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Halurgy. Questions and answers
 9786010447660

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AL-FARABI KAZAKH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

S. Romanova

HALURGY QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Almaty «Qazaq University» 2020

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UDC 661(075) LBC 35.11я73 R 75 Recommended for publication by the Academic Council of Chemistry and Chemical Technology faculty and Editorial and Publishing Council of Al-Farabi Kazakh National University (Protocol No.4 dated 19.06.2020)

Reviewer Senior Lecturer, РhD Sh. Nazarkulova

R 75

Romanova S. Halurgy. Questions and answers / S. Romanova. – Almaty: Qazaq University, 2020. – 134 p. ISBN 978-601-04-4766-0 The manual contains various forms of tasks (in test form, control questions, for independent work in the presence of a teacher) on the main sections of halurgy. The manual is intended for students, undergraduates and doctoral students of chemical specialties (including specialty – chemical technology of inorganic substances), studying brines and salt deposits. The manual can be useful for teachers and professionals working in the field of search, exploration and exploitation of salt deposits, as well as all those interested in the study of natural processes on the physicochemical basis.

UDC 661(075) LBC 35.11я73 © Romanova S., 2020 © Al-Farabi KazNU, 2020

ISBN 978-601-04-4766-0

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CONTENT

Introduction ........................................................................................................ 4 1. Geochemical patterns of modern salt accumulation and formation of modern salt deposits ................................................................ 14 2. Conditions for formation of salt deposits in modern basins ............................ 22 3. Criteria for classification of salt lakes ............................................................ 28 4. Complex processing of brines ........................................................................ 37 5. Enrichment of salts ......................................................................................... 53 6. Physicochemical characteristics of salt lakes .................................................. 58 7. Physicochemical bases of technological processes of extraction and purification of natural salts ..................................................... 62 8. Current state of the halurgical industry and prospects for its development ............................................................................................. 65 9. Salets, dehydration of salts artificial and natural ............................................ 68 10. Halite, sylvinite............................................................................................. 75 11. Ore processing polygalite ores. Ore crushing equipment ............................. 84 12. Using of halurgic raw materials for inorganic substances ............................ 95 13. Salt lakes....................................................................................................... 101 Examples from salt business............................................................................... 108 Calculation of the mineralogical composition of salt rocks ................................ 108 Control questions ................................................................................................ 123 Literature ............................................................................................................ 125 Table of correct answers ..................................................................................... 127 Appendix ............................................................................................................ 131

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INTRODUCTION

Halurgy studies the conditions of formation and structure of salt deposits, physical and chemical properties of salt solutions, the development of technological extraction processes, production and purification of individual mineral salts. Also halurgy deals with the problems of complex use of salt raw materials, which can be used in production of various substances and materials. Comparison of the lithosphere composition with the natural waters composition showed that the main components of the latter are the most common cationogenic: (Fe), Mg, Ca, Na, K and anionogenic: Si, P, C, S, Cl elements of the lithosphere. The study of the role of individual cationogenic and anionogenic elements in the formation of natural waters of different mineralization showed that their role is related to the solubility of compounds, formed by the main ions. Water mineralization is caused by the accumulation of the most soluble compounds of the main ions in the solution. Depending on the conditions, the development of the chemical composition of natural waters can go in three directions, as a result forming the three main chemical types of salt water: carbonate, sulfate and chloride. The Earth's surface conditions are most favorable for formation of sulfate-type waters. This type of water causes formation of the main number of deposits of salts that are products of halurgy production. Another type of halurgy production is: potassium salts, which are mainly used as fertilizers; sodium chloride lake salt, solar sea salt and evaporated salt. These salts can be obtained by evaporation of Na-Cl brines or under natural solar evaporation. From natural lake brines, sea water and mother solutions of potash production, bromine is obtained; from drilling waters of oil wells and gas fields, lake brines – iodine. The history of halurgy is connected with such names in Russia as: D.I. Mendeleyev, O.D. Kashkarov, A.D. Pelsh, N.S. Kurnakov, L.S. Berg, V.M. Bukstein, V.P. Ilyinsky, V.I. Vernadsky, A.P. Vinogradov, N.M. Strakhov, A.V. Nikolaev, I.N. Lepeshkov, M.G., Valyashko, Ye.V., Posokhova, A. B. Zdanovsky, et al.; in Kazakhstan: A.B. Bekturov, A.I. Mun, B.A. Beremzhanov, R.S. Darer, R.Ye. Zhaymina, Z.B. Bazilevich, M.A. Ibragimova, S.S. Kruchenko-Bolibok, S.M. Romanova, M.R. Tanasheva, M.S. Kazymbetova, et al.

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A systematic study of the salt resources of the former USSR began in the mid-19th century by N.S. Kurnakov and continued until the end of his life. He also laid the foundations of halurgy as a special branch of scientific knowledge. His first book "Evaporative systems of salt pans" contained interesting ideas about the interaction of natural salt formations with the environment. The school which created Kurnakov allowed developing the doctrine of stable and metastable states of solutions, regular salt settling in salt lakes at natural evaporation of brines. It also allowed scientists to create a physical and chemical analysis as an independent section of chemistry and, as a practical consequence – to get scientific and practical solution of the problem of obtaining sodium sulfate from brine of salt reservoirs, in particular the gulf of Kara-Bogaz-Gol. In addition, students and colleagues of N.S. Kurnakov conducted numerous studies of sulfate and soda lakes of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Southern Urals, Kulunda steppe, Lower Volga, Western Kazakhstan, which gave rise to the industrial development to the complex salt deposits of chlorides, sulfates, potassium borates, sodium and magnesium. The development of science and technology has introduced many new methods in the way of extraction and processing of salt raw materials into halurgic products. The theory of flotation of salts of alkaline, alkaline earth and other metals has been developed. Technological processes of extraction and processing of raw materials, equipment and mechanisms are created and improved. Gained theoretical and practical experience in the halurgy was reflected in many scientific articles and monographs. Currently, only two monographs deserve respect: Zdanovsky A.B. "Halurgy" and Sokolov I.D. "Halurgy. Theory and practice". However, there are almost no textbooks containning questions and exercises on the main sections of halurgy and relevant concise theoretical and practical information. This tutorial fills this gap. The book contains various forms of tasks (in test form, control questions for independent work in the presence of a teacher). The literature list will help students to learn more about the multifaceted issues of halurgy. The manual is intended for students, undergraduates and doctoral students of chemical specialties (including specialty – Сhemistry, Chemical technology of inorganic substances), studying brines and salt deposits. The manual can be useful for teachers and professionals 5

working in the field of search, exploration and exploitation of salt deposits, also for all those interested in the study of natural processes on the physicochemical basis. The author is grateful to Ponomarenko O.I. and Khodjaeva A. for participating in the preparation of materials for section 1. The author found it necessary to put in this book the work program – syllabus of the discipline "Technology of production of target inorganic substances from halurgic raw materials of Kazakhstan", which is read for the students of the final course of Al-Farabi Kazakh National University. The author thanks in advance all readers who will send their remarks and wishes, which will be considered in the next edition.

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Phone numbers Course presentation

e-mail

Lecturer

TPZNVGSK

Discipline code

EC

Type

1

Lect. 0

Pract.

Office hours

2

Lab.

Number of hours per week

On schedule

3.0

Credits number

ECTS

According to schedule Auditory Type of training course Compulsory discipline, specialty "5B072000 – Chemical technology of inorganic substances"

Technology of production of target inorganic substances from halurgic raw materials of Kazakhstan

Discipline name

Syllabus Academic information about the course

Al-Farabi Kazakh National University Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology Department of general and inorganic chemistry

8

Writing a diploma.

Post-requisites Literature and sources

Leningrad branch., 2003. 368 p. [in Russian] 2. Sokolov I.D.., Kashkarov O.D. Tekhnologiya pererabotki halurgicheskogo syrya (kaliynyye udobreniya) [Processing technology of halurgical raw material]. Leningrad: Khimiya, 2000. [in Russian] 3. Zdanovsky A.B. Galurgiya [Halurgy],- . Leningrad.: Khimiya. [in Russian] Available online: Additional training material for the course and documentation used for the implementation of the ISW and SRSP, CW, MT will be available on the website univer.kaznu.kz in section umkd. (It is recommended to master MOOC on the discipline)

1. Galurgiya. Teoriya i praktika [Halurgy. Theory and practice] /Sokolov I.D (Ed). Leningrad: Khimiya,

Chemical technology of inorganic substances; processes and apparatus of chemical technology; inorganic chemistry.

Prerequisites

Course objective: to form a system of competencies in the context of the qualification requirements of the specialty: cognitive: to be able to demonstrate the knowledge of theoretical and practical fundamentals of halurgy, the value of the halurgic raw materials in their practical use in the national economy and industry; functional: to be able to include new knowledge of halurgic raw materials in the context of basic knowledge of the specialty, to interpret its content; to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of various processing methods of raw materials and waste; systematic: to be able to generalize, interpret and evaluate the results obtained in the context of the discipline, to conduct an experiment in the study of the main processes for extraction, processing, synthesis of target inorganic substances and materials from halurgic raw materials and to summarize the results; to be able to analyze the results and summarize them in the form of a presentation, scientific essay or scientific review. social: to be capable to take part in constructive educational and social interaction and cooperation in the group; to propose a problem for consideration, to argue its importance; to accept criticism and to criticize; to work in a team. meta-competences: be able to apply the gained knowledge in subsequent disciplines.

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Evaluation and attestation policy

The marks in percentage are as follows:

Final mark of discipline =

CW1 + CW2 ∙ 0,6 + 0,1МТ + 0,3FE 2

Criteria-based evaluation: evaluation of learning outcomes in relation to descriptors (checking the formation of competencies in midterm control and exams). Summative evaluation: evaluation of the presence and activity of the work in the classroom; assessment of the assignment, independent work of students. The formula for calculating of the final grade is as follows:

Rules of academic behavior: Mandatory presence in the class, late attendance is prohibited. Absence and being late for classes without prior warning of the teacher are estimated at 0 points. Submission of assignments (Independent work of students, midterm control, laboratory tasks and etc.) prior to the deadlines. The violation of submission deadlines leads to the deduction of penalty points. Academic values: Academic honesty and integrity: all tasks should be performed individually; inadmissibility of plagiarism, forgery, use of cheat sheets, cheating at all stages of knowledge control, deception of the teacher and disrespectful attitude to him (Code of honor of the student of KazNU). Students with disabilities may receive advice via [email protected], +7 705 187 58 10

Chemistry: Volume 3. Springer US. p. 467. 5. G. Belenitskaya. Salt Systems of the Earth: Distribution, Tectonic and Kinematic History, SaltNaphthids Interrelations, Discharge Foci, Recycling. ISBN 978-1-119-47905-5, 1119479053. 2019. p. 698. 6. Hardy, Henry Reginald; Lux, Karl-Heinz; Minkley, Wolfgang; Wallner, Manfred. The mechanical behavior of salt -- understanding of THMC processes in salt. 2017. p. 468.

4. L.V. Woodcock (auth.), J. Braunstein, Gleb Mamantov, G.P. Smith (eds.). Advances in Molten Salt

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90% – 94%: А80% – 84%: В 65% – 69%: С 50% – 54%: D-

3

2

1

Week

1

1

1

1

4

Number of hours 1

75% – 79%: В60% – 64%: С0% -49%: F

Lecture 1: Formation of salt deposits. Potassium salts. Rock salt. Sodium sulphate. Deposits in Kazakhstan and abroad. Laboratory work (LW) 1: Brine of the salt lake. Determination of the content of calcium and magnesium ions. Lecture 2: Extraction of salts and brines from salt lakes. Regulation of the water regime of salt lakes in the extraction of salts and brines. LW 2: Determination of different types of hardness (total, carbonate, temporary, permanent) in the brine of the salt lake. Lecture 3: Examples from the practice of salt production. Brines of Kuchuk lake, Baskunchak lake, Balkhash delta lakes, the Aral sea. Buried brines of Kara-Bogaz-Gol gulf ("salt chamber"). LW 3: Determination of carbonate and bicarbonate ion content in the brine of the salt lake. IWST 1. Presentation of LW Nos.1-3. ISW 1 Physicochemical bases of technological processes of extraction and purification of natural raw materials of Kazakhstan (halite, tenardite).

Discipline name

Calendar of implementation of the course content:

95% – 100%: А 85% – 89%: В+ 70% – 74%: С+ 55% – 59%: D+

30 10

10

10

10

Maximal score

11

Colloquium 1 PC 1 Midterm exam Lecture 8: Technological scheme of production of high-quality magnesium oxide brine. Subsequent production of magnesium hydroxide. The most widely used methods of deep cleaning of salts.

7 7 8 8

7

6

5

Lecture 4: Evaporation of the Ashchikol lake brine. Extraction of salt from the Tuyuk salt source brine and Maraldy lake brine (Pavlodar region). LW 4: Determination of sulfate ions in the brine of the salt lake. Lecture 5: Purification technology of brine and its purpose. Evaporation of brines without crystallization of salts. Technology for cleaning halite. Influence of dispersion on the process of enrichment of NaCl salt. The ratio of the solid and liquid phases, the frequency of flushing. LW 5: Determination of the content of chloride ions in the salt lake brine. IWST 2. Presentation of LW Nos. 4-5. Lecture 6: Crystallization of salts by evaporation in a tubular apparatus. Consolidation of crystals. One-stage and multi-stage evaporation. LW 6: Calculation of sodium and potassium content, total salt content, mineralization, classification, salt hypothetical composition. Lecture 7: Technological apparatuses with isothermal and isohydric crystallization which can be used in the processing of halurgic raw materials. LW 7: Calculation of the amount of salts in the evaporation of the salt lake brine on the basis of chemical salt diagram IWST 3. Presentation of LW Nos. 6-7.

4

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 1

1

100 100

20 20

10

10

10 20

10

12

14

13

12

11

10

9

Lecture 9: Preparation of halurgic raw material for the industrial production of soda. Production of the soda from the wash water after halite purification. LW 9: Caustification of soda solution. Dependence of the degree of caustification soda solution from the process conditions and compilation of material balance. IWST 4. Presentation of LW Nos. 8-9. Lecture 10: Investigation of the possibility of obtaining the sodium sulphide, sulphite and thiosulphate from natural tenardite or mirabilite. LW 10: Continuation of work No. 9 Lecture 11: General ways for industrial production of metal hydroxides from halurgy natural raw material. LW 11: Production of artificial carnallite from chlorine-magnesium liquor. Study of the conversion degree, product yield. IWST 5. Presentation of LW Nos. 10-11. Lecture 12: Technological processes, apparatuses and equipment in the production (preparation, synthesis) of alkali metal hydroxides. LW 12 : Continuation of work No. 11 Lecture 13: General methods for the industrial production of acids from halurgic raw material. Sulfuric acid from Na2SО4 (tenardite). LW 13: Investigation of influence of flotation conditions in halurgic raw material on the basic parameters of the process. ISW 2 Salt enrichment methods IWST 6. Presentation of LW Nos. 12-13. Lecture 14: Waste salt industry and mineral raw material in the production of technical construction materials. 1

1

1 1

1

1

1 1

5 20

10

10

20

10

10

20

10

1

1

1

1

13

15

Colloquium 2 PC2 Exam

LW 14: Desulfation of the Karabogazgol brine. Segregation of gypsum. Drying. Calculation of the product yield. Lecture 15 Bases of processing (utilization) of the chemical industry waste water on the example of production of ammonium sulfate. Recycling of the mother liquors using the combined cyclone dryer. LW 15: Continuation of work No.14 IWST 7. Presentation of LW Nos. 14-15. 1

1

1

100 100

10 20 15

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1. GEOCHEMICAL PATTERNS OF MODERN SALT ACCUMULATION AND FORMATION OF MODERN SALT DEPOSITS

No.1 Section of chemical technology, including study of the composition and properties of natural salt raw materials and development of the methods of industrial production of mineral salts from it is… A) mineralogy B) geology C) halurgy D) archeology E) soil science No.2 The main types of raw materials for the halurgical industry are… A) salt deposits B) rocks C) bauxite deposits D) salt-water E) technical water No.3 Applied problems of halurgy… A) study of the formation conditions of salt deposits, their mineralogical composition and structure B) study of the physicochemical properties of salts and their solutions C) development of industrial methods for extracting various products from salt raw materials D) processing of finely disseminated mineral raw materials E) study of soil composition

