) (24) 17.33 (30) (18)

(15)

(7.45)

-

16.50 (27) -

-

14.96 17.85 25.50 46.54 45.60 (40)

12.32

2.96 7.48 -

a (cal/g mole)

Entropy at 298° K (e.u.)

Entropy o f transition (e.u.)

(11.5)

15.56 (63) -

-

1 .0 2

13.60

Heat of transition (kcal/mole)

1 .2 2

1.80 -

_ -

-2.18 -3.36 -

4.277 6.168 4.270

(8.846) -

( 8 .2 )

( - 2 .2 )

-

7.74 -

(6.772) ( - 0 .1 1 2 ) 5.511 (-1.162) (-69.36) (-4.0) -

-

-

_

2 2 0 .1

57.88 85.21 89.96

(122.3)

( 8 8 .8 ) ( 1 2 1 .8 ) 81.15 (152.5) (40.2)

(149.6)

2 .1 2 2

(-73.90)

(4.2)

-

-

-

-

72.92 89.09 135.87 240.2

B (e.u.)

4.460 5.680 2.962 18.136

A (kcal/mole)

-

-3.94 -13.22

_

d (cal/g mole)

-

-

-

-

_

_ 1.70 -3.90

c (cal/g mole)

b (cal/g mole)

From Weast, R. C., Ed., H a n d b o o k o f C h e m is tr y a n d P h y s ic s , 55th ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1974, D-58.

ZnO Z r0 2

5

Solid Liquid Solid Liquid Gas

w o2

V2 0

vo2

345 1818 dec. 3300 943 (2325) -

Phase

Solid, ol Solid, 0 Liquid Solid Liquid Gas

Oxide

Temperature o f transition (°K)

Table 3 - 7 (continued) THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF THE OXIDES

- 1 5 0 ,7 6 0 - 2 1 7 ,0 8 0 - 1 3 4 ,5 9 0 - 1 3 4 ,1 4 0 - 1 4 4 ,2 2 0

2 9 8 .1 6 - 9 0 3 K 2 9 8 .1 6 - 5 4 2 K 2 9 8 .1 6 - 5 8 6 K 2 9 8 .1 6 - 8 8 3 K 2 9 8 .1 6 - 6 4 8 K 6 4 8 -9 7 7 K 2 9 8 .1 6 - 1 ,5 5 6 K 2 9 8 .1 6 - 5 4 4 K 5 4 4 - 1 ,6 0 0 K 2 9 8 .1 6 - 5 4 4 K 5 4 4 - 1 ,0 9 0 K 2 9 8 .1 6 - 7 2 3 K

2 S b (c) + 3 /2 0 2 (g) = Sb2 0 3 (o rth orh om b ic) 2 A s(c) + 3 /2 0 2 (g) = A s 20 3 (orth orh om b ic)

2 A s(c) + 3 /2 0 2 (g) = A s 2 0 3 (m o n o clin ic) 2 A s(c) + 5 /2 0 2 (g) = A s2 0 5 (c)

B a(a) + 1 /2 0 2 (g) = B aO (c) Ba(/1) + 1/2 O , (g) = BaO (c) B e ( c ) + 1 /2 0 2 (g) = BeO (c)

B i( c ) + 1/2 0 2 (g) = B iO (c) Bi(l) + 1 /2 0 3 (g) = BiO (c) 2 B i(c) + 3 /2 0 2 (g) = B i2 0 3 (c) 2 B i ( l) + 3 /2 0 2 (g) = Bi2 0 3 (c)

2 B (c) + 3 /2 0 2 (g) = B2 0 ( c )

- 3 0 4 ,6 9 0

- 5 0 ,4 5 0 - 5 2 ,9 2 0 - 1 3 9 ,0 0 0 - 1 4 2 ,2 7 0

- 1 6 8 ,0 6 0 - 1 5 4 ,8 7 0

- 4 0 4 ,0 8 0 - 4 0 7 ,9 5 0 - 1 6 9 ,4 5 0

2 9 8 .1 6 - 9 3 1 .7 K 9 3 1 .7 - 2 ,0 0 0 K 2 9 8 .1 6 - 8 4 2 K

2 A l(c) + 3 /2 0 2 (g) = A12 0 j (coru ndu m ) 2 A l(l) + 3 /2 0 2 (g) = A l2 0 3 (coru ndu m ) 2 S b (c) + 3 /2 0 2 (g) = Sb2 0 3 (cubic)

- 4 4 6 ,0 9 0 - 3 1 ,6 6 0 - 3 8 ,6 7 0 + 1 0 ,7 4 0 + 8 ,1 7 0

AHQ

2 9 8 .1 6 - 1 ,0 0 0 K 2 9 8 .1 6 - 9 3 1 .7 K 9 3 1 .7 - 2 ,0 0 0 K 2 9 8 .1 6 - 9 3 1 .7 K 9 3 1 .7 - 2 ,0 0 0 K

Temperature range of validity

2 A c (c) + 3 /2 0 2 (g) = A c 2 0 3 ( c ) 2 A l(c) + 1 /2 0 2(g) = A l2 0 ( g ) 2 A l(l) + 1 /2 0 2 (g) = A l2 0 ( g ) A l(c ) + 1 /2 0 2 (g) = A 10(g) A l(l) + 1 /2 0 2 (g) = A 10(g)

Reaction

Coefficients in Free-energy Equations

-4 .6 1 -4 .6 1 - 1 1 .5 6 + 2 .3 0 + 11.72

- 7 .6 0 - 3 .3 4 -1 .9 1

+ 2 9 .5 4 + 1 2 .3 2

+ 6 .1 2 + 2 9 .5 4

- 1 5 .6 8 - 6 .1 9 + 6 .1 2

- 1 6 .1 2 + 1 4 .9 7 + 1 0 .3 6 + 5 .7 6 + 5 .7 6

2 .3 0 3 a

AFt = AH0 + 2.303aT log T + b X 10 “’ T2 + c X l O ' r ' 1 + IT A S , = - a - 2 .3 0 3 a log T - 26 X l Q - ’ T + c X 1 0 5 7” 2 - /

-

-

-

-

_ -

- 0 .3 0 - 0 .3 0 + 0 .3 5 5

_

+ 2.15 -3 .2 5 - 7 .5 5

+ 0 .4 2 + 0 .4 2 + 1 .2 4

- 0 .3 0 - 0 .5 0

- 0 .3 0 - 0 .3 0

-

+ 0.8 7 - 0 .5 6 - 0 .4 6

- 2 1 .3 3 - 4 .6 5

- 6 .0 1 - 2 1 .3 3

+ 3 .9 3 5 + 3 .9 3 5 - 0 .3 0

-

+ 2.1 8 - 0 .7 8 -6 .0 1

_ -

c

_

b

+ 3 5 .5 1 + 4 0 .0 5 + 9 6 .5 2 + 6 7 .5 5 + 3 4 .2 5

+ 4 5 .7 6 + 3 4 .0 1 + 3 0 .6 4

- 1 6 .9 5 + 8 0 .5 0

+ 5 0 .5 6 - 8 .8 3

+ 1 2 3 .6 4 + 1 0 2 .3 7 + 5 2 .2 1

+ 1 0 9 .8 9 - 7 2 .7 4 - 5 1 .5 3 - 3 7 .6 1 - 3 4 .8 5

/

The AHQvalues are given in gram calories per mole. The a, b, and / values listed here make it possible for one to calculate the A Fand AS values by use of the following equations:

Table 3 - 8 HEAT OF FORMATION OF SELECTED INORGANIC OXIDES3 264

Handbook o f Materials Science

+5.76 -14.07 +2.33 -13.82 -32.24 +0.69 -1.15 -1.15

-112,690 -113,840 -110,740 -148,680 +17,770 +33,000 +37,740 -274,670 -278,030 -142,500 -141,590 -141,580 -56,910 -58,160 -40,550

2 9 8 .1 6 - 301.5 K 3 0 1 .5 - 775 K 7 7 5 -9 6 3 K 9 6 3 -1 ,5 0 0 K 2 9 8 .1 6 - 2,000 K 2 9 8 .1 6 - 1,000 K 2 9 8 .1 6 - 500 K 2 9 8 .1 6 - 1,823 K 1,823-2,000 K 2 9 8 .1 6 - 1,000 K 2 9 8 .1 6 - 471 K 4 7 1 -6 0 0 K 2 9 8 .1 6 - 1,400 K 1,400-1,763 K 2 9 8 .1 6 - 1,357 K

2 Cs(c) + 3/2 0 2 (g) = Cs2 0 3 (c) 2 Cs(l) + 3/2 0 2 (g) = Cs2 G 3 (c) 2 Cs(l) + 3/2 0 2 (g) = Cs2 0 3 (1) 2 Cs(g) + 3/2 0 2 (g) = Cs2 0 3 (1) Cl2 (g) + 1/2 0 2 (g) = Cl2 0(g)

1/2 Cl2 (g) + 1/2 0 2 (g) = C10(g) 1 / 2 a 2 (g) + 3/2 0 2 (g) = C1 0 3 (g) 2 Cr(c) + 3/2 0 2 (g) = Cr 2 0 3 (0 ) 2 Cr(l) + 3/2 0 2 (g) = Cr2 0 3 (0) Cr(c) + 0 2 (g) = C r0 2 (c)

Cr(c) + 3/2 0 2 (g) = C r0 3 (c) Cr(c) + 3/2 0 2 (g) = C r0 3 (i) Co(a, /3) + 1/2 0 3 (g) = CoO(c) C o (7 ) + 1/2 0 2 (g) = CoO(c) 2 Cu(c) + 1 / 2 0 2 (g) = Cu 2 0(c)

-

- 0 .2 0

+2.34

+0.49 - 0 .1 2

_

_

-

-

- 0 .1 0

_

_

1 .1 0

+0.69 +1.57 + 2 .0 1 -0.35 -

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

_

_ -

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

- 0 .2 0

-

-

- 0 .6 6

-1.095 -0.23

-0.30 - 0 .1 0 - 0 .1 0 +0 .6 8 +0 .6 8

c

+0.27 -0 .7

-15.90 +0.71 -0.76 +1.46 +0.41

b

-11.51 - 1 2 .6 6 -26.48 -39.14 -0.71

-9.21 -23.03

-

-

+0.71

-247,930 -75,900 -76,900 -75,370 -113,790

1 .0 4 8 - 2,000 K 2 9 8 .1 6 - 301.5 K 3 0 1 .5 - 763 K 7 6 3 -9 6 3 K 9 6 3 -1 ,5 0 0 K

+2.05 +1.63 -4.60 -4.60 -6.42

-25,400 -93,690 -435,600 -440,400 -245,490

Ce(l) + 0 2 (g) = C e0 2 (c) 2 Cs(c) + 1/2 0 2 (g) = Cs2 O(c) 2 Cs(l) + 1/2 0 2 (g) = Cs2 0 (c) 2 Cs(l) + 1/2 0 2 (g) = Cs2 0(1) 2 Cs(g) + 1/2 0 2 (g) = Cs2 0(1)

2,000 K 2,000 K 1,048 K 1,900 K 1,048 K

2 9 8 .1 6 2 9 8 .1 6 2 9 8 .1 6 1 .0 4 8 2 9 8 .1 6 -

+26.57 -2.05 +2.07 -6.56 -4.14

C (graphite) + 1/2 0 2 (g) = CO(g) C(graphite) + 0 2 (g) = C 0 2 (g) 2 Ce(c) + 3/2 0 2 (g) = Ce 2 Os (c) 2 Ce(l) + 3/2 0 2 (g) = Ce 2 0 3 (c) Ce(c) + 0 2 (g) = C e0 2 (c)

-298,670 -62,330 -63,240 -151,850 -151,730

2.303a

2 9 8 .1 6 - 723 K 2 9 8 .1 6 - 594 K 5 9 4 -1 ,0 3 8 K 2 9 8 .1 6 - 673 K 6 7 3 -1 ,1 2 4 K

Temperature range of validity

2 B(c) + 3/2 0 3 (g) = Bj 0 3 (gl) C d(c)+ 1/2 0 3 (g) = CdO(c) Cd(l) + 1/2 Os (g) = CdO(c) Ca( c r i|> lio n

M n(N03)2 • 6H20

glassy

MnO M n02

pptd

Mn20 3 Mn30 4 Mn0 4 std. state, m = 1 MnO^ std. state, m = 1 Mn(OH)2 pptd MnP MnP3 Mn3(P 0 4)2 M nHP04 MnS green pink pptd M nS04 std. state, m = 1 M nS04 • H20 a M nS04 • 4H20 M nS04 • 5H20 M nS04 • 7H20 Mn2(S 0 4)3 MnS20 6 • 6H20 MnSb MnSe M nSi03 Mn2S i0 4 MnTe M nW 04 M e rc u ry

ft

Hg HgBr2 undissoc; std. state, m = 1 HgBr3 std. state, m = 1 HgBrJ- std. state, m = 1 Hg2Br2 HgBrCI std. state, m = 1 HgBrl undissoc; std. state, m = 1 Hg(CN)2 undissoc; std. state, m = 1 Hg(CN)3 std. state, m = 1 Hg(CN)|~ std. state, m = 1 Hg(ll) fulminate Hg(l) ace ta te Hg2C 0 3 HgC20 4 Hg2c 2o 4 Hg(CNS)2 undissoc; std. state Hg(CNS)2 std. state, m = ^ Hg2(CNS)2 thiocyanate HgCI HgCI2 undissoc; std. state, m = 1 HgClj std. state, m = 1

S la t e

A/ / / 0

am orp liq c

-5 6 6 .9 -5 5 7 .2 7 -9 2 .0 7 29.6 -1 2 4 .2 9

g c am orp c c aq aq am orp c c c c c am orp c aq c c c c c c c c c c c c c liq 9 c aq aq aq c aq aq c g aq aq aq c c c c c aq aq c g c aq aq

.S' '

K 'f

(:> >

-8 6 .7 4

14.27

1 0 .8 6

-1 1 1 .1 8

1 2 .6 8

12.94

- 2 1 0 .6

-3 0 6 .7 -1 0 6 .9 -1 1 9 .7 - 1 4 7 .0

26.4 37.2 45.7 14 23.7

25.73 33.38

-3 3 2 .5 -5 2 .2

18.7

11.94

26:8

24.02

- 1 2 0 .1

-2 2 9 .2 -3 3 1 .7 -1 2 9 .4 -1 5 6 -1 6 6 .2 -2 7 -5 1 -7 4 4 .9 -5 1 .2 -5 1 .1 -2 5 4 .6 0 -2 7 0 .1 -3 2 9 .0 -3 2 2 .2 -5 3 9 .7 - 6 1 0 .2 -7 5 0 .3 -6 6 6 .9 -7 5 1 .0

-2 2 8 .8 3 -2 3 2 .5 -2 8 9 .9

(37)

78

-1 2

- 2 5 .5 -3 1 5 .7 -4 1 3 .6

- 2 6 .7 -2 9 6 .5 -3 9 0 .1

21.7 21.3 39.0 22.4

-3 1 1 .9 0

14.655 - 4 0 .8 - 3 8 .4 -7 0 .1 -1 0 3 .0 -4 9 .4 5 - 4 5 .5 -2 8 .1 63.0 91 66.5 94.9 125.8 64 -1 9 9 .6 -1 3 2 .3 -1 6 2 .1 46.9 78.0 20.1 - 5 3 .6 - 5 1 .7 - 9 2 .9

0

7.613 - 3 6 .6 - 3 4 .2 - 6 2 .0 - 8 8 .7 -4 3 .2 7 8 - 3 8 .7 - 2 6 .7

74.6 110.7 147.8 -1 5 3 .3 - 1 1 1 .9 -1 4 1 .8 60.1 98.3 54.4 15.0 - 4 2 .7 - 4 1 .4 - 7 3 .9

18.17 41.79 41 41 62 74 52 40 46

1 2 .2 0 2 0 .6 6

31.04 17.49 29.7 6 .6 8 8

4.968

37.3 51.4 71 78 43

37.6 109 62.09 34.9 37 50

8 .6 8

300

H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

Table 3 - 9 (continued) HEATS AND FREE ENERGIES OF FORMATION, ENTROPIES, AND HEAT CAPACITIES OF ELEMENTS AND INORGANIC COMPOUNDS State

Formula and Description

H g C IJ -

s td . s t a t e ,

m

= 1

aq

H g 2CI2 H gF h q 2f 2 H gH H gl H g l2 r e d y e llo w u n d is s o c ; s td . s t a t e , H g lj s td . s t a t e , m = 1 H g lJ - s td . s t a t e , m = 1

c

g c

g g

c c

m

H g 2i2 H g 2( N j ) 2 H g (N O j ), • >/2h 2o H g 2( N 0 3)2 • 2 H 20 H g O r e d . o r th o r h o m b ic y e llo w hexagonal H g (O H )2 u n d is s o c ; s td . s t a t e H g S red b la c k H gS04 H g 2S 0 4 H g (H S )2 u n d is s o c ; s td . s t a t e , H gSe H gSe03 H g 2S e 0 3 H gT e

M olybdenum

g

= 1

m

= 1

aq aq aq c c c c c c c aq c c c c aq c

g

c c c

g

Mo

c

M oB r2 M oB r3 M o B r4 M o 0 2B r2 M oB M oC M o 2C M o (C O )6

c c c c c c c c

M o C !2 M o C Ij M o C I4

c c c

M o C I5 M o O C I2 M o 0 2CI2

M o 0 2C I2 • h 2o M o O C I4 M o F6 M o I2

g

g

g

c

g c c

g

aq c c liq

g g

A ///0

-1 3 2 .4 - 6 3 .3 9 1 .0 5 7 .3 6 3 1 .6 4 - 2 5 .2 - 2 4 .6 -4 .1 - 1 9 .0 -3 6 .5 -5 6 .2 -2 9 .0 0 1 4 2 .0 - 9 3 .8 - 2 0 7 .5 -2 1 .7 1 -2 1 .6 2 -2 1 .4 - 8 4 .9 -1 3 .9 -1 2 .8 - 1 6 9 .1 - 1 7 7 .6 1 -1 1 1 8 .1

-1 0



AG f °

c;

-1 0 6 .8

70

- 5 0 .3 7 7 -2 .4 - 1 0 4 .1 5 1 .6 3 2 1 .1 4 - 2 4 .3

4 6 .0 5 3 .9 8 5 2 .4 6 6 7 .2 6 43

7 .1 6 8 .9 9

- 1 4 .3 - 1 8 .0 - 3 5 .5 - 5 0 .6 - 2 6 .5 3 1 7 8 .4

8 0 .3 1 42 72 86 5 5 .8 49

1 4 .6 0

- 1 3 .9 9 5 - 1 3 .9 6 4 -1 3 .9 2 - 6 5 .7 -1 2 .1 - 1 1 .4

1 6 .8 0 1 7 .0 1 7 .6 34 1 9 .7 2 1 .1

1 0 .5 3

-1 4 9 .5 8 9 -6 .4

4 7 .9 6

3 1 .5 4

7 .5 - 6 8 .0 -7 1 .1

6 3 .8 2

8 .8

8 .2 6

1 1 .5 7

6 5 .7 3 0 1 5 7 .3 -6 2 .4 (-3 4 ) - 7 6 .8 -1 5 0 .4 -2 1 -2 .4 - 1 0 .9 - 2 3 4 .9 -2 1 8 .0 -6 7 .4 - 9 2 .5 - 1 1 4 .8 -9 0 - 1 2 6 .0 -1 0 3 -1 2 6 -1 7 1 .4 -1 5 1 .6 -1 9 0 .4 -2 4 5 .4 - 1 5 3 .0 - 3 7 8 .9 5 - 3 7 2 .2 9 32

0 1 4 6 .4 -5 3

-2 0 9 .8 -2 0 4 .6 (-3 5 ) - 5 8 .5

6 .8 5 4 3 .4 6 1

7 7 .9 117

5 .7 5 4 .9 6 8 1 8 .3

5 7 .9 0 49

( 3 2 .6 ) 4 4 .7

(-6 8 .5 )

53

-3 5 2 .0 8 - 3 5 1 .8 8

6 2 .0 6 8 3 .7 5

4 0 .5 8 2 8 .8 2

301

Table 3—9 (continued) HEATS AND FREE ENERGIES OF FORMATION, ENTROPIES, AND HEAT CAPACITIES OF ELEMENTS AND INORGANIC COMPOUNDS S la t e

F o r m u la a m i D e s c r ip t io n

M0 l3 Mo 2N MoO Mo 0 2 Mo 0 3

c g c c

Mo 0 4 Mo O s MoO^ std. state H2Mo 0 4 white H2Mo 0 4 • H20 Mo S 2 Mo 2S } MoSi2 MOjSi Mo5Si3 N e o d y m iu m Nd NdClj

yellow

«

NdClj • 6H20 Nd(OH)3 Ndl3 0 Nd20 } Nd2S 3 Nd2(S 0 4)3 Nd2(S 0 4)3 • 5H20 Nd2(S 0 4)3 • 8H20 N eo n Ne N e p tu n iu m Np NpBr3 NpBr4 NpCI3 NpCI4 NpCI5 NpF3 NpF4 Npl3 NpO, N ick el Ni Ni2+ std. state, m = 1 Ni3(A s0 4)2 Ni(B02)2 NiBr2 std. state, m = 1 Ni3C Ni(CN)2 pptd Ni(CN)|- std. state, m = 1 Ni(CNO)2 cyanate Ni(CNS)2 thiocyanate

g aq aq aq aq c aq c c c c c c g c c aq, oo c c c aq, oo c c c aq, oo c c

iH r (-1 5 ) -1 9 .5 0 101 -1 4 0 .7 6 -1 7 8 .0 8 -7 8 -1 7 2 .5 -1 5 8 .0 -1 3 9 .6 -2 3 8 .5 -2 5 0 .0 -2 4 0 .8 -3 2 5 - 5 6 .2 -8 7 -2 8 -2 3 -6 8 87 0 -2 5 4 .3 -2 9 1 .3 -6 9 2 .3 -1 5 8 .9 -2 1 1 .3 -4 4 2 .0 -2 8 1 .8 -9 4 8 .1 -9 9 3 .1 -1 3 1 8 .4 -1 5 2 4 .7

a c ;/°

(-1 5 )

-1 2 7 .4 0 -1 5 9 .6 6

11.06 18.58

-1 9 9 .9

6.5

- 5 4 .0

14.96

15.19

-2 3

25.4

22.23

-2 6 1 .6 -3 0 9 .6 -2 0 4 .6

-8 6 7 .2 -1 3 3 4 .5 34.95

4.968

0 91.9 - 1 0 .9 -3 7 7 .5 -3 4 7 .3

7.14 43.519 - 3 0 .8

6.23 5.583

- 6 0 .6

8.6

0

0

c c c c c c c c c c

0 -1 7 4 -1 8 3 -2 1 6 -2 3 7 -2 4 6 -3 6 0 -4 2 8 -1 2 0 -2 4 6

0

g aq c c c aq c c aq c c

0 102.7 - 1 2 .9

- 5 0 .7 - 7 1 .0 16.1 30.5 87.9 - 5 4 .4 22.8

13.38 17.92

0

g

c

.S°

112.8

52

302

Handbook o f Materials Science

Table 3—9 (continued) HEATS AND FREE ENERGIES OF FORMATION, ENTROPIES, AND HEAT CAPACITIES OF ELEMENTS AND INORGANIC COMPOUNDS S ta te

F o r m u la a n d D e s c r ip tio n

Ni(CO)4 N i(acetate)2 std. state, m = 1 N iC 03 NiC20 4 std. state, m = 1 NiCI2 std. state, m = 1 NiCI2 • 2H20 NiCI2 • 4H20 NiCI2 • 6H20 Ni(CI04)2 std. state, m = 1 Ni(CI04)2 • 6H20 NiF2 Nil2 std. state, m = 1 N i(l03)2 Ni(N03)2 std. state, m = 1 Ni(N03)2 • 6H20 NiO Ni20 3 Ni(OH)2 Ni(OH)3 pptd Ni3P Ni5P2 Ni2P20 7 Ni3(P 0 4)2 NiS pptd Ni3S 2 N iS04 std. state, m = 1 N iS04 • 6H20 tetrahedral green N iS04 • 7H20 NiSe NiSeOj • 2H20 NiSi Ni2Si NiTe Ni4W NiW 04 N io b iu m Nb NbBr5

liq 9

aq c c aq c aq c c c aq c c c aq c c aq c c c c c c c c c c c c c aq c c c c c c c c c c

g

c 9

NbC Nb2C NbClj NbCI4

c c

9 c

NbCI5

9 c

NbCo2 NbCo3 NbCr2 NbFs

9 c c c c 9

A ///°

-1 5 1 .3 -1 4 4 .1 0 -2 4 5 .2 -2 0 4 .8 - 210.1 -7 2 .9 7 6 - 9 2 .8 -2 2 0 .4 -3 6 2 .5 -5 0 2 .6 7 - 7 4 .7 -4 8 6 .6 -1 5 5 .7 - 1 8 .7 - 3 9 .3 -1 1 6 .9 - 9 9 .2 - 112.0 -5 2 8 .6 - 5 7 .3 - 1 1 7 .0 -1 2 6 .6 -1 6 0 - 5 0 .2 - 9 7 .7

- 1 9 .6 - 1 8 .5 - 4 8 .5 -2 0 8 .6 3 -2 3 0 .2 -6 4 1 .2 1 -7 1 1 .3 6 -1 4 .1 -2 7 1 .1 1 - 20.6 - 3 3 .6 - 12.8 -4 3 -2 7 0 .9 0 173.5 -1 3 2 .9 -1 0 4 .8 - 3 3 .2 - 4 5 .4 -8 6 -1 6 6 .0 1 -1 3 4 -1 9 0 .6 -1 6 8 .2 - 1 3 .7 -1 4 .1 -5 .0 -4 3 3 .5 - 4 1 5 .8



A G /°

-1 4 0 .6 -1 4 0 .3 6 -1 8 7 .5 -1 4 6 .4 -1 7 2 .0 -6 1 .9 1 8 - 7 3 .6 -1 8 1 .7 -2 9 5 .2 -4 0 9 .5 4 - 1 5 .0 -1 4 4 .4

74.9 98.1 10.6

-1 9 .9 23.34 -3 .6 42 58 82.3 56.2 17.59

- 3 5 .6 - 7 8 .0

22.4 51

- 6 4 .2

39.2

- 5 0 .6

9.08

c; 48.9 34.70

17.13

15.31

111 10.59

- 1 0 6 .9

21

-4 9 7 .9 -5 6 2 .4 - 1 9 .0

12.66

11.26

-4 7 .1 -1 8 1 .6 - 1 8 8 .9 -5 3 1 .7 8 -5 8 8 .4 9

32.0 22 - 2 6 .0 79.391 90.57

28.12 33 78.36 87.14

10.9 16.8 12.5 29.0 29.1 5.88 7.208

0 162.8

8.70 44.490

- 3 2 .7 - 4 4 .4

8.46 15.3

8.81 14.48

-1 6 3 .3 - 1 5 4 .4 - 1 3 .2 - 1 3 .7 -5 .0 -4 0 6 .1 -4 0 1 .1

50.3 95.71 22 29 19.97 38.3 76.9

35.4 28.88

17.45 32.2 23.2

303 Table 3-9 (continued) HEATS AND FREE ENERGIES OF FORMATION, ENTROPIES, AND HEAT CAPACITIES OF ELEMENTS AND INORGANIC COMPOUNDS S ta te

F o r m u la a n d D e s c r ip tio n

NbFe2 NbGe2 Nbl5 NbN Nb2N NbO

C C C C C C

9

c

N b02 NbOj ionic strength = 1 Nb2Os high-tem perature form Nb(OH)5 undissoc; ionic strength = 1 NbOCI2 NbOCIj

aq c aq c c 9

N itro g e n N

9

2 Nj std. state, m = 1 HNj undissoc; std. state, m = 1 n c i3 n h 3 undissoc; std. state, m = 1

n

9

aq

9

aq liq

9

aq aq, 1 aq, 10 aq liq

NHJ std. state, m - 1 N2H4

9

undissoc; std. state, m = 1 N2H£ std. state, m = 1 N2H5Br std. state, m = 1 N2H5Br • HBr N2H5CI std. state, m = 1 N2H5CI • HCI n 2h 5c i o 4 std. state, m = 1 N2H5OH undissoc; std. state, m n 2h 5n o

9

3

std. state, m = 1 (N2H5)2S 0 4 std. state, m = 1 h n f2 NO n o 2 N 0 2 std. state, m = 1 n o 3 NO j nitrate, std. state, m = 1 peroxynitrite N20 HN2O j N201- hyponitrite n 2o 3 n 2o 4 n Io .

=

aq aq c aq c c aq c c aq liq

1

9

aq c aq c aq 9 9 9

aq 9

aq aq 9

aq aq

9 9 9

±Hf° - 11.1 - 20.8 - 6 4 .2 - 5 6 .2 - 5 9 .9 - 9 7 .0 51 -1 9 0 .3 - 5 1 .3 -4 5 4 .0 -1 8 5 .1 - 210.2 -1 7 9 .8 112.979 0 65.76 70.3 62.16 55 - 11.02 -1 9 .1 9 -1 8 .0 1 1 -1 9 .0 7 4 - 3 1 .6 7 12.10 22.80 8.20 - 1.8 - 3 7 .2 - 3 0 .8 - 6 4 .8 - 4 7 .0 - 4 1 .8 - 8 7 .8 - 4 2 .2 - 3 2 .7 -5 8 .0 1 - 4 9 .0 -6 0 .1 1 - 6 0 .1 3 -5 1 .4 1 -2 2 9 .2 - 221.0 21.57 7.93 - 2 5 .0 16.95 -4 9 .5 6 - 1 0 .7 19.61 -9 .4 -4 .1 20.01 2.19 2.7



A G /°

- 11.8

24

c;

13.0

- 4 9 .2

8.25

9.32

- 9 0 .5 44 -1 7 7 .0 - 5 2 .3 - 222.8 -4 2 2 .1 -3 4 6 .2

11.5 57.09 13.03 61.0

9.86 7.36 13.74

32.80

31.57

34 85.6

22.0

-1 8 7 -1 7 1 .6

4.968 6.961

108.886 0 83.2 78.4 76.9

36.613 45.77 25.8 57.09 34.9

- 3 .9 4 - 6 .3 5

45.97 26.6

8.38

-1 8 .9 7 35.67 38.07 30.6 19.7

27.1 28.97 56.97 33 36

19.1 23.63 11.85

-5 .2

55.7

—17.1

- 1 1 .7

49.5

- 1 5 .8

17.6

79.7

- 1 8 .9 -2 6 .1

63 49.7

-6 .9 1 -1 3 8 .6 20.69 12.26 -8 .9 27.36 -2 6 .6 1 24.90 18.2 33.2 33.32 23.38 27.5

10.44

16.8

17.5

71 77 60.40 50.347 57.35 33.5 60.36 35.0 52.52 34 6.6 74.61 72.70 85.0

-3 6 10.37 7.133 8.89 - 2 3 .3 11.22 - 2 0 .7 9.19

15.68 18.47 20.2

304

Handbook o f Materials Science

Table 3-9 (continued) HEATS AND FREE ENERGIES OF FORMATION, ENTROPIES, AND HEAT CAPACITIES OF ELEMENTS AND INORGANIC COMPOUNDS S t a le

F o r m u la a m ! D e s c r ip t io n

NOBr NOCI n o 2c i n o c io

4 4

n o 2c i o

NOF n o 2f N20 3(S 0 3)2 H N 02 cis trans undissoc; std. state, m = 1 h n o 3 std. state, m = 1

NH2OH n h 2o h

2 NH2OH • HCI (NH2OH)2 • h 2s o 4 n h 2o h • h 2s o 4 H2N20 2 hyponitrous acid NH2N 0 2 nitramide n 4s 4 NSF n sf 3 NSe O sm iu m Os

9 9 9 c c 9 9 c 9 9 aq 9 liq aq aq, aq, aq, aq, c aq aq c aq aq aq c c

c

42.3

c

0 189 - 4 5 .5 - 6 0 .9 -1 9

9

c c

O s F6 cubic

9

O s (OH )4 O sS 2 O xygen 0

9

c c 9

am orp c

9

9 9

9

9 9

c 9

aq, oo c aq, oo c

- 6 7 .8 - 9 4 .2 - 9 2 .2 - 8 0 .6 - 3 4 .9 59.553 0 34.1 -5 .2 4.3 3.8 0 90.4 40.5 - 2 4 .9 - 88.8 56.9



65.38 62.52 65.02

10.87 10.68 12.71

- 12.2

59.27 62.2

9.88 11.9

-1 0 .2 7 -1 0 .8 2 - 1 3 .3 -1 7 .8 7 —19.10 -2 6 .6 1

59.43 59.54 36.5 63.64 37.19 35.0

10.70 11.01

- 5 .6 0

40

8.6

52

62.07 68.48

0 178 -2 9 -3 8

-4 6

c

o f

Pd2f PdBr2 PdBr2 Pd(CN)2

19.70 15.79 13.0

c

9

o2 o3

2 o 2f 2 o 2f 3 P a lla d iu m Pd

19.64 12.36 3.0 - 3 6 .9 8.7 - 1 5 .9 26 -2 5 3 -1 8 .6 4 -1 9 .1 5 - 2 8 .5 -3 2 .2 8 -4 1 .4 0 -4 9 .5 6 -4 4 .8 4 5 -4 6 .5 0 0 -4 9 .1 9 2 -4 9 .4 4 0 - 2 5 .5 -2 1 .7 - 3 2 .8 -75.9 -2 8 1 .3 -2 4 6 .7 -1 3 .7 - 2 1 .4 128.0

\G (°

9 9

OsCI3 OsCI4

O s0 2 0 s0 3 0 s 0 4 yellow white

1 2 10 100

M ir

- 7 2 .9 - 7 2 .6 - 7 0 .0 -1 6 1 .0 -3 2 55.389 0 39.0 - 1.1

0 81.2 42.2 - 7 6 .0

7.8 46.000 31 37

12.75 - 2 0 .7

10.55 17.18

5.9 4.968

58.8 85.56

28.88

34.4 40.1 70.2

17.7

13 38.467 49.003 57.08 59.11

8.98 39.90 -2 8 70

5.237 7.016 9.37 10.35

6.21 4.968

305 Table 3—9 (continued) HEATS AND FREE ENERGIES OF FORMATION, ENTROPIES, AND HEAT CAPACITIES OF ELEMENTS AND INORGANIC COMPOUNDS Formula and Description

PdCI2 PdC|2- MU HCI PdC I^ MU HCI Pd(CNS)2 P d2H Pdl2 PdO Pd(OH)2 pptd Pd(OH)4 pptd PdS PdS2 PdTe PdTe2

State C

aq, 00 aq, 00 c c c c c c c c c c

±H f° -4 1 .0 - 1 2 4 .8 -1 4 3 - 4 .7 -1 5 .2 -2 0 .4 - 8 9 .0 - 1 5 6 .0 -1 8 - 1 9 .4



±Gf° - 2 9 .9 - 9 9 .6 - 1 0 2 .8 5 6 .0 - 1 .2 - 1 5 .0

Cp°

25 62 65 2 1.9 36 7.5

-7 2 -1 1 5 -1 6 -1 7 .8

(35) 11 19 2 1.42 3 0 .2 5

12.23 18.31

P h o sp h o ru s

P

a, white red, triclinic black red

c c c am orp

P2 P4

PBr3

9 9 liq

PBrs PCI3

9 c liq

PCI5

9 c

PF

PP3 PP5

3

ph

PHJ p 2h

4

std. state, m = 1 std. state, m = 1

PH4Br PH4CI ph

4i

PH4OH

std. state, m

=1

P 'b

9 9 9 9 9 aq aq liq 9 c c c aq c

P3N3CI6

9 9 c c

p 4n 4c i 8

9 c

PN P 3N5

0 - 4 .2 -9 .4 - 1 .8 7 5 .2 0 14.0 8 - 4 4 .1 -3 3 .3 -6 4 .5 - 7 6 .4 -6 8 .6 -1 0 6 .0 -8 9 .6 - 2 1 9 .6 - 3 8 1 .4 1.3 -2 .1 6 - 1 .2 5.0 -3 0 .5 - 3 4 .7 - 1 6 .7 -7 0 .4 8 -1 0 .9 3 2 .7 6 -7 1 .4 - 1 9 4 .1 -1 7 5 .9

POBr3 POCI3

9 liq

- 1 4 2 .7

9 9

- 1 3 3 .4 8 - 2 8 9 .5

PO 3

PO}~ std. state, m = 1 P20}~ std. state, m = 1 PA P4O 10 hexagonal

po f

3

9 .8 2 5.45

5 .6 9 8 5.07

66.51 5.85 -4 2 .0 - 3 8 .9

3 8 .9 7 8 6 6 .8 9 57.4 8 3 .1 7

4 .9 6 8 16.05 18.16

- 6 5 .1 -6 4 .0

51.9 7 4 .4 9

17.17

- 7 2 .9

87.11 5 3.74

26.9 6 7 .56

- 2 1 4 .5

6 5 .2 8

14.03

3.2 0 .3 5 16.2

5 0 .2 2 48.2

8 .8 7

16.0

40

- 1 1 .4

26.3

0.2 - 5 6 .3 4

65

27.47

29.4

8 9 .4 5 5 0 .4 5

26.2

18.73 7.10

- 2 5 9 .2 - 2 3 6 .1

9 9 aq aq aq c c am orp c

po

0 -2 .9

53.221 -2 3 3 .5 -3 0 5 .3 -5 4 2 .8 - 3 9 2 .0 -7 1 3 .2 -7 2 7

- 2 4 3 .5 - 4 5 8 .7 - 6 4 4 .8

-5 3 -2 8 5 4 .7 0

5 0 .6 0

8 5 .9 7

21.48

5 3 .1 7 7 7 .7 6 68.11

20.30 16.41

- 1 0 9 .6 - 1 2 4 .5 - 1 2 2 .6 0 -2 7 7 .9

33.17

306

Handbook o f Materials Science

Table 3-9 (continued) HEATS AND FREE ENERGIES OF FORMATION, ENTROPIES, AND HEAT CAPACITIES OF ELEMENTS AND INORGANIC COMPOUNDS S ta te

F o r m u l a a n d D e s c r ip tio n

H P03

C

HPO3HPO^~ H2PO^ h ,p o 4

Std. state, m = 1 std. state, m = 1 ionized, std. state, m — 1 undissoc; std. state, m = 1

H2PO j H3PO 3 h 2p o

2 2 h 4p 2o 7 h 3p o

undissoc; std. state, m = 1 HP20 |- std. state, m = 1 H2P20 2 - std. state, m = 1 Hj P20 7 std. state, m = 1 H4P2O 5 H2P 0 3F undissoc; std. state, m = 1 P2S 3 PSBr,

aq c aq aq aq, aq, aq, aq c aq aq c c aq aq aq aq aq aq c c

.

1 2 5

-2 2 6 .7 -2 3 3 .5 - 2 3 1 .6 -3 0 8 .8 3 -3 0 9 .8 2 -3 0 5 .7 -3 0 5 .3 -3 0 7 .9 2 -3 0 4 .6 9 -3 0 5 .6 0 -3 0 6 .8 7 -2 3 1 .7 -2 3 0 .5 -2 3 0 .6 -1 4 6 .7 - 1 4 4 .5 - 5 3 5 .6 -5 4 2 .2 -5 4 3 .7 -5 4 4 .6 -5 4 4 .1 -3 9 3 .6 - 1 9 .2

P latinum Pt

-2 6 0 .3 4 -2 7 0 .1 7 -2 6 7 .5 -2 4 3 .5 -2 7 3 .1 0

- 8.0 21.6 26.41 -5 3 37.8

-4 8 5 .7 -4 7 1 .6 -4 8 0 .5 -4 8 3 .6

64 11 39 51

9

std. state, m = 1

R C I3 r c i4 RCIJ" std. state, m = 1 RCl£~ std. state, m = 1 R F 6 cubic r i4

2 3o 4 Pt(OH)2 RS r s 2 RTe R T e2 r o

r

Polonium Po P o2+ std. state, m = 1 Po4+ std. state, m = 1 PoCIJ- std. state, m = 1

c c c c aq aq c c aq c c aq aq aq c 9

c

9

c c c c c c c aq aq aq

0 135.1 -1 1 -2 3 .1 - 3 0 .9 - 3 8 .0 -8 9 -1 1 4 -9 - 2 6 .5 - 4 1 .6 - 5 6 .5 - 7 6 .2 -1 2 0 .3 -1 6 1

- 1 7 .4 41.0 -3 9 -8 4 .1 - 1 9 .5 - 2 6 .0

0

25.35

-2 8 7 .5 55.2 89.07 80.47

9

c



AG/°

9

PSCIj

RBr PtBr2 RBr3 R B r4 R B r\~ PtBr l~ RCI r c i2

aq aq aq

!H f°

0 124.4 (-7 )

(-6 9 ) (-8 9 )

- 1 8 .3 (-3 2 ) (-4 1 ) - 88.1 -1 1 7

40.1 ( - 66) - 1 8 .2 -2 3 .8

0 17 70 -1 3 8

9.95 45.960 (28) (44) (56) (68) (47) (67) (27) (28)

22.69 21.39 6.18 6.102

(36) (42) 40 52.6 56.3 83.23

29.35

62 (30) 13.16 17.85 19.41 30.25

10.37 15.75 11.93 18.31

307

Table 3-9 (continued) HEATS AND FREE ENERGIES OF FORMATION, ENTROPIES, AND HEAT CAPACITIES OF ELEMENTS AND INORGANIC COMPOUNDS State

Formula ami Description Po(OH)}+ std. state, m = 1 P o (OH)4 PoS P o ta s s iu m K K20 • Al20 3 • 4 S i0 2 leucite K20 • Al20 3 • 6 S i0 2 microcline (adularia) K2SiF6 KAI(S04)2 KAI(S04)2 • H20 KAI(S04)2 • 2H20 KAI(S04)2 • 3H20 KAI(S04)2 • 12H20 Kj As O j K3As 0 4 KH2As 0 4 KBr

KBrO KBrOj k 2c o

3

k 2c o

3 • v2h 2o K2C 0 3- I ^ H j O k h c o 3

K(HC02) k c 2h 3o

k 2c 2o

form ate

2

4

k 2c 2o 4 • h 2o KCN

KCNO

cyanate

KCNS

thiocyanate

KCI

KCIO

\H f°

aq c c g c c c c c c aq c c c c aq aq c aq c aq, aq, aq, aq, aq, aq c aq, c aq, aq, c c c aq, c aq c aq, aq, c aq, aq, aq, c c aq c aq c aq, aq, aq, aq,

ic r

.S°

-1 1 3 -1 3 0 52

10 50 500 1000 oo

oo

50 1000

1500

10 oo

100 5000 oo

2 8 50 x

9 c aq, 50 aq, oo aq

21.51 0 -1 4 0 6 .4 -1 8 1 6 -1 8 4 2 -6 7 1 -5 8 9 .2 4 -6 1 6 .9 - 6 6 7 .5 -7 4 2 -8 1 4 -1 4 4 7 .7 4 -3 2 3 .0 -3 9 0 .3 - 2 7 1 .5 -2 7 6 .2 -9 3 .7 3 - 8 9 .7 7 -8 9 .0 7 -8 8 .8 7 - 88.88 -8 8 .9 4 - 8 2 .0 - 7 9 .4 - 6 9 .6 -2 7 3 .9 3 -2 8 1 .0 2 -2 8 1 .5 6 -2 1 0 .4 3 -2 8 3 .4 0 -2 2 9 .3 - 2 2 4 .5 -1 5 8 .0 - 1 5 7 .7 -1 7 3 .2 -1 7 5 .6 -1 7 6 .8 8 - 3 2 0 .8 -3 1 6 .8 8 -3 1 6 .9 0 -3 1 7 .1 -3 9 2 .1 7 -2 6 .9 0 -2 4 .1 - 9 8 .5 - 9 3 .5 -4 8 .6 2 - 4 5 .4 6 -4 4 .3 2 -4 3 .1 1 - 4 2 .8 - 5 1 .6 —104.18 - 100.11 -1 0 0 .0 6 - 8 5 .4

14.62 0

-5 3 4 .2 9

-1 2 2 7 .8 -3 5 5 .7 -2 3 7 .0 -9 0 .6 3

38.30 15.2

48.9

164.3

37.08 23.05

-8 9 -9 2 .0 4

43.8

-5 8 .2 - 5 6 .6

35.65 63.4

-2 6 4

-2 0 7 .7

-1 5 6 .7

-3 9 3 .1

-2 8 -9 0 .8 5

-4 4 - 5 6 .2 -9 7 .5 9

57.24 19.76

-9 8 .8 2

37.7

c;

308

H a n d b o o k o f M a te r ia ls S c ie n c e

Table 3—9 (continued) HEATS AND FREE ENERGIES OF FORMATION, ENTROPIES, AND HEAT CAPACITIES OF ELEMENTS AND INORGANIC COMPOUNDS

309

Table 3—9 (continued) HEATS AND FREE ENERGIES OF FORMATION, ENTROPIES, AND HEAT CAPACITIES OF ELEMENTS AND INORGANIC COMPOUNDS S ta te

F o r m u la a n d D e s c r ip tio n

K R e04 KjRhCI* K2S

K2S • 2H20 K2S • 5H20 KHS

K H S• %H20 4

k 2s

k 2s

4 • v 2h 2o K2S4 • 2H20 k 2s o 3

KHSO j k 2s o 4

k h so

k 2s 2o

4

5

K2S20 5 -1V2H20 k 2s 2o 6 k 2s 2o

8

k 2s 4o

6

K2S50 6 - i y 2H20 K2Se K2Se • 9H20 K2S e • 14H20 K2S e • 19H20 KHSe K2S e 0 4 K H Se04 K2T e 0 3 K2T e 0 4 KVOj kvo4 k vo

5

P raseo d y m iu m Pr PrBr3 PrCI3 a

C C C

aq, aq, aq, aq, aq, aq, c c c aq, aq, c c aq c c c aq aq, c aq, aq, c aq, aq, aq. c aq c c aq, c aq c aq c c aq c c c c aq aq, aq, aq aq aq c aq aq 9 c c c aq,

7 10 20 25 50 200

10 200

385 1000 5000 20 100 800

400

440 220

oo

A ///0

-2 6 4 .0 2 -3 4 3 -1 0 0 -1 0 7 .0 4 -1 0 8 .9 5 -1 1 0 .1 7 -1 1 0 .2 7 -1 1 0 .1 7 -1 0 9 .9 4 -2 4 3 .0 -4 5 6 .7 - 6 3 .2 -6 4 .3 5 -6 4 .1 -8 0 .1 -1 1 3 .0 -1 1 4 .6 -1 5 0 .5 -2 5 8 .7 -2 6 6 .9 -2 6 9 .1 -2 0 9 .7 - 3 4 2 .6 6 -3 3 6 .7 5 -3 3 6 .8 1 - 2 7 6 .8 -2 7 3 .3 8 -2 7 3 .4 4 -2 7 4 .3 - 3 6 2 .6 -3 5 1 .9 -3 9 7 .0 - 4 1 3 .6 -4 0 1 .0 -4 5 8 .3 -4 4 5 .3 -4 2 2 -4 1 0 - 5 1 5 .4 - 7 9 .3 - 8 8 .5 - 7 2 2 .0 -1 0 6 6 -1 4 1 7 - 3 5 .9 - 3 5 .4 - 2 6 5 .3 - 202.8 -2 6 1 .6 - 2 9 0 .3 - 2 8 4 .0 - 2 7 3 .9 - 2 7 0 .4 - 2 5 4 .9 87 0 -2 2 5 -2 5 7 .8 - 2 9 2 .8

A G /°

-1 1 1 .4

-2 5 1 .3 -3 1 4 .6 2 -3 1 0

-9 9

-2 4 0

0

-2 6 3 .1

310

H a n d b o o k o f M a te r ia ls S c ie n c e

Table 3 —9 (continued) HEATS AND FREE ENERGIES OF FORMATION, ENTROPIES, AND HEAT CAPACITIES OF ELEMENTS AND INORGANIC COMPOUNDS S ta te

F o rm u la a m i D e s c rip tio n

PrClj • H20 PrClj • 7H20 Prl3 n Pr(NOj)2 P r0 2

Pr2Oj 11

Pr(OH)3

PrjfSO,),

Pr2( S 0 4)3 • 8H20 P ro m e th iu m Pm PmCI, R a d iu m Ra

R e- std. state, m = 1 ReAs2 ReBr3 R e3Br, ReClj ReCI5 R e3CI9 R eC I^ std. state, m = 1 H2ReCI4 ReF6 R e02 R e 0 2 • 2H20 pptd R e03 R e20 7

Rh20 3 Rh(OH)3 R u b id iu m Rb

c c aq, x

0 - 2 5 1 .9 - 2 9 0 .5

-9 9 6 .1

c c c c c c

31 0 -1 9 5 -3 5 1 -2 3 7 i -1 2 5 -3 5 2

g

0

c g

aq c c g

c c g

aq c g

c c c c c

std. state, m = 1

RhCI2 RhCI3

-3 3 0 .8 -7 6 4 .5 -1 6 2 .0 - 212.8 -3 1 8 .8 -2 3 4 .0 -4 4 4 .5 -1 3 9 1

g

H R e04

R eS2 Re2S 7 Re3Si R h o d iu m Rh

C C C aq, oo aq c c c c aq, x c

g

RaBr2 RaCI2 • 2H20 R a(N 0 3)2 RaO R aS 0 4 Radon Rn R h e n iu m Re

±HJ°

g

aq c c c c g g

c

g

c c g

c

0 184.0 11 1.3 -4 0 -6 9 -6 3 -8 9 -1 3 7 -1 8 2 -1 5 2 -2 7 3 -1 0 1 -2 3 6 -1 4 4 .6 -2 9 6 .4 -2 6 3 -1 8 2 .2 -1 5 9 - 1 8 8 .2 -4 3 -1 0 7 0 0 133.1 30.3 - 7 1 .5 16 -8 2

20.51 0



±G f°

-2 0 6 .1

-3 1 0 .7 -8 7 0 .2 -1 3 3 7 .0 0

23 0

42.15 17

-3 1 1 .7 -1 9 0 .3

50 52

-3 2 6 .0

34

0

42.09

4.968

0 173.2 2.4

8.81 45.131 55

6.09 4.968

-4 5

29.6

-1 4 1

60

-8 8

41

-1 2 7 -2 5 4 .8 -2 3 7 .6 -1 5 6 .9

61.5 49.5 108 37.8

-1 6 6 .0

48.1

0 122.1

7.53 44.383

(-5 4 )

(21)

(-6 5 ) ( - 112)

(27)

13.35 0

40.63 16.6

22.08

39.7

- 3 .2

5.97 5.022

24.8

311 Table 3 - 9 (continued) HEATS AND FREE ENERGIES OF FORMATION, ENTROPIES, AND HEAT CAPACITIES OF ELEMENTS AND INORGANIC COMPOUNDS F o rm u la a n d D e s c rip tio n

RbAI(S04)2 RbAI(S04)2 • H20 RbAI(S04)2 • 2H20 RbAI(S04)2 • 3H20 RbAI(S04)2 • 12H20 RbBr

Rb2COj

Rb2C 0 3 • H20 Rb2C 0 3 • 1 l/2H20 Rb2C 0 3 • 3V2H20 R bH C 03 RbCN RbCNS

thiocyanate

RbCI

R bCI03 RbCI04 RbF

RbF • l/3H20 RbF • 1»/2H20 RbHF2 Rbl Rb2lrCI6 R bN 03

RbNH2 Rb20 Rb20 2 RbOH

RbOH • H20 RbOH • 2H20 R bR e04 Rb2S RbHS R bH S04 Rb2S 0 4

S ta te

c c c c c c aq, aq, c aq, aq, c c c c aq aq c aq c aq, aq, aq, c aq, c aq, c aq, aq, c c c aq c aq, c c aq, aq, aq, c c c c aq, aq, aq, c c c aq c aq, c aq c aq, c aq, aq,

200 oo

200 2000

100 1000 oo oo oo

100 oo

oo

60 200 oo

3.2 200 oo

500

300 400 oo

!Hf° -5 6 9 -6 4 7 -7 2 2 -7 9 7 -1 4 4 8 .0 -9 3 .0 3 -8 7 .7 7 - 8 7 .8 - 2 6 9 .6 -2 7 9 .4 - 2 7 8 .0 - 3 4 4 .2 -3 8 1 .5 -5 2 1 .7 - 2 2 8 .5 -2 2 4 .1 - 2 5 .9 -5 4 - 4 1 .7 -1 0 2 .9 -9 8 .9 0 -9 8 .8 4 - 9 8 .9 - 9 3 .8 - 8 2 .4 -1 0 3 .8 7 - 9 0 .3 -1 3 1 .2 8 -1 3 7 .4 5 -1 3 7 .6 -1 5 6 .1 2 -2 4 0 .3 3 -2 1 7 .3 -2 1 2 .5 - 7 8 .5 - 7 2 .3 -2 9 0 .9 -1 1 7 .0 4 -1 0 9 .0 0 -1 0 8 .5 4 -1 0 8 .5 - 2 5 .7 - 7 8 .9 -1 0 1 .7 - 9 8 .9 -1 1 0 .5 -1 1 3 .7 -1 1 3 .9 - 1 7 7 .8 -2 5 0 .8 -2 5 6 .9 - 2 4 9 .2 - 8 3 .2 - 1 0 7 .8 - 6 2 .4 -6 3 .1 -2 7 3 .7 -2 7 0 .4 -3 4 0 .5 0 -3 3 4 .5 1 - 3 3 4 .7

±Gf°



-9 0 .3 8

25.88

-9 2 .0 2

49.0

-2 6 3 .8

-2 0 9 .1

-9 8 .4 8

-9 8 .8 0 - 6 9 .8 -6 8 .0 7 -7 3 .1 9 -7 0 .0 2

42.9 36.3 68.7 38.4 73.2

-1 3 3 .5 3

27.4

- 7 7 .8 -7 9 .8 0

28.21 55.8

-9 3 .8 6

64.7

-1 0 5 .0 5

27.2

-3 1 2 .2 4

33.8

c;

312

H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

Table 3—9 (continued) HEATS AND FREE ENERGIES OF FORMATION, ENTROPIES, AND HEAT CAPACITIES OF ELEMENTS AND INORGANIC COMPOUNDS I S ta te

F o r m u la a n d D evscription

RbHSe

RuBr3 RuClj black Ru CI4 Ru CI5(OH)2R u F5

aq c c

0 153.6 -3 3 -4 9 -0 .3 - 1 2 .4

9

c c 9 9

aq, c

hydrated RuOj Ru 0 4

SmBr3 SmCI3

c c am orp c

liq

a

Sm l3 ft Sm(OH)} Sm 2(S 0 4) 3 Sm 2(S 0 4)3 • 8H20 S c a n d iu m Sc Sc2 S c 3+ std. state, m = 1 ScBr2 ScB r3 ScCI ScCI2 ScCI3 ScCI3 • 6H20 Sc(CNS)2+ std. state, m = 1 ScF S c F2 S c F3 Scl2 ScO S c20 S c20 3 Sc(OH)2+ std. state, m = 1 S c (OH)3 S c (OH)2CI ScS

9

aq, aq. c

oo oo

9

c c c aq, oo c aq, oo c aq, » c c 9 9

aq

9

c 9 9

c aq, 5500 c aq 9 9

c 9 9 9 9

c aq c c 9

-2 1 3 .4 -1 8 9 - 1 5 .7 - 7 2 .9 - 1 8 .7 - 5 7 .2 - 5 4 .6 - 4 4 .0

9

Ru 0 4 RuO2Ru S2 S a m a riu m Sm



0 142.4

6.82 44.550

c;

5.75 5.144

-1 6 8 .7

oo

9

Rulj Ru 0 2

A C /’

- 3 5 .5 - 3 4 .3 -6 7 8 .4

C

Rb2SiF6 R u th e n iu m Ru

±Hf °

-4 7 87 0 -2 1 6 -2 4 9 .8 -2 8 9 .9 - 1 5 3 .4 - 2 0 9 .9 - 9 9 0 .3

0 90.3 154.9 - 1 4 6 .8 - 1 7 7 .6 26.9 - 221.1 -2 6 8 .8 -6 7 1 .6 - 3 3 .2 -1 5 3 .5 -3 8 9 .4 -2 9 8 -1 3 .6 8 -6 .9 -4 5 6 .2 2 -2 0 5 .9 ' - 3 2 5 .9 -3 0 3 41.8

- 5 1 .3 -3 6 .4 - 3 6 .4 -3 3 .4 - 5 8 .7 - 7 2 .6 -4 4

35.0 43.8 69.3

18.14

43.74 0

-2 5 9 .9 -2 0 2 .9 -3 0 8 .8 -8 6 3 .8 -1 3 3 2 .6 0 80.32 141.6 -1 4 0 .2

20.6

-1 1 9 .6 - 3 9 .3 -1 5 6 .6 -3 7 1 .8 -2 9 5 -1 9 .9 0 -4 3 4 .8 5 -1 9 1 .5 -2 9 4 .8 -2 7 6 .3 29.7

8.28 41.75 61 -6 1 77.6

6.10 5.28 8.7 13.0

56.00 72.5

8.40 12.6

53.11 67.0 22 71.8 81.6 53.65

7.74 11.5

18.4 -3 2 24 26 56.3

16.2 13.3 7.38 11.2 22.52

8.0

313

Table 3-9 (continued) HEATS AND FREE ENERGIES OF FORMATION, ENTROPIES, AND HEAT CAPACITIES OF ELEMENTS AND INORGANIC COMPOUNDS S t a ir

F o r m u la a m i |)r s< -r i|» lio ii

S c (S 0 4) ‘ std. state, m = 1 S c (S 0 4)? std. state, m = 1 S c 2( S e 0 3)3 • 10H2O S e le n iu m Se hexagonal, black monoclinic, red

SeF, HSe H2Se

g aq

1

=

g g g g c liq

std. state, m

=

1

g g aq

std. state, m

=

1

g aq

SeO Se02 SeO j SeO^ SeO^ S e20 5 SeOCI2 H Se03 H S e0 4 H2S e 0 3 H2S e 0 4

std. state, m std. state, m

= =

1 1

std. state, m = 1 std. state, m = 1 undissoc; std. state, m = 1

S ilic o n Si

g c c aq aq c g aq aq c aq c aq, x c am orp g g g liq

Si2 SiBr SiBr4 SiC

c c 9 amorp

glassy

Se2 S e2 std. state, m S e6 SeB r2 S e2Br2 SeCI2 SeCI4 S e2CI2

aq aq c

(i, cubic a, hexagonal

SiCI SiCI2 SiCI4 SiH3CI SiH2CI2 SiHCI3 SiF SiF2 SiF4 SiF£ std. state, m = 1 SiH}F SiHFj SiH

g c c g g g liq g g g liq g g g aq g g g

A ///°

-1 3 2 6 .5 0 1.6 54.27 1.2 34.9 39.2 -5

A r ;/°



C°t.

-3 2 1 .7 -5 0 1 .5

0

10.144

6.062

44.71

42.21

4.978

23.0 30.9

60.2

8.46

7

-7 .6 - 4 3 .8 - 1 9 .7 4 -2 6 7 3.8 7.1 4.6 12.75 -5 3 .8 6 - 3 9 .9 - 1 2 1 .7 - 1 4 3 .2 - 9 7 .6 -6 -1 2 2 .9 8 - 1 3 9 .0 -1 2 5 .3 5 -1 2 1 .2 9 -1 2 6 .7 - 1 4 0 .3

-2 4 3 10.5 3.8 5.3 6.41

74.99 19 52.32 39.1 55.9

- 8 8 .4 -1 0 5 .5

3 12.9

-9 8 .3 6 -1 0 8 .1

32.3 35.7

-1 0 1 .8 7

49.7

0 1.0 108.9 142 50 - 1 0 9 .3 - 9 9 .3 - 1 5 .6 - 1 5 .0 177 45.39 -3 9 .5 9 -1 6 4 .2 -1 5 7 .0 3

- 1 2 8 .9 1.7 -1 4 8 -3 8 5 .9 8 -5 7 1 .0

-1 1 5 .3 4 -5 .8 -1 5 0 -3 7 5 .8 8 -5 2 5 .7

26.4 8.30 7.47

0

4.50

4.78

98.3 128

40.12 54.92

5.318 8.22 9.23

-1 0 6 .1 -1 0 3 .2 - 1 5 .0 - 1 4 .4

66.4 90.29 3.97 3.94

-4 2 .3 5 -1 4 8 .1 6 -1 4 7 .4 7

67.0 57.3 79.02 59.88 68.26 54.4 53.94 60.38 67.49 29.2 56.95 64.96 47.42

23.21 6.42 6.38 8.81 12.16 34.73 21.57 12.20 14.45 7.80 10.49 17.60 11.33 14.47 6.98

314

Handbook o f Materials Science

Table 3—9 (continued) HEATS AND FREE ENERGIES OF FORMATION, ENTROPIES, AND HEAT CAPACITIES OF ELEMENTS AND INORGANIC COMPOUNDS S t a le

F o r m u la a n d D e s c r ip t io n

SiH4 Si2H6 S»j H8

g g liq

Sil4 SiN Si,N4 S i0 2 quartz cristobalite tridymite H2SiOj H4S i0 4 SiS SiS2 SiSe SiS e2 SiTe

undissoc; std. state, m = 1 undissoc; std. state, m = 1

S ilver

g c g c c c c am orp c aq c aq g c 9 c g

Ag

c

Ag2 Ag* std. state, m = 1 Ag2* in AM H CI04. std. state Ag3A s0 4 AgBr std. state, m = 1 AgBrOj AgCI

g g aq aq c c aq c c

std. state, m = 1 AgCI02 std. state, m = 1 AgCIOj std. state, m - 1 AgCI04 std. state, m = 1 Ag2C r0 4 AgCN Ag(CN)2 std. state, m = 1 AgCN2 cyanam ide AgONC fulminate AgOCN cy an ate AgSCN thiocyanate Ag2COj Ag2C20 4 Ag a c e ta te AgF std. state, m = 1 A g F • 2H20 AgF2 Agl std. state, m = 1 AglOj std. state, m = 1 Ag2M o04 AgNj

g aq c aq c aq c aq c c aq c c c c c c c c aq c c c aq c aq c c

W

K ;r

.S'°

8.2 19.2 22.1 28.9 - 4 5 .3 116.28 -1 7 7 .7 -2 1 7 .7 2 -2 1 7 .3 7 -2 1 7 .2 7 -2 1 5 .9 4 -2 8 4 .1 -2 8 2 .7 -3 5 4 .0 -3 5 1 .0 26.88 - 4 9 .5 23.78 -7 30.99

13.6 30.4

48 88 65.14

10.24 19.31

51.78 24.2 10.00 10.20 10.4 11.2 32 26 46 43 53.43

7.21

0 68.01 97.99 25.234 64.2 -2 3 .9 9 - 3 .8 2 -6 .5 -3 0 .3 7 0 -1 4 .7 1 8 2.10 9.3 - 6.1 1.5 - 7 .4 4 - 5 .6 8 -1 7 4 .8 9 34.9 64.6 56.2 43 - 22.8 21.0 -1 2 0 .9 -1 6 0 .9 - 9 5 .3 - 4 8 .9 -5 4 .2 7 -1 9 1 .4 - 8 7 .3 -1 4 .7 8 12.04 - 4 0 .9 - 2 7 .7 -2 0 0 .9 73.8

109.01 -1 5 3 .6 -2 0 4 .7 5 -2 0 4 .5 6 -2 0 4 .4 2 -2 0 3 .3 3 -2 6 1 .1 -2 5 8 .0 -3 1 8 .6 -3 1 4 .7 14.56

10.62 10.56 10.66 10.6

7.71 8.04 8.31

0 58.72 85.75 18.433 64.3 -1 2 9 .7 -2 3 .1 6 -6 .4 2 13.0 -2 6 .2 4 4

10.17 41.321 61.43 17.37 -2 1

-1 2 .9 3 9 18.1 22.5

25.6 37.1 36.5 23.0 58.75 30.9 32.16 41.6

17.6

56.2

6.059 4.968 8.84 5.2

12.52 -2 8 .7 12.14 8.57 - 2 7 .4 20.87

16.37 -1 5 3 .4 0 37.5 73.0

60.9 52.0 25.62 46

- 1 3 .9 24.23 -1 0 4 .4 -1 3 9 .6 -7 3 .5 6

29 31.3 40.0 50 35.8

-4 8 .2 1 - 1 6 0 .4

14.1 41.8

- 2 0 .3 31

-1 5 .8 2 6.10 - 2 2 .4 - 12.2 -1 7 8 .8 89.9

27.6 44.0 35.7 45.7 51 24.9

13.58 - 2 8 .8 24.60

34.00 15.95

15 26.83

315 Table 3—9 (continued) HEATS AND FREE ENERGIES OF FORMATION, ENTROPIES, AND HEAT CAPACITIES OF ELEMENTS AND INORGANIC COMPOUNDS State

Formula and Description

Ag,N Ag(NH3)£ std. state, m = 1 A gN 02 AgNOj Ag2o AgO Ag2o 2 Ag20 3 AgOH std. state, m = 1 AgP2

AgPj

Ag3P 0 4 Ag4P2o 7 A g R e0 4 Ag2S a, orthorhom bic

ft

Ag2SO 3 Ag2S 0 4

std. state, m = 1 std. state, m = 1

Ag2Se Ag2SeO j Ag2S e 0 4 Ag2Te Ag2W 04 S o d iu m Na NaAI02 NaH2A s0 3 NaH2A s0 4 Na2H A s04 Na3A s 0 3 Na3A s0 4 Na3A s0 4 • 12H20 N aB 02 N aB 0 3 peroxyborate N aB 0 3 • 4H20 Na2B40 7 Na2B40 7 • 4H20 Na2B40 7 • 5H20 Na2B40 7 • 10H2O Na3B i0 4 NaBr

c aq c c c c c c aq c c c c c c c c aq c aq c c c c c

47.6 -2 6 .6 0 -1 0 .7 7 - 2 9 .7 3 - 7 .4 2 - 2 .7 3 -5 .8 8.1 - 2 9 .7 3 6 - 11.0 - 1 6 .6 -4 5 3 -1 7 6 - 7 .7 9 - 7 .0 3 -1 1 7 .3 -1 0 1 .4 -1 7 1 .1 0 -1 6 6 .8 5 -9 - 8 7 .3 -1 0 0 .5 -8 .9 - 221.2

g

c c aq, aq, aq, aq, c aq. c c aq, aq c c aq, c c c c

400 300 400 500 500

300

900

g

o>

NaNHCN

8

c aq, 8 N aB r • 2H20 NaBrO N aB r0 3 NaCN NaCN • y2H20 N aC N • 2H20 NaCNO cy an ate

W

c aq aq, 400 c c c c aq, 2000 aq

25.98 0 -2 7 3 -2 2 7 .7 -2 7 3 .4 - 3 2 9 .5 - 3 1 4 .6 -3 6 5 -3 8 1 .5 -1 2 1 3 .9 -2 5 3 -2 4 1 .1 - 220.0 -5 0 4 .8 -7 7 7 .7 -7 8 7 .9 -1 0 7 2 .9 -1 1 4 3 .5 -1 4 9 7 .2 -2 8 8 -3 6 .3 3 -8 6 .0 3 -8 6 .8 9 - 8 6 .1 8 -2 2 7 .2 5 -7 9 .1 -6 8 .8 9 -2 1 .4 6 -5 6 .1 9 -1 6 2 .2 5 - 9 5 .6 - 9 0 .9 - 3 4 .5

A C/‘



- 4 .1 2 4.56 - 8.00 - 2.68 3.40 6.6 29.0 -1 9 .1 6 1

58.6 30.64 33.68 29.0 13.810 28 24 14.80

c;

19.17 22.24 15.74 10.76 21 - 3 0 .3

-2 1 0 -1 5 1 .9 - 9 .7 2 - 9 .4 3 - 9 8 .3 -7 9 .4 -1 4 7 .8 2 -1 4 1 .1 0 - 10.6 - 7 2 .7 - 7 9 .9 10.3

36.6 34.42 36.0 37.8 27.8 47.9 39.6 36.02 55.0 59.4 37.0

18.67 0

36.72 12.2

-3 4 1 .1 7

-8 7 .1 6

-5 7 .5 9

33.7

18.29

31.40 -6 0 19.54

20.9

316

H a n d b o o k o f M aterials S cien ce

Table 3 - 9 (continued) HEATS AND FREE ENERGIES OF FORMATION, ENTROPIES, AND HEAT CAPACITIES OF ELEMENTS AND INORGANIC COMPOUNDS S tate

F o rm u la an d D e scrip tio n

NaCNS thiocyanate

Na,CO,

Na2CO, ♦H20 Na2COj • 7H20 Na2COj • 10H2O NaHCOj Na2COj • NaHCOj • 2H20 NaHC02 formate NaHC02 • 2H20 NaHCOj • 3H20 NaC2H j02

NaC2H j02 • 3H|0 Na2C20 4 NaHC20 4 NaHC20 4 • H20 NaCI

NaClO NaClO, NaClO,

NaCI04

Na2C r04 Na2C r04 • 4H20 Na2Cr20 7 NaF NaHFj NaH

C

aq, aq, aq, c aq. aq, aq. aq, c c c c aq c c aq. c c c aq, aq, aq, aq. aq, c c aq. c aq, c

3 100 oo

15 40 200 400

400

3 6 25 6400 oo

600 400

9

c aq. aq, aq, aq, aq. aq c aq. c aq. aq. aq. aq. c aq. aq. aq, c aq. c aq. c aq. c •9 9 c

8 100 400 1000 oo

1000 400 1000 5000 oo

400 5000 oo

600 600 oo

A ///*

-4 1 .7 3 -4 1 .1 3 -4 0 .1 6 -40.1 -2 7 0 .3 -278.13 -277.30 -276.17 -2 7 5 .9 -3 4 1 .8 -765.1 -9 7 5 .6 -2 2 6 .5 -2 2 2 .5 -6 4 1 .2 -155.03 -154.92 -2 9 6 .6 -3 6 4 .2 -1 6 9 .8 -171.20 -172.57 -173.63 -174.07 -174.12 -383.50 -3 1 4 .3 -3 1 0 .5 -*257.8 -2 5 2 .7 -3 3 0 .2 -4 3 .5 0 -9 8 .2 3 -9 7 .7 8 -9 7 .2 5 -97.21 -9 7 .2 3 -9 7 .3 0 -8 2 .7 -7 2 .6 5 -7 3 .8 0 -8 5 .7 3 -80 .7 4 -8 0 .7 3 -8 0 .7 4 -8 0 .7 8 -9 2 .1 8 -8 8 .7 6 -8 8 .6 7 -8 8 .6 9 -3 1 7 .6 -3 2 0 6 -6 0 1 .3 -4 6 3 4 -1 3 6 .0 -135.94 -2 1 6 .6 -2 1 1 .2 29.88 -1 3 .7

c;

A C /°

-250.4

32.5

-251.4

-203.6 -203.9

24.4

-152.3

-283.4

-91.79

17.30'

-93.92 -93.94

27.6

-6 2 .8 -63.21

53.4

-65.16

57.9

-2 9 6 -431 -129.3 -1 2 8 67 24.78 -9 .3

14.0 12.1

44.93

317

Table 3—9 (continued) HEATS AND FREE ENERGIES OF FORMATION, ENTROPIES, AND HEAT CAPACITIES OF ELEMENTS AND INORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Nal • 2H20 NalO,

Na2lrCI6 Na2M o04 NaNH2 N aN 02 NaNOj

NazO Na20 2 NaOH

NaOH • H20 NaPOj Na3PO, NaH2POj NaH2P 0 3 • 2 l/2H20 Na2H P 0 3 Na2H P 0 3 • 5HzO NaH2P 0 4 Na2H P 0 4

Na2H P 0 4 • 2H20 Na2H P 0 4 • 7H20 Na2H P 0 4 • 12H20 Na3P 0 4

Na3P 0 4 • 12H20 NaNH4H P 0 4 NaNH4H P 0 4 • 4H20

g c aq, aq, aq, aq, aq, aq, aq, c aq, aq, aq, c c aq, c c aq c aq, aq, aq, aq, aq, aq, c c c aq, aq. aq, aq, aq. aq, aq, c c aq, aq, c aq, c c aq, c aq, c aq, aq, c c c c aq, aq. c aq, c

8 15 30 100 1000 5000 oo

100 500 oo

800

6 15 100 1000 5000 oo

3 6 25 100 300 1000 oo

600 1000 600

800 300 200 1000

300 1000 500

Atf/° - 2 0 94 -6 8 .8 4 - 7 1 .5 0 -7 1 .1 9 -7 0 .8 2 -7 0 .6 0 -7 0 .5 8 -7 0 .6 1 -7 0 .6 5 -2 1 1 .0 5 -1 1 1 .9 3 -1 1 2 .1 3 - 112.2 -2 3 3 .4 -3 6 8 - 3 6 8 .6 - 2 8 .4 - 8 5 .9 - 8 2 .6 -1 1 1 .5 4 -1 0 8 .4 7 -1 0 7 .8 1 -1 0 6 .8 3 -1 0 6 .6 0 -1 0 6 .6 1 -1 0 6 .6 5 - 9 9 .4 - 120.6 -1 0 1 .9 9 -1 0 8 .8 9 -1 1 1 .5 2 - 112.22 - 112.11 - 112.11 -1 1 2 .1 4 -1 1 2 .2 4 -1 7 5 .1 7 -2 8 8 .6 -2 9 2 .8 -3 8 9 .1 -2 8 9 .4 -2 9 0 .5 -4 5 4 .8 - 3 3 8 .0 -3 4 7 .5 - 6 8 4 .2 - 3 6 7 .7 -4 1 7 .4 -4 2 3 .8 9 -4 2 3 .4 4 -5 6 0 .2 -9 1 3 .3 -1 2 6 6 .4 -4 6 0 -4 7 5 .0 -4 7 3 .9 -1 3 0 9 .0 -3 9 8 .8 -6 8 2 .7

b* C=C< in a six-membered ring and conjugated with > C = 0 increases the dipole moment by approximately 1 Debye. Nonconjugated >C =C < in sterols decreases the dipole moments by approximately 0.49. Biologic activity is not correlated with dipole moment. (Kumler, W. D. and Fohlen, G. M.,7. Am. Chem. Soc ., 67, 437, 1945.) From Weast, R. C., Ed., Handbook o f Chemistry and Physics, 55th ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1974, E-66.

375

Table 3 - 2 9 BUFFER SOLUTIONS

A. Operational Definition of pH The operational definition of pH is pH = pH(s) + E/k, where E is the e.m i. of the cell H2 I Solution, pH | Saturated KC1 I Solution, pH(s) | H2 , the half-cell on the left containing the solution whose pH is being measured and that on the right a standard buffer mixture of known pH; k = 2.303 RT/F, where R is the gas constant, T the temperature (K), and F the value of the faraday. Alternatively, the cell Glass electrode | Solution, pH | Saturated calomel electrode can be used, the glass electrode being calibrated by a standard buffer mixture or, if possible, two standard buffer mixtures whose pH values lie on either side of that of the solution being measured. Suitable standard buffer mixtures are 0.05M potassium hydrogen phthalate (pH = 4.008 at 25°C) 0.025M potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.025M disodium hydrogen phosphate (pH = 6.865 at 25°C) 0.01M borax (pH = 9.180 at 25°C) For most purposes pH can be equated to -log! o7n+mH+’ i*e >to negafiye logarithm of the hydrogen ion activity. There is a small difference between those two quantities if pH > 9.2 or pH < 4.0, given by -log7H+mH+ = pH + 0.014(pH - 9.2) for pH > 9.2 -log 7 H+mH* = pH + 0.009(4.0 - pH) for pH < 4.0 It should be noted that in the table listing the round values of pH at 25°C the value for ~log7H+mH+ is quoted rather than pH, when there is a difference between these two values. REFERENCES Bates, R. G., Electrometric pH Determinations: Theory and Practice, Wiley & Sons, New York, 1954. Robinson, R. A. and Stokes, R. H., Electrolyte Solutions, 2nd ed. Butterworths, London, 1959. Bates, R. G.,7. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand., 66 A, 179, 1962. National Bureau of Standards Bates, R. G. and Acree, S. F .,Research, 34, 373,1945. Hamer, W. J., Pinching, C. D., and Acree, S. F., Research, 3 6 ,47 , 1946. Manor, G. G., DeLollis, N. J., Lindwall, P. W., and Acree, S. F., Research, 36,543, 1946. Bates, R. G., Research, 3 9 ,4 1 1 ,1 9 4 7 . Bates, R. G., Bower, V. E., Miller, R. G., and Smith, E. R., Research, 47, 433,1951. Bower, V. E., Bates, R. G., and Smith, E. R., Research, 51, 189,1953. Bower, V. E. and Bates, R. G., Research, 55, 197,1955. Bower, V. E. and Smith, R. E., Research, 56, 305,1956. Bower, V. E. and Bates, R. G., Research, 59, 261,1956. Bates, R. G. and Bower, Y. E., Anal. Chem., 28, 1322, 1956.

376

Handbook o f Materials Science

Table 3—29 (continued) BUFFER SOLUTIONS

B. Properties of Standard Aqueous Buffer Solutions at 25°C Weight o f salt in air per liter solu tion

M olality

Buffer substance

(« )

D ensity (g/m l)

M olarity

m

D ilu tion value ( APH y2)

APHS3

B uffer value, equiv. per pH

Tem perature c o efficien t, dpH s/d t (u n its per ° Q

T etroxalate S o lu tion

KH3 (C2 0 4 )2 -2H 2 O

0.05

12.61

1.0032

0.04962

+0.186

-0 .0 0 2 8

0.070

+ 0.001

+0.049

-0 .0 0 3

0.027

-0 .0 0 1 4

+0.052

-0 .0 0 0 9

0.016

+ 0.0012

T artrate Solu tion

0.0341

KHC4 H4 0 6 , sat.

-

1.0036

0.034

Phthalate S olu tion k h c

8o 4 h 4

0.05

1 0 .1 2

1.0017

0.04958

Phosphate S o lu tion k h 2p o 4 + Na2 H P 0 4

0.025 0.025

3.39 3.53

1.0028*

0.0249 0.0249

+0.080*

-0.0006*

0.029*

-0 .0 0 2 8 6

2p o 4 + Na2H P 0 4

0.008695 0.03043

1.179 4.30

1.0020*

0.008665 0.03032

+0.07c

-0 .0 0 0 5 *

0.016*

-0 .0 0 2 8 *

+0.01

-0 .0001

0 .0 2 0

-0 .0 0 8 2

+0.0014

0.09

-0 .0 3 3

k h

Borax S olu tion

Na2 B4 O7 -10H 2O

3.80

0 .0 1

0.9996

0.009971

Calcium H ydroxid e S olu tion

-

0.0203

Ca(OH)2 , saturated

0.9991

0.02025

-0 .2 8

#i*pHs = pHs(M molar solution) - pH s(m m olal solution). *For m ixture at given concentration. ^Calculated value for m ixture at given concentration.

C.

Solutions Giving Round Values of pH at 25°C C ode for S olu tion s

A: B: C: D: E: F: G: H: I: J:

25 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 25

ml of 0.2Af potassium chloride + x ml of 0.2M hydrochloric acid ml of 0AM potassium hydrogen phthalate + x ml of 0AM hydrochloric acid ml of 0 AM potassium hydrogen phthalate + x ml o f 0 AM sodium hydroxide ml of 0 AM potassium dihydrogen phosphate + x ml of 0AM sodium hydroxide ml o f 0 AM tris(hydroxym ethyl)am inom ethane + x ml o f 0AM hydrochloric acid ml of 0.025M borax + x ml of 0 AM hydrochloric acid ml of 0.02SM borax + x ml o f 0AM sodium hydroxide mr o f 0.05 M sodium bicarbonate + x ml o f 0 AM sodium hydroxide ml ofO.OSM disodium hydrogen phosphate + x ml o f 0.1A/ sodium hydroxide ml o f 0.2 M potassium chloride + x ml of 0.2 M sodium hydroxide

377 Table 3—29 (continued) BUFFER SOLUTIONS C. S olu tion A

JC

pH 1 .0 0

1.10 1.20

1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90

67.0 52.8 42.5 33.6 26.6 20.7 16.2 13.0 1 0 .2 8 .1

6.5 5.1 3.9

2 .0 0 2 .1 0 2 .2 0

Solutions Giving Round Values o f pH at 25°C (continued) S olu tion B

2 .2 0

S olu tion D

PH

JC

pH

JC

pH

JC

49.5 45.8 42.2 38.8 35.4 32.1 28.9 25.7 22.3 18.8 15.7 12.9 10.4

4.10 4.20 4.30 4.40 4.50 4.60 4.70 4.80 4.90 5.00 5.10 5.20 5.30 5.40 5.50 5.60 5.70 5.80 5.90

1.3 3.0 4.7

5.80 5.90 6 .0 0

3.6 4.6 5.6

6 .6

6 .1 0

6 .8

8.7

6 .2 0

7.00 7.10 7.20 7.30 7.40 7.50 7.60 7.70 7.80 7.90

46.6 45.7 44.7 43.3 42.0 40.3 38.5 36.6 34.5 32.0 29.2 26.2 22.9 19.9 17.2 14.7

8 .2

6.3 4.5 2.9 1.4 0 .1

1 1 .1

13.6 16.5 19.4 2 2 .6

25.5 28.8 31.6 34.1 36.6 38.8 40.6 42.3 43.7

6.30 6.40 6.50 6.60 6.70 6.80 6.90 7.00 7.10 7.20 7.30 7.40 7.50 7.60 7.70 7.80 7.90 8 .0 0

Solu tion F

PH 8 .0 0 8 .1 0 8 .2 0

8.30 8.40 8.50 8.60 8.70 8.80 8.90 9.00 9.10

S olu tion G

S olu tion H

JC

pH

X

pH

20.5 19.7 18.8 17.7 16.6 15.2 13.5

9.20 9.30 9.40 9.50 9.60 9.70 9.80 9.90

0.9 3.6 8 .8

9.60 9.70 9.80 9.90

1 1 .1

1 0 .0 0

1 1 .6

9.6 7.1 4.6 2 .0

1 0 .0 0 1 0 .1 0 1 0 .2 0

10.30 10.40 10.50 10.60 10.70 10.80

Solu tion E

jc

PH 2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 2.90 3.00 3.10 3.20 3.30 3.40 3.50 3.60 3.70 3.80 3.90 4.00

Solu tion C

6 .2

13.1 15.0 16.7 18.3 19.5 20.5 21.3 2 2 .1

22.7 23.3 23.8 24.25

1 0 .1 0 1 0 .2 0

10.30 10.40 10.50 10.60 10.70 10.80 10.90

11.00

8 .1

9.7 1 1 .6

13.9 16.4 19.3 22.4 25.9 29.1 32.1 34.7 37.0 39.1 41.1 42.8 44.2 45.3 46.1 46.7

Solu tion 1

pH

JC

5.0

10.90

3.3 4.1 5.1 6.3 7.6 9.1

7.6 9.1 10.7

11.00

1 1 .1 0 1 1 .2 0

13.8 15.2 16.5 17.8 19.1

11.30 11.40 11.50 11.60 11.70 11.80 11.90

2 0 .2

1 2 .0 0

1 2 .2

8 .2 0

8.30 8.40 8.50 8.60 8.70 8.80 8.90 9.00

1 2 .2

10.3 8.5 7.0 5.7

S olu tion J

JC 6 .2

8 .0 0 8 .1 0

1 1 .1

13.5 16.2 19.4 23.0 26.9

pH

JC

1 2 .0 0

6 .0

1 2 .1 0

8 .0

1 2 .2 0

1 0 .2

12.30 12.40 12.50 12.60 12.70 12.80 12.90 13.00

16.2 20.4 25.6 32.2 41.2 53.0

1 2 .8

6 6 .0

2 1 .2 2 2 .0

22.7

From Robinson, R. A. and Stokes, R. H., E le c tr o ly te S o lu tio n s , 2nd ed., Butterworths, London. 1959. With permission.