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No.4 Processes occurring in salt lakes. A) permanent В) flowing at zero speed C) periodic D) cyclical E) non-permanent No.5 The founder of halurgy as a science is… A) D.V. Sokolsky B) A.M. Butlerov C) N.S. Kurnakov D) G.G. Ivanovich E) N.N. Semenov No.6 In the northern CIS regions (more humid), the lakes formed are mainly of… A) carbonate type B) chloride type C) magnesium type D) potash type E) sulphate-sodium type No.7 In the southern CIS regions (drier and hotter), the lakes formed are mainly of … A) chloride type B) carbonate type C) sulphate type D) calcium type E) magnesium subtype No.8 The main mineral deposits of salt deposits are… A) soda, mirabilite 15

B) halite, tenardite C) epsomite, astrakanite D) gypsum, apatite E) chalcopyrite, pyrite No.9 Deposits that are not able to dissolve in the solution during periods of desalination are called A) overburden B) root C) stratal D) phreatic E) underground No.10 Unidirectional, hardly reversible change in the composition and formation of deposits of permanent solid phases is… A) ice melting in springtime B) ice formation in winter C) metamorphization process D) hydration process E) dissolving process without solid precipitation No.11 In dry climates, metamorphization leads to a change in the brine composition from… A) carbonate through sulfate to chloride B) sulphate through magnesium to carbonate C) calcium through potash and sulphate D) sulphate through carbonate to chloride E) chloride through sulfate to carbonate No.12 In the southern climate, metamorphization leads to a change in the brine composition from… A) carbonate through sulfate to chloride B) calcium through chloride to carbonate C) carbonate through magnesium sulphate 16

D) potassium through carbonate to chloride E) chloride through sulfate to carbonate No.13 Physicochemical processes used to separate salts in halurgy are: A) crushing, screening B) mechanical activation, separation C) dissolution, crystallization D) evaporation, extraction E) flotation No.14 The compositions of salt lakes are classified as… A) sulphate B) carbonate C) chloride D) sulphate-sodium E) magnesium No.15 Unidirectional, gradually changing the composition of the water processes that are the result of interaction with the environment in these climatic conditions. A) cyclical B) periodic C) annual D) daily E) permanent No.16 Processes in a salt lake (or other body of water reservoir), which are determined by changes in climatic factors during the year. A) cyclical B) periodic C) permanent D) hydrological E) morphometric 17

No.17 Processes in a salt lake (or other body of water reservoir) caused by perennial climate fluctuations A) permanent B) periodic C) cyclical D) perennial E) climatic No.18 Halogenosis is… А) salt formation В) seawater formation С) freshwater formation D) sediment formation Е) alkali formation No.19 The process of salt accumulation primarily manifests itself … A) in increasing the amount of water B) in increasing water salinity C) in good water evaporation D) in reducing salt concentrations E) in slowing the evaporation of water No.20 V.I. Vernadsky divided the water into the fresh... A) slightly salted B) brackish C) salty D) hard and soft E) brines No.21 The course and nature of salt accumulation is most noticeable in changing the contents of a small group of cations (К+, Na+, Mg2+, Са2+) and anions. (𝐂𝐎𝟐− 𝟑 ).

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A) NO− 3 B) CL− C) CO2− 3 D) HCO− 3 E) SO2− 4 No.22 Section of chemical technology for production and processing of natural mineral salts is… A) metallurgy B) halurgy C) pyrometallurgy D) hydrology E) hydrometallurgy No.23 Water salinity is due to the accumulation in the solution of A) difficultly soluble salts B) mainly nutrients C) easily soluble compounds D) main anionic and cationic elements E) mainly trace elements and organic substances No.24 Depending on the conditions, the development of the chemical composition of natural waters can proceed in three directions, resulting in the formation of three main chemical types of salt water. A) soluble, insoluble and colloidal B) mostly carbonate and potassium C) carbonate, sulphate and chloride D) elemental, molecular and atomic E) mainly chloride and nitrogen No.25 The surface conditions of the Earth are most favorable for formation of…

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A) soluble, insoluble and colloidal type of water B) mainly carbonate and potassium type of water C) sulphate type of water D) elemental type of water E) mainly chloride and nitrogen types of water No.26 The main metamorphization process for sulphate waters is… A) interaction of sodium sulphate and calcium carbonate, removing sodium ions and sulphate ions from the solution B) interaction of calcium sulfate and calcium hydrocarbonate C) interaction of magnesium sulfate and calcium hydrocarbonate, removing magnesium ions and sulfate ions from the solution D) interaction of magnesium sulfate and calcium chloride, which removes chloride ions from solution E) interaction of magnesium sulfate and calcium bicarbonate, not removing magnesium ions and sulfate ions from the solution No.27 In sulphate waters, sodium ions and sulphate ions can be lost by the cationic mechanism, if… A) there is no soluble substance in brines B) brines contain nutrients C) there is no mud in solution D) only mud is affected by the solution E) the solution is not affected by the temperature factor and the depth of the lake No.28 Bottom sediments of salt lake … A) are actively involved in salt formation processes B) are not involved in salt formation processes C) there are no sediments in the lakes, there is only mud D) only mud affects the solution E) mud does not affect the solution

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No.29 In case of alternating of several dry and wet periods, the following layers can form: A) only one pure kind of salt B) several layers of salt separated by silt layers C) there are no sediments in the lakes, there is only mud D) only mud affects the solution E) several layers of different pure salts No.30 Bottom sediments of salt lakes are presented by… A) silt, new settling, old settling and root deposits B) only silts and new- settling C) there are no sediments in the lakes, there is only mud D) only old- settling and root deposits E) only new- settling and old- settling

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2. CONDITIONS FOR FORMATION OF SALT DEPOSITS IN MODERN BASINS

No.31 Factors needed for the emergence of large salt deposits … А) aridic (dry) climate В) favorable physiographic situation of salt pools С) tectonic movements of the earth's crust, creating mobile areas of salt pools – their steady subsidence for a long time D) salt deposits Е) humid climate No.32 One of the 4 stages of the development of lake basins of the arid region is… А) low-salt lakes with large surfaces and depths, only terrigenouscarbonate sediments are deposited in them В) formation of ammonia С) formation of bottom sediments D) formation of halite Е) formation of HCl No.33 N.M. Strakhov's rule on the rate of accumulation of terrigenous sediments: А) the rate of accumulation of terrigenous sediments in the basin is directly proportional to the catchment area of sedimentation В) the rate of accumulation of terrigenous sediments in the basin depends on the concentrations of salts С) accumulation rate does not change when V = const D) the rate of accumulation of solid sediments depends only on the time of their formation Е) the rate of accumulation of solid precipitation depends only on climate

22

No.34 Composition of the initially precipitated minerals usually substantially depends on… А) rainfall amount В) mineral concentrations С) crystallization rate D) time between precipitations Е) the area of the lake sludge fraction No.35 As the climate humidifies towards the north and west, we observe… А) mineral reduction В) reduction of mineralization of natural waters С) relative accumulation of sulfates and carbonates in them D) increase in water salinity Е) sulphate reduction No.36 Sedimentation in all types of lakes passes through А) phosphorus stage В) nitrate stage С) carbonate stage D) sulphate stage Е) chloride stage No.37 In industrial quantities carnallite is produced… А) during evaporation of the Dead Sea water in the basins В) during evaporation of Caspian water in the basins С) when water evaporates from the salt lakes of Almaty region of Kazakhstan D) during evaporation of the water of lake Ushtagan Е) when water of the Ural river evaporates No.38 The main conditions on which the native salt in the hypersaline lakes depend… A) climatic B) natural 23

C) only low temperature D) only high temperature Е) constant air pressure No.39 Hypersaline lake is… A) fresh water lake with low salt concentration B) mineral salt lake with low salt concentration C) high concentration mineral salt lake used as a source of industrial salt mining D) mineral non-salt lake E) mineral lake with a high concentration of only free metals or gases No.40 Water of hypersaline lakes is… A) brine or pickle B) silt C) silt or pickle D) silt or brine Е) native salt No.41 The conditions for formation of salt deposits include… A) cyclic precipitation of readily soluble salts B) batch deposition of readily soluble salts C) only cation exchange processes D) only processes of mineralization of organic substances Е) climate and morphometry of the lake No.42 The conditions for formation of salt deposits include… A) only processes of mineralization of organic substances B) processes in the water-silt-plant-zoobenthos system C) general direction of development of the composition of the brine of the hypersaline basin D) climate and depth of the lake Е) isothermal processes 24

No.43 The conditions for formation of salt deposits include… A) presence of ichthyofauna and zoobenthos B) brine thermal conditions C) formation of salt deposits at the bottom of reservoirs D) conditions necessary for preservation of fallen salt precipitation Е) isobaric conditions No.44 The conditions for formation of salt deposits include… A) presence of calcium sulfate B) sufficient amount of sodium chloride and calcium C) classification of salt minerals, determining the place of their formation and their participation in diagenetic processes D) conditions required for isobaric processes Е) conditions required for isothermal processes No.45 Salt basin in terms of physicochemical conditions of formation is… A) relief reduction B) relief reduction with salts C) relief reduction with fresh water D) saline precipitation Е) equilibrium water-salt system, existing in specific conditions of the Earth's surface No.46 The study of the annual cycles of salt lakes is… A) obligatory at detailed studying B) optional C) an important condition D) a very difficult task Е) not feasible task No.47 For the first time, the idea of a physicochemical study of crystallization and dissolution of salts in the annual cycle of salt lakes was suggested and implemented by… 25

A) Valyashko M.G. B) Kurnakov N.S. C) Beremzhanov B.A. D) Lomonosov M.V. Е) Mendeleev D.I. No.48 One of the conditions required for accumulation of stably existing salt deposits on the bottom of the basin is… A) presence of bottom brine, impregnating the upper layers of silt deposits B) saturation by the salt of not only surface, but also bottom brine, impregnating the upper layers of sludge deposits C) presence of surface brine D) presence of salt dissolution processes Е) lack of processes of dissolution and precipitation of salts in brine No.49 Eutonic or final minerals are… A) minerals from readily soluble salts B) minerals from difficultly soluble salts C) minerals that do not interact with solutions normally developing during crystallization of salts and persist until eutonic D) minerals that interact with brines normally developing in the process salt crystallization, forming new minerals Е) minerals losing some crystallization water No.50 Intermediate rocks are… A) minerals that completely lose crystallization water or partially lose water B) minerals that interact with brines normally developing in the process salt crystallization, forming new minerals C) minerals from readily soluble salts D) minerals from difficultly soluble salts Е) minerals that do not interact with uterine solutions normally developing during crystallization of salts and persist until eutonic 26

No.51 For formation of salt deposits at the bottom of the basin, a combination of a number of conditions is necessary… А) reaching of the brine saturation by precipitated salt В) favorable density ratio of saturated brines at different temperatures С) presence of only brine under isothermal conditions D) presence of only brine under isobaric conditions Е) a group of different waters, including the recharge of river water No.52 For formation of salt deposits at the bottom of the basin, a combination of conditions is necessary… А) the presence of only brine under isothermal conditions В) a group of different waters, including the recharge of river water С) a sufficient layer of surface brine D) the ability of a precipitated mineral to interact with a naturally changing brine Е) possibility and intensity of circulation of brine in bottom sediments

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3. CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SALT LAKES

No.53 Natural water and water of salt lakes depending on the concentration can be divided into А) fresh water group В) brackish water group С) salt water group D) sea water group Е) river water group No.54 The relationship of liquid and solid phases (lake sediments) is important for understanding many phenomena in lakes, on this basis we can distinguish… А) sea lakes В) fresh water lakes С) brine lakes D) dry lakes Е) subsurface lakes No.55 New settling is… А) new salt В) salt which crystallized from the surface brine of the lake in this annual cycle of its life С) early sodium salts D) early calcium salts Е) early magnesium salts No.56 Old settling is… А) old salt В) salt which crystallized from the surface brine, remaining undissolved in this annual cycle and preserved in the bottom sediments 28

С) only salt which crystallized from the surface brine, remaining undissolved in this annual cycle В) only salt which preserved in bottom sediments Е) early magnesium salts No.57 Depending on the presence of one type of the salt deposits in the lake, the following types of lakes can be distinguished … А) ooze lake В) solar salt lake С) root lake D) sea lakes Е) freshwater lakes No.58 Main types of salt lakes are… A) carbonate B) sodium C) sulfate D) chloride E) magnesium No.59 Deposition of halite in salt lakes is represented by the following substances: A) lime stone B) clump salt C) sodium salt D) Glauber's salt E) grenade No.60 Grenade consists of… A) individual crystals, easily separable from each other B) homogeneous crystals, hardly separable from each other C) homogeneous crystals, easily separable from each other D) rhombic shaped crystals E) all answers are correct 29

No.61 Clump salt consists of... A) dense mass of unbound crystals B) individual crystals, easily separable from each other C) homogeneous crystals, hardly separable from each other D) dense mass of strongly tied crystals E) homogeneous crystals, easily separable from each other No.62 The formula of scheonite is… A) Na2SO4*MgSO4*6H2O B) K2SO4*CaSO4*H2O C) CaSO4*6H2O D) MgSO4*6H2O E) K2SO4*MgSO4*6H2O No.63 The formula of syngenite is… A) K2SO4*CaSO4*H2O B) K2SO4*MgSO4*6H2O C) Na2SO4*10H2O D) MgSO4*10H2O E) CaSO4*H2O No.64 The formulas of epsomite and astrakhanite are… A) Na2SO4*MgSO4*4H2O B) Na2SO4*3K2SO4 C) MgSO4*7H2O D) K2SO4*CaSO4*H2O E) NaCl No.65 On the salt lakes under new settling there can be found… A) settling of the previous years B) root deposits C) bottom deposits D) stone deposits E) all answers are correct 30

No.66 An increase in mineralization of natural water is due to… A) accumulation of more soluble compounds formed by biogenic elements in it B) accumulation of less soluble compounds formed by the main ions in it C) accumulation of more soluble compounds formed by the main ions in it D) dissolution of gases E) dissolution of organic substances No.67 In the process of increasing water mineralization, the main individual components are… А) stable in varying degrees В) the role of the main ions in formation of the chemical composition of the salt residue of natural waters is changing С) equally stable D) unstable E) bound into low soluble salts No.68 Migration curves (by M.G. Valyashko)… А) show the relative role of the main anions and cations in the formation of the chemical composition of the salt residue of natural waters with different mineralization В) show the absolute role of the main anions and cations in the formation of the chemical composition of the salt residue of natural waters with different mineralization С) show the secondary role of the main anions and cations in the formation of the chemical composition of the salt residue of natural waters with different mineralization D) show the role of biogenic elements in the formation of the chemical composition of the salt residue of natural waters with different mineralization E) show the role of the main anions and cations in the formation of the chemical composition of the salt residue of natural waters with the same mineralization 31

No.69 The chemical composition of natural waters of higher mineralization is characterized by elemental composition… А) P, Si, Fe В) S, Cl, Ca,Si, N С) S, Cl, Ca,As, Mg D) Н, О, С, S, Cl, Ca, Mg, Na, K Е) S, Cl, Ca,O,P, Ba, Sc No.70 The sources of formation of gridless lakes… А) river, atmospheric and ground water В) ground water only С) only atmospheric and ground water D) waste and river water Е) wastewater and groundwater No.71 The equilibrium system, which determines the carbonate type of natural water is… А) MgCl2 – NaHCO3 – Mg(HCO3)2 – Ca(HCO3)2 – H2O В) Na2CO3 – NaHCO3 – Na2SO4 – NaCl – H2O С) Na2CO3 – NaCl – H2O D) NaHCO3 – MgCO3 – Na2SO4 – H2O Е) NaHCO3 – MgCO3 No.72 Ions in equilibrium in the sulfate type of natural waters are… А) Na+, Mg2+, SO2− 4 , Cl + 2+ В) Na , Са , Cl С) Na+, НСО3-, СO2− 3 , Cl D) С, О, Р, S Е) Mg2+, SO2− 4 , Cl No.73 The equilibrium system, which determines the chloride type of natural water is… А) СаCl2 – MgCl2 – H2O 32

В) СаCl2 – NaCl – Na2SO4 – H2O С) СаCl2 – MgCl2 – NaCl – H2O D) MgCl2 – NaCl – H2O Е) MgCl2 – NaCl No.74 Chemical types covering the vast majority of natural waters are… А) carbonate, sulfate, chloride В) carbonate, chloride С) carbonate, sulfate D) sulfate, chloride Е) nitrate and phosphate No.75 The process of transition of the water from carbonate to sulfate and further to chloride type is… А) direct metamorphization В) reverse metamorphization С) mineralization D) saturation Е) chlorization No.76 The process of transition of the water from chloride to sulfate and further to carbonate type is… А) direct metamorphization В) reverse metamorphization С) mineralization D) saturation Е) sulfatization No.77 Conditions that contribute to the processes of metamorphization of the chemical composition of natural waters in the forward direction are… А) strengthening of evaporation and ice formation processes В) remission of the climate aridity 33