378

H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

Table 3—29 (continued) BUFFER SOLUTIONS

D. pH Values of Standard Solutions at Temperatures from 0 to 95°C

Temperature, °C

Tetroxalate, 0.05m

Tartrate, 0.0341m, saturated at 25°C

0

1 .6 6 6

_

5

1 .6 6 8

-

10

15 20

25 30 35 38 40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 95

1.670 1.672 1.675 1.679 1.683 1 .6 8 8

1.691 1.694 1.700 1.707 1.715 1.723 1.743 1.766 1.792 1.806

-

3.557 3.552 3.549 3.548 3.547 3.547 3.549 3.554 3.560 3.580 3.609 3.650 3.674

Phthalate, 0.05m 4.003 3.999 3.998 3.999 4.002 4.008 4.015 4.024 4.030 4.035 4.047 4.060 4.075 4.091 4.126 4.164 4.205 4.227

Phosphate*7

Phosphate^7

6.984 6.951 6.923 6.900 6.881 6.865 6.853 6.844 6.840 6.838 6.834 6.833 6.834 6.836 6.845 6.859 6.877

7.534 7.500 7.472 7.448 7.429 7.413 7.400 7.389 7.384 7.380 7.373 7.367

6 .8 8 6

-

-

_

Borax, .01m

0

9.464 9.395 9.332 9.276 9.225 9.180 9.139 9.102 9.081 9.068 9.038 9.011 8.985 8.962 8.921 8.885 8.850 8.833

Calcium Hydroxide. saturated at 25° C 13.423 13.207 13.003 12.810 12.627 12.454 12.289 12.133 12.043 11.984 11.841 11.705 11.574 11.449 — — -

aSolution of 0.025m KH2 P 0 4 and 0.025m Na2H P04 . S o lu tio n of 0.008695m KH2 P 0 4 and 0.03043m Na2 H P04 . From Robinson, R. A., in H a n d b o o k o f C h e m is tr y a n d P h y sic s , 55th ed., Weast, R. C., Ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1974, D-112.

379 Table 3 - 3 0

APPROXIMATE pH VALUES OF SOME ACIDS, BASES, FOODS, AND BIOLOGIC MATERIALS® Substance

pH

Substance

pH

A cids A cetic acid, TV A cetic acid, 0.17V A cetic acid, 0 .0 W Alum , 0 .17V Arsenious acid, saturated B enzoic acid, O.OliV Boric acid, 0.17V Carbonic acid, saturated Citric acid, 0.1 A Formic acid, 0.17V H ydrochloric acid, TV H ydrochloric acid, 0.17V

2.4 2.9 3.4 3.2 5 .0 3.1 5.2 3.8 2.2 2.3 0.1 1.1

H ydrochloric acid, 0.017V H ydrocyanic acid, 0.17V H ydrogen sulfide, 0.17V Lactic acid, 0.17V Malic acid, 0.17V O rthophosphoric acid, 0.17V Oxalic acid, 0.17V Sulfuric acid, TV Sulfuric acid, 0.17V Sulfuric acid, 0.017V Sulfurous acid, 0.17V Tartaric acid, 0.17V

2.0 5.1 4.1 2.4 2.2 1.5 1.6 0.3 1.2 2.1 1.5 2.2

Bases A m m onia, TV Am m onia, 0.17V A m m onia, 0.017V Borax, 0.17V Calcium carbonate, saturated Ferrous h y d io x id e, saturated Lime, saturated Magnesia, saturated Potassium cyanide, 0.17V Potassium hyd roxid e, TV

11.6 11.1 10.6 9.2 9.4 9.5 12.4 10.5 11.0 14.0

Potassium h yd roxid e, 0.17V Potassium h yd roxid e, 0.017V Sodium bicarbonate, 0.17V Sodium carbonate, 0.17V Sodium h yd roxid e, TV Sodium h yd roxid e, 0.17V Sodium h yd roxid e, 0.017V Sodium m etasilieate, 0.17V Sodium sesquicarbonate, 0.171/ Trisodium phosphate, 0.17V

13.0 12.0 8.4 11.6 14.0 13.0 12.0 12.6 10.1 12.0

B iologic Materials Bile, human B lood, plasma, hum an B lood, w hole, dog D uodenal co n ten ts, hum an F eces, hum an

6 .8 -7 .0 7 .3 - 7 .5 6 . 9 - 7 .2 4 .8 -8 .2 4 .6 -8 .4

Gastric con ten ts, hum an Milk, human Saliva, hum an Spinal fluid, hum an Urine, hum an

1 .0 - 3 .0 6 .6 -7 .6 6 .5 - 7 .5 7 .3 - 7 .5 4 .8 -8 .4

2 .9 - 3 .3 3 .6 - 4 .0 5 .4 - 5 .8 4 .5 - 4 .7 5 . 0 - 6 .0 4 .0 -5 .0 4 .9 - 5 .5 3 .2 - 3 .6 5 . 0 - 6 .0 6 .1 - 6 . 4 5 . 2 - 5 .4 4 . 9 - 5 .3 4 .8 -6 .4 3 .2 - 4 .0 2 .9 - 3 .3 6 .0 - 6 .5 6 .5 - 8 .5 6 .2 - 6.4 7 .6 -8 .0

Milk, cow s Olives Oranges O ysters Peaches Pears Peas Pickles, dill Pickles, sour Pim ento Plums Potatoes Pumpkin Raspberries Rhubarb Salmon Sauerkraut Shrimp Soft drinks

6 .3 - 6 .6 3 .6 - 3 .8 3 .0 - 4 .0 6 . 1 - 6 .6 3 .4 - 3 .6 3 .6 - 4 .0 5 .8 -6 .4 3 .2 - 3 .6 3 .0 - 3 .4 4 .6 -5 .2 2 .8 -3 .0 5 .6 -6 .0 4 .8 -5 .2 3 .2 - 3 .6 3 .1 - 3 .2 6 . 1 - 6 .3 3 .4 - 3 .6 6 .8 -7 .0 2 .0 - 4 . 0

Foods Apples A pricots Asparagus Bananas Beans Beers Beets Blackberries Bread, white Butter Cabbage Carrots Cheeses Cherries Cider Corn Crackers Dates Eggs, fresh white

380

H a n d b o o k o f M aterials Scien ce

Table 3—30 (continued) APPROXIMATE pH VALUES OF SOME ACIDS, BASES, FOODS, AND BIOLOGIC MATERIALS

PH

Substance

Substance

pH

Foods (c o n t) 5 .5 -6 .5 2 .8 -3 .0 3.0 -3 .3 3 .5-4.5 6 .8 - 8 . 0 3 .5 -4 .0 2 .8 -3 .4 2 .2 -2 .4 1 .8 - 2 . 0 6 .5 -7 .0

Flour, wheat Gooseberries Grapefruit Grapes Hominy (lye) Jams, fruit Jellies, fruit Lemons Limes Maple syrup

5 .1 -5 .7 5 .0 -5 .4 3 .0-3.5 5 .3 -5 .6 4 .0 -4 .4 5.9-6.1 5 .2 -5 .6 2 .4 -3 .4 6 .5 -8 .0 2 .8 -3 .8

Spinach Squash Strawberries Sweet potatoes Tomatoes Tuna Turnips Vinegar Water, drinking Wines

aAll values are based on measurements made at 25° C and are rounded off to the nearest tenth. From M o d e m p H a n d C hlorine C on trol, Taylor Chemicals, Baltimore. With permission.

Table 3 -3 1 IONIZATION CONSTANTS FOR WATER °C 0

5

10

15 20

24 25

-logj

0 Kw

14.9435 14.7338 14.5346 14.3463 14.1669 14.0000 13.9965

°C 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

~ l° 8 i

o

13.8330 13.6801 13.5348 13.3960 13.2617 13.1369 13.0171

From Weast, R. C., Ed., H a n d b o o k o f C h em istry an d Physics, 55th ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1974, D-131.

381

Table 3 - 3 2 COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF SOME INORGANIC ACIDS AND BASES SUPPLIED AS CONCENTRATED AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Compound

Formula weight

Composition, weight %

Acetic acid Ammonium hydroxide Hydriodic acid Hydrobromic acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrofluoric acid Phosphoric acid Sulfuric acid

9 9 -1 0 0 2 8 -3 0 4 7 -4 7 .5 4 7 -4 9 36.5-38 4 8 -5 1 85 9 5 -9 8

CH.COOH NH4OH HI HBr HC1 HF

60.05 35.05 127.91 80.93 36.46

12.0

28.9 14.7 18.0

98.00 98.08

h 3p o 4

1.05 0.90 1.5 1.5 1.18 1.17 1.7 1.84

17.5 7.4 5.5 9.0

20.01

h 2s o 4

Specific gravity

Molarity

From Weast, R. C., Ed., H a n d b o o k o f C h e m is tr y a n d P h y sic s , 55th ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1974, D-131.

Table 3 - 3 3 EQUIVALENT CONDUCTANCES OF SOME ELECTROLYTES IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS AT 25°C Concentration In gram equivalents per 1000 cm 3 Compound

Infinite dilution

0.0005

0.001

0.005

0 .0 1

0 .0 2

0.05

0.1

127.20 128.02 124.25 232.9 94.07

124.76 123.94 120.36 225.9 83.12

121.41 119.09 115.65 213.9 72.20

115.24 111.48 108.47

109.14 105.19 102.4

59.05

50.58

415.80 146.09 143.35 134.16 150.7

412.00 143.43 141.27 131.46

407.24 140.48 138.34 127.92

399.09 135.68 133.37 121.62

391.32 131.39 128.96 115.20

134.83 110.08 142.18 118.51 132.82

122.82 107.22 139.45 114.14 132.41

107.70

97.87

134.97 106.72 126.31

131.11 98.12 120.40

118.49

106.40 106.2 92.20 103.08

97.40 99.1 95.86 88.56 97.10

AgNo3 BaCl2 CaCl2 Ca(OH ) 2 CuS0 4

133.36 139.98 135.84 257.9 133.6

131.36 135.96 131.93

130.51 134.34 130.36

121.6

115.26

HQ KBr KC1 KC104 KaFe(CN ) 6

426.16 151.9 149.86 140.04 174.5

422.74

421.36

147.81 138.76 166.4

146.95 137.87 163.1

K4 Fe(CN ) 6

116.10

167.24 115.34

k n o 3

184.5 118.0 150.38 127.92 144.96

125.80 142.77

124.94 141.84

146.09 112.24 144.37 121.24 138.48

K Re0 4 LaQ 3 LiQ LiC104 MgCl2

128.20 145.8 115.03 105.98 129.40

126.03 139.6 113.15 104.18 125.61

125.12 137.0 112.40 103.44 124.11

121.31 127.5 109.40 100.57 118.31

107.40 98.61 114.55

114.49 115.3 104.65 96.18 110.04

NH4 C1 NaQ NaC104 Nal NaOOCCH3

149.7 126.45 117.48 126.94 91.0

124.50 115.64 125.36 89.2

146.8 123.74 114.87 124.25 88.5

143.5 120.65 111.75 121.25 85.72

141.28 118.51 109.59 119.24 83.76

138.33 115.51 106.96 116.70 81.24

133.29 111.06 102.40 112.79 76.92

128.75 106.74 98.43 108.78 72.80

85.9 82.70

81.04

83.5 80.31

80.9 77.58

79.1 75.76

76.6 73.39

69.32

65.27

k h c o 3

K1 K104

NaOOCC2 H 5 NaOOCC3 H 7

121.8

1 0 0 .1 1

382

H a n d b o o k o f M aterials S cien ce

Table 3 - 3 3 (continued) EQUIVALENT CONDUCTANCES OF SOME ELECTROLYTES IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS AT 25°C C oncentration in gram equivalents per 1 0 0 0 cm 3 Infinite d ilution

C om pound

0 .0 0 0 5

0.001

0 .0 0 5

0 .0 1

0 .0 2

0 .0 5

0.1

NaOH N a2 S 0 4 SrCl2

247.8 129.9 135.80

245.6 125.74 131.90

244.7 124.15 130.33

240.8 117.15 124.24

238.0 112.44 120.24

106.78 115.54

97.75 108.25

89.98 102.19

Z nS04

132.8

121.4

114.53

95.49

84.91

74.24

61.20

52.64

From Weast, R. C., E d., H an d b o o k o f C h em istry a n d P hysics, 5 5 th ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1 9 7 4 , D -132.

Table 3 -3 4 THE EQUIVALENT CONDUCTIVITY OF THE SEPARATE IONS Ion

0°C

100° C

128°C

156° C

188

245 262 171 275

299 322

50° C

75°C

104 67 115

101

143 149 96 163

130 213

161 142 160 244

214 191 207 321

252 264

312 318

111

113 98 116 173

18°C

25° C

Ag l/2 B a c2h 3 o 2

32.9 33 20.3 39

54.3 55 34.6 63

63.5 65 40.8 73

1/3C6 H s 0 7

36 30 41.1 58

60 51 65.6 95

70 60 75.5

240 40.4 35 40.2

314 64.4 61 64.5

350 74.5 72 74.5

465 115 119 115

565 159 173 159

644 206 235 207

722 263 312 264

777 317 388 319

40.4 26 105 41

61.7 43.5 172

70.6 50.9 192 79

104 82 284 125

140 116 360 177

178 155 439 234

222

263 249 592 370

1/2C 2 0 4

l/2 C a

Cl l/4Fe(CN )6 H K l/3 L a n h 4 n o

Na OH

3

1/2S0 4

68

From F orsyth e, W. E ., S m ith son ian P hysical Tables, W ashington, D .C ., 1 9 5 6 , 399.

200

203 525 303

211

336

9th ed ., Sm ithsonian In stitution,

383 Table 3 - 3 5 ACTIVITY COEFFICIENTS OF ACIDS, BASES, AND SALTS3 Compound

0 .1

0 .2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0 .6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1 .0

AgN0 3 A1C13 A12 (S 0 4 ) 3 CdS0 4 CrCl3

0.734 (0.337) (0.0350) (0.150) (0.331)

0.657 0.305 0.0225 0.298

0.606 0.302 0.0176 0.082 0.294

0.567 0.313 0.0153 0.069 0.300

0.536 0.331 0.0143 0.061 0.314

0.509 0.356 0.0140 0.055 0.335

0.485 0.388 0.0142 0.050 0.362

0.464 0.429 0.0149 0.046 0.397

0.446 0.479 0.0159 0.043 0.436

0.429 0.539 0.0175 0.041 0.481

Cr(N 0 3 ) 3 Cr2 (S 0 4 ) 3 CsBr CsCl Csl

(0.319) (0.0458) 0.754 0.756 0.754

0.285 0.0300 0.694 0.694 0.692

0.279 0.0238 0.654 0.656 0.651

0.281 0.0207 0.626 0.628 0.621

0.291 0.0190 0.603 0.606 0.599

0.304 0.0182 0.586 0.589 0.581

0.322 0.0181 0.571 0.575 0.567

0.344 0.0185 0.558 0.563 0.554

0.371 0.0194 0.547 0.553 0.543

0.401 0.0208 0.538 0.544 0.533

Cs N 0 3 CsOAc CuS0 4 HBr HC1

0.733 0.799 (0.150) 0.805 0.796

0.655 0.771 0.104 0.782 0.767

0.602 0.761 0.083 0.777 0.756

0.561 0.759 0.071 0.781 0.755

0.528 0.762 0.062 0.789 0.757

0.501 0.768 0.056 0.801 0.763

0.478 0.776 0.052 0.815 0.772

0.458 0.783 0.048 0.832 0.783

0.439 0.792 0.045 0.850 0.795

0.422 0.802 0.043 0.871 0.809

HC104 HI

0.803 0.818 0.791 0.772 0.770

0.778 0.807 0.754 0.722 0.718

0.768 0.811 0.735 0.693

0.766 0.823 0.725 0.673

0.688

0 .666

0.769 0.839 0.720 0.657 0.649

0.776 0.860 0.717 0.646 0.637

0.785 0.883 0.717 0.636 0.626

0.795 0.908 0.718 0.629 0.618

0.808 0.935 0.721 0.622 0.610

0.823 0.963 0.724 0.617 0.604

KOAc

0.769 0.755 0.778 0.739 0.79(J

0.716 0.727 0.733 0.663 0.766

0.685 0.700 0.707 0.614 0.754

0.663 0.682 0.689 0.576 0.750

0.646 0.670 0.676 0.545 0.751

0.633 0.661 0.667 0.519 0.754

0.623 0.654 0.660 0.496 0.759

0.614 0.650 0.654 0.476 0.766

0.606 0.646 0.649 0.459 0.774

0.599 0.645 0.645 0.443 0.783

KOH LiBr LiCl LiC104 LB

0.798 0.796 0.790 0.812 0.815

0.760 0.766 0.757 0.794 0.802

0.742 0.756 0.744 0.792 0.804

0.734 0.752 0.740 0.798 0.813

0.732 0.753 0.739 0.808 0.824

0.733 0.758 0.743 0.820 0.838

0.736 0.767 0.748 0.834 0.852

0.742 0.777 0.755 0.852 0.870

0.749 0.789 0.764 0.869

0.756 0.803 0.774 0.887 0.910

LiN 0 3 LiOAc MgS0 4 MnS0 4 NaBr

0.788 0.784 (0.150) (0.150) 0.782

0.752 0.742 0.108 0.106 0.741

0.736 0.721 0.088 0.085 0.719

0.728 0.709 0.076 0.073 0.704

0.726 0.700 0.068 0.064 0.697

0.727 0.691 0.062 0.058 0.692

0.729 0.689 0.057 0.053 0.689

0.733

0.737

0 .688

0.054 0.049 0.687

0.688

0.051 0.046 0.687

0.743 0.689 0.049 0.044 0.687

NaCI NaC104 NaCNS NaF NaH 2 P 0 4

0.788 0.775 0.787 0.765 0.744

0.735 0.729 0.750 0.710 0.675

0.710 0.701 0.731 0.676 0.629

0.693 0.683 0.720 0.651 0.593

0.681 0.715 0.632 0.563

0.673 0.656 0.712 0.616 0.539

0.667 0.648 0.710 0.603 0.517

0.662 0.641 0.710 0.592 0.499

0.659 0.635 0.711 0.582 0.483

0.657 0.629 0.712 0.573 0.468

Nal NaN0 3 NaOAc NaOH NiS0 4

0.787 0.762 0.791 0.766 (0.150)

0.751 0.703 0.757 0.727 0.105

0.735 0.744 0.708 0.084

0.727 0.638 0.737 0.697 0.071

0.723 0.617 0.735 0.690 0.063

0.723 0.599 0.736 0.685 0.056

0.724 0.583 0.740 0.681 0.052

0.727 0.570 0.745 0.679 0.047

0.731 0.558 0.752 0.678 0.044

0.736 0.548 0.757 0.678 0.042

RbBr RbCl Rbl

0.763 0.764 0.762

0.706 0.709 0.705

0.673 0.675 0.671

0.650 0.652 0.647

0.632 0.634 0.629

0.617 0.620 0.614

0.605 0.608 0.602

0.595 0.599 0.591

0.586 0.590 0.583

0.578 0.583 0.575

h n o 3

KBr KC1

KCNS KF KI k n o 3

0.1 0 2

0 .666

0.6 6 8

0.8 8 8

384

H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

Table 3-35 (continued) ACTIVITY COEFFICIENTS OF ACIDS, BASES, AND SALTS Compound

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

R bN 0 3 RbOAc

0.734 0.796

0.658 0.767

0.606 0.756

0.565 0.753

0.534 0.755

0.508 0.759

0.485 0.766

0.465 0.773

0.446 0.782

0.430 0.792

T iN 0 3 ZnS0 4

0.702 (0.150)

0.606 0.104

0.545 0.083

0.500 0.071

0.063

0.057

0.052

0.048

0.046

0.043

aThe coefficients given are valid at 25° C. Concentrations are expressed as molalities. From Weast, R. C., Ed., H a n d b o o k o f C h e m is tr y a n d P h y sics, 55th ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1974, D-132.

Table 3 -3 6 DISSOCIATION CONSTANTS OF ORGANIC BASES IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Compound Acetamide Acridine a-Alanine Alanine glyeyl methoxy-(DL) phenyl Allothreonine rt-Amylamine Aniline H-allyl 4-(p-aminobenzoyl) 4-benzyl 2 -bromo 3-bromo 4-bromo 4-bromo-N,N-dimethyl o-chloro m-chloro p-chloro 3-chloro-N,N-dimethyl 4-chloro-N,N-dimethyl 3,5-dibromo 2,4-dichloro N,N-diethyl N,N-dimethyl N,N-dimethyl-3-nitro N-ethyl 2 -fluoro 3-nuoro 4-fluoro 2 -iodo N-methyl 4-methylthio 3-nitro 4-nitro 2 -sulfonic acid

°C

Step

0.63 5.58 2.345

25 20

25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25

2 1 2

1

20 20

25 22 22

25 25 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25

pKa

3.153 2.037 9.19 2.108 9.096 10.63 4.63 4.17 2.932 2.17 2.53 3.58 3.86 4.232 2.65 3.46 4.15 3.837 4.395 2.34 2.05 6.61 5.15 2.626 5.12 3.20 3.50 4.65 2.60 4.848 4.35 2.466 1.00

2

2.459

* Ul

1

6

894.757

VELO CITY foot/hour to meter/second, m/s foot/m inute to meter/second, m /s foot/second to meter/second, m /s inch/second to meter/second, m /s kilometer/hour to meter/ second, m/s knot (international) to meter/ second, m/s

143.64

95.761

1.028 9

0.555 56

0.277 111

0.514 444 4

0.050 8

0.025 4

0.000 169 33

13 790

0.609 6

8

399.97

266.64

0.304 8

67

294 199.5

196 133

0.010 16

666

746.52

497.68

1,543 3

0.833 33

0.076 2

0.914 4

2.057

8

1.111 1

0.101 6

1.219 2

0.000 338 67 0.020 32

0.000 254 00

27 579

191,52

533.29

392 266

995.36

996.33

13 546

11 956

400 000

405 300

4

0.015 24

20 684

747.25

498.16

6

10 159

966.9

3

772.8

8

300 000

200 000

5 978.0

303 975

202 650

2

0.005 08

0.000 084

T E M P E R A T U R E (see Tables -4 -1 2 —4 —15

m eter2, N /m 2 pound-force/inch2 (psi) to newton/meter2, N /m 2

P R E SS U R E O R STR ESS (F O R C E /A R E A ) atmosphere (normal = 760 torr) 101 325 to newton/meter2, N /m 2 bar to newton/meter2, N /m 2 100 000 foot o f water (39.2 F) to 2 988.980 newton/meter2, N /m 2 inch o f mercury (32 F) to 3 386.389 newton/meter2, N /m 2 inch o f water (39.2 F) to 249.082 0 newton/meter2, N /m 2 inch o f water (60 F) to newton/ 248.840 0 m eter2, N /m 2 98 066.5 kilogram -force/centim eter2 to newton/meter2, N /m 2 millimeter o f mercury (0 C), 133.322 4 torr, to newton/meter2, N /m 2 pound-force/foot2 to newton/ 47.880 26

__

5

2.572 2

1.388 9

0.127 0

1.524 0

3.086 7

1.666 7

0.152 4

1.828 8

0.000 508 00 0.030 48

0.000 423 33

41 369

287.28

799.93

588 399

1 493.0

1 494.5

20 318

17 934

600 000

607 950

6

0.025 40

34 474

239.40

666.61

490 332.5

1 244.2

1 245.4

16 932

14 945

500 000

506 625

Table 4 - 4 (continued) CONVERSIONS TO SI UNITS

3.601 1

1.944 4

0.177 8

2.133 6

0.035 56

0.000 592 67

48 263

335.16

933.26

686 465.5

1 741.9

1 743.6

23 705

20 923

700 000

709 275

7

066.6

199.9

4.1156

2.222 2

0.203 2

2.438 4

4.630 0

2.500 0

0.228 6

2.743 2

0.000 762 00 0.045 72

0.000 677 33

62 053

430.92

1

882 598.5

2 239.6

2 241.7

30 478

26 901

900 000

911 925

9

0.040 64

55 158

383.04

1

784 532

1 990.7

1 992.7

27 091

23 912

800 000

810 600

8

426

Handbook o f Materials Science

3 218.7

1609.344

VOLUME acre-foot to meter3, m3 barrel (oil, 42 gal) to meter3, m3 m board foot to meter3, m3 bushel (U.S.) to meter3, m3 foot3 to meter3, m3 gallon (U.S. liquid) to meter3, m3

centistoke to metcr2/second, m2/s foot2/second to meter2/second, m2/s

KINEMATIC , v

centipolse to newton-second/ meter2, N-s/m2 pound-mass/foot-second to newton-second/meter2, N-s/m2 pound-force-second/foot2 to newton-second/meter2, N-s/m2 slug/foot-second to newtonsecond/meter2, N-s/m2

719 5 478 634 570 8

0.004 0.070 0.056 0.007

737 07 85 412

0.002 0.035 0.028 0.003

359 239 316 785

2 467.0 0.217 97

1 233.482 0.158 987 3

0.185 81

95.761

47.880 26

0.092 903 04

95.761

47.880 26

2. x 10"6

2.976 3

1.488 164

1 .x 10"6

0.002

0.001

191.52

191.52

143.64

143.64

438 9 96 27 142

0.009 0.140 0.113 0.015

0.007 0.105 0.084 0.011

079 2 72 951 356

4 933.9 0.635 95

0.371 61

3 700.4 0.476 96

0.278 71

4 .x 10"6

5.952 7

4.464 5

3 .x 10~ 6

0.004

0.003

6 437.4

107.289 6

80.467 2

53.644 8

26.822 4 4 828.0

1.788 16

4

1.341 12

3

0.894 08

2

0.447 04

DYNAMIC OR ABSOLUTE A*

VISCOSITY

VELOCITY ( continued) mile/hour (U.S. statute) to meter/second, m/s mile/minute (U.S. statute) to meter/second, m/s mile/second (U.S. statute) to meter/second, m/s

1

0.011 0.176 0.141 0.018

799 20 58 927

6 167.4 0.794 94

0.464 52

5 .x 10~ 6

239.40

239.40

7.440 8

0.005

8 046.7

134.112 0

2.235 20

5

Table 4—4 (continued) CONVERSIONS TO SI UNITS

0.141 0.211 0.169 0.022

58 43 90 712

7 400.9 0.953 92

0.557 42

6 .x 10~ 6

287.28

287.28

8.929 0

0.006

0.016 0.246 0.198 0.026

518 67 22 498

8 634.4 1 .1 1 2 9

0.650 32

7..x 10"6

335.16

335.16

10.417

0.007

11 265

187.756 8

160.934 4 9 656.1

3.129 28

7

2.682 24

6

8

0.018 0.281 0.226 0.030

878 91 53 283

9 867.9 1.271 9

0.743 22

0.021 0.317 0.254 0.034

238 15 85 069

11 101 1.430 9

0.836 12

9 . x 10 6

430.92

383.04

8 . x 10~6

430.92

13.393

0.009

14 484

241.401 6

4.023 36

383.04

11.905

0.008

12 875

214.587 92

3.576 32

9

427

0.187 28

2.293 7

0.000 049 161 0.000 088 721 0.026 429 0.002 839 1

3

0.249 71

3.058 2

0.000 065 548 0.000 118 29 0.035 239 0.003 785 4

4

8

0.312 14

3.822

0.000 081 935 0.000 147 87 0.044 049 0.004 731 8

5

0.374 57

4.587 3

0.000 098 322 0.000 177 44 0.052 859 0.005 678 1

6

0.437 00

5.351 9

0.000 114 71 0.000 207 01 0.061 668 0.006 624 5

7

0.499 42

6.1164

0.000 131 10 0.000 236 59 0.070 478 0.007 570 8

8

0

0.561 85

6.881

0.000 147 48 266 16 0.079 288 0.008 517 2 0.000

9

From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e rin g S c ie n c e , 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 808.

aThe thermochemical calorie is exactly 4.184 by definition. The international steam table (IT) calorie is exactly 4.1868 by definition. The thermochemical Btu is 1,054.350. Each Btu is defined in terms of the corresponding calorie by 1 Btu/lbm • R s= 1 cal/g • K.

86

1.529 1

0.764 554 9

0.124

0.000 0.000 0.017 0.001

032 774 059 147 620 892 7

2

0.000 016 387 06 0.000 029 573 53 0.008 809 768 0.000 946 352 9

V O L U M E /M A SS (SPEC IFIC V O L U M E ) foot3/pound to meter3/ 0.062 427 96 kilogram, m3/k g

V O L U M E (C o n tin u e d ) inch3 to meter3, m 3 ounce (U .S . fluid) to m eter3, m 3 peck (U .S .) to m eter3, m 3 quart (U .S . liquid) to m eter3, m3 yard3 to meter3, m 3

I

Table 4 —4 (continued) CONVERSIONS TO SI UNITS

428 H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

429

Table 4-5 SELECTED MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL CONSTANTS Rounded to 3 to 5 Significant Figures Sym bol (or equivalent)

Name Naperian base (natural) Natural logarithm o f 10 Com m on logarithm o f 2 Semicircle Cos 60° Cos 45° Cos 30° Ice point Avogadro’s num ber Gas constant

e lne 10 lo g ,„ J

2.718 2.303 0.301 3.1416 0.500 0.707 0.866 273.15 6.022 X 1023 8.317 X 1 0 7 1.988 8.208 8.617 X 1 0 '* 1.380 X 1 0 '16 0.33 X 1 0 "23 9.806 2.998 X 10s 6.626 X 1 0 '27 1.58 X l O '34 9.649 X 104 27 (approx.) 4.803 X 1 0 '10 1.602 X 1 0 '12 1.602 X l O '19 1.602 X 10 " 2 0 1.759 X 103

7T y2 n

/2 /2

n/372 T0 N R

B oltzm ann constant

k (R /N )

A cceleration due to gravity Velocity o f light (vacuum) Planck constant

go

c h

Faraday constant Charge o f one electron

e - 13T/N)

Charge-to-mass ratio o f electron Rest mass o f one electron

e7m e

C om pton wavelength o f free electron

Value

* /e

U nits

radians

K atom s (particles)/m ole erg/ K-mole cal/ K-mole 1-atm/ K-mole ev/ K-atom (particles) erg/ K-atom cal/ K-atom m /s2 m/s erg-sec/atom (particles) cal-sec/atom coulom b/m ole am p-hr/m ole (erg-cm)1//2, or esu erg/volt joule/volt (J/V ) emu coulom b/gram

me W a »n ue ^

9.109 X 1 0 "23

gram

\ ce(h/m ec)

2.426 X 10 " , 0

cm

Table com piled by A. Kgeaud, University o f Cincinnati.

Table 4-6A ABBREVIATED TABLE OF CONVERSION FACTORS Length (meter) 1 light year 1 astron. unit 1 naut. mile 1 mile (U.S.) 1 fathom 1 yard 1 fo o t 1 inch 1 mil 1 K r86 wavelength 1 angstrom

= = = = = = = = = = =

9,460 149.5 1.852 1.609 1.829 0.9144 0.3048 2.54 25.4 606 0.1

Tm (1 0 12 m) Gm (109 m) km (1 0 3 m) km m m m cm (10 ~2 m ) /um (10 ~6 m ) nm (10 ~9 m ) nm

1 Tm 1 Tm 1 km 1 km 1m 1m 1m 1 cm 1 /um 1 nm 1 nm

= = = = = = = = = =

0.1058 X 1 0 ’ 3 6.69 0.54 0.622 0.547 1.0936 3.281 0.3937 0.04 1.65 10

light years astron. units naut. miles mile (U.S.) fathom yard foot inch mil K r86 wavelength angstrom

4 30

Handbook o f Materials Science

Table 4-6A (continued) ABBREVIATED TABLE OF CONVERSION FACTORS Area (m eter)2 1 sq mile (U.S.) 1 hectare 1 acre 1 are 1 sq yard 1 sq fo o t 1 sq inch 1 circ. mil 1 sq angstrom 1 barn

= 2.59 = 1 = 4,047 = 100 = 0.8361 = 929 = 6.452 0.0005 = 10,000 = 0.0001

km 2 (103 m )2 h m 2 (102 m )2 m2 m2 m2 cm 2 (1 0 -2 m )2 cm 2 m m 2 (1 0 -3 m )2 pm 2 (1 0 _12 m )2 pm 2

1 km 2 1 km 2 1 hm 2 1 hm 2 1 m2 1 m2 1 cm 2 1 mm2 1 nm 2 1 pm 2

= = = = = = = = =

0.3861 100 2.471 100 1.196 10.764 0.155 1,973.5 100 10,000

sq mile (U.S.) hectare acre are sq yard sq fo o t sq inch circ. mil sq angstrom bam s

Density (kilogram /m 3 ) 1 lb mass/cu inch 1 gram /cc 1 slug/cu ft 1 lb mass/USG 1 lb mass/cu ft

= = = = =

27.68 1,000 515.4 119.8 16.02

M g/m3 kg/m 3 kg/m 3 kg/m 3 kg/m 3

1 kg/m 3 1 kg/m 3 1 g/cm 3 1 g/cm 3 1 g/cm 3

= = = = —

36.13 0.001 1.94 8.345 62.43

lb mass/cu inch gram /cc slug/cu ft lb mass/USG lb m ass/cu ft

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

0.8107 0.2759 0.3531 1.308 6.3 28.4 35.31 0.424 0.220 0.2642 1.0567 2.113 33.81 0.061 0.27 16.23

acre foot cord register ton cu yard barrel (USG) bushel (U.S.) cu ft board foot (Im p.) gallon (U.S.) gallon (U.S.) quart (U.S.) pint (U.S.) fl ounce cu inch dram (U.S.) minim (U.S.)

= = = = = = =

0.985 1.0 1.102 2.204 35.27 0.564 5 15.4

long to n m etric ton short to n (2,000 lb) pounds (avoir) ounce (avoir) dram (avoir) carat (m etric) grain

V olum e (m eter)3 1 acre foot 1 cord 1 register ton 1 cu yard 1 barrel (42 USG) 1 bushel (U.S.) 1 cu ft 1 board fo o t 1 gallon (Im p.) 1 gallon (U.S.) 1 quart (U.S.) 1 pint (U.S.) 1 fl ounce (U.S.) 1 cu inch 1 dram (U.S.) 1 minim (U.S.)

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

1,233.5 3.625 2.832 764.5 159 35.24 28.32 2.36 4.546 3.785 0.9463 473.2 29.57 16.39 3.697 61.6

m 3 (kl) m3 m3 d m 3 (1 0 " 1 m )3 1 (1 0 " 1 m )3 1 dm 3 dm 3 1 1 1 ml (10 "2 m )3 ml cc (10 "2 m )3 ml Ml (10 "3 m )3

1 dam 3 1 m3 1 m3 1 m3 1 kl 1 kl 1 m3 1 dm 3 11 11 11 11 11 1 cc 1 ml 1 ml

Mass (kilogram ) 1 long ton 1 m etric to n 1 short to n (2,000 lb) 1 pound (avoir) 1 ounce (avoir) 1 dram (avoir) 1 carat (m etric) 1 grain

= = = = = = =

=

1.016 1,000 907 453.6 28.35 1.77 0.2 64.8

Mg (106 g) kg (103 g) kg g g g g mg (10 "3 g)

1 Mg 1 Mg 1 Mg 1 kg 1kg 1g lg 1g

=

Tim e (m ean solar seconds) 1 calendar year 1 calendar m onth 1 day 1 hour 1 m inute

a# = = =

30 2.5 86.40 3.60 60.0

Ms (106 s) Ms ks ks (1 0 3 s) s

1 Ms 1 Ms 1 Ms 1 Ms 1 ks

a* a* = = =

0.032 0.4 11.574 277.8 16.67

calendar year calendar m onth days hours m inutes

431

Table 4-6A (continued) ABBREVIATED TABLE OF CONVERSION FACTORS Planar Angle (radian) 360° 180° 90° 1° 1

(2 t t ) (t t )

{f)

f - 1- ) M 80;

= = = =

6.283 3.1416 1.5708 0.01745

rad rad rad rad

1 rad 1 m rad 1 Mrad

= = =

57.296° 3.438' 0 .206"

= =

0.0796 0.159 0.636 3,282.8

(degrees) (m inutes) (seconds)

Solid Angle (steradian) 1 1 1 1

sphere hem isphere o ctan t square degree

= = = =

12.566 6.283 1.5708 0.3046

1 1 1 1

sr sr sr msr

sr sr sr sr

sphere hem isphere octant square degree

V elocity (m eter/second) 1 (U.S.) mile/sec 1 (U.S.) mile/m in 1 (Int.) k n o t 1 (U.S.) m ile/hr 1 foot/sec 1 km /hr 1 inch/sec 1 foot/m in 1 fo o t/h r

= = = = = = = = =

1.609 26.82 0.514 0.447 0.305 0.278 2.54 5.08 84.67

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

km /s m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s cm/s mm /s Mm/s

km /s km /s m /s m /s m /s m /s m /s m /s cm /s

=

= = = = =

0.622 37.28 1.94 2.237 3.28 3.6 39.37 196.85 118.1

(U.S.) m ile/sec (U.S.) m ile/m in (Int.) knot (U.S.) m ile/hr ft/sec km /hr in./sec ft/m in ft/h r

0.102 2.237 3.281 3.6 39.37 100

gravity (mean) mile/hr-sec foot/sq sec km /hr-sec inch/sq sec galileo

A cceleration (m eter/second2) gravity (m ean) 1 mile/hr-sec 1 fo o t/sq sec 1 km /hr-sec 1 inch/sq sec 1 galileo

= = = = = =

9.806 0.447 0.305 0.278 0.0254 0.01

m /s2 m /s2 m /s2 m /s2 m /s2 m /s2

1 m /s2 1 m /s2 1 m /s2 1 m /s2 1 m /s2 1 m /s2

= = = = =

F orce (new ton) 1 kg force (kgf) 1 pound force (lbf) 1 ounce force 1 poundal 1 dyne

= = = = =

9.806 4.448 0.278 0.138 10.0

N N N N MN

1 1 1 1 1

N N N N N

0.102 0.225 3.6 7.24 105

kg force pound force (avoir) ounce force poundal dyne

9.87 10.0 10.197 145. 0.296 0.75 4.02 7.57 10.0 10.2 20.88 101.97 1.0

atm osphere bar kgf/sq cm lbf/sq inch inch Hg (60° F) cm Hg (0°F ) inch H20 (60° F) mm Hg (0°C) or tor millibar cm H20 (4°C) lbf/sq foot kgf/sq m eter P (pascal)

Pressure (new ton/m 2 or pascal) 1 atm osphere (14.7 psi) 1 bar 1 kgf/sq cm 1 lbf/sq inch (psi) 1 inch Hg (60° F) 1 cm Hg (0° F) 1 inch H20 (60° F) 1 mm Hg (0°C) or torr 1 millibar 1 cm H20 (4°C) 1 lbf/sq f 1 kgf/sq m eter 1 pascal (P)

= = = = = = = = = = = = =

101.325 100.0 98.06 6.895 3.377 1.333 248.84 133.32 100.0 98.064 47.88 9.806 1.0

kN /m 2 kN /m 2 kN /m 2 kN /m 2 kN /m 2 kN /m 2 N /m 2 N /m 2 N /m 2 N /m 2 N /m 2 N /m 2 N /m 2

1 M N/m2 1 M N/m 2 1 M N/m 2 1 M N/m 2 1 k N /m 2 1 k N /m 2 1 k N /m 2 1 k N /m 2 1 k N /m 2 1 k N /m 2 1 kN /m 2 1 kN /m 2 1 N /m 2

= = = = = = = = = = = = =

432

H a n d b o o k o f M aterials Scien ce

Table 4-6A (continued) ABBREVIATED TABLE OF CONVERSION FACTORS Pressure (new ton/m 2 or pascal) (continued) 1 dyne/sq cm or barye 10 ~6 torr

= =

0.1 133.32

N /m 2 /uN/m2

1 N /m 2 = 1 m N /m 2 =

10.0 7.57

dyne/sq cm or barye 1 0 -6 torr

Dynamic Viscosity (new ton-seconds/m eter2) 1 lbf-sec/sq foot 1 poundal-sec/sq foot 1 lbm /foot-sec 1 poise 1 centipoise

= = = = =

47.88 1.488 1.488 0.1 0.001

1 N*s/m 2 1 N -s/m 2 1 N -s/m 2 1 N -s/m 2 1 N -s/m 2

N -s/m 2 N -s/m 2 N -s/m 2 N -s/m 2 N -s/m 2

= = = = =

0.0209 0.672 0.672 10 1,000

= =

238 277.8 372.5 277.8 947.0 9.869 101.97 238.89 238.95 239.00 239.18 0.737 1.0 23.73 10.0 6.242

to n (TNT-equiv) kWh HP-hr w att-hr Btu (mean) liter-atm osphere kilogram -m eter calorie (mean) calorie (15°C) calorie (therm ochem ) calorie (20° C) foot-lbf watt-sec foot-poundal erg eV

102 239 0.9485 1.3405 1.341 1.3596 14.33 56.88 239 737.56 14.33 44.25 2.655 10

boiler horsepow er kcal/sec (therm ochem ) Btu/sec (therm ochem ) HP (electric/w ater) HP (550 ft-lbf/sec) HP (m etric) kcal/m in (therm ochem ) B tu/m in (therm ochem ) cal/sec (therm ochem ) ft-lbf/sec cal/m in (therm ochem ) ft-lbf/m in ft-lbf/hr erg/sec

10.363 277.8 1.0 0.0336

faraday amp-hr amp-sec faraday

lbf-sec/sq foot poundal-sec/sq foot lbm /foot-sec poise centipoise

Energy (joule) 1 to n (TNT-equiv) 1 kWh 1 HP-hr 1 w att-hr 1 Btu (m ean) 1 1-atm 1 kg-m 1 cal (m ean) 1 cal (15° C) 1 cal (therm ochem ) 1 cal (20° C) 1 foot-lbf 1 watt-sec 1 foot-poundal 1 erg (dyne-cm) 1 eV

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

4.2 3.6 2.68 3.6 1.0559 101.33 9.807 4.190 4.1858 4.1840 4.1819 1.356 1.0 42.14 0.10 0.1602

1 TJ 1 GJ 1 GJ 1 MJ 1 MJ 1 kJ 1 kJ 1 kJ 1 kJ 1 kJ 1J 1J 1J 1J 1 /iJ 1 aJ

GJ MJ MJ kJ kJ J J J J J J J J mJ juJ aJ

Power (w att) 1 boiler horsepower 1 kcal/sec 1 Btu/sec 1 HP (electric/w ater) 1 HP (U.K.) 1 HP (m etric) 1 kcal/m in 1 Btu/m in 1 cal/sec 1 ft-lbf/sec 1 cal/min 1 ft-lbf/m in 1 ft-lbf/hr 1 erg/sec

= = = = = = = = = = = = = =

9.809 4.184 1.054 746 745.7 735.5 69.73 17.57 4.184 1.356 69.73 22.597 .3766 0.10

kW kW kW W W W W W W W mW mW mW mW

1 MW 1 MW 1 kW 1 kW 1 kW 1 kW 1 kW 1 kW 1 kW 1 kW 1W 1W 1 mW 1 /uW Charge (coulom b)

1 faraday 1 amp-hr 1 amp-sec 1 faraday

= 96,487 = 3,600 1.0 = = 26.8

C C C A -hr

Table com piled by A. Pigeaud, University o f Cincinnati.