С) aridity of climate, increase in the concentration of calcium ions and mineralization of water D) only increase in water mineralization Е) increase in climate humidity No.78 Conditions that contribute to the processes of metamorphization of the chemical composition of natural waters in the reverse direction are… А) strengthening of evaporation and ice formation processes В) humidification of climate, improvement of washability soil conditions, decrease in mineralization С) aridity of climate, increase in the concentration of calcium ions and mineralization of water D) only decrease in water mineralization Е) creation of isothermal conditions No.79 The basic principle laid down in the classification of waters by Alekin is… А) predominance of cations В) predominant cations and the ratio between them С) predominance of anions D) ratio between ions Е) predominant anions and the ratio between them No.80 The basic principle laid down in the classification of waters by Valyashko is… А) ratio between carbonate and sulfate salts В) natural change of electrical conductivity in different types of water С) ratio between sulphate and chloride salts D) natural change in compounds solubility in equilibrium systems formed by the main components of natural waters Е) changes in compounds solubility in nonequilibrium systems formed by the main components of natural waters

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No.81 The principle of ions binding in natural waters into a hypothetical salt is based on... А) equilibrium achievement В) temperature influence С) influence of the eponymous ion D) mutual influence of ions Е) solubility of salts No.82 The conclusion that can be made if the value of the comparison coefficient Са2+ : Mg2+ < 1 А) characterizes the low mineralization of water В) the lack of income of Ca2+ ions С) characterizes water salinity D) the lack of income of Mg2+ ions Е) the income of Ca2+ ions No.83 The conclusion that can be made if the value of the compareson coefficient Са2+ : Mg2+ > 1 А) water demineralization takes place В) salinity of water takes place С) water is polluted by biogenic substances D) water is purified from the main ions Е) water is enriched by biogenic substances No.84 The conclusion that can be made if the value of the comparison 𝐒𝐎𝟐− 𝟒 : Cl >1 А) sulfate type of water В) chloride type of water С) prevailing role of sulfates D) prevailing role of chlorides Е) water is enriched by biogenic substances

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No.85 Using the consolidated chemical diagram of academician N.S. Kurnakov for three basic chemical types of waters, we can get to know … А) properties of substances В) boiling point of solutions (brines) С) the composition of these types of waters, from which all the waters of the Earth are formed D) salts solubility Е) properties of easily soluble substances of a specific type of water No.86 Water of typical drainless continental lakes Balkhash and Alakol in comparison with other reservoirs are… А) least sulfated В) most sulfated С) carbonated D) least carbonated Е) most carbonated with relatively low sodium chloride content

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4. COMPLEX PROCESSING OF BRINES

No.87 Kinetics of the dissolution process depends on many factors, namely on… А) nature and composition of solids В) composition and temperature of solutions С) size and shape of crystals D) silicon content in salts Е) Ca ions content in salts No.88 The basic laws of evaporation can be described by the equations of … А) Sverdrup В) Kashkarov С) Mendeleyev D) Clapeyron Е) Hess No.89 Calculation of solar evaporation of brines can be carried out by the method of… А) material balance В) heat balance С) evaporative coefficients D) ecological balance Е) hypothetic salts No.90 Purpose of basin salt production is… А) creation of salts turners В) production of hills of salt С) production of certain salts in an artificially regulated reservoir – basin

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D) production of bushed insoluble salts Е) preservation of soluble salts in the pits No.91 Settling basins are… А) only for brine storage В) only for creation of preparatory operations С) for creation of salts turners D) for crystallization of salts, that are products of production Е) only for creation of spare relief lowering No.92 In settling basins crystallization of salts is usually timed to the period of… А) summer solar evaporation В) autumn-winter cooling С) spring flood D) only in summer Е) only in winter No.93 Summer settling basins should… А) have a flat bottom В) be in an open, well-ventilated area С) mounds D) be very deep Е) be in an closed area No.94 In the winter, summer settling basins are filled with desalinated or fresh water. The purpose of this operation is… А) to keep insoluble salts В) to be in an open, well-ventilated area С) to dissolve salt residue D) to protect the bottom of the basin from drying and cracking Е) to create conditions for drying the bottom of the basin

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No.95 The source of initial raw materials in the practice of basin's production is… А) lake brine or sea water В) brine of artificial or natural underground leaching С) clay substances D) solution of aluminosilicate substances Е) solid crystalline ionic compounds No.96 The type of initial raw materials in the practice of basin's production is… А) new settling В) old settling С) buried brines D) solution of aluminosilicate substances Е) solid crystalline ionic compounds No.97 Basin mirabilite after partial natural dehydration is collected in… А) clamps В) hills С) mounds D) bushes Е) pits No.98 Basin mirabilite is usually processed in… А) sodium sulfate В) calcium sulfate С) magnesium sulfate D) sodium carbonate Е) calcium carbonate No.99 Advantages of the technology of complex processing of sea water and natural brines are… А) natural evaporation 39

В) natural cooling С) formation of very small crystals only in a new settling D) formation of very small crystals only in old settling of carbonates Е) formation of fresh water No.100 The main types of sodium chloride deposits are… А) layers and stocks of stone salt В) salt marshes С) ocean and sea water, lake brines D) only stocks Е) only salt marshes No.101 One of the methods of salt production is… А) dolomite mining В) stone salt mining С) extraction of deposited salt from salt lakes D) evaporation of fresh water Е) distillation under evaporation No.102 … is used for technical purposes А) Evaporated salt В) Settling salt С) Carbonates D) Stone salt Е) Deposited salt No.103 Types of rock salt deposits, which are distinguished by morphological characteristics, are… А) layered В) layered-lenticular, lenticular С) nodular D) bushlike Е) bottom 40

No.104 Crystallization of NaCl from brine lakes of chlorine-calcium type is determined by the equilibrium in the system… А) CaCl2 – MgCl2 – NaCl – H2O B) CaSO4 – MgCl2 – NaCl – H2O C) Na2SO4 – MgCl2 – NaCl – H2O D) MgSO4 – CaCl2 – NaCl – H2O E) CaCO3 – MgCl2 – NaCl – H2O No.105 Under evaporation of marine type brines at the boiling point under atmospheric pressure after reaching saturation … is crystalized. А) NaCl B) CaCl2 C) MgCl2 D) Ca2CO3 E) Na2SO4 No.106 One of the ways of purification of brines is… А) H2SO4 B) with HCl C) lime-soda, in which soda and lime are simultaneously introduced into the brine D) lime-magnesium, in which magnesium and lime are added to the brine Е) with ammonia No.107 The most common methods of brine purification from impurities are… A) thermal B) lime-magnesium C) lime-sulfate D) lime-soda E) electrolysis

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No.108 Natural evaporation of 1 tone of brine can result in formation of …. of salt А) 500 kg В) 400 kg С) 300 kg D) 200 kg Е) 100 kg No.109 The apparatuses used for production of salts from brines are… A) cooling stake B) jaw-breaker C) round and tubular boilers D) evaporation apparatus of Peak E) backflow condenser No.110 Main function of the cooling stake is… A) water heating B) water cooling C) cooling of heat exchangers D) well drilling E) crushing of large objects No.111 Apparatus for gas heating under evaporation of brine is… A) Kipp gas generator B) Picard apparatus C) gas burner D) evaporation boiler No.112 Salt drying apparatuses are… A) gas dispenser B) drying chamber with a furnace C) mechanical drying D) muffle furnace 42

No.113 Brine are… A) solutions close to evaporation B) solutions close to saturation C) solutions in which the process of crystallization of salts occurs D) saturated solutions in which salt precipitates Е) melts of various salts No.114 The composition of the brines of a particular lake varies greatly depending on… A) the depth of selection B) the place of selection C) weather conditions D) method of blanks E) method of collecting information No.115 Typically, the composition of the extracted brines deteriorates significantly due to… A) atmospheric precipitation B) low air temperatures C) high air temperatures D) decrease in the quality of buried brines E) penetration of surface cooled brines into the depth No.116 Drainage system in settlement basins is used for… A) mechanical removal of the surface layer B) organization of basin management C) removal of surface and capillary mother liquors D) removal of atmospheric water runoff E) removal of atmospheric precipitation No.117 Drainage system in settlement basins is used for… A) mechanical removal of the surface layer B) organization of basin management 43

C) removal of surface and capillary mother liquors D) ground water removal E) removal of atmospheric precipitation No.118 In operation, the pulverizer of the salt pump … A) breaks the layer B) forms a suspension, which is sucked through the moveable pipe C) transports the layer on the converter D) mills the layer to finely dispersed phase E) all answers are correct No.119 For extraction of "granatka" sediments in the salt lake industry the following tools are used: A) single-lump excavators B) multi-lump excavators C) specially designed "salt pump" D) blade excavators E) rotary excavators No.120 The brine purification is carried out by … A) stirring B) settling C) foaming D) hot water for salts with reverse solubility E) chemical reagents No.121 Purification of the brine from the gypsum is carried out by… A) stirring B) settling C) foaming D) precipitation of the calcium ions by the soda E) dissolution in hot water

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No.122 Methods of brine purification are… A) soda method B) lime-soda method C) lime-sulfate-soda method D) acid method E) alkali method No.123 Brines with the high content of magnesium ions are usually purified by… A) soda method B) lime-soda method C) lime-sulfate-soda method D) acid method E) alkali method No.124 Lime-sulfate-soda method of brine purification… A) is based on the principle of precipitation of Mg2+ ions by alkali in the Mg(OH)2 form B) is based on the principle of precipitation of Са2+ ions by soda in СаСО3 form C) does not clear the brine from the magnesium ion D) does not clear the brine from the gypsum E) refers to the unprofitable method No.125 Disadvantages of the methods of purification of brines are… A) refers to the unprofitable method B) lime-soda method C) low process speed D) large volume of equipment E) high process speed No.126 One of the new ways of brines purification is… A) directly in the underground leaching chamber 45

B) lime-soda method C) sulfuric acid method D) alkali method E) surface method No.127 The advantage of a tubular apparatus for the evaporation of brines is… A) refers to the unprofitable production B) possibility of compiling batteries from them to obtain multistage evaporation C) impossibility of compiling batteries from them to obtain multistage evaporation D) a large volume of equipment E) low process speed No.128 Foaming during evaporation of some brines is eliminated by… A) boiling the brine B) stirring of the brine C) addition of acid or alkali into the brine D) use of different surfactants for brines of different composition E) addition of surfactants to evaporate the brine No.129 Evaporators are… A) fluidized layer furnace B) immersion combustion furnace C) muffle furnace D) drying cabinet E) microwave oven No.130 Disadvantage of the evaporator fluidized layer furnace is… A) low productivity B) the relatively high cost of the stoves C) direct contact of material (brine) with flue gases D) contamination of the product with ash E) product contamination with soot 46

No.131 Evaporator immersion combustion furnace is… A) a tank filled with brine, in which the burner is lowered B) the fuel is a combustible gas or a diesel oil and air C) the flame burns for about 1 hour D) due to strong mixing, the liquid boils strongly E) heat losses are very high No.132 Evaporator immersion combustion furnace is… A) tank filled with fresh solution of low concentration B) the fuel is biogas and oxygen C) the flame is inside the liquid D) due to strong mixing, the liquid does not boil E) heat losses are very high No.133 Salt drying method is… A) convective B) fire C) evaporational D) airborne E) contact No.134 Convective method of salt drying is… A) heat is strongly dissipated into the environment B) has limited distribution C) the heat required to evaporate the moisture is transferred directly from the drying agent to the material to be dried D) most common in the halurgic industry E) unprofitable No.135 Contact method of salt drying is… A) heat is strongly dissipated into the environment B) has limited distribution

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C) the heat required to evaporate moisture is transferred to the material from the hot surface in direct contact with the material D) has high cost E) unprofitable No.136 Drying of salts is carried out in the apparatuses… A) the drum dryers B) the fluidized bed dryers C) the pipe-dryers D) the drying cabinets E) the microwave ovens No.137 The technology of sylvinite processing by chemical method is based on the properties of the system solutions A) NaCl – KCl – H2O B) NaCl – MgCl2 – H2O C) KCl – CaCl2 – H2O D) KCl – NaCl – H2O E) MgCl2 – NaCl – H2O No.138 Reagents used in the flotation enrichment of ores are divided into modifiers, flocculants, medium regulators… A) solvents B) collectors C) decomposers D) foamers E) reductants No.139 Depending on the nature of the polar group collectors are related to… A) bipolar B) polar C) cationic D) covalent E) anionic 48

No.140 Substances which reduce surface tension are: A) sludge modifiers B) collectors C) flocculants D) foamers E) ionic reagents No.141 The shot impregnation of potassium chloride in the sylvinite ranges from…to… A) from 3 to 5 mm B) from 1 to 3 mm C) from 5 to 7 mm D) from 9 to 12 mm E) from 10 to 15 mm No.142 The electrical properties of salt minerals depend on their… A) electrical resistance B) valence of atoms C) electric charge of the connection D) permittivity E) dielectric resistance No.143 The maximum electrical resistivity and charges on the surface of the sylvinite are formed at a temperature of… A) 70  80 оС B) 90  150 оС C) 80  120 оС D) 100  140 оС E) 110  150 оС No.144 For leaching potassium chloride from the sylvinite … is used. A) vertical screw solvent B) horizontal screw solvent 49

C) foam solvent D) deep horizontal solvent E) horizontal foam solvent No.145 Performance of inclined elevators is… i A) Q = S ϑψρт i

B) Q = ϑψρт d C) Q = ϑψρт i D) Q = d ρт E) Q =

i θψρт S

No.146 Performance of the filter can be calculated by the formula: A) Q = Bhρт B) Q = Bθρт C) Q = tBhρт D) Q = ϑл Bhρт E) Q = ϑл hρт No.147 The horizontal filtering surface of the plate vacuum filter for filtration of halite blade has an area... A) 10 – 20 m2 B) 5 – 10 m2 C) 15 – 25 m2 D) 20 – 30 m2 E) 40 – 45 m2 No.148 In practice, two methods of centrifugation are used: A) centrifugal evaporation B) vacuum C) centrifugal filtering D) centrifugal E) centrifugal deposition

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No.149 By technological purpose centrifuges are divided into: A) vacuum B) filtering C) sedimentary D) centrifugal E) combined No.150 The separation factor characterizing the operation of centrifuges is determined by the formula: A) Fr = ω2 R/𝗀 B) Fr = φω/R C) Fr = Rn2 /900 D) Fr = Rn/𝗀 E) Fr = ω𝗀/900 No.151 According to the main structural feature, centrifuges are divided depending on the location of the shaft and the supports on which it is mounted on… A) horizontal B) filtering C) vertical D) centrifugal E) the console No.152 The main advantages of centrifuges such as FGP are… A) process frequency B) process continuity C) low humidity sediment D) high solids entrainment E) high performance No.153 The most common approximate calculation method, which consists in determining the volume of the drum: A) Vб = W/At 51

B) C) D) E)

Vб Vб Vб Vб

= W/t = W/A = W/Ft = Wt/F

No.154 For drying polydisperse materials, it is preferable to use ... dryers A) drum B) gas C) pipe D) pneumatic gas E) integrated No.155 The most widespread pumps in the potash industry are… A) membrane B) screw C) piston D) vacuum E) centrifugal No.156 The disadvantages of centrifugal pumps are… A) relatively low heads B) lack of valves C) large gaps between the shoulder blades D) performance degradation under certain circumstances E) high power consumption

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5. ENRICHMENT OF SALTS

No.157 The process of concentrating a valuable component from ore, while the latter does not undergo chemical transformations, is called… A) Enrichment B) Saturation C) mechanical activation D) concentration E) polycondensation No.158 Enrichment methods based on the difference in physicchemical and mechanical properties of minerals are… A) flotation B) flocculation C) separation D) dissolution E) concentration No.159 Mechanical enrichment methods differ from other methods by… A) simplicity of hardware enrichment B) cost effectiveness C) ease of separation of salts D) a complex production line E) complexity of the hardware No.160 The process of separation of minerals in heavy liquids and suspensions having an intermediate density between the densities of the separated salts is called… A) gravitational enrichment B) flotation concentration C) electrical separation 53