1 MC 1 MC 1C 1 A -hr

433

Table 4-6B TEMPERATURE CONVERSIONS - SHORT TABLE®

oo

vo|Cr»

Temperature (Kelvin) " | *F + 2 5 5 -4

tK ~ tC + 21

-5 2 4 .8 °F -3 2 8 -279.8 -1 4 8 - 99.8 0

0 K 73.2 100 173.2 200 255.4

-2 7 3 .2 -2 0 0 -1 7 3 .2 -1 0 0 - 73.2 - 17.8

32 °F 80.2 100 200 212 260.2 300

273.2 K 300 311 366.5 373.2 400 422.1

0 26.8 37.8 93.3 100 126.8 148.9

392 °F 400 440.2 500 572 600 620.2 700

473.2 K 477.6 500 533.2 573.2 588.7 600 644.3

200 204.4 226.8 260 300 315.6 326.8 371.1

752 °F 800.2 900 932 980.2 1,000 1,100

673.2 K 700 756.5 773.2 800 811 866.5

400 426.7 483.3 500 526.8 537.8 593.3

1,112 °F 1,160.2 1,200 1,292 1,300 1,340.2 1,400

873.2 K 900 922.1 973.2 977.6 1,000 1,033.2

600 626.8 648.9 700 704.4 726.8 760

1,472 °F 1,500 1,520.4 1,600 1,652 1,700.2 1,800

1,073.2 K 1,088.7 1,100 1,144.3 1,173.2 1,200 1,255.4

800 815.6 826.9 871 900 926.8 982.2

1,832 1,878 2,000 2,012 2,058 2,192 2,238

1,273.2 1,300 1,366.5 1,373.2 1,400 1,473.2 1,500

°F

k

1,000 1,026.8 1,093.3 1,100 1,126.8 1,200 1,226.8

434

Handbook o f Materials Science

Table 4—6B (continued) TEMPERATURE CONVERSIONS - SHORT TABLE8 Temperature (Kelvin) tc = | t p - 1 7 . 8

tjC ”

‘K = | *F + 2 5 5 -4

2,372

1,573.2

+ 273.15

1,300

2,552 2,598 2,732 3,000 3,092 3,140.2 3,500

°F

1,673.2 1,700 1,773.2 1,922 1,973.2 2,600 2,199.8

K

1,400 1,426.8 1,500 1,650 1,700 1,726.8 1,926.8

3,632 4,038 4,532 4,940 5,000 5,432

°F

2,273.2 2,500 2,773.2 3,000 3,033.2 3,273.2

K

2,000 2,226.8 2,500 2,726.8 2,760 3,000

aSee also Tables 4 - 1 2 through 4 - 1 5 . Table com piled by A. Pigeaud, University o f Cincinnati.

Table 4 - 7 CONVERSION OF ELECTRICAL TO MECHANICAL UNITS (SI) Electrical units

Mechanical equivalentsa

C harge-coulom b (C) P o te n tia l-v o lt (V)

(J /m )*

C u rre n t-a m p e re (A = C/s)

(J -m )* s

E nergy-volt-coulom b (VC)

(J /m )* • (J -m ) * = J

P o w e r-w a tt (W = VA)

( J / m ) * . ( J *m )* = J / s s

F orce—upon a unit charge in a unit electric field (V /m -C )

(J/m 3) * • ( J - m ) * = J/m = N

F o rc e -b e tw e e n tw o u n it charges according to law o f electrostatic attraction-repulsion in a vacuum Ct C2

( £ ^ ) ! : ^ ^ ) * = J /m = N m

^2

a joule (J/m ) = new ton (N) = - g#—m eter s* Table com piled by A. Pigeaud, University o f Cincinnati.

°C

°c

435

Table 4 - 8

Table com piled by A. Pigeaud, University o f Cincinnati.

Handbook o f Materials Science

436

Table 4 - 9 CONVERSION FACTORS

T o co n v ert from

To

A b am p eres....................

A m peres................................... E .M . cgs. u n its of c u rre n t. . E.S. cgs. u n its ........................ F a rad ay s (c h e m .)/s e c .......... F arad ay s (p h y s .)/s e c ........... S ta ta m p e re s ............................ E .M . cgs. u n its of surface charge d e n s ity ................... E .S . cgs. u n its ........................ A m peres/circ. m il................. A m peres/sq. c m .................... A m peres/sq. in c h .................. A m p ere-tu rn s......................... A m p e re -tu rn s/c m ................. A m pere-hours......................... C oulom bs................................. Electronic ch a rg e s................ E .M . cgs. un its of charge. . E.S. cgs. u n its ........................ F arad ay s (ch em .).................. F arad ay s (p h y s .).................. S tatco u lo m b s.......................... E .M . cgs. units of capacita n c e ...................................... E.S. cgs. u n its ........................ F a ra d s ....................................... M icro fara d s............................ S ta tfa ra d s ................................ E .M . cgs. un its of induction E.S. cgs. u n its ........................ H en ries..................................... E .M . cgs. u n its of conducta n c e ....................................... E.S. cgs. u n its ........................ M egam hos............................... M h o s......................................... S ta tm h o s ................................. E .M .cgs. u n its of resistance M egohm s................................. M icrohm s................................. O h m s......................................... S ta to h m s ................................. Circ. m il-o h m s /ft.................. E .M . cgs. u n its of resistivity M icrohm -inches.....................

«• A b am p e re s/cm ............. •• A b am p eres/sq. c m . . . . •• A bam pe re -tu rn s ........... A b a m p e re -tu rn s /c m . . A bco u lo m bs.................. •• “

..................

.................. “ A b fa ra d s........................ •• •• •• ____________ A b h en ries....................... *• •• A b m h o s.......................... ••

..........................

A bohm s.......................... “ .......................... •• " “ .......................... A b o h m -cm .....................

A b v o lts........................... M icro v o lts............................... “ ........................... -M illivolts................................. “ ........................... V o lts.......................................... V olts ( I n t .) ............................. A b v o lts /c m ................. .' E .M . cgs. units of electric field in te n s ity ..................... “ E.S. cgs. u n its ........................ V o lts /c m .................................. “ ................... V o lts /in c h ............................... V o lta /m e te r............................ A cres............................... Sq. c m ...................................... " ............................... Sq. f t ......................................... " ............................... Sq. ft. (U.S. S u rv e y )........... Sq. inches................................ Sq. k ilo m eters........................ Sq. links (G u n ter’s ) ............. Sq. m e te rs ............................... “ ............................... Sq. miles ( s ta tu te ) ................ “ ............................... Sq. p e r c h e s ............................ “ ............................... Sq. ro d s .................................... Sq. y a rd s ................................. A cre-feet........................ Cu. f e e t.................................... •• Cu. m e te rs............................... Cu. y a rd s ................................. A cre-inches.................... Cu. fe e t.................................... '• Cu. m e te rs...............................

............

M ultiply b y 10 1 2.007930 1.036377 1.036086 2.997930

T o co n v ert from A cre-inches.................... A m p eres.........................

To

G allons (U .S.). .................... A b am p eres............................... X 10l° A m peres (In t.) ......... X 10-« Cgs. u n its of c u r r e n t. . . . . . X 10~« M ks. u n its of c u r r e n t.......... X 10™ C o u lo m b s/se c......................... C oulom bs ( I n t.) /s e c ............ 1 F arad ay s (c h e m .)/s e c .......... 2.997930 X 10™ F arad ay s (p h y s.)/sec . . 5.0670748 X 10'* S tatam p e res............................. 10 Amporpn (Tnt. ) A m p eres............................... 64.516 C o u lo m b s/se c.................... .. 10 C oulom bs (In t.)/s e c 10 F arad ay s (c h e m .)/s e c * . . . . .. 0.0027777 F arad ay s (p h y s .)/s e c * ......... 10 Arpppppflf rnpfpr Cgs. u n its of surface c u rren t 6.24196 X 10™ d e n s ity ................................. 1^r) D a y s ( s i d e r e a l ) ........................... H o u r s ( s i d e r e a l ) ......................... M i n u t e s ( m e a n s o l a r ) ............

M i n u t e s ( s i d e r e a l ) .................... S e c o n d s ( m e a n s o l a r ) ............. S e c o n d s ( s i d e r e a l ) ..................... “ . . ! W eek s (m ean c a le n d a r). . . . H o u r s ( s i d e r e a l ) ............. D a y s ( m e a n s o l a r ) ................... D a y s ( s i d e r e a l ) .......................... H o u r s ( m e a n s o l a r ) ................. M i n u t e s ( m e a n s o l a r ) ............

M u ltip ly b y

1 3 .3 3 7 2 1 3 .1 4 8 7 9 8 0 9 .5 0 9 .8 0 9 5 0 3 4 .5 2 5 4 7 .1 6 2 5 4 5 .5 0 2 5 4 3 .5 0 1 7 8 .2 9 8 6 4 1 .8 7 4 7 .4 6 X 10* 3 3 0 1 3 .3 5 5 0 .2 2 1 1 .0 0 0 4 0 0 .0 7 6 0 4 8 7 1 .0 1 4 2 7 7 7 0 .9 9 9 9 4 2 746 0 .7 4 6 746 2 5 1 1 .3 1 2 5 0 9 .6 6 2 5 0 7 .7 0 6 .3 2 8 3 8 6 .3 2 4 2 5 6 .3 1 9 2 9 7 .3 5 4 9 9 3 2 5 4 8 .6 5 4 2 .4 7 6

X X X X

10* 10* 10* 10*

0 .9 8 6 3 2 0 0 .0 7 4 9 7 8 2 0 .9 8 5 9 2 3 0 .9 8 5 8 6 6 75 0 .7 3 5 4 9 9 7 3 5 .4 9 9 3 3 0 1 5 .2 1 .0 0 0 4 6 0 .0 7 6 0 5 3 1 1 .0 0 0 0 6 1 .0 1 4 3 4 0 .7 4 6 0 4 3 2 5 4 6 .1 4 2 5 4 4 .4 7 2 5 4 2 .4 8 641616 641196 640693 1 .9 8 X 10* 2 .6 8 4 5 2 X 10* 273745 0 .7 4 5 7 0 0 7 4 5 .7 0 0 2 5 4 6 .1 4 1 4 1 4 .5 2 13750 1980000 5 9 1 8 .3 5 0 .0 4 1 6 6 6 6 0 .0 4 1 7 8 0 7 4 6 1 .0 0 2 7 3 7 9 1 60 6 0 .1 6 4 2 7 5 3600 3 6 0 9 .8 5 6 5 0 .0 0 5 9 5 2 3 8 0 9 0 .4 1 5 5 2 8 9 9 0 .0 4 1 6 6 6 6 0 .9 9 7 2 6 9 5 7 5 9 .8 3 6 1 7 4

447

Table 4 - 9 (continued) CONVERSION FACTORS M u ltip ly b y

To

T o c o n v e rt fro m

60 5 0 .8 0 2 3 4 5

T o c o n v e rt fro m

To

J o u le s ( a b s ) .......................

C a l ., k g . ( m e a n ) ........................ C u . f t . - a t m .................................... E r g s .............................................. F o o t - p o u n d a l s .......................... F o o t - p o u n d s ............................ G ram -cm H p . - h o u r s .......................................

112 4

() ,,

0 2 0 .0 5

,, H u n d r e d w e ig h ts

J o u l e s ( I n t . ) ................................. K g . - m e t e r s .....................................

45J1 5 9 2 3 7 hes

0 .3 9 3 7 0 0 7 9

O h -cm rilFf8. M i i 'h r n m .i 'm

1 X 1 0 -8 1 5 .2 7 8 8 7 5 2 .5 4

F a rad s In^flt.F A m u n ifji O e n t.i rv fe ters

1 X 1 0 -1* 0 .0 1

M ic r o n s In g fltrA m n n itji

1 X 1 0 -1* 1 X 1 0 -8 1 .1 1 2 6 4 6 X 1 0 -18 1000 6 .0 1 5 3 0 4 9

1 X 1 0 -1® 3 .9 3 7 0 0 7 9 X 1 0 -11 1 X 1 0 -18 1 X 1 0 -8 10000

451

Table 4 - 9 (continued) CONVERSION FACTORS

M il e s ( n a u t . , B r i t . )

M u ltip ly b y

T o c o n v e rt fro m

0 .0 0 0 1 3 .2 8 0 8 3 9 9 X 1 0 _* 3 .9 3 7 0 0 7 9 X 10~» 1 X 1 0 -1 0 .0 0 1 1000 8 .4 4 4 4 1 0 1 3 .3 3 3

M i l l i g r a m s .........................

6080 1 8 5 3 .1 8 4 1

M illig r a m s /a s s a y to n .

To

T o c o n v e rt fro m

. .

.. M e t e r s ..............................................

n

..

.< .< ..

M i l l i g r a m s / g m ................

1 .0 0 0 6 3 9 3 M il e s ( n a u t . , I n t . ) . . . .

C a b l e l e n g t h s ...............................

.. ..

..

1 .1 5 1 5 1 5 8 .4 3 9 0 4 9 3 1 0 1 2 .6 8 5 9 6 0 7 6 .1 1 5 5 6 0 7 6 .1 0 3 3 1 .8 5 2 0 .3 3 3 3 3 3 1852

M i l l i g r a m s / g r a m ...........

.. .. .. .. M i l l i g r a m s / i n c h .............

0 .9 9 9 3 6 1 1 0 1 .1 5 0 7 7 9 4 1 6 0 9 3 4 .4

..

F u r lo n g * I n c h e s ............................................... IC iln m p to r* L i g h t yi»*r* L in k * ( G u n t e r ’*) M e te r s M il e s ( n a u t,., B rit,.) M ile * fn a iit.. T n t.) M y r ia m e te r*

M i l e s / h r ..............................

..

80 5 2 .8 5280 5 2 7 9 .9 8 9 4 8

M i l l i g r a m s / k g ................. M i l l i g r a m s / l i t e r .............

63360 1 .6 0 9 3 4 4

M i l l i g r a m s / m m ............. M i l l i h e n r i e s .......................

1 .7 0 1 1 1 X 1 0 ~ “ 8000 1 6 0 9 .3 4 4

M i l l i l a m b e r t s ...................

320 1760 4 4 .7 0 4 5280 88 1 .4 6 6 6 6 6 1 .6 0 9 3 4 4 0 .8 6 8 9 7 6 2 4 2 6 .8 2 2 4

M e te r s /m in

0 .0 1 6 6 6 6 6 0 .7 4 5 0 6 6 6 4 4 .7 0 4 1 .4 6 6 6 6 6 1 .6 0 9 3 4 4 0 .4 4 7 0 4 2 6 8 2 .2 4 316800 88 1 .6 0 9 3 4 4 5 2 .1 3 8 5 7 4 1 6 0 9 .3 4 4

«•

M ile s /h r ................ A tm o sp h e re s. B a r s .................................................... B a ry e s. .

0 .0 0 0 9 8 6 9 2 3 0 .0 0 1 1000

34,,5 9 34,,6 6 34 ,, 7 )

4 9 .0 49. 1 49.2 4 9 .) 49.4

3 )7 .8 4 3)8 .5 3 339.22 339.91 340.60

20.09 2 0 .11 2 0 . 1R 20.25 2 0 . 32

28.5 28 .6 28 .7 28.9 2 8 .9

196.50 197.19 197.88 1 98.57 1 9 9.26

74 .9 6 2 5 .0 3 2 5.10 25.17 2 5 .2 4

35.5 35.6 3 5.7 35 .8 3 5,9

244.76 2 45.45 246.14 246.83 2 4 7,52

2 9.88 2 9.95 39.02 30.09 30.16

42.5 42.6 42.7 42.8 62,9

293.03 293.72 294.41 2 95.10 295.79

34,,8 0 34,,8 7 34,,94 35 ,,01 3 5 .,08

49 .5 49 .6 4 9.7 49.8 4 9 .9

341.29 341.98 342.67 3 4 3.36 344*05

2 0 .39 20.46 2 0 .53 20.60 20.67

2 9 .) 29.1 2 9 .2 2 9.3 2 9.9

1 99.95 2 0 0 .6 4 2 0 1 .3 3 2 0 2 .0 2 2 0 2.71

25.31 25.38 2 5 .45 2 5.52 25.59

36.0 36.1 36.2 36.3 36.4

248.21 2 4 8 .9 0 249.59 250 .2 8 25C .97

30.23 30.30 3 0.37 30.44 30.51

43 .0 43.1 43.2 43.3 4 3 .4

296.47 297.16 297.85 298.54 299.23

35,,1 5 3 5 ,,22 3 5 .,2 9 35,,3 6 3 5 .,4 3

50.0 50.1 50.2 50.3 50 .4

344.74 345.43 3 46.12 346.81 347.50

20.79 2 0.81 20 .8 8 2 0 .95 21.02

29.5 29.6 29.7 29.8 2 9.9

203.40 204 .0 8 204 .7 7 205.46 2 0 6 .1 5

7 5.66 25.73 25.80 25.87 25.94

36.5 3 6.6 36.7 36 .8 3 6 .9

251.66 252.35 253 .0 4 2 5 3 .7 3 254.42

3 0 .58 30.6 5 3 0.72 30.79 3 0.86

43 .5 43.6 4 3 .7 43 .8 4 3 .9

299.92 300.61 3 01.30 301.99 302.68

35 ,,51 35 .,5 8 35,,6 5 35,,7 2 35 ,, 7 9

50 .5 50.6 50.7 50.8 50.9

348.19 3 4 8.87 349.56 350.25 35C .94

2 1 .09 21.16 2 1 .23 21.30 21.37

30.0 30 .1 30.2 30 .3 30 .9

206 .8 4 2 0 7.53 208.22 208.91 2 0 9 .6 0

26.01 26 .0 8 2 6 . 15 26 .2 2 26.29

37 .0 37.1 3 7.2 37.3 37.4

255.11 2 5 5.80 256 .4 8 2 5 7 .1 7 257 .8 6

3 0.94 31.01 3 1.08 31.15 31.22

4 4 .0 44 .1 44.2 44.3 4 4 .4

303.37 304.06 304.75 305.44 306.13

35,,8 6 35 ,,9 3 36., 0 0 36 .,0 7 36,,1 4

51 .0 51.1 51.2 5 1 .3 51.4

351.63 352.32 353.01 353.70 354.39

21.99 21.51 21.58 21.65 21.72

30.5 30 .6 30 .7 30.8 30.9

2 10.29 2 1 0 .9 8 211 .6 7 212.36 213 .0 5

26.37 26.44 2 6 .51 26.58 26.65

37.5 37 .6 37.7 37.8 37 .9

2 5 8.55 259.24 2 5 9.93 2 60.62 261.31

3 1.29 3 1.36 31.43 31.50 3 1 .57

4 4 .5 44 .6 44.7 44 .8 44 .9

306.82 307.51 3 08.20 308.89 3 0 9.57

36 .,21 36,, 2 8 36,. 3 5 36,.42 36.,4 9

51.5 51.6 51 .7 51.3 51.9

355.08 355.77 356.46 357.15 3 57.84

21.80 2 1 .87 2 1.99 22.01 22.08

31 .0 31.1 31.2 3 1.3 3 1.9

2 13.74 2 1 4 .4 3 215 .1 2 215.81 716 .5 0

26.72 26.79 26 .8 6 26.93 27.00

3 8.0 38.1 3 8.2 38 .3 3 8.4

2 62.00 262 .6 9 263.38 264.07 2 64.76

31.64 31.71 31.70 31 .8 5 31.92

45 .0 45 .1 45 .2 4 5 .3 45.4

3 1 0.26 310.95 311.64 312.33 3 1 3.02

36 ,,5 6 36,,6 3 36,, 7 0 36,,77 36 .,8 4

52.0 52.1 52 .2 52.3 52 .4

3 5 8.53 359.22 359.91 360.60 361 .2 9

2 2.15 22.22 22.29 22.36 22.93

31.5 31 . 6 31 .7 31.8 31.9

2 1 7 .1 8 2 1 7 .8 7 718 .5 6 219.25 219.94

27.07 27.14 27.21 27.28 27 .3 5

38.5 3 8.6 38.7 38.8 38.9

265.45 266 .1 4 2 66.83 2 67.52 268.21

31.9 9 32.06 32.13 3 2 .20 32.27

4 5 .5 4 5.6 4 5 .7 45.8 45.9

313.71 3 14.40 3 1 5.09 315.78 316.47

36 .,91 36 .,9 8 37,,0 5 3 7 .,12 3 7 ,,1 9

52 .5 5 2 .6 52.7 52 .4 5 2 .9

361.97 362.66 363.35 364.04 364.73

22.50 22.57 22.69 22.7 1 22.78

32 .0 32.1 37 .2 32.3 32.9

2 2 0 .6 3 221 .3 2 222.01 2 2 2 .7 0 2 2 3 .3 9

2 7.4 2 2 7.49 27.56 27.63 27 .7 0

39 .0 39.1 39.2 39 .3 39.4

268.90 2 69.58 2 70.27 270.96 2 71.65

32 .3 4 32.41 32.48 3 2.55 32.62

46.9 46.1 46.7 46 .3 46.4

317.16 317.85 3 18.54 3 19.23 319.92

37 .,2 6 37 .,33 37,, 4 0 37 ,,4 7 37 ,,5 4

5 3 .0 53.1 53 .2 53.3 5 3 .4

365.42 366.11 366.80 3 6 7.49 368.18

22.85 22 .9 2 22.99 23 .0 6 23.13

32.5 32.6 32.7 3 2 .8 3 2 .9

2 24.08 2 2 4 .7 7 2 2 5 .4 6 226 .1 5 226.84

27.77 27.84 27.91 27 .9 8 28.05

39.5 39 .6 39.7 39.9 39.9

272.34 2 73.03 2 73.72 274.41 275.10

32 .6 9 32 .7 6 3 2.83 3 2.90 3 2.97

46 .5 4 6.6 46.7 4 6 .8 46 .9

320.61 3 71.30 321.99 372.67 3 23.36

3 7 ,,61 37 .,6 8 37., 75 3 7 ,,8 3 3 7 .,9 0

53 .5 53.6 53.7 53.8 5 3 .9

368.87 369.56 370.25 370.94 371.63

2 3 .20 23.27 23.39 23.91 2 3 .9 8

33 .0 33.1 33.2 3 3 .) 33.9

227.53 228.22 228.91 229.60 7 30.28

28.1? 28 .1 9 28.26 28 .3 3 28.40

40.0 40.1 40 .2 40 .3 40 .4

275.79 276 .4 8 277.17 2 7 7.86 2 7 8.55

3 3.04 33.11 3 3 .18 3 3.26 33 .3 )

4 7 .0 4 7.1 47.2 4 7 .3 47.4

3 24.05 3 2 4.74 3 25.43 326.12 326.81

37 .,97 3 8 ,,04 38 ., l i 38 .,14 3 8 , 25

54.0 5 4.1 54.2 54 .3 54 .4

3 7 2.32 373.01 373.70 3 74.39 3 7 5.07

73 .5 5 73 .6 2 7 3.69 2 3 .76 23.83

33 .5 33.6 33 .7 33.8 33.9

2 3 0.97 2 3 1 .6 6 232.35 233 .0 4 233.73

28.47 28.54 28.61 28.69 2 8.76

4 0 .5 4 0 .6 40.7 40.8 40.9

2 7 9.24 2 7 9 .9 3 280.62 281.31 282 .0 0

3 3.40 33.47 33.54 3 3 .6 1 3 3.68

47.5 47.6 47 .7 47.0 47.9

3 7 7.50 3 28.19 328.84 329.57 330.26

3 0 .,32 3 8 ,, 39 38 ,,46 38., 5 ) 38.,6 0

54.5 54 .6 54 .7 54.8 54 .9

3 75.76 3 7 6.45 377.14 377.83 3 78.52

23.90 2 3 .9 7 29.09 2 9.17 2 9 . 19

39 .0 39.1 39.2 39.3 39.4

234.42 2 3 S .ll 235.80 236 .4 9 737 .1 0

2 8.83 28.90 2 8.97 29.04 29. 1l

41.0 41.1 41.2 41.3 41.4

2 87.69 2 8 3.37 784.06 284.75 285.44

3 3.75 33.82 3 3 . R9 3 3.96 3 4.03

48 .0 48.1 48 .2 48.3 48.4

330.95 331.64 332.33 333.02 333.71

3 8 .,67 38.,74 30 ,,01 30,,4 4 38.,9 5

5 5 .0 5 5.1 5 5.2 5 5 .) 55.4

379.21 3 7 9.90 380.59 381.28 381.97

2 9.26 79.33 29.90 2 9.97 2 9 . S*

39.5 39 .6 34.7 34.5 39.9

237.87 738 .5 6 7 3 9 .2 5 2 3 9.94 240 .6 3

29.1 8 2 9 .2 5 2 9.32 2 9 .39 29 .4 6

4 1 .5 4 1 .6 41.7 41.8 41.9

286 .1 3 286.82 207.51 288 .2 0 2 88.09

3 4.10 34.1 7 3 4.24 34.31 34.38

48.5 48.6 48.7 48 .0 48.9

3 34.40 335.09 335.77 3 36.46 337.15

39 , ,0 2 39,, 0 9 39,, 16 39 ., 2 ) 39,, 30

55.5 55 .6 55.7 55 .8 55 .9

362.66 383.35 384.04 384.73 385.*2

482

H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

Table 4—16 (continued) STRESS CONVERSION Medic (KG/mm3)

English (KSI)

SI (MN/m3)

Medic (KG/mm3)

English (KSI)

SI (MN/m3)

Medic (KG/mm3)

English (KSI)

SI (MN/m3)

Medic (KG/mm3)

English (KSI)

SI (MN/m3)

21 29 36 43 50

70 .0 70.1 70.2 7 0.3 70.4

4 8 2 .6 3 483.32 4 8 4.01 484.70 485.39

54 ,.1 4 5 4 ,,21 5 4 ,,2 8 54 .,3 5 5 4 .,4 2

77.0 77.1 77 .7 7 7.3 77.4

530.90 5 31.59 532.28 5 32.96 533.65

7 0.5 70.6 70.7 70 .0 7 0 .9

486.08 486 .7 7 4 8 7 .4 6 489.15 488,04

5 4 ,,4 9 5 4 .,5 6 5 4 ,,6 3 5 4 ,,7 0 5 4 ,, 11

77 .5 77.6 77 .7 77.8 7 7,9

5 3 4.34 535.03 535.72 536.41

4 4 0 .5 7

57 64 71 78 4 9 , 05

44 1 . 2 6 4 4 1 .9 5 442.64 4 4 3.33 4 4 4 .0 2

49. 49. 50. 50. 50.

92 99 06 13 20

71.0 71.1 71 .2 7 1.3 71.4

4 8 9 .5 3 4 9 0 .2 2 490.91 4 9 1.60 4 9 2 .2 9

5 4 .,84 5 4 . ,91 5 4 . 98 5 5 .,05 5 5 . ,17

7 8.0 78.1 78.2 78.3 78 .4

537.79 5 38.48 5 39.17 5 3 9.86 5 40.55

64.5 64.6 64.7 64 .8 64 .9

444.71 4 4 5 .4 0 4 4 6 .0 9 4 46.78 447.47

50. 50. 50. 50. 50.

27 34 41 48 55

71.5 7 1.6 71.7 71.8 71.9

492.98 493.66 494.35 495.04 495.73

5 5 . ,1 9 5 5 . ,2 6 5 5 .,33 5 5 . ,4 0 5 5 , ,4 7

7 8 .5 78.6 78.7 78.9 78.9

541.24 541.93 542.62 543.31 5 4 4.00

45.70 4 5 .7 7 45 .8 4 4 5.91 4 5 .98

65 .0 65.1 65.2 65 .3 65 .4

4 4 8.16 4 4 8 .8 5 4 4 9 .5 4 4 5 0 .2 3 4 5 0.92

50. 50. 50. 50. 50.

62 69 76 83 90

7 2.0 72.1 72 .2 7 2.3 72.4

4 9 6 .4 2 497.11 49 7 .8 0 4 9 8 .4 9 499.18

5 5 .,54 5 5 .,61 5 5 .,6 8 5 5 ,,75 5 5 .,82

79 .0 79.1 79 .2 79.3 7 9.4

5 4 4.69 5 45.38 5 4 6.06 546.75 547.44

403.34 40 4 .0 3 4 0 6 .7 2 4 05.41 406.10

46 .0 5 46.12 46.19 46.26 4 6 .33

65.5 65 .6 6 5 .7 65.8 '6 5 .9

451.61 452.30 4 5 2.99 453.68 454.36

50. 51. 51. 51. 51.

97 04 11 18 25

72.5 72 .6 72.7 72 .8 72 .9

499.87 5 00.56 501.25 501.94 5 0 2 .6 3

5 5 .,8 9 55 ,,9 6 5 6 .,03 5 6 ,, 1 0 56 ,.1 8

79 .5 79 .6 79 .7 79 .8 79 .9

548.13 548.82 549.51 5 5 0 .2 0 5 5 0.89

59.0 5 9.1 59 .2 59.3 59.4

406.79 4 0 7 .4 8 408.17 4 0 8 .8 6 409.55

46.40 46.47 4 6.54 46.61 4 6 .6 8

66 .0 6 6.1 66.2 66.3 66 .4

455 .0 5 455.74 456 .4 3 457 .1 2 4 57.81

51. 51. 51. 51. 51.

32 39 46 54 61

73 .0 73.1 73.2 7 3.3 73 .4

503.32 504.01 504 .7 0 505 .3 9 506.08

56 ,.2 5 5 6 ..3 2 56 ,.3 9 56 ,.4 6 56., 5 3

80.0 60.1 80.2 8 0 .3 80.4

5 51.58 552 .2 7 5 52.96 5 53.65 5 54.34

4 1 .83 4 1 .90 41.97 42.04 4 2.11

59.5 59 .6 5 9 .7 59.8 59 .9

4 1 0 .2 4 41C .93 411.62 4 12.31 4 1 3 .0 0

46.75 4 6.82 46.89 4 6.97 4 7.04

66.5 66 .6 66.7 66.8 66 .9

4 5 8 .5 0 4 5 9 .1 9 459 .8 8 460 .5 7 4 6 1 .2 6

51 . 68 5 1 . 75 5 1 . 82 5 1 . 89 5 1 . 96

73.5 73 .6 73.7 73.8 73.9

5 06.76 507.45 508.14 5 08.83 509.52

56,. 6 0 56 ,.6 7 56 ,.7 4 5 6 ,,81 56,.8 8

8 0.5 80.6 8 0.7 8 0 .8 80.9

5 55.03 5 55.72 556.41 557 .1 0 557.79

4 2 . IR 42.25 42.3 2 4 2 .4 0 42.47

6 0 .0 60.1 60 .2 60 .3 60 .4

4 13.69 4 1 4 .3 7 4 1 5 .0 6 4 15.75 4 16.44

4 7 .U 47.18 47.25 4 7 .3 2 47.39

6 7 .0 67.1 67.2 67.3 67.4

461 .9 5 4 6 2 .6 4 463.33 464.02 464.71

52. 52. 52. 52. 52.

03 17 24 31

74.0 74.1 74 .2 74.3 74.4

510.21 510.90 511.59 512.28 512.97

56,.9 5 57,. 0 2 57,.0 9 57,. 16 57,. 2 3

81 . 0 81.1 81.2 81 .3 8 1.4

550.48 559.16 559.85 5 6 0.54 561 .2 3

42.54 42.61 42.68 42.75 42.82

60.5 60.6 6 0.7 6C .3 6 0 .9

4 1 7.13 4 1 7 .8 2 4 18.51 4 1 9 .2 0 4 1 9 .8 9

47.46 47.53 47.60 47.6 7 4 7.74

67 .5 67 .6 67.7 67 .9 6 7 .9

465 .4 0 4 6 6 .0 9 466 .7 0 467.46 4 6 8 .1 5

52. 52. 52. 52. 52.

38 45 52 59 66

74.5 74.6 74.7 74 .8 74 .9

5 13.66 514.35 515.04 5 1 5.73 516.42

57,. 30 57,. 37 57,. 4 4 57,.51 57,. 5 8

81.5 81.6 81 .7 81 .8 81 .9

5 6 1.92 562.61 5 63.30 563.99 564.68

4 2 .69 4 2 .96 43.03 43.10 43.17

61.0 6 1.1 61.2 61 .3 6 1 .4

42C.53 4 2 1 .2 7 421.96 4 2 2 .6 5 423.34

47.81 4 7.83 47.95 4 8.02 48.09

68 .0 6 9.1 6 8.2 68.3 68 .4

468.84 469.53 470 .2 2 47C.91 4 7 1 .6 0

52. 52. 52. 52. 53.

73 80 87 94 01

7 5 .0 75.1 7 5.2 75.3 75.4

517.11 5 1 7.80 518.49 5 19.18 519.86

57,. 6 5 57,. 7 2 57,, 7 9 57,. 8 6 57,. 9 3

8 2 .0 82.1 02.2 82.3 82 .4

565.37 566.06 5 6 6.75 567.44 5 6 8.13

4 3 .2 4 43.31 43.3 8 43 .4 5 43.52

61 .5 6 1 .6 61 .7 61 .9 6 1.9

4 2 4 .0 3 424 .7 2 4 2 5.41 426.10 426 .7 9

4 8 . 16 48.23 48.30 4 8.37 48.4 4

68 .5 68.6 6 8 .7 68.9 68.9

472.29 4 72.90 473.67 474 .3 6 475 .0 5

53. 53. 53. 53. 53.

08 15 22 29 36

75.5 75.6 7 5.7 75.8 75 .9

5 20.55 5 2 1 .2 4 5 21.93 522.62 523.31

58,. 0 0 58,. 0 7 58,.1 4 58,.21 58,.2 8

8 2 .5 82 .6 82.7 82.8 9 2.9

5 68.0? 569.51 570.20 5 7 0.89 571.58

43.59 4 3.66 43.73 43.80 43 .8 7

6 2.0 62.1 6 2 .2 62 .3 62.4

4*2 7 . 4 7 4 2 P . 16 4 2 8 .8 5 4 29.54 43C .23

48.51 4 8.58 48 .6 5 48.72 48.79

69.0 69. 1 69 .2 69. ) 69.4

475.74 476.43 477.12 477.81 4 7 8 .5 0

53. 53. 53. 5 ). 53.

43 50 57 64 71

76.0 76.1 76.2 76.3 7 6.4

5 2 4.00 524.69 5 2 5.38 526 .0 7 526.76

58,.3 5 58,. 4 3 58., 5 0 58,. 5 7 58,,6 4

83.0 83. 1 8 3.2 83 .3 83.4

572.26 572.95 5 73.64 574.33 5 75.02

4 1 .9 4 44.01 4 4.08 44.15 44.2?

62.5 6 2 .6 62.7 62.9 62.4

4 3 0 .9 2 431.61 432.30 4 3 2 .9 9 4 3 3 .6 8

4 8.86

69.5 69.6 69 .7 6 9 .8 69.9

479.19 479.08 4 8 0 .5 6 481.25 481.94

53. 53. S3. 54. 54.

78 86 93 00 97

76.5 76.6 76.7 7 6.0 7 6.9

527.45 5 2 8.14 528.03 529.52 530.21

58,.71 5ft,. 7 8 58,.8 5 50,,9 2 50,. 9 9

8 3.5 83.6 83 .7 63.0 83.9

575.71 576.40 577.09 577.78 578.47

3 9.37 3 * .44 3*.*1 3 9 . 5S 39.65

56 .0 56.1 56.2. 56.3 56 .4

386.11 396.90 3 87.49 38 8 . 1 7 388.86

44.29 4 4 . 36 44.43 44.50 4 4 .5 7

6 3 .0 63.1 63 .2 63.3 63 .4

4 3 4 .3 7 4 3 5 .0 6 4 3 5 .7 5 436.44 4 3 7 .1 3

49. 49. 49. 49. 49.

39.72 39.79 39.86 3 9.93

56.5 56.6 56 .7 56 .9

49. 49. 49. 49.

3 9 2 .3 1

63 .5 6 3 .6 63 .7 63 .8

* 3 .0 1

4 4.64 4 4.7 2 44.79 44 .8 6 4 4 ,9 3

437 .8 2 438.51 4 3 9 .2 0 4 3 9.89

9 6 .9

389.55 390.24 390.93 391.62

*0.07 * 0 . 15 4 0 .22 4 J.2 9 4 0 . 36

5 7.0 57.1 5 7 .2 57.3 57.4

3 9 3.00 3 9 3.69 394.38 395.07 3 9 5.76

45.00 45.17 4 5 .1 4 45.21 45.28

64 .0 6 4.1 64.2 64 .3 64.4

4 0 .4 * 4 0.50 4 0 .5 7 40.64 4 0.71

57.5 57.6 57.7 57 .8 57.9

3 96.45 3 9 7.14 397.83 398.52 399.21

4 5 .3 5 45.42 45.49 4 5 .5 6 45.63

40.78 4 0 . 85 4C .92 40.9 9 4 1 .0 6

58.0 58 .1 5 8 .2 58.3 58 .4

399 .9 0 4 0 0 .5 9 4 0 1 .2 7 401.96 402.65

41.13 4 1 .2 0 4 1 .2 7 4 1.34 4 1.41

58 .5 58.6 58.7 58.9 58 .9

41.48 4 1.55 41.62 4 1 .69 41.76

43.93

49.00 4 9.07 4 9.14

6 3 ,9

10

$>7 ,1 0

483 Table 4 - 1 6 (continued) STRESS CONVERSION Metric (KG/mm3)

English (KSI)

SI (MN/m3)

Metric (KG/mm3)

English (KSI)

SI (MN/m3)

English (KSI)

Metric (KG/mm3)

SI (MN/m3)

English (KSI)

Metric (KG/mm3)

SI (MN/m3)

5 9 . Of* 59. i? 5 9 . 2? 59 .2 7 5 9.34

84.0 54 .' ! 84.2 8 4 .3 84.4

579 .1 6 579 .8 5 580.54 6 81.23 591 .9 2

6 3 .9 4 6 4 .0 5 6 4 .1 2 64.19 6 4 .2 6

9 1 .) 9 1.1 9 1 .2 9 1 .3 91 .4

627 .4 2 628.11 628.80 629.49 634.18

68 . 90 6 8 . 97 6 9 . 04 6 9 . 11 6 9 . 18

9 8 .0 98.1 98 .2 98 .3 98.4

675 .6 9 6 7 6 .3 8 6 77.07 677.75 678 .4 4

73. 73. 7). 74. 74.