D) separation E) magnetic separation No.161 The process consisting in the difference in the dielectric constant of salt minerals, which is caused by mutual friction and formation of opposite charges on the surface of the minerals, is called… A) electric enrichment B) flotation concentration C) gravitational enrichment D) magnetic separation E) crushing No.162 The prospects for the use of electric separation are determined by… A) ore dressing in dry form B) lower production costs C) higher production costs D) improving environmental conditions E) increased reagent costs No.163 The … method is based on the possibility of pre-charging particles and then separating them in an electric field in accordance with the magnitude and signs of the resulting charges A) electrical separation B) electrocoagulation C) electrical enrichment D) flocculation E) flotation No.164 According to Cohen’s rule, substances with a higher dielectric constant are charged… A) positively B) negatively 54

C) do not charge D) depending on the electrical resistance E) there is no correct answer No.165 According to Cohen’s rule, substances with a small dielectric constant are charged… A) positively B) negatively C) do not charge D) depending on the electrical resistance E) there is no correct answer No.166 In the electrical separation of potash ores, the important factors are … and …, which determine the magnitude of charges, properties and behavior of mineral particles. A) electrical resistance B) dielectric constant C) conductivity D) electrical density E) charge transfer No.167 The electrical properties of minerals are determined by… A) quantitative moisture content B) the nature of the connection of moisture with the mineral C) particle charge D) dielectric surface E) surface area No.168 Potash minerals and clay components accompanying them belong to dielectrics, their surface resistance is determined by… A) film thickness B) properties of the sorbed film C) particle desorption D) an increase in temperature E) moisture removal 55

No.169 The removal of moisture from the surface of minerals during thermal drying leads to… A) the reduction in electrical conductivity B) an increase in resistance C) a decrease in resistance D) an increase in dielectric conductivity E) there is no correct answer No.170 The thermal treatment of potash ores before electrical separation has two purposes: A) removal of moisture from salt minerals and its preservation on clay minerals B) the most complete removal of moisture from minerals and obtaining high resistivity C) removal of moisture from clay components and its presservation in salt minerals D) the most complete removal of moisture from minerals and obtaining low resistivity E) removal of the sorbed film and desorption of mineral particles No.171 The electrical resistance of minerals creased by… A) phthalic acids B) benzoic acid C) phthalic and benzoic acid anhydride D) amino acids E) nitro compounds No.172 Among the methods of enrichment, the main place is occupied by… A) mechanical B) biological C) chemical D) physical E) geological 56

No.173 In the enrichment processes, the differences between the minerals of the useful component and waste rock are in the… A) colors B) density C) the shape of the grains D) thermal conductivity E) electrical conductivity No.174 Magnetically, using magnetic separators, … is enriched. A) iron B) manganese C) sulfate D) nitrate E) tungsten No.175 The flotation method of enrichment is based on the difference in… A) density B) optical properties C) wettability of the components with water D) adhesive and sorption properties E) the shape of the grains No.176 The preparatory process of enrichment includes… A) dissolution B) drying C) heating D) crushing and grinding E) screening

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6. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SALT LAKES

No.177 The initial types of water that are found on land: A) pure solvent B) lake water C) melt water D) ocean water E) residual solvent No.178 It is believed that the entire diversity of waters is composed of three main species, their interaction between themselves and… A) peat deposits B) indigenous sedimentary rocks C) living matter D) brines E) mineral deposits No.179 As the residual solution (salt water, brines of marine origin) evaporates, … precipitate. А) CaSO4, CaCO3 В) MnSO4, MnCO3 C) NaCl, MgSO4 D) nitrates E) potassium salts No.180 Salt metamorphization is associated with various ion exchange reactions: A) Wagner reaction B) The reaction of Gidinger

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C) The reaction of Volyoshko D) Weler reaction E) The reaction of Mariniyaka No.181 Metamorphization of waters and salts is a really existing in nature process of interaction with each other ... and ... leading to hardly reversible and directed changes in the chemical composition. A) different types and kinds of water B) ocean waters C) fresh water D) sedimentary rocks E) the environment No.182 Another cause of metamorphization is… A) precipitation of Ca ions B) ion exchange reactions of dissolved salts with adsorbed ions on sludge particles C) reactions occurring as a result of ebbs and flows D) reactions occurring at coastal boundaries E) colloidal clays that are introduced into the water from outside No.183 The processes taking place in coastal and continental soda and sulfate lakes lead to ... А) disappearance of MgSO4 from brine and further disappearance of MgCl2 В) disappearance of MgCO3 from brine and further disappearance of MgCl2 C) disappearance of CaSO4 from brine D) accumulation of CaCl2 Е) accumulation of MgSO4 and MgCl2 No.184 The reason for appearance of sulfate and soda lakes are… А) Na2SO4 59

В) Na2CO3 C) CaCl2 D) CaSO4 Е) MgCl2 No.185 According to Povalyashko (genetic classification) there is a relationship between different types of lakes: A) carbonate type B) sulfite type C) sulphate type D) chloride type E) nitrous type No.186 Carbonate type → sulphate type → chloride type. The scheme shows that there are …processes. A) cyclic metamorphosis C) step-by-step metamorphization B) direct metamorphosis D) reverse metamorphosis E) linear metamorphosis No.187 Continental brines are much richer in… А) MgCl2 В) MgCO3 C) Na2SO4 D) Na2CO3 Е) NaCl No.188 Continental water is poorer in… А) MgCl2 В) Na2SO4 C) KCl D) MgCO3 Е) NaCl 60

No.189 Metamorphosis in lake Balkhash occurs due to mixing of different types and different concentrations of water, as a result of the …reaction A) cation exchange B) double exchange C) burning D) IAD E) Weller No.190 In addition to long-term large cycles in lake Balkhash there are… A) potassium salt concentration B) short step periods C) short periodic rises D) recessions in salts inside loops E) sodium salt deposition No.191 Formation of several layers of salts is possible in case of… A) alternation of dry periods B) alternation of wet periods C) salt decay within the cycle D) gypsum concentrations E) periodic rises

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7. PHYSICOCHEMICAL BASES OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES OF EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION OF NATURAL SALTS

No.192 The deposition of halite in salt lakes is represented by varieties: A) granatka B) feed salt ("cast iron") C) table salt D) Glauber salt E) limestone No.193 Granatka consists of… A) separate easily separable crystals B) homogeneous crystals that are difficult to separate from each other C) homogeneous crystals easily separated from each other D) diamond-shaped crystals E) all answers are correct No.194 Feed salt consists of… A) a dense mass of strongly bonded crystals B) separate easily separable crystals C) homogeneous crystals that are difficult to separate from each other D) a dense mass of unbound crystals E) homogeneous crystals easily separated from each other No.195 Formula of sheonite is… A) K2SO4*MgSO4*6H2O B) K2SO4*CaSO4*H2O C) CaSO4*6H2O D) MgSO4*6H2O E) Na2SO4*MgSO4*6H2O

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No.196 Formula of syngenite is… A) K2SO4*CaSO4*H2O B) K2SO4*MgSO4*6H2O C) Na2SO4*10H2O D) MgSO4*10H2O E) CaSO4*H2O No.197 Formula of glaserite and astrakhanite is… A) Na2SO4*MgSO4*4H2O B) Na2SO4* 3K2SO4 C) K2SO4*MgSO4*6H2O D) K2SO4*CaSO4*H2O E) NaCl No.198 Before processing of natural polyhalite … must be removed from it. A) halite B) limestone C) calcite D) astrakhanite E) glaserite No.199 Galite from polyhalite, to eliminate loss of potassium, is washed with … A) water B) water-diluted mother sheonite solution C) diluted with water by circulating solution D) a concentrated masterbatch Senichevym solution E) nitric acid solution No.200 The salt lakes under new setting have… A) setting of previous years B) root deposits 63

C) bottom sediments D) rocky deposits E) all answers are correct No.201 For extraction of thick sediments of granatka at the salt lake works the following tools are used: A) single-pile excavators B) multi-unit excavators C) specially designed "saltwater pump" D) blade excavators E) rotary excavators No.202 During operation saltwater pump… A) breaks formation B) a slurry is formed and sucked through a movable tube C) transports the layers to the converter D) crushes the formation to a fine phase E) all answers are correct

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8. CURRENT STATE OF THE HALURGICAL INDUSTRY AND PROSPECTS FOR ITS DEVELOPMENT

No.203 Among the branches of the halurgic industry on the basis of the Caspian sea a special place is occupied by production of… A) natural sodium sulfate B) Glauber salt C) epsomite D) glauconite E) calcium sulfate No.204 Sodium sulfate, Glauber salt and epsomite are obtained by… A) basin method B) factory method C) drilling D) by a well-drilled method E) flotation No.205 Bischofite and partially sodium sulfate are obtained by… A) basin method B) factory method C) drilling D) by a well-drilled method E) flotation No.206 Production of sodium sulfate by the basin method depends on… A) climate conditions B) scale and volume of production C) geographical location D) is independent of any factors E) flotation

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No.207 Sodium sulfate is also partially prepared by… A) artificial dehydration of mirabilite in fluidized bed furnaces B) contact method C) concentration of the circulating solution D) condensation of recycled liquor E) filtration of mother liquor No.208 Sodium sulfate is consumed on a larger scale in… A) pulp and paper industry B) glass industry C) chemical industry D) medicine E) veterinary medicine No.209 Glauber's salt is mainly used in… A) medicine B) veterinary medicine C) engineering D) rocket science E) fertilizer quality No.210 Epsomite is used in… A) leather industry B) laying of main gas pipelines C) cleaning of tanks of lubricants D) food industry E) paint industry No.211 The main types of salt deposits are… A) strata and stocks of rock salt B) ocean and sea water, lake brines C) salt marshes and salt fires in volcanic craters D) land cover E) all answers are correct 66

No.212 Methods of production (extraction) of salt are divided into the main groups… A) extraction of rock salt from salt lakes B) extraction of self-drying table salt from salt lakes C) basin extraction of table salt from sea and lake waters D) extraction of salt by removing it from natural and artificial brines E) all answers are correct No.213 Rock salt is found mainly in the form of… A) deep seams B) large stocks C) large lenses D) mixed soil and salt layers E) diamond deposits No.214 The following types of rock salt deposits are distinguished by morphological features A) stratal and stratal  lenticular B) dome  and rod  shaped C) nesting and lenticular D) diamond  shaped and star  shaped E) trigonal volumetric

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9. SALTS, DEHYDRATION OF SALTS ARTIFICIAL AND NATURAL

No.215 The theoretical yield M of mirabilite is determined by the formula: А) M = (wt. % MgSO4 ) ∗ Na 2 SO4 ∗ 10H2 O fraction of extracted Na 2 SO4 ∗ 10d ( ) MgSO4 fraction of original Na 2 SO4

В) M = (wt. % MgSO4 ) ∗ Na2 SO4 ∗ 10H2 O fraction of extracted MgSO4 ∗ 10d ( ) MgSO4 fraction of original MgSO4 С) M = (wt. % KCl) ∗ Na2 SO4 ∗ 10H2 O fraction of extracted KCl ∗ 10d ( ) MgSO4 fraction of original KCl D) M = (wt. % CaCl2 ) ∗ Na2 SO4 ∗ 10H2 O fraction of extracted CaCl2 ∗ 10d ( ) MgSO4 fraction of original CaCl2 Е) M = (wt. % Na2 SO4 ) ∗ Na2 SO4 ∗ 10H2 O fraction of extracted Na2 SO4 ∗ 10d ( ) MgSO4 fraction of original Na2 SO4 No.216 Crystallization of salts is carried out in… A) freshwater brine basins B) in sedimentary basins C) ponds for crystallizing D) crystallizing shafts E) crystallizing ponds No.217 Contaminated tenardite is purified from the admixture of other salts, silt and sand by… A) recrystallization В) extraction 68

C) dissolution D) deposition E) separations No.218 Developers of a method for producing mirabilite by dissolving a mixed salt in sea water and subsequent crystallization of mirabilite from solutions in the pool are… A) B.P. Ilyinsky B) A.S. Eliseev C) G.S. Klebanov D) R.S. Roskina E) O.D. Kashkarov No.219 Halite, astrakhanite, epsomite are… А) NaCl В) CaCl2 С) Na2Mg(SO4)2*4(H2O) D) Na2 SO4 Е) MgSO4*7H2O No.220 From astrakhanite raw materials (usually with the addition of halite), sodium sulfate is obtained by… A) recrystallization of sodium sulfate C) by freezing its brines (followed by dehydration of the mirabilite) C) halite separation D) salting out of sodium chloride E) sedimentation of halite No.221 Glauberite and mirabilite are… А) Na2SO4*CaSO4 В) Na2SO4*10 H2O С) CaSO4*2H2O D) MgSO4*7H2O Е) Na2Mg(SO4)2*4(H2O)

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No.222 Tien Shan glauberite rocks containing halite and clay, except glauberite, are processed into Na2SO4 by … A) sedimentation of rocks in water C) dissolution of rocks in water C) leaching of rocks in water D) salting out rocks in water E) sedimentation of rocks in acid No.223 When sodium sulfate is dehydrated, the wind leads to… A) mass winnowing of dehydrated sodium sulfate C) pollution of sodium sulfate with sand and clay C) loss of large amounts of water with sodium sulfate D) loss of crystalline hydrates with sodium sulfate E) entrainment of halite from sodium sulfate No.224 Protection against wind during dehydration of mirabilite is … A) roof construction C) transport of mirabilite to factory premises C) boards from different materials D) bagging the finished product E) cloth wraps No.225 An increase of the surface layer of mirabilite is necessary to increase its level of… A) dehydration C) dissolution C) deposition D) dissociation E) hydration No.226 Currently, mirabilite layers are milled with… A) disk milling machines C) a rotating disk 70

C) special containers D) sweeper E) shovel milling machines No.227 Dehydrated sulfate is collected using… A) disk milling machines C) a rotating disk C) special containers D) sweeper with a round brush E) shovel milling machines No.228 Artificial methods of dehydration of mirabilite do not depend on… A) natural climatic factors C) seasonality of tenardite production C) seasonality of halite production D) wind speeds E) the amount of precipitation in the winter No.229 The basis of the factory method of dehydration of mirabilite is… A) melting of mirabilite C) low temperature heating C) drying with air and flue gases D) evaporation of dilute solutions saturated with sodium sulfate E) sedimentation of tenardite in the mother liquor No.230 Mirabilite formula is… A) CuSO4*10H2O B) CaSO4*2H2O C) Na2SO4*10H2O D) 3Са3(РО4)2*СаСО3*Са(ОН, F)2 E) CaCO3

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No.231 Other names of mirabilite are… A) Glauber's salt B) calcite C) apatite D) glauconite E) sodium sulfate decahydrate No.232 During winter storms, the mirabilite is thrown ashore – this is how it forms A) mirabilitic plains B) mirabilite shafts C) mirabilite depressions D) Glauber's salt shafts E) mirabilite waste No.233 The simplest, most reliable and cost-effective method of procuring and collecting mirabilite is… A) using of tools such as scrapers for dragging mirabilite from its coastal deposits B) collection of new setting mirabilite from a floating vessel C) sediment excavation D) organization of a basin production E) manual collection of mirabilite on wheelbarrows on wooden walkers No.234 The basin method can be used in the areas characterized by… A) high temperatures B) low atmospheric pressure C) low summer temperatures D) precipitation in winter E) low temperatures No.235 During strong winds in the deposits of mirabilite layers of …are formed. 72

A) algae B) fish residues C) clay D) inert gases E) sand No.236 In brine lakes, along with mirabilite, joint crystallization of… occurs. A) gypsum with calcite B) lime C) halite D) astrakhanite E) epsomite No.237 To eliminate joint crystallization of mirabilite and halite, brine in the lake is… A) diluted with sea water B) diluted with fresh water C) diluted with melt water D) diluted with a mixture of low concentration acids E) water in certain areas is taken No.238 The total losses of mirabilite in the pools are the sum of losses due to… A) dissolving during drainage of precipitation B) removal of sludge fractions C) removal of groundwater and precipitation D) mechanical ablation and removal of the surface layer E) dilution of mirabilite with sea water No.239 Mirabilite on Lake Kuchuk is being collected by… A) open pit mining B) using excavators and other mechanisms C) dissolving a mixture of salts with sea water 73

D) dissolution of crushed rock in the factory apparatus E) cooling diluted solutions No.240 Astrakhanite formula is… A) Na2SO4*MgSO4*4H2O B) Na2SO4*10H2O C) CuSO4*5H2O D) CaSO4*2H2O Е) NaCl No.241 Tenardite formula is… A) CaSO4 B) NaCl C) Na2SO4 D) MgCl2 E) MgSO4*7H2O No.242 On the territory of Kazakhstan, the third deposit of natural sodium sulfate after Kara-Bogaz-Gol and Kuchuk lake is… A) Aral region B) Balkhash district C) Irtysh region D) Ural region E) Caspian region