82 89 96 03 10

IC 5.0 105.1 105.2 105.3 105.4

723 .9 5 724.64 7 25.33 726.02 7 26.71

59.41 5 9.48 5 9.55 5 9 .4 ? 5 9.49

84.5 9 4 .6 9 4.7 84.8 8 4 .9

582.61 5R3.30 5 8 3 .9 9 584.68

585.36

6 4 .33 64 .4 ? 6 4 .4 7 64.54 64 *6 1

41.5 91 .6 91.7 9 1 .8 91*9

630 .8 7 6 3 1 .5 6 632.25 682 .9 4 63 3 .6 )

6 9 . 25 6 9 . 32 6 9 . 39 6 9 . 46 69* 5 )

9 8 .5 98 .6 98 .7 98.8 98*9

6 7 9 .1 3 679.82 680.51 6 8 1 .2 0 6 8 1 .8 9

74, 74. 74. 74. 74.

17 24 31 38 46

105.5 105.6 105.7 105.8 105.9

727.40 7 2 8.09 728.78 729.47 730*15

59.74 59.83 59.90 59.97 60 .0 4

85.0 85.1 85 .2 8 5 .3 85 .4

5 86.05 586 .7 4 5 8 7 .4 3 5 88.12 588.81

64.68 6 4.75 6 4 .8 2 6 4 .89 6 4 .46

92 .0 92.1 92 .2 92.3 42.4

6 3 4 .3 2 635.01 6 3 5 .7 0 636.39 637.08

69. 69. 69. 69. 69.

60 67 74 81 89

99 .0 99.1 99.2 9 9 .3 9 9.4

6 8 2 .5 8 683.27 6 8 3.96 6 8 4.65 685.34

74. 74. 74. 74. 74.

53 60 67 74

el

106.0 106.1 106.2 106.3 1 06.4

730.84 731.53 732.22 732.91 7 3 3.60

60.11 6 0 .18 6 0 . ?5 6 0 . 3? 60.39

85 .5 85 .6 85 .7 8 5 .8 8 5.9

589.50 5 9 0 .1 9 590.88 5 9 1.57 5 9 2 .2 6

65.03 65.10 6 5.17 65 .2 4 65.32

92.5 92 .6 92.7 92.8 92 .9

6 3 7 .7 7 6 3 8 .4 5 6 3 9 .1 4 639.83 640 .5 2

69. 70. 70. 70. 70.

96 03 10 17 24

99.5 9 9 .6 09.7 9 9 .8 99 .9

686.03 6 8 6.72 6 87.41 688.10 6 8 8 .7 9

74. 74. 75. 75. 75.

88 95 02 09 16

106.5 106.6 106.7 1 06.8 106.9

7 34.29 734.90 735.67 736 .3 6 737.05

60.46 6 0.53 60.40 60.67 6 0.75

86.0 8 6.1 86.2 86.3 86 .4

592.95 593 .6 4 5 9 4 .3 3 5 95.02 5 9 5.71

65.39 6 5 .4 6 65.53 6 5 .60 65.67

9 3 .0 93.1 93 .2 9 3 .3 93.4

641.21 6 4 1.90 642.59 643 .2 8 6 4 3 .9 7

70. 70. 70. 70. 70.

31 38 45 52 59

1C0.0 100.1 100.2 100.3 100.4

689 .4 8 690.17 690 .8 5 691.54 6 92.23

75. 75. 75. 75. 75.

23 30 37 44 51

1 07.0 IC7.1 107.2 107.3 107.4

737.74 738.43 739.12 739.81 740.50

60.8? 6 0 .89 6 0 .96 61.03 61.10

86 .5 86 .6 8 6 .7 8 6 .8 86.9

5 9 6 .4 0 597.09 597.78 598.46 599 .1 5

65.74 65 .8 1 65.88 6 5 .9 5 66.02

93 .5 93.6 93.7 93.8 9 ).9

644 .6 6 645 .3 5 6 4 6 .0 4 646 .7 3 647 .4 2

70. 70. 70. 70. 70.

66 73 80 87 94

100.5 100.6 100.7 100.8 100.9

6 92.92 693.61 6 9 4 .3 0 694 .9 9 6 95.68

75. 75. 75. 75. 75.

58 65 7? 79 86

107.5 1 07.6 107.7 107.8 107.9

741.19 7 4 1.88 742.57 743.25 743.94

61.17 61.24 6 1.31 61.38 61.45

87.0 87.1 87.2 8 7.3 87.4

5 99.84 6 0 0 .5 3 6 0 1 .2 2 601.91 6 0 2 .6 0

6 6 .09 6 6 . 16 6 6 .2 ) 66.30 66.37

9 4 .0 9 4.1 9 4 .2 9 4 .3 94 .4

648.11 6 4 8 .8 0 6 4 9 .4 9 6 5 0 .1 8 650 .8 7

71. 71. 71. 71. 71.

01 08 15 22 29

101.0 101.1 101.2 101.3 101.4

696.37 697 .0 6 697 .7 5 698.44 699.13

75. 76. 76. 76. 76.

93 00 07 14 21

1 08.0 100.1 108.2 108.3 108.4

744.63 7 4 5.32 7 46.01 7 46.70 747.39

6 1 .5 2 61.59 61.66 6 1 .7 3 61.80

87 .5 87 .6 87.7 8 7.8 87.9

6 0 3 .2 9 603.98 604 .6 7 605 .3 6 606 .0 5

66 .4 4 66.51 6 6.58 6 6.65 66.72

94.5 9 4 .6 94.7 9 4 .8 94.9

6 5 1 .5 5 6 5 2 .2 4 6 5 2 .9 3 653 .6 2 6 54.31

71. 71. 71. 71. 71.

36 43 50 57 64

101.5 101.6 101.7 101.8 101.9

699 .8 2 700.51 701.20 701.89 702.58

76. 76. 76. 76. 76.

28 35 42 49 56

108.5 1 08.6 108.7 108.8 108.9

748.00 7 48.77 749.46 750.15 750.84

6 1 .8 7 6 1.94 62.01 62.08 62.15

88.0 88.1 8 8 .2 88 .3 88.4

6 0 6 .7 4 607.43 6 0 8 .1 2 608.81 6 0 9 .5 0

66.79 66 .8 6 66.93 67.00 67 .0 7

95.0 95.1 95.2 95 .3 95 .4

6 5 5 .0 0 6 5 5.69 6 5 6.38 6 5 7 .0 7 6 5 7.76

7 1 . 71 7 1 . 78 71 . 85 7 1 . 92 7 1 . 99

102.0 102.1 102.2 102.3 102.4

703.27 7 0 3.95 704.64 7 05.33 706.02

76. 76. 76. 76. 76.

63 70 70 85 92

1 0 9.0 109.1 109.2 100.3 109.4

751.53 7 5 2.22 752.91 7 5 3.60 754.29

6 ?.2 ? 62.29 6 2 .36 62.43 62.50

88 .5 8 8 .6 88.7 88.8 89.9

6 1 0 .1 9 610 .8 8 6 1 1 .5 6 612 .2 5 6 12.94

6 7.14 67.21 67.28 6 7 .35 6 7 .4 2

95.5 9 5 .6 95.7 95 • 8 95.9

658.45 6 5 9 .1 4 6 5 9 .8 3 6 6 0 .5 2 661.21

72. 72. 72. 72. 72.

06 13 21 28 35

102.5 102.6 102.7 102.8 102.9

706.71 707 .4 0 7 0 8.09 708.78 7 09.47

76. 77. 77. 77. 77.

99 06 13 20 27

109.5 109.6 109.7 109.3 109.9

754.98 755.67 756.35 757.04 7 5 7.73

6 2 .5 7 62.64 62.7 1 6 2 .78 6 2 .85

89 .0 8 9.1 89.2 8 9.3 89 .4

6 1 3.63 614.32 615.01 6 1 5 .7 0 616.39

67.49 67.56 6 7 .6 4 67.71 6 7 .78

96.0 96 .1 9 6.2 96.3 96.4

6 6 1 .9 0 6 6 2 .5 9 66 3 . 2 8 6 6 3 .9 7 6 6 4 .6 5

72. 72. 72. 72. 72.

42 49 56 63 70

103.0 103.1 103.2 103.3 103.4

7 10.16 710.85 711.54 712.23 712.92

77. 77. 77. 77. 77.

34 41 48 55 62

110.0 110.1 110.2 110.3 110.4

758.42 759.11 7 59.80 760.49 761.18

62.92 63.00 63.07 63.14 6 3.21

89.5 89 .6 89.7 99.8 8 9.9

6 1 7 .0 8 617 .7 7 6 1 8 .4 6 619.15 619.84

67 .85 * 6 7.92 67.99 68.06 6 8 . 13

96.5 96.6 96 .7 96.8 96.9

665 .3 4 666 .0 3 6 66.72 667.41 6 6 8 .1 0

72. 72. 72. 72. 73.

77 84 91 98 05

103.5 103.6 103.7 103.3 103.9

713.61 714.30 7 1 4 . Q9 715.60 716.37

77. 77. 77. 77. 77.

69 76 83 90 97

110.5 110.6 110.7 110.8 110.9

761.87 762.56 7 6 3.25 763.94 764.63

63.28 6 3 .3 5 63.4? 63.49 63 .5 6

90 .0 90.1 9 0 .2 90 .3 9 0 .4

620 .5 3 6 2 1 .2 2 621.91 6 2 2 .6 0 6 2 3 .2 9

6 8 .2 0 6 8.27 6 8 .34 68.41 6 8.48

9 7 .) 97.1 97.2 97 .3 97 .4

668.79 6 6 9 .4 8 6 70.17 670.86 6 7 1 .5 5

73. 73. 7). 73. 73.

12 19 26 33 40

104.0 IC 4 .1 104.2 104.3 104.4

717.05 717.74 710 .4 3 719.12 719.81

70. 78. 78. 78. 73.

04 11 l« 25 32

11l . 0 1 1 1 .1 111.2 1 11.) 111.4

765.32 766.01 766.70 767.39 768.08

63 .6 3 63 .7 0 6 ) . 77 6 3.34 63.41

90 .5 9C .6 4C.7 90.9 90.9

623.98 6 2 4.66 6 2 5 .3 5 626 .0 4 676.73

68.55 68 .6 ? 68.6 9 6 8 .7 6 68.83

97.5 97.6 97 .7 97 .8 97 .9

6 7 2 .2 4 672 .9 3 673.62 674.31 6 7 5 .0 0

73. 73. 73. 73. 73.

47 54 61 68 75

104.5 104.6 104.7 104.8 104.9

720.50 721.19 721.88 7 2 2.57 723.26

78. 78. 70. 78. 70.

39 46 63 60 67

111.6 111.6 111.7 111,8 111.9

760.77 769.45 770.14 770.fi) 771.52

484

H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

Table 4 - 1 6 (continued) STRESS CONVERSION Metric (KG/mm2)

Rndtth (KSI)

SI (MN/m2)

Metric (KG/mm2)

English (KSI)

SI (MN/m2)

Metric (KG/mm2)

English (KSI)

SI (MN/m2)

Metric (KG/mm2)

English (KSI)

SI (MN/m2)

7*.7* 7 ft. m 7 8 .8 f t 7*.95 79 .0 3

112.3 112.1 112.2 112.3 112.9

772. 772. 773. 779. 779.

21 90 59 28 97

8 3.67 8 3 . 79 03.81 03.0ft 8 3.95

119.0 1 1 9 .1 H 9 .2 119. 3 119.9

820.98 821.17 821.86 822.59 8 2 3.23

08. eft . 80. 8ft. 88.

59 66 73 83 87

126.0 126.1 126.2 126.3 126.6

869.76 869.63 8 7 0.12 870.81 8 7 1.50

93. 93. 93. 93. 93.

51 58 65 72 79

133.0 .1 3 3 .1 133.2 133.3 133.6

917 .0 0 917.69 9 18.38 919.07 9 1 9 .7 6

79.10 79 .1 7 7 9.29 79.31 79.3ft

112.5 1 12.6 112.7 112.0 1 12.9

775. 776. 777. 777. 778.

66 35 09 73 92

« 9.02 0 6.09 89.16 8 9.23 89.30

119.5 119.6 119.7 119.8 119.9

823.92 829.61 025 .3 0 825.99 826.68

88. 09. 89. 89. 69.

95 oi Oft 15 22

126.5 126.6 126.7 126.8 126.9

872.19 872.88 873.57 876.26 076.96

93. 93. 96. 96. 96.

86 93 00 07 16

133.5 133.6 133.7 133.8 1,33.9

9 2 0 .6 5 921 .1 6 9 2 1 .0 3 922.52 923.21

79 .9 5 7 9 .5 ? 79.59 7 9.69 7 9 . 73

113.0 113.1 113.2 1 13.3 1 13.9

779. 779. 780. 781. 781.

11 80 99 18 07

89.37 89.99 89.51 89.50 8 9.65

120.0 120.1 120.2 120.3 120.9

827.37 828.06 8 28.75 829.99 830 .1 3

89. 89. 89. 80. 89.

29 36 63 50 57

127.0 127.1 127.2 127.3 127.6

875.63 876.32 877.01 877.70 0 7 8.39

96. 96. 96. 96. 96.

21 28 35 62 69

136.0 136.1 136.2 136.3 136.6

923 .9 0 926.59 925 .2 0 9 2 5 .9 7 9 2 6 .6 6

7 9 .80 7 9.07 79 .9 9 80.01 8 0 .0 8

113.5 1 1 3.6 113.7 113.8 113 .9

702. 733. 783. 739. 785.

55 29 93 62 31

89.72 89.79 89.86 86.9 3 8 5 .0 0

120.5 120.6 120.7 120.8 120.9

8 30.82 831.51 832 .2 0 832.89 0 3 3 .5 8

89. 89. 89. 89. 89.

66 71 78 85 92

127.5 127.6 127.7 127.8 127.9

079.08 879.77 8 8 0.66 881.15 8 8 1.86

96. 96. 96. 96. 96.

56 63 70 77 06

136.5 136.6 136.7 136.8 136.9

927.36 928.03 9 2 8.72 929.61 9 30.10

8 0 .1 5 90.22 80.29 80.36 80.93

119.0 119.1 119.2 119.3 119.9

786. 786. 787. 788. 780.

00 69 38 07 76

8 5.07 85.19 . 85.21 8 5.20 8 5.35

121.0 121.1 121.2 121.3 121.6

8 39.27 839.96 835.69 036 .3 3 837.02

89. 90. 90. 90. 90.

99 06 13 20 27

128.0 128.1 128.2 128.3 128.6

882.53 883.22 883.91 886 .6 0 885.29

96. 96. 95. 95. 95.

91 98 06 13 20

135.0 135.1 135.2 135.3 135.6

930.79 931.68 932.17 9 3 2 .8 6 9 3 3 .5 5

80.50 8 0.57 80.69 8 0 .71 8 0.78

119.5 1 1 9.6 119.7 119.8 1 19.9

789. 790. 790. 791. 792.

95 19 83 52 21

8 5.92 85.99 85.5 6 85.63 85.70

121.5 121.6 121.7 121.8 121.9

837.71 838 .9 0 839.09 8 3 9.78 890.97

90. 90. 90. 90. 90.

36 61 69 56 63

128.5 128,6 128.7 1 2 8 . ft 128.9

885.98 8 8 6.67 887.36 8 8 8.06 888.73

95. 95. 95. 95. 95.

27 36 61 68 55

135.5 135.6 135.7 135.0 135.9

9 3 6 .2 6 936 .9 3 9 35.62 9 3 6.31 937 .0 0

8 0.85 90.92 8 0.99 8 1.06 81.13

115.0 115.1 115.2 115.3 115.9

792. 793. 799. 799. 795.

90 59 28 97 65

85.7 7 85.89 85.92 8 5 .9 9 8 6.06

122.0 122.1 122.2 122.3 122.6

691.16 8 9 1 .8 5 892.59 893 .2 3 0 9 3.92

90. 90. 90. 90. 90.

70 77 86 91 98

129.0 129.1 129.2 129.3 129.6

889.62 890.11 8 90.80 891.69 892.18

95. 95. 95. 95. 95.

62 69 76 83 90

136.0 136.1 136.2 136.3 136.6

937 .6 9 938.38 939 .0 7 9 3 9 .7 6 960 .6 6

8 1 . ?0 91.27 81.35 81 .9 ? 81.99

115.5 115.6 115.7 1 1 5 . ft 1 1 5.9

796. 797. 79 7. 798. 799.

39 03 72 91 10

8 6 .13 86.20 86.27 86.39 8 6.91

122.5 1 22.6 122.7 122.8 122.9

899.61 895.30 8 95.99 896.68 8 97.37

91. 91. 91. 91. 91.

05 12 19 26 33

129.5 129.6 129.7 129.8 129.9

892.87 893.56 896.25 896.96 8 9 5.63

9 5 . 97 9 6 . 06 96. l l 9 6 . ,18 9 6 . 25

136.5 136.6 136.7 136.8 136.9

961 .1 3 9 61.82 9 6 2.51 963 .2 0 963.89

81 .5 6 81.63 81.70 8 1 .7 7 81.89

116.0 116.1 116.2 116.3 116.9

799. 800. 801. 801. 802.

79 98 17 86 55

06.98 86.5 5 8 6.62 8 6.69 8 6 . 76

123.0 123.1 123.2 123.3 123.9

898 .0 6 898.79 8 99.93 850.12 850.81

9 1 . 60 9 1 . 67 9 1 . 56 91 . 61 9 1 . 68

130.0 130.1 1 30.2 130.3 130.6

896.32 897.01 8 9 7.70 898.39 899.08

9 6 . 32 9 6 . 39 9 6 . ,66 9 6 . ,53 9 6 . 60

137.0 137.1 137.2 137.3 137.6

966.58 9 6 5 .2 7 965.96 9 6 6 .6 5 967.36

81.91 81.98 8 2.05 8 2 .12 8 2 .1 0

116.5 116.6 1 16.7 116.8 116.9

803. 803. P06. 805. 806.

29 93 6? 31 00

86 .8 3 8 6 .9 0 8 6.97 8 7.09 87. 1 l

123.5 123.6 123.7 123.8 123.9

851 .5 0 852.19 852.88 853.57 8 5 9.26

9 1 . 75 91 . 82 91 . 89 9 1 . 96 9 2 . 03

130.5 130.6 130.7 1 3 0 . ft 130.9

8 9 9.77 900 .6 6 901.16 9 01.83 902.52

96. 96. 96. 96. 96.

67 76 01 88 95

137.5 137.6 137.7 137.8 137.9

9 6 8.03 960.72 969.61 9 5 0 .1 0 9 5 0 .7 9

82.?6 82.33 82.90 8 2 .9 7 8 2.59

117.0 117.1 117.2 117.3 117.9

806. 807. 808. 808. 809.

69 33 07 75 99

8 7 . 10 37.25 8 7 . 32 0 7 . 39 07.96

129.0 129.1 129.2 129.3 129.9

859.95 855.69 856.33 857.02 857.71

92. o?. 92. 92. 92.

10 17 26 31 38

131.0 131.1 131.2 131.3 131.6

9 0 3.21 903.90 906 .5 9 9 0 5 .2 8 905.97

97. 97. 97. 97. 97.

02 09 16 23 30

138.0 130.1 138.2 138.3 138.6

9 5 1 .6 8 952 .1 7 952 .8 6 953 .5 6 956 .2 3

82.61 82.68 8 2 .75 8 2.8? 82.89

117.5 117.6 117.7 117.8 117.9

810. 310. 811. 012. 812.

13 0? 51 20 89

87.53 8 7.60 87.67 07.79 07.81

129.5 129.6 129.7 129.8 129.9

858 .9 0 R 59.09 859.78 8 60.97 861.16

92. 92. 92. 92. 92.

65 5? 59 66 73

131.5 131.6 131.7 131.8 131.9

9 0 6 .6 6 907 .3 5 908.06 908 .7 3 9 09.62

97. 97. 97. 97. 97.

38 65 52 59 66

138.5 138.6 130.7 13 8 .8 138.9

956 .9 2 955.61 9 5 6 .3 0 9 5 6 .9 9 957 .6 8

8 2.96 8 3.03 83.10 8 3 . 17 83.29

110.0 1 1 0 .1 118.2 118.3 118.9

813. 819. 819. 815. 016.

58 27 96 65 39

0 7 . R8 07.95 0 6 .0 ? 0 8.09 8ft. 16

125.0 125.1 125.2 125.3 125.9

861.89 062 .5 3 0 63.22 06 3 . 9 1 869.60

9 2 . 81 9 2 . 00 9 2 . 95 93 . 02 9 3 . 09

132.0 132.1 132.2 132.3 132.6

910.11 910 .8 0 9 U .6 9 912.18 912.87

9 7 . 73 9 7 . 80 9 7 . 07 97 . 96 9 0 . 01

139.0 139.1 139.2 139. 3 139.6

958 .3 7 9 59.06 959 .7 5 9 6 0 .6 6 961 .1 3

c p

Mean thermal conductivity k,d 20-300° K

Relative

Material

Tensile yield strength S, 1000’s psic

lbm ft3

kg m3

Btu lbm* deg F

kJ kg*fc

Btu hr* ft* deg F

W m*K

S k

P

k

S

Aluminum alloy “K” Monel® Stainless steel Titanium alloy Nylon Teflon

50 100 100 100 15 2

170 520 500 625 70 120

2720 8330 8010 10010 1120 1920

.22 .13 .12 .06 .4 .25

0.92 0.54 0.50 0.25 1.67 1.05

50 10 5.4 3.5 .17 .14

86 17 9.3 6.1 0.29 0.24

1 10 18 29 88 14

3 52 93 180 41 86

.75 .68 .60 .37 1.9 15.0

aFor bFor cFor dFor

other thermal conductivities, see Tables 4 -5 1 and 4 -7 1 . N/m2 multiply by 133.32. MN/m2 multiply tabulated values in 1000’s psi by 6.8948. solid members; perforation and lamination used to reduce condition. REFERENCE

T h e rm a l I n s u la tio n S y s te m s ,

NASA SP-5027, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1967.

From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e rin g S c ie n c e , 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 529.

Table 4 -4 5 LOW-TEMPERATURE COOLING BATHS

Cryogenic and Refrigerating Fluids —Atmospheric Pressure Boiling point________ Liquid Helium Hydrogen Neon Nitrogen Air Argon Oxygen Methane (CH4)

K 4.2 20.4 27.1 77.4 79. 87.3 90.2 111.

_______Boiling point

°C

°F

Liquid

K

°C

-268.95 -252.7 -246. -195.8 -194. -185.9 -183.0 -162.

-452.1 -422.8 -410.8 -320.4 -317. -302.6 -297.5 -259.

Refrigerant 14 (CF4) Refrigerant 13 (CCIF3) Carbon dioxide (C 0 2)a Propylene (C3H6) Refrigerant 502 (Azeotrope) Propane (C3 H8) Refrigerant 22 (CHCIF2) Refrigerant 12 (CC12 F 2)

145. 192. 195. 225. 227. 225. 232. 243.

-128. -81. -78. -4 8 -4 6 . -48. -41 -3 0

aSolid; sublimes. N o te s :

Low-temperature baths are conveniently prepared by adding dry ice or liquid nitrogen to acetone, ether, chloroform, or one of the alcohols, stirring the mixture until a slush is formed. Bath

°F -198. -114. -108.5 -54. -5 0 . -54. -4 1 . -2 2 .

532

H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

Table 4 —45 (continued) LOW-TEMPERATURE COOLING BATHS temperatures will then be fixed by the freezing point and will range from about -82° F for chloroform to -1 9 7 °F for propyl alcohol. The lowest bath temperature with dry ice is -108° F. Minimum temperatures attainable (with difficulty) using water-ice and salt mixtures are as follows: NaCl (23.3%), -6 °F ; CaCl2(30%), -67°F . Warning: Adequate safety precautions are necessary when using low-temperature baths. In addition to skin “bum s,” toxic and explosion hazards may be present. In the initial cooling of a bath from room temperature, using dry ice or liquid nitrogen, the evolution of gas may be so rapid as to approach an explosion. Adequate venting and room ventilation are necessary. Liquid nitrogen absorbs and condenses oxygen (shown by bluish color) and may also produce “liquid air” in a heat-transfer device such as a vacuum cold trap. Later reevaporation of the air calls for adequate venting, or explosive forces are produced. Bath liquids and vapors may be toxic or irritant to skin or eyes (e.g., acetone or ketone) and contact should be avoided. From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e r in g S c ie n c e , 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 587.

Table 4 - 4 6 APPLICATIONS OF CRYOGENICS

Cryogenic applications are based largely on the use of liquefied “permanent” gases. Following the long period of development of gas-liquefaction systems (1875—1935) and the improvement of cryogenic insulation, the uses of the liquefied gases have expanded rapidly. Included in the partial list

of applications given below are several uses of liquefied gases that are as yet in the early stages of development. The future rate or extent of each of these developments is not predictable, but the prospects are sufficient to warrant their inclusion.

Table A. Applications at Cryogenic Temperatures

Type of use

Brief description

Minimum temperature Gases

K

°F

Space simulation

Pressures of 1 0 '10 to 10~14 torr by cryopumping. Plasma engines

He

5

-451

High-capacity electromagnets

High-intensity electromagnets with low-power consumption at cryogenic temperatures; compact, high-strength electromagnets with superconducting coils of special alloys (e.g., niobium-tin)

He

5

-451

Superconducting power cables

Long-distance and high-capacity underground power transmission with negligible I2R losses (or superconductors)

He

5

-451

Cryotrons

Thin-film (or wire-wound) superconducting switching elements used as memory, logic element, etc. in computers

He

5

-451

Frictionless bearings

Superconductors at cryogenic temperatures support bearing loads by magnetic repulsion

He

5

-451

Electronic “noise” suppression

Thermal noise in amplifiers suppressed at cryogenic temperatures; cryogenically cooled masers

He H2

5 20

-451 -4 2 3

533

Table 4 -4 6 (continued) APPLICATIONS OF CRYOGENICS Table A. Applications at Cryogenic Temperatures (continued) Minimum temperature Type of use

Brief description

Gases He C ,H 8

K

°F 5

-4 5 1 -5 4

h 2 He

20

5

-4 2 3 -4 5 1

2 He

77 5

-3 2 0 -4 5 1

Alleviation of damage to materials resulting from neutron bombardment

He h 2

20

5

-4 5 1 -4 2 3

Bubble chambers

Experiments involving elementary particles and nucleation in slightly superheated cryogenic liquid

h

2

20

-4 2 3

Rocket propulsion

Liquid hydrogen fuel. Liquid oxygen oxidizer for liquid or solid fuels

h

2

20

-4 2 3

2o -h 2

20

(-4 2 3 )-

High-capacity electric motors and generators

Increased capacity of conventional designs at low temperatures; compact motors for liquid-cryogen pumps by special design using superconducting motor and ac or pulsed dc in stator windings

Cryogenic infrared detectors

Photoconductor sensors highly sensitive to wavelengths above 10 /im at cryogenic temperatures

Gas liquefaction separation, rectification, refining

Large-scale production of liquid natural gas; natural-gas separations

n

Modification of “radiation damage” to materials

o 2

225

90

-2 9 7

Neutron moderator

D 20 ice, cooled by liquid hydrogen, used for slowing down of fast neutrons in a thermal reactor

Food freezing

Food frozen by liquid nitrogen spray or food cartons conveyed through liquid nitrogen. N 2 also used in frozen food transport

n

2

77

-3 2 0

Cryobiology

Cryogenic long-time preservation of blood, sperm, and other bio-materials

n

2

77

-3 2 0

Cryosurgery

Used for cryogenic brain surgery for treatment of Parkinson’s disease; eye surgery

co 2

200

-1 0 0

High vacuum and “cold traps”

Outgassing of high-vacuum systems, removal of oil vapors and residuals. Deposition of thin metal films under high vacuum; semiconductor manufacture

N2 h 2

co 2

195

-1 0 8 -3 2 0 -4 2 3

Reduction of chemical reaction rate

Excessive rates of chemical reaction at usual temperature may be slowed as desired by very low temperatures

CO j (bath) N2

Refrigerated transport

Dry ice in trucks, railway cars, ships, planes, and in insulated cartons (liquid nitrogen for some transport)

Cutting-tool coolant

Low-temperature heat removal at cutting-tool face when machining superalloys

Metal working and fabrication

Stretching, forming, and rolling of metals at cryogenic temperatures. Precipitation hardening and work hardening of austenitic steels

aHeavy-water ice cooled to 20 K (36° R). bSolid C 0 2 sublimes at 195 K, -108.5 °F.

d

co 2

N2

C 0 2 (bath) n 2 CO j (bath) n 2

77 20

195

-1 0 8 -3 2 0

195*

-1 0 8 * -3 2 0

195

-1 0 8 -3 2 0

195

-1 0 8 -3 2 0

77

77

77

77

534

H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n ce

Table 4—46 (continued) APPLICATIONS OF CRYOGENICS Table B. Reevaporated Gases Type of use

Typical application

Gases

Oxygen steel processes

Oxygen lances in open-hearth, converter, or electric-furnace operation; oxygen-enriched blast in blast furnace

o2

Chemical industries

Nitrogen for raw material in chemical manufacture. Hydrogenation processes

N2 h 2

Combustion processes

Fuel gases with air, or oxygen-enriched combustion processes

h 2 CH4 C

j

H 8

C4H 10

Flame cutting and welding

Gas welding and cutting processes, metals, and alloys

o2

H2 2h 2

c

REFERENCE Timmerhaus, K. D., Ed., A d v a n c e s in C r y o g e n ic E n g in e e r in g Series, Plenum, New York. From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L„ Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e rin g S c ie n c e , 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 588.

3.20 4.215 20 111 27

77.4 90.2 231 225 243

192 215 232

Helium 3 Helium 4 Hydrogen Methane Neon

Nitrogen Oxygene Propane Propylene Refrigerant 12

Refrigerant 13 Refrigerant 13B1 Refrigerant 22

346 388 419

139.2 162. 416 406 438

5.76 7.59 36.7 201 48.8

142 157 350 334 154

°R

-8 1 -5 8 -4 1

-1 9 6 -1 8 3 -4 2 -4 8 -3 0

-2 7 0 -2 6 9 -2 5 3 -1 6 2 -2 4 6

-1 9 4 -1 8 6 -7 9 -8 8 -1 8 8

°C

810 1 140 581 614 1 490 1 520 1 990 1 410

-1 1 4 -7 2 -4 1

58.9 125 71.0 424 1 200

875 1 400 1 560 548 1 500

Density, kg/m3

-3 2 0 -2 9 7 -4 4 -5 4 -2 2

-4 5 4 -4 5 2 -4 2 3 -2 5 9 -411

-3 1 8 -3 0 3 -1 1 0 -1 2 6 -3 0 6

-----°F

350:1 310:1 380:1

700:1 860:1 310:1 330:1 280:1

600:1 600:1 800:1 550:1 1 400:1

740:1 840:1 730:1 420:1 880:1

149 119 234

198 213 425 437 165

8.48 20.7 446 509 86.7

205 162 572 488 166

Latent heat o f vaporization, kJ/kg

0.895 1.69 1.05

2.04 1.90 2.20 2.59 0.891

4.60 4.56 9.79 3.45 1.84

1.97 1.14 1.33 2.51 1.55

Liquid, kJ/kg-K

0.413 0.849 0.464

1.08 1.40 1.21 1.52 0.456

6.82 11.9 1.66 1.17

1.02 0.531 0.795 1.05 0.812

Gas, kJ/kg-K

Specific heat, cp

0.010 5

0.010 9

0.371

0.351

0.005 54

0.158

0.004 55

0.001 28 0.001 05

0.007 36

0.245 0.001 62 0.003 57 0.013 1 0.119 0.T24

0.006 61 0.008 27

Gas, mN*s/m2

0.080 6 0.252

Liquid, mN«s/m2

Viscosity

From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e r in g S c ie n c e , 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 590.

aSublimes. bAt 253.15 K. cAt 273.15 K. dAt 324.82 K. S olidifies at -218° C, 55 K.

79 87 195 185 85

K

Air Argon Carbon dioxide8 Ethane Fluorine

Fluid

Boiliqg

Volume ratio (to room temp), gas/liq

Table 4 -4 7 CRYOGENIC AND REFRIGERATING LIQUIDS-SI UNITS

110b

60.5

139

17.1 27.0 118 111 130

135

123

7.78

7.18

9.86

9.69 15.6

7.44 6.05 14.7C 25.l d 7.20

2.44

2.13

1.434 1.51 1.27

1.049 2 1.226 1.68

1.43

1.52 1.59c

Thermal conductivity Dielec------------------------------- trie conLiquid, Gas, mW/m-K stant mW/m • K

53 5

536

H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

Table 4 - 4 8 DIFFUSION OF SOLUTES INTO WATER

Table 4 - 4 9 DIFFUSION OF WATER VAPOR INTO AIR

Dilute Solutions at 20°C

Values of Diffusion Constant and Schmidt Number

Diffusion constant, D , English: for square feet per hour multiply by 10"5 . Diffusion constant,/), metric: for square meters per second multiply by 10

Diffusion constant, D

Diffusion constant, Z)a

Substance H, o2

co2

NH3 N, Acetylene Cl2 HC1 H N 03 h 2s o 4 NaOH NaCl Ethyl alcohol Acetic acid Phenol Glycerol Sucrose

English

Metric

19.8 6.97 6.85 6.81 6.35 6.04 4.72 10.2 10.1 6.70 5.84 5.22 3.87 3.41 3.25 2.79 1.74

5.13 1.80 1.77 1.76 1.64 1.56 1.22 2.64 2.6 1.73 1.51 1.35 1.00 0.88 0.84 0.72 0.45

Schmidt number, 196 558 568 571 613 644 824 381 390 581 666 744 1005 1140 1200 1400 2230

aThe following relationship may be used to estimate the effect o f temperature of the diffusion constant M2 £>2

T *

Ml

where T = temperature, °K and p = solution viscosity, centipoises. The diffusion constant varies with concentration because of the changes in viscosity and the degree of ideality of the solution. bBased on p/p = 0.01005 cm2/sec for water at 20°C. Applies only for dilute solutions. From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e rin g S c ie n c e , 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 545.

Temp, °C

ft2/hr

cm2 /sec

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

0.844 0.898 0.952 1.01 1.06 1.12 1.18 1.24 1.30

0.218 .232 .246 .260 .275 .290 .305 .321 .337

k k )

0.608 .610 .612 .614 .615 .616 .618 .619 .619

aThe values of p D m were calculated using the viscosity and density of dry air. Thus, the values apply only when the diffusing water vapor is very dilute. REFERENCES Perry, R. H.. Chilton, C. H., and Kirkpatrick, S. D., Eds., T h e C h e m ic a l E n g in e e r s ’ H a n d b o o k , McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1963. National Research Council, I n te r n a tio n a l C r itic a l T a b le s o f N u m e r ic a l D a ta , Vol. 5, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1929. L a n d o lt-B o r n s te in

P h y sik a lisc h -C h e m isc h e

T a b e lle n ,

Springer, Berlin, 1923. Foust, A. S , Wenzel, L. A., Clump, C. W., Maus, L., and Anderson, L. B., P rin c ip le s o f U n it O p e r a tio n s , John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1960. From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e r in g S c ie n c e , 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 545.

537

Table 4 —50 DIFFUSION OF GASES AND VAPORS INTO AIR

Values of Diffusion Constant and Schmidt Number At 1 atm Pressure Diffusion constant, D , it2 /hr Substance

0°C 2.37 0.766 0.691 0.689 0.550

Methyl alcohol Formic acid Acetic acid Ethyl alcohol

25° C 2.76 0.886

Diffusion constant, D , cm2/sec 0°C

25° C

/ m\

a

\p D j

0°C

25°C 0.216 0.673 0.748 0.940

0.80 0.635

0.611 0.198 0.178 0.178 0.142

0.206 0.164

0.217 0.669 0.744 0.744 0.933

0.36 0.513 0.509 0.411 0.394

0.414 0.615 0.615 0.515 0.461

0.094 0.132 0.131 0.106 0.102

0.107 0.159 0.159 0.133 0.119

1.41 1.00 1.01 1.25 1.30

1.44 0.969 0.969 1.16 1.29

Chloroform Diethylamine n-Propyl alcohol Propionic acid Methyl acetate

0.352 0.342 0.329 0.328 0.325

0.406 0.387 0.383 0.387

0.091 0.0884 0.085 0.0846 0.0840

0.105 0.100 0.099 0.100

1.46 1.50 1.56 1.57 1.58

1.47 1.54 1.56 1.54

Butylamine Ethyl ether Benzene Ethyl acetate Toluene

0.318 0.304 0.291 0.277 0.274

0.391 0.360 0.341 0.330 0.325

0.0821 0.0786 0.0751 0.0715 0.0709

0.101 0.093 0.088 0.085 0.084

1.61 1.69 1.76 1.85 1.87

1.53 1.66 1.75 1.81 1.83

/i-Butyl alcohol /-Butyric acid Chlorobenzene Aniline Xylene

0.272 0.263

0.0703 0.0679 0.0610 0.059

0.090 0.081 0.073 0.072 0.071

1.88 1.95

0.236 0.228

0.348 0.313 0.283 0.279 0.275

2.17 2.25

1.71 1.90 2.11 2.14 2.17

Amyl alcohol /i-Octane Naphthalene

0.228 0.195 0.199

0.271 0.232 0.20

0.0589 0.0505 0.0513

0.070 0.060 0.052

2.25 2.62 2.58

2.20 2.57 2.96

H2 n h

3

n 2 O}

co 2 cs2

0.712 0.229

aBased on ^ = 0.1325 cm2/sec for air at 0°C and 0.1541 cm2/sec for air at 25°C; applies only when the diffusing gas or vapor is very dilute. From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e rin g S c ie n c e , 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 546.

538

H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

Table 4 -5 1 HEAT TRANSMISSION THROUGH BUILDING STRUCTURES2

Temperature control within structures requires the use of accurate and consistent data on heat transfer coefficients. Extensive tables have been compiled by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE Handbook o f Fundamentals, chap. 26),

and these are accepted as standard. The following tables give some of the basic coefficients (Table A) and examples of overall coefficients for common wall and roof constructions (Table B) from this source.

Table A, Basic Coefficients

metallic, 1.04 (5.91); foil on both surfaces, 0.34 (1.93). Horizontal air space: nonmetallic surfaces, winter, 1.18 (6.70); summer, 1.01 (5.74). Outdoor surface coefficients, winter, 6.0 (34) for 15 m/h (6.7 m/s) wind; summer, 4.0 (23) for 7.5 m/h (3.35 m/s) wind. For density in kg/m3 , multiply values in lbm/ft3 by 16.018.

Emissivities - Aluminum foil, 1 surface, 0.05; 2 surfaces, 0.03. Aluminum paint, 0.50. Nonmetallic surface, 0.90. (Blackbody = 1.0.) Coefficients in Btu/hr*ft2 -deg F (W/m2 *K) Indoor nonmetallic surfaces, still air; vertical, 1.46 (8.29); horizontal ceiling, winter, 1.63 (9.26); summer, 1.08 (6.13). Vertical air spaces: non-

Conductivity, k, Btu in./ft2 *hr*°F (at 75°F) Thermal conductivity Material

Asbestos cement board Blanket of batt insulation Brick, common Brick, face Cement mortar Concrete, gypsum fiber Concrete, lightweight Corkboard Hardboard, wood fiber Mineral fiberboard Mineral wool fill Plaster, cement sand Plaster, gypsum perlite Plaster, vermiculite Plywood Redwood bark fill Sheathing, wood fiber Shredded wood, cemented Vermiculite Wood, oak, maple Wood or cane fiberboard Wood, pine, fir

Density, lbm ft3

Btu* in.

W

hr*ft2 *°F

m*K

120 3 120 130 116 51 40 7 65 18 3 116 45 45 34 4 22 22 8 45 15 32

4.0 0.27 5.0 9.0 5.0 1.66 1.15 0.27 1.40 0.35 0.28 5.0 1.5 1.7 0.80 0.27 0.41 0.60 0.47 1.10 0.35 0.80

0.58 0.039 0.72 1.30 0.72 0.24 0.17 0.039 0.20 0.05 0.04 0.72 0.22 0.25 0.115 0.039 0.059 0.086 0.068 0.159 0.050 0.115

539

Table 4—51 (continued) HEAT TRANSMISSION THROUGH BUILDING STRUCTURES Table B. Overall Coefficients (Transmittance) Air to Air

Structure Single-glass window Double-insulating glass with Vi-in. air space, or storm window Frame wall: wood sheathing, lath, and sand plaster Frame wall: insulating sheathing, lath, and lightweight plaster Frame wall: full fibrous insulating between studs Brick veneer, insulating sheathing, lightweight plaster Brick wall, 8-in. solid, sand plaster Brick wall, 8-in., gypsum lath, furred, lightweight plaster Clay tile wall, 8-in. hollow, gypsum lath, furred, lightweight plaster Masonry cavity wall: 4-in. face brick, air space, 4-in. cinder block, gypsum lath, furred, lightweight plaster, two aluminum foil surfaces or %-in. insulation Roof, pitched, shingle, unventilated rafter space, lath and plaster ceiling Roof, pitched, asbestos cement, slate or tile shingles on wood sheathing, plastered ceiling, 3-in. insulation between joists Roof, flat, metal deck, plaster ceiling on gypsum board Roof, flat, preformed 2-in. insulating slab deck, acoustical ceiling on gypsum board

U, W/m2 K

U, Btu/hr-ft2 °F

6.2 3.2

1.1 0.56

1.5 1.1

0.26 0.19

0.40 1.2 2.6 1.5

0.07 0.21 0.45 0.27

1.3

0.23

0.74

0.13

1.7

0.30

0.40

0.07

1.9

0.33

0.74

0.13

aFor other data on thermal conductivities, see Tables 4 -4 4 and 4 -7 1 . From Bolz R. E and Tuve, G. L , Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e r in g S c ie n c e , 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 682.