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10. GALITE, SYLVITE

No.243 Types of salt by the method of obtaining from brine are… A) self-precipitating C) boiling out C) precipitating D) synthetic E) chemically pure No.244 Objects of formation of self-precipitating salt during natural evaporation are… A) only in the seas B) in lakes and rivers C) in estuaries D) in estuaries and rivers E) in the lakes No.245 Brines used to produce evaporated salt during … industrial evaporation. A) natural B) artificial C) carbonate D) chilled No.246 The main stages of production of evaporated salt are… A) brine evaporation B) obtaining brines C) drying and storage D) special release of water E) transportation and sale to the consumer

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No.247 The main undesirable (harmful) impurities in brines are… A) sodium sulfates B) magnesium and sodium sulfates C) calcium and magnesium sulfates D) calcium and magnesium bicarbonates E) iron oxides No.248 The soda method for cleaning sodium chloride is most suitable for brines with a low content of… A) sodium ions B) magnesium ions C) tones of calcium D) potassium ions E) potassium and magnesium ions No.249 Ions that are removed under the simultaneous action of soda and lime in the lime-soda method of purification of NaCl are… A) Ca2+ and Na+ B) K+ C) Mg2+ and Ca2+ D) SO2− 4 E) Mg2+ and ClNo.250 The stages of the soda-lime method of purification of NaCl are… A) purification from salts of magnesium and calcium B) chloride exemption C) purification from sodium and potassium sulfates D) release from gypsum E) exemption from magnesium salts only No.251 The thermal method of purification of NaCl is based on the principles of… A) lower solubility of CaSO4 76

B) heating NaCl solutions C) lowering the density of brines D) cooling solutions E) lower solubility of Na2SO4 No.252 Salt formula is… A) Na2SO4*10H2O B) Na2CO3 C) NaCl D) NaClO Е) Na2CO3*10H2O No.253 Stages of lime-sulfate treatment of halite are… A) exemption from soluble salts of magnesium and sodium B) carbonization with carbon dioxide or soda C) exemption from potassium and sodium salts D) carbonization with acetic acid E) dissolution of potassium and magnesium salts No.254 Thermal purification of NaCl is based on lowering the solubility of … salts A) Na2SO4 B) CaSO4 C) CaCl2 D) K2SO4 Е) MgCl2 No.255 Method for producing salt from halite concentrate is… A) vacuum evaporation B) granulation only C) evaporation with liquid circulation D) crushing E) cooling diluted solutions

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No.256 The advantage of vacuum evaporation in the preparation of evaporated salt from halite is… A) production of coarse salt B) salt production for technical purposes C) production of fine salt D) less labor content E) the use of heat from heating steam No.257 Substances deposited on the surface of heating pipes during production of sodium chloride are… A) soluble B) only soluble C) insoluble D) only insoluble E) salts do not precipitate No.258 Substances that increase the stability of iodized sodium chloride are… A) magnesium and calcium carbonates B) potassium sulfate C) calcium phosphate D) potassium phosphate E) magnesium phosphate No.259 Methods for producing iodized table salt are… A) dry method B) contact method C) wet method D) dynamic method E) vacuum method No.260 Iodization of lake and rock salt is performed… A) after concentration 78

B) before grinding C) after grinding D) before concentration E) upon evaporation No.261 The boiling salt is iodized… A) before drying B) after drying C) before and after drying D) after evaporation E) before evaporation No.262 Measures to prevent caking of salt are… A) heat-resistant packaging B) packaging in waterproof containers C) deep drying D) continuous mixing E) surface drying No.263 Additives to prevent caking of NaCl are… A) 9MnO*4FeO*P2O5 B) Na2SO4*10H2O C) Na2SiF6 D) CaSiO3 E) CaSO4 No.264 The substance used in the wet method for producing iodized table salt is… A) KIO3 B) Na2S2O3 C) KI D) Na2SiF6 E) CaSO4 79

No.265 Methods for production of high purity NaCl (99.9%) are… A) recrystallization of technical varieties of salt B) flushing cleaning C) recrystallization of NaCl*2H2O D) treatment of salt with hydrochloric acid E) sulfuric acid treatment F) treatment of salt with potassium chloride No.266 Waste recovery methods for crystallization of technical table salt are… A) flotation B) recrystallization C) melting D) electrostatic separation E) sintering No.267 Equipment used for collecting new setting and old setting from the bottom of the lakes is… A) saline cleaner B) bulldozer C) ball mill D) milling combine E) vacuum No.268 The raw material from which salt is made is… A) chalcopyrite B) halite C) sylvinite D) tenardite E) mirabilite No.269 The basis of the process of obtaining KCl from sylvinite is… A) partial dissolution of MgCl B) partial dissolution of NaCl 80

C) complete dissolution of KCl D) complete dissolution of NaCl E) complete dissolution of MgCl2 No.270 Leaching of sylvinite from ore is carried out… A) in solvent auger B) in boilers C) in evaporators D) in molds No.271 Partitions dividing the auger into separate sections in production of KCl from sylvinite are… A) screws B) subframes C) guides D) tubes E) auger No.272 Directions of movement of ore and dissolving liquor in the auger in production of KCl from sylvinite are… A) alternating in apparatus B) inside solvents C) in the direction of the counterflow D) inside the solution E) no flow direction No.273 The change in the chemical composition of sylvinite depends mainly on ... A) grain size B) equipment C) pressure D) temperature E) deposits

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No.274 A screw conveyor for producing KCl from sylvinite, used to move bulk solids for a short distance, is called… A) shaft B) auger C) evaporation station D) pump E) screw No.275 The direction of the solid phase and liquor in the auger solvent in the preparation of KCl from sylvinite is… A) parallel B) opposite C) perpendicular D) first parallel and then perpendicular E) no direction No.276 Heating of the liquor in production of KCl from sylvinite in auger solvents is provided by … A) steam nozzles B) furnaces C) self-heating D) steam boilers E) without heating No.277 The main useful components of salt deposits are… A) halite and soda B) Astrakhanite and epsomite C) chalcopyrite and pyrite D) mirabilite and tenardite E) shungite E) clay No.278 Iodized table salt is… A) a crystalline salt enriched with iodized potassium 82

B) coarse salt enriched with iodized magnesium C) coarse salt enriched with calcium iodide D) a fine crystalline salt enriched with iodine E) a mixture of NaCl + KCl No.279 Types of salt are… A) the best highest B) extra C) the highest D) first, second E) inferior No.280 Rock salt mining methods are… A) laboratory method B) downhole C) mine D) gas lift E) quarry No.281 Salt is produced in Kazakhstan in ... A) the Irtysh area C) the Aral lakes C) the Caspian D) Balkhash E) Kapchagaiy No.282 The only salt deposit in the Akmola region is… A) lake Irtysh B) lake Ural C) lake Ulba D) lake Or E) the lower part of the Ushtagan river

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11. ORE PROCESSING POLYGALITE ORES. ORE CRUSHING EQUIPMENT

No.283 The technological scheme for processing polymineral ores consists of the following stages: A) crushing and fine grinding of ore B) ore flotation, filtration and drying of concentrate C) halite waste treatment and countercurrent sludge washing D) condensation of the circulating concentrate E) concentration of countercurrent sludge No.284 Polygalite and syngenite A) K2SO4*MgSO4*2CaSO4*2H2O B) CaSO4*K2SO4*H2O C) CaSO4*2H2O D) CuSO4*10H2O E) KCl*MgCl2*6H2O No.285 The method of producing nitrogen-potassium-magnesium fertilizer from polygalite consists in… A) nitric acid decomposition of polygalite washed from sodium chloride B) desulfurization of the suspension C) filtering and washing of gypsum D) countercurrent sludge washing E) thickening and filtering and subsequent drying No.286 An increase in temperature during nitric acid decomposition leads to… A) an increase in the rate of decomposition of polygalite B) an increase in the content of potassium and magnesium in the liquid phase 84

C) a decrease in the rate of decomposition of polygalite D) a decrease in the content of potassium and magnesium in the liquid phase E) all answers are correct No.287 In case of nitrogen-acid decomposition, and coarser grinding, the degree of decomposition of polygalite … A) decreases B) increases C) does not change D) changes, but slightly E) all answers are correct No.288 To enrich sylvinite ores, … equipment is used A) serial B) non-standard C) non-serial D) any E) porcelain No. 289 Preparation of potash ores for flotation concentration includes … operations A) medium and fine crushing B) grinding C) rubbing clay and deslaming D) coarse crushing E) slag slagging No.290 Preparation of potash ores for halurgical treatment includes … A) medium crushing B) fine crushing C) coarse crushing D) rubbing clay E) deslaming 85

No.291 In mines for crushing large pieces of potash ores … are used A) gear mill B) hammer crushers C) jaw crushers D) rotary crushers E) disc grottos No.292 For medium and small crushing of potash ores … are used A) rotary reflector crushers B) hammer crushers C) Gear roll crushers D) ball mills E) jaw crushers No.293 In hammer crushers, raw materials are crushed by … A) hammers B) beaters C) rotor D) baffle plates E) shafts No.294 In potash factories, two-stage schemes are used … A) open loop B) closed in the second stage C) closed loop D) with cyclic in the second stage E) all answers are correct No.295 For screening of raw material, screening surfaces in the form of…are used A) grate B) sheet sieves 86

C) rod sieves D) roll sieves E) rotary sieves No.296 In the schemes of crushing potash ores … are used A) vibrating inclined screens B) horizontal screens C) inclined inertial screens D) vertical screens E) diagonal screens No.297 In granulation workshops, inclined screens are used for … A) rough wet screening B) coarse dry screening C) fine wet screening D) fine dry screening E) rough and fine screening No.298 In the practice of flotation concentration of potash ores for grinding … are used. A) ball mills B) disc mills C) core drum mills D) gravity mills E) all answers are correct No.299 Technological processes for processing polymineral ores into potash fertilizers are based on the solubility of salts of the system: A) Na+, K+, Mg2+║Cl-, SO2− 4 , H2O B) Ca2+, K+, Mn2+║Cl-, NO3-, H2O C) Na+, K+║Cl-, H2O D) Na+, K+║Mg2+, H2O E) Cl-, SO2− 4 , H2O

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No.300 Technological essence of processing of polymineral ore is based on the interaction of … A) calcium chloride and magnesium sulfate B) magnesium sulfate and sodium sulfate C) sodium chloride and magnesium sulfate D) potassium chloride and calcium sulfate E) potassium chloride and magnesium sulfate No.301 Polymineral ore contains readily soluble potassium minerals … A) astrakhanite B) scheonite C) sylviten D) carnallite E) mirabilite No.302 The technological scheme for processing polymineral ores developed by VNIIG (All-Russia Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering) consists of the following main stages of production… A) ore processing to produce basic products (potassium sulfate or potassium magnesia – sulfate production cycle) B) flotation and processing of langbeinite-polyhalite residue C) grinding of readily soluble potash minerals D) regeneration of potassium salts from excess scheonite liquors E) processing of insoluble liquor, followed by filtration No.303 The composition of polymineral ore includes insoluble minerals… A) polygalite B) langbeinite C) epsomite D) calcite E) halite

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No.304 When processing kainite-langbainite ore for potassium magnesia or potassium sulfate, a conversion of … occurs A) sodium sulfate B) potassium sulfate C) calcium chloride D) magnesium sulfate E) potassium chloride No.305 Kainite and potassium magnesia are… A) Na2SO4*10H2O B) MgCl2*6H2O C) KCl*MgSO4*3H2O D) K2SO4*MgCl2 E) K2SO4*MgSO4*6H2O No.306 Depending on the content of kainite and langbainite in the polymineral ore, it is classified as ... A) carnallite B) langbainite-kainite C) langbainite D) kainite E) kainite-langbainite No.307 Impossibility of using the dissolution-crystallization method for polymineral ore is determined by ... A) the average content of readily soluble minerals in the ore B) high content of readily soluble minerals in the ore C) low content of sparingly soluble minerals in the ore D) high content of sparingly soluble minerals in the ore E) negligibly small and medium content of sparingly soluble minerals in the ore No.308 For ores with a high content of sparingly soluble minerals, a technological scheme has been developed… 89

A) liquor extraction B) sublimation of residual liquor C) extraction D) dissolution-crystallization E) flotation concentration No.309 The essence of flotation concentration of polymineral ores is… A) separation of potassium and potassium-magnesium minerals from halite and clay sludge B) separation of magnesium minerals from epsomite C) separation of potassium ores and potassium-magnesium minerals from kalcite D) separation of magnetite minerals from sparingly soluble minerals E) separation of readily soluble minerals from sparingly soluble minerals No.310 Since the content of clay sludge in polymer ores is very high (up to 18%), it is very important to use reagents for their ... A) deposition B) variance C) filtering D) depression E) clarification of working solutions No.311 As raw materials in the production of potassium chloride … are used. A) sylvinite ores B) mirabilite ores C) Astrakhanite ores D) pyrite ores E) Chalcopyrite ores No.312 Sylvinite ores are ... A) silver powder 90

B) splices of sylvinite with rock salt C) crystalline transparent splices D) blue or white crystals E) transparent rhomboid crystals No.313 Sylvinite and halite are… A) CaCl2 B) NaCl C) MgCl2 D) KCl E) CaSO4 No.314 Sylvinite ores typically contain impurities of … A) mirabilite B) epsomitis C) astrakhanite D) carnallite E) gypsum No.315 Carnallite and Bischofite are… A) KCl*MgCl2*6H2O B) MgCl2*6H2O C) CaSO4*2H2O D) CaSO4 E) MgSO4*H2O No.316 Kizerite and tangidrite are… A) MgCl2*6H2O B) CaSO4*2H2O C) CaCl2*6H2O D) CaSO4 E) MgSO4*H2O

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No.317 Sylvinite ores of various deposits contain compounds that are difficultly soluble in water: A) anhydrite B) gypsum C) mirabilite D) soda E) epsomite No.318 Sylvinite ores of various deposits contain compounds that are difficultly soluble in water: A) calcium and magnesium carbonates B) kizerite C) clay D) chalcopyrite E) bauxite No.319 Methods of processing sylvinite are reduced to the main operations: A) leaching of potassium chloride from sylvinite ore with hot circulating solution B) clarification of the hot saturated solution and cooling, accompanied by crystallization C) cooling of the potassium chloride solution and filtering the crystals, followed by drying D) sublimation of potassium chloride from the circulating solution, followed by cooling E) heating of the circulating solution and returning it to leach potassium chloride from the ore No.320 The technology for processing sylvinites by the chemical method is based on the properties of system solutions A) CaCl2 – KCl – NaCl B) KCl – NaCl – H2O C) KCl – H2O – MgCl2 92

D) KCl – CaSO4 – H2O E) KCl – NaCl – CaSO4*2H2O No.321 Usually, sylvinite ore is crushed in three stages: A) coarse crushing in disk mills B) fine crushing in ball mills C) fine crushing on roll crushers D) large crushing in jaw crushers E) medium crushing in hammer crushers No.322 Regents used in flotation concentration of potash ores are… A) collectors, blowing agents B) sludge modifiers, flocculants C) liquor and mother liquors D) stabilizers E) environmental regulators No.323 Depending on the nature of the polar group, collectors are classified as ... A) cationic B) electronic C) ionic D) anionic E) neutron No.324 Technological schemes of flotation concentration of sylvinites are determined… A) according to GOST standards B) by the requirements for the quality of the finished product according to the content of the finished substance C) by size D) by the presence of ionic bonds in products E) by the dielectric constant of the solutions

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No.325 Technological schemes of flotation concentration of sylvinites are determined… A) by the nature of the impregnation of the useful component B) by the presence of ionic bonds in products C) by the dielectric constant of the solutions D) according to GOST standards E) by physical and mechanical properties No.326 Schemes for preparing sylvinite ore for enrichment have their own characteristics, but despite certain differences, they consist of the following operations: A) filtering B) grinding C) crushing D) leaching E) de-cladding of ore No.327 The stock is ... A) ore bodies of irregular shape and significant size C) ore of small sizes C) large ore D) ore of small sizes with a high concentration of Ca ions E) ore of large sizes with a high concentration of Ca ions No.328 There is a method of obtaining from polyhalite-ballast-free nitrogen-potassium-magnesium fertilizers, which consists in ... A) nitric acid decomposition of polyhalite washed from sodium chloride B) all answers are correct C) dehydration of the mother liquor to obtain fertilizer D) separation of the mother liquor to obtain fertilizer E) desulfurization of the suspension, filtration and washing of gypsum

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12. USING OF HALURGIC RAW MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF INORGANIC SUBSTANCES

No.329 Underground leaching is based on the extraction of salt in the form of artificially prepared brine. In this way, for example, table salt is extracted, whose solutions are used for production of ... A) soda B) sodium nitrate C) sodium chloride D) caustic soda E) hydrogen No.330 Many salts are formed as by-products of other industries. So, when obtaining alumina from nepheline, … and … are allocated as by-products A) sodium nitrate B) soda C) caustic soda D) potash E) hydrogen No.331 There is a well-known method of producing lithium hydroxide with a high degree of purity from brines (liquors) containing halides ... and other alkali metals ... A) calcium B) lithium C) cesium D) sodium E) potassium No.332 After cleaning, neutralization with hydrochloric acid and dilution to a Li content of 4.48% the brine is fed to the electrolyzer with ...

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A) an aperture B) a membrane C) an anion exchange membrane D) a cation exchange membrane E) milk of lime No.333 The disadvantages of the method of producing lithium hydroxide with a high degree of purity from brines (liquors) include the need to concentrate the entire volume of the brine and conduct reagent purification from magnesium and calcium impurities, followed by neutralization of the excess alkaline reagent, which leads to high consumption of ... A) NaCl B) Ca(OH)2 C) Li2CO3 D) NaOH E) HCl No.334 Starting materials for producing magnesium nitrate as fertilizer are… A) nitric acid with magnesium carbonate B) nitric acid with magnesium C) nitric acid with magnesium oxide D) nitric acid with magnesium nitrate E) nitric acid with magnesium hydroxide No.335 Processes for the production of magnesium nitrate are… A) flotation B) evaporation C) electrolysis D) crystallization E) flushing No.336 Starting materials for production of sodium hydroxide are… A) sodium sulfate and calcium hydroxide 96

B) sodium nitrate and barium hydroxide C) sodium sulfate and barium hydroxide D) sodium nitrate and calcium hydroxide E) sodium carbonate and barium hydroxide No.337 Processes not used to produce sodium hydroxide are… A) filtering B) evaporation C) electrolysis D) flotation E) flushing No.338 Starting materials for production of ammonium nitrate are… A) ammonia and concentrated nitric acid: B) ammonia and diluted nitric acid: C) ammonia with sodium carbonate D) ammonia with sodium nitrate E) nitric acid with ammonia No.339 Chamber process for producing double superphosphate is … A) sulfuric acid decomposition of tricalcium phosphate B) phosphoric acid decomposition of defluorinated tricalcium phosphate C) heterogeneous non-catalytic exothermic reaction D) nitric acid decomposition of tricalcium phosphate E) double superphosphate is not obtained by chamber method No.340 Potassium chloride is isolated from sylvinite by ... A) sulfuric acid decomposition of reagents B) phosphoric acid decomposition of sylvinite C) selective dissolution D) separate crystallization E) potassium chloride cannot be isolated from sylvinite

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No.341 Halurgic method for isolation of potassium chloride from sylvinite is… A) based on the difference in temperature coefficients of solubi lity of these salts when they are jointly present in the KCl-NaCl-H2O system B) based on the differences in the product of solubility of salts C) potassium chloride cannot be isolated from sylvinite D) based on the same solubility of salts E) potassium chloride and sodium chloride cannot form a co-salt No.342 Salts and minerals obtained by evaporation of continental lake waters of Kazakhstan (Balkhash, Alakol, Sasykkol) are… A) mirabilite, tenardite B) calcite, aragonite C) anhydrite D) metal oxides E) gypsum No.343 Salts and minerals obtained by evaporation of the continental waters of Kazakhstan are… A) iron hydroxides B) calcium and sodium silicate C) nesquehonite, hydromagnesite D) Halite NaCl E) gypsum No.344 Products obtained from halite (salt) are… A) sodium hydroxide, soda, B) chlorine, then hydrochloric acid C) nesquehonite, hydromagnesite D) Halite NaCl E) gypsum

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No.345 Products obtained from natural potassium salts are… A) potash fertilizers, potassium halides B) potassium hydroxide, potash C) potassium chlorate (bertholate salt) D) halite NaCl E) gypsum No.346 Products obtained from natural magnesium salts (carnallite) are… A) magnesium metal B) magnesium oxide and hydroxide and various magnesium salts C) potassium chlorate (bertholate salt) D) halite NaCl E) gypsum No.347 The production of sodium sulfate from natural lake raw materials is carried out according to the technological scheme of… A) sodium sulfate cannot be obtained from natural lake raw materials B) the process of interaction of metallic sodium with sulfur and oxygen C) enrichment of raw materials by crystallization of mirabilite D) industrial processing of mirabilite to anhydrous sodium sulfate E) interaction of caustic with sulfuric acid No.348 Methods for producing sodium sulfate from halurgic raw materials in the factory conditions are… A) melting-evaporation B) melting-salting out C) combined method: melting-evaporation-salting-out D) bio method E) oxidative method No.349 The method of producing natural magnesium sulfate from halurgic raw materials in the factory conditions is… A) complex processing of raw materials (sea water) with extraction of halite 99

B) complex basin processing of inter-crystal brines of the second horizon of the Kara-Bogaz-Gol Bay C) magnesium sulfate cannot be isolated from brine lakes D) bio method E) oxidative method No.350 The method of producing natural magnesium chloride from galurgic raw materials in the factory conditions is… A) pool technology B) complex processing of chloride-sulfate brines to obtain the final brine containing up to 30% magnesium chloride C) thermal D) bio method E) oxidative method

100

13. SALT LAKES

No.351 What substances are called mineral salts? A) NaCl B) KNO3 C) CaCl2 D) Ca(NO3)2 E) Na2CO3 No.352 Mineral salts are ... A) natural water-soluble compounds formed by alkali and alkaline-earth metals with acid B) natural compounds, difficultly soluble in water, formed by alkaline and alkaline-earth metals with acid C) natural water-soluble compounds formed by acidic metals with alkali D) natural compounds, difficultly soluble in water, formed by acid metals with alkali E) no correct answers No.353 According to the salt composition of the saline waters and brines of the lakes as well as solid formations (salt and salt-bearing rocks) there is ... A) nitrate B) soda C) sulfate D) carbonate E) thiocyanate No.354 Soda water and brines contain ... A) magnesium sulfates

101

B) calcium sulfates C) calcium chloride D) sodium carbonates E) sodium bicarbonate No.355 In the sulfate type of liquid and solid halogen formations, the characteristic components are represented by ... A) sodium sulfates B) magnesium sulfates C) calcium sulfates D) copper sulfates E) zinc sulfates No.356 The sulfate-chloride type contains ... A) magnesium sulfates B) copper chlorides C) copper sulfates D) magnesium chlorides E) zinc sulfates No.357 The chloride type contains… A) copper chloride B) calcium chloride C) magnesium chloride D) zinc chloride E) silver chloride No.358 In the brines and mineral associations of the latter two types, significant quantities can be represented by ... A) sodium chloride B) calcium chloride C) potassium chloride D) copper chloride E) zinc chloride 102

No.359 All types of brines and solid halogen formations (in the form of halite) contain a large amount of … A) sodium chloride B) calcium chloride C) potassium chloride D) copper chloride E) zinc chloride No.360 Mineral-industrial associations characterize the material composition. What is the material composition? A) chemical B) physical C) saline D) alkaline E) mineral No.361 The lake salt deposits include salt lakes according to their… A) size B) stocks of brine (brine) C) depths D) purity E) content and composition of the mineral salts contained therein No.362 Lakes according to the phase state of salts are divided into… A) stone B) wet C) brisk D) periodic E) subgingival No.363 Brine Lake is characterized by the presence of surface brine in the lake during… A) spring 103

B) summer C) fall D) winters E) all year No.364 The "dry" lake retains surface brine… A) only in the dry season C) all year C) only in the wet season D) in winter E) in the summer period No.365 Brine salt lakes are divided into ... A) surface B) internal C) bottom D) external E) median No.366 The main advantages of centrifuges such as FGP-type are… A) the frequency of the process B) process continuity C) low humidity sediment D) large ablation of the solid phase E) high performance No.367 Surface brine covers ... and bottom brine covers ... A) solid bottom sediment, impregnates them B) solid bottom sediments, releases them C) surface, does not cover the surface D) plants, soil E) zoobenthos, soil

104

No.368 The composition of brines of salt lakes is very different and depends on ... conditions A) geological B) man-made C) man-made D) soil E) climatic No.369 Salt lakes, in which the setting of salt occurs only as a result of natural evaporation, are called… A) self-vaporized B) sedimentary C) self-precipitating D) evaporated E) salted No.370 Potassium chloride is obtained from sylvinite ores by … methods A) screening B) flotation C) pneumatic screening D) halurgy E) mechanical No.371 Potassium chloride obtained from sylvinite ores is used in the preparation of fertilizer mixtures, in the chemical industry to obtain A) K2CO3 B) K2SO4 C) KOH D) KNO3 E) K2Cr2O7

105

No.372 Theoretically, anhydrous sodium sulfate can be obtained by melting ... at a temperature of 32 °C. A) glaserite B) glauberite C) astrakhanite D) mirabilite E) barqueite No.373 Surface brine covers ... and bottom brine ... A) the surface, does not cover the surface B) plants, soil C) soft bottom sediments, impregnates them D) soft bottom sediments, releases them E) zoobenthos, soil No.374 Surface brine covers ... and bottom brine ... A) zoobenthos, soil B) cannot cover the surface due to the small layer C) surface, does not cover the surface D) plants, soil E) soft bottom sediment, repels them No.375 The most common methods for cleaning impurities from brines A) hydrochemical B) lime-magnesium C) sulfate sulfite D) barium bicarbonate E) soda No.376 The basis of the factory method of dehydration of mirabilite is ... A) the evaporation of mirabilite 106

B) high temperature heating C) humidification D) evaporation of solutions saturated with sodium sulfate E) precipitation of tenardite in the mother liquor No.377 The basin method can be applied in the areas characterized by ... A) high atmospheric pressure B) summer moisture deficit C) low air temperatures in winter D) precipitation during the year E) low temperatures No.378 According to the salt composition the saline waters and brines of lakes, as well solid formations (salt and salt-bearing rocks) can be subdivided into ... A) nitrate B) silicon C) sulfide D) hydrocarbonate E) chloride No.379 Lakes according to the phase state of salts are divided into: A) stone B) wet C) phase D) dry E) subgingival

107

EXAMPLES FROM SALT BUSINESS CALCULATION OF THE MINERALOGICAL COMPOSITION OF SALT ROCKS

Calculation of the mineralogical composition of salt rocks that do not contain complex salt minerals. 1) Recalculation of the data of water extract analysis. The recalculation of the mineralogical composition of such rocks as rock salt (without polygalite) or Verkhnekamsk-type sylvinites containing sylvinite, halite, and anhydrite does not require special explanation. These rocks do not contain minerals consisting of two or more simple salts and crystalline hydrates. For such rocks, the conversion of the results of chemical analysis, expressed in ions, to the salt composition simultaneously gives the content of minerals in the rock: halite, sylvinite, anhydrite. The total water content corresponds to the hygroscopic water content. As an example, we give the calculation of the mineralogical composition of sylvinite of the Verkhnekamsk deposit. Table 1 Chemical composition of the rock, wt.% SO2− 4

Cl-

Ca2+

K+

Na+

0.65

48.39

0.27

45.23

4.78

Sum of ions 99.32

Water insoluble residue 0.23

H2O*(total)

Amount

0.45

100.00

* In this example, as well as in examples 1,2,6, the total H2O content is determined by the difference between 100% and the sum of salts + water-insoluble residue. Table 2 Chemical composition of the rock, in terms of salt, wt.% CaSO4 0.92

KCl 86.25

NaCl 12.15

108

Amount of salt 99.32

Table 3 Mineralogical composition of the rock, wt.% Sylvin

Halite

Anhydrite

H2O (hygroscopic)

86.3

12.2

0.9

0.5

Water insoluble residue 0.2

Amount

100.1

Calculation of the mineralogical composition of salt rocks containing complex salt minerals. 1) Recalculation of the water extract analysis data. Example 1. Calculation of the mineralogical composition of rock salt with polygalite and anhydrite (Ozinkinsky deposit) Table 4 Chemical composition of the rock, in terms of salt, wt.% CaSO4

MgSO4

K2SO4

NaCl

4.52

2.18

2.39

89.96

Water insoluble residue 0.11

H2O (total)

Amount

0.84

100.00

Let us fill in calculation Table 5. In columns 3-6 of this table we put down the values of the contents of CaSO4, MgSO4, K2SO4, and H2O in the rock. The content of sodium chloride, which in our example is 89.96% (rounded 90.0%), corresponds to the content of halite in the rock; this quantity is directly written in column 2 against the name of this mineral. Next, fill out the table in the course of calculation. Well No. ... Test No. .... Table 5 Mineralogical composition determined by the immersion methodology: halite, polygalite, anhydrite The name of the minerals

The content of minerals, wt.%

CaSO4

109

Content, wt.% MgSO4 K2SO4

H2O

1 Halite Polygalite Anhydrite Kizerite H2O (hygroscopic) Insoluble residue

2 90.0 8.3 0.8 0.6 0.3

3 4.52 3.73/0.79 0.79/0

4 2.18 1.65/0.53 0.53/0

5 2.39 2.39/0

6 0.84 0.49/0.35 0.07/0.28

0.1/100.1

It is necessary to calculate the content of anhydrite and polygalite in the rock. Let us start by calculating the content of the mineral containing a simple salt that is not part of other minerals found in the sample by the immersion method. The amount of this salt should be the initial value for calculating the content of the mineral itself. In this example, according to the data of sample observation in immersion liquids, polygalite is such a mineral. Its content can be calculated from the content of K2SO4 or MgSO4. However, the MgSO4 content in this case cannot be taken as the initial value, since in polygalite, 2.18% MgSO4 accounts for 3.16% K2SO4 (conversion factor K2SO4 / MgSO4 = = 1.4477), i.e. more than it is in the rock (2.39%). Therefore, the polygalite content must be calculated from the K2SO4 content. In column 1 of calculation Table 5 put down the name of the calculated mineral – polygalite; in column 5, in the same line, we enter the content of K2SO4 in the rock (2.39%), which is the initial value for the calculation. Further, in Appendix 1 we find the coefficients, which by the amount of K2SO4 enable us to calculate the content of polygalite and the amounts of MgSO4, CaSO4 and crystallization water in its composition. Since the initial value (column "Known") is the content of K2SO4, the conversion factors (Km) will be as follows. To calculate the polygalite content: polygalite / K2SO4 = 3.4599 To calculate the amount of MgSO4: MgSO4 / K2SO4 = 0.6907 110

To calculate the amount of CaSO4 : 2CaSO4 / K2SO4 = 1.5624 To calculate the amount of crystallization water: 2H2O / K2SO4 = 0.2068 Multiplying 2.39 (percentage of K2SO4 in the rock) sequentially by conversion factors, we find the polygalite content in the rock equal to 8.27%, as well as the number of simple salts and crystallization water that make it up, equal to: MgSO4- 1.65%; CaSO4- 3.73%; H2O – 0.49%. The polygalite content (rounded 8.3%) is put in column 2, the remaining results, respectively, in columns 3, 4 and 6. In columns 3-6, we subtract from the total contents of simple salts and water those quantities that are part of polygalite. Potassium sulfate, taken as the initial value, is naturally fully consumed. The remainder of calcium sulfate, equal to 0.79%, corresponds to the anhydrite content in the rock (rounded 0.8%), which is entered in column 2. Thus, 0.53% MgSO4 and 0.35% H2O remain. These two components should be connected in the mineral kieserite MgSO4. H2O, although the latter was not detected by microscopic examination of the sample. Using the corresponding conversion factor, we find that 0.53% MgSO4 (initial value) corresponds to 0.07% H2O and, consequently, the content of kieserite is equal to their sum, i.e. 0.60%. The value of the content of kieserite is recorded in column 2. The residue of H2O after calculating the polygalite and kieserite contents, equal to 0.84 – (0.49 + 0.07) = 0.28%, can be considered as hygroscopic water. Its content and the content of the water-insoluble residue determined by the analysis are also recorded in column 2. The sum of the minerals together with hygroscopic water and the waterinsoluble residue is 100.1%. The discrepancy between this value and the sum of the results of the analysis by 0.1% occurred due to rounding of the percentage of minerals. When calculating the mineralogical composition of the rocks, it should be remembered that potassium sulfate in the form of an independent mineral arcanite (chemical formula K2SO4) in salt deposits, as a rule, does not occur, therefore K2SO4 cannot remain unbound with another salt in a complex salt mineral. 111