540

Table 4 - 5 2 REFLECTANCE AND APPEARANCE OF COLORS

The following table gives the percentage reflectance in daylight of typical glossy- or smoothsurface finishes on wood, paper, metal, and other

Descriptive name White Light colors Light ivory Soft yellow Cream; off-white Light buff; light gray Peach Suntan Light green Light blue Medium colors Brilliant yellow Highlight buff Clear green Pearl gray Wood finish, maple Dark colors Light navy gray Medium green Vivid orange Clear blue Radiation purple Wood finish, oak or walnut Medium navy gray Light red Medium brown Wood finish, red mahogany Fire red Passive green Maroon; dark green Deep navy gray Marine Corps green Dark brown

materials. So-called ‘fluorescent” colors are not included, Light reflected, percent

Federal color No.a

85

_

75 75 75 70 64 60 55 50 58 55 50 46 40 28 25 23 19 15 15 14 13 10 9 7 7 7 7 4 4

13711 13695 -

12648 13613 14516 15526 13538 13578 -

16492 -

16251 14277 12246 15177 17142 -

16187 -

11105 14077 -

16081 14052 -

aFederal Color Standards No. 595. Color numbers beginning with digit 1 are gloss finish. A p p e a r a n c e o f c o lo r s

Intense or saturated hues protrude. Incandescent lighting tends to dull the green, blue, lavender, and purple shades. Olive green appears brown. “Cool white’’ fluorescent lamps make reds appear less bright, and they somewhat dull yellow and blue shades. Illuminated by “warm white” fluorescent lighting, the shades of gray and olive green are changed, and the blues and purples appear dull. Colored light sources change the hue of most pigment colors, except those that are nearly the same color as the light. From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e r in g S c ie n c e , 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 682.

541

Table 4 - 5 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICLES AND PARTICLE DISPERSOIDS

From Lapple, C. E., S ta n f o r d R e s. I n s t. J ., 5, 95, 1961. With permission.

Carbonaceous Charcoal, hardwood mix, volatile content 27.1% Coal, 111., No. 7, volatile content 48.6%

Agricultural Alfalfa Cereal grass Coffee Com Corncob Cornstarch Cotton linters Cottonseed Grain, mixed Grass seed Malt, brewers Milk, skim Peanut hull Peat, sphagnum Pecan nutshell Potato starch Rice Soy flour Sugar, powdered Wheat flour Wheat straw

Type of dust

0.020 0.050

600

0.320 0.800 0.160 0.040 0.080 0.030 1,920 0.120 0.030 0.260 0.035 0.050 0.050 0.050 0.050 0.025 0.050 0.100 0.030 0.060 0.050

Minimum igniting energy, J

530

530 550 720 400 480 390 520 530 430 490 400 490 460 460 440 440 440 550 370 440 470

Ignition temperature of dust cloud, °C

0.040

0.140

0.105 0.250 0.085 0.055 0.040 0.040 0,500 0.055 0.055 0.290 0.055 0.050 0.045 0.045 0.030 0.045 0.050 0.060 0.045 0.050 0.055 1,800 1,800

84

2,200 500 300 6,000 3,100 9,000 150 3,000 5,500 400 4,400 2400 4,700 2,200 4,400 8,000 2,600 1,600 1,700 4,400 6,000

Maximum rate of pressure rise, psi/sec

100

92 52 53 95 110 115 48 96 115 34 92 83 82 84 106 97 93 111 91 104 99

Maximum explosion pressure, psig

15

18

-

-

-

15

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Terminal oxygen concentration, %b

The values below probably represent “the most hazardous conditions” for these materials,

Minimum explosive concentration, o z /ft3

The following table is based on laboratory test results by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on dried samples of fine dusts (passing 200-mesh sieve).3

Table 4 - 5 4 DUST EXPLOSION CHARACTERISTICS

Strong

Strong

Moderate Weak Weak Strong Strong Severe Moderate Moderate Strong Weak Strong Strong Strong Strong Strong Severe Strong Moderate Strong Strong Strong

Relative explosion hazard

542 H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

Plastics Acetal resin (polyformaldehyde) Acrylic polymer resin Methyl methacrylate-ethyl acrylate Alkyd resin Alkyd molding compound Amino resin Urea-formaldehyde molding compound Cellulose fillers Wood flour Cellulose resin Ethyl cellulose molding compound

Metals Aluminum Copper Iron Magnesium Tin Titanium Uranium Zinc

Coal, Pa. (Pittsburgh), volatile content 37.0% Gilsonite, Utah, volatile content 86.5% Lignite, Cal., volatile content 60.4% Pitch, coal tar, volatile content 58.1%

Type o f dust

17 5,500 110 102

0.035 0.025

0.020 0.010

430 320

Severe

Severe

17 3,600 89

0.075

0.080

450

11

Strong

15

150 15 0.155

0.120

500

6,000

Weak

11 11

4,100 6,000

Severe Severe

Severe Fire Strong Severe Moderate Severe Severe Weak 89 85

10 0 15 0 0 9

2

Severe

Severe

Severe

Strong

Relative explosion hazard

0.035 0.030

6,000 10,000b 1,300 10,000b 3,400 1,800

-

_

-

-

17

Terminal oxygen concentration, %b

0.020 0.010

46 94 37 80 53 48

-

10,000b

6,000

8,000

3,700

2,300

Maximum rate of pressure rise, psi/sec

440 480

0.100 0.020 0.190 0.045 0.060 0.480

0.020 0.020 0.080 0.010 0.045 0.640

88

0.035

0.020

710

100

90

0.030

0.030

450

0.045

78

0.020

0.025

580

0.015

83

0.055

0.060

610

650 900 420 520 630 460 20 600

Maximum explosion pressure, psig

Minimum explosive concentration, oz/ft3

Minimum igniting energy, J

Ignition temperature o f dust cloud,°C

Table 4 —54 (continued) DUST EXPLOSION CHARACTERISTICS

543

1,700 3,100

88 93

0.055 0.030

0.240 0.030

520 320

10,000°

0.020

500

92

0.020

0.020 0.030

Maximum rate of pressure rise, psi/sec 6,000

Maximum explosion pressure, psig 86

Minimum explosive concentration, o z/ft3

530

Minimum igniting energy, J

From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve G L.. Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e r in g S c ie n c e , 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 784.

Moderate Severe

Severe 14 15

Severe

Relative explosion hazard

12

%b

Terminal oxygen concentration,

aSee U.S. Bureau of Mines Reports of Investigations No. 5624, 5753, 5971,6516. bThe terminal oxygen concentration is the limiting oxygen concentration in air-C02 atmosphere required to prevent ignition of dust clouds by electric spark.

Epoxy resin Phenolic resin Phenol-formaldehyde molding compound Rayon (viscose) flock Rubber, synthetic

Type o f dust

Ignition temperature of dust cloud, °C

Table 4 —54 (continued) DUST EXPLOSION CHARACTERISTICS 544 H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

545

Table 4 -5 5 TYPICAL FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE CONSTRUCTIONS Ratings are dependent on protective cover of concrete over steel. For length in millimeters,

multiply values in inches by 25.4.

Fire-resistance rating, hoursa

Structural members

1

Beams, medium size Slabs, unrestrained Beams, medium size Slabs, unrestrained Beams, medium size Columns, 1 2 -1 4 in. Slabs, unrestrained (Solid concrete walls, 6 in.) Columns, 1 2 -1 4 in. Columns, > 16 in. Slabs, unrestrained

2 3

4

Cover over steel, inches 3 /4—7/8 1 1 -1 1/4 1 1/2 1 1/2 1 1/2 2 -

2 1 1/2 2

aThe standard test for fire resistance rating for a large wall specifies measurement of the time required for a temperature rise of 250°F on the unexposed face when the other face is subjected to a “ standard fire.” N o te :

Concrete with aggregates containing more than 30% quartz, chert, flint, or granite has an inferior fire rating unless mesh is used. High cement content or light aggregates improve the fire rating. Cover is defined as the minimum distance from steel to exposed surface. Prestressed concrete members require more cover for a given rating.

From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 782.

E n g in eerin g S c ie n c e ,

Table 4 -5 6 COMBUSTION RETARDANTS FOR SOLID MATERIALS Fire and Flame Retardants for Combustible, Structural Materials, Sheets, Fabrics, and Plastics Variables — Conditions for the combustion of solids in air are so diverse that most data and tests provide only relative values. Among the variables, in addition to the chemical composition, are size, shape, and orientation of the materials and the heat source, initial and ambient temperatures, humidity and moisture content, intensity of radiation, air motion, and duration of the exposure. In addition, the material itself may agglomerate, melt, vaporize, decompose, distort, or intumesce (swell), thus greatly altering the access of oxygen to support combustion. Fire retardants — In most cases a fire-retardant treatment also will raise the maximum service te m p e ra tu re , and both objectives deserve

attention. Oxygen supply is largely determined by surface/volume ratio; three classes are quickly recognized: (1) bulk solids and shapes, (2) sheets and fabrics, and (3) particulates and dusts. The common combustible solids — wood, paper, fabrics, and plastics — each present their special problems. The methods of application also are distinctive, e.g., compounding (filling), coating, and impregnating. The chemistry of fire retardants deals largely with six elements — phosphorus, chlorine, bromine, boron, antimony, and nitrogen. As many treatments involve two or more retardants, a great variety of compounds of these six elements have been used. Inert and refractory coatings of oxides

546

Handbook o f Materials Science

Table 4—56 (continued) COMBUSTION RETARDANTS FOR SOLID MATERIALS Fire and Flame Retardants for Combustible, Structural Materials, Sheets, Fabrics, and Plastics (continued) or mineral powders comprise another class of fire retardants, merging into the insulating protective coverings as the thickness and porosity are increased. Many kinds of fillers are used in plastics and ru b b e rs; th ese usually reduce the flammability, but residues of plasticizers and solvents have opposite effects. Standard tests - Arbitrary methods of testing for flammability, fire resistance, or fire endurance have been prescribed by the ASTM,a the Underwriters’ Laboratories, and similar agencies in other countries. Tabular summary — The following table presents a partial list of the fire-retardant treatments for Wood, paper, textiles, and plastics. Many of these same materials are used in fire-retardant treatment or compounding for rubbers, asphalts, and bitumens. Not included in this table are several of the incombustible, or reflective, coatings

that may be applied to the surfaces of combustible materials. A single table hardly can suggest the many complexities of the methods for fire retardation. Flammability is reduced by stabilizing a material to reduce the decomposition into volatile, combustible products. Some treatments increase the residual char, which then acts as a barrier against propagation of the flame. Certain additives melt and form a hard skin; others decompose and give a protective blanket of inert gas. These are complex processes that are not easily analyzed, but there is a vast literature reporting the efforts and the specific results. It should be mentioned that when certain fire-retarding compounds are used together, their effectiveness increases. Examples are combinations of phosphorus compounds with chlorine compounds and antimony in combination with halogens.

Chemical Fire Retardants for Solids Key for methods of treatment: I = immersion or impregnation; M = mixture compounded; S = surface application Fire retardant for Class of compound Phosphorus compounds Phosphoric acid compounds Ammonium phosphate p-Halogen compounds Bromine compounds Organic Bromides Chlorine compounds Organic Zinc chloride Boron compounds Borax; boric acid Nitrogen compounds Ammonium compounds Miscellaneous materials Silicates Fire-retardant paints Titanium salts

Examples TCP,DCP,TPP,THPC (NH4)2P 0 4 ;NH4 H, P 0 4 PC13 CHBr aromatics MgBr2 ;ZnBr2 ;NH4 Br

Wood*5 i,s

M

Paper0

I, M

I I

M M M

M, S

I

M

M, S

I

M

I

I

I

Chlorinated paraffin ZnCl,

M

Na2 B2 0 7 ;H3 B 0 3

S

M, S

(NH4)2S 0 4 ;(NH4)3H P04

S

M

I,s s

S, M

Sodium silicate (TiCl4);T i2(S04)5

Cellulose fabrics Plastics

I

M

M

547

Table 4—56 (continued) COMBUSTION RETARDANTS FOR SOLID MATERIALS Chemical Fire Retardants for Solids (continued) Fire retardant for Class of compound

Examples

Antimony compounds (often with halogens) Oxide Chloride Organic

Woodb

Paper0

Cellulose fabrics

Plastics

M I M

M, S

I

M

M

I

Sb40 6 (Sb20 3) SbCl3

aSee the ASTM Index for flammability tests such as No. D568, D635, D777, D1230, D2859, E162, and E286. See also fire tests such as D 1360-61, E84, etc. ^Including fiber wallboards. in clu d in g cover stock, cardboards, and boxboards. REFERENCES Lyons, J. W., T h e C h e m is tr y a n d U ses o f F ire R e ta r d a n ts , John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1970. Goundry, J. H., F ir e p r o o fin g , American Elsevier, New York, 1970. From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p lie d E n g in e e rin g S c ie n c e , 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973,781.

Table 4 -5 7 FLAMMABILITY LIMITS FOR GASES AND VAPORS IN AIR At Atmospheric Pressure and Approximately Room Temperaturea Flammability limits in air, % o f total volume

Flammability limits in air, % of total volume Formula

Compound Acetaldehyde Acetone (2-Propanone) Acetonitrile Acrolein Acrylonitrile Allyl alcohol Allyl bromide (3-Bromopropene) Allyl chloride (3-Chloropropene) Ammonia Amyl chloride (1-Chloropentane) 1,3-Butadiene 2-Butoxyethanol Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol (1-Butanol)

Lower (lean)

Upper (rich)

2h 4o 3h 6o

4. 2.6

57. 12.8

2h 3n c 3h 4o c 3h 3n c 3h 6o C3H 5Br

4.5 2.7 3. 2.5 4.35

16. 40. 17. 18. 7.3

C3H 5C1

3.3

11.2

3 C 5H u C1

15.5 1.5

27. 8.6

C .H 6 c 6h , . o 2 c 6h 120 2 c 4h 10o

2. 1.1 1.7 1.4

12. 12.7 10. 18.

c c c

n h

Lower (lean)

Upper (rich)

C 2H 5Br

6.7

11.3

C2H 5C1

3.6

15.4

4h 10o

1.7

48.

2.7 3. 6.2

16.5 50. 16.

3.

90.

5.6 4. 4.3 1.8 3.1 7.3 4.9

41. 75. 45.5 7.8 16. 40. 20.8

Compound Ethyl bromide (Bromoethane) Ethyl chloride (Chloroethane) Ethyl ether (Diethyl ether) Ethyl formate Ethyl nitrite Ethylene dichloride (1,2-Dichloroethane) Ethylene oxide (Oxirane) Hydrocyanic acid Hydrogen Hydrogen sulfide Isopropyl acetate Methyl acetate Methyl alcohol Methylamine

Formula

c

3h 6o 2 2h 5n o 2 c 2h 4c i 2

c

c

c

2h 4o

HCN 2 2s C s H 10O2 c 3h 60 2 c h 4o c h 5n h

h

548

H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

Table 4 - 5 7 (continued) FLAMMABILITY LIMITS FOR GASES AND VAPORS IN AIR

At Atmospheric Pressure and Approximately Room Temperature (continued) Flammability limits in air, % of total volume

Flammability limits in air, % of total volume

9.8 10.1

1.5

7.6 50. 74. 20. 15.5 42. 8.3 10.4 5.4 75. 98. 9.2 10.1 14.4 22.2 15.6 11.5 19. 14.

o

cs2

CO C4H 5C1 c 4h 6o c 2n 2 c 6h 12 C 3H 6 C io H 22 d

2

B2H6 c 6h 4c i 2 C4H n N c 2h 7n c 4h 8o 2 c 4h 10o 2 c 4h 8o 2 c 2h 6o c 2h 7n

1

.

12. 4. 2.1 6. 1.3 2.4 .7 5. .9 2.2 1.8 2.8 2. 1.7 2.5 4.3 3.5

Methyl bromide (Bromomethane) Methyl butyl ketone Methyl chloride Methyl ether Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl formate H-Propyl acetate w-Propyl alcohol Propylamine Propyl chloride (1 -Chloropropane) Propylene dichloride (1,2-Dichloropropane) Propylene oxide Pyridine Triethylamine Trimethylamine Vinyl acetate Vinyl chloride (Chloroethylene) Xylene

Lower (lean)

CH3Br

10.

16.

6h 120 CH3C1 c 2h 6o c 4h 8o c 2h 4o 2 c 5h 10o 2 c 3h 8o c 3h 9n c 3h 7c i

1.25 8.1 2. 1.8 5. 2.0 2.1 2. 2.6

19.5 20. 11. 22.7 8. 13.5 10.4 11. 1

3.4

14.5

2. 1.8 1.2 2. 2.6 4.

22.

c

c

3h 6c i 2

c 3h c c c c c

5h 6h 3h 6h 2h

6o 5n 15n 9n 6o 2 3c i

X

1.7 1.8

Formula

©

Compound

0n0

Upper (rich)

X

Lower (lean)

C4H n N 4h 9c i

c

00

Butylamine Butyl chloride (1-Chlorobutane) Butyl ether Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Chloroprene Crotonaldehyde Cyanogen Cyclohexane Cyclopropane /i-Decane Deuterium Diborane Dichlorobenzene Diethylamine Dimethylamine Dioxane 2-EthoxyethanoJ Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Ethylamine

Formula

0o0

Compound

1

.

Upper (

8.

12.4 8. 11.6 21.7 22. 7.

aFlammable or explosive limits in pure air will differ greatly at other temperatures or pressures. In general, the effect of increasing temperature or pressure is to widen the flammable range. REFERENCE William s-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act o f 1970, Chapter XVII, Title 29, C o d e o f F e d e r a l R e g u la tio n s , April 13, 1971 (amended August 13, 1971), Part 1910 (Occupational Safety and Health Standards); published in F e d . R e g is te r , 36 (105), May 29, 1971. From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e r in g S c ie n c e , 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 783.

549

Table 4 -5 8 SURFACE FLAMMABILITY OF WOODS Tests on Bare Wood, Plywood, Wallboards, and Painted Wood Surfaces Basis of Test Data A report titled “Surface Flammability of Various Wood-Base Building Materials” was issued by the Forest Products Laboratory in 1959.a A similar report on painted wood surfaces appeared in 1963 in the Official Digest of the FSPT,b and this material was reprinted in the NFPA Quarterly in 1964.c All tests were made in a tunnel furnace by a uniform method.0 From these tests three index numbers were computed and tabulated. In each case an index number of 100 was assigned to the performance of a standard red oak specimen; the comparative index numbers were determined as follows: 1. Flame-spread index. If the flame spread was faster than for the standard red-oak specimen, the index was determined by the length of time for the flames to reach the end of the* test specimen, as compared with the standard time (18.4 min) for the flame to reach the end of the red-oak specimen. For a flame spread slower than that for red oak, the index was based on the ratio of the distances reached by the flames on the two specimens in the standard 18.4 min period (87 in. for red oak). 2. Index of heat contributed. This index was based on the readings of thermocouples in the

furnace stack. 3. Smoke density index. This index was obtained from the readings of photoelectric smoke meter in the furnace stack. A zero reference for both the smoke-density and heat-contributed indices was established by using a test specimen of asbestos millboard. It is apparent that this is an arbitrary test procedure that gives approximate comparative results only. Tests of identical specimens often varied ten points or more on the index scales (sometimes with one above 100 and the other below 100). It must be concluded that the various woods and finishes cannot be ranked in absolute order and that the tests serve rather to establish classes or categories of sufrace-flammability performance. This also is to be expected from the fact that the specimens within a class will vary, i.e., no two trees are exactly alike and no two manufacturers of wallboard of the same description will produce identical specimens. Although specific index numbers are quoted in the following table, they must be considered as approximate test results rather than absolute ratings.

Index num bers D escrip tion o f test specim ens

M oisture lb /f t 3

%

F lam e spread

H eat contrib uted

Sm ok e d en sity

Evaluation of flam m ability

Tests on 1-in. lumber Alder Aspen Bald cypress Basswood Beech

29.7 27.3 29.6 28.0 46.8

6.5 6.1 6.9 5.4 5.8

121 121 112 128 101

121 124 109 128 140

112 72 389 79 132

Birch Cedar, red Chestnut C otton w ood Elm, slippery

39.4 33.8 29.0 27.3 38.5

5.6 8.9 6.1 5.0 6.1

96 109 120 134 89

94 94 92 135 108

86 224 17 125 151

26 16

Fir, D ou glas Fir, white H em lock

27.1 29.9 29.0

5.9 6.7 7.4

116 115 108

77 96 95

81 109 78

11 12

8

7 14 3 24

10

1

29

17

550

Handbook o f Materials Science

Table 4 -5 8 (continued) SURFACE FLAMMABILITY OF WOODS Tests on Bare Wood, Plywood, Wallboards, and Painted Wood Surfaces (continued) In dex num bers M oisture

D escrip tion o f test specim ens

lb /ft3

%

Flam e spread

H eat contributed

Sm ok e d en sity

evalu ation of flam m ability

Tests on 1-in. lumber (continued) Larch M ahogany

34.9 29.7

6.8 6.6

106 104

98 70

56 34

19 22

M ahogany, Philippine M aple, sugar Oak, red Oak, white Pine, Northern white

35.3 41.7 39.0 40.8 23.9

5.4 6.2 5.0 6.4 5.7

106 95 100 95 132

81 83 100 91 104

55 76 100 40 193

20 28 25 27 2

Pine, ponderosa Pine, Southern yellow Pine, sugar Pine, western white Poplar, yellow

27.7 29.2 24.0 25.9 31.0

6.5 6.8 6.2 6.0 5.7

114 102 125 123 124

102 115 98 113 125

230 158 262 274 155

13 23 4 6 5

Redw ood Spruce, sitka Sweet gum W alnut, black

25.6 26.8 32.3 37.4

6.4 6.8 6.8 5.1

121 112 105 107

68 80 105 114

188 57 68 85

9 15 21 18

30.7 34.6 33.6

6.3 5.0 4.8

123 121 114

119 122 112

136 81 96

34.8

4.8

83

58

477

33.9

5.1

53

19

968

34.1

5.0

65

21

747

34.1

5.0

34

10

1143

34.1

5.0

81

38

1000

36.

5.0

105

112

141

19. 32.

5.0 4.0

125 122

91 161



51.4 61.4 70.8

3.2 4.3 3.1

119 96 90

177 169 165

131 407 657

36-67

3 .8 -6 .6

Tests on plywood J-in., 3 ply, fir, interior, f-in ., 3 ply, fir, interior, f-in ., 3 ply, fir, exterior, f-in ., 3 ply, fir, exterior, 1 coat f-in ., 3 ply, fir, exterior, 2 coats f-in ., 3 ply, fir, exterior, 1 coat f-in ., 3 ply, fir, exterior, 2 coats f-in ., 3 ply, fir, exterior, 2 coats f-in ., 3 ply, fir, exterior, plastic overlay

protein glue resin glue resin glue paint A , paint A, paint B, paint B, paint C, paper,

Tests on fiberboard Four different f-in . insulating fiberboards Three heavier fiberboards Tests on hardboard W illow, oak, wax, resin, 0.22 in. Fir, pine, wax, resin (4 makes) Fir, redwood, dense, oil-tem pered Tests on particle boards N ine w ood-chip boards

85-104

80-150

105

55-650

551 Table 4 - 5 8 (continued) SURFACE FLAMMABILITY OF WOODS

Conclusions From Test Results Index numbers obtained by flame-spread tests of 29 species of structural lumber by the tunnel-furnace method gave a graduated scale from the 130 range for flammable softwoods, such as white pine, cottonwood, basswood, and poplar, to the 90 range for the dense hardwoods, such as white oak, birch, elm, and sugar maple. Although the “heat-contributed” index followed the flame-spread index roughly, the smoke density was dependent on other factors. The flame-spread index of 1/4- and 3/8-in. fir plywood was somewhat higher than for a 1-in. fir board. The flame-spread index for either structural or insulating fiberboard differed little from those for the softwoods. The flammability of pressed hardboards varied from the softwood range for the lighter boards (50 lb/ft3) to the hardwood range for oil-tempered board of high density (65 lb/ft3). The particle boards tested were no more

flammable than hardwood; however, the range was rather wide, as there is a great variety of such boards. Many tests were made on painted specimens, most of them with 3/8-in. Douglas fir plywood as a base. For some coatings such as interior oil-base paints and enamels, varnish, shellac, lacquer, and asphalt paint the flammability was changed little from that of bare plywood, but the smoke and heat were increased. The effectiveness of fire-retardant paints was clearly demonstrated, especially if two coats were used or an intumescent (foaming) composition was employed. Most of the fire-retardant paints reduced the flammability of the fir-plywood specimen to that of the least-flammable hardwood. The best of the fire-retardant paints reduced the flammability index to the 30 range, on a scale of red oak = 100 and asbestos millboard = 0.

aBruce, H. D. and Downs, L. E., Surface Flam m ability o f Various Wood-base Building Materials, Forest Products L aboratory R eport No. 2140, Forest Service, U.S. D epartm ent o f A griculture, 1959. ^Official Digest, Federation o f Societies for Paint Technology, August 1963. cEickner, W. C. and Peters, C. C.,Natl. Fire Protection Q., April 1964. From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., Handbook o f Tables for Applied Engineering Science, 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 778.

1

1

2

3

5

1

2

3

5

2

3

Dowex 21 K

Duolite® A-101 D

lonac® A-540

A m berlite® IRA -400

Dowex 2

D uolite A-102 D

lonac A-550

A m berlite IRA -410

D uolite A-30 B

lonac A-300

M anufacturer

Dowex® 1

Trade nam e

T rim ethyl benzyl am m onium T rim ethyl benzyl am m onium T rim ethyl benzyl am m onium T rim ethyl benzyl am m onium T rim ethyl benzyl am m onium D im ethyl ethanol benzyl am m onium D im ethyl ethanol benzyl am m onium D im ethyl ethanol benzyl am m onium D im ethyl ethanol benzyl am m onium T ertiary am ine; quaternary am m onium T ertiary am ine; quaternary am m onium

S

w

w

s

s

s

s

s

s

s

S

A ctive group

Character

Matrix

Epoxy polyam ine

E poxy polyam ine

Polystyrene

Polystyrene

Polystyrene

Polystyrene

Polystyrene

Polystyrene

Polystyrene

Polystyrene

Polystyrene

A nion-exchange Resins

Manufacturers: 1. Dow Chemical Co., Midland, Mich. 48640 2. Diamond Shamrock Chemical Co., Redwood City, Cal. 94063 3. lonac Chemical Corp., Birmingham, N.J. 08011 4. Nalco Chemical Co., Chicago, 111. 60638 5. Rohm and Haas Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 19105

SYMBOLS:

Table 4-59 ION-EXCHANGE RESINS

0 -1 2

0 -9

0 -1 4

0 -1 4

0 -1 4

0 -1 4

0 -1 4

0 -1 4

0 -1 4

0 -1 4

0 -1 4

E ffective pH

Physical form: b = beads g = granules

Characters: S = strong W = weak







Cl/H approx. 1.5







Cl/H approx. 1.5

Cl/H approx. 25

Selectivity

~



I, N 0 3 , Br, Cl, acetate, OH, F







I, N 0 3 , Br, Cl, acetate, OH, F I, N 0 3 , Br, Q , acetate, OH, F

Order o f selectivity

552

Handbook o f Materials Science

4.2 3.5 3.3

1.4 1.3 1.4 2.6 1.8 2.4 2.4 1.9

2

3

5

2 3 2 2 5

Duolite A-l 02 D

Ionac A-550

Amberlite IRA-410

Duolite A-30 B Ionac A-300 Duolite A-6 Duolite A-7 Amberlite IR 4 5

8.7 5.5 7.6 9.1 5.2

3.5

1.33

1

Dowex 2

3.8

5

Amberlite IRA-400

4.2

1.4

3

Ionac A-540

1.4 3.6

2

Duolite A-101 D

4.5

1.25

1.0

1

Dowex 21 K

3.5

Manufacturer 50 150 50 150 60 100 60 100 60 75 30 150 40 100 40 100 40 75 80 40 60 40 100

(OH") (Cl") (OH ") (Q ") (OH") (Cl") (O H ") (Salt) (O H ") (Cl") (O H ") (Cl") (O H ") (Q ") (O H ") (Salt) (OH") (Cl")

Maximum thermal stability, °C

Ionic form as shipped**

b

-

Salt Salt Salt Salt Free base g g g

b

Salt

Q"

c r

Cl"

Salt

Cl"

Cl"

Cl"







1 9 -2 1

4 3 -4 6

44

4 3 -6 6

43

44

Shipping density, lb /ft3





Cl" 1 6 -5 0 1 6 -5 0 1 6 -5 0 1 6 -5 0

1 6 -5 0

1 6 -5 0

2 0 -5 0 (wet)

1 6 -5 0

1 6 -5 0

2 0 -5 0 (wet)

2 0 -5 0 (wet)

Standard mesh range

_ -

_ -

Order o f selectivity

Selectivity

b

b

b

b

b

b

b

b

b

Physical form

0 -5 0 -4 0 -9

Phenolic Phenolic Polystyrene

Tertiary amine Secondary amine Primary, secondary, and tertiary amine Total exchange capacity, meq/ga

Effective pH

Matrix

Active group

1.33

Total exchange capacity, meq/mla

1

W W W

Character

2 2 5

Manufacturer

Dowex 1

Trade name

Duolite A-6 Duolite A-7 Amberlite IR-45

Trade name

Anion-exchange Resins

Table 4 —59 (continued)

553

4

2 3

5 2 4 2

2 5

Dowex MPC-1

Duolite C-20 Ionac C-240

Amberlite IR-120 Duolite C-3 Dowex CCR-1 Duolite ES-63

Duolite ES-80 Amberlite IRC-84

Manufacturer

Trade name

1

4 2 3 5 2 4 2 2 5

Dowex MPC-1 Duolite C-20 Ionac C-240 Amberlite IR-120 Duolite C-3 Dowex CCR-1 Duolite ES-63 Duolite ES-80 Amberlite IRC-84

Dowex 50

1

Manufacturer

Dowex 50

Trade name

3.5 3.5

3.3

-

1.9 1.1

Na+ 1.9 H+ 1.7 1 .6-1.8 H* form 2.2 1.9

Total exchange capacity, meq/mla

S S S S S W W W W

S

Character

10.2 10.3

6.6

-

4.4 2.9

Na+ 4.8 H+ 5.0 4.5—4.9 IT form 5.1 4.6

Total exchange capacity, meq/g3

150 140 (Na+) 130 (H+) 120 60 38 100 100 120

150

150

Maximum thermal stability, °C

Nuclear sulfonic acid Nuclear sulfonic acid Nuclear sulfonic acid Nuclear sulfonic acid Methylene sulfonic Carboxylic Phosphonic Carboxylic Carboxylic

Nuclear sulfonic acid

Active group

Cation-exchange Resins Matrix

b g g b b b

b b

b

b

Physical form

Polystyrene Polystyrene Polystyrene Polystyrene Phenolic Phenolic Polystyrene Acrylic Acrylic

Polystyrene

Table 4—59 (continued)

1 6 -5 0 2 0 -5 0 1 6 -5 0 1 6 -5 0 -

-

1 6 -5 0 1 6 -5 0

2 0 -4 0 (wet)

2 0 -5 0 (wet)

Standard mesh range

0 -1 4 0 -1 4 0 -1 4 0 -1 4 0 -9 0 -9 4 -1 4 6 -1 4 4 -1 4

0 -1 4

Effective pH

-

-

-

Na+ or H+ IT IT (dry) H+ H* HT

Na+ Na+

Na+

H+ or Na+

21 -

-

-

5 0 -5 5

-

IT 50 Na+ 53 50

Shipping density, lb /ft3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ag, Cs, Rb, K, NH4 , Na, H, Li, Ba, Sr. Ca, Mg, Be

Order o f selectivity

-

Ionic form as shipped*5

Na/H a p p ro x .1.2

Selectivity

554 H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

commercial formaldehyde solutions and the removal of acid catalyst from esterification mixtures. 5. Removal of both anions and cations, as in water deionization, sugar purification, and glycerol refining. 6. Other applications include analytical separations; treatment of wine, fruit juices, and milk; use in the manufacture of pulp and paper, pharmaceuticals, and petroleum products; in hydrometallurgy; in the isolation and purification of biochemical products; and as catalysts in chemical reactions. sulfuric acid and caustic soda or ammonia are usually the reagents involved. Streptomycin is eluted from the resin with aqueous HC1. In the sulfuric acid leach process uranium is eluted with a solution of ammonium nitrate and nitric acid or sodium chloride and sulfuric acid.

Condensed from Weast, R. C., Ed., H a n d b o o k o f C h e m is tr y a n d P h y sic s , 53rd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1972.

Abrams, I. M. and Benezra, L., Ion exchange polymers, in E n c y c lo p e d ia o f P o ly m e r S c ie n c e a n d T e c h n o lo g y , Vol. 7, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1967, 692.

REFERENCES

aMeq = milligram equivalents. The equivalent weight of an element or ion is its atomic or formula weight divided by its valence. The exchange capacity of a resin is the number of milligram equivalents of ions in the solution that 1 g (dry) or 1 ml (wet) of the resin will exchange. ^Changes in ionic form will cause resins to swell 5 to 25% or more.

Ion exchange resins must be regenerated at intervals to restore their capacity to exchange ions. In water softening the resin is regenerated with a salt brine solution containing 10 to 20% NaCl. In formaldehyde purification the weak-base resins can be regenerated with dilute solutions of caustic soda, soda ash, or ammonia. In sugar purification

Regeneration of Ion-exchange Resins

1. R eplacem ent of deleterious by unobjectionable ions, as in water softening. 2. Concentration or recovery of a valuable substance, as the extraction of uranium and other metals from ores, and the concentration and purification of streptomycin. 3. Removal of harmful substances from waste effluent; for example, cyanide from plating baths, thiocyanate from gas-works liquors, and radioactive contaminants from wastes of nuclear power plants. 4. Removal of acids by OH-resins and alkalis by H-resins, as in the removal of formic acid from

Applications of Ion-exchange Resins

Table 4—59 (continued)

555

556

Handbook o f Materials Science

Table 4 -6 0 USEFUL RANGE OF SOLIDS FOR DRY LUBRICATION For load in MN/m2 , multiply values in psi by 6.8948 X 1(T3 . Tem perature, °F

L oad,a psi

Lubricant M olybdenum disulfide Graphite pow der T ungsten disulfide pow der P olytetrafluoroethylen e (PTFE) pow der and sintered shapes P olytetrafluoroethylen e and other plastics containing fillers Organic binder coatings, gra p h ite-M o S 2 type Inorganic binder coatings, g ra p h ite-M o S 2 typ e

2 .0 0 0 yield p o in t o f m etal 2 . 0 0 0 - 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 2 ,0 0 0 -y ie ld p oin t o f m etal 1 5 0 - 3 ,0 0 0

-3 0 0 -+ 7 5 0 b

5 0 - 4 ,0 0 0

Max. 50 0

2 .0 0 0 poin t o f 2 .0 0 0 poin t o f

- 3 0 0 - + 1 .2 0 0 L ow n o t investigated, m ax. 8 5 0 b -3 0 0 -+ 5 0 0

yield m etal yield m etal

-1 0 0 -5 0 0 - 3 0 0 - 1 ,0 0 0

aSpeed a ffects the load capacity to a marked degree, but solid lubricants should on ly b e considered at low speeds. As speed increases, load-carrying capacity decreases. b In inert and reducing atm ospheres these solids are used at temperatures above 2,0 0 0 ° F. From D iSapio, A. and Gerstung, H. S., Solid and bonded-film lubricants, Machine Design (The Bearings Reference Issue), 3 8 (6 ), 8, 1 9 6 6 . With perm ission.

Table 4-6 1 AMERICAN WOODS—PROPERTIES AND USES For weight-density in kg/m3, multiply value in lb/ft3 by 16.02. W eight

lb /f t 3 , green

lb /ft3 , air-dry 12%

l b / 1 ,000 board ft, air-dry 12%

Furniture; sash; doors; m illw ork

46

28

2 ,3 3 0

Cabinets; veneer; coop erage, containers Similar to w h ite ash

52

34

2 ,8 3 0

46

38

3 ,1 6 0

48

41

3 ,4 2 0

51

32

2 ,6 7 0

54

45

3 ,7 5 0

Sp ecific gravity Green

Dry

Alder, red

0.3 7

0.41

Ash, black

0.4 5

0 .4 9

Ash, Oregon

0 .5 0

0.55

Ash, w hite

0 .5 4

0 .5 8

Species

Bald cypress (Southern cypress) B eech, American

0 .5 6

0.6 4

Characteristics Low shrinkage; m oderate in strength, shock resistance, hardness, and w eigh t3 Light in w eight3 Similar to bu t lighter than w h ite ash3 Heavy; hard; stiff; strong; high shock resistance3 M oderate in strength, w eight, hardness, and shrinkage0 H eavy; high strength, shock resistance, and shrinkage; uniform textu re3

Uses

Handles; ladder rungs; baseball bats; farm im plem ents; car parts Building construction; beam s; posts; ties; tanks; ships; paneling Flooring; furniture; handles; kitchen wear; ties (treated)

557

Table 4—61 (continued) AMERICAN WOODS—PROPERTIES AND USES W eight

Sp ecific gravity G reen

Dry

Birch

0 .5 7

0.63

C o tton w ood

0 .3 7

0 .4 0

Douglas fir

0.41

0 .4 4

Elm

0 .5 7

0.6 3

H em lock, Eastern H em lock, Western H ickory, true

0 .3 8

0 .4 0

0 .3 8

0 .4 2

0.65

0.73

Incense cedar

0.3 5

Larch, W estern

0 .4 8

0 .5 2

Locust, black

0 .6 6

0 .6 9

Maple

0 .4 4

0 .4 8

Oak, red and w h ite

0 .5 7

0.63

Sp ecies

Pine, jack

Pine, lodgepole

Pine

0 .3 8

0.41

Characteristics H eavy; high strength, shock resistance, and shrinkage; uniform textu re3 Uniform texture; d oes n ot split readily; m oderate in w eight, strength, hardness, and shrinkage M oderate in strength, w eight, shock resistance, and shrinkage15 M oderate in strength, w eight, and hardness; high in shock resistance and shrinkage; good in bending3 M oderate in w eight, strength, and hardness3 M oderate in w eight, strength, and hardness3 High toughness, hardness, shock resistance, strength, and shrinkage3 U niform texture; easy to season; low shrinkage, shock resistance, w eight, and stiffness0 M oderate in strength, w eight, shock resistance, hardness, and shrinkage15 High in shock resistance, w eight, and hardness; very high strength; m oderate shrinkage0 High in hardness, w eight, strength, shock resistance, and shrinkage; uniform textu re3 High in hardness, w eight, strength, shock resistance, and shrinkage; red,3 w h iteb Coarse texture; low strength, stiffness, shock resistance, and shrinkage M oderate in w eight, hardness, strength, shock resistance, and shrinkage; easy to work*5 High shrinkage; m oderate strength, stiffness, hardness, and shock resistance

Uses Interior finish; dow els; ties (treated); veneer; m usical instrum ents Crates; trunks; car parts; farm im plem ents

Building and construction; poles; veneer; plyw ood ; ships; furniture; b oxes Cooperage; baskets; crates; veneer; vehicle parts

Building and construction; b o xes Sash; doors; posts; piles; building and construction D ow els; spokes; poles; shafts; gym nasium equipm ent Lumber; fence posts; ties; poles; shingles

l b / 1,000 board ft, air-dry 12%

lb /f t 3 , green

lb /ft3 , air-dry 12%

57

44

3 ,6 7 0

49

28

2 ,3 3 0

38

34

2 ,8 3 0

54

34

2 ,9 2 0

50

28

2 ,3 3 0

41

29

2 ,4 2 0

63

51

4 ,2 5 0

45

Doors; sash; posts; pilings; building and construction

48

36

3 ,0 0 0

Mine timbers; posts; poles; ties

58

48

4 ,0 0 0

Flooring; furniture; trim; spools; farm im plem ents

54

40

3 ,3 3 0

Trim; ships; flooring; ties; furniture; cooperage; piles

64

44

3 ,6 7 0

39

29

2 ,4 2 0

B ox lum ber; fuel; m ine tim ber; ties; poles; posts Poles; m ine timber; ties; construction

General construction; ties; poles; posts

558

Handbook o f Materials Science

Table 4—61 (continued) AMERICAN WOODS—PROPERTIES AND USES W eight

S p ecific gravity Species

G reen

Dry

Pine, Ponderosa

0 .3 8

0 .4 0

Pine, S. yello w

0.4 7

0.51

Pine, sugar

0.35

0 .3 6

Pine, Western w hite

0 .3 6

0 .3 8

Red cedar, Eastern and Western

0 .4 4

0 .4 7

R edw ood

0 .3 8

0 .4 0

Spruce, Eastern

0 .3 8

0 .4 0

Spruce, Engelm ann

0.31

0 .3 3

Spruce, Sitka

0 .3 7

0 .4 0

Sycam ore

0 .4 6

0 .4 9

Tamarack

0.4 9

0.53

Tupelo

Walnut, black

0.51

0.55

Characteristics M oderate in w eight, shock resistance, shrinkage, and hardness; easy to w ork3 M oderate in shock resistance, shrinkage, and hardness; high in strength15 Low shock resistance; easy to work; m oderate strength3 M oderate in strength, shock resistance, shrinkage, and hardness; easy to w ork3 High shock resistance; low stiffness and shrinkage; m oderate in strength and hardness0 Low shrinkage; m edium in w eight, strength, hardness, and shock resistance0 M oderate in hardness, shock resistance, w eight, shrinkage, and strength3 G enerally straight grained; light in weight; low strength as a beam or post; low shock resistance; m oderate shrinkage M oderate in w eight, hardness, strength, shock resistance, and shrinkage3 High shrinkage; m oderate in w eight, strength, hardness, and shock resistance3 Coarse texture; m oderate in strength, hardness, shrinkage, and shock resistance U niform texture; m oderate in strength, hardness, shock resistance; high shrinkage; interlocked grain m akes splitting d ifficu lt3 M oderate shrinkage; high w eight, strength, hardness, and shock resistance; easily worked and glu ed 0

Uses

lb /f t 3, green

lb /ft3 , air-dry 12%

l b / 1,0 0 0 board ft, air-dry

12%

Building; paneling; sash; frames

45

28

2 .3 3 0

Building and construction; poles; pilings; b oxes

55

41

3 ,4 2 0

Sash; counters; blinds; patterns

52

25

2 ,0 8 0

Building and construction; patterns; b oxes

35

27

2 ,2 5 0

F en ce posts; closet liners; chests; flooring

37

37

2 ,7 5 0

Posts; doors; interiors; cooling tow ers

50

28

2 .3 3 0

Building; m illwork; boxes; ladders

34

28

2 .3 3 0

Mine timber; ties; poles; flooring; studding; paper

39

23

1,920

Im portant in b oat and plane construction; sash; doors; b oxes; siding Boxes; ties; posts; veneer; flooring; butcher b lock s

33

28

2 .3 3 0

52

34

2 ,8 3 0

47

37

3 ,0 8 0

58

38

3 ,1 7 0

Ties; m ine timber; posts; poles; tanks; scaffolding

Flooring; planking; crates; furniture

Gun stocks; cabinets; p lyw ood ; furniture; veneer

559

Table 4—61 (continued) AMERICAN WOODS—PROPERTIES AND USES Weight Specific gravity Species

Green

Dry

Characteristics

Uses

White cedar

0.31

0.32

Low shrinkage, weight, shock resistance, and strength; soft; easily worked0 High strength and shock resistance; low beam strength and weight; interlocked grain

Poles; posts; ties; tanks; ships

Willow, black

lb /ft3, green

lb /ft3, air-dry 12%

lb /1,000 board ft, air-dry 12%

24

23

1,920

Lumber; veneer; charcoal; furniture; sub flooring; studding

aDecay resistance low. bDecay resistance medium. cDecay resistance high. From Parker, E. R., M a te ria ls D a ta B o o k , McGraw-Hill, New York, copyright © 1967, 252. With permission.

Table 4-62 ALLOWABLE UNIT STRESSES FOR LUMBER Grading and Specifications of Softwood Lumber American Softwood Lumber Standard — A voluntary standard for softwood lumber has been developing since 1922. Five editions of Simplified Practice Recommendation R16 were issued from 1924—53 by the Department of Commerce; the present NBS Voluntary Product Standard PS 20-70, A m erican S o ftw o o d L u m b e r S ta n d a rd , was issued in 1970. It was supported by the American Lumber Standards Committee, which functions through a widely representative National Grading Rule Committee. The A m erican S o ftw o o d L u m b e r S ta n d a rd , PS 20-70, gives the size and grade provisions for American Standard lumber and describes the organization and procedures for compliance enforcement and review. It lists commercial name

classifications and complete definitions of terms and abbreviations. PS 20-70 lists 11 softwood species, viz., cedar, cypress, fir, hemlock, juniper, larch, pine, redwood, spruce, tamarack, and yew. Five dimensional tables show the standard dressed (surface planed) sizes for almost all types of lumber, including matched tongue-and-grooved and shiplapped flooring, decking, siding, etc. Dry or seasoned lumber must have 19% or less moisture content, with an allowance for shrinkage of 0.7 to 1.0% for each four points of moisture content below this maximum. Green lumber has more than 19% moisture. Table A illustrates the relation between nominal size and dressed or green sizes.

560

Handbook o f Materials Science

Table 4—62 (continued) ALLOWABLE UNIT STRESSES FOR LUMBER Table A. Nominal and Minimum-dressed Sizes

This table applies to boards, dimensional lumber, and timbers. The thicknesses apply to all

widths and all widths to all thicknesses. Face widths

Thicknesses

Minimum dressed

Minimum dressed Item

Nominal

Dry,a inches

Green, inches

Boards*3

i

3/4

25/32

1 1/4

1

1 1/32

1 1/2

1 1/4

19/32

/ f

2 3 4

i \ )

5 6 7

\ 1

8 9

/ f

i \ Dimension 2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2

1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3

1 9/16 2 1/16 2 9/16 3 1/16

2 3

i 1 / \

4 5 6 8

/ f l i

10 12 14 16

l 4 4 1/2

3 1/2 4

3 9/16 4 1/16

10

11 12 14 16

i

/

Dimension

2

3 4

) 5 ( 6 1 8 / 10 I

12 14

[

Timbers

5 and thicker

1/2 off

inches

Green, inches

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 13 15

1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4

1 9/16 2 9/16 3 9/16 4 5/8 5 5/8 6 5/8 7 1/2 8 1/2 9 1/2 10 1/2 11 1/2 13 1/2 15 1/2

1 2 3 4 5 7 9 11 13 15

1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4

1 9/16 2 9/16 3 9/16 4 5/8 5 5/8 7 1/2 9 1/2 11 1/2 13 1/2 15 1/2

1 2 3 4 5 7 9 11

1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/4 1/4 1/4

1 9/16 2 9/16 3 9/16 4 5/8 5 5/8 7 1/2 9 1/2 11 1/2 13 1/2 15 1/2

D r y ,3

Nominal

16 5

and wider

1/2 off

aMaximum moisture content of 19% or less. ^Boards less than the minimum thickness greater thickness dry (11/16 in. green) may be regarded as American Standard Lumber, but such boards shall be marked to show the size and condition of seasoning at the time of dressing. They shall also be distinguished from 1-in. boards on invoices and certificates. From A m e r ic a n S o f t w o o d L u m b e r S ta n d a rd , NBS 20-70, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1970 (available from Superintendent of Documents).

561

Table 4—62 (continued) ALLOWABLE UNIT STRESSES FOR LUMBER National Design Specification — Table B is condensed from the 1971 edition of N a tio n a l D esign S p ecifica tio n f o r Stress-grade L u m b e r an d Its F astenings , as recommended and published by

the National Forest Products Association, Washington, D.C. This specification was first issued by the National Lumber Manufacturers Association in 1944; subsequent editions have

been issued as recommended by the Technical Advisory Committee. The 1971 edition is a 65-page bulletin with a 20-page supplement giving “Allowable Unit Stresses, Structural Lumber,” from which Table B has been condensed. The data on working stresses in this Supplement have been determined in accordance with the corresponding ASTM Standards, D245-70 and D2555-70.

Table B. Species, Sizes, Allowable Stresses, and Modulus of Elasticity

Normal loading conditions: moisture content not over 19%, No. 1 grade, visual grading. To

Speciesa Cedar Northern white Western Fir Balsam Douglas (larch) Hemlock Eastern (tamarack) Hem-fir Mountain Pine Idaho white Lodgepole Northern Ponderosa (sugar) Red Southern

convert psi to N/m2, multiply by 6,895. Allowable unit stresses, psi^

Typical grading agency, 1971b

Extreme fiber in bending0

2X 4 2 or 4 X 6+ 2X 4 2 or 4 X 6+

NL, NH NL, NH NC NC, WW

1,100 1,000 1,450 1,250

600 575 725 725

205 205 285 285

6.75 675 975 975

800,000 800,000 1,100,000 1,100,000

2X 4 2 or 4 X 6+ 2X 4 2 or 4 X 6+

NL, NH NL, NH WC, NC WC, NC

1,300 1,150 2,400 1,750

675 650 1,200 1,000

170 170 385 385

825 825 1,250 1,250

1,200,000 1,200,000 1,800,000 1,800,000

2X 4 2 or 4 X 6+ 2X 4 2 or 4 X 6+ 2X 4 2 or 4 X 6+

NL, NH NL, NH WC, NC WC, NC WC,WW WC,WW

1,750 1,500 1,600 1,400 1,700 1,450

900 875 825 800 850 850

365 365 245 245 370 370

1,050 1,050 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000

1,300,000 1,300,000 1,500,000 1,500,000 1,300,000 1,300,000

2X 4 2 or 4 2X 4 2 or 4 2X 4 2 or 4 2X 4 2 or 4 2X 4 2 or 4 2X 4 2 or 4

WW WW WW WW NL, NH NL, NH WW, NC WW, NC NC NC SP SP

1,400 1,200 1,500 1,300 1,600 1,400 1,400 1,200 1,350 1,150 2,000 1,750

725 700 750 750 825 800 700 700 700 675 1,000 1,000

240 240 250 250 280 280 250 250 280 280 405 405

925 925 900 900 975 975 850 850 825 825 1,250 1,250

1,400,000 1,400,000 1,300,000 1,300,000 1,400,000 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,200,000 1,300,000 1,300,000 1,800,000 1,800,000

Sizes, nominal

X 6+ X 6+ X 6+ X 6+ X 6+ X 6+

Tension parallel to grain

Compression perpendicular

Compression parallel

Modulus of elasticity, psi

562

H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

Table 4—62 (continued) ALLOWABLE UNIT STRESSES FOR LUMBER Table B. Species, Sizes, Allowable Stresses, and Modulus o f Elasticity (continued)

Speciesa Redwood California

Spruce Eastern Engelmann Sitka

Sizes, nominal

2 or 4 2 or 4

X X

2 or 4 6 to 12

2X 4 2 or 4 X 6+ 2X 4 2 or 4 X 6+ 2X 4 2 or 4 X 6+

Allowable unit stresses, psi^ Typical ---------------- --------------------- -----------------------------Tension grading Extreme Compression parallel Compression agency, fiber in parallel perpendicular 1971^ bending0 to grain

Modulus of elasticity, psi

RI RI

1,950 1,700

1,000 1,000

425 425

1,250 1,250

1,400,000 1,400,000

NL, NH NL, NH WW WW WC WC

1,500 1,250 1,300 1,150 1,550 1,300

750 750 675 650 775 775

255 255 195 195 280 280

900 900 725 725 925 925

1,400,000 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,200,000 1,500,000 1,500,000

aGrade designations are not entirely uniform. Values in the table apply approximately to “ No. 1.” There is seldom more than one better grade than No. 1, and this may be designated as select, select structural, dense, or heavy. In addition to lower grades 2 and 3, there may be other lower grades, designated as construction, standard, stud, and utility. In bending and tension the allowable unit stresses in the lowest recognized grade (utility) are of the order of one eighth to one sixth of the allowable stresses for grade No. 1. The tabular values for allowable bending stress are for the extreme fiber in “repetitive member uses” and edgewise use. The original tables give correction factors, which are less than unity for moist locations and for short-time loading; they are greater than unity if the moisture content of the wood in service is 15% or less. In general, all data apply to uses within covered structures. From the extensive tables, only the No. 1 grade in nominal 2 x 4 size and 2-in. or 4-in. planks, 6 in., and wider have been selected for illustration. In a few cases the allowable stresses specified for the Canadian products will vary slightly from those given here for the same species by the U.S. agencies. ^Grading agencies represented by letters in this column are as follows: NC = National Lumber Grades Authority (a Canadian agency) NH = Northern Hardwood and Pine Manufacturers Association NL = Northeastern Lumber Manufacturers Association RI = Redwood Inspection Service SP = Southern Pine Inspection Bureau WC = West Coast Lumber Inspection Bureau WW = Western Wood Products Association cIt is assumed that all members are so framed, anchored, tied, and braced that they have the necessary rigidity. dFor short term loads, these values may be increased: add 15% for 2-month snow load; add 33% for wind or earthquake; add 100% for impact load. N o te :

Allowable unit stresses in horizontal shear are in the range 60 to 100 psi for No. 1 grade. REFERENCES

Handbook No. 72, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., 1955. American Institute of Timber Construction, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1966. N a tio n a l D e sig n S p e c if ic a tio n f o r S tre s s-g ra d e L u m b e r a n d I t s F a ste n in g s, National Forest Products Association, Washington, D.C., 1971. W ood H an dbook,

T im b e r C o n s tr u c tio n M a n u a l,

563

Table 4-63 STRESS-GRADE LUMBER-MAXIMUM END LOADS Allowable Unit Stresses of Wood for End Grain in Bearing Parallel to Grain These allowable unit stresses apply to the net area in bearing. When the stress in end-grain bearing exceeds 75% of the adjusted allowable unit stresses, bearing shall be on a metal plate, strap, or

other durable, rigid, homogeneous material of adequate strength. To convert stresses to N/m2, multiply by 6,895.

Species

Unseasoned, psi

Seasoned, psi

Ash, commercial white Balsam fir Beech Birch, sweet and yellow California redwood (close grain)

1,510 980 1,310 1,260 1,720

2,060 1,330 1,790 1,720 2,340

California redwood (open grain) Cottonwood, Eastern Douglas fir-larch (dense) Douglas fir-larch Douglas fir, South

1,270 840 1,730 1,480 1,340

1,730 1,150 2,360 2,020 1,820

Eastern hem lock-tam arack Eastern spruce Eastern white pine Engelmann spruce Hem-fir

1,270 1,060 990 860 1,230

1,730 1,450 1,360 1,170 1,680

Hickory and pecan Idaho white pine Lod’gepole pine Maple, black and sugar Mountain hemlock

1,510 1,080 1,060 1,260 1,170

2,050 1,470 1,450 1,710 1,600

Northern pine Northern white cedar Oak, red and white Ponderosa pine—sugar pine Red pine and northern species

1,150 810 1,160 1,000 970

1,570 1,110 1,590 1,360 1,320

Sitka spruce Southern cypress Southern pine (dense) Southern pine (med. grain) Southern pine (open grain)

1,090 1,460 1,730 1,480 1,260

1,480 1,990 2,360 2,020 1,720

S pruce-pine-fir Sub alpine fir Sweetgum and tupelo Western cedars Western white pine

1,040 840 1,120 1,140 1,030

1,410 1,150 1,530 1,560 1,400

980

1,340

Yellow poplar

From N a tio n a l D e s ig n S p e c if ic a tio n f o r S tre s s-g ra d e L u m b e r a n d I t s F a s te n in g s , National Forest Products Association, Washington, D.C., 1973, II-3. With permission.

564

H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

Table 4 - 6 4 ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE OF VARIOUS SPECIES OF WOOD

This table gives the average of measurements made along the grain between two pairs of needle

electrodes 1 1/4 in. apart and driven to a depth of 5/16 in., measured at 80°F.

Electrical resistance, megohms, for various moisture contents Species SOFTWOODS Cypress, Southern Douglas fir (coast region) Fir, white Hemlock, Western Larch, Western Pine Eastern white Ponderosa Southern longleaf Southern shortleaf Sugar Redwood Spruce, Sitka HARDWOODS Ash, commercial white Birch Gum, red Hickory, true Maple, sugar Oak Commercial red Commercial white

12%

16%

20%

7%

8%

9%

10%

12,600 22,400 57,600 22,900 39,800

3,980 4,780 15,850 5,620 11,200

1,410 1,660 3,980 2,040 3,980

630 630 1,120 850 1,445

120 120 180 185 250

11.2 11.2 16.6 16.2 19.9

1.78 2.14 3.02 2.52 3.39

20,900 39,800 25,000 43,600 22,900 22,400 22,400

5,620 8,910 8,700 11,750 5,250 4,680 5,890

2,090 3,310 3,160 3,720 1,660 1,550 2,140

850 1,410 1,320 1,350 645 615 830

200 300 270 255 140 100 165

19.9 25.1 24.0 22.4 15.9 7.2 15.5

3.31 3.55 3.72 3.80 3.02 1.74 3.02

12,000 87,000 38,000 72,400

2,190 19,950 6,460 31,600 13,800

690 4,470 2,090 2,190 3,160

250 1,290 815 340 690

55 200 160 50 105

5.0 18.2 15.1 3.7 10.2

0.89 3.55 2.63 0.71 2.24

14,400 17,400

4,790 3,550

1,590 1,100

630 415

125 80

11.3 7.2

2.09 1.15

From W o o d H a n d b o o k , Handbook No. 72, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., 1955.

Table 4 - 6 5 LOADS FOR NAILS AND SCREWS IN WOOD Table A. Grouping of Wood Species

The holding power of wood fastenings depends largely on the density of the wood, hard to soft.

Loads increase with the specific gravity of wood,

Group No.

Typical species

Specific gravity

1 2 3 4

Hickory, hard maple, oak, beech, birch Douglas fir (larch), Southern pine, gum Hemlock, spruce, Northern pine, cypress, redwood Balsam fir, cedar, Engelmann spruce, soft white pine

.62-.75 .51 - .55 .4 2 -.4 8 .31—.41

565

Table 4 —65 (continued) LOADS FOR NAILS AND SCREWS IN WOOD Table B. Sizes and Allowable Design Loads

The following table gives the normal range of loading in pounds for joints secured by nails,

spikes, wood screws, lag screws, or bolts. For load in kilograms, multiply tabular values by 0.453 6.

Symbols:

L = length; D = diameter Fastener description (seasoned wood only)

Nominal gage

Length and diameter, inches

Wood species, group

1

2

3

4

Nails,a allowable withdrawal load per individual nail, per in. penetration into side grain

6d 8d 10 d 12 d 16 d

2 x .113 2.5 x .131 3 x .148 3.25 x . 148 3.5 x . 162

47-76 55-87 62-78 62-78 68-85

29-34 34-39 38-44 38-44 42-49

18-25 21-29 23-33 23-33 25-36

9-17 10-20 12-22 12-22 13-24

Spikes, allowable withdrawal load per individual spike per in. penetration into side grain

12 16 20 40

3.25 x . 192 3.5 x . 207 4 x .225 5 x .263

80-127 86-138 94-150 110-174

49-57 53-61 58-67 68-79

30-42 33-46 35-50 41-58

15-29 16-31 18-33 21-39

Nails and spikes, allowable lateral load in total lb shear for penetration from 10 diam for Group 1 to 14 diam for Group 4, into final member

6d 8d 10 d 12 d 16 20 40

2 x .113 2.5 x .131 3x;148 3.25 x . 148 3.5 x . 207 4 x .225 5 x .623

78 97 116 116 191 218 276

63 78 94 94 155 176 223

51 64 77 77 126 144 182

Wood screws,^allowable withdrawal load per in. penetration to full length of threaded section

6 8 10 12 16

151-222 180-263 208-306 237-347 294-430

102-118 121-141 141-164 160-186 199-231

69-91 82-108 95-125 109-142 135-176

Wood screws,Allowable lateral load for penetration 7 times the shank diameter into final member

8 10 12 16

7 D x .164 7 D x .190 7 D x .216 7 D x .268

129 173 224 345

106 143 185 284

87 117 151 233

68 91 118 181

Lag screws^allowable withdrawal load lb per in. penetration into side grain

8 1 2 A 8

3

10 D x .375 10 D x .500 10 D x .625 10 D x .75

421-561 523-697 618-824 708-944

313-356 389-443 460-524 528-601

235-287 291-357 344-421 395-483

145-226 180-281 213-332 244-380

3 4

Lag bolts, allowable lateral load using i-in. metal side pieces; penetration into side grain, single shear; load parallel to graine

A 1 i 14 1

Bolted joints, double shear (joint consisting of 3 members; 2 side members, each \ the thickness of main member. Bolt length given for main-member thickness only.)

i 1 3 4 7

8 1

.67 L x . 138 .67 L x . 164 .67 L x . 190 .67 L x . 216 .67 L x .268

4 x .312 6 x .375 8 x .5 10 x .75 12x1 1.5 x .5 3 x .625 4.5 x .75 7.5 x .875 11.5 x 1

410 630 1 140 2 540 4 520

355 545 985 2 190 3 900

41 51 62 62 101 116 146 38-66 45-79 53-91 59-103 73-128

290 490 880 1 970 3 290

235 430 775 1 625 2 630

■Y

_____*

820-1 1 700-2 2 500-3 3 390-4 4 460-6

120 340 440 670 140

566

H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

Table 4—65 (continued) LOADS FOR NAILS AND SCREWS IN WOOD aLoads for threaded, hardened steel nails, in 6 d to 20 d sizes, are the same as for common nails. bWood screws shall not be driven with a hammer. Soap or other lubricant may be used, and lead holes are permitted, usually 70% of root diameter o f thread. Spacing of screws shall be such as to prevent splitting. cTabular values are for screws inserted into side grain. With metal side plates loads may be increased 25%. If screw is inserted in end grain, allowable loads are to be reduced 33%. d Penetration of threaded portion about 10 D, but withdrawal resistance approximates tensile (root) strength for penetrations as follows: species group 1 = 7 D; group 2 = 8 D; group 3 = 10 D; group 4 = 11 D. For penetration into end grain, allowable loads are reduced 25%. Lead holes for threaded section about 75% of shank diameter. Lag screws shall not be driven with a hammer. eFor load perpendicular to grain, the allowable loads are much less.

N o te :

The examples in Table 4 -6 5 indicate the ranges of the allowable loads specified in the extensive tables in National Design Specification for Stress-grade Lumber and Its Fastenings, National Forest Products Association, Washington, D.C., 1971.

From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e rin g S c ie n c e , 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 632.

1.82 1.80 1.80 1.30 1.60 1.80 1.10 2.00 1.80 1.60 1,000-2,200 1,100-2,300 1,200-2,450 600-1,250 1,500-3,100 1,200-2,450 1,100-2,300

900-2,300 1,200-2,600

Bending, load p arallel

Western Wood Products Association, 1966.

West Coast Lumber Inspection Bureau, 1963. California Redwood Association, 1965.

S ta n d a r d S p e c if ic a tio n s , S tr u c tu r a l G lu e d -la m in a te d C a lifo rn ia R e d w o o d T im b e r ,

S ta n d a r d S p e c if ic a tio n s f o r S tr u c tu r a l G lu e d -la m in a te d D o u g la s F ir T im b e r ,

385-450 450 385-450 325 610 610 180 730 610 610

Compression, perpendicular to grain

National Forest Productions Association,

1,200-1,800 1,500 1,800-2,000 1,800-2,200 1,600-2,200 1,800-2,400 900-1,200 2,200-3,000 1,800-2,400 1,500-2,000

Compression, parallel to grain

S ta n d a r d s f o r S tr u c tu r a l G lu e d -la m in a te d M e m b e r s A s s e m b le d w ith W W PA G ra d e s o f D o u g la s F ir a n d L a rc h L u m b e r ,

Washington, D.C., 1971.

N a tio n a l D e s ig n S p e c if ic a tio n f o r S tre s s-g ra d e L u m b e r a n d I t s F a ste n in g s,

1,800-2,400 1,600 2,200-2,600 1,800-2,200 1,400-2,300 1,500-2,450 750-1,250 1,900-3,100 1,500-2,450 1,350-2,300

Tension, parallel to grain

Allowable unit stresses, psi

conditions of use, for curved members, and for deep and slender beams (see References). Ranges indicate various grades and also numbers of laminations. For stress and modulus of elasticity in MN/m2, multiply values in psi by 0.0068948.

REFERENCES













1,500-2,600 2,200-2,600 1,800-2,600 1,400-2,200

Bending, load perpendicular

aParallel or perpendicular with respect to the wide face of the laminations.

Douglas fir or larch Douglas fir, Coast region Southern pine California redwood Ash, commercial white Birch, sweet or yellow Cottonwood, Eastern Hickory Maple, hard Oak, red or white

Laminations of

elasticity, millions of psi

ITIUUU1U3 U1

The following table gives the range of allowable unit stresses for “structural glued-laminated timber,” in which the grain of all laminations is approximately parallel, net finished widths 2 1/4 to 14 1/2 in. These values are for dry conditions of use (moisture content < 16%) and normal loading duration. Lower unit stresses are specified for wet

Table 4 - 6 6 UNIT STRESSES FOR LAMINATED TIMBERS

195 165 200 125 230 230 110 260 230 230

Horizontal shear

567

25

24

7

in. pipe, OD 3.5 in., wall thickness 0.216 in.

6

in. pipe, OD 6f in., wall thickness 0.280 in.

69 88

68 87

51 65

6-

Plain Filled

52 66

in. pipe, OD 5.563 in., wall thickness 0.258 in.

37 45

5-

Plain Filled

Plain Filled

38 46

30 37

in. pipe, OD 4.5 in., wall thickness 0.237 in.

31 38

4-

Plain" Filled

3j-in. pipe, OD 4.0 in., wall thickness 0.226 in.

Plain

3-

Description

67 86

50 64

36 44

29 36

23

8

66 85

49 63

34 43

28 35

21

9

65 84

48 62

33 41

26 33

20

10

64 83

47 60

31 40

24 31

18

11

63 82

46 59

30 38

23 30

16

12

kN, multiply tabulated values in thousands of pounds by 4.4482.

Maximum load in thousands o f pounds for column lengths, feet

Following are approximate maximum axial loads for “Standard Pipe” (Schedule 40) used as columns, plain or filled with concrete. For load in

Table 4 - 6 7 SAFE LOADS FOR PIPE COLUMNS

From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e rin g S c ie n c e , 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 634.

V e h ic u la r U ses, Southern Hardwood Producers, Inc., Appalachian Hardwood Manufacturers, Inc., and Northern Hardwood and Pine Manufacturers Association. S ta n d a r d S p e c if ic a tio n s f o r S tr u c tu r a l G lu e d -la m in a te d T im b e r , American Institute o f Timber Construction, 1970.

S ta n d a r d S p e c if ic a tio n f o r th e D e s ig n a n d F a b r ic a tio n o f H a r d w o o d G lu e d -la m in a te d L u m b e r f o r S tr u c tu r a l, M a r in e , a n d

Table 4—66 (continued) UNIT STRESSES FOR LAMINATED TIMBERS 568 H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

9

147 200

102 123

10

146 199

101 122

145 198

100 121

11

144 197

99 120

12

From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e rin g S c ie n c e , 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 632.

148 201

8

10-in. pipe, O D lOj in., wall thickness 0.365 in. Plain 150 149 202 203 Filled

7

103 124

6

8-in. pipe, O D 8J in., wall thickness 0.322 in. 104 105 Plain 125 126 Filled

Description

Maximum load in thousands o f pounds for column lengths, feet

Table 4—67 (continued) SAFE LOADS FOR PIPE COLUMNS

569

570

H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

Table 4 - 6 8 PROPERTIES OF MOLTEN SALTS

For density in kg/m3, multiply values in g/cm3 by 1,000. For viscosity in N*s/m2, multiply values in centipoise by 0.001. Near melting point

Salts

Melting point, °C

Temperature, °C

Density, g/cm3

Electrical conductivity per ohm-cm

AgBr AgCl Agl A gN 03 A1C13

430 455 558 210 192

447 467 607 217 207

5.562 4.861 5.526 3.954 1.209

b 2o

3 BeF Bu 4NBF4 CaBr2 CaCl2

450 540 162 730 782

1137 697 167 747 787

1.508 0.935 3.108 2.078

CdBr2 CdCl2 CsCl Csl CuCl

568 568 645 621 422

587 577 667 657 527

4.054 3.381 2.768 3.140 3.618

1.097 1.884 1.167 0.707 3.703

HgCl2 Hgl2 KBr KC1 k 2c o 3

277 257 735 770 896

287 277 747 787 907

4.336 5.164 2.116 1.518 1.892

3.49 x 10"5 0.0282 1.639 2.203 2.053

K 2Cr20 7 K1 k n o 3 KOH LaCl3

398 685 337 360 870

417 727 357 407 877

2.273 2.404 1.856 1.714 3.196

LiBr LiCl Li2C 0 3 Lil L iN 03

550 610 618 449 254

597 637 737 487 277

NaBr NaCl N a2C 0 3 NaF Nal

750 800 854 980 662

Na2M o 0 4 N aN 0 2 N aN 0 3 NaOH Na2W 0 4 PbCl2 RbBr RbCl Rbl R bN 03

Viscosity, centipoise

Density, g /cm 3

Electrical conductivity per ohm-cm

Viscosity, centipoise

5.458 4.774 5.425 3.852 0.938

1237 797 267 847 887

1.499 0.877 3.058 2.036

1.28 1.72 2.54

687 677 767 757 627

3.946 3.299 2.662 3.022 3.542

1.301 2.150 1.474 0.916 3.841

1.74 2.53 1.18 1.15 -

387 377 847 887 1007

4.050 4.841 2.034 1.460 1.848

7.447 x 10“ 5 0.0180 1.886 2.439 2.342

0.247 1.369 0.691 2.56 1.521

11.87 1.45 2.63 2.21 —

517 827 457 507 977

2.204 2.308 1.783 1.670 3.118

0.507 1.569 0.986 3.14 1.810

2.499 1.490 1.826 3.093 1.768

4.951 5.864 4.097 3.967 0.928

1.52 1.59

697 737 837 587 377

2.433 1.447 1.789 3.001 1.713

5.470 6.354 4.892 4.427 -

1.10 1.09 2 91 1.53 2.95

787 817 867 997 677

2.309 1.547 1.968 1.944 2.726

3.018 3.629 2.900 4.937 2.292

887 917 967 1097

3.319 3.926 3.288 5.211 2.603

1.02 0.95 1.63

111

2.227 1.493 1.923 1.888 2.631

687 285 310 318 698

747 297 317 357 111

2.765 1.801 1.898 1.767 3.792

1.243 1.329 1.015 2.44 1.145

3.04 2.86 3.79 -

847 397 417 457 877

2.703 1.726 1.827 1.719 3.712

1.575 1.872 1.453 3.34 1.35

1.77 2.11 -

498 680 715 640 316

507 697 737 657 327

4.942 2.699 2.229 2.886 2.466

1.486 1.125 1.549 0.879 0.457

4.41 1.45 1.29 1.39 3.68

607 797 837 757

4.792 2.592 2.141 2.772 2.369

1.957 1.359 1.818 1.056 0.673

2.69 1.13 0.98 1.06 -

— —

0.61 x 10"5 —

1.409 2.059

3.30 2.24 2.95

Temperature, °C 547 567 707 317 307



2.896 3.868 2.43 0.692

+ 100° (approx.)



0.320 5020. 2.62 9.00 —

3.34

2.73 —



2.17 5.85 1.28 1.38 — —

1.45 ___

A ll

_

3.113 4.225 2.60 1.122 — ___

13.77 x 10-5 —

1.716 2.501

2.53 1.78 2.28 2.55 —

3580. 0.154 1.91 —

1.96 ___

1.91 0.94 1.26 1.80 — ___

0.92 0.86 ___

1.13 1.61 i .25 3.94



1.09 ___ —

571 Table 4 —68 (continued) PROPERTIES OF MOLTEN SALTS + 100° (approx.)

Near melting point

Salts

Melting point, °C

SnCl2 SnCl4 SrCl2 T1C1 ZnCl2

245 -3 3 875 429 275

N o te :

Temperature, °C 267 37 897 447 327

Density, g/cm3 3.339 2.186 2.713 5.597 2.514

Electrical conductivity per ohm-cm 0.884

Temperature, °C

Viscosity, centipoise

367 137 997 547 427

___



2.082 1.154 0.00268

0.73 3.18 —

2900.

Density, g/cm 3 3.214 1.917 2.655 5.417 2.469

Electrical conductivity per ohm-cm 1.493 _

2.466 1.515 0.0323

Viscosity, centipoise ___

0.34 — _



Tables in the original source are in 10-degree increments, and several other salts are included. “ Best equations” for each property are listed, and over 250 keyed references are included.

From Janz, G. J., Dampier, F. W., Lakshiminarayanan, G. R., Lorenz, P. K., and Tomkins, R. P. T., M o lte n S a lts: E le c tr ic a l Vol. 1, National Standard Reference Data Series-NBS 15, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C., October 1968.

C o n d u c ta n c e , D e n s ity , a n d V is c o s ity D a ta ,

Table 4 -6 9 AVERAGE AMOUNTS OF THE ELEMENTS IN THE EARTH’S CRUST

In Grams Per Metric Ton or Parts Per Million Element

Quantity

Element

Quantity

O Si A1 Fe Ca

466,000 277,200 81,300 50,000 36,300

N Ce Sn Y Nd

46 46 40 28 24

Br Ho Eu Sb Tb

1.6 1.2 1.1 1? 0.9

Na K Mg Ti H

28,300 25,900 20,900 4,400 1,400

Nb Co La Pb Ga

24 23 18 16 15

Lu Tl Hg I Bi

0.8 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.2

P Mn S C Cl

1,180 1,000 520 320 314

Mo Th Cs Ge Sm

15 12 7 7 6.5

Tm Cd Ag In Se

0.2 0.15 0.1 0.1 0.09

Rb F Sr Ba Zr

310 300 300 250 220

Gd Be Pr Sc As

6.4 6 5.5 5 5

Ar Pd Pt Au He

0.04 0.01 0.005 0.005 0.003

Cr V Zn Ni Cu

200 150 132 80 70

Hf Dy U B Yb

4.5 4.5 4 3 2.7

Te Rh Re Ir Os

0.002? 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001?

Element

Quantity

572

H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

Table 4 - 6 9 (continued) AVERAGE AMOUNTS OF THE ELEMENTS IN THE EARTH S CRUST In Grams Per Metric Ton or Parts Per Million (continued) Element

Quantity

Element

W Li

69 65

Er Ta

Quantity

Element

Quantity

Ru

0 . 001 ?

2.5 2.1

From Mason, B., P rin c ip le s o f G e o c h e m is tr y , John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1952. With permission.

Table 4 - 7 0 COMPOSITION OF SEA WATER Table A. Elements in Solution Excluding Dissolved Gases

Element

Concentration, parts per million (approximate)

Percent by weight

857,000. 108,000. 19,000. 10,500. 1,275. 885. 400. 380. 65. 30. 13. 4.6 2. 1.3 1.

85.7000 10.8000 1.9000 1.0500 0.1275 0.0885 0.0400 0.0380 0.0065 0.0030 0.0013 0.00046 0.0002 0.00013 0.0001

Oxygen Hydrogen Chlorine Sodium Magnesium Sulfur Calcium Potassium Bromine Carbon Strontium Boron Silicon Fluorine Aluminum

Table B. Ionic Constituents Anions in Sea Water o f 34.4 Salinity per Mil, or 3.44% by Weight

Tabular values are given in percent by weight. Chloride Sulfate Bicarbonate

1.897 0.265 0.014

Bromide Borate

0.0065 0.0027

573

Table 4 - 7 0 (continued) COMPOSITION OF SEA WATER Table C. Artificial Sea Water

To simulate the physical properties, a 3.4% solution of sodium chloride or natural sea salt may be used. For a more exact chemical reproduction the following is an average. Salt

Grams

NaCl MgCl2 MgS04 (or N aS04) CaCl2 KC1 NaHC03 NaBr (or KBr) TOTAL N o te :

25. 3. 4. 1. 0.7 0.2 0.1 34.0

Add water to make 1 kg.

USN Specification 44T 27b-1940 is as follows: NaCl 23 g Na2S 0 4 • 10H2O 8g Stock solution 20 ml Sterile distilled water to 1 liter. The stock solution is as follows: Magnesium chloride Calcium chloride Potassium bromide Potassium chloride Sterile distilled water to 1 liter.

550 g llO g 45 g 10 g

From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e rin g S c ie n c e , 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 659.

Table 4 -7 1 PROPERTIES OF COMMON SOLID MATERIALS Specific heat

Thermal conductivity kJ kg-K

Btu hr-ft-deg F

cal sec*cm*degC

W m-K

Specific gravity

Btu _ cal lb m 'd eg R g-K

Asbestos cement board Asbestos millboard Asphalt Beeswax Brick, common

1.4 1.0 1.1 0.95 1.75

0.2 0.2 0.4 0.82 0.22

.837 .837 1.67 3.43 .920

0.35 0.08

.001 45 .000 33

0.607 0.14

0.42

.001 7

0.71

Brick, hard Chalk Charcoal, wood Coal, anthracite Coal, bituminous

2.0 2.0 0.4 1.5 1.2

0.24 0.215 0.24 0.3 0.33

1.00 .900 1.00 1.26 1.38

0.75 0.48 0.05

.003 1 .002 0 .000 21

1.3 0.84 0.088

Concrete, light Concrete, stone Corkboard Earth, dry Fiberboard, light

1.4 2.2 0.2 1.4 0.24

0.23 0.18 0.45 0.3 0.6

.962 .753 1.88 1.26 2.51

0.25 1.0 0.025 0.85 0.035

.001 0 .004 1 .000 1 .003 5 .000 14

0.42 1.7 0.04 1.5 0.058

Fiber hardboard Firebrick Glass, window

1.1 2.1 2.5

0.5 0.25 0.2

2.09 1.05 .837

0.12 0.8 0.55

.000 5 .003 3 .002 3

0.2 1.4 0.96

Material

574

H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

Table 4 -7 1 (continued) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SOLID MATERIALS Specific heat Material

Specific gravity

Btu _ cal lbm *degR g-K

Thermal conductivity kJ kg-K

Btu !h r-ft-deg F

cal sec-cm-degC

W

m-K

Gypsum board Hairfelt

0.8 0.1

0.26 0.5

1.09 2.09

0.1 0.03

.000 41 .000 12

0.17 0.050

Ice (32°) Leather, dry Limestone Magnesia (85%) Marble

0.9 0.9 2.5 0.25 2.6

0.5 0.36 0.217 0.2 0.21

2.09 1.51 .908 .837 .879

1.25 0.09 1.1 0.04 1.5

.005 2 .000 4 .004 5 .000 17 .006 2

0.2 1.9 0.071

Mica Mineral wool blanket Paper Paraffin wax Plaster, light

2.7 0.1 0.9 0.9 0.7

0.12 0.2 0.33 0.69 0.24

.502 .837 1.38 2.89 1.00

0.4 0.025 0.07 0.15 0.15

.001 7 .000 1 .000 3 .000 6 .000 6

0.71 0.04

Plaster, sand Plastics, foamed Plastics, solid Porcelain Sandstone

1.8 0.2 1.2 2.5 2.3

0.22 0.3 0.4 0.22 0.22

.920 1.26 1.67 .920 .920

0.42 0.02 0.11 0.9 1.0

.001 7 .000 08 .000 45 .003 7 .004 1

0.71 0.03 0.19 1.5 1.7

Sawdust Silica aerogel Vermiculite Wood, balsa Wood, oak

0.15 0.11 0.13 0.16 0.7

0.21 0.2 0.2 0.7 0.5

.879 .837 .837 2.93 2.09

0.05 0.015 0.035 0.03 0.10

.000 2 .000 06 .000 14 .000 12 .000 41

Wood, white pine Wool, felt Wool, loose

0.5 0.3 0.1

0.6 0.33 0.3

2.51 1.38 1.26

0.07 0.04 0.02

.000 29 .000 17 .000 8

2.2

2.6

0.1 0.2 0.2

0.08

0.02

0.058 0.050 0.17 0.12 0.071 0.3

From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e rin g S c ie n c e , 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973,177.

575

Table 4 - 7 2 GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF COMMON ROCKS Table A. Igneous Rocks Solidified from a Molten State Coarse-grained crystalline

Fine-grained crystalline (or crystals and glass)

Fragmental (crystalline or glassy)

Origin: deep intrusion, slowly cooled

Origin: quickly cooled, volcanic or shallow intrusive

Origin: explosive volcanic fragments deposited as sediments

Granite

Rhyolite

Dio rite

Andesite

Gabbro

Basalt Obsidian and pitchstone (essentially glass-suddenly chilled, few or no crystals)

Ash and pumice (volcanic dust or cinders) Tuff (consolidated volcanic ash) Agglomerate (coarse and fine volcanic debris)

Table B. Mineral Constituents o f Igneous Rocks

Minerals Key: Q = quartz (Si02): hard, shiny, no true cleavage 0 = orthoclase feldspar: silicates; regular cleavage p = plagioclase feldspar: nearly white, good cleavage A = amphibole (magnesium, iron, calcium) and/or biotite (black mica) B = pyroxene; nearly black Coarsely crystalline Granite Syenite Quartz monzonite Monzonite Quartz diorite Diorite Gabbro aSmall amount.