Example 2. Calculation of the mineralogical composition of the sylvinite containing polyhalite and anhydrite (Zhiliansk field) Table 6 Chemical composition of rock in terms of salt, weight% CaSO4

MgSO4

K2SO4

KCl

NaCl

2.85

1.34

1.22

34.80

57.73

Water insoluble residue 1.20

H2O (general)

Amount

0.86

100.00

Make a calculation table. Well No... Sample No ... Table 7 Mineralogical composition determined by the immersion method: halite, polyhalite, anhydrite The name of the minerals

Mineral content, weight.%

1 Halite Polyhalite Anhydride Kizerite Sylvinite H2O (hygroscopic) Insoluble residue Total

2 57.7 4.2 0.9 0.6 34.8 0.5

Content, weight% CaSO4

MgSO4

K2SO4

KCl

H2O

3 2.85 1.91/0.94 0.94/0

4 1.34 0.84/0.50

5 1.22 1.22/0

6 34.80

7 0.86 1.25/0.61

0.5/0

0.07/0.54 34.8/0 0.54/0

1.2 99.9

The halite content corresponding to the NaCl content is 57.7%. The calculation of the contents of polyhalite and anhydrite is produced as in example 1. 34.8% of KCl and 0.50% of MgSO4 remained unbound. Therefore, the rock may contain minerals sylvinite and kizerite or sylvinite and kainite. Thus kizerite (or kainite), judging by the 112

residue of MgSO4, can be only present in insignificant quantity. None of these minerals were detected by immersion method. In such cases, it is necessary to take into account which mineral was found in neighboring samples or typical for the Deposit. In particular, for Zhelensk field the presence of kieserite is more likely than kainite. The amount of kieserite Xk is calculated by the residue of magnesium sulfate (0.50%): Xk = 0.50x1.1497 = 0.57 Then all potassium chloride (34.80%) corresponds to sylvinite. The water residue after calculating the contents of polyhalite and kieserite, equal to 0.54%, is considered hygroscopic water. The amount of minerals, together with the hygroscopic water and the water-insoluble residue is equal to 99.9%. Example 3. Calculation of the mineralogical composition of kainite-halite rock containing carnallite, sylvinte, kizerite and anhydrite (Kalush deposit) The example considers the method that enables us to calculate the distribution of magnesium sulfate and water between kainite and kieserite, used in cases where phase analysis data are not available. Table 8 Chemical composition of the rock in terms of salt, wt.% CaSO4 MgSO4 MgCl2 KCl NaCl Total Dry H2O Water Amount salt residue (general)* insoluble total* residue 8.25 27.31 4.43 20.04 21.14 81.17 80.98 14.37 4.65 100.19

* In examples 4 and 5 the content of H2O (total) is determined by the difference between 100% and the sum of dry and insoluble residues. ** the total amount includes: the sum of salts and the content of H2O (total) and water-insoluble residue. Make a calculation table. Well No .. Sample No ...

113

Table 9 Mineralogical composition determined by the immersion method: kainite, halite, carnallite, kizerite, sylvinite, anhydrite The name of the minerals Halite Anhydrite Carnallite Kizerite Cainite Sylvinite Insoluble residue Total

The content of minerals, wt.% 21.1 8.3 12.9 11.3 36.2 5.7 4.7

MgSO4 27.31

9.83/17.48 17.48/0

Content, wt.% MgCl2 KCl

H2O

4.43

20.04

14.37

4.43/0

3.47/16.57

5.03/9.34 1.47/7.87 7.85/0.02

10.83/5.74 5.74/0

100.2

The percentages of NaCl and CaSO4 in the rock correspond to those of halite and anhydrite and, after rounding to tenths, they are entered in column 2. It was said earlier that in cases where a rock contains several minerals consisting of two or more simple salts, one must select the salt that is present in only one mineral. The amount of this salt is the initial value for calculating the content of this mineral. In our example, MgSO4 is part of two minerals – kainite and kieserite; KCl is present in the form of sylvinite and, in addition, is an integral part of carnallite; therefore, the carnallite content should be calculated immediately after halite and anhydrite. Taking the MgCl2 content (4.43%) as the initial value, we multiply it sequentially by the coefficients (KM) of 2.9183; 0.7830 and 1.1352 (see Appendix, table) and we find the content in the rock in wt.%: Carnallite (XC), as well as the amount of potassium chloride (ХКСl) and crystallization water Х(H2O) included in its composition: ХC = 4.43*2.9183 = 1293 ХКСl = 4.43*0.7830 = 3.47 Х(H2O) = 4.43*1.1352 = 5.03 114

We record the found values in the corresponding columns, after which we make subtraction in columns 4, 5 and 6. The remainder of KCl must be distributed between sylvinite and kainite, and the remaining amounts of MgSO4 and H2O between kainite and kieserite. MgSO4 and H2O can be distributed between these minerals using equation (1) below, compiled on the following basis. The molecular weight ratio of H2O / MgSO4 in kizerite will be 18.0153 / 120.389 = 0.15, and in kainite 3 . 18.0153 / 120.389 = 0.45. We denote the weight percent of H2O remaining after calculating the carnallite and MgSO4 contents, respectively, through A and B. The amount of water contained in kieserite and kainite is distributed between these two minerals as follows: А = 0.15Х + 0.45(В – Х) where X is the proportion of magnesium sulfate attributable to kieserite. Solving this equation for X, we find: Х = (0.45В – А) / 0.3

(1)

In the analyzed example, A = 9.34%; B = 27.31%. Substituting these values in equation (1), we find that the amount of MgSO4 in kieserite (X) is 9.83%. We record this value in column 3 and find, using calculated coefficients, the content of kieserite (11.3%) and the amount of crystallization water in it (1.47%). For the MgSO4 residue equal to 17.48%, we calculate the content of kainite (Xkn) and the amount of potassium chloride entering it (XKCl): Хkn = 17.48*2.0688 = 36.16 ХКСl = 17.48*0.6195 = 10.83 To verify the correctness of the calculation, it is also recommended to calculate the amount of water (ХH2O) in kainite: Х(H2O) = 17.48*0.4491 = 7.85 In columns 3, 5 and 6, we make subtraction. The remainder of potassium chloride, equal to 5.74%, corresponds to the content of sylvinite. The residual water of 0.02% resulting from the rounding of the calculation results can be neglected. 115

It should be added here that equations similar to equation (1) should be used if it is necessary to distribute the given amounts of MgSO4 and H2O between kainite and epsomite or between kieserite and epsomite. For the case of kainite – epsomite: Y = (1.05В – А) / 0.6

(2)

For the case of kieserite – epsomite: Z = (1.05В – А) / 0.9

(3)

where Y is the proportion of magnesium sulfate attributable to kainite; Z is the proportion of magnesium sulfate attributable to kieserite; A and B are the same as in equation (1). 1.05 is the ratio of the molecular weights of crystallization water (7H2O) and magnesium sulfate in epsomite.

Example 4. Calculation of the mineralogical composition of kainite-langbainite rock containing halite, polygalite, sylvinite, kizerite (Stebnikovsky deposit). Table 10 Chemical composition of the rock in terms of salt, wt.% CaSO4 MgSO4 K2SO4 KCl NaCl Total Dry H2O Water Amount salt residue (gene- insoluble total* ral)* residue 2.17

21.83

9.45 7.46 48.37 89.28

89.33

3.89

6.78

99.95

* In examples 4 and 5, the content of H2O (total) is determined by the difference between 100% and the sum of dry and insoluble residues. ** The total amount includes: the sum of salts and the content of H2O (total) and water-insoluble residue. We make a calculation table. Well No. Test No. 116

Table 11 Mineralogical composition determined by the immersion method: kainite, halite, langbainite, kizerite, sylvinite, polygalite The name of the minerals Halite Polygalite Langbeinit Kizerite Cainite Sylvin Insoluble residue Amount

The content of minerals, wt.% 48,4 4,8 19,2 3,0 14,7 3,0 6,8

СаSO4

MgSO4

2,17 2,17/0

21,83 0,96/20,87 11,14/9,73 2,60/7,13 7,13/0

Content, wt.% К2SO4 KCl

9,45 1,39/8,06 8,06/0

7,46

4,42/3,04 3,04/0

H2O

3,89 0,29/3,60 0,39/3,21 3,20/0,01

99,9

The first mineral, the content of which should be calculated after halite, is polygalite, because only this mineral contains CaSO4. Calculation is based on CaSO4 (2.17%). Let us denote the desired polygalite content in wt.% through Хpg, and the amount of salts and crystallization water included in it through X(MgSO4), X(K2SO4) and X(H2O). As a result of the calculation, we get: Хpg = 2.17 . 2.2144 = 4.81 Х(MgSO4) = 2.17 . 0.4421 = 0.96 X(К2SO4) = 2.17 . 0.6400 = 1.39 Х(H2O) = 2.17 . 0.1323 = 0.29 Of the remaining salts after calculating the polygalite content, only K2SO4 is part of one mineral – langbainite. Based on this K2SO4 residue (8.06%), we calculate the content of langbainite (X lb) and the amount of magnesium sulfate X(MgSO4) included in its composition: Хlb = 8.06 . 2.3815 = 19.20 117

Х(MgSO4) = 8.06 . 1.3815 = 11.14 The remaining amounts of MgSO4, KCl and H2O are distributed between kieserite, kainite and sylvinite, as indicated in the previous example (example No. 3). In example No. 4, the calculation of the mineralogical composition of the kainite-langbainite rock of the Stebnikovsky deposit that does not contain anhydrite was considered. But often along with the minerals indicated in this example, a certain amount of anhydrite is also present in the rock. Then the mineralogical composition can be unambiguously calculated in one of two ways: a system of equations must be compiled and solved, or phase analysis data must be used. If for some reason these two methods are not applicable, the following two methods can be recommended for calculating the mineralogical composition. 1) The content of anhydrite and polygalite in the kainite-langbainite rock of the Stebnikovsky deposit is usually small. The mineralogical composition can be calculated assuming that only one of these minerals is present in the rock. The mineral contained in a smaller amount should be excluded, using the instructions of the petrograph. 2) Distribute the content of CaSO4 between anhydrite and polygalite, taking into account the instructions of the petrograph regarding the approximate ratio between these minerals. Further calculation is carried out in the usual manner. When using these techniques, it is advisable to round the results to the nearest percent. Example 5. Calculation of the mineralogical composition of the rock containing astrakhanite (Kalush deposit). Table 12 Chemical composition of the rock in terms of salt, wt.% CaSO4 MgSO4 K2SO4 Na2SO4 NaCl Total Dry H2O Water Amount salt residue (general)* insoluble total* residue 3.06 11.78 3.65 8.07 51.25 77.81 77.74 8.04 14.22 100.07

118

Let's compile a table for calculating the mineralogical composition of the rock. Well No. Test No. Table 13 Mineralogical composition determined by the immersion method: halite, astrahanite, polygalite, shenit, epsomite The name of the minerals 1 Halite

The content of minerals, СаSO4 wt.%

Content, wt.% MgSO4

K2SO4

Na2SO4

H2O

2

3

4

5

6

7

51.3

3.06

11.78

3.65

8.07

8.04

Polygalite

6.8

Astrakhanit

19.0

3.06/0 1.37/10.41 1.96/1.69 6.84/3.57

Shenit

3.9

1.17/2.40

Epsomite

14.2

2.40/0

Insoluble residue

14.2

Total

100.1

0.40/7.64 8.07/0

1.69/0

4.09/3.55 1.05/2.50 2.51/-0.01

First, the polygalite content by CaSO4 or the astrahanite content by Na2SO4 can be calculated first. The calculation of the polygalite content by CaSO4 is considered in the previous examples. To calculate the astrahanite content in wt.% (Xast) and the amounts of magnesium sulfate (ХMgSO4) and crystallization water Х(H2O) in its composition, we multiply the Na2SO4 content (8.07%) by the corresponding calculated coefficients: (Хast) = 8.07*2.3548 = 19.00 Х(MgSO4) = 8.07*0.8475 = 6.84 Х(H2O) = 8.07*0.5073 = 4.09

119

By the remainder of K2SO4, which after calculating the polygalite content is 1.69%, we calculate the content of shenite and its components in the rock: ХSH = 1.69*2.3110 = 3.91 Х(MgSO4) = 1.69*0.6907 = 1.17 Х(H2O) = 1.69*0.6203 = 1.05 After calculating the contents of polygalite, astrahanite and shenite, magnesium sulfate (2.40%) and water (2.50%) remain, which bind into epsomite: Х(H2O) = 2,40*1,0476 = 2,51 Хep = 2,40 + 2,51 = 4,91 or Хep = 2,40*2,0476 = 4,91 In a rock of a similar composition, along with polygalite from sulfate-calcium minerals, anhydrite, gypsum, etc. can also be found. To calculate the mineralogical composition of such a rock, one should resort to the methods indicated in the analysis of Example No. 4. Example 6. Calculation of the mineralogical composition of kainite rock using phase analysis data. It is necessary to calculate the mineralogical composition of the rock, which, according to microscopic examination with immersion liquids, is composed of minerals: kainite, halite, sylvinite, polygalite, anhydrite (Kalush deposit). In addition to these data and gross chemical composition data obtained by analysis of water extract, there are results of determining the potassium content in polygalite by phase analysis. In cases of direct determination of the content of an element in a mineral, the calculation of the mineralogical composition of the rock begins with the determination of the content of this particular mineral. It is more convenient to make calculation based on the weight percent of ions. 120

Table 14 Chemical composition of the rock, expressed in ions (wt.%) SO2− 4 13.08

Cl-

Ca2+ Mg2+

K+

Na+

Water insoluble H2O Amount residue (general) 35.78 1.10 2.50 11.65 16.60 12.50 6.79 100.00

The potassium content in polygalite, established by the phase analysis method, is 0.69%. Let's make a table for the calculation. Table 15 Mineralogical composition determined by the immersion method: kainite, halite, sylvinite, polygalite, anhydrite The name of The Content, wt.% the minerals content of SO2− 2+ Cl Ca Mg2+ K+ Na+ H2O 4 minerals, (general) wt.% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 13,08 35,78 1,10 2,50 11,65 16,60 6,79 Polygalite 5,4 3,39/ 0,71/ 0,21/ 0,69/ 0,37/ 9,69 0,39 2,29 10,96 6,42 Anhydrite 1,3 0,93/ 0,39/0 8,76 Kainite 22.7 8.76/0 3.32/ 2.22/ 3.57/ 4.93/ 32.55 0.07 7.39 1.49 Sylvinite 14.1 6.70/ 7.39/0 25.85 MgCl2 0.3 0.20/ 0.07/0 25.65 Halite 42.3 25.65/0 16.63/ -0.03 H2O 1.5 hygroscopic Water 12.5 insoluble residue Total 100.1

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According to the value of the experimentally determined potassium content in polygalite, the content of the latter and the amount of other ions included in it are calculated. The content of K+ ions, equal to 0.69% in polygalite, corresponds to: 0.21% Mg2+; 0.71% Ca2+; 3.39% SO2− 4 and 0.37% H2O. Subtract these amounts from the content of the corresponding ions in the rock. The polygalite content is about 5.4%. The Ca2+ residue (0.39%) is summed up with the equivalent amount of SO2− 4 (0.93%). The resulting amount, equal to 1.32%, corresponds to the content of anhydrite in the rock (1.3%). After anhydrite, we calculate the kainite content by sulfate ion. In this case, it is impossible to calculate the kainite content by potassium or chloride ion because the rock contains sylvinite. We cannot make calculations based on magnesium ion, because 2.29% of it corresponds to 9.05% of the sulfate ion, while after calculating the anhydrite content, the remainder of the sulfate ion is only 8.76%. Taking 8.76% SO2− 4 as the initial value, we find that when converted to kainite, it corresponds to: 2.22% Mg2+; 3.57% K+; 3.23% Cl- and 4.93% H2O, and the content of cainite itself is about 22.7%. For the remainder K+, we calculate the content of sylvinite in the rock (14.1%). A residual Mg2+ of 0.07% corresponds to 0.3% MgCl2. The presence of such an amount of MgCl2 in the rock, as well as 1.5% hygroscopic water, is quite likely, especially if the rock contains a lot of clay material. According to the remainder Cl- equal to 25.65%, we calculate the content of Na+ 16.63% and halite 42.3%. The Na+ content is 0.03%, which does not coincide with that found by the difference between the sums of anions and cations in the analysis of water extract. Such a discrepancy caused by the rounding of calculated values is quite acceptable. The given examples are far from exhausting the whole variety of salt rock compositions that can be encountered in the study of deposits and in processing for pure salts. It is naturally impossible to give any general instructions that could be used in calculating the mineralogical composition of any rocks. The calculation procedure is determined by the complex of minerals that make up the rocks, and should vary depending on the qualitative composition of the rocks.