Principal constituent minerals

Finely crystalline or porphyrit

Q+0+A(+P)a 0+A(+P)a

Rhyolite Trachyte

Q+O+P+A O+P+A Q+P+A or B

Dellenite Latite

(+0)a

P+A or B (+ 0)a P+B

Dacite Andesite Basalt

H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

Table 4 -7 2 (continued) GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF COMMON ROCKS Table C. Sedimentary Rocks Sediments Transported by Water, Air, Ice, Gravity Chemically or biochemically deposited A-Calcareous Limestone (CaC03) Dolomite (CaC03 'M gC03) Marl (calcareous shale) Caliche (calcareous soil) Coquina (shell limestone) B-Consolidated Shale (consolidated clay) Siltstone (consolidated silt) Sandstone (consolidated sand) Conglomerate (consolidated gravel or cobbles—rounded) Breccia (angular fragments)

B—Siliceous Chert Flint Agate ) Spring deposit, Opal > vein or Chalcedony ) cavity filling C -O thers Coal, phosphate, salines, etc.

Table D. Metamorphic Rocks Igneous or Sedimentary Rocks Changed by Heat, Pressure A -Foliated Slate: dense, dark, splits into thin plates (metamorphosed shale) Schist: predominantly micaceous, semiparallel lamellae Gneiss: granular, banded, subordinated micaceous B-Massive Marble: coarsely crystalline, calcareous (metamorphosed limestone) Quartzite: dense, very hard, quartzose (metamorphosed sandstone) From C o n c r e te M anual, 7th cd., Reclamation, 1966, Tables 10 and 11.

U.S.

Bureau

of

Table 4 - 7 3 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF AVERAGE ROCKS Igneous rock

Shale

Sandstone

Limestone

Sediment4

59.14 1.05 15.34 3.08 3.80

58.10 0.65 15.40 4.02 2.45

78.33 0.25 4.77 1.07 0.30

5.19 0.06 0.81 0.54

57.95 0.57 13.39 3.47 2.08

MgO CaO Na20 K20 h 2o

3.49 5.08 3.84 3.13 1.15

2.44 3.11 1.30 3.24 5.00

1.16 5.50 0.45 1.31 1.63

7.89 42.57 0.05 0.33 0.77

2.65 5.89 1.13 2.86 3.23

p 2o 5 C 02

0.30 0.10

BaO C

0.06

0.17 2.63 0.64 0.05 0.80

0.08 5.03 0.07 0.05

0.04 41.54 0.05

0.13 5.38 0.54

100.00

100.00

99.84

m stituent S i0 2 T i0 2 A120 3 Fe20 3 FeO

so 3

99.56

0.66 99.93

Shale, 82%; sandstone, 12%; limestone, 6% (after Leith and Mead, 1915). After Clarke, from Pettijohn, F. J., S e d im e n ta r y R o c k s , 2nd ed., Harper & Row, New York, 1957, 106. With permission.

1 9 4 0 °K

2 0 70° K. S o n ic a t te n u a t io n

c o m p r e s s iv e w a v e

V e lo c ity o f s o u n d -

sh ear w ave

V e lo c ity o f s o u n d -

In d e x o f r e f r a c tio n

D is s ip a tio n f a c t o r

L o s s f a c to r

S tr e n g th

C o n s ta n t

D ie le c tric p r o p e r tie s

E le c tric a l re s is tiv ity

S tr a in p o in t

< .0 3 3 d b / f t M e

5 .9 0 x 105 c m /s e c

3 .7 5 x 105 c m /s e c

< .1 1 d b /m M h z

5.9 0 x 103 m /s

3.75 x 103 m /s

1.4585

< 1 x I 0 '4

1.4585

< 4 x 1 0 '4

< 1 x I 0 '4

1.6 x 107 V /m

3.75

(2 9 3 ° K a n d 1 M h z )

1340°K.

1410°K

< 4 x 10"4

4 1 0 v o lt s / m il

3.7 5

(2 0 ° C a n d 1 M e)

(3 5 0 °C )

1 0 9-5 o h m c m

1 0 70°C

114 0 °C

International system o f units (SI) value

These data apply to a specific grade of commercially available material. The term “ fused silica” is often used to include the entire group o f materials made by fusing o f silica (S i0 2). All such products contain small amounts o f impurities, but the clear varieties can have a purity of 99.98 Alumina (A120 3) is the major impurity. Fused silica has an extremely low coefficient of expansion and does not react with most acids, metals, chlorine, or bromide at ordinary temperatures. It has good mechanical and electrical properties and is almost perfectly elastic. Its radiant transmission is high in the ultraviolet as well as in the visible region. Fused quartz or silica products are available in rod, ribbon, and other solid forms such as tubing, chemical glassware, and other fabricated quartzware.

1 800°C

1 670°C

F u s i o n te m p e r a t u r e

S o f te n in g p o in t

75 0 J /k g

1.4 W m / m 2 °K

(2 9 3 ° K - 5 9 3 ° K )

7 .1 7 x 1 0 10 N / m 2

3.1 x 1 0 10 N / m 2

Property A n n e a lin g p o in t

English or metric system value

From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e r in g S c ie n c e , 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 187. Properties data from F u s e d Q u a r tz C a ta lo g , courtesy of The General Electric Company.

N o te :

.18 g c a l / g

S p e c ific h e a t

c m /c m 2 sec °C

3.3 x 1 0 ' 3 g c a l

5.5 x 1 0 ' 7 c m /c m °C

C o e ffic ie n t o f

T h e r m a l c o n d u c tiv ity

.16

P o is s o n 's r a t io (2 0 ° C -3 2 0 ° C )

5.5 x 1 0 ' 7 m /m °K

10.4 x 106 p si

Y o u n g 's m o d u lu s

th e r m a l e x p a n s io n

.1 6

4 .5 x 106 p si

R ig id ity m o d u lu s

> 1 .1 x 109 N / m 2 3.7 x 1 0 10 N / m 2

> 160 ,00 0 p si

4 .8 x 107 N / m 2

5.3 x 106 p si

7 ,0 0 0 p si

T e n s ile s tr e n g t h

C o m p r e s s iv e s tr e n g t h

4 .9 M o h s ’ sc a le

H ard n ess

2 .2 x 103 k g /m 3

International system o f units (SI) value

B u lk m o d u lu s

2 .2 g /c m 3

D e n s ity

Property

English or metric system value

Table 4 - 7 4 PROPERTIES OF CLEAR FUSED QUARTZ 578 H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

C la y

C la y

C o l lo i d s

C o l lo i d s

C la y

S ilt

F in e

S ilt

S ilt

S ilt

M e d iu m

S ilt

F i n e s (s ilt o r c la y )

C la y

C la y

C o a rse

san d

fin e

V ery

M ed-

F in e

C o a rse

sand

M e d iu m

M e d iu m

sand

F in e

sand

V ery c o a rs e

sand

C o a rse

F in e

Sand

sand

san d

C o a rse

sand

san d

iu m

F in e g rav el

C o a rse sand

g rav e l

G rav el

g rav el

C o a rse

G rav el

C o a rse F in e g rav e l

g rav el

g rav el

san d

F in e

C o a rse

M e d iu m

F in e g rav el

C o a rse

G ra v e l

F in e

san d

sand

C o a rse

F in e san d

From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e r in g S c ie n c e , 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 635.

aColloids are included in clay fraction in test reports.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Unified Soil Classification (Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, and Bureau of Reclamation)

Federal Aviation Agency Soil Classification

U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Classification

American Association of State Highway Officials Soil Classification

American Society for Testing and Materials

Comparison of Classification Systems

Table 4 -7 5 SOIL MECHANICS-CLASSES OF SOILS

C o b b le s

C o b b le s

B o u ld e rs

579

580

H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

Table 4 - 7 6 SOIL MECHANICS - VOLUME AND WEIGHT RELATIONSHIPS

Density, Porosity, and Moisture Table A. Representative Specific Gravities of Some Dense Soils

Soil

Specific gravity

Normal inorganic clay Silt Loess Sand Diatomaceous earth Bentonite clay

2.70 2.70 2.70 2.65 2.65 2.34

From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e rin g S c ie n c e ,

636.

2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973,

Table B. Relative Density of Sands Very dense Dense Medium Loose

85-100% 65-85% 35-65% 15-35%

From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le : f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e rin g S c ie n c e ,

636.

2nd ed., CR ' Press, Cleveland, 1973,

Table C. Porosity of Soils in Natural State

Porosity is the percentage ratio, volume of voids to total volume. Void ratio is the ratio of volume of voids to volume of moist solids. For unit

weights in kilograms per cubic meter, multiply values in grams per cubic centimeters.

Unit weights

Description Uniform sand, loose Uniform sand, dense Mixed-grained sand, loose Mixed-grained sand, dense Glacial till, very mixed grained Soft glacial clay Stiff glacial clay

Porosity, %

Void ratio

Water content, %

46

0.85

32

1.43

1.89

90

118

34

0.51

19

1.75

2.09

109

130

40

0.67

25

1.59

1.99

99

124

30

0.43

16

1.86

2.16

116

135

20 55 37

0.25 1.2 0.6

9 45 22

2.12

2.32 1.77 2.07

132

145 110 129

g/cm 3

lb /ft3

Dry

Sat

Dry

Sat.

-

-

581 Table 4 —76 (continued) SOIL MECHANICS - VOLUME AND WEIGHT RELATIONSHIPS

Density, Porosity, and Moisture (continued) Table C. Porosity o f Soils in Natural State (con tin u ed ) U nit w eights

P orosity, D escription

Soft slightly organic clay Soft very organic clay Soft bentonite

Water c o n ten t,

g /c m 3

lb /f t 3

%

V oid ratio

66

1.9

70

1.58

98

75 84

3.0 5.2

110 194

1.43 1.27

89 80

%

D ry

Sat.

Dry

Sat.

From Terzaghi, K. and Peck, R. B., S o il M e c h a n ic s in E n g in e e r in g P ra c tic e , 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1967, 28 (Table 6.3). With permission. Table D . D egree o f Saturation, D ecim al

D escription

Degree o f saturation

Dry soil Humid soil Damp soil Moist soil Wet soil Saturated

40

Atterberg Limits for Q ays

Adsorbed ion

Plastic limit

Liquid limit

Kaolinite

Sodium Calcium

26 36

52 73

Illite

Sodium Calcium

34 40

61 90

Montmorillonite

Sodium Calcium

97 63

900 177

Clay

From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e r in g S c ie n c e , 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 637.

583

Table 4 -7 8 SOIL MECHANICS-COMPARATIVE PROPERTIES OF CLAY SOILS Consistency, Sensitivity, Brittleness, and Activity Definitions: Consistency: the relative compressive strength of the unconfined clay. Sensitivity: the ratio of unconfined compressive strengths (undisturbed material to remolded material). Consistency

Sensitivity

Brittleness: the percentage of strain at failure in an unconfined compression test. Activity: the ratio of the plasticity index to the clay fraction, i.e., (liquid limit - plastic limit)/ (percentage by weight of particles smaller than 2 jum ).

Brittleness

Activity

Description

Range

Description

Range

Description

Range

Description

Range

Very soft Soft Medium Stiff Very stiff Hard

4.0

Insensitive Moderately sensitive Sensitive Very sensitive Slightly quick Medium quick Quick

64

From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e r in g S c ie n c e , 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 637.

Table 4 -7 9 SOIL MECHANICS-DENSITY AND PENETRATION Density and consistency of soil may be determined during boring and sampling operations by the standard penetration test. In this test the number of blows required per foot of penetration of a standard sampling spoon is observed. A 140-lb Relative density o f sand Number o f blows per foot

Description

0 -4 4 -1 0 1 0 -3 0 3 0 -5 0 >50

Very loose Loose Medium Dense Very dense

N o te :

hammer is used, with a 30-in. drop; the sampling spoon is 2.0 in. OD and 1.375 in. ID. The density and consistency are characterized in the following table.

Relative consistency of clay Number o f blows per foot 0 -2 2 -4 4 -8 8 -1 5 1 5 -3 0 >30

Description Very soft Soft Medium Stiff Very stiff Hard

For sands and silts a correction for depth (and overburden pressure) or a correction for location o f the water table may be required.

From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 638.

E n g in e e r in g S c ie n c e ,

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H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

Table 4 - 8 0 SOIL MECHANICS-PERMEABILITY OF SOILS

The coefficient o f permeability, k, is a simple index of the water conductivity or drainage characteristics of a soil. It is determined by using a permeameter, which is an arrangement for measuring the flow through a soil sample under a given hydraulic head. It is assumed that the rate of flow is directly cm sec cm3 sec

q = VA. q = khA.

In the field the permeability is determined by a pumping test in which the hydraulic gradients at fixed distances from the pumping point are measured while a constant and known rate of flow is being maintained. Natural soil deposits often consist of layers, each of which has a different permeability. The flow resistances are additive (Ohm’s law), and the

proportional to the head h (laminar-type flow). The coefficient is based on the gross area of the flow conduit. The coefficient of permeability is a measure of the velocity of flow per unit of head, or the velocity, based on gross area, at which the head loss is unity. In metric units the dimensions are sec

: (- -----) (cm) (cm2). ysec X cm /

individual coefficients of permeability are analogous to individual conductivities. An average coefficient of permeability can thus be computed. The following table gives a classification of soils in terms of the numerical values of the coefficient of permeability. The units of k are cm/sec for a head of 1 cm.

Descriptive Ranges of Permeability Degree of permeability High Medium Low

Values of k , cm/sec

> .1 . 1-.001

. 001-.00001

The value of k = 0.1 is typical for a medium to coarse, clean sand or a sand and gravel mixture. Homogeneous clays are often nearly impervious. The three intermediate ranges characterize very fine sands, silts, and mixtures, including those with organic materials. For soils with a coefficient greater than 0.001,

Degree of permeability Very low Practically impervious

Values of k , cm/sec 10 - 5 - 1 0 ' 7 C IO "7

the values of k can be readily determined, using either the constant-head permeameter or a pumping test. The falling-head permeameter can be used both for these and for finer soils, but as the fineness increases so does the importance o.f a large amount of experience in making the tests.

From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e r in g S c ie n c e , 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 638.

Table 4-81 BUILDING FOUNDATIONS AND PILES Typical Building Code Requirements for Soil Bearing Pressures and Design of Pile Foundations Table A. Allowable Bearing Pressures Maximum bearing pressure*5 Soil descriptions3

tons/ft2

MN/m2

Rock, bedrock, solid, massive, sound Rock, sound foliated (limestone, slate) Rock, hard sedimentary (hard shale, sandstone, conglomerate) Rock, broken bedrock Hardpan Gravel, very compact Gravel, compact Gravel, loose Sand or silty gravel

100 40 25

1,380 550 245

10 10 10 6 4 1 -3

138 138 138 83 55 * 1 4 -4 0

aDescriptive terminology used in building codes is far from uniform, but the terms here given occur in several codes. bEach of these values is to be found in several of the building codes of large U.S. cities or government authorities. Modifications or corrections are recognized for conditions such as depth of stratum, depth of embedment, and extent of overburden. For gravel and sand the allowable bearing pressures are sometimes stated in terms of on-site soil test results. Table B. Allowable Design Stresses for Loaded Piles Widely Used Specifications in Building Codes

Key: BS = basic stress for clear timber as per ASTM D25 and D2555 CS = compressive strength of concrete YS = yield strength of steel Allowable unit stress, psia Type o f pile

Number of components

Core

Steel H-section Timber Precast concrete Cast-in-place concrete Steel pipe (filled)

1 1 2 3 3

35% YS 60% BS 22.5% CS 22.5% CS 22.5% CS

Reinforcing steel

Steel shell

_

_

-

-

35% YS 35% YS 35% YS

-

35% YS 35% YS

aMany city codes specifying numerical values for allowable stresses and variations among cities are occasionally 2 to 1 or even more. A few codes use percentages other than those here quoted. A limit of 1,000 psi (6,895 MN/m2) is often specified for timber piling.

586

H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

Table 4 —81 (continued) BUILDING FOUNDATIONS AND PILES

Typical Building Code Requirements for Soil Bearing Pressures and Design of Pile Foundations (continued) N o te s :

Most piles are designed as “ short” columns, in compression only; for long piles in soft soil, a “long-column” treatm ent may be necessary. Estimation of axial-load distribution along the pile may be included in a building code, b u t there is little agreement on the basis for estimating. The percentage of the total load being carried at the tip of the pile is usually assumed to be less than one th ird ; for shorter piles in coarse material on bedrock, it may even be 100%. Possible pile damage, due to overdriving, obstructions, or defects, should be considered in the design decisions. Pile spacing is often specified in the building codes, with 24- or 30-in. (0.61-0.76 m) as minimum for cylindrical piles. Success of a pile foundation depends on the ability of the soil to support the pile, which, in turn, depends on the adhesion and shear properties of the soil. The use of tapered piles and rigid-body caps is common. In any case the limitations on eventual settling should be examined, especially in locations where settling has been a problem, as in Mexico City. For soil conditions producing very heavy corrosion, it may be necessary to avoid steel piles. For extreme loads the caisson-type pile, terminating in a recess in bedrock, is recommended.

REFERENCES C o d e R e q u ir e m e n ts f o r R e in f o r c e d C o n c r e te , AC1 318, American Concrete Institute. D e sig n M an u a l, DM7, Bureau of Yards and Docks, U.S. Navy. F o u n d a tio n P ilin g : A S u r v e y o f P ra c tic e , Building Research Advisory Board, Report No. 4, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council. S o u th e r n S ta n d a r d B u ild in g C o d e and U n ifo rm B u ild in g C o d e .

B u ild in g

S p e c if ic a tio n f o r th e D e sig n F a b r ic a tio n a n d E r e c tio n o f S tr u c tu r a l S te e l f o r

American Institute of Steel Construction. Consult also (1) J o u rn a l o f th e S o il M e c h a n ic s a n d F o u n d a tio n s D iv is io n , P r o c e e d in g s o f th e A S C E , (2) P ro c e e d in g s o f th e I n te r n a tio n a l C o n fe r e n c e s o n S o il M e c h a n ic s a n d F o u n d a tio n E n g in eerin g , and (3) city building codes. B u ild in g s,

From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 639.

E n g in e e r in g S c ie n c e ,

587 Table 4 - 8 2 SOIL CHARACTERISTICS PERTINENT TO ROADS AND AIRFIELDS The following table is based on the “Unified Soil Classification System” used by the military services and the Bureau o f Reclamation. Other classification systems include those o f the High-

way Research Board and the Civil Aeronautics Administration. See also Table 4—75 for comparisons.

Key: A -excellent B -good to excellent C -good D—fair to good E—fair to poor

F—poor G—poor to very poor NS—not suitable CT—crawler-type tractor

V alue as fou n d ation 2 S oil class and sym b ol

G W —well graded gravels or gravel-sand mixtures, little or no fines G P —poorly graded gravels or gravel-sand mixtures, little or no fines G M —silty gravels, gravelsand-silt mixtures G C —clayey gravels, gravelsand-clay mixtures SW—well graded sands or gravelly sands, little or no fines SP—poorly graded sands or gravelly sands, little or no fines SM —silty sands, sand-silt mixtures SC—clay-like sands, sand-clay mixtures M L—inorganic silts and very fine sands, rock flour, silty, or clay-like fine sands, or clay-like silts with slight plasticity CL—inorganic clays of low to medium plasticity, gravelly clays, sandy clays, silty clays, lean clays OL—organic silts and organic silt-clays of low plasticity M H —inorganic silts, micaceous or diatomaceous, fine, sandy or silty soils, elastic silts C H —inorganic clays of high plasticity, fat clays O H —organic clays of medium to high plasticity, organic silts PT—peat and other highly organic soils

Com pressib ility and expansion

SR-steel-wheeled rollers SF—sheepsfoot roller RT—rubber-tired equipment M—close control of moisture required

C om p action equipm ent*5

Dry w eigh t,0 Ib /ft3

F ield CBR ^

Subgrade m od u lu s,e k , psi/in.

X

Y

A

C

Almost none

CT, RT, SR

125-140

60-80

>300

B

E

Almost none

CT, RT, SR

110-130

25-60

>300

B C C

D F F

Very slight Slight Slight

RT, SF, M RT, SF RT, SF

130-145 120-140 120-140

40-80 20-40 20-40

>300 200-300 200-300

C

F

Almost none

CT, RT

110-130

20-40

200-300

D

F-N S

Almost none

CT, RT

100-120

10-25

200-300

C D

F NS

RT, SF, M RT, SF

120-135 105-130

20-40 10-20

200-300 200-300

D

NS

RT, SF

105-130

10-20

200-300

E

NS

Very slight Slight to medium Slight to medium Slight to medium

RT, SF, M

100-125

5-15

100-200

E

NS

Medium

RT, SF

100-125

5-15

100-200

F

NS

RT, SF

90-105

4-8

100-200

F

NS

Medium to high High

SF

80-100

4-8

100-200

G

NS

High

SF

90-110

3-5

50-100

G

NS

High

SF

80-105

3-5

50-100

NS

NS

Very high

None

588

H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

Table 4 - 8 2 (continued) SOIL CHARACTERISTICS PERTINENT TO ROADS AND AIRFIELDS aValues in column X are for subgrades and base courses not subject to frost action, while those in column Y apply to base directly under bituminous pavement. The A rating in column Y has been reserved for base materials consisting of high-quality processed crushed stone. bThe equipment listed will usually produce the required densities with a reasonable number o f passes when moisture conditions and thickness of lift are properly controlled. In some instances several types of equipment are listed, because variable soil characteristics within a given soil group may require different equipment. A combination of two types may be necessary. Processed base materials and other angular materials: Steel-wheeled rollers are recommended for hard angular materials with limited fines or screenings. Rubber-tired equipment is recommended for softer materials subject to degradation. Finishing: Rubber-tired equipment is recommended for rolling during final shaping operations for most soils and processed materials. Equipment size: The following sizes of equipment are necessary to assure the high densities required for airfield construction: Crawler-type tra c to r-to ta l weight in excess of 30,000 lb. Rubber-tired equipm ent-w heel load in excess of 15,000 lb. Wheel loads as high as 40,000 lb may be necessary to obtain the required densities for some materials (based on contact pressure of approximately 6 5 -1 5 0 psi). Sheepsfoot roller-u n it pressure (on 6 -1 2 sq in. foot) to be in excess of 250 psi and unit pressures as high as 650 psi may be necessary to obtain the required densities for some materials. The area of the feet should be at least 5% of the total peripheral area of the drum, using the diameter measured to the faces of the feet. cUnit dry weights are for compacted soil at optimum moisture content for modified AASHO compactive effort. dThe percentage ratio of the resistance to penetration developed by a subgrade soil to that developed by a specimen of standard crushed rock base material is called the California bearing ratio (CBR). It was developed by the California Division of Highways and is applied in connection with the design o f flexible pavements. eThe subgrade modulus is a test ratio representing the slope of the stress-strain (or pressure-settlement) diagram. It is actually the ratio of the pressure on the 30-in. test plate in psi to the settlement in inches when the latter reaches a specified value (either 0.05 or 0.10 in.). Condensed from Appendix B: Characteristics of soil groups pertaining to roads and airfields, U n ifie d S o il C la ssific a tio n U.S. Corp of Engineers, Technical Memorandum No. 3-357, Vol. Ill, USAE Waterways Experiment Station, March 1953.

S y s te m ,

589

Table 4 -8 3 ALLOWABLE SOIL PRESSURES FOR COLUMN FOOTINGS relation between allowable bearing capacity and standard penetration resistance by test (ASTM D1586) is a much better basis than mere soil-texture classification. The following table gives typical ranges for the bearing loads as related to the penetration resistance determined in a soil test. The required blows per foot for a 2 -in. OD sampling spoon represent the test data.

Allowable bearing capacities or foundation soil loadings are often specified in local building codes. These are applicable to the design of ordinary extended footings, and the loads and capacities are those at footing grade. There are certain assumptions — that no weaker layer exists within the stress zone and that the stress zones do not overlap. Mats or continuous footings cannot be loaded as heavily. Even for preliminary estimates a

Estimating Bearing Loads From Results of Penetration Tests Numbers in this table represent the minimum numbers of hammer blows per linear foot by

Description o f soil below footing grade Gravel, sand, clay-w ell graded mixture Gravel, sand, clay-poorly graded mixture Gravel, sand-w ell graded Sandy clay Inorganic clay, no silt Fine sand, uniform Organic clay Fine silt Rough guides Sand, gravel, clay -stiff mixture Compact gravel mixture Sandy clay Firm gravel Hard clay Firm, coarse sand Loose gravel Medium sandy clay Medium stiff clay Firm silt

standard penetration test ASTM D 1586.

Maximum soil load, thousands o f psi .............................. ........ ......... , _______ 2 4 5 8 10 12 3 6

4 8 6 16 15

15

14

3

4

6

8

14

22

30

40

6

8

12

15

24

36

50

65

3 7 12 10 30 25

5 9 15 15 65 45

8 12 20 22

10 16 25 30

18 25 40 50

30 38 60

55 50

15

10

20 10

35

20

45

55

50

From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e rin g 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 641.

S c ie n c e ,

590

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Table 4-84 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF FOUNDATION ROCKS For strength in MN/m2 , multiply values in psi by 0.0068948. Name o f rock

Compressive strength, psia

Andesite Basalt Diorite Gneiss Granite

18,900 24,600 12,200 16,100 22,300

4,060 4,500 2,000 2,500 3,250

5.7 7.4 9.2 10.0 11.8

Graywacke Limestone Sandstone Schist Shale

8,700 15,300 13,000 10,000 10,300

1,700 2,150 2,450 1,260 1,160

6.5 12.6 7.0 15.7 19.7

4,000 430

720 100

7.7 4.9

Siltstone Tuff

Shear strength, psi

Tangent o f angle o f internal friction

aUniaxial compressive strength for a specimen having a length-to-diameter ratio o f 2. The product of the principal stresses is assumed to be linear. From U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Report SP-39, August 1953.

591

Table 4-85 STATIC MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ROCK For strength in MN/m2, multiply tabulated values in thousands of psi by 6.8948. For modulus Compressive strength of test group, thousands o f psi Rock type and number o f test groups4

Max.

Min.

Amphibolite (13) Basalt (9) D ibase(10) Diorite (11) Dolomite (10)

74.9 52.0 51.8 48.3 52.0

30.4 11.8 23.2 22.5 9.0

Gneiss (15) Granite (17) Greenstone (11) Limestone*1(46) Marble (8)

36.4 42.6 45.5 37.6 34.5

22.2 23.0 16.6 5.3 6.7

Marlstone (15) Quartzite (11) Sandstone (48) Shale (18) Siltstone (8)

28.2 91.2 34.1 33.5 45.8

10.4 21.1 4.8 10.9 5.0

>50% o f data within ___

— 40-50 25-35 — 25-35 25-35 —

20-30 30-35 10-20 — —

10-20 —

of elasticity in GN/m2, multiply tabulated values in millions of psi by 6.8948. Modulus o f elasticity o f test group, millions o f psi

Modulus o f rupture of test group, thousands of psi

Max.

Min.

7.4 6.6 8.0 7.3 3.8

4.0 2.1 4.5 2.0 2.5

3.1 3.9 6.7 5.2 3.3

1.2 1.2 1.7 0.4 1.7

4.8 6.4 3.6 4.2 5.0

0.4 1.2 0.6 0.3 1.1

>50% o f data within

Static**

Max.

Dynamic0

Min.

_

_

_







5.0-5.5 —

— 2.0-3.0 2.0-3.0 — —

— ___

— 0.6-1.0 —

-

— — —

— — -

___

___

11.0 9.0 12.0 -

2.5 6.9 4.2 -

4.8 — 7.3 7.6 -

0.6 — 1.4 1.7 -

Max.

Min.

>50% o f data within

15.1 12.4 13.9 6.12 12.3

6.7 5.9 10.2 3.6 3.2

— — 4.0-5.0 -

15.1 11.9 15.2 14.1 -

3.5 1.5 3.4 1.2 -

7.0-10 — 10-13 — -

7.0

1.5





8.0 9.9 9.3

0.8 1.5 1.0

— — 1.5-2.5 -

aThe number following rock type indicates the number o f petrographically distinct groups tested in uniaxial compression. A smaller number of groups were tested for the other listed mechanical properties. bTangent modulus of elasticity at the mid strength point, d e term in ed by the resonant bar velocity method. ^Excluding chalk and coral rock. From U.S. Bureau of Mines Reports o f Investigations 3891,4459, 5130, and 5244.

592

H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

Table 4 -8 6 CLASSIFICATION OF NATURAL FIBERS

Name ANIMAL ORIGIN Wool (pure, dry) Silk

Source

Principal producers

Approximate production, 106 Ib/year

3000 70

Typical uses

Warm clothing, carpet, felt Fine fabrics

Sheep Silkworm caterpillar Goat Goat Camel

Australia, Argentina Japan, China India, Tibet U.S.A., Turkey China, Mongolia

70 30 2

Quality clothes Upholstery, linings, suitings, rugs Overcoats, knits

Seed Bast

U.S.A., U.S.S.R. India, Pakistan

25000 4 500

Leaf Bast Bast Bast Leaf Leaf Bast Bast

Mexico, Brazil U.S.S.R., Poland India, Pakistan U.S.S.R., Yugoslavia Mexico, Cuba Phillipines, Guatemala India, Pakistan China, Japan

1300 1200 1 100 500 300 200 150 25

Almost all textile uses Sacking, bale wrapping, curtains, bags, oakum Rope, twine, rugs Strong fabrics, paper Rope, twine, carpet, canvas, bags Rope, sacking, canvas Rope, twine, canvas, bags Rope, marine cable Rope, twine, carpet, paper Canvas

Ore

Canada, U.S.S.R.

2000

Glass3

Sand

U.S.A.

Aluminum silicate3

Ore

U.S.A.

Cashmere Mohair Camel hair VEGETABLE ORIGIN Cotton Jute Sisal Flax Kenaf Hemp Henequen Abaca (Manila) Sunn Ramie MINERAL ORIGIN Asbestos



Brakes and clutches, building materials, packings, fireproofing Composites, insulation, draperies, tire cord, filters Packings and insulation for high temperatures

aHere classified as natural fibers for convenience, although they are man-made by processing. REFERENCE Mauersberger, H. R., Ed., M a tth e w s ’ T e x tile F ib ers, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1954. From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e rin g S c ie n c e , 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 171.

593

Table 4-87 PROPERTIES OF NATURAL FIBERS Because there are great variations within a given fiber class, average properties may be misleading.

Name

The following typical values are only a rough comparative guide.

Tensile Elongation Standard Fiber Fiber Specific Tenacity, strength, at break regain, diameter, length, gravity g/denier 103psi (dry), % % of dryb microns inches

ANIMAL ORIGIN Wool 1.32 Silk

1.25

1.0-1.7

17-29

23-35

15-18

17-40

3.5-5

90

20-25

10

10-13

Cashmere

1.5-5

15-16

1-4

Mohair

1.32

1.2-1.5

30

13

24-50

6-12

Camel hair

1.32

1.8

40

13

10-40

1-6

VEGETABLE OR;IGIN Cotton 1.54

2-5

10-20

0.5-2

Jute (bast)

1.5

Sisal (leaf)

1.49

2.2

Flax (bast)

1.52

4-7

Kenaf (bast) Hemp (bast)

5-11

50

1-1.5

14

15-20

75

2-2.5

13

10-30

2-3

12

15-18

45 1.48

18-25

60 1.48

2.3-2.9

MINERAL ORIGI N Asbestos 2.5 Glass3

2.5

Silicate3 (Ca, Al, Mg)

2.85

100

2-3

200-500

Various 3-4.5

0 0

Strand 30-70 Strand 30-60 Strand 30-120

13

40-200 7-12

Strand 30-40 Strand 40-50

15-30 2

Henequen (leaf) Abaca (leaf) (Manila)

7.5-8.5

30-120

Various

0.5-10

Fiber shape and kind

Resistant to

Oval, crimped, Age, weak acids, solvents scales Flexible, soft, Heat, solvents, weak smooth acids, wear Round, scales, soft Wear, age, solvents, Round, silky weak acids Oval, striated Age, solvents

Age, heat, washing, wear, Flat, convosolvents, alkalies, luted, ribbon insects Woody, rough, polygon Stiff, straight Soft, fine Age, solvents, washing, insects, weak acids, and alkalies Polygon or oval Polygon or oval, irregular Finer than sisal

Smooth, straight Circular, smooth

Heat to 400 deg C, acids, chemicals, organisms Chemicals, insects Heat to 900 deg C, most chemicals, insects, rot

aHere classified as natural fibers for convenience, although they are man-made by processing. bExpected equilibrium moisture regain of dry fiber, in percent of dry weight, when exposed in air at 70 deg F, 65% relative humidity. N o te :

Wide variations may be expected, especially for different grades o f cotton. Wet strength is lower (for rayon, very much lower), but it depends on the duration of soaking. The strength o f yarn is only a fraction of the cumulative strength of all individual fibers. Most fibers exhibit relaxation of stress at constant strain and also increase in elongation at constant load (creep). The stress-strain curve is greatly affected by the rate of extension. When the stress is removed, there is a quick elastic recovery, a delayed recovery, and a permanent set. Hence the elastic behavior o f any fiber depends on its

594

H a n d b o o k o f M a te ria ls S c ie n c e

Table 4 -8 7 (continued) PROPERTIES OF NATURAL FIBERS stress-strain history. The elastic recoveries of nylon and wool are high; those of cotton, flax, and rayon are much lower. The heat capacity (specific heat) of most fibers is about one third that o f water. Other fibers: Fur hair is slightly coarser than silk fibers. Camel and llama hairs are almost as coarse as wool but only about one third the size of human hair. Horse hair is over 100 jim; hog bristles, over 200 p m . Jute, sisal, and hemp are intermediate between cotton and wool. These are rough average sizes, and many natural fibers range 50% above or below such averages. From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e rin g S c ie n c e , 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973,172.

Cuprammonium rayon (cupro)

Vegetable—seed: soybeans, peanuts, com V egetable-latex: rubber (vulcanized)

Acids, solvents, moths, mildew Moisture, insects

Lastex® (U)

Solvents

Bleaches, weak alkalies

Moisture, solvents, insects

Moisture, solvents

Petroleum chemicals, dilute acids, weak alkalies, mildew, moths Petroleum solvents, bleaches, insects, mildew, heat Dilute alkalies, insects, solvents

Resistant to

Heat (above 110°C), oxidation, ozone, oils, hydrocarbons, fats, solvents

Strong acids, alkalies, mildew, heat (above 100°C) Alkalies, heat above 150°C

Corsetry, swimwear, footwear, supports

Largely for blending with wool, cotton, rayon, etc. Blends with wool, cotton, etc.

Sheer fabrics, drapes, upholstery, satins

Dress fabrics, knits, drapes

Pleated garments, knits, drip-dry wear, table covers Clothing, carpets, curtains, upholstery, linings Tire cord, belting, hose

Clothing, satins, drapes, linings, knits

Typical uses

P —E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc. S — Firestone Synthetic Fibers Co. U — Uniroyal, Inc., Textile Div. UC - Union Carbide Corp. V — FMC Corp., American Viscose Div.

Oxidizers, many solvents, strong alkalies, heat (above 140°C) Strong acids, strong alkalies, most solvents Acids, strong alkalies, heat (above 150°C), moisture, mildew Strong acids, strong alkalies, heat (above 150°C) Strong acids, strong alkalies, heat (above 150°C) Strong oxidizers, mildews, some insects, strong acids, heat (above 230°C)

Damaged bya

G —W. R. Grace & Co., Dawbam Div. H —Hercules Powder Co. K —American Enka Corp. M —Monsanto Co., Textiles Div. (Chemstrand) N —Vectra Co., Div. of National Plastics Products Co., Inc.

Now little used

Now little used

Bemberg®, etc. (B)

Polynosic viscose

Protein fibers (natural) Animal: casein (milk)

Avril® (A)

High-tenacity viscose

Esteron®, etc. (E) Celacloud®, etc. (C) Arnel® (C)

Typical proprietary names (and manufacturer)

Enka®, etc. (K) Avisco®, etc. (A) Tenasco® (V)

Viscose rayon

Triacetate

Cellulose fibers (natural) Acetate

Chemical class; common name (sources)

A —American Viscose Corp. B —Beaunit Fibers, Div. of Beaunit Corp. C - Celanese Fibers Co., Div. of Celanese Corp. E —Tennessee Eastman Co., Div. of Eastman Kodak Co. F — Fiber Industries, Inc.

Key to U.S. Manufacturers:

Table 4 -8 8 CLASSIFICATION OF MAN-MADE FIBERS AND FABRICS

595

(Foreign manufacture)

Saranb by Vectra (N)

Teflon® (P)

Polyvinylidene chloride

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)

Herculon® (H) Polycrest® (U) Lycra® (P) SpandeUe® (S) Vinyon*3 HH (V) Dynel®-copolymer (U)

DLP (G)

Orion® (P) Acrilan® (M) Creslan® (AC) Cantrece® (P) Verel®-copolymer (E) Dynel®-copolymer (P) Nylon*3 (P) 6, 6.6, etc. Chemstrand nylon® (M) Dacron® (P) Kodel® (E) Fortrel (F) DLP® (G)

Typical proprietary names (and manufacturer)

Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

Polyurethane; spandexb

Polyethylene (olefin, low density) Polyethylene (olefin, high density) Polypropylene (olefin)

Polyester

Polyamide

Synthetic fibers Polyacrylonitrile (acrylic)

Chemical class; common name (sources)

Acids, alkalies, insects, mildew, oils Acids, most alkalies, alcohol, bleaches, insects, mildew, weather Almost all chemicals, solvents, insects, mildew

Alkalies, acids (except nitric), insects, mildew Alkalies, acids (except nitric), insects, mildew Alkalies, acids, solvents, insects, mildew Solvents, oils, alkalies, insects, oxidation Acids and alkalies, insects, mildew, alcohol, oils

Weak acids and alkalies, solvents, oils, mildew, moths

Alkalies, molds, solvents, moths

Dilute acids and alkalies, solvents, insects, mildew, weather

Resistant to

Heat (above 250° C; fluorine at high temperature

Heat (above 140°C); strong acids Ethers, esters, aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones; hot acids; heat (above 70°C) Heat (above 160°C); phenol, cresol, formic acid Heat (above 90° C); many solvents

Oil and grease; heat (above 90° C) oxidizers Oil and grease; heat (above 100° C) oxidizers Heat (above 110°C)

Phenol; heat (above 200° C)

Strong acids, phenol, bleaches, heat (above 170°C)

Strong alkalies and acids, heat (above 180°C), acetone, ketones

Damaged bya

Table 4—88 (continued) CLASSIFICATION OF MAN-MADE FIBERS AND FABRICS

Wide range of industrial and apparel uses; rope, work clothes; fish nets Outdoor fabrics; insect screen; curtains, upholstery; carpet; work clothes Corrosion-resistant packings, etc., tapes, filters, bearings

Rope, twine, outdoor fabrics, carpets, upholstery Elastic garments, swimwear, hosiery, tricot fabrics, knits Nonwoven materials; felts; filters; blends with other fibers

Outdoor fabrics; filter fabrics; decorative coverings Rope, twine, fishnets

Apparel, curtains, rope, twine, sailcloth, belting, fiberfill

Tire cord, carpet, upholstery, apparel, belting, hose, tents

Outdoor fabrics, carpets, knits, furlike fabrics, blankets

Typical uses

596 H a n d b o o k o f M aterials Scien ce

Specific gravity Tenacity, g/denier

3-5

1.53

PROTEIN FIBERS (NA TURAL) Animal: casein (milk) 1.3 Vegetable—seed: 1.3 soybeans, peanuts, corn Vegetable—latex: 1.0 rubber (vulcanized) 15 11-14 4-7

0.4-0.6

30-45

60-80

60-80

30-46

20-28

18-25

Tensile strength, 103 psi

0.7-0.9

1.0

1.7-2.3

3-5

1.53

High-tenacity viscose Polynosic viscose

11.52

2-2.6

1.51

Viscose rayon

Cuprammonium rayon (cupro)

1.2-1.4

1.32

Triacetate

CELLULOSE FIBERS (NATURAL) Acetate 1.30 1.—1.3

Chemical class; common name (sources)

700-900

60-70 40-60

0

14 11-15

300

12.5

10-17

150 250

250b

200 b

7

200b

300

230

8-20

100 150

225

140

Melting point, °C

200b

13.

3-4.5

6.5

Softening point, °C

10

10-12

17-25

25-30

20-30

ElongaRegain tion at break, %> (standard)

Table 4 -8 9 PROPERTIES OF MAN-MADE FIBERSa

Burns

Slow Slow

Melts and burns Melts and burns Burns readily Burns readily Burns readily Burns readily

Flammability

From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e r in g S c ie n c e , 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973,173.

-6 0

< -1 1 4

Brittleness temp, °C

aFabrics are often damaged by heat in ironing. The synthetics will not withstand the usual 400° F that is used for cotton and linen. For acetate and olefins the ironing tem perature should be below 250°F, as for silk and wool. For most other synthetics a 300°F ironing temperature is recommended, but triacetate will tolerate higher temperature without damage. bThe names n y lo n , v in y o n , saran, and s p a n d e x are recognized as generic terms rather than proprietary names.

Table 4 -8 8 (continued) CLASSIFICATION OF MAN-MADE FIBERS AND FABRICS

Mechanical properties are for room tem perature and humidity and based on cross section.

From Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., Eds., H a n d b o o k o f T a b le s f o r A p p l i e d E n g in e e r in g S c ie n c e , 2nd ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, 1973, 175.

N o te :

No

300 b

225

0

15-30

33

1.2-1.4

2.1

No

170 115-135

0.1

20-30

40

2

1.7

Slow 240

230

5

15-28

60-90

3-7

1.3