122

CONTROL QUESTIONS

1. Describe the theoretical foundations of the study and use of natural salts 2. Explain how the two-component salt-water system is constructed (solubility diagram; anhydrous salt crystallization processes; crystal hydrate-water systems) 3. Explain how to build a three-component salt-water system (rectangular diagram; composition triangle and other types of diagrams) 4. Describe the importance of natural water and salts in nature 5. Describe the salt characteristic of natural waters 6. Prove the unity of natural waters and salts 7. Using concrete examples, prove the metamorphization of natural waters and salts 8. Describe the ways of crystallization of salts during evaporation of sea water 9. Describe the crystallization of salts during the evaporation of continental waters 10. Describe the process of polythermal cooling of continental brines 11. Indicate the distinctive features of the salt composition of the water of the continental basins 12. Explain how the composition of salts formed in salt lakes is forecasted. 13. Describe the classification features of salt lakes 14. Describe the physical chemistry of salt formation conditions 15. What are the conditions for preservation of bottom sediments of salts? 16. Describe the conditions for formation of tenardite 17. Describe the conditions for formation of halite 18. Explain the dehydrating effect of brine enriched with sodium chloride 19. Describe the rate of tenarditization of mirabilite 20. Characterize sylvinite ores 21. Describe the chemical method of processing sylvinite ores 22. Describe the flotation method of processing sylvinite ores 23. Describe the electrostatic and gravitational enrichment of potash (sylvinite) ores 24. Explain how the ores are processed by dissolution-crystallization method 25. Describe the composition of the polygalite ores of the Zhilyansk deposit (Aktobe region) 26. List the main technological equipment used in the potash industry 27. Indicate the main characteristics and principle of operation of equipment for sedimentation in the potash industry 28. Indicate the main characteristics and principle of operation of equipment for flotation 29. Indicate the main characteristics and principle of operation of equipment for dissolution and crystallization 30. Indicate the main characteristics and principle of operation of equipment for dehydration of salts

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31. Indicate the main characteristics and principle of operation of equipment for drying salts in the potash industry 32. Describe pressing of fine-grained fertilizers in roll presses of various designs (for example, potash fertilizers) 33. Describe the technology for processing natural brines 34. Describe the classification of brines by V.I. Vernadsky, Kurlov’s formula 35. Describe formation of native (self-setting) lake salt 36. Describe formation of evaporated table salt 37. Describe methods for producing sodium sulfate from lake deposits 38. Describe the methods of obtaining mirabilite (for example, Kuchuk sulfate plant and Karabogazsulfate) 39. Describe methods for producing magnesium compounds from natural brines of the sulfate type 40. Describe the methods for producing bromine (raw materials, production, quality) 41. Describe the methods for producing iodine (raw materials, production, quality) 42. Describe the methods for producing magnesium hydroxide from natural magnesium chloride raw materials 43. Indicate the technological features of crystallization of salts during evaporation without precipitation of salts 44. Describe the process of crystallization of salts during evaporation in tubular apparatuses and how crystals are enlarged 45. Describe the geochemical patterns of modern salt accumulation and formation of modern salt deposits 46. Describe how salt enrichment and crushing at the place of extraction 47. Describe the physicochemical basis of the salt leaching process 48. Describe the natural soda and its production 49. Give a description of raw salt and explain formation of salt deposits in Kazakhstan 50. Describe how the commercial collection of mirabilite emissions from the brine of sulfate lakes is carried out

124

LITERATURE

Main literature 1. Hardy, Henry Reginald; Lux, Karl-Heinz; Minkley, Wolfgang; Wallner, Manfred. The mechanical behavior of salt – understanding of THMC processes in salt, 2017. – P. 468. 2. The galurgy. Theory and practice / ed. Sokolova I.D. – L.: Chemistry, L.O., 1983. – 368 p. 3. Pozin M.E. The technology of mineral salts. 4th ed. – T. 1. – L.: Chemistry, 1974. – 792 p. 4. Zdanovsky A.B. Galurgy. – L.: Chemistry, L.O., 1992. – 527 p. Additional literature 5. Industrial waste mineral raw materials in the production of technical and building materials. – L., 1986. – 160 s. 6. Complex processing of mineral resources of Kazakhstan. – T. 10. – Astana, 2003 (edited by A. Zharmenov). 7. Avilov et al. Issues of mining and processing of halurgic raw materials. – L.: Chemistry, L.O., 1966. – 29 p. 8. Email address: [email protected] 9. Online access: uralhimsorb.ru 10. Online access: http://yabs.yandex.kz/count/4fpgtzuYHya400G0gO10ZhQSanm5MGwL0fi1RaEt0Yq1YB_ibK02YQJh_sUO1vwUMWkTdFWGagJ FOM-c8ugWX0GVgW6ba1GGZG6Hj_EhSGoFkET9NmcVf_DOEfE22fa5GeoGsngWa3v9hv3R6fIV7XcdbMG2gA0z_W-ai00000sk-pARCDcrzDy4iG6xz2LfOn-iOS45UX40 11. Research methods and ways of using salt lakes. Tr. VNIIG, issue XXIV, 1962. – 292 p. 12. Processing of natural salts and brines (reference book, under the editorship of ID Sokolov). – L.: Chemistry, 1985. – 209 s. 13. The study of the physico-chemical properties of salts and saline solutions / Ed. V.V. Vyazova, E.F. Nightingale. GNTIHL, LM. 1983. – 274 p. 14. Bergman A.G., Luzhnaya N.P. Physico-chemical fundamentals of the study and use of salt deposits of the chloride-sulfate type. Ed. ANSSSR. – M.: 1981. – 232 p. 15. The magazine. Proceedings of VNIIG. M. (over the past 10 years). 16. Journal of Inorganic Chemistry (for the last 10 years). 17. Journal Success of chemistry (for the last 10 years). 18. J. Theoretical foundations of chemical technology. – M.: Science. MAIK interperiodics.

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19. Ediger V.G. Physicochemical fundamentals and technology of extraction and processing of natural salt raw materials, – author. Doct. dis. (tech. inorgan. in-in). – Novosibirsk, 1971. – 88 p. 20. Zhuginisov M.T. Rational processing of industrial wastes and local raw materials of the Southern region of Kazakhstan. – Author. Doctor. Diss. (11.00.11). – Taraz, 1999. – 50 s. 21. Issues of mining and processing of halurgic raw materials. – L.: Chemistry, 1966. – 305 p. 22. Zhelnin A.A. Theoretical foundations and practice of salt flotation. – L.: Chemistry, 1973. – 187 p. 23. Potash industry. – L.: Chemistry, 1981. – 305 p. 24. John M. Melack. Saline Lakes. 1985. ISBN-13: 978-94-010-7891-7. – P. 316. 25. F.A. Comin and T.G. Northcote. Saline Lakes. 1988. ISBN-13: 978-94-0106759-1. – P. 312. 26. Stuart H. Hurlbert. Saline Lakes V. 1991. ISBN 978-94-010-4921-4. – P. 330. 27. John M. Melack , Robert Jellison & David B. Herbse. Saline Lakes. 1999. ISBN 978-90-481-5995-6. – P. 341. 28. Nissenbaum A. Hypersaline brines. 1980. ISBN 0-444-41852-0. – Vol. 28. – P. 281. 29. El-Dessouky H.T., Ettouney H.M. Fundamentals of Salt Water Desalination. ELSEVIER SCIENCE B. – V. 2002. – P. 691. 30. Ronald E. Hester (auth.), Braunstein J., Gleb Mamantov, Smith G.P. (eds.). Advances in Molten Salt Chemistry: Volume 1. Springer US. 1971. – P. 289. 31. John E. Lind Jr. (auth.), Braunstein J., Gleb Mamantov, Smith G.P. (eds.). Advances in Molten Salt Chemistry: Volume 2. Springer US. 1973. – P. 289. 32. Ernie R. Lewis, Stephen E. Schwartz(auth.). Sea Salt Aerosol Production: Mechanisms, Methods, Measurements and Models – A Critical Review. American Geophysical Union. 2004. – P. 421. 33. Braitsch O. (auth.). Salt Deposits Their Origin and Composition. SpringerVerlag Berlin Heidelberg. 1971. – P. 310. 34. Woodcock L.V. (auth.), Braunstein J., Gleb Mamantov, Smith G.P. (eds.). Advances in Molten Salt Chemistry: Volume 3. Springer US. – P. 467. 35. Belenitskaya G. Salt Systems of the Earth: Distribution, Tectonic and Kinematic History, Salt-Naphthids Interrelations, Discharge Foci, Recycling. ISBN 978-1-119-47905-5, 1119479053. 2019. – P. 698. 36. Bukstein V.M. Technology for processing natural salts and brines. Tr. VNIIG. L. 1984. – S. 3-66. 37. Kashkarov O.D., Sokolov I.D. Technology for processing halurgic raw materials (potash fertilizers). – L.: Chemistry, 1988.

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TABLE OF CORRECT ANSWERS

Question No. 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

Correct Answer 2 C AD ABC ACD C AE CE ABC BE C A E CDE ABC E A B A B BCE BDE B CD C C C D A B A ABC A A C BC CDE

Question No. 3 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79

Correct Answer 4 C E AC B B C B AB CDE ABC CDE B B ABC CDE BE A D E A AC AB C AB A D A B A A A A B C B D

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Question No. 5 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122

Correct Answer 6 ABC AB BC C D AB ABC CD AB C A A AB ABC BC DE ABC A A C CAD D ACD BC B B BCD AB DE CE D AB ABC DE D ABC

1 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165

2 A AB C A AB C CD CDE AB CD AE CD C ABC D BD CE D B AD E B B D B CE BCE AC ACE BCE ABD D E ADE A ABC AB A A AB AC A B

3 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214

4 D E B B C C B E BCE AE BE AD AB ACD CD CE A ABD CD AB AB A A A A AB A B AB ABC AB ABC A A A A ABC AB AB ABC E ABC ABC

128

5 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263

6 B AB CD A B DE AB AD AC C AE BD D AD CE CDE A AD AB A C A ABC BE AB ABC CDE B CD ACD AB C AB B AC CDE AC ACE AC B A BC ACD

1 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306

2 AB AB AB B AB A AC BCE ABE C DE ADE BC ABD A BCD CE AB E ABC AB ABC AB A AB ABC A A AB AB AB ABC ABC D C A E BCD ABD ABE DE CE BE

3 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355

4 A CE A AC ACE BD ABE B AB CD A E D BCE A ACE ABE D BDE E BCE ACE BDE C CD AE BC CD A AB CD AB ABC AB CD ABC AB AB АЕ А ВС DЕ АВС

129

5 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 375 376 376 377 378

6 B ACD AC ABD B BC A B AB A B B A СD Е ВD ВС DЕ

1 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325

2 D E A DE A B BD D AB CE AB ABC ABE B CDE ABE AD BC AE

3 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374

4 АD ВС С А АСЕ АВЕ СЕ Е С АС ВСЕ АВ АDЕ С ВD ВСЕ D СD АЕ

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5

6

APPENDIX

Table A – Coefficients for calculating minerals (wt.%) Original

Famous

Stoichiometric ratio

Conversion factor

Soda Na2CO3*10Н2О (M = 286.14) СО3

Na

СО3 / 2Na

1.3051

Н2О

Na

5Н2О / Na

3.9181

Na

СО3

2Na / СО3

0.7662

Н2О

СО3

10Н2О / СО3

3.0021

Н2О

Na2CO3

10Н2О / Na2CO3

1.6997

Soda

Na

Soda / 2Na

2.2231

Soda

СО3

Soda / СО3

4.7683

Soda

Н2О

Soda / 10Н2О

1.5883

Soda

Na2CO3

Soda / Na2CO3

2.6997

Gypsum CaSO4*2Н2О (M = 172.17) SO4

Ca

SO4 / Ca

2.3968

CaSO4

Ca

CaSO4 / Ca

3.3967

Н2О

Ca

2Н2О / Са

0.8990

SO3

CaO

SO3 / CaO

1.4276

CaSO4

CaO

CaSO4 / CaO

2.4276

Н2О

CaO

2Н2О / CaO

0.6425

Ca

SO4

Ca / SO4

0.4172

CaSO4

SO4

CaSO4 / SO4

1.4172

Н2О

SO4

2Н2О / SO4

0.3751

CaO

SO3

CaO / SO3

0.7005

CaSO4

SO3

CaSO4 / SO3

1.7004

Н2О

SO3

2Н2О / SO3

0.4500

CaSO4

Н2О

CaSO4 / 2Н2О

3.7785

Н2О

CaSO4

2Н2О / CaSO4

0.2647

Gypsum

Ca

Gypsum / Ca

4.2957

Gypsum

CaO

Gypsum / CaO

3.0701

Gypsum

SO4

Gypsum / SO4

1.7923

Gypsum

SO3

Gypsum / SO3

2.1505

131

Gypsum

CaSO4

Gypsum / CaSO4

1.2647

Gypsum

Н2О

Gypsum / 2Н2О

4.7784

Polygalite 2CaSO4*MgSO4*K2SO4*2Н2О (M = 602.95) Mg

K

Mg / 2K

0.3109

Ca

K

Ca / 2K

1.0250

SO4

K

SO4 / 2K

4.9134

Н2О

K

Н2О / K

0.4607

K

Mg

2K / Mg

3.2167

Ca

Mg

Ca / Mg

3.2971

SO4

Mg

SO4 / Mg

15.805

.................стр 381 K2SO4

СаSO4

K2SO4 / 2СаSO4

0.6400

MgSO4

СаSO4

MgSO4 / 2СаSO4

0.4421

Н2О

СаSO4

Н2О / СаSO4

0.1323

Polygalite

К

Polygalite / 2К

7.7100

Polygalite

Mg

Polygalite / Mg

24.8010

Polygalite

Ca

Polygalite / 2Ca

7.5218

Polygalite

SO4

Polygalite / 4SO4

1.5692

Polygalite

Н2О

Polygalite / 2Н2О

16.734

Polygalite

K2SO4

Polygalite / K2SO4

3.4599

Polygalite

MgSO4

Polygalite / MgSO4

5.0090

Polygalite

СаSO4

Polygalite / 2СаSO4

2.2144

Langbeinite 2MgSO4*K2SO4 (М = 415.01) К

Mg / К

0.6218

SO4

К

3SO4 / 2К

3.6851

К

Mg

К / Mg

1.6083

SO4

Mg

3SO4 / 2Mg

5.9268

Mg

132

К

SO4

2К / 3SO4

0.2714

Mg

SO4

2Mg / 3SO4

0.1687

MgSO4

K2SO4

2MgSO4 / K2SO4

1.3815

K2SO4

MgSO4

K2SO4 / 2MgSO4

0.7239

Langbeinit

К

Langbeinit / 2К

5.3068

Langbeinit

Mg

Langbeinit / 2Mg

8.5351

Langbeinit

SO4

Langbeinit / 3SO4

1.4401

Langbeinit

K2SO4

Langbeinit / K2SO4

2.3815

Langbeinit

MgSO4

Langbeinit / 2MgSO4

1.7238

Kizerite MgSO4*Н2О (М = 228.47) SO4

Mg

SO4 / Mg

3.9512

Н2О

Mg

Н2О / Mg

0.7410

Mg

SO4

Mg / SO4

0.2531

Н2О

SO4

Н2О / SO4

0.1875

MgSO4

Н2О

MgSO4 / Н2О

6.6818

Н2О

MgSO4

Н2О / MgSO4

0.1497

Kizerite

Mg

Kizerite / Mg

5.6922

Kizerite

SO4

Kizerite / SO4

1.4406

Kizerite

Н2О

Kizerite / Н2О

7.6818

Kizerite

MgSO4

Kizerite / MgSO4

1.1497

133

Еducational issue

Romanova Sofiya

HALURGY QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Editor L. Strautman Typesetting U. Moldasheva Cover design by B. Malaeva Cover design photos were used from sites www.freepik.com

IB No.13854 Signed for publishing 29.09.2020. Format 60x84 1/16. Offset paper. Digital printing. Volume 8,37 printer’s sheet. 80 copies. Order No.12359. Publishing house «Qazaq University» Al-Farabi Kazakh National University KazNU, 71 Al-Farabi, 050040, Almaty Printed in the printing office of the «Qazaq University» Publishing House.

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